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I HAD hoped to issue this Commentary on the Book of 
Jubilees quite six years ago, as a sequel to my edition of 
the Ethiopic and other fragmentary versions of this work ; 
but after writing a large portion of it, I was obliged to 
abandon the task, as I felt that somehow I had failed to 
give a satisfactory interpretation of the text, though at the 
time I could not understand wherein my disability lay. A 
year or two later when making a special study of the 
Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs, I came to discover that 
the source of my failure lay in my acceptance of the tradi- 
tional view that Jubilees was written in the first century of 
the Christian era. So long as I wrote from this standpoint, 
my notes became more and more a laboured apologetic for the 
composition of this work in tlie first century. The earliest 
approximation to the right date appeared in my article on 
the " Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs " in the Encyclopcedia 
Biblica, i. 241, 1899, where, after giving grounds for the 
view that the main bulk of that work was written before 
100 B.C., I concluded that we should " regard both works 
(i.e. the Testaments and Jubilees) as almost contemporary, 

and as emanating from the same school of thought." This 



view was advocated in the following year by Bohn and by 
Bousset on various grounds, and it is from this standpoint 
that the present Commentary is written. The difficulties 
that beset almost every page of Jubilees vanish for the 
most part when once we understand that it was written 
by a Pharisaic upholder of the Maccabean dynasty, who 
was also probably a priest. 

It is difficult to exaggerate the value of Jubilees. The 
fact that it is the oldest commentary in the world on 
Genesis, is in itself a distinction. But it is not on this 
ground that we value it, but rather for the insight it gives 
us into the religious beliefs of Judaism in the second 
century B.C. Its interests are many sided. It appeals to 
the textual critic, as it attests the form of the Hebrew text, 
which was current in that century. It appeals to the Old 
Testament scholar, as exhibiting further developments of 
ideas and tendencies which are only in their incipient stages 
in the Old Testament. It appeals to the New Testament 
scholar, as furnishing the first literary embodiment of beliefs 
which subsequently obtained an entrance into the New 
Testament, and as having in all probability formed part of 
the library of some of the apostolic writers. It appeals to 
the student , of theological doctrine, as providing certain 
indispensable links in the process of development. Finally, 
to the Jewish scholar, a Pharisaic work of the second 
century B.C. cannot fail to be of transcendent interest, as it 
gives the earlier forms of certain legislative enactments that 
appear in the Mishna, and of legends which in later Judaism 
have undergone much transformation. 

Although half a century has elapsed since the discovery 



of Jubilees in its complete form in the Ethiopic Version, no 
scholar has hitherto attempted a commentary on the entire 
work. Some thirty years ago Eonsch edited a very learned 
and laborious work on the Latin Fragments, which constitute 
slightly more than one-fourth of the original writing, but 
since his time scholars have contented themselves with 
short studies on various views of our author. 

I cannot conclude without thanking Mr. Cowley for his 
help in verifying references in the Talmud. 

17 Beadmore Road, Oxford, 
May, 1902. 



Introduction ..... xiii-lxxxix 

§ 1. Short Account of the Book (pp. xiii, xiv) — § 2. The 
Various Titles of the Book (pp. xiv-xx) — § 3. The 
Ethiopic Manuscripts (p. xx) — § 4. Editions of the 
Ethiopic Version (pp. xx, xxi) — J^ 5. Translations (pp. 
xxi, xxii) — § 6. Critical inquiries (pp. xxii-xxvi) — § 7. 
The Versions of Jubilees — Greek, Ethiopic, Latin, Syriac 
(pp. xxvi-xxix) — § 8. The Ethiopic and Latin Versions — 
Translations from the Greek (pp. xxx, xxxi) — § 9. The 
Greek — a Translation from the Hebrew (pp. xxx-xxxiii) — 
f^ 10. Textual Affinities of the Text of the Book of Jubilees 
(pp. xxxiii-xxxix) — § 1 1. Lacunae, Dittographies and Dis- 
locations in our Text (pp. xxxix-xlii) — §12. Poetical 
Element in Jubilees (pp. xlii-xliii) — § 13. Jubilees from 
one author but based on earlier books and traditions — "' 
(pp. xliv-xlvii) — § 1 4. Jubilees — a Product of the midrashic 
tendency at work in the Old Testament Chronicler, but 
represented by its author as an Esoteric Tradition (pp. 
xlvii-li) — § 15. Object of Jubilees — the Defence and 
Exposition of Judaism from the Pharisaic standpoint of 
the second century b.c. (pp. li-lvi) — § 16. Angelology '- — 
and Demonology of Jubilees (pp. Ivi-lviii) — § 17. The 
Date of Jubilees (pp. Iviii-lxvi) — § 18. The Jubilees and 
Years used by our author (pp. Ixvii-lxviii) — § 1 9. Value of 
Jubilees in determining the Dates of the various Sections 
of the Ethiopic Enoch and the Book of Noah (pp. Ixviii- 
Ixxii) — § 20. The relation of Jubilees to the Testaments 
of the XII. Patriarchs (p. Ixxii) — § 21. The author — a 
Pharisee who recognised the Maccabean Pontificate and 



was probably a priest (p. Ixxiii) — § 22. Jubilees in. Jewish, 
Samaritan and Christian non-canonical literature (pp. Ixxiii- 
Ixxxiii) — § 23. Influence of Jubilees on the New Testa- 
ment (pp. Ixxxiii-lxxxvi) — § 24. Views of the author on 
the Messiah, the Messianic Kingdom, the Priesthood of 
Melchizedek, the Law, Circumcision and the Sabbath, the 
Future Life, the Jewish Calendar (pp. Ixxxvii-lxxxix). 

Symbols and Brackets used in this Edition . . xci 

Translations and Notes .... 1 

Index L ...... 263 

Index IL ...... 267 


§ 1. Short Account of the Book 

The Book of Jubilees was "written in Hebrew by a Pharisee 
between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high- 
priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some 
years before his death in 105 B.C. It is the most advanced 
pre-Christian representative of the midrashic tendency, which 
had already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles. 
As the Chronicler had rewritten the history of Israel and 
Judah from the basis of the Priests' Code, so our author re- 
edited from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time the history 
of events from the creation to the publication, or, according 
to the author's view, the republication, of the law on Sinai. 
In the course of re-editing he incorporated a large body of 
traditional lore, which the midrashic process had put at his 
disposal, and also not a few fresh legal enactments, that the 
exigencies of the past had called forth. His work con- 
stitutes an enlarged Targum on Genesis and Exodus, in 
which difficulties in the biblical narrative are solved, gaps 
supplied, dogmatically offensive elements removed, and the 
genuine spirit of later Judaism infused into the primitive 
history of the world. His object was to defend Judaism 
against the attacks of the hellenistic spirit that had been 
in the ascendant one generation earlier and was still power- 
ful, and to prove that the law was of everlasting validity. 



From our author's contentious and his embittered attacks 
on the paganisers and apostates, we may infer that Hellen- 
ism had urged that the levitical ordinances of the law were 
only of transitory significance, that they had not been 
observed by the founders of the nation, and that the 
time had now come for them to be swept away, and for 
Israel to take its place in the brotherhood of the nations. 
Our author regarded all such views as fatal to the very 
existence of Jewish religion and nationality. But it is not 
as such that he assailed them, but on the ground of their 
falsehood. The law, he teaches, is of everlasting validity. 
Though revealed in time it was superior to time. Before 
it had been made known in sundry portions to the fathers 
it had been kept in heaven by the angels, and to its observ- 
ance henceforward there was no limit in time or in 

Writing in the palmiest days of the Maccabean dominion, 
he looked for the immediate advent of the Messianic king- 
dom. This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah 
sprung, not from Levi — that is, from the Maccabean family, 
as some of his contemporaries expected — but from Judah. 
This kingdom would be gradually realised on earth, and 
the transformation of physical nature would go hand in 
hand with the ethical transformation of man till there 
was a new heaven and a new earth. Thus, finally, all 
sin and pain would disappear and men would live to the 
age of 1000 years in happiness and peace, and after death 
enjoy a blessed immortality in the spirit world. 

§ 2. The Various Titles of the Book 

Our book was known by two distinct titles even in 
Hebrew. These were : 


(a) " Jubilees " = Ta 'IwfSr)X.aia or oi 'Iw^r/Aatot = D'Varn ; i and 
(6) "The Little Genesis " = 7} Xe-n-Ti) Fei/ecrts = «bt rre'Nnx''^ 
(c) Apocalypse of Moses and other alleged names of our book. 

(a) Jubilees. — According to the citation of Epiphanius 
{Haer. xxxix. 6), eV rol<i 'Iw/Si^Xaiot? evpiaKeraL, ry kuI 
XeTTTJ Teveaei, the name Jubilees would seem to have been 
its more usual designation, and " the little Genesis " its less 
usual. This name is found in the Syriac Fragment entitled 
" Names of the Wives of the Patriarchs according to the 
Hebrew Book called Jubilees " (see Ceriani, Mon. Sacra, ii. 
Fasc. i. 9-10 ; also my Ethiopic Text of Jubilees, p. 183). 

This name is admirably adapted to our book as it 
divides into jubilee periods of forty-nine years each the 
history of the world from the creation to the legislation 
on Sinai. By his peculiar redaction of the biblical history 
down to this period, our author has shown that the law 
was already in force before its republication as a whole 
on Sinai. Moreover, his chronological heptadic system 
has received a perfectly symmetrical development. Israel 
enters Canaan at the close of the fiftieth jubilee, i.e. 
2450. In the Assumption of Moses, where a jubilee period 
of fifty years is used, Israel enters Canaan in the year 2500 
(see p. Ixviii). 

(h) The Little^ Ge7iesis. — The fact that our book was 

[^ In the Hebrew book Josippon xxxii. 3, " The Book of Jubilees " 
is mentioned ni'^arn laa (see Eppstein, " Le Livre des Jubil^g," Bevue des 
Etudes juives, 1890, xxi. 80-97 ; 1891, xxii. 1-25). 

2 Cf. Treuenfels, " Die kleine Genesis " in Fiirst's Literaturhlatt des 
Orients, 1846, No. 6, p. 81. 

3 The epithet " little " does not refer to the extent, for it is larger 
than the canonical Genesis, but rather to the character of Jubilees. 
It deals more fully with the details and minutiae (i.e. to. XeirTa) than 
the biblical work. Severus of Autioch, ob. 542 a.d., after an account 
of the death of Moses and the strife between Michael and the evil 
angels for Moses' body, adds that these matters were said to be 
described in a book which gave a more detailed account of the 


known in Greek, not only as r) 'keTrrrj Tiv€ai<; but also r) 
MtKpoy€V€ai,<;, points quite clearly to an authoritative 
Hebrew title, NJail JT'tDNnil, which was variously rendered 
in Greek. There were, indeed, four renderings of the 
Hebrew : 

1. rj XeTTTT) Feveo-is (or AeTrrrj Feveo-ts). 

2. r) AeTTToyevecris. 

3. Toi AcTTTa Feveo-ews. 

4. r) MtKpoyevecrts. 

1. ^ XeTrrrj Tevea-i^;. — This title is found sixteen times: 
in Epiphanius, Haer. xxxix. 6 (twice) ; Syncellus i. 7, 
183, 192; Cedrenus i. 6, 9, 16, 48, 53, 85, 87; Zonaras, 
p. 18 (twice); Glycas, 206 (twice). As Aeirrt] Teveai<; in 
Syncellus i. 5, 185, 203 and Cedrenus i. 7. As 97 \e70- 
fiivr) 'XeTTTrj Tiveai^ in Glycas, pp. 198, 392. For the 
above passages see pp. Ixxvii-lxxx. 

2. rj Ae7rT0>yeve(Ti<i. — This form of the title is found 
in Didymus of Alexandria (see p. Ixxvii) and in one 
of the MSS of Epiphanius, Haer. xxxix. 6 {rj} koL 
AeirToyeveaet), where the Cod. Venet. has t^ kol Xeirrfj 
Teviaei. On the other hand, it follows from the Decree 
of Gelasius (see p. Ixxviii) that this form was current among 
Latin writers. 

3. ra XeTTTo, T€via€(o<;. — This form is found in Syncellus 
i. 13 (see p. Ixxix). 

4. Tj MiKpoyeveaif;. — This designation is found only in 
Jerome, Upist. 78 ad Fah. See my note on p. 83, where, 
instead of Aeirrri (a.l. MtKpoyiveai'i), we should read simply 
MiKpoyeve(n<;. This is Jerome's independent rendering of 
the Hebrew title, for Jerome was acquainted with the 
original of Jubilees. 


creation : Tavra 8e iv d-TroKpycjua /Sl/SXiw keyerat Kelcrdai XeTTTorepav 


(c) 1. The Apocalypse of Moses. 

2. Tlie Testament of Moses. 

3. The Booh of Adam's Daughters. 

4. The Life of Adam. 

1. The Apocalypse of Moses. — This title is found in 
Syncellus i. 5 and repeated from him in Cedrenus i. 7 : 
\e'rrTrj . . . Teveaei, i)v Koi Meovcre&j? eivat ^aai rtve<i anro- 
KaXvyJnv : and in Syncellus i. 49 : iv tt} Mcovae(o<; Xeyo/xevrj 
aTroKaXv^lrei. From the words (paac Tive<; and Xeyofiivy we 
conclude that this title had some currency in Syncellus' 
time. It was undoubtedly a very appropriate designation, 
since our author makes Moses the recipient of all the dis- 
closures in his work (see the Greek scholion in my note on 
ii. 1). Cedrenus i. 16 speaks of Jubilees as ?; Xcttt?} 
M(uo-e&)9 FeVetrt?. The Apocalypse of Moses mentioned in 
Syncellus i. 48, from which he says Gal. vi. 15 (ovre 
irepiToinfj n ecrrtv ovre aKpo^varia, oXka Kaivr) ktIctls:) was 
derived, can have nothing to do with Jubilees, the main aim 
of which is the glorification of circumcision. 

2. Tlie Testament of Moses = 77 BiaOijKr) rov Mwi/o-ew?. — 
This was an older title than the preceding. Thus it is 
found in the Catena of Nicephorus i. 175, where the 
words 17 BiaOyKT) precede a quotation from Jubilees x. 21 
(see note m loc.). Here r) BLaOrjKT], as Eonsch (p. 275) has 
rightly argued, stands for rj hiaOrjKrj rov Meouo-ety?. It is im- 
possible to determine whether the Testament of Moses which 
is here to be identified with Jubilees has anything to do with 
the BLa6j]K7] M(ovaeo)<; mentioned in four catalogues of the 
canonical and uncanonical writings. Eonsch (pp. 480-481) 
argues for their identification on the ground that the 
Assumption of Moses forms a suitable close to the Book of 
Jubilees ; that they are found together in this order in the 
Latin MS which was edited by Ceriani ; that the Testament 
of Moses and the Assumption are enumerated together and 



in this order in the Catalogues of Mcephorus, the Ps. 
Athanasius and of the Sixty Canonical Books. If, however, 
the number of stichoi — 1100 — assigned to this Testament 
of Moses by the first catalogue is right, then this Testament 
cannot be the same as Jubilees ; for Jubilees is longer than 
Genesis which, according to the same catalogue, has 4300 

On the other hand, there may have been in circulation 
a Testament of Moses which was an expansion of Jubilees 
ii.-iii. To such a work — one-fourth the size of Genesis — 
the quotation given in my note on ii. 1 may possibly point, 
and probably the statement made by Severus of Antioch (see 
footnote on p. xv), and the quotation from a Catena on the Pen- 
tateuch in Fabricius ii. 121-122 : Est quidem in apocrypho 
mysticoque codice legere, ubi de creatis rebus subtilius agitur, 
nubem lucidam, quo tempore mortuus est Moses, locum 
sepulchri complexam oculos circumstantium perstrinxisse ita, 
ut nullus neque morientem legislatorem neque locum videre 
potuerit, ubi cadaver conderetur. Here we have a combina- 
tion of the Testament of Moses and the Assumption of 
Moses (see my Assumption of Moses, pp. xlv. sqq.). 

3. The Book of Adam's Daughters. — This book is identi- 
fied with Jubilees in the Decree of Gelasius (see p. Ixviii) : 
Liber de filiabus Adae, hoc est Leptogenesis, Apocryphus. 
The designation is far from inappropriate for our book, as 
it aims at giving the names of the wives of all the patriarchs 
from Adam onwards. On the other hand, it may not have 
been applied to the entire Book of Jubilees but to a short 
work based on Jubilees, and consisting mainly or solely 
of the names (and histories) of the women mentioned in 
Jubilees. Such a collection we find in the Syriac with the 
title : " Names of the Wives of the Patriarchs according to the 
Hebrew Book called Jubilees " (see p. xxix). The glosses in 
the LXX MS used by Holmes and Parsons, and later by 


Lagarde (see p. Ixxxii), may point to such a collection ; for 
these glosses relate to the wives of the patriarchs and go back 
ultimately to Jubilees. It is possibly worth while to call 
attention to the fact that some of these names are found in 
the Annals of the Arabic writer Tabari (see Lidzbarski, Be 
propheticis, quae dicunticr, Zegendis Arabicis, 1893, pp. 

4. The Life of Adam. — This designation is found only 
three times, so far as I am aware, in Syncellus i. 7, and always 
as Xeyofievo'i Bto9 'ABd/x. According to Syncellus this life 
of Adam recounted the number of days it took Adam to 
number the various creatures, the making of Eve, the 
entrance of Adam into Paradise, and the subsequent admis- 
sion of Eve, etc. (i. 7-9) : Kelrat <yovv iv rS Xeyo/jieva) Btw 
ASafi o Tcov rj/jbepcov dpcdjji,o<y rr}<; re ovo[Jiaaia<i twv Orjpiwv 
KoX Trji; TrXacreo)? T179 jvvaiKb<; Kal Trj<; elaoBov avrov ^ABa/x iv 
Tft) irapaBeicra) ' koI rrjs irepi rov ^vXov T179 ^pcocreco^; ivToXr)<; 
Tov Oeov irpo'; avrov, Kal rrj<i fxera rovrov elaoBov Eua iv 
Tft) TrapaBelao), rd re rrj<i irapa^daea)<i Kal rd fxerd rrjv 
irapd^aaLv, 0)9 vrroreraKrai . . . ravra e/c rov Btou Xe7o- 
fievov ABdfi ^t\oixa6la<i %a/3ty iv avvrofio) iaroc^eiaiaafjuev. 
If Syncellus is right here as to the contents of the Life of 
Adam, it treated of the same subjects as Jubilees ii. 1-29. 
It may, therefore, have been an excerpt from or a section 
of Jubilees, as Eonsch suggests (475-477). Accordingly, 
he accepts Treuenfels' proposal that the words in Syncellus 
occurring just before the above extract — e'/c rrj'i XeTrrrj'; 
Tevea-€Q)<; Kal rov Xeyo/xevov Btou ^ABdp, — should be 
rendered : " from the Leptogenesis, that is, from the so-called 
Life of Adam." Since the statements in the Life of Adam 
are fuller than in Jubilees, the former would be an enlarged 
edition of a portion of the latter. Both may have been 
before Syncellus. From the Life of Adam — the fuller 
account — he quotes on pp. 7-9, and continues his narrative on 


pp. 13-15 from Jubilees. Ronsch quotes in support of this 
view the statement of Jellinek, Bet ha-Midrasch ii. 7, anm. 
3 : " Ein Theil derselben (der Kleinen Genesis), der von 
Adam handelt, wurde das Leben Adam's genannt und war 
den Alten als pt&Nin DTnT nidd (Zunz, Die gottesdienstl. 
Vortrdge der Juden, p. 128 ; J. Fiirst im Lbl. des Orients, 
1848, p. 589) bekannt." 

§ 3. The Ethiopic MSS 

There are four MSS of this book in Europe, a, h, c, d, 
which belong respectively to the National Library in Paris, 
the British Museum, the University Library of Tiibiugen, 
and to the collection of M. d'Abbadie. Of these a h (of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth cent, respectively) are the most 
valuable, but in not a few readings the true text is preserved 
hj cd (both of recent date), d is more nearly allied to a 
and c to Z). h is the most trustworthy of the four. For a 
full description of these MSS the reader can consult 
Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees, 
pp. xii sqq. 

§ 4. Editions of the Ethiopic Version 

DiLLMANN, Mashafa klXfdle sive Liber Jubilaeorum, qui 
idem a Graecis 'H AeirTrj Tevea-t^ inscribitur, aethiopice ad 
duorum librorum manuscriptorum fidenn 2??"im?4m edidit 
Dillmann, 1859. 

This edition is based on MSS cd. 

Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Booh of 
Jubilees — otherwise known among the Greeks as 'H AeTrr?) 
Feveo-t? — edited from four MSS and critically revised 
through a continuous comparison of the Massoretic and 
Samaritan Texts, and the Greek, Syriac, Vzdgate and Ethiopic 


Versions of the Pentateuch, and further emenAed and restored 
in accordance with the Helrew, Syriac, Greek and Latin 
fragments of this hook, which are here 'pu'blished in full, 
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1895. 

This edition is based on the only four MSS hitherto 
known. It is from this text that my translation is made. 
In some dozen or more passages, however, to which attention 
is called in the notes, I have withdrawn emendations which 
I had introduced into the text — some in deference to 
criticisms of Drs. Praetorius and Littmann and others as a 
result of further study of the text and subject-matter. On 
the other hand, I have been enabled, from the much larger 
knowledge I now have of the literature than I had in 

1893-1895, to discover the true text underlying corruptions 
that had defied detection, and likewise to recognise the 
occurrence of many dittographies and not a few lacunae 
(see ^ 11). The criticism of the text has been further 
greatly advanced by my discovery of a large poetical 
element in the book (see ^ 12). 

§ 5. Teanslations 

DiLLMANN, Das Buch der Juhilden oder die Heine Genesis, 
avjs dem Aethiopischen ubersetzt (Ewald's Jahrhilcher der 
biU. Wissensch. 1850-51, Band ii. 230-256; iii. 1-96). 
This translation is based on only one MS. 

ScHODDE, The Book of Jubilees, translated frorn the 
Ethiopic (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1885-1887). 

Charles, The Book of Jubilees translated from a text 
based on two hitherto uncollated Ethiopic MSS {Jewish 
Quarterly Review, 1893, vol. v. 703-708; 1894, vi. 184- 
217, 710-745; 1895, vii. 297-328). 

The above translation agrees for the most part with the 
text which I published subsequently. It is, however, 


untrustworthy in some passages, and is now superseded by 
the very much improved edition of it which appears in the 
present volume. 

LiTTMANN, Das Buck der Jubilden (Kautzsch's Apokryphen 
und Fseudepigraphen des A. Testaments, 1900, ii. 31-119). 

This admirable translation is based mainly on my 
Ethiopic text of Jubilees, but occasionally Dr. Littmann 
prefers to follow the readings oi cd in Dillmann's text, and 
in some cases the grounds for this preference are so good 
that I have followed his lead. His translation is on the 
whole very accurate, though there are of course some 
passages where corrections will be introduced on the 
occasion of a second edition. To Dr. Littmann I owe 
many corrections of my English translation in the Jewish 

§ 6. Critical Inquiries 

Fabricius, J, A., Codex Psevdepigraphus Veteris Testa- 
menti, 1713, i. 849-864. Fabricius here collects under 
the head of Parva Genesis, passages in Jerome and Greek 
writers which are expressly assigned to our book. At the 
close of this collection he adds : " Non dubito tum apud 
Hieronymum Quaest. et tradit. Hebraeicis in Genesin, tum 
apud Georgium Syncellum et Cedrenum plura legi ex parva 
Genesi repetita : quoniam tamen diserte ilia non indicant, 
haec satis esse volui." 

Treuenfels, Die Heine Genesis NJ^It n^tDNll (Fiirst's 
Liter aturU. des Orients, 1846, Nr. 1-6; 1851, Nr. 15). 
Treuenfels ascribes our book to a Jewish author, who wrote 
most probably before the Christian era. 

DiLLMANN, Das Buck der Jnhilden (Ewald's Jalirhilcher 
der Uhl. Wissensch. 1851, iii. 72-96).- These pages consist 
of a series of learned and masterly notes which throw great 


light on the text and its interpretation, Dillmaun was of 
opinion that Jubilees was written originally in Hebrew or 
Aramaic in the first cent, a.d, before the fall of Jerusalem. 

Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldnd. Gesellsck. 

1857, xi. 161-163. 

" Pseudepigraphen des A. Testaments " (Herzog's 

Real - Encyc}~^ xii. 364-365). Here Dillmann sets the 
composition of Jubilees at the beginning of the Christian 
era and regards a still earlier date as possible. 

" Beitrage aus dem Buche der Jubilaen zur Kritik 

des Pentateuch Textes " {Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich 
Freussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1883, 
pp. 323-340). With this contribution to the criticism of 
the Ethiopic text and its value in determining the criticism 
of the Pentateuch I have already dealt {Ethiopic Vers, of 
Heb. Ek. of Jubilees, pp. xviii-xix). 

Jellinek, Ueber das Buch der Jiibilden und das Noah- 
Buch, Leipzig, 1855 (a reprint from the third volume of 
his Bet ha-Midrasch). Although the main contention of 
this treatise, that Jubilees is of Essene origin, cannot be 
sustained, Jellinek's observations on its relations to Jewish 
Midrashim (i.e. Wajissau and Tadshe) and legends generally 
are most illuminating and helpful. Jellinek justly recognises 
that Jubilees was written when the essential character of 
the Jewish calendar was not definitely fixed. 

Beer, Das Buch der Jubilaen und sein Verhdltniss zu den 
Midraschim, Leipzig, 1856 ; Noch ein Wort uber das Buch 
der Jubilaen, 1857. The former work is the ablest con- 
tribution from the Jewish side that has yet been made 
towards the interpretation of Jubilees. On pp. 25-39 he 
deals with the points of similarity existing between Jubilees 
and Jewish tradition, and on pp. 39-56 the points of 
divergence. Beer ascribes our book to a Samaritan, who 
made use of the Samaritan Pentateuch, the LXX, and 


Jewish tradition, and wrote in Africa. This Samaritan 
authorship was shown to be impossible by Ewald {Jalirh. d. 
bibl. Wissensch. 1856, viii. 184 sq.), in a short review of 
Beer's work, and Dillmann {ZDMG, 1857, xi. 161-163). 
In the Monatsschrift f. Gesch. d. Judenthums, 1855, pp. 59-65 
and his Lchen Abrahams, 1859 ; Leben Moses, 1863, Beer 
has made many vahiable indirect contributions to the 
exegesis of Jubilees. 

Fkankel, Monatsschrift fur Gesch. und Wissensch. des 
Judenthums, 1856, pp. 311-316, 380-400. Frankel sought 
to prove that Jubilees was of Egyptian origin and repre- 
sentative of the cult at the Onias Temple at Leontopolis. To 
this view of Frankel, Beer rejoined in the treatise cited above 
under his name : Hoch ein Wort iiber das Buch der Jubilden. 

Kruger, " Die Chronologic im Buche d. Jubiliien " 
{ZDMG, 1858, xii. 279-299. Kruger ascribes the com- 
position of Jubilees to the year 320 B.C., but such a view 
has rightly failed to obtain a single suffrage. 

Langen, Das Judenthum in Paldstina, 1866, pp. 84-102. 
Jubilees according to this writer is to be assigned to the 
years 30-60 a.d. (p. 100). 

Sinker, Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs, 1869, pp. 42- 
43, 81-85. 

EUBIN, Das Bu^h der Jubilden oder die Heine Genesis in's 
Hebrdische ilbersetzt, mit einer Einleitung und mit Noten 
versehen, Wien, 1870. 

GiNSBURG, Art. " Jubilees, Book of" in Kitto's Cyclopaedia 
of Biblical Literature. 

ECnsch, Zeitschrift f. loissensch. Theologie, 1871, pp. 
60-98; Das Buch der Jubilden, Leipzig, 1874. Eonsch 
assigned our book to the years 50-60 a.d. It was directed 
against the rising Christianity, and was an attempt to draw 
together all the opposing parties in Judaism against the 
new religion. 


HiLGENFELD, Zeitschrift f. wissensch. Theologie, 1874, 
pp. 435-441. 

Drummond, The Jewish Messiah, 1877, pp. 143-147. 

Eppstein, " Midrasch Tadsche," in Beitrdge zur Jild. 
AlterthumsTiunde, 1887. 

" Le Livre des Jubiles, Philon et le Midrasch 

Tadsche. " {Revue des Miules juives, 1890, xxi. 80-97; 1891, 
xxii. 1-25. 

Sack, Die altjudische Religion, 1889, pp. 350-368. 

Bacon, " Calendar of Enoch and Jubilees " (Hebraica, 
1891-1892, viii. 79-88; 124-131). 

Deane, Psetidepigrapha, 1891, pp. 193-236. We have 
here an excellent account of the book from the older stand- 

Thomson, Books which infiuenced our Lord and His 
Apostles, 1891, pp. 297-320, 433-439. 

Baldensperger, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu,^'^ 1892, pp. 

KuENEN, Gesammelte Ahhandlungen, 1894, pp. 113 sqq. 

ScHURER, GescJi. des Jild. Volkes,^'^ 1898, iii. 274-280. 
Schtirer follows the ordinary view as to the date of Jubilees : 
" It may with considerable probability be assigned to the 
jfirst cent, of the Christian era." Notwithstanding its many 
divergencies from Pharisaic usage and doctrine at that 
period he holds that in its essential aspects it represents 
the prevailing Pharisaic standpoint. A good bibliography 
closes the article. 

Singer, Das Buch der Juhilden oder die Zeptogenesis, 
I. Theil ; Tendenz und Ursprung, zugleich ein Beitrag zur 
Eeligionsgeschichte, Stuhlweissenburg (Ungarn), 1898. 
Ronsch, as we have seen above, was of opinion that Jubilees 
was directed against Christianity, but Singer thinks that he 
can establish that it was the work of a Jewish Christian, 
written (about 58-60 a.d.) with a polemic purpose against 


the teaching of St. Paul — especially against his doctrine of 
the abrogation of the law. This work exhibits much 
learning both in the field of Judaism and Christianity. 
But the main thesis is not in any sense proved by him nor 
is it possible of proof. 

Headlam, Art. " Jubilees," in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, 
1899, ii. 791. 

Charles, Art. "Book of Jubilees," in Encyc. Bihlica, 
1899, i. 230-233. 

BoHN, " Die Bedeutung des Buches der Jubilaen (Theol. 
Stud, und Kritiken, 1900, pp. 167-184). This article 
shows admirable insight. Its writer recognises rightly that 
the book belongs to the second cent. B.C. He ascribes its 
composition to 150 B.C. or thereabouts. 

LiTTMANN, Kautzsch's Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen 
des Alien Testaments, 1900, ii. 31-38. We have here as 
good an introduction to our author as was possible from 
the stage of criticism at the time, and one that is meritori- 
ous alike for its learning and judgment. In 1899 Littmann 
reviewed Singer's book (see above) in the ZDMGr, pp. 
368 sqq. 

§ 7. The Versions of Jubilees — Greek, Ethiopic, 

Latin, Syriac 

1. The Greek Version. — Numerous fragments of this 
version have come down to us in J. Martyr (? see note on 
p. 41), Origen (see notes on pp. 194, 227), Diodorus of 
Antioch (see p. 85), Isidore of Alexandria (see p. Ixxxi), 
Epiphanius (see notes on pp. 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 32, 
33, 47, 59, 61, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 77, 84, 86), John 
Malala (see notes on pp. 37, 41, 66), Anastasius Sinaita 
(flor. seventh cent. — preserved only in Latin ; see note on 
p. 23), Syncellus (see notes on pp. 41, 59, 66, 68, 69, 71, 


73, 74, 78, 85, 89, 93, 95, 191, 192. It is remarkable 
that Syncellus attributed to Genesis what comes from our 
text — see note on p. 164, and similarly to Josephus — see 
notes on pp. 157, 186, 208), Cedrenus (see notes on 
pp. 37, 41, 66, 67, 86, 87, 88, 93, 94, 116, 191, 252), 
Suidas (see note on p. 91), Zonaras (see p. 35), Glycas (see 
notes on pp. 37, 84, 85, 164), Joel (see notes on pp. 37, 67). 
For probable mistranslations in this version see notes on 
XXX. 25, xliii. 11, xlvii. 9; for corruptions in the MSS 
before the Ethiopic and Latin translators, see notes on i. 2 9, 
ii. 2, V. 4, xiv. 12, xxiii. 10, xxxii. 27, 29. 

This version is the parent of the Ethiopic and the Latin, 
as we shall prove below. 

2. The Ethiopic Version. — This version is most accurate 
and trustworthy and indeed as a rule servilely literal. It 
has, of course, suffered from the corruptions naturally incident 
to transmission through MSS. Thus dittographies are 
frequent and lacunae are of occasional occurrence (see § 11), 
but the version is singularly free from the glosses and 
corrections of unscrupulous scribes, though the temptation 
must have been great to bring it into accord with the 
Ethiopic version of Genesis. To this source, indeed, we 
must trace a few perversions of the text : " my wife " in 
iii. 6 instead of " wife " ; xv. 1 2 (see note) ; xvii. 1 2 (" her 
bottle " instead of " the bottle") ; xxiv. 19 (where the words 
" a well " are not found in the Latin version of Jubilees, 
nor in the Mass., Sam., LXX, Syr., and Vulg. of Gen. 
XX vi. 19). In the above passages the whole version is 
influenced, but in a much greater degree has this influence 
operated on MS a. Thus in iii. 4, 6, 7, 19, 29, iv. 4, 8, 
V. 3, vi. 9, etc., the readings of the Ethiopic version of 
Genesis have replaced the original text. In the case of h 
I can discover only one instance of this nature in xv. 15 
(see my Text, pp. xii. sqq.). 


For instances of corruption native to this version, see 
notes on ii. 2, 7, 21, vi. 21, vii. 22, x. 6, 21, xvi. 18, 
xxiv. 20, 29, xxxi. 2, xxxix. 4, xli. 15, xlv, 4, xlviii. 6. 

3. The Latin Version. — Tliis version, of which about 
one fourth has been preserved, was first published by Ceriani 
in his Monumenta sacra et prof ana, 1861, torn. i. fasc. i. 15- 
62. It contains the following sections: xiii. 10^-21; xv. 
20^-3 1^ xvi. 5^-xvii. 6^ xviii. 10^-xix. 25; xx. 5''-xxi. 
10^; xxii. 2-19''^; xxiii. 8^-23^; xxiv. 13-xxv. V ; xxvi. 
8^-23^ xxvii. 11^-24=^; xxviii. 16^-27^; xxix. 8^-xxxi. 
1^ xxxi. 9^-18, 29^-32; xxxii. l-8^ 18^-xxxiii. 9^ 18^- 
xxxiv. 5^; XXXV. 3^-12^; xxxvi. 20^'-xxxvii. 5*; xxxviii. 
1^-16^ xxxix. 9-xl. 8^; xli. 6^-18; xlii. 2^-14^ xlv. 
8-xlvi. 1, 12 -xlviii. 5 ; xlix. 7^-22. This version was 
next edited by Konsch in 1874, Das Buch der Jiibilaen . . . 
unter Beifilgung cles revidirten Textes der . . . lateinischen 
Fragmentc. This work attests enormous industry and great 
learning, but is deficient in judgment and critical acumen. 
Eonsch was of opinion that this Latin version was made in 
Egypt or its neighbourhood by a Palestinian Jew about the 
middle of the fifth cent. (pp. 459-460). In 1895 I edited 
this text afresh in conjunction with the Ethiopic in the 
Oxford Anecdota {The Ethiopic Version of the Hehrew 
Book of Jubilees). To this work and that of Eonsch above 
the reader must be referred for a fuller treatment of this 
subject. Here we may draw attention to the following 
points. This version, where it is preserved, is almost of 
equal value with the Ethiopic. It has, however, suffered 
more at the hands of correctors. Thus it has been corrected 
in conformity with the LXX in xlvi. 14 where it adds "et 
Oon " against all other authorities. The Eth. version of Exod. 
i. 1 1 might have been expected to bring about this addition 
in our Ethiopic text but it did not. Two similar instances 
will be found in xvii. 5, xxiv. 20. Again the Latin 


version seems to have been influenced by the Vulgate in 
xxix. 13, xlii. 11 (canos meos where our Ethiopia text = 
[lov TO yrjpa<i as in LXX of Gen. xlii. 38) ; and probably also 
in xlvii. 7, 8, and certainly in xlv. 12 where it reads in 
tota terra for in terra. Of course there is the possibility 
that the Latin has reproduced faithfully the Greek and that 
the Greek was faulty ; or in case it was correct, that it 
was the Greek presupposed by our Ethiopia version that 
was at fault. 

Two other passages are deserving of attention, xix. 14 
and xxxix. 13. In the former the Latin version "et 
creverunt et juvenes facti sunt " agrees with the Eth. version 
of Gen. XXV. 27 against the Ethiopia version of Jubilees 
and all other authorities on Gen. xxv. 27. Here the 
peculiar reading can be best explained as having originated 
in the Greek. In the second passage, the clause "eorum 
quae fiebant in carcere " agrees with the Eth. version of Gen. 
xxxix. 23 against the Ethiopia version of Jubilees and all 
other authorities on Gen. xxxix. 23. 

On the other hand, there is a large array of passages in 
which the Latin version preserves the true text over against 
corruptions or omissions in the Ethiopia version : cf. xvi. 1 6, 
xix. 5, 10, 11, XX. 6, 10, xxi. 3, xxii. 3, etc. (see my 
Text, p. xvi.). 

4. TJie Syriac Version. — The evidence as to the exist- 
ence of a Syriac is not conclusive. It is based on the fact 
that a British Museum MS (Add. 12,154, fol. 180) contains 
a Syriac fragment entitled, " Names of the Wives of the 
Patriarchs according to the Hebrew Book called Jubilees." 
It was first published by Ceriani in his Monumenta Sacra, 
1861, torn. ii. fasc. i. 9-10, and reprinted by me as 
Appendix III. to my Text of Jubilees (p. 183). 


§ 8. The Ethiopic and Latin Versions — Translations 


Like all the biblical literature Jubilees was translated 
into Ethiopic from Greek. We have seen above (p. xxvi) 
that the Greek version had a very wide currency. To 
show that our text is a translation from the Greek version 
it will be sufiicient to point out that in xxxiv. 11 we have 
a transliteration of rfKlov (" of the sun ") ; that in i. 29, ii. 2, 
V. 4, xiv. 12, xxiii. 10, xxviii. 27, xxxiL 4, 27, 29, xlvii. 5 
(see notes in loc.) we must retranslate into Greek before we 
can discover the source of the various corruptions. Further, 
Greek words such as Spv<;, j3aXavo<i, Xt-\^, o-^ti^o?, ^dpaj^, 
etc. are transliterated in the Ethiopic. The Greek article is 
rendered by the demonstrative ii. 2, iii. 25, xxiv. 19, 
29. Finally, proper names are transliterated as they appear 
in Greek and not in Hebrew: viii, 5, x. 18, etc. 

It is no less obvious that the Latin is also a translation 
from the Greek. Thus in xxxix. 12, timoris = SetXia?, a cor- 
ruption of SoyXeta? ; in xxxviii. 13, honorem = tc/xtjv, which 
should have been rendered by tributum (so Eth.) ; in xxxii. 
26, celavit = eKpv^jre, corrupt for eypayjre (so Eth.). Again, in 
xxxi. 30, orasti orationem is a mistranslation of njv^co 
ev'xrjv, which here = vovisti votum ; in xxxii. 30, sub glande 
= xnro Trj<i ^aXavov, which here = sub quercu. The Greek 
article is often rendered by the Latin demonstrative as in 
the Ethiopic version : hujus Abrahae, xxix. 16 ; huic Jacob 
. . . huic Istrael, xxxi. 15. Greek constructions are re- 
produced : memor fuit sermones, xvii. 3 = e/jivi](r67) Tov<i 
\6yovf; : consummavit loquens, xv. 22= a-vveTekecre XaXwv : 
in omnibus quibus (for quae) dedisti, xxii. 8 = ev irdaiv oU 
eSw/ca?. We should observe also the extraordinary mis- 
translation of fjLi]7ror€ = (ne forte) by ne quando in xlii. 11. 
(See Eonsch, pp. 439 sqq.) 


We have seen above (pp. xxviii-xxix) that the Ethiopic 
and Latin versions presuppose in some cases different forms 
of the Greek version. 

§ 9. The Greek — A Translation from the Hebrew 

The early date and place of composition speak for a 
Semitic original, and the following evidence for such an 
original is irresistible. 

But the question at once arises : was this original 
Aramaic or Hebrew ? Certain proper names in the Latin 
version ending in -in seem to bespeak an Aramaic, as Cettin, 
xxiv. 28; Adurin, xxxviii. 8, 9; Filistin, xxiv. 14-16. 
But since in all these cases the Ethiopic transliterations 
end in -m and not in -n, it is not improbable that this 
Aramaising in the Latin version is due to the translator, 
who, as Eonsch has concluded on other grounds, was a 
Palestinian Jew. Moreover, it is most dangerous to con- 
clude from Aramaic proper names to an Aramaic original ; 
for Aramaic forms occur not infrequently in the Greek 
versions of the Old Testament. Thus this very word Cettim 
(DTi^) appears as Herrdv in Symmachus (Gen. x. 4), HeTreiv 
in the LXX (B) and Lucian of Judg. i. 26, 'KemeLv in the 
LXX (B) of 1 Kings x. 33. As regards Adurin (which in 
the Eth. version = 'Adiiram), we should observe that this word 
appears as 'Avovcpdfju, i.e. 'ABovtpdfi, in the sister work Test, 
lud. 9. Thus we may here again conclude to an original 
Hebrew form. It is noteworthy also that whereas in 
xxxviii. 3 of the Latin we have Adoram, in the Ethiopic we 
have Adoran. Another Aramaic form is Mastema (Nip-'tobp 
[Mao-Tt^a/A in Syncellus, MaarKpar in Cedrenus, and Mas- 
tima in the Latin version, xviii. 12, xlviii. 2], from the hiphel 
participle, ntpwo). But the presence of such a proper name 
in a Semitic document is inconclusive as we have shown 
above. Cf. Littmann, in Kautzsch's Apok. u. Pseud, ii. 34. 


The grounds, on the other hand, for a Hebrew original 
are weighty and numerous : 

1. A work which claims to he from the hand of Moses 
would naturally he written in Hebrew. — Hebrew, our author 
teaches, was the sacred and national language (see notes on 
xii. 25-26; xliii. 15). 

2. The revival of the national spirit of the nation is 
universally, so far as we knoiv, accompanied hy a revival of 
the national language. — Thus the Psalms of Solomon (70- 
40 B.C.) were written in Hebrew, and the Similitudes in 
the Ethiopic Enoch (xxxvii.-lxx.), as I hope to prove later. 
As regards the sections of Enoch which were written before 
the revival of the national spirit under the Maccabees other 
grounds must decide. 

3. The text must he retranslated into Hebrew in order to ex- 
plain lonintelligible expressions and restore the true text. — Thus 
in xliii. 1 1 la'cleja = ev i/jbOL, which is a mistranslation of 
"»3. '•3 in this context = Bee fiat,, " pray," as in Gen. xliv. 18, 
which our text reproduces almost word for word. In xvi. 3 1 
lebba dabart (Lat. Vers, corde palmarum) = nonrr llS, where 
L is corrupt for ■•i^'iS. In xlvii. 9 the text = domum Fara- 

onis, but the context demands filiam Earaonis. Hence the 

/' /' I' 

Greek translator here misread D-nn as D-n^!l or D-ns. The 
true Aramaic word for daughter is mi. See also notes on 
ii. 29, iii. 15, vi. 35, xlviii. 12. 

Under this head also we might draw attention to the 
presence of dittographies already existing in the Hebrew 
text. See notes on iii. 16, xviii. 15, xxx. 1. 

4. Hebraisms survive in the Ethiopic and Latin versions. 
— Thus in ii. 9, 25 the Ethiopic wahaba = " gave " goes back 
to ]n:i, which must here be translated " appointed." In 
xxii. 10 eligere in te is a reproduction of 1 ini ; in xxiv. 25 
sermo hie = " this thing " = rTTrr nnrr, a purely Hebrew 
expression ; in xix. 8 in qua ... in ipsa (so also Eth.) 


= iv r) . . . iv avrrj = m IIDN ; in xl. 7 (see note) we have 
a transliteration of a Hebrew phrase 'El 'El wa 'Abirer 
where we should read 'Abirel. Again in iv. 4 nuha is a 
corrupt transliteration of i;3. See also vi. 35, xxxiii. 1, 
xl. 10. 

5. Many paronomasiae discover themselves on retranslation 
into Hehretv. — Thus in iv. 9 there is a play on Enoch the 
son of Cain; on Jared in iv. 15, on Noah in iv. 28, on 
Peleg in viii. 8, on Eeu in x. 18, on Serug in xi. 6, on 
Terah in xi. 12 (see notes in lac.). 

6. Many passages of this hook are preserved in rabbinic 
writings, such as the Hebrew Book of Noah, the Midrash 
Wajjissau, the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, the Book of 
Jashar, and the Midrash Tadshe. It has also much matter 
in common with the Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs 
which was also originally written in Hebrew. 

§ 10. Textual Affinities of the Text of the Book 

OF Jubilees 

In order to understand the position which the Hebrew 
text of Jubilees occupied in relation to the texts and versions 
of the Pentateuch, it will be necessary to summarise briefly 
its afi&nities with them. We shall now discover that our 
text agrees in turn with the Samaritan (twice ?), LXX, 
Syriac, Vulgate, and with Onkelos. 

In the following list, where the corresponding passages 
in Jubilees and the Pentateuch are given without further 
comment, the details will be found in the notes accompanying 
the translation. Thus in the first sub-heading i. (a), where 
xxvi. 34 of our text is equated with Gen. xxvii. 40, the needful 
information is given in the notes on xxvi. 34. On the other 
hand, where the notes do not supply such details the read- 



ing given by our text and its supporters and the opposing 
text and its authorities are supplied in brackets. Thus we 
are to interpret the statement "xli. 14 ('his shepherd') — 
Gen. xxviii. 40 ('his friend')," which occurs under the sub- 
heading ii. (97), " It agrees with the LXX and Vulg. against 
the Mass., Sam., and Syr,," as meaning that our text, sup- 
ported by the LXX and Vulg. of Gen. xxviii. 40, reads 
" his shepherd," whereas the Mass., Sam., and Syr. read " his 
friend." For fuller information the reader can refer to my 
Ethiopic Text. 

i. First as to its agreement with individual authorities 
in opposition to the rest : 

(a) It agrees with the Sam. against the Mass., LXX, 
Syr., Onk. in iv. 7 (" he called ") — Gen. iv. 25 (" she called "); 
ixvi. 34 (?) — Gen. xxvii. 40. 

(/8) It agrees with the LXX against the Mass., Sam., 
Syr., Vulg. in iii. 24 ("thy pains") — Gen. iii. 16 ("thy 
conception ") ; v, 1 — Gen. vi. 2 ; vii. 8 — Gen. ix. 22 ; viii. 1 
— Gen. xi. 13 ; xiii. 2 — Gen. xii. 6 ; xiv. 2, 12 — Gen. xv. 
2, 11; XV. 15 (" her name will be called ") — Gen. xvii. 1 5 
(" thou shalt call her name ") ; xviii. 2 — Gen. xxii. 2 ; 
xxiv. 25 — Gen. xxvi. 32; xxvi. 25 (-f"his son") — Gen. 
xxvii. 30 (see my Text, p. 97, note 20); xxviii. 11 (-f 
Jacob) — Gen. xxix. 32 ; xxviii. 29 — Gen. xxx. 43 ; xxix. 4 
— Gen. xxxi. 20; xlvi. 14 ("he set over") — Exod. i. 11 
(" they set over "). 

(7) It agrees with the Syriac version against the Mass., 
Sam., LXX, Vulg. in xii. 15 ("went forth" in sing.) — Gen. 
xi. 31 (Mass. = " went forth" in pi., Sam., LXX, Vulg. = 
"led forth"); xviii. 11 ("I have shown ") — Gen. xxii. 12 
(" I know ") ; xliii. 2 1 (" by the command of the mouth 
of Pharaoh ") — Gen. xlv. 21 (" by the mouth of Pharaoh ") ; 
xlvii. 7 — Exod. ii. 7; xlix. 9 ("the guilt") — Num. ix. 13 
(" his guilt "). 


(B) It agrees with the Vulg, against Mass., Sam., LXX, 
Syr. in vii. 9 (" their shoulders") — Gen. ix. 23 ("both their 
shoulders ") ; xiv. 1 (" and thy reward ") — Gen. xv. 1 (" thy 
reward"); xiv. 22 ("shall build up") — Gen. xvi. 2 ("shall 
be builded up ") ; xxiv. 3 (" give me ") — Gen. xxv. 3 
(feed me ") ; xxiv. 1 9 (" living water ") — Gen. xxvi. 1 9 
("weU of water"); xxvi. 31 ("Isaac") — Gen. xxvii. 39 
(" Isaac his father "). 

(e) It agrees with the Targum of Onkelos against 
the Mass., Sam., LXX, Syr., Vulg. in xiii. 20 ("not be 
numbered") — Gen. xiii. 16 ("be numbered"); xiii. 24 
— Gen. xiv. 14; xv. l7 ("rejoiced") — Gen. xvii. 17 
(" laughed "). 

ii. We shall next give its affinities with two or more of 
the above authorities in opposition to the rest. 

(a) Its agreement with the Mass. and Sam. : 

It agrees with the Mass. and Sam. against the LXX, 
Syr., Vulg. in iii. 3 — Gen. ii. 20; vi. 7 ("with the life 
thereof with the blood ") — Gen. ix. 4 (LXX iv aXjxari 

It agrees with the Mass. and Onk. against the Sam., 
LXX, Syr,, Vulg., Ps.-Jon. in iii. 7 — Gen. ii. 24. 

(/3) Its agreement with the Mass., Sam., Syr., or with 
these + Vulg. or + Vulg. and Onk. : 

It agrees with Mass., Sam., and Syr. against the LXX 
and Vulg. in iii. 25 ("for thy sake," ^^.^ni;l) — Gen. iii. 17 
(LXX (and Vulg.) eV toU €pyoL<i o-ou = ^mhli;!) ; vi. 8 
(" by man ") — Gen. ix. 6 (LXX dvrl rov aLfMaTo<i avrov) ; 
xxvi. 27 ("thy firstborn ")— Gen. xxvii. 32 (LXX + Vulg. 
om. "thy"); xxvi. 29 ("unto his father") — Gen. xxvii. 34 
(LXX + Vulg. om.); xxvii. 21 (" behold ")— Gen. xxviii. 13 
(LXX +Vulg. om.). 

It agrees with the Mass., Sam., Syr., Vulg. against the 
LXX in V. 27 (" prevailed ")— Gen. vii. 24 (LXX vfcoOv); 


xii. 15 ("from Ur")— Gen. xi. 31 (LXX e/c t^9 x^pa?); 
xiv. 3 (" out of thine own bowels ") — Gen. xv. 4 (LXX gk 
o-ou^'^Qp instead of '^["'ijpD) ; xiv. 12 — Gen. xv. 11 ; xv. 3 
(" Almighty ") — Gen. xvii. 1 (LXX aov). 

It agrees with the Mass., Sam., Syr., Vulg., and Onk. 
against the LXX in xv. 20 — Gen. xvii. 22 ; xxvi. 23 
("peoples") — Gen. xxvii. 29 (LXX ap'^^ovre^ = U'^ir^^p:^ 
corrupt for d^'DnS') ; xxvi. 24 ("brethren") — Gen. xxvii. 29 
(LXX Tov dSe\<f)ov aov). 

It agrees with the Mass., Sam., Syr., Aq., Symm., Vulg., 
and Onk. against the LXX in xiii. 1 (" towards the south ") 
— Gen. xii. 9 (LXX iv ry iptjixw). 

(7) Its agreement with the Sam. and LXX or with these 
+ Syr. or + Onk. or + Vulg. or + Syr. and Vulg. : 

It agrees with the Sam. and LXX against the Mass., 
Syr., Vulg. in xiv. 18 — Gen. xv. 20 ; xv. 14 — Gen. xvii. 14 ; 
xvii. 1 (" his son ") — Gen. xxi. 8 (om.) ; xxvii. 1 1 (" my 
father") — Gen. xxviii. 4 (om.). 

It agrees with the Sam., LXX, and Syr. against the 
Mass., Vulg., and Onk. in ii. 16 — Gen. ii. 2. 

It agrees with the Sam., LXX, Syr., and Vulg. against 
Mass., Onk., and Ps.-Jon. in xii. 23 ("them that curse") — 
Gen. xii. 3 ("him that curses"); xvii. 7 — Gen. xxi. 13; 
xxviii. 8 (" I shall give ") — Gen. xxix. 2 7 (" we will give ") ; 
xliii. 12 ("with us") — Gen. xliv. 31 (om.). 

It agrees with the Sam., LXX, Syr., and Vulg. against the 
Mass. and Onk. in xv. 16 — Gen. xvii. 16; xv. 19 ("and 
for his seed ") — Gen. xvii. 1 9 (" for his seed "). 

It agrees with the Sam., LXX, and Onk. against Mass., 
Syr,, and Vulg. in iii. 6 — Gen. ii. 23. 

It agrees with the Sam., LXX, and Vulg. against the Mass. 
and Syr. in xiv. 13 (" it was said ")— Gen. xv. 13 (" He said "). 
(S) Its agreement with the Sam. and Syr. + the Vulg. 
or others : 


It agrees with the Sam., Syr., Ps.-Jon., Graec.-Ven. against 
the Mass., Vulg., and Itala in xviii. 12 ("a single ( = lnN) 
ram") — Gen. xxii. 23 ("behind (in^) him a ram"). Onk. 
combines both readings. 

It agrees with the Sam., Syr., Vulg., Onk. against Mass. 
and LXX in xliv. 16 (" Phua ")— Gen. xlvi. 13 (" Puvvah "). 

(e) Its agreement with the Sam. version + LXX or with 
the Sam. version + Svr. and others : 

It agrees with the Sam. vers., LXX, Syr. (?), Onk. against 
Mass., Sam., Vulg. in xviii. 15 — Gen. xxii. 17. 

It agrees with the Sam. Vers., Syr., Vulg. (and possibly 
Sam.) against Mass. and LXX in xviii. 13 ("hath seen" or 
" seeth ") — Gen. xxii. 14 (Mass. "will be seen" or "pro- 
vided ") (LXX coi^dr)). 

(^) Its agreement with the LXX and Syr. and with these 
+ others : 

It agrees with the LXX and Syr. against Mass., Sam. in 
iii. 24 ("thy return") — Gen. iii. 16 ("thy desire"); xiv. 2 
(" son of my handmaid ") — Gen. xv. 2 (" of my house " ?) ; 
xli. 9 — Gen. xxxviii. 14. 

It agrees with the LXX and Syr. and, in the main, with 
the Sam. and Vulg. against the Mass. and Onk. in vi. 32 
(" beasts and cattle and birds and every moving thing " ; 
LXX Trdvra ra Orjpla kol irdvTa rd Krrjvr] /cat irdv 
irereLvov koX Trdv epirerov KLvovfxevov. So Syr. save 
that it omits koX after Trereivov ; Sam. and Vulg. agree 
with LXX save that Vulg. omits kuI irdv irereivov and 
Sam. omits koI iravra rd KTrjvrj) — Gen. viii. 1 9 (" every 
beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever 
creepeth "). 

It agrees with the LXX, Syr., and Vulg. against the 
Mass. and Sam, in v. 8 (" will . . . abide ") — Gen. vi. 3 
(" will . . . strive ") ; xiv. 4 (" said unto him ") — Gen. xv. 5 
(" said ") ; xv. 1 6 — Gen. xvii. 1 6 ; xxiv. 3 (" said to him ") 


— Gen. XXV. 31 ("said"); xliii. 12 ("our father") — Gen. 
xliv. 30 (Mass. "my father"). 

(rf) Its agreement with the LXX and Vulg.: 

It agrees with the LXX and Vulg. against the Mass., 
Sam., and Syr. ( + "and dancing") xvii. 4 — Gen. xxi. 9 ; xxvii. 
8 — Gen. xxvii. 46 ( + " of the daughters of Heth ") ; xxvii. 
11 ("after thee") — Gen. xxviii. 4 ("with thee"); xxviii. 1 
(" land of the east ") — Gen. xxix. 1 (" land of the sons of 
the east"); xli. 14 ("his shepherd " = '^iTOh) — Gen. xxviii. 
20 ("his friend " = ^ni;i). 

It agrees with the LXX, Vulg., and Onk. in xv. 14 (" for 
he has broken ") — Gen. xvii. 1 4 (" he has broken "). 

(0) It agrees with the LXX (d^''e, nrarpo'i jxov, but other 
MSS give 7raTp6<; crov as in the Sam. and Eth. vers.) against 
the Mass., Syr., and Vulg. in xxvii. 11 — Gen. xxviii. 4 (om.). 

Though the above list is not exhaustive it is sufficiently 
so for our purposes. It follows from it that our book 
attests an independent form of the Hebrew text of the 
Pentateuch. Thus it agrees at times with the Sam. or 
LXX or Syr. or Vulg. or even with Onk. against all the 
rest. Similarly it agrees with various combinations of 
these against the rest. 

In the next place we infer from the following phenomena 
that our book represents some form of the Hebrew text of the 
Pentateuch midway between the forms presupposed by the LXX 
and the Syriac. For it agrees more frequently with the 
LXX, see i. (/S), or with combinations into which the LXX 
enters, see ii (7), (e), {rj), (6), than with any other single 
authority or with any combination excluding the LXX. 
Next to the LXX it agrees most often with the Syriac, see 
i. (7), or with combinations into which the Syriac enters, 
see ii. (/3), (S). On the other hand its independence of the 
LXX is shown by such passages as i. (a), (7), (S), (e), and 
its actual superiority in a large array of readings, ii. (a), (/S), 


where it has the support of the Sam. and Mass., or of 
these with various combinations of Syr., Vulg. and Onk. 

If to the above considerations we add the facts that, so far 
as I am aware, (1) it never agrees against all the rest with 
the Mass., which is in some respects the latest form of the 
Hebrew text ; (2) that it agrees in a few cases with Onk., 
oftener with the Vulg., and still oftener with the Syr., and 
oftenest with the LXX, against all the rest ; (3) that, when 
it enters combinations, it is almost universally in attestation 
of the earlier reading, it may be reasonably concluded that 
the textual evidence points to the composition of our book at 
some period between 250 b.c, (LXX version of Pentateuch) 
and 100 A.D., and at a time nearer the earlier date than 
the latter. 

§ 11. Lacunae, Dittographies and Dislocations in 

OUR Text 

Lacunae. — In addition to the occasional small lacunae 
which are supplied from the Latin version or other 
independent sources, there are four larger lacunae in 
ii. 22, iii. 23, vii. 37, xiii. 25. The first consists of 
two clauses according to the Greek authorities : " As there 
were two and twenty letters, and two and twenty books," 
but, according to the Midrash Tadshe, only of one : " As 
there were two and twenty letters " (see ii. 23 notes). 
Since the earliest testimony elsewhere to this reckoning of 
the books of the Old Testament as twenty-two is that of 
Josephus (c. Apion. i. 8), it is possible that the clause in 
question in Epiphanius and Syncellus may be an addition 
to the text of Jubilees. This reckoning is mentioned also 
by Origen, Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, in the Canons of 
the Council of Laodicea, Jerome, etc. (see Eyle, Canon of 
the Old Testament, 1892, p. 221). On the other hand, it is 


not improbable that the disputed clause belongs to the 
original text : for its omission by the Midrash Tadshe is 
far from conclusive. We have already seen in the notes 
on ii, 2-3 that this Midrash (written circ. 1000 A.D.) has 
deliberately altered the text of Jubilees, where it is rightly 
transmitted by Epiphanius and Syncellus, in order to 
accommodate it to Talmudic Judaism. And in the present 
instance the motive for this omission was not wanting ; 
for the usual reckoning of the books of the Old Testament 
in Talmudic writings (Taanith 8a; Shem. rabba 41, etc.) 
and later Jewish scholars, such as Isaac Abarbanel, was 
twenty -four (see Strack, Herzog's Real - EncycS^^ vii. 
434-436). Moreover, a passage in Isidore of Seville, which 
is clearly based on Jub. ii., supports the evidence of Epi- 
phanius and Syncellus. It runs : Et xxii generationes sunt 
ab Adam usque ad Jacob, . . . et xxii libri Veteris Testa- 
menti usque ad Hester et xxii literarum sunt elementa (see 
p. Ixxxi for the rest of the quotation). Accordingly, since the 
negative evidence of the Midrash is thus largely discounted 
and since on the other hand we have the positive evidence 
of Epiphanius, Isidore, and Syncellus, and artificial analogies 
of this nature are characteristic of our author, I am in- 
clined to accept the clause as original.^ 

^ Since writing the above I have come across the following excerpt 
from the Greek version of Jubilees in Lambros' Catalogue of the 
Greek MSS on ML Athos, vol. i., pp. 292, which confirms my view. 
It is : ItDavvov dvayi'doa-TOV KwvcrTavTivotiTrdAews Acttt^s Vevi(Teu)<3. 
'Ev ry w^* ['AJtt' SiSe 8iaXa[xj3dvet /3iJ3Xlov to KaX-ov/xevov XeTrrrj 
yevccris. 'Ev tw Keifxevu)' "Epya ws Aeyei eKTrjcrev (read tKTwrev) o 
Gcos ev Ta?s €^ rjn^pais, 8l o Kal k/3' ypdfJi.fjLaTa Trap' '¥,/3paioL<s Kal k/S' 
fStfSXia Kal Kfj' yeveap^iai drro 'ASafx e'ws 'laKCUjS. KatV, a>s Acyei, 
Tjjs otKia? Trecrovcrr]^ I/t' auTov aTr^Oavev. Lambros wrongly prints 
K^' as K-q' twice in the above passage. I owe the corrections to Mr. 
Lake, who has just collated it afresh for me on Mt. Athos. The 
excerpt is from a thirteenth-cent. MS, The last sentence regarding 
Cain is from Jub. iv. 3L 


The third lacuna in vii. 37 appears to have extended to 
two or more verses, which dealt with the right of eating the 
fruit of trees in the fifth year after they were planted, and 
of sowing and reaping the land during six years and the 
duty of letting it lie fallow on the seventh (see notes in loc). 
The greatest loss which our book has sustained is that 
which occurs in xiii. 25. Here the text still stands in a 
mutilated condition. The subject of the lost verses was 
undoubtedly Abram's pursuit of the kings, his recovery of 
the captives, and his meeting with Melchizedek. Since 
on other grounds it appears that the Maccabean princes 
claimed in some respects to represent the priesthood of 
Melchizedek, this loss is most deplorable (see notes on 
xiii. 25, xxxii. 1, xxxvi. 16), 

Dittographies. — We have already drawn attention to 
three passages where dittographies most probably existed 
already in the Hebrew text. These are far from infrequent 
in the Ethiopic version. Thus in i. 29, vi. 33, viii. 6, 
16, ix. 1, XV. 34, xix. 10, xxii. 24, xxxi. 18, xxxiv. 
13, XXXV. 13, the dittographies are verbal repetitions of 
clauses in immediate or mediate juxtaposition. Some of 
these repetitions may, of course, have already occurred in the 
Greek. But there is another class of dittographies present 
in our version which are due to incorporation in the text 
of duplicate renderings. Thus in xxx. 1 6 the clause " and 
no consideration of persons " follows immediately on " And 
there will be no respect of persons," and both are alternative 
renderings of koL ovk earai irpoa-wirok'qy^ia or some such 
phrase. This conclusion is confirmed by the Latin version 
which shows no such dittography. We have the evidence 
of the same version for excising the dittography in xxiii. 
11. Other duplicate renderings, which have found their 
way into the Ethiopic version, our text exhibits in xx. 3, 
xxi. 10, 13, xxiv. 3. Possibly in xxxii. 21 "read and 


read," which I have emended with the Latin legit et 
cognovit into "read and knew," should be regarded as a 
simple dittography within the Ethiopia ; and legit et cognovit 
as due to two alternative renderings of ave'^vw, where the 
first is right. 

Dislocations. — A most probable instance of this nature 
occurs in xxxvii. 20*^. These two pi'ose lines intervene in 
the midst of a poem. They are corrupt in all the MSS, 
but by an easy emendation could be adapted to follow after 
the first clause of the preceding verse. See note in lac. 

Another passage is v. 17-18 which deals with the Day 
of Atonement. I have treated it as interpolated or else as 
transposed from after xxxiv. 18-19, which treats of the 
first institution of this festival. It is possible, however, 
that these verses did belong to the original. Thus 10**- 12 
refer to the final judgment and the renewal of the world. 
The subject of the final judgment is there further dealt with 
in its general character in 13-16, and in 17-18 the writer 
turns aside to show the special grace accorded to Israel on 
that day if they observe the Day of Atonement. But I 
still incline to the view that 17-18 are foreign to their 
present context. 

Again, i. 28 should probably be read before i. 26, and 
xxiii. 16 after xxiii. 19. 

§ 12. Poetical Element in Jubilees 

Just before completing my commentary on Jubilees, I 
was so fortunate as to discover that no small proportion of 
it was originally written in verse. Accordingly the reader 
will find the following passages arranged as verse : x. 3 ; 
xii. 2-5, 18-20, 23, 29; xv. 6-8; xviii. 15-16; xix. 17, 
20-22, 25; xx. 6-10; xxi. 21-25; xxii. 11-23; xxiii. 
23-31; xxiv. 30-32; xxv. 15-23; xxvi. 23-24, 31-34; 


xxxi. 15-20 ; xxxvii. 20-23. This discovery not only adds 
to the interest of the book but also illuminates many a dark 
passage, suggests the right connections of wrongly separated 
clauses, and forms an admirable instrument of criticism 
generally. Thus, if the reader turns to xxxvii. 20-23 he 
will find a poem — probably an old one — consisting of five 
stanzas of three lines each. Our recognition of this fact 
enables us to excise as an interpolation the unintelligible 
words occurring in the MSS at the close of the first stanza. 
Even if we emended these words we should only have a 
distich, which would be suspicious in the midst of a poem 
consisting of tristichs. But not only is the form against 
their genuineness here, but also their subject matter (see 
notes in loc). Again, in xxxi. 18 we reject a line both on 
the ground of the parallelism and of its being a dittography, 
and in xxi. 22 a line on the ground of the parallelism. 
The most important of these poems is the apocalypse in 
xxiii. 23-31 which consists of ten stanzas, the first nine of 
which are tristichs and the last a tetrastich. Of the rest 
some are composed in distichs, as xii. 23, 29 ; xviii. 15-16 
XX. 6-10; xxii. 11-23; xxv. 15-23, xxvi. 23-24, 31-34 
xxxi. 15-20; some in tristichs xix. 17, 25; xxi. 21-25 
xxxvii. 20-23 ; and the rest partly in distichs and partly in 
tristichs in xii. 18-20 (consisting of a tristich + distich 
-f tristich -1- 2 distichs); xv. 6-8 (distich -f- 2 tristichs); 
xix. 20-22 (2 tristichs -|- 2 distichs). While on the one 
hand it must be confessed that in xv. 6-8; xviii. 15-16; 
xxxi 20, and in one or more other passages, it is difficult 
to arrive at a satisfactory arrangement ; on the other it 
seems most probable that much of the first chapter was 
originally written in verse; also vii. 10^-12; xxvii. 
23-24; xxxii. 18-19, and many passages elsewhere. 


§ 13. Jubilees fkom one Author, but based on 
Earlier Books and Traditions 

Our book is the work of one author, but is largely based 
on earlier books and traditions. The narrative of Genesis 
forms, of course, the bulk of the book, but every page of it 
contains materials characteristic of the age of our author. 
By referring to Index I. the reader will see at a glance the 
books of the Old Testament laid under contribution. 

But our present chief interest is the relation of our 
author to non-canonical Jewish literature. Thus he borrows 
vii. 20-39, X. 1-15 from the Book of Noah. Of this book 
happily the greater part of x. 1-2, 9-14 is still preserved 
in the Hebrew Book of Noah (see Jellinek's Bet ha-Mid- 
rasch, iii. 155, and my Text of Jubilees, p. 179). Our 
author had before him also the greater part of the Book of 
Enoch vi.-xvi., xxiii.-xxxvi., lxxii.-xc. 

Besides these he also made use of current traditions and 
legends, which were already reduced to writing, and have 
come down to us in Hebrew and Greek in other inde- 
pendent works. Thus the war of Jacob and his sons 
against the Amorite kings, xxxiv. 1-9, is found in the 
Test. Judah 3-7, a contemporary work, in the Midrash 
Wajjissau, which contains if not the original legend, 
at all events a very early recast of it, and in the Book 
of Jashar — a late work. Again, our author drew on 
existing writings for his description of the fratricidal war 
between Jacob and Esau in xxxvii.-xxxviii. Here the only 
contemporary authority that still exists for our text is 
Test. Jud. 9. But with a few reservations the same state- 
ment may be made of the Hebrew document preserved in 
the Jalkut Shimeoni i. 132 and the Chronicles of Jerah- 
meel (see my notes on pp. 214-215). 


Other incidents in our text, which are attested also in 
the contemporary Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs, are 
the story of Bilhah's dishonour at the hands of Eeuben 
during Jacob's absence (Jub. xxxiii. 1-9 — Test. Eeuben 3) ; 
Levi's dream as to the priesthood (xxxii. 1 — Test. Levi 2, 4, 
5, 8, 9), and his consecration to it by Isaac (xxxi. 13-17 
— Test. Levi 9) ; the names of the wives of Levi and Judah 
(xxxi V. 20 — Test. Levi 11; Test. Jud. 8, 13, 16); the 
story of Tamar, Er and Onan, and Judah's repentance (xli. 
— Test. Jud. 10, 12, 14, 19); the burial of Jacob's sons 
in Hebron (xlvi. 9 — Test. Eeub. 7, Levi 19, Jud. 26 
Zeb. 10, Dan. 7, Naph. 9, Gad 8, Asher 8 ; cf. Jos. Ant. 
ii. 8. 2) during a war between Egypt and Canaan (xlvi. 9 — 
Test. Sim. 8, Benj. 1 2 [Arm. Vers.]). Also the insertion of 
Kainam in vii. 1 is supported by the LXX of Gen. 
xi. 13. 

Other legendary matter in Jubilees, for which con- 
temporary or earlier documents are, as a rule, not at hand, 
though most probably belonging to ancient tradition, 
furnishes us with a large number of proper names — par- 
ticularly the names of women — 'Awan, wife of Cain (iv. 9), 
'Azura, wife of Seth (iv. 11), Mualeleth, the wife of Kenan 
(iv. 14), and the wives of the various patriarchs down to 
Terah (see iv. 15, 16, 20, 27, 28, 33; vii. 14, 15, 16; 
viii. 1, 5, 6, 7 ; xi. 9, 14, etc.), and of the twelve sons of 
Jacob (xxxiv. 20), and the daughter of Pharaoh (xlvii. 5). 
As other proper names of persons we might observe : 
Baraki'el (iv. 15), Easujal (iv. 16), Dan^l (iv. 20), and so 
on for the fathers of the wives mentioned above (iv. 27, 28, 
33 ; viii. 1, 5, 6, etc.) ; also Makamaron, king of Canaan 


(xlvi. 6), and the Eljo ^ (vii. 22). Again, as names of places : 
'Elda (iii. 32), the mount of the East (iv. 26), the three 

^ This name is found in the Greek Version (Syncellus) of the Eth. 
Enoch vii. 2 as 'EAtovS. 


cities built by Noah's sons (vii. 14, 15, 16), tbe various 
mountains, islands, towns, rivers, and seas mentioned in 
viii, 12-ix. 13 (most of which can, however, be identified 


with actual places), 'Ermon ( = Heroonpolis, xlvi. 6). 

Other legendary matter was in many instances (see notes 
in loc), and possibly in all, the source of the following state- 
ments and incidents : the period of five days spent by Adam 
in naming the creatures (iii. 1-3), the common language of 
all animals before the Fall (iii. 28), the number of Adam's 
sons, i.e. twelve (iv. 10), his burial — the first that was 
made in the earth (iv. 29), the manner of Cain's death 
(iv. 31), Kainam's discovery of writings of the Watchers 
(viii. 1-4), the detailed account of the tower of Babel 
and its destruction by a mighty wind (x. 21-26), the 
beginning of wars and idolatry in Serug's time (xi. 2-4), 
the history of Abraham's early days and exploits (xi. 16-24), 
his campaign against idolatry and burning of a heathen 
temple, death of Haran, Abraham's astronomical knowledge 
and miraculous acquisition of Hebrew (xii. 1-8, 12-14, 
16-21, 25-27), Abraham's ten temptations (xvii. 17), the 
fact of Zilpah and Bilhah being sisters (xxviii. 9), and of 
Zebulon and Dinah being twins (xxviii. 23), rape of Dinah at 
the age of twelve (xxx. 1-3), Jacob's presents to his parents 
four times a year (xxix. 14-17, 19-20), Isaac's blessing of 
Levi and Judah (xxxi. 13-20), appointment of Levi to the 
priesthood as the tenth son (xxxii. 2-3), the deaths of 
Bilhah and Dinah after news of Joseph's death (xxxiv. 
15-16), Simeon's marriage to a woman of Mesopotamia on 
his repentance (xxxiv. 21), after having first married a 
woman from Zephath (xliv. 13), the years of famine traced 
to the failure of the Nile (xlv. 9), the temporary stay of 
many Israelites in Canaan after burial of the patriarchs 
(xlvi. 10), the number of months during which the Hebrew 
children were cast into the river (xlvii. 2), the burning of 


the Egyptian gods (xlviii. 5), destruction of 1000 Egyptians 
in the Eed Sea for every Hebrew child that was cast into 
the river (xlviii. 14). 

§14. Jubilees — A Product of the Midrashic Tendency 


Our book represents an extreme product of the mid- 
rashic process which is apparent on most pages of 
the Old Testament Chronicler, (a) The Chronicler, as we 
know, to a certain extent rewrote with an object the earlier 
history of Israel and the history of Judah already recounted 
in Samuel and Kings. In his hands the history of the 
nation is so recast as to make it a history of the church, 
the temple and its cultus, and to represent David and his 
pious successors as observing all the prescripts of the law 
according to the Priests' Code, (b) In the course of this 
process facts that will not square with the writer's pre- 
suppositions are omitted or transformed in character. This 
applies particularly to breaches of the Priests' Code ; also 
to statements such as that in 2 Sam. xxiv. 1, which 
ascribes David's temptation to Yahweh. This temptation 
the Chronicler attributes to Satan (1 Chron. xxi. 1). 

(a) Now the author of Jubilees sought to do for Genesis ^ 
what the Chronicler had done for Samuel and Kings 
(observe especially his recasting of 2 Kings xi. in 2 Chron. 
xxii. 10-xxiii. 21), and so he rewrote it in such a way as to 

1 The procedure of our author is, of course, in direct antagonism 
■with the presuppositions of the Priests' Code in Genesis. Thus 
according to it " Noah may build no altar, Abraham offer no sacrifice, 
Jacob erect no sacred pillar. No offering is recorded till Aaron and 
his sons are ready " (Carpenter, The Hexateuch, i. 124). 


show that the law had been rigorously observed, even by 
the patriarchs. 

(h) Like the Chronicler our author found many state- 
ments in Genesis that did not square with his presupposi- 
tions, and accordingly we find that in many instances he 
alters the text before him,^ and in others he simply omits. 
Thus he omits ^ the sending out of the raven (Gen. viii. 7) 
possibly on the ground of its being an unclean bird (Lev. 
xi. 15), and of the doves, Abraham's entertainment of the 
angels (Gen. xviii. 2-8), his intercession for Sodom (xviii. 
22-33), the mention of Lot's wife and many details 
regarding the destruction of Sodom (Gen. xix. 1-24), 
Abraham's deception of the Egyptians (xii. 11-14, 18), 
and of Abimelech in regard to Sarah (Gen. xx. 2-3), Isaac's 
prayer that Eebecca may have offspring, etc. (Gen, xxv. 
21-26), his deception of Abimelech in regard to Eebecca 
(Gen. XX vi. 7-10), Jacob's meeting with Eachel and his 
welcome by Laban (Gen. xxix. 2-15), the story of the 
mandrakes (Gen. xxx. 14-16), Jacob's devices to increase 
his flocks at the expense of Laban (Gen. xxx. 37-42), the 
mutual recriminations of Jacob and Laban (Gen. xxxi. 
26-32, 36-42), Jacob's meeting with the angels (Gen. 
xxxii. 1-2), his wrestling with the angel (xxxii. 24-32), his 
fear of Esau and efforts to propitiate him (Gen. xxxii. -xxxiii.), 
the circumcision of the Shechemites and their covenant 
with Jacob (Gen. xxxiv. 14-24). The omissions in the 
history of Joseph are numerous, but they can be explained 
almost wholly on the ground of the author's desire for brevity. 
But as regards Gen. xlix. the case is different. It is 

1 See pp. xlix, liv. 

2 The narrative about Melchizedek is lost in the course of trans- 
mission, but was not omitted by our author (see xiii. 25 note). Nor 
yet was the reference to fasting on the Day of Atonement (see xxxiv. 18 


purposely suppressed because of its severity on Levi and 
its giving the pre-eminence to Judah. Our author through- 
out reverses this relation, and everywhere sets Levi before 

Again, like the Chronicler he takes offence at the fre- 
quent mention of men being tempted or slain by God in 
Genesis and Exodus, and after the example of the Chronicler 
he represents the temptation of Abraham to offer Isaac 
(Gen. xxii.) as due to Mastema (Jub. xvii. 16), the attempt 
on Moses's life (Exod. iv. 24) as made by the same evil 
agent ; likewise the hardening of the hearts of the Egyptians 
(xlviii. 17 — Exod. xiv. 8), and the slaying of the first-born 
(xlix. 2 — Exod. xii. 29), he ascribes to the activities of 
Mastema and his angels. 

Again, just as we must not suppose that the peculiar im- 
press which the Chronicler gave to his historical materials 
was the result of his individual activity but rather the out- 
come of a process, which in the course of successive genera- 
tions had in many respects been transforming history into 
legend, so we must be careful to recognise in our author's 
book only a more advanced stage of the process above 
referred to. Possibly this process would not, in the natural 
course of things, have thrust the completed law further 
back than the time of Moses, but the exigencies of our 
author's time and the corroding influences of Hellenism 
seemed to him to demand the recognition of the law as 
superior to time, though revealed in time, and valid not 
only unto eternity but from eternity. The materials which 
suggested such a view were already at hand. If the earthly 
tabernacle was only a copy of a heavenly original (Exod. 
XXV. 9-40, xxvi. 30), it was but natural to infer that the 
various elements of the law, which were established in the 
course of tradition, were likewise copies of divine originals 
engraven on the heavenly tables. Such a view seemed to 



be called for by the necessities of the time. Hellenism had 4 
for many a decade been undermining circumcision and the 
observance of the Sabbath/ which were the bulwarks of | 
Judaism, before these destructive tendencies came to a head 
in the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes (see note on xv. 14). 
Our author is a late representative of the strong reactionary 
movement which asserted the everlasting validity and 
sanctity of these elements of the law. Thus he teaches 
that, though circumcision was first ordained in Abraham's 
time, it had been ordained in heaven from the beginning, 
for the two highest orders of the angels had been created 
circumcised, and that Israel was through circumcision sancti- 
fied together with tliem (xv. 27 note). Similarly the 
Sabbath, though first ordained in Jacob's time (see ii. 23,31 
notes), was originally celebrated in heaven by God and by 
the same two chief orders of angels. Israel was to unite 
with these angels in observing it. It was to be a sign like 
circumcision marking off Israel from all the other nations 
of the earth (ii. 19-21), and making them one with the two 
chief orders of angels in heaven. 

Jubilees — an Esoteric Tradition according to its Author. 
— The Book of Jubilees claims as a whole to be a revela- 
tion of God to Moses, and thus to form a supplement to, 
and an interpretation of, the Pentateuch, which it calls 
" the first law " (vi. 22). According to 4 Ezra xiv. 6 Moses 
was to reveal the latter but not the former. This second 
appears from our author to have embraced in a final 
authenticated form various revelations which had been 
made to the patriarclis, and constituted in their hands an 
esoteric tradition. This secret tradition had been handed 
down from father to son. Thus Enoch committed it to 
Methuselah, and Methuselah to Lamech, and Lamech to 
Noah (vii. 38, xxi. 10). Noah in turn entrusted all his 

1 See 1 Mace. i. 39, 43. 


books to his eldest son, Shem (x. 14). Between Shem and 
Abram the knowledge of the sacred language was lost. But 
the latter was taught this language by an angel, and he 
thereupon studied "the books of his fathers" (xii. 27). 
From these books of his forefathers embracing the writings 
of Enoch and Noah, Abraham instructed Isaac (xxi. 10). 
These books contained regulations regarding sacrifices as 
well as other matters (vii. 38, xxi. 10; cf. Test. Zeb. 3). 
To Jacob also Abraham transmitted the traditions directly 
(xxv. 7, xxxix. 6). Again, Jacob educated Joseph from 
the writings of Abraham (xxxix. 6-7), and finally handed over 
" all his books and the books of his fathers to Levi his son 
that he might preserve them and renew them for his 
children until this day" (xlv. 16). Thus this secret 
tradition was to be preserved in the hands of the priest- 
hood till the time should come for its publication. From 
this last statement it would not be unreasonable to infer 
that our author was a member of the priestly caste. 

§15. Object of Jubilees — the Defence and Exposition 
OF Judaism from the Phaeisaic Standpoint of the 
Second Century e.g. 

The object of our author is to defend Judaism against 
the disintegrating effects of Hellenism. 

Our author defends Judaism (a) by glorifying the law as 
an eternal ordinance and representing the patriarchs as 
models of piety; (6) by glorifying Israel and insisting on 
its separation from the Gentiles ; and (c) by denouncing the 
Gentiles generally and particularly Israel's national enemies. 

{a) Our author glorifies the law. — We have already 
(p. 1) drawn attention to our author s glorification of cir- 
cumcision and the Sabbath, the bulwarks of Judaism, as 


heavenly ordinances, the sphere of which was so far ex- 
tended as to embrace Israel on earth. The law, as a 
whole, was to our author the realisation in time of what was 
in a sense timeless and eternal. He is careful to set forth 
the historical occasions when the various elements of the 
law were first celebrated on earth, and herein he followed 
a tendency already well established in post-exilic Judaism. 
We shall now enumerate these briefly. The levitical law 
of purification after childbirth was enacted after the creation 
of Adam and Eve (iii. 8-14). On the expulsion of Adam 
from Eden the law of covering one's shame was enacted 
(iii. 30-32). This law does not belong to the Mishna or 
later Jewish legislation. It was manifestly levelled against 
the custom of baring the person in the Greek games, and is 
not explicable of any other than the early Maccabean period. 
The daily incense-offering began after Adam's expulsion 
from Eden (iii. 27). The law relating to the jubilees was 
first set forth by Enoch (iv. 18). The law of retribution in 
kind — " an eye for an eye " — was first carried out in the 
case of Cain (iv. 31-32). Noah instituted the feast of 
weeks, which had been observed in heaven since the creation 
(vi. 17-22), also the feasts on the new moons (vi. 23-27); 
he offered sacrifices, which anticipate later ritual (vi. 1-4, 
vii. 3-5), and enunciated the laws regarding fruit-trees and 
the land keeping Sabbath (vii. 2, 35-37), though he 
ascribed these laws to Enoch (vii. 38). Abram enacted the 
law of tithes (xiii. 25-29); celebrated the feast of first- 
fruits of the grain harvest on the 15 th of the third month 
(xv. 1-2) and instituted the feast of tabernacles (xvi. 20-31), 
ordained peace-offerings and the regulations relating to the 
use of salt, wood for sacrifices, washing before sacrifices, 
and the duty of covering blood (xxi. 7-1 7), and forbade all 
intermarrying with the Cauaanites (xxii. 20, xxv. 5), and 
adultery (xxxix. 6). Laban set forth the law — unknown to 


Jewish tradition — that the younger sister should not be given 
in marriage before the elder (xxviii. 6). The penalty of death 
was ordained for intermarriage with the heathen in connec- 
tion with the destruction of Shechem (xxx. 7-17). Levi was 
ordained priest by Jacob at the feast of tabernacles (xxx. 18- 
23, xxxii. 2-3), and blessed by Isaac as such (xxxi. 13-17). 
Jacob offered tithes through Levi at the feast of tabernacles 
— also the second tithe (xxxii. 4-9), and re-enacted the law 
of tithes (xxxii. 10-15 ; see xiii. 25-29) ; added the eighth 
day to the feast of tabernacles as a permanent institution 
(xxxii. 27-29). The law regarding incest was published in 
connection with Keuben's outrage (xxxiii. 10-20). The day 
of Atonement was instituted as a day of fasting and mourning 
in commemoration of the day when the news of Joseph's 
death arrived (xxxiv. 18-19 ; cf. v. 18). The law of incest 
was re-enacted and extended in connection with Judah's 
sin with Tamar (xli. 25-26). Jacob celebrated the feast of 
the first-fruits (xliv. 1, 4).^ 

Glorification of the patriarchs. — This glorification of the 
patriarchs was also characteristic of the Priests' Code (see 
Carpenter, HexcUeuch, i. 123). They are transformed into 
saints by our author. It is for this reason that Gen, xii. 
11-13 (which tells of Abram's representing Sarai as his 
sister) is omitted, and likewise Isaac's lie about Kebecca, 
Gen. xxvi. 7. Abram, according to our author, knew the 
true God from his youth (xi. 16, 17, xii. 1 sqq.). Jacob is 

^ In the course of rewriting Genesis from the standjaoint of the law 
our author explains certain difficulties. According to Gen. ii. 17 
Adam was to die on the day that he eat of the tree of knowledge. 
This was fulfilled : for one day is a thousand years in the testimony of 
the heavens, and Adam died at 9.30 (iv. 29-30). Esau gave up his birth- 
right because he was sull'ering from the lamine in the land (xxiv. 2 
sqq.). This explanation our author arrives at by transposing Gen. 
xxvi. 1 before Gen. xxv. 29 sqq. Isaac's failure to recognise Jacob 
was due to a dispensation from heaven (xxvi. 18). 


represented as a model of filial affection and obedience ^ 
(xxv. 4 sqq., xxxv. 9-12). The passages relating to Jacob's 
devices for increasing his flocks (Gen. xxx. 35-38) and 
his fear of and measures for propitiating Esau (C4en. xxxii.- 
xxxiii.) are omitted. Indeed our author represents Jacob as 
declaring that he was not afraid (xxvii. 4) and as ultimately 
killing Esau (xxxviii. 2). The text in Gen. xliv. 15 is 
changed in order to clear Joseph from the charge of divina- 
tion, and the word "Esau" omitted in Gen. xxvii. 24 in 
order to cover Jacob's lie, and the words " his brother is 
dead "(Gen. xliv. 20) are changed into "one went away 
and was lost" (xliii. 11) in order to avoid making Joseph's 
brethren tell a deliberate lie.'^ 

(b) Glorification of Israel and its separation from the 
Gentiles. — Whereas the various nations of the Gentiles were 
subject to angels, Israel was subject to God alone (xv. 32). 
Not Japheth (Gen. ix. 27) but God was to dwell in the tents 
of Shem (vii. 12). Israel, moreover, was God's son ; and not 
only did the nation stand in this relation to God, but also 

^ Our author is careful to show that Abram did not leave Terah 
(xii. 28-31) unless with the full approval of the latter. Jacob did not 
leave Isaac till the latter approved and sent him off with a blessing 
(xxvii. 9 sqq.). Esau stole the possessions of his father, but Jacob 
supplied all his parents' need four times a year (xxix. 15 sqq.). 

2 To the above class we might add the long addition in chaps. v\i\, 
and ix. regarding the division of the earth under Noah. According to 
this division Palestine fell to the descendants of Shem, and thus our 
writer justities the subsequent annihilation of the Canaanites by 
Israel. Again, Abraham's marriage with Keturah is defended on the 
ground that Hagar was already dead (xix. 11). Reuben was not so 
guilty because the law against whicli he offended had not yet been 
revealed (xxxiii. 16). Levi's destruction of Shechem is declared to 
be the ground of his election to the priesthood (xxx. 18) ; his deed was 
righteous, for marriage with a Gentile is equivalent to idolatry (xxx. 
10). As our author took up this standpoint he had to omit the league 
that was formed lietween Jacob and Shechem and the reception of 
circumcision by the latter (Gen. xxx.). 


its individual members (i. 24, 25, 28, xix. 29). Israel 
was to receive circumcision as a sign that they were the 
Lord's (xv. 26), a privilege which they were to enjoy in 
common with the two chief orders of angels (x v. 27). They 
were also to unite with God and these two orders in the 
observance of the Sabbath (ii. 18, 19, 21). Finally, the 
destinies of the world were bound up with Israel. The 
world was to be renewed in the creation of the true man 
Jacob (xix, 24-25, ii. 22), and its final renewal to syn- 
chronize with the setting up of God's sanctuary on Zion and 
the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (i. 29, iv. 26, 
V. 12). 

Isf)^ael to he separate frotn the Gentiles, — Israel was not 
in any way to imitate the conduct of the Gentiles (xv. 34, 
xxii. 16); not to eat with them (xxii. 16), nor to form 
leagues with them (xxiv. 25, 27), nor to intermarry with 
them ; for he that gave his daughter to a Gentile, gave her 
to Moloch (xxii. 20, xxv. 9, xxx. 7, 10, 11, 13). 

(c) The Gentiles denounced generally and 'particularly 
Israel's national enemies. — With the immeasurable arrogance 
of Judaism there went necessarily, hand in hand, an im- 
measurable hatred and contempt of the Gentiles. Tacitus, 
more than two centuries later, called attention to this 
characteristic of the Jews (" adversus omnes alios hostile 
odium," Hist. v. 5). Judaism regarded its own attitude to 
the Gentiles as not only justifiable but also just, because it 
was but a reflection of the divine. God had placed the 
nations under the authority of spirits or angelic guardians 
with the object of compassing their destruction (xv. 31). 
Here, most probably, the ultimate residt of an action is 
declared to be the immediate object of it. Our author de- 
nounces particularly the national enemies of Israel, and 
these, as we shall have more than once occasion to observe, 
were the very nations with whom Israel was frequently 


at war in the second century B.C. First of all our author's 
maledictions are fulminated against the Philistines both in 
this world and in the next. The chief cities of this nation 
were either subjected or destroyed by the Maccabean princes 
(see xxiv. 28-32 notes). Next they are directed against 
Edom. Thus Isaac is represented as declaring in the bless- 
ing of Esau, that, if Esau's seed rebelled against Israel, they 
should be "rooted out from under heaven" (xxvi. 34). A 
war between Jacob and Esau is described in xxxviii. 1-14, 
in wliich Edom was reduced to servitude " until this day." 
Edom was thoroughly subdued by John Hyrcanus and forced 
to accept circumcision (xxxviii. 8 note). Again, in a descrip- 
tion of a war between Jacob and seven kings of the Amorites, 
the writer forecasts the Maccabean victories of later times 
(xxxiv. 1-9). In an earlier passage he enumerates the chief 
seats of the Amorites. These were associated with Macca- 
bean victories, in which the Amorites were all but annihilated 
(xxix. 10-11). Of the Amorites who were "wicked and 
sinful " and had " wrought to the full all their sins," our 
author grimly remarks " they have no longer length of life 
on earth " (xxix. 11). This was practically the result of 
the Maccabean wars. 

§ 16. Angelology and Demonology of Jubilees 

Angelology. — Tlie angelology of the author, like that of the 
Ethiopic Enoch, is in an advanced stage. Tliere are two 
supreme classes, the angels of the presence and the angels 
of sanctification (ii. 2, 18), and a very large order of inferior 
angels who presided over natural phenomena (ii. 2 note). The 
two first classes joined with Israel in observing the Sabbath 
and circumcision (see p. 1) and other elements of the law, 
as the feast of weeks (vi. 18). In addition to the above 
there were the (seventy) angels who formed the angelic 


patrons of the nations (xv. 31), and the angels who were 
the guardians of individuals (xxxv. 17). 

The duties assigned to the angels in connection with 
mankind are numerous. They brought Adam into the 
Garden of Eden and afterwards Eve (iii. 9, 12), and instructed 
Adam in tillage in the Garden (iii. 15). They report to 
God all the sin committed on the earth (iv. 6). The order 
called "Watchers" descended in the days of Jared to instruct 
the children of men (iv. 15), and afterwards sinned with 
the daughters of men (iv. 22). The angels showed to 
Enoch all that was " on earth and in the heavens " during 
294 years (iv. 21), and conducted him into the Garden of 
Eden (iv. 23). They bound the fallen Watchers in the depths 
of the earth (v. 6) ; took to Noah the animals that were to 
enter the ark (v. 23). In the presence of an angel the 
earth was divided among Noah's sons (viii. 10). Angels 
bound nine-tenths of the demons in the place of condemna- 
tion (x. 9-11), and instructed Noah in the remedies against 
all diseases (x. 12); they accompanied the Lord in visiting 
the tower of Babel (x. 23). An angel bade Abram to go to 
the land of promise (xii. 22), and instructed him in the 
knowledge of Hebrew, and explained to him what he found 
unintelligible (xii. 26, 27). Angels announced to Abraham 
the birth of Isaac and admonished Sarah for laughing (xvi. 
1-4) ; saved Lot from Sodom (xvi. 7) ; blessed Abraham and 
disclosed to him what had been decreed about him (xvi. 16). 
An angel comforted Hagar (xvii. 11), and withheld Abraham's 
hand from sacrificing Isaac (xviii. 10). Angels tested Abra- 
ham's patience after the death of Sarah (xix. 3). The angels 
will remember unto a thousand generations Levi's righteous 
judgment on Shechem (xxx. 20). An angel showed Jacob 
in a vision of the night seven tablets which recorded all 
that would befall him and his posterity, and bade him copy 
them (xxxii. 21, 24-25). Angels disclosed to Judah that 


he was forgiven for his sin with Tamar (xli. 24). An angel 
delivered Moses out of the hands of Mastema (xlviii. 2-4). 
Angels prevented the magicians from furnishing any remedies 
to the Egyptians (xlviii. 10), and delivered the Israelites out 
of the hands of the Egj'ptians (xlviii, 13), and bound Mastema 
from the 14th to the 18tli and let him loose on the 19th, 
when they led Israel forth (xlviii. 15-19). An angel made 
known to Moses the Sabbaths, year-weeks, and jubilees, etc. 
(1. 1-4). 

Demonology. — Over against the angelic kingdom stands 
a well-organised demonic or sataiiic kingdom. This kingdom 
is governed by " the prince of the Mastema," ^ where Mastema 
is in point of derivation and meaning the equivalent of 
Satan. His subjects comprise both satans and demons. 
The demons are the spirits which went forth from the bodies 
of the slain children of the Watchers and the daughters of 
men (x. 5 ; Eth. En. xvi.). According to Eth. En. liv. 6 
the guilt of the Watchers originated in their becoming sub- 
ject to Satan. By means of these demons the prince of the 
satans is able to compass his evils, which are the seduction 
and destruction of men. But these have no power over the 
righteous and over Israel (see note on x. 8). 

§ 17. The Date of Jubilees 

The date of our book can only be established by a series 
of indirect evidence. But this evidence is so plentiful and 
powerful, when apprehended, that no room is left for reason- 
able doubt. 

i. First of all the hook was written during the pontificate 

^ In all the Ethiopic MSS the phrase is wrongly given as " prince 
Mastema" in xvii. 16, xlviii. 2, but ah rightly attest "prince of the 
Mastema" in xviii. 9, 12, xlviii. 9, 12, 15. 


of the Maccdbean family, and not earlier than 135 B.C. — 
Thus in xxxii. 1 Levi is called a " priest of the Most High 
God." Now, the only Jewish high -priests who ever bore 
this title were the Maccabean (see note on xxxii. 1). They 
appear to have assumed it as reviving the order of Melchize- 
dek when they displaced the Zadokite order of Aaron. 
Jewish tradition ascribes the assumption of this title to 
John Hyrcanus, but it seems to have been already assumed 
by Simon ; cf Ps. ex. 4 : " Thou art a priest for ever after 
the order of Melchizedek," and 1 Mace. xiv. 41. If, how- 
ever, we follow the Jewish tradition in this matter, we 
must fix on 135 B.C., when Hyrcanus became high-priest, 
as the earliest possible date for the composition of Jubilees. 
Notwithstanding the objections of the Pharisees to this 
title, it was used by the Maccabean princes down to the 
time of Hyrcanus II. (Jos. Ant. xvi. 6. 2). 

ii. Next, it vjas iintten before 9 6 B.C., or some yeai's earlier 
in the reign of Hyrcanus. — Since our author is of the strictest 
sect a Pharisee, and at the same time approves of the Macca- 
bean pontificate, Jubilees cannot have been written later than 
96 B.C., when the Pharisees and Alexander Jannaeus came 
to open strife. Indeed, it is hard to conceive of its com- 
position after the public breach between Hyrcanus and the 
Pharisees which is described in Josephus (Ant. xiii. 10- 
5-6), and in the Talmud {Kiddush. 66a) with some varia- 
tions in names and details. After that event — unfortunately 
the year is not given by any authority — Hyrcanus joined 
the Sadducean party, and forbade, under penalties, the 
observance of Pharisaic ordinances. Hence we may con- 
clude that ov.r hook was vjritten hetiveen 135 and the year 
of Hyrcanus' breach with the Pharisees. 

The above conclusions are confirmed by a large mass of 
evidence, which may be arranged under seven heads. Of 
these the first four point definitely to the latter half of the 


second century B.C. as the date of the composition of 
Jubilees ; the remaining three give various grounds for 
postulating a pre-Christian date at any rate. 

i. Our hook points to the period — already past — of stress 
and persecution that preceded the recovery of national inde- 
pendence under the Maccabees. — Thus, it is impossible to 
ascribe to any other period the causes which led to the 
enactment or accentuation of the following laws : 

(a) The Jews (" those who know . . . the law ") were 
forbidden to expose their persons by a law " prescribed on 
the heavenly tables." This law was devised to forbid Jews 
taking part in the Greek games established by Jason the 
high-priest (see iii. 30-31, notes). It was not unnaturally 
derived from Gen. iii. 21, and was probably current for a 
generation before embodied by our author in his book. 

(h) The law of circumcision is affirmed under the 
severest penalties (xv. 11-14, 26, 28). This law was 
observed in the creation of the highest angels (xv. 27). 
Yet Israel will, our author says, neglect it and " treat their 
members like the Gentiles" (xv. 33-34). Antiochus for- 
bade circumcision under the penalty of death (1 Mace, 
i. 48, 60, 61 ; 2 Alacc. vi. 10). There may be a reference 
also in our text to tlie Jews uncircumcising themselves, a 
practice which they resorted to under Antiochus Epiphanes 
in order to escape the scoffs of the heathen in the palaestra 
(1 Mace. i. 15 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. o. 1). 

(c) The Sabbath is re-enacted and its profanation is to 
be followed by the death penalty (ii. 17-32, 1. 6-13). 
Non-observance of the Sabbath had been prevalent accord- 
ing to our author (xxiii. 19). Antiochus had forbidden the 
Jews to keep it (1 Mace. i. 39, 45 ; 2 Mace. vi. 6). Our 
text lays down the strictest sabbatical laws, such as were 
not in force at any time save in the second century B.C. 
or earlier. Thus war is absolutely forbidden (1. 12), 


and this prohibition was carried out, as we know, in 
the earlj Maccabean wars (see 1. 12, note). But it was 
soon found impossible in practice (see note just referred to), 
and warfare on the Sabbath was subsequently permitted under 
a variety of circumstances (Bab. Shabb. i. 8; Shabb. 19a; 
Erub. 45 a). 

Again, a man is forbidden to cohabit with his wife 
(1. 8). This was the practice of the early Chasids ; but 
this ascetic attitude to marriage is abandoned in the Mishna 
(see 1. 8, note). 

Again, riding on any beast is forbidden (1. 12). The 
enforcement of the law during the Syro- Grecian suzerainty 
is mentioned in the Talmud. 

{d) Intermarriage with the heathen is absolutely pro- 
hibited by the penalty of death (xxx. 7-17). To give one's 
daughter to a Gentile was to give her to Moloch (xxx. 10, 
note). This question had for a long time before our 
author's date been of vital importance to Israel. But at 
no time could the danger from this source have been 
greater than during 200-160 B.C., when the destructive 
tendencies of Hellenism on Jewish character and religion 
had come to a head. 

ii. Our hooJc presupposes as its historical background the 
most flourishing ^)6?'iof? of the Maccabean hegemony. 

(a) Only such a period could explain the assured spirit 
of triumph which led our author to anticipate a world-wide 
dominion and introduce that expectation into God's promise 
to Jacob in Gen. xxx v. 11-12 : "1 shall . . . multiply thee 
exceedingly, and kings will come forth from thee, and they 
will judge the sons of men wherever their foot has 
trodden.^ And I shall give to thy seed all the earth 
which is under heaven . . . and they will get possession of 
the whole earth and inherit it for ever" (Jub. xxxii. 18-19). 

^ See note on p. Ixx note. 


(6) Only such a period could explain the pre-eminence 
assigned by our book to Levi over Judah. We have 
seen above (p. xlviii) that our author omitted Gen. xlix. 
because of the absolute pre-eminence above his brethren 
which is there assigned to Judah and the denunciation of 
Levi. But he goes further. Thus he ascribes to Levi's 
descendants the supreme offices of high-priest and civil ruler 
(xxxi. 14-17), but in regard to Judah, only Judah himself 
and one of his descendants (i.e. the Messiah) are mentioned 
as holding civil authority (xxxi. 18-20). Our author seems 
to imply that the royal descendants of David are no more, 
and that till the Messiah comes the Maccabees would 
hold the offices of high -priest and king. In later days 
when the Maccabees became a name of reproach, they 
were charged with usurping the throne of David (Pss. of 
Solomon xvii. 5, 6, 8) and the high-priesthood (Assumpt. 
Mos. vi. 1). 

(c) The legend of the conquests of Esau's sons by the 
sons of Jacob in xxxvii.-xxxviii., points very clearly to the 
complete conquest of Edom by Judah in the Maccabean 
wars. In these wars the Edomites had sided with the 
Syrians till they were made tributary by John Hyrcanus. 
This subjection of Edom is referred to in xxxviii, 14, "The 
sons of Edom have not got quit of the yoke of servitude 
. . . until this day " {i.e. the author's time). See notes 
on xxxvii. 9-10, xxxviii. 4-9, where the fuller account 
in the Jalkut refers to 'Aqrabbim (1 Mace. v. 3), which 
as well as Adora were memorable as scenes connected with 
the Maccabean struggle. 

This period also best explains the hatred which trans- 
formed Isaac's blessing of Esau into a curse (xxvi. 34). 

(d) Again the Maccabean wars are adumbrated in the 
struggle of Jacob's sons with the Amorite kings in 
xxxiv. 1-9. This is clearer in the completer narrative in 


Test. Judah 3-7. The cities, Tappuah, Hazor, and 
Bethoron, which are mentioned here, are associated with 
notable victories and incidents in the Maccabean war. 
See notes on xxxiv. 4. So also Bousset, Zeitschrift f. 
NTliche Wissensch. 1900, pp. 202-205. But the reference 
to the Amorites is much more obvious in xxix. 10-11, 
where our author enumerates their chief cities and then 
grimly adds : " They have no longer length of life on the 
earth" (xxix. 10-11). Their practical annihilation, which 
is here referred to, was effected by Judas (see notes on 
xxix. 10). 

(e) Our text reflects accurately the intense hatred of 
Judah towards the Philistines in the second cent. B.C. It 
declares that they will be put to the sword by the Kittim, 
i.e. the Macedonians under Alexander the Great, and 
subsequently fall into the hands of " the righteous nation " 
(xxiv. 28-29), and be exterminated, as they practically were 
by the Maccabees (see xxiv. 28-32, notes). 

iii. Our author gives in an apocalypse a history of the 
Maccabean times (xxiii. 12-31), from the persecution of 
Antiochus Epiphanes to the Messianic kingdom, the advent 
of which is just at hand. In this section we have the rise 
of the Chasids, who rebuke their elders for forsaking the law 
and the covenant (xxiii. 16), the general corruption which 
entails judgment on man and beast and leads to civil strife 
(xxiii. 17-20), the warlike efforts of the Maccabeans to 
reclaim the Hellenisers to Judaism (xxiii. 20-22), the 
sufferings of the nation through the repeated attacks of 
Syria (xxiii. 23-25), Israel's return to the law, and its 
gradual ethical and physical transformation in the Messianic 
kingdom and its triumph over its national foes (xxiii. 26-30). 
Our author stands already on the threshold of this happy time. 
It is, therefore, in the most prosperous days of the Maccabean 
dynasty, i.e., in the days of Simon or John Hyrcanus. 


iv. Our book was used by the author of Eth. Enoch 
xci.-civ., and must, therefore, have been written at latest at 
the beginning of the first cent. B.C. (see § 19). 

V. The textual affinities of our text connect it more 
closely with the form of Hebrew text, which is presupposed 
by the LXX (250 B.C.) and found in the Samaritan 
Pentateuch, than with that which lay behind the Syriac and 
later versions or Targums. From this evidence we may 
conclude at all events to a pre-Christian date (see § 10). 

vi. Our text preserves older forms of the Haggada and 
Halacha than are found in the Talmud and later Jewish 
literature. The details will be found on referring to the 
notes on the various passages. 

Haggada. — In i. 27 (see note) an angel reveals the law 
to Moses : according to later Judaism Moses receives it 
from God Himself. In ii. 2-3 angels are said to have been 
created on the first day : in later Judaism on the second or 
fifth. According to ii. 7 the Garden of Eden was created 
on the third day : according to later Judaism before the 
world. In xi. 2-6 the corruption of mankind is ascribed to 
the time of Serug: in later Judaism to that of Enos. In 
xii. 1-14 we have the primitive form of the saga so much 
developed in later Judaism about Ur of the Chaldees. In 
xix. 11 Abraham's marriage to Keturah is justified on the 
ground that Hagar was already dead, whereas later Judaism 
identifies Hagar and Keturah. In xxx. 2-G the praise 
oiven to Levi and Simeon accords with Jewish views of the 
first and second cent. B.C. Later Judaism on the whole 
accepts the judgment pronounced on them in Genesis. 
Again our author records honestly the marriages of Simeon, 
Judah, and Joseph, to Gentile women, though such marriages 
must have in his eyes been full of offence. But later 
Judaism felt the offence to be too grave for toleration, and 
sought to establish the Hebrew descent of the women in 


question (see xxxiv. 20, xl. 10 notes). In xxxvii.-xxxviii. 
we have the oldest form of the legend of the war between 
Jacob's sons and the sons of Esau, and similarly in the case 
of the war between Egypt and Canaan in xlvi. 6-11. Later 
developments of these legends are found in rabbinic litera- 
ture. Again, our text retains the original form of the 
traditions in Genesis, where later Judaism explained them 
away as offensive. Thus in iv. 15 the sons of God are 
rightly taken to be angels : in xxxiii. 2 the story of Eeuben 
and Bilhah is accepted, but later Judaism manages to remove 
all that is objectionable in it. See also notes on iv. 12, 
xl. 10. 

Halaclia. — The severe halacha regarding the sabbath in 
1. 8, 12, were indubitably in force in the second cent. B.C., 
if not earlier, but were afterwards mitigated by the Mishna 
and later Judaism. Again the strict halacha in xv. 14 
regarding circumcision on the eighth day was a current, 
probably the current, view in the second cent. B.C. and 
earlier, since it has the support of the Samaritan text and 
the LXX. This strict law was subsequently relaxed in the 
Mishna. In xxxii. 15 the severe law of tithing found in 
Lev. xxvii. 15 is enforced, but rabbinic tradition sought to 
weaken the statement. As regards the halacha laid down 
in iii. 31 regarding the duty of covering one's shame, it is 
highly probable that such a halacha did exist in the second 
cent. B.C., when Judaism was protesting against the exposure 
of the person in the Greek games. See also iii. 8-14 notes, 
and XX. 4 note. 

Finally, we might draw attention to the fact that the 
Pharisaic regulation about pouring water on the altar (Jer. 
Sukk. iv. 6 ; Sukk. 44 a) at the feast of tabernacles appears 
to have been unknown to him. We know that the attempt 
of the Pharisees to enforce its adoption on Alexander 
Jannaeus resulted in a massacre of the former. 



vii. The following facts postulate a pre-Christian date 
for the composition of our book : — 

(a) The calendar was in an unsettled state when our 
author wrote. No strict Pharisee, such as our author, could 
have advanced such a system as is laid down in vi. 28-33, 
unless at a period when no uniform calendar system was 
established. With it we may compare an allied system in 
Eth. Enoch Ixxii.-lxxxii. There are good grounds for 
believing that our author grounded his system on the 
chronological statements regarding the flood in Genesis (see 
notes on p. 56). 

(b) The divine title " Most High God." The use of this 
title is frequent in our author. This frequency, as appears 
in the note on xxxvi. 16, is characteristic of writings before 
the Maccabean era in the second cent. B.C. When once, 
however, the Maccabeans had assumed the title " priests of 
the Most High God," the divine title would naturally 
remain popular amongst those who, like our author, 
recognised the validity of the Maccabean pontificate. On 
the otlier hand, we should expect a decline in its use to set 
in with the rising unpopularity of the Maccabean dynasty. 
This disuse, indeed, is not apparent in the oldest anti- 
Maccabean work, Eth. Enoch xci.-civ., where the hostility 
to the Maccabeans is in an incipient stage. There the title 
" Most High " occurs nine times. But in the Pss. of 
Solomon and Eth. Enoch xxxvii.-lxx., where the hatred is 
open and unconcealed, this title is not found in the former 
and only twice in the latter. In the latter half of the first 
cent. A.D. there was a revival in its use as its Maccabean 
associations were forgotten. 

(c) The phrase " feast of Pentecost," as a description of 
the feast of weeks, seems to have been unknown to our 
author (see note on vi. 17), though it was in use in the 
first cent. B.C. 


§ 18. The Jubilees and Years used by our Author 

Our author claims that his chronological system is 
derived from the heavenly tables. From these tables it was 
made known to Moses directly by the angel of the presence, 
who assured Moses with regard to his disclosures on the 
solar year of 364 days: " It is not of my own devising, for 
the book (lies) written before me, and on the heavenly 
tables the division of days is ordained" (vi. 35), For 
the convenience of the reader I have reduced the jubilee 
reckonings to years and placed them in the margin. 

The Juhilces. — The chronology is essentially heptadic. 
Each jubilee consists of seven year-weeks, and each year- 
week of seven years. It is probably on the ground of the 
sacred character of the number seven, and possibly also for 
the sake of symmetry, that our author makes his jubilee 
consist of forty- nine years instead of fifty, which was the 
usual reckoning among the Jews. E. Jehuda (Nedarim 
61a — quoted by Beer), however, set down the jubilee at 
forty-nine years ; and in the Samaritan Chronicle {Jourtial 
Asiatiqice, 1869, torn, xiv. No. 55, pp. 421-467) a system 
closely analogous to that of our author is found. Here the 
jubilee is reckoned at forty-nine and a fraction, which 
varies imintelligibly in extent, if the text is correct. Thus 
five jubilees =246 years, forty jubilees = 1968 years, but 
sixty jubilees = 2951 years. 

It is noteworthy also that, whereas our author applies 
the jubilee reckoning from the creation to the date of 
Israel's entering into Palestine, the Talmudic treatise 
Erachin 12-1 3a and the Samaritan Chronicle make the 
jubilee to begin with the settlement of Israel in Palestine, 
and while the former carries it down to the destruction of 
the first temple, the latter carries it down to many centuries 
after the Christian era. 


In the Assumption of Moses the jubilee is also used in 
the chronological system of its author. Thus (i. 2) he 
reckons 2500 years to have elapsed from the creation of 
the world to the death of Moses, that is, fifty jubilees of 
fifty years each. Again, in x. 12 it is stated that from the 
death of Moses to the Messianic kingdom there will be 
250 times (i.e. year-weeks) that is thirty-five jubilees of 
fifty years each. Thus from the creation to the Messianic 
kingdom there would be eighty-five jubilees. Cf. Sanh. 97&. 

In one other work, the Seder 01am 23, 25, the jubilee 
period is occasionally used in the history of Israel and 
Judah contemporary with the reigns of Sennacherib and 

The Years. — Our author seems to have used a civil year 
and an ecclesiastical year, both of 364 days. The civil year 
consisted of twelve months (iv. 17, v. 27, vi. 29-30 note) 
of thirty days each and four intercalary days (vi. 23 note), 
one at the beginning of each quarter. The ecclesiastical 
year consisted of thirteen months of twenty-eight days each, 
and in accordance with it were regulated the great festivals, 
the Sabbaths, Passover, and Feast of Weeks (see notes on 
vi. 29-30, 32). Furthermore, this impossible solar year of 
364 days was undoubtedly put forward in Pharisaic circles 
in the second cent. B.C., and its currency may date from a 
much earlier period. See note on vi. 32. 

§19. Value of Jubilees in Determining the Dates of 
THE Various Sections of the Ethiopig Enoch and 
the Book of Noah. 

In my edition of the Ethiopic Enoch in 1893 I was 
the first to point out (pp. 25-29, 221-222, 263-264) that 
chaps, i.-xxxvi., lxxxiii.-xc., and xci.-civ. were from different 
authors. To the two former sections I assigned a date 


anterior to 161 B.C., and to the third a date subsequent to 
95 B.C. "We shall now find that the above critical results 
are confirmed in the main by the evidence of our text. 
Thus in my note on iv. 17-23 I have shown that our 
author had Eth. Enoch vi.-xvi., xxiii.-xxxvi., Ixxii.-xc. before 
him. In confirmation of the conclusions in that note we 
should observe also that v. 1, 2, vii. 21, 22, 23, 24 of our 
text (see notes) presuppose vii. 1, 2, 5, ix. 1, 9 of the Eth. 
Enoch (see also Index I.). 

Eth. Enoch xci.-civ. later than Juhilees. — Next as regards 
xci.-civ. we shall prove that it was subsequent to Jubilees 
and made use of that work. To begin with, these two 
writings exhibit certain resemblances. In both there is a 
temporary Messianic kingdom and an immortality of the 
soul implied or taught. On the other hand, the tone of 
Jubilees is optimistic and was written before the breach 
between the Pharisees and the Maccabean rulers, whereas 
Eth. Enoch xci.-civ. is pessimistic in tone and was written 
after the breach had led to the persecution of the Pharisees. 
We shall now adduce a variety of passages from both books 
which will establish the dependent relation of this section 
of the Eth. Enoch on Jubilees. 

{a) From a comparison of vii. 29 (see note) and xxii. 22 
of our text with Eth. Enoch ciii. 7, 8 it follows that the 
latter is based on the former. In our text Sheol is not 
yet associated with fire and burning ; but this stage, which 
combines the characteristics of Sheol and Gehenna, is 
already attained in the latter work. 

(fe) In Jub. i. 1 6 it is promised to Israel that " they will 
be the head and not the tail." In Eth. Enoch ciii. 11 we 
have : " they hoped to be the head and have become the tail." 

(c) In Jub. i. 29 a new heavens and a new earth were 
promised. In the despondent Eth. Enoch xci. 16 only a 
new heaven. 


(d) According to Jub. xxxii. 18 Israel is to "judge all 
the nations according to their desires." ^ In Eth. Enoch 
xcv. 3 righteous Israel is to " execute judgment on them 
(the sinners) according to their desires," and in xcvi. 1 
is to " have lordship over them according to their 

(e) With Jub. xxiii. 31, "their spirits will have much 
joy." compare Eth. Enoch civ. 4, " ye will have great joy as 
the angels," where both expressions are applied to the 
spirits of the blessed after death. Also ciii. 4, " And your 
spirits — the spirits of you who have died in righteousness 
— will live and rejoice." 

(/) In Jub. xxii. 16 it is said with regard to the wicked 
" become not their associate," and in Eth. Enoch civ. 6, " have 
no companionship with them," and in xci. 4, " associate not 
with those of a double heart.'' In xcvii. 4, the wicked 
are said to be the " companions of sinners." 

(g) With Jub. xii. 2, "What help and profit have we 
from those idols," cf, Eth. Enoch xcix. 7, " No help will be 
found in them " {i.e. idols). 

(h) Eating blood is condemned in Jub. vii. 28, 29, etc. 
cf. Eth. Enoch xcviiL 11. 

(i) The law is spoken of as " the eternal law " Eth. 
Enoch xcix. 2, " the law for all future generations " xciii. 6, 
(cf. xcix. 14), as we might expect in a writer influenced by 
Jubilees. Throughout all the older sections of Enoch the 
law is not mentioned. 

(Jc) The references to " the plant of righteousness " (Eth. 
Enoch xciii. 10), or " of righteous judgment " (xciii. 5), or " of 
uprightness" (xciii. 2), may be due in part to Jub, i. 16 
" plant of uprightness," or " a plant of righteousness " (xvi. 

^ lii xxxii. 18 for "judge everywhere wherever the foot of the 
sons of men have trodden," read with Latin "judge the sons of men 
wherever their foot has trodden." Based partly on Deut. xi. 24. 


26, xxi. 24). The phrase, however, occurs already in Eth. 
Enoch X. 16. 

(I) Eth. Enoch ci. 2 : " when he . . . withholds the rain 
and the dew from descending on the earth " (of. c. 12), is 
found almost verbally in Jub. xii. 4, " who causes the rain 
and the dew to descend on the earth" (cf. xii. 18, xx. 9). 

Uth. Enoch, i.-v. later than Jubilees. — The evidence in 
respect to the relative dates of this section and Jubilees is 
not conclusive, but so far as it exists it implies the priority 
of the latter. 

Thus, in Eth. Enoch iii. the words " all the trees . . . 
shed all their leaves except fourteen trees," most probably 
go back to Jub. xxi. 12-13 where fourteen evergreen trees 
are enumerated which were to be used on the altar, cp. Test. 
Levi 9. 

Again, Eth. Enoch v. 9, "They will complete the 
number of the days of their life, and their lives will grow 
old in peace and the years of their joy will be many," 
seems to be an expansion of Jub. xxiii. 29, "All their 
days they will complete and live in peace and in joy." 

Finally, Eth. Enoch i.-v. appears to be later than the 
Test. XII. Patriarchs, a sister work of Jubilees, but this 
subject cannot be pursued further here. 

The Book of Noah. — This book is referred to twice in 
our text, i.e. in x. 13, xxi. 10. Our author, moreover, has 
taken over bodily two considerable sections from it and 
incorporated them in vii. 20-39, x. 1-15. Thus the Book 
of Noah was written before 135-105 B.C. But its com- 
position goes back to a much earlier date. Chapters vi.-xi. 
of the Ethiopic Enoch are clearly from the same source ; 
for they make no reference to Enoch but bring forward 
Noah (x. 1), and treat of the sin of the angels that led to 
the flood, and of their temporal and eternal punishment. 
This section is compounded of the Semjaza and Azazel 


myths, and in its present composite form is already pre- 
supposed by Eth. Enoch lxxxviu.-lxxxix. 1. Hence in its 
present form it is earlier than 166 B.C. Chapters Ix., 
Ixv.-lxix. 25, cvi.-cvii, of the same work are also derived 
from the Book of Noah and probably xxxix. 1, 2*, xli. 3-8, 
xliii.-xliv., liv. 7-lv. 2, lix., but not in their present form. 
There appears to be no adequate ground for assigning these 
sections of that ancient work to a later date than those 
above discussed. 

