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Zbc Morlb'8 (Breatest waar 

Volume II 

THE EVENTS OF 1917 AND 
SUMMARY 

THE EVENTS OF 1918 

THE ARMISTICE AND THE 
PEACE TREATIES 




By permission of Geo. Pulman & Sons, Ltd. Photo — Haines. 

THE RIGHT HON. DAVID LLOYD GEORGE 
Minister for Munitions, 1915-16. Prime Minister from December, 1916 



The Book of History 

XLbc Moriys Greatest Mac 

FROM THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR 
TO THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 

WITH MORE THAN 1 ,000 ILLUSTRATIONS 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

HOLLAND THOMPSON, PH.D. 

T^he College of the City of New York 

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS AND EDITORS 



Maj.-Gen. Leonard Wood, U.S.A. 

COMMANDING 89TH AND lOTH DIVISIONS 

G. C. Marshall, Jr. 

COLONEL, GEN'L STAFF. A. D. C, U. S. ARMY 

Herbert T. Wade 

LATE CAPT. ORDNANCE DEPT., U. S. ARMY 

John H. Finley, LL.D. 

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION, 

N. Y. STATE 
COLONEL, RED CROSS IN PALESTINE 

Albert Sonnichsen 

NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENT IN 
BALKANS 

Basil Clarke 

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL • 

Nelson P. Mead, Ph.D. 

COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK 
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT A. E. F. 

Muriel Bray, L.L.A. 

ASST. EOITOR, CANADIAN BOOK OF 
KNOWLEDGE 



Vernon Kellogg 



DIRECTOR IN BRUSSELS OF COMMISSION 
FOR RELIEF IN BELGIUM 



Rear-Admiral William S. Sims 

COMMANDING U, S. NAVY IN EUROPEAN 
WATERS 

Carlyon Bellairs, M.P. 

LATE COMMANDER OF THE ROYAL NAVY 

Lt.-Gen. Sir Arthur Currie, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 

COMMANDER OF THE CANADIAN CORPS 
IN FRANCE 

Sir John Willison 

PRESIDENT CANADIAN RECONSTRUCTION 
ASSOCIATION 

W. S. Wallace 

LATE MAJOR CANADIAN EXPEDITIONARY 
FORCE 

Robert Machray 

THE LONDON DAILY MAIL 

L. Marion Lockhart, B.A. 

ASSISTANT EDITOR, BOOK OF HISTORY 

Michael Williams 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WAR COUNCIL 

BULLETIN 

Viscount Northcliffe 

PROPRIETOR, LONDON TIMES 



And Other Contributors 

Volume XIV 

THE EVENTS OF 1917 AND SUMMARY 

THE EVENTS OF 1918 

THE ARMISTICE AND THE PEACE TREATIES 



NEW YORK . . THE GROLIER SOCIETY 
LONDON . THE EDUCATIONAL BOOK CO. 



Copyright, 1020 and 1021, by 
THE GROLIER SOCIETY 



All rights reserved, including that of translation 
into foreign languages. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II 

Chapter 

XL The British People at War .... 

XLI M. PoiLU, As I Knew Him . . . . . 

XLII The Russian Revolution 

XLI 1 1 Greece and the War — ^The Venizelist Revolt . 

XLIV Military Operations During the Russian Revolution 

XLV The United States Enters the War . 

XLVI The Capture of Bagdad . . . 

XLVII The Italian Disaster at Caporetto . 

XLVI 1 1 On The French Front in 191 7 

XLIX On THE British Front IN 1917 .... 

L The Conquest of Palestine .... 

LI Training the Citizen Army ..... 

LII The Course of the War during 1917 . 

LI 1 1 The Commission for Relief in Belgium 

LIV Prussian Maps and Imperial Plans 

LV Blunders of German Naval Policy . . . 

LVI Later Developments of War in the Air 

LVII The German Empire at War .... 

LVI 1 1 The Conquest of German East Africa 

LIX Russia Makes a Separate Peace 

LX Belgium Under the German Yoke 

LXI The German Offensive of March and April 

LXII TheMarne: The Beginning of Victory 

LXI 1 1 The Canadian People and the War 

LXIV The United States Naval Forces in European Waters 

LXV Zeebrugge and Ostend ..... 

LXVI The American Army in France .... 

LXVII The Collapse of the Balkan Front . 

LXVI 1 1 The Fighting during the Last Three Months 

LXIX The Army Machine 

LXX Italy's Hour of Triumph 

LXXI The Canadian as a Soldier . . . . 



Chapter 

LXXII 

LXXIII 



LXXIV 

LXXV 

LXXVI 

LXXVII 



The People of the United States and the War 
Relief and Welfare Organizations . 

Chaplains, Red Cross, etc. 

The National Catholic War Council 

War Work of the Y. M. C. A. 
The Last Offensive on the Northern Front 
St. Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne . 
The Armistice Is Signed .... 
Making the Peace Treaties 
Appendices 
Index 



Page 
I213 
1225 



1263 
1287 
1307 
1323 




LIST OF MAPS 

VOLUME II 

The Last Russian Offensive 

Operations Around the Gulf of Riga 

German Blockade of Europe 

From Kut to Tekrit ..... 

Mesopotamian Operations during the War. 

Communications in Modern Warfare . 

Italian Advance, and Retreat to the Piave 

Second Battle of the Aisne 

Chemin des Dames and Contiguous Country 

Northeast and Southeast of Arras 

Advances near the Somme and the Ancre . 

ViMY Ridge and the Douai Plain 

The Messines-Wytschaete Ridge 

Pushing the Line back from Ypres 

The Road to Poelcappelle and Passchendaele 

The Turkish Defenses on the Gaza-Beersheba Line 

Last Stages in Allenby's Campaign Against Jerusalem 

Advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force 

Full Extent of Allenby's Conquests 

Routes of Invasion in German East Africa. 

Where the German Blow Fell in March . 

The Southern Part of the Battle of Picardy 

The Battle of the Lys .... 

Map Illustrating the Drive toward Paris 

Foch's Flank Attack upon the Marne Salient 

The Mine-Fields of the North Sea 

Diagram of the Harbor of Zeebrugge 

The Battle Line, July 15, 1918 . 

Where the Allied Armies Defeated the Central Powers 

Area of Southern Half of Allies' August Offensive 

German Defensive Position, August 1918 



Page 
719 

727 

730 

756 

764 

765 
779 
791 
792 
806 
809 
812 
816 
818 
821 
834 
839 
847 

851 
965 

lOII 

1014 
1020 
1028 
1036 
1085 
1098 

1115 
1124 

1 135 
1138 



Page 

Marshal Foch's Pincers Strategy 1140 

The Retreat OF THE Enemy IN Champagne . . . . . 1144 

German Lines — Actual and Projected 1147 

Last Stages of Allies' Advance to Victory Line on Western Front i 149 

Battle Lines in Last Offensive on Italian Front . " . . 1179 

Fighting FOR Bapaume . ........ 1267 

Franco-American Operations on the St. Mihiel Front . . 1288 

Plan of St. Mihiel Operations, September 191 8 . . . . 1291 

Advance in the Meuse-Argonne ...... 1299 

Before AND After THE Armistice . ...... 1319 



LIST OF COLOR PLATES IN THE WORLD'S 
GREATEST WAR 

Right Hon. David Lloyd George Frontispiece 

M. Georges Clemenceau ........ 786 

Marshal Fcch . . . . . . . . . . 1025 

General John J. Pershing . . . . . . . . noi 

Lieut. -General Sir Arthur W. CuRRiE . . . . . 1187 

American Army and Navy Decorations 1307 



The Houses of Parliament in London 

Chapter XL 

The British People at War 

BRITAIN STRIVES WITH UNFALTERING DETER- 
MINATION TO WIN THE WAR 



GREAT 



n^HE Great War was primarily a 
■■■ struggle of nations, rather than of 
armies. It was fought, not only on 
the battle-front, but also, and perhaps 
more decisively, on the home front. 
Consequently, the true story of the 
war is to be found as much in the 
sphere of national war efforts as in 
the sphere of military operations. 

In waging war, the British people 
have almost always started badly. 
The Seven Years War, the Napoleonic 
War, the Crimean War, and the Boer 
War were all long-drawn-out struggles, 
marred in the beginning, so far as 
Great Britain was concerned, by bung- 
ling and mismanagement, and crowned 
with success only when the nation was 
thoroughly aroused, and had learned 
its lesson in the school of experience. 
''Muddling through," in fact, has 
become the traditional modus operandi 
of the British people at war. 

BRITISH ARMS OFTEN UNSUCCESSFUL 
AT FIRST. 

The British have never "gone in" 
for short, sharp military successes, 
such as that which the French won 
over the Prussians in 1806, or as that 
which the Prussians won over the 
French in 1870. They have preferred 
usually to drag out the drama through 
all its five acts, leaving the denoue- 
ment to the very last; and there is no 
doubt that, during the most depressing 



days of 1914 and 1915, many an 
Englishman found much solace and 
comfort in the fact that, whereas 
British arms had never prospered at 
first in war, they had almost invariably 
prospered in the end. 

For the comparative ill-success of 
the British in waging war at the outset, 
there are various reasons. One of these 
lies perhaps in the national tempera- 
ment. The British are a practical, 
rather than a theoretical, people. They 
do not as a rule take long views, but 
prefer rather to feel their way, to take 
each step only as they become con- 
vinced of the necessity for it. Con- 
sequently, when war has come, it has 
usually found them only half-prepared ; 
and the task of readjusting themselves 
to the new conditions imposed by the 
outbreak of war has often been a long 
and painful process. 

DEMOCRACY NOT ALWAYS EFFICIENT 
IN WAR. 

Another reason, no doubt, is to be 
found in the British type of govern- 
ment. Democracy is notoriously less 
efficient, up to a certain point, in 
waging war than autocracy; and the 
British type of democracy, with its 
dependence on the principle of cabinet 
government, is peculiarly ill-adapted 
to the conduct of war. A ship of 
state which goes into action under 
the direction of a navigating board 

645 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of twenty-three members, any or all 
of whom are liable to be thrown over- 
board at a moment's notice, does not 
enter battle under the most favorable 
auspices. 

A WAVE OF PACIFISM SWEEPS OVER 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

In 1 914, moreover, there were special 
reasons why Great Britain was ill- 
prepared to go to war. During the 
opening years of the twentieth century 
there had swept over the British Isles 
a wave of pacifist feeling. Many 
people were persuaded by the argu- 
ments of writers like Mr. Norman 
Angell, the author of The Great 
Illusion, who taught that war under 
modern conditions was so ruinous 
that it was unthinkable; and many 
were misled by the apparent solidarity 
of the Labor Internationale into 
thinking that a general European war 
was actually impossible. 

A group of the Unionist party, led 
by Lord Roberts and Lord Charles 
Beresford, had, it is true, preached 
the danger of the "German menace", 
and had urged the country to gird 
itself for the coming struggle; but 
their warnings had fallen on deaf ears. 
It so happened that during the years 
preceding the Great War there was 
in power in England a Liberal govern- 
ment which, pacific and anti-militarist 
in tendency, was committed to a policy 
of rapprochement with Germany. 

In 1 91 2 Lord Haldane, a member of 
the British cabinet who had described 
Germany as his "spiritual home", 
went to Berlin carrying an olive branch, 
in the hope apparently of conciliating 
the "blond beast", and though it is 
now clear that his mission was at best 
only partially successful, the British 
government was so encouraged by the 
friendly reception which Lord Haldane 
was given in some quarters in Berlin 
that it continued its attempt to bring 
about better relations between the 
two countries. "The anticipation that 
good would result from a free exchange 
of views," said Mr. Asquith, the 
Prime Minister, in the House of Com- 
mons on February 14, 1912, "has been 
realized. It has dispelled the suspicion 
that either government contemplates 

646 



aggressive designs against the other." 
Dwelling as they did in this fool's 
paradise, it is small wonder if the 
Asquith government and its anti- 
militarist supporters were unready 
when the world war broke out. 

FEW FORESAW THE EXTENT OF BRITISH 
PARTICIPATION. 

Even among the advocates of pre- 
paredness there were few who foresaw 
the extent to which Great Britain 
would be compelled to go in partici- 
pating in a continental struggle. The 
doctrine enunciated in the eighteenth 
century by the elder Pitt when he 
said, "The fleet is our standing army, " 
still held sway in England, and it was 
expected that Great Britain's con- 
tribution to a general European war 
would be primarily naval. So far as 
war on land was concerned, it was not 
anticipated that Great Britain would 
have to take part in it except on the 
theory of limited liability. Plans for 
the dispatch of an expeditionary force 
to the continent in the event of war 
had indeed been agreed upon, but 
this force was not apparently expected 
to exceed a few divisions, and the 
machinery for the sudden creation 
of a larger force simply did not exist. 

The British people had steadfastly 
set their faces against the principle of 
compulsory military service; the Ter- 
ritorial forces were under obligation to 
serve only in home defense; and the 
only troops immediately available for 
overseas service were the units of the 
comparatively small regular army, 
many of which were required for 
garrison duty elsewhere. Even had the 
machinery existed for calling up a 
large army, no preparations of an 
adequate nature had been made for 
officering, equipping, or provisioning 
such a force. A levee en masse in 
England in 1914 would have produced 
an army like the rabble Falstaff led to 
Coventry. 

THE LACK OF AN EFFICIENT GENERAL 
STAFF. 

In yet one other respect Great Brit- 
ain was ill-organized for waging war. 
She had no machinery, such as was 
afforded in Germany by the Great 
German General Staff, whereby policy 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



might be co-ordinated with mihtary 
and naval strategy. She had no central 
control for waging war. The modern 
General Staff system contemplates the 
co-ordination by one person, the Chief 
of the General Staff, of advice tendered 
by a host of subordinate experts, 
covering every possible phase of the 
situation; but under the British system 
in 1914, there was no real head of the 



UNCERTAINTY AS TO A DECLARATION 
OF WAR. 

Up to the last minute it seemed 
doubtful whether Great Britain would 
throw herself into the war or not. War 
broke out between the continental 
powers on July 31: but as late as 
August 3, when the British parliament 
was called together, the British govern- 
ment had not yet decided to throw 




SIR SAM HUGHES AND LORD ROTHERMERE 
General Sir Sam Hughes is photographed with Brigadier-General Seely and Lord Rothermere. General John 
Seely was appointed to command a brigade of Canadian Cavalry in February 1915. At the end of 1917 the Air 
Board of Great Britain was expanded into an Air Ministry and Lord Rothermere became special Air Minister. 

© Canada, 1919 



General Staff, save the unwieldy civil- 
ian cabinet, and the real direction of 
the war rested in the hands of a 
number of departments, the War Office, 
the Admiralty, the Foreign Office, and 
even the India Office; and if all these 
departments worked in harmony it 
was more by good luck than by good 
management. Too often, especially 
during the earliest stages of the war, 
decisions were taken by the British 
government on the strength of half- 
baked and half-digested advice, owing 
to the absence of any organization 
for the proper consideration of plans 
by experts from all points of view. 



in its lot with France. It had even 
steadfastly declined to enter into any 
definite engagement with France. Only 
when the German forces had actually 
violated the neutrality of Belgium, of 
which Great Britain was one of the 
guarantors, did the British cabinet 
take the plunge and declare war on 
Germany; and even then there was an 
element in the Liberal and Labor 
parties which opposed an entry into 
the war. Lord Morley and Mr. John 
Burns resigned from the cabinet; and 
Mr. Ramsay Macdonald and his friends 
openly deplored the government's ac- 
tion. 

647 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The overwhelming majority of the 
people, however, stood solidly behind 
the cabinet. If it had been merely a 
question of Serbia's sovereign rights, 
if it had been even a question of the 
invasion by Germany of the eastern 
frontier of France, it is doubtful if 
British public opinion would have been 
in favor of participation in the war; 



THE SCRAP OF PAPER 




The Germans have broken their pledged word 

and devastated Belgium. Help to Keep your 

Countr>-b honour bright by restoring Belgium 

her liberty. 

ENLIST TO-DAY 



AN ENGLISH RECRUITING POSTER 
This facsimile of the treaty guaranteeing the neutrality 
of Belgium was used on a recruiting poster in England, 
and was quite efifective. 

but when Germany, with a cynical 
disregard of her plighted word, invaded 
Belgium, the soul of the British nation 
was immediately roused to action. 
Not only was the occupation of Bel- 
gium by an unfriendly power likely 
to prove, in the language of Napoleon, 
' ' a pistol aimed at the heart of England , ' ' 
but it became a point of honor with 
Great Britain to make good her guar- 
antee of the neutrality of Belgian soil. 

A PARTY TRUCE IS IMMEDIATELY DE- 
CLARED. 

The way in which the British people 
rose to the situation had in it some- 
648 



thing magnificent. A political truce 
was promptly declared between the 
two great historic parties; and even 
the Irish Nationalists and the Ulster- 
men, who had been a few weeks before 
on the brink of civil war, buried the 
hatchet and vied with each other in 
their loyalty to the common cause. 
It was symptomatic of the truce to 
party feeling that Lord Kitchener, the 
Empire's foremost soldier, who was 
actually on the way to Egypt, was 
recalled, and made Secretary of State 
for War — a position that had been 
temporarily occupied by the Prime 
Minister, Mr. Asquith. 

A SURVEY OF THE DOMESTIC SITUATION 
IN 1914. 

During 1914 there appeared no 
rifts within the lute. It had been feared 
that on the outbreak of war there 
would be a serious collapse of credit 
and a financial panic; but the measures 
taken by Mr. Lloyd George, the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, in conjunction 
with the leading British bankers, suc- 
cessfully averted the danger of disaster 
and Great Britain embarked on the 
war in an astonishingly good financial 
position. The temper of the nation 
remained firm and resolute. Lord 
Kitchener, far-sighted enough to dis- 
cern that the war would be a long 
one — he was credited with having 
prophesied for it a duration of three 
years — , immediately scouted the the- 
ory of Great Britain's limited liability, 
and laid plans for a whole-hearted 
participation in the struggle. Not 
only did he accept the ofTers of the 
Territorial units to serve abroad, but 
he issued a call for a new army of 
a million nien. His recruiting appeal 
was splendidly answered. Especially 
during the dark days of the retreat 
from Mons and the anxious weeks of 
the First Battle of Ypres, the volun- 
teers poured into the recruiting booths 
faster than the recruiting organization 
could deal with them. 

^ Nothing perhaps was more sig- 
nificant of the temper of the people 
than the unreserved way in which 
they placed their trust in the govern- 
ment. During the autumn of 1914 
hardly a breath of criticism was heard. 




BRITISH VOLUNTEERS WHO HAVE JUST SIGNED UP • 
Voluntary enlistment in Britain during the early weeks of the war was so large that equipment in uniforms and 
weapons fell far short of the demand. As time went on, however, better system prevailed. The men shown in 
the picture standing before the barracks have passed their medical examination and been accepted for service. 




• THE SAME MEN TEN MINUTES LATER 
These are the same men ten minutes later (a record) in uniform, furnished with their kit and regimental number, 
and ready to entrain. From the barracks where they stayed only a few minutes, they were sent to one of the 
instruction camps dotted all over England. After training they were sent to some part of the British front in 
France. Notice the extra pair of boots standing before every man's kit-bag. 

649 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Parliament virtually abdicated its pow- 
ers in favor of the cabinet. It began 
by authorizing the expenditure by the 
government of £100,000,000, to be 
spent for any war purpose without 
specification or estimate ; and this vote 
was followed by other and larger votes. 
It passed a Defense of the Realm Act, 
the first of a series of acts which con- 
ferred on the executive government 
the widest powers of legislation by 
Order-in-Council, and which even au- 
thorized, for the first time in more 
than two centuries, the sentencing to 
death of a civilian without trial by 
jury. "The Houses may be said to 
have agreed to a sort of Ultimatum 
senatus consultum; videant consules. " 

SOMEWHAT LATER THE PARTY TRUCE IS 
BROKEN. 

Early in 191 5, however, the har- 
mony that had prevailed began to 
break down. The Asquith govern- 
ment still received general support, 
and there was at first no open attempt 
to force its retirement. But evidence 
of uneasiness and dissatisfaction began 
to appear both inside and outside 
of parliament. The continuance of 
Lord Haldane in the cabinet came in 
for criticism from those who had 
disapproved of his pre-war policy and 
who suspected him, though without 
reason, of being pro-German. The 
indiscretions of Mr. Winston Churchill 
at the Admiralty, especially his ill- 
starred attempt to relieve Antwerp 
(which prolonging the resistance of the 
city, endangered the Belgian army), 
offered another target of attack. 

The general policy of the govern- 
ment, moreover, had been, despite 
the vast powers placed in its hands, 
unstable and vacillating. In the matter 
of liquor control, it embarked on an 
ill-considered venture which ended 
in an inglorious surrender to the 
"trade". In its treatment of alien 
enemies it was forced to reverse, 
because of popular pressure, the policy 
of lenience which it had first adopted. 
And in the all-important matter of 
munitions, it confused and irritated 
the country by ministerial announce- 
ments displaying alternate compla- 
cency and panic. 

650 



LORD KITCHENER AND THE QUESTION 
/ OF MUNITIONS. 

The question of munitions, indeed, 
more perhaps than any other, was 
the rock on which the government 
came to grief. Lord Kitchener, the 
Secretary of State for War, who had 
charge of the supply of munitions for 
the army, had devoted his energies 
mainly to the problem of recruiting 
and had devoted apparently less at- 
tention to the matter of supplies. 
The probability is that he attempted to 
supervise too much himself, and was 
not able to give to all aspects of his task 
the attention they required. When 
it became "clear that, in spite of min- 
isterial assurances to the contrary, 
the British army in France was being 
hampered and hindered by a serious 
shortage of artillery shells, and that 
among the shells sent forward there 
was too high a proportion of shrapnel 
and too small a proportion of high 
explosive, the country naturally be- 
came aroused. 

Lord NorthclifTe, the proprietor of 
The Times and the Daily Mail, opened 
in his papers an attack on the Asquith 
government in general and Lord Kit- 
chener in particular. On May 14, The 
Times printed a dispatch frorn its 
correspondent at British General Head- 
quarters in France which revealed 
the existence of a disagreement be- 
tween Lord Kitchener and Sir John 
French, the British commander-in- 
chief in the field, over the question 
of munitions. The following day, 
Lord Fisher, the father of the modern 
British navy, resigned from the post 
of First Sea Lord at the Admiralty, 
as the result of differences with his 
official chief, Mr. Churchill. The 
effect of these combined events was 
seriously to shake the stability of the 
-administration; and when, in the 
third week in May, the Unionist 
leaders in parliament privately served 
notice on Mr. Asquith that they could 
no longer refrain from criticism unless 
big changes were made, Mr. Asquith 
was forced to accept, as a solution for 
his difficulties, the idea of a national or 
coalition government, in which all par- 
ties should be represented. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



COALITION CABINET IS FORMED IN 
MAY, 1915. 

On May 25, consequently, a radical 
reorganization of the cabinet was 
effected, with the inclusion in it of 
eight Unionists and one Labor member. 
Mr. Asquith remained Prime Minister; 
but Lord Haldane was dropped, and 
Mr. Churchill was relegated to the 
sinecure post of Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster, while his place at 
the Admiralty was taken by Mr. A. J. 
Balfour. Lord Kitchener remained 
at the War Office, but he was relieved 
from the oversight of munitions by the 
creation of a new Ministry of Muni- 
tions, which was placed in charge of 
Mr. Lloyd George. 

Mr. Lloyd George had been before 
the war the hete noire of the more con- 
servative element in the country; but 
his skillful solution of the financial 
difficulties at the beginning of the war, 
and his tactful handling of some labor 
disputes which had broken out in the 
winter of 1914-1915, had met with 
general approval; it was significant 
of his altered position in the public 
eye that he should have been entrusted 
with the task which, more perhaps 
than any other, was the object of 
public concern. 

THE RECORD OF THE COALITION CAB- 
INET. 

The Coalition Cabinet promptly 
gave evidence of a more energetic 
policy. Under Mr. Lloyd George the 
production of munitions was speeded 
up so successfully, and on so stupen- 
dous a scale, that never again was the 
shortage of supplies a cause for serious 
anxiety with the British people. In 
February, 191 6, a new Ministry of 
Blockade was created, with the object 
of tightening the cordon drawn around 
the Central Empires; and in half a 
dozen other ways, the new ministry 
showed itself more effective than the 
old. 

But its efficiency still left something 
to be desired. The record of the 
Coalition Cabinet, which remained in 
power for a year and a half, has been 
well described by an English political 
commentator on the war, who wrote; 

"The Coalition Government proved 



in almost every sphere of war direction 
and war administration that it was 
stronger than its predecessor, but 
not strong enough, that it acted more 
swiftly, but yet acted too late, that 
its measures were better adapted to 
the needs of the time than the measures 
of the first year of the war, but yet 
were almost invariably half measures. " 




THE CHIEF COMMONER 
David Lloyd George during the war was in turn Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, Minister of Munitions and 
Prime Minister. 



R. ASQUITH LOSES THE CONFIDENCE 
OF PARLIAMENT. 



M 

Very early criticism of the coalition 
government began to make itself felt. 
It was complained that it was merely 
an alliance of front-bench politicians, 
rather than a real national govern- 
ment. In particular, many people 
were distrustful of what was called 
"the Old Gang", namely the As- 
quithian Liberals who still dominated 
the cabinet. Mr. Asquith himself, was 
accused of being deficient in leader- 
ship, and a phrase which he had used, 
"Wait and see, " was held up as typify- 
ing his war policy. The obvious failure 
of the Dardanelles expedition, the 

651 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



comparative ill-success of British di- 
plomacy in the Balkans, the apparent 
stalemate on the Western Front, all 
contributed to discredit Mr. Asquith's 
direction of the war. 

There were, moreover, domestic ques- 
tions which embarrassed the govern- 
ment. One of these was the question 
of recruiting. By the summer of 1915, 
the flow of recruits had begun some- 
what to ebb. There were many, and 
among them some of the cabinet 



Derby, the Director of Recruiting; 
and this appeal was moderately suc- 
cessful, but during its course promises 
were made which rendered the adop- 
tion of conscription in the case of 
unmarried men, obligatory. This led 
to the introduction of the first com- 
pulsory service measure in January, 
1916, and to a further measure in April; 
but these bills were so mild, despite the 
fact that serious opposition developed 
to them in the cabinet, that dissatis- 




^yr 



■iu *, .. >ir\ J 






mjti 



T%*.v^? 



AFTER THE FLEETING FURLOUGH 

This picture shows British veterans awaiting the Flanders trench special at Victoria. Many of the privates who 
had never left England before or even been to London, came to take the land and sea journey with its at least three 
changes very phlegmatically. All railroad and boat service was of course under government control. 



ministers, who believed that the only 
satisfactory solution of the recruiting 
problem was to be found in conscrip- 
tion, or compulsory military service. 
Others, and these included at least a 
majority of the cabinet, hesitated to 
admit the necessity for conscription 
until it had been shown that the 
voluntary system had definitely failed. 

SOME OF THE DIFFICULTIES OVER RE- 
CRUITING. 

The internal conflict in the cabinet 
over this question produced naturally 
indecisive and compromise measures. 
In July, 1915, a national registration 
was held. In October, 191 5, a final 
recruiting appeal was made by Lord 

652 



faction rose to a great height and a 
more sweeping measure had to be 
brought in, early in May, 1916. 

This Act definitely placed the ques- 
tion of British man-power on a com- 
pulsory service basis, and it went far 
toward solving the problem of rein- 
forcements for the front. But its 
passage brought little prestige to the 
government. On the one hand, it 
earned for the government the op- 
position of the anti-conscriptionist 
element in the Liberal and Labor 
parties and it was a curious fact that 
there grew up a more active opposition 
in Parliament to the Coalition ministry 
than to the purely Liberal ministry 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



which had preceded it. On the other 
hand, the measure earned for the 
government Httle commendation from 
the conscriptionists, who attributed 
the passage of the measure, not to 
leadership on the part of the govern- 
ment, but to subservience on their part 
to pubUc opinion. Many of them, in- 
deed, looked on the measure as a victory 
over the government, which they had 
forced to conform to their views. The 



munition workers of the Clyde; and 
even where strikes did not break out, 
production was disappointing. It prov- 
ed difficult to persuade the working- 
man to give up his trade union regula- 
tions with regard to such matters as 
hours, wages, and the competition of 
unskilled and female labor. ''The life 
of Britain," said Mr. Lloyd George 
at the end of February, 191 5, "is 
being imperiled for the matter of a 




BUSY SCENE IN A MUNITION WORKSHOP 
Women of the Allied and enemy countries had the privilege of making munitions before their sisters in Great 
Britain, who only had their desire granted in the summer of 1915. While government schemes were under con- 
sideration a volunteer movement was set on foot at the Vickers factories at Erith. The movement once started 
gained very rapidly. 



truth was, of course, that the Coalition, 
containing as it did many shades of 
political opinion, had to proceed in all 
contentious matters by way of com- 
promise and concession; and this fact 
alone was sufficient to account for the 
appearance of vacillation and inde- 
cision in the policy it followed. 

QOME OF THE DIFFICULTIES OVER LABOR. 

Another question which caused the 
government much worry was the 
Labor difficulty. Early in 1915 unrest 
began to appear among certain ele- 
ments of the working-class. Strikes 
kept breaking out, especially among 
the Welsh miners and the shipping and 



farthing an hour." Another cause of 
the trouble was heavy drinking among 
some of the workers; and it was with 
the object of setting an example that 
on March 30, the King banished 
alcoholic liquor from the royal house- 
hold. 

The trouble may have been due also 
in part, to political causes. The extreme 
wing of the Labor party in Great 
Britain, represented by the Indepen- 
dent Labor party and the Union of 
Democratic Control, had become open- 
ly anti-war, and it was obvious that 
the influence of this element, combined 
perhaps with the machinations of 
German agents, had something to do 

653 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



with the Labor unrest. But whatever 
the source of the trouble, there was no 
doubt that the attitude of an element 
in the working classes was a cause 
of much embarrassment to the govern- 
ment; and there were many people, 
otherwise friendly to Labor, who felt 
that the government handled the 
situation too timidly. It seemed an 
anomaly that a deserter at the battle- 
front should have to suffer the extreme 



war, as the result of the introduction 
into parliament by the Asquith govern- 
ment of a bill granting Home Rule for 
Ireland, Ireland had been on the verge 
of civil war. The Protestant people 
of the North of Ireland, under the 
leadership of Sir Edward Carson, had 
organized an army of "Ulster Volun- 
teers", had imported arms from Ger- 
many, and had announced their de- 
termination to resist by force of arms 




THE GRAVE OF MAJOR REDMOND IN A CONVENT GARDEN 
Major William Redmond, M.P., brother of Mr. John Redmond, the Irish Nationalist leader, was mortally wounded 
April 26, 1917, during the successful attack on Messines Ridge. His body was taken to the little village of Loecre 
behind the lines and there buried in the private garden of the convent Photograph British Official 



penalty when deserters on the home- 
front got off scot-free. 

'y^HE OUTBREAK OF THE IRISH REBELLION. 

The most disastrous failure of the 
Coalition Government in domestic 
affairs was its handling of the Irish 
question. Ireland has always been 
a thorn in the side of England at times 
of crisis. It was so at the time of the 
Puritan Revolution, at the time of the 
Revolution of 1688 and during the 
Napoleonic Wars. But at no time 
was it more so than during the Great 
War of 1914-1918. In the spring of 
1 91 4, just before the outbreak of the 

654 



the application of Home Rule to 
Ireland; and the Roman Catholic 
South of Ireland had replied with the 
formation of a volunteer army of its 
own. 

The declaration of war had had a 
sobering effect on both parties. The 
question of Home Rule for Ireland, 
together with other contentious meas- 
ures, was shelved for the time being; 
and both the Ulstermen, under Sir 
Edward Carson, and the Irish Nation- 
alists, under Mr. John Redmond, sank 
their differences, and united to support 
the government in its war policy against 
Germany. Mr. Redmond actually 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



DUBLm POST OFFICE 
The portico of the gutted Post Office — a scene of 
devastation, dust and debris. Photograph taken from 
the lofty Nelson Pillar. 

went on the stump and delivered re- 
cruiting speeches; and if the people 
of Ireland had followed his lead fuU- 
heartedly, it is possible that they 
might have converted, not only the 
people of Great Britain, but even the 
people of Ulster, to Home Rule. 

It is significant that the way in 
which the female suffrage organizations 
of Great Britain suspended their agita- 
tion, and threw themselves heart and 
soul into the war, resulted in the con- 
cession of their demands in 191 8; 
and it is reasonable to suppose that if 
the Irish had followed their example, 
they, too, would have established an 
irresistible claim to consideration. But 
unfortunately the hatred of England 
was so deep-rooted in Irish breasts, the 
distrust of England was so ineradicable 
in Irish minds, that the people of Ire- 
land were not able to rise to the height 
of their opportunities. 

THE SINN FEIN ORGANIZATION GROWS 
STRONGER. 

Early in 191 5 it became clear that 
Mr. Redmond had failed to carry with 



him a large body of Irish opinion. 
There had been founded in Ireland 
about ten years before the outbreak 
of the war, an Irish republican organiza- 
tion named Sinn Fein, which had as 
its ideal the complete independence of 
Ireland, and which was virtually a 
revival of the Fenian organization 
of the middle of the nineteenth century. 
The leaders of this movement were 
chiiefly dreamers, doctrinaires, and 
fanatics. They now showed themselves 
willing to sacrifice on the altar of Irish 
nationalism all those ideals for which 
Great Britain and her allies were 
fighting. They discouraged recruiting;- 
they formed a secret revolutionary 
organization; they organized an army 
of Irish Volunteers, not to fight against 
the Germans, but to embarrass the 
British; and they did not hesitate, as 
subsequent events showed, to ally 
themselves with the Germans, to 
accept German aid, and to champion 
the German cause. Anti-recruiting 
meetings were held; posters discourag- 
ing recruiting were openly displayed; 




IMPERIAL HOTEL, DUBLIN 
Ruin of the Imperial Hotel, Dublin, as seen from the 
top of the Nelson Pillar. Not a room in the building 
remained intact. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



seditious literature was published broad- 
cast, and the police in the execution 
of their right of search were met by 
armed resistance. 

The Irish Secretary in the Coalition 
Government was Mr. Augustine Bir- 
rell, a genial man of letters, a humani- 
tarian Liberal, a believer in the best 
side of human nature. An enemy of 
the policy of repression, he showed 
himself loth to use drastic measures in 
dealing with the Sinn Fein agitation. 
After the rebellion which broke out, 
he admitted to having held "an untrue 
estimate of the Sinn Fein movement, 
not of its character, or of the probable 
numbers of persons engaged in it, nor 
of the localities where it was most to 
be found, nor of its frequent disloyal- 
ties; but of the possibility of disturb- 
ances, of the mode of fighting which 
has been pursued, and of the desperate 
folly displayed by the leaders and 
their dupes." But whatever the mo- 
tives which actuated the British govern- 
ment, the. result of their policy was 
disastrous. On April 24, 191 6, the 
Sinn Feiners issued a proclamation 
"from the Provisional Government 
of the Irish Republic to the People 
of Ireland", which called on the Irish 
people to rise; and the same day 
armed rebellion broke out in Dublin 
and in other places. 

SIR ROGER CASEMENT LANDS IN IRE- 
LAND. 

For some time German arms, am- 
munition, and money had been finding 
their way into Ireland. Only four 
days before the rebellion, for example, 
a German auxiliary, in the guise of a 
neutral merchant ship, acting in con- 
junction with a German submarine, 
had attempted to land arms and am- 
munition on the Irish coast; and Sir 
Roger Casement, a former British 
official who had been in Germany, 
actually succeeded in landing from 
the submarine — only to be captured a 
few days later, and to suflter ultimately 
the penalty of high treason. Armed 
with German rifles and cartridges, and 
garbed in a sort of uniform, the Sinn 
Feiners attempted on April 24 a coup 
d'etat in Dublin. They occupied St. 
Stephen's Green, seized the Post Office, 

656 



took possession of the ammunition 
magazine in Phoenix Park, captured 
the Four Courts and other important 
buildings, barricaded the streets in 
the neighborhood of Dublin Castle, 
cut the telegraph and telephone wires, 
and attacked the 3rd Royal Irish 
Regiment when the latter attempted to 
relieve the Castle. In Charles Street 
a British cavalry regiment was sur- 
rounded and besieged for over three 
days, until it was relieved. 

The outbreak seems to have taken 
the authorities by surprise. There does 
not seem to have been in the vicinity 
of Dublin a sufficient number of troops 
to cope with the rebellion. For several 
days the rebels were in virtual control 
of Dublin, and all the authorities 
could do was to hold the Castle and 
the Custom House. But gradually 
troops began to pour in; a cordon was 
drawn around the district in which 
the rebels were concentrated ; field guns 
were brought up to bombard the van- 
tage-points which the rebels had seized ; 
and on April 29 the rebels surrendered 
unconditionally. 

THE LONG ROLL OF CASUALTIES DURING 
THE UPRISING. 

In the street-fighting which occurred 
during the rebellion, there were many 
casualties and some "unfortunate in- 
cidents" on both sides. The military 
casualties were 521, of whom 124 
were killed; and the civilian casualties, 
so far as known, were 794, of whom 
180 were killed. Many buildings were 
destroyed, and millions of pounds 
worth of damage was done. Mr. John 
Healy, the editor of the Irish Times, 
who was an eye-witness of the rebellion, 
declared that "there must be no mis- 
take about the uprising. It was brutal, 
bloody, savage business. It was marked 
by many cases of shocking and callous 
cruelty. Innocent civilians were butch- 
ered in cold blood. Unarmed policemen 
and soldiers were shot down. As the 
result of promiscuous looting and 
incendiarism one of the finest public 
buildings in Ireland, and the most 
important commercial centre of Dublin, 
are in ashes. The full toll of death will 
never be known." To the rank and 
file of the rebels clemency was extended. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



I 



II 



which was interpreted by some of 
them as a sign of weakness on the part 
of the government; but the leaders of 
the rebelhon were duly tried and ex- 
ecuted, and thus the rebellion ended, 
as it was bound to end, in a tragic 
fiasco. 

Under normal circumstances, the 
whole British Cabinet would have 
beeq compelled to bear the blame for 
the failure of their Irish policy. But 
the European situation was in 1916 
so critical that the resignation of the 
government would have been a calamity ; 
and Mr. Birrell, whom a Royal Com- 
mission found mainly responsible for 
"the situation that was allowed to 
arise and the outbreak that occurred, " 
was made the scapegoat for his col- 
leagues, and forced to resign. But 
there can be little doubt that the 
Irish tragedy seriously undermined 
the prestige of the government, and 
was a factor in bringing about its fall. 

THE FINAL DOWNFALL OF THE COALITION 
CABINET. 

As 1916 wore on, eviciences of dis- 
satisfaction with the Coalition Cabinet 
increased. Criticism became louder 
and more vigorous with regard to a 
great number of phases of the govern- 
ment's policy. The comparative fail- 
ure of British diplomacy in the Bal- 
kans; the lack of unity in the work of 
the Air Forces; the supineness of the 
Admiralty, where Mr. Balfour was 
considered out of place, and especially 
its failure to scotch the growing sub- 
marine menace; the slackness of the 
British, blockade of Germany; the 
failure to grapple with the serious 
decline of the British merchant ship- 
ping; the inertia of the government 
with regard to food production and 
food control; the mishandling of the 
question of the distribution of man- 
power; the slowness in winding up the 
German banks in England — these, 
and other, matters came in for the 
frankest strictures. As in 191 5, the 
Northcliffe press led in the chorus of 
denunciation. At the beginning of 
December, 191 6, the Sunday Times 
described the government as "mud- 
dlers, " and the Daily Mail character- 
ized them as ' ' The Limpets — a National 



Danger. " Some of the members of 
the Cabinet were held up to ridicule 
as "idle septuagenarians;" and the 
general attitude of- the Cabinet was 
lampooned as one of inaction and 
indecision. 

THE FAILURE OF THE CABINET TO ACT 
PROMPTLY. 

The actual crisis, when it came, 
however, occurred not over any of the 
questions which have been enumerated, 
but over the question of the reorganiza- 
tion of the cabinet system. It had 
early been recognized that "a body 
of 23 men of very unequal ability, 
tired by their departmental labors, and 
meeting every day for a couple of 
hours, was, indeed, an impossible 
machinery for making war. " Such a 
system was well described as "govern- 
ment by debating society." In Nov- 
ember, 1 91 5, a standing War Commit- 
tee of the Cabinet had been created, 
composed of the prime minister and 
five other ministers; but this com- 
mittee, though a step in the right 
direction, was still open to grave 
objections. Its members were still 
heads of departments, engrossed in the 
details of departmental administration ; 
its decisions were subject to ratification 
by the Cabinet as a whole; and owing 
to its practice of calling in technical 
and official advisers, as well as min- 
isters from other departments, it be- 
came hardly less cumbrous a body 
than the Cabinet itself. 

-ly /TR. ASQUITH IS COMPELLED TO RESIGN. 

In the summer of 191 6 Lord Kitchen- 
er, when on his way to Russia, had 
met his death when the battleship 
on which he was traveling had been 
sunk by an enemy mine or submarine; 
and Lloyd George had succeeded him 
as Secretary for War. It was not long 
before Lloyd George, with his keen 
sense' for organization, became dis- 
satisfied with the existing machinery 
for prosecuting the war. At the be- 
ginning of December he proposed a 
plan for the reduction in size of the 
War Committee, the exclusion from 
it of ministers immersed in depart- 
mental business, and the investment 
of it with full authority to deal with 

657 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



all questions of war and strategy, 
without reference to the whole cabinet. 
This plan might have been accepted 
had it not been that it was definitely 
stipulated that the prime minister 
should not be a member of the com- 
mittee. This stipulation Mr. As- 
quith naturally refused to approve: 
and a few days later he charged that 
there had been a "well-organized, care- 



upon applied to Mr. Lloyd George, 
"the man of the hour"; and on De- 
cember lo the latter announced the 
formation of a new " Win-the-War " 
government. 

THE LLOYD GEORGE MINISTRY IS 
FORMED 

The new Cabinet differed profoundly 
from the old. Not only was a clean 
sweep made of the old-fashioned school 




THE BISHOP OF LONDON "RECRUITING" 
The Church in Britain as in every country vehemently espoused the cause of war as the cause of right. This picture 
of the Bishop of London was taken during one of the great recruiting drives frequent in England before the com- 
pulsory service act of May 1916. The British as a nation were set against conscription, and it required almost 
two years' casualty lists to prove the unsatisfactoriness of the voluntary system. Underwood & Underwood. 

of politicians, such as Mr. Asquith, 
Lord Grey, and Lord Lansdowne, but 
there was a liberal infusion of new 
blood in the Cabinet. A number of 
self-made business men, such as Lord 
Rhondda and Sir Albert Stanley, were 
included; Labor was represented by 
Mr. Arthur Henderson, Mr. John 
Hodge, and Mr. George N. Barnes; 
education was placed in the hands of 
a distinguished British scholar, Mr. 
H. A. L. Fisher ; shipping was assigned to 
Sir Joseph Maclay, a great ship-owner; 
and agriculture was placed under 
Mr. R. E. Prothero, a well-known 
authority on food production. To a 



fully engineered conspiracy" against 
himself and some other members of 
the cabinet. However this may have 
been, when he refused to accept Mr. 
Lloyd George's plan the latter re- 
signed, and thus precipitated a crisis 
which immediately brought about the 
resignation of Mr. Asquith and the 
whole of the Cabinet. The King first 
invited Mr. Bonar Law, the leader 
of the Unionist party, to form an 
administration: but Mr. Bonar Law, 
who appears to have worked in har- 
mony with Mr. Lloyd George during 
the crisis, found himself unable to 
accomplish the task. The King there- 
658 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




COAL-WOMEN ON ADAILYROUND IN GLASGOW 

It was not only the light work that the women of Great 
Britain took over in order to free men for service at the 
front. "Doing their bit" required grit and endurance. 

large extent the Cabinet was one of 
experts and business men. 

Another new development was the 
creation of an "Inner Cabinet", or 
War Cabinet. This War Cabinet was 
given complete charge of the general 
direction of the war, without the 
necessity of reporting its decisions to 
the whole Cabinet. It was composed 
of five members, Mr. Lloyd George, 
Lord Curzon, Lord Milner, Mr. Arthur 
Henderson, and Mr. Bonar Law; and 
all of these ministers, with the exception 
of Mr. Bonar Law, who was Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, were relieved of all 
departmental duties. It was even 
decided that the prime minister, as 
the head of the War Cabinet, should 
be relieved from the burden of at- 
tendance in the House of Commons; 
and the leadership of the Commons 
devolved on Mr. Bonar Law. 

THE EFFECT OF THE ORGANIZATION OF 
THE WAR CABINET. 

This arrangement marked a distinct 
step in advance in the organization 
of the government for war ; it provided 
the most effective instrument which 
Great Britain had as yet had for the 



HELPMATES AT HOME 

This picture shows a form of service that was quite 
heavy for women to perform, namely wheeling coke 
to fill trucks at Coventry gasworks. 

unified direction of the war, while it 
left the heads of departments free to 
devote their whole energies to their 
administrative duties. It paved the 
way, moreover, for one of the most 
interesting developments of the British 
Constitution in the last century or 
more, the Imperial War Cabinet, a 
development which offers at least 
the possibility of the solution of the 
intricate problem of the government 
of the British Empire. On the other 
hand, the dictatorial powers enjoyed 
by the War Cabinet threw into relief 
the decline which had taken place 
in the authority of Parliament. 

Once the necessity was removed of 
keeping the ministry within the bounds 
of an executive committee, the number 
of departments in the government 
began steadily to increase. A Min- 
istry of Labor and a Ministry of Pen- 
sions, an Air Board and a Ministry 
of Blockade, the office of Shipping 
Controller and that of Food Controller, 
a Ministry of National Service and a 
Ministry of Reconstruction — all these 
were created in rapid succession, until 
the number of administrative depart- 

659 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ments was almost double that of the 
pre-war period. At one time it was 
estimated that the number of new 
departments, boards, commissions, and 
committees exceeded the total of four 
hundred. 

NEW AND DIFFICULT PROBLEMS ARE 
CREATED. 

This multiplication of departments 
and agencies of government produced 
an inevitable overlapping and duplica- 
tion of business; and it soon became 
clear that it created as many problems 
as it solved. Lord Curzon admitted 
in the House of Lords that most of the 
time of the War Cabinet was taken 
up with the adjustment of internal 
disputes between the ministers. The 
jurisdiction of the Food Controller 
clashed with that of the President of 
the Board of Agriculture; the new 
Ministry of Labor trenched upon the 
spheres both of the Ministry of Mu- 
nitions and of the Board of Trade, and 
the Director of the new department 
of National Service, which proved a 
gigantic and expensive fiasco, resigned 
because he had been left nothing to do. 

But, despite these and other obvious 
defects, the Lloyd George government 
proved itself to be a distinct improve- 
ment on either of the administrations 
that had preceded it. It showed leader- 
ship where its predecessors had had to 
be pushed; its policy was thorough- 
going and decisive where the policy 
of its predecessors had been weak and 
vacillating ; it was on time where they 
had been "too late." The masterful 
energy, the cheery optimism, the 
indomitable courage of the new Prime 
Minister infected the rest of the nation. 
The years 191 7 and 191 8 were, for the 
people of Great Britain, by all odds 
the most trying and severe of the war. 
Not only did the casualty lists spread 
their tragic tidings among practically 
every family in the country^ but, as a 
result of the German submarine war- 
fare, the food supply of Great Britain 
ran dangerously low. The war struck 
home at the everyday life of English- 
men as it had never done before. Yet, 
under the inspiration of "the little 
Welshman" who by sheer force of 
character had risen from the humblest 

660 



to the highest position in the land, 
the people of Great Britain met the 
crisis with a serenity and a resolution 
that had in it something of the heroic. 

THE FOOD PROBLEM WAS THE MOST 
CRITICAL. 

The most critical problem the coun- 
try had to face under the Lloyd George 
government was probably that of 
maintaining the food supply. In peace 
time Great Britain had been a heavy 
importer of food-stuffs; and during the 
first two years of war, owing to the way 
in which the army had drained off the 
able-bodied men from the land. Great 
Britain became even more dependent 
than ever on foreign imports. Already, 
however, in 191 6 the difficulty of 
keeping up the flow of imports had 
made itself felt, partly owing to the 
diversion of a vast amount of merchant 
shipping to purely military and naval 
uses, and partly owing to the growing 
success of the German submarine cam- 
paign. 

It so happened that just after the 
entrance into office of the Lloyd George 
government the Germans embarked 
on an unrestricted submarine offensive. 
Hitherto they had used, out of defer- 
ence to the United States and other 
neutral powers, some discretion in their 
use of the submarine weapon; but 
now they threw caution to the winds, 
and adopted a policy of sinking every- 
thing on the high seas at sight. The 
result was that the carrying trade of 
the world became threatened with 
extinction. In January, 191 7, the 
sinkings of British, Allied, and neutral 
ships totaled 333,000 tons, in Feb- 
ruary 470,000, in March 600,000, in 
April 788,000, in May 540,000, in June 
758,000, in July 463,000, and in August 
591,000 — a grand total of 4,561,000 
tons in eight months. As against these 
figures there stood only a total of 
1,500,000 tons of new shipping launched 
in the same period — so that Great 
Britain and her Allies had to face 
in these few months a net shrinkage 
of over 3,000,000 tons of shipping. 
And this loss represented not only 
a serious reduction of carrying space, 
but it meant also the complete de- 
struction of vast cargoes of food-stuffs, 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



:oal, munitions of war, and other 
:ommodities. 

MEASURES TAKEN TO RELIEVE THE FOOD 
SHORTAGE. 

Sir Edward Carson, who was First 
Lord of the Admiralty during the 
first half of 191 7, has confessed that 
during these terrible months there 
were times when those at the Admiralty 
could see no ray of light in the black 
outlook. The Germans became jubi- 
lant, and many of them regarded the 
war as already won. Yet the British 
government turned to face the new 
peril undaunted, and to organize the 
country to meet it. The measures 
adopted by the government were of 
five kinds. First, there were the purely 
naval measures taken with a view to 
crushing the submarine menace; second, 
there were the measures taken to 
increase the output of new shipping, 
and to speed up the repair of damaged 
shipping; third, there was a rigorous 
restriction of imports, so that all cargo 
space would be available for the im- 
portation of essentials; fourth, a sys- 
tem of food control, and also liquor 
control, was set up which aimed at 
limiting the consumption of food-stufTs 
in the country; and fifth, a policy of 
food production was inaugurated, which 
had as its object the raising in Great 
Britain itself of the maximum of food- 
stuffs of which the country was capable. 

The anti-submarine warfare was 
one of the most thrilling and romantic 
phases of the Great War. But the 
story of the hunting of the submarines 
by destroyers, motor-launches, sea- 
planes, blimphs, and mystery ships, the 
story of the mine-sweepers and of the 
mine barrages, the story of the number- 
less duels between lonely merchant 
vessels and gigantic submarine-cruisers 
— these things fall outside the scope 
of this chapter. What does deserve 
mention here, however, is the work 
of the sailors of the merchant marine. 
These heroic men, without even the 
protection of the King's uniform, faced 
daily danger and death as fearlessly 
and gallantly as any bluejacket or 
soldier; and if, in the end, the sub- 
marine menace was held, if not mas- 
tered, the credit was due no less to the 



sailors of the merchant marine than 
to those of the Royal Navy. If the 
forecastle hands of the British mer- 
chantmen had in any way failed in 
their duty, as those of some of the 
neutral countries failed, the results 
would have been disastrous. 




BORING INSIDE BREECH PIECES OF HEAVY 

GUNS 
When the Ministry of Munitions was formed in England 
women clamored to work in the factories, and govern- 
ment schemes on a large scale were set on foot for their 
employment. 

THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE SHIPPING 
CONTROLLER. 

The work of the Shipping Controller 
was not without its difficulties. The 
lack of trained mechanics, strikes in the 
shipyards, scarcity of materials, trou- 
bles over the attempt to standardize 
ships, delays in regard to the erection 
of new shipyards — all these things 
retarded the hoped-for increase in the 
output of shipping. But gradually 
these difficulties were overcome; and 
by the end of 191 7, while the losses of 
shipping had begun to show a decided 
downward curve, the curve of ship- 
building was upward. The two curves 
had not yet by any means met ; but in 
every shipyard in Great Britain and 
America men were rivaling one another 
to see who could rivet the greatest 
number of bolts in one day, and there 
was every prospect that sooner or later 
the Allies would be able to build as 
many ships as the German mines and 
torpedoes could sink. In that day 
the war would be won. 

661 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The restriction of imports was a 
comparatively simple matter. Orders- 
in-council were issued prohibiting the 
importation of foreign fruit, tea, coffee, 
cocoa, rum, wines, linen, books, and 
generally all things that did not come 
under the head of necessities. The 
importation of other things, such as 
paper and canned salmon, was re- 
stricted by 25 or 50 per cent. On the 
whole, it was estimated that the new 
restrictions would effect a saving in 
c^rgo space of nearly 1,000,000 tons, 
and would thus go a long way to 
counterbalance the loss of shipping 
which had already taken place. 

T7INAL RESORT TO RATIONING OF FOOD. 

Food economy, like recruiting, was 
at first put on a voluntary basis. Lord 
Devonport, who occupied the office of 
Food Controller until the summer of 
191 7, hesitated, on account of practical 
difficulties, to adopt a system of com- 
pulsory rationing; and he merely put 
people on their honor to ration them- 
selves voluntarily according to a fixed 
schedule. This voluntary rationing 
undoubtedly resulted in a considerable 
decrease in the consumption of food- 
stuffs, for most people adhered to it 
religiously; but it offered a loophole 
for the glutton and the food-hoarder, 
just as voluntary recruiting had offered 
a loophole for the "slacker". A strong 
demand consequently developed for a 
compulsory system ; and Lord Rhondda, 
who succeeded Lord Devonport as 
Food Controller, acceded to this de- 
mand, and in December, 191 7, in- 
augurated a system of compulsory 
rationing by means of food cards. 
Sugar was at first the only commodity 
rationed; but the system worked with 
unexpected smoothness, and in the 
beginning of 191 8 other foodstuffs were 
rationed as well, notably meat. 

Parallel with the food economy 
campaign was the policy of liquor 
control. The output of the breweries 
and distilleries was rigorously re- 
stricted; and by this means an annual 
saving of hundreds of thousands of 
tons of foodstuffs was effected. No 
attempt was made to ration beer and 
spirits, except on the part of the dealers, 

662 



and the prices of all kinds of spirituous 
beverages rose to unheard-of heights, 
until in the summer of 1918 prices 
were fixed: but temperance advocates 
believed that the restrictions imposed, 
by limiting drunkenness, contributed 
greatly to the effectiveness of the 
British war effort. 

EFFORTS TO STIMULATE PRODUCTION 
OF FOOD. 

Lastly, every effort was made to 
stimulate food production in Great 
Britain itself. A "back to the land" 
propaganda was launched; local agri- 
cultural committees were given au- 
thority to place land under the plough, 
with the result that tennis-courts, 
golf-links, and ancient estates which 
had not been under cultivation for a 
century were transformed into potato 
patches and wheat fields; generous 
minimum prices for foodstuffs were 
guaranteed by the government; and 
a revival of agriculture took place 
such as Great Britain had not seen 
since the first half of the eighteenth 
century. In every village and town 
in England old men, women, and 
boys — of every grade of society — had 
their allotments of cultivated land, 
which they worked in their hours after 
business. 

Taken all in all, "the race with death,'* 
as a German newspaper denominated 
the anti-submarine struggle, imposed 
on the British people unprecedented 
privations and sacrifices. It involved 
an experiment in state socialism such 
as few people ever thought would 
be made on British soil. Yet the 
British nation accepted the situation 
with a certain phlegmatic, but heroic 
equanimity; and in the end the com- 
bined result of the measures adopted 
was that the Germans were cheated 
of the victory which they had thought 
was all but within their grasp. 

rr^HK SMALL EFFECT OF AIR-RAIDS. 

Just as the submarine menace was 
met and held, so the menace of the 
German air-raiders was in the end 
scotched. The first air-raids on England 
were made by Zeppelin dirigibles, 
which crossed the North Sea under 
cover of dark and cloudy nights, and 




TWO GIRLS CARRY ON A FARM 

On a farm in Devonshire all the men employed were in the army, and the farmer was ill. His two daughters, one 
eighteen the other fourteen, carried on all the work of the farm, milking, ploughing and taking care of the 
calves and sheep and driving the animals to market. Picture British Official. 








A GERMAN PICTURE OF ENGLISH GUNS 

Though this picture was apparently made in France it was widely circulated in Germany as being ™a^de in England. 
It pretended to show that the English were so much alarmed by the threat of German invasion that they were 
retaining heavy guns in England and scattering them all through the country-side near the sea, instead of senaing 
them to France. Feature Photo Service. 

663 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




BACK TO THE LAND 

This picture shows the woman prize-winner for harrow- 
ing and driving in Cornwall, where the heavy soil re- 
quires a steady hand. 

dropped bombs promiscuously over 
the east of England. These raids 
wrought occasionally no small damage; 
but on the whole they proved a failure, 
not because of the effectiveness of the 
British defenses, but on account of 
atmospheric conditions and other prac- 
tical or technical difficulties. The 
Germans then had resort to aeroplane 
raids. These were made at first on 
moonlit nights, and they proved more 
difficult to deal with than the Zeppelin 
raids. Then, growing bolder, the 
Germans ventured on daylight raids; 
and the first daylight raid, which took 
place in Kent in May, 191 7, did great 
havoc. 

Gradually, however, the British anti- 
aircraft defenses were improved. Lon- 
don, which was the chief object of 
attack, was provided with a plentiful 
supply of anti-aircraft artillery; an 
elaborate system of air-raid warnings 
was evolved, which gave time for 
precautionary measures; and the grow- 
ing ascendancy of the British air 
forces made it increasingly dangerous 
for the Germans to attack England. 
Very little of the damage done, more- 
over, was of military importance; and 

664 



RELEASING MEN FOR MILITARY SERVICE 

A woman acting as a bricklayer's assistant in an English 
village. Others cleaned and painted ships, sawed 
lumber, even carried coal. 

during the last stages of the war any 
German air-raids on England were 
undertaken, apparently, more with 
the hope of pinning down a part of the 
British air-forces to the defense of 
England than with the hope of obtain- 
ing any decisive result through terror 
or demolition. Throughout the war, 
indeed, the German air-raids on Eng- 
land, far from weakening the resolution 
of the British people, rather steeled it, 
and thus contributed in the long run 
to the downfall of Germany. 

npHE GREAT WAR EFFORT OF 1917-1918. 

During 1917 and 1918 everyone 
recognized that the crisis of the war 
was approaching; and Great Britain 
strained every nerve to make her 
weight felt as strongly as possible. 
To cite statistics with regard to the 
magnitude of the British war effort 
during these years would merely be- 
wilder without convincing; a clearer 
idea 'may be gained from a few simple 
but significant facts. By the begin- 
ning of 191 8 the military age in Great 
Britain had been raised to fifty years 
and lowered to eighteen; the medical 
standard for recruits had been lowered 




A PARTY OF THE W.A.A.C. AT TOURS 

This group of the W.A.A.C. was detailed to do clerical work in the American Central Record ofSce at Tours. The 
workers are shown on a little island made into a play-ground for war-workers of all nationalities which was in charge 
of a young American Y.W.C.A. worker, in the centre of the picture. 




WOMEN'S ARMY AUXILIARY CORPS IN BARRACKS 

In 1917 after the heavy losses in the Somme campaign the problem of man-power was serious in Great Britain. 
A Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was formed as an adjunct of the army, and similar corps for the navy and air 
forces. They relieved men for duty at the front who had been held behind the lines. They were under strict 
military authority while on duty and did almost everything a man could do. 

665 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



repeatedly, and all exemptions revised; 
the principle was adopted that all pri- 
vate considerations, of whatever sort, 
should give way before the needs of the 
state, and every man who was not 
physically unfit was forced either into 
the army and navy, or into some in- 
dustry, such as munitions, shipbuild- 
ing, or agriculture, which was essential 
to the prosecution of the war. By 
191 8, indeed, there was hardly an 
otiose man in the British Isles, out- 
side of Ireland; and the total enlist- 
ments in the army had soared to a 
figure around six millions. 

THE WORK OF WOMEN IN WAR AND IN- 
DUSTRY. 

An even more striking illustration 
of war effort was to be found in the 
work of the women. From the begin- 
ning the women of Great Britain had 
enlisted in large numbers as hospital 
workers and as makers of soldiers' 
comforts; and when the munitions 
crisis arose, great numbers of them 
entered the munition factories. Some 
factories indeed came to be staffed 
almost wholly by women. Then, when 
the problem of man-power came to the 
fore in 191 7, women flocked into service 
in a score of different spheres, where 
they had never been seen before. A 
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was 
formed as an adjunct of the army; 
and these "Waacs", as they were 
familiarly known, more than justified 
their existence by relieving for duty 
at the front men who heretofore had 
been held on the lines of communica- 
tion. Similar corps were formed also 
in connection with the navy and the 
air forces; the former were known as 
"Wrens" (Women's Royal Naval Serv- 
ice), and the latter as "Wrafs" (Wom- 
en's Royal Air Force). Large numbers 
of " land girls" volunteered for work on 
the farms; women became bank clerks, 
taxi drivers, bus conductors, and even 
railway hands. In every branch of life 
women stepped up and took the places 
of the men who had gone to the front; 
and the remarkable feature of this 
social revolution was that it was the 
result of voluntary effort. 

Still another illustration of the war 
effort of the British people was seen 

666 



in the sphere of finance. Although by 
191 8 the cost of the war had risen in 
Great Britain to over £6,000,000 a 
day, and the national debt had grown 
to over six times its pre-war size, 
Great Britain was able to meet a con- 
siderable part of the cost of the war 
out of an enormously increased tax 
revenue. The tax on quite moderate 
incomes rose to 7s. 6d. in the pound; 
and on large incomes it rose to more 
than los. This taxation, however, 
did not prevent the country from sub- 
scribing liberally to the government 
loans; and of the war loans and victory 
loans issued nearly three-fourths of 
the total was taken up in the country 
itself. 

THE "WILL-TO- VICTORY" IN THE GOVERN- 
MENT. 

Government action in 191 7 and 191 8 
afforded many evidences of the Lloyd 
George Cabinet's determination to 
prosecute the war to a successful 
issue. Every effort was made to keep 
the Cabinet at the highest point of 
efficiency. Mention has already been 
made of the substitution in June, 191 7, 
of Lord Rhondda for Lord Devonport 
as Food Controller. Lord Rhondda, 
one of the ablest business men in Great 
Britain, undertook the duties of Food 
Controller against the advice of his 
physicians, and he died when his work 
was accomplished, as true a martyr to 
the cause as any soldier that died at the 
front. In July, 191 7, Sir Edward 
Carson was superseded as First Lord of 
the Admiralty by Sir Eric Geddes, one 
of the "supermen" thrown up by the 
war, a civilian who had risen to the 
rank of Major-General in the army 
and Vice- Admiral in the navy. In 
August, 191 7, Mr. Arthur Henderson, 
the representative of Labor in the War 
Cabinet, was forced to resign on ac- 
count of his equivocal attitude toward 
the International Labor Conference 
at Stockholm, where it was apparently 
proposed that British and German 
Socialists should sit side by side and 
discuss the terms of peace; and his 
place in the War Cabinet was taken 
by Mr. George N. Barnes, who had 
opposed sending British delegates to 
the Conference. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE DEPARTMENT OF PROPAGANDA OR- 
GANIZED. 

P A singular illustration of the efficien- 
cy of the British government was seen 
in the creation, in February, 191 8, of 
a department of Propaganda. This 
department was placed in charge of 
Lord Beaverbrook, a Canadian finan- 
cier who had had a meteoric career in 
British politics, and who had played 
a leading part in the formation of the 
Lloyd George Cabinet; and the over- 
sight of propaganda in enemy coun- 
tries was. given to Lord Northcliffe, 
whose great abilities had previously 
been employed in a special mission to 
the United States. The new depart- 
ment was the result of a realization that 
the issue of the war was likely to be 
decided as much on the home-front 
as on the battlefield, and that the 
struggle had now entered the realm 
of psychology. 

The work of the department was 
twofold. On the one hand, it devoted 
itself to strengthening the "will-to- 
victory" of the British people and 
their allies, through the newspapers, 
through books and pamphlets, and 
even through the cinema; and on the 
other hand, it strove to break down the 
will of the Germans and their allies 
by getting the facts about the war 
effort of the Allies and the United 
States into the Central Empires, if 
only through literature scattered over 
enemy countries by British airmen. 
That the propaganda carried out was 
successful in weakening the German 
resistance was proved, during the war, 
by captured German army orders, and 
has been amply corroborated, since 
the armistice, by the narratives which 
the German generals and admirals have 
poured from the press. 

THE IMPERIAL WAR CABINET IS ORGAN- 
IZED. 

As the war entered, moreover, on 
its final stages, the British machinery 
for the direction of the war grew 
steadily better. The creation of the 
War Cabinet paved the way for the 
formation in March, 191 7, of the 
Imperial War Cabinet, in which sat, 
not only the members of the British 
War Cabinet, but also the Prime 



Ministers of the British overseas Do- 
minions. This new body, which was 
well described as a "Cabinet of Govern- 
ments, " and which possessed not merely 
advisory but executive powers, pro- 
vided what had hitherto been lacking, 
a unified control for the war effort of 
the British Empire. Later, in No- 
vember, 1917, largely as a result of the 
insistence of Mr. Lloyd George, a 
Supreme War Council was set up at 
Paris, which gave the same sort of 
unity to the war effort of all the Allies 
that the Imperial War Cabinet had 
given to the war effort of the British 
Empire; and the culmination of the 
process was reached in March, 1918, 
when Marshal Foch was made General- 
issimo of the Allied armies on the West- 
ern Front. 

CRITICISM OF THE GOVERNMENT SOME- 
TIMES HEARD. 

The Lloyd George government, of 
course, did not escape criticism. At 
times, indeed, criticism of both the 
policy and conduct of the administra- 
tion was hardly less vigorous than it 
had been under the Asquithian regime. 
But it was criticism of a different kind. 
Little complaint was heard of vacilla- 
tion or dilatoriness in government 
action ; most of the critics of the govern- 
ment were people who believed, on 
various grounds, that the policy of 
the government was too thoroughgoing. 
From the beginning a part of the 
Labor party and the extreme Radical 
wing of the Liberal party had been 
opposed to the war ; and under the Lloyd 
George regime this pacifist element 
grew bolder and more active. They 
attacked nearly every measure whereby 
the government sought to strengthen 
the war effort of Great Britain; and 
they continually advocated "a peace 
by negotiation" rather than a decision 
on the battlefield. As the war dragged 
on, a certain war-weariness, which be- 
gan to appear among some people, 
gave to this party an accession of 
strength; and they received support 
from an unexpected quarter when, 
in November, 191 7, no less a person 
than Lord Lansdowne wrote a letter 
to The Times urging that peace ne- 
gotiations with the Germans should 

667 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



be opened. But among the rank and 
file of the British people these pacifists 
were regarded as disloyal, and their 
attacks probably strengthened the 
government rather than weakened it. 

DISAGREEMENT IN ARMY AND NAVAL 
CIRCLES. 

An attack from a different angle 
was that conducted by certain groups 
connected with the War Office and the 
Admiralty. In this campaign a number 
of questions were at issue. The 
"Westerners" — those who believed 
that the war was to be decided on the 
Western Front — objected to the various 
"side-shows" which the government 
was conducting at Saloniki, in Palestine, 
and in Mesopotamia; and an element in 
British military circles condemned 
what they regarded as the undue central- 
ization of authority in the hands of an 
Allied Generalissimo. The old cry 
was heard that the politicians were 
bedeviling the conduct of the war. 
Unfortunately, in the controversies 
that arose, personalities seemed to play 
a considerable part. The friends of 
Lord Jellicoe were angry at his dis- 
missal from the post of First Sea Lord; 
the friends of General Sir W. R. Rob- 
ertson were angry at his having been 
forced out of the position of Chief of 
the General Staff over the question 
of the unity of the Allied command; 
and when, on May 6, 191 8, General 
Sir Frederick Maurice, the Director 
of Military Operations at the War 
Office, wrote a letter to The Times 
accusing Mr. Lloyd George of having 
misled the House of Commons with 
false information, the personal feeling 
between the professional soldiers and 
the politicians became all too apparent. 
The attack resulted only in a parlia- 
mentary victory for Mr. Lloyd George; 
General Maurice was disciplined by 
the Army Council ; and as soon as the 
tide turned in France in the summer of 
1918, and the advantages of the unity 
of command became apparent, the 
attack died down. 



/-pHE DAY OF VICTORY FINALLY ARRIVES. 

The victory of the Allies in the 
autumn of 1918 — the collapse of Bul- 
garia, the break-up of Austria-Hun- 
gary, the defeat of Germany — ^was 
almost a personal triumph for Mr. 
Lloyd George. It proved the soundness 
of his views with regard to the prosecu- 
tion of the war; and it justified the 
shining optimism with which he in- 
spired the people of Great Britain even 
in the darkest days of the struggle. 
His presence at the head of afifairs in 
Great Britain during the critical years 
of 19 1 7 and 191 8 was worth many 
army corps to the Allies; and it was 
not surprising that, as the war closed, 
he became a popular idol among the 
majority of his countrymen. The 
general elections held at the end of 
191 8 resulted in the tribute of an over- 
whelming victory for the Lloyd George 
government — a tribute rendered more 
remarkable since a new Act (the Repre- 
sentation of the People Act, 1918) had 
enormously widened the electorate, 
inaugurating not only manhood suf- 
frage, but female suffrage as well. 

But great as was the contribution 
made by Mr. Lloyd George and his 
colleagues in the government to the 
final victory of the Allied arms, the 
chief credit for the war effort of Great 
Britain rests with the average British 
citizen. Encompassed about with dan- 
gers of which he had never dreamt, 
faced with famine, subject to restric- 
tions against which at other times his 
liberty-loving soul would have re- 
volted, enduring the daily torture of 
the casualty lists, and often mourning 
the fact that the light of his life had 
gone out, the average Britisher never- 
theless played his part with stolid and 
unfaltering constancy — not doubting 
that the clouds would break. Never, 
not even in the Napoleonic Wars, did 
the prosaic heroism of the British 
people shine more brightly or clearly 
than in the Great War of 1914-1918. 
W. S. Wallace. 



668 




b 



French infantry awaiting attack 

Chapter XLI 

M. Poilu, As I Knew Him 



AN ENGLISHMAN'S COMPARISON OF THE FRENCH AND THE 

BRITISH SOLDIER 

By Basil Clarke 



ly/r POILU, the French soldier? 
• Which way shall one turn to find 
the type? Take the bearded old man 
you see in the roadway there, sitting 
with his hammer beside a heap of 
stones. He is bent and rheumatic; his 
eyes are failing, and, despite the 
spectacles he wears behind his stone- 
breaker's goggles, he can hardly see 
the stones he is so busily breaking. His 
lunch is by his side — a loaf, an apple 
and half a bottle of mixed wine and 
water. He will work there from sunrise 
till sundown, and then, with bent 
back and slow step, he will hobble to 
some neighboring cottable to sup and 
sleep. A quaint, pathetic old figure! 
But he is a French soldier, none the 
less. His weather-worn blue coat was 
served out to him by a regimental 
commissariat goodness knows how 
many years ago. His corduroy trou- 
sers are also uniform; his cap is the 
uniform peak cap of the French Army. 

BOTH OF THESE OLD MEN SOLDIERS OF 
FRANCE. 

Soon, perhaps, you may see this old 
Poilu's corporal come along the road to 
take a look at the work done, and to 
pass censure if the amount is too little. 
The corporal is, perhaps, just as old as 
the stonebreaker himself. He may 
wear the stripe of the "caporal" be- 



cause his sight is a little better or 
because he can walk along the roads 
at a whole mile an hour instead of only 
at half a mile. Both are equally 
soldiers of France, and they work for 
soldier's pay — which is the luxurious 
sum of three or five sous (three cents 
to five cents) a day. 

THE FRENCH ARMY AND THE FRENCH 
NATION SYNONYMOUS. 

They may never go near the front. 
They may be now, as you watch them, 
a good fifty miles away from the near- 
est trench. But over the roads they 
make or mend pass the troops and the 
stores, the horses and the guns, that 
go to the winning of France's battles. 
And just as those guns are necessary 
so also are the stones for the roads that 
take the guns, and the stonebreakers 
that break the stones for the roads that 
take the guns. It is like the "House 
that Jack Built" over again; and in 
France, when the house is to be built 
is a war to be won, every man necessary 
for building that house is caught up 
in that immense and all-embracing 
labor net, the Army of the French 
Republic. He may make you a boot 
or pull you out a tooth, bake you a loaf 
or bury you, but he becomes a soldier. 
The French Army just now is the 
French nation. 

669 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



To take the French equivalent, 
therefore, of the British soldier you 
must take the French fighting soldier. 
This • is not so all-comprehensive a 
term as the term French soldier, who 
is everyone. Gunners, sappers, horse 
and foot — there are numerous types 
enough of the French "fighting 
soldier" and the wider age limit that 
exists in the French Army yields 



THE PASSION AND THE FIERCENESS OF 
THE FRENCH. 

First, then, I think the French 
soldier is the fiercest of all the soldiers 
fighting in this war. His war spirit 
burns him. It is a passion. I shall 
never forget the face and the eyes of the 
infantry sergeant who one night, early 
in the war, came across me in a French 
troop train (to which one of his men 




SOLDIERS INCAPABLE OF ACTIVE SERVICE MENDING ROADS 

These old men, decrepit, and perhaps half blind are, nevertheless, soldiers of France under military discipline. 
Every man on the rolls who could render service in any capacity was called to the colors. Though entirely in- 
capable of service in the trenches he might be set to making munitions, farming, building roads, or any one of a 
dozen other occupations all of which helped to carry on the war. 



greater contrasts in individual types 
than are to be found in even our own 
Army. To reduce the French fighting 
soldiers to a type, therefore, to take, 
that is, all the types of French soldier, 
and in the manner of those horrid 
little sums we used to do at school, to 
take their G. C. M. or H. C. F. and 
say this is the French fighting soldier 
type — would be rather speculative 
mathematics. I don't think one could 
do it. What I will try to do instead 
is to set down certain qualities which 
I think belong especially to the French 
soldier, at least to a greater degree 
than to any others. 
670 



had invited me), and, as he stood with 
a lantern peering into my face, said, 
"Swear to me that you are not a 
Boche." Even though I was not a 
Boche the look in that man's eyes 
quite scared me then and still remains 
in my memory as the most fearful 
examination I have ever undergone. 
Had he not been satisfied and had my 
papers not been in order as well as my 
general appearance, I could have 
hoped for no mercy, even no respite 
from a man who could look like that. 

I saw that look several times again 
in French soldiers. Once when walking 
along a country road near Ypres I 




THE YOUNG RECRUIT AMONG THE VETERANS 
The word "poilu" once meant bristly or hairy, and was used rather contemptuously, but in spite of objections 
the French people began to use it affectionately as applied to their unshaven and unshorn soldiers undergoing the 
hardships of the trenches. It was then only a step to apply it to all private soldiers. 



Stumbled upon a masked French bat- 
tery. It was a bearded lieutenant, this 
time, who darted out and stood in front 
of me, revolver in hand. "What is 
monsieur doing?" I can hear to this 
day the icy coldness and suspicion of 
those words of his; can feel still the 
cold glint of his black eyes as they 



looked me up and down and through 
and through. He thought me a spy 
and to have his battery located by the 
Germans was an appalling risk. He 
marched me in front of him to the 
commandant of the battery, and all the 
way there I could feel those eyes at 
my back. The commandant, fortunate- 

671 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ly, was more satisfied with me, and 
showed me over his battery, but the 
lieutenant stood by, and though he did 
his best to be friendly, I could never 
forget his first greeting. I remember 
thinking that had I been a Boche, I 
would rather have been taken by the 
British, or by any other race than by 
the French. My end might not have 
been any the less swift, but the manner 
of it could never have been so cold and 
full of passionate enmity. 

THEIR UNRELENTING DETERMINATION 
SHOWN IN BATTLE. 

The French are like this in all their 
war, but especially in a charge or an 
attack. They are not as athletic as our 
men; they are not, perhaps, when it 
comes to the number and quickness of 
thrusts, so deadly with the bayonet. 
And yet the Germans fear the French 
bayonets, I think, more than they fear 
ours. There is a greater deadliness of 
purpose, a more unrelenting hate and 
determination to kill and naught but 
kill. They are terrible fighters, but 
even more terrible "haters." I saw a 
spy once being taken into custody by 
the French and noted the look on his 
guards' faces. I heard the shots that 
finished his spying and his life the 
following morning. And a cold chill 
went along my spine, and I, somehow, 
longed to be back in England. 

This fierceness is an outcome of their 
intensity of nature and resoluteness of 
purpose. I don't think any Army shows 
resolution more than the French Army. 
Our boys are resolved enough, but it 
is the fashion to hide this rather than 
to show it. A singer who dares to sing 
to our soldiers at the front about 
fighting for King and country, dying 
"with face to the foe," and the like, is 
generally shouted off the platform be- 
fore very long. Our soldiers cannot 
bear it. They will fight as bravely as 
any soldier for these things, but they 
don't like it talked about. 

BRITISH AND FRENCH TEMPERAMENT 
SHOWN IN SONGS. 

In their songs, in fact, they prefer to 
pretend that they are afraid. The 
most popular type of song out at the 
front is the song that displays its 
singers as "having the wind up" — 

672 



which is soldier slang for being in a 
downright funk. The French soldier 
would no more think of singing a song 
like this than he would of flying. 
Marching along the roads, over camp 
fires, and in billets and trains he will 
sing blithely about glorious France, 
fighting for France, death before the 
foe and the like. None of these phrases 
has become trite and jejune for him; 
he feels and thinks that way. Yet he is 
at heart less combative a type than 
the average British soldier, especially 
the North-country soldier. He fights 
less readily, but with less consideration 
for his enemy when he does begin. No 
false ideas of "sport" moderate his 
warfare. 

EXACTNESS AND PRECISION MARK THE 
FRENCH GUNNER. 

The French soldier has a wonderful 
gift for exactness, precision, and essen- 
tial detail. This is partly what goes 
to make him the best gunner in the 
world. Some of our sergeants mistake 
precision and synchronization and 
clock-work movement for efficiency. 
To watch a French gun crew working, 
say, a field-gun, you would at first 
deny even the possibility of their 
being so efficient as some of the spick- 
and-span British gun crews you had 
seen. They seem, to go in a "go-as-you- 
please" fashion. That fellow slogs 
open the gun-breech and takes a look 
round the horizon perhaps as he does 
it; this fellow rams in the shell and 
makes a joke about "les sales Boches"; 
this fellow's tunic is half ofT because he 
has not fastened it properly — there 
seems no comparison at first sight 
between that crew and its work and a 
British crew. But note the number of 
shells that French gun "gets away" to 
the minute; note the number of direct 
hits, and it will amaze you; the truth 
being that the French gunner con- 
centrates on the one or two little points 
that make for quick fire and accurate 
aim and lets all else go by the board. 
His skill , for detail has shown him 
what these one or two points are, and 
he has paid attention to these things 
till no mortal man could do them better 
than he. The German gunnery officers 
have slaved for years to get their gun 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



crews as quick as the French, but they 
are to this day not within many shots 
per minute as fast. 

The French soldier is as gentle when 
not fighting as he is fierce when fighting. 
With his friends he is more like a wom- 
an. He will laugh with their joys, weep 
with their sorrows, and while he is 



They have not the old "biting on the 
bullet" tradition of the British soldier, 
and they do not hesitate to show signs 
of pain. But put fifty Frenchmen to 
take a trench, and assure them that 
at least thirty-five will be killed in the 
taking, and I don't think you would 
see any of them fall out. The French 




TYPICAL FRENCH REGIMENT RESTING ON THE MARCH 
These soldiers are older than those seen in the first year of the war. As the need grew, older and older men were 
called until often father and son were in the ranks, while the grandfather might be making roads or guarding 
prisoners. The French kit was heavy and frequent short rests were necessary on the long marches. 



laughing or weeping he means it. His 
forgetfulness of these moods will be 
quicker than that of a British soldier, 
it is true, but there is no insincerity 
at the time. 

COURAGE ARISING FROM QUITE DIF- 
FERENT SOURCES. 

The French soldier's courage is un- 
doubted, but it is a different kind of 
courage from that of the British 
soldier. It is not the stoic kind of 
courage. I have been in French hos- 
pitals many times, and have always 
been struck by the fact that the French- 
man makes more of pain than our men. 



soldier's courage and the Briton's 
rise, I think, from different sources. 
The source of the Briton's courage is 
more egotistical. He sets a standard 
for himself, and tries to live up to that 
standard. British bravery may often 
be traced to this rather noble form of 
egotism. A man does not wish to "let 
himself down" in his own eyes any 
more than in other people's eyes. He 
will not desert a post or shirk a danger 
because he would feel not so good to 
himself if he did one of these things. 
It would not be "playing the game." 
The French soldier's courage, on the 

673 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



other hand, owes more, I think, to the 
communal sense. For his own partic- 
ular sake he would do much to avoid 
a cut finger or a black eye, but for 
"La Patrie" and a cause he has at 
heart he would face the biggest Boche 
and the longest bayonet. The French 
soldier always strikes me as a man who 
overcomes his own personality and 
makes himself do brave things. His 
imagination tells him the risks he is 
running far more vividly than does the 
imagination of the average Briton. 
He will do his brave deed, then, with 
a little flourish. He is consciously 
brave, whereas some of our fellows 
really do not know when they are 
brave. They know only when anyone 
funks. 

THE RELATIONS OF OFFICERS AND MEN 
IN THE FRENCH ARMY. 

The French soldier has the dramatic 
temperament; the British soldier has 
not. This is another reason of the 
Frenchmen's greater demonstrative- 
ness. You will see them kiss one an- 
other on the cheeks after a successful 
charge." They are delighted to have 
won and to have "come through." 
See an English — or particularly a 
Scottish — regiment in like circum- 
stances and they will "be laughing and 
joking no doubt, but striving at the 
same time, by all the means that they 
know, to keep to themselves their 
deeper emotions — the fact that they 
are pleased to see one another safe and 
sound and to be alive. Yet they must 
feel this just as much as the gallant 
French soldiers do. 

The French soldier's relations with 
his officer are rather different from 
those of the British soldier. Men and 
officers in the French Army are not 
nearly so like two different races of 
men. There is a tremendous respect, 
but at the same time there is not the 
same stiffness. The relationship does 
allow room for a mutual smile now and 
again. The nearest approach to this 
that I ever saw in the British Army 
was between the chaplains and the 



men. A French soldier once asked me 
if it was against the rules in the British 
Army for an officer under the rank of 
major to smile with a common soldier. 
He said he had been struck by the way 
our young officers, except when alone 
with one man, avoided anything like 
cheery relations with their men. "Your 
older officers," he said, "are not so 
stiff and unnatural." Yet the French 
officers, he argued, were harder on 
offenders in the ranks than were the 
British. This greater intimacy between 
a French officer and his men — to 
whom he stands more in the light of 
father than of taskmaster — probably 
arises from the more democratic spirit 
of the French nation. Perhaps we shall 
come to that in time. 

FRENCH INABILITY TO UNDERSTAND 
BRITISH SPORTS IN WARTIME. 

The French soldier is generous, but 
not so generous as the British. He is 
much more thrifty. He cannot throw 
trouble aside in the way a British 
soldier can, nor can he quite under- 
stand the determination to throw 
trouble aside in, say, a game of foot- 
ball or a comic song. For a long time 
our men's football and games behind 
the lines, were utterly incomprehen- 
sible to the French, who quite misunder- 
stood them. "Why do your men make 
a sport of the war?" they have asked 
me, in horrified tones. And the same 
idea struck other people than French- 
men. M. Take Jonescu, the great pro- 
Entente statesman of Rumania, once 
asked me the same question, all be- 
cause of a football game behind the 
lines. But the French have now come 
to see that fresh air and games are as 
much a part of the British race as the 
meat-breakfast habit. 

The French soldier has an endurance 
and hardihood far greater than his 
physical condition and his more seden- 
tary mode of life would suggest. I 
am still left wondering how the French 
ever contrived that great advance of 
theirs over two miles of Somme mud. 
It will rank among the wonders of war. 



674 



I 




■ 



The Winter Palace and Square, Petrograd 

Chapter XLII 

The Russian Revolution 



THE METEORIC RISE AND THE SUDDEN FALL OF ALEXAN- 
DER KERENSKY DURING 1917 



T^HOUGH the tremendous events 
-■• which occurred in Russia during 
the early part of 191 7 have generally 
been designated as " the Russian Rev- 
olution," the facts indicate that they 
might be more truly described as the 
collapse, the disintegration, of the 
Russian autocracy, brought about 
through its own inherent weakness in 
the face of outside pressure. The 
revolutionary elements simply took 
advantage of the situation to establish 
an organization to take the place of 
the dead autocracy. It is only at a 
later date that they assume importance. 

SOME REASONS FOR THE DOWNFALL AL- 
READY MENTIONED. 

Some of the numerous factors con- 
cerned in the downfall of Russian 
autocracy have already been briefly 
mentioned: the treason of the inner 
court circle gathered about the 
Tsarina; the growing suspicion of 
the conservative intellectual elements, 
hitherto the main support of autocratic 
Russia, that they were being betrayed; 
and the weakness of the nation's 
economic organization. But out of 
these more or less abstract causes rise 
one or two striking personalities which 
help us to visualize the situation and 
which lend dramatic value to the events 
leading up to the climax of March, 

First of these, from the point of view 



of human interest, is the dark and evil 
figure of the monk, Rasputin, a 
mysterious shadow in the background. 
Rather a symbol of the portending 
disaster than an active participant in 
national affairs, never once does he 
emerge into the open daylight of the 
political arena. Yet his was the guiding 
hand which swung the nation's helm 
hard over and headed it for the rocks 
of fatal calamity. 

THE MYSTERIOUS FIGURE OF THE MONK 
RASPUTIN. 

Gregory Novikh was the son of 
illiterate Siberian mujiks. His early 
life was that of a common peasant 
boy, but even then he showed signs of 
those abnormal qualities which were 
eventually to bring him his question- 
able and short-lived success. It was 
during his early youth that he gained 
the name by which he is most widely 
known; Rasputin, meaning a rake, a 
person of loose morals. For Gregory 
had that magnetic personality before 
which many women of high and low 
quality succumbed. Of this power he 
took every advantage. 

Discarding the garb of a laboring 
mujik, Rasputin turned toward a 
field of wider opportunity and became 
an itinerant monk, preying on the 
superstitious credulity of the peasantry 
to whom he presented himself as a 
holy man and a healer. Gradually 

675 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



he sought higher game among the 
women of the more prosperous classes 
and so eventually he made the 
acquaintance of Madam Virubova, 
the favorite lady-in-waiting to the 
Tsarina. 

THE SUPERSTITIOUS CREDULITY OF THE 
TSARINA. 

Despite her exalted position, the 
Tsarina was a woman of rather ordin- 
ary intellectual qualities. She had 
long been a patroness of the occult 
cults, but when finally the Tsarevitch 
was born, a puny child, constitutionally 
diseased, she turned toward occultism 
with renewed faith. 

Thus it was that Rasputin found his 
opportunity in an introduction to the 
inner court circle. Perhaps he really 
had some abnormal powers which 
rare persons possess, perhaps he was 
only a clever faker, but the fact 
remains that he succeeded in convinc- 
ing the Tsarina, and the Tsar as well, 
that he had a healing influence on the 
little Tsarevitch. Report has it that 
Madam Virubova drugged the boy, 
and that Rasputin's demonstration of 
healing consisted in applying the 
antidote. Whatever the truth may be, 
Rasputin remained a permanent fixture 
in the court life. Once or twice, when 
the saner outer circle of the Imperial 
family succeeded in having him 
expelled, the Tsarevitch immediately 
became ill, the Tsarina developed a 
succession of hysterical outbursts, and 
always Rasputin was recalled. Grad- 
ually he acquired an influence possessed 
by no other one person, over the royal 
family; especially over the ignorant 
Tsarina. 

TT7HAT WERE THE MOTIVES WHICH AF- 
VV FECTED RASPUTIN? 

There are those who contend that 
German gold bought Rasputin after 
the war broke out, that he was hired 
to plant the poison which was presently 
to develop within the court itself as 
rank treason. It is more probable that 
he realized that a defeated German 
autocracy would also mean an end 
to the Russian autocracy, to all 
autocracies, and so would wither the 
plant on which he was a parasite. 
Whatever his motives, he was the 

676 



central figure of the "dark forces," 
of those intriguing pro-German con- 
spirators within the court and the 
government who desired the triumph 
of Germany and all that she represent- 
ed, even at the cost of a defeated 
Russia. 

Nicholas himself was a man of sub- 
normal intelligence and capacity — 
indeed, his mental flabbiness almost 
approached a condition of feeble- 
mindedness. The Tsarina was at 
least a personality, a woman of some 
will power and capacity for determina- 
tion, and she undoubtedly influenced 
the Tsar in all his actions, as her 
letters show. And she was the willing 
tool of Rasputin — "Our Friend, "she 
called him — and those he served. 
Such was the chain from Potsdam to 
Petrograd. 

STURMER RETIRES BUT PROTOPOPOV 
CARRIES ON. 

The appointment of Boris von 
Stiirmer as Premier had undoubtedly 
been at the instigation of Rasputin. 
The intrigues to bring about a separate 
peace with Germany have been men- 
tioned in a previous chapter, and the 
exposure of Stiirmer in the Duma. 
Even before this it was evident that he 
had been a disappointment to his 
masters. He lacked the skill, the 
subtlety of a really clever intriguer, 
and had neither the force of character 
nor the executive ability to carry 
through his task. Undoubtedly the 
"dark forces" were very little con- 
cerned over the exposure which forced 
his resignation. The man appointed 
to steer the ship of state on to the 
rocks of destruction had already been 
appointed — Protopopov, Minister of 
the Interior. As already narrated, the 
loyal Russians were still congratulating 
themselves over the elimination of von 
Stiirmer when Protopopov stepped 
forward in his place. For the Premier 
who followed von Stiirmer, Trepov, 
was and remained a mere figurehead, 
who, in fact, later developed sympathy 
for the Progressives. 

Protopopov successfully weathered 
the storm of indignation from the floor 
of the Duma, and steadfastly con- 
tinued to develop his plans. Not long 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



before the close of 191 6 there came 
to the ears of the members of the Duma 
reports of revolutionary activities 
among the working classes, especially 
those engaged in the munition fac- 
tories. At first they turned accusingly 
to the members who represented the 
organized revolutionary elements, the 
Socialists and the labor leaders, who 
had declared themselves strongly for 



urging them to remain at work while 
the nation was straining to win the war. 
It was not long before it was dis- 
covered that the agitation among the 
masses of Petrograd was being carried 
on by the paid agents of the Ministry 
of the Interior. Possibly a few leaders 
of the "impossibilist" Socialist ele- 
ments, later known as the Bolsheviki, 
worked in harmony with them, not 




RASPUTIN AND HIS COTERIE 

Gregory Rasputin — a sinister figure of a weird mediaeval type — in whom the "dark forces" of disloyal and pro- 
German Russians centred. Rasputin was a kind of fakir or wizard such as flourished in all lands of twilight culture 
before the daybreak of modern science. Such men were known in pagan Rome and in the heathen Orient and in 
Christendom they continued to appear until the seventeenth century. Copyright, Underwood & Underwood 



national unity in the face of the 
enemy. These radical leaders quickly 
convinced their conservative colleagues 
that they were not responsible for the 
agitation. 

THE SOURCES OF SEDITIOUS AGITATION 
ARE DISCOVERED. 

Mysterious placards had appeared 
on the walls of the munition factories 
and in working class districts, calling 
upon the workers to strike for better 
conditions. To prove their own sin- 
cerity the working class leaders imme- 
diately issued proclamations to their 
followers, calling on them to turn deaf 
ears to the mysterious agitators, and 



because they were paid, but because 
they believed that the war would 
be, or could be, brought to an end by 
the working classes in all the bellig- 
erent countries striking behind the 
lines. 

IOYAL RUSSIANS STRIVE TO STEM. THE 
^ TIDE OF SEDITION. 

Protopopov's plan was clear, so 
clear that a panic literally swept 
through the Duma and all intelligent, 
loyal Russians. Protopopov contem- 
plated nothing less than a revolution 
at home, in Petrograd, which would, 
first of all, paralyze all effort behind 
the lines and make further military 

677 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



operations impossible. Then, when 
Russia lay helpless, he would call in 
the German forces to suppress the 
disorders — and the final aim of the 
conspirators would be accomplished. 

This fact was literally shouted from 
the floor of the Duma, and it roused 
all loyal Russians regardless of their 
previous attitude toward the autocracy. 
This was the fact which members of 



putin. On the night of December 
30, 1916, a lonely policeman on patrol 
heard revolver shots and shouts from 
within the mansion of Prince Felix 
Yusopov, a member of the Imperial 
family by marriage, and one of the 
largest land-owners in Russia. Knock- 
ing at the door to investigate, the 
policeman was sent about his business 
by no less a person than the Grand 




AFTER THE STORM OF WAR HAD PASSED 
Effects of German bombardment in a town in Russian Poland. Such scenes of general desolation were only too 
frequent in the pathway of this war, and their horror is the modern repetition of the horror of the Middle Ages 
when cities were burned and sacked. The power of reparation and indemnity is confined to inanimate brick and 
stone. It cannot recreate homes and household gods destroyed in the gun-blast. 



his own family presented to the Tsar — 
without success. The Tsarina was 
almost openly accused before him. As 
ever his answer was only a smile, and 
the remark, "There is none more loyal 
than the Tsarina." 

RASPUTIN IS EXECUTED BY A GROUP OF 
. NOBLEMEN. 

In sheer desperation the leaders of 
those very elements, which in pre-war 
days had been the strongest supporters 
of the throne, took action. At that 
time, toward the end of the year, 
Protopopov's personal responsibility 
for the plot was not so obvious, and 
the blame was laid directly on Ras- 

678 



Duke Dimitri Pavlovitch, an ex-Min- 
ister of the Interior, who opened the 
door. Nor did he dare interfere when, 
half an hour later, he saw four men 
leave the house and get into an auto- 
mobile, carrying an object resembling 
a human body in shape. 

When daylight came bloodspots were 
discovered on the pavement and trailed 
to the river by the police, then over 
the ice to a hole which had been cut 
through. A rubber galosh was found 
near the hole. Three days later a 
human body, clad in the black cassock 
of a monk, was found in the river. The 
dead man was Rasputin. The dead 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




ceremonies with 
which the funeral of 
the dead monk was 
conducted, and in 
which the Tsar him- 
self and Protopopov 
acted as pallbearers, 
was the general re- 
joicing which took 
place all over Russia 
at the news that Ras- 
putin was dead. But 
Rasputin had been 
destroyed too late to 
interfere with the 
succession of events 
which had been set 
in motion. With the 
desperation given him 
by the knowledge that 
he might any day 
share the fate of his 
master and colleague, 
Protopopov set about 
with renewed deter- 
mination to accom- 
plish his aims and 
protect the interests 
of his cause. And 
now, during the latter 
part of January and 
early February, 191 7, 
his efforts began to 
bear fruit. 

He began arresting 
and imprisoning the 
labor leaders who 
were fighting against 



Copyright, Underwood & Underwood. 

M. MICHAEL RODZIANKO 
President of the Russian Duma who guided its fortunes in the days of the the agitations of his 
revolution, and showed himself both moderate and far-seeing. 

monk had been lured to the house of 
Prince Yusopov and there been sum- 
marily tried, found guilty, and executed 



by a group of men including the Prince 
himself, the Grand Duke Dimitri, 
A. N. Khvostov, also an ex-Minister 
of the Interior, and Vladimir Purish- 
kevitch, the notorious Black Hundred 
leader and reactionary. These men 
openly proclaimed their deed, and no 
one dared call them to serious ac- 
count. Indeed, they were hailed by 
every articulate Russian as heroes. 

RASPUTIN'S DEATH TOO LATE TO SAVE 
- THE THRONE. 

In striking contrast to the pompous 



agents. Nothing that 
he had as yet done was so openly 
significant. With a clear field in 
which to work, without being ham- 
pered by the police, of which they 
were themselves members, the pseudo- 
revolutionists began to succeed in 
arousing the discontent of the 
workers of Petrograd. The scarcity 
of food was now reaching the stage of 
acute famine. The few honest Socia- 
lists and labor leaders still at liberty 
could no longer make themselves 
heard. On February 27, 191 7, over 
300,000 workers were on strike in 
Petrograd. The critical moment was 
approaching. 

679 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE STRIKES IN PETROGRAD CONTINUE 
TO INCREASE. 

On March i the only labor repre- 
sentative left in the Duma issued a 
last appeal to the strikers, exhorting 
them to return to work to save Russia. 
That proclamation was completely 
suppressed by the Government — the 
leaflets were seized and destroyed by 
the police. This was the final proof of 
Protopopov's treachery, if any were 



of certain houses, to cover the public 
squares and other strategic points, 
where disorder was likely to begin. 
Protopopov wanted disorder, but he 
did not mean to let it get out of his 
control. A few days like Red Sunday 
were needed to serve as a pretext. 

THE COUNCIL OF WORKINGMEN'S DELE- 
GATES IS ORGANIZED. 

But the disorders did not manifest 
themselves so soon as he had expected 




STREET FIGHTING IN PETROGRAD 

Much of the bloodshed which stained the streets of Petrograd in the Russian Revolution was due to Protopopov 
and the police, who had promoted disturbances among the disaffected in order to suppress them by force. When 
the soldiers threw in their lot with the populace the police were in a hopeless position, and those who were not shot 
were imprisoned. In the street fighting in Petrograd about 2500 people were killed and wounded. 



needed. During the following week 
the unrest among the populace con- 
tinued to increase. Food was so scarce 
that not only the wealthy went hungry, 
but the troops of the garrison were 
starved, which was poor tactics on the 
part of the conspirators. 

On March 9 street railway traffic 
in Petrograd ceased, for the street 
railway men had gone on strike. The 
people gathered in the streets, shouting 
for food, but otherwise creating no 
disorders. The soldiers, both cavalry 
and infantry, were called out to patrol 
the streets, while squads of police 
lugged machine guns up to the roofs 

680 



or desired. Realizing that the workers 
were going to strike anyhow, the real 
leaders of the labor elements desisted 
from protesting and began directing 
the strike instead. Quietly they or- 
ganized the Council, or Soviet, of 
Workingmen's Delegates, and through 
this body representing the strikers, 
they assumed control, thus checking 
disorders. What might otherwise have 
been a blind mass protest without any 
conscious leadership, and therefore 
bound to end in disorder, became a 
controlled movement. The agent pro- 
vocateurs had been able to arouse the 
movement, but failing another Father 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Gapon, they had not been able to direct 
it, once it was aroused. 

The leaders in the Soviet were at 
first in harmony with the members of 
the Duma. One of them, in fact, a 
young lawyer, Alexander Kerensky, 
was also a member of the Duma, 
representing the Social Revolutionist 
Party. Thus the Duma leaders under- 
stood the situation, and the danger 



its connections." The Tsar was then 
at military headquarters, but Protopo- 
pov hastily despatched a messenger to 
him, who brought back a signed ukase 
proroguing the Duma for a month. The 
Elder Committee, representing all the 
political factions in the Duma, de- 
cided to ignore the ukase and refused 
to dissolve. 

Meanwhile the crowds continued 




REVOLUTIONISTS STARTING ON A POLICE HUNT 

Animosity against the police, creatures of the old bureaucracy, suppressed through long years of terrorism, burst 
into full flame when they started shooting upon assembled crowds. Armed civilians and soldiers crowded into 
motor-lorries and raced from point to point, driving the police by a hail of bullets from coigns of vantage on roofs 
and in garrets. 



which had been momentarily averted. 
But, realizing that it might be only a 
question of a few days, or perhaps 
hours, before acts of aggression on 
the part of the police might break the 
restraining hold of the Soviet leaders on 
the strikers and precipitate disorder, 
the Duma hastened to take action. 

'T^HE DUMA REFUSES TO BE PROROGUED. 

By March loth the strike was 
practically general. On that day the 
Duma officially broke off official rela- 
tions with the Government, stating in 
its proclamation that "with such a 
Government the Duma forever severs 



marching up and down the streets of 
the city, shouting and calling on the 
Cabinet to resign, but still in an orderly 
manner. It was noted that the Cos- 
sacks, usually so rough in handling 
demonstrators, hustled them very 
gently and good-naturedly. An order 
was issued forbidding the gathering 
of crowds. The people, as was to be 
expected, ignored the order. This gave 
Protopopov a pretext. He commanded 
the chief of the garrison to order out 
his troops in full force and clear the 
streets, even if they must be swept 
clean with machine gun and rifle 
fire. 

68i 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



PROTOPOPOV ATTEMPTS TO QUELL THE 
STORM HE HAD RAISED. 

The police, men picked for their 
fitness for just such work, immediately 
obeyed and began firing down on the 
multitudes from their stations on the 
housetops, and so precipitated the first 
skirmishes, for now a few armed work- 
ingmen and students became suddenly 
belligerent. It was over his faith in 
the troops that Protopopov's plans 
went to pieces. There were 40,000 
soldiers in Petrograd at that time, more 
than enough to suppress an uprising. 
And when had Russian soldiers, espe- 
cially Cossacks, ever refused to sup- 
press revolutionary demonstrations? 

But the Russian Army had under- 
gone a very radical transformation 
during the three years of the war. 
The old-time regular establishment 
had been flooded by recruits from the 
masses. The Russian Army had be- 
come the masses themselves — armed. 
Even the Cossack regiments, isolated 
and privileged, had been in the field 
and come into intimate contact with 
the people in the democratic life at 
the front. All the young men of the 
nation had come together in the 
trenches, where men talk as well as 
shoot, and they had come to a realiza- 
tion of their common interests. 

THE PICKED REGIMENTS REFUSE TO 
FIRE UPON THE PEOPLE. 

When the officers of the Petrograd 
garrison called out their regiments and 
commanded them to shoot down the 
people in the streets of the city, 
there was an almost unanimous refusal 
on the part of the soldiers to do so. 
As an instance, James J. Hough teling, 
Jr., an eye-witness of the revolution, 
states in his "Diary of the Russian 
Revolution" that "this morning Tur- 
ner, of the Embassy, passed the bar- 
racks of the Preobrajensky, Peter the 
Great's old bodyguard, and saw the 
entire regiment drawn up in a hollow 
square and its colonel addressing it on 
the necessity of firing on the mob. 
Suddenly a soldier stepped from the 
ranks and, clubbing his rifle, struck 
down the speaker; and the greater 
part of the regiment seized and 
disarmed the other officers. A few 

682 



blocks distant, in front of the Artillery 
Arsenal, the soldiers of the Volhynian 
Life-Guards had shot the general in 
command, and practically the whole 
regiment had revolted." 

However, serious disorder or dis- 
organization might have been the 
result had it been only the common 
soldiers who refused to support the 
corrupt autocracy, but the same spirit 
which had created the Progressive 
Bloc in the conservative Duma had 
also permeated the army leadership. 
In the majority of cases the officers of 
the regiments went over to the cause of 
the people with their soldiers. It was a 
general military mutiny which en- 
couraged the Duma to declare itself 
the supreme government of the Rus- 
sian nation. 

THE SOLDIERS JOIN THE ATTACK ON THE 
POLICE. 

The soldiers not only refused to fire 
on the people, but they marched out 
into the streets and, joining the 
people, began to attack the police. 
This fighting began in the afternoon 
of March 11, and it may be said that 
at that hour began the Russian 
Revolution; at that hour the Russian 
autocracy fell. Michael Rodzianko, 
President of the Duma, sent a last 
telegraphic appeal to the Tsar to save 
the situation. "The situation is 
serious. In the capital is anarchy. 
The government is paralyzed. ... It 
is indispensable to entrust to a person 
having the confidence of the country 
the formation of a new ministry. . ." 
To this urgent appeal the Tsar made 
no answer, and so lost the last oppor- 
tunity to save his throne. 

Rodzianko then telegraphed to the 
army commanders at the front to 
present the situation to the Tsar, 
but the monarch seemed to be in a 
comatose state, unable to develop 
sufficient resolution to take action. 
It was said that while the generals ex- 
plained the situation to him he twirled 
his thumbs and gazed abstractedly 
out of the window of his car. And 
so the revolution in his capital sped 
past him. This same inertia, to a lesser 
degree, also possessed the majority of 
the members of the Duma. 



I 

TE 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



EADERS IN THE DUMA ARE DEVELOPED 
FOR THE OCCASION. 

It was the leaders of the old revolu- 
tionary elements, the Social Revolu- 
tionists and the Social Democrats, 
ho asserted themselves and took 
e situation in hand, and so saved 
ussia from complete anarchy. Several 
f them, notably Alexander Kerensky 
nd N. S. Tchkheidze, both Socialists, 
were also members of the Duma, and 



Under the danger of that political 
disorganization which Protopopov had 
wished to bring about, so that he 
might have a pretext for making sep- 
arate peace with Germany, these two 
naturally antagonistic factions allowed 
their fundamental difference of inter- 
ests to recede into the background, 
inspired by a common sentiment of 
patriotism. So, for the time being, 
they worked loyally together. 




BARRICADES ACROSS A MAIN STREET 
Guns decorated with the red flag of international Socialism defend these barricades which have been thrown up in 
one of the principal thoroughfares of the Russian capital. All business was at a standstill, and the government 
paralyzed. When the soldiers showed their intention of siding with the workers the police soon surren- 
dered. 



together with such strong characters as 
Rodzianko, Prince Lvov and Paul 
Miliukov, saved it from utter discred- 
it. It was the Soviet, however, 
the Council of Workingmen's and 
Soldiers' Deputies, which instantly grip- 
ped the reins which had fallen from 
the hands of the dead autocracy. Thus, 
from the very beginning the new gov- 
ernment assumed a dual character, 
a partnership between two irreconcil- 
able elements. For the Duma, by a 
large majority, represented the aristo- 
cratic and the mercantile interests, 
while the Soviet represented those 
elements of the people who had already 
had experience in mass organization. 



THE SOVIET ORGANIZES THE FORCES OF 
THE REVOLUTION. 

By Monday morning, March 12, 
the Soviet had knit together the fight- 
ing forces of the revolution into an 
organization that might have done 
credit to men of far more military 
experience. There were, of course, 
high ranking officers among the giu- 
tineers thoroughly in sympathy with 
the Socialistic ideals of the Soviet 
leaders, and no doubt they assisted in 
directing the operations of the revolu- 
tionary forces. On that Monday morn- 
ing the red flag of international 
Socialism was raised over Petrograd. 

During that morning the revolu- 

683 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



tionists delivered their first organized 
attack against the remnant of the loyal 
forces of the autocracy by storming 
the Arsenal. This building was taken, 
its commanding officer killed and the 
arms and ammunition distributed 
among the soldiers of the revolution. 
Automobiles, crowded with armed rev- 
olutionists, scoured the streets of the 
city, hunting down the police, many 
of whom were still hiding in houses 
and buildings and sniping the revolu- 
tionists. The jails and prisons were 
broken open and the political prisoners 
were liberated. The police headquar- 
ters building was also stormed and 
sacked; all its archives and records 
were thrown out in the street in a heap 
and burned. Then came a lull in the 
fighting and a delegation from the 
revolted soldiers presented itself before 
the Duma building and demanded an 
interview with the Duma leaders. 

THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT IN THE 
PROCESS OF ORGANIZATION. 

"The autocracy is overthrown," 
they said. "We have liberated Russia 
from her tyranny. Where do you 
stand?" In reply Rodzianko stepped 
forward and addressed the crowd. 
He declared himself and the members 
of the Duma unequivocally in favor of 
a constitutional democratic govern- 
ment for Russia. Kerensky and 
Tchkheidze also came forward in his 
support, and the assembled soldiers 
cheered for the Duma. 

That afternoon the Elder Council 
of the Duma, representing all the 
political parties, elected a temporary 
committee to co-operate with a similar 
committee of the Soviet to maintain 
order and organize a provisional gov- 
ernment. These two committees then 
went into joint session and so remained 
almost continuously for many days. 
Meanwhile there was a steady stream 
of delegations from all sorts of civic 
and military organizations to the Duma 
building, where the committee was in 
session, bearing the formal adhesion of 
their constituents to the new regime. 
One of these represented the Imperial 
Guards at the Imperial Palace who 
had revolted and arrested the Tsarina 
and her children. Meanwhile the 

684 



soldiers of the new government were 
bringing in as prisoners all the officials 
of the old autocracy until none re- 
mained at large except the arch- 
traitor, Protopopov. A determined 
search had been made for him, but he 
seemed to have disappeared. Finally, 
on the evening of the 13th an old 
man in civilian dress presented him- 
self before the student guard at the 
doorway of the Duma building. 

PROTOPOPOV GOES TO PRISON NEVER TO 
EMERGE ALIVE. 

" I wish to present myself to those in 
authority," he said. " I am Protopopov, 
ex-Minister of the Interior." A shout 
of rage went up from the bystanders, 
and had not Kerensky just then ap- 
peared violence might have been of- 
fered to the old autocrat. He was led 
away, to prison, never again to emerge, 
for when they came into power the 
Bolsheviki made short work of him. 
One report has it that he died insane. 

On Wednesday the Grand Duke Cyril 
Vladimirovitch presented hirnself to 
the Duma and placed himself and his 
whole bodyguard at its disposal. But 
this was no more surprising than the 
alacrity with which all the military 
commanders on the fighting front 
responded to the telegrams sent them 
by Rodzianko, explaining the new 
situation. One and all sent in their 
declarations of loyalty to the new 
revolutionary regime. The whole 
Russian Army was with the revolu- 
tion, from the Baltic to the Black Sea. 

From the provincial cities came news 
equally encouraging. Everywhere the 
revolution was accepted, if not with 
great enthusiasm, at least with quiet 
acquiescence. Equally encouraging 
was the attitude of the Allied govern- 
ments; the French and British am- 
bassadors had immediately hastened 
to inform the President of the Duma 
that their respective governments ac- 
corded recognition to the new regime. 
These countries and the United States 
as well, later sent missions to ofi'er all 
possible aid to the new government. 

THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT IS 
FINALLY ORGANIZED. 

Early in the afternoon of March 15, 
the two committees announced the 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



result of their labors — the formation 
of the Provisional Government. Prince 
George Lvov, widely known as a 
Liberal-Constitutionalist, but above 
all as the organizer of the All-Russian 
Union of Municipalities, which had 
been such a power in the work behind 
the lines during the war, was named 
as Premier, the one man against whom 
no protest was raised in either the 



the new government. Obviously the 
Soviet, though it undoubtedly held 
the real power in Petrograd, desired 
strongly to gain the confidence of the 
middle classes. 

