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TN trying to find a pre-Augustinian African writer, who from 
-*- his date and locality might be presumed to quote from 
a Version similar to that used by S. Cyprian, I came across 
Tyconius, the author of the Liber Regularum. A very slight 
study was enough to shew that it was impossible to ground any 
satisfactory work upon the printed texts of that book. All the 
editions hitherto printed are derived from a single late and 
faulty MS, so that the language appears almost wholly in- 
comprehensible. Indeed it is not too much to say that the 
Liber Regularum is here printed for the first time in something 
of the form in which Tyconius wrote it. 

It is, I believe, mainly this corrupt state of the text which 
has prevented the recognition of the very important place which 
Tyconius holds in the history of Biblical Interpretation in western 
Europe. I have approached the subject almost entirely from 
the point of view of the textual criticism of the Old Latin 
Versions, and have tried to vindicate for the quotations of Tyconius 
their true position as the only considerable body of evidence 
for the Latin text of the Prophets current in Africa between 
the epochs of S. Cyprian and S. Augustine. But there is another 
side to the Liber Regularum. It is the first book in western 
Christendom which attempts to treat of the meaning and Inspira- 
tion of the Bible as a whole, and which tries to find a method of 
interpretation more thorough and scientific than the almost 
hap-hazard selection of proof texts. The work of Tyconius seems 
to be entirely original ; there are hardly any traces of the 
influence of previous writers in it. But it profoundly influenced 
succeeding Latin writers from the time of S. Augustine onward. 
b. b 


I hope that the improved text contained in this volume may- 
induce some scholar to investigate Tyconius' methods and ideas, 
which are well worthy of a more careful study than I feel myself 
competent to give to them. A system of interpretation which 
frankly recognises the historical meaning of prophecy without 
thereby detracting from its spiritual essence should have some 
interest in the present day. 

The present work has grown out of the Kaye Prize Essay 
for 1891, upon the Old Latin Versions of the Prophets. I 
attempted to shew that an improved text of Tyconius was 
essential towards a clearer understanding of this subject, and the 
adjudicators of the Prize have kindly allowed me thus to modify 
both the title and the contents of the Essay. 

It remains now to thank the many friends who have helped 
me at various stages in the preparation of this book, among 
whom I wish especially to name Father Bollig, of the Vatican 
Library, M. Henri Jadart, of Reims, and Dr Ceriani, of Milan, 
through whose good offices I was able to procure a transcript of 
the Monza Epitome. The Editor of this- Series has been un- 
wearied in his help both in the Text and the Introduction ; it is 
chiefly due to him that the work is not disfigured by many 
crudities of style and expression. To the never-failing kindness 
of the late Prof. W. Robertson Smith I owe several suggestions 
and references, besides a brilliant emendation in the text of 
Rule I. 

F. C. B. 
July, 1894. 



T. The Writings of Tyconius 

II. The Date of the Book of Rules . 

III. The Literary History of the Book of Rules 

IV. The MSS aud Editions of the Book of Rule: 

V. The Genealogy of the MSS . 

VI. The Text of the Monza Epitome . 

VII. The Accuracy of Tyconius' Quotations 

VIII. The Latin Version used by Tyconius 

Tyconius and S. Cyprian . 
Tyconius and Habetdeus . 
Tyconius and the ' Speculum ' (m) 
Style aud Vocabulary 
IX. Selected Readings 
The Book of Rules 



The Monza Epitome 
Notes on Orthography . 

Index of Biblical Quotations 
Index of Latin words 


xi — cxviii 























I ni mil. p xlix, line 8 for canta V* read canta V 

Text l'l- 1 "»/// comma after mansionem 

30' 5 for insequabantur read insequebantur and let the note read iuseque- 
batur V 

('>((■' for difinitur read definitur and insert in the note* difinitur RV 

70- M for domu rend domo and let the note read domu R 

77 12 for nouissimia /v^Z nouissinras 


I. The writings of Tycqnius. 

TYCONIUS the African lived in the latter half of the fourth 
century and was a member of the Donatist community. This 
schismatic Church came into existence after the great Diocletian 
Persecution, having separated itself from the main body on the 
question of the Lapsed. In Africa the Donatists formed a strong 
party and kept up their organisation for a couple of centuries, 
holding Catholic doctrine, but refusing communion both with the 
lapsed and those who had received the lapsed. They were thus 
an isolated body of Latin-speaking Christians. There were no 
Greek Donatists, so that the Donatist Church had less tempta- 
tion than the rest of Western Christendom to revise its Bible 
from Greek Codices. So far as I know, the ' Italic,' i.e. Augus- 
tinian, type of text is never found in their works, and at a much 
later date than Tyconius they seem still to have used the Old 
Version when S. Jerome's translation had become the Catholic 
text. Thus in the curious Dialogue Contra Fulgentium Donatis- 
tuin, printed in the appendix to S. Augustine 1 , where a Catholic 
and a Donatist are made to dispute together, the Donatist uses 
an Old Latin text, while the Catholic quotes from the Vulgate. 
These considerations explain the absence of Greek influence in 
the works of Tyconius whether in regard to his ideas or to the 
text of his Biblical quotations. He was an African by nationality 
and an African by religion. 

1 Migne xliii 763. 


Tyconius seems to have occupied a prominent and independent 
position in the internal disputes of his Church 1 . His book on the 
Donatist controversy called Bellum Intestinum has unfortunately 
perished, and the little that is known about his life comes chiefly 
from references scattered up and down in the works of S. Augustine. 
Tyconius appears to have recognised the existence of the true 
Church outside the Donatist community elsewhere than in Africa, 
and on this ground he seems to have quarrelled with his party, yet 
without joining himself to the Catholics. "Contra Donatistas," 
says S. Augustine 2 , "inuictissime scripsit, cum fuerit Donatista ; 
et illic inuenitur absurdissimi cordis, ubi eos non omni ex parte 
relinquere uoluit." His greatest influence, however, both on his 
contemporaries and on succeeding generations, was due to his two 
exegetical works: the Book of Rules edited in this volume, and 
the Commentary on the Apocalypse. 

The Commentary of Tyconius on the Apocalypse is believed 
to be lost. No MS is known to exist at the present time, though 
the Monastery of S. Gall possessed one in the 9th century. A 
great portion of the work has however been incorporated by 
various authors, as has been lately shewn by Dr Haussleiter in 
the Zeitsckrift fur Kirchl. Wissenschaft, 1886, pp. 239 — 257, 
where the whole question of the extant sources has been fully 
worked out. The chief writers who used Tyconius as their main 
authority in explaining the Apocalypse were Primasius, Bede, the 
author of the Pseudo-Augustinian Homilies 3 , and above all 
Bcatus, a Spanish priest contemporary with Charlemagne, whose 
book on the Apocalypse is little more than a series of extracts 
from our author. This last work is very scarce; the only edition 
(by Florez, Madrid, 1770) was not reprinted for Migne. There is 
a copy in the Bodleian, but none in the British Museum or in the 
Cambridge University Library. According to Dr Haussleiter, the 
influence of the Commentary of Tyconius is further visible even 

1 Bee Till, mont, vi 145—150, and the article Tichonius in the Diet, of Christian 
raphy, Cor further information on the relations of Tyconius with his party. 
From tin' pohll of \i<\\ of the textual critic the one important factor of the 
Donatiet position is their isolation in Latin-speaking Africa. For the spelling of 
the name Tyconius see Appendix n on Orthography. 
■ de Doct i 'hrisi iii 30. 
:1 Migne xxxv '2117; sue Tillemont, vi 150, and Haussleiter, pp 240, '242. 


in the ordinary recension of the Commentary of Victorians of 
Pettan, although this author lived a little before Tyconius, and his 
genuine interpretations were quite different from those of the 
African Donatist. 

The Book of Rules has met with a better fate than the 
Commentary on the Apocalypse. Two independent MSS survive, 
besides an extensive Epitome and some interesting quotations 
in subsequent writers. 

In this work Tyconins attempts to deal with a real problem. 
The Church had inherited the Old Testament and held fast to the 
belief that the ancient scriptures wholly testified to the New 
Covenant. Many Jewish prophecies are appealed to by the N. T. 
writers, by the early apologists, and in such works as S. Cyprian's 
Testimonia. But there still remained an enormous residuum 
which was not obviously edifying, so that many verses from the 
Prophets have been quoted by no ancient writer. It was this 
unsurveyed region, the"prophetiae inmensa silua," which Tyconius 
set himself to explore and map out. Consequently his longer 
quotations are often from passages which no one else has touched. 
His aim was to find general rules of interpretation which would 
cover every case, and which therefore might be applied to the 
most unpromising subjects and images. Whatever we may think 
of his results, they certainly seemed to meet the wants of the 
men of his own time. It is a most extraordinary fact that the 
Catholic world should have accepted the work of a schismatic 
as a text-book of exegesis ; that it was so accepted is the best 
testimony to the success of the Book of Rules. 

Tyconius divides all prophecies into two classes : those which 
refer to Christ and His Church, and those which refer to the Devil 
and his followers. It is acknowledged that many passages in the 
prophetical books refer to Christ. But Christ is One with His 
Church, the Body of which He is the Head. A prophecy there- 
fore which begins with something referring to our Lord may go on 
to say something about the Church which is the Body of Christ. 
Again, the Body of Christ is made up of parts ; there is the Right 
Hand and also the Left, — in other words true and false Christians. 
Thus in any given prophecy one verse may refer to our Lord 
Himself, and the next to the black sheep among the flock. 


Tyconius is careful to explain that reason alone can decide which 
is meant. 

A few examples will make our author's method clearer. He 
begins with Isaiah liii. He quotes the well-known words "Hie 

peccata nostra feret ipse uulneratus est propter facinora 

nostra," &c, which, as he says, the mouth of the whole Church 
refers to our Lord. But then he goes on to quote from Is liii 10, 
11 : "Et Deus uult purgare ilium a plaga et uult Deus a dolore 
auferre animam eius, ostendere illi lucem et formare ilium pru- 
dentia 1 ." This, he says, can refer only to the Church, and not to 
Christ. As the two verses in which these words occur are passed 
over by S. Cyprian, though he quotes the rest of the chapter in 
full 2 , it is probable that he too felt a difficulty in applying them 
to Christ. Yet the verses cannot be separated arbitrarily from 
the rest. Tyconius saw this, and provided an explanation by 
saying that to the mind of the prophet the Church and Christ 
form one whole. 

Again, in Cant v 1 the Bride says: "I am black and comely 3 ." 
This Tyconius understands to refer to the mixture of the good 
and the bad in the Church, and he goes on to say: "Never can 
I think that the Church, which hath neither spot nor wrinkle, 
which the Lord with His own Blood cleansed for Himself, can 
in any part be black, except in the left, whereby tlie Name of 
God is blasphemed among the Gentiles." He then explains how it 
is that the Church can have any part black. The Bride, he says, 
— that is of course the Church — is black and comely " as the tent 
of Kedar, as the curtain of Solomon." Here we have implied in a 
single sentence the whole story of Hagar and Sarah, the bond- 
woman and the free. For Kedar is the son of Ishmael, who was 
rejected ; while Isaac was chosen, whose heir is Solomon. Ishmael 
or his representative is always with the Church, and in each age 
is again cast out. Sometimes the bad part is called Ishmael, 
sometimes Esau ; but it is always reappearing, and, as Tyconius 
tells us in another place 4 , the Church now suffers from false 
brethren, but they will soon be cast out at the approaching end of 
the age. 

1 p 2. - Test ii la and 15. 

:: l> 10. « pp 29—31. 


Rules I and II are occupied in expounding the above theory. 
Rule Hi is an excursus explaining the author's idea of the 
antithesis of Faith and Works, of the Promises and the Law. In 
Rule iv he goes back to Prophecy, and tries to find a method of 
extracting edification out of those parts of the Old Testament 
which obviously refer to special towns or countries. He makes a 
distinction between what he calls Genus and what he calls Species. 
Genus includes those statements which are universally true, the 
general principles of God's providence ; Species includes particular 
promises or threats which are fully appropriate only to the indi- 
vidual cities or nations. In the view of TycOnius Genus and 
Species are mixed up together in an almost inextricable confusion, 
— he calls it " Spiritus eloquium subtile." In successive verses 
Genus may give place to Species or vice versa, or the whole verse 
may be assigned to either category. " For while," he says 1 , " the 
prophecy is still referring to the particular instance, the transi- 
tion is often made to the general promise in such a way that it 
is not at once clearly visible. We often find words used at first 
which suit either interpretation, until at last some detail is 
introduced too wide for the Species, and we discover that the 
sense has become general." Thus Nahum prophesied against 
Nineve, and much that he says will suit the story of the destruc- 
tion of the ancieut city on the Tigris, but to shew that 'Nineve' is 
not to be confined to that special city, some words are added which 
are too great for a single town, such as " There was no end to the 
nations thereof," and " Thou hast multiplied thy merchandise 
above the stars of the heaven," — that is, the Church 2 . 

In Rule V there comes a truly marvellous dissertation upon 
Times, Seasons and Numbers. Nothing less than a quotation of 
the original in full would do justice to the extraordinary ingenuity 
by which almost any number can be made to mean any other. 
Thus the time between the Death of Christ on the cross and His 
Resurrection is proved to have been three days and three nights by 
the following process of reasoning. The time in question appears 
to be the evening of Friday, the whole of Saturday, and until 
sunrise on Sunday. Tyconius says: — any part of Friday or Sunday 
may stand for the whole day, because it is written " Vespera et 
1 pp 31, 32. - Nah iii 3, 1G, p t2. 


mane dies unus " (Ge i 5). But Saturday must be complete, for 
we read "A uespera in uesperam obseruari diem sabbatorum" 
(Lev xxiii 32). Finally, the Resurrection took place when it was 
yet dark (Jn xx 1) on Sunday morning, because "competit 
operibus Dei, ut non dies obscuraretur in noctem sed nox lucescat 
in diem, ipsa enim nox inluminatur et efficitur dies, quod est 
figura eorum quae facturus erat in Christo 1 ." This is a happy 
thought, whatever we may think of it as exegesis. 

The sixth Rule is devoted to what Tyconius called Recapitit- 
latio. This is by no means identical with what we usually mean 
by 'recapitulation' ; and the neglect of the distinction has given 
rise to a certain amount of misunderstanding from the time of 
S. Augustine onward, and has produced a confusion in the text 
of one of our principal manuscript authorities 2 . According to 
the terminology of Tyconius a 'recapitulation' is made when a 
Biblical writer is speaking both of the type and the antitype, 
the promise and the fulfilment. For just as the Church and her 
Head are not two but one according to the " subtle eloquence of 
the Spirit," and may therefore appropriately be the subject of 
the same prophecy, so also the type and the antitype are in a 
measure one in the prophet's mind. Thus we read in Mt xxiv 15: 
" When ye see that which was spoken by Daniel the prophet, 
then let them which are in Judaea flee to the mountains." What 
was spoken by Daniel had come to pass long ago, for the direct 
fulfilment had been only one of the types of the general coming 
of Antichrist. But the Evangelist 'recapitulates' this and joins 
the events together by saying ' then'; that is, when a similar state 
of things is seen again in the world. Tyconius seems to realise 
that others might feel the difficulties of this method of interpre- 
tation, in which both the class of beings to which a prophecy 
refers and the time for which it is appropriate are left to the in- 
telligence of the reader. He therefore makes a digression to 
shew that in several texts, even in the Epistles, much is really 
hinted at rather than expressly stated, and that simply to take 

1 Similar reckonings of the "three days and three nights" are found in Aug 
Serm ccxxi { = Eug 445) and Quaest Ev i 7 (=Eug 447). In these passages S. 
Augustine seems to be influenced by Tyconius. See also Cassian, contra Nest vi 23. 

- Sec pp xxxvi, xxxvii. 


what the Apostle says, and no more, would lead to manifest 

The seventh Rule is occupied in shewing that prophecies 
about the Devil and his followers are subject to the same rules 
as those about Christ and His Church. As the Church is the 
Body of Christ, so the wicked are the Body of the Devil. There is 
however one difference. In the Church are false brethren. Jacob 
and Solomon and other types of the Church have also a wicked 
side; for the Church is black as well as comely. But the followers 
of the Devil are altogether bad. Esau, Seir, Theman are types of 
the bad alone. Even if the Evil One is said to be ornamented 
with precious stones 1 , these ornaments are only the " men of 
excellent intelligence and powerful genius" whom he has stolen 
from God : " Omnia enim quae fecit Dens bona sunt ; horum 
diabolus usum non naturam mutauit 2 ." 

II. The Date of the Booh of Rules. 

The date of the work is of some importance in estimating the 
value of the text of the Biblical quotations, as we cannot suppose 
that the Donatist Bible entirely escaped the tendency to eclectic 
revision which prevailed in the fourth century. A few years 
difference in the date of the publication of the Book of Rules 
might conceivably have produced a very considerable change in 
the text of the quotations. 

The principal external evidence for the date is derived from 
the consideration that the work is decidedly earlier than 426 AD, 
the date of the second edition of the treatise de Doctrina Chris- 
tiana, in which S. Augustine contrasts the time when Tyco- 
nius wrote with his own. "Non erat expertus hanc haeresem 

(Pelagianorum), quae nostro tempore exorta multum nos 

exercuit 3 ." 

A passage in Rule V (de Temporibus) supplies a further clue 
within the work itself. It runs as follows : " Vnus dies aliquando 
c anni sunt, sicut de Ecclesia scriptum est iacere in ciuitate nbi et 

1 Eze xxviii 13. ' Bule vn, p 82 s . 

3 See de Doct Christ iii 33. 


Bominus eius cruci fixus est tres dies et dimidium (cf. Ap xi 8, 9), 
et: Oportet filium hominis Hierusalem ire, et multa <pati a 
senior ibus et principibus sacerdotum et scribis, et occidi, et post 
tres dies resurgere ; ipse enim tertio surrexit 1 ." The "Son of 
Man," by which expression Tyconius here understands the Church, 
not Christ 2 , will come to the end of the long struggle in three 
days and a half— that is 350 years— after the Crucifixion. This 
brings us to 383 AD at the latest : therefore it would seem that 
Tyconius wrote before 383 AD. 

III. The Literary History of the Booh of Rules. 

The Rules of Tyconius are explained and criticised by S. 
Augustine in his treatise de Boctrina Christiana ill 30 — 37. This 
is no doubt the most important event in the history of the book. 
The great African theologian suggests a fresh title for Rules II 
and [II, and gently complains that the treatment of Promises and 
Law is not quite full enough for the times of the Pelagian 
controversy. He also warns readers not to forget that Tyconius 
was not a Catholic : " Caute sane legendus est, non solum propter 
quaedam in quibus ut homo errauit, sed maxime propter ilia 
quae sicut Donatista haereticus loquitur 3 ." But this is S. 
Augustine's hardest word, and indeed throughout the whole 
review he treats Tyconius as an authority to be explained rather 
than as a theorist to be criticised. 

S. Augustine is moreover a prime authority for such of 
Tyconius' Biblical Quotations as he himself quotes. The only 
passage of Tyconius' own writing which is given word for word 
is the preface, but wherever S. Augustine quotes a verse to shew 
how it is explained by Tyconius, he quotes it directly from the 
Book of Rules. 

Two examples are given below to make this clear. The right- 
hand column contains quotations of the same verses from other 
works tit'S. Augustine. 

1 p 61. a See pp 1, 7. 

:1 de Doi i Christ iii 30. 


Eze xxxvi 23 

de Doct Christ iii (-— Tyc. p 33) contr ep 2 Pelag iv 

et sauctificabo et sanctificabo 

nomen raeum nomen meum 

sanctum illud magnum magnum 

quod pollutum est quod profanatum est 

inter nationes in gentibus 

quod polluistis et profanastis 

in medio earum, in medio coram, 

et scient gentes et scient gentes 

quoniam ego sum quia ego sum 

dns, diis, dicit Adonai dns, 

dum sanctificabor cum sanctificatus fuero 

in uobis in uobis 

ante oculos eorum. ante oculos eorum. 

Esai xiv 12 (after "Quomodo cecidit de caelo lucifer mane oriens") 
de Doct Christ iii ( = Tyc. p 70) de Genesi ad litt xi 

contritus est contritus est 

in terra in terrawj 

qui mitt it qui mittebat 

ad omnes gentes ad omnes gentes 

In the last instance, the difference of reading corresponds 
to a difference of interpretation ; for " contritus est in terra " is 
explained to mean that the Devil is defeated on earth in the 
person of wicked men who perish, while " contritus est in terrain " 
is referred to the fall of the Evil Angels. 

It is worthy of notice in passing that the whole passage in 
de Genesi ad litt xi from which Isaiah xiv 12 is quoted above 
seems to shew the influence of Tyconius on S. Augustine. 
Tyconius is not named, but S. Augustine argues from Isaiah xiv 
and Ezekiel xxviii as in Rule VII, though the text of these 
passages as he quotes them is independent of Tyconius. Such 
words as these seem an echo of the Book of Rules : " Tu autem 
dixisti sensu tuo, In caelum ascendam, super sidera caeli ponam 

thronum meum et cetera, quae in figura regis uelut Babylonis 

in diabolum dicta intelleguntur, plura in eius corpus conueniunt, 
quod etiam de humano genere congregat... Sicut enim qui erat 
diabolus homo dictus est, ut in Evangelio: Inimicus Jtomo hoc 
fecit, ita qui homo erat diabolus dictus est... Et sicut corpus 


Christi, quod est Ecclesia, dicitur Christus,...eo modo etiam 
corpus diaboli, cui caput est diabolus... dicitur diabolus... Itaque 
lucifer qui mane oriebatur et cecidit, potest intellegi apostatarum 
genus uel a Christo uel ab Ecclesia, quod ita conuertitur ad 
tenebras amissa luce, quam portabat 1 , quern ad modum qui 
conuertuntur ad Deum a tenebris ad lucem transeunt, id est qui 
fuerunt tenebrae riant lux 2 ." 

In Cassian contra Nestorium vi 23 (C.S.E.L. xvii), about 
429 ad, is a short resume of the first part of "Reg v, but Tyconius 
is not mentioned by name. 

The Book of Rules is next referred to in the " Liber de Pro- 
missionibus" which is usually bound up with the works of S. 
Prosper of Aquitaine, and which seems to have been written in 
Africa between 450 and 455 AD 3 . I have thought it worth while 
to quote- the reference to Tyconius in full, as it shews how his 
eschatological calculations were explained away by readers in the 
succeeding century. The passage is de Promissionibus iv 13 

(Migne li 848): " Septimus dies qui mane tantum, et uesperam 

non habebit. quam requiem sabbati omni praecepto diuinitas ipsa 
seruandam commendat 4 , ut uacantes ab omni opere malo mane 
astemus (Ps v 5), ut contemplemur euni qui coronat in miseratione 
et misericordia (Ps cii 2), omnes iuste iudicans et inique neminem 
damnans. sed de his Tyconius multa conscripsit. consummationem 
uero perfectionemque temporum trium annorum et sex mensium 
— qui dicti sunt dies MCCLX, et menses faciunt XL et II — non 
tantum Apocalypsis Iohannis quantum et Daniel propheta com- 
mendat, quibus ciuitatem sanctam calcari (Ap xi 2) 5 ut aestimatur 
ab haereticis et maxime Arianis, qui tunc plurimum poterunt." 

The next reference to the Book of Rules is found in the 
commentary on the Pentateuch compiled by John the Deacon. 
This John the Deacon certainly lived before Gregory the Great, 
and he may be identical with Pope John III. A MS of the com- 
mentary exists at Paris 6 , from which Dom Pitra edited some 
portions. The work consists of extracts from earlier writers, 
among which is found one passage from Rule V. This is pub- 

1 Cf Reg < it, i> *:;--■ -■. 2 Cf Regg iv, p 48 20 ; v, p 57 18ff . 

:; See Migne li 731, 732. * Cf Reg v, p 62. 

■ Cf Reg v, p 61. « Cod Lat 838. » See pp 55, 56. 


lished in Spicilegium Solesmense i 294, 295. The extract is in- 
troduced as a comment on Ex xii 40, and it is most likely that 
John the Deacon was induced in this single instance to quote the 
Book of Rules, because S. Augustine had mentioned Tyconius 
when commenting on that verse 1 . But the reference itself is in 
any case independent, as John the Deacon makes an exact quo- 
tation of some length, while S. Augustine merely refers to the 
interpretation of Tyconius. 

In the 6th century the Book of Rules is praised in general 
terms by Cassiodorus, and recommended to students of Scripture 2 . 
His contemporary Primasius on the other hand does not mention 
this work, though his commentary on the Apocalypse is based on 
that of Tyconius. 

S. Isidore of Seville, about the beginning of the 7th century, 
describes the Rules in the "Liber Sententiarum 3 ." Tyconius is 
not once named, but the Rules are said to be the work of "certain 
wise men." S. Isidore's description is mainly taken from de Doct 
Christ iii, but he must also have been familiar with the Book of 
Rules itself. Thus in describing Rule IV he quoted Isaiah xiii 17, 
adding Tyconius' explanation 4 , though that passage is not men- 
tioned by S. Augustine. The text of the quotations themselves 
is assimilated to the Vulgate, as in the other works of S. Isidore. 

The account of the Rules which Bede prefixed to his Ex- 
planatio Apocalypsis is entirely taken from S. Augustine. There is 
however an interesting reference to them in Hincmar (Migne cxxv 
297). He is speaking of the heretic Godescalc : " imitari uolens 
Isidorum de Ticonio et aliis sapientibus septem in sacris scripturis 
regulas excerpentem, satis insulse nausiauit." As S. Isidore 
never names Tyconius it may well be that Hincmar himself had 
read the Book of Rules. We shall see in the next section that 
the oldest and best MS of it now known was among the books 
which Hincmar gave to the Cathedral library at Reims. 

The remaining Testimonia Veterum to the Rules are the 
Epitomes and the " Memoria Technica." The latter is a set of 
seven Hexameters, first published in the French Departmental 
Catalogue of 1849 (vol i 88) from a 13th cent. MS at Laon. I 

1 Quaeat in Hcpt ii 17. 2 Cassiod de Inst diuin lit! x. 

a Isid Sent i 1'.). 4 Reg iv, p 51 s5 . 


have found the lines in two MSS at Rome, of the 14th and loth 
centuries respectively. From the extensive variations in these 
MSS it is evident that the common original must have been much 
earlier than the oldest of the three, but there is no proof that 
the verses are independent of S. Augustine's review 1 . 

Two Epitomes of the Rules were published by Dom Pitra 
in vol iii of the Spicilegium Solesmense. One 2 is merely a re- 
petition of S. Augustine's remarks, and only noticeable for the 
statement that S. Augustine added three more Rules to the 
Seven. As a matter of fact, in the earlier chapters of de Doct 
Christ iii S. Augustine gives some rules for interpreting certain 
classes of Scripture passages, but in no sense does he attach them 
to the Rules of Tyconius 3 . 

The other Epitome, published in Spicil. Sol. iii 397, is more in- 
teresting, though it also has no direct connection with the work 
of Tyconius, being entirely based on SS. Augustine and Isidore. 
This comes out very clearly from an examination of the text of 
the Biblical quotations. S. Isidore conforms Tyconius' quotations 
to the Vulgate, but S. Augustine quotes them exactly. The 
Epitome agrees with S. Augustine as far as he goes, but where 
S. Isidore refers to a quotation of Tyconius not given by S. 
Augustine the text of the Epitome agrees with S. Isidore, — that 
is, with the Vulgate. For example, both S. Isidore and the 
Epitome quote Isaiah xiii 5 and 11 together thus : Et disperdam 
omnem terrain, et uisitabo super orbem mala, which is word for 
word with the Vulgate, except that the latter has ut clisperdet 4 . 
On the other hand the direct dependence of the Epitome on 
S. Augustine is unmistakeable in the description of Rule V : 
" Duobus autem mod is ualet haec regula aut tropo synecdoche 
quod expositum est, aut legitimis numeris quos eminentius diuina 
Scriptura commendat." This is word for word from S. Augustine, 
except that he writes "uigere dicit banc regulam," and that the 
phrase " quod expositum est" stands for S. Augustine's explanation. 

1 See p 86. - Spic. Sol. iii 445. 

3 Jacob Perez of Valencia, who also gives ten rules in his commentary on the 
Psalms (ad 150G) in imitation of the rules of Tyconius, is entirely dependent for 
them on S. Aug dc Doct Christ. 

4 Contrast Reg iv, pp. 50 2;! , 51 10 . 


Three mss of this Epitome are mentioned in the Spidlegium 

Solesmense, one being of the 12th cent. I have seen two others, 
one at Paris (Bibl. Nat. MS Lat. 14402), and one at Oxford 
(Canonici Patr. Eccl. 88). No doubt there are several more 1 . The 
Epitome generally occupies the fly-leaf at the beginning or the 
end of a Biblical or quasi-Biblical MS. 

The discussion of the Monza Epitome belongs to the section 
treating of the mss of the Book of Rules. 







The mutual relations of the Patristic references to the Book of 
Rules will be seen at a glance by the diagram here annexed. 
Yet it hardly does justice to the preponderating influence of 

1 Such a one must be Munich, Cod. lat. 22239 (Windberg 39), written ad 1279 : 
"/ 226 de Tyconii vii regulis, id est modis loquendi diuersis in sacra scriptura ; 
/ 227 Arbores historiarum, etc." The lost Cluny us may also have merely con- 
tained the Epitome, not the Book of Rules itself ; see p xxviii. 

B. C 


S. Augustine, for the sole reference to Tyconius' book independent 
of the review in de Doctrina Christiana is that by the author of 
the de Pvomissionibus. He was an African, and perhaps for that 
reason familiar with the book which his countryman had written less 
than a century before 1 . But Cassian and John the Deacon quote 
the Book of Rules only to illustrate a passage where Tyconius' 
explanation had been already noticed by S. Augustine ; Cassio- 
dorus names Tyconius only in the sentence in which he recom- 
mends the study of the de Doctrina Christiana ; S. Isidore follows 
S. Augustine's remarks more than the original Seven Rules. 
Therefore it is not unlikely that the fame of the book in the 
Middle Ages and its preservation to the present day is entirely 
due to S. Augustine. It was his recommendation, rather than 
the intrinsic merit of the work of a Donatist, that secured the 
respect of Latin Christendom. 

IV. The MS8 and Editions of the Book of Rules. 

Of the five mss of the Liber Regularum of which we have any 
knowledge one is now lost. The lost MS however, together with 
two of the others, was a transcript direct or mediate of one of 
the remaining pair, so that its disappearance only affects the later 
history of the text. 

1. Codex Remensis (R), saec. ix. Cod. lat. 364 of the 
Municipal Library at Reims (Haenel's 252 bis), formerly part of 
the Cathedral Library. A vellum quarto of 35 leaves written in 
neat Caroline minuscules with two columns of 28 lines on a page, 
making 139 columus of writing, the last column being blank. 
R never contained the last two-thirds of Reg vn ; the text breaks 
off in the middle of a sentence and the colophon FINIT LIBER 
TYCONll is added in red. The present binding is modern, and the 
only signatures (foil, lr, 9r, I7r, 25r and 33r) are also modern 
and in Arabic numerals. At the foot of foil. 16v, I7r an ancient 
hand has scrawled in capitals HINCMARVS ARCHIEPS DEDIT 
scae mariae REMENSI. The same words appear on the last page. 

1 Sec above, p xx, and Tillemont, xvi 28. 


At the bottom of the first page also is dedit etc, so that the Rules 
may once have been bound up with some other work, on the last 
page of which was written Hincmarus Archieps ; but as it appears 
from a scrawl on the fly-leaf at the end, written May 14, 1412, 
that R then as now contained only the Liber Regularum " sine 
primo folio," the loss must be ancient, if indeed what is now 
missing was ever more than the fly-leaf at the beginning. The 
same words (Hincmarus Archieps etc) in the same hand appear 
in the 9th cent. MS of Victor of Capua's Harmony, which also 
came from the Cathedral Library. As there is some evidence 1 
that Hincmar knew of Tyconius independently of S. Isidore, there 
is little reason to doubt the historical accuracy of the statement 
that the book was given by him. 

The text of R is divided into short paragraphs with capitals at 
the beginning of them outside the line. These paragraphs seem 
to be older than the MS itself, as they now and then preserve the 
right divisions in places where the text of R is corrupt 2 . The 
usual contractions are found in R; § for ae is rare, ae being generally 
written in full ; & is used even in such cases as d&e for de te ; 
i is lengthened before n at the beginning of a word to distinguish 
'in' from f m.' Quotations generally have J placed against them 
in the margin. Titles, subscriptions, etc, are in regular red 
capitals. The ink is still very black and the MS in excellent 
condition. The changes in the text seem all contemporary. There 
are several long erasures underneath the present writing, but the 
character of the text does not seem specially affected at these 
points 3 . 

Sabatier was the first to make critical use of Cod. R. In the 
year 1727, in the midst of the preparation of his great collection 
of all the pre-Hieronymian Biblical quotations then available, he 
was obliged to leave Paris on account of the Jansenist troubles, 
and retired to a sort of exile at Reims 4 . This was the occasion 
of his coming across our MS. He was for a time Librarian in 

1 See p xxi, and compare Berger, Vulgate, p 281. 

2 See Reg i, pp 5 2122 , 7 s3 - ^ 

3 Thus in the long erasure pp G 24 — 7 6 R is the only witness for the certainly 
genuine 'Lucan' for 'Lucam, 1 and i generaui'' for 'genui.' 

4 0. Lat, Bibl. Texts I xxvii, and Sab. Ill xxviii. 



the Monastery of S. Nicasius 1 and made a catalogue of the MSS 
there, but he also quotes from the MSS belonging to the 
Cathedral. In the earlier parts of the Bible Sabatier simply cites 
Tyconius from the Maxima Bibliotheca Veterum Pcubrwm, torn, vi, 
pp 49 — 67, but from Hier xxv 35 (chap xlix Hebr) onwards he 
makes considerable use of R. 

I collated R in July 1891, and saw it again in May 1892. 
The Editor of this series also was kind enough to re-examine 
several doubtful passages in September of the latter year, so that 
I hope a considerable degree of accuracy has been insured. I 
have not noticed all the interchanges of e and ae, but with that 
exception I have tried to include every variation. 

2. Codex Vaticanus Reginensis 590 (V), saec. x. A vellum 
quarto containing the Book of Rules (ff 91 — 146), preceded by the 
Life of S. Fulgentius and his two books de Remissions Peccatorum. 
The writing is in one column with hardly any divisions; those 
which are found are often badly placed and have no connection 
with the paragraphs in R. Rules v and VI also are divided 
differently. The style of writing is the ordinary minuscule. 
' Ecclesia ' and its oblique cases are often written 'eccl' without 
any termination. There are many changes in the text by a con- 
temporary corrector (Ycorr), mostly designed to improve the 
orthography and grammar, but including a few conjectural readings. 
Besides the regular corrector there are a few changes made by a 
later hand, possibly none other than the scribe of the Paris MS. 
V is described in Reifferscheid's Bibliotheca Patrum Latinorum 
Italica, p 407, but the text has never been published. I collated 
the MS in March and April 1892. 

3. Cod. Parisiensis (P), saec. xi, now Bibl. Nat. Lat. 2359, 
but formerly belonging to the Monastery of S. Martin des Champs 
near Paris. The original contents of P were Bede on the Acts, 
followed by S. Fulgentius and the Book of Rules as in Cod. V. 
These are now preceded by a 12th cent. MS of S. ' Ildefunsus,' but 
in the 13th century catalogue of the library of S. Martin des 
Champs the two books are separate. Collated in September 1891. 

1 Sab. Ill xxix. 


4. Cod. Oxoniensis (O), saec. xii exeunt., now Marshall 21 
in the Bodleian, but formerly at the Church of S. Peter in 
Ghent. contains Hilary on S. Matthew with the Book of Rules 
following it. The initial letters of each work are illuminated in 
colours. Collated in June 1891. 

5. "Cod. Claromarisci Abbatiae iuxta Audoniaropolim, quern 
contulit P. And, Schottus, Soc. Iesu, anno 1618." This Ms has 
disappeared, and it is only known by the readings inserted in the 
margin of the edition of 1622. What remained after the Revolu- 
tion of the books of the Cistercian Abbey of Clairmarais near 
S. Omer were removed to the S. Omer Municipal Library, but the 
Tyconius is not there. As however the Abbey Library was burnt 
in 1638, and moreover as only 117 out of the 270 mss which were 
at Clairmarais in 1789 are now to be found, it is no wonder that 
this book is among the lost. Its readings are quoted with the 
sign C. 

6. A paper MS at Basle of the 16th century. It is unbound 
and without class-mark 1 . Quoted as B. 

7. Codex Modoetianus (M), saec. ix — x, numbered ^- 


in the Cathedral Library at Monza near Milan, is a vellum MS of 
210 leaves about 10 in. x 6| in., containing 'Arnbrosiaster' on the 
Pauline epistles (including Hebrews). The last five leaves are 
occupied with an abridgment of the Book of Rules. The extracts 
embrace matter found on pages 1 — 39 and 50 — 68 of this edition, 
and are simply headed with the words VII • TICONII regvlae. At 
the end of the volume is the note " ego Liuthprandus scripsi hoc 

I first heard of M through a communication kindly made to 
the Editor of this series by Dom Amelli of Monte Cassino in the 
summer of 1893. I was unable to go to Monza myself, but 
Dr Ceriani of the Ambrosian Library at Milan most kindly had a 
complete transcript prepared for me, which is given in full in 
Appx. i (pp 89— 98) 2 . 

1 "Ex Museo Faeschii," Haenel 650 bis. 

'- I have also to thank Dr Varisco of Monza for kindly sending me very full 
preliminary information concerning the MB. 


M has been for a long time at Monza, possibly ever since it was 
written. It seems to be identical with the volume described in 
the catalogue of AD 1275: "Item in alio uolumine augustinus 
super epistolas pauli" (Frisi's Monza II 135). S. Augustine did 
not write a commentary on the Pauline epistles, but other errors 
occur elsewhere in the Catalogue, so that the commentary of 
' Ambrosiaster ' may really be meant. Our MS is described in 
Frisi in 30, No. lxvii. 

In the 12th cent, catalogue of the Cluny Library (published by 
Uelisle 1 ) No 274 is thus described : Volumen in quo continentur 
vii libri Ticonii de multiplici uarietate et passiones sanctorum 
Nazarii et Celsi et sermones et hyvvni et misse, etc. If this was a 
MS of the Book of Rules it is quite lost, but the rest of the 
contents of the Codex suggest that it may have been only the 
second Epitome described on p xxii. 

The text of the Book of Rules was first published by Grynasus 
at Basle in 1569 among the Orthodoxographa. Grynoeus' text 
was repeated (with several misprints 2 ) in the first edition only of 
de la Bigne's Bibliotheca Patrum, Paris 1575 s . 

In 1022 the Jesuit Andreas Schott edited the Rules for the 
Appendix of the Magna Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum. In the 
margin he inserted several readings from the lost S. Omer MS, and 
he also appears to have now and then emended the text from 
the same source 4 . But this is of very rare occurrence, and for 
the most part even the misprints of the editio princeps are 
repeated. Schott's edition appears again in the Maxima Biblio- 
theca, from which Sabatier mainly quotes, and the pages of which 
appear in the margin of this edition. In 1772 another edition 

1 ii 237. 

- E.g. 'esis ' for ' eris' in the last line. 

3 The other editions of de la Bigne do not contain the Rules; see Tillemont, vi 148. 

4 Thus in Reg n, p ll 8 ncquum Me scruns is the reading of the mss ; Grynteus 
left out nequam, but it is inserted by Schott, though it is a reading quite different 
from the Vulgate. On the other hand he leaves menie for monte (Reg i, p 2 22 ), 
though that is a simple printer's blunder, and changes sceucre — a mistake of the 
editio princeps for .serf severe (Reg in, p L6 7 ) — into sed vere, which has remained in 
all subsecment editions. 



of Tyconius came out in Galland, torn. viii. Some of the mis- 
prints in Schott's edition were removed, and a few conjectures 
made without any warning to the reader, but no MS was used. 
Finally, Galland's edition was reprinted in Migne, torn, xvii, with 
several fresh misprints. 

V. The Genealogy of the 3188. 

The object of this section is to shew that Cod. V is the sole 
ancestor of Codd. POBC and the Editions. For the sake of 
clearness I give here what I conceive to be the relations of the 
MSS to one another, including the Monza Epitome (M). Greek 
letters represent hypothetical lost mss. 



900 _ 









f •ff u 




l. r >00 




)Ed. Princ. 

1. Derivation of B and p (the editio princeps) from O. 

A large number of the extraordinary corruptions which have 


hitherto defaced the printed text of Tyconius come from O, the MS 
now in the Bodleian. 
For example : 

Reg I, p 5 9 nouissimo aduentu Domini... nemo ut aliqui 
putant mentietur R Ycorr P M 
metietur V* 
mercietur O 

mereretur p, altered by Schott into morereturl 
Tyconius is talking of " false Christs," and says they appear 
before, not at the time of the Last Advent. 

Reg ill, p 15 7 sed minus liquet quid sit... ex fide R 

licet VP 
lucet O p 
The reading of O is evidently a mere correction of ' licet,' 
though it makes sense in itself. 

Reg IV, p 33 16 custodiatis etfaciatis R VP Aug locdt 

operemini O p (= Vg, Eze xxxvi 27) 
An illustration of the sporadic influence of the Vulgate on late 
Patristic MSS. 

Reg vii, p 79 18 tres pueri, qui regem...unum Dominum as- 
serendo eiusdem Dei praesente uirtute confuderunt VP 
eiusdem Dei praesente (om uirtute) O C 
eodem Dei praesente all edd. 

Schott conjectures eiusdem Dei praesentia. 

This instance shews a connection between Codd. O and C not 
shared by VP. 

Thus the texts of the editio princeps and Cod. stand very 
near to one another. The link of connection is the paper MS B at 
Basle. This MS is evidently printers' 'copy.' In the margin 
are red chalk marks and the numeration of the pages of p, the 
exact points where the pages begin being marked in the text, 
with the catchwords printed out, thus : 

1353 et crescendo / terram / omnem texit 

The greater part of B is written in a large clear Italic hand, 
but the first page is not so professional in appearance. It seems 


almost as if Grynasus himself had begun it, and then ordered a 
copy to be made by a writer. At the top left-hand corner are the 

ex bibliotheca sti petri Gandensis, 

which have been run through with a pen. The corresponding- 
words in O are on the Hy-leaf at the end : Lib' fi petri gand.' 
eccle,. The opening words in B are incipit liber Tichonij, as in O, 
but this has been altered in the MS to 'Tichonij liber (without 
incipit), which is the title in p. As far as relates to the text, 
we find that, near as and p stand together, B is nevertheless 
between the two. Three examples will be enough. 

Reg I, p 2- 8 accepit omnem potestatem R VP COM 
For potestatem B has p'tatem ; accordingly ed. princ. and all 
other editions have pietatem, though since Schott's time potestatem 
has had a place in the margin. 

Reg in, p 22- 1 fidelis Deus R 

fideles Deus VP (C) 

fidelis Deus is in the text of both B and p, but in the margin 
of B is al' fideles, and in the margin of all editions is alias fideles. 

Reg vii, p 73-" ilium ab Aquilone persequar R VP O 

ilium persequar ab Aquilone B p and edd. 

The Greek of Joel ii 20 is top airb /3oppd e/cSi<w£&). 

Both external and internal evidence therefore prove that p, the 
editio princeps, was made from B, and that B is a copy of O. In 
what follows the readings of O alone will be quoted. 

2. Proof that Codd. VP C constitute one family. 

Reg in, p 20- 3 Salomon in prece dedications templi...inquit R 
in praedicationis V 
in predicatione P 
in dedicatione O and edd. 

P and O here give independent emendations of V. 

Reg III, p 29 u quod pars mala simulet se Iacob 

et sint duo sub uno nomine R sine dubio uno nomine VP O and edd. 


Reg iv, p 48 11 rainatur Deus ignem ex igni Israhel regi 
Assyriorum, et dicit arsurum uelut stipulam R 

et dicitur syrum uel ad stipulam V* 
et dicit ad syrum uel ad stipulam Ycorr P O and edd. 
V's ancestor seems to have written a in the form cc (as indeed 
we sometimes find in V itself) ; this is easily confused with u. 

But some of the most striking and convincing proofs of the 
close connection of the family VPOC come from the text of the 
Biblical quotations. It must be borne in mind that for at least 
two hundred years before the earliest of our MSS was written the 
Vulgate had been the only Biblical text known in Western 
Europe. Nearness therefore to the exact words of the lxx is a 
proof of textual fidelity. 

Reg iv, p 42 26 sacerdotes eius profanant sacra R 

prophetant VPO 
fiefirjXovaiv LXX Soph iii 4 
Reg iv, p 42 27 Dominus...iustus in medio eius R 

in templo VPO 
iv iieaw LXX Soph iii 5 
Reg IV, p 44 4 <iuoniam dedit timorem suura super 
terrain uitae, dormiet R 
...uitae dormiret V* 
...ut dormiret Ycorr P 
...uitae ut dormiret O 

The Greek of Eze xxxii 32 is oti &eBa>/ca (eSco/cev Lucian) rov 
<f)o/3ov avrov eVi y?;<? ^cofjs ical KOi/jbrjO^areTai. 

As is so often the case, the corrupt word in V* — ' dormiret ' — 
is unchanged by the correctors and copyists, while the words 
which were faithfully transmitted are still further corrupted by 

Reg iv, p 46 15 " accipe citharam, uagulare, ciuitas fornicaria 
oblita; bene citharizare, multa canta, ut tui commemoratio fiat. R 

(R has the misspelling 'citharizari,' a mistake not shared by the 

1. cytharaiu angulare V; cytharam angularem PO 

2. multa cantica canta VPO 


The Greek of Esai xxiii 16 is \d(3e KiOdpav pe/ifievaov 
7roXt? iropvt] iiriXeXrjcr/xivT}, tcaXros Kiddptaov iroWa acrov 
iva crov [iveta yevrjrai. 

The rather harsh phrase multa canta is a literal rendering 
of 7ro\Aa acrov, and therefore cantica in VPO is not genuine. 
Angularem in PO comes from angulare in V, which is a cor- 
ruption of R's word uagulare. ' Vagulari' seems to be a air. Xey. 
to express pep,(3eveiv, a word which occurs here only in the whole 
Greek 0. Test. 1 'Vagari' is the word used in this passage by 
Ambrose and Jerome. 

Reg IV, p 49 17 Gonfringantur arcus in Aelam R 

o-vvTpiftiJTO) (Cod. A etc, but o-vverpLfiri B) to to%ov AlXd/x, 
Hier xxv 36. 

confringanair VP 

confringam nair O, and as ' nair ' was otherwise inexplicable 
it has been spelt with a capital N in all the editions, and treated 
as a proper name ! It was this corruption which seems to have 
made Sabatier suspicious of the printed texts of Tyconius, and 
which led him to publish some readings of R. 

Reg iv, p 50 l eritque in nouissimis diebus auertam captiui- 

tatem Aelam R 

real carat eV ia^drcov tgov r'lpuepwv [>cal] airoaTpe-ty-a} k.t.X. 

Hier xxv 39 

erit aetemam captiuitatem aelam VP 

erit in aetemam captiuitatem elam C 

erit in aetemum captiuitatem elam O and editions 

This instance makes it quite clear that C also belongs to the 

same family as VP and 0. 

3. Proof that V is the actual parent of P and O. 

The instances given above only shew the close relationship of 
VPO. Something more is needed to prove actual parentage. It 
must not be a mere corruption in V, for that might have arisen 
by faithfully copying a damaged exemplar. It must be some 
peculiarity in the MS itself, which has been mistaken by subsequent 

1 A similar instance is found in Reg iv, p 45 28 , where, to express dprivnixa in Eze 
xxvii 32 (which only occurs in the lxx at that place), we find lamenta in II, which 
is changed in V and PO to lamentum. For lamenta see Ronsch 86. 


copyists. From the nature of the case such instances are rare, 
but I have noticed the following examples. 

a. There are several cases where RV* are together, while O 
and P follow Ycorr. Thus 

Reg I, p 1 1!) "° Dominum eiusne corpus, id est Ecclesiam, 
Scriptura loquatur, sola ratio discernit] R 

That is: "Reason alone decides whether in a Messianic 
passage the Scripture is speaking of the Lord Himself, or of His 
Body the Church." 

For eiusne VPO have eiusque, which destroys the whole sense. 
Nevertheless loquatur was read by V* as in R ; but as there was 
now no particle to govern the subjunctive, loquatur was changed 
by the corrector into loquitur, and loquitur is the reading of 
P and O. 

Reg vn, p 76 1 Abductosque non soluit. potest istud in 
speciem conuenire] Ycorr P (hiat R) 

For abductosque and istud, V*0 have abductoque and inquit. 
The first was obviously wrong, so the amended reading abductosque 
is in the editions, but inquit was never changed back in them to istud. 

b. Accidental defacements in V a cause of corruption. 

Reg iv, p 47 27 ista sunt] R 

ista faciant VO 

faciant is in the last line of a page of V, and the letters ac 
have been injured by damp, not erased by a scribe. The reading 
of P is fiant. 

Reg vn, p 74 4 quasi] RVP, om quasi O and edd. 

By some accident — I think some ink has come over from the 
opposite page — ' quasi ' has been nearly blotted out in V. 

c. Marginal corrections in V misunderstood or neglected. 
Reg I, p 5 ffl Dauid totam Ecclesiam Christum dicit] RM 

V* omitted Christum, but it was added in the margin. P puts 
the word in the text at the right place, but in O it is inserted 
between totam and Ecclesiam. 

Reg iv, p 49 18 ex omnibus gentibus uenieutibus] R 
etc iravroiv twv edvdov tgov ekOovrwv Zech xiv 16 


V* omits gentibus, but it is given in the margin, apparently by 
the first hand, and a sign of omission is placed thus : 
omnibus a uenientibus. 

gentibus is read by PO, but both these MSS mistook the sign 
of omission for the mediaeval contraction for con, and so read 
1 a uenientibus ' as conuenientibus. The contraction for 'con' 
occurs nowhere in V. 

d. Miscellaneous. 

Reg iv, p 51 91 " et tenebrescet oriente sole lumen et non 
permanebit lumen eius] R (R has tenebriscet, as elsewhere) 

This corresponds to Esai xiii 10 kcu aKOTioOijaeTai rov rjXiov 
dvareWovros, fcal rj creXrjvT] ov Bwcret to (jxos avrr}?. 

V omits oriente sole lumen, leaving a space for about 25 letters. 
P and also omit, leaving no space. 

Reg in, p 24 15 stultum est et proteruum credere] R 

et proteruum has been corrupted in V into et proptereum , which 
the scribe wrote 

& pp eum 

Ycorr expunged these words b} r putting dots below ; they are 
altogether omitted in P and O. 

Reg v, p 63 s adducent fratres uestros] R (= rovs d8€\<f>ov<; 
vficov Esai lxvi 20) 

for fratres uestros V has ff 

This is read as omnes fratres by P 
and filii filiorum by O 

The reading of P is influenced by the Vulgate, which has 
omnes fratres uestros. 

There can, I think, be no other explanation of all these passages 
except that V is the direct ancestor of both P and 0. With 
regard to C we cannot indeed take the paucity of readings pre- 
served by Schott as satisfactory evidence for identity of text in O 
and C, yet even among these readings is one specially charac- 
teristic of O, viz 'diei' CO for 'Dei,' p 57 18 . This was so obviously 
a blunder that it did not appear even in the editio princeps. 
But if C and O be closely connected in error, then C is also 
descended from V through an ancestor which contained the 
blunders which C shared with O. 


VI. The Text of the Monza Epitome. 

i. Contents. (See pp 89—98.) 

With three exceptions M consists of passages taken from the 
first six Rules arranged in their proper order. Many sentences 
are curtailed, and for the most part the Biblical quotations are 
omitted, or only the beginnings and endings of the passages are 
o-iven. Some of those which are retained have had their text 
assimilated to the Vulgate. The general aims of the compiler 
seem to have been brevity and clearness. Difficult sentences and 
phrases are often passed over altogether 1 , and the remarks of 
objectors introduced by Tyconius are left out 2 . 

The three passages where M deserts the order or the text of 
the Book of Rules will be found on pp 93, 98. The first of these is 
the passage "non de omnibus... unum corpus," which belongs to 
Rule in, p 2G 7-10 . It is the only instance of such a transposition. 
The remaining pair are from S. Augustine. The closing words of 
the Epitome (p 98) from "Omnes homines saluos fieri" to "decimatis 
omne olus" are taken from the Enchiridion § 103, and the passage 
" Et in genesi...nouissima hora est" comes from de Doct Christ iii 
36 (Eugippius 873 — 875), part of S. Augustine's review of the 
Book of Rules. 

This last paragraph merits special discussion, as it has a prima 
facie appearance of being a part of the original text of Rule vi, 
lost in Codd. RV from homoeoteleuton. In our mss Rule VI, after 
a remark on the obscurity of ' Recapitulation,' begins with a quota- 
tion of Lk xvii 29 — 32, which is explained as one of the passages 
where all this present time in which our Lord's Advent is taking 
place is spoken of as a ' day ' or an ' hour.' In de Doct Christ iii 
S. Augustine prefaces his description of Rule vi by explaining 
Recapitulation in its ordinary sense of a summary, giving several 
Biblical examples. He then says : " Fit ista recapitulatio etiam 
obscurius," and goes on to quote Lk xvii 29 — 32 followed by a 
paraphrase of the explanation of it by Tyconius. Thus the first 

1 E.g. ista...uiclentur, 4 1112 ; sed hunc.subornauit, 5^--'; et Spiritus...uideri 
possit, 31 17_ao ; et eo...properantes, C6 4-9 . 
- E.g. sicut quidam...Christus, 2 ,8_2n . 


part of S. Augustine's remarks does not correspond to anything in 
our MSS of Rule VI, and when we find the passages reappearing in 
M, we might suppose at first sight that there had been a lacuna 
at this place in the ancestor of R and V. 

But a closer inspection proves that M is here directly derived 
from S. Augustine. In fact M altogether deserts the Book of 
Rules at this point and quotes Lk xvii not from Tyconius but 
from S. Augustine, giving afterwards S. Augustine's explanation of 
it. This explanation is beyond question in S. Augustine's own 
words, not those of Tyconius; if then we find M following 
S. Augustine here, there is no difficulty in believing that the 
previous section also was taken directly from the same source. 

ii. The text of M. 

The author of the Epitome treated the text of the MS before 
him with such freedom that singular variations of M are entitled 
to little weight. Nevertheless he made use of a good exemplar, 
so that M is often of great value in helping us to decide between 
the readings of R and V. The combination RM against V is 
more frequent than VM against R in the proportion of six to five, 
but this is only the result of the numerous blunders of V. M and 
V are in fact closely connected, and fall into common error in 
several places. 

The most important of these errors for the genealogy of the 
mss is to be found in Rule v, p 56 u,a2 . I give the passage in full. 
(D is the commentary of John the Deacon. See p xx.) 

RD sicut autem in prima parte VM sicut autem in prima parte 
cuiusque temporis cuiusqne temporis 

tempns est, totum tempus est, 

ita et nouissima hora ita et nouissinia, 

totns dies est. nt nouissima hora totus dies sit. 

autem] enim D cuiusquam D cuiusque] cui : M 

tempus est] 0771 est D cuiusque temporis totum] temporis 

cuiusq. temporis cuiusq. V 
ita et] M ; ita in V 

" But just as the whole time (of any epoch) is (mystically 
contained) in the first part of the epoch, so the last hour (of an 
epoch) counts as a whole day." 


Here the important reading in which VM unite against R is the 
addition of ut nouissima to et nouissima, with a consequent change 
of est to sit. Either reading by itself is grammatical, though 
I believe that of VM really contradicts Tyconius. But however 
that may be, we have at this point a fourth witness independent 
of RVM in the Commentary of John the Deacon (see above 
p xx). He quotes the passage independently of R, but like R 
he omits ut nouissima and ends with est, not sit. R then is right 
here against VM, and therefore VM are not textually independent, 
and their united witness not always conclusive against R. 

Other coincidences of MV against R in wrong readings are 

1. G 28 sed qui] R Ycor?'; sed quis V*M Ncorr gets qui 
from the preceding quotation, while M makes the following 
sentence run easier by omitting dicens 7 1 . 

2. 7 5 lucan] R ; lucam MV ' Lucan ' is the old spelling. 

3. II 27 in omnibus] R; omnibus gentibus VM. 

4. 16 10jU si enim mandaret a se prouentum postulari, et 
legem destruxerat et fidem. ut quid enim legem daret, 
si legem in omnibus facturum polliceretur ?] R 

si legem in omnibus factorum... V 
si se legem in omnibus factorum... M. 

5. 32 8 ab specie in genere aut a genere in specie 
in specie] R ; in speciem MV (but not " in genus "). 

6. 39 22 achar] R; achan M; acham Ycorr (axxxx V*). 

7. 51 25 cui enim hosti non opus est auro] R 

cui enim ostis non opus est auro V 
quis enim hostis aurum non quaerit M 
Here M had the corruption (h)ostts, but makes grammar by 
changing the construction. 

8. 55 7 ' 8 et affligent] RD ; et affligent eos MV 

Here again the presence of D enables us to decide that R is 
right and MV wrong. 

9. 56 9 mensis] RD; mensis mensis M; mensis decimus V. 

10. (j0'' VG dies saluationis] R ; dies salutis M ; dies saluta- 
tionis V. 

11. 6G 10 legem] R; lege MV. 

12. C)6 10 die quo] R Aug (incl M when quoting Aug); die 
qua MV. 


13. 68 1 oranis ] 'RVco? , r ; omnes V* ; oms M. 

Of these instances I lay especial weight on 4, 8, 10, and 12. 

Besides these there are several places where both M and V 
have been influenced independently by the Vulgate, e.g. in those 
quotations which have been altogether assimilated to the Vulgate 
in M. 

The following I believe to be a complete list of apparent 
coincidence of R and M in wrong readings against V. 
Coincidence in omission. 

6 20 uocatus apostolus] V (= Vg and all mss of Ro i 1) ; om RM 

This omission may be due to Tyconius himself. 

24- qui liberi deo seruiunt] V ; om RM 

This is undoubtedly a genuine clause. These are the only 
two clauses omitted by R and M together, and their agreement in 
these two cases proves nothing, as M omits so many clauses both 
in the quotations (e.g. 9 s - 28 , 37 13 , etc) and in Tyconius' own words 
(e.g. 7 4 , 13 2 \ 14 8 , 19 7 , 24 23 , etc). 

Addition ofva to ablatives. 

9 U in gloria enim mea] V ; in gloriam enim meam RM 

32 15 in terra] V ; in terrain RM (possibly right) 

Readings such as these again prove very little, since even if 
they be not correct they might occur independently, 
•e- for e 

65 22 idem] ide V ; id-e- M ; id est R 

This is the only occasion where RM go wrong together in this 

Real various Readings. 

23 27 quaesiuit fidelem cui id donaret] Hcorr V ; quaes, fid. cui 
donaret R*M 

May not this be accidental ? ~Rcorr does not seem to have had 
a different exemplar to R* 

59 25 laudabo te] V Aug [= the Verona Psalter, (Gk and Lat)] ; 
laudem dixit tibi R ; laudem dixit M 

The Vulgate and the old Psalters (exc Veron) have laudem dixi 
tibi. M so often deserts the true text of Tyconius' quotation for 
the Vulgate that it is probable the scribe intended to write 'dixit.' 