The above facts throw some light on the strange vicissi- 
tudes to which even the traditional legends were subject. 
Thus it would appear that the Noah saga is older than the 
Enoch, and that the latter was built up in part on the 
debris of the former. And just as the Noah saga made 
way for the Enoch, so the Enoch saga in turn made way 
for the Seth, as I have shown at some length in the notes 
on pp. 33-36. 

§ 20. The Eelation of Jubilees to the Testaments 


From a comparison of the passages in our author and the 
Testaments which treat of the same subjects, it is clear that 
neither of the two works is dependent on the other, but that 
both draw independently from the same sources. See notes 
on xxviii. 9, xxx. 2-6, 18, 25, xxxi. 3-4, 13, 15, 16, xxxii. 
1, 8, xxxiii. 1, 2, 4, xxxiv. 1-9, xxxvii.-xxxviii., xli. 8-14, 
24-25, xlvi. 6-9. 

I hope to treat this question exhaustively in my edition 
of the Testaments. 


§ 21. The Author — A Pharisee who recognised the 
Maccabean Pontificate and was probably a Priest 

From §§ 15, 17 it follows without further need of proof 
that our author was a pharisee of the straitest sect. He was 
an upholder of the everlasting validity of the law, he held 
the strictest views on circumcision, the sabbath and on the 
duty of shunning all intercourse with the Gentiles : he 
believed in angels and demons § 16, and in a blessed 
immortality. In § 14 we have shown that he was an 
extreme representative of the midrashic tendency which 
bad been already at work for centuries. 

In the next place our author was a supporter of the 
Maccabean pontificate. He glorifies Levi's successors as 
high-priests and civil rulers (xxxi. 13-17), and applies to 
them the title assumed by the Maccabean princes (xxxii. 1). 
He was not, however, so thorough-going an admirer as the 
authors of the Test. Levi 18, or Psalm ex. who expected the 
Messiah to come forth from the Maccabean family (see 
notes on xxxi. 18-19, xxxii. 1). 

That our author was a priest might be reasonably 
inferred from the exaltation of Levi over Judah (xxxi.-xxxii.) 
and from the statement in xlv. 16, that the secret traditions, 
which our author claims to publish, were kept in the hands 
of Levi's descendants. 

§ 22. Jubilees in Jewish, Samaritan, and Christian 
non-canonical Literature 

In Jewish Literature. 

In Jewish and Samaritan Literature. — Eth. Enoch i.-v. 
(?), xci.-civ. ; Wisdom (?), 4 Ezra, Chronicles of Jerahmeel, 
Midrash Tadshe, Book of Jashar, Samaritan Chronicle. 

On Eth. Enoch i.-v,, xci.-civ. see pp. Ixix-lxxi above. 


Wisdom. — It is not possible to establish conclusively 
that our book was used by the author of Wisdom. There 
are, however, amid great differences, strong affinities between 
them. Thus both teach a temporary Messianic kingdom 
and a blessed immortality of the soul. In Jubilees 
apparently for the first time God is called the Father of the 
righteous individual Israelite (i. 24 note): in Wisdom this 
view is frequently and emphatically taught (ii. 13, 18, v. 5, 
xii. 7, 21). Again in Jubilees the law of retaliation 
is enunciated in its most literal form (iv. 31, xlviii. 14, 
notes), and the same phenomenon meets us in Wisdom, 
xi. 16 : 8c S>v Tt9 dfxapTavei, Bta rovrcov KoXd^erat, Cf. also 
xi. 7, xii. 23, xvi. 1, xviii. 4, 5. Finally either xlviii. 14 
of our text or some authority of a like nature seems to have 
been before the writer of Wisdom xviii. 5 : 

fSovXevcra/xevovi avrohs to. twv ocriwv aTroKTelvat vvyrrta 

KOi erbs iKTedevTos TiKvov [xat crw^erTos] 
CIS €A£y;(oi' TO avrdv ae^etAw TrXrjOo<s [tIkvwv], 

Kal ofiodvfiaSuv dTrwAccras ev vSari cr(fio8p<^. 

In both passages the destruction of the Egyptians in 
retaliation for the casting of the Hebrew children into the 
river is dealt with, though this is obscured by the glosses kuI 
a(o6evTo<; and rkKvoav} which I have bracketed as additions 
of an early scribe who misinterpreted the passage of Moses. 
In Jub. xlviii. 14 it is said that 1000 Egyptians were de- 
stroyed on account of every Hebrew child that was cast into 
the river. This sense we recover from the Greek on omitting 
the gloss : " In retribution for even a single child that was 
exposed Thou didst take away the multitude of them." But 
the passage is still unsatisfactory, for ttXtJ^o? in the text 
which = niT was corrupt in the original source (? Jubilees) as 
in Hosea viii. 12 for h:in = 10,000. Thus we have: "In 

^ Observe independently tlie awkwardness of re/cvwv after aurwi'. 


retribution for even a single child that was exposed Thou didst 
take away 10,000 of them," i.e. of those who had taken 
counsel to destroy the Hebrew children. 10,000 may be 
more accurate than the 1000 which stands in Jub. xlviii. 14. 
I have found the same corruption in Ethiopic MSS. 

4 Uzra. — There can be little doubt that our book is 
referred to in 4 Ezra xiv. 4-6, where it is said of Moses : 
Et misi eum et eduxit populum meum de Aegypto, et 
adduxi eum super montem Sina et detinui eum apud me 
diebus multis, Et enarravi ei mirdbilia multa, et ostendi ei 
temporum secreta et temporum finem, et praecepi ei dicens : 
Haec in palam facies verba et haec abscondes. The haec 
here refers to Jubilees (see i. 26 notes), which was handed 
down in the tribe of Levi (xlv. 16) till its publication by 
our author. 

In 4 Ezra vi. 20 the words, libri aperientur ante faciem 
firmamenti et omnes videbunt simul, refer to the books in 
which the deeds of men are recorded. These books were 
kept by Enoch according to our text iv. 23, x. 17. 

In X. 46, the date in the words : factum est post an- 
norum tria millia (Syr., Eth., Arab., but Lat. = annos tres) 
aedij&cavit Salomon civitatem et obtulit oblationes, appears to 
be based on that given in Jubilees. If with Joseph. {Ant. 
viii. 8. 1.) we reckon 592 years from the Exodus to the 
building of Solomon's temple or 588 years with Sulpicius 
Severus {Chron. i. 40, 4 sq.) and take, as our author, 2410 
to be the year of the Exodus, then we arrive at 3002 or 
2998 (see for these and other reckonings Hilgenfeld, Messias 
Jvdeorum, p. 83). Again on p. 109 of the work just 
mentioned Hilgenfeld gives good grounds for assuming that 
in 4 Ezra xiv. 48 (Syr. Eth.,) the text originally contained 
a computation in jubilees. See also Ebnsch, Das Buck der 
Jubilden, pp. 412-414. 

Chronicles of Jerahmeel. — This Hebrew work, which has 


been translated by Gaster, contains a great deal of subject- 
matter in common with our book. At times it reproduces 
the actual words of our text. I have no doubt that our 
text was I used by some of the authors of this compilation. 
See Index II. for references to the parallel passages. 

Miclrash Tadshe. — This Midrash was written about the 
beginning of the eleventh cent. a.d. by Moses ha-Darshan, 
but was based on an early work by Eabbi Pinchas ben Jair 
who in turn drew his materials from our text (see Eppstein, 
Bevue des Mudc ptives, 1890, xxi. 80-97; 1891, xxii. 1- 
25; Bacher, Die Agada der Tannaiteii, ii. 499). By con- 
sulting Index II. the reader will find the passages which 
are common to this Midrash and our text. 

The Book of Jashar. — This late Hebrew work contains 
much matter in common with our text, and there is every 
probability that some of it is derived from it ultimately as 
its source. See Index II. for a list of parallels. The 
Hebrew text of this book which I have quoted occasionally, 
is that which was published at Venice in 1 6 2 9. Generally, 
however, I have referred to the French translation of it 
in Migne's series. 

The Samaritan Chroniele. — This book, to which we have 
already drawn attention (see p. Ixvii), belongs for the most 
part to the twelfth cent. a.d. It appears to contain a 
deliberate polemic (see vi. 36 note) against the view of our 
author that calculations should be made according to the 
sun only. In keeping with the fact that our author gives 
his calendar in connection with the flood (vi. 29-38), this 
Chronicle says that the Samaritan system was known to 
Noah in the Ark. For a remarkable point of agreement 
between this Chronicle and our text see note v. 22. Also 
it cannot be an accident that in the case of the antediluvian 
patriarchs, their respective ages on the birth of their eldest 
sons agree in both books in every instance except in that of 


Sam. Chron 




















Seth. Konsch (p. 362) has tabulated the numbers as 
follows : 

Adam on the birth, of his eldest son was aged 130 

Seth „ „ „ 

Enoch „ „ „ 

Kenan „ „ „ 

Mahalalel ,, „ „ 

Jared „ „ „ 

Henoch ,, „ ,, 

Methuselah „ „ „ 

Lamech „ „ „ 

Hence it is not strange that in some cases we are able 
to determine missing dates in our text from this Chronicle 
(see iv. 28 note). On the other hand these two works 
hardly ever harmonise on the ages of the post-diluvian 
patriarchs till Terah's time, and the Chronicle, as we should 
expect, omits Kainam which our text (viii. 1) along with 
the LXX puts forward as the son of Arpachshad. 

In Christian literattire. — The Christian literature in 
which Jubilees is reproduced either by name or anony- 
mously will be treated under the following heads : 

i. Authws who cite Jubilees or the Little Genesis hy name. 
ii. Patristic and other writings which reproduce its text or matter 

i. Atithors loho cite Juhilees or the Little Genesis hy naine : 

DiDYMUs OF Alexandria (309 or 314 to 394 or 399 a.d.) 
in epist. canonicas enarrationes, ad I. Joan. iii. 12 (Gallandi, 
Biblioth. patr. vi. 300): Nam et in libro qui leptogenesis 
(MS leprogenesis) appellatur, ita legitur, quia Cain lapide 
aut ligno percusserit Abel. See Jub. iv. 31. 

Epiphanius {oh. 404 a.d.), Eaer. xxxix. 6 : tw? Se iv 

iCf. Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. 849-864, ii. 120-121 ; Rdnsch, 
Das Buck der Juhilcien, 250-382. 


Tol<; 'lco^7]\aioi^ evpicKerai,, rrj koI XeTrrfj Vevecrei koXov- 
fievr) Koi ra ovofxara roiv <yvvaiKOiv rov re KatV koI rov 
"^rjO 7} /3i^\o<i '7repLe')(ei' . . . o'i re rovrov viol avvi](f>6r]aav 
6 fiev l^d'iv T-rj aBeX(f>r} rfj fjiel^ovi SavTj, ovrco KoXovfievrj, 6 
Be ^r)d . . . Tfj Xeyo/juevr) avTov aSe\(f>f} ^A^ovpa. See 
Jub. iv. 9, 11 and the continuation of the quotation in my 
note on iv. 10. For passages where Epiphanius has used 
our text without acknowledgment see Index II. 

Jerome {oh. 420). — See quotations in notes on x. 21, 
xi. 11-13. For other quotations see Index II. 

Decretum Gelasii. — In this decree (de libris recipiendis 
et non recipiendis), the date of which is doubtful (see Zahn, 
Gesch. des Kanons, ii. i. 259-267), our book is included 
among the writings to be rejected : Liber de filiabus Adae, 
hoc est Leptogenesis apocryphus. 

Severus of Antioch {6b. 542). — In an exposition of Deut. 
xxxiv. 6 this author has (see Nicephorus, Catena, i. 1672- 
1673) described the destinies that await the good and the 
evil souls on their separation from the body, and various 
incidents relating to the contest between Michael and Satan 
for the soul of Moses. He adds that his statements are drawn 
from our author : ravra he iv airoKpv^M /Si^Xlo) Xeyerat 
KeXcrdat XeTrrorepav e'^ovn t?}? Tevecreco^; tJtol Tr]<i /CTfcO"ect)9 
rrjv dcfj^ytjaiv. On this question see above, p. xv note. 

Nicephorus, Catena, i. 175. — (This catena, published 
over 120 years ago, contains extracts from writers from 
the beginning of the Christian era to the seventh cent.) 
Before the words quoted from this work in the note on 
x. 21 we find the title of the source given as ?; hiadrjKr]. 
It is most probable that we should add here rov Mtavcreeo? 
(see p. xvii). 

Syncellus (flor. 800 a.d.), Chronographia (ed. Dindorf), 
1. 5 : o)? ev Xetrrfj cj^eperao Tevecrec, tjv Kal M(ui)(re&)9 elvai 
d>a(7i rLve<i diroK.aXv>^LV. i. 7 : e/c t^9 XeTrrrj'i Tepiaeto'i Kal 


rov Xeyofjbivov ^iov 'ABd/j,. i. 13 : e/c tcou XeirrMv Veve- 
<T€(o^. i. 14 : (see quotation in note on p. 28). i. 49 (see 
quotation in note on x. 1). i. 183 : rov Kara fir^repa 
TraTTTrov rov ^A^paafj, rj Xeirrr) Tev€aL<; <f)7]aiv ore 'A/3/jaa/x 
eKaXelro, 77 he ^dppa aSeA.^^ 6/xo7rarpla rov A/3paafjb 
virrjpx'^- i. 185 (see quotation in note on xii. 26). i. 192 : 
^aari(f)dfi ap-)(wv roiv Baip,ovLcov, w? (f>7)aiv tj Xeirrrj 
Tev6cn<;, nrpoaeXOoyv tc3 Oew etTrev, el dyaTra ere A^padfi, 
Ovadrci) aoc rov viov avrov (see our text, xvii. 16). i. 203 : 
/Stacr^et? 'Ia/cft)/3 vtto 'lovSa evereive ro^ov Kal 7r\ri^a<; Kara 
rov he^LOv /xa^ov rov 'iiaav Kare^aXe. rov he Oavovra 
avol^avre<; rd<; irv\a<i ol viol 'laiccbyS dvelXov rov; ifKeicrrov^. 
ravra ev Xeirrrj Tevecret (f)eperai (see our text, xxxviii. 1 sqq.). 
For passages where Syncellus has used our text without 
acknowledgment see Index II. 

Cedeenus (ed. Bekker), i. 6 : dirb rrj<; Xcttt?}? Teveaeo)^. 
i. 9 : 0)9 ev Xerrrfj (j^eperat Teveaeo, i)v Kal Mwcreci)? elval 
(paal rive<i aTTOKdXvyfrtv. i. 16 (see quotation in note on 
iv. 31-32). i. 48 : dyyeXo'i he Kvplov ehiha^ev avrov rrjv 
^^pacha ykwcraav, Kadcb<; avro^ 6 dyye\o<i rw yioivcrrj 
el'jrev, to? eirl ry Xeirrrj Tevecret. i. 53 : iv rrj Xeirrfj 
Veveaec Kelrai, on ^lacrri^dr dp'^cov rwv haip,ovla)v (and 
so on as in Syncellus, i. 192, above), i. 85 (see quotation 
in note on xlvii. 3). i. 87 : vojmov^ he rrpwrov Meow?)? 
<ypd(f)et TO 49 lovhaLOi<i . . . hchaaKOfjuevo^; irapd rov dp'yay- 
yeXov Ta^pirjX rd irepl rri<i yeveaewi rov Koa/iiov . . . Kal 
ra<; rcov darpcov Oecret^ Kal rd aroi,')(ela ... 0)9 ev ry 
Xeirry Vevea-ec Kelrai. For some of the passages where 
Cedrenus has used our text without acknowledgment see 
Index II. 

ZoNAKAS (1081-1118, ed. Finder), i. 18: olha fiev ovv 
iv ry Xerrry TevecreL yeypajxiievov 0)9 iv ry trpdiry yfiepa Kal 
at ovpaviai hvvdfMet<i irpo rcov aXXoyv vTrearyaav irapd rov 
ruv oXcov hrjfxtovpyov. Cf. our text, ii. 2. 


Glycas {circa 1150, ed. Bekker), p. 198: ovhe y^p w? 
7ro8a<? KeKTTjfMevov ro irporepov KaOa \u>crr}iT7ro<i re ^rjcri koI 
7] Xeyofievr) XeTrrt) T€V€(ri<; vvv a'iro<^aiveraL top iirl rrj 
KoiXia TvepiiraTov. See also p. 206. P. 392 (see quotation 
in note on iii. 8-14). On p. 206 Glycas wrongly attributes 
to Josephus what is found in Jub. xxxii. 2-3. For some 
of the passages where Glycas has used our text without 
acknowledgment see Index II. 

ii. Patristic and other writings vjhich reproduce the text or 
matter of Jubilees anonymously : 

HiPPOLYTUS. — The Aia/jbepi(Tp,6<; rrj<i y?]? which is assigned 
to this writer is based on Jub. viii.-ix. See Gutschmidt, 
Kleine Schriften, v. 239, 587-597, 613 sqq. (quoted by 

Ps.-Clemens Eomanus, Rccognitiones {circ. 200 A.D.). — 
This work contains many echoes of Jubilees, see Eonsch, o/:*. 
cit. 322-325. ^ 

Okigen (185-254) m Gcnesin in Eusebius' Fraep. Evany. 
vi. 292 (Migne, xxi. 500). The passage which is quoted 
from Origen in the note on xxxii. 21 seems to refer to that 
passage. Another quotation will be found in the note on 
xlv. 14. The Tlpoa-ev-^rj 'lwa/](f), from which this quotation 
is taken, is cited in the third place in the Synopsis 
of the Ps.-Athanasius and the Stichometry of Nicephorus, 
and in the fifth place of the catalogue in the Cod. 
Coislinianus used by Montfaucon, and in each catalogue 
immediately after the Uarpidpxat (cf Ronsch, p. 332). 
According to Nicephorus it consisted of 1100 stichoi — the 
same number as the Testament of Moses, which was identi- 
fied by some writers with Jubilees. Both Origen (torn. v. 
in Johannen, p. 77) and Glycas (see Fabric. Cod. Fseiid. V.T. 
i. 765, 768) state that it was current among the Hebrews. 

Another fragment of Origen preserved in the Catena of 
Nicephorus, i. 463, is quoted in the note on xl. 10. 


DiODORUS OF Antioch (ol. 392 ?). — See qiiotation in note 
on X. 35. 

Isidore Pelusiota of Alexandria, who lived in the fifth 
cent., gives the following exposition on Deut. xxxiii. 9 
(Nicephorus, Cat. i. 1660): eTretBrf iirekvrrjae rfj iraTpuxi 
evvfj 'Pov^eifM, Bia tovto ovre ^acnXeia^ ovre iepo)avvr)<; 
rj^iwOri, Ka'noL TrpcoroTOKo^; 6)v. aX)C 6 /xev Aevt rpiro<i a)v 
ov fiovov hia TO eirayyelXaaOat rov irarepa SeKciTTjv a(f)i€p(o- 
<r€iv' KurwOev '^/ap dptOp.ov/xevo'i B€KaTO<; rjv, iivwdev Be el 
rjptOfirjBri, €69 Twv TraiBtaKoyp rjupicTKeTO' dWa Koi Bi 
0(Ti0Tr]Ta, Koi TO cnr/yeviKO)V alfidrcov Bid rrjv et? to delov 
Ti,fir}v Td<i -^elpaf; ifjLTrXrjaai, iepoiavvrj<i rj^tcodrj. . . . 6 Be 
'lovBa<; T€TapTo<; wv, Bid tijv dBeKacTov Kpicriv, Kal ttjv 
opdrjv '<^ri(pov, (iacnXeia^ rf'^LwOrj. eTreiBrj jdp ttoWoI tu 
oiKela Kpv7rTovT€<: TrkrjpL^eXrjpLaTa eT€pov<; KaraBiKd^ov(Tiv, 
ovTo<i Be eavTov fieu Kar€-^rj<f)ia-aTO, . . . Btd tovto ecKOTOXi 
Trj^ y9ao"tXeta9 tj^iovto. iepcovTO ydp ol €k Aevt, e^acriXeuov 
Be ol i^ '\ovBa, ov kutu KaTaKXrjpojaiv, dW' dp€T-q<; ykpa<; 
€i\.7](f)6Te<;. Thi8 exposition regarding Levi is based on Jub. 
xxxii. 2-3, and regarding Judah on xxxi. 18-20, xli. 

Isidore of Seville (oh. 636), Origines, xvi, 26. 10 : In 
principio Deus xxii opera fecit. Nam prima die vii opera 
fecit, id est : materiam inforrnem, angelos, lucern, coelos 
superiores, terram, aquam atque aerern. Secunda die firrna- 
mentum solum. Tertia die quattuor : rnaria, semina, 
sationes atque plantaria. Quarta die tria : solem et lunam 
et Stellas. Quinta die tria : pisces et reptilia aquarum et 
volatilia. Sexta die quattuor : bestias, pecudes, reptilia 
terrae et hominem. Et facta sunt omnia xxii genera in 
diebus sex. Et xxii generationes sunt ab Adam usque ad 
Jacob, . . . et xxii libri Veteris Testamenti usque ad 
Hester, et xxii literarum sunt elementa. 

The above is clearly based on our text, although in its 



enumeration of the works of the first day it deviates con- 
siderably (see Jub. ii. 2 sqq.). Observe that it confirms our 
view of a lacuna after ii. 22. 

EUTYCHIUS, Patriarch of Alexandria 933-939, Annates 
translated from Arabic into Latin by Pococke, 1658 (also in 
Migne, torn. Ill, 909-1155). 

P. 15. Eva . . . peperit puerum et puellam : puermn 
appellavit Kain, puellam Azrun. Turn rursus . . . puerum 
et pueUam enixa, puero nomen imposuit Abel, puellae 
Owain . . . Cumque provectiores facti essent pueri, dixit 
Adam Evae : Ducat Kain Owain . . . Abel autem Azrun. 
Cf. Jub. iv. 1, 8, 9, 11. 

P. 16. Kain iuvidit fratri suo . . . ac, lapide caput 
ejus feriens, ipsum interfecit. Cf. Jub. iv. 31. 

P. 56. Natus et Sharua, cujus temporibus coluerunt 
homines idola, unoquoque quod sibi alliberet colente. 
Sharna is corrupt for Serug. Cf. Jub. xi. 4. 

P. 64-65. Accepit ergo Abraham uxorem suam Saram, 
quae et ipsi ex patre soror erat. Cf. Jub. xii. 9. For 
other parallels see notes on pp. 35, 83. 

SuiDAS, a Greek grammarian of the tenth or eleventh 
cent. (Fabricius, i. 336). kuX ttjv twv acrreptov Kivqcriv, €k 
Tov irarpo'i yap eTraiBevero rrjv uarpovofiiav k.t.X. Cf Jub. 
xii. 16. See also note on xii. 2. 

Joel, Chronographia (ed. Bekker, 1836), extending to the 
year 1206 a.d. This writer, whom I have referred to 
occasionally in my notes, is generally dependent on Syncellus, 
Cedrenus or Glycas for any matter which he has in common 
with our text. It is possible, as Eonsch (p. 367) urges, 
that the phrase Kal i^oiXodpeveiv avrov aTveCKovvro'; (Joel, 
p. 10 (cf Jub, xxxvii. 23)) testifies to an independent 
knowledge of Jubilees, as it is not found in those earlier 

LXX MS (thirteenth cent.), cited as no. 1 3 5 in Holmes 



and Parsons' edition, and as r in Lagarde's Genesis Graece, 
1868. The scholia in this MS attest many of the personal 
names which are found in Jubilees. I have cited all of 
these in their appropriate places in my Ethiopic Text of 
Jubilees, and many of them in the notes to my translation. 
See Index IT. 

LXX MS z in Lagarde's edition contains two readings 
which come from our text. See notes on v. 31 and vi. 1. 

Gregorius Barhebraeus (1226-1286). — See note on 
xi. 11-13. 

§ 23. Influence of Jubilees on the New Testament 

The points of connection between the gospels and our 
author are very slight, except in the beliefs respecting 
angels and demons — a subject to which we shall return 
later. We shall now place the passages side by side where 
the New Testament is dependent on our text, or presupposes 
it, or presents a close parallel. 

Mark iii. 22 (Matt. xii. 24). — o 
a.p\(3>v Twv 8aifj.ovL(DV. 

Luke xi. 49. — " Therefore also 
said the wisdom of God : I 
will send unto them prophets and 
apostles, and some of them they 
will kill and persecute. 

John xiv. 26.— "The Holy 
Spirit . . . will bring to your 
remembrance all things, etc." 

Acts vii. 15-16.— "And he 
(Jacob) died, himself and our 
fathers, and they were carried 
over unto Shechem, and laid in 
the tomb that Abraham bought, 

Jub. X. 8.— "Chief of the 
spirits " ; xlviii. 9, 1 2, " Prince 
of the Mastema." 

i. 12. — "And I slmll send 
witnesses unto them, that I may 
witness against them, but they 
ivill . . . slay the witnesses also 
and persecute those who seek the 

xxxii. 25. — " I will brins:' all 
things to thy remembrance." 
Here God is to cause Jacob to 
remember all that he had seen in 
a vision. 

xlvi. 9. — " And the children 
of Israel brought forth all the 
bones of the children of Jacob 
save the bones of Joseph, and 
they buried them in the field in 
the double cave " (i.e. Machpelah). 
This is the oldest source of the 
tradition in Acts. 



Acts vii. 23. — Moses when 
" well nigh forty years old " smote 
the Egyptian. 

Acts vii. 30. — Moses spent forty 
years in Midiau. 

Acts vii. 53. — "Who received 
the law as it was ordained by 
angels and kept it not." Cf. 
Gal. iii. 19. 

Acts ix. 2. — " If he found any 
that were of the way." 

Rom. iv. 15. — "Where there 
is no law, neither is there trans- 

2 Cor. V. 1 7. — "A new creation" 
(Gal. vi. 15). 

2 Cor. vi. 18. — "I will be to 
you a Father and ye shall be to 
me sons and daughters." 

Gal. ii. 15. — "Sinners of the 

Gal. iii. 17. — "A covenant 
confirmed beforehand by God, 
the law which came 430 years 
later, etc." Does the confirma- 
tion here spoken of mean the 
birth of Isaac ? In that case 430 
years exactly elapse between this 
confirmation of the covenant and 
the law according to Jubilees. 

Gal. v. 12. — "I would that 
they which unsettle you {i.e. 
Judaisers) would cut off the 
member " {aTTOKoxpovTat). 

^ Jubilees gives here the oldest dates on this subject. The 
Midrash Tanchuma on Exod. ii. 6, which was many centuries later, 
gives a tradition practically the same as that in Acts. " Moses was in 
the palace of Pharaoh twenty years, but some say forty years, and 
forty years in Midian and forty years in the wilderness." Observe 
that our author makes Moses stay twenty-one years with his own 
people and twenty-one years at Pharaoh's court. 

- The righteous individual is called " a son of God " first in 
Jubilees, so far as I am aware. See note on i. 24. 

xlvii. 10-12. — Moses forty-two 
years old.' 

xlviii. 1. — Moses spent thirty- 
eight years.^ 

i. 27. — "And He said to the 
angel of the presence : AVrite for 
Moses, etc." i. 14 : "They will 
forget . . . thy law." Our text 
is the earliest authority for the 
statement that the law was given 
through angels. 

xxiii. 20. — " Turn them back 
into the xcay." 

xxxiii. 15-16. — Anticipates 
this Pauline doctrine. 

V. 1 2. — " A new and righteous 

i. 24. — " I shall be their Father 
and they will be My children." ^ 

xxiii. 23. — "Sinners of the 
Gentiles" (cf xxiii. 24). 

XV. 4 sqq. contains the covenant 
made in 1979 a.m. with Abraham 
on his circumcision. The law was 
given in 2410. Hence 2410 — 
1979 = 431. Isaac was born in 
1980, or exactly 430 years before 
the legislation on Sinai according 
to Jubilees. 

Contrast xv. 27, according to 
which the angels were created 



2 Thes3. ii. 3. — "Son of perdi- 

1 Tim. i. 4. — "Fables and 
endless genealogies." iv. 7 : " old 
wives' fables." Titus iii. 9 : 
" Genealogies and strifes and 
fightings about the law." 

James i. 1 3. — " Let no man 
say when he is tempted, I am 
tempted of God, for God tempteth 
no man." 

James ii. 23. — '•' Abraham be- 
lieved God and it was counted to 
him for righteousness and he was 
called the friend of God." 

2 Peter ii. 5. — " Noali, a 
preacher of righteousness." 

2 Peter iii. 1 3. — " New heavens 
and a new earth." 

2 Peter iii, 8. — "One day is 
with the Lord as a thousand 

Rev. i. 6. — "A kingdom, 
priests." V. 10: "A kingdom 
and priests." 

Rev. iv. 5 (xi. 19, xvi. 18 ; cf. 
viii. 5). — "Lightnings and voices 
and thunderings." 

X. 3. — " Sons of perdition." 

The Pauline phrases form a 
just description of a large portion 
of Jubilees. The " old wives' 
fables " may be an allusion to the 
large role played by women in 

The author of Jubilees enforces 
the same view by representing 
Mastema as suggesting the tempta- 
tion of Abraham to sacrifice Isaac 
(xvii. 16), as hardening the hearts 
of the Egyptians (xlviii. 12, 17), 

xiv. 6. — "And he believed on 
the Lord and it was counted to him 
for righteousness " (Gen. xv. 6). 
xix. 9 : " He was found faithful 
and was recorded on the heavenly 
tables as the friend of God." 

vii. 20 - 39 contains Noah's 

i. 29. — "The heavens and the 
earth shall be renewed, etc." 

iv. 30 contains the oldest 
dogmatic statement of this fact. 

xvi. 18. — "A kingdom and 
priests." Our text alone gives 
this form of Exod. xix. 6 ante- 
cedently to Revelation. 

ii. 2. — " Angels of the voices 
and of the thunder and of the 

Angelology. — We shall confine our attention here to 
notable parallels between our author and the New Testament. 
Besides the angels of the presence and the angels of sancti- 
fication there are the angels who are set over natural 
phenomena (ii. 2). These angels are inferior to the 
former. They do not observe the Sabbath as the higher 
orders ; for they are necessarily always engaged in 
their duties (ii. 18). It is the higher orders that are 


generally referred to in the New Testament ; but the angels 
over natural phenomena are referred to in Revelation : 
angels of the winds in vii. 1, 2, the angel of fire in xiv. 18, 
the angel of the waters in xvi. 5 (cf. Jub. ii. 2). Again, 
the guardian angels of individuals, which the New Testament 
refers to in Matt, xviii. ].0 (Acts xii. 15), are mentioned, for 
the first time, in Jubilees xxxv. 17. On the angelology of 
our author see § 16. 

Demonology. — The demonology of our author reappears 
for the most part in the New Testament : 

(a) The angels which kept not their first estate Jude 6 ; 
2 Peter ii. 4, are the angelic watchers who, though sent 
down to instruct mankind (Jub. iv. 15), fell from lusting 
after the daughters of men. Their fall and punishment are 
recorded in Jub. iv. 22, v. 1-9. 

(Z>) The demons are the spirits which went forth from 
the souls of the giants who were the children of the fallen 
angels, Jub. v. 7, 9. These demons attacked men and 
ruled over them (x. 3, 6). Their purpose is to corrupt and 
lead astray and destroy the wicked (x. 8). They are 
subject to the prince of the Mastema^ (x. 9), or Satan. 
Men sacrifice to them as gods (xxii. 17). They are to 
pursue their work of moral ruin till the judgment of 
Mastema (x. 8) or the setting up of the Messianic kingdom, 
when Satan will be no longer able to injure mankind 
(xxiii. 29). 

So in the New Testament, the demons are disembodied 
spirits (Matt. xii. 43-45; Luke xi. 24-26). Their chief is 
Satan (Mark iii. 22). They are treated as divinities of the 
heathen (1 Cor. x. 20). They are not to be punished till 
the final judgment (Matt. viii. 29). On the advent of the 
Millennium Satan will be bound (Rev. xx. 2-3). 

^ See note on x. 8. 


§ 24. Views of the Author on the Messiah, the 
Messianic Kingdom, the Priesthood of Melchize- 
DEK, the Law, Circumcision and the Sabbath, the 
Future Life, the Jewish Calendar 

TJie J/essmA.— Although our author is an upholder of 
the Maccabean dynasty he still clings like the writer of Eth. 
Enoch Ixxxiii.-xc. to the hope of a Messiah sprung from 
Judah. He makes, however, only one reference to this 
Messiah, and no role of any importance is assigned to him 
(see xxxi. 18 note). The Messianic expectation showed no 
vigorous life throughout this century till it was identified 
with the Maccabean family. If we are right in regarding 
the Messianic kingdom as of temporary duration, this is the 
first instance in which the Messiah is associated with a 
temporary Messianic kingdom. 

The Messianic Kingdom. — In the notes on i. 29, xxiii. 
30 I have dealt at some length with the character of this 
kingdom. We have there seen that it was to be brought 
about gradually by the progressive spiritual development of 
man and a corresponding transformation of nature. Its 
members were to attain to the full limit of 1000 years in 
happiness and peace. During its continuance the powers 
of evil were to be restrained (xxiii. 29). The last judg- 
ment was apparently to take place at its close (see note ou 
xxiii. 30). On the probable derivation of this view from 
Mazdeism see note on i. 29. 

The writer of Jubilees, we can hardly doubt, thought 
that the era of the Messianic kingdom had already set in. 
Such an expectation was often cherished in the prosperous days 
of the Maccabees. Thus it was entertained by the writer of 
Eth. Enoch Ixxxiii.-xc. in the days of Judas before 161 B.C. 
Whether Jonathan was looked upon as the divine agent for 


introducing the kingdom we cannot say, but as to Simon 
being regarded in this light there is no doubt. Indeed his 
contemporaries came to regard him as the Messiah himself, 
as we see from Psalm ex., or the noble Messianic hymn in 
Test. Levi 18. The tame effusion in 1 Mace. xiv. 8-15 is 
a relic of such literature, which was emasculated by its 
Sadducean editor. Simon was succeeded by John Hyrcanus 
in 135 B.C., and this great prince seemed to his countrymen 
to realise the expectations of the past ; for according to a 
contemporary writer (Test. Levi 8) he embraced in his own 
person the triple office of prophet, priest, and civil ruler 
(see note on xxxi. 15), while, according to the Test. Eeuben 
6, he was to " die on behalf of Israel in wars seen and 
unseen." In both these passages he seems to be accorded 
the Messianic office, but not so in our author as we have 
seen above. Hyrcanus is only to introduce the Messianic 
kingdom, over which the Messiah sprung from Judah is to 

■Priesthood of Mclchizedek. — That there was originally an 
account of Melchizedek in our text we have shown in the 
note xiii. 25, and that the Maccabeau high-priests deliber- 
ately adopted the title applied to him in Gen. xiv., we have 
pointed out in the note on xxxii. 1. It would be interesting 
to inquire how far the writer of Hebrews was indebted to 
the history of the great Maccabean king-priests for the idea 
of the Melchizedekian priesthood, of which he has made so 
fruitful a use in chap. vii. as applied to our Lord. 

The Lww. — On our author's conception of the law as the 
ideal and eternal realised under time relations see pp. li sqq. 

1 The belief that the Messianic era had set in appears to have 
arisen again under Alexander, 78-69 B.C. " Under Simon ben Shetach 
(and Queen Salome) rain fell on the eve of the Sabbath, so that the 
corns of wheat were as large as kidneys, etc." (Taanith 23a, quoted by 
Schiirer, Gesch. jud. Volkes,^ i. 290). 


Ciraimcision and the Sabhath. — On our author's exalted 
conceptions of these two bulwarks of Judaism, see p. 1. 

The Future Life. — In our text all hope of a resurrection 
of the body is abandoned. The souls of the righteous will 
enjoy a blessed immortality after death (xxiii. 31). This 
is the earliest attested instance of this expectation in the 
last two centuries B.C. It is next found in Eth. Enoch 

The Jewish Calendar. — For our author's peculiar views 
see § 18 and the notes on vi. 29-30, 32, xv. 1. 


a, 1), c, d denote the Ethiopia MSS on which our text is 

Mass. = Massoretic text. 

Sam. = Samaritan version, and Hebrew text in Samaritan 
characters when both agree. 

Syr. = the Syriac version of the Old Testament. 

Vulg. = Vulgate. 

Onk. = Targum of Onkelos. 

Ps.-Jon. = Targum of Pseudo-Jonathan. 

Jub. = Book of Jubilees. 

( ) Words or letters so enclosed are supplied by the 
editor from some source mentioned in the notes. 

[ ] Words so enclosed are interpolated. 

t t Words so enclosed are corrupt. 



Moses receives the tables of the laiu and instruction on past and 
future history which he is to inscribe in a hook, 1-4. 
Apostasy of Israel, 5-9. Captivity of Israel and Judah, 
10-13. Return of Judah and rehuilding of temple, 
15-18. Moses' prayer for Israel, 19-21. God's 
promise to redeem and dwell with them, 22-25, 28. 
Moses hidden to write doivn the future history of the 
world {the Book of Jidiilces ?), 26. And an angel to 
write dotvn the law, 27. This angel takes the heavenly 
chronological tables to dictate therefrom to Moses, 29. 

This is the history of the division of the days of the law 
and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their 
(year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of 
tlie world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai 

Prologue. This short introduction Throughout all the years of the loorld. 

gives an admirable account of the These words are difficult ; for they 

contents of this book. It is at once a imply that it was the author's intention 

history and a chronological system to write a history from the Creation 

dominated by the sacred number seven, till the establishment of the Messianic 

ITie history extends from the Creation Kingdom or Theocracy. See i. 26 

to the legislation on Sinai, and thus note. 

embraces Genesis and part of Exodus. h-^KA^rK^ : {a), d 

But the writer does not merely repro- ■ ■ « '^ -, \ j 

duce the portions of these books which reads i\^\\X\. • " God." b c omit, 

serve his purpose ; he rewrites from \<r)LJ x.nA^ r* , , ■ , 

the standpoint of the strictest Judaism. <^, 'n,m ICW^L. (which generally = 

See Introduction, §§ 15, 21. '^^^'f ' Y'\ °^^?P. ^'"'^ '' generally 

According to their seven/old division rendered ' Lord in rny translation, but 

(a c) or " according to their year-weeks " occasionally as " God when external 

ihd). evidence so requires. 


when he went up to receive the tables of the law and 
of the commandment, according to the voice of GoD as he 
said unto him, " Go up to the top of the Mount." 

2450 ANNO 

I. And it came to pass in the first year of the exodus 
of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, 
on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to 
Moses, saying : " Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will 
give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the command- 
ment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them." 
2. And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the 
glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud over- 
shadowed it six days. 3. And He called to Moses on the 
seventh day out of the midst of the cloud, and the appear- 
ance of the glory of the Lord was like a flaming fire on 
the top of the mount. 4. And Moses was on the Mount 
forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier 
and the later history of the division of all the days of the 

Tables, cd read "tables of stone." 

0/ the law, etc. See note on i. 1. 

Go up, etc. Exod. xxiv. 12. 

I. 1 . Jn tlie third month, on the six- 
teenth day of the month. It will be 
observed that our author supplies a 
date to the defective text of Exod. xix. 1 
" In the third month after the children 
of Israel were gone forth . . . the same 
day came they." Ps.-Jon. inserts "on 
the first day of the month " (xnT ^^3). 
It will be observed that on the same 
date on which Moses went up to receive 
the Law, the sixteenth of the third 
month, God appears to Jacob on his way 
down into Egypt (xliv. 5). 

On the other hand, we must carefully 
distinguish this date and the events 
connected with it from the fifteenth 
of the third month and the events con- 
nected with it. On the fifteenth Abraham 
celebrated the feast of the first-fruits 
of the harvest (xv. 1, xliv. 4) ; Isaac 
was born (xvi. 13) (so also in Seder 
01am) ; Abraham died (xxii. 1) ; Judah 
was born (xxviii. 15) ; and Jacob and 

Laban bound themselves by mutual 
vows (xxix. 7). 

We shall see later (vi. 17-18 notes) 
that the feast of weeks was first ob- 
served on earth in connection with the 
covenant of Noah, and was according 
to our author designed to celebrate the 
institution of that covenant. It is 
important to recognise this fact, since 
later Judaism held that the feast of 
weeks celebrated the legislation on 
Sinai (see notes on vi. 17). 

Come vj) to Me, etc. Exod. xxiv. 12. 

Tioo tables. The "two " is not in Exod. 
xxiv. 12, but is dra^vn from xxxi. 18. 

Of the law and of the command- 
ment. Exod. xxiv. 12, on which the 
text is based, has " And the law and the 
commandment." But compare Exod. 
xxxii. 15, xxxiv. 29 ; Deut. ix. 11. 

2-4*. Based on Exod. xxiv. 15-18. 

3. Flaming. A change of one vowel 
would give "devouring" as in Exod. 
xxiv. 17. Cf. xxxvi. 10. 

4. Ood taught him tlie earlier and 
the later history. Cf. i. 26. Cf. 

CHAPTER I. 1-9 3 

law and of the testimony. 5. And He said : " Incline thine 
heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this 
mount, and write them in a book in order that their gener- 
ations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the 
evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covenant 
which I establish between Me and thee for their generations 
this day on Mount Sinai. 6. And thus it will come to pass 
when all these things come upon them, that they will 
recognise that I am more righteous than they in all their 
judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognise 
that I have been truly with them. 7. And do thou write 
for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this 
day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before 
I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, 
to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying : " Unto your 
seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey. 8. 
And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to 
strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from 
aught of their tribulation : and this witness shall be heard 
for a witness against them. 9. For they will forget all My 
commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they 
will walk after the Gentiles, and after their uncleanness, 

Megilla 19 6 "The Holy One, blessed be 7. Write for thyself all these words. 

He, showed to Moses all the minutiae See note on i. 27. 

of the law . . . and all that the / know their rehellion aiid their stiff 

Sopherim would renew in later times." neck. Deut. xxxi. 27. 

AlsoShem. rabba40 (Wiinsche, p. 282): The land of which 1 sivare to their 

"God brought the book of Adam and fathers, etc. Deut. xxx. 20, Exod. 

showed him (Moses) therein all the xxxiii. 1. 

generations which should arise from Unto your seed ... a land flounng 

the beginning of Creation till the day loith milk and honey. Exod. xxxiii. 1, 

of the resurrection. " Beer compares 3 ; Deut. xxxi. 20. 

Menachoth 29 5 and Wajikra rabba 26. 8. And they will eat . . . to strange 

5. Write tliem, etc. Cf. Exod. xxxiv. gods. Deut. xxxi. 20. 

27. See note on i. 27. This witness shall be lieard (c d : 

Uoto I Imve not forsaken them for all "witness" ah) fm' a loitness against 

the evil. Cf. Ezra ix. 9 "Yet in our them. Cf. Deut. xxxi. 20 ; 2Kingsxvii. 

bondage God hath not forsaken us." 15 "The testimonies which he testified 

Transgressing — stMit emended from against them." Cf. Deut. xxxi. 19, 26. 

'asheto of 6 c o5. Cf. vi. 37, 38. 9. Forget all My commandments, tiQ. 

6. And thus it will come to pass . . . Ezra ix. 10, 11. 

ttpow them. Deut. xxx. 1. Walkafter the Gentiles. 2King8ivii.2. 


and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these 
will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an 
affliction and a snare. 10. And many will perish and they 
will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the 
enemy, because they have forsaken My ordinances and My 
commandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and My 
sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for 
Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, 
which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, 
that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell 
(there). 11. And they will make to themselves high places 
and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each 
his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will 
sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of 
the error of their hearts. 12. And I shall send witnesses 
unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will 
not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will 
persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and 
change everything so as to work evil before My eyes. 13. 
And I shall hide My face from them, and I shall deliver them 

Serve their gods, and these will prove Sacrifice their children to demons, 

unto them an offence . . . and a snare. 2 C'laron. xxviii. 3, xxxiii. 6 ; Ezek. 

Exoii. xxiii. 33 ; Deut. vii. 16 ; Jos. xx. 31. Cf. Deut. xxxii. 17 ; Eth. 

xxiii. 13. Enoch xcix. 7. See notes on xxii. 17. 

10-13. These verses depict the two 12. 1 shall send witnesses unto them, 

great catastrophies which befell Israel tluit I may xoltness against them, hut 

(10) and Judah (11-13). they will not hear. 2 Chron. xxiv. 19 

10. Partial destruction and captivity " He sent prophets to them . . . and 
of Israel. The northern tribes had they testified against them ; but they 
forsaken the Law and the Festivals would not give ear." Cf. 2 Chron. 
observed by Judah : also the temple xxxvi. 15, 16 ; Jer. xxv. 4. Cf. Matt, 
in Jerusalem. Cf. for diction Deut. xxiii. 34 ; Luke xi. 49. 

xxviii. 63, 41 ; Lev. xx\i. 14, 15, etc. Will slay the witnesses. Neh. ix. 26 

And My tabernacle, . . . in the midst "Slew thy prophets which te.stified 

of the land. If these words belong to the against them." 

text, the author must have believed in the Change : read jeweletu (a) in Ethiopic 

existence of the Tabernacle in Jerusalem text and jewetenu [h c d) in the notes. 

durin" the divided monarchies. To work evil before My eyes. 2 Kings 

11-13. Idolatries and wickedness of xxi. 15. 

Judah. Their captivity. 13. Hide My face. Cf. xxi. 22 ; Is. 

11. Mak-e to themselves high places 1. 15. 

and groves. Cf. Ezek. xx. 28 ; 2 Deliver them into the hand of the 

Chron. xxxiii. 3. Gentiles, etc. 2 Kings xxi. 14. 

CHAPTER I. 10-17 5 

into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, 
and for devouring, and I shall remove them from the midst 
of the land, and I shall scatter them amongst the Gentiles. 
1 4. And they will forget all My law and all My command- 
ments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to 
new moons, and sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and 
ordinances. 15. And after this they will turn to Me from 
amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their 
soul and with all their strength, and I shall gather them from 
amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek Me, so that 
I shall be found of them, when they seek Me with all 
their heart and with all their soul. 16. And I shall 
disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I 
shall •{•remove them the plant of uprightnessf, with all My 
heart and with all My soul, and they will be for a blessing 
and not for a curse, and they will be the head and not the 
tail. 17. And I shall build My sanctuary in their midst, 
and I shall dwell with them, and I shall be their God and 

For a prey = \&\>ah\ emended from ness" from the outset. The original of the 

lahebl. words and of those that follow appears to 

14. Judah will forget the service of be Jer. xxxii. 41 "I will plant them in 
God in captivity. Cf. Deut. iv. 28, this land assuredly with all my heart 
xxviii. 36, 64. and with all my soul." These words 

15-17. Repentance of Judah, their are used in the very same connection 

return from the captivity and the as those in the text. It is not im- 

erection of the temple. probable, therefore, that the words ' ' in 

15. They tmll turn to Me . . . vnth this land " have been lost after the verb. 
all their soul. Cf. Deut. iv. 30, 29. Next "And I will remove them "=: /cat 

I shall gatlier thevi from amongst all /jLeraOrio-u} avrovs = D'nu'Drri. This last 

the Gentiles. Jer. xxix. 14. maj' be corrupt for D'nj;n:i. Thus we 

Tliey loill seek me, so that I sJmll he should have ' ' And I will plant them 

found of tliem, ivhen they seek me with the plant of uprightness in the land." 

all their heart. Jer. xxix. 13-14^. This reverses the judgment in verse 13 

W/ien they seek {b c d). a reads "and "I will remove them from the midst 

when they seek." of the land." 

16. And I shall disclose {hd). ac They it'ill be fm' a blessing and not for 
read "I will disclose." a curse. Zech. viii. 13. 

flietnove them the 2}lant of upright- They will he the head o,nd not the 

n€ss.\ I have obelized these words as tiil. Deut. xxviii. 13. 

corrupt. Littmanu's rendering, "sie 17. The second Temple. / shall 

nmandernzueinerPflanzederGerechtig- huild . , . and I shall dioell with them. 

keit," is hardly possible linguistically. Exod. xxv. 8. / %vill dwell with them 

Moreover, it is against the use of this o.nd Iimllbetheir (cd,ab om.^^t\\(Av") 

phrase. Cf. Eth. Enoch x. 16, xciii. 2, God. Exod. xxix. 45. 

5, 10. Israel was "the plant of upright- A'lid I shall be their God and they 


they will be My people in truth and righteousness. 18. And 
I shall not forsake them nor fail them ; for I am the Lord 
their God." 19. And Moses fell on his face and prayed 
and said, " Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and 
Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of 
their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their 
enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and 
cause them to sin against Thee. 20. Let Thy mercy, O 
Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an 
upright spirit, and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them 
to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all 
the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from 
before Thy face. 21. But they are Thy people and Thy 
inheritance, which Thou hast delivered with Thy great power 
from the hands of the Egyptians : create in them a clean 
heart and a holy spirit, and let them not be ensnared in 
their sins from henceforth until eternity." 22. And the 
Lord said unto Moses : " I know their contrariness and their 
thoughts and their stiffneckedness, and they will not be 
obedient till they confess their own sin and the sin of their 
fathers. 23. And after this they will turn to Me in all 
uprightness and with all (their) heart and with all (their) 
soul, and I shall circumcise the foreskin of their heart and 
the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I shall create in 
them a holy spirit, and I shall cleanse them so that they 

ivill he J/y people. Lev. xxvi. 12 ; A holy sjiirit. Cf. i. 23. See note 

Jer. xxiv. 7, xxx. 22 ; Ezek. xiv. 11. on xxv. 14. 

18. Deut. xxxi. 6. 22. I knoio their contrariness ... and 

19. Donot forsake . . . Thy inherit- their stiffneckedness. Deut. xxxi. 27. 
ance, . . and do not deliver them, into Confess their oivn sin and the sin, etc. 
the liands . . lest they shovld rule over Lev. xxvi. 40 ; Neh. ix. 2. 

them. Cf. 2 Kings xxi. 14; Deut. 23. Turn to Me . . . with cdl (their) 

ix. 26 ; Ps. cvi. 41. heart and with cdl (their) soul. 2 Chron. 

Tluir enemies, tlie Gentiles (« c). b d vi. 38. 

omit "their enemies." Circumcise the foreskin of their heart. 

20. Create . . . spirit. Ps. li. 10. Deut. x. 16, xxx. 6. 

See next ver. A Iwly spirit. Cf. i. 21. 

Beliar. See note on xv. 33. / shall cleanse them so that they shall 

21. They are Thy people . . .from the not turn away from Me from that day 
hands of tlie Egyptians. Deut. ix. 26, 29. unto eternity. These words imply that 

CHAPTER I. 18-26 

shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity. 
24. And their souls will cleave to Me and to all My com- 
mandments, and they will fulfil My commandments, and I 
shall be their Father and they will be My children. 25. 
And they will all be called children of the living God, and 
every angel and every spirit will know, yea, they will know 
that these are My children, and that I am their Father in 
uprightness and righteousness, and that I love them. 26. 
And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I 
declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, 
which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in 
the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the 
jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with them 

Israel shall never again be driven from 
their ovra land. 

24. J shall be their Father and they 
will be My children (or "sous"). These 
words are used in 2 Sam. vii. 14 in 
reference to Solomon ; elsewhere in the 
OT only in reference to the nation or 
sections of it. God is the Father of 
Israel, Deut. xxxii. 6 ; Is. Ixiii. 16 ; 
Jer. xxxi. 9 ; or of the righteous in 
Israel, even of the righteous individual, 
Wisdom ii. 16. See also i. 25, 28, xix, 
29 of our text. Israel is God's son : 
Exod. iv. 22, 23 ; Deut. xiv. 1 ; Is. 
xliii. 6 ; Wisdom xviii. 13 ; Jud. ix. 
4 ; or the righteous in Israel are God's 
children, even the individuals, Wis- 
dom ii. 13, 18, V. 5, xii. 7, 21. For 
Talmudic references see Sayings of the 
Fathers (ed. Taylor) iii. 22 ; B. Bathra 
10 «, Kiddushin 36 «. Berachoth 3 a. 
In 2 Cor. vi. 18 St. Paul takes directly 
these words of 2 Sam. vii. 14 and 
applies them to all the Christians. In 
the text they embrace all Israelites. 
Israelites are God's children according 
to our author by virtue of their physical 
descent from Jacob. Cf. i. 28. 

25. Cliildren (or "sons ') of the living 
God, Hos. i. 10. 

26. And do thou v^rife doionfor thy- 
self (be), ad read "And I will write 
down for thee." These words appear 
to refer to the present work (as Singer 
p. 15 has recognised), i.e., Jubilees (cf. 
i. 7). Moses is to write it down at the 

dictation of the angel (vi. 1). It consti- 
tutes, so to say, the book of the second 
law. The Pentateuch, on the other hand, 
is " the book of the first law " (vi. 22), 
which was written by the angel him- 
self (i. 27). The latter is referred to 
again in xxx. 12, 21, 1. 6. In 4 Ezra 
xiv. 6 Moses is bidden to reveal the one, 
i.e., the Pentateuch, and conceal the 
other, the apocalyptic tradition. Haec 
in palam facies verba et haec abscondes. 
In Exod. xxxiv. 27 Moses is bidden 
to write down certain commands, but 
the decalogue is engraved on the tables 
of stone by God Himself : Exod. xxxiv. 
1, 28 ; Deut. x. 2, 4. 

All t/iese icords, tlie first and the last, 
lohich shall come to jjO'SS . . . until 
eternity. Cf. 4 Ezra xiv. 4, 5 : Et adduxi 
eum super montem Sina et detinui eum 
apud Me diebus multis, Et enarravi 
ei mirabilia multa, et ostendi ei tem- 
porum secreta et temporum tinem. 

Until I descend and dwell through- 
out eternity. Here as in the Prologue 
the implication is that the author 
intended to write a history of the world 
from the Creation to the setting up of 
the Theocracy. (Cf. Prologue ; also 
i. 27, 29.) In a certain sense he has 
done so ; for references occur to events 
as late as the early Maccabean times 
when the author lived. He was of 
opinion that the Messianic Kingdom 
would be introduced through the labours 
of the Maccabees. For God's dwelling 


throughout eternity." 27. And He said to the angel of the 
presence : " Write for Moses from the beginning of creation 
till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity. 
28. And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all 
will know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all 

with man see Etli. Enoch xxv. 3, 
Ixxvii. 1. This was the perfected 
theocracy which was looked for by 
those who did not expect a personal 
Messiah, such as the authors of Eth. 
Enoch i.-xxxvi., xci.-civ. ; Ass. Moses x. 
Our author, however, looked for a 
Messiah sprung from Judah. See 
note on xxxi. 18. 

27. And He said to the angel of the 
presence. See note on i. 29. Our text 
forms apparently the earliest testimony 
to the idea that the law was given 
through the ministry of angels. In 
Dent, xxxiii. 2 we have the first 
mention of angels in connection with 
the giving of the law, but according to 
that passage they merely accompany 
Yahwe. But the way was prepared 
for the conception in Jubilees by the 
development which augelology under- 
went in exilic and post-exilic times. 
Thus from the exile onwards God 
communicated no longer directly with 
His servants. In the case of Ezekiel, 
who was in the period of transition, the 
revelation is sometimes made directly 
to him (xliv. 2), sometimes indirectly 
through an angel (xl. 3). By the time 
of Zechariah the development is com- 
plete. This prophet receives all his 
communications through angels. Natur- 
ally when we come doAvn to the century 
in which our book was written, this 
usage is universal. Daniel receives even 
the interpretation of his visions through 
angels (vii. 16 sqq. ; viii. 15 sqq. etc.), 
and in a later work of the same century. 
Test. XII. Patriarch., Dan. 6, the angel 
that intercedes for Israel is called " the 
mediator between God and man " 
(fi€aiT7)s Qeov /cat dvOpdnrcov). See also 
Levi 5. I am not aware of any other 
references to this conception till the 
beginning of the Christian era. Thus 
Philo, Le Somnis, i. 22 (p. 642 M.), 
commenting on Exod. xix. 19, WTites 
that we cannot receive God's benefits 
save through the agency of His 
ministers. (oi'o' vvep^aXKoOffas . . . 

evepyeaias x'*'/'^"""' Svvd/ji.fda, &s hv 
avrbs TrpoTiivrj 5t' eavTOv /mt] xPi^Mfo^ 
iiirep^Tais ctXXois.) In the tirst cent. 
A.D. we have frequent references to 
this view. Thus in Jos. Ant. xv. 5. 3 : 
i}fiwv 5^ TO. KoXKiffTa tQv ooy/xdnov 
Kal TO. oaiibTara rijov ev tois vdfiois di' 
dyyiXuiu irapd tov Oeov fxfxdbvTWv. 
From Judaism this verse passed over 
into the NT. Cf. Gal. iii. 19 vbfioi 
. , . biarayeh 5i' dyyi\<j}v. See also 
Acts vii. 53 ; Heb. ii. 2. The Samari- 
tans also believed in the ministry of 
angels in connection with the law. Cf. 
Geseuius, Co.rm. Sam. p. 15 and de 
Sacy, Not. e.t extraits de la BM. xii. 
16. Later Judaism rejected this view 
probably on polemical grounds, and 
always represented Moses as receiving 
tlie law directly from God. In Sabbath 
83 b and Shem. rabba 28 Moses is repre- 
sented as ascending into heaven to receive 
the law. 

Write for Moses, etc. If the inter- 
pretation of this verse adopted on i. 26 
(note) is right, the angel is to vrrite 
out the Pentateuch for Moses. There 
is, however, this difficulty attaching to 
this interpretation, that the history em- 
braced in the Pentateuch is to extend 
from the Creation to the time when 
God's " sanctuary has been built among 
them for all eternity." It is possible 
that this means nothing more than 
such broad and apparently prophetic 
descriptions of the apostasies of Israel 
and Judah under their kings, of the 
Exile and the Return from captivity, 
and of the restored theocracy as are 
foimd in Deut. xxviii.-xxx. It must 
be confessed that this explanation does 
not appear adequate. 

28. This verse spoils the sequence 
of thought. We should probably read 
it after ver. 25. 

Ap2)ear to the eyes of all. Cf. Rev. 

God of Israel. Exod. xxiv. 10, etc. 

Father of all the children of Jacob. 
Cf. Jer. xxxi. 1. See note on i. 24. 

CHAPTER I. 27-29 


the children of Jacob, and King on Monnt Zion for all 
eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem will be holy." 29. 
And the angel of the presence who went before the camp of 
Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years — from 
the time of the creation — of the law and of the testimony 
of the weeks, of the jubilees, according to the individual 
years, according to all the number of the jubilees [according 
to the individual years], from the day of the [new] creation 
•{•wheni* the heavens and the earth shall be renewed and 

From these tlie angel dictates 

King on Mount Zion. Cf. Is. xxiv. 
23. On Monnt Zion see i. 29. 

29. Anffel of the presence. The 
phrase is derived from Is. Ixiii. 9 and 
found also in Test. XII. Patriarch., Jud. 
25. This angel is probably Michael 
who was the guardian angel of Israel : 
cf. Dan. X. 13, 21, xii. 1 ; Eth. Enoch 
XX. 5 ; Slav. Enoch xxii. 6 ; Weber, 
Jiid. Tkeologie,'^ 168. Four of these 
angels are mentioned in Eth. Enoch 
xl. (where see note on ver. 2 in my 

Who went before the camp of Israel. 
Exod. xiv. 19. 

Took the tables of the divisions of the 
to Moses, 

Divisions of the years — from the time 
of the creoXion (c) — of the law («), etc. 
This seems to be the best way of taking 
the text. My text which follows 6 = 
" divisions of the years from the crea- 
tion of the law." 

According to the individual years. 
Bracketed as an interpolation, b omits. 

From the day of the [iieiv] creation 
\iohen\ the heavens and the earth shall 
he reneiued. The text is clearly corrupt. 
It should furnish us with the termvnus 
a quo and the terminus ad quern. The 
history of the "tables of the divisions " 
obviously embraces everything from the 
creation to the Messianic Kingdom. 
Hence "new" (haddas) is to be re- 
garded as an Ethiopic interpolation In 
a 6 it follows the word "creation" but 
in the inferior MSS (c d) it precedes 
them. Next in place of " fwhenf " 
(ama) we shoidd expect " till." We can 
recover "till" by taking wj ( = "when") 
in the Greek to be a corruption of ^ws 

= "till." In any case we should read 
" From the day of the creation, till the 

The heavens and tlie earth shall be 
reneimd. We should observe carefully 
the nature of the "renewal" as it 
appears in Jubilees. This renewal of 
the creation is not to be instantaneous 
and catastrophic, but gradual, and its 
progress to be conditioned ethically by 
the conduct of Israel. This will be 
seen most clearly in iv. 26 and xxiii. 
26-28 (see notes in loc). Similar ex- 
pressions are found in Is. Ixv. 37, 
Ixvi. 22. In my Eschatology (pp. 122- 
123) I took these passages in Isaiah 
to denote a sudden and actual re-crea- 
tion of the world, and as I conceived 
they were at variance with their 
contexts, I marked them as later inter- 
polations. I now see that they should 
be taken to express a gradual trans- 
formation of the world, moral and 
physical, and, that thus the argument 
against their originality falls to the 
ground. This view was probably 
adopted from Mazdeism, which accord- 
ing to Soderblom (Za Vie Futwre 
d'apres le Alazdeisme, p. 254, Paris, 
1901) teaches that le monde deviendra 
peu a pen meilleur et se spiritualisera 
pendant les derniers temps. 1'his fifth- 
century view of the writer in Isaiah 
Ixv. -Ixvi. is reproduced by our author. 
Heaven and earth and the physical 
nature of man will be transformed pari 
passu with man's spiritual transforma- 
tion (xxiii. 26-28, 1. 5). According to 
Jubilees xxiii. 27 the righteous should 
attain to a thousand years, and accord- 
ing to Is. Ixv. 20 the sinner should be 
I^rematurely cut oif when a hundred 
years old. So far as I am aware, Is. 



all their creation according to the powers of the heaven, 
and according to all the creation of the earth, until the 
sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in Jerusalem on 
Mount Zion, and all the luminaries be renewed for healing 
and for peace and for blessing for all the elect of Israel, and 
that thus it may be from that day and unto all the days 
of the earth. 

Tlie history of the twenty-two distinct acts of creation on the 
six days, 1-16. Institution of the Sabbath : its observance 
by the highest angels, vnth whom Israel is afterwards to 
be associnted, 17-32. (Cf. Gen. i.-ii. 3.) 

II. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses 
according to the word of the Lord, saying : Write the com- 

Ixv. -Ixvi. , Jubilees and Test. Levi 18 are 
the only Jewish writings which attest 
this view. But from 100 B.C. Jewish, 
and subsequently Christian, writers took 
these expressions in a literal and cata- 
strophic sense. Thus it is an actual 
re-creation of heaven and earth that is 
foretold in Eth. Enoch xci. 16, Ixxii. 1, 
xlv. 4 ; Apoc. Bar. xxxii. 6, Ivii. 2 ; 
4 Ezra vii. 75 ; 2 Peter iii. 13 ; Rev. 
xxi. 1. 

But again to return to our author 
we find the following novelty. He 
teaches that God is to renew His 
creation at three distinct periods. The 
first was on the occasion of the Deluge 
when He destroyed all that was 
corrupt (v. 11) and "■made for all His 
works a new and righteous nature " 
(v. 12). The next renewal was to 
synchronise with the foundation of the 
Jewish community in Jacob, which 
should " serve to lay the foundations 
of the heaven and to strengthen the 
earth and to renew all the luminaries 
which are in the firmament " (xix. 25). 
The i<iea that a renewal of the world 
began with Jacob follows also from 
ii. 22 sqq. According to this passage 
the twenty-two generations that precede 
Jacob correspond to the twenty-two 
works of God at the Creation. A new 

era of renewal begins with Jacob. 
Finally when God's sanctuary and the 
Messianic Kingdom are established 
amongst men, the final renewal will 
set in, "when the heavens and the 
earth shall be renewed " and " all the 
luminaries shall be renewed" i. 29, 
iv. 26, V. 12. According to the 
present text of v. 11, 12, the renewal 
of creation after the Deluge is taught ; 
but the text is corrupt. In its original 
form it could only refer to the renewal 
of the world on the setting up of the 
Messianic Kingdom. There are thus 
three great eras in this book : the 
creation of the world, its renewal on 
the creation of the true man, Jacob, 
and its final renewal on the establish- 
ment of the sanctuary. On the 
symbolic values of man and the temple 
see Eppsteiu, "Le Livre des Jubiles," 
Revue des Etudes juives, 1890, xxi. 

iSancticary of the Lord be viade in 
Jerusalem, i.e., the Sanctuary in the 
Messianic Kingdom. Cf. i. 27, iv. 

Renevxd for healing. Cf. Rev. xxii. 
2 " for the healing of the nations." 

II. 1. Angel of the presence. See i. 
29 (note). 

Write the complete history of the 



plete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God 
finished all His works and all that He created, and kept 
Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, 
and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2. For on 

creation. We find the following 
Scholion in a MS Coislin. (Fabric, ii. 
120) on Exod. xxiv. 15, which refers 
to Jubilees : ivTav6a rj^ididr] 6 /xeyas 
Muijffrjs (jLera ras recraapaKovTa rj/x^pas 
idetv Sl oTTTaaiuv, wQs ev rats ^^ i^/x^pats 
eTTOLTjaev 6 debs tov oiipavbv koI Trjv 7^2', 
Kal TravTO. to, ev avrols Kara rd^iv /UtSs 
iKd(XT7]i i]/jLepas /cat <Tvyypd\pai. irape- 

2-3. These verses record the creations 
of the first day. They were seven in 
all : heaven, earth, the waters, spirits, 
the abysses, darkness, light. We have 
hajDpily the Greek version preserved in 
Epiphanius, vepl Mirpicv Kal Sra^^wc, 
xxii. (see my critical edition of the 
Ethiopia text pp. 5, 7) : rfj /xev yap 
TrpJrrr] rjfiipa eTroiyjae Toiis ovpavois Toiis 
dvuT^povs (/cat) TT]v yyjv (/cat) to. vdara 
. . . rd TTvev/jiaTa rd Xeirovpyovvra ev- 
UTTLOV avTov ctTLvd effTL rdde dyyeXoi 
irpb TTpocTUTTov, Kal dyyeXoi t^s 56^rjs, 
Kal dyyeXoL trvevfiaTuv irvebvTuiv, (/cat) 
a77eXoi vecpeXwv Kal yvbcpojv (/cai) 
Xiovos Kal xaXdfijs Kal ndyov, (/cat) 
d77eXct (puvQv (/cat) ^povrCcv Kal aarpa- 
ttCjv, (/cat) dyyeXoL ^vxovs /cat /cai5^aros 
Kal X6t/Uwvos Kal (pdivoirupov /cat ^apos 
Kal dipovs, Kal rrdvTut/ tCov wvevfj.dTwv 
tQv KTLajxdTwv axiTov tQv iv ovpavois Kal 
ev rri yrj, (/cat) ras d^vcraovs r-qv re 
viroKdrcj tt/s yrjs Kal tov x'^ovs, (Kal) to 
<r KOTOS, kawepav Kal vvKTa, (/cat) t6 <pG)s, 
7jfji.ipav Te Kal opdpov. An imperfect 
enumeration of the seven works is given 
by Syncellus (ed. Dindorf, p. 4), in 
which rds d^Oaaovs is omitted and 
vvxdrifJ-epov is substituted. Cedrenus 
(ed. Bekker, p. 7) reproduces Syncellus' 
summary, but Avith an additional cor- 
ruption. He omits rd vdara and 
reckons vvx^'nt^-epov as two works. 
The Hebrew work, Midrash Tadshe vi. 
lines 11-16 (ed. by Eppstein, Beitrdge 
zur jiidischen Alterthumskunde, 1887) 
is clearly based on our text. It runs : 
"Twenty-two kinds of creatures were 
created in the universe in seven days : 
the first day seven ; heaven, earth, 
waters, darkness, the wind (nnn), the 
abysses (niDinnn), light. The second 

day : one only, the firmament. The 
third day, four. He reunited the 
waters in one place, brought up the 
sweet waters from the earth, likewise 
herbs and trees. The fourth day, three : 
the sun, moon and stars. The fifth 
day, three : the moving creatures, birds 
and sea monsters. The sixth day, 
four : beasts, and cattle, and creeping 
things, and man. This corresponds 
to the twenty-two letters of the alphabet 
and to the twenty -two generations from 

Adam to Jacob (^J331 aNacnvnixaD nwa 
3pif Nna/ iy mxD nni-in). 

In the enumeration of the works of 
the first day, we observe a divergency 
between Jubilees (Epiphanius and 
Syncellus) and the Midrash Tadshe. 
Where Jubilees gives "angels," the 
Midrash gives "the wind." The 
ground for this divergency is manifest. 
If we examine Gen. i. 1-4 we find that 
the list of seven works is drawn from 
these verses, and that the idea of the 
creation of the angels is simply a 
development of the word "spirit" 
(nn), ver. 2. But the Midrash Tadshe 
shuns such an inference from Gen. i. 
2 ; for Talmudic Judaism held that 
the angels were created on the second 
or the fifth day. In Ber. rabba 1 
according to R. Jochanan it was on 
the second day (Ps. cxv. 4, 5 — see also 
Jerusalem Targum on Gen. i. 26 ; 
Chron. of Jerahmeel i. 8), but according 
to R. Chanina on the fifth (see Gen. 
i. 20 ; Is. vi. 6), and R. Luliaui bar 
Tabrai says that they were not created 
on the first day lest it should be said 
that they had assisted God in the 
creation. Philo, Leg. Allegor. i. 2, 
represents the creation of the angels as 
accomplished on the seventh day. 

Philo [deMundi opificio, i. 7 ) mentions 
seven objects of creation : ovpavbs, yrj, 
ffKbros, rb d^vaaov, iJdup, wvev/J-a, 4>ws. 
Here the Trvevfia retains for the most 
part its original force ; for in the next 
chapter Philo says with regard to it : 
rb fj^v yap ihvbfJ^aae deov, dibrt ^uitlkui- 
rarov rb irvevfia. On the other hand 
he idealises all seven objects of creation 



the first day He created the heavens which are above and 
the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve 
before Him — the angels of the presence, and the angels of 

of the first day. It is not the actual 
hut the ideal world that is created on 
the first day. Thus he speaks of the 
heaven as daw/aaros, the earth as diparos, 
the darkness and the abyss as the 
d^pov iS^a Kai Kevou, wind and water 
as having an dadifMaros ovcrla, and the 
light a-s being vo7;r6s. Notwithstanding, 
it is obvious that Philo was acquainted 
with a cosmology such as is given in 
our text. The Chronicles of Jerahmeel, 
1. 3, enumerate eight works. It 
duplicates "the spirit" by taking it 
first as " the spirit of God " and next 
as "air." Its dependence on the 
Jubilee tradition is possible. 

According to later Judaism, Ber. 
rabba 3 sqq. four things were created on 
the first day, mountains (hjre cnn is 
corrujit for ninn, "abyss"), heaven, 
earth, light. On the second — the firma- 
ment, hell and the angels. On the 
third — trees, green things, and Para- 
dise. On the fourtli — sun, moon and 
stars. On the fifth — birds, fishes and 
the Leviathan. On the sixth — Adam, 
Eve and worms. In all nineteen works. 
But according to R. Pinchas, six things 
were created on the sixth : Adam, Eve, 
worms, tame beasts, wild beasts, 

2. Oil the first day he created . . . 
the angels. In addition to the remarks 
made under this head on ii. 2-3 
above we should further observe that 
grounds are furnished for such a con- 
ception by Job xxxviii. 7 (cf. i. 6) 
^' When the morning stars sang together 
and all the sons of God shouted for 
joy." Here the sons of God are re- 
garded as admiring spectators of the 
creation. It is probable that earlier 
Judaism so understood this verse. At 
all events, this interpretation appears 
in patristic literature ; cf. Epiphanius, 
Ilaer. Ixv. chap. 4 : Et fir) yap d/xa 
ovpavQ Kal yy Kal a77e\ot iKTlcrdr](Tav, 
ovK &,v ^\eye rifi 'IwjS 8ti, "Ore iyevfj- 
Orjcray darpa, rji/effdv fie jravres dyyeXoi 
ftov (fucvrj. See also the quotation from 
Rufinus in the next note. Nearly two 
centuries earlier this idea is attested in 

Hermas, Vis. iii. 4 : Odroi eicnv oi a7tot 
dyyeXoi tov GeoO oi irpQroi KTia6ei>T£!, 
oU Trapedix}Kev 6 Kvpios trdffav Tr]v ktIoiv 
a^Tov, aiJ^eLv Kal olKodofieLv Kal 8e- 
ffird^eLV rf/s Krlaews TrdcTTjs. 

All the spirits rchich serve before 
him. This phrase is found in the 
Jerusalem Targum I. on Gen. i. 26, 
but there the creation of the angels is 
assigned to the second day. See further 
details in preceding note. With our text 
com])are Rufinus, Ezpositio in Symbol. 
p. 21 (Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V.T. ii. 
57), Ut breviter aliqua etiam de secre- 
tionibus perstringamus, ab initio Dens 
cum fecisset mundum, praefecit ei et 
praeposuit quasdam virtutum caelestium- 
potestates, quibus regeretur et dispen- 
saretur morialiiim genus . . . Sed et 
horum nonnulli, sicut et ipse qui princeps 
appellatus est mundi, datam sibi a Deo 
potestatem non his quibus acceperant 
legibus teniperarunt nee humanum 
genus diviuis obedire praeceptis, sed 
suis parere praevaricationibus docue- 

The angels of the presence, and the 
angels of sanctification. Cf. ii. 18, xv. 
27, xxxi. 14. These are the two chief 
orders of angels. On the former see i. 
29 note. Both classes are mentioned in 
ii. 18; these observe the Sabbath together 
with God and Israel (ii. 18 sqq.), and 
like them Levi and his seed are to serve 
in the sanctuary, xxxi. 14. The lower 
orders who are set over the works of 
nature do not keep the Sabbath. These 
angels are, according to the Talmud and 
no doubt to our author, inferior to 
righteous Israelites : Sanh. 93a, D'pns 
mtsTt onVsd nnv. See also Ber. rabba 

8; Tanchuma 14, nipn 'jb"? '?Nn»" pa'Sn 
mtfn oxSoD nnv (Singer, p. 98). " The 
angels of sanctification " are those who 
sing praises to God (possibly the 
trisagion as in Eth. En. Ixi. 12). As 
Epiphanius has dyyeXoi r^s do^t]^ 
{ — dyyeXoL do^d^ovres), Praetorius pro- 
poses that we should read weddase 
instead of qeddase. But the text can be 
defended; for in xv. 27 where the phrase 
recurs, the Latin has sanctificationis. 



sanctification, and the angels [of the spirit of fire and the 
angels] of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit 
of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and 
of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder 
and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and 
of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of 
summer, and of all the spirits of His creatures which are in 
the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and 
the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and 
day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of His heart. 
3. And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and 
lauded before Him on account of all His works; for seven great 
works did He create on the first day. 4. And on the second 

Angels ... of fire ... of the 
winds, . . . of the clouds, etc. The 
third or lowest order of angels presides 
over the natural phenomena. See Eth. 
Enoch Ix. 12-21, Ixxv., Ixxx. ; Slav. 
Enoch xix. 1-4. 

Angels . . . of fire. Cf. Rev. xiv. 

0/ the spirit of fire and the angels. 
So bed. a and G of Epiphanius omit. 

Angels . . . of the xvinds. Cf. Rev. 
vii. 1, 2. See Eth. Enoch xviii. 1-5, 
xxxiv.-xxxvi., Ixxvi. on the various 
functions of the mnd. 

Of snovj. So Gk. of Epiphanius, 
Xi-dvo's, which was probably corrupted 
into 7raj'T6s: hence text oi ah. cd om. 

Of swno and of hail and of hoar 
frost. Eth. Enoch Ix. 17, 18. 

Atigels of tJie voices and of the thunder 
and of the lightning. This is an obscure 
phrase. It would be easy if we could 
omit the first " and." Then we should 
have the familiar expression "voices of 
the thunder." Cf. Ps. Ixxvii. 18, 
civ. 7 ; Rev. vi. 1, x. 4, xix. 6. On 
the other hand we have in Rev. iv. 5, 
xi. 19, xvi. 18, d<rrpa7ra2 koX ^oi^'at koX 
PpovTal, and in viii. 5, ^povrcu koL (pwval 
Kal aaTpawai. The phrase in Rev. 
may be derived from our text. The 
" voices " may mean the mutterings of 
the thunder. "Voice" (Sip) in itself 
means thunder in Job xxxvii. 4. 

Thunder and lightning. Cf. Eth. 
Enoch Ix. 13-15. 

Of vyinter . . . and summer. Cf, 
Eth. Enoch Ixxxii. 13-20. 

(He created) the abysses, abed read 
"in all the abysses," connecting the 
phrase wrongly with the preceding 
words. " The abysses " are one of the 
seven things created on the first day 
and must be in the accusative as in G 
of Epiphaniiis. The Kuellu="air' 
may be a corruption of 'ellli = " these " 
(a frequent corruption), and the latter a 
translation of the Greek article in rets 
d^vaffovs. G reads ras ol^iktuovs ttjv 
re inroKaru rijs 7175 Kal toO X'^°^^- In 
my Ethiopic text, omit the three words 
after qalayat, which are an attempt 
partly to restore and partly to emend 
a into coufirmity with the G. 

Eventide (and night) aiul the 
light, daivn and day. "And night" 
is supplied from G. a wrongly trans- 
poses "eventide" after "day." bed 
omit "and day" and transpose "even- 
tide" after "light." 

3. Seveii great works. See note 
above, p. 11 on ii. 2-3. 

4. Works of the second day. Gen. 
i. 6-7. Cf. Slav. Enoch xxvi.-xxvii. 
G in Epiphanius runs : iv Be rrj Bevreptf. 
TO ffrepeu/iia to iv tQ p.iaij3 twv vBaroiv, 
Kal iv avrri rrj rjixepq. iixeplcrdT) to. vdara, 
t6 ij/xtav avrCov ave^rj iTravu too aTepew- 
fiaros (/cat t6 ij/jLicrv Kari^r] inroKOLTU} toO 
ffTepeuj/xaTOs) rod ififxiaip iirl Trpoadnrov 
ird<x7]i TTJs yrjs. tovto fiovov t6 ^pyov 
iTTolTjaev 6 Qebs iv rrj Sevripq, ij/xipq.. 



day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, 
and the waters were divided on that day — half of them 
went up above and half of them went down below the 
firmament (that was) in the midst over the face of the 
whole earth. And this was the only work (God) created on 
the second day. 5. And on the third day He commanded 
the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into 
one place, and the dry land to appear. 6. And the waters 
did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the 
face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, 
and the dry land appeared, 7. And on that day He created 
for them all the seas according to tlieir separate gathering- 
places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters 
in the mountains and on all the earth, and all the lakes, 
and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, 
and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees 
of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all 

The clause in brackets, lost by honioio- 
teleuton, I have supplied. 

Waters were divided on that day. 
According to this view as also of Gen. i. 
6 there was a sea in heaven resting on 
the firmament, which through seven 
flood-gates (v. 24) let down its waters 
on the earth. See the curious specu- 
lation on these waters in Eth. Enoch 
liv. 7-8. 

5-7. Works of the third day. Cf. 
Gen. i. 9-13 ; Slav. Enoch xxx. 1. G 
in Epiphauius is defective : rptxTj 5^ 
ijnipq. . . . ras da\d<raas . . . toi)s 
TTorafMovs, ras irrjyds . . . Kal Xifiva?, 
TO, ffire pfiara rod criropov, Kal to. (3Xa- 
(TTrj/jLaTa, to, ^v\a rd Kapwiixa re /cat 
aKapjra Kal tovs dpy/iiovs . . . Kal iravra 
ra (pvTO, Kara yivos. ravra to. ricrcrapa 
ipya TO, fiiyKxra iiroirjaev 6 Qebs ii> rrj 
TplTTj ri/j.ip<f.. It is better in Syncellus 
1. 4 : <})avipu)<n% yrjs Kal dva^-qpavais, 
irapadeiffos, 84v5pa iravroia, ^oravai. 
Kal (TTripixaTa. 

5. The third day. MSS add "He 
made as." 

7. Cf. Slav. Enoch xxx. 1. 

Sprouting things = za.jeha.q\ie\ emend- 

ed from zajetbalae according to G 

Garden of Eden, in JEden. MSS 
add "for pleasure." This phrase 
is due either to a corrupt ilitto- 
graphy : i.e. — latadla is corrupt for 
bata(lla = ej' rpvcprj, a duplicate ren- 
dering of pi!2 : or else tadla is cor- 
rupt for taklat = (/)iiT(i and should be 
transposed after kuellft. The "in 
Eden" is also superfluous, c omits it. 

Garden of Eden. Eden is likewise 
a creation of the third day in Ber. 
rabba 15 ; Slav. Enoch xxx. 1 ; Book 
of Adam and Eve i. 1. This is the 
earliest view so far as our evidence goes. 
As early, however, as the latter half 
of the first century a.d., the garden 
of Eden was said to have been created 
before the world. Thus 4 Ezra iii. 6 
In paradisum, quem plantavit dextera 
tua antequam terra adventaret. This 
view arose from taking mpo in Gen. ii. 
8 to mean "from the beginning" 
instead of "on the east." This new 
interpretation was adopted by the 
Targums and the Syriac and Latin 
Versions, as well as by Aquila, Sym- 



(plants after their kind). These four great works God 
created on the third day. 8. And on the fourth day He 
created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in 
the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, 
and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light 
from the darkness. 9. And God appointed the sun to be a 
great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for 
months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of 
years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 1 0. 
And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for 
prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and 
grow on the earth. These three kinds He made on the 
fourth day. 11, And on the fifth day He created great sea 
monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first 
things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and 
everything that moves in the waters, and everything that 

machus and Theodotion; also by Jerome 
{Quaest. Heb. in Oen. ii. 8) (Migne, 
Biblioth. Pair. Lat. torn. 23, col. 940) : 
Necnon quod sequitur, contra orientem, 
in Hebraeo Mecedem (oipD) scribitur, 
quod Aquila posuit ciTro dpx^s : et nos, 
ab exordio, possumus dicere. Sym- 
tnachus vero, iK Trpibr-qs, et Theodotion, 
iv TTpdyrois, quod et ipsura non orientem 
sed principium significat. Ex quo 
manifestissime comprobatur, quod 
priusquam coelum et terram Deus 
faceret, paradisum ante condiderat, 
sicut et legitur in Hebraeo: Plantaverat 
autem Dominus Deus paradisum in 
Eden a principio. For later Jewish 
authorities see Weber, Jikl. Theologie? 

On the peculiar conception of two 
Paradises, the heavenly and the earthly, 
and their connection see Slav. Enoch 
Weber, 162 sq., 341. For a 


history of the various meanings of 
Paradise in Apocalyptic literature, see 
my Eschatology, pp. 197, 234 sq., 
262 sqq. 

{Plants after their kind.) Supplied 
from G in Epiphanius. It is possible, 
however, that "plants" already exists 
in the text in a corrupt form. See 
note on beginning of verse. 

8-10. Gen. i. 14-19. Cf. Slav. Enoch. 
XXX. 2-6. G in Epiphanius very de- 
fective : TTj Sk TerdpTri tov i}\Lov Tr]v 
(jeKriv-qv roiis dcrrepay . . , ravra ra 
Tpia epya to. fieydXa iTroirjae 6 Qebs 
€v TTJ TerdpTr) Tjnipa. 

9. Aj^pointed the sun. It will be 
observed here that though the writer 
is basing the text on Gen. i. 16-18 he 
makes no reference to the moon. The 
omission is intentional. The writer 
holds that Israel should not be guided 
by the moon but by the sun in the 
calculations of all their festivals. See 
vi. 36-38. 

Appointed the sun . . . for jubilees. 
The period from the entrance of the 
Israelites into Canaan to the destruction 
of the first temple is measured by 
jubilees in Erachin 12-13 a. 

10. These three kinds, i.e., the suu, 
moon, and stars. Cf. Syncellus, i. 

11-12. Works of the fifth day. Gen. 
i. 20-23. Cf. Slav. Enoch xxx. 7. G 
in Epiphanius : ry 5^ tt^/xtttt; to, kt^ttj 
TO, fieydXa . . . Toiis ixdvas Kal ret 
dWa epireTa, ra iv rots vdaai, rd Trereivd, 
tA TTTepwrd . . . raOra rd Tpia ?pya 
Ttt /MeydXa eiroirjaev 6 Qebs ev rrj wefiirrri 


flies, the birds and all their kind. 12. And the sun rose 
above them to prosper (them), and above everything that 
was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, 
and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three kinds 
He created on the fifth day. 13. And on the sixth day He 
created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and 
everything that moves on the earth. 1 4. And after all this 
He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and 
gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in 
the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and 
over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, 
and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him 
dominion. And these four kinds He created on the sixth 
day. 15. And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 
16. And He finished all His work on the sixth day — 
all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the 
seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the 
darkness, and in everything. 17. And He gave us a great 
sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but 
keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. 18. And 
all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctifi- 

13-14. Works of the sixth day. ii. 2\ Cf. Exod. xx. 11. Budde 

Gen. i. 24-28. Cf. Shiv. Enoch xxx. and Ball accept this ( = ''B'B'n) as the 

8 sqq. G in Epiphanius is defective: original reading of Gen. ii. 2^ over 

TTj d^ tKTri riixipq. to. dfipia . . . ra against the Massoretic ( = 'y'3iJ',i). The 

KTiflPV. ra epirerA r-ps yrj^, rbi> 8.vepw7rov ^^^^^^^ observance of the' Sabbath 

. . . ravra ra jiaaapo. fieyaXa ^pya ^^^^^^^^ certainly to the pre-Christian 

iTTOLVTei' Qeoi (vp iKTTi vf^^p<^: centuries as we shall see later. 

14. A mu>i and a «-om«;i--instead ^7.21. The two chief orders of angels 
of the usual male and female. ^^^^^^^ ^j^^ Sabbath together witli God. 

15. See note on ii. 23. The Greek Israel alone will be chosen to join in 
of this verse and the next is found in this observance. Like the third order 
Epiphanius, ^oc. cit. : KoXeyiveToiravTa of angels {see note on ii. 2), i.e. those 
elKOffi dvo yivri iv rah ff ijfiepaLS. ^ Kal that presideovernatural phenomena, the 
avveriXecrev iravra ra epya avrov eV rrj Gentiles do not share in this privilege 
^KTrj riixipq., offa ev tols ovpavoU Kal (ii_ 31 )_ 

oo-a {irl TTJi yyjs, iv rah 6a\d<T(Tais Kal 17. ffg gave us a great sign, tJie 

iv ra?? d/3iV(rotj, iv tQ ^wtI Kal iv ry Sabbath day. Cf. Exod. xxxi. 13. This 

CKdrei Kal iv Tracri. sign, first appointed between God and 

16. Ok the sixth day. Our text is the two chief orders of angels, was to 
supported by the Samaritan text and be established subsequently between 
the LXX and Syriac Versions of Gen. God and Israel, ii. 21. See ii. 31 note. 

CHAPTER II. 12-23 17 

cation, these two great classes — He hath bidden us to keep 
the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 19. And 
He said unto us : " Behold, I will separate unto Myself a 
people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the 
Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My 
people, and will bless them ; as I have sanctified the Sabbath 
day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless 
them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 
20. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all 
that I have seen, and have written him down as My first- 
born son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and 
ever ; and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may 
keep Sabbath thereon from all work." 21. And thus He 
created therein a sign in accordance with which they should 
keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to 
drink, and to bless Him who has created all things as He 
has blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar people 
above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together 
with us. 22. And He caused His commands to ascend as a 
sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days. . . . 23. 
There (were) two and twenty heads of mankind from Adam 

19. Separate unto Myself a people. again in ii. 31, 1. 9, 10. In 1. 12 
1 Kings viii. 53. fasting on the Sabbath is forbidden. 

These imll keep the Sabbath . . . See I. 6 sqq. (notes) for a discussion of 

sanctify them. Exod. xxxi. 13, 17 ; the entire question. 

Ezek. XX. 12. See note on ii. 31. A p)^<'uliar people above all peoples. 

TheyvnllbeMy2'Cople,e.ic. See i. 17. Deut. vii. 6; of. Exod. xix. 5; Amos 

20. 1 have chosen the seed of Jacob, iii. 2. The Sabbaths are signs that God 
Is. xli. 8, xliv. 1, 2. G in Ej^i- has given to His people to distinguish 
phanius = / vnll choose, etc. them from other jieoples. Cf. verne 31 ; 

Frovi amongst all. This is based on Ezek. xx. 12, 20. "Peculiar" here = 

a slight change of a corrupt text. zaj atari emended from zajastare'i. 

My first-born son. Exod. iv. 22 ; And tlutt they . . . xoith us. This 

Ps. Ixxxix. 27 ; cf. Jer. xxxi. 9. seems a dittography of the second 

21. A sign. According to Exod. clause of this verse. 

zxzi. 13, 17 ; Ezek. xx. 12, the Sabbath 22. His commands, etc. Corrupt. 

was to be a sign between God and A siveet savour. Gen. viii. 21 ; 

Israel. See ii. 17 note, 31 note. Exod. xxix. 18 ; Ezek. xx. 41 ; 2 Cor. 

Keep Sabbath ivith us. Israel is to ii. 15 ; Eph. v. 2. 
unite with the angels (cf. verses 17, 18) Acceptable before Him. Ezek. xx. 

in observing the Sabbath. 41 ; Rom. xii. 1 ; 1 Tim. ii. 3. 

To eat and to drink, etc. This joy- 23. It is clear from Epiphanius, 

fnl aspect of the Sabbath is enforced Syncellus and Cedrenus that there is a 



to Jacob, and two and twenty kinds of work were made 
until the seventh day; this is blessed and holy; and the 
former also is blessed and holy ; and this one serves with 
that one for sanctifi cation and blessing. 24. And to this 
(Jacob and his seed) it was granted that they should always 

lacuna in tlie text after ver. 22. Thus 
in Epipbauius, De Mensuris et Pon- 
deribus, ch. xxii. (ed. Dind. vol. iv. 28) 
after an account of the six days' creation, 
drawn word for word from Jubilees, he 
continues /cai edrjXwcre 5t' £177^011 T<p 
Muvcrel 6ti (Jub. ii. 23) Kai el'/cocrt 5i''0 
Ke<pd\aia awb 'ASafi &XP'- '''°^ 'laKw^. 
. . . Kol (Jub. ii. 21) (K\^^o/ ifxavTi^ 
iK Tov ffTT^pfiaroi avTou . . . \abv 
irepLoiffiov airb iravTijiu tCjv e0vu>v . . . 
5(6 Kal eiKOCTL 5vo eicrl to. wapa rotj 
'E^pa/ots ypa/xixara, Kal irpbs avra Kal 
TO,^ jSi/SXous avTwf /c/3' Tipid/j-riffav e'^KOcri 
iiTTa oUaas' dW iweiSri diirXovvTac irivre 
irap' avToiis crroixela, (lkoul eirTa Kal 
avTCL 6pTa Kal eis /c/3' dTroreXoOj'rat, 
rovTov X'^P"' K^i- ■'■015 /3i/3\ous k^' operas 
/c/3' TreTroLrjKacnv. Also in i. 1 p. 59 
('EiriKOvp.) we find aSrat elffiv al eUoffi- 
ciTTck /3t/3Xoi al «'/c GeoO SodeTcrai toIs 
'Ioi/5atois, eiKOffidvo 5^ uij rd irap avrois 
aroLX^^a t^v 'E^paiKuv ypatiixdnov 
dpidfj.ov/j.fvai, did rb dnrXovadai oiKa 
/3t/3Xoi'S eiy irivn Xeyo/j^vas. Again 
Anastasius, who elsewhere quotes 
Jubilees (see iii. 9 note), seems to refer 
to our text here in his work on the 
Hexaemeron (Migne's Biblioth. Pair. 
Oraec. tom. 89, col. 940) : Viginti enim 
duo opera fecisse Deum dicunt, et 
Judaeorum et Christianorum interpretes 
. . . propterea viginti quoque duobus 
libris enumerat onine Vetus suum 
Testamentum. In Isidore of Seville 
(ob. 636), Etymolog. xvi. 26. 10 (Migue 
Bibl. Pair. Lat. tom. 82, col. 595), we 
have an account of the creation agreeing 
with Jubilees save in one small particu- 
lar. It is there shown that there were 
twenty-two kinds of work just as there 
■were twenty -two generations from 
Adam to Jacob, twenty-two books in 
the OT and twenty-two letters. This 
account is dependent on Epiphauius. 
Thus it is most probable that originally 
mention was made in the text of the 
twenty - two Hebrew letters and the 
twenty-two books of the Bible, and so 
we find it actually stated by Syncellus 

(Jhronogr. i. 5 (ed. Dind.) oixov rd 
■Kavra ipya eucocn 5vo iffdpiOfxa roli 
eLKoai Svo "E/Spa'i/coTs ypdfifiaffi Kal rats 
eiKocTi. di'io 'Eij3paiKais j3lj3\oL^ Kal roti 
dwb 'Add/j. eujs 'laKW^ (iKocn 56o yevap- 
X^ciiy, cbj €v XeTrrip (peperai Vev4(T€i., i^v Kai 
Mwijff^dis flval <pacri tiv€s diroKd.Xii^U'. 
This statement is reproduced verbally 
by Cedrenus, Ccnnpendium Histor, vol. 
i. 9 (ed. Bekker). Next we have the 
evidence of the Hebrew tradition pre- 
served in the Midrash Tadshe vi. 
(quoted above, p. 11) : "Twenty-two 
kinds of creatures were created in the 
universe. . . This corresponds to the 
twenty-two letters of the alphabet and 
to tlie twenty -two generations from 
Adam to Jacob." Thus we should 
IJrobably restore the lacuna as follows: — 
As there were tvjo and twenty letters and 
two and tiventy (sacred) books and ttoo 
and twenty heads of mankind from 
Adam to Jacob, so there were made two 
and twenty kinds of work, etc. The 
thirty-nine books of the Old Testament 
are equalised to the number of letters 
by the following device. The twelve 
minor prophets count as one book, 
similarly Judges and Ruth, Ezra and 
Nehemiah, Jeremiah and Lamentations 
are taken together, and the two books 
of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles are 
reckoned respectively as one each. Thus 
the thirty-nine are reduced to twenty- 
two. See Introd. § 11. 

This is blessed and holy, i.e., the 

The former also is blessed and holy, 
i.e., Jacob. These two, the Sabbath 
and Jacob, are intimately related. As 
the Sabbath comes at the close of the 
twenty-two works, so Jacob comes at 
the close of the twenty-second genera- 
tion. Not till Jacob's time, therefore, 
could the Sabbath be rightly observed 
on earth. Moreover, the Sabbath was 
given to Israel alone (ii. 31). 

24. They should always, etc. So 
bed. a reads "he should always," 

CHAPTER II. 24-29 19 

be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony and law, 
even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on 
the seventh day. 25. He created heaven and earth and 
everything that He created in six days, and God made the 
seventh day holy, for all His works ; therefore He com- 
manded on its behalf that, whoever does any work thereon 
shall die, and that he who defiles it shall surely die. 26. 
Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to 
observe this day that they may keep it holy and not do 
thereon any work, and not to defile it, as it is holier than all 
other days, 27. And whoever profanes it shall surely die, 
and whoever does thereon any work shall surely die 
eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day 
throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the 
land; for it is a holy day and a blessed day. 28. And 
every one who observes it and keeps Sabbath thereon from 
all his work, will be holy and blessed throughout all days 
like unto us. 29. Declare and say to the children of Israel 
the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath 
thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error 
of their hearts ; (and) that it is not lawful to do any 
work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own 
pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything 

He liad sanctified. So c^. « 6 read Rooted oid of the la'fid. Deut. xxix. 28. 

"it had been sanctified." 29. It is not lawful to do any work 

And blessed. So acd. h "and had thereon ivhich is unseemly, to do thereon 

been blessed. their oimi pleasure. In the rendering 

The Sabbath day. cd. ah omit. " which is unseemly " I have followed 

25. Whoever does any work thereon Barth and Littmanii in taking za'ije- 
shall die, and tlmt he who defiles, etc. kawen za'ijastar'i as representing h^w 
Exod. xxxi. 14, 15. Cf. Exod. xxxv. 2 ; 'ixn ,Tri'. See also on iii. 15. It might 
Num. XV. 32-36. See also verses 26, 27. be better to connect the following in- 

26. Command the children of Israel finitive with " unseemly " and translate 
to observe this day tliat they may kcp it " ^^iiich is unseemly to do thereon, (even) 
holy. Exod. xx. 8, x.xxi. 1. their own pleasure." It is usual for <int 

Holier than all other days. Cf. ii. to be followed by an infinitive in this 

30 where it is said to be holier than sense. Cf. Esther ii. 9; Chull. 836; 

the jubilee of the jubilees ; also ii. 33. Nid. vi. 4 

27. Whoever profanes it . . . who- To do thereon their own pleasure, 
ever does thereon any work. See two Cf. Is. Iviii. 13. 

preceding verses. Not prepare thereon anything to be 



to be eaten or drunk, -|-and (that it is not lawful) to 
draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their 
gates any burden,-|* which they had not prepared for them- 
selves on the sixth day in their dwellings. 30. And they 
shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on 
that day ; for that day is more holy and blessed than any 
jubilee day of the jubilees : on this we kept Sabbath in the 
heavens before it was made known to any flesh to keep 
Sabbath thereon on the earth. 31. And the Creator of all 
things blessed it, but He did not sanctify all peoples and 

eaten or drunk. This law could be 
derived from Exod. xvi. 23, 2!'>. Bak- 
ing aud boiling are forbidden in Exod. 
xvi. 23, and the making of a fire in 
Exod. XXXV. 3. 

And that they shoidd not prepare 
thereon anything to be eaten or drunk 
. . . which they had not prepared for 
themselves on tJie sixth day. Cf. 1. 9. 
It will be observed that by omitting 
" and (that it is not lawful) to draw 
water, or bring in or take out thereon 
through their gates any burden " an 
excellent sense is restored to the text. 
Besides, the words in question con- 
stitute a break in the graniniatital 
construction. The words "or bring in 
or take out thereon through their gates 
any burden " look like a dittography 
of the first clause in ver. 30. They 
may, however, be genuine, and we can 
restore at once the sense and grammar 
by reading these clauses immediately 
after the words "their own pleasure." 
Thus we have : " Tliat it is not lawful to 
do any work thereon which is unseemly, 
to do thereon their own pleasure or to 
draw water or Tiring in or take out 
thereon through their gates any burden. 
And that they should not prepare tliere- 
on anything to be eaten or drunk, which 
they had not prepared for themselves 
on the sixth day in their dwellings." 

Or brinq in or take out . , . any 
burden. The law is found in ii. 30, 
1. 8 ; Jer. xvii. 21, 22, 24, 27. Cf. 
Neh. xiii. 19 ; John v. 10 ; Shabb. 
vii. 2. 

Which they had not prepared for 
themselves on the sixth day. This 

should follow immediately on the clause 
" an y th ing to be eaten or drunk . " Thus 
we have the provision enforced in Bez. 
2b, that on the Sabbath day nothing 
should be eaten which had not been 
expressly prepared on a week day with 
a view to the Sabbath. 

On the sixth day. Cf. 1. 9. This 
phrase cau equally well be rendered in 
both passages " on the six days." 

30. Bring in nor take out from house '■ 
to house. Cf. ii. 29, 1. 8 ; Jer. xvii. 22. 
Also Shabb. vii. 2, T\^a-h nwo N'sion. 
See note on ver. 29. 

On this we kept Sabbath in tlie 
heavens. Similarly it is said in vi. 18 
that the feast of weeks was celebrated 
by tlie angels in heaven till the days of 
Noah. The writer most probably held 
that the other feasts were likewise 
observed in heaven. The sabbath and 
the feast of weeks, however, are the 
two chief feasts in the eyes of the 
^vriter. According to Ber. rabba 11 
even the godless in Gehenna had rest 
on the Sabbath. 

31. Blessed it, i.e., Israel. MSS omit 
" it " but we have pnly (with Barth and 
Littmann) to emend baraka into baraka 
to restore it. 

Ue did not sanctify all . . . nations 
to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel 
alone. Cf. ii. 19. The Sabbath was 
the special privilege and distinction 
of Israel. Hence it could not be rightly 
observed on earth till Jacob's time (see 
ii. 23 note). It was to be a special 
sign between God and Israel (ii. 21), as 
it was already a sign in heaven between 


nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone : them 
alone He permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath 
thereon on the earth. 32. And the Creator of all things 
blessed this day which He had created for a blessing and 
a sanctification and a glory above all days. 33. This law 
and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law 
for ever unto their generations. 


Adam Thames all creatures, 1-3. Creation of Eve and enact- 
ment of Lcvitical laws of purification, 4-14. Adayn 
and Eve in Paradise: their sin and expulsion, 15-29. 
Law of covering one's shame enacted, 30, 31. Adam and 
Eve live in kdd, 32-35. (Cf. Gen. ii. 18-25, iii.). 

III. And on the six days of the second week we 
brought, according to the word of God, unto Adam all the 
beasts, and all the cattle, and all the birds, and everything 
that moves on the earth, and everything that moves in the 
water, according to their kinds, and according to their 
types : the beasts on the first day ; the cattle on the second 
day ; the birds on the third day ; and all that which moves 
on the earth on the fourth day ; and that which moves in 
the water on the fifth day. 2. And Adam named them all 
by their respective names, and as he called them, so was 
their name. 3. And on these five days Adam saw all these, 
male and female, according to every kind that was on the 
earth, but he was alone and found no helpmeet for him. 
4. And the Lord said unto us : " It is not good that the 

God and the two chief orders of angels in Syncelliis, pp. 7-8 : t-q TrpuiTri 7]/x4pg. 

(ii. 17). As no such sign existed between . . . (hvd/j-aaev 'A5a;tt to. dypia Orjpia 

God and the inferior angels (who are delcf) rivl xo.picrfJ.aTL, rfi devripq. 'qfiipa . . . 

inferior to Israel, see ii. 2 note), so uvS/j-aa-e to, kt-^vt], ttj Tpirri rnxipq. . . . 

none existed between God and the Gen- divoiMiaev to, TreTeLvd ' xg TerdpTri iffiepq. 

tiles. . . . ihvbjJ-aae ra ipireTo. " rrj wifj/n-Trj 

33. A law for ever vmto their genera- v/jL^pq. . . . wvofiaae rd prjKrd. 
tions = nnnn':' oSiy npn, Exod. xxvii. 3. Cf. Gen. ii. 20. Found. So 

21 ; Lev. vii. 36, xxiii. 14, etc. Mass., Sam.; but LXX, Syr. and Vulg. 

III. 1-2. Cf. Gen.ii. 19. G is found =" was found." 



man should be alone : let us make a helpmeet for him." 5. 
And the Lord our God caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, 
and he slept, and He took for the woman one rib from 
amongst his ribs, and this rib was the origin of the woman 
from amongst his ribs, and He built up the flesh in its stead, 
and built the woman. 6. And He awaked Adam out of his 
sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He 
brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her : 
" This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh ; she 
will be called [my] wife ; because she was taken from her 
husband." 7. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and 
therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and 
cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 8. In 
the first week was Adam created, and the rib — his 
wife : in the second week He showed her unto him : and 
for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their 

4. Gen. ii. 18. Let us make. So 
also LXX and Vulg. Mass., Sam., 
Syr. = "I will make." 

5-6. Creation of woman on the 13th 
day of the creation. Cf. Gen. ii. 21-23. 
In the Targ. Jon. on Gen. ii. 21 the rib 
is said to have been the 1 3th on the right 
side. On the Talmudic theories as to 
the hermaphroditic character of Adam 
before the creation of Eve see Weber, 
Jikl. T/ieologie,'^ p. 211. 

5. One rib from amongst his ribs, and 
this rib . . . from amongst his ribs. 
Text literally = "one bone from amongst 
his bones and this rib (or side) . . . 
from amongst his bones. " 

6. [My] wife. The "my" I have 
bracketed as an interpolation. It is 
found also in the Eth. vers, of Gen. 
ii. 23, but in no other important 

Her husband ( = nz^'No). So also Sam., 
LXX, and Onkelos against Mass., 
Syr., and Vulg. which omit the pro- 

7. Of. Gen. ii. 24. 

Tliey sluxll be ryne flesh. So also Mass. 
and Onkelos, but Sam. (cn'JCD vni) ; 
LXX, Syr., Vulg., Ps. -Jon. = "they 
twain shall be one flesh." This latter 

is followed in Matt. xix. 5 ; Mark x. 7 ; 
Eph. V. 31, and seems to have the 
older attestation. 

8. First week . . . second xoeek. 
MSS read " seventh " instead of "week" 
in both cases. We obtain the right sense 
by simply emending sab'et into sab'at. 

8-14. Commandment was given to 
keep in their defilement, etc. In this 
passage our author either invents 
historical grounds or else adopts an 
already existing legend to account for 
the commands given in Lev. xii. 2-5. 
Accorduig to Lev. xii. 2, 5 a mother 
was to be unclean seven days if she 
bore a man child, and was not to enter 
the sanctuary till thirty -three days 
later, in all forty days ; and she was to 
be unclean fourteen days if she bore 
a maid child, and was not to enter 
the sanctuary for sixty-six days later, 
hi all eighty days. This law, our 
author says, was based on the fact that 
Adam was created at the close of the 
first week and did not enter the 
Garden till forty days after his crea- 
tion, and Eve was created at the close 
of the second week and did not enter 
the Garden till eighty days after her 
creation. This peculiar idea reappears 



defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice 
seven days. 9. And after Adam had completed forty days 
in the land where he had been created, we brought him into 
the garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they 
brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered 

in various works. Thus in Philo 
Qvaesi. in Gen. ii. 21 (translated by 
Aucher from the Armenian), where 
Philo is dealing with the creation of 
woman from the rib of the man, the 
text appears to recall the xdews of our 
author : Siquidem ut perfectior et (si 
liceat dici) duplicior est viri formatio 
formatione mulieris : sic etiam dimidio 
tempore opus habuit, diebus videlicet 
xl, ubi imperfectae atque, ut ita 
dicam, dimidiae viri sectioui, scilicet 
mulieri, (opus esset) duplici mensura, 
nempe diebus Ixxx. Our text was 
certainly before Syncellus, i. 8-9, 
eiff'oyay(v 6 0e6s rbv ' Ada fi iv tQ 
irapadeicrif) Kara rr]v Tf<r(rapaK0(TT7iv 
ijfiipay TTJs TrXdcrews avrov. rg evevq- 

KOaTTj TpiTTj i]IJ.4pa TTJS KTiCTeUS . . . 

eh'^X^V ^'"'^ ''■oO 0fov iv ry irapaSelaip 
7) ToO 'A5d,u ^oTjdbi E^a, iv Ty oydor]- 
KOffry V/iiipg, ttjs TrXdcrews avTTJs . . . 
Sia TovTO wpoaiTa^ev 6 debs Sia. 
Mojvffius iv ry AevtTt/c(p, ■fjroi 8ia 
ras fiera ttjv wXaffiv rod x^P'-'^l^°^ 
avrOiv rjixipas iK rod -wapaSelaov, iirl 
fiev dppevoyovLas CLKadaprov avrijv eXvai 
iirl TecraapaKovra ij/xipas, iirl Be dyfKv- 
roKias 'iij}s 7]/u.epQv tr'. iTreidr] Kal 
'ASa/j. TT) fi 7]/j.€pa TT]s irXdaeuis avrov 
eiarjxO'') iv t(3 wapadeiauj, ov xaptv Kal 
TO yevvw/xeva ttj reacrapaKOcrTrj ijfiipa 
€iff<pipov(nv iv tQ lepip Kara rbv vofiov. 
ivl Si 0-^\eos aKaOaprov eXvai avryju eTrl 
rjfiipas oydorjKovra, did re rrjv iv t(2 
irapaSeiffii) avrijs €L(to8ov rrj oydoTjKoarTJ 
Tifxipq. Kal Sid rb dKdOaprov rov drjXeos 
irpbs rb dpaev. d<peSpos ydp irdXiv 
otffa ovK eiffipxerai 'iuis eirrd rj/xipas iv 
rtfi ifpip Kara rbv deiov vbfiov. ravra 
iK rod ^iov Xeyo/xivov 'A3d^t (piKofxaOias 
Xdpiv iv (Twrdfjiij} iaroixeiuaa, iv ri^ 
irpilrrif) irei rrjs irXdaews rod 'ASd/j^ iw' 
avri^ rd irpaxdevra. 

In the Book of Adam and Eve trans- 
lated by Malan in 1882 from the 
Ethiopic we find an undoubted re- 
miniscence of our text. Thus in i. 74 
and 75 it ia recounted that Adam made 

an offering for Cain when he was forty 
days old and an ofl'ering for Cain's twin 
sister Luluwa when she was eighty 
days old, when Eve and her daughter 
approached the altar. Auastasius 
Siuaita (lior. 7th cent.) in his Anagogic. 
contemplat. in Hexaem. (Fabricius, Cod. 
Pseud. V.T. ii. 83 ; Migne's Biblio- 
theca Pair. Graec. tom. 89, col. 967) is 
the first to refer directly to our text : 
Unde Hebraei ex libro qui non est 
redactus in canonem qui quidem dicitur 
Testamentum Protoplastorum, dicunt 
quadragesima die ingressum esse Adam 
in Paradisum ; sicut etiam videtur 
cuidam historico chronographo Pyr- 
rhoni, et quibusdam expositoribus. 
The Pyrrho here mentioned by Auas- 
tasius is likewise referred to by Glycas 
as the source of this statement. 
Syncellus (p. 8) is the next to use our 
text : eiarjyayev 6 Qebs rbv 'Add/j, iv 
ry wapaSeiaui Kard rrjv reiiaapaKO(jrr]v 
7]fiipav rijs TrXdcrews airov. Subse- 
quently Glycas (circ. 1150), in his 
Bf/SXos XpovLKT} (pp. 392-393, ed, 
Bekker), quotes our text with dis- 
approval: ri Se XeyofiivT) Xewrr] Tivecris, 
ovK oIS, bdev <Tvyypa(p€laa Kal Sttws, 
(prjfflv 6ri fxeO' rifjiipas fx' elarfKOev 6 'A5d/i 
els rbv irapdSeicrov, t) Si Eua /xe^' ij/xepas 
TT, Kal rovrov X'^P'-^ ^'' VP'-^po-i-i roaaijrais 
Trpocxdyovrai ri^ vdi^ t6 re dppev /cat rb 
OqXv, dvaXoyws rdxa rQ 'ASdfx Kal rr) 
'Eiia. On p. 156 Glycas tells us that 
Pyrrho in his history writes that Adam 
did not enter the Garden of Eden tUl 
the 40th day after his creation, and 
then adds dXX' ovk dlSa ttov SterpifSe 
wpbrepov 6 'ASdfx, 'i^io rov wapaSeiaov 
reaaapaKovra Sidyoov rjixipas. 

On the other hand Beer {Das Buck des 
Jubilden, p. 40) points out that there 
is not a trace of such a legend in 
Eabbinic literature, and that on the 
contrary it is declared in Shabbath 135a 
{r\-\-h nxDO 1DN yad in'^v D'jityxin nnn 
nJDtyV '710'ji) that the regulations in 
Lev. xii. 2-5 had no currency before 


into the garden of Eden. 10. And for this reason the 
commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard 
to her that gives birth : " if she bears a male, she shall 
remain in her uncleanness seven days according to the first 
week of days, and thirty and three days shall she remain in 
the blood of her purifying, and she shall not touch any 
hallowed thing, nor enter into the sanctuary, until she 
accomplishes these days which (are enjoined) in the case 
of a male child. 11. But in the case of a female child 
she shall remain in her uncleanness two weeks of days, 
according to the first two weeks, and sixty-six days in the 
blood of her purification, and they will be in all eighty 
days." 12. And when she had completed these eighty 
days we brought her into the garden of Eden, for it is 
holier than all the earth besides, and every tree tliat is 
planted in it is holy. 13. Therefore, there was ordained 
regarding her who bears a male or a female child the statute 

the legislation of Moses. Yet, notwith- We observe here that the above state- 
standing Beer's statement, the tradition ments are attributed to Piuchas. They 
in our text is not without attestation in go back ultimately to our trxt. As 
Judaism. Thus in the Miilrash Tadshe references to Pinchas, Eppsteiu {Revtie 
XV. (see Jelliuek's edition in his Bet des iJtiide-i juives, xxi. 92, 1890) 
ha-Midrasch, iii. 164-193 or Eppstein mentions Chullin 7 6, Kethuboth 46 a, 
in Beitrage zur jiid. Alterlkumskunde, Sota 49 a, Ber. rabba 60. 
1887), "Why did the Holy One, 10. Tlie lieavenly tables: In my 
blessed be He, ordain seven days of note on xlvii. 3 of the Eth. Enoch I 
purification for a woman who had have touched on the origin and de- 
borne a male child ami fourteen days velopnient of the idea underlying this 
for her who had borne a female? This expression, and to tliis I must refer the 
is to recall the creation of the first reader. The phrase is found in the 
Adam who was created in seven days Eth. Enoch xlvii. 3, Ixxxi. 1, 2, xciii. 
tin the firstf of the first week, (and) 2, ciii. 2, Test. XII. Patriarch. Levi 
the creation of Eve, who was taken v. ; Asher. ii., vii. The conception is 
from one of his ribs in the second not a hard and fixed one : in Enoch 
week. So Pinchas ben Jair (p on^a and Test. XII. Patriarch, it wavers 
TK'). The sages however say that both between an absolute determinism and 
were created on tlie eve of the Sabl)ath, prediction pure and simple : whereas 
the sixth day. Wherefore did the Holy in our text, in addition to these signifi- 
One, blessed be He, ordain that she cations, it implies at times little more 
who had borne a male should enter the than a contemporary heavenly record 
temple after forty days, and that she of events. In fact, in our author, the 
who had borne a female after eighty heavenly tables are the divine statute 
days? To recall that which God did book of the Theocracy of which the 
regarding the first Adam who was Mosaic law is the reproduction on 
created outside the Garden of Eden earth, or a mere contemporary record 
and did not enter till later." of events, or finally they recount the 



of those days that she should touch no hallowed thing, nor 
enter into the sanctuary until these days for the male or 
female child are accomplished. 14. This is the law and 
testimony which was written down for Israel, in order that 
they should observe (it) all the days. 15. And in the first 
week of the first jubilee, Adam and his wife were in the 1-7 a.m. 
garden of Eden for seven years tilling and keeping it, and 
we gave him work and we instructed him to do everything 
that is suitable for tillage. 16. And he tilled (the garden), 
and was naked and knew it not, and was not ashamed, and 
he protected the garden from the birds and beasts and cattle, 
and gathered its fruit, and eat, and put aside the residue for 
himself and for his wife [and put aside that which was being 

future history of the world either pre- 
dictively or else determinatively. One 
meaning, moreover, passes impercep- 
tibly into another. Thus those tables 
record : (1) Laws levitical, criminal, 
and chronological, in some instances 
predetermined and previously observed 
in heaven, in others established for 
the first time on earth : purification 
after childbirth, iii. 8-14; law as 
to covering one's nakedness, iii. 

31 ; as to murder and those who 
witness it, iv. 5 ; as to retribution, iv. 

32 ; as to the judgment of sinners, v. 
13 ; as to the feast of weeks, vi. 17 
and the divisions and length of the 
year, vi. 29-35 ; as to circumcision, xv. 
25-26 ; as to the seed of Lot, xvi. 9 
and the feast of tabernacles, xvi. 29 ; 
as to the feast of the lord, xviii. 19; 
as to the Philistines, xxiv. 33 ; as to 
the marriage of the elder daughter, 
xxviii. 6 ; as to the man who gives his 
daughter to a Gentile, xxx. 9 ; as to 
tithes, xxxii. 15 ; as to the incestuous 
person, xxxiii. 10; as to the Sabbath, 1. 
13. (2) Merely a contemporary event : 
the naming of Abraham as a friend of 
God, xiv. 9, and of Levi, xxx. 20 ; 
Isaac's blessing of Levi and Judah, 
xxxi. 32. (3) Predictions and predeter- 
minations : as to the judgment, v. 13 ; 
as to the Messianic kingdom, xxiii. 32. 

15. Seven years. According to Ber. 
rabba 18, Sanh. 38 h, and JJie Schatz- 
Mhle, p. 7 (translated by Bezold), 

Adam was only six hours in the Gar- 
den. MS rt of the Slavonic Enoch xxxii. 
2 states that Adam was only live and a 
half hours in Paradise. This last clause 
looks like a Christian interpolation, and 
may point to the 5500 years which 
were to elapse before the coming of 
Christ according to the early Fathers. 

Instmcted him . . . for tillage. In Is. 
xxviii. 26-29 this instruction is attri- 
buted to God ; biit in Ber. rabba 24 it 
is assigned, as in our text, to the angels : 
also in the Life of Adam and Eve, 22 
(Kautzsch, Apoc. und Pseud, ii. 515) 
it is stated that God sent Michael with 
certain seeds to Adam, and with orders 
to instruct him in husbandry. 

Is suitable. So Earth and Littmann 
take zajastar'i as representing '^xn in 

the Hebrew. See on ii. 29. But the 
ordinary sense of the word, "is revealed," 
may be right here. See preceding note. 

16. Naked . . . and 2vas tiot ashamed. 
Gen. ii. 25. 

Protected the garden frcnn the birds, 
etc. The Greek is found in Glycas (p. 
206, ed. Bekker) : 6 'A8a/j, d-weab^ei rd 
ir€T€ Kal epirerd, (rvvTJye rhv Kapirbv 
if TrapaSeiccii Kal ffi/v rrj yvvaiKi avrov 
'/jadLeif avrSv. 