WHAT SHOULD BE THE FUTURE FORM 
OF GOVERNMENT? 

In the maintenance of law and 
order the two elements stood as one. 
In their desire to continue the war 




VIEW OF CHURCH IN PRZEROSL, RUSSIA 
Poverty-stricken and primitive as is the interior of this little church, its aspect in no wise affects the simple piety 
of the mourners praying for the soul of the departed at the side altars. Unlettered and rude, the Russian peasant's 
nature has nevertheless a deep fount of mysticism — rich soil for the tenets of his church. 

Ruschin 



radical or the middle class camp. Paul 
Miliukov, learned historian and leader 
of the Constitutional Democrats, was 
Minister of Foreign Relations. Alex- 
ander. Kerensky, a member of the 
Social Revolutionary Party, was Min- 
ister of Justice. Shingarev, a physician 
by profession and a member of the 
Constitutional Democratic Party, was 
made Minister of Agriculture, an 
important post since the food problem 
came under its jurisdiction. 

The Liberals, or Constitutional Dem- 
ocrats, obviously had a majority in 
the Cabinet, as Kerensky was prac- 
tically the only radical prominent in 



against the Central Powers to a 
triumphant finish, together with the 
Allies, there was alsd no room for 
disagreement. But in the character, 
or form, of the future permanent 
government of Russia there was con- 
siderable difference, but this was finally 
settled by compromise. The radicals 
ceded their demand for a pure Socialist 
republic and agreed to a constitutional 
monarchy. But the conservatives on 
their part agreed that Tsar Nicholas 
must be deposed. It was agreed that 
the puny invalid, the Tsarevitch, 
should be placed on the throne for 
the present, under the control of some 

685 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



responsible regent. As for the con- 
stitutional form of the future Russian 
state, that would be left to a Con- 
stituent Assembly, to be elected as 
soon as possible by the whole Russian 
people, on the basis of universal 
suffrage for women as well as men. 

The Duma and the Soviet, together, 
had already dispatched two representa- 
tives to the front to obtain the formal 
abdication of the Tsar. Rodzianko 




GRAND DUKE MICHAEL OF RUSSIA 
In his favor Nicholas II abdicated his crown, March, 
1917. 

had been in close telegraphic communi- 
cation with General Ruzsky, in com- 
mand of the northern armies, and he, 
in his turn, had communicated with all 
the other commanders along the whole 
front. All agreed with the Provisional 
Government that the Tsar should be 
made to abdicate. Before the two 
delegates, Gutchkov, War Minister in 
the new Cabinet, and Bublikov, a 
deputy, had arrived in Pskov, Ruzsky's 
headquarters, Ruzsky had made a 
determined effort to awaken the 
Tsar to a realization of the situation 
and to make some sort of action which 
would save him his throne. When the 
delegates arrived Ruzsky was con- 
686 



vinced that this was impossible, and 
joined the two delegates in demanding 
of the Tsar that he abdicate. 

THE TSAR ABDICATES FOR HIMSELF AND 
HIS SON. 

Nicholas acted under this new in- 
fluence as readily as he had succumbed 
to the influence of his former reaction- 
ary advisers and signed the document 
which left his throne vacant. 

"But I cannot consent to part from 
my son," he said, "so I abdicate in 
favor of my brother Michael." 

The Grand Duke Michael wisely 
refused to accept the honor thus be- 
stowed on him unless at the request 
of a Constituent Assembly, thus leav- 
ing the throne vacant. By that time 
the manifestation of public opinion in 
favor of abolishing entirely the mon- 
archial form of government asserted 
itself so strongly that no further effort 
was made to find a candidate for the 
throne, and the Provisional Govern- 
ment remained the supreme authority 
of the state. 

The ex-Tsar Nicholas, for several 
days remained at liberty, traveling 
aimlessly back and forth in his sump- 
tuous drawingroom car, until finally he 
was arrested and imprisoned at 
Tsarskoe Selo, together with the rest 
of his family. Here he resigned himself 
completely to his fate, devoting his 
time to association with his family, 
chopping down trees and making 
entries of these minor occupations in 
his diary. 

DISAGREEMENTS ARISE BETWEEN THE 
SOVIET AND THE DUMA. 

For some weeks the Provisional 
Government continued its work of 
establishing its power, in complete 
harmony with the two contending 
factions which it represented, person- 
ified in the members of the Soviet and 
the Duma. Orders were promulgated 
liberating all political prisoners, ex- 
propriating the Imperial estates and 
granting full civil recognition to the 
Jews. Then the death penalty was 
abolished in the army, but as the 
danger of political anarchy, which 
both factions feared, disappeared, rival 
tendencies began to assert themselves. 

The first of these was the desire of 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



1^ 



the radicals within the Soviet to 
extend extreme democratic principles 
to the army organization. Officers 
should not be appointed, but elected. 
The salute should be abolished; officers 
and men should be equal. Unfortunate- 
ly the country was still at war, fighting 
against armies which were under 
strict discipline — and practical military 
perations do not harmonize with 
democratic idealism. The military 
commanders at the front immediate- 
ly protested against these radical 
demands. And for a time the Soviet 
recognized their protests. But the 
idea had been voiced; the rank and 
file, having heard so much talk about 
democracy, desired to see it in practice 
among them. The same spirit began 
to permeate the workingmen in the 
munition factories. Their leaders had 
told them that Socialism would mean 
shorter hours and more pay, a fuller 
life. Why, then, should this speeding 
up continue? Yes, the war must be 
won, and that meant increasing the 
output of war munitions as rapidly as 
possible. But — had not these same 
Socialists once said that all men were 
brothers? So what were they fighting 
the Germans for, anyhow? These 
thoughts were not as yet loudly voiced, 
but they began to grip the minds of the 
workers and soldiers alike. 



THE FUTURE DICTATOR OF RUSSIA AR- 
RIVES ON THE SCENE. 

Early in April there arrived in 
Petrograd one who was to formulate 
these thoughts in words, loudly and 
more loudly, as time passed — Nikolai 
Lenin, the " impossibilist " Socialist. 
Like most revplutionary leaders he 
had adopted a pseudonym. His 
name was Vladimir lUitch Ulyanov. 

In theory there was little difference 
between the opinions of Kerensky 
and those of Lenin — both were Marxian 
Socialists. It was entirely in tactics 
that they disagreed. Both believed 
that society is composed of two classes, 
the capitalist, or exploiting class, and 
the proletariat, or the exploited class, 
and that the proletariat should forever 
abolish this difference by coming into 
power and establishing a social system 
based on the collective ownership and 



democratic control of industry. But 
Kerensky believed that this could only 
be accomplished gradually through 
evolution, and that meanwhile con- 
ditions as they are must be dealt with 
practically. He was what in Socialist 
terminology is called an "opportunist." 
Above all, he believed, German im- 
perialism must be Crushed first of all, 
and to accomplish that both classes 
must join together in the effort to 
accomplish it, as they had joined 




SHADOWS OF GLORY 

Empty frame in the Duma whence the Tsar's portrait 
was removed. Eagles and other heraldic pomp that 
adorned the Imperial Palace were torn down and 
burnt in the courtyard. 

together in overthrowing the Russian 
autocracy. Later the social reorgani- 
zation could be accomplished, peace- 
fully or otherwise. 

IENIN'S UNCOMPROMISING THEORY OF 
^ THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY. 

Lenin placed the social revolution 
first and foremost in the order of im- 
portance. The war with Germany was 
only a struggle between two capitalist 
states, in which the proletariat was 
merely the tool of the contending 
powers. Let Germany invade Russian 
territory, what matter? For it would 
be only a question of a little time be- 
fore the German proletariat would 
destroy the German autocracy, which 
was in its essence capitalistic. A 

687 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



conquering Germany would only de- 
stroy itself as a capitalist state. 

This was the propaganda which 
Lenin and his thirty followers who 
came into Russia a month after the 
revolution began to spread among 
the soldiers and the workingmen. 
Later came Leon Trotzky, from 
America, and joined forces with them. 
Trotzky was a Russian by birth, and 
had lived in several other countries of 
Europe before coming to the United 




WHERE DEMOCRACY BROKE THE BARRIERS 

One of the first things the revolutionaries did was to 
cover the royal insignia on the Palace gates or public 
buildings. 

States where he had lived a few 
months. He was not so much of a 
pacifist as Lenin, but he believed that 
it was not necessary to defeat the 
Central Powers before the Russian 
proletariat, at least, could proceed 
to establish a perfect Socialist state. 
Later the German proletariat, however 
victorious the masters might have 
been, would follow the example of the 
Russian working classes and so pave 
the way to a world-wide common- 
wealth. 

A MAJORITY IN THE SOVIET AGAINST 
THESE VIEWS. 

With these "impossibilist" views 
the majority of the radicals of the 
Soviet were not in sympathy, however 
much they might agree with the Lenin- 

688 



ites in their ultimate ideals. Yet they 
were growing more and more conscious 
of their differences with the Liberals. 
This growing difference of opinion 
came to a head in April, 191 7, when 
Miliukov, as Foreign Minister, ven- 
tured to express the foreign policy 
of the Provisional Government for 
the benefit of the outside world, more 
especially Russia's allies in the war. 
The occupation of Constantinople by 
Russia and command of the Dar- 
danelles, said Miliukov, was neces- 
sary to the economic welfare of the 
Russian nation. 

This was a proposition, involving 
sovereignty of one people over another, 
against which the mildest Socialist 
might be expected to protest. Either 
Miliukov completely misunderstood 
the Socialist point of view, or disre- 
garded it. At any rate, his words 
brought forth a perfect storm of pro- 
test. The Soviet literally boiled over. 
The radicals quickly asserted them- 
selves, and a few^ days later came the 
famous manifesto, or declaration of 
policy, ennunciating the rights of 
"self determination" of all peoples, 
big or small, whatever the outcome of 
the war might be. Indemnities also, 
in principle, were denounced. 

THE DETERMINATION TO FIGHT STILL 
STRONG. 

But if the Germans, who made a 
great deal of capital of this difference of 
opinion which had arisen within the 
governing body of revolutionary Rus- 
sia, hoped that it might be utilized in 
creating such a vSplit as would weaken 
the prosecution of the war, they were 
mistaken. This was not to be the 
cause of the decline of Russia's military 
strength. For in the second week of 
April a national convention of the 
Soldiers' and Workingmen's Soviets 
from all Russia passed a resolution in 
favor of continuing the war against 
Germany, by a vote of 325 against 57. 

The real source of discord came in 
the conflicting tendencies within the 
army itself. The Soviet, representing 
as it did, the rank and file of the army, 
still realized that the organization of 
an army is incompatible with the 
principles of democracy, and conceded 



^hat on the field of battle the army 
commanders should have full and 
absolute authority. Behind the lines 
they would not concede so much. This 
brought about a continual conflict 
with the commanding generals. Finally 
on May 13, 191 7, General Kornilov, 
commanding the Petrograd garrison, 
registered his protest by handing in 
his resignation. Generals Gurko and 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the Provisional Government, which it 
had hitherto refused to do. 

A complete reorganization of the 
Cabinet followed on May 19. 
Miliukov, who had made himself 
unpopular by his utterance regarding 
Constantinople, retired, but Prince 
Lvov continued as Premier. Kerensky 
took up the portfolio of War. Terest- 
chenko, a man of the same type as 




THE BATTALION OF DEATH 

Russian girl soldiers of the "Battalion of Death" assembled in front of their barracks at Tsarkoe Selo, fifteen miles 
south of Petrograd, the seat of two former imperial palaces. The battalion remained loyal to the last to the Keren- 
sky Provisional Government and the Allies, and for a while counted as an effective military unit. 

N. Y. Times Photo Service 

Lvov, became Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, but Shingarev was made 
Minister of Finance. There were six 
Socialists in the new Cabinet. The 
Soviet now passed a resolution express- 
ing full confidence in the Provisional 
Government and agreed to recognize 
it as the supreme authority in all 
matters. 

KERENSKY ATTEMPTS TO AROUSE THE 
SPIRIT OF THE ARMY. 

The generals now withdrew their 
resignations and returned to their 
posts. Kerensky, as War Minister, set 
out on a tour of all the fronts, where he 
exhorted the soldiers to observe strict 

689 



Brusilov did likewise. Obviously it was 
a concerted move on the part of the 
army authorities, for a few days later 
Minister of War Gutchkov also re- 
signed. A serious crisis was thus 
precipitated. 

KERENSKY COMES FORWARD TO AR- 
RANGE A COMPROMISE. 

Again it was Kerensky who rose to 
the occasion as the mediator between 
the two conflicting elements. In an 
impassioned speech he appealed for 
unity to a joint meeting of the Soviet 
and Duma committees, with the result 
that the Soviet agreed to exercise its 
power solely through representation in 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



discipline until the war should have 
been won. At this time a peasant's 
congress was held, and it is significant 
that though showing itself strongly 
Socialistic, Lenin, who was candidate 
for one of the offtces in the organiza- 
tion, received only eleven votes. 

The Government now made active 
preparations for a determined offen- 
sive on the fighting fronts. Kerensky 
had accepted the resignation of Alexiev 




GENERAL SOUKHOMLINOV 
General Soukhomlinov, Russian Minister of War at 
the > beginning of the struggle, was convicted of high 
treason under the Provisional Government and sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment. 

as Commander-in-chief, and appointed 
Brusilov in his stead. The Leninites, 
otherwise known as the Bolsheviki, 
now began intensive efforts to counter- 
act these preparations. Possibly they 
sensed the growing demoralization in 
the army, and mistook it for sympathy 
for their doctrines, for in the middle 
of June they prepared to organize a 
popular demonstration in Petrograd, 
in the hope of having it develop into 
an overthrow of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment. However, on June 23, the 
date fixed for the demonstration, 
690 



nothing occurred. The Soviet issued a 
proclamation calling on all its con- 
stituents to boycott it. 

THE MEANING OF THE NEW TERMS, 
BOLSHEVIKI AND MENSHEVIKI. 

There is much confusion over the 
term, "Bolsheviki". The origin is sim- 
ple. After the Revolution of 1905 the 
Social Democratic party in Russia split 
into two factions. The more radical 
had a majority, holshinstvo; the more 
conservative wing was a minority, 
menshinstvo. Hence the Bolsheviki 
meant at this time the majority, or 
more radical wing, of the party and 
the Mensheviki the minority wing. 
The Bolsheviki were, of course, op- 
posed to the Provisional Government 
which they considered to be an unholy 
compromise, and desired to overthrow 
it at once. 

Early In the first week of July 
dispatches from the front indicated 
that the offensive against the Germans 
was beginning. Day after day the 
reports continued describing Russian 
successes, and for a while it seemed 
that the Russian revolutionary army 
was to score a great triumph over the 
German and Austrian forces. 

The sudden collapse of this brilliant- 
ly begun offensive is described else- 
where. By the middle of the month It 
was obvious that the fighting spirit 
had gone out of the majority of the 
Russian soldiers. On July 18 the 
Bolsheviki succeeded In creating some 
disorders In the streets of the capital, 
which resulted in several skirmishes 
between the demonstrators and the 
troops of the garrison. The latter still 
showed themselves loyal to the Gov- 
ernment, and the disturbance was put 
down with sharp determination. 

KERENSKY BECOMES THE HEAD OF THE 
GOVERNMENT. 

On July 20 It was further announced 
that Prince Lvov had resigned as 
Premier, for the reason that Kerensky 
and his radical associates were trying 
to rouse the enthusiasm of the soldiers 
at the front by declaring Russia form- 
ally a republic. Prince Lvov declared 
It to be his opinion that they were 
trespassing upon the prerogatives of 
the future Constituent Assembly, 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



which alone had the right to determine 
the final form of Russia's permanent 
government. Nevertheless, five non- 
Socialists still remained in the Cabinet, 
so that it still remained a coalition 
government with Kerensky as Premier. 
At the same time Kerensky removed 
Brusilov as Commander-in-Chief, and 
in his place appointed General Korni- 
lov, the Cossack chief. 

From this time Kerensky 's position 



powers. Kerensky and his associates, 
on the other hand, while recognizing 
the necessity of stricter discipline on 
the fighting fronts, "believed that the 
enthusiasm of the soldiers only could 
save Russia, and that a dictatorship, 
however temporary, would kill what- 
ever enthusiasm there still remained 
and lead to a strong movement toward 
the left, toward the "Bolsheviki of the 
Left", the Leninites. 





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KERENSKY AND BRUSILOV 

A photograph of Kerensky (right) and General Brusilov at the Russian headquarters on the Southwestern front. 
"Stout hearts and stern hands are required to stay the rout in the army," stated the Premier, and for a while 
Brusilov hoped to bring the army back to its old morale and sweep the Germans out of Russia. 

Copyright, Underwood & Underwood 



was peculiarly trying. There was deep 
discontent throughout the nation over 
the failure of the military offensive. 
The conservative elements laid it to 
the agitation for democratic prin- 
ciples which had been carried on in the 
army. There was deep discontent with 
Kerensky's policy of making conces- 
sions to the radical elements, which he 
was undoubtedly doing, behind the 
lines, at least. These "Bolsheviki of 
the Right," as Kerensky termed the 
extreme conservatives, believed that 
the time had come to establish a 
"strong government," with dictatorial 



THE GAP BETWEEN CONSERVATIVE AND 
RADICAL WIDENS. 

Kerensky has since stated in his 
recently published book ("The Prelude 
to Bolshevism; the Kornilov Rebel- 
lion," London, 191 9) that conspiracies 
against the Provisional Government 
were forming in various conservative 
circles, notably in the League of Army 
Officers, the Cossack organizations 
and among the financial interests of 
Moscow. 

Believing, however, that the nation 
as a whole was strongly in favor of 
prosecuting the war to a victorious 

691 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



conclusion before establishing a per- 
manent form of national organization, 
Kerensky determined to give the whole 
people an opportunity to express them- 
selves through something more broadly 
democratic than either the Soviet or 
the Duma. So he called a national 
conference, to be held in Moscow in the 
latter part of August. All kinds of 
organizations and social bodies were 
invited to send delegates; the Zemstvos, 
the co-operative societies, the labor 
unions, the Red Cross, the professional 
leagues and the army itself. It was, in 
fact, a sort of provisional constituent 
assembly, whose authority, Kerensky 
hoped, would impress both the extreme 
right and the extreme left. 

REPRESENTATIVES OF ALL FACTIONS 
^ ASSEMBLE IN MOSCOW. 

The gathering took place in Moscow 
on August 25, 191 7. As nearly as was 
possible, all Russia was represented 
there. For three days representatives 
of all shades of political opinion 
expressed themselves freely. Kerensky 
states in his book that the parties of 
the extreme right hoped to develop so 
strong a sentiment in their favor among 
the delegates that they might make it 
the occasion of a coup d'etat, and 
there and then proclaim a dictatorship, 
with the Commander-in-Chief as its 
head. If this is true, they were sorely 
disappointed. The keynote of the con- 
ference was sounded when Bublikov, 
representing the Liberal Party, made 
a passionate plea to the middle classes 
to co-operate with the democratic 
elements. As he finished, Tseretelli, a 
Socialist representative, impulsively 
sprang forward and gripped his hand, 
whereupon the floor of the conference 
hall became the scene of a tremendous 
demonstration of enthusiasm. 

THE CONFLICTING STORIES OF THE KOR- 
NILOV REBELLION. 

The result of the Conference was to 
strengthen Kerensky in his belief that 
a coalition Government was the only 
thing that could save Russia from 
anarchy. Many of the measures Kor- 
nilov demanded, not only at the con- 
ference but of the Provisional Govern- 
ment directly, Kerensky, who was 
apparently developing a high sense of 

692 



his own importance, believed proper, 
but he objected to the form in which 
they were put; Kornilov "demanded" 
them, and Kerensky insisted that 
Kornilov give the first example of 
discipline by moderating his attitude 
toward the government. 

Now come the contradictory stories 
of the Kornilov conspiracy. Let us 
take Kerensky's story first. He says 
that on the night of September 8, 191 7, 
Vladimir Lvov, who had previously 
been a member of the Cabinet, came to 
him in Petrograd and announced that 
he brought a message from Kornilov, 
at army headquarters to this effect, 
that the Provisional Government 
should resign from power and hand 
over their authority to Kornilov. 
Kerensky says that this ultimatum 
came as a complete surprise, that he 
immediately placed himself in direct 
telegraphic communication with Kor- 
nilov, who verified the message, and 
demanded that all power be handed 
over to him. 

Kerensky's measures to suppress 
this act of rebellion were, naturally, 
backed by the full power of the Soviet. 
Kornilov had dispatched a division of 
Caucasians toward the capital, osten- 
sibly to quell a Bolshevist uprising, 
but really, so Kerensky believed, for 
the purpose of overthrowing him, 
should he refuse to retire. The com- 
mander of this division. General 
Krimov, sensing the opposition he 
would have against him, first demon- 
strated to him by the refusal of the 
railroad workers to transport his sup- 
plies and troops, came to Petrograd 
alone and shot himself. A few days 
later Kornilov also came to a realiza- 
tion of the hopelessness of a counter- 
revolution from the right, and sub- 
mitted to arrest. For a few days 
Alexiev, though very reluctantly, con- 
sented to assume the chief military 
command in his place, but presently 
he was superseded by General Duk- 
honin. 

KORNILOV'S STORY DIFFERS IN MANY 
PARTICULARS. 

On the other hand, Kornilov said 
that Savinkov, Kerensky's Minister of 
War, and Lvov had come to him, he 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



supposed with the authorization of 
Kerensky, and had discussed the ques- 
tion of the dictatorship, and that he 
had consented to an arrangement 
under a directorate of four, of which 
he and Kerensky were to be the two 
dominating personalities, and that at 
the last moment Kerensky had treach- 
erously gone back on the understand- 
ing, to gain credit in the eyes of the 
radicals. He further said that the 



highly improper to have anticipated 
the findings of this commission by any 
declaration of his own. Unfortunately 
the final catastrophe came before the 
commission could conclude its work 
and publish its findings. Kerensky 
presents his own testimony before the 
commission with explanatory notes 
in full in his book. His story is plau- 
sible, but it is probable that neither 
he nor Kornilov told all the truth. 



1 


„ m^ ,;v ~ : ^ \ ' 






^^iik 


1 

as 







WHEN THE MEN LAID DOWN THEIR ARMS 

The "Battalion of Death" was recruited from among the intellectual classes of Russia. Only women between eight- 
een and twenty-five years were taken, and then not unless they were of exceptional physique. They wore their 
hair cropped, and were trained by one of the regiments which remained loyal to the Kerensky regime. 

International News 



troops had been dispatched toward 
Petrograd at the suggestion of 
Savinkov. So Kornilov said in plain 
words. 

Kerensky, in his recent work, 
ascribes his later downfall to the suspi- 
cion this accusation aroused against 
him in the minds of the radicals. 
Certainly the conservative papers made 
the most of this accusation and openly 
denounced him. On the other hand, 
he says that he did not come out with a 
public statement of the actual facts, 
because a commission of inquiry had 
been instituted, and it would have been 



KERENSKY DECLARES RUSSIA TO BE A 
REPUBLIC. 

On September 15, 191 7, Kerensky 
issued a proclamation declaring Russia 
a Republic. While an attack from 
Kornilov was expected and the result 
of his conspiracy still remained in 
doubt, the Soviet had exerted all its 
power and influence in its support of 
the Provisional Government. Fear of 
a reactionary revolution dominated 
the masses of the workers and soldiers 
who had supported the overthrow of 
the autocracy. With the arrest of 
Kornilov and the return of more or less 

693 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



normal conditions, this fear began to 
manifest itself into a strong swing 
toward the left — toward the doctrines 
of the Bolsheviki. It was Kornilov's 
attempted revolution "by the Bolshe- 
viki of the Right," Kerensky says, 
which brought about the later success- 
ful revolution by "the Bolsheviki of 
the Left." The people had been fright- 
ened, and this fear caused them to 
turn hastily in the opposite direction. 



Tchkheidze, had resigned, Leon 
Trotzky was elected to fill the office 
he had vacated. The Soviet was now 
truly in the hands of the Bolsheviki. 

The elements now in power in the 
Soviet, represented by such men as 
Trotzky, held that the Moscow Con- 
ference had not truly represented the 
peasant and working classes of Russia; 
that the bourgeoisie, or propertied 
classes, had been the controlling ele- 




THE KREMLIN, IN MOSCOW, THE HOLY CITY 

Kremlin, a word of uncertain origin, is used to designate the citadel in a Russian city. The best known kremlin is 
that of Moscow lying on the north bank of the Moskva, for many centuries the centre of the political and religious 
life of Russia and still the most venerated place in the heart of every Russian. 



THE BOLSHEVIKI SECURE CONTROL OF 
THE SOVIET. 

On the evening of September 13 
the delegates to the Petrograd Soviet 
held a special meeting to discuss the 
situation, and it was on this occasion 
that the Bolsheviki suddenly developed 
a majority vote — 279 against 150. At 
least this was the vote against the 
principle of a coalition government — in 
favor of an exclusive control of the 
state by the representatives of the 
"proletariat." The result of this 
unexpected swing of opinion in the 
Soviet toward the left was the resigna- 
tion of the members of the Executive 
Committee, on the 19th. It was 
extremely significant that after the 
chairman of the Executive Committee, 

694 



ment in the deliberations. Therefore, 
being now in control, they used the 
Soviet as a means for calling another 
conference in Petrograd, known as 
the Democratic Congress, which was 
to represent the working classes of 
Russia. About 1,200 delegates at- 
tended, representing, first of all, the 
provincial Soviets. Aside from these, 
however, there were representatives of 
the Zemstvos, the labor organizations, 
the co-operative societies and the 
peasants' unions. 

THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT AT- 
TEMPTS TO ASSERT INDEPENDENCE. 

This gathering the Provisional Gov- 
ernment refused to recognize officially, 
but Kerensky appeared before the 
opening session, in his private capacity, 



pie took care to explain. The Govern- 
ment, he declared, would henceforward 
recognize no bodies except the Consti- 
tuent Assembly, when that should have 
been elected. 

Kerensky obviously sensed that he 
was facing opposition on the floor of 
the Democratic Congress, for he 
immediatelv assumed a belligerent 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



that no change should be made in the 
personnel of the Provisional Govern- 
ment without its sanction. Of this 
resolution Kerensky took no notice, 
for several days later, on October 4, he 
completely reorganized his Cabinet, 
appointing a number of Constitutional 
Democrats to portfolios, which "was 
against the principle enunciated by 




TYPES OF RUSSIAN PEASANTS 



attitude. Nor did he make a mistake 
in so assuming, for a strong animosity 
was shown toward him, visible in the 
lack of applause, the hissing of his 
remarks and the antagonistic remarks 
from various parts of the hall. 

"You may hiss, my friends," he 
paused once, to remark, "but do not 
forget that a German fleet is sailing up 
the Baltic!" 

THE ACTIONS AND RESOLUTIONS OF THE 
CONGRESS. 

At a later session a resolution was 
passed by the Congress demanding 



Courtesy of the Red Cross Magazine 

the Congress — that the Government 
should be exclusively Socialist. But 
three days later Kerensky weakened 
and arrived at a compromise with the 
Congress. The result was some further 
changes in the Cabinet in which the 
radicals were given more repre- 
sentation. 

As a last act the Congress organized a 
body which was to serve as a temporary 
constituent assembly, to fill the interval 
until the real Constituent Assembly 
should be convened, some time in 
December. This body was called the 

695 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Temporary Council of the Russian 
Republic. As a compromise the "non- 
democratic" elements were allowed 
certain representation in it. Further, 
the Temporary Council was invested 
with the right to act in an advisory 
capacity with the Government and 
with certain initiative powers. 

THE BOLSHEVIKI OPPOSE THE GOVERN- 
MENT OPENLY. 

On October 20, the Temporary Coun- 
cil held its first meeting. Trotzky 
and a number of his associates had 




RUSSIAN PEASANTS AT HOME 

By Courtesy of the Red Cross 

been elected as members, though they 
had been strongly opposed to its crea- 
tion. Nor had they any intention of 
participating in its deliberations, for as 
soon as he could obtain the floor, 
Trotzky rose and hurled a speech of 
fiery denunciation at the Government 
and at the Temporary Council itself. 

KERENSKY ATTEMPTS TO OVERCOME 
THE BOLSHEVIKI. 

As he had set himself against the 
"Bolsheviki of the Right," so Kerensky 
696 



now faced the "Bolsheviki of the 
Left," the real Bolsheviki, being fully 
convinced, as he was, that only all 
classes of Russian society together 
could save Russia from the enemy 
and from ruin. Already he realized 
that this second revolution, from the 
opposite direction, would not be so 
easily downed as had been the first. 
Foreign correspondents who saw him 
at this time reported him as careworn 
and obviously suffering from nervous 
exhaustion. And there was distinctly 
a note of despair in the state- 
ment which he issued on 
November i , through the As- 
sociated Press, to all the news- 
papers of the Entente coun- 
tries and the United States. 

"Russia has fought contin- 
uously since the beginning," 
he said. "She saved France 
and England from disaster in 
the early part of the war. She 
is worn out by the strain, 
and claims now that the chief 
weight of the burden should 
be borne by the Allies." 

THE BOLSHEVIKI NOW RESORT 
TO ARMED FORCE. 

Indeed, the new leaders in 
the Soviet were already at 
this time preparing the first 
steps toward the downfall of 
the Provisional Government. 
On being elected to the chair- 
manship of the Petrograd 
Soviet, Trotzky had imme- 
diately organized a "military 
committee of revolution." In 
the evening of November 4, 
1 9 1 7 , representatives from this 
Magazine committcc appeared at the 
staff office of the Petrograd 
garrison and demanded the right of 
inspection and veto — that no orders 
should be given without the consent 
of the committee. This demand was 
flatly refused. 

On November 7, 191 7, an armed 
naval detachment, under orders from 
the Soviet revolutionary committee, 
suddenly appeared at the gates of the 
Marie Palace, where the Temporary 
Council was in session, and occupied 
the building by force of arms. Later 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



II 



Fsimilar action was taken in the building 
of the Smolny Institute and the 
Central Telegraph Agency. 

THE SOLDIERS REFUSE TO OBEY THE 
GOVERNMENT, 

Against this hostile action the Pro- 
isional Government was unable to 
offer any immediate resistance, for the 
troops of the garrison showed them- 
selves indisposed to obey commands. 
On the other hand, the Bolsheviki 
also refrained from a too active mani- 
festation of force, for within the Soviet 
there was still a strong minority in 
favor of compromising with the Pro- 
visional Government. 

It was not till the forces of the 
Soviet appeared before the Winter 
Palace, the headquarters of the Pro- 
visional Government, that the first 
actual fighting took place. As the 
Bolsheviki approached, shots were 
fired from within the grounds of the 
building, and the attacking party 
immediately took shelter behind the 
piles of firewood which had been 
stacked in the square before the gates. 
From here they opened a steady fire 
at the windows of the Palace. The 
cruiser Aurora, whose crew had gone 
over entirely to the Soviet, drew up 
off the Palace and opened a desultory 
fire. About thirty of the military cadets 
defending the Palace were killed, and 
then, toward midnight, the rest sur- 
rendered. 

KERENSKY AND HIS CABINET FLEE FROM 
PETROGRAD. 

Kerensky and the majority of his 
Cabinet had meanwhile left Petrograd. 
Outside the city he encountered a 
small force of Cossacks under the 
command of General Krasnov, with 
which he attempted to return and 
suppress the rebellion. But the Cos- 
sacks themselves were naturally only 
half-heartedly in his favor, and on 
approaching the city began deliberat- 
ing over the advisability of going over 
to the Bolsheviki. Kerensky then 
fled, and so disappeared from the ^ 
arena of Russia's internal politics. 



Kerensky had failed to save Russia 
though he had striven with all his 
might. Sincerely devoted to the wel- 
fare of his country he had given all his 
energy and strength to the reconcilia- 
tion of opposites which could not be 
reconciled,' grasping at the shadow 
and losing the substance. He believed 
in the power > of words, and often 
talked when he should have acted. 
Toward the end of his power he was 
possessed by '* delusions of grandeur" 
and rebuffed men who might have 
aided him in saving Russia. He failed, 
but whether any one else could have 
succeeded is improbable. 

The Bolsheviki had acted according 
to a general plan, for the same acts of 
rebellion occurred in all the principal 
centres of Russia simultaneously. Al- 
most everywhere this second revolu- 
tion^ was peacefully and bloodlessly 
accompished, except in Moscow, where 
the military cadets offered a determined 
resistance. 

THE BOLSHEVIKI PROCEED TO FORM A 
GOVERNMENT. 

Having gained control of Petrograd, 
the revolutionary committee of the 
Soviet immediately issued a proclama- 
tion, announcing the *' dictatorship 
of the proletariat" — the advent of the 
"real revolution of the Russian 
people." The programme which they 
published enunciated the following 
points: 

First — to open negotiations with 
all the belligerent states for the purpose 
of obtaining a democratic peace. 

Second — to distribute land holdings 
apiong the peasants. 

Third — recognition of the Soviet as 
the supreme power in the government 
of Russia. 

Fourth — the convocation of a gen- 
uine Constituent Assembly, represent- 
ing the Russian democracy. 

On the following day another proc- 
lamation announced the formation of 
a new cabinet, of which Nikolai Lenin 
was Premier, and Leon Trotzky Min- 
ister of Foreign Relations. 

Albert Sonnichsen. 



697 




698 





^^^r^:i.^^%#^Jl^Jj| 



Greek Destroyers Off the Piraeus, the Port of Athens 

Chapter XLIII 



Greece and the War — The Venizelist Revolt 

THE ATTEMPT OF KING CONSTANTINE TO ESTABLISH AB- 
SOLUTISM IN A DEMOCRATIC LAND 



(^REECE lies in the pathway from 
Asia to Europe, and when East 
invaded West, and the Turk entered 
Europe, Greece became a subject 
nation for many centuries. Enslave- 
ment almost blotted out her previous 
history, and that any fraction of in- 
dividuality and tradition survived is 
due to the fact that her mountain 
fastnesses and multitudinous islands 
preserved it from utter extinction. 
With the turn of the tide in the other 
direction in the nineteenth century, 
what was left of Greece began a new 
life in common with all the other sub- 
ject races under Turkish rule in the 
Balkans. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY AND RUSSIA DESIRED 
l\ WEAK BALKAN STATES. 

The history of the wars against 
Turkey has been told in a previous 
chapter (Chapter IV). Who should 
take the Turk's place in the peninsula 
was a complicated problem. From 
the point of view of Austria or Russia 
it was advantageous to maintain a 
balance of power among the Balkan 
States that would be so nicely poised 
as to keep all the rivals engaged in 
maintaining its equilibrium. It was a 
menace to this balance of power when 
Bulgaria precipitated the second Bal- 
kan War, ending in the Treaty of 
Bucharest which left her so angry. 
Stripped of the Dobrudja by Rumania, 



and of Macedonia by Greece and Ser- 
bia, Bulgaria bided her time. She had 
brought on the war herself rather than 
submit her claims in Macedonia to 
arbitration, but she felt that she had 
been over-punished and her services 
against the Turk undec-recognized by 
the terms of the treaty. On the other 
hand, Serbia and Greece knew they 
had reason to fear Bulgaria and had a 
treaty of mutual support in case of 
Bulgarian aggression. 

THE ALLIES SEEK TO WIN THE FAVOR 
OF BULGARIA. 

Bulgaria was the pivot upon which 
the whole question of the Near East 
turned, and their mistaken attitude 
toward that country is the cause of 
the failure of the Allies in the Balkans. 
They thought to recast the Treaty of 
Bucharest and cut up Macedonia into 
slices, apportioning — with a fair con- 
sideration for racial distribution — slices 
of it among Serbia, Greece and Bul- 
garia, hoping to establish a united 
action of the Balkans against the 
Austro-Germanic League. Thus Serbia 
and Greece — their certain friends — 
were to be made to pay to placate 
Bulgaria — a possible enemy. So think- 
ing. Allied diplomacy ignored two 
facts : the ambition of Bulgaria towards 
the hegemony of the peninsula, and 
her strongly developed Austro-Ger- 
manic leanings. But Serbia saw these 

699 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



things and to Greece they were par- 
ticularly distinct. When the Triple 
Entente pressed concessions to Bul- 
garia upon Greece and Serbia, an 
atmosphere of doubt was created in 
the Greek mind which the Central 
Powers were quick to foster by vigor- 
ous propaganda. Further, not content 
with blinding itself as to the signs of 
the times in Bulgaria, Allied diplomacy 
neglected all means of cultivating 
popular support in Greece, or of coun- 
teracting German propaganda. With 
the failure at the Dardanelles, the 
tragedy of Serbia, and the sacrifice of 
Rumania before her eyes, was it 
astonishing that Greece held back and 
hesitated to pay the debts of honor and 
of gratitude that she owed to Serbia 
and professed to Russia, England and 
France? 

At the beginning of the war, popular 
sympathy had been with the Allies, 
for Greece and Serbia had been allies 
in the last war, Russia, France, and 
England had set Greece up as a nation, 
and their Premier, M. Venizelos, was 
popular and pro-ally. But the Greek 
Queen, Sophia, was the Kaiser's sister 
and she exercised a powerful influence 
with all members of the governing 
classes, and was moreover clever 
enough to take advantage of political 
divisions to aid the German cause. In 
the tangle there was only one man who 
in spite of Allied blunders saw and 
persisted in seeing that the cause of 
liberty must be that of Greece. 

VENIZELOS THE GREATEST STATESMAN 
OF MODERN GREECE. 

That man was Eleutherios Venizelos, 
premier of Greece and leader of the 
Liberal party. In 1864, in the little 
village of Murniaes on the island of 
Crete, was born the greatest statesman 
modern Greece has known. He was 
christened Eleutherios, meaning Liber- 
ty, and the name seems to have in- 
fluenced his vocation in life through 
the years he struggled for the libera- 
tion of Hellas and to free Christendom 
from Prussian militarism. His father 
had first intended him to follow in his 
own steps as a merchant, but gave the 
boy a liberal education in the Univer- 
sity of Athens, where he passed his 

700 



examinations brilliantly, and returned 
to Crete to practice as a lawyer. When 
only twenty-three he entered the 
Cretan Assembly and soon succeeded 
M. Mitsotakis as leader of the Liberal 
party. It seemed to be the Turkish 
policy to stir up factions among the 
population so as to involve them in 
internal political struggles. When 
strife flared into bloodshed in 1889, 
Turkey stepped in and took sanguinary 
reprisal. Again in 1895 revolution 
broke out, and in the following year 
Turkey laid more massacres to her 
account. At last the Greek govern- 
ment asked the Great Powers to 
intervene on behalf of their little 
neighbor, and through their concerted 
action for a time Crete had a measure 
of autonomy under the Sultan. 

Self-government afforded little pro- 
tection against the Turk, however, 
and when further massacres took place 
the Cretans proclaimed their union 
with Greece. Leaving his practice, 
Venizelos placed himself at the head of 
the insurgents who resisted the inter- 
ference of the Great Powers with 
obstinate intrepidity until they were 
obliged to yield. In 1897, war, which 
the Powers had striven to avert, 
broke out between Greece and Turkey 
because of Crete. Greece was obliged 
to withdraw her forces from the island, 
and the Cretans were again forced to 
accept autonomy, though Venizelos 
and his supporters did so conditionally, 
claiming it was only a stage towards 
the national aim of final union with 
Greece. 

THROUGH VENIZELOS CRETE BECOMES 
GREEK TERRITORY. 

The Powers appointed as High 
Commissioner of the island Prince 
George, son of the King of Greece, 
and in 1898 he took over the reins of 
government. Time passed, however, 
the goal of union seemed no nearer, 
and administrative mistakes added to 
general dissatisfaction. A general 
rising at Therisso broke out in 1903. 
Venizelos led with the mountaineers 
their rough life and shared their 
fortunes until Prince George resigned 
in July, 1904.' The rebels had taken a 
vow to recogMze no ruler save one 



F 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




M. ELEUTHERIOS VENIZELOS, GREEK PREMIER 

The Greek premier whose meteoric career during recent years has astonished the world. A patriot, feeling the 
most sacred obligation to the Constitution and to the National Cause, he was for long styled a traitor and an 
adventurer by ungrateful fellow-countrymen. Not only had he to fight against a treacherous king and unscrupulous 
and self-seeking rivals, but he had to fight against them without open support from his natural friends. Patient 
and long-enduring, possessed of great vision and imagination, Venizelos could realize the difficulties of the Allied 
Powers as well as his own. In the bud he saw the triumph of his dreams: a Greece freed from tyranny and once 
more united, a Greece allied with those powers whose traditional ally she had always been. 

701 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



appointed by the King of Greece, and 
so with the nomination of M. Zaimis, 
a former premier, brief tranquillity 
succeeded. The Young Turk revolu- 
tion began in 1908, with a general 
loosening of authority in the Ottoman 
Empire. Austria took advantage of 
the time to annex Bosnia-Herzegovina, 
the Bulgarians asserted their complete 
independence, and on October 7, the 
fourteenth insurrection since 1830 
broke out in Crete with the same 
object as heretofore — the union of the 
island with Greece. The government 
took an oath of fidelity to King George 
and chose a committee of six to govern 
the island in the name of the Hellenic 
King, but it was not until 1912, when 
Venizelos had left them, that the 
Cretans were formally annexed to 
Greece. 

Two years before this the Cretan 
deputy had been summoned to Athens 
by the Military League which had 
been formed by the officers of the army 
in hopes of bringing about a better 
state of affairs in their country. 
General unrest, parliamentary slack- 
ness, governmental indifference and 
laxity of discipline were reacting upon 
the national life so that the country 
seemed dead. With the determination 
of breaking altogether with the past 
the Military League was formed and 
it hoped by recasting the laws to re- 
vive the nation. There had been no 
time to evolve a policy to fit the new 
situation, and it soon became evident 
that a leader with a matured political 
programme which he would apply 
without flinching, was imperative. In 
their need, the officers of the army 
who had served in Crete to organize 
the police, remembered Venizelos and 
sent for him. 

THE GREEK CONSTITUTION REVISED AND 
REFORMS INTRODUCED. 

The constitution was revised, legis- 
lative and administrative reforms were 
carried out, the favlokratia or "rule of 
the incompetent" done away with, 
and — greatest of all — the Balkan 
League brought about. Knowing that 
such a project must be supported by 
military preparedness, Venizelos direct- 
ed improvements in army and navy, 
•702 



and in May, 191 2, when Greece held 
some grand manoeuvres the Bulgarian 
and Serbian attaches were so much 
impressed by what they saw that soon 
after a treaty of alliance between the 
three powers was signed. As a con- 
sequence of Bulgaria's defeat in the 
Second Balkan War, and through M. 
Venizelos' influence in the Conference 
of Bucharest, the territory of Greece 
was much enlarged, and the popula- 
tion almost doubled. M. Hanotaux in 
"La Guerre des Balkans et I'Europe" 
thus sums up the benefits acquired by 
Greece, "If ever Pan-Hellenism felt on 
the point of realizing her dream it is 
at the present hour; Crete, the islands, 
Albania, Saloniki, the coast as far 
as Kavalla is a haul the consequences 
of which in the future can hardly be 
estimated. Greece seems to be the 
maritime heir of the Turkish Empire." 
King Constantine (succeeding his 
father who was assassinated in Salon- 
iki, March 18, 191 3) was pleased to 
confer upon his Prime Minister the 
Grand Cross of the Order of the Saviour 
accompanied by a telegram: "I thank 
you for announcing the signing of 
peace. . . . You have deserved well 
of your country." One wonders if 
King Constantine and M. Venizelos 
remembered these last words when the 
time of exile for both came, — for the 
one a brief stay in Saloniki to be ended 
by a triumphant recall to Athens, for 
the other an indefinite sojourn in 
Switzerland, his future as closed in as 
the valleys before him. 

VENIZELOS RESTORED AND STRENGTH- 
ENED THE DYNASTY. 

The issue between King Constantine 
and his minister was never a personal 
one. When their ways of thought 
divided, the enemies of the Cretan 
patriot always sought to make out 
that Venizelos was anti-dynastic and 
anti-Constantine. On the contrary, 
when Venizelos was called upon to 
address the crowd in Athens in the 
early days of his premiership, he spoke 
of the Greek chamber as being revision - 
ary in character. "Constituent!" 
shouted the frenzied crowd who blamed 
the royal house for all the evils from 
which the people suffered. "Revision- 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ary, I said," repeated M. Venizelos 
and waited calmly until the shouting 
died away and his qualification was 
accepted. Consistent with this dec- 
laration, too, was the manner in which 
he brought forward and exalted the 
throne on every possible occasion. In 
his opinion Greece was not ready for 
a democratic form of government but 
needed a dynasty, and the thing 



GREECE ONE OF THE CHIEF HEIRS OF 
TURKEY. 

With the outbreak of war and Tur- 
key's entry into the conflict, all hope 
for the maintenance of Balkan peace 
vanished. Venizelos did not believe 
that Turkey would survive the struggle 
and sought means by which Greece 
could help the Allies in that part of 
the world. By reason of the reforms 




CYPRUS, THIRD LARGEST ISLAND IN THE MEDITERRANEAN 

In ancient times Cyprus supplied the Greek monarchs of Egypt with timber for their fleets. It was also cele- 
brated for its copper which takes its name (cuprum) from the island. It is now bare of trees and little mining 
has been done in modern times. Cyprus belonged to the Ottoman Empire, but in 1878 passed under British 
control. Picture from Henry Ruschin 



to do was to strengthen the one that 
existed. He therefore neglected no 
opportunity to enhance the glory of 
Constantine. 

Greece had shown her ability to live 
and go forward, and after 191 3 Venize- 
los tackled the problem of extensive 
internal reforms. He needed a long 
peace for this, and even tried to revive 
the Balkan League, notwithstanding 
memories of the recent war. While 
Turkey was trying to exterminate the 
Greek population of the Ottoman 
Empire, M. Venizelos was seeking to 
reconcile the Greco-Turkish differences. 



undertaken by the Liberal party the 
opposition, in the parliamentary sense 
of the word, had disappeared. The 
Liberal party was all-powerful, and 
the king could not dream of imposing 
his personal political views. It was 
entirely due to external events that the 
design to substitute personal for demo- 
cratic government arose. 

In another chapter the attitude of 
Greece towards the war during 1914 
and 191 5 has been outlined. Upon 
the outbreak of hostilities Venizelos 
used all his influence to have Greece 
join the Allies. Constantine took the 

703 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



stand that so long as Bulgaria re- 
mained neutral and the Balkan equili- 
brium created by the Treaty of Bucha- 
rest was not upset, Greece would remain 
neutral. Early in 191 5 the Triple 
Entente decided to embark upon the 
Dardanelles campaign, and became 
eager to secure Greece's help to hold 
Bulgaria in check, and to secure bases 
of operation in the neighborhood. 
Accordingly, Greece was offered con- 
cessions on the coast of Asia Minor in 
return for the co-operation of her 
fleet, and the use of a single division of 
her army. The territorial concessions 
would include regions of Greek colonies 
and strengthen her hold upon the 
islands. 

THE GREEK GENERAL STAFF OPPOSES 
THE GALLIPOLI PROJECT. 

These reasons together with his 
firm conviction that Greece should 
stand beside her former allies caused 
M. Venizelos to press earnestly for 
intervention. But the opinion of the 
Greek General Staff condemned the 
enterprise, and when the king refused 
to agree with M. Venizelos, the latter 
resigned in March, 191 5. He was suc- 
ceeded at once by M. Gounaris who, 
without dissolving the Chamber, an- 
nounced a policy of strict neutrality. 
In April, M. Gounaris was approached 
by the Entente with a request that 
Greece should make war upon Turkey. 
Gounaris submitted proposals which 
the Allied governments allowed to 
fall through, and Gounaris turned, 
rebuffed, towards the pro-Germans 
and began to create an anti-Venizelist 
party. Constantine was ill and did 
not interfere by word or deed even 
when his minister dissolved the legisla- 
tive body, headed a furious campaign 
against the Venizelist candidates for 
the coming elections, and told the 
electors that they must choose between 
Constantine and his minister, neu- 
trality or hazardous intervention. 
Many new seats were thus won by the 
government but when the returns were 
declared in June, the Liberal party had 
a majority, 184 against 130. Still 
Gounaris held ofifice, giving as a pretext 
that during the king's illness things 
must continue as they were, and the 

704 



ministerial press did not cease to calum- 
niate Venizelos. Finally Venizelos was 
recalled in August. 

At this point it is well to estimate 
the strength of the opposition arrayed 
against the former premier. The king 
himself had received his military educa- 
tion in Germany and was possessed 
with the greatest admiration for the 
Prussian military machine. Of his 
military advisers, General Dousmanis 
and Colonel Metaxas, the former was 
violently anti-French and bureaucratic, 
and the latter, like the king himself, a 
brilliant product of the Berlin Kriegs- 
akademie. Queen Sophia, of course, 
had her own special instructions from 
William II of Germany as to the course 
she should pursue in her native coun- 
try's interests, though her influence 
was more marked in the creation of a 
pro-German environment at court and 
in the government than in its direct 
action upon her husband. 

KING CONSTANTINE BELIEVED GER- 
MANY TO BE UNCONQUERABLE. 

The royal mind seems to have be- 
lieved at this time that only an inde- 
cisive peace could be reached in Europe, 
and that, therefore, it would pay to 
maintain neutrality to the end. It 
inclined to the Austro-Germanic Pow- 
ers as a shield against the Slav from 
without and a protection against an 
inconvenient development of democ- 
racy from within. We have not all the 
inside history of Teutonic intrigue, 
but it is probable that Constantine 
and William II met in July, 1915. 
The attack upon Serbia in the autumn 
was outlined to the Greek king and 
Bulgaria's coniplicity foreshadowed, 
Greece must remain quiescent or she 
would share in the Serbian disaster, 
but the price of her non-intervention 
would secure territorial integrity. Un- 
fortunately the Triple Entente chose 
this very season to press the question 
of concessions to Bulgaria. 

In continued blindness. Entente 
diplomacy still aifected to believe that 
Bulgaria might be bought with the 
spoil of Macedonia, but Bulgaria had 
entered into a secret treaty with Berlin, 
Vienna and Constantinople in July, and 
between the 14th and 20th of Septem- 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ber, she signed a further treaty with 
Turkey. On September 21, after the 
German advance upon Serbia had 
begun, M. Venizelos, beHeving that his 
country in the terms of her alHance with 
Serbia must enter the fray, asked the 
AlHes for 150,000 men, and on the 
23rd of the month asked the king for 
an order of general mobilization of the 
Greek army. It is probable that Bul- 



assistance, and if in this action she 
found herself brought face to face with 
powerful nations he was certain that 
Greece would do her duty. A vote of 
confidence was carried by an effective 
majority of 46, and pro-German activ- 
ities seemed frustrated. At this junc- 
ture Constantine violated the Greek 
constitution and began his course of 
substituting personal for democratic 




ATHENS FROM THE ACROPOLIS 

The central point of the ancient city was the Acropolis : the modern city lies almost entirely to the north and east 
between the Acropolis and Mount Lycabettas, and along the west slope of the latter. The temple and the other 
buildings on the Acropolis were destroyed by the Persians (480-479 B. C.) and never entirely rebuilt. 

Ruschin 

garia took the first steps toward 
mobilization on September 21, though 
her formal order was not dated until 
the 23rd. 

THE KING'S PARTY BEGINS TO WORK 
AGAINST VENIZELOS. 

This Step was as far as the king and 
his premier went together; at this point 
a vigorous royalist programme of 
resistance was set on foot by the 
Gounarists, the staff officers, the paid 
agents of Germany, by Queen Sophia 
and the king's brothers. When the 
chamber met, Venizelos in an impas- 
sioned speech declared that Greece 
was in honor bound to go to Serbia's 



government. Summoning M. Veni- 
zelos to the palace he informed him 
that he had gone beyond his rights 
and demanded his resignation, Octo- 
ber 5. Then in face of popular elec- 
tions and the vote of the Chamber, 
Constantine took the helm of state 
into his own hands. M. Zaimis was 
again appointed premier and pro- 
claimed a policy of "benevolent neu- 
trality." We know now that Constan- 
tine had already secretly assured 
Bulgaria that Greece would not aid 
Serbia. 

It is easy to be wise after the event; 
had the Allies in this crisis made some 

705 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



forceful demonstration in favor of the 
interventionists and offered vigorous 
resistance to the royalist party, the 
forces which were just landing in 
Saloniki would have had a different 
record of achievement, and it is even 
possible that the tragedies of Serbia 
and Rumania might have been avoided. 
As it was, they did nothing. In the 
meantime the French forces, on the 
invitation of Venizelos, landed at 
Saloniki and were met by a formal 
protest. The need of help for Serbia 
was the more urgent through Con- 
stantine's treachery. When M. Zaimis 
formed his government on October 7th 
he did not at first take open stand 
against the Venizelist policy, and for 
that reason the Liberal majority prom- 
ised its support. But the inertia of the 
Triple Entente and the fine scrupulous- 
ness of M. Venizelos left the king a 
free hand, and, master of the staff 
and of the army, he felt himself in a 
position to resist parliamentary pres- 
sure. His praises were sung in a tone 
almost of adoration by a chorus of 
journalists richly bribed by Baron 
Schenck, who had come to Greece 
originally to sell Krupp guns and had 
remained to buy Greek honor. The 
way lay open for dictatorship, and on 
October 13th, M. Zaimis by Con- 
stantine's orders notified Serbia that 
Greece could not enter the war against 
Germany and Austria-Hungary. 

THE ENTENTE MAKES ANOTHER BID 
FOR GREEK ASSISTANCE. 

The gage was flung; Serbia did not 
dare to break off diplomatic relations 
with her one-time ally. The Entente 
tried to buy Greek support of Serbia 
by offering Cyprus. The Greek Cham- 
ber protested against the action of the 
government by adopting the pro- 
gramme of the Liberal party by 147 
votes against 114, declaring the declar- 
ations of the government unsatis- 
factory, and censuring the conduct of 
the Minister of War. But Constantine 
had prepared the way; the Allies' 
offer was coolly declined, as other and 
more alluring promises were in his 
mind, and he there and then pro- 
ceeded to lay the fabric of absolutism 
within the country. The Chamber 

706 



which had voted against him he 
dissolved, the minister who had failed 
to win the opposition he dismissed, 
and nominated in his place M. Skou- 
loudis, whom he charged with the 
formation of a Cabinet that was 
strongly royalist in tone and which 
Constantine intended to be both tool 
and screen in his personal government. 
While the king was thus building 
up royal despotism within the country, 
in other parts of the peninsula things 
were going ill with the Allied cause. 
The overwhelming disaster that fell 
upon Serbia and the ineffective cam- 
paign of the Saloniki contingent are 
all told in another chapter (Chapter 
XXH). Their effects upon the popular 
mind were considerable. The royalists 
could affirm that Serbia's fate would 
have been that of Greece had she inter- 
vened when the Allies wished; Bul- 
garia no longer loomed large and 
menacing in the public eye, for she 
had food for her rapacity. But the 
Allied occupation of Saloniki was 
used to irritate national pride, and all 
the time the grip upon the Venizelist 
press grew daily more strangling until 
one by one the papers either dropped off 
and suspended publication altogether, 
or went over to the ministerial side. 

THE SUPPORTERS OF VENIZELOS REFRAIN 
FROM VOTING. 

There was no election campaign; 
M. Venizelos requested his friends not 
to run for office and advised the elec- 
tors not to vote. As a matter of fact, 
half of the voters were under arms, 
including fifty-three Venizelist dep- 
uties, and though the government was 
ready to give furloughs to its sup- 
porters it withheld them from its 
opponents. The June total of voters 
had been 750,000, the December elec- 
tion only showed 200,000. Constantine 
meant this Chamber — so unrepre- 
sentative and so packed — merely to 
serve the purpose of a screen for his 
unconstitutional acts: he relied on his 
military council almost entirely and 
used the Cabinet only as their tool. 
Through his military council he began 
the Germanization of the army. The 
leaders of the army needed little en- 
couragement in this project. 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



HE GREEK COMMANDER OF FORT RUPEL 
SURRENDERS BY ORDER. 



if 

I |F In spite of Skouloudis' advertised 
"benevolent neutrality" towards the 
Triple Entente he announced his inten- 
tion of disarming soldiers who might 
be driven back on Greek soil, and a 
threatening note, a partial blockade, 
and a painful discussion were neces- 
sary in November to force him to re- 
move this menace to the rear of the 
Saloniki force. Finally, when some of 
the escaping Serbians took refuge 
upon Greek soil the ill-treatment they 
suffered contained no measure of 
benevolence. To guard against this 
ill-will, Allied warships on January lo, 
1916, seized Corfu and prepared relief 
for such Serbians as had taken refuge 
on the Albanian coast. Later in April 
when these same Serbians — refreshed 
and reformed — desired to rejoin the 
Allies in Saloniki, M. Skouloudis 
offered objection after objection to 
their passing over Greek soil. The 
movement of the Serbians seems to 
have alarmed Bulgaria also, for on 
the 23rd of May a column of Germano- 
Bulgarians advanced over the border 
to Fort Rupel in the Demir-Hissar 
Pass and summoned the Greek garrison 
to surrender. Slight resistance was 
offered, but in the night the Greek 
troops received an order to withdraw 
and the incident was explained in the 
Athenian Chamber as a concession to 
neutrality! 

There was instant reaction from two 
directions. The Allied uneasiness at 
this threat to their right flank, and the 
evident co-operation of the Skouloudis 
Cabinet and the king with the Bul- 
garians, caused them to send a landing 
force to the Bay of Salamis. In Athens 
the population rose, protesting that 
Greek interests had been sold to the 
Germans since the detested Bulgarians 
were allowed to occupy the sacred soil 
of Greece. Nevertheless, the royal 
programme continued. At the end of 
May, General Yannakitsas warned his 
troops that they must be prepared to 
fight, and the king in an address to the 
men stated that as soldiers they should 
be obedient to orders and not to senti- 
ments. It seemed as if the stream were 



at last flowing as William II and Con- 
stantine had desired. Athenian hooli- 
gans incited by German money dem- 
onstrated against the English and 
French legations with the apparent 
approval of the Chief of Police. On 
the 2 1 St, the Entente struck hard; 
they presented an ultimatum which 
contained four demands: 

1. Immediate demobilization of the 
Greek army. 

2. The dismissal of the Skouloudis 
Cabinet, and its replacing by a business 
cabinet without bias. 

3. The dissolution of the Chamber 
of Deputies to be followed by free 
elections, when demobilization was 
complete. 

4. A change in the police force 
whereby certain individuals known to 
be in the Austro-German pay were to 
lose their places. 

THE TERMS OF THE ALLIES ARE RELUC- 
TANTLY MET. 

When this note was delivered, British 
and French warships appeared before 
the Piraeus and a practical blockade 
was established. Awed at last by this 
show of force and energy, Constantine 
submitted for the moment, allowed 
M. Skouloudis to be put out and 
recalled M. Zaimis who, on June 23rd, 
accepted the ultimatum. Six days 
later general demobilization of the 
army was ordered, and by the end of 
July it was on a peace footing. Yet 
once again, cunning robbed the move- 
ment of its salutary effects by creating 
among the returned soldiers in their 
own homes Reservists' Leagues whose 
object was the defense of their king. 
The Chamber was not dissolved — 
merely adjourned, and still pro-Entente 
newspapers were prosecuted. Baron 
Schenck and other German agitators 
continued their work. In those times 
the life of Venizelos was threatened, 
but he continued to conduct vigorously 
an electoral campaign. Constantine 
at the bidding of his imperial brother- 
in-law was playing for time, and finally, 
to postpone the elections from which 
the Venizelists were hoping so much, 
contrived the invasion of Eastern 
Macedonia by the Germano-Bulgarian 
forces. 

707 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



During June and July the military 
situation at Saloniki had not changed 
from the deadlock which had begun in 
December, 191 5, after the withdrawal 
into the zone around the city. An 
Allied offensive was planned to take 
place early in August by which it was 
hoped to influence the Greek elections 
in favor of the Liberal party and inter- 
vention and also to occupy the atten- 
tion of Bulgaria on her southern 
boundary so that Rumania, already 
secretly committed to the Allies, might 
have freedom to complete her mobiliza- 
tion. Accordingly, on August 10, an 
advance against Doiran was under- 
taken by the Allied forces. Suddenly 
the scene changed; Bulgaria had cog- 
hizance of the advance and meant to 
strike first. Where her advance was 
met by Serbian or Allied troops it was 
checked, but in Eastern Macedonia 
the Bulgarians advanced and occupied 
the cities of Kavalla, Seres, Doxata 
and Drama, together with what 
amounted to a whole province. The 
Greek troops were ordered by the 
government not to resist the Bulgarian 
advance, and submitted without strik- 
ing a blow to being carried away and 
transported to Germany. The Hellenic 
Government had admitted the invaders 
as guests, so to speak, and promises 
had been made to maintain the local 
administration and safeguard the se- 
curity and tranquility of the in- 
habitants. 

THE BULGARS COMMIT MANY EXCESSES 
IN EASTERN MACEDONIA, 

Nevertheless, only a few days after 
their entry into Greek territory they 
gave themselves up to excesses and 
devastations of every sort. Instead of 
maintaining the local Greek authorities 
for any period of time the administra- 
tion was entrusted to well-known 
Comitadjis upon whom the Bulgarian 
government had conferred military 
rank, or to Greek officials who had been 
corrupted. Their authority was that 
of brigands and criminals as the Report 
of the Greek University Commission 
upon Atrocities and Devastations clear- 
ly proves. Nor was this vandalism 
merely the result of Greco-Bulgarian 
jealousy. It had the definite purpose 

708 



of clearing Eastern Macedonia of its 
Greek population by famine, by out- 
rage, by torture, by deportation, and 
by murder. It is anticipating history 
only a little to add that when Greece 
entered the war the persecution in 
Macedonia became even more cruel. 
Deportations of public employees and 
later of all persons between the ages of 
15 and 60 years were made for the 
purpose of supplying Bulgaria with 
labor for building strategic roads and 
the work in the fields. Privation and 
maltreatment took fearful toll of these 
wretched victims so that the figures 
of the report show that more than 
four-fifths (at least 70,000 persons) 
succumbed to the savagery of their 
enemies. Thus was a province of 
Greece betrayed by its king who had 
based his policy of neutrality upon a 
condition of territorial integrity; who 
had accepted the guarantees of his 
country's hereditary enemies that they 
would respect the lives, liberty and 
property of his subjects. 

This was a severe blow to Con- 
stantine's prestige; and a vigorous 
movement of protest at once took place 
in Athens and other large cities. Be- 
fore the house of M. Venizelos an 
immense crowd gathered to cheer for 
the chief of the Liberal party. To them 
the ex-premier proposed that they 
should elect a delegation which should 
submit to the king an appeal that he 
had prepared. He read it to them and 
the great concourse approved it en- 
thusiastically. 

'T^HE GREEKS IN SALONIKI RISE IN REVOLT. 

All was in vain. King Constantine 
refused to receive the deputation, 
alleging illness, and on the same ground 
delayed the dissolution of the Chamber 
and the elections. But he could not 
stay the march of events which in the 
next few weeks came thick and fast. 
The Bulgarian invasion had harmed the 
royal cause seriously in that it had cut 
in two the army — hitherto his greatest 
asset. On August 30, a revolution 
broke out in Saloniki. The insurgents 
were Cretan gendarmerie and Mace- 
donian volunteers; a Committee of 
National Defense was formed under 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Colonel Zymbracakis who addressed a 
proclamation to the people inciting 
them "to cease to obey the authorities 
who had betrayed the national honor," 
and exhorting the army to deliver the 
fatherland. 

After some disorder General Sarrail 
interfered to vSave bloodshed and the 
troops of the 5th Division quartered at 
Saloniki either joined the Committee 



THE DEPOSITION OF THE KING IS SERI- 
OUSLY DISCUSSED. 

King Constantine. experienced great 
difficulty in finding a successor. He 
sent for M, Dimitracopoulos intending 
to form an ordinary political ministry, 
but the latter, when he found that the 
Allies still insisted upon compliance 
with their note of June 21, resigned at 
once. Then the king had recourse to 




MEMBERS OF THE GREEK ROYAL FAMILY 

To the right is Prince Alexander who succeeded his father. He is three years younger than the ex-Crown Prince 
George, who together with his three sisters and Prince Paul, accompanied his parents into exile. Embarked for 
Italy, they had not yet reached the residence of their choice when their hopes were dashed, and they had to slip 
out of Lugano en route for Switzerland amidst manifestations of public scorn. Ruschin 



or were disarmed. Those officers who 
resigned were allowed to go to Athens 
where the king received and congrat- 
ulated them. Franco-British warships 
appeared off the Piraeus on September 
I, and demanded the dismissal of 
Baron Schenck and his followers, 
the immediate disbanding of Reservist 
Leagues, and control of all com- 
munications. On the loth, the Reser- 
vists demonstrated against the French 
Legation and on the nth, the premier, 
helpless against the forces of anarchy 
breaking out all over the country, 
resigned. He had never been strong 
enough to rule Greece. 



M. Nicholas Calogeropbulos, a member 
of the Germanophile coterie who pro- 
ceeded to form a ministry of second- 
rate men of noted anti-Venizelist 
tendencies. To this ministry the Allies 
refused recognition although M. Calo- 
geropoulos published his intention of 
complying with their note. On Septem- 
ber 20, Constantine addressed some 
5,000 young infantry recruits in a spirit 
of pure absolutism, informing them 
that they were "soldiers of the king 
owing blind devotion to the will of the 
king." On the 22nd, a battalion of the 
Greek revolutionary army at Saloniki 
left for the front to fight against the 

709 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Bulgars. Two days later the Congress 
of Hellenic Colonies, assembled in Paris, 
declared the deposition of King Con- 
stantine. Early next morning M. 
Venizelos and Admiral Coundouriotis 
set sail from Phalerum for Crete — the 
revolution had begun. 

In a statement published before he 
left, the Cretan patriot reviewed the 
injuries suffered by Greek honor, and 
added, "Do not think I am heading a 
revolution in the ordinary sense of the 
word. The movement now beginning 
is in no way directed against the king or 
his dynasty. This movement is one 
made by those of us who can no longer 
stand aside and let our countrymen and 
our country be ravaged by the Bul- 
garian enemy. It is the last effort we 
can make to induce the king to come 
forth as King of the Hellenes and 
follow the path of duty in the protec- 
tion of his subjects." 

THE ISLANDS ARE FIRST TO RISE IN 
REVOLT. 

At the same time manifestoes came 
in to the king from many of the islands, 
Mytilene, Samos, Chios, demanding 
intervention, and over seventy Anti- 
Venizelist deputies and some prominent 
army officers urged the king to enter 
the war. The revolution in Crete was 
so decided that in ten days the insur- 
gents to the number of 30,000 had com- 
plete possession. M. Venizelos was 
received with enthusiasm at Canea by 
the people and the troops and he issued 
a proclamation reviewing the disorder 
which had resulted from the fatal policy 
of the king during the last year and a 
half. Immediately adherents flocked 
to the cause. In all the larger islands 
royal officials were replaced by Venize- 
lists, from Athens itself many officers 
and men set sail for Saloniki, the Con- 
gress of Hellenic Colonies sent their 
assurance of support "on the path of 
honor and glory," the Committee of 
National Defense placed itself at the 
disposal of the movement. On the last 
day of September a triumvirate con- 
sisting of Venizelos, Coundouriotis and 
Danglis was formed to direct the 
National Movement towards the form- 
ing of a Provisional Government. 

Meanwhile, unrecognized and inef- 

710 



fective, the Calogeropoulos Cabinet 
felt bound to resign, and King Con- 
stantine then called to the head of the 
government Professor Spyridon P. 
Lambros who proceeded to form a 
service Cabinet in accordance with 
the Allied note. That same day, 
October 9, Venizelos in Saloniki amid 
scenes of wildest enthusiasm estab- 
lished the Provisional Government 
"with full authority to organize the 
forces of the country with the object 
of joining the Allies and fighting by 
their side against all their enemies." 

HEAVIER ALLIED DEMANDS ARE MADE 
UPON GREECE. 

Afterwards a conference called by 
the Entente at Boulogne gave the 
revolutionary government a qualified 
recognition. Only in the Peloponnesus 
and in Athens did the king's cause seem 
to prosper, and the Allies were laying 
increasingly heavy demands as a pre- 
caution against treason, for it was 
suspected that there was a royalist 
plot afoot to send forces to Thessaly to 
co-operate with a German army in an 
attack upon Saloniki. Early in Octo- 
ber Admiral Dartige du Fournet pre- 
sented an ultimatum demanding that 
Greece should hand over the Greek 
fleet entire, save for the armored 
cruiser Averoff and the battleships 
Lemnos and Kilkis, by i o'clock of the 
nth, and even the vessels retained 
were to be disarmed and their crews 
reduced to one-third, while the forts 
on the seacoast must be dismantled 
and the two commanding the moorings 
turned over to the Admiral. At the 
same time the Allies took control of 
the police and demanded that Greek 
citizens be prohibited from carrying 
arms, that the sending of war munitions 
to Thessaly be stopped, and that the 
embargo on the exportation of Thessa- 
lian wheat should be raised. 

A period of suspense and delay fol- 
lowed. The royalists put off fulfilment 
of the conditions prescribed and, en- 
couraged by their success in evasion 
and the Bulgarian victories in Ruma- 
nia, grew more and more insolent, 
while the nation in general, because it 
was ignorant of the king's German 
intrigues but felt the effects of block- 



r 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ade and of the Allied demands, grew 
more anti-Entente. On account of a 
slight collision between royalist and 
nationalist troops on the frontier, 
General Sarrail and the Greek Govern- 
ment established the Neutral Zone 
between the territories of the Provi- 
sional Government and Old Greece, 
but it is all of a piece with Entente 
diplomacy in the Near East that 
Thessaly and Epirus, which devoted 
to Venizelos were only waiting the 
appearance of Saloniki contingents 
to rise, were thus prevented from 
doing so. On the 17th of November 
Admiral Dartige sent M. Lambros a 
new note demanding the surrender of 
eighteen field batteries, sixteen moun- 
tain batteries with a thousand rounds 
of projectiles per battery, as well as of 
4000 Mannlicher rifles, 140 machine- 
guns and 50 automobile trucks, to make 
up for the war material which it had 
surrendered to the Bulgarians in Au- 
gust. Three days later the diplomatic 
representatives of the Central Powers 
were ordered to leave Greece, and on 
the 22nd an ultimatum demanding the 
cession of ten mountain batteries be- 
fore the 1st of December and the rest 
before the 15th was delivered to the 
Greek Government. Athens seethed 
with excitement, especially when it 
was learned that the Venizelos govern- 
ment had declared war on Bulgaria 
and Germany. 

KING CONSTANTINE HOPES TO AROUSE 
POPULAR SENTIMENT. 

By December i, nothing had been 
done towards surrendering the guns 
and Admiral Dartige after an inter- 
view with King Constantine went 
away with the impression that a show 
of force was all that was necessary to 
bring about compliance, and that no 
resistance was contemplated. It is 
evident now that the king was luring 
the Allies to their own destruction by 
causing them to formulate and enforce 
demands irritating to the popular 
pride, and influencing them to defeat 
their own ends by neutralizing the 
efforts of the Venizelists by the creation 
of the Neutral Zone. On the night of 
the 29th the troops of the garrison of 
Athens left their barracks and took 



up position in the environs of the city, 
and a decree was published authorizing 
voluntary engagements. 

The military authorities were or- 
dered not to hinder the Allies in disem- 
barking but to follow them in equal 
numbers and to prevent the execution 
of the Admiral's commands. As Anglo- 
French detachments advanced from 
the sea along the roads to Athens the 
Greek soldiers blocked their way and 
opened fire. The landing forces, unpre- 
pared for resistance, suffered cruel 
losses. All through that day the 
fighting continued for through lack of 
preliminary arrangements the Allied 
fleet remained almost inert. Only a 
few shells were fired into the garden 
of the Grand Palace. Finally, on 
December 2, at 2 a.m. in the morning, 
the king proposed to surrender six 
mountain batteries instead of ten, and 
the Allied troops withdrew from the 
city. The day was spent by the 
Royalists in hunting out the Venizelists 
whom they massacred, tortured and 
imprisoned, and also destroyed news- 
paper offices of the Liberal press. 

THE KING AND HIS PARTY YIELD TO 
SUPERIOR FORCE. 

On December 7, the Entente an- 
nounced a blockade of the Greek 
coasts, and on the 14th presented a 
note ordering complete demobiliza- 
tion of the army, restoration of control 
by the Allies over posts, telegraphs 
and railways and the release of the 
Venizelists who had been imprisoned; 
failing compliance, the Allied Ministers 
were instructed to leave Greece and a 
state of war would begin. The Greek 
government thus found itself com- 
pelled to choose between peace and war 
and accepted the ultimatum, but true 
to its nature, began to quibble about 
the construction of the terms. On the 
31st, a Second Allied Note was deliv- 
ered, containing their demands for 
military guarantees and for reparation 
for the events of the ist and 2nd of 
December, but agreeing not to allow 
the Venizelist troops to profit by the 
withdrawal of Royalist troops, or to 
pass over the Neutral Zone. The 
Greek government objected to certain 
provisions, especially that referring 

711 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



to the immediate release of the Venize- 
lists, but on January 9, the Allies 
answered the protest by giving forty- 
eight hours in which to comply. 

This ultimatum was drafted by the 
Allied War Council, then sitting in 
Rome, and was due to the decision of 
Premiers Lloyd George and Briand to 
enforce* fresh vigor in the handling of 
the Greek situation. An important 
development was that Italy now came 
into full agreement with Great Britain, 
France and Russia, in regard to the 
whole course of action in the Balkan 
Peninsula. Shrewd as ever, the king 
recognized that he had reached the 
limit of Allied patience and he accord- 
ingly accepted their terms. The trans- 
fer of Greek troops to the Peloponnesus 
as demanded in the Note began, and 
on January 24, the Greek government 
formally apologized to the Allied 
Ministers, and in front of the Zappeion 
the flags of the Entente were solemnly 
saluted. 

THE UNDIGNIFIED ALLIED DIPLOMACY 
KEPT GREECE NEUTRAL. 

The Allied diplomatic quibbling, un- 
dignified and unworthy though it 
seems, yet succeeded in keeping Greece 
neutral. An attack from the rear on 
Saloniki was held suspended as long 
as Constantine did not openly join 
with the Central Powers. Further- 
more, it must be remembered that the 
Allies were hampered in their actions 
in that they were by no means united 
in their views of the situation. Italy 
disliked Venizelos, because she feared 
the increase of Greek power in the 
Mediterranean, and imperial Russia 
branded him as revolutionary. So he 
was to some extent blocked by the 
temporizing of the Allies with Con- 
stantine and his advisers. Yet he 
held on to his purpose, ready to change 
his means as the occasion demanded. 
"I have tried," he said, "not to cause 
any difficulties for my friends. I am 
told to evacuate Katerini — I evacuate 
Katerini. I am told to abandon 
Cerigo — I abandon Cerigo. The Neu- 
tral Zone is imposed on me, I respect 
the Neutral Zone. I am asked to 
bring my movement to a standstill — 
I bring it to a standstill." 

712 



Thus a seeming peace lay over Greece 
in the opening months of 191 7, but it 
was false and hollow. Constantine 
and M. Lambros were employing 
every artifice to avoid the execution of 
the conditions laid down by the 
Entente. "Soldiers transported to 
the Peloponnesus made their way back 
again in citizen's dress or on military 
leave of absence; lies were told about 
the contents of cases of weapons, and 
arms were cached in the earth. Mean- 
while, the Royalist newspapers in- 
vented calumny on calumny against 
the Allies," and as these were the only 
newspapers that did appear the" public 
was kept in an abnormal state of 
ferment by the organs of King Con- 
stantine. 

GREATER UNITY NOW APPEARS IN THE 
ALLIED COUNCILS. 

In the third week in March the 
Briand Cabinet resigned in France 
and was succeeded . by the Ribot 
ministry which promised stronger han- 
dling of the Greek situation. At the 
same time revolution broke out in 
Russia, and Constantine lost valuable 
support. In April the United States 
entered the war, taking up the sword 
against absolutism and autocracy. 
"The ground began to fail beneath 
the feet of the slayer of Venizelists, 
the constitutional king who had been 
transformed by the grace of William II 
into the Lord's Anointed, accountable 
to God alone." Throughout the 
months of April and May one by one 
the Venizelist journals appeared, more 
of the Ionian Islands gave in their 
adherence to the Provisional Govern- 
ment, and rumor filled the court of 
Athens with uneasiness. M. Lambros 
resigned and on May 3, the ineffective 
but respectable M. Zaimis took upon 
himself the prime ministry once more. 
General dissatisfaction with King Con- 
stantine's rule was spreading through- 
out Greece. The end of May saw 
Venizelos with 60,000 men at his 
command. Thereafter things moved 
swiftly. On June 3, the Italians pro- 
claimed the independence of Albania, 
and occupied Janina, thus cutting the 
last line of communication open be- 
tween Athens and the Central Powers. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



If 



HE ALLIES DEMAND THE ABDICATION 
OF KING CONSTANTINE. 

On June 6 M. Charles Jonnart, a 
French senator invested with the rank 
of High Commissioner of the protect- 
ing powers, arrived in Greek waters. 
A great movement of Allied warships 
in the bay of Salamis, and the Saronic 
and Corinthian Gulfs took place. 
From Salamis the High Commissioner 



palace, and a deputation headed by 
Naval Commander Mavromichaelis 
was received by Constantine and 
pledged the devotion of the army and 
the people to his cause. On the day fol- 
lowing, that is, June 12, M. Zaimis com- 
municated the king's decision in these 
words : 

"The Minister and High Commis- 
sioner of France, Great Britain and 




THE DOWNFALL OF AUTOCRACY 
A French sentinel on guard in Athens on the day that King Constantine and his family departed. Though disorder 
was expected none came for the reason that while M. Jonnart's proclamation strove to allay uneasiness, yet it 
promised, on the other hand, severe action against any who broke the peace. Allied warships in the Gulf, and 
Allied troops in the capital did much to make the change pass off quietly. 



sailed to Saloniki. On the loth he 
returned and on the nth the blow 
fell. He summoned M. Zaimis to his 
warship and in the name of the three 
protecting powers demanded the ab- 
dication of King Constantine and the 
nomination of his successor, with the 
exclusion of the Crown Prince. M. 
Jonnart informed the Premier that he 
had troops at his disposal but would not 
land them until King Constantine 
had given his answer. A Crown Coun- 
cil consisting of former premiers was 
summoned, and a hue and cry filled 
the streets of Athens; 2,000 Reservists 
formed a cordon of defense around the 



Russia: Having demanded by your 
note of yesterday the abdication of his 
Majesty, King Constantine, and the 
nomination of his successor, the under- 
signed. Premier and Foreign Minister, 
has the honor to inform your Excel- 
lency that his Majesty the King, ever 
solicitous for the interests of Greece, 
has decided to leave the country with 
the Prince Royal, and nominates 
Prince Alexander as his successor." 

Zaimis. 

the king promptly yields to the 
inevitable. 

The following day two royal procla- 
mations were posted in the streets; 

713 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the first that of ex-King Constantine 
read: 

"Obeying the necessity of fulfilling 
my duty towards Greece, I am depart- 
ing from my beloved country with the 
heir to the throne and am leaving my 
son Alexander my crown. I beg you 
to accept my decision with calm, as 
the slightest incident may lead to a 
great catastrophe." 

The second proclamation was from 
the new king declaring he would follow 
in the steps of his illustrious father — a 
determination for which he was re- 
quired to apologize and declare his 
willingness to respect the constitution. 
At the same time military measures 
were being taken by the Allies in 
Thessaly which are fully described in 
another chapter. On June 13, the ex- 
king and his family embarked at the 
Piraeus on a British warship for his 
summer palace at Tatoi, and the next 
morning started from thence for Italy, 
whither one of his private secretaries 
had preceded him to look for a large 
villa suitable for the exiled royalties. 

THE ALLIED EXPLANATION AND JUSTI- 
FICATION OF THE ACTION. 

M. Jonnart, who had brought about 
his deposition, published a note to the 
Greek people explaining the stand 
taken by France, Great Britair^, and 
Russia who "are here to checkmate 
the manoeuvres of the hereditary 
enemies of the kingdom. They will put 
an end to the repeated violations of 
the Constitution, of treaties, and the 
deplorable intrigues which led up to 
the massacre of soldiers of the Allies." 
After outlining the overthrow of Ger- 
man influence in Athens the proclama- 
tion closes : ' ' Hellenes, the hour of recon- 



ciliation has arrived. Your destinies 
are closely associated with those of the 
protecting powers, your ideals are the 
same as theirs, your hopes are identical. 
"Today the blockade is raised. Any 
reprisal against Greeks, to whatever 
party they belong, will be pitilessly 
repressed. No breach of the peace 
will be tolerated. The liberty and 
prosperity of everyone will be safe- 
guarded. This is a new era of peace 
and labor which is opening before you. 
Know that, respectful of the national 
sovereignty, the protecting powers 
have no intention of forcing upon the 
Greek people general mobilization. 
Long live Greece, united and free!" 

VENIZELOS RETURNS TO ATHENS TO TAKE 
UP HIS TASKS. 

In the absence of Constantine, M. 
Venizelos started for Athens and on 
the 19th of June a committee of four 
was appointed, consisting of two repre- 
sentatives of the Athenian government 
and two of the Saloniki government to 
consider methods of reconstruction. In 
less than a week M. Venizelos was 
called upon to form a cabinet and set 
about the laborious task of building up 
again that which King Constantine had 
destroyed. In July Greece formally 
declared war against Bulgaria and 
the German Empire. When "the 
vision and the fact, the poetry and 
prose of life find a rare union in a single 
soul, they provide a combination which 
in the long run is as irresistible as the 
forces of Nature." By his superhuman 
patience, no less than by his ardent 
patriotism, Venizelos, in spite of the 
Allies, had saved Greece from going 
down into the abyss of self-destruc- 
tion. 



714 




^^ A Squadron of Cossacks Passing in Review 

V^ Chapter XLIV 

B Military Operations During the Russian 

■ Revolution 

'the progressive demoralization of the army and 
the navy during the year 



AFTER the heavy activities which 
resulted in the conquest of Ru- 
mania, the fighting which occurred 
along the Russian fronts was of a purely 
local character for many months. 
During the fall of 1916 the Austro- 
Germans had developed unexpected 
strength and the Russian government 
had deliberately utilized the Ruman- 
ians as a shock absorber. Therefore, 
the Russian armies had not suffered 
so severely as they might otherwise 
have done. 

THE RUSSIAN MILITARY LEADERS LOYAL 
TO THE ALLIES. 

As Stated elsewhere in this volume, 
there could be no doubt as to the 
loyalty and the patriotism of the 
fighting generals at the front. Though 
they suppressed expression of their 
opinions in public, according to mili- 
tary ethics, there could be no doubt 
that they were in sympathy with those 
loyal Russians who were represented 
in the Duma by what was known as the 
"Progressive Bloc." 

When Rodzianko, President of the 
Duma, sent his telegrams to the army 
commanders along the front announc- 
ing that the Duma had defied the 
Government, on March 11, the army 
commanders were inclined to accept 
the situation hopefully, for with the 



Duma in full control there was a new 
possibility of bringing the united 
effort of the whole people to bear in 
support of the military operations 
against the enemy. Protopopov's inter- 
ference with the social organizations 
which were working behind the lines 
had turned the military commanders 
bitterly against him and, incidentally, 
the autocracy he represented. When 
the Provisional Government was finally 
established in Petrograd and recognized 
by the whole country, the General 
Staff accepted the situation with un- 
doubted sincerity. 

EQUALITY AND MILITARY DISCIPLINE 
SOMEWHAT CONTRADICTORY. 

What the military commanders did 
not foresee, however, was the impor- 
tance of the Socialists in the new situa- 
tion or the extent of their influence 
among the rank and file of the Army. 
However desirable democratic prin- 
ciples may be in time of peace, they 
are ill adapted to warfare. Discipline 
is the first essential in a large fighting 
organization, and discipline is only 
possible where the command is centred 
in one head. Successful warfare can 
only be waged as men are willing to 
merge their individual identities into 
the supreme will of their commander. 

This fact such leaders as Alexander 

715 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Kerensky and Plekhanov were intel- 
ligent enough to realize; and as they 
recognized the supreme necessity of 
defeating German Imperialism before 
establishing Socialism in Russia, they 
believed that the principles of equality 
should, for the time being, be suspend- 
ed, so far as the Army was concerned 
at least. But their simple followers, 
who constituted a large part of the 
rank and file of the military forces, 
remembered only that their leaders 
had preached democracy, the brother- 
hood of man, equality and frater- 
nity. Now that the ideas of these 
preachers of Socialism were trium- 
phantly embodied in the new revolu- 
tionary government, they could not 
all understand why they should not 
immediately be applied everywhere. 

THE SOLDIERS GIVEN REPRESENTATION 
IN THE PETROGRAD SOVIET. 

This powerful sentiment had to be 
met and placated. The soldiers were 
given representation behind the lines in 
the Soviet, and through the Soviet 
they demanded the right of discussion. 
The members of a company in the front 
lines would meet to discuss the political 
situation. This gave the ultra-radicals, 
the pacifists, who did not believe in 
any further fighting, an opportunity to 
make themselves heard and to carry 
on agitation. Thus demoralization 
was spread. Then came the abolition 
of the death penalty, and when these 
ultra-radicals refused to fight during 
the desultory skirmishing which was 
all this time going on with the enemy, 
they could not be punished. 

Thousands of others took advantage 
of the situation and deserted, openly 
returning to their homes. Next they 
demanded that the salute be abolished 
as incompatible with equality. That 
was granted. Again, in some sectors 
the sentiment in favor of ''the brother- 
hood of man" led to fraternization 
with the enemy, though often this was 
done in the hope of being able to spread 
revolutionary propaganda among the 
Austrian and German troops, that it 
might lead to the overthrow of their 
autocracies. The German commanders 
encouraged such intercourse at first, 
for in this way they gained much 

716 



valuable information and were able to 
observe more closely the progress of 
the demoralization which was going on 
among the Russians. 

THE SOLDIERS DEMAND SOVIETS AT THE 
FRONT. 

Week by week, as the Soviet in 
Petrograd increased in power, the 
demands continued progressively. In 
some army organizations the soldiers 
insisted that every command from 
their superior officers was to be obeyed 
only after having the approval of a 
general meeting of the members of the 
company, or regiment. That this 
would destroy both promptness and 
unity of action so essential in a fighting 
organization is plain enough. Finally 
it was even demanded that all the 
officers should resign and the vacancies 
be filled by election from the ranks. 
That was done later, under the Bolshe- 
viki, but at this time, under the regime 
of the Provisional Government, it was 
firmly refused. Even the ultra-radicals 
in the Executive Committee of the 
Soviet realized the utter impossibility 
of carrying out such a principle, if the 
Army was to maintain its fighting 
efficiency. 

Had the Germans attempted to 
take advantage of the situation by 
initiating a general offensive, it is 
probable that they would have defeated 
their own ends. The impending dan- 
ger might have roused the patriotic 
spirit of the Russians to fighting heat 
again, as the war itself had brought 
together the radicals and the con- 
servatives. But the Teutons were too 
wise to commit any such blunder. Time 
was their strongest ally, and they re- 
frained from any aggressive operations, 
waiting for the disintegration of the 
Russian Army. 

KERENSKY STRIVES TO MAINTAIN THE 
MORALE OF THE ARMY. 

For two months the army com- 
manders fought this deterioration of 
morale of the troops. Finally, in the 
middle of May, they forced the issue 
by resigning simultaneously. They 
refused longer to assume the responsi- 
bility of command if discipline were 
undermined by the authority of the 
Soviet which, consisting in large part 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of the soldiers' delegates, was in- 
clined to grant all that the soldiers 
demanded. Kerensky, though himself 
an ardent Socialist, realized the on- 
coming danger as keenly as the army 
commanders. He was able to impart 
some of his apprehensions to his more 
radical associates, with the result that 
the Soviet agreed not to interfere 
further in the army organization, 



near future. Alexiev, as commander- 
in-chief, was displaced by Brusilov, 
who had so distinguished himself in 
his offensive in Galicia the year before. 
During all this period a certain 
amount of fighting had been going on. 
It was notably in such defensive 
fighting that the Russians showed 
themselves at the best. Wherever the 
Germans did initiate local attacks, 




"CARRIED AWAY INTO CAPTIVITY" 

These are Russian prisoners being sent to Germany on a freight train. They only heard rumors — purposely dis- 
torted by the Germans — ^of what was happening in their own country while they were in captivity, and found it 
diflBcult to adjust themselves to the new conditions when they were at last allowed to return to their homes. 



though given stronger representation 
in the Provisional Government. For 
the time being, the fatal tendency was 
checked and the commanders were 
again given a firm grip on their com- 
mands. Kerensky himself went to the 
front and exhorted the soldiers to ad- 
here to the rigid discipline demanded 
for a continuance of the war against 
Germany. 

Kerensky had at this time been 
made Minister of War. Realizing, 
perhaps, that the old tendencies must 
inevitably assert themselves again, he 
rushed the preparations for a strong 
offensive against the Germans in the 



they were repulsed. The Russians, on 
the other hand, attempted very few 
offensive operations. 

AN ATTACK IS PLANNED FOR THE SUM- 
l\ MER. 

In the early part of June the reports 
indicated a strengthening of the Rus- 
sian fighting spirit. On the 20th of 
that month the All-Russian Soviet, 
representing the soldiers on all the 
fronts, as well as the workingmen 
throughout the country, passed a 
resolution in favor of an offensive 
against the enemy as soon as it could 
be undertaken. At this time German 
reports indicated greater activity of 

717 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



artillery and more raiding parties from 
the Russian lines than for many 
months past. Fraternization came to a 
complete and abrupt end; parties of 
Germans approaching the Russian 
trenches with white flags were every- 
where fired upon. 

On the last day of June reports 
indicated that the Russians had begun 
fighting on a larger scale than at any 



ing the Russians began another infan- 
try advance on a thirty-five mile 
front west of Lemberg. Press reports 
stated that Kerensky himself was in 
this region, exhorting the soldiers to 
make a supreme effort. During this 
day of fighting the Russians not only 
made some slight advance, driving the 
Teutons out of their first line trenches, 
but claimed to have taken i6o officers 



';•,, f 




. t -f 1. 'I 


■M 1 ^ 


H 





GERMAN DUG-OUT UPON THE EASTERN FRONT 
Examples of German comfort in dug-outa became the wonder of the Allied soldiers who saw them. This is a 
typical underground home, comfortably stocked with provisions and drink, and aesthetically decorated with 
tapestry-hung walls and a picture of the Kaiser. One queries if the tall wine-glasses and graceful candlesticks were 
issued by the Army. Ruschin 

and nearly 9,000 men prisoners. The 
Germans, on their part, reported that 
the severity of the engagements ex- 
ceeded anything that had taken place 
for a year and that the Russians 
suffered severely. How seriously the 
Germans took these operations may be 
judged from the fact that Field Mar- 
shal von Hindenburg and General von 
Ludendorff had hastened to Austrian 
field headquarters. 

THE OFFENSIVE IS SUCCESSFUL DURING 
THE EARLY DAYS. 

During the first few days of July, 
191 7, it became obvious that the Rus- 
sian offensive was not only in full 



time since the previous year. After 
heavy artillery preparation, lasting all 
day, the Russians on the upper Strypa 
began an advance along an eighteen- 
mile front. This attack was eventually 
forced back by the destructive fire of 
the Austro-German machine guns, but 
the Russians had persisted so strongly 
that they suffered heavy losses. On 
the same day a similar attack was 
delivered by the Russians in the region 
of Brzezany and west of Zalocz, with 
the same result. 

During that night artillery roared 
up and down almost the entire length 
of the Eastern Front. The next morn- 

718 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



swing, but was pressing the Austro- 
Germans hard at many points. Grad- 
ually the fighting was widening over a 
broader zone. The Czecho-Slovak 
brigade, organized from prisoners, espe- 
cially distinguished itself, sweeping 
over three lines of German trenches, 
and capturing nearly 4,000 prisoners. 

Above the Pripet Marshes toward 
Riga, the Germans held their own, 
though their counter-attacks were 
hurled back. But in Galicia the Austro- 
Hungarians were everywhere being 
pressed back. On July 4, German 
reinforcements made some attempts to 
regain lost ground in Galicia, without 
success. On July 5, an artillery battle 
developed with unusual violence be- 
tween Zborov and Brzezany, in Galicia. 
Here Turkish troops for the most part 
held the Teuton lines. These showed 
better morale than the Austrians and 
Hungarians, and all that day were 
able to repel the repeated Russian 
infantry attacks. 

HALICZ AND STANISLAU ARE BOTH 
THREATENED. 

By the 7th the Russian lines had 
advanced so far westward that Halicz, 
only sixty miles southwest of Lemberg, 
the capital of Galicia, was within range 
of the heavier Russian guns. Here the 
Russian offensive covered a front of 
more than thirty miles, along the 
Narayuvka River. On this same day 
there was heavy fighting near Stanislau, 
where one wave after another of Rus- 
sian infantry stormed the Austro- 
Hungarian trenches, engaging the 
enemy in hand-to-hand combats. 

By the end of the first ten days of the 
offensive it became evident that the 
Russians had concentrated their efforts 
against the Austrians and Hungarians 
in the south, whose lines they seemed 
to consider the weakest. Toward the 
Baltic, they had not attempted any 
determined forward move, being sat- 
isfied to check the German attacks. 
So far their strategy was proving emi- 
nently successful; so far the Russian 
morale showed itself as strong as ever. 

GENERAL KORNILOV, THE COSSACK, IS 
SUCCESSFUL. 

On July 10, Petrograd was able to 
announce the first really notable 



achievement of the general offensive — 
the capture, on the day before, of 
Halicz, an important railroad point on 
the Dniester. General Kornilov, the 
Cossack leader, was in command of 
the Russian army in this sector, and 
the Austrians defending the town were 
unable to withstand his attacks. Within 
two days the Teuton positions, to a 




THE LAST RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE 



depth of seven miles and fortified 
during a two years' occupation, had 
been overrun by the Russians. 

In the direction of Dolina, in the 
region west of Stanislau, General 
Kornilov continued his offensive opera- 
tions successfully. Here the Russians 
advanced toward Lemberg, on the 
heels of the retiring Austrians, along 
a front of nearly twenty miles. 

On the loth the troops which had 
captured Halicz crossed to the left 
banks of the river. By evening they 
had reached the valley of the River 
Lomnitza. They were now threatening 
the approaches to the passes in the 
Northern Carpathians. In this region 
the Russians took over 10,000 prisoners 
during three days of fighting, as well as 
seventy field pieces and a dozen guns 
of heavy calibre. 

719 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE BATTLE LINE SWAYS BACK AND 
FORTH. 

Fighting now grew more intense in 
the northern stretch of the Eastern 
Front toward Riga, where the Russians 
became suddenly more aggressive. But 
the main offensive still continued in 
the south, especially between the 
Dniester and Lomnitza rivers. On 
July II, Kornilov's troops fought a 



the Russians, by hand to hand fighting 
in the streets, finally drove the enemy 
out and remained in possession. 

On the following day the Austro- 
Germans counter-attacked at Kalusz 
again, but the Russians were now in 
such strong force that they not only 
repulsed them, but resumed their 
advance. After heavy fighting they 
occupied the village of Novica, south- 



2^ a^' M- 


Ik. 




& 


^ .Mm 





AUSTRIAN LANDSTURM GOING TO FIRING LINE 
Good examples of the southern temperament with its abandon to the mood of the hour and inconsequent light- 
heartedness are these soldiers of the Austrian landsturm en route for the front. Mercifully, in these tragic days 
men learned to live in the present and he who whiled away a tedious hour never lacked a following. Ruschin 



very stubborn battle, with the result 
that the enemy was forced out of the 
town of Kalusz, which had normally a 
population of 10,000. This gave the 
Russians a hold on the important rail- 
road running between Stanisiau and 
Lemberg. The Russians holding 
Kalusz, however, were soon attacked 
by enemy reinforcements and were 
compelled to retire. Again they re- 
turned with a stronger force, and re- 
entered the town, and once more the 
Austro-Germans counter-attacked, sup- 
ported by an armored train. Back 
and forth swayed the battle line, in 
and out of the town, until dark, when 
720 



west of Kalusz. But now a heavy 
rain began falling and swelled the 
rivers and rendered the ground so 
marshy that further operations were 
considerably hampered. 

The Russian operations up to this 
point, in the middle of July, had 
been efficiently conducted, and pre- 
eminently successful. Two important 
strategic centres had been taken, 
Halicz and Kalusz, and the Austro- 
German lines, driven back many miles. 
During this period the Russians had 
taken nearly 36,000 prisoners, 900 of 
whom were officers, and large quanti- 
ties of guns and other war material. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



q^HE RUSSIAN 
t-X SLACKEN. 



OFFENSIVE BEGINS TO 



I P But it now became daily more evident 
that the Russian strength had reached 
its maximum of effort and that it was 
beginning to slacken. Added to that, 
the Austro-Germans were bringing up 
heavy reinforcements from behind the 
lines. Thus they were able to bring 
their superior transportation facilities 



Germans were obviously gaining the 
advantage. 

During the next few days the fight- 
ing raged more violently than ever. 
From all along the whole front came 
reports of strong attacks and counter- 
attacks. East of Brzezany the Rus- 
sians suffered a serious set-back, being 
driven out of their trenches along a 
length of several miles. Then came the 






^? 






B I ■ 



SOLDIERS LEAVING THE FRONT AND GOING HOME 
Arrival at a point in the interior of Russia of a train seized by panic-stricken troops who have fled before the 
Germans. For the most part the enemy refrained from attack, knowing such action would tend to unite the soldiers 
in a common defense. They recognized that socialism in the ranks could do more deadly work. o • 

Central News Service 



to bear in their favor. On July 15, these 
reinforcements began showing their 
presence by a perceptible stiffening of 
the Teuton defense along the whole 
front. On that day there was excep- 
tionally heavy fighting, but the Rus- 
sians made no further advances. On 
the contrary, they were thrown back 
slightly at several points. 

On July 16, the Austrians, reinforced 
by Germans, resumed their counter- 
attacks against the Russians about 
Kalusz. The latter were driven back 
across the river and the town aban- 
doned. The weather was clearing now, 
but with the renewal of operations the 



first signs of the fundamental deteriora- 
tion of the Russian soldier as a fighting 
unit. 

THE FIRST WHOLE REGIMENT ABANDONS 
THE TRENCHES. 

After a thorough artillery prepara- 
tion the Germans had attacked the 
Russians near Barbutzov, twenty miles 
south of Brody. During the morning 
(July 19), the Russians successfully 
drove the German attacks back. But 
shortly before mid-day the 607th 
Mlynov Regiment, stationed between 
Batov and Manajov, deliberately letc 
its trenches, at a moment when the 
enemy was not pressing the attack, and 

721 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



retired to the rear, refusing to fight 
any further. The Russian lines on 
each side of the regiment had, in con- 
sequence, also to retire to prevent the 
Germans pouring in through the breach 
at the next attack. The Russian re- 
ports blamed this incident to the 
agitation of a number of Bolshevist 
members of the regiment. 

Unfortunately this was typical of 



fused to obey their commanders. Con- 
sequently our lines were forced to 
retire." 

KORNILOV GIVEN COMMAND OF THE 
WHOLE GALICIAN FRONT. 

Hastily the Provisional Govern- 
ment attempted to check the demoral- 
ization by a change in the command of 
the Russians operating in Galicia. 
Kornilov, who had shown such brilliant 









y/'y-'Aii 

yyyy 




■ -a:^t:;i.^:M. 


'j.-^rrz^-*^ 


Ulr /U ^. .%.5*^'^ 


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'.'^•H-Jfri^ 


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i 1^; jii?^*^^^. - ,. 






\ 


/■ ^ ■ S2^sm^^ 



BARBED WIRE CONSTRUCTION IN POLAND 



Instead of the bindweed, barbed wire — twisted around and darting from stakes which covered the ground for 
miles "over hill, over dale" as a first line defense. The work of setting up these entanglements and of destroying 
them was hazardous in the extreme, and the Italians called their bodies of wire-cutters "Death Connpanies." This 
is German wire but the line of battle was moved. Pictures from H. Ruschin 



dozens of such incidents, which hap- 
pened during the operations of the 
next few days. Everywhere men were 
refusing to obey their officers. Under 
the strain the Russian spirit was 
broken, not so much by attacks on 
the front as from the rear. Russian 
reports now admitted that Russian 
army organization was collapsing, that 
disaffection was spreading like a prairie 
fire. Speaking of the Russian retreat 
before Tarnopol, the Petrograd report 
said: 

"On the whole our soldiers did not 
show the necessary determination to 
win. Some regiments deliberately re- 

722 



results in the capture of Kalusz with 
the Eighth Russian Army, was given 
command of the whole front in Galicia. 
Kornilov was unpopular with the 
radical elements, on account of the 
almost ferocious disciplinary methods 
he sometimes employed, but Kerensky 
was willing to risk the displeasure of 
the Soviet, if only the German advance 
could be stemmed. But neither Kor- 
nilov nor any other general could have 
accomplished that with the material 
at his disposal. The soul of the army 
had vanished. Regiments with glorious 
records now fled before the enemy, or 
refused to advance. 






HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The German General Staff under- 
stood the situation, and was now- 
determined to take full advantage of it. 
The German offensive was pushed 
with extreme energy. Again and again, 
day by day, the Austro-Germans 
struck at the Russian lines, pushing 
them back mile after mile. The main 
point of their offensive was at Tarnopol, 
and here the Russians were completely 



was launched, but broke up before the 
German fire. In the direction of Vilna 
a succession of Russian infantry attacks 
succeeded in penetrating the German 
lines over two miles and taking over a 
thousand Germans prisoners. But 
this and similar slight successes could 
not be sustained, largely through the 
apathy of the rank and file of the 
Russian troops. In the south the 




RUSSIAW TROOPS DRINKING FROM A STREAM 
Spring comes late in northern Russia and the ice in the rivers and snow take a long time to thaw. In this picture 
Russian soldiers are refreshing themselves by a drink of water on the way to Germany. It is a typical scene, for 
who can think of Russia without recalling snow and plains? 



routed. In the afternoon of July 21, 
the Germans and Austrians forced 
their way forward from Tarnopol to a 
point as far as the Sereth bridgehead. 
The town of Tarnopol and a number of 
neighboring villages were soon a mass 
of flames. By the end of the day the 
entire Russian front from the Zlota 
Lipa to the Dniester was retiring before 
the pressure of the enemy. 

THE WHOLE RUSSIAN LINE IS BADLY 
DEMORALIZED. 

Hoping to create a diversion, the 
Russians now attempted to take the 
offensive in the north. From Smorgon 
to Krivo a general infantry attack 



Teutons advanced more and more 
swiftly, along a line almost 170 miles 
in length, from the River Sereth to the 
foothills of the Carpathians. 

By the 23rd the Teutons had crossed 
the Sereth, near Tarnopol, and ad- 
vanced beyond Halicz. Some Russian 
divisions here offered a resistance 
noteworthy in contrast with the general 
demoralization of the Russians as a 
whole, but they did not succeed in 
doing more than temporarily delaying 
the German advance. Southwest of 
Dvinsk several Russian regiments suc- 
ceeded in taking and occupying the 
German front line trenches and then, 

723 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



without any pressure from the enemy, 
they threw down their guns and retired 
to the rear. The gains of 1916 and 
more had been lost in a week. 

BRUSILOV RESIGNS AND IS SUCCEEDED 
BY KORNILOV. 

On August I, the Russian Com- 
mander-in-chief, Brusilov, handed in 
his resignation, and the Provisional 
Government immediately appointed 



were presented and, had he followed 
his own will, he would not have 
accepted them. Kerensky had a fixed 
belief that wars could be won by 
words, but the other members of the 
Cabinet felt that Kornilov was the 
only man capable of maintaining a 
front against the enemy, if any man 
were capable of that gigantic task. 
But if Kornilov succeeded in accom- 




TRENCHES ON THE EASTERN FRONT 
These are Russian trenches supposedly bomb-proof, built with thoroughness and method. Besides their value 
for safety, they were warm during the long snowy winters. Where the trenches were anywhere permanent Rus- 
sians and Germans vied with one another in their elaboration, though the latter were as a rule better fitted up 
inside. 



Kornilov in his stead. Kornilov imme- 
diately made certain "conditions" on 
which depended his acceptance of the 
supreme command. First of all, he 
refused to be responsible to anybody 
in his direction of the military op- 
erations, except to "his own con- 
science." He also insisted that "the 
measures adopted during the past few 
days at the front shall also be applied 
behind the lines," which meant that 
he had re-established the death penalty. 
Kerensky has since stated that the 
members of the Government found the 
substance of these demands more 
acceptable than the form in which they 
724 



plishing any good by his severe methods, 
it was not obvious in any stiffening of 
the Russian lines. From all points 
came only reports of retreat. In the 
Carpathians the Austro-German forces 
pressed back the Russians west of the 
River Putna, about thirty-five miles 
southwest of Czernowitz. On August 
3, the Russians gained a local and a 
temporary success, driving the Aus- 
trians out of a number of villages south 
of Skala, in Galicia. But this was more 
than offset by the Austrian advance 
further south in Bukovina, where they 
drove the Russians out of Czernowitz 
and across the Pruth. The capital 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of Bukovina was once more in the 
hands of the Austrians. 

From now on, however, the Austro- 
German offensive in Galicia and further 
south slackened. Conditions such as 
those which had existed during the 
early part of the year began to prevail 
again. The Russians had been thor- 
oughly beaten, and the Germans could 
remain satisfied with what they had 



the rescue and attempted to cross the 
river Sereth. 

In spite of the wholesale desertion 
of whole Russian regiments the Ru- 
manians stood firm. If they gave way 
all Rumania was lost, but the First 
Army did not give a yard. The battle 
centred around Marasesti, the greatest 
battle in Rumanian history. On August 
19, the last desperate assault failed. 




RUTHENIAN BLACKSMITH AT WORK 

The Ruthenians, as subjects of the Austrian Empire, were impressed into the armies and forced to fight in a 
quarrel about which they knew little, and cared less. This blacksmith, a fine sturdy type, is plying his trade in a 
quiet field behind the lines with the primitive appliances with which he has always worked. 



quiet : 

won while the Bolshevist agitators 
with the weapons of propaganda con- 
tinued the war for them. 

THE REMNANT OF RUMANIA IS SAVED 
FOR A TIME. 

Meanwhile lower down the Ruman- 
ian front was held by the First and 
Second Rumanian Armies, and the 
Fourth Russian Army under General 
Scherbachev. During the latter part 
of July there was some sharp fighting 
in the Susitza valley. The Austro- 
German forces were driven back, 
though various units of the Russian 
forces were evaporating and disap- 
pearing. Von Mackensen came to 



Picture, H. Ruschin 

The attack against the Second Army, 
around Ocna was hardly more suc- 
cessful, and the remnant of Rumania 
was preserved until the complete 
demoralization of Russia left it sur- 
rounded by enemies. 

THE GERMANS NOW TAKE RIGA WITHOUT 
DIFFICULTY. 

Toward the end of August the 
Germans showed increasing activity in 
the northern section of the Eastern 
Front. They had decided that they 
wanted Riga, and set out to obtain it. 
On August 22, they began to advance, 
and in two days they had reached the 
River Aa and several points on the 

725 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Gulf of Riga. On September i, 191 7, 
the Germans delivered persistent in- 
fantry attacks, about fifteen miles 
above Riga. They successfully crossed 
the Dvina and drove the Russians 
back. On the morning of September 3, 
the Russians were compelled to evac- 
uate the city of Riga, blowing up the 
bridges across the river and the 
fortifications as they retired. Already 



his Cabinet strove heroically to restore 
the discipline of the Army by a re- 
establishment of those measures which 
had been demanded by General Kor- 
nilov. The latter remained dissatisfied, 
however; he wished the death penalty 
to apply behind the lines as well, 
especially in the transport service and 
in the munitions factories. 

Then, encouraged by the conserv- 




ANOTHER COMMON USE OF BARBED WIRE 
Types of Russian prisoners in a German detention camp at Zossen, a town just south of Berlin. The men are 
warmly clad and, so far as their clothes and boots are concerned, are in good condition. When prisoners were cap- 
tured in an advance they were taken to the rear and left in wire compounds until final disposition could be made 
of them. Pictures from Henry Ruschin 



German shells from large calibre guns 
were dropping into the heart of the 
city and causing much destruction. 
That same evening the German troops 
entered and took possession. They 
found little in the way of war material, 
however, for the Russians had had 
time to remove everything of military 
value. 

THE QUESTION OF A DICTATORSHIP IS 
NOW DISCUSSED. 

The fall of Riga caused propor- 
tionately a greater shock in Russia 
than anything that had befallen the 
Russian armies during the retreat 
after the middle of July. Kerensky and 

726 



atlve elements, he decided, to take the 
situation entirely into his own hands 
and proclaim himself dictator, that he 
might autocratically apply his dis- 
ciplinary system in full. But it was 
now too late. The rank and file of 
his armies had drunk too deeply of the 
Socialist doctrines to be willing to 
support him. He could depend only 
on the semi-barbarian regiments from 
the Caucasus and Asiatic Russia, and 
even these, including his own Cossacks, 
showed no enthusiasm for a dictator- 
ship. On the other hand, the rank and 
file rallied to Kerensky's call for help. 
For a short period the workers in the 



r 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



tnunitlons factories worked day and 
night, believing that thereby they 
were helping to suppress Kornilov. 

npHE ARMY NOW ONLY AN ARMED MOB. 

After Kornilov's arrest, in the middle 
of September, even Kerensky realized 
that the Russian Army was no longer 
a factor in the war against the Central 



cause. Fighting, except of the most 
sporadic kind, ceased on the Russian 
front, and the soldiers gave themselves 
up almost entirely to holding meetings 
and discussing politics. Many officers 
were killed or degraded. Only to repel 
German raids or local attacks would 
they take up their guns, and these acts 
of aggression the Germans soon ceased 




tamtpr^hofo 



OPERATIONS AROUND THE GULF OF RIGA 

Powers. Kornilov's successor, General almost entirely. The artillery regi- 

Dukhonin, was an honest and sincere ments for a long time showed them- 

supporter of the Provisional Govern- selves least susceptible to the Bol- 

ment, but he had not the genius to shevist agitation, and for some time 

affect in the slightest the situation at the Russian guns did continue bom- 

the front. barding the German lines, but even 

It was now that the Bolshevist while the artillery continued hostilities, 

propaganda began to make rapid the infantry would fraternize with the 

strides within the army itself, shown in enemy in the trenches. This was 

the sudden majority given the Bol- strongly encouraged by the Bolshevist 

shevist faction in the Soviet. Fear of a agitators, who had leaflets and pam- 

counter-revolution in favor of the phlets printed in German, which were 

autocracy, rather than a genuine passed over to the German soldiers in 

relief in the doctrines of Lenin, was the the hope of converting them to the 

727 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Bolshevist doctrines of pacifism. As 
later events were to prove, the Ger- 
mans were little affected, though it 
was the policy of the German officers 
to encourage a belief to the contrary 
among the Russians. 

