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Full text of "The book of Jonah in four Oriental versions, namely Chaldee, Syriac, Aethiopic and Arabic, with glossaries"

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SEP 1 3 2004 


8^1601 1857 

The book of Jonah in four 

Oriental versions, namely 
















SEP 1 3 2004 




The airn of tlie little work now offered to (he Public, 
is to be useful to tliose Students at our Universities, who, 
after having made some progress in Hebrew, may be an- 
xious to gain at least a slight knowledge of the principal 
cognate dialects. On (he advantage of such knowledge to 
the Theologian I need not here enlarge. Our Authorised 
Version of the Hebrew Scriptures is now generally acknow- 
ledged to be an indifferent one, and the call for a revised 
translation is daily becoming more urgent. The Masoretic 
Text itself is in many places obscure, in some to all ap- 
pearance corrupt ; and the only means of getting over at least 
a part of these difficulties is the study of the other Semitic 
languages and the comparison of the Translations that exist 
in them, more especially the Aramaic and Arabic. 

This volume presents to the Student one of the short- 
est and simplest of the Biblical Books in four of the old 
Oriental Versions — viz. ihe Chaldee, Syriac, Aethiopic, 
and Arabic — accompanied by Glossaries, which give not 
only the meaning of every word in each of the texts, bu( 
also the principal cognate vocables in the other dialects; so 

— VI — 

that a careful study of the work — brief though it be — 
will enable the reader to arrive at a tolerably accurate com- 
prehension of some of the principal points of resemblance 
and difference in the Semitic languages. 

It remains for me to add a few remarks as to the 
manner in which I have constituted the several texts. 

The Chaldee is based upon a collation of the principal 
Polyglots and early editions — such as the Parisian and 
London, the Bomberg or Venetian, and Buxtorf's Rabbinic 
Bible — • the most important variants being given at the foot 
of the page. 

The Syriac text is taken from Lee's edition, recollated 
with two Mss. in the Bodleian Library and two in the British 
Museum. It was my endeavour to exhibit here the different 
modes of indicating the vowels etc. in Syriac; an endeavour 
in which, however, I have not succeeded very well, owing 
chiefly to the imperfections of the type. For instance in the 
word cL^A^zjo (p. 48, 1. 8), the large point above the ^ 
(it should have been still larger in proportion to the rest) 
belongs to the oldest system of punctuation, and shows that 
it is of the fourth conj. or Ethpa"al; whilst the small points 
under the first z and over the ^ and the second z, indi- 
cate respectively the aspirated and unaspirated pronunciation 
of those letters (ethkatash, or more correctly ethkat- 
tash). So again in the word wsj^z]© (p. 50. 1. 13) the 
small dot between the z and the ^ indicates the imaspirated 
sound of the former, or rather the assimilation of the two 
letters (ettarraf instead of ethtarraf); whilst the large 
dot over the syllable y, is the mark of the fourth conj. 

— VII — 

In LSf4jL\ (p. 49, 1. 3) tlie two large points under the final 
z are one way of indicating the 3. p. sing, fem., another 
being exemplified in iuj^o (p. 49, 1. penult.). In the noun 
p^-> (p. 49, 1. 2), the large dot over the ws gives a clue 
(o the pronunciation (khebhälä or khebholo), which 
was afterwards rendered more distinct by substituting or 
appending the later vowel -sign _ or 1, Some information 
on this subject may be found in the larger Syriac Gram- 
mars; more in Ewald's Abhandlungen zur orientali- 
schen und biblischen Literatur (Gottingen 1832) and 
Bernstein's Preface to his edition of the Gospel of St. John 
(Leipzig 1853), which latter work is printed in a remarkably 
clear and beautiful type. I should mention that 1 have 
inserted the points riikäch (^o?) and kCishai {^ol) only 
when they were found in one or other of the Mss. that I used. 

The Aethiopic text is from the edition of Petraeus (P. in 
the variants), collated with one Ms. in the Bodleian Library 
and one in the British Museum. 

Finally, the Arabic version is taken from a Ms. in the 
Bodleian, and is, so far as I am aware, now published for 
the first time. The Ms. is unfortunately rather carelessly 
written, so that I have been obliged in one or two instances 
to have recourse to conjectural emendation, a remedy which 
I am always reluctant to employ. 

Subjoined is a list of errata, which the reader is 
requested to correct before making use of the book. 

Trinity Coll eg- e, Dul)lln. 

November 1856. -yy^ Wright. 


2. 1. 2. n:i . 

4. last line, note h) 5<3"iniN. 

5. 1.3, ^); 1.4. -125^\ 

6. 1. 8. n).^; 1. 16. N:^n-. After 

5 " 

all , 5^i| is perhaps nolhing- but 
an abstract noun from aJf, mean- 
ing /<Y<r^ and used (liket^riTTn 
and ]£uXi»?) lo denote the object 
feared, the deity. 

8. 1. 9. ir:N. 
9.1. 7. onx. 

11. 1. 1. Iv^; 1. 14. -I'-yz. 

13. 1. 14. ^o^j ; 1. 19. hrr[] . 

15. 1. 6. Aflcr'tt'vX add: (pron.* ^'t^). 
17. I. 21. N1-. 

19. last line, D^ISN*. 
20.1. 16. N^^^^c." 

T - - : 

22. 1.6. N^^D-;l. 9. ^'i^. 

23. 1. 2. D':n:; 1. 3. Epiphanius; 
last line, ("n"';). 

25. 1. 2. f-yl ' ■' 
32. penulto^j;.. 

33. 1. 17. ':'j;."'" 

39. 1.3. NHl". 

45. I. 3. ii?n> 
47. I. 5. ^kL^. 

49. I. 5. ^.a'nl ; 1. 12. ^\vn\. 
In several places in the Syriac 
text a point lias been broken of!'; 
e. g. p. 49, last line, ^2^Ld; 
p. 50. 1.2. 11-.^ o; 1.17. ji^i-:^. 
56. 1.21.Ui^^. 

P. 67. 1. 25. m^jJllD. 

P. 75. 1.11. (DaCtf: 
p. 76. 1. 7. (DACi>:i 15.0) z.^;^.: 
1. 20. z.*^^: 

p. 77. 1. 1. (DZ.CtFfl): 

p. 78.1.12. (DAija:i.i3."hz.^p^: 

1.20. 0<?=OT;?: 1.26. H4>;fi.^: 

1.29. am: 

p. 79. 1. 1. ^^1Z.d:?i: last line, 

p. 80. 1. 8. ©l-ilLW/li: 1. 17. 
hX<^^^'. last line, KJ^AM^'. 

P. 81 1 7. — Ä^: 1. 17. AZ.c^5: 

1. 25. l^. 
p. 84. 1. 1. /hSZ.: 
p. 89. 1. 14. *UJZ.: 
p. 91. 1. 11. imper. QTil 1. 23. 

p. 92. 1. 14. iK/K : 

p. 95. 1. 8./s,J»'A«PZ,: 

P. 100. 1. 11. uz,z.: and h<ji./i.: 

p. 104. penult. l^fZ. : 

P. 106. 1. 7. ^V} ; 1. 8. U>{] ; 

1 18 z.A*i : 

p. 110. I. 2. 


P. 111. I. 12. ciJsL^f. 

123. 1. 

.n A ti . 

P. 128. I. 17.^^. 

P. 129. 1. 4. iL^^: 1- 13. rIaa^. 

P. 132. I. 10. V^t-ni- 

P. 135. 1. 11. i^y. . 

P. 136. I. 14. nv^!])- 

P. 138. I. 22. ^ji . 


nD'oS -i3 roi' cy ■" dip id nNiij cans nini i 

T •• : - • — . - T • t: tit: I • t : - : • t-;- 

)inn'^>3 npi^p nx nbj? ^^jpni nh^'i «n-ip. rn;^:^ ^m Dip 2 

T- T : • ■•-:•: tIt: 1 • t" : I - : v : t It: t tI: • 

"2 nn:i nns^? 2m^) nq^^ '') n^int t^p'^N n?ii''Ni %ib nn:i 

"•^1 '.'•n ^?^T ^?^ri^i ^IR. i^ ^?-r ]"insj? Spd'? 4 

••-: -:- •• : - : l • - : ^ : t- t - • : ' tt : • : 

•')]"*n3?? t<;p^N^ ND^^ ^?^{^?"1 ^'^.? r^! ^^11 ""i^V ]"i^3 n^!? 
2npi :'?]lD-o 2^rii'i i^DbNI i^'^J/^ r^^V."}55^ '')r~^™ n:vi 6 
Qip^^ '''^H D')p "TjiOT PN ND n^b -icNi N(^^J©p 21 rrimS 
12:1 ncNi n^3j ^<Si Ni'^j; '>"' Dip iq ^)Dmni dno *r:n'?N 7 

- : --:- • t: tt "^; t: tIt: I • — : • • t I t tv: 

^Pr ^l^ ^?^^^? ")]^ '^^l? J?1^.1 pTO ^dIjI inx nnpn'? 
b^-o wb |j;2 i)n r\^h nz:Ni :n^l"> ^j? Npij; ^d:i ]^2-ij; id-ii 8 
N^n '')NTN >n« nx j^di J)-]n72y no w"? ^in npk''^2 *)]p 


~ 2 — 

9 ny^, ]^^ ^*;^? V^^n^ ])nh -icn'i :nx ^sj; pip \si "^Pfia 

ni'^it^rai St« t<K)^ n^< ib>p> t^^i Nn^''2ib ^f^rN^ ")^'^r-T^ 

14 jyD i6 ;^ N^niys ^^sp nj:^! j] d-Ji"^. ^')i^*%] •.]in^':'.v '")np.^ 
D"] nzin j^j^^i? |nn ^b) ]nn ?<"i23i ')nii''c: riDins i20 

1 5 nJl"" ni 12^0:1 : ^<n■ipy ■qOTi':?^ i^ivil nd3 ]] rN n^ ^^t 

1 6 «31 ii^T}-] ^<n.2: i^^n'i : n^^ii^'n^D ns^. hji na^^ ^niDni 

nniJ m:i " cip ")n2- xnan^ nr^^r ^^ cnp ]c 

I i : • - : t: tIt: - : it-: ;- t : tFt: 1 - 

1 «n^n wi:i t^jjJCD nJi"* nini n:!"' ni v^dd^ kxs-i nji: i] jsn 

2 :w):i t<^vs?D n^n'?j< ^^ cip nji^ ^"r^i u^h^h N^nbrn i^ni^ 

X ; T":* •■t.*;t; tit: t •"! It. ■ tt. /• 

n'^d^hd N'bncN^ n^Di« ci3 ^iD^n Dip ]n n^DnnN' ^)nnc^« 

y;-. ; TT-:": '' " z iTi" tIt: ) • ■■ : IT • •* •*: 

6 m: ^S imp linp Nninn nh^d nj; k;d ^JispN : T^'lpl 



t<':'m «n23 r 

T -: - T - : - ^ 

T T : ^ 

vbiii C* 

n^-^ (' 

«"-12: (•• 

ii2.7; (" 

'V2 (^^' 

t<pj;io C' 

rri?i (" 

l^'DJ (^ 

n'Tin; (^ 

n^^^t? (^ 

n2j; (^' 

— 3 — 

NJN1 :pyn> p2N r^^^ nn^ 2JoinN'-i Oin^xDi sfmyt: lO 
Q^t^'N* ^)nn-iji rpip ^^'ipii >:3"np n^ilx nnsi^'ina 

•■ - _; ' .. - . . 1 T T It: ••! : - 't : I t t - : : 

nJi^ ni iDhp) i><:i3^ ^i idxt p^ onp i^yD ^i^'p; jpnio ii 

r •• : t: • t • t: tIt: I • t : - : • t-;- 

n «rN^2J n: n^y ''3:niS^ Kns-i Kn"ip niri) Sn^ D^p 2 
m:^Ji ""^ t^DinE?3 m:^:^ t'iwsi n:i^ Dpi :'nei? S'^^d njn 3 

.... T - tt: •: •• : • : -— .- t It: It- ■• - : t-; 

^yoS n3l"''')ntt'i :]^ci"' xn^n "n^nn " Dip nhs-i j<nip mn 4 

- •• : T ' « T : I • » t : l- -; - t: tIt: t : - t :l- T-; 

ni:oi i^fii'' ]^j?2"in; p]1D3 idxi_ pidni in nqi^ "rj'^nD t<nip3 
NDiii nni in N*iP'??2 n);^J ')'^^:< ^■^^P^ni :Nrcnnp 5 
mh NDinc Nt^pi :]in'i^j;T ny"! ]in2in pp_i^ OnpNi 6 

nijija 1CN1 inrxi ',i<r2i2p [hv. D^n^i N'p^ti' '•DrnNi n^^p 7 
N:y^ ')Niin n-i''j;3i i<w:i< -id''d^ TiiiDn^-ii io^n ni^nc 
ppp pDsn^i -pPii^'? ^^^ ^n;ci jiv"]"; n^i djjid jicj?::^. n*'^ 8 

pjipFiD Din^i ^: Dip^. ]D ")^ni^:^. cnnnii jIh^d 3in: j^zin 
pnnnn^D an ^^x j'inn^'ij; ;\ d"1|?^ ]^^i :")i2ii «^^) nn^n lo 
:"i2j? N^i iin^ "!2j?D^ ^■'D n Nntr>2 p ""^ 2m Nnif>2 

T^: t:I : -'t: ••- • t: •I-t: t: tt- 

^■^■^.i^.lC^ '^^■^^(^ ^'O'^^C 2npnNi("' V^bvA' 

- ■ ^ TT-; ^ 

2 1 b^p ^?2j<i '1 Dip ^b^) :r\>b n^-^ni n2"i m^2 n^vt' b'x^t 

1- — : - T : tit: • -; •■ ' I ■■ : t - t • t : ■■ ; 

4 pcii :r\h F]ipri Nin^n ^^> ^pxi :^)^ni^-D rn^?2\s-?. 21d 

5 ]isr) n^b -ipj?! Nrn.p':) n^nan 2^71 i^ni.p ]?2 n^i^ 

I . ... - ....... r-- ^ . ^ . . . ' - . _ . 

6 ^ID^^ ™^ ")p '^^J^ p^^pi p'iTR c^n^.!!< ^,? r^n -^^.Ip 

7 '*')NDi>3 s?"iDii pp^2 Nn^f'^in n> ^^^ pan ♦^^^*I Kl"n 

8 ^Tzp m-ipp nin.i :^)tj''2n, ]i'p>p n: ^)nm ''j^nhnDi 
K^n ^j; N-^'pti^ "jnriDJii *)^'npw' N?:i-p nn ^^ pan 

9 "11?.^] ]"i^p^p "^V. i^ 1 ^pn Nnn^n n:)i^^ ^> ncN'i : '') ^m'12 
lO|'i^p>p hv_ O^npn njsi >;. ic}<i :><niQ ij; ^^^ p)ipn Knn^ 

11 n\xT Nn::?-] my, ni:^i bj; Dtnx n^ t<:5sn :i2n ")xnnN 

m?:«" , niCNl C m^2 (" jp:: (" Some edd. add Cp. (" 

«12-1 (' ■■ ■ No-ini'N (" 



"I?!*? if^pf- "?^*S l?^S perish. V. iDin (l'2-, "i?") 
destroy, and intrans. pe7ish. In bibl. Chald. a Hof al 
"I2in occurs, Dan. VII. 11. • — Heb. T2N, Syr. j^l, 
Sam. T^A; Aeth. A-flJ?: be jnad [corn^. "^en"^';' "1DX> 
Jerem. IV. 9). The original signif. is simply go; Ar. 
t>L, impf. cWj, ^^ away, perish; Jot ^^/^ away; J^jI 
eternity (comp. or^wz^, aeviim , from the Sanskrit rad. 
«. go). 

-13N A?>-^. — Ar. ^t, Syr. j^j. 

"i:n:, nTjIJ^, /<?>'^:, wages, 7'C7vard. — Ar. ^a.!, Syr. 
1^1 , Sam. -^'^t A. 

'pTK, impf. 'tt;;', imper. t'TN, inf ^PD, go. — Heb. ':'IN, Syr. 
Vll , Sam. 2,^A; At. JIv, impf. J.vj, w<?«^<? <?^<?y 
from a place; JlC , impf. jfCT, remove, intrans. cease; 
also Jv I, perpetuity , eternity. 

"inx not used in I., be behind. III. inN, /??/^ off, delay. — 
Ar. "La. I, /<^«72r behind, keep back, retard, Aeth. Ä'fZ,! 
Heb. "inx, III. inx; Syr. j-Iol. delay, remain. 

]"jnN and pniNS ^ll'') olhe7' , another, f. N*ri^"i~; 

pl. m. I"":")", f. ]^n"- I" t'^6 dialect of Jerusalem 

• pjn, Sam. ^'^t^ (V); Ar. Lb-F, Heb. in«, Syr. 

■'N note of interrogation pref, to pron. and adv., as |"'"l\s*, 

f. N'l'^N, which? |">-D "IN whence? inc ""N when? etc. — 

s ^ 
Ar. (^t, Aeth. Af." ;y^o, which, what? Heb. in, rp>x, 

Sam. rHA, with sufT. pron. ;^'A^r6?.'* HT iN which? n.Tp \S* 

whence? ^i'^A where? Syr. Jj^ | , in ^L"] ivhere? 

)Äi(L,f whence? ^z^Io] 7vheu? etc. 

n^N //^^;-<? ?>, etc. with pron. suff. ""niN, "?]^n''Js* , ""riln^N, 
/ «/??, /i^<?w «r/, etc. — Ar. ^j**jf obsol., Heb. tj'i and 
lt'i< (2 Sam. XIV. 19, Micha VI. 10), bibl. Chald. 
>n^N, Syr. M, Sam. AOlA, AA, A^; with the 
negat. :sf, nS, are formed, ^^, n^'?., i^^ AlTli. 

'^'^!^' ^TT' ^ ^^^' ^<?</; pl. I^n^x, N^^n-. Ar. slNlt^ or 
&JI, with the art. aJNIt, contr. xJUf; fern, k50^^)|, contr. 
(^^f [Alikar Herodot. III. 8, ed. Schweigh.); in the 
so-called Sinaitic Inscriptions *) nt'»s (e. g. n'^N Nn ]T0 
priest of the god Tä, Tiich in the Z. d. D. M. G. vol. 
III. p. 212), in the Himyaritic n^N, f. nn^X (Rodiger's 
Excursus to his transl. of Wellsted's Travels in Arabia, 
p. 380-1, 390); Heb. ni^js;, Syr. i^X^ Sam. "^^ZA. 

*) Really llie records of heathen Arabs , pilgrimaging to Monnl 
Serhal (JU^„w). They dale in all probabilily from the cenlurics 
immediately before and after the time of Christ. 

— 7 — 

As to tlie derivat. of (he word (aJI, ivorship, being a 
denom. from ill, and xJ!, ^<? sMckcn with fear, a 
variety of xJ:), it is probably connected, as Arabic 
lexicographers suggest, with 5Sl= 'SI, shine (comp. 
Sanskrit dcva-s, d-eo-g, deu-s, from the rad. div, shine, 
and suras from ^?/;*, shine); they however derive it 
from TiS in the sense of create. 
NS^N* f. a skip; pi. kX'^S". Syr, i.aX. 

CN if; CiSC (lit. ;e'/^rt'/ if —?) perhaps. Another form is 
|N, ^\x; Ar. ;\^[, Aeth. IscP'. Heb. Phoen. dn, Syr. 
^U Sam. -^A, ^A. 

|CN not in use; Heb. j^is', prop up, support, ]^N, ^^ faithful, 
Ar. 'wxit be void of fear, secure, confide in, ^| be 
faithful; Aeth. K<^i\ trust, believe (comp. jCf3jtJ rely 
tipon, from Jc^ jyr<?/? up). Hence V. p?0"'ri believe; 
Ar. ^1 w^Ti^'c 5<7/^, protect, believe, jj-iv^ protect , 
\, i^i M ^'o^/. Syr. ^v^. ^ believe. This verb is an 

J/'^/, not a Paiel, and one of the very rare examples 

in the other dialects of the Heb. form Hif'il; comp. 

in Arab. 3tCi» for o\A wish, ^\^ for^l.l pour out, 

cyLi for si:A give (imperat. of ^^^1), o;I^ and Ci^ J 

be quick ; perhaps also ol^ ^^/^, prune, and voC^ *^<?A'^ 

violently, annoy. 

-ic«, impf. "i^N";, nc^;"., imper. -i?:{< , inf. l??^^, .?^/^. — 

Heb. Phoen. •^^^•; Syr. j^o'l , Sam. ^^A, -^^y, <?r</,^r; 


Ar. ^lA order. 

"i?;n^, "ID^C, N"1??~, «wfi?, speech, order; pi. j'^'^p^;?. 

«1-1-. Also used to denote self, partic. in reference 

T - 

to God, e. g. II, 5. — Syr. Tr^^^^ Sam. ^^'iim^. 

)i:^ where? whither? |N3d, j3C, 7vhence? — Ar.^jjf, ^.t^jjo; 

Heb. ]\S% l^xc, ]ND (2 Kings V. 25, ktih)\ Sam. 

t<j{< (njN) /; pi. i:n3N, ^t\\, we. — Ar. bt, pi. ^ 
(vulg. ^T^":^, Ok, LLLt); Aeth. Ai: pi. "Jrhi: Syr. 
p']^ pi. ^^ (^J); Sam. A^A, ^^A, pl. >^A, 
^^^^A; Heb. i±N, ^:^?^ (Sam. 01^^ A, fTI^A), pl- 

i:nj>s, later forms ^:)N (Jerem. XLII. 6, k'iih), jiwS; 
Phoen. i:j.s*, pl. jroN. 

j1355. See f<in. 

rjs;, u*:, N*lf-, « w^;«, person, individual; pl. ]"'t£'JN 
(constr. ^li'JN), j^t^J. • — Heb. '^^JN, Syr. ^1j|_ pl. Uj]_, 
Sam. "^-^^jA; cognate forms are Ar. ^HjJ (with the 
collect. J.Qf, J-^)' LT^i mankind, Aeth. A^fi: (rare), 
Heb. t^'iN (for t^'JsX), Phoen. tr'N'. The respective fern, 
are: Ar. xSLUt (very rare); Aeth. Ä^fi^: Heb. T\W^^ 
(Sam. '^A^A or. "^^A), pl. C^tSf^j Phoen. m)^\ 
Chald. Nnx (^nJ5), 5<PRN, N*np:i<, pl. piJO; Syr. jziof, 
pl. Uj; Sam. -^AA, ^AAA, pl. |]m-^), )mt^^. 

n^N, r^, ^/<<>?/; pl. m. ]in^N, j^riss;, f. ]TjN, ]^ni<. — Ar. m. 
^\, f. <J^\^ pl. m. |Ult (poet. ^1), f. ^f; Aeth. 
m. Alt: f. Al-t: pl. m. Äl^<^: f. Al^3?: Heb. 
m. nr.N, f. \'^N, nN, pl. m. dhn, f. jhn, n:nN; Syr. 
m. £al, f. ^^l^ pl. m. ^o'Lif, f. ^^l"; Sam. m. "^AA, 
AA, f. mAA, pl. m. )tAA, f- ^171 A A 

— 9 — 

ICN, imperf. TiD^^ tie, hind, gird on. — Ar. ^t . Aeth. MUZ, : 
Hebr. ICN, Syr. •la\^ Sam. "^^A- 

m.N 7valk, go. ■ — Heb. ni.X. 

nniN, ni^N, Nnix, f. « wag, road, custom, conduct 
(comp. "^"11, J^AA^, 8\ju*;); pi. in^N, ^rin~. Heb. n-)'t<, 
Syr. Uioj, Sam. V^tA and V^mA- 

nN /i^rt'/', because ; also diin. Connected, as well as nj< 
lo, with DN"! see. 

V}N , NJ/^IN, f. <^/^<^ earth, the ground, a countrg. ■ — Ar. 
J,jT, Heb. Phoen. ^hn, Syr. ji^l, Sam. ^V^A- — 
The change of ,ji), jjo, ^ into y, N is very frequent: 
e. g. 0^: i^j;, yN or Nj;; J^TwC happen, ^^^ or 
y^^<; ^?,L3, jt^ii, ]nj;; e<?^C: n^.y, ncj?^; JLi, pj;, 

I'C-l ^^/ ashes, ix^oV, >J-o , y^V. > ^'J^'?^!' ^^5 nvH^, 

t?nij;-ij; or Nn;j;"iiN'; xAju, ^"»2, N'nv;^, iL:^; ^txii, 

j;i"lDV> ]y"l"^iy) ^?'ol. Some words have passed through 
another stage, and converted y, n into p, a : e. g. 

pn^> ^C'^. ^. 

''y'^N, rr'J?"", NP~, the lower part, the bottom. 

V%. See n2N. 

^T^*, imperf. in^;>, inf. •n''C, r^w*?. V. in\s* /v^vV/^, /^/vW^ ^>//, 
bring to pass; inf. nNn;'N. — Ar. ^i, Heb. nnx, 
Syr. |z], Sam. AAA; Aeth. A'tCD." return Imne, enter. 

"IHN, vrp^, place, dnrllingplace, country; pi. N^":rx. — Ar. 

jif, Aelh. /\ftC* footstep, trace: Syr. liz], Sam. 


— 10 — 

%'\hN' Hence nr>3, "in^, iLL, '^AS, yi\^ or JjL? 
(vulg, jib hatha?'), after; in Syr. it fakes the pron. 
suff. in the sing., in Chald. either in the sing, or plur.; 
at least we find ^nnD, "^jin^, as well as nn2, '•nilJia, 

3 in, at or near, by, ?vith, on account of, etc. Ar. i^, Aeth. 

n: Heb. Phoen. 2, Syr. ^^ Sam. % 
li'XS, impf. •i^'ND"', 1)c 1)ad, unpleasant , wicked ; '•n'i^J^ t^X3 or 

n'?, he, was displeased. Another form is t5'j;3. — Heb. 

li'J^S smell hadbj ; Aeth. -d'hA: ^i" had, 7vicked , diffi- 

cult; Ar. ^^^aj <^^ wretched, ,j*.«j i^<^ ^<9/</, daring : Syr. 

^^).ä1 w.*^1j do mischief, ill-use; Sam. -^^A^, ■^^VS. 

li'"'2, Nii'"'3;, f. N:i'''3, tvri^'12, ^^/^/, wicked; as a subst. 

usually in the fern. Nin'^^a, pi. {N*n:i'''3, evd, wickedness, 

misenj, a calamity. — Syi*. jlk^^r: , f. ]L»«*£i ; Sam. 

^**^m^, f. ^A^m^. 

^na. See n. 

vbs, imperf. v'^?^, swallow. — Ar. lAj Heb. y^r, Syr. 'Ols, 

Sam. VZ3; Aeth. HAU: <-^//. 
Nj;3, imperf. ">);3";, ^;^^'//, (^'^Z/ or huhhle ; ask, entreat, de- 
mand. — Ar. ^jIu swell and fester ; he p?'oud, lustful, 
insolent, unjust; ask, demand; Heb. ~j;3 make boil; 
ask, demand; Syr. jls desire, wish, ask ; Sam, fllVS 
and 'tVfi. — Chaj). I. 4. Nn^nN^ ^*-V3. ^^' the point 
of being wrecked. Comp. in vulg. Arab. ^Lo jtO^t 

— 11 — 

*ilj, the ivall is yoing to fall; and even iti the 

. ^ > ^ * ^ ^* 

classical dialect c^^ /jt c>Lt;, he tvas yoing to die 

(o!J ivisli), where later writers omit ^\ (see the Z. d. 

D. M. G. vol. VI. p. 210); so in Pers. and modern 

Greek the Fiit. with l^Si^s^ and S-eXo), I tvish, and in 

our own lang. with 7vilL 

lyz, niyi!, ^rr , petition, ent?'ealy ; Syr. ]za^. Hence ij723 

pray (quaeso, obsecro); Syr. oLLs, Sam, 'tV33, gen. 

tV^andjTlVS (Geseniiis, Carmina Samarit. 111.22. 1), 

Heb. 13 for ">j?2 (this derivat. is confirmed both by the usage 

of the other dialects, and by the analogy of the vulg. 

Arab., since in the mouth of the Badawfn ^^uä tabyhi 

has become lahi, Z. d. D. M. G. vol. VI. p. 210). 

T'JJS, X"}", a least of burden, and collect, cattle; pi. ]"'*l''J?3, 
^^n'". Heb. "iijJ^, Syr. ]i..»:^s; Ar. ^axj a camel; Aeth. 

•no^*E: 'flcr^£: and •no^: an ox, pi. äqoc" 

"ir, ^^"12, a son. — Syr. |^, Sam. '^'^S, in the Sinaitic 
inscript. ~i2, and in the Ekhkilf or vulg. dial, of South 
Arabia her. The pi. is ;">:2, N^^s, from js (see Arab, 
gloss. J^"J); Syr. ^i^, Sam. ^/71^5, also ^rn^3; 
in the Sinaitic and Himyaritic inscript. 1:2. hi like 
manner MI'S, a dauyhter, constr. nnr; l^r^, constr. 
^r^; '^A^5, constr. A'^S; have in the pi. |J2, iSPJi; 
though Jl'^S also occurs. — Derived from \^, N"13, 
N"12, Ijlo A'^S^ create; not from "112 /i*^ simple, pu?'e, 

innocent; comp. Jj:, it'., and Sanskrit 6'««2^-6-, son, from 
the rad. su , beget, bring forth. 

— 12 — 

D13 truly, indeed; but, yet, nevertheless; Syr. w^ ^ Sam. 
^*^^ and ^^3. Hitzig on Daniel, II. 28, derives it 
from the Sanskrit par am, farther, after, but; Gesenius 
Views it as an asseverative from ^o or *jjf twist, 
make firm; Dietrich, in liis Abhandlungen zur Hebr. 
Gramm. p, 226, as a contraction from riD 13 „ „ausser 
was (das Folgende betrifft)." 

-in3. See -iHN. 

12|, «"1DJ, ^l?i!.. ^"y^yi, a man; pi. xnDi^-Dii. — Heb. 
-Ql, Syr, 1h=S? ^^"^* '^'^^"f5 ^- y^^ according to 
the Kamus, i4-V'5 ^ ^Xo^F^ iX^S , „a king and 
a slave (so that it is one of the words which have two 
opposite meanings), and a 7nan" ; Aeth. I'flQ'. a slave 
or servant. 

in, cut, ordain, decree. — Heb. iTil^ Syr. j]^^ Sam. '^^i;; 

Ar. TCä. prune, slaughter. With. NDlii ")]:, III. 5, 

and NQip in, conclude a treaty, comp. n"i13 ni3, 

v-^^? woals^ Zt?^;3* V^?, and j^j.^, ^, ^^^ etc. 

Kl'in., ni~, NHI", a decree. — Syr. j^^v* and liC, 

Sam. '^'^^t. 
t)2 aheap; pi. p'?;j, ?2;<zy^Ä-. — Heb. ^-I, pi. uhl\ Syr. ^-vv ^ ^ 

Sam. -"imZZt. 
N^J!, impf. N'^^ji, uncover, unveil, reveal. — ■ Ar. ^iCa., impf. 

^Jl^, uncover, reveal, polish, brighten; Heb. n'r:, Syr. 

U^, Sam. AZX — Chap. III. 10. ]4 for )^^l, nom. 

pi. m. of the jiass. particip. ^l or "»5?^ 


p3 not used in I., cover; Ar. ^j^, Heb. p_. V. |3N covei', 
shade , inf. ^l\\^\ Syr. ^f. Hence in all the dialects 
the word for a garden, aUa., 1i^\ |j and T\ll\ \\> 
^11, Nn^J, pi. ]^3-l, pj; iM^pl. li^; ^^1, pi ^Ol^X 

*n. See "ci. 

Nl. See |i. 

n?"!, imperf. T\7r^\, slaughter, sacrifice. III. riDT, sacrifice 
often or in great quantity, inf. vSHDl. — Ar. l^b-, 
Aeth. H-flih: Heb. Plioen. HDT, Syr. ^?^ Sam. ^^T. 
n2~, NilDl, « victim, sacrifice; pi. priDl. — Ar. ^6, 
Heb. Phoen. HDl, Syr. J^?^ Sam. ^^5T. 

]n or ji-, perf. J-, imperf. |n>, yy , judge. — Ar. ^13, 
imperf. ^J-3Jo; Heb. |n; Syr. J^ impf. ^oJ-»; Sani. ^T, 
impf. ^rnTfll; Aeth. ^Zi\ judgment. 
Nj">~P, ^J?^";- ''^ province, city; pi. t<n^"- Heb. rijnp 
« province, Ar. äajJoo « t-Z/y; Syr. izia^j:^^ Sam. 

'?m, '?"'ni, impf. ^n"";, <^^ afraid, /ear, dread. — Heb. '^H; 
creep (a serpent), approach with a stealthy, timid pace, 
/ear ; Ar. Jla-j ^/^/t^r /«/<> a hidingplace (JlLS), ^'^^//'t-' 
/>'(?;// /ear, S-^o hide one's self; Syr. Vl? ^ Sam. i^^T. 
Another form is n^i. 
nShi fear. 
^^ni> ^^Pi^D", /ear, reverence; hence, that which is 

— 14 — 
feared, a god; pi. rn^ri". — Syr. lllxi^?, Sam. 

i"!^ ~, 7vho, ?vhich, that; conj. that, in ot^der that, because; 
Aeth. H: Syr. ?. Sam. T (comp. Heb. "ip^). Like H! ? 
and S, it is used to circmiiscrihe the genitive, as 
j<3Sn~n ND^'^15'', ^^Hipi ^i^P. [the same construction 
precisely is found in Pers., for in ^jlkJL^ \j^'f' ^^^ 
SultdiiLS fermän, the connective vowel / was orig. a relat. 
pron. (Sanskrit ya), and in the older Parsi is actually 
so used; comp., for example, ctaishn i yazd'an, the 
praise of God, with u in daryiiwihu i pa gehan, and 
these seas which (are) in the world. Spiegel, Gramm. d. 
Pärsi-sprache , p. 52.]. With ^ or "i annexed, bi" or 
"I'l'l , it is used with pronom. suff. to express the pos- 
sessive adj., as ^'p^i or nn mine, TibiT thine, ni''" his; 
Syr. Vi.? Sam. ^fHT (Heb. — particularly in the so-called 
Song of Solomon and the postbiblic writings— and Phoen. ^'p, 
for b-)li''N, Cant. I. 6, II. 7, l^y ^tJ' n^im, ^Zin S^ ImPO, 
DDT ^p D12, Plaut. Poenul. V. 3, 22. Hau amma 
silli, "h^* NCkS in, hauon bene silli, ^hvj ^12 pin); 
with 3 prefixed, ^ns, X^"^"^, on account of ("^ ni^NS, 

Sp^. — Besides H! ? and ^, other cognate forms 

» s - ^ 

are j^ in the dialect of the Arab tribe Tayy {<.^)\ 

n in the Sinailic inscript. (Z. d, D. M. G. vol. III. 

p. 192); "i ill the Himyaritic (Rodiger's transl. of 

Wellsted, p. 383, 393, 400), e. g. pini riniD = 

(^jj^6 «-55-? i>^ the month of Kharik (or the period 

of the monsoon); >T, as mark of the genit., in the 

— 15 — 

monument of Carpentras and other Shemitic remains 
brought from Egypt (Gesenius, Monum. Plioen. p. 228, 
242; and t as mark of tlje genit, in Phoen. (inscr. 
Massil. 1. 6, 10). — 1 may add that the Phoen. in- 
scriptions furnish us also with the intermediate step be- 
(ween ']p^ and .it' in the form u/a, e. g. Massil. 1. 20. 
r\i<t'D nj?'[ t^N ]D^^^' Athen. IV. ^2jni ^b w^a^ li^x (the 
monument) w/u'c/i Yittenhel ci'ccfed for me, Sidon. 
1. 4. rd:: B'N DPQD, and in the formula "nj i^x, — • 

• • T It' -t 

which vo7ved — . 