VII. The Accuracy of Tyconius Quotations. 

1. Before applying the quotations of Tyconius to the criticism 
of the LXX or even of the Old Latin Versions, it is most necessary 
to examine how far he can be trusted as a witness at all. Patristic 
citations are valuable for textual criticism in proportion as they 
simply reproduce the codex used by the author, or at least enable 
us to see what was the reading on which the writer is basing his 
remarks. A Biblical MS professes at least to reproduce its inherited 
text, but a writer who is merely illustrating his own words by 
quotations is under no such restriction. We ought not to use the 
quotations of Tyconius as fragments of the African Latin or any 
other Version, without enquiring what standard of accuracy these 
quotations habitually reach. The African Fathers differ greatly 
in this respect. S. Cyprian is very exact, and if he quotes a 
passage a second time he almost always does so in the same 
words. Tertullian on the other hand is acknowledged to be often 
paraphrastic, while Prof. Sanday remarks of a contemporary of 
Tyconius : " it may be said to be characteristic of Optatus that he 
is able to recast a scriptural passage almost entirely in his own 
words 1 ." Both slavish accuracy and free adaptation are found ; it 
is not necessary to postulate a fresh version of the Bible for every 
deviation from the customary word-for-word rendering. 

There is a prima facie probability that in a single work an 
ancient writer used, besides his memory, a single MS only; and 
there is also & prima facie probability that in an original work on 
the interpretation of Scripture the text familiar to the author — 
the text, that is, that he means to quote from when he quotes 
from memory — is the text of his own MS. To prove that variations 
in the quoted texts have any other source than the inaccuracy of 
the author the variations must have some outside authority. 

What, after all, are the proofs that a Latin Father is quoting 
the Bible accurately, that is, from a book, or from a memory 
as good as a book ? Practically the proof is one of two : either 
the quotations agree verbally with some other Latin Father or a 
Latin MS of the Bible, or, where a knowledge of Greek is excluded, 
1 O. Lat. Eil)l. Texts ii, p lxxxviii. 


the quotations agree verbally with some form of the original 
Greek. Where neither of these is the case, only the strongest 
internal evidence can remove the suspicion that the writer was 
unable to give the exact words, or more probably did not care to 
do so. 

2. The standard of accuracy in the shorter quotations of 
Tyconius is not always high. Though there are many verses 
quoted which shew complete agreement either with some other 
Old Latin authority, or else with every particle of the Greek, 
yet in many passages we find renderings which are quite un- 
supported, passages which are in fact simply paraphrases, conscious 
or unconscious, and which have no real connection with the text of 
any Latin Version. 

The two instances given below shew Tyconius at his worst. 
The first might be passed over as an allusion, but the second 
professes to be a direct quotation. 

(a) Reg in, p 18 26ff 

Superabundant (gratia) in omnem carnem reuelata in Chris- 
tum, qui ueniens restaurare quae in caelo et quae in terra euan- 
gelizauit fidem his qui proxime et qui longe. 

The italicised words are from Eph i 10 and ii 17, and the 
variants can all be paralleled by various Old Latin authorities. 
But 'fidem,' the point of the quotation, is unique. The Greek is 
elpy'jvvv, both in Eph ii 17 and in Isaiah lvii 19, the passage in 
the mind of S. Paul. This is rendered by ' pacem ' in Tert Gyp 
Hil Hieron Aug r '/ r} Ambst as well as in the Vulgate and the 
Graeco-Latin bilinguals. It is therefore highly improbable that 
fidem ever existed as a real variant to pacem. We need not 
suppose that Tyconius himself intended to suggest that ' faith ' 
was here spoken of in the Epistle : but ' faith ' is the subject 
of his discussion at this point, and he has used Scriptural lan- 
guage to clothe his own thought. But from our present point of 
view we have an inaccurate quotation. 

(b) Reg in, p 26 lsff 

Quid de ilia lege dicemus quae aperte promissioni uidetnr 
aduersa? sicut scriptum est in Esaia : Si me audisses Israhel, esset 
sicut Iiarena maris numerus tuus. ecce increpatur Israhel quod 
uitio suo non fuerit factus sicut harena. 



(Cod. V omits sicut after aduersa, and R by homoeoteleuton omits from 
maris to the second harena. But the text as given above must be correct, as 
the quotation from Isaiah is repeated on p 28 7 .) 

If any quotation in Tyconius ought to be accurate it is this. 
It is quoted twice in identically the same form, and it is the 
subject of two pages of discussion. Yet it is a mere paraphrase. 

It seems to be meant for Isaiah xlviii 18, 19. The extant 
Old Latin of Esai xlviii 18, 19 is given by a quotation of Lucifer 
de Reg Apost xi. It runs as follows: Sic dicit...Sanctus Israhel, 
Ego sum Dens, ostendam tibi uiani in qua ambules ; et si audisses 
mandata mea, facta fuisset ut fluuius pax tua et iustitia vt fluctus 
maris, et factum esset sicut arena maris semen tuum et nati uentris 
tui. This is in accordance with the LXX ; Tyconius is alone in 
reading 'me' for 'mandata mea' (tmv evroXwv fiov), in introducing 
the vocative ' Israhel,' and in reading ' numerus tuus ' for ' semen 
tuum.' Perhaps 'me' and 'Israhel' come from Ps lxxx 14 and 
' numerus ' from Esai x 22, but all that concerns us here is that 
the citation is inaccurate, in spite of its formal introduction. 

I do not know that any other explanation of these two passages 
can be given, except that Tyconius had a treacherous memory and 
that he did not always verify his references. 

3. But the occasional lapses of Tyconius only throw into 
relief his habitual correctness, especially in the long quotations. 

A good example may be found in Eze xxvi 15 — 18, the only 
passage in his quotations from the Prophets where both our frag- 
mentary Old Latin mss are extant. These are the Weingarten 
fragments (w) and the Wiirzburg Palimpsest (h) 1 , both assigned 
by their editor E. Ranke to the fifth century. 

In what follows, as it is the general correctness of Tyconius 
rather than recensional peculiarities which is under discussion, 
singular readings of h w or Tyc are italicised, singular omissions 
marked with a caret, and singular variations in order marked with 
a star. 

1 The notation of «■ ami 7/ (Cod. Herbipolensis) is taken from Cornill. 



15 Haec dicit dms 
ad te sor 
non a uoce 
ruinae tuae 
in gemitu 
tuo rum 

A interfectione A 
in medio tui 

16 et descendent 
a sedibus A 
omnes principes 

et auferent niitras 
a capitibus suis 
et uestem 

A suam 

se despoliabunt 
in stupore mentis 
et dementia induentur 
super terrain 
et timebunt 
perditionem eorum 

A ingemescent 
super te 
17 et accipient 
super te 
et dicent tibi 
destructa es 
de mari 
ciuitas ilia 
quae dedit 
timorem super 
omnibus liabi- 
-tantibus in ea 
w mmc timebunt 
insulae ex die 
ruinae tuae 

ib Propterea quod 

haec dicit dms 

ad sor. 

non a uoce 

ruinae tuae 

in gemitu 


in euagitiatione 


in medio tuo 



16 et descendens 
a sedibus suis 
omnes principes 

de gentibus ( = lxx) maris 

et auferent mitras 

de capitibus suis. 

et uestem 

uariam suam 

se disjjoliabunt 

in stupore mentis. 

et stupebunt 

super terrain 


et timebunt 

interitum eorum 

et ingemescent 

super te 

17 et accipient 
super te 
et dicent tibi. 
destructa es 
de mari 
ciuitas ilia 
quae dedit 
timorem suum 
omnibus habi- 
-tantibus in ea. 
18 et timebunt 
insulae ex die 
ruinae tuae 


15 Haec dicit Dominus 

ad Sor, 

Nonme a uoce 

ruinae tuae 

in gemitu 


diiiu interficiuntur 


in medio tui 



16 et descendent 

a sedibus suis 

omnes principes 


et auferent mitras 

et uestem 
uariam suam 
despoliabunt* se. 
in stupore mentis 
A(=lxx) stupebunt 


et timebunt 
in interitH tuo 1 , 
et ingemescent 
super te, 
17 et accipient 
super te 
et dicent tibi, 
destructa es< 
de mari 
ciuitas ilia 
quae dedit 
timorem suum 
omnibus i«habi- 
-tantibus in ea ! 
18 et timebunt 
insulae ex die 
ruinae tuae. 

The reading of both R and V is tuo, but Sabatier by error edited suo for R. 


Iii these four verses w has 6 points peculiar to itself, lb has 12, 
and Tyconius 12. Tyc differs from h 21 times and differs from w 
15 times, but h differs from w 17 times. In other words our text 
of Tyconius only differs from our fifth century MSS about as much 
as they differ from one another 1 . 

4. In books of the nature of a commentary, where dis- 
crepancies are found between the text as quoted at the head of a 
section and as quoted in the commentary, it is often a very 
delicate matter to judge between the relative authority which 
should be given to the two. Regarded as a question of the 
textual criticism of the author, there is no doubt that the short 
quotations in the commentary are generally less likely to suffer 
than the long quotations. The shorter quotations are often 
bound up grammatically with the author's remarks, while on the 
other hand the scribe is apt to weary of a long extract from the 
Bible. He often becomes careless and hurries over his work' 2 . 
Sometimes scribes are worse than careless, and out of mistaken 
ingenuity they emend Biblical quotations from the current version, 
especially in places where there is some corruption already. 
Happily in the case of O. Test, quotations made by Latin Fathers, 
who used a version derived from the LXX, we can detect at once 
emendations made from S. Jerome's Vulgate, which was translated 
from the Hebrew 3 . 

The long Biblical quotations in Ecclesiastical writers are thus 
exposed to subsequent corruption by scribes, and we may often 
recover the Biblical text used by the writers from the shorter quota- 
tions and allusions which occur in the midst of their argument. 
But the case is entirely altered whenever the real text of the 
writer himself is ascertained. The long Biblical quotations are, 
it is true, exposed to subsequent corruption ; but in the form in 
which they were originally written down by the author, they repre- 
sented more nearly the text he used than the shorter allusions 
to the same passages in the course of his argument. It was worth 

1 In Ezc xxvi 15 — 18 the Greek codd. Alex, and Vat. differ nine times. 

- A conspicuous instance may be found in the long quotation from Eze xxviii 
2 — 19, pp 77, 78, where V, our only authority, has omitted four long clauses and 
several single words, all of which nevertheless appear in the commentary which 

3 Cf p xxxv for an instance in the secondary mss of Tyconius. 


while to copy out five, six, or a dozen verses, but in quoting the 
verses a second time a writer would not always take the trouble 
to look up the passage in the MS again, or even to refer to what 
had been copied out above 1 . When in the commentary a par- 
ticular phrase is singled out and used to explain some doctrine or 
point in the argument, then the form the quotation assumes is of 
the greatest weight. It is attested by all the authority of the 
writer. But where the quotation is merely repeated, without 
particular stress being laid on the form of the words, we are 
simply dependent on the writer's memory and habit of mind as to 
whether it represents the text he used or not. 

The chief variations in the repeated quotations of Tyconius 
are given below. They do not include minor variations of order, 
etc, nor the obvious superficial blunders of cod. V in the quotation 
of Eze xxviii 2 — 19 on pp 77, 78 2 . The number following the 
reading refers to the page of the text. Where V alone is extant 
the references are followed by the letter V. 

1. 2 Regn vii 14 arguam euin 37 1 * arguam...delicta eius 3S 27 - 28 (cf Ps 

lxxxviii 33) 

2. Esai xiv 13 contritus 70 14 contractus 71 9 

3. 16 coucitat 70-", 75 lu V incitat 71 15 , 75 17 ' 30 V, 76 32 V 

4. mouet 70 21 commouet 75 11 ' 17, ™ V 

5. 18 reges gentium 70 23 reges terrae 76 18 V 

6. 20 quotuodo uestimeu- [quomodo uenisti] sicut uestimentum 

turn 7 1 1 - 2 77* 4 V 

7. erit 71 2 est 77 4 V 

8. Hier xvii 27 consumet 62 2 ' J conburet 64 1 

9. xxxii 26 omnia regna 53 w uniuersa regna 54 8 

10. 29 quia 54 3 quoniam 54 1112 

11. super ipsam 54 1 in ipsa 54 12 

12 a. Eze xxviii 4 a sapieutia 77 2U V scientia 79 21 V 

b. 4 b doctrina 77 21 V sapieutia 7!J 21 V 

c. 5, 7, 17 doctrina 77 22 - 27 , 78 15 V scientia 79 23 , 80 2 , 83 31 V 

13. 7 propter hoc 77 2j V propterea 79 35 V 

14. 9 dicturus es 1T- J V [narrans] narrabis 80 15 V (c/ Ps xxi 23) 

1 I am assuming throughout that Tyconius is an independent author. The 
whole state of things is changed in the case of a writer like Primasius, in whose 
work on the Apocalypse the text at the head of the sections differs from that in the 
commentary, because the commentary was taken for the most part from one source, 
the text from another. 

2 E.g. morte 78 13 , for monte; inferorum 78 14 , for igneorum. 


15. Eze xxviii 13 deliciis paradisi 78'-', paradiso 80 29 V 

80 31 V 

16. 19 perditio factus es perditio facta es 85 27 V 

78 22 V 

17. xxxii 7 cooperiam 44 13 operiam 45" 

18. 10 ferit adf ruinam expectantes 45 12 V (expugnantes R) 

44 22 

19. 2 Co iii 18 a claritate in clari- in gloria ex... gloria 19 17 

tatem 19 u a gloria in gloriam 21 9, 10 

20. 2 The ii 7 a obtinet 52 9 [detinens] detinet 74 28 V* 

(detinens e detineat Vcorr) 
21." 7 b donee 52 9 quoadusque 74 28 V 

22. Ap xxii 17 sponsus 3 28 sps 71 27 

Out of these twenty-two readings many may be seen at once 
to be merely the result of Tyconius' inaccuracy. Thus terrae 76 
for gentium 70 in Esai xiv 18 (twv e0pu>v)is a mere slip, absolutely 
unattested elsewhere in any language ; it could hardly have been 
found if Tyconius had been in the habit of verifying his quotations 
by his codex when he repeated them, or even if he had been in 
the habit of referring to what he had previously written. The 
argument in fact has a double conclusion : the general accuracy 
and occasional inaccuracy of Tyconius makes it improbable (i) that 
he could have consulted his codex for the inaccurate quotations, 
and (ii) that he could have done without his codex for the accurate 
quotations. But if we are obliged to resort to the hypothesis that 
Tyconius did not verify his quotations on repetition in order to 
explain the merely careless blunders like terrae for gentium (No. 5) 
and paradiso for deliciis paradisi (No. 15), the same hypothesis 
may be used to explain most of the substitutions of synonyms, 
such as incited for concitat (No. 4). These substitutions are neither 
in the first nor the second series of a peculiarly ' African ' or other 
cast. The only instance to the contrary is that of the variation 
between 'gloria' and ' claritas ' in 2 Co iii 18, where however 
' claritas ' is also the word used in the Vulgate. 

Seven of the passages demand special treatment. These are 
the complicated variations which I have grouped under No. 12, 
and Nos. 4, 18, 22, and 6, 14, 20, where there is reason to think 
that our MSS are corrupt. No. 12 mainly turns on the translation 
of iirKTTtifMj]. In Eze xxviii 3, 4 :1 , 5 and 7 eViCTi//**; is rendered in 

RENDERINGS OF €7rtaT))fiT]. 


w (cod. Weing.) by doctrina; in verse 17, where w is wanting, 
doctrina is found in m 675. Thus 'doctrina 'is well supported, 
and it is found as tlie rendering of Tyconius' version, pp 77, 78, in 
vv. 5, 7, and 17. But in the repeated quotation on pp 79, 80 and 
83 we find ' scientia ' instead. Moreover in v. 3 ' sapientia ' 
renders i-irurr^firj both in 77 20 and 79 15 , while in v. 4 correspond- 
ing to the Greek eVto-T?//x?; . . .typovi'iaei we find sapientia... doctrina 
in 77 20 ' 21 , but scientia... sapientia in 79 21 . The rendering of 
eTriarijfM?] by sapientia in v. 3 is supported by Optatus. The 
valuable pair of Greek cursives 62-147 transpose eVto-T^yu,?/ 
and (j)povr]ai<i in v. 4, and w has in that verse the corrupt reading 
"numquid doctrina eorum doctrina est tua aut sapientia tua fecisti," 
etc, which seems to have arisen out of a dittography of doctrina. 
These variations are best shewn by a table : 


Gk mss 




4 a 


4 b 









Tyc (1st 


Tyc (Jiul quot) 


sap. ( = 

= Opt) 


doctrina bis 












[doctrina m 675, 



hiat w] 

Thus scientia in the repeated quotation stands for doctrina 
in the original, and if we suppose that sapientia and doctrina have 
got transposed in verse 4 in cod. V (our only authority) this is true 
without exception 1 . For the rest, it seems as if doctrina were the 
original rendering of in larri fxn in all five places, but that in verse 3 
sapientia had been substituted in the codex of Tyconius as in that 
of Optatus, while in the remaining four passages Tyconius himself 
replaced doctrina by a third word scientia. 

In Nos. 4, 18, and 22 the probable explanation of the differences 
in quotation is simple corruption in the MSS. In Esai xiv 16 b 
(No. 4) it is easy to see how ' com ' might be lost after ' ram ' in 
the sentence concitat terramcommouet reges, especially when the 
constant use of the simple verb ' mouere ' with 'terra' for 'earth- 
quake ' is considered. Again in Ap xxii 17 (No. 22) Tyconius 
expressly quotes the text on p 3 for the sake of the curious 
1 Cf 21 1 , 32^ in V. 


reading "sponsus et sponsa." Yet on p 71 both our MSS have " sps 
et sponsa," that is " Spiritus et sponsa." Tliis must be a clerical 
error in codd. RV, as Tyconius appears to have supported 'sponsus' 
in his Commentary on the Apocalypse, if indeed he did not invent 
that reading 1 . As to Eze xxxii 10 (No. 18), " erit ad ruinam 
suam" p 44 82 corresponds to TrpocrSe^ofievoi, rr\v tttuhtlv avrwv, yet 
on the next page Tyconius repeats the verse with the correct 
translation ' expectantes ' for ' erit ad.' Is it possible that the 
corruption was already in his codex and was copied out mechani- 
cally by him ? 

The remaining instances (Nos. 6, 14, and 20) form a class by 
themselves. In each case the second quotation occurs in that 
part where V is our only authority, and I believe the text has in 
each case suffered corruption by dittography. 

The readings are as follows. I have bracketed the corrupt 
anticipations of the following word in giving the readings of V. 

6. Esai xiv 20 op rpoirov l/jbdriov 

quomodo uestimentum 70 23 RV (= Habetdens 315) 
[quomodo uenisti] sicut uestimentum 77 3 > 4 V 
14. Eze xxviii 9 Xiycov ipels 

dicturus es 77 M V (= w) 
[narrans] narrabis 80 15 V 
20. 2 The ii 7 6 Kar^v 

qui obtinet 52° (R)V (quod obtinet R) 
qui[d] [detinens] detinet 74 s8 V* 
qui detinens e detineat Ycorr 

I should not have ventured to assert that these readings were 
corrupt and produced in the same way in all three cases, were it 
not that readings of this kind are extremely common in V, so 
common in fact, that it would be unlikely that the portion of text 
in which we are dependent on V alone should contain no examples. 
Below is a complete list of these cases of false repetition. Those 
marked V have been unnoticed by correctors and have passed into 
the later MSS and the printed editions ; those marked V* have 
been altered. The readings of M are given wherever it is extant. 

1 Cf Ps-Aug loc (Migne xxxv 2452). 'Sponsus' found its way into the later mss 
of the Vulgate, though not into the printed Editions. 



o- 1 synonymis] si non nimis R 

7 20 linum] R 

ll 9 non totum] RM 

24 19 data] R 

25 31 operatrix] R 

non nimis nouinius V 
uniunum V 
totum non totum V 
data data V* 
operatrixrix V* 

32 13 sic Dominus] sed ds R; om M sic dicit dns V' 

44 26 uirtus eius] R 
46 17 multa canta] R 
52 10j u ostendit omncs] R 

56" cuiusquc temporis] R, cuius- 
quam temporis D, cui : tem- 
poris M 

56 12 ita et nouissima hora] RD 

uirtus eorumeius V* 
multa cantica canta V* 
oms ostendit oms V* 

oms ostendit Vcorr 
temporis cuiusq. temporis cu- 

iusq. V 

ita in nouissima ut nouissima 
hora V(M) (ita et...M) 
Qgi9,w Verbum carne(m) factum pr Verbum carne factum quid 
quid persequitur Verbum in persequitur in carne V 

carne] R 

71 2B de se et] de sede & R de se & de se & V* 

Besides these, there are the three passages under discussion 
pp 74 28 , 77 3 > 4 and 80 15 . 

Somewhat similar as shewing a tendency to amplification are 
the following : 

primus dies mensis decimus est V 

primus dies mensis mensis est M 
septem sps ecclesiae septem V 
totum tempus est V 
dnm ihm xpm V 
dns ds nr ihs xps V 

56 9 primus dies mensis est] RD 

5924,2.5 VII S pi r it us Ecclesiae] RM 
64 3U tempus est] R 
69° Domiuum Iesum] R 
73 27 Dominus noster Iesas Cliris- 
tus] R 

These numerous cases of repetitions both simple and corrupt 
in the text of V (in which it is importaut to notice that the cor- 
rupt reading generally precedes the true reading 1 ) are sufficient to 
shew the probability of the phenomenon occurring also where R is 
lost. It only remains to prove that in each of the three cases 
mentioned on p xlviii the reading of V is impossible as it stands, 

1 Some of these readings may have been due to corrections in the text of V's 
ancestor, misunderstood by the scribe of V. Compare p 48 4 . 


and to explain the variation which remains between the text as 
emended and the other form in which the quotations are found. 

Id Esai xiv 20 the text quomodo uestimentum as it appears in 
both codd. R and V on p 70 is in literal agreement with the text 
as quoted by Habetdeus the Donatist at the Council of Carthage. 
As we might expect, the text of the Version used by him is most 
closely related to that of Tyconius. Quomodo uestimentum was 
thus no doubt the reading of Tyconius' Bible. On the other hand 
the reading of V on p 77 does not make any sense:— "Item m 
<in> corpus ipsius diaboli conuenit dicens : Quomodo uenisti 
sicut uestimentum sanguine consparsum non est mundum, ita 
nee tu eris mundus." There is nothing about 'coming' in the 
whole passage and uenisti and uesti(mentum) are evidently con- 
nected. Either ' uenistisicut ' is a sort of rough doublet of 
• uestimentum,' or more probably ' sicut ' was in this place loosely 
substituted for ' quomodo ' at this point by Tyconius on repeating 
his quotation 1 . The scribe of V (or an ancestor of V) began to 
write quomodo uestimentum as on p 70, but discovering his error 
wrote sicut uestimentum, leaving the letters "quomodo uenisti" (for 
" quomodo ucsti- ") imperfectly cancelled. The process is exactly 
similar to that by which multa canta p 46 17 , which stands for 
iroWa no-op Esai xxiii 10, became in V and the MSS which 
followed V multa canticacanta. 

In Eze xxviii 9 Xeywv epei? is rendered "dicturus es" in the 
formal quotation p 77 29 , and this is confirmed by iu, which happens 
to be extant at this verse 2 . But when the verse is repeated on 
p 80 15 we find in V: "Numquid narrans narrabis in conspectu 
interficientium te, Deus sum ego?" Now if narrans narrabis 
were genuine it could only be regarded as a direct translation by 
Tyconius himself from the Greek. To this there are three objec- 
tions. First, there is no other passage where he refers to the 
Greek. Secondly, the words \e<ya>v epels are of no great im- 
portance in the sentence ; Tyconius makes no remark on their 
special significance. Thirdly, narrans narrahis is not a trans- 
lation of Xeywv epet<?. The verb ' narrarc ' occurs 15 times in 

1 As quoniam 54 11 - 12 for quia 54 3 , propterea 79 35 for propter hoc IT 25 , and quoad 
usque 74 28 for donee 52 !) . 

a Cf k, Mt ii 6, 13 ; Mc x 39. 


the Vulgate N.T., and besides these places it occurs in Mt xiii 3G 
in various forms of the Old Latin, but it is never a rendering of 
\eyetv or elirelv. In Eze xxviii 9 Hier loc has numquid loquens 
dices, and in the Vulgate numquid dicens loqueris. 

But if "narrans narrabis" cannot be a direct translation from 
the Greek still less can it be a paraphrase of " dicturus es." Tyco- 
nius would scarcely substitute for " dicturus es " an imperfectly 
naturalised Hebrew idiom, to which he himself attached a peculiar 
significance 1 . On the other hand the simple narrabis alone might 
very well be a paraphrase for dicturus es. I believe Tyconius 
was influenced (consciously or unconsciously) by the familiar verse 
Ps xxi 23 : " narrabo nomen tuum fratribus meis." An exact 
parallel is afforded by his double quotation of 2 Regn vii 14, which 
is given on p 37 correctly, but repeated on the next page in a form 
influenced by Ps lxxxviii 33. 

Finally we come to the variations in 2 The ii 7. On p 52 
Tyconius, after quoting Ps cxxxvi 9 ("Felix est qui obtinebit, etc "), 
says: " Obtinet autem, sicut scriptum est: Qui obtinet modo, donee 
de medio fiat." This is the reading of both MSS, except that R has 
quod obt. for qui obt. On p 74, but unfortunately after R has 
failed us, we find: " Tantum ut quid detinens detinet modo, quoad 
usque de medio fiat." For quid detinens detinet modo Ycorr 
substituted qui detinens est detineat modo. The Greek is jjuovov 6 
Kare^wv dpri ea><? e/c fxecrov yivijrat, and for 6 Kare^wv aprt the 
extant Latin renderings are 

qui nunc tenet teneat d 2 Tert de Res Cam 24 Ambst 

qui tenet nunc teneat Vg 

qui modo tenet teneat Aug (de Ciuit Dei) 

qui tenet modo teneat Hesych (ap Aug Ep 198) 

An improved text may shew that teneat was a later accretion in 
some of these authorities. But even if it be not so, it is noticeable 
that in none of them does ' nunc ' or ' modo ' occupy the last place, 
a fact which condemns the reading of Ycorr on p 74 and makes 
the ' detinens ' of V* suspicious, while its presence is easily 
explained by the hypothesis of dittography. As between obtinere 
and detinere, it is worth remark that the quotation on p 52 is 

1 See his disquisition on "disrumpens disrunipam," p 39 4-15 . 


introduced for the sake of the word obtinere, to illustrate Ps 
cxxxvi 9. The quotation on p 74 is still further open to objection 
on the ground of the expression quoad usque, which though it 
has good African authority elsewhere 1 is here only found in 
Ambrosiaster 1 / 2 , while donee receives additional support from an 
allusion in Tyconius 8 2 . 

VIII. The Latin Version iised by Tyconius. 

The confusion and variety of text in the forms of the " Old 

Latin " has been a matter of common remark since the days of S. 

Augustine. Successive adaptation of the language of a primitive 

version to local dialects and irregular revision from Greek MSS 

were probably the causes which produced this variety, but we 

have hardly any historical traditions of the localities in which 

such changes took place or the men by whom they were made. 

In this confusion there is only one way out of the difficulty. 

Our MSS can give us no help alone, for they are not connected 

by sufficiently accurate traditions with local uses. It is only by 

carefully studying the quotations of Ecclesiastical writers, of whom 

we know where and when they wrote, that any fixed criteria can 

be found for assigning the continuous texts of the MSS to Africa, 

Gaul, or Italy. In all such investigations the quotations of S. 

Cyprian are the starting point. Except Tcrtullian he is the oldest 

African Father who quotes Scripture, and Tertullian's evidence 

in our present state of knowledge is rendered of doubtful value 

by his acquaintance with Greek and his habit of paraphrase. 

Cyprian on the other hand always uses a Latin Version and 

quotes accurately and consistently. 

For the Gospels Prof. Sanday has definitely proved the African 

I character of k (and in a less degree of e) by using the text of 

' Cyprian as a working standard 2 . No such investigation has yet 

been made for any part of the Old Testament ; I shall therefore 

begin by comparing the text of Tyconius with that of Cyprian. 

Each book of the Bible must be treated separately, for we have no 

reason to suppose that the original translation was all made at one 

1 Cf ft, Mt ii 13, v 18 Us, x 11, xiii 13 ; Mc xii 36, xiii 30. 
- 0. L. Bibl. Texts (ft), vol ii. 


time or by the same hand ; in extreme cases, such as the Book of 
Job on the one hand and the Book of Daniel on the other, it is at 
once seen that the literary fates of the various parts of the Bible 
have been quite independent. 

In the Prophets the evidence is most full and clear in the 
Book of Isaiah. I shall therefore begin by treating that book 

For the sake of clearness it may be convenient to give at once 
the conclusions which I shall try to prove. 

1. The text of Tyconius in the Prophets is from the same 
version as that used by S. Cyprian, slightly altered in the Latinity 
but presenting no clear traces of revision from the Greek. 

2. This text is practically identical with that used by Habet- 
deus, the spokesman of the Donatists at the Council of Carthage. 

3. The text of the Speculum (m) is of the same version, but 
greatly changed as to the Latinity. 

Tyconius and S. Cyprian. 

In the following extracts the references to S. Cyprian are by 
Hartel's pages, but in the Testimonia, unless otherwise stated, the 
text followed is not Hartel's but that of the MS called by him L. 
The pre-eminence of L in the Testimonia has been proved once for 
all by Prof. Sanday in O. Lat. Bibl. Texts (k) II lxii — lxiv, and his 
judgment has been confirmed by Dombart the editor of Commo- 
dian, and Brandt the editor of Lactantius, both of which authors 
regularly use the Testimonia for Biblical quotations. 

Readings marked O t (following Prof. Sanday 's notation) are 
from my collation of Bodl. Add. C 15, saec. x. 

Cup 366 Tyc 50, 51 

Esai xiii 

6 Vlulate, ululate, 

proximus est enim dies Domini proximus est enini dies Domini, 

et o&tritio a Deo aderit. et co/itritio a Deo aderit... 

9 ecce enim dies Domini ecce enim dies Domini 

uenit* insanabilis insanabilis* uenit 

indignationis et irae indignationis et irae, 

ponere orbem terrae desertum ponere orbem terrarum desertum, 

et peccatores perdere ex eo. et peccatores perdere ex eo. 



Cyp 669 


13 Tu autem dixisti in animo tuo : 
in caelum ascendam, 

super stellas Dei 

ponam sedem meam, 

sedebo in monte alto 

super montes altos in Aquilonem, 

14 ascendam super nubes, 
ero similis Altissimo... 

15 tu uero ad inferos descendes 
in fundamenta terrae, 

16 et qui mdebunt te 
mirabuntur super te. 

Cyp 183 


16 Hie homo qui concitat terrain, 
commouet reges ; 

17 qui ponit orbem terrae totum 


[The quotations of S. Cyprian put 
Mc vii 6 seq. The reading of Tyconius 

Cyp 56 


1 Sic dicit Dominus Deus 

Christo meo Domino 

cuius tenui dexteram 

ut exaudiant eum gentes... 

ut]et W; om B 

Cyp 77 

4 hie peccata nostra portat 
et pro nobis dolet... 

5 ipse autem uulneratus est 
propter facinora nostra... 

6 et Dominus tradidit ilium 
pro peccatis nostris... 

Tye 70 (71, 72, 75) 

tu autem dixisti in animo tuo : 
In caelum ascendam, 
super stellas Dei 
ponam sedem meam, 
sedebo in monte alto 
super montes altos in Aquilonem, 
ascendam super nubes, 
ero similis Altissimo. 
nunc autem ad inferos descendes 
in fundamenta terrae, 
et qui uiderint te. 
mirabuntur super te. 

ero] et ero Tyc 70 R 

te uiderint] Tyc 70 R 

Tyc 70, 71, 75, 76 

Hie est homo qui concitat terrain, 
[comjmouet reges : 
qui ponit orbem terrae totum 

(Variants of Tyc) 
hie est] 70, 71, 15bis; om est 76 
concitat] 70,757 2 ; incitat 71, 75V 2 , 76 
commouet] 75 2 / 2 ; mouet 70 

down to Esai xxix 13 are really from 
will be noticed in the next section.] 

Tyc 3, 4 

Sic dicit Dominus A 
Christo meo Domino 
cuius ego tenui dexteram 
ut exaudiant eum gentes. 

Esai liii 

Tyc 2 

Hie peccata nostra feret 
et pro nobis dolet, 
ipse uulneratus est 
propter facinora nostra, 
et Deus tradidit eum 
pro peccatis nostris. 
ipse] et ipse VM 
eum] RM ; ilium V 



Cyp 108 

3 aut enim subiectos uobis 

Cyp 72 

Tyc 7G 
Esai lviii 

Omnes suhditos nobis 

9 Non senior ncque angelus 
sed ipse Dominus liberabit eos 
quia dilig^ eos 
et parcel eis, 
ipse redemit eos. 

liberauit WO 
et ipse WMBO 

Tyc 9, 10 
Esai lxiii 

Non senior non angelus, 
sed ipse conseruauit eos, 
propter quod AWigeret eos 
et Tp&rceret illis ; 
ipse redemit eos. 

conseruabit R, considerauit V 

parcet R 

The above extracts may be analysed as follows. References 
in square brackets as [m 41S] are to authorities not contained in 

Readings in which Cyp and Tyc are 
agreed against other Latin authorities. 

Esai xiii 6 [m 418] 

1. proximus Cyp Tyc 

prope m 
3. aderit Cyp Tyc 

ueniet m 

Esai xiii 9 [m 418] 

5. insanabilis Cyp Tyc Iren 

sine refrigerio m 

6. uenit Cyp Tyc Iren 

adueniet m 

7. indignationis et irae Cyp Tyc m 

furore et ira plenus Iren 

Readings in which Cyp and Tyc differ. 

2. contritio Tyc m 
obtritio Cyp 

4. insanabilis uenit (order) Tyc 
Iren m 
uenit insanabilis Cyp 

8. terrarum Tyc 

terrae Cyp Iren m 

Esai xiv 13 [Aug de Gen ad Lit xi (Eiig 180)] 

9. in animo tuo Cyp Tyc 
sensu tuo Aug 

10. stellas Cyp Tyc 

sidera Ambr Aug Vig 

11. Dei Cyp Tyc ( = Heb!) 

caeli Ambr Aug Vig 

12. sedem meam Cyp Tyc Ambr 1 /.} Aug-Ps 59 

thronum meum Aug (Tert Ambr 1 /?) 


Readings in which Cyp and Tyc are 
agreed against other Latin authorities. 


Readings in which Cyp and Tyc differ. 

Esai xiv 1G 

Esai xlv I 

13. in monte alto Cyp Tyc 

in monte excelso Ambr Aug 

14. super montes altos Cyp Tyc Ambr 

super montes excelsos Aug 

15. in Aquilonem Cyp Tyc 

qui sunt ad Aquilonem Aug 
qui sunt ab Aquilone Ambr 

Esai xiv 15 [Aug (Meg 180)] 

16. nunc autem Tyc Aug ( = lxx) 
tu uero ( '///' 

18. qui uiderint Tyc 
qui uidebunt Cyp 

19. hie est homo 2fyc*/ 6 
hie homo Cyp 

20. Dominus Tyc Tert*™ 11 Vig 

(Bam 12) 

Dominus Dens Cyp i Tert 1 

adv hid 7 

21. ego tenui Tyc 

22. ut exaudiant eum Cyp Tyc om ego Cyp rdl 

'■TerV adv hid (ilium) 
exaudient ilium Bant* 
ut obaudiant eum Vig l / 2 
et obedire faciam ante eum Vig l / 2 
obaudire ante eum Lact 

Esai liii 4, 5, 6 

23. feret 1 Tyc Faustin (fert) 

24. facinora Cyp Tyc portat Cyp Hil Ambr Fulg 

iniquitates Hil Ambr Aug 25. Deus Tyc 

Fulg Faustin Dominus Cyp A ug Fulg 

26. eum Tyc Aug l / 3 Fulg 

ilium Cyp Aug 2 / 3 

Esai lviii 3 [»i 592] 

27. et omnes Tyc m Tert p ' ycb Ambr 


aut enim Cyp 

28. subditos Tyc Ambr m 

subieetos Cyp Tert 

1 Possibly feret =fert. See esp. Ioh xv 5 c (<l) ; Rdnsch 286. 



Readings in which Cyp and Tyc are 
agreed against other Latin authorities. 

29. (compound of pungere) Cyp 
Tyc m 

succutitis Tert 
stimulatis A mbr 

Readings in which Cyp and Tyc differ. 

29. conpungitis Tyc m c ° aj (-etis to"") 
subpungitis Cyp 
succutitis Tyc 

stimulatis Ambr 

non angelus Tyc 

neque ang. Cyp Vig Taps' 1 2 

Esai lxiii 9 [PriscUlian 31] 

30. non Cyp Tyc Vig Taps°-/ 2 (Tert%) 

neque Iren Priscill 

31. senior... angelus Cyp Tyc Iren 

(nf}e(T^vi...ayye\os I.xx) 32 

legatus... angelus Vig Taps-/ 2 
nuntius. . .angelus Priscill 
angelus... legatus Tert cle Cam Chr 11 
legatus... nuntius Tert aclv Marc iv 22 

33. ipse Tyc Vig 1 '., ( = lxx B memph 
ipse Dominus Cyp Tert 1 ., Iren 

Vig l l 2 ( = lxx XA \ re'll) 
ipse Deus Tert aclv Marc 

35. conseruauit eos Tyc 
liberabit (-uit) eos Cyp 

saluos eos fecit Tert' 2 / 2 (Pri*ciU) 
saluabit (-uit) eos Vig 2 f 2 

36. proper quod diligeret Tyc 

quia diliget Cyp 
quoniam diligit Iren 
eo quod diligeret Vig 

37. parceret illis Tyc 
38. redemit Cyp Tyc parcet eis Cyp 

liberauit (-bit) Iren 

ipse [Dominus] Cyp Tyc Tert 2 j 2 

Iren Vig 1 ._, 
ipse Dominus ueniet et TV*/ 1 ., 


These 38 readings are not enough by themselves to enable us 
to form a perfect estimate of the relation of the text of Isaiah in 
Tyconius to that in Cyprian, but the general character of the text 
does, I think, sufficiently appear. 

In the first place the agreement of Cyp. and Tyc. is greatest in 
the long quotations. Now the quotations of S. Cyprian are of 
almost uniform quality, and reach the same standard of accuracy 
whether they be long or short. But we have seen reason to 
believe that the casual quotations of Tyconius are by no means 
always to be relied on, while on the other hand the longer quota- 

e -1 


tions are very faithful to the LXX. It is therefore not unlikely 
that some of the differences between Cyp. and the shorter quota- 
tions of Tyconius may be due to inaccuracy in the latter. Such 
for instance would be the unsupported insertion of ego in 21, ds 
for dns in 25, and possibly non for neque in 30. It is interesting 
also to notice that the text of Tyconius has escaped the blunders 
tu uero for nunc autem (yvv he) in 16, and aut enim for et omnes in 
27 ; these are found in no text independent of S. Cyprian. 

Some of the nineteen readings where Cyp. and Tyc. agree 
against other Latin authorities are expressions really characteristic 
of the African version, and go far to prove the genuinely African 
tenour of the text of Tyconius. They are as follows. 

1. proximus (iryyvs) for prope. So Ioh ii 13 e. 

7. indignatio (6v/ for furor. ' Furor,' so far as I know, 
never occurs in any African quotation, but it is the general O. T. 
rendering of 0v/j.b<i in Iren and Ambr. Cf Lc iv 28 ira abeffq vg 
Ambr, ' iracundia' c, but ' furore ' df. 

9. animus (hidvoia) for sensus, mens, etc. Cf Esai xxxv 4 oi 
oXijo^v^ol t?i Siavoia, "qui estis pusill(i)animes " Gyp 71 Habet- 
deus 313, but " pusillanimes sensu" Iren Nouut, and "modici 
animi sensu " ffil-/, 

13, 14 altns (v\lrt]\b<i) for excelsus. Predominantly African ; 
'altus' is found in the Gospels in k 2 /. 2 e 1 /., d*/ 5 a}/ r , and/vgV 5 

24. facinus (avo/xla) for iniquitas. Again in Tyconius Esai 
xliv 22, and Cyp. in Isaiah 7 / 7 . In the Gospels the only instance of 
' facinus' is Mt xxiv 12 Gyp 335. 

These five renderings are by themselves sufficient to shew the 
near relation of the text of Tyconius in Isaiah at least to that of 
Cyprian. The two texts chiefly differ in points of Latinity, that of 
Cyprian being as a rule more literally in agreement with the 
Greek. Instances of this are : 2. contritio Tyc in, but obtritio 
Gyp {awrpiftri); 29. conpungitis Tyc (in), but subpungitis Cyp 

1 An exception is 35 — 37, where we find for 

Hawaev avrovs, 8ia rb ayawav avrovs Kai (j>eioeor0ai avruju. Esai lxiii 9 
liberabit illos quia diliget eos, et parcet eis. Cyp 
conseruauit eos, propter qnod diligeret eos et pareeret illis. Tyc 
(■od. R of Tvconius however reads 


The 'est' in 19 is characteristic of all forms of* the Old Latin 
except the earliest stage of the African text 1 . 

When we turn to readings involving variation in the Greek, we 
find the same marks of fundamental agreement between S. Cyprian 
and Tyconius as in the renderings. In estimating the differences 
between two Latin authorities in matters which can be represented 
in Greek it is of course necessary to be careful to avoid assuming 
that all these differences actually correspond to real Greek variants; 
for instance it is most improbable that No. 4 " insanabilis uenit " 
for " uenit insanabilis " was produced by revision from the Greek, 
though there are Greek MSS in which this change of order is 
found. Again the Latin contractions for ' God ' and ' Lord ' are 
more often confused than those used in Greek ; Latin evidence in 
fact for dns or dins against ds, and vice versa, is worth very little. 

The only difference in these thirty- eight readings which corre- 
sponds to a Greek variant is No. 33, where Tyc and Vig-Taps 1 ^ 
unite in resisting the temptation to add ' Dominus ' to ' ipse ' 
(avrb<; = 1\33). In the Greek avrbs alone is the reading of B 
memph Hieron, but [6] Kvpios is added by K A Lucian, the Syr- 
Hex, and nearly all other mss. ' Dominus ' is found in Cyprian and 
also in Irenaeus and Tertullian 1 ^, but " ipse Deus" is the reading of 
Tert adv Marc iv 22, while Priscillian and Vig-Taps 1 /., read "ipse 
Dominus uenit et." Possibly all these additions may be independent. 

In the earlier part of the same verse, Tyconius and Cyprian 
agree in a noteworthy rendering. The Latin variations in Esai 
lxiii 9 between ' senior ' and ' legatus ' evidently go back to 
meanings of the Greek irpeafivs : Gyp Tyc and Iren have ' senior,' 
but Tert-j* Vig-Taps 2 !* and Priscillian have ' legatus.' 

Two other striking agreements of Cyp. and Tyc. in matters 
affecting the Greek are Nos. 10-11 and 22. No. 10-11 is 
stellas Dei in Esai xiv 13, supported by S. Cyprian and Tyconius 
alone. The reading is absolutely certain in Tyconius, as he after- 
wards quotes the verse again in the same words, saying " stellarum 
Dei, id est sanctorum." All other authorities for the lxx have 

couseruabit eos propter quod diligeret eos, et parcet illis, 
thus producing a text with nearly the same tenses as Cyprian. 
1 Cf k. lii. 


twv d(TT\e]pwv tov ovpavov. But the Hebrew is 7N "^"D- Is it 
possible that ovvov of the MSS is a corruption of 6v, and that the 
original literal rendering of the LXX has been preserved only 
in the African Latin 1 ? At least this reading shews the intimate 
connection of the texts of S. Cyprian and Tyconius. 

No. 22 affords another instance of agreement between Cyp. 
and Tyc, this time in what appears to be a correction of the 
originally literal Latin version by one who was not familiar with 
the Greek. In Esai xlv 1 a consensus of Latin authorities read 
T&5 xptaTO) fjbov Kup/ro for too ^picrrw /xov Hvpo), for which no real 
Greek authority can be found 2 . But there are noteworthy Latin 
variants in the rendering of the latter part of the verse. The 
Greek is 

eiraKovaai efiirpoaOev avrov Wvrj, 
the Latin renderings being 

obaudire ante eum gentes Lact (for once deserting Gyp) 
et obedire faciam ante eum gentes Vig 1 /., 
ut obaudiant eum Vig 1 /* 
exaudient ilium Bam)** 

but ut exaudiant eum Cyp Tyc ' Tert'adulud (ilium) 
(one MS of Cyp. omits ut, another reads et exaudiant) 

Does it not appear as if ut exaudiant eum was an early Latin 
correction of exaudire ante eum ? In any case the rendering of 
both S. Cyprian and Tyconius is sufficiently eccentric to demand 
a common origin for the texts used by these Fathers. 

Tyconius and Habetdeus. 

At the Gullatio Gartltaginiensis held in 411 A.D. between the 
Catholics and Donatists a statement of Donatist doctrine illus- 
trated by Scriptural proofs was read by Habetdeus a Donatist 
Bishop. The text used by him is thus both localised and dated. 
Most fortunately one of the quotations of Habetdeus coincides 
with the end of one of Tyconius' longer quotations ; it will not be 

1 For a parallel instance see next section, p ex. 

2 BarnF 12 is wholly assimilated to Ps cix in the best text (codd. N*I). 


necessary to do more than quote the two passages in parallel 
columns to shew the essential identity of the versions 1 . 

Habetdeus Tyconius 71 (77). 

(Du Pin's Optatus AD 1702, p 315) 

Esai xiv 

20 quomodo uestimentum quomodo uesthnentum 
conspersum* in sanguine sanguine* consparsum 
non erit rnundum, non erit mundum, 

ita nee tu eris mundus, ita nee tu eris mundus, 

quia terrain ineam perdidisti quia terram nieam perdidisti 

et plebem nieam occidisti. et plebeni meam occidisti. 
non manebis in aeternum tempus non eris in aeternum tempus 

semen nequain ; semen nequam ; 

21 para filios tuos interfici para filios tuos intei'fici 
peecatis patris sui, peccatis patris tui, 

ut non e.rsurgant. ut non resurgant. 

Tyconius and the ' Speculum ' (m). 

The Old Latin Speculum (m), the second of those edited by 
Weihrich in vol. xii of the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum 
Latinorura, is generally considered to contain a "degenerate Afri- 
can" text 2 . The passages quoted in it from Isaiah in common 
with Tyconius are given below. 

m 646 Tyc 73 

Esai v 
6 et nubibus mandabo Nubibus mandabo 

ne pluant super earn pluuiam. nc pluant super earn imbrem. 

m 418 Tyc 50, 51 

Esai xiii 
6 Vlulate, ululate, 

prope est enim dies Domini, proximus est enini dies Domini, 
et contritio a Deo ueniet et contritio a Deo aderit 

1 The language of the other quotations of Habetdeus from Isaiah would lead to 
a similar result. Among the characteristic 'African' expressions are facinorosus 
(deo^os) Esai lxvi 3; fortitudo (tVxus) Esai lii 1; illic (e/cet) Esai xxxv 8 ter, 9 bis; 
iste (ovtos) Esai i 13; quasi (d>s) Esai lxvi 3 ter. 

2 Prof. Sanday in Stud. Bibl. i 249; S. Berger, Vulgate 86 (where the fragment de 
Fleury is Weihrich's F of the Speculum). The connection between m and Priscillian 
does not seem so close in the Prophets as in the book of Job and the Epistle of S. 



{Item illic:) 
9 Ecce enita dies Domini 
sine refrigerio aduemet 
indignationis ct irae, 
ponere orbem terrae desertum, 
et peccatores perdere ex eo. 

10 nam stellae caeli ct lucifer 
et omne orn&mentum caeli 
lumen non dabunt, 

et obscurabuntur sole* oriente 
et* hviae non pennanebit lumen 

11 et mandabo uniuerso orbi mala 
et impiis peccata eorum, 

et perdam contumeliam iniquorum 
et contumeliam superborum 

12 ct crunt qui derelicli sunt pretiosi 
magis quani auruin, 

et homo prctiosus 
magis quam lapis ex s «nyr. 

ecce enim dies Domini 

insanabilis «enit 

indignationis et irae, 

ponere orbem terrarum desertum, 

et peccatores perdere ex eo. 

Stellae enim caeli et Orion 

et omnis omagra caeli 

lumen non dabunt, 

et tenebrescet oriente* sole 

flwneii* etf non permanebit lumen 

et infligam oi'bi terrae mala 
et iniustis peccata eorum, 
et perdam iniv/riam scelestorum 
et iniuriam superborum 

et eruut qui remanserint honorati 
magis quam aurum 
quod non tetigit igiiem, 
et homo konoratus erit 
magis quam lapis ex Sudr. 

omnis oruatura] conieci : omnis creatura 

R ; omnes ex ea rura V 
oriente sole lumen] om V (sjyatio relicto) 

m 675 

12 Quomodo cecidit de caelo 
lucifer qui mane oricbatur '. 

Tyc 70 (71) 
Esai xiv 

Quomodo cecidit de caelo 
lucifer mane ox'iens ! 

m 459 

Cessauit superbia 
ct diuitiae impiorum, 

Tyc 47 
Esai xxiv 

cessauit inpudirit u t 
et diuitiae impiorum. 

m 692 

20 Tabernacula tua 

A non commouebuntur, 
neque fatigabuntur 

pali tabcrnaculi eius 
in aeternum tempus, 

Tyc 10 
Esai xxxiii 


quae non commouebuntur, 

neque agitabuntur 

pali tabcrnaculi tui 

in aeternum tempus 

neque runes eius rfisrumpentur. neque funes eius rumpentur. 


m 673 Tyc 9 

Esai xlii 

16 et acMucam caecos Ducam caecos 

in ma qua ignorabant in mam q\iam non nouerunt, 

et semitas quas nesciebant et semitas quas non nouerunt 

calcare faciam, calcabunt, 

et faciam illis tenebras in lucem et faciam illis tenebras in lucem 

et quae praua sunt dirigam. et praua in directum. 

haec uerba faciam, haec uerba faciam, 

et non derelinquam eos. et non derelinquam eos. 

calcare faciam] faciam illos calcare sess. 
eos] illos sess. 

m 491 Tyc 9 

Esai xliv 

21 Israhel quia puer mens es tu, Finxi te puerum meum, mens es tu, 

et Israhel ne obliuiscaris mei. A Israhel noli oblinisci mei. 

ecce enim deleui ecce enim deleui 

ut niuem iniquitates tuas uelut nubem facinora tua 

et ut caliyinem peccata tua. et sicut nimbum peccata tua. 

m 592 Tyc 76 

Esai lviii 
3 et omnes subditos uobis Omnes subditos uobis 

conpungitis. conpungitis. 

conpungetis sess al 

m 593 Tyc 57 

Esai lviii 
10 et tenebrae tibi Tenebrae tuae 

eruut* ut meridies. sicut meridies* erunt. 

It will not be necessary to analyse these passages in detail. 
The amount of divergence is much greater than in the case of 
Tyconius and 8. Cyprian, who only differ 19 times in 14 verses, 
while Tyconius and m differ 46 times in 13 verses. The Cyprianic 
text being our working standard, these figures alone shew that m 
has suffered much more change than Tyconius. At the same time 
Tyconius and m agree in peculiar expressions which can only be 
explained on the assumption that their texts go back to one 
original version. A clear illustration of this is Esai xiii 10, 

oi <yap darepes rod ovpavov koX 6 ^Qp'iwv 

/cat 7ra? o Ko<j/j,o<; tov ovpavov to ^>co? ov Sojaovai,' 

teat, aKOTLaOrjaerai tov rjXiov dvaTiWovTos 

Kai 1) ae\7]vr] ov Scoaei to (poos avTrj<;. 


Here cod. K has oikoc for kocmoc aud several mss have ^e'7709 for 
the second cpwq ; otherwise there is no variation. The only Latin 
writer besides Tyconius and m who quotes the verse is S. Jerome, 
who twice gives the verse literally from the LXX 1 . Now although 
m and Tyconius differ no less than seven times in their rendering 
of Esai xiii 10, they agree in reading non permanebit lumen [eius] 
for ov Sooaec to (/)&5<> avTrjs, a coincidence still further extended if 
we may regard the preceding words in Tyconius which correspond 
to Kal 1) aeXijvi), viz " lumen et," as a corruption of " et lunae " as 
found in m. This paraphrase of the Greek is the more striking, 
seeing that in the former part of the verse both m and Tyconius 
have lumen non dabunt for to (pa)<> ov Scoaovat. 

A point of contact such as this between Tyconius and the 
Speculum is most important, more especially for the criticism of 
the latter. It seems to shew that the constant departures from 
the text of S. Cyprian and Tyconius found in 111 were not due to 
an attempt to bring m into more literal accordance with the 
Greek. Most of these variants from the Cyprianic standard 
consist of synonyms, more or less accurate, such as iniqwitas 
for /acinus, lucifer for Orion, contumelia fur iniuria. These are 
extremely instructive for the criticism of the Latin text, while on 
the other hand the value of the Speculum for the criticism of the 
LXX is enhanced, if we have grounds for believing that most of 
the late character of its text is due not to correction from the 
Greek but to literary revision of the Latinity 2 . 

A parallel instance of real agreement with the old African text 
in m, side by side with superficial variation, is found in Esai v 26, 
where Gyp 56 and 57 has et adtrahet illos, but in m 657 we find 
et traliet eas. In both cases however the renderings point to ical 
crupel avrovs, which is otherwise absolutely unattested. Cod. B 
has Kal avpcel avrovs, and cod. A Kal avptel avTois (w jTlfcJH). 

1 See Sabatier ad loc. S. Jerome's words are : Stellae enim caeli et omnis 
ornatus caeli lumen suum [v. lucem) non dabunt : et obtenebrabuntur sole oriente 
(v. tenebrabuntur orto sole), et lima non dabit lumen suum (v. lucem). 

2 There are a few cases where m deserts the older African Fathers in widely 
spread distinctively Greek variations : e.g. Esai lviii 8 idfj-ara is rendered by 'sani- 
tates ' in Irenaeus, Lucifer, Ambrose and hi 593 ; but Tert dc Res Cam 27, Cyp 108, 
291, 376, Latin mss known to Hieron, and Barn lai 3 have 'uestimenta,' correspond- 
ing to the Greek i/xdna, which is read by BarnS r 3, Iust-Tr 15, and codd. 147 91 106. 


In other prophetical books than that uf Isaiah the evidence is 
at once less in amount and more conflicting in character ; direct 
comparison with the text of S. Cyprian for the most part fails us. 
In the Minor Prophets Tyconius and S. Cyprian have in common 
only the two verses Amos viii 9 and Mai iv 2, the latter being a 
mere allusion in Tyconius. In Jeremiah there is only a reference 
of no textual value to Hier ix 23, shared also by the Speculum. 
In Daniel there is nothing. Indeed the quotations of Tyconius 
from Daniel are so few, that it is impossible to discover whether 
the version he used was translated from Theodotion or whether it 
resembled the curious mixed text found in S. Cyprian 1 . Finally, 
out of the long passages from Ezekiel found in Tyconius, only 
five verses are shared with S. Cyprian. These are given below. 

Cyp 761, 767 Tyc 33 

Eze xxxvi 

25 et aspargarn super uos et aspergam uos 
aquam mundaui aquam ruundam 
et mundabimini et mundabirnini 
ab omnibus inmunditiis uestris, ab omnibus A A 

et ab omnibus simulacris uestris, A A simulacris uestris, 

26 et mundabo uos et mundabo uos 

et dabo uobis cor nouum, et dabo nobis cor nouum, 

et spiritum nouum dabo in uobis et spiritum nouum dabo in uobis 

in uobis] in uos 761 cod , 767 cod ; uobis aqua munda K 

767CO.W muit in uo bi s ] in uos y 

Cyp 158 Tyc 36 

Eze xxxvi i 

1 1 dicunt : ipsi dicunt : 

arida facta sunt ossa nostra, arida facta sunt ossa nostra, 

periit spes nostra iateriit spes nostra, 

expirauimus. expirauimus. 

12 propterea prophet et die : propterea profetare et die : 
baec dicit Dominus, haec dicit Dominus, 

Ecce ego aperio Ecce ego aperiawi 

monumenta uestra monumenta uestra 

et educam uos et educani uos 

de monumeutis uestris dc monumentis uestris 

1 Whatever may be the connection between the Testimonia and the early forms 
of the Altercatio Simonis ct Thcophili (Harnack, Texte und Unters. i), it is at least 
clear that S. Cyprian did not exclusively derive his knowledge of the lxx of Daniel 
thence ; e.g. the quotation from Dan ix 4 ff in Cyp2%Q is not likely ever to have 
found a place in the Altercatio. 



14 et inducam uos interram Israhel. A 
dabo Spiritum meum in uos 
et uiuetis, 

et ponani uos in terra uestra 
et cognoscetis quoniamego Dominus 
locutus sum, etc. 
perit LOjWM* 

et inducam uos in terram Israhel,... 
et dabo Spiritum meum in uos 
et uiuetis, 

et ponam uos super terra?>i uestram 
et scietis quia ego sum Dominus. 

The readings in these five verses which bear on the Old Latin 
version are as follows. 

Readings where Cyp and Tyc agree 
against other Latin authorities. 

Eze xxxvi 25 

2. simulacris Cyp 2 / 2 Tyc 
idolis Aug 

Eze xxxvii 11, 12 [m 424] 

3. facta Cyp Tyc Ambr 
eftecta m 

5. expirauimus Cyp Tyc 

interibimus (-iuimus) Ambr 
om. m 

Eze xxxvii 14 [m 424] 
8. spiritum meum in uos Cyp Tyc m 
spiritum in uobis Iren 
spiritum meum in uobis Ambr 

Readings where Cyp and Tyc differ. 

1. aspargam super uos aquam man- 

dam CypVt Au tf~U 
asp. uos aqua munda Tyc cod R 

A uff l / 2 
asp. uos aquam mundam Tyc cod 


4. peri it Cyp Ambr 
interiit Tyc m 

6. propheta Cyp 
profetare Tyc m 
propbetiza Ambr 

7. aperio Cyp (aperio uobis Ambr) 
aperiam Tyc Iren m 

9. in terra uestra Cyp (in terrain 
uestram m) 
super terram uestram Tyc Iren 

10. cognoscetis Cyp Iren 
scietis Tyc Ambr m 

11. quoniam Cyp Iren m 
quia Tyc Ambr 

12. ego Dominus Cyp A7nbr md ' i 
ego sum Dominus Tyc Iren 

Ambr codA m 


These twelve variants for the most part relate rather to matters 
of accuracy than to recensional varieties 1 ; none of the character- 
istic common words (such as So^a) occur, in rendering which 
' African ' authorities generally differ from the rest. This is the 
more unfortunate, as the history of the text of Ezekiel in Africa is 
most obscure. The ample quotations of Tyconius agree closely 
with the fragments of the Weingarten MS of the Prophets (w) ; in 
the long quotation from Eze xxviii I can only count 23 variations 
in 16 continuous verses, and these mostly relate to minor matters. 
But the text of w comes to us without a character; it may be 
African, Gallican or Italian, revised or unrevised, and no leaf is 
preserved in it from Isaiah, the book in which the geographical 
affinities of text are most clear. On the other hand, against the 
agreement of Tyconius and w stand in sharp relief the quotations 
of Tertullian. In adv Marc ii 10 he quotes Eze xxviii 11 — 16, 
differing from Tyconius in these six verses at least 17 times, three 
of these being crucial various readings in the Greek. Yet we 
cannot at once put down the whole of this variation to Tertullian's 
habit of quoting directly from the Greek, for he renders cnroofypa- 
<yur/j.a by resignaculum, as opposed to signaculum (Tyc ni) and 
consignatio (Arnob-jun w). 'Resignaculum' in this passage is 
especially singled out in Hieron loc : " Et quia in Latinis codicibus 
pro signaculo 'resignaculum' legitur, dum KaKo^Xwq uerbum e 
uerbo exprimens qui interpretatus est iuxta LXX translationem 
a7roa(f)pdjiafia, id est resignaculum, posuit 2 ." No better evi- 
dence could be given that resignaculum was a genuine Latin ren- 
dering and not an eccentricity of Tertullian. Yet the text of 
Tyconius contains many ancient readings opposed to the post- 
Hexaplar tradition of the lxx s ; it can hardly be the result of a 
late revision from the Greek. The whole question is evidently 
most complicated, and needs a thorough investigation not from the 
points of view of the- text of Tyconius alone ; the safest working- 
hypothesis in the meanwhile I suppose to be the recognition of 
the fact that in the text of Tertullian everything is possible. Side 
by side with Tertullian's own paraphrases and translations we no 

1 Compare on the other hand the same passage in Tertullian de Ees Cum 29. 

2 From Sabatier ad loc. 3 See pp cviii — ex. 


doubt often meet with genuine fragments of the oldest forms of 
the Latin version. 