THE GERMANS TAKE WHATEVER THEY 
WISH. 

Before the final collapse of the 
Kerensky regime, however, Russian 
patriots were to suffer another blow 
from an enemy success. On October 
12, 191 7, under cover of strong naval 
detachments, the Germans landed 
marines and soldiers on the shore of 
Tagga Bay, north of the Island of 
Oesel, in the Gulf of Riga. An engage- 
ment took place between the German 
ships and the Russian ships and shore 
batteries, in which the former prevailed 
through their greatly superior force, 
though here the Russians showed a 
determined resistance. During the 
next few days the Germans also 
occupied Oesel and Dago islands, and 
still later, Moon Island. In the naval 
operations which took place during this 
period the Russians lost several large 
ships, though the Russian official re- 
ports claimed that the Germans lost 
two dreadnoughts, one cruiser, twelve 
torpedo boats and a number of smaller 
craft. 

As a contrast to these German suc- 
cesses, the German lines in the Riga 
sector were withdrawn considerably for 



the purposes of straightening out the 
front. This at least relieved the fear 
of the Russians that Petrograd was 
to be made the object of immediate 
attack. Only a few weeks intervened, 
however, between then and the final 
collapse of Russia as an enemy of 
Germany, when the Bolsheviki were to 
open the negotiations which were to 
culminate in the humiliating peace of 
Brest-Litovsk. 

SOME SLIGHT OPERATIONS TAKE PLACE 
ON THE TURKISH FRONT. 

Of the operations on the Russo- 
Turkish front during the Kerensky 
regime only a few words are necessary. 
In April the Russians had been forced 
to retire from Mush. During the rest 
of the summer practically no reports 
came in from this front. On November 
4, only three days before the Bolshevist 
revolution, there was a slight revival 
of activity against the Turks. In the 
Black Sea Coastal region, in the 
Kalkit-Tchifiik sector, the Russians 
began a sudden offensive and penetrat- 
ed the Turkish lines to their third line 
trenches. But this slight success was 
not sustained. Later in November 
further hostilities were continued, in 
co-operation with the British forces 
north of Bagdad, for apparently the 
Russians in this more distant theatre 
of the war were the last to be 
affected by the wave of Bolshevist 
propaganda. 



728 




The White House at Washington 



Chapter XLV 

The United States Enters the War 

UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE BRINGS THE 
NATION INTO THE CONTEST 



"RY the close of 191 5 American 
diplomacy seemed to have won a 
victory in the submarine controversy. 
Germany had agreed that no passenger 
vessels should be sunk without pro- 
vision being made for the complete 
safety of the passengers and crew. 
The feeling of relief which this agree- 
ment brought was soon disturbed by 
the controversy over the arming of 
merchant vessels. (See p. 275.) 

THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT DENIES 
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SUSSEX. 

Pending the settlement of the dispute 
the country was aroused by the news 
of the sinking of the cross channel 
steamer Sussex on March 24, 1916. 
The Sussex was not armed and had 
never carried troops. The attack was 
without warning and resulted in the 
injury or death of eighty passengers, 
among them several Americans. This 
was a violation of an explicit promise. 
The German government, while ad- 
mitting that a vessel had been sunk 
at the time and place indicated, con- 
tended that the vessel was not the 
Sussex. To substantiate this claim 
the authorities submitted a sketch of 
the vessel sunk, made by the com- 
mander of the submarine, differing 
in shape and construction from the 
Sussex. It is difficult to believe that 
even the German officials took this 
"evidence" seriously. 



THE AMERICAN NOTE AMOUNTS TO AN 
ULTIMATUM. 

Secretary Lansing despatched a note 
to Germany in the nature of an 
ultimatum. Recalling the previous 
promises made by the German authori- 
ties and indicating that the sinking 
of the Sussex clearly violated these 
pledges, he declared that unless the 
Germans should immediately abandon 
their "present methods of submarine 
warfare against passenger and freight- 
carrying vessels" the United States 
would have no other recourse than to 
break diplomatic relations with Ger- 
many. 

The German reply was received on 
May 4, 1916. It stated that the 
commanders of submarines had re- 
ceived the following instructions: "In 
accordance with the general principles 
of visit and search and destruction 
of merchant vessels recognized by 
international law, such vessels, both 
within and without the area declared 
a naval war zone, shall not be sunk 
without warning and without saving 
human lives unless these ships attempt 
to escape or offer resistance." 

AMERICAN RIGHTS NOT DEPENDENT 
r\ UPON BRITISH ACTION. 

It was stated, however, that the 
United States was expected to insist 
that Great Britain should abandon 
her blockade of Germany and her 

729 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



interference with neutral trade. Should 
the British government fail to do so 
the German note stated that "the 
German government would then be 
facing a new situation, in which it 
must reserve to itself complete liberty 
of decision." 

Mr. Lansing replied that the United 
States would expect Germany to carry 
out scrupulously its announced change 
of policy and "cannot for a moment 
entertain, much less discuss, a sugges- 
tion that respect by German naval 




THE GERMAN BLOCKADE OF EUROPE 
The area declared blockaded is indicated by diagonal 
lines, and the lanes through which passage was per- 
mitted are indicated. 

authorities for the rights of citizens 
of the United States upon the high 
seas should in any way or in the slight- 
est degree be made contingent upon 
the conduct of any other government 
affecting the rights of neutrals and non- 
combatants. Responsibility in such 
matters is single, not joint; absolute, 
not relative." No reply was received 
to this note. 

THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCES 
UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE. 

Once more the people of the United 
States breathed more freely as a result 
of what appeared to be a final settle- 
ment of the submarine problem. For 
nine months, from May, 1916, to 
February, 191 7, German submarines 
generally observed the promise which 

730 



had been made to comply with the rules 
of cruiser warfare. The relief proved 
to be but temporary, as this pause in 
submarine frightfulness was not due to 
any change of heart on the part of the 
German authorities, but to policy. 
Admiral von Tirpitz' Memoirs show 
the conflicting forces in Germany at 
this period. 

On December 12, 191 6, the Teutonic 
alliance without previous intimation or 
explanation proposed that the belliger- 
ents "enter forthwith into peace ne- 
gotiations." The military situation 
and the internal conditions in Germany 
will explain the reason. The war map 
showed the Teutonic powers in posses 
sion of large areas of enemy territory. 
Belgium, Northern France, Serbia, 
Montehegro, Rumania and Russian 
Poland and some of the Baltic lands of 
Russia had been overrun. All of these 
were valuable pawns with which to 
negotiate if the Entente should agree 
to enter upon peace discussions. It 
seemed improbable that the situation 
would ever be more favorable for the 
Teutonic powers. But these notable 
gains had not been won without great 
sacrifices by the German people. Two 
years of warfare had made great 
inroads upon the man power and 
material resources of the Teutonic 
allies. The blockade was making it 
increasingly difficult for the German 
authorities to obtain essential war 
materials, to say nothing of food and 
clothing for the civilian population. 

THE REASONS FOR THE GERMAN OFFER 
OF PEACE. 

In these circumstances something 
was needed to strengthen the morale 
of the German people. By making a 
peace offer which they knew would be 
rejected by their enemies, the German 
leaders hoped to be able to convince 
the German people that they were 
fighting a defensive struggle and thus 
to reconcile them to greater sacrifices. 

As was anticipated the Entente 
Allies refused to consider the German 
proposal, which they stated was "empty 
and insincere." Mr. Lloyd George 
declared that "to enter on the in- 
vitation of Germany, proclaiming her- 
self victorious, without any knowledge 



F 

■ nf thf nn 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of the proposals she intends to make, 
into a conference, is putting our 
heads into a noose with the rope end 
in the hands of the Germans." 

PRESIDENT WILSON ASKS FOR A STATE- 
MENT OF WAR AIMS. 

When the German peace offer ap- 
iared President Wilson had already 
)repared a communication to the 
various belligerents. In this note the 
Resident directed attention to the 
ract that each side professed to be 
fighting a defensive war; each claimed 
to be "ready to consider the formation 
of a League of Nations to ensure peace 
and justice throughout the world." 
The objects for which both sides were 
fighting "stated in general terms seem 
to be the same." The President felt 
justified, therefore, in asking the belli- 
gerents to state "the precise objects 
which would, if attained, satisfy them 
and their people." 

In reply the German government 
evaded the question but renewed its 
offer to enter upon peace negotiations. 
The Entente powers replied more to 
the point. While they were unwilling 
to declare their objects in complete 
detail, certain fundamental conditions 
were set down. These included the 
restoration of Belgium, Serbia, and 
Montenegro with compensation; the 
evacuation of France, Russia and 
Rumania with just reparation; the 
reorganization of Europe on a stable 
basis which involved the liberation 
of the subject nationalities in Germany, 
Austria and Turkey. At the same time 
it was stated that it was not the pur- 
pose of the Entente allies "to encom- 
pass the extermination of the German 
people and their political independence." 

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS TO THE CONGRESS 
OF THE UNITED STATES, j 

In requesting this information from 
the belligerents the President indicated 
that he was not proposing mediation 
or even the calling of a peace confer- 
ence. He was seeking information by 
which the United States could be 
guided in formulating its future policy 
toward the war and more particularly 
in regard to the peace which should 
end the war. In a remarkable address 
delivered before the Senate on January 



22, 191 7, President Wilson developed 
more fully this idea. He stated that it 
was inconceivable' that the United 
States should not play a part **in the 
days to come when it will be necessary 
to lay afresh and upon a new plan 
the foundations of peace among na- 
tions." In such an enterprise the people 
of the United States had a great 
service to perform. "That service is 




WOODROW WILSON, PRESIDENT OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

nothing less than this; to add their 
authority and their power to the 
authority and force of other nations to 
guarantee peace and justice throughout 
the world. " If the people of the United 
States were to be asked to join in this 
great enterprise he felt that it was 
necessary to formulate the conditions 
upon which he "would feel justified 
in asking our people to approve its 
formal and solemn adherence to a 
League for Peace." 

While the United States would have 
no voice in determining the actual 
terms of peace it was greatly interested 
in what the terms of peace shall be. 
"We shall have a voice in determining 
whether they shall be made lasting or 

731 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



not by the guarantees of a universal 
covenant; and our judgment upon 
what is fundamental and essential 
as a condition precedent to permanency 
should be spoken now, not afterwards 
when it may be too late." 

THE IDEA OF A LEAGUE OF NATIONS IS 
PRESENTED. 

"First it will be absolutely necessary 
that a force be created as a guarantor 



balance of power, but a community of 
power; not organized rivalries, but an 
organized, common peace." 

PEACE WITHOUT VICTORY A NECESSITY 
FOR PERMANENCE. 

Furthermore a permanent peace 
must be based upon an equality of 
nations and national rights. "It must 
be a peace without victory. It is not 
pleasant to say this. I beg that I maybe 



ft -■« H 


H 

M 
'i 




'M. 




I m 




W \ 



FORGING A CANNON AT THE BETHLEHEM STEEL WORKS 
In making a heavy cannon the great ingot of cast steel is forged into shape by continual blasts of heavy hammers 
before it is entirely cool. Here we see an ingot under the hammer. The Bethlehem works had been engaged 
in making munitions for the Allies on a large scale before the United States entered the war. 



of the permanency of the settlement 
so much greater than the force of any 
nation now engaged or any alliance 
hitherto formed or projected, that no 
nation, no probable combination of 
nations, could face or withstand it." 

But the terms of the peace must be 
such as to warrant such a guarantee. 
"The question upon which the whole 
future peace and policy of the world 
depends is this: Is the present war a 
struggle for a just and secure peace, 
or only for a new balance of power? 
If it be only for a new balance of power, 
who will guarantee, who can guarantee, 
the stable equilibrium of the new 
arrangement? There must be, not a 

732 



permitted to put my own interpretation 
upon it and that it may be understood 
that no other interpretation was in my 
thought. I am seeking only to face 
realities and to face them without soft 
concealments. Victory would mean 
peace forced upon the loser, a victor's 
terms imposed upon the vanquished . . . 
Only a peace between equals can last . . 
Equality of territory or of resources 
there, of course, cannot be; nor any 
sort of equality not gained in the 
ordinary peaceful and legitimate de- 
velopment of the people themselves. 
But no one asks or expects anything 
more than an equality of rights." 
Of even greater importance was the 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ROBERT LANSING, SECRETARY OF STATE 

recognition of the rights of peoples to 
formulate their own political institu- 
tions. "No peace can last, or ought to 
last, which does not recognize and 
accept the principle that governments 
derive all their just rights from the 
consent of the governed, and that no 
right anywhere exists to hand peoples 
about from sovereignty to sovereignty 

as if they were property Any 

peace which does not recognize and 
accept this principle will inevitably 
be upset." 

THE FREEDOM OF THE SEAS AND LIMITA- 
TION Of armaments. 
A further principle which President 
Wilson considered of vital importance 
was the freedom of the seas. "The 
freedom of the seas is the sine qua non of 
peace, equality, and cooperation." 
Such freedom contemplated "the free, 
constant, unthreatened intercourse of 
nations" on the high seas. In the case 
of nations whose territory did not 
touch the high seas a guaranteed and 
neutralized right of way should be 
provided. The problem of the freedom 
of the seas involved the limitation of 
naval armaments which in turn "opens 
the wider and perhaps more difhcult 
question of the limitation of armies 



and of all programmes of military pre- 
paration. " These questions are difficult 
and "they must be- faced with the 
utmost cahdor and decided in a 
spirit of real accommodation, if peace is 
to come with healing in its wings, and 
come to stay. Peace cannot be had 
without concession and sacrifice." 

These were the conditions upon which 
the President felt that the United 
States might be asked to join with the 
nations of Europe in guaranteeing 
the peace of the world. While speaking 
as an individual he was "confident that 
I have said what the people of the 
United States would wish me to say." 
Moreover he expressed the hope that 
he was speaking "for the silent mass 
of mankind everywhere who have had 
as yet no opportunity to speak their 
real hearts out concerning the death 
and ruin they see to have come already 
upon the persons and homes they 

hold most dear I speak with the 

greater boldness because it is clear to 
every man who can think that there is 
in this promise no breach in either our 
traditions or our policy as a nation, 
but a fulfilment, rather, of all that we 
have professed or striven for. I am 
proposing, as it were, that the nations 




WALTER H. PAGE, AMBASSADOR TO GREAT 
BRITAIN 

733 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



should with one accord adopt the 
doctrine of President Monroe as the 
doctrine of the world; that no nation 
should seek to extend its polity over 
any other nation or people, but that 
every people should be left free to 
determine its own polity, its own 
way of development, unhindered, un- 
afraid, the little along with the great 
and powerful." 



out the country the President's words 
made a deep impression, and excited 
much discussion. It is significant that 
there was so little popular dissent from 
the bold stand. Such criticism as ap- 
peared was directed chiefly to the de- 
mands of a "peace without victory. " A 
few objected to the idea that the United 
States should assume any position in 
settling European quarrels. Senator 




GENERAL PERSHING AND STAFF ON BOARD THE BALTIC 
General Pershing and his staff arrived at Liverpool June 7, 1917, and after a short stay in England crossed over to 
France and established headquarters there, first in Paris, but later at Chaumont. Though the staff was subse- 
quently much enlarged, and changed in harmony with General Pershing's idea of giving every man service with 
troops, some of these officers retained their positions until the Armistice. 

THE UNITED STATES TO ABANDON THE 
POLICY OF ISOLATION. 

This speech gives striking evidence 
how greatly two years of war in Europe 
had influenced political thinking in 
the United States. Probably no Amer- 
ican president had ever before so 
frankly proposed such a fundamental 
change in the foreign policy of the 
country. It was a clear call to the 
people of the United States to abandon 
their traditional isolation from the 
affairs of Europe and to assume among 
the nations of the world that position 
of leadership which their material and 
moral strength warranted. Through- 

734 



Borah was thus early voicing loud op- 
position to any change in the policy 
of the Nation. Many expressed the 
view that a lasting peace would not 
come until the military power of Ger- 
many was crushed. Ex-President 
Roosevelt was particularly bitter. 

Scarcely time enough was allowed 
for the country to realize the full 
significance of the change which this 
address contemplated before it was 
called upon to face a situation which 
transformed the United States from 
a deeply interested observer into a 
full participant in the great world 
drama. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




NEWTON D. BAKER, SECRETARY OF WAR 

WHY UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WAR- 
FARE WAS RESUMED. 

For nine months the German author- 
ities generally observed the promise 
that merchant vessels should not be 
sunk without warning and without 
saving human lives. All at once 
without the slightest warning, on the 
31st of January, 1 91 7, they served 
notice that they proposed to resume 
unrestricted submarine warfare. 

The war had lasted much longer 
than the German military leaders had 
anticipated. The strength of the 
Teutonic allies had reached, if it had 
not passed, its maximum. Every month 
that passed brought added strength to 
their enemies. A war of attrition 
could only end in a German defeat. 
The resources of the United States 
were aiding the Entente. There appear- 
ed to be but one hope and that was to 
force Great Britain to capitulate by a 
policy of submarine terror. The ele- 
ments which were willing to risk a 
rupture with the United States grew 
stronger. In the event of a break the 
German leaders assumed that a coun- 
try so unprepared for war could do 
little damage, at least not before the 
submarine had starved Great Britain 
into submission. Events were to prove 



that they miscalculated as badly in 
this instance as they djd in the invasion 
of Belgium. 



D' 



IPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE GER- 
MAN EMPIRE ARE SEVERED. 

The new war zone extended from a 
point four hundred miles west of Ireland 
and ran to a point nine hundred miles 
west of Bordeaux. Lanes of safety in the 
North Sea, along the Spanish coast 
and in the Mediterranean Sea were 
designated in order that access might 
be had to neutral states. As a con- 
cession to the United States one ship a 
week was to be permitted to sail to 
England, provided it sailed on a 
specified day, over a designated course 
to the port of Falmouth, and displayed 
certain distinctive markings. Moreover 
the United States government must 
guarantee that such ships carried no 
contraband. In submitting these pro- 
posals the German government hoped 
"that the United States may view the 
new situation from the lofty heights of 
impartiality and assist, on their part, to 
prevent further misery and avoidable 
sacrifice of human life." Both the 
remarkable character of the German 
proposals and the arrogant method of 




JOSEPHUS DANIELS, SECRETARY OF 
THE NAVY 

735 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDING 
AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

their presentation created amusement 
as well as resentment throughout the 
United States. 

The German proposals were so 
clearly a repudiation of the Sussex 
pledge that President Wilson immedi- 
ately ordered the recall of Ambassador 
Gerard from Berlin and sent Ambassa- 
dor von Bernstorff his passports. At 
the same time he stated that he did not 
believe that Germany would really do 
what she threatened to do. In closing 
his address to Congress he said: "We 
do not desire any hostile conflict with 
the Imperial German Government. 
We are the sincere friends of the 
German people and earnestly desire 
to remain at peace with the Govern- 
ment that speaks for them. We shall 
not believe that they are hostile to us 
unless and until we are obliged to 
believe it; and we purpose nothing 
more than the reasonable defense of 
the undoubted rights of our people .... 
seek merely to vindicate our right to 
liberty and justice and an unmolest- 
ed life. These are the bases of peace, 
not war. God grant we may not be 

736 



challenged to defend them by acts of 
willful injustice on the part of the 
Government of Germany!" 

OTHER NATIONS HESITATE TO BREAK OBf 
RELATIONS. 

President Wilson immediately noti- 
fied all other neutral governments of 
the action of the United States and 
suggested that they take similar action. 
Though none followed the example of 
the United States, all the European 
nations, the majority of the South 
American republics, and China also, 
sent vigorous notes of protest to the 
German government. 

There is little doubt that the Presi- 
dent expressed the feeling of the 
majority of the American people. It is 
true that there were some who felt that 
the United States should have entered 
the war at the time of the sinking 
of the Lusitania, while on the other 
hand there were some German-Ameri- 
cans and pacifists who maintained that 
the President was leading the country 
into a war which might be avoided. 
The most conspicuous of the latter 
was Mr. Bryan who urged the people 




VICE-ADMIRAL WM. S. SIMS, COMMANDING 
IN EUROPEAN WATERS 




THE FIRST AMERICAN TROOPS DISEMBARKING IN FRANCE 

The first American troops that landed in France in June, 1917, belonged to the First Division. The French were 
much interested in their appearance, their uniforms and their methods, all of which were quite different 
from those of the French Soldiers. Here they are in line waiting to carry their impedimenta from the transport. 



U^i 




y/j^ 


1 ■ f;.^S(fip-r,-' 


^" vvy 








nw^ f 


J f^ ^^ ^ 



THE FLAG OF THE SIXTEENTH REGIMENT IN PARIS 
Some of the regiments of the American Army have a long and honorable history. This is the regimental flag 
with the national colors, and the color guard of the Sixteenth Regiment of the Regular Arniy. This regiment 
paraded in Paris on July 4, 1917, where the American troops attracted much attention. The size of the men was 
one of the causes of wonder and almost of astonishment. 

737 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



to telegraph the President and Con- 
gressmen not to involve the country 
in a war "on European soil in settle- 
ment of European quarrels." 

AMBASSADOR GERARD IS HAMPERED IN 
l\ LEAVING GERMANY. 

Leaving German interests in the 
hands of Dr. Paul Ritter, the Swiss 
Minister, Ambassador von Bernstorff 
sailed from New York on February 14, 
accompanied by the embassy officials 
and a number of prominent Germans. 
After some delay at Halifax, where the 
British authorities made a thorough 
search of baggage despite protests, the 
party arrived safely at Copenhagen. 
The American ambassador was not so 
fortunate in his efforts to leave Germany. 
Upon presenting his demand for his 
passports he was assured that they 
would be promptly furnished. Sub- 
sequently, however, the German au- 
thorities submitted to him a number of 
proposals which they suggested should 
be added to the existing treaty between 
the United States and Germany. These 
proposals provided that the personal 
and property rights of the citizens of 
each nation should remain undisturbed 
and that such citizens should not be 
interned or otherwise molested. Mr. 
Gerard firmly declined to transmit any 
such proposals and renewed his request 
for his passports. After a delay of four 
more days the German authorities 
complied with his demand and he was 
able at last to leave for Switzerland. 
Thence he returned to the United 
States by way of France and Spain. 
The Spanish Ambassador and the 
Dutch Minister took over the affairs 
of the United States. 

With the break in diplomatic rela- 
tions the German authorities tried 
to induce the President to enter upon 
another long diplomatic discussion. 
Through the Swiss Minister it was 
proposed that the United States 
indicate how the submarine warfare 
might be modified to satisfy our 
demands. To this suggestion the 
President returned a flat refusal to 
enter upon any discussion unless the 
German authorities repealed the decree 
of January 31 with its threat of unre- 
stricted submarine warfare. 

738 



THE EFFECT OF THE ANNOUNCEMENT ON 
AMERICAN SHIPPING. 

In American shipping circles the 
German threat aroused serious concern. 
Owners refused to allow their vessels to 
leave American ports and under- 
writers declined to insure the cargoes 
unless adequate protection was assured. 
As a result there was a practical 
embargo on American shipping. To 
meet this situation President Wilson 
went before Congress on February 26 
and asked for authority to place arms 
on American ships and to use "any 
other instrumentalities and methods" 
that he might deem necessary to 
protect American ships and property 
on the high seas. In Congress a bill was 
introduced appropriating $100,000,000 
to provide armament for merchant 
ships but that body was unwilling to 
grant the President the additional 
power which he requested. The bill 
passed the House of Representatives 
by a large majority. In the Senate a 
small but determined group of Senators 
conducted a filibuster to prevent the 
passage of the bill before the expiration 
of the session on March 4. They were 
Senators La Follette, Norris, Cummins, 
Gronna, Clapp, and Works, Republic- 
ans; and Stone, O'Gorman, Kirby, 
Lane and Vardaman, Democrats. 

THE INTERCEPTED GERMAN NOTE SEEK- 
ING ALLIANCE WITH MEXICO. 

While the debate in the Senate was 
proceeding the State Department is- 
sued an intercepted dispatch from 
Dr. Alfred Zimmermann, then German 
Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 
to the German Minister in Mexico 
which gave a striking illustration of 
the utter stupidity of German diplo- 
macy. The Zimmermann dispatch 
was as follows: 

"On the first of February we intend 
to begin submarine warfare unrestrict- 
ed. In spite of this, it is our intention 
to endeavor to keep neutral with the 
United States of America. If this 
attempt is not successful, we propose 
an alliance on the following basis with 
Mexico. That we shall make war 
together and together make peace. 
We shall give general financial support 
and it is understood that Mexico is to 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



'econquer the lost territory of New 
Mexico, Texas and Arizona. The 
details are left to you for settlement. 
"You are instructed to inform the 
President of Mexico of the above in 
the greatest confidence as soon as it 
is certain that there will be an outbreak 
of war with the United States, and 
suggest that the President of Mexico, 



effect of overcoming the opposition 
in the Senate to the President's propos- 
al and the session closed without action 
having been taken. ' Seventy-five of 
the ninety-six members of the Senate 
signed a protest in which they in- 
dicated their desire to vote for the 
measure but were prevented from 
doing so because of the Senate rule 




THE LANDSHIP "RECRUIT" IN UNION SQUARE, NEW YORK 

One of the most interesting and effective aids to recruiting for the Navy was the landship "Recruit" in Union Square, 
which remained during the whole war. It was a reproduction in wood of one of the great steel battleships, lattice 
masts, ship's bell and all. Prospective recruits could see sailors going about their daily tasks. 

New York Times Photo Service 

on his own initiative, should com- 
municate with Japan, suggesting ad- 
herence at once to the plan, and at the 
same time to offer to mediate between 
Japan and Germany. Please call to the 
attention of the President of Mexico 
that the employment of ruthless sub- 
marine warfare now promises to compel 
England to make peace in a few 
months." 

THE PRESIDENT REBUKES "THE LITTLE 
GROUP OF WILLFUL MEN." 

The disclosure of this effort on the 
part of Germany to embroil the United 
States with its southern neighbor 
aroused bitter resentment throughout 
the country, but it did not have the 



allowing unlimited debate. Others 
would have signed had they been 
present. 

The day following the close of the 
session of Congress President Wilson 
issued a stinging rebuke to the "little 
group of willful men " who had defeated 
the will of the great majority of the 
members of Congress. He declared 
that it was a situation "unparalleled 
in the history of the country, perhaps 
in the history of any modern govern- 
ment More than 500 of the 531 

members of the two houses were ready 
and anxious to act; The House of 
Representatives had acted by an 
overwhelming majority, but the Senate 

739 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



was unable to act because a little 
group of eleven Senators had deter- 
mined that it should not The 

Senate of the United States is the only 
legislative body in the world that 
cannot act when its majority is ready 
for action. A little group of willful 
men, representing no opinion but their 
own, have rendered the great Govern- 
ment of the United States helpless 
and contemptible The only rem- 
edy is that the rules of the Senate shall 



can be brought to a vote when two- 
thirds of the members so order. 
Having accomplished his purpose 
President Wilson then obtained an 
opinion from the Attorney-General 
that he had the authority to place 
armament on merchant vessels without 
further authorization from Congress. 
Acting upon this opinion it was announ- 
ced that armed guards would be placed 
on all American vessels passing through 
the war zone. This condition of armed 




FLEET OF AMERICAN TROOPSHIPS OUTWARD BOUND ON THE ATLANTIC 

At a distance of about a mile, in order to be able to manoeuvre freely, steam the second and third ships of this 
fleet. The men, wearing their life-belts, are prepared for submarine attack; the guns in readiness for training 
on the difficult mark of the elusive periscope; the life-boats swung out for quick launching. 

© International Film Service 



be so altered that it can act. The 
country can be relied upon to draw the 
moral. I believe that the Senate can be 
relied on to supply the means of action 
and save the country from disaster." 

ARMED NEUTRALITY MOVES ON TOWARD 
l\ OPEN WAR. 

The response of the country to the 
appeal of the President was immediate 
and impressive. Mass meetings were 
held to condemn the action of the 
"willful" Senators. Societies adopted 
resolutions of protest and the legisla- 
tures of a number of states pledged 
their support to the President. 
Impressed by this outburst of public 
feeling the Senate, in special session, 
modified its rules so that a measure 

740 



neutrality could obviously not con- 
tinue any great length of time. Either 
Germany must abandon her policy 
of submarine ruthlessness or a clash 
was certain to result. On March 19, 
news was received that three American 
ships had been sunk within twenty-four 
hours with the loss of fifteen lives. 
From all parts of the country came 
demands for immediate and decisive 
action. 

Fortified by these expressions of 
public opinion the President, on March 
21, summoned Congress to meet in 
special session on April 2 "to receive 
a communication from the Executive 
on grave questions of national policy 
which should be taken immediately 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



jnder consideration." As the mo- 
nentous day approached there was in- 
:reasing evidence of popular enthusi- 
asm. Mass-meetings were called for 
the purpose of adopting patriotic 
resolutions. Numbers of prominent 
persons went to Washington for the 
historic event. On the other hand a 
group of pacifists also appeared to 
make a final demonstration against 



"With a profound sense of the 
solemn and even tragical character 
of the step I am taking and of the 
grave responsibilities which it involves, 
but in unhesitating obedience to what I 
deem my constitutional duty, I advise 
that the Congress declare the recent 
course of the Imperial German Govern- 
ment to be in fact nothing less than war 
against the Government and people 




THE FIRST UNITED STATES SOLDIERS IN LONDON 



For the first time in history United States soldiers marched through London on August 15, 1917. They were re- 
viewed by the King, the War Cabinet adjourned to observe the spectacle, and the streets were crowded with 
interested and friendly spectators. Here they are seen marching through Bird Cage Walk to their camp. 

© London Daily Mail 



entering the war. At 8:30 in the 
evening of April 2, the President 
entered the hall of the House of 
Representatives. He was greeted 
with the greatest enthusiasm. Nearly 
every member in the great audi- 
ence carried an American flag. With 
an earnestness and dignity which the 
gravity of the occasion called for the 
President read his war message. 

PRESIDENT WILSON'S MEMORABLE WAR 
MESSAGE TO CONGRESS. 

Reviewing Germany's acts since the 
renewal of unrestricted submarine 
warfare and characterizing them as 
"warfare against mankind," he said: 



of the United States; that it formally 
accept the status of belligerent which 
has thus been thrust upon it and that 
it take immediate steps not only to 
put the country in a more thorough 
state of defense, but also to exert 
all its power and employ all its re- 
sources to bring the Government of 
the German Empire to terms and to 
end the war." 

The President then indicated some 
of the things which he considered 
essential to be done in order to make 
our participation in the war effective. 
These included the extension of 
financial aid to the nations at war with 

741 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Germany, the development and or- 
ganization of our industries to make 
them most effective for conduct of 
the war, the strengthening of the 
navy and the expansion of the army 
to at least five hundred thousand men 
at once with additional forces to be 
raised "upon the principle of universal 
liability to service. " In defraying the 
expenses of the war the President 
suggested that as large a proportion as 
possible should be borne by taxation. 

WAR ONLY A STEP TOWARD A NEW 
WORLD ORDER. 

While the illegal actions of the 
German Government were a sufficient 
justification for our entrance into the 
war the President desired to look 
beyond questions of self interest to the 
more fundamental question of the 
defense of democratic ideals and the 
organization of a new world order. 
Turning to these objects he said: 

''My own thought has not been 
driven from its habitual and normal 
course by the unhappy events of the 
last two months, and I do not believe 
that the thought of the nation has been 
altered or clouded by them. I have 
exactly the same things in mind now 
that I had in mind when I addressed 
the Senate on the twenty-second of 
January last; the same that I had in 
mind when I addressed the Congress 
on the third of February and on the 
twenty-sixth of February. Our object 
now, as then, is to vindicate the 
principles of peace and justice in the 
life of the world as against selfish and 
autocratic power and to set up amongst 
the really free and self-governed peoples 
of the world such a concert of purpose 
and of action as will henceforth ensure 
the observance of these principles. 

"Neutrality is no longer feasible or 
desirable where the peace of the world 
is involved and the freedom of its 
peoples, and the menace to that peace 
and freedom lies in the existence of 
autocratic governments backed by 
organized force which is controlled 
wholly by their will, not by the will 
of their people. We have seen the 
last of neutrality in such circumstances. 
We are at the beginning of an age in 
which it will be insisted that the same 

742 



standards of conduct and of re- 
sponsibility for wrong done shall be 
observed among nations and their 
governments that are observed among 
the individual citizens of civilized 
states." 

"T T 7E HAVE NO QUARREL WITH THE GER- 
VV MAN PEOPLE." 

The President made it clear that our 
quarrel was with the German govern- 
ment not the German people. "We 
have no quarrel with the German 
people. We have no feeling toward 
them but one of sympathy and friend- 
ship. It was not upon their impulse 
that their Government acted in enter- 
ing the war. It was not with their 
previous knowledge or approval. It 
was a war determined upon as wars 
used to be determined upon in the 
old, unhappy days when peoples were 
nowhere consulted by their rulers and 
wars were provoked and waged in 
the interest of dynasties or of little 
groups of ambitious men who were 
accustomed to use their fellowmen 
as pawns and tools. 

* * We are now about to accept the gage 
of battle with this natural foe of 
liberty and shall, if necessary, spend 
the whole force of the nation to check 
and nullify its pretensions and its 
power. We are glad, now that we see 
the facts with no veil of false pretense 
about them, to fight thus for the 
ultimate peace of the world and for the 
liberation of its peoples, the German 
peoples included; for the rights of 
nations great and small and the 
privilege of men everywhere to choose 
their way of life and obedience. 

"q^HE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR 
1 DEMOCRACY." 

"The world must be made safe for 
democracy. Its peace must be planted 
upon the tested foundations of political 
liberty. We have no selfish ends to 
serve. We desire no conquest, no 
dominion. We seek no indemnities 
for ourselves, no material compensation 
for the sacrifices we shall freely make. 
We are but one of the champions of 
mankind. We shall be satisfied when 
these have been made as secure as 
the faith and the freedom of nations 
can make them 



J 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



"It is a distressing and oppressive 
duty, gentlemen of the Congress, 
which I have performed in thus 
addressing you. There are, it may be, 
many months of fiery trial and sacrifice 
ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead 
this great peaceful people into war, 
into the most terrible and disastrous 
of wars, civilization itself seeming to 
be in the balance. 



had taken. The alliance of the Russian 
autocracy with the democracies of the 
west had been an anomaly. It had 
weakened the contention of the Entente 
that they were fighting to maintain 
democratic ideals.. But the Russian 
Revolution, which occurred some two 
weeks before the entrance of the United 
States into the war, left Germany 
as the one great stronghold of autoc- 




GENERAL PERSHING ARRIVING AT BOULOGNE 

On his arrival at Boulogne, June 13, 1917, General Pershing was met by a delegation including M. Besnard, Under 
Secretary of State for War, and the one-armed veteran. General Pelletier, who had been designated to attend him. 
General Pershing is here passing in review the sailors assigned as part of the guard of honor. 

© Picture, Kadel & Herbert 



"But the right is more precious than 
peace, and we shall fight for the things 
which we have always carried nearest 
our hearts, — for democracy, for the 
right of those who submit to authority 
to have a voice in their own govern- 
ments, for the rights and liberties of 
small nations, for a universal dominion 
of right by such a concert of free 
peoples as shall bring peace and safety 
to all nations and make the world 
itself at last free." 

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION ADDS FORCE 
TO THE MESSAGE. 

Events in Russia had given added 
force to the position which the President 



racy in the world. With truth could 
the President then proclaim that the 
struggle was between the two antagon- 
istic principles of autocracy and democ- 
racy. 

CONGRESS VOTES FOR WAR BY AN OVER- 
WHELMING MAJORITY. 

Following the reading of the Presi- 
dent's Message resolutions were intro- 
duced in both houses of Congress 
declaring that a state of war had 
been thrust upon the United States 
by Germany. The resolution passed 
the Senate April 4, by a vote of 82 to 6. 
The six negative votes were cast by 
Senators La Follette, Gronna and 

743 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Norris, Republicans; and Stone, Lane 
and Vardaman, Democrats. In the 
House of Representatives after an 
all day debate the resolution passed 
April 6, by a vote of 373 to 50, nine 
members not votings Of the negative 
votes 16 were Democrats, 32 Republic- 
ans, I Socialist, and i Independent. 
The resolution was signed by President 
Wilson the same day. 

Among the nations at war with 
Germany the entrance of the United 
States into the struggle created a 
profound impression. From both of- 
ficial and private sources came ex- 
pressions of deepest feeling and appre- 
ciation. President Poincare declared 
that "the great American Republic*' 
had proven "faithful to its ideals and 
its traditions." Mr. Asquith, speaking 
before the House of Commons, said, 
"I do not use language of flattery or 
exaggeration when I say it is one of the 
most disinterested acts in history." 

''pHE EFFECT OF THE DECLARATION ON 
1 THE UNITED STATES. 

Throughout the United States the 
news was received with a calm dignity 
which befitted the momentous charac- 
ter of the action. There was neither 
tumult nor hysteria, but everywhere 
there was evidence of a deep and 
sincere patriotism. 

The immediate effects of the entrance 
of the United States into the war were 
moral rather than material. Not for 
many months were the tremendous 
resources of the country fully prepared 
to make their force felt in Europe. 
But the moral value of the action was 
immediate and profound. To the war- 
weary British and French it brought 
new hope at a time when the situation 
was particularly discouraging. 

Following the declaration of war 
against Germany, Austria-Hungary 
broke diplomatic relations with the 
United States, April 8, but the United 
States did not formally declare war 
against her until December 7, 1917. 
With the other two members of the 
Teutonic alliance, Turkey and Bulgaria, 
no declaration of war was made, and 
diplomatic intercourse was not sus- 
pended with the latter. Turkey broke 
relations on April 20, 191 7. 

744 



THE ACTION OF OTHER STATES OF THE 
WESTERN HEMISPHERE. 

Influenced by the action of the 
United States, Cuba immediately de- 
clared war without a dissenting voice. 
The President of Panama had previ- 
ously been given authority to declare 
war when he should deem it advisable, 
and at once issued a proclamation, 
placing Panama beside the United 
States. Brazil severed diplomatic re- 
lations on April 10, and declared war 
in October. Haiti declared war in 
September, and Guatemala, Nicara- 
gua and Costa Rica followed in 191 8. 

Bolivia severed relations on April 13, 
Honduras in May, San Salvador and 
Santo Domingo in June, Uruguay and 
Peru in October, and - Ecuador in 
December. Mexico declared for neu- 
trality, but was really unfriendly to - 
the United States. Chile, Argentina, I 
Venezuela, Paraguay and Colombia for ■ 
various reasons remained neutral, 
though public sentiment in some of j 
these countries, so far as it was I 
articulate, was strongly against Ger- 
many. 

FRENCH AND BRITISH MISSIONS VISIT 
THE UNITED STATES. 

Soon after the Declaration of War, 
several Allied Commissions visited the 
United States. The British, headed by 
Mr. Arthur J. Balfour, which reached 
Washington April 22, and the French, 
headed by ex-Premier Viviani and 
Marshal Joffre, which arrived April 25, 
excited the greatest enthusiasm. Both 
M. Viviani and Mr. Balfour addressed 
the House of Representatives by in- 
vitation and the former addressed the 
Senate also. Both Commissions visited 
the tomb of Washington at Mt. Vernon 
where impressive exercises were held. 
, Both then made visits to some of the 
principal cities of the country and were 
everywhere received with great en- 
thusiasm. Marshal Joffre was greeted 
with especial warmth and his frank 
honesty deepened the regard in which 
he was already held in Chicago, St. 
Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, 111., 
and Philadelphia. In New York the 
city was elaborately decorated to re- 
ceive the missions, and dinners and 
receptions were offered. 




"LAFAYETTE! WE ARE HERE" 
On the afternoon of June 15, 1917, General Pershing with members of his stafiE and French officers visited the tomb 
of Lafayette at the Picpus Cemetery, and laid a wreath upon the grave of the man who had left home and family 
and crossed the ocean to fight for the freedom of the struggling American colonies. 




RECEPTION GIVEN TO GENERAL PERSHING IN PARIS 
After showing himself to the people of Paris from the balcony of the Military Club, this picture was made. General 
Pelletier is seen immediately behind Madame Joffre, who is seen between General Pershing and Marshal Joffre. 
On the other side of General Pershing is General Foch, not yet recognized as the man of the hour. General 
Dubail and his little son are to the right of Marshal Joefre. Upper picture © Kadel & Herbert 

745 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Meanwhile the technical members 
were at work with the corresponding 
American officers, or officials, giving 
them the benefit of the knowledge they 
had gained in the hard school of 
experience. This instruction was of 
untold benefit, and enabled the War 
and Navy Departments to avoid mak- 
ing many mistakes, and at the same 
time showed how they could best 
co-operate with their associates in the 
war. Several of the officers remained 



as, first, money, second, food, third, 
raw materials (both of these dependent 
upon shipping) and finally, men. 

Congress at once went to work upon 
the problems. The first loan act pro- 
viding for a popular loan of seven bil- 
lion dollars passed the House April 14, 
and the Senate on April 17 without a 
dissenting voice. Of this, three billion 
dollars was to be loaned to the nations 
of the Entente. Two billion dollars 
was offered for popular subscription on 




WOMAN'S MOTOR CORPS DRILLING' 
The women of the United States sought ways to help, and numerous motor corps were organized to drive ambu- 
lances, act as chauffeurs for officers, carry messages, or transport soldiers. This picture shows the Woman's 
Motor Corps in their smart uniforms drilling at Fort Totten, under direction of Lieutenant Colonel Paul Loesser. 

Times Photo Service 

May 15, and was oversubscribed by 
fifty per cent. The first loan to an 
Entente nation was $200,000,000 to 
Great Britain, one of the largest checks 
ever drawn, and before the middle of 
July the total loans to Great Britain, 
France, Russia, Italy and Belgium 
amounted to more than $1,300,000,000, 
and these loans were continued. Mean- 
while the House Committee on Ways 
and Means worked upon a revenue 
bill greatly Increasing taxation. 

THE COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE 
BEGINS ITS WORK. 



as technical advisers after their chiefs 
had returned home by way of Canada. 
Later M. Andre Tardleu and Lord 
Northcliffe were appointed special com- 
missioners by France and Great Britain 
respectively. 

WHAT WERE THE MOST IMPORTANT 
NEEDS OF THE ALLIES? 

The extent and form of American 
participation was next to be settled. 
Some had supposed that food and raw 
materials, together with perhaps some 
naval co-operation would be all that 
would be expected from the United 
States. President Wilson soon indi- 
cated, however, that all the resources 
of the country would be thrown into 
the scale. The Allied needs wer« stated 

746 



A Council of National Defense had 
been created consisting of the Secre- 
taries of War, Navy, Interior, Agricul- 
ture, Commerce, and of Labor, with an 



I 




ON THE WAY TO CAMP UPTON AT YAPHANK 

Selective Service men from New York City were sent to Camp Upton at Yaphank, Long Island. These men 
were sent by Local Boards 174 and 175 and their expressions show the spirit in which the great majority of the 
young men of the United States approached the duty laid upon them. New York Times Photo Service 







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SELECTIVE SERVICE MEN FROM CHICAGO PARADING 
The term "conscript" has never been popular in the United States. In this war, the term Selective Service men 
was used in preference and every effort was made to do them honor. Here are shown men of some of the early 
drafts from Chicago on their way to camp, parading before a crowd which packed the sidewalks. The National 
Guard is drawn up on the left of the picture. Underwood & Underwood 

747 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Advisory Commission consisting first of 
Daniel Willard, chairman, Transporta- 
tion and Communication; Howard E. 
Coffin, Munitions and Manufacturing 
(including standardization) and Indus- 
trial Relations; Julius Rosenwald, Sup- 
plies (including clothing), etc.; Bernard 
M. Baruch, Raw Materials, Minerals 
and Metals; Dr. Hollis Godfrey, En- 
gineering and Education; Samuel 
Gompers, Labor, including conserva- 



sands of "dollar-a-year" men, many of 
whom rendered services of inestimable 
value. The office of Food Controller 
was filled by the appointment of 
Herbert C. Hoover, who had won fame 
by his administration of the Commis- 
sion for Relief in Belgium, and Presi- 
dent H. A. Garfield of Williams College, 
himself a son of President Garfield and 
formerly an attorney, was appointed 
Fuel Administrator. 











5 9HHHII 





MEN IN TRAINING BUILDING ROADS 

The heavy trucks carrying supplies soon cut the roads around the camps into holes and mud. One of the first 
things to be done was to construct permanent roads which would stand up under the traffic. Many of the men 
were not accustomed to manual labor. These are members of Company D, 22d Engineers. 

Int. News Service 

tion of health and welfare of workers; 
Dr. Franklin Martin, Medicine and 
Surgery, including general sanitation. 

This body began immediately to 
make a survey and to organize the 
resources of the country. They called 
business and professional men of the 
country to their aid and thousands 
responded to the call. Then began an 
interesting feature of the war. Many 
men left their private affairs and 
sought to serve the government gratis. 
In order to be enrolled it was necessary 
that a salary be attached to the posi- 
tion. Therefore we have the thou- 



THE SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT BRINGS THE 
WAR TO ALL. 

After some hesitation, Congress 
passed the Selective Service Act on 
May 1 8. The authorized strength of 
the regular army was increased to 
293,000 and the National Guard to 
625,000 men, and men might enlist for 
the war and not for a fixed term. More 
important, however, were the provi- 
sions calling for a registration of all 
men between the ages of twenty-one 
and thirty-one. From these a first 
draft of 500,000 men was to be drawn 
for the new National Army and a 



748 



I 




THE FIRST AMERICAN GUN FIRED IN FRANCE 
Early in the morning on October 23, 1917, this gun, belonging to Battery C of the 6th Field Artillery, was drawn 
forward and fired. The shot was aimed in the direction of Berlin — not at any definite target. The gun then 
ranked as an historic "relic," and was shipped home to West Point for preservation and exhibition. 




GRAVES OF THE FIRST AMERICANS KILLED IN FRANCE 

The first American battle losses occurred in a German trench raid on the night of November 3, 1917. Three men. 
Corporal Gresham of Indiana, and Privates Enright, of Pennsylvania, and Hay, of Iowa, were killed. They were 
buried with the honors of war at the village of Bathlemont, and the French erected these temporary memorials 
over their graves. 

749 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



second instalment of the same size 
when needed. Men might also be 
drafted into the Regulars and the 
National Guard. Local and district 
boards composed of civilians appointed 
by the President had entire control of 
exemptions, in accordance with the 
provisions of the law. The President 
fixed June 5 as Registration Day, on 
which day the young manhood of the 
country was to report. The total regis- 
tration was 9,659,382. 

The drawing to determine the order 
in which the registrants should be 
called before their Local Boards was 
held in Washington on July 20, 191 7. 
The plan was simple. The registrants 
in each district had been numbered in 
order as they appeared. Since the 
largest district had registered some- 
thing less than 10,500 men, that num- 
ber of capsules each containing a num- 
ber had been prepared. From a large 
urn, blindfolded tellers drew capsules 
until all were exhausted. The first 
number drawn was "258". This meant 
that Number 258 in every district in 
which so many had registered was to be 
the first man called before his Local 
Board for examination. The second 
number was 2,522 and the third, 9,613. 
Where these high numbers did not 
appear in the smaller districts they were 
ignored, and the next number which 
did appear taken. These "master 
sheets" containing the numbers in the 
order in whicli they were drawn 
governed absolutely the order in which 
men were called. The quota which 
each state and district was to furnish 
depended upon the population. 

THE OFFICERS' TRAINING CAMPS GRADU- 
ATE THOUSANDS OF CANDIDATES. 

Meanwhile sixteen Officers' Train- 
ing Camps where candidates for com- 
missions could undergo a period of 
intensive training for three months 
were established in different parts of 
the country corresponding to the dis- 
tricts into which the country was 
divided for the purpose of training. 
They were soon filled with 40,000 young 
men of whom more than 27,000 re- 
ceived commissions. A second series 
immediately followed. In January, 
191 8, a third series drawing candidates 

750 



chiefly from the army itself was held, 
and later a fourth series. 

Camps to train the citizen soldiers 
were established, sixteen for the Na- 
tional Guard and the same number 
for the National Army as the forces 
raised under the Selective Service Act 
were called. In the National Guard 
camps the men were housed in tents, 
though warehouses, mess halls and the 
like were of wood. The National Army 
camps or cantonments were wooden 
cities, each of which housed nearly 
forty thousand men. The number 
of men in a division was increased, and a 
whole division was trained in each. 
For reasons of climate the National 
Guard camps were generally placed 
•in the South, and the National Army 
camps were placed as far South as 
the limits of the department would 
allow. They were named for former 
military leaders of the United States. 
It may be stated here that August 7, 
191 8, an order was issued abolishing all 
distinctions and consolidating Regu- 
lars, Guard and National Army into 
the United States Army. 

WHY WERE TROOPS SENT TO FRANCE SO 
EARLY? 

It had been understood to be the plan 
of the General Staff to train a large 
army upon this side and transfer it to 
France as a unit. Suddenly it was 
announced that Major-General John J. 
Pershing, who had won a reputation in 
Cuba, in the Philippines, and as the 
leader of the force which pursued Villa 
into Mexico, had been appointed com- 
mander of the American Expeditionary 
Force, and had arrived in England, 
June 8. Soon the news came that 
American troops had arrived in France, 
June 26, 27, and that others would 
follow. It was later learned that spe- 
cial units of Engineers and other tech- 
nical troops had preceded these. 

For this sudden change of plan 
Marshal Joffre was largely responsible, 
as it was learned later. France was at 
that time struggling with that phe- 
nomenon known as "defeatism" which 
has been discussed elsewhere (Chapt^ 
XXXI). The French people had suf- 
fered cruelly and were war-weary and 
despondent. Marshal Joffre declared 




mSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



that the sight of American troops, no 
matter how few, as tangible evidence 
of America's intentions would have a 
tonic effect upon French morale. The 
troops sent were the First Division of 
Regulars and a regiment of Marines. 
Their parade in Paris on July 4, ex- 
cited great enthusiasm and the ex- 
pected effect was produced. Before the 
end of 1 91 7 the First and Second 
Divisions of Regulars and three Guard 
Divisions had reached France and 
were in training there. These were the 
Twenty-sixth, or New England Divi- 
sion, the Forty-second, or Rainbow, 
drawn from every section of the coun- 



Commander J. K. Taussig, arrived at 
Queenstown, Ireland, and took their 
share of patrol, convoy and anti- 
submarine work. They were followed 
by other ships of various kinds, the 
story of which is told elsewhere. Before 
formal declaration of war, Rear-Ad- 
miral William S. Sims, President of the 
Naval War College, had been sent to 
Great Britain to act as the representa- 
tive of the United States Navy. When 
the United States entered the war he 
was raised to the temporary rank of 
Vice-Admiral and given large author- 
ity. Meanwhile recruiting for the Navy 
was brisk. 




ENGINEERS ERECTING A CANTONMENT IN FRANCE 
Housing two million men is a difficult task. Here a cantonment for special purposes is being erected in France 
by the engineers. The lumber was cut to fit in the United States and properly marked. Where possible, without 
taking up more space on shipboard, the pieces were fastened together before shipment. Times Photo Service 



try, and the Forty-first or Sunset, 
drawn from the Far West. American 
soldiers entered the trenches in a 
quiet sector on October 22, 1917, and 
the next morning Battery C of the 
Sixth Field Artillery fired the first 
shot. Two Americans were wounded 
on October 28, and on November 3 the 
first casualties were suffered. Three 
men. Corporal James B. Gresham of 
Evansville, Ind., Thomas F. Enright 
of Pittsburgh, Pa., and Merle D. Hay, 
of Glidden, Iowa, were killed. Eleven 
others were wounded and the same 
number taken prisoners. 
American destroyers appear at oNtE 

■^^ IN EUROPEAN WATERS. 

Immediately upon the recognition of 
a state of war, preparations were made 
for naval co-operation and on May 4, 
the first flotilla of destroyers, under 



The Shipping Board sought to in- 
crease the tonnage by building both 
wood and iron ships, in new yards 
and in old ones which had been re- 
vived. On December i, 191 7, the 
Emergency Fleet Corporation (the con- 
struction agency of the Shipping Board) 
had under construction 884 ships. 

By the end of 191 7 nearly two mil- 
lion men were in training in France or 
the United States, and the industries of 
the country were making every effort 
to provide for the wants of these young 
men. In spite of the submarine, 
American troopships sailed in safety 
to Europe, and at no time did the 
menace seriously interfere with sup- 
plies and food for them, or for the 
Entente nations. The American people 
had recognized that the war was their 
own, and acted accordingly. 

75J 




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A NATIONAL GUARD REGIMENT LEAVING FOR CAMP 
The Twelfth Regiment, National Guard, of New York is shown parading on Fifth Avenue on its way to Camp 
Wadsworth, Spartanburg, South Carolina, where it became a part of the Twenty-Seventh Division. Later this 
division won glory over its service along with the Thirtieth, as a part of the British Army. 




ANOTHER NATIONAL GUARD REGIMENT ON FIFTH AVENUE 
The Seventh Regiment has a long and distinguished record in New York. For a long time it wore a special uniform 
very much like that still worn by the West Point cadets, but later adopted the blue and then the khaki. This regi- 
ment also became a part of the Twenty-Seventh Division, commanded by Major-General John F. O'Ryan, who 
was in command of the New York National Guard before the war. Pictures, Times Photo Service 





A Ghurka Draft in Mesopotamia 

Chapter XLVI 

The Capture of Bagdad 

T IS AVENGED AND THE GREAT CITY OF THE CALIPHS 

IS TAKEN 



I 



N another chapter we left the 
Mesopotamian Army, at the end of 
1916, fully equipped for whatever ad- 
vance its commander-in-chief might 
determine upon. " Briefly put, " wrote 
General Maude in his oflficial narrative 
of the fighting, "the enemy's plan 
appeared to be to contain our main 
forces on the Tigris, while a vigorous 
campaign, which would directly threat- 
en India, was being developed in Persia. 
There were indications, too, of an im- 
pending move down the Euphrates 
towards Nasiriyeh. It seemed clear 
from the outset that the true solution 
of the problem was a resolute offensive, 
with concentrated forces, on the Tigris, 
thus effectively threatening Bagdad, 
the centre from which the enemy's 
columns were operating." 

THE TURKISH DEFENSES ALONG THE 
TIGRIS STRENGTHENED. 

During the autumn the enemy had 
not been idle but had strengthened 
his defenses, particularly the Sanna-i- 
yat position, where he judged attack 
would come. In addition to his six 
lines there he had drawn a regular net- 
work of defenses stretching back fifteen 
miles to Kut. On the right or south 
bank of the river he deemed himself 
impregnable by reason of a bridgehead 
on the Shatt-el-Hai. Nevertheless, 
the British Army had the advantage, 
for if an attack were delivered on 



Sanna-i-yat its right flank would be 
protected by the Suwaicha Marsh, and 
if the attack were made on the line of 
the Shatt-el-Hai the enemy would be 
fighting with his "communications 
parallel," which would imperil his re- 
treat. Maude decided on this latter 
course, and to mislead the Turk opened 
with an assault on the position at 
Sanna-i-yat. Then, when the Turkish 
troops massed here, the weight of 
the offensive swung against the de- 
fenses covering the Shatt-el-Hai. 

GENERAL MAUDE'S PLAN OF ATTACK IN 
TWO COLUMNS. 

The attacking troops were in two 
columns: those on the left bank under 
Lieutenant-General Sir A. S. Cobbe, 
V.C.; those chosen to make the sur- 
prise march on the right under Lieuten- 
ant-General Sir W. R. Marshall. Cobbe 
opened a bombardment of the Sanna-i- 
yat positions December 13, and the 
following night Marshall's column con- 
centrated before Es-Sinn. The next 
morning the Hai River was crossed 
in two places and the column moved 
north on both sides of the river to 
within three miles of Kut. Heavy rain 
fell during the latter part of December, 
but activities were not suspended ; the 
light railway was extended to the Hai, 
more pontoon bridges thrown across, 
and successful raids made upon Turk- 
ish communications. Though the bom- 

753 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



bardment of the Sanna-i-yat positions 
continued, the foe was aHve to the 
threat against his right rear and made 
dispositions to guard against it. 

Maude's first objective had been 
attained; his next step was to clear 
the remaining Turkish trench systems 
on the right of the Tigris. Kut lies in a 




THE CONQUEROR OF BAGDAD 

Lieutenant-General Sir Frederick Stanley Maude, was greatly be- 
loved of the staff and men of the Mesopotamian Force, whose gal- 
lantry and endurance ensured success in the campaign so thor- 
oughly organized by their commander. 

loop of the river which, immediately 
above and below the city, makes two 
deep curves known respectively as the 
Dahra and Khadairi Bends. Across 
both of these, and especially at the 
point where the Hai enters the Tigris 
the Turks were strongly intrenched. 
General Maude described the Dahra 
Bend as "bristling with trenches." 
At Khadairi the enemy had three lines 
across a 2,400-yard loop so that both 
flanks rested on the river, and the 
guns on the north bank could sweep 
the assault with enfilading fire. 

754 



THE REMAINING TURKISH DEFENSES ON 
THE RIGHT BANK ARE TAKEN. 

The British attack began January 5 
on a narrow front of some 600 yards 
and lasted for a fortnight. The Turk 
fought stubbornly and with great 
courage, his sole communications, the 
flooded Tigris in the rear, bridged only 
by a few pontoons. No at- 
tempt was made to rush his 
positions, for it would have 
wasted men, but slowly the 
British artillery pounded out 
his trenches and threw forward 
their own, until at last the 
restricted area became unten- 
able under fierce gunfire and 
what was left of the defenders 
slipped across the river on the 
night of January 8-9. Found 
upon a prisoner were the pic- 
turesque words of the Turkish 
commander congratulating his 
troops upon their steadfast 
valor in the face of bloody 
losses sustained under bom- 
bardment: "The Corps Com- 
mander kisses the eyes of all 
ranks and thanks them." 

There still remained upon the 
right bank of the Tigris the 
Turkish trenches astride the 
Hai River and those across the 
Dahra Bend, strongly made and 
protected on three sides from 
over the river by artillery and 
nests of machine guns. It took 
twenty days of obstinately con- 
tested fighting to force these 
lines, for the Turk was bat- 
tling as one resisting the in- 
vasion of his soil. The Brit- 
ish and Indian troops were possess- 
ed however with the grim determina- 
tion to wipe out there on that site, 
beneath the walls of Kut, the memory 
of their tragic failure to succor the 
garrison, ten months before. Febru- 
ary 15 there was an almost general 
surrender of two enemy brigades, — 
2,200 men, a large amount of artillery, 
war material and medical equipment. 

THE MAIN EFFORTS ARE NEXT TO BE 
MADE. 

In two months' strenuous fighting 
the preliminaries had been successfully 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



carried through: how the Turks held 
only Kut and the left bank of the river. 
The Sanna-i-yat lines were the key to 
the city, and the Mesopotamian Army 
had experienced the cost of frontal 
attacks against these — even before they 
had been reinforced in the autumn. 
Rather than pay this price again the 
British commander determined, if pos- 
sible, to cut the Turkish communica- 



To take the latter first. The Turks 
were, of course, keenly alive to any 
attempted crossing of. the Tigris. Their 
guards patrolled the 'low banks, their 
artillery swept every yard of the 
opposite shore, and the current was 
running strongly downstream. The 
odds against traversing a wide stretch 
of water in open pontoons were serious, 
and General Maude made elaborate 




WHERE THE POPULATION IS AMPHIBIOUS 

Tigris and Euphrates unite their waters to form the Shatt-el-Arab and it is at the mouth of this waterway that the 
troops are seen disembarking. In Mesopotamia as in Egypt football "shorts" were regulation wear, and the soubri- 
quet of "red knees" applied to the new arrival recalls the "red-necks" of the Boer War. 



tions above Kut, and so to imperil the 
enemy's retreat that he would be 
forced to evacuate the town. For the 
success of this action it was necessary 
to divert some of the Turkish strength 
and activity to Sanna i-yat. To make 
this diversion effective, a feint was not 
sufficient. No mere knocking at the 
front door would cause the wide-awake 
owner of the house to leave his back 
door open. Accordingly, dispositions 
for concerted and simultaneous action 
were made against Sanna-i-yat and 
upon the Shumran Bend immediately 
above the Dahra loop, and curving in 
the opposite direction. 



feints at crossing the river at Kut and 
Magasis, and allowed his preparations 
to be covertly observed by the enemy 
who duly noted the creaking of carts 
and splashing of pontoons — in the wrong 
places. By day and night, too, the 
guns thundered against Sanna-i-yat, 
then paused significantly as though to 
allow of infantry advance, while time 
after time the Turk braced himself to 
repulse the bayonet charge which 
never came. Uncertainty then as to 
direction, a diverting of troops, and a 
certain lowering of morale were ob- 
tained before the actual onslaught was 
made. 

755 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE ATTEMPT TO CROSS THE TIGRIS AT 
SHUMRAN BEND. 

The crossing at the south end of the 
Shumran Bend was to be made at three 
points. At No. i Ferry the Norfolks 
made the attempt. All night the 
pioneers labored to prepare the ground, 
and at early dawn, before the mists dis- 
appeared under the hot sun, the pon- 
toons were lifted over the embankment 
and took the water silently. Not until 
they were within fifty yards of the 



the story afterwards in the mud," 
wrote Mr. Edmund Candler, Official 
Eye Witness. "Wherever a keel had 
scored the Turkish shore there were 
Ghurka dead and dead Hants rowers 
who had been lifted from the boats. 
Many of the pontoons still lay stranded 
in the mud. One had a hole in its side, 
a direct hit by a shell, and nine dead 
in it. And dead Ghurkas lay tumbled 
about the parapet; some had pitched 
forward and lay sprawling over it with 







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*" FROM KUT TO TEKRIT 

This map shows the bends of the river east and west of Kut where the struggle for the position was finally decided. 
The British pursued the Turks upstream but halted at Aziziyeh for reorganization. After crossing the Diala, Bag- 
dad was entered from two sides. Endeavoring to cut off the Turkish XIII Corps the Russians advanced from 
Persia and met the British at Kizil Robat but the enemy escaped and fell back on Tekrit. 



Opposite shore were they discovered 
by a sentinel whose rifle shot across 
the desert silence gave signal for a 
fusillade. Soon the watchers on the 
right bank were drawing in the first 
returning pontoon with its freight of 
wounded, while others took their places 
in the boat and shot out across the 
current under a hail of bullets which 
raised spray upon the water. Mean- 
while, at No. 2 Ferry, a thousand 
yards downstream, the 2nd and 9th 
Ghurkas were having a still hotter 
crossing. If enough of the crew sur- 
vived to bring the boat to land they 
had then to face the Turks who lined 
the banks and threw grenades as the 
landing was made. "One could read 
756 



the impetus of the fall. Beyond were 
dead Turks who had counter-attacked 
from inland." 

So fierce was the artillery fire 
against the lower ferries that they had 
to be abandoned. But at the upper 
ferry by 7:30 A. M. three companies 
of the Norfolks and some 150 Ghurkas 
were intrenched. At 8 o'clock gallop- 
ing mules brought up the first load of 
bridging and a long stream of pontoons 
on carts came up at a swinging canter. 
By 10 A. M. one could stand out in the 
stream on the fifteenth pontoon, and in 
six hours the bridge was open for 
traffic. Troops and transport poured 
across, and the infantry advancing to 
a ridge astride the bend swept the 




EN ROUTE TO BAGDAD BY CAMEL TRAIN 

Vehicular transport being impossible in this country, the British forces organized camel convoys modeled upon 
the caravans which from time immemorial have assured communication in the east. Water transport of course is 
much easier in Mesopotamia than land, and was chiefly relied upon to supply the armies. 




AT RAMADIYA DUMP 
British soldiers inspecting material left behind by the Turk when he hastily evacuated in September, 1917. When 
the enemy retreated from Bagdad part of his force had established itself at Ramadiya upon the Euphrates, whence 
m the general clearing operations undertaken around the city he was dislodged after the hot months were over. 

British Official 

757 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



enemy before them. The dead in the 
rudderless pontoons swept on down 
the Tigris towards the great waters, 
but their sleep was peaceful, for their 
sacrifice had not been made in vain. 

THE SUCCESSFUL ATTACK UPON SANNA- 
I-YAT. 

Meanwhile, in concerted action thir- 
teen miles downstream, the assault 
against Sanna-i-yat had begun. To 



dug themselves in an old water-course 
awaiting the counter-attack, which 
swept forward three times and left 
dreadful harvest of death on the burn- 
ing alkaline soil. 

On the 23rd, the British pushed on 
to the fourth line, already a veritable 
shambles — the dead and dying half- 
buried in choking sand and gun-evoked 
litter. It was evident that the foe was 




A STORY-TELLER IN THE BAZAAR AT KUT 
Shows an Arab boy telling local Arabs of the anniversary of the British recapturing Kut town. In all probability 
the tale lost nothing in the relating for the Arab is gifted with vivid imagination and indulges in flowery diction. 
It is evident from the faces of his listeners that he is possessed of some histrionic power. 



the "Chinese bombardment" of several 
weeks succeeded, on the morning of 
February 22, the real attack delivered 
by the 19th Brigade. The first and 
second line of Turkish trenches were 
only forty yards apart. The third, 
some two hundred yards behind, was 
lightly held on the day of attack, but 
behind this again there ran a succession 
of lines with a clear field of fire. To 
ensure surprise the barbed wire was 
all standing in front of the Seaforths* 
and 92nds' trenches, ready to be 
swung back as they advanced. They 
found the first trench deserted, and 
the second filled in. They hastily 

758 



in retreat; the fifth and sixth lines fell 
with barely a casualty on the 25th, and 
the brigade swept unresisted on to Kut, 
which they found empty. When the 
Shumran Bend was captured and his 
left wing in danger of being cut off, 
Khalil Pasha ordered a withdrawal to- 
wards Bagdad, and to ensure the re- 
tirement from Sanna-i-yat formed a 
strong flank guard to hold the northern 
end of the peninsula in the Dahra Bend 
until his men had passed upstream. 

THE TURKS IN RETREAT TOWARD BAG- 
DAD ARE PURSUED. 

Pursuit followed. The enemy *s forces 
were on the whole well-handled, and he 




BRITISH TROOPS ENTER BAGDAD 
The entry of the British forces into the "City of the Caliphs" was undramatic. The populace lined the streets and 
acclaimed their coming, but the British soldier had experienced the treachery of the native of the East and his 
vociferous clamor rang hollow to the paraders through the dim and blue city. Central News Service 




WHILE SOME WORKED OTHERS FOUND TIME TO PLAY 



Some of General Marshall's nien bathing near Narin Kupri Bridge while sappers repaired it. The enemy as he 
retreated had blown up the central span in an effort to hold up pursuit. One of the alleviations of the trials of 
the men in this hot and dusty land was the bathing in the Tigris and tributary streams which was encouraged 
by official provision. 

759 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



escaped destruction (though he lost 
severely in prisoners and abandoned 
material) by fighting strong rear-guard 
actions in fortified nullahs. In that 
flat country he had the advantage for 
his gun-pits were hidden, while those 
of his pursuers were in the open. When 
Sanna-i-yat fell, the British naval flotilla 
was able to come upstream and formed 
the left wing of the advance column. 



in towards the river, and the machine 
guns played havoc with the transport 
and gun-teams. More guns were 
abandoned. Our horse artillery got 
on to them at the same time. The 
next morning we found Turkish dead 
on the road. There was every sign of 
panic and rout — bullocks still alive 
and unyoked, entangled in the traces, 
of a trench motor carriage, broken 




IN ANCIENT BABYLONIA— HOME OF A VANISHED CIVILIZATION 

The ruins of Cteslphon, scene of General Townshend's victory in the first advance upon Bagdad, but from which 
he had to retire because the Turks were strongly reinforced. In the second advance the British found Ctesiphon 
strongly fortified, but it had been evacuated by the enemy who had fallen back behind the Diala River. 

wheels, cast equipment, overturned 
limbers, hundreds of live shells of 
various calibres scattered over the 
country for miles. Either the gunners 
had cast off freight to lighten the 
limbers or they had been too rushed 
to close up the limber boxes. Every 
bend of the road told its tale of confu- 
sion and flight." 

I^HE BRITISH OUTRUN THEIR GUNS AND 
SUPPLIES. 

About the middle of the afternoon 
the fleet broke off its firing at the re- 
tiring army to save its ammunition for 
the enemy's shipping. Of these several 
surrendered when they came under 



while the cavalry spread out to the 
north. The gunboats lengthened the 
striking arm of the offensive consider- 
ably, firing first at the Turkish Army 
on the bank and then reserving its 
ammunition to destroy the Turkish 
shipping. On the morning of February 
26, H. M. S. Tarantula, Mantis and 
Moth passed the infantry at full steam 
and came under sharp fire at the Nahr 
Kellak bend, so that the casualties 
amounted to one-fifth of the forces 
engaged. 

"Swinging round the bend at sixteen 
knots," writes Eye Witness, "the fleet 
reached a point where the road comes 

760 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



range, including the armed tug Sumana, 
captured at Kut, and the Firefly, taken 
in the retreat from Ctesiphon. Thus 
the intervention of the naval arm 
changed the Turkish retreat into a 
rout and soon his troops were spread 
out rabble-wise on a wide front instead 
of in column of four. 

At Aziziyeh, half-way to Bagdad and 
fifty miles from Kut, pursuit was bro- 
ken off, for the three days' advance had 



Ctesiphon, strongly intrenched, was 
left unoccupied as the Turk fell back 
on the Diala river, destroying the 
bridge which crosses it at its junction 
with the Tigris. At this stage the pur- 
suit divided, the cavalry and 7th Divi- 
sion and 35th Brigade crossing to the 
right or west bank to work around 
Shawa Khan, where the enemy had a 
force covering the approach to Bagdad 
from south and south-west. 




INDIAN TROOPS IN BAGDAD 

As was perhaps inevitable when the Tiuks evacuated the city there was much looting in the bazaars. For a long 
time the municipal affairs and finances of Bagdad had been in parlous state. With the advent of the conquerors 
looting was stopped, firm local administration under military supervision set up, reconstruction of streets and 
reorganizing of sanitary affairs begun. 



completely disorganized the transport 
and left all light railways behind. For 
a week the army paused until March 
5, when General Marshall advanced to 
Zeur, some 18 miles, and the cavalry 
rode on to Laj, where in a blinding 
dust-storm they attacked the enemy 
rearguard which had intrenched. When 
the pursuit began it had been hoped 
that in open fighting at last the cavalry 
would come into its own. These hopes 
were disappointed because of the hidden 
guns and fortified nullahs. In their 
place, however, the light armored 
motor-cars, or "Lambs" as they were 
christened, achieved some success. 
That night the enemy withdrew. 



GENERAL MARSHALL FORCES THE CROSS- 
ING OF THE DIALA. 

Experience had demonstrated the 
value of surprise in storming a river 
position and Marshall hastened, on the 
night of the 7th and 8th of March, to 
make an attempt to cross the Diala. 
The Turks had posted machine guns 
very cleverly in the houses on the far 
barik and sharp moonlight rendered 
concealment impossible. The first five 
pontoons were riddled with bullets and 
drifted downstream. On the following 
night the houses on the shore were 
first pounded into dust and then under 
this blinding pall an attempt was made 
to ferry troops across at four separate 

761 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



points. Only one crossing succeeded — 
a detachment of the North Loyal 
Lancashires establishing themselves in 
a hund on the far shore, where for 
twenty-four hours they lay under con- 
stant fire. The third attempt was 
successful on the morning of the loth, 
and by noon the bridge was completed, 
and troops moving on faced the enemy's 
last position at the Tel Muhammad 
Ridge. 

Although the force which was assault- 
ing the left bank defenses was delayed 
by numerous nullahs which had to be 
ramped, it was almost continually in 
touch with the Turkish rearguard, 
which on the loth was considerably 
aided in its withdrawal by a choking 
dust-storm. Nevertheless, early on the 
morning of the following day, advance 
guards of the Black Watch occupied 
Bagdad railway station and the suburbs 
on the west of the river, and the enemy 
was in full retreat upstream. On the 
I2th, Marshall's column from the right 
entered Bagdad and was greeted with 
acclamation by Christian and Jew alike. 



W 



^HAT THE CAPTURE OF BAGDAD MEANT 
IN THE EAST. 

To the man in the West the talk of 
"prestige" has little meaning. Yet it 
is no exaggeration to say that the 
most valuable result of the capture of 
the "city of the Caliphs" was the 
restoration of British prestige in the 
bazaars and through the length of the 
caravan routes in the East. Bagdad 
was the greatest and most historic 
city that had yet been taken by the 
Allies: it had fallen to an army that 
had suffered and retrieved a great dis- 
aster — to an army that from being 
the most ill-equipped had become 
perhaps the best. In addition, the 
material loss to both German and Turk 
was great: to the former it sounded 
the knell of a far-reaching ambition, 
to the latter the loss of a valuable base 
and of wide territories. 

General Maude issued a proclamation 
to the inhabitants emphasizing the fact 
that the British entered the city as 
liberators, not as conquerors. Under 
their Turkish rulers they had seen the 
wasting of many of their resources, 
which it was the hope of the new rulers 

762 



to conserve. The commercial tie be- 
tween the merchants of Bagdad and 
of Great Britain was old-established, 
peaceful. The Germans and Turks, 
on the contrary, had used the city as 
a centre of intrigue and as a base for 
political penetration. In other places — 
notably in Hedjaz and Koweit — the 
Arab had cast off the Turkish and Ger- 
man yoke, and ceased to be their dupes. 
Instead of the setting-up of one house 
against another for selfish aims, the 
newcomers hoped that in new-gained 
unity the Arabs might attain self- 
expression and the fulfillment of their 
national aspirations. 

GENERAL MAUDE PROCEEDS TO MAKE 
HIS POSITION SECURE. 

There had been looting in bazaars 
and houses as the Turks hastily retired 
but order was quickly established under 
the new occupation. With the capture 
of the city Maude's task was by no 
means ended. His position had to be 
secured. To achieve this, four things 
were necessary: the capture of the 
railhead of Samarra, the rout of the 
1 8th Corps retreating north of Bagdad, 
the control of the irrigation of the 
Tigris and Euphrates north of the city, 
and the cutting off of the 13th Corps, 
which was retreating before the Rus- 
sians from Hamadan. Leaving only 
sufficient forces in the city to garrison 
it, the commander-in-chief sent a 
column up both banks of the Tigris, 
dispatched a third westward to the ■ 
Euphrates, and a fourth up the Diala ^ 
towards Khanikin. The fortunes of 
the third column may be very briefly 
told. As the British entered Bagdad the 
Turks cut the dam above the city, so 
that the water burst through Akkar 
Kuf Lake and overflowed to the hund 
which protected the suburbs and rail- 
way station on the west of the Tigris. 
Fortunately, the river was low for the 
time of year and the bund held; the 
pursuing column entered Feluja, March 
19, just too late to cut off the Turkish 
garrison, which fell back on Ramadiya, 
twenty- five miles upstream. 

Meanwhile, after a seventeen-mile 
march, the 21st and 28th Brigades of 
the 7th Division on the right of the 
Tigris attacked the Turks at Mushadi5ra. 




A PICTURESQUE BRIDGE OF BOATS 
This boat bridge, 250 metres long, connects both banks of the Tigris at Bagdad. In the foreground, the gufars — 
circular boats whose usage dates back to pre-historic days — are nothing but enormous baskets of reeds coated 
with tar. They serve as ferries from one bank of the Tigris to the other. In the city there are wonderful monu- 
ments, vestiges of ancient splendor: mosques with gilded cupolas, fretted minarets, high walls moat-encircled. 
The most animated part of the town is the bazaar, for Bagdad, situated on the caravan route between Aleppo and 
Damascus on one side and the Persian Gulf and India on the other, is an important industrial and commercial 
centre. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



After a stiff fight, with severe casual- 
ties and great suffering from thirst 
(for the troops had had thirty hours' 
marching and fighting with only the 
water they had started with), they 
drove the enemy from the place in 
precipitate retreat so that airmen 
on the morning of the 20th reported 
them spread over a depth of twenty 
miles. Further advance along the 
railway, however, was impossible until 



left General Baratov just east of 
Hamadan. As General Maude ad- 
vanced, the Turks fell back from Ha- 
madan in an endeavor to reach 
Khanikin, and the Cossacks followed 
hard upon them. Maude's eastern col- 
umn advancing up the Diala captured 
Bahriz and Bakuba. The former place 
was the end of a mountain road neces- 
sary to the Turkish retreat, and by 
his manoeuvre they were forced to 




TWO AND A HALF YEARS IN MESOPOTAMIA 



In this map may be followed the story of the Mesopotamian operations from the landing of General Delamain's 
force in November, 1914, up to General Maude's triumph at Bagdad, March 11, 1917. In it, too, may be seen 
where Russian pressure on the retreating Turks was exercised from Persia and the Caucasus. 



Operations on the left bank were equally 
advanced, and there the Turks were 
concentrating in order to ward off 
attack upon their railhead. 

THE COMBINED RUSSIAN AND BRITISH 
EXPEDITION FAILS. 

It was hoped that the Russians ad- 
vancing from Persia and the British 
up the Diala might seize the 13th Turks 
Corps in a nutcracker. This hope was 
not realized. It failed because the 
political situation that had developed 
in Russia left Baratov's force starved 
of reinforcements and supplies, and 
because of the fine generalship of the 
Turkish general in charge of the retreat- 
ing forces. In a former chapter we 

764 



abandon their guns and endeavor to 
cross the mountainous country between 
Karind and the Upper Diala. In this 
impasse their leadership saved them. 
Strong rearguards or screens were 
placed by the Turkish Commander 
against the weaker Russian forces in 
the Pia Tak Pass, and against the 
British on the ridge of the Jebel Ham- 
rin range. While these rearguards 
held off attack, the main body by way 
of Khanikin was making for the 
crossing of the Diala and the road to 
Mosul. 

Thus Maude in the torrid heat of 
the desert was attacking at Kizil Robat 
and Deli Abbas, while seventy miles 




Cwrijl* 



COMMUNICATIONS IN MODERN WARFARE 
This map illustrates the advantage possessed by the Central Powers over the Allies in respect of communications 
with the forces fighting in Mesopotamia. From Zeebrugge to Nisibiu, above Bagdad, Germany had 3,000 miles 
of railway secure from all save an attack. From London to Basra the steamship route is 7,680 miles, all exposed 
to submarine dangers. 



away Baratov's Cossacks were strug- 
gling amid the snows of the Pia Tak 
Pass. By the end of the month the 13th 
Corps had eluded their vise: Maude 
had carried Deli Abbas, and Baratov 
his pass, but this was because the 
screens were being withdrawn as the 
main army crossed the Diala. Baratov 
reached Khanikin and, April 2, an 
advance sotnia of Cossacks joined 
hands with the British force at Kizil 



Robat. Persia was now cleared of the 
Turk and there was no enemy east of 
the Diala. Nevertheless, the 13th 
Army Corps had been extricated from 
grave peril. If the Russian force had 
had half of the vitality it had had 
eighteen months previously the enemy 
could not have got away as he did. 
In purport the advance on Bagdad 
was a two-fold operation; in reality 
the heavy end had fallen upon the 

765 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



British forces. A Turkish counter- 
attack deHvered by the 13 th Corps 
developed about the 7th of April, and 
fierce fighting which began in a mirage 
lasted until the 13th, when the Turks 
were driven back into the Jebel Ham- 
rin range once more. 

THE LAST TURKISH POSITIONS ARE TAKEN 
AT THE END OF THE SUMMER. 

The column on the west bank of the 
Tigris had made good progress, and 
reinforced by the Diala troops who left 
the Russians to hold this sector, were 
ready by the 17th for the final attack 
on Samarra. After six days of unin- 
terrupted fighting the railhead was 
captured. Khalil made a last effort. 
The 1 8th Corps intrenched 15 miles 
north of Samarra; and the 13th Corps 
on its left flank emerged from its hill 
fastnesses, striking against the two 
forces of the British on the Tigris 
which had now joined. It was driven 
back but again emerged — to meet the 
same fate. The i8th Corps fell back 
on Tekrit; in every direction Bagdad 
was cleared of the enemy for a radius 
of 50 miles, while the enemy corps was 
driven back on divergent lines. 

General Maude could afford to take 
a rest in the terrible summer heat — 
the season was the hottest known for 
years, the temperature often rising 
above 120° Fahrenheit. It was unfortu- 
nate, in view of the hot season, that a 
campaign was planned on the Eu- 
phrates in July. The Turks were com- 
fortably established at Ramadiya and 
the Arabs downstream, encouraged by 
their proximity, made hostile demon- 
strations against the British at Feluja. 
The operation failed for the troops could 
make no headway in a blinding dust- 
storm and intense heat and the enter- 



prise was abandoned. Two months 
later, in September, a successful attack 
had as its objectives not only Ramadi- 
ya but the capture of the whole enemy 
force — and attained them. 

GENERAL MAUDE FALLS A VICTIM TO 
HIS COURTESY. 

The Turks had designs for the re- 
capture of Bagdad, and two German 
divisions reached Aleppo early in No- 
vember. Just then came news of Sir 
Edmund Allenby's victories in South- 
ern Palestine (November 7, 191 7) and 
General von Falkenhayn, then acting 
as the Turkish military adviser in 
Asia, drafted the divisions to that front. 
On the 19th of the month the Mesopota- 
mian Army lost its great commander. 
General Maude, who fell a victim to 
the cholera — his courtesy forbidding 
him to refuse a draught of cold milk 
offered by a native. 

So perished a great soldier and a 
great organizer. Bagdad was won by 
gallantry and endurance, but equally 
by organized transport, commissariat 
and medical departments. With a gift 
for detail and a tireless energy, Maude 
had also the rarer faculty of vision 
which could see the whole situation in 
true perspective. He was succeeded 
by Lieutenant-General Sir William 
Marshall, who had already rendered 
valuable service in the campaign against 
Bagdad. The Palestine victories had 
changed the plans of the Turkish Staff, 
and henceforth the chief task of the 
British commander-in-chief was to 
continue to strengthen his position. 
The danger of a Turco-German offen- 
sive was now slight, although unable to 
withstand the summer heat in the Di- 
ala triangle, Baratov's Cossacks had 
withdrawn to the Persian hi41s. 



766 




The Italian Disaster at Caporetto 

[E ITALIANS LOSE WHAT THEY HAD GAINED, BUT RALLY 
AND HOLD FAST 



CTERN, silent, immutable, amid the 
shifting tide of human concerns, the 
Julian Alps have looked upon strange 
scenes. Long centuries ago, barbarian 
hordes of Goth and Hun and great 
imperial armies battled in their gate- 
ways. Yet, in all the flow of years, 
perhaps no stranger spectacle of man's 
ingenuity and endeavor can be con- 
ceived than that which was staged over 
and around those wardens of the Isonzo 
region in 191 7, leaving them with new 
scars which they must carry for the 
rest of time. 

THE ALLIED NATIONS PROMISE TO SEND 
AID TO ITALY. 

In January, during the mid-winter 
lull in fighting operations, a conference 
of distinguished military and political 
representatives from the four leading 
Allied nations met for three days at 
Rome. There Italy was promised 
assistance by the French and British. 
As a consequence, France sent guns, 
to be manned by Italian gunners, and 
England sent batteries of six-inch 
howitzers, with 2,000 men. 

Until May the Italian High Com- 
mand had to wait until the late spring 
floods subsided. There were evidences 
that their opponents were preparing 
for a new offensive; therefore. General 
Cadorna laid plans for an attack to 
anticipate it. The main attack was to 
fall on the middle Isonzo. A supplemen- 



tary movement in the Carso had for 
its aim to gain new territory on that 
forbidding plateau in the direction of 
Hermada. 

THE ITALIAN ATTACK IS DELIVERED ON 
THE ISONZO. 

The Italian artillery bombarded the 
whole Isonzo front, from May 12 until 
the morning of May 14, in preparation 
for an infantry attack from Plava and 
Gorizia upon Kuk, Monte Santo, and 
the hills along the edge of the Bain- 
sizza Plateau. After the first day, 
General Capello, commander of the 
Second Army, placed the artillery com- 
mand of the 2nd Corps in the hands of 
Major-General Badoglio, whose plans 
for taking Sabotino had been so suc- 
cessful. Under his direction, the 
Italian guns seemed to be "driving nails 
along given lines" of the Austrian 
positions, "and the hammerstrokes 
were delivered with unfailing skill." 

On the night of May 15 a diversion 
was created about eight miles south of 
Tolmino, where Bersaglieri and Alpini 
forced a passage across the Isonzo and 
improvised a bridgehead on the east 
bank. They held it under fearful odds 
until the eighteenth, when, deeply cha- 
grined at having to abandon the attack, 
they were withdrawn, as the purpose 
of the action had been accomplished. 
In the first stage of the offensive, 
sections of Kuk, Vodice, and Santo 

767 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



were taken, as well as several hamlets 
and hills east of Gorizia and Plava. 
The Plava bridgehead had by this time 
been strengthened by the building of 
the "Badoglio Road," the "road of the 
thirty- two hairpins," which dropped 
by successive zigzags down from Monte 
Corada. As to Kuk, a distinguished 
English author writes: "A few days 
after its capture I saw on the top of 
Monte Kuk some Italian 'seventy- 
fives' that had been dragged up, 
Heaven knows how, by sheer strength 
of arm and will during the melee it- 
self." 

THE ITALIANS SUFFER VERY HEAVY 
LOSSES ON THE ISONZO. 

"The Italian losses were, of course, 
very heavy. The attacking troops had 
carried positions that might well have 
been thought impregnable, and they 
had paid the price. When the Avel- 
lino and Florence Brigades were taken 
out of the line to rest and re-form after 
three and four days' fighting respective- 
ly, the Avellino had lost over lOO offi- 
cers and nearly 2,700 men, out of 140 
officers and 5 ,000 men ; and though the 
casualties in the Florence Brigade were 
not quite so heavy, they lost nearly 
50 per cent of their strength." The 
Austrians attempted a diversion on 
the Trentino at this juncture, opening 
heavy fire in the Val Sugana, on the 
Asiago Plateau, and in the Adige Valley. 
There was vigorous fighting on Monte 
Colbriconand the" Dentedel Pasubio." 

Necessity for economizing in military 
supplies forbade General Cadorna's at- 
tempting to attack simultaneously on 
two sectors of any great width. Con- 
sequently, the stroke upon the Carso 
was not delivered until May 23. It 
fell with such overwhelming force that 
in a few hours the Austro-Hungarians 
had been driven back nearly a mile 
beyond their immensely strong front 
lines from Kostanjevica to the sea, 
and had yielded Hudi Log ("the Evil 
Wood "), Lukatic, Jamiano, and several 
hills. At the southern end, on the 
coast, Bagni was taken in a battle that 
engaged 130 airplanes and a group of 
the Royal Navy seaplanes. The first 
day's contest gave the Italians 9,000 
prisoners. By May 28, the line had 

768 



moved still farther east, across the 
Timavo River to San Giovanni, at the 
southern end ; and proportionately all 
the way. Hermada was nearly taken. 
Unhappily, the Italian supply of shells 
was falling so low that the advance 
had to stop at the very moment when 
it seemed most likely to break through 
the opposing line. 

THE AUSTRIANS STRIKE BACK IN THE 
CARSO. 

The inevitable counter-attack, occu- 
pying the first week in June, was most 
violent from San Marco southward. 
From Fajti Hrib to Jamiano, the bom- 
bardment and infantry drives did not 
make much impression; but farther 
south the Italians fell back from one- 
third of a mile to a mile and a quarter 
on a three mile front, recrossing the 
Timavo and dropping behind Flondar. 
The fighting was fierce and terrible. 
Yet there was one strange stain on the 
great record of valorous endeavor. A 
brigade, engaged on the slopes of 
Hermada, surrendered without any at- 
tempt at real resistance and so made 
way for the enemy. It was composed 
of men newly drafted from a region 
where pacifist propaganda was astir. 
A danger from within, more baleful 
than any host of tangible warriors 
however armed, had begun to raise its 
head. General Cadorna at once wrote 
to the Government with warning and 
appeal. 

In the whole spring offensive the 
Italians lost nearly 130,000 men, of 
whomabout 6,000 were prisoners. They 
had taken, in return, 24,260 Austro- 
Hungarian prisoners, and had reduced 
the enemy fighting forces by something 
less than 100,000 in killed and wound- 
ed. In mid-summer, the glacier-fed 
flood of the river was rushing through 
gorges between lofty cliffs, or roll- 
ing beside occasional narrow plains. 
Far to the north, it passed towering 
Monte Nero, overlooking Caporetto on 
the west, with its peaceful Italian garri- 
son, and Tolmino on the southeast, with 
its unmolested Austrian inhabitants. 

HERMADA SHAKEN, BUT NOT CAPTURED 
BY THE ATTACK. 

Less than twenty miles farther down 
the stream, close behind the Italian 






HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



)OsItion at Gorlzia, rose the sheer preci- 
)ice of Monte Santo, on whose summit, 
ifted "like a church spire," lay the 
•uins of a shrine. There, at the out- 
break of hostilities, the aged emperor 
)f Austria-Hungary had been carried in 
i sedan chair, to pray for the success 
oi his Imperial arms. Now, Franz 
Josef had passed beyond the bounds 
of human history, and the shrine had 
crumbled into a heap of white marble 
under shell-fire from Sabotino, only a 
half-mile away across the river. Still 
farther southward, where Isonzo meets 
the sea, across the blue gulf one could 
gaze along the Carso to "ugly turtle- 
backed Hermada Mountain blocking 
the road to Trieste." But the boast 
of Hermada was partly silenced. Not 
all its guns could speak as they had 
done. 

After the unavoidable check in the 
vigorous Italian offensive of May, 191 7, 
General Cadorna was unable to press 
for further progress until summer had 
begun to wane. His allies could not 
spare him sufficient aid for a great 
offensive movement, while his adver- 
saries were enabled to build up their 
resistance by transferring troops from 
the demoralized Russian front, no 
longer formidable since the collapse of 
the Russian government in the spring. 

THE BATTLE RESUMED ON THE ISONZO 
IN AUGUST. 

After mid-summer had passed in 
comparative quiet, a month of con- 
tinuous and intense conflict was in- 
augurated on August 18 by a great 
bombardment from Tolmino to the sea. 
North of Gorizia, where the Isonzo 
makes a bend that points westward, lies 
Plava, which had been steadily useful 
to the Italians since its capture in June, 
1 91 5. Again it was to be employed as 
a starting place for an important at- 
tack, — this time, upon the Bainsizza 
Plateau. Fitting into the angle of the 
river and stretching eastward as far as 
the Chiapovano Valley, the Bainsizza 
is an elevated region with surface 
broken by rock masses, glens, and 
doline, or depressions, somewhat in the 
same way as that of the Carso. 

The Second Army, under General 
Capello, was operating from Gorizia 



northward, with General Badoglio in 
command of the left wing near Santa 
Lucia and Tolmino. Jn that position 
there was such concentration of Austrian 
artillery that General Badoglio's forces 
were compelled to leave the enemy in 
possession of the Lom Plateau, a 
stronghold whose strategic value was 
startlingly revealed a few weeks later. 




AUSTRIAN DEFENSES ON THE CARSO 

BRIDGES CONSTRUCTED AT NIGHT UNDER 
GREAT DIFFICULTIES. 

But from Plava, on August 18, a 
sally was made to the northeast, re- 
sulting in the seizure of a valley 
situated between Kuk and the Bain- 
sizza. A short distance farther up the 
river, where as yet the Italians had 
found no foothold upon the eastern 
bank, a crossing was accomplished on 
the night of August 19. In preparation 
for this feat, the river had been nightly 
diverted from its channel until ten 
foot-bridges had been constructed. By 
day the stream flowed as usual, show- 
ing no sign of change. On the evening 
of the nineteenth, four pontoon bridges 
were added, though the cliffs were so 
abrupt that the boats had to be dropped 

769 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



on skids, and ladders had to be used to 
get the men to the level of the river and 
up again on the opposite side. To 
screen the movements on the river, a 
great battery of search-lights, ranged 
along the heights of the western shore, 
was turned upon the Austrian gunners, 
and heavy firing covered the sound of 
work upon the bridges. 

By their impetuous and unexpected 
rush up the declivity, in the face of 
machine guns, the heroic fighters of 
Capello's army drove their way through 
the front lines of the enemy, then pushed 
on north and east across the plateau 
until, by August 24, they could look 
across to the edge of Lom in the one 
direction, and were within range of 
the Ternova batteries in the other. 
On the Bainsizza they soon were be- 
yond all points where artillery or trucks 
and ambulances could accompany them. 
The engineers followed as fast as was 
possible, in an effort to keep communi- 
cations open; but the Austrians had 
not made good roadways leading to 
their own front lines and the poor 
approaches were now ploughed up or 
encumbered with wreckage. There- 
fore, there were several days during 
which the advance of the Italian army 
could be supplied only by carriers on 
foot, and the wounded had to be borne 
back for miles over the rough ground 
by their companions. Water also was 
lacking. It was a time of great danger, 
but the venturous battalions held their 
own until the paths had been leveled 
sufficiently for guns, lorries, and am- 
bulances to carry them relief. Always 
the reliable Fiat cars, with their in-, 
trepid drivers, and the British Red 
Cross units arrived as near the front 
as might be and at the earliest moment 
possible. Further relief was furnished 
by a diversion in the form of attacks in 
the middle Isonzo region, around San 
Gabriele. 

MONTE SANTO SURROUNDED AND 
FORCED TO SURRENDER. 

In that sector, northeast of Gorizia, 
on August 23, Monte Santo had been 
threatened from the rear, and its 
garrison isolated by the capture of 
Sella di Dol, "the saddle " connecting 
Santo with San Gabriele. Thus cut 

770 



ofT and surrounded, Monte Santo 
yielded, on the twenty-fourth. Above 
its summit, more than 2,000 feet high, 
the Italian tricolor floated out, while 
regimental bands celebrated there the 
victorious hour, playing under the 
direction of the great Toscanini. 

During this first week of the offen- 
sive, the Duke of Aosta and the Third 
Army had been doing admirable work 
on the southern Carso, where the 23rd 
Corps, under Diaz, demolished the 
Austrian 12th Division and secured 
Selo. Very quickly the ground that 
had been lost in June was recovered, 
and the Austrian line forced back from 
Kostanjevica (Castagnevizza) across 
the Brestovica Valley. Nearer the 
sea, an advance was made beyond San 
Giovanni and Medeazza, and attacks 
on Hermada reopened. 

In that sector, British and Italian 
monitors took part in the bombard- 
ment. The Italian monitors, it is said, 
were of a sort never before used in war, 
and employed shells of greater calibre 
than had ever before been fired from 
warships. Around the head of the 
Adriatic and on the Bainsizza as well 
Caproni airplanes, too, furnished ad- 
mirable assistance in the offensive, 
flying forward by swarms, in advance 
of the infantry, and dropping tons of 
bombs upon the enemy positions. 

THE SAN GABRIELE RIDGE THE NEXT 
OBJECT OF ATTACK. 

The first week of September, 191 7, 
marked the beginning of "a fight for a 
natural fortress within as narrow limits 
of movement as any old battle for 
town or castle." It was a struggle for 
the possession of San Gabriele ridge, 
which, by the fall of Santo, had be- 
come an Austrian salient surrounded 
by Italians everywhere except on the 
northeast. For ten days the contest 
seethed. A correspondent writes: 

"When first I looked down (from 
Santo) upon the battle for San Gabriele 
I seemed to hang directly over the 
crater of a volcano. A matter of 
40,000 Italian shells on a daily aver- 
age are bursting over San Gabriele's 
crest. In addition are the Austrian 
shells, for the lines on San Gabriele are 
now so close that the topmost positions 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



If 



have been taken and retaken half a 
dozen times." 

HE AUSTRIANS DECIDE TO CONCEN- 
TRATE THEIR FORCES. 

By September 7, the losses were so 
appalling that the Austrians called a 
War Council, where they decided to 
hold the eastern ridges of the Bainsizza 
and concentrate attacks against the 
army of the Duke of Aosta. Over 
30,000 Austro-Hungarian prisoners, of 
whom 848 were officers, had been taken 
in the engagements of August and 



peril, since it had reached a depth of 
7>^ miles on an eleven-mile front. In 
reviewing the situatiqn, on September 
I5> I9I7» one correspondent wrote, 
"The Isonzo, excepting one little por- 
tion opposite Tolmino at the northern 
extrernity of the offensive line, is now 
well within Italian possession. " Scarce- 
ly more than a month passed before that 
"one little portion" began to loom into 
a significance that made the world 
catch its breath in astonishment and 
suspense. 




SAND-BAG TRENCHES ON THE CARSO TABLELAND 

That forbidding plateau, the Carso, "yields as little shade or water as the Sah ara." Its stunted vegetation 
reminded the South Africans of their veldt. In places, great natural hollows in the rock furnished ready-made 
shelters for men and guns; but in other parts, where digging was an impossibility, sand- bag trenches were used. 

AR IS FINALLY DECLARED UPON THE 
GERMAN EMPIRE. 



September; 145 cannons, 265 mitrail- 
leuses, and great quantities of other 
guns and materiel had fallen into the 
hands of the victors. But on the oppo- 
site side of the account were written 
155,000 Italian casualties. 

Under the Austrian counter- strokes, 
the Italians fell back from Hermada 
and San Giovanni, though they re- 
linquished no ground in the vicinity 
of Kostanjevica. San Gabriele was 
still divided. Not yet was the road 
from Gorizia to Trieste opened, when 
in mid-September the offensive died 
away. General Capello's Bainsizza 
position had been reinforced, but it 
was a salient of peculiar difficulty and 



W 

Not until August, 1916, was the last 
link of the Triple Alliance formally 
severed. Up to that time, Italy had 
declared war against Austria-Hungary, 
against Turkey, even against Bul- 
garia, but not against Germany. The 
situation was anomalous and com- 
promising, for there was no question 
that Germany stood behind Austria- 
Hungary with support and direction 
in her warfare upon Italy. Moreover, 
the Prussian power was continually 
committing unfriendly acts, in viola- 
tion of all agreements with its Latin 
ally. The atmosphere was cleared by 

771 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the Italian Government's denunciation 
of the Commerical treaty with Ger- 
many, which had been made on May 
21, 1915, and finally, on August 27, 
Victor Emmanuel made proclamation 
that Italy declared war upon Germany. 
No change of plans was involved. The 
only difference in the situation was 
that, in name, as well as in fact, Italy 
and Germany were thenceforth at war. 



the face behind it." Yet, the war had 
gone on without bringing forward any 
German army upon the Italian frontier. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE ITALIAN PEAS- 
ANT SOLDIER. 

At the eastern end of that frontier, 
after the terrific strife of August and 
September, 191 7, "both sides settled 
down exhausted on the ground where 
they found themselves." The Italian 




ITALIAN DOCTOR INOCULATING BERSAGLIERI AGAINST DISEASE 

Italian soldiers are for the most part sound and tough in physique, especially the mountain troops. And the 
Bersaglieri are particularly uncomplaining when wounded and in pain. In modern warfare no precautions are 
spared to prevent epidemics; so inoculation, quarantine, careful supervision over food, drinking water, hygienic 
conditions of barracks, etc., are part of the duty of the Sanitary Department. Picture from Henry Ruschin 



Three months later, when, on Novem- 
ber 21, Franz Josef came to the end of 
his long career, the hostile feelings of 
the Italians for their German antago- 
nists grew more intense. The old emper- 
or, nicknamed "Cecco Beppe" by his 
southern neighbors, had long held the 
r61e of their traditional oppressor and 
evil genius. At his death the heritage 
of hatred passed, not to his young 
successor, Karl, but to the German 
Empire. Caricatures of " Cecco Beppe" 
were then given Prussian lineaments 
and crowned with Prussian helmets. 
The natural animosity of the race had 
been transferred "from the mask to 



Third Army, under the Duke of Aosta, 
rested along the line they had estab- 
lished on the Carso, facing the extreme 
left wing of the enemy from Gorizia 
to the sea. Flanking them, from 
Gorizia and San Gabriele northward 
over the Bainsizza to beyond Tolmino 
and Caporetto, stood the Second Army, 
commanded by General Capello, whose 
area of control had been considerably 
extended since 191 6. 

Many in these two armies had sus- 
tained the heavy strain of war for 
months, had borne the "heat and bur- 
den" of long days of furious fighting, 
the cold and depression of weeks of 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



millions, lost in anarchy, had scattered 
from their place in the Allied ranks, 
some members of the Soviet had 
pushed in among the Italian armies 
to spread unsettling doctrines there. 
The Italian soldier heard that the 



winter vigil. With the patience char- 
acteristic of their peasant natures they 
had toiled and climbed and endured, 
although they little comprehended the 
purpose and meaning of the conflict in 
which they were involved. They came, 
for the most part, from country 
villages where life was simple 
and where they had almost no 
touch with great affairs of state 
and of the world at large. 
Education had never opened 
for them the paths of under- 
standing and large enterprise. 
Some could indeed read and 
write; some could not. The 
explanations of the war and of 
political questions to which 
they listened were conflicting 
and confusing. Which should 
they believe? After all, govern- 
ment and politics belonged to 
the towns. It was in the towns 
that the decision for war had 
been made. They themselves 
had had no part in that de- 
cision. 

AGITATORS APPEAR AND SOW SE- 
L DITION IN THE RANKS. 

The patriotism of these sons 
of Italy was natural and spon- 
taneous rather than a thing of 
reason and conviction. Tradi- 
tion taught them to hate the 
Austrians. Against such foes 
they would follow their gallant 
officers with spirit and devo- 
tion, because in some vague 
way they knew that their coun- 
try needed them. They saw AN AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PATROL 

their brothers and companions The jagged peaks and crags of the Dolomites called for great moun- 

rr !• T 1 tain prowess. Alpine clubs had been encouraged by the German, 

suiter or die. It was somehow Austrian and Italian governments, as the skill acquired and the 

a necessary sacrifice. ^°"*^' discovered were assets in war. 




With no apparent need for guarding 
against treason among such troops, no 
precautions were taken and danger 
crept in unnoticed. Propaganda which, 
in the months of neutrality, had been 
actively at work to prevent Italy's 
entering the war, was still abroad up 
and down the land sowing seeds of un- 
rest. Socialist and pacifist agitators 
talked in terms of brotherhood and 
amity, making use of the Vatican 
Peace Note to support their arguments 
for ending the war. When the Russian 



Russians had been wise in abandoning 
their arms and going home to seize land 
that they might live upon it in peace. 

THE ITALIAN AUTHORITIES REFUSE TO 
SEE THE DANGER. 

Although General Cadornahad sought 
to arouse the government to take some 
action toward checking .the insidious 
growth of such pernicious influences, 
nothing had been done. Signor Orlando, 
Minister of the Interior, did not favor 
adopting stern methods of repression; 
and Signor Boselli, the Premier, a 

773 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



veteran statesman, had undertaken to 
shoulder the burden of Government in 
wartime at the age of eighty. Warn- 
ings of trouble passed unheeded, 
though they flamed out in such start- 
ling manifestations as the bread riots 
in Turin in the month of August, where 
the enemy's hand was plainly at work. 
Turin, one of the most important cen- 
tres in the country for the production 
of munitions, had been strangely open 
to the propaganda of anarchy. Even 
the troops who were set to restore order 
became infected with the spirit of 
mutiny. Turin was threatened with 
martial law before there was an end to 
the disturbance. 

Thus the enemy operated within the 
gates. At the same time he was laying 
plans to creep up outside the gates 
and force them in with a crushing 
blow. By the breaking down of the 
Russian front there had been released 
Austrian and German forces, ready to 
be used on the southern frontier. 
Thereupon a composite army, the 
Fourteenth, was formed, including six 
German and seven Austrian divisions. 
Under Ludendorff 's direction they were 
drilled and equipped for fighting in the 
open in hill country. Half of the field 
artillery was displaced by mountain 
guns, and among the German divisions 
was a Bavarian Alpenkorps. Ostensi- 
bly, the Austro-Hungarian Staff con- 
tinued in control as before; but the 
actual authority and direction had 
passed over to the German General 
Staff. "It was a thoroughly German 
outfit and had been prepared in the 
usual thorough German fashion." 

THE GERMAN HIGH COMMAND SELECTS 
THE WEAKEST SPOT. 

The Italian Command failed to per- 
ceive these ominous preparations. Lu- 
dendorff, on the other hand, seems 
carefully to have studied their own 
arrangements and to have placed his 
finger upon the weakest spot, between 
Plezzo and Tolmino, where the same 
Austrian and^ Italian divisions had for 
months been pacific neighbors and had 
begun to fraternize, encouraged in 
their friendly tendencies by Socialist 
agents. The position was considered 
so safe that it received little attention 

774 



from General Capello, even after the 
mutinous contingents from Turin had 
unfortunately been sent there by way 
of punishment. By these combinations 
of circumstance it came about that a 
"whole sequence of great events" has 
been called "by the name of a little 
Alpine market- town " ; for Caporetto 
was the centre of the vulnerable spot 
opposite which Ludendorff slipped in 
his Fourteenth Army, under the com- 
mand of Otto von Below. Around 
Gorizia and on the Carso, the Austrian 
armies remained, with Prince Eugene 
at their head. 

Upon that quiet, little-noticed cor- 
ner far north on the Isonzo, with the 
sharpness and suddenness of complete 
surprise, German strategy flung its 
attack. The Monte Nero salient there 
made an abrupt eastward-reaching 
loop in the Italian line, which crossed 
the riyer a little southwest of Plezzo J 
and again just northwest of Tolmino. -^ 
A similar loop in the river, at Tolmino, 
enclosed Santa Lucia, which furnished 
the Austrians with an excellent bridge- 
head, protected on the south by Lom. 
It will be recalled that Lom, on the 
northern border of the Bainsizza, had 
resisted all attacks in August, and that 
consequently the enemy position at 
Santa Lucia west of the river had re- 
mained unshaken. Hence a way to the 
Italian position lay open through the 
Isonzo Valley itself from Tolmino and 
from Plezzo. Halfway between, on the 
left bank of the river, little Caporetto 
was situated, in the shadow of Monte 
Nero but too far below to find protection 
from the Italian positions on its heights. 

THE GERMAN TROOPS BREAK THROUGH 
WITH A RUSH. 

Bombardments, by the enemy, open- 
ing on October 21, soon narrowed to the 
stretch between Saga and Auzza. In 
courtyards and on roadways where 
all had been secure and peaceful 
hitherto, shells burst and confusion 
awoke. Under cover of the artillery, on 
October 24, the German divisions broke 
through, seeking by three routes to 
reach the plains below: — from Tolmino 
and Santa Lucia through the valley of 
the Judrio; from Plezzo over into 
Saga and thence down the Isonzo to the 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Natisone; lastly, around Nero and 
across the Isonzo to Caporetto, whence 
a good road and newly finished railway 
followed the valley of the Natisone to 
Cividale. 

The attacks at both ends of the sa- 
lient were met with sturdy resistance. 
But the centre drove through at 
Caporetto, where were stationed the 
newly-drafted, untried elements of 



THE GAP AT CAPORETTO FORCES RETIRE 
MENT OF OTHER FORCES. 

When the first day ended, the Italian 
position from Saga to Auzza had been 
carried. The Monte Nero garrison, 
thus isolated, with characteristic de- 
termination fought on for days, until 
none were left. Not all the Second 
Army failed, in that awful test. There 
were those who would die rather than 




Entflish Mile* 



THE RETREAT FROM THE ISONZO FRONT TO THE TAGLIAMENTO RIVER 

From the northeastern section opposite Tolmino the disorganized Second Army fell back in confusion, cross- 
ing the Tagliamento at Codroipo on October 30. On the thirty-first, the Third Army began to cross at Latisana, 
having made a masterly retreat from the Carso region. Meanwhile, the Fourth Army was moving southwest from 
the Carnic front, to join hands with the Third Army. About forty miles he between the Isonzo and the TagUamento. 



Capello's Army and the disaffected 
spirits from Turin. If, as has been 
narrated, deluded Italian soldiers sprang 
forward to grasp the hands of their 
expected Austro-Hungarian brothers, 
they had little time to wonder before 
they fell under the blows of Prussian 
steel. Panic, surrender, flight, were 
the natural sequence. General Capello 
was ill with fever at the time, and 
General Montuori was acting as his sub- 
stitute. The weather, with^torm and 
mist, and, on the mountains, snow, 
made for the advantage of the invaders. 
The very atmosphere of disaster seemed 
to envelop the whole sector. 



step back from their hard-won battle- 
front. And yet, there were those for 
whom war-weariness and ignorance 
and discouragement proved too severe 
a strain, so that they inevitably became 
infected with the spirit of helplessness 
and desertion. Unhappily there were 
two corps in the Caporetto section 
which "melted away" before the 
first blast. Neglect, thoughtless com- 
plaints of the uninstructed, and hostile 
propaganda had worked together to 
shake the morale of these men. 

The falling in of the salient on the 
north left the troops on the Bainsizza 
exposed. If the enemy moved on down 

775 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the valleys in their rear, they would be 
cut off from communication and supply. 
There was but one thing they could do 
to avoid being outflanked. On the 
twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth they 
withdrew from the whole plateau, re- 
linquishing, as well, Kuk and Santo and 
San Gabriele. During that time, too, 
the headquarters of General Cadorna, 
which had been at Udine, were removed 
to Padua, since Udine could be reached 
directly by rail from Cividale, only ten 
miles away and already seriously 
threatened. 

A DISORGANIZED THRONG POURS INTO 
THE PLAINS. 

On the highroads that led to the 
plains a mixed, disorganized, and 
wretched throng trailed slowly on- 
ward, hour by hour, through mud and 
rain. Exhausted, famished, dispirited, 
they moved toward the southwest, 
with the enemy, almost at their heels, 
kept back only by the heroic rear-guard 
efforts of regiments that held together 
and strove to retard the on-sweeping 
German lines. There were among the 
multitude soldiers whose Socialist tu- 
tors had instructed them to lay down 
their arms, since the war was over. 
They were simply "going home." 
There were civilian refugees from the 
districts through which the sad train 
was passing, and so the company was 
constantly augmented. Carts, horses, 
motor-vehicles, ambulances, lorries, 
without official control or guidance, 
traveled by tedious degrees, side by side 
with the crowds on foot, ever in one 
direction and " the slowest set the pace. " 
Now and then an aeroplane swooped 
near, with terrifying menace, but the 
storms provided some protection from 
air attack, and the Italian aviators were 
valiant in combating enemy airmen, so 
preventing much possible horror and 
devastation. 