IDT, impf. "131"», rememhei\ II. IDIN he 7'emembered ; call 
to mind, rememhet\ — Ar. 3*5 , Aetli, H^Z, \ Heb. 12* 
(Phoen. "irT rememhrance), Syr. j^? , Sam. '^:iiT. 

□", t<n~, ^/(9^</. 0(her forms are qin' and Q~N*. — Ar. 
*;>, Aeth y:<^\ Heb. d~, Phoen. (according to Augus- 
tine) edom, Syr. >«;, Jio?, Sam. -^T and ^TA. 

"b~ (^??~), impf. "^jlDni, */<?<?j». • — Syr. v^> , Sam. ^-^T. 
TilD"! particip. adj. sleeping, I. 6. — Syr. ^^ ^ ^^j. 

]-, p m., NT f., ^/«/>, ^Ä«/; pi. ]i'-N'. ■ — Sam. |]T m., ^T 
f., pi. ^<niA; Aeth. "H^-t^: m. H-t: f., pi. m. 7iA>1*: 
f. TiAl'tl and in the Himyaritic inscript. p (Rodiger's 
transl. of Wellsted, p. 398, 403). 

nn, impf. n;"i^ rise (the sun). — Ar. ^^, Aeth. UJ^*: 
Heb. rriT, Syr. v«uJ?^ Sam. VjlT; cognate forms in 
Syr. are ^i^ and ^-Ji^if. 

nj"^, Nijj', the place where the sun rises, the east. — 
Ar. ji;-li, Heb. nij^, Syr. iIj^^ , Sam. ^V^T-*il 

— 16 — 

M interrog. particle; Ar. |, Sam. ^. The fuller form is iT\, 
<i ^ 
Ar. jLfl>. 

pn, ]nn m., xnn f., M^>, //^«/; pi. j^^'Nn, ]'''^n; comp. of nh 

(Syr. ]d) //^?>, and ]l. — Ar. ItXiC m., sj^, (^J^ f., 

pi. tSlye ; Heb. nin m. , nwn f., pi n^NH ; Syr. Jjd m., 

]>oi f., pi. ■ iNffi. 

N^n m., N""?! f., he, she, it; pi. m. ]13N, f. ]iiN, and in bibl. 
Chald. p»n, 'isn. — Ar. "y^ m., ^ f., pi. m. Lc 

(poet, jje), f. ^jd; Heb. Nin m., N^n f., pi. m. en, f. jn, n.^n; 

Syr. ooi m. , y»q f. , pi. m. .ojoi , .qJ 1 , f- ^Jq , ^-^ \. 
^<^n, n^n, impf. Nin^ or >Tp, inf. '>>nD, ^<?, happen, — Heb. 

n^n and nin (Gen. XXVII. 29, Jes. XVI. 4), Phoen. 

Nin (inscr. Eryc. 1. 3. Nin""; comp. Eccl. XI. 3), Syr. 

loof^ Sam. '^l;;^; Ar. ;^y» fall, happen. 
h':^T\, N'^~, (tny large huilding , a palace, temple, chirch; 

pi. ^!py^^r\. — Ar. J.Xl^ he tall and stout, JXj^ tall, 

stout, also a palace or temple: Aelh. UJiTlA'. Heb. 

^r;n, Syr. iL^'o,. 

"^^n go, walk, little used in I., gen. in III. Tj^n; Ar. iUje, 3JLfl>, 
die; Heb. Phoen. "rj'^n, Syr. ^m^ Sam. ilX"^. Ano- 
ther Chald. form is ^m, perf. Tin, an exact parallel to 
our 9valk , except that we retain the / in wi-iting. 
Ti^riQ a walk, jom-neg. — Heb. "rpT^. 

~cn turn, return; change ; overturn, destroy. II. "DnPX he 
tu7'ned, changed, destroyed. A cognate form is "?]Cfc< 

— 17 — 

turn, flee. — Ar. dLit tnove , remove, but most freq. 
used in the sense of tell a lie (comp. Prov. XVII. 20. 
i:ii5'^3 '^BT\l), in VIII. ^JLaXjJ he overtunwd, whence in 
llie Kur-än, ^\XiJy^f (scil. ^J^ijf), Sodom and Go- 
morrha , also called by tlie Arabs abJLiJt i^j^t 
(from vJJi /2^;7«); Heb. "risn, Syr. ^oi^ Sam. ^^"^. 

"], ^, and, but. — Common to all the Shemitic dialects under 
the form ?ea, 7v' , u. 


N2T, 151, impf. ""^P, he pure in a moral sense, chaste, in- 
nocent, just. — Ar. b'v , Heb. npj , Syr. \l,-\ , Sam. 
^:!^'^. In Aramaic p/ujsical purity is expressed by the 
cognate i2"l, ^?, (Tl^T. 

"■^I 0?l5 ''^^?l)' I^^*?!' f- '^'^'tI' ^n^2T, pure, innocent, 
just. — Syr. ^\. 

];2i not used in I. — III. |ai prepaid, make ready , appoint, 
invite. — Syr. ^]. 

-1j;t he small. — • Ar. yLo, li-o, Heb. -ij;:j, Syr. -^y and 
(in the sense of he despised) jjl^, Sam. '^V'^. 
-l"'J?! , N")-, f. N^y.T, Nnn-, .vwr///, little, youmj. — 
Ar. pJL^o, Heb. -y^^i, Syr. l^oi]^ Sam. ^'^tV'^. 


':52n not used in I., he corrupted or vitiated, rotten. III. 
':'2n corrupt, destroy. — Ar. J^k ^<? sprained, out of 


— 18 — 

joint or otherwise maimed, he inad, II. Jui*. put out 

of joint, maim, disorder; Heb. ^3n, Syr. \ Wm ^ Sam. 

iS^. See Gesenius' Thesaurus, rad. ^2n. 

'?2n, bsn, «':5", corruption, injury, destruction. — Syr-U'^L.^. 
"I2n not used in I., Jje united; III. "isn unite, combine. — ■ 

Heb. -iDH, Aeth. -J-flZ.: Syr. ^. 

"I2n, "i2ri, 5<~iI3n, ^/^ associate, companion, colleague; 

pi. in^n, Nn-. Heb. n^n, Syr. h:L., Sam. -^^3^. 

Preceded by iDil, /^^ <>/?tf — the other (comp. li'''i< or 

DIJ^ with HN, n? n^^Xj)- 
in, f. «"in, ^/?<?. — Ar. J^f, f. (^tX^j^; Aeth. Äifi^: 

f. AA-t; Heb. inx, f. nnN, Phoen. inN; Syr. ^; 

Sam. i^^A and T^, ^T^, f. ^T^, AA^, AA^A. 

The rad. is IXä.;, "inj, ^^ single, at one 7vith, united; 

Aeth. I'CD'lhS: ^^ united; Syr. ■ .^ — /6'/?<?, solita?y ; 

fH unite. 

^"Vrh ve?y, excessively. 

^IQ' '•I'!'.' '''?n.» »"pf- ^"!Q^ ^in^ ^*" ^^'^^^ rejoice. — Hel». 

nin, Syr. ^'^^ Sam. ^'^^, (TlT^. 

Nnn, NHlin , joy, gladness. — Syr. lo^l , l^o^ , Sc.m, 

«in not used in I.; III. "tin, ^in, announce, tell. — Ar. 

^^ reveal; Heb. n^^n, Syr. ^aL^ Sam. ^X}^ {i^^Hy 

Din, perf. DH, commit a fault, sin, he in debt. — Ar. 
<wjL&-, Syr. ^Ä». 

Din, N2~, a fault, sin, debt ; pi. ]"'D'Jn. — Ar. v^' V^ 
« mw^, Heb. Din, Syr. )^c 

— 19 — 

a^n, Nn2-, f'd.; pl. kSna". Ar. xl^, ib^, Syr. Iä^oL, 
Sam. ^^tH, 
Din , perf. or;, imperf. Din"| (Din>) , have compassion upon, 
pity, spa?'e. — Heb. Din, Syr. oal^ Sam ^^. 

^'7n , impf. nn;',, iTn;! , ^^^, observe. — Heb. nin, Syr. ]^^ 
Sam. %^'H. ; Ar. ICä. <//W;?^, prognosticate , from 
watching the flight of birds (comp. njn, ^^^;'■^). 

r]j:n snatch, car?ij off, plunder. — Ar. ."^Ul^, Heb. f]^n, F]nn, 

Syr. ^a^j Sam. 3^V. 

S]1L:n, ND~, rapine, violence. — Syr. |_Isa^u«*. 
t<;n , imperf. in^ , "in>, Äy<?. — Ar. ,^a^, ^^; Aeth. ih£®: 

Heb. •»n, rrri, Phoen. avo, hau, hauon (Plant. PoeniiL); 

Syr.j vl-, Sam. ^m^. 

r?npl. /-'/^. — Heb. n^'H, Phoen. D>n, Syr. ,:^, Sam. 

]3n, perf. [H, feel compassion, pity, be propitious to. — 
Ar. ^ , Heb. ]n, Syr. ^. 

pn, W~, compassionate, merciful. — Ar. ,j11ä., Syr. 
)iil Heb. p^n, Phoen. Hanno, Jvvwv (comp. ^^z/^- 
nibal bv2^:r\, Anfia T\ir\). 

31D ^<? ^oo^. The various parts of this verb are furnished 
by three cognate radicals, 2Np, DCD, and ^to^ — I. 
perf 2Np, imperf. 2::\"'., 2:?"'^ ^^ ?w//, /'^VW, ./^yA'^' 
often used impers. III. D.^D improve, benefit, prepare, 
make ready. IV. D^ISN. V. 2^DN, 3>L?iN, also D^tO^n, 2^:oin, 

— 20 — 
with (he same signif. as III. — VI. 2::irJ5 inipei-s., 
chap. II. 9. — ■ Ar. CjQs, imperf. vj^^iaj , be good, 
pleasant, cheei'ful: Heb. nb, im[)erf. D*l2">^; Syr. ^sl^. 
DID, N3:3, f. N2tO, NH^tD, ^<?<?^, pleasant; followed by ]D, 
better than. — Ar. ^J^, Heb. D1t2, Syr. wo^, 
Sam. Sf . 

ITiS, ni~, Nni", goodness, bounty ; pi. |ptD (]p£3). ■ — 
Syr. U^^ jzak^, Sam. ^AtS^. 

Tito, i^"!", « mountain; pi. Nn~. Heb. niJi, Syr. |ic4 ^ 

Ar. ^p5. 

^'?t: not used m I.; III. b^^to shade, cover. — Ai'. JJLb, 
Aeth. AAA: Heb. ^^^ and ^^^jo, Syr. v:^. 

blio, ^^^ (for iS'rp), .v//<z</^, shadow. — Ar. J.b, Heb. 
'pi: and hhi, Sam. 2,^. 

N^^tSp, n>'^p, ^n^t:p, <? A/^.y^/^ or covering , a (lightly 
built) hut; pi. X^'^top. — Ar. Ilkx), Aeih. <^K\^\ 
Syr. iLiu^ and uk^, Sam. I^^. 
j<j?p, impf. ij;;^"', waiider , go astray, err; cognate form 
t<j;n. — Heb. nj?n; Ar. ^^iis, j^iis, ^^^ disobedient, 
rebellious, impious, Syr. )i^ ^ Sam. '^V^. 

ly^, nr, xni", ^r;w% an idol; pl. NniyD ({<riS?.£0, which 
some derive from a sing. Niy/i:). — Syr. w*I:;.a^ and 

?zq14, Sam. -^AtV^; Ar. Z^\h an idol, Aeth. 
'^l^^.' whence the denom. A^O(D.' 7vorship idols. 

DV.tO, im|)erf. Dj;p1, /«.v^<?, eat. — Ar. IaL, Aelh. ^<)<P', 
Heb. dj;d, Syr. >oiL^. 

— 2t — 

nsto strike, clap tlic hands; deiioin. from HSD, which orig. 
signif. the open palm of the hand (Syr. ■ -^^ spread out, 

Ar. Xo, Aeth. A4trh:: i&4tfh: fi4tfh: breadth). — 
Aeth. /I14i/h: Ar. Jl.o, (^ä*.,, \j^iuo, ^tJu^-, >*i^, 
Aeth. Ä4:o: Heb. pSD. 

B'D"", ti'^I!^, impf. tt'D"'^, (?'<? <//'^;, ^/i*'^ ?^-?, wither. — Ar. 

(j^, Aeth. P-nn: Heb. tJ^s^^, Syr. ..^Ii^, Sam. -^5^. 

{<n*^2^ M(? d7'y ground, land ; properly the fem. of the adj. 

tj'<)2^ = t^D^ (Ar. jIa.o, Syr. )..».^^1). — ■ Heb. ntÄ'2^ nii''3^ 

Syr. iL..^:^ Sam. ^A^^/Tl. 
1^, «n^, NT^, f. the hand; pi. pT, i^^T. — Ar. tXS (vulg. 

j^, joj), Aeth. 2i^: Heb. i;, Syr. ^^ j^j^ Sam. 

Tm and^TA. 
NTi not used in I.; III. i"il confess. V. niN co?ifess , give 

thanks, praise ; Heb. nnin , Syr. ^'jo"] ^ Sam. ATt!A. 

nN"J"iJ<, ^<P^<^"i^^ ^^nnit^, confession, thanksgiving, pi^aise ; 

also written M^'liri- The corresponding word in Heb. 

is n"i"in (also used in Chald.), and in Syr. lLk?oZ. 
j;"!^ imperf. yii (y^j^), VT?.? imper. j;"!, inf. v^d, particip. 

j?"!^^ and 3;n_i, Ä-/«o/i'. — Heb. yn^, Syr. ^?.^; Aeth. 

^JBÄ'O : make known, announce. 
DHS imper. ir\, particip. DH^ and DVi^, give. The impf. ]n^ 

and inf. |nc are from ]n: , not used in the perf., imper., 

and particip. — Ar. v-Ia-sb"^, impf. v^' imper. v.^; 

Aeth. (DUa: impf. indie. .EU-O: subj. PU-fi: imper. 

— 22 -— 

U-fi: Heb. 2^1, scarcely used except in the iiiiper. 
in or DDH; Syr. w^dovI; Sam. ^"^(71, complete in all 
its parts (imper. sometimes \.^ and 3lA)- 

Tin> collect, fhe Jews, Judaea. 
^Nlin? O^T)? HN-J-, a Je?v. 

DiS ND- « day; pi. pnl^, j<^^D-. Ar. T^, Aeth. F<?=^: 
(today, now), Heb. Dl"*, Syr. J^ol^ Sam. '^^'^fn. — 
Hence, in comb, with "ln^?, "lilD tomo7TO?v, in Chald. 
Nnnol"! and I'lncl'' as well as inp, Syr. ^lic^ Sam. 
^^■^. Examples of similar mutilations are ^n^n 
(«ny;^ ^m) i^^;^, Syr. w*.d and |.ld; vulg. Ar. LlJ to 
this hour, yet (for sILIJU); "ipnt^'N (^^k7D'^p. ^<P^) ^?*^ 
yea7\ and N']r;i'J< (khH NnK') this year; vulg. Arab. 
JaJLi for iaL. ,i, ?>« M<9 midst ; etc. 

Nn^ not used except in V. ^niN, ^niN, hasten^ make haste. — 

a — ' 

Ar. ^^^ and V. ^^^i hasten. 

2D\ See 21J0. 

>> for nin>. Whatever be the correct pronunciation of 
the word niri% Jehovah (or rather lehovah) is certainly 
incorrect. The vowelpoints belong to a K'li perpe- 
tuum "»yit? or Dint'N: and hence we find, not Din^^ 
and niiT'l, but T\'Sr\'h and DID^l (i. e. lyit^':? and "(JlN^); 
not nin^, lyiN, but always nin."».. "»:il< (i. e. D^n^X ""JIN). 
To pronounce the name Jchovih would be quite as 
correct and reasonable as Jehovah. The evidence of 
some of the later classical authors and of the Fathers 
of the Church (who write I Ail, lAOY , lEYH, 
Jaoh, Jaho) leads to the pionunciatiun T\^T\\ for nin> or 

— 23 — 

nin: (conip. 2b] for D3p:; Dip^, Dp] for Dlp^), accor- 
ding to the form DpV.l, D)b'r\y, hut as Theodoretus and 
Epiphanias give I ABE, the former adding that such 
was the pron. of the Samaritans, it is extremely probable 
that the correct form is r\)TV lahveh. from mn = 

n^n be. 

^;p, '?0\ impf. ^13^, inf. ^3D, he able. — Heb. ^bi (impf. 
^DI^), Sam. i^lTl; Aeth. ^aOA" 

D^ NS^_, M<!? ^<?«; pi. pa^, i<''^s^_. — Ar. ^j, Heb. Phoen. 
n>, Syr. iiol, Sam. Wol. 

s — 

I^D'. (]^Si), NJ", f. the right hand. — ^ Ar. ,j.a^, Aeth. P^3f: 

Heb. i^n^^, Syr. 0^, Sam. ^)m^m. 

F]D^ not used except in V. P)p1^<, ^""plN, fi'^</, increase, do 
again. — Heb. P]P2, f]"'pin, Syr. usj»ol, Sam. ^^'^A, 

r]p\ See P]pj. 

1p% impf. "ipi^, ^<? heavy, burdensome, valuable. III. ip^ 
honour. — Ar. "IS., li., <^<7 heavy, grave, sedate, 
'jil be deaf; Heb. "ip^, Syr. jjL^ Sam. ^Y/TI- 

"ip"", N"]", worth, honour, pomp. — Ar. S31 dignity 
of manner, gravity, Heb, np^, Syr. I^jL-Ij Sam. 

n^ a word pref. to def. nouns in the accus., identical with 
the Heb. ni«, "DX, DN (Gesenius' Gram. 16th ed., 
§. 101. 1. rem. 1, and §. 115. 2 with the note), 
Phoen. n\s (Sidon. 1. 4. T Drti'p n^N nns^ ^N mx ^Dl), 
Syr. £^; Sam. Afll, e. g. -^V^A. (nn^3) ^AmS, 

— 24 — 

'^^t/71* (nn^s) ^Arn^ (see Geiger's Lehrbiieh zur 
Sprache d. Misclmah, p. 36, where are cited among 
other examples Dl^H "inlx, nii2''n HHliS); perhaps Ar. 
Lj[, used (like Aeth, ^p:) only with pron. sufF. 01jJ, 
sbt , etc. 
3n% :i^r\\, impf. 3^7;», 2n^, imper. 2n (D^n), inf. zn^c, Dnp, 

si^, dmell. — Ar. »^j«, impf. v.^, imper. v!>j, hi the 
Himyaritic dialect sit (generally leap), ^ U . a seat, ^j 
stand immoveable; Heb. '2^\, Syr. ^ai^j, ^ Sam. SAHl? 
imper. SA. 

3 (7.y, like, according to; Ar. dl , Phoen. r, Sam. ^. — 

^?^^ «<;?.; Ar. l^r, Aeth. ^<?=: Heb. 1^2, Syr. |.Ll=1 , 

Sam. •^•^^. 

^3 ("'^2), N''^b, ^Nvi^, the totality, the whole, often to be 

s > 
transl. as an adj. whole, all. — Ai'. Ji", Aeth. 'fP-A-: 

Heb. Phoen. ^i), Syr. v^^ Sam. X^A and i^^. 

]3 5<?, thus\ Heb. |2, Sam. 'j]:ii; Syr. ^ then; })rob. con- 
traded for j-iD //Ar //^M- (Ar. ijj' and ^JtXT, Aeth. 
^<P"H: ///2/.SJ. — j3-:j; therefore. 

NDS gen. used in III. ip3, cover , conceal, clothe or ^/;v?ax 
IV. "ipSHN ^^ covered , concealed, pat on clothes. — 
Ar. L^ clothe, Heb. n2|» gen. nD3, Syr. jjiLs gen. ..^.wn^ 
Sam. "^^^. 

]j;2 w^w, a word of doubtful origin, ll lias been thought 
by some a secondary formation from ]3 (comp. |3"H? 
Nehem. II. 16 with ]y2"~j; Ezra V. 16), whilst others 

— 25 — 

have derived it from the Arab. rad. ^\^ come into 

view, happen. Possibly it may be connected with jiy 

time (comp. nj?2). 
T^D only in V. npN ctij aloud, proclaim, p?'cach , declare; 

Syr. Xfs]., Sam. '^'^^. Prob. from the Gr. ycrjQvooo). 
Np")2, ^0*13, ''C"i')2, N^p", a throne; pi. ]jD"ir, " 112. Heb. 

Np2 , which is the orig. form ; Syr. ■^s<^, Sam. /71^*^^, 

Ar. ^y. 

h to, for , according to, etc. Sign of the dat. and of the 
accus. — Ar. J and with pron, siifT. J, Aetli. A \ Heb. 
Phoen. ^, Syr. '^, Sam. 2. 

NJ no, not; Ar. SI, Heb. ^ ., Syr. 13 and olT^ Sam. AZ. 
It supplies the place of the Heb. Phoen. \^^ and ^n, 
which latter does not occur except in bibl. Chald., and 
is likewise unknown to the Arab, and Syr. In Sam. 
however Me find Z A, and in Aeth. AAO \ there is 7wi, 
AA-nP: T have not, KM\Hi'. etc. 

D^, N2^, with suff. ^3^, the hea?i, pi. |"'3':;i; also constr. 
^ ' " s > 

22^, with suff. ^22^, pi. «"22':. — Ar. vlj, Aeth. 

A-n: Heb. Phoen. zh and 22*^ (inscr. Eryc. 1. 5, C), 
Syr. \k^^ Sam. ^l and 3SZ. 
It'D'?, ^^"»2^, impf. W'lh\, put on clothes. — Ar. ylJ, Aeth. 
A-flii: Heb. ij''2':j, t:'?^, Syr. .^L:^ ^ Sam. -^5^. 
li'"12^, Nli'", « (jar meat, robe; pi. ]''ti''". Ar. j^^, 

Heb. i&'dS Syr. V^^s^, Sam. '^•^tSZ. 


— 26 — 

'•n':', iiiipf. 'n^"', labour, he n-caricd, /atitjucd , disheartened.\hi< tire, 7vearij. Shafel '^Thv id.; Ishtafal ^n^PLJ'X 
be ?vearied, faint. Cognate forms are "»Nb and ij;'?; 
Ar. ^^1 be slow or lazij , ^^^ mis fo?' tunc , difficiäty ; 
Heb. r\\k) and nn'?; Syr. ^j3 . Sliaf el v^oi \ 4. ; Sam. ^SJX, 
whence tfilVZ, tAZ, t<TlZ, f^äigue. 
ITi^ri'kt'J^, nr, weariness, faintness, despoiidency. 

niS, ni^, with snfr. ini"^, |inni^, at, near-, to or towards: 
Syr. Zoli,, Sam. hXX. Properly a noun denoting 
adhesion, connexion, from n*1/ or >^ adhere, be nnited, 
Heb. T\ti, Syr. ,^al. Ar. ri; be near. With the same 

rad. are connected "'pn;, b, and Ar. ^_^t. 

}<nnb. See in, 

S-h^, h'h^, ^fs-hh (from the form ^^1^, Sam. iTlZrHZ, used as 
an adv. by night), night; pi. ^^"h-, \h'h_. — Ar. Ju^, 
Iiy, Aeth. AA.^: Heb. ^^.^, n^;^., Syr. ilvj:^and jlX^ Sam. 

n^^ See n\s. 


NC, no ("no, n^), what? ivhat, fvhatsocver; as an adv. 
7vhy? how! — Ar. Cc, Aelii. ^'. Heb. no, Syr. . 
Sam. "^^. — DNO. See cn. 

■jN'O (|D), W~, «/?3/ article of fu7iiiture, pot ov vessel, instru- 
ment of any kind, dress; pi. ]">JNO, N'^^J". Syr. ^jjId , 

Sam. ^^A^, Ar. ^^U. 
DJ^IO a word of obscure origin, corresp. to (lie HeLj^noiNO, 
something, often conjoined with n^ to give addit. 

— 27 — 

force to the iiegat. — not a single thiny\ Syr. >o^. 
Fiirst (Chald. Gram. p. 97 note) and Dietrich (Ab- 
liandlungen ziir Hebr. Gr. p. 225) derive Dy~D from 
j;~D = nj;'n (rad. y-i) and n^, comparinj^ J^n?, and 
view >c^^ Dl^D (D"??), ■'I'id, as a farther contraction. 
Tliis derival. certainly seems more probable than that 
proposed l)y Bernstein, ^? ^ pm^s partis, aliqna 
pars, particularly as Mq^xd seems rather to be derived 
from DIkSp, D1?2, a flaw, defect (lience wliat is ?vo?'th- 
less, insiynificant, trilling) than from nci T\o. See 
Dietrich, Abhandl. p. 233. 

nic, perf. n'C, impf. niD^ (niD!'.), inf. n?:n (HQd), die. — 
Ar. v2jLo, Aetii. 'P't: Heb. np, impf. m^;; Phoen. nc 
dead (Massil. 1. 17); Syr. :uio; Sam. AA*ii and A/Tl^, 
impf. At^m. 

niD, Nn~, death. ■ — Ar. ^"^, Aelh. <P^: Heb. DID, 
constr. nic, Phoen. nD (inscr. Eryc. 1. 7), Syr. jzoL . 
Sam. ^At^. 

j^nc, inipf. "TlC^, strike, bite or .y///*'^ (an insect). — lleb. 
{<nD, mH^, Syr. j^ic , Sam. ^^^ (also \Mitlen with % 
or V for ^, and witli 1; <jr fil for ^). 

Nirp, impf. ">t:p% fW//(? /«, ;vY/<:7^, happen. — Ar. ^^^ go; 
Aeth. <PKK\ rome, find] Ileb. NliD /?'/<^/; Syr. j^jCi^^ 
Sam. ^^^, m^^. 

I^D, {<J0, constr. ip, ?vater. — Ar. -iUo, pi. »11«; Aelh. t'^.E.' 
Heb. D^D, Phoen. -"C (Eryc. 1. 6); Syr. ^lia, \si^ ^ 
Sam. ^m^. 

'p^D not used exce{)l in III. h\]2, speak. \\ . ^';'7?nN*. Heb. 
hh}2, Syr. Vl^^ , Sam. Xl*^. 

— 28 — 

"ifyo, impf. "^l^p^, counsel, advise; rule, reign. — Ar. 
iJlJUo possess, Aeth. <PAH\\ Heb. r^, Syr. ^f^, 
Sam. ^Z«i. 

"rj^p, N3^r?, « Ä7>?^; pi. 1^2^ D, x^3~. Ar. ^ijo, Heb. 
Phoen. ^b?9, Syr. V^^^^^ Sam. -^^Z^iJ. 
ID^p, ni", N*ni~, pi. ssnp", sovcreiynty, royal dig- 
m'^y. — Syr. Izaiii^, Ar. uu^JLo, Heb. nopC) = 

Ar. iXJUx, Heb. rr^^n?, Phoen. pd'i'DD (iiiscr. Sidon.). 

]-o. See |i<^. 

|D /2'^^.'' wAo, whosoever. — • Ar. J^, Syr. ^ Sam. j]"^; 
Heb. "iQ. 

]a />-o/?^, <?/^ out of, etc. ; after an adj. than. Orig. the con- 
struct state of a noun p « jf?«;'^ or poi^tion , from a 
rad. pD = nJ^D. — Ar. J^, Heb. Phoen. |p, Syr. ^^ 
Sam. ^^; Aeth. ?i<?^: and 'K<^i" 

^<j?p //*<? <^^//y; liardly used except in the pi. |''I?D, t^^J^p, //^^ 
intestines, the belly. — • Ar. ^jw and ^k« <?/« intestine, 
pi. ^Li^l; Aeth. Ac^O-^: pi. Ät^OT^: Heb. D^yp; 
Syr. ,_r^; J.i:lifi^ Sam. 'jlOtV^. 

NDJ not used except in IV. ''liJnN prophesy. — Ar. CIS' , 
Aeth. I'inp: Heb. «33 and N*2:nn, Syr. . «niz|: denom. 
from g^, ^, ia^: N^2J, HiXiDJ or NJ2J, jliaJ^ 

AJl3l^, « prophet. 

ni<1DJ, nnN", prophecy, a prophecy. — Ar. 5*a^, 

Sam. ^At^^. 

— 29 — 

^;: draw, flo}v\ Syr. j^ he exlendcd, lony\ Heb. "iJI^ , Plioen. 
Ij] (inscr. Eryc. 1. 6), be spiead out, poured out, 
flotv. III. 13 J holt or har, chap. II. 7, denom. from X"i2: 
(Ar. ^lwÄj) a holt or <^rt';\ Several edd. however have 
in this passage ni-P. or ni^i (n"i:)J.), from ij^, irapf. 
Tijl^ or I'i-ti;', <//'flr/«';, /<?«^; Syr. ,^ impf. ^^ Sam. 

nnj, impf. "Ti^, zj()>^. ■ — Ar. 'cXS, Heb. Phoen. "n_J, Syr. 
s^^ Sam. ^t|]. 

"Ti:, N;inj, « iw^^; pi. jnnj. ■ — Ai\ !jj, Heb. tij, 
Syr. li^j^ Sam. ^^T^. 

"in:, N-in;, N'jnj, « m^r; pi. |nn; and ]nn;. From the 
rad. y^ flo7v, Heb. *iriJ. — Ar. ^^ or w^, Heb. "irj2, 
Syr. liau, Sam. ^'^^j], 

mj, perf. nj, impf. niJ% he quiet, tranqud, cease or desist. 
— Heb. nj, Syr. ^, Sam. ^^. 

p:, NJ", « /^y^; pi. pm — Ar. ^j^, Syr. )jaJ^ Sam 
m)t^, constr. Am^t^. 

^Itf'nJ, fc^'?", « storm \ pi. ji'?-, waves, hillotvs. Syr. jjol^. 
It seems to be connected with the rad. h'Z'T]. 

nnj, impf nin;', nin;», imper. nin, inf. nriD, descend. — • 
Heb. nnj, Syr. hZ^ ^ Sam. A^^, AV,]. A secon- 
dary formation from mj, like nnii', n"lti', from 
mt:', mis'. 

^:o^, impf. h^]^\, imper. '^iD, ///^ up, carry, set out on a 
journey. — Heb. ^tOJ, Syr. V^a he heavy, Sam. 1^^ 
set out on a jowney. 

2DJ, DiDi, impf. DD"", imper. 2D, take. — Svr. ^amJ, Sam. 

— 30 — 

pDJ. See phc. 

^DJ, impf. hB], ^ID^., ^1D;% in bibl. Chald. ^D% /^///. — Heb. 
b^y, Syr. vLj , impf. Vk5; Sam. 2^3^. 

pD3, impf. p)B\, pB\, imper. pio, y^ or cowe out. — • Ar. 

(^jiä come out of a hole, sell well (merchandise) ; Syr. 

- n^i^ Sam. ?Z)pl. 
1£'D:, N^DJ, f. ^>^^ breath, the soul or ^/wvV, life; pi. ];i'5;. 

— • Ar. y.*Äj, Aelh. i<ti'. Heb. ti'5:, Syr. ^ki , Sam. 

-^xxA.^'^]^ Used in all the dialects to express self, 

e. g. "'L^''©; z?^y*<:'^ like ci^;;, D"1.J, ^!^, >oaix,^ etc. 

r)p: not used = Syr. ^alj ^<? joined, adhere, folloiv ; = 
Heb. P]p3 strike. V. F]ip{< y^^/V^, ?//«/6S ^^ routid, 
surround. This form is often wrongly referred to a 
rad. r|p>. 

]nj ^/^<^';, not used in Aramaic except in the imperf. jH'', inj"*,, 
Syr. '\kj^ Sam. jlAHl; and. inf. ]np, ]nJD, Syr. .Va!^^ 
Sam. 'pA^. — Heb. Plioen. pj. 

N2p, "»^p, impf. ">3p'' , grow, increase, he great ox: numerous. 

V. • i^px augment, multiply, magnify or <".ir///. — Hob, 

nati', Nats', Syr. .^, Sam. NV^, /Tllr^. Cognate 

form y^p. 
N'"'-ip, "»30, f. riN"*:?, w//r/^ numerous, great; \A. m. ]>'^:c, f. 

]N-. Heb. N^jtS', Syr. Jl^\ Sam. (Tll'^. 

f]lD, perf. ^D, im])f. p]"id% cv/</, <'yy/.V6', perish. — Heb. f]D, 
Syr. ^, Sam. 3^. 

— 31 — 

F]"iD, ND", cud. — Syr. ^a^^ jL^oL^ Sam. i^t^; Ar. 

olI«, a particle pref, to tlie iiiiperf. when it denotes 

futurity, usually abbrev. JL. 
P)"1D reeds, seaweed. Occurs only in the phrase ?]1D"I NS'' 

from the Heb. p)1D"C\ 
inp go roiaid, surround. ■ — • Heb. "inD, Sam. ^^^; in 

Syr. we find the deriv. |ia-^ n strolling mendicant, 


Tlnp prop, a noun signif. circuit , circumference (Sam. 

^^^, '^A^), but used as an adv. around, roimd- 

ahout, and commonly repeated h "llnp "liriD. — Sam. 

^^t^, "i^A^, '^^A^, and with suff. A^^^, 

brp ('??t^') /^>^^' upon, behold, contemplate, consider, under- 
stand-^ hardly used except in IV. '?3npN. — Heb. 'priJ', 

Syr. Vi£aJ. Sam. I^A^A. 

p^p, pi^.p, impf. pp^. (for p^.p^J, imper. pp (for p^p), inf. 
pP9 (for p'ppc), go up, ascend. III. ^""^z: make ascend, 
raise, remove. IV. p'^npts*. V. ppx (for p^rpN) make 
ascend, bring forth, offer. — Syr. - ^vTw Sam. ?2,P. 
— A rad. po: does not exist in Aramaic, for V^ in 
Sam. (Gen. XIX. 15) is not for \^ (as ^^ for 
3^^, ?Z), tZZ), Uhlemann's Institutiones, §. 26. 1. 
annot.), but for ?i^; and ^a is (he usual form of 
the perf. in modern Syriac, e. g. in the Creed, 
)"-'^"'-v oil^ji? ri^^oi) j.j| / believe (that) he ascended 
to heaven (oiXaaj for 01.1». ■ nVw ). See an article l)y Ro- 
diger in the Z. f. d. Kunde d. Morgenlandes, vol. II. p. 91. 