One fact more remains to be noticed in connection with the 
Old Latin of Ezekiel , which seems to suggest that that book under- 
went a revision of its Latinity in very early times. In ' Tert ' adv 
Iud 11, a work which at least contains very ancient elements, 
there is a long quotation extending from Eze viii 12 to ix 6. The 
language of this extract recalls the peculiarities of S. Cyprian's 
quotations from Isaiah, for we find claritas = 86%a Eze ix 3 and 
/acinus = dvo/xla Eze ix 4, though Gyp 90, 367 quotes the latter 
verses with the rendering iniquitas. The only various reading 
however between this quotation and Gyp concerning the Greek is 
the curious phrase Tau signum for to ar/fietov in Eze ix 6 1 . 
' Tau ' is omitted by S. Cyprian, but it may have stood in his 
version, for the title of Test ii 22, in which one of his citations 
of the verse occurs, is "Quod in hoc signo cruris salus sit omni- 
bus qui in frontibus notentur." The reading of to as tclv or t 
is unattested by any Greek MS, but it is evident how easily 
to cmweioN could be read t- chmgion 2 . 

Style and Vocabulary. 

Direct comparison will not carry us farther with the text of 
Tyconius, but in so literal a version as the Old Latin much can be 
done by a comparison of the usage of rendering in different 
passages. In this department it is especially necessary to avoid 
premature theorising. Judging by the results already attained in 
the study of the Old Latin Gospels there are no general principles 
to guide the student. Neither literal rendering of the Greek, nor 
systematic transliteration of Greek words, nor the reverse of these, 
is specially characteristic of the African version. The only method 
which does not mislead is actually to catalogue all peculiarities, 
trusting that on further knowledge we shall find some to be really 

1 In ver 4 the Tau does not seem to be genuine in adv Iud 11, as it is omitted 
by cod. X (Oehler ii 732). 

2 Comp. Barn ix iv t£ hi rhv aravpbv, which becomes in tbe Latin habes in 
una littera Tau crucem. Possibly the text of adv hid may have been influenced by 
Tert adv Marc iii 22. Tbe verses are also quoted in the Altercatio Simon is, p 33. 
See addl. note, p cxix. 


characteristic. Thus k, the best representative of the African text, 
has many Greek transliterations such as eremum for desertum 
Mt xi 7, anastasis for resurrectio Mc xii 23, yet the same MS is our 
principal authority in S. Matthew for similitudo instead of para- 
bola. Nothing but actually collecting the facts and grouping 
them, and then taking the evidence of the groups, will reveal to 
us the true literary history of the Old Latin Bible 1 . 

In the following glossary most of the words used in the quota- 
tions of Tyconius are included, except such terms as do not admit 
of variation in translation from Latin into Greek. Besides giving 
the words and their Greek equivalents I have added some illustra- 
tions of their use in other ' African ' authorities, especially codd. k e 
and the quotations of S. Cyprian. Asterisks denote that all 
examples of a word in Tyconius have not been collected. 

abiectus (egovdevri^vos) 1 Co i 28, 20 

contemptibilis r wi567 d., vg Tert adv Marc v 5 Aug, 
ablative absolute {=Gk gen. abs.) 

Zech xiv 12, 49 

[see duni]. 
abominatio ((38e\vyixa) Mt xxiv 15, 5. 

The phrase to ft8e\vyna rfjs e'l^ficia-eas (Mt xxiv 15, Mc xiii 14) is rendered 
as follows: 
abominationern uastationis e Cyp 335 Tyc (Mt) 
exsecrationem desolationis h (Mc) 
aspernationem desolationis i (Mc) 

abom. desolationis a b c dfh q vg Ireri 2 / 2 Hil Aug (Mt) 
a cffn q vg \hiant b /'] (Mc) ; 
Dan ix 27 

execratio uastationum de Pasch Comp 261, 262 
exsecr. uastationis ' Tert' adv hid 8 
abom. desolationis Iren 
desolationis interitus w Hesych up Aug, 
abstinere Se (cfyvXaaaea-dui with djro) 
1 Ioh v 21, 70 

cf Ac xxi 25 vg. 
acceptabilis (Se^roy) Lc iv 19 ( = Esai lxi 2), 60, 65 
acceptabilem e Cyp 75 (Esai) 
acceptum rell (incl ?«399). 
accipere (8e X ^0ai) Hier xxxii 28, 54. 

* (Xanfidvetv ) Hier xxxii 15, 17, 53 and a dozen times elsewhere. 
adesse (enepxeo-dai) Esai xiii 13, 51. 

1 See especially Koffmane, Gesch. ties Kirchenlateins, 39, 40. 


(faa*) Esai xiii 6, 50 (=Cyp 366). 

adhuc (en) Soph ii 15, 42 (in a neg. sentence) 

Eze xxxvii 23, 34 (mi « neg. sentence) 
Ioh xx 1, 57 (=reZZ) 

[see iam, ultra]. 
(Hpn) 1 Ioh ii 9, 68 (= Cyp 116 relV) 

[see modo, nunc]. 
adicere ((rweniTiOeo-dai) Zech i ] 5, 76. 
adimplere Uinvnihavai) Ps xc 16, 3. 
adire (ivrvyx^veiv) Sap viii 21, 20. 
admittere {see facinus adm.). 
adnuntiare (SmyyeWeiv) Ps ii 6, 72. 

(KarayytWeiv) Phil i 18, 70 ( = Cyp Vg re//). 

adpropinquare (iyyifav) Soph iii 2, 42 
Esai xxxix 13, 8 

Eze xxxvi 8, 36 (eXnlCovo-iv Gh mss) 
Ro xiii 12, 57 ( = Cyp425 vg) 
On Eze xxxvi 8 see p ex. 
aeternum — in aeternum (ds rov alwva, eu>s al&vos) 
Gen iii 22, 81 
2 Regn vii 13, 16 bis, 37 
Ps xvii 51, 5 (usq. in saeculum F, = vg) 
Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 ; xix 20, 43 ; xxxiii 20, 10 
Hier xvii 25, 62 
Eze xxvii 36, 46; xxviii 19, 78, 85 

[see saeculum]. 
alienatio ((Kcrraais) Zech xiv 13, 49 
mentis alienatione (eKoraarei) 

Eze xxvii 35, 46 ; xxxii 10, 44 

[c/in stupore mentis], 
alligatus— habe[n]s in te alligatum (eVSe'Seo-at) 

Eze xxviii 13, 78, 81 (=w [Arnob-jimJ). 
but indutus es (fVSeTWm) Tert adv Marc ii 10 Hier 1 ).,. 
altus (i^rjVoi) Esai xiv 13 bis, 70, 72 ; xiv 26, 52 ; xxiv 4, 47 

so Cyp in Isaiah 6 / 5 

(excelsus rell) 

[see excelsus]. 
ambo (dfx(p<Wepai) Mt xiii 30, 29 ( = £) 

Lei 6, 13 (=reU) 

utraque Mt xiii 30 rell (hiat e). 
animatio (dvpos) Esai xiii 13, 51 

' propter animationem irae (dvfiov opyrjs) Domini, in die qua aderit 

indignatio (dvpos) eius' 
dvpos = animatio (Esai xiii 25) Cyp 253, 286, also joined with ira 

[see indignatio, ira]. 


animus (8«woia) Esai xiv 13, 70, 71 {=Cyp 669) 

in Lc i 51 Stavota =sensu e, niente re/Z (cogitatione d). 
apotheca (an-od^) Eze xxviii 13, 78, 81 (=«>) 
horrea 7V?^ «c7t' J/arc ii 10 

c/Lc xii 18, 24 0? e (apotheca) 
elsewhere always horrea in NT £» all MSS except d Lc iii 17 (repositio). 
apparere (Xftrovpyeli') Dan vii 10, 60 

q/" 7'e/-£ a<f i' Pra.r 3 (ec/c/) 
and Ps ciii 4, where apparitores = XaTovpyois or?y J/a/r ii 8, iii 9. 
arbor (&\ov) Ge ii 17, 61 

cf Cyp 158, 405 

elsewh. lignum, e.g. Eze xx 32, 35. 
arbor nauis (larhs) Esai xxxiii 23, 10. 
arguere (ircu8e{*iv) Eze xxviii 3, 77, 79 
erudierunt w. 
emenclare=7raiSfi'«i' Cyp (157,) 181 

arguere = eXey^eti', but it is used for iraibtveiv as here in Ps xciii 12 
Op Imp in Mt iii 39. 
aspergere with double ace. Eze xxxvi 25, 33 

pavda e(p' vfias KnQapbv v8u>p LXX 

aspargam super uos aquam mundam Cyp 2 / 2 Aug 1 /., 

asp. uos aqua munda A ug l j 2 Tyc cod R 

asp. uos aquam mundam Tyc cod V. 

cf Lev V 9 pavel airb tov uiparos eVi tov to'i^ov 

asparget sanguinem parietem cod I/agd, 

assumere (awiAa/ii/3ai>«i>) Esai Ixiii 9, 10. 

(n-poo-Sexeo-^fu) Esai xlv 4, 8. 
astrum (aarrpov) Nah iii 16, 42 

Eze xxxii 7, 44, 45 

o/"sideribus Lc xxi 25 d e (Tei't 1 /.,), stellis rell 
[see stella (aa~r>)/j)]. 
auaritia (nXeoue^ia) Col iii 5, 83 (=rf 2 Y S ^ ren Hil Aug) 

cupiditas Cyp 645 [r/'Lc xii 15 c d e\ 
audire (flo-ciKoveiv) Ex xvi 28, 26 
Soph iii 2, 42. 
auersari {airoarpefpeadai v. ace.) 

Am i 3, 11, 53 
cf Mt v 32 auersatus fueris k Cyp 

auertaris, auerteris te rell. 
auertere (airoorpeipeiv) Esai xiv 27, 52 
Hier xxv 39, 50. 

(eTTMTTpefpflv) Ps CXXV 1, 67 

[comp conuerti], 
aues (irerfiva) Eze xxxii 4, 44 

/// the Gospels aues = n(T( 3 / 8 viz 

B - / 


Mc iv 4 6 c/ 

iv 32 b c d f f i q vg (Mat a), uolatilia e 
Lc xii 24 b f q. 
auferre* (a'ipeiv) Esai x 14, 75 

[see extollere, ferre, tollere]. 
(d7rn<TTpe<peiv) Ro xi 26, 34. 
(d<pmpeiv) Esai x 13, 75 ; xiv 25 6is, 52 ; liii 11, 2 

Eze xxvi 16, 45 ; xxxvi 26, 33. 
(dcpio-Tavai) 2 Regn vii 15 ter, 37. 
beatus (paicdpios) Mt xxiv 46, 11 ( = M88 incl e) 

Ioh xiii 17, 26 (=MSS incl e), but felices Cyp 118 
[see felix]. 
bellator, -trix (wrXopaxor) Esai xiii 4, 5, 50. 
bonitas (xP r i (TT ' ! > T v s ) ? s ^ v 12 > 60. 

cadent = pa£ot'o-ii> Esai xiii 16, 51 
? razo? Z«/ Tyconius for elident 

e/Mt vii 6 * C#pl54. 
qui ceciderunt= re&^Korej Esai xiv 19, 71, 76. 
caedere (ko7tt«j>) Zech xiv 12, 49. 

Cardines Caeli (tci aKpa tov ovpavov) 
Hier xxv 36, 49 
elseivh. summum (a summo terrae, 9). 
The rendering cardines in this place was probably suggested by the pre- 
ceding quattuor. cf exoriri for i£ipx(o-6ai used of the sun Gen xix 
23, 85. 
cauere (/3X«reti>) Mt xxiv 4, 5 ( = e CypSSb), uidere rell. 

cena pura (Trapaaicevij) Ioh xix 42, 59 ( = e gat), parasceue rell. 

see Ronsch, It und Vg 307, to which we may add Mc xv 47 k. 
ceruix (rpdxrjXos) Hier xvii 23, 62 

[see collum]. 
charisma (xdpio-pa) 1 Co xii 4, 69 (=Iren l / 2 ) 
gratia Iren x j 2 
donum Hil x \ 2 Vig l / 2 

donatio d, m310, 324 vg HiP/ 2 Aug Vig 2 l 3 . 
Cibus (/3p<S<r«) Col ii 16, 6i( = Tert rell). 

circumstantia — circumstantiam pati (a-vp.<pnpalvfiv) 

Esai xiii 8, 51. 
circumuenire (KaTna-ocpi^o-dm) Ex i 10, 55. 
clamare (Kpd&w) Eze xxvii 30, 45. 
claritas (8a£ja) Esai x 16, 48 ; lxii 2, 81 

Ioh xvii 5, 2, 37 ( = Cyp rell, exc a f ) 
2Coiii 18'', 19 (but cf 21). 
In Cyprian's quotations from Isaiah claritas = 8o£a s / 10 

[see gloria]. 


cogitatio (/3ovX))) Sap vi 3, 72 

Esai xiv 26, 52 ; xix 3, 43. 
(StaXoytcr/xo?) Ro i 21, 84. 
COgitationes = f7riTT]8evpaTa 
Eze xxxvi 31, 33 

[see studia]. 
COlligere (avvayav) Zech xiv 14, 49 

Esai xiii 4, 50, 14, 15, 51; xxiii 18, 46; xliii 5, 9; 
xlix 18, 82 
so k e Cyp constantly in the Gospels 

[see congregare]. 
COllum (rpa'x?/Xor) Ac xv 10, 12 ( = ffil Aug) 
ceruix d e 2 vg Iren. 
collum occurs in all mss in the Gospels i l i ; in most other books it is 
characteristically African. 

cf e.g. Esai lviii 5 collum Cypl08 Bar>i J "<3 (Ambr) 
but ceruicem Lucif 141 m593 

[see ceruix]. 
comedere {iaOUiv) Esai xxiv 6, 47. 
(Kareo-Oifiv) Abd 18, 83, 85 
Eze xx 47, 40 

[see consumere, deuorare]. 
commemorari (nvijadfjvai) Ge xix 29, 85 

Mt v 23 commemoratus k 

recordatus Cyp ff f vg 
rememoratus a b c g h q 

[see reminisci]. 
commemoratio (pveia) Esai xxiii 16, 46. 
commercia, -orum (ifmopiov) (Esai xxiii 17), 46 22 

(•/"domum commercatorum Ioh ii 16 e. 
comminuere (a-eUiv) Esai x 13, 75; xix 1, 43 

commouere Agg ii 22, 80; Esai xiv 16, 75 (mouet, 70\ 
comminutio (o-wrpifiri) Prov xiv 28, 76. 
commixticius (enipiKros) Eze xxx 5, 43. 
commixtio (avfifmeros) Eze xxvii 33, 34, 46 

[see promiscuus], 
COmmutari (p.eTapop<pov<r6ai) 2 Co iii 18, 19 

transformari »i375 vg Aug (cf Tyc 21) 
transfigurari Tert adv Marc v 1 1 
reformari d 2 Ambr 
transferri Hil 
c/Mc ix 2 corumutata est/i^ura eius k, transfiguratus est rell, 
conburere (KaraKaUtv) Eze xx 47, 40. 
concisor (Konrav) Esai x 15, 79. 

COncitare (irapogiveiv) Esai xiv 16, 70, 75 ( = Cyp 183) 

[see exacerbare, incitare]. 



conexus see constructus. 

COnfidere {rreTrotOevai) Soph iii 2, 42 

Zech xiv 11, 48. 
confirmare {dvopdovv) 2 Regn vii 16, 37. 

(crTijpi^eiv) Eze xx 46, 40 ; xxi 2, 41 

c/Lc ix 51 c e. 
confringere (o-wTplfteiv) Esai xiii 18, 52; xiv 12, 71 

Hier xxv 35, 49. 
conterere Esai xiv 12, 70 

{c/esp. Lc ix 39 e) 

[see conterere]. 
congregare {ddpolgav) Eze xxxvi 24, 33. 

(o-wdyciv) Eze xxxvii 21, 34 ; xxxix 2, 74 

[see colligere]. 
conlidere {eScxpl&iv) Ps cxxxvi 9, 52. 
conpungere (i5ttomW«i>) Esai lviii 3, 76 ( = «i592) 

but subpungere Cyp 108. 
conroborare {Kparmovv) Ps lxxix 16, 6 (confirmasti V) 

= e Lc i 80, ii 40 ; confortare, confirmare, a b veil. 
COnscelerare {daefieiv folloived by ace.) 
Soph iii 4, 42 
impie agunt {om legem) Lucif 
reprobant legem m500. 
conseruare (o-a&iv) Esai lxiii 9, 9. 

COnSOlari {napaKaXf'ia-dai) Ps CXXV 1, 67 

[see exhortari]. 
consparsus {Trecpvppevos) Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 

=Habetdms 315. 
COnstitutiO mimdi {Kara^oKf) Koapov) 

Ioh xvii 24, 2, 37 (=rell incl Cyp 159). 
constructus — (omne corpus) constructum et conexum = awappoXoyovpe vov km 

<rvi>(3ifta(6pevov Eph iv 16, 3 
constructum et subministratum = fmxoprjynvpevov 
kcii crvvfiifia^opevov Col ii 19, 3. 
77ms in each case the words are transposed : so that constructus = crvvfiifla- 

£uptvos, conexus = avvappoXoyovpevot. 
The other Latin renderings are 

Eph iv 16 compactum et conexum d 2 vg Iren Lucif A nib r Ambst 

conexum et compactum Aug 2 /. 2 
Col ii 19 subministratum et constructum vg 
subni. et copulatum Ambr 
subm. et compaginatum Ambst {Iren) 
compactum et conexum A ug 
productum et porrectum m514 {Lucif) 
subministratum et prouectum o?.,. 


consumere (f'^aua\l<TKeiv) Hier xxv 38, 49. 
(Kareo-dUiv) Hier xvii 27, 62 

[see comedere, deuorare]. 
consummatus (riXuos) 1 Ioh iv 18, 25 ( = Au</ 2 / 6 ) 
perfectus Tert 2 / 2 Angt/g Ambr Fulg q vg 
cf rerfXfico/xeVo* Ioh xvii 23 

perfecti a e / Hit 
consummati b vg J.m6>* 
perfecti consummati d. 
contaminare ((iff^Xow) Eze xxviii 18, 78, 84 

[see polluere, profanare], 
(fiiaiveip) Eze xxxvii 23, 34 

[see inquhiare, polluere]. 
contegere (KaXiWeuO Eze xxxii 7, 44, 45 

= Ps liv 6 latt omn exc Neb. 
contemnens (cpavXia-rpia) Soph ii 15, 42. 
conterere {iKTpLfciv) Ge xix 29, 85. 
(awTpij-ifiv) Esai xiv 12, 70 

Eze xxvii 26, 74, 78 ; xxvii 34, 46 ; xxxii 12, 44 
but confringere Esai xiv 12, 71 

[see confringere], 
continere (Kpareiv) Sap vi 2, 72 

[see obtinere], 
contritio (avvrpt^) Esai xiii 6, 50 ( = »i418) 

but obtritio Gyp 366. 
contumax esse (dneiQeiv) Esai lxiii 10, 10 

c/Esai 15; Ixv 2 Gyp. 
contumelia (vftpis) Eze xxxii 12, 44 

[see iniuria]. 
(dnpia) Ro ix 21, 82 ; 2 Tim ii 20, 82 
2 Tim ii 20 in contumelia V {hiat R) = etj dnpiav, inhonorata Gyp 623 

[see ignominia, iniuria], 
COnuertere (eniarpecpeiv) Esai xlix 6, 38. 
(KaTa<TTpt<peiv) Agg ii 23, 80 
but subuertere Ge xix 29, 85. 
conuerti (dwoarpfCpea-dai) Esai xiii 14, 51 ; xlii 17, 9. 
(e'nto-Tpefao-dai) Ps lxxix 15, 6 
Esai xliv 22, 9 
Hier iii 12, 75 

[comp auertere]. 

COOperire (KaraKaXinrTeiv) Eze xxxii 7, 44 

but operiam 45. 

Coram (evaniov) Ps cxlii 2, 20. 

(ivavr'iov) Hier xxv 37, 49. 

creare (ktL&iv) Eze xxviii 14, 15, 78, 83 ( = w) 


Ephii 10, 20 (=rell) 
but condere Tert adv Marc ii 10 and v 17. 
CUbiCUlum {rapflov) 

' cubiculorum opera Christum esse,' 70 

cf Mt xxiv 26, ecce in cubiculis Gyp 336 c (d) 

[see proniptuarium]. 
custodire— custodiamus 1 Ioh ii 3, 68 (=Oyp 546) stands for <pv\d£oopei> N*. 
All other documents, incl h Aug Lucif, have Trjpwpev, (ob)seruamus. 
cf e.g. Eze xxxvi 27, 33. 
cydaeus (xvbalos) Ex i 7, 55. 
debellare (noXfpflv) Ps cxix 6, 10 

[see expugnare]. 
decenter ((vo-xr)p6i>a>s) Ro xiii 13, 57 (=Cyp 425 Mil) 

honeste «t528 d t vg Aug Ambr. 
decor (wiXXos) Eze xxviii 7 6is, 77, 80; xxviii 12, 78, 80 ( = Tert); 

xxviii 17 bis, 78, 83 ( = "> 4 / 4 ) 

[see species], 
deformatio (popQanris) 2 Tim iii 5, 69 { = Cyp 224) 

forma mb\b d 2 vg Lucif Aug, 
dehonestari (napab'€iypaTL£«T8ai) 

Eze xxviii 17, [78,] 84 ( = Hieron loc ) 
in traductionem wi675 Arnob-jun. 
deicere {KaTapplnTiiv) Thren ii 1, 84. 

(KaraPaWfiv) Eze xxxii 12, 44 ; xxxix 3, 74. 
deliciae (rpvcpr)) Eze xxviii 13, 78, 80 ( = rell); xxxvi 35, 34. 

delictum 2 Regn vii 14 (Ps Ixxxviii 33), 38 R, not V 

[elsewhere peccatum], 
delinquere (apaprdveiv) Ps 1 6, 20 V, not R 

[elsewhere pcccare], 
demolitus (Kadrjpr^pivos) Eze xxxvi 36, 34. 

(KiiTco-Kappepos) Eze xxxvi 35, 34. 
deputari (\oyl£to-6ai) Ro iv 3, 19; ix 8, 27 ( = JIil Aug) 

aestimantur Ro ix 8 d 2 vg. 
desertor (d^eo-r^coy) Eze xx 38, 35 (=w*455). 
desolari (<pr)povo-6ai) Eze xxxii 15, 45 ; (xxxv 14, 73 ;) xxxvi 10, 36. 
desolatio ((ptipaxris) Hier xxxii 18, 53 

[see uastatio and abominatio]. 
despoliare se (eKdveo-dm) Eze xxvi 16, 45 (=h w). 
destruere (KarapyeTi/) Ro iii 31, 14 ( =rell, exc euacuare Tert) 

[see euacuare]. 
detegere (diroKakviTTnv) 2 The ii 6, 74 (V, hiat R) 
but reuclabitur ver. 8, 75 
cf U* 
detinere (KUTtxtiv) 2 The ii 6, 7, 74 

[see obtinere and p li]. 


deuastatio (afiaros) Hier xxxii 18, 53. 
deuorare (ttnw&W) Eze xxviii 18, 78, 84 

[see comcdere, consumere]. 

dicturus — dicturus es (\tyav epeU) 

Eze xxviii 9, 77 ( = w) 

[see narrare and p 1]. 
dignitas— tibi dignitatem read by Tyconius 9, for tibi indignationem (dei^co 

trot top Bvpov pov Esai xlviii 9). 
dilectio (dywrj/) 1 lob. iv 18 ter, 25 (=Tert 2 / 2 Aug*l G ) 

caritas q vg Aug 3 / 6 Arnbr. 
diligere (dyanav) Esai lxiii 9, 10 

1 lob iii 14, 68 ; iv 20, 68 
diluculo (opdpov) Lcxxiv 1, 57 ( = cfivg) 
tempore e b g r* rhe 
ante lucem a 

but deluculo Os vi 4 h, [lob] viii 2 e 
ef diluculo uigilabunt ( = opdpiovai) Os vi 1 h Cyp 21)3. 
dirigere (dvopOovv) 1 Regu vii 13, 37 

[see confirrnare], 
diripere (Trpoi>op,eveiv) Esai xiii 16, 51. 
dirutus (icaT€(pdapp.fvos) Esai xlix 19, 82. 
discens (pa8r]TT)s) Ac xv 10, 12 

discipulorum d e 2 vg Iren Hil Aug 
discens in the Acts h 6 / 7 (discipulorum Ac vi 2) 
„ in Mt Mc k 8 / 24 

[see discipulus]. 
discipulus (pa0t]T^s) Mt x 25, 6 (=mss inci k) 

[see discens]. 
disponere (awTdcrcreiv) Ge xviii 19, 24. 

(diartdevai) Ies Naue vii 11, 39 
Eze xxxvii 26, 35. 
dissoluere (Karakveiv) Mt xxvii 40, 75 
destruere MSB, but hiant e k 
cf Mc xiii 2 e Cyp 49 (resoluatur k). 

[in Mt xxiv 2 Tyc 7~ 7 seems to support destruere ( = e rell)]. 
doctrina (fTi-ior^/) Eze xxviii 4 b , 5, 7, 77 ; xxviii 17, 78 ( = »i675) 
doctrina also occurs in cod w Eze xxviii 3, 4 ter, 5, 7 

[see sapientia, scientia, a)id 
Introd p xlvii]. 
domus (KaToiKia) Hier iii 12, 75 

(a careless or corrupt q n — hiat R; Ps-Cyp de Paenitentia 16 has babitatio). 
donee (o'xpi ov, axpis &i>) Ro xi 25, 34 ; Gal iii 19, 17. 
(ems) Esai xxxiii 23, 10 

Hier xxv 38, 49 
Eze xxviii 15, 78, 83 


2 The ii 7, 8, 52 (not 74) 

[see quoad usque]. 
dum (iv with infin.) Eze xxvi 15, 45 ; xxxvi 20, 23, 32, 33 ; xxxvii 28, 35. 
(with indie, for abl. abs.) Esai lix 9 a , 74. 
(with indie, for pres. part.) Esai lix 9 b , 74. 
edere (ta-BUip) Esai xxiii 18, 46, 47 

[see manducare]. 
egens (nruxos) Esai xxiv 6, 47 

cf Lc xvi 20 e 
(egenus and egens are characteristically African for pauper : e.g. Esai 
lviii 8 Gyp 108, m592). 
egredi (dnoaTpecpciv) Eze xxi 5, 41, perh. for regredi. 

((Knoptvecrdai) Hier xvii 19, 62, but exire i» v. 21. 
(ftjtpxeo-dai) Eze xxxvi 20, 32 

[see prodire, which occurs once 
(1 Ioh iv 1, 67), else- 
where (gepxecrdai = exire. 
comp k lxxviii]. 
eligere (tVAe-yei^) Eze xx 38, 35. 
emittere (<K$ak\ew) Mt xii 35, 84 (=k Gyp 670). 

(eKo-nqv) Eze xxi 5, 41. 

(Jganoo-TeWeiv) Ge xix 29, 85. 

emundare (xadapifriv) Eze xxxvii 23, 34 
elsewh. ruuudare 

cf Mt viii 2, 3 6wj, x 8, xi 5 k 

[see ruundare]. 
ensis (pop.<paia) Ge iii 24, 81 

elsewh. gladius. 

cf Ps xliv 4 Gyp 98. 
eram, erat (ijfirjv, fy) Ps cxix 7, 10 ; Sap viii 21, 20 
Ion iii 3, 41 ; Nah iii 3, 42 
Lc i 6, 13 ( = mss exc e) ; Ioh vii 39, 22 ( = aiss) 
e Lc i 6 has fuerunt. 
fuit occurs in k about 30 times where the other mss have erat. 
fuit etc in Tye is used to render 
iytvovro Ex i 7, 55 

eytvi]6>] Eze xxviii 13, 14, 78 ; xxxvi 34, 34 
yeynvfu Gal iii 24, 18 ( = rell) 

cf also contuniaces fuerunt (ijnei0r)<rai>) Esai lxiii 10, 10. 
ergo (apa) Gal iii 29, 7 (=rell) 

propterea ergo maledictio Esai xxiv 6, 47 must stand for 8ia tovto 
apa ri/)a, but the first &p<\ is found in no other authority. 
(oZv) Ioh xix 42, 59; Col ii 16, 64, and elsewhere. 

[see itaquc]. 
eripere (egaiptlv) Ps xc 15, 3. 


(pveaOai) Ps xc 14, 3. 

esse (fitveiv) non eris = ov ^17 p^ivys 

Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 
nun manebia Habetdeus 315. 

est efc is regularly supplied where the copula is not expressed in the Greek 
except in the following places : 
after ecce, Ex i 9, 55 
after haec, Esai xiv 26, 52 
after qui, Hier xvii 26, 62 ; xxxii 21, 53 
Eph i 10, ii 17, 18 
cf also 3 Regn xiii 2, 41. 
euacuare (naTapydv) 1 Co i 28, 20 (cf ' r »i567 -4«<7) 

[see destruere], 
euacuari (Kevovcrdai.) Ro iv 14, 13 ( = ' Itdianus' ap Aug) 
exinauiri d 2 vg Aug 

[see inanis fieri]. 
euangelizare (euayyeXicW&u) 

Eph ii 17, 18 ( = d 2 vg rell) 
adnuntiare Cyp 94 Tert. 
euenire (enepxeadai) Nah iii 18, 42. 
exacerbare (napo£vveiv) Esai lxiii 10, 10 

exardescere {(KKaUo-dai) Abd 18, 83, 85 
exasperare (wapopyifctv) Eze xxxii 9, 44. 

exaudire (inaKoveiv) Ps ex 15, 3 [eWaK- N*B] 
Esai xiv 1, 4 
2 Co vi 2, 60(=re#). 

excelsus (u\|^Aos-) Eze xx 33, 34, 35 

[see coneitare, ineitare]. 

[see altus]. 

excitare (eneyeipeiv) Esai xiii 17, 51 

(Treytipeiv occurs in NT Ac xiii 50, xiv 2 
t/ie renderings are 

excitare Ac xiii 50 vg 
ineitare Ac xiv 2 d 
suscitare Ac xiii 50 d e 2 , xiv 2 e 2 vg. 
(excludere = [iic]Pa\\eiv) 

qm...uestitum nuptialem non habet...excluditur 83, cf Mt xxii 13, where 
however latt omn incl Habetdeus 314 have mittete (/3a'Xere D 28 13-69 etc) 

[see expellere]. 
execratio (p8t\vypa) Ap xvii 4, 82 [ = Cyp 148, 196) 
abominatio Prms vg 

c/Lc xvi 15 e Cyp 748 

[see abominatio]. 

exhortari (irapaKiikfio 6ai) Esai xiii 2, 50 

[see consolari]. 



exinanire (ckkcvovv) Eze xxviii 7, 77, 80 ( = iv) 

exinanire = kcvovv is avoided by Tyc in NT 

[Phil ii 7 se inaniuit Cyp 79 codd MB, 149 codd LMB semetipsum 
exinaniuit, 79 cod L = vg, se exinauiuit sess Hartel 2 / 2 ] 

[cf euacuari, iuanis fieri]. 
expauescere (igtordvai) Esai xiii 8, 51 

expellere (ckjSoXXcw) Gal iv 30, 30 

c/£, e.^. Mt x 1 
(eicere Za* eur - it - v s) 

[see stupere]. 

[comp excludere]. 

(tfufttf) Ioel ii 20, 73 

Hier xxv 36, 49 ( = d vg Ac vii 45) 
expirare (8ta<pavtiv) Eze xxxvii 11, 36 ( = Cyp 148) 

om wi424 

exsperauimus Q/p eoc? Oj 

desperauimua Hieron 

interiuimus ^4wi6 

auulsi sumus in eis Tert Res Cam 29. 
expugnare (noh(p.uv) Esai xix 2, 43 

[see debellare]. 

[see interitus, perditio], 

[see auferre, ferre, tollere]. 

exterminium (dn<6\eia) 2 The ii 3, 30 
perditio Tert' 2 / 2 Iren d 2 vg 
interitus Ambr Aug 2 / 2 

(a(f)ai>i(Tfi6s) Soph ii 13, 15, 42. 
extollere (a'lpe iv) Esai xlix 18, 81 

exurgere, per/, exsurrexit (dvia-rdvai) 
Ex i 8, 55. 

Cant iv 16, 74 
Zech ii 13, 73. 

Esai xix 2, 43. 
facinus (dvopia) Esai xliv 22, 9 ; liii 5, 2 ( = Cyp) 

2 The ii 7, 30, 74, 84 (iniq. Tert rell) 
so also Mt xxiv 12 Cyp 335 and 7 / 7 in Isaiah 
[see iniquitas], 
facinus admittere (dvopt Iv) Esai xxiv 5, 47 ; xliii 27, 9 
cf Dan ix 5, Cyp 260 

(cf also -misit Ex xxxii 7 ;•, but -tern fecisti Eze xvi 52 w). 

famulus (nals) Esai xxiv 2, 47 

elscwh. puer, e.g. Esai xliv 1, 9. 
felix (fidKapioi) Ps cxxxvi 9, 52 

[see beatus]. 


ferre (alpeiv) Ps xc 12, 3 

(4>efjtti>) Esai liii 4, 2 

Hier xvii 26, 62 

[see portare], 

uenire festinet (8ici>'£«tch) Esai xiii 14, 51. 

fidelis fieri (irio-roia-dai) 2 Regn vii 16, 37. 
fiens fiet et erit (ytvofxevos etn-ai) 

Ge xviii 18, 24. 
Probably derived from a conflation of liens erit and fiet et erit. For the 
latter construction see k ciii. 
figmentum (ttoiV*) E l ,n " 10 , 20 (=r d t Aug) 

factura Tert vg. 
fingere (n\a<ro-*iv) Esai xliii 7, 9 ; xliv 21, 9. 
fornicaria (rropuj]) Esai xxiii 15, 16, 46 

{com}) meretrix], 
fortitude* (ivxvs) Esai x 13 bis, 75 ( = Cyp Esai xi 2 ; xxxiii 11 etc) 

[see uires, uirtus]. 
fructum afferre (icapirofpopclv) Ro vii 5, 12 (=Mt xiii 23 mss) 
fructicare d 2 vg 
fructum ferre Tert Aug. 
fulgere (Xapnfiu) 2 Co iv 6 bis, 57 

fulgere, fulsit Tyc 
fulgere, illuxit d. 2 Ambst 
clarescere, claruit r Aug 
splendescere, illuxit vg A/nbr Vig 
cf Mt xvii 2 e. 
fulgor (avyfi) Esai lix 9, 74 

c/Mc xiii 24 k ( = (f>eyyos), splendor rell. 
funis (a-xoiviov) Esai xxxiii 20, 23, 10. 

generare (ytwav) Lc iii 22, 7 

(geuuit a b c dff* r rhe Hil tev Faust ap Aug codd latt ap Aug) 
Gal iv 24, 13, 29 (=Tert rell). 
generare for giguere (except in genealogies) is predominantly African 

e.g. Esai i 2 Cyp 40, 273, 430 
(each time with a various reading in the inferior codices). 
generatio (yevea) Ge xv 16, 61 ; Ex xiii 18, 61 
Eccl i 4 bis, 4 
Baruch vi 2, 61 

[see saeculum], 
gentiles ((6vrj) Nah iii 3, 42 

gentilibus V, gentigentibus R ; possibly only a corruption o/gentibus, 
yet cf Cyp Test in 34 (Hier x 2) 

[see natio]. 


germinare (avareXKetp) lob xi 17, 75 

cf k Mc xiii 28 ( = eK(pv(ii'). 
gerund in -dum Gal ii 4, 30. 

-do Ps liv 21, 76. 

gladius (eyxtipftiov) Eze xxi 3, 4, 5, 41 

*gladi us =/iax<u'pa and pofi<pala passim 
e.g. Eze xxxii 11 bis, 44 

gloria (8o|a) Esai xliii 7, 9 

2 Co iii 18 ter, 19, 21 

(5o|ao-/ia) Thren ii 1, 84. 

(kv8os) Esai xiv 25, 52. 

gloriflcare (So£df««>) Ps xc 15, 3 
Dan xi 38, 5 

[see ensis]. 
[see claritas]. 

[see magnificare]. 

habitare (ivoiKeiv, KaTotKelv) Ge xix 29, 85 

Soph ii 15, 42 ; Zech xiv 11, 48 
Esai xxiii 18, 46 ; xxiv 5, 47 
Hier xvii 25, 62 

Eze xxxvi 10, 36 ; xxxvi 17, 32 ; xxxvi 28, 33 ; xxxvii 
25'', 34; xxviii 2, 77, 78 (=w) 

[see inhabitare]. 
N.B. habitare is never a transitive verb in Tyconius exc Eze xxviii 2, 
but it is used in the passive twice (Hier xvii 25 ; Eze xxxvi 10). 
(Karaa-Kijpovp) Ps cxix 5, 10 
Ioel iii 17, 73. 
ciuitates cum habitantibus (iroXeis KaToiKovfievas) 
Esai x 13, 75. 
hie (= art.) 

hoc donum=ij \apis Sap viii 21, 20 ( = Aug Anwb-jiui vg) 
in hunc mundum=ets tov Koafiov Ioh i 9, 4 ( = rell incl Cyp) 
in hoc mundo = ets nV Koa/xov 1 Ioh iv 1, 67 
(in hoc saeculo q, in saeculo Lucif 261) 
e Ioh i 9 has in hoc mundo 

[see ille, iste]. 

holocaUSta (oXoKavTcofiara) Hier xvii 26, 62. 
honoratus (eiri/ios) Esai xiii 12 bis, 51 

pretiosus ?«418. 
iam (en in negative se?itences) Ro vii 17, 15; Gal iii 18, 14 

[see adhuc, ultra]. 

(jfty) 2Theii 7, 74 ( = «,-«)• 

(ibi never occurs. 

It is however twice brought into the text by Vcorr pp 48 and 75) 

[see illic]. 


idolorum seruitus (el8a\o\arpeia) 

Col iii 5, 83 { = d t Cyp Aug) 
idololotria Iren ed 
simulachrorum seruitus vg. 
idolum (ei'ScoXoi/) Eze xxxvi 17, 32 

c/Ap ix 20 et idola, id est simulacra, aurea et ( Pyp' 

[Test in 59 W] 
Ps cxxxiv 15 idola Cyp 160, 321 Aug'" c 

simulacra Cyp 160 SYS ' S ' Hil and the Psalters 
[see simulacrum], 
ignifer (irvpcpopo*) Ahd 18, 83, 85. 
ignominia {anp.ia) Esai x 16, 48 

cf 1 Co xv 43, where also there is a rhetorical contrast, 
as here, between dnpia and 86£a 
ignominia Cyp 159 Hil 
contumelia d 2 ?»429 Aug 
ignobilitas Iren Amb vg 
dedecoratio Tert 

ignorare {ovk Xbtiv) Ex i 8, 55 

[see contumelia, iniuria]. 
[see non]. 

ille ( = article) 

1. with adj. or part. Ioel ii 20, 73 

Esai xiv 27, 52 ; xxiv 2 bis, 47 

Eze xxvi 17, 45 ( = h w)\ xxxvi 23, 33. 

2. with proper names Soph ii 13, 42. 

3. with a simple noun 2 Mach vii 29, 21 ( = Cyp Lueif vg) 

[for 3, see hie, iste], 
illic (eW) Eze xx 35, 35; xxxvi 20, 21, 22, 32, 33; xxxvii 21, 34 

Mt vi21, 82 (=k Cyp*l 2 ) 
Ioh xix 42, 59 (=<?) 

illuc («€t) Hier xxv 36, 49. 

imber (vctos) Esai v 6, 73 ( = Cyp 387 3 Regn xvii 14) 

[but pluuiam h Ac xiv 17]. 
imperium (npoo-Taypa) Ps ii 6, 72 ( = Cyp Hil etc, not A ug) 

[see iussum, praeceptum], 
impietas (aaefaia) Am i 3, 11, 53 

Ro xi 26, 34. 
impius (do-eftrjs) Esai xxiv 8, 47 

Eze xx 38, 35 

? 2 The ii 8, 75 (d avopos mss, but c/Esai xi 4) 
[see iniustus], 
implere (epmnXdvai) Eze xxxii 6, 44 

[see replere, satiare]. 


(mfinXdvai) Eze xxviii 16, 78 

[see replere], 
inanis fieri (Kevovadm) 1 Co i 17, 31 (=Cyp 169 Hil) 
euacuari cL 

incendere {dvtamiv) Eze xx 47, 40 

[see euacuari]. 
[see succendere]. 

flamma incensa (r) $Ao£ j (gatfcOe'ia-ci) 
Eze xx 47, 40. 
incidere (aXia-Ktadai) Esai xiii 15, 52. 
incitare (7rapo£jJi/fti/) Esai xiv 16, 71, 75, 76 

In the two longer and more format quotations of the passage, 70 and 75, 
Tyconius has concitare Wee Cyprian 183 

[see concitare, exacerbare]. 
incrementum (avfrais) Eph iv 16, 3; Col ii 19, 3(=d 2 1 / 2 Iren l \ x Ludf l j 2 
Ambri/ 2 Aug%,) 
augmentum vg 2 / 2 ra514 Lucif 1 / 2 Ambr l / 2 . 
indignari (dv/j-ovadai) Esai xiii 13, 51 ( = /• Mt ii 16) 

(irasci rell), 
indignatio (<9d/xo?) Esai xiii 9, 13, 51 
Hier xxv 37, 49. 
6vpbs= indignatio Cyp Esai xii 9 
= ira Cyp Esai lxvi 15 

[see animatio, ira], 
indui (iv8ve<r0ai) Esai xlix 18, 82. 

inferi (aSijs) Esai xiv 15, 70, 75; xiv 19, 71, 76 

portas inferorum, e/Mt xvi 18, 63 
(infernus is confined to European texts). 
infligere (evrekXetrdai) Esai xii 11, 51 

elsewk. praecipere (e.g. Esai xiii 4, 50) and mandare (e.g. Hier xvii 22, 62). 
ingredi (el<rcpxeo-8ai) Eze xxxvi 20 bis, 32, 21, 22, 33; xxxviii 21, 34. 
(eltnropevetrdcu) Hier xvii 19, 62 

[elsewh. see intrare, introire]. 
inhabitans (ku6t)^vos) Hier xxxii 29, 54. 

(ivoiKutv) Esai xlix 19, 82. 
inhabitare (fvouctlv, KaroiKelv) 

with ace. Esai xxiv 6 1 ', 47 

Hier xvii 25, 62 
Eze xxvii 35, 46; xxxii 15, 45 
with in Esai xiv 23, 52; xxiv 1, 6 a , 47 

Eze xxvi 17, 45; xxxvii 25=m\ 34 

[.see habitare]. 
inhabitari facere (Karooce'tv) Eze xxxvi 33, 33. 
iniquitas (oSikij/ih) Eze xxviii 15, 78, 83 ( = »') 
e/"Ap xviii 5 Cyp Prms vg 


Ac xviii 14 h e [iniuria d]. 
(ubiKui) Eze xxviii 18, 78, 84 bis 

[see iniustitia]. 
(dvofiia) Eze xxviii 16, 78 ( = ?'■) ; xxxvi 31, 33, 33; xxxvii 23, 34 

[cf facinus], 
iniquus (avofios) Eze xxi 3, 41 

[see scelestus]. 
iniuria (inula) Eze xxxvi 7, 36 

[see contumelia, ignominia]. 
(vftpis) Esai xiii 11 Ms, 51 = Ci/p Zech x 11; h vg Ac xxvii 10 

cf iniuriosus (v^pta-TTjs) Gyp Esai ii 12 
(contumelia m418) 

iniuriam facere (v/Sp/few) Esai xiii 3, 50. 
iniustitia (aSi/a'u) 2 Regn vii 14, 37 

iniustus (a8ucos) Soph iii 5, 42 

Eze xxi 3, 41. 

(d(T€J3rjs) Esai xiii 11, 51 

[see contamelia]. 
[see iniquitas], 

[see impius]. 

inlustris ((7rt(pavr)s) Soph iii 1 

= Cyp Mali 14 
Tert Ac ii 20. 
other renderings are 

praeclarus A vet ad Xocat (Soph iii 1), e. 2 (Ac ii 20) [om d] 
splendidus Lucif (Soph iii 1). 
inponere (tntTidevai) Eze xxvii 30, 45 

Ac xv 10, 12 ( = re?l). 
(TrepiTiBevai) Esai lxi 10, 3. 

inpudicitia (avdaBia) Esai xxiv 8, 47. 
inquinare (pnaiveiv) Esai xliii 28, 9 

cf Ag ii 14 Hahetdetis 314 and coutr Fvlg Donat. 
Ioh xviii 28 inquinarentur e (coinquinarentur q) 
contaminarentur b c/vg 
polluerentur aff 

[see contaminare, polluere], 
insanabilis (dvlaros) Esai xiii 9, 51 ( = Gyp 366) 
(sine refrigerio m418) 

[see sine], 
insertus (fK/ceKeir^eW) Esai xiv 19, 71, 76. 
intellectUS (crvvean) Esai x 13, 75 

[see prudentia]. 
interest — quid interest (ri yap ;) Phil i 18, 70 

[nihil mea Tert adv Marc v 20, quid enim d.> vg]. 
interficere (dvaipeiv) Eze xxviii 9, 77, 80 


2 The ii 8, 31 ( = Tert Iren veil). 
{anoKTeiveiv) Mt xxiii 37, 63 ( = e Cyp 44) 

[see occidere]. 
(dum interficiuntnr = eV r<5 airaarni, cf 23 iv ra> avaipedrjvai 
Eze xxvi 15, 45 

interfectione h 
in euaginatione w. 
(acpayelv) Esai xiv 21, 71, 77 { = Habetdeus 315). 
interire (a7j-oXa)XeW) Eze xxxvii 11, 36( = m424) 

periit Cyp 158. 
interitus (tt7r<uXeta) Eze xxvi 16, 45 (=w); xxxii 15, 45 
(perditio h Eze xxvi 16) 

c/Mt vii 13 interitum /• Q/£>119, perditionem reW 

[see exterminium, perditio]. 
intrare (elcrepxecrOai) Ge xix 23, 85 

Hier xvii 25, 62 
Eze xx 38, 35 
Ro xi 25, 34 

(tlvnopeveo-dai) Hier xvii 20, 27, 62 

[see introire]. 
[see ingredi]. 

introire ((laepxeo-Qai) Ps cxlii 2, 20 

Esai xxiv 10, 47 
Mtvii21, 69 ( = /f Cyp 2 / 2 ) 

[see intrare]. 
inualere (eW^ve^) Os xii 3, 4, 28 

[see ualere]. 
inuocare (eWaXeiv) Ps xc 15, 3 

elsewhere uocare e.g. Esai xliii 6, 9. 
(ko\(Iv) Hier xxxii 29 b , 54. 

inuocari {uvop.a(e(r6ai) Hier xxxii 29 a , 54. 

inutilis — inutilia = ra dyevij [roii Koapnv] 1 Co i 28, 20 

ignobilia w567 d 2 vg Aug, 
ira {dvpos) Esai xiii 3, 50 

Eze xx 33, 34, 35; xxxvi 6, 36; xxxvi 18, 32 

[see animatio, indignatio]. 
(dpyfj) Esai xiii 9, 13, 51 

Hier xxv 37, 49 

Ro ii 5 bis, 84; iv 15, 13, 24; Col iii 6, 83. 
iste (ovtos) Ps xxiii 5, 29 

Zech xiv 15, 49 

Esai xxiv 3, 47 ; xlix 6, 38 (om lxx) 

Hier iii 12, 75; xvii 20, 62 

Mt v 19, 69 ( = rell); xxv 40, 68 ( = corb EM 1 / J 

Mcx30, 59 (=£) 

VOCABULARY. lxxxvii 

Lc xviii 30, 59 ( = e Cyp 3 /J 
1 Ioh ii 3, 68 ; iv 2, 68. 
( = art.) 

in isto mundo=eV r<5 Kocr/xw 1 Ioh iv 3, 68, but in hoc mundo 1 Ioh 

iv 1, 67 
iste qui uenit = o ipxop-evos 2 Co xi 4, 5 

[see hie, ille]. 
ita (ovtoh) Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 ( = ffabetdeus 315) 

Mt xxiv46, 11 ( = de) 
Galiv29, 30 ( = re?l) 

elsewh. sic. 
ita ut ((Sore) Hier xxxii 28, 54. 

itaque (o vv) Col iii 5, 83 ( = CypM5 Iren) 

so k Mt i 17, iii 8, v 48, etc 

[see ergo], 
(uo-re) Gal iii 24, 18 (=rett). 

itinera (a/xcpoSa) Hier xvii 27, 62, 64 
cf e7J"i tov dfx(p68ov Mc xi 4 
in platea a 

in transitu(ni) b (c) dffi q 
in biuio/vg. 
iucundari (ev4>pawea0ai) Esai xxiv 7, 47 ( = Esai (xli 16;) liv 1 ; lxv 13 Cyp) 

[see laetans], 
iucunditas (eveppoavvr]) Esai xxiv 8, 11, 47 
Eze xxx vi 5, 35 
cf Ac xiv 17 iuounditate d h 
laetitia e t vg 

[see laetitia]. 
iuratio (op/cos) Ge xxvi 3, 23. 

iuSSUm [Trpoa-Taypa) Esai xxiv 5, 47 

[see imperium, praeceptum]. 
iuxta {eyyvs) Hier xxxii 26, 53 

[see proximo], 
laedere (adace'iv) Ap ix 10, 60 (cf Prms ad laedendi) 

nocere vg 
nocendi h. 
laetans (fv<ppaiv6p.a>os) Ps exxv 3, 67 ( = Hiervii34 Cyp 85) 
but iucundatus Aug on Ps exxv 

[see iucundari]. 
laetitia (eveppoo-vvrj) Eze xxxv 14, 73 

[see iucunditas]. 
lamenta (dpijvrjfia) Eze xxvii 32, 45 

'lamentas, fletus facere,' Pacuv ap Son 132. 
Bprjvrjpa does not occur again in the Greek Bible. 
lamentatio (dprjvos) Eze xxvi 17, 45 ( = /< «') ; xxvii 32, 45 (=Am viii 10 
Cyp 91) 

[see lamentuin]. 


lamentum (Op^vos) Eze xxviii 12, [77,] 80 (=?r) 

[see lamentatio]. 

laudabilis (eVaii>eroj) Eze xxvi 17, 45 (=h w). 

laudatio (aiWo-tr) Hier xvii 26, 62. 

legatus (Trpeafivs) Esai xiii 8, 50 

[see senior], 

lenire (naveiv, so Lucian and 62-147) 
Esai xiii 3, 50. 
cod R has mitigare 

cf Nn xxv 1 1 leniuit Cyp 785, 

but mitigauit Opt 63. 
Eze xxxvii 23, 34 
Mt vi 13, 17 
Ro xi 26, 34. 
Ro ix 27, 27 

liberare (pveaOai) 

liberari (<ru>(ea6ai 
longe (noppco) 


[see saluari]. 

Esai xxix 13, 8 
Hier xxxii 26, 53. 
Ephii 17, 18 (=rett) 

(never a longe) cf de longinquo. 


de longinquo = eK yrjs noppcodev 

Esai xiii 5, 50 
de terra longinqua = an-o 77s 7r6ppa>6ev 
Esai xliii 6, 9 
(Probably the 0. Latin read rfjs for yijs in Esai xiii 5, as B does in Esai 
xliii 6) 

c/'Lc xvii 12 e ( = « noppcodev) 
[also Mc xi 13, xiv 54, xv 40 k = dirb p.aKpi>6ev~\. 
longinquus fieri (paKpvvea-Qai) 
Ps cxix 5, 10. 
lucere followed by cognate ace. (tpaivav) 
luna non lucebit lumen eius 

= <Tf\rjvrj ov pfj (pavy to (pais avrov Eze Xxxii 7, 44, 45 

omnia quae lucent lumen 

= iravTa to. (paivovra (pais Eze xxxii 8, 44, 45 
cf luces cereurn Plant Cure I 9 ; lucebis...facem Cas I 30. 
NB This construction is variously avoided in Ap viii 12. 
lugere (nevdeiv) Esai xxiv 7 bis, 47 

[see plangere]. 
lumen (<£a>$) Sap v 6, 73 

Am viii 9, 74 [; Mi iii 6, 74] 

Esai x 17, 48 ; xiii 10 bis, 51 ; xlix 6, 38 ; lis 9, 74 

Eze xxxii 7, 8, 44 

2 Co iv 6, 57 

[see lux]. 


Mi iii 6 dies luminis for dies (so V, Mat R), probably only by con- 
fusion with Am viii 9. 
Esai xiii 10 lumen etfor et lunae 

[see permanere]. 
lux (0ms) Esai xiii 16, 9 ; liii 11, 2 

Lc xvi 8, 79 ( = Cyp 793 rell) 
1 Ioh ii 9, 68 (=Cyp 116, not h) 

[see lumen], 
magistratus (apxovres) Esai xiii 2, 50 

elsewhere princeps = ap^coi>. 

cfk Mt x 18 magistratus = qyep.6i>es (praesides rell) 
d Lucif 269 Ac xvi 19 magistratus =apxovres (principes e t vg). 
magnificare (So^etj/) Esai x 15, 79 

Ro i 21, 84 ( = d 2 Aug x \ n Ambst) 
clarificare Faust ap Aug 
bonorificare Habetdeus 315 Aug x \ lG 
honorare Zeno Aug l / 10 
glorificare vg Aug 13 / 16 

[see glorificare], 
maledictum (6vei8io-pos) Esai xliii 28, 9 

c/Hier vi 10 Gyp 41 

[see obprobrium], 
malus {novr} P 6s) Mt vi 13, 17 (=rell) ; xii 35 bis, 84 

nequa(m) Mt xii 35 bis h Gyp 670 

[see nequam], 
mandatum (eVoXq) Mt v 19, 69 (=reU) 

Lc i 6, 13 ( — rell, exc ef) 
1 Iohii4, 68 ( = Cyp M6) 
Rovii 11, 15 ( = rell) 

[see praeceptum]. 
manducare (ivBUiv) 3 Regn ii 46 a , 65 
Esai x 17, 48 

[see edere]. 
(KareadUiv) Eze xxxvi 8, 36. 
manere (KoiTafav) Cant i 7, 73 ( = Ambr). 
manufacta, -oruin (xeiponoirjTa) Esai xix 1, 43. 
mercator (epiropos) Eze xxvii 36, 46 

[see negotiator]. 
mercatus (ipnopLa) Nab. iii 16, 42 

Eze xxviii 5, 77, 79 ( = w) 

[see negotiatio]. 
(meretrix) c/Apxvii4, 82 

[see fornicaria], 
metueri (cpofde'ia-dai) Esai xliii 5, 9 

cfe.g. Mtx28£ Cyp^U 
Mt i 20 k 

[see timere], 



militare (cni<rTpaTfveiv) Zech xiv 12, 49. 

minorari (rjTraadai) Esai xix 1, 43 

[see superari], 
miseratio {eXeos) 2 Mach vii 29, 21 {—Gyp rell). 
misericordia (i'Xeos) 2 Regn vii 15, 37 
Ps xvii 51, 5 
in misericordia et miseratio (R ; tr V) = ev eXeei ku\ olKreippols 
Ps cii 4, 21 

[mitigare] = lenire in cod R Esai xiii 3, 50 

mittere *(«Vo<rreAXeiz/ passim). 

(efjLpaXXav) Ies Naue vii 11, 39. 

(e^aTTOCTTeXXav) Hier xxv 38, 49. 
modo (apri) Mt xxvi 64, 4, 45 

2 The ii 7, 52, 74 

[for the change in order, see 

[see lenire]. 