The German divisions under von 
Below began to pour out upon the 
plains, at the mouth of Natisone Valley, 
on October 28. They entered Cividale 
that day, and left it in ruins. Then 
they pushed upon Udine, where the 
Arditi disputed their entrance and 
withstood them until the twenty-ninth. 
The Austrian forces, who had recovered 

776 



the Bainsizza, took possession of Gori- 
zia on the twenty-eighth, when it was 
reluctantly evacuated by the last of its 
defenders. 

THE THIRD ARMY SAVES THE DAY BY 
ITS ORDERLY RETREAT. 

As the position of the Third Army, 
with the Duke of Aosta, on the Carso, 
had become untenable before the loss 
of Gorizia, it had withdrawn across the 
Vallone and started on the brilliant 
and orderly retreat toward the Taglia- 
mento. This river, some forty miles 
west of the Isonzo, was the goal toward 
which the whole retiring mass looked 
with hope. A host of fugitives, includ- 
ing what was left of the Second Army, 
crossed at Codroipo on October 30. 
On the west side of the Tagliamento 
they found "a more hopeful and active 
world, where officers and Carabinieri 
were sorting out the men as they 
arrived over the bridge, and orders 
were being given and obeyed." 

The next day, at Latisana near, the 
coast, the greater part of the Third 
Army crossed to the west side of the 
river, with 500 of their guns, and began 
to take positions there. "The Duke of 
Aosta's retreat was one of those per- 
formances in war which succeed against 
crazy odds, and which, consequently, 
we call inexplicable. It made the 
Italian stand possible, and deprived 
the enemy of the crowning triumph 
which he almost held in his hands." 

The British guns had all been saved 
and carried from the Carso. "Heaven 
knows how it was done," observes one 
who took part in the retreat and who 
states that, owing to the efficient serv- 
ices of the British Red Cross Unit 
attending the Third Army, "no British 
sick or wounded fell into the hands of 
the enemy." The Austro-German 
Command was claiming the capture of 
200,000 prisoners and 1,800 guns. 
Several thousand of the prisoners were 
non-combatant workmen who had been 
caught in the first rush. 

A TEMPORARY HALT BEHIND THE TAGLIA- 
MENTO RIVER. 

The flooded Tagliamento furnished 
the Italians a temporary barrier, which 
gave opportunity for the restoration of 
order and the preparation of new plans. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The fighting, up to this point, had been 
done in detached sections with, "Hter- 
ally, hundreds of isolated encircling 
movements" by the enemy, resulting 
in the seizure of prisoners in large 
numbers. But the invading armies 
found greater difficulty in moving up 
their guns as they advanced farther 
over the plains and swollen 
streams, while the space be- 
tween the Italian Third Army 
and the Fourth Army under 
De Robilant on the Carnic 
front was becomir^g narrower 
and narrower. The two would 
soon be "able to link hands 
across the gap" created by the 
disappearance of the Second 
Army. 

With no prospect of holding 
firmly at the Tagliamento, nor 
at the Livenza River, next be- 
yond, the banks of the Piave 
offered the first promising 
ground on which to make a 
stand. "There the right bank 
was protected by the most 
modern and approved practice 
trenches, constructed by * rook- 
ies ' before they had been al- 
lowed to go to the battle line. " 
On November 3, the Germans 
and Hungarians crossed the 
Tagliamento at Tolmezzo, Pin- 
zano, and other points. By the 
eighth they had pushed across 
the Liv^enza. At last, on No- 
vember 10, the Italians stood 
along the Piave, ready to defy 
further Teutonic aggression 
and to protect Venice from 
disaster. In crossing the rivers, 
armored motor cars, with quick-firing 
guns in their turrets, held the bridges 
until all others had passed across. 
Then, following the cavalry rear-guards, 
they burned the bridges behind them. 



Army and the Third in the line that 
sheltered Venice and her neighbor 
cities on the plains. On the Adriatic 
side Venetia had been laid open by the 
withdrawal of the naval batteries along 
the Northera Adriatic coast, conse- 
quent upon the loss of the Carso and 
the region between the Isonzo and the 




'T^HE LINE OF THE PIAVE RIVER IS TAKEN. 

It was with utter reluctance and 
regret that the Fourth Army had re- 
tired from the Carnic Alps, and the 
First Army, under Pecori-Giraldo, from 
the peaks and passes in the Cadore re- 
gion. They now took their places side 
by side with the reorganized Second 



GENERAL ARMANDO DIAZ 
General Diaz, General Cadorna's successor in command of the 
Italian armies^ was born and educated at Naples. He had fought 
in Africa. Alter brOIlant success on the Carso, he was given com- 
mand of the 23rd Army Corps on the Isonzo, where he added to his 
reputation. 

Piave. The Allied Navy was the whole 
length of the peninsula away, at 
Taranto. 

With the realization that the offen- 
sive was a serious danger, requiring in- 
stant and vigorous action, on October 
26 the existing Ministry had been over- 
thrown as inadequate. The first of 
November found the government re- 
constructed, with Signor Orlando as 
Premier, Baron Sonnino at the head 
of the Foreign Ofifice, Signor Nitti in 
charge of the Treasury, and Signor 
Alfieri as Minister of War. All parties, 



m 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



except the extreme Socialists, laid aside 
party issues and devoted themselves 
earnestly to the task of saving the 
country from calamity. 

ALLIED REINFORCEMENTS AND A NEW 
l\ ITALIAN COMMANDER. 

The first step toward a united com- 
mand for the Western Allies was taken 
when a council was held at Rapallo, 
near Genoa, on November 5, to consider 
how best to deal with the perilous situ- 
ation in Italy. From England came 
Lloyd George, General Smuts, Sir 
William Robertson, and Sir Henry 
Wilson; from France, M. Painleve and 
General Foch. Italy was represented 
by Signor Orlando, Baron Sonnino, 
and Signor Alfieri. Out of this council 
grew a triune General Staff, of which 
General Cadorna was made a member, 
together with General Foch and Gener- 
al Sir Henry Wilson. Headquarters 
were at Versailles. General Foch, at 
the time, held the post of Chief of 
Staff of the French War Office, and Sir 
Henry Wilson belonged to the British 
General Staff. As Commander-in- 
Chief of the Italian armies, General 
Cadorna was superseded by General 
Diaz, who had as his Chief of the 
General Staff, General Badoglio, and 
as Sub-Chief of the Staff, General 
Giordino. 

Reinforcements of French and Brit- 
ish troops had already been hastened 
into the country, the French 12th 
Corps, under General Fayolle, first, 
followed, early in November, by a 
British corps, the 14th, under Sir 
Herbert Plumer. "One of England's 
best loans to Italy was General Plu- 
mer. " He gave his influence strongly to 
the holding of the Piave if it could 
possibly be done, although at the mo- 
ment the risk involved seemed so great 
that the French and British divisions 
were stationed near the Adige and on 
the hills around Vicenza, to form a re- 
serve there in case the Italians should 
be forced back. Therefore, the Italians, 
alone, except for the British batteries 
rescued from the Carso, formed a line 
of defense before the Piave. The pres- 
ence of the Allies, however, supplied a 
moral buttress for the spirits of the 
heavily-strained nation. Britons and 

778 



Frenchmen met with a sincere and 
enthusiastic welcome. 

THE ITALIAN PEOPLE REALIZE THEIR 
DESPERATE SITUATION. 

General Cadorna's communique of 
October 28 had revealed the very truth 
about the situation where the line gave 
way. In his rage, at that shocking in- 
stant, he had used the plainest terms, 
not hesitating at "treason" itself. 
Although the message was not made 
public until its language had been 
modified, rumor got abroad and was 
caught up without delay. The effect was 
that of an electric current shaking men 
and women into consciousness of their 
stupid or wilful failure to perceive the 
dangers they had been fostering instead 
of fighting. 

"Now, in the souls of four-and- 
thirty millions from the Alps to Sicily, 
a decisive battle was waged in the 
secular conflict between the persistent 
materialism and the no less persistent 
idealism of t-he Italian nature. The 
very existence of the idealist principle 
in the common life of the race was 
threatened, and to some seemed al- 
ready doomed. Italy, having striven 
for a hundred years to be a great and 
free country with traditions and memo- 
ries of her own making, had not, it 
seemed, the necessary staying power. 
Was she, after all, fit only to be a 
'museum, an inn, a summer resort' 
for German 'honeymoon couples,' 
*a delightful market for buying and 
selling, fraud and barter,' as in the 
days before Mazzini? Had the fathers 
of the Risorgimento been mere sent- 
mentalists, who tried to make the land 
of their dreams out of earthen clay? 
Had the true decision been, not in i860, 
but in 1849, if only they had had the 
sense to accept it? Or had they per- 
chance been right after all, those great 
ones of old, with that large faith of 
theirs? The world would soon know." 

On the heels of the communique fol- 
lowed the Propaganda of the Mutila- 
ted, launched on the same day, October 
28. Both officers and privates whose 
injuries had removed them from active 
service gave themselves to the work of 
reviving a burning spirit of patriotism 
in the country. Blinded, lamed, or 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



paralyzed, they yet had tongues to 
persuade their fellow-citizens to meet 
the country's need. 

THE SITUATION OF THE OPPOSING ARMIES 
IN NOVEMBER. 

On November 9, the day before the 
Italian armies reached their standing- 
ground behind the Piave, the ruined 
remnant of Asiago passed again into 
the hands of the Austrians. Two days 
later, the enemy line was a united 
whole, when the eastern and western 
ends were knitted together between 
the Upper Piave and the Val Sugana 
In that sector, the Fourteenth Austro- 
German Army and the Tenth Austrian 
Army faced the Italian Fourth Army 
under de Robilant, which had moved 
southwest from the Carnic front. West 
of the Brenta, on the Asiago Plateau, 
Pecori-Giraldo, with the Italian First 
Army, was prepared to hold those 
heights and the Val Frenzela, against 
the Austrian Eleventh Army. In the 
"bottle-neck" between the Brenta and 
the Piave, the Italians occupied the 
ridges, of which the Monte Grappa and 
Monte Tomba massifs lay nearest the 
south. About ten miles southeast, 
beyond the Piave 's bend eastward, on 
its right bank, Montello provided 
another ridge to fortify for defense at 
a distance of twenty-five miles from 
Venice. The Asiago Plateau, Monte 
Grappa, and Montello were the north- 
ern centres of the struggle that dark- 
ened the remaining days of November 
and the whole month of December, 
while the flood of the Lower Piave was 
being disputed hotly by the Italian 
right wing under the gallant Duke of 
Aosta. At the other end of the 
shortened Italian line, the Fifth Army 
with General Morrone did not change 
its position west of the Trentino; but 
its right flank was endangered by the 
enemy's presence in the Val Sugana. 

THE AUSTRO-GERMAN FORCES MAKE 
SLIGHT GAINS. 

Working down the Brenta Valley 
from the Val Sugana and pressing 
eastward from Asiago, the Austrian 
mountain troops and some Hungarian 
divisions, under von Below, drove the 
defenders of the uplands back toward 
the last ridges at Monte Tomba and 

780 



Monte Grappa, and approached the 
upper end of the Val Frenzela. Mean- 
while, the Italians eagerly watched the 
mountains for the first sign of the ex- 
pected snows. The storms came late. 
"It was not the snow that saved 
Italy, but the valor of her sons." 

On the Piave, Boroevic's forces 
crossed to the west side at Zenson, only 
eighteen miles from the sea, on Novem- 
ber 13, and took a bridgehead farther 
up the stream. When, at the mouth of 
the river, Hungarian battalions crossed 
the canalized stream and started over 
the marshes to the old river-bed, 
Piave Vecchia, or Sile. the engmeers 
opened the flood-gates which had been 
built to reclaim land in the delta and to 
control the rise of waters in the lagoons 
of Venice less than twenty miles away. 
Of the conditions after the floods were 
let loose on November 15, we have this 
account by a correspondent: 

FLOODS DEFEND THE ITALIANS ON THE 
LOWER PIAVE. 

"The water effectively holds the 
enemy at most exposed points and for 
fifteen miles on the west bank of the 
Piave. The flooded area is about 
seventy square miles, and the water is 
a foot to five feet deep and twelve miles 
in width at some points, making the 
district impossible of occupation or 
movement by enemy troops. The 
enemy clings to the west bank at Zen- 
son, but is crowded into a small U- 
shaped position and relying on batteries 
across the river to keep the Italians 
back. 

"The lower floors of the houses in 
such villages as Piave Vecchia are 
under water, and the campanili stick 
up from the mud-hued level of the 
flood like strange immense water 
plants; and here in the silence of the 
floods the enemy is moving in boats 
and squelshing over mud islands. 
Peasants, awaiting rescue from the 
inundation, see him arrive with feelings 
much like those of shipwrecked people 
who hail a passing sail and find it is a 
pirate craft." 

THE AUSTRIANS ATTACK ON THE ASIAGO 
PLATEAU. 

As December opened, there were 
indications on the Asiago Plateau that 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



.vigorous Austro-German offensive was 
in preparation. On a front of twelve 
miles no fewer than 2,000 guns were 
massed. General Plumer offered, in 
conjunction with the French, to take 
over some sectors in the foot-hills; but 
the Italian High Command feared the 
effect of the cold and snow upon troops 
unaccustomed to mountain conditions 
and not equipped for them. Therefore, 



danger of a break into the plains un- 
doubtedly increased." 

The anticipated attack on the Asiago 
began toward the end of the first week 
in December. Slowly the Italians 
yielded position after position, holding 
out so long that they sometimes lost 
many prisoners at a time. The number 
captured by the enemy soon mounted 
to 15,000 But he, too, was losing his 




BRITISH TROOPS ON THE MARCH ACROSS THE PLAINS OF ITALY 

The wise, sound strategic advice of General Plumer and the sense of support furnished by the presence of British 
and French troops helped to sustain the spirits of the Italians in their desperate stand at the Piave. The British, in 
their march across the historic northern plains, were greeted with enthusiastic demonstrations. They took up 
their position on the Montello height, between Montebelluna and the Piave, the first week in December. 



the assisting forces were assigned to 
the Montello sector, which formed "a 
hinge to the whole Italian line." The 
aid was much appreciated as a means 
of relief for General de Robilant's 
army in its too-difficult position. To 
keep the sector supplied, boys no more 
than eighteen years old had been poured 
into the ranks after barely a month of 
drill in camp. Such was the sacrifice 
the country was offering up. 

Yet, "December was an anxious 
month," Sir Herbert Plumer says. 
"Local attacks grew more frequent 
and more severe, and though the 
progress made was not great, yet the 



thousands. Already, since the be- 
ginning of the invasion, he had given 
up 150,000 in killed, wounded and 
captured. 

ALPINI AND BERSAGLIERI FIGHT TO THE 
l\ LAST MAN. 

Both east and west of Brenta, 
heights were taken and retaken. "It 
was a saturnalia of killing. To realize 
what was then happening, you need a 
vision of death striding those misty 
valleys like a proprietor walking in his 
own fields. The hill of the Bersaglieri 
was held by front men who had fought 
since the offensive in August on the 
Bainsizza Plateau. They fought till 

781 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



fighting availed no longer, and then 
fell back, fighting still and attacking 
at everyopportunity with the bayonet." 
These are the words of Perceval Gib- 
bon. 

As so many times before, Alpini and 
Bersaglieri performed unheard-of feats 
of sheer daring, exhibiting that dash 
and spirit which are suggested by the 
very mention of their names. How- 
ever, by Christmas Day, the prospect 
was still unlightened. The enemy had 
advanced into the Val Frenzela and 
had secured the lower summit of Monte 
Tomba, threatening to outflank Monte 
Grappa. 

THE TIDE TURNS WITH THE END OF THE 
YEAR. 

Then, on December 30, the French 
left, supported by British batteries, 
cleared the summit and slopes of Monte 
Tomba, taking i ,500 Austrian prisoners. 
With this success, the tide seemed to 
turn. The hills were aiding their de- 
fenders, at last, for wild storms had 
broken out. The Piave was rushing, 
swollen to a width of i ,000 yards or 
more in places, its waters icy and for- 
bidding. In spite of the peril of wad- 
ing or crossing on rafts, volunteers never 
were lacking for the raids that were 
made, from time to time upon the east 
bank. Before the first fortnight of the 
new year was gone, Zenson bridgehead 
had been retaken by the Duke of 
Aosta, and the Austrians driven back 
across the river. 

Step by step, hour by hour, the Teu- 
ton forces lost ground and the Italian 
positions became less cramped. The 
counter-offensive was marked by some 
signal successes, as when on January 
27, Col del Rosso and Col d'Echele were 
both taken and held and more than 
1,500 prisoners captured; while, the 
next day, an attack on Monte di Val 
Bella resulted in carrying the summit 
and added over a thousand more 
Austrian prisoners. 

Since the hope of getting down on to 
the Venetian plains had been frustrated, 
Ludendorff began to withdraw German 
troops for use on other battle-fronts 
where they were needed. In the 
Austrian command a change was made, 
when, about January 21, 191 8, General 

782 



Boroevic succeeded the Archduke Eu- 
gene as head of the entire front against 
Italy — an appointment which was con- 
sidered "rnerely a sop thrown to the 
Slav element of Austria-Hungary." 

THE NAVY HELPS IN THE DEFENSE OF 
VENICE. 

On the side of the Allies there was 
increasing harmony and understand- 
ing. When British and French batter- 
ies were working in conjunction with 
those of Italy, an Italian Staff officer 
declared: ''At last we have realized 
unity of command right in the face of 
enemy fire." But the Italians them- 
selves bore the chief burden of the 
fighting. "The Italian Army could 
not only resist — that had been shown 
by the wonderful stand after the long 
retreat — but could already hit back 
hard and retake from the enemy very 
strong positions which had been in his 
hands for over a month. The recovery 
from the long trial was very quick; and 
it was of special significance that the 
brigade which took Col del Rosso and 
held it against all the furious counter- 
attacks of the Austrians was the 
Sassari Brigade, which had belonged 
to the Second Army and come through 
the worst of the great retreat." 

In following the efforts of the Alpini, 
Bersaglieri, Infantry, Cavalry, and 
Arditi, we must not lose sight of the 
equally necessary and heroic part 
played by the Navy in the defense of 
Venice. The spirit of its men was mani- 
fested as soon as news of the Austro- 
German invasion reached them in the 
naval bases. Almost with one accord 
they asked to be transferred to the 
infantry and allowed to go to the front. 
As many as could be spared had their 
requests granted; but there was plenty 
of work to be done on the water. All 
through the retreat, the right flank of 
the army was protected by marines 
along canals and rivers. "Platoons 
of marines stood in the mud behind 
guns corroded by the inundations, 
holding back entire companies of enemy 
troops for days and nights without 
the possibility of obtaining relief or 
food. Some of the gun crews dragged 
not only the mounts and the guns by 
hand across very swampy ground, with 




VENICE, WHERE ROP,IANCE AND BEAUTY ABIDE 
Venice, whose islands offered a refuge from Attila and his Huns in 452 A.D., is a land of blue waters, radiant skies, 
flashing colors and lilting songs. She has picturesque, romantic charm, and encloses a store of artistic treasure. 
With her industries hard hit by the war, she made a patriotic and heroic readjustment. Then came the invasion, and 
the fair city waited silent, almost deserted, while her defenders strove for her safety. 




FOR THE PROTECTION OF VENICE, THE BELOVED CITY 

Among the provisions for the defense of Venice in the hour of invasion were the guns mounted upon pontoons 
in the marshes at the mouths of the Piave and other rivers. Disguised as islands or house-boats, ^he pontoons 
frequently shifted their positions and the guns furnished efifective protection. 



Central News Service 



783 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the water up to their knees, but also 
the munition cases, without taking 
time for sleeping or eating." Sub- 
marine chasers ran up into the rivers 
to disperse Austrian patrols. Hydro- 
planes bombed bridges. And aviators 
were tireless in making bombing and 
observation flights and keeping the 
different sections of the army informed 
of one another's movements. 

THE GULF OF VENICE PROTECTED BY 
MINEFIELDS. 

Two weeks after Monfalcone and 
Grado had been abandoned, "the work 
of forming the principal ring of defense 
around the city of the Doges was confi- 
ded to the machine gunners of the navy." 
As, fifteen hundred years earlier, fugi- 
tives from the terrors of Attila's inva- 
sion had taken refuge in the marshes 
and founded there the city, Venice, 
again the safety of the Venetian people 
depended partly upon the waters. 
We have noted how the Lower Piave 
had been flooded. The whole region 
of the northern shore of the Venetian 
Gulf was inundated and protected by 
mine fields. The Gulf, therefore, was 
converted into an isolated sea. Secret 
channels in the bottom of the lagoons 
were known to none but war pilots, 
who alone could safely navigate even 
the smallest boats there. Moving about 
among the marshy islands, a great 
fleet of floating batteries furnished a 
strong defense. An eyewitness gives 
the following account of these batteries: 

"Each is camouflaged to represent 
a tiny island, a garden patch, or a house 
boat. Floating on the glass-like sur- 
face of the lagoons, the guns fire a few 
shots and then change position — 
making it utterly impossible for the 
enemy to locate them. The entire 
auxiliary service of supplying this 
floating army has been adapted to 
meet the lagoon warfare. Munition 
dumps are on boats, constantly moved 
about to prevent the enemy spotting 
them. Gondolas and motor boats re- 
place the automobile supply lorries 
customary in land warfare. Instead of 
motor ambulances, motor boats carry 
off dead and wounded. Hydro-aero- 
planes replace ordinary fighting air- 
craft." 

784 



THE DARING EXPLOIT OF LIEUTENANT 
RIZZO. 

There were, besides, stationary land 
batteries and armed ships of all sizes, 
including huge flat-bottomed British 
monitors carrying the largest guns. 
Swift little armored motor boats darted 
about, "the cavalry of the marshes," 
running up to the very trenches, where 
the enemy lines bordered a river, and 
attacking companies that attempted 
to cross the lagoons. 

On the night of December 9, 191 7, 
when the invasion was still swinging on, 
a spirited exploit was performed by 
Lieutenant Rizzo, of the Italian Navy. 
With two small launches he approached 
Trieste Harbor, which was carefully 
shut in by a network of steel wire 
studded with mines. In defiance of the 
danger from explosion, in case a jar 
should set off the mines. Lieutenant 
Rizzo and his men cut the wire cables 
that held the structure to the piers, 
until the "cobweb of metal and ex- 
plosives" dropped down to the sands. 
Then they ran their boats into the 
harbor near the great vessels, Monarch 
and Wien, and launched their torpe- 
does. Both ships were injured, the 
Wien fatally, so that she sank to the 
bottom. The Italian launches escaped 
miraculously through a storm of shrap- 
nel and gunfire, under the brilliant 
illumination of searchlights and burst- 
ing shells, while the Austrians sought 
to discover whence the attack had come. 

SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF THE GREAT 
DISASTER. 

When, under an unusual, sudden 
strain, a man's physical system suffers 
collapse, the breakdown is often reason- 
ably accounted for by the discovery of 
a "complication" of disorders or cir- 
cumstances. The same reasonable ex- 
planation applies to national catas- 
trophes, although, in the immediate 
shock and confusion, this fact may be 
overlooked. So, for Italy's "Capo- 
retto" there are reasons, military, 
economic, moral, and personal. The 
one most patent, and therefore most 
emphasized, at the moment, was the 
local break in morale, which in itself 
was due to a complex and intricate 
tangle of causes. The Russian failure, 



tne consequent spread of Bolshevist 
tenets, the unsatisfied demands of 
Socialists and pacifists, the exhaustion 
of mind and body resulting from months 
of terrible war conditions without relief 
or refreshment, — these are a few of the 
threads that wove the web to entangle 
unwary feet. 

When we get close enough to see the 
military situation, the disaster is even 
more accountable. With General 
Capello's command, the Second Army, 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



' blow is that the Italian positions were 
those suitable for offensive movements, 
such as the army had been developing 
along the eastern front, rather than for 
defense. The foremost lines were far 
the strongest and the guns had been 
pushed far forward. When the first lines 
were put under sudden bombardment 
and weakened by clouds from shells of 
asphyxiating and mustard gas, then 
attacked during an unexpected lull in 
the artillery storm, there was not a 




A DARING NIGHT EXPLOIT IN THE HARBOR OF TRIESTE 
Arrived at Trieste in torpedo boats on the night of December 9-10, 1917, Luigi Rizzo and some of his men 
made their way in on motor scouts, cut the mined wire entanglements and approached the vessels, Monarch 
and Wien, dischar£;ing torpedoes which sank the Wien and damaged the Monarch. Austrian search-lights 
swept the skies for air raiders while the seamen crept in unperceived. They escaped to their base in safety. 



several times too large for one officer's 
efficient control, and its 4th Corps, 
poorly trained and filled up from new 
drafts, in a sector far removed from 
the commander's field of action, there 
was difficulty enough, had General 
Capello himself been able to direct 
affairs. But his illness had left control 
in the hands of General Montuori, who 
was unacquainted with the region. 
General Capello under the pregs of 
unusual circumstances resumed hii^ re- 
sponsibility before he was considered 
fit to "carry on." 

THE ITALIAN POSITIONS NOT SUITED FOR 
DEFENSE. 

Another condition that explains what 
happened under the Austro-German 



fii^^ly held "battle position" behind 
them for support. Worse than all else, 
enemy troops, masquerading in Italian 
uniforms, carried out a "collective 
deception." 

"It was Italy's misfortune to be 
attacked at the time of her weakness and 
at the place where she was weakest." 
More astonishing than the retreat was 
the immediate rally after such an ex- 
perience. That the spirit of the army 
as a whole was far from being demor- 
alized had ample demonstration before 
the year was over. And now, behind 
the army stood firmer walls of support 
than before, due to a newly aroused 
spirit in government and in people — 
even in the Allied command. 

7^5 




CAPTIVE BUT UNDISMAYED 
French colonial troops awaiting roll-call in the German prison camp at Zossen, south of Berlin. The troops of the 
Fatherland had full proof of their valor in the recapture of Forts Douaumont and Vaux, and in the second battle of 
the Aisne when they flung themselves against the machine-gun-infested slopes of the Craonne plateau. Ruschin 




RUSSIANS IN FRANCE 
In 1916 a contingent of Russians were transported to France by the Trans-Siberian railway. A Russian brigade 
under General Lochwitsky was stationed in front of Courcy in the battle of the Aisne, and its members were burn- 
ing to inspire by their conduct their liberated countrymen, and show what Russians could achieve when properly 
disciplined and led. In a day of fierce fighting they took all their objectives. French Official 

786 




Photo — Yandyk 



M. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU 
Premier of France, 1917-20 



c 







1 




Russians in France in 1917 

Chapter XLVIII 

On the French Front in 1917 

'HE ATTEMPT TO SMASH THE GERMAN DEFENSES AND 
BREAK THROUGH FAILS 



'T^HE Allied offensive In 1916 had 
-'■ nowhere achieved decision. Ger- 
man attack at Verdun had held the 
French; British gains on the Somme 
had been limited to a depth of six or 
seven miles on a narrow front; Italy's 
blow at Gorlzia had fallen short; and 
Russia's campaign after initial vic- 
tories had broken down. In the win- 
ter, the High Command took counsel 
and decided upon a further general 
attack co-ordinated upon all fronts. 

THE GERMAN GENERAL STAFF SURVEYS 
THE SITUATION. 

The enemy, facing the situation 
squarely, took stock of assets and 
liabilities and made wise provision to 
anticipate the offensive and thus se- 
cure — even to a limited degree — the 
Initiative. He knew that as an ally 
Austria was failing, that he could rely 
upon Bulgaria only in the Balkans and 
upon Turkey merely in the east. On 
the other hand, he sensed the growing 
weakness of Russia, perceived the 
widening cracks in the framework of 
the mighty colossus whose shadow had 
hitherto darkened the fortunes of the 
Central Powers — and he determined 
to profit by its fall. Until Russia were 
out of action, Italy might safely be 
left, for the German Staff felt she was 
too much under the influence of Eng- 
land tc make a separate peace, even 
if she were defeated. On the Western 



Front a difficult problem had to be 
faced. 

WITHDRAWAL TO THE LINE OF DEFENSE 
ALREADY PREPARED. 

The fierce conflict on the Somme had 
left the Germans with an awkward 
salient in their line. It was urgently 
necessary for them to improve their 
position or run the risk of being en- 
veloped by the Allies. An attack 
against the enemy at the point where 
he had broken through was the most 
obvious remedy, but the German Chief 
of Staff could not venture a great 
offensive in the Somme region at a time 
when he knew attacks were imminent 
on other parts of the Western and 
Eastern fronts. There remained only 
the alternative of withdrawal, and 
HIndenburg decided to adopt this 
expedient and transfer his line of de- 
fense which had been pushed in at 
Peronne at one point and bulged out 
to the west of Bapaume, Roye and 
Noyon, at others to the chord position 
Arras, St. Quentin, Soissons. The 
retreat was a great blow to the German 
army, to the people at home, to their 
allies abroad. For the time, until its 
soundness as a strategical manoeuvre 
was borne in upon them by bitter 
experience, it seemed a great triumph 
for the British and French, who has- 
tened to exploit it for propagandist 
purposes. 

787 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Retreat began on March i6, 1917, 
and left in its wake a devastated and 
shell-scarred wilderness where rivers 
had been dammed to flood wide areas, 
where towns and villages lay in black- 
ened heaps, where spectral shapes 
stood that once were trees, and where 
silence replaced the peaceful murmur 
of a smiling countryside. The British 
and French followed slowly for all rail- 
ways, roads and bridges had been 
obliterated, and there was fighting 
with rear-guards until the fluid line 
crystallized into shape once more. By 
the first week in April, German dis- 
positions in the new Siegfried (or 
Hindenburg) Line were complete and 
commanders could appreciate the fore- 
sight which had engineered such a 
great strategic "stand to," which, 
although it abandoned the initiative to 
the enemy for the time being, gave 
favorable local conditions and short- 
ened the line in a way that made it 
possible to build up strong reserves. 

TT THERE AND WHAT WAS THIS NEW HIN- 
W DENBURG LINE. 

The new line hung like a cable be- 
tween Vimy ridge and the Craonne 
plateau. In making it, the Germans, 
profiting from experience in earlier 
battles, had departed from their old 
pattern of defenses. "In future," 
writes the veteran Marshal von Hin- 
denburg, so closely associated with its 
conception, "our defensive positions 
were no longer to consist of single lines 
and strong points but of a network of 
lines and groups of strong points. In 
the deep zones thus formed we did not 
intend to dispose our troops on a rigid 
and continuous front but in a complex 
system of nuclei and distributed in 
breadth and depth. The defender had 
to keep his forces mobile to avoid the 
destructive effects of the enemy fire 
during the period of artillery prepara- 
tion, as well as voluntarily to abandon 
any parts of the line which could no 
longer be held, and then to recover by a 
counter-attack all the points which 
were essential to the maintenance of 
the whole position. These principles 
applied in detail as in general. 

"We thus met the devastating effects 
of the enemy artillery and trench- 

788 



mortar fire and their surprise infantry 
attacks with more and more deeply dis- 
tributed defensive lines and the mo- 
bility of our force. At the same time 
we developed the principle of saving 
men in the forward lines by increasing 
the number of our machine guns and 
so economizing troops." In the maze 
of these deep lines before the many- 
angled fire of machine guns French 
attack was to experience tragic check 
at the Craonne plateau. 

THE BRITISH AGREE TO FOLLOW FRENCH 
DIRECTION. 

In the Allied plan of attack — a plan 
considerably modified by the Hinden- 
burg retreat — it was arranged that 
combined British and French attacks 
should be made on the two pivots of the 
new German position. Thus, British 
operations against Arras on a lesser 
front were to be preparatory to more 
decisive operations by the French 
against the Craonne plateau, to be 
begun a little later on, and in the sub- 
sequent stages of which the British 
were to co-operate. If this combined 
offensive did not produce the full 
effects hoped for, it was arranged that 
the British should shift their attack to 
the Flanders area, and the French 
should lend their aid where it was most 
needed. To achieve such co-ordination, 
unity in command was essential and 
for the first time in the history of the 
war the British commander consented 
to place himself under a French gen- 
eralissimo, Nivelle of Verdun fame. 
Sir Douglas Haig reserved to himself, 
however, the right of deciding when to 
break off his own action. 

Nivelle's appointment to succeed 
Joffre, in preference to Petain and Foch, 
had in it something of surprise. That 
he was an advocate of decisive action 
appealed to a more or less war-weary 
France, faint-hearted over the "nib- 
bling" methods of Joffre, and the 
"limited objectives" of the Somme 
and Verdun fields. He was more popu- 
lar than Petain whose coldness and 
sarcasm made enemies among his 
equals, readier with a colossal scheme 
than Foch, at this time believed ex- 
hausted after a series of great actions. 
His war record was a distinguished one: 




789 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



at the Battle of the Aisne in Septem- 
ber, 1 9 14, he had saved a portion of 
the VII Corps from destruction; at 
Verdun from command of the III 
Corps he had passed to the command 
of the Verdun army and had recov- 
ered considerable ground by the end of 



THE BRITISH BEGIN WITH GAINS AROUND 
ARRAS. 

The first storm in the West broke 
just after the beginning of spring. On 
April 9, British attack at Arras gave 
signal for the opening of the great 
offensive. For days masses of artillery 
and trench-mortars pounded 
the enemy's lines and then the 
infantry moved forward with 
considerable success. The high- 
water mark was reached, April 
14, when Sir Douglas Haig, but 
for his agreement with Nivelle, 
would have broken off the 
fight, but the French offensive 
had already begun — and begun 
badly — and the British were 
forced to continue fighting at 
a disadvantage to relieve the 
pressure upon the French army. 
The French line from Soissons 
to west of Rheims faced enemy 
positions of extraordinary diffi- 
culty as attested by the fact 
that since the first struggle on 
the Aisne heights in September, 
1914, little had changed in the 
sector. In the Hindenburg 
retreat only a short alteration 
of the line north-east of 
Soissons had been made. The 
first section of the front from 
Vauxaillon to Troyon, perhaps 
the most difficult and therefore 
most important, was the west- 
NIVELLE, SUCCESSOR TO JOFFRE em end of the Craonne plateau 

In the first battle of the Aisne, Nivelle performed brilliant service, descending On the SOUth tO the 

He became division commander in February, 1915, and fotirteen /»• ^ „ii „„J ^„ +1,^ ^^^+U 

months later commanded the 3rd corps at Verdun. Later in the year AlSUe VallCy aUQ On tne UOrtn 

he succeeded Petain as commander of the Verdun army. ^q ^J^g little AilcttC rivcr. A 

reference to the map will show that the 
German line ran just west of Laffaux, 
crossed to the south bank of the river 
at Missy-sur- Aisne and continued to a 
mile or two east of Chavonne whence 
it struck back across the river, north- 
east through Soupir to Troyon where it 
touched the Chemin des Dames. 
Southwards the plateau here breaks 
into five spurs intersected by ravines 
cut by brooks running into the Aisne. 
The thickly wooded sides afforded 
cover for innumerable nests of machine 
guns, so situated as to pour a deadh% 
many-angled fire upon the attacking 
infantrv. 




the year. It was his belief that artillery 
would decide the fate of the war; and 
he urged a decisive blow, not "to 
weaken but to crush," not to "break 
up" but "to break through." What 
Petain had performed on a narrow two- 
three mile front at Verdun, Nivelle 
proposed to do with multiplied forces 
on a wide front of fifty miles from 
Soissons to Rheims, with the object of 
piercing into the plain and capturing 
Laon, the pivot of the Siegfried Line 
and the source of supplies for every 
man and gun around the massif of 
St. Gobain and the Chemin des 
Dames. 
790 



<» 




791 



^n|lish MilM 




c»«y-4^^ THE CHEMIN DES DAMES AND CONTIGUOUS COUNTRY 

The Chemin des Dames, constructed in the eighteenth century for the daughters of Louis XV, runs along the 
high ridge of ground between the Aisne and the Ailette. From its hard limestone rock was quarried much of the 
stone of which Rheims Cathedral was buUt. After intense fighting, the French stormed this position in 1917. 



THE CHEMIN DES DAMES AND THE QUAR- 
RIES OF CRAONNE. 

Where the spurs join the main ridge 
and along its summit runs the famous 
Chemin des Dames, before the struggle 
a beautiful shady highway made for 
his daughters by Louis XV. Next to 
Verdun the Chemin des Dames has 
witnessed more bitter fighting, per- 
haps, than any other region on the 
French front. To the north the plateau 
drops steeply to the narrow marshy 
valley of the Ailette. Northwards 
again rises a lesser plateau beyond 
which lie the plain and city of Laon — 
the goal of Nivelle's campaign. For 
hundreds of years the Craonne plateau 
has been quarried for building-stone 
and in its depths run countless pas- 
sages, caves, and grottos which afforded 
secure assembly points for troops, and 
bomb-proof shelters against the French 
artillery. The Germans had literally 
lined these caverns with machine guns 
so constructed that they could be 
whirled behind granite walls whenever 
necessary to avoid concentrated French 
fire. A correspondent who visited the 
strongholds later in the year after the 
French had captured them, writes: 
" I went down into one of the quarries. 
The opening was a tiny hole in solid 
granite. I went down and down in 
pitch blackness. The officer and I 
stumbled along, fumbling at solid rock 
walls. A soldier came up to meet us 
with an electric lamp, and below we 
could see a line of wooden steps, at 
least a hundred of them. Then we came 
into a. great arched cavern that led 
into another similar one, and then to 

792 



another, and then into long galleries 
and through dark, narrow passages, 
where we had to stoop low, only to 
come into other caverns with exits 
leading in various directions and so on 
until, at least half a mile from the Ger- 
man rear, from where we entered, we 
walked out again into daylight. That 
quarry alone was big enough to secrete 
5000 German soldiers who poured from 
a dozen similar exits when the French 
infantry advanced. Every gallery of 
these underground fortresses the Ger- 
mans raked with machine guns when 
stormed." Above ground their trenches 
ran line upon line up the gentle slope 
to the summit; on the reverse side 
nestled their heavy artillery in safe 
positions. 

No LABOR SPARED TO SUPPLY NATURAL 
DEFICIENCIES. 

The second sector of the line from 
Troyon to Craonne embraced the east 
end of the highway and plateau, nar- 
rowest at Hurtebise Farm where it 
measured only loo yards but rose to 
650 feet. Craonne at the eastern ex- 
tremity towered over the rolling Cham- 
pagne country below. 

From Craonne to Betheny the 
twelve-mile front in its course dropped 
to marshy woodlands below the plateau 
and then entered the level Champagne 
terrain, unbroken save for the Fresnes 
and Brimont heights. Southwest- 
wards it continued to Rheims, north 
and east of which rise the hills of 
Nogent I'Abbesse- and Moron villiers 
respectively. This was the weakest 
part of the front, but the Germans had 
expended great labor on its defenses, 




QUARRIES OF FRANCE IN THE HANDS OF THE GERMANS 
Quarries in the occupied area might serve the invader as mines of wealth or as walls of defense. Where 
such excavations occurred on the line of battle they could be easily transformed into strong fortifications or 
stations for sheltering troops. On the Craonne heights the extensive quarries and natural caves were well utilized. 



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GERMANS AT WORK ON AN UNDERGROUND GALLERY 

Trenches and galleries hewn from stone or solidly constructed of concrete are more enduring than walls of 
earth; but all kinds were made by the Germans in their miles upon miles of trench and tunnel. Here they are 
setting up supporting walls and roofing of timber in an earthen gallery. As the cut of a garment depends on the 
cloth, the style of trench is determined somewhat by the material at hand. 

793 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




MODERN FACE ARMOR 

French poilu equipped in steel mask to protect him 
against scattering shrapnel fire. 

studding it with pill-boxes containing 
machine guns, and in the event it 
proved as great a barrier as the Aisne 
heights. 

The French forces were still in three 
groups: the Northern under Franchet 
d'Esperey, the Central under Petain, 
the Eastern under de Castelnau, with 
a fourth or reserve group under 
Micheler. Nivelle planned to put into 
action the centre and right of this last 
group between the Ailette and Rheims 
in the following order: the VI Army 
under Mangin from Laffaux to Hurte- 
bise was to attack the German salient 
from west, south, and east; the V 

794 



Army under Mazel from Hurtebise to 
Rheims was to pierce through the gap, 
Craonne — Berry-au-Bac, into the plain 
of Laon, and simultaneously turn the 
Rheims hills from the north. The day 
after the main attack, which Nivelle 
confidently expected would reach Laon 
itself, General Anthoine was to hurl the 
IV Army against the Moronvilliers 
heights to the east of Rheims, while 
Duchesne with the V Army was to be 
in reserve. 

Against Micheler's group of armies 
were those of the Crown Prince, the 
VII German Army under von Boehn to 
the west of Craonne, and eastward the 
I German Army under Fritz von Be- 
low. They had been ordered to hold 
their ground at all hazards, and to 
retake at once any yard of ground lost. 

THE WEATHER UNFAVORABLE FOR AR- 
TILLERY ATTACK. 

The winter of 191 6-17 was an ex- 
ceptionally bad one in Europe: it 
was followed by a late, cold and stormy 
spring. The English attack at Arras 
had been delivered amid hurricanes of 
rain and snow and sleet and the artil- 
lery work had been correspondingly 
crippled by the limitations of aerial 
guidance under such conditions. On 
the 8th of the month, Nivelle's artil- 
lery preparation began and grew in 
volume until the i6th, when at 6 a.m. 
amid stinging hail the infantry went 
over the top. Alas for their sanguine 
hopes of finding the enemy's lines 
broken and pulverized! Where their 
really furious bombardment had been 
effective the Germans had taken refuge 
in the caves and passages beneath, and 
swept down the advancing Frenchmen 
with deadly machine-gun fire. 

Again and again the waves hurled 
themselves against the spurs: the day 
ended as it had begun, in driving sleet; 
though something in the way of local 
gains had been made — the crowning 
point of Hurtebise, a sentinel hillock 
of the gap between Craonne and Bri- 
mont, a position threatening Brimont 
and Fresnes, many prisoners, and many 
guns, yet no gap had been made. 
Nivelle had said, ''Laon," and officers 
and rank and file realized that the 
ambitious plans had miscarried, that 




CRAONNE, ON THE CHEMIN DES DAMES 
At the western extremity of the plateau stands the town of Craonne, rising above the level Champagne country as 
the bow of a ship from the sea. In the Napoleonic wars it was the site of a great battle, and its crooked streets 
witnessed severe fighting during the great war as the battle line surged back and forth. 




LAON, THE CAPITAL OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AISNE 
Before the war Laon possessed numerous ancient buildings and three gates belonging to thirteenth-century 
fortifications. The Romans fortified it, and it was important under the Franks, being the residence of the Carolingian 
kings in the tenth century. In modern times Napoleon was defeated here by the Germans under Blucher in 1814. 



795 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



reverse was theirs instead of victory. 
This bloody repulse proved the bitter- 
est, indeed the most overwhelming 
disappointment to the French leaders 
and their men. 

THE FRENCH SOLDIERS THROW THEM- 
SELVES AGAINST THE GERMAN DE- 
FENSES. 

On the second day the weather 
was equally bad, yet the battle line 



Ailette and Suippe it had captured 
23,000 prisoners, 175 guns, 119 trench 
mortars and 412 machine guns. Ter- 
ritorially it now held the banks of the 
Aisne from Soissons to Berry-au-Bac, 
all the spurs of the Aisne heights and 
the centre of the tableland. But the 
dominating height of Craonne still 
resisted, the hills of Brimont and 
Fresne had not been turned, and in 






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WHERE GENERAL ANTHOINE WAGED WAR 
The western end of the area in which Nivelle waged the second battle of the Aisne, and the scene of the fight of 
General Anthoine's army. It was impossible to take Rheims without turning the enemy's strong positions on the 
Nogent I'Abesse and Moronvilliers hills to the west of the city. 

the Moronvilliers heights the gains 
were inconsiderable. 

BITTER DISAPPOINTMENT AT THE FAIL- 
URE OF NIVELLES PLANS. 

There was another side of the picture: 
long and ever-lengthening casualty 
lists, a certain unmistakable demorali- 
zation among the rank and file, and a 
series of definite protests from a num- 
ber of officers. 

French expectations had been tuned 
to a high pitch by the audacity and 
confidence of Nivelle's plan and the re- 
action was sharp. Instead of strong 
support for the "break through " policy 
came reversal to the strategy of the 
Somme, the advance on a limited front, 
and a cry for the man who had success- 



lengthened as Anthoine's army passed 
into attack against the Moronvilliers 
hills with the object of broadening the 
entrance into the plain for Micheler's 
centre. For the next five days severe 
fighting raged on the whole front but 
everywhere along the line the "elastic 
defense," which had been a departure 
for the Germans, justified itself, as the 
machine guns in their hiding places 
survived the artillery preparation and 
kept the situation well in hand. The 
French had gained ground under sur- 
prising difficulties but they had not 
secured the key positions. 

Twelve days after the battle started 
the French Headquarters published a 
summary of its gains: between the 

796 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



salient between Laffaux and Vauxail- 
lon — but with no success. The fighting 
along the Chemin des Dames ridge was 
perhaps the most bitter of the war. 

While the French stood upon the 
defensive, Petain was restoring the 
army: strengthening its morale, read- 



fully used it to regain French territory 
around Verdun. In the crisis the old 
office of Chief of General Staff was 
revived in the Ministry of War — the 
holder of which had to pass upon the 
plans of all the commanders and esti- 
mate the various resources in materiel 
— and Petain was appointed 
to fill it. Meanwhile the army 
was struggling on in vain en- 
deavor to make Nivelle's plan 
succeed, but it was dashing 
itself to pieces against the 
German stand, and on May 
15, Petain succeeded to the 
office of Nivelle with the task 
once again of restoring the 
French army. Foch replaced 
Petain at Staff Headquarters 
and Fayolle assumed direction 
of the Central Group of armies. 

THE STRUGGLE FOR LOCAL 
STRONGHOLDS CONTINUES 
FOR WEEKS. 

A new battle had begun, 
April 30, in the Moronvilliers 
sector. Here the French made 
scattered gains and finally at 
the end of three weeks captured 
the whole of the summit ridge. 
May 4 and 5 the left and centre 
came into action and fire swept 
tile entire front again. In this 
fighting the French captured 
Craonne promontory itself so 
that nothing now blocked their 
vision towards Laon. The Ger- ^otre dame cathedral, laon 

mans counter attacked fiercely Before the tide of battle surged over it, this cathedral was one of 

KIl^- i-tiiT-icfot-^rl nr-w rrainc riiit-inn- the finest twelfth-centufv Gothic edifices in France. Finished in 

out reglSterea no gains. Louring ^225, it is surrounded by numerous towers, those two flanking the 

June the French made a slight facade being adorned with huge oxen. Ruschin 

advance and improved their line with justing and in some cases replacing 




the net result that they managed to 
secure the enemy's points of observa- 
tion over the valley of the Aisne east 
and west, without themselves winning a 
line from which they could command 
the valley of the Ailette to the north 
over the historic plateau crowned by 
the Cathedral of Laon. German shock 
troops {stosstruppen) launched nearly 
forty local attacks over the period of 
the following three months to recover 
such vantage points as the California 
and Casemates plateaux (or Winter- 
berg as the Germans called them), 
Hurtebise Farm, and the apex of the 



his staff, strengthening the lines, the 
aerial service and the artillery, and 
putting into the task all the meticulous 
care and attention to detail that had 
prefaced the attacks in the preceding 
autumn on Forts Vaux and Douau- 
mont. When he took over command 
he told Sir Douglas Haig that it would 
be fully two months before anything 
more could be expected of the French 
army, and, as a matter of fact, it was 
October before Petain again took the 
offensive in this area. It must be con- 
ceded that the second battle of the 
Aisne was a reverse : it had failed of its 

797 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



purpose to break the Laon pivot of the 
Siegfried Line, it had wa^ed both 
French and British troops (for the 
latter had had to hold on at Arras to 
relieve the strain on the French army 
long after the legitimate point was 
passed). 

NIVELLE'S PLAN IMPOSSIBLE WITH 
FORCES AT HIS DISPOSAL. 

The failure was not entirely due to 
bad generalship: the unusually bad 



to throw in reserves where most 
needed. 

Again, Nivelle's attempt to destroy, 
almost consecutively, the enemy's dif- 
ferent lines of defense failed. Instead 
of separating these successive offen- 
sives by days or weeks, he allowed only 
a few hours to intervene. The second 
position was to be carried six hours 
after the first, and twenty-four hours 
after preliminary attack the war of 




A FIELD FORTIFICATION SUPPLY POST 

These great cylindrical baskets were used to make redoubts, barriers and breastworks. Placed upright and filled 
with earth or sand, they were arranged several rows deep both as to depth and height and sometimes half sunk 
into the ground, and with the limbs of trees as reinforcements they were commonly used for field fortifications. 



weather of the opening days slowed up 
advance ; an accident in the V Army 
Intelligence Corps gave the enemy 
wind of expected attack; the new tanks 
had broken down. But, in general, the 
reverse was due to bad judgment. 
Attack had been made on a broad 
front with the idea of not allowing the 
Germans to concentrate at vital points, 
but these points were so strong that 
special effort was needed to reduce 
them, and this was not possible in such 
an extended movement. Moreover, the 
mobile defense of the Germans and the 
shortening of their line allowed them 
798 



movement was to begin. The idea was 
excellent, the means were inadequate. 
The attempt to smash at the same time 
both the first and second German posi- 
tions defeated its own end inasmuch 
as neither line was suf^ciently dam- 
aged. Everywhere the destruction 
was insufTficient and imperfect, without 
counting the blockhouses that were 
left practically intact and which gave 
so much trouble. Instead of over- 
running the first position without 
striking a blow, it had to be conquered 
foot by foot. The tanks on which the 
French had counted so much could 




SHELL FACTORY AT CREUSOT 

In this factory shells of large calibre are made. After they have been forged they are shaped. This factory re- 
ceived most of its steel from the Bethlehem Steel Works and from England. From being ill-supplied with such 
projectiles in the first year of the war France came to supply Russia and her allies in the Balkans. 




FRENCH ARTILLERY TRAIN 
Railway artillery has become as varied in its design as field artillery. Each type of railway mount has certain 
tactical uses and it is not considered desirable to use the different types interchangeably. Thus, there are those 
that gave the gun all-round fire, those which provided limited traverse for the gun, and those which allowed no 
movement for the gun or the carriage but were used on curved tracks to give the weapons traverse aim. 

799 




INSTRUCTION AT A FRENCH SCHOOL OF GUNNERY 
This Picture and the three following show stages in the firing of a gun— in this case, a "75.'' Here the can- 
noileJfare ready for action. Facing the gun on either side stand the loader, the layer and the firer. Just 
behind is the ammunition wagon, turned down and opened, behind which, crou^ching 
puncher between two other men whose duty it is to serve out the cartridges. 



The instructor stands at the left. 




THE LOADER RECEIVES THE CARTRIDGE 
In this picture the same gun-crew is seen from the rear. The loader, standing between the wagon and the 
gun. has just taken in his hands a cartridge which has been passed to him by the man crouching at his lett, 
who, in turn, had received it from the fuse-puncher. The next act is to load the gun. 

800 




THE ACT OF LOADING THE GUN 

Here we have the same point of view as in the &st picture, but with the men in slightly changed positions. 
The loader is inserting the cartridge in the breech of the gun, while the layer and the firer have taken their 
places astride their seats— an indication that the gun is properly laid, in other words, that the spade is sufficiently 
imbedded in the earth. The next step is to fire the shot. 




CLEANING OUT BREECH AND BORE 



If thP .jhell which contains the powder and which remains in the breech after the shot has been fired, fails to 
bedrivLouTbyVeS^ must thrust a rammer down through the mouth of the gun to push the 

shell out of the breech. For cleaning the bore of the gun, a swab is used. 

807 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



not enter the action. Finally, due to 
unwise publication of plans, there was 
no strategic nor tactical surprise. No 
preparation escaped the enemy, who 
judged how to receive the attack and 
make the counter-thrust. 

A GERMAN VIEW OF THE FRENCH OFFEN- 
SIVE. 

Indisputably, the principle of the 
"break-through" is excellent. The 
Germans did almost the same thing in 
their 1918 March offensive. But in 
modern warfare, tactics are intimately 
linked to armament and effectives, and 
on the Aisne the vision was too great. 
The end and the method were not 
compatible with the means and mate- 
rial at hand. The finest military con- 
ceptions are only valuable if finely 
executed, and in April it must be 
admitted that the command was worse 
than mediocre. 

Field-Marshal von Hindenburg's ver- 
dict on the Arras-Aisne-Rheims battle 
must complete this account of its first 
phase. "In my judgment the general 
result of the great enemy offensive in 
the West had not been unsatisfactory 
hitherto . . . Though gaining a good 
deal of ground, our enemies had never 
succeeded in reaching more distant 
goals, much less in passing from the 
break-through battle to open war- 
fare." 

On the British front in conformance 
with the general scheme the Flanders 
battle flared up at the end of July, and 
did not die down until December. As 
on the Somme neither of the two 
adversaries could raise the shout of 
victory, though in November the 
British gained a striking success on 
another part of the line at Cambrai. 

PETAIN REGAINS THE GROUND LOST 
AROUND VERDUN THE YEAR BEFORE. 

In the latter half of August after a 
space of nine months the magic word 
of Verdun again thrilled the heart of 
France. After a three days' bombard- 
ment Petain sent the French II Army 
forward astride of the Meuse, on an 
eleven-mile front. Success was immedi- 
ate. Within a week almost all the 
objectives had been taken, and held 
in spite of German counter-attack. 
On September 8 another slight gain 

802 



was made. The French had advanced 
to a penetration of 14 miles. All the 
fortifications between Avocourt Wood, 
Le Mort Homme, Corbeaux and Cu- 
mieres Woods, Cote de Talou, Champ- 
neuville, Mormont Farm, Hill 240 and 
Fosses Wood had been taken. The 
French had regained the positions they 
had held in February, 1916. 

In October Petain 's preparations 
were complete for a renewed stroke on 
the Aisne. As an example of his 
meticulous care in all departments, in 
his arrangements for transportation, 
every army corps had a supply station 
directly behind it where there was a 
platform 350 yards long, for discharg- 
ing heavy shells, another platform the 
same length for light shells, another 
for engineers' supplies, another for 
macadam for roads and another for 
food. 

THE WHOLE OF THE CHEMIN DES DAMES 
IS TAJCEN. 

Although the Germans had lost their 
observation posts commanding the 
Aisne, yet they believed that their 
positions south of the Ailette w^ould 
stand any amount of bombing. On the 
17th, Petain began searching out these 
positions, hidden in quarry caverns, 
sometimes with 6-inch and sometimes 
with 8-inch guns. Having ascertained 
them by the German return fire, on the 
20th he added some batteries of 15-16- 
inch guns and for three days thundered 
away until the rocks crumbled and the 
caverns lay exposed. Aeroplanes ob- 
served the breaches and then into them 
poured a steady stream of shrapnel 
from the famous French " 75's, " hither- 
to silent in hiding places near the front 
line. "Zero" was set for 5:15 on the 
23rd and in mist and rain the French 
infantry pushed forward and carried 
Malmaison Fort in the centre and 
Allemant and Vaudesson on the let. 
Supported by a highly concentrated 
barrage of 16-inch shells and by squad- 
rons of newly devised tanks, the in- 
fantry captured 10,000 prisoners and 
70 heavy guns. The next day the 
Oise-Aisne Canal was reached, and the 
French consolidated their gains. Avia- 
tors found signs of preparation for the 
enemy's retreat which was inevitable, 




"KEEP OUR LOVED ONES NOW FAR ABSENT" 
A field post-oflSce and letter box, the sight of which opens a whole realm of human history to the imagination. 
In a box perhaps somewhat similarly situated our "own soldier" has put his precious letters that we have devoured 
with such eagerness, and dwelt upon with such lingering care. 




FRENCH MACHINE GUNS IN AN ORCHARD 

Along the roadside a line of apple trees ofifers partial concealment for these gunners who have dug for them- 
selves shallow pits as temporary gun positions. After months of trench fighting, with earthen or concrete walls 
shutting one in, and with shattered, desolated country lying on every side, open warfare on fresh ground makes 
a strange contrast. 

803 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




GOING FORWARD TO THE ATTACK 
A squadron of "Chars d'Assaut" or French baby tanks on the Aisne front. Because of the late spring and bad 
weather the ground proved impassable, and the tanks in a gallant attack near Pontavert designed to open the way for 
cavalry exploitation, halted at the German second line, and thereby added to the confusion and congestion of the 
arrested advance. French Pictorial Service 



as their positions south of the Ailette 
and on the western ridge of the Chemin 
des Dames could now be enfiladed 
from both east and west. 

On November 14 the Germans with- 
drew behind the Ailette abandoning 
the western elevations on the Chemin 
des Dames, with the French close at 
their heels, and retired until they 
reached prepared positions on the 



northern side of the valley of the 
Ailette. Thus by the offensive forty 
square miles were regained in the de- 
partment of the Aisne. Petain's opera- 
tion had been a triumph for the old 
limited objective: less than half the 
front had been attacked but success 
so striking had followed that the enemy 
had had to evacuate all along the 
line. Muriel Bray. 



804 




I DESPERATE FIGHTING IN MUD AND RAIN GAINS TERRI- 
TORY AT A TERRIBLE PRICE 



Yeomanry on the Edge of a Mine Crater 

Chapter XLIX 

On the British Front in 1917 



'\\/'HEN, in November, 1916, active 
operations in the area of the 
Somme and the Ancre were no longer 
possible, Sir Douglas Haig directed 
the efforts of the armies there toward 
improvements and adjustments to pave 
the way for new advances in the spring. 
Trenches, roads and all means of com- 
munication required immediate and 
energetic attention. To help solve the 
serious transport problem, England 
and Canada contributed of their own 
rails, locomotives, and rolling stock; 
and engineers worked assiduously. 
And, in order to be ready to assault 
the strong enemy lines along the 
Ancre and north of that stream, the 
artillery was arranged in new posi- 
tions. 

''pHE BRITISH EXTEND THEIR LINES AND 
1 MAKE PROGRESS. 

In January, a decision was reached 
among the Allies to extend the British 
front until it should reach as far south 
as Roye. Before the end of February 
this had been accomplished. Through 
January and February, many local 
attacks near the Ancre resulted in the 
gradual broadening of the reclaimed 
section, as the Germans evacuated 
Grandcourt, Serre, Gommecourt and 
other positions, one by one. This with- 
drawal of the enemy — a part of Hin- 
denburg's plan of retreat to the strong- 
ly prepared Siegfried (or Hindenburg) 



Line — was aided by the heavy frosts 
of an unusually cold January, which 
had hardened the ground and made it 
fit for the transfer of heavy guns. But 
when, in March, the British started to 
follow the main body of the retreat, 
springtime thaws had left the earth 
even more sodden and spongy than it 
had been in the autumn previous. 

THE HINDENBURG LINE AND ITS SEVERAL 
BRANCHES. 

The reasons for the strategic Ger- 
man retreat have been explained in the 
previous chapter. The Siegfried Line 
(renamed by the Allies the Hinden- 
burg Line), branching from the old 
positions just south of Arras, running 
through Queant, then southward, pass- 
ing west of Cambrai and St. Quentin, 
crossing the Gise to the heights of the 
Aisne northeast of Soissons, lying along 
the Craonne plateau there, and extend- 
ing on toward Rheims, "had been 
built to meet the experience of the 
Somme battle." Its wire entangle- 
ments were so deep and close that a 
man could not see through them, and 
its low machine-gun shelters of con- 
crete were so constructed as to be 
invisible from the air and to resist 
even tank attacks. The plan of mak- 
ing it a development in depth where an 
enemy might become ensnared only 
to find himself facing stronger fortifica- 
tions while under enfilading machine- 

805 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



gun fire, has already been described. 
In the northern area, further support 
was gained by the construction of two 
switch Hues. First, the Oppy Line 
started north of Lens and made a 
broad bulge eastward through Oppy, 




NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST OF ARRAS 

The Douai and Cambrai roads, on either side the 
River Scarpe, crossed the Oppy Line and the Drocourt- 
Queant Line, guarding the northern end of the Hin- 
denburg Line. 

returning to the main line southwest of 
Monchy. Beyond that, the Wotan 
Line (known better as the Drocourt- 
Queant Line) was under construction 
between Drocourt (west of Douai) and 
Queant (west of Cambrai) where it 
joined the Siegfried Line. 

In drawing back to their new posi- 

806 



tions from the salients south of Arras 
and Peronne, the Teuton armies over- 
stepped all bounds set by civilization 
for a people at war, from the old Mosaic 
injunction against destroying fruit 
trees to the latest unwritten laws of the 
modern Christian world. With delib- 
erate intent they left in their path 
utter waste, — trees felled one by one, 
dwellings looted and wrecked, sanc- 
tuaries defiled or razed, graves torn 
open, wells filled in or poisoned. 
What they could use, the spoilers car- 
ried away; all else they rendered 'use- 
less. The growth, the thought, the 
labor of centuries they made as nothing. 

BAPAUME AND PERONNE ARE OCCUPIED 
WITH LITTLE RESISTANCE. 

When, in the middle of March, the 
British commander perceived that the 
enemy front was thinning in spots, a 
general advance of the forces between 
Arras and Roye was ordered. The 
forward push began on March 17 and 
proceeded at first without serious 
opposition, except for a position here 
and there that was contested more 
hotly than the rest by German rear- 
guard detachments. The greatest diffi- 
culty lay in the condition of the de- 
vastated country, where roads and 
bridges had been demolished and 
snares and mines had been planted. 
Nevertheless, on the first day, the 
British entered Chaulnes and 
Bapaume, while the French took 
possession of Roye. On the eighteenth, 
Peronne was occupied and in Nesle, 
farther south, French and British 
cavalry came together. With several 
miles of the west bank of the Somme 
under their control, the Allies con- 
trived to make crossings at various 
points. At Brie, for instance, the en- 
gineers had a single-file foot-crossing 
over the ruined bridge ready in a few 
hours, while in less than four days the 
bridge was capable of supporting any 
traffic. 

Day by day the conditions improved 
for the Germans, whose line was 
shortening and whose communication 
with their bases was growing more 
direct. Of the Allied troops exactly 
the reverse was true. And as the dis- 
tance from their supplies broadened, 




"RAGE NOT, ONLY WONDER!" 

Ruthless, deliberate ruin lay in the wake of the German Army after its retreat in March, 1917. Looting, despoil- 
ing, wrecking, defiling, the hordes withdrew to their new lines. Upon some examples of their handiwork of 
destruction, as here in the Grande Place of Peronne, they set the derisive inscription, "Nicht argern, nur wundern!" 




ON THE TRAIL OF THE HUN IN BAPAUME 
The Australians, riding through the Rue de Peronne in Bapaume, beheld there such demolition as might be 
found in a town where earthquake shocks or a tornado had torn up and crumpled and crushed the buildings. But 
this was the intentional performance of twentieth century human beings. No wonder that a German soldier 
should have written, "We live now not like men, but like beasts," and "We can scarcely be looked upon as soldiers. 

807 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



enemy resistance stiffened. Yet, on 
April 2, north of the Bapaume-Cambrai 
road, where they were very near the 
Hindenburg Line, they captured some 
of its advance positions on a ten-mile 
front. By that time, von Hindenburg's 
armies were established in their newly 
fortified lines. 

THE GERMAN RETREAT INTERFERES 
WITH ALLIED PLANS. 

The retreat had not been actually 
a surprise to the Allies, who had noted 



fighting to which General Haig had 
hoped to turn promptly would have 
to be delayed until the outcome of the 
French contest on the Craonne pla- 
teau might be known. 

When the moving lines came to a 
halt the first week in April, the British 
armies from south to north stood as 
follows: Next to the French left, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson's Fourth Army had 
advanced to within about two miles 
of St. Quentin; Sir Hubert Gough's 



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TREES FELLED IN HASTE AT PERONNE 

"Our pioneers have sawed and cut the trees which for days have fallen until the whole surface of the earth is 
swept clear," boasted the Berliner Tageblatt. Little orchard trees, too small to yield shelter, were destroyed as 
mercilessly as great roadside trees which (like those being cleared away by a British working party in the picture) 
became obstructions in the path of British advance. Some, because of haste, had been only partly cut through. 



preparations indicating such a move- 
ment; indeed. Sir Douglas Haig felt 
that his efforts in the Ancre section had 
accelerated the German withdrawal. 
However, the plans he had made for 
the spring had to be modified in view 
of the change of front as well as for the 
sake of co-operation with the new 
French commander. General Nivelle, 
whose programme of operations has 
been set forth in the preceding chapter. 
The German salient between the Scarpe 
and the Ancre, which was to have been 
pinched between the British Third and 
Fifth Armies, had now dropped out. 
The intended attack upon Vimy Ridge 
could be undertaken ; but the Flanders 
8o8 



Fifth Army, in the Bapaume region, 
had reached the very borders of the 
Siegfried Line; around Arras Sir 
Edmund Allenby's Third Army was 
ready for action; opposite La Bassee 
and Lens lay Sir Henry Home's First 
Army; and beyond them, to the sea, 
extended the Second Army under Sir 
Herbert Plumer. The whole body 
numbered fifty-two divisions, as over 
against thirty in the battle of the 
Somme and seven at the time of the 
first battle of Ypres. It was by this 
time an army trained and tried, dis- 
ciplined by sternest conflict yet in- 
spirited by a measure of success, — an 
army ready to go forward. 



p 

^■q^HE ATTACK AROUND ARRAS INTENDED 
^B 1 TO AID THE FRENCH. 

^* The work appointed for the British 
was to occupy the attention of as large 
a number of the German troops as 
possible in the north, while the French 
were endeavoring to shake the south- 
ern pivot of the Siegfried Line. 
The first part of Sir Douglas 
Haig's original programme fit- 
ted well into this demand, inas- 
much as Vimy Ridge, forming 
the key to the situation at the 
northern pivot, around Arras, 
was to have been one of the 
main objectives for his attack. 
On the Ridge the enemy com- 
manded full observation over 
Arras, while his own communi- 
cations were shielded from view. 
Established there since the fall 
of 1914, he had not lost his 
hold during the French offen- 
sives of 1915, and now, in April, 
191 7, he claimed the whole 
Ridge except a small section on 
the northwest. Once lost, this 
barrier of Vimy Ridge, unsur- 
passed on all the Western Front 
"alike in natural strength and 
in the extent of its fortifica- 
tions," would hardly be re- 
gained, since its steep approach 
on the eastern side would make 
it an impregnable wall in the 
way of a German offensive. 
The following year, in fact, 
furnished a demonstration that 
this was true. 

For the initial attack of 
April 9 the troops responsible 
were the Third Army and 
the Canadian Corps of the First 
Army, to the latter falling the honor 
of wresting Vimy Ridge from Ger- 
man mastery, "the greatest success 
for them in the whole war." After 
days of steady artillery preparation 
and insistent battling in the air to close 
the eyes of the foe, there came a hush 
on Easter Sunday, April 8, a day of 
clear, sunny, springlike weather. But, 
the following day, through cold, 
drizzling rain, in the gray dimness of 
early morning, under a barrage that 
was "one canopy of shrieking steel," 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the men sprang forth to the assault. 
Out of the ancient, quarries and cellars 
of Arras, which had been transformed 
into an underground camp, electric- 
lighted and supplied with water, poured 
hosts of warriors. The battle had 
begun. 




ADVANCES NEAR THE SOMME AND THE ANCRE 
The solid black line marks the positions of July 1, 1916 (before the 
Battle of the Somme) ; the finely checkered line, those of March 1, 
1917; the black and white line farther east, those of March 18, the 
shaded area indicating the German retreat. 

THE CANADIANS TAKE VIMY RIDGE WITH 
A BOUND. 

Forty minutes sufficed for the cap- 
ture of practically all the German first 
positions. The Canadians were well 
up on the Ridge; the Scottish and 
English, to their right, were in the 
eastern suburbs of Arras; and South 
Africans were pushing forward with 
their usual determination. With a 
short pause before attacking each new 
defensive system, the contest went on 
successfully all day; and before the 
end of another day the whole of Vimy 

809 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Ridge, even the difficult Hill 145, had 
been cleared of its Teutonic tenants; 
the German second position had been 
won all along the line; and at many 
points breaches had been made in the 
third system of defense. It must not 



sturdy defense of the enemy. Heavy 
losses paid for this capture; but 
Monchy, like Vimy, was of great value 
for its wide outlook. The Germans did 
not yield it until several counter- 
attacks had been repulsed. 



I'^HE OBJECTIVES OF THE BRIT- 
ISH TAKEN VERY EARLY. 

As in most of their offen- 
sives, the British had been 
fighting, these three days, un- 
der very adverse weather con- 
ditions. Thick snowfalls, inter- 
spersed with wind and rain 
squalls, made the way im- 
possible for rapid advance of 
artillery. Nevertheless, on a 
twelve-mile front, they had 
driven half-way to the 
Drocourt-Queant Line, and 
had secured two miles of the 
Siegfried Line at its northern 
end. Twelve thousand prison- 
ers and one hundred fifty guns 
made a record capture for their 
armies in an equal period of 
time. 

By the fourteenth of April, 
in the judgment of Sir Douglas 
Haig, it would have been wise 
to close the offensive at Arras, 
had it been an independent 
movement. The enemy had 
continued his withdrawal, leav- 
ing in the possession of his 
pursuers several towns with 
numbers of guns and great 
British 

and other pictures were saved; but the building joined the company poStS nOW held a frOUt 




ARRAS CATHEDRAL IN RUINS 

When in July, 1915, the first shells fell upon the cathedral, it burned ctr»rp>G nf all^Hnrlc 
for two days. The Descent from the Cross, attributed to Rubens ='1^'^^*==' 'Ji ^1^^ KUlUb 



of ruins witnessing the barbaric work of German invasion. Ruschin. 

be overlooked that the second sys- 
tem included works of extraordinary 
strength, such as had cost many days' 
delay in the early weeks on the Somme. 
Among the intricacies of the Harp, 
south of Tilloy-les-Mofflaines, the Rail- 
way Triangle, east of Arras, and other 
such fortifications, groups of tanks (of 
which each corps had its assignment) 
worked with excellent results. 

The achievement of the third day, 
April II, was the taking of Monchy-le- 
Preux on its little plateau south of the 
Scarpe River. Here cavalry worked 
with the infantry and tanks came up 
in time to help in overcoming the 

8io 



a iront ex- 
tending from the outskirts of 
Lens, through Vimy, Bailleul and 
Monchy to Fontaine - les - Croisilles, 
about seven miles southeast of Arras. 
If it had not been for the French 
assault about to begin, the British com- 
mander would have been satisfied to 
turn at once to the Flanders problem. 

SUBSEQUENT ENGAGEMENTS DESIGNED 
TO HOLD THE GERMANS IN LINE. 

The fighting during the remaining 
weeks of the Arras battle fulfilled its 
purpose of engaging great numbers of 
the enemy; but it drew heavily upon 
the man power of the British, as well. 
Every step was contested with sharp- 
ness. Fierce counter-attacks wrested 




A VISTA ALONG THE SCARPE 
This quiet, picturesque, tree-bordered bit of the River Scarpe at Roeux, east of Arras, lay in the path of the Brit- 
ish offensive in April, 1917. Farther up its course, the Scarpe passes close beside the northern edge of Arras 
itself. The trade of the city is greatly facilitated by the canalization of the river. Ruschin 



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AT DROCOURT, BETWEEN LENS AND DOUAI 
The support line, branching from the main Hindenburg Line at Queant and running almost due north to Dro- 
court, covered the railways to Douai and Cambrai. As it was under construction when the battle of Arras began. 
Prince Rupprecht threw division after division into the front to gain time for its completion, after the British had 
broken the first two German systems. The struggle raged around Gavrelle, Roeux and Guemappe. 

British Official 

8ii 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



back ground that had been won by- 
awful effort. In this way, Gavrelle, 
Roeux, Guemappe and other villages 
were taken and retaken and taken 
again. Distinct attacks were opened 
on April 23, April 28 and May 3. On 
May 5, General Haig extended his 
active front to a length of sixteen miles, 
so as to include an attack by the Fifth 
Army upon the Hindenburg Line near 



tion over the Douai plain. Unhappily, 
these engagements, in themselves re- 
markably skilful and successful, fell 
short of the full measure of their results, 
because General Nivelle's major opera- 
tions on the Aisne did not accomplish 
their purpose. The experience had the 
unfortunate but natural effect of preju- 
dicing the British against the plan of 
unity of command. 




VIMY RIDGE AND THE DOUAI PLAIN 



Bullecourt. The Australians there car- 
ried a section of the Line, and the 
enemy's positions were shaken along 
the whole front of attack. Bullecourt 
itself was not completely taken until 
after the middle of May. Up to the 
fifth of May, which Sir Douglas Haig 
regarded as the close of the immediate 
campaign, the British had taken more 
than 19,500 prisoners, 257 guns, in- 
cluding 98 heavy guns, with 464 ma- 
chine guns, and 227 trench-mortars. 
They had gained about sixty square 
miles of territory, — somewhat more, 
in less than one month, than had re- 
sulted from the whole Somme offensive. 
Moreover, the possession of Vimy 
Ridge meant relief from a long-suffered 
menace, as well as new security due to 
the command of a wide field of observa- 
812 



PLANS TO STRENGTHEN THE BRITISH 
POSITION AROUND YPRES. 

While around Arras the battle was 
moving through the final stages of 
consolidation and strengthening of 
lines, during the end of May, farther 
north preparations were being com- 
pleted for a long-anticipated offensive 
near Ypres. There were far-reaching 
aims in this plan, which had been 
made toward the close of the previous 
year. If the venture proved success- 
ful, the German west flank, if not 
crushed, would be turned from its 
firm hold in Flanders, the dangerous 
bases of submarine mischief on the 
Belgian coast would be cut off from 
German control, and Lille and the 
other industrial towns of northern 
France be set free. The chances for 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



success, however, were so greatly 
reduced by the change in conditions 
that had come about between the 
planning of the campaign and its prose- 
cution that the wisdom of trying to 
carry it through must be questioned. 
The breaking down of the Russian 
ally was making possible the release 
from the Eastern Front of German 



themselves of any considerable height, 
they overlooked the flat country around 
in such a way as to burnish the enemy, 
seated solidly upon them, with most 
advantageous means of observation. 
One writer likens the British in Ypres 
to foot-ball players in a stadium, with 
the Germans for the spectators on the 
benches, the sad difference being that 




AMID THE RUIN THAT WAS YPRES 

After centuries of varying experience this venerable city in Flanders has become the very symbol of tragedy. Her 
quaint dwellings, her famous Cloth Hall, her streets and her towers, crushed into dust and splinters, will breathe 
to coming generations a new story of romance and heroism, while their old glories remain only in the words and 
pictures of former historians and admirers. These "clifif-dwellings" are the remains of old French barracks. 

British Official 

shells instead of cheers were showered 
down into the arena. Another says 
that an offensive launched from Ypres 
without the precaution of clearing the 
ridges would put the British in the 
position of "fighting blindly against an 
enemy with a hundred eyes." 

THE SMALL ELEVATIONS AROUND YPRES 
IMPORTANT. 

Before the city, ridges running north 
and south formed an angle with a 
ridge running east and west. Where 
they came together, the village of 
Wytschaete occupied the highest point, 
260 feet above the sea. (The elevation 
of Ypres was 82 feet.) Close by stood 
the neighboring village of Messines. 

813 



hosts that could be poured as reserves 
into any section where pressure grew 
heavy. Nor were conditions on the 
other fronts helpful at this time. 
Finally, the devotion of British re- 
serves to the subsidiary action at 
Arras and the unsatisfactory outcome 
of the French battle on the Aisne had 
further injured the prospects by caus- 
ing delay and loss. But courage and 
enterprise were not wanting in Sir 
Douglas Haig and his supporters. 
While deploring the unfortunate cir- 
cumstances, they set forward upon the 
campaign. 

As a first move it was essential to 
clear the ridges before Ypres. Not in 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




GENERAL SIR HERBERT PLUMER 

Hence the battle of June 7 is known as 
the battle of the Messines-Wytschaete 
Ridge (or, according to the Tommy, 
the Messines-^Whitesheet" Ridge). 
Little remained to mark the sites 
of the villages — 'only a "dust-heap" 
where Wytschaete had been, and the 
"tooth of the ruined church of Mes- 
sines." Since the end of 1914 no open 
fighting had taken place upon the 
ridge, but the Germans had spared no 
labor or ingenuity in preparing the 
place for defense, and the British had 
been working steadily on a scheme for 
its destruction. 

Forming a deep curve around the 
foot of the ridge the first system of 
German defenses presented a convex 
front of nearly ten miles for the British 
to carry at the outset of their attack. 
On the crest, the second system lay in 
another, or inner, curve. About two 
and a half miles back from the point 
of this small salient, the third system 
formed a chord of the arc, stretching 
from near Oosttaverne to Gapaard. 
This was to be the ultimate British 
objective in the opening battle. Be- 
sides a fourth system, about a mile 

814 



farther east, there were many cunning- 
ly placed trenches and redoubts in the 
woods north and northwest of the ridge, 
devised for raking an attacking party 
with a flanking fire. 
' From the Oise to the sea, the Ger- 
man front was commanded by the 
Crown Prince of Bavaria. North of 
the Douve river, which skirted the 
southern foot of the ridge, the Fourth 
Army under General Sixt von Arnim 
held the positions extending on to the 
sea. Flanking them on the south, the 
right wing of General Otto von Below's 
Sixth Army fay partly within the area 
of the prospective assault. 

THE EXCELLENT ARRANGEMENTS OF 
GENERAL PLUMER. 

The British troops involved were 
three of the six corps of the Second 
Army, whose commander, Sir Herbert 
Plumer, had shown himself as excellent 
a leader through the peculiarly difficult 
months .of comparative inaction as 
during the stirring hours of the Second 
Ypres. That battle had been the last 
great action in which this army had 
taken part, and they had occupied the 
same position since the spring of 1915. 




RUPPRECHT, CROWN PRINCE OF BAVARIA 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



But the calm patience and steady 
resolution of their commander had 
held their confidence and kept their 
spirit and energy alert. He had been 
the "true warden of the Flanders 
marches." 

In the work of preparation (which 
had been under way for more than a 
year), his performance attained the 
highest degree of excellence. Roads 
and railways were improved or con- 
structed leading toward proposed ob- 



neous explosion of nineteen mines on 
the morning of the assault. It was 
the culmination of a two-years'-long 
offensive underground, for mining had 
been going on all that time under the 
control of expert operators, members 
of great mining corporations. The 
galleries driven through the clay stra- 
tum aggregated five miles in length, 
and more than a million pounds of 
ammonal were used in the charges. Of 
the twenty-four mines prepared, four 




AMBULANCE MEN OF THE RED CROSS AT WORK IN YPRES 

The world will not soon forget that at Ypres on April 22, 1915, the Germans sent out their first wave of poison 
gas, adding a new horror to modern warfare. These Red Cross workers moving wounded through Ypres, when the 
city had become but a shell, were wearing masks as a protection against the poison fumes. 

jectives; and provision was made for 
ample water supply by building cis- 
terns, establishing sterilizing barges 
on the Lys river, and laying lines of 
pipe. So perfect were the arrange- 
ments that, when the battle was on, 
in one instance the pack carriers arrived 
with supplies four minutes after the 
troops had reached their objective, and 
each section was provided with water 
in about a half-hour after taking up a 
position on an objective that had been 
won. 

^TINETEEN MINES BLOW OFF THE TOPS 
i OF THE HILLS. 

The feature of the battle of the Mes- 
sines-Wytschaete Ridge which makes 
it unique in history was the simulta- 



were outside the front chosen for this 
battle, and one was exploded by the 
enemy. Twenty-seven "camouflets" 
had been discharged to destroy counter- 
mines, in the course of two years, some 
by one side, some by the other. 

Since the preparations for renewed 
activity were not secret, the enemy, 
in anticipation of a blow, made his 
arrangements, putting in new batteries, 
installing anti-tank guns, and experi- 
menting in the building of concrete 
"pill-boxes;" as General von Arnim had 
divined that the ridge would be the 
object of attack, the garrisons were 
given orders to hold fast in the assur- 
ance of plentiful reserves for their 
support. 

815 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



But the hour of attack had not been 
revealed. General Haig usually suc- 
ceeded in surprising his opponents 
with regard to the time of an offensive. 
So, although a week of tremendous 




^ THE MESSINES-WYTSCHAETE RIDGE 

bombardment had been obliterating 
all that had formerly been left stand- 
ing upon the ridge and incessant raids 
and air contests had been launched, 
the actual moment of opening the great 
struggle produced a shock. 

THE EARTH SHAKES ON THE JUNE 
MORNING. 

At ten minutes after three, on the 
morning of June 7, the nineteen mines 
flung up huge masses of the ridges, 
shaking the whole region and waking 
thunderous reverberations that were 

8i6 



heard in London itself. Hill 60, on the 
north, which had given much trouble 
heretofore, was upheaved and re- 
moved. Amid the rolling dust of the 
shaken slopes, the infantry rushed 
forward. The aircraft 
which for days had 
prevented the enemy's 
flyers from advancing 
as far as their own 
front lines were still on 
guard to observe and 
to give aid. 

Of the attacking 
troops, the Cheshires 
had spent the night in 
No Man's Land, and 
the German barrage, 
when it started, fell be- 
hind them. They, with 
an Ulster Division, 
worked through the 
Bois de I'Enfer and the 
other "Hell" positions 
situated between Mes- 
sines and Wytschaete. 
The Ulster left wing 
was on the Wytschaete 
Ridge by shortly after 
five. They, with a 
South Ireland Division, 
then secured the site 
of Wytschaete village, 
which was theirs by 
noon. By seven o'clock, 
Messines had been 
cleared by the New 
Zealanders, whose 
right flank was pro- 
tected by the Third 
Australian Division. 
After this successful 
start the Anzacs drove 
on toward the main objective, which 
they had won by midday. The north- 
ern positions were carried by English 
and Welsh troops, whose experiences 
varied in difficulty. By early after- 
noon, then, all were standing over 
against the German third system, 
ready for the last effort; and before 
nightfall the final objectives had been 
gained. 

During the next week, further ad- 
vance was made, so that before June 15, 
Gapaard had been taken, von Below's 



IP 




MERCKEM IN 1915 
Merckem, a Flemish village about seven miles north of Ypres, was situated in an important position between the 
ridge and the Houthulst Forest. It is here shown as photographed from the air in 1915, when it had suffered com- 
paratively little from bombardment. The church (in the centre of the picture) just bfelow the curve in the road, had 
lost its spire but otherwise seems to have been not greatly damaged; houses and roadways are clearly discernible. 




MERCKEM IN 1917 
This view of Merckem, again photographed from the air, after two years of artillery bombardment had done their 
shattering work, shows the same spot but altered almost beyond recognition. The curving road and the outline 
of the church foundations are the only clues for identification. During the last week in October, 1917, the French 
under General Anthoine and the Belgians under General Rucquoy by a concerted attack upon the boggy tongue 
of land known as the Merckem peninsula (east of the Yser- Ypres Canal) gained possession of it. 

8i7 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



army pressed back to the Warnave 
river, and strong positions north of 
the Ypres-Comines Canal cleared. 

The Messines-Wytschaete battle — a 
brilliant introduction to the main 
Ypres contest — was tactically a master- 
piece, a full triumph, crowning the long, 
skilful and painstaking preparations 
by Sir Herbert Plumer. It stands as 
"a perfect instance of . the success of 




PUSHING THE LINE BACK FROM YPRES 

the limited objective." Hopes and 
expectations rose high, only too soon 
to droop heavily as the offensive pro- 
ceeded against calamitous odds of 
circumstances. 

THE RIDGES BACK TO PASSCHENDAELE 
NEXT TO BE TAKEN. 

In order to secure the large, strategic 
ends in view, the slopes still in the 
enemy's hands, rising as far back as 
Passchendaele, must be won quickly 
to open the way for broader objectives. 
Granted good weather, this would be 
hard enough, for any movement was 
almost impossible to conceal from 
observers on those elevations, so that 
tunneling was necessary, though diffi- 
cult. Moreover, the ground, with its 
natural drainage turned aside or 
dammed by the furious shelling from 

8i8 



which it had suffered, offered little 
solid support for transport and was 
so yielding that tanks were hardly 
anywhere able to come to the aid of 
the infantry. The rains which deluged 
the region after the offensive opened, 
clogged and drowned the ways until 
the progress made by the armies strug- 
gling through such sloughs and mo- 
rasses seems all but miraculous. 

Unlike the stiff, 
hard intrenched lines 
farther south, the Ger- 
man front here had 
been prepared by von 
Arnim so as to prove 
"elastic" when pres- 
sure was brought 
against it. A loose and 
lightly held first line 
would yield to assault 
only to plunge the at- 
tackers into a zone of 
fortifications built and 
arranged on a new 
plan. These were the 
thick concrete "pill- 
boxes," so constructed 
that they showed little 
above ground (and 
were thus almost safe 
from enemy guns), but 
were able to shelter a 
score or two of men 
whose machine guns 
could sweep a wide 
range in the alleys of approach where 
attacking parties would be caught. 
Besides, the German guns were placed 
well back so as to drop a barrage upon 
troops thus entrapped, while numerous 
reserves were waiting in the second line 
to drive forward a counter-stroke and 
prevent the offensive from maturing. 

THE BRITISH-FRENCH LINE IS RE- 
ARRANGED. 

As a preliminary to the new stroke, 
the forces on the Allied front were 
rearranged as follows: General Raw- 
linson's Fourth Army replaced French 
troops on the Belgian coast; the Belgian 
Army, lying next on the south, drew in 
its right so as to make room for the 
First French Army under General 
Anthoine, which was to take part in 
the battle; the British Fifth Army, 



lb 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



under General Gough, held the section 
around Ypres, from Boesinghe to the 
Zillibeke-Zandvoorde road ; between 
them and the Lys lay General Plumer's 
Second Army; Sir Henry Home's 
First Army occupied the line from 
Armentieres to Arras; and from Arras 
south to the junction with the French 
stretched the Third Army, now under 
Sir Julian Byng, General Allenby's 
successor. 

As a consequence of the arrival of 
the British contingent on the coast, the 



heaviest blow was between the Zilli- 
beke-Zandvoorde ro.ad (south-east of 
Ypres) and Boesinghe, where Sir 
Hubert Gough's Fifth Army was 
stationed. On the left, the French were 
to keep close touch, advancing side by 
side with their allies; the first step for 
General Plumer's army was to be a 
short one, for the purpose of spreading 
out the area of attack and engaging 
part of the enemy's artillery. The 
principal assault was made by English, 
Scottish, Irish, and Welsh forces. 




A ROAD IN FLANDERS 

Words are scarcely needed where the story of blasted, blighted desolation is so graphically told by the camera. 
Yet there is added force in the phrases written by an historian of the Flanders battle-ground, who describes one 
stretch of it as "a wilderness of tree-stumps, littered branches, barbed wire entanglements, craters and ponds." 

German command showed alarm by 
trying to take a bridge-head on the 
east side of the Yser, at Lombartzyde 
near Nieuport. The attack, which was 
made on July lo, succeeded in destroy- 
ing most of the bridges, shattering 
two British battalions and seizing the 
northern section of the bridge-head. 

THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD BATTLE 
OF YPRES. 

For various reasons — among others, 
the retirement of the German lines 
under counter-battery work — the new 
advance did not begin until July 31. 
The whole front of attack, from a point 
north of Steenstraate south to the Lys 
liver, measured more than fifteen 
miles. Of this, the partj-eserved for the 



When, on the morning of July 31, 
at 3:50, the attack was begun which 
opened the Third Battle of Ypres, the 
excellence of the Allied barrage and the 
feebleness of the German barrage made 
for few casualties and good progress. 

British and French on the north 
moved in accordance with their time- 
table through the first trenches and 
into the second system. Pilkem, Ver- 
lorenhoek, and Frezenberg were soon 
taken. Before ten o'clock, all the 
second objectives north of the Ypres- 
Roulers Railway were under control. 
Resistance was stronger and diffi- 
culties greater farther south, where the 
road to Menin crosses the Wytschaete- 
Passchendaele ridge; this, being the 

819 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



key to the positions beyond, was 
guarded vigorously. Nevertheless, 
Sanctuary Wood was passed, and 
Stirling Castle, Hooge and the Belle- 
warde ridge captured. Then Glen- 
corse Wood and Inverness Copse pre- 
sented sternest resistance. Before the 
end of the day, with the French in 
Bixschoote and the British in St. 
Julien, in spite of rain and heavy 



Then came the rain, bringing days 
of disheartening delay during which 
the enemy found time to make ready 
for future opposition. As Sir Douglas 
Haig describes the conditions, "The 
weather had been threatening through- 
out the day, and had rendered the 
work of our aeroplanes very difficult 
from the commencement of the battle. 
During the afternoon, while fighting 




ENGLISH WOUNDED GOING TO THE REAR 
For help on the painful journey along the road to hospital care, some of these Tommies have the support of a 
German prisoner, who, though apparently unwounded, is not the most cheerful-looking member of the party. 

counter-attacks, the line north of was stil 



St. Julien had gone beyond the second 
system of defense; from St. Julien 
southward to Westhoek (which had not 
yet been entirely secured), the second 
system was held; and south of West- 
hoek, the first system had been taken. 
The crest of the ridge had been gained, 
and over six thousand prisoners had 
fallen to the British alone. 

RAIN AGAIN INTERFERES WITH THE 
. BRITISH ADVANCE. 

The work of the Second Army had 
succeeded admirably, for they had 
added as their share of conquest La 
Basse Ville, Hollebeke and Klein 
Zillibeke, just north of the Ypres- 
Comines Canal. 

820 



in progress, rain began, and 
fell steadily all night. Thereafter, for 
four days the rain continued without 
cessation, and for several days after- 
wards the weather remained stormy 
and unsettled. The low-lying clayey 
soil, torn by shells and sodden with 
rain, turned to a succession of vast 
muddy pools. The valleys of the 
choked and overflowing streams were 
speedily transformed into long stretches 
of bog, impassable except by a few well- 
defined tracks, which became marks for 
the enemy's artillery. To leave these 
tracks was to risk death by drowning, 
and in the subsequent fighting on sev- 
eral occasions both men and pack ani- 
mals were lost in this way." 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



II 



THE FAILURE TO ADVANCE CAUSES DE- 
PRESSION AMONG THE MEN. 

Besides a significant stroke in the 
suburbs of Lens, where on the fifteenth 
the Canadians captured Hill 70, the 
middle of August brought the second 
stage of the Ypres battle. It opened 
on the sixteenth. The French made a 
good advance which secured 
the strong bridge-head of Drei 
Grachten, and the British 
gained Langemarck with a part 
of the German third position, 
the Langemarck-Gheluvelt line 
(lying from Menin road along 
the second tier of ridges). 
Although there were distinct 
gains and the enemy lost 
heavily, so grievous were the 
losses of the British centre, ow- 
ing to the weather and to the 
success of von Arnim's tactics 
(the frequency of the "pill- 
boxes" and the strength of the 
counter-attacks), that a wave 
of depression rolled among the 
British soldiers. They began 
to want confidence in their 
commanders. To check this 
serious state of affairs, Gen- 
eral Haig revised his plans so 
as to give Sir Herbert Plumer, 
whose resourcefulness was well- 
known, command over the 
troublesome portion of the 
German front around the 
Menin road. This was done 
by extending the left of the 
Second Army farther north. 
General Plumer then made 
certain changes, especially in artillery 
tactics, that seemed advisable in order 
to cope more satisfactorily with the 
"elastic defense." 

August had been the wettest August 
known for years, so that it took several 
weeks of better weather in early 
September to make the ground pass- 
able for another advance. This was 
undertaken, September 20 



Second Army's capture of the high 
ground crossed by the Menin road,' 
where the fighting* had been so per- 
sistent and costly heretofore, and where 
the enemy had already put in sixteen 
divisions. This was, in fact, the south- 
ern entrance to the PaSschendaele 
ridge. The attack, which had moved 



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over an 
eight-mile front 'between the Ypres- 
Comines Canal and a point north of 
Langemarck, on a clearing morning 
after a night of rain. The Fifth Army 
did good work on its front, but the 
most important thing achieved was the 



THROUGH MARSHLANDS AND UP RIDGES TO 
POELCAPPELLE AND PASSCHENDAELE 

with smoothness and precision in spite 
of its severity and difficulty, furnished 
an example of what might be accom- 
plished by the enduring force of the 
British soldiers under thoughtful and 
patient leadership, even against the 
most severe opposition. 

MUCH OF THE GROUND FAMILIAR TO THE 
BRITISH SOLDIER. 

"Few struggles in the campaign 
were more desperate, or carried out on 
a more gruesome battlefield. The 
maze of quagmires, splintered woods, 
ruined husks of 'pill-boxes,' water- 
filled shell-holes, and foul creeks which 
made up the land on both sides of the 

821 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Menin road was a sight which to the 
recollection of most men must seem 
like a fevered nightmare. It was the 
classic soil on which during the First 
Battle of Ypres the First and Second 
Divisions had stayed the German rush 
for the Channel. Then it had been a 
broken, but still recognizable and 
featured countryside; now the elements 
seemed to have blended with each 
other to make of it a limbo outside 



counter-stroke, brought in five thou- 
sand prisoners and had attained all its 
objectives within a few hours, the 
British left capturing Poelcappelle and 
a New Zealand Division taking Gra- 
venstafel, the crest of a spur jutting 
out west of Passchendaele. 

SIR DOUGLAS HAIG'S REASONS FOR CON- 
TINUING TO FIGHT. 

Although it was now clear that the 
Third Battle of Ypres had failed 




MOVING UP THE GUNS IN SPITE OF ENGULFING MUD 

In order to hammer the "pill-boxes" into silence and to cut them ofif from the reserves beyond, it became neces- 
sary to shorten the range of the British guns and move them closer to their targets. This was no easy task where 
there was more water than solid earth on the crater-pitted ground, which seemed to be made up of "strings of 
small ponds." Often corduroy tracks were laid over the boggy surface. British Official 



mortal experience and almost beyond 
human imagining. Only on some of the 
tortured hills of Verdun could a parallel 
be found." 

Eleven counter-attacks along the 
newly won positions were a further test 
of British endurance. By a minor but 
successful attack on September 26, the 
ruins of Zonnebeke.were secured. 

Came October with downpours of 
rain that turned the battle area into 
"one irreclaimable bog" in which the 
conflict raged on. Of the five attacks 
launched during that month, the first, 
on October 4, intercepting a German 

822 



strategically, through an evil and 
untoward combination of storms and 
delays. Sir Douglas Haig chose to 
extend the time of the campaign until 
Passchendaele had been fully secured. 
Over two months had been necessary 
for the conquest of ground that he had 
hoped to gain in a fortnight so as to 
pass on to the more vital objectives of 
his programme. Yet, he would work 
through to the immediate objective. 
It was desirable, too, to draw on the 
enemy's growing reserves so as to 
relieve the French, attacking again on 
the Aisne heights. f 



p 

W' Each ac 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



II 



Each advance moved the lines closer 
up around Passchendaele itself,^ until 
on October 30, by some of the severest 
fighting of the whole battle, the 
Canadians drove their way into the 
very outskirts of the desired position. 
They formed there, however, so sharp 
a salient that a few days more were 
needed for improving the approach and 
supports. A little favorable dry weath- 
er came by way of help, and then, on 
November 6, Passchendaele fell before 
their sweeping advance. The danger- 
ous salient of Ypres had been cut out 
of the front of battle. The Third 
Battle of Ypres had come to an end. 

The record of gains after July 31 
shows 24,065 prisoners taken, 74 guns, 
941 machine guns and 138 trench- 
mortars. On the other hand, the 
price paid had been heavier than even 
at the Somme. Weather that pre- 
vented the air service from playing 
its role of observation and support in a 
region where the enemy had the 
natural advantages on his side, was in 
part accountable for this toll. Add to 
that the new method of defense de- 
vised by von Arnim, the stream of 
reserve, forces from the Eastern Front, 
and always the mud — perhaps the 
worst on any battle-field ever — and 
there is glory for the heroes who worked 
up the ridges and gained them, though 
the greater success aimed at had to be 
foregone. 

THE BATTLE OF CAMBRAI FOUGHT TO 
AID ITALY. 

Before tj?e year's end, another de- 
mand was to be made upon the British 
troops who had already borne enough 
to deserve a time of reprieve and rest. 
There was no possibility of another 
extensive undertaking at this time, but 
Sir Douglas Haig felt that the enemy 
must be engaged in order to keep him 
from sending greater numbers into 
Italy, where the southern ally was 
making a desperate stand at the Piave 
river after the Caporetto breakdown 
and retreat. England had sent as her 
best contribution General Plumer to 
Italy. Now she was about to con- 
tinue her efforts on the Western Front 
partly for the sake of Italy's safety. 
There was, besides, a desire to offset 



the discouraging experiences of the 
year by some heartening success that 
would lift the morale of the Allied 
peoples at home and on the field. 

The attack upon Cambrai was so 
planned as to restore the element of 
surprise which had not been much em- 
ployed in the more recent offensives. 
The importance and significance of the 
battle as it was fought lie in the suc- 
cess of the methods tried out by both 
sides, methods to be used conclusively 
in the campaigns of IQ18. That of the 
Allies was the sharp, sudden "crash" 
attack with squadrons of tanks to cut 
the way through and co-ordinate with 
the infantry; that of the Teutons was 
the massing of hidden reserves just far 
enough back to be secretly brought 
forward and thrown into line where 
they had not been anticipated. 

I'^HE TANKS AT LAST COME INTO THEIR 
OWN. 

The front chosen for assault was 
before Cambrai — a seven-mile line 
between the Amiens-Cambrai road 
and the Peronne-Cambrai road. The 
most formidable barrier in the way of 
advance was the Scheldt Canal which 
lay beside the Scheldt river. Cambrai 
was not definitely an objective, al- 
though it might be taken; but the 
ground to be attained was on the 
shoulders west and south of the town — 
Bourlon Wood and the heights east of 
the Scheldt Canal, where Crevecoeur 
was situated. From these points of 
vantage it would be possible to make 
the Germans uncomfortable in their 
positions beyond. 

The ground was suitable for the use 
of tanks, which had been of no real 
avail on the broken, muddy flats of 
Flanders. But here, the surface had 
been little affected by battle and had 
no great natural inequalities. Since 
the size of the early tanks had been 
recognized as a disadvantage, providing 
targets for hostile guns, both French 
and English had been producing num- 
bers of smaller machines, which are 
known as "whippets." At the Battle of 
Cambrai the tank had its first great 
triumph and was fully vindicated. 

No long preliminary bombardments 
prepared the enemy for the coming 

823 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



blow. The plan of General Haig was to 
break through with a sudden shock 
into the German lines, then send in 
cavalry to undo as far as possible the 
enemy's system before reinforcements 
could be gathered for a counter-move- 
ment. He hoped, by the surprise, to 
gain forty-eight hours before effective 
resistance could be organized. In case 
the venture moved rapidly toward 
success, French troops were to co- 
operate. 

A single gun-shot, on the morning of 
November 20, gave the signal for a 
bombardment along a twenty-mile 
front, from Bullecourt south to the 
St. Quentin sector. At the same time, 
under cover of mist, smoke and gas, 
moved forward the tanks, which had 
ingeniously been kept from the view 
and knowledge of the enemy. The 
attacking army was the Third, under 
Sir Julian Byng, who, as we have noted, 
succeeded to the command of General 
Allenby when the latter was transferred 
to Palestine. 

EXCELLENT PROGRESS MADE IN THE 
FIRST ONRUSH. 

The first sweep forward was one of 
the most rapid and remarkable ad- 
vances accomplished up to this time. 
One division, before evening, had 
reached Anneux, nearly halfway to 
Cambrai, and had carried the Siegfried 
Reserve Line on the way. Another 
had driven the enemy from the bank 
of the canal, pushed along the Siegfried 
Line and carried the German trench 
system west of the canal as far as the 
Bapaume road. At Flesquieres, a 
single German artillery officer held up 
the advance by firing upon the tanks 
until he died. To the south, Marcoing 
was taken. Side by side with the 
infantry, where possible, the cavalry 
were at work, although at Masnieres 
they were delayed by the Germans' 
having destroyed the bridge at this 
vital point. 

Further gains were made on the 
twenty-first; yet the objectives were 
not attained. Bourlon Wood, thickly 
sown with machine guns, had not been 
entered, although the village of Fon- 
taine-notre-Dame between Bourlon 
and Cambrai had fallen; Crdvecoeur 

824 



and Rumilly had not been secured, nor 
had the final line been broken suffi- 
ciently to let the cavalry through. The 
salient as it now stood could not be 
held. Retreat or further advance 
must be chosen. Sir Douglas Haig, 
unmindful of the strong German re- 
serves close at hand, decided to press 
forward upon the Bourlon heights. 
Furious fighting went on there for 
several days, while the positions on 
other parts of the line were improved. 
By the twenty-seventh, the gains 
reported were 10,500 prisoners and 
142 guns, with 14,000 yards of the 
main Siegfried Line and 10,000 yards 
of the Reserve Line captured, and, all 
together, over sixty square miles of 
territory occupied. London, rejoicing, 
set her bells ringing for "Cambrai." 
Then came Ludendorff's reply. Dur- 
ing the last week of November, sixteen 
fresh German divisions were introduced 
upon the field of battle where General 
von der Marwitz and his Second Army 
were situated in the area under attack. 
The order issued on the twenty-ninth 
stated, "We are now going to turn the 
(British) embryonic victory into de- 
feat by an encircHng counter-attack." 

IUDENDORFF MAKES A SUCCESSFUL 
J COUNTER-ATTACK. 

Ludendorff's tactical surprise suc- 
ceeded here as it had at Riga and at 
Caporetto; for the reserve troops had 
not been suspected, so well were they 
kept concealed. In carrying out his full 
intention he was not so successful, 
although twenty-four divisions, nearly 
all fresh, were used in the great counter- 
stroke. His object was to pinch the 
salient in from both sides and so cut 
off the centre, striking heavily there 
at the same time. 

The blow fell on November 30 and 
crushed through on the south where 
the new line of the salient joined the 
old British line. There a division, ex- 
hausted in the Flanders fighting, had 
been placed while its new material 
should be in training. It was not strong 
enough to hold, and the enemy drove 
through taking Gonnelieu, Villers- 
Guislain and Gouzecourt. On the left 
and in the centre, the resistance was 
gallant and firm, so the Germans 



wr 







wmrn 




FORT GARRY HORSE ON PARADE IN FRANCE 



©Canada, 1919 




FORT GARRY HORSE AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL CHARGE AT CAMBRAI 
A squadron of these horsemen from the Canadian Cavalry Brigade crossed the canal by a temporary bridge near 
Masnieres; drove forward about two miles into enemy territory; captured a German battery; attacked and over- 
powered a body of German infantry in a sunken road; then, misleading the enemy by stampeding those of their 
horses that had not fallen, fought on dismounted. By night they pushed back to the British lines, takmg their 
wounded and their prisoners. 

825 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



failed of the large success they had 
entered upon. But the losses on both 
sides were desperately heavy. Gouze- 
court was recovered by the British 
Guards Division which came forward 
to strengthen the wavering line ; but the 
Bourlon position was too difficult a 
salient to keep. It was relinquished 
by a skilful withdrawal on Decem- 
ber 4-7. 

THE GERMANS GAIN BACK ONE PART OF 
THEIR LOSSES. 

In the end, the Germans held seven 
square miles of the ground taken newly 
from the British, while the latter kept 
sixteen square miles of what they had 
seized from the Germans, including a 
seven-mile stretch of the Siegfried Line. 
In prisoners and casualties the results 
were about equal. It had been a 
brilliant feat of arms — ''the most 
successful single surprise attack up 
to this time on the Western Front." 
Whether it should have been under- 
taken or whether Sir Douglas Haig 
should have closed it after the first 
dashing advance, are questions that 
may never be satisfactorily decided. 

Viewed in the light of the opera- 
tions of 191 8, Cambrai is of especial 
interest. It offered a foretaste of the 
return to open fighting, and it gave 
warning (which, however, was not 
heeded) of the tactics which were to 
keep victory wavering in the balance 
for months, during the last year of the 
war. 

RETROSPECT OF THE BRITISH FIGHTING 
. FOR THE YEAR. 

In looking back upon the British 
battles of 191 7 — ^Arras in April, the 
Messines Ridge in June, the Third 
Ypres from July to November, and 
Cambrai in November and early De- 
cember — we get an impression of 
steady, arduous, exhausting fighting, 
well-planned for the most part, pushed 
with admirable spirit and endurance, 
yielding a gain of territory not ex- 
tensive but important for its dominat- 



ing character. It was brilliant fighting 
for successes that were not fully ade- 
quate to compensate for the struggle 
and the loss — not quite determinate. It 
was such a transition stage as can be 
reckoned rightly only in relation to 
what precedes and what follows. The 
process that had been the only success- 
ful method under earlier conditions — 
the war of attrition, with the limited 
objective — was no longer the best after 
the events of this year had shifted the 
conflict practically onto a single front, 
giving the enemy the advantage of 
almost unlimited reserves. 

The actual achievement was not 
inconsiderable. Prisoners taken num- 
bered 125,000. From the Oise to the 
North Sea the Allies had gained ad- 
vantageous positions, through the cap- 
ture of commanding ridges which had 
long overlooked their own lines. To 
Canada had been granted the distinc- 
tion of regaining Vimy Ridge, Hill 70 
(which had been a fateful fighting 
ground in the Battle of Loos in 191 5), 
and Passchendaele. 

Yet, there was much to offset these 
advantages. The levies for the British 
armies were not sufficient to keep the 
ranks filled with men that were trained 
and ready. And, under the pressure 
resulting from the Russian failure and 
the exhaustion due to fearful and 
unceasing effort under the worst kind 
of weather conditions, for which the 
British movements are said to have 
become "an accurate barometer," the 
strongest spirits sagged. The Italian 
set-back added to the depression. 

That united consideration might be 
devoted to the grave problems troub- 
ling the Allies, in November at a con- 
ference of prime ministers and chiefs of 
staff from Great Britain, France and 
Italy, a Supreme War Council was 
established. By this council was ap- 
pointed, then, the Inter-Allied General 
Staff consisting of General Foch, Gen- 
eral Wilson and General Cadorna. 

L. Marion Lockhart 



826 



il M 




ll' 



/« 





I 

■the BRITISH AND THEIR ARAB ALLIES WREST THE HOLY 
IP LAND FROM THE GRASP OF THE TURK 



Australians in camp in Egypt 



Chapter L 

The Conquest of Palestine 



pROM Gallipoli Lord Kitchener sailed 
to Egypt, and the story is current 
that he summed up the situation on 
that front in early 191 6 by his question : 
"Are you defending the Canal, or is 
the Canal defending you?" 

It matters little whether the story 
is true or not. It was to the point. 
Was the Egyptian Expeditionary Force 
to continue to think and act locally, 
or was it to advance to a broader 
view in which the true value of the 
canal as an artery of empire and as a 
touchstone of British prestige in the 
East was justly appreciated? Events 
had shown that the problems of defend- 
ing the canal and of defending Egypt 
were not identical. The Turk had 
crossed the desert once, he might do it 
again. He had placed casual and stray 
mines in the canal, he might accom- 
plish greater things. How then could 
supplies and reinforcements be taken 
to Mesopotamia, relying almost entirely 
upon Britain because of the breakdown 
of the Indian Army machine? 

THE MEANING OF THE CAMPAIGN UNDER- 
TAKEN IN 1916. 

Only a new line of defense for the 
canal east of the desert would remove 
the threat of strangle-hold upon the 
canal. Such a line could be gained 
only at the cost of a vigorous offensive. 
Upon this ground the Egyptian Ex- 
peditionary Force embarked in 1916 



upon a campaign which was to lead it 
not only to the Holy City itself, but 
to a conquest extending from "Dan 
even unto Beersheba. " 

Different fronts have had their differ- 
ent needs at different periods. Desert 
campaigning recognized two great fac- 
tors: water supply and transport^ 
Without these nothing could be at- 
tempted, with them all might be 
accomplished. The Desert of Sinai had 
no water supplies save such amounts 
as were collected in Roman or Babylon- 
ian cisterns or in pools in the rocks in 
scattered spots where the winter rains 
were heavy. These could not be relied 
upon for large forces. Water in 
quantities sufficient for numbers of 
men and animals had to be run out 
into the sandy wastes from the sweet 
water canal which ran beside the 
waters of the ship canal. 

THE WATERS OF THE NILE RUN INTO 
THE JORDAN. 

Dwellers in Egypt are subject to a 
troublesome disease {Bilhaziosis) de- 
veloped from drinking the waters of the 
Nile, which contain a parasitic worm. 
In the new system this danger was 
fully guarded against. The water was 
passed under the ship canal in siphons, 
having filters attached, into reservoirs 
on the eastern bank. Here it was again 
filtered, chlorinated and pumped for- 
ward to its destination. There were 

827 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



in the water system, at its fullest 
development, seventeen pumping sta- 
tions. At all important troop centres 
reservoirs were built which served 
the camel transport, bearing the water 
in advance of railhead and pipe line. 
Macbeth was told by the witches that 
he was safe "till Birnam Wood do come 
to Dunsinane, " and in fancied security 
he plunged to ruin. The Arabs had a 



Kitchener had demonstrated the need 
of a railroad in desert campaigning in 
the Sudan, and early in 1916 engineers 
began a standard gauge line upon the 
eastern bank of the Canal. Natives, 
formed into the Egyptian Labor Corps, 
under British officials did valuable 
work both upon railway and pipe line. 
"The standard gauge line running 
from Kantara to Palestine was the 




SUEZ CANAL, THE CENTRAL ARTERY FOR FOUR CONTINENTS 
The Canal, through which Asiatic, Australian and African elements passed to mingle in the service of the great 
system of British Empire, was a vitally essential organ. For its defense was developed the campaign in Pales- 
tine, which added a chapter of modern romance to the mediaeval and ancient stories of that old, old battle-ground. 

keystone of strategic structure in 
Eastern Egypt. It was the backbone, 
the arteries, the very life-blood of the 
Army." Kantara was formerly a 
quarantine station with two houses and 
a mosque; with the development of the 
railroad its growth was amazing. 
There were great wharves where ocean- 
going vessels discharged their freight, 
a big filtration plant and pump-house 
and siphons, vast ordnance stores, 
hospitals and workshops. 

CAMELS COME FROM EVERY PART OF THE 
WORLD. 

Camel transport was thoroughly 
reorganized, too. The natives of 



saying that Palestine could not be 
conquered until a prophet turned the 
waters of the Nile into Jordan. Under 
General Allenby (whose very name 
the Bedouins thought presaged victory, 
Allah, God, and Nebi, a prophet) was 
brought to pass that which to the 
people of the desert had seemed 
the great impossibility. 

Equally important was the question 
of transport. In Western Egypt ex- 
periments had established the value of 
motor transport, but in the Sinai 
district the sand was softer, and camel 
and horse transport across the roadless 
waste had been the only reliance. 