— 32 — 

bi^^D (^cp) and har^ii/, def. nb-, the left hand. — Ar. 

JUci, Heb. 'pi^Cti', Syr. U:^^ Sam. '^ZA'il^. 
W^cp, Nr:~ « */^?>; pl. ^'n^". Ar. iLui-w«, Heb. n^'Cp, Syr. 

1-2^..^» 9 Sam. "^jlfnZ)^. Tlie word prop, denotes a 

large decked vessel, from j^D cover. 

]Dp, NJ", a sailo?-; pl. i<i\-. Syr. jikic. 
pD, N|*p (Xj'^ii'), coaj-se cloth, sackcloth \ pl. pj^p. — Heb. 

p^, Aeth. TU*: Syr. ]^ ^ Sam. "^^. From the 

Shemitic lang. the word has passed into tlie Lat. and 

Greek, oaxyiog, saccus , and thence into the modern 

European languages. 

1^^ (jJ^)' ^^"j collect. *//<^«77 or goats. — Ar. ^Lo , Heb. 
]t<li, Syr. ji'il^ Sam. '^jlAV; in Arab, liowever jjLo, 
individ. ,j.jL2, is limited to sheep (the word for goats 
being ytxi, indiv. C^Uo), whilst iXji, (Heb. Di^:') is an 
indiv. of cither sort, the corresponding collect, being lie. 

-I2y, impf. npyi, -3j;i, rt'^, 7nake. — Syr. ^L:^, Sam. ^3V; 
Heb. npv labour, serve, worship a deily, in wliich last 
sense Ar. tXlc, but Jui = Heb. Plioen. n2j;, Syr. 
I^iil, c/ .vA/?'^' (»r servant. 

1211?, «12", ^i'ryr/i, deed, act. ■ — Sam. ^'^'k^V. 

r TT 

NTI2J/, NHl", 7V07'k, business, trade or occupation. — 
Syr. \ir^, Sam. ^ATlTl^V. 

D1_y, impf. ipj;.";., 'ipJJ;'., /-"J'-v-v f^l/ ^►i* ^>?'^''- — Ar. "Si, Heb. 
npj;, Syr.'^, Sam. ^3V. 

— 33 — 

Ij; Qow]. fvhile, until; ^ve\). during, until, as fa?: as, till, to. — 
Heb. ij;, Syr. ^:^^ Sam. ^V. Properly a noim deno- 
ting progression, from tlie verb 

^1^.' ""pf- ''"7>!."'.» pu>iii , with ^^j;, /7«-.?* <?i'«';', come upon, 
befall, with j^, pass aivay, recede. V. "»"7^;« 7nake pass, 
remove, cast off. — Ar. It\i, Aeth. OÄ(D.' Syr. \^. 

Z!"iy, Np"ij?, « lot; pi. I'^nj;. Hence j^Dij; N?9"i. =: ^iDH 
ni'piii r^^/ lots. 


piy , perf. py , ^6' nai-rotv , in distress or anguish. — Ar. 
iJL^, imi)f. ;3>ydj; Syr. ^aL; Aeth. A'J^CD*: and 
A/t04»: contract, compress, distress; Heb. piifH and 
piyn, Sam. ^/TIVA. — Geu. used impers. r\\ npjJ 
(soil, nli'^j) = auvii JiJL^ = it) "1^5 comp. Syr. 
ov^ ^r^, o^ ^l^ lie ^vas shocked or disgusted. 
^i^J^5 rip4> ^*CPV.' d'^l^'c^^' anguish. — • Heb. npj;, Syr. 
]£n::^ Sam. ^^^V. 

hhv, perf. ^j?, impf. b'iT, h^T.., imper. biv, b^v , inf. '"J?;?, 
j/r> //^ enter. — Ar. Ji /y^sr;-/, Heb. bSiy (Job XVI. 15), 
Syr. V:!, Sam. iV. 

^j; above, upon, on, over; in addition to\ against, etc. — 
Ar. JLfc, Heb. Phoen. ^j;, Syr. V:!^ Sam. ^V- Hence 
H:?2 (Ar. '^ ^, Sam. ZV. ^^) <>//; />w^ 

^V, S>, prop, a subst. denoting the upper part, hence as 
an adv. above, over, followed by |d (b ^J?^)5 '^^^^^n 
comp. with h, byh upwai^ds , above (Syr. VLl»^ Sam. 
ZVi; Aeth. \<}\\ = J^); and |p, b^y^p //vw/ 
above (Syr. '^sN ^, San). iVZ'^J \'- J^^ ^ *"" 


— 34 — 

J^ \j^)^ opposed to V'b'q, (yiN the ground) fi'om 
below. — Both ^j; and ^j; are from the rad. 

^^ or I'by not used in Aramaic in I,, be high, exalted, go 
up, ascend. — Ar. ^ki, Heb. rhv. 

D^j; (q'?J>), NC^y (i^^^J^X ^*^y ^^^9 indcf. period of time, 
eternity , the universe or fvorld; pi. V^^J^ (p^r'^)- — 
Ar. *JLä the universe, created beings: Aeth. '^A<P T 
Heb. Phoen. dVj;, Syr. jy^VC ^ Sam. %*^V7 , 

□y ;^'/M, ä/w^'j/ ^^v///. — Heb. □;?, Syr. >aL^ Sam. -^V ; 
Ar. ^^ or Ix. Prop, a noun denoting union, from 
the rad. QDy collect, unite, Ar. I!^ include the whole, 
e. g. *L4.*J( ioLsAwwJt c>4^ ///^ r/«9?/</ covered the 
whole skg, ^^CoL,^ I ^ CJI I*j //^^ ;^'<^/^;• supplies all 
the baths. Hence also 

DJJ, Nsy, « people or nation, people, a multitude or crowd; 
pi. 1^0 ??y, N*;^????y. — Ar. *.Ä and jv^ a multitude, 
iwLt Mtf common people ; Heb. Phoen. nj;, Syr. liaL^ 
Sam. ^^V. 

^CJ7 labour. — Ar. Jl,^, Heb. ^cj;, Syr. vL:^. 

pDj; not used, be deep. — Ar. ^j^, Heb. pigj;. 

pnly, pD^y, NpDiy, rt- ^/<7>M, rtr^y^x — Ar. ijJU-^ Heb. 
p?9V, Syr. jlvfiol, Sam. ^?^V. 

]JJ. See jKj;. 

npj;. f., N-jpj; m., ten. — Ar. !ii, § I£i ; Aelli. OUTZ,*: 
Heb. -lä/j;, nnti'y; Phoen. noy (inscr. Sidon. I. 1), 
niliT (inscr. Massil. 1. 3); Syr. -^^ j^jaL; Sam. 
^^V, ^'i^V. Hence -ipy nn m., np:; isnin f., 
twelve. See p"in. 

— 35 — 

ipj;, NT", the root (also the stem) of a tree, base, origin, 
source; pi. i''')(?5^. » ^H ~ * ^y'* li^i ^^''- ;^ 

p-iy, inipf. p'nj?:, pl^J/^ /^<?- — Syr. ^^^ Sam. ?^V; 
Ar, ,v^ sel out, depart. 


n^D, impf. n^e^, labour, serve, worship-^ deily (conip. "2y). — 
Heb. n^C, Ar. li^', cleave, plough, cultivate; Syr. 
..^^ Sam. ^^3. 

\vby-^y N^ri", ?i'^rA% servitude, 7vorship, — Syr. |, 

Sam. ^JlVZ:^ f. 
tO^D, impf. d'?P% J^'i'^C^ vomit, throw up. — Syr. w-pls. 
p^D, impf. p")"lB% cleave, separate, pull off; rescue, save, 

redeem. — Ar. ,^Ii separate, Heb. p"}©, Syr. -13^.3^ 

Sam. T^:^, 

Ipni*:, i<^i^~, Ubei'ation , presei'vation , redemption. — 

Ar. ^jli'Ci ^^*/*:'^/" and convincing pi'oof, victory ; Aelli. 

'^L.^'i'. deliverance ; Syr. jH^o^^ Sam. %'|]V'^3. 
CiinD, NDJt", 1)1. N^O", a 7vord, message, decree, afnl in a 

wider sense affair, matter (comp. "lD"n); Syr. ^ia^zi^s. 

It is borrowed from the Persian, in which lang. 

lllL, iLilj^ f^'' ||;LIj, means «»^^*6y?^<?, (whence ICilj 

Ä message -bearer, a propJiet), comp. of the insep. prep. 

^. (rarely t>G , b , and ^ ju , from the Sanskrit p7'ati, 

Zand /W//, old Pers. pati, Pärsi /m^ and ;>«<?, Gr. 

7T(^)oTiy noTi =■ TiQoq) to, towards, against, and the 

— 36 — 

Sanskrit rad. gam, go (comp. Pers. l\S step , pace). 
The same word presents itself in the Armenian patgam 
or padkam, message. Otiier words of Pers. origin 
comp. with this prep, are: 23nD, ]}}i/r\B (|315'*)D), ^3nB, 

DVi, perf. ny, impf. Dii{% fasL — Ar. jlLo, Aetii. F^(P'. 
Heb. c^, Syr. >o^. 

Dl-i, ND-, « fast. — Ai'. *^, Aeth. B^<p\ Heb. Dlif, 
Syr. lico^. 
N^a (^^/«</, stoop; NJniN N'^iJ incline the ear, listen, attend to 
(Syr. |j,J |f^, Aeth. ÄA(D: 2i*Hf:). III. '>':)h, M.pray; 

Ar. J^, Aeth. ÄAP I Syr. ^\^ Sam. ^Z-^, 

T))i, ni~, NHI", prayer. — • Ar. Xyl^, &^^ , Aeth. 

/lAo^: Syr. Iz^^, Sam. t2,-m. 

"iDii, f^']?'^? ^/'^ ^Az/^w, tno?'ning. — Syr. ]\^\j Sam. '^'^^'^n- 
Connected witli l^it' (J>^ heautiful, pleasing (Heb. "iDlt', 
Syr. j^^ Sam. '^3'^**; Ar. lH ^/^z/^v^^, whence Nne^Dli' 
(x"iC)") and lirsl/ //«<? morning. 

"ilii only used in IV. '^IIJV^^! ^^^'^^ ^^^^^^ ^f' ^^ ^'^ '^'^^'^^ ^V^ 
be poor. — Syr. ^^.^ \ , Ar. (JJ^j be poor and mise- 
rable ; comp. Jo.^\ have need of. Hence 7]"iif Qvants, 

•?]1"11J use, usefulness, advatitage or profit. Tjl-iiJ jin? n>^ 
= '^bb ^TVih'] i<b , they arc good for nothing at all. 

— 37 — 

^Dp he opposite, come or go towaj'ds, meet, in which signif. 
it does not occur in Chald. Hence III. 'psp receive 
a visitor, accept a present, listen to a request or prayer. 

— Ar. I. Jui* and V. Ju!b* receive or accept, U. Juj 

^m. III. JoU* ^^ opposite, compare, IV. JuJjf advance 
towards, widcjiake, VI. JolJb' (^-t^ opposite one another 
of two or more individuals, VIII. JuJcIt begin, X. 
JJ^jlLl ^^ ^^ w<:'<"/; Aetli. "t'4»flA: meet, receive, 
accept', Heb. ^2P receive, accept, '?''2pn ^^ opposite; 
Syr. vLd w^^/, with V:!^ upbraid or complain of 
(prop, advance towards in a hostile or threatening 
manner), as also in Chald. 'pDp, impf. ^2pi, ^I2p^,, 
complain of, cry out for help\ Sam. 2,3? receive, 
Dip not used in I., be in front or before, precede. See the 
Syr. gloss. 

Dip, prop, a noun signif. the front, but used as a 
prep., in presence of, before \ preceded by "i, 1, b, it 
takes simple sh'va instead of — , as DHpl, mpl? D'^p'?- 

— Syr. >o'yj, Sam. -^i"?. Contracted cp, Sam. -^? 
(so also Nep /?"r.v/, ^A'^A'^il? beginning). 

D"np, N*D", M<? ^Y/.v/, the east wind. — • Sam. -^"^T?, 
Heb. Dnp. • — The east is called Dip, Dnp, as being 
that (juarter towards which the face of the observer is 
turned, or suj)posed to be turned, in describing relative 
position. Hence the west is "ilDN (Ar. .«jj the west 

— 38 — 

S J 

7imd, from oi the back), the north h^m (Ar. 3U^ 
^//^ ;^w//^, tJU^ the left, jlUJI .S^vVt;, tlie south j^Dj 
(Ar. ,^^ //^^ ^/i^^^, r^H^' i<5r»^«/« or South Arabia). 
So in Sanskrit piirva, the east, avara, the west, dak- 
shina, //^^ south, the Dckkan. 

I2rnp not used in I., he clean or pure, holy. III. li'"l|"5 hold 
sacred, consecrate. — Heb. ti'lj^, li'~.p> Ar. y^cXJ', 
Aeth. *J?fl: Syr. ^^o'^ Sam. -^T?. 

tt'llp, ti'ljp, t<li'lip, holiness, sanctity, anything holy 
or consecrated; "l^np"! N^^""!! /% /^<?/y temple. • — Ar. 
yijjs, Heb. l5'-ip, Syr. w»,o^, 1^?", Sam. -^^?. 

mp, perf. cp, impf. Dlp^ fise, stand. — Ar. "^U, Aeth. 
^(P\ Heb. cp, Syr. >al , Sam. -^? (^V?). 
Cp, «0", standuig , /irm, lasting; living, being. — 
Ar. i^Ui-, 1»^-, Syr. ^illi, Sam. -^HIV?. 

D^^p, N?^J?p rt'Ä7/<«.9. — Syr. vLa^ua, Ar. j^xs, -Uci' rt'w*/. 

]1"'p"'p ^/'^ castor-oil shrub, ricinus communis (Ar. ^y^\-> 
Pers. IajsvjI Juo)- The word is derived from the Egy[)t. 
name of the plant, written by Greek and Latin authors 
y.iAi, cici and in the Talmud pip (the proper Gr. name is 
v.{)oi:{))v) . The old translators and commentators usually 
render it, though erroneously, by xoXoxvrd-rj , /h<?^/h<^ : 
Ij^l^ iAp, ^j-*ialb, 45 J, nj;bl, all words denoting 
the gourd; and this blunder has of course found a 
place, amidst thousands of others, in the received 
English Version. 

^^p,» perf. ^p , be light, sivifl ; small, worthless. V. S'^}^ make 

— 39 — 

light, lujhtcn ; hold light , despise. — Ar. Jo he few 
or small, Aeth. *AA: Heb. ^p, Syr. vl, Sam. 2,^, 

np, i<;-;|':5, ^np, xn^p; and x^^p, N'nip, ^y^~\ and (nip) 
Nn"}p, f. a town, city ; pi. |i]-ip, X'^y;^, and jnip. — 
Ar. jbws, in the dial, of Yaman ibvi' , pi. ^^jJJ; Heb. 
nnp, rriip; Phoen. mp, e. g. in the name of the deity 
MelixaQ&og , mp'^D or "ip^D (for n^p l^c) Carthada, 
Carthago, KaQx'^]^^^^^ = Neanokiq, TW^T\ n")p on the 
coins of Palermo ; Syr. \\d , ]L*^ , pi. jlvoi • Sam. 
^m^?, ^A'^?, pi. ^Am^?, and ^m^t?, constr. 

2"ip, ^np, impf. ^Ip"!, /5'^ //<^w, approach. III. 2"ip and 
V. 2"npN, brifig fiear , offer a sacrifice. — Ar. 
6 J and C'ji, II. j!^, Aeth. *CQ: IV. A*Z.a: Syr. 
^;^, III. w^^i; Sam. 5^?. 

5 ^ 

2np, N2", Wtf<z;% related. — Ar. v^vi', Syr. w^ujj^ 
Sam. sm^'P; Heb. anp. 

S c' 

janip «« o/fe?ung, sacrifice. — Ar. ^bJJ, Aeth. **Cni: 
Heb. ]2-ip, Syr. ^'io^, Sam. ^S'^?. 

D2"l not used in I. he large, great, numerous. — Heb. D?1, 
Syr. ^*^. 

-"}> ^t'Ij f- ^2"i, Nn31, /^r«/<", great, numerous; as a 
subst. the headman in any department, prefect or 
magistrate, general, teacher, etc. — Ar. C>^ possessor 
or owJier, <^J| 6'<?</; Heb. D"], Phoen. 31, f. n3l; 

— 40 — 

Syr. \!k\ ^ Sam. ^S'^. Otlier forms used as subst. 
are ]3"}, ^l ^ J]^^, jlS"!, and as an adj. or subst. 

]D12"l not used in the sing. = 2"]', pi. ]^^?", ^/'<? 
nobles or chief men of the state (Ar. kJ.jJt ^l^>l '^/'^ 
corne?'stones of the state). — Syr. ^■•"^«^^' . 
"isn, i<l3"i, f. ^<?^^ thousand, a nujriad; pi. ji2"]. — 
Ar. lb! , also ^ ! and slj. ; Aeth. Z.flT^ \ (from a 
sing. Z.f»:) Heb. n^2l and 12 "i ; Syr. a^?, Sam. 

KI!^ , 12"] , impf. "12"}^ , increase, he augmented, grow up. III. 
12*1 make gro)v, rear, educate. — Ar. Lj^, Heb. ri21, 
Syr. \^;^ ^j , Sam. ^5^^. 

V2"lN f., ^<:;2"}N* m., four. — Ar. «j.f, x*j.t; Aeth. ACQCF-t:: 
Heb. j;2*iN, nj;2"iiX, Phoen. j;2~"N (inscr. Sidon.); Syr. 
^0, li^il; Sam. V3^A, ^V5^A — PL p>:2-lN 
fortg ; Ar. ^;JLjy, Aeth. AC-fl^! Heb. Dij;2"]5s% Syr. 
^^S]^ Sam. -^rnVfi^A. 

Tn, ^^' agitated, angry. — Heb. i^'j, Syr. -^^^ Sam. ^lf^; 

Ar. t>^^ tremble, C:J.3 and yÄ\J)t[ /><"«'/ (Ihunder), (jlsT. 

of thunder or the cry of Ihe camel. 

Tn and ];"i"i, Tin, Ni^ll, agitation, commotion, anger. 

— Heb. in, Syr. ]^o?, Sam. '^^l'^; Ar. ,^1:^^, or 

14» ^, anger, jninishment, a ciime. 
nil, Nnn, ni. f. breath, Ihe soul or spirit : the 7vi?td. — 

Ar. ,. breath, ^. >'w>/r/; Heb. Phoen, T\T\ (inscr. 

Eryc. I. 5), Syr. iloh ^ Sam. ^.\'^, See (he Syr. gloss. 

— 41 — 

Dn, perf. D"), inipf. Dl"i), f^' Ijigl^, uplifted, pi'oud, 7ise. 
V. ^"l^\ ?nahe high, exalt, lift up, i^aise ; nn Qilt? = 
T\T\ '?"'u:ri, raise a stoinn. — Heb. D"1, Sam. -^^, Syr. 
>a^r] and w>o\ (from a rad. >o^^ Ar. I*^ ir/^o<)/ ?//?, 

DH"}, Q^nn, /o?'^. II. cnnnN he loved. III. crn love fervently, 
have pity or compassion vpon, IV. cnnnN impers. 
compassion is shown, chap. I. 6 , III. 9. — Ar. ^^ 
or iXj /^<^ .w/? or gentle, 1£^^ hrood over , cherish, 
lia.r love, pity, "a^. have mercy or compassion upon; 
Heb. cn-i, Syr. >cli^ Sam. ^W^, -^V^ 
prn, ^*^'0", compassionate, merciful. ■ — Ar. j^L^js.. , 
gen. with tlie art. |A-»js^llt, tlie Compiassionate , God; 

Sam. "ym^. 

prn, Y>''T\^,, he distant, retire, depart. V. pn"lN remove, lay 
aside. — • Aeth. Cfh^: Heb. ^rn, Syr. wo-.!^. 

l^n , Nli'n. , ^>^^ Ä^ff^; pi. I^^n. — Ar. ^K, Ae(h. 

CliJi: Heb. ti'Xi, pi. D^^i'NT, Syr. vl.^, Sam. ■^/Tl'^ 

and ■^'^A 
{<C"l, impf. ^Q-ii, thro7v, cast. — Ar. ^f, Ileb. no"i, Syr. 

jioi Sam. '^■^^; Aelh. 4^P: ivound, prop, with an 

arrow or spear. 
vNj;*i, impf. ^3;i% ^^''^^ *^i' A'*"^^ ^ flock, ;^r//r/^ ^?)^'?- or take 

care of, 7'ule , goverfi; intrans. graze. — Ar. ^> , 

Aelli. C'^P: Hob. nj;-l, Syr. \lh , Sam. -^V^. 
NV"), impf. tj;ni, (^<? pleased 7vith, p7'opitious to, delight in, 

love, desire. — Ar. ^^, Heb. n^, Syr. \Lh ^ Sam. ^1^"^. 


— 42 — 

{<iy"1 di'lujht, pleasure, fjood/e;//, desire, fHsh. — Ar. 
^^ 01- l^\'y^y Heh. i^ijn, Sam. XW^- 


\s*li', ':'Nt^", inipf. h^W">, ask, demand, entreat. — x\r. JLl, 
Aelb. AAA: aiKl ft?\A: Heb. W, Syr '^U, Sam. 

niti' not used in I. — III. nr^' praise. — Ar. X^, Aeth. 
ri-flfh: Heb. nsit'-, Syr. ^mLI, Sain. ^^-^. 

Nnsif'in, N*Pn3"j praise, glory, a hymn. — Syr. 

IzLq^z^ constr. iZ>,^^a^ Sam. '^A^^-'^A and 

^^A^A (Exod. XV. 11). 
vS"l^'' //^<" side. Co2:nafe form Niy, Heb. ly, whence "la':' 

or iiiiS to7vards, against ; Syr, ,_»^ or 5]^ /;^ ///<? /?<?5- 

session 0/, at or ?>?, /<?. 
lOlli' in Cliald. ^/wz/z, in Heb. ro?v, denom. from to;i^" an oar 

(twin form to tollt^, Cli. i<:o1ti*, Syr. |4a^, -^i'- is^-^? 

(? .s/r/y^ ?-^^/^ )v/iip), wlience in Cliald. 

toy^ a ?'07ver, pi. p^O^^^- 
2''rti', impf 'y\2]i/'l, lie down. — Aeth. A^fi: Heb. Phoen. 

DrtiS Syr. >nnA. , impf. ■ nn^i , Sam. 3:^-^. 

riDl^ impf nr^i'i, inf nrii'^, //w/; gen. used in V. nSli^'N, 
n2wr}, impf n2ti':,n3li''n:. — Syr. ^ ..n ^ J . Sam. ^?-^, 
gen. ^?«*A or V^-^A. 

^n^^'. See. ">n^. 

Dh}i}, D^'^ti'j impf. dlp\, he entire, safe or well, eomplete 
(ir finished. HI. d'p;^ w^/X:<? entire , complete or finish. 

— 43 — 
fulfil a vow. — Ar. iJLl,, Hob. zhyj or dV^", Syr. >aiL4r^ 

Sam. *^X^, 

els' and more usually uw ^ NVrti% a name, pi. jnoii''. — Ar. 
jv^J, rarely ^m,, *.*-; Aelli. fi<?^: Heb. cl^•; Syr. 
>al, ^il^, pi. r:^^, ^^v^; Sam. -^-^, pi. ^^^^. 
Derived from ^: ;;m;'^, aU-^w /z wrt-;-/:. 

N'^!?ti' M<^' sky, the heavens, heaven. — Ar. ^ULl, Aeth. 
A^JE: Heb. c^ct^", Plioen. samcm (-en, -in) [Plaut 
Poenul. V. 2, 67. Giine hel halsamem (en), hi 01 W 
WCi^ ^j?2; halsamen, according to Augustine = domi- 
nus coeli ; BeeXaajbif^v = xvQiog ovQavov, ^a^i]^()ovfJLOQ 
= 6 viiJovQavwg, ")?D1"l nir2^ (Movers, Plioen. Texte, I. 
p. 56), and Zuiffaorifxiv = ov^iavov KarojiTai, iSlif 
G^CK'S in the fragments of Philo Byblius]; Syr. \li^, 

Sam. ^m^t-^. From \.Z^ he high (comp. äCJ<?^: 
from Dll). 


ii'?2tS', ^'^ijri'^, m. f. //'t' A•w/^ — Ar. ^^m-co, f., Heb. Phoen. 
yi})3i} m. f., Syr. j^i^l gen. m., Sam. '^•^«"»i|'^A*-^ 

f<nB', impf. ''"iti''', loosen, untie; set fiee, pardon ; from the 
signif. of untying and unpacking arises that of encamp, 
^//((yV/, remain (comp. J^). III. ">"!^ begin, commence 
comp. ^nn). — Syr. |^^ III. -jl; Sam. 2<iY^ , HI. 
ijj^Aw.. ^gtij fi/^p: j)ardon. 

NH*^", "'nti', ^ni^'N*, impf- ''^}^\y imper. inii' and "•n'i^'V, drink. 

— Aeth. n^P: Heb. r\r\W, Syr. ^L^]^ Snm. ^A"^. 
pnii', p'Tlti', impf p'in'ii'"^, ^^ silent. — Hel). pni^', Syr. ^La,, 

Sam. ?A-^. — Cognate forms are: Tjliii', Sam. iii"-^^, 

Heb. j:p;i', nopn, Ar. v:lill. 

— 44 — 

p\nii', i<p^', f. kXp'^nt^s NHp", sik/t/, lience 't:*' 'p nn 
(chap. IV. 8), aii eashvind so gentle as to be scarcely 
perceptible. — Syr. ^£l,.lj^ ^ Sam. ^A^^*^- 

*l^n, impf. "I3n^., hrak. II. idhn ^«? broken. Cliap. I. 4 
(where some edd. have IV. '^^^^^). • — Ar. IIS' b?'eak, 
"^/3 pcj-ish,"^ destroy, perish ; Aetli. flflZ,: Heb. "^Dl^, 
Syr,^ Sam. '^fiA. 

Dinri;. NO", tJie ocean; Syr. jv^o^z, Sam. '^'^s:^A. Not 
an Aram, word, but merely borrowed from tlie Heb. 

Din, perf. DH, impf. 2liT, return, repent. V. Dn"'^ 7fiake 
return, bring forth, turn away, answer. — Arab. 
«Jjl3 return, LjLS repent; Hei). IVJ , Syr. ^rsz, Sam. SA. 


•nln , N'lin, ^'/i <).i-, collect, cattle; pi. jnin. — Ar. .^, 
Aeth. JfiC" Heb. "illi', Phoen. f9c(>(> (according to Plutarch, 
but the inscr. Massil. 1. 3 has ^^ , Heb. ^;^, Syr. 
]^cz, Sam. "^^t^A. Derived either from tU be stir- 
r^</ 2^ (dust, tumult, anger), IV. .bl stir up (dust), 
plough (comp. ips and arjnoitum), or from ^li- = rLL, 
impf. v*I«J, spring upon, attack; more probably from 
the former. Misled by the similarity of sound, many 
have identified with this word tlie Gr. Tav()oq, Lat. 
taurus , but tiiese are related to the Sanskrit sthi/ra-s, 
strong; taurus consequently stands for staurus , Germ. 
Stier, Eiig. steer, Dan. tgr, Swed. tjur. 

ninn below, beneath, under. — Ar. ooi', Aeth. d'ihl'." 

— 45 — 
Ilel). Phoen. rnn, Syr. zaiz, Saiii. A^A. — From 
nin = n)W sink, descend, Ar. ^li and • U = ^L^- 

«^n, impf. ^':ni, hany, suspend. — • Heb. n^'^n, Syr. ilz, 
Saiii. AZA. 

r)J?^"ir, NPlv'^jn, ^/ /^ww or caterpillar; Syr. |LiJiIoi. Most 
prob. from the rad. 'j;h\ lick, hence lick up, consume 
(Ar. ij: /^/y>^; see however Gesenius Thesaurus, 
art jj'^n. 

n^r, r., .sn'-n m., M/w. Ar. 1,:^, äiS3; Aeth. UJAfi't: 

T : T T : ' 

Heb. ^ut)^, ni^'t'ii'; Plioeii. .sy////.? (according to Augus- 
tine), rwh^ (inscr. Massil. 1. 9, II); Syr. £^z^ ]^^; 
Sam. A2,A, '^AZA. 
|i?r, there; Syr. ^i , Sam. ^*iJA, ^v^A. Another form 

is nan, Ar. |VJ, rui, there, p', o>^, c>-»i, then; 
Heb. Dli' and n»:i^. 

T T T 

wn, impf. ijn'', pro}), hend, fold, hence «^(9 again, repeat. 

— Ar. ^, Hel). n:ti', Syr. Ijz^ Sam. '^^A. 

],^:n, f. «:j~, second. — Sam. ^ITI^A, Syr. ^Li 

repeating, subst. repetition. 

n"i:i"'jn, prop, repetition, as an adv. a second time, again. 

— Syr. zaiLi, Sam. At^lTl^A. 

r]pr,, F]ipn, impf. f]p.n% /a' strong, violent, severe; impers. 
n'? F]pn = l'? ri"jn, //<? ;^y/.v angry. — Ar. oiÄj /^V*'^/. 
.y<?/2^, take possession of; ^aaj i?**^ active , sagacious-, 
talented; Heb. fipn attack, oppress ; Syr. ^z, Sam. 3VA. 
rjipn, pjpin, NDpin, NCpn, strength; vehemence, vio- 
lence, anger: a strong place, fortress: pi. I^Dpin , 
]^Dpn. —Heb. ^ph, Syr. jJ^cci, Sam. Z>t\?A, '^Z>?A. 

— 46 — 

In chap, U. 7 il corresponds to the Heb. D^nns holts 

<jr h(i7's. 

F]^ipn strong, pofverful, vehement, violent. — Syr. ..s^^l^ 

Sam. z>rn?A. 

l"*"!.^' f- r^^ilP^j t^^'O. • — Ar. ^UjI, ^liljj and ^lilS"; Heb. 

C^;i2', D'l^nti'; Phoen. constr. ]U' (for i^tt'), inscr. Meh(. I.; 

Syr. ^yZj v'^'^; ^^'"- ^^'^A, ^fil A^A. Hence 

"ipj? nn, f. npj? ^nnn, twelve; see nDj;.. 
Iin not used in I. — III. -qin drive .out, expel. IV. "^inN he 

driven out, expelled. — Ar. JjJ leave, ahandon. 



01 Z a__k-.A— 3 

A^^Vm, 'Cjuio .01 t\S l"i^|o l£i5» )£i"«^Vi ]n.1 tl\ '^^ >eeLD 2 

■ Pj'^'^^ ■^.M^Ai'iL^ .O01*VlS ^ VV^ \ . OV^ A^Jo If^l u201_<kO 

P»..P T. 1. 7 a. ^t. ''' ^ " '' \° \K 

I p^ 7 oi^wÄ^P oi_^ £u<0 — a9 — 3a^ . .ooi-L!^ .aXaJ? \'^ -^ |.a^ 

.^ftSs ZZ] )TVi\^ |?oi (£w4-fc£) -a^ . oi^ oj^lo 8 

*•) On Ihe niarg-. of one Ms. '-ojJikO. '') Var. {Jsa^^ j^o-i^, )^Q-J:i.. 

^) oi-c2^Jiaiii,. ^) Var. t*^?- 

^) A ms. adds v^Za^^ . *) 2 mss. ojiolo . 
^) 2 mss. cOio . 

— 48 — 

9 .U] Ur^ .^o^ ^o^ui. ^)-^\ ♦"jUfl:^ ^l iJ-.l 

10 a^^?o ♦ ) A p t o poo. t-^^? .P-^*^? ) VVi A? jauX )->, iViN o 

11 .•'j.aJl ^^oj* i^o <f ^si-f!^ Mr^ >cr-° r::^? r^^ l-^^l '^r^? 
p^? V^O^ .,-±^ ]'^^ U-^o .^ r-^^ jLl^ .(71^ ^r^l 

1 '' - « ■ l" 1 '' ^ V ^ '^ -^ 1 51"" 1 " ^V ^ * *■■" 

ä.-r. P P y P ,7 ». "^,? < "■" t " ^ ■» 7 

13 _J3->.^ sAOiaNn <h.o -i-'^l ,-iil>, 'AJ] )^;? >^]o i^i^ ooi 'Z^]? 

16 aJ^u9o •:• sAgiQ.l^a.Ajftl^ ^^ ) Vi * > MtlZ2|o . | Vi ta ^(no]|.^o 

J.. "* 7 7 

♦ wS S.SA 

, .• 7 • • ^ • ■" ^ n\ " .-7 

) Vi « ? ai£.^)_so ■ ^aI^^j )j^coi4<^ •i-A-^^ l^r^ P^. ^^q^{.u 


'■) One ins. IJJ pai» /".^/ry |-a*] .^o, anolhor jiali |j.^j"^AJ|o. 

') One ius. jlc] . J)Onenis. .ocali*. 

) Wanting in one ms. ') One ms. i^l. 

"') Lec o^^iZlo. ") One ms. — ic . 

— 49 — 

,_.2' •> ^(Tu^ i-^r^ iLq,«4 _:^ v_«JL^ '£«ais]o . >n\\\ ^^s]^ 8 
^Zol*.^ .^io''y-o LliLo .PJ4i^?4'i t^iSn^ "^..jA'^'i ^^'2) 

>cl1x4/ I 4^|.J? >0|^o .>^ ^•<^?] |£^?o^? U'OA ^? P) •:• ■ «n nA> 10 
••• ] *• •^'.'^ — 3q.*\ oi-^lI::!^ o pol^ Wr^ fXLSo ■;-)^ j Vi\ ).i:^9a^ 11 

-•- ; ^" I ^ '^ . t1 ^i ^ZVZ? <^o-* ViL }-*t^? OLifl^^^s looio 1 

]aJ-Jo -i-kr^? oi£^2iiio ^]' joJ-aiu ''^llo ^JoA >a!eo ♦^ls! U\ '^ 

)i>ao.; aAioso j"*^) -^ ]2J-^7 oukÄJ] n 1 Vi *ctio •> ).££ai^^li£ )n 1 «1 J 
luju^o •> .btn-k)' a^lil^ jj^i^o .oji *T pi>'oV <;-^ . i-fi^ aA..T;tI^6 6 

•:• » wS-D 

o^ One ms. ^0». P^ ^r??^) ^) '?*^ j '?r?° » I? tr*- 

•*) One nis. ■m ^ .i v^ . ^^ One ms. i^)s 1 j^a)© *) One ms. jisi^ |oi^. 