[And put aside . . . kept]. Bracketed 
as a dittography. Here "which was 
being kept " = t6 (pyXaacrd/xevov = 
rinpiran, a corrupt dittography of niNDin 
= rb KaraXeKpdiv, "the residue" (or 
"iDC':n of nxsyjn). 


kept]. 17. And after the completion of the seven years, 
which he had completed there, seven years exactly, and in 
8 A.M. the second month, on the seventeenth day (of the month), 
the serpent came and approached the woman, and the serpent 
said to the woman, " Hath God commanded you, saying. Ye 
shall not eat of every tree of the garden?" 18. And she 
said to it, " Of all the fruit of the trees of the garden God 
hath said unto us, Eat ; but of the fruit of the tree which is 
in the midst of the garden God hath said unto us. Ye shall 
not eat thereof, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die." 
1 9. And the serpent said unto the woman, " Ye shall not 
surely die : for God doth know that on the day ye shall eat 
thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as gods, 
and ye will know good and evil." 20. And the woman saw 
the tree that it was agreeable and pleasant to the eye, and 
that its fruit was good for food, and she took thereof and 
eat, 21. And when she had first covered her shame with 
fig-leaves, she gave thereof to Adam and he eat, and his eyes 
were opened, and he saw that he was naked. 22. And he 
took fig-leaves and sewed (them) together, and made an apron 
for himself, and covered his shame. 23. And God cursed 
the serpent, and was wroth with it for ever. . . .24. And He 
was wroth with the woman, because she hearkened to the 

17-22. Gen. iii. 1-7. therefore, most probably contained 

19. See on ver. 32. Cf. Syncellus some statement relative to the cutting 

i. 13 : 'Ek twv XeirrQi' Fei'^crews : tcJj oflF of the serpent's feet. Such a state- 

e^56jw<fj ^Tfi napi^y) Kal t<2 6756(f> i^ep- ment would follow naturally on Gen. 

pl4>7}aav rod wapaoeiaov, ws (pyjcri, /Mera iii. 14 "upon thy belly thou shalt go." 

TecrcrapcLKovTa vivre rj/j-epas ttjs irapa- Indeed in the Targ., Ps. -Jon., Gen. iii. 

/Sdo-ews, ... 14 we find this very statement "I'^jni 

23. Cf. Gen. iii. 14. At the close jisspns "and thy feet will be cut off." 

of this verse I have marked a lacuna in According to the Midrash Koheleth 

the text; for Glycas (p. 206) affirms " the ministering angels came down and 

that according to Jubilees the serpent and cut off its hands and feet." Finally 

had originally four feet : 6 6(piv awb Josephus {Ant. i. 1. 4) writes that the 

KTT)vovs ipirerbv iyivero, xe'paj Te /cat serpent was deprived both of language 

TPoSas iK^KTijTO. d<pripe07] d^ ravra Sia and feet, dcpeiXero de Kal t6v 6<piv Tr)v 

TO ToXfirjpQs els rbv Trapddeiaov eldekdeiv. (poovrjv . . . irodCov re avrbv diro- 

Syncellus (i. 14) states that the serpent ffTep-rjcras avpeedai Kara ttjs yrjs tKvairdl)- 

had originally four feet. The text, fxevov iiroirjcre. 


CHAPTER III. 17-29 27 

voice of the serpent, and did eat ; and He said unto her : " I 
shall greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy pains : in sorrow 
thou shalt bring forth children, and thy return shall be unto 
thy husband, and he will rule over thee." 25, And to Adam 
also He said, " Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice 
of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I com- 
manded thee that thou shouldst not eat thereof, cursed 
be the ground for thy sake : thorns and thistles shall it 
bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat thy bread in the 
sweat of thy face, till thou returnest to the earth from 
whence thou wast taken ; for earth thou art, and unto earth 
shalt thou return." 26. And He made for them coats of 
skin, and clothed them, and sent them forth from the 
Garden of Eden. 27. And on that day on which Adam 
went forth from the Garden, he offered as a sweet savour 
an offering, frankincense, galbanum, and stacte, and spices 
in the morning with the rising of the sun from the day 
when he covered his shame. 28. And on that day was 
closed the mouth of aU beasts, and of cattle, and of birds, 
and of whatever walks, and of whatever moves, so that they 
could no longer speak : for they had all spoken one with 
another with one lip and with one tongue. 29, And He 

24. 1 shall greatly midtiply thy sorr 010 27- Here the writer antedates the 

and thy pains, etc. Gen. iii. 16. incense-oflfering mentioned in Exod. 

TJiy pains. So also LXX, but Mass., xxx. 34. According to Aboda zara 8 a 

Sam., Syr., and Vulg. =:"thy concep- Adam oflFered an ox whose horns were 

tion " ("i^nn). of earlier growth than its hoof (Beer, 

Thy return- 7] dvoffrpocp-n aov. So Such der Jub. ji. AO). 
also LXX and Syr. = ^nawn instead of ^^"^ ^^^« ^«2/ ^'^e?! he covered his 

Mass. and Sam. inpicn^" they desire." sMme. Exod. xx. 26, xxviii. 42, 

25-26 Gen iii 17 19 ''1 24 where the priests are bidden to cover 

25." Of the tree = ctTro roD^OXov. The ^l^"^" nakedness with breeches when at 

text is " of that tree," but the demon- *^« "-^^^^ "^^^ ^^I« ^^J '"^ *^!f ^^^'^, ?^ 

strative is a rendering of the Greek ^^'^ ^"*«^' ^^ ^^'^^ ("-?'• ''^- P" ^^^ 

art. as frequently. «"|f ^t^- . ^ ^, ^, 

„, , , "V, ^ ,^,^ , , ,, 28. This was undoubtedly a current 

Thy bread. So LXX but Mass., y^^y^^f ^mong certain sections of the 

Sam., Syr., Vulg. omit "thy. j^^^^ rj,^^^ -^ ^^ stated without 

To the earth . . . for earth . . . question in Joseph. Ant. 1. 1. 4 oyuo- 

unto earth. As LXX uses yrj to render (puvoivruv Sk /car' iKuvo Kaipov rCiv 

the two Hebrew words hd-in and nay, so ^i^iwv dwavTwv. It appears also in the 

did the Greek version of Jubilees. Book of Adam and Eve i. 18 and in 



sent out of the Garden of Eden all flesh that was in the 
Garden of Eden, and all flesh was scattered according to 
its kinds, and according to its types unto the places which 

had been created for them. 


And to Adam alone did 

some form is implied in Philo, Quaest. 
in Gen. i. 32 (Armen.). Both our 
text aud Josephus .are quoted as teach- 
ing this view in Syncelliis, i. 14, to. 
Orjpia Kal to, rerpairoda Koi to, epirera 
<pri<jlv 6 'laicrr^TTTTOs Kai r) Keinr) Yiveais 
6fi6(pu)i'a elvai wpb rrji Trapajidaeojs roh 
TT/JwroTrXdcTTots. This statement is re- 
peated in Cedrenus, i.pp. 9-10 ; Zonaras, 
i. p. 23. It seems implied in the text 
that the common original language of 
men aud animals was Hebrew. That 
Hebrew was the primitive language 
of man, at any rate, was universally 
believed among the Jews. Thus accord- 
ing to the Jerusalem Targum on Gen. xi. 
1 all men originally spoke Heb'-ew, which 
was the language by means of which 
the world was created : iin nvi'^p jC'^Sa 
nd'pj; n'3 N;'i3riN'n pS^pn. (Cf. also Ber. 
rabba 18, 31.) In'xii. 25, 26 of our 
text it is called "the tongue of the 
creation," which "had ceased from the 
mouths of all the children of men from 
the day of the overthrow (of Babel)" till 
the days of Abraham. In Cedrenus, 
i. 22, however, the legend is differently 
preserved. Because Eber refused to 
join in building Babel he di<l not lose 
his original language — the language that 
Adam spoke — like the rest of his con- 
temporaries — Trjs rQiv S.\\ij)v (pojvrjs 
ffvyxeGela-ris i} tov "E/3ep ovk dirtiXeTO. 
avTT) de icTTiv fi Kai 'ASctyU. eXdXei. 
Hence his descendants called themselves 
Hebrews and their language Hebrew, 
and the names of the patriarchs are a 
proof that Hebrew was the pre-Rabel 
language — Kai ravTTjv ol tovtov 5ta- 
de^dixevoi dwliyovoi ttcltpwvvixikGis eai/- 
TOi'S 'E/3paioi/s Trpoarj-ydpevaav Kai 
'E^pa'iSa TTjv <j)wv7)v iKoXeaav. t€k- 
firjpLov oi TavT-qv elvai tt)v irph Trjs 
avyx^fyft^^ <puPT]v TO, tQv TraXattDc 6v6- 
fiara. This view is likewise Jewish : 
it is found in the Chronicles of Jerah- 
meel, xxxviii. 11. But while some 
Syriac writers such as John bar Madani 
and Jacob of Serugh admitted this 
claim, others like Theodoret, Qvaest. in 

Gen. Ix.-lxi., St. Ephraem, and Bar- 
hebraeus (see Assemaui, Bibl. Or. iii. 313, 
314) were just as coulident of the 
absolute priority of their own language, 
while Solomon Baisorensis reconciled 
both views by declaring that originally 
Syriac and Hebrew were one and the 

In Die Schatzhohle (transl. byBezold)> 
p. 29, the priority of Syriac is polemically 
maintained : " Von Adam bis damals 
redeten sic alle in dieser Sprache, niim- 
lich in der syrischen Sprache . . . 
denn diese Sprache ist die Konigin 
aller Sprachen. Die friiheren Schrift- 
steller aber irreu, indem sie sagen, das 
Hebriiische sei die erste gewesen." 

Other writers again asserted that 
Greek was the primitive speech of 
mankind. To this last view Eutychius 
(Nazam, al-j. pp. 53, 54, quoted by 
Malan, Book of A dam and Jive, pp. 245, 
6) assents in these words. " This 
approves itself to me. For the Greek 
language is wiser, clearer and broader 
than either the Hebrew or the Syriac." 
The same view must have been held by 
the writer who first derived the name 
Adam from the initial letters of the 
Greek names of the four quarters of the 
world-ctf otoXtj, 8vats, dpKTOs, /xecrij/x/Spio. 
See Slav. En. xxx. 13 (note) ; Or. 
Sibyll. iii. 24-26. As for later Jewish 
ideas on this subject we find, Sanh. 
38 b, that Adam spoke Aramaic, niK 
'm.x I'^fhl jiB'Nin, because Ps. cxxxix., 
which was supposed to be written by 
him, contained an Aramaic (?) word. 
In Shabb. 12^ on the other hand one 
is bidden not to pray in Aramaic, rxtf 
'31N ii::''?a p-ioD mtt-n 'dn'^c, because the 
angels of Service do not understand 
Aramaic (quoted in Levi's Neuhebr. u. 
chald. WOrterbuch, i. 168). According 
to Abarbanel, in his exposition of 
Zephaniah, fol. 276, col. 1 (see Eisen- 
menger, ii. 778), Hebrew was the 
langiiage spoken before the building 
of Babel and should ultimately be that 
of all Israelites. 



He give (the wherewithal) to cover his shame, of all the 
beasts and cattle. 31. On this account, it is prescribed on 
the heavenly tables as touching all those who know the 
judgment of the law, that they should cover their shame, 
and should not uncover themselves as the Gentiles uncover 
themselves. 32. And on the new moon of the fourth 8 a. m. 
month, Adam and his wife went forth from the Garden of 


Eden, and they dwelt in the land of 'Elda, in the land of 
their creation. 33. And Adam called the name of his wife 
Eve. 34. And they had no son till the first jubilee, and 
after this he knew her. 35. Now he tilled the land as he 
had been instructed in the Garden of Eden. 

31. This verse is of great importance 
from the historical standpoint. It 
constitutes an emphatic protest on the 
part of the writer against the adoption 
by his countrymen ("those who know 
the judgment of the law ") of the 
customs of the Greeks. The custom, 
which he here protests against, is the 
exposure of the person in the Greek 
palaestra, which was established under 
the very citadel of David (2 Mace. iv. 
12). Here many of the Jewish 
youths completely stripped themselves 
and joined in the public sports as 
Greek athletes. Even the priests of the 
Temple forsook their duties to join in 
these heathen games. On the institu- 
tion of these and other Greek customs 
see 1 Mace. i. 13, 14 ; 2 Mace. iv. 9-14 ; 
Jos. Ant. xii. .'5. 1. It is hardly 
possible to conceive the shock that such 
conduct must have given to the re- 
ligiously disposed amongst the nation, 
and especially to such a Pharisee of 
the Pharisees as our author. In order 
to emphasise his protest against it he 
did not turn to the laws in Exod. xx. 
26, XXX. 34, for these had only to do 
with the dress of the officiating priest, 
but to Gen. iii. 21 where he found 
ample justification for extending the 
law of covering one's shame to all men. 
This law, he asserts, was enacted im- 

mediately after the expulsion of Adam 
from Eden, i.e., immediately after the 
discovery of his nakedness. Subse- 
quently (vii. 20) he represents Noah as 
enjoining the observance of this ordi- 
nance on his children. 

32. On the neio moon of tJie fourth 
month (see note on vi. 23). Syncellus 
(i. p. 13) says that Adam spent forty- 
five days in the garden after his trans- 
gression. This agrees with our text ; 
for, according to iii. 17, Adam sinned on 
the 17th of the 2nd month and the 
expulsion followed on the 1st of the 
4th. A 

In the land of 'Eldd, in the land of 
their creation. Can '^Ida be a cor- 
ruption of mViD ? In that case " land 
of 'Elda" would mean "land of 
nativity." The phrase "land of their 
creation " is an interpretation of the 
words in Gen. iii. 23 "whence he was 
taken," which are rei:iroduced in 
Onkelos and Ps.-Jon. as " whence he 
was created" (nanx), as in our text. 

34. Thus Eve was a virgin till after 
the expulsion from Eden. Cf. Die Schatz- 
hohle (ed. Bezold, 1883), p. 7 : Als 
Adam und Heva aus dem Paradies 
herausgegangen . . . sie waren jung- 

35. Cf. iii. 15. 


Cain and Abel and other children of Adam, 1-12. Enos, 
Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, 13-15; Enoch and his 
history, 16-25. Four sacred places, 26. Methuselah, 
Lamech, Noah, 27, 28. Death of Adam and Cain, 
29-32. Shem, Ham, and Japhet, 33. (Cf. Gen. iv.-v.). 

4-70 A.M. IV. And in the third week in the second jubilee she 

1-77 A.M. gave birth to Cain, and in the fourth she gave birth to 

8-84 A.M. Abel, and in the fifth she gave birth to her daughter 'A wan. 

•9-105 A.M. 2. And in the first (year) of the third jubilee, Cain slew 

Abel because (God) accepted the sacrifice of Abel, and did 

not accept the offering of Cain. 3. And he slew him in 

the field : and his blood cried from the ground to heaven, 

complaining because he had slain him. 4. And the Lord 

reproved Cain because of Abel, because he had slain him. 

IV. 1. 'Atodri. A second daughter 
named'Azftra(iv. 8)wasborulater. Cain 
married the elder 'Awan, i.e. ]1^e, "wicked- 
ness," and Seth the younger, 'Azflra. 
The derivation of the latter is doubt- 
ful. Frankel {Monatsschri/t f. Gesch. 
des JudeiU/iuyns, 1856, 311-316) thinks 
that it is from misy=" chaste" (?). 
Probably it is from mux, "well 

guarded" (cf. Syriac Fragment |jO||). 
No two of later writers agree as to the 
forms of these names. According to 
the Syriac Fragment they were Aswa 
and Azura : in Epiphanius, Zavr) and 
'Afoiipd : in Syncellus, 'Acravvav 
('Affavvd, 'Aaavpav, 'Acravpd, 'Affovd/J.) 
and 'Afoi'pd. lu Glycas and Joel 
'A^ovpd {'A^ovpav) is made the elder 
and 'Acxovd/JL the younger. Quite 
different names are given in the Pseudo- 
Methodius, i.e., KaXrjfxipa and Ae^opa. 
Again the elder appears as Qalmana 
in the Chronicles of Jerahmeel and 
Pseudo- Methodius (Lat. vers.), as Luva 
in the Book of Adam and Eve, as Azruu 
in Eutychius, while the younger is Lebuda 
in BarheVraeus, Aklejam in the Book 
of Adam and Eve, and Owain or 
Laphura in Eutychius. (See Ronsch, 

pp. 373-374, Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. 
V.T. i. 109 sqq.) 

According to Sjiicellus (i. 14) 
Cain was born in the year 70 a.m., 
Abel in 77, and Asouam {i.e. 'Awan) 
in 85. Though the dates are left 
indefinite in our text they are no 
doubt derived from it. Thus Cain 
married Awan in the year 135 accord- 
ing to Syncellus, between^ 134-140 
according to our text. 'Awan was 
then fifty years old (Syncellus). 

2-3. Cf. Gen. iv. 4, 5, 8, 10. 

2. The soxrijice of Abel. So a. bed 
read "the sacrifice at his hand." 

Offering, a c, but b d omit. 
Of Cain. So a. 6 c d " at the hand 
of Cain." 

3. Complaining or "making suit." 
Cf. Gen. iv. 10 ; Eth. Enoch xxii. 5, 6. 
According to Syncellus (i. 14) Abel 
was twenty -two years old when he 
offered his sacrifice on the new moon 
of the seventh month. Thus the words 
"in the first of the third jubilee" are 
to be taken as the first year of the 
jubilee = 99 a.m. For the later tradi- 
tions as to the instrument with which 
Cain slew Abel, see Fabricius, Cod. 
Pseud. V.T. i. 113. 

CHAPTER IV. 1-9 31 

and he made him a fugitive on the earth because of the 

blood of his brother, and he cursed him upon the earth. 

5. And on this account it is written on the heavenly tables, 

" Cursed is he who smites his neighbour treacherously, and let 

all who have seen and heard say, So be it ; and the man who 

has seen and not declared (it), let him be accursed as the 

other." 6. And for this reason we announce when we come 

before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in 

heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and 

everywhere. 7. And Adam and his wife mourned for Abel 

four weeks of years, and in the fourth year of the fifth week (99-127) 

they became joyful, and Adam knew his wife again, and she 

bare him a son, and he called his name Seth ; for he said 

" God has raised up a second seed unto us on the earth 

instead of Abel ; for Cain slew him." 8. And in the sixth 

week he begat his daughter 'Azura. 9. And Cain took 134-140 a.m 

'Awan his sister to be his wife and she bare him Enoch at 

the close of the fourth jubilee. And in the first year of the 190-196 a.m 

first week of the fifth jubilee, houses were built on the earth, 197 a.m. 

and Cain built a city, and called its name after the name of 

4. Cf. Gen. iv. 11, 12. A fugitive. Became joyful. The sense may be 

Text nuha is a corrupt transliteration of the same as in Gen. xviii. 12, "After I 

yj. Gen. iv. 12. am waxed old, shall I have pleasure ? " 

^ 5. Cf. Deut. xxvii. 24. ^^^ called. So Sam. Nnp'i, but Mass., 

Treacherously = 86\(fi, the LXX LXX, Syr., Onk., of Gen. iv. 25 read 

rendering of inon in Deut. xxvii. 24. "she called." In Jubilees it is gener- 

The phrase ba'ekiij bears the same ally the father that names the child ; 

meaning in xxix. 7, xxx. 3. In viii. whereas in J of Genesis it is the mother, 

9it= "secretly." except in iv. 26, v. 29, xxv. 25, 26; 

6. Sin . . . committed in heaven. Exod. ii. 22. 

On this old Semitic idea of the possi- For he said. So LXX and Vulg. 

bility of sin in heaven, see my Slavonic ^^t wanting in Mass. and Sam. 

Enoch pp. xxxiv. sqq. 8. 'Azdrd. See note on i v. 1. 'Aziira 

7. Mourned for Abel four weeks of was born in the sixth week of the third 
years. As Abel was born in 77, and jubilee (134-140) or of the fourth 
was twenty-two years old according to (183-189). 

Syncellus and our text (see verse 3, 9. Bare Mm Enoch, etc. Cf. Gen. 

note) when killed by Cain, the twenty- iv. 17. Syncellus (i. 16) ascribes to 

eight years of mourning extend from tbis Enoch the invention of the plough. 

99 to 127. The Greek is found in Cain built a city, and called its name 

Syncellus (i. 15) : in^vdy)aav avrbv oi ... Enoch. Cain therefore ceased to 

npoiTdirXaaToi e^5ofj.aSiKods riffo-apas, be a wanderer. The Book of Jashar, 

iiyovv ^TT] elKOffi oKTtl}. 96, plays on the name Enoch and gives 


his son Enoch. 10. And Adam knew Eve his wife and 

she bare yet nine sons. 11. And in the fifth week of the 

25-231 A.M. fifth jubilee Seth took 'AzCira his sister to be his wife, and in 

235 A.M. the fourth (year of the sixth week) she bare him Enos. 

12. He began to call on the name of the Lord on the earth. 

39-315 A.M. 13. And in the seventh jubilee in the third week Enos 

it the sense of rest in this connection. 

" i"? n:n o ua era -lan Tyn cu- dk Nip'i 

10. Yet nine sons. Reproduced in 
Epiphanius,i7«cr. xxxix. 6 (vol. Li. 528: 
ed. Oeliler) : Teydvacri 8i t<^ 'ASA/i Kal 
dXXot wot, ws i] XeTTTT} riveffis 7repi^X"i 
ivvia jxera. tov% rpeis to^tovs ' ws elvai 
aCrr(^ Ouo /> dvyaTipas, dppefas 5^ 
dtKaSvo. The Book of Jashar speaks 
of three sons and three dau,a;hters of 
Adam. Syncellus (i. 18) a.ssigns to 
him thirty-three sons and twenty-seven 
daughters. Ps.-Philo, Ant. bibl. Lib. 
p. 41, gives the names of these sons : 
Acliseel, Suris, Aelamiel, Brabal, Naalt, 
Harama, Za-sam, Maathal, Anath. 

11. Cf. Gen. iv. 26. Fo^vrth [year 
of the sixth week). The lacuna here is 
supplied from Syncellus. According 
to Syncellus (i. 17) Seth marries in the 
year vKi ( = 425), and Enos was born in 
the year v\i ( = 435). Thus there was 
an interval of ten years between the 
marria?;e of Seth and the birth of Enos. 
It will be observed that there is a 
difference of 200 years between the 
dates assigned by Jubilees and those by 
Syncellus, and that in the following 
ten dates relating to the same events 
respectively both books agree in the tens 
and units but differ in the hundreds. 



to Jubilees. 

to Syncellus. 

Seth born 



Azflra born . 



Seth marries 




Enos born 



Cainan bom . 



Cain marries 

Mualelet . 



Mahalalel bom 



Jared born . 



Enoch born . 


. 1122 

This addition of centuries to the 
dates in Jubilees rising progressively 

from one to six Syncellus carried out in 
the service of his chronological system 
(see Ronsch, 285 sq. ). 

12. He begem. So LXX and Vulg. 
implying hnn nj. 

Began to call, etc. The two great 
versions, the LXX and Syr., agree rightly 
with Jubilees in giving this sense to 
Gen. iv. 26. It was also so understood 
by Josephus, Ant. i. 3. 1, but when we 
come down to Jerome's time, most 
Jewish scholars held that the verse re- 
counted the rise of idolatry {Quaest. in 
Gen. iv. 26 : Tunc initium fuit invo- 
candi nomen Domini, licet plerique 
Hebraeorum aliud arbitrentur, quod 
tunc primum in nomine Domini et in 
similitudine ejus fabricata sint iilola). 
This latter interpretation may have 
arisen as early as the first cent. a.d. ; 
for it is found in Onkelos (" the children 
of men ceased praying" — nN'r^Vn- • . I'^n). 
By Ps. -Jon. the commencement of 
idolatry is derived from Gen. iv. 26 by 
taking hu'n as = profanari. Ber. rabba 
23 recounts that men were exposed to 
demons in the days of Enos, and that 
then for the first time they made for 
themselves idols. Shabbath 1186 speaks 
of man committing idolatry like Enos. 
The same idea recurs in the Book of 
Jashar and a closely related one in 
the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, xxiv. 9, 
xxvi. 20. Yet even in this book traces 
of the older view survive ; for astiology, 
divination and idolatry are assigned to 
Serug's days, though Serug and his 
sons are said to have had no part in things (xxvii. 9). Indeed, in the 
Book of Jashar (Migne, Diet, dcs A^wcr. 
ii. 1090), it is said that Seth called his 
son Enos because " men began to cor- 
rupt themselves and forsake God for 

13-15. Enos, Kenan, Mahalalel, 

13," 14. Cf. Gen. v. 9, 12. 

CHAPTER IV. 10-15 


took Noam his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son 

in the third year of the fifth week, and he called his name 325 a.m. 

Kenan. 1 4. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Kenan 386-392 a.m. 

took Mualeleth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a 

son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year 395 a.m. 

of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel. 15. And 449-455 a.m. 

in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto 

him to wife Dinah, the daughter of Baraki el the daughter of 

his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third 

week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared ; for 461 a.m. 

in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, 

13. N66,m. Cf. Ps.-Philo, Ant. Uhl. 
Lib. p. 41, Noaba. 

Kenan. Eth. Kainan. 

14. MvLaleleth (so also Sjt.) is a 
feminine form of Malalel ( = ^x'j'jnc) = 
"she "who praises God." 

Mahalalel. Eth. Malalel. 

15. Cf. Gen. v. 15. Baraki'el ( = 

Took unto him to wife . . . the 
daughter of his father's brother. It 
will be observed that from the descent 
of the angels onwards men cease to 
marry their sisters. Epiphanius {Haer. 
xxxix. 7) remarks : irXaTvvd^vrwv di 
rC)v dvdpihiruv . . . Xolttov ovksti rds 
avrwv d,8€'K(pas vpbs ydfj-ov rjyovTo, 
dXXd eis evvo/xlav KarecrTT] Kal irpb tov 
Sia Mwiicre'ws iyypd(pov vbfiov 6 Kara 
rbv (xefivbv ydfioy 6ea/, Kal eK tQv 
iraTpadeXcpwv avrCiv rdy yafierds eavTuv 
■ijyovTo. The last clause appears, as 
Eonsch (p. 254) has already remarked, 
to be taken from Jubilees. This book 
is cited by Epiphanius in the preced- 
ing chapter under its twofold name of 
'Iw^r]\aia and AeTTToy^vecris. 

Father's brother. MSS read 'ehta 
'abuhfi = " father's sister" ; but I have 
emended this into 'ehwa 'abflhu, since 
we find the latter in the Syriac Frag- 
ment and in the Greek MS r on Gen. 
V. 15 {irarpad^Xcpov avroO) and Epi- 
phanius, Haer. xxxix. 7 : els evvofxlav 
Kcriarr] /cat irpb rod 8id MwiitT^ws e7- 
ypd(pov vbfiov b Kara rbv aefjLvbv ydfiov 
decfibs, Kal €k tQjv ira.TpaM\(pwv avrQv 
tAj yap-erds eavrQv ijyovro. In similar 
cases in the sequel the same emenda- 

tion is made on the authority of the 
Syriac and Greek, save in viii. 6 and 
xi. 7 where the Ethiopia preserves the 
true text. 

Jared ; for in his days the angels of 
the Lord descended. We have here a 
play on Jared's name in the original, 

m' □'n'?X '3n'7D V03 '3 . . . -IT. 

The angels of the Lord, descended on 
the earth. The later Jewish form of 
the myth relating to the fall of the 
angels and their intercourse with the 
daughters of men is constructed on 
Gen. vi. 1-4 and Is. xxiv. 21. The 
true interpretation of Gen. vi. 1-4 is 
undoubtedly that given in our text, 
the Enoch literature, Testaments of 
the XII. Patriarchs, Philo, Jude, Peter, 
Josephus, Justin Martyr, and most of 
the early Christian ^Titers (see my Eth. 
Enoch vi. 2, note). But probably at 
the close of the first cent. a. d., or 
earlier, Jewish scholars protested against 
this interjiretation. Thus (Ber. rabba 
26) R. ben Jochai (early in second cent.) 
cursed any one who translated Gen. 
vi. 2 by the phrase "sons of God," and 
not "sons of the judges." Similarly, 
the Jew Trypho condemns this inter- 
pretation, Justin, Died. c. Tryph. 79. 
In the Samaritan Version (n'JcW '33), 
and the Targum of Onkelos (N"n3T ':a), 
and Symmachus {viol tQ>v SwaaTevbv- 
Tiiiv) we have it rendered as =" sons of 
themighty." In the Book of Jashar (Z)ic<. 
des Apocr. ii. 1097) the sons of God were 
"judges and magistrates." In the Ps.- 
Jon. on Gen. vi. 2 we have both inter- 
pretations side by side, and also in the 



those who are named the Watchers, that they should 
instruct the children of men, and that they should do 

Chronicles of Jerahmeel, xxiv. 11-xxv. 8. 
Ps.-Pbilo, Ant. bibl. Lib. p. 42, gives 
simply the biblical words. Similarly, on 
theChristian side the traditional interpre- 
tation came in due time to be denounced, 
and " the sons of God " were taken to 
be the good amongst mankind, the 
descendants of Seth, and the daughters 
of men to be the descendants of Cain. 
So Julius Africanus : ol awh tov 'S,r]0 
diKaioL (see below). Next, while Hilary 
(ob. 368), Comment, in Ps. cxxxii., con- 
tents himself with discrediting the old 
myth, Chrysostom, IJoniU. in Gen. 
vi. 1, says that it is necessary to ex- 
amine this passage carefully in order to 
subvert the fal)les of thoughtless praters 
— dvayKaiov to^tov tov x^P^'^^' toXXtji' 
TTjv ipevvav iroLriaaaOaL /cat avaarpiypai 
rds /iivdoKoylas tQ>v aTreptCK^Trrajs iravra. 
(pdeyyoixivuv. These fables rest on 
a false exegesis ; for, as he proceeds 
to show, the sons of God were the 
posterity of Seth and Enos — oZ awb tov 
"Zrid Kal TOV 'Evws. Jerome, Comment. 
in Ps. cxxxii., and Augustine, De Civ. 
Dei, XV. 23. 4, pour discredit and 
contempt on the old myth. Now con- 
currently with the increasing accepta,nce 
of the new interpretation, there neces- 
sarily set in the growing importance of 
Seth, the ancestor of the righteous 
generations described in Gen. vi. 1-4 as 
"the sons of God." In this process 
of glorification the superhuman achieve- 
ments and characteristics originally con- 
nected with other names were gradually 
transferred to Seth, and this notably in 
the case of Enoch. Thus in consequence 
of this new exegesis the star of Enoch 
paled before that of Seth. In dealing 
with such literature this is an important 
fact, since we are thus frequently justi- 
fied in applying to Enoch the statements 
of later Christian writers regarding Seth. 
We shall now show how subordinate 
the figure of Enoch becomes in later 
writers, while the glorification of Seth 
proceeds apace. First of all in Africanus, 
who lived about the beginning of the 
third cent., we have, so far as I am 
aware, the first occurrence amongst 
Christians of the new exegesis of Gen. 
vi. 1-4. He adds, it is true, the old 
view, but he does not approve of it. 

His exposition is given in Syncellus 
(i. 34 sq.) : irXridovs dvdpdjTruv yevo- 
fx^vou iirl TTJs yvs dyyekoi tov ovpavov 
dvyaTpdcTLv dvdpihiruiv (jvvTfKdov. iv 
ivLOis dvTiypdcpoi^ evpov, ol viol tov Oeov. 
fivdeveraL 5i, ws ol/uiat, d7r6 tov '2.7)6, 
xnrb TOV Trvev/xaTos ol viol Oeov irpoa- 
ayopevovTai, did tovs dir avTov "yevea- 
\oyovixivovs oikclLovs re Kal iraTpidpxo.s 
dxpl Tou 'ZuTTjpos. Tovs 5' dwb KdiV 
dvdpwTTUu dwoKoXei ffiropdv, ws ovoi ti 
delov eaxVK^Tas did trovqpLav yivovs 
. . . el 5^ irr' d77Awv fooiro fx^"* 
TOVTOVi, tCjv TTfpl fiuyelas Kal yorjTeLas 
. . . Tais yvpai^l ttjv yvuiaiv irapade- 
SuKivai, d<p' Ciu itroirjcravTO waldai 
Toiis yiyavTas. (Cf. also i. 16 sq.) 
When we pass fVom this writer to 
the sixth cent. Book of Adam and 
Eve, we find that the new interpre- 
tation has ousted the old from the 
field. Thus the Watchers are through- 
out described as the sous of Seth, and 
in Book III. chap. iv. the question is 
discussed at length : the wise men who 
said that angels had come down from 
heaven and mingled with the (laughters 
of men had erred : such actions, more- 
over, were impossible for spiritual 
beings. These "angels of God "were 
the children of Seth who were thus 
designated so long as they preserved 
their virginity, their innocence and 
their glory. But they transgressed and 
mingled with the daughters of Cain. 
It is observable that whereas Seth is an 
extraordinary and superhuman person- 
age in this work, there is nothing not- 
able said of Enoch save that " he wrote 
a celebrated book" and that "many 
wonders happened to him . . . but 
those wonders may not be told in this 
place." For the same view as to the 
Watchers, see Die Schatzhohle, pp. 8-10. 
Our next illustration consists of an 
anonymous extract prefixed to the works 
of Malala (circa 600), quoted by Fabii- 
cius, i. 151 : 6 o^'Addp. a\' iTwv ^v Sre 
(.y€vv7](Te Tbv "Z-qO' ovtos 6 ^7]d irpwroi 
e^evpev ypdfifiaTa 'E/3/)aiKd Kal (jO(pLav 
Kal rd (XT^fxela tov ovpavov Kal rds 
Tpoirds tCjv ii/iavTuiv Kal tovs pLTJvas Kol 
rds e^oofxdoas Kal toIs dcTTpois eiri- 
6r]Kev ovoiiaTa Kal Toti Trevre TrXavTjrots 
et's t6 yvuipL^eudai vwo tGjv dvdpuiruv 

CHAPTER IV. 15, 16 


judgment and uprightness on the earth. 16. And in the 
eleventh jubilee Jared took to himself a wife, and her name 512-518 a.m. 

/cat fiopov, Kdl TOP fxkv a' TrXavriTrjv 
d(TT€pa eKoKece 'Kpbvov, rbv 5e j3' 
Ata, Tov 0^ y "Apea, rbv d^ S' 
'Atppodirriv, rbv 8^ e' '^pfj.fjv. roiis yap 
Svo (puxrTTJpas i^Xiov /cat cre\riprjv 6 6ebs 
e/fdXeo-e. These words form on the 
whole a reasonable description of the 
achievements assigned to Enoch in the 
two hooks of Enoch, in Jubilees, and 
the early Christian writers. They are 
found verbatim in the Chronography of 
Joel, p. 3 (ed. Bekker, 1836). Next, 
in the Annals of Eutychius, Patriarch 
of Alexandria (933-939 a.d.), written 
in Arabic and translated by Poeocke 
(Migne, tom. Ill col. 913), a vigorous 
protest is made against the old myth : 
qui autem errant neque sciunt qiiid 
dicant aiunt angelos descendisse ad 
filias hominum, cum intelligendi sint 
filii Sethi qui a monte sancto ad iilias 
Caini maledicti descenderunt : Sethiadae 
enim ob sanctitatem suam et quod mon- 
tem sanctum incolerent, appelati sunt 
Bani Elohim, i.e., filii Dei. Similar 
statements are made in the Chronikon 
Pcischale, 1. pp. 38, 39 (ed. Dindorf, 
1832). In Syncellus {circa 800 a.d.), 
i. 17, 19 the now prevailing inter- 
pretation of Gen. vi. 1-4 is repeated. 
The descendants of Seth were pious and 
beautiful, and they lived in the heights 
over against Paradise according to 
the command of Adam, but were later 
seduced through love of the daughters 
of men (p. 17). Thereupon Syncellus 
cites Gen. vi. 1. Again, on p. 19 he 
writes that two hundi-ed Watchers of the 
posterity of Seth were seduced and 
descended and took them wives, etc. — 
oZ 5^ e/c yepovs avroO (2?j^) diaKoo'LOi, 
iyp-fjyopoi . . . TrXaprjOevres KarijSriaap, 
Kal fka^op iavTols yvpoiKa^, k.t.\. These 
statements, first made in Eth. En. vi. 
4-6, regarding the iivo himdred angels 
are here transferred to Seth, though 
Syncellus was perfectly aware of their 
original bearing ; for in the next para- 
graph he actually cites this chapter of 
the Eth. En. Again, on pp. 16-17 Seth, 
just as formerly Enoch, is said to have 
been carried oflf by the angels and to 
have received a revelation regarding the 
future fall of the Watchers and the 
Deluge — 6 2-Jjd dp7ro7ets vwb dyyeXup 

ifjLvridr] TO. Trept rrjs irapa^dffeoos fie\- 
\oPTa eaecrdai tQp iypTjyopujp kuI rot 
Trept KaTaKXvfffxov tov vdaros eaofxipov 
. . . /cat y€p6fj,evos &<paPTos rjfi^pas fj.' 
eXdibv e^7)yri(TaTo rots irpwroTrXdcrTOLS 
oaa iixvqdy] 5i dyyiXup. This is an 
exact account of what was originally 
attributed to Enoch. In the Synopsis 
of Cedrenus (eleventh cent.) we meet 
with the same phenomena, but carried 
one stage further ; for, whereas Syn- 
cellus first gave his own version of 
the intercourse of the sons of God 
and the daughters of men, and then 
with remarkable candour the original 
account from the Book of Enoch, 
in Cedrenus, on the other hand, the two 
accounts given by Syncellus are worked 
up into one, and every incident told of 
the fallen angels is circumstantially 
recounted of the posterity of Seth (i. 
16-20). In Zonaras (twelfth cent.), i. 
26 (ed. Pinder 1841), the current view 
is given and the older mentioned only to 
be rejected. When we pass from this 
author we come to the semi-apotheosis 
of Seth in the writings of Glycas 
who lived some thirty or forty years 
later. Thus in the Annals of Glycas 
(ed. Bekker, 1836), p. 233, Seth is 
almost regarded as a divine being :— ot 
wot Tou dead, rovriaTLP ol dirb rod ^r;d 
KCLTayofxevoi — eKfiPOP yap did Trjp dpeTrjP 
auTov deop ^Xeyov : and likewise on 
p. 228, ^Tjd . . . debs elpai 5td ttjv 
dpeT7]v aiiTov pofJ.i^6fj.epos. This idea, 
indeed, had already appeared in 
Cedrenus, i. 16, cbpofidadrj de 6ebs did 
rrjp Xdfiipip TOV irpoffuwov avTOv, rjv 
^ffX^v iv oXrj avroO t-q ftoij. Thus Seth 
has at last become incomparably the 
chief personage among the early Patri- 
archs. In Glycas, p. 228, however, the 
persistency of the original Enoch myth 
is shown in the words : XeyeraL 5e 5ti 
6 ep ToXs dcTTpuffi TeTayfiipos dyyeXo?, 
6 0fWTaTos 5riXa5ri Ovpi.rjX, nrpos ye Tbv 
"Zrid Kal TOP '"EipCox KaTiwv eSioa^ev 
aiiTovs (bpuip /xTjvQp TpoirQp Kal epiavruv 
oiacpopds. Just as these Christian 
writers transfeired Enoch's functions 
to Seth, so Jewish ^\Titers after the 
Christian era, though on different 
grounds, trausfeiTed them variously to 
Moses, Ezra, Elijah, etc. See my 



was Baraka, the daughter of Easujal, a daughter of his 

father's brother, in the fourth week of this jubilee, and she 

22 A.M. bare him a son in the fifth week, in the fourth year of the 

jubilee, and he called his name Enoch. 17. And he was 

Apocalypse of Baricch, xiii. 3 note, lix. 
6-11 uotes. 

Watchers. The on^j; of Dau. iv. 13, 
17, 23, iu Greek iyprjyopoL. See Eth. 
En. i. 5 (note), xx. 1, etc. ; Slav. En. 
vii. (uotes), xviii. (notes) ; Test. Reub. 
V. Thus anciently the watchers were 
always regarded as an angelic class, 
but later, owing to a new interpretation 
of Gen. vi. 1-4, they were said to be the 
descendants of Seth. We have seen iu 
the immediately preceding note how this 
came about. 

Watchers instruct the children of men. 
In V. 6 it is said that God sent the angels 
to the earth. The object with which 
the angels here descended to the earth 
(see V. 6, \iii. 10 note) seams at first 
sight to clash with that which is seem- 
ingly implied in the Eth. Enoch and 
the Slavonic Enoch (see Eth. Enoch vi. 
notes). But it is quite possible that 
our text provides iis with the object 
originally assigned in the myth. In 
the Chronicles of Jerahmeel xxv. 2-3 
this view is preserved where Shemchazai 
and 'Azael are represented as receiving 
permission from God to descend on 
earth in order to sanctify the divine 
name among men. When these angels 
descended they could not resist the 
attractions of the daughters of men 
(xxv. 4). Such a view most probably 
underlies Eth. Enoch \i., Ixxxvi. 1. At 
all events the idea was a familiar one 
in the Judaism of the second cent. B.C. 
According to Ethiopic Enoch vi.-xxxvi. 
and Ixxii.-lxxxii. Enoch owed all his 
supernatui-al knowledge to the instruc- 
tion of angels, and according to x. 9-10 
of our text Raphael taught Noah the 
secrets of medicinal herbs, and an angel 
of the presence instructs Moses through- 
out our book. The way for such beliefs 
was prepared by the statements in 
Ezekiel, Zechariah and Daniel, bearing 
on such offices of the angels. For 
Talmudic ideas on this subject see 
Jewish EncyclojMedia, i. 592-593. 

16. Edsiydl (Gk. MS r acrovTjX cor- 
rupt for paa-ovriX), i.e. '?J<'1ST= "accept- 
able to God." 

Father's brother. Emended from 
"father's sister," as iu ver. 15. 

17-23. These verses relating to Enoch 
are of great importance as they help to 
determine the sections of the Ethiopic 
Enocli which were known to the author 
of our text. The words " the first . . . 
who learnt writing " may point to the 
phrase iu Eth. Enoch xii. 3, "Enoch 
the scribe"; xii. 4, xv. 1, "Scribe of 
righteousness," but there is no certainty. 
On the other hand the clause "who 
wrote down the signs of heaven accord- 
ing to the order of their months in a 
book that men might know the seasons 
of the years, etc. " may be accepted as a 
partial description of Eth. Enoch Ixxii.- 
lxxxii. To ver. 18 we shall return 
presently. As regards ver. 19 we can 
attain to practical certainty. The 
words ' ' what was and what will be, he 
saw in a vision of his sleep as it will 
happen to the children of men . . . 
until the day of judgment," form an 
exact description of the Dream-Visions 
in Eth. Enoch Ixxxiii.-xc, which give a 
history of the world from the creation 
till the final judgment. Moreover, the 
next verse is no doubt indebted to Eth. 
Enoch Ixxxv. 3 for the name of Enoch's 
wife. It will be observed also that 
the Dream-Visions referred to in ver. 
19 are rightly placed before Enoch's 
marriage recounted in ver. 20. It is 
twice emphatically stated in Eth. Enoch 
Ixxxiii. 2 aud Ixxxv. 3 that Enoch liai 
these Visions before his marriage. '\\'c 
need, therefore, entertain no doubt ns 
to our author having been acquainte>l 
with Eth. Enoch Ixxxiii. -xc. Now ou 
other critical grounds we know that 
Eth. Enoch vi.-xi. are earlier than 
Ixxxiii. -xc. Next, the first clause in 
ver. 21, "he was moreover with the 
angels of God these six jubilees of 
years," ofi'ers an explanation of Eth. 
Enoch xii. 1-2, "Before all these 
events Enoch was translated and no 
one of the children of men knew whither 
he was translated, and where he abode, 
and what had become of him. 2. And 
his activities had to do with the 

CHAPTER IV. 17, 18 


the first among men that are born on earth who learnt 
writing and knowledge and wisdom and who wrote down 
the signs of heaven according to the order of their months 
in a book, that men might know the seasons of the years 
according to the order of their separate months. 18. And 
he was the first to write a testimony, and he testified to the 
sons of men among the generations of the earth, and 

Watchers and his days were with the 
holy ones." Since in ver. 22 the clause 
" testified to the watchers " presupposes 
such statements as are in Eth. En. xii. 
3-6, xiii. 1-2, xiv. 4-7, xv. 2 sqq., we 
may conclude, therefore, that our 
author had also chapters xii. -xvi. of 
Eth. Enoch before him. To return to 
ver. 21 the clause "they showed him 
everything which is on earth " appears 
to refer to Enoch's journeys to the four 
quarters of the earth as well as to its 
centre under the guidance of various 
angels in Eth. Enoch xxiii.-xxxvi. The 
next words "(everything which is) . . . 
in the heavens " are less clear. They 
may point to Enoch's translation to 
heaven in Eth. Enoch xiv. or possibly 
to the celestial phenomena described in 
Ixxii.-lxxxii. Moreover, the next words, 
"and the rule of the sun," seem clearly 
to indicate such a passage as Ixxxii. 13- 
20. We have already seen that the 
first clause of ver. 22 manifestly im- 
plies such a background as Eth. Enoch 
xii.-xvi. Its second clause, "who had 
transgressed with the daughters of men," 
expresses the thought that recurs fre- 
quently in these chapters. As regards 
its third, "unite themselves, so as to be 
defiled with the daughters of men," the 
matter of it is found in xv. 3, 4, but 
the actual clause word for word is 
taken from Eth. En. x. 11. Finally 
ver. 23 points to some tradition like 
that at the base of Eth. En. Ixx., which 
in its present form is late. From the 
above, therefore, we conclude that our 
author refers only to chapters vi.-xvi., 
xxiii.-xxxvi., Ixxii-xc. of the Eth. 

17. First . . . ivho learnt writing 
. . and . . . torote down the signs 
of heaven, etc. Quoted in the '2,eip6. 
of Nicephorus, i. 123, on Gen. v. 2i : 
'Ej'wx TrptoTos ^/xade ypd/xfiara Kal 

^ypatpe to, a7]fj.€2a rod oiipavod Kal rots 
Tpoiras Kal rotjs /xiivas and in Cedrenus 
(i. 17) oCros TrptDros ypd/jL/xara /bLavdavei. 
In Eth. Enoch Ixix. 8, however, the 
first instruction of mankind in writing 
is ascribed to a Satan. On the other 
hand, just as we should expect (see 
note on p. 34), John Malala, p. 5 (ed. 
Dindorf), attributes Enoch's achieve- 
ments to Seth : oCros 6 ^rjd Trpwros 
e^evpe ypd/j-ixara "E/Spai'/cd . . . Kal tA 
arinela rod ovpavov Kal rds rpoTrds tuv 
iviavTuv Kal roijs fxrivas. Similarly 
Cedrenus (i. 16) : 6 '2,y)d . . . ttjv tQv 
ovpaviuv Kiv-qaewv aocpLav iirevbriae 
. . . Kal rd 'E|3pat'/cd ypd/Mfxara 
<Tvveypd\paTo, and Glycas (p. 228) 
transfers to the latter the achieve- 
ments assigned in the Setpd above to 
Enoch : Trpwros e^evpev 6 'Erjd . . . 
rd a-q/ne'ta rod ovpavov Kal rds 
rpoTrds tGiv eviavrQv Kal toM fxfivas, 
Cf. Joel, Chron. p. 3. 

Wrote doion. On Enoch the Scribe, 
see Eth. Enoch xii. 3, 4, and on the 
later developments of this legend con- 
sult the Slavonic Enoch xxiii. 1-3. 
The rest of the verse refers mainly to 
Eth. Enoch Ixxii.-lxxxii. 

Signs of heaven according to the order 
of their months. The twelve solar 
mouths correspond to the twelve signs 
of the Zodiac. 

18. There is nothing in the Eth. or 
Slav. Enoch about the " weeks of the 
jubilees" or "the sabbaths of the 
years." Our author is hei'e at his be- 
loved practice of antedating an event 
or usage he wishes to commend to his 
countrymen. We sliall find (vii. 37, 
38, xxi. 10 note) that he similarly 
ascribed legalistic elements to Enoch, 
though there is no ground for regard- 
ing the books of Enoch as having 
ever contained such matter. 


recounted the weeks of the jubilees, and made known to 
them the days of the years, and set in order the months 
and recounted the Sabbaths of the years as we made (them), 
known to him. 19. And what was and what will be he 
saw in a vision of his sleep, as it will happen to the children 
of men throughout their generations until the day of judg- 
ment ; he saw and understood everything, and wrote 
his testimony, and placed the testimony on earth for all 
the children of men and for their generations. 20. And 
82-588 A.M. in the twelfth jubilee, in the seventh week thereof, he took 
to himself a wife, and her name was Edni, the daughter of 
587 A.M. Danel, the daughter of his father's brother, and in the sixth 
year in this week she bare him a son and he called his 
name Methuselah. 21. And he was moreover with the 
angels of God these six jubilees of years, and they showed 
him everything which is on earth and in the heavens, the 
rule of the sun, and he wrote down evervthing. 22. And 

' I/O 

he testified to the Watchers, who had sinned with the 
daughters of men ; for these had begun to unite themselves, 
so as to be defiled, with the daughters of men, and Enoch 
testified against (them) all. 23. And he was taken from 
amongst the children of men, and we conducted him into 
the Garden of Eden in majesty and honour, and behold 

19. <Saw Ml o vision, etc. This verse Father's brother. Emeuded as in 
describes the contents of Eth. Enoch ver. 15. 

Ixxxiii.-xc, 21. Was with the angels. See note 

The day of judgment, i.e. the final above on 17-23. 

judgment. Cf. iv. 24, v. 10. These six jubilees of years. Sod. A 

He . . . placed the testimony on earth, slight change of vocalisation in b gives 

For references to the books of Enoch the same meaning. ac="six jubilees 

cf. Eth. En. i. 2, xxxvii. 2-4, Ixxii. 1, in years." This means 294 years. 

xcii. 1, xciii. 10, civ. 11-13, Test. XII. Everything . . . in the heavens. 

Patriarchs (see my Slavonic Enoch, jjp. These words may refer to a fuller 

xxiii, xxiv, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 20, 21, etc.). tradition than is found in the Eth. Enoch 

20. Cf. Gen. v. 21. Edni is men- — pei-haps to something which subse- 
tioned in Eth. En. Ixxxv. 3 where the queutly became the groundwork of the 
name is ^vTitten Edna, as Methuselah's Slav. Enoch, as is the case in regard to 
wife is named in iv. 27 of our text where the tradition in ver. 23. 

it has the independent support of the 23. Conducted him into the Ga^rden of 

Syriac and the Greek. Edna— njiy— Eden. Eth. En. Ixx. 1-3 ; Slav. Enoch 
"delight." Ixvii. 2. 

CHAPTER IV. 19-26 


there he writes down the condemnation and judgment of 
the world, and all the wickedness of the children of men. 
24. And on account of it (God) brought the waters of 
the flood upon all the land of Eden ; for there he was 
set as a sign and that he should testify against all the 
children of men, that he should recount all the deeds of the 
generations until the day of condemnation. 25. And he 
burnt the incense of the sanctuary, (even) sweet spices, 
acceptable before the Lord on the Mount. 26. For the 

There he writes down . . . the wicked- 
ness of the children of men. Enoch is 
here the Scribe of God. See iv. 23, 
X. 17. This idea may be referred to in 
the Eth. En. xii. 3, 4 ; it is clearly- 
expressed in the Slavonic Enoch. See 
mj' edition xl. 13 note, liii. 2, Ixiv. 5. 

24. And on account of it {God) 
brought the waters of the flood, etc. Cf. 
Slav. Enoch xxxiv. 3 : " And on this 
account I will bring a deluge upon the 
earth " ; also Test. Napth. 4. 

Testify against all the children of 
men, etc. See x. 17. 

Until the doAj of condemnation. 
Cf. iv. 19. 

25. Incense of the sanctuary, or " in- 
cense in the sanctuary." 

Sd'Cet sj)ices acceptable before the Lord 
on the Mount. bed— "acceptable 
before the Lord on the mountains of 
the South " (qatr). But this use of the 
word qatr is imexampled elsewhere, a 
omits it and writes the preceding word 
badabr. I have taken it as a corruption 
of qetare = " sweet spices." The words 
would point back to Exod. xxx. 7, 
O'DD map. 

On the Mount. So a. bed read 
"ou the mount of the mid-day (or 
South)." This mountain may be the 
mountain of the East. See next note. 

26. Three of these places are con- 
nected with three decisive turning-points 
or periods in the history of mankind : 
the Garden of Eden as the first abode 
of man ; Mount Sinai as the place 
whence the Law was promulgated, and 
Zion as the centre of the Theocracy. These 
three are again mentioned in viii. 19. 
What the Mount of the East is, I cannot 
determine. In the ZDMG, xi. pp. 730- 
733 Rapoport is of opinion that the 

mountain in qiiestion is Mount Ephraim 
(Josh. xvii. is sqq.). He argues that 
this is the most easterly of the mountains 
of Palestine ; that it contains all the 
localities of special sanctity among the 
Samaritans, Gerizim, Sichem, Samaria ; 
that Abraham and Jacob had sacrificed 
thereon (Gen. xii. 7, xxxiii. 20) just as 
sacrifices had been ofl'ered by Adam in 
Eden, according to iii. 27 of our text 
and the Talmud, on Sinai by Moses and 
on Zion by Israel. But as such an in- 
terpretation would imply a Samaritan 
authorship it is thereby made im- 
possible ; for the textual evidence is 
itself decisive against such authorship. 
The mention, moreover, of Zion tells in 
the same direction. There is some 
probability in the suggestion of Ronsch, 
pp. 505-6, that by the Mount of the 
East we are to understand Lubar, one 
of the summits of Ararat, on which the 
Ark rested and Noah sacrificed, as 
this lay to the NE. of Palestine and as 
there would thus be connected with 
these four places the notable names of 
Adam, Noah, Moses, David. See viii. 
19 (note). On the other hand it is 
possible that we have here the Mount 
mentioned in the preceding verse as 
that on which Enoch olfered incense. 
Now if we may cite the evidence of 
Die Schatzhohle and the Book of Adam 
and Eve, Seth and his posterity were 
commanded by Adam to live on the 
Mount close to Eden and not to descend 
to the plain and mingle with the de- 
.scendants of Cain. Adam's command 
was observed till the days of Jared. 
This Mount could rightly be described 
as the Mount of the East. Or again 
the Mount of the East may be the 
mountain which is described as the 



Lord has four places on the earth, the Garden of Eden, and 
the Mount of the East, and this mountain on which thou 
art this day, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion (which) will be 
sanctified in the new creation for a sanctification of the 
earth ; through it will the earth be sanctified from all (its) 
guilt and its uncleanness throughout the generations of the 
652 a.m. world. 27. And in the fourteenth jubilee Methuselah took 


unto himself a wife, Edna the daughter of 'Azrtal, the 
daughter of his father's brother, in the third week, in the 
first year of this week, and he begat a son and called his 
)i-707 A.M. name Lamech. 28. And in the fifteenth jubilee in the 
third week Lamech took to himself a wife, and her name 
was Betenos the daughter of Baraki'il, the daughter of his 
father's brother, and in this week she bare him a son and 
he called his name Noah, saying, " This one will comfort me 

throne of God in Eth. Enoch xviii. 6-9, 
xxiii. 1-3, on which God will sit when 
He comes to visit the earth. It is the 
highest of the seven mountains which 
are in the neighbom-hood of the Garden 
of Eden. Cf. Eth. Enoch xxxii. 1-2, 
Ixxvii. 3-4. In Enoch, it is true, the 
Garden of Eden appears to be in the 
NW., but it is in the east in Jubilees : 
see viii. 16. 

Sanctified in the neio creation. See 
note on i. 29. 

27. Cf. Gen. v. 25. Edna. See iv. 
20 note. According to the Samaritan 
Chronicle (translated by Neubauer in 
the Journal Asiatique, 1869, torn. xiv. 
No. 55, pp. 421-467) Methuselah was 
sixty-seven when he married. 

Father's brother. Emended as in 15. 

Lamech. The year of Lamech's birth 
is not mentioned, but it can be deter- 
mined from the date of Methuselah's 
marriage furnished by the Samaritan 
Chronicle. According to it Methuselah 
was sixty-seven when he married, and 
as he was born according to our text 
(iv. 20) in the year 587, Lamech was 
probably born in the year 654, 

28. Cf. Gen. v. 29. In the fifteenth 
jubilee in the third iveeJc . . . she bare 
him a son . . . Noah. This assigns 
some year in the period 701-707 as the 

birthday of Noah, and 707 is no doubt 
the year intended. For in the Samaritan 
Chronicle (see preceding note) it is 
distinctly stated that 707 years elapsed 
from Adam to the birth of Noah. We 
can aiTive at this date independently 
also. With the help of the Samaritan 
Chronicle we saw in the notes on iv. 27 
that Lamech was born in 654. Now 
according to the same Chronicle Lamech 
was fifty-three when Noah was born : 
hence Noah was born in the year 707. 
On the other hand there is a discrepancy 
between this date of Noah's birth and 
that which follows from vi. 18 and x. 
16. In the former it is said that the 
Feast of Weeks was celebrated 1309 
years, from the day of creation till the 
days of Noah, and that Noah observed 
it 350 years. Hence Noah died in 
1659. But since in x. 16 Noah is said 
to have lived 950 years, this would fix 
709 as the year of his birth. 

Betends = njx na. Lagarde's MS r on 
Gen. v. 29 gives ^edevui : the Syriac = 

This one will comfort me. "This 
one" (ze emended from za = which). 
Our text follows Gen. v. 29 in attribut- 
ing to the name Noah (n:) the meaning 
belonging to Menachem (cmo). The 
Book of Jashar 136 says that Methuselah 

CHAPTER IV. 27-31 


for my trouble and all my work, and for the ground which 
the Lord hath cursed." 29. And at the close of the 
nineteenth jubilee, in the seventh week in the sixth year 930 a.m. 
thereof, Adam died, and all his sons buried him in the 
land of his creation, and he was the first to be buried in 
the earth. 30. And he lacked seventy years of one 
thousand years ; for one thousand years are as one day in 
the testimony of the heavens and therefore was it written 
concerning the tree of knowledge : " On the day that ye eat 
thereof ye will die." For this reason he did not complete 
the years of this day; for he died during it. 31. At the 
close of this jubilee Cain was killed after him in the same 
year ; for his house fell upon him and he died in the midst 

called the child Noah because the earth 
would have rest (nn:) in his days, but 
Lamech called him Menachem because 
" he would comfort us " (i:3nr)' The 
same ideas are found in Ber. rabba 25. 
These results of learned reflection on 
Gen. V. 29 appear to be later than 

Andfw the, ground. All authorities 
save the LXX and our text omit 

29. Land of his creation. See iii. 32 

First to be buried in the earth. This 
shows that the legend, which is attested 
in the later Life of Adam and Eve 
(Tischendorf's AjMcalypses AiMcryphae, 
p. 21), that the body of Abel was not 
buried till that of Adam was, already 

30. Cf. Gen. ii. 17. This interpreta- 
tion of a day as a thousand years was 
current among the Jews. Cf. Ber. rabba 
19, 22. 2 Pet. iii. 8 jxia, -rj/xepa irapa 
K.vplcji lis x'^"^ ^'''V- Barnab. JSp. xv. 
"}} yap Tj/jL^pa nap' avri^ xt'Xta Irrj. See 
also Slav. Eu. xxxiii. 1, 2 (note) where 
the application of this principle of 
interpretation to the six days creation 
and the seventh of rest issues in the 
doctrine of the Millenium. Justin 
MartjT {Dial, ami Tryph. Ixxxi.) ap- 
parently quotes from the text : ws yap 
ri^ 'A5ct/x eiprjTO.Sri rj 5' ^u rjixipa, (pdyrj 
d-Trb roO ^iiXov, iv iKeivrj diro0ave?Tai, 

eyvufief avrbv /ir; a,vaTr\7]pibcravTa x/Xta 
'irr). 'Lvv-qKafxev koI to elp-^fievov, on 
Tjfiepa JS-vpiov (lis %fXia ctt], els rovro 
avvdyeiv. See also Lactantius, Insti- 
tution, vii. 14. 

31-32. Cain was killed . . . in the 
same year, etc. In Syncellus, i. 19, 
the text is partly reproduced : ry avrQ 
"^X irei Kal "Kd'Cv diridavev, ifMreaovros 
iir' aiiTov too oikov "Xidois yap Kal 
avTos TOP "A/SeX dvelXe. In Cedrenus, 
i. 16, more fully : ovtos 6 Kdl'v, ihs i} 
AeTTTTj M wff^ws T^vecTLs (prjciv, t^s OLKsias 
■7r€<ro6cn]s eir' avrbv TeXevra- Xidois yap 
TOP dde\(pbv"A^e\ aTriKTSive, Kal \idoLS 
ofioius Kal aiTos direKTavOrj. In the 
Excerpta Chronologica prefixed to the 
works of John Malala we have this and 
the later legend given: /card (?,uerd) 
5^ ravra rf/s olKias iir' avrbv rreaoijaris 
dividavev, ws ivioi (f>acnv erepot d^ Sti 
Aafiex avrbv direKreivev. This latter 
account is found also in Glycas 223, in 
the Book of Adam and Eve, ii. 13, in 
Jarchi's Comm. on Gen. iv. 23, Tanchuma 
6, the Bookof Jashar (section Beresheth). 
For other authorities where the later 
legend is given see Eisenmenger, i. 470- 
471. On the other hand, according to 
Ber. rabba 22, the Rabbis said that he 
was killed by a stone, but Simeon the 
sou of Gamaliel stated that he was 
killed by a reed. The latter idea seems 
to have been suggested by the likeness 
between yp and mp. 



of his house, and he was killed by its stones ; for with a 

stone he had killed Abel, and by a stone was he killed in 

righteous judgment. 32. For this reason it was ordained 

on the heavenly tables : " With the instrument with which 

a man kills his neighbour with the same shall he be killed ; 

after the manner that he wounded him, in like manner shall 

1205 a.m. they deal with him." 33. And in the twenty-fifth jubilee 

Noah took to himself a wife, and her name was 'Emzara, the 

daughter of Eake'el, the daughter of his father's brother, in 

1207 A.M. the first year in the fifth week : and in the third year 

1209 A.M. thereof she bare him Shem, in the fifth year thereof she 

1212 A.M. bare him Ham, and in the first year in the sixth week she 

bare him Japheth. 

31. With a stone he had killed Abd, 
and by a stone was he killed in 
rightemis judgment, etc. We have here 
the primitive human law of retaliation 
(eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for 
hand, etc., Exod. xxi. 24 ; Lev. xxiv. 
19) described as a law of the divine 
procedure. This law of exact retribu- 
tion is not merely an enactment of 
human justice, our author declares ; it 
is observed by God in his government 
of the world. 

It is noteworthy that the same 
principle of retribution is enforced by 
historical examples in 2 Mace. v. 10, 
where speaking of Jason the author 
writes : 6 7rX-^(?os drdcfxi^v iKpitpas diriv- 
dr]roi eyevridrj, Kal KijSias ovo' tjcttivot 
. . . fxereax^v. Similarly, it is re- 
counted of Nicanor (xv. 32, 33) that 
he was punished in those members with 
which he had sinned. Cf. also xiii. 8. 
In tliis respect 2 Mace, therefore repre- 
sents truly this second-cent. B.C. doctrine 
of retribution. Taken crassly and 
mechanically the above law is without 
foundation ; but spiritually conceived 
it represents the profound truth enunci- 
ated repeatedly in the N.T. Thus in 
Gal. vi. 7 " whatsoever a man soweth, 
that shall he also reap " ; Col. iii. 25 
"he that doeth wrong shall receive 
again the \NTong that he hath done " ; 
2 Cor. V. 10 in the judgment men shall 
" receive the things done in the body." 
In the Parables this kinship of the 

penalty to the sin is repeatedly dwelt 
on : the unforgiving debtor is refused 
forgiveness, the slothful servant loses 
what he had, he who will not use his 
affluence to succour a brother's need 
will lose it for himself, and the man who 
refuses to part with an offending eye 
or hand will finally lose his whole body 
in Gehenna. See note on xlviii. 14. 

According to Beer this halachic in- 
terpretation of Exod. xxi. 24 is un- 
known to traditional Judaism, which 
enacts that the murderer is to be slain 
with the sword. 

33. 'Smz/irA. This name is found in 
the Syriac Fragment and Lagarde's LXX 
MS r. Frankel derives it from r\~,v ch 
or ms CN because she lived in the days 
of the Flood. 

Brother. Emended as in ver. 15. 

Shem . . . Ram . . . Japhet. 
Cf. X. 14, where again Shem is repre- 
sented as the eldest. We should observe 
here that our author thus understood 
aright "jnj.T ns' "hn in Gen. x. 21 as 
' ' (Shem) . . . the elder brother of 
Japhet" (so also Vulg.) over against 
the INIassoretes, Symmachus, and Rashi 
who wrongly understood it as "brother 
of Japheth the elder." The LXX is 
similarly wrong : dSeX^y 'Id0e^ tov 
fxel^ovos, Ber. rabba 26, 37, and the 
Book of Jashar {in loc). On the other 
hand in Sanhedrin 69 b Shem is said to 
be two years older than Japhet. 

CHAPTERS IV. 32-V. 4 43 

The angds of God marry the daughters of men, 1. Corrwption 
of all creation, 2-3. Punishment of the fallen angels and 
their children, 4-9a. Final judgment announced, 96-16. 
Day of Atonement, 17-18. The deluge foretold, Noah 
huilds the ark, the deluge, 19-32. (Cf. Gen. vi.-viii. 

V. And it came to pass when the children of men 
began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters 
were born unto them, that the angels of God saw them on 
a certain year of this jubilee, that they were beautiful to 
look upon ; and they took themselves wives of all whom 
they chose, and they bare unto them sons and they were 
giants. 2. And lawlessness increased on the earth and all 
flesh corrupted its way, alike men and cattle and beasts and 
birds and everything that walks on the earth — all of them 
corrupted their ways and their orders, and they began to 
devour each other, and lawlessness increased on the earth 
and every imagination of the thoughts of all men (was) 
thus evil continually. 3, And God looked upon the earth, 
and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its 
orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought 
all manner of evil before His eyes. 4. And He said : 
" I shall destroy man and all flesh upon the face of the 

V. 1. Gen. vi. 1, 2, 4. On this myth 2. All flesh corrupted its v^ay, alike 

of the intercourse of the angels with meji and cattle and beasts. Gen. vi. 12. 

the daughters of men see iv. 15 (note): From the Book of Jashar 13 6 this 

also my Eth. Enoch vi. 1, 2, vii. 1, 2 seems to mean that diflerent kinds of 

with notes i>i loc. animals coiipled with each other : and 

Angels of God. This is the LXX that man was guilty of bestiality, 

rendering of Gen. vi. 2. It is also Began to devour each other. Eth. 

found in Philo, Le Girjant. 2 (i. 263 Enoch vii. 5. 

Mangey), Josephus, Eusebius, Augustine Lawlessness increased, etc. Cf. Gen. 

and Ambrose. It is the older Jewish vi. 11. 

view, but was condemned probably as Every imagination, etc. Gen. vi. 5. 

early as the first cent. a.d. See note 3. Gen. vi. 12. 

on iv. 15. 4, 5. Gen. vi. 7, 8. 

To look upon. Correct printer's 4. / shall destroy. So a d. be 

error resi'j into re'ij in my text. ="He would destroy." 


earth which I have created." 5. But Noah found grace 
before the eyes of the Lord. 6. And against the angels 
whom He had sent upon the earth, He was exceedingly 
wroth, and He gave commandment to root them out of all 
their dominion, and He bade us to bind them in the depths 
of the earth, and behold they are bound in the midst of 
them, and are (kept) separate. 7. And against their sons 
went forth a command from before His face that they 
should be smitten with the sword, and be removed from 
under heaven. 8. And He said " My spirit will not always 
abide on man ; for they also are flesh and their days shall 
be one hundred and twenty years." 9. And He sent His 
sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, 
and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the 
sword and were destroyed from the earth. 10. And their 
fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this 
they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the 
day of the great condemnation, when judgment is executed 

4. M'hich I have created. Emended 5ia<pddpai. ko.! Troirjaai yhos erepov 

from ab which = " He had created." irov-rjpias Kadapdv. See also Philo, De 

Corruption could have arisen from Vita Moses, u. 12. But with the subse- 

coufusiou of iKTiaa and iKTiae, as Litt- quent corruption of all the descendants 

mann has pointed out. cd = "was of Noah till the time of Abraham and 

created." Possibly we should keep the universal apostasy of the Gentiles 

to b throughout, and translate "He accoi-ding to our author, such a statement 

would destroy . . . which He had is practically inconceivable. Moreover, 

created." Cf. vi. 20. it is not difficult to discover the origin of 

10. Until the day of the great con- the error in our text. Verses 10*'- 16 

demnation, i.e., the day of the final are descriptive of the final judgment, 

judgment. See iv. 19, 24. Cf. Eth. and simply amplify the last clause of 

Enoch X. 13. The intervening period, ver. 10. Tlius the time of the verbs 

according to Eth. Enoch x. 12, is "destroyed," "was," "made" in ll-12is 

seventy generations. wrongandweshouldhave"shalldestroy," 

lOb-12. Verses 11-12 if the text is "shall be" and "shall make." "Judged" 

correct teach that God recreated the must also be rendered "shall have 

human race and all His other works at judged," but this last does not necessi- 

the time of the Flood " so that they tate a change in the text of either the 

should not sin in their whole nature Ethioiiic or Hebrew. The text therefore 

forever, but should be all righteous should be translated : "Until the day 

. . . alway." In Josephus, Ant. i. 3. of the great condemnation, when judg- 

2 there is a slight approximation to ment shall be executed on all who have 

this idea : 6 o^ Qebs tovtov fj.h rijs corrujjted their ways and their works 

SiKaiocrvi'rjs TjydirTiae, KarediKa^e 5' ovk before the Lord, ll. And He shall 

(Kdvuv /jlovjiv rf^s KaKias, dXXd Kai nav destroy (them) all from their places, 

6(Tov 9}v dvdpiJjTrivov rdre o6^av avrqi and there shall not be left one of them 

CHAPTER V. 5-17 45 

on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works 
before the Lord. 11. And He fdestroyedf all from their 
places, and there fwasf not left one of them whom He 
judged not according to all their wickedness. 12. And He 
fmade-f- for all His works a new and righteous nature, so 
that they should not sin in their whole nature for ever, but 
should be all righteous each in his kind alway. 13. And 
the judgment of all is ordained and written on the heavenly 
tables in righteousness — even (the judgment of) all who 
depart from the path which is ordained for them to walk in ; 
and if they walk not therein, judgment is written down 
for every creature and for every kind. 14. And there is 
nothing in heaven or on earth, or in light or in darkness, or 
in Sheol or in the depth, or in the place of darkness (which 
is not judged) ; and all their judgments are ordained and 
written and engraved. 15. In regard to all He will judge, 
the great according to his greatness, and the small accord- 
ing to his smallness, and each according to his way. 16. 
And He is not one who will regard the person (of any), 
nor is He one who will receive gifts, if He says that He 
will execute judgment on each : if one gave everything 
that is on the earth, He will not regard the gifts or the 
person (of any), nor accept anything at his hands, for He is 
a righteous judge. [17. And of the children of Israel it has 

■whom He shall not have judged accord- closely on niB'j^nn, and accordingly ren- 

ing to all their wickedness, 12. And dered them merely as ordinary perfects. 

He shall make for all His works, etc." See Driver, Hehreiu Tenses,"^ p. 165. 

This corruption of the tenses may 12. New a7id righteous nature. See 

possibly have arisen in the Ethiopic, or note on i. 29. 

in the Greek, but this is very im- 13. Heavenly tables. See note on 

probable, as it involves so many changes, iii. 10. 

On the other hand it is easy to explain From the ixxth. So d, where I take 

the false text as having originated in the singular suffix to expi-ess the article. 

a mistranslation of the Hebrew. The Otherwise ahc, "from their path." 

above passage = mB'J?na SyMT\ ]'in or nj; 16. Cf. xl. 8 ; Deut. x. 17 ; 2 Chron. 

" ':d'7 ins'voi isit n'ncn ntyx 7133 bsje'O xix. 7. 

kS nsrn nnN nno nnv n*?! • • • 0*73 Taxm 17-18. Interpolated or else trans- 

HB'yi ■ • • cac. Here we have to suppose posed here from xxxiv. 18-19 where the 

that the Gi-eek translator failed to grasp historical occasion of this feast is given. 

the sense of the passage and see that 17. Probably based on Jer. xxxvi. 

i*3J<m and the other verbs followed 3. Cf. Jer. xviii. 8 : Jonah iii. 8. 


been written and ordained : If they turn to Him in righteous- 
ness, He will forgive all their transgressions and pardon all 
their sins. 18. It is written and ordained that He will 
show mercy to all who turn from all their guilt once each 
year.] 19. And as for all those who corrupted their ways 
and their thoughts before the flood, no man's person was 
accepted save that of Noah alone ; for his person was ac- 
cepted in behalf of his sons, whom (God) saved from the 
waters of the flood on his account; for his heart was 
righteous in all his ways, according as it was commanded 
regarding him, and he had not departed from aught that 
was ordained for him. 20. And the Lord said that He 
would destroy everything which was upon the earth, both 
men and cattle, and beasts, and fowls of the air, and that 
which moveth on the earth. 21. And He commanded 
Noah to make him an ark, that he might save himself from 
the waters of the flood. 22. And Noah made the ark in 

18. The time referred to here is with the death penalty by God or human 

obviously the tenth day of the seventh judgment." And yet we must discrimi- 

month, i.e., the Day of Atonement, nate between the teaching of our text 

In Lev. xvi. in spite of the terms in and of the treatise Shebuoth in favour of 

verses 16, 21, the sin-offering atoned the former. In the latter the ceremonial 

only for sins committed in error (r\iW2, was of the nature of an o^ms operatum. 

dKovcrlws), i.e. accidentally or involuu- In our text, on the other hand, re- 

tarily (Lev. iv. 2, 13, 22, etc. — these pentance is insisted on : God's mercy 

are the a.'yvor)naTa va. Heb. ix. 7), not is not to be won on the Day of Atone- 

for those committed deliberately and ment save by those who turn (niB") 

defiantly (nai Ta, Num. xv. 30). This from their sins. Thus though our 

is the view enforced in the Mishuic text stands midway between the doctrine 

treatise I'o?;«t viii. 9: "If a man says I prescribed in Lev. xvi. (also in the 

will sin, and then repent . . . Heaven treatise I'oj/ia) and thetreatise»S^Ae6it'o<A, 

does not give him the means of practis- with the former it prescribes as neces- 

ing repentance ; and if he says, ' I will sary to atonement the temper of true 

sin and the Day of Atonement will repentance: with the latter it maintains 

bring atonement, ' the Day of Atone- the efficacy of the atonement for sins of 

ment will bring no atonement." On every description. 

the other hand both in our text and in Once each year=dTra^ rod iviavroO 

the treatise Shebitoth i. 6 it is taught (Heb. ix. 7). 

that on the Day of Atonement sins of 19. That the wicked are spared for 

every description are forgiven "both the sake of the righteous is the idea 

the light and the grave, the intentional underlying Gen. xviii. 23-32. 

and the unintentional, the conscious 20. Gen. vi. 7 ; cf. ver. 4. 

and the unconscious, those relating to 21. Gen. vi. 14. According to vi. 

the positive and the negative commands, 25 of our text this command was given 

and even those that were to be visited on the new moon of the first month. 

CHAPTER V. 18-28 47 

all respects as He commanded him, in the twenty-seventh 1307 a.m. 
jubilee of years, in the fifth week in the fifth year (on the 
new moon of the first month). 23. And he entered in the 
sixth (year) thereof, in the second month, on the new 1308 a.ji. 
moon of the second month, till the sixteenth; and he 
entered, and all that we brought to him, into the ark, 
and the Lord closed it from without on the seventeenth 
evening. t 

24. And the Lord opened seven flood-gates of heaven, 

And the mouths of the fountains of the great deep, 
seven mouths in number. 

25. And the flood-gates began to pour down water from 

the heaven forty days and forty nights, 
And the fountains of the deep also sent up waters, until 
the whole world was full of water. 

26. And the waters increased upon the earth : 

Fifteen cubits did the waters rise above all the hiQ;h 

And the ark was lift up above the earth. 
And it moved upon the face of the waters. 

27. And the water prevailed on the face of the earth five 
months — one hundred and fifty days, 28. And the 
ark went and rested on the top of Lubar, one of the 

22. Twenty- seventh jubilee. So we Floodgates . . . fountains. Gen. 
should emend the reading of all the vii, 11. See note on ii. 4. 

MSS " twenty - second jubilee," In The great deep. The mnn of Gen. 

my text I have by a slip emended i. 2. See note on ii. 2. 

the reading into "twenty-sixth jubilee." 25, 26. Gen. vii. 12, 18, 20. Cf. 

The fifth year of the fifth week of the Eth. Enoch Ixxxix. 3. 

twenty - seventh jubilee = 1307 a.m. 27. Gen. vii. 24, viii. 3. 

This agrees exactly with the chronology 28. Gen. viii. 4. This name Lubar 

in the Samaritan Chronicle: "From recurs in vii. 1 (see note), 17. It is 

Adam to the birth of Noah was a mentioned also in the Midrashic Book 

period of 707 years, and from Adam of Noah (see Appendix 1. to my Text) 

to the Flood 1307 yeai's " (Samaritan as follows : a-nx '^^,^D i.t.t -yh-j. This 

Chronicle translated by Neubauer in verse is reproduced freely by Epiphianus, 

the Journal Asiatique, 1869, pp. Adv. Haer. I. tom. i. 4: /xera Zk rhv 

421-469). KaraKXvfffjidv eTnarAaris ttjs Xdpva/cos 

23. Closed it, etc. Gen. vii. 16. toO Nwe ev rots opecn to7s 'Apapar dvd. 
Seventeenth, etc. Gen. vii. 11. fxiaov 'Apfieviuv kuI Kapdv^uv iv ry 

24. Seven flood-gates. Eth. Enoch Aov^ap opei /caXoy/x^i/y. As Nicolaus 
Ixxxix. 2. of Damascus reports (Joseph. Ant. i. 3. 


mountains of Ararat. 29. And (on the new moon) 
in the fourth month the fountains of the great deep 
were closed and the flood-gates of heaven were re- 
strained ; and on the new moon of the seventh month all 
the mouths of the abysses of the earth were opened, and 
the water began to descend into the deep below. 30. And 
on the new moon of the tenth month the tops of the 
1309 A.M. mountains were seen, and on the new moon of the first 
month the earth became visible. 31. And the waters 
disappeared from above the earth in the fifth week in 
the seventh year thereof, and on the seventeenth day 
in the second month the earth was dry. 32. And on 
the twenty-seventh thereof he opened the ark, and sent 
forth from it beasts, and cattle, and birds, and every moving 

Sacrifice of Noah, 1-3 (cf. Gen. viii. 20-22). God's covenant 
with Noah, eating of blood foi^hidden, 4-10 (cf. Gen. 
ix. 1-17). Moses hidden to reneio this lata against the 

eating of blood, 11-14. JBow set in the clouds for a 
sign, 15-16. Feast of weeks instituted, history of its 

6) that according to local tradition the ou the top of which the ark of the 

Ark rested on a great mountain in Chaldean Noah rested. 

Armenia called Baris above Minyas, 29. Gen. viii. 2. Cf. Eth. Enoch 

Professor Sayce {Journal of Royal Ixxxix. 7. 

Asiatic Soc. xiv. p. 389 note) con- ^q Q-en viii 5 13 

lectures that this is the mountain r,- ^ \, *','., , • ^, 

named Lubar in our text, seeing that ^1 On the seventeenth day m the 

both are .said by Epiphanius and second month the earth was dry. In 

Sj-ncellus (see note on vii. 1 ) to be on the p'"v .'"l"' }^ ll '' T the seven-and- 

borders of Armenia. I am indebted twentieth day that the earth was dry 

to him also for the follo.nng note in Part of this verse and the next is quoted 

which he seeks to account for the ^ Lagarde^s LXX M& z on Gen. viii 

syllable Lu in Lubar. "IntheVaunic Y"', '", \V ^.V^'f"^, ^''"1 ^7,<l,f"^ 

cuneiform inscriptions Lulu is the ^^'<aTV7,jxipaj^7,pavd7i7)yvKalepoiJ.r, 

country which is called Urartu (Ararat) ^'"' '"!°;\ ^""^ 'f'""' ^ "^t' l'^lJ''^'^^°''- 

in Assyria, on the borders of Armenia ^ ^"^^^ }^ observed that the earth 

and Kurdistan, and is almost certainly ^^f'^l '^^ ^f f ^J' ^ J'f'^^ ^"^^ ^^^^ 

the Lulubi or Luluwi of the Assyrian ^^^^ered the ark (ver. 23). 

inscriptions in which was Mount Nizir 32. Cf. Gen. viii. 1/, 19. 

CHAPTERS V. 29-VI. 4 49 

observance, 17-22. Feasts of the neiv moons, 23-28. 
Division of the year into 364 days, 29-38. 

VI. And on the new moon of the third month he went 
forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 
2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid 
and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the 
earth ; for everything that had been on it had been de- 
stroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 3. 
And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took 
an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a 
turtle-dove, and the young of a dove, and placed a burnt 
sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled 
with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over 
everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable 
before the Lord. 4. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, 
and He made a covenant with him that there should not be 
any more a flood to destroy the earth ; that all the days of 
the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease ; cold 

and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night 

VI. 1. Nexo moon of the third 3. Ox, and a goat, and a sheep, etc. 

month. This date is reproduced in lu Gen. viii. 20 it is said that Noah 

Lagarde's MS z on Gen. viii. 19 : iv fua "took of every clean beast and of every 

rod firivbsTod rpLTOv. Seever. 11 on the clean fowl and offered burnt-offerings, 

parallel between the covenants on Sinai etc." 

and Ararat. On this date also the Mingledivithoil,and , . , wijie. These 

covenant was made with Abraham, xiv. 1 elements are also additions to the state- 

sqq. ; and Jacob started to go down meut in Gen. viii. 20 in conformity 

into Egypt, xliv. 1. with later ritual. Cf. Exod. xxix. 40 ; 

BuUt an cdtar on tlmt mountain. Lev. ii. 2-5. 

Cf. Gen. viii. 20. The mountain is Frankincense. Lev. ii. 2, 15. 

Lubar. According to Ber. rabba 34 ^.y^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^ covenant with 

Noah offered this sacrifice m Jerusalem ^oah, in which He promises not again 

In the Targ. Jon on Gen vm. 20 ^ destroy the earth with a flood, 

the place is not mentioned but the altar ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ everything that 

ifi Identified with that which Adam built, j^ ^^^ ^he earth, and forbids the eating 

2. Made atonement for the earth. ^^ ^^j^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^.^ 

Though Jewish Haggada knows nothing . r„, ^ -, ,^ j, n 

of this particular act of atonement, it ^- ^l'' ^ord smelt the goodly savour. 

is easy to justify such a conception ^^' ^^''* 

from Lev. xviii. 26-28 ; Num. xxxv. ^lO'de a covenant . . . not . . . to 

33, 34. The earth itself as being destroy the earth. Gen. ix. 11. 

defiled needed expiation. Unnatural All the days of the earth, etc. Gen. 

vices and murder pollute it. viii. 22. 


should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 5. "And 
you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become 
many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. The fear of you 
and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is 
on earth and in the sea. 6. And behold I have given unto 
you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that 
moves on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all 
things for food ; as the green herbs, I have given you 
all things to eat. 7. But flesh, with the life thereof, with 
the blood, ye shall not eat ; for the life of all flesh is in the 
blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. At the 
hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall 
I require the blood of man. 8. Whoso sheddeth man's 
blood by man shall his blood be shed ; for in the image of 
God made He man. 9. And you, increase ye, and multiply 
on the earth." 10. And Noah and his sons swore that 
they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, and 
he made a covenant before the Lord God for ever throughout 

5. Gen. ix. 7. It is noteworthy Trypho is uot found in existing Jewish 
that the clause be a blessing (iDim) sources. See Singer, 295 sq. 
corresponds to "multiply" (uii) in 7^ ^^^^ -^^ 4^ 5^ q^ ^.^^^_ 
the parallel in Gen. The latter appears rj,^^^ ^ u -^^ y^^^ ji^g^ » ^^^^^ j^ ^ ^ 

to be corrupt for mi = LXX /cat Kara- rendering of crnica:^. 

(Beast.) I hare here supplied 'enses^ 
The /ear of you, etc. Cf. Gen. ( = beast) which could easily have fallen 
^' 2« out before 'ahsef = I -svill require. 

6, Gen. i.\-. 2, 3. 8. Gen. ix. 6. 

As the green herbs, I have given ymi 10-14. Noah and his sons swear to 
all things to eat. From Gen. ix. 3 the covenant as of perpetual obligation 
save the verb " to eat " which, however, as regards the non-eating of blood 
is only a repetition of the phrase "for (ver. 10). Because this ordinance 
ood " in the preceding clause. Of the was of perpetual obligation, it was re- 
argument that concluded from those enacted on Mount Sinai ; but, whereas 
words that only certain herbs were in Noah's covenant it had been brought 
allowed for food, our text knows forward only on its negative side, in 
nothing. This view appears in Justin, the Mosaic legislation it was enforced 
Dial. c. Tryph. 20 ^ovKofiivov avrov in its positive side, that is, according'to 
etVeti' ws \ x^P'''^^ ■ • • ^""^^ ^^^ former, blood was not to be eaten, 
Tiva tQv x^P''''^'' '^^'^ icrdlo/xev ovtu Kal whereas according to the latter its true 
8ia(7To\r]v ^KTOTe tQ Nwe diearaXOai use was to sprinkle the worshipper (ver. 
<j>aTi. According to Goldfahn (il/o?iffte- 11) and to make atonement before 
schrift f'iir Gesch. d. Jud. 1873, 57 sq.) God (ver. 14). Moreover, as Noah's 
the interpretation here attributed to covenant was instituted in the third 

CHAPTER VI. 5-16 51 

all the generations of the earth in this month. 11. On 
this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a 
covenant with the children of Israel in this month upon 
the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle 
blood upon them because of all the words of the covenant, 
which the Lord made with them for ever. 12, And this 
testimony is written concerning you that you should observe 
it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any 
blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the 
earth, and the man who eats the blood of beast or of cattle or 
of birds during all the days of the earth, he and his seed shall 
be rooted out of the land. 13. And do thou command the 
children of Israel to eat no blood, so that their names and 
their seed may be before the Lord our God continually. 1 4. 
And for this law there is no limit of days, for it is for ever. 
They shall observe it throughout their generations, so that 
they may continue supplicating on your behalf with blood 
before the altar ; every day and at the time of morning and 
evening they shall seek forgiveness on your behalf perpetu- 
ally before the Lord that they may keep it and not be 
rooted out. 1 5. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign 
that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 16. 
He set His bow in the cloud for a sign of the eternal 
covenant that there should not again be a flood on the earth 

mouth, so also the Law was given on 14. Siq^i^licating on their (be) behalf 

Sinai in the same month (ver. 11). [In with blood. Cf. Lev. xvii. 11. 

no passage is it said that the covenants Mm-ning and evening they shall 

of Noah and of Moses were established seek forgiveness. Cf. Num. xxviii. 

on the same day m the third month. o q 

Such a connection appears to exist ' . ,,,„.,.„ 

between the date of the covenant of Forgiveness onjour{d. Sc" their, 

Noah and that of the tirst celebration « . i*^ J *«^f^/- , ^he reading of 

on earth of the feast of weeks (see notes f.^^ *« ^,^.l"^^f7.t'^ °° \^^ S^°^°^ °f 

on verses 17-18).] ^^^ parallelism (Littmann). 

11. A covenant . . . in this month 15-16. Cf. Gen. ix. 13-15. The 
upon the mountain. The law was text after touching on the Mosaic 
given on Sinai in the third month development of the covenant of Noah 
according to Exod. xix. 1. here returns to the latter (cf. ver. 4), 

12, 13. Cf. Lev. xvii. 10, 12, 14 ; which God confirmed with the sign ot 
Deut. xii. 23. the bow in the clouds. 



to destroy it all the days of the earth. 17. For this reason 
it is ordained and written on the heavenly tables, that they 
should celebrate the feast of weeks in this month once a year, 
to renew the covenant every year. 18. And this whole 
festival was celebrated in heaven from the day of creation 
till the days of Noah — twenty-six jubilees and five weeks of 
1309-1659 years : and Noah and his sons observed it for seven jubilees 
and one week of years, till the day of Noah's death, and from 
the day of Noah's death his sons did away with (it) until 
the days of Abraham, and they eat blood. 19. But 
Abraham observed it, and Isaac and Jacob and his children 
observed it up to thy days, and in thy days the children of 
Israel forgot it until ye celebrated it anew on this mountain. 
2 0. And do thou command the children of Israel to observe 
this festival in all their generations for a commandment unto 
them : one day in the year in this month they shall celebrate 
the festival. 21. For it is the feast of weeks and the feast 

17-18. In connection with the TrevTrjKoa-T-qv. Tob. it. 1 contains 

covenant Noah is bidden to observe another early instance of its use, and 

the feast of weeks. Since it follows Philo, De Septenar. 21, a near approach 

from XV. 1 (see note) and xliv. 4, 5 to it. For later instances see 1 Cor. 

that this feast was celebrated on the xvi. 8 ; Jos. Ant. iii. 10. 6. 
15th of the third month (see note on 18. Twenty-six jubilees and five 

i. 1) we may reasonably assign the ^66^=1309 years. On the slight 

promulgation of the Noachic covenant discrepancy in our author's dates see 

to the same date. Later Judaism notes on iv. 28 and v. 22. 
(Maimonides, J/oreiVe5. 41) held Pente- Seven jubilees and one 'week = 350 

cost to celebrate the giving of the Law years. 

on Sinai, and designated this day as 2)id away with {it) . . . and they eat 

"the day of the giving of the Law" blood. Here again the close connection 

(min jno dv). So our author (cf. i. 1). of the feast of weeks and of the 

This idea is not found in Philo and covenant with Noah is emphasised. 
Josephus ; but it appears in Jerome, £^. 19. But Alyralmm. For "but(ac?) 

ad Fab. mansio 12; August. Contra Abraham " (6 c t;?), 6 c read " and Abra- 

Faust. xxxii. 12. Observe that our ham alone." 
author ascribes the covenant with Abram Observed it. a b omit " it. " 

to the same date (see note on xiv. 20). Yecelebrateditanew\_ = \\a.^ 

17. Feast of weeks. This title is («)]. 6 c thread "I have renewed them" 

found in Exod. xxxiv. 22 (njn^ jn, or "I have renewed (it) unto them" 

eopTT) i^Sofidduv). Our text is not [ = haddaskewomii (6 c ^)]. 
acquainted with the more familiar 20. One day in the year. This 

designation of this feast, i.e. Pentecost, should perhaps be: "the tirst day (of 

This designation, which is a Greek the week) in every year." See note on 

rendering, ij TrevTTjKoaTrj (ijixipa), of the ver. 22. 

rabbinic dv o'con jn, is found in 2 21. The feast of weeks was likewise 

Mace. xii. 32 fj-era rV \eyofiivt)v known as the feast of the harvest 

CHAPTER VI. 17-23 


of first-fruits : this feast is twofold and of a double nature : 
according to what is written and engraven concerning it 
celebrate it. 22. For I have written in the book of the first 
law, in that which I have written for thee, that thou shouldst 
celebrate it in its season, one day in the year, and I explained 
to thee its sacrifices that the children of Israel should remem- 
ber and should celebrate it throughout their generations in 
this month, one day in every year. 23. And on the 

Esod. xxiii. 16, Ti-pn jn. In the latter 
respect it was a feast of first-fruits 
as in the text, or the day of iirst- 
fruits, Num. xxviii. 26, oniaan dv, t) 
ii/jL^pa tQu viuv. Why this festival 
should be said to be "of a double 
nature " I do not see. 

Celebrate i< = gebara emended from 
gebra="its celebration." 

22. Book of the first laio, i.e., the 
Pentateuch. See note on i. 26. 

One day in the year. Eppstein 
(Remit des Etudes juives, xxii. 7-8) 
suggests that "one day" here = i7;a^pa 
liia = -[nn cv, which in its original con- 
text meant "the first day," i.e. of the 
■week, Sunday. Thus Pentecost was to 
fall on the same day every year, a 
Sunday, the first of the week. If this 
is right it follows that if we count back 
seven weeks we arrive at Nisan 22, 
" the morrow after the Sabbath," which 
is also the first day of the week, and 
that the author of our book interpreted 
the term Sabbath in its strict sense as 
the weekly Sabbath (see note on xv. 1 ). 
For somewhat similar directions re- 
garding the Passover see xlix. 7, 8. 
Its sacrifices, or "the sacrifices." 
One day in every year. This should 
perhaps be "the first day (of the week) 
in every year" as Eppstein suggests 
(see note above). 

23. According to Lev. xxiii. 24 only 
the 1st day of the 7th month was a 
day of remembrance. Nevertheless 
the special significance assigned to 
these four days was a not unfamiliar 
idea in the second cent, as appears from 
the Eth. Enoch and our text, both of 
which we shall discuss presently in this 
relation. Even the Mishna appears to 
preserve some echoes of the early con- 

troversies that circled round them ; for 
we can hardly interpret otherwise the 
passage in the Rosh ha-Shanah i. 1 : 
" Ou 1st Nisan — beginning of year, 
of government and of festivals. On 
1st Ellul, the year of tithing of 
beasts according to R. Eliezer and 
R. Simeon. On 1st Tisri, the calen- 
dar year, the Sabbatical year and 
jubilee year, and (year) of plants and 
vegetables. On 1st Sebat, year of 
blooming of trees according to school 
of Shammai but on 15th according to 
school of Hillel." That difterent usages 
prevailed at diflerent times follows 
clearly from the sacrifices enjoined on 
the new moons in Ezekiel xlvi. 6 and 
Num. xxviii. 11-15. The Rabbis 
could give no satisfactory explanation 
of these differences : some indeed were 
for removing Ezekiel ft-om the Canon, 
and others denied its authenticity on 
account of them. Returning now to 
our text and the parallel passages in 
the Eth. Enoch, we observe that these 
four days have a religious signifi- 
cance in the former, but an astro- 
nomical in the latter. In Eth. En. 
Ixxv. 1, 2, Ixxxii. 11 they are called 
"leaders," because they lead in the 
four quarters of the year. They are 
also called "intercalary days" (Eth. 
Enoch Ixxv. 2) 7]iJ.4pai eirayo/jievai, and 
correspond respectively to the vernal 
equinox (1st of 1st month), the summer 
solstice (1st of 4th month), the autumn 
equinox (1st of 7th month), and the 
winter solstice (1st of 10th month). 
These four days, when added to 360 
{i.e., 12 months of 30 days each, Eth. 
Enoch Ixxxii. 11), constitute an invari- 
able year of 364 days (cf. our text v. 
32, 38 ; Eth. Enoch Ixxv. 2, Ixxxii. 
11). On the meaning of this year of 364 
days see notes on verses 29-30, 32. 


new moon of the first month, and on the new moon 
of the fourth month, and on the new moon of the 
seventh month, and on the new moon of the tenth 
month are the days of remembrance, and the days of 
the seasons in the four divisions of the year. These are 
written and ordained as a testimony for ever. 24. And 
Noah ordained them for himself as feasts for the generations 
for ever, so that they have become thereby a memorial unto 
him. 25. And on the new moon of the first month he was 
bidden to make for himself an ark, and on that (day) the 
earth became dry and he opened (the ark) and saw the 
earth. 26. And on the new moon of the fourth month the 
mouths of the depths of the abysses beneath were closed. And 
on the new moon of the seventh month all the mouths of the 
abysses of the earth were opened, and the waters began to 
descend into them. 27. And on the new moon of the tenth 
month the tops of the mountains were seen, and Noah was 
glad. 28. And on this account he ordained them for him- 
self as feasts for a memorial for ever, and thus are they 
ordained. 29. And they placed them on the heavenly 
tables, each iiad thirteen weeks ; from one to another 

On the new moon of the first inonth. Abraham observed the stars in order to 

On this date Noah was bidden to make learn the nature of the coming year, 

an ark, v. 21, vi. 25 ; the earth first xii. 16. 

became visible after the flood, v. 30, On Vie rieto onoon of the tenth month. 

vi. 25 ; Noah offered a sacrifice, vii. 2, See ver. 27. 

3 ; Abraham erected an altar and 26. See notes on ver. 23. Cf. Gen. 

sacrificed thereon, xiii. 8 ; God appeared viii. 2 ; Eth. Enoch Ixxxix. 7, 8. 
to Isaac, xxiv., who forthwith offered 27. See notes on ver. 23. Cf. Gen. 

sacrifice, 22, 23 ; Jacob went to Bethel, viii. 5. 
xxvii. 19 ; Levi was born, xxviii. 14. 29. Placed. We have here the im- 

On the new moon of tliefoicrth inonth. perfect ; hence literally = " they place " 

The following events are assigned to or " they were placing." 
this date. On it Adam and Eve went On the lieavenly tables. Here the 

forth from tlie Garden, iii. 32 ; the festivals ordained by Noah are entered 

mouths of the abysses beneath and on the heavenly tables. See note on 

the flood-gates of heaven were closed, v. iii. 10. 

29, vi. 26 ; angels appeared toAbraham, 29-30. Each had thirteen weeks, etc. 

xvi. 1 ; Joseph was born, xxviii. 24 ; According to verses 23-30 the year 

Jacob arrived in Egypt, xlv. 1. consists of four seasons and each season 

On the new moon of the seventh of three months or thirteen weeks. 

mtnith. On this date the mouths of The year has, therefore, on this com- 

the abysses were opened, v. 29, vi. 26 ; putation 12 months of 30 days each 

CHAPTER VI. 24-31 


(passed) their memorial, from the first to the second, and 
from the second to the third, and from the third to the 
fourth. 30. And all the days of the commandment will be 
two and fifty weeks of days, and (these will make) the entire 
year complete. 31. Thus it is engraven and ordained on 
the heavenly tables. And there is no neglecting (this com- 

(see below) and 4 intercalary days, 
52 weeks, or 364 days. This our 
author takes to be the duration of a 
solar year. A solar year of 12 
months is likewise presupposed in 
iv. 17 where the months are said to 
be of the same number as the signs of 
the zodiac ; in v. 27 where five mouths 
are described as amounting to 150 days, 
hence each month consists of 30 days ; 
in xii. 16 Abram makes observations on 
the 1st of the 7th month to learn the 
character of the ensuing six months 
(autumn and winter). They are solar 
months ; for thej^ are six in number, 
sii. 27 ; in xvi. 12-13 a year of twelve 
months is implied ; and in xxv. 16 the 
tribes who are to spring from Jacob are 
to be of the same number as the months 
of the year. In the face of these facts 
Frankel was quite wrong, as Beer has 
shown, to assert that Jubilees reckoned 
each month at 28 days and added a 
thirteenth month of 28 days. On the 
other hand Eppstein {Revue des Etudes 
juives, xxii. 10-13) offers the attractive 
suggestion that in Jubilees two kinds 
of years are used : a civil year of 12 
months with eight of 30 days each and 
four of 31 days each ; and an ecclesi- 
astical year of 13 months of 28 days 
each. Our author, writes Eppstein, 
fixed the dates of the festivals accord- 
ing to the ecclesiastical year, and by 
such a year managed to make each 
week, each month and each year to 
begin on Sunday and terminate on the 
Sabbath. By such an arangement also 
all the festivals fell on Sunday save 
that of the Day of Atonement, and all 
the chronology took a regular and 
uniform character from the fact that 
everything had 7 for its point of de- 
parture. Thus the week had 7 
days : the month 4 x 7 = 28 : the year 
52 X 7 = 364 : the year-week 7 years 
and the jubilee 7x7 years. Further, 
the date assigned by our author to the 

feast of weeks, i.e. Sivan 15, certainly 
supports Eppstein's view. This date 
can only be arrived at by reckoning 
the 7 weeks from Nisan 22. Thus the 
paschal lamb was offered ou Nisan 14 : 
the feast of unleavened bread began on 
the 15th and ended on the 21st. On 
the 22ud the wave-sheaf was offered. 
Now if we count 7 weeks onward from 
this day, that is 1 week in the 1st 
month, 4 weeks in the 2nd and 2 
in the 3rd (Sivan), the feast of weeks 
falls ou the 15th of Sivan as in our 
author. Thus the date presupposes 
months of 28 days. And since the 
months consisted of 28 days each, there 
must have been 13 in this ecclesiasti- 
cal year, as it consisted of 364 days. 
Finally, if Eppstein's view on the inter- 
pretation of vi. 22 is correct, it serves 
to confirm the above view ; for if the 
3'ear begins on Sunday, the passover 
on Nisan falls on the Sabbath : the 
offering of the wave-sheaf on Sunday 
the 22nd and the feast of weeks on 
Sunday, Sivan 15. 

But on the other hand there is this 
objection to this theory : it is not true 
that all the festivals in Jubilees are fixed 
according to this so-called ecclesiastical 
year ; for the four ordained by Noah 
in vi. 23-29 are determined according 
to the 12 solar months of the year 
Apart from this objection this theory 
is the best solution of the problem yet 
ofiered. Elsewhere, where two years 
were in use, as amongst the Egyj^tians 
and later amongst the Abyssinian Jews, 
the civil year was a solar one and the 
ecclesiastical a lunar. 

30. TJie entire year complete. So b, 
which alone gives an intelligible sense. 

31. Nerjlectinfj, or "transgressing." 
Beer has suggested that ta'adwo here 
points back to ■H3j;= "intercalation." 

Linguistically, this is possible. If so, 
our author would be here protesting 



mandment) for a single year or from year to year. 32. 
And command thou the children of Israel that they observe 
the years according to this reckoning — three hundred and 

against such systems of intercalating 
days in the lunar year to make it syn- 
chronise with the solar, as we find in 
Eth. Enoch Ixxiv.-Lxxv., and the later 
systems of the Pharisees. But seeing 
tliat the same word which I render 
" neglecting " is found twice in ver. 33 
and in xv. 25, and that it cannot in two 
of these instances bear the meaning 
Beer proposes, I have retained the 
ordinary meaning of the word. See 
also on xlix. 14. 

32. Tliree Imndred and sixty-four 
days. A solar year of the same length is 
also taught in Eth. Enoch Ixxiv. 10, 12, 
Ixxv. 2 ; Slav. Enoch xlviii. 1. In Slav. 
Enoch xiv. 1 the ordinary reckoning of 
365i days is found. It is obvious that 
we have here to do with an old Jewish 
reckoning. I have shown in my edition 
of the Eth. Enoch pp. 189-191 that the 
advocates of this system were acquainted 
with the Greek octaeteris and the cycle 
of Calippus, and in my edition of 
the Slav. Enoch, that its author in 
xvi. 8 was familiar with the Metouic 
cycle. Why then did these writers, 
notwithstanding their knowledge of 
the Greek systems, advocate an im- 
possible solar year of 364 days ? 
I think their action in this matter 
must be attributed to dogmatic 
prejudice. If they regarded it as 
vital to the validity of their festi- 
vals that they should be celebrated 
not only on the same day of the month 
but also on the same day of the week 
from year to year, it seemed possible 
to attain this end by enforcing the 
acceptance of a year of 364 days. If 
the solar year were of this duration, it 
would always begin on the same day of 
the week ; for it would consist of 52 
weeks exactly. Furthermore if it began 
on Sunday, the first day of the week, 
the Sabbath would always constitute 
the 7th day of each of the 52 weeks, and 
the great festivals would always fall on 
the same day of the week and on the 
same day of the month from year to 
year. Thus the Passover would take 
place on Nisan 14, a Sabbath day, the 
wave-sheaf would be offered on Nisan 

22, a Sunday (the morrow after the 
Sabbath), and the feast of weeks on 
Sivan 15, a Sunday — that is in case we 
reckon 13 months of 28 days each, the 
ecclesiastical year (see note on vi. 
29-30). By the assumption, therefore, 
of an impossible solar year of 12 
months of 364 days in all and of an 
ecclesiastical year of 13 months of the 
same number of days consisting of an 
arbitrary succession of hebdomads in- 
dependent of the phases of the moon, 
they seemed to have succeeded in 
synchronising the civil and ecclesiasti- 
cal years without resorting to in- 
tercalary days. Bii.t this year of 364 
da.ys goes hack in all probability to the 
Exile. It will be observed that our text 
brings foi'ward this disquisition on the 
true length of the year in connection 
with the account of the flood. Now it 
is just in the same connection in the 
narrative of P in Genesis that a year 
of 364 days is presupposed as Bacon 
(Hebraica, viii. 79-88, 124-139 [1891- 
1892]) points out. Thus, the epochs 
of the flood are : — 

Beginning . 2nd month 

17th day 

Climax . 7th 


17th „ 

Mountain tops 

appear . 10th 


1st „ 

Waters dried up 1st 


1st „ 

Earth dry . 2ud 


27th „ 

He jioints out that the flood, which in 
the Babylonian account lasted one year, 
lasts here from the I7th of the 2nd 
mouth of one year to the 27th of the 
2nd of the next. Now he argues that, 
if one reckoned according to Hebrew 
lunar months, ten days (cf. Jubilees 
vi. 36) had to be added at the close of 
the 12th month in order to reach the 
equivalent date in solar time ; for the 
lunar year was 354 days ( = 12 x 29^ : 
cf. Eth. Enoch Ixxviii. 15). Now if 
the solar year was reckoned at 364 
days, we can understand why Noah's 
exit is assigned to the 27th and not to 
the 17th of the 2nd month ; for ten 
days represent according to Jubilees 
(vi. 36) and the Eth. Enoch (Ixxiv. 10, 

CHAPTER VI. 32-36 57 

sixty-four days, and (these) will constitute a complete 
year, and they will not disturb its time from its days 
and from its feasts ; for everytliing will fall out in them 
according to their testimony, and they will not leave 
out any day nor disturb any feasts. 33. But if they 
do neglect and do not observe them according to His 
commandment, then they will disturb all their seasons, and 
the years will be dislodged from this (order), [and they 
will disturb the seasons and the years will be dislodged] 
and they will neglect their ordinances. 34. And all the 
children of Israel will forget, and will not find the path of 
the years, and will forget the new moons, and seasons, 
and sabbaths, and they will go wrong as to all the order of 
the years. 35. For I know and from henceforth shall I 
declare it unto thee, and it is not of my own devising ; 
for the book (lies) written before me, and on the heavenly 
tables the division of days is ordained, lest they forget the 
feasts of the covenant and walk according to the feasts of the 
Gentiles after their error and after their ignorance. 36. For 

11, 13) the difference between the still more sublimely defiant of that 
lunar and solar years. Thus the flood which is merely practicable. On the 
would last one solar year from its other hand, the authors in question, 
beginning to its close. though acquainted with the systems 
We presume, therefore, wTites Bacon, current in Greece, were most probably 
that the authors of Enoch or Jubilees ignorant of the astronomical data which 
found their peculiar year of 364 days necessarily determined them ; and, as a 
( = 12 sidereal months of 30 days each civil year of 360 days was current 
+ 4 intercalary days) in the Genesis ^oth in Babylon and Egypt (in the 
account of the flood" Considering the former country corrected by iutercala- 
advanced stage of astronomical science tion), they may not have kuown any 
in the second cent. B.C. among the irrefutable grounds against the adoption 
nations in touch mth Judaism, it is not of the solar year of 364 days, authentic- 
possible to explain their adoption of ated as it was by the priestly compila- 
such a solar year unless it appealed to tion of the Exile, 
them on dogmatic grounds and had 33, 34. Cf. Eth. Enoch Ixxxii. 4-6. 
at its back an Inspired authority, 33. A7id they will disturb, etc. 

Genesis formed the inspired authority, Bracketed as a dittography. 
and the dogmatic grounds are obvious Neglect. This word may also be 
(see above). That such a scheme is rendered "omit," "pass by," "trans- 
impracticable is really no objection, if gress" (see note on ver. 31). 
we consider that the author of Jubilees 35. Not of my oivn devising. Text 
is as thorough-going an idealist as the ='-?'r'? t<S Num. xvi. 28. Cf. Apoc. 
author of the priestly legislation, and is Bar. xiv. 11. 


there will be those who will assuredly make observations of the 
moon — now (it) disturbs the seasons and comes in from year 
to year ten days too soon. 37. For this reason the years will 
come upon them when they will disturb (the order), and 
make an abominable (day) the day of testimony, and an 
unclean day a feast day, and they will confound all the 
days, the holy with the unclean, and the unclean day with 
the holy; for they will go wrong as to the months and 
sabbaths and feasts and jubilees. 38. For this reason I 
command and testify to thee that thou mayst testify to 
them ; for after thy death thy children will disturb (them), 
so that they will not make the year three hundred and sixty- 
four days only, and for this reason they will go wrong as to 
the new moons and seasons and sabbaths and festivals, and 
they will eat all kinds of blood with all kinds of flesh. 

Noah plants a vineyard and offers a sacrifice, 1-5. Becomes 
drunk and exposes his person, 6-9. The cursing of 
Canaan and blessing of She7n and Japheth, 10-12 (cf. 
Gen. ix. 20-28). Noah's so7is and grandsons and their 

36. Our author is decidedly opposed tion is not prematurely advanced or 

to the use of the moon in determining delayed by a single day unto eternity, 

the seasons and feasts. Thus in ii. 9 and they." It is true, however, that 

it is the sun that is to be man's guide the Samaritan Chronicle (translated by 

as to days and sabbaths, and feasts, Neubauerin the /owrnaZ ^4 st(rfjg'j<e, xiv. 

and mouths and years. Again in iv. 21 no. 55, 1869, pp. 421 sqq.), which was 

the angels instruct Enoch as to the acquainted with our text, adopts a 

lordship of the sun in such matters, hostile attitude to it on this question. 

Thus our book seems to be a polemic Thiis it declares that we should reckon 

against the teaching of Eth. Enoch according to the course of the sun and 

Ixxiii.-lxxiv.ifweacceptthetextinlxxiv. of the moou, and quotes Gen. i. 14: 

12 where we have a statement in irre- " Le calcul avec I'un d'eux seulement 

concilable conflict with our text : " And (c'est-a-dire avec le soleil on avec la 

the moon brings in all the years exactly lune) ne sufBt pas." 

so that their position is not prematurely Cmies in . . . ten days too soon. 

advanced or delayed by a single day Lunar year = 354 days, 

unto eternity; but they complete the gg^ i,,-;^ .^^^ ,,^^;.g_ ^^^ wrongly 

changing year with perfect justice m ^^^^ ^he negative. 

364 days. But this divergence arises ,_.„ _, ^.v j 

only from a corruption of the text. ff^o ^orong. Because they do 

For "And the moon brings in . . . ^°t f^l^o^ ^^^ ^^i^2.r.<,^ of the sun. 

unto eternity; but the moons" read J^ew moons. This could also be trans- 

" And they (the suu and stars) bring in lated "beginnings of the months." 

all the years so exactly that their posi- See last clause of last verse. 

CHAPTERS VI. 37-VII. 5 59 

cities, 13-19. Noah teaches his sons regarding the causes 
of the deluge and admonishes them to avoid the eating 
of Mood and murder, to keep the law regarding fruit 
trees and let the land lie falloio every seventh year, as 
Enoch had directed, 20-39. 

VII. And in the seventh week in the first year thereof, 1317 a.m. 
in this jubilee, ISToah planted vines on the mountain on 
which the ark had rested, named Lubar, one of the Ararat 
Mountains, and they produced fruit in the fourth year, and 1320 a.m. 
he guarded their fruit, and gathered it in this year in the 
seventh month. 2. And he made wine therefrom and put it 
into a vessel, and kept it until the fifth year, until the first 1321 a.m. 
day, on the new moon of the first month. 3. And he 
celebrated with joy the day of this feast, and he made a 
burnt sacrifice unto the Lord, one young ox and one ram, 
and seven sheep, each a year old, and a kid of the goats, 
that he might make atonement thereby for himself and his 
sons. 4. And he prepared the kid first, and placed some 
of its blood on the flesh that was on the altar which he 
had made, and all the fat he laid on the altar where he 
made the burnt sacrifice, and the ox and the ram and the 
sheep, and he laid all their flesh upon the altar. 5. And 
he placed all their offerings mingled with oil upon it, and 
afterwards he sprinkled wine on the fire which he had 
previously made on the altar, and he placed incense on the 
altar and caused a sweet savour to ascend acceptable before 

VII. 1. LClMt. See v. 28. This This is intended to call to mind the 

verse is partly reproduced in Syncellus, command in Lev. xix. 23-25 not to 

i. 147, Nwe i(t)VTev(T€v d/xTre\Qva iv opet touch the fruit of trees for the first 

AovlSap TTJs 'Ap/j.epias, and in Cedrenus, three years after they were planted, 

i. 21. Epiphanius, Adv. Haer. I. i. 4, See verses 36-37 where the passage 

follows our text : iv rots bpeci to?s from Lev. is in substance reproduced. 
'Apapar dva fieaov ^Apfieviuv kclI Kap- 3. The ritual is mainly according to 

Su^w;' iv Tip Aov^ap 6peL KaXovfiefui, Num. xxix. 2, 5. 

fKucre irpQiTov KaToiK-r\<ns ylverai pLera 5. And afterwards . . . which he had 

rbv KaTa.KKv( twv dvOptliiruv /cdfcet previously made . . . and he placed. 

<pvT€veL dpLtreXQva Nwe. So c d. 

Produced fruit in the fov/rth year. A cceptaUe. Emended as in vi. 3. 


the Lord his God. 6. And he rejoiced and drank of this 
wine, he and his children with joy. 7. And it was evening, 
and he went into his tent, and being drunken he lay down 
and slept, and was uncovered in his tent as he slept. 8. 
And Ham saw Noah his father naked, and went forth and 
told his two brethren without, 9. And Shem took his 
garment and arose, he and Japheth, and they placed the 
garment on their shoulders and went backward and covered 
the shame of their father, and their faces were backward. 
10. And Noah awoke from his sleep and knew all that his 
younger son had done unto him, and he cursed his son and 
said : " Cursed be Canaan ; an enslaved servant shall he be 
unto his brethren." 11. And he blessed Shem, and said: 
" Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, and Canaan shall be his 
servant. 12. God shall enlarge Japheth, and God shall 
dwell in the dwelling of Shem, and Canaan shall be his 
servant." 13. And Ham knew that his father had cursed 
his younger son, and he was displeased that he had 
cursed his son, and he parted from his father, he and 
his sons with him, Cush and Mizraim and Put and 
Canaan. 14. And he built for himself a city and called its 
name after the name of his wife Ne'elatama'uk. 15. And 
Japheth saw it, and became envious of his brother, and he 
too built for himself a city, and he called its name after the 

6, 7. Gen. ix. 21. Shekinah to rest iu the dwellings of 

8, 9. Gen. ix. 22, 23. Shem." The Targ.-Jon. on Gen. ix. 

8. And icent forth. Mass., Sam., and 27, on the other hand, and Justin, Dial. 

all versions save the LXX omit. c. Tryph, 139, refer the words to 

10. Gen. ix. 24, 25. From his slecji. Japheth. 
Gen. ix. 24 has "from his wine." i3_ cf. Gen. x. 6. In the text these 

A7i enslaved servant. So LXX ^^^^^ ^^^ Q^^g^ Mastarem, Phfld and 

{jrah olKh-ns), and Onk. : Mass. has Canaan. 
" servant of servants. " Ir-..-,^^ ^.-,, rr,, 

11 12 Gen ix. 26 27. ^^* ^^^iataniauk. This name is 

\-2. God shall' dwell' It will be found in the Syriac fragment as 

observed that the text supplies a subject ' ^^ — ^\ — < and in Eutychius 

to the verb "shaU dwell." This sense is of Alex.^«7ia^es, p. 35, asNahlat. The 

attached to the ambiguous words of first part of the compound may be 

Gen. ix. 27 by Onk. also : n^Mya n.^':i from n'?n3, construct case of nhm, and 

DB''i n'J3B'D3, " and may He cause His the second from pinn. 

CHAPTER VII. 6-21 6i 

name of his wife 'Adataneses. 16. And Shem dwelt with 
his father Noah, and he built a city close to his father on 
the mountain, and he too called its name after the name of 
his wife Sedeqetelebab. 17. And behold these three cities 
are near Mount Lubar ; Sedeqetelebab fronting the mountain 
on its east ; and Na'eltama'uk on the south ; 'Adataneses 
towards the west. 18. And these are the sons of Shem: 
Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad — this (son) was born two 
years after the flood — and Lud, and Aram. 19, The sons of 
Japheth : Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and 
Meshech and Tiras : these are the sons of Noah. 20. And in 
the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his 1324-1372 


sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, and all the 
judgments that he knew, and he exhorted his sons to 
observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, 
and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, 
and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from forni- 
cation and uncleanness and all iniquity. 21. For owing to 
these three things came the flood upon the earth, namely, 

15. 'Addtan'isSs, Syriac gives was so careless however as to leave the 
I ^1 i J 1 persons unchanged in verses (26-39). 

' ^'•*^?r The substance of this section is 

16. Shem dwelt near Noah. This is referred to in Epiphanius (Ancorat. 
to show Shem's filial love. cxii., Dindorf s ed., i. 215), where it is 

17. SideqdUUbdh : «;n- i »\ »\ tA. r\^y said that Noah, ola St'/catos ihv Kal rods 

from aa"? npns^::" righteousness of the ^'^^^"^ ^'^''^'^^ evXa^eh KaOiaTav Treipw- 

heart " as Rubm has recognised. f^'^°^' j""- f^^ "^"'^ «"^^°'^ VTroTreawai 

The mountain, i.e. Lubar. See ''";''°'' ^^ '^"/ <" ^^ ''V lo^raKXvafiv, oi 

ygj._ j_ /iidvov Ota Xojiov tovtois T7]v evXajSeiav 

18. In Ethiopic these names are 'rap«'^'^"> ^^^^a Kai 8l 6pKov a.4> evbs 
Mm,'Assur,ArpMksed. Gen. x. 22. ^ko-ttov avjQiv rip irpbs rbv dSe\,pbv 

This {son), etc. Gen. xi. 10. Text ^''''°""' °-^vrv<r^- 
emended. See my edition in loc. ^^^^'^ ^^^ ^^''^'"^^ etc. Cf. iii. 31. 

19. Gen. x. 2. These names in 21. TAese </iree ^/im^rs, that is " forni- 
the Ethiopic are Gomer, Magug, Mfidfd, cation, uncleanness and all iniquity " 
'ijuaja, Tobel, Meska, Toras. which are mentioned in the preceding 

20. From this verse to the close of verse (see xx. 5, xxiii. 14). Ber. 
the chapter we have a fragment of the rabba 31 assigns idolatry, impurity and 
lost book of Noah. From ver. 26 to bloodshed as the three causes of the 
the end Noah speaks in the first person. Flood (n, oan .niny 'i'?'j m ddh Tjj; ni con 
Its legalistic character favours the view d'di niD'Bc). Cf. Sauh. 74 a : " R. 
that its present setting and colouring Johanan says in the name of R. 
are due to the author of the book, who Simeon b. Jehozadak ... If one says 


owing to the fornication wherein the Watchers against the 
law of their ordinances went a whoring after the daughters 
of men, and took themselves wives of all which they chose : 
and they made the beginning of uncleanness. 22. And 
they begat sons the Naphidim, and •f"they were all unlikef , 
and they devoured one another : and the Giants slew the 
Naphil, and the Naphil slew the Eljo, and the Eljo man- 
kind, and one man another. 23. And every one sold 
himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the 
earth was filled with iniquity. 24. And after this they 
sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moves and 
walks on the earth : and much blood was shed on the earth, 
and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity 
and evil continually. 25. And the Lord destroyed every- 
thing from off the face of the earth ; because of the wicked- 
ness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they 
had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 
26. " And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything 
that entered with us into the ark, and behold I see your 
works before me that ye do not walk in righteousness ; for 

to a man, Commit a transgression else ba'asu (Eth. Enoch xv. 11) = "they 

thou wilt be slain, he may transgress the strove together " : cf. xxiii. 19. 
commandment in order to escape death 23. Sold himself to work iniquity. 

save iu the case of idolatry, incest and For phrase see 1 Kings xxi. 20. 
murder." Shed much blood. Eth. Enoch ix. 1. 