828 



I 




t ■■**'^?& 



**.^ 



CAMPAIGNING IN THE DESERT 
In the sandy desert one can hardly construct a shelter, still less a block-house; machine gunners had therefore 
to content themselves with the feeble protection afforded by heaped-up stones. Exposed to the pitiless rays of a 
sub-tropical sun the men served their guns with uncomplaining cheerfulness and fortitude through long hours 
under hostile fire. 




AUSTRALIANS ON THE LINE OF FIRE 
In the sand of the desert trench-digging was an arduous affair. To make a trench three feet wide a cut of fifteen 
feet was necessary. Then battens with canvas backs were put in and anchored, and the spaces behind refilled 
with excavated soil. A tiny rent in the canvas would allow the sand to filter through alarmingly; when the kham- 
seen blew a whole series of trenches would be filled up in a night. 

829 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Egypt were astounded at the numbers 
assembled: from every camel-market 
of the world, from India to Morocco, 
the camel came to Egypt. When the 
natives or French colonists were asked 
as to the camels' rations they laughed, 
for how could one tell how much a 
beast ate in pasturage? Yet the 
British soldier — like Robinson Crusoe 
— evolved a system of his own and, 
stable-fed, the camel thrived. Four 
kilos of straw and four kilos of millet 



as Wadi Haifa. The first four months 
of 1916 were entirely given over to 
various preparations for a great ad- 
vance. In addition to rail and pipe- 
laying, the defenses of the canal were 
strengthened, and to enlarge the area 
of safety, parties were sent out into the 
desert to drain off all water the enemy 
might use within a sixty-mile radius. 
Thus in April, from one big pool 
at Er Rigm, 5,000,000 gallons were 
taken, and by June not a bucketful of 




LIGHT CAVALRY OF THE DESERT 
Camels, like horses, are differently bred for diflferent purposes. Those for burden-carrying are heavier and 
larger than those which are destined for riding purposes. Ihe camels in the picture are nreharis, fitted by their 
slender proportions to move with remarkable s,peed, capable, indeed, of a rate of over 100 miles in 24 hours. They 
come from northern and central Africa. Their riders, here, are Arab allies of the British. 

water was available in a wide strip of 
desert. 

THE TURKS ATTACK THE GANGS CON- 
STRUCTING THE RAILWAY. 

The Turks descended upon the 
guards protecting the construction 
gangs on the railroad, and at the end 
of April three regiments of yeomanry 
and a half company of engineers 
suffered substantial losses when, under 
cover of dense fog, several thousand 
Turks in three columns attacked at 
Oghratina, Katia and Dueidar. But 
the railway went on and by July 
reached Romani. There in the third 
week the Turk attacked and a battle — 
the most serious in the campaign 
fought on Egyptian soil — ensued. 



or dourrah were apportioned daily, 
and in camps and bivouacs the camel 
was picketed like the horse. It is a 
tribute to German thoroughness to 
relate that manuals in Arabic on the 
care of camelry were picked up after 
the Battle of Romani and used there- 
after by the Egyptian Army with great 
profit. 

The position on the Eastern Egyptian 
Front had been made easier by the 
victories early in 191 6 over the Grand 
Sheikh of the Senussi, but then the 
Sultan Ali Dinar rose in Darfur, and 
the Sirdar had to turn his attention 
to this open evil. To lighten his task 
Sir Archibald Murray sent troops to 
take over the Nile district as far south 

830 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



It was the hot season when the ther- 
mometer registered 100-115° in the 
shade, and a man got sunstroke in a 
bell tent if he moved without his 
helmet. Both sides were wont to use 
this season for preparation rather than 
for fighting, and upon this the Turk 
had reckoned. His prepara^tions had 
gone on secretly for months; equipment 
had been especially made in Germany. 



von Kressenstein, the Turkish force 
numbered some 18,000 men. At mid- 
night on August 3rd", the Turks at- 
tacked and fighting continued through- 
out the day. "Allah, finish Australia " 
the Turks shouted as they charged. 
Pivoting on the shore the British 
cavalry withdrew so as to entangle the 
enemy in difficult sand-dunes. When 
reinforcements came up a counter- 




"THE BREAD LINE" IN THE EAST 
A remarkable picture of the Camel Transport in Palestine laden with bags of bread ready for the men in the front 
lines. Each camel's burden though bulky was not so heavy as it looks, and the men learning from the native drivers 
quickly became experienced in making their loads. 



His camel pack-saddles were the best 
in the country, his machine-gun and 
mountain-gun packs scientifically prac- 
tical. To bring up 4-inch, 6-inch, even 
8-inch howitzers he had evolved an 
ingenious road in the sand by cutting 
two trenches each a foot deep and 
eighteen inches wide which he filled 
in with brushwood and tough scrub and 
covered with sand, or, where the sand 
was too soft, with wide planks. 

As they made evening reconnaissance 
over Bir el Abd, British airmen dis- 
covered this large force of the enemy 
within fifty miles of the canal. Under 
command of the German general Kress 



attack was delivered, and by nightfall 
the enemy was in full retreat. He was 
not suffered to get off lightly, but for 
four days was driven before the 
cavalry. When pursuit halted it was 
found to have covered nineteen miles, 
and in its course to have captured 4,000 
prisoners and a large quantity of 
stores. In addition, Turkish casualties 
amounted to 5,000, so that in all the 
enemy suffered fully fifty per cent 
wastage of his attacking force. The 
Battle of Romani marks the last 
attempt to attack the Suez Canal and 
Egypt. Henceforth, in the campaign 
the Turk was on the defensive. 

831 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE INTERRUPTED PROGRESS OF THE 
ADVANCE. 

Throughout the autumn the railway 
pushed slowly on. As soon as it reached 
a suitable spot stores were collected and 
the front cleared. Then followed a 
pause for the army while the railroad 
was again advanced. Water was 
brought up in great tanks until the 
pipe-line could be laid, and where the 
front overshot the railhead the gap was 
bridged by camel transport. After 
the Battle of Romani, the Turks had 
consolidated a position at Bir-el-Mazar, 
twenty miles to the east. They were 
there attacked by the Desert Column 
operating under Sir Philip Chetwode 
and withdrew to El Arish. There 
was again a pause while the engineers 
toiled to bring up the railway. During 
the interval the Royal Flying Corps did 
much bombing work over the enemy's 
positions, and the cavalry was active. 
By December 20 the advance was 
ready again, but airmen discovered 
that the Turk had evacuated his lines 
without pausing to give battle. He 
was followed by a flying column and 
found in a strong position to the south 
at Magdhaba. 

The British attack that followed was 
delivered entirely by mounted troops: 
the Australian Light Horse and New 
Zealand Mounted Rifles operated 
against right flank and rear, and the 
Imperial Camel Corps against the 
front. Mirage delayed the work of 
the horse artillery batteries, so that as 
the day wore on shortage of water 
became a serious menace to the con- 
tinuance of the attack. Orders were 
given, therefore, to press the charge 
and by four o clock the place was won. 
This time the Turk retreated to Rafa 
on the border of Syria, while pursuit 
halted until the Egyptian Labor Corps 
and the engineers could send forward 
supplies. In a fortnight all was ready 
again and Sir Philip Chetwode's Desert 
Column left El Arish on the evening 
of January 8, 191 7, and at dawn on the 
9th had surrounded the enemy. The 
action lasted ten hours, and mobility 
and tactical boldness carried the day. 
At last the desert had been conquered : 
the Promised Land was in sight. 

832 



THE BRITISH ON THE BORDERS OF THE 
PROMISED LAND. 

Briefly, the positions of the con- 
tending forces at the end of February 
191 7 were: while the main Egyptian 
Expeditionary Force had reached El 
Arish, portions of the army had crossed 
into Palestine at Rafa and the cavalry 
had penetrated to Khan Tunas. The 
Turkish line defending Syria ran from 
Gaza to Beersheba, both places were 
strongly fortified. Dobell's first objec- 
tive was Gaza — that point on the 
Jerusalem railway which had served as 
a base for the attacks upon Egypt. 
Like all border cities, Gaza has long 
legendary and historical associations. 
One of the five lordships of the Philis- 
tines, it was the scene of Samson's 
triumph when he carried off the city's 
"massy gate and bar" to the top of a 
neighboring hill, and of his humiliation 
when he worked as a slave at the mill 
among his enemies. In crusading days 
Gaza had witnessed the triumph of 
Frank and of Saracen. In this last war 
against the Turk the city was to be the 
site of three sanguinary battles, and of 
six months' trench warfare. Taken 
and retaken some forty or fifty times, 
well might its walls re-echo, "Happy is 
the city that has no history." 

In preparation for the assault upon 
the fortress, at the end of March a 
large force was concentrated at Rafa 
and marched up secretly at night. 
The first objective was secured without 
serious opposition. Meanwhile from 
the north a cavalry screen had pierced 
into the town itself. But a sea-fog 
had cost two hours' precious daylight — 
a vital thing where water shortage 
limited the fighting to daylight. At this 
juncture, as the Turks received strong 
reinforcements, the British were given 
orders to retire, for they were strung 
out on a thin line investing the city and 
had no water for their horses, although 
they were within measurable distance 
of their goal. Thus for two days* 
battle they had nothing to show save 
considerable casualties. 

THE SECOND ATTACK ON GAZA LIKEWISE 
UNSUCCESSFUL. 

For three weeks both sides made 
preparations for renewing the struggle: 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the British were reinforced by some 
tanks and hoped to cover the 2,000 
yards' open advance across the sandy 
plain under their screen and a strong 
artillery preparation, as well as en- 
filading fire from a flotilla at sea. 
The Turkish outposts of Wadi-Gaza 
were captured on the 17th of April 
without difficulty, and the public 
expected a victory as far-reaching in its 
effects in Palestine as had been that of 
Kut in Mesopotamia. But the Turks 
had been strongly reinforced and had 
in line five infantry divisons supported 
by cavalry and good artillery served 
by Austrian gunners. Furthermore, 
they had strengthened their intrench- 
ments. The battle was hotly contested 
throughout the 19th but the British 
tanks were too few in number, and some 
of them caught fire, so that the in- 
fantry in frontal advance lost tragically 
as the enemy machine guns cut down 
swath after swath. Under cover of dark 
such as survived the hail' of fire crept 
back and dug themselves in at Man- 
sourah. Had the Turk counter-attack- 
ed, the whole force would have been at 
his mercy, but he contented himself 
merely with coming out of his trenches 
and exulting over the victory, and the 
British line stayed where it was. 

Because the results did not cor- 
respond to the hopes of writers who 
had no understanding of the difficulties 
of the enterprise, and who under- 
estimated the fighting value of the 
Turk, a violent stir followed in the 
British Press and Parliament. Sir 
Archibald Murray was recalled, and 
Sir Edmund Allenby appointed to 
succeed him. 

GENERAL ALLENBY, THE NEW COM- 
MANDER OF THE EGYPTIAN ARMY. 

General Edmund H. H. Allenby was 
fifty-six years old when he succeeded 
to the command of the Third Army in 
Egypt. From his first commission in 
the Inniskilling Dragoons he had 
served in every war for the Empire. 
In the days of the retreat from Mons 
he had commanded the Expeditionary 
Cavalry Force with distinction. With 
his coming the Egyptian Expeditionary 
Force was reshaped. The whole force 
was organized into corps, and the 



strength of the artillery and infantry 
considerably augmented. In this army 
all the Empire was represented except 
Canada. There were English, Scotch, 
Irish, and Welsh battalions, batteries 
and regiments. Every state in the 
Australian Commonwealth had regi- 
ments, as had also New Zealand, while 
the Maoris furnished a battalion. 
There was a brigade of South Africans, 




GENERAL SIR HERBERT LAWRENCE 

General Lawrence under Sir Archibald Murray was in 
Command of the land operations in Egypt during 1916, 
and played a distinguished part in repelling von Kres- 
senstein's invasion during July and August. In Janu- 
ary, 1918, he was appointed Chief of General StafiE. 

and from India many warlike races: 
Ghurkas, Sikhs, Bikaners, and Pun- 
jabis. The tea-planters of Ceylon came 
to Egypt as a rifle corps, from Singapore 
and Hong-Kong a mountain battery. 
The three corps into which Allenby 
organized the force were thus composed : 
The XXth Corps comprised the loth 
(Irish), 53rd (Welsh), 6oth (London), 
and 74th (Dismounted Yeomanry) 
Divisions. In the XXI Corps were 
included the 52nd (Scottish Lowland), 
54th (East Anglian), and 75th (Wessex 
and Indian) Divisions. The Desert 
Corps was made up of the Australian 
Mounted Division, the Anzac Mounted 

833 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



English Miles 




Copyright ILLUSTRATING THE TURKISH DEFENSES ON THE GAZA-BEERSHEBA LINE 



Division and the Yeomanry Division. 
Therje was in addition a composite 
brigade of French and Italians — fami- 
liarly known as "Mixed Vermouth." 

GENERAL ALLENBY'S PLANS FOR THE 
CAMPAIGN. 

When Allenby took over command 
at the end of June, 191 7, he submitted 
a report on the military situation and 
outlined the necessary conditions in 
which an offensive operation might be 
undertaken in the autumn or winter of 
191 7. The enemy's line from Gaza to 
Beersheba, some thirty miles, was a 
strong one. "Gaza," he stated, "had 
been made into a strong modern 
fortress, heavily intrenched and wired, 

834 



offering every facility for protracted 
defense." The remainder of the enemy's 
line consisted of a series of strong 
groups of works. These groups were 
generally from 1,500 to 2,000 yards 
apart, except that the distance from 
the Hareira group to Beersheba was 
about four and a half miles. Lateral 
communications were good, and any 
threatened point of the line could 
be very quickly reinforced. 

Such were the positions. Allenby's 
plan was to deliver a decisive blow 
against the enemy's left flank where his 
line bent back at Hareira and Sheria. 
First, however, it was essential to 
clear away the isolated position of 




AGRICULTURE IN PALESTINE 

Somewhat primitive methods for cultivating the soil exist in Palestine where changes, as in all eastern countries, 
come slowly. The Arab does not drive his yoked ox and ass by means of reins but with his long pole taps horns 
or ears for direction and uses his voice for checking or starting. Henry Ruschin. 




WITH THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 
Shortage of water was the primary difficulty in the Palestine Campaign, but the contour of the country was much 
broken up by dried-up water courses or Wadis whose beds on the edges of the desert among the early slopes of the 
hills presented great obstacles to wheeled transport. Engineers are shown making a practicable crossmg over 
such a gully, which after rains would be filled with a swift spate. 

835 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Beersheba where there — and there 
only — was a good water supply, and 
at the same time by an operation 
against Gaza keep the enemy in 
doubt as to the real object of attack. 
Allenby hoped in turning the Turkish 
left flank to allow room for his own 
mounted troops, in which he was 
superior, to have ground to manoeuvre. 
The difficulties were formidable be- 
cause there was no water except at 
Beersheba until Hareira and Sheria 
were captured ; and there were no good 
roads for motor transport. To meet 
this last difficulty 30,000 camels (the 
whole of the strength available for the 
Expeditionary Army) were allotted to 
the Eastern force to enable it to be kept 
supplied with food, water and am- 
munition fifteen miles in. advance of 
railhead, while a branch line from 
Gamli towards Beersheba was rapidly 
put under construction. 

THE FAMOUS OLD TOWN OF BEERSHEBA 
IS TAKEN. 

During the hot weather and until 
October vigorous preparations were 
made by both sides. October 31 was 
fixed for the attack on Beersheba, and 
the eastern force under General Chet- 
wode entrusted with its operation. 
Four days earlier the bombardment of 
the Gaza defenses opened, and monitors 
and warships joined in with the bom- 
bardment on the 30th. To keep the 
attack a surprise, units detailed for 
attacking Beersheba from south and 
southwest made a night march and 
were in position by dawn of the 31st. 
To bring their guns within range it was 
necessary first to capture the enemy's 
advanced works at Hill i ,070, two miles 
southwest of the town. Then wire- 
cutting proceeded and the final assault 
ordered for 12:15 P-M. had by 7 p.m. 
attained all its objectives. Meanwhile, 
mounted troops moved out and by 
a night ride of thirty-five miles got 
into the hills five miles to the east of 
Beersheba. There was fighting on the 
tangled slopes until late afternoon. 
Thence to the city the approach was 
over an open plain and progress was 
slow. At 7 P.M. the Australian Light 
Horse, using their fixed bayonets as 
lances against the Turks, rode straight 

836 . 



at the town, galloping over two deep 
trenches and sweeping forward in irre- 
sistible charge. The enemy was com- 
pletely taken by surprise and lost 
heavily in prisoners and guns. 

Thus with Beersheba fallen and the 
Turkish left flank exposed, the date of 
the main attack upon Gaza which would 
draw off further enemy reserves could 
be fixed. On November 2 the assault 
was begun by the western force. 
To the west the Turkish defenses were 
flanked by Umbrella Hill, and General 
Bulfin, after capturing this, planned 
to take the hostile works on a front of 
6,000 yards from the hill to Sheik 
Hasan. The approach was difficult and 
necessitated an advance in the open 
over sand-dunes which rose in places to 
one hundred and fifty feet. The attack 
was timed before dawn because of the 
distance to be covered before reaching 
the enemy's position : it was successful, 
reached all its objectives and captured 
four hundred and fifty prisoners besides 
inflicting heavy casualties. The whole 
Gaza position was now distinctly 
threatened. 

THE TURKS ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE GAZA 
BY AN ATTACK ELSEWHERE. 

Meanwhile on the right mounted 
troops had pushed into the difficult 
waterless hill country north of Beershe- 
ba in order to secure the flank of the 
attack on Sheria, and another body had 
pushed north along the Hebron road to 
seize the water supply at Dhaheriya. 
At this point, taking a gambler's 
chance, the Turk risked all his available 
reserves in an effort to entangle 
Allenby's forces in the difficult country 
north of Beersheba and so cause the 
British Commander to make alterations 
in his original offensive plan. Had 
he succeeded in his design of draw- 
ing considerable forces against him, 
the flank attack on the Hareira- 
Sheria positions might have failed, 
and the possession of Beersheba then 
would have been nothing but an 
incubus of the most inconvenient kind. 

With rare good judgment Allenby 
over-rode this diversion, detaching 
enough troops to draw in and exhaust 
the enemy reserves, but at the same 
time pushing forward his own attack 



I 




TANK AMONG THE PALM TREES 
In the second battle of Gaza tanks, brought up by rail from Egypt, were used but there were not enough of them 
to be effective. The advance was in the open across 3000 yards of sand, progress was slow, and several of the 
tanks were hit by shells and burned out. British Official 




THE IMPERIAL CAMEL CORPS 
The Imperial Camel Corps consisted not only of fighting units but of draught and transport detachments as welL 
Attached for the most part to the Desert Column of the Egyptian Expeditionary Army they were nevertheless a 
mobile force swung where the need was greatest. In the battle at Magdhaba they first co-operated with the Anzacs 
*uid thereafter the association was one of mutual esteem. Napoleon instituted a similar body when in Egypt. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



on the Sheria defenses at Kauwukah 
and Rushdi on the 6th. "This attack 
was a fine performance, the troops 
advancing eight or nine miles during 
the day and capturing a series of very 
strong works covering a front of about 
seven miles, the greater part of which 
had been held and strengthened by the 
enemy for over six months." The 



ed themselves on the north bank in face 
of considerable opposition from the 
Turkish rearguard. By the morning 
of the 8th the retreat was general all 
along the line, and all the original 
Turkish positions were in British hands. 
The enemy opposite the right flank 
had retreated into the Judean Hills. 
Later he reorganized and descended 




AUSTRALIAN MILITARY MOTOR CYCLISTS IN PALESTINE 
Crossing the desert of Sinai there was little use for the motor bicycle because the sand was too soft in many places. 
Roads were constructed by laying down wire-netting which formed some sort of support for wheeled transport. 
In Palestine, however, roads were numerous though poor, especially in the coastal plain. Red Cross 



Turks fell back and mounted troops 
took up the pursuit and pushed on to 
occupy Huj and Jemammeh. 

THE TURKS EVACUATE GAZA AND RETIRE 
SULLENLY. 

On the left the bombardment of 
Gaza still continued, and an attack 
was ordered for the night of the 6th- 
7th. Little resistance was offered and 
when patrols were pushed forward the 
enemy was found to have evacuated 
the city, leaving strong rearguards at 
Beit-Hanun and Attawinah, who fired 
on the city as the British entered it. 
Thus skilfully had Kress von Kress^n- 
stein evaded another battle. Cavalry 
advanced to Wadi el Hesi and establish- 

838 



to the plain on the flank of the pursuing 
force to create a diversion. 

Pursuit followed and was in echelon 
with the left flank advanced, for 
further east the enemy rearguard 
clung to Beit Hanun and Attawinah all 
through the 7th, and thus it was that 
Jaffa fell some weeks before the capture 
of Jerusalem was attempted. No 
considerable body of the enemy was 
cut off for the rearguards fought 
obstinately. When Cavalry and Royal 
Flying Corps reported that the retreat 
was disorganized, the infantry pressed 
forward. All arms suffered much 
from thirst, for the khamseen was 
blowing and the hot air was heavily 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



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LAST STAGES IN ALLENBY'S CAMPAIGN AGAINST JERUSALEM 



Idden with sand. Allenby was pushing 
on to reach Junction Station so that 
communications with Jerusalem might 
be cut. 

THE TURKS NOW ATTEMPT TO RESIST 
THE FORWARD MOVEMENT. 

At this juncture the enemy descended 
from the Judean Hills in order to take 
pressure off his main force retreating 
along the coastal plain, but he was 



known to be short of transport and 
munitions and generally disorganized, 
and so his threat against the British 
right could be practically disregarded 
and in no way allowed to hold up the 
pursuit. November 9, 10 and il were 
days of minor engagements, great 
hardships, great activity. By the 12th 
it was discovered that the coastal army 
was making a final effort south of 

839 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 





1^ 








f.f 



THE DAMASCUS GATE, JERUSALEM 

Junction Station to arrest the for- 
ward movement. Strung out for 
twenty miles on a line from El 
Kubeibeh to Beit Jibrin, von Kressen- 
stein had stationed a force of about 
20,000 rifles. 

Allenby 's report continues : ' * Arrange- 
ments were made to attack on the 13th. 
The country over which the attack 
took place is open and rolling, dotted 
with small villages, surrounded by 
mud walls, with plantations of trees 
outside the walls. The most prominent 
feature is the line of heights on which 
are the villages of Katrah and El 
Mughar. . . .This line forms a very 
strong position, and it was here that 
the enemy made his most determined 
resistance against the turning move- 
ment directed against his right flank. 
The capture of this position by the 52nd 
(Lowland) Division, assisted by a 
most dashing charge of mounted troops, 
who galloped across the plain under 
heavy fire and turned the enemy's 
position from the north, was a fine feat 

of arms After this the enemy 

resistance weakened, and by the even- 
ing his forces were retiring east and 
north." 

840 



THE CAPTURE OF JUNCTION STATION 
BREAKS THE TURKISH ARMY IN TWO. 

Infantry captured Junction Station 
on the morning of the 14th, and the 
enemy's force, broken into two separate 
parts, retired east and north respective- 
ly. In fifteen days the British infantry 
had covered over forty miles and the 
cavalry sixty miles, had driven the 
enemy from positions which he had 
held for six months, and inflicted 
losses upon him amounting to two- 
thirds of his effectives. In addition, 
over 9,000 prisoners, a large number of 
guns, and quantities of munitions had 
been captured. It was necessary still 
to clear up the British left flank and 
give it a strong pivot to swing round 
upon before proceeding against Jerusa- 
lem, accordingly Ramah and Lydda 
were occupied and patrols pushed 
forward towards Jaffa which fell with- 
out further opposition on the i6th. 

The position was now this: by the 
capture of Junction Station the 
enemy's force had been cut in two and 
had retired east upon Jerusalem and 
north along the plain. The shortest 
route by which they could unite was 
along the one good road, the Jerusalem- 




TOWER OF DAVID AND CITY WALI 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Nablus (Shechem) highway running 
along the crest of the Judean range 
north of the Holy City. Although 
Jerusalem could still obtain supplies 
from the east by Amman on the 
Hedjaz Railway, yet aeroplane re- 
connaissance at this time discovered 
that it was probably the enemy's 
intention to evacuate the city and fall 
back upon Nablus to reorganize. But 
before Allenby could advance further 
he had to wait railway construction 
and the landing of stores along the 
coast. 

THE TURKS HOLD A COUNCIL OF WAR IN 
JERUSALEM. 

At this juncture the Turks held 
council of war in Jerusalem. To it came 
hurriedly Enver Pasha from Con- 
stantinople and Djemal Pasha from 
Damascus (the latter only narrowly 
escaped death for his train was blown 
up by Arabs). That the enemy 
appreciated the gravity of the crisis was 
evident. Next came General von 
Falkenhayn from headquarters at 
Aleppo, promising reinforcements. The 
Germans were much more panicky 
than the Turks and started to evacuate 
the city but the Governor of Jerusalem, 





CHURCH OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE 



JERUSALEM FROM THE MOUNT OF OLIVES 

Izzet Bey, began vigorous defense 
measures which shamed the Teutons. 
AH Fuad Pasha at the head of the 
military forces at once deported the 
Zionists and others suspected of Allied 
leanings to Nablus, as well as all 
essential stores. 

Southern Palestine is divided into 
parallel strips of alternate depression 
and elevation, running north and south. 
The region next the Mediterranean Sea 
consists of sand-dunes and then of 
coastal plain to an average width of 
fifteen miles. To the east rises the range 
of mountains on which stands Jerusa- 
lem, the hills of Samaria and Judea, 
some 3,000 feet above the sea. These 
mountains drop steeply to the Valley 
of Jordan and the Dead Sea, and be- 
yond the depression tower the abrupt 
hills of Moab. Finally to the east 
again stretches waterless desert. 

So far the Expeditionary Force 
had moved north chiefly on the coastal 
belt and among the early slopes of the 
hills. Now it was to turn east and 
penetrate the intricate passes of Judea 
which have been fatal to so many in- 
vading armies. From the main ridge 
running north and south, spurs, as from 

841 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the backbone of a fish, run east and 
west to the plains. The aspect of these 
hills is steep, bare and stony for the 
most part, and only one good road, the 
Jaffa-Jerusalem road, penetrates from 
east to west. All the other roads are 
mere tracks, unpractical for wheeled 
transport,'and the water supply through- 
out is scanty. 

THE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE TURNS 
FROM THE SEA TO THE HILLS. 

The British Commander's object 
was to isolate the Turkish Jerusalem 
Army from the northern army by 
cutting the Nablus road. He could 
not afford to delay his attack upon the 
Judean passes and thus allow Turkish 
defense to stiffen in these already 
formidable valleys; so he pushed for- 
ward in rapid advance upon the village 
of Bireh which commanded the high- 
way, and which as a point of attack 
would serve to keep fighting away from 
the vicinity of the Holy City. The 
transition from desert to mountain 
warfare was not easy for the troops, 
though if their equipment had been 
fitting it would have seemed familiar 
enough to the Indian frontiersmen. 
As it was, their kit was too heavy, their 
mountain guns too few, the physical 
effort of conquering the heights toil 
enough without the sharp fighting by 
which progress was made from height 
to height. Because of their greater 
mobility the Yeomanry advanced 
through the hills directly upon Bireh, 
leaving the highway to the infantry 
who by November 19 captured the 
defile to Saris, fiercely defended by 
hostile rearguards and a position of 
great natural strength. 

Turkish resistance was stiffening as 
von Falkenhayn's reinforcements came 
into line and on the 20th the Yeomanry 
who had reached to within 4 miles of 
the highway were checked by strong 
opposition at Betunia, and had to fall 
back upon Upper Beth-Horon. The 
infantry captured Enab at the point of 
the bayonet and a strong position 
known as the Neby Samwil Ridge. Here 
on the 2 1 St advance stayed, for fierce 
counter-attacks developed. Though 
the objective on the Nablus road had 
not been reached, excellent positions 

842 



had been won from which the final 
attack could be prepared and delivered 
with good prospects of success. Some 
of the bitterest local fighting followed 
on Neby Samwil and north of Jaffa 
for both sides felt the crisis. Bright 
moonlight aided the Turkish snipers 
and they picked off the outposts with 
disconcerting promptness. At one 
point where the Ghurkas ran short of 
ammunition they hurled rocks and 
boulders down upon their foes. 

THE TURKS GIVE UP THE HOLY CITY 
WITHOUT FIGHTING. 

By December 4 all ranks were full; 
existing roads and tracks had been 
improved and new ones constructed 
so that heavy artillery, munitions and 
supplies had been brought up, and the 
water facilities developed. The enemy's 
lines protecting Jerusalem from north 
and north-west lay on a front five 
miles from the city, but he had machine 
guns and artillery in the outskirts of 
the city itself. Besides the road 
north to Nablus, a second good highway 
ran to Jericho on the east, and the 
general idea of the assault upon the city 
was simultaneous pressure on these two 
roads by three divisions. 

The date for the attack was fixed as 
December 8. On the 7th the weather 
broke and rain for three days was 
almost continuous. Airmen could not 
work in the mists that veiled the hills, 
mechanical transport and camels halted 
on the mud-logged roads. Neverthe- 
less, on the night of 7th-8th, detach- 
ments crept down the mountain side, 
crossed the deep wadi bed at the 
bottom in silence and clambered up 
the opposite ridge, where they stormed 
the main Turkish line before daylight, 
and thus captured the western defenses 
of Jerusalem. The 74th Division 
swung forward against the Turkish 
positions defending the Nablus road, 
but during the night the Turks had 
withdrawn, and the 74th and part of 
the 60th occupied positions northwest 
of Jerusalem. The 53rd was detailed 
to clear the Mount of Olives and they 
drove the enemy east and occupied 
the road to Jericho. These operations 
isolated Jerusalem and at about noon 
on the 9th of December the enemy 




VICTIMS OF TURKISH MISGOVERNMENT 
These children have walked all the way in the hot sun from Es Salt beyond Jordan to Jerusalem. They are waiting 
with their parents, 1,500 in all, in the court yard of the St. James Monastery in Mount Sion, to be taken to the 

permanent camp for refugees at Port Said. 




REFUGEES FROM BEYOND JORDAN 
These Armenians from Kerak, southeast of the Dead Sea, are coming into Jerusalem through the Garden of 
Gethsemane, made forever memorable by the events recorded in tha Gospels. Behind them lies the Jeri- 
cho-Jerusalem road along which they fled. Early in 1917 the Hedjaz Arabs captured the region south and 
east of the Dead Sea of which Kerak is the capital. 

Pictures by ccurtesy of Red Cross Magazine 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




ALLENBY ENTERING BY JAFFA GATE 



sent out a parlementaire and surren- 
dered the city. 

GENERAL ALLENBY ENTERS JERUSALEM 
WITHOUT CEREMONY. 

On the nth General Allenby entered 
the city by the Jaffa Gate. He came on 
foot and left on foot and no pageantry 
profaned the solemnity of the occasion. 
A proclamation announcing that order 
would be maintained in all the hallowed 
sites of the three great religions which 

844 



were to be guarded and preserved, and 
no impediment to be placed in the way 
of worshippers therein, was read in 
English, French, Italian and Arabic 
from the parapet of the citadel below 
the Tower of David. When this was 
done General Allenby went to the 
small space behind the citadel, where 
the chief notables and ecclesiastics of 
the different communities that re- 
mained were presented to him. After 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



this brief ceremony the general left 

the City of David by the Jaffa Gate. 

No stronghold has been so repeatedly 

sacked and rebuilt. Jerusalem stands 

rfor ruin and renewal, for death and 

rebirth. It has survived attacks from 

the Egyptians, Babylonians, Assyrians 

md Arabians, the Pharaohs, Caesars, 

'aliphs, the Selucidae, the Abassids, 

the Seljuks, — yet it has remained a 

lonument of loneliness. 



rose high. Early in November, as 
Allenby's troops pressed into the 
Judean Hills, Mr. Balfour, acting for 
the British Government, declared that 
they viewed "with favor the establish- 
ment of a national home for the Jewish 
people, and will use their best endeavors 
to facilitate the achievement of their 
object.." With great aspirations and 
some grounds for hope the Zionists 
looked forward to the final ending of 




BRIDGE BUILT OVER THE JORDAN 

At EI Ghoraniyeh the British, with the assistance of the Egyptian Labor Corps, built a pontoon bridge across the 
Jordan in order that they might capture Jericho and attack the Hedjaz railway, the main line of Turkish com- 
munications. In the picture shown above the bridge is being tested for traffic. 



THE CITY DEAR TO BOTH JEW AND 
CHRISTIAN. 

No triumph in the annals of the war 
meant more to the greatly differing 
peoples who made up the Allies, united 
against the Turk in the bond of a 
common Christianity that was stronger 
and more enduring than the bond of 
mutual self-interest. The city so nearly 
associated with the Founder of their 
faith, whose streets He had trod, whose 
courts He had viewed, had — save for 
rare intervals — been, in the hands of 
unbelievers for well-nigh a thousand 
years. For the Jews the city of Zion 
meant even more. Seat of their ancient 
temples and source of much inspiration, 
its capture seemed to herald a new era 
in the history of their race, and with the 
dispossession of the Turk their hopes 



the struggle, and the solution of their 
problems. 

The Allied press acclaimed the 
triumph of General Allenby but the 
Germans declared that Jerusalem had 
no military value. Yet in less than 
three weeks (December 26-27) the 
Turks made fierce counter-attacks to 
regain it. They failed, and instead the 
British lines were pushed north and the 
security of the city assured, while 
their left wing pushed back the Turk 
from Jaffa. Eastwards the enemy 
still held Jericho but this was captured 
(February 21), and thus the eastern 
flank made safe. The Commander-in- 
Chief was unable because of transport 
and supply difficulties to continue 
his operations to the north, and under- 
took instead to co-operate with the 

845 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Arabs in attacks on the enemy's 
chief remaining line of communication 
— the Hedjaz Railway east of the 
Jordan. A quick glance at the war 
record of Allenby's Arabian Allies will 
be in order at this juncture. 

THE HEDJAZ REVOLT AGAINST THE 
SULTAN. 

The nomadic Arab tribes of Mesopo- 
tamia were neither pro-Ally nor pro- 



was as lightly acknowledged. Selim 
the Grim conquered Egypt in 1517, 
Damascus and Jerusalem had already 
fallen to him, and the Sherif of Mecca 
acknowledged him therefore as Caliph 
and lord of the Hedja^. Turkish rule 
in the Hedjaz in later times became 
shadowy, resting only upon subsidies 
to native chiefs and supported by 
garrisons of soldiers, but the guardian- 




THE TURKISH RETURN TO THE HOLY CITY 

A picture of Turkish prisoners, recently captured by the British forces, being marched through the streets of 
Jerusalem. Note the signposts in English for the direction of the victorious troops. From the "Post Office" 
British officers are watching the columns defile. Buildings are intact because the Commander was careful not to 
fire upon the Holy City. British Official. 

ship of the Holy Places was important 
to Turkey as a foundation of prestige in 
the Mahommedan world. With true 
foresight Sultan Abdul Hamid between 
1 901 and 1908 built the so-called 
" Pilgrims' Railway " east of the Jordan 
between Damascus and Medina, ap- 
parently to render the annual pilgrim- 
age to the Holy Places more con- 
venient — in reality to strengthen the 
Turkish grasp upon Hedjaz and Asir 
and Yemen to the south. When to 
Sultan Abdul Hamid succeeded the 
Committee of Union and Progress 
and a policy of pro-Germanism, the 
subject races of the empire grew 



German : they were unashamedly pro- 
winner. Stragglers from either side 
became their victims, while to the 
victor in an engagement they gave 
local support. Nominally, the Turk 
was their lord and co-religionist who 
had invoked their aid in a jihad: 
actually he was the alien and wasteful 
owner of their soil, who, however, when 
successful must be supported. Thus, 
to choose typical incidents, Turkish 
victory at Kut and failure before 
Bagdad made a wide disparity in the 
strength of their Arab contingents. 

In Arabia, another part of their 
empire, the authority of Constantinople 

846 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




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M E D I TERRANEAN 

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MAP ILLUSTRATING THE ADVANCE OF THE EGYPTIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

restless. A jihad was proclaimed Islamism. Thus early in 1916 Djemal 

throughout the Moslem world when Pasha arrested and executed many 

Turkey joined the Teutonic Alliance, leading notables in Damascus and 

but many of the faithful found it Enver Pasha on a visit to Mecca 

difficult to reconcile the acts of Talaat shocked the orthodox by his undisguised 

Bey, Enver Pasha and Djemal with atheism and callousness. 

847 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



O 



THER CAUSES OF UNREST AMONG THE 
ARABS 

There were other causes of unrest 
among the Arabs. Racial feeling ran 
strongly and they despised a con- 
queror less intellectual than them- 
selves. The Grand Sherif of Mecca 
commanded considerable respect by 
virtue of his office as custodian of the 
Holy Places and himself valued the 



tempt and profanation of the Sacred 
House. But we are determined not to 
leave our religions and national rights 
as a plaything in the hands of the 
Union and Progress Party." If the 
Arabs once again become the leaders 
of the Mohammedans throughout the 
world this proclamation will have 
considerable historic interest. 

In the military operations that 




AUSTRALIAN LIGHT HORSE ENTERING DAMASCUS 
October 1, 1918, the Australians entered Damascus "a rose-red city half as old as Time." They had taken the 
route to the north of the Dead Sea and had met serious opposition both at the Jordan and El Kuneitrah. To the 
east of Jordan, British Cavalry and an Arab column advanced upon Damascus. 



advantages of western civilization. 
In June, 1916, he issued a proclamation 
to the Moslem world forswearing his 
allegiance to the Turk on religious 
grounds. After detailing the offenses 
of the Committee of Union and Progress 
the document proceeds: "We have 
sufficient proof of how they regard the 
religion and the Arab people in the fact 
that they shelled the Ancient House . . . 
firing two shells at it from their big guns 
when the country rose to demand its 

independence We have the whole 

Mohammedan world from East to 
West to pass judgment on this con- 
848 



followed the Hedjaz Arabs were handi- 
capped because they were fighting 
against, highly disciplined troops equip- 
ped with the scientific appliances of 
modern warfare. Nevertheless, they 
can claim in two years' warfare not 
only to have cleared the Turks from 
south and central Hedjaz (a territory 
somewhat larger than Great Britain) 
and from 800 miles of the Red Sea 
coast, but also to have captured, killed 
or immobilized 40,000 of the finest 
Turkish troops. In the final stage of the 
advance upon Damascus they gave val- 
uable assistance on the east of Jordan. 



r 




DAMASCUS, THE DAY AFTER CAPTURE 

Perhaps one of the oldest cities in the world, Damascus has a very heterogeneous population, variously estimated 
as ranging between 160,000 and 350,000. Of the many Jew, Christian, and Moslem places of worship, the last 
predominate with a total of over two hundred. The city was once a famous seat of learning and contained numerous 
schools in which grammar, theology, and jurisprudence were taught. British Official. 




A STREET SCENE IN DAMASCUS 

Seen from a distance Damascus is impressive but on closer acquaintance, like most Oriental cities, somewhat 
disappointing. With the exception of the street called "Straight" all its streets are narrow, ill-paved and crooked. 
Its bazaars though numerous and well-kept are but poorly stocked and indifferently attended. The chief manu- 
factures are silver and gold ornaments, interwoven fabrics, brass and copper work and inlaid furniture. Caravans 
from Aleppo visit the city every month. 

849 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE ARABS FREE HEDJAZ AND ADVANCE 
TO THE DEAD SEA. 

After the proclamation, the Emir's 
troops mastered the Turkish garrisons 
in Mecca and its sea-port Jeddah. In 
September Taif, the Turkish head- 
quarters, surrendered and with the city 
Ghaleb Pasha, Vali and Commander-in- 




GENERAL SIR EDMUND H. H. ALLENBY, K.C.B. 

Commanding the Cavalry Expeditionary Force at the beginning of 

the war. In April, 1915, he succeeded Sir Herbert Plumer as 

commander of the Fifth Corps: in June, 1917, he was appointed to hie Under SUch conditions 

command the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. uuuci but.ix uuuuiLiuiib 

chief. By the end of the year Osmanli 
authority in Hedjaz was confined 
to Medina and a narrow strip of 
country on either side of the railway. 
In November the Emir Hussein as- 
sumed the title of King of the Hedjaz. 
Early in 191 7 the Arabs had advanced 
from the south and were based on 
Akaba on the Dead Sea and under the 
Emir Feisal (Hussein's eldest son) were 
opposed to a Turkish army somewhat 
their superior in strength. 

In order for Allenby to make raids 
across the Jordan it was necessary for 

850 



him first of all to seize command of all 
roads and tracks leading from Judea 
into the Jordan Valley so as to prevent 
reinforcements reaching the Turks on 
the east of the river. From March 
8-12 severe fighting took place on the 
Jerusalem-Nablus and Jericho-Beisan 
roads. Though the Turks were driven 
off they continued to use the 
roads farther north. The way 
was, however, open for attacks 
on the Hedjaz railway and, 
March 21, Allenby forced the 
crossing of the Jordan and 
raided Amman. The attack 
drew in the Turkish reserves 
but was otherwise only mod- 
erately successful, although 
Feisal, seizing the opportunity, 
cut the line north and south 
of Ma'an and held possession 
of the station itself for a brief 
interval. A second trans- 
Jordanic raid w^as planned and 
advance began April 30, but 
the Arab tribe which had prom- 
ised help did not arrive and 
the British troops had to retire. 

ALLENBY FORCED TO SEND 
L TROOPS TO THE WESTERN 
FRONT. 

The situation on the Western 
Front now cast its shadow 
over the fortunes of the Egyp- 
tian Army. Allenby was forced 
to send a large part of his 
army to Europe and in re- 
organizing filled up his corps 
largely with untried Indian 
troops. No offensive was possi- 

and 
local fighting became the rule 
in the hot months. 

In September before the heavy 
autumn rains began the British again 
resumed the offensive. The Turkish 
line at this time lay on a front from 
Jaffa through the hills of Ephraim to a 
front half way between Nablus and 
Jerusalem, thence on to Jordan and 
down its eastern bank to the Dead Sea. 
Menacing their left flank, though at 
some distance from it, were the Hedjaz 
Arabs under Feisal at Ma'an. From 
west to east the Turks had the VII and 
VIII Armies to the right (west) of 



mSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



°Raraman 



Jordan and the IV Army on the left 
(east). 

ALLENBY ATTEMPTS TO DESTROY THE 
. TURKISH ARMIES. 

At 4:30 A.M. on September 19 the 
main attack began. The infantry in 
rapid advance overran the en- 
emy defenses and penetrated 
to a depth of five miles. Then 
the cavalry galloped through 
the broken lines and by midday 
had covered nineteen miles. 
Near the sea the Naval Flotilla 
hastened the retreat by shell- 
ing the coast roads. In the 
hill country the advancing 
right wing met some stiff re- 
sistance, but overcame it by 
the evening of the 20th. The 
cavalry riding north took 
Nazareth (whence Liman von 
Sanders, commander of the 
Turkish' Army since March, 
precipitately fled), the railway 
at Beisan and the bridge over 
the^'Jordan, south of the Sea 
of Galilee. In thirty-six hours 
the trap closed, for British in- 
fantry and cavalry held the 
Turkish VII and VIII Armies 
between them and no escape 
was possible save south-east 
to the Jordan crossing at Jisr 
ed Damieh. By the 24th the 
two armies had fallen into 
British hands. Allenby lost no 
time in pressing his advantage. 
Only the IV Army on the east 
of Jordan remained. It did 
not begin its retreat until the 
fourth day of battle, then 
Amman fell (25th September), 
and Feisal pressed the Turks 
back north along the railway 
Damascus was the next step 

Chauvel and the Desert 
Column advanced in two groups to the 
north and south of the Sea of Galilee. 
The Australians taking the northern 
route occupied Tiberias and pushed 
on to a fiercely contested passage of the 
Jordan and formidable resistance at 
El Kuneitrah. Nevertheless by the 
30th they were only thirty miles south- 
west of Damascus. The southern col- 
umn gained touch at Er Remte with 



the Arabs, on the 31st Feisal captured 
Deraa on the railway, and the 4th 
Cavalry Division and 'Arabs pushed on 
together, and at 6 a.m. October i 
entered Damascus. In twelve days 
the Egyptian Expeditionary Force 



Marash 



Tudmur 

(Palmy ra)^ 




^latelBeida 



Egypt' 

ElKossaima 



AIn elWdibaP 



RoUtt^oys 



Onjyrighb THE FULL EXTENT OF ALLENBY'S CONQUESTS 

Mounted had disposed of three armies, from which 
they had captured 60,000 prisoners 
and between 300-400 guns. Only a 
mob of perhaps 17,000 Turks and 
Germans fleeing north remained of 
the defenders of the Syrian front. 

THE TURKISH FORCES IN SYRIA WIPED 
OUT. 

Allenby, however, could not rest 
upon his laurels: he needed a port 
and railway running in from the sea- 

851 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




INDIANS IN CAPTIVITY IN GERMANY 

The lot of Allied prisoners was never an enviable one, and in the case of the Indians its hardships were further 
aggravated by the diflSculties of obtaining food that kept inviolate their rules of caste, and by the inclemencies of 
the northern European winter bearing hardly upon men accustomed to subtropical heat. Picture, H. Ruschin 



coast to keep up his supplies, and 
shortly after (Oct. 6-8) the Rayak- 
Beirut line fell into his hands. The 
rest was a triumphal progress: Balbek 
fell on the nth, Horns and Tripoli 
on the 13th. The last stage was 
Aleppo: the 5th Cavalry Division and 
armored cars went forward and after 
a few slight brushes with the enemy 
reached the place on the 25th where 
they were joined by an Arab contin- 
gent and occupied it on the 26th. 
Since September 19, the Allied front 
had advanced 300 miles north; the 



Turkish Armies in Syria had been 
wiped out. 

The time was ripe for Marshall to 
move in Mesopotamia. One column 
pushed up the Tigris, drove back a 
Turkish army of 7,000 men, cut off its 
retreat and forced its surrender (Octo- 
ber 30) . A second force advanced up the 
Kifri Kirkuk-Keupri road until Mosul 
was within its reach. When Marshall 
entered the city November 3 there 
was no need for fighting: Turkey like 
Bulgaria had surrendered. 

Muriel Bray 



852 



" uliiiiirr'iiii 



rmH^ 




■PtHE AMERICAN INFANTRY COMBAT DIVISION AND ITS 
H TRAINING FOR THE WORLD WAR 



Exercisins newly arrived men at Yaphank 

Chapter LI 

Training the Citizen Army 



^f/v'- 



By Major-General Leonard Wood, U.S.A. 

Commanding 89th and 10th Divisions 



AN American Division is a self-con- 
tained unit made up of all neces- 
sary arms and services, and complete 
in itself with every requirement for in- 
dependent action incident to its or- 
dinary operations. It is the basis of 
organization for a mobile army. 

INTENSIVE TRAINING OF THE AMERICAN 
INFANTRY COMBAT DIVISION. 

In answer to the request of the 
Entente for reinforcements to meet the 
great German Drive of 191 8, special 
intensive training of divisional units 
was begun. 

In the training of a division one is 
confronted with the problem of not 
only imparting military information 
and training, but also with that of 
building up an organization spirit, an 
organization morale, without which 
no amount of military training will 
make a first-class fighting organiza- 
tion. 

For a military organization to be 
effective, it must be a living, human 
organization. It must have not only a 
body but a soul, a spirit, a character 
and individuality. Unless these are 
developed the training has not been 
successful. Everything must be done 
not only to build up the military body, 
or organization, but to put into it a 
spirit and a soul. This means that its 



men must be kept together as much as 
possible. When men are taken from a 
division because of wounds or sick- 
ness, every effort must be made to 
return them to their division. Nothing 
demoralizes men more quickly or com- 
pletely than the disregard of this basic 
principle. Whenever this principle 
has been disregarded, morale has been 
impaired and the fighting efficiency of 
the division lowered. 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES WHICH MUST BE 
OBSERVED IN TRAINING. 

Everything possible must be done to 
convince the men of the worthiness of 
the cause for which they are fighting, to 
build up a feeling of service and sacri- 
fice and an appreciation of the nobility 
of service in a good cause ; to point out 
that they are offering their lives that 
others may live and that their govern- 
ment and its institutions may endure. 

They must be taught respect for their 
officers and be made to understand 
that the salute is an indication not 
only of discipline, but also a mark of 
recognition between members of the 
great Brotherhood of Men at Arms. 
Men must be taught to look upon the 
uniform as a symbol of their country, 
and as such to honor it and to keep it 
clean by keeping it out of places of 
ill-repute. 

. 853 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE TRAINING AND ATTITUDE OF THE 
JUNIOR OFFICERS. 

In their training the officers must be 
impressed with the idea that they are 
under the strictest possible obligation 
to preserve the self-respect of their 
men — that men whose self-respect 
has been destroyed are of little value 
as soldiers; to so conduct themselves 
that they will always be not only an 
example, but also a source of inspira- 
tion; that the best discipline is not 
founded upon fear but upon respect 
for and confidence in the officer. The 



the maintenance of efficiency and high 
morale, have ever present evidence of 
the human element in his relations 
with his men. 

THE FAILURES AND DEFICIENCIES OF 
OFFICERS AFFECT MEN. 

When troops come back from war 
dissatisfied with their officers — hating 
service — it can be asserted that the 
officer body has failed to understand 
the real function of an officer, that is, 
to create that spirit of discipline which 
is founded upon mutual respect and 
confidence. 




CAMP MILLS, WHERE THE RAINBOW DIVISION WAS TRAINED 

Camp Mills at Mineola, Long Island, was intended for an embarkation camp, but the Forty-Second, or Rainbow 
Division, received the greater part of its training here. The organization included units from twenty-seven 
states. Times Photo Service 

When men first come for training 
they must be treated with the utmost 
patience. The officers should assume 
that the men are there to do their best. 
This assumption is correct in about 
97 per cent of the cases. He must re- 
member that the men are utterly with- 
out information upon military matters, 
and they have no idea of military dis- 
tinctions — all of these matters must be 
explained to them. That the gradual 
merging of individuality into massed 
discipline to the extent necessary for 
the purpose of efi'ective movement in 
large bodies can be done effectively 
only when it is done intelligently. Not- 
withstanding this massed discipline, 
there must be left the spirit of in- 
dividuality, self-reliance and initiative, 
which has always characterized the 



men will rise to the level of the officer 
and the spirit of service if he is a real 
leader; and the spirit of the men col- 
lectively is, of course, the spirit of 
the organization. 

The first duty of a good officer is to 
look to the welfare of his men, and un- 
der this comes not only the training, 
but also their physical condition, their 
food, their clothing, their morale — in 
brief, everything which tends to bring 
them upon the battlefield in the best 
possible physical and moral condition 
to fight a successful battle. 

The officer must have impressed 
upon him that if he is fit to be an officer 
he will be able to maintain friendly and 
kindly relations with his men, and at 
the same time maintain a rigid dis- 
cipline. He must, in order to assure 

854 . 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



individual American soldier and which 
the conditions of modern warfare 
make more and more important. 

THE FIRST DAYS IN CAMP DIFFICULT FOR 
THE MEN. 

The drafted men on arrival at the 
Division Cantonment were assigned 
to a Depot Brigade for physical 
examination — inoculation, vaccina- 
tion, et cetera — equipment and pre- 



and aiming drills; mechanism of the 
piece; instruction in the Articles of 
War; relations between officers and 
men; military courtesy; sanitation, 
personal and general. Drill was broken 
to advantage by periods of interesting 
games, not too strenuous in character. 
They were also given some work in 
company formations. In other words, 
the men were occupied with helpful 




SETTING-UP EXERCISES AT CAMP HANCOCK 

Much attention was given to the physical development of the young recruits. A carefully graded system of physical 
exercises strengthened the muscles, increased_the endurance, and improved the carriage of the mjen. No part 
of the training was more important than this. 
Guard was trained. 



This picture was taken at Camp Hancock where the Pennsylvania 

U. S. Official. 



liminary training. During this time, 
due to the change of food, surroundings, 
method of living, the prospect of long, 
hard service and to the fact that they 
were undergoing a biological struggle 
as they were receiving various inocula- 
tions, vaccinations, et cetera, their gen- 
eral physical resistance was lowered. 

The men were kept in the Depot 
Brigade for about one month, during 
which time an immense amount of 
work was done. There were brief but 
lively periods of setting-up exercises, 
short and snappy instruction in the 
School of the Soldier and Squad; 
musketry instruction, such as pointing 



work adapted to their physical capabil- 
ity. All of this instruction had value 
in quickening the men and in giving 
them bodily balance and control. 

This system of training resulted in 
the men being ready when they were 
assigned to a division for infantry train- 
ing to take up their work with some 
knowledge of the weapon which they 
had to use, its care and mechanism, and 
the basic principle of military service. 
They also had a fair knowledge of 
military courtesy, and if they were 
properly handled they were in good 
physical condition and keen for their 
real work. 

855 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




TEXT-BOOKS FOR THE ARMY 

All athletic sports were encouraged, and few were 
more popular than boxing. The instructor at Camp 
Dix, New Jersey, is shown carrying his text-books. 

New York Times Photo Service 

HOW WAS AN AMERICAN COMBAT DI- 
VISION ORGANIZED? 

The American Infantry Combat 
Division in the World War had an 
authorized strength of i,oo6 officers 
and 27,084 enlisted men, and was 
organized as follows: 

(a) Division Headquarters, 

(b) 2 Infantry Brigades, 

(c) I Field Artillery Brigade, 

(d) Divisional Machine Gun Bat- 
talion, 

(e) I Regiment of Engineers (Sap- 
pers), 

(f) I Field Signal Battalion, 

(g) Train Headquarters and Military 
Police, 

(h) Ammunition Train, 
(i) Supply Train, 
(j) Engineer Train, 
(k) Sanitary Train. 

(a) Division Headquarters, consist- 
ing of the Division Commander (Ma- 
jor General), his personal staff of 5 
aides-de-camp and a division staff 

856 



composed of the General Staff, Tech- 
nical Staff and Administrative Staff; 
one Headquarters Detachment which 
furnished clerks, stenographers, et 
cetera, for carrying on the business of 
the Headquarters; one Headquarters 
Troop which furnished the guard and 
mounted orderlies for Headquarters. 
Taken in the order named these parts 
of the Division Headquarters were 
organized as follows: 

General Staff, consisting of the Chief 
of Staff and 3 assistants known as: 
Assistant Chief of Staff for Adminis- 
tration, Supply and Transportation, 
G-i; Assistant Chief of Staff for In- 
telligence, G-2; Assistant Chief of 
Staff for Operations, G-3, and their 
assistants. 

Technical Staff, consisting of the 
Artillery Brigade Commander, Division 
Engineer, Division Surgeon, Division 
Signal Officer, Division Machine Gun 
Officer; Division Chemical Warfare 
Service Officer, Division Quarter- 
master, Division Ordnance Officer, 
Division Veterinarian, and their as- 
sistants. 

Administrative Staff, consisting of 
the Division Adjutant, Division In- 
spector, Division Judge Advocate, and 
their assistants. 

Headquarters Detachment, consist- 
ing of 5 field clerks, i postal agent and 
110 enlisted men. 

Headquarters Troop, consisting of 3 
officers and 112 enlisted men. 

Total strength of Division Head- 
quarters: 55 officers, 5 field clerks, I 
postal agent and 232 enlisted men. 

(b) Two Infantry Brigades, each 
consisting of Brigade Headquarters, 
Brigade Commander (Brigadier Gen- 
eral) and 3 aides-de-camp. Brigade 
Adjutant and 20 enlisted men. To 
each brigade: 

Two regiments of infantry, each con- 
sisting of Headquarters, Regimental 
Commander (Colonel), a second in 
command (Lieutenant Colonel), 4 
officers, I each for operations, regi- 
mental adjutant, personnel adjutant 
and regimental intelligence, i chaplain; 
attached services — medical, 7 officers, 
48 enlisted men; ordnance, 8 enlisted 
men. To each regiment: 










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TRAINING IN THE USE OF RIFLE GRENADES 
The rifle grenade was propelled by the gas from the discharge of the gun and describing a curve fell into the 
enemy trenches where it sometimes did considerable damage when it exploded. This and the hand grenade 
were revivals of old devices used long ago in warfare, and then discarded for a long time. 




BAYONET PRACTICE AT CAMP WHEELER 

The bayonet is another weapon of which the use was supposed to be declining. The peculiar conditions of trench 
warfare led to a revival of the use of the bayonet. The instruction was largely under the direction of foreign non- 
commissioned officers. Here the men, masked and protected, are practicing with wooden weapons. When the 
actual weapons were given the men, the attack was made on sacks of straw or bundles of sticks hung from strong 
frames. Pictures, U. S. Official 



857 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



One Headquarters Company, 7 of- 
ficers and 336 enlisted men, organized 
into 5 platoons, i. e.. Headquarters 
Platoon, Signal Platoon, Sappers and 
Bombers Platoon, Pioneer Platoon and 
I -Pounder Gun Platoon, 

One Supply Company, 6 officers 
and 164 enlisted men. 




tion. Hand Bombers; 2nd Section, 
Rifle Grenadiers; 3rd Section, Rifle- 
men; 4th Section, Automatic Rifles); 
total strength each regiment 114 of- 
ficers, 3,720 enlisted men; 

One Machine Gun Battalion, con- 
sisting of Battalion Headquarters, Bat- 
talion Commander (Major), 2 ofBcers, 
I each Battalion Adjutant and 
Battalion Supply Officer, and 
44 enlisted men ; attached serv- 
ices — medical, 1 officer, 12 en- 
listed men; ordnance, 4 enlisted 
men; 4 Machine Gun Com- 
panies, each consisting of 6 
officers and 172 enlisted men; 
of same interior organization 
as Regimental Machine Gun 
Company. 

Aggregate strength each bri- 
gade, 262 officers and 8,213 
enlisted men. 



TRAINING MACHINE GUNNERS 
These future machine-gunners being trained at Camp Dix are being 
trained not only in the use of their weapons but also to take ad- 
vantage of any cover, however slight. New York Times 

One Machine Gun Company, 6 
officers and 172 enlisted men, organized 
into a Headquarters, 3 platoons and 
a train. 

Three Battalions, each consisting 
of Battalion Headquarters, i Battal- 
ion Commander (Major) and 2 offi- 
cers, I each for Battalion Adjutant 
and Intelligence Officer. To each battal- 
ion: 

Four Rifle Companies, 6 officers and 
250 enlisted men each, organized into 
Headquarters and 4 platoons, each 
platoon organized into Platoon Head- 
quarters and Four Sections (ist Sec- 

858 



(c) Field Artillery Brigade, 
consisting of Brigade Head- 
quarters, Brigade Commander 
(Brigadier General) and 2 aides- 
de-camp. Brigade Adjutant and 
8 officers — operations 3, intelli- 
gence 2, radio I, telephone I, 
munitions I — arid 67 enlisted 
men. 

Two regiments 75-mm. guns 
(3 -inch), horse-drawn, each 
regiment consisting of Regi- 
mental Headquarters, Regi- 
mental Commander (Colonel), 
second in command (Lieut. 
Colonel), regimental adjutant 
and personnel adjutant, I 
chaplain; attached services — 
medical, 3 officers and 23 enlisted men; 
veterinary, 2 officers, 6 enlisted; ord- 
nance, 12 enlisted. To each regiment: 
Headquarters Company, 17 officers 
and 205 enlisted men, organized into 
4 sections; Supply Company, 5 officers 
and 108 enlisted men. 

Two Battalions, consisting of Bat- 
talion Headquarters, Battalion Com- 
mander (Major) and 2 officers, i each 
for Battalion Adjutant and Intelli- 
gence Officer. To each battalion: 

Three Batteries each, 5 officers, 194 
enlisted men, organized into Battery 
Headquarters, instrument detail, sig- 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



nal detail, scouts, firing battery, or- 
ganized into 3 platoons and combat 
train. 

Total regiment, 66 officers, 1,501 en- 
listed men. 

One regiment 155-mm. guns, motor- 
ized, consisting of Regimental Head- 
quarters, Regimental Commander 
(Colonel), second in command (Lt. Col- 
onel), 2 officers, I adjutant and i 
personnel adjutant; attached services: 



quarters, instrument detail, signal de- 
tail, scouts, 5 sections and train. 

Total strength regiment, 74 officers, 
1,608 enlisted men. 

One Trench Mortar Battery, 6-inch 
Newton-Stokes mortars, 5 officers, 172 
enlisted men, organized into Head- 
quarters Section, Special Detail Sec- 
tion and 3 platoons. 

Aggregate strength Field Artillery 
Brigade, 223 officers, 4,852 enlisted men. 




TRAINING THE SIGNAL CORPS 
The Signal Corps used a dozen different methods of conveying information. Where protected from enemy fire 
lights were often used. This shows the use of the heliograph which conveyed messages by flashes of light of 
different duration. This method depended upon the sun by day. The picture was made at Camp Meade, Mary- 
land, where a part of the selected men from Pennsylvania were trained. 

I chaplain; medical, 3 officers and 19 (d) Divisional Machine Gun Bat- 

enlisted men; ordnance, 16 enlisted talion (motorized) consisting of Head- 



men. 

Headquarters Company, 17 officers 
and 195 enlisted men, organized into 
4 sections. 

Supply Company, organized into 3 
sections, and 

Three Battalions, each consisting of 
Battalion Headquarters, Battalion 
Commander (Major), 2 officers, i 
each Battalion Adjutant and Bat- 
talion Intelligence Officer; 2 bat- 
teries each, 5 officers and 130 enlisted 
men, organized into battery head- 



quarters. Battalion Commander (Ma- 
jor), 2 officers, I each Battalion Ad- 
jutant and Battalion Supply Officer, 27 
enlisted men; attached services, med- 
ical, I officer, 6 enlisted men; ordnance, 
2 enlisted men; 2 companies, each has 6 
officers, 172 men organized into a head- 
quarters, and 3 platoons and train. 

Aggregate strength of battalion, 16 
officers, 379 enlisted men. 

(e) Regiment of Engineers (Sappers) , 
consisting of Headquarters, Regimental 

859 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Commander (Colonel) second in com- 
mand (Lt. Colonel), 6 officers as fol- 
lows ; regimental adjutant, personnel ad- 
jutant, 2 supply officers, intelligence 
officer and band leader; i chaplain; 
attached services, medical, 3 officers, 
27 enlisted men; ordnance, 6 enlisted 
men. 

Two battalions, consisting of Bat- 
talion Headquarters, battalion com- 
mander (Major), battalion adjutant 



(g) Train Headquarters and Military 
Police, consisting of Headquarters, 
Trains Commander (colonel) , 2 officers, 
I each Trains Adjutant and Trains 
Supply Officer, 18 enlisted men; at- 
tached services: medical, i officer, 6 
enlisted; i Mobile Veterinary Section, 
I Veterinarian, 21 enlisted men; 3 
Veterinary Field Units, 3 Veterinarians, 
9 enlisted men; ordnance, 5 enlisted 
men. 



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SIGNAL CORPS MEN LEARNING THE USE OF THE TELEPHONE 

In no other war was the telephone ever used as in the World War. There were regular Centrals like those in any 

city, behind the lines and several modifications of regular instrument;^ for use close to the lines. A network of wires 

was spread on, above or under the ground in some localities. ti U. S. Official 

One company Military Police, 5 
officers, 200 enlisted men, organized 
into 4 platoons. 

Aggregate Trains Headquarters and 
Military Police, 14 officers, 273 en- 
listed men. 



\ spread < 

and I officer — battalion adjutant; and 
3 companies, each consisting of 6 
officers, 250 enlisted men. 

Aggregate strength of regiment of 
engineers (sappers) , 52 officers and i ,695 
enlisted men. 

(f) One Field Signal Battalion, con- 
sisting of Battalion Headquarters, Bat- 
talion Commander (Major), i officer, 
Battalion Adjutant, 13 enlisted men; 
attached services, medical, i officer, 14 
enlisted men. 

One radio company, 3 officers, 75 
enlisted men; one wire company, 3 
officers, 75 enlisted men; one outpost 
company, 5 officers, 280 enlisted men. 

Aggregate strength of Field Signal 
Battalion, 15 officers, 473 enlisted men. 

860 



(h) Ammunition Train, consisting of 
Train Headquarters, Train Command- 
er (Lt. Colonel), 2 agents, i Train 
Adjutant and Supply Officer, 28 en- 
listed men. 

One Motor Battalion, consisting of 
Battalion Headquarters, Battalion 
Commander (Major), i Battalion Ad- 
jutant; I Assistant Supply Officer 
30 enlisted men, 4 truck companies, 
each consisting of 3 officers, 146 en- 
listed men, organized into 6 sections. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Aggregate Motor Battalion, 15 offi- 
cers, 614 enlisted men. 

One Horsed Battalion, consisting of 
Battalion Headquarters, Battalion 
Commander (Major), i Battalion Ad- 
jutant, I Assistant Supply Officer, 
21 enlisted men; 2 caisson companies, 
each consisting of 3 officers, 191 en- 
listed men organized into 11 sections; 
I wagon company, 3 officers, 153 en- 
listed men organized into 12 sections. 



(j) Engineer Train, consisting of 2 
officers, 82 enlisted men, organized 
into 2 sections. 

Aggregate Engineer Train, 2 officers, 
82 enlisted men. 

(k) Sanitary Train, consisting of 
Train Headquarters, Train Commander 
(Lieutenant Colonel), i Personnel Ad- 
jutant, 2 supply officers, 14 enlisted 
men. 




A BEAN FIELD AT CAMP DIX 

In their spare time the young soldiers in training joined in the effort to increase the production of food. At some 
camps considerable areas were cultivated by the men and valuable additions to their diet were grown. 

Aggregate Horsed Battalion, 12 offi- 
cers, 556 enlisted men; attached ser- 
vices — I Mobile Ordnance Repair Shop, 
3 officers, 45 enlisted men; ordnance, 
I officer, 23 enlisted men; medical, 3 
officers, 29 enlisted men. 

Aggregate Ammunition Train, 38 
officers, 1 ,295 enlisted men. 



(i) Supply Train (motorized), con- 
sisting of Train Headquarters, Train 
Commander (Captain), i Train Ad- 
jutant, I Train Supply Officer, 13 en- 
listed men; attached services, medical, 
I officer, 10 enlisted men. 

Six Truck Companies, each consist- 
ing of 2 officers, 77 enlisted men, or- 
ganized into 3 sections. 

Aggregate Supply Train, 16 officers, 
485 enlisted men. 



One Ambulance Section, consisting of 
Section Headquarters, Section Com- 
mander (Major)", 3 enlisted men. 

Three Ambulance Companies (motor- 
ized) each 5 officers, 122 enlisted men, 
organized into 3 ambulance platoons, 
I service platoon. 

One Ambulance Company (animal 
drawn), 5 officers, 153 enlisted men, 
organized into 3 ambulance platoons, i 
service platoon. 

Aggregate Ambulance Section, 21 
officers, 525 enlisted men. 

One Field Hospital Section , consisting 
of Section Headquarters, Section Com- 
mander (Major), 3 enlisted men, and 

Three Field Hospital Companies 
(motorized), each consisting of 6 offi- 
cers and 83 enlisted men, and 

One Field Hospital Company (animal 

861 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



drawn) consisting of 6 officers and 82 
enlisted men. 

All with same organization as that of 
Ambulance Section, 

Aggregate Field Hospital Section, 
25 officers, 337 enlisted men. 

Attached Services, 8 Camp Infirm- 
aries, 16 enlisted men. 



Armament of the division as follows: 
16,163 rifles; 960 automatic rifles; 224 
machine guns (heavy) ; 36 anti-aircraft 
machine guns; 24 155-mm. howitzers; 
48 3-inch or 75-mm. guns; 12 one- 
pounder guns; 36 trench mortars; 1,560 
rifle grenade discharges; 13,139 pistols; 
1920 trench knives. 




ATHLETIC SPORTS AT THE PELHAM BAY STATION 

Young volunteers for the navy were first sent ro one of the naval stations, of which there were about twenty per- 
manent or temporary. Here they had instruction in swimming and handling boats as well as military drill and phy- 
sical training. Here the young naval reserves are playing push-ball in the time allowed for sports. U. S. Official 

INFANTRY TRAINING THE GROUNDWORK 
OF ALL LATER TRAINING. 



Divisional Medical Supply Unit, i 
officer, 8 enlisted men. 

Aggregate Sanitary Train, 51 offi- 
cers, 900 enlisted men. 

The following services were at times 
attached to an American Infantry 
Combat Division: 

One Bakery Company, 2 officers, 
loi enlisted men. 

One Clothing and Bath Unit, i officer, 
21 enlisted men. 

One Headquarters Conservation and 
Reclamation Service, 11 officers, 20 
enlisted men. 

One Sales Commissary Unit, I officer, 
14 enlisted men. 

One-half Section Graves Registra- 
tion, I officer, 25 enlisted men. 

862 



Upon completion of this preliminary 
training the men were transferred from 
the Depot Brigade to organizations in 
the division where their instruction 
was continued, the first month of which 
was largely devoted to organization, 
development and training of the pla- 
toon in close and extended order; pre- 
liminary work in the School of the 
Company, and basic training. From 
the beginning, non-commissioned offi- 
cers were trained as platoon and 
group leaders, for there never was a 
time when efficient leadersnip was more 
important. 

During the latter part of this period, 
troops began record practice, rifle 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



iring, and preliminary instruction in 
gas and use of the gas mask. It was 
important for the men to have this 
instruction early in their training 
period as it was not known how soon 
they would be called for. 



vision and with the valued assistance of 
British and French . officers who had 
already gained much useful experience 
in the war. 

During the third month of training 
(the second month in the Division) 




A SECTION OF TRENCHES AT A TRAINING CAMP 
The attempt was made to visualize for the young soldiers the conditions they would meet in France. This section 
of trench is as elaborately constructed as any in a strong sector. The men are charging upon it with the ^me 
care and attention that they would bestow upon an actual trench filled with Germans. U. S. Official 



TRENCH INSTRUCTION UNDER BRITISH 
AND FRENCH OFFICERS. 

During the preliminary rifle practice 
on the range, the men were instructed 
in night firing, using both illuminated 
and non-illuminated targets, and in 
addition they received instruction in 
firing in daylight and at night wearing 
their gas masks. The firing on the 
range was done by regiment, one 
battalion following the other. As each 
battalion completed its record firing, 
it was moved to a trench system for 
instruction in trench warfare. The 
instruction period in the trench system 
for each battalion was two days and 
two nights. Relief was made at night 
and the relieved battalion marched 
back to its barracks. This work was 
carried on under the direction, super- 



instruction progressed to include that 
of the battalion, regiment and brigade, 
and during this month each regiment 
was given a period of at least five days 
in a trench system area where every 
man was given instruction in the use of 
the automatic rifle, throwing live 
grenades, going through wire, intensive 
bayonet work over a difficult course, 
consisting of trench entanglements, 
runways, jump-offs, et cetera. Also 
exercises in occupying trenches, taking 
trenches, reorganizing trenches, prep- 
aration for counter attacks, et cetera. 
The object of this instruction was to 
have every man and every organization 
have some experience with what was 
considered as absolutely essential to 
modern training. The scene shown 
above is typical of this training. 

863 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



V 



ARIETY OF WORK DURING THE FIRST 
THREE MONTHS. 

During this month the intelligence 
personnel received special attention. 
It was carefully organized and trained 
in the requirements of intelligence 
work, which has become more and more 
important, and upon its efficiency de- 
pends very largely the success of 
operations. 

In the latter part of this month in- 
struction in liaison between units and 



problems, small matters, and the staff 
work connected with them had been 
accomplished. In short, the division 
was tied together as a battle unit. 

ARTILLERY, ENGINEER, AND SIGNAL 
l\ TRAINING BEGUN EARLY. 

Artillery troops were given basic 
infantry and artillery training. It was 
recognized that the all-important train- 
ing for artillery was making them ex- 
pert gunners as quickly as possible. 
With that end in view actual firing 



f 

1 




1 







LEARNING HOW TO FIRE A STOKES TRENCH MORTAR 
The Stokes mortar, the invention of an English civilian, was a valuable weapon at close quarters It dropped 
bombs into the enemy trenches with considerable accuracy. Though provided with a tripod, this was seldom 
used by the soldiers in open warfare. This is a detachment of the I42d Infantry in training in France. 

U. S. Official 



with the artillery was taken up, first 
through a series of demonstrations and 
then through practical problems exe- 
cuted in the field. Great attention was 
given to this instruction in order that 
liaison might be made as nearly perfect 
mechanically as possible, and in order 
to build up a sympathetic understand- 
ing between the different arms and 
branches of the service. Rest periods 
between exercises were utilized for 
talks to the men on various subjects of 
general and military interest. 

By the end of the third month the 
men had had a great variety of work, 
and as a rule there was no flagging of 
interest. Every organization had been 
put through its basic work, combat 

864 



was begun in their first month of train- 
ing. Equitation and co-related mat- 
ters with reference to traction and care 
of animals was considered as of second- 
ary importance and the training pro- 
gramme was arranged accordingly. In- 
struction in liaison with the other arms 
of the division, combat problems and 
manoeuvres by day and night was taken 
up in the third month of training. 

Engineer troops were given basic 
infantry training and instruction in 
combat formation, problems and ma- 
noeuvres. Their technical training was 
considered as of first importance. It 
progressed rapidly, for the reason that 
the personnel was made up of men 
drawn from the crafts trained to 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



, skilled mechanical and technical work. 
y i Instruction in liaison with the other 
H I arms of the division, combat problems 
covering construction of field fortifica- 
tions, et cetera, both by day and night, 
was taken up in the third month of 
their training. 

Signal troops were given basic in- 

ifantry training and technical training 
in all means of signal communications 



a machine gun school, conducted in the 
division by experienced expert officers, 
trained in battle. The effect of this 
system was to standardize the instruc- 
tion and to develop quickly machine 
gunners. They were instructed in the 
use of standard machine guns in use by 
the Entente and their allies. 

In the third month of their training 
they were instructed in liaison with 




THE SURGICAL WARD AT CAMP WADSWORTH 
Though it had not massive buildings the hospital at Camp Wadsworth, at Spartanburg, South Carolina, where 
the New York National Guard was trained, had every necessary appliance for the treatment of the sick. The 
buildings were roomy and were flooded with air and sunlight. The well men at these camps lived in tents. 



such as wireless telegraphy, buzzer- 
fone, telephone, visual signalling, pi- 
geons, et cetera. 

In the third month of their training 
they worked with the other arms of the 
division in combat problems and ma- 
noeuvres in solving the construction, 
maintenance and operation of all means 
of signal communication by day and 
night, in open warfare and in trench 
warfare. 

THE TRAINING OF THE MACHINE GUN 
ORGANIZATIONS. 

Machine gun organizations were 
given basic infantry training. All 
machine gun units were instructed in 



the other arms of the division, in 
combat problems and manoeuvres by 
day and night, both in open warfare 
and in trench warfare. 

THE DUTIES OF THE VARIOUS TRAINS IN 
A DIVISION. 

Trains. — Men of the trains were 
given basic infantry instruction and 
instruction in the care, maintenance 
and operation of means of transporta- 
tion. Reading of road maps and in 
estimating transportation capabilities 
of roads and material was specialized in. 
Ammunition train organizations were 
instructed in the transportation of 
various classes of shell, ammunition, 

865 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



et cetera, by day and night. Supply 
train organizations were instructed in 
the transportation of suppHes, by day 
and night. Engineer trains received 
special instruction in handling the 
technical material pertaining to the 
engineer troops, by day and night. 
Sanitary train organizations were 
specially trained in care and evacua- 
tion of sick and wounded, transporting, 
setting-up and maintenance of field 
hospitals, under conditions of open 
warfare and trench warfare, by day 
and night. 

In their third month of training, all 
trains were instructed in liaison with 
the other arms of the division, in com- 
bat problems and manoeuvres by day 
and night. 

QOME GENERAL REMARKS ON TRAINING. 

The fundamental principles of war- 
fare are as old as time, but methods of 
combat change with the introduction of 
new kinds of weapons and with our 
increased knowledge of the use of 
terrain. For this reason it was essential 
to have instructors who were familiar 
with modern methods of combat. 
These instructors were furnished by the 
Allies and they were of inestimable 
value to us in our efforts to prepare for 
the struggle. They impressed upon the 
men and officers, especially the latter, 
the underlying principle of reinforcing 
hard-pressed points not by men but 
by fire, that is, by the use of automatic 
rifles and machine guns. 

Our officers had not, as a class, 
learned to appreciate this. Nor had 
they sufficient knowledge of the hand- 
ling of platoon and company by 
modern methods to realize what a 
wonderfully effective instrumentality 



the new forms of organization had given 
them. All of these things the Allied 
instructors taught us and impressed 
upon us. 

Bayonet training, of course, gives 
a desire for close combat, and a sense 
of personal power to the man who is 
well trained. Certain kinds of games, 
that make a man more alert, quick and 
strong on his feet, are very valuable in 
training. Everything possible must be 
done to increase the self-respect of the 
men, to teach them to salute as though 
they were proud of their profession, 
and to cause them to take a real pride 
in being soldiers of the nation. 

TIME NECESSARY FOR THE FULLEST 
MEASURE OF SUCCESS. 

The efficiency of the divisional train- 
ing will be very largely measured by 
the amount of time which is available 
for this work. The doing of things over 
and over again, under varying con- 
ditions of weather, terrain, by day and 
night, is what makes a highly effective 
divisional fighting unit pliable, re- 
sourceful and competent to adjust it- 
self properly to any problem which may 
confront it. 

The foregoing represents the general 
procedure which is found most effective 
for training American divisions for 
the war of position and the war of 
movement, as exemplified during the 
recent war. The building up of morale 
and the keeping of the elements of a 
division together, making it an or- 
ganization instead of an aggregation, 
cannot be too strongly emphasized. 

The training of a division is a big 
job and an interesting one, and if 
properly done, insures good Discipline, 
Efficiency, mutual Respect and Con- 
fidence between Officers and Men. 



866 




The Wake Left by the Periscope of a Submarine 

Chapter LI I 

The Course of the War During 1917 

NO IMMEDIATE DECISION IS APPARENT THOUGH THE 
WHOLE WORLD IS IN ARMS 



npHE year 191 7 was a year of alter- 
"*• nate exultation and depression for 
both sides, but as it closed the deadlock 
was unbroken. All Europe was tired 
of war, but in spite of openly manifest 
war-weariness no one could prophesy 
when the end would come. During 
1 91 6 military leaders had had full 
opportunity to reach a decision, but 
had failed. The peace-makers attempt- 
ed to end the struggle in 1917, with no 
better success. 

THE FIRST PEACE PROPOSAL BY THE 
CENTRAL POWERS. 

Just before the end of 1916 (Decem- 
ber 12) the Central Powers proposed a 
Peace Conference without cessation of 
hostilities, or suggesting any basis of 
discussion. Their proposal was for- 
warded to the Entente Powers by the 
neutrals to whom it was addressed, 
and, on December 30, a joint reply 
signed by Russia, France, Great Brit- 
ain, Japan, Italy Belgium, Montene- 
gro, Portugal and Rumania was re- 
turned declaring that no peace was 
possible without reparation. 

President Wilson had prepared a 
note inquiring upon what terms the 
belligerent powers were prepared to 
make peace, before the publication of 
the note of the Central Powers. With 
some hesitation it was published on 
December 18. To it the Central Powers 
returned an evasive answer. The 



Entente nations, on the other hand, 
declared that while they could not give 
specific details of their demands, the 
groundwork must include restoration 
of Belgium, Serbia and Montenegro 
with compensation; evacuation of the 
invaded portions of France, Russia and 
Rumania, with reparation; the reor- 
ganization of Europe upon a stable 
basis; the expulsion of the Turk; and 
the liberation of subject peoples. At 
the same time they disclaimed the 
desire to destroy German nationality. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY SECRETLY NEGOTI- 
l\ ATES FOR PEACE. 

Austria-Hungary had suffered more 
than Germany because of less efficient 
organization, and was less united in 
sentiment. During the spring of 191 7 
secret peace negotiations with the 
Allies were undertaken. The whole 
truth is not yet known, but apparently 
King Alfonso of Spain, a relative of the 
Austrian Emperor, was delegated to 
approach France. A brother of the 
Empress, Prince Sixtus of Bourbon, 
himself a soldier in the Belgian army, 
made one or more visits to Austria, and 
conferred with representatives of 
France in Switzerland. Mutual dis- 
trust, fear of Germany, and finally the 
collapse of Russia which gave new heart 
to the Austrian rulers, all had something 
to do with the failure of the negotia- 
tions. 

867 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE POPE ISSUES A NOTE CONTAINING 
PROPOSALS FOR PEACE. 

Pope Benedict XV had, at various 
times since his elevation to the Papacy, 
expressed his hopes for peace. On 
August I, 191 7, he issued a note to the 
belligerent powers suggesting a basis 




POPE BENEDICT XV 

Giacomo della Chiesa, Archbishop of Bologna, suc- 
ceeded Pius X in 1914. On August 1, 1917, he issued 
a note suggesting a basis of peace for the warring 
nations. 

for peace, to include among other 
things: decrease of armaments; arbi- 
tration of international disputes; free- 
dom and community of the seas; 
renunciation of indemnities, with cer- 
tain possible exceptions; evacuation 
and restoration of all occupied terri- 
tories; examination of rival territorial 
claims, as for example, Alsace-Lorraine 
and the Trentino. 

By this time the United States had 
entered the war, and the reply of 

868 



Presidient Wilson, August 27, wag 
tacitly accepted as the reply of all the 
nations opposing the Teutonic alliance. 
President Wilson pointed out that the 
actions of the German government 
would render any negotiations with it 
fruitless, that an irresponsible govern- 
ment could not be trusted, and 
appealed to the German people to 
assert themselves. The Central Powers 
attempted to flatter Pope Benedict, by 
pretending to accept his ideas, but 
their actions did not square with their 
words. 

A STRONG DESIRE FOR PEACE MANIFESTED 
IN GERMANY. 

In Germany, meanwhile, there was 
a strong movement for peace. The 
declaration of unlimited submarine 
warfare had not brought Great Britain 
to her knees; the appeals of Pope 
Benedict for peace had had their effect 
upon the Centre (Catholic) party; the 
denunciations of Socialists of other 
countries had, perhaps, had some slight 
effect upon the German Socialists. 
Greater than all of these, Germany was 
tired of privations. The formation of 
an anti-Government combination of 
parties and factions led to the retire- 
ment of Bethmann-Hollweg as Imperial 
Chancellor on July 14, and five days 
later the Reichstag passed a resolu- 
tion declaring against annexations, and 
in favor of a peace by understandings. 
The Reichstag had so little influence 
in the governmental scheme of the 
German Empire that the real rulers 
paid little attention to the declaration 
and the Kaiser appointed a typical 
Junker, Dr. George Michaelis, as 
Chancellor, who soon adjourned the 
Reichstag. 

In October when the Reichstag re- 
assembled there was much angry dis- 
cussion between the Conservative and 
Radical elements, and Dr. Michaelis 
resigned. He was succeeded by Count 
von Hertling, one of the leaders of the 
Centre party. Count von Hertling 
promised sweeping reforms in the 
internal affairs of the Empire and ex- 
pressed himself as favoring peace. 
Meanwhile the Bolshevist element in 
Russia had secured control, and 
German chances for success seemed 




SCOTTISH PRISONERS IN A GERMAN PRISON CAMP 
There seems to be no doubt but that British prisoners were treated with especial severity by their German cap- 
tors, but it was a point of honor among them not to weaken. This group of Scotch prisoners seem to be keeping 
up their spirits in spite of poor and insufficient food, and the general hardness of their lot. 




BARRACKS AT THE PRISON CAMP AT DOBERITZ 
The Doberitz prison camp was about twenty miles from Berlin. Here some of the barracks were of metal. 



At 



some camps there were wooden structures and stables, warehouses and other buildings were used at other places. 
Many English were confined at Doberitz including a large part of the Naval Brigade captured at Antwerp early 
in the war. Apparently these are civilians, who were, however, usually sent to Ruhleben. Ruschin 



869 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



brighter. Both in Austria-Hungary 
and Germany the mihtarists increased 
their influence, and the liberal elements 
either became silent or imperialistic, 
and the Central Powers ceased to seek 
for peace. 

'^'^HE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND AMERI- 
i CAN INTERVENTION. 

Reference has been made to the 
Russian Revolution and to American 
intervention. Both occurred at nearly 
the same time and the causes leading 
up to them are so many and so complex 
that they can not easily be summarized 
in less space than the chapters devoted 
to these two most important events of 
the year. 

The treachery of the Russian Premier, 
Boris von Stiirmer, has been discussed 
at length. He and many in the court 
circle had clearly shown that they 
did not desire a defeated Germany, not 
so much, perhaps, because they favored 
Germany, as because they favored 
autocracy and feared that the end of 
autocracy in Germany would mean its 
end in Russia also. Though the Duma 
was able to have Stiirmer dismissed, 
the "dark forces" continued to plot, 
in spite of the denunciations of the 
leaders of the Duma. The Government 
apparently was seeking to induce 
revolt which would then be quelled 
by force, thereby strengthening the 
reactionary elements. 

THE REVOLUTION IN PETROGRAD ALMOST 
BLOODLESS. 

On March ii, 1917, Premier Golitzin 
prorogued the Duma, which refused to 
disperse. That same day soldiers in 
Petrograd tefused to fire upon crowds 
in the streets and the next day soldiers 
disarmed their officers, who would not 
agree to lead them against the police. 
The radicals had organized Councils 
(Soviets) of Workmen's and Soldiers' 
Delegates which gained great influence, 
over the soldiers, both in Petrograd 
and at the front. On March 15, it was 
announced in the Duma that the Tsar 
was to be deposed, a Provisional 
Government constituted, and a Con- 
stituent Assembly was to be called as 
soon as possible to determine the future 
of Russia. The Tsar did abdicate for 
himself and his son and named, as his 

870 



successor, his brother, the Grand Duke 
Michael, who refused the empty honor. 
The Provisional Government, com- 
posed chiefly of the moderate elements 
in the Duma, tried to carry on the 
government and the war. The story of 
the difficulties, and the progressive 
demoralization of the Russian army is 
told elsewhere (Chapter XLH). 
Gradually the extremist (Bolshevist) 




COUNT CZERNIN 
While Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary, Count 
Czernin was concerned in the mysterious negotiations 
for peace during 1917, and was forced to resign early 
in 1918. 

elements gained control both in the 
army and among the civil population. 
The Russian people had undergone great 
suffering and they were weary of war. 
The Provisional Government did not 
end the war. The Bolsheviki promised 
peace, and November 7, 8, by military 
force they secured control of Petro- 
grad, and soon extended their power 
over other parts of the country. On 
December 15, a truce was signed with 
the Teutonic armies. 

THE GERMAN DECLARATION OF UNLIMIT 
ED SUBMARINE WARFARE. 

The Allied cause, however, had 
received an addition, which, as circum- 




PART OF A GERMAN BATH TRAIN 
The German sanitary equipment early in the war was very complete, and no pains were spared to keep the soldiers 
in health. This is the "Badezug," a very important feature in the scheme. It was a series of shower baths on 
wheels which could be moved from place to place. This is thertank containing the water. 




THE BATHING COMPARTMENT OF THE TRAIN 
Careful inspection will show near the roof of this car several nozzles through which water from the tank shown 
above can flow. Soldiers were detailed by companies for bathing when the "Badezug" was in the neighborhood. 
Toward the end of the war the equipment gave out and was not renewed. The German soldier had very few 
comforts during the last year or two he was fighting. Pictures, Ruschin 

871 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



stances proved was to counterbalance 
the Russian defection. The German 
government had promised in May, 
1916, that the submarine campaign 
would be conducted like ordinary 
cruiser warfare, that is, that no mer- 
chant vessels would be sunk without 
warning, and without provisions for 
the safety of their crews. On January 
31, 1 91 7, a note was presented announc- 



execution. A request that Congress 
authorize the arming of American 
merchantmen passed the House by an 
overwhelming majority, March i, but 
was defeated by a filibuster in the 
Senate as the session ended by limita- 
tion on March 4. Meanwhile the 
"Zimmermann Note," dated January 
16, seeking an alliance with Mexico, had 
been published. 




SHIPS OF STONE TO REPLACE WOOD OR METAL 
The destruction of tonnage by the submarine and the necessity of using so much of what was left for war pur- 
poses led to considerable use of concrete vessels. This boat was constructed at Ivry-sur-Seine, France, during 
1917. Concrete vessels were also constructed by other nations, and generally proved seaworthy. 

French Official from N. Y. Times 



ing that, beginning the next day, 
February i, all sea traffic within cer- 
tain zones around Great Britain, 
France, Italy and the Eastern Medi- 
terranean would "be prevented by all 
weapons," except that the United 
States might under restrictions be per- 
mitted to send one ship a week to 
England. 

President Wilson immediately broke 
ofif relations with Germany, ordering 
Ambassador Gerard home and sending 
Ambassador von Bernstorff his pass- 
ports, though he declared that he was 
unwilling to believe that Germany 
would actually put her threats into 

872 



HE UNITED STATES, 
THE WAR. 



APRIL 6, ENTERS 



T 

Germany made good her threats and 
within twenty-four hours (March 16, 
17) three . American ships were sunk 
on the homeward voyage and American 
citizens lost their lives. Congress was 
called in special session, and on April 2, 
President Wilson asked for recognition 
of a state of war with Germany. The 
Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 agreed, 
April 4, and the House followed April 6, 
by a vote of 373 to 50. The formal 
proclamation was issued the same day. 

The regular army and the National 
Guard were increased and a compulsory 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Selective Service Act was passed, au- 
thorizing the calling of 1,000,000 men 
from those between twenty-one and 
thirty-one years of age, with proper 
provisions for exemptions. Registra- 
tion day was June 5, and on July 15, 
the order in which the registrants were 
to be called was settled, as described 
elsewhere. Two Liberty Loan Acts 
were passed, and loans of seven billion 



sectors. Moreover, it was clear that 
the United States was.in the war to the 
extent of its resources, whether of men 
or material. 

The intervention of the United 
States had not come too soon. Both 
France and Great Britain had borne a 
heavy burden. The latter had been 
obliged to finance some of her Allies 
and the loans from the United States 




THE STOCK EXCHANGE, BERLIN, WHICH REMAINED OPEN 
Military authorities in Germany took little chance of reverse and failure being reflected in civil life by a panic on 
the Stock Exchange, for they ordered it to be kept open. This was perfectly feasible as the blockade left only 
domestic stocks on the market, which by degrees passed under government control ' " ^ . • 



dollars to the Allies were authorized. 
Revenue, food control, and shipping 
acts were passed, and in December the 
government took over the control of the 
railroads. 

THE UNITED STATES AT ONCE SENDS 
SHIPS AND MEN. 

Within a few weeks after the declara- 
tion of war American destroyers were 
on patrol in European waters, and in 
June Genera-1 John J. Pershing and 
the first contingent of American troops 
reached France. Before the end of the 
year five divisions besides various 
special units, about 200,000 men in all, 
were in France, and American soldiers 
were in the front line trenches in quiet 



Picture from Henry Ruschin 

were welcome, as was also the assist- 
ance against the submarines. In France 
the phenomenon known as "defeatism" 
was widespread (see p. 500), and the 
moral effect of the presence of United 
States troops had a tonic effect long 
before any considerable numbers were 
ready for the fighting line. 

FIGHTING ON THE WESTERN FRONT 
DURING 1917. 

The fighting during the year must 
be dismissed in a few words. On the 
Western Front the Allies held the 
offensive. The British and French 
attacks on the Somme in 19 16 had 
pushed the Germans to the edge of the 
high ground, and had left them holding 

873 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



an awkward salient around Noyon, 
though the Allies had failed to take 
Bapaume and Peronne. Marshal von 
Hindenburg prepared a strong system 
of trenches, first called the Siegfried 
Line, but later called by his own name, 
running from the neighborhood of 
Arras to the heights of the Aisne. To 



.ikW 



f- H. » 






SPIKES BEFORE A GERMAN TRENCH 

this he withdrew during March, 1917, 
just as the Allied attack was about to 
begin. About 1,000 square miles of 
occupied territory were given up, and 
all the country between the old and 
the new positions was wantonly laid 
waste. 

The British attack around Arras 
began April 9, and Vimy Ridge was 
soon taken. The French attacked the 
heights of the Aisne, April 16. The 
scheme of General Nivelle, now com- 
mander-in-chief, was audacious. He 
would not "nibble" or wage a war of 
attrition. He would attack almost 
simultaneously in four major operations 
and break through. He made some 
progress but the plan was impossibly 
difBcult, and the losses were tremen- 
dous. Nivelle was vSucceeded by Petain, 

874 



while Foch was made Chief of Staff at 
Paris. The old method of seeking 
limited objectives was resumed. Cra- 
onne and both ends of the Chemin des 
Dames (Ladies' Road) were taken and 
held against German attack, while the 
British strengthened their position 
around Arras. 

THE WEARY STRUGGLE FOR THE PAS- 
SCHENDAELE RIDGE. 

Later (June 7), Sir Douglas Haig, in 
one of the most brilliant operations of 
the war, took the Messines-Wytschaete 
Ridge between Ypres and Lens, wiping 
out a German salient and strengthen- 
ing the British hold in Ypres. The next 
British move was an offensive from 
Ypres against the Passchendaele Ridge. 
The battle raged from July until 
November in the face of torrential 
rains, but the British pushed steadily 
forward with the double object of 
gaining ground and drawing as many 
German troops as possible from before 
the French, fart!her south. Finally the 
village of Passchendaele was entered, 
October 30, and a week later fully se- 
cured by the Canadians. 

Next came the drive on Cambrai 
(November 20), which almost succeed- 
ed, but a German counter-attack 
forced the British to retire, giving up a 
, part of their gains. The British were 
learning that the Hindenburg Line, or 
any other line, could be taken. The 
British gains were substantial, though 
the cost in men and munitions had been 
high. 

General Petain 's first duty was to 
reorganize his shattered armies and to 
rebuild their belief in their invincibility. 
A brilliant attack northwest of Soissons 
in October gained ground and forced 
the Germans to give up the remaining 
portion of the Chemin des Dames. In 
August and September the French had 
already regained the greater part of 
the ground around Verdun, lost the 
previous year. 

THE GREAT ITALIAN DISASTER ON THE 
ISONZO 

Slowly over great obstacles the 
Italian armies had made their way 
toward Trieste. Around Caporetto, 
on the upper Isonzo, the lines were 
lightly held by inferior troops, as no 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Lck was anticipated. Whether by 
incompetence of commanders in the 
region or because of treachery, con- 
siderable fraternization of Austrian 
and Italian soldiers took place, and the 
former took opportunity to sow dis- 
content. Various other reasons dis- 
cussed elsewhere (Chapter 47) tended 
to impair Italian morale. On October 
21, after a severe bombardment, Ger- 



June and July toward Lemberg with 
decided success at first, but the Russian 
soldiers were becoming demoralized. 
Soviets had been organized at the front 
and orders were discussed by the rank 
and file 'before they were obeyed. 
Reports that the lands of Russia were 
being distributed were spread, and 
some regiments determined to go home 
to get their share. All the gains of 




HEADQUARTERS OF A GERMAN BATTALION COMMANDER ON THE WESTERN FRONT 
The Germans held some parts of the Western Front so long that they began to feel a proprietary interest in them. 
Quarters for officers shown above were not uncommon in quiet sectors. Much care had been lavished upon them, 
and they are doubtless exceedingly comfortable. Often costly rugs and china from neighboring chateaux were 
placed in them. 



man divisions which had been sub- 
stituted for the supposedly friendly 
Austrians, broke through, leaving the 
flank of the two armies on the southern 
Isonzo exposed. The necessary with- 
drawal became almost a rout, and the 
Italians were forced to fall back to the 
Piave river. There the new Com- 
mander-in-Chief, General Diaz, with 
the help of French and British held the 
line, and repulsed desperate Austro- 
German assaults, even regaining some 
of the lost ground. Though shaken, 
Italy was still a factor in the war. 

Of the Russian fighting little need 
be said. General Brusilov struck in 



19 1 7 and 1916 were wiped out, and the 
Russian army ceased to exist as a 
dependable . military force. On the 
Eastern Front, only the Rumanians 
held fast. 

THE PRESTIGE OF THE TURK RECEIVES A 
STUNNING BLOW. 

In the Near East the Allies were 
more successful. Venizelos, who had 
been prevented from placing Greece 
on the side of the Allies by King Con- 
stantine, raised the standard of revolt 
and joined the Allied forces at Saloniki. 
On June 12, King Constantine was 
forced to abdicate in favor of his second 
son, and on June 25, Venizelos became 

875 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 





i i^ 


-Ti 


k1 


^m^^ 


mL^^ ' I 


/ 


WT'^^ ^ ^^'^^iOs^^l^^^^^l 


R^^Hht 




' ■■%. ^^H^jJ 






^^ 


^1^--^^ "^^^S^Hij 



CHINESE COOLIES AT WORK BEHIND THE BRITISH LINES 



British Official 



Prime Minister of all Greece, which he 
took into the war against the Central 
Powers on July 2. No longer was the 
Greek army a threat against the rear 
of the Allied forces at Saloniki. No 
important military operations, how- 
ever, occurred on this front until the 
next year. 

In Mesopotamia General Maude 
had been preparing to recover the 
ground lost by the surrender of Kut-el- 
Amara, but he did not move until his 
expedition was well equipped. In 
February Kut was taken and in March 
Bagdad was entered. Next Ramidiya 
and Samara were taken, and but for the 
demoralization of the Russians in 
Armenia the Turkish armies might 
have been destroyed. 

The British forces advancing from 
the Suez Canal crossed the Sinai 
Desert and entered Palestine. Under 



General Allenby, Beersheba and Gaza 
were taken. Advancing along the 
coast, Jaffa was taken, November 16, 
and then began 'the movement to 
encircle Jerusalem. The Turkish outer 
defenses were taken by storm, and on 
December 10, Jerusalem was sur- 
rendered. Turkish power and prestige, 
by the operations in Mesopotamia 
and Palestine, had suffered blows from 
which they could not recover. 

The war seemed to have become a 
question of endurance on which the 
side with the stronger nerves would 
win — the side which could hold out 
"the last quarter of an hour." Some 
of the nations on both sides had been 
shaken, or put out of the war. Would 
the strong members of the coalition 
be able to hold the wavering members 
in line? This was the question which 
191 8 was to answer. 



876 




Barges of the Commission in Rotterdam 



IP 

IB The Commission for Relief in Belgium 



Chapter LI 1 1 



STORY OF THE GREATEST WORK OF RELIEF 
SUCCESSFULLY ACCOMPLISHED 



By Vernon Kellogg 

Ex-Director, in Biussels, of the Commission for Relief in Belgiurn 



V/f ANY American missions and com- 
missions went to Europe during 
the war on many various errands. 
Most of them were formed after Amer- 
ica had broken with Germany, but a 
very important one began its work 
within three months after the Great 
War began. This was the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium, commonly re- 
ferred to by its members and the Bel- 
gians as the " C.R.B." Its existence as 
an organization and its work began in 
October, 1914, and continued until the 
signing of the treaty of peace in the 
summer of 1919. In that period of four 
and a half years of active effort it col- 
lected by donation and purchase and 
transported overseas and through Hol- 
land into Belgium and North France 
nearly five million tons of foodstuffs 
and clothing of a value of about seven 
hundred million dollars. 

THE AMERICAN COMMISSION FOR RELIEF 
IN BELGIUM. 

For the proper protection and equit- 
able distribution of these supplies in- 
side the German-occupied territories 
of Belgium and North France, the 
C.R.B. was solely responsible from 
November, 191 4 until April, 191 7, at 
which time America entered the war 
and Americans were no longer allowed 
to remain. This responsibility then 



devolved upon a joint Dutch-Spanish 
Commission, although all of the hand- 
ling of funds, and the purchase and 
transportation of the supplies, both 
overseas and through Holland up to the 
Belgian border, were still carried on by 
the American Commission. 

The actual detailed distribution of 
the supplies to the nearly ten million 
shut-in people was effected under the 
constant supervision of the American 
volunteers of the C.R.B. by about 
thirty-five thousand French and Bel- 
gian relief workers, thoroughly organ- 
ized into national, provincial, and local 
committees. The American volunteers 
within the occupied territories were 
never more than forty-five at any one 
time — the German military authorities 
made constant objection to having 
more than twenty-five or thirty — but 
about two hundred were used alto- 
gether during the period of the Com- 
mission's work. 

ONLY ONE-SIXTH OF THE BELGIAN POP- 
ULATION AGRICULTURAL. 

What made the "relief of Belgium" 
necessary, and necessary so soon after 
the beginning of the war? Belgium is 
not, as the United States is, self-sustain- 
ing as to food. Except for tea, coffee, 
and spices, and a part of its sugar, 
America produces within its borders 

877 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



all of the food It really needs to keep 
its people alive and even comfortably 
alive. Of the more important staples, 
such as bread-grains, meat, milk, and 
fats, it produces a surplus. If an 
enemy could completely blockade it, it 
could go on living indefinitely. 

But Belgium could not; nor could 
England and France and Italy. Bel- 
gium is not primarily an agricultural 
country, despite the fact that what 
agriculture it does have "is the most 
intensive and highly developed in 
Europe. Only one-sixth of its people 
support themselves by agriculture. It 
is, indeed, the most highly industrialized 
and densely populated country in Eu- 
rope, depending upon importations for 
fifty per cent of its annual general food 
needs and for seventy-five per cent of 
its needed bread-grains. These food 
importations must go on constantly, 
as must corresponding exportations of 
manufactured articles to pay for them. 

BELGIUM EFFECTIVELY BLOCKADED 
FROM THE BEGINNING. 

But Belgium was, from the begin- 
ning of the war, effectively blockaded. 
It was shut up within a "ring of steel " 
through which no persons or supplies 
could pass in or out except under extra- 
ordinary circumstances, such as a 
special permission from both Germans 
and Allies, or a daring and almost im- 
possible blockade-running. Within ten 
weeks after the entrance into its coun- 
try of the first invading Germans on 
August 4, 1 914, all of Belgium, except 
that forever famous little northwestern 
corner, was in the hands of the enemy. 
For all practical purposes it was Ger- 
man territory. So the Allied blockade 
of Germany necessarily included Bel- 
gium; while, on the other hand, the 
German occupying authorities natur- 
ally cut off all communication between 
the Belgians and their friends, the out- 
side Allies. The result was that by the 
first of October the Belgians saw clearly 
the near end of their meagre food 
stocks and the swiftly approaching 
spectre of starvation. Some relief had 
to be provided, and provided quickly. 
That relief came by the rapid organiza- 
tion and strenuous efforts of the Com- 
mission for Relief in Belgium. 

878 



The first efforts to avert, or at least 
postpone the impending disaster, were 
made by the Belgians themselves. All 
transportation and communication in- 
side of the country was paralyzed by 
the rapid spread of the invaders and 
the rigorously repressive and destruc- 
tive measures adopted by them. Even 
the food existing in the country, where 
not already seized by the invading 
armies, could not be moved from the 
producing and storage centres to the 
consumers in the congested manufac- 
turing and mining centres and to the 
large cities, without special effort and 
arrangement. 

PRICES FIXED BY ROYAL DECREE IN 
BELGIUM. 

It was evident, too, that special meas- 
ures were needed to conserve the 
native food stocks and make them last 
as long as possible, and to prevent un- 
fair handling of them and insure their 
equitable distribution to the people. 
In all the larger cities, therefore, meas- 
ures were taken to these ends. In the 
very first days of August, even before 
the Germans had entered Brussels, 
Burgomaster Max of- that city had 
decided to have the city acquire stocks 
of foodstuffs to be held in reserve 
against the coming need. On August 
14, King Albert issued from the Bel- 
gian Great Headquarters a decree fix- 
ing maximum prices at which various 
staple foodstuffs, such as flour, bread, 
potatoes, salt, sugar, and rice, could 
be sold, and giving the governors in 
their provinces and the burgomasters 
in their communes the right to requisi- 
tion, for the public benefit, wheat and 
flour, and potatoes, salt, sugar, and 
rice. 

But it was soon realized that the 
situation could only be met by more 
extended measures. For it became 
apparent that the French and English 
would not be able to come to the rescue 
of Belgium and drive the Germans 
quickly out of the country, as had 
been fondly hoped and confidently 
expected. Indeed, it was the Allied 
armies that were being driven not only 
out of Belgium but farther and farther 
back in France. It was necessary to 
undertake measures, if possible, to pro- 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



vide for an introduction of food from 
outside sources. 

THE FIRST ORGANIZATION FOR RELIEF 
OF THE BELGIANS. 

It was necessary to have recourse to 
some powerful neutral help. Belgium, 
and particularly Brussels, has always 
had its American colony. And it was 
to these Americans that Belgium 
turned for help. Many members of the 
colony left as soon as they could, but 
some, headed by Minister Brand Whit- 
lock, remained. When the Belgian 
government left Brussels for Antwerp, 
and later for Le Havre, part of the 
diplomatic corps followed it but a 
smaller part stayed in Brussels to oc- 
cupy a most peculiar position for the 
rest of the war. Mr. Whitlock elected 
to stay. It was a fortunate election for 
the Belgians. 

When the American expatriates in 
Belgium who wished to leave applied 
to Minister Whitlock for help, he 
called to his assistance certain Amer- 
ican engineers and business men then 
resident in Brussels, notably Messrs. 
Daniel Heineman, Millard Shaler, and 
William Hulse. He had also the very 
effective help of his First Secretary of 
Legation, Mr. Hugh Gibson, later 
Minister to Poland. These men were 
able to arrange the financial difficulties 
of the fleeing Americans despite closed 
banks, disappearing currency, and gen- 
eral financial paralysis. When this 
was finished they readily turned to the 
work of helping the Belgians. 

THE FIRST ATTEMPTS TO GET FOOD FROM 
OUTSIDE. 

Their first effort, in cooperation with 
the burgomaster of Brussels and a 
group of Brussels business men, was 
the formation of a Central Committee 
of Assistance and Provisioning under 
the patronage of the ministers of the 
United States and Spain (Mr. Whit- 
lock and the Marques de Villalobar). 
The field of this committee was at first 
limited to Brussels and the communes 
immediately adjacent to it. But it 
was soon enlarged, and the committee 
correspondingly reorganized to cover 
the whole country. Finding that the 
shifting about over the land of the 
rapidly disappearing food stocks of 



the country and the special assistance 
of the destitute and out of work must 
give way to a more radical relief, since 
the destruction of factories, the cessa- 
tion of the incoming of raw materials 
and the export of manufactures had 
already thrown thousands of men out of 
employment, this committee resolved 
to approach the Germans for permis- 
sion to attempt to bring in food supplies 
from outside the country. 




HERBERT HOOVER 

Mr. Herbert C. Hoover a distinguished mining engineer, 
residing in London when he organized the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium. 

Copyright, Underwood & Underwood. 

Burgomaster Max wrote on Septem- 
ber 7 to Major General Liittwitz, the 
German military governor of Brussels, 
requesting permission to arrange for 
the import of foodstuffs through the 
Holland-Belgium border. The city 
authorities of Charleroi also began 
negotiations with the German authori- 
ties in their province (Hainaut) to the 
same end, but little attention was paid 
to these requests. Therefore, the 
Americans of the committee decided, 
as neutrals, to take up personally with 
the German military authorities the 
matter of arranging imports. 

879 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



PERMISSION TO IMPORT FOOD IS FINALLY 
OBTAINED. 

A general permission for the importa- 
tion of foodstuffs into Belgium by way 
of the Dutch frontier was finally ob- 
tained from the German authorities, 
together with their guarantee that all 
such imported food would be entirely 
free from requisition by the German 
army. Also, a special permission was 
accorded to Mr. Shaler to go to Hol- 
land, and, if necessary, to England to 
try to arrange for obtaining and trans- 
porting to Belgium certain kinds and 
quantities of foodstuffs. But no money 
could be sent out of Belgium to pay for 
them, except a first small amount which 
Mr. Shaler was allowed to take with 
him. 

In Holland, Mr. Shaler found the 
Dutch government quite willing to 
allow foodstuffs to pass through Hol- 
land for Belgium, but it asked him to 
try and arrange to find the supplies in 
England. Holland already saw that 
she would need to hold all of her food 
for her own people. So Mr. Shaler 
went on to England. 

MR. HERBERT HOOVER BECOMES IN- 
TERESTED IN THE PROBLEM. 

Here he tried to interest influential 
Americans in Belgium's great need and, 
through Mr. Edgar Rickard, an Amer- 
ican engineer, he was introduced to Mr. 
Herbert Hoover, then the leading 
American engineer in London, who 
lent a sympathetic ear to the story of 
the situation in the heroic but despair- 
ing land across the Channel. This 
sympathetic listening meant for Mr. 
Hoover the almost complete surrender 
of all his personal interests for his now 
famous four and a half years of suc- 
cessful endeavor to save Belgium from 
starvation. It meant the organization 
and enormous undertaking of the Com- 
mission for Relief in Belgium. 

Mr. Hoover was already conspicuous 
in relief work, as he had been the or- 
ganizer and head of a special organiza- 
tion called the American Relief Com- 
mittee, created in London for the pur- 
pose of assisting and repatriating the 
150,000 American citizens who found 
themselves stranded in Europe at the 
outbreak of the war. His sympathetic 

880 



and successful work in looking after 
the needs of these stranded Americans 
recommended him as the logical head 
for the new and greater philanthropic 
undertaking. He was asked, therefore, 
by Ambassador Page and the Belgian 
authorities to organize and begin im- 
mediately the work of the Commission. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMISSION 
FOR RELIEF IN BELGIUM. 

This was far from being a simple 
task; an account of the diplomatic 
negotiations alone would require more 
pages than those which can be given 
to this whole article. In addition there 
were the arrangements for financing 
the work, for the sufficient and safe 
transportation overseas and through 
Holland, for cooperation with the in- 
ternal Belgian relief committees, and 
for the full protection from German 
seizure or interference of the food In- 
side the occupied territory. The prin- 
cipM things quickly effected by Mr. 
Hoover and his associates, however, 
may be summed up as follows: first, a 
formal organization of the Commission 
as a strictly neutral body, under the 
chairmanship of Mr. Hoover and the 
patronage of the American, Spanish, 
and Dutch ministers in Brussels, the 
American minister in the Hague, and the 
American, Spanish, and Dutch am- 
bassadors in London and Berlin, with 
offices in New York, London, Rotter- 
dam, and Brussels, staffed by Amer- 
icans; second, formal permission by 
the Allied and German governments for 
the continuing importation of large 
quantities of foodstuffs and clothing 
from England, America, and elsewhere 
through Holland into Belgium, with 
guarantees of unmolested passage over 
the sea of the food ships of the Com- 
mission displaying the Commission's 
special flag and markings; third, guar- 
antees of the non-requisitioning of any 
of these supplies by the Germans; 
fourth, a regular monthly subvention 
from the English and French govern- 
ments to pay for part of the supplies 
(these subventions were made entirely 
by the United States government after 
it came into the war) ; for the rest of 
the money needed, namely, that for the 
purely benevolent supplying of the 



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PACKING SHOES FOR BELGIUM IN THE COMMISSION WAREHOUSE 
Belgium produces little leather and when imports were cut off there was great need of foot wear of all sizes. The 
Commission asked for both new and partly worn shoes. The donations were sent to the Commission warehouses 
in Newark and carefully examined. Those which could do any service were packed and sent across the ocean. 