— 50 — 

L^o'di^fi . . .*,. 4^1^ w^ii. ^ji. p^om ^t^ ")lJ8i V^l^o 
lil^o v^cS 1^^A«- |isu»i^o jjioMi:^ iji'*V<^? r*^ 

6 l'ai-X UW r^o ♦]kj-^,:ia^ JjiX ^^^ Ui^ IVf^?- U^^^ 
V:^ U^ lotno .^Q-.. ^ ViJ^ > nSmo )^*o .]]t-f? l'Oj-k^ 
]j6t-ik£) (jus ^Jo-f ^ir'^'^ . 01 h.A ^"^' ^^ 01—^ ^jKk09|o . g i a «? 

ouA-aiii ]2aip ''«^|-fcrO ^\ wSjli^jo ^ia^? (Tu-i-*i>s )-4,Lq^ ^^® 

)]9 V^uIq ■ '•''■^ '^■=''' V p.w Vi^ h^'r^ •f^f^]^ )40^ -r^lo 

g ^p4. •''•' /"^ ]aiiX ]Lfisa i-^jo {-Jn'ijiAl ^ \i] wp^ 2^001 

>_i.^ ^r^' "-^ .^Q-k. flc]o -Dt-c? ]9bf^ ^'^ N^ L^ fS 

10 lli-o? l^oi-*' '^ ^^*^ ^] -l-^W "^ ^)r^i -n^aia^ ^^r' 
"« -W ^o ).2^ -^ .W ^9 . Vi*auk£w4^ 9 }]o ous iw)] )]9 

")One ms. Ijoi. ^) One ms. ^ m^*^'^ "*^') One ms. Hj_d» |^o^X. 
") *si_^Z|o . ^) One ms. j.i£i| anolher j^jo. 

^) One uis. ) ^ 1 V } «-» 9. ") One nis. ooiXiaa a^^. V . 


a-äI j \£>)j a father, pj. ,-*"<Jvcl ^ ^oiJsl ; with sulf. w^ | , .^oäI ^ 

s * 
^oioaIj etc. • — Ar. k_jt, Aeth. A-fll with. suff. Äfbi: 

Heb. 2N, Chald. 2N, N3{<, Sam. ^A. 

T ' T ' T - ' • 

^ 1 , impf. ^)j ^ perish. V. ^ol destroy. See Chald. 

gl. "12N. 
^o) inteij. 0.' 
<•) ] ^ inipf. ^.''ip ^ imper. \.'i , ^o ; ^.Jilfiioo '^Y) = '^T\ 

"lybl becoming more and more agitated. See Chald. 

gl. ^TN. 
^ I ^ impf. »alp , /tf^^ , seize, hold, possess, shut. — Ar. 

j^f, Aelh. h-iW. Heb. THN, Chald. inx, Sam. i^^A. 

^i-*!^ iJf-l , f- l^t-»l , 0'^/*<?/', another; pi. in. ^i-l, f- 
^•^|. See Chald. gl. nnx. 

r^l. See li^l. 

>^1 «^, according to , about (in stating numbers). — Heb. 
■jjiN hotv? Chald. T]\y, Tjip, Sam. ii^lA. Comp. of J) 
(see Cliald. gl. ■>{<) and ^, z>; and therefore prop., 
as in Heb. and Chald., an inlerrog. 

— 52 — 

jIl»1 where? 7vhere. — Heb. HD^N*, Chald. ND1^<. Comp. of 

^l and ji here (Heb. TO, Chald. ^f). 
f^v^ / ] 7vhence? 7vhence. Comp. of s»l and f-.'^ hence. 
y^\ ^ f. iV*!? ^^^^> which, what? pi. ^-v~'|; j|i^l he who. 

— Chald. ]n;N, f. t<l\s. Comp. of ^\ and ji^^ f. 

2ul there is., etc. ; with siiff. ^L*]^ ^-■^■'1? ^oioL*], 7«;^«, etc. 

Comp. with y^ L^ there is not, etc. — See Chald. 

gl. niN. 
)] I ^/' not, unless, except., hut. — Ar. !Nlt , Aeth. K\ \ Chald. 

N^N, Sam. AZA; Heb. xt^'DN. Comp. of ^] and jf. 
foi^ a god, God; pi. joi.:^. — See Chald. gl. rb^. 
^X, }ix, f. a ship, pi. )^. • — See Chald. gl. ^<Db^?. 
^] . — V. ^Ni.CT believe, believe in. — See Chald. gl. jDX. 
j.^] , impf. jii^p, inf. -^"^lo, say, order. — See Chald. 

gl. "ICN. 
^1 if. — See Cliald. gl. cn. 
}.3| /; pi. ,-L*j|, gen. .^, 7ve. It often expresses the verb 

he, and is then written p"] as \i\ jj'j I am, Ij'K-? 

/ fear (am fearing). ■ — See Chald. gl. {«{jn. 

^aJ] , ^J]- See o(n. 

>-aj1, \^\, (I man, person, individual; pi. ,_iL*j|^ U!j). — 
See Chald. gl. it'JX. 

Lil, f. ^LjI, //^<>?/; pi. .oLj"), f. ^b.jl, you. It also expres- 
ses the verb he, as iS\ ,.Ll Mo?/ ^/o^.?/ (ar( doing). — 
See Chald. gl. n:x. 

^'] also, like7vise, moreover; ^\ neither, 7ior. — Heb. Phoen. 
nN, Chald. r]N and F|"iN. 

— 53 — 

^s]^)-s\ the face ; front, surface, external form (ix appear- 
ance ; for ^isj], from an unused sing, ^sj]; Ar. 

v«ajt, Aeth. Ki^\ the nose, Heb. r]X the nose, du. 
D1DN the nostrils, face; Chald. N^JX, N'D«, pi. ]id:n, 
pBN% niDN*; Sam. -^/71^ A- The Syriac Grammarians 
and Lexicographers wrongly derive ^s] from ]z|^ ^ 
|L^, Heb. nf<D, Chald. NnN'9, NPD, the face. 
N— ^o] , ).l?o], f. <2 ^e^^y, ?^oad, joufmey ; custom, conduct; 
pi. ^Vo]. — See Chald. gl. n'^^?. 

'^ri, ll?!^ f. //^^ earth, ground^ a counti'ij ; pi. ^ilvf. — 
See Chald. gl. j?-in\ 

)^j //^^ lo?vest part, bottom, base; pi. ^L^l wrti/^^. It is 
prop, the stat. emph. o{ hH, ^ which occurs, for example, 
in the compound ]io3|Z)^^ pi. ii?!^ , the base or foun- 
dation (of a wall); Ar. ^1,1 and &ll podex , nates; 
Heb. p'^', pi. niniJ'; from a rad. T\r\VJ = r\'<W place. 

Iz], impf. |zp, imper. s. m. ]1, f. ^z, pi. m. oi and ^ooz^ 
f. ^Ji and ,^1^, inf. |zj^ , come. — See Chald. gl Nni<. 

) in, at or i}car , by, with, on account of etc. — See 

Chald. gl. 2. 
.j_s not used in I., be bad. V. u.A.iil, -.A-iil injure, hurt. — 

See Chald. gl. i^''N2. 

■ ^ -^ l-^--c f. j-^.*^ J (£a-i-c^ bad, wicked; as a subsl. 

^y//, wickedness, misery, calamity. 

i^ jial-j3^ 7vickedness. — Chald. 'w^'i. 

— 54 — 

^kLis and iNoJs , coiitr. £^^ betweeji, among. — Cliald. 

p3, >3, ""i;?, nJ/2; see Aeth. gl. njJi" 
v::Iä^ impf. '^■'^nj, swalloiv, devour. — See Chald. gl. y'?2. 
i-kikO^ Ih-^:^, ^ (^^«*/ of burden, coll. cattle; pi. |y ^^ — 

See Chald. gl. i^yr. 
jli, I'i^, « 50/^; pi. ^iÄ, )i£s . — See Chald. gl. "iD. 


yuAJljL^ -*^r^^ ^^j human being, person, individual; 

pL ).1j]^s^ )4r»in. — Chald. t^ix "13, ^\ ~)2 (Dan. 

VII. 13. n;!n nr« ij^jn "idd nw ^;^j?."dj; n^;. ««</ 

5^^.' with the clouds of heaven there was coming as 
it were a man, the figure of a man — not „one hke 
the Son of man") ; Ar. iL-lQlj, iL-lilj, a word borrow- 
ed from the Nabathaeans; Heb. Dli^")?. 
jjD^ \{-^ , uncultivated ground, a field, plain, desei't. Hence 
with prep, ^^v out, outside, ^ ^>?v outside, besides, 
except, i^v ^ fro7n without (comp. ]>in). — Ar. 

II, adv. \Z, ^t^ C, C ^>c; Chald. J<-12, N"1D^, N"12C, 

N-lD^p; Sam. ^'^a "^"^31, etc. 0pp. to al^, jcl^, ///^ 
centre , interior, o^p within , <:I^ ^ ^ a^ o-Ji* -^ 

(Ar. j!^, adv. f^; Chald. i:, ni^, constr. 1-J, IJZ, 13^, 
etc.; Sam. tl, tl*^, etc.). 

iji^, l'r^, « ^^«^5?//; pi. ^FX- ~ ^^^ Chald. gl. -id:. 
w^' happen, befall. 

r»^. rk,, yn^^^ fff- l^il<c llie Or. word, it never commences 
a phrase. 

— 55 — 

^JiJ^'^. IL:^^, ?im^es. — See Chald. gi ^y, 
j^, impf. IxJ , cfi/ nut, call on; of animals low, bellow. 
— Heb. n^3, Chald. Nj;i . Cognate form j^. 

J 7vho, which, that; mark of the g'enit., as J-aX? mh^\ the 

hold of the ship; conj. that, in o?^de?^ that. — See 

Chald. gl. n. 
■ -^'^^^ ^^|J, saci'ifice. III. ^^a? sacrifice often or in great 

quantity. — See Chald. gl. HD". 

Xl^'i a victmi, sacrifice; pi. ,_—£?• 
^f^ impf. ^o^j judge. • — See Chald. gl. |n. 

|i-*^. 1^1.»^. » ^%; pl- ,^v^. 
'^?, '^rJ, A^'^'- — See Chald gl. hrr\. 

|f«?^ 1^«»?, fear, dread, reverence, an object of fear 

or reverence, deity ; pl. ^v^V^ . 
^?^ dt, but, yet. Like dt it never holds the first place in 

a phrase, gen. the second. 
i^?^ impf. jlyi^ remember. II. ^^z] ^^ remembei'ed ; call to 

mind, remember. — See Chald. ^\. -|31. 
.,mN% ;/^tfÄ-^ turbid, disturb, agitate. III. . ^v^ id. IV. . -V^ ^l 

pass. — Heb. n^i, Sam. ?2,T. 
jc?, lie?, ^/o<?</. — See Chald. gl. d"1. 
^i£5 , impf. ^yi , ^/^^ ; part, ^-v^f sleeping. — See Chald. 
♦ gl. im. 

fLs?j i^?, particip. adj. sleeping. 
^?^ impf. w.J^, m^ (the sun). — See Chald. gl. n:i.,Io. f. IzCaIjjIo, eastern; as a subst. ///^ ^^/.v/. 


Id he, she, it (Chald. NH; Phoen, nH , inscr. Sidoii.); adv. 
here, there (comp. n*); interj. lo, see (Ar. Lp, Chald. 
j<n, NH, Sam. A^). 
om m., ^ci f. , he, she, it: pi. .alji ni., ,_U(ti f., and as 
accus. after a verb .aJ], ^|. Often used to express 
the verb be, in which case it is gen. written ©oi, ^<!\ 
(as o<s\ ^f thou aii, ^m ^äi *^^ is)\ sometimes, how- 
ever, 01 is suppressed (as aiiJ 7vho is?), or changed 
into ^ (as o-Ton he is). With words ending in ]1 and 
]1 OCT! and ^d form the diphthongs au, oi, eu, ei , as 
C01 IJ], ^01 p], lam, aLkl where is he? ocn ).s? /^^ ?> 
pure; except j^d , which makes ^oi 1?^ this is. — • See 
Chald. gi. Nin. 
COT m., Jrn f., he, she, it, this, that; pi. m. .oioi , f. ^Sci. 

Contr. for osi joi ^ ^oi jci (Heb. Ninn, NTir). 
)o(ji , impf. losii ]kj , <^<", happen. When a mere auxil., 
01 is suppressed, as |ooi V^lId he was killing, V^ 
jooi he had killed, looi looi he was , )ooi |ooi he had 
been. — See Chald, gl. Nin. 
"Va-oi ILL.01, a large building, temple, church, palace; pi. 
^:::.a^oi'. • — See Chald. gl. ^JTl- 
CTj )i'oi m., )?OT f., this; pi. ,^^d. 

^^01, impf. ^osoii^ tu7m, return; change; overturn, destroy. 
11. ^a\z\ be turned, changed, destroyed. IV. >^oiz] 
(versatus est) stay , remain, be on the point of. V. 
^oil tu7'n a?vay, avert. ■ — See Chald. gl. ^Dn. 


o and, hut. — See Cliald. sA. \ 

^1 , \^\ time ; pi, ^vi^^ times (vices), in which sense it 
is fem., as ,-iici h^z thrice , . v i ^i — ^zvi? a second 

time , again. ■ — Ar. ^j^-. and ^jUj , Aeth. ll<^'i '. 

Heb. jcT, pi. D^-i^t; Chald. j^T, NJpj, pi. ]'JDT; Sam. ^5^; 

it has also passed into Pers. as JXie> and äSUo\. Ano- 
ther form is \lz>] ^ Tiis-i , pi. ]lli=>\ . 
]l>y, impf. l^-ji^ ^<? /;^/;-^ in a moral sense, chaste, innocent, 

just; conquer. — See Chald. gl. NDl. 

N-kÄ^, jla]^ z*?/;'^, innocent, just ; victorious. 
j^l, impf. ji^ii, <^^ small; he depressed, despond. — See 

Chald. gl. nyi. 

lioLl, f. l-TjaLi^ small, little, young; pi. m. ^VoLi 

Vja^ not used in I., he corrupted, vitiated. II. Viil co?'rupt, 
destroy. — See Chald. gl. h'2'r\. 


U£ii4 corruption, destruction. 
^^^ ]^ a companion or associate : pi. ^j-ail • — See 

Chald, gl. -i2n. 

i» impf. wA,ali^, */^«/ ?^;, confine, imj)rison. II. 

pass. — Ar. J^J-^; Heb. ti'zn *^/w</, imprison. 


— 58 — 

fL f. Ip-, o/ic. — See Chald. gl. in. 

-^, impf. j^^j ^^ ^/<?^;, rejoice. — See Chald. gl. äsnn. 

]q^ not used in I. — ^III. >^clL show, announce, tell — See 

Chald. gl. Nin. 
ua-il impf. ^ajola. Z^^??^^ corjipassion on, pitij , spare. — See 

Chald. gl. Din. 
j^ impf. \\j^ J see, observe. — See Chald. gl. NTfl. 
,..^,^^ impf. usQ^uiJ snatch, car/'y off, plunder. — See 

Chald. gl. Fjton. 
\1^ impf. \ly J \l\^ , inf. j^ , j-^l^ ^ fiv^^- — See Chald. 

gl. N^n. 

^^^ Ul^ life. 
>a^ impf. >alj , he hot, 7varm. — Ar. 1^ warm, he warm, 

Heb. Chald. en. See Aeth. gl. iiv<P\\ 

fi^.icL.1 heat, passion, anger. — Chald. &<n?pin heat, 

Heb. nan. 
w;u^ sigh, groan. 

ih..jLM. a sigh, groan. 
V*^. See '\n'^4 tt\^ . 

^•^\4, impf. >-^l4J y he well, happy, joyful; often impers. — III. 
.^11 prepare, make ready. — See Chald. gl. 21L2. 
^^ U^^ f. \Ll^ ]V4^ good; followed by ^^ 
better than; as an adv. well, very, excessively. 

OÄA^^ ■Zn^'n . \ , |Zqä4j goodness, bounty; pi. Iz^jsiiJ. 
jol^^ jio^^ ^/ mountain; ^Vc^. — See Chald. gl. iiD. 

— 59 — 

^;^ not used in I. — III. v^' shade, cover. — See Cliald. 
gl. ^^L\ 
U:xJ shade, shado?v. — Aeth. /tAA"^." Chald. inhb]^, 

T T : ' 

G - -. 

Sam. ^iZ v; Ar. J^Ud anything that gives shade. 

i4^J:4»^ ^' shade or covering, hut; [)1. Ui^.jLio. 
>a:I^ ^ inipf. >a:l4J^ taste. — See Chald, gl. DjJt:. 
wsj^ strike, beat. III. ^^^ distress, afflict, vex. IV. ua^^.i| 

pass. • — Ar. ^JiCis ^/«^^ ^ ^/<!?;^J, ^w>^^ 7vith the eye; 
Heb. F)"!^ tear in pieces; Chald. e]'n:2, Sam. 3^^. 

^ impf. W.A.LP , ^<? r//y, Ä^-'-^ ?//?, wither. V. wa-co] </>•// 

?//^ make ?mther. — See Chald. gl. U'2"'. 

]1a^ dry ground, land. — Ar. lj>^^, Aeth. P-flfi" 
r-^, ir^\, f- the hand; pi. ^^i, U^l- • — See Chald. gl. n\ 
)^ not used inl.' — V. ~^')o\ confess, give thanks, praise. — 

See Chald. gl. i^"T>. 

-'joZj "(hS'ioA^ confession of faith , religion; praise, 

^",-1., impf. "^^^ , inf. '^^ , imper. '^^, know. — See Chald. 

gl. yT. 
,^,e\l give; imper. ^rioi^ part. wsauT, >-a-*(Tu».; impf. %,-ä.j^ inf. 

ViJ^^ from a rad. "^iu = jnj. ■ — See Cliald. gl. 2n^ 
>oaJr^ l^a-T, ^/ ^/'/y; pi. ^.^välT^ |.^äl^ and jLLjqLT. — See 

Chald. gl. DV 

>aLi-.)^ ).viVi . ] ^ day (as opp. to night); pi. ^»viViv|. — 
Chald. n;^?di day, n(2\ by day = i<r:ry:i, ]^ CT^V- 

]^a-^ TI^oaV v_«£q-» (>.A3a.* j ^^^Q-k] (^».30-»]) 5 "iD^ , ^^?, 
JoTinrj, Joppa or /(7^^/. 

— 60 — 

]lal the sea; pi. \i^<al. — See Chald. gl. □>. 

.v^r \Li^ f. ^/le rigid hand. — • See Chald. gl. j^D\ 
. af^. not used except in V. ,j^o\ add, i?wrcase, do again. — 

See Chald. gl. p^D"). 
\Ll. impf. \£,]S ^ imper. >_.^^ ^ shoot up, g?'o?iK — Chald. {^jjy, 

identical with Aeth. ®^A: Heb. nhj go out (comp. in 

partic. CNiiN^i shoots, and 8.?i8.jfi '. an embryo or foetus). 
^äzu impf. ,^-£j imper. -^!z sit. — See Chald. gl. sn^ 
?Lk impf. )ip , remain over and above, be abundant, 

abound, make gain or pr^ofit. ■ — Heb. "in^, Chald. "ini, 

Sam. ^Am. 

j-aLT "(-^hZ. ^ f. 1i-k'2Uj \lfj:hl. abundant, excellent ;^'\^ 
v^ z/iw<? Mrtr/«/ as an adv. very, much, more, besides 

(Heb. nnii). — ■ Chald. -i">n^., Sam. ^rHAlTl. 

j^ perhaps. — Heb. Chald. ~)23 /6»^^/ «yo, already, per- 
haps (comp. tXS' already, perhaps). 

^ when, after ; whilst; although. Comp. of ^^ 3 and the 
relat. ? (corresp. to Heb. 'V}'^^__, '15^3), and hence its 
frequent use with participles and adj. ^, e. g. ^"i ^ 
saying (lit. as one who says). — Chald. nD, -15^ 
Sam. T^. 

Vs lis Pas M<? totality, the whole; all, whole. — ■ See 
Chald. gl. ^D. 

jjaa cover, clothe, conceal. III. wijoL id. IV. ■ .^^^\ be co- 
vered, concealed, put on clothes. — See Chald. 

— 61 — 

s^jjs^ inipf. ff=S ^ he painful, disagi'eeahle, grieve; only used 
impers. ail^ ^t^, etc. (comp. 01:^*. hl)^. — Cliakl t<-iD, 
Ar. \S he unpleasant, id he averse to, dislike. 
lialjj pain, grief. 

y^ not used in I. — V. •y^\ proclaim, jtrcach, declare. — 
See Chald. gl. ro. 

lis^oi^ a proclamation or announcement, preaching, the 

^^^ inipf. <^oVaJ^ go round, surround; /vrap up, protect. 
Chald. "q-ir. Like oilier radicals of a similar form 
(^^ provoke, ^^1^ disturb, ]i/2\i/, K'OB^, tt'lt^), ^^^ is 
a later formation from jjj^^ from the rad. "i"i2. 

.jo^^ iJOr=, f- Ihe helly, the inmost or deepest part; pi. 

S G 

\£jSfL. — • Ar. iJ^S, ^S the stomach of ruminant 
animals, Aeth. ^CW: Heb. ^'n^, Chald. «Dn3, Sam. 

^jo^^ llifliaa, a throne; pi. jz^jo^. — See Chald. 
gl. «D-^D. 

^h^ strike, strive or contend, IV. v-*.£:Jz] ^/m^ ^^j/M 6>/^6' 
another, fight, strive or ^.i<;7Y one's self endeavour. — 
Ar. Ji^dS, Heb. tJ'ns, Chald. tj/n2, Sam. -^A^. 


'^ to, for, according to, etc. Sign, of the accus. and of (he 

dat. — • See Chald. gl. h. 
)] no, ?iot. — See Chald. ix}. i^h. -h 

— 62 — 

^|3 labour, he faCigueiL cxhamtcd ; perf. 3 s. f, hl^ ^ 2 in. 

hJ^ ^ f. ^t^^ etc.; impf. jjij, imper. J^ ^ liif. Ilbe, part. 

]j3, IJJ. — See Cliald. gl. ^n^, 
l^äii^ the heart, the innermost pai't or t?iidst; pi. jzakl^. — 

See Cliald. gl. 2^. 
■ ^'^^^ inipf. - A^vi ^ ^;^^/ on clothes. ■ — See Cliald. gl. IS^D^. 
zcuii «/, near, to or towards. • — See Chald. gl. ni'?. 
w.^:^^ f-w^ night; pi. ]za\'v\' . — See Cliald. gl. S'h. 

Ko pi^as , «5';?y article of fuinitare, pot or vessel, imple- 
ment, dress; pi. p|Io. — See Chald. gl. jnd. 

>o^:;^ something. — See Cliald. gl. Dj;"??. 

i^A^^o^ impf. ^oLij^ imper. zolo ^ <//<?. — See Cliald. gl. niD. 
]iaL death. 

\ "-'^ impf. ^inj, strike, hite or ^'//V^*/ (an insecl). See Cli. gl. NHD. 

'^o.l.uifij ^nk J^^ a storm; pi. j^A".L^ tvaves. — See 
Chald. gl. hy'^n^. 

)4io impf. U-inJ^ come to, happen; part. ^mollUi J^ie he 
was able, had power. — See Chald. gl. «:2D. 

V^Lifi on account of, for ; jV^l^ because, since. — Chald. 
bitsp, 'piJOpx. Proh. comp. of cl^^ I^q.^, Ihe pertain- 
ing to U lia^wLiLS in relation to, in consideration of, 
because of; Chald. VtODX) and "^. 

^i^, ^^ \^ ^ 7Mitcr. — See Chald. gl. p?2. 

y^ hence; "^ 1.^1^ hence to i. e. within, in. — Chald. N*2i;p; 
comp. of ^ and j.:^ here, Ilch. HD, Chald. n'3. 

Vkiitf from this time forward, ang longer : now, therefore. 

— 63 — 

Comp. of ^i^ and V.^ = Chald. |{«<2 here, whence 

'\^'2'Cj hence ; comp. V-usoi then, therefore, "K^^^ hitherto. 
Vi^o not used in l— III. V^iJ speak. — See Cliald. gi ^t)^. 

|bc^ Ip^^, (i word, smjing ; thing, matter (comp. -in-). 

pi. ^^i^, ILio'. — Heb. Chald. n^^. pi. U>\p^, pb^; 

Sam. -iz^/pl. "^mt^- 
),..\vJ f. salt. — • Ar. ^JLo, Heb. n^^, Chald. n|:D, ^rp)2, 

Sam. 1^2,"^; in Aelh, there occurs tlie denom. verb 

^Axh: salt. From this word in the sense of the sea, 

is derived 

.-..^, ) .N'v ^ a sailor; pi. ^.IS'Lo^ — Ar. l.S^, Heb. 

Chald. nb. 
^^iic^ impf. .^^'Vvn?^ counsel, advise; be king, reign. — 

See Chald. gl. -p^, 

^t^y ]k:^ a king; pi. .^^^ 
^ who? 7vho ; also a particle = Gr. f-itv. — See Ch. gl. ip. 

oiLj (for o^ ^) who is? also used for oiio ?vhat is? 

Chap. T. 8. 
^ //w;^ of, out of etc. • — See Chald. gl. p. 
^^ ^IL, /(!^'/<rtr/.^ ;^'//^//; adv. ?vhg? (\jl^\ From p^^i 

NC, nc, what? and ,ct. 

olio (for o(n l-Lio) what is? 
^^vsso ^ jiili*^ <''/<^' intestines, the belly. — See Chald. gl. nj;^. 

•^ ^ ]^^ a possessor, owner, master; pi. —^-j^i^. As a title of 
respect, .^-^ = "iii, y.v()i€, mg lord, sir. Lord! ^ our 
Lord (Christ), >o-i^l >.»^ Mar Ephracm, ^olxT ^-^ 
Mar Jacob, etc. A cognate form is 

]^, \1:^'- pi. liljic, jZo^. Def. jijio, 6 Y.VQ10Q, 

— 64 — 

the Lof'fL — Ar. g^.^, e1«, 'iyX)]^, ft man ; Cliald. id, 
NHD, n.?9; Sam. ^^, m^^. 
>a£iÄ Mard-aioQ, Matthew. 

[-".^•i (7 prophet. — See Chald. gl. N2J. » 

jzaloj pi'ophecy, a propheet/. 
jLj ^^ extended, long. — See Cliald. gl. 131 

j.^ long, proti' acted, slofv, gentle; \Loh^, jj^.^^ = TjlN 

C^BN ^/6'/^' to anger, 
h^y^ impf. v^j^ jop^ 2^0?^'. — See Chald. gl. -nj. 

]i^ fl- ?;^;^'; pi. jv^i. 
]i<ni « river ; pi. jioVoii — See Chald. gl. "in:. 
^ (^(? ^2//<?/, tranqail. 11. ■ ...i v>| ^t^/, repose, cease or 

</^m/. — See Chald. gl. mJ. 
IJoi a fish ; pi. jioj . • — See Chald. gl. ]1J. 
ävjIj impf. Zq-Ij descend. — See Chald. gl. nnj. 
j4j impf. j^J Ja^J^ watch, p?'otect, preserve, ivorsh'ip 

(comp. "iDli')- — Ar. liii .svr, observe, inspect, 3aj 

watch, loi /'<:'/^>, defend: Aetli. iÄZ.! ,V6'^, observe; 

Heb. -ly:, ii::^, Ciiald. -i:?j, Sam. -^^I]. 
. ^.mi impf. . oM ? imper. ^aa, /r//,r. ■ — See Chald. gl. DDJ. 
. noi impf. ^a^ . im|)or. w^as , .(/^ ^^//. — See Chald. 

gl. ps:. 

^o-i ^ j-*^^ f. ^/'''" breath, soul or .s/wv/, ///^ ; |)1. \hlsl . — 
See Chald. gl. i^'c:. 

— 65 

-..^ , impf. ).* lai , grow, increase, he great or nwnerom. — 
See Chald. gl. n3d. 
^_»Ls», iC^ f- 11--^^ '■^'^^ much, numerous, great ; 

IVjaffi , constr. ^i-IcL» , « great quantity , abundance ; 

with siiff, ^Uafflj ^'-i^'"? ^o^ l_^affl ^ etc. — ^ Chald. Nj;2!iD, 

nwiD, '>>1D, "»^9, i:c; Sam. (Tll^, ^tlf^; also ^Atl^ 

« myriad. 
rÄiu, impf. 9 0^103, ^/o^^, shut. — Ar. J^ ^fl-z/i a stream, 

Heb. irD in Nif^al, Chald. idd. Cognate rad. -^ ^ 

"IJID, n^c; Aeth. AWIZ,: catch in a net or snare. 

Ji^saa « bolt or /{(rt;;',- pi. jfaaa. • — Chald. N'iriD. 
. ^v^w impf. ^mai , imper. ^c^ ^ inf. ^maiÄ^ ^o up, ascend. V. 

^aiol w<^/Ä6' ascend, Wing out. — See Chald. gl. p7D. 

^auLs , ^aaiifi . (Castell. jj^ioio) //w^ of ascending, 7'ising; 

pi. ) n foV^ . 

Uil:^ f. //^^ left hand. — See Chald. gl. bj^no. 

\L^ coarse cloth, sackcloth; pi. Xka. — See Chald. gl. pD. 

^£>-^ not used in I. — III. ^-^ empty, render vain and useless. 

— Chald. p-iD. 

, n.^.M^ I n . ^ w f. jjLjjo j^Q-kjjo, empty, vain, useless ; pi. m. 

jjL-jJo f- jLLvJo. — Chald. pnp. 

/^v impf ^laii, rt'^?, w^//tr. - — See Chald. gl. IDV- 

^ 1^^, /ZJ^^rA-, ä^^^ä? or act, business. — Heb. 

— 66 — 
^o'^ im[>i'. j^vi jir/ss hij or ove7\ — See Cliald. gl. "iDj;. 

|I^^ npj?, 0-{1ä*E: ^^t^. Hebrc/r. 
\^l\ as fa?- as, until. Comp. of ^i , "ij?, ^/v A/r r/*, til/. 

and ti^, riD. 
^ä:^ be narrorv, in grief or distress. — See Chald. i^l. pj?. 

jj,:^ £^ I^Iq:^ distress, anguish. 
^^^ \LlL^ f. //^t^ eye, a fountain; pi. jiiil eyes, ]hl^ 

fountains. — Ar., Aeth. OJi?: Heb. j^y, Chald. 

n:iV.» Sam. ^^JTIV. 
V:!^ impf. "^oLS , inf. V:Ii^, part, '^jji, f. i\L^ go in, enter. 

— See Chald. gl. ^^y. 
V:! above, upon, on, over ; in addition to; against, etc. — 

See Chald. gl. ^y. 
V^ prop, a subst. signif. the upper pait ; hence as an adv. 

'-V'^v upwards, ^ V^ above. 
>-v^v ^ jiaV^ amj long indef. period of time, eternity, the 

universe or tvorld. ■ — See Chald. gl. o'py. 
'^clL with, along 7vith. • — See Chald. gl. oy. 
>a:^ iia^I, a people or nation, people, a multitude; ,_^iaiii!^ 

psiiLa:!. — See Chald. gl ny. 
] pv^ -^ v a depth, abyss ; pi. ] n '^^ v — See Chald. gl. pt2V. 
\K. or \xl f. sheep, goats. — See Chald. gl. ]N*y. 
jjoik f., \lsaL ni., ten. Hence jjiLIz ni., ]\m\lhl f.. twelve 

(see ^vz). — See Chald. gl. noy. 
w.0^, impf. »j>o^ , /lee. — See Chald. gl. p"^y. 

— 67 — 


^^.lils throw up, vomit; Cliald. io'^C. A more usual signif. 
of this verb is escape, in which sense it occurs in the 
other dialects; Ar. v^Jlit, oJUj", Heb. toSei, Sam. ^2,Z)- 

Joa, wJ.3 . impf. iiaj^ /«/7^ return. 11. _.j^z| id. — Heb. 
HJD, Chald. NJ5, •'je, Sam. ^j^. 

T T T : ■ r I 

^ABis, impf. >>caaiaij cut, decree or uppoi/tt. — Ar. ^2^ 

of fruit that split tlieir outer covering when ripe, e. g. 

the date; Chald. ppC), Sam. ?^3. 
1^, li^i , « Z^'?/'^ ov portion, a lot; pi. )^. — Ar. (jdi 

apiece, Cliald. ^{iiD, wvniJD. Another form is |jai , pi. 

\^ , Chald. D^D; Aelh. 't'4.fift: f^'A-/ /<?^.y. 
1^ not used in I., separate, open: Ar. ^.o.i, Heb. n^Q, 

Chald. N^D. III. ^Is deliver, save; Ar. ^lai, Heb. Plii??, 

Cliald. N^©, ilJC), 1^9, Sam. ^-^713. 
jjis. impf jQjLaJ^ order, command, decree. — Heb. "(I'D, 

Chald. -ijTJD, Sam. T?3. 

%^o^ , li^x)CLS, ^// order, command, decree. — Chald. 

npiD, Sam. TtX^ — Syr. j^'o^. 
^.mH suitable, fittiny, useful ; gen. used in the sense of it 

i,f good, fitting. 
".■^, impf. ^o^ compensate or ma/ce up for, pay a debt, 

fulfil a vow, requite. — Chald. j;iD. 

^jas, jjLi^ias, fulfilment of a vow, retrihution , re- 
quital, revenge. — Chald. |y"llD an avenger, T^yyyiB, 

Sam. '^rn'^^, revenge. 
>al ^ J , jia„i^. a word, message, decree: ma/fer, //ting: |il. 

|ia^£^. — Sec Chald. gl. C'rr. 

— 68 

)j3, ^ impf. i^iJi ivish, desire. — 'Ar. \JJo impf. yjya.i love; 

Chald. i2i{, 0'4, Sam. '^SfTI. 
>o^^ impf. >co^j fast — ■ See Chald. gl. Diij. 

^iiiSor <z fast. 
^. be bright, shine, be hot, — Ar. 2^ the sun, sim- 

shine, ^.^s:^, ^"^^ ^^ clear, evident ; Heb. T\i_ be 

white, ny clear, bright, warm; Chald. n^T}^ polish. — 

See Aeth. gl. edi^:: 
)],^ impf. }J^^ bend. III. ^.^li^.^ pray. — See Chald. gl. N'^i**. 

\l^r^ a prayer: pi. ji^^^. 

>o^fi impf. >oop£Ljj be before, precede, anticipate or be be- 
forehand with, in old Engl, prevent. III. >c'i-D ?;;«/r^ 
precede, do beforehand, anticipate, ^v , ^ oLj] .--^r^ r= 
*/;?2<76? y^ are aware beforehand, ,. ^ 1 \ . .v j^l >o^ 
my brother told me beforehand ; .okli^ q-d^ oia:^ 
cJiCQjoj-fjs ] «// the astronomers foretold; ac^^ ^oi? 
^^\v^^v he outran Simeon. — Ar. lj.i* precede, loS 

approach, ai^rive, \dä be ancient; Aelh. 4»^<J^! Heb. 

D-p, Chald. D-p., Sam. ^'^\, 

>o^ iic^ M<? front; as an a(h'. before, in presence 

of. — See Chald. gl. Dip. 

L1lc,_d, f I'Liloj-ij first. — Chald. nxn"ip , Sam. 

^A^T^, Ae(h. ^^t^'E" 

— 69 — 

»^^£ not used in I., he clean or pure, holy. III. ^'^ pun/y, 
consecrate. — See Chald. gl. K'lp. 

>-*~»-H5, U~*p-o, f- \l^^l ^ \L^fL , holy, sacred. — Ar. 