[see adhuc, nunc]. 

multiplicari (nXeova^iv) Ro v 20, 13, 18 

abundare rell, which also appears in an allusion p 15. 
mundare (KaBapi&iv) Eze xxxvi 25 bis, 33, 33 

[see emundare]. 
(o-wfeti/) Eze xxxvi 29, 33 
probably a mere piece of carelessness on the part of Tyconius, 
mundus (icoarpos) Ioh i 9, 4 ; xvii 5, 2, 37 
1 Ioh iv 1, 3, 67, 68 
Ro iv 13, 13. 
saeculum = Koap-os does not occur. 
mysterium (pva-rijpiov) 2 The ii 7, 30, 74, 84 ( = d 2 vg Aug etc) 
arcanum Tert Res Cam 24 

[see sacramentum]. 
(8iaicovla) 1 Co xii 5, 69 RV 
(mysteriorum for ministeriorum) : same corruption Ambr l l z (ap 
Sabat.), and on p 30 27 R has ministerium/or mysterium. 
[narrare] — narrabis (Xeyew (pels) 

Eze xxviii 9, 80 
only in the repetition of the continuous quotation pp 77, 78. 
(cf Ps xxi 23 narrabo (dirjytjaopai) nomen tuum fratribus meis) 

[see dicturus]. 
nasci — quae nascuntur (to. y(vr]paTa) 

Eze xxxvi 30, 33 
c/"nascentia Hab hi 17 Gyp 365 
quae nata sunt Lc xii 18 bffiq vg. 
natio {idvas) Sap vi 3, 72 

Esai x 13, 75 


Ezexxviii 19, 78, 85 ; xxxii 9, 10, 12, 44 ; xxxvi 7, 36 ; 
xxxvi 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 a , 30, 32, 33 
elsewh. gens 

e.g. Eze xxxvi 53", 24, 36, 33, 34. 
In Cyprian's quotations from the Prophets 
natio occurs Mi iv 3, Esai lv 4 a 
gens occurs 25 times 
gentiles only Hier x 2 (codd-opt) 

[see gentiles]. 
ne ( = ut non) Esai v 6, 73 ; xxiv 10, 47 

Eze xxxvii 23, 34 
1 Co i 17, 31. 
ne prohibitive does not occur ; but noli w. infin. 
Esaixliii 5, 6, 9 ; xliv 21, 9 
Hier xvii 21 bis, 62 
Ioh v 28, 37. 
negotiatio (e ' p la) Esai xxiii 18 bis, 46, 47, 84 

Eze xxviii 16, 78, 83 ( = w) ; 18, 78, 84 
[see mercatus]. 
(f'/in-opoi) Eze xxxviii 13, 84 
negotiationes V, perhaps for negotiatores. 
(nopto-pos) 1 Tim vi 6, 84 
quaestus r d 2 m514 vg Lucif Aug Amb Ambst 
negotiator (i'pnopos) Mt xiii 45, 84 ( = cvg) 
negotianti rell, incl Cyp 2 / 2 . 
(On p 84 cod R is missing, so perhaps Tyconius wrote negotianti.) 
nepotes (rtKva) Esai xiii 18, 52. 

nequam (irovrjphs) Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 ( = Habetdeus 315) 
(cf Mt xxiv 48, 11) 

[see malus], 
nequitia (novrjpla) Eph vi 12, 30, 54 ( = rell). 
nimbus (yv6(pos) Esai xliv 22, 9 

also Ps cxvi 2, 73 (nimbus et nubes = ve <pf\r] ko.1 yvcxpos 
(caligo rell: yvocpos does not occur in any verse quoted by Cyp). 
nimis (o-(p68pa) Ex i 7, 55 (o-(p<'>Spa o-(p68pa lxx) 

Zech xiv 14, 49 

Eze xxvii 25, 78 ( = k Mt ii 10 ; Mc xvi 4). 
non (p.T]8ap,d)s) Eze xx 49, 40 

cf Ac x 14 d. 
non with verbs of knowing : 

non nouerunt (ovk eyvaxrav) Esai xiii 16 a , 9 
(ovk rjdeio-av) Esai xiii 16 b , 9; 
but Tyconius emphasises the distinction between 

non cognouisti (ovk i'yucos) Esai xiv 5 a , 8 and 
nesciebas (ovk fjdeis) Esai xiv 5 b , 8. 


noua nupta {vvfMprj) Esai xlix 18, 82 

cf Ap xxi 9 Cyp 85 Prms 
elsewhere sponsa, e.g. Esai lxi 10, 3. 
nugari {p.ciTaiov(rdai) Eo i 21, 84 

euanuerunt d 2 vg Habetdeus 315 Fathst ap Aug Aug 
cf euanuerunt 4 Regn xvii 15 vind. 
nunc (ap™) Ioh v 17, 61 ( = a Victn-Afer) 

ruodo e reK, adhuc 6 

[see adhuc, modo], 
obprobrium (omdur/tdr) Eze xxxvi 6, 36 ; xxxvi 30, 33 
c/ Hier xxiv 9, de Pasch Comp 259 

[see maledictum]. 
obscurare {(Tvo-Kora&iv) Mi iii 6, 74 {vb. neut.) 
tenebricare Vig 

Eze xxxii 7, 8, 44, 45 

[see tenebricare]. 
obscurus — obscura nocte {iv dcopia) 
Esai lix 9, 74 
c/intempesta nocte Ps cxviii 147 Aug 
i.e. " the dead of night," when no one knows the time; cf Fest ap Lexx. 
obtinere (<are'^eii/) 2 The ii 7, 52 

Tyconms quotes the verse for the sake of this word; on p 74 he quotes it 
with detinere 

[see detinere], 
(icpaTuv) Ps cxxxvi 9, 52 

[see continere], 
OCCidere {aTTOKTivveiv, dnoKTfii/eiv) 
Ex iv 23, 6 

Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 {Habetdeus 315) 
Mt xvi 21, 61 ( = mss exc e) 
2 Co iii 6, 21 {Tert rell) 

[see interficere], 

onerata es = e^apvv8r]s Eze xxvii 26, 78 
{suggested by Sabatier in loc. 

honorata es V [hiat R], but V* actually has honore for onere^ 63 23 . 
fiapvveiv elsewhere is always represented by [ad]grauare, yet it is most 
improbable that iSoi-do-B^s, the reading of Aquila and Theodotion 
shoidd have found its way into the text of Tyconms.) 
onerari (<pop7-i'£e<r&u) Mt xi 28, 63 {-rell). 
optimus (xp^o-^os) Eze xxviii 13, 78, 81 { = w Tert) 
bonus = xPW r °s Mt xi 30 h Cyp 2 /. z 
optimus = bonus Mc x 17, 18 bis k 

[cf pessimus], 
*orbis terrae (ij olKovp.4vrj) Esai xxiv 1, 4, 47 etc. 


in 1 Par xvi 30, 75 orbern terrae corresponds to rfjv 
olKovfj.evr]v, as in Lucian. 
*orbis terrarum ([•)] oIkov^vt)) 
Esai lxii 4, 81 etc. 
ornamentum (Koap-os) Esai xlix 18, 82 ; lxi 10, 3 

[see ornatura]. 
omatura (Koa-fxos) 

omnia ornatura caeli Esai xiii 10, 51 ex coni=nas 6 Koap-os tov ovpavov 
omnis creatura... E 
omnis ex ea rura... V 

omue ornamentum ?«418 

cf 1 Tim ii 9 d ornaturis capillorum = iv7rkeypa<rip 
[see ornamentum]. 
ostendere (8e«MWi) Ps ex 16, 3 

Esai xlviii 9, 9; liii 11, 2. 
ostensio — ostensio est duorum populorum, 28 

cf avrai yap elcriv 8vo 8iad>JKai Gal iv 24 
and haec sunt enim duo testamenta, siue duae ostensiones, sicut in- 
uenimus interpretatum Tert adv Marc v 4. 
parabola (napafidhrf) Eze xx 49, 40. 
participles : 

present participles occur over a dozen times, but are often avoided by 
construction with qui 

[see duni]. 
participle in -urus 

desolaturus Eze xxxv 14, 73 
dicturus Eze xxviii 9, 77 ( = w) 
futurus Gal iii 23, 18 

for Eze xxviii 9 see Introd p 1. 
parturitio (eZ8\i>) Esai xiii 8, 50 ( = k Mc xiii 8, Gyp Mt xxiv 8) 

(dolor rell, incl e). 
perditio (dweiXeia) Esai xiv 23, 52 

Eze xxvii 36, 46; xxviii 7, 77, 80, 19, 78, 85 

[see exterminium, interitus]. 

(npovour)) Esai xxxiii 23, 10 

[see uastatio]. 
peregrinari (napooce'iv) Ps cxix 6, 10. 
peregrinatio (TrapoiKia) Ps cxix 5, 10. 
perficere (KaraprifeH') Ps lxxix 16, 6. 
(eiriTekelv) Zech iv 9, 81. 
perflare (jbumveiv) Cant iv 16, 74. 
perire (dnoXXvpai) Esai xxiv 12, 47 ; xliii 28, 9 
Eze xxviii 10, 77, 80 

[see interire]. 
permanere— et lunae non permanebit lumen eius=<eat 77 a-eXijvr] ov dcoaei to 
(pa> s avTijs Esai xiii 10, (51). 


This is also the rendering in m.418. 
Tyc 51 has lumen etfor et lunae 

(fieivuv) 1 Ioh iii 14, 68 (=A q) 

manere rell 

perseuerare (pelveiv) Esai xiv 24, 52 

pessimus (novrjpbs) Eze xxxvi 31, 33 

[see lumen]. 

[see perseuerare]. 
[see permanere]. 

[see malus, nequam, and cf 
pinna (nrepvtj) Mai iv 2, 74 (=de Pasch Comp § 19) 

but ala Cyp 293. 
plangere ( nevdelv) Esai xxiv 4 bis, 47 

c/ Mt v 5 k Cyp, (lugere rell) 

[see lugere]. 
plangere se (KimTeo-Oai) Mt xxiv 30, 4 ( = « c/'g) 
lamentari e h Cyp 336 [exc S] 
lamentare se C?/p cod S 
plangere / vg 
concidere se b. 
plebs (Xaoy) Esai xiv 20, 71, 77 { = Habetdeus 315); xliii 8, 9 

Ro x 21, 11 ( = d 2 ); xi 2, 11 ( = d 2 vg ^#) 
elsewh. populus. 
polluere (/Se/^XoOi/) Eze xxxvi 20, 21, 22, 23 bis, 32, 33 

[see contaminare, profanare]. 
(piaiveiv) Eze xxxvi 17, 32 

[see contaminare, inquinare]. 
portare (a'ipeiv) Hier xvii 27, 62 

[see ferre, tollere]. 
(j3a(TTa£e iv) Ac xv 10, 12 ( = e 2 vg i?'e?i etc, baiulare d) 

Galv 10, 30 ( = rell). 
((pepew) Eze xxxvi 6, 36 

[see ferre], 
potare (ttotI&iv, used of human beings) 

Hier xxxii 15, 17, 53, 54 
soky 3 Cyp*/ 2 d m l> M W[hiate] 

(potum dare or dare bibere rell) 

[potionare Hier xxxii 15 Ambr = ~Mc xv 36 n ; Esai xxix 10 h m681], 
potentes (peyurraves) Hier xxv 38, 49 ; xxxii 19, 53. 
praebere aures (eVcoW£ f o-&u) Sap vi 2, 72. 
praeceptum (eVroX))) 1 Ioh ii 3, 68 ( = Cyp 546) 

NB 1 Ioh ii 3, 4 evroXas evro\as 

mandata mandata h vg A ug Lucif 

but praecepta mandata Cyp Tyc 

[see mandatum]. 


(it poo-ray pa) Eze xxxvii 24, 34 

[see imperium, iussum]. 
praeclarus (evoogos) Esai xlviii 9, 9 

c/Lc xiii 17 latt' mm e:vc a vg. 
praeripium — et per praeripia fugient corresponds to <a\ oi fiowoi ko.1 ol 8pvpo\ 

kcu KaraCpdyeTai ana ■^/vx'js ecos <jap<u)v Ka\ ecrrai o (pevycov 
for praeripia cod V has precipitia, but praeripium (-rupium) occurs in 
Tert adv Marc iv 38, and per praeripium = Kara rov Kprjpvov 
Mc v 13 e; see Ronsch, Collectanea 275. 
praesens est (eWtv rj8r]) 1 lob iv 3, 68 
...est. Iain q Aug 

[cf saluus]. 
praeualere (Kanax^ei-v, vb. neut.) Ex i 7, 55 


pressura (dXfyis) Col i 24, 6 ( = Tert A ug) 
Ap ii 10, 60. 
pressura is ' thoroughly African ' (h lxxxi) in most books, but it has dis- 
appeared from the Cypriania text of the Apocalypse: 

tribulatio = dXiyjns PrmaP/ 6) and wherever it occurs in h and Gyp, viz 
Ap i 9, h; ii 22, Gyp 640; vii 14, Gyp 131, 343 
but pressura Ap ii 22, Tert de Pud 19; vii 14, Scorp 12 

[see tribulatio]. 
primitiuus (npcoTOTOKos) Ex iv 22, 23, 6. 
princeps sacerdotum (dpxiepevs) 

Mt xvi 21, 61 (=mss exc e, which has sacerdotibus). 
prodire (etjepxevOai) 1 Ioh iv 1, 67 ( = q) 

exire w517 Lucif 261 Iren Aug vg 
' processisse ' Tert adv Marc v 16 

[see egredi]. 
proeliari (naparaao-eiv) Zech xiv 14, 49 

praetendere Tert adv Marc iii 13. 
proelium (n6\ep.os) Eccl ix 11, 79 
profanare (fitfirjkovv) Soph iii 4, 42 
contaminant Lucif mbOO 

profanare k Mt xii 5 (fiefiTjXovv) 
uiolare rell 

[see contaminare, polluere]. 
profetare (deponent imperative) 

Eze xx 46, 40; xxi 2% 41; xxxvi 6, 36; xxxvii 12, 36 
( = /«424) 
hut profetabis etc e.g. Eze xxi 2 b , 41. 
so also Am vii 15, 16 w 
Mc xiv 65 k. 
(V or Vcorr has propheta 3 /4 

so Eze xxxvii 12 Gyp 158.) 
promiscuus (o-vhhiktos) Hier xxxii 20, 24, 53 

[see comiuixtio]. 


promptuarium (rape'tov) Eze xxviii 16, 78 (=w Arnob-jun) 
proma Tert adv Marc ii 10 
cf cella proma de Res Car 27 (Esai xxvi 20) 
promptuarium Mt xxiv 26, Lc xii 3 e 

[see cubiculum]. 
prope (eyyvs) Eze xxx 3, 43 

[see proximus, iuxta]. 
propter etc 

propterea (8ia tovto) 

Mi iii 6, 74 

Esai xxiv 6 a , 47 

Eze xxi 2, 41; xxviii 6, 77, 79; (7, 79;) xxxvi 6, 36; 

xxxvii 12, 36 
Ro iv 16, 24. 
propter hoc (dvr\ tovtov) 

Eze xxviii 7, 77 (not 79). 
(8ia tovto) 

Esai xiii 7, 50 ; xxiv 6 b , 47 

[for propter quod see quod]. 
proxime (cyyvs) Eph ii 17, 18 

iuxta d. 2 
prope Ci/p 94 Tert Hil vg 

[see iuxta, prope]. 
proximus (adj.) (iyyvs) Esai xiii 6, 50 

Ioh xix 42, 59 (iuxta rell) ( = Cyp 366 Esai xiii 6) 
cf e Ioh ii 13 
prope, in proximo rell 

prudentia (o-iWtw) Esai liii 11, 2 

purgare (naOapi&iv) Esai liii 10, 2 

Hier xxxii 29, 54 

[see iuxta, prope] 
[see intellectus]. 

[see mimdare]. 

purgatio (Kadapais) Hier xxxii 29, 54. 
quando (are) Ioh v 25, 37. 

quasi (as, do-el) Esai x 17, 18, 48; xiii 8, 14, 51; lix 10 bis, 74 

Gal iii 16 bis, 27 ( = Iren vg) 

[see sicut, tamquam, uelut, 
-que — abductosque (tovs iv enayayrj) Esai xiv 17, 70, 76 

eritque (koi earai) Hier xvii 24, 62 ; xxv 39, 50. 
*quia occurs about 20 times, but it is not nearly so common as 

This tisage appears to be the same in all books of the Bible. 
[quoad usque] (ecos) 2 The ii 7, 74 ( = Ambst) 


but donee S, 52 ( = d 2 vg Tert Aug). 
quoad usque occurs 

in the Prophets Cyp 2 / 2 (Esai xxii 14 ; xlii 4) in k 7 / 10 ; 
but donee occurs in the NT Cyp 3 j 3 , viz Mt v 26, Lc xv 8 ; Ap vi 11 

[see donee], 
quod (idioms) 

eo quod (dvff av) Am i 3, 53. 

pro eo quod (dv$' wv) Ge xxii 18, 23; xxvi 5, 23. 

propter quod (dvr\ tov) Eze xxxvi 6, 36 

(dvd' av on) Eze xxxvi 34, 34 
(8ia rod) Esai lxiii 9, 10 
(evena tov) Am ill, 53 
(bio) 2 Co iv 13* 21 
but 8tb Ka\ 2 Co iv 13 b is rendered by ideoque et 
[cod R has propter quod here also with vg], 
quomodo (bvTp6rrov) Esai xiv 20, 71 [, 77] ( = Habetdeus 315); xiv 24 bis, 52 

[For the reading o/Yp 77, see Introd p 1]. 
quotquot (oo-oi) Zech xiv 12, 49 

Gal iii 10, 14 ( = d 2 Ambst) 
quotquot annis (kut iviavTbp) 
Zech xiv 16, 49 

c/JjC ii 41 KCIT €TOS 

quodquod annis e (so also Tyc 49 cod V) 
secundum tempus d 
per omnes annos a b c fff q vg. 
recumbere (avaKeio-6ai) Mt xxii 11, 83 ( = Habetdeus 314 Iren) 
discumbens rell 
but cfh Mt ix 10, Mc xiv 18. 
redigere (Sidyeiv) Eze xx 37, 35. 
redimere (nnoXvTpovv) Soph iii 1, 42. 

(Xvrpow) Esai xliv 22, 9 ; lxiii 9, 10. 
remanere (KaTaXelireo-dai.) Esai x 19, 48; xiii 12, 51 
elsewhere (e.g. Esai xiii 14, 51) relinqui 
[relinqui lob viii 9 eff\ 
reminisci (nvijo-drjvai) Eze xxxvi 31, 33 

[see commemorari], 
replere (dvTavannr'Kavai) Col i 24, 6. 

(e'/x7rt7rXai/at) Esai xxiii 18, 46, 47 

Eze xxviii 13, 78, 81 (but inpl- w) ; xxxii 4, 44 
[see implere]. 
(TTifinXdvai) Ps exxv 2, 67 

[see implere]. 
reprehensio (ptipos) Cant iv 7, 10 ( = Habetdeus 313, Ambr). 
reprobari (ddeTdv) Esai xlviii 8 bis, 9 

reprobauerunt Esai i 2 Cyp 40 cudd op^spreuerunt Cyp 40 cocl,l ,273,430) 


cf Lc vii 30 reprobauerunt e, spreuerunt rell vg 
lob xii 48 reprobat e, spemit rell vg. 
repromiSSio (enayyeXla) Gal iii 18 b , 14 

elsewh. promissio. 
requiescere facere {avcmaveiv) Mt xi 28, 63 ( = Q//)48 vitl , 183 If]/ get 3 ) 
[requiescere faciam Gyp 48 MB0 1 3 
requiescara Gyp 48 L 
requiescere /•] 
&trf reficiam sessP/ s a b rell vg /rai Hil Ambr Aug. 
resistere (aPTtiriirretv) Ac vii 51, 30 ( = e 2 vg) 
obstitistis d 

contradixistis h ( = avr[e ]i7rare apparently), 
resoluere («Ai5«i») Esai xiii 7, 50. 
respectio {iniaKonr]) Esai xxiii 17, 46. 
respicere (cnipXeirav) Ps lxxix 15, 6 

Eze xx 46, 40 ; xxi 2, 41 ; xxxvi 9, 36. 
responsum (xpr)p-ari<rnbs) Ro xi 4, 28 R 
V adds diuinum with c/ 2 am 
[diuinum responsum vg clem ], 
restaurare (dvaKecpaXaiovo-dai) Epb i 10, 18 {-d- 2 Ambst) 
recapitulare Tert adv Marc v 17 Iren 3 / 3 
ad caput reciprocare Tert de Monog 
instaurare Aug vg. 
reuerti (anoa-Tpefao-dat) Ge xv 16, 61 

(evrpento-dai) Eze xxxvi 32, 33- 
{iTTHTTpffacrdai) Lc xvii 31, 66 ( = « e) 

conuertatur d 

redentbfi cfq vg 

[see coiiuei'ti {and auertere)]. 

[see conuerti]. 

rigari (noTi^o-Oat) Eze xxxii 6, 44 

so 1 Co iii 7, 8 latt. 
riuus ((papay$) Eze xxxvi 6, 36 

so Esai xxxv 6 Gypll ; xl 4 Cyp69 

[see uepres], 
ruina (mwis) Eze xxvi 15, 18, 45 (=h w); xxvii 27, 45; xxxii 10 bis, 

44, 45 

[see strages], 
sacramentum (/ii/o-rrjpioi>) Eph v 32, 7 ( = Tert Gyp d 2 vg Aug Ambr) 
mysterium Iren Ambst 

[see mysterium], 
saeculum (ywea) Ex i 6, 55 

Ps civ 8, 60 (=* Mc xiii 30) 

[see generatio]. 
(naipos) Mc x 30, Lc xviii 30, 59 ( = k Mc x 30) 



(terupus Cyp i / i rell). 
(ala>v) Esai lxiii 9, 10 

in saeculum (a's rbv alava) 

Eze xxxvii 25, 26, 28, 35 

Sagitta (ro^evfia) Eze xxxix 3, 74 

Sagittatio (ro^evfia) Esai xiii 18, 52 

saluari (o-cofeo-flat) Ro xi 26, 34 

Saluatus (a-eawcrpivos) 

Eph ii 8, 20. 
saluatio (o-arripia) 2 Co vi 2, 60 (salus rell) 

SalUS {(TtoTrjpia) 

Esai xlix 6, 38 

[see aeternuni]. 
[see sagittatio], 
[see sagitta], 
[see liberari], 

[see salus], 
[see saluatio]. 

salutare (ro awTijpwv) Ps ex 16, 3. 

saluus — reliquiae... saluae factae sxvat=Xififia...yeyovev Ro xi 5, 28 
saluae] Tyc Aug Ambst vg cleni ; om d 2 am 

[cf praeseus], 
sanctimonia (dyiao-pos) 1 Co i 30, 20 

sauctificatio r d 2 vg Uil Ambr Aug. 
SanctitaS (dyicoavvT)) Ro i 4, 6 

for scitatis R, we find scificationis Y=Iren Hil d 2 Vg 
butcfl Theiii 13 d 2 \g. 
Sanctus, sancte (dyvos, ayvms) 2 Co xi 2, 5 { = Habetdeus 313) 
Phil i 17, 69 ( = d. 2 ) 
caste r Atig, sincere vg 

but CastuS (ayi/os) 

Prov xx 9, 20. 
sanitas (Wis) Mai iv 2, 74 

but curatio Cyp293 de Pasch Comp 266. 
sapientia ((ppoprjo-is) Sap viii 21, 20 

Eze xxviii 4, 77, 79. 
*(aocpia.) e.g. Hier ix 23, 79. 
{(iriarTrjp.ri) Eze xxviii 3, 77, 79 

[see doctrina], 
satiare (epLmnXdvai) Eze xxvii 25, 78 ; xxvii 33, 46 ; xxxii 5, 44 

[see implere, replere, satu- 
saturare (\dvai) Eze xxxii 4, 44 

[see satiare], 
scelestus (avop,os) Esai xiii 12, 51 (iniquus m418). 
in Isaiah facinerosus = avop,os 


Esai liii 12, lv 7 Cyp 
lxvi 3 Habetdeus 
but sceleratus Eze xviii 20 Cyp 645 
Lc xxii 37 b 

[see iniquus]. 
scientia (eVio-T-^) Eze xxviii 4 a , 5, 79 ; xxviii 7, 80 ; xxviii 17, 83 

substituted by Tyconius for doctrina in repeating his continuous quotation 
of 'Eze xxviii 2 — 19. 

[see doctrina and Introd 
p xlvii], 
sedes (d P 6uos) Esai xiv 13, 70, 71, 72 ( = Cyp) 

Hier xvii 25, 62, 63 ; xxv 38, 49 
Eze xxvi 16, 45 ( = h w). 

8p6vos = sedes Esai xiv 13 Cyp 669 

= thronus Esai lxvi 1 Cyp 76, 117 (perh. 
influenced by Ac vii 49). 
In the NT and Psalms thronus is predominantly African, exc Lc i 52. 

[see thronus]. 
seducere (nXavav) Mt xxiv 4, 5 ( = mss) 

but fallere Cyp 365. 
senior (npco-fivs) Esai lxiii 9, 9 ( = Cyp 72 Iren) 

but legatus Tert ado Marc iv 22 ; de Car Chr 14 
Hier 100 
Vig% _ 
nnntius Priscillian 31 

[see legatus], 
sermo (\6yos) Am i 1, 53 

Hier iii 12, 75 

Eze xx 45, 40; xxi 1, 40; xxviii 11, [78,] 80; xxxvi 

16, 32 
Ro ix 6, 27 (uerbuni d 2 vg Aug) 

[see uerbum], 
si qui (oItivcs) Esai xiii 15, 51. 

sicera {aUepa) Esai xxiv 9, 47. 

sicut (ov rpoiTov) Esai xiv 20, 77 {cod V) 

[see quomodo]. 
(icaBa) Ies Naue vii 25, 39. 

(KcidiTrep) 1 Co xii 12, 6 (=rett) 

2 Co iii 18, 21 ( = IIil Ambr, tamquam rell). 
{ K ada>s) Hier xvii 22, 62 

1 Ion ii 18, 5 
Eo xi 26, 34. 

(Kara to yeyp. = sicut scriptum est) 

2 Coiv 13, 21 ( = rell). 

(<5<rnep) Ioh v 26, 37 ( = Tert rell, quomodo e) 


Gal iv 29, 30 ( = d 2 , quomodo vg) 
*(<os) more than 20 times in all booh 

[see quasi, tamquam, uelut, 
Signaculum (imo(rqbpayi(Tp.a) Eze xxviii 12, 78, 80 ( — m6~5) 
consiguatio w Arnob-jun; 
both probably dt rived from 

resignaculum Tert adv Marc ii 10 

cocld known to Hieron. 
cf Hier xxii 24 signaculum Iren 
significationem /*. 
(cr(ppay\s) Ag ii 24, 81. 


simul crescere (crvvav^dv(adai) Mt xiii 30, 29 = d chad. 
simulacrum (etStoXov) Eze xxxvi 25, 33 ; xxxvii 23, 34 
1 Ioh v 21, 70 (idolum q Tert) 

[see idolum]. 
sine ( = d- privative) 

sine aqua (awSpos) Ioel ii 20, 73 
Soph ii 13, 42 
[inaquosus Cyp Esai (xli 19,) xliii 20, k Mt xii 43], 

sine macula (a/zw/ioy) Eze xxviii 15, 78, 83 [=v>] 
[inuituperabilis Tert adv Marc ii 10]. 

sine querella (dp.ep.trros) Lc i 6, 13 ; Phil iii 6, 12 [ = relT\. 
but c/ insanabilis (dviaros) 

(aurum) quod non tetegit ignem (to airvpov). 
species (koXXos-) Esai lxii 3, SL=Cjgp 77 sic (Esai liii 2) 

[see decor], 
speciosus (ko\os) Cant iv 7, 10 

/caAor = decorus Cant i 5, 10 bis. 
spiritu elatus (TrvevpaTocpopos) Soph iii 4, 42 

[spiritalis 2/ucif], 
splendor (\an7njvr) vid) Esai lxvi 20, 63. 
stella (ao-rrjp) Ge xxvi 4, 23 

Esai xiii 10, 51 ; xiv 13, 70, 71, 72 
Ap ii 28, xxii 16, 71 

Abd 4, 72 ( = ao-Tpa>v, but N* has dorepcov) 
[see astruni]. 
Strages {irrSxris) Zech xiv 12, 15 bis, 49 

[see ruina]. 
Studia, -Omm (e'-m^ev/iaTa) Os xii 2, 28 

[see cogitationes], 
stupere (tgio-ravm) Eze xxvi 16, 45 ( = ?'•): tsxvH 35, 46 ; xxxii 10, 44. 
stupor — in stupore mentis (eieo-rao-ei) 

Eze xxvi 16, 45 (=h w) 

[cf mentis alienatione]. 


sub with ace. 

sub uirgam meam = i;7ro ttjv pd/3Soi/ p.ov 
Eze xx 37, 35 
(sub uirga rnea V). 
subditus (vttoBikos) Ro iii 19, 12. 
(vTToxelpios) Esai lviii 3, 76 
Baruch ii 4 ger 
but Cypl08 has subiectos in quoting Esai lviii 3. 
SUbiectUS esse (vnoTuainadat) Ro viii 7, 16. 
subintrare (irapei(repxe<r6ai) Ro v 20, 13, also 18 codV (=re!l) 

[see subintroire], 
SUbintroire (irapei<T(px«T0ai) Ro v 20, 18 
subintrare veil and p 13 
introire and its compounds are characteristically African 

[see subintrare], 
subsolanus (a7rr]\i<6TT}s) Hier xxxii 26, 53 

Eze xx 47, 40 ; xxi 4, 41. 
substantia (ra inrapxopra) Mt XXV 14, 61, 84 ( = dfHil) 

cf facilitates 82 31 

and 0. L. Bibl. Texts n 135, where we may add to Lc xii 15 res uestras 
succendere (dvairreiv) Bier xvii 27, 62 

(eiacaveiv) Eze xx 48, 40. 
superari (rjTTdo-Oai) Esai xiii 15, 52 

SUperducere (inayeiv) Gen xviii 19, 24 
Esai xlviii 9, 9 
Hier xxv 36, 37, 49. 

superinponere (nepiTidepat) Esai xlix 18, 82. 

superlatives (for positives) 

[see incendere]. 
[see minorari]. 

[see optimus, pessimus, pro- 

surgere (dvio-Tavai) Hier xxxii 27, 54. 
suscitare (olKotofielp, but c/Mc xiii 2, xiv 58 D) 

Mt xxvii 40, 75. 
sustinere {piveiv and wroneveip) Esai lix 9 bis, 74. 
tactus (d<pr)) 2 Regn vii 14, 37 (actibus/or tactibus RV) 

Eph iv 16, Col ii 19, 3. 
tamquam (©s) Eze xxviii 2, 77, 79 ( = w) 

1 Pet ii 5, 83 {=Aug Fulg Priscil68 vg) 

1 Co iv 7, 79 (quasi Cypl\6 rell). 
In Eze xxviii 6, where there is the same phrase in the Greek as in ver 2, 
both w and Tyc have sicut/br &>$•. 


[quasi 1 Pet ii 5 11 if] 

[see quasi, sicnt, uelut, nt], 
tantum (-rrXaaluv) Ps lxvii 18, 60 

Mc x 30, 59 ( = MSB exc /■) 
Lc xviii 30, 59 ( = Cyp rett). 
tenebrescere {(tkotu^iv) Esai xiii 10, 51 

[see obscurare], 
tenebricare (owKoraf«i») Am viii 9, 74 (tenebricabit) = ' Tert'' adv hid $ 13 

(Cyp Mt xxiv 29 (trKOTifciv) 
k Mc xiii 24 (<tkotL((iv) 
Vig Mi iii 6 (trv(ricoTi£eiv). 
In Am viii 9 R has tenebriscauit ; other renderings are 
contenebrescet w 

conteuebrabit Tert adv Man' iv 41 
tenebrescet ' Tert' adv Iud § 10 
obtenebrabitur Cyp 91. 
cf contenebricauit (o-ueeo-KOTaa-ei') 3 Regn xviii 45 Lucif 

[see obscurare], 
thronus {Bpcvos) 2 Regn vii 13, 10, 37 

[see sedes]. 
timere ((boftc'iafru) Esai xiii 2, 50 

Eze xxvi 16, 18, 45 (=A w) ; xxvii 28, 45 
1 Ioh iv 18, 25 ( = Tert 2 / 2 reft) 

[see metuere], 
titulus (o-Trjkr)) Esai xix 19, 43. 

tollere (aip«v) Esai xiii 2, 50 ; xxxiii 23, 10 

Hier xvii 21, 62 
Lc xvii 31, 69 (=rett) 

[see auferre, extollere, tollere]. 
totus (ttch) Eze xxxvi 10, 36 

so k Mt ii 3, iii 5 ; Mc xi 18: ehewh. omnis or uniuersus. 
transgressio (napaftao-is) Ro iv 15, 24 

praeuaricatio d., vg Aug. 
transire, vb. neut. (npoKOTrTeiv) Ro xiii 12, 57 { = Cyp 425) 

praecessere d, 2 vg A ug A m br. 
transmigratio (rrapoiKto-la) Eze xx 38, 35 

incolatus >«455. 
tribulatio (OXfyis) Ps xc 15, 3 

[see pressura]. 
triticum ((riros) Eze xxxvi 29, 33 (=Hier xxiii 28 h Cyp 715) 

Mt xiii 25, 29, 30 MSS iucl e (not h) 
Lc xxii 31 Cyp 288, 499 rell ; 
but frumentum 

Agi 11 Cyp 355 

Hier xxiii 28 Habetdeus 314 

B. It 


Mt xiii 25, 29, 30 k 
Lc iii 17 e, 
tumultus (rapaxv) Eze xxx 4, 43 

[c/'Mc xiii 8 + et tnrbelae q], 
uagulari (pe/i/3eu«i>) Esai xxiii 16, 46. 

uagulari is apparently ana£ Atyojueiw. pefifteveiv does not again 
occur in the Greek Bible. 
ualere (Ivxvetv) Ex i 9, 55. 

(eviaxvav) Esai xxxiii 23, 10 

[see inualere], 
uastare (8ia<nr(ipeiv) Esai xxiv 1, 47. 

{npovoyavfLv) Esai x 13, 75 ; xxiv 3, 47. 
uastatio (Vpv/xwo-is-) Mt xxiv 15, 5 ( = e Cyp 335) 
' desolutionis ' /■ Mc xiii 14 

[see desolatio and abomi- 
(irpovopri) Esai xxiv 3, 47 
Eze xxxvi 5, 36 

[see perditio]. 
uelut (as) Ps cxiii 4 bis, 73 ; cxxv 1, 67 

Esai x 14 bis, 75 ; xiv 19, 70, 76 ; xxiii 15, 46 ; xliv 22", 9 
[see quasi, sicut, tamquam, 
uepres ((papayg) Eze xxxii G, 44 

[see riuus]. 
uerbum (Xo-yos-) Esai i 10, 50 

Hier xvii 20, 62 
Eze xx 47, 40 

Ioh i 14, 7, 68 ; v 24, 36 (sermonem e) 
[see sermo]. 
(prjp-ci) Esai xiii 16, 9. 

uestis (ip.aTi(Tfios) Zecb xiv 14, 49. 
uestitus (ZvSvfia) Mt xxii 11, 83 

uestem or uestimentuni rell. 

uestitus =ep8vfia e.g. Mt iii 4, vi 28, vii 15 k ; xxviii 3 e. 
uexare (kukovv) Hiei- xxxii 29, 54 

cf Ps xciii 5, cv 32, cvi 39 lat vt " v e (not hoh ). 
Uincere (KtiTiaxvetv with gen) 

Mt xvi 18, 63 ( = « e corb %> 2 / s Opt Aug 3 ^) 
praeualere rell 

[cf praeualere |. 
(vittav) Ap ii 26, 71 (=rell). 

uindicator (eKt)iia)Ti)s) Ps viii 3, 76 

(cm. \ey. in LXX) 
'nonnulli codices defensorem habent, sed uerius uindicatorem ' 
Aug loc , 


uires (tV^iV) Zech xiv 14, 49 

cf k, xciii 

[see fortitudo, uirtus], 
uirtus * (SiW^uj, passim). 

(ftvvao-Tcla) Sap vi 3, 72. 
(tV^ir) Eze xxxii 12 6*8, 44 

[see fortitudo, uires], 
ultra (en iii ihijutiro sentences) 

Eze xx 48, 40 ; xxi 5, 41 ; xxvii 3G, 46 ; xxxii 13, 45 ; 
xxxvi 30, 33; xxxvii 22 bis, 34 

[see iam, adhuc], 
unguentum (apco/ui) Cant iv 1G, 74. 
uocem dare (dxZvfiv, used of a biroVs ay) 
Soph ii 14, 42 
(cantare is used of the cock-croio in all MSB of the Gospels). 
ut (o5y) Soph iii 3 6is, 42 

Bo i 21, 84 (-Hahetdeus 315) 

[see quasi, sicut, tamquam, 

On the whole I believe the list bears out the conclusions 
which seemed to be indicated by direct comparison with 
Cyprian. Characteristic ' African ' words are found in all parts of 
the Bible, words which can hardly be paralleled among O. Latin 
authorities outside k e or Cyprian himself 1 . Moreover there are 
several instances of strange or irregular readings, which prove on 
reference to be no inaccuracies of Tyconius, but true peculiarities 
of the Cyprianic version 2 . Indeed the use of pressura in the 
Apocalypse for 0Xiyfri<i (= Tert), of the deponent imperative in 
profetare (= A), and of saeculum for /caipbs in Mc x 30 (= k) seems 
to be a survival of a yet earlier stage of the African Latin. On 
the other hand there are not a few renderings which mark a stage 
in the African text later than Cyprian 3 . 

1 E.g. animatio, decenter, deformatio, facinus admittere, 'die ( = art.), imber, in- 
dignatio (Ovfibs), parturitio, potare, proximus (^us), quotquot annis; we may add 
to these the marked preference for iste, quoniam, and the avoidance of adpropiare, 
epulari, furor, ibi, improperare and a longe. 

2 Seead<?sse, arbor, animus, cauere, emittere, expirare, imperium, lux, mandatum- 
praeceptum, plebs, and requiescere facere. 

'•'' E.g. erat (fy) for 'fait,' euangelizare for ' adnuntiare,' pinna for ' ala,' plangere 
se for ' lamentari,' princeps sacerdotum for 'pontifex,' sanitas for 'curatio,' seducere 
for ' fallere,' sine ( = d- privative), tantum for ' -plicia,' and the constant insertion of 
the copula where not expressed in the Greek. 

h 2 



The only point to which I here wish to draw attention is the 
differing nsage in the various books. There are certain words, 
among which are several of the most marked ' African ' expres- 
sions, which are only found in certain parts of the Bible. The 
following list contains the most noteworthy examples ; it will be 
noticed that the distinction is most marked between Isaiah and 

adhuc (ft-t) Soph l l x Eze 1 ^ 

altus (vyj^t}\6s) EsaPJi 

claritas (86£a)Esai 2 / 3 lok 1 ^ (? 2 CorVi) 

magnificare (Sofafeje) Esai 1 ^ -Ro ] / 1 
colligere (o-wayeiv) Zech 1 ^ Esai G / 6 
farinas (avopia) Esai 2 j. 2 2 T/ies 1 ^ 

scelestus (dvopos) Esai 1 ^ 
felix (pampios) Ps 1 / l 
fortitudo (l<rxvs) Esai 2 / 2 
iniuria (vfipts) Esa^/ 2 

inquinare (pialveip) Esai l /\ 

introire (elo-tpxeo-dai) Ps 1 /, Esai v / X 

lumen (cp<Z s ) Sap l / 1 Am 1 / X Esai-'/ 7 

Eze 1 / X 2 Cor^ 
maledictum (<WiSto-/xos) Esai 1 / X 
pressura (jSKfyts) Col 1 ^ Ap 1 / 1 
purgare (KaOaplfciv) Esai 1 j x ffier 1 ', 
sagittatio (Ta^tvpa) Esai l j x 
species (ccaXXos) Esai 1 / l 

ultra Eze 7 j s 

excelsus Eze 2 / 2 

gloria Esai l / 3 (? 2 Cor 1 / J 

glorificare Ps J /i (^ )fl "Vi) 
congregare Eze 2 /., 
iniquitas Eze 3 / 3 

iniquus Eze 1 \ x 
beatus Mt x j x Ioh l j x 
uirtus Eze 2 / 2 , uirea Zee// 1 , 
contumelia Ezc 1 ^ 
fcontaminare Eze x / 2 
/polluere Eze x / 2 
intrare Gen 1 / X Hier 1 ^ Eze 1 / X Ro x ! x 

lux Esai 2 J 7 Lc x / X (=rell) 

1 Ioh 1 /, (=Cyp) 
obprobrium Eze i j. i 
tribulatio Ps x j x 
mundare Eze 3 / 3 
sagitta Eze 1 /! 
decor EzeP/ & 

Thus there are at least twelve marked differences between the 
vocabulary of Tyconius' text of Isaiah and that of Ezekiel. This 
can be explained in two ways : either the original translations 
were independent, or the books of the African Bible suffered 
independent revision. Unfortunately there is but little extant 
testimony to decide this most interesting question. The fragments 
of the Weingarten MS (w), which agree so strikingly with the text 
of Tyconius in Ezekiel, contain no verses from Isaiah, and the 
quotations from Ezekiel in Cyprian amount only to twenty-three 
verses. The single piece of direct evidence relates to the 
rendering of avofiia, which appears in Tyconius as 'facinus' in 
Isaiah but 'iniquitas' in Ezekiel. 'Facinus' is also the word 


used by Cyprian in Isaiah, while in his quotation of Eze ix 4 we 
find 'iniquitas' {Cyp 90, 367); on the other hand 'facinus' is 
used in the same verse by 'Tert' adv Iud§ 11 (Oehler ii 732) 1 . 
S. Cyprian therefore agrees with Tyconius, but the compiler of 
adv Tud retains what seems to be the older rendering. If then 
we might generalise from this single instance, it would seem that 
the difference of usage in the text of Tyconius was the result of 
partial revision of the African Bible anterior to S. Cyprian. 

IX. Selected Headings. 

The quotations of Tyconius are mainly useful to the Biblical 
critic for the study of the Latin versions and their history, but 
there are parts of the Latin Old Testament where Tyconius is an 
important witness to the text of the LXX. His exegetical method 
led him often to quote passages untouched by other writers, while 
the isolation of his position as a Donatist, an African schismatic, 
helped to preserve the Biblical text he used from emendation 
from the Greek. It is most important to remember, before discuss- 
ing readings offered by Tyconius, that there is always a very 
considerable probability that any reading attested by him was 
derived from a text which had not been influenced by the Greek 
since the middle of the second century. In dealing with Tyconius' 
text we are antecedent to the Hexapla, antecedent to the Decian 
Persecution. Such a line of transmission may preserve genuine 
readings independent of all our Greek MSS. In a word, the textual 
genealogy renders it not absolutely impossible that the Latin 
Version, and therefore sometimes Tyconius as representing the 
Latin Version, may be right where all other authorities have gone 

The following ten passages have been selected to shew what 
help the Old Latin sometimes affords us in the criticism of the 
text of the LXX, with special reference to the evidence of Tyco- 

1 See above p lxviii. 


1. Examples of spurious additions to the LXX, found in most 
MSS, but rejected by a small group including B Tyc. 

Esai xxiv 5 

i]Wa%av rd 7r p oa tc'ij jxara 8ia0>']ia)v aiwviov B al p cop 
Hieron Tyc4i7 

TrpoaTay/uLaTo] + kv A + P-ov 301 

+ Biecr/ceSacre 62-147 
+ Siea/ceSaaav X 198 22-36-48-51- 
Siea/ceSaaav is added under * in Q, but the word is 
rendered without remark in Syr-Hex. 

The MS 198 is the same as 33 of the Gospels. The group 
22-... -308 includes all the MSS assigned by Dr Field to the 
Lucianic recension 1 . The MSS 62-147 contain Lucianic readings, 
but their singular element is often akin to the Old Latin. 

Eze xxx 3 

rjpepa 7repa? iOvwv earai B cop sah Tyc4>3 
Tjp-epa] om 106 

+ v€(f>e\r)<; MSS Hieron 
In the Hexapla ve<pe\r)<; is added under * by 87 Syr-Hex 

Thus here our Hexaplar authorities assert that ve<pe\i)<; is an 
addition, but B is alone among Greek MSS in omitting it. It is 
found even in S. Jerome, who in his translations from the LXX in 
the Prophets is generally very faithful to the Vatican text. 

2. Examples of spurious additions to the LXX, found in B, 
but rejected by other authorities including Tyconius. 

Esai xxix 13 

eyyi^et p,oi 6 Xaos ovtos rots" ^ecXeaip avroiv Tip.wcriv p,e XA 26 
49 h sah lust Tryph TycH 

rots yetXecriv] pr kcli ev 301 

pi- ev (or e sil) 87 91 97 198 306 
(X has puov for p,oi and npLovaiv for Ttpwatv) 

1 Field, Hexapla lxxxviii. Where all or most of these mss agree I shall quote 
them under the sign \. 


o \ao<i outo?] + ev to) aTo/xarc avrov kcli ev B A. 62-147(<wn 
ev bis) cop(om /cat) Orig" 492 Hieron 

The words ev ru> aro^iart avrov are in the Hexapla under asterisk 
(•*■). The words used by Tyconius are: " non cognouisti autem 
illi dicitur qui... Deo labiis adpropiuquet, corde tamen longe 
separatus sit." It is evident that the text of Tyconius contained 
eyy i^et, but as that word is construed with rot? %ei\ecrtv the 
addition ev to> o-ro^aTi ktX could not have been there. Tyc 
therefore supports NA It lust. No punctuation is given to XA h, 
but in the Sabidic rots ^elXecnv is joined with ti/jlcvctiv, which 
seems preferable to the division adopted by Tyconius. 

Dr Hatch (Essays in Biblical Greek pp 177 — 179) tries to 
prove the existence of a still shorter form of the text in Isaiah, 
a form in fact identical with Mt xv8 = Mk vii G, in which iyyl£ei 
fjboi is wanting. But the theory rests on Patristic authority only, 
and in such cases it is often difficult to tell whether a Father 
is not quoting the Prophet through the medium of the Gospel. 
In the case of S. Cyprian this is certainly what has happened. 
He quotes the words in the same form three times (Hartel 712 
736 and 801), the last place being the clearest and fullest. He 
there says : " Sicut per Esaiam prophetam clamat et dicit Pojmlus 
iste labiis honorificant me, cor aero eorwm. . .doctrinas hominum 
docentes. item Dominus in euaogelio increpans similiter et 
obiurgans ponit et dicit Reicitis mandatum Dei, ut traditionem 
aestram statuatis." The last line is Mk vii 9 as quoted else- 
where by S. Cyprian 3 / 3 , and seeiug that the Gospel passage was 
in his mind it seems more reasonable to refer the whole quotation 
to S. Mark (with the text of which it agrees literally), than to 
postulate a direct reference to Isaiah. The fact that the prophet 
is distinctly mentioned does not militate against this view, since 
in the Gospel also Isaiah's name is prominently brought forward. 

But if the passages in S. Cyprian are references to the Gospel, 
the evidence for an early African shorter recension of the verse 
breaks down, and we cau put in its place the form found in the 
quotation from Tyconius, which supports the reading of KA sah 
and h (the fifth century Latin Palimpsest of the Prophets at 


Esai xlix 18 

Zw ey&), Xeyei Kiipwi, on irdvra^ avrovi evhvcnj XA 26 49 
86 198 239 306 (106 -<rei) cop Tyc82 'Aug ' de Vnit Eccl 
evhvorj] pr &)<? koct/xov B al Hieron 

+ &><? cttoXtjv A 62-147 Ambr 
+ <w? koct/jlov 23 
Here again B Hieron are convicted of false addition, the words 
being under asterisk in the Hexapla 1 . 

3. Examples of corrupt readings which are found in all extant 
Greek mss of the lxx, but not in the Old Latin. 

Eze xxviii 7 

/ecu Tpuxxovatv to tcaWos crov els diroiXeiav w Tycl*l cop sah- 
rpcoaovaiv] arpcoaovacv MSS Hieron (humiliabunt) 

The Hebrew is M/pM*, which might be translated ical /3e(3i]- 
Xwaovat (as Theodotion and most other interpreters), or rpwaovau 
(as Tyconius, who has uidnerabunt), but never arpooaovaiv. The 
Vulgate has polluent agreeing with Theodotion. The corruption 
of Tpwcrovcriv to arpwcrovaiv was easy. 

The expression " they shall wound thy beauty " is very harsh, 
but for that reason all the more certainly the genuine rendering 
of the LXX, since it is a literal translation of the Hebrew original. 
Nevertheless rpcoo-ovcnv has disappeared from all our Greek 
MSS, a fact which tends to shew that in some books at least of 
the Bible they all have a common element later than the chief 

Eze xxxvi 8 

6 \ao<i pov on iyyl^ouo-Lv rov e\0eli> Ti/cSii m660 
eyyt^ovaiv] eXirt^ovaLv MSS cop 

The Hebrew is K12? }y*\p ''D, so that it is evident that the 

1 In the latter half of the same verse Tyc reads ws k6<t/hou vv/j.rpi]s with NA and 
almost all other authorities including Hieron, but 13 23 have ws koct/xov ws vvixcprj. I 
believe B to have a worse text in Isaiah than in the rest of the Prophets; the read- 
ings given above are comparable to the Western element in the Pauline Epistles 
(Hort, Introd § 204). 

3 The Sahidic is ncckconc; for the rendering compare lob xxxiii 23, Prov vii 
26 in the same version. 


reading of the Mss eAnizoyciN is a corruption of ernzoyciN, 
as in fact Schleusner conjectured in the last century 1 . Here two 
points are worthy of notice: — (i) Tycouius and the Speculum 
stand alone against all extant LXX authority in supporting the 
true reading iyy[£ov<riv-; (ii) Tyconius and the Speculum do not 
agree literally in their Latinity. The renderings run as follow : 

populus meus, qui adpropinquat uenire TycSii 
populus meus, qui adpropriant uenire m6 60 

Possibly qui stands in the place of an original quia (Cod V* of 
Tyconius actually reads quiapropinquat), and the singular verb 
in Tyc looks like a correction caused by ' populus.' But adpro- 
p{r)iare° is a word not used in the earlier African text {k Gyp), 
and is therefore a correction in m. The circumstance is worth 
noting, as illustrating what has been said before, that the ex- 
tensive variations from earlier African authorities found in m do 
not seem to have arisen through revision from the Greek. 

Esai xiv 13, Stellas Dei ((7y^6G9 Tyc70) as a rendering of 
ru>v darepcov tov ovpavov (Gk mss cop Ambr Any Hieron) has 
been noticed in the preceding section 4 . Here again the African 
Latin agrees with the undoubtedly genuine Hebrew text against 
the other LXX authorities. 

4. In the preceding examples Tyconius has been the constant 
member in a small group which has preserved the true text of 
the LXX in places where the mass of authorities have trans- 
mitted a corruption. I shall now give some examples of readings 
where, owing to the defective state of the African Latin evidence, 
Tyconius stands almost or quite alone in witnessing to the true 

Ps lxxix 16 

/cal fcaTapTtcrai aurijv i)v e<pVTevaev ?) 8e£ui crov, 
tcai €7rl viov [iivOpwirov ov\ etcparaicoaas aeaurw. 

1 Schleusner, Novus Thesaurus philologico-criticus, quoted by Cornill, p. 112. 
- The Sahidic (Ciasca 299) is unfortunately wanting. The Coptic [Tattam 190) 
has: "for they hope (ceep^eArric) to come to this place." 

3 For the spelling of adpropiare see Lc x 34 in Bp Wordsworth's Vulgate, Clem. 
(id Cor 25 (lat), etc. 

4 p lix. 


The words in brackets are omitted by Tyconius 6. 

It will be convenient to divide the discussion into two parts. 

i. The original reading of Tyconius and the Old Latin. 
ii. The original reading of the Lxx. 
i. The text of Tyconius on p 6 is 

et perfice earn quam plantauit dextera tua 

et in filium couroborasti tibi. 

This is the reading of cod R. In cod V the last line is 

et filium hominis quern confirmasti tibi. 

The Monza Epitome (M) as usual abridges the quotation, reading 

"uineam de egypto et ct usque filium hominis quern 
confirmasti tibi." 

Now the reading of VM only differs from the reading of the 
ordinary Psalters by omitting 'super' before "filium hominis." The 
reading of R on the other hand is not that of any of the common 
texts, and it approves itself as African by the word ' conroborare ' 
for the more usual ' confirmare.' ' Conroborare ' has found a place 
elsewhere three times in the Psalms in various texts 1 , but its 
true character is best seen from the readings in Lc i 80, ii 20, 
the only places where KparaiovaOai occurs in the Gospels. Here 
e has ' corroborare ' in each place, while other texts have ' con- 
fer tare' or 'confirmare'' 2 . 

But the reading of R as the genuine text of Tyconius, and 
therefore also of the African Latin, is supported by two pieces 
of negative evidence. The half verse et [in] filium.. .tibi is 
omitted by the S. Germain Psalter (the text printed by Sabatier 
as his chief authority), and a quotation of Ps lxxix 9 — 16 in 
m 642, 643 breaks off at quam plantauit dextera tua. Thus we 
have (1) the common text of ver. 16 h , a smooth inoffeusive reading; 
(2) two authorities for omission, one in a continuous text, the 
other a judicious 'non-quotation'; (3) the reading of cod R, 
which is harsh. Does it not seem likely that (3) is the original 
form of the version ? 

1 Ps cii 11 (vg), Ps civ 4 (codd. known to Aug) ; Ps cxli 7 (Aug Proep). 

• 'Corroborare' also occurs Eph iii 16 vg, but no African evidence is bere extant. 


ii. When wo apply the reading et in filiuiii conroborasti tibi 
to the criticism of the lxx text, the first point to notice is 
that the construction which made a possible sense in Latin is 
impossible in the Greek. The sense cannot be "...the Vine which 
thy right hand planted and made strong for thyself into a son," 
for the Greek is eVt vlov not elf vlov. In other words the Greek 
which underlies the quotation of Tyconius was almost impossible 
to construe, and consequently invited emendation. It is not till 
we refer back to the Hebrew that we get any light. It runs thus: 

■pw nyDi tok n:oi 
-]S nnxax p tyi 

Whatever the true interpretation of this very difficult passage 
may be, there can be little doubt that here our present Hebrew 
text is the parent of the lxx. When we find that the best 
text of the Old Latin agrees verbally in an unintelligent word- 
for-word rendering of the Hebrew, it is difficult to avoid believing 
that the avOpwirov ov of the common text is an interpolation from 
the similar words in ver. 18, inserted to make some kind of sense. 
How close and how unintelligent this translation was may be 
best seen by comparing the Hebrew and the Latin word for word. 
Nothing but the influence of the original Hebrew, as expressed 
through two faithful unintelligent translations, explains the omis- 
sion of the relative before ' conroborasti.' We can scarcely suppose 
Tyconius would or could have emended his Latin Psalter from the 
Hebrew directly ; his text therefore must have come through the 
Greek LXX in a purer form than survives to-day in our MSS. 

If this view of the passage be accepted, it is important to 
notice that the bizarre spectacle of the reading of a single 9th 
century Latin patristic MS preferred to all other lxx authorities is 
quite justifiable from a genealogical point of view. Cod R is the 
best MS of Tyconius, our other authorities for his text having been 
corrupted in this passage from the Vulgate ; Tyconius is in this 
place the only representative of the African version, our other 
authorities being absent, or omitting the half verse ; the African 
version is our oldest direct authority for the LXX, and it has 
been several times proved to be right when the best Greek MSS 
have gone wrong. 


Esai xiii 3 

The MSS of the LXX vary so much in this verse that it will be 
convenient to quote at once the Hebrew as it stands in the 
Massoretic text as a sort of standard. 

Trtx:i *rSy ^xh *TDa 

The MSS of the LXX fall into two groups 

a includes A, and 62-147 

/3 includes B* cop sah Hieron and tfAB nig . 

It will be convenient to take the half verses separately, 
the division being after Wlp, as in all LXX texts, not after 

W^pu? as in the Massoretic punctuation. 

The readings after eya) crvvrdacrco, which begins the verse in 
all authorities except 62-147 (which have eytb avvreXicro)) are: — 

a. yjyiaa/Aevoi elcriv teal iyco ayco auiom' ^ 62-147 

(3. teal eyw ayco avrovs' B* cop sah Hieron 
tcai e<yw\ om e<yoi sah 1 

/8 2 . teal iy<o aja avrovs' i]yiaa/j.evoi elcriv' teal e<ya> ayw 
avTovs NAB"'" Syr Hex al. 

A comparison of a, (3 and f3 2 with the Hebrew will I think 
shew the general superiority of a. It has equivalents, though 
they are unintelligent, for each Hebrew word in its proper order : 
at the same time if this equivalence had been reached by 
emendation from the Hebrew we should have expected avrovs to 
disappear; and, further, iyoo ayco is scarcely a translation to '•HiOp* 
"I have called." 

/3 differs from a by dropping the awkward clause rjytacrfievoi 
elcrii>, which hangs in the air ; while the most natural explanation 
of & is that it is an unsuccessful attempt to emend /3 by a. a 
in fact has been added to /3. It is of course conceivable that (3 
has been derived from #, by homoeoteleutou, but in that case it is 
very difficult to explain how /3. 2 ever came into existence. It 

1 The Bodleian ms of the Sahidic (D) gives the reading /3 2 , but as Ciasca remarks 
(Introd vol 2, xxxiv) the readings of this ms are of no value for the original form 
of the version. 


does not commend itself as an original, or as a translation, and 
it dues not appear in any text earlier than the Hexapla. 

The reading of Tyc 50 is 

quia ecce ego praecipio • sanctificati sunt et uoco eos. 

"Quia ecce" is -prefixed by no other authority and must be a 
Latin insertion, either due to the translator, or to Tyconius him- 
self, or more probably to a copyist 1 . Similarly cod R here prefixes 
qui to sanctificati sunt. This is rightly omitted by cod V, which 
has however the corruption uoce for uoco eos. In passages like this, 
which in any case make no intelligible sense in the Latin, those 
readings which are more in literal agreement with some Greek 
text are to be preferred. 

If then we reject "quia ecce," we get as the Greek text under- 
lying Tyconius 

iyoo crvi'rdaao)' rjyiaa/jLevoi elalv' ical KaXw avrovi 

that is a, but with the better reading koXw for e<yo) uyw. Unless 
therefore we fall back once more on the inconceivable hypothesis 
that Tyconius has emended directly from the Hebrew, the Old 
Latin has again preserved the true rendering of TlX^p where 
our Greek mss have a corruption 2 . 

The avrovs of lxx probably comes from a mistaken reading 
of Tftnp as 'TlfcOp (i.e. QWlp) 'I have called them.' So also 

the next word **\)D is read D*li2tt in the LXX. How »BHp&7 

appears in the LXX as rjyiaafievoi elcrtv is difficult to say ; there 
is no trace of a reading hpacm€noic, though if we may conjecture 
that as the original rendering of the LXX the common text might 
easily have arisen from it by reading the C as\\, a contraction 
for elat (see Maunde Thompson's Palaeography p 96, note). 

Thus by taking the text of Tyconius, and reading h|-iacm€noic 
fur the disconnected HpACMeNoieict, we bring the LXX into line 

1 Compare quia added before Os xii 3 by Tyc 28, and quae added after columba 
Zeph iii 1 , 2 by Tyc 42. 

2 Parsons ms 301 has eyw owratraw kcu eyw Ka\u avrovs' ■qyia.afj.evoi eiaiv. This 
may be a reminiscence of the text preserved in Tyconius, but the position of the 
clause Kai eyu)...avrovs shews the text of this jis is the result of some complicated 


with the Hebrew. It is to be noticed that this text is quite 
independent of the renderings of Aquila, Symmachus and 
Theodotion, fragments of whose versions are given in Field. 

y © © 

In the second half of Esai xiii 3 the attestation falls into the 

same two groups. For "»5X7 ^TDJ we find 

a. ylyavTCi ep^ovrat top Ovfxov fiov iravaat \ G2-147 TycoO 

...iravaai top 6. /j,ov 106 
/3. yiyaPTes epyopTai irXripcZaai top 6v/a6p fiov XABcopsah. 

To render nava-at in Tyconius we find linire {i.e. lenire) in cod V, but 
lid tii/are in cod R. I have accepted lenire, mainly because iraveiv is rendered 

by lenire in Cyp 785, but by mitigare in Opt 63. Thus lenire appears in the 
earlier African text, mitigare in the later; as both readings are found in the 
mss of Tyconius, it is more likely that mitigare is the correction and lenire the 
original than vice versa. In any case they represent the same Greek text. 

It is very suggestive to find a pair of rival readings such as 
these in the LXX text, both pre-Hexaplar, and neither agreeing 
with the Hebrew as we have it. This is not the place to discuss 
the origin of the LXX paraphrase ; I am only here concerned to 
point out that the addition of Tyconius, — that is the Old Latin, — 
to the witnesses for iravaat is another proof of the existence of an 
extremely ancient element in the mixed ' Lucianic ' text. That 
text contains many Hexaplar additions and other such changes, 
but, we also find in it readings demonstrably ancient and yet 
independent of other known texts. 

To sum up. What do we learn from the Old Latin Version of 
the Prophets, of which version Tyconius is so often the only 
representative ? The answer may be divided into five heads. 

1. The Old Latin brings us the best independent proof we 
have that the Hexaplar signs introduced by Origen can be relied 
on for the reconstruction of the LXX. Passages in Hexaplar mss 
to which is prefixed the asterisk (•*) profess to be no part of the 
original LXX, but to have been added from other sources. No 
such passage is found in any genuine form of the African Latin, 
The only apparent exceptions to this statement, and they are 


surprisingly few, are cases where we have reason to suppose 
that the asterisks themselves are misplaced. 

2. The Old Latin together with the Hexaplar text (omitting 
of course the passages under asterisk) often agree as to omission 
with the text of B. The greater number of the passages under 
asterisk are not found at all in B, nor throughout Isaiah in A, 
though in many cases the words in question are inserted without 
any qualifying mark into the text of all or nearly all other MSS. 

3. Yet the same authorities (the Old Latin and the Hexaplar 
text) convict B here and there of interpolation, especially in 
Isaiah. It sometimes happens in the course of a few verses that 
B will in one place be almost the only MS which does not witness 
to an interpolation, while in another B supports an interpolation, 
either almost alone, or in company with a considerable following 
of other Greek MSS. 

4. When we turn from questions of insertion and omission to 
questions of rendering of the Hebrew and the substitution of one 
Greek word for another, we find that the Old Latin in the Prophets 
sometimes supports 'Lucianic' readings. This fact proves that 
among the constituents of the eclectic text most used by the Antio- 
chene Fathers of the fourth century there was an ancient element 
akin to the Old Latin, but quite independent of our leading MSS 
codd. AtfB. Of the numerous conflations and interpolations found 
in ' Lucianic ' MSS there is naturally no trace in Tyconius. 