PACKING CLOTHING IN THE WAREHOUSE AT NEWARK 
The request for clothing for the Belgians brought ready response, and hundreds of thousands of excellent garments 
were sent, many practically as good as new. Some thoughtless people, however, sent evening dresses and various 
items of discarded finery which were worse than useless. The garments were examined and sorted in the ware- 
house at Newark and those of any value were carefully packed. 

All pictures by Courtesy of Commission for Relief in Belgium. 

88i 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



destitute Belgians with sufficient food 
to keep them alive, the Commission 
was to appeal to the charity of the 
world. 

THE COMMISSION GRADUALLY ASSUMED 
CERTAIN DIPLOMATIC FUNCTIONS. 

All these required diplomatic dis- 
cussion and action, which continued 
through the four years and a half of 
the Commission's work, and a constant 



ted in our expectations — a major crisis 
once a month and a minor crisis once a 
week. 

As the work progressed the attitude 
of the Allied governments became more 
and more clear-cut as to the guaran- 
tees they demanded that the Commis- 
sion should secure from the German 
government. As there could be no 
diplomatic negotiations between the 




l^gH 




THE ROTTERDAM OFFICE OF THE COMMISSION 
The offices of the Commission in Rotterdam were in this building. It soon outgrew these rather narrow quarters, 
and some temporary buildings were constructed to house the overflow. To this modest building came letters, 
telegrams, and documents from every part of the world. The Commission was in one aspect of its work an immense 
trading corporation. 

warring countries, the necessities of the 
case compelled the Commission to be 
the diplomatic go-between, and it be- 
came practically, although not nom- 
inally, endowed with a certain diploma- 
tic standing of its own. • The "pass- 
ports," or personal certificates carried 
by its members, had a large validity 
at borders and inside of Belgium, Hol- 
land, England, and France. 

THE ALLIED GOVERNMENTS REQUIRE 
CERTAIN GUARANTEES. 

The Special pressure of the Allied 
governments on the Commission grew 
out of the attitude of the British 
Admiralty. The Admiralty was doing 



readjustment and wise handling of fin- 
ancial matters made necessary by the 
ever-increasing cost of food and trans- 
portation and the increasing need of the 
Belgians, to whose numbers were added 
early in 191 5, all the people in occupied 
Northern France. The Commission 
had also constant difficulty in its rela- 
tions with the German military and 
quasi-civil authorities In Belgium and 
France. Indeed, there was never a 
moment in the whole history of the 
Commission when it had not to face 
pressing and serious problems and diffi- 
culties connected with its work. We 
expected — and were rarely disappoin- 
882 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



its best to make more and more effec- 
tive its blockade of Germany. It 
demanded that not only should the 
Commission have guarantees, and see 
that they were lived up to, that the 
Germans would take none of the im- 
ported supplies, but that none of the 
native grown crops of Belgium should 
)e seized by the Germans either to be 



duced in the occupied territory, this to 
be replaced by the food imported by 
the Commission. During the period 
of the actual invasion, and for some 
time after it, the Germans seized all 
the food in Belgium and Northern 
France that they could find, both for 
use of their armies and also to send into 
Germany. 




ONE OF THE EARLY RELIEF SHIPS ENTERING PORT 
The Hannah first crossed in December, 1914, carrying a load of flour contributed largely by the millers of Kansas. 
Note the pennants, the long banner with red letters' along the side and the flag mentioned in the text. The 
striped balls on the masts were introduced later as the danger from air-craft was not yet important. 



sent into Germany for its civilians or 
to be used by the German forces in 
the occupied territories. It was bad 
enough, said the Admiralty, that the 
Germans should be relieved of the re- 
sponsibility of feeding the Belgians and 
French in the occupied territory — a 
responsibility, by the way, which the 
Germans would under no circumstances 
have assumed; they repeatedly de- 
clared that the shut-in people would be 
allowed to starve unless the English 
would break the blockade and allow 
the Belgians and French to freely im- 
port food — but it was impossible that 
the Germans should be allowed to use 
all or even any part of the food pro- 



Near the end of January, 1915, there- 
fore, Mr. Hoover was summoned to a 
meeting with Mr. Lloyd George, then 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and other 
British government officials, and told 
that the work of the Commission could 
not go on unless additional guarantees 
were obtained from the German govern- 
ment assigning to the exclusive use of 
the Belgians all the grain and meat 
produced in the occupied territory. 
After a great struggle the Germans fin- 
ally gave, in July, the required guaran- 
tees. It then became the duty of the 
Commission and its protecting minis- 
ters in Belgium to see that these guar- 
antees were lived up to. It was not 

883 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



easy to hold the Germans to their 
agreement, for although the chief 
authorities took a correct attitude and 
issued the proper orders, there were 
constant infractions by lesser officials 
and small groups of soldiers. On the 
whole, however, it can be said truth- 
fully that practically none of the im- 
ported food, from the beginning, and 
but a very small fraction of the native 
food, after July 1915, fell into the 
hands of the Germans. 

A GERMAN GROUP ALWAYS OPPOSED THE 
COMMISSION. 

But if there was an element in Eng- 
land that always more or less strongly 
opposed the work of the Commission, 
there was an even stronger group in 
Germany that was always trying to 
drive the Commission out of Belgium. 
This group was led by zu Reventlow, 
the chief of the German jingoes, whose 
constant cry was: "Kick these Amer- 
ican spies out; we have in our hands 
ten million French and Belgian host- 
ages; say to the Allied governments 
that these people may eat what food 
they now have on hand, but that after 
it is gone they shall not have a morsel 
unless the blockade is broken and 
French, Belgians, and Germans alike 
are allowed to import food from over- 
seas." 

This effort of zu Reventlow and his 
brother jingoes came to a head in Aug- 
ust, 191 6. On August 3 a great con- 
ference was called in Berlin to discuss 
the whole matter of the relief work in 
Belgium and Northern France. It was 
attended by representatives of the Gen- 
eral Staff, Governor General von Bis- 
sing's German government in Belgium, 
the Foreign Office, the Minister of the 
Interior, and other government depart- 
ments especially interested in the mat- 
ter. 

THE GERMAN FOES OF THE COMMISSION 
ARE DEFEATED. 

The Commission had just before this 
been attempting to get the German 
authorities in Belgium and North 
France to permit it to buy and import 
from Holland certain special foods, 
especially fats and dairy products, 
which were badly needed to keep the 
children in the occupied territory alive 

884 



and in growing condition. They were 
already showing, by a wide-spread re- 
tardation in growth and development, 
the serious effects of having to live on 
war bread, dried foods, and an insuffi- 
ciency of protein and special foods 
adapted to their powers of digestion. 
As no satisfaction in regard to this 
request had been obtained from the 
local German authorities, Mr. Hoover 
and I went to Berlin to carry personally 
the Commission's request to the Imper- 
ial Government. 

We arrived in Berlin just as the great 
conference, which had been called to 
settle the fate of all the relief work was 
meeting. We were not, of course, 
allowed to attend it but we could work 
on the outside. The final decision was 
reached, after bitter debate and a first 
victory for the jingoes, to allow the 
Commission's work to go on. We were 
able, also, to get a reluctant agreement 
for the importation from Holland of a 
certain amount of additional food, 
especially for the 600,000 suffering 
children of North France. 

Two DISTINCT PHASES OF THE COMMIS- 
SION'S WORK. 

I could go on, for many pages, with 
illustrations of the constant effort 
which had to be made by the C.R.B. to 
maintain its humanitarian work. I 
must try now to explain some of the 
methods and details of the actual feed- 
ing of the ten million imprisoned peo- 
ple. Before the food could be distri- 
buted to the people in Belgium and 
North France, it had to be found, 
bought or obtained by gift, and trans- 
ported from points all over the world, 
for the Commission went into the prim- 
ary markets of the world for all the 
principal kinds of food it imported. 
And before it could be bought and 
transported, money had to be obtained. 

I have already spoken of the govern- 
ment subventions made by France, 
England, and America. These were 
nominally in the form of loans to the 
Belgian government, but were all put 
directly in the hands of the Commis- 
sion, and expended solely by it and 
under its exclusive responsibility. This 
money was primarily for the provision- 
ing of the people in Belgium and Nor- 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



thern France who could pay, in local 
money, for it. This local money could 
not be sent out of the occupied terri- 
tory and therefore could not be used 
by the Commission for outside pur- 
chases. It practically served as a sort 
of obligation from these people to the 
Belgian government. But there were 
many persons out of work and desti- 
tute who had to be fed on a strictly 



with it unless the wheat or flour were 
being brought into the country. Then, 
second, and more in* correspondence 
with our general understanding of "re- 
lief," was the work of providing secours 
directly by charity for the large and 
ever-increasing number of the actually 
destitute, who not only had to have 
the flour brought in but actually given 
to them. 




ONE OF THE SOUP LINES IN BRUSSELS 

This former dance hall in the Rue Blaes was transformed into a cantine, to which the hungry came to be fed. 
There were twenty-one of these in Brussels alone and fifty thousand people of that city depended upon them 
for their daily food. Similar sights could be seen in every town or village in Belgium. 



charity basis. There were, indeed, all 
the time, two fairly distinct phases of 
the Commission's work which should 
be kept clearly in mind in any consid- 
eration of the "relief of Belgium." 
First, there was the continuing ravi- 
taillement of the whole country, or 
bringing in of certain food staples, as 
flour (or wheat), dried peas and beans, 
lard and bacon, etc., in quantities 
which, added to the limited native pro- 
duction would provide a minimum liv- 
ing ration of these necessary staples 
for everybody. No matter how much 
money, in Belgium, baron this or ban- 
ker that had, he could get no bread 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE UNITED 
STATES GIVE MOST. 

In addition to having money for the 
general ravitaillement of the country, 
which might, however, be paid back 
some day, it was necessary to have 
money to be spent for food to be given 
away. It was for this, the secours side 
of the Commission's undertaking, that 
it appealed to the charity of the world. 
Practically all of this charity came 
from America and the British Empire, 
although there were gifts of some im- 
portance from half a dozen other coun- 
tries. The total amount of money, 
food, and clothing thus received was 

885 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of the value of approximately fifty 
million dollars. This does not include 
the large gifts made inside of Belgium 
itself by municipalities, societies, and 
private individuals. Of these the Com- 
mission has no record, but they were 
many hundred million francs. 

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE DIFFERENT 
COUNTRIES COMPARED. 

The first public appeals made in 
October, 1914, by Mr. Hoover on 
account of the newly organized Com- 
mission, and by Minister Whitlock 
through President Wilson, resulted in 
the swift organization of Belgian relief 
committees all over America. Similar 
public appeals made in England and 
throughout the British Empire resulted 
in similar activity. The various Brit- 
ish appeals were all consolidated in 
April, 1915, by the formation of a single 
great benevolent organization called 
the "National Committee for Relief in 
Belgium," with the Lord Mayor of 
London as active Chairman. This 
Committee conducted an impressive 
continuous campaign of propaganda 
and solicitation of funds, not only in 
the United Kingdom but, through affil- 
iated organizations, in Canada, Aus- 
tralia, and New Zealand, with the^ 
result of obtaining about $16,000,000 
with which to purchase food and cloth- 
ing for the Belgian destitute. The over- 
seas dominions did quite as well, in 
proportion to their population, in the 
race for giving as the English people at 
home, who were so much nearer the 
sights and sounds of Belgian distress. 
In fact, the "record" of all giving to 
Belgian relief is held by New Zealand, 
which from its population of 1,160,000 
sent $2,655,000, or a per capita average 
of $2.29. Australia's charity amounted 
to $1.34 per capita, Canada's 22 cents, 
and the United Kingdom's 9 cents. 
Contributions from the United States, 
as a whole, amounted to a little over 10 
cents per capita, although the average 
for certain states or groups of states 
was much larger. California, for exam- 
ple, gave over 30 cents per capita. 

THE AMERICAN COMMITTEE AT FIRST 
ASKS FOR FOOD AND CLOTHING. 

In the United States the C.R.B. 
directly managed the campaign for 
886 



charity, using its New York office as 
organizing and receiving headquarters. 
The work was carried on partly by 
definitely organized state committees 
in thirty-seven states, and by scatter- 
ing local committees in the others. 
Many of the state committees organ- 
ized local committees in almost every 
county and city in their states. Ohio, 
for example, had some form of local 
organization in eighty out of the eighty- 
eight counties in the state, and Cali- 
fornia had ninety local county and city 
committees all reporting to the state 
committee. 

The American campaign for help for 
the Belgians was different from the 
English one, in that in England and 
the British dominions the appeal was 
made almost exclusively for money 
with which to buy food, while in the 
United States the call was made, at 
first, chiefly for outright gifts of food, 
the Commission offering to serve, in 
connection with this American bene- 
volence, as a great collecting, trans- 
porting and distributing agency. This 
resulted in the accumulation of large 
quantities of foodstuffs of many kinds, 
much of it in small packages. Tens of 
thousands of these packages were sent 
over to Belgium, but the cry came back 
from the Commission's workers there 
that food in this shape was very diffi- 
cult to handle in any systematic way. 
It was already evident that consign- 
ments in bulk of a few kinds of staple 
and concentrated foods were needed. 
These could be shipped in considerable 
lots to the various principal distribu- 
tion centres in Belgium, and thence in 
lesser lots to the secondary or local 
centres. There they were handed out 
on a definite ration plan. 

STATE AND ORGANIZATION FOOD SHIPS 
ARE SENT. 

Some of the states in America, and 
two or three large organizations, as the 
Rockefeller Foundation and a group of 
great millers in the Northwest, recog- 
nized from the very beginning the ad- 
vantage of pooling the individual gifts 
of food and of buying other food at 
wholesale, and in bulk, with the money 
contributed. So there began to cross 
the ocean as early as December, I9i4f 




UNLOADING A SHIP DIRECTLY INTO A BARGE 

Very often the ships were unloaded directly into great barges — some of 1000 tons — which were towed through the 
main canals into the interior of Belgium. Several of these barges were towed by one of the Commission's thirty- 
five tugs. Other barges are waiting to be loaded in order that they may start upon their journey. 



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UNLOADING A RELIEF SHIP AT ROTTERDAM 

The port of Rotterdam is fitted with every convenience for loading and unloading. The great crane on the right is 
swinging sixteen sacks of flour to the platform from which they will be taken by the men in the foreground. Another 
crane on the left is about to lift a similar load from the hold where another crew has placed it within the rope net. 
Often work went on all night. 

887 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



"state food ships" each loaded to 
capacity with the foodstuffs given out- 
right or bought with the money con- 
tributed by the citizens of the respec- 
tive states. For example, California 
and Kansas each sent such a food 
ship, in December. In January and 
March, 1915, two "Massachusetts Re- 
lief Ships," the Harpalyce (sunk by 
torpedo or mine on a later relief voy- 
age) and the Lynorta, sailed. Oregon 
and California together sent the Cran- 



gium, and the actual distribution of 
his own relief cargo. His good Samari- 
tan ship was sunk by a German sub- 
marine on her return trip but for- 
tunately the philanthropist was not on 
her. 

OTHER FUNDS RAISED BY VARIOUS 
GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In the light of these early experiences 
the Commission soon changed the form 
of its appeals and asked that gifts be 
made chiefly in money to be expended 




AFTER THE CHRISTMAS SHIP HAD COME 
A charity which appealed to many was the "Christmas ship" loaded not with the bare necessities of life, but with 
toys and other trifles, calculated to bring joy to the hearts of children. The great majority of the Belgian children 
have missed most of the joys of childhood during these hard years of German occupation of their country. 

ley in January, 1915, loaded with food 
and clothing. And several other simi- 
lar state ships were sent at later dates. 

The Rockefeller Foundation's gift of 
a million dollars was used to load 
wholly or in part five relief ships, and 
the ''Millers' Belgian Relief" move- 
ment, organized and carried through 
by the editor of the Northwestern Mil- 
ler, Mr. W. C. Edgar, resulted in the 
contribution of a full cargo of flour 
valued at over $450,000 which left 
Philadelphia for Rotterdam in Feb- 
ruary, 191 5, in the steamer South 
Point. The cargo was accompanied 
by the organizer of the charity, who 
saw personally the working of the 
methods of the C.R.B. inside of Bel- 

888 



by the Commission itself for staple 
foods in wholesale lots in the primary 
markets of the world, with all the 
advantages in economy, selection of 
food most needed and convenience of 
ultimate distribution, which the con- 
stantly perfecting organization of the 
Commission made possible. Direct 
gifts of new and second-hand clothing, 
however, continued to be asked for and 
obtained in large quantities. 

Altogether the American gifts of 
food, clothing and money for Belgian 
relief reached a total value of about 
$30,000,000. Apart from the amounts 
contributed by the various states under 
the stimulus of the work of the organ- 
ized state and local committees, certain 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



notable special gifts may be briefly 
mentioned. The Rockefeller Founda- 
tion's early gift of a million dollars has 
already been referred to; later, some 
additional hundreds of thousands came 
from this source. The mining en- 
gineers of the country, as a special rec- 
ognition of the mining engineer at the 
head of the Commission, organized the 
"Belgian Kiddies, Ltd.," a corporation 



thousands of dollars from children and 
their parents all over the country. 

Other notable collections made for 
the general relief work were those of 
the American Daughters of the Revo- 
lution of $150,000, the Allied Bazaar of 
New York of $115,000, and other 
bazaars held in San Francisco, Chicago, 
and Boston. Besides, several large 
gifts, notably one of $210,000, another 




A CORNER OF A WAREHOUSE IN ROTTERDAM 

The Commission's immense warehouses in Rotterdam were busy places. They contained food of many varieties 
from all parts of the world, clothing, shoes and hundreds of other things. The German administration required 
that every garment be carefully examined and every scrap of written or printed matter be removed. Failure to 
observe this rule would have made trouble not only for the Commission but also for the innocent recipient. 



for the raising of money to feed 1 0,000 
Belgian children for one year. Their 
contribution was about a quarter of a 
million dollars. Other special funds 
collected and given especially for the 
feeding of children were one of about 
$70,000 from the New York Chamber 
of Commerce, the Cardinal Gibbons 
Fund of $77,000 from the Catholic 
children of America; the Dollar Christ- 
mas Fund of nearly $100,000, organized 
by Mr. Henry Clews, and finally the 
Literary Digest Fund of more than 
half a million dollars collected by the 
efforts of Mr. R. J. Cuddihy and the 
Literary Digest in sums from pennies to 



of $200,000, and several of $100,000, 
were received from individual donors 
of large means. 

SOME INTERESTING STORIES OF SACRIFICE 
AND DEVOTION. 

But the great majority of the gifts 
made to the Commission through state 
committees or through special fund or- 
ganizations, or directly to the New 
York office, were in small sums coming 
from millions of individuals. And it 
is a beautiful thing that it has been so. 
It would be interesting indeed to know 
just how many of the 105,000,000 in- 
habitants of the United States have 
contributed personally to Belgian relief. 

889 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



We can never know this with any ap- 
proach to accuracy, but we do know 
enough to say that the givers number 
several millions. 

Thousands of incidents, pathetic, 
inspiring, noble, connected with the 
giving, clamor for the telling. A num- 
ber of little girls in a charity home in 
Cooperstown, N.Y., sent $i each 
month. These little girls were reward- 
ed by a few pennies for any particular 
excellence in their tasks, making beds, 
sweeping, etc., and for months they 
gave enough pennies earned in this way 
to send this dollar for the children of 
Belgium. 

A little country school near Montara 
Lighthouse, on the Pacific Coast, gave 
its playtime to knitting woolen caps 
and mittens and mufflers, and then 
the school children brought pennies 
from their little banks, and jars of fruit 
and jam, and the girl school teacher put 
them all, pennies, jam, and mittens, 
into her one-horse buggy and drove 
forty miles through a storm to convey 
these more-than-royal gifts to the Cali- 
fornia Committee's office in San Fran- 
cisco. 

A druggist in a small town in Indiana 
sent one dollar a week for more than 
two years; a country grocer sent, each 
week, a fixed percentage of his profits; 
a man without money, but with a gold 
watch left as a family heirloom, sent it 
in to be sold for the feeding of a Belgian 
family. 

PATHETIC AND AMUSING INCIDENTS IN 
THE DAY'S WORK. 

Over in Rotterdam and in Belgium, 
too, we had our glimpses of the inci- 
dents of giving. Three fascinating old- 
fashioned wedding dresses draped on 
forms stood for a long time just inside 
the entrance of the great Antwerp 
clothing ouvroir. These dresses were 
rescued by Mme. Osterrieth from the 
cases of used clothing that came from 
America. She did not let them go to 
the benches to be torn apart and made 
over, but kept them intact to speak 
their message of sympathy to everyone 
who saw them, and especially to the 
eight hundred saved women and girls 
who found employment in the ouvroir y 
in working over the masses of gift 

890 



clothing, new and old, that went to the 
share of Antwerp. 

In the pockets of many of the gar- 
ments sent over were found messages 
of sympathy and cheer. Other mes- 
sages admonished the finders to see in 
these gifts the hand of God, and to 
"get right with Him." In the pocket 
of a fancy waistcoat was a quarter, 
wrapped in a bit of paper, on which 
was written: "Have a drink with me. 
Good luck!" In many of the parcels 
were English Bibles, the good souls who 
sent them not realizing that few Bel- 
gians can read English. In fact, the 
enclosing of messages and books caused 
us much trouble, for the Germans 
allowed no scrap of paper, printed or 
written, to enter Belgium uncensored. 
We later had to unpack all the clothing 
in Rotterdam and go through it care- 
fully to remove all notes and books. 

Volumes would not contain all the 
incidents, but a page of the incidents 
speaks volumes. Tears and smiles and 
heart thrills and thanksgiving for the 
revelation of the human love of human- 
ity in these terrible days of a depress- 
ing pessimism. The giving was so 
worth while; worth while to Belgium, 
saved from starvation of the body; 
worth while to America, saved from 
starvation of the soul. 

THE SOURCE OF SUPPLIES FOR BELGIAN 
RELIEF. 

Practically all of the food for im- 
prisoned Belgium and North France 
was transported across the ocean, some 
of it even across oceans. Rice from 
Rangoon, corn from Argentina, beans 
from Manchuria, wheat and meat and 
fats from America; and all, with the 
other things of the regular programme, 
such as sugar, condensed milk, coffee 
and cocoa, salt, salad oil, yeast, dried 
fish, etc., in great quantities, were 
brought across wide oceans, through the 
dangerous mine-strewn Channel, and 
landed safely and regularly in Rotter- 
dam, to be there speedily transferred 
from ocean vessels into canal boats 
and urged on into Belgium and 
Northern France, and from these taken 
again by railroad cars and horse-drawn 
carts to the communal warehouses and 
soup kitchens; and always and ever, 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



through all the months, to get there 
in time — these were the buying and 
transporting and distributing prob- 
lems of the Commission. One hundred 
thousand tons a month from the world 
over in great shiploads to Rotterdam; 
one hundred thousand tons a month 
thence in ever more and more divided 
quantities to the province and district 
storehouses, to the regional storehouses 



a house flag 12 by 15 feet; a pair of 
deck cloths, 12 by 50 feet, stretched 
across the deck face' up, one forward 
and one aft; and two huge red- and 
white-striped signal' balls, eight feet in 
diameter, attached at the tops of two 
masts. The balls and fiat deck cloths 
were for the benefit of airplane pilots; 
the side cloths, pennants, and house 
flag were for sea raiders and sub- 




DIVIDING THE LOAD OF A LARGE BARGE 
Much grain was shipped loose, and was transferred to canal boats and barges by means of a grain elevator. Here 
we see a floating elevator which is sucking up the grain from a large boat and pouring it into one of the smaller 
barges which will go to some remote village along one of the smaller canals. This was ground at one of the mills 
controlled by the Commission. 

and mills, to the communal centres, 
and finally to the mouths of the people. 



And all to be done speedily, regularly, 
and with the utmost economy; that 
was the Commission's "job," in which 
it must not fail. 

How THE BELGIAN RELIEF SHIPS WERE 
MARKED. 

The C.R.B. overseas ships, of which 
a fleet of about seventy were under 
charter, crossed the ocean under their 
own special flag and markings. Each 
ship carried a pair of great cloth ban- 
ners, 9 by 100 feet, stretching along the 
hull on each side; also two 50-foot 
pennants flying from the mast head; 



marines. All the flags and cloths were 
white, with the Commission's name 
or initials (C.R.B.) in great red letters 
on them. 

Of the seven hundred and forty full 
ship cargoes and fifteen hundred part 
cargoes of relief food and clothing trans- 
ported across the sea during the long 
period of the Commission's labors not 
more than twenty were totally or par- 
tially lost at sea. Most of the losses 
came from mines, a few from torpe- 
does fired by German submarines whose 
commanders either did not or would 
not recognize the C.R.B. markings 
displayed by the ships. 

891 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ROTTERDAM ALWAYS A SCENE OF GREAT 
ACTIVITY. 

Once in Rotterdam, the arrived ship 
became the centre of extreme activity. 
Time was the essence of all the Belgian 
relief work. Too often difficulties of 
overseas transportation meant delays 
in the arrival of the ships and these 
delays had to be offset as much as pos- 
sible by speed in unloading and trans- 
shipping the cargoes at Rotterdam into 
the canal boats by which all the food 
was carried through Holland and into 
Belgium and into North France. The 
Commission had in continuous service 
a fleet of thirty-five tugs and nearly 
five hundred canal boats and barges 
of from 150 to 1000 tons capacity, 
most of them of 200 to 500 tons. 

The Commission's Rotterdam staff 
made records in that famous harbor; 
no such speed of handling had been 
known there in good old Dutch days. 
Sometimes four or five ships would 
arrive at once ; on June 1,1916,31,342 
tons of Commission foodstuffs arrived. 
On a single day in October 1916, 19,557 
tons of foodstuffs were started off for 
Belgium in the canal boats; this meant 
getting away nearly sixty loaded boats 
in one day. 

THE CARGOES ARE FIRST LOADED IN 
STRINGS OF CANAL BOATS. 

When loaded and ready for their 
journey the boats were arranged at 
Rotterdam in strings for towing. This 
towage was done chiefly by tugs under 
charter to the Commission. On certain 
canals, however, only horse or man 
towage was allowed, and as the Ger- 
mans were constantly sweeping the 
country of horses, the pulling of the 
boats on these canals was done chiefly 
by men. From Rotterdam, then, the 
strings of boats would start over their 
first or main routes; via the Ghent 
Canal for Ghent, Bruges, Courtrai, 
Western Hainaut, Lille, and Valen- 
ciennes; via the Antwerp Canal for 
Antwerp, Brussels, Louvain, or for 
trans-shipment at these points to rail 
for Luxemburg and Northern France 
(except Lille and Valenciennes) ; or 
via the Li^ge Canal for Hasselt, Lidge, 
Namur and Eastern Hainaut. The 
shortest distance for any of the boats 

892 



to travel from Rotterdam was that to 
Antwerp, about 88 miles; the longest, 
that to La Louviere, about 235 miles. 
Each canal boat flew a large flag 
marked "Commission for Relief in Bel- 
gium," and its skipper was provided 
with a special pass issued by the Ger- 
man consulate in Rotterdam providing 
for the unmolested passage of the boat 
and cargo to its Belgian or French 
destination. The hold of each boat was 
closed and sealed and the cargo con- 
signed to the American representative 
of the Commission stationed at destina- 
tion. On arrival of the boat he ex- 
amined the seals carefully to see that 
they had not been tampered with, then 
broke them, and checked off the cargo 
against bills of lading that had been 
sent ahead by military post, duplicates 
having also gone to the C.R.B. head 
office at Brussels and also being retained 
in Rotterdam. Every precaution was 
t^ken against seizure or robbery of the 
cargo while under way. The Amer- 
icans were not allowed to accompany 
the boats, but otherwise they were 
allowed to control the boats and car- 
goes in every way their ingenuity could 
suggest. They could meet them at al- 
most every point on their journey, 
and inspect them. In the Brussels 
office a large chart indicated the posi- 
tion every day of every moving boat. 

DIFFICULTIES ARISING IN THE USE OF 
THE RAILWAYS. 

But as abundant and widely rami- 
fying as are the canals of Belgium they 
do not reach every town, and use had 
to be made of the railroads. The rail- 
ways of Belgium are of two types: 
first, the regular standard gauge type, 
with heavy rails, and second, an inter- 
esting type of narrow gauge roads, with 
very light rails and ties, that wander 
over the land as if they were following 
cattle trails, and connect almost every 
small country village with the larger 
towns on the main railroads. Of 
course, the Germans had entire control 
of all these railroads (as they had, for 
that matter, of the canals) and used 
them constantly for military purposes. 
They did not use the canals so much. 
The distribution of the food supplies 
by the Commission by rail, therefore, 



mSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



suffered much more interruption and 
delay than its distribution by the 
water ways, but by a constant struggle 
with the German authorities the neces- 
sary train movements were kept up. 

But even the extraordinarily elab- 
orate net-work of railways in Bel- 
gium does not reach every town and 
village, and so a certain amount of dis- 
tribution by horse-drawn carts had to 



warehouses being protected by formal 
orders of the Germaij Governor-Gen- 
eral, as indicated by large placards put 
on the buildings — there came next the 
task of getting the food td the actual 
mouths of the people. 

It is this part of the Commission's 
work which in the popular mind, both 
in Belgium and in America, was the 
principal part, and, indeed to many the 




ONE OF THE SHIPS WHICH MET A MINE 
About twenty cargoes of the Commission's supplies were wholly or partially lost at sea, on account of either mines 
or torpedoes. This is the ship, Eole, which struck a mine but nevertheless reached port. Some of the cargo is 
shown on the floor of the dry-dock, though of course it has been damaged by water. 



be relied upon. No automotive vehi- 
cles were permitted by the Germans 
to be used in Belgium except their own 
and a restricted number of passenger 
automobiles for the necessary move- 
ment of the American relief workers. 
It was only with the greatest difficulty 
that this cartage could be managed, as 
the Germans were constantly requisi- 
tioning the horses both for their army 
and to send into Germany for use there. 

THE FOOD FINALLY REACHES THE LOCAL 
WAREHOUSES. 

With the supplies finally distributed 
to the central and local warehouses all 
over the country — the stocks in these 



only work recognized. But none of it 
could have been done at all, that is, no 
food could have found its way to the 
mouths of the people without all of the 
elaborate arrangements, organization, 
and activities of the Commission out- 
side of Belgium. Nevertheless, it is the 
final actual distribution to the people, 
the protection of the food from the 
ever-possible German seizure, the sur- 
mounting of the difficulties of carrying 
on the work in a land of warfare and 
military control, the scientific ration- 
ing, the methods of special charity, and 
the close interweaving of the relief 
work with that of the Belgians them- 

893 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



selves that make the story of the Com- 
mission's work inside of Belgium the 
most interesting part of the whole 
account. 

THE PART OF THE BELGIANS IN THE RE- 
LIEF WORK. 

First, the relations of the Commission 
and its workers to the Belgian relief 
organization and the Belgian people 
must be explained. Although the Bel- 
gians could, do nothing to help in the 
outside part of the relief work they 
could and did take a very large part 
in the work inside the country. No 
less than twenty-five thousand Bel- 
gians were continuously connected 
with the enormous labor of the internal 
distribution of the food and clothing, 
and these workers were all bound to- 
gether and controlled by an elaborate 
nation-wide volunteer organization. At 
the base of this national relief organiza- 
tion were 3,000 communal committees, 
one for every commune in the land; 
above them was a group of regional 
committees representing groups of 
neighboring communes; above them 
the provincial committees, one for each 
Belgian province, and finally at the top 
of the whole organization a strong 
national committee, the Comite Na- 
tional, called C. N. for short, just as 
the American Commission was always 
called C.R.B. 

To define the special functions and 
position of each of the two parts of the 
combined relief organization and the 
general relations to be maintained 
between them, various formulations of 
agreement were drafted from time to 
time. The first written-out general 
scheme of organization bears date of 
December, 1914. Before that, had 
come an all-important meeting in Lon- 
don, in October, 1914, between Mr. 
Hoover and M. Francqui, the organiz- 
ing and directing heads of the two 
groups, at which a general agreement 
as to fundamentals was reached. 

In any complete history of the Com- 
mission's work these agreements with 
our Belgian co-workers must be fully 
given. No space for that is possible 
here. But certain essential points of 
the arrangements must be given in 
order that the important and delicate 

894 



position of the Americans working in 
Belgium can be in some measure under- 
stood. 

THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE BELGIANS 
AND THE COMMISSION. 

I quote from the "general scheme" 
of December, 1914, which was drafted 
chiefly to point out the position of the 
Commission's provincial representa- 
tives : 

"As the Comite National will control 
its work through ten sub-committees, 
or Comites Provinciaux, each covering 
a province of Belgium [one province, 
Brabant, is subdivided for purposes of 
food administration into two, one being 
Greater Brussels, and the other all of 
Brabant province outside of Brussels] 
and each having its own president and 
working organization, the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium proposes to sta- 
tion an authorized delegate (with one 
or more assistants) in each province, 
a{ the point where the principal office 
of the Comite Provincial, with its presi- 
dent, is located. The Comite National 
will also station a delegate or two dele- 
gates, as the case may require, at the 
same office, who will represent the cen- 
tral organization at Brussels. 

"The head delegate of the C.R.B., 
the delegate of the C. N., and the Presi- 
dent of the C. P. will form the three 
principals for the affairs of the relief 
work in the province. 

" But as it has been clearly stipulated 
that the grain or other merchandise in- 
troduced into Belgiurn by the C.R.B. 
is under the responsibility of their 
Excellencies the Ministers of the United 
States and of Spain, who are the pro- 
tectors of the Commission, it is essen- 
tial that the merchandise remain the 
property of the C.R.B. until the same 
is distributed to the communes. . . 
. . Therefore, in spite of the fact 
that the merchandise may be entrusted 
for handling to the Provincial Commit- 
tee . . . the delegate of the C.R.B. 
is still responsible for its safety until 
it is delivered to the communes." 

THE TASKS OF THE AMERICANS ENGAGED 
IN THE RELIEF WORK. 

As mentioned at the beginning of 
this account, the total number of Amer- 
icans representing the C.R.B. inside 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of Belgium was never more than forty- 
five at one time; the Germans con- 
stantly tried to make us get on with 
even a smaller number, putting twenty- 
five as a desirable maximum. From 
this small group there had to be 
manned the Brussels central office 
headed by the director for all of Bel- 
gium, and a smaller office in the capital 
of each province. These men in the 



in no way contravened the general prin- 
ciples and plans of 'the Commission 
regarding fair distribution ; they vised 
all directions of the Provincial Com- 
mittee as to milling, storage, distribu- 
tion, etc.; they checked up all ship- 
ments coming into their provinces to 
see that they corresponded as to weight, 
quantity, and character with the ad- 
vices from Rotterdam ; kept the Brus- 




A GROUP OF AMERICANS WORKING FOR THE COMMISSION 

This is a typical group of relief workers, though perhaps a little older than the average. It includes three men 
from New York, and one each from Massachusetts, Tennessee, Ohio and Virginia. Some were Rhodes Scholars, 
and others professional or business men, who gave up their own occupations to assist in the task of feeding Belgium. 

© Underwood & Underwood. 



province were known as provincial 
delegates, and were the ones who came 
into most intimate personal contact 
with the people, as they were con- 
stantly moving over their respective 
provinces visiting the regional and 
communal Belgian committees, the 
storehouses, kitchens, and soup-lines. 
The actual manual distribution of the 
supplies was done by the Belgian com- 
mittees with their thousands of helpers, 
but the American provincial delegates 
were responsible for the protection of 
the supplies from possible German 
seizure, and for seeing that all plans 
proposed by the Provincial Committee 



sels office informed constantly and in 
utmost detail of all receipts, move- 
ments, and distribution of supplies in 
each province; they took regular 
monthly inventories of all stocks on 
hand, made representation of all gen- 
eral and special needs of each region 
and people, saw to an efficient inspec- 
tion and control of the use and abuse 
of the food, even to the degree, if neces- 
sary, of using their power of absolute 
prohibition of movement of the food 
stocks under their control to correct 
abuses. 

These are the bald and meagre state- 
ments of the responsibility, duties, and 

895 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



activities of the American delegates in 
Belgium. But no statement could ever 
be drafted that would set out in full 
what their work and behavior were to 
be, what delicacies of situation were to 
be met, what discretion was to be exer- 
cised, what kind of extraordinary 
experience they were to meet and meet 
acceptably for the sake of maintenance 
of the lives of Belgian men, women, 
and children, and the honor of Ameri- 
can humanitarian achievement. 

PERSONALITY OF THE MEN ENGAGED IN 
THE WORK. 

Let US turn to some details of the 
work, to some of its difficulties, and 
some of its successes and satisfactions. 
But, first, just a few things concerning 
the personnel of the Commission. 

Who were these young — and a few 
older — Americans? How were they 
selected? What did their personality 
mean to the Belgians, and what did 
Belgium mean to them? 

The total roll of these men, succes- 
sive resident directors, assistant direc- 
tors, head delegates, assistants and all, 
makes a list of hardly two hundred. 
Other men of the Commission were 
busy; did as faithful and as important 
work in the Rotterdam, London, and 
New York offices; but it was the men 
privileged to work inside of Belgium 
and France who had the personal ex- 
periences they can tell to their wonden- 
ing children in future years; who lived 
something that already seems almost 
unreal, almost impossible. 

The few older men of the Commission 
— from among whom most of the direc- 
tors and executive officers of the New 
York, London, Brussels, and Rotter- 
dam officers were drawn, although some 
took their places among the younger 
men as province delegates — were suc- 
cessful engineers (Mr. Hoover drew his 
volunteers first of all from his en- 
gineer friends), half a dozen college 
professors, a lawyer of large practice, 
two clergymen of practical turn of 
mind, a well-known explorer and sports- 
man, a dietetic expert, an architect of 
high repute, a magazine editor, a fam- 
ous forester, a stockbroker, a consul, 
an expert in children's diseases; alto- 
gether a wholesome variety! 

896 



YOUNG COLLEGE MEN MAKE UP THE 
MAJORITY. 

But the majority of the men, es- 
pecially those who worked in Belgium 
and the occupied portion of France, 
were young men, representatives of an 
American type. They came from forty- 
five different American colleges and 
universities, more from Harvard than 
any other one. Twenty of them had 
been selected by their colleges and their 
states to be Rhodes Scholars in Oxford 
University. These twenty had been 
thus already selected on a basis of 
youthful scholarship, energy, general 
capacity, and good-fellowship. They 
had not, however, been selected on a 
ba^is of experience in business or — 
least of all — relief work. And the 
remainder of the two hundred were 
selected by us on about the same gen- 
eral grounds, adding the more special 
or)e of a usable, or buddingly usable, 
knowledge of the French language. 
Several could read German, a few speak 
it. That was also useful. But the 
Commission asked primarily for intelli- 
gence, character, youthful vigor, and 
enthusiasm, rather than specific attain- 
ments or experience as qualifications 
in the workers needed. 

Two things most of these men had 
that I have not mentioned. But they 
were two important things, namely 
idealism and a sense of humor; a sup- 
porting idealism and a saving sense of 
humor. Curtis, the first of our Brussels- 
Holland couriers, needed these qual- 
ities to stand his seventeen arrests by 
German sentries, and Warren his three 
days in a military prison at Antwerp, 
and yet keep unconcernedly on with 
their work. Curtis' sense of humor 
was fortunately well-matched by a 
German's — a single German's — when 
the young American, a little annoyed 
by an unusual number of stoppages on 
the road one day, handed his pass to 
the tenth man who demanded it with 
a swift, highly uncomplimentary per- 
sonal allusion to his tormentor, in pure 
Americanese. The sentry handed it 
back with a dry, "Much obliged, the 
same to you." He was probably a for- 
merly-of-Chicago reservist who knew 
the argot. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE DAILY RATIONS ISSUED TO THE BEL 
GIAN PEOPLE. 

The miscellaneous food was distri- 
buted from the communal warehouses 
and the bread from bakeries under com- 
plete control of the relief organization 
on a rationing system which provided 
for each head of a Belgian family or 
unattached individual having two ra- 



who had no money. The number 
dependent on outright charity natur- 
ally increased during the period of the 
occupation, until at the time of the 
withdrawal of the American workers in 
April, 191 7, 3,000,000 of the 7,300,000 
Belgians imprisoned in their country 
were receiving all or the greater part 
of their daily food on charity. 




THE MESSAGERm VAN GAND IN ANTWERP 

There was little traffic in or out of Antwerp, during the war, and this forwarding station was transformed into a 
great kitchen. Here soup for 50,000 destitute was made daily. The signs which indicated the destination of the 
goods in happier days still remain. 



tion cards, one for bread exclusively 
and the other for the various staples, 
as bacon, lard, rice, dried peas and 
beans, and condensed milk, imported 
by the C.R.B. Certain local supplies 
as potatoes and meat (when available 
at all) were also rationed, while mis- 
cellaneous vegetables and fruit were 
mostly left to the open markets after 
the communal committees had ac- 
quired what was necessary for the com- 
munal kitchen and soup-lines, which 
provided the destitute who otherwise 
could have obtained none of them. The 
ration cards limited the amounts that 
could be obtained of the rationed sup- 
plies, whether they were directly paid 
for by those who had money to buy 
them or received as charity by those 



The daily ration varied from time to 
time depending on the kinds and 
amounts of food available but it ran on 
the average about as follows: war 
bread (made from wheat milled in 
mills, entirely controlled by the relief 
organization, at from 80% to 97%, 
mixed with a varying percentage of 
corn-flour, rye-flour, barley-flour, and 
rice-flour), 12 ounces; bacon, trifle 
over I ounce; lard, about ^ ounce; 
rice, 2]/^ ounces; dried beans and peas, 
1% ounces; cerealine (crushed corn), 
1 3^ ounces; potatoes, io3/^ ounces; 
brown sugar, trifle over % ounce; con- 
densed milk, varying small amount. 
This ration is capable of producing 
about 2,000 utilizable calories (or ener- 
gy units). Physiologists agree that 

897 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



3,000 calories are desirable to keep a 
person engaged in light work in a good 
condition of health and strength. But 
most of the Belgians had no work to do. 

EXCEPTIONS MADE TO THE REGULAR 
RATION FOR SPECIAL REASONS. 

Certain additions to the ration were 
made for the few "heavy workers" 
(those in the coal mmes, for example), 
and modifications of it were made for 



individual properly provided with a 
soup-card obtained once a day a pint 
of thick soup and ten ounces of bread, 
with some added food, enough for a 
day's maintenance. 

The most conspicuous revelation of 
the degree to which a great portion of 
the Belgian people was dependent on 
outright charity for their daily bread 
was that afforded by the long "soup- 




A PRIMARY SCHOOL AIDED BY THE COMMISSION 

An important part of the Commission's activity was the attempt to see that every Belgian child received at least one 
good meal a day. This is a view of a primary school at which the midday meal was furnished by the Commission. 
There were several thousand of such schools. Evidently some of the children are unaccustomed to the camera. 



children who received more milk and 
sugar, some cocoa, when possible, and 
less bread and potatoes. The potatoes 
could rarely be provided up to full 
ration figure and the rice could some- 
times be increased. Those who could 
pay were able to add some vegetables 
and fruit, and, rather irregularly, meat. 
So some had more than 2,000 calories 
value of food a day but some had less. 
As the actually destitute had little or 
no coal or wood with which to do any 
cooking most of them obtained their 
food ready cooked at the soupes main- 
tained in every commune by the relief 
organizations. At these soupes each 



lines " visible in every hamlet and every 
section of every town and city in the 
land. Over a million and a half people 
were standing every day in these lines 
by the end of 1916. In Antwerp, proud 
and wealthy sea-port and home of rich 
Flemish burghers, one-half of the whole 
population was on the soup-lines in 
April, 1917. 

THE BABIES AND THE CHILDREN AND 
THEIR FOOD. 

In addition to the systematized gen- 
eral rationing of the whole population 
and the special care of the destitute by 
communal kitchens and soupes, the re- 
lief of Belgium had many special fea- 




THE SCHOOL COLONY AT SCHOOTEN, NEAR ANTWERP 

The question of the care of the orphans of the war was important. In general these were gathered in "school 
colonies" under supervision of volunteer workers who looked after them and taught them. This photograph 
from the Comite Provincial shows one of these colonies with a part of the stafif housed in Kasteel "De Wyngaard." 








ANOTHER SCHOOL COLONY IN THE SAME NEIGHBORHOOD 
This is "School Colony Fordenstein" in the same neighborhood, where some of the orphans of the province were 
housed. Many owners of country houses offered them to the Comites for this use. This picture, made in winter, 
shows the children being taken out for necessary exercise. None of the war charities was more deserving than 
this, undertaken by the Belgians themselves and manned almost exclusively by volunteer workers. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



tures; that is, it took various special 
forms adapted to special needs. Help 
was extended in special ways to the 
mutilated soldiers left in the country 
after the invasion passed on to the west; 
to distressed special groups as artisans, 
artists, and professional men and other 
"ashamed poor" never before depen- 
dent on charity and too proud to stand 
in the soup-lines; to the convents and 
priests and sisters; to farmers needing 
help to restore their wrecked buildings 
so that they might help produce food 
for the whole people ; to young mothers 
and women about to become mothers, 
and above all, to the babies and child- 
ren. 

The story of the saving of the child- 
ren of Belgium is one that in itself 
needs a whole volume for the telling. 
There was developed a system of sup- 
plementary school meals whereby over 
a million children of school age had 
their insufficient home feeding eked 
out by a simple specially prepared daily 
meal given in the school room. For 
weak children and babies, special can- 
teens were established where the little 
ones got not only special food (milk, 
cocoa, sugar, etc.,) but also medical 
attention. In the province of Li^ge 
alone there were iii special charities 
for children faithfully looked after by 
1500 Belgian volunteer-workers who 
gave all their time, day after day, 
throughout the whole long period of 
the occupation. In Brussels the fam- 
ous "Little Bees" took care of prac- 
tically every child needing help in the 
whole great city of nearly a million 
inhabitants. Countesses and working 
girls labored side by side as equals in 
this democratizing work of charity and 
love. 

"IT THAT AN AMERICAN WOMAN THOUGHT 
VV OF THE BELGIAN WOMEN. 

But it is impossible to tell the whole 
story. As my wife, Charlotte Kellogg, 
who saw it all as the only woman mem- 
ber of the Commission inside Belgium, 
writes in her book, "The Women of 
Belgium, Turning Tragedy into Tri- 
umph": 

"The story of Belgium will never be 
told. That is the word that passes 
oftenest between us. No one will ever 

900 



by word of mouth or in writing give it 
to others in its entirety or even tell 
what he himself has seen and felt. The 
longer he stays the more he realizes 
the futility of any such attempt, the 
more he becomes dumb. It requires a 
brush and color beyond our grasp; it 
must be the picture of the soul of a 
nation in travail, of the lifting of the 
strong to save the weak." 

GREATER DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED 
IN NORTHERN FRANCE. 

But this account would be entirely 
too incomplete without making some 
brief special reference to the work of 
the Commission in occupied France, 
where it had on its shoulders an even 
heavier burden, relatively, than in Bel- 
gium. There were, to be true, only one 
and three-quarter million people shut 
up in occupied France compared with 
the seven and a half million in occupied 
Belgium, but it was a far more help- 
less population. Fully one-fourth of 
all the people in North France escaped 
from it as the German invaders entered 
it. And this one-fourth included a 
particularly important part of the 
whole population, namely, practically 
all of the men capable of bearing arms, 
and in addition many of the better-to- 
do families. There were only left, 
thus, the old men, the women and 
children, and all the sick and physi- 
cally infirm. 

Moreover this unfortunate popula- 
tion was nearer the fighting lines; it 
was in the zone occupied by active 
armies and was under an exclusively 
military control. The prohibitions as 
to circulation of the people and move- 
ments of any supplies from country to 
town were more rigorous. Also the 
Germans would never make the same 
guarantees for not taking local food- 
stufTs that they made for Belgium, 
although, of course, they guaranteed 
all imported foodstuffs from any seizure. 
And the people were made to work the 
fields for the Germans instead of for 
themselves. So there was much less 
local food in North France than in Bel- 
gium to eke out the limited relief ration 
of imported food. Such conditions plain- 
ly increased the problems and added 
to the difficulties which had to be met. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ALL RELIEF IN FRANCE HAMPERED BY 
l\ THE MILITARY AUTHORITIES. 

The Commission also was much more 
hampered in its work of distribution 
and inspection. Just as in Belgium, 
there was an elaborate relief organiza- 
tion of the native people, with a com- 
munal, regional, and district commit- 
tee, all under a general head commit- 
tee, which was commonly known as the 



live all the time with his officer; sleep 
in his quarters; dine at his table. 
Theoretically, indeed, the C.R.B. men 
in North France were never to be out of 
sight or hearing of their proper escort 
officers. They could never meet with 
the French committees nor talk with 
any of the French people except in his 
presence. We called these officers our 
"nurses." 




THE CHILDREN OF A "SCHOOL COLONY' 



There is pathos in this picture of the children of "Schoolkolonie Berchem," housed in "Kasteel Boeckenberg" at 
Deurne. The adults are all Belgian volunteer workers who strove to prevent the next generation of Belgians from 
Decoming dwarfed and stunted through lack of care. What the Belgians did for themselves is not fully realized. 



Comite Franqais (C.F.). And there 
were American representatives of the 
C.R.B. to protect the food and super- 
vise and check up its distribution. But 
the Germans allowed us to have but 
one man in each of the six districts in 
which occupied Fiance was divided for 
relief purposes, with an additional 
chief representative who had to live at 
the Great Headquarters of the German 
General Staff at Charleville. These 
Americans had no motor cars of their 
own as in Belgium; they could travel 
only in German military cars, always 
in company with a German escort offi- 
cer. In fact, each American had to 



Of the one and three-quarter million 
French people in the occupied terri- 
tory, at least one million were wholly 
dependent on charity for their daily 
bread. The ration basis on which the 
food was distributed differed a little 
from that in Belgium, especially in the 
addition to it of some sugar, and in the 
quality of the war-bread, which was 
coarser and poorer because of the addi- 
tion to the imported flour used in mak- 
ing it of some flour provided by the 
Germans as a small offset to their seiz- 
ure of the whole native grain crop. 
This flour, to the extent of about loo 
grams a day, was theoretically turned 

901 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



back from the French crop for the bene- 
fit of the French people, but in reality 
it came from Germany and was com- 
posed of a mixture of rye, potato meal, 
and other indeterminable things, and 
was very poor. The French wheat was 
reserved for German use. 

THE DIFFICULT POSITION OF THE AMERI- 
CAN REPRESENTATIVES. 

There was more suffering and more 
illness among the shut-in French than 
among the Belgians. The death rate 
in Lille, for example, increased by 
nearly 50%. And the nervous strain 
on the C.R.B. representatives in occu- 
pied France, because of the sad condi- 
tion of the people, the rigors of the 
military control, and the added diffi- 
culties of the work, was severe. As 
chief representative of the Commission 
in North France for several months, 
living closely tied to my German escort 
officer at Great Headquarters, I became 
more used up than in all the other 
months of my service with the Com- 
mission. It was an experience of 
absorbing interest but constant strain. 

The German escort officers were not 
all brutes — although some were. But 
they were all a part of a brutal military 
machine, and the American representa- 
tives in North France suffered from the 
necessity to repress any expression of 
their feelings. In Belgium they could 
boil over occasionally to discreet Bel- 
gian ears. Each American in North 
France, on assuming his position as 
Commission representative, took upon 
himself, according to the German re- 
quirements, "the obligation to carry 
out his duties in such a manner as may 
be expected from an honorable citizen 
of a neutral state." And it is gratify- 
ing to be able to record that in the 
whole history of the Commission's ser- 
vice in North France, no single com- 
plaint of dishonorable or unneutral con- 
duct on the part of its representatives 
was made by the German military 
authorities. As in Belgium, when the 
Americans had to go out in April, 191 7, 
their places were taken by Dutch and 
Spanish delegates. It may be added 
that when the Americans did go out, 
it was the men who had served in North 
France who made the swiftest rush to 

902 



enlist in one of the armies fighting the 
Germans! 

FEED THE PEOPLE REGULARLY, NO MAT- 
TER THE COST. 

To give further detail of this work 
would be but repetition. There was 
a larger element of excitement and dan- 
ger in the work of the Commission men 
in North France because some of their 
activity was carried on within the 
danger limits of long distance shell- 
fire and aerial bombers. For that very 
reason there was a strong desire on the 
part of most of the young men of the 
Commission Staff to be assigned to the 
work in France. But their duties and 
work were essentially the same as in 
Belgium. They had, as we all had, a 
new Ten Commandments all concen- 
trated in one, to obey. That was: 
"Feed the People Regularly, no matter 
the cost in energy, in compromise, in 
money; no matter the difficulty or the 
sore discouragement; keep the food 
coming in ; keep it going to the mouths 
of the people." 

That is what the Commission did. 
Despite all difficulties, diplomatic and 
material, interruptions in the overseas 
transportation, including a most seri- 
ous one just after the Germans insti- 
tuted their unrestricted submarine war- 
fare, despite trouble in the canals — 
beginning in February, 1917, all the 
canals in Holland and Belgium were 
ice-bound for forty days and the whole 
distribution system had to be altered 
swiftly from water transport to a badly 
limited rail transport — despite con- 
stant interference and harassing trouble- 
making by the Germans, and in the 
face of a possible breaking up of the 
whole relief work any day, no com- 
mune in all the 5,000 in the French and 
Belgian occupied territory missed for a 
single day its ration of bread and soup, 
from the time the Americans went in 
until they went out. That is the tan- 
gible evidence of the service to human- 
ity that the Commission for Relief in 
Belgium rendered. The Commission 
was sometimes called by the unthink- 
ing just a sublimated great grocery 
store. But its members are not called 
grocers by the French and Belgians; 
they are called saviours. 




Belgian Soldiers in a Wrecked Village 

Chapter LIV 

Prussian Maps and Imperial Plans 

OW THE GERMANS EXPECTED TO REMAKE THE MAP OF 

THE WORLD 



^V A FAVORITE ornament in Berlin 
^■"^^ restaurants just before the war 
^Hwas a map showing the world of the 
future, as it was to be when it had been 
reorganized by the Prussian victory. 
I am not sure that this map was dis- 
played so often in the fashionable 
restaurants which tourists and for- 
eigners would frequent, but it was to 
be seen in those which were thronged 
by the resident population of Berlin. 

HAT THE NEW GERMANY WAS TO 
INCLUDE. 

It is worth while to compare the 
ideas expressed six years before Arma- 
geddon in the Prussian after-the-war 
map with the situation during the war 
and to examine how far they were 
realized. The comparison will also 
give some solid ground for estimating 
the Germ.an plans. The ideas of the 
map were those on which every child 
throughout Germany was trained; 
these were the natural and lawful 
claims on which children, as they 
grew up, were to insist. 

On this map Germany, united in 
one country with Austria, extended 
from the English Channel to the Black 
Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Adriatic. 
Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, 
all the Balkan countries except a 
small Greece, and the whole of Turkey 
in Europe with Constantinople, were 



By Sir William M. Ramsay 



W 



included in Austro-Germany. Most of 
France and a large part of Western 
Russia were also incorporated in the 
great Central Empire. Havre, Dieppe, 
Boulogne, and Calais, on the north, 
with the whole of the Seine valley and 
most of the Rhone valley, had been 
taken in. Switzerland and Italy re- 
mained independent; but the Central 
Empire encircled Switzerland on all 
sides, except the Italian frontier. The 
whole of "German Russia," the parts 
of Western Russia where Germans are 
more or less numerous, had been 
added to the German dominions. 

GERMAN CONTEMPT FOR FRENCH MILI- 
TARY POWER. 

The map gave some clue to the way 
in which this growth was to be accom- 
plished. Obviously, it was under- 
stood that France had been conquered, 
and reduced to a tiny State along the 
Atlantic Ocean. No one, not even the 
most confident of Prussians, could 
have supposed that France would have 
consented to this dismemberment 
except as the result of a successful 
German invasion. The most powerful 
influence in bringing about the great 
war was the absolute certainty felt 
by every German and Austrian that 
a war against France would be a 
promenade to the Atlantic coast, in 
which the German legions would 

903 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



march doing the parade-step, prac- 
tically without opposition, across Paris 
to the mouths of the Loire and Ga- 
ronne. It will be found on examination 
of history that almost every war has 
begun through the proud confidence 
felt by one side that it was able at any 
moment to beat the other. 

THE INFLUENCE OF THREE SUCCESSFUL 
PRUSSIAN WARS. 

If nations and governments realized 
the facts of the case, there would be no 
wars. The few cases in which a nation 
has gained immediate and complete 
success have been misfortunes to the 
world, because they have fostered the 
hopes of the side which goes into war 
for the purpose of gaining land and 
Spoils. Unluckily, the Prussian mental- 
ity has been determined entirely by 
success, sudden and complete, in three 
wars. Now, with an army much 
larger, stronger, better equipped, and 
better prepared, Prussia and all Ger- 
many expected with undoubting con- 
fidence to eat up France at any time 
that it pleased, leaving only a tiny 
and helpless scrap of France in the 
west — not much, if at all, larger than 
Portugal. 

As to Russia, the calculations of the 
map-makers were very different. They 
did not delude themselves with the idea 
that Russia was weak, and that it could 
be trampled in the dust. But a peace- 
ful arrangement was possible; "Ger- 
man Russia" would be surrendered for 
an equivalent; and naturally the equiv- 
alent was to be given at other people's 
expense. The map showed Norway, 
Sweden, and Persia with the whole of 
Central Asia, colored Russia, and form- 
ing one vast mass far surpassing in size 
European Austro-Germany. 

ONLy GERMANY AND RUSSIA TO BE IM- 
PORTANT. 

The world that counted was to con- 
sist mainly of the two vast Empires, 
Germany and Russia. Peaceful pene- 
tration was the method that the map- 
makers relied on in dealing with Russia, 
which could always be Germanized at 
leisure; Russia was barbarian and 
should be trained to German civiliza- 
tion by German culture. 

Japan was reckoned with also. It 

904 



was greatly enlarged. Its "legitimate 
desire for expansion" was satisfied with 
possession of Australia, New Zealand, 
and all the great islands of Eastern 
Asia in that part of the Pacific. At 
the same time the existence of Japan 
was a menace to Russia, which would 
be helpless between Japan and Ger- 
many if the two latter Empires were in 
accord. 

GERMAN CONTEMPT FOR THE UNITED 
STATES. 

Most of Africa, including all French 
and Belgian territory, was taken over 
by Germany. South Africa remained 
free and allied. The fate of India I do 
not remember. The United States was 
left out of the account. The German 
opinion, very emphatically expressed 
in private by many Germans, has al- 
ways been that the United States, 
being devoted to peace, do not count in 
the world, and would submit quietly 
to being ignored and disregarded. 
There was a large Germany in South 
America; but I do not remember its 
bounds. 

The British Empire had shrunk to 
the two islands of Great Britain and 
Ireland. Obviously, its sea-power had 
been transferred to Germany; for the 
harbors all over the world, on which 
sea-power rests, had been taken from 
it. German Africa and South America 
implied command of the ocean. 

THE GERMAN ATTEMPT TO REALIZE 
THEIR HOPE. 

Such were the ideals to which young 
Germany had been trained up from 
childhood long before the war. Now, 
look how Prussian war plans in 191 5 
aimed at realizing the ideals, and what 
success they had. 

Prussia seized a part of France, far 
less than it hoped, and it formed a line 
of frontier defense which France and 
Britain were long unable to break, for 
even the brilliant French victory in 
Champagne in September failed to 
break the line definitely, and Prussia 
retained the summit of the Hill of 
Tahure. The attempt to realize the 
ideal on the west was made, and was 
not successful except in a modest de- 
gree; but the idea is clearly seen in the 
fate of Belgium and French Lorraine. 






HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



J HE GERMAN DESIGNS ON THE RUSSIAN 
EMPIRE. 

■ So also on the east the attempt was 
made to seize all "German Russia." 
As Russia refused to listen to the peace 
proposals that were made to it time 
and again, the seizure had to be forci- 
ble, and the plan was more successful 
on this side than on the west. Prussia 
gained — for the time — practically all 
that her map-makers intended; only 
Riga was not gained; and the line of 
frontier defense was not nearly so 
strong on this side as on the west. 

Still, the plan of campaign is clearly 
seen. The German Army endeavored 
to adjust the map to suit the old ideas. 
It was not quite successful ; but men are 
imperfect, and it is human to fall short 
of perfection. Next in the plan comes 
the south-eastern region. Those who 
called the Serbian enterprise a gam- 
bler's desperate last throw now find 
they were wrong. It was the orderly 
execution of a plan formed many years 
ago. It was even less successful than 
the throw on the west; but it was no 
mere venture, and it had some success, 
for it gained part of Serbia and all 
Bulgaria. 

THE GERMAN PLAN TO COMPENSATE 
TURKEY. 

As to the other elements of the plan, 
the sop to Japan, the giving of Norway 
and Sweden to Russia, a German Africa 
and South America, the allied South 
African State, etc., their execution has 
been postponed to a distant future; 
and it is evident in each case that the 
consent of those various countries has 
not been gained. While Sweden is, on 
the whole, pro-German in feeling, it is 
so because it has been deluded into 
believing that Germany was its pro- 



tector against Russia, and it would not 
favor the completion of the Prussian 
plan. 

It was never the intention of Prus- 
sian map-makers to alienate Turkey, 
which was to be compensated in Asia 
and Egypt for the loss of Constanti- 
nople. This part of the plan was com- 
mitted to General von Mackensen. 
There is vast wealth in Asia Minor, 
which was for six or eight centuries 
after Christ the richest region in the 
world — richer even than Egypt, for the 
wealth of Egypt was carried away 
every year to Rome, leaving the en- 
slaved Egyptians poor as before, while 
the wealth of Asia Minor remained in 
the country, except for Imperial taxes, 
because the population was largely 
free. The great Imperial estates, how- 
ever, which were peopled by slaves of 
the Emperor, were ever growing larger 
in Asia Minor, just as all Egypt except 
Alexandria was one vast Imperial 
domain. 

PLANS TO REVIVE THE PROSPERITY OF 
ASIA MINOR. 

The wealth of Asia Minor is now 
potential, not actual. The country 
produces little more than enough to 
feed the population; but the amount 
can be immensely increased, and there 
is much unworked mineral wealth over 
and above the moderate amount that is 
exported. Within a year after reaching 
Constantinople, the Germans, if per- 
mitted to remain there as masters, 
would have stimulated largely the 
produce of Turkey. Schemes for this 
purpose had been in process of execu- 
tion for years; grandiose schemes of 
irrigation, and new roads and railways; 
and they needed only time for them to 
bear fruit. 



905 




THE GERMAN LIGHT CRUISER ARIADNE 
This light cruiser and the Frauenlob below were constructed at nearly the same time (between 1900 and 1902). 
The Ariadne, lost by gunfire, carried ten 4-inch guns and three torpedo tubes, one of them submerged. The German 
naval authorities counted upon the efficiency of these submerged torpedo tubes, but they were a disappointment 




THE FRAUENLOB, ANOTHER LIGHT CRUISER 

British boats of approximately the same tonnage built at about the same time carried lighter armor or perhaps none 
at all. They had fewer torpedo tubes, or perhaps none at all. On the other hand their indicated horsepower and 
their speed were much higher and their coal capacity was much greater in order that they might be able to be of 
service to any part of the world. Henry Ruschin. 

906 



Ir 

■■how the allies gained on land through the 
ip enemy's inaction at sea 



The German Torpedo Boat (Destro^ ., 

Chapter LV 

Blunders of German Naval Policy 



By Carlyon Bellairs, R.N., M.P. 



TF an American were asked to write 
•^ this article, I think he would do so 
very tersely by saying that the Ger- 
mans attempted to bite off more than 
they could chew, and that had Bis- 
marck been in the saddle this would 
never have happened. Prussia had 
made all her conquests without naval 
power. Her statesmen were the keen- 
est students of history in the world. 
Three facts stand out in history: 

1. The economic difficulty of com- 
bining vast land armies with the ex- 
penditure required for attaining sea 
supremacy. 

2. The jealousy of Great Britain for 
any Power that attempts to rival her 
on the sea. 

3. That Great Britain's strength 
resides not merely in the power of her 
Navy but in the military rivalries of the 
Continent, and when the latter were 
absent — in the War of American In- 
dependence — Great Britain was virtu- 
ally defeated. 

THE GERMAN EMPIRE ADOPTS A NAVAL 
POLICY. 

About 1896 a pushing officer of the 
name of von Tirpitz, from the China 
station, obtained the ear of the Kaiser. 
He played upon his desire for aggrand- 
izement, sea-power and empire. He 
was chosen to effect these things. 
This could not be done secretly, for 



the German people had to be educated 
so as to grant the appropriations, and 
the foreign policy had to create situa- 
tions in which the "tyranny" of 
British sea-power could be demon- 
strated. The educational crusade was 
of the most blatant character, espe- 
cially in regard to the official Navy 
League of over one million members. 
At every point it flew in the face of a 
famous caution of a famous statesman, 
the great Chatham, who enjoined an 
ambassador in words somewhat as 
follows: "Above all other things, not 
to mention the British Navy, and so 
avoid giving cause for every hireling 
pen in Europe to inveigh against the 
maritime pretensions of this country." 
The country which a few years before 
had coaxed Heligoland out of Great 
Britain, entered upon a course of policy 
destined to drive the country into the 
arms of Germany's chief military rivals. 

ONLY SUCCESS COULD JUSTIFY SUCH A 
POLICY. 

Such a policy could only be justified 
by success — that is, by the creation of 
a navy capable of defeating Great 
Britain on that sea which has never 
tolerated more than one master. On 
the land an inferior army can hold up a 
superior one, and the nation can pursue 
its manifold activities behind the 
security thus afforded. Such a situa- 

907 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



tion is unthinkable on the sea. Con- 
sequently, a naval policy which spends 
several hundreds of millions and misses 
success is in itself a disastrous failure 
for a great military nation. This is 
now well understood by the Gerrnans 
themselves, for above all other things 
they worship the military doctrine of 
concentration. If they had anticipated 
the possibility of failure on the sea, 
they would certainly have concen- 
trated the expenditure on increasing 
the great military machine on shore. 
It is equally true that until the military 
rivalries of the Continent had been put 
down, the drain of expensive colonies 
abroad was also an extravagance, for 
transmarine colonies fall like ripe fruit 
into the hands of the Power with the 
command of the sea. 

How GERMANY MIGHT HAVE GAINED 
SUCCESS. 

In other words, Germany was bound 
to lose her colonies and the troops and 
stores in them. It does not follow from 
this that all naval expenditure as 
against Britain was folly. In addition, 
Germany necessarily required such a 
fleet as could secure her the control of 
the Baltic against Russia. The point 
for Germany to have fixed her mind on 
was that until she had eliminated the 
drain of military rivalries on the Con- 
tinent she could not hope to rival 
Great Britain on the sea. On the other 
hand, the latter's life-blood is her ship- 
ping, and without any of the elements 
of ostentatious rivalry a war against 
British shipping could have been pre- 
pared, which, in the circumstances 
actually existing in 1914, would have 
left Great Britain in a very crippled 
position. The overweening ambitions 
of von Tirpitz and the Kaiser were 
their own undoing, and the British 
Empire was saved in spite of its rulers. 

The second great mistake of Ger- 
many was in the military mind which 
fails to understand democratic diplo- 
macy. It failed to understand the 
shock the invasion of Belgium would 
be to Great Britain. It interpreted 
Sir Edward Grey's assurance that the 
First Fleet was at Portland instead of 
being at its war base, and that Great 
Britain had no intention of calling out 

908 



the reserves, as a positive proof that 
she would not go to war, and conse- 
quently, von Tirpitz failed to prepare 
for the eventuality which took Ger- 
many by surprise. Both Russia and' 
France realized and strenuously repre- 
sented that only unmistakable naval 
and military preparations on Great 
Britain's part would prevent war. It 
was a genuine misunderstanding on 
both sides. Great Britain did not 
understand military diplomacy, and 
Germany did not show any compre- 
hension of democratic diplomacy. In 
any case, Germany's policy being what 
it was, the war could only have been 
postponed. The capital result for us 
is that Germany had not more than 
ten war vessels and a number of mer- 
cantile auxiliaries abroad. She failed 
to strike, except with mine-fields before 
the declaration of war, and so missed 
the use of her favorite stroke, "the 
bolt from the blue." England, "which 
is famous for negligence," as Marl- 
borough said, was given time to spread 
her net and Germany has been en- 
meshed in it ever since. 

GERMANY FAILED TO TAKE ADVANTAGE 
OF BRITISH MISTAKES. 

There was, however, one direction 
in which similar tactics would have 
been equally effective whether Great 
Britain was in the war or not. The 
war was at Germany's chosen moment, 
and she would certainly get possession 
of the French industrial districts where 
lay the bulk of the coal and iron sup- 
plies. It would be essential in case of a 
war with France and Russia to invade 
the trade routes to prevent replace- 
ment of supplies while the whole 
French Navy was busy safeguarding 
the passage of French troops in the 
Mediterranean. Against Great Britain 
the central facts were: 

1. Her absolute dependence on her 
shipping and sea-borne supplies. 

2. The 1904 scrapping of cruisers 
without replacement. 

3. The 1904-14 policy of cutting 
down cruiser strength abroad. 

4. The mistaken 1904-09 Admiralty 
view that sinall cruisers were of little 
use, and, consequently, armed mer- 
chant vessels still more useless. 




THE NEW WAR HARBOR OF KIEL, GERMANY 
The War Harbor of Kiel is said to have been the best example of its kind in existence. The city itself was founded 
in the thirteenth century but was a sleepy old town until galvanized into new life by the development of the German 
Navy. Besides the Imperial shipyards there were large private establishments. 




A GERMAN TORPEDO BOAT DIVISION 

The term torpedo boat was retained in the German navy for the larger craft, armed not only with torpedoes but also 
with rapid fire guns. Such boats are called by other navies torpedo boat destroyers, or more commonly, simply 
destroyers. The German naval architects were perhaps less successful with this type of craft than with battleships. 
This uncommon photograph shows a whole division of the turbine-driven craft in a haven. Ruschin. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



POLICY WHICH MIGHT HAVE BROUGHT 
SUCCESS. 

Had these facts been understood by 
the German Admiralty, they would 
have scattered every cruiser and mer- 
cantile auxiliary to the distant trade 
routes during the period of crisis from 
July 23 to August 4, 1914. As a matter 
of fact, not a single armed vessel 
moved outwards. The Emden's suc- 
cesses were really like the bitter fruit 
of the tree of knowledge, for they 
taught only of the lost opportunities, 
which, owing to British negligence, 
were offered in profusion. 

The German military mind seems 
incapable of any graduations of method 
suited to adverse circumstances. With 
a magnificent military machine on 
shore it made frightfulness an un- 
doubtedly successful policy. It tried 
the same methods at sea and expected 
similar results. The hope was futile, 
for the same reason that all German 
frightfulness on shore recoiled on her 
the moment the military machine be- 
gan to fail. Had Germany been a 
model of correct conduct in her sea 
campaign, every neutral would have 
been nagging furiously at Great Britain 
and endeavoring to defeat her blockade. 
Once Germany provoked the United 
States, under the submarine policy, 
definitely against her. Great Britain 
had little difficulty in dealing with the 
illicit trade by Holland. Denmark and 
even Sweden. 

SOME OTHER GERMAN MISTAKES IN 
PREPARATION. 

An idea seems to be held in many 
quarters that the Germans seldom 
make mistakes in regard to mechanism 
and this idea has been fostered by Mr. 
Lloyd George in debates on munitions. 
As a matter of fact, the preparedness 
of the Germans in military matters 
was simply achieved by the profusion 
of expenditure on all weapons. If they 
had to choose, as every nation must 
when not preparing for its own selected 
moment, they would have been forced 
to concentrate on what they held to be 
most vital. This is exactly what they 
had to do in naval matters. Take the 
destroyer, one of the most common of 
naval craft. Great Britain pinned her 

910 



faith to the gun, Germany to the tor- 
pedo. Indeed, in the destroyer. Great 
Britain was nearly right on every point 
so far as design was concerned. In 
every one of the classes of ships she 
adopted the correct principle of the 
heavier armament. Except for the 
naval mine and the Zeppelin, I do not 
know of a single case where Germany 
was right in the adoption of the weapon 
at the same time that Great Britain 
was wrong. British mines were of a 
useless design because the limit was 
one of cost; and no Zeppelins were 
built. 

No SIGN OF A GREAT DIRECTING IN- 
TELLIGENCE. 

The comparative failure of Germany 
arose from the simple fact that she had 
to compromise in regard to naval ex- 
penditure so as to get what she thought 
would give the best results out of a 
limited expenditure; but even so, we 
should always remember that these 
preparations were all directed to reach 
fruition at Germany's chosen moment. 
She was again right in her large reserve 
of guns and in the provision of arma- 
ments for merchant vessels and Great 
Britain was wrong to neglect those 
things, but on a broad survey it is im- 
possible to find evidence of any great 
brain directing affairs, and the only 
conclusion one can come to is that 
von Tirpitz was simply a dead-weight 
to German policy; that the German 
Navy's correct function was to help 
win domination in Europe, leaving the 
overthrow of British naval supremacy 
to a future date, when the industrial 
resources of Europe or a greatly en- 
larged Germany could be thrown into 
the scale. It would have been far 
wiser to appoint a military leader like 
von der Goltz rather than von Tirpitz 
to he head of the German Navy. He 
would have understood how to sub- 
ordinate its actions to the object in 
view, and a statesman like Bismarck, 
who kept the military element in sub- 
jection to the political purposes to be 
achieved, might even have lulled the 
suspicions of Great Britain until the 
time came for dealing with the sea-girt 
isle which withstood Philip of Spain, 
Louis XIV. and Napoleon. 






:x^j: 


^^^^^^^K^ ^ / ^^^C^ZIT- .„ iiiSMifti " i 



Seaplane Arising from Parent Ship 

Chapter LVI 

Later Developments of War in the Air 

[THE AIRMEN BECOME INCREASINGLY IMPORTANT FACTORS 
IN MODERN WARFARE 



^HE history of war in the air was 
brought in another volume up to 
:the end of 191 5. While the war of 
movement lasted the function of air- 
craft was reconnaissance; with the 
development of trench warfare, the 
mapping out of the intricate maze of 
trenches and saps was added. This 
was done at first by patient drawing 
and later by aerials photography. Ar- 
tillery bombardment before infantry 
attack replaced the former movements 
of armies, and aircraft, later fitted with 
wireless, directed the gunners. 

THE PLANES NOW TAKE UP NEW 
FUNCTIONS IN THE WAR. 

With the deadlock both sides re- 
organized their air-services, remodeled 
and developed their machines. Swifter 
and more powerful aeroplanes were 
produced and another function de- 
veloped — the destruction of enemy 
troops and materiel by weight-lifting 
avians de bombar dement which towards 
the end of 191 5 became effective. 'The 
autumn of 19 15 saw a spectacular 
revival in German aeronautics (sub- 
sequent to Allied raids on Ludwigshafen 
and Karlsruhe) and the appearance 
early in 191 6 of the famous Fokker 
machine. Strife for mastery in the air, 
so that observation and bomb-dropping 
could be carried on unhindered, had 
led to aerial combats and the perfecting 
of the avians de chasse. 



THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE EARLY IN 
THE WAR. 

The following letter, written from an 
aviation camp by the famous Boelcke 
illustrates the tentative character of 
German aeronautical knowledge early 
in the war: 

"D. June 24, 1915 

"Yesterday the Crown Prince of 
Bavaria inspected our camp. Here we 
have gathered samples of about every- 
thing that our knowledge of aviation 
has developed; two airplane squadrons 
and one battleplane division. Both 
airplane squadrons are equipped with 
the usual biplanes, only we have an im- 
provement: the wireless, by means of 
which we direct the fire of our artillery. 
The battleplane squadron is here be- 
cause there is a lot to do at present on 
this front (the West). Among them 
there are some unique machines, for 
example : a great battleplane with two 
motors; it is for three passengers and 
equipped with a bomb-dropping ap- 
paratus. Outside of this, there are 
other battleplanes with machine guns. 
They are a little larger than the usual 
run. Then there are some small Fok- 
ker monoplanes, also with machine 
guns." 

ACTIVITY IN THE AIR BEFORE THE VER- 
DUN ASSAULT. 

With the concentration of troops and 
materiel in the Verdun hinterland early 

911 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



in 1916, the Fokker was greatly used 
by the enemy to prevent aerial scout- 
ing over his lines. Emboldened by 
success against the French and British 
airmen, the Germans frequently came 
over their lines, bombing lines of com- 




CAPTAIN LUFBERRY OF THE LAFAYETTE 
SQUADRON 

munication and transport between 
Chalons and Verdun. In spite of enemy 
superiority, however, French airmen 
did succeed in getting through and be- 
held strange activities between Metz 
and Mezieres. On February 21 a 
vigorous enemy aerial offensive took 
place; in one place a squadron of 
fifteen enemy machines was brought to 
a fight by the French who effected 
heavy damage on the raiders, and also 
912 



destroyed a Zeppelin near Brabant-le- 
Roi. After this preliminary aerial 
skirmishing, the great German attack 
on Verdun was launched. 

The German aerial arm was furn- 
ished with a series of new machines: 
small, one-seated biplanes (Albatros, 
Halberstadt, New Fokker and Ago) 
with a fixed motor 165-175 h.p. and 
fitted with two stationary machine 
guns firing through the propellers. 
These were grouped into chasing squad- 
rons (Jagdstaffeln) and were fighting 
units consisting of eighteen aero- 
planes, which flew in groups (Ketten) 
of six each, one serving as a guide {Ket- 
tenfuhrer). The French had been the 
first to use a group of fighting machines 
in the Artois offensive of May 191 5, 
but they were used by them only in 
defense. They had organized them 
again for the Verdun attack, but its 
violence exceeded all expectations and 
after it began they were numerically 
unable to perform all the missions re- 
quired. For a few days the Germans 
drove the French aeroplanes ofi^ the 
battlefield, forced them from their 
landing places by cannon, and won the 
mastery in the air. 

THE FRENCH REGAIN THE INITIATIVE 
AROUND VERDUN. 

It was thus until Feb. 25, when Gen- 
eral Petain took command, restored 
the front and set to work to reconquer 
the initiative in the air. All available 
French squadrons were concentrated 
in this sector, and airmen were ordered 
to adopt vigorous offensive measures. 
When new French fighting machines 
of improved model and no h.p. 
arrived, the lost element was retrieved 
and aeroplanes engaged in regulating 
artillery fire and taking photographs 
could work in safety. Aerial combats 
occurred daily; the Lafayette Escadrille 
with Thaw and Lufberry and de Laage 
brought down some eighteen German 
machines and the French Cigogne 
(Stork) squadron won great distinction 
in this region, although their greatest 
"stork," Guynemer, was slightly 
wounded and compelled to be absent 
from his friends. To disguise the ma- 
chines against the Verdun landscape, 
decorations of large irregularly placed 









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ZEPPELIN BROUGHT DOWN AT R^VIGNY 

In spite of the millions spent in trials and in bringing them to perfection, and in spite of the speed and power which 
they possess, Zeppelins are vulnerable: one well-placed shell is enough to destroy a dreadnought of the air. The 
picture shows all that was left of the car of the Zeppelin at Revigny. 




SUPER-ZEPPELIN L32 BROUGHT DOWN IN ESSEX 
Enormous crowds witnessed this combat. They saw a glow like that of a cigar appear at one of the ends of the Zep- 
pelin. For a few seconds the vast mass of the airship remained aflame at a height of about 8000 feet then plunged 
swiftly to the ground. All on board perished. Some of the crew were flung out, others remained in her to the end 
and perished in the blaze which swept them to earth. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



spots of green and red adorned the 
upper part to correspond to the red 
clay soil and green of the spring-clad 
country. The aeroplane was blue 
underneath that it might disappear 
against the background of the sky. 
The German machines were white with 
black crosses, save that of the celebrated 
Captain Boelcke, which was black with 
white crosses, and did deadly execu- 
tion among the French aviators. He 
seems to have had the force of a 
squadron in himself. 

Boelcke remarks in a letter from the 
Verdun front: "The devil is loose on 
the front. Six Americans are up. 
I could plainly see the American flag 
on the fuselage. They were quite bold; 
came all the way across the front." 
Boelcke- — to his credit be it said — car- 
ing nothing for the multiplicity of the 
"devil" attacked, but this time was 
driven home and concludes regret- 
fully, "I only saw that the Americans 
were again flying where I had found 
them." 

THE HARDEST FIGHTING SHIFTS FROM 
VERDUN TO THE SOMME. 

All through the spring a furious 
assault beat upon Verdun, but spent its 
strength in vain. Periodical French 
counter-attacks burst into flame just 
as soon as the German first fury was 
stemmed. " Passeront pas!" sang the 
soldiers, and the fliers in the clouds 
set the firmament echoing to the cry. 
Summer wore on and the attacks on 
Verdun died down; they had failed, 
failed of their purpose to capture 
Verdun, failed of their attempt to 
drive the British into a premature 
offensive. By July all things were in 
readiness, however, and the Battle of 
the Somme began on the flat lands on 
both sides of the river. 

The air forces had a considerable 
share in this struggle. Forced, as at 
Verdun, to resist the numerical superi- 
ority of the enemy, they ignored ad- 
verse weather conditions and performed 
their functions in spite of them. Prep- 
aration had been careful: aerodromes 
organized and effective concentration 
made. During the early days of the 
Somme battle the one-seated aero- 
plane fighting singly was king of the 

914 



air, although conditions changed short- 
ly afterwards and squadron formation 
Decame the rule. The French and 
British were using chiefly the Nieuport 
for chasing, until the Spad appeared 
early in September under the pilotage 
of Guynemer and Corporal Sauvage. 
These like the Fokkers were armed with 
a machine gun firing through the 
propeller. Seated in one, "free to 
manoeuvre at will, the solitary pilot 
could plan ruses, hide himself in the 
light or in the clouds, take advantage of 
the enemy's blind side, and carry out 
sudden destructive attacks which are 
impossible in groups." Later in the 
campaign the enemy drilled their 
one-seated or two-seated patrols, 
trained them in resistance to isolated 
attack and taught them how to attack 
the solitary machine which had ven- 
tured out beyond its own lines. Then 
the Allies in defense were compelled 
to alter their tactics and adopt group 
formation. 

THE FLYING FORMATION OF A RAIDING 
SQUADRON. 

The flight of the larger migratory 
birds was taken as a model. The 
squadron flew in the shape of a great 
V with the leader at the apex. In a 
raid the heavier, clumsier bombing 
planes flew between the prongs of the 
V, guarded in the rear by another line 
of fighting planes. The bombers were 
thus enclosed by a triangle of fighting 
planes. 

Captain Boelcke had been taking an 
enforced rest in the Balkans; he was 
brought back to the Somme in Sep- 
tember to organize a fighting squadron, 
and empowered to select from the 
Flying Service those men who seemed 
particularly qualified for the service. 
Among others he chose the brilliant 
young Baron von Richthofen, who 
later was to attain the proud total of 
eighty machines brought down (the 
Germans counted captive balloons 
among their score). From letters 
written by von Richthofen from the 
Somme we can almost exactly date the 
formation of the first Boelcke Jagdstafel 
of the circus type. "Sept. 16, 1916. 
We were at the butts trying our ma- 
chine guns. On the previous day we 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



had received our new aeroplanes and 
the next morning Boelcke was to fly 
with us. We all were beginners." 
The following day, "Before we started 
Boelcke repeated to us his instructions 
and for the first time we flew as a 
squadron commanded by the great 
man whom we followed blindly." 
And later he says ''Frequently 
we fought really big battles in 
the air. There were then from 
forty to sixty English machines, 
but unfortunately the Germans 
were often in the minority. Still 
the Englishman is a smart fel- 
low. That we must allow. Some- 
times the Englishmen came 
lown to a very low altitude 
md visited Boelcke in his quar- 
Jters upon whom they threw 
their bombs. They absolutely 
:hallenged us to battle and 
lever refused fighting." 

VON RICHTHOFEN'S CIRCUS AP- 
PEARS ON THE FIELD. 

Boelcke met his death one 
gusty morning in October, 191 6, 
among the clouds and above 
those fields which he once called 
the El Dorado of flying men. 
Here too Hawker, the gallant 
British ace, fell a victim to von 
Richthofen himself. In a spec- 
tacular duel which began at 
10,000 feet the two airmen 
manoeuvred downwards in ever- 
narrowing spirals until only 
300 feet above the ground. 
Hawker, turning his machine into the 
wind, sought to regain his own lines. 
Von Richthofen followed and shot 
Hawker through the head so that 
he crashed and fell one hundred and 
fifty feet behind the German lines. 
Immelmann had fallen early in July, 
shot down by McKubbin. 

When von Richthofen had destroyed 
his sixteenth machine, he was pro- 
moted to flight commander, and began 
a sensational career in a scarlet aero- 
plane. The members of his squadron 
followed their individual preference in 
coloring. A machine might have a red 
body, blue nose and yellow wings. All 
were brightly colored, and were nick- 
named by the British airmen "Von 



Richthofen's Circus" not merely for 
their gaudy hues, but also for the fact 
that they were fully equipped with a 
train in which they could live if neces- 
sary and a repairing outfit including 
mechanics, so that they could be 
transferred as a unit from point to 




CAPTAIN BOELCKE, FAMOUS GERMAN ACE 

point of the front as pressure varied. 
Thus the circus might be operating at 
Verdun one week, the next north of 
Arras, and a few days later on the 
Somme. Whenever it pitched its tents 
it did its regular squadron perform- 
ance, and followed it up later in the 
day by lone-hand raids or strafing 
flights by two or three. The term 
"circus" is now an adopted one among 
airmen, having this distinct meaning. 

PLANES BEGIN TO ACCOMPANY ATTACK- 
ING INFANTRY. 

The skies above the Somme lands 
witnessed another development in 
aerial tactics, the successful use of 
contact patrols which linked artillery 
and infantry together. To the British 

915 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



belongs the credit of a trial use of the 
aeroplane with the infantry, but the 
French first used it with some success 
at Verdun. On the Somme it filled a 
great want. Previous to this battle, 
liaison between infantry and guns was a 
very difficult matter. A battalion 
would go "over the top " and disappear 
behind the enemy's lines. It might 
need reinforcements, or it might wish 
to call for concentrated fire on a dan- 
gerous point, but its only means of 




CAPTAIN ALBERT BALL, D. S. O., M. C. 

communication, telephone wires, run- 
ners, pigeons and signals, were all in 
the danger zone itself and liable to 
destruction. When the British in- 
troduced the creeping barrage of ar- 
tillery fire which, as a curtain, moved a 
little ahead of the infantry, the need 
was even greater. The airmen solved 
the problem. Flying in stable machines 
equipped with wireless and Klaxon 
horns, they swept at a low altitude 
over the advancing lines, "observed all 
developments, signalled back guidance 
for the barrage and by means of 
message bags supplied headquarters 
with valuable information." Thus they 
not only regulated artillery fire, and 
916 



timed infantry attacks, but followed 
up the latter and revealed the situa- 
tion of the enemy's new lines, his de- 
fensive works, his reinforcements and 
his attempted counter-attacks. 

As was natural this low-flying left 
much to the initiative of solitary air- 
men, who took full advantage of their 
freedom and made lone-hand attacks 
on enemy trenches, dug-outs and ma- 
chine guns. In the fourth year of the 
war, when the Allies retreated in the 
spring and the Germans withdrew in 
the summer and autumn, trench fight- 
ing gave place to more open warfare. 
During these periods, the daring swal- 
low airman on both sides came into 
his own as he swooped low upon roads 
and railways choked with troops and 
transport. Similarly, in the Bulgarian 
withdrawal of September and October, 
1918, Allied aviators succeeded in 
creating what was almost panic among 
men and beasts on the few roads open 
among the inhospitable mountains. 
During the battle of Amiens, 1918, 
British airmen even compelled the 
surrender of railway trains and, on 
one occasion, of a huge long-range gun. 

THE ALLIED AIRMAN IN CONTROL OF THE 
SOMME FRONT. 

Throughout the battle of the Somme, 
the Allied aviators continued all their 
functions in the air. The French and 
British were flying every day in all 
weathers over every point of import- 
ance within thirty miles of the front, 
and sometimes even reaching places 
seventy miles distant. They were 
dropping bombs on trains, on ammuni- 
tion stores, on columns of transport. 
"They dipped down low to use the 
machine guns on marching troops. 
They attacked and destroyed the 
enemy's observation balloons. They 
even slid out of the clouds and — 
audacity could go no further — engaged 
and routed the anti-aircraft guns 
themselves." The following extract, 
taken from the diary of a German 
lieutenant of the i8oth Regiment, is 
eloquent upon the subject: 

"August 25. Today we had a 
trernendously heavy bombardment 
which surpassed anything I have ever 
seen. Who can say if it was our own 




GERMAN BALLOON ALIGHTING IN THE WEST 
This is a German military observation balloon of the Caquot type. As a director of gun fire the captive balloon was 
being used before the end of the war on a scale which practically displaced the aeroplane. Seated aloft in the 
basket the observer acted as sentinel of the sky with the keen long-range vision of the hawk. Ruschin. 




MAKING FAST 

This picture was taken with the British forces in Italy. Balloon cloth has to be very closely woven, smooth and 
strong so as to serve as a base for the rubberizing process. It should have a weave of approximately 140 threads to 
the inch both ways, and be from 38 to 45 inches wide. No "slubs" knots, or other imperfections which prevent an 
even surface for rubberizing may be present in this material. British Official. 

917 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



or the enemy's artillery? We stand 
here under the most severe artillery 
fire ever seen by the world, directed so 
accurately by twenty-nine captive bal- 
loons which venture up a bare six 
hundred metres high for fear of the 
enemy's aviators. At the same time 
they are so far behind, to get out of the 




GUYNEMER, KING OF THE STORK 
ESCADRILLE 

enemy's naval guns, that our artillery 
can scarcely be said to have aerial 
observers." And again, August 31, he 
writes: "There are thirty-four English 
captive balloons and one German to be 
seen. This is a fine state of affairs! 
In addition there are about fifty 
aviators climbing overhead." 

THE FAMOUS GUYNEMER AND THE STORK 
SQUADRON. 

Much of the credit for this mastery 
of the air belongs to those who organ- 
ized and those who led these fighting 
expeditions over the enemy country. 
Through their efi^orts, reconnaissance, 
artillery spotting and photography 

918 



proceeded with little disturbance, 
whereas the Germans were so hard 
pressed that, as the diary quoted above 
records, they could hardly guide their 
own guns or collect useful information. 
Among the French squadrons, the first 
to arrive on the Somme was the Stork 
Squadron, which was shown to have 
waged from March 19 to August 19, 
1916, 338 combats, bringing down 36 
aeroplanes, 3 drachen (dragon balloons) 
and compelling 36 other badly damaged 
aeroplanes to land. Guynemer and 
Nungesser had survived the winter's 
risks and led their comrades in daring 
and skill. For a year more the former 
was to continue his spectacular career. 
It must be noted in this connection 
that the prevalence of westerly winds 
was a great handicap to Allied fliers 
in that they drifted farther over the 
enemy's lines as they fought, and in 
case of crippling were forced to fly 
into a head wind before they could 
make a safe descent. 

Late in September and throughout 
October the foe made a savage attempt 
to regain his standing in the air. He 
produced new types of machines — 
among them a new Halberstadt pos- 
sessing 240 h.p. with strong climbing 
power. It was then that Boelcke was 
recalled from Turkey and given the 
task of organizing the flying squadrons. 

A SPIRITED ACCOUNT OF A BOMBING EX- 
PEDITION. 

An account of a bombing expedition 
drawn from the chronicles of Mr. 
Perry Robinson, The Times corre- 
spondent at the Battle of the Somme, 
must complete our summary of this 
great period of aerial activity. It was 
September, 191 6, and the enemy was 
continually shifting masses of men from 
all northern points of his line down 
to the Somme and taking his shattered 
divisions back to rest. Libercourt, the 
objective of the raid, was a railway 
junction of great importance, but 
near the station were three aerodromes 
which must be kept quiet if the raid 
was to be a success. Thus at i o'clock 
Allied aviators from behind the clouds 
began to bomb the aerodromes. "Im- 
mediately after the first bombs, which 
scattered ruin, other bombs began to 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



fall, not dangerously explosive, but 
emitting thick clouds of fumes and 
smoke, blinding and bewildering the 
men below, till each aerodrome from 
above looked like a boiling pit. Into 
this turmoil the airmen above kept 
at intervals dropping high-explosive 
bombs. Meanwhile at the junction 
soon after 1 130 a train was seen, and 
two of our squadrons dipped from out of 



busy. Troops as they poured out and 
fled southwards ran the gauntlet of 
machine-gun fire fromthe skies. Mean- 
while, another aeroplane attacked Li- 
bercourt station and dropped nearly 
fifty bombs which fell on the station 
buildings, railway sidings, on the 
rolling stock in the yards, and spread 
destruction everywhere around. Over- 
head some of the fighting planes circled 




TWO DISTINCT TYPES OF ARMY PLANES 
This picture illustrates the contrast between the build of an aeroplane according to function. On the left is shown 
a bombing plane with large wing-spread to support the weight of the bombs it carries. The smaller machine on 
the right is a fighting plane, fitted with very powerful engines and designed to have great climbing power. 



the sky until they were only 800 feet 
above the train and as they dropped, 
they saw another train coming along a 
branch line, and this two others went 
off to deal with." 

Both trains were loaded with troops, 
and they had a dreadful time. When 
the engine was thrown from the rails, 
as a result of the explosion, the troops 
scrambled from the wreckage for 
shelter to a large wood, with the aero- 
planes playing upon them as they fled 
panic-stricken, massed together. Wreck- 
age of the first train blocked the 
approach of the other train from Lens 
and as it stood the airmen again grew 



and kept watch in case the enemy ma- 
chines should attempt to interfere, but 
no hostile craft appeared. 

THE GERMANS ENTIRELY REORGANIZE 
THEIR AIR SERVICE. 

The French Staff in its summary of 
results of Allied aerial warfare for 1916 
announced that 900 aeroplanes had been 
destroyed, 81 kite balloons burned, and 
754 bombardments had taken place. 
The German Staff was not slow to profit 
by the lessons of the Somme campaign 
and began a thorough over-hauling of 
its aeronautical service. By a decree 
of November, 191 6, the aerial forces 
were separated from the other forces of 

919 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



communication and classed as Aerial 
Combatant Forces (Luftstreitkrdfte) un- 
der a separate staff officer, General 
Lieutenant von Hoeppner, who had 
been Chief of Staff of Otto von Below's 
Sixth Army, as Kommandeur der Luft- 
streitkrafte. The more than two hun- 
dred and seventy squadrons were 
divided into bombing, chasing, patrol- 
ling and field squadrons (of which the 
last were entrusted with scouting, 
photography, and spotting). The com- 
mander of the aeronautical section of 



factories. By the spring of 191 7 she 
possessed forty chasing squadrons of 
different types including a new Fokker 
and Albatros of 160 h. p., with a Benz 
or Mercedes fixed engine and two 
Maxim guns shooting through the 
propeller blades. As bomb-carriers, von 
Hoeppner was also responsible for the 
two-engine Gothas (520 h p.) which 
gained such notoriety in raids over 
Britain, the Friederichshafens and the 
A. E. 9 (450 h.p.). Preparation was 
very careful and General von Hoeppner 




SECTIONAL DIAGRAM OF A GOTHA FIGHTING PLANE 
This particular Gotha carried two 260 h. p. Mercedes engines with propellers moving behind the wings, thus being 
really propulsive, not "tractor." In a turret forward a gun fired forwards, and, at certain angles above and below 
the wings. Two others, in grooves on transverse tubes behind the rear passenger, fired, one above the body, the 
other in a gun-tunnel level with the floor, in the manner shown in the diagram. 

the Fifth German Army before Ver- 
dun had stated in a report that "a 
conscientious aviator was the only 



told the press at the end of May, 1917, 
that the German airmen were un- 
rivaled. 



reliable informant in battle," and this 
statement was amplified by the Crown 
Prince, who urged constant association 
between the air service and the in- 
fantry. 

This personal relation between in- 
fantry and airmen was strongly urged 
by Guynemer and by von Richthofen 
who were filled with admiration for the 
former's heroic work and commisera- 
tion for their hardships in the trenches. 
During the winter Germany strength- 
ened her chasing squadrons, improved 
the personnel of her air service, con- 
centrated on producing high-powered 
engines, and increased the output of her 

920 



THE BRITISH ALSO RECEIVE SOME NEW 
TYPES. 

At the end of March the Germans 
began to withdraw towards the Sieg- 
fried line and during this time, activity 
in the air was of course very great. Be- 
fore the advent of the Bristol fighters, 
the Sopwith triplanes and de Havilands 
in numbers, the British Royal Flying 
Corps were having a very bad time. On 
April 6, for instance it was reported in 
the Headquarters communique that 
twenty-eight machines had been miss- 
ing for two days. The enemy, secure 
in his new Siegfried line by the end of 
the first week of April, believed that he 



BRITISH BOMBING PLANE 

A large twin-engined biplane of the combat class which combines great weight-carrying power with high speed. 
The controls are situated in the fuselage and because the propellers are at the sides the observer has a less ob- 
structed vision and clearer field of fire. This renders synchronising of machine gun and propeller unnecessary. 




ARMORY OF BRITISH BOMBING SQUADRON 
The armory of a night-bombing squadron of the Royal Air Force. Pilots and observers took the most meticulous 
care of their guns and pistols for they were their sole chance of safety if surprised by enemy airmen. This squadron 
was proud of its armory which it considered the finest in Europe. British Oflficial. 

921 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



had gained a better position than he 
had lost at the Somme. But the 
Allies had prepared a spring offensive 
striking at the pivots of the new 
German positions, in the north around 
Douai and Cambrai and in the south 
at Laon. 

Every class of machine was engaged 
in preparations for the great offensive. 
Bombing squadrons were out by day 



look far into our lines and note every- 
thing that was going on. We proposed 
to put out these enemy eyes. We called 
the big, elongated gas-bags 'sausages' 
and the French did likewise ' saucisses\ 
They floated in the air at anywhere 
from 800 to 3000 feet above the ground, 
and were held captive by cables. These 
cables were attached to some special 
kind of windlasses which could pull 




BOMBS IN THEIR PLACE IN A PLANE 
This picture shows one mechanism for carrying and dropping bombs in a bombing plane. Mounted on a cylinder, 
whose rotation is governed by a trigger, the bombs are dropped at the pilot's will. Bombs were fitted with a 
safety mechanism and could be dropped "safe" if the aviator had to get rid of them over his own lines. Some 
machines carried much longer bombs than these, which are in fact rather small. 



and by night when they flew over the 
lines with only the stars to guide them 
and dropped tons of explosives on 
German communications. Photo- 
graphers were busy during every hour 
of sunlight and artillery observers put 
through long days with the guns 
at preliminary bombardment. Major 
Bishop was at this time doing some 
of his daring work with the R. F. C. and 
he speaks of an attack upon the Ger- 
man captive balloons. "They flew 
in the same place almost every day — 
well back of the enemy's lines, but 
the observers In them, equipped with 
splendid telescopes, could leisurely 
922 



the balloons down In an Incredibly 
short space of time. Sometimes they 
could disappear as if by witchcraft. 
Wherever the sausages flew they were 
protected from aeroplane attack by 
heavy batteries of anti-aircraft guns, 
and also by what we came to know as 
'flaming onions.' These 'flaming 
onions' appear to consist of about ten 
balls of fire and are shot from some 
kind of rocket gun. . . . Our in- 
structions were not only to drive the 
enemy balloons down but to set fire 
to and destroy them. This is done by 
diving on them from above and firing 
some incendiary missile at them." 




HYDROPLANE AFLOAT IN THE WATER 

In a hydroplane floats replace the wheels of the aeroplane. After the war an amphibious plane was developed 
in which wheels and floats were both present and could be adjusted to the nature of the taking-off or landing 
ground. While on the water the pilot steers chiefly by means of the rudder or "tail" of the fuselage.' 




LIFTING THE HYDROPLANE TO ITS HANGAR 
In this graceful machine the true "stream-line" is pronounced, and gives it the effect of a water or dragon fly. 
The British Royal Naval Air Service did considerable work with hydroplanes on the Belgian coast and at the 
mouth of the German rivers. But for satisfactory sea reconnaissance the Zeppelin or balloon was found generally 
more satisfactory, and in this respect the Germans were better equipped in the beginning than the Allies. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



AIRMEN EVEN ATTACK THE ENEMY IN 
. THE TRENCHES. 

On April 4 the attack was launched. 
That the German infantry did not rel- 
ish this vigorous offensive is proved 
from letters taken from prisoners 
captured during the Arras offensive. 
One writes: ''These British airmen are 
the very devil, for they come down to 
our trenches and almost enter our dug- 
outs, bombing and machine-gunning 
and seeming to take the greatest pleas- 
ure in doing so, and quite regardless of 
our rifle fire. We should not be at all 
surprised at any time to know that 
they had found a way of flying right 
through our dug-outs, and we have no 
peace from them night or day." Nor 
were the airmen content merely to sig- 
nal back the positions of enemy guns, 
in some cases they shot the crews of the 
batteries, and instances of heavy guns 
being put out of action by direct bomb 
hits from 150 feet are known. 

Von Richthofen himself remarks 
of these days: "During the full-moon 
nights of the month of April, 191 7, our 
English friends were particularly ac- 
tive." One night, it seems, they raided 
the aviators' quarters, and awakened 
by the noise of barking guns, he says, 
**One of the Englishmen flew at so 
low an altitude over my habitation that 
in my fright I pulled the blanket over 
my head." At the end of the month 
the new British machines had arrived 
and began to make their presence felt. 
Von Richthofen, April 29, admits 
that the new Sopwiths and de Havil- 
ands could outclimb the famous Alba- 
tros chaser. 

THE FRENCH AIRMEN LED BY GUYNEMER 
DO GREAT WORK. 

Meanwhile in the southern sector of 
the line the French offensive had been 
launched against the heights of the 
Aisne. The opening day, April 6, 
was snowy and wet and air observation 
was badly crippled, the enemy had got 
wind of the attack and the tanks did 
not achieve as much as had been hoped. 
The French aviators did some heroic 
work; it is said of Guynemer at this 
time that whereas on the Somme 
he had been one of the great French 
champions, on the Aisne he became 

924 



their king. Later in the Flanders 
offensive, the Badische Presse for Au- 
gust 8, 191 7, pays the following tribute 
to his eagle-like flights: "The airman 
you see flying so high is the famous 
Guynemer. He is the rival of our 
most daring aviators, an as, as the 
French reckon their champions." On 
September 11, 191 7, he was killed 
after having brought down fifty-four 
enemy planes. 

As for the Germans, no longer on the 
offensive as at the Somme, they 
practised a strong concentration in 
order to secure superiority in the 
air in the limited sector of the front 
where the action took place. Prudence 
was recommended in scouting and pa- 
trol work; thus, if on the offensive, the 
order was that at the hour determined 
upon all available machines should 
rise together to a low altitude, divide 
into two distinct fleets, the chasing 
units flying above the rest. Then the 
two fleets were to make for the point 
of attack, getting higher as they went 
and engage the enemy above the lines 
with the utmost energy, not giving up 
the pursuit until they reached the 
French lines, where danger from anti- 
aircraft batteries would be too great. 
(It is to be remarked that the German 
offensive did not include fighting over 
the enemy's line!) 

OBSERVATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY THE 
MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS. 

Fighting slackened at the end of May 
and a new offensive, the Se.cond Battle 
of Flanders, began at the end of July 
and raged until the following winter. 
In this battle the British under Plumer 
and Gough were supported by the 
French army under General Anthoine. 
By the middle of June, the Germans, 
warned by the formidable French and 
British preparations, had brought ad- 
ditional aeroplanes and sausages to 
the Flanders front. Through July 
terrible contests took place in the air, 
some of them duels, others battles 
between strong squadrons, as for in- 
stance on July 13, where there were 
as many as thirty machines on each 
side. In this fight the Germans lost 
fifteen machines. All this fighting was, 
of course, to secure for the side gaining 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the advantage the initiative in re- 
connaissance, bombing, photography 
and infantry control work, for after all 
observation was the most important 
function of aircraft. 

During the course of the big offensive 
in the Ypres sector, August, 1917, The 
Times correspondent wrote of the 
artillery and aeroplane work: " During 
the last few days' fighting, I have 
heard several times the statement that 



The official French communique re- 
ported that during the week-end of 
August 18-19, 1917, III French 
aeroplanes had dropped 26,000 lbs. of 
explosive upon German railheads in 
the Meuse district, an eloquent tribute 
to the increase in the number of 
machines used. Similar evidence of 
German increase was also given by the 
formation flights of air-raiders over 
England during the summer of 191 7. 




IN THE SCOTTISH SHIPBUILDING YARDS 

Men and wom«»n at work upon the fuselages of aeroplanes in a converted shipbuilding yard in Scotland. Manu- 
facture of the different parts of the plane was carried on in special factories and the parts put together in assembling 
factories. The Handley-Page alone involved 100,000 separate parts and the magnitude of the manufacturing inay 
be imagined. British Official. 

in the course of the battle the fire of 
the German batteries actually grew 
perceptibly and continuously less as 



ERMAN EFFORTS TO SECURE CONTROL 
jr OF THE AIR FOR 1918. 



they were put out of action by our guns. 
This is quite credible. In the course 
of a single day, our artillery guided by 
our aeroplanes silenced 73 hostile bat- 
teries. Observation showed 21 gun- 
pits entirely destroyed and 35 others 
badly damaged. Eighteen explosions 
of ammunition stores were caused and 
fifteen other fires. These are only the 
items of air work in a single day of 
battle, but their influence on the course 
of victory is obviously enormous." 



G 

Then the battles of Flanders died 
down into winter rain and mud, and 
once more the belligerents took stock 
of their assets for a spring offensive. 
Ludendorff and von Hindenburg met 
the Reichstag in secret session and 
promised speedy victory. Production 
in all branches was speeded up for the 
final effort and in the early spring of 
191 8 Germany possessed about eighty- 
five squadrons of fighting planes (about 
iioo machines), and perhaps an equal 
number attached to the army for pur- 

925 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



poses of photography, reconnaissance, 
infantry contact and artillery control. 
A great effort was made to develop the 
bombarding planes; the inhabitants of 
Dunkirk, Nancy, London, and even of 
Paris were victims of these improve- 
ments as the radius of action of the 
Gothas and Friedrichshafens was 
increased to 300 kilometers from home, 
and their bomb-carrying capacity to 
800 kilograms (nearly a ton). In the 
Gotha, advance in speed and manoeuv- 
ring ability was backed up by improve- 
ment in armament, namely a third 
machine gun which was mounted under 
the fuselage so as to eliminate all dead 
angles of fire. 

With the wireless, the Germans had 
the macrophone, a device which highly 
intensified sounds in the receiving tele- 
phone and made them audible in spite 
of engines, vibration and wind. The 
Allies also developed similar devices. 
The generator employed with the wire- 
less was — with customary German 
system — put to good use in cold 
weather or in great altitudes in heating 
the resistance wires woven into the 
aviator's clothing. With sighting also 
the. enemy began to employ highly 
efficient sighting instruments made by 
well-known optical firms like Zeiss 
and Goertz. Instrument and auxiliary 
tables allowed of rapid calculation of 
the angle 0/ fire required, took into 
account wind, speed and height, guided 
the pilot just over his objective and 
automatically warned the bombarder 
of the precise moment to release his 
bombs. An ingenious invention, aimed 
at discounting camouflage, was the air- 
scout's stereoscopic camera of great 
power and sharpness. Built into the 
body at a point where it commanded 
an unobstructed view of the ground 
below, its lens could discover from an 
altitude of two miles whether trenches 
or batteries were actual or only hollow 
shams. 

THE GREAT WEIGHT-LIFTING MACHINES 
OF THE YEAR. 

Another German development of 
1 91 8 was the new Fokker triplane. 
This, though not so fast as some of 
the other pursuit planes, had a climb- 
ing speed which excelled that of any 

926 



other machine at the front and rend- 
ered its attack particularly vigorous 
from below. In the spring drive the 
enemy used these triplanes in large 
numbers, frequently as many as twenty 
or thirty at a time. 

The growing importance of twin or 
multiple-engined aeroplanes was a 
significant feature of aerial construc- 
tion on both sides. Further, in 191 8, 
the "ceiling," or the elevation at which 
planes must be able to fly, was increased 
from 16,000 to 18,000, and then well 
above 20,000 feet. The improvement 
in the range and accuracy of the anti- 
aircraft gun made this necessary. A 
slow machine with a high ceiling could 
use its power to climb out of range and 
dive upon its victim, or evade the un- 
welcome attentions of anti-aircraft guns. 

Germany, and later the Allies also, 
constructed giant aeroplanes {Riesen- 
fiugzeug) of about 1000-1400 h. p. with 
a' weight-lifting capacity of two tons. 
This product points to what was one 
of the greatest developments of 191 8 — 
namely the far-extended, continuous 
bombing expeditions against enemy 
materiel. The casualties from air-raids 
in Great Britain were heavy during 
191 7, and the Germans bombed British 
and French back areas with marked 
pertinacity during 1918. The great 
British camp at Etaples suffered seven 
hundred casualties in six weeks. But 
though 2,465 projectiles were dropped 
by the enemy on Allied lines and on 
towns behind the lines in March, 
British bombarders alone dropped on 
enemy territory 38,118 bombs, or 
sixteen times as many. April saw in- 
creased German activity, but never- 
theless British bomb-dropping was 
still ahead at the rate of twelve to one. 

'"f^HE BRITISH ORGANIZE THE INDEPEND- 
i ENT AIR FORCE. 