^^d^\ or ^^tXäJI ^Vr>^/; Aeth. ^y^ti\ Chald. B^'^'lp, 

Sam. -^ITIT?; Heb. Phoen. H'lp (inscr. Sidon.). 
Vi, jii, M^ voice, sound; pi. jii". — Ar. J^, JLS, ä 

;<??<?r</, saying ; Aeth. ^A: Heb. Phoen. ^p (inscr. Melit. I), 

Chald. ^p^, Sam. ;},?, 2,1?. 
>cLa^ imi)f. >ca.lj, imper. jcco, ^v^r, stand. — See Chald. gl. Dip. 

>a4^ impf. :«c4uaJ. r;//, break. — Ar. iLi' r;//, bite, Cliald. Cl^p. 

>a4u5j jj^LjuD, ashes. ■ — See Chald. gl. QL^p. 
Vd he light, sivift, small. V. Vif lighten. — See Cliald. gl. 'p'pp. 
^.aj i. e. ^oUai. xecpalatov, a chapter or section; pi. llla^o. 
]^, impf. 1^. <"^///^ cry, proclaim, call on, invoke; name, 

read. — Ar. LT, Heb. N^p^, Chald. j<-jp, Sam. A^?. 
]|^^ ^/ ^r>«/Y/. — Ar. ^"i, '^ä"^, Chald. Nnp, np. 
^i^, impf. ^r;ciLi3 , (^^ near, approach. — See Chald. gl.21p. 

^-i not used in I., be large, great, numerous. — See Chald. gl.22"i. 

•S9, j^i^ f. |.^?^ 1^=^, ^f'i^yc, great, numej'ous ; as a 

subst. the headman, chief, magistrate, etc. 

\LLh<J> not used in the sing. ; pi. \l^h6^ chief men, 7iobles. 

a^?, |ia.^? , ten thousand, a myriad; pi. ji^v. 
jji^, impf. ^sji^ increase, gron\ 111. ^^rji wrt'/iY' ^/y>-'^', ;vy/;\ 

educate. — See Chald. gl. XDI. 
^^j f., 1:^^?! m., four; pi. ^^^h] forty. — SeeCh. gl. j;2~iN. 
]lL^-\ f.^^«v.^-^ ^wM.- Chald. n{<y^2-|,Sam.^AViTl^'^. 

— 70 — 

1^9 ^ inipf. y^fS ^ be angry. — • See Chald. gl. '31. 
\y^h anger. 

|?j ^ impf. 1?ji prop, tread, hence go, set out, flow; bestow 
pains or labour upon, study (comp. •^n'"), educate; 
chastize. — Ar. ^o. tread, stamp, crush, go, i^Ss 
perish; Heb. TTTs tread, go, rule ; Chald. N"i"} flon\ 
spread out, plough, 7'07V, chastize, rule ; Sam. ^T'i. 
]?^ a jou7'ney. Also ]Lk?ii3. 

._M^i be wide, spacious; have ample room; be refreshed, 
relieved. V. ^-^oh\ 7viden, expand; refresh, relieve. — 
Ar. '.r be rvide, spacious, Heb. ni"), Chald. n^T;, Sam. 
^t^r^S"^. Prob. l^^y nn, stands for ^y nzi, 
transposed from Cf^s, '^VTl (comp. ^'k^'^, ji^-Jj, witii 
DH"), ^^>\ and ^ITI^^, w-^oj^ with 2rnj. Comp. 

_^^ impf. -MOj-J breathe , smell or _^/?'^' scent; from tlie 
drawing of a full breath are derived the signiC. of 
'being relieved' or 'at ease', whence III. ^^^ soothe 

or appease ; and of 'rejoicing'. — Ar. _fr, impf. «-1^5 
^/w^' (the wind); |., impf. I^j or ^j-j, .vwc// any- 
thing, Heb. nnn, Chald. nn^, Syr.w»-0, Sam. ^ITI^A; 

ISy impf. ^f^, r<?/*d?/^<?. 

^.^oi )-Ioi m. f. breath , the soul or spirit, the wind: 
m. ///<? ^(9/y Spirit. — See Chald. gl. nn. 
>a^^ impf >a*IiJ. love. III. >cul^ A'^v, /'</'^v' jnlij upon. —- 
See Chald. gl. cm. 
) i\y.! .. ^ "v^ compassionate, merciful. 
* jZoiicL^^Lc compassion, mcrcij. 

— 71 — 
? not iisetl in 1., be sofl, ycnllc. III. ^? brood over as 
a bird. — Ar. CkKy uJ^''y be soft: Heb. Pjrin. 
\iLäJ^ compassionate, merciful. 

h be distant, retire, depart. IV. ^^z| be removed, retire. 

See Ciiald. gl. pn"". 
^A-»? , i-^? . the head; pi. )^*v . — See Cliald. gl. li'n. 
):^i Mr^;?', c<?6'/; used in I. only in the particip. \:^\ and \LdS 
(sometimes \Lsi) V. ^.^si id. — See Chald. gl. {<di. 
j^j ^ impf. jji^ji ^ /^/?^ or feed a flock ; intrans. feed, graze. 

— See Chald. gl. j<j;-]. 

"^U^ , impf, '^j^ ^ ask, demand, entreat. — See Chald. gl. ^Ntt'. 
'^a-^jk/ ^ a word borrowed from the Heb. '^"JNtÄ', which has 
also passed into the other dialects under the forms 
n.^^: bl^K^, Itrn-^, and even into old Pers. as J^ 
*Ä<?/ and ^j^Jj.xo sholman. 

, impf. v_oaÄ^^ /6?/^ go, dismiss, pardon; pej^mit ; let 
alone, forsake, abandon, leave behind (comp. 2Ty), — 
Chald. p;!'^, Sam. ^^-^^. Hence the exclamation of 
Jesus on the cross: liXnn, tlou, Xajua oa/Sa^d-avi; 

i:np2i2' NDtJ in'pN ^nt'N. 

impf. ]lä3 , throw, cast; Chald. in\il. A secondary 
formation, somewhat after the manner of Shaf'el, from 
the rad. nij throfv (comp. DHp, y^l^ . be black, from 
on, >a«I . be hot ; "int^ be black, from in ^^ r/ry oi- 
parched; I'pji/, ViLa.^ ///? ?//>, carry, perhaps connected 

with ^ id.). 

— 72 — 

hum. — • Ar. v_^^xo hum, scofch, of heat and cold ; 

C^ kindle, hum; Heb. D''2ti'' flame. 

jIjo^ heat, drought. 
always with | pref., . ..^- ^ \ find, he ahle ; impf. w.»L*i, 

inf. r, T.^^^ ^ part. ^^^iS. 
iL.^ ^.ixA.^ impf. U.*.i^ cease, he quiet or ti^anqud. — Ar. 

^Ll, impf. ^JLLj; Heb. n^lS', 1^15^, Chald. ^2) , h^. 
>^'n<>. ^ impf. >cix4i, he entii^e, safe or well, complete or 

finished. III. joi^ ^ i^?^^-^ entire, finish, fulfil a vow. — 

See Chald. gl. D'ptJ^. 
jT^iA., lii^.*,^ ^/^^ */:_y. /^/^<^ heavens^ heaven. ■ — See Chald. 

gl. ^"'cti^. 
^5^.*., impf. ^ia.Ai. hear, ohey. ■ — Ar. "ft^, Aetli. fl<?^OI 

Heb. Phoen. j/W, jraii' (inser. Meht. T.), Cliald. y^ti'', 
Sam. V^-^, ?^-^, 
• ^v^A.^ l-i^ia^ m. f. />^^ .??/w. — • See Chald. gl. "^iyi' . 

•.fLk. , impf. j^.A.j ^^ beautiful, please. — See Chald. gl. 'nsii. 
i.a-4. l^a^, ^Ä^ 7no7'ning. 

"\.Lä. ^ impf, '^aa.A.S ////^ ?//> , carry , take a?vay. — Cliald. 

hpw, Sam. V^^. 
■f2, he firm. — Aeth. «1Z.4,' found. 

j3^, ]fo^ « shoot or sprout, tendril. 
1^. im])f. ]^S loosen or ?//?//^. III. ^i>J (^<'y/;?. — See 

Chald. gl. arw. 
^h^\ (for ^iw*. ), impf. IzLii , rfr/wX*. — See Chald. gl. Nn^'. 

— 73 — 

i^z, impf. pcii, hreak. II. j^zz) pass. — See Chald. gl. isn. 
iieotn^ M«? ocean. — See Chald. gl. Dinn. 

jli^ )-^'^5 ^ crown. — Ar. _b>, wlience the denom. verb 

'IS ci'own; Chald. Njp: from the Pers. " b. 
v^i , iiii})f. ^oLj , return, 7'epent. — See Chald. gl. 2in. 
I^oi Ä/« o.f; pl. |Voi. — See Chald. gl. Tin. 
Zq^z ^^/(9/«^;, beneath, undei' ; with. sufT. ^^o^z^ ^oioia-z^ etc. 

— See Chald. gl. mnn. 
\^ol ^ def. j£i^oi « nwrn , caterpillar. — See Chald. 

gl. ny'pin. 
^z f., \h<^z m., //^7'<?<?. — See Chald. gl. n^n. 

il^^z third. Chald. HNn^'^n, Sam. -^AAiT^IA. 
^i //^«?r^. — See Chald. gl. jDH. 

^?z^ "T^^*^^ ^- T'^'^? '^^'^^ ^''^'^' Hence iJiL?^^ f. 
y^oLhl^ twelve. — See Chald. gl. jnn. 
liliz, f. l£alizj second. 


f5>H^i\ $a: MaA-fl/fbC: -Jn: f5"a: (da^: A<7^i>: i 
(D^ay^o :: -ti w?\ : (D/h-c:*) n'S'. uic: ^a^:") ©fi-ft^: 2 
i^<^\ 'htiip: ^Q."') 7i^p-<^:-?ap:: (DrT^z;:F5'fi:«Di"j'i^A: 3 
•nrfbZ.: -f Cftft : ti<^ifi: MaA-fl/JbC: <d(dz..? : uiz.: ifs.p-A: 
(DZ.^n: fhcpz.: H^ii;?-: •nrfbZ.:'^) -rcfhti: (D-r^nn: 
ih<pz,:^) ®^a: (D-fi-t*: ^n^: <ptiMTa^: vcfhH'J) 

(D-fi-i-: Qfhc: (D^-np:*^) ^oaa: a/hc: a)-i-<3«^;?n: 
Acpc^: h\(p: jjfinc:: (DZlcu-: ci-j*^: (DAorpo).: 5 

Qrhc: iTP^: hi(p: .p4»aa:") /h^pc*^: (D(DZ.j?: Fffi: 
Gfti-r: KiQiu: ih<pc: (DCcp: (Dlfhz.:: (D(DZ.j?: -jau-: 6 
Hih;?z.:*) (D^aA': <^'i^-J) jiorcp^i: -tlwii: (DÄaro: 

**) p. <D/T.c: ") V h'b: mi: oap: ') p. adds i^z;: 

•*) Var. AIZ,: •') WatiUns" in one Ms. and P. 

f) Var. (D^o: ^av: (Diij'i^A: ?i<e^iÄ: *^) p (Dorp: 
•')p.j*AA': ') Var. Hi:/fbA*-4:: J)var <pi^}.: 

) Var. 0Ä(D-o : fi<p: h<p\'iVi\: 


— 76 — 

<j'f : z.^nn-ri: H-t: ?i^^: (Di-^ecD.: (D0z..?: o^:») 

8 \D A : Fffi :: (D^aAp : ?°zz.i : nn^i : <pi^ : ") z.^ni' i : 

H-t: ?i^^: (D<?=1^:") -i-iaca: (Dtiq^h^-^: (pfitiHi: 

(DAf-t: -r/horc: (DAjJi?: -niihQHi: (Dcpi^: fh*H-n^:: 

lOho^A'n: n^^:»') Hi-nz.: Qifhz.: (DP-nft:: qzlcu-: 

(DA?icPCP : tyo^'i'p : cijfar : ") ^cp : 7\<?==iä : MaA-flih.c : 

11 -r^j^AiJiiicp: iic<^:: (DjiaAfl): (^"i-t: KiHi: iz.a'n: 

(Dji-i^^-ii : ') a/hc:") 7^^^: ji^u(D'ft: aihc: (DjE^iuiA: 

(irfi'i': Qihc: (dp-j^i^cp-: a;hc:") Ai: AAcpc.") 

^<p: n?iM:AP: ^päa^cp-: hi*: ^^ooa: ^ajii: 

i3(DZL*;e.:^) ^<p:^) ^^«pp/ii-: cpiia: cp^c: ?i«p'l-t': 

^jpor: 2\jicp: ^1'U(D5i:>) alhc: (Dj?^iiJj?i: AOAifcp: 

14 t^'&nA::^) (DAorpo).: waocp-: fsaz.: -jn: MaA-n/ibC: 
®^aA: 'hj-i: a^: 5iia^: ^±^4:Ai: nn^i: i'^:^-: 
AHi-t: -ft^ia: (D2i.^z.a: AOAi: ;?<p: fi^^: titio^: 

15 All-: MEM h^<p: a*;?-^: inc'ft::'') (Diw^^fl): 
AFfn: 0(Dz;(irfl): (D-ti-t'. aihc: (DAC<?='<j=»^ : '') aihc:: 

^) Mss. 09 : "') p. <pf. : ") p. <?=>i^ : 

")Var. andP. inZ,'. 'hlMh-fifihC: hi'. 

P) One ms. adds (SX^^'C. 

") var. AJfcir : ^Qy-v: 'lap: "hiKP: h'h<J^oi>: HIcp: 

') Var. ^fiX'li : «) Var. fT^l^flA '. ') P. (D(DC(D-£ I 

") Var. c^ofiA: ') P. ATicPC'ft-: '0 cD-i'OAri-: 

-'') Wantini? in one Ms. and P. >) Var. JJ'>ih0!fl : 

'^)T> (D^^imti: ^: a:: '')\ar. -^nc: 

") Var. (DAC<P<P: 

— 11 — 

(Dwa-: AMRA-n/fec: ^^WTO-titDn^h-i-fi^Ai-:: :: :: 

<^\ B: 
(Dähh: T^'jaA-fiffbC: o^nz,: ^ap: PAfnic^APfn: i 
(Dinz.: Fffi: (da-i-i^ciu: Aiazi:^) xiJ7\-i-i:<P4Af i*^^) 
(DUJtVji: AA.-i'f):: (Däap: Ffn: arfif :«) »acuj: 2 
A^nzi: -jfi: MaA-nrfbC: a<?=>a^: (D^a:: Aarpcr^n-: 3 
n(?=iJ?ap: -jn: MaA-nrfbC: a<?3a^p: 0ft<?^^f.: 
ncD-fi't':") ^cxu: *a^: Ä•^'5P:•) (Dft<?^^£: ^ap:: 
(D(DZ.a)j.: (D-a-t: An:j) a^c: (Dui-t^i: a-^ai: «d^äa: 4 
aoap: 'fi?-ib: c/^oriA^: (D^'jj?-^''):: oaia: Aa: 5 

C?iP: a-i-: <p*^a^i:: o-aih:"') <h^\ Ka^: i-^ap: 6 
(DDi-ti: *A£: nd-ih*: (Di-a^^^: c^^ap: (D-fi-t: 
l*u±i-: A.I^ac"):: (D0Z.ä-^: arat': cp;?-c: 'Ki-v'. 1 
<}R(sr\ cpffii-tv: ;^cp4:^4't': ^a<?^: (Ddq^: ") 

?i<?=i.P: 2\<?^i: <?^a?: rh^^-l-P:: [in the Oxford Ms. 
verses 5, 6, and 7, are as follows. (D?ia: •I'/h'V'A'a}- : 

'KiT. 'h<^^y:<p\ Ao^i-t^n: uA'^j.: 'KO^y.'. äca: 
(P^j^ts^w A'iHHf.: <??ji: ?ia^: c?ifip: *Ajei: nj-: 
CJ^fip: -t-uj^^: (D-a-p: 14»^±-p: AJ?ac:: (D(Dz;x^: 
(D-a-p: (^^V' *n<p: cPAih*: ^rh-p: ^oci: ih^cD^p: 

'^)Var. 0AHF: 'K\ A^a^: KiiVIi\ P^in; 

^) p. Oin C : and above O^HZ. ! ^) Var. A -p ! 

') Var. AJPAP : *-') P. nCD-fl-p : ") Var (SftvV \ 

') Var. ^CUJ:i'L^A:iPA:ÄÄfhp: j)p adds *ap: 

•^) One Ms. adds 'Ki'V'. A.OAP: :JA;»:: ^) Var. IRHV'. 

n) Var. (D-^HHt I sic. ") Var. Jf-flC: 
") One Ms. ^OCjI • and unnls Ihe ucxl 3 words. 

— 78 — 

8 H?klnA: cP'fl5*:•Jft^:Mli^:A<?^A'ap::] r-fiiiSA*^: 
i'4:iip: i-H^rap: AMaMixibC: ^n^fh: äa^^p: 

9 ^K-i^Ki : ÄC/h : <^*J?fi^ :: 2^ aa : ^ *ft- : ^l-t- : (da A-t : 
lOlSf*:: uiUAoc^:: (DAlfi:^) <^fiA: ^a: fi-n'Ti^: 

(D-i-^if:'!) Kujoro: a^: <p(hi: äax^: firh^cD^p: 

11 A^WP-: AMliA-flfibC:: (DAHFlMaA-niibC: AdrJi-tiO 

A?nz: jor/tM Apr^i: orfi-f: <?=>sc:') (daota^: 

Grti-t". <?^Ä-C:: [In the edition of Petraeus these four 
verses are as follows. Q-tH^nC^p: AMaA^flfibC: 

rifi: 'i^^^: i^tiv: }^<paoap: ^-oHrh: äa>^p: 
-i^Ki: a: <p:: (di^aa: pd^ii-: ki: (d: i: ui:: 
(DA1A-: fiä^A: aa°^p: ?ii£: a^: (DTiUKD-ci: a^:: 
^f^A?: na'^'hH)-: tiZu^YHi: nlhjicD^p:: (d-i-ahh: 
A2i°iaA-fi/ibC: or^-t: uln^: (DACD-oh: Aprn: (ir:<p::] 

1 (D^i: *a: MaA-OiibC: J?°i<^: "Jo: Fffi: (Dffti\«:: 

2 i-i^wji: (D/ir-c:') ii's: mc ^aji:") (Dfi-n^: a?<^: 

3 a^cp: ^'Jj.ip':') fi-fl^-r:'') h^iaa^: a^:: (D-i-iwa: 
Ffn: ®i^z.:ii^:n^^: jiaA«:MH.A-flfibC: oii^n: 
^aji:^) mc:£?i-t:>) A2i°iaA-n/ibC:(D<?=UT^: *Ä■^: 
2i<?3Al*Ä: aai«i»ä: cp/ni: <?^rhTZ.: ujTV-fi: cptoa: 
xiMc^):: (DAAÄ.*: jiaii: uiz.: mm:'*) 'h<^fti'pz,: 

P) Var. A^A : **) Var. n-T^^P ! ■■) One Ms. omits OrA-t '. 
^) One Ms. omits these 3 words and adds APffl! after ^ACD'/t^ .' 

^) i'. (D/^c: ")p. ifc'^: uiz.: uop: 

' ) p. H*ÄCP' : " ) One Ms. and P. fl-n^l'l' '. 

^) Var. '^n.^: ^) One Ms. and P. dr'A* ! 

'^)One Ms. has AAiaA-flrfbC: (D<?=fhT/..' UJA-fi I OA^i: 

i>. A7^*J : (Pihi : <?=;hTZ. : m : : «) var (DfiMi : 

— 79 — 

OA^: (Dj?a: hM\: <^toa: iiiA-fi '^) -^^lAa-'/^: 

AAOiWcp^: (Did^: (irfii": ificp.?:: (Dft<?^^^: Vi-iu: g 
JiT: (D-t'jwa: 'h<pi: <p'iiii^\ (DAK-t-t-: AAoaih: 
(DA-oft: uj*: (Dinz,: (ir/i-i-: /hd^.i?:: (daqti: ^^zw: 7 
AJi^: (DADfLR-ti:') U)£ft : ivn'A : (i)Mfiii : (DAAUcpi-: 
(DAmo: h.£'fio\o-: (Dh.'^^i^fJ.: (i)^£^z.ui?: (D/v^fi-tP: 
<^p:: (DA-fhv: iu<^: ivnA:") (DAJfui: ^AcirpcD^i-ja: s 
MaA-fl/fbC : 'iii-z;: (O-^.!?"!-: wa>: hHw. <pinc<^: 
®'^<pg: Hdrfi-i-: Js^'i^ifcp':: 0^aA: (Pi-: pa<?^c: 9 
'A<J=: ^tfifh: MiiA-flifbC: (Df^^'i' : cp^m^:-!: cp^*: 
(D^^^drl-: MTi:: (DC'ap: MiLAfiribC: <?^°iac<^: 10 
Ti^: ^fi/h- : ■A^4:(r-t-^ : A^^ : AiRA-nrfbCi:") ifirh: 

AfVP :: :: :: 

<?=: v: 
(D-rtiH: pffi: ^iap:^»OH: (DAHi"):: (DAAPi-^n: i 
MRA-fi/h^c-'O ^'^-^^- ^'^H.^: A^j.: HiiPli: mi: 2 
fHhh3CP: (DHAi-fN) iri-i^: t-^niva: ici^fi: >ifi«p: 
AA<?^c: ^n<p: ip'^z: Al-r: (DcPfi-PujUA: Cih*: ^^>^: 
(Dnn-.j: c^^ihz:^: (Dh.i?*: (D-Pififti: n'A^Jt-: An'P" 

"jOneMs. andP. IUAjI: <3^T0A: 

•)So P. — The one Ms. has (Dfl." *i ! Aii*B : A'^U-l^*^'.' 
(DA^aF<?^': Ihe ollKrnimly (DflQ^a: A^f)J?'t:: 

'') Tho oxf. Ms. has (D^AOiY : ri-n'A : uj ^ : 

') p (D'Ai: ^) oncnis. 'A<?^i(ui : p AcPi: Hidii: 

^) These 2 words are waiilirii,'- in one Ms. 

'') Wanlin.i,'- in one .Ms. ') One Ms. adds A<?^A^1 '. 

') v;u. (Dnnpj: 

— 80 -— 

f) AP-ffi: 's^*}^: ^ij^*H:') A?-f :: (D?i<?='H: ©Ä^iFCfi: 

(Diaz.: i-fhi-: AAA-rf- : ?in^ : SLK- H^^arl: uic:: 

6 (Dhwu: 'h'^Kh-näbC: fh(pfh<p: (Dn^poA." (Däaa: 
<p^<J^'i•: c^ä-: AFfjfi:'") vicp: h.jlhcp^: e'h^:") 
(D-t-zLW/fi: Fffi: ^ap: ^i«J'^: a?\ii-: ihc?^/h<?3:: 

7 (Dahh: MaA-nrfbC: n^i.^: o^: (D$+a: ajb?\-it:'*) 

8 /h<pfh<e^:0pnft^:: <dvj L^^^'.^'hs: ahh:^) MaA-fiiibC: 
i4.fl: fh^z.: Hj'fl)'^: ©A^h^p^: e**!^: c?iA-: AFfii: 
(DAinn: (D-p«i»o'?^^:") i4:iv: cD^a: ^-i^fti: ^j^Oil': 

9 'h<pä)£([r :: u)faA°: MaA-niJbC: AP-r^i: ^4»?.: 
•pnUTi:') aM'i^: A(?^/h<p: (D^a:^) '5^*: -i-^H^: 

lOTifi^i: A«p^'):: (D^aA°:MaMi/ibC: Al±n: ^(plh^: 

11 (DAA,-!-: ^+^:: (DAif.:^) A^<?^fh^: Aii^: u*jc: 
^o^: hija(d:^*) (irfi-t^: mM\: a^a:^: 'h<^i: 
i0Bpp^/v:^) KAAm-:^) e3^^: (DP^^Cc?^: (i)}\lfiri: 
•aa^s:: :: :: 

■t/i.a<p: HP-ffi: iaf :: 

•*) Wanlini^ in one IVls. ') Var. 'l-'a'H^l '. 

"') So P. — The one Ms. (DKAA" '. M.i i '. CATl- '- AP-ffl I Ihe oilier 

(!)aAA°: APffi: ^: c: AFVfi: 

") One Ms. and p. 'a<P: ^aAA"! 'A<^U''i.P ! ^^(^^rh^*^: 

") One Ms and I> (I)*'!' A! ATlfl-! ") Var (Dili Z.*! U! (DAHli: 

") One Ms. (D't-'po't^o ." i^tiv: P. (Di'^^'i^u : i-cfi : 

') P •p-fe'A'H: ^)Var (D^aA: P5"fi: ') Var ACPT.'l-: 

") I'. miKi'i' ') I^ (DAii'i : ") Var HifAd).: 

") p. '!\<p\m] c-i^: (D'HA^,-!^: ?iA<.: aa : >) va. A.p/..Am-: 



UA(D: contracted UA?: impf. JB^it: de. 

UKi: impf. PUOr^i: dis^ml^, agitate. VII. •tUd)'^ : impf. 

- s ^ ^ ^ , 

Ji^UU)5l.' pass. — Ar. dye he silly, simple, c)^-^£o 

confounded, stupified ; cogri. 'L^, impf. ^sa.^^ excite, 

^^ excited, ^%s^\ violent (wind). 

UIC: a city; pi. AO'l-C: — Ä^: and AU>C : — ^.-t* : : Ar. 

s -- ^ 

jÄ5> in the dial, of Yaman. 


A! to, fo7', according to, etc. Sign of tlie dat,, and also of 
the accus. (see Chald. gl. ':'), with a preceding jtroii. 
suff., e. g. Gen. II. 7. Ol-flC: 2i°iaA-n/fbC ." AA-flh: 
A<?^i : <3=^^"l" : <^RX. \ and Cod made tuan (lit. made- 
hini, man,) of the dust of the ground. It is likewise 
used, with a preceding pron. sutl'., to circiimscrihe the 
genii., e. g. 2i<pi: X^(f^\ AAA: JPC-IH: of the 
blood of those giants; 5iA.<^: AAC^^I Pharaoh's 
dream. — With pron. snff. A.-!":." Afi: A^I." Ao-t: VI::: 

Ai:: s^<J^\ A'a'i:: Aocp-: a>i: or a^-i-j:: 


— 8'2 — 

AO<^: au o.v: \A. ^AU<?^^:: 

A-n: //u' heart: \\. ^AQ-fi:: Afi: QfhC: ^ D^/d5 the. 

depths of the sea. — See Cliald. gi. D^. 
A'flA: iiiii)f. ^A-flJi: siibj. ^Aflfi: put on clothes. ■ — ■ See 

Chald. gl. nfzh. 

A-fl^: a dress: pi. AAQfl " Ar. JLlj. 
AOA : upon, above; to, towards, against : corresp. to hv in 

the other dialects (see Chald. gl. h^). With suff. ACiAP: 

AOAfi: etc. 'JicpAOA: from off, away from, from 

(Sj;c). ■ — Hence is Ibrmed a verb AADA! raise, exalt, 

and other derivatives, e. g. 

(P^<3\^\ an elevated place, top, summit; adverb, ace. 

cPA-OA-i": over, above. 
AA.^: night; pi. AJA^" — See Chald. gl. h^h. 
Al^: a hut; pL A'id'1:':: Perhaps hom the rad. ^j' 

go in, enter (conip. Sanskrit veca-s , Foixo-g, vicu-s, 

from Ihe rad. vie). 
AÄ*: iiiipr. ^AÄ"4>: adhere, he united. IV. AAA*.' make 

adhere or ajij.roach, unite; intrans. be near or on the 

point of, followed by llie siibj.; chai). III. 4. (DAAÄ.4>.' 

£0A: UIZ.: (we may sup|)ly ^<P\). — Ar. ;3xJ, 

^3^1, ^y, 'y, adhere. 


rh<3^: imi»f. r/h<?^<p: /yr af/licted, sick. IV. ArhcPcP.' /^///V, 
distress. — Ai'. I.Ä. narm , make anxious (see Syr. 
gl. >c-..), jvÄ^ /'^/<v' fever, (^ä.): jvP w^z/tt' anxious, 

— 83 — 

m<^<^'. distress, disease. — Ar. *Uä. /'erer, A-*^ 

^<^&v<^\ a gourd. 
/h^Ci (i ship: pl. Aih^C" Perlaps connecfed with J^a. 

sh(P^'. ashcs. 
AZ,4,! be hot — Ar. ^a., Heb. "i", Aiani. "in, -^L. 

fh4.C (formed liked "Tis^), f. /hCC^' ((lirriu't) hot,scoi'cJdng. 
*h^\ prop, a verb optal. in (lie perf., absii ; 'hfl: AHW far 

he it from thee! Ar. xlj (jiilÄ, iJU L^Lä^, dLxol.s. : 

Aram. "Tj^ on, ^ oal, iJ^lE^^ (Gesenius, Carm. Sa- 

inarit. If. 1 G. V. 6), ^^TlTSVi* Zt^^ A^' />^' /^ />-^^^/ 

thy servants! Gen. XLIV. 7. 
/hA(D: impf. JBiibfi-: //^. 

Afi^! falsehood, a lie. 

it^i: impf. P/horc: sill)]. JB/T^c: (^ift-c:) impci. /^c: (/h-c:) 

go- — Ar. 'La. return. Hence ihTCP' (^)tC£> <^''' 


(^hiTQ'. space or distance, a Journey : ?i<?^fhTZ,! 

chap. III. ^ ^'hq^; <?^fhTZ.:: 

fh'H'fl ! a body of men, tribe, nation: {)!. h^H-iW. Ar. 

Go , '' r ^ 1 

OwSi., pl. (^^jÄ.!. 

iftHJ: and ifi*H5 ! iiiijir. PA'H'5! be sad . sorronful. — 

Ar. ^^1. 
ihHHI aniyh. W. AifhHH ! make rtn/yh, ehahe. 
/hf(D; impf. PihP: siibj. ^rhPfl)-: in(. rh.PCir : (loi rhR(ir:) 

//>'^. — See Chald. i^l. N-'H. 

rh.P(D^': life. Ar. \yj^, sLX^ . 

ih^ A.', iinpf. ^ihh^^: s/eer, direct, jn^otect , save. — Ar. 
oJ^ the helm or rudder (jlLaaIJI |jlX*«) , Aeth. 


/h>A: /?6'm/^. VII. 'Tfh'hA: or VIII. I'lh'VA: id. 

cPAfh4»: (ui anchor. From ^^sJ adhere to, reach or 

cPAYi: inipf. JBcPA^: r^//^?, govern. — See Chald. gl. iS?:*. 

AcpA^: Ä ^^r/, ^<>^; pi. Ai^Ä^^:: it is itself, like 

DTi'^^n;, a pliir. (remnant of orig. polytheism) from "j^d 

a king , which occurs in the Himyaritic inscript. (see 

Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's Travels, p. 398, or his 

„Versuch", p. 27). 
<?=>fhi;: and <^AZ,: impf. X<pfhC : subj. ^<^&\^\ have 

me?'cy or co??ipassion upon. — Transp. from DPI"!; see 

Chald. gl. 

<Pi^h\ (mahhäri) compassionate, merciful. 

<^mZ,^: compassion, mei^cy. — Ar. iU-2s.x. 
<?3fh^: and cP/h^: impf. ^<?^ih!a: subj. JB<p/h^: /?%, 

(ptiS.\ with. With sufT. cpfiAP: <?^fiA^: etc. 

^rt5 ! r^'/'^ perish. — Ar. ryjj\ become putrid (esp. water). 

<J^il^\ putrefaction, cofi'uption, dest?'uction. 
(^i'. (for (J^'iXh:) who? accus. (PiW Ar. ^, gen. ^^, 

ace. Läx); f KkA. ouoo; elf. — See Chald. and Syr. 

^•1- p, ^. 

— »J — 

<P'i^ '. what? ace. <p\'\' .' \ h.<?^'5^£ \ not even a single 
thing. Another form is C\\ (Heb. id who?). 

<P?;pa: not used except in VII. 't'cP'i^iW be afflicted, dis- 
tressed, in danger ; denoui. from 

<?31.?ft: affliction, distress, danger; pi. <p'iJt-nj?^ '.'. 

Connected with Ar. CjJo ■= Jah»^ danger, *ojo be- 

wail the dead. 
(P'Vlh.\ to, towards. 
^P-l^: impf J?^(D-^: subj. ^<P'^\ die. — See Chald. 

gl. niQ. 

*P^: death. 
<P(Sn^\ and <P7^: coll. imves, a storm; pi. ^T°2J?-: and 

^IJ?^:: Prob. from a rad. (D1J?: = Cliald. -12_: flow, 

which see. 

<P0A^:: See ®oa:: 

f^OflA.: coll. waves, billoivs ; pi. ^OHA^" Perhaps con- 
nected with 13J? /-'Ä^i: bg or 6»^^;-, inundate (Jes. VIII. 8, 
Nah. I. 8). See Chald. gl. 

^\}^\ anger, rage. 

<5^^: water; pl. ^J^:: See Chald. gl. |"d. 

^fli: impf. ^cPJE'J*: subj. .Ec^^i'S*: ^(?;^.r/, tarn, tarn a wag, 
avert; bring back, convert. VIII. 't'<^.EHl! /wv/, re- 
^^/;7?^ i^<? converted. — Ar. isLo, impf. iax^j , ^^/r;e 
awag , retire from , drive off; Heb. tOD, Syr. >_^ 
waver, shake. 

<?^.^Ci Mtf earth, land. — Ar. .Joo clag, mad: Syr. |i^ 
<? clod of earth. 

(P([ii'. impf. y.<J^^'i\ measure. 

— 86 — 
(^ih'i '. measure, quantity, quality, worth, merit (cuiii]). 
tjkj")- <^iM\ ÄAJiV>: as much as (lehatsoever . all) 
I have vomed. Cliai). il. 10. 
cPÄ"A: come, find. IV. h<Pi^h'. cause to come, l)riny. — 
See Chald. gl. n:cd, and add Syr. |^ aljle, -'^z] 
be able. 


UIUA." gentleness, clemency, pardon. — • Xw Jl.g.*v be smooth, 
level, III. J^Lw be kind to. Ileiue I'lHUA .' be gentle, 
pardon ; and the verb. adj. <?^A't'lWUA. \ gentle, gi^acious. 

WAfi: obsol., TUAfi: and gen. TUAfi-t:: three. — See Chald. 

gl. n^n. 

njAii*E: or TiiAi^^: f. — ■i'e^: oi — a^: an i ujAn: 

f. UIAfi^: (Ar. X.Jli) //^/r^. 

UJA-fi: three, with nonns of time, as <^A^ ! an;! A>A,^!! 

UJZ.^: rise (the sun). — See Chald. gl. T\T\. 