Went a whoring after. For phrase The earth was filled, etc. Gen. vi. 

see Lev. xvii. 7 ; Ezek. x\'i. 34. 11 ; Eth. Enoch ix. 9. 

Took themselves wives. Gen. vi. 2 ; 24. T/iey sinned against, etc. Cf. 

Eth. Enoch vii. 1. Eth. Enoch vii. 5, by means of which 

22. Cf. V. 9. Niqihidtm, i.e. the the text is emended. 
Nephilim (n\^33). From Eth. Enoch Moves and walks = reptiles and 

lxxx\'i. 4 and Ixxxviii. 2 and the cattle. 

Syncellus Greek version of Enoch vii. ^very imagination. Gen. vi. 5. 

1 we learn that there were three classes Cf. v. 2 above. 

of giants : kclI ireKov avroh yivr) rpia' 25. Destroyed everything, etc. Gen. 

Trpurrov yiyavras fieyaXovs {i.e., the '^i- 4, vi. 7. Cf. ver. 27. 
DmaJ in Gen. vi. 4). oi de ylyavres 26. Observe how the author of the 

er^Kvoiaav Na^r/Xe//a (d'V's: in Gen. book forgets to adapt this fragment of 

vi. 4), Kal roh '^acprfKeifj. eyepv-rjOTjaav the Book of Noah to its new context. 

'EXtoyS. From this verse to the end of the 

iThey were . . . unlike.f This chapter Noah speaks iu the first person, 

seems corrupt. We might emend See ver. 20 (note). In x. 1-15 we 

'ijetmasahl into jetmashatu= "they have another excerpt from this Apo- 

plundered one another," or into jet- calj-pse. 

CHAPTER VII. 22-31 63 

in the path of destruction ye have begun to walk, and ye 
are parting one from another, and are envious one of 
another, and (so it comes) that ye are not in harmony, my 
sons, each with his brother. 27. For I see, and behold the 
demons have begun (their) seductions against you and 
against your children, and now I fear on your behalf, that 
after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, 
and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the 
earth. 28. For whoso sheddeth man's blood, and whoso 
eateth the blood of any flesh, will all be destroyed from the 

29. And there will not be left any man that eateth blood, 
Or that sheddeth the blood of man on the earth. 
Nor will there be left to him any seed or descendants 
living under heaven ; 

For into Sheol will they go, 

And into the place of condemnation will they descend, 

And into the darkness of the deep will they all be 
removed by a violent death. 

30. There shall be no blood seen upon you of all the blood 
there shall be all the days in which ye have killed any beasts 
or cattle or whatever flies upon the earth, and work ye a 
good work to your souls by covering that which has been shed 
on the face of the earth. 31. And ye shall not be like him 
who eats with blood, but guard yourselves that none may 

27. See x. 1 where this subject Covering that which has been shed. 
recurs. This prescript of later legislation is here 

Destroyed from the face, etc. See carried back to Noah : cf. Lev. xvii. 

ver. 25. 13 ; Ezek. xxiv. 7. We must be care- 

28. Gen. ix. 4, 6 ; Lev. vii. 27. ful to render "covering" and not 

29. Into Sheol loill they go, A7id into "burying." The Ethiopic word is 
iJie place of condemnation will they de- dafana = KoKiJTrTei.i' = nss and not qabara 
scend, And into the darkness. Cf. xxii. —0^^^^^^,-.^^^^ Sin<^er (p. 200) 
22. This passage seems to have been ij^ses one of 'his arguments for "the 
used by Eth. Enoch ciii. 7, 8, "their souls jgwish Christian authorship of the 
wll be made to descend mto Sheol . . . -^q^-^ q^ the wrong rendering "bury- 
And mto darkness ... and a burning fire j„g_" chullin ii. 9 censures the latter 
where there is gi-ievous condemnation." g^g Jewish Christian. 

30. Upon yon. By an easy emenda- 
tion we could read among you. 31. Eats vnth blood. Lev. xix. 26. 


eat blood before you : cover the blood, for thus have I been 
commanded to testify to you and your children, together 
with all flesh. 32. And suffer not the soul to be eaten 
with the flesh, that your blood, which is your life, may not 
be required at the hand of any flesh that sheds (it) on the 
earth. 33. For the earth will not be clean from the blood 
which has been shed upon it ; for (only) through the blood 
of him that shed it will the earth be purified throughout all 
its generations. 34. And now, my children, hearken : work 
judgment and righteousness that ye may be planted in 
righteousness over the face of the whole earth, and your 
glory lifted up before my God, who saved me from the 
waters of the flood. 35. And behold, ye will go and build 
for yourselves cities, and plant in them all the plants that 
are upon the earth, and moreover all fruit-bearing trees. 
36. For three years the fruit of everything that is eaten 
will not be gathered : and in the fourth year its fruit will 
be accounted holy [and they will offer the first-fruits], 
acceptable before the Most High God, who created heaven 

32. Cf. Geu. ix. 4 ; Lev, xvii. 10, 36. In this verse we ought, if the 
11, 14. text were authentic, to have an iuter- 

33. The earth will not be clean, etc. ]3retatiou of the law enunciated in Lev. 
See vi. 2 (note). xix. 23-24. According to this law of 

{Only) through tlie blood, etc. Num. the Priests* Code tlie fruit of a tree 

XXXV. 33. was not to be used for the first three 

34. Maybe 2)lanted. This metaphor is years after it was planted. "In the 
frequent in the O.T. : Jer. xi. 17 ; Amos fourth year all the fruit thereof shall 
ix. 15 etc. According to Eth. Enoch be holy, for giving praise unto the 
X. 16, xciii. 5, 10 Israel is " the plant Lord " (nin'"? □''jiSn t^ip ins). It will 
of righteousness " ; Ixxxiv. 6, "the be observed that our text follows Lev. 
plant of uprightness." xix. 24 very closely : "in the fourth 

Saved me from . . tlie flood. If we year its fruit will be accounted holy" 

observe that in ver. 39 Enoch is called (be. ad "will be gathered"). The 

"the seventh in his generation" and question now arises, what was to be 

that verses 20-39 are Noah's words, done with the fruit of the fourth year ? 

as "a preacher] of righteousness" ; (a) If we omit the words in brackets, 

if we note further the words saved mc our text directs that all the fruit of 

from . . . tlie flood, we shall not un- the fourth year is to be accounted holy 

reasonably conclude that this book was and offered to God. (6) If the 

known to the ^\Titer of 2 Peter ii. 5 bracketed words are genuine, the text 

"saved Noah the eighth person, a directs that, while all the fruit is to 

preacher of righteousness, bringing in be accounted holy, only the first-fruits 

the flood* upon the world of the un- are to be offered to God. In either 

godly." case the words that follow elucidate 



and earth and all things. Let them offer in abundance 
the first of the wine and oil (as) first-fruits on the altar of 
the Lord, who receives it, and what is left let the servants 
of the house of the Lord eat before the altar which receives 
(it). 37. And in the fifth year 

make ye the release so that ye release it in righteousness and 
uprightness, and ye shall be righteous, and all that you plant 
will prosper. 38. For thus did Enoch, the father of your 
father command Methuselah, his son, and Methuselah his son 
Lamech, and Lamech commanded me all the things which his 
fathers commanded him. 39. And I also will give you com- 
mandment, my sons, as Enoch commanded his son in the first 

further the same subject, and ordain 
that of the fruit of the fourth year the 
first-fruits are to be offered on the 
altar and the rest of it to be given to 
the priests. Next the words "offer 
... on the altar" seem to mean 
"offer as a burnt-offering" as in Lev. 
ii. 14-16, where the Israelite is bidden 
to burn the first-fruits of corn and oil 
on the altar. 

But if the above interpretation is 
right, it does not agree with that of 
later Judaism. According to the latter 
it belonged to its owners and was to be 
consumed ivithin the ivalls of Jerusalem. 
See Josephus, Ant. iv. 8. 19. In Sifre 
on Num. v. 10 it is decided that the 
priests had no share in the fruits of 
the fourth year. Something of the 
same nature may be implied in Ps.-Jon. 
on Lev. xix. 24, where the fruit of the 
fourth year is said to be rna-^in 'tPiip 
nn2 |D pnsnb " mp. Beer {Das Bitch 
der JitbUden, p. 52) writes that the 
Samaritans, the Caraite Jews and Ibn 
Ezra held the view set forth in the 
text. In any case , the teaching of our 
text does not diverge from that of later 
Judaism as much as the various regula- 
tions on this subject in the different 
codes of the Pentateuch (see Hastings, 
Bible Lict. ii. 10-11), 

Let them offer. The construction 
with Kama is here jussive. It could 

be rendered "so that they offer," but 
the context is against this. 

37. And in the fifth year. At the 
close of these words I have marked a 
lacuna. The text should have pro- 
ceeded to enunciate the right of eating 
the fruit of this year as in Lev. xix. 25, 
whereas it proceeds to speak of the 
year of release described in Deut. xv. 
1, 9, that is, the seventh year ; or else 
of the command in Exod. xxiii. 11 ; 
Lev. XXV. 2-7, to let the land lie fallow 
every seventh year. The verb hadaga 
is used in the translation of dsb' in the 
above two senses of letting a field lie 
fallow (Exod. xxiii. 11) and of remitting 
a debt (Deut. xv. 2). But the context 
is concerned with the land. Hence we 
may render "let it (the land) rest so that 
ye let it rest." But as this is tauto- 
logous we may conclude that there is 
some corruption. Oxir text = d^iTjcrere 
avr7]v iva d(priTe avTTjv. Here I take 
dcprJTe to be a corruption of dvrJTe. We 
should then have dcp-qaere avri^v Hva 
dvTJTe avT-qv. This is a rendering 
though not an accurate one of na^DB'n 

TV:: • 

nriE'npi in Exod. xxiii. 11. Hence, in- 
stead of ' ' make ye the release ... re- 
lease it," we should probably read : "(In 
the seventh year) ye will let it rest and 
lie fallow," 

38. Tims did Enoch . . . command. 
The author attributes halachoth to 
Enoch. See note on xxi, 10. 


jubilees : whilst still living, the seventh in his generation, 
he commanded and testified to his son and to his sons' sons 
until the day of his death." 

Kdindm discovers an inscription relating to the sun and stars, 
1-4. His sons, 5-8. Noah's sons and Noah divide the 
earth, 10-11. Shem's inheritance, 12-21 : Ham's, 22- 
24: Japhdh's, 25-30. (Cf. Gen. x.) 

1373 A.M. VIII. In the twenty-ninth jubilee, in the first week, in 
the beginning thereof Arpachshad took to himself a wife and 

1375 A.M. her name was Easu'eja, [the daughter of Susan,] the daughter 
of Elam, and she bare him a son in the third year in this 
week, and he called his name Kainam. 2. And the son 
grew, and his father taught him writing, and he went to 
seek for himself a place where he might seize for himself a 
city. 3. And he found a writing which former (generations) 
had carved on the rock, and he read what was thereon, and 

39. Seventh in his generation. Cf. attributed byourauthortothe Watchers, 

Eth. Euoch Ix. 8, xciii. 3 ; Jiule 14. is in Josephus (Ant. i. 2. 3) assigned to 

VIII. 1. Rds^'ijd, — n'fi-\, "the ac- the children of Seth : '2,o(plav re ttjv 

ceptable " (cf. Deut. xxxiii. 24). It Trept to. ovpavia Kai Tr\v tovtuv Sia- 

appears as LoiOi in the Syriac Frag- «o<r/^'?'^',^ iTrepdvaa,'.^ virep di roO m^ 

' oi.a(pvyeiv tovs avdpwjrovs ra ■tjvpyjfj.iva 

"^^^ " fiiid^ irplv eis yvQxnv i\duv (pdapijvat 

Kdindm. This name, which -is not . . . o-TvjXas 5vo TroL-qad/jLevoi ttjv fiev 

found in the Mass., Sam., Sjt., Vulg. ^^ irXbdov rr^v er^pav 8i €k XWwv 

of Gen. xi. 13 nor yet in the Targums, dfKpoT^paLs iviypa\pa.v ra evpr]/j.iva. 

appears in the LXX version of this j. Malala, Anon. Chron. p. 6, repro- 

verse and also in Luke iii. 36. In the duces the matter contained in the above 

Mass., Sam., etc Salah is the son of statement and adds : fiera dk rbv Kara- 

Arphaxad. The same facts are stated KXvafibv Kaivdv, 6 vibs 'Apcpa^dd, avv- 

in Gen. x. 24 and 1 Chron. i. 24. At eypdyparo tt]v dcrrpovo/iiav, evprjKuis rrjv 

the best, therefore, the tradition attested rod "Lr^d Kal rQiv avrov reKvuiv ovofxaalav, 

by our text, the LXX and Luke is not ^y eiptirai, ruv dcrripwv ev v\aKi \i.eLv7j 

an ancient one. The motive for its yeypafifjihriv. In Syncellus, i. 150, 

insertion in the text is ob\aous from this event is recounted as follows : t<^ 

ii. 23 above. Without this name there ,/307r€' ^xet KaCvav dioSeijuv ev rqj irediif) 

would only have been twenty-one heads e£jpf rrjv ypacpr^v rwv yiydvrwv Kal 

from Adam to Jacob. The same ^Kpv^J/e Trap' eavr(^. The words of 

motive may have led to its insertion in Syncellus are reproduced in Cedrenus, 

the LXX. i. 27, but with the following important 

^. ffefowndaioritijigjetcThemsdom addition which further illustrates our 


he transcribed it and sinned owing to it ; for it contained 

the teaching of the Watchers in accordance with which they 

used to observe the omens of the sun and moon and stars in all 

the signs of heaven. 4. And he wrote it down and said nothing 

regarding it; for he was afraid to speak to Noah about it lest 

he should be angry with him on account of it. 5. And in 

the thirtieth jubilee, in the second week, in the first year 1429 a.m. 

thereof, he took to himseK a wife, and her name was MSlk^, 

the daughter of Madai, the son of Japheth, and in the 

fourth year he begat a son, and called his name Shelah; for 1432 a.m. 

he said : " Truly I have been sent." 6. [And in the fourth 

year he was born], and Shelah grew up and took to himself 

a wife, and her name was Mii'ak, the daughter of Kesed, his 

father's brother, in the one and thirtieth jubilee, in the fifth 1499 a.m. 

week, in the first year thereof. 7. And she bare him a son 

in the fifth year thereof, and he called his name Eber : and 

he took unto himself a wife, and her name was 'Azurad, the 1503 a.m. 

text: Kal ai'Tos /J.iv iv aiiTois i^TjfidpTave reading a'elawo instead of a'elawa we 

Kal Toi)? &Wovs TTjv avTr]v droTriav should have : " it led him astray." 

i^e-jraldevcrev. oi d^ rbv 2dXa (paal Sinned owing to it. Cedreuus (see 

Ta.iiT7}v evprjKsvai.. In Joel's Clvrono- above) preserves this clause : iv avroh 

grcq^hy, pp. 3-4, we find additional i^r/fxdfyrave. 

details borrowed probably from John ITsed to oJserae = jere'eju. In my 

Malala (see above) : ixera de rbv text I emended this into jereseju = 

KaTaK\v(Xfibv Kai'vdp 6 vibs 'Ap(pa^d5 "were founding." 

ffweypd'^aro tt]v d(TTpovofj.iav eiip-qKus In all the signs, etc. Cf. xi. 8. 

Tr]t> Tov Stj^ Kal tQv avrou riKvwv 5. MUkd, from no'jD = "queen" or 

dvo/xacrlav Kal rdv daripoiv iv irXaKl "counsel." 

\ieivri yeyXvixfiev-qv. Similarly in Madai. Emended with Syr. v_a|l^ 

the Book of Jashar 10 a Cainan the son , -r j > n, ■,, \ 

^c.^7 1 iii, i-Av A ^■^d Lagarde s Greek MS r : aeXya 

of Seth, and not the son ot Arphaxad, g ^ a<.<:/»a."' 

as in our text and the above chrono- T, 77 ,7 • '' a i t ^ -, 

eraohies is described as possessing Called his name Shdah ; for he said : 

Ireat wisdom and a knowledge of future [Truly I haveheen sent.' _ Here obviously 

ivents, especially of the deluge. This *^T" ^^^ ^ paronomasia m the original 

wisdoi he inscribed on tables of stone ^"^^^f ^'?'5 '? "^'"^ ^°^ "'^ ^:<?:> ^^^ 

(pK mm'? Vy) and placed them among Shelah, Eth. has Sala = LXX SaXd. 

his treasures. See the quotation from 6. Bracketed words a dittography 

Josephus above. Just as the revela- ^o™ preceding verse, 

tions of the Watchers are transferred MXak. Lagarde's MS r on Gen. x. 

to Seth, so likewise the revelations of 24 : /xwaxa dvyarrip xeeoa^u : Syr. 

the Slavonic Enoch are assigned to him J'^S. V^ from n^ya, a frequent O.T. name, 

by the Greek chronographers. These «• > . -1 ^ ? 01. 1 j 1 . 

words will be found in the note on iv. . '• ^^^'•^- Should be Aziira. Syr. 

15. fi^f) > Lagarde's MS r on Gen. x. 24 : 

He transcribed it. So MSS. By a^-oi-pa from mii% "the treasured one." 



1564 A.M. daughter of Nebrod, in the thirty-second jubilee, in the 
seventh week, in the third year thereof. 8. And in the 

1567 A.M. sixth year thereof, she bare him a son, and he called his name 
Peleg ; for in the days when he was born the children of 
Noah began to divide the earth amongst themselves: for 
this reason he called his name Peleg. 9, And they 
divided (it) secretly amongst themselves, and told it to 
Noah. 10. And it came to pass in the beginning of the 

1569 A.M. thirty-third jubilee that they divided the earth into three 
parts, for Shem and Ham and Japheth, according to the 
inheritance of each, in the first year in the first week, when 
one of us, who had been sent, was with them. 11. And he 
called his sons, and they drew nigh to him, they and their 
children, and he divided the earth into the lots, which his 

8. Divide tlie earth . . . for this 
reason he called his name Peleg. As 
in ver. 5 we have here again a parono- 
masia, lor nx unp jo'? . . . pxri n.N uSs' 
jVs. Cf. Gen. X. 25. For Peleg, Eth. 
has Phalek. 

9, 10. This secret and unauthorita- 
tive division of the earth is followed by 
a formal and authoritative one made 
by Noah in the presence of an angel, 
and subscribed to by his sons with an 
oath binding on their descendants. On 
this subject Beer {Buck der Jubildcn, 
p. 33) quotes Pirke R. Eliezer, eh. 24. 
This device of the author in some 
respects anticipates the Social Contract 
of Rousseau, but the objects are differ- 
ent. The theory in our text makes it 
clear that there must have been current 
in the second cent. B.C. religious and 
moral objections to the Hebrew invasion 
of Palestine and the slaughter of the 
Canaauites which accompanied it. This 
scheme of an ancestral compact ajiproved 
by God and accepted as obligatory for 
succeeding generations is an attempt to 
obviate such objections, and to show 
that in reality the true transgressors 
were not Israel but the Canaanites, and 
that Israel in seizing Palestine were 
but resuming possession of what was 
their own ; for the Canaanites had 
settled in Palestine, although this 
country had fallen by lot to Shem and 

his descendants (see ix. 14, 15, x. 29- 
34 and notes in loc.). By mutual con- 
sent, moreover, a curse had been in- 
voked on any one who should break 
this covenant as well as destruction on 
him and on his seed. Cf. Epiphan. 
Eaer. \xvi. 84 (II. ii. p. 542, Oehler) : 
ovK oldev 6 idiwTTjs 6ti Trjv iSiav yrji' 
dTreiXrjf^av 5LT}pira<Tfiivr}v an avrCiv koX 
i^ediKTidT) TO /xera^v dWrfKuv yiv6/M€va 
iv dpif) ciKrjdfias Kal SpKif. Nwe yap 
. . . fidvos oiaipiov rhv iravra Kda/nop 
To7y Tpicrlv viols avrov, rdp Srj/ii koI Xdfj. 
Kal 'Id(pe6, dieiXe ^a\<hu Toi'S KX'qpovs 
{V 'FivoKopovpoLS. Hence when Israel 
invaded Palestine and drove out the 
Canaanites they were simply recovering 
their own possessions. Cf. Syncellus, 
i. 83-84 : vewrepicras 6 toO Xot/u, i;i6s 
Xaj'aai' fwi^Tj rots opioLS rov ^tj/jI, Kal 
KaTipKTjaev eK€i Trapa^ds t7]u evToXyiv 
NcDe crvv rots e| aiirov yevofiivois 'idveaw 
eirrd, 'Afioppaiois, Xerrat'oty, ^epe^aiois, 
Evaiois, Fepyeaalois, 'le^ovcraloLS Kal 
Hapavaiois, ovs 5ta Mwucr^ws Kal 'Irjcrov 
e^(jj\60pev(Tei> 6 6ebs Kal /card rivas 
Kaipoiis did tQv KpiTuv dw^BuKe Tots 
viots 'Icpa-JjX TTjv Trarpipav yrjv . . . 

9. Secretly. See note on iv. 5. 

10. One of lis, ivho had been sent. 
This angel is one of the angels of the 
presence whom God had sent down to 
bind the fallen watchers, v. 6. See 
notes on iv. 15, v. 6. 



three sons were to take in possession, and they reached forth 
their hands, and took the writing out of the bosom of Noah, 
their father. 12. And there came forth on the writing as 
Shem's lot the middle of the earth which he should take as 
an inheritance for himself and for his sons for the gener- 
ations of eternity, from the middle of the mountain range 
of Eafa, from the mouth of the water from the river 

12-21. She7n's lot. It is impossible 
to define exactly the limits of Shem's 
portion. The text is at times indefinite 
and no doubt corrupt ; but even if we 
had the original before us many ob- 
scurities would still remain, owing to 
the vague and inaccurate geographical 
ideas of the time. The boundaries of 
Shem's portion are defined in verses 
12-16 and the countries embraced with- 
in them in ver. 21, and ix. 2-6, 13^. 
Since there is some hope of under- 
standing our author's ideas as to the 
countries allotted to Shem, we shall 
confine our attention in the main to 
this question, and supplement the evi- 
dence of the text by citations from 
Epiphanius and Syncellus which are 
based upon it. We shall also make 
occasional use of the statements of 
Josephus on this head as well as of the 
Chronicles of Jerahmeel. 

First of all Shem's jjortion is said to 
include (ver. 21) the countries of Eden, 
and of the Red Sea, of Bashan, Lebanon, 
Elam, Asshur, Babel, Susa, Media, 
India, the mountains of Sanir and 
Amana, and the islands of Kaftur. To 
this list ix. 2-6 adds the waters of 
Dedan, the mountains of Mebri and 
Ela and the land of Arara (? Ararat). 
Finally in ix. 13'' there are the islands 
of Kamaturi. Now, if we turn to 
Epiphanius, Ancorat. cxii. (Dindorf's ed. 
i. 215), we find that he defines Shem's 
portion as extending from Persia and 
Bactria to India, to Rhinocurura which 
is between Egypt and Palestine (t(^ /ul^v 
Stj/a . . . viriwecrei' 6 KX^pos aTrb Ilep- 
ffl8os Kal BdKTpwv ^ws 'Ivoiktjs ^ws ttjs 
X'Jipo-^ ^VivoKovpovpoiv). The same state- 
ment is made in the Chronicon Paschale 
(i. 53) and in Syncellus (i. 82), though 
in fuller form in the latter (2-f)^ . . . 
iSwKev airb IlepcriSos Koi BdKTpuv ?wj 
'IvdiKTJi IJ.TJKOS, irXdros d^ dirb 'IvSlktjs 

eais "PivoKovpoipuiv tt}? Alyi!iTrrov, iJTOi 
TCL diro dvaToKTJs ewy fxepovs t^s /j-earffi- 
^pias, T-rjv re 'Evpiav Kal Mrideiav Kal 
TTOTaixhv diopi^ovra avrov to, bpia rbv 
Ev(ppdTr]v). Cedrenus (i. 23) reproduces 
this passage. The Chronicles of Jerah- 
meel xxxi. 2 give practically the same 
delimitations : " Shem, the eldest, chose 
his portion in the land of 'Asya, that 
is, the land of Persia from Bactris to 
Endiana, fi-om the Persian river to 
the Ocean in the -^vest and the whole 
Rinos. " These definitions include for 
the most part the countries enumerated 
in our text above as well as in Josephus, 
Ant. i. 6. 4, but they hardly explain the 
statement in viii. 12 that Shem's portion 
extended to the river Don and the 
Rhipaean mountains. Now a list of 
countries filling up this larger area is 
given in Epiphanius (Adv. Haer. II. ii. 
p. 544 [Haer. Ixv. 83], ed. Oehler) : 
to; 5^ S-ij/U VTrineaeu 6 /cXTjpos npos 
TrXdros, ij HaXaicTTlvrj Kal ^olvIkt} Kal 
'KoiXtj, KofjLfj.ayrjVT], KtXtw'a, KaTr- 
TradoKia, TdXaria, Ila(p\a'yovia, Qpg.K7}, 
'Evpilnrij, 'FoddTTT], Aa^ia, 'l^rjpia, 
'Kaa-TTia, KapSuea, axpt Tiis M7]8las 
TTpbs ^oppdv. ivrevdev odros 6 KXrjpos 
diopl^ei Tov 'Idcped rd irpbs jSoppdv. But 
Thrace, Rhodope and probably Europa 
are here wrongly assigned to Shem. 

12. The middle of the earth. Palestine 
according to Ezek. xxxviii. 12 (cf. also 
V, 5 ; Eth. Enoch xxvi. 1) was the navel 
(nUB, 6/j.<pa\os) of the earth. Cf. viii. 
19 of OUT text. The idea reappears in 
Rabbinic Hebrew. Singer (p. 68) quotes 
Joma 54 6 ; Sanhedrin 37 a ; Pesikta 
Rabb. X. in Tanch. on Lev. xix. 23, 

Rd/d. This range is no doubt the 
Rhipaean mountains which ancient 
geographers placed in the northern 
parts of Europe and Asia or in other 



Tina, and his portion goes towards the west through the midst 
of this river, and it extends till it reaches the water of the 
abysses, out of which this river goes forth and pours its 
waters into the sea Me'at, and this river flows into the great 
sea. And all that is towards the north is Japheth's, and all 
that is towards the south belongs to Shem. 13. And it 
extends till it reaches Karaso : this is in the bosom of the 
tongue which looks towards the south. 14. And his 
portion extends along the great sea, and it extends in a 
straight line till it reaches the west of the tongue which 
looks towards the south ; for this sea is named the tongue 
of the Egyptian Sea. 15. And it turns from here towards 
the south towards the mouth of the great sea on the shore of 

cases appear to have identified \\ith 
the Ural mountains. The Tanais or 
Don is placed by our author in their 
neighbourhood. A son of Peleg is so 
named in the Chronicles of Jerahmeel 
xxvii. 5. 

nnd. The Tanais or Don. This 
river is said to spring from "the waters 
of the abysses." 

Me'at. The Maeotis or Sea of Azov. 

13-14. These two verses should de- 
scribe the western boundary. 

13. KArAs6. Dillmann identifies this 
place with the Chersonese. But if it 
is connected, as it seems to be, with 
"the tongue (i.e. gulf) which looks 
towards the south," which in ver. 14 
is defined as "the tongue of the 
Egyptian Sea," this identification cannot 
be right. I am inclined to believe that 
in Karaso we have the latter part of 
the word ''PiPOKOpovpa, which lies on 
the western boundary of Shem. For 
if we turn to the quotations from Epi- 
phanius and SjTicellus in the note on 
12-21 we find that the portion of Shem 
is said to extend "from India to 
Ehinocurura in Egyj^t." This place 
furthermore is situated on the frontier 
of Ham's portion according to Epiphan- 
ius and the Chronicles of Jerahmeel. 
Thus in Adv. Ilaer. II. ii. 84 of the 
former, Ham's African dominions extend 
dirb 'PivcKovpoi^ipwu &XP'- Tadelpuv : and 
in xxxi. 2 of the latter, " from Rinos as 
far as Gadaira." In this last quotation 

we have another abbreviation of the 
long name Rhinocurura. It will be 
observed, indeed, that our text makes 
Shem's portion extend westward as far as 
the mouths of the Gihon (Nile), so that 
later writers have diverged somewhat 
from their primal authority. 'Pij'o- 
Kovpovpa is used by the LXX in trans- 
lating c'li'D hm, i.e., "the torrent of 
Egypt," a town on the confines of Egypt 
and Palestine, in Is. xxvii. 12. 

This is in the bosom of. These words 
cannot be right if either of the above 
interpretations of Karaso is sound. 

Tongue. The word lesan may be 
rendered indifferently "promontory" 
(of the land) or "bay" or "gulf" (of 
the sea). 

Tongue ivhich looks towards the south. 
This phrase is repeated and defined in 
the next verse. 

14. Tongue which looks towards the 
south. This may mean the promontory 
which runs out into the Red Sea on 
which Mt. Sinai is situated. 

Tlie tongue of the Egyptian Sea. 
This is the Gulf of Aqaba at the north 
of the Red Sea. Our text is the literal 
equivalent of Is. xi. 15, cn^o □' nty^, as 
Littmann has observed. 

15-16. These two verses should de- 
scribe mainly the southern, eastern, and 
north em -eastern boundaries. 

15. ThewordSamSnwhich is rendered 
" south " can also be rendered "north " 
— a later meaning of the word. 

CHAPTER VIII. 13-19 71 

(its) waters, and it extends to the west to 'AM, and it extends 
till it reaches the waters of the river Gihon, and to the south 
of the waters of Gihon, to the banks of this river. 16. And 
it extends towards the east, till it reaches the Garden of Eden, 
to the south thereof, [to the south] and from the east of 
the whole land of Eden and of the whole east, it turns to 
the •(•east,'f and proceeds till it reaches the east of the 
mountain named Eafa, and it descends to the bank of the 
mouth of the river Tina. 1 7. This portion came forth by- 
lot for Shem and his sons, that they should possess it for 
ever unto his generations for evermore. 18. And Noah 
rejoiced that this portion came forth for Shem and for his 
sons, and he remembered all that he had spoken with his 
mouth in prophecy ; for he had said : 
" Blessed be the Lord God of Shem, 
And may the Lord dwell in the dwelling of Shem." 
19. And he knew that the Garden of Eden is the 
holy of holies, and the dwelling of the Lord, and Mount 

West to 'Afrd (cd). b reads "to the [To the south]. Bracketed as ditto- 
west of 'Afra." ' Afra seems to be Africa graphy. 
in its early limited sense. It turns to the ^east^. We should 

Gihon. Eth. has Gijon, i.e., the expect "to the west." I have omitted 

Gihon, one of the four rivers of Paradise "and " before ' ' it turns. " The boundary 

(Gen. ii. 13). According to our text line now returns to the river Don whence 

(viii. 23) it flows to the south of the it started in ver. 12. 
Garden of Eden. This river compassed 18. See vii. 11. God dwells in the 

"the whole land of Gush." Whether dwellings of Shem: the three most 

the Cushites are the Kassi of the holy places belong to Shem. 
cuneiform inscriptions or the Ethiop- 19. In iv. 26 above we have seen 

ians does not concern us here, though that there are four holy places in tht 

the identification of the Gihon and Nile earth : from the present verses we learn 

may have arisen from a confusion of that three of these are in Shem's portion, 

the two countries. Syncellus, i. 89, The fourth place, therefore, must either 

speaks of two distinct countries named have been in Japheth's or Ham's por- 

Ethiopia : AWtoiria i] /SX^Troutra /card tion. Either therefore the Mount of 

'Iv8ods TTpos €vp6voTov, dWr] AiOioTria the East may be regarded as Ararat in 

vpbs v6tov, 6d€v iKTrope^erai 6 NeiXoj Japheth's portion, or as the great 

irora/j-ds. Our author undoubtedly iden- mountain in the south-east (cf. Eth. 

tifies the Nile with the Gihon. So Syn- En. xxiv. 3, xxv. 3), which would 

cellus (p. 82) interprets this passage, rbv probably belong to Ham's portion. See 

^€i\op, SsKalTeiCop . . . "Kiyerai. Trjdiv alsoiv. 26 note. The latter mountain is 

is used as a rendering of niN", i.e., the the chief in a range of mountains of fire 

NileinSirachxxiv.27: seealso Jer.ii. 18. (Eth. En. xviii. 9, xxiv. 1), and such 

16. South. Better translate " north." a range belongs to Ham's portion : see 

See note on ver. 15. ver. 22. 



Sinai the centre of the desert, and Mount Zion — the centre 
of the navel of the earth : these three were created as 
holy places facing each other. 20. And he blessed the God 
of gods, who had put the word of the Lord into his mouth, 
and the Lord for evermore. 21. And he knew that a 
blessed portion and a blessing had come to Shem and his 
sons unto the generations for ever — the whole land of Eden 
and the whole land of the Eed Sea, and the whole land of 
the east, and India, and on the Eed Sea and the mountains 
thereof, and all the land of Bashan, and all the land of 
Lebanon and the islands of Kaftur, and all the mountains of 
Sanir and 'Amana, and the mountains of Asshur in the north, 
and all the land of Elam, Asshur, and Babel, and Sus5.n and 
Ma'edai, and all the mountains of Ararat, and all the region 
beyond the sea, which is beyond the mountains of Asshur 
towards the north, a blessed and spacious land, and all that 

Navel of the earth. See note on 
ver. 12. 

21. A blexsed 2}ortion. Cf. Syncellus, 
p. 83, (Stj/x) Tcis e^aip^TOvs ruiv Trap' 
avTOv ev\oyi.ijiv (KXr^pwcraTO lis Kai iv 
TTJ Teviffei (piperai. On the countries 
mentioned in this ver. see note on 

Baslian. In Eth. Basa. 

Islands of KaftHr. This is Caphtor' 
the proper name of a country in Jer- 
xlvii. 4 ; Amos ix. 7. The plural is 
used of its inhabitants in Gen. x. 14 ; 
Dent. ii. 23. In Gen. x. 14 these are 
taken to be the Cappadocians in the 
Syr., Onk., and the Jon. and Jer. Tar- 
gums ; also in Amos ix. 7 in the LXX, 
Syr., Vulg., Targ.-Jon. ; also in Jer. 
xlvii. 4 in the Sjt., Jon. Targ., Vulg.; 
also in Dent. ii. 23 in the LXX, Syr,, 
Onk., Vulg., Jon. -Targ. There are 
thus some grounds for regarding Kaftfir 
as equivalent to Cappadocia in this 
text, and this view may be confirmed 
by the passage in Epiphanius which 
includes Cappadocia in the portion of 
Shem ; see quotation in note on viii. 
12-21. On the other hand if we take 
the words "islands of Kaftur" as a 

correct translation of the original (prob- 
ably nin33 \x), the phrase may denote 
the island of Crete. Kamaturi in ix. 
13 may be a corruption of Kaftdr. 
Modern exegesis has taken the scrip- 
tural Caphtor to be Cilicia, Cyprus, 
Crete, or Coptos, a city in the upper 
Thebaid (seeMncyc.Bib.on "Caphtor"). 

Sanir and ' Amdnd. Cf. ix. 4. These 
names maj- be derived from Cant. iv. 8. 
Sanir is the Biblical Senir in Deut. iii. 
9 ; Ezek. xxvii. 5. In Deut. iii. 9 it is 
said to be the Amoritish name for 
Hermon. Saniru occurs in the cuneiform 
inscriptions (see Bertholet on Ezekiel 
xxvii. 5). 'Amana may belong to the 
range of the Antilibanus or be Mt. 
Amanus in northern Syria. Josephus 
{Ant. 1. 6. 1) and the Chronicles of 
Jerahmeel (xxxi. 3. 5) favour the latter 

Elam. The name of Shem's eldest 
son. The coimtry is the AssjTian 
Elamtu, and is "nearly equivalent to 
the Susiana and Elymais of the Greeks " 
{Encyc. Bib. ii. 1253). Susan, which is 
mentioned presently, was its capital, or 
it may stand for Susiana. 

MdMQA, i.e. Media. See x. 35. 



is in it is very good. 22. And for Ham came forth the second 
portion, beyond the Gihon towards the south to the right of 
the Garden, and it extends towards the south and it extends 
to all the mountains of fire, and it extends towards the west 
to the sea of 'Atel and it extends towards the west till it 
reaches the sea of Ma'uk — that (sea) into which f everything 
which is not destroyed descends^. 23. And it goes forth 
towards the north to the limits of Gadir, and it goes forth to 
the coast of the waters of the sea to the waters of the great 
sea till it draws near to the river Gihon, and goes along the 
river Gihon till it reaches the right of the Garden of Eden. 
24. And this is the land which came forth for Ham as the 
portion which he was to occupy for ever for himself and his 
sons unto their generations for ever. 25. And for Japheth 

22-24. Ham's portion. Tliis portion 
embraces all Africa from the moiitlis of 
the Nile westward and southward and 
certain parts of Asia, which are vaguely 
defined in viii. 23, ix. 1, imperfectly in 
Epiphan. Ancorat. cxii. : Xd/i 5^ rc^ 
Oeirrepip dir6 rij^ ai^r^s 'YiyoKovpoijpwv 
€ii)s TaSeipwv to. irpbs votov: and in 
Syncellus, 82 : Xd/U. 5k ry devT^piji . . . 
edojKe TO. Trpos votov Kal Aij3a Kal 
/j.4pos TTJi dvcreus cltto 'FivoKOvpovpwv ttjs 
AlyijiTTOV, AWioTriav, /cat Atyvirrov Kal 
Ai^irqv, 'A(ppiKr]v /cat Mavpiraviav ews 
'Hpa/cXelwj' ffrrjXwv tjtol ?wj tov SutikoO 
Kal AijivKod '^Keavov, -rrorafibv Stopt- 
^ovTa TOV NetXof, 8s Kal TeLwv . . . 
\4y€TaL, for both these passages omit 
the countries belonging to Ham in 
Asia. In Epiphan. Adv. Haer, II. ii. 
544 (Haer. Ixvi. 84), however, these 
are given very fully: vw^ireaev 6 
kKtjpos cLTrb 'PivoKovpovpwv dxpt 
Tadelpojv, AtyvKTOv ?%coi' /cat Mapet- 
avdlvrjv Kal ', Ai^v-qv re 
Kal ilapfxapiSa, IlevTaTroXLv, Ma/cdrTji*, 
^laKp6vT}v re Kal AeTrTrifxdyvr]v, X^upTiv, 
MavpiTaviav, dxpi- tQv "HpaKXeuiTiKdiv 
aTr]\u)v \eyofxiv(j)v Kal r^j ecrw raSetprjs" 
TaDra rd Trpos votoV dirb 5k '^lvokov- 
povpuv TO, TTpbs dvaToXrjv, tt/jv re 'IBov- 
fjLaiav Kal ^laSiav'tTiv, T7)v re 'AXa- 
^acFTpiTiv, Kal 'O/xTjptrtc, Kal 'A^wfxiTiv, 
/cat Boijyeav, /cat Ai^av, dxpt ttjs 
Tu)v BaKTpuv xtipas. d 5^ aOroj 

/cX-^pos Siopt'j'et dva fieaov tov 
"SiTifj. rd Trpos dvaToXrjv. According 
to the Chronicles of Jerahmeel xxxi. 
2 " Ham took his portion in the land 
of Afriqia which comprises Aram, 
Hamath, and the mountain of Lebanon 
. . . until the Red Sea and the Sea of 
Philistia, from Rinos as far as Gadaira." 
See also for Josephus' views, Arit. i. 6. 2. 

22. Gihon. Eth. has Gijon. See 
note on viii. 15. 

To tlie right, i.e. to the south. 

Mountains of fire. On certain fiery 
mountains see Eth. Enoch xviii. 6-9, 
xxiv. 1-3. 

'Atel. The Atlantic. 

MA'^Cik. This sea or ocean lies in the 
extreme west : cf. ver. 26. Is the word 
a distortion of 'ii/ceai'os, the Great Ocean 
Stream ? 

Everything which is not destroyed 
descends [ab). cd—" everything perish- 
able descends." What is required 
probably is : "if anything descends 
into it, it perishes." 

23. Gddir, i.e. Gades, Cadiz. 

Goes along the river Gihon. I have 
added 'ba' before Gihon; for the writer 
could not say that the Nile liowed 
towards the Garden of Eden. 

25-29^. Japheth's portion — Northern 
Asia, Europe, and five great islands. 
This portion, which is further described 
in ix. 7-13, embraces the countries north 


came forth the third portion beyond the river Tina to the 
north of the outflow of its waters, and it extends north- 
easterly to the whole region of Gog and to all the country 
east thereof. 26. And it extends northerly to the north, 
and it extends to the mountains of Qelt towards the north, 
and towards the sea of Ma'uk, and it goes forth to the east 
of Gadir as far as the region of the waters of the sea. 27. 
And it extends until it approaches the west of Fara and it 
returns towards 'Aferag, and it extends easterly to the 
waters of the sea of Me'at. 28. And it extends to the 
region of the river Tin^ in a north-easterly direction until it 
approaches the boundary of its waters towards the mountain 
Eiifa, and it turns round towards the north. 29. This is 
the land which came forth for Japheth and his sons as the 
portion of his inheritance which he should possess for himself 
and his sons, for their generations for ever ; five great 
islands, and a great land in the north. 30. But it is cold, 

of Shem and Ham's portions from ^pdyyuv &vw x'^/"^^- -^^ elaborate 

Media to Rhinocurura in Asia and to account of Japhet's province appears 

Gades in Europe. Epiplianius (Ancorat. in Josephus, Ant. i. 6. 1, and in the 

cxii.) describes it brietiy : 'Ia4>ed t(J5 Chronicles of Jerahmeel xxxi. 4-5. 

TpiTif} anb M7;5ias ?ws Tadeipuv Kal The latter is dependent in some respects 

FtvoKovpovpcjv TO, irpbs Boppdv. Cf. on the former. 

Chronicon Pasch. i. 46. A fuller 25. The boundaries of Japheth's por- 

account from a later standpoint is given tion in Asia. 

by Syncellus (p. 83) : 'ld<ped . . . Gog. The country of Gog is in 

(idwKev) dtrb MTjSei'as ra Trpdj ApKTOv northern Asia. Gog is identified ■with 

Kal Svafidi ?ws Vadelpuv /cat Bperravi- the Scythians by Josephus {Ant. i. 6. 

Kwv v-qcuiv, 'ApfjLevlav Kal 'lj3ijpLav, 1) and the Chronicles of Jerahmeel 

HbvTov, K6\xovs Kal ras KaTOirii' xwpas (xxxi. 4). 

Kal vrjffovs ^'wj 'IraXias Kal TaWiKTJs, 26-28. The boundaries of Japheth's 

^iraviKrjs, re Kal KeXrL^ripias Kal Anert- portion in Europe. 

Tavuf. Practically the same descrip- 26. QSlt. These are probably the 

tion of Japheth's province is given by Celts. 

Epiphanius (Adv. Haer. II. ii. 544 MA'tlk. See on ver. 22. 

[ITaer. IxA'i. 84]) : o5tos 6 /cX^pos 27. Fdrd (c d), b Fera, a Fereg. 

(toO !St?m) Siopii^ei rbv 'ld<ped to. Fara may be Africa. See ver. 15. 

Trpos Boppdv (i.e., Japheth's province Afirdg. This may be Phrygia. This 

in Asia is bounded by Shem's on country according to Josephus (Ant. 

the south): irpds 5^ ttjv Svaiv dirb i. 6. 1) and the Chronicles of Jerahmeel 

T^s Ei'pwTTT/s fixP' ■'"^5 'IcTrai'ias Kal xxxi. 5 belonged to Japheth. 

BptTTactas, iKeldiv re ra vapaKeifxeva 29. Five great islands. See note 

iOvT), "Erjre^ Kal Aavpeis, 'Idirvyes, on ix. 13. To these five may belong 

KdXa^poi, AoTij'oi, 'OttikoL, 'Mdyapoes, Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica. Five 

^ws 5MKaroxv^ ttjs STrovias, Kal rrjs islands in the Great Sea are mentioned 

TaWlai, TTJi T€ tCiv "ZKbrTwv Kal in Eth. Enoch Ixxvli. 8. 


and the land of Ham is hot, and the land of Shem is neither 
hot nor cold, but it is of blended cold and heat. 

Subdivision of the three portions amongst the grandcJiildren 
of Noah. Amongst Ham's children, 1 : Shem's 2-6 : 
Japheth's, 7-13. Oath taken hy Noah's sons, 14-15. 

IX. And Ham divided amongst his sons, and the first 
portion came forth for Cush towards the east, and to the 
west of him for Mizraim, and to the west of him for Put, 
and to the west of him [and to the west thereof] on the sea for 
Canaan. 2. And Shem also divided amongst his sons, and 
the first portion came forth for Elam and his sons, to the east 
of the river Tigris till it approaches the east, the whole land of 
India, and on the Eed Sea on its coast, and the waters of 


Dedan, and all the mountains of Mebri and 'Ela, and all 
the land of Susan and all that is on the side of Pharnak to 
the Eed Sea and the river Tina. 3. And for Asshur came 
forth the second portion, all the land of Asshur and Nineveh 

30. Land of Ham is hot. Cf. Epi- running northward to Pontus and the 

phan. ITaer. Ixvi. 85 : Xavaav di Don. 

irXeov^KTrfs ibv 6 vibs too Xafi eirriKde The east, the ivhole land of India 

rrj Ila\ai(TT7]vQv y^ . . . KaroKel^as {cd). ab read "to the east of the 

t'ov idiov K\rjpov dia to &okuv elvat whole land of India." But India was 

KavfxaTLvdv. in Shem's portion. See viii. 21. 

IX. 1. Cf. Gen. X. 6. Waters of Beddn. Dedan is a son of 

Cush. Eth. has Ques, The country Raamah, one of the sons of Cush (Gen. 

is no doubt Ethiopia. See also Josephus x. 7) or of Jokshan, son of Keturah 

and the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, in loc. (Qen. xxv. 3). The Dedanites are 

Mizraim. Eth. has Mesrem. He generally taken to be a commercial 

receives o^nso or Egypt. people dwelling in Arabia, possibly on 

Put. Eth.hasPhud. SoalsoinLXX the north-west. See Encyc. BiU. 

#0153, i.e. B13. The country of Phud j, 1053. 

is Libya, lying west of Egypt. See ' j^^^;. g^y ^ Mazbara. 
Josephus and Jerahmeel. ,2,,. /, js ,t>T 

To the west of him . . . on the sea for ^^* (^^f*^- " ^^''^^ 

Canaan. Thus Canaan's portion ex- Pharndk. Can this be Pharnacia on 

tended from Libya to the Atlantic on the coast of Pontus ? On the countries 

the west. See x. 28-29. The bracketed falling to Shem's portion in Asia Minor 

words are a dittography. ^d'I to the north see quotation from 

2. Elam's portion— from the Tigris Epiphanius {Adv. Haer.) in note on 

to the utmost confines of India, the viii. 12-21. 
countries bordering on the Eed Sea and 3. Nineveh. Eth. Ninevi, 


and Shinar and to the border of India, and it ascends and 
skirts the river. 4. And for Arpachshad came forth the 
third portion, all the land of the region of the Chaldees to 
the east of the Euphrates, bordering on the Eed Sea, and 
all the waters of the desert close to the tongue of the sea 
which looks towards Egypt, all the land of Lebanon and 
Sanir and 'Amana to the border of the Euphrates. 5. And 
for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land 
of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to 
the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of 
Asshur and the land of 'Arara. 6. And there came forth 
for Lud the fifth portion, the mountains of Asshur and all 
appertaining to them till it reaches the Great Sea, and till 
it reaches the east of Asshur his brother. 7. And Japheth 
also divided the land of his inheritance amongst his sons. 
8. And the first portion came forth for Gomer to the east 
from the north side to the river Tina ; and in the north 
there came forth for Magog all the inner portions of the 
north until it reaches to the sea of Me'at. 9. And for 
Madai came forth as his portion that he should possess from 
the west of his two brothers to the islands, and to the coasts 
of the islands. 10. And for Javan came forth the fourth 

Shinar. Eth. has Sinaar. The west coast of Asia Minor to the east of 

Shinar of Scripture, Gen. x. 10, etc. Asshur. Josephus, Ant. i. 6. 4, says 

And skirts the rirer =wawadafa tlie descendants of Lud were the 

falaga, emended from wadafa falag of Lydians. 

abd, which is untranslateable. If 8. Magog. Only Gog is spoken of 

wadafa were the name of a river we in viii. 25. 

might emend falag into falaga and 9. The north - western portions of 

translate: "to the river Wadafa. " Europe fell to Madai's lot, but he was 

4. Arpachshad's jiortiou. See further dissatisfied with it (see x. 35) and 
ix. 13 for the islands allotted to him. begged a portion of Shem's lot. Madai's 
In Josephus, Ant. i. 6. 4, the descend- lot would seem to embrace Britain and 
ants of Arpachshad are identified with Ireland. The former is mentioned in 
the Chaldees. Eth. has 'Arphaxed. the Chronicles of Jerahmeel (xxxi. 5), 

Tongue of the sea, etc. I don't kuow Epiphauius and Syncellus ; see notes on 

what is meant here. viii. 25-29*. 

Sanir and 'Avidnd. See note on 10. Javan. Eth.has'Ijo'evan. Javan 

viii. 21. denotes properly Ionia, the Greek 

5. The Syrians. colony in Asia Minor, and is used in 
'Ardrd, i.e. Ararat. See viii. 21. this limited sense in Is. Ixvi. 19 ; 

6. Lud's portion extends from the Ezek. xxvii. 13. This name also de 



portion every island and the islands which are towards the 
border of Lud. 11. And for Tubal there came forth the 
fifth portion in the midst of the tongue which approaches 
towards the border of the portion of Lud to the second 
tongue, to the region beyond the second tongue unto the 
third tongue. 12. And for Meshech came forth the sixth 
portion, all the region beyond the third tongue till it ap- 
proaches the east of Gadir. 13. And for Tiras there came 
forth the seventh portion, four great islands in the midst of 
the sea, which reach to the portion of Ham [and the islands 
of Kamaturi came out by lot for the sons of Arpachshad as 
his inheritance]. 14. And thus the sons of Noah divided 

notes the Graeco- Macedonian empire : 
Dan. viii. 21, x. 20, xi. 2. In our text 
it seems to embrace all the islands of 
the coast of Asia Minor, while in Jose- 
phus, Ant. i. 6. 1, it includes Ionia 
and all the Greeks. 

JEvery island and the islands. We 
should expect rather "all the coast- 
lands and the island." 

11. Tubal's (Eth, Tobel) portion 
seems to extead from Thrace to 
Italy. Josephus, Ant. i. 6. 1, iden- 
tifies Tubal's descendants with the 
Iberes who lived in the Caiicasus, 
and the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, xxxi. 
5, identify them with the Iberi and 
Ispamia (?). It is not clear what the 
three tongues of land are. Italy seems 
to be the third, Greece the second and 
possibly Thrace the first. The descend- 
ants of Tubal in Gen. x. 2 are identified 
with Tibareni in Pontus. 

12. As Italy seems to be the third 
tongue, Meshech's portion extends from 
the north of Italy to Cadiz. Josephus, 
Ant. i. 6. 1, and the Chronicles of 
Jerahmeel, xxxi. 4, take the descend- 
ants of Meshech to be identified with 
the Cappadocians, but modern scholars 
with the Moschi who lived between the 
sources of the Phasis and Cyrus. 

13. The descendants of Tiras (Eth. 
Tiras) seem to be the Tyrseni, a branch 
of the Pelasgians who lived by piracy 
on the coasts and islands of the Aegean 
Sea. Josephus, Ant. i. 6. 1, identifies 
them with the Thracians. 

Four great islands. See on viii. 29. 

[The islands of Kamdturt . . . as 
his inheritancel. I have bracketed 
these words as an interiDolation. They 
are foreign to their present context, for 
it is dealing with the possessions of the 
sons of Jaj^heth, and Arpachshad is a 
son of Shem. Furthermore, the phrase- 
ology " came out ... for the sons of 
Arpachshad" is unusual. This phrase 
' ' the sons of " is used only in the case 
of Noah's three sons: viii. 17 "for 
Shem and his sons"; viii. 24 "for 
Ham . . . and his sons " ; viii. 29 
"for Japheth and his sons." But in 
connection with Noah's sixteen grand- 
sons in chap. ix. it is not used. The 
grandson is mentioned in each case as 
the person to whom a certain province 
is allotted. On the other hand, the 
words may in some form have followed 
after ix. 4, which defines the possessions 
of Arpachshad. From viii. 21 we know 
that "the islands of Kaftur" were 
in Shem's portion. Now these 
" islands of Kamaturi " may be the 
"islands of Kaftur"; for Kamaturi 
could easily originate from Kaftur. 

14. Following our text Epiphanius, 
Ancorat. cxiv. (Diud. ed., vol. i. 217); 
writes Toiruv toIvvv tuiv iduQv ovtws 
eK Tuiv rpLuv vlQu rod NtSe yeyovdruv 
Kal Tpixv Tod Kdafjiov rols rpiaiv viois 
dLauipiad^vTos, ws irpoiiirov, 6pKos airrj- 
TrjdT] Trap' avrwv vwo tou warpd^ ixrjSiva 
eTrep-^aiveiv rc^ tou a,5e\(pov KX-qpip, rbv 
Si inrepjSali'ovTa rriv too SpKov Starayriv 
i^oXodpevecrdai iv tQ 8pKU) Kal trdv rb 
(TTT^p/ia airoO. See also Adv. Haer. 


unto their sons in the presence of ISToah their father, and 
he bound them all by an oath, imprecating a curse on 
everyone that sought to seize the portion which had not 
fallen (to him) by his lot. 15. And they all said, "So be 
it ; so be it," for themselves and their sons for ever through- 
out their generations till the day of judgment, on which the 
Lord God shall judge them with a sword and with fire, for 
all the unclean wickedness of their errors, wherewith they 
have filled the earth with transgression and uncleanness and 
fornication and sin. 

Evil spirits lead astray the sons of Noah, 1-2. Noah's player, 
3-6. Mastemd allowed to retain one-tenth of his subject 
spirits, 7-11. Noah taught the use of herbs by the angels 
for resisting the demons, 12-14. Noah dies, 15-17. 
Building of Babel and the confusion of tongues, 18-27. 
Canaan seizes on Palestine, 29-34. Madai receives 
Media, 35-36. 

X. And in the third week of this jubilee the unclean 
demons began to lead astray fthe children off the sons of 

II. ii. 544 {Haer Ixvi. 85). In vrjaav roiis viov^ NtDe. /cai ev^a/x^vov 

Syncellus (i. 83) also, it is said of rou Nuie iva. d.TroijTQcni' air' aiirCov, 

Noah : fi^Wuv de TeXevrdv iverelXaro 6 Kvpios iKeXevtre tQ dpxayy^X(f> 

Tols Tpialv avToO viols fj.-qMva iireXdeiv Mtxa7?X ^aXeiv avroiis els tt)v a^vaaov 

Tols Tov dS€X<pov opiois Kal drdLKTus dxP'- VI^^P'^^ '''V^ Kpiaeus' 6 de diajBoXos 

ivexdrivai wpbs ^repov, cis tovtov yevrjco- ^TTjcraTO Xa^ecv fioipav dir' aiiTwv npbi 

fxivov alriov ffrdcreut avTOis Kal iroXifMuv Treipacrp-bv tQiv dvdpwiruv Kal iobdrj 

tQv Trpbs dXX'^Xoi'S. avrip t6 SiKarov avrCiv Kara Trpoffra^iv 

15. TJie day of judgment. See note deiav, were Treipd^eiv tovs dudpunrovs 

on iv. 19. Trpbs SoKifjiTjv r^s eKdffrov irpbs debv 

X. 1. We have here another fragment irpoaipi(rews, rd 5i Xoiird, ivvia fJ-ipri 

of the lost Apocalj'pse of Noah. The e^Xrjdrj els Tr)v d^vacrov. Bvit what is 

former fragment we found in vii. 20-39. of still greater interest is the fact that 

Of the present fragment a summary in the Hebrew Book of Noah fragments 

is preserved in Syncellus, i. 49, though, of verses 1-2, 9-14 have been preserved 

of course, as forming a genuine section from the Hebrew original. For this 

of Jubilees. This summary gives the work the reader can consult Jellinek's 

contents of verses 1-9. Kal yap iv Bet ha-Midrasch, iv. 155-156, or my 

TT? Mwua-^ws Xeyofiivri dvoKaXvij/eL text of Jubilees, p. 179. 
(p^perai irepl avTuv, on yuerd tov Kara- The third week of this jubilee. If 

KXv( T.^ ,,/3^7r/3' irei rod k6<t/xov this jubilee be the last mentioned, i.e., 

(pdbviii Ktvoi^/Ltecot yuerd Qdvarov iirXd- the thirty-third (viii. 10), then the date 

CHAPTERS IX. 15-X. 5 79 

Noah, and to make to err and destroy them. 2. And the 
sons of Noah came to Noah their father, and they told him 
concerning the demons which were leading astray and blind- 
ing and slaying his sons' sons. 3. And he prayed before 
the Lord his God, and said : 

" God of the spirits of all flesh, who hast shown mercy 

unto me, 
And hast saved me and my sons from the waters 

of the flood, 
And hast not caused me to perish as Thou didst the 
sons of perdition ; 

For Thy grace has been great towards me. 
And great has been Thy mercy to my soul ; 

Let Thy grace be lift up upon my sons. 
And let not wicked spirits rule over them 
Lest they should destroy them from the earth. 
4. But do Thou bless me and my sons, that we may increase 
and multiply and replenish the earth, 5. And Thou 
knowest how Thy Watchers, the fathers of these spirits, 

is 1583-1589, but it may be nmcli covered the true text. The passage in 

earlier. question is : nnjnn'? DnTDon mnn thnn 

The undean demons. These are the ni3n'?i '73n'?imj;a'?i macn"? nvjaa = "And 

spirits which went forth from the the spirits of the Mamzerim began to 

Mamzerira or children of the angels stir themselves against the sons of 

and the daughters of men. See vii. Noah, to lead astray and cause to err 

22 ; Eth. Enoch xiv.-xvi. and to destroy and to slay." " Unclean 

Tlie unclean demons began . . . de- demons " in our text is a good equivalent 
stroy them (so ah). cd omit "the for "the spirits of the Mamzerim," 
children of." But Syncellus, i. 49, and thoiigh it is not a literal rendering. 
the passage from the Hebrew Book of The Hebrew original of our text there- 
Noah (see my Eth. Text, p. 35, notes 17- fore = " The unclean demons began to 
19) showthat instead of "the children of lead astray and to make to err and to 
the sons" we should simply have "the slay and to destroj' the sons of Noah " 
sons." Under the word daqiqa ( = "the ( = '?an'?i nn.!"?! mya'?! niBtynV i'?nn). On 
children of") there may lie some corrup- the other hand the expression "sons' 
tion of the verb 'adqaqa, "to beat small" sons" recurs in verses 2, 3^, and b^, 
= niD"'7, a corruptionfor nun'?, "to slay." so that the text of a b may be right. 
Now this verb is the last infinitive in 3. God of the sinrits of all flesh. 
the passage of the Hebrew Book of Num. xvi. 22, xxvii. 16. 
Noah (see below), and as the other Sons of jperdition ( = jn3N.i 'ja). Cf. 
three verbs in the Ethiopia text are 2 Thess. ii. 3. 

literal equivalents of the preceding My sons {a). 6 "Thy sons' sons." 

three infinitives in the same passage we 5. Thy Watcherrs. Cf. Eth. Enoch 

may conclude that we have thus re- vi.-xvi. 



acted in my day : and as for these spirits which are living, 
imprison them and hold them fast in the place of condem- 
nation, and let them not bring destruction on the sons of 
thy servant, my God ; for these are mahgnant, and created 
in order to destroy. 6. And let them not rule over the 
spirits of the living ; for Thou alone canst exercise dominion 
over them. And let them not have power over the sons 
of the righteous from henceforth and for evermore." 7. And 
the Lord our God bade us to bind all. 8. And the chief of 
the spirits, Mastema, came and said : " Lord, Creator, let 
some of them remain before me, and let them hearken to 
my voice, and do all that I shall say unto them; for if 
some of them are not left to me, I shall not be able to 

TJie sons {cd). b "the sons' sous." 
a ' ' the place." 

6. Cajist exercise dominion over 
<7ie?» = ta'amr kuanneno lomu emendeei 
from ta'amr kuennanehomd = " Thou 
knowest their power" or "judgment." 

7. Cf. Eth. Enoch x. 4, 12. 

8. See the quotation from Syncellus 
in note on ver. 1. 

MasUmA. In the Latin version this 
name appears as Mastima, and in the 
Midrashic Book of Noah (see my text, 
p. 179) as ncacDn -\z: Hence the form 
in which it appears in Syncellus and 
Cedrenus as Macrn 0d;U,, 6 Apx^^y tGiv 
daifjiovluv, or MacrTt^dr is less accurate. 
Outside the Jubilee literature, as 
Kijnsch has remarked (p. 41 S), this 
word is not found as a proper noun 
except in the Acts of Philip (ed. 
Tischend., p. 98) : 6 8i 'Mava-r^fj.d.T, tovt' 
(ffTiv b Sarai'Ss, vveLarfKdev els rbv 
'Avavlav Kal (TrXTjpucrev avrbv dvnov 
Kal dpyy^s. As a common noun it is 
found twice in Hos. ix. 7, 8 in the sense 
of "enmity." The word appears to be 
the hiphil of c^a> ( = |ac), i.e. o^acs, and 
is therefore the equivalent of 6 ZaravSis 
in point of meaning and derivation. 
As in the Eth. Enoch it is the function 
of the evil spirits to tempt men, Eth. 
Enoch Ixix. 4, 6 ; accuse them, Eth. 
Enoch xl. 7 ; and destroy them, Eth. 
Enoch XV. 11, 12, xvi., in which 

capacity they are designated as " angels 
of punishment," liii. 3, Ivi. 1, Ixii. 
11, Ixiii. 1, so also in our author. 
Thus the evil spirits under Mastema (1) 
tempt men, lead them astray and blind 
them X. 2, 8, xlviii. 12, 16, and harden 
their hearts xlviii. 17. In xv. 31 it is 
actually stated that God put spirits in 
authority over men to lead them astray ; 
see notes on xv. 31-32. Again (2) they 
accuse men of actual or alleged sins, xvii. 
16, xlviii. 15, 18. Finally (3) they destroy 
those who have sinned, being created 
for this purpose, x. 2, 5. As angels 
of destruction they appear, xlviii, 2, 
in slaying the first-born in Egypt. In 
xlviii. 2 Mastema seeks to slay Moses 
for failing to circumcise his son. These 
spirits seek to rule a man in order to 
destroy him, x. 3. But they cannot 
touch the righteous, x. 6 ; every breach 
of the law, however, exposes men to 
their malignant influence, xlviii. 2. 
Israel as such is God's own portion and 
is not subject to spirits of any kind, xv. 
32, xvi. 18, xix. 28. From this high 
ethical conception our author falls away, 
no doubt under the influence of his 
authorities, in x. 12, 13, where, as in 
Tobit, magical methods are said to be 
effective against evil spirits. See 
further note on xlviii. 2. 

Let some of them remain be/ore me. 
See quotation from Syncellus in note 
on X. 1. 

CHAPTER X. 6-17 8i 

execute the power of my will on the sons of men ; for 
tliese are for corruption and leading astray before my judg- 
ment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men." 
9. And He said : " Let the tenth part of them remain before 
him, and let nine parts descend into the place of condem- 
nation." 10. And one of us He commanded that we should 
teach N"oah all their medicines ; for He knew that they 
would not walk in uprightness, nor strive in righteousness. 
11. And we did according to all His words: all the 
malignant evil ones we bound in the place of condemnation, 
and a tenth part of them we left that they might be subject 
before Satan on the earth. 12. And we explained to ISToah 
all the medicines of their diseases, together with their 
seductions, how he might heal them with herbs of the earth, 
13. And Noah wrote down all things in a book as we 
instructed him concerning every kind of medicine. Thus the 
evil spirits were precluded from (hurting) the sons of 
Noah. 14. And he gave all that he had written to Shem, 
his eldest son ; for he loved him exceedingly above all his 
sons. 15. And Noah slept with his fathers, and was buried 
on Mount Lubar in the land of Ararat. 16. Nine hundred 
and fifty years he completed in his life, nineteen jubilees and 1659 a.m. 
two weeks and five years. 17. And in his life on earth he 
excelled the children of men save Enoch because of the 

9. Cf. Hebrew Book of Noah : " And So it is stated in the Hebrew Book of 
the angel did so and enclosed them in Noah, where there is a manifest paro- 
the house of judgment (asa'on n'a). nomasia between hi<Sl^^ and niNian. Cf. 
Only one-tenth did he permit to go to Eth. Enoch x. 7 ; Tob. iii. 17, xii. 
and fro on the earth before the prince 14, 15. 

of the Masteraa to rule over the godless 11. See ver. 9, note. 

to smite them and to plague them with Sata^i. Satan and Mastema are thus 

all manner of diseases." The angel identical. 

according to this Hebrew book is 12. This verse is found almost wholly 

Raphael, but according to Eth. Enoch in Heb. Book of Noah (see my text of 

X. 11-13 is Michael. Again, though Jubilees, p. 179). 

according to our text only one-tenth of 13-14. Shem as the eldest son (see 

the demons are allowed to act with note on iv. 33) or as the priest receives 

impunity to the day of judgment, in all the sacred writings from Noah. Cf. 

Eth. Enoch XV. -xvi., all the demons have Syncellus ii. 83. In xlv. 16 Jacob 

this privilege. gives all the books into Levi's hands, 

10. One of us. This angel is Raphael, as Levi was priest. 


righteousness, wherein he was perfect. For Enoch's office was 
ordained for a testimony to the generations of the world, so 
that he should recount all the deeds of generation unto genera- 
tion, till the day of judgment. 18. And in the three and 
thirtieth jubilee, in the first year in the second week, Peleg 
took to himself a wife, whose name was Lomna the daughter 
of Sina'ar, and she bare him a son in the fourth year of this 
week, and he called his name Eeu ; for he said : " Behold 
the children of men have become evil through the wicked 
purpose of building for themselves a city and a tower in the 
land of Shinar." 19. For they departed from the land of 
Ararat eastward to Shinar ; for in his days they built the 
city and the tower, saying, " Go to, let us ascend thereby 
into heaven." 20. And they began to build, and in the 
fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks 
served them for stone, and the clay with which they 
cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of 
the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of 
1645-1688 Shinar. 21. And they built it: forty and three years 
were they building it ; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the 

17. Enoch's office teas ordai7ied for a 19. Cf. Gen. xi. 2; Epiphan. Adv. 
testimony, etc. Cf. iv. 24 for a similar Haer. i. 1. 5. 

statement. 20. On Babel see Encyc. Bibl. i. 

Recount all the deeds, etc. Cf. iv. 410-413. 

23, 24. Made brick. (Emended : see my 

Till the day of judgment. Cf. iv. Eth. Text, p. 34.) 

19, 24, ix. 15, X. 22. Made brick with fire ; and the bricks 

18. LOmnA. This name is found in served, etc. This passage appears to 
the Syriac fragment as tl V^ (V, and l>e the source of the Chronicles of 
T J ' TITO s J .1 •> Jerahmeel xxix. 2: "Come and let 
Lagarde s MS r as Sv,xva, and Algazi s ^^ ^^^^^ ^^.^^^ ... and let us burn 
Chronicle as n:3?. .v, , i i • i -n i 4. 

D T7I1.V, v T>' 'n r them and each brick will be to us as a 

Rex'. Eth. has Ragaw=: Va.yav = ^^l•\ , , ,, •, i, r ,. '< c^e 

,„ -ION Ti • 1 • L J. stone and the pitch for mortar. Cf. 

(Gen. XI. 18). It is obvious that our j h A f i ^ 

author thus derived Reu from uy-i, "to 'm i, ^-i '.i' ' v -ui. i i- 

,.,,,„, ** ' . . 21. For the three slight emendations 

be evil. There was a paronomasia in r i.. j. j. • xi • x ^ 

., • ■ 1 iJTT 1 1 J 1 • of the text m this verse see my text, pp. 

the original. 'He called his name „;> ot mi • ^ i ■ /-. i 

Ts^ 7 \ r XI. 1 -, I r 36-37. The passage is found m Greek 

Eagau (,y^) ; for . . . the children of .^^^^ Catena of Nicephorus, i. 175: M 

men had become evil," ?v> This deriva- ^y ^^^ ^fiewav olKodoiJ.odvT€s. rd ^os 

tion appears in the Onomasticon, p. 197, ,€v\y ir-qxeis, Kai 5(;w TraXecrrai (sic), rh 

27: 'Pad;' (i.e. 'Paai/) /ca/coi'yu.ei'os. -n^aros iirlffy' Tr\ivdovs. rrjs irXivdov rb 

Shinar. Eth. has Sanaar, in ver. v\pos, rpirov )xlS.s TrXivdov. to ^Krafia 

25 Sinaar, in 26 Sanaor. tov ivbs roixov <TTd8i.oi. ly koX tov &XKov 

CHAPTER X. 18-25 83 

height (of a brick) was the third of one ; its height amounted 
to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and (the extent of one wall 
was) thirteen stades (and of the other thirty stades). 22. 
And the Lord our God said unto us : " Behold, they are one 
people, and (this) they begin to do, and now nothing will be 
withholden from them. Go to, let us go down and confound 
their language, that they may not understand one another's 
speech, and they may be dispersed into cities and nations, 
and one purpose will no longer abide with them till the 
day of judgment." 23. And the Lord descended, and we 
descended with Him to see the city and the tower which 
the children of men had built. 24. And He confounded 
their language, and they no longer understood one another's 
speech, and they ceased then to build the city and the 
tower. 25. For this reason the whole land of Shinar is 
called Babel, because the Lord did there confound all the 
language of the children of men, and from thence they were 
dispersed into their cities, each according to his language 

X'. Eutychius (translated by Pococke, ausser sich waren und jeder eine 

1658, pp. 51, 52) has dra\vii upon our andere Sprache redete. 

text in the following passage : Trea Tliirteen stacks. In Jerome {Epist. 

ergo annos lateribus conficiendis et (78 in Migne) ad FaUolam, mansione 

coquendis insumpserunt : quorum 18) we have the following reference to 

singuli tredecim cubitos longi, decern this passage. Hoc verbum (nDi), 

lati, ac quinque alti essent; urbemque turn memoria suggerit, nusquam 

inter Tyrum et Babelem exstruxerunt ^ubi in Scripturis Sanctis apud Hebraeos 

orpas longam tercentum et tredecim, i^.-enissemenovi absquelibro apocrypho 

latam centum qumquagmta unam : qui a Graecis AeTrr,) (a.Z. Mt/c/o7^.e^ts) 

cujus muri alti orgyas quinquie^ mille ^^^ ^^^ (. ^^^^.^ appellatur. Ibi in 

qumgentas trigmta tres ; lati tngin a ^edificatione turris pro stadio ponitur, 

tres ; turris autem orgyas decies mille j^ exercentur pugiles et athleta^ 

alta ; quibus exstruendis quadraginta ^^ cursorum velocitas comprobatur. 

annos msumpserunt Cf. J. Malalas, ^j^^^ ^^^^^ j^^^^^^.^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^j^^ ^^^^ 

p. 12; Glycas, p 240 The clauses ^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^ encampment Rissah 

in brackets in the translation are (^^^^^ ^^ ^^^_ ^^^yj_ 21, 22. In later 

derived from the Greek. Ronsch (p. \ 

401) quotes the following passage Hebrew on and non are used as = stadmm 

respecting this tower from Weil's ?^ race-course. See Levy s Worterhuch, 

Biblische Legevden der Musel- ''^ ^''^• 

manner, pp. 77-78 : Der Thurm 22. Will he withholden from them. 

(Nimrod's) ward bis zu einer Hohe von Lit. "will fail from them." Gen. xi. 6. 

5000 Ellen gebaut . . . Gott liess ihn 25. Cf. Gen. xi. 9. 

mit einem solchen Getdse umstiirzen, From thence they were dispersed . . . 

dass alle Leute vor Schrecken ganz each according to his language. Accord- 



and his nation. 26. And the Lord sent a mighty wind 
against the tower and overthrew it upon the earth, and 
behold it was between Asshur and Babylon in the land of 
Shinar, and they called its name " Overthrow." 27. In the 
1688 A.M. fourth week in the first year in the beginning thereof in the 
four and thirtieth jubilee, were they dispersed from the land 
of Shinar. 28. And Ham and his sons went into the land 
which he was to occupy, which he acquired as his portion 
in the land of the south. 29. And Canaan saw the land 
of Lebanon to the river of Egypt that it was very good, and 
he went not into the land of his inheritance to the west 
(that is to) the sea, and he dwelt in the land of Lebanon, 
eastward and westward from the border of Jordan and from 

ing to the Ps. -Jon. on Gen. xi. 8 the 
number of nations thus created were 
seventy, under their seventy patron 
angels. Cf. Chronicles of Jerahiueel 
XXX. 8 : also Epiphan. Adv. JIaer. i. 1. 
5 : SieffKioacre yap aiiTwv ras yXwacras, 
Kal dird /juas eis i^5ofir)KOVTa Siio 
SUveLjxe Kara rbv rwv t6t€ dvdpwv 
dpid/x6i> d'pedivra. Book of Adam and 
Eve (Malan), iii. 22. 

26. A mighty wiiid. This is a very 
old tradition. It is found in Sibyll. 
Or. iii. 98-103 ; Joseph. Ant. i. 4. 3 ; 
Epiphan. Adv. Ilaer. i. 1. 5 ; Syncellus, 
i. 77 ; Cedrenus, i. 22. 

" Overthrow " = dCqat = Karao'Tpo^'^ 
= n:!Sn- Observe the j^lay of words not 
preserved in Eth.) : "Overthrew it 
. . . and they called its name ' Over- 
throw ' " = IDC nx snpi I . . . iD3n 
n3Sn. This disagrees with its name 
"Babel" in Gen. xi. 9. According to 
Sanh. 109 tt one-third of the tower of 
Babel was burnt, one-third swallowed 
up in the earth, and one-third standing. 

28. Ham's portion lay in the north 
of Africa. It is described in the next 
verse as lying in the west towards 
the sea, cf. ix. 1. The designation 
' ' land of the south " is a loose one. 
The word rendered " south " rightly 
means " north," but it is used occasion- 
ally in this wrong sense by Ethiopia 
scribes. See note on viii. 1.5. 

29. This view is, I think, found only 

in Jubilees and the books dependent 
upon it. Palestine fell by lot to 
Arpachshad and north-west Africa (see 
ix. 1) to Canaan ; but Canaan wrong- 
fully seized Palestine : see Epiphanius, 
A7icorat. cxiv. p. 217 (ed. Dindorf) : 
eVet o!/i' €v T(^ KKripii} "Zrnj. r) liakatarivq 
virdTrecre Kal iravra ra irX-qaiov avrrji, 
ir\eoveKTr)s Sk Cov 6 Xavadv vibs Xdytt 
iTrfj\6e Tj IlaXaiaTivQv varepov yy, 
Tovriari ry 'Iov5aia, Kal acpapird'^ei. 
avTrjv, f/iaKpoOv/xei 5^ 6 6e6s, 6t5oi)s 
Xpbvovi fiiTafoias, 'iva fUTavo-qaeLav ol 
(K Tov XdjCi Kal dirodOxTL tois rod StJjU 
TT)v Idiav KK-qpovxlav, iKelvoi. 5k ov 
fjjeTevbovv, dXX' ij6e\ov to fiirpov avrQv 
w\7)p€><xaL. rdre 6 Oebi ixerd ttoXXAs 
vcrrepov yeveas 8iKatos &v ^KdiKeT ttju 
■jrapd^acriv tov opKov. ovtco yap ^dei 
Tr\ripu6~?jvai t6 'Afioppalcov /xeTpov. Cf. 
also Haer. Ixvi. 85 (II. ii. 544) ; Syncellus, 
i. 83 ; Glycas, 242. The words of the 
last come very near our text : 6 toO 
Xd|U. vibs ^avadv idthv tt]v Trpbs tov 
Al^avov yyjv otl . . . icTTLV . . . Kpelr- 
Twv Trj% eavTov yi^s, TvpavviKuts Kadrjp- 
ira^ev avT-qv. Clementine Mecognitions 
i. 30 : Cujus interim senior firater 
(Shem) habitationis sortem eam, quae 
est in medio terrae, suscepit, in qua 
est regio Judaeae, junior vero orientis 
(should be occidentis) plagam sortitus 
est, ipse aiitem occidentis (should be 
orientis) accepit. 

Jordan {ad), be " Lebanon. " 

CHAPTER X. 26-36 85 

the border of the sea. 30. And Ham, his father, and Cush 
and Mizraim, his brothers, said unto him : " Thou hast settled 
in a land which is not thine, and which did not fall to us 
by lot : do not do so ; for if thou dost do so, thou and thy 
sons will fall in the land and (be) accursed through sedition ; 
for by sedition ye have settled, and by sedition will thy 
children fall, and thou shalt be rooted out for ever. 31. 
Dwell not in the dwelling of Shem ; for to Shem and to his 
sons did it come by their lot. 32. Cursed art thou, and 
cursed shalt thou be beyond all the sons of ISToah, by the 
curse by which we bound ourselves by an oath in the 
presence of the holy judge, and in the presence of Noah our 
father." 33. But he did not hearken unto them, and dwelt 
in the land of Lebanon from Hamath to the entering of 
Egypt, he and his sons until this day. 34. And for this 
reason that land is named Canaan. 35. And Japheth and 
his sons went towards the sea and dwelt in the land of 
their portion, and Madai saw the land of the sea and it did 
not please him, and he begged a (portion) from Elam and 
Asshur and Arpachshad, his wife's brother, and he dwelt in 
the land of Media, near to his wife's brother until this day. 
36. And he called his dwelling-place, and the dwelling-place 
of his sons. Media, after the name of their father Madai. 

30. Cf. Syncellus, i. 83 - 84 : fiera 34. Cf. Glycas, p. 242 : Kal oStw 

hiaKOdLa. Itt) rrjs TeXevTTJs NcSe, peurepi- TrScra ij 777 tt]s ^7ra77eXcas tov Xa^'ad;' 

ffas o TOV XoLfj. vibs ^avaap eirilBT] rois irpocrijyope^dr). 

oplois TOV Zvfi Kal Kar^Kriuep €Ket. 35, g^g note on ix. 9. Diodorus, 

"With the word " sedition " in the text Presbyter of Antioch {ob. 392 ?), appears 

compare pewTspiaas in Syncelhis. to have known this passage. He is 

32. By the curse, etc. Cf. ix. 14, 15. quoted in Catena Nicephori, i. 167 on 
The holy judge, i.e. the angel who gjen. ix. 27 : tI S-qwoTe, koI KaToiK-naaTui 

was present at the drawing of lots, ^ 'UcpeS ep to?s aKripd^fmcn tov Stj/^ 

vm. 10. elp-qrai; opq.!, &Ti ivdvTa irpo(pT]Teia fjP 

33. Hamath. Eth. has 'Bmath [i.e., 5^^ vpocpdaeLos tivos, ^ dvev Trpo<pd(T€WS 
'Hfide, nan) ; see xiii. 2. Hamath was ^avepovfiePT] ; Kal yap fieTd raCra 
the northern boundary of Israel (Num. MaBat, TovTeaTip 6 MijSos, tov 'Idcped 
xxxiv. 8 ; Judg. iii. 3, etc.). In wp vi6s, Td KdWicrrop tQp tov Stj/^i 
2 Chron. vii. 8 we have the phrase : olK^ffeup KaT^ax^ tw MT/S/ai', nipos 
" From the entering in of Hamath to ovk i\dxi<rTOP ttjs tQp IlepaQp yi]!. 
the river of Egypt." Media. Eth. Medqiu. 


Reu and Serug, 1 (cf. Gen. xi. 20, 21). Rise of war and 
bloodshed and eating of blood and idolatry, 2-7. Nachor 
and Terah, 8-14 (cf. Gen. xi. 22-30). Abram's know- 
ledge of God and wonderful deeds, 15-24. 

1681 A.M. -^^- ^^^^ ^^ ^^® thirty-jEiftli jubilee, in the third week, 
in the first year thereof, Eeu took to himself a wife, and her 

A A 

name was 'Ora, the daughter of 'Ur, the son of Kesed, and 
1687 A.M. she bare him a son, and he called his name S^roh, in the 
seventh year of this week in this jubilee. 2. And the sons 
of Noah began to war on each other, to take captive and to slay 
each other, and to shed the blood of men on the earth, and 
to eat blood, and to build strong cities, and walls, and 
towers, and individuals (began) to exalt themselves above the 
nation, and to found the beginnings of kingdoms, and to go 
to war people against people, and nation against nation, and 
city against city, and all (began) to do evil, and to acquire 
arms, and to teach their sons war, and they began to capture 


cities, and to sell male and female slaves. 3. And 'Ur, the 
son of Kesed, built the city of 'Ara of the Chaldees, and 
called its name after his own name and the name of his father. 

XI. 1. Cf. Gen. xi. 21. ^o&von koI iv ropelais \l9up f) ^\j\uiv ^ 

'Ord. Lagarde's MS r upa : Syr. dpyvpoTevKTwv . . . /jl6voi> Se dia, xpw- 

Frag. Ijo). Ps.-Philo, Ant. bibl. Lib. t^°-J'^^ f'*^ j{'^^'"f'' ^ J^"" dvdpwwov 

. , . ,, , , 5>.dvoia iavTV edivijpaTO rhv KCLKiav : also 

p. 40 gives Melcha , . , m Cedrenus,' i. 47 -M ro6rov (Sr;po^x) 

Seroh. Seever. 6. Beer sugMsts that -x a > > •\\ '\ .>/ ^ 

this IS trom mo, to sin, in Talmudic -j. - ,' - ^ ' 

Hebrew. This would suit ver. 2, but i o \ -^ i ' / 

„ . .. ^, ^ ,, , '. , aavTo Kal BaaiXeii. Kal tots irpuTios 

ver. 6 imiiues that our author derived ^ . /, ■/ "^ -> 

.^ . '■ ,., . .,„_,. iroKeuiKaKaTacTKevacravTes opyavairoM' 

It from niD, ''to turn aside. Epi- ^«v dXXT^Xovs See also Book 

phanuis, Adv. Haer i. 1. 6 writes : rbu ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^1 Eve (Malan), iii. 24 : Ps.- 

2-6. The corruption of mankind which „,,.., , , , ,. ., 

our author ascribes to the period of ,2. Individuals began to exalt them- 

Serug is by later writers assigned to f'^"-'^'' ^t*^- . ^^ ^^^- ^he emendation 

the age of Enos, the son of Seth : see ^° ^^ ^f ^t ^^ ^1°* necessary. 
iv. 12 note. Some reflection of our 3. ' Ur, the son of Kised. We have 

text appears in Epiphanius, Adv. Haer. here an attempt to explain the phrase 

i. 1. 6 : ^c\kK U yevvS. rbv "Payov ... Ur of the Chaldees (ants'D -nx) through 

Kal ijp^aro eis dvdpihTrovs i} elduXoXarpia reference to Ur and his father Kesed. 
re Kal6'E\\rivi.fffjL6s . . . ovvo) 5e iv 'Ard. Corrupt for Ura or Ur. 

CHAPTER XI. i-io 87 

4. And they made for themselves molten images, and they 
worshipped each the idol, the molten image which they had 
made for themselves, and they began to make graven images 
and unclean simulacra, and malignant spirits assisted and 
seduced (them) into committing transgression and uncleanness. 

5. And the prince Mastema exerted himself to do all this, and 
he sent forth other spirits, those which were put under his hand, 
to do all manner of wrong and sin, and all manner of trans- 
gression, to corrupt and destroy, and to shed blood upon the 
earth. 6. For this reason he called the name of Seroh, 
Serug, for every one turned to do all manner of sin and 
transgression. 7. And he grew up, and dwelt in Ur of the 
Chaldees, near to the father of his wife's mother, and he 
worshipped idols, and he took to himself a wife in the thirty- 1744 a.m. 
sixth jubilee, in the fifth week, in the first year thereof, and 

her name was Melka, the daughter of Kaber, the daughter 

of his father's brother. 8. And she bare him Nahor, in 

the first year of this week, and he grew and dwelt in Ur of 

the Chaldees, and his father taught him the researches of 

the Chaldees to divine and augur, according to the signs of 

heaven. 9. And in the thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth isooa.m, 

week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, 


and her name was 'Ij^ska, the daughter of Nestag of the 
Chaldees. 10. And she bare him Terah in the seventh 

5. Mastimd. See note on x. 8. Chronicles of Jerahmeel in note on 
To corrupt, etc. Cf. Eth. Enoch xvi. iv. 12. Our text was known directly 

6. Thereseemstobehereaplayonthe or indirectly by Cedrenus, i. 47 : av^rj- 
name Serug. " He called the name . . . d4vra Sk top Naxwp edida^ev 6 iraTijp 
Serug (mr) for every one turned (mo) Trdfrwi/ eTriXvaiv oiuivwv, tQv re iv 
to all manner of sin and transgression ovpapcp (rrifieiwv SiaKpicreis Kal rutv iirl 
(mo)." See, however, note on ver. 1. 7^^ awavruiv Kal iraaav XaXSaiVV 

7. He ivorshipped idols. See in note f^avreiav. On an earlier reference to 
on iv. 12 passage from Chron. of Jerah- this art in our text see viii. 3. 

meel denying this. 9- Ijdskd, the daughter of Mstdg. 

MUM, daughter of Kdbir. So also gyj._ Fragment I't^ \ ^ ^^ 

in Syr. and Lagarde's MS r. In Gen. ;—— — — 

xi. 29 Milcah is the name of Nahor's a^A ^ t- This name Ijaska is 

wife, but this Nahor is Terah's son. found in Gen. xi. 29, i.e. Iscah (riDD"). 

8. Cf. Gen. xi. 23. but there she is the daughter of Haran. 
His father taught him the researches 10. Cf. Gen. xi. 25. 

of the Chaldees, etc. See reference to Terah. Eth. has Tarl 



1806 A.M. year of this week. 11. And the prince Mastema sent 
ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the 
land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of 
men of their labours. Before they could plough in 
the seed, the ravens picked (it) from the surface of the 
ground. 12. And for this reason he called his name 
Terah, because the ravens and the birds reduced them to 
destitution and devoured their seed. 13. And the 
years began to be barren, owing to the birds, and they 
devoured all the fruit of the trees from the trees : it was 
only with great effort that they could save a little of all 
the fruit of the earth in their days. 14. And in this 

1870 A.M. thirty-ninth jubilee, in the second week in the first year, 
Terah took to himself a wife, and her name was 'Edna, the 

11-13. Tliis legend is traced to our 
text by Jerome. Two other writers 
reproduce it, but do not mention the 
source. Jerome, in commenting on 
Num. xxxiii. 27 {Epist. Ixxviii. ad 
Fabiolam, mansione 24), writes as 
follows : Castra metati sunt in Thare 
(Num. xxxiii. 27) : Hoc eodem vocabulo 
(mn) et iisdem litteris scriptum invenio 
patrem Abraham, qui in supradicto 
apocrypho Geneseos volumine, abactis 
corris, qui hominum frumenta vasta- 
baut, abactoris vel depulsoris sortitus 
est nomen. I know of only two other 
references to the incident in our text. 
The first is in S. Ephraem i. 156 and 
is quoted by Malan, Book of Adam and 
Eve, p. 248: "Abram when a child, 
having been sent by Terah to drive 
away ravens sent to destroy the 
crops, as a punishment for the 
idolatry of the land, Abram — un- 
able to drive them away — by a 
sudden impulse, called upon God to 
order them otf, who answered : ' Here 
am I,' and ordered the ravens away 
from Terah's field." The second is 
found in Bar-hebraeus, \ffis<oWa Dyn- 
astiarum, p. 13 (Fabric. Cod. Pseud. 
V.T. i. 422 sq.) : Cum Abraam annorum 
esset quindecim, annuit Deus precibus 
ejus contra picas quae terram Chaldae- 
orum vastabant semina terrae ab iis 

mandata perdentes. These last two 
passages are in the main derived from 
our text. 

11. Sent. This can be rendered also 

"had sent." 

12. Reduced them to destitution. The 
Ethiopic here = ^Trroix'"''"' clvtovs, but it 
could also be a rendering of id\i\pa.v or 
(KaKUKTav. Hence this verb may go back 
to the Chaldee verb j;-in = to ravage, de- 
vastate. This verb would constitute a 
play on the name Terah (mn) and the 
verse would run : mn idb' nx nip nxiai 
D3 ij;"in D'miyn '3. For attempts to 
explain the derivation of Terah from 
the meaning assigned by Jerome see 
Rdnsch, Das Buck der Juhilden, 
266-267; Beer, Leben Abraham's, pp. 

14. 'Ednd, the daughter of Abram. 
So Syriac Fragment (see my text, p. 
40). Cf. Cedrenus, i. 47 : Qdppa d^ 
. . . iyivv-qaev iK yvvaiKhi''^5vai, Ovya- 
Tpbs 'Appaa/x TraTpa5e\<pov aiirov, rbv 
'A^padfx, ovTLva t) I^V'^'VP exaXecrev iir' 
ovofiari Tov eavrijs Trarpbi. In the 
later Jewish books the wile of Terah 
is called Amthelai, the daughter of 
Karnebo, Baba Bathra 91 a ; Book of 
Jashar (Migne, Diet, des Apocr. ii. 
1103). In the Chronicles of Jerah- 
meel (Eng. transl. ) xxvii. 7, Amtalai, 

CHAPTER XI. 11-19 89 

daughter of 'Abram, the daughter of his father's sister. 15. 
And in the seventh year of this week she bare him a son, 1876 a.m. 
and he called his name Abram, by the name of the father of 
his mother ; for he had died before his daughter had con- 
ceived a son. 16. And the child began to understand the 
errors of the earth that all went astray after graven images 
and after uncleanness, and his father taught him writing, 
and he was two weeks of years old, and he separated 1890 a.m. 
himself from his father, that he might not worship idols 
with him. 17. And he began to pray to the Creator of 
all things that He might save him from the errors of the 
children of men, and that his portion should not fall into 
error after uncleanness and vileness. 18. And the seed 
time came for the sowing of seed upon the land, and they 
all went forth together to protect their seed against the 
ravens, and Abram went forth with those that went, and 
the child was a lad of fourteen years. 19. And a cloud of 
ravens came to devour the seed, and Abram ran to meet 
them before they settled on the ground, and cried to them 
before they settled on the ground to devour the seed, and 
said, " Descend not : return to the place whence ye came," 
and they proceeded to turn back. 20. And he caused the 

the daughter of Kamabo, is said to ovtos {'A^paoLfj.) n6vos, tQv anavTaxoO 

be the wife of Nahor, but by taking ttjv iiri to, eiSwXa irXdvrjv voao'uvTWV, tov 

the context rightly we get Amtalai as ak-qdrj debv iwiyuij} /cat driijuovpyby tQv 

wife of Terah. Book of Jashar (Migne, SXiiiv dveKrjpv^e. According to Simon 

Diet, des Apocr. ii. 1103) gives Amtela beu Lakish in Ber. rabba 30, 64, 95, 

as Terah's wife, but there is no men- Midr. on Shir ha-Shirim v. 16 (cf. 

tion of her father's name. According Midr. on Esther ii. 5), Book of Jashar 

to Eutychius (translated by Pococke, {op. cit. ii. 1106), Abraham knew God 

1658) Terah had two wives, Yuna and when only three years old, accord- 

Tohwait. See note on xii. 9. ing to R. Chanina in his forty-eighth 

15. Abram, by the name, etc. This year. See Beer, Lebeti Abr. 103-104 

statement is referred to by Syncellus, for other references, 
i. 183 : To:' /cara firjTepa irdinrov tov 16. For later forms of the saga in 

'A^paa/j. 7} AewTT] F^veals (p-qcnv 6tl xi. 16-17, xii. 1-14, see Beer, Leben 

'A/3poa/x eKaXeiTo, -t) de Sdppa d5e\(pr} Abr. 3, 102,; Book of Jashar {op. cit. 

ofioTrarpla TOV 'A^pad/J. vTrrjpx€. ii. 1106 sqq. ); Chronicles of Jerah- 

16-17. Syncellus writes (i. 184) on meel xxix., xxxiii. -xxxiv 
the authority of our text : t<^ i5' 'irei 18. Lad of fourteen years. See 

aiirov 6 'A^pad/x iwiyvovs rbv tCov SXuw quotation from Bar-hebraeus in note 

deby irpociKvvei. Cf. Cedrenus, i. 47 : on 11-13. 


clouds of ravens to turn back that day seventy times, and 
of all the ravens throughout all the land where Abram was 
there settled there not so much as one. 21. And all who 
were with him throughout all the land saw him cry out, and 
all the ravens turn back, and his name became great in all 
the land of the Chaldees. 22. And there came to him this 
year all those that wished to sow, and he went with them 
until the time of sowing ceased : and they sowed their land, 
and that year they brought enough grain home and eat and 
were satisfied. 23. And in the first year of the fifth week 
1891 A.M. Abram taught those who made implements for oxen, the 
artificers in wood, and they made a vessel above the ground, 
facing the frame of the plough, in order to put the seed 
thereon, and the seed fell down therefrom upon the share of 
the plough, and was hidden in the earth, and they no longer 
feared the ravens. 24. And after this manner they made 
(vessels) above the ground on all the frames of the ploughs, 
and they sowed and tilled all the land, according as Abram 
commanded them, and they no longer feared the birds. 

Abram seeks to turn Terah from idolatry, 1-8. Marries Sarai, 
9. Haran and Nachor, 9-11. Abram burns the idols : 
death of Haran, 12-14 (cf. Gen. xi, 28). Terah and 
his family go to Haran, 15. Abram observes the stars 
and prays, 16-21. Is bidden to go to Canaan and 
blessed, 22-24. Potver of speaking Hebrew given to him, 
25-27. Leaves Haran for Canaan, 28-31. (Cf. Gen. 
xi. 31-xii. 3.) 

XII. And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the 

1904 A.M. 

20. He caused the clouds of ravens narrative in these verses we have in 

to tur)i back. Here we must emend later Jewish writings elaborate accounts 

gabera (a b), gaberu (c), gab'a (d), into of the fear inspired in Nimrod by 

agb'a, or retaining the reading of a 6 Abram's birth, and the attempts of the 

understand jetmajatu after sabe'a. former to destroy Abram in a furnace 

XII. 1-14. Instead of the simple of fire when he refused to commit 



seventh year thereof, that Abram said to Terah his father, 
saying, " Father ! " And he said, " Behold, here am I, my son." 
2. And he said, 

" What help and profit have we from those idols which 
thou dost worship, 
And before which thou dost bow thyself ? 

idolatry. The idea that Abram was 
cast into a fiery furnace arose from a 
literal interpretation of Gen. xv. 7, " I 
am the Lord that brought thee out of 
Ur (niNo) of the Chaldees " where nix 
was taken to mean "fire." Probably 
a comparison of Exod. xx. 2 and Is. 
xxix. 22 may have contributed to this 
interpretation. The casting of Abram 
into the furnace of fire is recorded in 
Targ. -Jon. on Is. x. 32, in the Ps.-Jon. 
on Gen. xi. 28, xv. 7, and the Jerus. 
Targ. on Gen..^ xv, 7 ; also in Ber. 
Rabba 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 63 ; Shem. 
rabba 18, 23, 44 ; Wajikra rabba 36 ; 
Debarim rabba 9. As to whether it was 
God Himself or an angel who delivered 
Abram out of the fire was a question of 
debate among the Rabbis in the first 
and second cent. (Ber. rabba 48, Midr. 
on Shir ha-Shirim i. 12). Exaggerated 
and grotesque forms of the legend will 
be found in the Book of Jashar {Diet, des 
Apocr. ii. 1111 sqq. ) and the Chronicles 
of Jerahmeel xxxiii.-xxxiv. On the 
other hand no trace of the legend occurs 
in Josephus {Ant. i. 7) or in the 
Palestinian Midrashim (the Mechilta, 
Sifra and Sifre), nor in our text save in 
xii. 14, where we have perhaps the source 
of a kindred legend — the death of Haran 
by fire (see note in loc. ). Jerome men- 
tions this last legend (see note on xii. 
14) and likewise the former about the 
casting of Abram into the fiery furnace 
{Quaest. Hebr on Gen. xii. 4) : Erant 
autem Abram septuaginta quinque an- 
norum, quando egressus est ex Charra. 
Indissolubilis nascitur quaestio : si enim 
Thara pater Abrahae, cum adhucesset in 
regione Chaldaea. septuaginta annorum, 
genuit Abram, et postea in Charra 
ducentesimo quinto aetatis suae anno 
mortuus est : quomodo nunc post 
mortem Thare, Abram exiens de Charra, 
septuaginta quinque annorum fuisse 
memoratur : cum a nativitate Abrae 
usque ad mortem patris ejus, centum 

triginta quinque fuisse anni doceantur. 
Vera est igitur ilia Hebraeorum traditio, 
quam supra diximus, quod egressus 
sit Thara cum Jiliis suis de igne 
Chaldaeorum : et quod Abram Baby- 
lonia vallatus incendio, quia illud 
adorare nolebat, Dei sit auxilio liber- 
atus : et ex illo tempore ei dies vitae, 
et tempus reputetur aetatis, ex quo 
confessus est Domiuum, spernens 
idola Chaldaeorum. Potest autem fieri 
ut, quia scriptura reliquit incertum, 
ante jjaucos annos Thara de Chaldaea 
profectus venerit in Charran quam 
mortem obieret, vel certe statim post 
persecutionem in Charran venerit et ibi 
diutius sit moratus. For a full dis- 
cussion of the subject and references 
to later Jewish literature see Beer's 
monograph in the Monatsschrift f'Ar 
Gesch. Judenthums, 1855, pp. 59-65. 
Beer is of opinion that Persia was the 
home of the legend and that it did not 
make its way into Palestine till the 
third cent, of the Christian era. This 
is much too late. A late form of the 
tradition is found in Ps.-Philo, Ant. 
bibl. Lib. pp. 48 sqq. 

2. This tradition of Abram admon- 
ishing Terah was known to Suidas 
(Fabric. Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. 336-338) : 
'A^paafi iiirdpx^v iruv l5' Kai Oeo- 
yviocrLas d^iuBels ivovderei tov Trarepa 
avTOv Xeyuv' ri TrXavas rods dvOpwrrovs 
did K^pdos iiri^7)ixiov,rovT€aTL,Td e'lSioXa; 
ovK icTTLV dWos Oeds, el /j,r] 6 iv rah 
ovpavots, 6 Kai iravra rhv k6(XIJ.ov Stj- 
fjuovpyrjcras. Epiphanius {Adv. Haer. 
i. 1, p. 38, Oehler) attributes the 
invention of image-worship to Terah : 
Naxwp 5^ yevva rbv Qdppa' ivrevOev 
yiyovev dvdpiavTOirXacrla dird irrfKovp- 
ylas Kai KepapuicTJs (WLffTTifj.rjs did r^s 
ToO Qdppa Tovrov rix^-qs. 

Help and ■profit . . . from those 
idols. Cf. 1 Sam. xii. 21, " Vain things 
which cannot profit nor deliver.' 


3. For there is no spirit in them, 

For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart. 
Worship them not : 

4. Worship the God of heaven. 

Who causes the rain and the dew to descend on the 

And does everything upon the earth, 

And has created everything by His word, 
And all life is from before His face. 

0. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in them ? 
For they are the work of (men's) hands, 

And on your shoulders do ye bear them. 
And ye have no help from them, 

But they are a great cause of shame to those who 
make them, 

And a misleading of the heart to those who worship 
them : 

Worship them not." 
6. And his father said unto him, " I also know it, my 
son, but what shall I do with a people who have made 
me to serve before them ? 7. And if I tell them the 
truth, they will slay me ; for their soul cleaves to them to 
worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest 
they slay thee." 8. And these words he spake to his two 
brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent. 
1925 A.M. 9. And in the fortieth jubilee, in the second week, in the 
seventh year thereof, Abram took to himself a wife, and her 
name was Sarai, the daughter of his father, and she became 

3. There is no spirit, etc. See also 5. Work of {inen's) hands. Cf. Jer. 
ver. 5, XX. 8 ; Ps. cxxxv. 17. x. 3, 9. See xx. 8, xxii. 18 of our text. 

4. Causes the rain . . . to descend. On yoxvr shoulders do ye carry them. 
See XX. 9. Cf. Jer. xiv. 22, " Are there Amos v. 26; Is. xlvi. 7; Jer. x. 5; 
any among the vanities of the heathen Epist. Jer. 4, 26 ; Ass. Mos. viii. 4. 
that can cause rain ? . . . thou hast made 9. Sarai. Sarai is written S6r3. in 
all these things." See also Epistle of the Ethiopic till xv. 15, when she 
Jeremy 53 ; Mt. v. 45 ; Acts xiv. 17. receives the name Sarah (Eth. Sara). 



his wife. 10. And Haran, his brother, took to himself a 

wife in the third year of the third week, and she bare him 

a son in the seventh year of this week, and he called his name 1932 a.m. 

Lot. 11. And ISTahor, his brother, took to himself a wife. 

12. And in the sixtieth year of the life of Abram, that is, 1936 a.m. 

in the fourth week, in the fourth year thereof, Abram arose 

by night, and burned the house of the idols, and he burned 

all that was in the house, and no man knew it. 13. And 

they arose in the night and sought to save their gods from 

the midst of the fire. 14. And Haran hasted to save them, 

but the fire flamed over him, and he was burnt in the fire, 

and he died in Ur of the Chaldees before Terah his father. 

The same form of the words is found 
in the Ethiopic version of Gen. xvii. 
15 and may go back to the Greek 
version. In the LXX the words, how- 
ever, are given as Sdpa and Zappa. 

The daughter of his father. Our 
author here follows Gen. xx. 12, 
where Abraham says that Sarah is the 
daughter of his father but not of his 
mother. Syncelhis probably follows 
our text in saying (i. 183) : ij de Zappa 
ofioirarpia tov 'A^paafj. VTTTJpxe. In 
the Book of Adam and Eve (translated 
by Malan), iv. 2, the two wives of Terah 
are mentioned, Tona, the mother of 
Abraham, and Tahdif, the mother of 
Sarah (see note on xi. 14). On the 
other hand Josephus {Ant. i. 6. 5 ; 7 
1) describes Sarai as a niece of Abraham 
and a daughter of Hai-an — an evasion 
probably unknown to our author. 
According to the rabbinic tradition 
(Jebani. 98 a, Sanh. 58 b, Ber. rabba 
18, etc.) marriage with half-sisters 
on the father's side was permitted 
to the descendants of Noah (see 
Singer, Das Buch der Jubilaen, p. 167 
note). Marriage with a sister or half- 
sister is strictly forbidden in Lev. 
xviii. 9, 11, XX. 17. See note on iv. 15. 

10. Haran. Eth. has 'Aran. 

11. According to Gen. xi. 29 Nahor 
married Milcah, the daughter of Haran. 

12-14. In the note on xii. 1-14 (p. 90 
sq. ) I have drawn attention to the fact 
that our book knows nothing of the 
later legend of the casting of Abram into 
the furnace. In verses 12-14, however, 

we have an old legend — possibly devised 
by our author, being suggested by the 
twofold meaning of the Ur (iix), i.e. 
the name of a country and a lire. Our 
author is fond of explaining events from 
the meanings of words. A different 
form of the legend appears in Jerome, 
who rejects the legend of Abram's 
being cast into tlie fire [Quaest. Hebr. 
on Gen. xi. 28) : Pro eo, quod legimus, 
in regione Chaldaeorum, in Hebraeo 
habetur, in Ur Chesdim, id est in igne 
Chaldaeorum. Tradunt autem Hebraei 
ex hac occasione istius modi fabulam: 
quod Abraham in ignem missus sit, 
quia ignem adorare noluerit, quem 
Chaldaei colunt, et Dei auxilio liberatus 
de idolatriae igne profugerit . . . Mor- 
tuus est Aran ante conspectum Thare 
... in igne Chaldaeorum : quod 
videlicet ignem nolens adorare igne 
consumptus sit. Syncellus (i. 185) 
follows our author: iveirvpiaev 'A^paa/n 
TO. ei'SoiXa tov irarpos avrov Kal avy- 
KareKavdri avTois 'Appav OeXuv a^ecrai 
rb TTvp iv vvktL Cedrenus (i, 48) 
seems to have liad our text before him : 
flhrj de i^TjKOCFTOv '4to^ dycov 6 'A^padfi, 
ci)S ovK edoKei, rbv irarepa irddfiv Kal 
Tovs dWovs olKeiovs t-^j irepl to, eUdofXa 
dTTOtrxecr^at deiaidaifioyias, \av6dveL 
vvKTos rQv elduXuv i/nrprja'as rhv oTkov. 
avTwv d^ i^avaXoiifxevuv o'c dde\<pol 
voT^aavTes dvaTn]5Qcri, pov\6fj.€voi €k 
fjAffov TOV TTVpbs e^eXeffdac rd et'owXa. 
(pCKoTifibTepov 5k 6 'Apdfi ti2 wpdyfxari 
TTpocripepofievos ev fiiaifi diacpdeipeTui 
ToO Tvvpbs. Cf. Bar-hebraeus, Historia 


and they buried him in Ur of the Chaldees. 15. And 
Terah went forth from Ur of the Chaldees, he and his sons, 
to go into the land of Lebanon and into the land of Canaan, 
and he dwelt in the land of Haran, and Abram dwelt with 
Terah his father in Haran two weeks of years. 16. And in 
1951 A.M. the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up 
throughout the night on the new moon of the seventh month 
to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in 
order to see what would be the character of the year with 
regard to the rains, and he was alone as he sat and observed. 

1 7. And a word came into his heart and he said : " All the 
signs of the stars, and the signs of the moon and of the 
sun are all in the hand of the Lord. Why do I search 
(them) out? 

18. If He desires. He causes it to rain, morning and evening ; 
And if He desires, He withholds it. 

And all things are in His hand." 

19. And he prayed that night and said 

" My God, God Most High, Thou alone art my God, 
And Thee and Thy dominion have I chosen. 
And Thou hast created all things, 
And all things that are are the work of Thy hands. 

Dynastiarum, p. 13 (quoted by stance of our text : iv6a 6 'A^paa/j. 

Fabricius, i. 422) : Incenditque ille deKairiin-e ^tt) tQ Trarpl ffvvoLKrj<xas iv- 

templum idolorum in urbe Chaldae- voeiTrori vvKrbs iKTrisrOiv Sidrpoiv KLvlf- 

orum, at Haran frater ipshis ad crews toO iiribvTos KaipoO KaraaK^if/a- 

extinguendum igueni iugressus com- crdaL ttjv iroibrriTa' ^v yap ov fj.erpiui 

bustus est. According to Beer {Leben virb toO Trarpbi airaaav tj}v ToiaiiTTjv 

Abr. 110) the same legend is found in e^acTKTjdels iTricrTi^/XTji' . Kal di] fiera 

Midr. b. Becbaii. ttjv eKaarov rCov ^"qrovfiivuv Scdyvwcriv, 

15. Haran, Eth. has Karan, i.e. avvlrjCTL wepiTrrjp awacrav etvai Trjv roi- 

j"in, Haran, a city in the N.W. of avT-qv irepLepyiav ovvaadaL yap aWis 

Mesopotamia. Cf. Gen. xi. 31. tov ee6v,d^ov\oLTo,iJ.eTa(TKev(Tdaanrpbs 

16-18. Abram on the first of the '^^ oiKelov ^ov\vfJ-a to. irpoeyvwa/j.^fa. 

seventh month seeks to determine the Cf. Book of Jashar {op. cit. ii. 1106). 

nature of the weather during the ensu- Some such idea seems to have been 

ing six rainy months (see note on xii. present to Philo, De Migr. Abr. xxxii.- 

27). In Ber. rabba 44, according to xxxui. 

the Rabbis, God told Abram that he 19- And Thee and Thy Dominion, 

was a prophet and not a star-gazer, etc. The MSS put this line at the end 

Cedrenus (i. 48-49) reproduces the sub- of ver. 19. 

CHAPTER XII. 15-25 95 

20. Deliver me from the hands of evil spirits who have 

sway over the thoughts of men's hearts, 
And let them not lead me astray from Thee, my God. 

And stablish Thou me and my seed for ever 
That we go not astray from henceforth and for ever- 

21. And he said, "Shall I return unto Ur of the Chaldees 
who seek my face that I may return to them, or am I 
to remain here in this place ? The right path before 
Thee prosper it in the hands of Thy servant that he may 
fulfil (it) and that I may not walk in the deceitfulness 
of my heart, my God." 22. And he made an end of 
speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was 
sent to him through me, saying : " Get thee up from thy 
country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy 
father unto a land which I shall show thee, and I shall 
make thee a great and numerous nation. 

23. And I shall bless thee 

And I shall make thy name great, 

And thou wilt be blessed in the earth, 

And in Thee will all families of the earth be blessed, 

And I shall bless them that bless thee. 

And curse them that curse thee. 

24. And I shall be a God to thee and thy son, and to 
thy son's son, and to all thy seed: fear not, from 
henceforth and unto all generations of the earth I 
am thy God." 25. And the Lord God said: "Open his 
mouth and his ears, that he may hear and speak with 

22-23. Gen. xii. 1-3. Abram's life. Our text was before 

22. From the house of thy father. Syncellus, i. 185. Thus, contrary to 

This implies separation from Terah (see his own system of chronology, he 

29-31). The phrase is omitted in Acts assigns the date in this connection as 

vii. 3, where the quotation is given a the beginning of the 41st jubilee, 

different context. 'A-PXV to'J M<i 'l^^rfKaiov irap' 'Ej3paiois. 

25-26. From the overthrow of Babel 'lui^rjX Se wap' avroh ij TrevTT]KovTa- 

(x. 26) the knowledge of the Hebrew erripis, ws elvai airb 'Ada/j. Kar' avrovs 

language was lost till the 75th year of M ire' (so Rcinsch : MSS /xe') iros 



his mouth, with the language which has been revealed " ; for 
it had ceased from the mouths of all the children of 
men from the day of the overthrow (of Babel). 26. And I 
opened his mouth, and his ears and his lips, and I began to 
speak with him in Hebrew in the tongue of the creation. 
27. And he took the books of his fathers, and these were 
written in Hebrew, and he transcribed them, and he began 
from henceforth to study them, and I made known to him 
that which he could not (understand), and he studied them^ 
1953 a.m. during the six rainy months. 28. And it came to pass in 
the seventh year of the sixth week that he spoke to his 
father, and informed him that he would leave Haran to go 
into the land of Canaan to see it and return to him. 29. 
And Terah liis father said unto him ; " Go in peace : 

'A^pakfi ^rri ,(3a' ( = 2001 : so Ronsch: 
MSS ^v'). 6 dyyeXos 6 XaXQv T<f 
MojiJarj elTrev avT(^, otl t6v 'A^paapi. 
iyCj ^dlda^a ttjv 'E,Spat5a y\u)(xcrav 
/card T'i;!' cltt' dpxv^ KTlceios, XaXelv to. 
irdrpia Travra, clis iv AeTrrrj KeTrai 
Teviffu. The above reckoning agrees 
exactly with our text if we take into 
account the fact that Syucellus wrongly 
takes a jubilee as 50 years instead of 
49 years. Syncellns thus finds that 
on the 1st year of the 41st jubilee, 
2001 years have elapsed from Adam 
till the 85th year of Abram. Accord- 
ing to our text Abram was 75 years 
old in 1951 and therefore 85 in 1961. 
Now 40 jubilees + 1 = 1961, but Syu- 
cellus, reckoning the jubilee at 50 
years, wrongly made the total 2001. 
A curtailed form of the above state- 
ment is reproduced by Cedrenus, i. 48. 
Again the writer of the Clementine 
Recognitions, i. 30, knew the substance 
of our text : Quinta decima generatione 
primo omnium homines idolum statu- 
eutes adoraverunt, et usque ad illud 
tempus divinitus humano generi data 
Hebraeorum lingua teuuit monarchiam. 
A different tradition ft-om that in 
our text appears in the Catena 
Niceplwri, 1. col. 177, on Gen. xi. 8, 
where Heber is said to have alone 
retained the Hebrew language, because 
he took no part in the building of 

Babel. In the next colophon of the 
same work the same statement is 
attributed to Diodorus of Antioch 
(378-394 A.D.). A similar view is set 
forth in Augustine, De Civ. Dei, xvi. 
11, and in Cedrenus, i. 22 : (jtacrl S^ 6ti 
fjUivoi 6 "E/3ep d tov <J>dXe/f irarrjp ov 
(jvvideTo TTj irpd^ei rrjs TrvpyoTroUas' 
Sio Kal TTJs tGiv SWijiv (pcovTJs ffvyxe- 
Oeicrrjs rj tov "E/3ep ovk dwdiKeTo, 
According to Malan, Book of Adam 
and Eve, p. 245, this view was pro- 
pounded by Bar-hebraeus {Syr. p. 9). 

25. Language which has been re- 
vealed. Cf. Clementine Recognitions 
i. 30 : Divinitus humano generi data 
Hebraeorum lingua (see preceding 

Day of the overthroiv. See note on 
X. 26. 

27. The books of his fathers. See note 
on xxi. 10. 

Six rainy months. This means the 
winter in the East. It is the time for 
study. The expression is Talmudic : 
o'DCJii niD'' (Taan. 3 b ; Erubin 56 a) in 
opposition to nonn niD', the days of the 
Sun, i.e. the summer. 

29-31. Singer {Das Buch der 
Jubilden, p. 170) is no doubt right in 
saying that this passage owes its exist- 
ence to the author's wish to protect 
Abram against the reproach of leaving 
his aged father (see Ber. rabba 39). 


May the eternal God make thy path straight, 

And the Lord [(be) with thee, and] protect thee from 

all evil, 
And grant unto thee grace, mercy and favour before 

those who see thee, 
And may none of the children of men have power over 

thee to harm thee ; 
Go in peace. 
30. And if thou seest a land pleasant to thy eyes to dwell 
in, then arise and take me to thee and take Lot with thee, 
the son of Haran thy brother, as thine own son : the Lord be 
with thee. 31. And Nahor thy brother leave with me till 
thou returnest in peace, and we go with thee all together." 

Abram journeys from Haran to Shechem in Canaan, thence to 
Hebron and thence to Egypt, 1-1 4a. Returns to Canaan 
where Lot separates from, him, and receives the promise 
of Canaan and journeys to Hebron, 145-21. Chedor- 
laomer's attack on Sodom and Gomorrah : Lot taken cap~ 
tive, 22-24. Law of tithes enacted, 25-29. (Of. Gen. xii. 
4-10, 15-17, 19-20, xiii. 11-18, xiv. 8-14, 21-24.) 

XIII. And Abram journeyed from Haran, and he took 
Sarai, his wife, and Lot, his brother Haran's son, to the land 
of Canaan, and he came into -fAsshurf, and proceeded to 
Shechem, and dwelt near a lofty oak. 2. And he saw, and, 
behold, the land was very pleasant from the entering of 
Hamath to the lofty oak. 3. And the Lord said to him : 

Accordingly, Abram is to return and XIII. 1. Cf. Gen. xii. 5-6. 

fetch liis father. As Terah is still fAsshur.f I have obelised this as 

alive at the age of 147 (see xi. 10, 15) corrupt. We should expect "Canaan." 

it follows that our author accepts 205 a has S&r. 

years in Gen. xi. 32 (Mass., LXX) as Shechem. Eth. has Sakimon. 

the age of Terah when he died. The 2. Hamath. Eth. has 'llmath. See 

Samaritan here has 145, and this is the note on x. 33. 

text presupposed by Acts vii. 4. It Lofty oak. So LXX Gen. xii. 6 ; 

is accepted by Budde and Dillmann. Mass. — " oak of Moreh." 


" To thee and to thy seed will I give this land." 4. And 
he built an altar there, and he offered thereon a burnt 
sacrifice to the Lord, who had appeared to him. 5. And 
he removed from thence unto the mountain . . . Bethel on 
the west and Ai on the east, and pitched his tent there. 
6. And he saw and behold, the land was very wide and 
good, and everything grew thereon — vines and figs and 
pomegranates, oaks and ilexes, and terebinths and oil trees, 
and cedars and cypresses and date trees, and all trees of the 
field, and there was water on the mountains. 7. And he 
blessed the Lord who had led him out of Ur of the Chaldees, 

1954 A.M. and had brought him to this land. 8. And it came to pass 
in the first year, in the seventh week, on the new moon of the 
first month, that he built an altar on this mountain, and 
called on the name of the Lord : " Thou, the eternal God, 
art my God." 9. And he offered on the altar a burnt 
sacrifice unto the Lord that He should be with him and not 
forsake him all the days of his life. 10. And he removed 
from thence and went towards the south, and he came to 
Hebron, and Hebron was built at that time, and he dwelt 
there two years, and he went (thence) into the land of the 
south, to Bealoth, and there was a famine in the land. 