In April, the Independent Air Force 
was formed under General Trenchard, 
with the function of raiding German 
industrial centres in the Rhineland and 
Westphalia, in order to strike at the 
enemy's sources of supply. Much 
fighting took place and the I. A. F. 
lost 109 machines within six months, 
yet it accomplished a great deal both 
in material destruction and moral 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



effect. As early as October, 1917, 
raids had been begun by three squad- 
rons in the Nancy area and this 
nucleus was later developed into the 
Independent Force as supplementary 
to the Royal Air Force of Great 
Britain. During the early pe- 
riod, from October, 191 7, to 
June 5, 191 8, fifty-seven at- 
tacks were made on the Rhine- 
land, including day and night 
attacks on Cologne, Stuttgart, 
Mannheim, Mainz and Co- 
blenz. In June, Trenchard de- 
cided to attack as many of the 
large centres as it was possible 
to reach, and the weather for 
the first three months was 
extremely favorable for this 
long-distance bombing, but dur- 
ing September, October, and 
the first ten days of November 
it could hardly have been worse 
for this particular work. Dur- 
ing the summer, the force was 
equipped with the large Hand- 
ley-Page bombing machines. 
The total weight of bombs 
dropped between June 6 and 
November 10 was over five 
hundred tons, of which 160 
tons were dropped by day and 
390 tons by night. At the end 
of June it was apparent that 
the enemy was increasing his 
number of fighting machines 
and during September and 
October the day - bombing 
squadrons had to fight prac- 
tically from the front line to 
their objective and from there 
home again. This necessitated 
the most careful keeping of 
formation in order to avoid 
undue casualties as, once the 
formation was split up, the 
enemy's machines could attack 
vidual machines at their leisure. 
Black Forest region and some 
towns including Baden, Frankfurt, 
Karlsruhe, Mainz, Stuttgart and Wies- 
baden were attacked. Towards the end 
of the summer a group was estab- 
lished in England for the purpose 
of bombing Berlin and other centres, 
but its machines were only ready 



three days before the signing of the 
armistice. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NIGHT BOMBING 
RAID. 

The Independent Force at the re- 
quest of Marshal Foch co-operated 



A 




CAPTAIN WILLIAM A. BISHOP WITH AN OFFICLAL 
RECORD OF 72 GERMAN MACHINES 

© Underwood & Underwood. 



indi- 

The 

forty 



with the American First Army in its 
attack on the St. Mihiel salient, and it 
further co-operated with the armies by 
attacking important railway junctions 
behind the French lines in the com- 
bined offensive of September 26. The 
following descriptive account of one 
of the bombing raids into Germany 
illustrates the general nature of this 
kind of expedition, whether it was un- 

927 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



dertaken by French or British aviators. 
"Back on the green aerodrome, miles 
behind the lines, the big bombers were 
prepared for their raid. Rows of huge 
machines stood waiting for the finish- 
ing touches, looking in the twilight like 
great birds roosting on the ground. 
To one side were the smaller fighting 
aeroplanes who would escort the 
raiders on their long flight over Ger- 



be dimly distinguished, with ponds 
and streams dimly gleaming through 
the night. They crossed the fighting 
lines at an immense altitude, un- 
troubled by 'Archie' or any other ter- 
ror of the sky, steadily humming 
toward the big German town which 
was that night's objective. After a 
good two-hour's flight a signal flared 
from the leading machine. The Rhine 




PERILS OF THE SKY 

A remarkable picture, made by one of the official British artists at the front, of "Archies" or shells'from anti-aircraft 
guns bursting round aeroplanes. The range of these guns grew longer and longer until in 1918 they were efifective 
at a height of 15,000 feet. The Germans were the first to perfect satisfactory range-finders. 



man territory. Tanks had already 
been filled, and now the huge bombs 
were wheeled out on trollies and fitted 
to the underside of the planes; belts 
and drums of ammunition were placed 
ready to use, and the engines run up 
to see that all was in order. 

"A little before dark the pilots and 
gunners arrived by twos and threes. 
Each officer carefully examined his 
particular part of the machine and one 
by one the aeroplanes left the ground 
in the gathering dusk and began at 
once to climb. Last of all the escorting 
machines went up. Mile after mile they 
flew through the darkness. Below, the 
faint outlines of fields and roads could 

928 



was at hand, and everyone prepared for 
action. Guns were fingered tenderly, 
bomb-releases looked to, and sights 
adjusted. 

BOMBERS AND FIGHTING PLANES BOTH 
NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS. 

"Then the first searchlight picked 
up the formation, and a moment later 
the sky was covered with puffs of 
smoke; shrapnel shrieked through the 
air, and long, wavering beams flashed 
hither and thither to aid the German 
gunners at their task. Down went the 
noses of the machines as they dived 
through the barrage, each pilot intent 
on keeping his place in the formation 
and hoping that a stray shot might 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



lot reach his engine. The fighters re- 
mained on high, waiting for the Ger- 
man aeroplanes which would soon ar- 
rive out of the darkness. Another 
signal flashed out, and factories and 
railway stations were now within easy 
range. One by one and in salvos, the 
pilots planted their bombs. Muffled 
roars from below announced the arrival 
of tons of high explosive; red flashes 
showed where the explosions took 



the escorting fighters had waited for. 
Diving through the night, they fell 
on their foes, shooting at close range, 
sending two of the Germans down in 
flames, to add to the terror of the town 
below. 'Archie' meanwhile had died 
away; there was as much danger of 
hitting friends as of bringing down foes 
in the wild turmoil which now filled 
the night. 

"At last all the bombs were dropped. 




ITALIAN AIRMEN SNOW LEAFLETS OVER VIENNA 

A shower of leaflets falling over Vienna during the raid made by a squadron of Italian aeroplanes under Major 
Gabriele D'Annunzio, August 9, 1918. This striking picture taken by one of the raiding airmen, shows St. Stephen's 
Cathedral in the top right hand corner, and even reveals the lines of the colored tiles of the roof. 



place. At one place a huge sheet of 
flame shot upwards, tinting half the 
heavens with a rosy glow. A moment 
later a louder boom showed the cause 
of the fire — the main object of the raid 
had been achieved: the munition fac- 
tory hit and a conflagration started. 
Up to this point the work of the raiders 
had been simple. Then the German 
night pilots came on the scene, en- 
deavoring to break up the formation 
and overpower the bombers singly in- 
stead of attacking them when they 
were well able to defend themselves. 
This was precisely the chance which 



Several fires glowed in the town and 
at least one terrific series of explosions 
proved that the heart of the target had 
been reached. The signal to retire 
was given, and the formation withdrew, 
whilst the escort acted as a rearguard 
to drive off any foes who were venture- 
some enough to follow. Another ter- 
rific burst of shell fire greeted them as 
they left the town, but no damage 
was done and the barrage gradually 
died down as the machines drew out of 
range. Westward flew the formation, 
each aeroplane maintaining its position 
in line. Overhead the stars glimmered, 

929 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



and nothing now disturbed the peace 
of the night except the roar of the 
powerful engines. 

"When halfway home the leader 
descried another formation looming 
out of the darkness. He signaled to 
his flock to be on the alert, for he did 
not know whether it would prove to 
consist of friends or foes. The ap- 
proaching machines drew closer, and 
were at last distinguished for bombers, 
like themselves, bound to the same 
town which had just suffered, but was 
to suffer again shortly." 

BOMBING OF GERMAN TOWNS IN REPRI- 
SAL FOR PREVIOUS RAIDS. 

Such work as was done by the I. A. F. 
in the Rhineland and by the French 
over southeast Germany was in the 
nature of reprisal for the raids over 
England and France in which Ger- 
many seemed to aim at lowering the 
morale of civilians rather than at de- 
struction of enemy material. It is not 
possible in such a chapter as this to 
give a detailed history of all the raids 
carried out by airship and aeroplane 
over England, who was the chief 
sufferer. Nevertheless a glance at 
some of the figures and results of these 
activities is of interest Between 
January 19-20, 1915, and April 13, 1918, 
which witnessed the last airship raid, 
556 persons were killed, of whom 58 
only were combatants, 171 were women, 
and no children. Out of a total of 1357 
injured there were 121 combatants, 
431 women and 218 children. April, 
191 6, saw seven separate raids which 
extended over the East and North 
counties of England and in Scotland. 
The discontinuance of the raids after 
April, 1 91 8, was probably due to 
improved anti-aircraft defenses. 

A GERMAN RAIDER'S ACCOUNT OF A RAID 
ON LONDON. 

This enthusiastic account of these 
slaughters is from the pen of Mathey 
after his bombardment of London: 

"London, seen at night from a great 
height is a fairy picture. . . . That 
night all appeared peaceful and quiet. 
In the twinkling of an eye, the change 
came. A narrow band of brilliant light 
burst forth suddenly and began to 
search the sky. A second and a third 

930 



appeared and soon criss-crossed each 
other like shining ribbons. Sighted 
from above by a Zeppelin, it seemed as 
though the city rudely awakened was 
raising its arms to heaven and throwing 
out tentacles against the danger that 
was threatening. 

"I visited St. Paul's and from this 
point made for the Bank. Over it, I 
shouted through the megaphone to my 
lieutenant: 'Aim slowly.' Now with 
the dull sound and rapid flash of can- 
non fire was mingled the explosion and 
bursts of flame caused by our bombs. 
Arrived over Liverpool Street Station 
I telephoned 'Fire in salvos' and the 
bombs began to rain down. Some 
shells burst near us. . . . This was 
really the most fortunate and satisfy- 
ing of my raids over London." 

MEASURES FOR DEFENSE NEVER BECOME 
REALLY EFFECTIVE. 

In aeroplane raids by far the worst 
year was 191 7 and it was after this that 
the I. A. F. rather reluctantly under- 
took its reprisals. The French under- 
took such operations much earlier, 
soon after the first raids on Paris. In 
191 7 alone, twenty-seven separate at- 
tacks, for the most part undertaken on 
moonlit nights, were delivered over 
London and the southeast counties; 
878 persons were killed, of whom 536 
were civilians, and 1551 injured, 121 1 
of them non-combatants. In all four 
years of the war 2,907 people were 
killed and 2,050 injured by aeroplane 
attack. 

No such advance in aerial defense 
was made during the war as in measures 
for attack. It is a truism in military 
science that the side which loses the 
initiative and is forced into the de- 
fensive is well on its way to defeat. 
This is strikingly evident in aerial 
warfare. Once the raiders have been 
able to come together and start, it 
will take a very large organization to 
cope with them, and even then some 
will get through. Half a dozen attack- 
ing machines might prevent a squadron 
from starting by raiding them in their 
sheds, when it would take a hundred 
planes to deal with the same number in 
the air. Other counter-offensive meas- 
ures such as high-angle anti-aircraft 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ms, high-powered searchHghts, and 

[balloon aprons were added to and im- 

)roved upon during the struggle. The 

)alloon aprons reduced the space to 

be covered by anti-aircraft barrage 

fire against the raiders. To make them, 

row of kite balloons was sent up, 
their mooring cables connected by 
;ross cables from which hung wires 
tept taut by small weights at their 



the greatest precaution, and illumina- 
tion of great cities was reduced and 
even abolished. Various ways of warn- 
ing of the approach of hostile craft 
were used at different periods: Paris 
making use for a time of bugles, London 
of sound signals or flares; and warning 
placards with "Take Cover" written 
upon them in red letters were exhibited 
through the streets by police on motor- 




A GREAT MECHANICAL BIRD OF PREY 

This picture, taken on the Western Front, is a huge R. A. F. long distance Handley-Page bombing machine, being 
got into position by a motor tractor. The performance table shows a speed at ground level of 97 miles per hour 
that it can climb to 7000 feet in 18 minutes, 10 seconds, or to 10,000 feet in 29 minutes, and to its "ceiling" of 14,00C 
feet in 60 minutes. 

ends. These formed a screen from the 
ground up to the height at which the 
balloons were anchored and an uncer- 
tain hazard to be avoided at all costs 
by the hovering birds of prey. 

THE STREETS OF LONDON AND PARIS IN 
DARKNESS. 

The defenses of Paris were better 
organized earlier than those of London, 
and partly for this reason , partly because 
of French retaliation, and partly be- 
cause they had to fly over the French 
lines to reach it, Paris enjoyed greater 
immunity. Of merely palliative meas- 
ures against aerial attack, darkness 
during night raids was recognized as 



000 

British Official Photo. 

cycles. Public buildings were thrown 
open for cover, while the govern- 
ments provided sandbags, and local 
authorities saw to their disposal in 
windows and apertures of the buildings 
thrown open to the public. The under- 
ground tube railways, in London and 
Paris, were used by people whose dwell- 
ing-places were flimsy. Measures for 
the suppression of fires were taken, and 
special fire-brigades organized. Final- 
ly, the governments, both of France 
and Britain, inaugurated a special 
scheme for insurance of property 
against aircraft and bombardment 
risks, and from national relief funds 

931 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



assisted victims of raids with shelter, 
food, and money. 

THE INFLUENCE OF CAMOUFLAGE OR 
PROTECTIVE COLORATION. 

On the fronts, of course, none of 
these counter-measures, with the ex- 
ception of anti-aircraft guns and op- 
posing aeroplanes, were in use. Friend- 
ly darkness could not be relied upon 
to any degree, for the use of star-shells 



out among neighboring woods and 
fields. To conceal such objects as 
barracks, depots, and cantonments, all 
use was made of natural shelter such 
as forests, and the illusion was com- 
pleted by painting the roofs. Camou- 
flage constructed false batteries, false 
intrenchments, false observation posts. 
The art could only be successfully 
applied to small objectives; it was not 




WILD GOOSE FORMATION 
Sixteen planes fiymg in battle formation, Rockwell Field, San Diego, California. The development of formation 
flying restored the single-place machine to favor, as the formation had no blind spot — the principal objection to 
the single seater. The end of the war found the one-man airplane more useful than ever. 

United States Official. 

possible by day to camouflage a station 
or a town, but these at night must seek 
the cloak of invisibility. Just as an 
insect or animal will rest perfectly 
immobile to deceive the hunter, so 
automobiles and horses remained im- 
mobile at the roadside or under trees, 
artillery and infantry packed under 
cover, and trains shut off steam when 
aeroplane reconnaissance was expected. 
The enemy rarely moved his troops in 
day-time, and whenever possible effect- 
ed a concentration under cover of a 
forest. Such a practice was not new in 
war. Concealment of movements from 
the enemy has always been important. 



and illuminating flares broke up its 
cover at most disconcerting moments. 
By 191 7 protective coloring, camou- 
flage or artificial mimicry, which would 
conceal military objects and materiel 
from aerial vision, was much practised. 
This new art, born of the war, mani- 
fested itself under every conceivable 
form and in any way that ingenuity 
could devise. Its purpose was to give 
to suspicious objects the appearance 
of their surroundings. A trench under 
construction could be camouflaged by 
covering it with painted linen ; hangars 
were so colored that their lines and the 
shadows they threw would not stand 

932 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



^HE ATR SERVICE AIDS IN OPPOSING THE 
FINAL DRIVES. 

In the spring of 1918 the German 
aerial machine was ready earlier than 
the Allied in preparation for the 
supreme effort to break the Allied lines. 
It is possible that if the Allies had 
possessed a thousand more bombing 
and fighting aeroplanes in service 
in March, they could have pre- 
vented the German aviators from 
mapping the Allied positions, and 
have stopped the massing of such 
a huge body of troops as Germany 
had prepared for this drive. This, 
however, was an enormous task. 
To keep 1000 aviators upon the 
field entailed a 40 per cent replace- 
ment in men, and 100-300 per cent 
in machines monthly, or 400 new 
aviators per month to keep 1000 
men operating day and night. Ma- 
chines were used up rapidly and 
in large numbers, and numberless 
spare parts were necessary. Anti- 
aircraft guns were accurate at this 
time at a height of 15,000 feet, and 
a speed up to 140 miles per hour 
was necessary so that in landing 
at such a rate much damage was 
often done. 

Before the German attack, Brit- 
ish airmen had observed that rail 
and road communications were be- 
ing improved and ammunition and 
supply dumps increased along the 
whole front from Flanders to the 
Oise. Raids undertaken during 
these weeks established the arrival 
of fresh enemy divisions, though no 
idea could be got of the real Ger- 
man strength. On March 21, under 
cover of a thick fog, the attack jim 
was launched with irresistible force 
against the British Third and Fifth Ar- 
mies. The British were forced back al- 
most to Amiens. "In this and subse- 
quent fighting the debt of the British 
infantry to the Royal Air Force could 
not be over-estimated. So long as the 
light endured they kept at bay all 
enemy machines, which otherwise 
might have discerned the nakedness 
of the land." On the 26th in face of 
the crisis Foch was given the task of 
coordinating operations in the west. 



THE TIDE TURNS AND THE GERMANS 
RETREAT. 

There followed in quick succession 
through April, May, and June an al- 
most uninterrupted series of formidable 
battles; in April the enemy tried to 
break through the British front in 
Flanders, on May 27 to pierce the 




MCCONNELL, AMERICAN AVIATOR IN FLYING 
CLOTHES 

French centre on the Aisne, on the 
following days to push forward to the 
West in the direction of Paris, and final- 
ly on June 9 he tried once more to 
break down the front between Mont- 
didier and Noyon. The Allies paid 
heavy toll but the Germans lost 
colossally. By this time the Americans 
were coming into line and Foch, now in 
supreme command, faced the climax 
of the battle with an easier mind. Sir 
Douglas Haig's so-called Victory Dis- 

933 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



patch writes of the air-forces during 
these anxious days, "The assistance 
given to our infantry by our low-flying 
airplanes during the battles of March 
and April was repeated during the 
German offensives on the Aisne and 
Marne, on both of which occasions 
British squadrons were dispatched to 
the French battlefront and did very 
gallant service." 



THE AIRMEN WITH THE AMERICAN 
ARMIES. 

In September the American army 
carried the St. Mihiel salient which 
had threatened France for four years. 
After the bombardment, squadrons of 
low-flying aeroplanes accompanied the 
infantry and the tanks. The first 
afternoon (September 12) a dispatch 
reports, "Not a single Boche plane in 




SIGNOR CAPRONI AND CHIEFS OF ALLIED STAFF 

Italian engineers were thoroughly competent, and Italian designers notably inventive but they lacked the coal 
and metal needed for quantity production. They had to rely to some extent on their allies who had been more 
amply provided with resources. They furnished in return inspiritug ideas and admirable designs, so that Mr. 
Handley-Page and Signor Caproni vied with each other and with Mr. Holt Thomas in the construction of great 



cargo-carrying machines. 

In mid-July, again at the Marne, 
the tide turned and Foch began his 
series of attacks which finally drove 
the Germans headlong toward the 
Rhine. During the German retreat the 
Allied airmen were everywhere break- 
ing up the vain attempts to concen- 
trate troops, bombing lines of com- 
munication and river crossings, blow- 
ing up ammunition dumps, and even 
putting artillery out of action. 

934 



Publishers' Photo Service. 

the sky." General Pershing's com- 
munique of the 14th said: "French 
pursuit, bombing and reconnaissance 
units and British and Italian units, 
divided with our own Air Service the 
control of the air, and contributed 
materially to the success of the op- 
erations." 

In the succeeding Meuse-Argonne 
battle lasting forty-seven days the 
airmen did valiant work. "The Air 



p 

Service em 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Service employed was largely American 
though about forty of the most ex- 
perienced French airmen assisted, as 
well as an Italian night-bombing group. 
September 26, 508 aeroplanes were 
available for service; on Armistice 
Day, 475. The total number of 
American aeroplanes shot down was 
199, and 22 American balloons. Nearly 
400 enemy machines were brought 
down and about 50 balloons." 

During the whole war British air- 
men destroyed 755 enemy planes and 
lost 357; destroyed 71 balloons and 
lost 43. 

How MANY AEROPLANES WERE THERE 
AT THE FRONT? 

The German Armies were given no 
rest all along the front and steadily 
lost ground. Take this British re- 
port for November 5 as an example of 
what was occurring all down the long 
line: "Throughout the day the roads 
packed with the enemy's troops and 
transport afforded excellent targets to 
the airmen, who took full advantage 
of their opportunities, despite the 
unfavorable weather. Over thirty guns, 
which bombs and machine guns from 
the air had forced the enemy to aban- 
don, were captured by a battalion of 
the 25th Division near Le Preseau." 

Sir Douglas Haig in his Victory Dis- 
patch says that the Royal Air Forces 
between January i, 191 8 and the Ar- 
mistice destroyed 2953 hostile airplanes 
and 241 German balloons. Nearly 



1200 more enemy machines were driven 
down out of control- 
Estimates of the aircraft strength on 
the front were always uncertain, due to 
variation in the estimates of the num- 
ber of planes in a squadron, but one 
estimate of the Allied strength 
November 11, 191 8, is as follows: 



on 



France 


3000 


Great Britain 


2100 


United States 


740 


Italy 


600 



6440 

These figures represent fighting 
planes equipped ready for service, 
but do not include replacement ma- 
chines at the front or in dep6ts, or 
training machines in France. Many 
other thousands had crashed to the 
ground or had been superseded by 
better models. The total number of 
machines constructed is unknown. 

7^HE AIR SERVICE VALUABLE ON EVERY 
FRONT. 

Though more machines were used 
upon the Western Front than else- 
where, airmen assisted on every front. 
On the Eastern and Italian Fronts, at 
Saloniki, in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, 
in the Balkans, and in the African 
campaigns, the Air Service was a 
valuable arm. In no other branch was 
so much progress made, and in daring 
it was unsurpassed. 



935 




ONE OF A MIGHTY QUARTETTE OF GERMAN DREADNOUGHTS 

The Thiiringen, the Ostfriesland, the Helgoland and the Oldenbur? were all constructed according to the same plans 
and were completed only a few years before the beginning of the Great War. Each carried ten 12-inch and twelve 
6-inch guns, and had six torpedo tubes. Tae Ostfriesland, badly injured in the Jutland fight, was turned over to the 
United States, to be studied by the naval constructors. 




THE PRIDE OF THE GERMAN NAVY 
When the battle cruiser Seydlitz was laid down in 1910 the Germans believed that it would be an exceedingly suc- 
cessful type. It had not only a thick armor belt but also carried ten 1 1 -inch guns, fourteen 6-inch, and four torpedo 
tubes. The engine power was nevertheless high enough to produce a speed of 26.5 knots. Ruschin. 



936 





Berlin's New Cathedral and the Royal Palace 

Chapter LVII 

The German Empire at War 

THE ATTEMPT TO MOBILIZE ALL THE FACTORS IN NA- 
TIONAL LIFE FOR THE WAR 



"V^/'HAT made this war different 
from all others was the manner 
in which the nations supported and 
reinforced their armed forces with all 
the resources at their disposal," de- 
clares General Ludendorff. And he 
continues, "It was impossible to dis- 
tinguish where the sphere of the army 
and navy began and that of the people 
ended. Army and people were one. 
The world witnessed the War of Na- 
tions in the most literal sense of the 
word. The great powers of the earth 
faced one another in united concen- 
trated strength." 

GENERAL LUDENDORFF BLAMES THE 
CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOR THE GER- 
MAN DEFEAT. 

In reviewing his country's experi- 
ences, the German commander makes 
clear his own conviction that the re- 
sponsibility for failure lay largely with 
the government at Berlin, which, in a 
struggle demanding the utmost effort 
of every individual, kept the people in 
ignorance of the supreme necessity 
resting upon them. He accuses the 
heads of government of being unable 
"to steel their wills to the point of 
magnetizing the whole nation and 
directing its life and thought to the 
single idea of war and victory," an 
accomplishment which was achieved 
by "the great democracies of the 
Entente." 



VON TIRPITZ JOINS IN DENOUNCING THE 
CIVIL ADMINISTRATION. 

Because of the failure of the War 
Chancellors, the former Chief of Staff 
has explained that "the mind of the 
German people remained rudderless 
and uncaptained, the prey of every in- 
fluence that came." Under another 
metaphor, Admiral von Tirpitz, when 
fretting in enforced inactivity, ex- 
pressed the same feeling. "Germany 
was," he said, "as in Luther's day, 
'a fine horse, needing but one thing, a 
rider'." In the first months of the 
war the Admiral groaned with dismay 
over the Chancellor "oscillating in 
murky uncertainty," longed to have 
"Fredericus Rex" come down from 
heaven with his walking-stick, and 
wondered how Bismarck could refriain 
from stepping off his pedestal to set 
things right. His indignation and 
apprehension burst forth in words like 
these: "Such a lack of strong per- 
sonality in the upper ranks at a time 
when the nation's achievement is so 
colossal, is astounding, and demon- 
strates a great blot on our statecraft, 
which will avenge itself bitterly, sooner 
or later." He went on: "Perhaps the 
people and the power of the people will 
save us. It is all up now with the rule 
of caste and class. Victory or defeat, 
we shall get pure democracy." 

These, then, were the views of the 

937 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



military leader and the Naval Secre- 
tary of State, as to the incompetency 
of the political leaders of their country. 
The former, pinning all his faith to the 
ideal of "an inflexible and centralized 
system of Imperial Government, which 
in its essence must be military" (the 
words are not his own), used his in- 
fluence to energize the political heads, 
while he bemoaned their lack of com- 
prehension and control. As for the 
Admiral, frothing and fuming because 
his -fleet, the result of his life's labor, 
was being kept in "cotton wool," he 
assures us that he was frequently at- 
tacked as a pessimist because he was 
the only officer in the G. H. Q. who did 
not believe that the war would be over 
before April i, 19 15. 

THE WORLD THOUGHT GERMANY A MAR- 
VEL OF EFFICIENCY. 

But the spectacle presented to the 
world at large gave a far different 
impression. It showed no sign of 
vacillation, uncertainty, discord, or 
division. There appeared, instead, 
solid ranks of determined, efficient 
military millions, excellently pre- 
pared, powerfully equipped, stepping 
confidently forward to anticipated con- 
quest. Nor were the unity and en- 
thusiasm of the people only apparent. 
The first reaction of the nation was an 
eager offering of their energies to the 
work of defending their land from the 
attacks of malevolent foes (for so were 
they led to regard the war). In an 
after-war article a German wrrter 
assures us that the German people 
entered the conflict "an absolute unit.'* 
And General Ludendorff, looking back 
with the perspective furnished by three 
years of hard struggle, wrote, "In 19 14 
we were aglow with patriotism, self- 
sacrifice, and confidence in our own 
strength. We now (in 191 7) needed 
fresh energy and impulse to make 
the German people forget the years of 
suffering and distress, of bitterness and 
disappointment; replenish it with ar- 
dor, sttength, and confidence, and en- 
able it to imbue its fighting forces with 
fresh enthusiasm." 

In 1 91 6, in his paper, Die Hilfe, Herr 
Friedrich Naumann published an ar- 
ticle frankly acknowledging the change 

938 



in spirit resulting from two years of 
experience that had opened men's 
eyes to what war really is — years in 
which death and privation greater 
than the imagination could conceive 
had come to dwell among them. 
"Hence," he said, "the impression 
easily arises that one has been pushed 
into something which one did not 
really desire." In this way, according 




AUF WIEDERSEHEN" 



to his explanation, had been bred a 
distrust of the small for the great, a 
feeling that the people at the top had 
needed the war and had required those 
in the lower ranks to bear the heavy 
burden. A soldier of the Landsturm 
was quoted as saying, "It must be ex- 
plained to the people quite simply and 
intelligibly why they are still fighting, 
because they do not know." 

THE TRIALS WHICH BROKE THE GERMAN 
UNITY. 

Between the days when the populace 
jubilantly turned their faces toward 
the war-god and followed his beckon- 
ing finger, in the expectation of a brief 
and successful campaign, and those 
later days when grief and care and de- 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



jection had closed in about them, lay 
months of varied pursuits and s.trange 
developments. Instead of der Tag 
("the day") dind der Krieg ("the war"), 
words that sang themselves into many 
conversations in the early phases of 
the great experience, were heard wist- 
ful or grumbling murmurs of Friede 
("peace"), Essen ("food") and Steuern 
("taxes"). 



I'^HE WHOLE INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM AT THE 
SERVICE OF THE STATE. 

The advantages of a highly de- 
veloped military system were demon- 
strated in the adjustment to war con- 
ditions that at once took place in the 
Empire. The course of civil life fell 
under direction by local military au- 
thorities as minute and systematic as 
that of the army's movements under 




ANTON LANG, POTTER, AT HIS BENCH 

To Oberammergau in the beautiful Bavarian highlands the war brought loss and sorrow as to other villages. But 
the rumors that reached the outer world were not all true. Though other Langs and their neighbors fought and 
fell, Anton Lang, known as widely as the Passion Play in which he had been the Christus, was living quietly at 
home. So were others of the older characters, reported to have been killed. Underwood & Underwood 



Must we conclude that the heart of 
the people lacked the "spirit that 
quickeneth"? An American, in close 
touch with the life of the country, has 
said, "Somehow the German always 
made me feel that his war determina- 
tion had been organized for him." 
There was firm foundation for such an 
impression in the stern control of the 
press and the people's unquestioning 
acceptance of its statements; in the 
official regulation of flag-flying and 
celebration; in the ubiquitous warnings 
against spies; and in the careful mar- 
shalling of all neutrals resident in the 
country. 



its officers; for the whole machinery of 
the State was placed under military 
disposal at once, and the industrial 
life of the nation had to be reorganized 
to serve the purposes of war. This was 
comparatively simple in a land where 
every male citizen of military age was 
a potential soldier. General von Falken- 
hayn claims, "The adjustment of 
science and engineering, the reconstruc- 
tion of the whole of industry in the 
interests of the war, with due regard 
for their indispensable work, took place 
almost noiselessly, so that they were 
accomplished before the enemy quite 
knew what was happening." 

939 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The concentration of interest and 
effort on the one, new, all-important 
objective required the cutting off of 
non-essentials. For the efficient con- 
trol and distribution of labor a joint 
industrial committee for the Empire 
was formed, with special separate 
committees for the special industries. 
By means of good labor exchanges, 
and with the presence of military force 
to prevent any serious trouble, the 
changes were effected successfully. 
One new feature in the industrial situa- 
tion in Germany, as in other countries, 
was the introduction into many oc- 
cupations of women in considerable 
numbers. In spite of the efficiency of 
the labor system, unemployment was 
a serious problem, especially during 
the first months of the war. 

THE FAR-REACHING EFFECTS OF THE 
RATHENAU PLAN. 

As Germany was not economically 
prepared for a long struggle of the 
tremendous dimensions prescribed by 
modern war plans, and as the interven- 
tion of England meant inevitably a 
breaking off of most of the foreign 
trade, it became immediately neces- 
sary to take thought about supplies of 
food and of raw materials. Every scrap 
must serve to the utmost of its use- 
fulness. What was in the country 
must be kept, and plans must be 
made for securing as much as might 
be had from conquered areas and from 
neutral sources. 

Under the advice and direction of 
Dr. Walter Rathenau, who was at the 
head of an extensive electrical com- 
pany, a remarkable economic mobiliza- 
tion was worked out. A bureau, with 
thirty-six sub-divisions, was created in 
connection with the Ministry of War. 
First, the total resources of the country 
were investigated and recorded. The 
distribution and use of all raw ma- 
terials and half-manufactured products 
were carefully considered and planned. 
New and improved methods were 
sought to increase and hasten produc- 
tion. In cases where the materials 
were likely to fail, with outside supplies 
cut off, chemists were set at work on 
the problem of producing substitutes. 
The official personnel for so great an 

940 



undertaking was necessarily very 
large. Not without questioning and 
opposition was the new regime ac- 
cepted in the industrial world, but 
"matters were arranged" and the 
great machinery of economic dictator- 
ship set in motion. 

How THE PLAN WORKED OUT IN TYPICAL 
CASES. 

In practical operation the plan was 
somewhat as follows. The govern- 
ment took into its own hands all estab- 
lishments and processes that might be 
adapted to war uses, all raw material 
already in the possession of manu- 
facturers and dealers, all administra- 
tors and scientists with specialized 
ability for solving the problems of 
the time. The industries were classified 
and an inventory of all stock was 
made. "Then to a manufacturer of 
cloth, or metal, the dictator would 
say: 'Your factory and your stock of 
raw material are now absolutely in the 
hands of the State. I'n order that the 
transition may not be too violent, you 
may have 10 per cent of your own raw 
material for private use during Janu- 
ary and 5 per cent during February; 
after that you are to fill only war or- 
ders for the State'." 

When- the establishments and their 
specially-trained brains had been com- 
mandeered by the government, manu- 
facturers were called upon to turn the 
attention of their laboratory workers 
toward the production of certain needed 
materials or their substitutes. At 
different times, consultations upon 
the results of their experiments were 
held. In some cases extraordinary 
success was achieved; in others, the 
problem was too difficult to be satis- 
factorily worked out. In the matter of 
nickel and rubber, both of which were 
very scarce, there were no very helpful 
results. However, substitutes were 
found which could be used instead of 
cotton in manufacturing high ex- 
plosives; a chemical equivalent of 
saltpetre, obtained from nitrogen gas, 
relieved the situation when it became 
impossible to get the usual supplies of 
saltpetre from South America; and 
zinc wire was successfully used instead 
of copper for conducting electricity. 




WORKING HAND IN HAND WITH THE ARMY 
Great numbers of women were employed in the munition factories where they had at least the protection of fire- 
proof buildings. The workers shown here were occupied in preparing wicker cases as receptacles for heavy 
shells. They had become a part of "the impelling force behind Germany's soldier millions." 




STEPPING INTO THE BREACH 
From the amused interest shown by the onlookers we may conclude that this picture was made before the sight 
of women workers employed at men's tasks had become familiar. As the men were drawn off for service at the 
front, their posts were taken by women, until no one was surprised to see Frau Fensterputzerin ("Mrs. Window 
Cleaner"), Frau Kneiperin ("Mrs. Ticket Puncher"), or Frau Brieftragerin ("Mrs. Letter Carrier"). 

Henry Ruschin 

941 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY THE MOST 
SUCCESSFUL OF ALL. 

Dr. Rathenau himself says of the 
chemical industry that, in spite of the 
difficulty it had in accommodating 
itself to "the first measures which had 
to be taken, it has perhaps achieved 
the highest place among our war in- 
dustries for boldness, initiative, and 
inventive power. Nearly every week," 
he continues, "produced new arrange- 
ments. We began with metals, and 
after t'hat came chemicals, jute, wool, 
worsted goods, India rubber, cotton, 
leather, skins, flax, linen and horse- 
hair. These industries were arranged 
partly on the basis of limited com- 
panies, partly on the basis of discount 
companies." 

The War Companies formed by the 
German banks for the various in- 
dustries received orders from the State, 
placed contracts with manufacturers, 
attended to the buying and selling of 
raw materials, and financed the bus- 
iness at a regulated rate of profit. It is 
estimated that, before long, eighty per 
cent of the German industries were en- 
gaged either directly or indirectly in 
the service of war. 

THE ATTEMPT TO ERADICATE WAR- 
PROFITEERING. 

The scandal of war-profiteering next 
demanded attention from the govern- 
ment, which promised to levy special 
taxes upon war profits after the war. 
Ludendorff frankly admits that self- 
seeking and profit-hunting were firmly 
rooted. There is a note of explanation, 
perhaps of apology, in Dr. Rathenau's 
statements published in 191 6: — "We 
have accepted the war orders, not to 
enrich ourselves, but partly to replace 
our lost peace orders and, above all, to 
serve the nation. We would not have 
been able to do this upon such a big 
scale if we had not had at our disposal 
the means laid up as the result of a 
careful policy of dividend distribution 
extending over many years." 

And, further, "We all approve of 
the tax on war profits because no one 
should enrich himself through the war. 
During the war, when thousands are 
laying down their lives and other 
thousands sacrificing their property, 

942 



comes the time for retrenchment, re- 
flection and renunciation. Never- 
theless, the fiscal screw should not be 
turned too far. The strength of our 
industry depends upon bold enter- 
prise, and the confidence of this daring 
spirit in the future should not be di- 
minished too much." 

PREPARATIONS TO DEVELOP BUSINESS 
AFTER THE WAR. 

The last sentence indicates a policy 
that concerned the business leaders in 
the country even in the midst of war 
conditions and pursuits. They were 
looking forward to readjustments after 
the return of peace. How Germany 
would hold her own in a world where 
she had created so much hostility 
toward herself was no simple problem. 

To meet such disadvantages as 
resuming trade with a greatly de- 
preciated currency, steps were taken 
toward developing industrial co- 
operation on an unprecedented and 
enormous scale. The government 
made announcement that comprehen- 
sive industrial associations would not 
only receive State support but that 
their formation would be forwarded. 
An " Imperial Commissioner" for after- 
the-war trade problems was appointed. 
Syndication proceeded with unusual 
rapidity and assumed greater pro- 
portions than before. An instance of 
this was the practical combination of 
all the aniline dyes syndicates into one 
body. Another was the development of 
huge coal combinations by Germans in 
Austria. 

Industry, finance and shipping, too, 
were brought into close union, as when 
a coal merchant of importance became 
connected with the Hamburg-Amerika 
and North-German Lloyd lines. Men 
prominent as directors of banks be- 
came as well directors of great shipping 
companies. Plans were organized for 
building up the Mercantile Marine. 
"But it was with increasingly heavy 
hearts that the German industrialists 
pursued preparations for victory that 
would square ill with defeat, and made 
ready for the end of what Herr Ballin 
in June, 1916, impatiently described 
as 'the greatest, bloodiest, and also 
stupidest war in history'." 



k 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



IUDENDORFF FINDS THIS ELABORATE 
V ORGANIZATION UNSATISFACTORY. 

IK Broad, complicated and systematic 
■ as was the organization of the nation's 
life, it did not reach up to the ideal of 
General Ludendorff for one vast army 
of the whole people under military 
control and discipline. His plea was, 
"It is necessary to throw into the scale 
the last ounce of our strength, either in 



anxiety. He advocated an Auxiliary 
Service act that would include the work 
of women. 

THE AUXILIARY SERVICE BILL UNSATIS- 
FACTORY TO THE ARMY CHIEFS. 

When the Auxiliary Service bill was 
passed by the Reichstag, in December, 
191 6, Ludendorff declared it to be 
"neither fish nor fowl" and not at all 
what the Supreme Army Command had 




THE GRAND DUCHESS OF BADEN IN RED CROSS SERVICE 
The forces of the German Red Cross were mobilized on the very day of the national military mobilization. They 
were systematically organized for service in the field and at home. Beside the sections working for the sick and 
wounded of the army, there were special departments for raising funds, for securing the welfare of prisoners for 
dealing with tuberculosis and other diseases and for producing better sanitary conditions in homes. Ruschin 

desired. 



the fighting line or behind the lines, in 
munitions work or other work at home 
or in government service." 

Ludendorff found the system of con- 
trol at home defective and unsatis- 
factory, and complained, as reports of 
shirking came to his ears, " I never was 
able to feel that in this respect things 
were as they should be for the sake of 
morale in the fields and at home." 
He felt that injustice was done the 
soldiers in that they received less for 
their services than did the workrnen 
at home. Moreover, the separation 
allowances for their families were so 
small as to increase the burden of 



For two years on end" he 
kept writing to the government con- 
cerning the amendment of the act and 
other measures for rounding up shirkers 
and slackers so as to release men for 
reinforcement of the fighting troops. 

The bill created an Office of War 
{Kriegsamt) and called for the enroll- 
ment of men from sixteen to sixty 
years of age. Women were not to be 
called upon except as volunteers. In 
fact, in the case of men's work com- 
pulsion was to be reserved as a last 
resource in case volunteers did not 
"answer in sufficient measure" to the 
call. 

943 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Financially Germany's position was 
different from that of other countries 
at war, since she was borrowing not 
from outside but from her own mem- 
bers. When it came to a question of 
whether the war loans were a good 
investment, the answer seemed to 
lie with the investors themselves. If 
they could pay their taxes, the loans 
were good. As someone has expressed 




DR. HELFFERICH, 

who in 1915 succeeded Herr Kiihn in control of the 
Treasury, was a director of the Deutsche Bank, with 
a business man's point of view. 

it, each was signing his own note. There 
was no speculation in war loans, al- 
though the business on the Boerse con- 
tinued active. 

DOCTOR HELFFERICH AND THE GERMAN 
FINANCIAL SITUATION, 

The country's "war chest," well filled 
with gold and silver accumulated in 
past years, was passed over to the 
Imperial Bank, and measures were 
taken to keep the store from depletion. 
Gold was hoarded at the Reichsbank; 
an embargo on gold set restrictions on 
private trading and led to the em- 
ployment of paper in payment for 
commodities purchased from foreign 

944 



countries. The government itself 
made purchases of all necessaries. 
Banks no longer were held to the obli- 
gation of giving gold in exchange for 
paper, and paper money was made 
legal tender. The stores of gold in- 
spired in people and officials feelings of 
pride and joy. 

Dr. Helfferich, who in 191 5 assumed 
control of the Treasury, gleefully 
announced in the Reichstag: "The 
money we use, we do not use up, it is 
with money as with the railroads 
which bring us the things we need. As 
the railroad cars roll along, well filled, 
to their destinations, so the money 
rolls out of the Imperial Bank, and 
flows back into it again by way of the 
war loans." 

Dr. Helfferich considered Great 
Britain's war taxation methods "an- 
tiquated" and aimed to raise the taxes 
in Germany only enough to keep the 
balance in the ordinary Imperial Bud- 
get. But the real basis of his structure 
was the success of German arms. All 
was to be made right by the indemni- 
ties to be paid into the German coffers 
by conquered foes after the war had 
been won. "The leaden weight of 
billions," said Herr Helfferich, "has 
been earned by the instigators of this 
war; in the future, let them, rather 
than we, drag them about after them." 
Those "instigators" he represented 
(in August, 1915,) as "still struggling 
against the thought that their cause 
was lost." 

ETALLIC MONEY DISAPPEARS ENTIRE- 
LY FROM CIRCULATION. 

But "the more Dr. Helfferich ex- 
plained German finance the greater 
was the depreciation of the mark in all 
neutral countries." It dropped until 
it "lost all relation to the gold stand- 
ard." In 1915 and part of 1916 there 
was an appearance of prosperity owing 
to the large quantities of money in 
circulation — an "illusion of money 
prosperity which invariably accom- 
panies currency inflation." No mora- 
torium had been announced but special 
loan institutions had arisen and War 
credit banks had been established 
especially for the benefit of small 
traders. These, with other devices. 



M 




GOLD AND SILVER OFFERINGS 

The collections for war charities were so continuous that one woman living in Berlin said almost every dav was 
tag day there. The gold collection is said to have been started by the Empress. The cash obtained for the gold and 
silver presented in this offering was to be used for needy widows and orphans. 




FOOD FOR THE CRUCIBLES OF MARS 
S"l°*/^^® homes of high and low came every variety of trinket and utensil made of metal, surrendered at the call 
or tlie Government, to be molten into a common mass that would , eventually be shaped into guns and shells and 
Duiiets. The school made a convenient collecting station, and the teacher's desk became a sort of altar of sacrifice 
When household gods gave way before the presence of Mars. Pictures, Henry Ruschin 

945 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



helped to sustain confidence for a 
time. 

As the war went on and difficulties 
thickened, money conditions became 
less rosy. Paper money was employed 
more and more. Small change was 
very scarce. A correspondent arriving 
from Germany in 191 7 said; "There is 
much put into circulation, but it dis- 
appears again immediately. No one 
can say precisely where it remains, but 
it is suspected that the agricultural 
population bury it in the earth in 
order not to have to change it for 
paper." Postage stamps, sometimes 
used in its place, were far from con- 
venient, they so quickly got soiled, 
torn, or lost. As in industry, so in 
finance, the thought of the leaders was 
turned beyond wartime to the return 
of peace conditions. Schemes for 
contracting the currency, and the 
probability of peace loans were taken 
into consideration. 

THE GROWING DIFFICULTY OF THE BUSI- 
NESS OF LIVING. 

As one after another the stores of 
essentials became low — rubber, petrol, 
copper, wool, cotton, leather, and, 
above all, foodstufl^s, fats and oils — 
adjustment after adjustment had to be 
made, until a point was reached where 
the people's attention was almost whol- 
ly engrossed in a frantic endeavor to 
meet the elementary needs of living. 
Heels, tires and other articles made of 
rubber, when worn out, were replaced 
by other substances. One writer, 
speaking of the ''hitherto undiscovered 
potentiality of a rubber tire for wear," 
says, "Those on taxicabs are believed 
now to be indestructible. They wore 
out nominally months ago, and are 
still serving, but for looks!" This was 
in 1915. 

Wheels, once divested of their rub- 
ber tires, were equipped with tires of 
cement, tires of leather disks, or tires 
of coiled wire. Taxicabs were largely 
superseded by horsecabs, though only 
poor horses were left. The good ones 
had gone into war service. Pleasure 
riding by automobile or bicycle was 
early forbidden. Later, even sorely 
needed transport lorries were held back 
for lack of petrol or proper lubricants. 

946 



When at last benzol had to be sub- 
stituted for petrol, motor service and 
air service were greatly reduced in 
efficiency. Scarcity of oil meant long 
unlighted winter nights in country 
regions, imposing a condition of forced 
inaction that darkened mind and 
spirits. When to this discomfort was 
added cold, owing to difficulty in ob- 
taining coal, the pulse fell lower yet. 
The question of coal, as we shall see, 
was one of transportation rather than 
of actual supply. 

COLLECTIONS OF METALS, USEFUL IN 
MAKING MUNITIONS. 

The first official collection was made 
in the autumn of 191 5, when metals of 
military value were carried from 
hearths and shrines to be melted and 
moulded into instruments of death. 
Kitchens gave up their brass oven- 
doors, which had to be replaced by 
iron, their kettles and pots and pans; 
public buildings were stripped of their 
copper roofs; churches lost their bells, 
that the foundries might be fed. It 
has been estimated that the kitchens 
and roofs of Germany had stored in 
them enough copper and brass to 
furnish a supply for two years. As 
copper roofing had been very popular, 
great quantities of copper had been 
imported for that use. One of the 
buildings unroofed for its metal hoard 
was the Rathaus at Bremen. 

The contributions were paid for by 
weight without any consideration of 
their artistic value, though heirlooms 
were sometimes allowed to remain in 
their owners' possession. As the de- 
mand for metals kept in advance of 
supplies, however, the requisitions be- 
came more and more severe and 
searching, until copper articles had 
entirely disappeared from private 
houses. A Swedish lady tells an in- 
cident that she witnessed in Berlin, at 
a baker's. Two policemen came into 
the shop and began unscrewing some 
brass trays which were used for dis- 
playing cakes, whereupon the baker 
shouted to them in excitement: "Go 
across to the Prince in the castle 
yonder, and take the door-handles from 
his stable doors, which have twice as 
much copper in them as my trays, and 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 






were not durable but they served the 
immediate purpose.. 

The pride and interest of the nation 
were for a time engaged and held by 
the exhibitions of skill and efficiency 
in adaptation which they witnessed; — 
electrical works turned into munition 
factories, shells manufactured in the 
place of machinery, field kitchens pro- 
duced by boiler makers, and water- 



eave me my things which I need for 
my business." But the Prince was a 
Captain of the Hussars and a man of 
great wealth, therefore his door-handles 
were left in place while the baker was 
deprived of his trays. 

THE ATTEMPT TO SUBSTITUTE PAPER FOR 
COTTON. 

Systematic saving (sparsamkeit) 
and officially-managed collections were 
the order of the day, all over 
he country. Children carried 
donations to school. Women 
gathered up cartloads of paper. 

^Everyone helped to collect 

Hfruit-stones for the precious 

■drops of oil that could be ex- 

^fcracted from them. There were 

^pmperial metal week, imperial 

^wool week, and imperial gold 
week when everyone contrib- 
uted treasures and trinkets of 
gold, receiving in exchange 
others made of iron. If, as has 
been said, the families of war 
profiteers were at that very 
time spending extravagant 
sums on gold and jewels, the 
sacrifice made by the many 
seems all the more poignant 
and impressive. 

The shortage in cotton was 
kept from public notice as long 
as possible, but when Great 
Britain had declared this im- 
portant material absolute con- 
traband of war the strain be- 
came acute. Trade in the 
commodity had to be reorgan- 
ized and only absolutely neces- hindenburg serving the red cross 

Sary cotton fabrics might be Crowds repaired to the Tiergarten in Berlin to drive nails into the 

mpniifartnrpH R\/ F«^hrnar\7 2*^^* wooden figure of their hero. For the privilege of adding a 

inanuiacturea. r>y reoruary, goj^ nail, one paid ten marks; for a silver nail, five marks; for an 

I916, textile manufactures iron nail, one mark. N. Y. Times 

were brought under government con- proof clothing put forth by umbrella 




trol. Further steps included the con- 
trol of clothing, distribution by ticket, 
and the official regulation of the length 
of material allowed for each garment. 
Fairly satisfactory substitutes for cot- 
ton to be used for high explosives were 
discovered, as we have seen. By 191 7, 
fabrics made of paper were being made 
up into children's garments and work- 
men's blouses. Cellulose, thistles and 
hair were other substitutes used in 
manufacturing cloth. These textiles 



manufacturers. Until real want and 
suffering laid hold upon body and mind, 
the people Were pleased with the il- 
lusion of their country's self-sufficiency. 

THE GROWING SCARCITY OF CLOTHES 
BRINGS LEGISLATION. 

When on February i, 19 16, the 
State took over control of textiles, 
part of the cl'othing industry was 
covered, too. Certain stocks were re- 
quisitioned at prices fixed by the Im- 
perial Arbitration Office, These in- 

947 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



eluded such things as blankets, bed- 
ding, other household linen, and hand- 
kerchiefs, as well as clothing that 
could be used for the army, navy, men 
in civil service and prisoners of war. 
From this time uniforms were no longer 
issued to railway employes. A month 
or two later, the maximum length of 
material for each article of dress for 
women and children was prescribed 
by the Prussian Ministry of War, and 
a detailed table was drawn up by a 
committee of specialists. 
' Already, an appeal had been made 
to the women of Germany to show their 
patriotism by wearing garments that 
would require less material than those 
in fashion. Plates and model costumes 
were used in an effort to popularize a 
revival of old Viennese styles. An 
economical Reform-Kleid ("reform 
dress"), which was advocated also, 
proved too ugly to survive except as 
food for jokes in the weeklies. De- 
votion to Paris leadership was hard to 
kill; for women still managed to get 
fashion sheets and fashion news by 
smuggling. Clothing prescription and 
leather shortage did not prevent their 
wearing full skirts and high boots; 
while their hats, if there was a chance, 
were copies of Paris models. But 
isolation did in time produce a differ- 
ence in styles; while ingenuity was in 
the end put to the test in the matter of 
materials, as, witness, woolen curtains 
and blankets converted, after dyeing, 
into winter gowns or wraps. 

THE CLOTHES TICKET IS INTRODUCED 
AND THE RESTRICTIONS EXTENDED. 

June ID, 1916, is the date which marks 
the introduction of the clothes tickets 
{Bezu^scheine), the first object of 
which was to protect the poor by pre- 
venting the well-to-do from buying up 
necessary lower-priced articles. Those 
who could afford to do so were en- 
couraged to buy articles of luxury at a 
higher price rather than goods that 
were in general demand. By degrees 
additions were made to the list of 
things to be obtained by ticket only, 
and higher-priced articles took their 
places there. A ticket had to be pro- 
cured in the district where one lived, 
and the applicant seeking a ticket for 

948 



the first time must answer many ques- 
tions. If the wardrobe supply could be 
proven insufficient, the permit would 
be granted. It was then placed 0*1 
file. It was non-transferable and 
could be used for only the sort of mer- 
chandise indicated upon it. Separate 
tickets must be secured for different 
articles. The clothes ticket bore, in 
all seriousness, the notice that it was 
"good only in the German Empire." 

Throughout 191 6 the system was 
expanding, until in the autumn, there 
was a general stocktaking of the cloth- 
ing supplies in the whole country. By 
Christmas time, trade in second-hand 
clothing, linen and footwear came into 
the hands of the State. Even transac- 
tions in old clothes were carried on by 
local authorities, and only by means of 
permits. When a man bought a new 
suit he was required to give up his old 
one to be put in condition for the use of 
some returned soldier. 

It was natural that 191 7 should 
bring more stringent ruling. Permits 
for underwear and stockings were 
hard to obtain. The allowance of 
stockings for each person was two pairs 
in three months. In April, shoes were 
included in the ticket system, with not 
more than two pairs a year permitted 
to an individual. The poor quality of 
leather made this provision insufficient. 
None but the soldiers' shoes were good. 
A call was made upon the prosperous 
to give up any clothing and footwear 
they could spare. Then, an absolute 
maximum of all wearing apparel was 
established, and no one who already 
possessed the authorized maximum 
could get a permit for more. House- 
hold linen also was strictly limited. 
Hotels and boarding-houses were for- 
bidden to make any additions to their 
stock of bed and table linen. Expen- 
sive articles which could be obtained 
without ticket {ohne Bezugschein) were 
displayed and advertised in the hope of 
diverting buyers from the diminishing 
stock of things listed. 

THE SUPPLY OF FOOD BEGINS TO BE IN- 
SUFFICIENT. 

Every month brought some change, 
some added restraint, intended to 
furnish relief and postpone disaster. 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The time came when only paper fabrics 
were allowed in shrouds, while shoes 
and stockings were positively forbidden 
for burials. To a people like the 
Germans, accustomed to having their 
affairs shaped by the State, compliance 
was easier than it would have been 
among a more independent and demo- 
cratic public; but questions and doubts 
as to the causes of the war and the 



must naturally be vulnerable in war." 
The British blockade, in spite of vehe- 
ment submarine demonstrations of 
resistance, drove the lesson home. 

German "hunger" was used as a 
basis of appeal to neutrals, long before 
actual hunger became a serious con- 
dition. So it played a part in inter- 
national affairs. Meanwhile, at home, 
the nation was dealing with its prob- 




A CLOTfflNG BUREAU OF THE RED CROSS 

Among the extensive activities of the Hed Cross organization, provision for orphans and other needy ones was 
included. To its doors came those who could spare, bringing garments and other useful donations. To the same 
doors came those who had need of help, receiving frocks, cloaks, shoes or undergarments that could not be sup- 
plied at home under war conditions Hosts of devoted women gave their time to such helpful work. 

Henry Ruschin 

lems in public and in private, meeting 
them sometimes wisely, sometimes 
with the unwisdom and injustice of 
partisan favoritism; sometimes coura- 
geously, and again with dismal or 
ugly complaining. 

THE FARMERS REFUSE TO SELL AT THE 
PRICES FIXED. ; 

After a census of the country's 
supplies had been taken, as a first 
step toward conservation, the authori- 
ties in the autumn of 1914 issued a 
statement declaring: "We have bread 
and corn enough to feed the Army and 
the people until the next harvest. We 
must be sparing with our supplies in 

949 



reasons for its prolongation grew as 
daily life grew more and more bitter 
with hardship. 

Among the experiences that made for 
bitterness and gloom none worked 
more direfully than the fear that arose 
from a steady contraction of food 
supplies. At the outset, of course, no 
such life-and-death struggle was fore- 
seen. But, long before the guns of 
the Allies ceased to speak on the 
battle front, the German people were 
learning the truth of the saying: "A 
food-importing nation that does not 
absolutely control the paths by which 
its nourishment reaches it from outside 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



order to start the next harvest year 
with the necessary reserves. We desire 
to be able to see the war through under 
all circumstances until we have won 
the certainty of a permanent peace." 
In November a scheme of maximum 
prices was established on the basis of 
somewhat over fifty dollars as the cost 
of a ton of rye in Berlin, prices varying 
with the distance from the source of 
supply. At this time, too, there was a 
beginning of the bakery restrictions, 
of which so much was heard later, 
when German "war bread" {Kriegs- 
brot) became almost a symbol. The first 
instructions as to the ingredients of 
the new bread were that at least ten 
per cent of rye should be put into 
wheat bread and at least five per cent 
of potato into rye bread. It was al- 
lowable to use as much as thirty per 
cent of potato in bread. 

Weaknesses in the new system be- 
came apparent at once, when farmers 
withheld their stocks from market, and 
dealers chose to send supplies to the 
markets where the prices were highest 
(the difTerence in prices had no true 
relation to the cost of transportation). 
Farmers were not forced to keep the 
markets supplied, due to the influence 
of the agrarian element in the govern- 
ment where it was treated "too 
tenderly." It was said of this class, 
"The agrarian, the great Junker of 
Prussia, not only will not make 
sacrifices, but stubbornly insists upon 
wringing every pfennig of misery 
money from the nation which has 
boasted to the world that its patriotism 
was unselfish and unrivaled." 

Landed farmers continued to main- 
tain large stocks of cattle and pigs, 
feeding them (now that the fodder 
supply from Russia had been cut off) 
grain that should have been used for 
the food of human beings, but smaller 
proprietors found it impossible to feed 
their stock and so were compelled to 
kill the animals. 

THE COMMITTEE ON PIGS MAKES A GRAVE 
MISTAKE. 

A Striking mistake was the killing 
of too many pigs at the start. It was 
recommended by a committee that as 
many as sixty-five per cent of the 

950 



swine in the country be disposed of, in 
order to save the skim milk and butter- 
milk (albuminous foods) ordinarily 
fed to them. There resulted, as one 
writer expresses it, "first, a glut of 
pork, and months afterward a famine of 
fat." The same writer notes this lapse 
as a proof that German efficiency is 
not infallible. He says: "If you had 
seen, shortly after the beginning of the 
war, a swine conference in Berlin, at 
which statisticians, physicists, chem- 
ists, agriculturists, commerzienrats,and 
one government offtcial sat down to 
determine just how many hogs would 
have to be killed at once to effect a 
permanent equilibrium between vege- 
table and animal food for men, with 
the certainty that their conclusion 
would be accepted as scientific and 
acted upon accordingly, you would 
have said, 'That is German efficiency.' 
J^nd so it was. But they killed too many 
hogs, and were sorry, because new 
problems arose on that account, no- 
tably the problem of fat." 

More than a little waste resulted, 
owing to hasty and careless dressing of 
the meat. The public, notwithstand- 
ing, was cheered by the plentiful store 
of pork, since they felt no anticipation 
of the evil days to come when there 
would be so few pigs that the dearth of 
fats would make of commonest soap a 
rare luxury. In those later days of 
want exhortations were placarded in 
country places, such as: — 

"FATTEN PIGS 

"Fat is an essential for soldiers 
and hard workers. Not to keep 
and fatten pigs if you are able to 
do so is treason to the Father- 
land. No pen empty — every pen 
full." 

And the words were an offense to the 
small farmer who could not keep pigs 
or cattle because of lack of feed for 
them. 

How BREAD TICKETS WERE ISSUED AND 
MANAGED. 

After the statisticians and other 
specialists had determined upon the 
apportionment of food materials, vari- 
ous plans for regulating the existing 
supplies were tried. Before the end 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of the year, a War Corn Company 
{Kriegsgetreidegesellschaft) was formed 
— the directors including industrial 
magnates and representatives of the 
State. When, in January, the govern- 
ment seized the corn supplies, the 
stocks thus acquired passed into the 
possession of the War Corn Company 
or of local municipal organizations, to 
be thence distributed as was judged 



where about two thousand workers 
persisted for two hours in showing 
their disapproval. Yhe form of the 
bread ticket, also, varied. It was 
divided into sections, so that rolls or 
small loaves might be bought instead 
of a single large loaf; and at the bottom 
of the card was a flour ticket. One had 
a choice between a supply of flour and 
a supply of bread. At one time the 




SOLDIERS ON GUARD OVER BERLIN STORES 
When provisions grew scarce and hard to get, so that one must wait in line long hours for a scant supply that 
would be quickly used up, the problem of obtaining food became a weariness of the flesh and a vexation of the 
spirit. The futile expedient of rioting was tried, with broken windows, wrecked stalls and ruined goods as a 
result. But the disorder was soon suppressed by police and military control. 



best. After some experimenting in 
methods for administering a uniform 
bread ration, "bread tickets" were 
adopted, at which time a long state- 
ment of explanation to the public 
appealed to every individual to re- 
member that "conscientious obedience 
to the regulations is a grave and sacred 
duty to the Fatherland." 

The first bread ration allowed a little 
over seven ounces a day to each p,erson. 
The quantity was changed from tifne 
to time, until a sharp reduction, in 
May, 191 7, in the season before green 
vegetables were to be had, caused a 
demonstration in Unter den Linden, 



butter card was placed in the middle of 
the bread card, and again separate 
tickets were used. In order to get 
bread at a restaurant or a boarding- 
house it was necessary to produce one's 
ticket, and be sure that one was not 
given short weight. But, when any one 
accepted an invitation to a meal, he 
carried his bread and butter with 
him. 

THEY TALK NOT OF WAR OR OF PEACE, 
BUT ONLY OF BUTTER/" 

Not until the autumn of 1915, when 
harvests were bad and fats and oils 
were getting very scarce, did con- 
ditions begin to press hard. Super- 

951 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



vision of prices was taken in hand with 
new system; local authorities were 
granted larger powers, especially for the 
restriction of meat consumption; and 
separate government offices were set 
up for separate articles, as for instance, 
the "Imperial Potato Office." 

Perhaps the most widely-felt de- 
privation of that autumn was the lack 
of butter. Long lines waiting for hours 
in front of the shops suggested the 
coining of a new verb to fit the ex- 
perience, — butterstehen ("to stand and 
wait for butter"). Butter absorbed a 
large part of the national consciousness. 
Indeed the Frankfurter Zeitung com- 
plained: "Anybody who listens to the 
conversations of German women, no 
matter to what class they belong, is 
constantly faced with the question of 
butter. It is as if these women had no 
other care and no other yearning except 
butter. They talk not of war or of 
peace but only of butter." 

There was some rioting in places, — 
smashing of windows, overturning of 
stalls, and similar demonstrations, but 
none of very dangerous proportions. 
The police were able promptly to 
establish order and prevent any really 
serious disturbances. Soon the ex- 
tension of the card system to include 
butter, milk, meat and soap) then, 
later, eggs and other groceries, reduced 
the crowds and thereby reduced the 
probability of outbreaks. 

MEATLESS DAYS FAIL TO SOLVE THE 
PROBLEM. 

The initial step in restricting the 
consumption of meat was to assign 
meatless days, — Tuesdays and Fri- 
days — when no meat was to be sold 
in shops or served in restaurants. 
Evasions of the ruling, together with 
the rapid reduction of the meat supply, 
made it necessary to adopt meat cards. 
These remained under local control 
until October, 191 6, when the regula- 
tion was taken over by the State. 
Even then the butchers sometimes had 
too little meat to sell. Some of them 
assigned different days of the week for 
customers holding different numbers, 
and so avoided embarrassment. Eggs 
were substituted on the menus for 
pork, beef, and veal, until they, too, 

952 



became so rare that cards restricted a 
person to two eggs a week, and eventu- 
ally to one egg in two weeks. Game 
was eaten by those who could get it, 
and poultry by those who could afford 
it. In a Dresden restaurant a pleasing 
variation was offered for a limited time 
when an elephant which had been hurt 
in the Zoo, and had to be killed, furnished 
elephant meat, sold without ticket. 
As to fish and vegetables, the former 
finally began to soar in price and of the 
vegetables the most reliable were the 
least palatable — onions, cabbage, and 
turnips (the unfailing kohlrabi, said 
to be "fine for filling up space"). 

Before these extreme conditions 
were reached, a War Nutrition Office, 
established in May, 1916, with Herr 
von Batocki at its head, was given 
the "right of disposal" over all stocks 
of necessaries of life, raw materials, 
and other commodities, and all fodder, 
this right of disposal including the 
power to regulate trade and con- 
sumption, importation and exporta- 
tion and prices. In December its 
functions were somewhat restricted 
when the War Emergency Office was 
formed, including a department for 
providing food for that part of the 
population engaged in war work. Herr 
von Batocki's task, thereafter, was to 
administer what was left for the old, 
infirm, young children, and non-work- 
ing mothers. 

MOST OF THE SUBSTITUTES PROVIDED 
ARE UNPALATABLE. 

Through the fall and winter, 1916- 
191 7, the sale of canned vegetables 
was forbidden so that they might be 
saved for use in the spring before fresh 
vegetables were available; yet in Sep- 
tember, 191 7, the already scant food 
ration was dropped from twelve pounds 
a month to nine pounds. There was 
danger that the bread supply would 
fail before the new harvest, at a time 
when bread and potatoes formed the 
bulk of the ration. Milk, long reserved 
for young children and invalids, had 
no place in the diet of a healthy adult 
under forty-five. As sugar grew more 
and more difficult to obtain, saccharine 
was substituted. Candy and chocolate 
were costly and hard to get. Pro- 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



vision was made, when possible, for 
sweets of some sort in the dietaries of 
children. 

Of the many substitutes placed in 
the market, as the natural supplies 
failed, milfix (to take the place of 
milk); egg substitutes (in powder or 
capsule form); and "butter stretcfcer" 
(which, added to a quarter of a pound 
of butter, expanded it into a half- 



S TORIES OF SMUGGLING AND OF ILLEGAL 
PURCHASES. 

There are stories told of wealthy 
persons in Berlin and in Vienna who, 
when they were able, by paying fabu- 
lous sums, to obtain a little smuggled 
cofifee, gave parties to their friends, 
occasions that were considered worthy 
of forming the chief topic of conversa- 
tion for days following. In Austria, 




UNLOADING POTATOES IN THE CITY OF BERLIN 
If the potato could but have its eyes opened to its own importance in world economics, it might swell with pride, and 
demand to be served in nothing meaner than silver. Those were aark days, during the war, when Berlin was 
without potatoes. Since complaints were louder in the poorer, hungrier East-end than in the more aristocratic, 
royalty-loving West-end, when potatoes arrived it was expedient to supply the East-end first. 



pound) proved acceptable. Meat sub- 
stitutes, especially those masquerading 
as sausage, seem to have been far from 
savory; while the imitation cofifee 
(Kaffee-Ersatz) is declared by an Ameri- 
can woman to have been "the most 
horrible stufT anyone ever tasted with 
the exception of the substitute they 
have for tea." Nevertheless, the Ger- 
mans, in their devotion to the diver- 
sions of cafe life, accepted the ill- 
tasting concoction eagerly and still 
sat around their little tables drinking 
it or letting it cool before them while 
they talked, probably on the painful 
but fascinating topic of things to eat. 



particularly, coffee is said to have been 
as "rare as diamonds" and to have 
cost almost as much, if we are to be- 
lieve an account of a Vienna lady's 
journey to Trieste to buy fifty pounds 
of it from a woman there for eight 
hundred dollars. 

Smuggling and illicit buying were 
common performances. It was the 
usual thing to purchase at night 
through back doors at forbidden prices 
provisions which could be had only by 
card at prescribed prices by day, or 
perhaps could not be had at all by 
regular processes. One foreign resident 
confesses that anything could be 

953 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



bought without a card if you knew how 
to do it. "Most people had crooked 
ways of getting things, and we all 
were as crooked as we had a chance to 
be," she adds. 

Smuggling, clandestine buying at 
high prices, hoarding and profiteering 
wove a web of evils in which many of 
the middle class and the poor of the 
cities were enmeshed almost hopeless- 



operated where good food was sold at 
low prices. In already existing food- 
kitchens, instituted in peace days by 
philanthropic persons, patronage 
greatly increased during wartime; 
while new Middle Class Kitchens and 
People's Kitchens, established under 
either municipal or private control, 
dispensed hot, nourishing meals to 
waiting women and children, day by 




A FOOD KITCHEN IN BERLIN AND SOME OF ITS PATRONS 
To feed millions of hungry mouths when the nation's larder was scantily supplied required careful co-operative 
planning. One solution of the problem was found in the establishment of food kitchens in the cities, where nourish- 
ing food was provided. This picture shows one of the kitchens in Berlin, with a group of young patrons. 

day. Some were under the patronage 
of women's clubs. Some, like that of 
the American Chamber of Commerce, 
were carried on largely by the volun- 
tary help of society women. In ad- 
dition to the kitchens that had a 
local habitation as well as a name 
there was the traveling soup-kitchen, 
or ''goulash cannon," from whose steam- 
ing cauldron were ladled out into 
lifted cans and pails many quarts of 
good hot stew along the city streets. 
In cases of persons who could be 
certified as unable to pay, the distribu- 
tion was free. 

Since "men cling to food habits 



ly; for, at its best, the official ration 
was far below what was adequate to 
support working strength. Reliable 
reports state that producers kept back 
abundant supplies for themselves; that 
to raise the price they held back 
potatoes when there were plenty; that 
they went so far as to unload upon a 
hungry public a store of potatoes 
(advertised to be sold without ticket 
and ordered in advance) so bad as to 
be unfit for swine. 

PUBLIC KITCHENS ESTABLISHED IN THE 
PRINCIPAL CITIES. 

By way of mitigating hardship in 
the large cities, public kitchens were 

954 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



w^hen all others disappear," it was no 
easy task that confronted the house- 
wives who had to feed their families 
with so few of the usual food stuffs 
and ingredients in their larders. Lec- 
tures, practical demonstrations, ex- 
perience meetings, and war cook- 
books, offered assistance. At first the 
results were not encouraging. Women 
came to the meeting-places "in droves, 
listened intently, applauded enthu- 
siastically — and then went home and, 
after a brief struggle against the 
family tastes, gave up and tried to 
adhere to the pre-war dietary," But 
housewives' guilds, that advocated a 
rigid economy, finally succeeded in 
helping to solve some of 
the problems by estab- 
lishing consulting and ad- 
visory bureaus and by 
introducing such wiles as 
cooking parties where new 
recipes were presented 
and tried. Unusual 
menus, with such dishes 
as beer soup, plum soup, 
potato and cabbage pud- 
ding, appeared in the 
cook-books. 

PUBLIC RESTAURANTS NEV- 
ER BETTER PATRONIZED, 

Water in which potatoes had been 
cooked must not be thrown out but 
kept for making soup or gravy; to 
perpetuate a tea flavor, plum leaves 
were stewed with real tea leaves before 
being dried to be used as a substitute; 
and in some families coffee grounds 
were used over and over as preferable 
to the detestable Kaffee-Ersatz. 

It might reasonably have been ex- 
pected that public eating places would 
decline, as food and drink deteriorated 
and dwindled, but not so! Rather, 
they flourished under the changed 
conditions, as people sought solace for 
discomfort in their accustomed haunts. 
"When you cannot stand it any 
longer," writes a foreigner in Berlin, 
"you take what is left of your family 
and purse and go to a restaurant to eat 
and drink moderately, but slowly, for 
the whole evening." Cafes, beer-halls, 
restaurants and hotels, like the play- 
houses and opera (after a brief period 



of closing), were well-filled. The fam- 
ous Adlon, "where everybody goes 
because everybody else does," claimed, 
indeed, that the second winter of the 
war started its most prosperous year. 
Though service in the beer-halls was 
limited and the beer was not of the 
best, there was full demand for what 
was to be gotten. In a Berlin estab- 
lishment only those in chairs might be 
served. The customers met the diffi- 
culty by carrying camp-chairs to sit 
upon. And in Munich, when the 
beer-halls were not opened until six 
o'clock in the evening, the undaunted 
Miincheners stood at the doors knock- 
ing out tunes with their mugs from 




A B()M1;FUL of PROPAGANDA 



four o'clock on. 



J 



EALOUSY BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT 
SECTIONS OF THE COUNTRY, 

It must not be supposed that all 
parts of the country felt the strain 
uniformly. As a matter of fact, there 
was sufficient inequality to cause 
friction, especially with Bavaria, where 
the regulations of the War Nutrition 
Office met stubborn resistance. The 
Bavarians, having provided a bountiful 
supply of meat for the army and given 
up great quantities of dairy products 
for the use of North Germany as well 
as for export to neutral countries in 
exchange for currency, were resentful 
that Prussian tourists invaded their 
health resorts for the sake of the better 
food to be gotten there. Munich, 
where bread was better than in Berlin, 
and where meat, vegetables, fruit, 
sugar and other foods were more 
plentiful, had its own distributing 
stations for the supply of Bavaria. 

955 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



While the army ration was larger and 
better than that of the civil population, 
there were times when the provisions 
set aside for the fighters had to be 
shared with those at home, a necessity 
which Ludendorff and the rest of the 
Supreme Army Command deplored. 
A reversal of exchange between in- 
dividual civilians and soldiers came 
about, too. Instead of receiving par- 
cels of food from home, the men at the 
front, particularly officers, sent part 
of their own rations to their families. 

PRODUCTION FAILS TO INCREASE IN 
PROPORTION TO THE NEED. 

Increased production, the only real 
help or salvation for the land, did not 
keep step with the need, in spite of 
exhortations by the government, in 
spite of war gardens in city lots, in 
spite of soldiers sent home on leave for 
sowing and planting time, in spite of 
the substitution of artificial nitrates 
for foreign manures. Discourage- 
ments and obstacles held down produc- 
tion. "When a man has no interest 
in the planting, marketing, and selling 
price of his produce; when he knows 
that what he grows may be swept away 
from his district without being sure 
that it will be of any benefit to himself 
and his family; when, in addition, the 
father or sons of the household lie 
buried by the Yser, the Somme, the 
Meuse or the Drina, it is impossible 
for the authorities to inspire any en- 
thusiasm for life, let alone war, even 
among so docile a people as those they 
deal with." The fixing of maximum 
prices and the regulation of consump- 
tion were not enough. Without con- 
trol of produce distribution to markets 
and without the support of the agrarian 
producers these measures were des- 
tined to fail of their end. 

FOOD AND SUPPLIES DRAWN FROM THE 
OCCUPIED TERRITORIES. 

Although to record here in detail 
the toll drawn by Germany from the 
occupied areas of Belgium, France, 
Poland and Serbia, is impossible, a 
brief glance over this phase of the his- 
tory is necessary for the sake of justice 
and balance. Having caught some 
idea of the need of raw material we 
must look at the other side of the page, 

956 



where the ruthless seizure of raw 
materials is pictured. In the words of 
General Ludendorff the Prussian view- 
point is plainly stated : — 

" In such a war it was inevitable that 
the occupied territories would have to 
supply raw materials. Firmness grad- 
ually achieved a great deal in this 
direction. ... It is obvious that 
this involved hardship for the local 
populations, but equally obvious that 
these steps had to he taken.'' He speaks 
casually of seizing all the Belgian 
locomotives to relieve transportation 
troubles, and regrets that the Russian 
rolling-stock could not be used because 
it was of a wrong gauge. With regard 
to scrap metal for steel production he 
remarks: "We removed it from the 
occupied districts in large quantities. 
Many a factory had to he sacrificed to 
our war industry, under the pressure of 
the blockade and the necessities of the 
war, in order to furnish old iron for 
the steel of our weapons and ammuni- 
tion. The output of steel gradually 
became sufficient." 

THE EXTENT OF THE SPOLIATION OF 
BELGIUM AND FRANCE. 

Yet he would have us feel that the 
German attitude was almost compas- 
sionate. "In spite of all our needs," 
he tells us, "we acted with a leniency 
that was carried almost too far when 
compared with the extreme steps taken 
at home." Humanitarian argument he 
regards as "absurd," and he deplores 
the political propaganda developed by 
the democratic foes of the govern- 
ment out of the unavoidable "dis- 
content" of a populace living under a 
really beneficent German rule. With 
regard to provisions concerning educa- 
tion, religion and administration of 
justice among the conquered, he is 
complacency itself. "I firmly believe 
that only the Germans would take so 
much trouble in a conquered country," 
he asserts in telling of the legal system 
set up in Lithuania. And, "We went 
so far in our desire for toleration as to 
give the Jews wheaten flour for un- 
leavened bread," he claims again. 
Whether this has any connection with 
the admission, on another page, that 
the Jew was an indispensable middle- 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



man In getting the skins, hides, copper, 
brass, rags and scrap-iron that were 
forwarded to the Home War Depart- 
ment we can only conjecture. 

After-war investigations and re- 
ports have made it a famihar story- 
how thousands upon thousands of 
tons of wool were wrested from France 
and Belgium to make German uni- 
forms or help out the home market; 



that if our government were responsible 
for the war we should be able to bear 
all these terrible sacrifices?" 

FIELDS AND FORESTS OF THE OCCUPIED 
TERRITORY EXPLOITED. 

The development of agriculture in 
some of the occupied territory was 
elaborately systematized under the 
control of specialists. With supplies 
of tractor plows and other modern 




"BAA, BAA, BLACK SHEEP, HAVE YOU ANY WOOL?" 
Here are more than the "three bags full," of the rhyme. By commandeering from the people of the conquered 
areas wool in every form (blankets, Oriental rugs, clothing, filling of mattresses, etc., as seen in the picture), 
ransacking houses to find it, prying even into the spaces between walls where things were sometimes hidden by 
desperate owners, the Germans collected thousands of tons of wopl, to be used in manufacturing army supplies. 



how thousands upon thousands of 
factories (26,000 in France alone, it is 
claimed) were destroyed or denuded 
of their machinery; how horses, cattle 
and hogs were carried off until in 
Belgium there were hardly any horses 
left and the diminution in the remain- 
ing live-stock had reached about one- 
half the original number. Was there 
not a bond of sympathy between the 
poor German countrywoman who had 
killed her pig because she could not 
feed it and the Flemish peasant whose 
pig had been seized to help prolong 
the war? "We do so long for peace," 
exclaimed the former. "Do you think 



machinery, and horses from the artil- 
lery, the work was pushed intensively. 
For example, sixty per cent of the 
arable land in Northern France was 
cultivated by the German Army it- 
self; twenty per cent, by combined 
labor of the army and the local 
peasants; the remaining twenty per 
cent, by the peasants alone. The 
army took the crops from the land 
cultivated by its own efforts, including 
half of the part operated in combina- 
tion. Of the thirty per cent nominally 
left to the peasants, much was paid 
for in promissory notes, redeemable 
and payable after the war. 

957 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Fine forests such as those of Poland 
invited exploitation. From the saw- 
mills built there, wood and pulp for 
many uses went forth to the armies 
and to the home factories, besides the 
valuable by-products — resin, charcoal 
and chemicals. With mines in France, 
Belgium, Poland and Serbia yielding 



somewhat by the seizure of oil-wells 
in Rumania. Rumania furnished so 
valuable an asset in foodstuffs, too, 
that General Ludendorff does not hesi- 
tate to say, "In the year 1917 only 
Rumania enabled Germany, Austria- 
Hungary and Constantinople to keep 
their heads above water." 

THE DEPORTATIONS AND THE 
WORK OF WAR PRISONERS. 

One of the questions to be 
settled in the conquered lands 
was whether machinery and 
workers should be made use of 
where they were or transferred 
to Germany. Many factories 
and workshops were operated 
in the territory itself, as, for 
instance, those for barbed-wire 
production, wood-sawing and 
railway work in Poland. In- 
habitants, in spite of protest 
and resistance, were employed 
in cultivating the fields, labor- 
ing under military engineers, 
and otherwise serving the con- 
querors. Worse than this, on 
the plea of economic and socal 
benefit for the victims, op- 
pressed by the evils of serious 
"unemployment caused by the 
British blockade," the German 
authorities saw fit to deport to 
Germany numbers of men and 
women who would release from 
the farms and shops of the 
Fatherland fighters for the 
A WOODEN PINCUSHION Kaiser's army. The unhappy 

Into wooden effigies, like this of Hindenburg. the Germans drove l^t of the Frcnch and Belgian 
nails of iron, silver and gold, paying so many marks for the privi- exilcS IS a familiar tale. From 
lege, thereby contributing to the Red Cross funds. p^j^^^ ^^^ ^^^^-^^ ^^^^ ^^jj_ 

tional man-power was drawn. What 
conscious rectitude breathes in the 
statement that in these matters "the 
military authorities were acting from 
patriotic duty and not arbitrarily"! 

The factor, however, that counted 
most toward saving the industrial life 
of Germany was the labor of prisoners 
of war, principally the Russians, who 
greatly outnumbered all others. Work- 
ing side by side with peasant women 
on farms all over Germany, or doing 
rough labor for new constructions, they 
were better pleased to be busy than 
unoccupied. 




coal for the Germans, the chief problem 
in this case was one of transportation 
rather than of quantity produced. Al- 
though men were called in from the 
army to work on the railroads and stock 
was commandeered wherever it could 
be taken, the foundries at times were 
retarded in their output for lack of 
fuel, and in many homes there was 
great discomfort from cold. In the 
cities, women trundled coal in baby 
carriages or any receptacles they could 
use. One considerable factor in the 
transport difficulties was the shortage 
of lubricants, which was mitigated 

958 




ELECTRICAL TREATMENT FOR THE WOUNDED 



No scientific knowledge or skill was allowed to be wasted in Germany. The specialized ability and training of 
scientists and surgeons were at the command of the nation that they might be devoted to the work of saving or 
rebuilding as much as possible of the man-power of the land. The success was remarkable. 




ORTHOPEDIC CONTRIVANCES FOR RESTORING THE INJURED 
Work for the Kriegbeschadigte (damaged by war) covered a broad field. No pains were spared in the efifort to 
reconstruct the broken strength of the men who had been thrown out of the ranks because of injury. A sur- 
prisingly large percentage of them returned to the army. Others were prepared for usefulness in civil pursuits after 
proper treatment and training. The Government undertook the expense and control of this work. 

Pictures, H. Ruschin 

959 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



'T^HE WAR WORK OF THE GERMAN WOMEN. 

Into the posts left vacant by their 
men stepped the women of Germany, 
adapting themselves to the roughest 
and most unaccustomed occupations 
until there was perhaps no task or 
callino: that did not claim them. 



majority were eager to be of use to 
their country. At first they turned to 
knitting and Red Cross work. Then 
the founding of the National Women's 
Service League gave broader opportu- 
nities. Work for the families of soldiers 
covered many activities; — investiga- 
tion of conditions, relief for needs, 
assistance in the care and 
nourishment of children, ar- 
ranging lucrative employment 
for the mothers, collecting and 
distributing clothing. There 
was work for all who offered 
their services, and the response 
to the call was generous. Other 
organizations provided for 
training society women in 
gardening, cooking, household 
management, etc. Most useful 
results were achieved, too, in 
the collecting and canning of 
fruit and vegetables. 

TAKING CARE OF THE MUTI- 
LATED AND RESTORING THEM. 

Of their substance the peo- 
ple contributed freely to the 
unending collections for chari- 
ties. Boxes were kept on the 
teachers' desks that the pupils 
might drop in their gifts to be 
used for the sick or distressed. 
And there were crowds who 
flocked to drive their gold or 
silver or iron nails into the 
great wooden Hindenburg in 
the Tiergarten at Berlin and 
AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHARE ^^^to Other smaller efifigies in 

The National Women's Service League is receiving offerings to VarioUS plaCCS. Many Wcll-tO- 

brighten the Christmas of the Berlin soldiers' wives. Many volun- ^^ fomi'liVc iinrl«=.r<-r-ir»lr the- ciir» 

teer workers in the League were kept busy assorting donated arti- ^^ lanuiies unuertOOK Uie bup- 

cles, directing repairs and alterations, and distributing gifts. port of Orphans Or provided for 

When the schoolmasters had to go, the recreation of poor children, partly 
women of education took their places; or fully adopting them. 




and so it happened all down the scale. 
Women operated street-cars and taxi- 
cabs, punched tickets at stations, 
cleaned windows, ran elevators, de- 
livered milk and coal, even did heavy 
digging for the underground railway. 
They acted as letter-carriers, car- 
conductors, bill-posters, street-cleaners, 
and drivers of ash wagons. 

While among the leisure classes 
there were those whose attention was 
still held by fashion and amusements 
and their own selfish concerns, the 

960 



Nowhere, perhaps, did Germany 
show greater ability than in restoring 
her crippled soldiers to active life. 
She could send a man to be torn and 
shattered, blinded or dismembered. 
Then she would strive with all the 
resources of science and skill to put 
him together again and set him to 
work. Wonders were performed. In 
many cases, the patient was restored to 
his own trade or given government 
employment. Arms and legs, fitted 
upon the badly maimed, enabled them 




fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



sume activities. There is a case 
reported of a legless engineer running 
a fast train on an important railway. 
Special training was given the blinded. 
Training, where needed, was given 
without expense to the soldier; and 
there were new establishments that 
provided for the new contingencies, 
like a farm for one-legged men. 

HY THE RHINE CITIES MUST BE FED 
FIRST. 

In all the fluctuating circumstances 
one flaming centre was considered 



i#r. 



times, the conditions under the driving 
stress of war became so unfortunate as 
to produce in the laborers a state of 
mind which was torn between hatred 
for England and discontent with their 
own hard lot. Working under martial 
law for eight hours a day (there were 
three eight-hour shifts), seven days a 
week, on a diet which included no fats 
but consisted chiefly of beans and 
potatoes, and sleeping, as some did, in 
crowded barracks, they became a 
lump made ready for Socialist leaven. 






TUBES ENCLOSING PROPAGANDA 

Propaganda played an extensive part in the war. In fact, some of the German leaders attributed their downfall 
in great part to the use of propaganda by the Allies. Various methods of distribution were employed by both 
sides. Leaflets were scattered from aeroplanes or ejected from bombs, or, as in this case, sealed in watertight 
containers. These particular tubes were thrown into the Rhine in Switzerland to be floated down the river. 

first — the Rhenish-Westphalian cities 
where the war-god had his forge. 
There the complement of workers 
must be fed — more than were their 
brothers elsewhere, even as the fighting 
men on the battle-fields. In fact, they 
were allowed one-third more than 
ordinary civilians. Essen, the heart of 
the group of towns where the produc- 
tion of munitions was going on day 
and night, is the home of the Krupp 
works. This enormous plant, which 
had made its owner, Frau von Bohlen 
and Halbach {nee Krupp), one of the 
wealthiest women in the world, be- 
came in war practically a Government 
Department. In spite of the excellence 
of equipment for the home life and 
comfort of the workers in normal 



In the earlier years of the war, 
Hamburg, too, was a swarming hive 
of industry, where as many as fifteen 
thousand men were employed night 
and day, "getting ready for. the Ham- 
burg of tomorrow." The giants of the 
sea, the "Bismarck," of 55,000 tons, 
and the "Tirpitz," of 32,000 tons, grew 
up in the docks there, while sailor 
boys were in training to man kn ex- 
tensive merchant marine after the war. 
The total tonnage of new boats up to 
the winter of 1916 was announced to 
be 740,000 tons, with 100,000 ad- 
ditional then under construction. 

GRADUALLY UNITY AND CONCORD DIS- 
APPEAR UNDER STRESS OF WAR 

In the first hours of the war, unity 
and concord, founded upon emotions 

961 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of loyalty to the country, actuated all 
parties and all classes. Socialists laid 
aside their antagonisms to fall into line 
temporarily. But the years 1915 and 
1916 introduced political questions 
that reawakened controversy and dis- 
sension; 191 7 and 191 8 brought actual 
division and disaster. Around the 
Chancellor, von Bethmann-Hollweg, 
swirled the conflicting currents of 
opinion, while he endeavored to keep 
the government firm amid the strain. 

Between the Socialists, who were 
opposed to annexation of territory, 
and the National Liberals, led by 
Admiral von Tirpitz, who called for 
extreme steps to overwhelm Great 
Britain, the Chancellor's course was 
not easy to control. 

The submarine controversy, as all 
the world knows, brought about the 
fall of von Tirpitz in March, 1916, 
when the Kaiser was forced to choose 
between him and Bethmann-Hollweg. 
The Admiral's resignation as Secretary 
of State for the Imperial Navy, after 
nineteen years in office under three 
Chancellors, was a circumstance that 
made a deep impression. Through the 
disputes with the United States and 
the various peace moves the govern- 
ment manoeuvred. A division in the 



Socialist ranks and Dr. Liebknecht's 
interruption of the Chancellor's speech, 
resulting in his court-martial and im- 
prisonment, were significant episodes 
in 1916. In July of the following year 
von Bethmann-Hollweg, yielding to 
the pressure of an anti-government 
bloc in the Reichstag, resigned. 

RUMORS OF REVOLUTION SPREAD 
- THROUGH THE LAND. 

The intricacies of the political posi- 
tions that followed, under the chancel- 
lorships of Dr. Michaelis, Count von 
Hertling and Prince Maximilian of 
Baden, we cannot follow here; but there 
was no concealing the growing spirit of 
unrest in the nation. Rumors of 
revolution were more and more per- 
sistent. Strikes and riots demanded 
strict policing. There were many in- 
dications that the fulfilment of a proph- 
ecy, said to have been made almost 
twenty years before by Carl Schurz, 
was drawing near. These are the 
words attributed to him: "I fear that 
some day there will be occurrences that 
will force the German people to wrest 
their destiny from the hands of the 
Kaiser, but by then probably it will 
be too late to prevent the great 
catastrophe." 

L. Marion Lockhart 



962 




Native Troops of the Belgian Army 

Chapter LVIII 

The Conquest of German East Africa 

lERMANY FINALLY LOSES A VAST COLONIAL EMPIRE AF- 
TER DESPERATE RESISTANCE 



TN a broad-lying country, barely 
snatched from utter wildness, where 
savage beasts stalking in their haunts 
contributed a peculiar and sensational 
element of hazard, the very face of 
nature made the game of war an 
adventure requiring especial fitness 
and prowess on the part of the players. 
The human participants were so few 
that military forces had often to be 
numbered by tens instead of by 
thousands, but there was staged, never- 
theless, a scene of the World War that 
equaled in earnestness and courageous 
undertaking, though not in dimension 
and importance, the titanic pageant in 
Europe. It worked for the frustration 
of a vast Mittel-Afrika scheme con- 
ceived in the German Colonial Office. 

GERMAN EAST AFRICA ALMOST AN EM- 
PIRE IN ITSELF. 

From the shore of the Indian Ocean 
to the long, rocky-mountain-rimmed 
lakes of the Great Rift Valley, German 
East Africa covered an area of over 
380,000 miles (almost twice that of 
Germany in Europe) including high 
tableland and mountain, thick forests, 
malarial swamps, jungles, barren 
stretches, and great sweeps covered 
with tall elephant grass. The sea- 
board, six hundred twenty miles in 
length, offered good harbors for several 
ports, such as Dar-es-Salaam (the 
capital), Tanga, Kilwa and Lindi. 



But the northern section, where lie 
Tanga and Dar-es-Salaam, was guarded 
by the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar, 
both under British protection. Of the 
western lakes, the whole eastern shore 
of Tanganyika — more than four hun- 
dred miles — bordered the German pro- 
tectorate. About one-half of beautiful 
and picturesque Lake Kivu was avail- 
able for German use, as well as about 
one-fourth of Lake Nyasa. 

THE STATES WHICH BOUNDED GERMAN 
EAST AFRICA. 

The great Victoria Nyanza, in size 
practically equal to Scotland, lay 
more than half in German territory. 
To the west of it Uganda, and to the 
east, British East Africa formed the 
northern land boundaries of German 
East Africa. The western neighbor, 
beyond the lakes, is Belgian Congo; 
while Northern Rhodesia and Nyasa- 
land on the southwest and Portuguese 
East Africa (Mozambique) on the 
southeast, complete the tale of border- 
ing states. Of the many rivers flowing 
through the region, the greater number 
are not adapted to navigation, and 
there are large areas of the country in 
virgin state, undeveloped and even 
uncharted. 

SOME OF THE COUNTRY HABITABLE BY 
WHITE MEN. 

The part best suited for the residence 
of Europeans is found in the north- 

963 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



eastern districts, where the Usambara 
Highlands, forming a horseshoe-shaped 
rim of protection around a productive 
valley, not many miles from the sea, 
almost touch the frontier of British 
East Africa. Here, in "the garden of 
the colony," a group of European 
village communities has been de- 
veloped through the private investment 
of German and British capital. Other 
such settlements are in the hills around 
Mrogoro, west of Dar-es-Salaam. 

Two railways have been built since 
the opening of the twentieth century. 
The Usambara line runs from the sea at 
Tanga to Neu Moshi in the shadow of 
Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest peak 
in Africa. The Central, or Tanganyika 
trunk line, terminating originally at 
Mrogoro, was completed to its ter- 
minus oTn Lake Tanganyika at Kigoma 
(near Ujiji) in February, 1914. The 
introduction of the railroads, as would 
be expected, greatly increased the 
volume of export trade from a country 
rich in forests and in agricultural pos- 
sibilities and not without minerals. 

DANGERS AND PESTS FATAL TO MAN 
AND BEAST. 

On the British side of the border, the 
Uganda railway had connected Vic- 
toria Nyanza with the seaport, Mom- 
basa, as early as 1901, although its 
construction had been frequently dis- 
puted and impeded by the wild 
creatures of the woods and river val- 
leys. Man-eating lions nightly snatched 
coolies from their tents, without re- 
spect for fire or gun shots. Crocodiles 
snapped their trap-like jaws upon 
hapless bathers or drawers of water. 
Obstacles and impediments were on 
every hand. In the words of a Hindu, 
there were "many rocks, mountains, 
and dense forests abounding in lions 
and leopards; also buffaloes, wolves, 
deer, rhinoceroses, elephants, camels, 
and all enemies of man; gorillas, fero- 
cious monkeys that attack men, black 
baboons, of giant size; ... wild 
horses, wild dogs, black snakes and all 
animals that a hunter or sportsman 
could desire. The forests are so dark 
and dreadful that even the boldest 
warriors shrink from their awful 
depths." 

964 



Yet this catalogue has not exhausted 
the terrors of the land. A British 
officer on duty beside Victoria Nyanza 
in the war, adds to the list. To quote 
from his letter: "Every known form 
of insect and some peculiar to it (the 
lake) alone, swarm in and around it. 
Tsetse fly and sleeping sickness, nine 
kinds of fever, each worse than the one 
before, revel in the district in addition 
to hippo and crocs, which prevent 
bathing on the beaches." His con- 
clusion is, "If ever the Devil had a 
hand in the making of a country, this 
is the one he took most interest in, I 
fancy." Official reports confirm these 
impressions, as we read, for instance, 
that in the autumn of 1916 for a period 
of two months, the wastage included 
10,000 horses, 10,000 mules, 11,000 
oxen, 2500 donkeys; while in a single 
week there were 9,000 men sick in 
hospital. 

POPULATION OF THE COLONY AND THE 
MILITARY FORCES. 

The population of German East 
Africa numbered about 8,000,000, with 
some 5000 whites. When the war began 
there were in the country visiting non- 
residents who had come for the open- 
ing of the completed Central Railway 
or Tanganyikabahn. The army that 
was immediately gathered together 
included many of these as well as mem- 
bers of crews of steamers that were in 
port, in addition to the German mis- 
sionaries and residents of military age 
(estimated at about 3000), the military 
and police, native reserves and re- 
cruits, and Arabs. The Arabs had been 
incited to a Holy War by the German 
authorities, who suddenly turned from 
an anti-Mohammedan attitude to one 
of conciliatory friendliness. In all, we 
may place the number of troops or- 
ganized under the German colors by 
October, 1914, at 30,000 natives and 
4000 Germans. In command was 
Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck who had 
been in Africa developing the local 
military organization since the spring 
of 1914. His able leadership, seconded 
by an ample initial supply of machine 
guns and other arms and by the 
strength of his native troops, kept 
German East Africa practically free 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




ROUTES OF INVASION AND LINES OF GERMAN RETREAT 

Here can be seen the frontiers of German East Africa, where the early border fighting took place. The gen- 
eral converging movement of invading forces is also plainly shown. General Smuts's force in two main columns, 
after the envelopment of Kilimanjaro, moved south toward the Central Railway and the Rufiji River. General 
Northey worked from Nyasaland north and east. Their lines approached each other near the Mahenge Plateau. 
Other British drives were made inland from coastal bases and, in co-operation with the Belgians, around Lake 
Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza, From the northwest the Belgians pushed in upon Tabora. The southeast 
border the Portuguese held. The points from which General Smuts and General Northey started were 500 
miles apart, and the Belgian base was 800 miles from either. 



from invasion by the Allies for the 
first year and a half, and made it pos- 
sible for the Germans to sustain the 
offensive during that time. 

On the British frontiers of German 
East Africa, when the startling news 
of war was received, police and military 
bodies were recalled from distant posts, 



and new forces were recruited to guard 
the danger points, especially the 
Uganda Railway, which lay perilously 
near the border. (The German con- 
centration point, Moshi, was quite 
too close for safety.) A valuable 
nucleus existed in the semi-military 
police and the small but excellent body 

965 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



of admirably-trained native fighters, 
the King's African Rifles, the greater 
part of whom were at the time engaged 
in Jubaland, on a punitive expedition. 
These were called back to the German 
border, and about this centre rallied 
volunteers from the British and Indian 
settlers — a thousand or more within 
a fortnight. Two new regiments, the 
East African Mounted Rifles and 
the East African Regiment, took shape 
at once, the former becoming a really 
effective body. The Boer Volunteers 
were organized into a special separate 
company. 

THE NATIVES UNDER BRITISH RULE RE- 
MAIN LOYAL. 

As to the probable action of the na- 
tives there was natural anxiety at 
first. Some of them were drawn into 
the ranks of the enemy — fine warriors 
from the Manyumwezi, the Masai, and 
other tribes; but the majority of those 
in British territory, especially the 
powerful Masai, remained loyal. Fears 
were set at rest by their offers to 
serve in the British army. The Arabs, 
too, on Zanzibar and the east coast, 
resisting the invitations and propa- 
ganda of their German neighbors, 
responded readily with financial and 
personal support to the necessity of the 
British. Among them. Lieutenant A. 
J.' B. Wavell, who had made a pil- 
grimage to Mecca, was able to raise 
a body of recruits, who, known by the 
name of "Wavell's Arabs," soon made 
a reputation for themselves as staunch 
fighters. 

These men who formed the thin line 
of resistance against German aggres- 
sion — from the natives, who were bush- 
bred shikaris, and their officers, who 
had acquired skill as hunters of big 
game, to the settlers, who were "a 
sporting lot" — all had a close acquaint- 
ance with the hardships and dangers of 
the country. However, the available 
defenders of British territory in East 
Africa during the first three weeks 
probably numbered not many more 
than 1 200. If the foe had struck with 
decision then, the outcome might have 
been serious, and there was reason for 
unrest until reinforcements from India 
could arrive. 

966 



DESULTORY FIGHTING DURING THE 
FIRST FEW WEEKS. 

The early fighting was of a sort not 
uncommon in almost any far colonial 
section of the British Empire. Posts 
were attacked and slight incursions 
made by small bands from each side; 
on the lakes and the ocean, steamers 
were sunk and ports were seized. The 
main objectives of the Germans, on 
the northeast, were Mombasa and 
the Uganda Railway, giving approach 
to Nairobi, the capital. The first aim 
of the British, beyond the defense of 
their own territory, was to control 
Dar-es-Salaam and establish naval 
supremacy on the lakes. 

Promptly, in the second week of 
August, a British cruiser from Zan- 
zibar bombarded Dar-es-Salaam (''the 
harbor of peace") dismantling German 
ships in the harbor, sinking the floating 
dock and a survey ship, the Mowe, 
and disabling the wireless station in- 
stalled there. At the same time, on 
Lake Nyasa the only German steamer 
was disabled by a British boat. The 
Germans, however, were taking their 
first steps toward their chosen goals by 
seizing Taveta, close under Kili- 
manjaro, and Vanga, on the coast, 
fifty miles south of Mombasa. The 
arrival, on September 3, of the first 
reinforcements from India was op- 
portune. Brigadier-General J. M. 
Stewart, who brought the troops from 
the East, then assumed command 
of the whole British force. 

I^HE KONIGSBERG FORCED TO TAKE 
REFUGE IN THE RUFIJI RIVER. 

On the southern frontier the volun- 
teer defenders and the Rhodesian 
police were kept on the alert to hold 
their towns from capture by bodies 
of Germans whose numbers greatly 
overmatched their own. In the north, 
the enemy gained a tentative footing 
east of Victoria Nyanza, where border 
fighting continued at intervals with 
varying fortunes. But the chief effort 
and the chief interest centred in the 
section between Kilimanjaro and the 
ocean. Beyond the coast, indeed, the 
German cruiser, Konigsberg, caused 
.some trepidation until she was driven 
into the Rufiji River by the East 



p 

Indian sq 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



[ndian squadron. The damage she 
accomplished was the destruction, on 
September 20, of the Pegasus in Zan- 
zibar harbor; she was prevented from 
taking part, as had been planned, in an 
attempt to overwhelm Mombasa. 

A German attempt on Mombasa, 
begun on September 20, was checked 
at a point about twenty-five miles 
below the city by the determined 
stand of Wavell's Arabs. There, near 
Gazi, they held until reinforced. Then 
the fighting continued up to the second 
week in October, when the Germans 
withdrew. Although determined at- 
tempts to reach the Uganda Railway at 
Tsavo, in order to blow up the Tsavo 
bridge, were turned back by stiff 
fighting, the Germans were able to 
establish themselves not far from that 
point, as well as at Longido, north- 
west of Kilimanjaro (valuable as 
furnishing the only permanent water 
in a broad region), while they con- 
tinued to hold Taveta. 

I-^HE BRITISH FAIL TO TAKE TANGA 
BY SEA. 

The coming of the second Indian 
Expeditionary Force, under the com- 
mand of Major-General A. E. Aitken, 
made it possible to undertake offensive 
action upon German East Africa. The 
British transports reached Tanga on 
November 2, and the town was called 
upon to surrender. In the hours of 
grace that were granted before bom- 
bardment should begin, German rein- 
forcements were hurried to the port. 
The fight, after a landing was made, 
resulted in severe losses for the British, 
owing to heavy machine-gun fire from 
the housetops and to entanglements 
of rope hidden in sandy paths so 
arranged as to release signal flags fixing 
the gun-range, besides assaults of bees 
from concealed hives. The casualties 
amounted to 795, nearly 150 of whom 
were British officers and men. It was 
necessary to withdraw to Mombasa. 

Before the end of the year, Longido 
had been evacuated by the enemy and 
reoccupied by General Stewart; a 
second raid by sea had been made upon 
Dar-es-Salaam; and the Baganda, na- 
tives of Uganda, had established a 
strategic line along the Kagera River. 



In 1915 there was continued fighting of 
the same sort on all the borders. At 
the end of April, the command passed 
into the hands of Major-General M. J. 
Tighe, who entered with energy upon 
preparations for stronger offensive 
measures. July was marked by the 
destruction of the Konigsberg, which, 
bottled up in the Rufiji, had made a 
strong position on the adjacent shores. 




Major-General Sir Michael Joseph Tighe, command- 
ing in Africa from April, 1915, to February, 1916, paved 
the way around Kilimanjaro for General Smuts's suc- 
cessful campaign. 

where some of her guns had been set 
up. When her location had been dis- 
covered by British aircraft, two river 
monitors were sent to bombard her. 
After heavy shelling on July 4 and 
July II, the cruiser was entirely de- 
stroyed; but her crew, numbering 
about 600, and her guns went to join 
the land army of Colonel von Lettow- 
Vorbeck. 

GERMAN ATTEMPTS TO INVADE RHODE- 
SIA ARE REPULSED. 

In Northern Rhodesia German at- 
tacks on Fife and Saisi were repulsed 
with unyielding courage on the part 
of their garrisons, though in the latter 

967 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



place telegraph connection had been 
broken down, there was scant supply 
of food, and water could be obtained 
from the river only at great peril under 
cover of darkness. As to the difficul- 
ties with regard to supplies and trans- 
port on this front. Viscount Buxton 
states: "From 1st April to 31st 
December, 1915, 20,(XX) carriers were 
employed in carrying over 1,000,000 
pounds of supplies from distant bases, 
and an additional 50,000 in bringing 
grain from adjacent districts." 

By March, 1915, British supremacy 
on Victoria Nyanza had been secured; 
but the story of the control of Lake 
Tanganyika (where the Belgians co- 
operated with their ally) involves a 
seemingly mad venture that was, 
nevertheless, carried through to suc- 
cess. Two motor-boats, swift and well- 
armored, the Mimi and the Toutou, 
made the journey from England to 
Cape Town and from Cape Town to 
the lake without disaster, then pro- 
ceeded to work havoc among the 
German boats. After February, 191 6, 
only one of any size remained, the 
last of the German flotilla on the lakes. 
This, a twin-screw steamer, the Graf 
von Gotzen, was finally scuttled by 
her captain after having been bombed 
by a Belgian aeroplane. The introduc- 
tion of motor boats and aeroplanes into 
the heart of Africa had been a surprise 
to the enemy. Some of the natives 
insisted upon believing that the air- 
ships were birds. 

THE DIFFICULT TRIP OF TWO MOTOR 
BOATS. 

The trip of the motor boats from the 
southern point of the continent in- 
cluded 2300 miles by train; 150 miles 
by haulage over atrocious roads where 
the altitude varied from 2000 to 6000 
feet; another short ride on trucks by 
rail ; a 400-mile run down a river, float- 
ing under their own power; a bit of the 
way on lighters among rocks and shoals, 
and a final stage by rail. Commander 
Spicer Simson, in his report, pays 
tribute to his men and their devotion 
to the enterprise. He says: "Washing, 
and even drinking, water was voluntar- 
ily given up for use in the boilers of 
the traction engines in order that the 

968 



progress of the expedition should not 
be delayed." 

For the protection of the Uganda 
front, General Tighe directed the cap- 
ture of Bukoba on Victoria Nyanza, 
where the fort and the wireless installa- 
tion were destroyed and valuable 
documents taken. But the command- 
er's attention was most concerned 
with plans for invasion of the Kiliman- 
jaro section. Because of the arid 
nature of the country there, it was 
necessary to pipe for a water supply 
and to build and carry tanks. The 
preparations made by General Tighe 
were so admirable as to be praised by 
General Smuts and, with but slight 
changes, carried forward on the same 
lines by him after he assumed com- 
mand. 

GENERAL SMUTS TAKES OVER THE CHIEF 
COMMAND. 

The change in control took place in 
February, 1916, after new brigades 
raised in South Africa had begun to 
arrive at Mombasa. As Sir Horace L. 
Smith-Dorrien, who had been ap- 
pointed, was prevented by ill-health 
from assuming the East African leader- 
ship. General Smuts was prevailed 
upon to accept it. With the rank of 
Lieutenant-General in the British 
Army, he arrived on the eastern coast, 
February 19, to infuse with his in- 
spiring, whole-souled enthusiasm the 
troops under his command and to 
throw his able generalship into cam- 
paigns that would rid East Africa of 
German armies. The first work was to 
reorganize the British forces, whose 
Indian and South African contingents 
held representatives from almost every 
continent, with a rare mixture of 
languages. Three divisions were 
formed and definite work laid out for 
each. 

After an eighteen-day campaign for 
control of the border around Kiliman- 
jaro, a concerted movement of converg- 
ing forces began, with the object of 
pressing in upon the Germans from all 
sides. By consulting the map one can 
get a clear conception of these opera- 
tions. Nearest the coast. General 
Smuts conducted the main column of 
invasion (Major-General Haskins' ist 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Division and Major- General Brits's 
3rd Division) toward Mrogoro and 
the Rufiji River. The 2nd Division, 
led by Major-General J. L. Van 
Deventer, advanced upon the Central 
Railway between Kilimatinde, and 
Kilosa; while from the northern end of 
Lake Nyasa, the reinforced troops 
from Rhodesia and Nyasaland under 
their new head, Brigadier-General Ed- 



THE GERMANS DRIVEN OUT OF ONE 
POSITION AFTER ANOTHER. 

The campaign around Kilimanjaro, 
begun on March 5, 1916, was an en- 
veloping operation of two columns, one 
moving from northwest of the moun- 
tain, the other from the southeast. The 
latter, General Van Deventer's, ad- 
vanced upon Taveta, which was evac- 
uated on the ninth; then through the 




MAKING STRAIGHT A HIGHWAY FOR CIVILIZATION 

By such construction gangs as this was most of the labor done that opened parts of Africa to access by rail. 
Before General Smuts took over the command. General Tighe, in preparation for invading the Kilimanjaro region, 
pushed forward a branch of the Uganda Railway from Voi toward the enemy position at Taveta. 

Henry Ruschin. 



ward Northey, worked northeast with 
Neu Iringa as an objective. General 
Tombeur, of Belgian Congo, ready 
now for his first real offensive move, 
divided his force into separate columns, 
one of which operated along the eastern 
side of Tanganyika, while two others 
drove southeast upon Tabora, with 
the support of a British column from 
Victoria Nyanza, whose leader was 
Brigadier-General Sir Charles P. 
Crewe. The enemy were thus squeezed 
out of position after position, often 
escaping by some unsuspected route, 
concealed, even when close at hand, by 
the thick bush growth. 



mountain pass toward Moshi, which 
they occupied on the thirteenth. A 
few days later Kahe Station, by the 
Pangani River, had been seized and an 
advance made to Arusha; but the 
Germans had managed to get away 
farther east. Now, however, a base 
had been established on the enemy's 
own soil and by quick action this had 
been accomplished before the rains 
began. The branch railway was farther 
extended to Kahe, to link together 
the Uganda and Usambara lines, thus 
aiding communication. The work pro- 
gressed at an average of a mile a day. 
Headquarters were moved to Moshi. 

969 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



General Van Deventer's Division, 
without pausing, made a remarkable 
forced march across difficult country, 
though without adequate provisioning, 
to surprise the enemy at Kondoa 
Irangi. The position became theirs 
on April 19, after which they paused to 
recover strength, both men and horses 
having been thoroughly exhausted. 
Their movement had the effect antic- 
ipated by General Smuts, as it forced 
von Lettow to weaken his hold in 



had taken possession of Wilhelmstal 
and Korogwe, whither he turned to 
join Sheppard's force at Handeni. 
They came together there on June 20, 
a day after Sheppard had entered the 
town, the Germans dropping south 
among the Nguru Mountains, where 
they began to gather together their 
strength. Handeni now became the 
seat of British General Headquarters. 

By the combined efforts of land and 
naval forces, the coast region was 




ON THREE WHEELS AND A TREE-TRUNK 

Difficulties of transport were great enough, under the best conditions, in the East African treks over rough, 
irregular, scrubby ground; but this thirteen-pounder, having lost a wheel, is managing with an improvised runner 
to keep its place in the Kilimanjaro Column. It is uphill work, but neither men nor guns can be spared. 



Usambara by transferring some 4000 
men to the vicinity of Kondoa Irangi 
where a last German offensive stroke, 
attempted in May, ended in failure. 

THE GERMANS DRIVEN OUT OF THE 
USAMBARA HILLS. 

General Smuts seized this moment 
for forcing the remaining Germans 
out of the Usambara Hills. His main 
column, including Sheppard's and 
Beves's brigades, pushed through 
heavy bush on the left bank of the un- 
fordable Pangani River, guarded on 
their left by Hannyngton's brigade, 
which proceeded along the railway, 
while some of the King's African Rifles 
skirted around the Pare Mountains. 
By the middle of June, Hannyngton 

970 



cleared, during July and August, as 
far south as Bagamoyo. This made it 
possible to move the British base from 
Mombasa to Tanga. Meanwhile Col- 
onel Olsen's Tanganyika division of 
the Belgian army on the east side of the 
lake, before the first week of August 
had secured Ujiji and Kigoma, at the 
western end of the Central Railway, 
whence they soon started eastward. 
Another force, crossing the lake, had 
taken Karema before moving toward 
Tabora. Colonel Molitor, with thf^ 
other columns, after taking Kigali, 
east of Lake Kivu, had moved on the 
way to Tabora; and Sir Charles Crewe 
had secured a good base in Mwanza, 
on Victoria Nyanza. 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



General Northey's advance from the 
southwest started at the end of May. 
While some of the forces operated in 
the area of Bismarckburg, clearing it 
of the enemy, the main body marched 
north from the shore of Lake Nyasa, 
occupying Neu Langenburg on May 
30. The southern German detachment 
under Captain Count Falkenstein, 
made a firm stand at Melangali, with 



THE GERMAN COMMANDER ESCAPES 
FROM MROGORO. 