UJ4»: sackcloth; pJ. 103»^: AW3»*: AW3'3»^:: See 

Chald. gl. pD. 
wo: inipf. ^UJOro: subj. ^TU-<^: .wcrifice. — The Phoeii. 
nyilf (inscr. Massil.), denoting ;i particular kind of ofler- 
ing, seems connected with this verb. 
<P\Kj<po^: a sacrifice: \A. ^UlOrO : cPWTCl:^^:: 

Cih<^l impf. .PCrh4»i subj. ^Cfl^^ ■ be distant, retire. — 
Set! (^haid. gl. ppl"^. 
Cfh-4> : ( (oi-ni ma^), r. Crh^^ : (rihhiikt) distant. 

remote . C^^* • <^U^ ! slo)r to anyer , forbeemng 
(^"^t^T' ^?<n^^ Gesenius, Cann. Saiiinrit. II. 19). 
l^<P<f^\ not used. IV. KQ<P<P'. be silent, tr(UK]uiL 

Z,flP: iinpf. £Z,ri! subj. ^LS\,\ put or place (hence willi 
a: or AOA: lay to ones account, impute, chap. I. 14): 
do or make. 

C-flO: obsol., ^-flO: and gen. ACQ'^*.' /^z//'. — See Cli. 

Ä-n^^: — '^^: i. Ä-fi^se^: — ^^: and la\<3\ 

f. ^'n^^^: (Ar. LlJ /bwr//^. 
C?ijfi." ^/^6' /<'^rt'^/; 1)1. ÄC?iÄ^" See Chald. gl ij'n. 
C?iP: inipf. ^Z,^: subj. £CA£: hnper. C^: inf. C?i£: (for 

C^f :) ^•^^'. — Ar. ^^\y Heb. "NT. 
Z,^fl : inipf. ^Z,5l'fl : />/r/, obtain ; befall or happen to, 

with ace. of the person, chap. I. 7, 8. 
C'f'P: impf. £Z>^: and JBC^^ subj. £C0£.' take to pasture, 

tend a flock. VIII. 'fZ.DP : /^^^, graze. — See Chald. 


a: ^^//, indeed; always aflixed (o olhei- words, as ÄlAI 

A<?^0: inipf. ^tv<p<)\ /tear. — See Syr. gi. '^.lo^. 

ti<^\ a name ; fame or renown (as in Ileb. D^'n yit'JN Gen. 

VI. 4, CiJ^'-^^^JN Num. XVI. 12, n.;i'-">tnN*2 p^]i Cen. 

IX. 26, rather tlian (he tenis of Slieni"). — See 

Chald. gl. CLJ^. 
jiTi^^: the sky, heaven: jil. i'i<^JP'>:: See Chald. gl. N">CK'. 

— 88 — 

A*P: inipt'. ^tl^: )vaicr, irr'ujate. — Ar. ^Ju^ give to 
drink, irriyate ; Heb. n|:^^ri; Arain. ipir'N, > . n a^) , ni?-^**A 
and <Tl?^ (Pa"el). 

fifll ?^'//^/^,, whilst \ after. 

A-flih! impf. ^fbilfh: praise, (jlorify. — See Cliald gl. n2li'. 
fl-fl*'!^: p7'aisc , laudation. — Ar. ks\ju*, prayer, a 

fillZ,: impf. ^fl-flC: hreak. VII. l^A-nZ,: pass., iinpf. 
^AflC^ (yessabar) for ^l'flHCi a usual assimilation 
in Aeth. (e. g. (D^iUJUlflX?^ : and I wilt answer tliem, 
(D^flQfh: and may he celebrated) , wliich takes place 
also before "t" : III ! S ." H : Ä : 9 .' .' For the Arab., comp. 
such forms as o«.iaj , j/'jo , t^i>LX.o.j , jj_5-^7-*^:? ' "' 
the kur-an, for o^iaJCj, w^^lXAt^ ^^'<X»^i^ ? ij^)^'^'' 
for the Heb., see Geseiiius' Gram. §. 53, 16. edit. — 
See Chald. gl. idh. 

MXh\ coll. man, mankind, people (a single Individ, is •flJiri: 

f. -nJiai-:). 

filial! impf. ^I'l'll'ii: imper. fi-ll^Jl! proclaim, preach. 

fi-UHl'l" ! proclamation , preach iny. 
Al-P: in)i)f. £A-1-: sul.j. ffil-^: drink. — See Chald. 

gl. KPt^. 
AJ-Ji ! ///<" wr.r/ day , the day after : the second day of 

t/ie week. 

ill^! tlic next day. iV\h,^\ ne.xt day (the fern. sidf. 

refers to OA^:). Ar. ^b" (vulg. ^jLj), f- ^^'^ •"»'<^'- 

cond, Heb. iJlt'', f. n^JIi'. 
iX^A I from the Heb. hy^p. — See Syr. gl. "^o-.^. 

— 89 — 

tihi '. inipf. JBfbh'i '. he nnahk. 

A(irri(D: not used. — Ti'ififi^: walk. — Heb. ^'^^i! lead. 
'Khiifi \ coU. animals, cattle. — Comp. Ar. jU^Lo from 
^^A walk ; Syr. |-Jaij,L goods, 7vealth (orig. flocks, 
he?'ds), from ^<^--, (Aeth. Cii'. Heb. ^n, Chald. L:ri"l 
Sam. W^, V. fm^A) rw;?. 

ftXIl^: not used. VII. 't'fl^c^: «^(? plunged in, immersed, 

^AA mipf. JB*AA : subj. JB^AA ! be light, easy. IV. 

A4>AA ! lighten, make easy : hold light, despise. — 

See Chald. gl. bbp. 
4»AJi! an abyss; pi. ^AJP^" 
*UJA: impf. £$W^: /r/^//, scourge, chastize. 

^4»UJ4^^ : « ^/6>/«> or stripe, chastisement ; pi. — i"^;: 
^•t'A: impf. £*^A.: Ä77/. — Ar. jJa>, Heb. ^^|"3, Aram, ^^^i:?, 

*I»A-: M^? voice, sound. — See Syr. gl. vl. 

^^<P\ impf. S'^^<^'' be in front, precede, anticipate. — 

See Syr. gl. >o,_d. 

^^<^\ the begi?ming ; adverb, ace. '^R'<P\ in front, in 

presence of, before; with suff. ^^<^^\ elc. — Ar. 

^tXi' olden time, Ileb. Dip., Syr. ]iDfl, Chald. pOTp, 

Sam. -^T?. 

^^(^ '. adv. before, formerly: H*i>JJl<^: former. — 
Chald. Clp, Syr. >o-k^.^; Ar. *.JtX* <>/<^, ancient, 
etei'nal; Heb. Dnj:? Mt' /;•<>//<, ///6' ^y/.v/. 

— 90 — 

*P^cFi: *ie^^: and — ^f : 1. — tf^4i^: and - 

C%^: first. 
«l»c/no: not used. VIII. •\:^'^\}\ impf. £^$^1^7; he indig- 
nant at, disgusted ?vith. 'V^^^J^'. i^Ct-'. /te was 

weary of his life, cliap. IV. 8. — Comp. *Iftfll! and 

Heb. Dip, ^\'^. 
*l*oÄZ,! hedge in, surroujid. — Ar. yoJi set limits to, re- 

strain, imprison, shorten, cut short; yM23 be short; 

Heb. iijf3, ij^p. Cognate radicals, xh&Z,: yojs^, J^, 

Cbald. -i:^n. 

4»ÄC* a hedge, wall; castle. — Ar. l»ai' a castle; 

cognate woids, Heb. "i^in a courtyai'd, . L.»aÄ. a fortress, 

'iyfJb^S" a cattle-pen, in Chald. N'la'in. 


11 : in, at or near, by, with, etc. — See Chald. gl. 3. 

•flUA I : This verb is very irreg. The perf. "flUA : is 

only used in the sense of contradict , oppose. In 

the signif. of say , speak, we find as perf. s. 3 ni. 

fa: f. ^a: 2 m. ^a: f. ^aa.: 1 m. f ?\f)>: pi. 
3 m. jjftA: f. ^a^: 2 m. -^aA: f. n-a^: 1 m. f. 

^a.'! The a: however reappears in the apocopated 
forms when they lake a sutf. , as JBaAJ, .' faA?:.' 
Imperf. f-OA: subj. .EHA: imper. HA: inf -n^A" 
IV. AflA: VII. -r-nOA: IX. -TQUA: say lo one an- 
other, contradict one another, dispute. 
flAU! impf. ii/lAO: subj. J?*!! AD! swallow, eat. devour. — 
See Clialil. i^l. ypD. 

— 91 — 

QfhC' the sea, a lake, a large I'iver (comp. d"", Ij); pi. 

A-fifhC^ :: Ai. JÄJ. 

•flxibC: a country, nation; pi. -flrfbZi^: and n'ha)'C^ ! : 

Ar. Sw^!L3. 
fl»poA: anil R^A: iiiipf. fn*P^A.: shoot forth, sprout. — 
Ar. JlL. Hence i\^k\ a plant, Ar. JlL, Syr. jLos. 

•n2in: impf. £-n?ifi: be bad, ?vicked, difficult. VIII. -l-flAii: 
or IX. 't'QAfl: use violence, strive, fight. — See CIi. 
gl. ^^1. 
■fi/^ful a man, a person. 'fl/\A.^! a woman. 

pa: impf. ^nor^i: subj. ^a?i: imper. QA: enter. IV. 

A-flA:: Heh. xl3, Ar. eb retm'n. 
flU"?: (^6? numerous. 

•flpf'i: (form ■na':^), f. -fill's^: (bizzukht) w^/r>^, w^;?^. 
n.l': /^^y^^ M-T' /^/jy/f/. — Ar. cjU, impf o^aa:5, Aram. n3, 

impf. n^2^ 2^, impf za^^, A3, impf. A/Tl^fn. 

ft^: a house, temple; pi. A-AJP^!.' Ai". ^.u/Ij, lieb. IT'S, 
Plioen. n2, pi. DPiD (inscr. Sidon.), Aram. Nn;>2, Nfl^S, 

n.BJ! between, among; for, on account of — • Ar. Aaj 
interval, from ^^U '^'^' separate, ^L between , among : 
Heb. 1^3, Aram. ^2, ]i3, 'jlHlS- Usually comp. with 
2\<^: 'h'i-fijii'. because, on account of, concerning; or 
Q: Afl^il and flfl^f^: between, among, on account 
f/ (comp. llie forms in Heb. ""jis, nl>3, Aram, i^ia, nj"'3, 

m^^: ^/ .s//r^y^, pi. AQ-io:: f ni^^: pi. aqio^:: 

— 92 — 

n/?/h: impf. JJflÄrh: subj. ^-flHfh: cojne to, reach lo ; 

fl'&AI vow. 

•n^Ai": a vow. 

^h.'t'. under, adv. do?v}i. fld'fh't: below, beneath; Ar. 

Oi^JO (%J0. 

— See Chald. ffl mnn 


■l'CAjfi: ti'"'ll'~in, Tartessus. 
't'^QH: impf. ^"t^aH: be sad, grieved. 
^*0*H ! grief, soi^row. 


•JA.* : iiiipf. ?'i\<^ '. fail, perish. — Ai-. (^.Jli- be wo?'n out 

(a dress). 
•JAZL! impf. V'i^^'. pass by, over, or away., peinsh. — 

Heb. p]^n. 
•Jfi: ^6>, into; at, near; according to. With sufT. "JftP ! etc. 
•JflZ.: and 'i'iXl^'. be united. — See Chald. gl. "iDH. 

•ifl'C^ (form lis':) united; adv. ace. fifbZ.! together. 
^PA: impf. Ji'i.Efi: ^tf better, preferable. 
-iXi: impf. P-J;?"2: subj. .E'iJ?"^: /6^«^^, forsake. Jfi^li'. 

QfhC" that the sea way leave us, i. e. 7nay subside, 

go down. 
•i'i'h: impf. P-J^Ji: not to find, not to have. VII. •t"J^A: 

not to be found, be concealed, withdraw secretly, ab- 

scond. — Ar. ^Ja-=^ <<"d \1qä\ ntiss one's aim in 

shdoliiig, wheiKT Jais* go astray, .wf, '^^"h'. a sinner; 

~ 93 — 

Heb. i<i2r\ (eoiiip. espec. .lub V. 24. Nisrin i<b) ?]1J n"]p.D1 
«;?</ //^6»^/ .s7^ä// survey thy flocks and not miss any- 
thing), Aram. N^on, |^, A^l^, 01^^. 


f." enclitic interrog. particle. Cliap. I. 6, II. 5, IV. '2. 4. 
£: enclit. part. /'^?^?, also, even. 

5/hZ.: inii)f, JJ^fhC: 5/?wv'. — Ar. I^jo, Syr. j.^; Heb. 
"in; the sfiofiiny of a horse. 

iWÄ: inipf. £iWK: siibj. £lmK: imper. lUlA: ///? ?^/?, 
take, receive. IV. AlW/^; //^ up ^ awake or rouse, 
excite , raise the dead ; whence is formed as pass. 
tlWA: rise. VII. ^fiWA: ^^ taken. IX. -t-fWA: 
mv^ ?//; against, rebel. — Ar. LAj /7^6' , _(//-^/^' ?^/; ; 
Heb. ^t\, Aram. N'^J, A"^^ (Pa"el, uprear, Gese- 
nins, Carm. Samarit. XII. !.":>). 

ijflffi! impf. ^ififh! repent of, regret. 

ifl*2! ^^/((^ a door. 

cPMi: or ^l£ii: a boll: pi. cPffil^:: 

i4>D: be cleft, gape. — Ar. «jij rend, tear, Heb. J7pj; 

Aram, jjp;, }.sn3, rtr <;?/^<7/« (?4»0: a fountain, ^ ^//>^^>/ 

of stagnant water). 

14» 0^: /7 r/r/*!^, fissure. 
i{\L,\ impf. .Ei-nC' Av/, remain, dwell. 

cPlnC: ^/ sm/, throne; \A. cPf-flC : <:Pi''nC-t':: Ar. 

w»Jjo, pi. oUx), (^/ raised seat, s|)ec. ^/ pulpit. 

-_ 94 — 
ifin: impf. JBi-n-n: speak. 

ia^: a prophet; pi. iaj*^:: 1. ia^i*: or ja^:: 

Hence "tiflP : prophesy, ^la^.' fl- prophecy. — See* 
Chald, gl. ^s*2J. 
^I-P'E: a sailor; pi. ^T^P^: (for — J'CD'J*^:). — Ai 

^^y>-> pl- (^"'^5 ^''y- From Gr. vavTrjg. 

ii's: ii^: ni:^:, Mneveh. 

'i'htv'. inipf. JBlTifi." be sntall, youny. 

I^fi: (form n^a'p), f. 1?ifi^: (ni'Tist) and i\tv\ 
(as if from a masc. i/') .v/;/<///, youny. In the Him- 
yaritic inscr. dW (Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's Tra- 
vels, p. 384). 

CcJ=: impf. jeiarc?^: subj. £J-<?^: .?%;. I v. K1<S^\ impf. 
Ji(ir<^: ;;^rt'A-6' .yZ-'YyA — Ar, j^li, Heb. DJ, Syr. >J. 

"iT^: r//*'?^ iitfiisU , pot or vessel, implements^ apparatus, 
7vealth\ pi. ITJ*^:: 

io: or i^: f^w<?.^ f. ^^: pi. m. lo: f. 3f^:: 

i°llUJ: impf. £ilW: r<?/](7;^ Z'<? ///.f^. — Ar. jii.ÄJ rt'r/t'^, 
chase, hunt; Heb. t^jj. 


17-W: (form-ia^), a kiny : pi. ?7W^: f. l-iW^: (niggust), 
Ä queen; pi. I'^Wd'^!! Fiom anollier form i3Ut.: the 
Arabs have derived the name they give (o the kings 
of Aethiopia, ^l:suj| . 
ilZ.: im|)f. ^nC: /^'//, r^/<7/^'. 

ilJ?: impf. JEJ1.1.*": .sr/ ^/// (?// ^/ Journey, depart. — Syr. 
^ (lra?r, also yo, as .lolin XI. 7 (ed. Bernstein) o^.^ 
s^oz 70 ov^ '^fp rr>w^, A"/ //,y yo ayain to Judaea (see 

— 95 — 

Chald. gl. under i]j); comp. Genn. in ein anderes 
Land ziehen, and Ital. trui^rc. 
i^ti'. hi^eaih, the soid, life; i4tjflP: / myself. — See 
Chald. gl. 15'SJ. 
i^t\.\ the ?vind: pl. 14."^^ •■ 


K'- not. When pref. to any part of a verb commencing 
with the letter h'. it converts it into P." as h.JP?i<3^C: 
he did not know (for h.A?\d^Z,:), h.£c^/h!a: shall I 
not have pity ? (for h.^<?='fhYi:). — Heb. in (e. g. tpriN 
Job. XXII. 30, m2D-\S; comp. /ii.'t-0-nP- : humility). 

'hAW See H:: 

?iA4^ '. ten thousand, a myriad; pi. KK\^ '. KK\^^ ! : 
Ar. v^f, Heb. f]^n, Aram. nd'^N, ilx\ A^ZA, all 
sign, a thousand, in which sense ?iA.-4^ ! seems also 
to be employed. 

'K<P\ if — See Chald. gl. ex. 

5i<p! K<?^i." //WW, «;e;<7y from, out of, of, etc.; after an adj. 
than. — See Chald. gl. p. 

K<Pl,'. inipf ^K<PQ\ point out, show. IV. KK(f*l,'. know, 
^^ «^/^ (comp. Turk, dl^j hilmek , Fr. savoii') , iinpf. 

^^<pc: subj. .p?i<pc:: 

TicP-li^:: See (D-li*" 

^<?^i ! triist, believe, believe in (with fl ! ) , assert as true. 

VIII. '\'}\(Pi'. trust to or confide in, believe. — See 

Chald. gl. "jDN. 

— 96 — 

'ti<^i'.: See 2i<p:: 

'titiiP'. ('sma), /br, because. 

?ifi^: ('ska), to, up to, as far as, till; adv. and conj. 
until, that, in order that. Conip. Ar. ^J^^- 

Al'l'". impf. PAl"^: depart, pei'ish (comp. Heb. Tj^H go. 
Ar. JLLo die ; j^s^ go, xJ.aaaU ^.o.vo he has gone 
his way, is dead; j>Lj, Turk. Ajo gitmek, our owii 
he is gone, etc.). IV. htv\"t\ impf. J*A^^: cause to 
depafi, re?)iove, take off. 

hi'. 1; with the enclit. fi! it becomes A?ä:: pi. Irlii!! See 
Chald. gl. }<^x, 

'Kiti^v. See AarAO):: 

Al^Ä"! a gate, door\ pi. Af^Ä" From a rad. i^Ä." con- 
nected with i4»D ! be cleft, «Jjij, D[^J pierce, etc. (comp. 

?\3nA: and WtyiiiX'. prep, and conj. without, besides, ex- 
cept, unless, before that. The latter member of this 

s ^ 
comp. word i.s obscure (Jb .9/^/^<^, condition?); the for- 
mer is clearly jij^ ?iot (comp. 'hl'flPi or 2i1fi; lil. it 
is not in me, / wont, "Ki-fiV. -flMA: refuse; ?\1^^: 
lit. it is not my knowledge or opinion, perchance, 

Al-r: thou, f. Ki-t: pi. m. A^^cP-: f. A^I-^:: See Chald. 

gl. njN. 

Til-r: f. W//r//. See H" Hence 'K'i±}\Y'. —H\'. etc. 7}iine, 
thine, etc. nJil't*: for, on account of\ flJil-irAP: on 
my account, etc. (comp. 'piJ'2 and ^■'"'s)- 

"A"?^ ! then, therefore. 

— 97 — 
"hYJl llwn , tluTcfore ; usually preceded by (he iuterrog. 

enclit. f-.'.' 
KH>\ not. 
A^P: impf. PAYl.: be bad, wicked. 

5\^£: 7vickedness ; pi. 2i^J*^:: 

?i^.E: (form -iiD^) 7mcked, f. 2\^^ : (ikklt, for5\!n.E^: 

as u>dAj, pi. of (jÄAjf ^i*/??'/^, for uä-o), as a subst. 

evil, a misfoj'tune. 

ä(dp(d:: See D(d-P(d:: 

AHH: impf. ^h.'H'H: wW^;-, conwiand. VIII. -I-AHH: <?%. 

In (lie Himyaritic inscr. TTN (Rodiger's Transl. of Well- 

sted's Travels, p. 380). 
AJB: irho, which, ivhat? A£*t: whei'e? whithei'? Ac^^A^-t: 

whence? ■ — See Cliald. gl. \s, |N. 
A.FA! lonnij, Joppa. 
'hR'. the hand, with siiff. AÄU-: etc. pi. ASOr: and AAJPOr:: 

See Chald. gl. ii. 
Aac: the foot; pi. AlC: and AA3C:: Ar. J^-; (in the 

viilg. dial, of Syria y^V}-, Heb. Sn? Aram. nJjji, u I^ 

A'iaA'fifibC : : See 7"ha:: 


"ft^A.: (k'l5) m. f., ^JUA.'fr: m., MAA.-!:: r. //^'tf. — Ar. 
"is, f. Ulr, Uir, both: [leb. c\x^r ///yy M%.v of 
diffei'cnl sorts. Heme 'UAA ." f. "^IAA'^ : other, another. 

W-A-: ace. 'il''A°: //('<? totality, the whole; all, whole. — See 
Ciiald. gl. hz. 

— 98 — 

Ki(f^'. as, ii/ce; conj. //<«/, in order that, in which sense it 
is followed by the subj., as ^<^: JP^AJt: ih<PC<^: 
in order that they might lighten their ship. HHK^'. 
according to, as. — See Chald. gl. D. 

\i^^\ the belly, the hold of a ship.' — See Syr. gl. uojj. 

^1*: ace. ^^-l-: 7vfiat is vain or futile (^zn, p^^., i<i:^'); 
Yll-1-: and a^l*: in vain {p^^^, pn^, i^lti^^.). 

H>i'. impf. ^^arl: subj. ^¥>?: be, become. Like Ar. ^jl?, 
H>i\ has the accus. after it; e. g. (DitWi: A2i<:P: 

'Pi: ^5*4:*: (not -*:) jfs.^i: ^jj.u-: iiuj: (not 

— W : ) K<?^ JiJili '' '' and the king , if he become a 
heretic, is no longer king from that time. — Ar. ^, 
Phoen. p, impf. jrt (inscr. Eryc. 1. 3, Massil. 1. 3, 4, etc. 
Sidon. 1. 8), Syr. ^. — The orig. signif. of the rad. 
|1D is be erect, stand; comp. Sanskrit stha, stare, with 
Pers. vULp (is), Fr. ctre (old estre), Span, estar. 


01 and; it must sometimes be transl. by in order that, 

as chap. I. 11. <?^ii: : 2ii^ : Ua^ : (Df^^li: 

QfhCI ^2^^«/ then shall 7ve do unto thee that the sea 
may subside (lit. leave us)'^ in which case it is follow- 
ed by the subj., as ; and o in Arabic. 
(DA.«*: impf. ^(DA^-: subj. JBA^: beget, bring forth. — Arab, 
jj^, Heb. lb], Aiam. t^;, ^^ TM. 
(DA..^: a son, and in gen. a boy, youth; [A. dVA-M''.'. 
Ar. Jj^, Heb. -\y\, I'^i, Aram. |^'^ TiOl- — <DA^: 

— 99 — 
(for (DA.^^:) a daughte?- , a girl; pi. ATA..^^: and 


OrihH: inipf. jedTrhH: subj. PAH: flo?v. 

(DiC<D: impf. JL'SL'. thro?v. — Heb. nn\ 

(DZ.J?: impf. ^(S>C^\ subj. Jil^R-'. imper. U^'. go down, de- 
scend. — Heb. "11^, Ar. 3^ 5 gen. in the restricted sense 
of ^<? /<? fi?/7WÄ-, tUJt 4>,^ or e^LJt ^l^ t>*^. 

(D'fi't*: in, into, on, upon; with suff. (D'fi'fe^:: flCDfi't': 


within. Connected with (D'fi'S*: h^l the interior, 

Ja.Zz in the midst of. 
(D-»5m: impf. JB(D-^^: subj. P'J'P: swallow. 
(D-Tii^: f. ^?i-t: >^d?, *>^^, zV; pi. m. (SfK^C^\ f. (D-h-tl: 

and m. "A^^^'l't: f. 5i^ll5: (comp. Chald. ]"isn). — 

See Chald. gl. Nin. 
(DDA: impf. ^QTOA: pass the day. 

<}A^\ a dag; pi. OAi*^" 

<P\3^^\ and *PUA^: a day; pi. cPTCiA" 
(D-OP: impf. JiOr^: subj. PO^: be burnt. IV. AflTUP: 

impf. J*(D''^i (yäwe'f) subj. ^fl)*^: (yäw'i), burn, scorch. 
(D^A: impf. £(D^A: sul)j. Jig A: imper. ^A: ^^ out. IV. 

A(I)'^A: impf. JP(D^A: subj. JP(I)'OA: bring out, cast 

out, emit. XIII. Afi't'Tv'jA: (ir/^y out piece by piece, 

in succession, lay out money. — See Syr. gl. ^i^. 


^}A<p: any period of undefined length, eternity, the ?vorld: 

pl. ^A^^: ages. — See Chald. gl. cH'- 
\)<PW. impf. X:^!f.<P<i\ act unjustly. — lleb. D??n injure. 

— 100 — 

oppress, |*?:^in, |^1?:>n an oppi'csso?- (see Geseniiis' The- 
saurus ; and as to the interchange of U! and n, 
comp. Z,^fi: zy-i he hungry, OBS: J..,fl»=* t'<^ap), mo- 
dern Syr. ^v^'^ [Rodiger's Chrestoni. Syr. p. 139. 1. 5. 
)j1i . .v^v^.^^ jjL^aj '^i |3 , £,j5 ^ ajjparently : //««/ Satan 

may not violently hiflict Injury (Pers. ^jGv) ?//»6>;^ ■'^^<?]. 

0d®9.' injustice, wickedness. — Heb. Dcn. 
owe: obsoL, ^W^: ^WC: and gen. DUJC*: ten. — 

See Cliald. gl. icy. 
op: impf. POCi: snbj. JiCiZ.^ : Äi-m^^/. — Ar. .U.. 
0Z,A: not used. IV. K<3L,lu\ he quiet, stop, remain, rest. 
<^<) Zn-^'. place at ?vhic/t to stop,place of rest ; section, chapter. 
OAn: hire. IX. -t^ftn: hire. 
OAP: mipf. POa: rarely ^^fi,: subj. f^JiA,: imper. <J^'. 

repay, requite ; pe?'fo?in, fulfil a vow. 

D4»fl: impf. P04»-fl! watch, observe, keep, guard, pre- 
serve. VIII. •PD^n: 7vatch narrowly, espec. with an 
evil design (whence (P^^-iW snares, wiles). — - Heb. 
2p,y lie in wait for, deceive or circumvent, niipj? 
craft, wile. 

^^•fl^*E : n^y , Hebrew. 

O-flP! be great, large. — lleb. n^J? be thick, dense, fat (Saui. 
^3V), riry thicken, condense, Syr. ■ >^v harden ones heart. 

uaji: f. 00 ji: ^/w/, /«/^6'; pi. m. ua.P'J: and 
uii^'p: I. ua.P'p:: 

O^fl/il Ä /Ä/y^? fish, ;i word iiscil lo express Ihe (ir. 
y.7]T0(^. — Ar. ^ajL£ (Ibe rnnn U":JnC: in AeHi. seems 

— 101 — 
UlflH! faint, he faint, fainthearted, despond. — Coiinctied 
with (j/aa£ he dark, jLj^ faint twiliyht (conip. ^^j;, ^y^-) 

OdrPCD: ini[)f. pop: cj-y out, lament. — Ar. ^"ys, howl, 
^:l JPl^ the jackal (Heb. c^N* from a rad. nix); Syr. 
]iil^ |o and |o|o. 

^J?: go 7'ound. — Heb. *ilj? surround. — Hence OCD'.^! 
a circle, an asscmhly (conip. 'isXs^). 
<P0T?r: circuit. The passage chap. III. 3. (Dc^^^^T^?: 4»/? A: 
'K<^Ki^S.\ AAl^Ä" ; seems inaccurately expressed, 
since the words 'K<pKh^K\ AÄ?*fÄ: imply measure- 
ment in a straight line from one side to the other. 

UJi5: the eye, a fountain; pi. K<)yLV\^\\ See Syr. gl. ,__.^. 

<)^\ a man, as opposed to Kitv\^\ (anest) a ivoman ; 
pi. <)^(sr\\ 

U'i't: impf. PDl^: surround. 

UX0: '\\\\\)t POÄ-: close, shut. — Ar. Laaa hind up a 
wound; j«.o^l, Heb. r.^j;, ^'/t'A^^ the eyelids. 
OÄ(ir: (form -is';^) f OA-^I <:'/05<?^/, .s-//«^. 

UWCD: not used. IX. -t^eCD : impf JB^^eflr: cast lots. 
Denom. from 

<3^\ a tree (also the C7'0ss or gallows), ivood, a lot 
[for purposes of divination ^^ Arabs used to employ 
small unfeathered arrows, or similar pieces of wood, 
with certain marks upon diem; comp. Ezech. XXI. 20, 
and see Gesenius' Thesaurus, art. DCp]. — Ar. La^ 
a staff, spear, Hel). i^j; a tree, wood (com[». Phoen. n^ 
innid = Heb. ny.S inscr. Tugg. 1. 6. "i^^ Ctl'^nn the 

— 102 — 

cutters of wood, i. e. carpenters; according to Augus- 
tine, iar)\ Aram. j;n% ^^J;, AV, ^V, alsoNC'ip, \Aj1. 
nop I produce ivorms. Denom. from 

O^: a worm, maggot, cateiyillar ; pi. ^^SJP^" 


H : f. 'Ki'V \ 7vho, 7vhich, that; pi. m. f. 2iA : '. Like tlie cog- 
nate n in tlie Aram, dialects, it is used to circumscribe 
the genit., as ^"H^^C^ H.^'E^: a psalm of David, 
^M^: H8;?-^l: (DH:5^?i5: a description of the 
7'ighteous and of sinners, HA^^Ä '. ?i1't \ 'hlW.K'iXiibQ.'. 
this is the gate of the Lord. It is also used as a 
conj. that. — See Chald. gl. n. 

*H: accus. H! f. H\ this, that; pi. in. JiA! f. 2iA" Hence 
'O.cP'H: thus, 2i<p"H: after this. 

m*: ace. Hl-t-: f. H-t: ace. Hf : this, that; pi. m. JiApl*." 
ace. — -r: f. KAl-t: ace. —1-:: "HTb: and H^ft-t: 
ace. — !•: m. f. ///^ly, /Ä«(f; pi. KA.^: and ^^A^ft't: 
ace. — "t " With these difTerent forms comp. Ar. 
Ij, f. ^6 (^^*, b), pi; s!^^!; vJto, f. db-, dLu, pi. 
iJljSl.l; Himyar. inscr. T (Rodiger's Transl. of Wellsted's 
Travels, p. 384, 388, 398), p" (p. 398); Heb. m. n.', 
f. "iT, nt, n^JT, m. f. n, pi. '"wS, n'^N*; Phoen. t m. f. 
(inscr. Sidon.), sgth f. (Plant. Poenul. I. 1, 1), jT (inscr. 
Sidon.); Aram, p, "^T, "l, f- Nl> "^X "^l^, pl- j^'^.N*, 
^mZA, T]-'n; in the Egypt, dial. "•?, f. «: (Gesenius, 
Monum. Phoen. p. '242). 

n'riZ.: ini|)r. X*1I51C: subj. fH'flC: remember, be mindful of 
Vlll. 'I'HTlC' remember, recollect. — See Chald. gl. ID". 




VCFt'i'. the right side, right hand. — See Cliald. gl. ]iD\ 
P-flft : inipf. X^P-ftA : dry up, wither. — See Cljalcl gl. ]i;2\ 

P-flfi: the d?'ij land. 
Pffl! Itovag, Jonah. 
£'h't'.: See (D-Ji-t::: 
fXtt: ^wi*. — Comp. of Zh: = t^Vi fhis (as in ^X-t:), 

and a subst. denoting äme, which appears in liie Ar. 

jf, 16 (, ?^/^^;?, t^lUsä. Ihen, ^\'^\^ then, Heb. TN, Aram. 

in'"?. ' ^iTlTA, and Aeth. ^TiHI ?«^//<?/^? 

.i?(^: /Voo^/. — See Chald. gl. ci. 

JJ.fl! above, upon, on; with sufT. X.fttM etc. 

S-flC-' a mountain; pi. A^fQC- Sam. -^S^, Heb. "ns^; con- 
nected with Chald, -i^l: (see Chald. gl.). 

^fii! i^<^' safe, sound. TV. h^fi'. save, preserve, impf. 
JP^"^?: (yadekhen), subj. JP^'il: (yadkhen). 

SIcP: iinpf. JiJ?"2<p: ^/^ again, reiJeat , reiterate (comp. 

T T ' T ■ ' 

J?1<?=>: second; adv. ace. .>?'icP: a second time, again. 
JP'i^'E: and — <?^J2: f. — i'^Tl': -<?^^: second. 


1-nZ.: imi)f. X'i-nC: subj. XiaC: ^/r/, do, work. — Ar. 
11^ set a broken limb, strengthen; Heb. "inS, Aranj. 
"132, ^31, r=4^i, ^^ *^''<?^^- As to the form, comp. 

— 104 — 
Ar. J^4^ act, do, whence J^ practice, as opp. to 


JU theory. 

l-flC: «5- .v^/^<? or servant; pi. Al-flC^:: See Chald. 

gl. -121 

■tlQC" ^i'w^e'^ occupation. 

<^1QC' ^^'«^ of acting, conduct, acta, res gestae; pi. 

liP: impf. J2*2£! i^^ humble or sub??iissive to, serve or 
<)i5'<?y, praise and thank God in a humble spirit. IX. 
■t'DiP ! humble onesself, confess one's sins, give thanks 
to God. — Ar. tl^, III. bU, VI. tUu, M ;?r^- 
strate, Aram, n*::; , jX^ lie down. 

*1UZ,: and ^Ci^: crij out, esp. from pain, groan. — Ar. 
"IL^ cry out, Heb. n^^^, Syr. j^.^, chide. 
l^C: outcry, groaning. 

IHA:: a conmion verb in Amhäric in the form 1W. pos- 
sess, rule; also found by Rodiger (transl. of Well- 
sted's Travels, p. 398) in (he Himyaritic inscr. under 
the form w:. 

MH.'h: a ruler ov master ; voc. MH.^:: pi. h'XhH^'. 
and sometimes hThiv^ '. '. Hence TilKLA-OilbC •' God 
(lit. the Lord of (he Earlii). — As (o its furm,Ma2^: 
seems related to the intensive adj. of the form Jjtif in 
Arab., of which formati(jn to.s, zdn*, and |n\x, are 
remnants in Heb. 

IXIu : impf. Ziy^'^ ' throw away, reject, abandon, neglect. — 
Ar. *JjJ (see the Arab. (ex(, (liaj». 11. II). 



— 105 — 
"JÄ"! (he face, countenance, surface, front. 

l-^^ls.'^ overturn, destroy. VII. 1*14^^^: Ije ovei'turned, 

destroyed. Appar. comp. of \SjL tilt over a vessel and 


pour out its contents , dash to the ground, and Ucs 

break. Cognate words in actual use in Aeth. are 14^0: 
attack, insult (Ar. il^. dash to the ground, \1^ in- 
sult), and &,^'V\ break (Heb. riD, Ar. v^U). 