5. There are renderings found in the Old Latin representing 
Greek readings which have disappeared from every known Greek MS, 
but which, by comparison with the Hebrew, are shewn to preserve 
the genuine text of the lxx, from which the readings of our 
present Greek MSS are corruptions. In these passages the Old 
Latin is sometimes, but not always, supported by one or both 
Egyptian versions. Such readings as those of the Old Latin in 
Eze xxviii 7 and xxxvi 8 prove that our Greek mss, so imposing 
by their number and apparent independence, have common cor- 
rupt elements, and that the agreement of these mss does not of 
necessity imply the general voice of antiquity. 

To those who assent to these five conclusions the study of 
the ancient versions of the Greek Bible cannot fail to be regarded 
as of more importance than is generally recognised. If the three 


or four dozen known Greek codices of the Prophets be not really 
independent, but coincide here and there in palaeographical error, 
then those versions in which these errors are not found have a 
great independent value. We ought not to regard them as 
merely secondary authorities to be used as supports to one side 
or another when the Greek MSS are divided, but rather as primary 
authorities whose variants are worthy always of careful attention 
and sometimes of adoption, even when the Greek MSS are 
unanimous on the other side. 

Finally, may it not be asked whether what has just been said 
has not a bearing on our view of the authorities for the text of 
the New Testament? If the Greek codices of the Prophets, in 
spite of their variations, be not wholly independent in text, and 
coincide in errors from which some of the early versions are free, 
is it impossible that the same may be the case here and there 
in the New Testament? If here and there B falls from its 
habitually high standard of purity of text and. admits interpola- 
tions, may not that be the case elsewhere than in Isaiah? The 
general character of the 'Neutral' text so often represented by B 
alone stands on a sure basis, but B may here and there desert 
that text by an interpolation or by a substitution which may not 
necessarily be self-betraying. 

These however are but secondary considerations compared with 
the general result, that in the Old Testament as in the New the 
text of our oldest MSS as a whole is proved by the evidence of the 
versions to be immensely superior to the later eclectic texts com- 
monly used in the Greek-speaking churches from the middle of 
the fourth century. These later revisions sometimes preserve 
valuable fragments of older texts which would otherwise have been 
lost altogether, but it is for such fragments alone that these re- 
censions are valuable, and not for their continuous text. 

Additional Note on the " Altercatio Simouis et Theophili!' 

The Altercatio Simonis Judaei et Theophili Christiani, a work of the 
5th cent., has heen shewn by Harnack (Texte und U. I, pt 3) to be a 
recasting of a much earlier document, probably the lost Dialogue of Jason 
and Papiscus. Moreover the earlier form of the Altercatio exercised a very 
important influence upon African writers in their choice of Messianic proof- 
texts from the Old Testament. As this is especially the case in S. Cyprian's 
Testimonia and in the tract adversits Iudaeos commonly ascribed to Tertullian, 
it becomes important to consider what influence the lost Dialogue, so far as 
we can recover it from the Altercatio, may have had upon the Biblical text in 
those works. If the text of the Testimonia were dependent upon the original 
of the Altercatio, it would cease to be our primary authority for the oldest 
'African' Version. 

Fortunately the Biblical text of the Testimonia appears in the vast 
majority of cases to be entirely uninfluenced by any extraneous source. 
Whatever circumstances may have guided S. Cyprian in his choice of passages, 
he seems to have verified them most accurately from his Bible, and variations 
in the Testimonia from the ordinary printed texts of the lxx have generally 
ms support. Moreover several of the favourite 2nd cent, proof-texts which 
rest on a corrupt reading are significantly absent from S. Cyprian's compila- 
tion ; Harnack (p. 107) notices for instance that the well-known " Dominus 
regnauit a ligno " (Ps cxv 10) is not found in it. 

We may therefore assume with confidence that the text of the Testimonia 
is also the text of S. Cyprian's Bible. Nevertheless the influence of the 
lost Dialogue remains a very probable explanation of the rare lapses into 
inaccuracy which occur now and then in the Testimonia. The texts in the 
Altercatio are not unfrequently quoted quite loosely ; it is not greatly 
surprising to find there Deut. xxviii 44 (ovros tarai els Ke(j)a\ijv, av 8e eajj els 
ovpav) in the form : Eritis gentes in caput, incredulus autem popidus in cauda. 
But the same strange paraphrase is found in Test I 21 \ Similarly the 

1 This striking resemblance is not noticed by Harnack, though it seems one of 
the strongest arguments for the dependence of the Testimonia upon some form of 
the Altercatio. This paraphrase also occurs in Commodian, possibly not directly 
quoted from the Testimonia. 

b. i 


inaccuracies in the quotation of Esai xxix 11, 12 {Test I 4) may be partly due 
to the Dialogue which lies behind the Altercatio. 

Much the same results seem to come from the comparison of the tract 
adv Iudaeos with the Altercatio, though the quotations in the Testimonia 
reach a higher standard of accuracy than those in adv Iudaeos. The question 
of the authorship of this curious compilation would need a detailed study. 
As is well known, about half the work consists of extracts from the third 
book of Tertullian against Marcion ; the remainder has been shewn to be 
dependent upon an early form of the Altercatio by Harnack, who however 
accepts the ascription of the whole to Tertullian l . But to the Biblical critic 
the authorship is chiefly of importance as determining the date, and from the 
character of the independent Biblical quotations alone this must be placed at 
least as early as S. Cyprian 2 , and probably earlier still. Whether therefore 
the tract be compiled by Tertullian or not is a comparatively secondary con- 
sideration, as in either case it belongs to the earlier stages of the African 

The quotations of Tyconius appear to be quite independent of any form 
of the A Itercatio. 

1 Dr Noeldechen's study on this Treatise {Texte und U. xn, pt 2) has only come 
into my hands as these sheets are passing through the Press. He not only accepts 
the traditional authorship, but places the date in the earlier part of Tertullian's 
literary activity. On this hypothesis Tertullian used his book against the Jews as 
material for his larger work against Marcion. 

2 See above, p lxviii. 


E cod. Remensis 364, saec. ix. 

V cod. Vaticanus Reginensis 590, saec. x 

M cod. Modoetianus, saec. ix — x. 

J) the excerpt from Rule v in the commentary of John the Deacon. 

Eug the quotations from the Rules made by S. Augustine in de Doctrina 
Christiana in 30 fF. As there is no critical text of this work yet published, I 
have cited S. Augustine by the excerpts of Eugippius (from KnoelPs edition, 
Vienna 1885). The preface of Tyconius is quoted by S. Augustine, but not 
included in Eugippius' extracts. 

All readings of R and V are given, but I have not recorded all the singular 
readings and omissions of M. 

The numeration in the margin gives the pages of the Maxima Bibliotheca 
Veterum Patrum torn vi, the edition used by Sabatier. 


49 Necessarivm duxi ante omnia quae mihi uidentur libellum 

EV regularem scribere, et secretorum legis ueluti claues et 

(M) luminana fabncare. sunt enim quaedam regulae mysticae 

quae uniuersae legis recessus obtinent et ueritatis thesauros 

5 aliquibus inuisibiles faciunt ; quarum si ratio regularum sine 

inuidia ut communicamus accepta fuerit, clausa quaeque 

patefient et obscura dilucidabuntur, ut quis prophetiae in- 

mensam siluam perambulans his regulis quodam modo lucis 

n Aug tramitibus deductus ab errore defendatur/" 

io Sunt autem regulae istae : 

I. De Domino et corpore eius. 

II. De Domini corpore bipertito. 

III. De promissis et lege. 

IV. De specie et genere. 
15 V. De temporibus. 

VI. De recapitulatione. 
VII. De diabolo et eius corpore. 

I. De Domino et corpore eivs. 

Dominum eiusne corpus, id est Ecclesiam, Scriptura lo- 
se- quatur, sola ratio discernit, dum quid cui conueniat persuadet 

Vf. 91 

1 — 9 Necessarium defendatur] ap Aug de Doct Christ m 30; lec- 

tiones excerpsi e cod Vat Pal 188 saec ix 2 regularem] RV*M ; regulare 

Aug (ms); regularum Vcorr, Aug (edd) legis] M Aug; leges V; om R 

11 — 17 I II etc] om V* 13 promisis R 14 speciae V* et sic 

aliquando 18 titulum non habent hide regulae RV 19 eiusne] 

eiusque V loquitur Yrorr 20 cui] caique V 

B. 1 


uel quia tanta est uis ueritatis extorquet. alias una persona RV 
conuenitur quam duplicem esse diuersa duorum officia 

Esaiiiii4,5,6 Sic per Esaiam : Hie inquit peccata nostra feret et 
pro nobis dolet, ipse uulneratus est propter facinora nostra, 5 
et Dens tradidit eum pro peccatis nostris, et cetera quae 
in Dominum conuenire omnis Ecclesiae ore celebratur. 

76io,n sequitur autem et dicit de eodem : Et Deus uult purgare 
ilium a plaga et unit Deus a dolore auferre animam eius, 
ostendere Mi lucem et formare ilium prudentia. numquid ei 10 
quern tradidit pro peccatis nostris uult ostendere lucem, et 
eum formare prudentia, cum ipse sit lux et sapientia Dei, et 
non corpori eius ? qua re manifestum est sola ratione uideri 
posse quando a capite ad corpus transitum facit. 

C fDanii34.35 Daniliel quoque lapidem de monte praecisum et inpegisse 15 
in corpus regnorum mundi et in puluerem commoluisse Domi- 
num dicit, montem uero effectum et impleuisse uniuersam 50 
terram corpus eius. non enim — sicut quidam dicunt in con- 
tumeliam regni Dei inuictaeque hereditatis Christi, quod 
non sine dolore dico — Dominus totum mundum potestate et 20 
non sui corporis plenitudine occupauit. dicunt enim eo 
monte mundum impletum, quod liceat Christiano in omni 
loco, quod antea non nisi in Sion licebat offerre. quod si ita 
est, non opus erat dicere ex lapide montem effectum et in- 
crements mundum cepisse. Dominus enim noster Christus 25 

cfiohxviis, ante mundi constitutionem hanc habuit claritatem, et cum 


homo in illo Dei Alius fieret non paulatim ut lapis sed uno 

tempore accepit omnem potestatem in caelo et in terra. 

Danu35 lapis autem incrementis /actus est mons magnus et crescendo 

terram omnem texit. quod si potestate implesset uniuersam 30 

2 diuersa] am R 3 edocet V* 4 sic] pr in isaia (sic) B rubro 

5 ipse] pr et VM 6 eum] ilium V 7 dominum] dm R omni V 

ecclesiae R, et sic aliquando 8, '.) ilium purgare V 9 aufere R 

(sic) 13 corporix R* 14 faciat V 15 danibel] pr in danielo 

R rubro ; daniel R hoc loco praecisum] precissum R et] 

om V 16 puluere R commoluisse] comminuisse V 23 antea] 

ante ea R 25 coepisse R 27 in illo] ille V 29 magnus] om V 

30 implesset] implesse R 


RV terram non corpore, lapidi non compararetur. potestas res 
(M) est inpalpabilis, lapis uero corpus palpabile. nee sola ratione 
manifestatur corpus non caput crescere, sed etiam apostolica 
auctoritate firmatur: Crescimus inquit per omnia in eum qui 
5 est caput, Ghristus, ex quo omne corpus constructum et conexum 
per omnem taction subministrationis in mensuram unius cuius- 
que partis incrementum corporis facit in aedificationem sui. 
et iterum : Non tenens caput, ex quo omne corpus per tactus et Coiuw 
coniunctiones constructum et subministratum crescit in incre- 

10 mentum Dei. non ergo caput, quod ex origine idem est, sed 
corpus crescit ex capite. 

Ad propositura redeamus. scriptum est de Domino et 
eius corpore — quid cui conueniat ratione discernendum — : 
Angelis suis mandauit de te id custodiant te in omnibus Psxcii— 16 

15 uiis tuis, in manibus ferant te ne offendas ad lapidem pedem 
tuum. super aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis, et concidcabis 
leonem et draconem. quoniam in me sperauit eripiam eum, 
prutegam ilium quoniam cognouit nomen meum. inuocabit 
me et exaudiam eum, cum ipso sum in tribulatione, eripiam 

20 et glorificabo eum. longitudinem dierum adimplebo eum et 
ostendam illi salutare meum. numquid de cuius obsequio 
mandauit angelis suis Deus eidem ostendit salutare suum, et 
non corpori eius ? 
\Eu(/m Iterum: §Sicut sponso imposuit mihi mitram et sicut Esai \\\ 10 
H Eug sponsam ornauit me ornamento.^ unum corpus dixit utri- 
usque sexus sponsi et sponsae, sed quid in Dominum quid 
in Ecclesiam conueniat ratione cognoscitur. et idem Domi- 
nus dicit in Apocalypsi : Ego sum sjionsus et sponsa. et A P xxiii6,i7 
iterum : Exierunt obuiam sponso et sponsae. Mtxxvi 

30 Et iterum quid capitis quid corporis ratione discernen- 
dum sit per Esaiam declarator: Sic dicit Dominus Christo Esaixivi 

1 potestas] + enim V ; pr quia M 3 manifestatur] monstratur V 

8 per tactus] peractux V* ; per taetum \corr ~Sl 14 te 2°] om V* 

17 eum] ilium V 18 iuuocauit RV, uide Sabat. ad loc; e-mKaXecreTai 

lxx 19 exaudiam] pr ego V ipso] eo V eripiam] + eum V 

20 longitudinem] longitudinex V*; longitudineRVcow; jxaKpbTt\ra lxx (codd) 

21 obsequiux V* 22 salutare suum V* rid 25 omamentum 
V* vid unum] unus R* vid 27 in eccla V*M 28 sponsus] 
uide p IV 30 quid corporis] & corpori V 31 isaiam V 



rtieo Domino cuius ego tenui dexteram ut exaudiant eum RV 
gentes — sequitur et elicit quod non nisi corpori conueniat — ^ ' 
et dabo tibi thesauros absconditos, inuisibiles aperiam tibi, 
ut scias quoniam ego sum Dominus qui uoco nomen tuum 
Deus Israhel, propter Iacob puerum meum et Israhel electum 5 
meum. propter testamenta enim quae disposuit patribus 
ad cognoscendum se Deus aperit corpori Christi thesauros 

icou9, 10 inuisibiles, quod oculus non uidii nee auris audiuit nee in 
cor hominis ascendit, sed obdurati hominis qui non est in 
corpore Christi ; Ecclesiae autem reuelauit Deus per Spiri- 10 
turn swum, ista quidem, quamuis hoc quoque Dei gratia sit, 
adhibita tamen ratione aliquando facilius uidentur. 

Sunt alia in quibus huiusmodi ratio minus claret, eo quod 
siue in Dominum siue in corpus eius recte conueniat dictum ; 
quam ob rem sola et maiore Dei gratia uideri possunt. sic 15 

Mtxxvi«4 in Euangelio : A modo inquit uidebitis filium hominis seden- 
tem ad dexteram uirtutis et uenientem in nubibus caeli. alio 
loco dicit non uisuros uenientem in nubibus caeli nisi in 

Mtxxiv3o nouissimo tantum die : Plangent se omnes tribus terrae, et tunc 

uidebunt filium hominis uenientem in nubibus caeli. utrum- 20 
que autem fieri necesse est, sed primo corporis est aduentus, 
id est Ecclesiae, iugiter uenientis in eadem claritate inuisi- 
bili, deinde capitis, id est Domini, in manifesta claritate. si 
enim diceret Modo uidebitis uenientem, solius corporis intel- 
legendus esset aduentus; si autem Videbitis, capitis aduentus. 25 
nunc uero A modo inquit uidebitis uenientem, quoniam corpore 
suo iugiter uenit natiuitate et similium passionum claritate. 
si enim renati Christi membra efficiuntur et membra corpus 
efficiunt, Christus est qui uenit, quoniam natiuitas aduentus 
est sicut scriptum est : Inluminat omnem hominem uenientem 30 
in Ibunc mundum. et iterum : Generatio uadit et generatio 

1 raeo domino] dno meo V 5 electum] dilectum R 6 testa- 

menta] testa V* 9 obdurati homines V* 10 ecclesiae] 

eccla V* reuelabit V* vid 11 gratiae dl V 12 ali- 

quanto R 14 in dno... in corpore V 16 a modo] ammodo R; 

modo V 1!) plangent se] plangentes V 24, 25 intelligendus V*M 

25 capiti V 26 corpore] corpori R 27 similium] + ea V 

passionem V* mox corr claritatem V*M 28 corpus] pr 

quae V 

Ioh i 9 
Bed i 4 


EV uenit. et iterum : Sicut audistis quia antichristus uenit. 1IobaiS 

* 'iterum de eodem corpore : Si enim iste qui uenit alium acoxii 
lesum praedicat. unde Dominus cum de signo aduentus 
sui interrogaretur, de illo aduentu suo coepit disputare qui 
5 ab inimico corpore signis et prodigiis imitari potest. Cauete Mtxxivi 
inquit ne quis uos seducat; rnulti enim uenient in nomine 
meo, id est in nomine corporis mei. nouissimo autem ad- 
uentu Domini, id est consummationis et manifestations 
totius aduentus eius, nemo ut aliqui putant mentietur. sed 
10 quo plenius ista dicantur ordini suo relinquimus. 

Nee illud erit absurd um quod ex uno totum corpus uolu- 
mus intellegi, ut h'lium hominis Ecclesiam; quoniam Ecclesia, 
id est filii Dei redacti in unum corpus, dicti sunt filius Dei, 
dicti unus homo, dicti etiam Deus sicut per apostolum : Super 2Theiu 

15 o/itue tjui dicitur Deus aut quod colitur, — qui dicitur Deus 
Ecclesia est, quod autem colltur Deus summus est, — id in 
tempi um Dei sedeat ostendens se quod ipse est Deus, id est 
quod ipse sit Ecclesia. quale si diceret : in templwm Dei 
sedeat ostendens se quod ipse sit Dei templum. aut: in Deum 

20 sedeat ostendens se quod ipse sit Deus. sed hunc intellectum 
synonymis uoluit obscurare. 

Danihel de rege nouissimo in Deum inquit locus eius cfDanxi36,38 
glorijicabitur, id est clarificabitur ; ueluti Ecclesiam in 
loco Ecclesiae, in loco saucto, abominationem uastationis incfDanxi.3i ; 

t~v -j • • • • Mtxxivl5 

25 Deum, id est in Ecclesiam, subornabit. et Dominus 

totum populum sponsam dicit et sororem; et apostolus cant v 1 
uirginem sanctam, et aduersum corpus hominem peccati. iTheiu 
et Dauid totam Ecclesiam Christum dicit: Faciens miseri- pswusi 
cordias Christo suo Dauid et semini eius in aeternum. et 

3 iesum] ihm EM ; xpm V 5 irnitare E 7 id est] ide V* 

9 mentietur] metietur Y* mox corr 10 quo] quod E dicentur V* 

ordine V* 11 absorduru E (cfp 2G 14 ) 15 qui dicitur 1°] Rcorr 

(? a j) m); quod dicitur B,*vid V 17 templum] EV* ; templo V 1 M 

sedeat] redeat E* (sedeat E a ) ipse est] ipse sit VM 18 templo VM 

19 ostendit V 21 synonymis] scripsi, suadente If" II Smith: si non 

nimis E (ex sinonimis) ; non nimis nouimus V obscurare.] sic punctual 

habetH 22,23 danihel... clarificabitur] supra ras in E 22 rege] 

regno E 23, 24 in loco ecclesiae] omY* ; addYcorr 24 abominationem] 

abominatione EV 25 subornauit EV 28 christum] om V* ; habet in 
marg misericordiam V* vid 29 in aeternum] lasque in Eaeculmn V 


apostolus Paulus corpus Christi Christum appellat diceus : RV 

icoxui2 Sicut enim corpus unum est, membra autem habet multa, ' 
omnia autem membra ex uno corpore cum sint multa unum 
corpus est, sic et Christus, id est Christi corpus quod est 

coi i 24 Ecclesia. iterum : Gaudeo in passionibus pro nobis et repleo 5 
quae desunt pressurarum Christi, id est Ecclesiae. nihil enim 

cfMtx25 defuit Christi passionibus, quoniam sufiicit discipulo ut sit 

cf i The u 19 sicut magister. sic ergo aduentum Christi pro locis accipi- 
emus. item in Exodo omnes filios Dei unum filium et 
omnes primogenitos Aegypti unum primogenitum esse sic 10 

Ex iv 22, 23 Deo dicente cognoscimus. Dices inquit Pharaoni : Race 
dicit Dominus, Filius meus primitiuus Israliel. dixi autem, 
Dimitte populum ut seruiat mihi ; tu autem noluisti dimittere 
eum. wide ergo, ecce ego occido filium tuum primitiuum. et 

Psixxixi5,i6 Dauid uineam Domini unum filium sic ait: Deus uirtutttm 15 
conuertere, respice de caelo et uide, uisita uineam tuam. et 
perfice earn quam plantauit dexter a tua et in filium conrobo- 
rasti tibi. 

Et apostolus filium Dei dicit qui filio Dei mixtus est: 

Roii-4 Paulus seruus Iesu Christi, iwcatus apostolus, segregatus in 20 
euangelium Dei quod ante promiserat per prophetas suos in 
scripturis Sanctis de filio suo, qui /actus est ei ex semine 
Dauid secundum carnem, qui praedestinatus est filius Dei in 
uirtute secundum Spiritum sanctitatis ex resurrectione mor- 
tuorum Iesu Christi Domini nostri. si diceret de filio suo 25 
ex resurrectione mortuorum, unum filium ostenderat ; nunc 
autem de filio inquit suo ex resurrectione mortuorum Iesu 
Christi Domini nostri. sed qui /actus est filius Dei ex re- 

1 dicens] om V(M) 2 unum corpus V G presurarum R; praes- 

suram V* ecclesiae] ecclesia V* 8 magister] + eius VM 

10 aegypti unum] aegyptiorum V 11 dicit inquit R; dicis inquit V* (dices 

V b ) 12 primitiuus meus V 13 dimitte] demitte R ; dimittere V* 

populum] populum meum V demittere R 14 eum] earn R 16 uisita] 
pr et V tuam] istam V 17 in filium] tilium liominis quern VM ; uide 

Introdp cxi conroborasti] confirmasti VM 19 filio do V 20 uocatus 
apostolus] om RM 21 euangelio V* 23 praedistinatus V* semp 

2-4 uirtutem RV sanctitatis] sanctificationis V 24— -/j 7, I 6 

mortuorum... generaui te] R suj)r ras, litteris minorib. sed ab antiqua vianu 
25 suo] + ut V 28 sed qui] sed quis \*vid M est] sit VM 

ex resurrectiouem V* 


rv surrectione Christi apertius ostendit dicens de filio qui /actus 
* ' est ei ex semine Da a id secundum carnem, qui praedestinatus 
est filius Dei. Dominus autem noster non est Dei Alius 
praedestinatus (quia Deus est et coaequalis est Patri) qui ex 
5 quo natus est liuc est, sed ille cui secundum Lucan dicit in 
baptismo: Filius mens es tu, ego hodie genera ui te. Qui ex urn 22 
semine Dauid, inixtus est principali Spiritui et /actus estvsiu 

51 ipse filius Dei ex resurrectione Domini nostri lesu Christi, id 
est dum resurgit in Christo semen Dauid ; non ille de quo 

10 ait ipse Dauid : Sic dicit Dominus Domino meo. itaque facti f/i&rixivi 
sunt duo una caro. Verbuni car /actum est et caro Deus, iohiH, 13 
quia non ex sanguine sed -ex Deo nati sumus. apostolus 
dicit: Erunt duo in carue una. sacranientum hoc magnum Ephv3i,32 
est, ego autem dico in Christum et in Ecclesiam. unum nam- 

15 que semen promisit Deus Abrahae, ut quanticumque Christo 
miscerentur unus esset in Christo, sicut Apostolus dicit : 
Omnes vios unus estis in Christo lesu. si autem uos unus Gai m 28, 29 
estis in Christo lesu, ergo Abrahae semen estis et secundum 
promissionem heredes. distat autem inter unum estis et unus 

20 estis. quotienscumque alter alteri uoluntate miscetur unum 

sunt, sicut Dominus dicit: Ego et pater unum sumus. quo- iohx30 
tiens autem et corporaliter miscentur et in unam carnem 
duo solidantur unus sunt. 

Corpus itaque in capite suo filius est Dei, et Deus in cor- 

25 pore suo filius est hominis, qui cotidie nascendo uenit et crescit cf Eph a 21 
in tew/plum sanctum Dei. templum enim bipertitum est, cuius 
pars altera quamuis lapidibus magnis extruatur destruitur, 

1 dicens] om V filio] + suo VM 2 praedistinatus RV* et infr 

3 autem] eteuim V ; enim M noster] V supr lin non est] R supr lin 

di films praedistinatus R; praedistinatus di filius V(M) 4 quia... patri] 

V in mg ; om M 5 natus] creatus V lucan] R ; lucam VM (secundu 

V supr lin) 10 ait | sic dicit x x x x dns V*; post ait add in mg ipse 
dauid \corr 11 est] in V supr lin 12 sumus] sunt V* mox corr M 
14 christum... ecclesiam] xpc.ecclesia VM 15 xpi V 17 unus] 
unum RVM utroque loco 20 quotiescumque R unum] pr uni V 
21,22 quotiens] quoties R; quotienscumque V 22 miscentur] Rcorr 
V; miscxxxx R* 23 unus] unum V sunt, corpus] sic diuidit 
RM 24 capite suo corpore R 27 destruitur] V'M; destruatur 
R ; distruitur V* 


C fMtxxiv2 neque in eo lapis super lapidem relinquitur. istius nobis RV 
cf 2 Then 7 iugis aduentus cauendus est, donee de medio eius discedat * ' 

II. De Domini corpore bipertito. 

Regula bipertiti corporis Domiui multo necessarior et a 5 
nobis tanto diligentius perspicienda et per oranes Scriptnras 
ante ocnlos habenda est. sicut enim ut supradictiun est a 
capite ad corpus ratione sola uidetur, ita a parte corporis ad 
partem, a dextera ad sinistram uel a sinistra ad dexterara, 
transitus reditusque ut in supradicto capite claret. 10 

3 ff Dum enim dicit uni corpori: Tltesauros inuisibiles ape- 

riam tibi, tit scias quoniam ego sum Dominus, et asstimam te, 
et adiecit: Tu autem me non cognouisti quoniam ego sum Deus 
et non est absque me Deus, et nesciebas me; numquid licet 
unum corpus adloquatur in unain mentem couuenit thesauros 15 
inuisibiles aperiam tibi, ut cognoscas quia ego sum Deus 
propter puerum meum Jacob, et tu autem me non cognouisti ? 
in eandem et non accepit Iacob quod Deus promisit ? aut 
in unam mentem couuenit tu autem me non cognouisti et 
nesciebas me? nesciebas enim non dicitur nisi ei qui iam 20 
scit, non cognouisti autem illi dicitur qui, licet ad hoc uocatus 
sit ut cognosceret, et eiusdem corporis sit uisibiliter, et Deo 
cfEsaixxix labiis adpropinquet, corde tamen longe separatus sit. huic 
dicit tu autem me non cognouisti. 


1 reliuquetur VM 2 caxendus V* eius] cf p 7-i 24 

3 Ecclesia] add de dno et corpoke eivs regyla | de dni corpore biper- 
tito R rubro ; explicit liber primvs . || incipit lib . ii . | de corpore dni 


5 multa R 9 dextera] R sic semper ; dextra V et sic saepius 

10 transitus reditusque ut] reditus V 11, 12 aperiam tibi inuisibiles V 

12 dus R, sine uirga ; ds V adsumam V* 10 quia] quoniam V 

18 eandem] eadem V accipit R 20 enim] autem R 21 illi 

autem V dicitur] dr Rco/r ; die R* vid 23 labiis] + quidem V 

huic] hie V* 


RV Iterum : $Ducam caecos in uiam quam non nouerunt, e£Ebaixitti6 

,»^, semitas quas non nouerunt calcabunt, et faciam litis tenebras 

in lucem et praua in directum, haec verba faciam et non 

11 Eug derelinquam eos. ipsi autem conuersi sunt retrod numquid 

5 quos dixit non derelinquam idem conuersi sunt retro, et non 

pars eorum ? 

Iterum dicit Dominus ad Iacob : Noli metuere quia tecum Esaixiiii5-8 
sum. ab Oriente adducam semen tuum et ab Occidente colli- 
gam te. dicam Aquiloni adduc, et Africo noli uetare ; adduc 
lofilios meos de terra longinqua et filias meas a summo terrae, 
omnes in quibus uocatum est nomen meum, in gloria enim 
men paraui ilium et finxi et feci ilium, et produxi plebem 
caecam, et oculi eorum sunt similiter caeci et surdas aures 
li<ibent. numquid quos in gloriam suam parauit idem sunt 
15 caeci et surdi ? 

Iterum: P aires tui primo et principes eorum, f acinus ad- ^ i ^ ai27_ 
■miserunt in me et inquinauerunt principes tui sancta mea, et 
dedi perire Iacob, et Israliel in maledictum. nunc audi me 
puer meus Iacob, et Israhel quern elegi. ostendit ilium Iacob 
20 dedisse perire et Israhel maledictum quern non elegerat. 

Iterum: Finxi te puer urn meum, meus es tu Israhel, noli ^aixiiv2i, 
obliuisci mei. ecce enim deleui uelut nubem facinora tua et 
sicut uinibum peccata tua. conuertere ad me et redimum te. 
numquid cuius peccata deleuit, cui dicit meus es tu et ne sui 
■25 obliuiscatur commemorat, eidem dicit conuertere ad me? 
aut alicuius antequam conuertatur peccata deleutur ? 

Iterum : Scio quoniam reprobatus reprobaberis ; propter Esaixivfii8,9 
nomen meum ostendam tibi dignitatem meant, et praeclara 
mea superducam tibi. numquid reprobato ostendit dignitatem 
30 suam et praeclara inducit ei ? 

Iterum : Non senior non angelus, sed ipse conseruauit eos, EsaiixiU9,io 

4 eos] V siipr ras 4,5 numquid... retro] V ad calcpag 8 ab 

occidentem V* vid 9 africum V* vid 11 gloriarn...meam RM (~ 17/); 

12 paraui R 1 s%q)r ras (apxxxR*) et feci] om V 16, 17 ammiserunt 

R 20 maledictum] pr in V 24 cuius] om V*; alicuius V b 

25 eidem] + et V 27 scio] oraE reprobaueris R 30 suam 

add V a super lin praeclara] + sua V 31 conseruauit] conseruabit 

R ; considerauit V eos] illis V 


propter quod diligeret eos et parceret Mis; ipse redemit eos RV 
et assumsit illos et exaltauit illos omnes dies saecidi. ipsi (k) 
autem contumaces fuerunt et exacerbauerimt Spiritum Sanc- 
tum, quos omnes dies saeculi exaltauit quo tempore con- 
tumaces fuerunt aut exacerbantes Spiritum Sanctum? 5 
Iterum aperte Deus uni corpori firmitatem et interitum 

Ksui xxxiii 20 promittit dicens : Hierusalem ciuitas diues, tabernacula quae 
non commouebuntur, neqve agitabuntur pali tabernaculi tui in, 
aeternum tempus, neque funes eius rumpentur. et adiecit : 

Esai xxxiu 23 Rupti sunt funes tui quia non ualuit arbor nauis tuae, incli- 10 
nauerunt uela tua et non toilet signum donee tradatur in 

Iterum breuiter bipertitum ostenditur Christi corpus: 

cant i 5 Fusca sum et decora, absit enim ut Ecclesia quae non habet 

Ephv27 - 1 . . 

maculam aut rugam, quam Dominus suo sanguine sibi mun- 15 

dauit, aliqua ex parte fusca sit nisi in parte sinistra per 

Ro ii 24 quam nomen Dei blasphematur in gentibus. alias tota speciosa 

Cantiv7 est, sicut dicit : Tota speciosa es proxima mea et reprehensio 

non est in te. etenim dicit qua de causa sit fusca et speciosa : 

cant i 5 §Vt tabernaculum Cedar ut pellis Salomonis.^ duo taber- §H£«.</ 


nacula ostendit, regium et seruile : utrumque tamen semen 

Abrahae ; Cedar enim films est Ismahel. alio denique 

loco cum isto Cedar, id est cum seruo ex Abraham, diutur- 

i'scxix5-7 nam mansionem, sic ingemescit Ecclesia dicens: Heu me 

quoniam peregrinatio mea longinqua facta est, habitaui cum 25 

tabemaculis Cedar, multum peregrinata est anima mea. cum 

odientibus pacem eram pacific us, cum loquebar Mis debella- 

bant me. non possumus autem dicere tabernaculum Cedar 

praeter Ecclesiam esse, ipse autem dicit tabernaculum 

Cedar et Salomonis unde fusca sunt inquit et decora; non 30 

1 eos] illos V utroque loco parceret] parcet R 2 assumpsit R 

(sic); adsumpsit V* 3 exaeeruauerunt V* 4,5 fuerunt contumaces V 
5 exacerbantes] exaeeruauerunt V* 8 agitabunt RV 11 non toilet] 

noll& R 13 ostendit breuiter bipertitum V 15 sibi] om V 

17 alias] alia V* 18 est. .. speciosa] om V* ; add V a supr lin 19 non] 

nulla V 20 ut 1°] & V* ; fusca sum et speciosa ut Eug tabernacula 

/•>,'/ caedar V semp pelles Eug cod opt 21 tamen] om V* ; mid 

V 1 ' in mg 22 ismahel V (plcne); ismahel R (sic) 24 ingemescit] 

ingemit V 27 loquebar] loquerer V 28 me] + gratis VM pos- 

sum V dicere autem V 


Itv enim Ecclesia in his qui foris sunt fusca est, hoc mysterio 
* M) Dominus in Apocalypsi septem angelos elicit, id est Eccle- 
siam septiformem, nunc sanctos et praeceptorum custodes, 
nunc eosdem multoruni criminum reos et paenitentia dignos 
5 ostendit. et in Euangelio unum praepositorum corpus di- 
uersi meriti manifestat dicens : Beatus Me seruus quern Mtxxiv46 
adueniens dominus illius inuenerit ita facientem, et de eodem : 
Si autem nequam Me seruus, quern Dominus diuidit in duos etib48,si 
partes, dico numquid omnem iliuidet aut findet ? denique 

10 non tutum sed partem eius cum liypocritis ponet, in uno enim 
corpus ostendit. 

Hoc itaque mysterio accipiendum est per omnes Scrip- 
turas sicubi Deus dicit ad merita Israhel periturum aut 
hereditatem suam execrabilem. apostolus enim copiose ita 

15 disputat, maxime ad Romanos, in parte accipiendum quic- 
quid de toto corpore dictum est. Ad Israhel inquit quid Rox.21 
dicit I Tota die expandi manus meas ad plebem contradicen- 
tem. et ut ostenderet de parte dictum, Dico, inquit, Numquid uoxii, 2 
reppulit Deus hereditatem suam ? absit nam et ego Isra- 

20 helita sum ex semine Abraham tribu Beniamin. non reppulit 
Deus plebem sua m quam praesciuit. et post quam docuit quem 
ad modum haec locutio intellegenda esset, eodem genere 
locutionis ostendit unum corpus et bonum esse et malum 
dicens: Secundum Euangelium quidem inimici propter uos, se- Ro xi&j 

25 cundum electionem autem dilecti propter patres. numquid idem 
dilecti qui inimici, aut potest in Caifan utrumque conuenire ? 
ita Dominus in omnibus Scripturis unum corpus seminis 
Abrahae in omnibus crescere et florere atque perire testatur. 

1 qui] quaeV*r('(Z; q M 2 apocalypsim V dicit] om V*; 

add V eorr supr lin 4 eosdem] + etV 9 numquid in V mpr ras 

9,10 diuidit. ..findit...ponit V 10 nou totuni] pr totum V partem... 

ponet] cf Eug 867 11 corpus ost.] ras in V 12 mysterio] corpus V 

13 ad merita] merito V* ; ob meritum V corr ; ob merita M 16 quid] 

om V 19 bereditatem] plebem V 20 abrabae V 21 presciit V 

22 loquutio E semp intelligenda V*M esset] esse V* 25 patres] 

pares V* 26 in caifan] M; in cain- R (sic); in causa V 27 in 

omnibus] omnibus gentibus VM 

28 testatur] add explicit de bipeetito dni corpore | incipit promissis (sic) 



III. De promissis et lege. 52 

Auctoritas est diuina neminem aliquando ex operibus rv 
legis iustificari potuisse. eadem auctoritate firmissimum est * ' 
niimquam defuisse qui legem facereut et iustificareutur. 

Rouii9, 20 Scriptum est: Quaecumque lex loquitur his qui in leges 

sunt dicit, ut omne os obstruatur et subditus fiat omnis mundus 
Deo, quia non iustificabitur ex lege omnis caro in conspectu 

ro vi 14 eius. per legem enim cognitio peccati. iteruui : Peccatum 

GaiiiKj uestri non dominabitur, non enim estis sub lege, iterum : Et 

nos in Christum credimus nt iustificemur ex fide et non ex io 
operibus legis, quia non iustificabitur omnis caro ex operibus 

cm m 2i, 22 legis. iterum: Si enim data esset lex quae posset uiuificare, 
omni modo ex lege esset iustitia. sed conclusit Scriptura 
omnia sub peccato ut pi'omissio ex fide Iesu Christi daretur 
credentibus. sed dicet quis: A Christo et infra non iustificat i 5 
lex, suo tamen tempore iustificauit. liuic occurrit auctoritas 
apostoli Petri, qui cum gentes a fratribus sub iugo legis 

Ac -w io cogerentur sic ait: Quid temptatis Dominum inponere uolentes 
iugum super collum discentium quod neque patres nostri 

Koviis neque nos potuimus portare. et apostolus Paulus: Cum 20 
essemus inquit in came passiones peccatorum quae per legem 
sunt operabantur in membris nostris ut fructum ajferrent 

I'hiiiiiu morti. et contra idem apostolus dicit : Iustitia quae ex lege 
est coituersatus sine querella. quodsi tanti apostoli auctoritas 
deesset, quid dici potuit contra testimonium Domini dicentis : 25 

iohi47 Ecce uere Israhelita in quo dolus non est. quod etsi Domi- 
nus hoc testimonium non dignaretur perhibere, quis tarn 
sacrilegus, quis tarn tumore stuporis elatus diceret Mosen et 

3 iustificare R 4 numquam] non V 5 scriptum est] om V* ; 

</</(/ Ycorr sitpr lin 5, 6 dicit qui in lege sunt V 6 subditus] 

Bubiectus V 7 iustificatur V 8 cognitio] agnitio V pec- 

catum] peccatx R* mox corr 10 in xpo V* et] om V* 11 quia] 

qui R (a ab antiqua manu) 12 possit uiuificari V* 13 esset] 

esse V* 18 uolentes] om V* ; add V a swgr lin 22 adferent V* 

23 morti] mortui R 25 dicentis] dicens V* 26 et] om R 27 testi- 

monio V* 28 stupore R mosen] R (sic) ; moysen V 


RV prophetas uel oinnes sanctos legem non fecisse aut justi- 
" ' ficatos non esse ? cum et Scriptura dicat de Zacharia et 
uxore eius: Erant iusti ambo in conspectu Dei ambulantes Luc i 6 
in omnibus mandatis et iustificationibus sine querella ; et 
5 Dominus non uenerit uocare iustos seal peccatores. Mtixi3 

Lex autem quomodo iustificare potuit a peccato, quae ad 
hoc data est ut peccatum multiplicaretur? sicut scriptum 
est: Lex autem subintrau it ut multiplicaretur peccatum. illud Rov2o 
autem scire debemus et tenere : numquam omnino inter- 

io ceptum esse semen Abrahae ab Isaac usque iu hodiernum diem, 
semen autem Abrahae non carnale sed spiritale, quod uon 
ex lege sed ex promissione est. alterum enim semen carnale 
est, quod est ex lege a monte Sina quod est Agar in seruitutem c;ai iv 24 
generans. Me quidem qui de ancilla carnaliter natus est, 1&23 

15 qui autem ex libera ex promissione. non esse autem semen 
Abrahae nisi quod ex fide est apostolus dicit: Cognoscitis ergo Gaimi 
quondam qui ex fide sunt hi sunt filii Abrahae? et iterum: 
Vos autem fratres secundum Isaac promissio nis filii estis. Gaiivas 
Semen ergo Abrahae non ex lege sed ex promissione est, 

20 quod ex Isaac iugiter mansit. si autem constat semen 
Abrahae ante legem fuisse, et illud esse semen Abrahae quod 
ex fide est, constat et quia numquam fuit ex lege, non 
enim potuit et ex lege esse et ex fide, lex enim et fides 
diuersa res est, quia lex non est fidei sed operum sicut 

25 scriptum est : Lex non est ex fide, sed Qui fecerit ea uiuet in Gaiiui2 
eis. Abraham ergo fide filios semper habuit, lege numquam. 
Non enim per legem promissio est Abrahae aut semini eius Roivi3— 15 
id heres esset mundi, sed per iustitiam fidei. si enim qui 
per legem ipsi sunt heredes, euacuata est fides, abolita est 

30 promissio ; lex enim iram operatur. si ergo nee fides nee 
promissio Abrahae destrui ullo modo potest, ab ortu suo 

2 et] om V zaccharia V 4 iustificationibus] + di V 

querela R* ; quaerella V* 10 isaac]R*; issac R a : fortasse scribemlum 

Isac in hodiernum diem] ad hodieruum V 11 non carnale] a del 

Ycorr supr lin 13 sina] sinai R seruitute V 14 de] ex V 

18 autem] om V* 20 isaac] issac R a 21 semen abrae V 22 et] 
om V 23 et 1°] om V 25 est ex] et ex R* viox corr 26 semper 

filios V 27 per legem] ex lege V 29 euacuata] uacua V abolita] 

et uacua V 31 ullo modo] om V 


iugiter mansit. nee data lege inpedita est quo minus RV 
Abrahae filii secundum promissionem fide generarentur. ' ' 

cfGaiiiin dicit enim apostolus post cccc et xxx annos datam legem 

/6i8 non obfuisse nee destruxisse promissionem. Si enim ex lege, 

non iam ex promissione ; Abrahae autem per repromissionem 5 

ih»\ donauit Dens, et alio loco: Lex ergo aduersus promissa? 

absit. videmus legem ad promissionem non pertinere nee 
aliquando alteram in alteram inpegisse sed utramque ordinem 
suum tenuisse. quia sicut lex numquam fidei obfuit, ita nee 

Roiiisi fides legem destruxit, sicut scriptum est: Legem ergo de- 10 
struimus per fidem? absit, sed legem statuimus, id est 
firmamus, inuicem namque firmant. 

Ergo filii Abrahae non ex lege sunt, sed ex fide per 
repromissionem. quaerendum autem quern ad modum hi 
qui ex operibus legis negantur potuisse iustificari, in lege 15 
positi et legem operantes iustificati fuerint. quaerendum 
praeterea cur post promissionem fidei, quae nullo modo 
destrui potest, data est lex quae non est ex fide, ex cuius 

Gai Hi 10 operibus nemo iustificaretur quia quotquot ex operibus legis 

sunt sub maledicto sunt, scriptum est enim: Maledictus qui 20 
non permanserit in omnibus quae scripta sunt in libro legis ut 
faciat ea. 

Apostolus denique huic quaes tioni prospiciens, cum 
assereret omni modo filios Abrahae dono Dei semper fuisse 
per fidem non per legem factorum, ex alterius persona 25 

Gai Hi 19 respondit sibi dicens: Quid ergo lex factorum? id est, si ex 
fide filii cur data est lex factorum, cum sufficeret promissio 

Gai in 11 generandis filiis Abrahae et fide nutriendis, quia Lustus ex 
fide uiuit ? ante quam enim se interrogasset Quid ergo lex 

1 impedita R 2 fide] fidem V*; fidei N corr 3 quadrin- 

gentos et triginta V 4 distruxisse V* 5 iam non V re- 

promissionem] promissionem V* mox corr (i promissa] + di V 

7 uidimus V promissionem] promissa V 8 impegisse R 

utraq. RV 9 numquam fidei] fide" numquam R (cf p 35 s8 ) 10 distr- 
V semp 14 promissionem V quemammodum R (vid Appx n) hii R 

15 lege] legem V* 16 legem] pr in V* 17 quae] quern V 
'21 permanserit] manserit V 23 questioni RV corr 24 adsererfe V* 
25 personam V* 26,27 id est... factorum] V swpr lin 28 nutriendis] 
nutrieudi V 


BV factorum, iam dixerat ut uiuerent qui ex lege iustificari non 

' * possent hoc modo: Quondam autem ex lege nemo iustificatur Gaimii 

apud Deum, instus autem ex fide uiuit. ostendit propterea 

dictum esse per prophetam ex fide uiuit, ut manifestum 

5 fieret quern ad moduni uiuerent qui legem facere non potu- 


Sed minus liquet quid sit Justus ex fide uiuit. non 
enim potuit quisquam iustus in lege positus uiuere nisi 
opera legis fecisset et omnia opera; sin minus maledictus 

10 esset, dedit Deus legem: dixit Non concwpisces. statim RovU7,8 
occasione accepta peccatum per mandatwn operatum est 
omnem conciqriscentiam. necesse est enim passiones pecca-cun^ 
torum quae per legem sunt operari in membris eius qui in 
lege est. propterea enim data est ut abundaret peccatum, itov 20 

15 quia uirtu8 peccati lex. uenundatus autem sub peccato iam cnto viii-t- 
non quod uult operatur bonum, sed quod non unit malum, 
consentit enim legi secundum interiorem hominem. expug- 
natur autem altera lege membrorum trahiturque captiuus 
neque aliquando liberari potuit nisi sola gratia per fidem. 

20 est autem crimen magnum perfidiae non adtendisse genus 
armorum quibus uiolentia peccati expugnaretur : contra 
magnificae fidei est inquisisse et uidisse. est ergo sacrilega 
mens et male de Deo sentiens quae, cum legem nullo modo 
humanitus posse fieri et ad ulciscendum paratam uideret, 

25 non intellexit esse aliquod remedium uitae, nee fieri 
potuisse ut bonus Deus qui sciebat legem non potuisse fieri 
alterum uitae aditum non reliquisset, et aduersum homines 
quos ad uitam fecerat undique uersum uitae uias clusisset. 

2 possint V* autem] ait R 3 deum] R* vid ; dnm R a 

autem] om V* 3,4 ostendit... uiuit] add V ad calcpag o quem- 

ammodum R potuissent] possint V* ; possent V a 7 liquet] lic& 

V uiuet Vcorr (uiuit V*) 10 dixit] pr et V 11 occasio- 

nem acceptam V* peccatum] om V* 14 abundife R ; habundar& 

V* 16 non quod] quod non V* non 2°] in V siqw lin 

18 altera lege] alteram legem R ; aliter lege V 19 sola gratiam V* vid 

20 attendisse V a 21 contra] & e contra V a ; e contra M 22 mag- 

nifice RV 23 legem] lege R 24 ad ulciscendum] adulescendum 

R ; ad ulciscendo V* mox corr 25 esse] om R* ; odd R a sttpr 

lin remedio V* recte 27 alteram R aduersus 

V* vid 28 clausisset V (et infr clausisse) 


hoc fides non tulit, non admisit, sed cum infirmitate carnis RV 

...... . (M) 

et uirtute peccati urgueretur dedit Deo clantatem. sciens 

Dominu m bonum et iustum et uiscera miserationis suae 

contra opera manuum suarum non clusisse, intellexit esse 

iter ad uitam et faciendae legis remedium uidit. Deus 5 

enim cum diceret Non concupisces non nudauit quern ad 

modum id prouenire posset, sed seuere atque decise dixit 

Non concupisces : quoniam id fide repperiendum reliquit. 

si enim mandaret a se prouentum postulari, et legem de- 

struxerat et fidem. ut quid enim legem daret, si legem in 10 

omnibus facturum polliceretur ? aut quid fidei relinqueret, 

si fidem auxilium pollicendo praeueniret? nunc autem bono 

C fRoviii3 fidei dedit legem ministram mortis, ut amatores uitae fide 

uitam uiderent, et iusti fide uiuerent qui opus legis non ex 53 
sua uirtute sed ex Dei dono fieri posse crederent. lex enim 15 
a carne fieri non potest ; quaecumque facta non fuerit 

Quae ergo spes homini faciendae legis et fugiendae mortis 

ro via 7-9 nisi opis et misericordiae Dei, quam fides inuenit? Garo 

legi Dei subiecta non est, neque enim potest, qui autem in 20 
carne sunt Deo placer e non possunt. uos autem non 
estis in carne sed in spiritu, si quidem Spiritus Dei in 
uobis est. si quis autem Spiritum Christi non habet, hie 
non est eius. ostendit Spiritum Dei et Christi idem 
esse. ostendit praeterea qui Spiritum Dei habuerit in 25 
carne non esse, si ergo unus est Spiritus Dei et Christi, 
prophetae et sancti qui Spiritum Dei habuerunt Spiritum 
Christi habuerunt. si Spiritum Dei habuerunt, in carne 
non fuerunt; si in carne non fuerunt, legem fecerunt : quia 
caro est inimica in Deum et legi eius subiecta non est ; 3° 

1 adm-R hoc loco (vid Appx 11) 1, 2 carnis et uirtute] om R 2 ur- 
gueretur] R*V* ; argueretur Hcorr ; urgxer&ur V nunc 4 non] add V a 

supr I in G denudauit V nunc ; -abit V* vid (i, 7 queniainnioduni R 

7 possit V* dicise V* 8 concupiscis V* relinquit V* 

9,10 distruxerat V* 10 si] + se M 11 facturum] factorum VM 

relinqueretur V 13 fide] fidem R 15 dono] donnm V* 16 quae- 

cumque] quicumque V* ; quae cum Vc-orc 18 hominisV* vid 1!) opis] 
V*; opes llYcorr 27 qui] quo V ( = quoniam) 29 si in carne non 

fuerunt] om V fecerunt] pr non It 


RV qui ergo ad Deum confugit accepit Spiritum Dei, quo accepto 
mortificata est caro ; qua mortificata potuit facere legem 
spiritalis, liberatus a lege : quia iusto non est lex posita; et 1 Tim i 9 
iterum : Si Spiritu Dei agimini non estis sub lege. Gaivis 

5 Qua re manifestum est quia patres nostri qui Spiritum 
Dei habuerimt non fuerunt sub lege, quamdiu enim quis in 
carne est, id est Spiritum Dei non habet, dominatur eius lex. 
si autem tradiderit se gratiae, moritur legi et facit in illo 
legem Spiritus, mortua carne quae legi Dei subiecta esse 

10 Don potest, quod enim gerebatur id etiam nunc geritur. 
non enim quia sub lege non sumus cessauit interdictio ilia 
concupiscentiae et non magis aucta est; sed nos in reuelatam 
gratiam concurrimus per fidem, edocti a Domino opus legis 
de eius misericordia postulare et dicere : Fiat uoluntas tua, Mt vi 10, 13 

15 et Libera nos a malo; illi autem in non reuelatam per eandem 
fidem coacti metu mortis, quam ministra lege parato gladio 
intentari uidebant. 

Lex data est donee ueniret semen cui promissum est et Gai m 19 
euangelizaret fidem. antea uero lex cogebat in fidem, quia 

20 sine lege non possit exprimi fides ad exquirendam Dei gra- 
tiam, eo quod peccatum uirtutem non haberet. data uero 
lege passiones quae per legem sunt operabantur in membris ro ™ 5 
nostris urguentes in peccatum, ut uel necessitate urgueremur 
in fidem quae imploraret gratiam Dei in auxilium tolerantiae. 

25 custodiam carceris passi sumus, legem minantem mortem et 
undique uersum insuperabili muro ambientem, cuius ambitus 
sola una ianua fuit gratia, huic ianuae custos fides praeside- 
bat, ut nemo ilium carcerem effugeret, nisi cui fides aperuis- 
set ; qui banc ianuam non pulsaret intra septum legis more- 

30 retur. legem paedagogum passi sumus, qui nos cogeret 

2 qua] quix V* 3 lex] om V 4 spiritu] spm V 5 est] 

om V 11 cessauit] + enim V* mox eras 19 euangelizare V 

in fide V 20 sine] siue R ad exquirendam] adquirendam R 

21 uirtutum R 23 urguentes] V*; urgentes V a ; urgentem R 

urgeremur RV a 24 in fide V inploraret V in auxilio V 

26 insuperabile V 27 custus V 27, 28 praesidebat] presidebat 1 ' 

R (sic) ; cf p 20 10 ubi ' ur ' irrepsit ante ' ut ' 29 qui] pr et V 

septum] sepiiltum V* 

B. 2 


studere fidei, qui nos cogeret in Christum, dicit enim aposto- rv 
lus propterea datam legem, ut nos custodia sui coneluderet ' ' 

C fRox4 in fidem, quam futurum erat reuelari in Christum qui est 
finis legis, quo uixerunt omnes qui fide gratiam Dei ex- 

Gaim23,24 quisierunt. Priiis inquit quam ueniret fides, sub lege cus- 5 
todiebamur conclusi in earn fidem quam futurum erat reuelari. 
lex itaque paedagogus noster fuit in Christo, ut ex fide iustifi- 

Lex inquam fidei erat demon stratrix. sed dicit quis : Si 
in utilitate fidei data est lex, cur non ab origine seminis 10 
Abrahae, si quidem iuge fuit ? re uera iuge fuit : iugis et 
fides ut genitrix filiorum Abrahae, iugis et lex per dinoscen- 
tiam boni et mali. sed post promissionem filiorum Abrahae, 
multiplicatis eis secundum carnem, multiplicandum erat et 
semen Abrahae quod non est nisi ex fide, quae multiplicatio 15 
euenire non posset sine adiutorio legis multiplicatae, ut mul- 
titudo in fidem necdum reuelatam ut iam dictum est uel 
necessitate deduceretur. prouidentia itaque Dei factum est 
augendo gubernandoque semini Abrahae, ut seueritate et 
metu legis multi compellerentur in fidem, et semen fulciretur 20 

Rov2o usque ad fidei reuelationem. Lex autem subintroiuit ut mul- 
tiplicaretur peccatum. ubi inquit muliplicatum est peccatum 
super abundauit gratia, non dixit data est sed superabunda- 
vit. ab initio enim data est per Christum fugientibus legis 
molestias atque dominium, abundauit autem multiplicata 25 
lege, superabundant uero in omnem carnem reuelata in 

cfEphiio, Christum, qui ueniens restaurare quae in caelo et quae in 

EphiiU x . .... 

terra euangelizauit fidem his qui proxime et qui longe, id est 
peccatoribus Israhel et gentibus. iusti enim Israhel ex fide 
in eandem fidem uocati sunt, idem namque Spiritus, eadem 30 

1 xpo V 2 nos] non V concludere V* 3 xpo V 

4 uixerunt] fixerunt R fide gratiam] fidem gratiae V 5 inquit] 

inquid V* et sic plerumque 7, 8 iustificaremur] iustificar&ur R 

10 ab originix V* 15 nisi] om V 16 posset] posse R ; possit V 

adiutorium V* ut] et V 17 ut iam] sicut iam V 18 factum 

est] scm e V ( = sanctum est) 20 fulceretur V* 21 subintroiuit] 

subintrauit VM 22 inquid V* 23 gratiam V data est] nata 

e V 23, 24 superhabundauit V* 26 lege] legem V reuela- 

tam R 30 eandem] eadem V 


RV fides, eadem gratia per Christum semper data est, quorum ple- 
' ' nitudinem ueniens remoto legis uelamine omni gcnti largitus 
est, quae modo non genere a futuris differebant. aliter enim 
numquam fuit semen Abrahae. 
5 Quod si quisquam praeter haec iustificatus est, films Abra- 
hae non fuit. quoniam filius Abrahae dici non potest, si ex 
lege et non sicut Abraham ex fide iustificatus est. ab eadem 
namque imagine gratiae et spiritus in eandem transisse Eccle- 
siam docet apostolus dicens : Nos autemomnes reuelata facie 2 co in is 

10 gloriam Dei speculantes in eandem imaginem commutamur a 
claritate in claritatem. dicit et ante passionem Domini glo- 
riam fuisse et negat ex lege excludi, id est exprimi, produci, 
effici, potuisse. undo manifestum est ex fide fuisse. Vbi ergo Rom 27 
inquit gloriatio ? exclusa est. per quam legem ? numquid 

15 operum? non: sed per legem fidei. Quid enim Scripturanoivz 
dicit? credidit Abraham Deo et deputatum est ei ad iustitiam. 
in gloriam ex eadem gloria transiuimus quae non fuit ex C f 2 Co in is 
lege, si enim ex operibus, fuit gloria, sed non ad Deum. cf Ro h- 2 

Etenim impossibile est sine gratia Dei habere aliquem 

20 gloriam. una est enim gloria et uno genere semper fuit. 
nemo enim uicit nisi cui Deus uicerit, quod non est in lege 
sed qui fecerit ; in fide autem infirmum facit Deus aduersa- 
rium nostrum, propterea ut qui gloriatur in Domino glorietur. 1 Co i 31 
si enim quod uincimus nostrum non est, non est ex operibus 

25 sed ex fide, et nihil est quod ex nobis gloriemur. nihil enim 
habemus quod non accepimus. si sumus, ex Deo sumus, ut 
magnitudo uirtutis sit Dei et non ex nobis, omne opus nos- 
trum fides est, quae quanta fuerit tantum Deus operatur 
nobiscum. in hoc gloriatur Salomon, scisse se non ex homine 

30 sed ex Dei dono esse continentiam. Gum sciui inquit sap vm 21 

2 gente R 8 imaginem R spiritus] spui V* vid; spu Ynunc 

eadem V* 9 dicens] dicxxx R* reuelatam faciem V 

10 eadem V* 14 inquid V* gloriatio] + tua R numquid] pr 

et V 16 deputatum] reputatum V est] om V ad] in V 

17 in gloriam] om in V 18 gloria] gloriam V* ; habet gloriam Ycorr 

deum] dnm R 19 aliquem] aliquam V 20 gloria] gloriam V* 

22 deus infirmum facit V 23 ut] om V 25 et nihil] nihil V 

26 accipimus R 29 nobiscum] scripsi ; in nobis, cum RV se] 

om V 30 continentiam] pr omnex V; hominis continentiam Ycorr 



quoniam aliter non possum esse continens nisi Deus dederit, et hoc rv 
ipsum autem erat sapientiae, scire cuius esset hoc donum, adii 
Dominum et deprecatus sum. iudicio Salomonis credendum 
est non ex operibus sed gratia Dei omnes iustificatos, qui 
scierunt opus legis a Deo impetrandum quo possent gloriari. 5 

1C0129 dicit autem apostolus quern ad modum omnis caro non glo- 
rietur in conspectu Dei : mali omni modo quod Deum non 

1 Co i 28-31 cognouerint, iusti quod non suum sed opus Dei sint. Inu- 
tilia inquit et abiecta elegit Deus, quae non sunt ut quae sunt 
euacuaret, ut non gloriatur omnis caro in conspectu Dei. ex I0 
ipso autem uos estis in Ghristo Iesu, qui /actus est nobis 
sapientia a Deo et iustitia et sanctimonia et redemptio, ut se- 
cundum quod scriptum est : qui gloriatur in Domino glorietur. 

Ephu8-io et iterum : Gratia estis saluati per fidem. et hoc non ex 

uobis, Dei donum est ; non ex operibus ne forte quis glorietur. I5 
ipsius enim sumus figmentum creati in Ghristo. 