1956 a.m. 11. And Abram went into Egypt in the third year of the 
week, and he dwelt in Egypt five years before his wife was 
torn away from him. 12. Now Tanais in Egypt was at 

3-5. Cf. Gen. xii. 7-8. 8. On the new moon of the first 

5. Unto tlie mountain . . . Bethel on month. So cd, which is to be pre- 
the west, etc. After "mouutain" there is ferred to the reading of a b as Praetorius 
probably a loss of the words : "to the and Littmann have j^ointed out. 

east of Bethel with." This lacuna is Thou, the eternal God, art (bed), a, 

not marked in the MSS. Zasemu "And said, the eternal God is." See 

after BOtel in a may be a corrup- ver. 16. 

tion of westa = ej'. If so, it should be 9-10. Cf. Gen. xii. 8^-10. 

placed before Betel, bed read "unto 10. Hebron. Eth. Kebron. 

the mountain of Bethel," etc. Bealoth, Latin Bahalot, LXX BaaX- 

Ai. Eth. 'Agge, LXX 'A77at. ud (Mass. ni'7j;n). A town in the 

6. Date irees = bilan6s ( = ^dXavos), south of Judah, Jos. sv. 24, as Littmann 
an emendation of a bibauos. c d read has recognised. MSS corruptly B6a 
libanos, which Dillmann takes to Loth. 

mean " pine trees." 12. Tanais, i.e. Zoan, |j,'i: (LXX 

CHAPTER XIII. 4-20 99 

that time built — seven years after Hebron. 13. And it 
came to pass when Pharaoh seized Sarai, the wife of Abram, 
that the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great 
plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife. 14. And Abram 
was very glorious by reason of possessions in sheep, and 
cattle, and asses, and horses, and camels, and menservants, 
and maidservants, and in silver and gold exceedingly. 
And Lot also, his brother's son, was wealthy. 15. And 
Pharaoh gave back Sarai, the wife of Abram, and he sent 
him out of the land of Egypt, and he journeyed to the place 
where he had pitched his tent at the beginning, to the place 
of the altar, with Ai on the east, and Bethel on the west, 
and he blessed the Lord his God who had brought him 
back in peace. 16. And it came to pass in the forty-first 1963 a. m. 
jubilee, in the third year of the first week, that he returned 
to this place and offered thereon a burnt sacrifice, and called 
on the name of the Lord, and said : " Thou, the most high 
God, art my God for ever and ever." 17. And in the fourth 1964 a.m. 
year of this week Lot parted from him, and Lot dwelt in 
Sodom, and the men of Sodom were sinners exceedingly. 
18. And it grieved him in his heart that his brother's son 
had parted from him; for he had no children. 19. In that 
year when Lot was taken captive, the Lord said unto Abram, 
after that Lot had parted from him, in the fourth year of 
this week : " Lift up thine eyes from the place where 
thou art dwelling, northward and southward, and westward 
and eastward. 20. For all the land which thou seest I 

Taviv). The statement in this verse 16. TJwu, the most high God, etc. 

is drawn from Num. xiii. 22. Cf. ver. 8. 

13-15^ Cf. Geu. xii. 15-20. Our 17. £oi parted from him. Cf. Gen. 

author conceals Abram's decejition of xiii. 11. 

Pharaoh relative to Sarai, and omits jg^ }^ ^^^^^ j^^^^ ^ .^k -^^ g^ 

Gen. xii. 18 The Book of Jashar ^^ qj^ gj^^ ^.j_ 22 for this transitive 

expands all the details of the Biblical ^gg_ ^ ^^^ .^j^.y^^ ^ 'a'ekaju. c gives 

account. , , , , , , hazana, a conjecture right in sense. 

10. Journeyed to the place where he " 

had pitched his tent, etc. Cf. Gen. 19-21. Cf. Gen. xiii. 14-18. 

xiii. 3, 4. 19. Tliis tveek. MSS add "and 

Ai on the east, etc. See on ver, 5. said " against Latin and Gen. xiii. 


shall give to thee and to thy seed for ever, and I shall make 
thy seed as the sand of the sea : though a man may number 
the dust of the earth, yet thy seed shall not be numbered. 
21. Arise, walk (through the land) in the length of it and 
the breadth of it, and see it all ; for to thy seed shall I give 
it." And Abram went to Hebron, and dwelt there. 22. 
And in this year came Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and 
Amraphel, king of Shinar, and Arioch, king of Sellasar, and 
Tergal, king of nations, and slew the king of Gomorrah, and 
the king of Sodom fled, and many fell through wounds in 
the vale of Siddim, by the Salt Sea. 23. And they took 
captive Sodom and Adam and Zeboim, and they took cap- 
tive Lot also, the son of Abram's brother, and all his pos- 
sessions, and they went to Dan. 24. And one who had 
escaped came and told Abram that his brother's son had 
been taken captive and (Abram) armed his household 
servants. 25. . 

for Abram, and for his seed, a tenth of the 

20. Sand of the sea. This expres- TSrgdl, i.e. Tidal of Mass. Syr. 
sion is borrowed from Geu. xxii. 17. has Tar'il and LXX QapyaK, 

Gen. xiii. 16 has here: "dust of the Gomon-ah. Eth. Gomor, 

earth." King of Sodom fled. Our author 

A^ot be numbered. Gen. xiii. 16 here corrects the apparent contradiction 

omits the negative ; but it is also found in Gen. xiv. 10, 17. 

in Onkelos. Vale of Siddim. An easy emenda- 

21. I have added " through the tion of a corrupt text. See my Eth. 
land " from Gen. xiii. 17, since the text (p. 48). 

expression "length of it" presupposes 23. Adam, i.e. Admah. 

its presence in the text, otherwise we They we7it. Text which has "he 

have to go back twenty-three words in went " should be emended, 

the Ethiopic for the antecedent of "it." To Dan. Of. Gen. xiv. 14. 

The Latin is here defective, omitting 24. One who had escaped. Gen. 

" through the land in its length and." xiv. 13. This person was named Oni 

22-29. Cf. Geu. xiv. according to the Book of Jashar(Migue's 

22. Chedorlaojner. Eth. has Kodola- Did. des Apocr. ii. 1125). 

gSmSr. ^ And (Abram) armed his houseJiold 

Amrapliel. Eth. has 'Amarphel. servants. Gen. xiv. 14. For "armed" 

Cf. Gen. xiv. 1 (LXX) ' AfJiap(pd\. {abd), c corruptly reads "made atone- 

Silldsar. Possibly a corruption of ment for." Onkelos (m?) supports the 

Ellasar, since s6 and 'e are easily con- rendering which our text gives of pT in 

fused in Ethiopic ; but the corruption Gen. xiv. 14. The LXX rjpid/j,7i(xe and 

originated in the Greek, since A in Vulg. numeravit which presuppose pi- 

Gen. xiv. 1 has SeXXacap ; or in the the text of the Samaritan. 

Hebrew, as the Syriac has Dalasar and 25. At the beginning of this verse 

the Targum of Ps.- Jon. Telassar. there is obviously a lacuna, for the text 



first-fruits to the Lord, and the Lord ordained it as an 
ordinance for ever that they should give it to the priests 
who served before Him, that they should possess it for ever. 

26. And to this law there is no limit of days ; for He hath 
ordained it for the generations for ever that they should 
give to the Lord the tenth of everything, of the seed and 
of the wine and of the oU and of the cattle and of the sheep. 

27. And He gave (it) unto His priests to eat and to drink 
with joy before Him. 28. And the king of Sodom came to 
him and bowed himself before him, and said : " Our Lord 
Abram, give unto us the souls which thou hast rescued, but 
let the booty be thine." 2 9. And Abram said unto him : 
" I lift up my hands to the Most High God, that from a 

is anacolouthic. c removes the anacol- 
outhon by changing 'astarasaja = 
"armed" of ahd into 'astaseraja = 
" made atonement for." Thus instead 
of ' ' (Abram) armed his household 
servants .... for Abram " we have 
" his household servant made atone- 
ment for Abram, " But this change is 
against the best MSS, which are like- 
wise supported by Gen. xiv. 14 (see 
note on ver. 24), and it does not dis- 
pense with the necessity of assuming 
a lacuna at the close of ver. 24. The 
lacuna, drawn attention to in our text, 
would naturally contain an account of 
Abram's pursuit of the kings and 
recovery of the captives and spoil. It 
no doubt told also of Melchizedek ; 
for ver. 25 presupposes Gen. xiv. 18*^- 
20° by declaruig that the tithes belong 
to the priests. In Nedar 32 h it is said 
that the priestly office passed from 
Melchizedek's successors to those of 
Abraham because Melchizedek sinned 
in blessing Abraham before he blessed 
God (Beer, Buch der JubUden, p. 74). 
Since Beer had before him the corrupt 
reading of c, which tries to obviate the 
anacolouthic nature of the text, he 
assumed that the text contained no 
reference to Melchizedek. It is true 
that this passage has always been a 
stumbling-block to strict Jews. Thus it 
was urged against them by Justin {Dial, 
c. Tryph. 19 : d.Tr£piT/j.7]Tos ijv 6 iepevs 
Tov vipiffTov Me\xnre5^(c, <^ Kal SeKaras 

Trpoa<f>opas ^duKev 'A^padfi) that Mel- 
chizedek was uncircumcised to whom 
Abram gave tithes, and also by Tertullian, 
Adv. Jud. iii.: Patriarchae incircumcisi 
fuerunt, ut Melchisedech qui ipsi 
Abrahae jam circumciso . . . panem 
et vinum obtulit incircumcisus. To 
evade such attacks some Jewish writers 
declared that Melchizedek was born 
circumcised (Ber. rabba 43 ; for other 
references see Singer, p. 122 note) ; 
also that Melchizedek was identical with 
Shem (Targum Jon. and Jerus. on Gen. 
xiv. 18 ; Nedar 32 & ; Ber. rabba 44 : 
Book of Jashar [Diet, des Apocr. ii. 
1125) ; see Beer, Leben Abrahams, 142 ; 
Singer, Das Buch der JubUden, 122 
note for further references). These 
evasions were apparently unknown to 
Philo and Josephus. In connection 
with the fact that Melchizedek was 
called " a priest of the most high God " 
(Gen. xiv. 18) we should remember 
that the Maccabeans called themselves 
by this title (see note on xxxii. 1). 
Now since our author (see lutrod. § 21) 
is an apologist of the Maccabean dy- 
nasty, it is not probable that he would 
omit all reference to Melchizedek who 
first bore the title they afterwards as- 

26. From the enigmatical words of 
Gen. xiv. 20 "he gave him a tenth of 
all " our author derives the law of 
universal tithing. See xxxii. 15. 

28-29. Cf. Gen. xiv. 21-24. 


thread to a shoe-latchet I shall not take aught that is thine, 
lest thou shouldst say I have made Abram rich ; save only 
what the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men 
who went with me — Aner, Eschol, and Mamre. These will 
take their portion." 

Abram receives the promise of a son and of inmimerable 
descendants, 1-7. Offers a sacrifice and is told of his 
seed being in Egypt, 8-17. God' s covenant with Abram, 
18-20. Eagar bears Ishmael, 21-24. (Cf. Gen. xv., 
xvi. 1-4, 11.) 

XIV. After these things, in the fourth year of this 
week, on the new moon of the third month, the word of the 
Lord came to Abram in a dream, saying : " Fear not, Abram ; 
I am thy defender, and thy reward will be exceeding great." 
2. And he said : " Lord, Lord, what wilt thou give me, 
seeing I go hence childless, and the son of Maseq, the son 
of my handmaid, is the Dammasek EHezer : he will be my 
heir, and to me thou hast given no seed." 3. And He said 
unto him : " This (man) will not be thy heir, but one that 
will come out of thine own bowels ; he will be thine heir." 
4. And He brought him forth abroad, and said unto him : 
" Look toward heaven and number the stars, if thou art able 
to number them." 5. And he looked toward heaven, and 
beheld the stars. And He said unto him : " So shall thy 
seed be." 6. And he believed in the Lord, and it was 
counted to him for righteousness. 7. And He said unto 

29. Aner. Eth. has 'Aunan. Instead of "the son of MasSq" we should 

XIV. 1-6. Cf. Gen. xv. 1-6. have "the possessor." Next, "the son 

2. Lord, Lord. Probably = A^crTrora of my handmaid" =6 oiKoyeviqi /jlov. 

Ki/pie as in LXX of Gen. xv. 2 = 'jnN Hence our text = 'n'a-ia p::-D-p. Subse- 

nin'. quent tradition made much of Eliezer. 

The son of MAsiq, the son of my He was said to be one of the seven 

handmaid. The Greek translator (and righteous men who had not tasted of 

also the LXX) wTongly took pco (= death (Baba bathra 58 a), 

" possession ") to be a proper name. 7. Cf. Gen. xv. 7. 

CHAPTER XIV. 1-14 103 

him : "I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of 
the Chaldees, to give thee the land of the Canaanites to 
possess it for ever ; and I shall be God unto thee and to thy 
seed after thee." 8. And he said : " Lord, Lord, whereby 
shall I know that I shall inherit (it) ? " 9. And He said unto 
him : " Take Me an heifer of three years, and a goat of three 
years, and a sheep of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a 
pigeon." 10. And he took all these in the middle of the 
month ; and he dwelt at the oak of Mamre, which is near 
Hebron. 11. And he built there an altar, and sacrificed 
all these ; and he poured their blood upon the altar, and 
divided them in the midst, and laid them over against each 
other ; but the birds divided he not. 1 2. And birds came 
down upon the pieces, and Abram drove them away, and 
did not suffer the birds to touch them. 13. And it came 
to pass, when the sun had set, that an ecstasy fell upon 
Abram, and lo ! an horror of great darkness fell upon him, 
and it was said unto Abram : " Know of a surety that thy 
seed shall be a stranger in a land (that is) not theirs, and 
they will bring them into bondage, and afflict them four 
hundred years. 14. And the nation also to whom they will 

And T shall be God unto thee {c d), ab of Tfj-rjO^vra : cf. LXX ra Sixoto/ht}- 

read "to be God unto thee." fiara. This would imply the reading 

8-9. Cf. Gen. xv. 8-9. onu. But TaOivra. might possibly be 

8. Lord, Lord. See note on ver. 2. a corruption of KTa^e;'ra = Dnj3 as in 

9. An heifer of three years, Qic. The Mass. text. In that case we should 
Mass., LXX, Ps.-Jon. , Wajikra rabba render " carcases." Observe that LXX 
14, Joseph. Ant. i. 10. 3 mention one ( = ^7ri to. aufxara ewl to. 5LxoTo/j.rjfxaTa) 
animal of each kind, as here. On the had clearly Dnij-'?j; o'lJarrVy before it. 
other hand, Gen. rabba and Onkelos on And Abram drove them aivay = Kal 
this verse prescribe three of each kind. airecrd^ytaev ( = Mass. 3B'']) avra 'A^pd/x. 
So also Eashi, Nachmanides, Kimchi (Aquila). LXK = Kal (TweKdeiffev avTols 
according to Beer {Leb. Abr. 20, 121). 'Aj3pd/x. 

10. In the middle of the month. 13-16. Cf. Gen. xv. 12-16. 
Ps.-Jon. on Exod. xii. 40, and the 13. Theyivill bring theminto bondage. 
Seder 01am 5, state that this event go LXX and Vulgate. Mass., Sam., and 
took place on Nisan 15. Syr. = " they will be in bondage to them." 

Dwelt at the oak of Mamre. Cf. po^r hundred years. In Gen. xv. 

Gen. xiv. 13. 13 \\^q length of the sojourn in 

11-12. Cf. Gen. xv. 10-11. Egypt is given as 400 years, but in 

12. The pieces. The MSS have here Exod. xii. 40 as 430. But since neither 

"that which was spread out" ^Ta^^vra, number agrees with the period calcu- 

which I have taken to be a corruption lated from the ages of Kohath, Amram 



be in bondage shall I judge, and after that they will come 
forth thence with much substance. 15, And thou wilt go 
to thy fathers in peace, and be buried in a good old age. 
16. But in the fourth generation they will return hither; 
for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full." 17. And 
he awoke from his sleep, and he arose, and the sun had set ; 
and there was a flame, and behold ! a furnace was smoking, 
and a flame of fire passed between the pieces. 18. And on 
that day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying : 
" To thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt 
unto the great river, the river Euphrates, the Kenites, the 
Kenizzites, the Kadmonites, the Perizzites, and the Eephaim, 
the Phakorites, and the Hivites, and the Amorites, and the 
Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites." 19. 

in Exod. vi. 18, 20, and Moses at the 
time of the Exodus, vii. 7, tradition 
early assumed that the above periods 
include the sojourn of the patriarchs in 
Cauaan before the migration. Thus 
the LXX in Exod. xii. 40 insert the 
words Kal 4v yri Xavdav after iv 7^ 
AlyviTTt^, and the same addition is 
found in the Samaritan Pentateuch. 
The period of 400 or 430 years was 
reckoned from the date of its announce- 
ment in Gen. xv. 13, according to St. 
Paul, Gal. iii. 16, 17 ; Joseph. A7it. 
ii. 15. 2 ; Ps.-Jon. in Exod. xii. 40, but 
our text reckons the 430 years from 
Isaac's birth. On the other hand, Philo 
(Quis rer. div. her. 54) sets down the 
actual sojourn of Israel in Egypt at 400 
years, and likewise Josephus {Ant. ii. 9. 
1 ; Bell. Jud. v. 9. 4). According to Ps.- 
Jon. on Exod. xii. 40, 41 the 430 years 
are explained as follows : 400 years 
elapsed between Isaac's birth, which 
took place when Abraham was 100 
years old (Gen. xxi. 5), and the Exodus ; 
and 430 between the date of God's 
promise to Abraham (Gen. xv. 13) and 
the Exodus ; for this promise was given 
30 years before Isaac's birth. Thus 
430 years = 30 (years between promise 
in Gen. xv. 13 and birth of Isaac) + 
60 (years from birth of Isaac to birth 
of Jacob) -f 130 (being age of Jacob on 
his arrival in Egypt, Gen. xlvii. 9) + 

210 (years of sojourn in Egypt). Ac- 
cording to this chronology it follows 
that Abram was 70 years old when he 
witnessed the vision in Gen. xv. 7-21. 
But according to Gen. xii. 4 Abram was 
already 75 when he left Haran. This 
difficulty obliged later Jewish ex- 
pounders to assume that Abram had 
paid an earlier visit in his 70th year 
to Canaan, and that Gen. xv. 7-21 
belongs to that earlier visit and that its 
present context is accordingly wrong. 
This method of exposition is followed 
in the Book of Jashar where Gen. xv. 
7-21 is first recounted {Diet, des Apocr. 
ii. 1119) and subsequently Gen. xv. 1-6 
(ii. 1125-1126). The double journey to 
Canaan is referred to by R. Nehemiah in 
Ber. rabba 39. For other references 
to later Jewish literature on this question 
see Beer, Leb. Abr. 118-120. 

Of this later form of exposition our 
book knows nothing. 

16. Fourth generation. A genera- 
tion means here 100 years. Isaac was 
born when Abraham was 100 years 
old (Gen. xxi. 5). 

17-18. Cf. Gen. xv. 17-21. 

17. The pieces. Emended. See note 
on ver. 12, where the same corruption 
is found. 

18. Tlie Hivites. Found in Sam. and 
LXX of Gen. xv. 20, but not in Mass., 
Syr., or Vulg. 

CHAPTERS XIV. 15-XV. i 105 

And the clay passed, and Abram offered the pieces, and the 
birds, and their fruit-offerings, and their drink-offerings, and 
the fire devoured them. 20. And on that day we made 
a covenant with Abram, according as we had covenanted 
with Noah in this month ; and Abram renewed the festival 
and ordinance for himself for ever. 21. And Abram 
rejoiced, and made all these things known to Sarai his wife ; 
and he believed that he would have seed, but she did not 
bear. 22. And Sarai advised her husband Abram, and said 
unto him ; " Go in unto Hagar, my Egyptian maid : it may 
be that I shall build up seed unto thee by her." 23, And 
Abram hearkened unto the voice of Sarai his wife, and said 
unto her, " Do (so)." And Sarai took Hagar, her maid, the 
Egyptian, and gave her to Abram, her husband, to be his 
wife. 24. And he went in unto her, and she conceived 
and bare him a son, and he called his name Ishmael, in the 
fifth year of this week ; and this was the eighty-sixth 1965 a.m. 
year in the life of Abram. 

Ahram celebrates the feast of first-fruits, 1, 2 : his name 
changed and circumcision instituted, 3-14. Sarai' s 
name changed and Isaac 'promised, 15-21. Abraham, 
Ishmael, and all his household circumcised, 22-24. Cir- 
cumcision an eternal ordination, 25, 26. Israel shares 
this honour with the highest angels who were created 
circumcised, 27-29. Israel subject to God alone: 
other nations to angels, 30-32. Future faithlessness of 
Israel, 33, 34. (Cf. Gen. xvii.) 

XV. And in the fifth year of the -f-fourth-f- week of this 1979 a.m. 

19. The pieces. Emended. See note and the same day of the month by our 
on ver. 12, where the same corruption author. 

is found. 21d-24ab Cf. Gen. xvi. 1-4. 

20. On that day, i.e. the 15th Sivan. 24. And he called his name Ishinael. 
We have already seen (see note on vi. Cf. Gen. xvi. 11. 

17-18) that the Covenant with Noah was XV. 1. \Fourth-\ {a c d). b reads 

probably assigned to the same month "seventh." It should be "third," here 



jubilee, in the third month, in the middle of the month, 
Abram celebrated the feast of the first-fruits of the grain 

and in xvi. 15, as Dillmann recognised. 
Cf. xvii. 1. 

In the third month, in the middle of 
the month. From a comparison of xv. 
1 and xliv. 4, 5 (see notes also on i. 1, 
vi. 17-18, xiv. 20) it follows that the 
feast of weeks was celebrated on the 
fifteenth of the third month (Sivan). 
Since this reckoning deviates from that 
of the Pharisees about the beginning 
of the Christian era, and as there were 
many divergent views in Judaism about, 
before, and after that period, we must 
here inquire briefly into the origin and 
nature of these views. 

To begin with, it is clear that they all 
arose from the various meanings attached 
to the word " Sabbath " in Lev. xxiii. 
15, 16. In these verses it is ordained 
that the feast of weeks should fall on 
the fiftieth day after the offering of the 
Paschal wave -sheaf. Now this sheaf 
was waved ' ' on the morrow after the 
Sabbath" (Lev. xxiii. 11, 15, mnob 
napn). In what sense, then, are we to 
take the word "Sabbath" ? Two ways 
are possible: — (1) It may be taken to 
mean merely a feast day. (2) It may 
be taken in its strict sense as the weekly 

(1) First the word "Sabbath" is 
taken in the general sense of a feast- 
day. Now the first day of unleavened 
bread (Lev. xxiii. 7) was such a day ; 
but the seventh (Lev. xxiii. 8) was no 
less so. Hence two different computa- 
tions arise from this interpretation of 
the word, (i) the first of wliich inter- 
prets the first day of unleavened bread 
as the Sabbath, and (ii) the second which 
interprets it of the seventh day. 

(i) The first interpretation, which 
took the Sabbath to be thefirstdayof un- 
leavened bread (Nisan 15), naturally 
understood the phrase "the morrow after 
the Sabbath" todesignate Nisan 16, with- 
out regard to the day of the week. This 
was the interpretation of the Pharisees in 
our Lord's time. This \iew is first at- 
tested in the LXX, where the phrase in 
question is rendered by ttj evavpiov rr^i 
■irpi.!}T7]s (here i] irjOtoTT? = ri3f n), exactly 
as in Ps.-Jon. on Lev. xxiii. 15, inaD 
n.s'sp N3a HDV ', in the Targum of Onkelos 
(K3a NDV inao) where " the Sabbath " 

is simply rendered " the feast day " ; 
in Josephus, Ant. iii. 10. 5, rrj Sk 
devripa rQiv d^v/xuv rj/x^pg. ; in Philo, 
De Septenar. 20, where the day for 
waving the sheaf is said to be the 
second day of unleavened bread: 'Eoprr; 
5^ ^<rTi.v 7] pLera ttjv Tvpthrrjv €v6i)s 
rip.ipa. The Mishna, also (Chag. ii. 4 ; 
Menach. x. 1 -3), maintains this inter- 
pretation against conflicting expositions. 

Sinee on this view the sheaf-waving 
took place on Nisan 16, the feast of 
Aveeks, fifty days later, was usually 
celebrated on Sivan 6, without regard 
in either case to the day of the week. 

(ii) But others took the Sabbath to 
mean the seventh day of unleavened 
bread, which was also a day of rest. As 
the Sabbath in this case was Nisan 21, 
the morrow after tlie Sabbath was Nisan 
22. This is actually the course jrarsued 
by the (a) Falashas or Abyssinian Jews. 
They reckon the fifty days from Nisan 
22 and thus the feast of weeks falls on 
Sivan 12 as they use alternate months 
of thirty and twenty -nine days (see 
d'Abhadie in Univ. Isr. Juillet 1851, 
p. 482). (6) Again this view is attested 
by the Syriac version of Lev. xxiii. 11, 
15, as existing before 100 a.d. Thus 

it renders the Hebrew phrase )A^ 
)Ak-^) )LtoCLA=" after the second 
(feast) day," that is Nisan 21. (c) But 
the usage is as early as the second cent. 
B.C. ; for it appears in our text. At 
the beginning of this note we found 
that the feast of weeks took place on 
the Sivan 15. If we count back fifty 
days (reckoning the second month at 
twenty- eightjdays), we arrive at Nisan 22 
when the wave-sheaf was offered. Thus 
Jubilees also interpreted the phrase " the 
morrow after the Sabbath"as meaning the 
day after the seventh day of unleavened 
bread, which was a special day of rest. 
(2) But on the fact that the simple 
term " Sabbath " stands elsewhere only 
as the weekly Sabbath, are based other 
early uses among the Jews as well as 
certain modern speculations. Thus the 
Baithusians'(Menachoth 65 a) took "the 
morrow after the Sabbath "to be the 
day after the weekly Sabbath which 
occurred during the feast of unleavened 

CHAPTER XV. 1-9 107 

harvest. 2. And he offered new offerings on the altar, the 
first-fruits of the produce, unto the Lord, an heifer and a 
goat and a sheep on the altar as a burnt sacrifice unto 
the Lord ; their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings he 
offered upon the altar with frankincense. 3. And the Lord 
appeared to Abram, and said unto him : " I am God 
Almighty ; approve thyself before Me and be thou perfect. 
4. And I will make My covenant between Me and thee, and 
I will multiply thee exceedingly." 5. And Abram fell on 
his face, and God talked with him, and said : 

6. " Behold My ordinance is with thee, 

And thou wilt be the father of many nations. 

7. Neither will thy name any more be called Abram, 

But thy name from henceforth, even for ever, shall be 

For the father of many nations have I made thee. 

8. And I shall make thee very great. 
And I shall make thee into nations. 
And kings will come forth from thee. 

9. And I shall establish My covenant between Me and thee, 
and thy seed after thee, throughout their generations, for an 

bread. Frankel {Einjluss d. jmI. Exeg., Re,clit? 1853, p. 420), Fiirst {Heb. u. 

1851, pp. 136-137) holds that the rfj chald. WbrUrbuch, 1863, under word 

(Traijpiov TTJs TrpwTTjs of the LXX is naty), Wellhaiiseu [Jahr. f. deutsch. 

directed against this view. The Karaite Theol. xxii.), Dillmann (on Lev. xxiii. 

Jews {Tri^&nA, Diatribe de Secta Karae- ll),vonOrelli (Herzog's Real Encj/c.^ si. 

oi-uni, 1703 ; Fiirst, Geschichte des 264) accept in one form or another the 

Karaerthums, 1865) and likewise the Sadducean interpretation. In addition 

Samaritans follow the strict interpreta- to the above literature, see the Articles 

tion of the term Sabbath in this con- on Pentecost (Pfingstfest) in Hasting's 

nection. Very many modern scholars Bible Dictionary; Herzog's Real Encyc? 

hold strongly to some form of this and Schenkel's Bibel- Lexicon. 
theory, as Hitzig {Osteryi lo. Pfingsten, 2. An heifer and a goat, etc. Cf. 

1837 and Ostern u. Pfingsten ivi xiv. 9. These are not the sacrifices 

2wa'toj.Z)eto%, 1838), who maintained prescribed for this festival in Lev. 

that in the Hebrew calendar Nisan 14 xxiii. 18-20. 
and 21 were always Sabbaths and that 3.4^ (jf_ Qen. xvii. 1-2. 

"the morrow after the Sabbath" was 3^ ' j^pp^ove thyself . Cf. LXX, eiapi- 

Nisan 22. Knobel (on Lev. xxiii. • a i, i, , 

11) agreed with Hitzig, save that he g^ct and Syr. » ^ A , which are all free 

identified the day of the sheaf-waving renderings of iVnnn. 
vAih. Nisan 15. Saalschiitz {Das Mos. 5-10. Cf. Gen. xvii. 3-8. 


eternal covenant, so that I may be a God unto thee, and to 
thy seed after thee. 10. (And I shall give to thee and 
to thy seed after thee) the land where thou hast been a 
sojourner, the land of Canaan, that thou mayst possess it for 
ever, and I shall be their God." 11. And the Lord said 
unto Abraham : " And as for thee, do thou keep My covenant, 
thou and thy seed after thee ; and circumcise ye every male 
among you, and circumcise your foreskins, and it will be a 
token of an eternal covenant between Me and you. 12. 
And the child on the eighth day ye will circumcise, every 
male throughout your generations, him that is born in the 
house, or whom ye have bought with money from any 
stranger, whom ye have acquired who is not of thy seed. 
13. He that is born in thy house will surely be circum- 
cised, and those whom thou hast bought with money will 
be circumcised, and My covenant will be in your flesh for 
an eternal ordinance. 14, And the uncircumcised male 
who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin on the 
eighth day, that soul will be cut off from his people, for 

10. (And I shall give to thee and to wanting in the Hebrew. See on ver. 

thy seed after thee). These words, lost 26. 

through honioioteleuton, I have restored As the Sabbath is the iirst, so cir 

from Gen. xvii. 8. cumcision is the second cardinal com- 

11-13. Cf. Gen. xvii. 9-13. maud of Judaism. In opposition to 

12. The child (or ''children") on the the laxity introduced by Greek culture 

eighth day ye will circumcise. This the command in Gen. xv. 14 is euuuci- 

form of Gen. xvii. 12 is found only in ated afresh and the requirement added 

the Eth. vers, of that passage and in our that it should be performed on the 

text. It seems to be a deliberate change eighth day of the child's life. Owing 

of " the child of eight days ye shall cir- to Greek influences, even before the 

cumcise," as in Gen. xvii. 12. See on reign of Antiochus IV., many Jews 

ver. 14. of noble birth had undergone surgical 

14. Cf. Gen, xvii. 14. operations in order to appear like Greeks 

On the eighth day. These words, when undressed (1 Mace. i. 15 ; As- 

which are not found in the Mass., Syr., sumpt. Mos. viii. 3 ; Joseph. Ant. 

and Vulg., are, however, attested by xii. 5. 1). Subsequently Antiochus 

the Sam. and LXX. Also in Origen's had taken the severest measures to 

Commentary in Ep. ad Rom. ii. 13 prohibit circumcision (1 Mace. i. 48, 

(Lommatzsch, vi. 123-124): Incir- 60, ii. 46). To withstand the Hellenis- 

cumcisus masculus, qui non fuerit ing attitude towards circumcision our 

circumcisus in came praeputii sui die author emphasises what was apparently 

octavo, exterminabitur auima ilia ; and the current view of his time, i.e., that 

in Ambrose, Epist. 72, who remarks on circumcision should be performed on 

Aquila's statement that this clause is the eighth day — the current view ; for 

CHAPTER XV. 10-19 


he has broken My covenant." 15. And God said unto 
Abraham : " As for Sarai thy wife, her name will no more 
be called Sarai, but Sarah will be her name. 16. And I 
shall bless her, and give thee a son by her, and I shall bless 
him, and he will become a nation, and kings of nations will 
proceed from him." 17. And Abraham fell on his face, and 
rejoiced, and said in his heart : " Shall a son be born to him 
that is a hundred years old, and shall Sarah, who is ninety 
years old, bring forth?" 18. And Abraham said unto God: 
"O that Ishmael might live before thee!" 19. And God 
said : " Yea, and Sarah also will bear thee a son, and thou 
wilt call his name Isaac, and I shall establish My covenant 
with him, an everlasting covenant, and for his seed after 

the words enjoiniug it were in both 
Jewish and Samaritan copies of the 
Hebrew text of Gen. xvii. 14 (see above). 
This strict view was subsequently re- 
laxed. Thus, according to Shabb. xix. 5 : 
' ' A child could be circumcised on the 
8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, or 12th day,neither 
earlier nor later. How so ? Usually it 
is circumcised on the 8th day. Should it 
be born on the evening, it is circumcised 
on the 9th : should it be born on 
Friday evening it is circumcised on the 
10th : should the Sunday be a festival, 
on the 11th : should the Sunday and 
Monday be New Year's days, on the 
12th. If the child is ill, it is not 
circumcised till well." But the Sama- 
ritans have held fast to the severer 
regulation to the present day. In 
letters of the Samaritans communicated 
by de Sacy to T. Scaliger (Eichhorn's 
Hepertor, xiii. 261) it is said: "We 
circumcise the male on the eighth day 
and do not defer circumcision a single 
day (nnx av nnfJj n'?) . . . but the Jews 
defer it one day or more." That the 
severer form of the halacha prevailed 
among the Jews themselves as late as 
the second cent. a.d. might be inferred 
from Justin Martyr (Dial. c. Tri/ph. 
27) : "Did God wish those to sin who 
are circumcised or do circumcise on the 
Sabbaths ? for He commands that on 
the eighth day — even though it happen 
to be a Sabbath — those who are born 
should always be circumcised (rfj ijfj^pq. 

T^ oyboTj eK wavTos irepiTeixveddai roi/j 
yevvrjd&ras 6fj.oius kSlv ■§ ijfMepa twv 
a-ajSjidruv ;). Could not He have the 
infants circumcised one day before or 
one day after the Sabbath, if He knew 
that it was a sinful act on the Sabbath ?" 
This custom is also regarded as obli- 
gatory by the Falashas or Abyssinian 
Jews. Cf. Abbadie, Univ. Isr. Avr. p. 
481,1851 (quotedby Singer, p. 289note). 
We might observe here that our book 
knows nothing of the later traditions 
that the patriarchs such as Adam, Seth, 
Enoch, Noah, Shem, Terah, Jacob and 
six others were born circumcised (Mid- 
rash Tillin 106, Soteh 106, quoted by 
Hershon, Treasures of Talmud, 238, 
240, 241). Ber. rabba 43 affirms this 
of Melchizedek. For other references 
see Singer, p. 301 note. 

We might observe here that our 
book knows nothing of the barbarous 
mode of circumcision ordered by the 
Talmudists and Bar Cochba, in order to 
make it impossible to obliterate the 
signs of it by any such surgical opera- 
tion as is referred to above. This 
mode was known as the nj;n3, or " the 
laying bare." This mutilation after 
the removal of the foreskin is still 
practised. See Hershon, Genesis, p. 

15-22. Cf. Gen. xvii. 15-22. 

16. i shall bless him. So also the 

Sam., LXX, Syr. and Vulg. of Gen. xvii. 

16, whereas the Sam. makes the rest of 


him. 20. And as for Islimael also have I heard thee, and 
behold I shall bless him, and make him great, and multiply 
him exceedingly, and he will beget twelve princes, and I 
shall make him a great nation. 21. But My covenant shall 
I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to thee, in 
these days, in the next year." 22. And He left off speak- 
ing with him, and God went up from Abraham. 23. And 
Abraham did according as God had said unto him, and he 
took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, 
and whom he had bought with his money, every male in his 
house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. 24. And 
on the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and all the 
men of his house, (and those born in the house), and all 
those, whom he had bought with money from the children of 
the stranger, were circumcised with him. 25. This law is 
for all the generations for ever, and there is no circumcision 
of the days, and no omission of one day out of the eight 
days ; for it is an eternal ordinance, ordained and written 
on the heavenly tables. 26. And every one that is born, 
the flesh of whose foreskin is not circumcised on the eighth 
day, belongs not to the children of the covenant which the 
Lord made with Abraham, but to the children of destruc- 
tion ; nor is there, moreover, any sign on him that he is the 
Lord's, but (he is destined) to be destroyed and slain from 

the verse, and the Mass. and Onk. make days. I take this clause to be parallel 

the entire verse refer to Sarah. in meaning to the preceding. In no 

20. Princes. So Mass. (□n'b-:) and case is the circumcision to be performed 

Vulg. IjXX, (evri-a>mh. ' "' before the eighth day. The word trans- 

no nA ne'n ••'oQ 0-7 lated " omission " is the same as that 

23-24. U. Gen. xvii. /^-27. translated " neglecting " or "transgress- 

24. On the self sayne day, I.e., on tae {ris"in-vi 31 

15th of Sivan ; see ver. 1. According ^.^ m, •' ' ■ ■ i i 

to the Yalkut Chadash 121 a Abraham 26 This verse is simply an enlarge- 

was circumcised on the 13th or 15th ^^nt of ver. 14, which as we saw is 

of Nisan, or on the Day of Atonement, ^^^- ^^"- ■^*- 

or on the New Moon of January (Beer, On the eighth day. MSS and Latin 

Leb. Abr. 63, 152). have "till the eighth day." But since 

{And those horn in tlie house). Re- this verse is simply an emphatic and 

stored with Lat. enlarged form of ver. 14, for "till" 

25. See note on ver. 14. we should clearly have "on." Besides, 
No omission of one day out of the eight "till" gives the wrong sense; for the 


the earth, and to be rooted out of the earth, for he has 
broken the covenant of the Lord our God. 27. For all the 
angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification 
have been so created from the day of their creation, and 
before the angels of the presence and the angels of sanctiii- 
cation He hath sanctified Israel, that they should be with 
Him and with His holy angels. 28. And do thou command 
the children of Israel and let them observe the sign of this 
covenant for their generations as an eternal ordinance, and 
they will not be rooted out of the land. 29. For the 
command is ordained for a covenant, that they should 
observe it for ever among all the children of Israel. 30. 
For Ishmael and his sons and his brothers and Esau, the 
Lord did not cause to approach Him, and he chose them not 
because they are the children of Abraham, because He knew 
them, but He chose Israel to be His people. 31, And He 
sanctified it, and gathered it from amongst all the children 

circumcision is to be performed on the simply an alternative rendering that 

eighth day. The error can be explained has ousted the true reading, " sanctifica- 

by the corruption of 3 into '7 or Vj; into tionis," and that the context deals only 

lU in the Hebrew. with two orders of angels. The two 

And to be rooted out of the earth, orders mentioned here in the Ethiopic 

a d and Latin omit, possibly through text are the same two who are said to 

homoioteleuton. unite with God and Israel in observing 

27. There are two classes of angels the Sabbath (ii. 18, 19, 21). The 
mentioned here : the angels of the inferior angels of service did not enjoy 
presence (see i. 29 note, ii. 2 note, 18, this privilege. Now just as the highest 
xxxi. 14) and the angels of sanctifica- angels shared with Israel in the privilege 
tion (see ii. 2 note, 18 ["holy ones," of the Sabbath, so they shared also 
"sancti," xxxi. 14]), according to the in the privilege of circumcision. They 
Ethiopic text ; but three or four accord- were created circumcised, just as, ac- 
ing to the Latin : angeli vultus, arch- cording to later Judaism, many of the 
angeli benedictionis, angeli sanctifica- patriarchs of Israel were born so. (See 
tionis, angeli sanctorum ipsius. But note on ver. 14.) Such a belief was 
the last does not constitute a distinct not difficult to believers in the loves of 
order. It is simply a comprehensive the angels for the daughters of men 
term for the two (or three) highest (v. 1 sqq.). In Debarim rabba on i. 2 
orders, since it occurs in the following it is said that the angels of service, i.e. 
context : ut esset simul cum ipso et the inferior orders, sought to know the 
cum angelis sanctorum ipsius. Here Law, but it was hidden from them (see 
ipso means "God," and the angelis Welter, Jud. Theol.'^ 25). 
sanct. ipsius sums up the orders men- 30. Chose them. The Ethiopic ra- 
tioned in the earlier part of the sentence, produces the Hebrew idiom 3 ina. The 
Since in ii. 18 the Ethiopic speaks so Latiu gives elegit ex ipsis. 
clearly of only two classes, I am inclined Israel. See on xvi. 1 7. 
to believe that "benedictionis" is 31-32. This idea that Israel was 



of men ; for there are many nations and many peoples, and 
all are His, and over all hath He placed spirits in authority 
to lead them astray from Him. \ 32. But over Israel He did 
not appoint any angel or spirit, for He alone is their ruler, 
and He will preserve them and require them at the hand 
of His angels and His spirits, and at the hand of all His 
powers in order that He may preserve them and bless them, 
and that they may be His and He may be theirs from 
henceforth for ever. 33. And now I announce unto thee 
that the children of Israel wiU not keep true to this 
ordinance, and they will not circumcise their sons according 
to all tliis law ; for in the flesh of their circumcision they 
will omit this circumcision of their sons, and all of them, 

God's portion but that the Gentiles 
were placed under the dominion of 
angels, goes back to an old (possibly 
the oldest) form ot the text of Deut. 
xxxii. 8-9, which, reading Sk instead of 
VNity', is reproduced in the LXX : 

6t€ die/j-^pi^ev 6"T\j/ia-TOS ^9vr] . . . 

^<rT7]<r€u 6pLa i6vu>v 

Kara dpid/j-bv dyy^Xwv 0eov. 

Kal ^yevr)dr] /a^pts Kvplov Xa6s aiiToO 

This view next appears in Sir. xvii. 

iKdffTcp iOvei KaTi(XT7](xev ijyovfievov, 
Kal fjiepis Kvplov 'IffparjX iffTiv : 

and in Dan. x. 13, 20, 21, -xii. 1, 
where, however, all the nations includ- 
ing even Israel are understood to be 
under the patronage of angels, Israel 
being under Michael. According to 
Eth. Enoch Ixxxix. Israel was i^laced 
for purposes of discipline for a time 
under the charge of seventy angels, 
who are no doubt the angelic pations 
of the seventy nations of the world. 
The appointment of these seventy 
angels to be the heads of the nations is 
recorded in the Ps.-Jon. of Deut. xxxii. 
8. They may be referred to as demons 
in 1 Cor. x. 19, or as to, (rroix^la toD 
Kdfffiov in Gal. iv. 3, 9 ; Col. ii. 20. 

31. To lead t/iem astray. In x. 3, 8, 
xix. 28, this is the function assigned 

to the demons, who were the spirits 
that went forth from the slaughtered 
children of the Watchers and the 
daughters of men (see v. 1, 7-9, x. 5, 
8, 9). But in the present passage it is 
said that God gave the hegemony of 
the nations to angels for this purpose. 
The condemnation of the seventy angelic 
patrons for their evil treatment of Israel 
is described in Eth. Enoch xc. 22, 23, 
and also in Isaiah xxiv. 21, 22, though 
in the latter passage the caiise is not 
assigned. I think we may assume that 
the statement in our text is made on 
the same principle as many in the 
Scriptures (cf. Is. vi. 9 ; Matt. xiii. 14 ; 
Mark iv. 12, etc.), in which the ultimate 
result of an action or a series of actions 
is declared to have been the immediate 
object of them. 

In later Judaism at all events the 
seventy angels are described as the 
rulers of the nations. These angels 
share in the fortunes, whether favour- 
able or unfavourable, of the nations 
over which they bear sway. They 
are likewise the sources of corruption 
to their subject peoples, introducing 
idolatry and impurity. See Eisen- 
menger, Entdecktes Jiodenthum, i. 805- 

33. This verse shows that the 
apostasy in Israel in early part of 
the second cent. B.C. was very wide- 

CHAPTERS XV. 32-XVI. 3 113 

sons of Beliar, will leave their sons uncircumcised as they 
were born. 34. And there will be great wrath from the 
Lord against the children of Israel, because they have for- 
saken His covenant and turned aside from His word, and 
provoked and blasphemed, inasmuch as they do not observe 
the ordinance of this law ; for they have treated their 
members like the Gentiles, so that they may be removed 
and rooted out of the land. And there will no more be 
pardon or forgiveness unto them [so that there should be 
forgiveness and pardon] for all the sin of this eternal error. 

Angels appear to Abraham in Hebron, and Isaac again 
promised, 1-4. Destruction of Sodom and Lot's deliver- 
ance, 5-9. Abraham at Beersheba : birth of and cir- 
cumcision of Isaac, whose seed was to be the portion of 
God, 10-19. Institution of the feast of tabernacles, 
20-31. (Cf. Gen. xviii. 1, 10, 12, xix. 24, 29, 33- 
37, XX. 1, 4, 8, xxi. 1-4.) 

XVI. And on the new moon of the fourth month we 
appeared unto Abraham, at the oak of Mamre, and we talked 
with him, and we announced to him that a son would be 
given to him by Sarah his wife. 2. And Sarah laughed, for 
she heard that we had spoken these words with Abraham, 
and we admonished her, and she became afraid, and denied 
that she had laughed on account of the words. 3. And we 
told her the name of her son, as his name is ordained and 

Sons of Beliar. An O.T. expres- prophet and dropped into that of the 

sion : cf. 1 Sam. ii. 12, etc. For a annalist. 

full treatment of the Beliar myth, see [& that , . . pardon']. A corrupt 

my edition of the Ascension of Isaiah, dittographv. 

pp. liv sqq. From i. 20 and Test. XVI. l.'Cf. Gen. xviii. 1,10. Our 

XII. Patriarch. Dan. 5 it follows author omits all reference to Gen. 

that as early as the second cent, xviii. 2-9. Siuger (122 note, 293 

B.C. Beliar was regarded as a Satanic note) thinks that the eating of the 

spirit. angels may have given offence as it 

34. Have forsaken His covenant . . . did to Josephus {Ant. i. 11. 2, oi 8i 

inasmuch as they do not observe. Our 86^av aury napecrxov effGiSvrwv). 
author has forgotten his role as a 2. Cf. Gen. xviii. 10, 12, 15. 


written in the heavenly tables (i.e.) Isaac, 4. And (that) 
when we returned to her at a set time, she would have 
conceived a son. 5. And in this month the Lord executed 
his judgments on Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Zeboim, and 
all the region of the Jordan, and He burned them with fire 
and brimstone, and destroyed them until this day, even as 
[lo] I have declared unto thee all their works, that they are 
wicked and sinners exceedingly, and that they defile them- 
selves and commit fornication in their flesh, and work 
uncleanness on the earth. 6. And, in like manner, God 
will execute judgment on the places where they have done 
according to the uncleanness of the Sodomites, like 
unto the judgment of Sodom. 7. But Lot we saved; for 
God remembered x\braham, and sent him out from the 
midst of the overthrow. 8. And he and his daughters 
committed sin upon the earth, such as had not been on the 
earth since the days of Adam till his time ; for the man lay 
with his daughters. 9. And, behold, it was commanded 
and engraven concerning all his seed, on the heavenly tables, 
to remove them and root them out, and to execute 
judgment upon them like the judgment of Sodom, and to 
leave no seed of the man on earth on the day of con- 
demnation. 10. And in this month Abraham moved from 
Hebron, and departed and dwelt between Kadesh and Shur 
in the mountains of Gerar. 11. And in the middle of the 
fifth month he moved from thence, and dwelt at the Well of 
the Oath. 12. And in the middle of the sixth month the 

4. WoJiM hare conceived. The text 7-8. Cf. Gen. xix. 29, 31 sqq. 

is corrupt, but tlie corruption is as olrl 10. MountaAns. The Eth. could be 

as the Greek version, as it seems to rendered "territories" or "confines" 

have led to the gloss in verses 15-16. as in Latin. There may, however, as 

We should expect "would conceive." Ronsch (p. 102) suggests, have been a 

See verses 12 (where this promise is confusion of opos and bpos. 
fulfilled), 16. 11. All mention of Abraham's un- 

5. Cf. Gen. xix. 24. seemly treatment of Abimelech is 
Zeboim, in text SobO'im. See Gen. omitted. 

xiv. 2, 8. Well of the Oath, i.e. Beersheba, Gen. 

6. Like unto the judgment of. xxi. 31. 

Latin = sicutjudicavit. 12-14. Cf. Gen. xxi. 1-4. 

CHAPTER XVI. 4-i8 115 

Lord visited Sarali and did unto her as He had spoken, and 
she conceived. 13. And she bare a son in the third month, 1980 a.m. 
and in the middle of the month, at the time of which the 
Lord had spoken to Abraham, on the festival of the first-fruits 
of the harvest, Isaac was born. 14. And Abraham circum- 
cised his son on the eighth day : he was the first that was 
circumcised according to the covenant which is ordained for 
ever. 15. And in the sixth year of the ■j-fourth-f* week we 
came to Abraham, to the Well of the Oath, and we appeared 
unto him [as we had told Sarah that we should return to her, 
and she would have conceived a son. 16. And we returned 
in the seventh month, and found Sarah with child before us] 
and we blessed him, and we announced to him all the things 
which had been decreed concerning him, that he should not 
die till he should beget six sons more, and should see (them) 
before he died ; but (that) in Isaac should his name and 
seed be called: 17. And (that) all the seed of his sons 
should be Gentiles, and be reckoned with the Gentiles ; but 
from the sons of Isaac one should become a holy seed, and 
should not be reckoned among the Gentiles. 18. For he 
should become the portion of the Most High, and all his 
seed had fallen into the possession of God, that it should be 

13. Birth of Isaac on tlie 15th of reads "her." Similarly after "au- 

Sivan. According to the Rosh ha- uounced to." The Latin is followed 

Shanah 10 h, Isaac was born on the here. 

Passover Feast ; according to the Six sons more. Abraham had six 

Midrash Tauchuma on Exodus (Beer, sous by Keturah : Gen. xxv. 2, See 

Leh. Abr. 168), on the first of Nisan. xx. 1 of our text. 

15. fFourthf. This should be /« Isaac should his name, etc. Gen. 
"third" as in xv. 1, Abram was in xxi. 12. See xvii. 6 of our text. 

his eighty -sixth year when Ishmael 17. All the descendants of Abraham 

was born (xiv. 24), that is, in the fifth save Jacob and his posterity belong to 

year of the first week of the forty- the Gentiles. See xv. 30. In Sanh. 

first jubilee. Fifteen years later Isaac 59 b there is a discussion as to whether 

was bom in the hundredth year of circumcision was obligatory on Islimael's 

Abraham. and Keturah's sons in consequence of 

15-16. The words bracketed in these Gen, xvii. 9, 10. Owing to Gen. xxi. 

verses contain a gloss that destroys the 12 it was held that the obligation did 

sense of the context. They proceed not extend to the descendants of Esau, 

from a corrupt reading in ver. 4 and See above xv. 30. 
misunderstanding of text generally. 18. Poi-tion of the Most High. See 

16. Blessed him. For "him" Eth. note on xv. 31-32. 



unto the Lord a people for (His) possession above all nations 
and that it should become a kingdom and priests and a holy- 
nation. 1 9. And we went our way, and we announced to 
Sarah all that we had told him, and they both rejoiced with 
exceeding great joy. 20, And he built there an altar to 
the Lord who had delivered him, and who was making him 
rejoice in the land of his sojourning, and he celebrated a 
festival of joy in this month seven days, near the altar 
which he had built at the Well of the Oath. 21. And he 
built booths for himself and for his servants on this festival, 
and he was the first to celebrate the feast of tabernacles 
on the earth. 22. And during these seven days he brought 

A people for (His) possession = hezha. 
terit (cf. xxxiii. 20), emended from hezba 
(a b c) tersit {be tirsita,«) = "people of 
magnificence." d reads "people of in- 
heritance" (hezba rest), cf. Dent. iv. 20 ; 
Latin, populum sauctiticatum. This last 
= \a6»' offiov, which may be corrupt for 
Xabv ovfflas (or Trepiovaioi') — nhiD cy 
(Dent. vii. 6), a frequent O.T. phrase ; cf. 
Exod. xix. 5, which was clearly before 
our author, as the closing clause of our 
verse shows. See also Deut. vii. 6, xiv. 
2, xxvi. 18, where the full phrase nh^D dv 
is found. In xix. 18 of our text the same 
difficulties recur. If tersit is right, we 
might compare Deut. xxvi. 19. 

A kingdom and priests (cf. xxxiii. 
20) = ^a(n\ela Kai iepeh, whereas the 
Latin has regnum sacerdotale = ^acriXeia 
i€paTLKTf] = a^in'2 nD^CD. The phrase is 
from Exod. xix. 6, of which the Latin 
gives the correct rendering and not the 
Ethiopic version. Yet the latter seems 
vO represent the Hebrew original of 
our text, as we shall see presently. 
First of all we observe that it is in- 
correctly translated in the LXX and 
it is reproduced in two forms in the 
N.T. closely akin to those above. The 
LXX translates it incorrectly by 
^aa-LXeiov lepdrev/jLa (a hierarchy con- 
sisting of kings), and this rendering is 
adopted in 1 Pet. ii. 9. In Rev. v. 10 
we have /SactXeiai' Kal lepeTs exactly as 
in our Ethiopic text, and in i. 6 
jSao-tXe/ai' tepets. Thus our Ethiopic 
text and Rev. i. 6, v. 10 agree in 

giving practically the same rendering 
of D'jnb n^San in Exod. xix. 6, and in 
inserting either the copula or a j)ause 
between the two Hebrew words. This 
is an ancient Jewish way of treating 
this phrase. Thus we find it given 
in Onkelos as d'jhd joSd (as in Rev. 
i. 6); in Ps.-Jon. n'^'Sd n-ap pD'?D 
"B'CC'D rjriDi (= kings with crowns 
and ministering priests) ; in the Jer. 
Targ, D'jnoi p3'?a ; and the Syr, ver- 
sion JLjoIlSo )2ft*>\ V> ; exactly 
as in our Ethiopic text and in Rev. 
V. 10. Thus we conclude that the 
Ethiopic text represents the Hebrew 
original and that the Latin regnum 
sacerdotale is borrowed by the Latin 
translator of Jubilees from the Vulgate. 

20-31. The account of the feast of 
tabernacles in our text is peculiar. As 
regards the number of victims it 
presents some points of agreement and 
many of disagreement with the account 
given in Num. xxix. 12-40. I cannot 
offer any explanation of these phenomena. 
Verses 20-22 were before Cedremis 
i. 50 ; fxera ravra, rrji Kara Ma^pij 
8pibs diravaaTas 6 'Appadfj, inl to 
(ppiap KaraaKTjvoi rov bpKov. eavT<f 
5e loia Kal tois oiK^rais avrov /card 
(Tvyyeveias irrj^dfj.evo'i ffKrjvds, rore 
irpQiTOv 'A^pad/J, Trjs aKrivoTrrjyias iwl 
eTTTo, 'r)/J.^pas eTrtTeXe? T7]v eopTrjV. 

22. Two different sacrifices are here 
recorded : a burnt-oflferiug (n'?ij') and a 
sin-offering (riNDn). 

CHAPTER XVI. 19-26 117 

each day to the altar a burnt-offering to the Lord, two oxen, 
two rams, seven sheep, one he-goat, for a sin-offering, that 
he might atone thereby for himself and for his seed. 23. 
And, as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven sheep, 
and seven he-goats, and their fruit-offerings and their drink- 
offerings ; and he burnt all the fat thereof on the altar, a 
chosen offering unto the Lord for a sweet smelling savour. 
24. And morning and evening he burnt fragrant substances, 
frankincense and galbanum, and stackte, and nard, and 
myrrh, and spice, and costum ; all these seven he offered^ 
crushed, mixed together in equal parts (and) pure. 25. 
And he celebrated this feast during seven days, rejoicing 
with all his heart and with all his soul, he and all those 
who were in his house ; and there was no stranger with him, 
nor any that was uncircumcised. 26. And he blessed his 
Creator who had created him in his generation, for He had 
created him according to His good pleasure ; for He knew 
and perceived that from him would arise the plant of right- 
Two ooxn or "bullocks." Accord- first four of these are mentioned in 
ing to Num. xxix. 13-33 thirteen bullocks Exod. xxx. 34, rriih { = \i^avos = 
were sacrificed on the first day, twelve libanus, thus), nn'?n { = xo-i^^o.vri = 
on the second, eleven on the third, and galbanum), rp^ ( = crraKTTj = stacte), 
soon, the number being diminished by n'jnty ( = 6i'i;f = nardus). All seven are 
one each day. enumerated in Sir. xxiv. 15 : 

Two rams. So in Num. xxix. 13. ^j Kivvd/j.ujiJLov /cat d(nrd\a9os dpu- 

Seven sheep. In Num. xxix. 13 /xdruv SeSw^a 6(rn7jv, 

fourteen he-lambs. ^aj ^^5 0-p,^pva iKXeKTr] 5^5w/ca euw- 

Chie he-guat. So in Num. xxix. 16. 5/ai. 

23. Thank-offering =ev(Tla auT-qpiov C^^ xa^/Sdj/Tj Kal 6vv^ Kal araKH), 
= Q-r±>-:> niT. The victims in this case ^al ws Xijsdvov drills iv aKrjvy. 
correspond in kind and number with ^^ ^^, „ ^ / ,'^, 
those offered by Hezekiah in 2 Chron. , ^ere xaA/3ai'7? ouvi; araKrv, XilSa.ov 
xxix. 21, but in the latter passage they ^^'^'l correspond to the first four in 
constitute a sin-oflering for the king- ^'^'^ ^^'^^ but m a different order, and 
jjj Ki.vvafj.wfj.ov, aaivaKauos apu/xariov, 

24. Fragrant substances = i,d^<r, a ^Mi^P^a to the last three These seven 
= DV-2D. Our author is here making use ^'^S^.^""^ constituents of the incense 
of Exod. xxx. 34, and not of Num. ofiTermg are mentioned in Jer Joma 

iv. 16; Lev. iv. 7 etc. as the Latin l!" ^ ' >'"^f ^"' V^)''?'''o A^^ """^^ ' 
implies, which has incensum com- Nowack, Ilcbr. Archaol. u. 248). 

positionis = ^i;yUia/xar?7s (n;j'^^(rewsfrom 26. Plant of righteousness. See 

Lev. iv. 7, xvi. 13 ; Num. iv. 16 xxi. 24 ; Eth. Enoch x. 16 ; xciii. 5, 

(coon mt2p). The Ethiopic appears to 10, where the same expression is found. 

be right. Cf. also lixxir. 6, xciii. 2 in the same 

Frankincense, galbanum, etc. The work. 


eousness for the eternal generations, and from him a holy 
seed, so that it should become like Him who had made all 
things. 27. And he blessed and rejoiced, and he called 
the name of this festival the festival of the Lord, a joy 
acceptable to the Most High God. 28. And we blessed him 
for ever, and all his seed after him throughout all the gener- 
ations of the earth, because he celebrated this festival in its 
season, according to the testimony of the heavenly tables. 
29. For this reason it is ordained on the heavenly tables 
concerning Israel, that they shall celebrate the feast of 
tabernacles seven days with joy, in the seventh month, 
acceptable before the Lord — a statute for ever throughout 
their generations every year. 30. And to this there is no 
limit of days ; for it is ordained for ever regarding Israel 
that they should celebrate it and dwell in booths, and set 
wreaths upon their heads, and take leafy boughs, and 
willows from the brook. 31. And Abraham took branches 
of palm trees, and the fruit of goodly trees, and every day 
going round the altar with the branches seven times [a day] 
in the morning, he praised and gave thanks to his God for 
all things in joy. 

Expulsion of Hagar and Ishmacl, 1-14. Mastemd proposes 
that God slwidd require Abraham to sacrifice Isaac in 

28. All his seed. Latin omits " all." as 6 ffrecpavos rrjs fw^y (Rev. ii. 10: 

29. A statute for ever, etc. Lev. cf. 2 Tim. iv. 8) is familiar also in 
xxiii. 41. Judaism ; cf. Megilla 15 b. 

30. Cf. Lev. xxiii. 40. 31. Branches of imhn trees. Text 
Set wreaths upon their Iieads. This lebba dabart and Latin corde palmanim 

is unknown to tradition in connection go back as Dillmann recognised to •'2h^h 

with the feast. The custom of wear- "^cnn- ihih was wrongly taken as 33*? 

ing chaplets at feasts is referred to in by the Greek translator. We might 

Wisdom ii. 7-8 ; Joseph. Ant. xix. 9. 1 observe that the Targiims on Lev. 

(cf. 3 Mace. iv. 8), but it cannot be xxiii. 40 have here simply yzh:^. 
established as a Jewish one. Bride- Every day . . . seven thnes. According 

grooms, however, were adorned with to Sukka iv. 5 it was only on the 

myrtles and roses, Gittin 7 a, Sota 49 b seventh day that the worshippers went 

(Beer, Buch d. Jul. 47). The meta- round the altar seven times (Beer, 

phorical use of " crown " or " wreath " Buch der Jubilaen, 46 ; Singer, 75). 


order to test Ms love and obedience : Abraham's ten 
trials, 15-18. (Cf. Gen. xxi. 8-21.) 

XVII. And in the first year of the i-fifthf week Isaac 19S2 a.m 
was weaned in this jubilee, and Abraham made a great 
banquet in the third month, on the day his son Isaac was 
weaned. 2. And Ishmael, the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, 
was before the face of Abraham, his father, in his place, and 
Abraham rejoiced and blessed God because he had seen his 
sons and had not died childless. 3. And he remembered 
the words which He had spoken to him on the day on which 
Lot had parted from him, and he rejoiced because the Lord 
had given him seed upon the earth to inherit the earth, and 
he blessed with all his mouth the Creator of all things. 4. 
And Sarah saw Ishmael playing and dancing, and Abraham 
rejoicing with great joy, and she became jealous of Ishmael 
and said to Abraham, " Cast out this bondwoman and her 
son ; for the son of this bondwoman will not be heir 
with my son, Isaac." 5. And the thing was grievous in 
Abraham's sight, because of his maidservant and because of 
his son, that he should drive them from him. 6. And God 
said to Abraham " Let it not be grievous in thy sight, 
because of the child and because of the bondwoman ; in all 
that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken to her words and 
do (them) ; for in Isaac shall thy name and seed be called. 
7. But as for the son of this bondwoman I will make him 
a great nation, because he is of thy seed." 8. And Abraham 
rose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle 

XVII. 1. Cf. Gen. xxi. 8. for ba-yeshaq =" with Isaac. " These 

■fFi/thf. This should be "fourth." words are found in the LXX and 

See a similar error in xvi. 15. Vulg. of Gen. xxi. 9 but not in the 

2. Because he had seen his sons, etc. '^'^^^^- or Sam. 
Cf. xvi 16 !• A great nation. The ejiithet 

"3 Sepx-i'ii IQ onn "great" is supported by the Sam., 

4-13. Cf. Gen. XXI. 9-21. but omitted by the Mass., Onkelos and 

4. Andduncinij. Since the Latin has Ps.-Jon. The last reads instead : "a 
cum Isac, wa-yezafen may be corrupt nation of robbers." 


of water, and placed them on the shoulders of Hagar and 
the child, and sent her away. 9. And she departed and 
wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba, and the water in 
the bottle was spent, and the child thirsted, and was not 
able to go on, and fell down. 10. And his mother took 
him and cast him under an olive tree, and went and sat her 
down over against him, at the distance of a bow-shot ; for 
she said, " Let me not see the death of my child," and as 
she sat she wept. 11. And an angel of God, one of the 
holy ones, said unto her, " Why weepest thou, Hagar ? 
Arise take the child, and hold him in thine hand ; for God 
hath heard thy voice, and hath seen the child." 12. And 
she opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she 
went and filled her bottle with water, and she gave her 
child to drink, and she arose and went towards the wilder- 
ness of Paran. 13. And the child grew and became an 
archer, and God was with him ; and his mother took him a 
wife from among the daughters of Egypt. 14. And she 
bare him a son, and he called his name Nebaioth ; for she 
said, " The Lord was nigh to me when I called upon him." 
2003 a.m. 15. And it came to pass in the seventh week, in the first 
year thereof, in the first month in this jubilee, on the 
twelfth of this month, there were voices in heaven regarding 
Abraham, that he was faithful in all that He told him, 
and that he loved the Lord, and that in every afHiction he 
was faithful. 16. And the prince Mastema came and said 

10. An olire tree. Instead of eXai'as xvi. 12 and xvii. 15). According to the 

LXX has (XdTrjs. Seder Olani, Isaac was thirty-seven. 

12. She opened. We should with 16. Here as elsewhere (cf. xlviii. 2, 

Gen. xxi. 19 expect "he." 17) our author attributes to Mastema 

14. Nebaioth. Eth. = Nilbewot. Cf. the conduct which he deems unworthy 
Gen. XXV. 13. of God but which is ascribed to Him 

Was nigh. We should expect by Gen. xxii. 1. Cf. also James i. 13. 

the original behind " was nigh " to We might compare with our text the 

contain some of the consonants in following passage from Sanh. 89 b 

"Nebaioth." 'Satan spake before the Holy One, 

15. Isaac is thus twenty-three when blessed be He. 'Lord of the World, 
he was offered up by Abraham (cf. Thou hast given fruit of the body to 



before God, " Behold, Abraham loves Isaac his son, and he 
delights in him above all things else ; bid him offer him as 
a burnt-offering on the altar, and Thou wilt see if he will do 
this command, and Thou wilt know if he is faithful in every- 
thing wherein Thou dost try him. 1 7. And the Lord knew 
that Abraham was faithful in all his afflictions ; for He had 
tried him through his country and with famine, and had 
tried him with the wealth of kings, and had tried him again 
through his wife, when she was torn (from him), and with 
circumcision ; and had tried him through Ishmael and Hagar, 
his maid-servant, when he sent them away. 18. And in 
everything wherein He had tried him, he was found faithful, 

this old man of 100 years, and yet in 
all the feasts celebrated by him, he has 
never offered in sacrifice to Thee a bul- 
lock or a young dove.' God answered 
him: ... ' If I were to say to him, Sac- 
rifice thy son, he would sacrifice him, 
etc.'" Cf. also Bk. of Jashar (ii. 1139). 
17. According to xix. 8 Abraham 
was submitted to ten trials. Seven 
are mentioned in this verse : 1. The 
going forth from his country. 2. 
Famine. 3. The wealth of kings. 4. 
The seiziire of his wife by the king of 
Egypt. 5. Circumcision. 6, 7. The 
dismissal of Ishmael and Hagar. In 
xix. 3, 8 the burial of Sarah is si^ecially 
mentioned as the tenth. The eighth and 
ninth though not specifically reckoned 
as such in our text are the unfruitful- 
ness of Sarah, xiv. 21, and the sacrifice 
of Isaac, xviii. This enumeration agrees 
closely with those of Maimonides, Jona 
Girondi and Simon Duran which are 
given below. From Beer's Leben Abr. 
190-192 I draw the account in Pirke 
E. Eliezer, ch. 26 sq. : 1. Nimrod's 
attempt on his life. 2. Ten years im- 
prisonment in Cixtha and Khadr. 3. 
Departure fromhis country. 4. Famine. 
5. Seizure of his wife. 6. War with the 
kings. 7. Covenant between the pieces. 
8. Circumcision. 9. Rejection of Ishmael. 
10. Offering of Isaac. The account 
given in Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V.T. 
i. 398, differs slightly from the above. 
According to Pirke R. Nathan, ch. 
33, two trials were sustained when 
he was bidden to leave his home (Gen. 

xii. 1) and to go to Mt. Moriah to 
sacrifice Isaac (xx. 2) : two in con- 
nection with his sons : two in connection 
with his wives : one with the kings : 
one between the sacrifical pieces : one 
in the furuace of the Chaldees : one in 
circumcision. According to the reckon- 
ing of Maimonides (see Fabricius {ibid. 
39^9) ; Ronsch, 383) the trials were : 1. 
Going forth from his country. 2. 
Famine. 3. Seizure of his wife. 4. 
War with the kiugs. 5. Unfruitful- 
ness of Sarah. 6. Circumcision. 7. 
Second seizure of his wife. 8, 9. Ex- 
pulsion of Hagar and Ishmael. 10. 
Sacrifice of Isaac. It will be remarked 
that this last list corresponds best with 
our text ; but the correspondence of 
the following lists is closer : Beer 
{Leben Abr. 191) writes: Die meisten 
spateren Aboth-Commentatoren schlos- 
sen sich den Pirke des R. Elieser an, 
bios dariu variirend, dass Einige (Obadia 
Bertinoro and Menachem Meiri) austatt 
des unterirdischen Aufenthaltes in 
Abraham's Kindheit den Vorfall mit 
Abimelech besonders zahlen und Andere 
(R. Jona Girondi, Simon Zemach 
Duran) den Bund zwischen den Stiicken 
nicht unter dieVersuchungen aufnehmeu, 
aber an dessen Stelle gegen alle friiheren 
Referate, welche die Zehuzahl mit der 
Opferung Isaak's schliessen, die Beer- 
digung Sara's als zehnte Versuchung 
hinstellten. Thus Jona Girondi and 
Simon Duran agree with our text in 
making the burial of Sarah the tenth 
trial of Abraham. 


and his soul was not impatient, and he was not slow to act ; 
for he was faithful and a lover of the Lord, 

Sacrifice of Isaac : Mastemd put to shame, 1-13. Ahrahaon 
again blessed: returns to Beersheba, 14-19. (Cf. Gen. 
xxii. 1-19.) 

XVIII. And God said to him, " Abraham, Abraham " ; and 
he said, " Behold, (here) am I." 2. And He said, " Take thy 
beloved son whom thou lovest, (even) Isaac, and go unto the 
high country, and offer him on one of the mountains which 
I will point out unto thee." 3. And he rose early in the 
morning and saddled his ass, and took his two young men 
with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood of the 
burnt-offering, and he went to the place on the third day, 
and he saw the place afar off. 4. And he came to a well 
of water, and he said to his young men, " Abide ye here 
with the ass, and I and the lad shall go (yonder), and when 
we have worshipped we shall come again to you," 5. And 
he took the wood of the burnt-offering and laid it on Isaac 
his son, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife, and 
they went both of them together to that place, 6, And 
Isaac said to his father, " Father " ; and he said, " Here am I, 
my son," And he said unto him, " Behold the fire, and the 
knife, and the wood ; but where is the sheep for the burnt- 
offering, father ? " 7, And he said, " God will provide for 
himself a sheep for a burnt-offering, my son." And he drew 
near to the place of the mount of God. 8, And he built an 
altar, and he placed the wood on the altar, and bound Isaac liis 
son, and placed him on the wood which was upon the altar, 
and stretched forth his hand to take the knife to slay Isaac 

XVIII, 1-17. Cf. Gen. xxii, 1-19. tain ") = (Gen. xxii. 2) LXX tV y-qv Ty)v 

2. Beloved son. So LXX tw dya- v-^ifK-riv. Mass. = " Land of Moriah." 

TTT^Tiv = iin' instead of Mass., Sara., 7. Of the mo%mt of Ood. Gen. xxii. 

Syr. -jTH'. 9 reads: "which God had told him 

The high country {ad. bc=" moun- of." 

CHAPTER XVIII. 1-15 123 

his son. 9. And I stood before him, and before the prince 
of the Mastema, and the Lord said, " Bid him not to lay his 
hand on the lad, nor to do anything to him, for I have shown 
that he fears the Lord." 10. And I called to him from 
heaven, and said unto him : " Abraham, Abraham " ; and he 
was terrified and said: "Behold, (here) am L" 11. And I 
said unto him : " Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do 
thou anything to him ; for now I have shown that thou 
fearest the Lord, and hast not withheld thy son, thy first- 
born son, from me." 1 2. And the prince of the Mastema was 
put to shame ; and Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and, 
behold, a single ram caught . . . by his horns, and Abraham went 
and took the ram and offered it for a burnt-offering in the stead 
of his son. 1 3, And Abraham called that place " The Lord 
hath seen," so that it is said " (in the mount) the Lord hath 
seen": that is Mount Sion. 14. And the Lord called 
Abraham by his name a second time from heaven, as he 
caused us to appear to speak to him in the name of the Lord. 

15. And He said : " By Myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, 
Because thou hast done this thing, 

And hast not withheld thy son, thy beloved son, from Me, 

9. Prince of the Mastimd. So a 6 he came" = wa-yemas'e, (?) corrupt for 

here and in ver. 12 and xlviii. 9, 12, 15. ba'edaw= " in a thicket." 

c (? wrongly give " prince Mastema " in 13. (In the mount). Added from 

these passages and all MSS %vrongly in Latin. It is found in Mass. and LXX 

xvii. 6, xlviii. 2. See note on x. 8. of Gen. xxii. 14. 

Shoum. Or "known," but see note Hath seen. Syr. and Vulg.= "will 

on 11. see," "seeth." The verb is passive in 

11. / Juive shoion = 'Latm version, the Mass. (hxt) and LXX, and also in 

manifestavi ( = 'piyri'). The Eth. could the Latin version of Jubilees — visus est. 

also be rendered "I have known," U. He cmised us to ap2}ear (b). a "he 

as Mass. and Sam. of Gen. xxii. 12 caused him (c" me") to appear"; (? "we 

ipiy-i', but the Latiu, manifestavi, is appeared." Latin = fuimus is corrupt. 

■ -'^ , 1 1, 1 ,v • 1 ■ • 15. Thu beloved son {ad) = Tou dya- 

unmistakeable and this rendering is sup- « -r j. \ ■ -i. 

_j 1 V, 1- j-u T^^x. J r X.- ■ ■7r7]ToucTov = -\TT. Lat., tuo uuigenito = 

ported by both Eth. and Latin m ver. L ' -, xi « 

Iff mi, e 1, iv 1 Tov uouoyevovs (Tov = -iTrf- rlence 

16. The Syr. has the very same render- tt -u ^ i. a. u i, i 1-4.4. 

J •' . •' Hebrew text seems to have had a ditto- 
ing : AA)0| = I have shown. Ps.- graphicaltext just as LXX(A) of Judges 
Jon. has 'Va = manifestatum est. "I xi. 34: avryj fiovoyevris avri^ dyairrp-^, 
have shown " is suitable to the context, and LXX and Vulg. of Gen. xxii. 2, 12, 
God proves Abraham's faithfulness to 16 postulate similar dittographies of the 
Mastema and to others (ver. 16). same Hebrew word in Hebrew text. On 

12. Oax'.ght. All the MSS add " and the other hand b c under influence of ver. 


That in blessing I shall bless thee, 

And in multiplying I shall multiply thy seed 

As the stars of heaven, 

And as the sand which is on the seashore. 

And thy seed will inherit the cities of its enemies, 

16. And in thy seed will all nations of the earth be 

blessed ; 
Because thou hast obeyed My voice, 
And I have shown to all that thou art faithful unto Me 

in all that I have said unto thee : 
Go in peace." 

17. And Abraham went to his young men, and they arose 
and went together to Beersheba, and Abraham dwelt by the 
Well of the Oath. 18. And he celebrated this festival every 
year, seven days with joy, and he called it the festival of 
the Lord according to the seven days during which he went 
and returned in peace. 19. And accordingly has it been 
ordained and written on the heavenly tables regarding 
Israel and its seed that they should observe this festival 
seven days with the joy of festival. 

Return of Abraham to Hebron. Death and hurial of Sarah, 
1 - 9 . Marriage of Isaac and second marriage of Abraham, 
Birth of Esau and Jacob, 10-14. Abraham commends 
Jacob to Rebecca and blesses him, 15-31. (Of. Gen. xxiii. 
1-4, 11-16, xxiv. 15, XXV. 1-2, 25-27, xiii. 16.) 

XIX. And in the first year of the first week in the 

2010 A.M. forty-second jubilee, Abraham returned and dwelt opposite 

Hebron, that is Kirjath Arba, two weeks of years. 2. And 

11 read "thy first-born son," and with where Vulg. has portas = TriJXas = nyb of 

Latin (qnem dilexisti), add "whom thou Mass. and Sam.). 

hast loved." This addition may go back 16. Go in peace. 1 Sam. i. 17. 

to n3^^<-^B'N (Gen. xxiL 2), or top-T j^q With the joy of festival. Latinhas 

(corruption (?) of irn' Gen. xxn. 16 on -^ ^^^^.^-^ gaudentes. 

which our text is based). 

Cities = ir6\eii (so also Sam. vers., XIX. 1. Kirjath Arba. In MSB 

LXX, SjT. (?), Onk. of Gen. xxii. 17 Qarjatarbaq. LXX iv irdXa 'Ap^oK. 


in the first year of the f thirdf week of this jubilee the days 
of the life of Sarah were accomplished, and she died in 
Hebron. 3. And Abraham went to mourn over her and 
bury her, and we tried him [to see] if his spirit were patient 
and he were not indignant in the words of his mouth ; and 
he was found patient in this, and was not disturbed. 4. For 
in patience of spirit he conversed with the children of Heth, 
to the intent that they should give him a place in which to 
bury his dead. 5. And the Lord gave him grace before all 
who saw him, and he besought in gentleness the sons of 
Heth, and they gave him the land of the double cave over 
against Mamre, that is Hebron, for four hundred pieces of 
silver. 6. And they besought him, saying, " We shall give it 
to thee for nothing " ; but he would not take it from their 
hands for nothing, for he gave the price of the place, the 
money in full, and he bowed down before them twice ; and 
after this he buried his dead in the double cave. 7. And 
all the days of the life of Sarah were one hundred and 
twenty-seven years, that is, two jubilees and four weeks and 
one year : these are the days of the years of the life of 
Sarah. 8. This is the tenth trial wherewith Abraham was 
tried, and he was found faithful, patient in spirit. 9. And 
he said not a single word regarding the rumour in the land 
how that God had said that He would give it to him and to his 
seed after him, and he begged a place there to bury his dead ; 
for he was found faithful, and was recorded on the heavenly 
tables as the friend of God. 1 0. And in the fourth year 2020 a.m. 

2. iThii-d\. Read " second." Isaac Four hundred. So Latin. Eth. 

married (xix. 10) at the age of 40 wrongly gives "forty." 

(Gen. XXV. 20) after Sarah's death. 7. Cf. Gen. xxiii. 1. 

Hence he married in the fourth year of Of the years, a and Latin omit, 

the second week. 8. Tenth trial. In addition to the 

2 4. Cf. Gen. xxiii. 3 4. references on xvii. 17 see also the Say- 

J a ne n ••• n'lc ings of the Fathers,^ V. '3 {To.yIot's edi- 

5-b. U. Gen. xxui. 11-lb. ^^^^^ p_ gQ^^ ^-^-^^^ 3^^^,^]^.^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

5. Double cave = rb (ywrt\ai.ov t6 trials of Abraham. 
diirXovu (LXX) = n'jsjDn mvo, "the 9. Friend of God. Cf. xxx. 20, 21. 

cave of Machpelah." This expression springs from the O.T. : 



thereof he took a wife for his son Isaac and her name was 
Eebecca [the daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, the 
brother of Abraham] the sister of Laban and daughter of 
Bethuel ; and Bethuel was the son of Melca, who was the 
wife of Nahor, the brother of Abraham. 11. And Abraham 
took to himself a third wife, and her name was Keturah, 
from among the daughters of his household servants, for 
Hagar had died before Sarah. 12. And she bare him six 
sons, Zimram, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and 
Ishbak, and Shuah, in the two weeks of years. 13. And in 
2046 A.M. the sixth week, in the second year thereof, Eebecca bare to 
Isaac two sons, Jacob and Esau, and Jacob was a smooth 
and upright man, and Esau was fierce, a man of the field, 
and hairy, and Jacob dwelt in tents. 14. And the youths 
grew, and Jacob learned to write ; but Esau did not learn. 

cf. Is. xli. 8 " Abraham, My friend " ; 
2 Chrou. XX. 7 ; LXXof Dan. iii. 35. It 
is found in Philo, De Soh-ietate, 11 : 
/jLT) eiriKa\v\pu} (yCj dirb 'AjSpaafJ. tou 
(plXov fj-ov ; (Gen. xviii. 17); also in 
James ii. 23 ; Clem. Rom. x. 1, xvii. 
2 ; Targ. Jer. on Gen. xviii. 17. In 
Book of Wisdom vii. 27 the designation 
(f>i\oL 0€oO is applied to the faithful 
generally, and likewise in Philo, 
Fragment ii. p. 652 : iras <xo(f>bs deoO 
(plXos. This application of the phrase 
may be due to Plato, Legff. iv. 8, where 
the wise man is said to be Oeui <pi\os : 
cf. also Max. Tyr. xx. 6. For Rabbinical 
references Singer, p. 151 note. 

10. Cf. Gen. xxiv. 15. 

Daughter of Bethuel; and Bethvel. 
Emended with help of Latin. See my 
text, p. 66. 

[^Tlie daughter . . . h'other of Abra- 
liavi\. Bracketed as a dittography, 
already in the Greek, as it appears in 
the Latin version. 

11. Cf. Gen. XXV. 1. 

Keturah . . . for Hago.r had died 
before Sarah. Our author here explains 
why Abraham did not take Hagar 
back. Later tradition — Gen. rabba 61, 
Ps.-Jon. and Targ. Jer. on Gen. xxvii. 
— got ovei the difficulty by identifying 
Hagar and Keturah. This view is men- 

tioned by Jerome, Quaest. Hebr. in Gen. 
XXV. 1 : Cetura Hebraeo sermone copu- 
latainterpretatur autjuncta (al. vincta). 
Quani ob causam suspicantur Hebraei 
mutato nomine eandem esse Agar, quae 
Saraa mortua de concubina transierit 
in uxorem. According to the Book 
of Jashar {Diet, des Apocr. ii. 1147) 
Keturah was a Canaanitish woman. See 
Beer, LebenAbr. 83, 198 ; Singer, p. 118. 
Daughters. Emended with Latin. 

12. Cf. Gen. xxv. 2. In the Ethiopia 
the names appear as Zenbar, Jaksen, 
Madai, Madau, 'Ijazboq, Sehija. 

13. Cf. Gen. xxv. 25-27. 

Sixth. This date harmonises with 
that in xxv. 1, 4, accortling to which 
Jacob was 63 in 2109 a.m., but dis- 
agrees with that in xlv. 13. 

Smooth and upright. So be. Two 
different renderings of on CM (Gen. 
xxv. 27) seem to be conjoined here. 
On the other hand, since the description 
of Esau is borrowed from Gen. xxv. 27 
and xxvii. 11, it is probable that the 
description of Jacob is drawn from 
both also, and that we should here 
read : "Smooth and upright." 

14. Jacob learned to write. On the 
phrase cf. John vii. 15; Acts xxvi. 24; 
Plato, Apol. 26 D. According to Onkelos 

CHAPTER XIX. 11-22 127 

for he was a man of the field and a hunter, and he learnt 
war, and all his deeds were fierce. 15. And Abraham loved 
Jacob, but Isaac loved Esau. 16. And Abraham saw the 
deeds of Esau, and he knew that in Jacob should his name 
and seed be called; and he called Eebecca and gave com- 
mandment regarding Jacob, for he knew that she (too) loved 
Jacob much more than Esau. 1 7. And he said unto her : 
" My daughter, watch over my son Jacob, 
For he shall be in my stead on the earth. 
And for a blessing in the midst of the children of men, 
And for the glory of the whole seed of Shem. 
18. For I know that the Lord will choose him to be a people 
for possession unto Himself, above all peoples that are upon 
the face of the earth. 1 9. And behold, Isaac my son loves Esau 
more than Jacob, but I see that thou truly lovest Jacob. 

20. Add still further to thy kindness to him. 
And let thine eyes be upon him in love ; 

For he will be a blessing unto us on the earth from 
henceforth unto all generations of the earth. 

21. Let thy hands be strong 

And let thy heart rejoice in thy son Jacob; 
For I have loved Mm far beyond all my sons. 
He will be blessed for ever. 
And his seed will fill the whole earth. 

22. If a man can number the sand of the earth, 
His seed also will be numbered. 

on Gen. xxv. 27 Jacob attended a Hebrew before Esau took to evil ways ; see 

school of theology, NjaSiN-n'a. The Ps.- also Baba bathra 16 6 (Beer, Leb. Abr. 

Jon. and Jerus.Targums represent Heber 84). 

as the head of this school. Cf. Ber. 18. A jy&o'ple for possession = \abv 

rabba 63. See Beer, Leben Abr. p. irepiovcnov. See note on xvi. 18 ; also 

200 ; Fabricius, Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. the note in my text p. 68 where I have 

435-438 ; Singer, p. 103. shown that the Ethiopic translators of 

16. Abraham recognises by his the Bible always mistranslated irepi- 

conduct the predestined founder of ovcnos. This verse is drawn word for 

the nation (ii. 20). The promise given word from Deut. vii. 6. 
in xvi. 16, xvii. 6 is here further de- Peoides. Restored from Latin. 

fined. According to Ps.-Jon. on Gen. 22. Gen. xiii. 16. Contrast xiii. 20 

xxv. 9 ; Ber. rabba 63, Abraham died of our text. 


23. And all the blessings wherewith the Lord hath blessed 
me and my seed shall belong to Jacob and his seed alway. 

24. And in his seed shall my name be blessed, and the 
name of my fathers, Shem, and Noah, and Enoch, and 
Mahalalel, and Enos, and Seth, and Adam. 25. And these 
shall serve 

To lay the foundations of the heaven, 
And to strengthen the earth. 

And to renew all the lumiuaries which are in the firma- 

26. And he called Jacob before the eyes of Eebecca his 
mother, and kissed him, and blessed him, and said : 

27. "Jacob, my beloved son, whom my soul loveth, may 
God bless thee from above the firmament, and may He 
give thee all the blessings wherewith He blessed Adam, 
and Enoch, and Noah, and Shem ; and all the things of 
which He told me, and all the things which He promised 
to give me, may He cause to cleave to thee and to thy 
seed for ever, according to the days of heaven above 
the earth. 28. And the spirits of Mastema shall not rule 
over thee or over thy seed to turn thee from the Lord, who 
is thy God from henceforth for ever. 29. And may 
the Lord God be a father to thee and thou the first-born 
son, and to the people alway. Go in peace, my son." 30. 
And they both went forth together from Abraham. 31. 
And Eebecca loved Jacob, with all her heart and with all 
her soul, very much more than Esau ; but Isaac loved Esau 
much more than Jacob. 

24. This list of righteous patriarchs (ip^ya isso Sanh. 38 h). See rabbinic 

is peculiar for its omissions and its references in Singer, pp. 125-126. 
insertions. With regard to Mahalelel 25. See note on i. 29. Cf. Is. li. 

nothing special is known. On the 16. 

other hand, the omission of Methuselah 27. All the blessings wJierewith, etc. 

is strange. In later times opinions Cf. xxii. 13. 

were divided as to the character of 28. See note on xv. 31-32. Evil 

Adam. Some held him to be a saint spirits have dominion over the Gentiles 

(TOn Erub. 18 6), others an atheist but not over Israel. 

CHAPTERS XIX. 23-XX. 4 129 

Abraham admonishes his sons and his sotis' sons to work 
righteousness, observe circumcision, and refrain from 
impurity and idolatry, 1-10. Dismisses them with gifts, 
11. Dwelling-places of the Ishmaelites and of the sons 
of Keturah, 12-13. (Cf. Gen. xxv. 5-6.) 

XX. And in the forty-second jubilee, in the first y^^-r |5*^2 
of the i'seventhf week, Abraham called Ishmael, and his 
twelve sons, and Isaac and his two sons, and the six sons of 
Keturah, and their sons. 2. And he commanded them that 
they should observe the way of the Lord ; that they should 
work righteousness, and love each his neighbour, and act on 
this manner amongst all men ; that they should each so 
walk with regard to them as to do judgment and righteous- 
ness on the earth. 3. That they should circumcise their 
sons, according to the covenant which He had made with 
them, and not deviate to the right hand or the left of all 
the paths which the Lord had commanded us ; and that we 
should keep ourselves from all fornication and uncleanness, 
[and renounce from amongst us all fornication and unclean- 
ness]. 4. And if any woman or maid commit fornication 
amongst you, burn her with fire, and let them not commit 
fornication with her after their eyes and their heart ; and 
let them not take to themselves wives from the daughters 
of Canaan ; for the seed of Canaan will be rooted out of the 

XX. 1. ■\ Seventh^. "Seventh" seems 3. Circumcise their sons. Sanh. 59 6 

corrupt for "sixth." The present text contains a discussion as to whether cir- 

makes the date 2052 or the year after cumcision was obligatory ou Ishmael's 

Abraham's death. If we read '* sixth " and Keturah's sons in conformity with 

it would give 2045. See note on xxi. Gen. xvii. 9. Owing to Gen. xxi. 12 

1. Thus some time would intervene it was held not to extend to Esau's 

between the dismissal of Ishmael and descendants. 

his sons to their distant homes (xx. \^And renounce . . . uncleannessl. 

11) and the return of Ishmael and Bracketed as a dittography. 

Jacob to celebrate the feast of weeks 4. This halacha does not agree exactly 

(xxii. 1). with those in Leviticus and Deutero- 

His twdve sons. See Gen. xxv. nomy, etc., but with that implied in 

13-15. Gen. xxxviii. 24. According to Deut. 

2. Men = sa,h'€ emended from sab'e, xxii. 23 sqq. ; Ezek. xvi. 40 ; Lev. xx. 

"war." 10 the adulteress was to be put to 


land. 5. And he told them of the judgment of the giants, 
and the judgment of the Sodomites, how they had been 
judged on account of their wickedness, and had died on 
account of their fornication, and uncleanness, and mutual 
corruption through fornication. 

6. " And guard yourselves from all fornication and unclean- 

And from all pollution of sin. 

Lest ye make our name a curse, 
And your whole life a hissing, 

And all your sons to be destroyed by the sword. 

And ye become accursed like Sodom, 

And all your remnant as the sons of Gomorrah. 

7. I implore you, my sons, love the God of heaven. 
And cleave ye to all His commandments. 

And walk not after their idols, and after their unclean- 

8. And make not for yourselves molten or graven gods ; 

For they are vanity. 

And there is no spirit in them ; 

For they are work of (men's) hands, 

And all who trust in them, trust in nothing. 

Serve them not, nor worship them, 

9. But serve ye the Most High God, and worship Him 

continually : 

death by stoning, whereas death by 5. Fornication, and uncleanness, and 

fire was reserved for the priest's . . . corruption. See note on vii. 21. 
daughter who had played the whore, 6. Make our name a curse, and your 

Lev. xxi. 9. On the other hand Gen. lohole life a hissing. Based on Is. Ixv. 

xxxviii. 24, where Judah proposes to 15; Jer. xxix. 18. Cf. Eth. En. v. 6. For 

burn Tamar, comes under neither of "a hissing" (so Latin) a gives "a threat- 

these regulations. Tamar was still, ening" and 6 cd "a cause of boasting." 
according to custom, the wife of Er — 8. Cf. xii. 5, xxii. 18. 

for Shelah was simply to act as Er's Molten or graven gods. Cf. Deut. 

representative — and should thereupon xxvii. 15. 

have beon stoned according to the Sen'e them not, nor worship tliem. 

Levitical law. See notes on xli. 25, 26. Exod. xx. 5. 

CHAPTER XX. 5-13 131 

And hope for His countenance always, 

And work uprightness and righteousness before Him, 

That He may have pleasure in you and grant you His 

And send rain upon you morning and evening, 
And bless all your works which ye have wrought upon 

the earth. 
And bless thy bread and thy water. 
And bless the fruit of thy womb and the fruit of thy land, 
And the herds of thy cattle, and the flocks of thy sheep. 

10. And ye will be for a blessing on the earth. 
And all nations of the earth will desire you. 
And bless your sons in my name. 

That they may be blessed as I am." 

11. And he gave to Ishmael and to his sons, and to the 
sons of Keturah, gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his 
son, and he gave everything to Isaac his son. 12. And 
Ishmael and his sons, and the sons of Keturah and their 
sons, went together and dwelt from Paran to the entering 
in of Babylon in all the land which is towards the East 
facing the desert. 13. And these mingled with each other, 
and their name was called Arabs, and Ishmaelites. 

Abraham^s last ivords to Isaac regarding idolatry, the eating 
of blood, the offering of various sacrifices and the use of 
salt, 1-11. Also regarding the woods to he used in 

9. Have pleasure in. Lat. has what springs from the seed as here, 

dirigat, which with Praetorius should be Latin has fructum. Greek was prob. 

changed into diligat. Kapirbv. 

Send rain. Cf. xii. 4, 18. 10. J'e will be for a blessing. Cf. Gen. 

Bless all your works, etc. Cf. Deut. xii. 2 ; and xxi. 25 of our text. 

^*dMv ;^ 7 //;. / V ^ 11. Cf. Gen. XXV. 6. 

Bless thy oread and thy water. Exod. , „ ^ „ , ^, , 

xxiii. 25. ^^- ^«'""^"- Eth. Pharmon. 

Fruit of thy womb and the fruit of 13. Was called Arabs, and Ishmael- 

thy land, And the herds, ^ia. Deut. vii. ites. So Eth. The Latin = " Clave to 

13. The Ethiopic word rendered fruit the Arabs and (they are) Ishmaelites 

generally = "seed," but it also means unto this day." 



sacrifice and the duty of washing 'before, sacrifice and of 
covering blood etc., 12-25. 

XXI. And in the sixth year of the -f* seventh f week of 
this jubilee Abraham called Isaac his son, and commanded 
him, saying : " I am become old, and know not the day 
of my death, and am full of my days. 2. And behold, I am 
one hundred and seventy-five years old, and throughout all 
the days of my life I have remembered the Lord, and 
sought with all my heart to do His will, and to walk up- 
rightly in all His ways. 3. My soul has hated idols, (and I 
have despised those that served them, and I have given my heart 

XXI. 1. iSeventhi. Since Abraham 
was born in 1876 a.m. and lived 175 
years, he must have died in 2051 a.m., 
whereas our text makes it 2057. 
Hence read "sixth." We suould then 
have 2050. 

Abraham called Isaac his son, and 
commanded him. Cf. Test. Levi 9 : 
'IffaaK^KdXei iJ,e . . . rod inroiJLvfjffai /j.€ 
vofiov KvpLov. The rest of this chapter 
according to our author deals with 
Abraham's directions to Isaac regard- 
ing the various kinds of sacrifices, the 
woods to be used on the altar, the 
ablutions of the priest, the duty of 
avoiding fornication. Now it is quite 
clear that the author of Test. Levi 9 
had either our text before him or else 
a source common to both. The converse 
hypothesis that our author had the Test. 
Levi ,before him is not workable. In 
any case the text of the Test. Levi is 
less original than that of our author. 
It represents Isaac as transmitting to 
Levi the same ritual commands that 
our text describes Abraham as giving 
to Isaac. The only point that can 
be urged in favour of the originality 
of the Test. Levi is that the words in 
Jubilees xxi. 1 "I am become old and 
know not the day of my death " are 
used by Isaac in Gen. xxvii. 2 and not 
by Abraham. But the two views are 
compatible. Our text represents Abra- 
ham as giving directions as to sacrifices, 
etc., to Isaac ; and the Test. Levi 
represents Isaac as handing them on 

(TWT-qpiwv (Jub. 

to Levi. The wy Kd/n.^ 'A^paafi edida^e 
support the view of our author. I 
will now give the portions of Test. 
Levi 9 which deal with the same 
matter as our text and insert after 
them the references to the parallels 
in our text. /cat 'IcraaK (KoXei /j.e 
ffvvex^s Tov vTro/MvTJcTaL fie v6fiov Kvpiov 
(Jub. xxi. 1) . . . Kai idioacTK^ fie vdfiov 

dirapxCiv, eKovaiwi', 
xxi. 7-9) . . . Kal ^Xeye- Mtj irpoaexe, 
t4kvov, CLTrb TOV TTvevfjLaTOS TY]? TTopveias 
(xxi. 21-23) . . . /cat irpb tov elaeXdelv 
eh TO. ayia, \ovov Kal iu t<^ diieiv, 
vliTToV Kal dwapTL^wv irdXiv t7]v dvalav, 
viiTTov (xxi. 16 almost word for word). 
AuSeKa Sh/Spwv del ixovTuv <pij\\a 
dvaye Kvpiij}, (lis Kdfik 'A^padfi edlda^e 
(xxi. 12-13) . . . Kal irdcrav dvcrLav 
dXaTi dXtets (xxi. 11). 

/ rt?n. become old, and know not the 
day of my death. These words are 
used by Isaac in Gen. xxvii. 2. 

And am full. For "and " MSS read 
"for," but Latin rightly gives "et." 

Full of my da.ys. The pronoun is 
peculiar to this book and Eth. vers, 
and Syr. The Sam., LXX, Vulg. read 
"full of days" against Mass. and 
Onkelos of Gen. xxv. 8 which omit " of 
days." Cf. xxii. 7, xxiii. 8 of our text. 

2. Cf. Gen. xxv. 7. 

3. {And 1 have desjiised . . . and 
spirit). Supplied from Latin : probably 
lost in Ethiopic through homoioteleuton. 

CHAPTER XXI. 1-8 133 

aud spirit) that I might observe to do the will of Him who 
created me. 4. For He is the living God, and He is holy 
and faithful, and He is righteous beyond all, aud there is 
with Him no accepting of (men's) persons and no accepting 
of gifts ; for God is righteous, and executeth judgment on 
all those who transgress His commandments and despise His 
covenant. 5. And do thou, my son, observe His command- 
ments and His ordinances and His judgments, and walk not 
after the abominations and after the graven images and 
after the molten images. 6. And eat no blood at all of 
animals or cattle, or of any bird which flies in the heaven. 
7. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace- 
offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, 
and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine 
flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink- 
offering — offer them all together on the altar of burnt- 
offering ; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 8. And 
thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings 
on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is 
on the belly, and all the fat on the inwards and the two 
kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the 
loins and liver thou shalt remove, together with the kidneys. 

4. No accepting of [men's) persons as." Lev. iii. 9-10, which our author has 

and . . . gifts. Cf. Deut. x. 17. before him, supports the Latin : "And 

6. Cf. Lev. vii. 26. See vi. 10, 12 he shall offer of the sacrifice of peace- 
of our text ; also xxi. 17 sqq. offerings an offering made by fire . . . 

7. Cf. Lev. iii. 7-10. and the fat which covereth the inwards, 
Peace - offering = dvaiai eip-qvLKai — and all the fat that is upon the inwards 

O'DStf nar, 1 Sam, x. 8, xi. 15 etc., but and the two kidneys, and the fat that 

the Hebrew phrase is more usually is upon them, which is by the loins . . . 

rendered (^) Ovaia (rod) (juTTjpiov, Lev. with the kidneys shall he take away." 

iii. 3, 6, 9, iv. 26 etc. On the phrase "thank-offerings" see 

(And the meat-offering). Latin omits note on ver. 7. 
the meat-offering. The phrase is most On the belly, . . . on the inwards = 

probably genuine as Littmann urges, ewi rijs /cotXias . . . eTrt tQv ivrocrdluv 

though I rejected it in my Ethiopic text. {ivT^pwv). The Latin has super ventrum 

Mingled loith oil. Cf. Lev. ii. 4, ... super interanea. This variation is 

]DV2 cnva. strange, since the Hebrew has anp and 

8. And thou wilt offer the fat of the the LXX KoiXla in both cases in Lev. 
sacrifice of thank-offerings . . . atid the iii- 10. 

fat. So Latin. For "and ... and" in And upon the loins. Lev. iii. 10 has 

the above the Ethiopic reads "as . . . "which is by the loins." 



9. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before 
the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, 
for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord, 

10. And eat its meat on that day and on the second day, 
and let not the sun on the second day go down upon it till 
it is eaten, and let nothing be left over for the third day ; 
for it is not acceptable [for it is not approved] and let it no 
longer be eaten, and all who eat thereof will bring sin upon 
themselves ; for thus I have found it written in the books 
of my forefathers, and in the words of Enoch, and in the 
words of Noah. 11. And on all thy oblations thou shalt 
strew salt, and let not the salt of the covenant be lacking in 
all thy oblations before the Lord. 12. And as regards the 
wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood 

Thou shalt remove =tSbK\.. Emended 
with Latin separa from teblftl = rolled 
up, covered up. 

9. Bread of the offering unto the 
Lord. From Lev. iii. 11. 

10. [For it is not approved']. I have 
bracketed this clause as a dittography. 

Let it no longer he e«te?i=jetbalae, 
emended from jetbahal {ah). cd = 
"thou shalt not eat." 

Written in the books of my fore- 
fathers. According to x. 14 Noah gave 
all his secret books to Shem, who 
may have passed them on to Abraham, 
as, according to rabbinic tradition, 
Abraham attended the school of Shem. 
According to xii. 27, however, Abram 
is said to have been a "home " student, 
and 'to have studied the books of his 
fathers. Singer (p. 126 note) states 
that according to Pirke R. El, viii., 
Jalk. Gen. § 41, Abraham received from 
Shem the knowledge of the calendar 
which was imparted to Adam from 
heaven, and which had come down to 
Shem through Enoch and Noah. The 
present passage in our text as well as 
vii. 38 and Test. XII. Patriarch. Zeb. 3 
trace back certain halachoth to com- 
mands or books of Enoch and Noah. 
None of the ancient books preserved 
under these names are of an halachic 
character. There was probably no 

ground for the statement made by our 

11. On all thy oblations thou shalt 
strew salt. Cf. the parallel passage in 
Test. Levi 9 : Kal iracrav OvaLav ciXart 

Salt of tJie covenant. Cf. Lev. ii. 13. 
MSS read "covenant of salt." 

12. Beioare lest thou bring (other) 
wood for the altar in addition to these. 
By a slight change (see my text, p. 75 
note 30) we might read : " Be careful 
to offer on the altar the following woods 
(only)." This passage was written 
possibly to determine the meaning of 
D'tsE' '^V in Exod. xxv. 5, 10 etc. 
Our text or the subject of it is referred 
to in Test. Levi 9 : Swoe/ca 8iv5puv 
ael ix^"''''^'' <poWa dvaye Kvplixi, iIis 
Kafik 'A^paafx iSida^e. The number 
here is probably corrupt. dibd€Ka = 
3> corrupt for -,^=14. TheEth. Enoch 
iii, speaks of fourteen evergreen trees, 
and may be in that passage dependent 
on our text. With the list of four- 
teen trees |in our text, cf. that in 
the Geoponica xi. 1 : divdpa deidaXij 
eari . . . id'' (1) <po1vi^, (2) KirpLOv, (3) 
(7Tp60i\os, (4) 6d<pv7i, (5) iXaia, (6) 
KVTrdpiaaos, (7) Keparia, (8) irlrvs, 
(9) irplvos, (10) TTV^os, (11) fivpcrlyr), 
(12) Kedpos, (13) iT^a Kai (14) dpKev- 
60s. Of these fourteen, ten, i.e. nos. 

CHAPTER XXI. 9-19 135 

for the altar m addition to these: cypress, defran, sagad, 
pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, 
juniper, and balsam. 1 3. And of these kinds of wood lay 
upon the altar under the sacrifice, such as have been tested 
as to their appearance, and do not lay (thereon) any split or 
dark wood, (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and 
new growth ; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, [for its 
fragrance is gone] for there is no longer fragrance in it 
as before. 14. Besides these kinds of wood there is none 
other that thou shalt place (on the altar), for the fragrance 
is dispersed, and the smell of its fragrance goes not up to 
heaven. 15. Observe this commandment and do it, my son, 
that thou mayst be upright in all thy deeds. 16. And at 
all times be clean in thy body, and wash thyself with water 
before thou approachest to offer on the altar, and wash thy 
hands and thy feet before thou drawest near to the altar ; 
and when thou art done sacrificing, wash again thy hands 
and thy feet. 17. And let no blood appear upon you nor 
upon your clothes ; be on thy guard, my son, against blood, 
be on thy guard exceedingly; cover it with dust. 18. And 
do not eat any blood, for it is the soul ; eat no blood what- 
ever. 19. And take no gifts for the blood of man, lest it be 

6, 3, 8, 12, 1 (?), .5, 11, 4, 2 (or 7), 14, aean = nesfih, emended from sentfa 

appear iu our text. See my text, p. (6)=:"firm," sen'a (c). a omits. 

75. [For its fragrance is gone\. I have 

Z)e//Yt7i might be acorruption oiirptvos bracketed this clause as originating in a 

but that daprono(Ll|k_9)) is found in dittography, or an interpolation from 

,, . , . 1 • J ■ f c • the next verse, 

feyriac andisakindoffir. U. Goes not up. With Littmann I 

SayM. This has been identified ^^^^ .^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^j^^_ 

with the y:;, "the almond ; but ^g_ ^^ ^^^ -^^ ^^^^. ^^^^^^ 

wrongly, since the trees are all ever- , . ^i, 14. <• t^ °j ,.,-^ 

° •" approaching the altar, cf. Exod. xxx. 

S^^^^- 19 21 etc 

Citron. I have taken qedar as ^^J^^^ ' Text="return and 

corrupt for Klrp^ov. It may be a cor- , ^^^ f.^iu^, Hebrew idiom as 

ruption of Keparia. On wood for the -^.., , . ■. 

^ -t. AT-ij i.-u ■■ r m ^^ Littmanu has recognised. 

sacrifices see Middoth 11. 5; Tamid ,►, ,t 7 ^7 „ -.7. ;+ 

on 1 (KT T • o /T> D 7 7 17. Nor upon iiour clotlies. a omit 

29 6 ; Sifra on Lev. 1. 8 (Beer, Buch a. ,, ,t 

Juh. p. 35). ^°^- , . , 

13. Nothing of this nature is found -Be on thy guard, my son, against 

in the halacha. Tamid ii. 3 allows all ^iood, ... cover it with dust. Cf. 

kinds of wood but that of the olive Lev. xvii. 13. 

and vine. 18. Cf. Lev. xvii. 14 ; Dent. xii. 23. 


shed with impunity, without judgment ; for it is the blood 
that is shed that causes the earth to sin, and the earth 
cannot be cleansed from the blood of man save by the blood 
of him who shed it. 20. And take no present or gift 
for the blood of man : blood for blood, that thou mayest be 
accepted before the Lord, the Most High God ; for He is the 
defence of the good : and that thou mayest be preserved from 
all evil, and that He may save thee from every kind of 

21. I see, my son, 

That all the works of the children of men are sin and 

And all their deeds are uncleanness and an abomination 

and a pollution, 
And there is no righteousness with them. 

22. Beware, lest thou shouldest walk in their ways 
And tread in their paths. 

And sin a sin unto death before the Most High God. 
Else He will [hide His face from thee. 
And] give thee back into the hands of thy transgression, 
And root thee out of the land, and thy seed likewise 

from under heaven. 
And thy name and thy seed will perish from the whole 


23. Turn away from all their deeds and all their uncleanness, 
And observe the ordinance of the Most High God, 

19. Causes tlie earth to sin. This 22. Sin unto death — a/xaprlav 9ava- 
goes back to f]'3n' = " pollutes." rr)(p6pov = n^ah xcn, Num. xviii. 22. Cf. 

The earth cannot be cleansed, etc. IJolin v. 16. "See xxxiii. 18 of our text. 
Cf. vii. 33 ; Num. xxxv. 33. [mde His face from tliee, And]. I 

20. That thou inayest be accepted, have bracketed this clause (cf. i. 13) 
Emended (see my text, p. 76, note 1). as an interpolation, since it spoils the 
6 ((/) = " and it will be accepted"; a parallelism. 

" it will not be accepted " ; c " and He Give thee back into the hands of thy 

will accept you." transgression. Has this vigorous ex- 

21-24. This passage was written pression been suggested by Gen. iv. 7 

originally in Hebrew verse and the "If thou dost not well, sin is a lurker 

parallelism is still well preserved. at the door " ? 


And do His will and be upright in all things. 

24. And He will bless thee in all thy deeds, 

And will raise up from thee the plant of righteousness 
through all the earth, throughout all generations of 
the earth, 

And my name and thy name will not be forgotten 
under heaven for ever. 

25. Go, my son, in peace. 

May the Most High God, my God and thy God, strengthen 

thee to do His will, 
And may He bless all thy seed and the residue of thy 

seed for the generations for ever, with all righteous 

That thou mayest be a blessing on all the earth." 

26. And he went out from him rejoicing. 

Isaac, Ishmael, and Jacob celebrate the feast of first fruits at 
Beersheba with Abraham, 1-5. Prayer of Abraham, 
6-9. Abraham's last words to and blessings of Jacob, 

XXII. And it came to pass in the ffirstf week in the 
•fforty-fourthf jubilee, in the fsecondf year, that is, the 
year in which Abraham died, that Isaac and Ishmael came 
from the Well of the Oath to celebrate the feast of weeks 
— that is, the feast of the first-fruits of the harvest — to 
Abraham, their father, and Abraham rejoiced because his 
two sons had come. 2. For Isaac had many possessions in 
Beersheba, and Isaac was wont to go and see his possessions 

24. Plant of righteousness. See Dillmann suggests that for ' ' forty - 
xvi. 26. fourth" we should read "forty-third." 

25. I have with some hesitation But this would make the year of 

arranged this verse as Hebrew poetry. Abraham's death 2060, whereas (see 

,,.,,,. ~. ,» on xxi. 1) he died in the year 2051. 

Mayest he a blessing. Cf. xx. 10. jj^^^^^ j p^^^p^^^ . .^.^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^j. 

XXII. 1. All the dates in this verse in the forty-second jubilee, in the seventh 
appear to be wrong. The total = 2116. year " = 2051. 


and to return to his father. 3. And in those days Ishmael 
came to see his father, and they both came together, and 
Isaac offered a sacrifice for a burnt-offering, and presented it 
on the altar of his father which he had made in Hebron. 
4, And he offered a thank-offering and made a feast of joy 
before Ishmael, his brother : and Eebecca made new cakes 
from the new grain, and gave them to Jacob, her son, to 
take them to Abraham, his father, from the first-fruits of 
the land, that he might eat and bless the Creator of all 
things before he died. 5. And Isaac, too, sent by the hand 
of Jacob to Abraham a best thank-offering, that he might 
eat and drink. 6. And he eat and drank, and blessed the 
Most High God, 

Who hath created heaven and earth. 
Who hath made all the fat things of the earth, 
And given them to the children of men 
That they might eat and drink and bless their Creator. 
7. " And now I give thanks unto Thee, my God, because thou 
hast caused me to see this day : behold, I am one hundred 
three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, 
and all my days have been unto me peace. 8. The sword 
of the adversary has not overcome me in all that Thou hast 
given me and my children all the days of my life until this 
day. 9. My God, may Thy mercy and Thy peace be upon 
Thy servant, and upon the seed of his sons, that they may 
be to Thee a chosen nation and an inheritance from amongst 
all the nations of the earth from henceforth unto all the 
days of the generations of the earth, unto all the ages." 
10. And he called Jacob and said: "My son Jacob, may 

4. Creator of all things. A frequently 6-9. Abraham's thanksgiving and 

recurring idea in our author : cf. xxii. prayer. 

27. Cf. Sir. xxiv. 8 : 6 KricrTrjs airdv- 7^ gge xxi. 1. 

Kijiv ; 2 Mace. i. 24 : 6 debs 6 wdvTuv „ _, ,,.,,, ^„ 

KTlarris; vii. 23: 6 rod Kda^ov Kriarr,, , ^- ^^e sword of the adversary. Cf. 

(cf. 4 Mace. V. 25). Cf. "God of all," ^^r. vi. 25 ; Ps. ix. 7 (LXX). 

xxii. 10, 27, XXX. 19, xxxi. 13, 32; 9. Aninheritance{ — rhm). Cf. verses 

Assumpt. Mos. iv. 2. 10, 15, 29 and Deut. iv. 20. 

CHAPTER XXII. 3-14 139 

the God of all bless thee and strengthen thee to do righteous- 
ness, and His will before Him, and may He choose thee and 
thy seed that ye may become a people for His inheritance 
according to His will alway. And do thou, my son, Jacob, 
draw near and kiss me." 11. And he drew near and 
kissed him, and he said : 

" Blessed be my son Jacob 

And all the sons of God Most High, unto all the ages : 

May God give unto thee a seed of righteousness ; 
And some of thy sons may He sanctify in the midst of 
the whole earth ; 

May nations serve thee, 

And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 

1 2. Be strong in the presence of men, 

And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. 

Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be 

So that they shall become a holy nation. 

13. May the Most High God give thee all the blessings 
Wherewith He has blessed me 

And wherewith He blessed Noah and Adam ; 
May they rest on the sacred head of thy seed from 
generation to generation for ever. 

14. And may He cleanse thee from all unrighteousness and 


10. God of all, i.e. God of the xxiv. 17, nc'-'n Sd, where, however, 
universe. See verses 4, 27. ntr is not to be taken as the name of 

11. The sons of the God Most High (or the patriarch but as a contraction of 
"his sons unto the God Most High"). nNB* = " confusion " 

For phraseology cf. Gen. xiv^ 19 On jg^ ^^^^^. \ _ ^ ^herexvith He 

Israel as sons of God, see i. 24 note. ^^^^^^^^ -^^^^^ g^^ ^^^ 27. 

May nations serve Thee, And all the 

nations, etc. From Gen. xxvii. 29— -^««< ^"^ <^e sacred head. From Gen. 

Isaac's blessing of Jacob. xlix. 26, though with the Syr. it implies 

\2. Exercise. Eth. has "exercising " in instead of ru. Cf. Num. vi. 9. 

but Latin =" exercise. " 14. Unrighteo^isness and impurity. 

All the seed of Seth, i.e. sW mzjikynA.. Emended with Latin inquinamento et 

The phrase is found also in Num. injustitia. MSS = "impure defilement." 


That thou mayest be forgiven all (thy) transgressions ; 
(and) thy sins of ignorance. 

And may He strengthen thee, 

And bless thee. 

And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, 

15. And may He renew His covenant with thee, 

That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance 

for all the ages, 
And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in 

truth and righteousness throughout all the days of 

the earth. 

16. And do thou, my son Jacob, remember my words, 
And observe the commandments of Abraham, thy father : 

Separate thyself from the nations, 
And eat not wiuh them : 

And do not according to their works, 
And become not their associate ; 

For their works are unclean. 

And all their ways are a pollution and an abomination 
and uncleanness. 

17. They offer their sacrifices to the dead 

Thou viay est he for given. Lat. ="He 29). Antiochus IV. tried to force the 

may forgive. " The "thy" and "and" Jews to eat of unclean food, 1 Mace. 1. 

are supplied from the Latin. 47-48, 62-63 ; 2 Mace. vi. 18-21, vii. 1. 

15. Rejiew His covenant. Seever.30. See Driver's Commentary on Daniel i. 8- 
NationfoT His inheritance. See on 10 note. Cf. Matt. ix. 11 ; Mk. ii. 16 

ver. 9. for the Pharisaic attitude. 

16. The exclusiveness of Judaism is Their %oays are a pollution. Cf. ver. 
here traced to Abraham. The very 19. Observe how frequently this con- 
existence of Judaism in 200-150 B.C. ception returns in all accounts of the 
made such exclusiveness indispensable, persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and 

Separate thyself from the nations, his successors : fxialveiv in 1 Mace. i. 

Cf. Is. lii. 11. 46, 63, iv. 45, vii. 34, xiv. 36 ; fji.ia<Tn6s, 

Eat not with them. A Jew could 1 Mace. iv. 43 ; aKadapTos, 1 Mace, 

not eat with a Gentile ; for the animals i. 48, iv. 43 ; aKadapaia, 1 Mace. xiii. 

might not have been slaughtered ac- 48, xiv. 7 ; Ati^cos, 2 Mace. vi. 19, 25 ; 

cording to the prescriptions of the Law fioXivu, 1 Mace. i. 37 ; 2 Mace. vi. 2, 

(Deut. xii. 23, 24) or might have been xiv. 3 ; fxaXvands, 2 Mace. v. 27 ; /3e- 

amongst those that were forbidden to ^ijXou, 1 Mace. i. 43, 45, 48, 63, ii. 12, 

the Jew (Lev. xi. 4-7, 10-12, 13-20) 34, iii. 51, etc.; /Se^TjXoxris, 1 Mace. i. 48. 
or the meat and wine might have been 17. Offer their sacrifices to the dead, 

offered to idols (cf. 1 Cor. x. 20, 27- Cf.Deut. xxvi. 14 ; Ps.cvi. 28 ; Sir. vii. 

CHAPTER XXII. 15-21 141 

And they worship evil spirits, 

And they eat over the graves, 

And all their works are vanity and nothingness. 

18. They have no heart to understand 

And their eyes do not see what their works are, 

And how they err in saying to a piece of wood : ' Thou 

art my God,' 
And to a stone : ' Thou art my Lord and thou art my 

[And they have no heart.] 

19. And as for thee, my son Jacob, 
May the Most High God help thee 
And the God of heaven bless thee 

And remove thee from their uncleanness and from all 
their error. 

20. Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any 

seed of the daughters of Canaan ; 
For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. 

21. For, owing to the transgression of Ham, Canaan erred. 
And all his seed will be destroyed from off the earth 

and all the residue thereof, 

33 ; Tob. iv. 17, which allude to such offered sacrifices to the dead partook of 

sacrifices as being ofiFered by Israel. such sacrifices. These sacrifices were 

They are derided Sir. xxx. 18, 19 ; Ep. placed over the grave : see references 

Jer. 31, 32; Wisdom xiv. 15, xix. 3; given under "olfer sacrifices to the 

Or. Sibyl, viii. 382-384. The Pirke dead " in earlier part of the verse : also 

Aboth iii. 4 speaks of "sacrifices to the Schwally, Das Lehen tiaeh dem Tode, 

dead " (D-nen 'n3i). 21-24. 

Worship evil spirits. Some of the 18. Cf. xii. 5, xx. 8 ; Jer. ii. 27. 

Jews at the bidding of Antiochus Their works. Read gebromu instead 

Epiphanes consented to worship idols of gabromu in my text. 

and offer them sacrifices, 1 Mace. i. 43. [And they have no hearf]. Bracketed 

For other references to such worship as a dittography of the beginning of 

generally see Deut. xxxii. 17 ; Lev. ver. 18. The parallelism is against it. 

xvii. 7 ; Ps. cvi. 37 ; Eth. Enoch xix. 20. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 1. For similar 

1 ; Baruch iv. 7 ; 1 Cor. x. 20: dW Srt commands see xxv. 5, xxvii. 10, xxx 

a, Ovovcriv TO, idvt}, Sai.fiovioLS . . . 6vov- 7 of our text ; Test. Levi 9. 

aiv. See note on i. 11-13 of our text. For all his seed, etc. This line 

Eat over the graves. .Just as the recurs in ver. 21'' ; for the two Ethiopic 

worshipper of Yahweh partook of the verbs are not infrequently renderings 

sacrifices offered to Him, so those who of the same word in Greek. 


And none springing from him will be saved on the day 
of judgment. 

22. And as for all the worshippers of idols and the profane 

(b) There will be no hope for them in the land of the 

living ; 
(e) And there will be no remembrance of them on the 
earth ; 

(c) For they will descend into Sheol, 

(d) And into the place of condemnation will they go, 

As the children of Sodom were taken away from the earth 
So will all those who worship idols be taken away. 

23. Tear not, my sou Jacob, 

And be not dismayed, son of Abraham : 

May the Most High God preserve thee from destruction, 
And from all the paths of error may He deliver thee. 

24. This house have I built for myself that I might put my 
name upon it in the earth : [it is given to thee and to thy 
seed for ever], and it will be named the house of Abraham ; 
it is given to thee and to thy seed for ever ; for thou wilt 
build my house and establish my name before God for ever : 
thy seed and thy name will stand throughout all generations 
of the earth." 

25. And he ceased commanding him and blessing 
him. 26. And the two lay together on one bed, and 
Jacob slept in the bosom of Abraham, his father's father 
and he kissed him seven times, and his affection and his 

21. Day of judgment. Cf. xxiii. 11, transposed this verse on account of the 
"day of the great judgment": xxiv. parallelism. 

28, " day of WTath aud indignation " : Th^y vnll descend into Sheol . . . 

also xxxvi. 10. toill they go. The same passage with 

22. The profane. Seulan^/Se/STjXw- a transposition of the two verbs has 
fiAvoi (cf. Lev. xxi. 7, 14), emended already occurred in vii. 29 (see note) : 
from selu'an (a6rf) = "the hated ones." cf. Eth. En. ciii. 7, 8. 

c reads, " the perverse. " If we emend 24. [It is given, etc.'] A dittography 

ahd into sala-ejan we should have " the from the second clause following, 

adversaries." 25. Commanding. Gen. xlix. 33. 