'J^^ ! t^f??'^, excessively. 

IIl^tA! (5'd? e.vtinguished, perish. IV. Ä^4tA! extinguish, de- 
stroy. — Ar. ^e^b, Cliald. t^sip, "idd. 


AAA ! impf. ^ÄAA ! give shade, overshadow. 

ÄAA°^: shade, shadow. — See Chald. gl. hh^. 

ÄAP: inipf, JiÄA.: pray, vow. — See Chald. gl. vb'^. 

äA?^! prayer ; pi. ÄAfit^.'.' 
Ä<:^© : not used. III. f^(P(S> \ labour, bestow labour upon, be 

distressed or afflicted. 
ÄCih • a temple or palace ; pi. AÄÄih : : Ar. Jo , 

Heb. nnv- 
äCJ: rr?/ r>w^. — Ar. X>^, II<?b. n~ii', Chald. ^nii^<; i" 

Syr. we find iLLMioT a harsh cry, as oi" an eagle, 

peacock, etc. 

ÄÄ'5! rt' fry. — Ar. ^Ij-o. 

— 106 — 
^<p: impf. 28l(S'<^'. fast. — See Chald. gl. DV:.*. 

/tcp: a fast; pi. AÄT<p:: 
Ä(DO: and ÄOro: impf. f ÄCD-O I cry out, call, invoke. — 

Ar. 'Lo, Heb. m^, j;^lJ'', Aram. niH, V^-iTl. 

Ä^* : ^<!? y^/^^, ^^ truthful, tell the truth. — Ar. ^Jc^ 
tell the truth, (jjcX-o truth, sinceiity ; Heb. pi'a' ^<? 
/?/*Y, Syr. s_D? j 7>/^/, p?'oper, fitting, Heb. p"iK, Aram. 
j^?l , ^T^fTl , what is just and right, justice, law. 

i^.?'4> .' just, veracious. 


13 'hf; ^///' sun. — Ai\ (fiÄo //^^? time ivhen the sun is 
/!/f^/< ^///^ shines brightly , the sun ; \^ and i-^b the 

sun. Comp. also Lä^, Ärh®: he clear, ]a-*^ clear- 
ness of sky ; and see Syr. gl. w^ , . 

e3<p: //^^ /«?//', ///^' left hand. 


AAi: « ?'iver: j)l. Ä^^A'j: ^43^:." Ar. Iji ä .s-wa'// 
stream, Heb. :'?B. From a rad. ZLAl : =13: Ar. ^^JLi, 
Heb. h^^, Aram. ii'pD, ^<^, "IfZ^, separate, divide. 

Z.Aill! impr. J?Z.A.^! separate, distinguish. In (lie other 
dialects the rad. oJli, Jo'?©, w4L:iIs, means escape (see 
Syr. gl.), but the idea of cleaving or separating at- 
taches to the syll. ':'? in Ji, Sq, j^j^q, i^> 3^?» 

t07 — 

^^Jj, IJ^, rbQ, j-U, ^, ^jll, ^, nhe, a 


cognale words. 

Zi.W/fi: not used. VII. •t'-Ä.Wih: iiupf. £^ZoUI/h: r^V)/ctf, 
^(" ^/(T/G?. — Ar. 2Jal be clear, ^s^ llj « c/<?<7;- ^/^/y ; 
Syr. ^^]; gladden or more prob. connected with a>^ 
he wide , spacious ; conip. JLIj sp?'ead out , VII. 
ixllij^ ^<? ^/(Tze/, Z-uo widen, expand, VII. Z-'>-ccJl ^t' 

/.QT: iuiitf. ^Ä,C.\}'. he afraid, fear. 
^tCU^ : fear. 

lk,^7^\ iinpf. .EA^.?'' e.iamine or survey, count; wish, 

desire. — Heh. '^pB examine, survey, miss upon ex- 

amination or survey (1 Sam. XX. 6, XXV. 15); Ar. 

Juii ÄYWt what has been lost, lony for, jJii lonyiny, 

/L^<D: imuf. JBZoJ-: send. — Heh. riJB, Aram. XJO, i^a, 

jia , ...J.S, ^^3 ^''/''■'''' (vertit se), ci:d the face ; comp. 

to.; .syv/*^', ÄÄ^Ii /I'/^'v/ towards, jiÄ>: ///^' /^/r<". 

-4t(r^! ^/ /yy^/^/, journey, way of life, conduct ; pi. '^^ffl)'.' 

4^fT^:; Comp. -^i-i, nni.x, Jo^a.**-, s>a*«, ^.^joo, 
^^jJd, etc. 
/i.J?PI im[)r. .R/X' restore w make yood , re^/uite i>V)0(l or 
evil, fu/fl, jicrform. — Ar. ^^jJ, Heh. mC', ransom. 

/..'J'Z.'^ • '^^' //'/^>'/'V' ahundant, exceed, exc< /. 

A.R'^Ji''. ihe yrealcr jiarl : ;iil\. ace. — .•*! very, murh, 
wilh 'hc^'/'. m )>/■/■ ihau. 

— 108 ~ 

Afli>^' inipf. JEA^C' ci'eate. — Ar. "- U;. See Gesenius' 

Thesaurus, art. Ti?^. 

-^t^Z,^; c7-eation. — Ar. jjJai. 

z.Ä<^: inipf. ^ÄÄ<?^: ^w/, /f/^/.v/^, A//"/. viii. 'TZ.äcj^: 

pass. — Ai'. |VA2i r*'//, break, IV. (V^Äit cease: 
Heb. ciJD. 


<<: S-''-o 

t^d^\'^ ^l u^cuJl ^;3Ji5 ^^r^ ^>)l ^^ 
^^^^1 Lux ^yo iw^ '*)^5^ ^j' ^5^'i (j^r^ 5^^ «^y> 

|U <äj j^ '0^5^ c^* u*^^ ^5^ ^V' ^"*^ oJi^5 1 

jjL L^Ai ^);^4^Lj« X;t.A^!JlJt iLotX^Jf (y5rVH (Vi ^^-^^^-^ '^ 

^][ fr7^^ ^^V5^ ^^55 " ts^l -^^^5 Vt^' r'*^ cH? 

JJä.<XJ LUi-wJl ^ *-^r^5 ^Tr*' ;^^^' (C^^^^'-' U^**^)^ 

J5^ j'^^ U.?"^^^' ''-^ L37^i ' r^i*"^^^^ ck'.^-*-'^ iUxÄ^I 5 

") Ms. ^x^. ") Ms. La^. '■} Vuly. lor ^Ij^'. '') Ms. ^^ ,j . 
'■) Tlic Ms. adds ^L . 

— no — 
7 j.^'f (tXjc |V-UlJ Pr^^ l«JL«j' &-^LoJ 1*-^^ J*^)-'' JLi'^ 

^-Lc iLcyiJf cyvLoi ljX.*JCsLs LiJLLc :&l^ Jwo (^S-o (%-* 
V"*^ (^1 ;j«:^5 ^"^^5^ u:?)^ i^^ "^^^ vJ^.^ c^^5 ^^^*"^-*^ ^*^ 

(j«c auf I^^J-fi- j^UjI ^!1^U ^!^ O.JI-CO f J Uo äJ iyb^ 
1 1 Jo ÄÄ.OJ I j Ui xJ tyU I^»-*Li.| UlU ' Lov^c äJ^I j»I Jj' 

-Lb ^l ^^^ ^A^i'T ^pf f J^ ^f pi? J>% pCl^ 

14 LlLLc >,;/-w.;S5Ji Nl <^J\ Lgjl tpl-i'j twjpf ^s-c-4^5 ' (^-^^ 

J.JJI ^i jjj^ cU>^f \d^ ^j^ iu4^ !^5 ^^y'T |IcL'i 

1 6 ^j^ u-'-^l J^-V '^'^Vi 'ÄÄ.1^1 '')cJtX^^ r^-' vÄ^»^Li 

') ViilK. lor cSl. ^) Ms. U'Jii hikI U^' . '') VuIk- For ^jj^' 
') Ms. I^vi'^ 'iiid LsjJ. 

— Ill 

l.stXS. Vr'M .^H^*^ '»^^'^5 '<^<^^ '-*r' Vr^' f»ltXJ' 

*lcU> (C^' u^^ <s^S ' *-^ " O'-^^^^^ f* "' *"^ s^y^' ^ 
^^ jjli^ s^ 4U^; s?^p-' ^;;^ ^i ^; ^s-'l yj^-' 

'')Lgj^l ciJalps Jy^' JoUi j^JJ^ ^ts^') c/^-v^^'i r^' ^ 
^i 15^^ ^jiJf 0;^r ^j^5 ^iii Jl ^5 ^^i 

c>-».Ä.fc>« Vr' ^^7^«^ iS'^i'^'" 0^4-^1 ^ii^^S*- ' i5^i^ c5^) " 

^l^ ^ VrV ?^3' ^^(3o U^ ^^W*^ ^ Vr*^ jCciJ! 1 1 

4)^ (j^JuJ! (c^ (J^^ ojii cy^f oJl 

■*)Ms. &JLj^. '')Ms. Lgi-:^|. ')^^^s-;l^^'- "')^l«u^-^^'' 

112 — 

jjiifT ju^f 

3 ^*Aaj« Vr^^ J-^tP t^^ ^y^ <li ^3'^^'"' U ^ (* 5 

4 ^^^ ^)(^'^5 'r ••' ^^^ '^ftr^ 'i.4.^^a£. iLLsJoo *')^.:>j|^ 

^i«& jj^j-Lä.. Lsv^k^ u*^5 *^^ ^y^5 ^^^^T <j^ f*'^"' 

") Vulg. for (^LSy ") The Ms. adds SlUxj . '') Vuly. for jj^^ . 
*') Ms. ULwwol. "^) So Ms., according lo (he Kgyplian dialed, for Jv». 

— 113 — 

5^^^ • j jviCtXAJ jv-U [*-§-»-£ *y^)5 ^""^-^ '^y^ &yMjj\ 

^x^. f I j.s>. dU3 (^^ ^y^? '<^':^^ y^ (j^j^ uy^5 ^ 
Iii5 ^^x^TstXic ^ij |Ui v/'*^ ^' ^y'i' r''^' ^*^; ' 

oOyÄ- tXi" (j^A*/jj ^l^ cysyij v;iJiAAu dUtXJi (^4>JvJ j_j 

jjv5«oj»,^ ^oa^j ^ '"S-i, ~° * > is"" )',"'*' 'Ä'^ »«^ 

jjlj*j j^K ^J^ /*^y5 ^■^^^-^^ ^T"*^' '-^' r*' Vr' *^' ^ 

^LS^j _.^5 jOiX^Ä ^!^ ^Vt^; '^'; ts^ - -^^-^ ;'^5 

5j>.j aJJI -yA vJsfc^lf i*^! ^^i ' U-^^^^ Lä.^ (£r^^ <i^'-^ '^ 

' ^ ^ o ^""^ c ^ ' ^ ^ a ' o*^^ ^ t)-- *^-- ? o ^ *^ 

jLi'. cy«-»JI $-^i*-^ Jl-^^ jvÄ£.li (^j'-^tr? (j^*5 li U«-*.^'f 

■") Ms. |?Jkuyo. *) For ^ T . ") Several words aro wanting- 

here, which may be llius supplied from ihe l.oiidoM Polyglul : 


!^^i:>. ci/^A^J ^-^ ^tf^ {s'^i-^ ^Y^ U )*:? V) " ^I 
lOjlii 'yij^l 15"^*^ t5^7^^ '^^^ (J^?^ ^^ ^T^' '^^ 

jJiS^I Lg^ ^^äJI x+AJäjiJl xotXiJI i^^-o ^-Lc Ql ^3Ä*ol 
Lvnc"^ ;ujLo ^'^äJ! rj'*-^r:? ^V^^ ^^-^^r^ ^^' ^r*-^ i^ 

'') Ms. juj J> . "^) Ms. /i^ . >) Ms. *-^U>|. 



! inlerrog. particle; always joined in writing to the following 
word, as iJt. — See Chald. gl. n. 

^ a father; gen. u*f, ace. Ll ; in the construct state, nom. 
y^\, gen. j|, ace. Ll; du. ,jl^l t?vo fathers, also 
father and ??iother; pi. gGt fathers, ancestors. — See 
Syr. gl. ^1. 

^jL See ^i:. 

^•|, inipf. ^b, co/fw. — See Chald. gl. np^?. 

jÄ^I Ä rervard., hire; pi. >»ä.!. See Chald. gl. ijx. 

J^l rrt'/zA'tf (to be carefully distinguished from Ja-! /«/^, 
death)) S^'S^ or J^t (j^ <?// account of, because of. 

d^\, inipf. jis-b, imper. tXi*., take, seize. VIII. tX^isjl 
(for j^x^[ or j^kvoj]^, as ^-s3o[ receive hire, ''^Ji\^ put 
on the robe called S^ izm-), take (for one's self). 
choose, make. — See Syr. gl. ,.^1 . 

wis.| other, another^ pi. ^%-fs>\ and jjb.|; f, ^jJs.!, pi. ^b^l 
and oGli-f. — Sec Chald. gl. nriN. 

— 1 16 — 

^A f. the earth, the (/round, a country : pi. ,jr*^;'' u^V' 

— See Chald. gl. yix. 
i^Awi • o6e V » <<i . 

J^^l r/ ^'^^^Z, oriybi ; pi. J^t. Prob. connecfed witli Jcol 
join, unite. 

J! def. ail. the : pron. by many of the Badawln hal (Z. d. 
D. M. G. vol. VI. p. '2 17); wlien followed by the 
letters c^c^ c>t>N\(j--ji<(jc^jaJcJiDjj^ the 
final J is assimilated, e. g. j.Jd| //^<? ^/r/Zt', ^JJ*iAiJI ^/^<? 
sun, |JlJaJt injustice. — Heb. Phoen, *n for ':'n. 

^tXil, f. jff^lj ^t'fto, 7i)hich, that; du. nom. m. ^fjJUl, f. 
^UUf; pi. ^JJjJt, f. uuXM or ^^'^'1. Rarer forms 
a^e: pi. m. ^'^Si? or ^^:^'f, f. ^I^f, ^^M or ^^jt; 
very rare: sing. m. jJUt, f. o.JUf, pi. nom. n). ^^jJI. 
— (^tXif is comp. of the art. Jf , a demonstr. leller J 
(see iUlj), and the pron. f«j>, f. ^<3; and is therefore 
orig. nothing more than an emphatic demonstr., the 
Heb. m'^n, I'^n, Phoen. t^n (inscr. Eryc. 1. 7). The art. 
Jl, and a cognate form of the demonslr. pron. .j 
(which see), are both used, though very rarely, as rela- 
tives. Comp. h: ^T, ^l, ?. 

8!^t or aJj^ Ä god, an idol; pi. i^Jf; with the art. 5^l^l|, 
if:sif, usually ajL'T, (iod. — See Cliald. gl. n\x. 

Jl to, to7vards, in addition to, untd ; with sulf. ^t^, dCJt, 
«lH, etc. — Heb. -"'N, poet. "•^'N. See Chald. gl. m^. 

ll, impf. I«_r, i)rop. precede, hence .vtV c/// example^ teach. 

— I 17 — 

lU! in front, be/ore; \)V()\). (he ace. of a noun ^Ul 
the front. 
1^1 impf. pij, imper. "Jo, order, command, — See Chald. 

-wxit, inipf. J^^Lj, be void of fear, secure, confide in. IV. 
-^f ;;/^/A-6' safe, protect, with ^, ^^//^«;^ in, whence 
!,UjI ^^//^/^ /«^"^Ä. — See Cliald. gl. p«. 

J)^T, ^!;juol, |CK, Amen. 
'J conj. //^«/. After verbs of wishing, fearing, ordering, 
etc., and in s'en. when a relation of design or cau- 
sation is expressed, it requires the subj., as: ^\ ol^l 
\SSl \dS Joilj / fear that he will do so and so, 
LoJ'\ ;^\ ZiSs\ I wished to do him honour; but if merely 
introducing the statement of a fact, it is followed by 
the perf. or impf. indie, as JiT" Q\ il^ / wonder 
that he wrote, ^lil ^f pif / know that he is asleep. 
!J conj. that, followed by a noun or pron. in the ace, 
e. g. (j! j^jy^Jj' «J (jt^ J>ltXij ^^-^ ^[^ '-^^y^ c)' ^5^ 
/^ w ;Y'/r//t'^ //^ä/ a certain shaikh in Bagdad had two 
disciples, dlU ^yl^ ^6' '^^1 ,^^ ''^ "" related that 
there ivas in Egypt a king. With the sutf. 1 pers. 
sing, the form ^ is equally common with ^\. 
r.| conj. if In correlative clauses, as the general rule, it 
requires the verb of each clause to be in the perf. or 
the jussive, as: c>Xi^ JJ<3 .^Jii "^\^ or J^rj ^,[ 
JULp ^'o if you do this, you (will) perish — See 
Chald. gl. D{<. 

-- 118 — 

Jjt^ a particle liaving llie sense of utiqiic or profccto , and 
followed by a noun or pron. in the ace, e. g. aJU! ^J^^ 
jjtXs feje^ J^ jJLt p?w/'ccto Deiis omnipoiens est. 
In many cases it does not admit of any transl. into 
English, e. g. ^UU* L^J *j /^<?;^ she said. With the 
SLilf. 1 pers. sing. _SJ is used as well as ^U 

13 1 /, pi. (jÄj /ee. In poetry tlie second syll. is often 
short (u u) ; the form ^\ is also said to occur (comp. 
Aeth. Kitv\). — See Chald. gl. WN. 

oot, f. cyj|, thou; du. Ubl, j)l. m. jUjf; f- ^j^f- — See 
Chald gl. n:^<. 

^Uwjj^ Ä man, person, individual; pi. yj.Ljf or j^Li. The 
fern. xjLwoJ is said to exist. — See Chald. gl. tJON. 

Jkict //?tf family or kindred of a man, M^ people ov inhabi- 
^«;^/* of a place; pi. ,jjUof, JL^I. — The word orig. 
means a mans tent, Heb. ^riN* (comp. o^-o, ni? , and 

'S^\ first, pi. ^y;r, J2I5I, J5I; f. ^/1, pi. J^f. 

^Sfy. See JI3. 

^1 time, a moment : adv. ace. rS\ now. 

^!, f. jbl, >'^'/'^>, which, what? whoever, ivhatever. — See 

Chald. gl. \s. — L§j| L, or simply L^jf , interj. ^.' 

followed by a def noun in the nom., as vJjJI L§j! 

(? vizir! 
LLsl again, also; prop, the ace. of a noun (j^t returning, 

repetition, from ^J2f, impf. (jäa^, return (comp. Syr. 

wsoz from ws!^). 

— 119 — 

^} where? ^f ^ whence? ^\ ^J whither? — See 
Chald. gi ]x. 

v»j in, af or near , hy, with, on account of, e(c. — Seo 

Chald. gl. 2. 
wSXj f/^^ *<?«, a large rwer ; pi. Ajsu, ;%^sv.j, v^uf. — 

See Aeth. gl. QfhC: 
tjo, impf. Ijuj, <^^^w. The form ;^Jo, chap. III. 4, is 

IT ///<? ^//v/ A//^^/, a plain or desert. — See Syr. gl. j^. 
J.kj, impf. JiiAj, ^^ in vain, useless, fruitless, idle. — 

Aeth. flfllA: he in vain, Heb. h^yi cease from labour, 

Aram, 'ptos, Vjls, Z^3, cease, desist. 

Jl^Lj part. adj. vain, useless; false, wrong, opp. 

to (j-Ä.. 

yf/t; Mtf <^<?//y, womb, the innermost part ; pi. ^^U^^ yU^f. 
• — Heb. |jp2, Chald. vS*:tp2. 

'>-. '>cl- --"^ »-0, 

lVaj, impf. JoiAj, and tXxj impf. Jouo, ((/'t' distant, far off. 
VI. tX^Llf recede from one another , he removed or 
distant. — Aeth. flD.?: change, alter. 

G ^ G - ^ 

tVxÄj, f stX-*!*.?? distant. 

G'^ G-.Q^o, 

JJL? ^/ /<>^^/« or <7//y, province, country ; pi. j^, ^^fjub. 
iJLj , impf. äJUjT, swallow. VIll. >»iij|^ /^/- — See Chald. 

_Ij, impf. ^J^,,hKdd; xl^l JLi ^^ (»r \Ji>b ^^I/ marrg 
and heget children (comp. "(J '?£»';' n;!? nJ2 <jr nti'j; Deut. 

— 120 — 

XXV. 9, 2 Sam. VII. 11, '27; Turkish k^'^\ evlen- 
niek, marnj, from J ev, a house). — Heb. n^3-, Aram. 

^t^ « .V6'/^; pi. gl-o', (jr*-?- f'^ stating names of per- 
sons, it takes the form \1, hut only when immediately 
preceded and followed by a proper name; e. g. one 
j**w ^ iJuT tXlt may also be spoken of is^y^' 
j^jLLo ^|. — Heb. Phoen. |3 ("|3, "|l); in Aram, 
only the [)1. ]i:3 , ^v^^ r^^I^^ occurs. — The fern, 
is xjot or c:Uj « daughter, pi. c^juj , Heb. Phoen. 
n? (for njr), with sufT. inr, Aeth. -fl^^: in tlie phrase 
■ftl't: UJEl: the pupil of the eye; Aram. pi. JJ 2, r^ , 
^^S. — See Chald. gl. ^2. 

^_gj not used. IV. jv.^1 a'/^<'^/. X. l^^jji^j^ be duutb. 

Ä.ijygj ^-?^^ animal (we speak of „the dumb animals"); })l. 
(vSl^- — Heb. ncns, Sam. -^^^3; Aeth. nv<?^: dumb. 

jLj, im[)f. tX-yo, ^« away , perish. IV. t>Gt destroy. Com[>. 
T]^?!, viU^. and ^^^. — See Chald. gl. 12«. 

äj»y>. See j>|^. 

Ji^' under, beneath; ace. of a subsL oc^ the lower part. 
— See Chald. gl. ninn. 

IsklS" translate from one lang. into another, interpret , e.v- 
plain, entitle. — Aeth. 'rCV'^' Aram, cnr, >=^'-:- 
Hence Ar. ^Ci^', Aeth. '\Ci'^<HV. Chald. |L-nin (W:), 

— 121 — 

Syr. Uia^'i . fifi interpreter (Kal. turcimanno, Portug. 
turgimäo , truyunao, Fr. drogvian, Engl, dragoman). 

X ^ -^ , V a translatioji , histo?'y , chapter or section; pi. 

I^Q. — Chald. Qinr.. 
jj*.ou*,l?, OaQOig, W'>W'\P}., Tartessus. The geographical Lexi- 

con entitled c^Lb!^l JcoI»jo has yÄ.A*c/J>. 
ijli, inipf. iJJij, /^'«2^^ or abandon, let. — See Chald. 

gl. inn. 

IS , impf. Iäj , be whole, entire, conq)lctc or finished ; finish, 

— Heb. DH. 
d\3, inipf. *-5ycj, repent. — See Chald. gl. Din. 

Ij ä c?'o?vn or tiara; pi. j^Lssoo. — See Syr. gl. Lz. 

äj^" or SJiJLj, f. o-^' or loJLS', three. — See Chald. 

gl. n^n. 

Xjli, f. liJb, //«>•«?. — See Aeth. gl. WAA:: 
^Uj|, f. ^l^|> u;'-^' ^'^^- Hence wCi^ Uj|, f. ulil 

slcLc, twelve; vulg. ^ji^lliM. See wCi»ji and Chald. 

gl. pn. 

jjli, f. JLoLj, second. — See Aeth. gl. AfJB:: 
»p ä;« <?.i*; pi. ^jj^^' — See Chald. gl. "iin. 

^L&., inipf. >L:^, nij oat, bellow; pray or supplicate with 
cries and tears. — See Aeth. gl. ID^-' 


— 12'2 — 

'^ — . , %, . %. -0 * V ^ 

Ju^sa. {/ moutdain ; pl. JLaä», J^s»', lS*^'- 
Is^^, impf. *^., and *-äs.., impf. jv^., hum. 

Ijusvä* ä fiercely hirning fire ; hellfire, hell. 
tXÄ. impf. 4Xs?o, tXs^J, exert one's self, be diligent, serious. 

jkÄ. diligence, zeal , ea?mestness (opp. to Jy^) ; adv. 

ace. fjcs. exceedingly, very. 
(jUL:^, inipf. yJl^., i^//. — Heb. M}1\. 

V^^, impf. j*-^s\^_, nnite, collect, assemble. 

«A4Ä- /^^ whole, all. 

tX^, iinpf. J^ÄJ, <".JW/' o;//.v AY'^," labour, strive. 

vIjIä., impf. v^«Äj, cleave, rend: traverse (Heb. 35). IV. 

vJLä-I answer. Aram. 2"':iN, -^=^1, S<TI1CA. 
^La^, impf. i SÄJ, ^0»?^. 


J,J1:^, impf. (jLajsvJ, /yV^/ /y-^/^X-, restrain, confine, imprison. 

VIII. tjl4^1 >^'- — ^^^ %^- 8'- -•-^^• 
_^^ as far as, till, to; adv. even, also; conj. ////, that, 

so tliat, in order that ; wben a i)iirpose or design on 

the part of the agent is implied, it is followed by the 

subj. — Connected with Jlä. liuiit, boundary. 
\iXs^, impf. .Jl:£\j, w^//r/^ one article with anodier. III. ^^3La. 

be over-ayainsl or opposite lo. 

xIlVä the being opposite to: adv. ace. tlj^a. opposite: 

&!tXÄ.(j-5 from before. 

— 1'23 — 

jjys^, ini|)f. ^C^J hc sad, sor?ofr/'t(/. IV. ^yLl niakv s/kL 
distress. — See Aelh. gi. ih*Hi:: 
jjwÄ and ^ya. sorrow, grwf. — Aelh. ihH3f:: 

s.>-k.,c=k, inipf. v_;L^i:vS, count, reckon. To be carefully dis- 
lingiiished from .J^^y^r^ , inipf. ,^1,.^*^^ or ,..1,^1.^^ 
M////-. ■ — Aetli. ihiia : Heb. 2;i''n, Aram. 2;i'n, 

JaÄÄ, i 1111)1". JiA^v^j, /dw/^/^ or observe, keep, guaid, pre- 
serve, retain in the memory. — Syr. ^^lLI incite, e.v- 
ho?'t, encou7'age. 

(^jji. , iiii|)f. ;3.s\j and ^^.^ , be necessary, pj'oper, right. 
Just. — Hel). pn (see Gesenius' Thesaurus), Aetli. 
AIT I appoint, ordain. 

^3.^ /^'/^r//' M' right and proper, truth, Justice, equity : 
^j^ truly, verity. — Heb. pn a law, Aetli. /h°i: 
law, religion. 

^^^, iiiij)!" ^^4^su, /y^' /^w/7//, /^ry/. Cognate I^ , impf. I:^ 
/,'///7;/, impf. j;^:^ /yc /yr/zvy/. — See Syr. gi >a^ ^ Aetli. 
gl. rhcP;: 

v;i>^ ^/ //.v/^; pi. ^Iäaä., cuI^I. 

icL-*, impf. Jc^;s\j, guard, preserve. W . JcLäI surround: 

construed willi v^. 
c>j^ where, when. 
^, inij)!". ^^^, and ^^xk, impf. ^^IäS< ///v. — Sec 

Chald. gl. N^n. 

S^^ and 1\1L life. — Acdi. fh^CD^" 

— 124 

1/>L, inipf. vl^xj, knorv ; ^-*X, impf- v-^^^j ^^ ve?'sed or 
experienced in ; "S^, impf. j-^^^^o, experience. IV. ^-»-s>f 
infoivn of, report, relate. 

_1ä., impf. _^ w^j , ^(9 out. Part. adj. c^^U*. ^<?/^^ out, 
?vhat is outside; adv. ace. l^Xss- outside. 

\Jtljj>. , impf. i._i*«-^j, /^//r, c?// ^/^ a part, diminish; be 
eclipsed (the moon) ; sifik and disappear. VII. .J^l-fc^'st 
^d? eclipsed, submerged. 

^l^cs., impf. ^^cL^, /<?«';-. 

v^flia. , impf. olixj , be light, slight, /en', nimble. 11. ._" 4^jS- 
li^hten, alleviate ; takes the ace. of tiie burden and ^\y£. 
with the person relieved, äI^ «^(1-^'^ u_iiX. 

(jfij-ia. , impf. (joJL.^j , be presei'ved or delivered, come safe- 

^ a ^ 

/y /o, attain to; be pure, good, excellent. II. goJla. 
deliver ; make pure. — Heb. yj'^TS pull out or off (Ar. 
äIä take off clothes, Syr. ^iL. strip or plunde?'), 
II. deliver. 

<^3-La»., impf. ;^jJLi^j, smooth or polish , frame or fashion, 
create; (^.JLä. , i^JLä., (^r smooth. — Ilcb. pbn. 

wAÄ good; followed by ^t^, /»^//^7- ///rt'// ; j)l. >LAi^, vLl^l. 

— Aeth. -ic:: 

— 125 — 

J^o, inipf. (IäJo, ^«^<?r. 

LttS, impf. y£.<Xi, call, i/ivite ; call on or pray lo ; bless 

(^^LLl), curse (^^ c5^^)- 
|.t> blood; pi. eLo J . — See Chald. gl. D1. 

Q3, impf. ojo, ^tf /?^^/;% approach. — • Syr. w^Jpz] ap- 
proach^ imdertake, agree with, obey. 

jDt> ^/W, partic. a long period, an age; pi. j *^0 ; jjojJI 
or w^jJf^l^ for ever, zhy^. The origin of the word 
is to be sought in the circling course of the seasons; 
comp. nil, |i), and S.b", from nn and .Lj = Jj> re- 


volve ; also Syr. I'l"? « /?«//. 

5t>.;> « nwm ; coll. j.j>. 

rjtt>, impf. ^^jjo, be in debt, submit to or obey, worship; 
repay or requite, judge or condemn. — See Chald. 
gl. p-I. 

aUjJuo « C%/ pi. ^Joo, ^jtjoo. 

- ^ ' * 

tj, f. ^j (^*, b'); du. nom. m. ^13, f. ^b'; pi. &^l^^ 

and J,.f (first syll. short); this, fj is often annexed to 
the interrog. ^, Lo, as: viUli 13 J^ /^'/^^ ^/-'wv // 
Mä/^ ^^ä/ M^^.'' oJLs t6 Lo //7/rt'/ /^«.9/ thou said? 

shorter forms of expression for sdbwo ^JJI IJ ^^, 

— 126 — 

ciJli" ^jJI to L.o: JUL^Ä^ l(j> Lo tvhaf is tluj trade or 
profession ? — See Aetli. gl. "H \ \ 

Jlj, 1". Jli, dLo; dii. noni. ni. dLjtj>, f. J^jli'; pi. dLj!!Nl,t, 
d^f^t; this, that 

viJUlJ, ^[^j, f. dLb; do. nom. ni. >iJlSlj, f. viJLilf; pi. viJLJ^I^I 
(scarcely used) ; ^/^/*, that. ■ — dtj is comp. of iJ> and 
the pron. suff. J; JLJj of the same words Nvitli the 


addit. of the demonstr. letter J (see ;^jJ!). hi old 
writings the pron. suff. is regularly declined according 
lo the number and sex of the persons adressed, e. g. 

////.v M" //<? because of wJiom you (women) reproach- 
ed me. 

l^^'o , im|»f. ^jo, /■///, sacrifice, — See Chald. gl. riDI. 
JLsvjo^ an animal killed in sacrifice, a victim; |»l. 

IT j , inipf. jitXj, remember, mention, relate. — See Cl.nM. 

gl. -2T. 

dlJ3. See J.JIJ. 

^_^iD3, impf. ...^Jo' ^'^' y^ rt'/wy, depart. 

«j, f. ui5!3, -^/'^' owner or possessor of a Ihing, one 
who is endowed with a quality. Being almost only 
found in die construct stale, its decl. is as follows: 

sing. m. nom. .6, gen. ^b, ace. Ij; f. nom. uulj; 

- - > ' ' ^^ 

du. m. nom. |'j, f. Lj>U<J>: pi- m. nom. ..3 mid J.| 

— I'i7 — 

(firsl syll. sliorl), f. ^jUj. — K is really llie same 
word as Aram. 11, 1, ?. Heb. HT, "i", t". nXi. 


(^L /'//r //^Y/r/; pi. ^^^y LT^^)- — ^*^^ Cliald. i>l. tJ'1?. 

\j\y *-ij;, iiiipf- ofjjj ^^j)' '"M*^- "-^97:?' ^^^ compassionaU 
or merciful. Connected wiOi -_"4^ j (^^' ^<5//', Hel). P]n"i. 
See Syr. gl. ^^^s. 

o«.N, o•i^, compassionate, merci/ul. 
^\y impf. ^Ij (for i^t^), Ar<?, M////i-. — See Aelh. 

gl. ap:: 

^^ « possessor, o?ime7', master; t^l'l ^/<^ Loid ; pi. ^lojl. 

— See Chaid. gl. 22"). 
iUjvl, f. «jvf, /<??/r; pi. (j^J A>'^*<y. — See Cliald. 

gl. VD-iN. 

LtJ /^^/y^//. — See Aelli. gl. C-flO" 
G^, impf. yiS, grote , (jrow up, increase. II. ^IJ ;yw. 

^/•///y up, e'hicatc. — See Cliald. gl. x^l. 

8*jx ^^v^ thousand. — See Chald. gl. 22*1. 
yi>.» ///(^Z/ ,• a crime, punishment, anf/er. Anollier form is jj^.^^., 

pi. ^^^^\^ — See Cliald. gl. ni. 
^' , impf. ^«s»o , return. 

J^. (7 /;/^w (as dislinci from a woman); pi. JL&.%. 

l^r. impf. [VÄ'vJ, /><" compa.ssionate , have pitij or mere// 

upon. V. *^1j. id. — See Chald. gl. cm- 

iLfÄ* mercy. 

— ri8 — 

j> . , inipf. Oyl, send or give back, restore; avert; reject 

or refuse; answer , confute. 
^\, inipf. (c^jj, f<^^d or graze; tend a flock, guard or 

/«A-^ ^(7;'^ of, govern. — See Chald. gl. Nyi. 
"fdy impf. ^iCj, lift up, raise; remove, abolish. VIII. ^A 

raise; be raised, rise or be high. 
SCe^ ashes. — • Connected with [jaJ^ be hot; Chald. yon, 

Syr. j^IaLs? , jlili^oo^ , hot ashes. 

' C , inipf. ^tyj, blow (the wind); impf. -^'^, /^.■f,-, ^^^c^^ 
(anything). - — See Syr. gl. .^^ . 

.. m. f. the breath, spirit or soul; pi. ^-iiJ; ^5r' 
^^vAXl^)l ?/?<? ^^/y Spi?it, but Muhammadans understand 
by it the angel Gabriel and sometimes Christ. 
L». f. Z/?^ ?vind (nil, i-^o?); .vr^;?/, .s-w^;'// (nn, l-^-'); 

Ph ^b;, ^Uy, ^15^1. 