Sic nulla caro aliquando ex lege, id est ex operibus, iusti- 
ficari potest, ut omnis iustus ex Deo gloriam haberet. est 
aliud quo nemo glorietur in conspectu Dei. Deus enim sic 

iobxiv4, 5 suis operatur ut sit quod et dimittat, nemo est enim mundus 20 

Pscxiu2. a sorde nee si unius diei sit uita eius. et Dauid dicit: Non 
introeas in iudicio cum seruo tuo, quoniam non iustificabitur 
coram te omnis uiuens. et Salomon in prece dedications 

3Rcgnvui46 templi : Non est inquit homo qui non peccauit, iterum : Tibi 

Provxx9 soli deliqui, et : Quis enim gloriabitur castum se habere cor, 25 
aid quis gloriabitur mundum se esse a peccato ? parum fuit 
de casto corde, id est a cogitationibus, nisi et a peccato mun- 
dum se nemo gloriaretur. omnis uictoria non ex operibus sed 

Pscii4 Dei miseratione conceditur, sicut scriptum est: Qui coronat 54 

1 quoniam] quia V 2 autem] om V hoc donum esset V 

3 depraecatus R 5 impetrandum] implendum V possint V 

6 quemammodum R 8 opus dei] di opus V sint] R a ; 

sunt R* 10 euacuaret ut] conieci; euacuar&urut R* ; euacuarentur ut 

Rco?r V ; euacuet Sp 567 not = Karapy^ar) : cf p 17 28 in conspectu di 

omnis caro V 11 nobis] uobis V 13 glorietur] gloriatur V (sic) 

19 quo] quod V 20 demittat R 23 coram te] in conspectu 

tuo V prece dedicationis] praedicationis V 25 deliqui] de- 

linqui V (sic) ; peccaui R et : quis] om et V 27 corde casto V 

a 2°] om V 28 se] om V ex] om V 29 qui te coronat V 


RV te in misericordia et miseratione. et mater martyrum filio 
^ suo sic dicit : Vt in ilia miseratione cum fratribus te recipiam. 2 Much vii i 
iusti autera perfecerunt uoluntatem Dei uoto atque conatu 
quo nituntur et concupiscunt Deo seruire. 
5 Non est bene et melius in lege, quae si iustificasset omnes 
iusti unius essent meriti, quia parem de omnibus exigit ob- 
seruatiouem ; sin minus operaretur maledictio. sin autem 
disparis erant meriti — quis quantum credidit sibi dari tan turn 
gratiae Dei miserautis accepit, — ergo transformati a gloria in 2Comi8 

10 gloriam sicut a Domini Spiritu, id est ex eodem in eundem. 
tale est enim quia post Christum fides data est quale quia et 
Spiritus Sanctus, cum semper omnes prophetae et iusti eodem 
Spiritu uixerint. non enim aliter uiuere potuerunt quam 
Spiritu fidei. quotquot enim sub lege fuerunt occisi sunt, 

15 quia littera occidit Spiritus autem uiuificat. et tamen dicit 2 com 6 
Domiuus de eodem Spiritu: Nisi ego abiero ille non ueniet, ioii xvi 7 
cum et apostolis iam dedisset eundem Spiritum. apostolus 
autem sic dicit eundem Spiritum apud antiquos fuisse : Ha- 2Coivi3 
bentes autem eundem Spiritum fidei, sicut scriptumest: credidi 

20 propter quod locutus sum. eundem Spiritum fidei dixit habu- 
isse eundem qui dixit : credidi propter quod locutus sum, et 
id confirmat dicens : Et nos credimus ideoque et loquimur. 2 coiv 13 
dicendo et nos ostendit et illos eodem Spiritu fidei credidisse. 
unde manifestum est quia haec iusti non ex lege sed Spiritu 

25 fidei semper habuerunt. 

Et quicquid per Dominum uenit plenitudo est, cuius pars 
fuit per eundem, sicut paruulus qui, cum nihil minus habeat 
a uiro, tamen uir non est, et per incrementa non nouorum sed 
eorundem membrorum in eum uenit plenitudo corporis, ut 

1 miseratione et misericordia V 2 in ilia] ilia V fratri- 

bus] +tuisV 5 bene] om V iustificassent R*, sed n exp Rcorr 

7 sin autem] si autem V 8 dispares erant R ; disparis erat V 9 ergo] 
om V a] om V 10 domini] di V 11 et] om V 17 apostolis] 

apostolos R; apl: s V nunc 18 sic dicit] xx dicit V* aput V* 

19 sicut] sicr V* mox corr in scribendo 20 loquutus R 20, 21 eun- 

dem spiritum... locutus sum] om R 20 fidei] V supr lin 22 ideo- 

que] propter quod R ; cf Nov de Trin p 630 24 spiritu] spx R* ; spu 

R nunc 26 dominum] donu R 29 eorundem] eorum R 


ct ioh vu 39 sit perfectus idem tamen qui fuerat paruulus. re uera non erat RV 
Spiritus Sanctus ante passionem Domini, sed in illis qui per ^ ' 
ipsum praesentem credebant, ut in ipso uictore et cuncta 

cfEphii8 perficiente signati perficerentur. nam iusti quos hie inuenit 
habuerunt Spiritum Sanctum, ut Symeon et Nathanael et 5 
Zacharias et Helisabeth et Anna uidua filia Fanuhel. 

Promissio ergo a lege separata est, neque cum sit diuer- 
sum misceri potest, nam conditio infirm at promissionem. 
cogimur autem nos loqui ea quae sine igne doloris audire 
non possumus. dicunt enim quidam, qui promissionum firmi- 10 
tatem et quae ex lege est transgressionem nesciunt, promisisse 
quidem Deum Abrahae omnes gentes, sed saluo libero arbi- 
trio, si legem custodissent. et si pericula imperitiae quorun- 
dam in eorum salutem patefacere prodest, sed cum de Deo 
omnipotente sermo est moderari dicenda debemus, ne silenda 15 
refutando memoremus, et ex ore nostro aliena licet audiantur. 
quare cum tremore loquentes sua cuique pericula conside- 
randa relinquimus. 

Manifestum est praescisse Deum futuros de libero arbitrio 
quos Abrahae promisit aut non futuros. alteram est duorum : 20 
si futuros finita quaestio est, si non futuros fidelis Deus non 
promitteret. aut si hoc est statutum apud Deum tunc pro- 
missos dare si promissi uelint, profecto diceret, ne seruus 

Roiv2i eius credens quia quod promisit Deus potens est et facer e 

ludificaretur Abraham, promissio autem ilia est quae nihil 25 
conditionis iucurrit, sin minus nee promissio est firma nee 
fides integra. quid enim stabile remanebit in Dei promis- 
sione aut in Abrahae fide, si id quod promissum et creclitum 
est in eorum qui promissi sunt penderet arbitrio ? ergo et 
Deus alienum promisit et Abraham incaute credidit. ut quid 3° 

1 non erat] + in eo V 3 in ipso] ipso V 5 simeon V 

nathanael] Rcorr ; nathanithel R* vid ; natanahel V 6 helisabeth] 

R* ; helizabeth Rcorr ; elisab&h V 8 nam] non V 9 cogeniur R 

11 transgressione V* 14 in eorum] iustorum V salute V 

16 refutando] reputando V 17, 18 considerauda] om R 19 prae- 

xscisse V* 21 fidelis] fideles V 22 statutum] statum R* mox corr 

23 uelint] uellent V 24 deus] om V et] om V 27,28 quid... 

aut] R tupr ras ; (Qxxxxxx ... R*) 29 penderet] pend& R 


RV etiam ipsa promissio debitura post modum facta est dicente 
* ' Deo : Benedicentur in te omnes gentes terrae, pro eo quod nenxxuis, 
audisti uocem meam et non pepercisti filio tuo dilecto propter 
me ? quia autem ex his quibusdam facile est et aduersum 
5 Abrahae meritum liberi arbitrii calunmia strepere, etiam 
post mortem ipsius Abrahae debitorem se eius confirmat 
Deus, et propter earn se statuturum quod eius filio promitte- 
bat dicens : Ero tecum et benedicam te: tibi enim et semini tuo Genxrvis— 5 
dabo terrain lianc; et statuam iurationem meam quam iuraui 

io Abrahae patri tuo, et multiplicabo semen tuum sicut Stellas 
caeli, et dabo tibi et semini tuo omnes gentes terrae, pro eo quod 
audiuit Abraham pater tuus uocem meam. ecce firmatum est 
debitum Abrahae, non enim potuit per liberum arbitrium 
post mortem amittere quod uiuus meruerat. 

15 Noluerunt autem gentes credere, quid faciet Abraham 
cui debetur ? quomodo accipiet fidei et temptationis suae 
debitum, cuius debitore Deo securus fuit ? cui si dictum esset 
Dabo quod promisi et reddam quod iuraui si uoluerint gentes, 
non crederet sed expectaret fortuitum. si conditione opus 

20 est cum operario esse potest non cum mercede. operarius 
enim potest uelle accipere aut nolle, non merces reddi aut 
non reddi. omnes enim gentes in mercedem fidei datae sunt 
Abrahae sicut Deus dicit : Merces tua mxdta est. non enim Gen xv 1 
si futuri essent et non quia futuri erant promisit. quia non 

25 propter fidem Abrahae placuit Deo saluas fore omnes gentes, 
quas non ante fidem Abrahae sed ante mundi constitutionem 
possedit. sed quaesiuit fidelem cui id donaret ex quo esset 
quod futurum statuerat. Abraham ergo non id meruit ut 
essent sed ut per ipsum essent qui futuri erant quos Deus 

30 elegerat, et conformes imaginis filii sui futures esse praeui- Rovm29 
derat. in Genesi namque de praescientia Dei omnes gentes 

1 ipsa] in ipsa R 1, 2 dicente deo] dicendo V (sic) 4, 5 quia 

autem... abrahae] R swpr ras (Qxxxx ... R*) 4 quia] ne qui V 

quibusdam] quibus V 5 meriti V 6 eius] ipsius V 7 statu- 

turum] staturum R 14 uiuus] iuuus R* 16 debetur] debitur R 

post ras 17 debitore] debere V 19 expectare V* mox corr 

21 merces] mercis V ut infra 23 mercis R*V 27 id] om R*M 

28 quod] cui id V 29 sed ut per ipsum essent] om R 


Geuxvmi8,' Abrahae promissas Scriptura testatur dicens : Abraham aw- RV 
tern fiens fiet et erit in gentem magnam et multam, et benedi- * 
centur in eo omnes gentes terrae. sciebat enim quia disponebat 
Abraham filiis suis et domui suae post se, et custodient uias 
Domini facere iustitiam et indicium, ut superducat Deus in 5 
Abraham quaecumque locutus est ad eum. 

cfEsaiii9 Inuenimus autem et conditiones ut: Si me audieritis et 

uolueritis. ubi praescientia Dei, ubi firmitas proraissionis in 
huiusmodi conditiouibus ? dicit etiam apostolus propterea ex 
fide et non ex lege datam esse proraissionem ut firma esset 10 

Roivis, is promissio. Lex inquit iram operatur ; ubi enim non est lex 
neque transgressio est. propterea ex fide ut secundum gratiam 
firma esset promissio omni semini. recte ut firma esset pro- 
missio, adiecta enim couditione non est firma. satis enim 
stultum est et proteruum credere in totum corpus conuenire 15 
quod bipertito corpori dicitur. absit ut his dicat Deus si me 
audieritis quos sciebat audituros, et quos antequam faceret 
nouerat in imagine Dei perseueraturos, quos et promisit. non 
est data conditio, id est lex, nisi impiis et peccatoribus, ut aut 
ad gratiam confugiant aut iustius puniantur si irritam fecerint. 20 

1 Tim i 9 u t quid lex ad iustos quibus lex posita non est, qui propitio 
Deo legem sine lege faciunt, qui liberi Deo seruiunt, qui ad 
imaginem et similitudinem Dei et Christi uiunt ? uolentes 
boni sunt, qui enim sub lege est metu mortis non est aper- 
tus homicida ; non est talis misericors, non est imago Dei. 25 
displicet illi lex sed metuet ultricem, nee perficere potest, 
quod non uoto sed necessitate faciendum putat. tradatur 
necesse est propriae uoluntati, ut uoluntatis profecto prae- 
mium recipiat qui animam non miscuit uoluntati Dei. dis- 

4 doraui suae] domus suae V 4, 5 et custodient... facere] ut custo- 

diens... faceret R (sed c/lxx) 7 et 1°] urn R; ut R b swpr lin 9 etiam] 

enim V 11 inquid V* 14 adiecta] aiecta V* condicione V 

(uid Appx 11) 15 et proteruum] & ppeum V ( =et propter eum); V b exp 
has Utteras corrupttis 17 et] om V 18 in] om V 19 data 

data V* (con- a V a ) 20 irritam] irritum V 20, 21 fecerint ut] fecerunt 
R*, -rint R a 21 non est posita V 22 qui liberi deo seruiunt] 

om RM 24, 25 non est apertus homicida] om V 26 metuet] timet V 

27 tradatur] traditur R 28 ut uoluntatis] V* ; om R; ut uoluntas Ycorr 

profecto] pro facto V 29 dei] om R 


RV plicet i Hi quod Deus uoluit. etenim uoluntate malus est qui 
* ' necessitate bonus est. lex operi inpedimento est non uolun- 
tati. non est coniunctus Deo qui si mali poena non esset 
malum sequeretur; nee uoluntatem Dei facit qui gemit quod 
5 non suam faciat. et non est misericors qui timet esse crude- 
lis : sub lege est, seruus est. non furtum odit sed poenam 
metuit. furetur autem necesse est persuasus et uictus, quia 
carnalis est sub uirtute peccati, Spiritum Dei non habens. 
qui autem amat bonum imago Dei est et fide dominica uiuit, 

10 ut heres iam non sit ancillae filius qui accipit legem in tfGaiiv30 
timorem, sed liberae secundum Isaac qui non accepit spiritum Ro vui 15 
seridtutis in timorem sed adoptionis filiorum clamantem Abba 
pater, qui diligit Deum non timet seruiliter. scriptum est : 
Timor non est in dilectione, sed consummata dilectio foras 1 ioii iv is 

15 tnittit timorem. quoniam timor poenam habet, qui autem timet 
non est consummatus in dilectione. timor enim seruilis cum 
odio est disciplinae, filii autem cum honore patris. 

Aliud est timere ex lege, aliud honorare pro ueneratione 
tremendae Dei maiestatis. eiusmodi similes sunt patri suo 

7.0 qui in caelis est, commemorati et edocti amant bonum ode- 
runt malum, non metu fugiunt malum, non necessitate faci- 
unt bonum ; sine lege sunt, liberi sunt, ipsi promissi sunt. 

55 non ipsis dicitur Si me audieritis. cui dicitur Si me audieritis 
potest et non audire; numquid conuenit in eum quern Deus 

25 ante mundum praeuidit auditurum ? et iusti quidem quos r viii 29 
Deus praesciuit sunt in ista lege, dicitur et ipsis Si me 
audieritis, sed alia causa, non quia possunt non audire, sed ut 
semper solliciti sint suae salutis, incerti exitus sui. non 
enim securus est unusquisque ex numero se esse praesci- 

30 torum, apostolo dicente : Ne ipse reprobus fiam. non est ergo icoix-27 
illis irae operatrix ista lex sed fidei exercitium, quo iugiter 

2 impediineuto R 5 suam] sua R et] om V 7 quia] qui V 

9 et] om V 10 ut...sit] et...est V accipit] accepit V 11 timorem] 

timore V 12 in timore V acloptionem V 16 dilectione] 
dilectu V 18 honorare] om V 21, 22 faciunt] faciant V* 23 cui 

dicitur si me audieritis] om V 24 et non] etenim V conueniet V 

25 ante] om V 26 praesciuit] praesciit V 27 alia] ad alia R 

28 incerti] et certi V 29, 30 praescitorum] praesciturum V* 31 ope- 
ratrix |rix V* (sic) mox corr quo] quod R 


Dei gratiam quaerant laborantes ut perficiatur quod in illis RV 
Deus praeuidit, et de libero arbitrio fuerint ad uitam desti- 
nati. alias inpossibile est non audire eum quern Deus audi- 
turum praeuidit, promisit, iurauit. 

In quam uero partem lex proprie conueniat, licet uni 5 
detur corpori, Dominus in Euangelio declarat dicens aposto- 

iohxiiii7,i8 lis : Si hciec scitis beati estis si feceritis ea. non de omnibus 
nobis dico ; ego scio quos elegi. magna breuitas ostendentis 
unuin corpus et separantis ! si enim diceret : Non de uobis 
dico, aut : Non de omnibus dico, non ostenderet unum corpus. 10 
nunc autem non de omnibus uobis dico ostendit quia et si non 
de omnibus de illis tamen dixit, sicut quis dicat Non de toto 
te dixi. duo autem corpora mixta sunt uelut unum, et in 
commune unum corpus laudatur aut increpatur. sicut in 
Exodo, cum quidam contra uetitum sabbati exissent manna is 

Exxvi28 colligere, ait Deus Moysi: Quousque non uultis audire legem 
meam, cum Moses semper audierit ? 

Quid de ilia lege dicemus quae aperte promissioni uidetur 

cfEsaixhiii aduersa? sicut scriptum est in Esaia; Si me audisses Israhel, 

esset sicut harena maris numerus tuus. ecce increpatur 20 
Israhel quod uitio suo non fuerit factus sicut harena. super- 
est intellegere quia si semper non audierit semper exiguus 
erit. et ubi firmitas promissionum ? sed hoc fit quia prius 
uolumus intellegere quam credere et fidem rationi subicere. 
si autem credamus omni modo ita fieri ut Deus iurauit, dabit 25 
rationem fides quam perfidum est rationem quaerere, et in- 
tellegemus firmitatem magis esse promissionum quam puta- 
mus infirmitatem. hoc enim dictum si me audisses Israhel 
commemoratio est iustitiae Dei et conformatio promissionum, 

1 gratia V* 2 libero] libero R {sic) fuerint] fuerunt R 

ad uitam] in uitam V 5, 6 uni detur] uidetur R 7 scitis] V b 

supr ras 10 aut non de omnibus dico] om R ostendere V* 

13 autem] enim V uelut] u-r R ( = uel) ; uelat V 1-1 commune] 

commone R (cfp 5 11 ); commate V 15 sabbati] sabbatis V exissent] 

exisse ut V* ; exisset ut V corr 16 colligeret V 17 moses] moyses V 

18 dicimus V 19 sicut] om V esaia] isaia V b 20 arena V 

20,21 maris... sicut harena] om R 21 harena] arena maris V 24 sub- 
icere] RV; subiecere R u 26 rationem] ration es V 26,27 intelle- 
gimus V 


RV ne quis putaret non libero arbitrio sed dispositione Dei quos- 
dam factos ad mortem quosdam uero ad uitam. propterea 
praesentibus dixit si me audissetis, ut manifestum fieret post 
promisit, ut harenam futuros quia praeuidit audituros. ante 

5 Dominum enim Christum, cum de hoc dictum est, numquam 
fuit semen Abrahae sicut harena maris, quod probare facile 
est. primum quia in Christo promisit hanc multitudinem : 
Non in seminibus quasi in multis sed quasi in uno, et semini Gaimw 
tuo quod est Ghristus, deinde quia omnes gentes promisit, 

10 quod ante Christum fieri non potuit. et si fuit ante Domi- 
num numerus filiorum Israhel sicut harena maris, sed cum 
falsis fratribus qui non sunt filii Abrahae. non enim quia 
omnes ex Abraham omnes filii Abrahae aut quia ex Israhel 
ii Israhel. sicut apostolus, cum. se anathema optaret procfRoix3ff 

1.5 Israhel quorum esset filiorum adoptio et testamenta, ostendit 
non esse huiusmodi filios Abrahae, sed de affectu carnalis 
necessitudinis doleret quod ex ipso numero non essent, non 
quod promissio Dei excidisset, dicens : Non tamen excidit Ro ix 6—8 
sermo Dei, non enim omnes qui sunt ex Israhel hi sunt Israhel 

20 neque quia sunt semen Abrahae omnes filii, sed in Isaac uoca- 
bitur tibi semen; id est non qui sunt filii car nis hi sunt filii 
Dei, sed filii promissionis deputantur in semen. 

Ergo in antiqua multitudine non fuit Abrahae semen, nisi 
illi qui secundum Isaac fidei et promissionis filii erant. etiam 

25 hoc exemplum inducit: Si fuerit numerus filiorum Israhel Roix27 
sicut harena maris, reliquiae liber abuntur , id est exiguum. et: 
Nisi Do minus Sabaoth reliquisset nobis semen sicut Sodoma ib 29 
essemus. ipsae reliquiae fuerunt semen Abrahae, ne omnis 
Iudaea ut Sodoma esset. iterum cum assereret numquam 

30 Deum hereditatem suam reliquisse sed sicut in aduentu Do- 
mini pars Israhel salua facta est ita semper fuisse. Quid R ° xi 4 - 5 

1 ne quis... sed] om V 2 ad] aut V* uero] xxxxero V* 

3 post] quia quos V 4 harenam R semp ; V hie, et infr futuros] 

+ ideo promisit V 5 de hoc] hoc V 7 hauc] hunc V* 13 ex 

israhel] om ex V 14 ii Israhel] conieci : uel ir+R; omnes israhel V 

optaret] + esse V 18 excedit R 21 hi] hii RV 24 etiam] 

&|iarn V* ; &i|am uolait V corr 28 ipsae] ipse V (e pro ae saepe occurrit 
in V et uice uersa) 


inquit dicit responsum ? reliqui mihi septem milia uirorum RV 
qui non curuauerunt genua Bahal. sic nunc reliqiuae secundum * ' 
electionem gratiae saluae factae sunt, dicendo sic nunc in hoc 
tempore ostendit et ante sic factum in Israhel lit reliquiae, id 
est modicum, saluum fieret. 5 

Si autem nee fides nee ratio persuadet, sed ei qui pro- 
is ^9 aixlviii m i ssus fuerat dictum est: Si me audisses Israhel, esset sicut 
harena maris numerus tuus. et Iacob qui ante quam nasce- 
retur electus est, idem de libero arbitrio post modum repro- 
osxii2-4 batus est, sicut Osee dicit: Indicium Domini ad Iudam ut 10 
uindicet in Iacob secundum uias eius, et secundum studia eius 
retribuet ei. quia In utero supplantauit fratrem suum et in 
laboribus suis inualuit ad Deum, et inualuit cum angelo et 
potens factus est. si autem constat in Iacob dilectum consum- 
masse, non est idem qui in laboribus inualuit ad Deum et 15 
cf Gen xw 23 supplantator , sed duo in uno corpore. figura est enim dupli- 
cis seminis Abrahae, id est duorum populorum in uno utero 
matris Ecclesiae luctantium. unus est secundum electionem 
de praescientia dilectus, alter electione suae uoluntatis ini- 
quus. Iacob autem et Esau in uno sunt corpore ex uno 20 
C f«aiiv24 semine. sed quod perspicue duo procreati sunt ostensio est 
duorum populorum. 

Et ne quis putaret ita perspicue fore separatos duos popu- 
los, ostensum est ambos in uno corpore futuros in Iacob, qui 
c^ueut xxxii e t dilectus uocatus est et fratris supplantator expressus. 25 
itaque in duobus quantitas expressa est non qualitas separa- 
tionis. ceterum ambo qui separati sunt in uno futuri ante 
Genxxvii35 quam diuiduntur ostensi sunt, et Isaac Venit inquit frater 
tuus cum dolo et accepit benedictionem. nisi ista locutio mys- 
tica sit breuiter ostendentis duo in uno corpore, nonne contra 30 
rationem est ut benedictionem in proximum dolosus acce- 

1 inquid V responsum] + diuinum V 2 genua] genu V 

3 gratiae] om V dicendo] dicente R 9 electus] relictus V* mox 

corr idem de] id est de R; idem V; saepe in MSS idem (ide) aix 

differt ah id est (id e) 10 osee] osse R (cf issac p 13 10 not) 12 sup- 

plantabit V* 19 alter] aliter V* electionem V* 21 ostensio] 

ostentio R : ad Gal iv 24 cf Tert adv Marc V ii 284 23 persjricue] 

Vcorr; xxxspicuxx V* 28 diuidantur V 29 dolo et accepit] 

dilectaccepit V* locpiutio R 31 dolosus] dolos V* ; dolose V a 


EV perit, Scriptura dicente : Qui non iurauit proximo suo in dolo, Ps«fli4,5 
( M ) iste accipiet benedictionem a Domino ? numqnam autem Iacob, 
id est Ecclesia, uenit ad benedictionem non comitante dolo, id 
est falsis fratribus. sed non quia innocentia et dolus simul 

5 ueniunt ad benedictionem simul benedicentur, quia qui potest cfMtxixi2 
capere capit, et unum semen pro qualitate terrae prouenit. 

Non est autem contrarium quod malum fratrem uidetur 
supplantasse, quia non dixit in utero supplantauit Esau sed 
fratrem suum. Esau autem ubique signum est et nomen 

10 malorum, Iacob autem utrorumque, ilia ratione quod pars 
mala simulet se Iacob et sint duo sub uno nomine, pars 
autem bona non potest se simulate Esau : inde est hoc nomen 
malorum tantum, illud uero bipertitum. ceterum de libero 
arbitrio nee Iacob oinne semen bonum nee Esau omne malum, 

15 sed ex utroque utrumque. ex Abraham ita bipertitum semen 
ostensum est. natum est unum ex ancilla in figura, ut osten- 
deretur et seruos futuros ex Abraham, et recessit cum sua 
matre. post quam uero recessit inuentum est in alterius 
semine, quod est ex libera, quod est ex Israhel qui accepit 

20 legem in monte Sina, quod est Agar in seruitutem generans. Gaiiv24 
illic in eodem populo secundum Isaac ex libera promissionis 
filii, id est sancti et fideles, multi procreati sunt, separatis 
itaque a credentibus figuris Ismahel et Esau, in uno populo 
totum post modum prouenit. illic ab origine utrumque Tes- 

25 tamentum Agar et Isaac, sed pro tempore alterum sub alte- 
rius nomine, delituit et delitescit, quia neque reuelato nouo 
quiescit uetus generando. non enim dixit Agar quae in 
senectute generaidt, sed Quae est Agar in seruitutem generans. 

Oportet autem ambos simul crescere usque ad messem. m xm 30 

30 sicut ergo tunc sub professione veteris Testamenti latuit 

1 scriptura] scriptum • e R suo] om V 5 benedicuntur V 

6 capit] capiat V 9 et] om R 10,11 utrorumque... pars mala] R 

supr ras 10 quod] quo R 11 sint duo sub] sine dubio V 12 inde] 

om V, spatio relicto 16 natum] natunc V* unum] unam V* 

17 et seruos] etiam seruos V 20 in seruitute R 21 secundum] 

secundi V 21,22 ex liber a... fideles] R supr ras 23 ismahel et] 

conieci: ir-r ( = israhel) R; israhel et V 25 isaac] R*V; issac R a 

26 dilituit et dilitescit R ; delituit et delitiscit V 27, 28 in senectute 

...est agar] om V 29 ambos] ambo V 


nouum, id est gratia quae secundum Isaac promissionis filios RV 
generaret ex libera, quod in Cbristo reuelatum est ; ita et 
nunc optinente nouo non desunt seruitutis filii generante 
Agar, quod Christo iudicante reuelabitur. confirmat apostolus 
id nunc quoque inter fratres geri quod tunc inter illos gere- 5 

Gai iv 28- 29 batur dicens : Vos autem fratres secundum Isaac promissionis 
filii estis. sed sicut tunc qui secundum carnem natus est per- 
sequebatur spiritalem, ita et nunc, et necessario addidit : 

ib 30 Quid dicit Scriptura ? expelle ancillam et filium eius, non 

enim coheres erit filius ancillae cumfilio liberae. quod autem 10 
dixit sicut tunc persequebatur ita et nunc, non est inane, 
apostolus enim interpretatus est persequebatur. nam Scrip- 

cfGenxxi9 tura dicit : Ludebat Ismahel cum Isaac, numquid fratres 
qui circumcisionem Galatis praedicabant aperte illos et non 
per lusum, id est sine indicio persecutionis, insequabantur ? 15 
sicut ergo Ismahel genere ludendi persecutorem dixit, ita et 56 
istos, qui filios Dei uelut per communem utilitatem, id est 
disciplinam legis, a Christo separare et matris suae Agar filios 
facere militant. 

C fGaiii4 Alia enim non est causa qua filii diaboli inrepant ad ex- 20 

plorandum libertatent nostrum, et simulent se fratres et in 
Paradiso nostro uelut Dei filios ludere, quam ut de subacta 

cfGaivio libertate filiorum Dei glorientur; qui portabant indicium 
qualescumque illifuerint, qui omnem sanctum persecuti sunt, 

ef Acvii5t qui prophetas occiderunt, qui semper Spiritui Sancto restite- *5 

Phil i» is mint ; inimici crucis Christi, neqantes Christum in came dum 
Hohiv3 . . „,. .... 

cf2Theii3, eius membra oderunt, corpus peccati, films exterminii in mys- 

ierium facinoris, qui ueniunt secundum operationem Satanae 

E P h vi 12 in omni uirtute signis et prodigiis falsitatis, spiritalia nequi- 

1 gratia quod V 3 nouo non desunt] nouande, sunt V filii] 

fili V 7 filii] fili V qui] quae R* mox corr natus] naxtus 

V* 9 quid] sed quid V 10 cum] om V 12 interpraetatus R, 

et sic aliquando 14 circumcisionem] circumcisionis V* ; -ones Vcorr 

15 insequabatur V 16 ismabel] + deV dixit] xxxit R* 

17 communem] commone R (cf supra p 26 14 ) 18 matris] matri V 

20 inter Alia et enim rasura in R inrepant] increpant V 21 simulant R 
22 paradyso V ut] om V 23 portabant] RV* ; portabunt V a 

2G in carnem V 27 filius exterminii] V* vid, filii exterminii V nunc; filius 
•e« externum R 27, 28 mysterium] V ; ministerium R 29 signi R 


RV tiae in caelestibus, quos Dominus Christus quern in came per- 2 The N 8 
secuutur inter jieiet spiritu oris sui et destruet manifestatione 
aduentus sui. tempus est enim quo haec non in mysteriis 
sed aperte dicantur, inminente discessione quod est reuelatio cf 2 Then 3 
5 hominis peccati, discedente Loth a Sodomis. 

IV. De specie et genere. 

De specie et genere loquinmr, non secundum artem 
rhetoricam humanae sapientiae, quam qui magis omnibus 
potuit locutus non est, ne crucem Christi fecisset inaneni sicficoii: 

10 auxilio atque ornamento sermonis ut falsitas indiguisset. sed 
loquimur secundum mysteria caelestis sapientiae magisterio 
Spiritus Sancti, qui cum ueritatis pretium fidem constituent 
mysteriis narrauit in speciem genus abscondens, ut in ueterem 
Hierusalem totam quae nunc est per orbem, aut in unum 

15 membrum totum corpus ut in Salomone. sed hoc tarn occul- 
tum est quam cetera quae non solum specie breuiante sed 
etiam multiformi narratione occultantur. quam ob rem Dei 
gratia in auxilium postulata elaborandum nobis est, et Spiritus C f sap vii 22 
multipliers ingressus legendi eloquiumque subtile, quo, dum ad C f sir 1 7 

20 inpedimentum intellectus speciei genus aut generi speciem 
inserit, genus speciesne sit facile uideri possit. dum enim 
speciem narrat ita in genus transit ut transitus non statim 
liquido appareat, sed talia transiens ponit uerba quae in 

1, 2 persecuntur] R (sic) ; g sequantur V (sic) 3 quo] quod V 

in mysteriis] om in V 

5 Sodomis] add explicit kegvla et peomissis et lege | incp de specie 


liber •mi- V ; nulla dmisio sectionum in M 

7 artem] uirtutem V ; om M 8 r&horicam RV 12 cum] quo V 

13 mysteriis] mysterii V 15 tarn] non V; non tarn M 16 speciae 

R sic aliquando breuiante] uerbiante V 17 multiformis V 

19 multiplici V eloquiumque... ad] om R eloquium . que, 

V nunc suptile V quo dum] scripsi -. quod V 20 generi speciem] 

R nunc ; generis speciem B,*vid V 21 sit] si V possit uideri V 
22 non] R swpr lin 


utrumque cormeniant, donee paulatim speciei modum ex- BV 
cedat et transitus dilucidetur, cum quae ab specie coeperant (M) 
non nisi in genus conuenerint. et eodem modo genus 
relinquit in speciem rediens. 

Aliquando autem ab specie in genus non supradicto modo s 
sed euidenter transit et supradicto more reuertitur. ali- 
quando supradicto modo transit et euidenter reuertitur simili 
ordinis uarietate, aut ab specie in genere aut a gen ere in 
specie finit narrationem. aliquando redit ex hoc in illud non 
semel, et omnis narratio nee speciem excedit nee genus 10 
praeteiit in utrumque conueniens. haec uarietas trans- 
lation is et ordinis exigit fidem quae gratiam Dei quaerat. 

Sic Deus per Ezechielem loquitur et regressui eorum 

qui ab Hierusalem capti et disparsi fuerunt gentium iungit 

aduentum, et in terra quam patres nostri possiderant 15 

exprimit mundum. septem enim gentes Abrahae promissae 

Eze xxxvi figura est omnium gentium. Foetus est inquit ad me sermo 

Domini dicens: fili hominis, §domus Israhel habitauit in terra §|&9 
et polluerunt Mam in uia sua et in idolis suis et peccatis 
suis ; secundum inmunditiam menstruatae facta est uia eorum 10 
ante faciem meam. et effudi iram meam super eos, et disparsi 
illos inter nationes et uentilaui eos in regiones, secundum uias 
eorum et secundum peccata eorum iudicaui eos^ et ingressi ^ Ew n 
sunt inter nationes quas ingressi sunt illic, et polluerunt 
nomen meum sanctum, dum dicunt ipsi Popidus Domini hie, 25 
et de terra sui egressi sunt, et peperci Mis propter nomen 
meum sanctum quod polluerunt domus Israhel in nationibus 

2 cum quae] curuq- RV 6 more] modo VM reuertitur] 

reuert&ur R 8, 9 in speciem V 12 quae] que. R* ; qui Hcorr 

13 sic deus] sed dsR; sic dicit "dns V* ; ds M xxxzechielem R*; 

hiezechielum R b ; ezechielum V regressui] regibus V 14,21 dis- 

parsi V* ; dispersi R Vcorr fuerant VM 15 in terram RM 

possiderunt V*M ; possederunt Ycorr 17 inquid V* 18 fili] filii 

R, uid Appx 11 habitabit V* 19,20 (pol)luerunt... secundum] 

supr ras- in R 19 illam] ilium V et peccatis] et in peccatis 

R,*vid, mox corr 19, 20 peccatis suis] om suis V 22 — 24 et 

uentilaui... inter nationes] omV 22,23 secundum uias eorum et] om 

R* ; add R a 24 illic et pollerunt R; et polluerunt illic V 25 hie] 

hi V ; cf auct ad Nouat § 10 26 sui] sua V 


RV in quas ingressi sunt illic. propter Itoc die domui Israhel : haec 

(si) dicit Dominus, non nobis ego facio domns Israhel, sed propter 

nomen meum sanctum quod polluistis in nationibus in medio 

mo 9 in quas ingressi sunt illic. incipit iimgere genus : % Et 

5 sanctificabo nomen meum sanctum Mud magnum quod 

pollutum est inter nationes quod polluistis in medio earum, et 

scient gentes quoniam ego sum Dominus, (him sanctificor in 

nobis ante ocidos eorum, et accipiam uos de gentibus et con- 

gregabo uos ex omnibus terris et inducam uos in terram 

10 uestram. aperte excedit speciem : Et aspergam uos aquam 
mundam et mundabimini ab omnibus simulacris uestris, et 
mundabo uos et dabo nobis cor nouum, et spiritum nouum dabo 
in uobis, et auferam cor lapideum de came uestra et dabo 
nobis cor carneum, et spiritum meum dabo in uos, et faciam 

15 ut in iustitiis meis ambuletis et indicia mea custodiatis et 

faciatis. et habitabitis in terra quam dedi patribus uestris, et 

eritis mini in populum et ego ero uobis in Deum, et mundabo 

^Euguos ex omnibus inmunditiis uestris.^ adtingit speciem non 

tamen relinquens genus: Et uocabo triticum et midtiplicabo 

10 Mud et non dabo in uos famem, et midtiplicabo fructum ligni 
et quae nascuntur in agro, ut non accipiatis ultra obprobrium 
/amis in nationibus. et reminiscemini uias uestras pessimas 
et cogitationes uestras non bonas, et odio habebitis eas ante 
faciem eorum in iniquitatibus uestris et in abominationibus 

tS eorum. non propter iios ego facio, dicit Dominus ; notum est 
uobis, confundimini et reuertimini de uiis uestris, domus 
Israhel. haec dicit Adonai Dominus: in die qua mundabo 
uos ab omnibus iniquitatibus uestris et inhabitari faciam 
ciuitates, — in figura terrae Iudae quae bellis uastata fuerat 

30 promittit innouari mundum qui a Deo recesserat, — et reaedi- 

1 in] om R* ; add R b 4 iungere] ungere R 5 meum 

sanctum] tor R illud] ilium V 6 eorum R 7 dum] 

qui V 10 aspergam] adspergam Eug 10, 11 aquam mundam] 

V (sic) ; aqua munda R Eug ; aquam munda Eug (cod) : cf Lev v 9 ; Nu viii 7 
Cod Lugd 11 simulachris V Eug (cod opt) 13 uobis] uos V 

14 uos] uobis R* 18 immunditiis Eug attingit V 22 re- 

miniscimini R 23 odio habebitis] odietis V 24 abhominationibus 

Rcorr 27 adonai dominus] dns adoneae dns R 28 faciam R* ; 

faciem R b 29 figura] figura R 

B. 3 

Eze xxxvii 



ficabuntur deserta et terra quae exterminata fiierit coletur, BY 
propter quod fuit exterminata sub octdis omnis praetereuntis. 
et dicent: Terra ilia quae fuerat exterminata facta est sicut 
hortus deliciarum, et civitates desertae et demolitae munitae 
con sederunt, et scient gentes quaecumque derelictae fuerint in 5 
circuity, uestro quia ego sum Dominus. aedificaui demolitas 
et plantaui exterminatas, quia ego Dominus locutus sum et 

Apostolus quoque in ingressu Iacob promissum esse 
introitum gentium sic interpretatur dicens: Donee plenitudo 10 
gentium intret, et sic omnis Israhel saluabitur. sicut scripUim 
est: Veniet a Sion qui liberet et auferet impietates ab Jacob, 
et eodem genere locutionis redit in speciem dicens: Secundum 
Euangelium quideni inimici propter uos. 

Item in Ezechiele incipit ab specie quae conueniat et in 15 
genus, et finit in solo genere ostendens terrarn patrum mundi 
esse possessionem. Haec dicit Dominus, Ecce ego accipiam 
omnem d.omum Israhel de medio gentium in quas ingressi sunt 
illic, et congregabo eos ab omnibus qid sunt in circuitu eorum et 
inducam eos in terram Israhel. et dabo eos in gentem in terra 20 
mea et in montibus Israhel, etprinceps unus erit eorum. et non 
erunt ultra in duas gentes nee diuidentur ultra in duo regna, 
ne contaminentur adhuc in simulacris suis. et liberabo eos ab 
omnibus iniquitatibus eorum quibus peccauerunt in eis, et 
emundabo eos, et erunt mihi in populum et ego Dominus ero 25 
illis in Deum. aperte transit in genus : Et seruus mens 
Dauid princeps in medio eorum erit, pastor unus omnium qui 
in praeceptis meis ambulabunt et indicia mea custodient et 
facient ea. et inhabitabunt in terra sua quam ego dedi seruo 
meo Iacob ubi habitauerint patres eorum, et inhabitabunt in ea 30 

1 fuerit] fuerat V 2 fuit] om R 4 hortus] ortus V 5 con- 

siderunt R 9 in ingressu] ingressu R 12 liberet et auferet] eripiat 

et auertat R {=Vg) 13 loquutionis R 15 ezechiele] hiezechielo 

R a supr ras ; ezechielo V* vid ; ezechiel V nunc 20 inducam] ducana R 

terram] terra R 20, 21 terra mea] tra mea V 21 montibus] omni- 

bus R 22 duos V* mox corr 23 ne] nee R simulachris 

V (sic) 24,25 et emundabo] om et V 26 aperte] V*; a parte V b 

28 ambulant V 30 habitauerunt V inhabitabunt] habi- 

tabunt V 


RV ijjsi, et Dauid senilis metis princeps eorum in saecula. et 
disponam Mis testamentum pacts et testamentum aeternum erit 
cum Mis, et ponam sancta mea in medio eorum in saecula et 
erit habitatio mea in eis, et ero Mis Deus et ipsi erunt mihi 
5 poptdus. et scient gentes quia ego sum Dominus qui sanctifico 
eos, dum sunt sancti in medio eorum in saecula, dicit Dominus. 
Item illic regressui dispersionis Israhel gentium inserit 
aduentum, et Aegypti heremum figuram populi deserti in 
quo Ecclesia nunc esse manifestatur, et quod idem mali, 

10 quamuis una cum populo Dei ex gentibus reuocentur in 

terrain Israhel, tamen in terra Israhel non sint. Vino ego Ezexx3i-38 
dicit Dominus si respondero nobis, et si ascenderit in spiritum 
uestrum hoc. et non erit quern ad modum dicitis ttos : 
Erimus sicut gentes et sicut tribus terrae tit seruiamus lignis 

«S et lapidibus. uiuo ego, dicit Dominus, nisi in manu forti et 

brachio excelso et in ira effusa regnabo super uos, et edticam 

uos de p)opulis etrecipiam uos de regionibus in quibus dispersi 

estis in manu forti et brachio excelso <et> in ira effusa, et 

57 adducam uos in desertum populorum, et disputabo illic ad uos 

20 facie ad faciem, quern ad modum disputaui ad patres uestros 
in deserto terrae Aegypti sic iudicabo uos, dicit Dominus. et 
redigam uos sub uirgam meam et inducam uos in numero, et 
eligam impios de nobis et desertores, quoniam ex transmi- 
gratione eorum educam eos et in terram Israhel non iutrubunt, 

i$ et cognoscetis quia ego sum Dominus. 

Item illic captiuitati montium Israhel promittit Deus 
ubertatem et multiplicationem populorum usque in finem. 
Quoniam dederunt inquit terram tuam sibi in possessionem Eze xxwi 
cum iucunditate inhonorantes animas, ut exterminarent in 

2 test, pacis et] om R 3 et ponam] ponam et R 4 eis] illis V 
6 sancti] saneta V ; t<x cfyid /j.ov lxx 7 regressui] regressio R 

dispersiones V* 8 aegypti] aegyptuni V (sic), 'a' exj) V a (sic 

fere semp) figuram] + fuisse V 9 esse] est V ; exp V a 

11 terram] Vcorr; terra RV* 17 uos] om R utroque loco 18 et 

in ira] et om RV 19 in deserto V illic] illis V* corr in 

scribendo 21 sic] sicut V* mox corr 22 sub uirga mea V, cf Roensch 
412 23 impios] im supr ras in R 24 eos] uos R in terra 

R 25 cognoscitis R 26 captiuati V* 28 dederunt inquit] tr 

R mox corr inquid V* 29 iocunditate V ut] atque V 



uastationem ; propterea profetare super terram Israhel et die RV 
montibus et collibus et riuis etnemoribus: haec dicit Dominus, *• ' 
Ecce ego in zelo meo et in ira meet locutus sum, propter quod 
obprobrium gentium portastis. ecce ego leuabo manurn meam 
super nationes quae sunt in circuitu uestro, hi iniuriam mourn 5 
accipient; uesti'i autem monies Israhel uuam et fructum ues- 
trum manducabit populus mens qui adpropinquat uenire. 
quia ecce ego super uos et respiciam super uos et colemini et 
semina<bi>mini, et multiplicabo super uos totam domum 
Israhel usque in finem, et habitabuntur ciuitates, et quae deso- 10 
latae erant aedificabuntur. 

Item illic uelut in nouissima resurrectione prima signifi- 

Ezexxxvn catur. Locutus est inquit ad me Dominus dicens: jili hominis 
ossa haec omnis domus Israhel est. ipsi dicunt : arida facta 
sunt ossa nostra, interiit spes nostra, expir animus, propterea 15 
profetare et die : haec dicit Dominus, Ecce ego aperiam monu- 
menta uestra et educam uos de monumentis uestris et inducam 
uos in terram Israhel, et scietis quia ego Dominus cum aperiam 
sepulchra uestra et educam de monumentis populum meum, et 
dabo Spiritum meum in uos et uiuetis, et ponam uos super 20 
terram uestram et scietis quia ego sum Dominus. numquid 
cum perspicue surrexerimus tunc sciemus Dominum, et 
non nunc cum per baptisma resurgimus ? aut mortui poterunt 
dicere : Arida facta sunt ossa nostra, aut merito mortuis id 
promissum esse credamus ? quod est enim sacramenti ne in 25 
ambiguum ueniret aperuit Deus. nam de nouissima carnis 
resurrectione neminem Christianum credimus dubitare. et 
Dominus per Iohannem has resurrectiones manifestat dicens : 

iohv 24-29 Amen dico nobis quia quiuerbum meum audit et credit ei qui 

me misit habet uitam aeternam, et in iudicium non uenit sed 30 

1 profetare] prophetare RV* ; propheta V a , uide j) 40 18 et Appx 11 
3 meo] mea R a 4 portastis] portatis V leuabo] zelabo R 

5 hi] om R G accipiunt R 7 manducauit V* apro- 

pinquat V* ; appr- Vcorr 8 et respiciam super uos] omV 9 semi- 

namini RV 16 prophetare R ; propheta V 20 uiuitis R 22 cum 

perspicue] perspicue V* ; perspicue cum Vcorr surrexerimus] M ; 

surreximus R nunc, surre supi- ras ; resurrexerimus V 23 potuerunt R 

24 aut] ut R 26 ambigum V* 28 per] secundum VM 

30 et supr ras in V uenit] ueniet V 


RV transit de morte ad uitam. amen dico nobis quoniam uenit 
hora et nunc est quando mortui audient uocem filii Dei et qui 
audierint uiuent. sicut enim Pate?' habet uitam in se, sic 
dedit Filio uitam habere in se. et potestatem dedit ei et iudi- 
5 cium facere quia filius hominis est. iungit nouissiraam resur- 
rectionem : Nolite mirari hoc, quia ueniet hora in qua omnes 
qui in monumentis sunt audient uocem filii Dei, et exient qui 
bona fecerunt in resurrectionem uitae, qui male fecerunt in 
resurrectionem iudicii. primo dixit Mortui qui audierint 
10 uiuent, secundo Omnes qui in monumentis sunt exient. 

Item quod in uno homine totum corpus significetur, in 
Regnorum promittit Deus Dauid Salomonem dicens : Busci- 2 Regn vii 12 

& r —16 

tabo semen tuum post te qui erit ex utero tuo et parabo regnum 
eius. ipse aedificabit mihi domum. ista et in speciem et in 

15 genus cormeniunt. excedit speciem dicens : Et dirigam 
thronum eius usque in aeternum. iterum in utrumque : Ego 
ero ei in patrem et ipse erit mihi in filium. et si uenerit 
iniustitia eius arguam eum in uirga Iiominum et in tactibus 
filiorum hominum ; misericordiam autem meam non auferam 

20 ab eo sicut abstuli a quibus abstidi e conspectu meo, et fidelis 
fiet domus eius. iterum excedit speciem: Et regnum eius 
usque in aeternum in conspectu meo, et thronus eius erit confir- 
matus usque in aeternum. quod autem uidetur in excessu 
speciei thronum Christi promittere in aeternum, thronum 

25 filii hominis promittit, ita corporis Christi, id est Ecclesiae. 
non enim propter Dauid promisit Deus regnaturum Chris- 
tum, qui ante constitutionem mundi habuit Jianc claritatem. cf ioh wu 

, 5, -i 

et per Esaiam sic dicit Deus Christo : Magnum tibi erit Esai x i ix 6 

1 transit] transiet Ycorr de] a V 2 quando] quo R* vid 

audient] audiunt R 3 habet uitam] tr V 4 se] sernetipso V 

6 mirare R 7 filii] fili V, aid Appx 11 8 qui] + uero R ( = Vg) ; 

+ autem V male] mala V 8—16 male fecerunt... in aeternum] R 

supr ras in char minore 10 secundo... exient] R ad calc pag 11 uno 

hominem V (sic) 14 aedificauit V* 14, 15 ista. ..genus] om V 

15 excedit] pr et Rcon- (supr tin) V 16 iterum] item V 17 patre 

...filio V 18 tactibus] scripsi; actibus RV: d<£cus lxx 20 e con- 

spectu meo] conspectumeo V* ; conspectu meu Ycorr 21 iterum] 

item R 22 usque] om V meo] eius R 24 specie V 

25 fili V* promittit ita] conieci; promitti R; promi & ita V*; pro- 

misit & ita Vcorr 27 habuit] promisit V 28 esaiam] R*V* ; 

isaiam Bcorr Ycorr inter deus et christo ras in R 


istud, ut uoceris puer mens et statuas tribus Iacob et Israhel KV 
dispersionem conuertas ; ecce posui te in testamentum generis 
in lumen gentium, ut sis in salutem usque in nouissimum 
terrae. quid maius filio Dei uocari puerum eius et Israhel 
dispersionem conuertere, aut per eum factum esse ipsum 5 
Israhel et caelum et terrain et quae in eis sunt uisibilia et 
inuisibilia ? sed ei dicit magnum esse qui filio Dei mixtus 
est ex semine Dauid. omnis enim promissio Abraliae et 
Dauid ipsa est, ut semen eorum miscereretur ei cuius sunt 
omnia, et esset coheres in aeternum, non ut propter ipsos 10 
regnaret Christus qui est omnium rex a Patre constitutus. 

Quid dicemus de Salomone ? cum Deo est, an post idola- 
triam reprobatus est ? si cum Deo dixerimus, impuuitatem 
spondebimus idolorum cultoribus. non enim dicit Scriptura 
paenitentiam egisse Salomonem, aut recepisse sapientiam. 15 
si autem reprobatum dixerimus, occurrit uox Dei quae dicit 
ne terrae quidem regnum Salomoni auferre propter Dauid, 

3Kegnxiii sicut scriptum est in Regnorum : Disrumpens disrumpam 
regnum tuum de manu tua et dabo eum seruo tuo. uerum in 
diebus tuis non faciam haec propter Dauid patrem tuum ; de 20 
manu filii tui accipiam eum. uerum omne regnum non acci- 
piam, sceptrum unum dabo filio tuo propter Dauid senium 
meum, et propter Hierusalem ciuitatem quam elegi. quid 
enim prodest Dauid, si propter eum filius eius regnum 
terrae consequeretur caeleste perditurus ? quo manifestum 25 
est cum Deo esse Salomonem, cui ne regnum quidem terrae 

2Regnviii4, ablatum est propter Dauid, quod et dixerat: Arguam in 

lxxxviu 33 uirga hominum delicta eius, misericordiam autem meam non 
auferam ab eo. quod si neque reprobatus est neque idolorum 
cultores regnum Dei possident, manifestum est figuram fuisse 30 

cf3Regniv Ecclesiae bipertitae Salomonem, cuius latitudo cordis et 

2 conuertas] Rcorr ; conuertax R* 3 ut sis] et sis V in 

salute R 4 puerurn eius] puer meus V 10 coheredes V* non ut] 
ut non R 12 dicimus V salamoue R 12, 13 idolatriam] RV 

(sic semper) ; uid Appx 11 13 inpunitatern V 15 salamonem R 

aut] Rcojt ; axx R* 16 si autem... uox dei] R supr ras occurrcfe R 

17 salomoni auferre] salamoni auferre R; aufert salomone V*; auferret 
salomone Ycorr 21 omnem regnum V* 25 caelesti V* rid 

26 salamonem R ne] om V 27 arguam] + eum V 28 delicta] 

peccata V misericordia...mea V 31 salamonem R altitudo cor R 


RV sapientia sicut harena maris et idolatria horribilis. Disrum- sRegn xi n, 
v ' pens mquit disrumpam regnum tuv/m de manu tua, uerumta- 
men in diebus tuis non faciam ; de manu jilii tui accipiam 
Mud. sufficeret disrumpam, quid disrumpens disrumpam? 
5 aut quomodo de manu Salomonis, si dicit Non faciam in 
diebus tuis sed de manu filii tui accipiam Mud ? iugis opera- 
tionis est disrumpens disrumpam, sicut Benedicens benedicam Gewii 
et multiplicand multiplicabo semen tuum. ostendit enim sem- 
per futururn Salomonem in filio, id est in posteris, cuius pos- 

io tumis Salomonis temporibus non auferet Deus regnum sub 
promissa patrum, sed corrigit illud usque iu aeternum et 
aufert iugiter, secundum idolatriam Salomonis in suo peccato 
perseuerantis. alias quomodo de manu Salomonis disrum- 
pens disrumpit aut non disrumpit, si non nunc est Salomon 

i5 in filiis bonus aut mains? quod autem dicit: Verum non 3 Regn xi 13 
omne regnum a.ccipio in speciem redit, incipiens aliam figuram 
in filio Salomonis et seruo. 

In Hiesu Naue quoque sic Dominus manifeste in uno 
homine futururn corpus ostendit, sed hoc loco malum tan- 

20 tummodo. Peccauit inquit populus et transgressus est testa- lesNauevu 
mentum quod disposui ad illos, furati sunt de anathemate, 
miserunt in uasa sua, cum solus Achar de tribu Iuda id 
fecisset. quod corpus semper futururn intellegens Hiesu s sic 
ait, cum eum occideret : Exterminet te Deus sicut et hodie. nr 

25 Illud etiam multo necessarium est scire, omnes omnino 
ciuitates Israhel et gentium uel prouincias, quas Scriptura 
alloquitur aut in quibus aliquid gestum refert, figuram esse 
Ecclesiae : aliquas quidem partis malae, aliquas bonae, aliquas 
uero utriusque. ergo si sunt aliqua quae etiam in gentes 

2 inquid V* 2, 3 uerurntamen] uerum V 4 — 6 suffi- 

ceret... accipiam illud] om V 5 et 10 salamouis R 9 salomonem R* 

sic ; salamonem R a 9, 10 postumi R 10 auferet] aufert V sub] 

secundum V 11, 12 ut aufert V 12 idolatria V sala- 

moni R 13 alias] alios V* salomonis R et sic infra 

14 aut non disrumpit] om R 18 hiesu] R 5 IHu V sic] 

+ dicit V manifeste] RV* vid ; manifestans Wcorr 19 ostendi V 

20 inquid V* 21 denathemate V* 22 achar] achan M ; axxxx V*; 

acham Ycorr tribu iuda] tribuloda R* 23 hiesus] ihs RV 

28 partis] partes V malae] + tantum V 29 ergo si sunt] et si sint V 

xxi 5 


quae foris sunt uideantur conuenire, in parte tamen quae RV 
intus est conuenitur omne corpus aduersum, sicut in Israhel 
captiuo promittitur gentibus ad Dominum reditus. inpossibile 
est enim legem loqui ei qui in lege non est ; de eo loqui 
potest, non tamen ad ipsum. et si alicubi sine ista occasione 5 
nominis Israhel specialiter alienigenas alloquitur, intus omni 
modo credendi sunt, quoniam, et si eiieniebat specialiter 
quod profetatum est, Ecclesia tamen est. proprietas denique 
non omnibus speciebus euenit. nam et Damascus et Tyrus 
— quae et Sor — et aliae multae usque nunc extant, quas io 
Dominus penitus tolli nee restaurari dixerat. 

In alienigenis autem ciuitatibus Ecclesiam conueniri 
apertum est in Ezechiele, cui cum Deus diceret praedicere 
interitum in Theman, quae est Esau, et in Dagon, quod est 
idolum Allopliylorum, intellexit parabolam esse aduersus 15 
Ezex.\45- Hierusalem et templum. F actus est inquit sermo Domini 
ad me dicens: fili hominis confirma faciem tuam super 
Theman, respite in Dagon, profetare in siluam summam 58 
Nageb, et dices saltui Nageb : audi uerbum Domini ; Jiaec 
dicit Dominus, Ecce ego incendo in te ignem, et comedet in te 20 
omne lignum uiride et omne lignum aridum. non extinguetur 
flamma incensa, et conburetur in ea omnis fades in ea a 
Subsolano usque ad Aquilonem, et cognoscet omnis caro quia 
ego Dominus succendi Mud, non extinguetur ultra, et dixi: 
non, Domine. ipsi dicunt ad me : nonne parabola est haec 25 
quae dicitur? et /actus est sermo Domini ad one dicens : prop- 

1 partem R* mox corr 2 conuenitur] conuiuitur V* 3 pro- 

mittit R dominum] dm V 5 ad ipsum tamen non V si alicubi] 

si alicui R ; sine alicubi V 6 alienigena R 8 prophetatum RV 

ecclesia] eccl V (.sic aliquando, sine terminatione) 9, 10 tyrus quae] 

tyrusque R ; tirus quae V 10 sor] soor V aliae] aliquae V 

11 dominus] ds V 13 hiezeckielo R; ezechielo V cui 

cum] quidim V* vid 15 allofilorum V: uid Appx 11 aduersum V 

16 factus] factum RV inquid V* 18 profetare] V; pro- 

pb&are R 19 et dices saltui nageb] om V 20 incendo] R* ; 

incendio Hcorr; incendam V commed& R 22 flamma] 

pr in ea R incensa] incensio R oms facies R in ea 2°] 

om V 22, 23 a subsolano] absolano R 23 usque] & usque V* 

cognoscet] Ycorr ; cognoscit RV* 2G factus est] + inquit V (sic) 


RV terea fili hominis profetare et confirma faciem tuam ad 
Hierusalem, respice in sancta eorum, et profetabis super 
terrain Israhel. haec dicit Dominus, Ecce ego educam gla- 
dium meum de uagina sua, et disperdam de te iniquum et 
5 iniustum. sic exiet gladius meus de uagina sua super omnem 
carnem a Subsulano usque ad Aquilonem, et sciet omnis caro 
quia ego sum Dominus, qui emisi gladium meum de uagina 
sua, non egredietur ultra. Confirma iuquit faciem tuam Eze xx as 
super Tkeman et respice in Dagon, et interpretatus est 

lodicens: confirma faciem tuam ad Hierusalem et respice inibwn 
sancta eorum, et ostendit non omnem Hierusalem dicens : 
disperdam de te iniquum et iniustum, et ita futurum genera- ib 3 
liter ait : sic exiet gladius meus super omnem carnem a Sub- m 
sola/no usque ad Aquilonem. ostendit in Hierusalem esse 

15 Theman, quam illic Deus interficiet et Dagon et omnia exe- 
crabilia gentium, operante filio Dauid Salomone in filiis suis. 
quae etiam euidenter deiecta templa Dei et demolita atque 
spiritaliter exusta proiecit in torrentem, id est saeculum, qui 
nascitur Alius Dauid Iosias, ut disrumpatur altare in Bethel, 

20 sicut scriptum est: Altare altare, haec dicit Dominus: ecce z Regn .*m •; 
filius nascitur domui Dauid, Iosias nomen Mi. 