(e) And there will be no remembrance. This word goes back to ms which is 

etc. It will be observed, that I have used technically of a man's last will 

CHAPTER XXII. 22-30 143 

heart rejoiced over him. 27. And he blessed him with all 
his heart and said : " The Most High God, the God of all, 
and Creator of all, who brought me forth from Ur of the 
Chaldees, that He might give me this land to inherit it for 
ever, and that I might establish a holy seed — blessed be the 
Most High for ever." 28. And he blessed Jacob and said : 
"My son, over whom with all my heart and my affection I 
rejoice, may Thy grace and Thy mercy be lift up upon him 
and upon his seed alway. 29. And do not forsake him, nor 
set him at nought from henceforth unto the days of eternity, 
and may Thine eyes be opened upon him and upon his seed, 
that Thou mayst preserve him, and bless him, and may est 
sanctify him as a nation for Thine inheritance; 30. And 
bless him with all Thy blessings from henceforth unto all 
the days of eternity, and renew Thy covenant and Thy 
grace with him and with his seed according to all Thy good 
pleasure unto all the generations of the earth." 

Abraham's death and burial, 1-8 (cf. Gen. xxv. 7-10). 
Decreasing years and increasing corruption of mankind : 
Messianic woes : universal strife : the faithful rise up in 
arms to bring back the faithless : Israel invaded by sinners 

and testament: cf. 2 Sam. xvii. 23; "that the Most High maybe blessed 

2 Kings XX. 1 ; Is. xxxviii. 1 ; Test, for ever." The latter is the more 

XII. Patriarch., Reuben 1 ; Baba bathra natural translation ; but if we adopt 

147«, 1516. it, there is no principal verb. 

27. This verse looks like an inter- 28. Over whom ivith all my heart 
polation. It professes to give Abraham's . . . I rejoice {cd). But « 6 read " re- 
blessing of Jacob, and yet does not joice " in 3rd sing. This reading pre- 
mention him at all. Jacob's blessing supposes "heart and affection" as the 
begins in ver. 28. This verse follows subject of "rejoice," just as in ver. 26. 
well upon ver. 26. On the other hand In that case if instead of zaba (twice) 
some mention of the sacred name is we read baza (tmce) we have as follows : 
required in ver. 28 if 27 is omitted. "over whom all my heart and my 

God of all. See on verses 4, 10. affection rejoice." In either case we 

Creator of all, i.e., of the universe, must reject ba'ella as corrupt. 
See on ver. 4. See Neh. ix. 6. Be lift iip u.;pon him. Cf. Num. vi. 

Brought me forth from Ur of the 26 ; Ps. iv. 6. 
Chaldees. Cf. Gen. xv. 7 ; Neh. ix. 7. 29. Thine eyes he opened. Cf. 1 Kings 

Instead of "brought" 3rd sing, of ad, viii. 29, 52 ; Neh. i. 6 ; Dan. ix. 18. 
6 c read " brought " 2nd sing. 30. Renew Thy covenant. Cf. ver. 

Blessed he the Most High for ever, or 15. 


of the Gentiles, 11-25. JReneived study of the law and 
renewal of mankind : Messianic kingdom : blessed im- 
mortality of the righteoiLS, 26-31. 

XXIII. And he placed two fingers of Jacob on his eyes, 
and he blessed the God of gods, and he covered his face and 
stretched out his feet and slept the sleep of eternity, and 
was gathered to his fathers. 2. And notwithstanding all 
this Jacob was lying in his bosom, and knew not that 
Abraham, his father's father, was dead. 3. And Jacob 
awoke from his sleep, and behold Abraham was cold as ice, 
and he said : " Father, father " ; but there was none that 
spake, and he knew that he was dead. 4. And he arose 
from his bosom and ran and told Kebecca, his mother ; and 
Eebecca went to Isaac in the night, and told him ; and they 
went together, and Jacob with them, and a lamp was in his 
hand, and when they had gone in they found Abraham 
lying dead. 5. And Isaac fell on the face of his father, 
and wept and kissed him. 6. And the voices were heard 
in the house of Abraham, and Ishmael his son arose, and 
went to Abraham his father, and wept over Abraham his 
father, he and all the house of Abraham, and they wept 
with a great weeping. 7. And his sons Isaac and Ishmael 
buried him in the double cave, near Sarah his wife, and they 
wept for him forty days, all the men of his house, and Isaac 
and Ishmael, and aU their sons, and all the sons of Keturah 
in their places ; and the days of weeping for Abraham were 

XXIII. 1. He placed two fingers of in Judges ii. 10. Gen. xxv. 8 has "to 

Jacob. Cf. Gen. xlvi. 4. The closing his people." 

of the eyes was generally done by the 5. From Gen. 1. 1. 

eldest son, and according to Shabbath -j Juried him in the double cave. 

151 b it was strictly forbidden till death q^^ ^^^^ 9 

had ensued (Singer, 107 note) ^ ^^ of weeping = ^2Z ^^ {d. 

Stretched out hts feet. So Syr. and o r, , .n 'i, wl^ 

Eth. vers, of Gen. xlix. 33, but Mass., Deut. xxxiv. 8 ; Gen. 1. 4). 6= "the 

LXX, Vulg. = "gathereduphisfeet." lamentation of the weeping ='33 ',73 

Slept the sleep of eternity. Cf. Jer. (cf. Jer. xxxi. 15) which I take to be a 

li. 39, 57. corruption of '3 J 'D'. iZ reads "lamenta- 

To his fatliers. This phrase is first tion and weeping " and ac "■ weeping." 


ended. 8. And he lived three jubilees and four weeks of 
years, one hundred and seventy-five years, and completed 
the days of his life, being old and full of days. 9. For 
the days of the forefathers, of their life, were nineteen 
jubilees ; and after the Flood they began to grow less than 
nineteen jubilees, and to decrease in jubilees, and to grow 
old quickly, and to be full of their days by reason of mani- 
fold tribulation and the wickedness of their ways, with the 
exception of Abraham. 10. For Abraham was perfect in 
all his deeds with the Lord, and well-pleasing in righteous- 
ness all the days of his life ; and behold, he did not com- 
plete four jubilees in his life, when he had grown old by 
reason of the wickedness, and was full of his days. 11. 
And all the generations which will arise from this time 
until the day of the great judgment will grow old quickly, 
before they complete two jubilees, and their knowledge will 
forsake them by reason of their old age [and all their know- 
ledge will vanish away]. 12. And in those days, if a man 
live a jubilee and a-half of years, they will say regarding 
him : " He has lived long, and the greater part of his days 
are pain and sorrow and tribulation, and there is no peace : 

8. Cf. Gen. xxv. 8. See xxi. 1 of ness of others. He was himself " per- 
our text. feet," according to our author. 

9. Men's years grow less, ^a« _pass«, 11. Generations which loill arise . . . 
with the growing corruption. until the day of the great judgment. 

Days of the forefathers, of their life. Here the judgment seems to precede 

Probably we should read " days of the the Messianic kingdom ; but see note 

life of the forefathers." on ver. 30. 

To decrease in jubilees, and to grow Their knoidedge will forsake them 

old quickly, and to be full of their days, by reason of their old age. Lat. = erunt 

The Latin has senescere celerius et minui transeuntes ab ipsis spiritus intellectus 

dies vitae ipsorum. The Latin seems ipsorum, where spiritus and intellectus 

right. For a possible explanation of may be duplicate renderings of the same 

the corruption in the Eth. see my text, word. Otherwise it should correspond to 

pp. 81-82. the phrase "by reason of their age." I 

10. Wlien he had grown old. Both here withdraw the emendation in my text. 
Eth. and Latin give "until" instead [A ?id all their kncnvledge will vanish 
of "when." The error, I take it, arose arvay]. A dittography. Lat. omits, 
from the corruption of clis— "when" 12. The greater part cf his days are 
into ^ws= "until." pain and sorroio. Ps. xc. 10. Our 

By reason of the vxickedness. Abraham text gives the same rendering of cam 

grew old early because of the wicked- as the LXX, Syr. , Chald., and Vulg, 



13. For calamity follows on calamity, and wound on wound, 
and tribulation on tribulation, and evil tidings on evil 
tidings, and illness on illness, and all evil judgments such 
as these, one with another, illness and overthrow, and snow 
and frost and ice, and fever, and chills, and torpor, and 
famine, and death, and sword, and captivity, and all kinds 
of calamities and pains." 14. And all these will come on 
an evil generation, which transgresses on the earth : their 
works are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and 
abominations. 15. Then they will say: "The days of the 
forefathers were many (even), unto a thousand years, 
and were good ; but, behold, the days of our life, if a man 
has lived many, are three score years and ten, and, if he is 
strong, four score years, and those evil, and there is no 
peace in the days of this evil generation." 16. And in 
that generation the sons will convict their fathers and their 
elders of sin and unrighteousness, and of the words of their 
mouth and the great wickednesses which they perpetrate, 

13 - 14. The calamities that befell We have herein an adumbration of the 

Judah in the early decades of the actual history and the expectations of 

second cent. B.C. the Chasids in the second cent. B.C. 

13. Such as these. So Latin secundum Bousset {Z.f. NTliche Wissensch. 1900, 

hoc ipsud = n'?N3. P- ^^^) ^^s already recognised that this 

One with aiwiher. Wanting in the chapter deals with the Maccabean move- 


ment. The conclusiveness of this inter- 

„ , , .„ ^ T ■ r^, pretation will grow stronger as we pro- 

Fever, and chills So Latin. The ^^^^^ j^ jg ^^ ji^^ie confirmation of 

Ethiopic words are Hira^ \fy6fj.ei>a. ^^^ ^^^ ^-^^^ ^^ g^^ ^j^^ g^^^g g^^^^g 

14. Uncleanness, etc. See vii. 21 in Judaism depicted in allegorical 
note, XX. 5, xxii. 16 note. language in Eth. Enoch xc. 6-7 : "But 

15. The days of our life . . . are behold lambs were borne by those white 
three score years and ten, etc. Ps. xo. sheep, and they began to open their 
10. eyes and to see and to cry to the sheep. 

16. This verse points most probably But the sheep did not cry to them and 
to the rise of the Chasids. These did not hear what they said to them, 
proceed to challenge the creed and but were exceedingly deaf, and their 
conduct of their fathers and the elders eyes were exceedingly and forcibly 
(the spiritual rulers of Judaism). From blinded." Here "the white sheep" 
their ranks (see Eth. Enoch xc. 7) arise are the faithful adherents of the theo- 
the Maccabees. The armed resistance cracy ; the "lambs" are the Chasids, 
of the latter to the Hellenising party a new and distinct party among the 
is represented in ver. 20. Finally after Jews. The Chasids appeal unavailingly 
years of strife the Messianic era begins to the nation at large. In the next 
to set in and the years of men to grow verse (xc. 8) there is a symbolical de- 
many, till at last they become a thousand, scription of Syria's attack on Judah. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 13-20 147 


and concerning their forsaking the covenant which the Lord 
made between them and Him, that they should observe and 
do all His commandments and His ordinances and all His 
laws, without departing either to the right hand or the left. 
1 7, For all have done evil, and every mouth speaks iniquity 
and all their works are an uncleanness and an abomination, 
and all their ways are pollution, uncleanness and destruction. 
-€8. Behold the earth will be destroyed on account of all 
their works, and there will be no seed of the vine, and no 
oil ; for their works are altogether faithless, and they will 
all perish together, beasts and cattle and birds, and all the 
fish of the sea, on account of the children of men. 19. 
And they will strive one with another, the young with the 
old, and the old with the young, the poor with the rich, 
and the lowly with the great, and the beggar with the prince, 
on account of the law and the covenant ; for they have 
forgotten commandment, and covenant, and feasts, and 
months, and Sabbaths, and jubilees, and all judgments. 20. 
And they will stand (with bows and) swords and war to 

Forsaking the covenant. Cji^t>a.n. 18. Will all perish together, beasts 

xi. 30 and 1 Mace. i. 15 ■wHere the . . . and birds, and all the fish of the 

same charge is brought against the sea. Cf. Hos. iv. 3 : also Ezek. xxxviii. 

Hellenising Jews. 20 ; Zeph. i. 3 ; 4 Ezra v. 7. 

Observe and do . . . without ... 0» account of the children. Lat. = 

either to the . . . or the left. Cf. a malitia filiorum. 

Deut. V. 31, 32, xxviii. 13, 14. A 19. For other descriptions of the 

similar statement is found in 1 Mace. Messianic woes, see Or. Sibyl, iii. 796- 

ii. 21-22: "Heaven forbid that we 807; Apoe. Bar, xxvii. 1-13, xlviii. 

should forsake the law and the ordi- 31-37, Ixx. 2-10; 4 Ezra v. 1-12, vi. 

nances . . . to go aside from our loor- 14-18, 21-24; Matt. xxiv. 6-29 with 

ship to the right hand or the left" {nap- Synoptic parallels ; Sota ix. 15 sq. See 

tkdeiv T7]v Xarpiaf 7]fj.Qiv de^iav fj apt- Schtirer, Gesch. d. jud. Volkes,^ ii. 

arepdv). The phrase is most probably 523 sq. 

historical. The poor loith the rich, and (b omits) 

17. All have done evil. Cf. 1 Mace, the lowly with the great. Apoc. Bar. 

1. 52, 53, "And from the people were Ixx. 3-4. 

gathered unto them many, every one For they have forgotten command- 
that had forsaken the law and they did ment, and covenant, etc. From a general 
evil things in the land." description of the Messianic woes the 

Every mouth sjjeaks iniquity. Cf. writer passes on to a definite descrip- 

1 Mace. ii. 6, "And (Mattathias) saw tion of the Maccabean times, and the 

the blasphemies ... in Judah and in Apostate Jews. 

Jerusalem." Jiulgments, i.e. determinations, de- 

Pollution, etc. See note on xxii. 16. cisions. 

18-24. The Messianic woes. 20. This verse describes the warlike 



turn them back into the way ; but they will not return 
until much blood has been shed on the earth, one by another. 
21. And those who have escaped will not return from their 
wickedness to the way of righteousness, but they will all 
exalt themselves to deceit and wealth, that they may each 
take all that is his neighbour's, and they will name the 
great name, but not in truth and not in righteousness, and 
they will defile the holy of holies with their uncleanness 
and the corruption of their pollution. 22. And a great 
punishment will befall the deeds of this generation from the 
Lord, and He will give them over to the sword and to judg- 
ment and to captivity, and to be plundered and devoured. 
23. And He will wake up against them the sinners of the 
Gentiles, who have neither mercy nor compassion, and who 
will respect the person of none, neither old nor young, nor 

efforts of Judas the Maccabee to force 
the apostates to return to Judaism. In 
the year 162, owing to internal divisions, 
Syria felt it advisable to make terms 
with the Jews and allow them "to 
walk after their own laws as aforetime " 
(1 Mace, vi, 55-62 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 23- 
26; Joseph. Ant. xii. 9. 6-7). This 
understanding was observed by all the 
subsequent kings of Syria. Hence from 
162 onward the struggle was not so 
much to preserve Judaism against the 
attempts of Syria to crush it out of 
existence, as to determine the question 
whether the Helleuising faction or the 
national party should control the nation. 
Syria henceforth intervened in support 
now of the one now of the other of the 
two Jewish parties. (See Schurer, oj). cit. 
i. 214 ; [Eng. transl.], I. i. 224 sq.) 

( With boivs and). Supplied from 
the Latin. 

The way. Cf. Is. xxx. 21, "This is 
the way, walk ye in it." Cf. the use 
of T) 656s in Acts ix. 2, xix. 9, 23, 
xxiv. 22. 

21. Those who have escaped will not 
return . . . to the vmt/ of righteousness. 
By the treaty of 162 referred to iu the 
preceding note, the religious liberties 
of Judaism were secured against Syria ; 

but the Hellenising party under the 
high priest Alkimus still pursued its 
own aims. This party is said in our 
text to " name the great name " 
and to " defile the holy of holies with 
their uncleanness." Though it embraced 
nearly the entire Sanhedrin, it was 
opposed by the Maccabees, the Chasids, 
and the great mass of the Jews. 

Great name. Cf. Jos. vii. 9. On 
the phrase "name the . . . name," cf. 
LXX of Is. xxvi. 13 ; Acts xix. 13 ; 2 
Tim. ii. 19. 

22-23. These verses describe the 
sufferings of the nation during the civil 
wars and internal troubles that took 
place down to Simon's high priesthood 
(142-135 B.C.). 

23. This verse refers in language 
borrowed from past prophecy to the 
frequent invasions of Palestine by the 
Syrians or possibly by some unknown 
nation from the north as in Zeph. i. 7 ; 
.Jer. iii.-vi. ; like Gog and Magog in 
Ezek. xxx\dii.-xxxix. 

Have neither mercy nor compassion. 
So Jeremiah (vi. 23) describes the nation 
that was to invade Judah : "they are 
cruel and have no mercy. " 

Neither old nor young. Cf. Ezek. 
ix. 6. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 21-27 149 

any one, for they are more wicked and strong to do evil 

than all the children of men. 

And they will use violence against Israel and transgres- 
sion against Jacob, 
And much blood will be shed upon the earth, 
And there will be none to gather and none to bury. 

24. In those days they will cry aloud, 

And call and pray that they may be saved from the 

hand of the sinners, the Gentiles ; 
But none will be saved. 

25. And the heads of the children will be white with grey hair, 
And a child of three weeks will appear old like a man 

of one hundred years. 
And their stature will be destroyed by tribulation and 

26. And in those days the children will begin to study the 

And to seek the commandments, 
And to return to the path of righteousness. 

27. And the days will begin to grow many and increase 

amongst those children of men, 

NotiR to gather and none to hury, i.e, Iitr' divy€iv6/j.evoL iro\ioKp6ra(f)oi. reX^- 

the fallen. The phrase is from Jer. dwaiv. 

^"i".^' r^j. ,-, ■ ., ^ . •, This was to be one of the signs (as 

. 2*- ^-'l ^H f '''''^1' ^^^.6'e«<i^e5= ij^ Q^j. tg^t) ^iji^jj foreshadowed the 

a.^apTU}\u}vidvwv. The Ethiopia trans- ^^^^^^ of ^^^ kingdom according to 

lator took these words to be in apposi- gibyll Or ii 155 • 

tion. He ought rather to have taken , ' " ' 

the second as dependent on the first. ^'^ yeverri^ -jraiSes Tro\LOKp6Ta<poi 

Hence " sinners of the Gentiles." See yeyaQres. 

verse 23 and Gal. ii. 15 where the See also Latin apocalyptic fragment 

phrase is reproduced somewhat differ- in the Cambridge Texts and Studies, 

ently : i^ idvCjv dfxapTwML To the ii. 3, p. 154. 

writer the terms "Gentiles" and "sin- 26. It might seem possible that ver. 

ners" were practically synonymous. 16 originally followed ver. 26. 

25. Heads of tJie children will he 26-30. The renewed study of the 

white, etc. Hesiod, Op. et Dies, 180- Law followed by a change for the better 

181, tells how in the iron age children and the gradual approach to Messianic 

will be born with hoary temples : blessedness. With this spiritual trans- 

Zei^s 5' dXiffei Kal tovto yivoi fiep6irwv formation of Israel (cf. 1. 5) there Avill 

dvdpwTTwv take place a corresponding transforma- 



Till their days draw nigh to one thousand years, 
And to a greater number of years than (before) was the 
number of the days. 

28. And there will be no old man 

Nor one who is not satisfied with his days, 
For all will be (as) children and youths. 

29. And all their days they will complete and live in peace 

and in joy, 
And there will be no Satan nor any evil destroyer ; 
For all their days will be days of blessing and healing. 

30. And at that time the Lord will heal His servants, 

tion of the heaven and the earth. This 
idea appears also in Is. Ixv. 17 sqq. 
(See i. 29 note ; iv. 26.) This is their 
final renewal. 

27. Nigh to one thousand years. In 
the Messianic kingdom mer will attain 
to the age originally designed for them 
by God. Adam did not attain to 1000 
years because of his sin ; see iv. 30. 

28. The writer appears to have Is. 
Ixv. 20 beforehim but avoids making any 
reference to the presence of the wicked 
in the consummated kingdom, as is done 
in Isaiah. Yet apparently they are pre- 
supposed in ver. 30, though according to 
ver. 29 there are none such. They are 
gradually eliminated. Cf. Test. Levi 18. 

Who is not satisfied. I have added the 
negative from a comparison of Is. Ixv. 20. 

29. In joy. Cf. Is. Ixv. 14. 

No Satan. Cf. Assumpt. Mos. x. 1. 
This statement need not mean very 
much : cf. sl. 9, xhi. 2, 1. 5. 

Blessing and healing. Cf. i. 29. 

30. If this verse refers to the resur- 
rection, the righteous are raised to share 
in this (temporary?) Messianic king- 
dom. If ver. 11 is correctly handed 
down and to be taken literally, it follows 
that the final judgment precedes the 
Messianic kingdom. But the nature of 
this kingdom precludes such a view. 
It is to be introduced gradually pari 
passu with the spiritual transformation 
of man. Such a gradual and progressive 
transformation does not admit of the 
insertion of the final judgment at any 
single point of its evolution. Nor is 
there a hint of such a judgment in 

verses 23-27. Hence the final judgment 
can occur only at the close of this 
kingdom. The kingdom is therefore of 
temporary duration — a conclusion which 
presents some difficulty in the face of 
i. 17, 18, 29, but which agrees best 
with all other passages referring to the 
final judgment in this book. In that 
case the resurrection of the righteous 
and the final judgment are disjoined, 
if this verse asserts that the righteous 
rise to share in the kingdom. The 
eschatology of our author would thus 
diflTer alike from that of Eth. Enoch 
Ixxxiii.-xc. (before 161 B.C.), Test. 
Jud. 25. Sim. 6, Zeb. 10, Benj. 10, 
where the final judgment precedes 
the kingdom and the righteous are 
raised to enjoy it for ever, and from 
that of Eth. Enoch xci.-civ. (104-95 
B.C.) where the final judgment comes 
in at the close of the kingdom and the 
righteous are not raised to share in it, 
but in a blessed immortality. 

But the teaching of our text agrees 
rather with that of Eth. Enoch xci.-civ. ; 
for the words " will rise up " have appar- 
ently no reference to the resurrection, 
and mean merely that when God heals 
His servants (cf. Rev. xxii. 2) they 
become strong. The clauses in ver. 29, 
" all their days will be days of blessing 
and healing " and in i. 29, " for healing 
... for all the elect of Israel " render 
this view the most probable. In this 
case there is no resurrection to this 
temporary Messianic kingdom, and thus 
the eschatology harmonises perfectly 
with that of Eth. Enoch xci.-civ. 


And they will rise up and see great peace, 
And drive out their adversaries. 

And the riohteous will see and be thankful, 
And rejoice with joy for ever and ever, 
And will see all their judgments and all their curses on 
their enemies. 

31. And their bones will rest in the earth, 
And their spirits will have much joy, 

And they will know that it is the Lord who executes 

And shows mercy to hundreds and thousands and to all 

that love Him. 

32. And do thou, Moses, write down these words; for thus 
are they written, and they record (them) on the heavenly 
tables for a testimony for the generations for ever. 

Isaac at the Well of Vision, 1 (cf. Gen. xxv. 11). Esau sells 
his birthright, 2-7 (cf. Gen. xxv. 29-34). Isaac goes 
down to Gerar, 8. Dealings hetween Isaac and Abime- 
lech, 9-27. Isaac curses the Philistines, 28-32. (Cf. 
Gen. xxvi. 1-6, 11, 13-25, 32, 33.) 

XXIV. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, 
that the Lord blessed Isaac his son, and he arose from 
Hebron and went and dwelt at the Well of the Vision in 
the first year of the third week of this jubilee, seven years. 2073 a.m. 
2. And in the first year of the fourth week a famine began 20SO a.m. 

See great peace, i.e. "eujoy great And to all {a c d). 6 reads "of all." 

peace." The word "peace" may go XXIV. 1. Well of tlie Vision. Cf. 

back to DiW : in that case the sense Gen. xxv. 11. The full name la Beer 

would be "enjoy sound health." Lahai-roi = " the well of the living One 

Drive out their adversaries. Such a that seeth me." Cf. also Gen. xvi. 14, 

conception is in keeping with the xxiv. 62. 

gradual growth of the kingdom. First year of the third week of this 

31. After death there is no resurrec- jubilee. This is the forty-third jubilee, 

tion of the body, but a blessed immor- 2. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 1. Observe that 

tality awaiting the spirit as in Eth. our author transposes Gen, xxvi, 1 

Enoch xci. 10, xcii. 3, ciii. 3, 4 (see before xxv, 29 sqq. in order possibly to 

my Eschatology, pp. 203 sqq.). explain Esau's hunger. 


in the land, besides the first famine, which had been in the 
days of Abraham. 3. And Jacob sod lentil pottage, and 
Esaa came from the field hungry. And he said to Jacob 
his brother : " Give me of this red pottage." And Jacob said 
to him : " Sell to me thy [primogeniture, this] birthright and 
I will give thee bread, and also some of this lentil pottage." 
4. And Esau said in his heart : " I shall die ; of what profit 
to me is this birthright ? " And he said to Jacob : " I give 
it to thee." 5. And Jacob said : " Swear to me, this day," 
and he sware unto him. 6. And Jacob gave his brother 
Esau bread and pottage, and he eat till he was satisfied, 
and Esau despised his birthright ; for this reason was Esau's 
name called Edom, on account of the red pottage which 
Jacob gave him for his birthright. 7. And Jacob became 
the elder, and Esau was brought down from his dignity. 8. 
And the famine was over the land, and Isaac departed to go 
down into Egypt in the second year of this week, and went 
to the king of the Philistines to Gerar, unto Abimelech. 
9. And the Lord appeared unto him and said unto him : 
" Go not down into Egypt ; dwell in the land that I shall 
tell thee of, and sojourn in this land, and I shall be with thee 
and bless thee. 1 0. For to thee and to thy seed shall I give 
all this land, and I shall establish My oath which I sware 
unto Abraham thy father, and I shall multiply thy seed as 
the stars of heaven, and shall give unto thy seed all this 
land. 11. And in thy seed will all the nations of the 
earth be blessed, because thy father obeyed My voice, and 
kept My charge and My commandments, and My laws, and 

3-6. Cf. Gen. xxv. 29-34. And I will give . . . pottage. Not 

3. Red pottage. Cf. Gen. xxv. 30. in Gen. xxv. 31. 

Text = " wheaten pottage." Here za- 6. Esau's name: literally "Esau, 

sernaj = TTupoO which is corrupt for his name " (a &). c f? read " Esau." 

TTvppov. ■^^'^ pottage. Same corruption as in 

SeU = air65ov{LXX) = 'M.ass.n-\2C. ""^^o ^'„ ■ ■ , 

8. Famine, xxvi. 1. 

Thy [primogeniture, this] birthright. Second year of this week. See note 

Here we have two renderings of ra on date in ver. 1. 

irpuTorbKid crov. 9-12. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 2-6. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 3-30 153 

My ordinances, and My covenant ; and now obey My voice 

and dwell in this land." 12. And he dwelt in Gerar three 208O-2101 

weeks of years. 13. And Abimelech charged concerning 

him, and concerning all that was his, saying : " Any man 

that shall touch him or aught that is his shall surely die." 14. 

And Isaac waxed strong among the Philistines, and he got 

many possessions, oxen and sheep and camels and asses and 

a great household. 15. And he sowed in the land of the 

Philistines and brought in a hundred-fold, and Isaac became 

exceedingly great, and the Philistines envied him. 16. 

Now all the wells which the servants of Abraham had dug 

during the life of Abraham, the Philistines had stopped them 

after the death of Abraham, and filled them with earth. 

1 7. And Abimelech said unto Isaac : " Go from us, for thou 

art much mightier than we " ; and Isaac departed thence in 

the first year of the seventh week, and sojourned in the 2101 a.m. 

valleys of Gerar. 18. And they digged again the wells of 

water which the servants of Abraham, his father, had digged, 

and which the Philistines had closed after the death of 

Abraham his father, and he called their names as Abraham 

his father had named them. 1 9. And the servants of Isaac 

dug a well in the valley, and found living water, and the 

shepherds of Gerar strove with the shepherds of Isaac, 

saying : " The water is ours " ; and Isaac called the name of 

the well " Perversity," because they had been perverse with 

us. 20. And they dug a second well, and they strove for 

12. Isaac stayed at the Well of the water" and the Latin merely "aqua," 
Vision seven years and in Gerar twenty- but the ze (= this) is merely a trans- 
one, lation of the Greek article as is fre- 

13. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 11. No reference quently the case. Hence Eth. and Lat. 
is made in our text to Isaac's lie regard- attest the same text. 

ing Rebecca. .,01-7 Tlie well. Eth. has "that well" 

!; %; ^ \,l^'^^-J:.'. ^ . but the we'etu is merely a translation 

14. Household So Latin ministenum ^^ ^^^ ^^^^j. ^^^ ^^ is frequently the 
= rrny, Our text renders loosely "pos- ^^^^^ ^atin has merely " putei. " 

18-20. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 18-22. Perversity. Gen. xxvi. 20 has pay, 

19. The water. Here Eth. has " this hXX, ddiKla. 


that also, and he called its name " Enmity." And he arose 
from thence and they digged another well, and for that they 
strove not, and he called the name of it " Eoom," and Isaac 
said : " Now the Lord hath made room for us, and we have 
increased in the land." 21. And he went up from thence 
2108 A.M. to the Well of the Oath, in the first year of the first week in 
the forty-fourth jubilee. 22. And the Lord appeared to 
him that night, on the new moon of the first month, and 
said unto him : " I am the God of Abraham thy father ; 
fear not, for I am with thee, and shall bless thee and shall 
surely multiply thy seed as the sand of the earth, for the 
sake of Abraham my servant." 23. And he built an altar 
there, which Abraham his father had first built, and he 
called upon the name of the Lord, and he offered sacrifice to 
the God of Abraham his father. 24. And they digged a 
well and they found living water. 25. And the servants 
of Isaac digged another well and did not find water, and 
they went and told Isaac that they had not found water, 
and Isaac said : " I have sworn this day to the Philistines 
and this thing has been announced to us." 26. And he 
called the name of that place the " Well of the Oath " ; for 
there he had sworn to Abimelech and Ahuzzath his friend and 
Phicol the prefect of his host. 27. And Isaac knew that 
day that under constraint he had sworn to them to make 
peace with them. 28. And Isaac on that day cursed the 

20. Enmity = sel'e emended with the LXX thus imply ijksd vh in Gen. 

Latin (iuimicitias) from sabab = xxvi. 32, but Mass., Sam., Syr. read iV 

"■ narrow." The corruption is native instead of n"? and connect it with the 

to the text. It most probably arose preceding verb, 

from a scribe's ^\^shing to make an 26. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 33. 

antithesis between the name of this Ahuzzath. Eth. 'Akozat. 

well and that of the next " Room." 28-32. The hatred expressed in these 

21-26. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 23-25, 32-33. verses is hardly intelligible save in a 

24-25. There is mention of only one contemporary of the wars waged by the 

well in Gen. xx\i. 25. Maccabeans against the Philistine cities. 

25. The implication of our text is This passage is here introduced gratui- 

that owing to Isaac having made a tously into the narrative'(so also Bousset, 

covenant with Abimelech his servants Z. f. NT liche Wissensch. 1890, p. 200). 

failed to find water. Of the five chief cities of the Philistines 

They had not found. Our text and (Jos. xiii. 3) four were still in existence 


CHAPTER XXIV. 21-30 155 

Philistines and said : " Cursed be the Philistines rfhto the 
day of wrath and indignation from the midst of all nations ; 
may God make them a derision and a curse and an object 
of wrath and indignation in the hands of the sinners the 
Gentiles and in the hands of the Kittim. 29. And who- 
ever escapes the sword of the enemy and the Kittim, may 
the righteous nation root out in judgment from under 
heaven ; for they will be the enemies and foes of my 
children throughout their generations upon the earth. 
30. And no remnant will be left to them, 

Nor one that will be saved on the day of the wrath of 
judgment ; 

For for destruction and rooting out and expulsion from 
the earth is the whole seed of the Philistines (re- 

And there will no longer be left for these Caphtorim a 
name or a seed on the earth. 

in Maccabean times, Askelon, Ashdod, tians — particularly the latter : see 

Gaza and Ekron. Of these Ekron Herodotus i. 105, ii. 157, 159. 

{'AKKapuv) was given by Alex. Balas to Kittim (cnz, Ktrteis, Ktrtot, Xeriei/t, 

Jonathan for his services (1 Mace. x. XeTrdv). These were descended from 

89 ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 4. 4), and Javan according to Gen. x. 4 and, 

Askelon submitted to him (1 Mace, therefore, belonged to the Graeco-Latin 

X. 60, xi. 60). Ashdod ("Aj'wros) races. Their country is usually identi- 

suflFered severely under Judas the Mac- tied with Cyprus. In Dan. xi. 30 the 

cabee (1 Mace. v. 68) and was captured, Kittim are undoubtedly the Romans, 

put to the sword, and burnt by Jona- whereas in 1 Mace. i. 1, viii. 5 they 

than (147 B.C.); the temple of Dagon are the Macedonians. It is to the 

likewise and all that had taken refuge Macedonians that our text refers. Gaza 

in it were burnt (1 Mace. X. 84; Joseph, was captured by Alexander the Great 

Ant. xiii. 4. 4). It was again reduced (Joseph. Ant. xi. 8. 4). 

to ashes by John Hyrcanus (1 Mace. 29. The rightecnis nation. Judah 

xvi. 10). As regards Gaza its suburbs under the Maccabees. See note on 28- 

were burnt by Jonathan and the city 32 above. 

forced to capitulate (1 Mace. xi. 61-62). Generations. Emended with Latin. 

It was afterwards destroyed by~Alex. Text =" days." 

Jannaeus (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 13. 3). These Ca2Morim. " These " = 'eM 

Our text retiects correctly the attitude emend, from kuL'llu = "all" with Latin. 

of Judah towards the cities of the Text = "all Caphtorim." According to 

Philistines in the second cent. B.C. Amos ix. 7 ; Deut. ii. 23 ; Jer. xlvii. 

28. Sinners, the Gentiles. The Latin 4, the Philistines came originally from 

has here " peccatoris populi." Cf. xxiii. Caphtor. On the various views as to 

24. The Philistines suffered severely its locality see Encyc. Bib. i. 698- 

at the hands of the Assyrians and Egyp- 699. 


31. For though he ascend unto heaven, 
Thence will he be brought down, 

And though he make himself strong on earth. 
Thence will he be dragged forth. 

And though he hide himself amongst the nations, 
Even from thence will he be rooted out; 

And though he descend into Sheol, 
There also will his condemnation be great. 
And there also he will have no peace. 

32. And if he go into captivity, 

By the hands of those that seek his life will they slay 
him on the way, 

And neither name nor seed will be left to him on all 

the earth ; 
For into eternal malediction will he depart." 

33. And thus is it written and engraved concerning him 
on the heavenly tables, to do unto him on the day of 
judgment, so that he may be rooted out of the earth. 

Rebecca admonishes Jacob not to marry a Canaanitish woman, 
1-3. Jacob promises to marry a daughter of Laban 
despite the urgent requests of Esau that he should marry 
a Canaanitish woman, 4-10. Rebecca blesses Jacob, 11- 
23. (Cf Gen. xxviii. 1-4.) 

2109 A.M. XXV. And in the second year of this week in this 
jubilee, Eebecca called Jacob her son, and spake unto him, 
saying : " My son, do not take thee a wife of the daughters 
of Canaan, as Esau, thy brother, who took him two wives of 
the daughters of Canaan, and they have embittered my soul 

31-32. Based on Amos ix. 2-4. Cf. 1. Second year of this week in this 

Ps. cxxxix. 8 sqq. jubilee. See note on ver. 4. 

31. Though he make himself strong. Do not take tliee a wife, etc. Cf. Gen. 

Lat. ==ubi fugiens erit. The corruption xxviii. 1. 

seems to have originated in the Hebrew. Esau . . , who took him two wives, 

XXV. 1-3. Observe that our author etc. Cf. Gen. xxvi. 34. 

transposes Gen. xxviii. 1-4 before Gen. Embittered my soul. Cf. Gen. xxvii. 

xivii., which contains Jacob's inter- 46, xxvi. 35. 
ception of Esau's blessing. 


with all their unclean deeds : for all their deeds are forni- 
cation and lust, and there is no righteousness with them, for 
(their deeds) are evil. 2. And I, my son, love thee exceed- 
ingly, and my heart and my affection bless thee every hour 
of the day and watch of the night. 3. And now, my son, 
hearken to my voice, and do the will of thy mother, and 
do not take thee a wife of the daughters of this land, but 
only of the house of my father, and of my father's kindred. 
Thou wilt take thee a wife of the house of my father, and 
the Most High God will bless thee, and thy children will be 
a righteous generation and a holy seed." 4. And then 
spake Jacob to Eebecca, his mother, and said unto her : 
" Behold, mother, I am nine weeks of years old, and I neither 
know nor have I touched any woman, nor have I betrothed 
myself to any, nor even think of taking me a wife of the 
daughters of Canaan. 5. For I remember, mother, the 
words of Abraham, our father, for he commanded me not to 
take a wife of the daughters of Canaan, but to take me a 
wife from the seed of my father's house and from my 
kindred, 6. I have heard before that daughters have been 
born to Laban, thy brother, and I have set my heart on them 
to take a wife from amongst them. 7. And for this reason 
I have guarded myself in my spirit against sinning or being 
corrupted in all my ways throughout all the days of my life ; 
for with regard to lust and fornication, Abraham, my father, 
gave me many commands. 8. And, despite all that he has 
commanded me, these two and twenty years my brother has 

3. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 1, 2. the blessing : fourteen years he spent 

4. Nine weelcs. If the date in ver. hidden in the house of Eber and seven 
1 is right, it follows that since Jacob years he served for Rachael : accordingly 
was then sixty-three years old, he was he was eighty-four when he married, but 
born in 2046. This agrees with MSS Esau was forty." See also Seder 01am ii. 
reading in xix. 13 ; but the estimate / neither knoio . . . any icoman. 
based on that reading is at variance with Syncellus (i. 197) wrongly attributes 
that which follows from xlv. 13, which this statement to Josephus : 'Idia-qwirb^ 
assigns Jacob's birth to the year 2041. cprjcnv otl 6 'IaKw/3 erQv vwdpx'^y ^y' 
With the statement as to Jacob's age cf. ovk ^yvu oXws yvvaiKa, ws ai)r6s e^eitre 
Ber. rabba 68 : " Our father Jacob was t^ iJ.r)Tpl'¥ej3^KKg.. 

sixty -three years old when he received 7. With regard to . . . fomicatioi^ 


striven with me, and spoken frequently to me and said : ' My 
brother, take to wife a sister of my two wives ' ; but I refuse 
to do as he has done. 9. I swear before thee, mother, that 
all the days of my life I will not take me a wife from the 
daughters of the seed of Canaan, and I will not act wickedly 
as my brother has done. 10. Fear not mother; be assured 
that I shall do thy will and walk in uprightness, and 
not corrupt my ways for ever." 11. And thereupon she 
lifted up her face to heaven and extended the fingers of her 
hands, and opened her mouth and blessed the Most High 
God, who had created the heaven and the earth, and she 
gave Him thanks and praise. 12. And she said: "Blessed 
be the Lord God, and may His holy name be blessed for 
ever and ever, who has given me Jacob as a pure son and 
a holy seed; for he is Thine, and Thine shall his seed be 
continually and throughout all the generations for evermore. 
13. Bless him, O Lord, and place in my mouth the blessing 
of righteousness, that I may bless him." 14. And at that 
hour, when the spirit of righteousness descended into her 
mouth, she placed both her hands on the head of Jacob, and 
said : 

15. " Blessed art thou. Lord of righteousness and God of the 

And may He bless thee beyond all the generations of men. 

May He give thee, my son, the path of righteousness, 
And reveal righteousness to thy seed. 

16. And may He make thy sons many during thy life, 
And may they arise according to the number of the 

months of the year. 

Abraham . . . gave me many com- 14. Spirit of righteous7iess (or 

mands. Cf. xx. 4, xxxix. 6. " truth ") = t6 TrveO/ia riji oK-qOela!. 

8. These tioo and twenty years. Cf. John xiv. 17, xv. 26, xvi. 13. So 

This agrees with the statement of aid. Cf. xxxi. 12. c reads "Holy 

Esau's age in Gen. xxvi. 34, where he Spirit." The latter is Jewish also : cf. 

is said to have been forty when he Is. Ixiii. 10, 11 "His holy Spirit" 

married. Esau was now sixty-three. (i»ip nn). With the idea conveyed by 

CHAPTER XXV. 9-21 159 

And may their sons become many and great beyond the 

stars of heaven, 
And their numbers be more than the sand of the sea. 

17. And may He give them this goodly land — as He said He 

would give it to Abraham and to his seed after him 
alway — 
And may they hold it as a possession for ever. 

1 8. And may I see (born) unto thee, my son, blessed children 

during my life, 
And a blessed and holy seed may all thy seed be. 

19. And as thou hast refreshed thy mother's spirit during 

fmyf life, 
The womb of her that bare thee blesses thee, 

[My affection] and my breasts bless thee 

And my mouth and my tongue praise thee greatly. 

20. Increase and spread over the earth. 

And may thy seed be perfect in the joy of heaven and 

earth for ever ; 
And may thy seed rejoice. 
And on the great day of peace may it have peace. 

21. And may thy name and thy seed endure to all the ages, 
And may the Most High God be their God, 

And may the God of righteousness dwell with them, 
And by them may His sanctuary be built unto all the ages. 

both phrases cf. Deut. xxxiv. 9 "the 19. Hast refreshed (ab). cd "has 

spirit of msdom" (ncDn mi) ; Num. given thee rest." 

xi. 25, 26, 29; Neh. ix. 20 ; Is.xi. 2. f^fyf. Read "thy," as the sense 

17. vis He said He would give it to requires it. 

Ahraluim and to his seed . . . alway. Wv affection]. I have bracketed 

Cf. Luke i. 55, Ko-do^s i\d\r]ffeu . . , ry this phrase ; for it comes in awkwardly 

'A^paan Kal t(^ air^pfxart avToO els between" womb," "breasts," " mouth," 

Tbv alCiva. The words in Luke recall and " tongue." We should expect 

both Mic. vii. 20 and our text. Observe an " and " to precede it. It may be 

that this statement in Luke is added a dittography and have originated as 

parenthetically or explanatorily as in a false alternative rendering of cm, 

our text. " womb." 

Possession for ever. Cf. the Thucy- 21, His sanctuary . . . unto all the 

didean phrase KTrj/xa is del. ages. Cf. i. 29. 


22. Blessed be he that blesseth thee, 

And all flesh that curseth thee falsely may it be 

23. And she kissed him, and said to him : 
" May the Lord of the world love thee 

As the heart of thy mother and her affection rejoice in 

thee and bless thee." 
And she ceased from blessing. 

Isaac sends Esau for venison, 1-4. Rebecca instructs Jacob to 
obtain the blessing, 5-9. Jacob under the person of 
Esau obtains it, 10-24, Esau brings in his venison 
and by his importunity obtains a blessing, 25-34. 
Threatens Jacob, 35. (Cf. Gen. xxvii.) 

2114 A.M. XXVI. And in the seventh year of this week Isaac 
called Esau, his elder son, and said unto him : " I am old, 
my son, and behold my eyes are dim in seeing, and I know 
not the day of my death. 2. And now take thy hunting 
weapons thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, 
and hunt and catch me (venison), my son, and make me 
savoury meat, such as my soul loveth, and bring it to me 
that I may eat, and that my soul may bless thee before I 
die." 3. But Eebecca heard Isaac speaking to Esau. 4. And 
Esau went forth early to the field to hunt and catch and bring 
home to his father. 5. And Eebecca called Jacob, her son, 
and said unto him : " Behold, I heard Isaac, thy father, 
speak unto Esau, thy brother, saying : ' Hunt for me, and 
make me savoury meat, and bring (it) to me that I may eat 
and bless thee before the Lord before I die.' 6. And now, 
my son, obey my voice in that which I command thee : Go 

22. Cf. Gen. xxvii. 29. rendering of Gen. xxvii. 1 which = " dim 

23 Cf Sir iv 10 ^° *^^^* ^^ could not see (nkin)." 

^_^-.^ „. ^ ■■ 1 .n 2. Hunt and catch — dvpeva-ov koX 

XXVI. Cf. Gen. xxvii. 1-41. i >. • a i j ■ ^ i.i, 

iiTLkapov, a loose rendering of the 

1, Are dim in seeing. An imperfect phrase in Gen. xxvii. 3. 

CHAPTERS XXV. 22-XXVI. 16 161 

to thy flock and fetch me two good kids of the goats, and I 
will make them savoury meat for thy father, such as he 
loves, and thou shalt bring (it) to thy father that he may 
eat and bless thee before the Lord before he die, and that 
thou mayst be blessed." 7. And Jacob said to Eebecca his 
mother : " Mother, I shall not withhold anything which my 
father would eat, and which would please him : only I fear, 
my mother, that he will recognise my voice and wish to 
touch me. 8. And thou knowest that I am smooth, and 
Esau, my brother, is hairy, and I shall appear before his eyes 
as an evildoer, and shall do a deed which he had not com- 
manded me, and he will be wroth with me, and I shall bring 
upon myself a curse, and not a blessing." 9. And Eebecca, 
his mother, said unto him : " Upon me be thy curse, my son 
only obey my voice." 10. And Jacob obeyed the voice of 
Eebecca, his mother, and went and fetched two good and 
fat kids of the goats, and brought them to his mother, and 
his mother made them (savoury meat) such as he loved. 
11. And Eebecca took the goodly raiment of Esau, her 
elder son, which was with her in the house, and she clothed 
Jacob, her younger son, (with them), and she put the skins 
of the kids upon his hands and on the exposed parts of his 
neck. 12. And she gave the meat and the bread which she 
had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob. 13. And 
Jacob went in to his father and said : " I am thy son : I 
have done according as thou badest me : arise and sit and 
eat of that which I have caught, father, that thy soul may 
bless me." 14. And Isaac said to his son: "How hast 
thou found so quickly, my son?" 15. And Jacob said: 
" Because (the Lord) thy God caused me to find." 1 6. And 

7. First half of verse added by our him " against Latin and Gen. xxvii. 17. 

author in favour of Jacob. This addition is found also in the 

10. {Savoury meat). Added from Eth. version of Gen. xxvii. 17. 

Latin. 15. {The Lord). Supplied from Latin. 

12. Oave. Here Eth. adds "to Caused me to find {='zxka.ham. be). 



Isaac said unto him : " Come near, that I may feel thee, my 
son, if thou art my son Esau or not." 17. And Jacob went 
near to Isaac, his father, and he felt him and said: 18. 
" The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of 
Esau," and he discerned him not, because it was a dispensa- 
tion from heaven to remove his power of perception and 
Isaac discerned not, for Ms hands were hairy as (his brother) 
Esau's, so that he blessed him. 19. And he said: "Art 
thou my son Esau ? " and he said : " I am thy son " : 
and he said, " Bring near to me that I may eat of that 
which thou hast caught, my son, that my soul may bless 
thee." 20. And he brought near to him, and he did eat, 
and he brought him wine and he drank. 21. And Isaac, 
his father, said unto him: "Come near and kiss me, 
my son." And he came near and kissed him. 22. And 
he smelled the smell of his raiment, and he blessed him and 
said : " Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a 
(full) field which the Lord hath blessed. 
23. And may the Lord give thee of the dew of heaven 

And of the dew of the earth, and plenty of corn and oil : 

Let nations serve thee. 

And peoples bow down to thee. 

o= " helped me " ; d=" caused me to I am he who will receive the ten corn- 
see. " Latin gives direxit. In my mandments (which begin with the 
text I emended the phrase into 'arte'ani words "I am "), but Esau is thy first 
= direxit, comparing xxi. 2 where the born. 

Eth. has this verb as the equivalent of 21. Come near. Latin adds "to me." 

dirigere in the Latin. But the read- So also LXX and Vulg. of Gen. xxvii. 

ing of 6 c may be right as Praetorius 26. 

thinks. 22. (Full). Added from the Latin. 

18. Because it was a dispensation So Sam., LXX, and Vulg. of Gen. xxvii. 
from heaven. This clause is borrowed 27. Mass. omits. 

from 1 IQngs xii. 15; cf. 2 Chron. 23. Oive thee. bed add "and 

X. 15. multiply thee." a transposes it before 

His power of perception, literally, " may the Lord give thee." 

"his spirit." Dew of the earth. The same render- 

{His brother). Added from the ing of t^j irioTriTOi t^s yTJs is found in 

Latin. the Eth. version of Gen. xxvii. 28. 

19. 1 am thy son. For an analogous And plenty. MSS add against 
evasion, Beer compares Ber. rabba 65 : parallelism and Gen. xxvii. 28 before 
"I am Esau the first born" (Gen. "plenty" the clause "may He give 
xxvii. 24). R. Levi said: Jacob meant : plentifully to thee." 

CHAPTER XXVI. 17-31 163 

24. Be lord over thy brethren, 

And let thy mother's sons bow down to thee ; 

And may all the blessings wherewith the Lord hath 

blessed me and blessed Abraham, my father, 
Be imparted to thee and to thy seed for ever : 

Cursed be he that curseth thee, 

And blessed be he that blesseth thee." 

25. And it came to pass as soon as Isaac had made an end 
of blessing his son Jacob, and Jacob had gone forth from 
Isaac his father "fhe hid himself andf Esau, his brother, 
came in from his hunting. 26. And he also made savoury 
meat, and brought (it) to his father, and said unto his father : 
" Let my father arise, and eat of my venison that thy soul 
may bless me." 27. And Isaac, his father, said unto him: 
" Who art thou ? " And he said unto him : " I am thy first 
born, thy son Esau : I have done as thou hast commanded 
me." 28. And Isaac was very greatly astonished, and said : 
" Who is he that hath hunted and caught and brought (it) 
to me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have 
blessed him : (and) he shall be blessed, and all his seed for 
ever." 29. And it came to pass when Esau heard the 
words of his father Isaac that he cried with an exceeding 
great and bitter cry, and said unto his father : " Bless 
me, (even) me also, father." 30. And he said unto him: 
" Thy brother came with guile, and hath taken away thy 
blessing." And he said : " Now I know why his name is 
named Jacob : behold, he hath supplanted me these two 
times : he took away my birth-right, and now he hath taken 
away my blessing." 31. And he said: "Hast thou not 

24. The blessings wlwrewith the Lord 28. Hunted and caught. See note 
. . . blessed Abraliam, etc. Cf. Gen. on ver. 2. 

xxviii. 4. 30. /ijioiuiy/jy (or "how") = or5a ws. 

25. fHe hid himself andf. This looks This may be a corruption of StKotws. 
like an addition to the text. Read In that case the text would agree with 
"that." Gen. xxvii. 36. 


reserved a blessing for me, father ? " and Isaac answered and 
said unto Esau : 

"Behold, I have made him thy lord, 

And all his brethren have I given to him for servants, 

And with plenty of corn and wine and oil have I 
strengthened him : 

And what now shall I do for thee, my son ? " 
32. And Esau said to Isaac, his father : 

" Hast thou but one blessing, father ? 

Bless me, (even) me also, father " : 
And Esau lifted up his voice and wept. 33. And Isaac 
answered and said unto him : 

" Behold, far from the dew of the earth shall be thy 

And far from the dew of heaven from above. 

34. And by thy sword wilt thou live. 
And thou wilt serve thy brother. 

And it shall come to pass when thou becomest 

And dost shake his yoke from off thy neck, 
Thou wilt sin a complete sin unto death, 
And thy seed will be rooted out from under heaven." 

35. And Esau kept threatening Jacob because of the bless- 
ing wherewith his father blessed him, and he said in his 

33. Dew of the earth. See note on remove his yoke from off thy neck." 
verse 23. Similarly in the Jerusalem and Ps.-Jon. 

34. Becomest great =aha.\k& (so b). Targums and in Ber. rabba 67. This 
ac="refusest" ('abaika) which is(?) a passage in our text is attributed to 
corruption of the former, d is corrupt Genesis by Syncellus, i. 202 : ry 'Ho-aO 
but supports h. The text here agrees i<f>-q iv rals evKoyiais 6 '\craa,K, larai 
withtheSam.nnN'n(Gen.xx\di. 40) which 5^ ijviKa cLi> Kad^Xys /cat iKXtjarjs rbv 
istheniphalorhiphalof-nx. Mass. = T'in ^vybv avTovaTroTovTpaxfi^ovffoV ttXtj/jl- 
as to the meaning of which the versions fieX-qaT^s els ddvarov. Glycas (p. 263) 
vary. LXX has /ca^ATjs = nnin from nr. appears to assign it to Josephus : rdre 

34. Thou wilt sin a complete sin unto oZv iirX-qpwd-q ij rod 'Itrad/c irpo(prjTeia 

death, or " every sin unto death." This i]vlKa av KadiXrjs rbv ^vybv rou ddeX^ov 

change is contrary to all tradition. In aov iK rod rpaxvXov <rov, TrXTifi/x^Xeiav 

Onkelos we have : " And it will come to irXTj/jL/jLeXTjcreLS Kai rk /xip roO 

pass when his (Jacob's) sons transgress 'luaijirov roiavra. 

the words of the law, that thou wilt Sin unto death. Cf. xxi. 22. 


heart : " May the days of mourning for my father now come, 
so that I may slay my brother Jacob." 

Rebecca alarmed at Esau's threats, prevails on Isaac to send 
Jacob to Mesopotamia, 1-12. Isaac comforts Rebecca on 
the departure of Jacob, 13-18. Jacob's dream and vow 
at Bethel, 19-27. (Cf. Gen. xxviii.) 

XXVII. And the words of Esau, her elder son, were 
told to Eebecca in a dream, and Eebecca sent and called 
Jacob her younger son, and said unto him : 2. " Behold 
Esau thy brother will take vengeance on thee so as to 
kill thee. 3, Now, therefore, my son, obey my voice, 
and arise and flee thou to Laban, my brother, to Haran, 
and tarry with him a few days until thy brother's anger 
turns away, and he remove his anger from thee, and forget 
all that thou hast done; then I wiU send and fetch thee 
from thence." 4. And Jacob said : " I am not afraid ; if he 
wishes to kill me, I will kill him." 5. But she said unto 
him : " Let me not be bereft of both my sons on one day." 
6. And Jacob said to Eebecca his mother : " Behold, thou 
knowest that my father has become old, and does not see 
because his eyes are dull, and if I leave him it will be evil 
in his eyes, because I leave him and go away from you, and 
my father will be angry, and will curse me. I wiU. not go ; 

35. May the days, etc. Observe the Abraham and Jacob from the reproach 

malicious turn given to Esau's words of leaving their fathers in their old 

in Gen. xxvii. 41. age. Singer (p. 170) writes : In der 

XXVII. 1-5. Cf. Gen. xxvii. 42-45. Haggada wird namlich Jakob darob 

1. Were told to Rebecca in a dream, getadelt, dass er so lange Zeit von 

In the Ps.-Jon. on Gen. xxvii. 42 it is seineu Eltern fernblieb und dadurch 

said : " And the words of Esau her die Uebung der Kindespflichten verab- 

elder son were told to Rebecca by the saumte (Megilla 16 Z>, Sed. Od. rabba 2, 

Holy Spirit." In Ber. rabba on the Tanch. u. Lek. Tob. Wagescheb in 

same passage Rebecca is called a Raschi, Gen. xxxvii. 34), wogegen Esau 

prophetess. in dieser Hinsicht sehr geprieseu und 

6. This verse like xii. 31 owes its als Muster eines guten Kindes darge- 

existence, as Singer has pointed out, to stellt wird (Ber. rabba 65, 82 ; Debarim 

the author's desire to protect his heroes rabba 1, Pesikta rab. xxiv.). 


when he sends me, then only will I go." 7. And Eebecca 
said to Jacob : " I will go in and speak to him, and he will 
send thee away." 8. And Eebecca went in and said to 
Isaac : " I loathe my life because of the two daughters of 
Heth, whom Esau has taken him as wives ; and if Jacob 
take a wife from among the daughters of the land such as 
these, for what purpose do I further live ; for the daughters 
of Canaan are evil." 9. And Isaac called Jacob and blessed 
him, and admonished him and said unto him: 10. "Do 
not take thee a wife of any of the daughters of Canaan ; 
arise and go to Mesopotamia, to the house of Bethuel, thy 
mother's father, and take thee a wife from thence of the 
daughters of Laban, thy mother's brother. 11. And God 
Almighty bless thee and increase and multiply thee that 
thou mayest become a company of nations, and give thee 
the blessings of my father Abraham, to thee and to thy seed 
after thee, that thou mayest inherit the land of thy sojourn- 
ings and all the land which God gave to Abraham : go, my 
son, in peace." 12. And Isaac sent Jacob away, and he 
went to Mesopotamia, to Laban the son of Bethuel the 
Syrian, the brother of Eebecca, Jacob's mother. 13. And it 
came to pass after Jacob had arisen to go to Mesopotamia 
that the spirit of Eebecca was grieved after her son, and she 
wept. 1 4. And Isaac said to Eebecca : " My sister, weep 
not on account of Jacob, my son; for he goeth in peace, 
and in peace will he return. 15. The Most High God will 

8. Cf. Gen. xxvii. 46. Song of Solomon iv. 9, 10, 12, v. 1. 

9-12. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 1-5. This usage was common in the old 

14. My sister. This term as applied Egyptian songs as Maspero and Spiegel- 

by Isaac to his wife is used as an ex- berg have shown (see Budde, J)as 

pression of tenderness. It is possible Hohenlied, pp. xvi-xvii). "Brother" 

that Singer (p. 168 note) is right in was used in these songs also with a 

stating that it is designed by our author similar meaning. ddeXcprj in 1 Cor. ix. 

to justify the fact of Isaac's having 5 has quite a different meaning. It 

called her his sister at the Court of denotes one who is connected by the 

Abimelech. As instances of the former tie of the Christian religion. The above 

use we might quote Tobit's address to usage, is according to Singer (p. 208 

his ^\ife (Tobit v. 21) : m'? y^oyov ^x^> note), unknown in Kabbinic litera- 

ddeX<pri : also vii. 15, viii. 4, 7 ; also ture. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 7-24 167 

preserve him from all evil, and will be with him ; for He 
will not forsake him all his days; 16. For I know that 
his ways will be prospered in all things wherever he goes, 
until he return in peace to us, and we see him in peace. 
17. Fear not on his account, my sister, for he is on the 
upright path and he is a perfect man : and he is faithful 
and) will not perish. Weep not." 18. And Isaac comforted 
Eebecca on account of her son Jacob, and blessed him. 19. 
And Jacob went from the Well of the Oath to go to Haran 
on the first year of the second week in the forty -fourth 
jubilee, and he came to Luz on the mountains, that is, 
Bethel, on the new moon of the first month of this week, 2115 a.m. 
and he came to the place at even and turned from the way 
to the west of the road that night : and he slept there ; for 
the sun had set. 20. And he took one of the stones of 
that place and laid it (at his head) under the tree, and he 
was journeying alone, and he slept. 21. And he dreamt 
that night, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the 
top of it reached to heaven, and behold, the angels of the 
Lord ascended and descended on it : and behold, the Lord 
stood upon it. 22. And He spake to Jacob and said: "I 
am the Lord God of Abraham, thy father, and the God of 
Isaac ; the land whereon thou art sleeping, to thee shall I 
give it, and to thy seed after thee. 23. And thy seed will 
be as the dust of the earth, and thou wilt increase to the 
west and to the east, to the north and the south, and 
in thee and in thy seed will all the families of the 
nations be blessed. 24. And behold, I shall be with thee, 

16. Will he prospered =jes^Tah (= 19. Luz. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 19. 

the Latin dirigentur) emended from 20. (At his head). Added from the 

jesereh. Text =" he will prosper." Latin. 

17. On the upright path. So b and Under the tree. This phrase is not 
Latin, in via recta, acd diverge in found in Gen. xxviii. 11. It seems to 
different directions. be the wooden post or mast (mtrx) which 

And he is faithful, ab and Latin stood at Canaanitish places of worship, 
omit "and." gee Encyc. Bib. i. 330-332. 

19-20. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 10, 11, 19. 21-27. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 12-22, 


and shall keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and I shall 
bring thee again into this land in peace ; for I shall not 
leave thee until I do everything that I told thee of." 
25. And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and said, "Truly 
this place is the house of the Lord, and I knew it not." 
And he was afraid and said : " Dreadful is this j^lace 
which is none other than the house of God, and this 
is the gate of heaven." 26. And Jacob arose early in the 
morning, and took the stone which he had put under his 
head and set it up as a pillar for a sign, and he poured oil 
upon the top of it. And he called the name of that place 
Bethel ; but the name of the place was Luz at the first. 27. 
And Jacob vowed a vow unto the Lord, saying : " If the 
Lord will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I 
go, and give me bread to eat and raiment to put on, so that 
I come again to my father's house in peace, then shall the 
Lord be my God, and this stone which I have set up as a 
pillar for a sign in this place, shall be the Lord's house, 
and of all that thou givest me, I shall give the tenth to 
thee, my God." 

Jacoh marries Leah and Rachel, 1-10. His children ty Leah 
and Rachel and by their handmaids, 11-24. Jacob 
seeks to ledve Laban, 2 5 : but stays on at a certain wage, 
26-28. Jacob becomes rich, 29-30. (Cf. Gen. xxix. 
1, 17, 18, 21-35, XXX. 1-13, 17-22, 24, 25, 28, 32, 
39, 43, xxxi. 1, 2.) 

XXVIII. And he went on his journey, and came to the 

land of the east, to Laban, the brother of Eebecca, and he 

was with him, and served him for Eachel his daughter one 

2122 A.M. week. 2. And in the first year of the third week he said 

25. A%voke from . . . sleep ^i^v-rrvuire XXVIII. 1. Cf. Gen. xxix. 1. 

i^ virvov. MSS corrupt ^i/TTv were iIttvoi' 0.4 Cf Gren xxix 21-25 

— " slept a sleep." 


unto him : " Give me my wife, for whom I have served thee 
seven years " ; and Laban said unto Jacob : " I will give 
thee thy wife." 3. And Laban made a feast, and took Leah 
his elder daughter, and gave (her) to Jacob as a wife, and 
gave her Zilpah his handmaid for an handmaid ; and Jacob 
did not know, for he thought that she was Eachel. 4. And 
he went in unto her, and behold, she was Leah ; and Jacob 
was angry with Laban, and said unto him : " Why hast thou 
dealt thus with me ? Did not I serve thee for Eachel and 
not for Leah ? Why hast thou wronged me ? Take thy 
daughter, and I will go ; for thou hast done evil to me." 
5. For Jacob loved Eachel more than Leah ; for Leah's 
eyes were weak, but her form was very handsome ; but 
Eachel had beautiful eyes and a beautiful and very hand- 
some form. 6. And Laban said to Jacob : " It is not so 
done in our country, to give the younger before the elder." 
And it is not right to do this ; for thus it is ordained and 
written in the heavenly tables, that no one should give his 
younger daughter before the elder — but the elder one gives 
first and after her the younger — and the man who does so, they 
set down guilt against him in heaven, and none is righteous 
that does tliis thing, for this deed is evil before the Lord. 
7. And command thou the children of Israel that they do 
not this thing ; let them neither take nor give the younger 
before they have given the elder, for it is very wicked. 8. 
And Laban said to Jacob : " Let the seven days of the feast 
of this one pass by, and I shall give thee Eachel, that thou 

3. Zilpah. Eth. Zalafa. See note These are the words of the angels 

on ver. 9. enunciating the law as Singer (p. 82) 

He thought. For " he " (a) 6 c (? read has recognised. There is no hint 

Jacob. according to Beer and Singer of this 

5. Cf. Gen. xxix. 17-18^. ordinance in tradition. 

Leah^s eyes %vere weak. Ps.-Jon. m But the elder (so b). acd omit 

loc. and Ber. rabba 70 attribute this through homoioteleuton, as Littmann 

weakness to Leah's weeping. has pointed out. 

6. It is not . . . before the elder. 8-10. Cf. Gen. xxix. 27-29. Jacob's 
Cf. Gen. xxix. 26. marriage with two sisters was expressly 

And it is not right to do this, etc. forbidden by the later law : cf. Lev. 



mayst serve me another seven years, that thou mayst 
pasture my sheep as thou didst in the former week." 9. 
And on the day when the seven days of the feast of Leah 
had passed, Laban gave Rachel to Jacob, that he might 
serve him another seven years, and he gave to Eachel 
Bilhah, the sister of Zilpah, as a handmaid. 10. And he 
served yet other seven years for Rachel, for Leah had been 
given to him for nothing. 11. And the Lord opened the 

xviii. 18. Justin Martyr, Dial. c. 
Tryph. 134, declares it to be oi) OeixiTbv. 

8. Our author rightly understands 
Gen. xxix. 27-29, and represents Jacob as 
receiving Rachel when the seven days 
of Leah's feast were over. Josephus 
{Ant. i. 19. 7) wrongly makes Jacob 
wait for seven years after his marriage 
with Leah. 

9. Bilhah. Eth. Balan. 

The sister of Zilpah. Bilhah and 
Zilpah appear as sisters also in Test. 
XII. Patriarch. Naph. i. Naphtali 
declares : i} 5e fii^Trjp fxov earl BdXXa, 
dvydrrip 'Pw6^ov, a.deX<poO Ae/36p/)ar, 
TTJsrpoipoO'Fe^^KKai. . . . 6 Si'F66eoi (k 
ToO y^vovs ffv 'A^padfi . . . Kal ai'x- 
lxa\uTiadeli rjyopdffdr] virb Ad/3av 
Kal ?5(i)Kei' avTii) AlfSLv Trjv iraiSlcTKriv 
airrov e/s yvvaiKa' t^is ^TCKev dvyarepa, 
Kal €Kd\e<T€v avT7]i> Ze\<f>dv . . . Kal 

e^rji ^€Kev ttjv BdWav. In later 
Jewish tradition they are still repre- 
sented as sisters, but as daughters of 
Laban by a concubine : cf. Ps. -Jon. 
on Gen. xxix. 24, 29 ; Ber. rabba 74. 
Singer adds Pirke R. EI. 36 on p. 118 

11-24. Cf. Gen. xxix. 31-xxx. 1-13, 
17-22, 24. 

11-24. The frivelve sons of Jacob. 
The twelve appear in our text in the 
same order as in Gen. xxix. 32-34, 
XXX. 1-24, XXXV. 17-18. The follow- 
ing tables (taken from Ronsch, p. 330) 
will serve to make clear the different 
order of these names. i. In the 
narrative of Gen. xxix.-xxxv. and 
Jubilees, ii. In Jubilees according to 
the date of birth, iii. In Test. XII. 
Patriarchs according to date of birth. 
IV. In Gen. xlix. 

I. Gen. xxix.- 


and Jubilees. 

II. Jubilees 

acconling to the 

date of birth. 

III. Test. XII. 
Patriarchs accord- 
ing to date of 

IV. Gen. xlix. 





























































It ■\\ill be observed that the order in on our text, shows the same order (see 

ir. diverges from all the others as to below). Probably the dates are corrupt. 

Dan, Issachar, and Joseph. The Mid- Ronsch proposes to read seventh instead 

rash Tadshe, which is partly based of sixth (an easy emendation resting on 



womb of Leah, and she conceived and bare Jacob a son, and 

he called his name Eeuben, on the fourteenth day of the 2122 a.m. 

confusion of i and i) in Jub. xxviii. 24. 
In that case Joseph would be born in 
2135 A.M. and his place in the Jubilees 
list would agree with those of the 
other authorities. But this date does 
not agree with what is required by 
xxxiv. 10 and xlvi. 1 of our text. For 
these passages when taken together 
imply that Joseph was born in the 
year 2132. See note on xxviii. 24. 

Ronsch further supposes that the 
copyist transposed the dates for Judah 
and Dan, and again a corruption of 
seventh into sixth ; and finally sug- 
gests in the case of Asher and Issachar 
that we should transpose the years 
of their births, and read fourth year 
in Asher's case and fifth in Issachar's. 
Thus we should 
list :— 

have the following 

Reuben born 14th of 9th month 

in 1st year 

' of the 3rd week 

= 2122 

Simeon „ 

21st of 10th 





= 2124 

Levi „ 

1st of 1st 





= 2127 

Judah ,, 

15th of 3rd 





= 2128 

Dan „ 

9th of 6th 





= 2129 

Naphtali „ 

5th of 7th 





= 2131 


12th of 8th 





= 2132 

Asher „ 

2nd of 11th 





= 2133 

Issachar „ 

4th of 5th 





= 2134 

Zebulon „ 

7th of 7th 





= 2134 

Joseph „ 

1st of 4th 





= 2135 

Benjamin „ 

11th of 8th 





= 2143 

This order, corrected as Ronsch pro- 
poses above, is found in Syncellus i. 
198, though the dates differ from those 
in our text : Kal SovXeijcras 'irrj f fKa^e 
TTjv Aeiav /cat iyevvrjae tov 'Vovj3iiv rip 
it' irei Kal rbv 'S.vneCjv t(2 waf , tov 5k 
Aei't ry ir/S', rbv 'lovSav ry tty', tov 
Aai' T(^ 7re', Tbv l^ecpdaXelfM Ty ttS' , tov 
rdS ry TT^, TOV 'Affrjp t<^ ttt)' , tov 
'IffffdxO'P Ti^ "tO', Tbv 7iapov\<j)v kclI 
Tr]v Aeivav iK Adas Tip 3', Tbv 'Iwitt;^ 
in TTjs 'Pax'JjX T^ bo! . 

The following imperfect list (derived 
undoubtedly fi-om our text) of the 
twelve patriarchs with their ages and 
the days of the month on which they 
were born is found in Eppstein's edition 
of the Midrash Tadshe viii. lines 
2-4 : " The years of Rebecca were 133, 
of Rachel 36, of Lea 46. Reuben was 
born on the i4th of the 9th month and 
died 125 years old. Simeon was born 
on the 21st of the 10th month and 
died at the age of 120 years. Levi was 
born on the 1st of the 1st month and 
died at the age of 137. Dan was born 
on the 6th of the 9th month and 

died at the age of 125 ; Judah on 
15th of 3rd and died 119 (?) (text in- 
distinct) ; Naphtali on the 5th of the 3rd 
and died aged 133 ; Gad on the 10th of 
the 7th and died 125 ; Issachar on 4th 
of 5th month and died 122 ; Asher on 
2nd of (corrupt text) and died 123 ; 
Joseph on the 1st of the 7th and died 
110." It will be observed that more 
than half the above dates of the month 
correspond exactly to those in Jubilees, 
and nearly all the ages to those in 
Test. XII. Patriarchs (see below). The 
Book of Jashar {op. cit. ii. 1244, 1246, 
1248) agrees with the Testament XII. 
Patriarch, in giving the same ages for 
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Gad, 
Joseph, but disagrees in the cases of 
Judah, Dan, Asher, Zebulon and 
Naphtali, to whom it ascribes respec- 
tively the following ages : 129, 124, 
123, 114, 132. 

In the Test. XII. Patriarchs the dates 
vary also. The facts have been collected 
by Dodwell and are found in Fabricius, 
Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. 749-754. See also 
Ronsch, 327-329. The chief are :— 



ninth month, in the first year of the third week. 12. But 
the womb of Eachel was closed, for the Lord saw that Leah 
was hated and Eachel loved. 13, And again Jacob went 
in unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob a second 

2124 A.M. son, and he called his name Simeon, on the twenty-first of 
the tenth month, and in the third year of this week. 14. 
And again Jacob went in unto Leah, and she conceived, and 
bare him a third son, and he called his name Levi, in the 

2127 A.M. new moon of the first month in the sixth year of this week. 
15. And again Jacob went in unto her, and she conceived, 
and bare him a fourth son, and he called his name Judah, 

2129 A.M. on the fifteenth of the third month, in the ffirstf year of the 
f fourthf week. 1 6. And on account of all this Eachel envied 
Leah, for she did not bear, and she said to Jacob : " Give me 
children " ; and Jacob said : " Have I withheld from thee 
the fruits of thy womb? Have I forsaken thee?" 17. 
And when Eachel saw that Leah had borne four sons to 
Jacob, Eeuben and Simeon and Levi and Judah, she said 
unto him : " Go in unto Bilhah my handmaid, and she will 

Reuben was bom in the 76th year of Jacob's life, and died aged 125 in the 

same year as Zebulon aged 

Simeon ,, 79th ,, and died aged 120 in the 

same year as Joseph aged 

,, and died aged 137. 

Issachar, Naphtali, Gad 86th „ Issachar died aged 122 ; 

Naphtali, 130; Gad, 125. 
Zebulon and Asher 87th ,, Zebulon died aged 114; 

Asher, 126. 
Dinah ,, 88th ,, 

Joseph ,, 89th ,, and died aged 110. 

Benjamin ,, 101st ,, ,, 125. 

We must be content with these dates 15. From the context (of. verses 

till a critical edition of this work is 15 and 18) it is obvious that the 

issued. For a different set of dates see dates in the text are corrupt. 

Eusebius, Praep. Ev. ix. 21. Judah was born before Rachel gave 

11. He called. In Gen. xxix. 32 it Bilhah to Jacob. Yet the text sets 

is " she called." Perhaps we should so the birth of Bilhah's son two years 

read here and in verses 13, 14, 15, 18. before that of Judah. See note on 

In 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 this form is 11-24. 
actually found. 


) } 



1 1 


CHAPTER XXVIII. 12-24 173 

conceive, and bear a son unto me." 18. (And she gave 
(him) Bilhah her handmaid to wife.) And he went in unto 
her, and she conceived, and bare him a son, and he called 2127 a.m. 
his name Dan, on the ninth of the sixth month, in the •fsixth-f* 
year of the fthirdf week. 1 9. And Jacob went in again unto 
Bilhah a second time, and she conceived, and bare Jacob 
another son, and Eachel called his name Naphtali, on the 
fifth of the seventh month, in the second year of the fourth 2130 a.m. 
week. 20. And when Leah saw that she had become 
sterile and did not bear, she envied (Eachel) and she also 
gave her handmaid Zilpah to Jacob to wife, and she con- 
ceived, and bare a son, and Leah called his name Gad, on 
the twelfth of the eighth month, in the third year of the 2i3i a.m. 
fourth week. 21. And he went in again unto her, and she 
conceived, and bare him a second son, and Leah called his 
name Asher, on the second of the eleventh month, in the 2133 a.m. 
ffifthf year of the fourth week. 22. And Jacob went in 
unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare a son, and she called 
his name Issachar, on the fourth of the fifth month, in the 2132 a.m. 
•f^'ourth"!" year of the fourth week, and she gave him to a nurse. 
23. And Jacob went in again unto her, and she conceived, 
and bare two (children), a son and a daughter, and she called 
the name of the son Zebulon, and the name of the daughter 
Dinah, in the seventh of the seventh month, in the sixth year 2134 a.m. 
of the fourth week. 24. And the Lord was gracious to 
Eachel, and opened her womb, and she conceived, and bare 
a son, and she called his name Joseph, on the new moon of 
the fourth month, in the ■f*sixth-f* year in this fourth week. 2134 a.m. 

18. On the date assigned to Dan see Latin reads et dedit. Gen. xxx. 9 has 

note ou 11-24. "took and gave." 

ort „ ... , ,., ^i 21-22. On the dates see note on 11 -24. 

20 Beco^ne sterile and did not hear 34. According to xxxiv. 10 Joseph was 

? ;, f^A- ^7, '^ left bearing. ^^-^^ j^^o Egypt in 2149 at the age of 

I here withdraw the emendation in my seventeen (xlvi. 3). Hence this would 

require the date in our text to be 2132. 

E7ivied (Rachel) and she also gave. This change is required also by xlvi. 

So MSS but the text is doubtful. My 1. This would require "fourth" iu- 

emendation of the text I here withdraw, stead of " sixth, " but see note on 11-24. 


25. And in the days when Joseph was born, Jacob said to 
Laban ? " Give me my wives and sons, and let me go to 
my father Isaac, and let me make me an house ; for I have 
completed the years in which I have served thee for thy 
two daughters, and I will go to the house of my father." 

26. And Laban said to Jacob: " fTarry with me for thy 
wagesf, and pasture my flock for me again, and take thy 
wages." 27. And they agreed with one another that he 
should give him as his wages those of the lambs and kids 
which were born black and spotted and white, (these) were 
to be his wages. 28. And all the sheep brought forth 
spotted and speckled and black, variously marked, and they 
brought forth again lambs like themselves, and all that were 
spotted were Jacob's and those which were not were 
Laban's. 29. And Jacob's possessions multiplied exceed- 
ingly, and he possessed oxen and sheep and asses and camels, 
and menservants and maidservants. 30. And Laban and 
his sons envied Jacob, and Laban took back his sheep from 
him, and he observed him with evil intent. 

Jacob departs secretly, 1-4. Laban pursues after him, 5-6. 
Covenant of Jacob and Laban, 7-8. Abodes of the 

25-26. Cf. Gen. xxx. 25, 28. 28. Cf. Gen, xxx. 39. 

26. f Tarry with me for thy jvasfes.i Speckled and black, variously marked. 
Latin has : Expecta me in mercede. This agrees exactly with LXX of Gen. 
Both seem \vrong. Gen. xxx. 28 has xxx. 39 : iroiKtXa Kal inrodoeLdr] pavri 
"Appoint {mp:i) me thy wages." and Vulg. varia et diverse colore 
Possibly " expecta " goes back to mp respersa. The Mass. has no equivalent 
and " tarry " to o^p, but neither of these of the ffiro5oii5rj. See my text on this 
takes us back to the right text. clause. 

Take thy wages. Latin : dabo tibi All that were spotted were Jacob's, 

mercedem is better. etc. Cf. Gen. xxx. 32. Jerome 

27. Cf. Gen. xxx. 32. (Quaest. Hebr. in loc.) seems to have 
Those of. So b. abd="'3l\ the had this passage in mind: Si quid 

sheep of." igitur ex albis et nigris, quae unius 

Black aiid spotted = v.-ha'\ Din. See coloris sunt, varium natum erit, meum 

my text for emendation. erit ; si quid vero unius coloris, tuum. 

H7iiYe. This is a false rendering of nn a j i. o i t w ^t 

Scd\evKa = i^p, (same false rendering in ^ ^9. And sheep. So also LXX of 

Eth. ver. ofGen. xxx. 39), or else it ^en. xxx^ 43. Mass., Sam., Syr., 

presupposes XcvkSv which is itself " ^' °°" ' 

wrong. We should render " speckled." 30. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 1, 2. 


Amorites (anciently of the Eephaim) destroyed in the 
time of the writer, 9-11. Laban departs, 12. Jacoh is 
reconciled to Esau, 13. Jacoh sends supplies of food to 
his parents four times a year to Hebron, 14-17, 19-20. 
Esau marries again, 18. (Cf. Gen. xxxi. 3, 4, 10, 13, 
19-21, 23, 24, 46, 47, xxxii. 22, xxxiii. 10, 16.) 

XXIX. And it came to pass when Eachel had borne 
Joseph, that Laban went to shear his sheep ; for they were 
distant from him a three days' journey. 2. And Jacob saw 
that Laban was going to shear his sheep, and Jacob called 
Leah and Eachel, and spake kindly unto them that they 
should come with him to the land of Canaan. 3. For he 
told them how he had seen everything in a dream, even all 
that He had spoken unto him that he should return to his 
father's house ; and they said : " To every place whither 
thou goest we will go with thee." 4. And Jacob blessed the 
God of Isaac his father, and the God of Abraham his father's 
father, and he arose and mounted his wives and his children, 
and took all his possessions and crossed the river, and came 
to the land of Gilead, and Jacob hid his intention from 2135 a.m. 
Laban and told him not. 5. And in the seventh year of 
the fourth week Jacob turned (his face) toward Gilead 
in the first month, on the twenty-first thereof. And Laban 
pursued after him and overtook Jacob in the mountain 
of Gilead in the third month, on the thirteenth thereof. 
6. And the Lord did not suffer him to injure Jacob ; for He 
appeared to him in a dream by night. And Laban spake to 
Jacob. 7. And on the fifteenth of those days Jacob made 

XXIX. 1. Laban went to shear his 4. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 20, 21. 

sheep. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 19. Hid his intention (lit. "heart"). 

2. Called Leah, etc. Cf. Gen. So LXX of Gen. xxxi. 20 ^Kpvxj/e and 
xxxi. 4. Onkelos 'D3'. Mass., Sam., Syr. = 

3. Seen everything in a dream Cf. ^K\e\pe. 

Gen. xxxi. 10. 5-6. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 23, 24. 

Return to his father's house. Cf. 7. The fifteenth, i.e. of the 3rd 

Gen. xxxi. 3, 13. month. 



a feast for Laban, and for all who came with him, and Jacob 
sware to Laban that day, and Laban also to Jacob, that 
neither should cross the mountain of Gilead to the other 
with evil purpose. 8. And he made there a heap for a 
witness ; wherefore the name of that place is called : " The 
Heap of Witness," after this heap. 9. But before they used 
to call the land of Gilead the land of the Eephaim ; for it 
was the land of the Eephaim, and the Eephaim were born 
(there), giants whose height was ten, nine, eight down to 
seven cubits. 10. And their habitation was from the land 
of the children of Ammon to Mount Hermon, and the seats 
of their kingdom were Karnaim and Ashtaroth, and Edrei, 
and Misur, and Beon. 11. And the Lord destroyed them 
because of the evil of their deeds ; for they were very 

A Feast. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 46. 

8. Cf. Gen. xxxi. 47. 

9. Rephaim. Eth. Rafa'em. Cf. Gen. 
xiv. 5. 

10. It is difficult to understand why 
our author mentions these seats of the 
Rephaim unless it is that certain 
victories of the Maccabees over the 
Amorites who succeeded the Rephaim 
are connected with them. To these we 
shall draw attention as we proceed. 

Karimim and Ashtaroth. Eth. 
Qarana'im and AstarSs. In Gen. xiv. 
5 these two appear as one name 
"Ashtaroth - Karnaim " = "Ashtaroth 
of the two horns" (?) in the Mass. and 
Sam. and some MSS of the LXX. On 
the other hand the Syr. and some MSS 
of the LXX support our text. Kuenen, 
Buhl and Siegfried accept this reading. 
Ashtaroth Karnaim appears simply as 
Ashtaroth in Deut. i. 4 ; Josh. ix. 10, 
lii. 4, xiii. 12, 31 along with Edrei as 
a chief city of Og, king of Bashan. 
This Og was of the remnant of the 
Rephaim, Deut. iii. 11. See Encyc, Bib. 
i. 335, 336. 

Karnaim. Eth. Qarana'im. Cf. Gen. 
xiv. 5 ; Amos vi. 13. Karnaim a strong 
city (1 Mace. v. 26) was captured by 
Judas and its temple of Atargatis 
burnt pnd 25000 people put to the 
sword (1 Mace. v. 43, 44 ; 2 Mace, 
xii. 21, 26). The Rephaim were 

succeeded by the Amorites (ver. 11), 
and of these our text grimly declares 
that "they have no longer length of 
life on the earth." Judas must have 
nearly annihilated them. 

Edrei. Eth. 'Adra'a. This is the 
biblical Edrei ("ynN, 'E5/ja/, 'ESpafev), 
the "ASpa of Ptolemy and the 'A5/)da 
of Eusebius. It was the chief city 
of Og, king of Bashan, who dwelt at 
Ashtaroth and at Edrei, Josh. xii. 4, 
xiii. 12, 31. Although this town is 
not mentioned as attacked by Judas in 
his eastern campaign (1 Mace, v.) the 
fact that it is mentioned here as having 
been destroyed makes it probable that 
it did suffer at the hands of Judas. 

J/isjir = Meiau)p = nn5''D. Cf. Deut. 
iii. 10, where there is a list of the cities 
of the plain (iib"d) belonging to Og which 
were captured by Joshua. This may 
be the same as the valley of Rephaim, 
Josh. XV. 8, xviii. 16. 

Beo'n = ]if2. Eth. BSwon. Cf. Num. 
xxxii. 3. It is the same as the Baal-meon 
(see Encyc. Bib. and Bible Diet, in loc). 
It is most probably to be identified with 
the Maccabean Batai' which is described 
in the Onomastica 32. 40 ; 101. 32 as 
a 7r6Xtj Tov ^ Kfxoppalov. This suits our 
text exactly. Beon and its inhabitants 
were utterly destroyed by Judas 
(1 Mace. V. 4, 5 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 8-16 177 

malignant, and the Amorites dwelt in their stead, wicked 

and sinful, and there is no people to-day which has wrought 

to the full all their sins, and they have no longer length of 

life on the earth. 12. And Jacob sent away Laban, and he 

departed into Mesopotamia, the land of the East, and Jacob 

returned to the laud of Gilead. 13. And he passed over the 

Jabbok in the ninth month, on the eleventh thereof. And 

on that day Esau, his brother, came to him, and he was 

reconciled to him, and departed from him unto the land 

of Seir, but Jacob dwelt in tents. 14. And in the first 

year of the fifth week in this jubilee he crossed the Jordan, 2136 a.m. 

and dwelt beyond the Jordan, and he pastured his sheep from 

the sea i"of the heapf unto Bethshan, and unto Dothan 

and unto the -fforestf of Akrabbim. 15. And he sent 

to his father Isaac of all his substance, clothing, and food, 

and meat, and drink, and milk, and butter, and cheese, and 

some dates of the valley, 16. And to his mother Eebecca 

also four times a year, between the times of the months, 

11. The Amorites dwelt. Latin: citizens to the numberof 13,000 (Joseph, 

habitare fecit. Bell. Jud. ii. 18. 3). Eth. has Betasan. 

13. Passed over tlie Jabbok. Cf. Dothan. Eth. Dotha'im = Auddei/j, 
Gen. xxxii. 22. (Judith iv. 6, vii, 3, etc.) = |;n-n, Gen. 

He passed over the Jabbok . . . on xxxvii. 17. 
the eleventh thereof. Latin has trans- Unto the fforestf. Latin has 

ivit Jacob et undecim filii ipsius, prob- aggruum which may be corrupt for 

ably owing to Gen. xxxii. 22. arborem, seeing that the Eth. has 'oma 

He ivas recoiiciled. Emended with (a) = " forest." J c (f read simply " unto 

Latin propitiatus (est) from takuananu Akrabbim." We should expect "unto 

= " they were reconciled." the ascent of Akrabbim" from Num. 

14. iOf the heapf. So ad. 6c give xxxiv. 4 ; Josh. xv. 3. 

fahahat a word of unknown meaning. Akrabbim. Eth. 'Aqrabeth. This 

Latin has salso. Hence Lat. — ' ' from name is found only in the phrase 

the Salt Sea." " Ascent of Akrabbim. " See preceding 

Bethsfian = Baida-dv (1 Mace. v. 52, note. 'AKpa^arrrivr], a district in 

xii. 40) = jE'-nu {i.e. the Bethshan in Idumea, where Judas fought against 

1 Sam. xxxi. 10 ; 1 Kings iv. 12). This the Edomites, 1 Mace. v. 3 ; Joseph, 

town also is associated with Judas, but Ant. xii. 8. 1. 

in a peaceful way: cf. 2 Mace. xii. 29- 15-16. Jacob, in contrast to Esau 
31, where it appears under a new name who robs his father (ver. 18), sends 
l^iKvOdv 7r6Xis (cf. LXX Judg. i. 27, presents to him and his mother four 
where B adds after Bai6adi> the gloss times a year. The four times may 
•fj iffTiv 'EkvOQv TToXtj). In the Roman correspond, as Ronsch (p. 140) con- 
war 65 A.D. the heathen inhabitants of jectures, to the four festivals instituted 
this city slaughtered their Jewish fellow- by Noah (see vi, 23 sqq. ): the 1st 



between ploughing and reaping, and between autumn and 
the rain (season) and between winter and spring, to the 
tower of Abraham. 17. For Isaac had returned from the 
Well of the Oath and gone up to the tower of his father 
Abraham, and he dwelt there apart from his son Esau. 
18. For in the days when Jacob went to Mesopotamia, Esau 
took to himself a wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, 
and he gathered together all the flocks of his father and his 
wives, and went up and dwelt on Mount Seir, and left 
Isaac his father at the Well of the Oath alone. 19. And 
Isaac went up from the Well of the Oath and dwelt in the 
tower of Abraham his father on the mountains of Hebron, 
20. And thither Jacob sent all that he did send to his 
father and his mother from time to time, all they needed, 
and they blessed Jacob with all their heart and with all 
their soul. 

Dincth ravished, 1-3. Slaughter of the JSJiechemites, 4-6. 
Laws against intermarriage between Israel and the 
heathen, 7-17. Levi chosen for the priesthood on account 
of Ms slaughter of the Shechemites, 18-23. Dinah 
recovered, 24. Jacob's reproof, 25-26. (Cf. Gen. 
xxxiii. 18, xxxiv. 2, 4, 7, 13-14, 25-30, xxxv. 5.) 

2143 A.M. XXX. And in the first year of the sixth week he went 
up to Salem, to the east of Shechem, in peace, in the fourth 

of the 4th month =" between the times middle of October to the middle of 

of the months"; the 1st of the 7th December. 

= " between ploughing and reaping " ; Behoeen winter and spring. Latin 

the 1st of the 10th month = " between has: in medio pluviarum veris. Eth. 

autumn and the rain (season) " ; the could be rendered " between the rain 

1st of the 1st month = "between and spring." This is the latter rain 

winter and spring." (mpha), which falls in March and 

16. Betioeen autumn and the rain April. 
(season). Latin has : in medio 18. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 9, xxxvi. 6, 8. 

autumn! pluviarum. This is the Mahalath. Eth. Ma'eleth. 

former rain (mv), which falls from the XXX. 1. Went up to Salem . . . in 



month. 2, And there they carried off Dinah, the daughter 
of Jacob, into the house of Shechem, the son of Hamor, the 
Hivite, the prince of the land, and he lay with her and 
defiled her, and she was a little girl, a child of twelve years, 

3. And he besought his father and her brothers that she 
might be given to him to wife. And Jacob and his sons 
were wroth because of the men of Shechem ; for they had 
defiled Dinah, their sister, and they spake to them with evil 
intent and dealt deceitfully with them and beguiled them. 

4. And Simeon and Levi came unexpectedly to Shechem 
and executed judgment on all the men of Shechem, and 

peace. This passage is based on Gen. 
xxxiii. 18 d'?2' apy K3'i. The LXX, 
Syr., Eusebius, and Jerome here take 
dVz* as a proper name. The Sam. reads 
uhro. Our text combines both inter- 

To the east. Gen. xxxiii. 18 has 
" city." 
2-3. Of, Gen, xxxiv. 2, 4, 7, 13. 

2-6. The history of Jacob's connec- 
tion with the Shechemites caused much 
trouble to our author. He could hardly 
approve of their slaughter after they 
had consented to circumcision. Accord- 
ingly he omits all reference to the cir- 
cumcision of the Shechemites, as also 
does Josephus {Ant. i. 21. 1). On the 
other hand this is given as the reason 
for Jacob's anger against Simeon and 
Levi in Test. Levi 6 : Kal iJKovffev 6 
iraTTjp, Acot wpyicrdr], Kal iXviri^dr], 8ti 
KareSe^avTO rrjv Trepirofir^v Kal fiera 
raOra dwidavov. Notwithstanding the 
severe disapprobation of Simeon and 
Levi in Gen. xlix. 5-7 for their conduct 
in this matter, it was highly extolled 
in the two centuries preceding the 
Christian era. This is done in our text 
and in Test. Levi 5 where the angel 
bids Levi : irolrjaov iKdlKriijiv iv Sux^/U 
xnrkp AtVas, Kayui Icro/iai fierd crov, 6tl 
Kiypios dir^<7Ta\K€ fie. Kal crvveriXeaa rt^ 
Kaipij) iKeivu tovs vlovs '^fxfxdjp, Kadw 
y^ypairraL ev rais irXaf i tGiv ovpavQv : 
and in the Test. Levi 6-7, where Levi 
says that he saw that "the sentence of 
God had gone forth for evil against 
Shechem," and still more strongly : 

^(pdacre 5k 7/ opyy] Kvpiov eir' avroiis eh 
t4\os. Again in Judith (a Hebrew work 
of the first cent. B.C.) ix. 2 : /ci^pte 6 
Oeb? Tov irarpos fiov "Lvfieihu, y ^5w/cas 
ev x^'P' po/j.(paiav els eKdiKTjcnp d\- 
XoyevQv, ot ^Xvcav p,r)Tpav ivapd^vov els 
pLiacTfjia Kal iyvixvwaav firipov els al- 
(TxvfTjv, K.T.X. Again in Philo, De Migr. 
Abrahami, 39, Simeon and Levi are 
called ot (ppovriaeus aKovaral Kal yvthpi- 
fioi for their action in this matter, and 
in the next few lines it is implied that 
Shechem was not circumcised. See also 
the Book of Jashar for a reproduction of 
the ancient favourable view of Simeon 
and Levi [Diet, des Apocr, ii. 1166- 
1168). In the late rabbinic tradition, 
however, Simeon and Levi are judged 
more in accordance with the sentence 
pronounced upon them in Gen xlix. In 
Gen. rabba 80, it is true, there is some 
extenuation of their conduct ; but in 
section 98 of the same work it is said 
that the fact that most of the poor 
were of the tribe of Simeon is to be 
traced to the curse in Gen. xlix. 7. 
Singer (p. 115 note) compares also Sifre 
on Deut. xxxiii. 8. 

2. CJiild of twelve years. This agrees 
with the reckoning in Test. Levi 12. 
There Levi, who was six years older 
than Dinah, slew Shechem at the age of 

3. His father (ab). c(? "her father." 
And beguiled them. And Simeon 

. . . to Shechem. Latin has : Et posu- 
erunt in corde suo Symeon et Lenui 
extermiuare eos. 

4. Cf. Gen. xxxiv. 25-27. 


slew all the men whom they found in it, and left not a 
single one remaining in it : they slew all in torments 
because they had dishonoured their sister Dinah. 5. And 
thus let it not again be done from henceforth that a 
daughter of Israel be defiled ; for judgment is ordained in 
heaven against them that they should destroy with the 
sword all the men of the Shechemites because they had 
wrought shame in Israel. 6. And the Lord delivered them 
into the hands of the sons of Jacob that they might 
exterminate them with the sword and execute judgment 
upon them, and that it might not thus again be done in 
Israel that a virgin of Israel should be defiled. 7. And if 
there is any man who wishes in Israel to give his daughter 
or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles 
he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones ; 
for he hath wrought shame in Israel ; and they shall burn 
the woman with fire, because she has dishonoured the name 
of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of 
Israel. 8. And let not an adulteress and no uncleanness be 
found in Israel throughout all the days of the generations of 
the earth ; for Israel is holy unto the Lord, and every man 
who has defiled (it) shall surely die : they shall stone him 
with stones. 9. For thus has it been ordained and written 
in the heavenly tables regarding all the seed of Israel : he 

5. Wrought sJiame in Israel. Cf. our author, however, such a marriage 

Gen. xxxiv. 7. was illegal and was no better than 

7. This statement does not agree fornication. In Lev. xxi. 9 it is 

quite with any in the O.T. The burn- ordained that a priest's daughter who 

ing of the woman with fire, it is true, played the harlot was to be burnt with 

finds a precedent in Gen. xxxviii. 24, fire. Our text teaches that to give a 

where Judah demands that such a daughter to a nou- Israelite was to give 

punishment should be executed on her to Moloch (cf. ver. 10). Since our 

Tamar — a punishment at variance with author holds the former to be equivalent 

the later law in Lev. xxi. 9. See in to the latter, it follows that the man 

note on xli. 17 the distortion of the who was guilty of the former offence 

biblical tradition had recourse to by should justly be visited with the penalty 

the Rabbis in order to justify the exacted for the latter, and this was, ac- 

demand of Judah. It is true that her cording to Lev. xx. 2, death by stoning ; 

crime is that of fornication, whereas hence our text ordains : "and they shall 

our text deals merely with the marriage stone him with stones. " 
of a Hebrew woman and a Gentile. To 

CHAPTER XXX. 5-14 181 

who defileth (it) shall surely die, and he shall be stoned 
with stones. 10. And to this law there is no limit of days, 
and no remission, nor any atonement : but the man who has 
defiled his daughter shall be rooted out in the midst of all 
Israel, because he has given of his seed to Moloch, and 
wrought impiously so as to defile it. 11. And do thou, 
Moses, command the children of Israel and exhort them not 
to give their daughters to the Gentiles, and not to take for 
their sons any of the daughters of the Gentiles, for this is 
abominable before the Lord. 12. For this reason I have 
written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the 
Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah, and how the 
sons of Jacob spake, saying : " We shall not give our daughter 
to a man who is uncircumcised ; for that were a reproach 
unto us." 13. And it is a reproach to Israel, to those who 
give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles ; 
for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 14. And 
Israel will not be free from this uncleanness if it has a wife 
of the daughters of the Gentiles, or has given any of its 

10. Has given of his seed to Moloch. in Megilla 25 a. That such an in- 

This interpretation of Lev. xviii. 21 : terpretation was prevalent v/e see from 

" Thou shalt not give any of thy seed Megil. iv. 9 : n^^ynS jnn n"? nviiD ^D^^«n 

to make them pass through the lire to NnvDixa xnnyx'? |nn nh ipiiDi i'^idV 

Molech," as bemg equivalent to giving imx ppn:i'D=" Whoever translates 'Thou 

one's child in marriage to a Gentile, is shalt not give of thy seed to pass 

found in Ps. -Jon. on this verse : "And through the fire to Molech' as 'Thou 

of thy seed thou shalt not give to lie shalt not give of thy seed to cohabit 

■with a daughter of the Gentiles so as with a Gentile woman,' bid him be 

to draw him over to a strange worship." silent." Singer (p. 200 note) says 

The Latin which gives alienigenae in- that this Mishna is directed against 

steadof Molech is an interpretation of the the Jewish Christians. However this 

text but not the text itself. The same may be, the interpretation was an 

idea underlies the statement in Sanh. ancient Jewish one to begin with. It 

82 a : R. Chija b. Abija said : "Who- may not be older than the Maccabean 

ever cohabits with a Gentile woman is age. The circumstances of that time 

to be regarded as though he had made were such as to justify the extremest 

himself the son-in-law of the idol ; for measures in order to save Judaism from 

it is said : And he cohabited with the annihilation. 

daughter of a strange God. " In Sanh. 11. For their sons. So Latin, bed 

ix. 6 it enacts that "the zealous may om., but a = avToL 

slay a man taken in fornication with 12. We shall not give, etc. Of. Gen. 

a Gentile or Roman woman (n'Oix)." xxxiv. 14. 

Nearly the same statement as is 14-15. The sin of one man, the man 

quoted above from Ps.-Jon. is found who gives any of his seed to the Gentiles 


daughters to a man who is of any of the Gentiles. 15. For 
there will be plague upon plague, and curse upon curse, and 
every judgment and plague and curse will come (upon him) : 
if he do this thing, or hide his eyes from those who commit 
uncleanness, or those who defile the sanctuary of the Lord, 
or those who profane His holy name, (then) will the whole 
nation together be judged for all the uncleanness and 
profanation of this (man). 16. And there will be no 
respect of persons [and no consideration of persons], and no 
receiving at his hands of fruits and offerings and burnt- 
offerings and fat, nor the fragrance of sweet savour, so as to 
accept it : and so fare every man or woman in Israel who 
defiles the sanctuary. 17. For this reason I have com- 
manded thee, saying : " Testify this testimony to Israel : 
see how the Shechemites fared and their sons : how they 
were delivered into the hands of two sons of Jacob, and 
they slew them under tortures, and it was (reckoned) unto 
them for righteousness, and it is written down to them for 
righteousness. 18. And the seed of Levi was chosen for 

or takes to wife a Gentile woman will Test. Levi 6 a very evil account of 

affect the whole community. Tliese them is given : oiirws iSiw^av 'A^paafi 

verses are hased on Lev. xx. 2-4, which rbi> iraripa Tjfj.Qv ^4vov 6vTa, Kal Kar- 

deal with the man who gives his seed eirdT7)aav to, Troifivia dyKOjxiva bvra iw' 

unto Moloch. avrbv koL 'Ie/3\de tov oiKoyevrj aiirov 

15. ( UjJOii him). Added from the cr^Sdpa aUicrai'To. nai ye ovtujs iiroiovv 

Latin. wavras tovs ^evovs, iv dwaarelq. apirA- 

Hide his eyes. This is the phrase in foires rds ywalKa^ airCbv. 
Lev. XX. 4, c'3'j? c-h)in. The Latin, All the uncleanness {ab and Latin), 

praeterierit et despexerit, seems to be c c^ " all this uncleanness." 
a dittography. Profanation of this (man). MSSread 

Who commit uncleanness . . . defile "this profanation." I have emended 

the sanctuary of the Lord . . . profane in accordance with the Latin. 
His holy name. Cf. Lev. xx. 3, "Hath 16. [And no consideration of per sons\. 

given of his seed unto Molech, to defile Bracketed as a dittography. Latin 

my sanctuary ... to profane my holy omits, 
name." Tlie fragrance of sioeet savour. Latin: 

{Then) vxill the whole nation together, odorabitur odore suavitatis. 
etc. In Lev. xx. 5 only the man's 18. The ground for Levi's appoint- 
family is involved in his guilt. Our ment to the priesthood is quite diflerent 
author's enlargement of the area of the in xxxii. 3. Levi is there consecrated 
guilt is to justify the action of Simeon to the work of the priesthood as the 
and Lev- in slaying all the Shechemites. tithe or tenth in Jacob's family. Our 
Our text (ver. 2) makes the whole author has thus made use of two con- 
people share in the rape of Dinah. In flicting traditions. Possibly a third is 

CHAPTER XXX. 15-23 183 

the priesthood, and to be Levites, that they might minister 
before the Lord, as we, continually, and that Levi and his 
sons may be blessed for ever ; for he was zealous to execute 
righteousness and judgment and vengeance on all those who 
arose against Israel. 19. And so they inscribe as a 
testimony in his favour on the heavenly tables blessing 
and righteousness before the God of all : 20. And we 
remember the righteousness which the man fulfilled during 
his life, at all periods of the year ; until a thousand 
generations they will record it, and it will come to him 
and to his descendants after him, and he has been recorded 
on the heavenly tables as a friend and a righteous man. 
21. All this account I have written for thee, and have 
commanded thee to say to the children of Israel, that they 
should not commit sin nor transgress the ordinances nor 
break the covenant which has been ordained for them, (but) 
that they should fulfil it and be recorded as friends. 22. But 
if they transgress and work uncleanness in every way, they 
will be recorded on the heavenly tables as adversaries, 
and they will be destroyed out of the book of life, and 
they will be recorded in the book of those who will be 
destroyed and with those who will be rooted out of the 
earth. 23. And on the day when the sons of Jacob slew 
Shechem a writing was recorded in their favour in heaven 
that they had executed righteousness and uprightness and 

to be found in Test. Levi 4, where Levi's 19. God of all. See note on xxii. 

appointment seems to be in answer to 4. 

his prayer : eia-rjKovffev odv 6 v^icrros 20. Friend, i.e., of God. See note 

TTJs Trpocrevxvs ffov tov dieXelv ere awb rrjs on xix. 9. 

ddiKias Kal -yev^aOai airn^ . . . Xei- 22. Transgress. Latin adds testa- 

Tovpybv roO irpocuirov avrov. Another mentum. 

tradition appears in Shem. rabba 19 to Book of life. See note on this ex- 

the effect that Levi received the priest- pressiou in my edition of Eth. Enoch 

hood because it held fast to the rite of xlvii. 3. It may mean here the register 

circumcision in Egypt when all the of those who enjoy temporal blessings, 

other tribes neglected it (Weber, Jiid. but, in xxxvi. 10, of those who enjoy 

Theol.'^ p. 309). For other reasons cf. eternal. 

Baba bathra 123 a and Bamidbar rabba Book of those who will be destroyed 

7. See Singer (p. 115 note). and. Latin has libro perditionum. 


vengeance on the sinners, and it was written for a blessing. 
24. And they brought Dinah, their sister, out of the house 
of Shechem, and they took captive everything that was 
in Shechem, their sheep and their oxen and their asses, 
and all their wealth, and all their flocks, and brought them 
all to Jacob their father. 25. And he reproached them 
because they had put the city to the sword ; for he feared 
those who dwelt in the land, the Canaanites and the 
Perizzites. 26. And the dread of the Lord was upon 
all the cities which are around about Shechem, and they did 
not rise to pursue after the sons of Jacob ; for terror had 
fallen upon them. 

Jacob goes to Bethel to offer sacrifice, 1-3 (cf. Gen. xxxv. 
2-4, 7, 14). Isaac blesses Levi, 4-17, and Judah, 18- 
22. Jacob recounts to Isaac how God ^prospered him, 24. 
Jacob goes to Bethel with Rebecca and Deborah, 26-30. 
Jacob blesses the God of his fathers, 31-32. 

XXXI. And on the new moon of the month Jacob 
spake to all the people of his house, saying : " Purify your- 
selves and change your garments, and let us arise and 
go up to Bethel, where I vowed a vow to Him on the 
day when I fled from the face of Esau my brother, because 
He has been with me and brought me into this land in 
peace, and put ye away the strange gods that are among 

24. Cf. Gen. xxxiii. 26, 28. xxv. 2, xxvi. 2, etc. I press the above 
And all their wealth, cd trans- correction of the translation because the 

pose after " flocks " against a b and context requires hu 13T1 and not nDK'i 

Latin. t,f{ as in Gen. xxxiv. 30 in the corre- 

25. Reproached tliern. Text = ^X(iXij(re sponding passage. With our text "re- 
■jrpbs avToiis (so Latin, locutus est ad preached them because they had put 
illos)=Dri''?5^ 13-1, which, however, in the city to the sword," cf. Test. Levi 
this context the Greek translator should 6 : ot dd€\<pol iirara^av ttjv ttSXiv iv 
have rendered by iXdXriffe Kar avrCov. arbixaTi pofi<paias. Kal •fjKOvaev 6 irarrip, 
The same wrong choice of the two /cat (hpyladri, Kal iXvirridy). 

possible renderings of this phrase is 26. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 5. 

found also in the LXX of Jer. vi. 10, XXXI. 1-2. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 2-4. 


you." 2, And they gave up the strange gods and that 
which was in their ears and which was j'on their necks,-f* 
and the idols which Eachel stole from Laban her brother she 
gave wholly to Jacob. And he burnt and brake them 
to pieces and destroyed them, and hid them under an oak 
which is in the land of Shechem. 3. And he went up 
on the new moon of the seventh month to Bethel. And he 
built an altar at the place where he had slept, and he 
set up a pillar there, and he sent word to his father Isaac 
to come to him to his sacrifice, and to his mother Eebecca. 
4. And Isaac said : " Let my son Jacob come, and let me 
see him before I die." 5. And Jacob went to his father 
Isaac and to his mother Eebecca, to the house of his father 
Abraham, and he took two of his sons with him, Levi 
and Judah, and he came to his father Isaac and to his 
mother Eebecca. 6. And Eebecca came forth from the 
tower to the front of it to kiss Jacob and embrace him ; 
for her spirit had revived when she heard : " Behold Jacob 
thy son has come " ; and she kissed him. 7. And she saw 
his two sons, and she recognised them, and said unto him : 
" Are these thy sons, my son ? " and she embraced them 
and kissed them, and blessed them, saying : " In you shall 
the seed of Abraham become illustrious, and ye will prove 
a blessing on the earth." 8. And Jacob went in to Isaac 
his father, to the chamber where he lay, and his two sons 
were with him, and he took the hand of his father, and 
stooping down he kissed him, and Isaac clung to the neck 

2. They gave up = matawew8mu. give 'abfih^ = ' ' ber father " instead of 

Emended from (a) b masawewomu = 'ehuha. 

"they melted." cfZ give a bad emenda- 3-4. The same incident is referred to 

tion masatew6mft = " they tore away." in Test. Levi 9, where it says of Isaac : 

Atid which ivas foi their necksf. ovk 7]de\7]<Te iropevOrivaL /xed' tjijlwv et'y 

Here kesawdih&mii seems cori'upt for JieOifK. 

'Mawihomfl = " their hands," and the 5. This last meeting of Jacob with 

whole emended clause " which were in Isaac and Rebecca is iinknown to later 

their hands " should be inserted after haggada (Beer). 

" strange gods. " 6. Spirit had remved. Cf. Gen. xlv. 

Her brother. The MSS corruptly 27 for the phrase. 


of Jacob his son, and wept upon his neck. 9. And the 
darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of 
Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said : " Are these thy sons, 
my son? for they are like thee." 10. And he said unto 
him that they were truly his sons : " And thou hast 
truly seen that they are truly my sons." 11. And they 
came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and 
embraced them both together. 12. And the spirit of 
prophecy came down into his mouth, and he took Levi 
by his right hand and Judah by his left. 13. And he 
turned to Levi first, and began to bless him first, and said 
unto him : " May the God of all, the very Lord of all 
the ages, bless thee and thy children throughout all the 
ages. 14. And may the Lord give to thee and to thy seed 
•f-greatness and great gloryf-, and cause thee and thy 
seed, from among all flesh, to approach Him to serve in His 
sanctuary as the angels of the presence and as the holy 
ones. (Even) as they, will the seed of thy sons be for glory 
and greatness and holiness, and may He make them great 

9. Part of this verse with the subject great greatness of glory." a is corrupt 
matter of ver. 5 and 10 sqq. is attri- but points in the direction of 6. Latin 
buted by Syncellus (i. 202) to Josephus : = magno intellegere gloriam ejus. This 
'luxrriinrov. T(p pvy' ^rei rod '\(TaaK is decidedly better than the Ethiopic. 
iiravTfXOev 'laKu)^ 7rp6s aiV6j' aTro Mecro- By a slight change we can arrive at it 
iroTa/iiias. Kai di'a^\^\pas 'Icrad^c Kal from b. Hence we should probably 
15Cdv to{)s vioiis 'Ia/cw/3 TjvXdyqae rbv render : " to thy great seed to under- 
Aevl wj apxifpio. Kal rbv 'loijdav us stand His glory," or else by another 
/SatrtX^a Kal dpxovTa. change "to thy seed to have great 

10. Seen that they are truly my sons, understanding of His glory." 

The Latin has : Vidisti, pater, quoniam ^'^rve. in His sanctuary as the angels 

filii mei sunt, and is probably right ; of the presence and as the holy ones. 

for 'aman = " truly" may be corrupt On these two classes, see notes ii. 2, 18, 

for 'aba = " father. " xv. 27. Here " the holy ones " appear 

12. Spirit of prophecy. See note on 1° f°^°^ ^ ^^^^^^^''t class, whereas in xv. 
14 ^y ^^^ "^^ ^^ ^ comprehensive 

, ' ' , ^ ,- ■ /. J 7 , term for the two (or " three " according 

13. Turned to Levi first and began ^^ ^^^ j^atin) highest orders. Levi il 
to bless Mm. Similarly m Test. Levi 9 ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ the sanctuary as the two 
It says of Isaac : Kal evU-y^ci fxe o ^-^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j ,3 ^^^^^ -^ ^^^ 
Trarr^p Tov Trarpds^LOi', Kara Tra.ras highest heaven. One or two such orders 
rovs Uyovsri^popaaewv ,xov wv eWo. ^^^ mentioned in Test. Levi 3 (Armenian 

God of all. See note on xxu. 4. vers. A) as Xe.Tov70O.Tes. 

14. To thy seed igreatness and great May He make them great. Lat. has 
gloryf. So c. 6 "to thy seed the sanctificabit. 



unto all the ages. 15. And they will be princes and judges, 
and chiefs of all the seed of the sons of Jacob ; 

They will speak the word of the Lord in righteousness, 
And they will judge all His judgments in righteous- 

And they will declare My ways to Jacob 
And My paths to Israel. 

The blessing of the Lord will be given in their mouths 
To bless all the seed of the beloved. 

16. Thy mother has called thy name Levi, 
And justly has she called thy name ; 

Thou wilt be joined to the Lord 

And be the companion of all the sons of Jacob ; 

15. In this verse a double function 
is assigned to the descendants of Levi : 
they are to rule the nation (to be 
"princes and judges and chiefs") and 
to be the priests of the nation ("The 
blessing of the Lord will be given in 
their mouths "). This description, com- 
bined v/ith other facts peculiar to the 
Maccabean period, requires us to recog- 
nise here the early Maccabean princes. 
The blessing given to Judah (verses 18, 
19) confirms this interpretation. 

Princes and judges, and chiefs. The 
Latin omits "and chiefs." We might 
compare Test. Levi 8 : apxi-epeis Kal 
Kpirai Kal ypafj./j.aTe1i, for the author of 
that work had either our text or a 
source common to both before him. In 
the same chapter of the Test. Levi there 
is, as Bousset {Z. /. NTlicJie Wissen- 
schaft, 1900, pp. 165-167) has already 
pointed out, an undoubted description 
of Johannes Hyrcanus : A.evl, eh rpets 
dpxas di.aLp€6ri<7€Tai. t6 ffirepfxa ffov els 
ffrj/jLeiov S6^r]s Kvpiov iirepxoiJ.evrf'i (so MS 
P. Arm. =T^s Trapoutrt'ay tov Kvplov). 
These three offices to be adminis- 
tered by Levi's descendants are to be 
signs of the coining of the Messiah. 
What these are is described in the 
words that follow : 6 irpwros kXtJ/jos 
iara.!. fx4yas' vir^p avrbv ov yevqaerai 
^repos (MS R). 6 devrepos ^arai iv 

iepwa-vvT] (Arm. as Bousset remarks 
prob. = i] 8i SevT^pa ^crrat iepareia) : 
6 Tp'iTos iTTLKXTjOrjcrerai. avri^ ovofia, 
Koivbv, '6ti. ^acnXevs iv (so Arm. : 
Greek iK) 'lodSq. dvacrTTjaeTai, Kal 
TTOt^cret iepareiav viav. The first refers 
to Moses, the greatest of Levi's descend- 
ants ; the second denotes Aaron and 
the Aaronitic priesthood ; the third 
the Maccabean ruling priests, and in 
particular to Johannes Hyrcanus, for 
the subsequent words i] Sk napovala 
avTod dyaiTTjTij, ws irpocpfJTris vxf/lffTov 
point to his prophetic gifts. The three- 
fold offices of prophet, priest and king 
were never claimed for any Jewish 
ruler save this Maccabean prince. See 
Josephus, Ant. xiii. 10. 7 ; Bdl. Jud. 
i. 2. 8. 

The blessing of the Lord tvill be given 
in their 7nouths. Cf. Sir. 1. 20 : doOvai 
evXoyiav Kvplip iK x^'-^^'^" avrov, and 
Test. Reuben 6 : Trpbs tov Aevl iyyt- 
aare iv Taireivwaei Kapdias, 'iva di^Tjade 
evXoyiav ^k tov cTTdfiaTOS avToO. 

16. Joined to the Lord . . . tlie 
compaction, etc. In the first, if not in 
the second, there is a play on the name 
Levi, as in Gen. xxix. 34 " will my hus- 
band be joined to me ('Vx 'b"x mV") . . . 
therefore was his name called Levi " 
(nS): cf. also Num. xviii. 2, 4. Instead 
of "joined to the Lord " the Latin has 


« Let His table be thine, 

And do thou and thy sons eat thereof; 

And may thy table be full unto all generations, 
And thy food fail not unto all the ages. 

17. And let all who hate thee fall down before thee, 
And let all thy adversaries be rooted out and perish ; 

And blessed be he that blesses thee. 

And cursed be every nation that curses thee. 

18. And to Judah he said : 

May the Lord give thee strength and power 
To tread down all that hate thee ; 

A prince shalt thou be, thou and one of thy sons, over 

the sons of Jacob ; 
May thy name and the name of thy sons go forth and 

traverse every land and region. 

Then will the Gentiles fear before thy face, 

ad tlecorem Dei, which seems to refer to (xxiii. 26-30), the gates of Paradise to 

Levi as derived from n'l*?, "a crown" be opened and the saints to eat of the 

or "garland." tree of life, as in Eth. Enoch xxv. 5, in 

Let His table he thine, etc. Cf. Test, an eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, 

Levi 8 : as in Eth. Enoch xc. 29-38. In Judah 

.,-> ita^^a^ ^s„ /,^„?„,. A«^^,. 24-25 and Dan 5 the Messiah is to spring 

) > 1 y / s J not from Levi but from Judah, as in Eth. 

rlTJntriZ '"' ^'«''^^'^'^^"'" Enoch xc. See Art. "Testaments of the 

t6 TTrep/xa cov. ^^^ Patriarchs " (in Bible Diet. vol. iv.). 

Also Test. Judah 21 : Kal yhp aiirbv It is very probable that this last view 

(Aeui) i/irip vficii (Arm. Gk. <re) i^e- underlies our text. The words "a 

\e^aTO 'Kvpioi iyyl^eiv avTi2 Kal eadieiv prince . . . thou and one of thy sons " 

rpdire^av avroO. admit most naturally of this interpreta- 

18-19. In the note on ver. 15 we saw tion. If this is right, then the Messiah 

that according to the Test. Levi 8 the is to spring from Judah. In a kingdom 

three great offices held in turn by the which attains to realisation only gradu- 

descendants of Levi were to be signs of ally (see notes on i. 29, xxiii. 26-30) 

the coming Messiah who was to spring and not catastrophically no role seems 

from Levi or from Judah or from Judah to be assigned to him, as is also the case 

and Levi combined (?). Thus according in Eth. Enoch xc. On the other hand 

to Levi 18, Reuben 6, the Messiah (a this seems to be the earliest instance 

3Iaccabean priest-king ?) was to spring of the presence of a Messiah in a tern- 

from Levi and to be the eternal High porm-y Messianic kingdom (see note on 

Priest and civil ruler of the nation. Dur- xxiii. 30). 

ing his reign sin was gradually to come 18. May thy name . . . go forth, etc., 

to an end just as our author supposes i.e. that of the Jewish nation. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 17-26 189 

And all the nations will quake 
[And all the peoples will quake]. 

19. In thee shall be the help of Jacob, 

And in thee be found the salvation of Israel. 

20. And when thou sittest on the throne of the honour of 

thy righteousness, 
There will be great peace for all the seed of the sons 

of the beloved, 
And blessed will he be that blesseth thee ; 

And all that hate thee and afflict thee and curse thee 
Shall be rooted out and destroyed from the earth and 

21. And turning he kissed him again and embraced 
him, and rejoiced greatly ; for he had seen the sons of 
Jacob his son in very truth. 22. And he went forth 
from between his feet and fell down and worshipped 
him. And he blessed them. And (Jacob) rested there with 
Isaac his father that night, and they eat and drank with 
joy. 23. And he made the two sons of Jacob sleep, the 
one on his right hand and the other on his left, and it was 
counted to him for righteousness. 24. And Jacob told his 
father everything during the night, how the Lord had 
shown him great mercy, and how He had prospered (him 
in) all his ways, and protected him from all evil. 25. And 
Isaac blessed the God of his father Abraham, who had 
not withdrawn His mercy and His righteousness from the 
sons of His servant Isaac. 26. And in the morning Jacob 
told his father Isaac the vow which he had vowed to 

[And ail the peoples will quake]. The beloved, i.e. Abraham, as in ver. 