J^Tv, impf. U^yj, w*^// or m<?, /^<? agitated or ;y/^<? (esp. 

the sea), 
l^j, impf. *iyj, '^<" /?^/^Y, y^^^yrt', innocent. — See Ch. gl. ndt. 

^\, f. &aA, /??/r<", good, innocent. 

JH, impf. JLL), J^^Ij, J^, imper. JLLt, (>-w[, J-w, 
<767»;% beg ; ^,ciJt äJL^ or ^^^^^ ,j-fc äJLI /'^' ^/.vX:^</ 
hiui about the thing. — See Chald. gl. h^^. 

— 129 — 

(3^-**», inipf. ;3aa*o, i^aww-o, pi'cccdc, anticipate, outrun, 

J-^ m. f. a road or //rt'//^ ?vay, method, conduct ; pi. JlLv. 

— Heb. h^^m, Aram. KADIS', U-^a^, "^IITIS^**. 

J.Ä.Lu Mt' seashore, beach, coast ; pi. Jl!s^|«1vC ; in pari. 

J^L^JI Ihe coast of Syria and Palestine. — Conip. 

äjIä., Heb. F]")n; Aram, "i^p, Ij^. 
JkÄu/, impf. jXwj, and Jläaa/, impf. J^a*«_3, (^<? /o;^', /<?;^'/y, 

w<?r///, hu/nble. — Heb. ^stf"; Aram. '^DU', VL*<. used 

ciiiefly in some of the derived conj. 

JoLu( /(9;^', ;/^<?fl'^. JkX*l lower, the lowest part ; \)\. Jjll,t • 
iUxÄ*« « vessel, ship; pi. ,j.ä^. — See Chald. gl. W5?D. 
jjC*., im[)r. j^Xlwwo, be quiet or tranquil, subside or y<^ 

^^>;w^ (the sea), dwell. — Heb. "gii/ or pt^'', Syr. ^^»,- 

*^, impf. [vwo, poison; hence |Vau poison, Syr. jlam ^^--y//- 
<7/>?^, poison. 
"1 . , t w //^t' /'<?/ ;/y//;rf or simoom (more corr. samimi). 

1^, impf. «^Io, //^^rt'r, <)^<?y. — See Syr. gl. ^^^o^- 

\^w , impf. .-mao, ^^ high. 

ILj^ ^/ name; pi. ^U-ll. In the phrase »jj| |Va*o the 
init. I is always dropped, whilst a whim of the calli- 
graphers has ordered that llie upward stroke of the i^ 
should be lengthened. — See Chald. gl. Dt^'■. 
sli^ m. f the sky, fieaven, a roof or ceiling. — Sec 
Chald. gl. N^Dlt'. 

— 130 — 

^Lw, impf. ij-lj, he had or wicked; injure, Jmrt, distress. 
sll , ?w*L , evil, wickedness, an evd or calamity^ 
gll JlL; « ^<2^^ »^«'^ ^ i*-^*^^ ^r*** ^^^ wickedness of 
their actions. — Aeth. XU^if\: Heb. ^<]ti'. 

C>L1, impf. I>5-Io, ^^ /^?^'^^^ or master of, rule over. 

tXlIw a lord OY master , chief prince; pi. stjLL, ci^!t>Ll. 
Vulgarly contracted into sid (sldi, ?;^y /i^rc?, sir, a title 
like --^ — hence the Cid — still farther abbrev. si), 
and the fern. stXil into J^^ sitt. — Heb. Dntt' false 
gods, idols; Aram. N^'ii' an evil spirit, demon (Z. d. 
D. M. G. vol. IX. p. 481), IjU 
jLl, impf. yAA*o, ^6>, /r<7/(?:, ^^^ out on a jour net/. — 
Heb. n::'. 
sIaawJo ^/ Journey, space, distance. 

j^xi, , impf. tXxio , ^//?*^ or tie firmly, strengthen, rush upon 
or attack. IV. Juii as „verbum admirationis", Jcvot Lo 
o^ilyÄ. Lo how very much grieved thou art! — Aeth. 
fiKk'. drive out, expel; Heb. TW destroy. 

SlXaw strength, violence, distress, ?msfo?'tune. 
Jojuci strong, violent. 

^j^, impf. t^wCio, drink. — Aeth. fiL,ii\'. 

s '" i ^ >i ' ^ 

wx-, impf N-cio, v.ciJ, /><" had or wicked. — Heb. ~)"}D />'^' 

refractory , "yip an enemy. 

— 131 — 

wcc, evil, wickedness, a crime, misfoi'tume , pi. >. li; 
adj. bad, wicked = ''y^Jj, pi. ^I^-, ;l/^'- — 
Hel). ^p. 
Ovxo, inipf. o>-Äj, ^^ hiffk ; Ow^i, inipf. oLiJ /^<" /lob/e. 
(^wCi ;/6>^/<:', illustrious, excellent; pi. ofwxof. — Heb. 

..l^juo divide, separate. — Heb. P]yD, whence f)"'j;p a cleft, 

a bratich (Ar. JJLi « r/,^/?, ä?«?/?/<?, klj^^ a branch), 

and D"'Dyp, D''Dj;ti', thouyhts, opinio?is. 

JJixi, « /r/^^ or people ; pi. ^-j?*^ • 
^Ä^, impf. (^Ä^io, feel pity or compassion; more common 

in IV. ^^Ä^t. 

jCw, impf. JCäo, reward, yive thanks, be yratefuL — Heb. 
npii', also isiJ^'N. 
jCx, a reward, thanks, gratitude. 

jj;g,4^ f. M«? .w/^; pi. ^y^. — See Chald. gl. ifDif'. 
cLä (for ^A.^), inipf- ^^->^» ^^•y^^' ^^/^*^- 

g^ rt M/>/y (i"es); pi. iLliJ. — Heb. i;^. Com[). 

|»Dn and liar;^. 

J>^, impf. ^..A^s^, ^^ companion to, accompany. 

.^j^aLo « companion, owner or possessor: pi. ^.^^^a..^, 
v-jLsv-oI, (^L^3uo, and auL^x.^. Also used in con- 
nect. with Jlä.» (as yi with W'^vC) to denote M^' one 
— the other. 

13'> — 

JkJLo , iiiipf. iXsuoj) , (jo up, ascend. IV. Sju£>\ id, — 

Heb. ij;^. 
yLo , inipf. yuaJ, be small; li^, inipf. vi^aj, <^^' av/W/, 
ivorthless, mean, despised. — See Cliald. gl. "lyi. 

s ^ s ^ 

jAÄ-o ^/««//, young ; pl. .IXo. 
!^. II. ^^JLfl /?r«y. — See Chald. gl. N^Ji. 

»^-Lo, ij^Lo, a pr€iyer ; pl. cyf^JLo. 
«Ä.*o, impf. *Laj, ^^tfXrtf^ </<?. — Syr. vij^l ^^ diligent, 

artful, cunning; Aetli. ÄlO.' be firm , strong, brave; 

Sam. V^'^m = i^ « /i'Ä.?/. 
^\Ja^ impf. icu^j..«flj, ^Loj, <?;;^// « sound, cry out. 

o»x3, « sound, a cry, the voice; pi. cyL-of. 
ILo, impf. f*v«aj, abstain from (esp. food). — See Cliaid. 

gl. Diii 

1*^ « fast. 
TUfl, impf. vaaoj, become, begin to do anything; ^<? GLl) • 

C>l*ä, impf. ^->N-»aj, st?'ike, sting (an insect). Conij). yn^, 

^lo, and nj;-!^. 
cw»fl, py^y '\\\\\){. ^y^., be humble or submissive. V. cZ^' 

humble onesself. 


- ^■' . > - " - 

_35, mipf. _ Jaj, lh?-o?v, cast away. 

^jjwb, m. f. a road, mag, way of life, conduct ; pl. ^jJo, 

•> Q ^ J > -^ 

— 133 — 

^xia, inipf. ^tln^, taste, cat. — See Cliald. gl. DVD- 

«JLb , iiiipf. >*JiJaj , ^JUoj , <7«W6' /^;'//^ , appear , rise , as- 
cend. — Cliald. y'?L: draw out or 0^, Syr. 'OI4Z] 

examine, investigate == *JLbj or iJLbl . 

*Jlia;o , JLIax) , //^<? /^/rtT^ 6/* ascent or ;7'9/wy ; pi. 

j^jJLb, impf. (^^jJliaj, loosen; \^j^^ •, inipf. ^^jJUbj, ^^ ^/Z- 
voi'ced; ^^JUo , impf. ^^^JLioj, ^^ /(?^.9^, cheerful^ di- 

^ ^ ^ Q 

vorced. VII. ^jJlkj t ^<? ^^///' <?;^wy, ^^>, depart, he cheer- 
ful. — Syr. ■ ""^2 be consumed or destroyed, ■ r<<l 
divorce, desti'oy ; Chald. "^^"^ throw a?vay , Sam. ^^^ , 


^ a ^ 

JJb. II. JJL.b shade, overshadorv. — See Chald. gl. hS"^. 

s s - 

J.iij shade, shadow; pi. j!iLb. 

^ ■- - 

J^^Ud anything that gives shade. 

iULti.* «Ä instrument for giving shade, an umbrella; 

i - ^ 
also a hut or ^^/?/y pi. JUox). 

iJLb, impf. (V-Uaj, injure, oppress. — Aeth. /IIA^: Arami. 

□^29, >ai^4, -^Z^. 

jjlis oppression, wrong, injustice. 



lis., im])f. llij, jMss over. — See Chald. gl. IDJ?. 
^IIIä Hcbi-ew. 

lie, imj)f. jJJu, stumble. 

»Li£ adversity., calamity; chap. II. 7 (I am not how- 
ever certain that this is the correct reading). 

ol^, impf. o^, know. 

s^-cLc, f. wcLt, /<?;?. See ^ui'j. and Chald. gl. noj?. 

Lkt, impf. ^kjij, take in the hand, receive. IV. ^Jos.\ ytve. 

liot , impf. JiiiÄj , he large , important. — Heb. c^y be 
strong, numerous. 
jvjdiii /^^"j/*", great, important; })1. (•Uä.Ä, iljkt . 

*Ja£i, f. (C+ii^, larger, largest, vei'y large. 
Jet and JJU, perhaps; construed with the ace, as JiJ 
v_AJvi' v:iJ%^-'l perhaps death is near ; adiJ, dUUi, etc.; 

iiJ however is freq. used for ^tfÄJLxJ. 

jUi, impf. 'jlju, ^/?^;2'. 

i^^, impf. JUj, and ^JLc, impf. ^JL*j, ^^ >^?^^;. exalted, 
noble. VI. (^1*^ ^^ //?^/^, exalted; come. — Heh. H/J^, 
Aram. nS^j; (not used in I.); cognate words are !^£ 
impf. Jlij, .v//^>^/ ?//^ liLVurianthj, exceed due limits, be 
dear; Aeth. 0A(D: /y^v^rt-A- M^ /r/w, be faithless ox per- 
fidious, betray. 

— 135 — 

-Xc. over, above, upon, on, in addition (o , notwifJi- 

siandiny, against, etc. — See Cliald. gl, ^y, 
J^, iiiipf. J4JIJ, labou?', 7vork, do. 

Jw*x^ laljour , work, deed or act; a district or y^y- 

vernmcnt; pi. JUxt. 
^j^ r//my //'oz^i, from; ivithout ; after. With suff. I^ , 

^iJCU, etc. 
Ufc, impf. yjL>, and ^^li, impf. ^xJ, distress or <:"<z?/*^ 

anxiety ; pass. Ox^ = VIII. ^^^JCaI ^^ solicitous or 

concerned about, bestow pains or labour upon. — Heb. 

nJj; (for 13^), Aram, ••^j;, jjl. 

3Lä, impf. t>yu, return, repeat or </(9 /?y^//>/ (comp. 31:5^', 
^01, ^^y .^"i^^"); become (^s-^. — Ileb. l^j; ,wr- 
round, liyn ^/y^/v;/ solemnly, testify; Syr. ,^ (31t) 
accustom; Aeth. 4?^: y<? ro?^/^^ or ä^^??//, which see. 

^Lt. IV. jjL^' assist, help. 

^^!^ f. the eye, a fountain; pi. ^^, \^y^^ ■ — ^^e Syr. 


Ca-aoa, iiiil»r. ,_^Äj, />>«" anyry. — Heb, Dyj; afflict, dis- 
tress; Ae(h. U^Jfi: ^c' ///7/y/, difficult. — The origin 
of these diff. sigiiif. is to be sought in (he idea of 
tyiny fr?nly (^,^, ^^^); hence arise (he signif. of 
1) bindiny up wounds, curiny or healiny (-^r^); 2) of 
codec tiny {,_^u^a£., aLya-c « body of men^', 3) of /^rt-r^/- 

— 136 — 

ness, whence originafe (lie A\irions signif. of a) diffi- 
cult)/ (O^A.'), b) calamity {Z^uiks. of a year of famine 
caused by drought, \_^.m^ |**j and ^_,^>ajy>a^) , c) steru- 
ncHS or severity (O^-fi:), d) anger (vl^.^, 2iJj;), e) op- 
pression, affliction (2^V, >J/w.OmC, vIaAt.); 4) of violent 
exertion , zeal, perseverance {Cj-j^, C^^^yCL^-V-, sS-^^Jw, 
'iljs.jCLS. patriotic or religious zeal) , and in a more ge- 
neral sense of toil, labour, work (D^y, 2^^, 3?iy.)- 
Comp. the various signif. of (lie rad. lX^ , "rw and 

S ■^ ^ ^ -' 0*^ 

(^jjli //^<' (^i^?// or ^ä'r of a door; pi. ^v^^!- 

1^, impf. jvAj, <"<?^^cv, afflict ii'c grieve. VIll. jvXil^ be giievcd 
or distressed. — Heb. D^j; (see Gesenius' Thesaurus); 
Chald. Di/'pj; w«7Ay' MW (prop- ^<>^Y7• the eyes, Ar. 
"^^ ^<" M/<'</) and ccj;nN be blind. 

1ä£. , impf. *IiJ, take possession of carry off as booty. 

S -- -- 

ivLc f. .s7/<^<7> ^///^ goats (the most important possessions 
of a nomade people); pi. j*U^|. 
Xk-, im])f. )j*J, ^iitk down, be low or sunlxcn, subside, set 
(the sun). 

jIt //^<7/' y/'/z/V'/^ //V'.v /(9?^' or dec/), the bottom, a val- 
ley ; in particular ;UUf cl-(i/ior, the valley of the 

o a conj., difrering from : in that it imjdies, not a mere 
ju.xiaposilion of two things or events, hiil an onward 

— 137 — 

progi^ession or an mici'nal connectmi, as of cause and 
effect and the like. Hence it may be very variously 
translated into English, according as the context de- 
mands. Sometimes by then (in which case it may 
also be altogether passed over), as: fj^ oJU' ^\^ 
^jJvilXlIt JJ.-0 cioLi //■ thou hast said this, (then) thou 
art an tmbclieve?' ; ^yuoU xJUt ^y^^ p^ jjl' 
z/ ^<? love God, {then) follow me. Sometimes simply 
by «/?<^, as: (-jv*co gLo ( JI^ ^U (jiikÄ he ivas 
thirsty and (in consequence) 7vcnt to a spring to d?ink. 
Sometimes by in order that, so that, that (in which 
case a following verb is put in the subj., as after J), 
as: xl^Jf JlL^jU v-> > b ^J 't^\. P^^dori me, my 
Lord, that I may enter (and so, and in consequence, 
I shall enter) Paradise. Hence it corresponds in many 
points with the socalled waw conversivum of the Hebrew. 

^jsxi the damn, the morning. 

1.J)-, inipf. tT-J^.-> cleave or divide; remove ones sori'oiv, 
console. II. —Js id. V. j_äj he free of grief, 
amuse or entci'tain onesself — Syr. *^, ^ and -« ir^^ |. 

' ^, inipf. «-vaj, he glad, happy , rejoice. 

I, S joy, happiness. 
li, impf. Iäj, flee, j'un away. 
\Jdli, impf. \jOyJu, cut or notch, /i.v or detei'minc, ordain, 

proclaim by edict. — Cogn. ,jo^, V*"lD, ^^ , «n»d 

other words containing the syll. iei (see Gesenius' 

Thesaurus, art. "no). 

— 138 — 

(j-wä, impf. ^vlj, be afraid. 

^"yi fear. 
jL«ai, impf. JuiAj, divide. — Syr. '^.^. 

Jcoi a division, difference or distinction, chapter or 

section, season of the year; pi. ^^yciz. 
^ in, on, concerning , in cofnparison with. 

Jui*, iiiipf. JuJb? come towards, approach; receive or ac- 
cept. IV. Juj| approach, in a friendly manner, receive 
kindly, in a hostile manner, attack; undertake anything, 
— See Chald. gl hl\>. 

Juj prop, that which is opposite ; adv. ace. äJJj ^-'^ 
/«V possession; sJS3 A^ <?/^ ///V /?«;•/, f'om him. — 
Aram. h2p^_ or ^2p, '^oko, 25?. 

Jo adv. derived from the rad. S^ cut through, conveying 
the idea of being done and finished, already. Hence 
tXi, or slill more emphat. , cXii, is pref. to a verb in 
the perf. to indicate the entire completion of the act at 
a past time, as: &3:jS^. LSlT^ tXS: we have (already) 
narrated his reign ; Jo' tX/ scXa.;: s'tla. /^^ ?ve?it to 
his house, but found he had (already) gone out. It 
also conveys the idea of sufficiency, as Isb" c> {^dä) JotXi' 
a dirham (coin) is enough for me; and is hence used 
with the impf. in the sense of pretty often, sometimes, 
perhaps, as ,Jjuaj tXi" vJa.JjOI ^\ the liar some- 
times speaks the truth. 

— 139 — 

s(Xs, impi. si)<Äi, sc)Jb, oe po/irr/'i/l, ahlc. 
\ci)3 part. adj. po?verftä, able. 

fj^d3. W. y^LXi' panfi/, consecrate ; hence ^d^\ c>]lCj| 
or (jA.JJL^JI ci/wxj or ^j^dX^S v:i;yo Jerusalem, — See 

Chald. gl. K'-lp. 

o , ot 

y^tXi' purity, sanctity ; hence JIjJlII Jei'usalem, l.lJI 
y^LViJI or (j-tXiiJt _^v ///<? /^6»/y .s/wv/ (according to 
the Muhaniniadans, the angel Gabriel). 
ItXi', impf. *tXij, go before, precede; ItXi', imj)f. ItXib, 
approach, arrive; IjJ, inipf. Ijdj, <^^ old w ancient. 
■ — See Syr. gl. ^^. 

*ltXi> prop. //^^ />w^/; adv. ace. "Jj^s in front of, be- 
fore; JiXs ^jjo from before, away fi'om. 

o jo, iinpf. o jJb, throw; th?'o?vup, vomit. — See Aeth. gl. "2 J? A " 
IS , impf. wftj , JLi , be cold; be quiet, stay, remain. X. l££jl 

be quiet, remain, dwell — Aeth. *Pol.l.'. be cold, Syr. 

jj, Chald. TijpnN; Heb. ip cold. 

^li', impf. (jcJij, cut, tear, gnaw. Cognate form \jd-S^ 
Aeth. ^L^\ shear; Heb. |>-ip; Chald. j^ni":), chiefly 
used in such phrases as ('i>np) "'ri1ii~ip_ t'DN, vL) 
^01 oT-^^ ^(9 slander or calumniate a person, Ar. 

c'li, impf. cyÄJ, ^^<^^//, knock. Vlll. cJcit^ <"^-v/ /(^/.9. — 
Heb. yip tear, rend (see ijiiji) . 
Vjjj, nonien unitatis icli", a gourd. — See Syr. gl. ]) 

P 7 

— 140 — 

v^JLä the inne?'most part, hitei^ior ; lience pith, kernel, mar- 
7'0?v, the heart; pi. i^^JU*. — Heb. D"ip. 

jli', impf. JJlj, say, speak. — See Syr. gl. Vo. 

lis*, impf. *Jij, stand up, rise, stand. — See Chald. gl. D^p. 

yS people, a people , a nation; pi ^lysf- 


Jj , impf. wJo , ^<? /rt'r^?'^, j?^<??^^; ^-^i^, impf. Jjo . he old. — 
Aefh. ^•flZ.I he honoured., illustrious, Heb. "i'»2pn, 
Syr. -^^. 

yKjS' large, old, great ov famous; pi. »Lo^ *tv^- — 
Heb. 1^32. 

jjiT, impf. jJiXj, ^^ ä'??^^^, numerous. 

Iaa^ z?^?/^/^;, »?<2r;2y, numerous. 

^"S a seat, throne; pi. ,ct^l4^ — See Chald. gl. ND12. 

»jX in^pf- Sv's?? ^^ averse to, dislike, abhor, take amiss. 
V. 8^- id. — Ae(h. W-CU: (Ar. sJ^T) /w'^^, com- 
pulsion'., Syr. oi^z] grieve, be sick., Chald. Nn3, HSnt?, 
Syr. ^ip or ^^.s , wliich see. 

I*l5^, impf. wwvJj, break, put to rout. VII. ^-wlXil ^6' ^;'<?- 

/:^;?, routed^ wrecked. 
J^ M^ ;^/^«9/^, tf//. — See Chald. gl. ^2. 

^ e ^ 

*jy. II. Ijy speak, speak to, address. 

— 141 — 

^"^S speech, address; iJJI J3S tlte word of God. 

'i^JS a ?rord; pi. Af, ^J^JS". 
jjl^, impf. ^JQ, ^<?, become, happen. — SeeAeth. yl. ^i" 

'JajS' how ? 

J emphat. pari., certainly. Of constant occurrence after ^|, 
as: ^^iii iJUl ^j^ verdij God is ready to /bryive, and 
in the apodosis of conditional statements, after li and 

!5p, as: tX-sy^l V; 'r^-^ ^ '^r^ 'r^'^ P ^^ ^^"^-^ 
/<r/6? known (it), they 7vould not have ci'ucified the 
Lord of glory ; also in such phrases as: ^^Is} hy my 
life, dLol j>^ by the life of thy father. 

J, and with pron. sufT. J, to, for, according to, etc. Sign 
of the dat, and of the ace. (principally with parlicip. 
and inf., as viJU v^^l^xx* filling thee ?vith wonder, 
^cJLjo^l| 8 J-^J (j^j-w-ijl ^/<^ expounders of these ver- 
ses ; or when the ace. precedes the verh, as Ijoi ^jl^ 
rj.Luif ^SY^ '/ y^ inteipi'et visions). — See Chald. 
gloss, h. 

J in order that, that; construed with the subj. , as ILi'; 
läjj tj'-^*^ Jonah arose that he might /lee (to ilee). 
Prop, it is identical with the prep. J, and is often 
conjoined with ^^1 (as ^2^.a4-L**-JI J^f jj^l jjbl^ ^r^jj 
^//^(Z y was ordered to be the first of the Muslims) , 

— 142 — 

always when followed by the neg. !sl (as dJ j Jli U5l 
|V-l*iLj L_ä:Sx;uMj iuJ ^^ ^fl'/V/ this only in order that 
learning might not he disparaged — ^Llf for 5l ^j5l ). 

5l no, not. When = h^, it is followed by the Jussive. — 
See Chald. gl. n*^. 

^^J, for !^ljj!^, ?>^ Wä?^r //^ä^ — not. See J. 

^ a * * a* 

^J^^ and ^j^ because, since. See /!»!, J^l, and J. 

J^, impf (jlJJb' i'^^'^ ^'^ clothes. — See Chald. gl. if'^?. 

JuU. See J^. 

A5^!Sl or (%jCI (^^z/. Before nouns and pron, suff. it takes 

the form "jXI, and is construed with the ace. (but 

' a ' 

^IjO as well as ^jXi). 

rtJ not; followed by the Jussive, as vä-ÄwH v_aäj ^jJo IJ /*<? 
<//V/ «<?/ ///.r poetry. 

Q (also Ij and in poet. Ij) ^/^ account of what? ivhy? 

See Lo. 
(^LIJ M^r^ is not, ivas not. Conip. of Si and the obsol. 

^\ z= '^M. — See Chald. gl. n\x. 
Jjj night; nomen unilatis äJLII a night, pi. JLll. — See 
Chald. gl. h^h. 


U ?^'//^//.^ ////7/ 7rhich, what, whatever. In interrog. |j is 
often annexed, as ^iJLi' Ij Lo, o^ol Ij UJ (see t3). 

— 143 — 

The same word is used as conj. i?i as far as (Lo 
*Ai'ji»j\ in as /a?' as I can , as much as I can), as 
long as (LIä. v^yujt^ U as long as I remain alive), 
and ho?v (in one of llie verbal forms of expressing 
wonder, e. g*. dyol C/^\ Lo ^6>;2> strange is yonr 
conduct! oojÄ. Lo Jui-I Lo /^^;^' violent is your grief!). 
From it too has sprung 
Lo not. See Gesenius' Hebr. Gr. 1 6 th ed., p. 239. note * 
of the Engl, transl. 

cUOo 7vares, me?'chandise, utensils, fu?'?iiture ; pi. JUJuol. 

^Jjo, ^'hj^ ^ Mard-aiog'.^ the prophet Jonah is called by the 
Arabs ^^ä>o ^j u^^- 

JOuo, Jcoo, impf Jca4-5, 5/««^ ^r^^"^; Jouo, impf Jul»j, ^^ 

//Ar, resemble; make like, assimilate, compare. — 

Aeth. ^AA: or <PiiA.'. be like, seem; Heb. ^^tj be 

like, Chald. II. ^inaN, part, pe'il "'^pp //>^^. The 

■ * * ■ s - ^ 

noun ':'ii'D occurs in all the dialects: Ar. JcU, Aeth. 

<^riA: Aram. N^nc, ihL>^ "^ZA^. 

Go S ^ j,^ ,0 

(jjuo ;^'/?ä/ /.y //A-<? or equal, pi. jUlof; adv. ace. Jolo 
//Ar, rt-.y. — Heb. Wd, Phoen. ^K'D (inscr. Eryc. 1. 3). 

jjo, mipl. W4J, /?<7.w ^y, (J//, or a7vag. 

ilio a single time; pi. ^\yo, )^T^'> ^^^^' ^^^' *7^ oner. 

^vA«jo « ga?'ment of coarse cloth; pi. «^k«*jo. 

"kjo or Lo w?y^, /7/<?;?^ ;wM. — See Chald. gl. cy. 

^^ « sailor, pi. ^j^SLo. — See Syr. gl. Ul:^. 

— 144 — 

viLLo, impf. dUUj, be maste?' of, possess. — See Chald. 

viLLo mi o?me7' or possesso7\ king ; pl. J5X0 . 
^ (in Egypt. J^ or ^j-v^) who? — See Chald. gl. p. 
J^ //'i^^i'^ 6»/^ <??// of; after the comparative, M«/2. — See 

Chald. d 



yI>Uo, impf. ^^, ^/6% be dead. — See Chald. gl. n^C. 

v:i>«jo death, 
'Lo, impf. «-*4J, z^^^iJ^ /^ and fro, be agitated. 
yj Ä ivave, pl. ^SyA. 

JLo, impf. Ju+j, ^^«</ or ificline. VI. JoUj ^^/^6? /<? ««</ 
/r<?, ^^ agitated or tossed about. 

.u-b. See ,.,Llof. 

Uj, impf. LIL, be liaised or elevated. II. Uj (^vv;/^ ;?<';2>5, 

announce; choose as a prophet. V. L.aJj' appear as 

a prophet. — See Chald. gl. N2J . 

^^ (for S(^) « prophet, pl. illof. 

ä*AJ (for 8^».o) the office of prophet, p?'ophecy , a 

o4^, impf. c:^-45' sprout, grow. 
I Jo, impf. .jJ-3, ^<5r// or summon; come together, assemble. 

III. (^jlj ^^i'y <??//, p?'oclai?n, call or summon. 
Jjj, impf. ^txIJ, ;<X1j, 2'^^^- — See Chald. gl. inj. 

» Ju « V07V ; pl. ^^Jo. 

— 145 — 

"^S , impf. ^ Jj , /cY/r or pu/i ofj', snatch mvay. — Cognate 

words ill Heb. are yo: and riDJ. 
Jo, impf. Jwvj, ^^wtf </<^;^v/, descend, aliyht, take up one's 

abode. — Heb. hl'Oi flow. 

Jhj)^ impf. vlaL), vJ^Ij, ^^^, look at, observe, consider. — 
See Syr. gl. -^, 

yj^ f. the soul, life ; a person, person or self; pi. J^ysJ, 

y*».Äj|. • — See Cliald. gl. tt'sj. 
*flj , impf. äIxj , be of use or advantage. 

«ib part. adj. useful; «ijf w<?r^ useful, better. 

1^, impf. LgJo' Z^^^^'- — ^^^ Cliald. gl. "ipO- 
w.gj, j..gj, « nm', « canal; pi. ^LgJ|. 

^S, impf. (c4^' B'^*^- ^^■'^^^^ "^ ^'^^ P*^*^^- (c^' ^'^''^'^ ^^' 
reach. VIII. ^^4^' f^w<? /<?, reach; come to an end, 
be finished. 

lis, impf. -LIT, sleep. • — Aeth. ^<^l Heb. D^, Syr. >cj . 
In Ar. ILS is used in speaking of sound sleep, ,^-^5 
of lighter slumbers; in Heb. (he use of ci and y2/;> 
is reversed. 

(^yju, ni.rJ, Nineveh. 

^^, iiiipf- v-S^' ^^^''^'' ^^^* V-^' W'vZr /^/(9//.'. 

ia-Äjo, impf U 1 g _> , ia-*^, /«// f/^^wv/, ^^> ^A)//'//, descend. 

ItX^, impf. ItX^j, ^^ *////, ^w/c'/. — Aeth. U.^A.".* 


— 146 — 

ijL^, fj^, f. sjjc, ^jja, this; du. nom. m. ^tj^, f. 
^liso; pl. ^lJyc. ■ — Comp. of li> = N*n, ioi, and 13. 
CS^, impf. J>^, /^^. 

G - ^ 

(^wio flight. 
JkXl^ anything large or bulky, espec. « /ä-r^*? building, 

palace, temple. — See Chald. gl. ^z"»n. 
viJUL^, impf. viJULgj, and dU^, impf. dULgj, die, pe?'ish. — 

See Chald. gl. i^n. 
JU^ /^^r^, //^^r^. Comp. of Ujc Ä<?r<? and J. Other forms 

are dUUje , and LIjtL^ , H^ (comp. f j and its 

yo, f. ^, ^d?, 5^^, eV; du. Us»; pl. m. j^ (in poet, jvp), 

f. Ai. When preceded by : or ^, the vowel of 

the first syll. is gen. dropped, yo:, ^l^^- — See 

Chald. gl. Nin. — !6 ^ (tSyc, I3yel^) as interj., 

lo! see! 
Jbe, impf J^^, ^,?rn/^. 

Jye /^Ä/-, terro7\ anything terrible ; pl. Jlycf. 
^L^ , impf. iL^, *^^5^j ^<!^ prepared, ready. II. LIjo prepare, 

make ready. 
'Li, impf. 4^.4/, be agitated, excited, rage\ excite, rouse. 

^— See Aelh. gl. U^" 

t>l:, impf. Jdj, ^///'y <7//i;^. VIII. j>Ljl yo .vA>/^'/y rz/y/zy. 
Formed by transposition from o\ (t>«l) ^tvz^/, /oaa? or 
burden, oppress , Heb. n^N « burden. 

— 147 — 

äoy 7vcight; sloyimess in motion, delay or ftcsi/adon ; 
stcdfastness or gravity, patience, endurance (eonip. 
^^i^, nj^^). Formed like ax Jo ease, affluence, from 
^Oj; iU-^\o indigestion, from [V^^; sUo a prop, staff, 
cushion, from LXbl (l^'i); iU^J' suspicion, from 1^:; 
farther ^"^kS^ confidence, from Ji:, cyljJ inheritance, 
from vin^ ; ^_£j /<?Är 6»/ 6W, from J' Comp. 
such secondary formations as lisJ = I^xlf, -if = 
^|, jJo (Aram. tJrn , \Iz) = J^t , dJd and its 
derivatives from Jj^ , ^Jj>• = iJbi , *_gj" = f^[^ 
VÄJ = saJI. from ws^f, and tX^Äj = tX^ut^ from 
j^t. Freytag has in his Lexicon goJ under Sf and 
»4>y> under 4>j — both, I believe, mistakes. 

j^:, impf. JkÄo /?>^</. 


ÄÄ.; //^^ /«tf^, the front, suiface ; ?vag or manner ; pi. 

G » » s » o* 

cX^I, (X=»^, impf. cXäj, ^<? <7/(9;/^, single, the only one of 
the sort, unique. — See Chald. gl. "in. 


<Xa.U <?«^, sole, alone. — Aeth. TihJ?"" 
Jool impf. Jonj, join, come or /?//«//« /<?, reach. — Hence 

in Syr. U*^, Ar. Jco«, a joint. 
_i:, im{»f. ij, i^6' entire , keep faith or <9//'^''.v /('y>>'v/, yy^/y 
a debt. II. ^^; /^tf^y^ engagements , perform promises, 
or /?«y debts , to the uttermost (|)rop. make complete, 
from ^: entire, abundant^ — Syr. ^.^q\ be able, 
also be consumed, cease, perish; Aelli. ACD'Z.l*" ^/''- 

— 148 — 
Uvei- tip. As to these difT, signif., conip. the rad. D'rti^, 
jJLww, and en, *J', in the several dialects. 

LiLj, ID J Jaff'a, or Joppa. 

yloj, inipf. (jl^^^j ^^ «/>•/<?</ ?//?, 7vithered. II. ^jl^ ^;v/ ?/'/^, 

;/^<zÄ<? wither. — See Chald. gl. li'D^. 

(ulo « 6?/y place, dry land. 
jj f. //^^ /^^///^; du. ^!Jo; pi- t^jfj ^^'- — See Ch. gl. T . 
^Ho />^<? /<?// */^<?, left hand = (^l.wvJj'- 
\^ f. M^ ny/</ side, right hand = ,c^-fAJi> (i^^ oath, pi. 

' ^Ujt. — See Chald. gl. p^ 
lis Ä ^A/y (i. e. the civil day of 24 hours; the natural 

day is "Lji, as opp. to night JCJ); ph pbl- — See 

Chald. gl. Dl^ 
Jililj, l}^y^.-> Jonah; gen. called by the Arabs y**j^ 

Leipzig-: Printed hy Kr. Nies. 




Syriac Alphabet. 



Vowels : <? 




Initial. Medial. Annexed. Unannexod. 




























c a 

Arabic Alphabet. 


























n n 






i; .1 Ji 

J' o 























1 1 


























































.1 J 










^-fl. (oi) 






L3- (^) 












































Vowels. ^/ " (//// -^) / , (/// T^ ) // '- (f//f — -^) 




Aethiopic Alphabet. 





















































































































































































































D j () li t ii 11 ^ s. 
^po kua ^ kn'i •!* hiiä 'l? /v/c 
''^ Jt -.v /f. 



'I>^ /, 



Samaritan Alphabet. 



































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