Nineue ciuitas alienigenarum bipertitae Ecclesiae figura 
est, sed quia ordine lectionem interpretando persequi longum 
est, sat erit id quod in speciem conuenire non potest 

25 dici. Erat iuquit Nineue ciuitas magna Deo, cum esset Ioniii3 
aduersa Deo, ut metropolis Assyriorum quae et Samariam 
deleuit et omnem Iudaeam semper obpressit. sed in figura 
Ecclesiae praedicante Iona, id est Christo, omnis omnino 
liberata est. eadem Nineue omnino in sequenti profetia 

3° peritura describitur, cui praedicans Dominus signum est cfMtxiuo 

1 prophetare RV* ; propheta V a 2 respice in] respiciens V prophe- 
tabis RV 4 iniquum] inimicum V 8 egredietur] regredietur V* sed supr 
ras inquid V* 11 omnem hierusalem] omuexxxxxxx V* 12 ini- 

quum] inimicum V et ita] ita V 15 interficiet] interfecit V 17 quae] 
qua V 18 qui] V*; q Ycorr 21 nascetur V 22 alien- 

arum V bipertito R 23 ordinem R 24 sat] satis V 

specie V 25 dici] dicere V inquid V magna deo] magna di R ; magna 
ado V 27 post deleuit ras in V oppressit V 28 omnino] pr 

omnis R 20 propk&ia R; propheta V 30 cui] cum R est] om R 


Ionae in uentre ceti. atque ut et ipse profeta ostendat non RV 
esse illam ciuitatem specialem, interponit aliqua quae speciei 

Nahni3 modum excedant. Non erat inquit finis gentilibus illius, 

tow cum esset ciuitas unius gentis. et iterum : Multiplicasti 

mercatus tuos super astra caeli, id est super Ecclesiam. et 5 

lb 19 iterum: Super quern non euenitmalitiatua semper? numquid 

potuit unius ciuitatis malitia super omnem hominem aut 
semper uenisse, nisi illius quam Cain fratris sanguine funda- 

cfc.eivu uit nomine filii sui, id est posteritatis ? 

Manifestius adhuc docet profeta Ecclesiam esse Nineue. io 

soph ii 13- fit extendet inquit manum suam in Aquilonem—id est popu- 
lum solis alienum aduersum Meridiano — et perdet Assy- 
rium, et <ponet> illam Nineue exterminium sine aqua in 
desertum, et pascentur in medio eius greges, onines bestiae 
terrae. et chameleontes et hericii in laquearibus eius cuba- 15 
bunt, et bestiae uocem dabunt in fossis eius, et corui in portis 
eius, quoniam cedrus altitudo eius. ciuitas contemnens quae 
Jiabitat in spe, quae dicit in corde suo Ego sum, et non est post 
■me adhuc ! quomodo facta est in exterminiutn pascua bestia- 
rwm ! omnis qui transit per illam sibilabit, et mouebit manus 20 
suas. inlustris et redempta ciuitas, columba quae non 
audit uocem, non recepit disciplinam. in Domino non est 
confisa, et ad Deum suwn non adpropinquauit, principes 
eius in ea ut leones fvementes, indices eius ut lupi Arabiae 
non relinquebant in mane, profetae eius spiritu elati uiri 25 
contemptores, sacerdotes eius profanant sacra et conscelerant 
legem. Dominus autem iustus in medio eius non faciet 

1 co&i RV propheta RV ostendat] V* ; ostendit Ycorr 3 in- 
quid V gentilibus] genti gentibus R 6 euenit] uenit 

V 9 posteritas R* 10 profeta] R a (sic); profecta R*; propheta V 

11 inquid V 12 aduersus V meridianum Ycorr per- 

dat R 13 ponet] uddidi ; drjaei. lxx illam nineue] ilia nineue 

R; illud nineue V sine] siue V 14 greges] gentes R ; gregis V 

15 cameleontii V hericii] ericii R ; hirci V 19 exter- 

minio V pascua] ciuitas R 20 sibilauit R 21 inlustras 

V* 22 audit] RV* ; audiuit Ycorr 23 deum] dnm V 24 eius 1°] 
om Y* in ea ut] ineant R 25 relinquebant] relinquebunt V* ; 

relinquent V a prophetae RV spiritu elati] in spu uelati R 

2G profanant] prophetant V 27 medio] templo V faciet] facit R 


RV Aegyptus item bipertita est. Ecce inqiiit Dominus sedet Esaixixi 
super nubem leuem et uenit in Aegyptum. — nubes corpus est 
spiritale post baptisma et claritas filii hominis ; primus est 
enim aduentus Domini iugiter corpore suo uenientis, sicut 
5 elicit: A modo uidebitis uenientem in nubibus caeli. — Et com- 5ftxxyi« 

Lsai xi\ 1 :; 

minuentur manufacta Aegypti a facie illius, et cor ipsorum 
minorabitur in Mis. et exurgent Aegypti super Aegyptios, et 
expugnabit Iiomo fratrem suum et homo proximum suum, et 
expuguabit ciuitas supra ciuitatem, et exurget id est Aegyp- 

io tus super Aegyptum, et lex supra legem, sensus scilicet 
diuersitate sub una lege, et turbabitur spiritus Aegyptiorum 
in ipsis, et cogitationes eorum dispargam. et postquam nunc 
generi speciem nunc genus speciei miscuisset adiecit dicens : 
Die autem Mo erit altare Domini in regione Aegyptiorum, et Esaixixi9,-ju 

15 tituli ad terminos eius Domino, erit autem in signum in 
aeternum Domino in regione Aegyptiorum. non dixit Dece- 
bit esse altare ad terminos Aegypti in aeternum, sed Erit. 

Ezechiel uero apertius ostendit totum mundum esse 
Aegyptum dicens : dies! quia prope est dies Domini, dies Ezexxx2- 

20 finis gentium erit. et ueniet gladius super Aegyptios. et 
iungit speciem : Et erit tumult us in Aetliiopia, et cadent 
uulnerati in Aegypto, et cadent fundamenta eius, Persae et 
Gretes et Lydii et Lybies et omnes commixticii, et filii testa- 
menti mei gladio cadent in ea cum ipsis. Hoc autem factum 

25 est, cum post excidium Hierusalem descenderent in Aegyp- 
tum et occiderentur illic a Nabuchodonosor secundum Hiere- 
miae profetationem. fiet autem et generaliter nouissimo 
die, quando cum Aegyptis filii testamenti ceciderunt, Aegyp- 
tiorum more uiuentes. 

3° Item per Ezechielem minatur Deus regi Aegyptiorum et 

3 baptisrnurn Vcorr fili V 6 facie] facie xx V* 7 minorabitur] 

E a ; inmorabitur R* aegypti] RV (sic) 8 et homo proximum suum] 

om R 9 expugnabit] pugnauit V* ; -bit Vcorr supra] super V 

idest]RV*; omYcorr 12 dispergam RV, cfpp 45 5 , 52 21 nunc] omV* 

15 in signum] om in R 16, 17 decebit] licebit V 18 hiezechiel R ; 

ezechihel V 21 in] om V 23 cr&aes R lidii & libii V commisticii 
V* 26 et occiderentur] ut occiderent R nobocodonosor R ; naboc- R a 

27 prophetationem RV 28 aegyptis] RV* ; aegyptiis Vcorr ceciderunt] 
R*V* ; ceciderint licorr Vcorr 29 more] morte V* 30 ezechihelum 

BiVcorr; ezecbielum V* 


eius raultitudini, quod essent terribiles in sanctos, inter RV 
incircumcisos deputari, quod non conuenit nisi in eos qui 

Eze xxxii 32 sibi circumcisione, id est sacris, blandiuntur. Quoniam igitur 
dedit timorem suum super terrain uitae, dormiet in medio 
incircumcisorum cum uulneratis gladio Farao et omnis multi- 5 
tudo eius cum ipso, dicit Dominus. item illic a genere ad 

Eze xxxii 3- speciem : Haec dicit Dominus, Circumiaciam super te retia 
populorum midtorum, et extraham te in hamo meo, et extendam 
te super terram. campi <replebuntur> tui, et constituam 
super te omnes aues caeli, et saturabo omnes bestias uniuersae i° 
terrae, et dabo carries tuas super montes, et satiabo sanguine 
tuo colles, et rigabitur terra ab his quae de te procedunt. a 
multitudine tua in montibus uepres inplebo abs te, et cooperiam 
caelum cum extingueris, et obscurabo astra eius; solem in 
nube contegam et luna non lucebit lumen eius. omnia quae 15 
lucent lumen in caelo obscurabuntur super te, et dabo tenebras 
super terram tuam, dicit Dominus. iungit speciem : Et exas- 
perabo cor populorum midtorum, cum ducam captiuitatem 
tuam in nationes in terram quam non noueras. excedit spe- 
ciem : Et contristabuntur super te midtae nationes, et reges 20 
earwm mentis alienatione stupebunt cum uolabit gladius mens 
super fades eorum in medio eorum, ferit adf ruinam suam ex 
die ruinae tuae. redit ad speciem : Quoniam haec dicit Domi- 
nus, Gladius regis Babylonis uenit tibi in gladiis gigantum, 
et deiciam uirtutem tuam, pestes a nationibus omnes, et perdent 25 
contumeliam Aegypti et conteretur omnis uirtus eius. in 
genus : Et perdam omnia pecora eius ab aqua multa, et non 

1, 2 inter circnmcisos V 4 uitae dormiet] uitae dormir& V* ; om 

uitae Ycorr 5 cum uulneratis] scripsi : cum uulneratus R ; uulue- 

ratus V pharao R 6 item] et V sapr ras 7 circumiacium V* 

super te retia] super tertiam V 8 extrahunt V* hamo meo] 

amoneoV*; amo meo Ycorr 9 replebuntur] suppleult Sabat.; om 

RV 11 montes] oms R 13 implebo V 15 luna] R* 

lunae Rco/t V 16 lumen] V*; lumina R; lumine Ycorr; wavra 

to. (palvovra <pw$ lxx super te] om V 18 ducu V* vid 

19 tuam] tuae V* 21 alienationes R uolauit R 22 erit ad rui- 

nam] RV: cf p 45 12 ; Trpoffdex6fJ.ft'OL rr\v irrQtnv lxx 23 tuae] suae R 

ad] in V 24 babilonis V in gladiis] gladius R 25 deie- 

ciam R pestis R omnis R 26 contumelia R eius] 

eorum eius V (sic) 27 eius ab] om V 


RV turbabit earn pes Jtominis ultra, et uestigium pecorum non cal- 

cabit earn, tunc requiescent aquae eorum, et fiumina eorum 

ut oleum abibunt, (licit Dominus. species : Et dabo Aegyptum 

in interitum, et desolabitur terra cum plenitudine sua et dis- 

5 pargam omnes inhabitantes earn, germs : Et scient quia ego 

sum Dominus. Operiam inquit caelum cum extingueris, et Eze xxxii 7, s 

obscurabo astra eius; solem in nube contegam, et luna non 

lucebit lumen eius. omnia quae lucent lumen in caelo obscura- 

buntur super te, et dabo tenebras super terrain tuam. in pas- 

io sione Domini non in terra Aegypti tantum fuernnt tenebrae, cfLcxxiii45 

sed in toto orbe. sed nee capta Aegypto obstipuerimt 

gentes, expectantes ruinam suam ex die ruinae eius. Ezexxxuio 

Nam et de Sor scfiptum est : Haec dicit Dominus ad Sor, Ezexxviis- 
. . .18 

Nonne a uoce ruinae tuae in gemitu uulneratorum, dum vnter- 

i^jiciuntur gladio in medio tui, commouebuntur insulae? et 
descendent a sedibus suis omnes principes maris, et auferent 
mitras et uestem uariam suam despoliabunt se. in stupore 
mentis stupebunt et timebunt in interitu tuo, et ingeniescent 
super te, et accipient super te lamentationem, et dicent tibi: 

20 Quomodo destructa est de mari ciuitas ilia laudabilis, quae 
dedit timorem swum omnibus inhabitantibus in ea ! et time- 
bunt insulae ex die ruinae tuae. iterum de eadem : In die r^e xxvu 27 

• • — 36 

ruinae tuae ad clamorem uocis tuae gubernatores tui timore 

timebunt, et descendent de nauibus omnes remiges tui, et uec- 

59 tores et proretae maris super terram stabunt, et ululabunt 

super te uoce sua, et clamabunt amarum super te, et inponent 

super caput suum terram, et cinerem sternent, et accipient 

super te lamentationem Jilii eorum, lamentam Sor : Quantum 

4, 5 dispargam] V* ; dispergam RYcorr 5 earn] in ea V 

6 operam inquid Y* extinguaeris V* 7 luna] scripsi, 

uid suprw, lun§ R; lunae V 8 lucent lumina R 8, 9 obscurabunt 

V 11 obstupuerunt R 12 expectantes] expugnantes R 13 sor] 
soor V scriptum] pr sic V 14 a uoce ruinae tuae] a 
ruina&uae V 15 insulae] in sole V* 16 descendent] discedent 

V 17 uariam suam] aurium suum V dispoliabant V*; -bunt Ycorr 
18 stupebunt ..inge(miscent)] R supr ras 20 quae] qui V 22 in- 
sulae] insyle, R 23 gubernatoris R 23,24 timore... remiges tui] 
om R 26 uocem suam RV 28 filii eorum] scrij)si ex lxx ; filiorum RV 
lamentam] lamentum V sor] R sevip, V hie 


inuenisti mercedem de mari ! satiasti gentes midtitudine tua, rv 
et a commixtione tua locupletasti omnes reges terrae. nunc 
autem contrita es in mari, in pro/undo aquae commixtio tua, 
et omnis congregatio tua in medio tui. ceciderunt omnes 
remiges tui, omnes qui inhabitant instdas contristati sunt super 5 
te, et remiges eorum mentis alienatione stupuerunt, et lacrima- 
tus est uultus eorum super te. mercatores de gentibus exibila- 
bunt te ; perditio facta es, et ultra non eris in aeternum, dicit 
Dominus. numquid in imam insulam conueniunt quae dicta 
sunt, aut sola potuit locupletare omnes reges terrae? sed 10 
aliqua relinquimus locis oportunis, quibus etsi strictim dican- 
tur uideri possunt. 

Tyrus bipertita est, sicut per Esaiam, qui post multa 

Rsai xxiii 15 speciei et generis hoc quoque adiecit dicens : Erit post sep- 

tuaginta annos Tyrus sicut canticum fornicariae. accipe 15 
ciiharam, uagulare, ciuitas fomicaria oblita; bene citharizare, 
multa canta, ut tui commemoratio fiat, et erit post septua- 
ginta annos 7'espectionem faciei Deus Tyri, et iterum restitue- 
tur in antiquum <, et erit commercium omnibus regnis terrae>. 
numquid credibile est uniuersa regna terrarum Tyrum uenire 20 
negotiandi causa ? quod si ueniant, quae utilitas praedixisse 

11,11 futura Tyro commercia omnibus regnis terrae, si non Tyrus 

Ecclesia est in qua orbis terrarum negotium est aeternae uitae ? 

ibis sequitur enim et ostendit quod sit eius negotium dicens: Et 

erit negotiatio eius et merces sancta Domino, non enim illis 25 
colligitur, sed illis qui habitant in conspectu Domini, omnis 
negotiatio eius edere et bibere et repleri in signum memoriale in 
conspectu Domini, si ergo negotiatio eius sancta Domini, 
quomodo potest omnibus esse regnis, nisi ubique fuerit ista 
Tyrus ? 3 o 

1 mercede R 3 contrita] contristata V 4 congratio R 

5 insulas] siluas R 7 mercatores] + eorum V 7,8 exhibilabunt 

V* ; exsibilabunt Vcorr 8 te] & R es et] est V* ; es Ycorr 

11, 12 dicuntur V 13 iesaiam Rcorr 15 fornicariae] fornicari R 

16 cythara. V uagulare] R, ptixfievaov lxx; angulare V citbarizari R; 
cytharizare V 17 multa] + cantica V 18 facit dns R 19 et erit... 
terrae] om RV 20 ^tyrum] tyro R 22 futuro R commertia R 

23 qua] quo R orbis] omne V 25, 27, 28 negotiatio] negotia R 

25 mercis RV* 27 aedere V* memoriale] memoriae V 29 regni V 


RV Sequitur enim et aperte ostendit quid sit Tyrus dicens : 

Ecce Dominus corrumpet orbem terrarum et uastabit ilium et emu xxw 1- 
nudabit faciem eius. disparget eos qui inhabitant in eo, et 
erit populus sicut sacerdos, — num illius orbis cuius negotiatio 

5 sancta Domino ? — et famulus sicut dominus et famula sicut 
domina. et erit emens simt uendens, et qui, debet sicut ille cui 
debetur, et qui fenerat sicut ille qui feneratur. quia corrup- 
tione corrumpetur terra et uastatione uastabitur terra, os enim 
Domini locutum est ista, planxit terra, corruptus est orbis 

10 terrae, planxerunt alti terrae. terra autem /acinus admisit 
propter eos qui habitant in ea, quia transierunt legem et muta- 
uerunt iussa, testamentum aeternum. propterea ergo male- 
dictio comedit terrain, quia peccauerunt qui inhabitant in ea. 
propter hoc egentes erunt qui inhabitant terrain, — numquid 

is illi egentes esse possint, quibus in omnibus regnis terrae cf Esai win 
negotiatio est edere et bibere et repleri, non quodam tempore, 
sed in signum memoriale in conspectu Domini ?- — et relin- 
quentur homines pauci. lugebit uitis, lugebit uinuni, gement 
omnes quorum iucundatur anima. cessauit iucunditas tym- 

10 panorum, cessauit inpudicitia et diuitiae impiorum. numquid 
sanctorum cessabit uox citharae ? confusi sunt, non biberunt 
uinum, amarum factum est sicera eis qui bibunt Mud. deserta 
est omnis ciuitas, claudent domos ne introeant. ululate de 
uino ubique, cessauit omnis iucunditas terrae, et relinquetur 

25 ciuitates desertae, et domus derelictae peribunt. haec omnia 
erunt terrae in medio gentium, si deserta est omnis ciuitas, 
quae sunt gentes in quarum medio ista sunt? 

3 eos] + his V disperget RV, cf pp 45 5 , 52 21 4 num] numquid R 

negotio R 6 uendens] pr et V quid debet V* 8 et] e V* 9 ista] 

haec V corruptus] curuatus V 10 admisit] amisit V 

11 inhabitant V* vid quia] qui R 12 iussa testamenti 

aeterni V 13 comed& R habitant Ycorr 14 propter hoc] 

numquid illi R erunt] erant V 15 possunt V 16 nego- 

ciatio R 17 memoriale] memoriae V 18 gemant V 19 io- 

cundator V*, iocundatur Ycorr 19, 20 cessauit] scrlpsi, wewavTat. lxx; 

cessabit RV utroque loco 19 iocunditas V 19, 20 tympanorum] 

tympano cum V 22 uinum] B,Ycorr; xxxx V* eis] illis V 

deserxo V* 23 claudent domos] plaudent oms V 23,24 de uino] 

diuino V 24 cessabit V iocunditas V 27 sunt 2"] faciant V 


Etsi aliqua horum uidentur et iam perspicue fieri, tamen RV 
omnia spiritalia sunt, omnem ciuitatem desertam spirita- 
liter mortuara elicit, sed Tyri illius meretricis, non cuius est 

Esai xxiv 6 negotiatio sancta toto orbe. quod autem dixit relinquentur 
homines pauci — saluo utique statu — eorumqui peribunt. pauci 5 
relinquuntur ex eis quos spiritaliter mortuos dicit, qui per re- 
cordationem uixerint, quos Ecclesia non interfecerit, sicut 
multis in locis legimus. sed quia propositura nobis implendum 
est duobus contenti sumus exemplis. minatur Deus ignem 
ex igni Israhel regi Assyriorum, id est aduerso corpori, et dicit io 

Esiiix i6-i9 arsurum uelut stipulam, paucosque ignem fugituros. Mittet 
inquit Dominus Sabaoth in tuum honorem ignominiam, et in 
claritatem tuam ignem ardentem, "\et ardebit'f lumen Israhel 
fei erit ibif ignis, et sanctificabit Mud in flamma ardente — 
scilicet lumen Israhel — et manducabit quasi faenum siluam. 15 
in Mo die ardebunt monies, et per praeripia fugient, quasi qui 
fugit a flamma ardenti. et qui remanserint ab Mis erunt 
numerus, et puer scribet illos. Qui remanserit inquit ab Mis, 
non ab igni, non enim potest ignis qui conburit ardere ; qui 
autem ex conbustis superauerint ignis efficientur. et in 10 
Zacharia legimus illos remanere quos Ecclesia non occiderit, 
quod ad se conuertantur ; ceteros uero spiritaliter cruciatibus 
interficere, si quidem stantibus oculos eruat, et carnes tabes- 

zeeh xiv 11— cere faciat. Habitabit inquit in Hierusalem confidens. et 

1 et iam perspicue] imperspicue V*; perspicue Ycorr 3 est] 

om V 4 negociatio R tota R quod autem dixit] R ; ihs autem 

V (sic), fortasse omnia a prima maim 5 peribunt] perimunt 1 ' V 
C relinquuntur] relinquentur V 7 uixerunt V ecclesia] ecclesi- 
asticus V interficerit R sicut] si V 8 praepositum 

V nobis] orbis V 10 assiriorum V 10, 11 dicit arsurum 
uelut] dicitur syrum uel ad V* (dicit ad Ycorr pro dicitur) 11 fugituros] 
futurus V 12 tuum honore ignominia V* vid 13, 14 et 
ardebit... ignis] debebat esse 'ardebit. et erit lumen Israhel ut ignis' 
14 erit ibi] Ycorr ; ardebit V* vid ; erit tibi R sciticauit R 
flammam ardentem R 15 manducauit R 16 praeripia] 
precipitia V 17 fugit] fugiat R ardente V 19 non ab 
igni] om V comburit R 20 superauerit R et] om V 
21 remanere] remeare V 22 cruciantibus R 23 oculos seruat R 
24 hierusalem] irl V 


RV haec erit strages qua caedet Dominus popvlos, quotquot mili- 
tauerunt aduersus Hierusalem: tabescent carnes eorum stan- 
tibus eis super pedes suos, et oculi eorum fluent a foramini- 
bus eorum, et lingua eorum tabescet in ore eorum. et erit 
5 in ilia die alienatio magna super illos, et adprehendet unus- 
quisque manum proximi sui, et implicabitur manus eius 
manui proximi eius, — id est caecus caecum ducens. et Iudas 
proeliabitur in Hierusalem, et colliget wires omnium poptdo- 
rum, aurum et argentum et uestem in multitudinem nimis. et 

10 haec erit strages equorum et mulorum et camelonim et asino- 
rum et omnium pecorum quae sunt in castris illis, secundum 
stragem istam. et erit quicumque relicti fuerint ex omnibus 
gentibus uenientibus super Hierusalem, et ascendent quotquot 
annis adorare regem Dominum omnipotentem, celebrare diem 

15 festum scenopegiae. 

Aelam alienigenarum est. huic speciali iungit generalem, 
monstratque bipertitam. Haec dicit Dominus, Gonfringantur m«- *xv 35 
a reus in Aelam principatus eorum. excedit speciem : Et 
superducam quattuor uentos a quattuor cardinibus caeli, et 

io dispergam illos per omnes uentos caeli, nee erit gens quae illuc 
rum ueniat, quae expellat Aelam. redit in speciem: Et 
terrebo illos coram inimicis eorum qui quaerunt animas 
eorum, et superducam in eos secundum iram indignationis 
meae, et mittam post eos gladium meum, donee consumat eos. 

25 iungit genus : Et ponam sedem meam in Aelam, et perdam 

1 haec] Vcorr; haxx V* cedet V dominus] ds V 

quodquod V* 2 hierusalem] irl V 4 eorum 1°] suis V 

linguae... tabescent R 5 illos] eos V adprehendit V* 

G implicabitur] implebitur V 8 praeliabitur R uires] uiros V 

9 aurum] pr et V in multitudine nimia V a 10 haec] 

om Vcorr mulorum et] multorum V 11 pecorum] om R 

illis] illius R 13 gentibus] om V* ; add in mg quotquot] 

quodquod V* 14 dominum omnipotentem] scripsi; ihm dm potentem 

R ; dnm dm omipotentem V caelebrare V 15 scenophegiae 

R; scinofegiae V* ; scenofegiae Vcorr 16 elam V hoc loco huic] 

hie V 17 monstrat quae V [sic) confringantur] con- 

fringanair V 18 in] bis scripsit V* excedit] j)r et V 

et] om V 22 eorum] R supr lin 23 secundum] se- 

cuin R 

B. 4 



inde regem et potentes ; eritque in nouissimis diebits auertamKV 
captiuitatem Aelam, dicit Dominus. numquid credendum est ^ ' 
non fuisse gentem quae non uenerit ad expugnandam Aelam, 
aut illic sedem Domini, cuius captiuitatem auertit, nisi 
Ecclesiae sit figura ? 5 

Aliqnae uero species sinistrae tantum sunt, ut Sodoma, 

Esaiiio sicut scriptum est: Audite uerbum Domini principes Sodo- 

Apxis morum, et: Quae uocatur spiritaliter Sodoma et Aegyptus, ubi 
et Dominus eorum cruci fixus est. ex his Sodomis exiet Loth, 

2Theii3 quod est, Discessio, ut reueletur homo peccati. Babylon ciui- io 
tas aduersa Hierusalem totus mundus est, qui in parte sua, 

Esaixiiii quam in bac Hierusalem habet, conuenitur. Visio inquit 
aduersus Babyloniam, et dicit aduersum orbem terrarum uen- 

Esaixiii2- turos sanctos Dei milites. Tollite siqnum et exaltate uocem 

Mis. nolite timere exhortamini manus, aperite magistratus, r 5 
quia ecce ego praecipio. sanctificati sunt, et uoco eos ; gigantes 
ueniunt iram meain lenire, gaudentes simul et iniuriam 
facientes. uox multarum gentium in montibus similis gentium 
multarum, uox regum et gentium collectarum, cum Babylonem 
gens et rex Medorum euerterit. sequitur enim et dicit qui 7 ° 
sunt isti reges, et quae Babylon. Deus Sabaoth praecepit 
genti bellatrici uenire de longinquo de summo fundamento 
caeli, Deus et bellatores eius corrumpere uniuersum orbem 
terrae. ululate, proximus est enim dies Domini, et contritio a 
Deo aderit. propter hoc omnes manus resoluentur, et omnis 2 S> 
anima hominis trepidabit. turbabuntur legati, parturitiones 

1 regem] Ycorr ; regenxx V*; reges R eritque] erit V auertam] 

a&ernam V 3 quae] qui R uenerit] nouerit V 4 auertit] 

uertit V 5 ecclesiae] ecclesiasticus V* ; ecclesiastica Vco?t figu- 

rae R 6 aliquae] quae V 7 audit V* 7, 8 sodomorum] 

sodomam V* 8 uocatur] secatur V 11 aduersa] aduersus V 

qui] om V 12 hierusalem habet] israhel haec V inquid V* 

13 babyloniam] babylonem V aduersus V 14 exaltate] 

exultate V uocem] uicem V 15 illis] illius R 

16 sanctificati] pr qui R uoco eos] uoce V 17 ueniant R 

lenire] cf Cyp 785 14 : linire V; mitigare R 18 similis] similes V 

19 collecturum V* cum babylone V 20 euerterit] euenerit R 

21 sunt] sint V precipit R 22 fumlamenta V 26 legati] 

ligati R 


RV enim illos habebunt quasi mulieris parturientis, et patientur 
circumstantiam ; alius ad alium expauescent, et fades eorwni 
sicut flamma comrnutcbbimtur. ecce enim dies Domini insana- 
bilis uenit indignationis et irae, ponere orbem terrarum deser- 
5 turn, et peccatores perdere ex eo. diem Domini ex quo passus 
est dicit, ex quo spiritaliter interficitur mundus, interfi- 
ciente exercitu Dei, dum eius lumen iniqui non uident, sicut 
sequitur dicens : Stellae enim caeli et Orion et omnis ornatura 
caeli lumen non dabunt, et tenebrescet oriente sole "f" lumen et *f* 

10 non permanebit lumen eius. et infligam orbi terrae mala et 
iniustis peccata eorum, et perdam iniuriam scelestorum et iniu- 
riam superborum humiliabo. et erunt qui remanserint — id 

60 est quos supradicti milites non occiderint — honorati magis 
qtmm aurum quod non tetigit ignem, et homo honoratus erit 

15 magis quam lapis ex Sufir. caelum enim indignabitur et 
terra commouebitur a fundamentis suis propter animationem 
irae Domini, in die qua aderit indignatio eius. iungit spe- 
ciem : Et erit qui relicti sunt quasi capreola fugiens, et sicut 
ouis errans et non erit qui colligit, ut homo ad popidum suum 

20 conuertatur, et uenire in tribum suum festinet. qui enim inci- 
derit superabitur, et si qui collecti sunt gladio cadent. et jiliae 
eorum in conspectu eorum fcadentf, et domos eorum diripient, 
et uxoi'es eorum habebunt. ecce excito uobis Medos, qui non 
computant pecuniam, neque auro opus est illis. subtiliter 

25 adstringit genus ; cui enim hosti non opus est auro nisi Eccle- 

1 enim] om V mulieres parturieutes R patientur] parietas 

V 2 circumstantia V aliam V 6 interficietur R 

8 sequitur] seruentur V caeli] om R et orion] exteriore V 

omnis] omnes V ornatura] conieci, cf. Roensch 42 : creatura R ; 

ex ea rura V; 6 Kocrfios lxx 9 tenebrisc& R; tenebrescit V 

oriente sole lumen] R; om V, spcaio relicto circiter xxv litterarum 
9, 10 Invaen et... eius] Kal i] a-eXrjVT] 011 dwaei to (pws avTijs hxx 10 orbi] 

mortui V 13 supradicti] supputadicti V occiderit V 

14 homo] pr non V erit] fuerit R 15 sufir] sophyr R 

16 suis] om V propter] propterea V aminatione R 17 in- 

dignatio] cf lxx ; indignationis RV 18 capriola V 19 colligat V 

20, 21 incederit V 21, 22 filiae earum V* vid 22 doinus V 

24 conputant V 25 adstringit] scripsi ; aut stringit R ; item in- 

serit V (M) hosti] ostis V ; hostis M auro] + et argento V 

ecclesiae] ecclesiasticus V 



siae quae spiritali fruitur uita ? Sagittationes iuuenum con- RV 
fringent, et filiis uestris non miser 'ebuntur, et super nepotes 
uestros non parcent oculi eorum. 

Omnia spiritaliter, sicut de eadem Babylonia scriptum 

Ps cx.xxvi 9 est : Felix est qui obtinebit et conlidet paruulos tuos ad petram. 5 
neque enim regem Medorum quod obtinuerit aduersum Baby- 
lonem dixit felicem, et non Ecclesiam quae obtinet et conlidet 
filios Babylonis ad petram scandali. obtinet autem, sicut 

2 The a 7 scriptum est : Qui obtinet modo, donee de medio fiat, et post 

multa speciei et generis in clausula periochae aperte ostendit 10 
omnes gentes esse Babylonem et eas in terra atque in monti- 

Esaixiv22- bus suis, id est in Ecclesia, perdere. Haec dicit Dominus, 
Ponam Babylonem desertam, ut inliabitent hericii in ilia, et 
erit in nihilum, et ponam illam luti uoraginem in perditionem. 
haec dicit Dominus Sabaoth dicens, Quomodo dixi sic erit, et 15 
quomodo cogitaui sic perseuerabit, ut perdam Assyrios in 
terra mea et in montibus meis, et erunt in conculcationem. et 
auferetur ab eis iugum eorum, et gloria ab umeris eorum 
auferetur. haec cogitatio quam cogitauit Dominus in orbem 
terrae totum, et haec mantis alta super omnes gentes orbis 20 
terrae. Deus enim sanctus quod cogitauit quis disparget, et 
manum illam fortem quis auertet? quotienscumque autem 
post excidium minatur ruinae ciuitatis habitationem bestia- 
rum et auium mmundarum, spiritus inmundos dicit habita- 
turos in hominibus quos Spiritus Sanctus deseruerit. non 25 
enim hanc iniuriam possunt interfecti habitatores aut ruina 
sen tire. 

1 spiritali] spiritalit~ V 5 qui] quod R optinebit V 

collidebit V tuos] suos R 6 aduersus V 7 eccle- 

siam] aecclesiasticus V collidet V 8 optinet V 9 qui] 

quod R 10 specie V iu clausula periochae] scripsi ; in clausa 

perichae R; clausula periocae V 10, 11 omnes osteudit omnes V*, 

omnes 2° nunc eras 13 desertum V ericii V 14 illam] 

illud V 16 quomodo] quem ad modum V perseuerauit R 

17 conculcatione V 18 aufertur V ab] R supr ras humeris 

V 20,21 orbis terrae] R supr ras 21 disparget] dispergit R ; 


disgit V (sic) et] om R 22 quotiescumque R 24 et 

auium inmundarum] om V 25 sps sps V (sic) deseruit R 

26 ruinam R 


RV Sermones inquit Amos, quos uidit super Hierusalem ; et Am i 1 
coepit : In tribus impietatibus Damasci et in quattuor non i b z 
auersabor earn, eo quod secabant serris ferreis in utero hubentes. 
et iterum : In tribus impietatibus Idumaeae et in quattuor i\,w 
5 non auersabor earn propter quod persecutus est in gladio fra- 
trem suum. et multas alias ciuitates alienigenarum in Ec- 
clesiae figuram conuenit. ubicumque autem Idumaeam, 
Theman, Bosor, Seir nominat, fratres malos significat ; sunt 
autem possessic-nes Esau, serras uero ferreas homines dicit 

jo duros et asperos, qui secant parturientes Ecclesias. 

Item omnes gentes quae sub caelo sunt in ciuitate Dei 
iram Dei bibere et illic percuti Hieremias testatur dicens : 
Sic dicit Dominus Deus Israhel, Accipe calicem uini meri de n ' 2 e 9 r xxxii 15 
manu niea, et potabis omnes gentes ad quas ego mitto te, 

15 et uoment et insanient a facie gladii, quern ego mitto in medio 
illarum. et accepi calicem de manu Domini, et potaui gentes 
ad quas misit me Dominus ad ipsas : Hierusalem et ciuitates 
ludae et reges eius et principes eius, nt ponerentur in desola- 
tionem et in deuastationem et in sibilationem ; et Farao regem 

20 Aegypti et pueros eius et potentes eius et uniuersum populum 
eius et omnes promiscuos eius; et reges omnes alienigenarum, 
Ascalonem et Gazam et Accaron et quae contra faciem Azoti ; 
et Idumaeam, et Moabitatem, et Jilios Amnion, et regem Tyri 
et regem Sidonis, et reges qui trans mare sunt, et Dedan et 

25 Theman et Bosor, et omnem circumtonsam a facie, et omnes 
promiscuos qui commorantur in deserto, et omnes reges Aelam, 
et omnes reges Persarum, et uniuersos reges a Subsolano qui 
longe et qui iuxta sunt, unwtnquemque ad fratrem suum, et 
omnia regno, terrae quae supra faciem terrae sunt, et dices Mis: 

30 Sic dicit Dominus omnipotens, Bibite et inebriamini et uomite, 

2, 4 quatuor R 4 idumeae RV* 7 idumaeam RVcorr 

9 autem] ft*; aut R a 11 quae] qui R in ciuitate 

Dei] out R 12 bibere] uiuere V* 15 uoment] uenient R 

16 accipi R 18 et reges] om et R 18,19 desolatione...deuastatione 

...sibilatione V 19 pharao regi E 20 et 3°] om V 

21 promiscuos] praemiscuos V 22 ascalonem] asalonem V* 23 idu- 
meam V* moabitem V 24 sidoni R 25 a faciae V* 

26 premiscuos RV aelam] helam R ; elam V 29 supra] super V 

30 sic] haec V 



et cadetis et non surgetis a facie gladii, quern ego mitto in RV 
medio uestrum. et erit si noluerint accipere calicem ita ut 
bibant, dices : Sic dicit Dominus, Bibentes bibetis, quia in 
ciuitate in qua inuocatum est nomen meum super ipsam 
incipio uexare uos, et uos purgatione non eritis purgati, quia 5 

iiier xxxii gladium ego inuoco super inhabitantes super terrain. Potabis 
inquit Hierusalem, ciuitates ludae et reges eius et principes 

ib 26 eius; deinde dicit : Et uniuersa regna terrae quae super faciem 

terrae sunt, ut ostenderet ab special i Hierusalem transitum 
fecisse ad generalem, in qua sunt omnes gentes terrae quas 10 

ib 29 illic Deus percutiet, sicut et interpretatus est dicens : Quo- 

niam in ciuitate in qua inuocatum est nomen meum in ipsa 
incipio uexare uos, et uos purgatione non eritis purgati. num- 
quid Hieremias, cum esset in corpore, qui de Iudaea et 
carcere numquam nisi in Aegyptum tractus, perspicue adiecto 15 
mere- in calice ut potum dare omnibus gentibus quae sub 
caelo sunt, aut nunc praeter Ecclesiam profetat ? quodsi 
tunc quoque et nunc in Ecclesiam locutus est, manifestum 
est et omnes gentes illicubi Hieremias loquitur conueniri in 
principali eorum parte, si quid enim summum Satanas in 20 
corpore suo, si quid dextrum, si quid graue habet, caelestibus 
miscuit ut bellautium est mos fortibus fortes opponere. unde 

cfEphvii-2 apostolus dicit non esse Sanctis pugnam aduersum humana, 
sed aduersus spiritalia nequitiae in caelestibus. 

1 caditis R 2 erit] eriiit V (sic) 6] 

stipr ras in R terrain] terra amnion R 7 iuda R 13 purga- 

tione R eritis] estis R 13, 14 numquit V* 11 iudaea et] 

iudeae V 15 aiecto V 16 ut] id V dare] RV : fortasse pro daret, 
sed cf Roensch 445; Priscillian 42 1 quae] qui R 17 praeter] 

per V 17, 18 profetat... ecclesiam] om R 17 prophetat V 

18 ecclesia V locutus] R (sic); locus V 20 enim] om R 

20, 21 in corpore... graue] si quid graue si quid dextrum in suo corpore V 
22 est] om R 23 pugna V aduersum] aduersus V humana] 

humanitatem V 

24 caelestibus] + explicit de specie | et genere | incipit de temporibvs | 
kegvla R (rubro); +explicit de speciae. et genere. amen || incipit de 




RV Temporis quantitas in Scripturis frequenter mystica est 
(M) tropo synecdoche, aut legitimis numeris, qui multis modis 
positi sunt et pro loco intellegendi ; synecdoche uero est aut a 
5 parte totum, aut a toto pars. 

Hoc tropo cccc annos seruiuit Israhel in Aegypto. nam 
so§dicit Domiuus Abrahae : Sciens scies quia peregrinum erit Gexvi3 
semen tuum in terra non sua, et dominabiintur eorwm et ajjii- 
gent annis CCCC; Exodi autera Scriptura dicit CCCC xxx annos C fExxu40 
10 fuisse Israhel in Aegypto. an non omne terapus seruiuit? 
quaerendum ergo, ex quo tempore : quod inuenire facile est. 
dicit enim Scriptura non seruisse populum, nisi post mortem 
H d Ioseph.^ Mortuus est inquit Ioseph et omnes fratres eius et ex i 6-10 
omnes saeculi illius, filii autem Israhel creuerunt et multipli- 
15 cati sunt et cydaei fuerunt et praeualuerunt nimis, multipli- 
cabat autem eos terra. exsurrexit autem rex alter super 
Aegyptum qui ignorabat Ioseph, et dixit genii suae : Ecce gens 
filiorum Israhel magna multitudo, et ualent super nos ; 
§d uenite ergo circumueniamus eos. § si autem post mortem 
20 Ioseph coepit seruire populus, ex CCCC et xxx annis, quibus 
in Aegypto moratus est, deducimus lxxx annos regui Ioseph 
— regnauit autem a xxx annis usque in ex, — et erunt reliqui rfGe xU4G; 

2 temporis] temporum V supr ras M mystica est] mysticae sunt R 

3 tropo synecdoche] M Eug 872; tropo cyn£kAok6 Aug cod Pal 188; 

•TponcocyNeKAcoKH- R; tropo sinedoche V 4 synecdoche] -cyNeKAooKH 
R; sinedoche V est] post totum VM 6 cccc] quadrin- 

gentos V et sic semper annos] om R 7 dictum est 

Abrahae peregrinum: sic incipit I); uid Introd p xx dominus] ds V 

scies] sciea-s V (sic) 8, 9 adfligent eos VM 9 annis] 

annos D exodo D cccc et xxx D 10 Israhel] om V in 

aegyptum D an. ..seruiuit] om D 11 ergo] + est D 

facile est] om est D 12 enim] dns R 13 mortuus... io- 

seph] om V 15 cydaei] cydei R; cythei V; xi'cScuoi lxx nimis] om 

V 19, 20 quod si tunc coepit: sic rursus incipit D 20 cccc et xxx] 

D; quatrigentis & triginta R; quadriugentis & triginta V quibus] 

pr ex V 21 moratus] demoratus V diducimus Vcorr lxxx] 

septuagiuta D 22 autem] enim V xxx annis] quadragesimo 

anno D, sed cfp 61 13 ex] centesimo decimo D 


seruitutis Tsrahel anni cccl, quos Deus dixit cccc. si autem rv 
omni tempore peregrinationis suae seruiuit Israhel, plus est (M) 
quam Deus dixit ; si ex morte Ioseph secundum Scripturae 
sanctae fidem, minus est. quo manifestum est centum a toto 
partem esse, nam post CCC annos pars aliorum centum anni 5 
sunt : propterea dixit CCCC annos. 

Sic in omni summa temporis, ut puta post nouem dies 
prima hora decimi diei dies est, aut post nouem menses 

sap vtt 1,2 primus dies mensis est, sicut scrip turn est: In utero matris 

figuratus sum caro decern mensuum tempore coagulatus in 10 
sanguine, sicut autem in prima parte cuiusque temporis 
totum tempus est, ita et nouissima hora totus dies est,"" aut * D 
reliquiae mille annorum mille anni sunt, sex dies sunt 
mundi aetas, id est sex milia annorum. in reliquiis sexti diei, 
id est M annorum, natus est Dominus, passus et resurrexit. 15 
itidem reliquiae M annorum dictae sunt mille anni primae 
resurrectionis. sicut enim reliquiae sextae feriae, id est tres 
horae, totus dies est, unus ex tribus sepulturae Domini, ita 
reliquiae sexti diei maioris quo surrexit Ecclesia totus dies 

Mt xii 40 est, id est M anni. hoc enim tropo constant tres dies et tres 20 
nodes, noctis autem et diei xxiiii horae unus dies est, nee 
adiciuntur noctes diebus nisi certa ratione. alias dies solos 

cfGaiiis dicimus, sicut Apostolus dicit mansisse apud Petrum diebus 

XV : numquid opus erat dicere totidem et noctibus ? sic 61 

Geis enim scriptum est : Vespera et mane dies unus. quod si nox 25 

1 israhel] om DM anni cccl] anni .ccccl. R; annis trecentis quin- 

quaginta V* (anni trecenti... Vcorr) ; anni ccclx D quos] quod V 

2 omni tempore] omnem tempus V*; omne tempus Ycorr isra- 

hel] om D 3,4 secundum... fidem] om D 4 quo manifestum 

est] quos manifestatum D 6 cccc] quadringintos VD 7 sic] si hie V 
8 prima... dies] om V diei dies] om dies D 9 mensis] + decimus V ; 

pr mensis M 10 decern mensuum tempore] decimmensu V ; decern 

mensium D coagulatus] + sum DM 11 autem] enim D cuiusque 

temporis] cuiusquam temporis D ; cui : temporis M ; temporis cuiusq- 
temporis cuiusq- V (sic) 12 totum] om V est 1°] om D ita et] 

RDM ; ita in V nouissima] RD ; + ut nouissima VM dies sit VM 

13 sunt 1°] sint VM 14 sex milia] V ; vi« R reliquis V* 15 m] 

mille V semper 1G itidem] idem V 19 surrexit] resurrexit V 

20 id est] om V constat V 21 horae] hore R unus dies] 

unum tempus V 22 alias] RV 1 '; alius V 23 aput V* 25 uespere R 


RV et dies unus dies est, nouissima hora diei et totum diem 
et noctem transactam retinet. similiter et nouissima hora 
noctis totam noctem et diem futuram : hora enim pars est 
utriusque temporis. hora qua sepultus est Dominus pars est 
5 sextae feriae cum sua nocte quae transierat, et hora noctis in 
qua resurrexit pars est inminentis diei. ceterum si neque in 
die praesenti nox est praeterita neque in nocte praesenti dies 
crastinus, non die resurrexit Dominus sed nocte. quoniam dies 
ab ortu solis est, sicut scriptum est : Luminare mains initium Geiie 

io diei ; Dominus autem ante solis ortum resurrexit. nam 
Marcus dicit: Oriente sole, non orto sed oriente, id est ad Mcxvi2 
ortum eunte; Lucas autem: Diluculo. sed ne de hac locutione Lcxxivi 
ambigeretur alteri euangelistae aperte noctem fuisse testan- 
tur. nam Matheus nocte dicit uenisse mulieres ad monu- cfMtxxvffii 

15 mentum et uidisse Dominum, Iohannes uero cum adhuc tene- iohxxi 
brae essent. si autem Dominus ante solem, id est ante 
initium diei resurrexit, nox ilia pars est inlucescentis diei. 
quod et competit operibus Dei, ut non dies obscuretur in 
noctem sed nox lucescat in diem, ipsa enim nox inlumina- 

20 tur et efficitur dies, quod est figura eorum quae facturus erat 

in Christo, quoniam Deus qui dixit de tenebris lumen fulgere ifoivs 
fulsit in cordibus nostris, qui inluminauit tenebras, sicut scrip- 
tum est : Tenebrae tuae sicut meridies erunt, et : Nox tran- ^"ni'l^'L 
siuit, dies autem adpropinquauit ; sicut in die decenter ambu- 

25 lemus. prius est enim quod carnale est, delude quod spiritale. icoxvw 
Dies ergo primus et uouissimus a toto pars est. solus 
medius plenus fuit a uespera in uesperam secundum Dei 
conditionem atque praeceptum, sicut Mosi dicit in Leuitico 
a uespera in uesperam obseruari diem sabbatorum. quidam Lev xxm 32 

30 autem putant ex die computandum, quoniam Dominus trescfMtxuw 
dies et noctes dixit, non tres noctes et dies, sed hoc non 

1 unus dies] unum terupus V diem totum V 2 trans- 

actum V* 3 noctem] om V futuru V 5 quae] qui K 

5, 6 in qua] quae V* ; qua Vcorr 6 imminentis R 12 delu- 

culo R loquutione R 13, 14 alter euangelista...testatur R 

13 noctem] nocte V 17 est] erat V inluciscentis RV 18 ob- 

scuraretur V 19 diem] die V 20 facturus] facta V 24 adpropin- 

quabit V die] diem V 27 dei] VRcorr ; dixm R* 28 moysi V 

in leuitico] om V 29 obseruari] obscuraui V 30 putant] dicunt V 


longa ratione destruitur. si enim ex die initium sepulturae, RY 
in nocte finis ; si autem in die finita est, a nocte coepit. 
nam si dies utrimque concluditur, plus erit unus dies. Di- 
cunt praeterea non posse in die noctem esse praeteritam nee 
in nocte diem futurum, sed separates tres dies et noctes 5 
oportere adsignari, computantes primum diem quo cruci fixus 
est, alterum trium horarum separatarum, tertium sabbati 
— erit dominicus dies quartus ! qui autem hanc circumuen- 
tionem uitant consentiunt a nocte quidem computandum, 
sed noctes a diebus debere separari, dicentes in tribus horis 10 
tenebrarum inportunarum primam noctem, alteram sabbati, 
tertiam inlucescentis dominici. noctes quidem ueluti tres 
sunt, sed dies duo : primus in tribus horis post tenebras, 
secundus sabbati ! non enim qui separatos dies promittit 
potest dicere in nocte qua resurrexit fuisse diem futurum. 15 
quod si in id consensit, consentiat necesse est in reliquis diei 
sextae feriae fuisse noctem praeteritam. quasi tenebrao 
inportunae fuerunt, ties tamen horae lucis eiusdem sunt 
diei, nee amiserunt ordinem suum, quo minus pars esset diei 
ac noctis suae, taceo tres boras tenebrarum noctem esse 20 
non potuisse, quod praeter ordinem fuerint conditionis Dei. 
quicquid enim signi est non turbat elementorum rationalem 

fuegnxxii cursum. non enim quia stetit sol et luna in diebus Hiesu et 
Ezechiae solus sol reuersus est ; aliquid cursus inter solem et 
lunam mutilatum est et detractum uel additum diei ac nocti, 25 
et noua exinde coepit temporum aut neomeniae supputatio, 

(idu quam statuit Deus in sole et luna esse in tempora dies et 
annos, sicut in Genesi scriptum est. multo magis in illo die 
nihil turbatum est, cui non sunt adiectae tres horae tenebra- 

2 in noctem R si autem finis R 3 utrimque] utrumq. RV 

i noctem esse] tr V 5 in noctem V* vid 7 separatarum] 

reparatarum V 8 dominicus] dni V 12 inluciscentis V* 

dominice V* ; dominicae Ycorr uelut R 11 separatos] 

separatus V* promittit] R; promit Ycorr ; promitxxx V* 16 con- 

sensit] consentit V reliquiis Ycorr 17 quasi] quae si Ycorr 

19 amiserunt] admiserunt V 20 horas] horae V* 22 signi] 

signis R rationalem] rationale R ; rationabilem V 23 in diebus] 

om in V ihu RV et 2°] aut V 25 additum] addictum V* 

ac] aut V 27 in solem et lunam V tempora] temporum V 


i;v rum ut essent xv horarum, sed pars ipsius diei obscurata est 
(3,1) — sexta in nonam. quod si non solem obscuratum et rursum 
ostensuin diem dicinius, quod nomen, quem ordinem damns 
ipsi diei qui f'uisse dicitur inter sex tarn feriam et sabbatum, 
5 nisi bis sabbatum fuit et ebdomadas ilia octo dies habuit ? 
certe, si contentio ratione minime sedari potest, compendio 
probamus tres horas tenebrarum non pertinere ad sepulturam 
Domini, eo quod adhuc uiueret. non enim potuit esse in Mtxiuo 
corde terrae nisi ex quo mortuus est et sepultus est, quod 

io factum est in tribus horis sextae feriae intra duodecimam. 
quoniam post occasum solis non licebat Iudaeis sepelire, cum 
esset cena pura initium sabbati, sicut Iohannes dicit : Illic ioii xix \-z 
ergo propter cenam puram Iudaeorum, quoniam proximum 
erat monument am, posuerunt Iesum. dies autem noctibus 

'5 dignitate non nouitatis ordine praeferuntur, ut omnes mas- 

culi primogenitis, sicut dictum est: Genuit filios et Jilias eicfGcvi 
obiit, cum contra legem sit naturae ut omnes illi masculos 
primum genuisset. nobis autem totum tempus dies est ; 
omnia noua sunt, figurae transierunt. 

20 Ex legitimis numeris sunt septenarius, denarius, duode- 
narius. idem autem est numerus et cum multiplicatur, ut 
lxx, DCC ; uel totiens in se, ut septies septeni uel decies 
deni. sed aut perfectionem significant, aut a parte totum, 
aut simplicem summam. perfectionem, ut VII spiritus Ec- cf a p h 
§1 _'•',"." clesiae, aut ut dicit : § Septies in die laudabo te^ aut : Septies Pscxviuitii 

873 .... ... . . Lcxviii30 

tautuin recipiet in isto saeculo. similiter decies, ut alius 
euangelista dicit: Centies tantum recipiet iu isto saeculo. etMcx3o 

1 esset V 1,2 xv horarum... nonam] quindecim nam V 4 inter 
sextain] interf'ectam V* ; intersectam Vcorr et sabbatum] et sabbatorii 

V 5 nisi bis sabbatum] nisi si uis sabbatum V ; nisi sabbata E ebdo- 
madas] ebdomada V 6 si] sic V compedio R 8, 9 in cor V 
9 est et] uel V 10 horis sextae] hore sexte V duode- 
cima V 12 cena pura] caena pura R ; pura cena V* (pura caena Vcorr) 
initiux V* sabbatis V 13 caenam R 14 erat] fuerat V 
15 nouitatis ordine] nouitaordim" R*, mox corr 17 cum] quod V 20 nu- 
nieri sunt V* 21 autem est] tr V 22 septuaginta uel septin- 
genti V toties R septeni] .vn. R uel] aut V 
23 a toto parte R, uid infra 24 aut]MVco/r; ut V* ; autR(.st'c) ut] 
&Y* 24,25 ecclesiae] + septeni V 25 laudabo te] V Eug ; laude 
dixit tibi R ; laudem dixit M 26 decies] denarius VM 


Danihel angelorum et caeli uel Ecclesiae inrmmerabilem RV 
Danviiio multitudinem denario numero complexus est dicens : Milies ' ' 

milia apparebant Mi et decies milies decies milia circumsiste- 
Psixvuis bant, et Dauid Currus inquit Dei decies milies tantum. et 
Pscivs de omui tempore Dauid : In mille saecula. item per duode- 5 
cfApviu narium de omni Ecclesia dictum est CXLIIH. et duodecim 
Mtxix28 tribus omnes gentes, sicut : ludicabitis XII tribus Israhel. a 
parte to turn est, quoniam certum tempus legitimis numeris 
Apaio difinitur ut in Apocalypsi : Habebitis pressuram X dies, cum 

significet usque in finem. LXX autem annos in Babylone 10 
idem tempus esse importunum est nunc probare. 

Praeter legitimos etiam numeros, quodcumque tempus in 
quodcumque numero frequenter breuiauit Scriptura, sicut 
supradictum tempus Hora appelatum est, dicente apostolo ; 
2Cov?2 Nouissima hora est; et Dies, sicut: Ecce nunc dies salua- 15 
u?vl x y l2> tionis; et Annus, sicut per Esaiam : Praedicare armum 
Domini acceptabilem. quoniam non ille quo Dominus prae- 
dicauit solus fuit acceptabilem, sed et iste quo praedicat, 
2Covi2 sicut dictum est: Tempore accepto exaudiui te, quod aposto- 
lus interpretatur : Ecce nunc tempus acceptabile. finis de- 20 
Lcivi9 nique huius anni diem iudicii iunxit dicens: Praedicare 
i'sixivi-2 annum acceptabilem et diem retributionis. et Dauid Bene- 
dices inquit coronam anni bonitatis tuae. 

Aliquando hora dies et mensis annus est, sicut in Apoca- 

.\pixi5 lypsi : Parati in horam et diem et mensem et in annum, quod 25 

» 10 est tres anni et dimidius. ibidem, menses pro annis : Datum 

est ei laedere homines mensibus quinque. aliquando dies 

A P xi3 denario numero C dies sunt, sicut in Apocalypsi: Dies MCCLX, 

nam milies ducenties centies et sexagies centeni centumui- 

2 milies] mille V 3 apparebunt V milies] milias R decies 

milia] denaria V 4 currus] cursus R 8 toturn est] toto V* ; 

totum Vcorr certum] centum V 9 ut] om R apocalypsin V 

x] decim V* 10 annos] out V babylone R 15 sicut] 

ow R* 15, 16 saluationis] salutationis V ; salutis M 17 domini] 

dnm V* ; dno Vcorr '21 diem] idem V 22 annum] + dni V 

23 bonitatis] benignitatis V 24, 25, 28 in apocalypsin V 25 et in] 

om in V 26 dimidium V menses] mensis R 27 laedere] 

ledere RM ; delere V mensibus] menses V 28 centum dies V 

21) et] om V centini R centumuiginti] centies R 


RV ginti sex niilia dies sunt, qui fiunt anni CCCL mensibus trice- 

' ' riorum dierum. ibidem, unus mensis denario numero centum 

menses sunt, ut : Ciuitatem sanctum calcabunt mensibus XLH, Apri2 
nam XLH centeni liii et CC menses sunt, qui sunt anni CCCL. 
5 Tempus aut annus est aut centum anni, sicut Tempus et April m 
tempora et dimidium temporis, quod est aut tres anni et 
dimidius aut cccl. item unus dies aliquando centum anni 
sunt, sicut de Ecclesia scriptum est iacere in ciuitate ubi e£cfA P xis, 9 
Dominus eius cruci ferns est tres dies et dimidium, et: Oportet Mtxvi2i 
lofiliurn hominis Hierusalem ire, et multa pati a senioribus et 
principibus sacerdotum et scribis, et occidi, et post tres dies 
resurgere; ipse enim tertio surrexit. 

Generatio aliquotiens et C anni sunt, sicut Dominus dicit 
Abrabae : Quarta autem generatione reuertentur liuc. in<iexvi6 
15 Exodo uero non de seruitutis sed de totius peregrinationis 

tempore dictum est: Quinta autem generatione ex xmis 
populus ex Aegypto, id est post cccc et xxx annos. item 

62 generatio aliquotiens x anni sunt, sicut Hieremias dicit : 

Eritis in Babylonia usque ad generatio nes VII. Baruchvi2 

20 Ternarium numerum eundem esse, qui et denarius, — id 

est plenus, — in Euangeliis deprebenditur. nam Matbeus cfMtxxvMff 

dicit tribus seruis creditam Domini substantiam ; Lucas uero 

X, quos X in tres redigit, dum et ipse a tribus dicit exactam cfLcxixistr 


25 Aliquotiens unus dies M anni sunt, sicut scriptum est : 
Qua die gustaueritis ex arbor e morte moriemini. et VI I dies Geiin 
primi vTT anni sunt ; sex diebus operatus est Dominus et Ge " 2 - 3 
requieuit ab omnibus operibus suis die septimo, et benedixit et 
sanctificavit ilium. Dominus autem dicit : Pater mens usque lohviv 

30 nunc operatur. sicut enim mundum istum sex diebus opera- 
tus est, ita mundum spiritalem, qui est Ecclesia, per sex 
milia annos operatur, cessaturus die septimo quern benedixit, 
fecitque aeternum. 

1 fiunt] sunt V 1,2 trecenorum V* ; trigenorum Vcorr 7 cen- 

tum] V a ; centeni V*; om E 12 tertio] + die V 13, 18, 25 ali- 

quoties R 14 reuertetur V hue] hoc V* 15 sed de totius] om R* ; 
add R a 20, 21 id est plenus] ide plenius V 21 in euangelio V 

27 dominus] ds V 30 nunc] modo V 31 ecclesiam V* vid 

32 operatur] operator R 33 aeternum] pr in R 


Hoc est quod Dominus inter cetera mandata nihil aliud RV 
crebrius praecepit, quam ut obseruemus et diligamus diem 
sabbatorum. qui autem praecepta Dei facit sabbatum Dei 
diligit, id est septimum diem quietis aeternae. propterea 
Deus hortatur populum non intrare portas Hierusalem cum 5 
onere in die sabbati, et minatur portis et intrantibus per eas 

Hier.wiii9- e t exeuntibus, sicut Hieremiae mandat dicens : Vade sta 
in portis filiorum p>opuli tui, in quas ingrediuntur reges Ivda 
et egrediuntur, et in omnibus portis Hierusalem, et dices ad 
eos : Audite uerbum Domini qui intratis in portas istas. haec 10 
dicit Dominus, Custodite animas uestras, et nolite tollere oner a 
in die sabbatorum et nolite exire portas Hierusalem et nolite 
efferre onera de domibus uestris in die sabbatorum, sicut man- 
daui patribus uestris ; et non audierunt in auribus suis, et 
indurauerunt ceruicem suam super patres suos, ut me non 15 
audirent neque percipirent disciplinam. eritque si me audie- 
ritis, dicit Dominus, ut non inferatis onera per portas ciuitatis 
huius in die sabbatorum, ut non faciatis omne opus uestrum, et 
sanctificetis diem sabbatorum, et intrabunt per portas ciuitatis 
huius reges et principes sedentes in sede Dauid et ascendentes 20 
in currus et equos, ipsi et principes eorum, uiri Tuda et qui 
inhabitant Hierusalem. et habitabitur ciuitas haec in aeter- 
num, et uenient de ciuitatibus Ivda et ^•ciuitatibus'f Hierusa- 
lem, et de terra Beniamin et de terra campestri et de terra 
quae ad Austrum, adferentes holocausta et incensa et manna 25 
et tus, ferentes laudationem in domum Domini, et si me non 
audieritis ut sanctificetis diem sabbatorum, ut non portetis 
onera neque intretis per portas Hierusalem in die sabbatorum, 
et succendam ignem in portis eius, et consumet itinera Hieru- 
salem et non extinguetur. sufficeret breuiter mandasse non 30 

inerxvii2i operari sabbatis ; ut quid Nolite inferre onera per portas 
Hierusalem ? aut si opus erat et operis speciem dicere, quid 

1 hoc] id V 10 in] om V 13 efferre] ferre V 14 audierunt] 

obaudierunt V 16, 17 audieritis] quesieritis R 17 honera V 21 ^quos 
R ; equus V* et qui] om et V 23 ciuitatibus 2°] pr de R ; Kvtc\6dev 

lxx 25 olocbausta V 26 domum domini] domum R ; domodni 

V 28 in die sabbatorum] om V 29, 30 hierusalem] + in die 

sabbatoru- R 31 honera V 32 dicere quid] diceret id V 


RV Nolite inferre per portas ? non enim aliqui per muros et 
tecta infert onera in ciuitatem. 