Bracketed as a dittography. 15. 

20. The throne 0/ the honour of thy 22. A7id he blessed them. This 

righteousness, There will be great peace, clause seems out of place here. 

So d. be read " The throne of honour, 26. Jacob asks his father to go with 

Thy righteousness will be great peace." him to Bethel ; but Isaac is unable to go. 


the Lord, and the vision which he had seen, and that he 
had built an altar, and that everything was ready for 
the sacrifice to be made before the Lord as he had vowed, 
and that he had come to set him on an ass. 27. And 
Isaac said unto Jacob his son : " I am not able to go with 
thee ; for I am old and not able to bear the way : go, my 
son, in peace; for I am one hundred and sixty -five 
years this day ; I am no longer able to journey ; set 
thy mother (on an ass) and let her go with thee. 28. And 
I know, my son, that thou hast come on my account, 
and may this day be blessed on which thou hast seen 
me alive, and I also have seen thee, my son. 29. May est 
thou prosper and fulfil the vow which thou hast vowed ; 
and put not off thy vow ; for thou wilt be called to 
account as touching the vow; now therefore make haste 
to perform it, and may He be pleased who has made 
all things, to whom thou hast vowed the vow." 30. And 
he said to Eebecca : " Go with Jacob thy son " ; and 
Rebecca went with Jacob her son, and Deborah with her, 
and they came to Bethel. 31. And Jacob remembered the 
prayer with which his father had blessed him and his 
two sons, Levi and Judah, and he rejoiced and blessed the 
God of his fathers, Abraham and Isaac. 32. And he said: 
" Now I know that I have an eternal hope, and my sons 
also, before the God of all " ; and thus is it ordained con- 
cerning the two ; and they record it as an eternal testimony 
unto them on the heavenly tables how Isaac blessed them. 

Levi's dream at Bethel, 1. Levi chosen to the priesthood, as 
the tenth son, 2-3. Jacoh celebrates the feast of 
tabernacles and offers tithes through Levi : also the 
second tithe, 4-9. Laiv of tithes ordained, 10-15. 

27. am . . . not able to bear the way, reference to the same event in the Test, 
etc. See note on verses 3-4 for the Levi 9. 



Jacoh's visions in which Jacob reads on the heavenly 
tables his own future and that of his descendants, 16-26. 
Celebrates the eighth day of feast of tabernacles, 27-29. 
Death of Deborah, 30, Birth of Benjamin and dectth of 
Rachel, 33-34. (Cf. Gen. xxxv. 8, 10, 11, 13, 16-20.) 

XXXII. And he abode that night at Bethel, and Levi 
dreamed that they had ordained and made him the priest of 
the Most High God, him and his sons for ever; and he 
awoke from his sleep and blessed the Lord. 2. And Jacob 
rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, 
and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men 
and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, 
he gave tithes of aU. 3. And in those days Eachel became 
pregnant with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his 
sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the 

XXXII. 1. According also to Test. 
Levi 8, Levi had this dream at Bethel, 
in which seven men appeared unto him 
and bade him : ^<na% ^vdvaai tt]v 
ffTo\T]v TTJs ieparelas, Kal rhv ffricpavov 
TTJs diKaiocrwris . . . 'Att^ tou vvv yivov 
eh iepia Kvpiov, ad Kal to criripfia aov 
?wj aiwi'os. Cf. also Test. Levi 5. In 
ch. 9 of the same Testament Jacob 
is said to have had this dream also. 

Priest of the Most High God. This 
was the specific title chosen by the 
Maccabean priest - kings. Thus they 
are called sacerdotes summi Dei in 
Assumpt. Mos. vi. 1 (where my emenda- 
tion is wrong) : Hyrcanus II. is desig- 
nated apxiepevs 6eov v\piaTov by Joseph. 
{Ant. xvi. 6. 2), and the Rosh ha- 
Shanah 18 6 states that it used to be 
said : "In such a year of Johanan 
priest of the Most High God." This 
title, anciently borne by Melchizedek 
(Gen. xiv. 18), was revived by the new 
holders of the high priesthood. Our 
author has Gen. xiv. 18-20 before him ; 
for in the next verse he adopts a clause 
from Gen. xiv. 20 : "And he gave him a 
tenth of all." We have seen in tlie note 
on xxxi. 18-19 that the Messiah was 
to spring from this family according 
to Test. Levi 18. The same exjiectation 

seems to be at the base of Ps. ex. 1-4, 
which constitutes a Messianic hymn 
addressed to Simeon or Simon the 
Maccabee. As Bickell has recognised, 
this Ps. forms an acrostic on the name 
Simeon. On the frequency of this 
divine title " Most High " in the second 
cent. B.C. see note on xxxvi. 16. 

Him and his sons for ever. This 
phrase in the same connection is found 
in Test. Levi 8, already quoted above. 

2. Jacob rose early in the morning, 
etc. So also Test. Levi 9 : /cat dvacTras 
TO TTpioi diredeKaTOjcre iravTa di' ifxov ti^ 
Kvpiw, though here the offering is said 
to be through Levi. 

3. Jacob counted his sons from him 
(i.e., Benjamin) upwards and Levi fell to 
the portion of the Lord, etc. Our text 
in some form was before Cedrenus, i. 60 : 
/cat TTCLVTa dwoSeKaTcbaas S. iKiKTtjro, 
TeKevTaZov viro^dWei /cXi7pw toi)s TraTdas, 
Kal TOP Aevl ry Oe<fi dcpLtpoi, eTwv 
virdpxovTO. 17)' Kal dpxiepea dvaSe'iKvvffi, 
SeKaTov ovTa dirb icrxdrov KUTa tov t^j 
daTpoXoyias {XSyov). And still more 
clearly before his predecessor Syucellus, i. 
200: 'la/cw^ aTroSe/caroicras rd iavTov tov 
Aevl 17]' eTCiv ovTa dpx^epea dviSei^ev, 
i' bvTa dnb tou ecrxdrov /card t6v rrji 
dva<yTpo(pris \6yov. And again on p. 


Lord, and his father clothed him in the garments of the 
priesthood and filled his hands. 4. And on the fifteenth of 
this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from 
amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine 
sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as 
a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a 
sweet savour before God. 5. This was his offering, in con- 
sequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would 
give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offer- 
ings. 6. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt 
incense on the fire over the fire, and for a thank-offering 
two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and 
two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats ; and 
thus he did daily for seven days. 7. And he and all 
his sons and his men were eating (this) with joy there 
during seven days and blessing and thanking the Lord, 
who had delivered him out of all his tribulation and had 

207 : iepuxrvvT] ri^ Aevl e56dri, Srt begun again with Simeon. Levi thus 

5€KaT0^ xiirApx^v o.irb tov i<TX^'''ov tQv came to be the tenth. 

vlCi)v 'laKw^ ffiiv^ TTaffi roh virdpxoivi Filled his hands. The technical 

ToD irarpbs r<^ ©«<? diredtKaribdr], expression for appointment to the priest- 

Kadujs irpo(T-r)v^aTo 'la/ccb^ Xiyuv, Kal hood. Cf. Exod. xxviii. 41, xxix. 9. 

wdi'Ta 6(Ta &v fioi 5vs dTrodeKardiffu, 4^ rj^^jg celebration of the feast of 

avrd. And on p. 211 : Aeyl y ui6s tabernacles is peculiar as regards the 

Aefas, I dw6 Ioxttj^ ava<TTp€<poi'Ti^ Kal nu^iber of victims. According to the 

y dirb Pov^vv, iyeuv7)dr, ry Trarpiapxv Levitical law on each of the seven days 

'Ia^u;|3 iv MeaowoTa/xlg. ry tt/S irei ^ j.jj ^f ^he goats was offered as a sin- 

aiVoP, <hs irpb^Uv €(jti. tovtov apiO- QQtxmg, and two rams and fourteen 

M5<ras dirb TOV "Qeviaixiv in 6vtos iv ^^^-^^ ^ ^ burnt-oflfering. Tlirough- 

TV yaarpi ?axri\ t dvra eu&ppecrip, q^,. ^j^^ gg^gjj jg^yg seventy bullocks 

dtpapwaenpQevKalapxLepiaavedet^ev, ^^^^ Qg.gj.g^^ beginning with thirteen 

wj UirvTriros, Kara rbf TVi afocyrpoj,?,^ on the first day, the number being 

\6you, avfairodeKaTioaas avr(i> jrdvra diminished daily till on the seventh day 

tA virdpxovTa Kal avaOifievos ^V Geif), g^^^^ ^^^^ offered. See Num. xxix. 

Kada irpoavv^aro wopevbfievos ds Meo-o- j2-40 ; Lev. xxiu. 34-36, 39-44. 

TTOTaiilav, 6ti Kal vavTa 6aa 6.v fj.01 „ , , ,j_-, en r. i. • 

-- r s' , . / To^^i,'o/i„/i;^„ Seven lambs. MSS = 60, but since 

Oifji aTTodeKaTwa-cv avra. Jacob sdedica- r i.- -u « ^ >> j xi. v i. j- 

tion of Levi as his tenth son to the ^^^"^ ^^^ "septem, and the heptadic 

priesthood is found also in P. R. Eliez. ^J^**^"? "^rfXZl ?Y, ^'''"^' T 

ch. 37 (Beer, 2}McArf../«5. 36-37), though ^""'f (?• 1^7) that the corruption 

^i_ \-u 1 e 1 ; ;, q;«-„-„^«. arose from a confusion 01 1 and r . 

the method of reckoning is diflerent. ^ ^ 

Jacob is said to have separated the first One. MSS = 9. Emended with Latin 

four sons born of his four wives and to " unum." Corruption possibly due to 

have counted his remaining sons from confusion of ivvea and iva (Ronsch). 

Simeon to Benjamin and then to have 5. Cf. Gen. xxviii. 22. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 4-15 193 

given him his vow. 8. And he tithed all the clean animals, 
and made a burnt sacrifice, but the unclean animals he 
gave (not) to Levi his sou, and he gave him all the souls 
of the men. 9. And Levi discharged the priestly office at 
Bethel before Jacob his father in preference to his ten 
brothers, and he was a priest there, and Jacob gave his vow : 
thus he tithed again the tithe to the Lord and sanctified it, 
and it became holy unto Him, 10. And for this reason it 
is ordained on the heavenly tables as a law for the tithing 
again the tithe to eat before the Lord from year to year, 
in the place where it is chosen that His name should dwell, 
and to this law there is no limit of days for ever. 11. 
This ordinance is written that it may be fulfilled from year 
to year in eating the second tithe before the Lord in the 
place where it has been chosen, and nothing shall remain 
over from it from this year to the year following. 12. For in 
its year shall the seed be eaten till the days of the gather- 
ing of the seed of the year, and the wine till the days of the 
wine, and the oil till the days of its season. 13. And all 
that is left thereof and becomes old, let it be regarded as 
polluted : let it be burnt with fire, for it is unclean. 14. 
And thus let them eat it together in the sanctuary, and let 
them not suffer it to become old. 15. And all the tithes of 
the oxen and sheep shall be holy unto the Lord, and shall 

8. The unclean animals he gave (not) 11. The second tithe (so a). bed 
to Levi. I have supplied the negative, "the tithe again." 

In Test. Levi 9 Levi says that Jacob 15. The tithes of the oxen and sheep. 

diredeKOLTuiffe Tr6,vra 81' ifxov rip Kvpiip. These tithes are mentioned in the O.T. 

Our text would limit this to the clean only in Lev. xxvii. 32 and 2 Chron. 

animals. xxxi. 6. They were unknown to Nehe- 

Qave him all the souls of the men, miah (x. 37-39, xii. 44-47, xiii. 5, 12). 

Levi was to exercise his priestly func- Our author took this law of tithing 

tions on behalf of these. literally, but rabbinic tradition (Rosh 

9. Discharged the priestly office, or ha-Shanah i. 1, quoted by Dillmann on 
"was constituted a priest." Lev. xxvii. 32) sought to weaken the 

Tithed again the tithe to the Lord, statement, and made it out to be merely 

Cf. Num. xviii. 26. a tithe of the yearly increase, but the 

10. To eat before the Lord, etc. Our context offers not the slightest justifica- 
text holds closely to the law in Deut. tion for this step (see Bertholet on Lev. 
xiv. 22 sq. Cf. Tobit i. 7. in loc). See our text xiii. 26. 



belong to His priests, which they will eat before Him from 
year to year ; for thus is it ordained and engraven regarding 
the tithe on the heavenly tables. 16. And on the following 
night, on the twenty -second day of this month, Jacob 
resolved to build that place, and to surround the court with 
a wall, and to sanctify it and make it holy for ever, for 
himself and his children after him. 17. And the Lord ap- 
peared to him by night and blessed him and said unto him : 
* Thy name shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall they 
name thy name." 18. And He said unto him again : "lam 
the Lord who created the heaven and the earth, and I shall 
increase thee and multiply thee exceedingly, and kings will 
come forth from thee, and they will judge everywhere where- 
ever the foot of the sons of men has trodden. 19. And I 
shall give to thy seed all the earth which is under heaven, 
and they will judge all the nations according to their 
desires, and after that they will get possession of the whole 
earth and inherit it for ever." 20. And He finished speak- 
ing with him, and He went up from him, and Jacob looked 
till He had ascended into heaven. 21. And he saw in a 
vision of the night, and behold an angel descended from 
heaven with seven tablets in his hands, and he gave them 
to Jacob, and he read them and knew all that was written 
therein which would befall him and his sons throughout all 
the ages. 22. And he showed him all that was written on 
the tablets, and said unto him : " Do not build this place, 
and do not make it an eternal sanctuary, and do not dwell 
here ; for this is not the place. Go to the house of Abraham 
thy father and dwell with Isaac thy father until the day of 
the death of thy father. 23. For in Egypt thou wilt die 

17-18. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 10-11. 20. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 13. 

19. Our author here forsakes Gen. 21. Tablets. Cf. 4 Ezra xiv. 24. 
xxxv. 12 aud promises to Israel the Knew. Emended with Latin "cog- 
possession of the whole earth, novit." Text =" read." But probably 

All the earth. Latin has : universas for "read and knew" we should read 

benedictiones, and perhaps rightly. "read," see Introd. p. xli sq. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 16-28 195 

in peace, and in this land thou wilt be buried with honour 
in the sepulchre of thy fathers, with Abraham and Isaac, 
24. Fear not, for as thou hast seen and read it, thus will it 
all be ; and do thou write down everything as thou hast 
seen and read." 25. And Jacob said: "Lord, how can I 
remember all that I have read and seen ? " And he said unto 
him: "I will bring all things to thy remembrance." 26. 
And he went up from him, and he awoke from his sleep, 
and he remembered everything which he had read and seen, 
and he wrote down all the words which he had read and 
seen. 27. And he celebrated there yet another day, and he 
sacrificed thereon according to all that he sacrificed on the 
former days, and called its name ■{•" Addition,"-f- for fthis 
day was added,-|- and the former days he called " The Feast." 
28. And thus it was manifested that it should be, and it is 
written on the heavenly tables : wherefore it was revealed to 
him that he should celebrate it, and add it to the seven days 

Our text seems to he the source of additional feast-day with Jacob's de- 

the words ascribed by Origen (Fabricius, tention an eighth day in Bethel. In 

Cod. Pseud. V.T. i. 761) to the Prayer the Talmud (Chag. 18 a) the idea of 

of Joseph : Aioirep ii> rj irpocrevxfl tov " keeping back " (in isj?) is connected 

'I(i}<Ti)(p bivarai ovtu) voelcrdai to Xeyd- with work. For it states that on the 

fjLevou vnb rod 'Iokw/S. dviyvuv yap iv seventh day of the Passover " there 

rah irXa^l rod ovpavov Sua avfi^-fjcreTat. must be a keeping back from every 

vixiv Kal Toh wots vfx.ww. Cf. xlv. 14. kind of work " (hdn'jo "jsa liisy 'yjtyn). 

25. Will bring all things, etc. Cf. See Levy's Neuhebr. Lexicon, iii. 680. 

John xiv. 26, where the Paraclete Scholars are now generally agreed that 

viTOfivqaeL V/J.S.S iravTa. the word msy means "sacred as- 

27. \Addition\. This eighth day sembly." 

after the seven days of the feast of iThis day was added f. Here we 

tabernacles was called niJfj; (2 Chron. must suppose eTreridr] as corrupt for 

vii. 9), in New Hebrew ^<m!.•v (Joseph. eireax^dt). See rendering proposed in 

Ant. iii. 10. 6, 'Aadpra) T likewise the Preceding note. The last clause of the 

seventh day of the Passover feast. ^^'^^ ^f «^ "^^^ ^^"^ given rise to the 

The translation in our text, " addi- corruption or wrong correction, 

tion," points to some corruption in the ^^« -^'^««^- This agrees exactly with 

Greek or Hebrew. The Latin " reten- rabbinic usage. The feast of taber- 

tatio " is a possible rendering. Ronsch ii^^les was called jn = " the Feast." Cf. 

suggests that eTr/o-xeo-is stood in the Sukk. 426, 48a. Josephus (Ant. viii. 

Greek version but was corrupted into 4. 1) designates it as iopTTj dyiurdTT) 

iwiOecTLS in the copy before the Ethiopic Kal /xeyLcrTT} and Philo ioprOiv /xeyiarr]. 

translator. Hence we might render : 29. A very corrupt verse in the 

"Called its name * a keeping back ' for Ethiopic and partially corrupt in the 

on that day he was kept back." Thus Latin. The restored translation is given 

our author connects the origin of this below. 


of the feast. 29. Aud its name was called f " Addition,"t 
■f-because thatf it was recorded amongst the days of the feast 
days, •f-according tof the number of the days of the year. 
30. And in the night, on the twenty-third of this month, 
Deborah Eebecca's nurse died, and they buried her beneath 
the city under the oak of the river, and he called the name 
of this place, " The river of Deborah," and the oak, " The oak 
of the mourning of Deborah." 31. And Eebecca went and 
returned to her house to his father Isaac, and Jacob sent by 
her hand rams and sheep and he-goats that she should 
prepare a meal for his father such as he desired. 32. And 
he went after his mother till he came to the land of 
Kabratan, and he dwelt there. 33. And Eachel bare a son 
in the night, and called his name " Son of my sorrow " ; for 
she suffered in giving him birth : but his father called his 
name Benjamin, on the eleventh of the eighth month in the 
2143 A.M. first of the sixth week of this jubilee. 34. And Eachel died 
there and she was buried in the land of Ephrath, the same 
is Bethlehem, and Jacob built a pillar on the grave of 
Eachel, on the road above her grave. 

iAdditionf. See note on ver. 27. into 3. Thus the whole verse should 

iBecaiise tkatf. The Ethiopic has ryn . ' .. ^nd its name was called ' a 

a peculiar phrase here 'esma 'enta which keeping back ' {i.e. msy), when it was 

usually = nam quod, but since an analo- recorded amongst the days of the feast- 

gous yet rare phrase kama enta = quasi (j^ys in the number of the days of the 

occurs in xliii. 19, xlviii. 13, we may take year." 

it that 'esma 'enta = propter quod as the 30. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 8. Deborah dies 

Latin version has it. But this gives no on the eighth day of the feast of 

right sense. The reason of the name tabernacles. 

is not given here but in ver. 27. Hence Qf this place. So d, Latin and Vulg. 

I suggest that propter quod=:5t6Tt= Qgn. xxxv. 8 = "of this place." bc = 

'3, which the Greek translator should (i Qf ^jjjg river." a omits, 
have rendered in this context by 6t€. 32-34. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 16, 18-20. 

It was recorded. Text of MSS un- 32. Land of Kdbr&idn. This goes back 

grammatical, but bya change of vocalisa- to psn maD = " some distance " in Gen. 

tion in one letter we arrive at the above. xxxv. 16, but the translation like that 

Amongst the days — \>& 'elata emended of the LXX (Xa/3pa^a) took -m23 to be 

with Latin "in dies" from basem'a= a proper name. 

" for a testimony " {b d). c has basalam 34. Rachel died. According to Book 

= " in peace." of Jashar (Diet, des Apocr. ii. 1172) 

^According to\. Here we expect Rachel was only forty-five years old. 
"in." Accordingly I suggest that we /^ the land of Ephrath. Gen. xxxv 

have here an original corruption of 3 19^ «in the way to Ephrath." 


Reuben sins with Bilhah, 1-9 (cf. Gen. xxxv. 21, 22). Laws 
regarding incest, 10-20. Jacob's children, 22. (Cf. 
Gen. xxxv. 23-27.) 

XXXIII. And Jacob went and dwelt to the south of 
Magdaladraef. And he went to his father Isaac, he and 
Leah his wife, on the new moon of the tenth month. 2. 
And Keuben saw Bilhah, Eachel's maid, the concubine of 
his father, bathing in water in a secret place, and he loved 
her. 3. And he hid himself at night, and he entered the 
house of Bilhah [at night], and he found her sleeping alone 
on a bed in her house. 4. And he lay with her, and she 
awoke and saw, and behold Eeuben was lying with her in 
the bed, and she uncovered the border of her covering and 
seized him, and cried out, and discovered that it was Eeuben. 
5. And she was ashamed because of him, and released her 
hand from him, and he fled. 6. And she lamented because 
of this thing exceedingly, and did not tell it to any one. 7. 
And when Jacob returned and sought her, she said unto 

XXXIII. 1. To tJie soiith of MagdalA- these passages Reuben's guilt is denied 

drA'if. This name is a compression of absolutely. These writings state that 

nSN ^^J;"'7"IJb, "the tower of Eder of on Rachel's death Jacob settled in the 

Ephrath," Gen. xxxv. 21. See a prob- tent of Bilhah her handmaid, and that 

ably corrupt form of this name in xxxiv. Reuben, being indignant on behalf of 

15. In Test. Reuben 3, where the same his mother Leah, went into Bilhah's tent 

scene is recounted, we have iv Vadkp and withdrew his father's coxich from 

TrXrjcriov "E^padd. it, or threw Bilhah's couch iuto dis- 

Anil he went to his father' Isaac . . . order etc., and that on this ground the 

2. And Reuben saio Bilhah, etc. It was Scripture held that he lay with Bilhah. 

during Jacob's absence with Isaac that In Shabb. 55 b it is recounted that the 

the outrage was done. So Test. Reuben earlier teachers, R. Joshua and R. 

3 : dTricTos 701^ 'IaKd)/3 tov Trarpos Eliezer, accepted the narrative in Gen. 

7i/j,G)i> TT/jos 'IcracLK rbv iraripa aiirov, xxxv. 22. 

6vTU}v rj/xdv iv Fad^p, irXrjaiov 'E(ppa9a 3. And he hid himself . . . ho2ise of 

oiKov BridXei/j., BdXXa . . . aKaXvcpos Bilhah [at night]. Latin is preferable : 

KariKei.To iv T(p koitQvi. Et introivit nocte occulte ad Ballan. 

2. Saw Bilhah . . . lathing, etc. The second "at night " is a dittography. 
Cf. Test. Reuben 3 : ei ixt) yap eldov 4. He lay with Iter, and she awoke, 

eyu) BdWav \ovo/jl€V7iv iv <rKeiriv(^ Test. Reuben 3 agrees with this : Kayuj 

Tdircj}, K.T.X. A very different account elcrekdihv . . . iwpa^a. rrjv dffi^eiav, 

of Reuben's conduct appears in later Kal, KaraXnrwv avrrjv K0L/j.cijp.iv7iv, 

works : Gen. rabba 98, 99 ; Ps. -Jon. i^rfkdov. 

on Gen. xxxv. 22, Shabb. 55 h and the 5. SJie was aslmmed of him. 

Book of Jashar {op. cit. 1172). In Latin : confusus est ab ea. 


him : " I am not clean for thee, for I have been defiled as 
regards thee ; for Eeuben has defiled me, and has lain with 
me in the night, and I was asleep, and did not discover 
until he uncovered my skirt and slept with me." 8. And 
Jacob was exceedingly wroth with Eeuben because he had 
lain with Bilhah, because he had uncovered his father's 
skirt. 9. And Jacob did not approach her again because 
Eeuben had defiled her. And as for any man who uncovers 
his father's skirt his deed is wicked exceedingly, for he is 
abominable before the Lord. 10. For this reason it is 
written and ordained on the heavenly tables that a man 
should not lie with his father's wife, and should not uncover 
his father's skirt, for this is unclean : they shall surely die 
together, the man who lies with his father's wife and the 
woman also, for they have wrought uncleanness on the earth. 

11. And there shall be nothing unclean before our God in 
the nation which He has chosen for Himself as a possession. 

12. And again, it is written a second time : " Cursed be he 
who lieth with the wife of his father, for he hath uncovered 
his father's shame " ; and all the holy ones of the Lord said 
"So be it; so be it." 13. And do thou, Moses, command 
the children of Israel that they observe this word ; for it 
(entails) a punishment of death ; and it is unclean, and 
there is no atonement for ever to atone for the man who 
has committed this, but he is to be put to death and slain, 
and stoned with stones, and rooted out from the midst of 
the people of our God. 14. For to no man who does so in 
Israel is it permitted to remain alive a single day on the 
earth, for he is abominable and unclean. 15. And let them 
not say : to Eeuben was granted life and forgiveness after 

7. Test. Reuben 3 represents Jacob re- 10. They slmll surely die. So Lev. 

ceiving this information from an angel. xx. 11. 

Uncovered my skirt. Cf. Deut. xxii. -^2 Cf Dent xxu 30 


9. Did not ai^proach her again. So 13. ^ punishment of death = Kplaii 

Test. Reuben 3 : /xtjkM a.i^afj.evos avTT,s. Gapdrov = niD-BSf b (Jer rt ' 16). 


he had lain with his father's concubine, and to her also 
though she had a husband, and her husband Jacob, his 
father, was still alive. 16. For until that time there had 
not been revealed the ordinance and judgment and law in 
its completeness for all, but in thy days (it has been revealed) 
as a law of seasons and of days, and an everlasting law for 
the everlasting generations. 17. And for this law there is 
no consummation of days, and no atonement for it, but they 
must both be rooted out in the midst of the nation : on the 
day whereon they committed it they shall slay them. 18. 
And do thou, Moses, write (it) down for Israel that they may 
observe it, and do according to these words, and not commit 
a sin unto death ; for the Lord our God is judge, who 
respects not persons and accepts not gifts. 19. And tell 
them these words of the covenant, that they may hear and 
observe, and be on their guard with respect to them, and 
not be destroyed and rooted out of the land ; for an unclean- 
ness, and an abomination, and a contamination, and a pollu- 
tion are all they who commit it on the earth before our God. 

20. And there is no greater sin than the fornication which 
they commit on earth ; for Israel is a holy nation unto the 
Lord its God, and a nation of inheritance, and a priestly and 
royal nation and for (His own) possession ; and there shall 
no such uncleanness appear in the midst of the holy nation. 

21. And in the third year of this sixth week Jacob and all 2145 a.m. 
his sons went and dwelt in the house of Abraham, near 

Isaac his father and Eebecca his mother. 22. And these 
were the names of the sons of Jacob : the first-born Eeuben, 

16. Our author here anticipates the (His own) possession = \ahs lepariK^s 

Pauline doctrine : " where there is no Kal ^acnXiKbs Kal ireptoiaLos (or ovalas). 

law there is no transgression" (Rom. Cf. Latin populus sacerdotalis et regalis 

iv. 15). et tsanctificationisf. Here, as in xvi. 

18. Sin unto death. See note on 18, xix. 18 above, the Latin has mis- 

xxi. 22. translated irepioiKnos or ovaias as Scnos. 

Who respects not persons, etc. Cf. Royal nation {a). Literally =" nation 

V. 16, xl. 8. of a kingdom." Cf. Latin (populus) 

20. See note on xvi. 18. regalis. cf?= "of a kingdom." 

A priestly and royal nation and for 22. Cf. Gen. xxx. 23-27. 


Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon, the sons of Leah ; 
and the sons of Rachel, Joseph and Benjamin ; and the sons 
of Bilhah, Dan and Naphtali ; and the sons of Zilpah, Gad 
and Asher ; and Dinah, the daughter of Leah, the only 
daughter of Jacob. 23. And they came and bowed them- 
selves to Isaac and Eebecca, and when they saw them they 
blessed Jacob and all his sons, and Isaac rejoiced exceed- 
ingly, for he saw the sons of Jacob, his younger son, and he 
blessed them. 

Warfare of the Amorite kings against Jacob and his sons, 
1-9. Jacob sends Joseph to visit his brethren, 10. 
Joseph sold and carried down into Egypt, 11-12 (cf. 
Gen. xxxvii. 14, 17, 18, 25, 32-36). Deaths of Bilhah 
and Dinah, 15. Jacob mourns for Joseph, 13, 14, 1*7- 
Institution of Day of Atonement on day when news of 
Joseph's death arrived, 18-19. Wives of Jacob's sons^ 

2H8A.M. XXXIV. And in the sixth year of this week of this 
forty-fourth jubilee Jacob sent his sons to pasture their 
sheep, and his servants with them, to the pastures of 
Shechem. 2. And the seven kings of the Amorites 
assembled themselves together against them, to slay them, 
hiding themselves under the trees, and to take their cattle 

XXXIV. 1. His servants {b c d). a here recast so as to call to mind some 
reads "their servants." of the great victories of the Maccabees 

2. Ki7iffs of the Amorites assembled (««« ^«^°^!- ^. ^"ij^^^ TT^M ^^'1 

. . . to slay them. This clause is ^^^f.^f i^ f ^^° ?J^tS ,f w"^'- ^""^ 

found also in the Midrash Wajjissau in ^ ?}'l ^^^^f ^^, *«^ Midrash Wajjissau 

., . .. ^ which IS translated by Gaster in the 

' , ^ . . Chronicles of Jerahmeel, 1899, pp. 

Hidmg themselves. Latin gives gg.g^^ j ^^^^ introduced some cor- 

"et sederunt.' This seems right ; for j-gctions into this translation from a 

there is no hmt of their hiding in any comparison of the Hebrew MS in the 

of the other versions of this legend. Bodleian, though I have not seen the 

2-8. In these verses we have a short British Museum MS from which Gaster 

outline of an ancient legend which, has drawm occasional phrases. A 

already attested in Gen. xlviii. 22, tells version almost identical vfith that of 

of Jacob's conquest of Shechem (see xlv. Gaster's has been preserved in the Jalkut 

14 and notes on p. 201), and is probably Shimeoni i. iOd-ilb, and has been 



as a prey. 3. And Jacob and Levi and Judah and Joseph 
were in the house with Isaac their father ; for his spirit 
was sorrowful, and they could not leave him : and Benjamin 
was the youngest, and for this reason remained with his 
father. 4. And there came the king[s] of Taphu, and the 
king[s] of t'Aresa,t and the king[s] of Seragan, and the king[s] 
of Selo, and the king[s] of Ga'as, and the king of Bethoron, 
and the king of f Ma'anisakir,t and all those who dwell in 
these mountains (and) who dwell in the woods in the land 
of Canaan. 5. And they announced this to Jacob saying : 
" Behold, the kings of the Amorites have surrounded thy 
sons, and plundered their herds." 6. And he arose from 
his house, he and his three sons and all the servants of 

reprinted by Jellinek in his Bet ha- 
Midrasch, iii. 1-5. A German transla- 
tion of part of this Midrash by Jellinek 
will be found in Rdnsch, 390-394. 
From a comparison of the Hebrew text 
I have observed that this translation 
has been carelessly edited in one or 
more points. Thus on p. 393 line 11 
instead of " Pasasi von Aram " we should 
read "Pasusi, Konig von Sartan, und 
Laban, Konig von Aram." A much 
enlarged and elaborated form of the 
legend is given in the Book of Jashar 
(see the French translation : Diet, 
des Apocr. ii. 1173-1184). So far 
as I have compared this translation 
and the text it is trustworthy. A short 
but interesting study of this subject 
has appeared from the pen of Bousset 
in the Z. f. NTliche Wissenschaft, 
1890, pp. 202-204, but in some cases 
he has been misled by the translations, 
and in others I have been obliged to 
disagree with his identifications. 

A full treatment of this legend 
belongs rather to the Test. Judah 3-7, 
where the order of events corresponds 
closely with that in the Midrash 
Wajjissau, and in many cases pre- 
supposes details which are found in 
that Midrash. That some form of this 
legend is very ancient is attested by 
the fact that it is referred to in Gen. 
xlviii. 22 where Jacob declares : "I 
have given to thee one portion (dob' 

nnx) above thy brethren, which I took 
out of the hand of the Amorite with 
my sword and with my bow." So 
the Rev. Version following the render- 
ing of Onkelos and the Syriac. But as 
most scholars are now agreed, djb? here 
refers to Shechem. So anciently also the 
LXX (ScKt/xo) and Ps.- Jon. on Gen. xlviii. 
22 (d3B'1 Nmp, the city of Shechem). 
Thus our verse points to an overthrow 
of Shechem by all Israel under Jacob's 
direction, and the fact that Jacob makes 
it over to one of his sons to the exclusion 
of the rest can only be justified by the 
further fact that he was the personal 
leader of the war and had captured 
Shechem with his sword and with his 
bow (see Holzinger's Commentary in 
loc). Thus this form of the story 
differs clearly from that in Gen. xxxiv. 
There Jacob has no part whatever in 
the onslaught on Shechem and is sub- 
sequently hostile to its authors (xxxiv. 
30, xlix. 5-7). But the possibly older 
account has survived in the present 
work as in Gen. xlviii. 22. Before we 
pass on, we might observe that later 
rabbinic tradition changed "sword and 
bow " into " merits and good deeds " 
Targ. Jerus. in loc. ; Gen. rabba 97 
(to these Beer (Buch d. Jub. p. 3) adds : 
Baba bathra 123 a), and in a corrupt 
text of Onkelos we find "prayer and 


his father, and his own servants, and he went against them 
with six thousand men, who carried swords. 7. And he 

Returning now to the legend in our 
text, I append here a table in which 

the proper names in the various 
authorities are compared. 

Midrash Wajjissau 

in Bodleian MS 


Test. Judah 
chs. 3-7. 

used by Gaster, 
with the forms 

Book of Jashar. 

in Jellinek's text 

in brackets when 


these difl'er. 



(1) Jashub of 

(1) Jashub of 





'Affoijp (MS 0, 

(4) Pir'athaho of 

(4) Parathon of 

corrupt for 'Airdip 


Hazor (wanting 

= nii-n) 

on ii. 1173-1174, 
but Hazor is men- 
tioned on 1176, 




(5) Susi of Saltan 
[Pasusi of Sartan] 

(5) Sartan 




(3) Shilo [Zerori 
of Shiloh] 

(3) Ihuri (mn'K) 
of ShUoh 



Tads (MSS OR) 

(2) Gaash [Hon 
of Gaash] 

(2) Hon (pS'ti) of 



Axwp (? for Xw- 

(6) Laban of 

(6) Labau of 

pdv. X(j}pa in 

Cheldon (so Bod- 


au Arm. MS) 

leian Hebrew MS. 
British Museum 
MS may have 
"Horan") [Laban 
of Aram] 


Ma'anisakir (cor- 

Max'P [com- 

(7) Shakir of 

(7) Shakir of 

rupt for Shakir- 

pressed from 

Machnah [Shebir 



^laxoLviffaKip. Cf. 
form in Jubilees] 

of Machnaim] 

3. Sorrowful. Latin is "pusill- 

4. King[s] of TAphH. In this and 
all the other cases in this verse we 
should read "king" and not the 
plural. The Latin has the singular in 
all the instances but one. Taphfi is to 
be identitied with Te<^w^ in 1 Mace. 
and this with Tappuah in Jos. xv. 53, 
xvi. 8. It was fortified by Bacchides 
against Jonathan (1 Mace. ix. 50). 

\'Aresa.\ This is corrupt for Aser 
(cf. Tobit i. 2, 'Aa-qp) or rather Asor, 
i.e., Hazor (nisn). See above table. 
At Hazor, according to 1 Mace. xi. 67 
sqq. ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 5. 7, Jonathan 
won a great victory over the Syrians. 
Parathon, who was king of Hazor (see 
table above), is of the same name as 

one of the cities fortified by Bacchides 
(1 Mace, ix, 50). 

SSrdgdn. In the Hebrew authorities 
this word appears as Sartan. I can 
discover nothing further about it. 

Sel6. This is Shiloh. See above 

Gd'as. This may be the Gaash (tyyj) 
in the hill-country of Ephraim, where 
Joshua was buried (Jos. xxiv. 30 ; 
Judg. ii. 9). 

Bethdron. The city Bethhoron was 
closely associated with the victories of 
the Maccabees. Thus Judas defeated 
Seron, a Syrian general, in the 
neighbourhood of Bethhoron and put 
800 of his troops to the sword (1 Mace, 
iii. 13-24 ; Jos. Ant. xii. 7. 1). A 
few years later it was the scene of 



slew them in the pastures of Shechem, and pursued those 
who fled, and he slew them with the edge of the sword, 
and he slew fAresaf and Taphu and Saregan and Selo and 
•f-'Amanisakirf and Ga[ga]'as, and he recovered his herds. 
8. And he prevailed over them, and imposed tribute on 
them that they should pay him tribute, five fruit products 
of their land, and he built Eobel and Tamnatares. 9. And 

Judas's great victory over Nicanor 
when 9000 Syrians were slain (1 Mace, 
vii. 39-47 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. 10. 5). 
It was subsequently fortified by 
Bacchides against Jonathan (1 Mace. 
ix. 50 ; Joseph. Ant. xiii. 1. 3). 

■\MaanisAkir.\ This is corrupt for 
Shakirmaani or Shakir, king of Maha- 
naim. See table above. 

{And). Supplied from Latin. 

6. Six thousand (abd). c gives 

7. According to our text six kings 
were slain out of the seven. This 
agrees with Test. Jud. 4. 

8-9. With this passage cf. Test. Jud. 
7 : edeyjOrjaav rod irarpds fJLOV Kol 
iiroiy)(Tev eiprjvTjv fier' avTwy, Kal ovk 
inoirjcrafxev aiiTois oidiv KaKov, dXV 
iTroiT]aa/j,ev avroiJi viroairoudovs, Kal 
aTreduiKafxev avrois vdaav t7]v at'xMf" 
Xiijcriav. Kal (^KoSd/Mrjcra iyu) t7]v Qajj-va 
Kal 6 warrjp /j.ov ttjv PajiaijX (0, 
'Fo^aijX P). It will be observed that 
whereas in our text Jacob recovers his 
herds, in the Test. Jud. the sons of 
Jacob restore to the Amorites the 
herds which they had taken from them. 
Tliis divergence in the tradition is seen 
also in the Hebrew versions. Thus 
the Yalkut (in Jellinek's Bet ha- 
Midrasch) supports our text : " All the 
Amorites . . . came without arms 
. . . and besought them to make 
peace, and they made peace with them 
and gave them Tirana (njan) and all 
the land of Hararya (nmn). And then 
Jacob made peace with them, and they 
delivered up to the sons of Jacob all 
the cattle which they had taken from 
them, (returning) two for each one, and 
they gave them tribute, and returned 
(iTinn) to them all the booty ; and 
Jacob turned to Timuah and Judah to 
Arbael (Sx^nx)." On the other hand 
Gaster's translation of the Chronicles of 

Jerahmeel (pp. 83-84) supports the 
view in the Test. Jud.: "All the 
Amorites came without arms and 
promised to keep peace (and friendship, 
and they gave unto Jacob Tirana and 
the whole land of Hararyah). Then 
Jacob made peace with them, and the 
sons of Jacob restored them all the 
sheep they had captured from them, 
and in returning them gave double, 
two for one. And Jacob built Timnah 
(mD'n) and Judah built Zabel (Vnzi)." 
This translation does not represent the 
Bodleian MS, which (fol. 30 a) runs as 
follows : " All the Amorites . . . came 
to them without arms and surrendered 
themselves to be their hirelings, and 
they made peace with them, and they 
gave a present and they restored to 
them Jacob (sic, here I think the un- 
grammatical zpy arh is corrupt rather 
for apy •'j^'? : hence "restored to the 
sons of Jacob " as in the Yalkut and 
our text; or for jpv' 'J^ = hence "the 
sons of Jacob restored " as we presume 
is the text of the British Museum MS 
occasionally used by Gaster) all the 
cattle which they had captured twice 
over, and they restored (reading iTinn 
instead of the intransitive nnn) the 
booty and Jacob built (sic) and also 
Judah (sic)." The Bodleian MS men- 
tions no towns. The view represented 
in the Test. Jud. has thus no indubitable 
support in the Chronicles of Jerahmeel. 
It has such, however, in the Book of 
Jashar (op. cit. ii. 1184) : Les fils de 
Jacob . . . leur rendirent tous les 
hommes qu'ils avaient emmenes prison- 
niers . . . et autre butin." 

8. Rdbil. This is most probably 
corrupt for Arbael, cf. Jalkut ("jxanx) 
quoted in preceding note. Thus Arbael 
appears iu Test. Jud. 7 as 'Pa^a-fjX 
(0) or 'Po^aT7X (P), 'Pa/t/SaijX (CR) ; 
Vn^t apparently in the Brit. Museum 


he returned in peace, and made peace with them, and they 
became his servants, until the day that he and his sons 
"went down into Egypt. 10. And in the seventh year of 
2149 A.M. this week he sent Joseph to learn about the welfare 
of his brothers from his house to the land of Shechem, 
and he found them in the land of Dothan. 11. And they 
dealt treacherously with him, and formed a plot against 
him to slay him, but changing their minds, they sold 
him to Ishmaelite merchants, and they brought him down 
into Egypt, and they sold him to Potiphar, the eunuch 
of Pharaoh, the chief of the cooks, priest of the city of 

'Elew. 12. And the sons of Jacob slaughtered a kid, 
and dipped the coat of Joseph in the blood, and sent (it) to 
Jacob their father on the tenth of the seventh month. 
13. And he mourned all that night, for they had brought it 
to him in the evening, and he became feverish with 
mourning for his death, and he said : " An evil beast hath 
devoured Joseph " ; and all the members of his house 
[mourned with him that day, and they] were grieving and 
mourning with him all that day. 14. And his sons and 

MS used by Gaster but not in the became his servants. The Hebrew for 

Bodleian (see preceding note). We these words is preserved in the 

have here most probably the strong- Chronicles of Jerahmeel ; see note on 

hold Arbela mentioned in 1 Mace. ix. verses 8-9. 

2, where it is said that Bacchides and 10-11. Cf. Gen. xxxvii. 12, 13, 17, 

Alcimus " went by the way that lead- 20 28 36. 

eth to Galgala and encamped against \q '^^/;^„, Eth. Doth^'im. 

Mesaloth which IS in Arbela (M€(To-aXw^ -, , r. » ^ ^7 t tt 

tV ^v 'Api3^Xo«) and got possession of 11-^^",^'^ of Pharaoh. Here 

it" (cf. Joseph. Ant. xii. 11. 1). Here J"''''"'\ ^T /f *^ °''°,-. ^f 

it seems best with Tuch and Wellhausen ^his word need not be taken literally 

to read Me(ra5co^r=nni.o=" strong- but simply as meaning ' a court 

holds '■ (see Enyc. Bib. i. 291). Arbela ^^^'^^ ^ ' /' ^ ^f^' ^^f/' ^^■. ^ , , 

is mentioned in the Book of Jashar , ^^^^ "f ^^' '^'f'- ."•t^^^^'^-.V ' 

{op. cit. ii. 1178) as one of the cities ^^- l^; Our text and the LXX of Gen. 

put to the sword by the sons of Jacob ^^^^"; ^6 wrong y take D^n^cnp^ as = 

fn t>,5<! Tv-nr apxifJ-ajeipos. It should be "captain 

ill i>iiio >\ ax ■ „ , i_ J J )» 

Tamndtdris = Qafivaddpes = Din-njsn, ""^ *^^ body-guard. 
Judg. ii. 9. This appears as Timna C't^y of Elew= WKlov irbXew (cf. 

(njon) in the Jalkut : see note on verses LXX Gen. xli. 45, 50, xlvi. 20), i.e. 

8-9. It was one of the cities fortified On ([«). 

by Bacchides against Jonathan (1 Mace. 12-14. Cf. Gen. xxxvii. 31-35. 

ix. 50). 13. [Mourned loith him, that day, and 

9. Made peace with them,, and they they]. Bracketed as a dittography. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 10-20 205 

his daughter rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be 
comforted for his son. 15. And on that day Bilhah heard 
that Joseph had perished, and she died mourning him, and 
she was living in fQafratef,*}- and Dinah also, his daughter, 
died after Joseph had perished. And there came these three 
mournings upon Israel in one month. 16. And they buried 
Bilhah over against the tomb of Eachel, and Dinah also, 
his daughter, they buried there. 17. And he mourned for 
Joseph one year, and did not cease, for he said " Let me go 
down to the grave mourning for my son." 18. For this 
reason it is ordained for the children of Israel that they 
should afflict themselves on the tenth of the seventh month — 
on the day that the news which made him weep for Joseph 
came to Jacob his father — that they should make atone- 
ment for themselves thereon with a young goat on the 
tenth of the seventh month, once a year, for their sins ; 
for they had grieved the affection of their father regarding 
Joseph his son, 19. And this day has been ordained 
that they should grieve thereon for their sins, and for 
all their transgressions and for all their errors, so that they 
might cleanse themselves on that day once a year. 20. And 
after Joseph perished, the sons of Jacob took unto them- 
selves wives. The name of Eeuben's wife is 'Ada ; and 
the name of Simeon's wife is 'Adiba'a, a Canaanite ; and the 

15. Qafrdtif [b and so a,]most a), c 18. Afflict themselves. This phrase ( = 

reads Qaraftifa. These may be corrup- raireivovi' tt]v ^pvxQv, vsi nn;) is a tech- 

tions of "Eder of Ephrath," which was njcal designation for fasting': see Lev. 

at one time the abode of Jacob. See xvi. 31, xxiu. 27, 32 ; Ezra viii. 21 ; 

xxxiii.^ 1 note. Or more probably Dan. x. 12. So used in the Mishna : 

Qafratef is the same as Kabratan in n'jyn =" fasting. " 

xxxii. 32, where see note. oa ri„ 4.1, i- 4. <• at, 

^. ,' . ,. . r^ 11. 20. iov the list of these names m 

DiTiah, According to Gen. rabba 4.1, c< ~- t? 4. 4. <. 1 00 

ort -rv- -u -J o- J- the byriac Fragment see mytext, p. 183. 

JO Dinah married Simeon ; according ^ ^.g.^^^^^ ^^^ .^ \^ the Book 

to PS;-Ph|Io^ Ant. biU. Zt6. p. 51, she ^^ j^^^^^^ ^ .^^_ desApocr. ii. 1198. 

"""irCf-^^n. xxxvii. 35. 'f^ ^"^ ^^''^' fragment. Book 

18-19. Cf. Lev. xvi. 29, 34. 15, 16.- "^ J^^^^^^ g'^««^ Elioram, daughter of 

TT J 1 ., • £.^1- ■ iVL Uavi, a Uanaanitess. 

Haggada knows no hing of this-^mstitu- '^^ibd:^, a Canaanite. This is 

tion of the Day of Atonement. See notes ^^f^^^^^j ^^ .^ ^^^ ^j^j jO j,^.^^_ ^j_ 

on V. 17-18 which possibly belong to ^5 ^^^^^ g^^^^l ^ ^^^ ^^ Levi is said to 
this context. 



name of Levi's wife is Melka, of the daughters of Aram, 
of the seed of the sons of Terah ; and the name of Judah's 
wife, Betasu'el, a Canaanite ; and the name of Issachar's 
wife, Hezaqa ; and the name of Zebulon's wife, -f-Ni'imanf ; 


and the name of Dan's wife, 'Egla ; and the name of 
Naphtali's wife, Easu'u, of Mesopotamia ; and the name of 
Gad's wife, Maka ; and the name of Asher's wife, 'Ijona ; 
and the name of Joseph's wife, Asenath, the Egyptian ; and 


the name of Benjamin's wife, 'Ijasaka. 21. And Simeon 
repented, and took a second wife from Mesopotamia as 
his brothers. 

be the sou of a Canaanitish woman. 
Siuce such a marriage was an abomina- 
tion for which death was the penalty, 
cf. XXX. 7 sqq., it is to our author's 
credit that he has not sought to explain 
away the statement in Gen. slvi. 10. 
'Adibaa may be corrupt ; for the Syriac 

Fragment has J^ ^J ■^ and Book of 

Jashar " Buna." Later rabbinic tradi- 
tion sought to explain this away. Ac- 
cording to Gen. rabba 80 Shaul the son 
of the Canaanitish woman is said to be 
the son of Dinah, who was deflowered 
by Shechem. The Rabbis say that 
Simeon married her (so also Book of 
Jashar, op. cit. ii. 1198). Auother 
evasion is found in Ps.-Jon. on Gen. 
xlvi. 10 where Shaul is said to be "Zimri 
who did the work of the Canaanites in 
Shittim " ; and in Sanh. 82 h, Shaul is 
said to have been called ' ' the sou of a 
Canaanite" "because he had com- 
mitted an act like that of Canaan " 
(see Beer, Buch der Juhiliien, p. 51 sq.). 

MUM. So also in Test. Levi 11 
and Syriac Fragment. Bk. of Jashar 
"Adina," daughter of Jobab, son of 
Joctan, son of Heber. 

Terah. Eth. Taran. 

BetcisU'el. Cf. xli. 7. So also in 
Test. Jud. 8, 13, 16 where the name 
appears variously as ^y^craovs, 'B-qnovi, 
'&L(T(Tovi. These are all derived from 
\3wn1, "the daughter of Shua": see 
Gen. xxxviii. 2 and Syriac Fragment 

^a_i^ 2»»-S. The Bk. of Jashar 
gives her personal name as "Habith." 
She is here and in Test. Jud. 13, 16 

and Bk, of Jashar called a Canaanitess. 
Here again the rabbinic tradition felt 
this an offence. Accordingly in some of 
the MSS of Onkelos on Gen. xxxviii. 2 
•'i]li2 C'N is rendered by ntjh 133^ " a 
merchant." Similarly in Ps.-Jon. on 
the same passage : also in Gen. rabba 
85 ; Pessach. 50 a. Simeon ben 
Lakish (circ. 200-250 a.d.) gave this 
interpretation on the ground of Hosea 
xii. 7, where he evidently took 'jyjD in 
the sense of "trader," "merchant." 

Iffizaqd. Syr. Frag. )Lo|L^. Bk. 
of Jashar, "Arida." 

\Ni'i'mAn-\. Since ahd omit this 
name it may be the invention of an 
Ethiopic scribe. Furthermore the Syr. 
Frag, gives ^ ^ \A_ "Adni," Bk. of 
Jashar, "Marusa." 

'P^IA. Syr. Frag. P i« ^^ Bk. 
of Jashar, "Aphlalath." 

Rasi),\%. Syr. Frag. |La.OJ. Bk. of 
Jashar, "Merimath." 

MdJca. Syr. Frag. JLjlik^. Bk. 

of Jashar, "Usitb," a daughter of 
Emoram, son of Hus, son of Nachor." 
The Syr. Frag, makes Ma'aka also to 
be of the house of Nachor. 

'fjoiiA. Syr. Frag. )L1(1^. Bk. of 

Jashar, first "Edon" and next "Ha- 

Asenath. Eth 'Asneth. Cf. Gen. 
xli. 45. 

'Ijasaka. Syr. Frag.)LliQ.^JX^. Bk. 

of Jashar, "Mahalia" and "Harbath." 


Behecca's admonition to Jacoh and Ms reply, 1-8. Rebecca 
asks Isaac to make Usau swear that he will not injure 
Jacoh, 9-12. Isaac consents, 13-17. Usaic takes the 
oath and likewise Jacob, 18-26. Death of Rebecca, 27. 

XXXV. And in the first year of the first week of the 2157 a.m. 
forty-fifth jubilee Eebecca called Jacob, her son, and com- 
manded him regarding his father and regarding his brother, 
that he should honour them all the days of his life. 
2. And Jacob said : " I will do everything as thou hast com- 
manded me ; for this thing will be honour and greatness 
to me, and righteousness before the Lord, that I should 
honour them. 3. And thou too, mother, knowest from the 
time I was born until this day, all my deeds and all that is 
in my heart, that I always think good concerning all. 
4. And how should I not do this thing which thou hast 
commanded me, that I should honour my father and 
my brother ! 5. Tell me, mother, what perversity hast thou 
seen in me and I shall turn away from it, and mercy will 
be upon me." 6. And she said unto him : " My son, I 
have not seen in thee all my days any perverse but (only) 
upright deeds. And yet I shall tell thee the truth, my 
son : I shall die this year, and I shall not survive this 
year in my life ; for I have seen in a dream the day of 
my death, that I should not live beyond a hundred and 
fifty-five years : and behold I have completed all the 
days of my life which I am to live." 7. And Jacob 
laughed at the words of his mother, because his mother had 
said unto him that she should die ; and she was sitting 
opposite to him in possession of her strength, and she 
was not infirm in her strength ; for she went in and out 
and saw, and her teeth were strong, and no ailment 

XXXV, 1. His life. MSS add a 5. Mercy. Latin has " Misericordia 

gloss "of Jacob." Domini." 


had touched her all the days of her life. 8. And Jacob 
said unto her : " Blessed am I, mother, if my days approach 
the days of thy life, and my strength remain with me thus 
as thy strength : and thou wilt not die, for thou art jesting 
idly with me regarding thy death." 9. And she went in 
to Isaac and said unto him : " One petition I make unto 
thee : make Esau swear that he will not injure Jacob, 
nor pursue him with enmity ; for thou kuowest Esau's 
thoughts that they are perverse from his youth, and there is 
no goodness in him ; for he desires after thy death to 
kill him. 10. And thou knowest all that he has done 
since the day Jacob his brother went to Haran until 
this day ; how he has forsaken us with his whole heart, and 
has done evil to us ; thy flocks he has taken to himself, and 
carried off all thy possessions from before thy face. 11. And 
when we implored and besought him for what was our own, 
he did as a man who was taking pity on us. 12. And 
he is bitter against thee because thou didst bless Jacob 
thy perfect and upright son ; for there is no evil but 
only goodness in him, and since he came from Haran 
unto this day he has not robbed us of aught, for he brings 
us everything in its season always, and rejoices with all his 
heart when we take at his hands, and he blesses us, and 
has not parted from us since he came from Haran until 
this day, and he remains with us continually at home 
honouring us." 13. And Isaac said unto her: "I, too, 
know and see the deeds of Jacob who is with us, how that 
with all his heart he honours us ; but I loved Esau formerly 
more than Jacob, because he was the first-born ; but now 
I love Jacob more than Esau, for he has done manifold evil 

9. This passage is referred to 'laaaK ev ry y^pq. irapatvecrai t<jj 

Josephus by Syncellus, 1. 202 at the 'Haav /cat t<j 'laKoj/S d7a7rav dXX^Xous. 

beginning of the section, and to Jubilees Kai irapaiv^cas aiiroh wpoetirev 6ri iav 

at the close, but he attributes it wrongly iiravacTTri rf 'la/cw^ 6 '^aav, ds x^'pas 

to Josephus. T} 'Pe/3eK/ca yrrjcre tov avrov Treceirat. 

CHAPTER XXXV. 8-20 209 

deeds, and there is no righteousness in him, for all his 
ways are unrighteousness and violence, [and there is no 
righteousness around him]. 14. And now my heart is 
troubled because of all his deeds, and neither he nor his 
seed is to be saved, for they are those who will be 
destroyed from the earth, and who will be rooted out 
from under heaven, for he has forsaken the God of Abraham 
and gone after his wives and after their uncleanness 
and after their error, he and his children, 15. And 
thou dost bid me make him swear that he will not slay 
Jacob, his brother ; even if he swear he will not abide 
by his oath, and he will not do good but evil only. 
16. But if he desires to slay Jacob, his brother, into Jacob's 
hands will he be given, and he will not escape from his 
hands, [for he will descend into his hands.] 17. And fear 
thou not on account of Jacob ; for the guardian of Jacob 
is great and powerful and honoured, and praised more than 
the guardian of Esau." 18. And Eebecca sent and called 
Esau, and he came to her, and she said unto him : " I have 
a petition, my son, to make unto thee, and do thou promise 
to do it, my son." 19. And he said: "I will do every- 
thing that thou sayest unto me, and I will not refuse 
thy petition." 20. And she said unto him: "I ask you 
that the day I die, thou wilt take me in and bury me near 
Sarah, thy father's mother, and that thou and Jacob will 
love each other, and that neither will desire evil against 
the other, but mutual love only, and (so) ye will prosper, 
my sons, and be honoured in the midst of the land, and 
no enemy will rejoice over you, and ye will be a blessing 

13. [And there is no righteousness 17. Guardian of Jacob. We seem 

around him.] This is either a corrup- here to have the idea of men's guardian 

tion or, as I take it, a dittography. angels. In that case it is the earliest 

16. [For lie will descend into his distinct reference to this belief. Cf. 

hands.] Herejewared= "will descend" Mt. xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15; Heb. i. 

is corrupt for je\vadeq= "will fall." 14; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, IL 

I have bracketed the clause as a gloss 752. 
from xxxvi. 9. 


and a mercy in the eyes of all those that love you." 
21. And he said: "I will do all that thou hast told me, 
and I shall bury thee on the day thou diest near Sarah, my 
father's mother, as thou hast desired that her bones may be 
near thy bones. 22. And Jacob, my brother, also, I shall 
love above all flesh ; for I have not a brother in all the 
earth but him only : and this is no great merit for me if I 
love him ; for he is my brother, and we were sown together 
in thy body, and together came we forth from thy 
womb, and if I do not love my brother, whom shall I love ? 
23. And I, myself, beg thee to exhort Jacob concerning 
me and concerning my sons, for I know that he will 
assuredly be king over me and my sons, for on the day 
my father blessed him he made him the higher and me the 
lower. 24. And I swear unto thee that I shall love him, 
and not desire evil against him all the days of my life 
but good only." And he sware unto her regarding all this 
matter. 25. And she called Jacob before the eyes of Esau, 
and gave him commandment according to the words which 
she had spoken to Esau. 26. And he said : " I shall do thy 
pleasure; believe me that no evil will proceed from me 
or from my ' sons against Esau, and I shall be first in 
naught save in love only." 27. And they eat and drank, 
she and her sons that night, and she died, three jubilees 
and one week and one year old, on that night, and her two 
sons, Esau and Jacob, buried her in the double cave 
near Sarah, their father's mother. 

Isaac gives directions to his sons as to Ms burial : exhorts them 
to love one another and makes them imprecate destruction 
on him who injures his brother, 1-11. Divides his 

22. Fro7)i ihy womb. So d probably mercy " wbich goes back to a mis- 
by an emendation. 6c = "from thy translation of am (Littmann). 


possessions, giving the larger portion to Jacob, and dies, 
12-18. Leah dies: Jacob's sons come to comfort him, 

XXXVI. And in the sixth year of this week Isaac called 2162 a.m. 
his two sons, Esau and Jacob, and they came to him, and he 
said unto them : " My sons, I am going the way of my 
fathers, to the eternal house where my fathers are. 2. 
Wherefore bury me near Abraham my father, in the double 
cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite, where Abraham 
purchased a sepulchre to bury in ; in the sepulchre which I 
digged for myself, there bury me. 3. And this I command 
you, my sons, that ye practise righteousness and uprightness 
on the earth, so that the Lord may bring upon you all that 
the Lord said that he would do to Abraham and to his seed. 
4. And love one another, my sons, your brothers as a man 
who loves his own soul, and let each seek in what he may 
benefit his brother, and act together on the earth ; and let 
them love each other as their own souls. 5. And concern- 
ing the question of idols, I command and admonish you to 
reject them and hate them, and love them not ; for they are 
full of deception for those that worship them and for those 
that bow down to them. 6. Eem ember ye, my sons, the 
Lord God of Abraham your father, and how I too wor- 
shipped Him and served Him in righteousness and in joy, 
that He might multiply you and increase your seed as the 
stars of heaven in multitude, and establish you on the earth 
as the plant of righteousness which will not be rooted out 
unto all the generations for ever. 7. And now I shall make 
you swear a great oath — for there is no oath which is greater 

XXXVI. 1. According to ver. 18 The eternal house. Eccles. xii. 5, 

Isaac was 180 years old when he died, in'^y n'3. 

Hence he must have been born in 1982 4. Your brothers. Seems a gloss. 

and not in 1980 as in xvi. 12-13. 6. Ho^o = viaka,ma. emended from 

Josephus {Ant. i. 22) sets Isaac's age waemze=" and after this." 

down at 185. Plant of righteov.sness. See notes 

on i. 16, xvi. 26, xxi. 24. 


than it by the name glorious and honoured and great and 
splendid and wonderful and mighty, which created the 
heavens and the earth and all things together — that ye will 
fear Him and worship Him. 8. And that each will love 
his brother with affection and righteousness, and that neither 
will desire evil against his brother from henceforth for ever 
all the days of your life, so that ye may prosper in all 
your deeds and not be destroyed. 9. And if either of you 
devises evil against his brother, know that from henceforth 
every one that devises evil against his brother will fall into 
his hand, and will be rooted out of the land of the living, 
and his seed will be destroyed from under heaven. 10. 
But on the day of turbulence and execration and indignation 
and anger, with flaming devouring fire as He burnt Sodom, so 
likewise will He burn his land and his city and all that is his, 
and he will be blotted out of the book of the discipline of 
the children of men, and not be recorded in the book of life, 
but in that which is appointed to destruction, and he will 
depart into eternal execration ; so that their condemnation may 
be always renewed in hate and in execration and in wrath and 
in torment and in indignation and in plagues and in disease 
for ever. 11. I say and testify to you, my sons, accord- 
ing to the judgment which will come upon the man who 
wishes to injure his brother." 12. And he divided all his 
possessions between the two on that day, and he gave the 
larger portion to him that was the first-born, and the tower 
and all that was about it, and all that Abraham possessed at 
the Well of the Oath. 13. And he said, "This larger 
portion I shall give to the first-born." 14. And Esau said, 
" I have sold to Jacob and given my birthright to Jacob ; to 
him let it be given, and I have not a single word to say 

10. Turbulence and execration and Book of life. See note on xxx. 22. 

indignation and anger. It can hardly In contrast with the Book of life we 

be accidental that we find in Eth. En. have here also a Book of destruction. 

xxxix. 2 "Books of wrath and anger 13. I shall give { = '^hub). MSSgive 

and books of disquiet and turbiilence. " "I shall make great " ('a'abi). 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 8-20 213 

regarding it, for it is his." 15. And Isaac said, "May a 
blessing rest upon you, my sons, and upon your seed this 
day, for ye have given me rest, and my heart is not pained 
concerning the birthright, lest thou shouldest work wicked- 
ness on account of it. 16. May the Most High God bless 
the man that worketh righteousness, him and his seed for 
ever." 17. And he ended commanding them and blessing 
them, and they eat and drank together before him, and he 
rejoiced because there was one mind between them, and 
they went forth from him and rested that day and slept. 
18. And Isaac slept on his bed that day rejoicing; and he 
slept the eternal sleep, and died one hundred and eighty 
years old. He completed twenty-five weeks and five years ; 
and his two sons Esau and Jacob buried him. 19. And 
Esau went to the land of Edom, to the mountains of Seir, 
and dwelt there. 20. And Jacob dwelt in the moun- 
tains of Hebron, in the tower of the land of the sojournings 
of his father Abraham, and he worshipped the Lord with all 
his heart and according to the visible commands according as 

16. Most High God. This divine From the above facts it follows that this 
title is frequently used by our author : title of God was most used in the second 
see vii, 36, xii. 19, xiii. 29, xvi. 18, cent. B.C., though rare iu some charac- 
27, XX. 9, xxi. 20, 22, 23, 25, xxii. teristic writings of that century such 
6, 11, 13, 19, 23, 27 (twice), xxv. 3, as Eth. Enoch i.-xxxvi. (t^vice), Ixxii.- 
11, 21, xxvii. 15, xxxii. 1, xxxvi. xc. (once) and 1 Mace, (not at all). 
16, xxxix. 6. Cf. Test. Levi 3, 4, 5 After a long period of comparative 
(twice), 8, 18. This frequency is disuse it again became prominent in 
characteristic of many writings of the writings of the latter half of the first 
second cent. B.C. Thus it is found forty- cent. a.d. 
eight times in Sirach and thirteen times 18. Cf. Gen. xxxv. 29. 
in Daniel. On the other hand it appears Slept the eternal sleej). Cf. Test, 
only once in the Prophets, six times iu Dan 7 ; Issach.7: \)irvw<xevvTrvoval<hvt.ov. 
the Pentateuch (and of these four times Test. Jos. 20 : iKOLfirjdt) vtvvov alihviov. 
in Gen. xiv. in connection with Mel- 20. According to the visible com- 
chizedek), in the Pss. twenty-one times, ma.nds according as He had divided. 
From the close of the second cent. B.C. {a.d). he almost wholly wanting, 
till after the Christian era it is rare. Latin : " secundum praecepta visibilia 
Thus in Eth. En.xci.-civ. (before 79 B.C.) secundum divisionem temporum genera- 
it is found nine times, four in xxxvii.- tionum ejus." The commands here 
lxx.,threetimesinTobit, once in Judith, referred to were made visible to Jacob 
not at all in the Pss. of Solomon, twice on the seven tablets which the angel 
in Wisdom, twice in the Assumption of showed him in a vision : see xxxii. 21. 
Moses, nine times in the N.T. It is fre- All the history of Jacob's descendants 
quent in the Apocalypse of Baruch — was recorded here in their successive 
twenty -three times, and also iu 4 Ezra, time divisions (so also Ronsch, p. 152). 


He had divided the days of his generations. 21. And Leah 
2167 A.M. his wife died in the fourth year of the second week of the 
forty-fifth jubilee, and he buried her in the double cave near 
Eebecca his mother, to the left of the grave of Sarah, his 
father's mother. 22, And all her sons and his sons came to 
mourn over Leah his wife with him, and to comfort him 
regarding her, for he was lamenting her. 23. For he loved 
her exceedingly after Eachel her sister died ; for she was 
perfect and upright in all her ways and honoured Jacob, 
and all the days that she lived with him he did not hear 
from her mouth a harsh word, for she was gentle and peace- 
able and upright and honourable. 24. And he remembered 
all her deeds which she had done during her life, and he 
lamented her exceedingly ; for he loved her with all his 
heart and with all his soul. 

Esau's sons reproach him for his subordination to Jacob, and 
constrain him to war with the assistance of 4000 
mercenaries against Jacob, 1-15. Jacob reproves Esau, 
16-17. Esau's reply, 1^-2^. 

2162 A.M. XXXVII. And on the day that Isaac the father of Jacob 
and Esau died, the sons of Esau heard that Isaac had given 

XXXVII. -XXXVIII. These two account in the Jalkut and the 

chapters give in some respects the fullest Chronicles of Jerahmeel comes very 

and in others an abridged form of an close to — at times reproduces verbally — 

ancient legend dealing with the wars that in our text, though most probably 

between the sons of Jacob and Esau, \vith later amplifications. They show 

The legend is elsewhere found in the however a deliberate attempt to adapt 

Test. Judah 9, in the Jalkut Shimeoni the legend to later times. Thus Adora 

i. 132 (reprinted in Jellinek's Bet ha- or Adoraim (onnN") is changed to Arodin 

Mldrasch, iii. 3-5 and on pp. 180-182 (in the Jalkut) or Merodin (jnnN, a.l. 

of my Ethiopic test of Jubilees), in pnnD in the Chron. of Jerah.) where 

the Chronicles of Jerahmeel, pp. 80-87, the M of the latter is due to a 

and in the Book of Jashar (op. cit. ii. change of k into d- This Arodin is 

1236-1238). Our text preserves the Herodion built by Herod the Great, 

oldest form. The same form though Gaster has recognised this fact, and on 

very abbreviated is presupposed in the this ground would assign the origin of 

Test. Judah 9 : yet even this preserves the legend to the beginning of the 

some details on the capture of Adora (?) Christian era. He takes this legendary 

not found in any of the others. The story to be a piece of contemporary 



the portion of the elder to his younger son Jacob and they 
were very angry. 2. And they strove with their father, 
saying : " Why has thy father given Jacob the portion of the 
elder and passed over thee, although thou art the elder and 
Jacob the younger ? " 3. And he said unto them " Because 
I sold my birthright to Jacob for a small mess of lentils ; 
and on the day my father sent me to hunt and catch and 
bring him something that he should eat and bless me, he came 
with guile and brought my father food and drink, and my 
father blessed him and put me under his hand. 4. And now 
our father has caused us to swear, me and him, that we shall 
not mutually devise evil, either against his brother, and that 
we shall continue in love and in peace each with his brother 
and not make our ways corrupt." 5. And they said unto 
him, " We shall not hearken unto thee to make peace with 
him ; for our strength is greater than his strength, and we 
are more powerful than he ; we shall go against him and 
slay him, and destroy him and his sons. And if thou wilt 
not go with us, we shall do hurt to thee also. 6. And now 

history, "a reflex of the Jewish wars Thus the oldest form of the legend 

against Herod " (Chron. of Jerah. p. is found in our text and in the Test. 

Ixxxiii.). But the legend does not owe Jud. 9 ; the next oldest in the Jalkut 

its origin to the times of Herod, but and Chronicles of Jerahmeel, and the 

only this adaptation of it. We should latest in the Book of Jashar. 

observe also that there were two places XXXVII. 1. On tlie day that Isaac 

called Herodion : the first was a fort _ _ _ ^;.^^_ The sons of Esau began their 

built near Jerusalem by Herod (Joseph. iti^n to Jacob from the day of 

Ant. XXV. 13. 9, xv. 9. 6, xvii 8. 3), j^^^^.^ ^^^^^1^ (2162 a.m.), but did' not 

m which he was subsequently buried. ^^^^^^ j^^^ ^iH Leah died (2167 a.m.). 

The second was likewise a fort built in g ^ ■. i ' 

Idumea on the confines of Arabia ^n „ i -■ -.'r. .ry, 

(Joseph. Ant. xvi. 2. 1 ; Bell. Jud. i. ^'^^ }\-^^- ^^% favourable view 

21. 10). Our legend underwent a Presented here of Esau contrasts 

further adaptation-indeed a complete strongly _ with that found in Jalkut 

reca.sting-in the Book of Jashar, ^^'"J^°5' reprinted m Jellinek s Bet 

which has here borrowed its materials ha-Midrasch, 111. 3-5, or m the 

from the Midrash in Josippon (see Chronicles of Jerahmeel, xxxvu 1. 

Bousset, Z.f. NTliche Wissensch. 1900, ^^f'^^^'^S *« «^^ t^^*' ^^ '^^« "«* ^^.'J" 

p. 205). The events recorded are ^^^t E^au « sons that were primarily 

placed after Jacob's death, and the *« ^^''^"^^ fo'' t^^« Maternal war. 

story presupposes the struggles of the 5. Him and his sons. Emended 

Idumean house of Antipater, by which with Latin from " his sons " {b c d). 

through the help of Rome — here called Text of a, though ungrammatical, = 

" Aeneas " — it rose to royal power. " him his sons." 


hearken unto us : Let us send to Aram and Philistia and 
Moab and Ammon, and let us choose for ourselves chosen 
men who are ardent for battle, and let us go against him and 
do battle with him, and let us exterminate him from the 
earth before he grows strong." 7. And their father said 
unto them, " Do not go and do not make war with him lest 
ye fall before him." 8. And they said unto him, " This too, 
is exactly thy mode of action from thy youth until this day, 
and thou art putting thy neck under his yoke. We shall 
not hearken to these words." 9. And they sent to Aram, 
and to 'Aduram to the friend of their father, and they hired 
along with them one thousand fighting men, chosen men of war. 
10. And there came to them from Moab and from the children 
of Ammon, those who were hired, one thousand chosen men, 
and from Philistia, one thousand chosen men of war, and from 
Edom and from the Horites one thousand chosen fighting 
men, and from the Kittim mighty men of war. 11. And 
they said unto their father : " Go forth with them and 
lead them, else we shall slay thee." 12. And he was 
filled with wrath and indignation on seeing that his 
sons were forcing him to go before (them) to lead them 
against Jacob his brother. 13. But afterward he remem- 

6-10. To these verses the only 3, 65. The Syrians invaded Judah 

equivalent in the Test. Jud. 9 is : frequently hy Edom (1 Mace. iv. 29, 

iir^XOtv r)ixiv 'H(7aP, 6 ctSeX^^j tov 61), and were helped by the latter 

7raTp6s fiov, iv \aQ ^apei Kal Icx'^PV- against Israel. Later John Hyrcanus 

For that in the Jalkut see note on ■\\Tested Adora and Mareshah out of 

verses 14-16. the hands of the Edomites and coni- 

6. The names of the nations men- pelled the whole nation to accept 

tioned here recur in verses 9-10. circumcision (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 9. 1, 

9-10. Against nearly all the nations xv. 7. 9 ; Bell. Jud. L 2.6). As regards 

mentioned here the Maccabees waged the Kittim, see note on xxiv. 28. These 

war. With Aram or Syria they were may have been Greek auxiliaries of the 

at strife for many decades. The SjTians. 

Ammonites were invaded by Judas (1 g 'AMrdm. He was an Aramaean. 

Mace. V. 6-8; Jose^jh. A/it. xu. 8. 1), gee xxxviii 3. 
and discomfited in several battles. On 

the complete subjug.ation of the Philis- 10. Horiles. Eth. Korewos (b) : a 

tines by the Maccabees see notes on KGrews. See Snci/c. Bib., in loc. 

xxiv. 28-32. As regards the Edomites Kittim. The Eth. might also be 

Judas fought against them and smote rendered " Hittites " but the context is 

them vdVa. great slaughter, 1 Mace. v. against this meaning in xxiv. 28. 


bered all the evil which lay hidden in his heart against 
Jacob his brother ; and he remembered not the oath which 
he had sworn to his father and to his mother that he would 
devise no evil all his days against Jacob his brother. 
14. And notwithstanding all this, Jacob knew not that 
they were coming against him to battle, and he was 
mourning for Leah, his wife, until they approached very 
near to the tower with four thousand warriors and chosen 
men of war. 15. And the men of Hebron sent to him 
saying, " Behold thy brother has come, against thee, to 
fight thee, with four thousand girt with the sword, and 
they carry shields and weapons " ; for they loved Jacob 
more than Esau. So they told him ; for Jacob was a more 
liberal and merciful man than Esau. 16. But Jacob 
would not believe until they came very near to the 
tower. 17. And he closed the gates of the tower; and 
he stood on the battlements and spake to his brother Esau 
and said, " Noble is the comfort wherewith thou hast 
come to comfort me for my wife who has died. Is this 
the oath that thou didst swear to thy father and again 
to thy mother before they died ? Thou hast broken the 
oath, and on the moment that thou didst swear to thy 

14-16. These verses are found iu with them, nor did they discover it till 
the Jalkut Shimeoni (Jellinek's Bet the whole host had encompassed the 
ha-Mklrasch, iii. 3) : " It was the year tower, in which there were only Jacob 
when Leah died and Jacob and his and his sons and their 200 servants." 
sons were mourning and some of their Similarly in Chrou. of Jerahmeel, p. 84. 
children had come to comfort them. 17-25. .Jacob's attempt to bring 
Then came (Esau) against them with a about peace and Esau's reply are not 
mighty army of warriors, clad in referred to in the Test. Jud. 9, but are 
armour of iron and brass, all armed shortlj- summarised in the Yalkut : 
with shields and bows and swords, " When therefore Jacob saw that Esau 
4000 waiTiors. All these surrounded had emboldened himself to come against 
the tower, iu which were Jacob and his him in war in order to put those in the 
sons together with their servants, tower to the sword, and that he shot 
children and all their possessions ; for arrows against them, Jacob stood upon 
they had all assembled there in order the wall of the tower, and spake to 
to comfort Jacob in his mourning for Esau his brother words of peace, friend- 
Leah. They were sitting there peace- ship and brotherliness (ninN) ; but Esau 
fully, and none imagined that any would have none of them." Similarly 
force had corne upon them to contend in Chron. of Jerah. p. 84. 


father wast thou condemned." 1 8. And then Esau answered 
and said unto him, " Neither the children of men nor 
the beasts of the earth have any oath of righteousness 
which in swearing they have sworn (an oath valid) for 
ever ; but every day they devise evil one against another, 
and how each may slay his adversary and foe. 19. And 
thou dost hate me and my children for ever. And there 
is no observing the tie of brotherhood with thee. 20. 
Hear these words which I declare unto thee, 

If the boar can change its skin and make its bristles 
as soft as wool, 

Or if it can cause horns to sprout forth on its head 
like the horns of a stag or of a sheep. 

Then shall I observe the tie of brotherhood with thee. 

[And if the breasts separated themselves from their 
mother ; for thou hast not been a brother to me.] 
21. And if the wolves make peace with the lambs so as not 
to devour or do them violence, 

And if their hearts are towards them for good. 

Then there will be peace in my heart towards thee. 

2 2. And if the lion becomes the friend of the ox and makes 
peace with him, 

19. The tie of brotherhood. See this world. Nor do the words as they 
phrase in quotation in preceding note. stand form a distich. If they belong 

20. Boar. In Eth. Enoch Ixxxix. to the text at all, they are corrupt. It 
12, 42 sq., 49, 66, the boar is used to is not improbable that originally they 
denote Esau symbolically. Cf. Ps. followed immediately after ver. 19* 
Ixxx. 13. There is no doubt some such "thou dost hate me and my children 
reference here. for ever." By transposing the two 

Make . . . soft. Instead of 'adkama clauses and by reading 'em'ama tafalta 

we should expect jadakem. atbCi'e 'em'emomii instead of wa'ema 

It can cause horns to sprout f(yrth. So tafalta 'atbat 'em'emon, we should get 

a. 6 c d =" horns were to sprout forth. " the following excellent sense in ver. 

[And if [ah omii)thebreasts separated 19 "And thou dost hate me and my 

themselves from their mother ; for thou children for ever ; for thou hast not been 

hast not been a brother to me."] Ho abed a brother to me since the twins were 

save that for "thou hast not been a separated from their mother. Yea, 

brother to me " d reads " I shall not be there is no observing the tie of brother- 

a brother to thee." These words do hood with thee." 

not belong to their present context; 22. And makes peace with him. This 

for the tristichs before and after deal clause which c d omit is added by « 6 

with ideas taken only from the animal after " ploughs with him." With the 


And if he is bound under one yoke with him and 

ploughs with him, 
Then shall I make peace with thee. 

23. And when the raven becomes white as the raza, 
Then know that I have loved thee 

And shall make peace with thee. 
Thou shalt be rooted out, 
And thy sons shall be rooted out, 
And there shall be no peace for thee." 

24. And when Jacob saw that he was (so) evilly disposed 
towards him with his heart, and with all his soul as to 
slay him, and that he had come springing like the wild 
boar which comes upon the spear that pierces and kills 
it, and recoils not from it; 25, Then he spake to his 
own and to his servants that they should attack him and 
all his companions. 

Wa7' hetween Jacob and Esau. Death of Usau and over- 
throw of his forces, 1-10. Edoni reduced to servitude 
"till this day" 11-14. Kings of Edom, 15-24. (Cf. 
Gen. xxxvi. 31-39.) 

XXXVIII. And after that Judah spake to Jacob, his 
father, and said unto him : " Bend thy bow, father, and 
send forth thy arrows and cast down the adversary and 
slay the enemy ; and mayst thou have the power, for 
we shall not slay thy brother, for he is such as thou, and 
he is like thee : let us give him (this) honour." 2. Then 

guidance of the parallelism I have XXXVIII. 1. In the Jalkiit (cf. the 

transposed it as above. Chron. of Jerah. p. 84) Judah says : 

23. The rdzd. The raza is according to " How long wilt thou extend words of 

Isenberg, Amharic Dictionary, p. 48, peace and friendship to him, when he 

" a large white bird which eats grass- comes against us as an enemy with his 

hoppers." Dillmann both in his mail-clad troops to slay us." 

Lexicon and translation took raza here Let us give him — Nahabo (so read in 

to mean "rice," oryza, but there can my text instead of Nehabo). Emended 

be no doubt that the above is right, with Lat. "demus illi " from bahabena 

Littmann has followed my rendering. = " with us." 



Jacob bent his bow and sent forth the arrow and struck 
Esau, his brother, (on his right breast) and slew him. 
3. And again he sent forth an arrow and struck 'Adoran 
the Aramaean, on the left breast, and drove him backward 
and slew him. 4. And then went forth the sons of 
Jacob, they and their servants, dividing themselves into 
companies on the four sides of the tower. 5. And Judah 
went forth in front, and Naphtali and Gad with him and 
fifty servants with him on the south side of the tower, 
and they slew all they found before them, and not one 
individual of them escaped. 6. And Levi and Dan and 
Asher went forth on the east side of the tower, and 
fifty (men) with them, and they slew the fighting men 
of Moab and Amnion. 7. And Eeuben and Issachar and 
Zebulon went fortli on the north side of the tower, and 

2-3. These two verses are found in 
the reverse order in the Jalkut and 
the Chron. of Jerah. pp. 84-85. The 
former runs : " When Jacob heard this, 
he seized his bow and slew Adoram the 
Edomite. And again he seized his bow 
and smote Esau on the right breast." 
In the Test. Jud. 9 it is said shortly of 
Esau : ^iraiffev iv tS^cj) 'JaKwfi tov 

2. (0)1 his right breast). Supplied 
from the Latin and the Yalkut. See 
preceding note. 

Slew him. A later tradition attri- 
buted the death of Esau to Chushini, 
son of Dan. See Ps.-Jon. on Gen. 1. 
13 ; Book of Ja«ihar {op. cit. ii. 1235) ; 
Sota 13 a. Beer {Buch der Jnhilden, p. 
6) quotes also Pirke R. Eliezer 39. 

3. 'Adordii, the Aramaean. This is 
consistent with the statement in xxxvii. 
9. The Jalkut and the Chron. of 
Jerah. on the other hand make him 
an Edomite. 

4-9. Here the sons of Jacob and their 
200 servants (cf. Jalkut translated in 
note on xxxvii. 14-16) go forth from 
the four sides of the tower to meet the 
4000 soldiers of Esau. So we find it 
exactly in the Yalkut : " And then 
Judah went forth first and Naphtali 
and Gad with him to the south of the 

tower, and 50 servants of the servants 
of Jacob their father with them. And 
Levi nnd Dan and Asher went forth on 
the east of the tower and 50 servants 
with them. And Reuben and Issachar 
and Zebulon went forth on the north 
of the tower and 50 servants with them. 
And Simeon and Benjamin and Enoch 
the son of Reuben went forth on the 
west of the tower and 50 servants with 
them." After a long tedious account 
of the achievements of the various 
brothers which are not alluded to in 
our text the Jalkut again comes into 
touch with it : " 400 men that were 
warriors who had opposed Simeon fell 
and the remaining 600 fled, and amongst 
them were the four sons of Esau — Reuel, 
Jeush, Jolam, Korah . . . And the 
sons of Jacob pursued after them to 
the city Arodin, and they left their 
father Esau lying dead in Arodin, and 
they fled to Mount Seir to the ascent 
of 'Aqrabbim. And the sons of Jacob 
entered and rested there that night and 
they found Esau's dead body and they 
buried it out of respect for their father." 
The Test. Jud. 9 says shortly of Esau : 
Kol iropev6fj.evos iv 'Avovipd/J. (0. 'Avovtj- 
pdfjL, P) dwidavev. The Armenian 
version of this Testament = eTd<f>ri iv 
' Avavipd/j.. 


fifty men with them, and they slew the fighting men of 
the Philistines, 8. And Simeon and Benjamin and Enoch, 
Eeuben's son, went forth on the west side of the tower, 
and fifty (men) with them, and they slew of Edom and 
of the Horites four hundred men, stout warriors ; and 
six hundred fled, and four of the sons of Esau fled with 
them, and left their father lying slain, as he had fallen on 
the hill which is in 'AdCiram. 9. And the sons of Jacob 
pursued after them to the mountains of Seir. And Jacob 
buried his brother on the hill which is in 'Aduram, and he 
returned to his house. 10. And the sons of Jacob pressed 
hard upon the sons of Esau in the mountains of Seir, 
and bowed their necks so that they became servants of the 
sons of Jacob, 11. And they sent to their father (to 
inquire) whether they should make peace with them or slay 
them. 12, And Jacob sent word to his sons that they 
should ruake peace, and they made peace with them, and 
placed the yoke of servitude upon them, so that they paid 
tribute to Jacob and to his sons always, 13. And they 
continued to pay tribute to Jacob until the day that he 
went down into Egypt. 14. And the sons of Edom have 

8. Horites. Cf. xxxvii. 10. These sons of Esau and all the men who had 

are not mentioned in the Yalkut. tied ■vvith them came forth and fell down 

Fmir . . . sons of Esau. These are before the sons of Jacob and laid thera- 

mentioned in the Jalkut translated in selves prostrate and prayed them till 

note on 4-9. they made peace with them. And 

' AdArdm. This appears as Aduriu they made them servants to tribute." 

in the Latin, and as 'Avovipd/j, in Test. Similarly in the Chron. of Jerah. p. 

Jud. 9 (see note on verses 4-9) : in the 87. Test. Jud. 9 gives certain details 

Yalkut as pnnN which is corrupt for of the siege of Adora, and then proceeds: 

D'niiK. This is the "Adciipa mentioned rdre alrovcnv rj/xas ra wpos elprjvrjv' Kal 

by Joseph. Ant. xiii. 15. 4, along with yevdfxevoL j3ov\rjs roO irarpos ri/j-Qv, ide- 

M.dpiaa (cf. 1 Mace. xiii. 20). These ^d/xeda avrovs virocpopovs. Kal ijcrav 

two towns of Edom were captured by didovres vfuv irvpov Kopovs 5iaKO<xiovs 

Hyrcanus and forced to accept circum- . . . ^ws Sre KarriXdo/xev ets Myvirrov. 
cision (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 9. 1; Bell. 10. Pressed liard upon. Heie'aman- 

Jud. i. 2. 6). dabewomu (which is to be retained and 

10-13. The Jalkut is as follows: not emended as in my text) = aniN ^^\^i 

" In the morning the sons of Jacob in the Jalkut. 

armed themselves and pursued after 11-13. The substance of these verses 

them and pressed them hard on Mount is found Ln Test. Jud. 9 ; see on 10-13 

Seir on the ascent of Aqrabbim. The above. 


not got quit of the yoke of servitude which the twelve 
sons of Jacob had imposed on them until this day. 15, 
And these are the kings that reigned in Edom before there 
reigned any king over the children of Israel [until this 
day] in the land of Edom. 16. And Balaq, the son of Beer, 
reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Danaba. 
17. And Balaq died, and Jobab, the son of Zara of Bos^r, 
reigned in his stead. 18. And Jobab died, and 'Asam, 
of the land of Teman, reigned in his stead. 19. And 
'Asam died, and 'Adath, the son of Barad, who slew Midian 
in the field of Moab, reigned in his stead, and the name of 
his city was Avith. 20. And 'Adath died, and Salman, from 
'Amaseqa, reigned in his stead. 21. And Salman died, and 
Saul of Ea'aboth (by the) river, reigned in his stead. 
22. And Saul died, and Ba'elunan, the son of Achbor, 
reigned in his stead. 23. And Ba'elunan, the son of 
Achbor, died, and 'Adath reigned in his stead, and the name 
of his wife was Maitabith, the daughter of Matarat, the 
daughter of Metabedza'ab. 24. These are the kings who 
reiflrned in the land of Edom. 


Joseph set over Potiphars house, 1-4. His purity and 
imprisonment, 5-13. l7nprisonment of Pharaoh's chief 

14. Until this day. Edom was finally 20. Salman; LXX, SaXa/t(£ ; Mass. 

made tributary to Israel by Hyrcanus. nh^'a. 

15-24. Cf. Gen. xxxvi. 31-39. 'AmdsiqiX; LXX, MacxiKKa; Mass. 

16. Cf. Gen. xxxvi. 32. Bdldq = r^j^lpD. 

LXX, 'Bd\aK = vh2. 21. RA'aUth; LXX/Pou^dd ; Mass. 

Dandbd. Cf. LXX, Aevvdpa = nann. nnni. 

17. Zdrd. Cf. LXX, Zdpa, Mass. 22. Ba'ilUndn; LXX, ^akaevvdjv ; 
flj- Mass. jjn 'f^^. 

Bdsir. Cf. LXX, Bo<x6ppa ; Mass. 23. Achbor. Eth. 'Akbur. 

n^sa. 'Addth ; LXX, 'Apd0 ; Mass. tvt. 

18. 'Asdm;LXX,'A(r6iJ.; Mass. am. Maitabith; LXX, Mere^eiJX ; Mass. 

19. 'Addt ; LXX, 'A5dd ; Mass. Vxaa-nD. 

T!i> Mdtarat; LXX, Marpade ; Mass, 

Barad ; LXX, Bapdd ; Mass. ti3. Tiac- 

Avith. Eth. 'Aw'uth; LXX, Ted- mtabidzd'ab ; LXX,U€l:o6p ; Msas. 

ddifjL ; Mass. rriy. am 'd. 


butler and chief baker ivlwse dreams Joseph interprets, 
14-18. (Cf. Gen. xxxvii. 2, xxxix. 3-8, 12-15, 17- 
23, xl. 1-5, 21-23, xli. 1.) 

XXXIX. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's 
sojournings in the land of Canaan. 2. These are the 
generations of Jacob. And Joseph was seventeen years old 
when they took him down into the land of Egypt, and Poti- 
phar, an eunuch of Pharaoh, the chief cook bought him. 3. 
And he set Joseph over all his house, and the blessing of 
the Lord came upon the house of the Egyptian on account 
of Joseph, and the Lord prospered him in all that he did. 
4. And the Egyptian committed everything into the hands of 
Joseph ; for he saw that the Lord was with him, and that 
the Lord prospered him in all that he did. 5. And Joseph's 
appearance was comely and very beautiful was his appear- 
ance, and his master's wife lifted up her eyes and saw 
Joseph, and she loved him, and besought him to lie with 
her. 6. But he did not surrender his soul, and he 
remembered the Lord and the words which Jacob, his 
father, used to read from amongst the words of Abraham, 
that no man should commit fornication with a woman 
who has a husband ; that for him the punishment of death 
has been ordained in the heavens before the Most High 
God, and the sin will be recorded against him in the 
eternal books continually before the Lord. 7. And Joseph 
remembered these words and refused to lie with her. 
8. And she besought him for a year, but he refused and 
would not listen. 9. But she embraced him and held him 

XXXIX. 2. Seventeen years old. Cf. 5. Joseph's appearance, etc. There 

Gen. xxxvii. 2. seems to be a dittography. 

The chief cook. See note on xxxiv. 6. See xx. 4, xxv. 7 where Abraham's 

11. commands on this question are men- 

2-5. Cf. Gen. xxxix. 3-7. tioned. According to Soteh 36* the 

4. Into the /ta^i^^s = ba'edehu. image of Jacob appeared at the window 

Emended with Latin "in manus ejus" and exhorted Joseph to be faithful 

in ver. 13 and Gen. xxxix. 6. From (Hershon, Genesis with a Talm. Com- 

qedmehu =" before him." meutary, p. 423). 


fast in the house iu order to force him to lie with her, and 
closed the doors of the house and held him fast ; but he 
left his garment in her hands and broke through the 
door and iled without from her presence. 10. And the 
woman saw that he would not lie with her, and she 
calumniated him in the presence of his lord, saying : " Thy 
Hebrew servant, whom thou lovest, sought to force me so 
that he might lie with me ; and it came to pass when 
I lifted up my voice that he fled and left his garment 
in my hands when I held him, and he brake through 
the door." 11. And the Egyptian saw the garment of 
Joseph and the broken door, and heard the words of his 
wife, and cast Joseph into prison into the place where 
the prisoners were kept whom the king imprisoned 

12. And he was there in the prison; and the Lord gave 
Joseph favour in the sight of the chief of the prison guards 
and compassion before him, for he saw that the Lord was 
with him, and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper. 

13. And he committed all things into his hands, and 
the chief of the prison guards knew of nothing that 
was with him, for Joseph did every thing, and the Lord 
perfected it. 14. And he remained there two years. 
And in those days Pharaoh, king of Egypt, was wroth 
against his two eunuchs, against the chief butler and 
against the chief baker, and he put them in ward in the 
house of the chief cook, in the prison where Joseph was 
kept. 15. And the chief of 'the prison guards appointed 
Joseph to serve them; and he served before them. 16. 
And they both dreamed a dream, the chief butler and 
the chief baker, and they told it to Joseph. 17. And 

9-13. Cf. Gen. xxxix. 12-15, 17-23. Perfected it. Latin "dirigebat ea," 

13. Into his hands. Emended as in i.e. " made it to prosper." 

ver. 4 from MSS = "before him." Latin j^.^g^ (.f. Gen. xl. 1-5, 21-23. 

" in manus ejus. 

Kneio of nothing that was with him. 14. Ttvo years. Cf. Gen. xli, 1. 

Cf. Gen. xxxix. S. C^iief cook. See note on xxxiv. 11. 


as he interpreted to them so it befell them, and Pharaoh 
restored the chief butler to his office, and the (chief) baker 
he slew, as Joseph had interpreted to them. 18. But the 
chief butler forgot Joseph in the prison, although he had 
informed him what would befall him, and did not remem- 
ber to inform Pharaoh how Joseph had told him, for he 

PharaoJis dreams and their interpretation , 1-4. Elevation 
and marriage of Joseph, 5-13. (Cf. Gen. xli. 1-5, 7-9, 
14 sqq., 25, 29-30, 34, 36, 38-43, 45-46, 49.) 

XL. And in those days Pharaoh dreamed two dreams 
in one night concerning a famine which was to be in all 
the land, and he awoke from his sleep and called all the 
interpreters of dreams that were in Egypt, and magicians, 
and told them his two dreams, and they were not able 
to declare (them). 2. And then the chief butler remembered 
Joseph and spake of him to the king, and he brought him 
forth from the prison, and he told his two dreams 
before him, 3. And he said before Pharaoh that his 
two dreams were one, and he said unto him : " Seven 
years will come (in which there will be) plenty over all 
the land of Egypt, and after that seven years of famine, 
such a famine as has not been in all the land. 4. 
And now let Pharaoh appoint overseers in all the land 
of Egypt, and let them store up food in every city 
throughout the days of the years of plenty, and there will 
be food for the seven years of famine, and the land will 

XL. 1. Cf. Gen. xli. 1, 5, 7, 8. and Gen. xli. 34 ; whereas cd read 

2. Cf. Gen. xli. 9, 14 sqq. mekjada, "threshing floors" or "barns." 

3. Cf. Gen. xli. 25, 29, 30. Perhaps onpsi =" overseers " was cor- 

4. Cf. Gen. xli. 34, 36. rupted into jinijg. Ednsch thinks there 
Overseers. We should here have was a corruption of (riTdpxo.s into ffirap- 

makuannena. Cf. Latin "speculatores," X''<*s. 



not perish through the famine, for it will be very severe." 
5. And the Lord gave Joseph favour and mercy in the eyes 
of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh said unto his servants : " We 
shall not find such a wise and discreet man as this man, 
for the spirit of the Lord is with him." 6. And he 
appointed him the second in all his kingdom and gave him 
authority over all Egypt, and caused him to ride in the 
second chariot of Pharaoh. 7. And he clothed him with 
byssus garments, and he put a gold chain upon his 
neck, and (a herald) proclaimed before him " 'El 'El wa 
'Abirer, and he placed a ring on his hand and made him ruler 
over all his house, and magnified him, and said unto him : 
" Only on the throne shall I be greater than thou." 8. And 
Joseph ruled over all the land of Egypt, and all the 
princes of Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all who did 
the king's business loved him, for he walked in uprightness, 
for he was without pride and arrogance, and he had no 
respect of persons, and did not accept gifts, but he judged in 
uprightness all the people of the land. 9. And the land 
of Egypt was at peace before Pharaoh because of Joseph, for 
the Lord was with him, and gave him favour and mercy for 
all his generations before all those who knew him and those 

5. Cf. Gen. xli. 38, 39. of God " clearly designates Joseph, and, 

6-7. Cf. Gen. xli. 40-43. indeed seems to be a technical designa- 

7. (A herald) proclaim^. The Latin tio° fo^ ^^^^^^ magician. Thus in 

has praeconaverunt ; but the Sam., Acts viii. 10 Simon Magus is called 7, 

LXX, SjT., Vulg., Aquila, Symm. of ^'^'"'/^'^ """f Qf°'' '? ^«')'«^'? ("'^ '^ '"^^°''- 

Gen. xli. 43 have the singiilar. Hence I^vtj fieyaXj)). In a late Christian 

I withdraw my change of the Ethiopic ^f f ^°^ ""^^^^r^^}^ !^?^°*^ ' J¥ ^A'*°7 

sine, into the plural. of Asenath (see Fabricius, Codex Pseud. 

%. , . .,^<. ,, • f T .• ^•^- i- 774-784, ii. 85-102; Batiffol, 

^^ Before him MSS add against Latm ^^^^.^ Patristioa, 1889), Joseph is 

M H.i wa AOirir-^if n 3Ni s '». "the mighty one of God," 'Iw<7r)0 6 

"God, God, the mighty one of God." Bwarbs tov BeoO. The following apt 

The Latin has Elel et Habirel. This parallel may be cited from Pap. Par. 

is a peculiar expansion of the term ^^-j;, ,j^^_ i275 sqq.; Wessely, i. 76 

^•i3x in Gen. xli. 43. With the inter- (quoted by Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 

pretation of that term we have no con- 336 note), (TriKaXov/jiaL ere ttjv fieylffrrfv 

cern here, but only with its derivation hijvafj.iv rrjv iv ti^ ovpavQ {jirh Kvpiov 

in our text. The phrase " mighty one 0£oO Teray/xev-qv. 

CHAPTER XL. 5-13 227 

who heard concerning him, and Pharaoh's kingdom was 
well ordered, and there was no Satan and no evil person 
(therein). 10. And the king called Joseph's name Sephanti- 
phans, and gave Joseph to wife the daughter of Potiphar, 
the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis, the chief cook. 

11. And on the day that Joseph stood before Pharaoh he 
was thirty years old [when he stood before Pharaoh]. 

12. And in that year Isaac died. And it came to pass 
as Joseph had said in the interpretation of his two dreams, 
according as he had said it, there were seven years of 
plenty over all the land of Egypt, and the land of Egypt 
produced abundantly, one measure (producing) eighteen 
hundred measures. 13. And Joseph gathered food into 
every city until they were full of corn until they could 
no longer count and measure it for its multitude. 

Judaic s sons and Tamar, 1-7. Judah's incest with Tamar, 
8-18. Tamar hears twins, 21-22. Judah forgiven 
because he sinned ignorantly and repented when convicted, 
and because Tamar's marriage with his sons had not 

9. No Satan. Cf. xxiii. 29. Hence Ps.-Jon. on Gen. xli. 45 repre- 

10. S^phdntipMns, i.e. mys njss. sents Asenath as a daughter of Dinah 
Gen. xli. 45. Latin Judaism took this ^Y Shechem, who was reared by the 
to mean "revealer of secrets." Cf. wife of Potiphar, prince of Tanais. 
Onk., n'V p*?: p'DBT H-\2l. So also Ps.- Singer (p. 119 note) states that this 
Jon and Svr ^^^ ^^ P*^* forward in the Pirke R. 

Daughter of Potvphar . . . priest of Eliezer 36, 38. This was likewise the 

Heliopolis. Our author has rightly view of the Jewish legend which formed 

identified ns'aiiJ in Gen. xxxvii. 36 and the basis of the Greek romance of 

j?nB 'ai3 in xli. 45 as being one and the ^^^^""1^ °f. ^sen^th (see Hasting s 

same name. He takes the two to refer ^'^^\ ^^«^- ^- ^^^ ; and Issaverden s 

to one and the same person : cf. xxxiv. translation of Uncanonical Writings 

11, xliv. 24. Origen (Cat. Niceph. i. °f ^^^ ^^'^ Testament, 1901, Venice, 

463) refers to our book for this view : PP- ^^"^S)- In these later writings, 

ol-hctrai U Tis ^repou elvai tovtou (i.e. ^lowever, Asenath is no longer repre- 

^ovpTicpdp) rrapa rbv d^v7,aAfievov rbu f'^^ted as a Jewess by birth except 

'lo,<T-nf • ov fXTiv oiJTuis {>7rei\^<pa<nv ^^ ^ ^'""S^^ P^«^^S« ^^ the Syriac ver- 

'E^patoi- dXX' ff airoKpiKpov \iyov(n. ^^^''^• 

Tbv aurbv elvat Kal decnrdTTjv Kal irevde- H- Cf. Gen. xli. 46. I have bracketed 

pbv yevicrdai. Later Judaism was the words "when he stood before 

offended with this marriage of Joseph Pharaoh " as a dittography. 
to the daughter of a heathen priest, 13. Cf. Gen. xli. 49. 


been consummated, 23-28. (Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 6-18, 20- 
26, 29-30, xli. 13.) 

2165 A.M. XLI. And in the forty-fifth jubilee, in the second week, 
(and) in the second year, Judah took for his first-born 
Er, a wife from the daughters of Aram, named Tamar. 
2. But he hated, and did not lie with her, because his 
mother was of the daughters of Canaan, and he wished 
to take him a wife of the kinsfolk of his mother, but Judah, 
his father, would not permit him. 3. And this Er, the 
first-born of Judah, was wicked, and the Lord slew him. 

4. And Judah said unto Onan, his brother : " Go in unto 
thy brother's wife and perform the duty of a husband's 
brother unto her, and raise up seed unto thy brother." 

5. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his, (but) 
his brother's only, and he went into the house of his 
brother's wife, and spilt the seed on the ground, and he 
was wicked in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him. 

6. And Judah said unto Tamar, his daughter-in-law : 
" Remain in thy father's house as a widow till Shelah 
my son be grown up, and I shall give thee to him to wife." 

7. And he grew up ; but Bedsu'el, the wife of Judah, 
2168 A.M. did not permit her son Shelah to marry. And Bedsu'el, the 

wife of Judah, died in the fifth year of this week. 8. And 

XLI. 1. Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 6. iirl ttjv yTJv, Kara tt]v iuTo\1]v rijs 

Frmn the daughters of Aram named fji.r}Tpbs ain-ov' nai ye ovros iv Trovrjplq. 

Tamar. Cf. Test. Jud. 10 : Qdfxap iK airidavev. ijdeXov 8i Kal rbv SiXw/i 

MeeroTToraAiias, Bvyaripa. 'Apd/x. dovvai aiirfj, dXX' i] yvv-fj /j,ov Brja-ffove 

2-3. Cf. Test. Jud. 10 : Kai dyyeXoi ovk d<prjK€V iwov-qpevero yap wpbs ttjp 

KVpiov dvelXev avTov ry rpiTrj riixipq. t-q Odfj.ap, 8ti ovk Tjv sk dvyaripuv 'S.avadv, 

vvKTi, Ka.1 aiVos ovk ?71'w avrriv Kara, cIis avrrj. 

iravovpyiav rrji ixrjrpbs avrov, oil yap 7. Bidsd'Sl, i.e. Bathshua. See xxxiv. 

■ildeXev ^x"" T^Kva d7r' avTTJs. 20. 

3. Cf. Gen. xxxviii 7. Shelah. Eth. Selom. 

4. Ona7i. Eth. 'Aunan. _ 8-12. Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 12-18 : also 
Perform the duty of a husband's Test. Jud. 12: ed/xap, fierd 8vo ^rrj 

brother = 7tPi\< D3^ Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 8 ; dKovaaaa, on dv^pxofiaL Ketpai ra irp6- 

Deut. XXV. 5. ^ara, Koafirjdeiaa KbcTfiip vvficpiKi^, eKddi- 

5-7. Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 9-12: also aev dTrivavTiTjJTrdXenrpbsTrivTrvXTiv . . . 

Test. Jud. 10 : eireydix^pevixa avrrj rbv fxedvadeh . . . ovk etr^yvwv avTTjv dirb 

Avvdv. Kal ye ovtos (f irovTjpiq. ovk tov otvov . . . Kai iKKXLvas irpbs avrrjv 

iyvu aiiTTiv . . . dii(p6eLpe 5e rb (nr^pfia elwov, ElaeXdw Trpds ae. Kal eTiri /xot, 

CHAPTER XLI, 1-15 229 

in the sixth year Judah went up to shear his sheep at 2169 a.m. 
Timnah. And they told Tamar : "Behold thy father-in- 
law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep." 9. And 
she put off her widow's clothes, and put on a veil, and 
adorned herself, and sat in the gate adjoining the 
way to Timnah. 10. And as Judah was going along he 
found her, and thought her to be an harlot, and he said 
unto her ; " Let me come in unto thee " ; and she said 
unto him: "Come in," and he went in. 11, And she 
said unto him : " Give me my hire " ; and he said unto her : 
" I have nothing in my hand save my ring that is on 
my finger, and my necklace, and my staff which is in 
my hand." 12. And she said unto him: "Give them 
to me until thou dost send me my hire " ; and he said 
unto her : " I will send unto thee a kid of the goats " ; 
and he gave them to her, (and he went in unto her), and 
she conceived by him. 13. And Judah went unto his 
sheep, and she went to her father's house. 14, And Judah 
sent a kid of the goats by the hand of his shepherd, an 
Adullamite, and he found her not ; and he asked the 
people of the place, saying : " Where is the harlot who was 
here ? " And they said unto him : " There is no harlot 
here with us," 15, And he returned and informed him, 
and said unto him that he had not found her ; " I 

T^ pLOi 8u>(T€is ; Kal ISwKa avrg rriv necklace, fwj'T; and op/xicrKOS go back, is 

pd^dov /jLov Kal rrjv ^divriv Kal rb diddr]/j.a said to be the cord round the neck, 

TT]S paatXeias, /cat crvveXdihi' (sic) avrfj on which the signet ring was hung. 
(jvveiK7)(f)ev. 12. And he went in unto lier. Re- 

8. Timnah. Eth. Temnata. stored from Latin "et coiit (MS fuit) 

9. Adorned herself. So Test. Jud. cum ea." Cf. Test. Jud. 12 : ffweXduv 
12 : KOfffiTidelaa ; also LXX, Syr. and aiiry ffvvei\ri<p€v, and Gen. xxxviii. 18. 
Onk. on Gen. xxxviii. 14. Mass.= 14.19. cf. Gen. xxxviu. 20-26. 
"covered herself." 14_ Cf. Test. Jud. 12: Kal ye ol iu 

11. Ring . . necMace . staff ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ,^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

Corresponding to these Test Jud 12 ^;xt(rKO/x^r„/( = a woman being initi- 

has8ia5r„Ma, ^u^ur,, pa^ooy and the LXX ^^^^ .^^^ ^.^^3 ^^ Aphrodite, i. e. r^^ip ). 
of Gen. xxxvm. 18: OaKTvXwv, op/iia-Kos, ,, , , ., , ,. ^, \ \ 

pdB8os. 8id87„xa supposes ono as in ^ \^- ^^'^ f]^ «'^<o; ^''l ^^'f ^« 
C, , , „ . T^ xi_ '■ ' ■ 1 1 had not found her. I have here traus- 

Ps. xlv. 10, or nn? as in Esther 1. 11, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^f ^^ ^^5) ^^^^^^ ^.^^,1 

ii. 17, instead of orin. h'ns, to which " that he had not found her and he said 


asked the people of the place, and they said unto me : 
' There is no harlot here.' " And he said : " Let her 
keep (them) lest we become a cause of derision." 16. And 
when she had completed three months, it was manifest 
that she was with child, and they told Judah, saying : 
" Behold Tamar, thy daughter-in-law, is with child by 
whoredom." 17. And Judah went to the house of her 
father, and said unto her father and her brothers : " Bring 
her forth, and let them burn her, for she hath wrought 
uncleanness in Israel." 1 8. And it came to pass when they 
brought her forth to burn her that she sent to her father-in- 
law the ring and the necklace, and the staff, saying : 
" Discern whose are these, for by him am I with child." 

1 9. And Judah acknowledged, and said : " Tamar is more 
righteous than I am. And therefore let them burn her not." 

20. And for that reason she was not given to Shelah, 
and he did not again approach her. 21. And after that 

2170 A.M. she bare two sons, Perez and Zerah, in the seventh year 
of this second week. 22. And thereupon the seven years 
of fruitfulness were accomplished, of which Joseph spake 
to Pharaoh. 23. And Judah acknowledged that the 
deed which he had done was evil, for he had lain with 
his daughter-in-law, and he esteemed it hateful in his 
eyes, and he acknowledged that he had transgressed and 
gone astray ; for he had uncovered the skirt of his son, 

unto him." Perhaps we should read In Ps. -Jon. on Gen. xxxviii. 6, 24 

•with Latin " dicens : Non inveni earn," Tamar is called a priest's daughter. 

"And said: I have not lound her," as Beer {Buck d. Jub. p. 52) cites Baba 

I have done in my text. Mezia 87 a to the same effect. 

Let her keep — tensa'e, emended 20. Did not again approach her. 

■with Latin "habeat" from tanse'e, Cf. Test. Jud. 12 : oi/5^ ^7710-0 o^t^ 

"arise." ^ti ^tos davdrov /xov. 

17. Let them bum her. See note on 21. Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 29, 30. 

XXX. 7. In Ber. rabba 85 R. Meir of Perez . . . Zerah. Eth. Phares , . . 

the second cent, states that Tamar was Zara. 

a daughter of the priest -king Shem. 22. Cf. Gen. xli. 53. 

Hence her destruction by fire came 23. Had gone astray ; for he luxd 

under the law in Lev. xxi. 9, which uncovered, etc. Cf. Test. Jud. 14 : 

prescribes this penalty for the sin of ^irolrja-a a/xaprlav /j.eydXrji', /cat dv- 

fornication in the daughter of a priest. eKd\v\j/a KaXv/jL/xa aKadapaias viuv fnov. 

CHAPTER XLI. 16-28 231 

and he began to lament and to supplicate before the 
Lord because of his transgression. 24. And we told 
him in a dream that it was forgiven him because he 
supplicated earnestly, and lamented, and did not again 
commit it. 25. And he received forgiveness because he 
turned from his sin and from his ignorance, for he trans- 
gressed greatly before our God ; and every one that acts 
thus, every one who lies with his mother-in-law, let 
them burn him with fire that he may burn therein, for 
there is uncleanness and pollution upon them ; with fire 
let them burn them. 26. And do thou command the 
children of Israel that there be no uncleanness amongst 
them, for every one who lies with his daughter-in-law or 
with his mother-in-law hath wrought uncleanness ; with 
fire let them burn the man who has lain with her, and 
likewise the woman, and He will turn away wrath and 
punishment from Israel. 27. And unto Judah we said 
that his two sons had not lain with her, and for this 
reason his seed was established for a second generation, 
and would not be rooted out, 28. For in singleness of eye 
he had gone and sought for punishment, namely, according 
to the judgment of Abraham, which he had commanded 
his sons, Judah had sought to burn her with fire. 

24-25^. Cf. Test. Jud. 19 : el fiTj i] ance and because he turned from his 

fieTAvoia (rapKos /xov, /cat i] Taweivucns sin " ; for the Eth. preposition emna 

\f/vxv^ IJ-ov, Kal al evxa-l 'la/cw^ toO means either "from " or "because of." 
irarpbs fxov, areKvos elxov airodaveiv. Every one ivlw lies with his mother-in- 

dX\' 6 deoi ... 6 olKrip/j.ui> Kal eXerj- law, let them burn him, vnth fire. So 

/iwj/ (xvpiyvo) '6tl iv dyvoia iiroirjaa. Lev. xx. 14 enacts. 

25. Received forgiveness because he 26. Lies with Ms daughter-in-law. 

turned from his sin and from hisignor- Cf. Lev. xviii. 15, xx. 12. The punish- 

ance. Something seems wrong. We ought ment ordained for this offence is death 

to have the idea expressed in Test. Jud. in the passages referred to in Leviticus ; 

19 : ffvviyvo} &tl iv dyuoig. iiroirjaa. but the form of death is not specified. 

Cf. 1 Tim. i. 13 : ijXerjdrjv, 6rL dyvoQu On the other hand, death by fire is the 

eirolriaa. b transposes " because he penalty presupposed for this offence in 

turned" after "ignorance." If we Gen. xxxviii. 24. Our text (xx. 4) 

transpose the clauses "becaixse . . . enjoins this penalty for adultery or 

sin" and "from his ignorance," we fornication. 

should have an excellent sense: "re- 28. According to the judgment of 

ceived forgiveness because of his ignor- Abraham. See note on xx. 4. 


Owing to the famine Jacob sends his sons to Egypt for corn, 
1-4. Joseph recognises them and retains Simeon, and 
requires them to bring Benjamin when they returned, 
5-12. notwithstanding Jacob's reluctance his sons take 
Benjamin with them on their second journey and are 
entertained by Joseph, 13-25. (Cf. Gen. xli. 54, 56, 
xlii. 7-9, 13, 17, 20, 24-25, 29-30, 34-38, xliii. 1-2, 
4-5, 8-9, 11, 15, 23, 26, 29, 34, xliv. 1-2.) 

2171 A.M. XLII. And in the first year of the third week of the 
forty -fifth jubilee the famine began to come into the 
land, and the rain refused to be given to the earth, for none 
whatever fell. 2. And the earth grew barren, but in the 
land of Egypt there was food, for Joseph had gathered 
the seed of the land in the seven years of plenty and 
had preserved it. 3. And the Egyptians came to Joseph 
that he might give them food, and he opened the store- 
houses where was the grain of the first year, and he sold it 
to the people of the land for gold. 4. (Now the famine 
was very sore in the land of Canaan), and Jacob heard that 
there was food in Egypt, and he sent his ten sons that they 
should procure food for him in Egypt; but Benjamin he 
did not send, and (the ten sons of Jacob) arrived (in Egypt) 
among those that went (there). 5. And Joseph recognised 
them, but they did not recognise him, and he spake 
unto them and questioned them, and he said unto them ; 
" Are ye not spies, and have ye not come to explore 
the approaches of the land ? " And he put them in 

XLII. 2. In . . . Egypt there was {The ten sons of Jacob), {in Egypt), 

food. Cf. Gen. xli. 54. Supplied from Latin, "in Aegypto decern 

3. Cf. Gen. xli. 56. filii Jacob." 

4. {Noio . . . Cayman). Supplied 5-7. Cf. Gen. xlii. 7-9, 17, 24, 25. 
from Latin. Cf. Gen. xli. 56. 5. Spake unto them and questioned 

And Jacob heard, etc. Cf. Gen. xlii. them. Lat. has " appellavit eos dure." 
1, 2, 4. Cf. Gen. xlii. 7. 

CHAPTER XLII. 1-15 233 

ward. 6. And after that he set them free again, and 
detained Simeon alone and sent off his nine brothers. 
7. And he filled their sacks with corn, and he put their 
gold in their sacks, and they did not know. 8. And he 
commanded them to bring their younger brother, for they 
had told him their father was living and their younger 
brother. 9. And they went up from the land of Egypt 
and they came to the land of Canaan; and they told their 
father all that had befallen them, and how the lord of 
the country had spoken roughly to them, and had seized 
Simeon till they should bring Benjamin. 10. And Jacob 
said : " Me have ye bereaved of my children ! Joseph is not 
and Simeon also is not, and ye will take Benjamin away. 
On me has your wickedness come." 11. And he said: 
"My son will not go down with you lest perchance he 
fall sick ; for their mother gave birth to two sons, and 
one has perished, and this one also ye will take from 
me. If perchance he took a fever on the road, ye would 
bring down my old age with sorrow unto death." 12. For 
he saw that their money had been returned to every 
man in his sack, and for this reason he feared to send 
him. 13. And the famine increased and became sore in the 
land of Canaan, and in all lands save in the land of Egypt, 
for many of the children of the Egyptians had stored 
up their seed for food from the time when they saw Joseph 
gathering seed together and putting it in storehouses and 
preserving it for the years of famine. 14. And the people 
of Egypt fed themselves thereon during the first year of 
their famine. 15. But when Israel saw that the famine was 
very sore in the land, and that there was no deliverance, 

6. And after that . . . Simeon alone, 9. Cf. Gen. xlii. 29, 30, 34. 

Latin differs: "Et mittens arcessivit 10-12. Cf. Gen. 36, 38. 

illos et accipiens Symeoneni ab ipsis 12. Cf. Gen. xlii. 35. 

ligaviteum." 13. Cf. Gen. xliii. 1. 

8. Cf. Gen. xlii. 20, 13. 15-16. Cf. Gen. xliii. 2, 4, 5. 


he said unto his sons : " Go again, and procure food for 
us that we die not." 16. And they said : " We shall not go ; 
unless our youngest brother go with us, we shall not go." 
17. And Israel saw that if he did not send him with them, 
they should all perish by reason of the famine. 18. And 
Eeuben said : " Give him into my hand, and if I do not 
bring him back to thee, slay my two sons instead of his 
soul." And he said unto him : " He will not go with thee." 
19. And Judah came near and said: "Send him with 
me, and if I do not bring him back to thee, let me 
bear the blame before thee all the days of my life." 20. 
2172 A.M. And he sent him with them in the second year of this week 
on the first day of the month, and they came to the land of 
Egypt with all those who went, and (they had) presents in 
their hands, stacte and almonds and terebinth nuts and pure 
honey. 21. And they went and stood before Joseph, 
and he saw Benjamin his brother, and he knew him, and 
said unto them : " Is this your youngest brother ? " And 
they said unto him : " It is he." And he said : " The Lord 
be gracious to thee, my son!" 22. And he sent him 
into his house and he brought forth Simeon unto them 
and he made a feast for them, and they presented to him 
the gift which they had brought in their hands. 23. And 
they eat before him and he gave them all a portion, but 
the portion of Benjamin was seven times larger than that of 
any of theirs. 24. And they eat and drank and arose 
and remained with their asses. 25. And Joseph devised a 
plan whereby he might learn their thoughts as to whether 
thoughts of peace prevailed amongst them, and he said 
to the steward who was over his house : " Fill all their 
sacks with food, and return their money unto them into 

18. Cf. Gen. xlii. 37, 38. 22. Cf. Gen. xliii. 23, 26. 

19. Cf. Gen. xliii. 8, 9. 23-24. Cf. Gen. xliii. 34. 

20. Cf. Gen. xliii. 11. 

21. Cf. Gen. xliii. 15, 29. 25. Cf. Gen. xliv. 1, 2. 


their vessels, and my cup, the silver cup out of which 
I drink, put it in the sack of the youngest, and send them 

Joseph's plan to stay his brethren, 1-10. Judah's sup- 
plication, 11-13. Joseph makes himself known to his 
brethren and sends them back for his father, 14-24. 
(Cf. Gen. xliv. 3-10, 12-18, 27-28, 30-32, xlv. 1-2, 
5-9,12, 18, 20-21, 23, 25-28.) 