"To bottle up the enemy in Mro- 
goro" was General Smuts' next aim. 
There were the German administra- 
tive headquarters, and there were both 
the Governor, Dr. Schnee, and Colonel 
von Lettow-Vorbeck. While General 
Smuts drove southward, Van Deventer 
came on from the west, occupying 




A PATH THROUGH THE WILDERNESS 

Many thousand carriers had to be employed for transporting provisions through the regions where there were 
no railways and no wagon roads. These natives, accompanying General Northey's column, furnish but a sug- 
gestion of the lines of human pack-bearers that were traversing the African wilds, "over hill, over dale, thorough 
bush, thorough brier," to supply the armies. 

the purpose of preventing Northey's 
force from co-operating with Van 
Deventer's. But the Germans, includ- 
ing the surviving members of the 
Konigsberg crew, were dislodged and 
had to give way on July 24. 

Returning to General Van De- 
venter's line, we find that he resumed 
activity at the end of June, pressing 
forward to Dodoma. Divergent lines 
pushed out, at the same time, to take 
Singida and Kilimatinde. With the 
latter place occupied and Kikombo, 
fifteen miles east of Dodoma, as well, 
a hundred miles of the Central Railway 
had fallen under British control. 



Mpapua on August 12 and Kilossa on 
the twenty-second. Finding Mrogoro 
unsafe, the enemy evacuated it on the 
twenty-fourth, slipping southward by 
a route unknown to his pursuers, and 
so evading a flanking turn made to 
entrap him. Mrogoro was entered by 
Sheppard and Beves on August 26. 
The pursuit of the retreating enemy, 
who fought strong rear-guard actions 
on the way, was pushed on through 
difficult hill country until the Rufiji 
River was reached. Van Deventer, at 
the same time, had advanced across 
the Ruaha, and Northey was not far 
away, reaching Iringa on August 29. 

971 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The lake divisions, turning, threat- 
ened Tabora, which the German Gov- 
ernment had intended as the capital of 
the protectorate. There most of the 
prisoners of war and enemy aliens had 
been interned (and not too happily 
entertained). On September 19, the 
garrison withdrew, starting in the 
direction of Mahenge, although they 
would have to pass both Van Deven- 
ter's and Northey's armies. Sir Charles 
Crewe's column made sure of the 
Central Railway between Tabora and 
Kilimatinde, then, having accom- 
plished the service required of it, this 
column was abolished. The German 
group from Tabora, commanded by 
General Wahle, fought various en- 
gagements with General Northey's 
men before breaking through, as they 
eventually did, to join the contingent 
on the healthful Mahenge plateau. 

THE WHOLE COAST IS OCCUPIED DURING 
THE AUTUMN. 

On September 3 the former capital, 
Dar-es-Salaam, surrendered, where- 
upon the other coast towns, Kilwa, 
Mikindani and Lindi quickly followed. 
Dar-es-Salaam and Kilwa were im- 
mediately utilized as new and valuable 
centres. In the former place the enemy, 
before leaving, had done what damage 
they could, wrecking the harbor and 
the railway station and running loco- 
motives into the sea. Numbers of 
bridges on the Central Railway had 
been destroyed, too. 

At the end of the year, in order to 
prepare for the hard conditions of the 
remaining struggle, which would be 
largely in low malarial country. Gen- 
eral Smuts reorganized his divisions, 
sending to South Africa about 12,000 
white troops who had been rendered 
unfit by hard campaigning, and re- 
placing them as far as possible by na- 
tives inured to the climate and its 
conditions. Various shifts in the com- 
mand and composition of the forces 
were made. 

A short campaign undertaken in 
January, 1917, to round up the enemy 
by cutting off his retreat at the 
Rufiji and preventing the sections on 
the Mahenge from uniting, failed of its 
end. Van Deventer and Northey lost 

972 



their quarry in the deep bush, and 
Sheppard's brigade reached the Rufiji 
only to discover that von Lettow-Vor- 
beck had destroyed the bridge and had 
already removed his men to the other 
side of the river. 

GENERAL SMUTS IS SUMMONED TO LON- 
DON. 

In the fighting that took place just 
before reaching the Rufiji, there fell 
the most distinguished of African 
naturalists and hunters. Captain F. C. 
Selous, who, in spite of his sixty-four 
years, had been serving with "con- 
spicuous gallantry, resource and en- 
durance" in the 25th Fusiliers. His 
death and that of Lieutenant Wavell, 
exactly a year before, were a loss to the 
world as well as to their colleagues and 
subordinates. 

Rains, extraordinarily long and 
heavy even for that country, prevented 
any great activity for the time; and, 
besides, on January 26, General Smuts 
left for London whither he had been 
called to represent South Africa in the 
War Cabinet. His successor was Ma- 
jor-General Hoskins, formerly in com- 
mand of the 1st Division. In May, the 
supreme command passed into the 
hands of General Van Deventer. 

The sadly reduced forces of the 
enemy were grouped by this time in 
two main bodies — between four and 
five thousand under von Lettow-Vor- 
beck in the valley of the Matandu 
River, and between two and three 
thousand with Tafel near Mahenge. 
When foraging or raiding parties broke 
away they were followed by companies 
of mounted British. One such band, 
under a man named Naumann, made 
a wide sweep through the country, 
being caught after several months, 
about two thousand miles from the 
starting point. 

THE REMNANT OF THE GERMAN FORCES 
IN PORTUGUESE TERRITORY. 

Until March 9, 1916, Portuguese 
East Africa (Mozambique) was neu- 
tral territory; but on that date Por- 
tugal became a belligerent, fighting 
with the Allies. Her part, then, in 
Africa, was to hold the front at the 
Rovuma River if an attempt should be 
made to escape across it. The Portu- 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



guese even advanced a short distance 
into the territory north of the river, 
taking back a part that had once been 
theirs. 

Toward this frontier, through the 
months of 191 7, von Lettow-Vorbeck 
withdrew under pressure from the 
north and from Kilwa and Lindi, but 
not without vigorous fighting. Farther 
west, Tafel was trying to escape the 
encircHng forces of Northey's troops 
and the Belgian armies. Before the 
year was out there had come an end to 
the hardy resistance of both little com- 
panies. In spite of the Portuguese 
patrol on the Royuma, von Lettow- 
Vorbeck with some two thousand fol- 
lowers slipped across into Mozambique, 
on November 25-26. Two days later, 
Tafel, caught in unfamiliar country 
and lacking food for his men, surren- 
dered unconditionally, giving up "19 
officers, 92 other Europeans, over 
1,200 askari (native soldiers), and some 
2,200 other natives." On December 
I, 191 7, General Van Deventer re- 
ported that German East Africa was 
completely cleared of the enemy, and 
that the whole of the German overseas 
possessions had passed into British 
and Belgian hands. 

BRITISH TESTIMONY ON THE QUALITY OF 
THE GERMAN RESISTANCE. 

From General Van Deventer's own 
words we catch something of the tone 
and spirit of the opposing masses en- 
gaged in battle upon the wild expanse 
of East Africa. He says : * ' The morale 
of the enemy never wavered, and 
nothing but the determined gallantry 
and endurance of our troops finally 
crushed him. To the infantry, — British, 
South African, Indian, West and East 
African, — I owe unqualified thanks 
and praise, and especially to the regi- 
mental officers who set an example 
which all have followed." Nor must 
the Belgians be forgotten. General 
Tombeur had succeeded from the first 
in holding back the enemy on his 
border, at the same time co-operating 
with the British in Rhodesia and on 
Lake Tanganyika. In the later cam- 
paigns the Belgian contingents (native 
soldiers with European leaders) took 



their full part and suffered severe losses. 
Losses on both sieves had been very 
heavy in proportion to the numbers 
engaged, sickness adding many to the 
number of deaths. The reports show 
that in the period from May to Novem- 
ber, 191 7, the British lost, in action 
alone, 6,000; and that there were killed 
and captured, in that time, 1,618 
Gerrnans and 5,482 natives. It is 
estimated that altogether the enemy 
force had been reduced by nine-tenths 
of its personnel before German East 
Africa was cleared. 

THE LAST DAYS OF GERMAN FIGHTING IN 
AFRICA. 

The little remnant with von Lettow- 
Vorbeck moved rapidly toward the 
centre of Mozambique, half-way be- 
tween Lake Nyasa and the sea. The 
campaign of pursuit, directed by Gen- 
eral Van Deventer, and prosecuted 
chiefly by native soldiers. King's Afri- 
can Rifles and a Nigerian brigade, un- 
der the lead of General Northey and 
others, was intended to be "one of 
virtual extermination'" But, although 
the pursuing lines pressed in from east 
and west, the retreat was so rapid as to 
keep for the most part in advance of 
both British and Portuguese forces. 
Now and again there was fighting, 
when detachments of the opponents 
came together. But von Lettow- 
Vorbeck increased the difficulties of 
the pursuers by buying the favor of 
natives with rich gifts out of the booty 
he gathered from Portuguese settle- 
ments as he moved along. He was pro- 
vided with food and shelter and as- 
sured that false information would be 
offered to the troops that were follow- 
ing on his track. South he hurried, 
then east toward the coast, north and 
west, even back across the Rovuma 
into the old territory again. Next, he 
turned to Northern Rhodesia and at- 
tacked Fife, on the border. November 
II, 1 91 8, the day of the .Armistice, 
found him at the head-waters of the 
Congo in Northern Rhodesia. There 
he promptly submitted to the local 
magistrate, and on November 25 made 
formal surrender at Abercorn with 
considerable ceremony. 



973 





mw 




ymm ^^ mj ^ f' ' - 




- 


. 'iii|ii J 





A BOLSHEVIST NAVAL DETACHMENT GOING SOUTH 

Some of the most enthusiastic Bolshevists came from the Navy. After killing their officers they scattered in 
all directions. These had boaided a train by force and were on their way to the interior of Russia to enjoy the 
new prosperity which was to come to every one with the triumph of Bolshevism. 




SAILORS PLUNDERING THE COUNTRY AS THEY PASSED 
Other sailors from the fleets took possession of machine guns which they mounted in an open car with iron sides. 
They traveled leisurely from station to station, terrorizing the people, and plundering the houses and shops 
wherever they stopped. Any towns or men who attempted to resist them were treated with great severity. 
Generally, however, the populace was too much bewildered to make any effective resistance. 

974 





Armored Cars Used by the Bolsheviki 

Chapter LIX 

Russia Makes A Separate Peace 

UITLESS NEGOTIATIONS AT BREST-LITOVSK ARE FOL- 
LOWED BY ANOTHER INVASION 



T^HE Bolsheviki were in power. 
■■■ Through an armed uprising, prac- 
tically through a military mutiny, they 
had seized control of the government 
machinery. But for all that too much 
importance should not be attached to 
the personalities at the head of the 
Bolshevist Party and their doctrines. 
To this day the average Russian 
probably knows little more of Lenin's 
theories of government than does the 
average American. Furthermore, 
Lenin has modified and changed his 
policy whenever he found it not 
adapted to practical affairs. The Bol- 
sheviki came into power on one very 
big issue, and that was the question 
as to whether the war should be con- 
tinued, or whether peace should be 
made at any cost. 

THE BOLSHEVIKI GAIN POWER ON THE 
ISSUE OF PEACE. 

Russia was beaten far worse than 
Germany was beaten, when later she 
sued for peace. Not only was the 
Russian military organization smashed, 
the economic machinery ceasing to 
move, but the Russian mujik, in the 
uniform of the Russian soldier, was 
heartily sick of further fighting. He 
wanted to stop fighting and go home. 
That was why he listened to Bolshevist 
"propaganda," and that was why he 
shoved Kerensky out of power and 
allowed Lenin and Trotzky to get in. 



All the reforms that interested him had 
been promised by Kerensky also. Ker- 
ensky, though quite as good a Socialist 
as Lenin, had been more honest, or 
perhaps more practical, for he had 
realized that a Socialist Republic 
could only be established in Russia by 
evolutionary means, and that a political 
revolution was only the clearing away 
of obstacles which were arbitrarily 
checking the evolutionary processes. 

1ENIN DESIRED PEACE TO BUILD HIS 
J IDEAL STATE. 

Lenin, at least, was undoubtedly 
sincere in his belief that peace at 
almost any cost was essential to the 
establishment of a social organization 
based on his theories. Some of his 
associates probably genuinely shared 
this conviction with him; those that 
did not at any rate realized that they 
must give the rank and file of the 
soldiers what they wanted if they were 
to remain in power, and that was 
peace. 

The first informal notice of the 
peace negotiations which the Bol- 
sheviki proposed to initiate was issued 
on November 20, 191 7, when an an- 
nouncement was made, stating that, 
"when the new government is firmly 
established the Cabinet will, without 
delay, make a formal offer of an armis- 
tice to all the belligerents, enemy and 
ally." 

975 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The Commander-in-Chief, General 
Dukhonin, was at the same time noti- 
fied to open communications with the 
Germans under a flag of truce, to offer 
a cessation of hostihties for the purpose 
of opening peace negotiations. 

For several days the Lenin Govern- 
ment received neither reply nor ac- 
knowledgment from headquarters. Fi- 
nally, three days later, on November 23, 



allowed General Kornilov, who was 
still a prisoner at headquarters, to 
escape. 

A proclamation was then issued to 
the army and navy ordering individual 
units to open negotiations with the 
enemy, regardless of commanding of- 
ficers, though the power to sign an 
agreement for an armistice was re- 
served to the Petrograd Government. 




ENSIGN KRYLENKO, ONCE THE BOLSHEVIST COMMANDER 
Krylenko was a non-commissioned officer in the army who was made Minister of War by the Bolsheviki, and 
afterward, commanded the armies. Little information concerning him reached the western World, and after 
" time^he disappeared from the news entirely. Apparently he was a man of little ability and could have had 

, j,^ _^ Underwood & Underwood 



little military knowledge. 

telephone communication with Dukhon- 
in was established. 

The General wished first to know 
whether the proposal of a general peace 
had been communicated to all of Rus- 
sia's allies, and whether they had replied. 

"These are not questions that con- 
cern you," replied Lenin. "You are 
simply to obey our instructions." 

Still Dukhonin insisted, whereupon 
he was dismissed, and "Ensign" Kry- 
lenko, who had been appointed Com- 
missary, or Minister of War, was sent 
to take his place. Several days later 
Dukhonin was killed by his own sol- 
diers, because, apparently, he had 

976 



Trotzky, Commissary for Foreign Af- 
fairs, then sent a note to the represent- 
atives of all the Allied belligerents, 
worded, in part, as follows: 

TROTZKY PROPOSES AN IMMEDIATE AR- 
MISTICE ON ALL FRONTS. 

"Drawing your attention to the 
text of an offer of an armistice and a 
democratic peace, based on no annexa- 
tions or indemnities, and the self- 
determination of nations, approved by 
the All-Russian Congress of Soldiers' 
and Workmen's Delegates, I have 
the honor to beg you to regard the 
above document as the formal offer of 
an immediate armistice on all fronts, 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



iC 



ana tne immediate opening of peace 
negotiations, an offer with which the 
authoritative Government of the Rus- 
sian Repubhc has addressed itself 
simultaneously to all the belligerent 
oples and their governments." 
In the afternoon of Nov. 28, 
917, a Russian delegation, 
preceded by a trumpeter car- 
rying a white flag, crossed the 
hnes near Dvinsk and began 
a parley with the Germans. 
The Russian delegation, after 
being blindfolded, was con- 
ducted behind the German 
lines, and there kept while the 
German commander entered 
into communication by wire 
with the German High Com- 
mand. At midnight the follow- 
ing reply was received from 
German Headquarters: 

''pHE GERMAN AUTHORITIES 
1 AGREE TO AN ARMISTICE. 

"The Chief of the German 
Eastern Front is prepared to 
enter into negotiations with the 
Russian chief command. The 
Chief of the German Eastern 
Front is authorized by the Ger- 
man Commander-in-Chief to 
carry on negotiations for an 
armistice. The Chief of the 
Russian armies is requested to 
appoint a commission with 
written authority to be sent to 
the headquarters of the Ger- 
man Eastern Front. The German com- 
mander, on his part, will name a similar 
commission." 

The date fixed for the beginning of 
the negotiations was December 2, at the 
headquarters of the German Eastern 
Front, at Brest-Litovsk. 

Meanwhile the elections to the 
Constituent Assembly were allowed to 
take place, in spite of the fact that the 
Bolshevik programme recognized only 
such suffrage as was based on the 
"proletariat workers and peasants." 
On November 26, 191 7, the election 
returns for Petrograd gave the Bol- 
sheviki 272,000 votes, as compared 
to 211,000 cast by the Constitutional 
Democrats and 116,000 by the Social 
Revolutionists. These exact figures 



are disputed, but according to all 
accounts the Bolsheviki fell short of a 
majority. The most favorable reports 
gave them about forty-five per cent of 
the whole. Some accounts give them 
a much smaller vote. 




THE LAST FIGHTING ON THE RUMANIAN BORDER 



THE PUBLICATION OF SECRET DOCU- 
MENTS FROM THE ARCHIVES. 

During this same period, the Govern- 
ment carried out its policy of publicity 
for all state affairs by publishing the 
secret treaties in the archives of the 
Department of Foreign Affairs. Among 
them were some sensational documents. 
One plainly indicated that the Govern- 
ment had deliberately sacrificed Ru- 
mania, if not to help the enemy, at 
least to save the Russian forces. The 
promises of extensive territorial an- 
nexations made to Italy to bring her 
into the war on the side of the Allies 
were plainly indicated. But, on the 
whole, little was shown which had not 
already been at least rumored in the 
press months before. 

977 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The only resistance to Bolshevist 
rule at this time was in those regions 
dominated by the Cossack chiefs. 
Kornilov, it will be remembered, had 
escaped from Staff Headquarters, and 
with a small force of his faithful Cos- 
sacks, had made his way to the Don, 
where he joined General Kaledin, who 
had immediately raised the banner of 
revolt against the Bolshevist Govern- 
ment. Making Rostov his headquar- 




GENERAL VON BESELER 
GERMAN MILITARY GOVERNOR OF POLAND 

ters, he was able for some time to 
establish here an anti-Bolshevik mili- 
tary state. 

THE UKRAINE MAKES A MOVE FOR IN- 
DEPENDENCE. 

More important, though of a very 
different character, was the action of 
the Ukraine. The Ukrainian people live 
in parts or the whole of the Russian 
governments (or provinces) of Volhy- 
nia, Chernygov, Kherson, Kiev, Ekat- 
erinoslav, Podolia, Kharkov, Poltava, 
Taurida, and in Galicia, extending 
from the Black Sea to the Crimea and 
to the territory of the Don Cossacks. 

In the early part of the Kerensky 
regime the Ukrainians had shown a 

978 



strong tendency to establish an inde- 
pendent state. Now that the Bol- 
sheviki had risen to power, the Popular 
Assembly, known as the Rada, on No- 
vember 26, 191 7, proclaimed the 
Ukraine independent. This action the 
Petrograd Government could not pro- 
test, if it were to remain true to its 
principle of the "self-determination" 
of all peoples. Nor did it, ofhcially, but 
it made strong efforts to support the 
Bolshevist elements in the Ukraine, 
who were in favor of recognizing the 
authority of Petrograd. 

THE UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT SEEKS 
GERMAN AID. 

The Rada represented the prosperous 
peasant and rich landlord class, and 
naturally was strongly opposed to the 
Bolshevikl. Later this element received 
the active support of Germany and 
its official representatives became mere 
puppets in the hands of the German 
High Command. 

Finland followed a similar course. 
A conservative government declared 
Finland's independence on December 5, 
1 91 7, which declaration the Bolsheviki 
tacitly recognized, though here too, as in 
the Ukraine, they strongly supported 
a large and active Bolshevist element. 
And here, too, as in the Ukraine, in its 
effort to get away from ultra-radical 
influences, the government went over 
to Germany. 

RUMANIA FORCED RELUCTANTLY TO 
. SEEK FOR PEACE. 

Deeply involved in this general 
situation was little Rumania, surround- 
ed as she was on the one side by the 
Austrians and Bulgarians, her mortal 
enemies, and on the other by the Rus- 
sians, who contemplated peace with 
those same enemies. For a while the 
Rumanian Government at Jassy issued 
proclamations, expressing a strong de- 
termination to continue the fight 
against the Central Empires alone. 
But hardly had the last of them been 
uttered, on December 7, 191 7, when 
the Rumanians, too, joined the general 
rush to enter into negotiations with the 
Central Empires. 

Meanwhile, down on the Caucasus 
front, where another independent state 
was proclaiming itself, the Turks took 




ALLIED MISSIONS ON THEIR WAY OUT OF RUSSIA 
After the Russian Revolution Allied missions were sent to aid the Russians in any way possible. With the triumph 
of the Bolsheviki and the dissolution of the army they became useless, and withdrew by way of Murmansk. 
Sometimes the news of the approach of Bolshevist bands caused the director to stop the trains and to prepare 
to repel attack. 




FRENCH SOLDIERS CLEARING UP A WRECK 
The railroad to the Murman coast had been built during the war and the track was in exceedingly poor condition. 
Wrecks were frequent and one occurred immediately in front of the train in which the Allied missions were 
traveling, toward Murmansk. Some of the French soldiers attached to the mission were sent on ahead to clear 
the track, as the railway force was utterly demoralized, and incapable of intelligent effort. ^ 

979 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the initiative, and proposed to the Rus- 
sian forces there that they cease fight- 
ing, which was accordingly done. 

THE PETROGRAD GOVERNMENT PRO- 
CEEDS TO ABOLISH CAPITALISM. 

In Petrograd the main business of 
the Soviet Government was to further 
the peace negotiations, but it proceeded 
to pubHsh some of its favorite theories. 
On November 26, IQ17, a decree was 



mittees, elected by the workers within 
a given district, were created to take 
charge of the production of commodi- 
ties. This system was also a failure. 

THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT SAVES 
RUSSIA FROM COLLAPSE. 

What saved the Soviet Government 
from complete economic breakdown at 
this juncture was the Russian Co- 
operative Movement, the co-operative 




BOLSHEVIKI SEEKING TO SPREAD THEIR FAITH 

When the Bolshevist doctrines were spreading over the country such a sight as this was common. Parties 
marched trom town to town attempting to make converts, peaceably if they could, forcibly if necessary. Some 
advocates of the new regime were as fanatical in their desire to spread their belief as ever were the followers of 
Mohammed. 



issued abolishing all class distinctions. 
More important still, "capitalism" 
as a system was abolished, and the 
production and distribution of all com- 
modities was declared to be the business 
of the state. 

Nor was this an empty phrase. 
Factories, warehouses, stores and 
banks, through this and various other 
decrees, were actually confiscated and 
taken over by the Soviets. At first the 
factories were turned over to the man- 
agement of committees elected by the 
workingmen actually employed within 
their four walls. This system proved a 
dismal failure. Then regional com- 

980 



societies previously mentioned which, 
through their federations, carried on 
manufacturing for their own members. 
During the Kerensky regime this 
movement had experienced phenomenal 
growth and development. Though 
the leaders of the co-operatives were 
strongly opposed to the Bolsheviki 
and had denounced their forcible seiz- 
ure of power, they were compelled to 
accept the fact and, to a certain degree, 
act in co-operation with the Soviets. 
And Lenin, on the other hand, more and 
more left the actual business of pro- 
duction and distribution to the co- 
operative organization, for eventually 



t 

Marxian theories when applied to actual 
practice. 

ALL ARMY OFFICERS ARE REDUCED TO 
L THE RANKS. 

On December i6 a decree was issued 
reducing all army officers to the ranks 
md authorizing the rank and file to 
elect their own officers. This was the 
final blow to the morale of what was 
still left of the Russian Army. Truly 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE FIRST CONFERENCE HELD AT BREST- 
LITOVSK. 

Meanwhile the efforts to bring about 
a peace conference continued. As al- 
ready indicated, the Petrograd Govern- 
ment had declared that it did not desire 
a separate peace with the Central 
Empires, but a general peace. The 
Allied belligerents made no reply to 
Trotzky's note to that effect. On the 
contrary, they had strongly protested 




WHERE THE CONFERENCE MET AT BREST LITOVSK 

After some discussion the Germans, Austrians, Tuiks and Bulgarians agreed to negotiate with the Bolshevik 
government. The German High Command fixed December 2 as the date on which the conference should open 
at the headquarters of the German Eastern Front at Brest Litovsk. This is a manufacturing town in the govern- 
ment of Grodna in old Russia. 



this was the same principle on which 
the American militia organization was 
based, before the war, but in the face 
of such an organization of force as the 
German Army it was utterly impracti- 
cable. 

The property of the Church was also 
confiscated. The actual church build- 
ings and their equipment were declared 
state property, to be rented out to the 
priesthood. The vast estates were ap- 
portioned for future distribution among 
the poorer landless peasantry. In fact, 
the peasants in the neighborhood took 
possession without waiting for author- 
ity, just as the peasants had done in 
France during the French Revolution. 



against the proposed peace negotiations 
but these protests had been addressed 
to the Russian Chief Command, at 
Moghiliev. On November 30, Count 
Czernin, Austro-Hungarian Foreign 
Minister, addressed a note to the 
Petrograd Government, stating that 
his Government was ready to proceed 
to negotiate. Thus Austria-Hungary 
was the first to extend official recogni- 
tion to the Bolshevist Cabinet. 

On December 2, according to agree- 
ment, the Russian delegation again 
crossed over to the German lines and 
was escorted to Brest-Litovsk. Three 
days later an official account of the ne- 
gotiations was issued from Petrograd. 

981 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



"The conference opened in the pres- 
ence of the representatives of Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. 
Field Marshal von Hindenburg and 
Field Marshal Hotzendorff charged 
Prince Leopold of Bavaria with the 
negotiations, and he in his turn nomi- 
nated his Chief of Staff, General 
Hoffman. 

"Our delegates opened the confer- 
ence with a declaration of our peace 
aims, in view of which an armistice was 
proposed. The enemy delegates re- 
plied that that was a question to be 
solved by the politicians. They said 
they were soldiers, having power to 
negotiate only conditions of an armis- 
tice, and could add nothing to the de- 
claration of Foreign Ministers Czernin 
and von Kuhlmann. 

"... .Our representatives submitted 
a project for an armistice on all fronts 
elaborated by our military experts. 
The principal points of this subject 
were: first, an interdiction against 
sending forces on our fronts to the 
fronts of our allies, and, second, the 
retirement of German detachments 
from the islands around Moon Sound. 
.... The enemy delegation declared that 
our conditions were unacceptable, and 
could be addressed only to a conquered 
people. ..." 

THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT AGREES TO 
SUSPEND HOSTILITIES TEMPORARILY. 

On December 6 the Berlin Govern- 
ment announced that a suspension of 
hostilities had finally been agreed upon 
in writing, to last ten days and to affect 
the whole front from the Baltic to the 
Black Sea. During this period a regular 
armistice would be negotiated. 

On this same day, December 6, 
Trotzky sent a note to all the Allied 
belligerents announcing that the ne- 
gotiations would be suspended for seven 
days, to give the peoples of those 
countries time in which to make up 
their minds whether or not they would 
participate. This note added that no 
armistice would be signed by the Rus- 
sians which would permit the Germans 
to transport their troops from the 
Eastern to other fronts. To this com- 
munication none of the Allied Govern- 
ments made any reply. 

982 



THE BREST-LITOVSK CONFERENCE BE- 
GINS ITS SITTINGS. 

At the end of the ten days a regular 
armistice was agreed upon, to go into 
effect immediately, on December 17, 
and to last until January 14, 1918. The 
first sitting of the actual peace con- 
ference began on December 22. At the 
head of the German delegation were 
Foreign Minister, Dr. Richard von 
Kuhlmann and General Hoffman. 
Count Czernin was the chief represen- 
tative of Austria-Hungary. Popov, 
a member of the Bulgarian Cabinet, 
headed the Bulgarian delegation, while 
Nesimy Bey, Turkish Foreign Minister, 
represented his Government. Russia 
was represented by "Citizens" Joffe, 
Kaminev, Bibenko, Pokrosky, Kara- 
ghan, Lubinski, Weltman, Pawlovitch, 
Admiral Altvater, General Tumorri, 
Colonel Rokki, Colonel Zelpitt and 
(Captain Lij^sky. 

Von Kuhlmann was elected chair- 
man. His opening speech was pfSfusely 
garnished with flowery phrases, but was 
markedly deficient in any definite basis 
on which the Central Powers were 
willing to rest the "democratic" peace 
which the Russians proposed. Thanks 
to the policy of publicity pursued by 
the Petrograd Government, all the 
proceedings of the conference were 
published in detail, a proceeding which 
more than once roused the ire of the 
German Government. 

'-T^HE RUSSIAN PROPOSALS FOR PEACE 
1 PRESENTED. 

The Russian delegates then presented 
their demands, comprising fifteen para- 
graphs, of which the following is the 
essence : 

Evacuation of all Russian territory 
by Germany and Austria; autonomy 
for Poland, the Baltic provinces and 
Turkish Armenia; settlement of the 
Alsace-Lorraine problem by referen- 
dum; restoration of Belgium, Serbia 
and Montenegro, with financial assist- 
ance from an international fund ; Serbia 
to have access to the Adriatic; complete 
autonomy for Bosnia and Herzegovina; 
complete restoration of Rumania, with 
autonomy for the Dobrudja; equal 
rights for Jews in all territories; restora- 
tion of the German colonies; neutraliza- 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



If 



:ion of all maritime straits leading to 
inland waters, including the Suez and 
Panama canals; no indemnities; forcible 
contributions levied during the war to 
be refunded; no commercial boycotts 
after the war; abolition of all previous 
secret treaties; general disarmament, 
militia to take the place of standing 
armies. 

HE GERMANS TURN THEIR OWN STATE- 
MENTS AGAINST THE BOLSHEVIKI. 

On Christmas Day the Central 
Povv^ers made a formal reply of such a 
nature that it attracted world-wide 
attention. For from the verbiage in 
which the answer was couched, this 
thought stood out: that, since the 
Russians recognized the principle of the 
"self-determination of small national- 
ities," therefore they renounced all 
claims to the Baltic provinces. The 
future of these provinces would be de- 
termined by conditions which were 
obviously under the control of Germany 
since she was in military occupation of 
those territories. In plain language, 
Germany said: "Since you don't want 
those territories, hand them over to 
us." 

Meetings in Petrograd were held and 
literally boiled over with rage against 
Germany. Trotzky, with his usual 
verbosity, pointed out that his "diplo- 
macy" had forced Germany to reveal 
her true self from under her lately as- 
sumed robe of hypocrisy. As a matter 
of fact, even in the Allied countries the 
general indignation against the Bolshe- 
viki for proposing peace negotiations 
was giving place to a milder attitude, 
not unmixed with approval of what was 
one of the plainest exposures of Ger- 
many's real war aims which had yet 
taken place. The situation obviously 
inspired the speech made by President 
Wilson, on January 8, 191 8, in which 
the war aims of the United States were 
definitely stated. 

THE BOLSHEVIKI ATTEMPT TO GAIN 
CONVERTS AMONG THE GERMANS. 

Trotzky, indeed, showed himself in a 
triumphant mood. There can be little 
doubt that he and his associates had not 
expected Germany to agree to their 
peace proposals. Trotzky possibly 
hoped to expose the imperialistic aims 



of Germany to the whole world, but 
especially to the people of the 
Central Empires, in the hope that 
thereby he would stimulate them 
to initiate the great world-wide social 
revolution, which would sweep the 
"capitalist" governments out of power. 
To expedite this event he had instituted 
a system of propaganda among the 
German and Austriafi soldiers on the 




PRINCE LEOPOLD OF BAVARIA 

Eastern Front on a truly colossal scale. 
Literally carloads of literature, printed 
in all the languages spoken by the 
peoples of the Central Empires, were 
shipped to the front and smuggled over 
the lines to the enemy soldiers. Trotz- 
ky had no doubt that this would take 
due effect. Here he made a mistake. 
The Germans are temperamentally 
disinclined to follow the methods appeal- 
ing to the more individualistic Russians. 
On January 2, after a session of the 
Executive Committee of the Soviet, the 
Petrograd Government made known its 
rejection of the German counter-pro- 
posals. Indeed, the German answer was 
made the subject of a pamphlet which 
was shipped across the lines as further 
propaganda. On that same date the 

983 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



chairman of the Russian peace delega- 
tion sent a communication to the 
heads of the enemy delegations, signify- 
ing his desire to continue the peace 
conference in a neutral country, and 
suggested that the next conference 
be held in Stockholm. This was 
possibly a manoeuvre to place the 
Germans in a still more unpleasant 
position, and was successful, in that it 
made it apparent that the Germans 
feared the light of publicity. At any 
rate, they refused to move the seat of 
the conference outside of territory 
under their control, and Trotzky's 
press bureau made the most of it. 

THE GERMANS SURPRISED AT THE BOL- 
SHEVIST OBJECTIONS. 

The Germans seemed genuinely sur- 
prised and pained that the Petrograd 
Government had rejected their counter- 
proposals. The German Kaiser called 
a conference of all the military leaders. 
On the following day Chancellor von 
Hertling addressed the Main Com- 
mittee of the Reichstag and in a some- 
what heated manner stated the German 
position. A number of Socialist mem- 
bers dissented strongly, and insisted 
that the German policy regarding the 
Baltic provinces was decidedly wrong. 

On January lo, 1918, the next session 
of the conference assembled at Brest- 
Litovsk, and now Trotzky himself 
headed the Russian delegation. The 
Russians were now rather surprised by 
the appearance of a Ukrainian delega- 
tion, which disputed their right to 
represent the Ukraine. Later it became 
obvious that the Ukrainian delegation 
was largely a German creation, and 
was to be utilized as a pawn to be played 
against the Petrograd delegation, and 
this they managed to do rather cleverly. 

TROTZKY SUCCEEDS IN IRRITATING THE 
GERMAN DELEGATION. 

The Germans seemed to resent very 
much the presence of Trotzky, who 
managed to trample upon all the tradi- 
tions of diplomatic history. 

" We were getting along very amiably 
together," remarked von Kuhlmann, 
in one of his reports, "when Trotzky 
appeared, and then the whole atmos- 
phere darkened. " 

As another instance, a committee 

984 



had prepared a clause stating "that 
the contracting parties have resolved 
henceforward to live in peace and 
friendship, etc.," 

* ' Purely decorative ! ' ' exclaimed 
Trotzky. "That phrase does not at 
all express the future relations which 
shall exist between us." 

Trotzky certainly made no effort to 
obtain his end by tact. His attitude 
continued irritating, as though his 
object were to excite the Germans to 
indiscretion. So unbearable became his 
behavior that at one time General 
Hoffmann leaped to his feet exclaiming: 

"One might think that you were the 
conqueror, we the vanquished, and 
that you stood here dictating terms!" 

THE CONFERENCE ADJOURNS WITHOUT 
APPROACHING AN AGREEMENT. 

The conference again adjourned, 
without having progressed one degree 
toward a final settlement, yet Trotzky 
cheerfully expressed his willingness to 
meet again. Apparently he neither 
cared for nor expected a final agreement ; 
his object was to play for time, to extend 
the negotiations. For almost daily not 
only he, but even the Allied world, ex- 
pected to hear of disturbances behind 
the Teuton lines. There were many 
rumors of an uprising in Vienna. The 
Germans exerted every pressure to bring 
about a final understanding, but Trotz- 
ky and his associates remained obdu- 
rate. 

That von Kuhlman was furious he 
made obvious four days later, during an 
address to the Main Committee of the 
Reichstag. 

"Trotzky declared," he said bitter- 
ly, "that our authority rested on brute 
force. And I say that they themselves 
represent nothing but brute force." 

"They thought we needed peace at 
any price," said Trotzky, on his return 
to Petrograd, before a Congress of the 
Soviets, "but they have learned their 
mistake. We shall insist on a demo- 
cratic peace." The delegates to the 
Congress supported this declaration 
unanimously. 

THE ALLIED ATTITUDE TOWARD THE 
BOLSHEVIKI NOT BITTER. 

At this time Bolshevism had almost 
succeeded in gaining a large degree of 



^ood will of the peoples of the Allied 
countries, including the United States. 
The attitude was, that here is a rough- 
clad and rough-mannered fellow, but 
he means well. He proposes to beat the 
Germans in his own peculiar way. 

This general feeling received a severe 
setback during the period that inter- 
vened before the peace conference con- 
vened again. In the middle of January 
the delegates to the Constituent As- 
sembly began arriving in Petrograd, 
and on the i8th the first session was 
held with about 500 delegates present, 
to judge by the voting. Though the 
Bolsheviki had not a working majority, 
they were at least the principal element. 
Tchernov, an old-time revolutionist, 
and Minister of Agriculture for a time 
in the Kerensky Cabinet, was elected 
chairman, by a vote of 244 against 151. 
The first session continued rather tur- 
bulent, until it was terminated by the 
withdrawal of all the Bolshevist dele- 
gates in a body. 

THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY IS FORCI- 
BLY DISSOLVED. 

On the following day the Govern- 
ment issued a decree abolishing the 
Constituent Assembly. This action, 
and the principle on which it was based 
— that the suffrage should only be ex- 
tended to workers — created a serious 
split between the Bolsheviki and all 
other radicals, so serious that many of 
the latter were even willing to support 
foreign invaders in the hope of sup- 
pressing Bolshevism. The impression 
created in the Allied countries was 
equally bad, and many Socialists who 
had been ardent admirers of the Bol- 
sheviki in their peace negotiations now 
turned bitterly against them. 

On February i, 191 8, the peace 
negotiations were again resumed in 
Brest-Litovsk, Trotzky once more 
heading the Russian delegation. All 
this time the Petrograd Government 
had been straining every effort to pour 
more and still more propaganda into 
the grey masses of the German soldiery 
across the lines. 

THE QUESTION OF THE BALTIC PROVINCES 
REMAINED UNSETTLED. 

For nine days the delegates talked 
to each other across the table, but the 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



main point of difference remained the 
same. The Germans still refused to 
withdraw from what had formerly been 
Russian territory in order to allow the 
populations of those countries to de- 
clare themselves. The Germans took 
the stand that those countries had 
already declared themselves in favor 
of joining the German Empire. 

On February 9 the indignation of the 
Russians was roused by the announce- 
ment of the Teutonic delegates that 
they had signed a peace treaty with 
the Ukrainian delegation. Some weeks 
previously the Ukrainian Bolsheviki 
had gained the upper hand in Kiev, and 
Trotzky had immediately taken the 
position that the Ukrainian delegation 
no longer represented the Ukraine. 
This was perhaps true, but the Germans 
had nevertheless hastened to sign an 
agreement with the faction which 
favored them. The Rada undoubtedly 
did favor the Germans, as their saviors 
from Bolshevism. And the Germans 
were prepared to raise their friends into 
power, if it happened that they were 
not in power at that moment. 

THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES 
EITHER TO MAKE A TREATY OR FIGHT. 

On the loth, in the afternoon, the 
last session of the conference was held, 
and still no agreement was arrived at. 
With bitter invective Trotzky de- 
nounced German imperialism, declar- 
ing that Russia would not submit to the 
German terms. 

"Russia will not sign such a peace!'* 
he shouted. Then he added what con- 
stituted a surprising climax — "Nor 
will she fight. There is neither peace 
nor war between you and us, but the 
responsibility rests on you." 

Neither Trotzky nor his associates 
believed that Germany would again 
dare to resume military operations 
against Russia. And, indeed, there was 
every indication that the Germans did 
fear such a necessity. Assuredly it put 
them in the position of aggressors. 
It seemed extremely likely, even to 
many who doubted the likelihood of 
revolution in Germany, that the Ger- 
man soldiers would refuse to continue 
a campaign of conquest into Russia. 
In this as in so many other supposi- 

985 



fflSTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



tions, they were deceived. The Ger- 
man soldier was not ready to revolt 
against the rulers he had obeyed so 
long 

THE UKRAINIAN RADA NOW ASKS GER- 
MAN AID. 

The disappointment of the Teutonic 
Governments was plainly reflected in 
the German and Austrian newspapers. 
It was at this juncture that the Okrain- 



Trotzky's reply to the last ofi'er of 
the German peace negotiators received 
the full approval of the Petrograd 
Government. Krylenko, in fact, gave 
the order for immediate demobilization. 
And then the Russians sat down to wait 
hopefully— but anxiously. Austria-Hun- 
gary, at least, showed no indication of 
intending further aggression. That 
country no longer had a common 




LEOPOLD OF BAVARIA SIGNING THE ARMISTICE 

Prince Leopold of Bavaria was charged with the negotiations with the Bolsheviki, though he did not take an 
activepartin the discussions. Here he is seen to be signing the armistice between the Germans and the Russians. 
The Bolshevist delegations included several women, some of whom were more radical than the men. The Bolshe- 
viki had not yet realized the full purport of the German plans. International Film Service 



ian Rada issued an appeal for "help 
against the agressions of the Bolshe- 
viki." It was a clever trick. As a 
matter of fact, there was fighting in the 
Ukraine between the Bolsheviki and 
the forces of the conservative Rada, but 
the Bolsheviki were Ukrainian Bolshe- 
viki, not invaders sent by the Petrograd 
Government. But the German and 
Austrian papers were instructed to 
make the most of this, and an appeal 
was published in practically all papers 
urging Germany to come to the rescue 
of the Ukrainians. Thus was created 
a moral pretext for a further advance 
into Russian territory. 
q86 



frontier with Bolshevist Russia, and 
the terms of the peace with the Uk- 
raine were perfectly satisfactory. On 
the 1 8th, the day the armistice expired, 
Vienna announced that it would not 
continue military operations in Russia. 

THE GERMAN TROOPS ADVANCE INTO 
. RUSSIAN TERRITORY. 

Shortly after noon, on the iSth, 
German troops began pouring across 
the bridges over the Dvina. The 
news of the German advance acted on 
Petrograd like a galvanic shock. All 
that evening and all that night the 
Executive Committee of the Soviet sat 
in continuous session. Two strong 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



factions developed, one led by Lenin, 
favoring peace on any terms, while 
the other, with Trotzky at its head, 
favored resistance, however inefTectual 
or costly it might be. All that night 
the two factions continued their heated 
argument and finally, as the grey light 
of dawn penetrated the windows of the 
council room, a vote was taken, and 
Lenin won out — by one vote. 



After nearly a day's silence General 
Hoffman replied, saying that only a 
properly written and 'signed document 
could be considered, and that this 
should be sent to Dvinsk at once, 
by courier. These instructions were 
complied with immediately, but an- 
other four days passed before the 
Germans finally declared themselves 
ready to consider further peace nego- 




AUSTRIAN PRISONERS RELEASED IN RUSSIA 

Many Austiian prisoners in Russia were released alter the Austro-Hungarian government announced that no 
further operations against the Bolsheviki would be undertaken. Some ot them were unwilling to go back to their 
homes for fear that they would again be sent into the ranks, and, therefore professed that they had been con- 
verted to Bolshevism. 



Krylenko, as Commander-in-Chief, 
issued instructions that every Russian 
force which was attacked by Germans 
should make every endeavor to parley 
with the enemy and persuade them to 
desist. Where the enemy refused, 
resistance should be continued. 

PETROGRAD, DISMAYED BY THE GERMAN 
ADVANCE, ASKS PEACE. 

Meanwhile Petrograd sent a wireless 
message to the German High Command 
offering to reconsider the peace terms. 
The Germans, however, having begun 
the attack, and the German soldiers 
showing no inclination to refuse to obey 
their orders, were in no hurry to desist. 



tiations. All this time the German 
troops swept onward, taking Pskov, 
Dvinsk, Werder, Lutsk and other 
places, which were either defended 
very feebly by the disorganized 
Russians, or were entered unopposed. 
But the conditions under which the 
Germans were now willing to declare 
peace with Russia were considerably 
changed — they amounted to something 
very little better than unconditional 
surrender. There would be no armis- 
tice — the German soldiers would ad- 
vance until the treaty was actually 
signed. Livonia and Esthonia must 
now be ceded outright to Germany, who 

987 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




VILNA IN WEST RUSSIA 

Vilna is an old city irregularly built at the confluence of the Vileika with the Vilia, 436 miles southwest of Petrograd. 
During the seventeenth century it was nearly ruined in the struggle between Russia and Poland, and was annexed 
by Russia in 1795. In 1915 it was occupied by the Germans. Ruschin 

would dispose of them as she saw fit. 
Soviet Russia tnust recognize the 
conservative Rada of the Ukraine, 
and refrain from giving the Ukrainian 
Bolsheviki further assistance. Finally, 
Soviet Russia must demobilize com- 
pletely. Even the volunteer Red 
Guards, the revolutionary militia which 
was being organized behind the lines, 
must be disbanded, save for such a force 
as was needed for police duty. 

RUSSIA PRACTICALLY MAKES AN UN- 
. CONDITIONAL SURRENDER. 

Again Petrograd underwent a night 
of hot debate, but on February 24, 1918, 
the Executive Committee agreed to 
accept the German terms. On March 3 
the Germans announced that they had 
halted the advance of their army into 
Russia, as the Russian delegation to 



Brest-Litovsk had signed a treaty. 
During the operations close to 60,000 
men had been captured, nearly 7,000 
officers, 2,400 cannon, 5,000 machine 
guns and 800 locomotives. The territory 
added to German occupancy was all 
that part of Russia lying west of a line 
drawn from the Narva, on the Gulf of 
Finland, due south to Kiev, including 
Russian Poland, Lithuania, Esthonia, 
Livonia and the outlying islands in the 
Gulf of Finland. Trotzky's picturesque 
attitude in refusing to sign the treaty had 
lost the Petrograd Government ter- 
ritories amounting to almost a fourth 
of European Russia, inhabited by 
about a third of the population. By the 
new treaty Germany gained practical 
control of Russia. 

Albert Sonnichsen 



988 




The Relief Ship Strathness Entering Rotterdam 

Chapter LX 

Belgium Under the German Yoke 

BELGIAN'S STORY OF LIFE IN HIS COUNTRY DURING 
THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE WAR. 

By Emile Cammaerts 

Author of "Through the Iron Bars" 

TF we try to imagine the life of the and the rumors of a German defeat 
civilians in some big town of the spr 



big 

occupied part of Belgium — Brussels, 
for instance — we must never forget that 
the far-away rumbling of the guns can 
often be heard, that at regular inter- 
vals the tramping of German patrols 
resounds in the streets, and that there 
is scarcely an hour in the day when 
expectant food queues do not line the 
pavement in the populous quarters of 
the city. These constant features of 
Belgian life will at once give us the 
atmosphere of the picture. 

THE RUMBLING OF THE GUNS IN THE 
DISTANCE. 

The guns sound quite near in the 
army zones of Luxemburg, Hainaut, 
and Flanders; but when the wind blows 
from the west, or when some important 
action is taking place, the drum-fire 
is heard distinctly as far as Brussels. 
The years of war have not yet dulled 
the people 's attention to it. They 
stop in the street to listen to the low 
murmur. They wonder what is taking 
place. During the autumn of 191 7, 
when the guns roared for weeks round 
the Ypres salient, they guessed the 
truth — that their masters were getting 
the worst of it. They even believed, 
in spite of the German communiques, 
that the Allies had broken through. 



spread like wild-fire through Brussels. 

THE BELGIANS NEVER LOST HOPE IN THE 
DARKEST HOURS. 

Since the siege of Antwerp the Bel- 
gians have lived in this state of sus- 
pense, and though they have been d*s- 
appointed again and again, they have 
not lost, after years of German op- 
pression, the extraordinary faculty of 
creating good tidings and the most 
extraordinary readiness to believe in 
them. But whatever they may have 
imagined, the distant roar of the guns 
has remained the supreme argument. 
Every hope, every anxiety has been 
associated with it. Those who had 
sons, husbands, or friends in the Bel- 
gian Army shivered at the sound, for 
they knew that any offensive, even if 
successful, must be costly. To them, 
nevertheless, the distant voice of 
battle — the long drawn battle which 
must decide their fate and that of their 
country — is the inarticulate message 
of the outside world brought into their 
prison on the wings of the western 
breeze. 

For the Belgians may have given up 
their weapons, they may be invaded, 
they may even, in certain parts of the 
country, be driven like slaves to work 
for the enemy, but they do not con- 

989 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



sider themselves out of the war. They 
sincerely believe that they are the 
vanguard of the Allied armies. 

THE BELGIAN RESISTANCE A CONSIDER- 
ABLE HINDRANCE TO THE GERMANS. 

This may well be exaggerated, though 
it seems evident that the resist- 
ance of Belgian civilians must con- 
siderably hamper German activity 
in this sector of their front. It may 



try with spies and secret agents, and 
to line the Dutch frontier with sentries 
and two rows of electrified wire. 
These strong measures did not prevent 
30,000 young men from joining the 
colors and filling the gaps caused by 
the first campaign. 

Sometimes, however — very frequent- 
ly in the army zone, less frequently in 
Antwerp and Brussels — the booming 




BELGIANS FLEEING FROM THE GERMAN TERROR 

The scene on the road between Brussels and Malines could be duplicated thousands of times. Leaving practically 
all.their possessions, many fled anywhere in the hope of gaining safety from the dangers of which they had heard. 



be almost impossible to estimate its 
importance in terms of men, but it is 
easy to realize that if Germany were 
able to add 500,000 Belgian workers 
to her industrial army, to leave the 
Dutch frontier unguarded, and to 
reduce to a minimum the personnel of 
the police, she would derive con- 
siderable advantages from such a 
situation. Instead of this, she has been 
obliged to deport the men before get- 
ing any work out of them, which 
attempt has proved a failure from every 
point of view, to demolish industrial 
plants and remove the machines before 
using them, to place strong garrisons 
in the largest towns, to flood the coun- 
990 



of the guns sounds quite close to the 
expectant civilians. Londoners grew 
accustomed to the alarms and excur- 
sions of hostile air raids, but it is one 
thing to see the risk of war brought 
near by German airmen and to listen 
with satisfaction to the din of the bar- 
rage directed against them, and to open 
one's paper on the next day to read 
that one or two of the enemy machines 
have been brought down. It is another 
to be bombed by one's own men and 
to be torn between the natural anxiety 
for the safety of one's family at home 
and the greater anxiety for the safety 
of the pilot of the frail machine sur- 
rounded with bursting shrapnel. 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



ALL MISFORTUNES ATTRIBUTED TO GER- 
l\ MAN DESIGN. 

In March, 191 7, the burgomaster and 
the town of Ghent were condemned 
to pay a fine of 10,000 marks in the 
following circumstances: After an 
aerial bombardment which had caused 
the death of several civilians, the 
Kommandantur issued a poster pub- 
lishing the names of the victims "killed 



their own lines, even for the satisfac- 
tion of killing a few Belgians. But 
they know also that they started bomb- 
ing open towns and that, if it had not 
been for them, there would have been 
no war — in any case, no war in Bel- 
gium. Others may wander from the 
essential principles of the struggle — 
they are not likely to do so; they are 
too often reminded of them. 




LIFE'S WEARY PILGRIMAGE 

Perhaps one of the most pathetic sides of the tragic fate of the refugees seeking at a wayside station for news of 
loved ones who were separated in the early confusion, and who tried to leave a message for family or friends. 
Notice the direction of the arrows urging on to further, weary, often fruitless search. 



by British airmen," During the night 
some patriots substituted the words: 
"Killed by a German Zeppelin." 

The German is not only the oppres- 
sor, he is the scapegoat, the cause of 
all troubles, of all sufferings. I believe 
that, if the rain spoiled the crops, the 
Boche would at once be made res- 
ponsible for it in some way or another. 
There is a rough-and-ready justice in 
the popular mind. The peasants 
know, of course, that no German can 
spoil the crops, but they know that he 
can requisition them. The citizens of 
Ghent know, or ought to know, that it 
would not pay the Germans to bomb 



It might have been expected that 
after three years and a half of waiting, 
and two years of severe privation, a 
population completely isolated from the 
rest of the world and fed on German 
censored news would show certain 
evident signs of lassitude. In every 
Allied country the Russian collapse, 
by postponing the prospect of an early 
settlement, has more or less encouraged 
pacifist devices. People realize that 
they have henceforth to choose be- 
tween some form of compromise or a 
prolongation of the struggle and of the 
hardships it implies. It would there- 
fore be only natural if such a reaction 

991 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



were felt particularly strongly by a 
nation faced with starvation and feeling 
all the might of foreign oppression. In 
spite of this, I think I may safely say 
that in no country of the Entente is 
the morale so sound on the war among 
all classes of the population. This 
conviction is founded on the declara- 




A FEARLESS PATRIOT AND PRIEST 



Now that the Central Empires have 
been strengthened and that the indus- 
trial population has been brought to 
the verge of starvation, they claim 
again the restoration of their country 
in its absolute freedom and independ- 
ence, the payment by the Central 
Empires of an indemnity for the dam- 
age done in Belgium, and the 
liberation of the oppressed na- 
tionalities in Europe. They 
repudiate indignantly the pol- 
icy pursued by the Russian 
Maximalists and by those who, 
in neutral and Allied countries, 
"stir up feelings of charity and 
humanity at the risk of sacri- 
ficing the most sacred rights 
of mankind." They remain 
convinced that "a satisfactory 
peace could only be concluded 
either through the military 
victory of the Allies, or through 
a radical transformation of 
ideas and institutions among 
the Central Powers." 

The Catholics, under the 
energetic leadership of Car- 
dinal Mercier, have main- 
tained the most uncompromis- 
ing attitude. The Germans 
are, for them, outside the pale 
of nations, and will remain 
there until they have atoned 
for their crimes. Again and 
again, in his pastoral letters 
and his sermons, the Cardinal 
has developed the idea that 
only punishment and repent- 



Cardinal Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, Belgium, whose famous i j • j. j-U^ .^^.^ 

- - 1. ance could wipe out the mem 

Y. Times Qj-y q[ ^j^g outrages committed 



pastotal letter was suppressed by the German Governor of Belgium 



N. 



elgiun 

. Time 



tions of the authorized leaders of 
public opinion, on the unanimous 
testimony of neutral observers, and 
even on the avowal of the Germans 
themselves. 

SOCIALISTS AND CATHOLICS ALIKE FIRM 
FOR RESISTANCE. 

The official memoir of the Socialist 
Party, written in July, 191 7, after 
the Russian collapse, is one of the most 
striking documents produced during 
the year. Already, in December, 191 6, 
the Belgian Socialists had warned 
their * ' comrades ' ' of the Entente against 
the dangers of a premature peace. 

992 



and that Divine justice stands above 
even Christian charity. 

T T THAT THE BELGIANS DISCUSSED IN THE 
W HOME CIRCLES. 

Such questions and many others 
concerning the future of the country 
are discussed every day, for it would be 
a mistake to think that social life is 
stopped in Belgium. There are, of 
course, no "functions" of any kind, 
and no public meetings are allowed by 
the authorities, except those of the 
activists. But behind the closed shut- 
ters of the mourning mansions of the 
aristocracy, in the cafes — ^at least, in 




THE HARVEST OF GERMAN ARTILLERY 
A striking picture of the destroyed shoe-market section of Antwerp looking towards the Cathedral which is the 
noblest and largest specimen of Gothic architecture in the Low Countries. The roof is supported by 125 pillars, 
and the tower, whose exquisite beauty Charles V was wont to compare to Mechlin lace, is a marvel of gracefulness. 

N. Y. Times 




REFUGEES FROM ANTWERP FLEEING FROM THEIR HOMES 

In the second half of the fifteenth century Antwerp was the world mart of Europe, supplanting the other great 
Flemish cities Bruges and Ghent. Under Charles V, as the principal station of the Hanseatic League and the 
centre of the money exchanges of Europe, the city was at the height o^ its splendor. Sieges and battles destroyed 
its prosperity, and it lost half of its population. International Film Service 

993 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



the Belgian cafes, which, by a kind of 
tacit consent, no German will enter — - 
in the homes of the bourgeois and of 
the workman, people gather more fre- 
quently perhaps than before, because 
there is more leisure for many, and 
because it is the way to save light and 
coal. 

War conditions have revived the old 
custom of the "veillee," when a few 
friends and neighbors meet in turn in 
one another's houses. The women 
knit for the prisoners, or mend the 
family's clothes — it has become almost 
impossible to buy new ones — the men 
smoke when some member of the 
gathering has been lucky enough to 
secure some tobacco; and there, around 
the slow-burning stove, under the lamp, 
after the last German proclamation has 
been ridiculed — there is one at least 
every week — and when the housewives 
have exchanged recipes concerning 
some wonderful new substitute, plans 
are made for the future of the country, 
and the war is discussed. 

BELGIANS NOT ALL EITHER HEROES OR 
MARTYRS 

I do not want to embellish this 
picture of Belgian life; I do not want 
in the least to convey the impression 
that all Belgians are either martyrs or 
heroes. This illusion has already done 
too much mischief. On the contrary, 
no people in Europe is more deeply 
and more openly human, with all the 
qualities and the weaknesses which 
the word implies. Whatever the Bel- 
gians are, they show it; they carry their 
character on their face, and their 
heart on the sleeve. They are unable 
to exercise self-restraint and to strike 
heroic attitudes. There is no classi- 
cism, no style about them, and no 
greater mistake could be made than to 
compare their action at the beginning 
of the war with that of Leonidas. The 
righteous feeling of a publican evicting 
a drunkard who is insulting his daugh- 
ter is much more akin to the wild 
indignation which got hold of the 
average Belgian on the day of the 
ultimatum. Of the Belgian, perhaps 
more than of any other nation, it 
would be right to say, "It takes all 
sorts to make a world." It is unhap- 

994 



pily true, then, that in some quarters 
greed has exerted its humiliating in- 
fluence. The Germans have been 
able to buy off a few consciences and 
some trades-people have not resisted 
the temptation to make fruitful bar- 
gains with the enemy. There is a 
small minority, a very small minority, 
of traitors and profiteers in Belgium; 
but, strange as it may seem, there are 
no pacifists. 

When I asked the reason of one who, 
by his position, had traveled a good 
deal about the country, and had been 
brought into contact with people of all 
classes he said: "You wonder that we 
keep up our spirits in our German pris- 
on, cut off from the rest of the world. 
It is precisely because we do not hear 
too much about the Allies' efforts that 
we never doubt their success. 

"The secret of our resistance is that 
we stand closer to Germany. We do 
riot expect any miraculous concession 
from the German Imperialistic spirit, 
but, rightly or wrongly, we are con- 
vinced that we are witnessing the de- 
cline of this spirit. We do not believe 
in German organization and German 
efficiency, because we can see ourselves 
how disorganized and inefficient it can 
be. We do not believe in German 
cleverness, because none of their tricks 
ever caught us napping. And we 
believe in the Allies' success because 
we see the results of their efforts with- 
out thinking of the difficulties they may 
experience in making them." 

THE TRAMP OF THE GERMAN SOLDIERS 
IN THE STREET. 

Sometimes, at night when people 
talk quietly of their hopes and miseries, 
when their thoughts wander towards 
some Belgian soldier in the trenches or 
some prisoner in the cold hut of a 
German camp, footsteps are heard in 
the street in front of the door. It is a 
German patrol — a few privates, led by 
a non-commissioned officer; and for one 
moment the conversation stops and 
the women cease to sew. The rhyth- 
mic beating of the nailed boots on the 
rough pavement soon grows fainter. 
With a sigh of relief the women again 
bend their heads over their work, the 
men pull at their pipes, and, without 



I 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



further notice of this small incident, 
the talking is quietly resumed. 

For you never know. At any 
moment the soldiers may stop, enter 
the house, and arrest one or more of 
the party. It might be here or it 
might be next door. It might be for 
some offense against the German regu- 
lations, or for nothing at all — an 
anonymous letter, or the denunciation 



much energy in torturing their victims 
when nothing prevents them from 
deporting them according to their 
own sweet will. It is true that Burgo- 
master Max and a few other prominent 
citizens were never regularly tried, 
and were simply packed off to Ger- 
many as "undesirable." But, as a 
rule, the oppressor likes to make a show 
of legality and to extract from the 




SMUGGLING ON THE FRANCO-BELGIAN FRONTIER 

Everybody traveling on the roads in this part of the country had to carry with them a certain permission from the 
temporary German military government. Nevertheless numerous attempts were made to carry on an extensive 
smuggling of goods into France. Many arrests of persons without passports took place, with consequent confisca- 
tion of goods. Ruschin 

of an "agent provocateur." Some have 
left in the morning for their office or for 
their work and never been seen again. 
Once arrested, you are brought straight 
to the Kommandantur, and, if your 
cross-examination is not considered 
satisfactory, sent to the prison of St. 
Gilles or some other gaol and put for 
weeks into solitary confinement pend- 
ing your trial by a German military 
court. 

THE STORIES THAT ARE TOLD AMONG THE 
PEOPLE. 

Terrible tales are told about the 
German inquisition, and one wonders 
really why the tormentors spend so 



"culprit" a formal avowal, and, 
what is of still greater value to him, the 
denunciation of some "accomplices." 
Every possible means is used for this 
purpose. 

Some people have been deprived 
of food to compel them to speak, 
others have been beaten, others were 
told that their wife or their child was 
dying and that they would be al- 
lowed to see them if they confessed 
their crime. The examinations are 
kept up for hours in order to exhaust 
the strength of the accused, and when 
one examining officer is tired, another 
takes his place. 

995 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



I could not vouch for every one of 
these stories. Few of those who are 
supposed to have experienced such 
torture have come back to describe 
them. Enough is known to render 
these rumors plausible, so that the 
people live in dread of the German 
police and the German spies who infest 



who, for some reason or another, 
finds himself on their black list. 

CONFISCATED COPIES OF "LIBRE BEL- 
GIQUE" CAUSE MANY ARRESTS. 

Their work was rendered more easy 
by the seizure of a certain number of 
copies of the newspaper, Libre Bel- 
gique. One of these thrown in the 




AN INTERESTING GROUP 
King Albert of the Belgians followed by General Dubois, President Poincare, M. Millerand and General Jofifre 
greeting military observers in France. He is speaking with Lieut.-Colonel Higoutchi of Japan. The remarkable 
physique of the monarch seems to dwarf the figures of the other chiefs, of whom several are of no mean stature. 

N. Y. Times 

the country, especially in the large 
towns. They can be found every- 
where, in the street, in the trams, in the 
cafes, in the churches, under any 
possible disguise. It is their business 
to find out who publishes and circulates 
forbidden papers, such as "La Libre 
Belgique," who brings news from the 
soldiers to their families, who helps 
volunteers to cross the wire, who 
entertains relations with the Belgian 
Government; and when their quest 
remains fruitless, as it often does, to 
convict of such crime any good patriot 
996 



letter-box of any suspect or slipped 
into a drawer could serve as a pretext 
for his immediate arrest. A well- 
dressed man called on the principal of 
one of the most important schools in 
Brussels. He told this priest that the 
school had been highly recommended 
to him, and that he wanted his two 
boys to be educated there. He insisted 
on paying beforehand the fee for the 
first term, and slipped, as he left, a 
banknote in the principal's hand, 
whispering in his ear, "For the 'Libre 
Belgique,' you know," and disappear- 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



3d, after saying that he would bring 
lis boys the next day. 

Something in the man's behavior 
made the priest suspicious, and he 
promptly sent the banknote to the 
office of "La Belgique, " one of the Ger- 
man censored papers subsidized by the 
"PolitischeAbtheilung," asking 
for a receipt. The next day 
the German agent reappeared, 
escorted by two soldiers, and 
declared that it was his painful 
mission to arrest the principal, 
since, by accepting the money, 
he had admitted that he was 
connected with the publication 
of a forbidden paper. "Which 
paper? " asked the priest, show- 
ing great astonishment. "The 
'Libre Belgique'." 

"It is the first time that I 
hear the name," was the 
answer. " I thought you meant 
' La Belgique. ' The money has 
already been taken there. I 
am sorry I made this mistake, 
but perhaps there is still time 
to claim it. Here is the receipt 
if you care togo. " 

The patriot avoided thus a 
penalty of from ten to twenty 
years' imprisonment or depor- 
tation to Germany. But, for 
one who escapes, how many 
false victims of their confi- 
dence? — for the German mili- 
tary courts of Hasselt, Brussels, 
and Ghent may safely be com- 
pared with the "Bloody Coun- 
cil" of the Duke of Alva. 

How THE BELGIANS SHOW THEIR ATTI- 
TUDE TOWARD THE GERMANS. 

In the street, when obliged to pass 
before a "field-grey," the Brussels 
bourgeois will look in another direc- 
tion, in the tram no lady will remain 
in the car if a German takes his seat 
beside her. There are Belgian and 
German cafes, Belgian and German 
shops, and, in the country, where such 
arrangements are not always possible, 
the intrusion of an enemy is invariably 
followed by dead silence, even orders 
being given by signs. On August 17, 
I9I7» when a service for the birthday 
of the Austrian Emperor was celebrated 



in Ste. Gudule, the great church was 
deserted, and when, three days later, 
the German Emperor crossed the town, 
only his soldiers and policemen were 
there to greet him. This complete 
ostracism may relax, to a certain 
extent, in small country towns and 




PALAIS DE JUSTICE, BRUSSELS 
This was used by the Germans as a barracks. Begun in 1866 and 
inaugurated in 1883 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of 
Belgium's independence, it is pyramidal in shape and culminates in 
a dome with a cross. 

villages, where only a few old and 
mournful men of the Landsturm form 
the whole garrison, but it is unmistak- 
able and relentless in every town where 
even those patriots who speak to an 
enemy with the idea of getting some 
useful information from him live under 
a shadow. 

The Germans sowed terror, thinking 
that they would reap the golden crop 
of submission, and lo! only thistles 
and nettles grow on the Belgian fields. 
And they wonder and ask themselves 
and every neutral they meet : " How is 
it? What have we done that we should 
be hated thus?" 

997 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



But, if the Germans wonder at their 
failure, they do not alter their methods. 
They know no other. They no longer 
publish the names of the patriots 
sentenced by their courts, since such 
practice only prompts others to follow 
their example. They have also ceased 
to bury the martyrs outside the prisons 
where people could come and pray on 
their graves and cover them with flowers, 
but they go on condemning them, de- 
porting others and fining many more. 
According to their own admission, 
100,000 sentences were pronounced in 
one year (191 5- 16), and this figure must 
be largely increased by now. The dis- 
proportion between the offence and 
the punishment is, perhaps, more sug- 
gestive of German terrorism than the 
most sensational stories of torture and 
wanton cruelty. Here are a few 
examples : 

SOME EXAMPLES OF THE ATTEMPTS TO 
BREAK THE BELGIAN SPIRIT. 

Parents are daily condemned to a 
penalty of three to six months' im- 
prisonment and a fine of one thousand 
marks for "not having prevented their 
sons from crossing the frontier." Any- 
body who, verbally or otherwise, gives 
news from the soldiers to their rela- 
tives remaining in Belgium is heavily 
fined and deported to Germany. An 
official proclamation has been posted in 
Flanders declaring that anybody who 
should be taken carrying any weapon — 
even a pocket-knife — would be shot. 
A citizen of Hasselt was fined one 
thousand marks for closing his win- 
dows when the military band was 
playing in the market-place. The burgo- 
master of Mons, for refusing to stand 
at attention before the military gover- 
nor of the town, had to pay 7,500 
francs, etc. 

It is scarcely necessary to recall here 
the deportation of M. Max the burgo- 
master of Brussels and of his successor 
M. Lemonier, whose crime had been to 
defend their constitutional rights; or 
that of Professors Pirenne and Fred- 
ericq, whose only offense was that of 
declining to help the Germans in the 
creation of the new University of 
Ghent. Under such trivial pretexts at 
least ten deputies and senators, fifteen 

998 



burgomasters and aldermen, eminent 
advocates and well-known doctors, 
have been banished from the country. 

THE DEMAND THAT THE PEOPLE GIVE 
ACTIVE AID. 

The imposition of collective fines on 
the communes has become a regular 
source of income for the German war- 
chest. Any incident may serve as a 
pretext to justify such measures — a 
telegraph-post thrown down by a gale, 
the successful escape of workmen or 
recruits, the appearance of an Allied 
aeroplane over the town, or a sympa- 
thetic demonstration towards British 
prisoners. In the summer of 191 7 
Mons had to pay 500,000 marks after 
a British air raid, under the pretext 
that it followed the announcement by a 
Belgian paper published in Holland 
that Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria had 
established his headquarters there. 
The small commune of Zele, near 
Termonde, was condemned to a fine 
of 100,000 marks because the inhab- 
itants had distributed food and ciga- 
rettes to British prisoners. Malines 
was fined 20,000 marks because the 
local authorities had refused to clear 
up the wreckage caused by the bom- 
bardment of the town by the enemy. 

The last example illustrates parti- 
cularly well the German policy pur- 
sued in Belgium. It is not enough that 
the people should not do anything to 
help their country, they should also 
do everything to help Germany. It is 
not enough that they should refrain 
from any demonstration of sympathy 
towards their Allies, they should also 
exert themselves to further German 
aims. Malines should clear the ruins 
wrought by German guns, deportees 
should be employed on military work, 
professors should lend their name and 
reputation to the German University 
of Ghent, patriots be compelled to dig 
trenches and build concrete dug-outs 
to shelter German soldiers. 

SOME INDIVIDUALS SUCCUMB TO THE 
TEMPTATION. 

The tramp of soldiers has become 
especially loud in some Belgian towns. 
The Germans are not suppressing a 
rising. They are protecting a little 
band of traitors against the infuriated 



Tfopulation whose patience is exhausted. 
For the stubborn hostiHty against the 
Boches however burning, cannot be 
compared to the fierce hatred of the 
people against the few "activists" who, 
with German help and German money, 
are endeavoring to break up Belgium. 
There is a traitor in the Belgian 
tragedy. It is a man who, before the 
war, was regarded as a failure while he 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



features of foreign oppression that it 
gives them a chance to satisfy their 
greed and their rancor. They may be 
seen in Belgium to-day lecturing to the 
empty benches of the Ghent Univer- 
sity, filling the most responsible posts 
of the deserted Flemish Ministries, 
going in and out of the Kommandantur 
bent on some cloudy errand. Dressed 
in brand new frock coats, they wander 




THE UNIVERSITY OF GHENT, REORGANIZED BY GERMAN AUTHORITY 



considered himself a, success. He 
belongs generally to the intellectual 
class. It is a college professor whose 
head has been turned by the prospect 
of a chair at Ghent, or a civil servant 
who could not resist the temptation 
ofTered by a directorship, or a doctor in 
search of patients, a singer without 
voice, a painter without talent, a poet 
without inspiration, or merely a debtor 
without any money — what the French 
call a "rate," a man who cannot for- 
give his country or his Government for 
the scant attention given to him in the 
past and who is ready to sell his soul 
for power, money, and a top-hat. 

Such people exist in every country, 
and it is perhaps one of the worst 



through the streets trying not to see 
the look of hatred which follows them 
everywhere and not to hear the ironic 
greeting "Traitor! Judas!" whispered 
by every passer-by. 

How THE BELGIANS DEALT WITH THOSE 
WHO AIDED GERMANY. 

The professors and students at 
Ghent, the new ofBcials at the Flemish 
Ministry in Brussels, are outside the 
pale of society. These men were so 
few, and their propaganda had so little 
influence, that the patriots never took 
the trouble to attack them seriously. 
It seemed scarcely worth while. But 
the self-appointed "Council of Flan- 
ders" proclaimed the " Independence of 
Flanders" in January, 191 8, and started 

999 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



a violent propaganda under German 
protection. In spite of the ridicu- 
lously small number of separatists 
(there are only a few hundred "ac- 
tivists" among the four million Flem- 
ings), this step might have proved 
dangerous in creating among the Ger- 
man people and even among Allied 
nations, the illusion that a certain part 
of the Belgian population wanted to 
dissociate themselves from the rest 



WHEN THE BELGIAN JUDGES WENT ON 
A STRIKE. 

In Brussels, a few days later, the 
Belgian Court of Appeal took the 
initiative of prosecuting the eleven 
signatories of a poster proclaiming the 
independence of Flanders. Two of 
them were duly arrested, on February 
8th, and the judge was cross-examining 
them when a German major in full 
uniform rushed into the study of 




GHENT, CAPITAL OF THE PROVINCE OF EAST FLANDERS 
The city is intersected by a number of streams and canals spanned by more than 200 bridges. The older portion 
with its narrow streets and gabled buildings bears a decidedly Flemish aspect and possesses numerous buildings 
of great historical interest. Ghent has a number of old guild houses and about twenty monasteries. Ruschin 

M. Jottrand the public prosecutor with 
great clatter of sword and spurs, and, 
thumping the table with his fist, 
demanded the immediate release of the 
two activist leaders. M. Jottrand only 
consented to give the order of release 
when Major Schauer had given him 
a written document stating that he 
took all the responsibility for the illegal 
measure. And a few moments later the 
Belgians, assembled before the Palace 
of Justice, could see the German officer 
walking out, carrying the voluminous 
dossier under his arm, with one traitor 
on each side. I need scarcely add that 



of the nation and to receive separate 
treatment at the peace conference. An 
"independent" Flanders meant evi- 
dently a German-protected Flanders. 
Though German statements have re- 
peatedly assured us that they do not 
want to annex Belgium "violently," 
they might, later on, make the same 
answer to the Allies about Flanders 
as they did to the Bolshevists concern- 
ing the Baltic provinces: "We do 
not care to annex an inch of territory, 
but we cannot decently refuse to 
protect large provinces, if the people 
there claim our protection." 
1000 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



le three presidents of the Court of 
Appeal were deported as " undesirable," 
after which all the Belgian magistrates 
decided to suspend their sittings. 

Extraordinary country, where the 
patriotic judges go on strike hand in 
hand with the patriotic workmen, and 
where an archbishop and the members 
of the Supreme Court are counted 
among the foremost ringleaders! 



The people are 
when they are fed 



fed on substitutes 
at all, terrorism is 



rampant, the whole country, with 
its wide, rolling plains and capricious 
hills, has become a huge prison; but 
laughter is not entirely dead. The 
Belgian's answer to the tramp of 
the soldiers is his laughter. Not bitter, 
defiant laughter, rather the broad, 
good-humored laughter of a man who 




SALVAGING AND CLEARING IN THE HARBOR 

An Antwerp diver ascertaining if a sunken ship could be raised. When the Belgians evacuated the city they sank 
their ships in the harbors — an action which cost the Germans many months of tiresome work, although incidentally 
it gave thereby great impetus to German salvaging industries, already very far advanced. Ruschin 

THE PEOPLE HAVE NOT FORGOTTEN HOW 
TO LAUGH. 



It is very difficult to give a trust- 
worthy picture of Belgian life in the 
spring of 191 8 without producing an 
impression of gloom. The situation of 
these seven million men, women, and 
children separated from their friends 
and relations in the Army or abroad, 
completely isolated from the rest of 
the world, left at the mercy of a victor 
who is exerting all his cunning in order 
to extract the last ounce of their 
energy, the last potato of their crop, 
the last shilling of their money, the 
last breath of their patriotism, is 
nothing short of desperate. 



would rather be ruined or deported 
than give up a practical joke. 

THE SPECTRE OF STARVATION NEVER OUT 
OF SIGHT. 

"I shall never think of Belgium," 
writes Mrs. Kellogg, "without seeing 
endless processions of silent men and 
black-shawled women, pitchers in hand, 
waiting, waiting for the day's pint of 
soup. One and a quarter million make 
a long procession. If you have imagined 
it in the sunshine, think of it in the 
rain. A man may shut himself in his 
house and forget the war for a few 
hours, but he dare not venture out- 
side. If he does, he will quickly 
stumble against a part of this line . . " 

1 001 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



The Belgian people may be roughly 
divided into three classes — those who 
are entirely dependent on relief, most 
industrial workers, small shopkeepers, 
and a certain portion of the profes- 
sional classes who have been thrown 
out of work or entirely ruined by the 
war; those who are only partly de- 



EMPLOYERS AND WORKMEN REFUSE TO 
WORK FOR GERMANY. 

The Germans have failed to per- 
suade the Belgians that the British 
blockade is in any shape or form re- 
sponsible for the situation. This fal- 
lacy, propounded by the censored 
Press, has been repeatedly exposed by 
Cardinal Mercier and the local 
authorities who protested 
against the deportations. The 
people know that Britain al- 
lowed the import of foodstuffs 
under neutral control, and that, 
when these do not reach the 
country, as was the case in the 
summer of 191 7, it is owing to 
the torpedoing of the relief 
ships by U-boats. They are 
also aware that, had Germany 
consented to submit to the 
same control regarding raw 
material, the Belgian work- 
shops might have been kept 
busy, and a half a million men 
would not have been thrown 
out of work. It is not the 
blockade which reduces the 
Belgian workers of Mons, Char- 
leroi, and Liege to the desper- 
ate conditions in which they 
find themselves today. It is 
not even the enormous requi- 
sitions in money, food, and raw 
stuffs made by the enemy. It 
is the stubborn and splendid 
patriotism which made these 
men refuse to work against their 
country. The Belgian civilians 
are starving today for the same 

This woman whose life had been devoted to works of mercy was, r-Aacr»n fr»r iirhiVVi tVif»-i;- -wrPTP 
by the order of Baron von Bissing, shot, after summary trial at ^CaSOn lOr WUlcn tney WCre 
Brussels on October II, 191 5, for helping British and Belgian fugi- maSSacrcd in AugUSt, IQI4 — 

because they stubbornly resist 




NURSE EDITH CAVELL, VICTIM OF GERMAN 
SAVAGERY 



tives across the Belgian frontier. 

pendent on relief, including a number 
of the bourgeois class, whose income, 
though curtailed, allows them to pay 
the low prices of the "Comite Nation- 
al"; and those who are still entirely 
self-supporting, including the farmers, 
some merchants, and the owners of 
landed property. Out of the seven 
million people remaining in Belgium 
about four million are entirely or 
partly dependent on the work of the 
Commission for Relief. 



Germany's will. 

Men and women from the Liege 
region, unable to support their fami- 
lies, tramp sometimes for days in 
Hesbaye or Flemish Limbourg in order 
to obtain food at the farms and they 
seldom come back empty-handed. Wal- 
loon children by the thousand are 
found as far as the Dutch frontier in 
places where they cannot make them- 
selves understood. But the voice of 
heart does not need translating. 



1002 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



'T^HE GAY TOWN LIFE NO LONGER EVIDENT. 

Those who knew Brussels before the 
war, the gay city with its noisy streets, 
loud-speaking crowd, and comfortable 
life, would be staggered if they could 
wander to-day about the deserted and 



must drag their cars along, and it is a 
painful sight to see these weak men in 
harness struggling to climb the steep 
streets. Another remarkable feature, 
in a town where no household was 
complete without some pet animal, 
cats and dogs are quickly disappearing. 




GERMAN OFFICER PURCHASING FOOD IN BELGIUM 

Elderly officer buying vegetables from Belgian peasant's humble stall in the market place. Such products could 
not be hoarded for the Belgians themselves, nor concealed from the vigilant Germans whose military governors 
were wont, if they suspected such deception, to commandeer the whole crop. Roots are largely grown in the heavy 
soil of the Low Countries. Ruschin 



silent thoroughfares of the upper part 
of the town. But for the few cars used 
by the Kommandantur and the "Comi- 
te National," no motors are to be 
seen; cycles have vanished; unem- 
ployment has considerably decreased 
the pedestrian traffic. The tramways, 
on the other hand, are very active. 
They are the principal means of trans- 
port for public services, all heavy ma- 
terial being conveyed in small open 
trucks along the line. Even burials 
take place in that way, the cofifin being 
placed in the first carriage, and the 
family and friends sitting in the second. 
A few months ago a few oxen, donkeys, 
and old horses were still employed by 
private firms. Now they are seldom 
to be seen. The dustmen, for instance, 



No regulations have yet been made in 
Brussels, as in Ghent, for instance, 
about the slaughtering of dogs, but 
such regulations have become useless. 
There will soon be no dogs left. 

THE SOUND OF WOODEN SHOES ON THE 
PAVEMENTS. 

If there are few passers-by, they can 
be heard approaching from afar, owing 
to the wooden soles which replace the 
old leather ones when these are worn 
out. Many poor people walk in wood- 
en shoes, and even some policemen 
are seen wearing this rustic footgear. 
The women do wonders to look neat 
and smart, and they succeed to a cer- 
tain extent. Only their intimate friends 
know that their new dress is the third 
edition, modified and converted, of an 

1003 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 







THE CLOSE OF A LETTER FROM THE QUEEN OF THE BELGIANS 



old pre-war "toilette. " and they do not 
easily confess that their best coat has 
been made out of an extra blanket. 
Owing to the requisitions, wool, cloth, 
and even linen have become so valu- 
able that, in some cases, robbers have 
taken away the clothes of their vic- 
tims, . reviving the custom of the old 
highwaymen. 

The enemy has seized every kind of 
brass in the cafes, tramcars, and public 
buildings, and even in private houses. 
All the brilliant copper fittings are 
replaced by dull iron. The vshine has 
gone from the gay city. After the scarc- 
ity of food, this want of brightness and 
spotless cleanliness is perhaps the 
severest trial of the Brussels housewife. 
It was the great luxury of the poor in 
Belgium. Water is still plentiful — 
it is perhaps the only thing which has 
not been affected by the war — but a 
small piece of soap is worth four 
shillings. 

THE "BUSY BEES" STRIVE TO SAVE THE 
CHILDREN. 

And still through frost and snow, 
through wind and showers, unex- 
pectedly the queues of "silent men 
and black-shawled women, pitchers in 
hand, " bar the way, and the wanderer 
realizes that out of 750,000 people 
who live in Brussels, from 200,000 to 
250,000 are destitute. Besides these 
grown-ups who wait before the "soupes" 
there are crowds of children who gather 

1004 



at II o'clock before the canteens for 
subnormal children, to take the extra 
meal provided by the "Petites Abeilles," 
the private association known in Brus- 
sels as the "Little Bees." Twenty- 
six thousand children are fed by 2,000 
to 3,000 women of all classes who have 
volunteered for this work since the 
beginning of the occupation and looked 
after by one hundred and twenty-five 
physicians who give their services. 

The "Little Bees" are all volunteers. 
They receive a subsidy from the Com- 
mission for Relief, and go from door to 
door to collect alms. They gather in 
this way, in Brussels alone j $500 a week 
besides gifts in food, and bring their 
honey back to the hive. Their popu- 
larity in the town has grown tremen- 
dously, and it is believed that it is 
owing to their untiring efforts that the 
mortality among children has been 
kept within bounds. 

MRS. KELLOGG TELLS OF THE CHILDREN 
SHE SAW IN BRUSSELS. 

Queen Elisabeth was the promoter 
and the patroness of the association 
before the war. But, in spite of the 
absence of their Queen, engaged in 
sterner duty on the Yser front, the 
workers have remained faithful to their 
post, and will be able, when the time 
comes, to render a glorious account of 
themselves. This is how Mrs. Kellogg 
describes the rush of youngsters in the 
canteen : 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



It was raining outside, but all was 
white and clean and inviting within. 
Suddenly there was a rush of feet in the 
courtyard below. I looked out of the 
window; in the rain 1,662 children 
between three and fourteen years, 
mothers often leading the smaller 
ones, not an umbrella or rubber among 
them, were lining up with their cards, 
eager to be passed by the sergeant. 



'Beaucoup, mademoiselle, beaucoup!* 
A few even said, 'Only a little, made- 
moiselle!' Everybody said something. 
One tiny, golden-haired thing pleaded, 
'You know, I like the little pieces of 
meat best. ' In no time they discovered 
that I was new, and tried to induce me 
to give them extra slices of bread or 
bowls of milk." 

Though they bear other names in 




BRUGES "THE SLEEPING TOWN" 



Bruges has preserved to this day its mediaeval aspect. The old houses and beautiful Gothic churches, narrow 
canals bridge-adorned, all bear the stamp of rare beauty and quaintness. Once the entire wool trade of Flanders 
was in the hands of the citizens of Bruges and the town was, moreover, the seat of a brilliant cosmopolitan colony 
of artists. Zeebrugge, connected by a canal is the port of Bruges. 



These kind-hearted, long-suffering ser- 
geants kept this wavering line in place, 
as the children noisily climbed the 
long stairway, calling, pushing. One 
little girl stepped out to put fresh 
flowers before a bust of the Queen. 
Boys and girls under six crowded into 
the first of the large airy rooms, older 
girls into the second, while the bigger 
boys climbed to the floor above. With 
much chattering and shufifling of sabots 
they slid along the low benches to their 
places at the long narrow tables. The 
women hurried between the wriggling 
rows, ladling out the hot, thick soup. 
The air was filled with cries of, 



other towns, there are "Little Bees" 
all over the country looking after 
253,000 subnormal children, and fight- 
ing hard to protect the little ones 
against tuberculosis and other diseases 
which are the direct result of the food 
crisis. 

THE ATTEMPTS OF THE BELGIANS TO HELP 
THEMSELVES. 

It is almost impossible to give an 
idea of the efforts made in Belgium to 
preserve the race and alleviate suffering. 
The school children (there are i ,200,000 
of them) receive an extra meal at 4 
p. M., given them by the schoolmasters 
and schoolmistresses. The "Drop of 

1005 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



Milk" cares for expectant mothers, 
and has 53,000 babies under supervi- 
sion. The Clothing Relief provides 
several hundred thousand garments, 
besides giving a few hours' employ- 
ment a week to 25,000 seamstresses, in 
Brussels alone. The lace industry — 
the only industry whose exports are 
allowed — ^keeps 48,000 workers busy. 
The "Restaurants Economiques" pro- 
vide over 10,000 cheap meals a day in 
Brussels to the many "Pauvres hon- 
teux," who would rather endure severe 
privations than be seen in the soup 
queues. 

All these foundations are subsidized 
by the communes and the Commission 
for Relief, and none of them could work 
for more than a month without the 
help of volunteers and the constant 
flow of private subscriptions. Mr. 
Hoover speaks of an army of 55,000 
volunteer workers on relief that has 
grown among the Belgian and French 
people, "of a perfection and a patriot- 
ism without parallel in the existence of 
any country. " It is "to the growth of 
the relief organization, and the demand 
it has made upon the people's exertions 
and their devotion, that its morale has 
flowered in such a fine national spirit 
and stoical resolution." 

THE BELGIAN ARMY AND THE BELGIAN 
PEOPLE. 

The Belgians have refused to work 
for Germany, but they are working 
for Belgium harder than ever; some of 
them are so engrossed in this new 
undertaking that they have no time to 
weep over the past. Their sight must 
clear like that of the pilot of the ship, 
for there is danger ahead. Never has 
there been so little money in the 



country, and never have so many 
charities flourished. 

The Army is worshipped. In many 
homes the picture of the absent soldier 
occupies the place of honor in the living 
room, and is surrounded with small 
household treasures. Tapers are kept 
burning before these shrines during the 
winter nights, and they are surrounded 
with flowers in summer. The soldiers' 
children and the orphans are the ob- 
ject of solicitude of hundreds of asso- 
ciations, such as the "Secours des En- 
fan ts de nos Braves," the "Obole Pop- 
ulaire," the "Friends of our Soldiers' 
Children," the "Orphan's Flower," 
and the prisoners in Germany are not 
forgotten by "L 'Adoption, " the"Com- 
ite du Soldat Beige Prisonnier, " while 
the disabled are looked after by 
*' La Fraternelle des Soldats Mutiles," 

1AUGHING AT THEIR MISERY ENABLES 
jt THEM TO ENDURE IT. 

"The great characteristic of the 
Belgian people," writes Mr. J. G. 
Blieck, in the Amsterdammer after 
spending two years in the occupied 
provinces, "is the unconquerable 
strength of their living spirit, this spirit 
which remains silent because obliged 
to do so, but remains untamed, which 
laughs because inclined to do so and 
because it knows. Yes, even in the 
present circumstances, the spirit of 
Belgium laughs! It laughs at the in- 
congruities of life, mocking the war- 
rior's sword, mocking its own misery. 
But laughter means victory; and it is 
precisely because Belgium began again 
to laugh so soon, and has never ceased 
to laugh since, that she will conquer. 
She does not even resist the evil spirit, 
because it has no hold upon her. 



T006 





A British Machine Gi 



Chapter LXI 

he German Offensive of March and April 

LUDENDORFF ATTEMPTS TO GAIN PEACE BY SEPARATING 
THE FRENCH AND BRITISH ARMIES 



rjURING the winter of 1917-1918 
there was much speculation as to 
whether the Germans would venture 
to attack in force on the Western 
Front in the following spring. The col- 
lapse of the Russian front had by this 
time enabled them to transfer to the 
West vast numbers of fresh troops and 
a great quantity of war material — with 
the result that in strength they were 
now considerably superior. On the 
other hand, there were those — some of 
them high up in the Allied councils — 
who, remembering the failure of the 
Allies to break through in 191 6 and 
191 7, believed that the deadlock on 
the Western Front was unbreakable, 
and that the Germans would not dare 
to attack. Even among the soldiers, 
there were many who regarded the 
prospect of a German offensive as too 
good to be true, and who believed that 
the Germans would continue their 
stone-walling tactics rather than ven- 
ture on the project of a grand offensive. 

THE SITUATION AT HOME FORCED THE 
GERMANS TO FIGHT. 

These latter views, however, were 
based on a false estimate of the situa- 
tion. The position of the Central 
Powers, though temporarily favorable, 
was rapidly becoming critical. Aus- 
tria, Bulgaria, and Turkey could not 
be expected to continue the struggle 
indefinitely; and even in Germany in- 



ternal conditions were steadily grow- 
ing worse. The submarine warfare, 
moreover, had failed to yield the re- 
sults which had been promised from 
it; and it was clear that the interven- 
tion of the United States in the Euro- 
pean theatre would soon become a 
serious factor. Obviously, it was the 
part of wisdom for the Germans to 
make the fullest use of their tempo- 
rary superiority. If the British and 
French armies could be decisively de- 
feated before the Americans could come 
to their relief, the war would be virtu- 
ally won ; for it was not expected that 
the United States, separated from the 
field of conflict by thousands of miles 
of sea, would continue the struggle 
single-handed. 

IUDENDORFF PROMISES VICTORY WITHIN 
^ FOUR MONTHS. 

Everything hinged on whether, in 
the next round of the bout, the Ger- 
man army could administer to the 
combined British and French armies a 
knock-out blow; and it would appear 
that early in the winter Ludendorff, 
who — under the nominal leadership of 
the popular idol, Hindenburg — was 
the master-mind of the German army, 
had already come to the conclusion 
that such an achievement was feasible 
At a secret session of the German 
Reichstag, held in February, 191 8, 
Ludendorff appeared in person, and 

1007 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



after outlining his proposals, guaran- 
teed the German people a victorious 
peace within four months, if his pro- 
posals were adopted. He frankly esti- 
mated the probable German losses at 
an appalling figure; but the Reichstag 
intoxicated with the prospect of vic- 
tory at last, gave his project their 
blessing. 




GEN SIR WILLIAM ROBERTSON, CHIEF 
OF IMPERIAL STAFF 

GENERAL LUDENDORFF'S PLAN TO GAIN 
A VICTORIOUS PEACE. 

LudendorfT's plan bore witness to 
the power and originality of his narrow 
but efficient mind. It was a definite 
and revolutionary attempt to find a 
fresh solution for the stalemate which 
had been brought about by the war of 
positions. In the battles of the preced- 
ing years it had been deemed essential 
to prepare the way for an infantry as- 
sault by a prolonged bombardment — 
with the result that the element of sur- 
prise was lost, the enemy got plenty of 
time and warning to get his reserves 

1008 



up, and the attack was not able to 
progress far. The bombardment was 
likely, also, to make the ground im- 
passable for the artillery and supply 
services as the attack swept forward. 

The problem had been partially solved 
by the British in their tank attack 
near Cambrai in November, 191 7, 
where the prolonged artillery bombard- 
ment had been dispensed with, and 
a complete surprise had been ob- 
tained. Ludendorff did not have a 
sufficient number of tanks to enable 
him to copy the British tactics, nor 
does he appear at this stage to 
have thought highly of the tanks 
as an instrument of warfare; but 
he was profoundly impressed with 
the success of the British in res- 
toring the element of surprise to 
the battle. 

THE NEW GERMAN PLAN OF ATTACK 
TO BE TRIED ON A LARGE SCALE. 

He could not, of course, hope to 
obtain a complete surprise; but he 
conceived that it would be at least 
possible to deceive the enemy as to 
the point at which his main blow 
was to fall. His idea was to effect 
his concentrations far behind the 
front line, where they would threat- 
en several different sectors of the 
enemy's front; to hurry his troops 
forward to the assembly positions 
under cover of night, by every 
means of transportation at his dis- 
posal; to attack, after a brief but 
violent bombardment, in over- 
whelming strength at certain crit- 
ical points, and thus to effect a 
break-through before the enemy 
could readjust himself to meet the 
sudden blow. The actual assault was 
to be carried out by specially trained 
storm-troops, who were to press for- 
ward at all costs through any gaps that 
appeared, and were to indicate by a 
carefully prepared system of signals 
the lines of least resistance to be follow- 
ed by the dense waves of infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery attacking in their 
wake. All troops were to be furnished 
with several days' iron rations, and 
were to push on to the limit of their 
endurance, when they would be "leap- 
frogged" by fresher formations. These 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 

tactics had been used by Gen- 
eral von Hutier in the East, 
and later at Caporetto on a 
limited scale. 

After a personal inspection 
of the front, Ludendorff se- 
lected the sector on which his 
attack was to be made. This 
sector was the southern half 
of the British line, extending 
from north of Cambrai to south 
of St. Quentin, and coinciding 
with the areas held by the 
British Third and Fifth Armies. 
It was intended, however, that 
the main blow should fall on 
the British Fifth Army, at the 
extreme right of the British 
line ; and the object of this blow 
was to separate the British and 
French armies, so that it would 
be possible to isolate the 
British from French assistance, 
to roll the British armies back 
on the Channel ports and 
destroy them; then to turn 
south and roll up the French 
line. It was an astute attempt 
to put into twentieth-century 
practice Napoleon's device of the interior of st. gervais 

, • 1 • • 11 Interior of the Paris Church of St. Gervais, hit by a shell durine the 

separating niS enemies and ae- long-range bombardment of the capital on Good Friday, 1918. ^One 

feating them in succession. 




How NEAR TO SUCCESS DID LUDENDORFF 
COME? 

Just how far this plan fell short of 
success is a question which will proba- 
bly be debated in Germany for many 
years to come. Certainly it did not fall 
far short. Ludendorff's concentration 
of his troops left the Allies in the dark 
as to where his main blow was to fall; 
and the preparations which they made 
to meet it were hopelessly astray. The 
French commander-in-chief. General 
Petain, was convinced that Ludendorff 
was going to attack in Champagne; 
and, in order that he might strengthen 
his line, he induced the British to take 
over an additional thirty miles of front 
in the neighborhood of St. Quentin — 
the very spot where the German drive 
was to take place. This arrangement 
produced a dangerous extension of the 
British line; for Sir Douglas Haig, ow- 
ing to the failure of the British Govern- 
ment to support the Western Front 



hundred and fifty worshippers were victims of this attack. 

with adequate reinforcements, had 
actually at his disposal at the very 
least 100,000 fewer fighting troops than 
he had had a year before, when he had 
occupied a shorter front. 

Had General Haig known beforehand 
where Ludendorff was going to strike, 
he might still have been able to 
counter the blow; but failing this 
knowledge, he had no choice but to 
mass his reserves behind what seemed 
the most vulnerable places in his line — 
that is to say, in the north, protecting 
the Channel ports, where he was not 
able, without disaster, to give much 
ground. Consequently, the southern 
part of the British line was very lightly 
held. The Fifth British Army, which 
lay directly across the path of the main 
German drive, and which was composed 
of only fourteen infantry divisions 
and three cavalry divisions, all con- 
siderably below strength, had to de- 
fend a front of over forty miles. 



1009 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE REASONS WHY THE FIFTH ARMY 
BROKE DOWN. 

The breakdown of the Fifth Army 
in the battle that followed has given 
rise to so much harsh criticism that it 
may be worth while, for the sake of 
justice, to explain in some detail the 
situation on the Fifth Army front. 
The greater part of this sector had 
been taken over by the British only in 



and a rear zone, several thousand yards 
apart; he had even begun defensive 
works as far back as the crossings of 
the Somme and he had done his best 
to improve communications by repair- 
ing the roads, building light railways, 
estabHshing dumps, and so forth. But 
the number of men at his disposal was 
limited — so limited that he had to con- 
tent himself with defending parts of 




A SYMBOL IN SILHOUETTE 
An Anzac sentry on guard for the Empire somewhere in France. The Odyssey of the Anzacs was perhaps written 
on the tortured clififs and burning sands of Gallipoli, but their gallantry upon the fields of Western Europe, in 
Palestine and in Mesopotamia marks a fair page in the annals of the Empire. British Official 



the latter part of January, 1918, and 
its defenses were in a sketchy condition. 
Being partially protected by the 
marshes of the Oise valley it had not 
been strongly held by the French. The 
country behind it, moreover, was the 
devastated area over which the Ger- 
mans had passed in their retreat to the 
Hindenburg line the year before, and 
was seriously deficient in adequate 
facilities for communication and trans- 
portation. Sir Hubert Gough, the 
commander of the Fifth Army, had, on 
taking over the front, immediately set 
himself to improving its defenses. He 
had organized three separate defensive 
zones, an outpost zone, a battle zone 

lOIO 



his line by means of a series of discon- 
nected posts; and, when the storm 
broke, his preparations were still far 
from completion. To make matters 
worse, the early spring of 191 8 was 
phenomenally dry; and the marshes of 
the Oise valley dried up, with the result 
that the Germans were able to make 
their way across them in much larger 
numbers than had been thought possi- 
ble. Seldom in truth have troops found 
themselves, through no fault of their 
own, in a less enviable position than 
did the attenuated units of Gough 's 
devoted army as the fateful end of 
March, 1918, which was to bring un- 
expected disaster, drew nigh. 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 




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WHERE THE GERMAN BLOW FELL IN MARCH 



THE THUNDER-BOLT IS LAUNCHED UPON 
THE BRITISH LINE. 

Up to the last minute, the British 
General Staff were under the impres- 
sion that the main German blow was 
going to fall on the British Third Army; 
whereas, as the battle unfolded, it was 
found to have fallen on the Fifth Army. 
Against the fifteen divisions of the 
Third Army, under Sir Julian Byng, 
Ludendorff threw twenty-four divi- 
sions from Otto von Below's Seven- 
teenth Army and von der Marwitz's 
Second Army; but against the fourteen 
infantry divisions and three cavalry 
divisions of Gough's Fifth Army, he 
threw no less than forty divisions, in- 
cluding the whole of von Hutier's 



Eighteenth Army and the great part 
of von der Marwitz's Second Army. 
Before the end of the fighting nine 
more divisions were used, seventy- 
three in all. The importance of the 
southern part of the attack was further 
emphasized by the fact that, whereas 
the northern part was made by troops 
in the Army Group of Rupprecht of 
Bavaria, von Hutier's Army was in the 
Army Group of the German Crown 
Prince. Once the attack was under 
way, it was announced that the Kaiser 
was in supreme command. 

The thunder-bolt was launched on 
the morning of March 21. At 4 A. M. 
the German guns opened up a terrific 
bombardment of gas and high explosive 

lOII 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



shells, not only along the front of the 
British Third and Fifth Armies, but on 
many other parts of the front, both 
British and French. Dunkirk even 
was bombarded. More shells were 
used than in the entire Franco-Prussian 
war. Then, as the morning wore on, 
the infantry attack developed on a 
sixty-mile front from north of the 
River Sensee to south of the River Oise. 
In one place it began as early as 8 A. M. 
and it was general by lo A. M. It did 
not fall on all parts of the line with 
equal force: some places, such as the 
face of the salient opposite Cambrai, 
were hardly attacked at all, and units 
fighting side by side found themselves 
subjected to very different degrees of 
pressure. It was only at certain points 
that the attack was pressed with especial 
violence; and here, indeed, it was all 
but irresistible. 

THE WEATHER CONDITIONS FAVORABLE 
TO THE GERMANS. 

As luck would have it, the weather 
conditions were particularly favorable 
for the attack. The morning of March 
21 broke with the front wrapped in one 
of those dense fogs for which the winter 
of northern France has become famous. 
This meant that, in the damp and 
heavy air, the fumes of the German 
gas shells hung long and low on the 
ground; and it made next to impossible 
any effective counter-battery work on 
the part of the British artillery. When 
the infantry attack developed, the fog 
prevented the British from seeing their 
assailants until they were only a, few 
yards away, and so rendered abortive 
the carefully devised scheme of defense 
which the British had evolved. The 
idea underlying the British defenses 
was that the outpost line should serve 
to break up the cohesion of the German 
attack, and that the battle zone, which 
was composed of a series of redoubts 
and strong points manned by machine- 
guns sweeping the approaches with 
transverse fire, should bring the attack 
to a standstill . What actually happened 
was that the troops in the outpost 
line were in many cases overwhelmed 
almost before they were aware that the 
Germans were upon them ; and the ma- 
chine-gYins and artillery in the battle 

I0I2 



zone were robbed of their targets by the 
fog until it was almost too late. Nature 
had provided the Germans with a 
"smoke-screen" more effectual than 
any that artificial means could have de- 
vised. 

It should not be imagined, however, 
that there was at first anything in the 
nature of a debdcle. Though the outpost 
line was almost everywhere overrun, 
and several deep dents were made in the 
battle zone, the rear zone was at the 
end of the day everywhere intact. 
Nor, in view of the facts, can the 
British resistance be described as other 
than heroic. Over the fate of many of 
the advance posts a silence reigns more 
eloquent than words; but we know 
that in others the defenders held out 
long after the advancing German 
hordes had swept past them. A typi- 
cal illustration of the fate of these re- 
doubts may be found in the story of 
Manchester Hill, opposite St. Quentin, 
which was held by the i6th Manches- 
ters. The colonel of the Manchesters, 
Elstob, had issued instructions that 
"The Manchesters will defend Man- 
chester Hill to the last;" and the 
battalion lived and died true to its 
orders. 

MEN IN THE ADVANCE POSTS FIGHT TO 
THE END. 

In some localities rifle-fire was 
heard about the advance posts as 
late as midnight; and indeed in most 
cases the forward troops fought until 
they could fight no more. Though 
fighting against hopeless odds, they 
served to absorb the shock of the first 
German onslaught, and thus slowed up 
the German advance. It is significant 
that nowhere on the first day did the 
German attack reach such a depth as 
was reached, for example, by the later 
assault of the Canadians and Austral- 
ians opposite Amiens on August 8. Its 
maximum depth of penetration was 
about 8, GOO yards at the extreme south 
of the British line; and the average 
depth was probably not more than half 
of that distance. 

Had the British had even a normal 
supply of reserves, especially on the 
Fifth Army front to the south, it is 
probable that they might have made 




HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



good their line of resistance on the 
following day. In reserves, however, 
they were woefully deficient. Practi- 
cally all of the very slender reserves of 
the Fifth Army had been drawn into 
the fight on March 21 ; and in view of 
the progress which the Germans had 
made, it was deemed necessary to with- 
draw the right wing of the Fifth Army 
behind the Crozat Canal. At the same 



ally "masked." Nevertheless, practi- 
cally the whole front of Byng's Third 
Army held firm; and the thin-strung 
line along the Crozat Canal in the 
south opposed a most stubborn re- 
sistance to the German advance. It 
was in the centre of the Fifth Army, 
opposite St. Quentin, that the break 
occurred. This appears to have been 
the point at which the Germans launched 




Si! i I KED PIGEON HOUSE AT THE FRONT 
With the declaration of war the liaison units mobilize and establish their various stations to which their carrier 
pigeons resort bringing the messages entrusted to them. Reserve birds, sent to the front in baskets, are held in 
the first line whence they can be dispatched to maintain the communications with the rear. 



time, certain rectifications of the line 
were made farther north, especially at 
the salient opposite Cambrai, which 
had been heavily attacked at both re- 
entrants. These operations were carried 
out during the night of March 21-22, 
with practically no interference from 
the enemy. 

THE GERMANS BREAK THROUGH OPPO- 
SITE ST. QUENTIN. 

On the morning of March 22, how- 
ever, the Germans renewed their at- 
tack with great violence. The morn- 
ing was again thick with mist, and 
once more the fire of the British guns, 
rifles and machine-guns was efifectu- 



the spearhead of their attack. 
Under the weight of the troops which 
LudendorfT here poured into the battle, 
the British, fighting fiercely and contin- 
uously, were gradually forced back 
out of the battle zone and into the 
third or rear defensive zone. On this 
line they made a last desperate stand; 
but the omens were against them. In 
the neighborhood of the little Omignon 
River, the Germans found a gap be- 
tween two British divisions ; into this 
gap they poured large numbers of 
troops, and thus succeeded in effecting 
the definite break-through which they 
had in view. Since there were no 

1013 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



further reserves within call to be used 
in stopping the gap, the Fifth Army 
commander had now no choice but to 
order a withdrawal to the bridgehead 
positions which he had begun east of 
the Somme near Peronne. This he did 
just before midnight on March 22. 

I^HK WITHDRAWAL OF THE FIFTH ARMY 
TO THE SOMME. 

To carry out a retirement under con- 
stant pressure from the enemy is one 
of the most difficult operations in war- 
fare; and it is especially difficult with 



Armies in the neighborhood of the 
River Tortille in the north, a most 
critical situation developed as a result 
of these dislocations. 

In view of these facts, and in view 
also of reports received from the Air 
Force that the German front for miles 
back was black with advancing Ger- 
man troops. General Gough decided at 
the last minute not to attempt to make 
a stand on the east of the Somme, but 
to retire forthwith to the west bank. 
He felt, and perhaps rightly, that to 




THE SOUTHERN PART OF THE BATTLE 



troops which, like the British, were 
accustomed mainly to trench routine, 
and which had not been trained, as 
the German storm-troops had been, 
in the tactics of open fighting. As the 
British Fifth Army fell back toward 
the Somme, and the right wing of the 
Third Army swung back to conform 
with this movement, there was an al- 
most inevitable dislocation of the 
front, and dangerous gaps appeared at 
certain points in the line. Into these 
gaps the Germans felt their way with 
an unerring instinct, and thus in some 
cases got in rear of the retiring British. 
Especially at Ham in the south and be- 
tween the wings of the Third and Fifth 
1014 



ask his tired troops to hold the bridge- 
head positions against the overwhelm- 
ing forces opposed to them would be to 
invite disaster. In retiring over the 
river so precipitately, he of course 
greatly shortened the time available 
for evacuating the east bank of the 
river, with the result that great 
quantities of materials had to be 
abandoned to the enemy. But once 
his troops had the river in front of 
them, they were able to rally, and op- 
pose a fairly effective resistance to the 
German advance. Night fell on March 
23 with the Germans pressing hard 
upon the river line north of Ham; and 
even on March 24, when the Germans 






HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



li 



■succeeded in forcing the river crossings 
south of Epenancourt, the rest of the 
line held firm. 

BACK AGAIN UPON THE OLD SOMME BAT- 
TLEFIELDS. 

Meanwhile, the front continued in 
movement both to the south and to 
the north. In the south, where the 
rench reserves were already coming 
p in an attempt to staunch the ever- 
growing breach created as the British 
fell back westward, the Germans were 
striving to exploit their opportunities 



sector were on the point of disintegra- 
tion. By March 24 .the Germans were 
already on the edge of the Somme 
battlefield, well to the rear flank of the 
British troops along the Somme south 
of the bend at Peronne. On March 25 
they swept across the old battlefields, 
capturing Courcelette, Pozieres, Thiep- 
val, and many another place which it 
had cost the British untold blood and 
agony to wring from them a year and a 
half before; and by March 26 they were 
knocking at the gates of Albert itself. 




BACK TO THE BASE 
British wounded bound for dressing station and hospital base on light railway. Beside the track runs a duckboard 
along which painfully stumble the walking casualties. The severity of the weather of the spring of 1918 added 
materially to the suffering of the troops. The devotion of the ambulance men was a bright spot in war's dark annals. 



to the utmost. Having carried the 
line of the Crozat Canal, they were 
pushing forward, and by nightfall on 
March 24 they had captured Chauny 
and were half-way along the road from 
Ham to Noyon. 

In the north, a still more serious re- 
treat was under way. The Germans, 
profiting to the full from the gap that 
they had found between the Third and 
Fifth Armies, were hustling the British 
back toward the old Somme battle- 
fields of 1 91 6. In the repeated retire- 
ments and readjustments of the line, 
divisions, brigades, and battalions lost 
touch with one another; and it seemed 
for a time as if the British line in this 



By this time, however, British rein- 
forcements were coming into line from 
farther north; and the ferocity of the 
German blow was spending itself. I The 
German troops, after nearly a week of 
constant marching and fighting, were 
reaching the point of exhaustion; and 
the German transport was beginning 
to break down under the strain. On 
March 27 the Germans succeeded in 
capturing Albert — a town which had 
never before been in their hands; but 
this success was the highwater mark of 
their advance on this front. By March 
28 they had everywhere been brought 
to a standstill along the line of the 
Ancre. 

1015 



HISTORY OF THE WORLD WAR 



THE RETREAT OF THE FIFTH ARMY SOUTH 
OF THE SOMME. 

The rapid retreat of the Third Army 
and the left wing of the Fifth Army 
north of the Somme naturally rendered 
necessary repeated withdrawals of that 
part of the Fifth Army south of the 
Somme. These would no doubt have 
been necessary in any case; but they 
were rendered more difficult owing to 




BRIG. GEN. SANDEMAN-CAREY 

the fact that the British to the south 
of the Somme were a day behind those 
to the north in their retirement, and 
their left flank was therefore continu- 
ally in the air. The most serious con- 
sequences of this situation were seen 
on March 26. On this date the British 
south of the Somme had taken up a 
position about twenty miles east of 
Amiens, where, despite their exhausted 
condition, and their poverty in re- 
serves, they were prepared to make a 
desperate stand; but to the north of 
the river at Bray-sur-Somme, the 
local British commander, owing to a 
misconception of his orders, had al- 
ready withdrawn several miles farther 
west, and the Germans were able to 
1016 



cross the river and put themselves be- 
tween the British and Amiens. Under 
these circumstances, there was nothing 
for the British to do but to retire again, 
which they did with- such difficulty 
that the road to Amiens seemed open. 
Fortunately, General Gough had al- 
ready arranged for the manning of the 
old Amiens defense line, from Marcel- 
cave to the Somme, by a mixed force 
of details, stragglers, schools personnel, 
American engineers and Canadian rail- 
way troops, tunneling companies, labor- 
ers, cooks, and what not, under General 
Carey; and "Mother Carey's chickens, " 
as this new FalstafT's army designated 
themselves, stopped the breach. By 
March 28 the remnants of the Fifth 
Army south of the Somme had fallen 
back into alignment with them; and 
here, for the time being, the German 
advance was stayed. 

BOTH SIDES WEARIED TO THE POINT OF 
EXHAUSTION. 

During the