XLIII. And he did as Joseph had told him, and filled 
all their sacks for them with food and put their money 
in their sacks, and put the cup in Benjamin's sack. 2. And 
early in the morning they departed, and it came to pass 
that, when they had gone from thence, Joseph said unto the 
steward of his house : " Pursue them, run and seize them, 
saying, ' For good ye have requited me with evil ; you have 
stolen from me the silver cup out of which my lord drinks.' 
And bring back to me their youngest brother, and fetch 
(him) quickly before I go forth to my seat of judgment." 
3. And he ran after them and said unto them according 
to these words. 4. And they said unto him : " God forbid 
that thy servants should do this thing, and steal from 
the house of thy lord any utensil, and the money also which 
we found in our sacks the first time, we thy servants 
brought back from the land of Canaan. 5. How then 
should we steal any utensil ? Behold here are we and 
our sacks ; search, and wherever thou findest the cup in 
the sack of any man amongst us, let him be slain, and 
we and our asses will serve thy lord." 6. And he said unto 
them : " Not so, the man with whom I find, him only 
shall I take as a servant, and ye will return in peace 

XLIII. 2. Cf. Gen. xliv. 3, 4. 5. Thy Imd. Gen. xliv. 9, "my 

3-6. Cf. Gen. xliv. 6-10. lord." 


unto your house." 7. And as he was searching in their 
vessels, beginning with the eldest and ending with the 
youngest, it was found in Benjamin's sack. 8. And they 
rent their garments, and laded their asses, and returned 
to the city and came to the house of Joseph, and they 
all bowed themselves on their faces to the ground before 
him. 9. And Joseph said unto them : " Ye have done 
evil." And they said : " What shall we say and how 
shall we defend ourselves ? Our lord hath discovered 
the transgression of his servants ; behold we are the servants 
of our lord, and our asses also." 10. And Joseph said unto 
them : " I too fear the Lord ; as for you, go ye to your 
homes and let your brother be my servant, for ye have done 
evil. Know ye not that a man delights in his cup as I 
with this cup ? And yet ye have stolen it from me." 
11. And Judah said: "0 my lord, let thy servant, I pray 
thee, speak a word in my lord's ear; two brothers did 
thy servant's mother bear to our father ; one went away 
and was lost, and hath not been found, and he alone is left 
of his mother, and thy servant our father loves him, and his 
life also is bound up with the life of this (lad). 12. And it 
will come to pass, when we go to thy servant our father, 
and the lad is not with us, that he will die, and we 
shall bring down our father with sorrow unto death. 
13. Now rather let me, thy servant, abide instead of the 
boy as a bondsman unto my lord, and let the lad go with 
his brethren, for I became surety for him at the hand 
of thy servant our father, and if I do not bring him back, 
thy servant will bear the blame to our father for ever." 

7-8. Cf. Gen. xliv, 12-14. line with Gen. xliv. 15 ; but the change 

9-10. Cf. Gen. xliv. 5 ("ye have may be deliberate. 
done evil"), 16, 17. Observe that Gen. jj.jg^ g^^ q^^ ^jj^^ jg 37 28, 30, 

xliv. 16 specifies "we and he also 111 31 30 
whose hand the cup is found. " ' 

10. Delights in his cup. So MSS. H- I pray thee. Here the MSS = 

A change of jasta'adem into jastaqasem " oil me," a mistranslation of 'a = 5^o/xai 

= " divines " would bring our text into in Gen. xliv. 18. 

CHAPTER XLIII. 7-24 237 

14. And Joseph saw that they were all accordant in good- 
ness one with another, and he could not refrain himself, 
and he told them that he was Joseph. 15. And he 
conversed with them in the Hebrew tongue and fell on 
their neck and wept. But they knew him not and they 
began to weep. 16. And he said unto them: "Weep 
not over me, but hasten and bring my father to me ; and ye 
see that it is my mouth that speaketh, and the eyes of 
my brother Benjamin see. 17. For behold this is the 
second year of the famine, and there are still five years 
without harvest or fruit of trees or ploughing. 18. Come 
down quickly ye and your households, so that ye perish not 
through the famine, and do not be grieved for your possess- 
ions, for the Lord sent me before you to set things in order 
that many people might live. 19. And tell my father that 
I am still alive, and ye, behold, ye see that the Lord has 
made me as a father to Pharaoh, and ruler over his house 
and over all the land of Egypt. 20. And tell my father 
of all my glory, and all the riches and glory that the Lord 
hath given me." 21. And by the command of the mouth of 
Pharaoh he gave them chariots and provisions for the way, 
and he gave them all many -coloured raiment and silver. 

22. And to their father he sent raiment and silver and 
ten asses which carried corn, and he sent them away. 

23. And they went up and told their father that Joseph 
was alive, and was measuring out corn to all the nations of 
the earth, and that he was ruler over all the land of Egypt. 

24. And their father did not believe it, for he was beside 
himself in his mind; but when he saw the wagons which 

14-15. Cf. Gren. xlv. 1, 2. "Let me see him before I die and the eyes 

15. Conversedwith them in the Hebrew of my brother Benjamin while seeing." 
tongue. So Ber. rabba 93. According 17. Cf. Gen. xlv. 6. 

to (ien. Joseph caused all the Egyptians 18. Cf. Gen. xlv. 18, 20, 5, 7. 

to go out. 19. Cf. Gen. xlv. 8. 

16. Cf. Gen. xlv. 5, 9, 12. 20. Cf. Gen. xlv. 13. 

Ye see that it is . . . Benjamin see. 21-24. Cf. Gen. xlv. 21, 23, 25, 26, 

Emended : see my text p. 157. MSS= 27, 28. 


Joseph had sent, the life of his spirit revived, and he 
said : " It is enough for me if Joseph lives ; I will go down 
and see him before I die." 

Jacob celebrates the feast of first-fruits, and encouraged by 
a vision goes down to Egypt, 1-10. Names of his 
descendants, 11-34. (Cf. Gen. xlvi. 1-28.) 

XLIV. And Israel took his journey from f Haran '\- from 
his house on the new moon of the third month, and he 
went on the way of the Well of the Oath, and he offered a 
sacrifice to the God of his father Isaac on the seventh of 
this month. 2. And Jacob remembered the dream that 
he had seen at Bethel, and he feared to go down into Egypt. 
3. And while he was thinking of sending word to Joseph to 
come to him, and that he would not go down, he remained 
there seven days, if perchance he should see a vision as 
to whether he should remain or go down. 4. And he 
celebrated the harvest festival of the first-fruits with old 
grain, for in all the land of Canaan there was not a hand- 
ful of seed (in the land), for the famine was over all the 
beasts and cattle and birds, and also over man. 5. And 
on the sixteenth the Lord appeared unto him, and said 
unto him, " Jacob, Jacob " ; and he said, " Here am I." 
And He said unto him : " I am the God of thy fathers, 
the God of Abraham and Isaac ; fear not to go down 
into Egypt, for I will there make of thee a great nation. 

24. It is enough for me. The Ethi- supposed by the statement in ver. 6 

opic is here a literal equivalent of the and also by Gen. xxxvii. 14. 

LXX, Gen. xlv. 28, fiiya f^oi iariv, which 4, cf. Gen. xlvi. 1. Jacob celebrates 

IS in Its turn a literal rendering of h_ an. the feast of weeks on the 15th of the 

LXX, Syr., Vulg. (sufficit mihi) and third mouth. He has a vision on the 

Onkelos presuppose the ■h, which how- next day (see next verse), 

ever the Mass. and Sam. omit. ^l'^ the land). Bracketed as a ditto- 

XLIV. 1. ■\Haran-\. This seems cor- graphy. 

rupt for "Hebron." Hebron is pre- 5-8. Cf. Gen. xlvi. 2-6. 



6. I shall go down with thee, and I shall bring thee up 
(again), and in this land wilt thou be buried, and Joseph 
will put his hands upon thy eyes. Fear not ; go down 
into Egypt." 7. And his sons rose up, and his sons' 
sons, and they placed their father and their possessions 
upon wagons. 8. And Israel rose up from the Well of the 
Oath on the sixteenth of this third month, and he went to 
the land of Egypt. 9. And Israel sent Judah before him to 
his son Joseph to examine the Land of Goshen, for Joseph 
had told his brothers that they should come and dwell 
there that they might be near him. 10. And this was the 
goodliest (land) in the land of Egypt, and near to him, 
for all (of them) and also for the cattle. 11. And these 
are the names of the sons of Jacob who went into Egypt 
with Jacob their father. 12. Eeuben, the first-born of 
Israel ; and these are the names of his sons : Enoch, and 

6. Bring thee up. Cf. xxvii. 24, 
xxxii. 23. Here wasada has the very 
unusual meaning of dva^i^d^eiv or dv- 
dyeiv. Cf. Asc. Isaiah ix. 1. Usually 
it means "conduct," "lead." 

9. Cf. Gen, xlvi. 28. 

To examine = TV\t<'h. So practically 
Onkelos. Mass. alone has nhin/', while 
Sam., LXX, Syr. = niNirr^. 

12-33. Our text makes the number 
of Jacob's descendants together with 
himself seventy. This was the view 
of the writer of Gen. xlvi. 26 and of 
Joseph. Atit. ii. 7. 4. On the other hand 
in Gen. xlvi. 15, 18, 21, 25 Jacob is 
expressly not included in the number 
seventy. Cf. Exod. i. 5. That chapter 
has admittedly undergone revision. Our 
text makes up the number seventy by 
a method somewhat diflereut from that 
in Gen. xlvi. Thus whereas Dan and 
Naphcali have respectively one and four 
sons in Gen., our text assigns them five 
each. On the other hand Gen. includes 
in its reckoning two grandchildren of 
Asher, Er, Onan, two sons of Perez, 
and Dinah against Jubilees. The 
numbers in our text may be represented 
as follows : — 

Leah's children 

'Reuben and 4 sons 
Simeon and 6 sons 
Levi and 3 sons 
Judah, 1 son, 2 

Issachar and 4 sons 
Zebulon and 3 sons 










fGad and 7 sons 8 
-| Asher, 4 sons and 
[ 1 daughter 6 


(Joseph and 2 sons 3 
Benjamin and 10 
sons 11 


/Dan and 5 sons 6 

\ Naphtali and 5 sons 6 


29 + 14 + 14 + 12 = 69. Thus the 
number 70 includes Jacob. It is note- 
worthy that the LXX reads 75 in Gen. 
xlvi. 27 : likewise in Exod. i. 5, while 
in Deut. x. 22 most MSS give 70 but 
some give 75. The number 75 in Acts 
vii. 14 is of course due to the LXX. 


Pallu, and Hezron and Carmi — five. 13. Simeon and his 
sons ; and these are the names of his sons : Jemuel, and 
Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the 
son of the Zephathite woman — seven. 14. Levi and his 
sons ; and these are the names of his sons : Gershon, and 
Kohath, and Merari — four. 1 5. Judah and his sons ; and 
these are the names of his sons : Shela, and Perez, and 
Zerah — four. 16. Issachar and his sons ; and these are the 
names of his sons : Tola, and Phua, and Jasub, and Shimron — 
five. 17. Zebulon and his sons; and these are the names 
of his sons : Sered, and Elon, and Jahleel — four. 18. And 
these are the sons of Jacob, and their sons, whom Leah bore 
to Jacob in Mesopotamia, six, and their one sister, Dinah : 
and all the souls of the sons of Leah, and their sons, who 
went with Jacob their father into Egypt, were twenty-nine, 
and Jacob their father being with them, they were thirty. 
19. And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, the wife of 
Jacob, whom she bore unto Jacob, Gad and Asher. 20. And 
these are the names of their sons who went with him 
into Egypt : the sons of Gad : Ziphion, and Haggi, and 
Shuni, and Ezbon, (and Eri) and Areli, and Arodi — eight. 
21. And the sons of Asher : Imnah, and Ishvah, (and Ishvi), 
and Beriah, and Serah, their one sister — six. 22. All 

12. For Pallu, Hezron and Carmi, in 1 Chron. vii. 1, nws), whereas Masg. 
Eth. has Phallus, 'fisrom, Kariimi. jj^s ma 

,t.P\,!'°V..'^T"^}' '*'-Av?^-A \'f J^^- So Sam. of Gen. xlvi. 13, 

Ijamuel, Ijamen, Awot (LXX, Aa;5), ^,^„^ ^XX, 'lacroJ^. Mass., Vulg., 

Ijakim, Sa ar (LXX, Zdap), Saul. Onk. has 3v. 
Zephathite woman. So b Siphnawat. Shimron. ' Eth. Samarom. 

acd corrupt. Zephathite, as Ronsch 17. Eth. has Sa'ar, 'filon, 'Ijal'el. 

p. 499 has recognised, is an adjective 19, wiwrn she bore unto Jacob. So 

formed from Zephath, nsi:, a Cauaanitish ^d. ab^" who bore unto Jacob Gad 

city destroyed by Judah and Simeon : and Asher." 

Judg. i. 17. Hence reading of 6 should 20. Eth. has Sephjon, 'Agati, Siin, 

be restored in my text. 'Asibon, 'Aroli, 'Arodi. 

14. For Gershon and Kohath Eth. {And Eri). This was originally in the 
has Gedson and Qa'ath. Ethiopic as the number " eight " shows. 

15. For Perez and Zerah Eth. has 21. Eth. has 'Ijomna, Jesti'a, Barija, 
Phares and Zara. Sara. 

16. PMiM. So Sam., LXX, Syr., (And Ishvi). This was originally in 
Vulg., Onk. in Gen. xlvi. 13 (and also the Eth. as the number " six " shows. 

CHAPTER XLIV. 13-34 241 

the souls were fourteen, and all those of Leah were forty- 
four. 23. And the sons of Rachel, the wife of Jacob: 
Joseph and Benjamin. 24. And there were born to Joseph 
in Egypt before his father came into Egypt, those whom 
Asenath, daughter of Potiphar priest of Heliopolis bare 
unto him, Manasseh, and Ephraim — three. 25. And 
the sons of Benjamin : Bela and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, 
and Naaman, and Ehi, and Eosh, and Muppim, and 
Huppim, and Ard— eleven. 26. And all the souls of 
Rachel were fourteen. 27. And the sons of Bilhah, the 
handmaid of Rachel, the wife of Jacob, whom she bare 
to Jacob, were Dan and Naphtali. 28. And these are 
the names of their sons who went with them into Egypt. 
And the sons of Dan were Hushim, and Samon, and Asudi, 
and 'Ijaka, and Salomon — six. 29. And they died the 
year in which they entered into Egypt, and there was left 
to Dan Hushim alone. 30. And these are the names of 
the sons of Naphtali : Jahziel, and Guni, and Jezer, and 

A A 

Shallum, and 'Iv. 31. And 'Iv, who was born after the years 
of famine, died in Egypt. 32. And all the souls of Rachel 
were twenty-six. 33. And all the souls of Jacob which went 
into Egypt were seventy souls. These are his children 
and his children's children, in all seventy ; but five died 
in Egypt before Joseph, and had no children. 34. And 
in the land of Canaan two sons of Judah died, Er and 
Onan, and they had no children, and the children of Israel 

25. Eth. has Bala, Bakar, 'Asbil, quotes Baba bathra 143 6 to the same 

Gfl'ada, Ne'emen, 'Abdejo, Ra'e, San- effect. 

^nim, 'Aphim, Ga'am. In this list the Hushim. Eth. has Kflsim. 

sixth, eighth and tenth names are cor- 30. Eth. has 'Ijasi'el, Gahani, 'fisa'ar, 

rupted almost beyond the possibility of Sallum. Here our text agrees with 

recognitioti. 1 Chron. vii. 13 rather than with Gen. 

28. In Gen. xlvi. 23 only one son of xlvi. 24 in the case of the names Jahziel 

Dan is mentioned, though the Mass. and Shallum. Gen. xlvi. 24 has here 

reads "sons of Dan." Cf. for similar Jahzeel and Shillem. 

case Gen. xxxvi. 25. On the other And 'Iv. Not in Gen. xlvi. 24. 

hand Ps.-Jon. on Gen. xlvi. 23 states 33. Before Joseph (be). a gives 

that the sons of Dan were beyond "before they married"; d "who did 

numbering. Beer {Buck d. Jub. 37) not marry." 



buried those who perished, and they were reckoned among 
the seventy Gentile nations. 

Joseph receives Jacob, and gives him Goshen, 1-7. Joseph 
acquires all the land and its inhabitants for Pharaoh, 
8-12. Jacob dies and is buried in Eeh^on, 13-15. 
His books given to Levi, 16. (Cf. Gen. xlvi. 28-30, 
xlvii. 11-13, 19, 20, 23, 24, 28, 1. 13.) 

2172 A.M. XLV. And Israel went into the country of Egypt, 
into the land of Goshen, on the new moon of the fourth 
month, in the second year of the third week of the 
forty-fifth jubilee. 2. And Joseph went to meet his father 
Jacob, to the land of Goshen, and he fell on his father's 
neck and wept. 3. And Israel said unto Joseph : " Now 
let me die since I have seen thee, and now may the 
Lord God of Israel be blessed, the God of Abraham and 
the God of Isaac who hath not withheld His mercy and 
His grace from His servant Jacob. 4. It is enough for 
me that I have seen thy face whilst fl am-f yet alive ; 
yea, true is the vision which I saw at Bethel. Blessed 
be the Lord my God for ever and ever, and blessed 
be His name." 5. And Joseph and his brothers eat bread 
before their father and drank wine, and Jacob rejoiced with 
exceeding great joy because he saw Joseph eating with 
his brothers and drinking before him, and he blessed the 
Creator of all things who had preserved him, and had 
preserved for him his twelve sons. 6. And Joseph had 
given to his father and to his brothers as a gift the 
right of dwelling in the land of Goshen and in Rameses 

XLV. 1-4^. Cf. Gen. xlvi. 28-30. but our te.Yt is probably corrupt ; for 

4. It is enough for me. Here the by changing ana into anta it is brought 

Ethiopia = /i^7a fioi iariv. See note on into line with Gen. xlvi. 30. 

xliii. 24. 6. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 11. 

Whilst \I arii\ yet alive. In Gen. Rameses. Eth. has Kamesena = 

xlvi. 30: "that thou art yet alive"; DDDV^• 

CHAPTER XLV. 1-12 243 

and all the region round about, which he ruled over before 

Pharaoh. And Israel and his sons dwelt in the land of 

Goshen, the best part of the land of Egypt ; and Israel was 

one hundred and thirty years old when he came into Egypt. 

7. And Joseph nourished his father and his brethren 

and also their possessions with bread as much as sufficed 

them for the seven years of the famine. 8. And the land of 

Egypt suffered by reason of the famine, and Joseph acquired 

all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh in return for food, and he 

got possession of the people and their cattle and everything 

for Pharaoh. 9. And the years of the famine were 

accomplished, and Joseph gave to the people in the 

land seed and food that they might sow (the land) 

in the eighth year, for the river had overflowed all the 

land of Egypt. 10. Eor in the seven years of the 

famine it had not overflowed and had irrigated only a 

few places on the banks of the river, but now it overflowed 

and the Egyptians sowed the land, and it bore much 

corn that year. 11. And this was the first year of the 2178 a.m. 

fourth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 12. And Joseph 

took of the corn of the harvest the fifth part for the 

king and left four parts for them for food and for seed, 

and Joseph made it an ordinance for the land of Egypt 

One hundred and thirty years. Cf. It Sore = faraj at, which, since Latin 

Gen. xlvli. 9. has collegerunt, may be corrupt for 

7. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 12. 'arar^ = " collegerunt " or "harvested." 
As much as sufficed them. By read- 12. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 24. 

ing bakama 'akalomu instead of bakama 0/ ^/^g corn of the harvest = ' em' ekl 

ya'aklomH we should get (as in LXX zazar'il. So the text should be trans- 

of Gen. xlvii. 12) Kara <rQfia avrCiv, lated. Zar'a is not a verb here, but 

"according to their persons." The zar'e (which here = seges, yevvr^naTo) 

Hebrew is fjan '£)S = " according to their with the suffix, which goes back to 

families." medr="land" in verse 10, just as 

8. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 13, 19, 20. avrri^ after rot yevvri^iara in LXX of 
For Pharaoh. Emended with Latin Gen. xlvii. 24 goes back to 7171' in the 

"Pharaoni" from text of 6= "and preceding sentence. But since the 

Pharaoh." Latin has de omnibus quidquid natum 

9. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 23. est, it is possible that for em'ekl zazar'u 
(7%e land). Restored from Latin, we should read 'emkuellu zar'u="of 

Cf. Gen. xlvii. 23. all the harvest." I hereby withdraw 

10. Not. Restored from Latin. the emendation in my text. 


until this day. 13. And Israel lived in the land of Egypt 
seventeen years, and all the days which he lived were three 
jubilees, one hundred and forty-seven years, and he died 
2188 A.M. in the fourth year of the fifth week of the forty-fifth jubilee. 
14. And Israel blessed his sons before he died and told 
them everything that would befall them in the land of 
Egypt ; and he made known to them what would come 
upon them in the last days, and blessed them and gave 
to Joseph two portions in the land. 15. And he slept 
with his fathers, and he was buried in the double cave 
in the land of Canaan, near Abraham his father in the 
grave which he dug for himself in the double cave in 
the land of Hebron. 16. And he gave all his books and 
the books of his fathers to Levi his son that he might 
preserve them and renew them for his children until this 

Frosperity of Israel in Egypt, 1-2. Death of Joseph, 3-5. 
War between Egypt and Canaan during which the hones 
of all the sons of Jacob except Joseph are buried at 
Hebron, 6-11. Egypt oppresses Israel, 12-16. (Cf. 
Gen. 1. 22, 25-26 ; Exod. i. 6-14.) 

XLVI. And it came to pass that after Jacob died the 
children of Israel multiplied in the land of Egypt, and they 
became a great nation, and they were of one accord in 
heart, so that brother loved brother and every man 
helped his brother, and they increased abundantly and 
2242 A.M. multiplied exceedingly, ten weeks of years, all the days 

13. Cf. Gen. xlvii. 28. 15. Cf. Gen. 1. 13. 

This date conflicts with that in le. Cf. x. 14. According to our 

xix. 13, i.e. 2046, which according to author these traditions were in the 

the present passage should be 2041. keeping of Levi's descendants. It is 

See also note on xxv. 4. reasonable to infer that our author who 

14. Told them everything, etc. Gen. gave them to the world was a descend- 
xlix. 1. See xxxii. 21, note. ant of Levi, and probably a priest. 

Blessed them. Cf. Gen. xlix. ri* ir j • t 

Two portions. Gen. xlviii. 22. See ^^^^^ ^- ^^- ^^°'^- ^- '' 

notes p. 201. Ten weeks of years. Hence Joseph 



of the life of Joseph. 2, And there was no Satan nor 
any evil all the days of the life of Joseph which he 
lived after his father Jacob, for all the Egyptians honoured 
the children of Israel all the days of the life of Joseph. 
3. And Joseph died being a hundred and ten years old ; 
seventeen years he lived in the land of Canaan, and ten 
years he was a servant, and three years in prison, and 
eighty years he was under the king, ruling all the land 
of Egypt. 4. And he died and all his brethren and all 
that generation. 5. And he commanded the children of 
Israel before he died that they should carry his bones with 
them when they went forth from the land of Egypt. 
6. And he made them swear regarding his bones, for 

died seventy years after the arrival of 
Jacob in Egypt, i.e. in 2242. See note 
on xxviii. 24. Joseph had already 
been ruling ten years before Jacob's 
coming (ver. 3). 

2. No Satan, etc. See xxiii. 29. 

3. Joseph died being a htmdred and 
ten years old. Cf. Gen. 1. 22, 26 ; 
Exod. i. 6. 

5-6a. Cf. Gen. 1. 25. 

6-9. This war between the Egyptians 
and the Canaanites is referred to in 
the Test. Sim. 8 and Test. Benj. 12 as 
being waged when the bodies of these 
patriarchs were buried at Hebron. Thus 
in Sim. 8 : IdrjKap avTov iv drjKri ^{i\wv 
a.<rr)TTTU3v, toO dj'a7a7eri' to, oOTa avrov 
ev Xe^pJjv. Kal av-qveyKav aira ev 
iroXe/jLU! AlyvTrriuv Kpv<f>rj : and Benj. 
12 : Kal 'idiiKav avTov iv irapaOriKri 
Kal . . . avriyayov ra otrra twv Trari- 

pUV aVTUV iv KpV<pTJ, iv TToXiflU) XavucLV 

(0. Arm. = 6Ve fjcrav ev iroXifxu) ol Xava- 
vaToL). If we could trust the date in 
Test. Gad 8 which says that the body 
of Gad was buried in Hebron five years 
after his death : iKoifx-qdri iv eip-qvri. 
Kal fjera irivre iry) avrfyayov avrbv Kal 
idr)Kav avrbv els Xe^puiv, we could 
arrive at the date to which the authors 
of Jubilees and the Testaments assigned 
this war between Egypt and Canaan. 
Since Gad died at the age of 125 (Test. 
Gad, 1 (MS 0) ; Midrash Tadshe and 
Book of .Jashar, op. cit. ii. 1246) and 
was 40 when he went down into Egypt 

(see note on xxviii. 11-24), his burial 
in Hebron took place 90 years after the 
descent into Egypt in the year of the 
world 2262. But this date would be 
too early for Levi and Benjamin. 
The statement in Benj. 12 that this 
expedition to Hebron was in the 91st 
year (Greek MSS) before the exodus, 
is not supported by the Armenian 
version. Our text fixes it at 2263. 
Notwithstanding it seems clearly to 
have been the view of the author of 
the Testaments that the bones of all the 
patriarchs save those of Joseph were 
buried in Hebron on the occasion of 
a war between Egypt and Canaan. 
Thus, in addition to the statements in 
Simeon, Gad and Benjamin, observe 
that after mentioning the death of 
Levi, Zebiilon and Dan, the Testaments 
(Lev. 19 ; Zeb. 10 ; Dan 7) add that 
" afterwards " {vcrrepov) they were 
buried in Hebron. Josephus {Ant. 
ii. 8. 2) appears to have held the same 
view, though he makes no mention of 
the war. He states : " His (Joseph's) 
brethren also died . . . and their 
posterity and sons carried their bodies 
after some time (KOjxlaavTes fxera XP^' 
vov) and buried them in Hebron." St. 
Stephen is beholden to this tradition for 
the statement in Acts vii. 15-16. 

Merenptah (about this date ?) waged 
war against Palestine. See Articles on 
Egypt in Encyc. Bib. ii. and Bible 
Dictionary, i. 662, 665. But our text, 


he knew that the Egyptians would not again bring forth 
and bury him in the land of Canaan, for Makamaron, king 
of Canaan, while dwelling in the land of Assyria, fought 
in the valley with the king of Egypt and slew him 
there, and pursued after the Egyptians to the gates of 
'Ermon. 7. But he was not able to enter, for another, a 
new king, had become king of Egypt, and he was stronger 
than he, and he returned to the land of Canaan, and 
the gates of Egypt were closed, and none went out and 
none came into Egypt. 8. And Joseph died in the forty- 

2242 A.M. sixth jubilee, in the sixth week, in the second year, and 
they buried him in the land of Egypt, and all his 
brethren died after him. 9. And the king of Egypt went 

2263 A.M. forth to war with the king of Canaan in the forty-seventh 
jubilee, in the second week in the second year, and the 
children of Israel brought forth all the bones of the 
children of Jacob save the bones of Joseph, and they buried 
them in the field in the double cave in the mountain. 
10. And the most (of them) returned to Egypt, but a 
few of them remained in the mountains of Hebron, and 

which emphasises the weakness of to this in representing Cush and Canaan 

Egypt, points rather to the period of as the opposing countries, 
the successors of Rameses III. when g. '^rviGn, i.e. HeroSnpolis which 

Egypt lost her Syrian depeudencies. stood close to the Desert on the canal of 

In Josephus {A^U. ii. 10) there is an Ramses. I cannot identify Makamaron. 
account of a war between Cush and 8. All his brethren died after him. 

Egypt in which the latter prevails This statement holds even if we accept 

imder the generalship of Moses. An the birth-dates in our text (see p. 171 

enlarged form of this legend, having note), and the ages assigned to the twelve 

many details in common with that in sons of Jacob by the Test. XII. Patri- 

Josephus, is given in the Chronicles of archs (see p. 172 note). 
Jerahmeel, xlv. Here the war is 9. The date 2263 is not late enough 

between Cush and Syria and the people to allow of all the sons of Jacob being 

of the East. Another form appears in dead if we accept the ages assigned to 

the Palaea IIist<yrica (Vassiliev, Anec- them by the Test. XII. Patriarchs. 

dota G raeco-Byzantina, i. 228), where Thus Benjamin was born in the year 

Egypt is at strife with India. A later 2143 and as he lived 125 j-ears (see 

and still more elaborate, and still more note on p. 172) the date of his death 

grotesque, edition is found in the Book would be 2268. 

of Jashar (oi). cit. ii. 1244-1253). The 10. According to Beer there is no 

oldest form of the tradition is that in other mention of this stay of Amram in 

our text where the war is between Canaan. To Josephus (see Ant. ii. 8. 

Egypt and Canaan. The account in the 2), however, some such legend may 

Chronicles of Jerahmeel comes nearest have been known. 


Amram thy father remained with them. 11. And the king 
of Canaan was victorious over the king of Egypt, and he 
closed the gates of Egypt. 12. And he devised an evil 
device against the children of Israel of afflicting them ; 
and he said unto the people of Egypt: 13. "Behold the 
people of the children of Israel have increased and multi- 
plied more than we. Come and let us deal wisely with 
them before they become too many, and let us afflict them 
with slavery before war come upon us and before they 
too fight against us ; else they will join themselves unto 
our enemies and get them up out of our land, for their 
hearts and faces are towards the land of Canaan." 14. 
And he set over them taskmasters to afflict them with 
slavery ; and they built strong cities for Pharaoh, Pithom 
and Eaamses, and they built all the walls and all the fortifi- 
cations which had fallen in the cities of Egypt. 15. And 
they made them serve with rigour, and the more they dealt 
evilly with them, the more they increased and multi- 
plied. 16. And the people of Egypt abominated the 
children of Israel. 

Birth of Moses, 1-4. Adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, 5-9. 
Slays an Egyptian and flees {into Midian), 10-12. (Cf. 
Exod. i. 22, ii. 2-15.) 

XLVII. And in the seventh week, in the seventh 2303 a.m. 
year, in the forty -seventh jubilee, thy father went forth 
from the land of Canaan, and thou wast born in the fourth 2330 a.m. 

Amram, i.e. oipy, Eth. 'Abram. usually rendered " treasure " or " store 

This last form is found in Philo, De cities," but the LXX renders 7r6\«s 

OoTig. Enid. Gratia 24 : also in one of oxvpaL here and in 2 Chron. viii. 4. 
the LXX MSS in Niim. xxvi. 59. Pithom and Raamses. Eth. Pito 

13-15. Cf. Exod. i. 10, 11, 14, 12. waRamese. Latin adds "etOon" prob- 

13. Their hearts . . . are towards ably through influence of LXX of Exod. 
the land of Canaan. Ronsch (p. 162) i. 11. 

compares for the diction Ezek. xxi. 2. And all the fortifications. Latin 

14. Strong cities. This is nwsoD ny, omits. 


week, in the sixth year thereof, in the forty -eighth 
jubilee ; this was the time of tribulation on the children 
of Israel. 2. And Pharaoh, king of Egypt, issued a com- 
mand regarding them that they should cast all their 
male children which were born into the river. 3. And 
they cast them in for seven months until the day that thou 
wast born. And thy mother hid thee for three months, 
and they told regarding her. 4. And she made an ark for 
thee, and covered it with pitch and asphalt, and placed 
it in the flags on the bank of the river, and she placed thee 
in it seven days, and thy mother came by night and suckled 
thee, and by day Miriam, thy sister, guarded thee from the 
birds. 5. And in those days Tharmuth, the daughter of 
Pharaoh, came to bathe in the river, and she heard thy 
voice crying, and she told her maidens to bring thee 
forth, and they brought thee unto her. 6. And she 
took thee out of the ark, and she had compassion on 
thee. 7. And thy sister said unto her : " Shall I go and 
call unto thee one of the Hebrew women to nurse and 
suckle this babe for thee ? " And she said (unto her) : 
" Go." 8. And she went and called thy mother Jochebed, 
and she gave her wages, and she nursed thee. 9. And 

XLVII. 2-4. Cf. Exod. i. 22, ii. 5. Tlutrmuth, Syr. This appears 

2-4. in Syr. Frag, as i ^/a Nftj/ as Qip- 

3. For seven tnonths. Cedrenus (i. a ■ i v^j-'ncTiA 

o,, . , , . ... 4.. 4. iv, iiovBis in Joseph. Ant. u. 9. 5, 7 : 10. 

85) takes our text as stating that the „ • -i i • o n • ori«- q 

x- r XI. 1.-1J c XI, ti u 2 : similarly in Syncellus i. 22/ : Geo- 

casting of the children of the Hebrews /^^ ^/ r^^.^ -^^ 

went on for "ten months t.e until fdentified with Isis ; see Tertullian ^rf. 

Pharaoh s daughter adopted Moses : ^^^_ ^^^ g ^^ j^_ p^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

&r, ,vrrt Xen^rr, Te.4ae,KecTac ^^6uov, ^^^^^ consult Ronsch, p. 265. 

djKa M^ms pc07,.at ra ^pi<Pv J^^ I W- ^^ ,riaidens. Eth. = " her Hebrew 

Xtrw. e. TV worajiit, ^ws ov aueXij-pfv ^^.^ ., ^ i„i,translation as Dillmann 

M<vvavsv^6 TvsJa<Ti\i<r<xy^- dca rovro ^^3,^ ^f g^ The plural is 

d^Ka jXvyac edSeyj^a. e. SjK'tj.rjal ^^Jf^^^^ j^ ^he Syr. of Exod. ii. 5, 

rots AlyvYioc,, Kal riXos ey -^V^J-^^'^'^V feut our Latin version and the Mass., 

ytxL./ &v5p(bv airovLyivTwv l<rxvpiy 7. {Unto her). Restored from the 

AiyvTTTiwy dfd' Ms ^picpovs 'lapa-q- ^^tm and Exod. 11. 8. 

Xltikov, 8. Jochebed. Cf. Exod. vi. 20 ; Num. 

5-8. Cf. Exod. ii. 5-9. xxvi. 59. 


afterwards, when thou wast grown up, they brought 

thee unto the daughter of Pharaoh, and thou didst become 

her son, and Amram thy father taught thee writing, 

and after thou hadst completed three weeks they brought 

thee into the royal court. 10. And thou wast three weeks 2351-2372 a.m 

of years at court until the time when thou didst go forth 

from the royal court and didst see an Egyptian smiting 

thy friend who was of the children of Israel, and thou didst 

slay him and hide him in the sand. 11. And on the 

second day thou didst find two of the children of Israel 

striving together, and thou didst say to him who was doing 

the wrong : " Why dost thou smite thy brother ? " 12. And 

he was angry and indignant, and said : " Who made thee 

a prince and a judge over us ? Thinkest thou to kill 

me as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday ? " And thou 

didst fear and flee on account of these words. 

Moses returns from Midian to Egypt. Mastimd seeks to 
slay him on the way, 1-3. The ten plagues, 4-11. 
Israel goes forth out of Egypt : the destruction of the 
Egyptians on the Red Sea, 12-19. (Cf. Exod. ii. 15, 
iv. 19, 24, vii. sqq.) 

XLVIII. And in the sixth year of the third week of 2372 a.m. 
the forty-ninth jubilee thou didst depart and dwell in 
the land of Midian five weeks and one year. And thou 
didst return into Egypt in the second week in the 

9. Cf. Exod. ii. 10. rb ttJs riKiKias . . . avaffTijixa. Accord- 

Daughter. Eth. and Lat. = " house." ingtothe Chron. of Jerahmeel, xliv. 12 

Here the Greek translator misread -jia as and the Book of Jashar {op. cit. ii. 

-n'3. ^ 1265) Moses was only eighteen when he 

Amram. Eth. 'Ebran. slew the Egyptian. 

Taught thee writing. This is not the 10-12. Cf. Exod. ii. 11-14. 

view of Acts vii. 22 ; Philo, Vita Mos. XLVIII. 1. In the land of Midian. 

ii. 83 (Mangey) ; Clem. Alex. Strom. Restored from Latin "in terram 

i. 23, 153. Med(ian)," and Exod. ii. 15. 

Three weeks. Josephus {Ant. ii. 9. One year. Corrupt for three " years. " 

6) says that when he was only three Return into Egypt. Cf. Exod. 

years old God gave him davfxaaTov ... iv. 19. 



2410 A.M. second year in the fiftieth jubilee. 2. And thou thyself 
knowest what He spake unto thee on Mount Sinai, and 
what prince Mastema desired to do with thee when thou 
wast returning into Egypt on the way when thou didst 
meet him at the lodging -place. 3. Did he not with 
all his power seek to slay thee and deliver the Egyptians 
out of thy hand when he saw that thou wast sent to 
execute judgment and vengeance on the Egyptians ? 
4. And I delivered thee out of his hand, and thou didst 
perform the signs and wonders which thou wast sent to 
perform in Egypt against Pharaoh, and against all his 
house, and against his servants and his people. 5. And 
the Lord executed a great vengeance on them for Israel's 
sake, and smote them through (the plagues of) blood and 
frogs, lice and dog-fiies, and malignant boils breaking forth 
in blains ; and their cattle by death ; and by hail-stones, 
thereby He destroyed everything that grew for them ; 
and by locusts which devoured the residue which had been 
left by the hail, and by darkness ; and (by the death) of the 
first-born of men and animals, and on all their idols the 

2. We have in this verse another 
instance (of. also ver. 17) where our 
author has followed the example of the 
Chronicler in 1 Chron. xxi. 1, where he 
assigns to Satan the action that in 2 
Sam. xxiv. 1 is ascribed to Yahweh. 
The LXX and the Targums replace the 
divine name by the phrase " an angel of 
the Lord." We have already called 
attention to an earlier instance as xvii. 
16, where our author has similarly got 
rid of the offence in the Biblical text. 
On Mastema see note on x. 8. 

On the way when thou didst meet him 
at the lodging-place. Here the Eth. is 
hopelessly corrupt, c which represents 
an attempt at emendation =" on the 
feast of tabernacles." ahd are un- 
intelligible. It is best therefore to 
follow the Latin : " in via in qua 
praeteristi eum in refectione," and 
Exod. iv. 24, inu-JS'i p'^nn i-nn. 

3. Our author here quite explains 

away the true meaning of the incident 
in Exod. iv. 24 sqq. This is followed 
more faithfully by the Ps.-Jou. in loc. 
and the Chron. of Jerah. xlvii. 1, 2 
where the angel seeks to slay Moses for 
not circumcising his son. It is exj^lained, 
however, that it was owing to Jethro 
that the child had not been circumcised. 

5. We have here an enumeration of 
the ten plagues of Egypt. 

And [by the death) of the first-born. 
I have supjalied the words in brackets. 
They are wanting both in the Eth. and 
Lat. The Lat. has simply "primiti- 
vorum " and so ab. cd have prefixed 
' ' and. " Hence there was a lacuna here 
in the Greek version. Only for the con- 
cluding words "and burned them with 
fire " we might connect the clause with 
the words that follow aud merely supply 
a preposition: "(on) the first-born." 
But the genitive " primitivorum " is 
also against this. 


Lord took vengeance and burned them with fire. 6. And 
everything was sent through thy hand, that thou shouldst 
declare (these things) before they were done, and thou didst 
speak with the king of Egypt before all his servants 
and before his people. 7. And everything took place 
according to thy words ; ten great and terrible judgments 
came on the land of Egypt that thou mightest execute 
vengeance on it for Israel. 8. And the Lord did every- 
thing for Israel's sake, and according to His covenant, 
which He had ordained with Abraham that He would take 
vengeance on them as they had brought them by force into 
bondage. 9. And the prince of the Mastema stood up against 
thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, 
and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up 
and wrought before thee. 10. The evils indeed we per- 
mitted them to work, but the remedies we did not allow to 
be wrought by their hands. 11. And the Lord smote 
them with malignant ulcers, and they were not able 
to stand, for we destroyed them so that they could not 
perform a single sign. 12. And notwithstanding all (these) 
signs and wonders the prince of the Mastema was not put to 
shame because he took courage and cried to the Egyptians to 
pursue after thee with all the powers of the Egyptians, with 
their chariots, and with their horses, and with all the hosts 
of the peoples of Egypt. 13. And I stood between the 
Egyptians and Israel, and we delivered Israel out of his 

6. Declare = tenger, emended from shame until he took courage." As 

tegbar="shouldest do." The context this fails to give a good sense, I omitted 

shows that this is the idea required, the negative in my text. Thus we 

In xlix. 22 the same corruption is found should have : " was put to shame until 

in three out of the four MSS. he took courage." Cf. xviii. 12. I 

8. Cf. Gen. xv. 13, 14. now think that the corruption lies in 

9. Prince of the MasUmA. So a 5 the "until he took courage " = nrnnj; 
here and in verses 12 and 15 and in pinnn, where I take ■ib'K-ij; to be corrupt 
xviii. 9, 12. for n^'N^'^j; = "because." Instead of 

11. Cf. Exod. ix. 11. hajjala = "took courage," a reads 

12. Cf. Exod. xiv. 8, 9. halaja="took thought." 

Was 7iot put to shaine because he took 13. I have omitted "between thee 
courage. The Eth. = "was not put to and" which ab insert before "between 


hand, and out of the hand of his people, and the Lord 
brought them through the midst of the sea as if it were 
dry land. 14. And all the peoples whom he brought 
to pursue after Israel, the Lord our God cast them 
into the midst of the sea, into the depths of the abyss 
beneath the children of Israel, even as the people of 
Egypt had cast their children into the river. He took 
vengeance on 1,000,000 of them, and one thousand strong 
and energetic men were destroyed on account of one 
suckling of the children of thy people which they had 
thrown into the river. 15. And on the fourteenth day and 
on the fifteenth and on the sixteenth and on the seven- 
teenth and on the eighteenth the prince of the Mastema was 
bound and imprisoned behind the children of Israel that 
he might not accuse them. 16. And on the nineteenth 
we let them loose that they might help the Egyptians 
and pursue the children of Israel. 17. And he hardened 
their hearts and made them stubborn, and the device 
was devised by the Lord our God that He might smite 
the Egyptians and cast them into the sea. 18. And on the 
fourteenth we bound him that he might not accuse the 
children of Israel on the day when they asked the 

the Egyptians." cd add these words but sabtfe in ad is corrupt for rabfi'e 
after " between the Egyptians." in J. c gives " the fifteenth." Cedrenus 

14. Another example of the lex tali- <>• ^7), ^ho has cited our text but a 

.. J ■ • on / i. \ A few Beutences before, confirms b: tv 

onis mentioned in iv. 31 (see note), and i< / - ^ ^ , r 

enunciated in Wisd. xi. 16: 5i wv rtj . , , .>"^fl mi,- 1 1 j -i. 

, s . - ^ / >. o AiyviTTLovs etrfKOov. This would admit 

1 r~i • ^ t:- J ••■ 11 mr- j of the Israelites settmg out on the loth 
also Gen. ix. 6 ; Exod. xviii. 11 ; Wisd. „ ,,. . , i, / a ^ ■■ i a a 

xi 7 xii 23 xvi 1 xviii 4 5 • Philo °^ ^'^^" ^^ ^° Joseph. (Ant. u. 14. 6 ; 

Aj ' Ei;' 'nn ' t' u A I a ' 15. 2), where it states Israel Went forth 

Adv. Flacc. 20 : Joseph. Contra Ap. <• „ 4^ . av n exu *• xt- t, ■ 

.. ,o ' r -c- from Egypt on the 15th of Nisan having 

already received gifts from the Egyptians 

One tliousand . . . vien. Cf. Wisd. ^^ ^^^ g) . go also in Shabb. 87 b. Our 

xviii. 5. ^gxt then supposes that the Israelites 

17. Cf Exod. xiv. 8 for diction, marched from the 15th to the 18th, and 
Here again our author attributes to the that on the 19th Mastema and his 
immediate agency of Mastema the action powers were let loose. Beer points out 
which Exod. xiv. 8 assigns to Yahweh. that in the Mechilta on Exod. xiv. 3 it 
Cf. xvii. 16, xlviii. 2. is stated that the Egyptians pursued 

18. Tlie fourteenth. So we should after Israel from the 19th of the first 
read with 6. ad= "the seventeenth," month. 


Egyptians for vessels and garments, vessels of silver, and 
vessels of gold, and vessels of bronze, in order to despoil 
the Egyptians in return for the bondage in which they had 
forced them to serve. 19. And we did not lead forth 
the children of Israel from Egypt empty handed. 

The Passover : regulations regarding its celebration. (Cf. 
Exod. xii. 6, 9, 11, 13, 22-23, 30, 46, xv. 22.) 

XLIX. Kemember the commandment which the Lord 
commanded thee concerning the passover, that thou shouldst 
celebrate it in its season on the fourteenth of the first 
month, that thou shouldst kill it before it is evening, 
and that they should eat it by night on the evening 
of the fifteenth from the time of the setting of the sun. 

2. For on this night — the beginning of the festival and 
the beginning of the joy — ye were eating the passover 
in Egypt, when all the powers of Mastema had been let 
loose to slay all the first-born in the land of Egypt, 
from the first'- born of Pharaoh to the first-born of the 
captive maid -servant in the mill, and to the cattle. 

3. And this is the sign which the Lord gave them : 
Into every house on the lintels of which they saw the 
blood of a lamb of the first year, into (that) house they 
should not enter to slay, but should pass by (it), that all 
those should be saved that were in the house because the 
sign of the blood was on its lintels. 4. And the powers of 
the Lord did everything according as the Lord commanded 
them, and they passed by all the children of Israel, and 
the plague came not upon them to destroy from amongst 
them any soul either of cattle, or man, or dog. 5. And 

XLIX. 1. Cf. Exod. xii. 6. Egyptians. Here again (cf. xvii. 16, 

2. When all the powers of Masthnci xlviii. 2, 17) our author interprets after 

had been let loose to slay, etc. See his manner the statement in Exod. xii. 

note on x. 8. According to Ps. -Jon. 29 that "Yahweh smote all the first- 

on Exod. xii. 29 it was the word born." 

(N^D•D) of Yahweh which slew the 3. Cf. Exod. xii. 13, 22, 23. 


the plague was very grievous in Egypt, and there was 
no house in Egypt where there was not one dead, and 
weeping and lamentation. 6. And all Israel was eating 
the flesh of the paschal lamb, and drinking the wine, 
and was lauding and blessing, and giving thanks to 
the Lord God of their fathers, and was ready to go 
forth from under the yoke of Egypt, and from the evil 
bondage. 7. And remember thou this day all the days 
of thy life, and observe it from year to year all the days of 
thy life, once a year, on its day, according to all the law 
thereof, and do not adjourn (it) from day to day, or from 
month to month. 8. For it is an eternal ordinance, 
and engraven on the heavenly tables regarding all the 
children of Israel that they should observe it every year 
on its day once a year, throughout all their generations ; 
and there is no limit of days, for this is ordained for ever. 

9. And the man who is free from uncleanness, and does not 
come to observe it on occasion of its day, so as to bring 
an acceptable offering before the Lord, and to eat and to 
drink before the Lord on the day of its festival, that 
man who is clean and close at hand will be cut off: 
because he offered not the oblation of the Lord in its 
appointed season, he will take the guilt upon himself. 

10. Let the children of Israel come and observe the 
passover on the day of its fixed time, on the fourteenth 
day of the first month, between the evenings, from the 
third part of the day to the third part of the night, 
for two portions of the day are given to the light, 

5. Cf. Exod. xii. 30. (its) day " (a). The translation is 

6. Drinking the imne. This seems doubtful, and the Latin ' ' praeteribit et 
to be the earliest reference to the use of erit illud a diebus suis " is corrupt, 
wine at the Passover feast. For later 9. Cf. Num. ix, 13. 

references, see Pesach. x. 2 ; Baba- To bring an acceptable offering. 

bathra 97 h. According to Pesach. ix. 4 it was the 

7-8. Compare the directions regard- duty of every man within a radius of 15 

ing the feast of weeks, vi. 20, 22. miles, if not ceremonially impure, to 

7. Do ,wt adjourn {it) from day to present an offering at this feast. 
day (6) or "do not change a day from 10. Cf. Exod. xii. 6. 



and a third part to the ev^ening. 11. This is that which 
the Lord commanded thee that thou shouldst observe it 
between the evenings. 12. And it is not permissible 
to slay it during any period of the light, but during the 
period bordering on the evening, and let them eat it at the 
time of the evening until the third part of the night, 
and whatever is left over of all its flesh from the third 
part of the night and onwards, let them burn it with 
fire. 13. And they shall not cook it with water, nor shall 
they eat it raw, but roast on the fire : they shall eat it 
with diligence, its head with the inwards thereof and its 
feet they shall roast with fire, and not break any bone 
thereof ; for -fof the children of Israel no bone shall be 

12. Slay it . . . during the period 
(or 'Hiine") bordering on the evening. 
According to our text the Passover 
victim might be slain ' ' during the 
period bordering on the evening." This 
is the meaning it attaches to the phrase 
"between the evenings" (D'3ij;n pa). 
It corresponds well with Deut. xvi. 6, 
which gives directions for the sacrificing 
of the passover " at even, at the going 
down of the sun." But in ver. 10 of our 
text, a wider definition is given—" from 
the third part of the day to the third 
part of the night." The Pharisees and 
the Sadducees difi'ered in the interpre- 
tation of the phrase "between the 
evenings." The former said it meant 
from the time when the sun inclined 
towards his setting till his final dis- 
appearance, i.e., from 3 to 6 p.m., 
but according to the latter it was the 
time between actual sunset and dark- 
ness, i.e., 6 and 7 p.m. (Pesachim v. 1). 
The hours (the 9th to the 11th) assigned 
by Josephus {Bdl. Jud. vi. 9. 3) agree 
with the Pharisaic determination {dvov- 
ffiv fjLeu dwd ev6.TT)S &pas fiexpi'S ev- 
Se/cdrTjs). If then we combine the 
statements in verses 10 and 12 of our 
text we may infer that the slaughter- 
ing of the victim might take place any 
time during " the third part of the 
day" before sunset ; and this harmonises 
on the whole with the rabbinic tradition. 
The Samaritans and Karaite Jews support 
the usage of the Sadducees in limiting 

the act of sacrificing to the hour between 
sunset and complete darkness. 

JSat it at the time of the evening 
until the third part of the night. Night 
was divided into three parts 6 to 10 
p.m., 10 p.m. to 2 a.m. and 2 to 6 a.m. 
Hence the time for eating seems to be 
from 6 to 10 p.m. The rabbinic rule 
fixed midnight as the hour when the 
eating must be concluded (Berachoth 
i. 1 ; Pesach. x. 9). 

13. An^ they slmll not cooh . . . 
roast on the fire. Cf. Exod. xii. 9. 

They shall eat i< = jebl'ewo, emended 
with Lat. " comedetis illud" from the 
immeaning besula. 

They shall eat it with diligence. Cf. 
Exod. xii. 11. "With diligence " = 
(TwovSalws, which in the LXX is a 
rendering of pisna. In ver. 23 this 
Hebrew phrase is rendered more liter- 

Its head with tlie inwards, etc. Cf. 
Exod. xii. 9. 

Not break any bone thereof. Cf. 
Exod. xii. 46. 

■\0f tlie children of Israel no bone 
shall he crushedf. The Latin differs 
and is to be followed : " Non erit 
tribulatio in filiis Istrahel in die hac." 
If we might suppose two distinct Greek 
versions of the Hebrew and that the 
original of "in die hac " was avn a}il!2 
nin, we could explain the Eth. by 
supposing the loss of nin Dvn and the 
change of osya into dsj;. But the cor- 


crushedf, 14. For this reason the Lord commanded the 
children of Israel to observe the passover on the day of 
its fixed time, and they shall not break a bone thereof ; 
for it is a festival day, and a day commanded, and there 
may be no passing over from day to day, and month to 
month, but on the day of its festival let it be observed. 

15. And do thou command the children of Israel to 
observe the passover throughout their days, every year, 
once a year on the day of its fixed time, and it will 
come for a memorial well pleasing before the Lord, and 
no plague will come upon them to slay or to smite 
in that year in which they celebrate the passover in 
its season in every respect according to His command. 

16. And they shall not eat it outside the sanctuary 
of the Lord, but before the sanctuary of the Lord, and 
aU the people of the congregation of Israel shall cele- 
brate it in its appointed season. 17. And every man who 
has come upon its day shall eat it in the sanctuary 
of your God before the Lord from twenty years old and 
upward ; for thus is it written and ordained that they 
should eat it in the sanctuary of the Lord. 1 8. And when 
the children of Israel come into the land which they are 
to possess, into the land of Canaan, and set up the 
tabernacle of the Lord in the midst of the land in one of 

ruption seems native to the Ethiopic. In every respect according to His com- 

If the text referred here to the " break- mand. Latin seems better : "secundum 

ing" of a bone, it would most probably universa praecepta ejus." 

have used sabara as in the clause before 16. Before the sanctuary of the Lord. 

and in the verse after, where the Latin Cf. ver. 17 and see note on ver. 20. 

uses frangere and confringere respec- 17. Your God. Latin has Dei nostri, 

lively. In this clause, therefore, 'ijet- but the phrase recurs in ver. 22. 

qataqat ( = " will not be crushed ") is to From twenty years old, etc. Rabbinic 

be taken metaphorically = the Latin tradition determines fourteen years and 

" non erit tribulatio. " This idea, that upwards as the qualifying age. The 

no evil will befall on the day of the right determination in our text may be based 

celebration of the Passover, recurs in on such passages as Exod. xxx. 14 ; 

ver. 15 in an intensified degree. Num. i. 32 which prescribe that in 

15. Ih)ery year, once a year. Cf. numbering the people only the males 

verses 7-8. from twenty years old and upwards 

No plague will cmne upon them, etc. should be taken account of. Man was 

Cf. Exod. xii. 13. not accountable for the first twenty 

CHAPTER XLIX. 14-22 257 

their tribes until the sanctuary of the Lord has been 
built in the land, let them come and celebrate the passover 
in the midst of the tabernacle of the Lord, and let them 
slay it before the Lord from year to year. 19. And in 
the days when the house has been built in the name of the 
Lord in the land of their inheritance, they shall go there 
and slay the passover in the evening, at sunset, at the 
third part of the day. 20. And they will offer its blood 
on the threshold of the altar, and shall place its fat on the 
fire which is upon the altar, and they shall eat its flesh 
roasted with fire in the court of the house which has been 
sanctified in the name of the Lord. 21. And they may not 
celebrate the passover in their cities, nor in any place save 
before the tabernacle of the Lord, or before His house where 
His name hath dwelt ; and they will not go astray from the 
Lord. 22. And do thou, Moses, command the children 
of Israel to observe the ordinances of the passover, as it 
was commanded unto thee ; declare thou unto them every 
year -fand the day of its days, and-f- the festival of 
unleavened bread, that they should eat unleavened bread 
seven days, (and) that they should observe its festival, 
and that they bring an oblation every day during those 
seven days of joy before the Lord on the altar of your God. 

years according to some rabbis, and no dwrjo-rj) and the Vulg. (non poteris) ren- 

punishment was to be enacted for them, der in the same faulty manner hzin x^. 

20. Eat its flesh . . . in the court In any place. Eth. prefixes "and," 

of the ho7ise, etc. This direction can which I have omitted with the Latin, 

be justified by an appeal to Deut. xvi. Will not go astray from the Lord. 

7 (cf. 6) "thou shalt eat it in the place Cf. ZejDh. i. 6. 

whicli the Lord thy God shall choose." 22. Every yecw — 'kvaaia, (c) la'amatilt 

But the Mishna extended this privilege {d). So Latin "per singulos . . . 

to Jerusalem at large (Sebach. v. 8; annos." a 6= "its year every year." 

Makkoth iii. 3). This extension was f And the day of its days, aiidf. Here 

necessitated by the vast multitudes the Latin " in tempore dierum suorum " 

which came up to this feast (cf. Joseph, is most probably right, and we should 

Bell. Jiul. vi. 9. 3, ii. 14. 3). render "during its days and during." 

'21. Mayy not. Here Eth. and Latin (And) that. "And" supplied from 

(poterunt) = 01) Svvqaovrcn, which is a the Latin. 

faulty rendering of 1*731' vh, where the During those. Latin omits "those." 

phrase denotes moral inability. The text Hence it probably represents the Greek 

is based on Deut. xvi. 5, where the LXX (01) article. 



23. For ye celebrated this festival with haste when ye 
went forth from Egypt till ye entered into the wilderness of 
Shur ; for on the shore of the sea ye completed it. 

Laws regarding the jubilees, 1-5, atid the Sahbath, 6-13. 

L. And after this law I made known to thee the days of 
the Sabbaths in the desert of Sin[ai], which is between Elim 
and Sinai. 2. And I told thee of the Sabbaths of the land 
on Mount Sinai, and I told thee of the jubilee years in 
the sabbaths of years : but the year thereof have I not 
told thee till ye enter the land which ye are to possess. 

3. And the land also will keep its sabbaths while they 
dwell upon it, and they will know the jubilee year. 

4. Wherefore I have ordained for thee the year-weeks and 
the years and the jubilees : there are forty-nine jubilees 

2410 a.m. from the days of Adam until this day, and one week 
and two years : and there are yet forty years to come (lit. 

2450 A.M. "distant ") for learning the commandments of the Lord, 
until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing 
the Jordan to the west. 5. And the jubilees will pass 
by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and 
uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwells 
with confidence in all the land, and there will be no 
more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean 
from that time for evermore. 

6. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths — 
I have written (them) down for thee — and all the judgments 

23. With haste. See note on ver, Ji'Mlees. Our author assumes jubilee 

13. Cf. Exod. xii. 11. For Shur (Eth. periods of 49 years each, as R. jehiida 

Sur) see Exod. xv. 22. (Nedarim 61 a), whereas the majority of 

L. 1. Sin[aq, which is between Elim Jewish writers reckoned it at 50 years 

and Slnm. Cf. Exod. xvi. 1. Sin[ai] (Beer ^kc/i d J«&. p. 38). 

oorrnut for Sin 5. Forecast of the Messianic kingdom. 

,,,.,' ^. ^ „ A gradual transformation: cf. i. 29 

2. Jubilee years. Ci. Lev. xxv. 8. ^^^^ . ^^--^ 26-28 note. 

3. Cf. Lev. xxvi. 34, etc. a Satan or any evil one. See note on 

4. Year-vjeeks, i.e., seven years. xxiii. 29. 



of its laws. 7. Six days wilt thou labour, but on the 
seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. In it ye 
shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your 
men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle 
and the sojourner also who is with you. 8. And the man 
that does any work on it shall die : whoever desecrates 
that day, whoever lies with (his) wife, or whoever says 
he will do something on it, that he will set out on a 
journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling : and 
whoever draws water thereon which he had not prepared 

7. Cf. Exod. XX. 9, 10. 

8-12. On the Talmiidic laws relating 
to the Sabbath see Schiirer, History of 
N.T. Times, II. ii. 96-105 ; Edersheim, 
Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah,'^ 
ii. 777 -TS? ; and the Bible Dictionaries, 
in lac. 

8. The man that does any work on it 
shall die. This statement found in Exod. 
XXXV. 2 makes death the penalty for 
any and every breach of the Sabbath. 

Whoever lies with (his) wife. This 
law sprung probably from the fanatical 
period referred to inSanh. 46 «, the period 
of the SjTO-Grecian domination, when 
a man was put to death for riding a 
horse. That certain regulations of this 
nature existed we must infer from our 
text, as well as from the Talmudic 
treatise Nidda 38 a. Early Chasids 
refrained from cohabitation with their 
wives from the close of the Sabbath to 
the fourth day of the week, in order 
that their wives might not desecrate 
the Sabbath 271 to 273 days later by 
child - bearing. Against this ascetic 
attitude towards marriage a reaction set 
in which resulted in the laws of the 
Mishna on this subject. Thus the co- 
habitation of husband and wife is en- 
joined on the Sabbath in Nedar iii. 10, 
viii. 6, while in Baba kamma 82 a it is 
stated that one of the ordinances in- 
stituted by Ezra directed that a man 
should "eat garlic" (i.e. cohabit) on 
the eve of the Sabbath. The severer 
usage is followed by the modem 
Samaritans (Eichhorn's Repertoriura, 
xiii. 257, 282 ; de Sacy, Notices et 
eztraits de la Bible, xii. 175 : also by 
the Abyssinian Falashas {Univ. Isr. 

1851, 11. 482) and the Karaite Jews 
(see Singer, pp. 198-199 note). The 
Karaite Jews inferred the unlawfulness 
of cohabitation on the Sabbath from a 
literal interpretation of Exod. xxxiv. 21. 
As regards the usage of the ancient 
Samaritans there has been some diversity 
of opinion. Karo (Beer, Buch der 
Juhilden, p. 54) argues that the text in 
Nedar iii. 10 speaks for the existence of 
the strict law having existed among the 
Samaritans at a date anterior to the 
time of the Karaite Jews, but this is 
disputed by Frankel (Einfluss d. pal. 
Exeg. 252 sq.). 

That he will set out on a journey 
thereon (bd). ac omit "thereon." 
This command was derived from Exod. 
xvi. 29, where the people are bidden 
"to abide every man in his place . . . 
on the seventh day " and not to go in 
quest of manna. Permission was given 
to go a distance of 2000 cubits (Erubin 
iv. 3, 1, V. 7), which was called the 
"Sabbath limit " (nntrn Dinn) or simply 
"limit" (mnn), or Sabbath-day's journey 
(2o/3/3dToi; 656s, Acts i. 12). See 
Lightfoot, Exercitations on the Acts, i. 
12 ; Buxtorf and Levy's Lexicons on 
Dinn ; Schiirer, History of the N'V> 
Testament Times, II. ii. 102-103. 
Josephus {Ant. xiii. 8. 4) sjjcaks of 
this halacha : ovk l^effri 5' vfitv oSre 
Tois aa^jSoLTOLS o{jt' ev ry eoprfj odeveiv. 

In regard to any buying or selling. 
All the MSS prefix " and.''' Tlie true 
text is uncertain and probably trans- 
posed. Buying and selling are prohibited 
in Neh. x. 31, xiii. 16, 17. 

Whoever draws ivater. This was 
forbidden by the Karaite Jews (Jost, 


for himself on the sixth day, and whoever takes up any 
burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall 
die. 9. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day 
save what ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, 
so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from 
all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, 
who has given you a day of festival, and a holy day : and a 
day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among 
their days for ever. 10. For great is the honour which 
the Lord has given to Israel that they should eat and drink 
and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon 
from all labour which belongs to the labour of the children 
of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations 
and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths. 
11. This work alone shall be done on the Sabbath-days 
in the sanctuary of the Lord your God ; that they may 
atone for Israel with sacrifice continually from day to 
day for a memorial well-pleasing before the Lord, and that 
He may receive them always from day to day according as 
thou hast been commanded. 12. And every man who does 
any work thereon, or goes a journey, or tills (his) farm, 
whether in his house or any other place, and whoever 
lights a fire, or rides on any beast, or travels by ship on 

Gtsch. d. Juclenth. ii. 304, quoted by 9. See note on ii. 29. 

Singer, p. 199 note). 10. Cf. ii. 21. 

Which he had not prepared on tlie 11, Cf.Num.xxviii.9, 10; Matt.xii.5. 

sixth day. This clause conies in 12. Goes a jotirney. See note on 

awkwardly. A command against "eat- ver. 8. 

ing or drinking anything " may have Tills {his) farm. Ploughing and 

originally preceded this claiise in our harvesting are forbidden in Exod. 

text. Cf. ii. 30, note. xxxiv. 21 ; Shabb. vii. 2. 

Takes up any burden to carry it, etc. Whetlier in his house or any other 

See note on ii. 29. This is the 39th place. These words seem to be in their 

form of work forbidden in the treatise wrong place. They would give good 

Shabbath. If a man dropped his false sense if they were read immediately 

teeth it would be unlawful to lift and after "every man who does any work 

carry them ; for they would constitute thereon." 

a "burden." Similarly as much ink Lights afire. Forbidden in Exod. 

as would suffice for writing two letters xxxv. 3 ; Shabb. vii. 2. The man who 

(Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus gathers sticks for this purpose is to be 

tlie Messiah,"^ ii. 782, 784), stoned. Num. xv. 32, 33. 

CHAPTER L. 9-13 


the sea, and whoever strikes or kills anything, or slaughters 
a beast or a bird, or whoever catches an animal or a 
bird or a fish, or whoever fasts or makes war on the 
Sabbaths: 13. The man who does any of these things 
on the Sabbath shall die, so that the children of Israel shall 
observe the Sabbaths according to the commandments 
regarding the Sabbaths of the land, as it is written in 
the tables, which He gave into my hands that I should 
write out for thee the laws of the seasons, and the seasons 
according to the division of their days. 

Herewith is completed the account of the division of the 

Rides on any beast. This is forbidden 
in Beza v. 2 : also in Sanh. 46 a, which 
states that during the Syro-Grecian 
domination an oifender against this law 
was arraigned before the judicial court 
and sentenced to death by stoning : 
cf. Jebam. 90 b. 

Strikes or kills anything. Killing 
any animal is the 26 th forbidden 
Sabbatical offence (Shabb. vii. 2). 

Fasts. Israel is to " eat and drink " 
on the Sabbath (see ver. 9). This law 
was observed by Judith (Judith viii. 6, a 
book which in its shorter form probably 
goes back to the early Maccabean times). 
The injunction against fasting in our 
text is not in harmony with the severe 
ascetic law against the marriage-bed on 
the Sabbath. 

Makes war. This prohibition of all 
warfare, which is found also in the 
Mishna, Shabb. vi. 2, 4, was observed 
literally before and during the outbreak 
of the Maccabean wars (1 Mace. ii. 
31-38 ; 2 Mace. vi. 11 ; Joseph. Ant. 

xii. 1 ; 2 Mace. xv. 1 ; cf. Joseph. 
Ant. xiii. 12. 4, xviii. 9. 2 for later 
occasions). But on the urgent repre- 
sentations of Mattathias this prohibi- 
tion of warfare, offensive and defensive, 
was abandoned, and defensive measures 
were declared legitimate (1 Mace. ii. 
41 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. 6. 2): but offensive 
warfare was still forbidden (2 Mace, 
viii. 26). Jonathan's battle against 
Bacchides (1 Mace. ix. 43 sqq. ) can 
be justified from the new standpoint. 
This emended law was in force when 
Pompey besieged Jerusalem (Joseph. 
Ant, xiv. 4. 2), but as it only allowed 
of an active resistance against an active 
assault, it did not permit of the de- 
struction of fortified works raised by 
the enemy on the Sabbath, and so ex- 
posed the Jews to defeat (op. cit. xiv. 
4. 2). Once during the final war with 
Rome the Jews broke through this 
Sabbatical law, and successfully attacked 
the Romans (Joseph. Bell. Jnd. ii. 
19. 2). 


Passages from the Scriptures and other Ancient Books 
Directly Connected or Closely Parallel with the Text ^ 







i. 5 

xliv. 33 

xxxi. 13 

ii. 17 

iii. 9, 10 

xxi. 8 

i. 7 

xlvi. 1 

xxxi. 13, 17 

ii. 19 

vii. 26 

xxi. 6 

i. 22 

xlvii. 2-4 

xxxi. 14, 15 

ii. 25 

xii. 2, 5 

iii. 8-14 

ii. 2-4 

xlvii. 2-4 

xxxi. 16 

ii. 26 

xvi. 29, 34, 

ii. 5-9 

xlvii. 5-8 

xxxi. 18 

i. 1 

15, 16 

xxxiv. 18, 19 

ii. 8 

xlvii. 7 

xxxiii. 1, 3 

i. 7 

xvii. 13 

vii. 30 

ii. 10 

xlvii. 9 

xxxiv. 21 

1. 12 

xvii. 13 

xxi. 17 

ii, 11-14 

xlvii. 10-12 

xxxiv. 27 

i. 5 

xvii. 14 

xxi. 18 

ii. 15 

xlviii. 1 

XXXV. 2 

1. 8 

xviii. 15 

-xii. 26 

iv. 24 

xlviii. 2 

XXXV. 3 

1. 12 

xix. 23, 24 

vii. 36 

vi. 20 

xlvii. 8 

xix. 23-25 

vii. 1 

ix. 11 

xlviii. 11 



XX. 2 

XXX. 7 

xii. 6 

xlix. 1 

XX. 2-4 

XXX. 14, 15 

xii. 9 

xlix. 13 

vi. 26 

xxii. 28 

XX. 12 

xii. 26 

xii. 11 

xlix. 13 

ix. 13 

xlix. 9 

XX. 14 

xii. 25 

xii. 11 

xlix. 23 

xiii. 22 

xiii. 12 

xxi. 7, 14 

xxii. 22 

xii. 13 

xlix. 15 

XV. 32, 33 

1. 12 

xxi. 9 

XX. 4 

xii. 46 

xlix. 13 

xvi. 22 

X. 3 

xxi. 9 

xii. 17 

xiv. 8, 9 

xlviii. 12 

xviii. 2, 4 

xxxi. 16 

xxiii. 40 

xvi. 30 

liv. S 

xlviii. 17 

xviii. 26 

xxxii. 9 

xxiii. 34-36, 

xiv. 19 

i. 29 

xxvi. 59 

xlvii. 8 


xxxii. 4 

xvi. 1 

1. 1 

xxvii. 16 

x. 3 

XXV. 8 

1. 2 

xix. 5 

x-vi. 18 

xxviii. 9, 10 

1. 11 

xxvi. 3 4, etc 

.1. 3 

xix. 6 

xvi. 18 

xxix. 2, 5 

vii. 3 

xxvi. 40 

i. 22 

XX. 5 

XX. 8 

xxix. 12-40 

xxxii. 4 

XX. 9, 10 

1. 7 

xxix. 13 

xvi. 22 

Deuteronomy Jubilees 

xxiii. 25 

XX. 9 

xxix. 16 

xvi. 22 

i. 4 

xxix. 10 

xxiii. 33 

i. 9 

xxxiv. 4 

xxix. 14 

iv. 20 

xxii. 9 

xxiv. 12 

i. 1 

XXXV. 33 

vii. 33 

iv. 30, 29 

i. 15 

xxiv. 15-18 

i. 2-4 

XXXV. 33 

xxi. 19 

V. 31, 32 

xxiii. 16 

XXV. 8 

i. 17 

vii. 6 

ii. 21 

xxvii. 21 
xxix. 45 

ii. 33 
i. 17 



vii. 6 
vii. 6 

xvi. 18 
xix. 18 

XXX. 7 

iv. 25 

ii. 4 

xxi. 7 

vii. 13 

XX. 9 

XXX. 19-21 

xxi. 16 

ii. 13 

xxi. 11 

vii. 16 

i. 9 

XXX. 34 

xvi. 24 

iii. 7-10 

xxi. 7 

ix. 26, 29 

i. 21 

1 I have not given the passages in Genesis which are reproduced in the text. These are 
indicated generally in the headings to the chapters and in detail in the notes. , 




Deuteronomy Jubilees 

X. 16 i. 23 

X. 17 V. 16 

X. 17 xxi. 4 

X. 22 xliv. 12-33 

xiv. 2 xvi. 18 

xiv. 22 sq. xxxii. 10 

xvi. 5 xlix. 21 

xvi. 6. xlix. 12 

xlvi. 7 xlix. 20 

xxii.23 sqq. xx. 4 

xxii. 30 xxxiii. 7 

XXV. 9 xli. 4 

xxvi. 14 xxii. 17 

xxvi. 18 xvi. 18 

xxvii. 15 XX. 8 

xxvii. 24 iv. 5 

xxviii. 8 XX. 9 

xxviii. 13 i. 16 
xxviii.13,14 xxiii. 16 

xxix. 28 ii. 27 

XXX. 1 i. 6 

XXX. 6 i. 23 

XXX. 20 i. 7 

xxxi. 6 i. 18 

xxxi. 20 i. 7 

xxxi. 27 i. 7 

xxxi. 27 1. 22 

xxxii. 6 i. 24 

xxxii. 17 xxii. 17 

xxxiv. 8 xxiii. 7 

xxxiv. 9 XXV. 14 

Joshua Jubilees 

xxiii. 13 i. 9 

1 KiNOS 


viii. 29, 52 

xxii. 29 

viii. 53 

ii. 19 

xii. 15 

xii. 19 

xxi. 20 

vii. 23 

2 Chronicles Jubilees 

vi. 38 

i. 23 

XX. 7 

xix. 9 

xxiv. 19 

i. 12 

xxviii. 3 

i. 11 

xxix. 21 

xvi. 23 

xxxiii. 6 

i. 11 

Nehemiah Jubilees 

i. 6 
ix. 2 
ix. 7 
X. 31 

xxii. 29 
i. 22 
xxii. 27 
1. 8 

xiii. 16, 17 1. 8 

Psalms Jubilees 

iv. 6 xxii. 28 

Ii. 10 i. 20 

Ixxx. 13 xxxvii. 20 

Ixxxix. 27 ii. 20 

xc. 10 xxiii. 12 

xc. 10 xxiii. 15 

cvi. 28 xxii. 17 

cvl. 37 xxii. 17 

cxxxix. 8 sqq. xxiv. 31, 32 

ix. 18 

X. 13, 20, 21 
xi. 30 
xii. 1 


i. 10 
iv. 3 

ix. 2-4 

1. 3 

viii. 13 

xxii. 29 
XV. 31, 32 
xxiii. 16 
XV. 31, 32 

i. 25 
xxiii. 18 

xxiv.31, 32 

xxiii. 18 

i. 16 


xli. 8 
xli. 8 
xlvi. 7 
Hi. 11 
Iviii. 13 
Ixv. 15 
Ixv. 17 sqq. 

ii. 27 
vi. 23 
vi. 25 
viii. 2 
x. 3, 9 
X. 5 
xiv. 22 
xvii. 21, 22, 

24, 27 
xvii. 22 
xxvi. 16 
xxix. 13, 14-'' 
xxix. 14 
xxix. 18 
xxxii. 41 
Ii. 39, 57 

XX. 12 

xix. 9 
ii. 20 
xii. 5 
xxii. 16 
ii. 29 
XX. 6 
xxiii. 26-30 

xxii. 18 
xxiii. 23 
xxii. 8 
xxiii. 23 
xii. 5 
xii. 5 
xii. 4 

ii. 29 
ii. 30 
xxxiii. 13 
i. 15 
i. 15 
XX. 6 
i. 16 
xxiii. 1 

ii. 19 

Ethiopic Enoch Jubilees 

vi. 1, 2 v. 1 
vii. 1 (Syu- 

cellus'Gk.) vii. 21, 22 

vii. 1, 2 V. 1 

vii. 5 V. 2, vii. 24 

ix. 1, 9 vii. 23 

X. 4, 12 X. 7 

X. 11 iv. 22 

xii. 1, 2 iv. 21 

2 sqq.) vii. 22 

XV. 3-4 vii. 22 

(implied by) vii. 21 ' 

liv. 7, 8 ii. 4 

Ix. 12-21 ii. 2 

(implied by) iv. 17 

Ixxiv. 12 vi. 32 
Ixxiv. 13-16 

(implied by) vi. 36 
Ixxv. 1, 2 

(Ixxxii.ll) vi. 23 

(implied by) iv. 19 

Ixxxv. 3 iv. 20 

Ixxxix. 7, 8 vi. 26 
Ixxxix. -xc. 

(implied by) xv. 31, 32 

Wherever there has been a relation of dependence in the preceding 
list of passages, the dependence has been on the side of Jubilees. 
When such a relation exists in the list that follows, Jubilees is to be 

regarded as the original. 

1 See note on iv. 17-23 of the Translation. 

Kthiopic EnochI Jubilees 
iii. xxi. 12, 13 

V. 9 xxiii. 29 

xxxix. 2 xxxvi. 10 
Ixx. 1-3 iv. 23 
xci. 4 xxii. 16 

xci. 16 i. 29 

xciii.2, 5, 10 xvi. 26 
xcv. 3 xxxii. 18 

xcvi. 1 xxxii. 18 

xcviii. 11 vii. 28, 29 
xcix. 7 xii. 2 

ci. 2 xii. 4 

ciii. 7, 8, vii. 29, xxii. 

ciii. 11 i. 16 

civ. 6 xxii. 16 

Wisdom- Jubilees 
ii. 13 (v. 5, 

xii. 7, etc. ) xxi. iv. 
xi. 16 iv. 31 

x\iii. 5 xlviii. 14 

i Ezra 2 Jubilees 
xiv. 4-6 i. 26 (see note) 




ix. 11 

xxii. 16 

xii. 5 

1. 11 

xviii. 10 

XXXV. 17 

xxiii. 34 

i. 12 



ii. 16 

xxii. 16 


*iii. 22 X. 8 

Luke Jubilees 

*xi. 49 i. 12 

John Jubilees 

*xiv. 26 xxxii. 25 

Acts Jubilees 

*vii. 15, 16 xlvi. 9 

*vii. 23 xlvii. 10-12 

vii. 53 i. 27 

Romans Jubilees 

*iv. 15 xxxiii. 15, 16 

1 Corinthians Jubilees 
X. 20 xxii. 17 

2 Corinthians Jubilees 
*v. 17 V. 12 

vi. 18 i. 24 

Galatians Jubilees 

*ii. 15 *xxiii. 23 

*iii. 17 XV. 4 sqq. 

*%-. 12 XV. 27 

2 Thessalonians Jubilees 
*ii. 3 X. 3 

2 Peter Jubilees 

*ii. 5 vii. 20-39 

*iii. 8 iv. 30 

*iii. 13 i. 29 

Eevelation Jubilees 
*i. 6 xvi. 18 

*iv. 5 ii. 2 

*v. 10 xvi. 18 

1 On the following list of passages from this work, see Introduction, § 19. 

2 See Introduction, § 22. 

* Passages so asterisked are dealt with in the Introduction, § 23. 


Names and Subjects 

Abel, iv. 1 

Abimelech, xxiv. 13, 17, 26 

Abraham. See Abram 

'Abram, father-in-law of Terah, xi. 14 

Abram, birth of, xi. 15 

late legend of his being cast into a 
fiery furnace, xii. 1-14 note 

observes the sky, xii. 16-17 

called Abraham, xv. 7 

his ten trials, xvii. 17 note 

death of, xxiii. 1 

glorification of, in Jubilees, p. liii 
Abysses, the, ii. 2, 16 ; v. 29 
'Ada, wife of Reuben, xxxiv. 20 
Adam, creation of, ii. 14 

brought into Eden forty days after 
his creation, iii. 9 

names the animals, iii. 1-3 

death of, iv. 29 

Life of, pp. xix-xx 
Adam's Daughters, Book of, pp. xviii- 

Adam = Admah, xiii. 23 
Adam and Eve, Book of, pp. 28, 34, 88, 

'Adataneses, vii. 15, 17 
'Adiba'a, wife of Simeon, xxxiv. 20 
'Adoran, xxxviii. 3 
'Aduram, friend of Esau, xxxvii. 9 
'Aduram — a place, xxxviii. 8, 9 
Adurin, p. xxxi 
'Aferag, viii. 27 
'Afra, viii. 15 
Africanus, Julius, p. 34 
Ahuzzath, xxiv. 26 
Ai, xiii. 5 
Akrabbim, xxix. 14 
'Amana, viii. 21 ; ix. 4 
Ammonites, xxix, 10 ; xxxvii. 6, 10 ; 
xxxviii. 6 

Amorites, xiv. 18 ; (destroyed in lifetime 
of the author ?) xxix. 9-11 
war of, against Jacob and his sous, 
pp. Ivi, Ixii ; xxxiv. 1-9 
Amram, father of Moses, xlvl. 10 
Amraphel, xiii. 22 
Anastasius Sinaita, pp. 18, 23 
Aner, xiii. 29 

Angelology of Jubilees, pp. Ivi sqq. 
and of the New Testament, p. 
Angels created on the first day, ii. 2 
created on the second day according 

to later tradition, ii. 2-3 note 
of the presence, i. 27, 29 note ; ii. 

1, 2 note, 18 ; xv. 27 ; xxxi. 14 
of sanctification, ii. 2, 18 ; xv. 27 ; 

xxxi. 14 
over natural phenomena — wnds, 

clouds, fire, etc., ii. 2 
two chief orders of, created circum- 
cised, XV. 27 note 
descend in days of Jared to instruct 

maukind, iv. 15 note 
marry the daughters of men, v. 1 note ; 
vii. 21 ; a myth rejected by later 
Jewish and Christian tradition, pp. 
33-35, 43 notes 
their punishment and that of their 

children, v. 6-11 ; vii. 25 
guardians of individuals, p. Ixxxvi ; 
XXXV. 17 
Antiochus Epiphanes, pp. Ix, Ixi, Ixiii 
Apocalypse of the last things, xxiii. 11- 

Apocalyptic tradition written down by 

Moses, i. 26 note 
'Ara (corrupt for Ur, xi, 7), city of, xi. 3 
Arabs, xx. 13 




Aram, son of Shem, vii. 18 ; ix. 5 

land of, xxxvii. 6, 9 
Ararat, v. 28 ; viii. 21 ; ix. 5 ; x. 15 
Ard, xliv. 25 
Areli, xliv. 20 

'Aresa, corrupt for Hazor, xxxiv. 4, 7 
Arioch, xiii. 22 
Ark, building of the, v. 21-22 
Arodi, xliv. 20 
ArpacVishad, vii. 18 ; viii. 1 
Ascnath, xxxiv. 20 ; xl. 10 ; xliv. 24 
Ashbel, xliv. 25 
Asher, xxviii. 21 
Ashtaroth, xxix. 10 
Asshur, son of Shera, vii. 18 ; ix. 3, 6 

land of ( = Assyria), viii. 21 ; ix. 3, 5 
'Asftdi, xliv. 28 
Atonement, Day of, p. xlii ; v. 17-18 ; 

xxxiv. 18-19 
'A wan, wife of Cain, iv. 1, 9 
'Azrial, wife of Methuselah, iv. 27 
'AzAra, wife of Seth, iv. 8, 11 

wife of Eber, viii. 7 

Babel, tower of, x. 19-26 

Babel, viii. 21 

Babylon, xx. 12 

Bacon, pp. xxv, 56-57 

Baldeusperger, p. xxv 

Biiraka, wife of .Tared, iv. 16 

Bardki'Ol, brother of Kenan, iv. 15 

Baraki'il, brother of Methuselah, iv. 28 

Barhebraeus, pp. Ixxxiii, 88, 94 

Barth, pp. 19. 25 

Bashan. viii. 21 

Bealoth, xiii. 10 

Becher, xliv. 25 

Bedsu'el, wife of Judah, xli. 7 

Beer, pp. xxiii, 3, 55, 65, 68, 89, 91, 

101, 118, 121, 127, etc. 
Beersheba {see Well of the Oath), xvii. 

9 ; xviii. 17 ; xxii. 2 
Bela, xliv. 25 
Beliar, sons of, xv. 33 note 

spirit of, i. 20 
Benjamin, xxxii. 3, 33 
Beon, xxix. 10 
Beriah, xliv. 21 

BetasU'el, wife of Jxidah, xxxiv. 20 
BOtenos, wife of Lamech, iv. 28 
Bethel, xiii. 5 ; xxvii. 19, 26 
Bethoron, xxxiv. 4 
Bethshan, xxix. 14 
Bethuel, xix. 10 ; xxvii. 10, 12 
Bilhah, sister of Zilpah, xxviii. 9 

Reuben sins ■with, xxxiii. 1-9 
Blood, eating of, forbidden, vii. 28, 29 ; 

xxi. 6, 18 
Bohu, p. xxvi 

Book of Life, xxx. 22 ; xxxvi. 10 
those who will be destroyed, xxx. 
Bousset, pp. Ixii, 146, 201, 216 
Burial of patriarchs in Canaan, xlvi. 9 

Cain, iv. 1 

death of, iv. 31 
Calendar, p. Ixvi 
Canaan, vii. 10-13 ; ix. 1 ; xxii. 21 

seizes Palestine, x. 29-34 
Canaanites, xiv. 18 ; xxx. 25 
Cauaanitish wives of Joseph, Judah, 

Simeon, xl. 10 ; xxxiv. 20 
Caphtorim, xxiv. 30 
Carmi, xliv. 12 
Carpenter, pp. xlvii, liii 
Catena on Pentateuch quoted, p. xviii 
Cedrenus, pp. xvi, xvii, Ixxix, 11, 28, 

35, 37, 41, 66, 67, 80, 86-88, 93, 

94, 96, 116, 191, 248, 252 
Ceriani, pp. xv, xxix 
Cettin, p. xxxi 
Chaldees, land of, ix. 4, 5 
Charles, pp. xx, xxi, xxvi, xxviii, xxix 
Chasids, rise of, xxiii. 1 6 
Chedorlaonier, xiii. 22 
Chrysostom quoted, p. 34 
Circumcision, an everlasting ordinance, 

p. 1 ; XV. 14 note, 25 ; xx. 3 
observed in the creation of the two 

highest orders of angels, pp. 1, Ix ; 

XV. 27 
on the eighth day, xv. 14, 25 
neglected by Israel, xv. 33-34 
Clementine Recognitions, pp. Ixxx, 84, 

Covenant with Noah, vi. 17-18 

with Abram, xiv. 20 
Cush, vii. 13 ; ix. 1 
Creation, the new, i. 29 note ; iv. 26 

note ; xxiii. 26-30 ; 1. 5 
twenty-two works of, ii. 1-16 
Creator of all things, xvii. 3 ; xxii. 4, 

27 ; xiv. 5 

Dan, xiii. 23 ; xxviii. 18 ; xliv. 27, 28 
Danel, iv. 20 
Deane, p. xxv 
Deborah, xxxii. 30 
Dedan, waters of, ix. 2 
Demonology of Jubilees, p. Iviii 

and of the New Testament, pp. Ixxxvi 
Demons, sons of the Watchers, vii. 22 
note ; vii. 27 
tempt Noah's sons, x. 1-2 notes; x. 
5, 8 note ; xii. 20 



one-tenth of the, left subject to Mas- 

tema, x. 9 
nine-tenths to be bound in place of 

temporal punishment, x. 9 
to be punished finally with Satan, 

X. 8 
worshipped, xxii. 17 
Didymus of Alexandria, p. Ixxvii 
DUlmann, pp. xx, xxi, xxiii, 118, 193 
Dinah, daughter of Jacob, xxviii. 23 ; 

XXX. 1-3 ; xxxiv. 15 ; xliv. 18 
Dinah, wife of Mahalalel, iv. 15 
Diodorus of Antioch, pp. Ixxxi, 85, 96 
Dislocations of text, pp. xlii, 45, 218 
Dittographies, pp. xli-xlii 
Dothan, xxix. 14 ; xxxiv. 10 
Driver, p. 140 
Drummond, p. xxv 

Earth divided, viii. 8 

Eating with Gentiles forbidden, xxii. 16 

Eber, viii. 7 

Eden, Garden of. See Garden 

land of, viii. 16, 21 
Edersheim, p. 260 
'Edna, wife of Methuselah, iv. 27 

mfe of Terah, xi. 14 
'Edni, wife of Enoch, iv. 20 
Edom, p. Ivi ; xxiv. 6 ; xxxvi. 19 ; 
xxxviii. 8 
kings of, xxxviii. 16-23 
made tributary to Israel, p. Ixii ; 
xxxviii. 10-14 
Edrei, xxix. 10 
'^gla, wife of Dau, xxxiv. 20 
Ehi, xliv. 25 
■|:i 'M, xl. 7 
'Bla, mountains of, ix. 2 
Elam, son of Shem, vii. 18 ; ix. 2 

land of, viii. 21 ; xiii. 22 
'!l&lew, city of = Heliopolis, xxxiv. 11 
Eliezer, xiv. 2 
'Eljo, vii. 22 
Elou, xliv. 17 

Emazara, ^vife of Noah, iv. 33 
EncycloiMedia Biblica, pp. 167, 176, 

204, 245 
Enoch, son of Cain, iv. 9 

son of Jared, iv. 16-26 ; xix. 24, 27 ; 
first to learn writing, iv. 17 ; the 
scribe of judgment in the Garden 
of Erlen, iv. 23-24 ; x. 17 
son of Reuben, xxxviii. 8 ; xliv. 12 
Ethiopic Book of, pp. 13, 36, 37, 53, 
62-64, 102, 134, 146, 150, 212, 
Slavonic Book of, pp. 13-15, 25, 37, 
39, 41 
Enos, son of Seth, iv. 11 ; xix. 24 

Ephraim, xliv. 24 

Ephrath, xxxii. 34 

Ephron, the Hittite, xxxvi. 2 

Epiphanius, pp. xv, xvi, xl, Ixxvii, 

Ixxviii, 11-16, 18, 32, 33, 47, 59, 

61, 68, 69, 70, 73-74, 75, 77, 84, 

86, 91 
Eppstein, pp. xvi, xxv, Ixxvi, 11, 53, 

Er, xli. 1 
Eri, xliv. 20 

'£i'mun = Heroonpolis, xlvi. 6 
Esau {see Edom), p. Ivi ; xv. 30 ; xix. 

13 ; xxix. 13 
sells his birthright, xxiv. 2-7 
breaks with Jacob, xxxvii. 20-23 
slain by Jacob, xxxviii. 2 
Eschol, xiii. 29 
Euphrates, ix. 5 ; xiv. 18 
Eutychius, pp. Ixxxii, 28, 35, 83, 89 
Eve created on the 6th day of the 

second week, iii. 5-6 
brought into Eden 80 days after her 

creation, iii. 9 
Exposure of the person condemned, p. 

Ix ; iii. 31 ; vii. 20 
Ezbon, xliv. 20 
Ezra, Fourth, pp. 1, Ixxv, 7, 14 

Fabricius, pp. xviii, xxii, 121, 171, 194 

Fara ( = Africa ?), viii. 27 

Feast of tabernacles instituted by Abra- 
ham, xvi. 20-31 
celebrated by Jacob, xxxii. 4-9 

Feast of weeks celebrated in heaven and 
first revealed to Noah, vi. 17-18 
note ; xv. 1 note ; xxii. 1-5 
rules as to its observance, vi. 20-22 
commemorates giving of Law on Sinai, 

vi. 17-18 note 
its designation "Pentecost " unknown 
to the author, vi. 17 note 

Feasts on the new moons, vi. 23-29 

Filistin, p. xxxi 

Flood, the, v. 23-32 

Floodgates, the, v. 24 

Fornication, punishment for, xx. 4 ; 
xxv. 7 ; xxxix. 6 

Four sacred places, iv. 26 

Frankel, pp. xxiv, 30, 42, 107, 259 

Friend of God, xix. 9 ; xxx. 20, 21 

Fniit trees, law as to, vii. 36 

Ga'as ( = Gaash), xxxiv. 4, 7 
Gad, xxviii. 20 ; xliv. 19. 20 
Gadir ( = Cadiz), viii. 23, 26 ; ix. 12 
Garden of Eden, ii. 7 note ; iv. 26 ; 

viii. 16, 19, 23 
Gaster, pp. 200, 203, 204, 214 



Gelasius, Decree of, pp. xviii, Ixxviii 
Genesis, the Little, pp. xv-xvi 
Gentiles denounced, pp. Iv, Ivi 
Geoponica, the, quoted, p. 134 
Gera, xliv. 25 
Gerar, mountains of, xvi. 10 ; xxiv. 12, 

Gershon, xliv. 14 
Giants, the, vii. 22 
Gihon, the, viii. 15, 22 
Gilead, xxix. 4, 5, 9 
Ginsburg, p. xxiv 
Girgashites, the, xiv. 18 
Glycas, pp. xvi, Ixxx, 23, 25, 26, 35, 

37, 84, 85, 164 
God dwells with man in the Messianic 

times, i. 26 note, 27 
the Father of the children of Jacob, 

i. 24, 28 note 
of all, xxii. 10, 27 ; xxx. 19 ; xxxi, 

13, 32 
Gog, land of, viii. 25 
Gomer, vii. 19 ; ix. 8 
Gomorrlui. xiii. 22 ; xvi. 5 ; xx. 6 
Goshen, xliv. 9 ; xlv. 1, 2 
Great Sea, the, ix. 6 
Guni, xliv. 30 

Hagar, xiv. 22 ; xvii. 2 ; xix. 11 
Haggada, older forms of, in Jubilees, 

pp. Ixiv sq. 
Haggi, xliv. 20 
Halacha, older forms of, in Jubilees, pp. 

Ixv sq. 
Ham, iv. 33 ; vii. 8, 13 ; xxii. 21 

portion of, viii. 22-24 
Hamath, x. 33 ; xiii. 2 
Hamor, xxx. 2 

Harau, brother of Ahram, xii. 10, 14 
land of, xiii. 1 ; xxvii. 3, 19 ; xxxv. 

10, 12 
Hastings' Bible Didionwry, pp. 107, 

Hazor (see 'Aresa), p. Ixiii ; xxxiv. 4, 7 
Headlam, p. xxvi 
Heap of Witness, xxix. 8 
Heavenly tables, iii. 10 note 
Hebraisms in Ethiopia text, p. xxxii sq. 
Hebrew, the original language of men 

and animals, iii. 28 note 
forgotten from overthrow of Babel till 

Abram's time. xii. 25-26 note 
Hebron, xiii. 10, 21 ; xix. 1 ; xxxvi. 20 
Heliopolis, xl. 10 
Hellenism, p. 1 
Hermou, xxix. 10 
Hesiod quotod, p. 149 
Heth, children of, xix. 4, 5 
Hezaqa, wife of Issachar, xxxiv. 20 

Hezron, xliv. 12 
Hilgenfeld, pp. xxv, Ixxv 
Hippolytus, p. Ixxx 
Hivites, xiv. 18 
Horites, xxx vii. 10 ; xxxviii. 8 
Huppim, xliv. 25 
Hushim, xliv. 28 

Hyrcauus, J., jip. Ivi, lix, Ixii, Ixiv, 

Idolatry, rise of, xi. 4 

Abram dissuades Terah against, xii. 
^ forbidden, xx. 7-9 ; xxi. 3-5 
'Ijaka, xliv. 28 

'Ijasaka, wife of Benjamin, xxxiv. 20 
'Ijaska, xi. 9 

'Ijona, wife of Asher, xxxiv. 20 
Immortality of the soul, pp. xii, Ixxxix ; 

xxiii. 31 
Imnah, xliv. 21 
Incest, laws regarding, xxxiii. 10-20 ; 

xii. 25-26 
India, viii. 21 ; ix. 2, 3 
Intercalary days, p. Ixviii ; vi. 23 note 
Intermarriage with Canaan forbidden, 
pp. liii, Ixi ; xx. 4 ; xxii. 20 ; xxv. 
with Gentiles = giving to Moloch, xxx. 
Isaac, XV. 21 ; xvi. 13 
sacrifice of, xviii. 1-13 
blesses Levi, xxxi. 4-17 
blesses Judah, xxxi. 18-22 
death of, xxxvi. 18 
glorification of, in Jubilees, p. liii 
Ishbak, xix. 12 
Ishmael, xiv. 24 ; xv. 18, 20, 23, 30 ; 

xvii. 2, 4 ; xx. 1, 11 
Ishmaelites, xx. 13 
Ishvah, xliv. 21 
Ishvi, xliv. 21 
Isidore of Pelusium, p. Ixxxi 

of Seville, pp. Ixxxi, 18 
I.'^rael, apostasy of, i. 5-9 ; xv, 33-34 ; 
xxiii. 14, 17-19 
captivity of, i. 10 
God's inheritance, xxii. 9, 10, 15 
God's portion, xv. 31 note ; xvi. 18 

to be separate from the GentQes, p. Iv 
glorification of, pp. liv sq. 
Issachar, xxviii. 22 
'Iv, xliv. 30 

Jabbok, xxix. 13, 14 
Jachin, xliv. 13 
Jacob, birth of, xix. 13 

twenty-second from Adam, ii. 23 note 



called Israel, xxxii. 17 

twelve sons of, xxxiii. 22 

sees the future on the heavenly tables, 

xxxii. 21-26 
gives his books to Levi, xlv. 16 
dies, xlv. 14 

glorification of. in Jubilees, pp. liii, 
Jahleel, xliv. 17 
Jahziel, xliv. 30 
Jalkut Shimeoni, pp. .xliii, 200, 201, 

203, 214, 217. 220, 221 
Jamin, xliv. 13 
Jannaeus, A., p. lix 
Japheth, iv. 33 ; vii. 9, 12, 15 ; ix. 7 

portion of, viii. 25-29^ 
Jared, iv. 15 

Jashar, Book of, pp. xliv, Ixxvi, 32, 
33, 40, 43, 67, 89, 126, 171, 179, 
196, 197, 201-204, 206, 214 
Jasub, xliv. 16 
Javan, vii. 19 ; ix. 10 
Jebusites, xiv. 18 
Jellinek, pp. xx, xxiii, xliv, 201, 202, 

214, 215, 217 
Jemuel, xliv. 13 

Jerahmeel, Chronicles of (translated by 
Gaster), pp. Ixxv, Ixxvi, 12, 28, 
32, 36, 69, 70, 73, 77, 82, 89, 
200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 214, 215, 
220, 246 
Jerome, pp. xvi, 15, 34, 52, 83, 88, 91, 

93, 126, 174 
Jerusalem, i. 28, 29 
Jezer, xliv. 30 
Jochebed, xlvii. 8 
Joel, Greek chronographer. pp. Ixxxii. 

37, 67 
Jokshan, xix. 12 
Jordan, the, xxix. 14 
Josejih, xxviii. 24 

carried down into Egypt, xxxiv. 11-21 
dies, xlvi. 3 
Josephus, pp. xxxix, lix, 8, 26, 27, 44, 
65, 66, 69, 106, 113, 187, 191, 195, 
211, 245, 246, 249, 255, 257, 259, 
Jubilee period =^49 years, pp. xv, Ixvii 
= 50 years, pp. xv, Ixviii 
laws regarding, 1. 1-5 
Jubilees, Book of, its various titles — 
Jubilees, or the Book of Jubilees, 
p. XV ; Little Genesis, pp. xv, xvi ; 
Apocalypse of Moses, p. xvii ; Tes- 
tament of Moses, pp. xvii-xviii ; Book 
of Adam's Daughters, pp. xviii-xix; 
Life of Adam, pp. xix, xx 
written originally in Hebrew, pp. 

textual affinities of, p. xxxiii sqq. 

versions of, pp. xxvi-xxix 

Greek version of, pp. xxvi, xxvii 

Ethiopia version of, pp. xxvii, xxviii 

Latin version of, pp. xxviii, xxix 

Syriac version of, p. xxx 

Ethiopic and Latin, from the Greek, 

pp. xxx, xxxi 
Ethiopic MSS of, p. xx ; editions of, 

pp. XX, xxi ; translations of, pp. 

xxi, xxii 
poetical element in, pp. xlii sq. 
from one author but based on earlier 

books and traditions, jap. xliv sqq. 
a product of the Midrashic tendency, 

pp. xlvii sqq. 
an esoteric tradition according to its 

author, pp. 1, li 
written by Moses at the dictation of 

an angel according to its author, 

i. 26 note ; xxiii. 32 
omissions in, of narratives in Genesis, 

pp. xlviii sqq. 
alterations in, of such narratives, pji. 

xlix, liv 
explanations in, pp. liii, liv notes 
object of, — -the defence of Judaism, 

pp. li sqq. ; and exposition of pre- 

Mosaic elements of the law, pj). li 

glorifies the patriarchs and Israel, 

pp. liii sqq. 
date of, pp. Iviii-lxvi 
makes use of Eth. Enoch vi.-xxxvi., 

Ixxii.-xc, pp. Ixviii sq. 
makes use of Book of Noah, pp. Ixxi 

made use of by Eth. Enoch xci. -civ. , 

pp. Ixix sqq, 
made use of by Eth. Enoch i. -v. (?), 

p. Ixxi 
made use of by Wisdom, pp. Ixxiv sq. 
made use of by 4 Ezra, p. Ixxv 
relation of, to Test. XII. Patriarchs. 

p. l.xxii 
author of, a Pharisee and a Priest (?), 

p. Ixxiii 
author of, an upholder of the Mac- 

cabean dynasty, p. Ixxiii 
in Jewish literature, pp. Ixxiv sqq. 
in Christian non-canonical literature, 

pp. Ixxvii-lxxxiii 
influence of, on the New Testament, 

pp. Ixxxiii-lxxxvi 
Judah, tribe of, carried into captivity, 

i. 13 
restored from the captivity, i. 15-16 
Judah born, xxviii. 15 
Judas Maccabaeus, pp. Ixiii, Ixxxvii 



Judgment, final, of the fallen angels and 
their sons, v. 10, 11 
of mankind (?) and Satan precedes the 

Messianic kingdom, xxiii. 11 
at close of Messianic kingdom, pp. 
Ixxxvii sq. ; xxxiii. 30 note 
Jndith quoted, pp. 179, 205 
Justin Martyr quoted, pp. 33, 41, 50, 
101, 109 

Kaber, brother of Reu, xi. 7 

Kabratan, xxxii. 32 

Kadesh, xvi. 10 

Kadmonites, xiv. 18 

Kaftiir, viii. 21 

Kainam, viii. 1-4 

Kamatfiri, ix. 13 

Karaso ( = Chersonese or Rhinocorura), 

viu. 13 
Karnaim, xxix. 10 
Kenan, iv. 13 
Kenites, xiv. 18 
Kenizzites, xiv. 18 
Kesed, brother of Ari)achshad, viii. 6 
grandfather of 'Ora, the wife of Reu, 

xi. 1 
Keturah, xix. 11 ; xx. 1, 11, 12 
Kirjath Arba, xix. 1 
Kittim = Macedonians, pp. Ixiii ; xxiv. 

28, 29 
= Hittites(?), XXX vii. 10 
Kohath, xliv. 14 
Kriiger, p. xxiv 

Laban, xix. 10 ; xxvii. 3, 10 ; xxviii. 1 
Lacunae, pp. xxxix sqq. ; ii. 22 ; iii. 

23 ; vii. 37 ; xiii. 25 
Lambros' Catalogue of Greek MSS on 

Mt. Athos, p. xl 
Laraech, iv. 27 
Land to lie fallow every seventh year, 

vii. 37 
Langen, p. xxiv 

Law, the, of everlasting validity, pp. 
xiii, 1, Iii sq. 
given through angels, i. 27 note 
transmitted through the patriarchs, 
vii. 38 
Leah, xxviii. 3 

death of, xxxvi. 21 
Lebanon, viii. 21 ; ix. 4 ; xii. 15 
Legendary matter in Jubilees, pp. xliv 

Levi, birth of, xxviii. 14 

ordained to the priesthood for the 
destruction of Shechem, xxx. 17-23 
ordained to the priesthood because 
he was the tenth son, xxxii. 2, 3 : 
note i 

jDre-eminence of, over Judah, p. Ixii ; 

xxxi. 14-17 
Levitical elements in Enoch, vii. 37, 38 ; 

xxi. 10 notes 
Lidzbarski, p. xix 
Littmann referred to, pp. xxii, xxvi, 

xxxi ; 5, 19, 25, 44, 70, 98, 135, 

169, 210 
Lomna, wife of Peleg, x. 18 
Lot, xii. 30 ; xiii. 1 ; xvi. 7 
Liibar, v. 28 ; vii. 1 
Lud, vii. 18 ; ix. 6, 10, 11 
Luz, xxvii. 19, 26 

Ma'anisakir (corrupt for Shakir of 

Mahanaim), xxxiv. 4, 7 
Maccabean victories, scenes of, alluded 
to, pp. Ivi, Ixii, Ixiii ; xxiii. 21- 
Maccabees, First, referred to, pp. Ixxxviii, 
147, 148, 204 
Second, referred to, p. 42 
Madai, vii. 19 ; viii. 5 ; ix. 9 

obtains Media, x. 35-36 
Ma udiii ( = Media), viii. 21 
Magdaladra'ef, xxxiii. 1 
Magog, vii. 19 ; ix. 8 
iMahalalel, iv. 14, 15 ; xix. 24 
Mahalath, xxix. 18 
M.ika, wiie. of Gad, xxxiv. 20 
MakamarOu, xlvi. 6 
Malala, John, pp. 34, 37, 41, <aQ, 67 
Mamre (a person), xiii. 29 

(a place), xiv. 10 ; xvi. 1 
Manasseh, xliv. 24 
Marriage with sisters ceases in Maha- 

lalel's time, iv. 15 note 
Mastema, pp. xxxi, xlix, Iviii, Ixxxvi ; 
X, 8 note ; xi. 5, 11 ; xix. 28 
= Satan, x. 8, 11 

prince or chief, xvii. 16 ; xlviii. 2 
prince of the, xviii. 9, 12 ; xlviii. 9, 
12, 15 
Ma fik, sea of, viii. 22, 26 
Me'at ( = Maedis), viii. 12, 27 ; ix. 8 
Mebri, mountains of, ix. 2 
Medan, xix. 12 
Melchizedek, pp. xlviii, Ixxxviii ; xiii. 

25 note 
Melka, wife of Levi, xxxiv. 20 
wife of Kainam, viii. 5 
wife of Nahor, xix. 10 
wife of Serug, xi. 7 
Merari, xliv. 14 
Meshech, vii. 19 ; ix. 12 
Mesopotamia, ix. 5 ; xxvii. 10, 12, 13; 

xxix. 18 
Messiah from Judah, p. Ixxxvii ; xxxi. 
] 8 note 



Messianic kingdom, gradual develop- 
ment of the, pp. Ixiii, Ixxxvii ; 
i. 29 note; v. 12; xxiii. 26-30 
righteous do not rise to share in the, 

xxiii, 30, 31 
woes, xxiii. 9, 11-15, 17-19, 22-25 
Methuselah, iv. 27 
Midian, xix. 12 

Midrash Bereshith rabba, pp. 12, 25, 

33, 41, 49, 61, 89, 94, 96, 109, 

127, 157, 162, 165, 169, 179, 206, 


Shem. rabba quoted, pp. 3, 183 

Wajjisau, pp. xliv, 200, 201, 202, 

Tadshe quoted, pp. xl, Ixxvi, 11, 18, 
24, 171 
Mishna, pp. 20, 46, 53, 106, 109, 135, 
141, 181, 193, 255, 257, 259, 260, 
Misiir, xxix. 10 
Mizraim, vii. 13 ; ix, 1 
Moab, xxxvii. 6, 10 ; xxxviii. 6 
Moloch, XXX. 10 
Moon, polemic against calculations by 

the, vi. 36 
Moses born, xlvii. 1 

twenty-one years at court of Pharaoh, 

xlvii. 10 
thirty-six years in Midian, xlviii. 1 
Assumption of, pp. xv, xviii 
Most High, the, p. Ixvi ; xxxvi. 16 note 
Mount of the East, iv. 26 
MS Coisliniamxs, p. 11 

r in Lagarde's Genesis, pp. Ixxxiii, 

33, 40, 42, 67 
z in Lagarde's Genesis, pp. Ixxxiii, 
48, 49 
Mu'ak, wife of Shelah, viii. 6 
Miialeleth, wife of Kenan, iv, 14 
Muppim, xliv. 25 

Naaman, xliv. 25 

Nahor, father of Terah, xi. 8 

son of Terah, xii. 11 
Naphil, vii. 22 

Naphtali, xxviii. 19 ; xliv. 30 
Navel of the earth, viii. 19 
Nebaioth, xvii. 14 
Nebrod, viii. 7 
Ne'elatama'fik, vii. 14, 17 
Nestag, xi. 9 

Nicephorus, Catena of, pp. xviii, Ixxviii, 
37, 82, 85, 96 

Catalogue of, p. xvii. 
Nicolaus of Damascus, p. 47 
Ni'iman, wife of Zabulon, xxxiv. 20 
Nineveh, ix. 3 

Noah, iv. 28 ; xix. 24, 27 ; xxii. 13 
ordinances of, vii. 20-39 
ancient Book of, pp. Ixxi sq. 
Hebrew Book of, pp. xliv; 47, 61, 

62, 78, 79, 81 
saga of, earlier than that of Enoch, 
p. Ixxii 
Noam, wife of Enos, iv. 13 

Ohad, xliv. 13 

Onan, xliv. 4, 5 

Onkelos, pp. 32, 33, 60, 106. 116, 126, 

'Ora, wife of Reu, xi. 1 
Origen, pp. Ixxx, 108, 194, 227 

Pallu, xliv. 12 

Paran, wilderness of, xvii. 12 ; xx. 12 

Paronomasiae, p. xxxiii ; iv. 9, 15, 

28 ; viii. 5, 8 ; X. 18, 26 ; xi. 6, 

Passover, the laws regulating the observ- 
ance of the, p. 49 
Peleg, viii. 8 ; x, 18 
Pentateuch, the book of the first Law 

written by an angel, p. 1 ; i. 27 ; 

vi. 22 ; XXX. 12, 21 
Pentecost, p. Ixvi ; vi. 17 note 
Perez, xli. 21 ; xliv. 15 
Perizzites, xiv. 18 ; xxx. 25 
Phakorites, xiv. 18 
Pharaoh, contemporary of Abram xiii. 

contemporary of Joseph, xl. 1, 3, 

5, etc. 
contemporary of Moses, xlvii. 2 
Pharuak, ix. 2 
Phicol, xxiv. 26 
Philip, Acts of, p. 80 
Philistia, xxxvii. 6, 10 
Philistines, pp. Ivi, Ixiii; xxiv. 14, 15, 

Philo quoted, pp. 8, 11, 28, 44, 106, 

Philo, Pseudo-, Antiquitatum, libl. 

Liber, pp. 32, 205 
Phiia, xliv. 16 
Pithom, xlvi. 14 
Plagues, the ten, xlviii. 5-11 
Plant, the, of uprightness, i. 16 ; xvi. 

26 note ; xxi. 24 ; xxxvi. 6 
Plough, the invention of the, xi. 23-24 
Poetical element in Jubilees, pp. xlii 

Potiphar, chief of the cooks, xxxiv. 11 ; 

xxxix. 2 
Priest of the Most High God, p. lix ; 

xxxii. 1 




Purification, laws of, iii. 10-12 
Put, Tii. 13 ; ix. 1 

Qafratef, xxxiv. 15 
Qelt( = Celts) viii. 26 

Raamses, x!v. 6 ; xlvi. 14 

Rachel, xxviii. 1, 9 ; xxxii. 34 

Rafa ( = Rhipaean Mountains), viii. 12, 

Rake'el, brother of Lamech, iv. 33 
Rasfi'eja, wife of Arpachshad, viii. 1 
Rasajal, iv. 16 

RasfiM, wife of Naphtali, xxxiv. 20 
Ravens put to flight by Abrain, xi. 18- 

Rebecca, xix. 10, 13, 16 ; xxxv, 27 
Red Sea, the, viii. 21 ; ix. 2. 4 
Rephaini, the, xiv. 18 ; xxix. 9 
Resurrection, no, of the body, xxiii. 

Retaliation, law of literal, iv. 31 note ; 

xlviii. 14 note 
Reu, X. 18 
Reuben, xxviii. 1 1 

sin of, with Bilhah, xxxiii. 1-9 
Robel (corrupt for Arbael), xxxiv. 8 
Rdnsch, pp xvii, xix, xxiv, xxviii, 

xxxi, Ixxvii. 33. 39, 80, 83. 96, 

121, 170, 171. 177, 192. 195 
Rosh, xliv. 25 
Rubin, p. xxiv 
Rufinus quoted, p. 12 
Ryle, p. xxxix 

Sabbath, the, to be kept by the highest 

angels and Israel, p. 1 ; ii. 17-21 

notes ; ii. 31 note 

not for the inferior angels, nor for 

the frentiles, ii. 2 note ; ii. 31 note 

first celebrated by Jacob, ii. 23 note : 

ii. 31 note 
laws for the observance of the, pp. 

Ix, l.xi ; ii. 25-30 ; 1. 6-13 
various interpretations of the term, 
in relation to the feast of weeks, 
XV. 1 note 
Sack, p. XXV 
Sacrifices to the dead, xxii. 17 

to demons, i. 11 note ; xxii. 17 note 
Sallfim, xliv. 30 
Salomon, xliv. 28 
Salt Sea, xiii. 22 

Salt to be used in sacrifices, xxi. 11 
Samaritan Chronicle, pp. Ixxvi sij., 40, 

47, 58 
Samon, xliv. 28 
Sanir ( = Biblical Senir), viii. 21 ; ix. 4 

Sarai, xii. 9 

called Sarah, xv. 15 

death of, xix. 2, 7 
Satan, x. 11 

to be punished finally, x. 8 

confined at different periods, xxiii. 29; 
xl. 9 ; xlvi. 2 ; 1. 5 
Sayce, p. 48 

Schatzhdhle, die, pp. 28, 29, 34 
Schodde, p. xxi 
Schiirer, pp. xxv, Ixxx, Ixxxviii, 147, 

Sedeqetolebab, vii. 16, 17 
Seder 01am rabba, p. 103 
Seir, xxix. 13, 18 
Si'Uasar, xiii. 22 
Selo (=Shiloh), xxxiv. 4, 7 
SBphrmtiphans, xl. 10 
Seragan ( = Sartan), xxxiv. 4, 7 
Serah, xliv. 21 
Sered, xliv. 17 
Seroh, xi. 1, 6 
Serug, xi. 6 
Seth, iv. 17 ; xix. 24 

saga, pp. Ixxii, 33-36 

later glorification of, in Jewish and 
Christian writings, pp. 34, 35 note.s 
Severus of Autiocb, pp. xv, Ixxviii 
Shaul, xliv. 13 
Shechem, city of, xiii. i 

destroyed by Levi and Simeon, xsx. 

taken from the Amorites by Jacob 
and his sons, xxxiv. 2-8 note 
Shechem, sou of Hamor, xxx. 2 
Shelah. son of Arpachshad, viii. 5, 6 

son of Judah, xli. 6, 7 
Shem, iv. 33 ; vii. 9, 11, 12, 16 ; xix. 
24, 27 

lot of, viii. 12-21 
Sheol. a place of punishment but not of 

fire, vii. 29 ; xxii. 22 ; xxiv. 31 
Shimrou, xliv. 16 
Shinar, land of, ix, 3 ; x. 18. 19, 20 ; 

xiii. 22 
Shua, xix. 12 
Shuni, xliv. 20 
Shur, xvi. 10 
Siddim, xiii. 22 
Simeon, xxviii. 13 ; xxx. 4 ; xxxiv. 20 

21 ; xliv. 13 
Simon Maccabaeus, pp. Ixiii, Ixxxviii 
Siiia'ar, father-in-law of Peleg, x. 18 
Sinai, i. 2. 5 ; viii. 19 
Singer, pp. xxvi, 7, 63, 93, 96, 101, 
109, 113, 117, 134, 144, 165, 166, 
169, 181, 227 
Sinker, p. xxiv 
Sirach quoted, p. 117 



Six days of creation, ii. 1-14 

Soderblom quoted, p. 9 

Sodom, xiii. 17, 22 ; xvi. 5 ; xx. 5, 6 ; 

xxii. 22 
Son of God, the individual Israelite a, 

i. 24 note ; i. 25, 28 ; xix. 29 
Spirit, a holy, i. 21, 23 

of righteousness (or truth), xxv. 14 

Suidas, pp. Ixxxii, 91 
Sun, the, to regulate the year, ii. 9 note ; 

vi. 36-38 notes 
Syncellus, pp. xvi, xvii, xix, Ixxviii, 

Ixxix, 11, 14, 18, 21, 23, 26, 

28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 41, 59, 

62, 66, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 78, 85, 

89, 93, 95, 157, 164, 171, 186, 191, 

192, 208 
Syriac Fragment, the, pp. 30, 60, 61, 

66, 67, 86, 87, 206 

Tables, two, of stone, i. 1 

Talmud, pp. lix. Ixi, Ixxxviii, 3, 12, 
23, 27, 28, 32, 42, 61, 89, 96, 101, 
102, 118, 120, 121, 128, 144, 181, 
191, 195, 197, 206, 220, 223, 252, 
256, 258, 259, 260, 261 

Tamar, xli. 1, 6, 8, 16. 19 

Tamnatares {=Timnath-lieres),xxxiv. 8 

Tanais ( = Zoan), xiii. 12 

Taphu, xxxiv. 4 

Targum, Ps. Jonathan, pp. 2, 22, 26, 
32, 33, 103, 116, 201 

Taylor quoted, p. 7, 125 

Temple, the second, i. 17 

Terah, xi. 10 

Tergal, xiii. 22 

Tertullian quoted, p. 101 

Testaments of XII. Patriarchs, pp. xliv, 
xlv, 8, 9, 24, 132, 134, 170, 171, 
179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 
188, 191, 192, 197, 198, 201, 202. 
203, 206, 213, 214, 216, 220, 221, 
228, 229, 230, 231, 245, 246 

Tharmuth, xhii. 5 

Third month, i. 1 note 

Thomson, jj. xxv 

Thousand years = one day, iv. 30 note 
years of life for the righteous, xxiii. 
27 (iv. 30 ; xxiii. 15) 

Tigris, ix. 2, 5 

Timnah, xli. 8, 9 

Tina ( = Tanais = Don), viii. 12, 16, 25, 

28 ; ix. 2, 8 
Tiras, vii. 19 ; ix. 13 
Tithes, xiii. 25, 26 ; xxxii. 2, 8. 9, 10-15 

double, xxxii. 9-11 
Tobit quoted, p, 166 
Tola, xliv. 16 

Tower of Abraham, xxix. IG, 19 
Treuenfels, p. xxii. 
Tubal, vii. 19 ; ix. 11 
Twenty-two — a significant number, pp. 

xxxix-xl ; ii. 23 note 

'Ur, father-in-law of Reu, xi. 1 
Ur, city of, xi. 3, 7, 8 ; xii. 14, 15 

War forbidden on the Sabbath, 1, 12 
Washings obligatory in connection with 

sacrifices, xxi. 16 
Watchers, the. See Angels 
Well of the Oath (see Beersheba), xvi. 

11, 15 ; xviii. 17 ; xxii. 1 ; xxiv. 

21, 26 ; xxvii. 19 ; xxix. 17 ; 

xliv. 1 
Vision, xxiv. 1 
Wine to be drunk at the Passover, xlix. 

6, 9 
Wisdom, Book of, pp. 126, 252 

makes use of Jubilees, pp. Ixxiv, sq. 
Woods to be used in sacrificing, xxi. 


Year, the = 364 days, vi. 29-38 notes 
Years, civil and ecclesiastical, implied 

(?) in Jubilees, p. Ixviii ; vi. 29-30 

430, from birth of Isaac to The 

Exodus, xiv. 13 note 

Zabulon, xxviii. 23 

Zeboim, xiii. 23 ; xvi. 5 

Zephathite, xliv. 13 

Zerah, xli. 21 ; xliv. 15 

Zilpah, sister of Bilhah, xxviii, 3, 9 ; 

xliv. 19 
Zimram, xix. 12 
Zion, i. 28, 29 ; viii. 19 
Ziphion, xliv. 20 
Zonaras quoted, pp. xvi, Ixxix, 35 


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