Hierusalem bipertita est, et portae eius bipertitae. per 
portas inferorum exitur de Hierusalem sancta, et per easdem 
5 intratur in maledicta. qui autem per portas intrant caeli 
intrant in aeternam Hierusalem, ut reges in curribus et in cfHierxvu2s 
equis sedentes in sede Dauid, sicut per Esaiam: Adducent Esai lsvi 20 
fratres uestros ex omnibus gentibus donum Domino cum equis 
et curribus in splendore mulorum cum umbraculis in sanctam 

10 ciuitatem. sanctae portae ciuitatis Hierusalem Christus est, 

et uicarii eius custodes legis, interficientes uero prophetas e£cfMtxxui37 
lapidantes missos ad se. porta diabolus est, et uicarii eius 
pseudoapostoli praedicatores legis, claues regni caeforwm tf Mtxvil8 > 
alto sensu abscondentes. ipsi sunt portae quae non uincunt 

15 Ecclesiam, quae supra petram fundata est, quoniam fir mum 2T?mH , if 
fundamentum Dei stat, sicut scriptum est: Cognouit Dorninus 
qui sunt eius. si quis autem per praecepta praesidentium cfMtxxiu2ff 
cathedrae Mosi introiit, per Christum intrat — ipsius enim 
sunt praecepta, ipse exponit onus peccatorum suorum — , et 

20 sine illo intrat in requiem sabbati. si quis uero non per 
praecepta sed per facta praesidentium cathedrae intrat, fiet 
films gehennae magis quam illi, et requiescentibus uniuersis ^15 
qui ante sabbatum manna collegerunt, ille cum onere suo c »^xvio fl 
inuenietur in die sabbati, in quo non est manna colligere 

25 neque onus exponere. quia nolunt audire uocem filii Dei 
clamantis in Ecclesia et dicentis : Venite ad me omnes qui Mtxi2s 
onerati estis, et ego iios requiescere faciam. 

Isti sunt fures qui non per ianuam ueram sed per portas cfiohxiff 
suas intrant in suam Hierusalem, et succendet Deus ignem nier xvu -i~ 

2 infert] inferre V honera V 5 autem] aut R 6 aeternam] 

aeterna R; aeternu V 8 fratres uestros] ff V (sic) domino] do V 

9 splendorem R mulorum] multorum R ; multarum V 

10 sanctae portae] tr V ciuitati V 11 uicari V* 
12 diabolus] H*vid V ; diaboli Rcorr uicarius V 14 uincant V 
15 supra p&ra R 16 dorninus] ds V 17 praesidentium] prae- 
sentiu V 18 moysi V 20 intrat] pr non V b 21 cathedrae] 
cathedra R ; cathedrae moysi V fiet] om V 22 illi] ipsi V 
23 colligerunt V* onere] honore V* ; honere Vco?t 24 inue- 
niatur V 29 succendit V 


in port-is Hierusalem, et conburet itinera eius et non esctin- RV 
guetur. ignis enim qui specialis Hierusalem portas exussit * ' 
extinctus est ; apostolus autem sabbatum et alia legis man- 

coiaie data figuram esse futuri sic ait: Nemo ergo uos iudicet in 
cibo et potu aut in parte dieifesti aut neomeniae aid sabbato- 5 
rum, quod est umbra futuri. 

Multis in locis unius temporis diuersi euentus in speciem 
separatim descripti duo tempora fecerunt, quasi ex ordine 
se insequentia ; in genere autem uno tempore est uterque 

Gexii26ff euentus. sic Xlllt anni sub Ioseph ubertatis et sterilitatis 10 
vii anni sunt tantum, id est omne tempus a passione 

K46 Domini, in cuius figura factus est Ioseph dominus Aegypti 

cum esset XXX annorum ; qui sunt itaque nobis Vll anni 
ubertatis et saturitatis, id est ceteris vn sterilitatis et famis. 

C fLcvi20ff isto enim tempore minatur Dominus diuitibus famem, paupe- 15 
ribus uero saturitatem promittit. haec bona et mala duplicis 
temporis uno tempore futura testatur Scriptura Exodi, qua 

cfExx28 manifestum est omnium plagarum Aegypti inmunem fuisse 
Israhel, et per tres dies tenebrarum lumen habuisse. quod 
nunc spiritaliter geritur, sicut Deus eidem Faraoni postea 20 

Ezexxxfls comminatus est dicens : Dabo tenebras super terram tuam. 

Aliquotiens unum tempus in multas diuidet partes, 
quarum singulae totum tempus sint. sic annus quo fuit 
Noe in area diuiditur inter omnes numeros. quotiens tamen 
temporum mentio est, quaternarius numerus specialiter 25 
tempus est a Domini passione usque in finem. quaternarius 
est autem quotiens aut plenus est, aut post tertium pars 
quarti ut CCCL aut tres et dimidium. ceteri uero numeri 
pro locis intellegendi sunt ; signa sunt enim, non manifestae 

(ievii4 defiuitiones. XL ergo dies diluuii tempus est. nam isti sunt 30 
1 comburet V 4 uos] om V 8 descripti] describit V* vid ; 

describi Ycorr ordixne V nunc 10 anni] annis V iosephx V* 

11 a] om V 12 figuram R 14 id est] idem V ceteri V 

septem sterelitatis R 16, 17 promittit. haec... futura testatur] sic 

diuidit R ; V iungit promittit et haec, et disiungit futura et testatur 
17 qua] quia V 20 pharaoni R 22 aliquoties R uuum] t R 

24 archa R 24, 27 quoties R 27 est autem] om est R 

28 cccl] ccl R ; trecenti quadraginta V aut] aut- R dimidio V 

numeri] nam V 29, 30 manifeste definitionis R ; manifeste de- 

finitiones V 30 dies diluuii] tr V tempus] pr totum V 


RV cccc anni in Aegypto, et XL anui in heremo, et XL dies 
* M) ieiunii Domini et Moysi et Heliae, quibus in heremo ieiunat 
Ecclesia, id est abstinet a mortuorum uoluptatibus ; id est 
XL dies quibus manducat et bibit Ecclesia cum Domino post cfAcis,4 
S resurrectionem, id est XL anni quibus erat Ecclesia manducans 3RegnU46a 
et bibens sub Salomone, pace undique uersum profunda, 
premente tamen eodem bipertito Salomone, sicut eadem 
Ecclesia dicit : Pater tuus oppressit nos. XL dies fuit aqua *&<*** 
statu suo et totidem defecit dies, et defectio aquae decimo 

10 mense, id est perfecto tempore, conpletur. sed in genere 
non ita est, ut quodam tempore inualescat et deinde deficiat : 
quoniam quo tempore inualescit carnaliter eodem deficit 
spiritaliter, ut ipsa elatio sit defectio usque dum perficiatur 
tempus, sicut mundus regnans ponitur sub pedibus Ecclesiae, 

15 id est filii hominis. qui sunt itaque XL dies, id est CL, in cfGeviii7,24 
Ezechiel; namque XL diebus exsoluit peccata Iuda, et Israhel cfEzeiv4-6 
cl, quod est unum atque idem, et septimo mense sedit area, Gevm4 
idem tempus ; et dejiciebat aqua usque in decimum mensem, Ib 5 
idem tempus. exiuit de area duodecimo mense; hie est cf/6C 

10 annus libertatis Domini acceptabilis, quo conpleto manifesta- tfLcivM 
bitur Ecclesia mundi pertransisse diluuium. 

Vnaquaeque pars huius anni idem annus est. quale si 
diceret, Exiuit de area quadragesimo die, aut, Mense septimo 
aut decimo ; sunt enim istae partes recapitulationis ab initio 

25 usque in finem. sicut ab Adam usque Enoc, id est Ecclesiae 
translationem, vii generationes, quod est omne tempus ; 

1 cccc] quadrigenti V 2 heliae] eccla V heremo] heriino R; 

eccla V ieiunant V 3 id est 2°] idem V 4 dies] dieb. 

V* 5 id est] om V anni] annis V* ; annis Ycorr ( = anni sunt) 

G uersum] uessum R profunda] om R; profundi V* vid 7 praemente 

R eodem] eo V 8 dic& V 9 statu] pr in VM dies] ubis 

V*; ut bis V b 9 — 12 decimo... quo tempore] R supr ras 10 com- 

pleretur V 12 quo tempore] tempore V* ; tempore quo Vcorr 

defecit RV* 14 sicut] sic VM regnans] repugnans M 15 id 

est 1°] V* ; exp V a fili V* id est 2"] idem V 10 hiezechiel R ; 

ezeclrihel V diebus] dies V 17 idem... area] om R 20 completo V 
22 idem] id est RM 23 exiuit] exiit V 24 decimo] add 


sunt... recapitulationis] Recapitulationis sunt enim ista partes V (sic); 
sunt autem partes istae recap. M 25 enoch RM 

B. 5 


rursum ab Adam usque ad Noe, id est mundi reparationem, x rv 
generationes, quod est orane tempus ; et a Noe usque ad (nf 
Abraham x generationes. nam et C anni quibus area fabri- 63 
cata est omne tempus est quo Ecclesia fabricatur, et eo 
tempore in diluuio pereuntibus uniuersis gubernatur. 5 

Quod prudentibus plenius inuestigandum data uia re- 
linquimus ; quoniam, ne copia Scripturae foret in interpre- 
tando et ea quae hunc intellectum forte impediunt remouendo, 
singula persequenda non putauimus alio properantes. 

VI. De recapitulatione. io 

Inter regulas quibus Spiritus legem signauit quo luminis 
uia custodiretur, non nihil custodit recapitulationis sigillum 
ea subtilitate, ut continuatio magis narrationis quam re- 
capitulatio uideatur. 

Aliquotiens enim sic recapitulat: Tunc, Ilia hora, Illo die, 15 
Eo tempore; sicuti Dominus loquitur in Euangelio dicens: 
Lcxvii 29-32 §Die quo exiit Loth a Sodomis pluit ignem de caelo et perdidit ^->/s75 
omnes ; secundum haec erit dies filii hominis, quo reuelabitur. 
ilia hora qui erit in tecto et uasa eius in domo non descendat 
toilers ilia, et qui in agro similiter non reuertatur retro, 20 
meminerit uxoris Loth.^ numquid ilia hora qua Dominus n£m/ 
reuelatus fuerit aduentu suo non debet quis conuerti ad ea 
quae sua sunt et uxoris Loth meminisse, et non antequam 
reueletur? Dominus autem ilia hora qua reuelatus fuerit 

7 ne] nee R 7, 8 foret in interpretando] interpretando fore& V* 

(for& Ycorr) 8 remouenda V 9 singula persequenda] posuit V 

ante et ea quae... alio] alibi V 

properantes] add explicit regvla | de temporibvs | incipit regvla | 
de recapitvlatione R rubw (de sectiomim diuisione codicil quo usns est Aug 
non satis liquet) 

11 spiritus] sps (s siqir rax) R legem] lege VM 13 ea] & R 

15 aliquoties R 16 sicuti] sicut R 17 die qua VM (cf Introd 

p xxxviii) exiit] exiuit V 18 erit dies] R Aug ; erunt dies V, sed 

siipr ras ; erunt omnes dies Bug fili V 19 ilia hora] in ilia hora 

Eug descendat] Eug ; discendat V ; descendet R 23 uxori V 


RV iussit ista obseruari, non solum ut abscoudendo quaerentibus 
gratiorem faceret ueritatem, sed etiam ut totum illud tern pus 
diem uel horam esse monstraret. eadem itaque hora, id est 
tempore, ista obseruanda mandauit, sed antequam reueletur : 
5 eadem quidem hora, sed in qua parte horae ratione cog- 

Aliquotiens autem non sunt recapitulationes huius modi 
sed futurae similitudihes, sicut Dominus dicit : Cum uideritis Mtxxivi5,ie 
quod dictum est per Danihelem prophetam, tunc qui in Iudaea 

10 sunt fugiant in montes, et inducit finem. quod autem Danihel 
dixit in Africa geritur, neque in eodem tempore finis, sed 
quoniam, licet non in eo tempore finis, in eo tamen titulo 
futurum est, propterea Tunc dixit, id est cum similiter factum 
fuerit per orbem, quod est discessio et reuelatio hominis cf 2 The as 

15 peccati. hoc genere locutionis dicit Spiritus in Psalmis : 

Cum auerteret Dominus captiuitatem Sion facti sumus uelut pb cxxv 1— 3 
consolati. tunc repletum est gaudio os nostrum et lingua 
nostra exultatione. tunc dicent in gentibus: Magnificauit 
Dominus facere cum illis, magnificauit Dominus facere nobis- 

20 cum, facti sumus laetantes. dicendum erat: Cum auerterit 
Dominus captiuitatem Sion, tunc dixerunt in gentibus; nunc 
autem : Cum auerteret inquit tunc dicent in gentibus. nos 
enim gentes quorum captiuitatem auertit. sicut et illorum 
in figuram tempus habemus dicentes : Magnificauit Dominus 

25 facere cum eis, magnificauit Dominus facere nobiscum. de 
similitudine itaque tempus suum et nostrum unum fecit et 
iuncxit dicens: Tunc dicent in gentibus, id est cum similiter 
gentibus fecerit. 

Nee illud praetereundum puto, quod Spiritus sine mysteriis 

30 uel allegoria aliud sonare aliud intellegi uoluit, sicut per 

Iohannem : Multi pseudoproplxetae prodiernnt in hoc mundo. liohivi— 3 

2 faceret] faciat R 7 aliquoties R recapitulationis V 

9 danihelii V 11 dixit] om R in 2°] om V 12 quoniam] 

quo non iam R 15 loquutionis R 16 auerterit V 18 in 

gentibus] inter gentes V 20 dicendum erat] dicendo uera V 21 in 

gentibus] lugentibus V 23 et] om V 25 eis] illis V 25, 26 de 

similitudine] dissimilitudine R ; per similitudinem M 27 iunxit V 

30 alligoria R 31 multi] multa R nunc mundum V 



in isto cognoscite Spiritual Dei: omnis spiritus qui soluifBN 
Iesum et negat in carne uenisse de Deo non est, sed hie de 
antichristo est, quod audistis quoniam uenit, et nunc in isto 
mundo praesens est. numquid omnis qui non negat Iesum 
in carne uenisse Spiritum Dei habet ? sed banc negationem 5 
in opere non in uoce esse, T et unumquemque non ex pro- ^ M 
fessione sed ex fructibus intellegi debere, in omni ipsa 
epistula, qua non nisi de fratribus bonis et malis scripsit, 

iiohii3,4 subtiliter admonet eodem genere locutionis, sicut dicit : In 

isto cognoscimus quoniam cognouimus eum, si praecepta eins 10 
custodiamus. qui autem dicit quoniam cognouit eum, et 
mandata eius non seruat, inendax est. numquid ex professione 
dixit intellegi fratrem qui Deum nescit, et non ex operibus ? 

iiohii9 et iterum : Qui dicit se in luce esse, et fratrem suum odit, in 

iiouiv2o tenebris est usque adhuc. et iterum: Qui dixerit quoniam 15 
diligit Deum, et fratrem suum odit, mendax est. si enim ut 
dicit diligit Deum, doceat operibus, adhaereat Deo, diligat 
Deum in fratre. si credit Christum incarnatum, quiescat 

cfiohiii odisse membra Christi. si credit Verbum carnem factum, quid 

persequitur Verbum in carne ? si credit quod dixit Dominus: 20 

Mt^vJP.;. Quamdiu fecistis uni ex istis fratribus meis minimis in me 

Cf Mt -Will ^ •' J 

credentibus, mihi fecistis, non operetur malum Christo in 
carne, id est in seruis eius, quoniam Dominus et Ecclesia 

cfEphv3i,32 una caro est. in qua carne si credit esse hominem, cur non 

diligit, aut — quod crudelius est — cur odit, sicut scriptum est: 25 

iiohmi4,i5 Qui non diligit fratrem suum permanet in morte, et: Qui 
fratrem suum odit homicida est ? aliud maius et euidentius 
signum agnoscendi antichristi non esse dixit, quam qui negat 
Christum in carne, id est odit fratrem. tale est autem quod 

1 in isto] isto R spiritum] sps V 4 omnes V*M negant R 

5 uenisse] uenire R 7 ipsa] om V 8 epistola V de fratribus] 

fratrib. R ; de fructibus V 9 amnion* R ; admonet V loquu- 

tionis R_ 14 odit frem suu V 16 diligit deum] diligo dnm R 

odit frem suu V 18 deum] dnm R fratrem RV 19 odisse] odire V 
verbum carnem] pr uerbum carnem factum quid persequitur in carne V 
carnem factum] carnefactum RV 20 si credit] om V 21 mini xx mis V 
24 non] om V* 26 suum] om V in mortem V* 27 et] 

aut V 28 agnoscendi] cognoscendi V anticlnisti R plene 

29 christum] om V id est] ide V quod dicit] om R 


RV dicit: Quoniam qui non negaiierit Christum in carne de Deo C f 1 ioh w i 
est, quale: Nemo potest dicere Dominum lesion, nisi I'mcoxiis 
Spiritu Sancto, cum nmlti dicant Dominum Iesum, ipso 
contestante : Non omnis qui mihi dicit Domine Domine in- Mtvaa 
5 troibit in regnum caelorum. sed hoc loco apostolus neminem 
posse dicere Dominum Iesum nisi in Spiritu Sancto secundum 
conscientiam dixit, secundum interiorem hominem non secun- Rovii22 
dam solam professionem, ut ostenderet illis qui credunt 
Dominum Iesum nihil minus habere ab his qui charismatum 

10 geueribus extolluntur, sed imum atque eundem Spiritu m 
possidere omnem qui Iesum Dominum corde crecliderit, id 
est operibus credidisse monstrauerit. Nemo inquit potest 1 Co xii 3-5 
dicere Dominum Iesum nisi in Spiritu Sancto. diuisiones 
a utem charismatum sunt, idem autem Spirit us ; diuisiones 

15 mijsteriorum, et idem Dominus. 

Soluere autem Iesum est non facere quod Iesum fecisse iiohiv3 
conhtetur, sicut idem Dominus dicit: Qui soluerit unummvis 
ex mandatis istis minimis, et sic docuerit homines, minimus 
uocabitur in regno caelorum. et quid sit Soluerit consequen- 

20 tibus aperit dicens : Qui autem fecerit et sic docuerit. hanc 
ergo negationem operum esse non uocis et Paulus apostolus 
confirmat dicens: Deum scire conjitentur, factis autem we-Titii6 
gant. et iterum : Habentes deformationem pietatis, uirtutem 2 Tim m 5 
autem eius neg antes. 

25 Hoc sensu dicit quosdam fratres non sancte Christum run m 
praedicare, — sed corde, nam uoce sancta praedicabant. con- 
sentit denique praedicationi eorum et mandat audiri dicens : 

1 non] oraV 2 est] RV* ; pr non Vcorr potest] poterit V*' 

dominum iesum] dno ihu V* ; dns ills Vcorr nisi in] om V* 

4 omnis] omnes V 5 in regno R G iesum] + xpm V 

8 credunt] dicunt V 1) charismatum] chrismatum V* 11, 12 id 

est] ide V 14 charismatum sunt] sunt carismatum V au- 

tem] uero V diuisiones] pr et V 15 mysteriorum] + sunt V 

17 qui solueris V* 19 in regnu V 19, 20 ex consequentibus V 

21 negationem] negotiations R et] sed R* (corr R b ) 22 deum] 

dnm V 23 et] xxet V deformationem] formam V 24 ne- 

gantes] abnegantes V 25 hoc sensum V* non see xpm R ; 

xpm non scae V 26 sancta] see V praedicabant] praedi- 

cabat R ; praedicant V 27 audire R 


Phil i is Quid interest? omni moclo sine per occasionem sine per ueri-B.v 
totem Christus adnuntietur. Dominum autem Christum [Eu " ] 
antichristus non uoto sed occasione praedicabat. alio ten- 
dens per Christi nomen ingreditur, quo sibi uiam sternat, 
quo sub Christi nomine uentri pareat, et his — quae turpe 5 

cfMtxxiv24, est dicere — sanctitatis et simplicitatis nomen inponat, signis 
et prodigiis cubiculorum opera Christum esse adseuerans. 

1 ioii v 21 quos salubri cautione uitare adnionet apostolus dicens : Fi- 
lioli, abstinete uos a simulacris. 

VII. De diabolo et corpore eius. 10 

Diaboli et corporis eius ratio breuiter uideri potest, si id 
quod de Domino et eius corpore dictum est in hoc quoque 
obseruetur. transitus namque a capite ad corpus eadem 
Esaixivi-2- ratione dinoscitur, sicut per Esaiam de rege Babylonis : §Quo- 1_^«« 
modo cecidit de caelo lucifer mane oi'iens ! contritus est in 15 
terra qui fnittit ad omnes gentes!^ tu autem dixisti in animo jEug 
tuo : In caelum ascendant, super stellas Dei ponam sedem 
meam, sedebo in monte alto super nwntes altos in Aquilonem, 
ascendant super uubes, ero similis Altissimo. nunc autem ad 
inferos descendes in fundcunenta terrae, et qui uiderint te 20 
■mirabuntur super te et dicent: Hie est homo qui concitat 
terrain, mouet reges ; qui ponit orbem terrae totum desertum, 
ciuitates autem destruxit abductosque non soluit. omnes reges 
gentium dormierunt in honore, homo in do mu sua. ; tu autem 
proiectus es in montes uelut mortuus abominatus cum omnibus 25 

2 autem] enim V 3 praedicat V 8 quos] quo R am- 

monet R 8, 9 filioli] fili V 9 simulaakris V {sic) 

simulacris] add explicit de recapitvlajtione eegvla | incipit de 
diabvli et cor|poee eivs begvla R rubro ; EXPLICIT • LIBER • SEXTVS II 


11 corporis] scripsi ; corpore R ; corpori V ratio] om V 

12 quod] quo R mox coir 14 esaiam] R*V* ; iesaiam Rcorr ; isaiam 

Ycorr 15 de caelo] ante cecidit Eug cod apt ; post lucifer V 

19 ero] et ero R similes V* 20 discendes RVcorr ; diccendis V* 

uiderint te] tr R 24 dormierant V in honore R domo V 

25 omnibus] hominibus R* ; ominibus Rcorr [sic) 


RV qui ceciderunt inserti gladio et descendant ad inferos, quo- 
modo uestimeutum sanguine consparsum nun erit mundunt, 
ita nee tu eris utundus, quia terrain nieam perdidisti et ple- 
bem meant occidisti. non eris in aeternuni tern/pus semen 

64 nequarn ; para filios tuos interfici peccatis patris tui, ut non 
resurgant. in rege Babylonis et omnes reges et omnis popu- 
lus significatur, iinum est enim corpus. 

Quomodo inquit cecidit de caelo lucifer mane oriens ! con- Esaixiv 12,13 
fractus est in terra qui mittit ad omnes gentes ! tu autem 

10 dixisti in aninto tuo: In caelum ascendant, super stellas Dei 
ponant sedem meant, diabolus hoc sibi non promittit; non enim 
sperat renitendo posse in caelum ascendere, qui ne deiceretur 
resistere non ualuit. multo magis ista homo sperare non 
potest; tamen hominem esse sic dicit : Hie est homo gwEaaixivie 

15 incitat terrain, sed praeter hanc rationem qua neque dia- 
bolus Deque homo sperare potest se posse iu caelum ascen- 
dere et super stellas Dei sedens simile m se Deo fieri, etiam 
ipsa Scriptura aliud inquirendum aduionet. nam si in caelo 
et supra stellas Dei dicit sedem suam positurum, quomodo 

20 in monte alto sedebit aut super montes in Aquilone uel in 
nubibus, ut similis sit Altissimo ? non enim Altissimus in 
huius modi habet sedem. 

Caelum Ecclesiam dicit, sicut procedente Scriptura uide- 
bimus. de hoc caelo cadit lucifer matutinus ; lucifer enim 

25 bipertitum est, cuius pars sancta est, sicut Dominus dicit in 

Apocalypsi de se et suo corpore: Ego sunt radix et genus Da- Apxxfi 16,17 
uid et stella splendida matutina, sponsus et sponsa. item illic : 
Qui uincit, dabo illi stellant matutinant, id est ut sit stella ma- Apii2ti, 28 
tutina sicut Christus, quem accepimus. pars ergo luciferi, id 

1 discendunt RV* 2 conspersum BiVcorr 3 quia] qui R 

5 tuos] tuo R interfice V ut] om R in regem V 

7 significatur] significatus V 9 est] om V 12 qui] quod R* 

deieceretur R 11 tamen] pr et V 15 qua] quam V 

17 super] supra V 18 amnion* R in caelum V 19 supra] 

su.p V 20 aquilonem V 21 enim] 0111 It 22 huius modi] 

hui modi R* 25 cuius pars sancta est] om V 26 apoca- 

lysi R de se et] Rcorr ; de sede & R* ; de se & de se & V 26, 27 

dauid & radix genus R 27 sponsus] sps RV : sed cf p 3 28 28 uin- 

cit] uicerit R 29 luciferi] lucifer V 


est aduersum corpus quod est diabolus reges et populus, cad it RV 
de caelo et confringitur in terra, his regibus dicit Sapientia : 

sap vi 1—4 Audite ergo reges et intellegite, discite indices Jiniiim terrae, 
praebete aures qui continetis multitudinem et placetis nobis in 
turbis nationum. quoniam data est nobis potestas a Domino, 5 
et uirtus ab Altissimo, qui interrogabit opera uestra, et cogi- 
tationes scrutabitur ; quoniam cum essetis ministri regniillius 
lion recte iudicastis, neque custodistis legem. 

Rex ergo Babylonis totum corpus est, sed pro locis intel- 

Esaixivia legemus in quam partem corporis couueniat. Cecidit de io 

/6i3 caelo lucifer in omne corpus potest conuenire ; In caelum 

ascendam, super stellas Dei ponam sedem meam similiter in 
caput et maiores qui stellarum Dei, id est sanctorum, domi- 
nandum putant, cum ipsorum minores dominentur sicut 

Gexxv23 scriptum est: Maior seruiet minori. huic Esau, id est fra- 15 
tribus malis, sic dicit Dominus per Abdiam prophetam : 

Abd3,4 Exaltans habitationem suam, dicens in corde suo: Quis me 
deducet ad terram ? si exaltatus fueris sicut aquila, et inter 
stellas ponas nidum tuum, inde detraham te, dicit Dominus. 

Esaixivi3,u Sedebo in monte alto super montes altos in Aquilonem, 20 
ascendam super nubes, ero similis Altissimo. mons alius 
populus est superbus ; montes alti singuli quique superbi, qui 
adunati montem faciunt, id est corpus diaboli. multos enim 

Psxiv3 esse montes malos sic dicit Scriptura : Transferuntur montes 

Psxviis in cor maris, et iterum : Fundamenta montium conturbata 25 
sunt et commota sunt, quoniam iratus est eis Deus. nam et si 
corpus Domini id est Ecclesia mons dicitur, et singuli qui 

Psiit; Ecclesiam faciunt montes, sicut scriptum est: Ego autem 

constitutes sum rex ab eo super Sion montem sanctum eius 

Esaixiv25 adnuntiaus imperia eius. et iterum: Perdam Assyrios in 30 

Psixxi3 terra mea et in montibus meis. et iterum : Suscipiant montes 

1 populos V* 2 confrangitur R regibus] regulis V 6 interrogauit 
V 9, 10 intellegimus V 10 in quarn] Ycorr : om in R ; om quam V* 

12, 13 in caput et] et caput V 13 maiore V* 14 minores] ininores 

R* mox corr 15 id est] om R 16 sic] sicut R 17 exultans R 

18 terram] terras V 19 detraham te] tr V 20 moiite alto super] om R 

aquilone RV* 22 superbi] om V 24 malos] V supr ras transferuntur] 
transferunt R ; transferentur V 25 in corde V et] om V 

26 eis] ei V 28 ecclesiam] ecci-a V* 31 tra mea V 


RV pacem populo tuo et colles. et iterum : Montes eocultabunt p SC xw 4 
uelut arietes, et colles ueltit agni ouium. Deus in monte Sion 
habet sedem et in montibus Lsrahel et in nubibus Sanctis 
suis, quod est Ecclesia, sicut scriptum est: Timeat a facie zech a 13 
5 Domini omnia terra, quoniam exsurrexit de nubibus Sanctis. 
et iterum: Nubibus mandabo ne pluant super earn imbrem. Esai v 6 
iterum : Nimbus et nubes in circuitu eius. et quod in monte p 8XC vi2 
Sion habitet sic dicit : Cognoscetis quoniam ego sum Dominus ioei m 17 
Deus uester, habitans in Sion monte sancto meo. et diabolus 

10 in monte sedet, sed Seir qui est Esau, id est f rat rum malo- 
rum, quern montem Deus increpat per Ezechielem, et dicit 
in laetitia uniuersae terrae desolaturum, quod aduersum EzexxrvM 
Iacob inimicitias exerceat. ipse est mons, ipsi montes Aqui- 
lonis. in his diabolus sedet, et nubium caeli ueluti domina- 

15 tur; hactenus se similem dicit Altissimo. 

Duae sunt partes in Ecclesia, Austri et Aquilonis, id est 
meridiana et septentrionalis. in parte meridiana Dominus 
manet, sicut scriptum est : Vbi pascis, ubi manes in meri- cant i 7 
diano. diabolus uero in Aquilone, sicut dicit Dominus 

20 populo suo : Ilium ab Aquilone persequar a nobis, et expellam ioei 1120 
ilium in terram sine aqua, — id est in suos, — et exterminabo 
faciem eius in mare primum, et posteriora eius in mare uouis- 
simum, quod est in populos primos et nouissimos. ad instar 
Ecclesiae fabricatus est iste mundus, in quo sol oriens non 

25 nisi per Austrum, id est meridianum, iter habet, et decursa 
Australi parte inuisibilis uadit in locum suum rediens. sic 
Dominus noster Iesus Christus sol aeternus partem suam 
percurrit, unde et meridianum uocat. Aquiloni uero, id est 
aduersae parti, non oritur, sicut idem cum in iudicium uene- 

30 rint dicent : Iustitiae lumen non luxit nobis, et sol non ortus sapve 
est nobis; Timentibus autem Domiuum oritur sol iustitiae, et Maiiv2 

1 tuo] 0)11 V 5 exsurrexit] exurgit V et] om V nubi- 

bus] nub. V 8 cognoscitis V 11 hiezechielern B ; ezechihelu V 

12 in laetitiam R 15 actenus R 17 parte meridiana V* vid ; par- 

tem meridians Ycorr 18 sicut] om V pasces R 19 aquilo- 

nem V dicit dominus] ds dicit V 20 a uobis et] RV* ; a uobis 

& V b 21 terram] Ycorr ; terra RV* suos et] suos sed R 

27 dominus] xet dns ds V 28 et meridianum] meridianam R 

30,31 et sol... nobis] om V 


sanitas in pinnis eius, sicut scriptum est. malis uero meridie (R)v 

Esaiiix9,io nox erit, sicut scriptum est: Dum sustinmt ipsi lumen factae 
sunt Mis tenebrae, dum sustinent fulgorem obscura node 
ambulaueruid ; palpabunt sicut caecus parietem, et quasi cui 
non sunt oculi palpabunt, et cadent meridie quasi media node. 5 

Am viii<i iterum : Occidet sol meridie et tenebricabit super terrain^ dies \R 

Mich mo luminis. iterum : Propterea nox erit uobis de uisione, et tene- 
brae nobis erunt ex diuinatione, et occidet sol super prophetas, 
et obscurabit super eos dies luminis. 

Huic populo ex Austro comminatur Deus, sicut per 10 

Eze.xxvii2<j Ezechielem Sor iucrepat dicens: Spiritus Austri contriuit te. 

c'anivit; si etiam coufringere permittit, dicens: Exurge Aquilo, et 
ueni Auster perjla hortum meum, et defluent unguenta mea, 
exurgenti nequam spiritui resistit Spiritus Sanctus qui 
Domini hortum perflat, et eliciuntur unguenta, id est odor 15 
suauitatis offertur. et per Ezechielem iterum ex reliquiis 
populi mali sic dicit Deus adducere super populum suum 

Eze xxxix 1- partem eiusdem populi, quod est mysterium facinoris : Ecce 
ego super te Gog, principem Ros Mesoc et Tobel. et congregabo 
te et deducam te et ponam te a nouissimo Aquilone, et adducam 20 
te super monies Israhel ; et perdam arcum tuum de manu tua 
sinistra, et sagittas tuas de manu tua dextera, et deiciam te 
super monies Israhel. hoc autem geritur a passione Domini, 
quoadusque de medio eiusdem mysterii facinoris discedat 
Ecclesia quae detinet, ut in tempore suo detegatur impietas, 25 

2Theii6-8 sicut apostolus dicit : Et nunc quid detineat scitis, ut in suo 
tempore detegatur. mysterium enim iam operatur facinoris, 
tantuni ut qui detinet modo, quoad usque de medio fiat; et 
tunc reuelabitur Me impius. et in Hieremia legimus pecca- 

1 pinnis] pannis V* ; pennis \corr 2 erit] est V 3 dum 

sustinent] om V obscurani nocte R 4 quasi] V, sed 

casu pacne cuanuit G occidit RV tenebricabit] tenebri- 

scauit R super terram] add finit liber tyconii R rubro: his verbis 

desinit codex 11, 16 ezechihelii V 11, 12 te. si] conieci : 

theis V (sic) 13 hortum] ortu V 14 exurgente...spm V* 

15 domini] dm V* ortu V 10 iterum] idem V* ; item Vcorr 

reliquis V* 21 te super] scrij)si •. super tern V* ; super te \corr 

montes] montem V 28 qui] quid V* detinet] scripai ; detineus 

detinet V* ; detineus e detineat Vcorr : cf Introdp li 


V tores Israhel in Aquilone conueniri, Domino dicente : Vade met m 12 

et leye sermones istos ad Aquilonem et die, Conuertere ad me 
domus Israhel, dicit Dominus. meridianum uero pars est 
Domini, sicnt et in lob scriptum est: A meridiana parte iob xi 17 
5 yerminabit tibi uita ; Aquilo diaboli : utraque autem pars in 
toto mundo. 

Ascendant inquit super nubes, ero similis Altissimo. nunc emixwm 
autem ad inferos descendes in fundamental terrae. qui uide- 
rint te mirabuntur super te et dicent: Hie est homo qui con- 

J° citat terrain, commouet reyes, qui ponit orbem terrae tot urn 
desertum. numquid in diabolum conuenit Qui uiderint te 
mirabuntur super te, aut in regem nouissimum cum ad inferos 
descenderit ? ipso enim ad inferos descendeute non erit qui 
miretur mundo finito. non enim dicent: Hie est homo qui 

15 incitauit terrain, mouit reges et posuit orbem terrae totum 
desertum, sed Incitat et Commouet et Ponit. hominem enim 
totum corpus dicit tarn in regibus quam in populis, cuius 
hominis superbi partem cum Deus percutit et ad inferos 
deicit dicimus: Hie est homo qui incitat terram, commouet 

10 reyes, scilicet sanctos. 

Qui ponit orbem terrae totum desertum. inridentium uox Ksaixh-n 
est, non confirmantium, sicuti : Qui dissoluit templum et mMtxxvu40 
triduo Mud suscitat ! <et :> Dixit enim: Fortitudine faciam, Esaix 13,14 
et sapientia intellect us auferam terminos nationum, et fortitu- 

25 dinem illarum uastabo, et comminuam ciuitates cum habitan- 
tibus ; et totam orbem comprehendam manic uelut nidum, et 
uehtt oua derelicta auferam, et non erit qui ejfuyiat me aut 
contradicat mihi. numquid ista quae sibi promittit ualet 

65 implere ? Ponit quidem orbem terrae totum desertum, sed Esai xw 17 

30 orbem suum ; Ciuitates autem destruxit, utique sui orbis. 
est enim bipertitus, mobilis et inmobilis, sicut <in> Para- 
lipomenon : Commoueatur a facie Domini omnis terra, etenim 1 Par wi so 
fundauit orbem terrae qui non commouebitiir. 

14 miretur] meretur V* 20 sanctos] scs V* ( = sanctus) 22 sicuti] 
conieci : sicut ubi V* ; sicut ibi Ycorr 23 et] 01a V 23, 2-1 forti- 

tudinem...sapientiam V 25 comminuxxx V* 31 in] addidi ; 

om V 31, 32 paralypornenon V 


Esaixivir Abductosque non solidt. potest istud in speciem conue- V 

nire, quod captiuos in nullo relaxasset, sed inmitis raptu 
aestimans principari tota in eos uteretur potestate ; quod 

zechiw obiurgat Deus dicens : Ego quidem iratus sum modice. ipsi 
autem adiecerunt in mala, uerumtamen in figuram gene- 5 
ralitatis facta et dicta sunt, et spiritaliter iniplentur dura hi 
qui dominantur humilitatis subditos — aut temptationis causa 
uel merito sibi subditos — sine respectu pietatis atque com- 
munis conditionis affligunt, quibus non sufficit potestas, sed 

Esaii-23 ea ininoderatius uti contendunt, quod culpat dicens: Perse- 10 

i'siiv-21 quentes retributionem, et iterum : Extendit manum suam ei in 
retribuendo. parum est enim quod inimicus est ; adhuc 

Esaiiviiis gestit et in subditum uindicare, sicut scriptum est: Omnes 
subditos nobis conpungitis ; dissimulans odisse Dominum 

Psvm3 inimicum et uindicatorem, quod per uindictam, quarn soli 15 

Ro.\iii9 sibi Deus exceptauit, aliquid deitatis usurpet. Scriptum est 
enim : Mild uindictam- et ego retribuam, dicit Dominus. 

Esai xiv 18 (J in ties reges terrae dormierunt in honor e, homo in domo 

sua. Reges sanctos dixit, nam non omnes reges uel priuati 
in domo sua dormierunt, sicut sancti in domo quam delege- 20 

/6i9 runt, Tu autem proiectus es in montes uelut mortuus abomi- 

natus, cum omnibus qui ceciderunt inserti gladio et descendunt 
ad inferos, diabolo dicit Proiectus es in montes, in quibus 
sedet. denique non dixit Mortuus, sed Velut mortuus abomi- 
natus ; adhuc enim uiuit, licet ipse in suis gladio perimatur 25 
et ad inferos descendat. sicut enim Domiuus quicquid sui 
patiuntur se pati dixit, ita et diabolus ipse in suis inculcatur, 

Pro xiv 28 ipse abominatus confringitur, sicut scriptum est: In diminu- 
tione populi comminutio principis. diabolus ab hornine suo 
non separatur ; nee homo in quo diabolus non est potest 30 

Em xiv 14 dicere : Ero similis Altissimo, nee de diabolo dici : Hie liomo 
qui incitat terram, nisi in homine fuerit. sicut Dominus 
homo non dici potest nisi in homine, nee homo Deus nisi in 

1 abductoque V* istud] Ycorr ; inquit V* (sic) 2 captiuis V 

raptu] raptum V 7 temptationis] ternptationib. V 10 culpatx 

V* 16 exceptabit V 17 uindicta V* vid 31 de diabolo] 
Ycorr : diaboli V* 



V Christo. sed quid in que in conueniat pro locis obseruan- 
dum est. 

Iterum <in> corpus ipsius diaboli conuenit dicens: Sicut Esaixiv20,2i 
uestimentum sanguine consparsum non est mundum, ita nee tu 

5 eris mundus, quia terrain meam perdidisti et plebem meant 
occidisti. non eris in aeternum tempus semen nequam; para 
filios tuos interfici peccatis patris tui, ut non resurgant. hie 
ostendit non conuenire in speciem. rex enira Babylonis qui 
terrain Domini uastauit et populum occidit, id est Nabucho- 

10 donosor, mundus obiit, in aeternum uiuit ; corpori dicit sui 
cuiusque temporis parare quos genuerit interfici peccatis eius, 
quo ipse qui conuenitur genitus est. nouissimis enim rex non 
filios sed fratres habere potest, neque uelut mortuus cum ad 
inferos descenderit, sed mortuus. 

i$ Per Ezechielem sic Deus increpat regem Tyri, id est 

omne corpus aduersum: Quoniam exaltatum est cor tuum, et Ezexxvui2- 
dixisti: Deus sum ego, habitationem Dei habitaui in corde 
maris, tu autem homo es et non Deus, et dedisti cor tuum 
tamquam cor Dei. numquid sapientior es tu Danihele? 

7Q sapientes rum urguerunt te sapientia sua? numquid sapientia 
tua aut doctrina tuafecisti tibi uirtutem, et aurum et argentum 
thesauris tuis? numquid in multa doctrina tua et mercatu tuo 
multiplicasti uirtutem tuam <, et exaltatum est cor tuum in 
uirtute tua>? propterea haec dicit Dominus, Quoniam dedisti 

25 cor tuum sicut cor Dei, propter hoc ecce ego induco super te 
alien os, pestes ex gentibus, et exin anient gladios suos super te et 
super decorem doctrinae tuae, et uidnerahunt decorem tuum 
in perdition em, et deponent te, et morieris morte uulneratorum 
in corde maris, numquid dicturus es in conspectu inter- 

30 ficientium te: Deus sum ego? tu uero homo es et non Deus ; in 
multitudine incircumcisorum peribis in manibus alienorum, 
quia ego locutus sum, dicit Dominus. < et /actus est sermo 
Domini ad me dicens: Fili hominis, accipe lamentum super 

3 in] om V diaboli] dicaboli V sicut] pr quomodo uenisti V ; constat 
uenisti ex uesti(mentum) ortum esse, et cf p 71 1 ' 2 4 conspersuni Ycorr 

7 internee V 9 uastabit V* 15 ezechibelii V 19 danihelo V 

22 mercatu] Vcorr; pr in V* 23, 24 et exaltatum... tua] om V; 

suppleui ex p 79 24 26 alienos] alienas V ; cf infra p 79 35 31 multi- 

tudinem V 32 seq et factus est... dominus] om V; suppleui ex p80' M ft'. 


principem Tyri, et die illi: Jiaec dicit Dominus,> Tu es Y 
signaculum similitudinis, et corona decoris in deliciis 
paradisi Dei fuisti, omnein lapidem optimum habens in te 
aUigatum, — sardium <et> topazium <et> smaragdum et car- 
bunculum et sajjvrum et iaspin et argentum et aurum et 5 
ligyrium et achaten et amethystum <et> chrysolithum et 
beryllum et onychinum, — et auro replesti thesauros tuos et 
apothecas tuas <in te. ex qua die creatus es tu> cum cherubim 
posui te in monte sancto Dei, fuisti in medio lapidum igneorum, 
abisti sine macula <tu> in diebus tuis ex qua die creatus es 10 
<tu>, donee inuenirentur iniquitates tuae in te a multitudine 
-negotiation is tuae. implesii promptuaria tua iniquitate, et 
peccasti et mdneratus es a monte Dei, <et> abduxit te cherubim 
de medio lapidum igneorum. exaltatum est cor tuum in decore 
tuo, corrupta est doctrina tua cum decore tuo. propter multi- 15 
tudinem peccatorum <tuorum in terrain proieci te, in conspectu 
rer/um dedi te dehonestari. propter multitudinem peccatorum 
tuorum> et iniquitatem negotiationis tuae contaminant sancta 
tua ; educam ignem de medio tui, hie te deuorabit. et dabo te 
in cinerem in terra tua in conspectu omnium uidentium te, et 20 
omnes qui te nouerunt inter nationes contristabuntur super te: 
perd it io foetus es, et non eris in aetemum. 

Ezexxviiis Quoniam exaltatum est inquit cor tuum, et dixisti : Deus 

sum ego, habitationem Dei habitaui in corde maris, et in 

cf.Mtx.\iv5 hominem conuenit Ego sum Christus et in diabolum, qui in 25 
corde maris, id est populi, habitat, sicut Deus in corde 
sanctorum suorum sedet. populus in corde maris, id est in 
noluptate uel altitudine saeculi. habitat, sicut in alio loco 

e«5xxto25, digit Deus eidem ciuitati : Satiata et onerata es nimis in 

corde maris, in aqua multa deduxerunt te remiges tui ; 30 
spiritus Austri contriuit te in corde maris uirtutis tuae. 

3 paradysi V habens] V; habesjj 81 31 , sed cf Arnob 4 et topa- 

zium et] topadiu V tantum 6 ligorium V achatirn V 

6, 7 ametistum crisolitum et berillum et onichinuni V 8 apotecas V 

in tu] om V; suppleui e.r pp 81 28 , 83 8 10 tu] om V 11 tu] 

om V 12 prumptuaria V* 13 peccasti] peccatis V; it id p S3 23 

monte] morte V et abduxit] om et V 14 igneorum] inferorum V 

16, 18 tuorum... tuorum] om V; supjrfeui ex p 8i 6 < 13 18 contaminaui] 

conieciexp 84 14 ; contaminata sunt V 20 in cinere V 23 inquid V* 

24 habitatione V 29 onerata] coniecit Sabat. ; honorata V, cf p 63 23 


v Tu aviem homo es, et non Dens, et diabolus in homine Eze xxvui 2 

homo dictus est, sicut Dominus dixit in Euangelio: Inimicus Mtxffi28 
homo hoc fecit, et interpretatus est dicens: Qui ea semi nut ibid 
diabolus est. homo diaboli Deus esse non potest, propterea 

5 in utrumque conuenit: Tu homo es et non Deus. 

Dedisti cor tuum tamquam cor Dei. numquid sapientior i-:*e .v:vm 2, 3 
es tu Danihele? in Danihele totum corpus est Ecclesiae, quia 
non potest esse homo peccati sapientior in negotiis uitae, 
sicut ille sapientior est in suo quam filii lucis. potest etiam cfLcxvis 

10 in speciem conuenire, quoniam Danihel specialiter confudit 
regem Babylonis in figura, qui prophetico Spiritu regem 
superbum ad confessionem unius Dei Ecclesiae maiestate 
prostrauit, qui confessione suarum uirtutum et caelesti 
sapientia Babylonis superstitiones euertit. 

15 Sapientes te non arguerunt sapientia sua? non solum Eze xxvui 3 
enim Danihel sapiens, sed etiam tres pueri, qui regem et 
omne regnum eius cum ipsis diis suis unum Domiuum 
asserendo eiusdem Dei praesente uirtute confuderunt. idem 
nunc usque generaliter eiusdem tarn externas quam intestinas 

20 Babylonis tenebras lumine ueritatis disrumpunt. 

Numquid in scientia tua aid sapientia tua fecisti tibi Ezexxvni*, 5 
uirtutem, et aumm et argentum thesauris tuis? numquid in 
multa scientia et mercatu tuo multiplicasti tibi uirtutem tuam, 
et e.valtatum est cor tuum in uirtute tua? putant enim superbi 

■25 et beneficiorum omnipotentis Dei ingrati sua uirtute aliquid 

posse et sapientia ditari, nescieutes scriptum esse: Non eccIkii 
leuibus cursus, non fortibus proelium, neque sapienti panis. 
et iterum: Numquid magnificabitur securis sine concisore? Eraixis 
et non quidem prudentibus diuitiae, et non scientibus gratia. 

30 haec enim non sunt in nostra potestate, sed a Deo con- 
feruntur. Quid enim habes quod non accepisti? si autem lcniv: 
accepisti, quid glonaris tamquam non acceperis? et iterum: 
Non glorietur sapiens in sapientia sua. merix23 

Propterea haec dicit Dominus, Quoniam dedisti cor tuum Ezexxviu6, 7 

35 sicut cor Dei, propterea ecce ego induco super te (dienos, pestes 

7 danihelo V utroque loco ecclesia V* 11 figuram V 

12 ecclesiae] ecclesiastica V ; cf Appx n 13 prostrabit V 17 "suis" 

diis V 22 uirtute V 23 et mercatu] iu mercatu V 


ex gentibus, et exinanient gladios suos super te et super decorem V 
scientiae tuae. etsi potest in speciem conuenire, quod reges 
saeculi per suam superbiam dominos se appellari patiuntur, 
tamen hoc quoque conuenit in genus, frequenter enim in- 
ducit Deus in Ecclesiam alienigenas, et multos in mortem 5 
uulnerant. sed etiam occulta persecutione multos inducit 

cfNuxxviff ex gentibus, in quibus temptet populum suum, et occidat 
nequam partem simul cum eis sicut Maziam. 

Ezexxviii- Et uulnerabunt decorem tuum in perditionem. aliquos 66 

» 8 enim non in perditionem sed cum spe sanitatis uulnerant. Et jo 

deponent te, id est humiliabunt, et morieris morte'uulneratorum 
in corde maris, non diceret uulnerato Morieris morte 
uulneratorum, nisi quia non aperte uulneratur et moritur; 
sed ipse est, in quibus uulneratur. 

Ezexxviii 9; Numquid narrabis in conspectu interficientium te: Dens is 

cfPsxxi23 J ..... 

sum ego? id est numquid diuini generis titulis terrebis 
eos quibus traditus fueris occidendus tarn spiritaliter quam 

ft 9, 10 carnaliter ? Tu uero homo <es> et non Deus; in multi- 
tudine incircumcisorum peribis in manibus alienorum, quia 
ego locutus sum, dicit Dominus. nunc aperuit quo genere 20 
se ille dicat Deum, dum minatur et in multitudine incircum- 
cisorum periturum manibus alienorum, quod non conuenit 
nisi in eum qui sibi circumcisus uidetur. rex enim Tyri 
mortem solam potuit timere, non ne ab incircumcisis aut 
cum eis moreretur. 25 

/6 ii~i3 Et f actus est sermo Domini ad me dicens: Fili hominis, 

accipe lamentum super principem Tyri, et die illi: haec dicit 
Dominus, Tu es signacidum similitudinis, et corona decoris 
in paradiso Deifuisti. numquid diabolo factus est paradisus, 
ut ipse quod paradisum perdiderit increpetur ? homo fuit 30 
in deliciis paradisi, ipse est signacidum similitudinis, qui ad 

cfGevi similitudinem Dei factus est. signaculum autem ad decorem 
dixit, sicut per Aggeum dimicantibus huius aduersum se 

Aggii 22-24 fratribus promittit Deus Ecclesiae dicens: Ego commouebo 

caelum et terram, mare et ar-idam. et conuertam currus et 35 

5 in morte V 7 occidat. Nequam V {sic) 8 partem simul cum 

eis] conieci ; persimiles V 15 narrabis] uid Introdp li ; pr narrans V 

18 es] om V ; cfp 77 3u 30 paradyso V, et sic infra 33 dimicanti V* 


V sessores, et descendant equi et sessores earn in unusquisque in 
gladio ad f rat rem mum. in illo die, dicit Dominus omnipo- 
tent, accipiam te Zorobabel filium Salathiel seruum meum, et 
ponani te signaculum, quoniam te elegi, dicit Dominus omni- 

5 patens. Zorobabel omne corpus est, etenim exinde nusquam 
legimus commotis supra se <imiuersis> uenisse Zorobabel. 
hie est autem ex tribus, qui sub Dario meruit aediflcare <=f 3 Esdr iv 

' *■ 13 seq 

Hierusalem. ipse quoque iu figura fundauit domum Dei et 
perfecit, sicut idem Dominus dixit : Manus Zorobabel funda- Zechiv9 

io uerunt domum hanc, et manus eius perficient earn, quod est 
autem signaculum hoc et corona speciei, sic Deus promittit 
Ecclesiae dicens: Videbunt gentes iustitiam tuam, et reges Esai ixa 2— 4 
claritatem tuam, et uocabunt nomen tuum nouum, quod Dominus 
nominabit Mud. <et> eris corona speciei in manu Domini, et 

15 diadema regni in manu Dei tui. tu etiam nan uocaberis Dere- 
licta, et terra tua nan uocabitur Deserta ; tibi enim nomen uo- 
cabitur Voluntas mea, et terra tua Orbis terrarum. homo est 
itaque signaculum similitudinis et corona speciei, cuius pars in efEzxxviii 
ipso decore diuinae similitudinis et deliciis paradisi, id est 

20 Ecclesiae, perseuerat. altera uero pars, ne in aeternum uiuat, cfGem22,24 
inter ipsam et arborem jiammeus ensis euoluitur. A dam nam- cf Ro v 14 
que, sicut apostolus dicit, umbra est futuri; sic et in fratres ° u 
diuisus est in Cain et Abel. 

Omnem lapidem optimum habens in te alligation, — sardium Eze x.wm u 

25 et topazium et smaragdum et carbunculum et sajfirum et iaspin 
<et> argentum et aurum et ligyrium et achaten et amethgs- 
tum et chrysolithum ct bergllum et oni/chinum, — et auro re- 
plesti thesauros tuos et apothecas tuas in te. haec et in diabo- 
lum eonueniunt et in hominem. isti enim duodecim lapides 

30 et aurum et argentum omnesque thesauri diabolo adhaerent 
delegati. denique habes in te alligatum, et iterum apothecas 
tuas in te, sicut corpus Domini a Sanctis ornatur, promittente 

Deo et dicente: Extolle aculos tuas in circuitu et wide omnes EsaixUxis, 


3 salatihel V 6 uniuersis] addidi, cf 63 2 ' 2 , 6G 5 ; om V 7 tribus] 

scri2)si : tribu V 14 uominauit V et] addidi ; om V 17 uoluntas] 
uoluptas V 19 paiadysi V 22 in] scripsi ; hi V 25 topadiu V 

iaspin et] iaspen V 26, 27 lygiriu et achathen et ametistu et crisolitu 

et berillu et onicinu V 28 apotecas V 31 apotechas V 

B. 6 


filios tuos, collecti sunt et uenerunt ad te. vino ego, dicit Do- V 
minus, quia omnibus illis indueris, et superinpones illos tibi 
sicut ornamentum nouae nuptae; quia deserta tua et diruta et 
quae ceciderunt nunc angustiabuntur ab inltabitantibus. et in 

cfApxxiiy, Apocalypsi eadera ciuitas duodecim lapidibus fimdata con- 5 
struitur. Omnem inquit lapidem optimum, et enumerauit 
duodecim. ut ostenderet in duodenario numero perfectionem. 

cf Gei25 omnia enim quae fecit Deus bona sunt: horum diabolus usum 
non naturam mutauit. et omnes homines excellentis sensus et 
potentis ingenii aurum sunt et argentum et lapides pretiosi 10 
secundum naturam, sed eius erunt in cuius obsequio <uolun- 

cfRoviio tate non> natura suis fruuntur, quoniam cui se adsigna- 
uerit quis in obedientiam, seruus est eius cui obaudit, siue 
peccati siue iustitiae. ita fit ut et diabolus habeat aurum et 
argentum et lapides pretiosos ; omnia quidem non sua secun- 15 
dum originem, sed sua secundum uoluntatem. nam et in 

[ob \h 21 j 0D scriptum est de diabolo : Omne aurum maris sub eo est. 

cf2Timii2o et apostolus uasa aurea et argentea dicit esse quaedam in 
contumeliam. non enim sicut quid am putant omnia lignea et 
fictilia reprobauit, cum ex eis sint aliqua in honorem, ipso 20 

Roix2i dicente figulum luti aliud quidem fingere in honorem aliud 
uero in contumeliam, et ex ligno, aliud ad praeparationem 
escae aliud in sacrilegium. ex auro et argento, id est ex 
magnis <et> perspicuis, dixit inmundos. nam et in Apoca- 

Apxvui lypsi meretrix, id est corpus aduersum, purpura cocco et auro 25 
et argento lajridibusque pretiosis ornatur, habens poculum 
aiireum in manu pie mini execrationum et inniunditiarum 
totius terras, ista sunt ergo diaboli ornamenta, lapides pre- 

cfEzexxviii ^iosi (piibus lapides igueos imitatur. et homo in se habet 

thesauros tain facinorum quam perspicuos. ipse enim suorum 3° 
portator est, quern facilitates suae uelut compedes ligauerunt. 
praeter ilia quae ab utroque sexu corporis diaboli ornanda 

.i.Mtvi-ji eduntur, etiam his quae defossa habent insitum est cor; vbi 
enim erit thesaurus, illic erit et cor hominis. uetus enim 
3 nuptiae V* 5 apocalypsin V 9 excellentisensu V 

11, 12 uoluntate non] addidi 13 in oboedientia V 18 uasa 

aurea &c] cf Avfi Retract ii 18 18,19 in contumelia V 20,21 in 

honore V ntroque loco 22 in contumelia V 23 escae] aesce V 

24 et 1°] o)ii V 24, 25 in apocalypsin V 


V homo et terra eius unmn corpus est, quoniam ipse quoque 
terra est. undo apostolus non solum ea, quae corpore admitti 
possunt, sed et auaritiam membrum esse possidentis ita de- 
finiuit dicens : Mortificate itaque membra uestra quae in terra Coi iH5,6 
5 sunt, — -fornicationem, inmwnditiam, jmssionem, concupiscen- 
tiam malam, et auaritiam, quae est idolorum seruitus, — prop- 
ter quae uenit ira Dei. 

Ex qua die creatus es tu cum cherubim iuposui te in monte i>e x.wiii 14 
sancto Dei, id est in Christo uel in Ecclesia: in medio lapi- 

io dum igneorum fuisti, id est hominum sanctorum, qui adunati 
montem Dei faciunt. angeli enim alterius substantiae lapi- 
des dici non possunt, quia corpus non habent. Abisti sine lh ^< 1(i 
macula tu in diebus tuis ex qua die creatus es tu, donee inue- 
nirentur iniquitates tuae in te a multitudine negotiations tuae. 

15 lapides Ecclesiam dicit Petrus : Et uos fratres tamquam lapi- 1 Pet a 5 
des uiui coaedificamini dom us spiritalis, quam domum igneam 
esse et banc in malos fratres ardere sic dicit Deus: Erit domus am is 
Jacob ignis, domus autem Joseph flamma, domus uero Esau 
stipula ; et exardescent in illos et comedent eos, et non erit 

20 ignifer in domo Esau, quoniam Dominus locutus est. cum 
enim peccat homo, deicitur de monte Dei, et non erit ignifer 
amisso Spiritu, et succenditur in cinerem. cfEzexxvui 

Peccasti et uulnerutus es a monte Dei, et abduxit te cheru- /&16 
bim de medio lapidum igneorum. cherubim ministerium Dei 

25 est, quod exclusit uniuersos malos de Ecclesia, sed spiritaliter. 

qui enim uestitum nuptialem non habet, hie in saeculo exclu- i[^ txxii 
ditur de medio recumbentium. denique in tenebras, id est in 
obdurationem, tuittitur, donee in ignem aeternum descendat. 
futuro enim saeculo nemo miscebitur chore sanctorum qui 

30 postea excludatur. 

Exaltatum est cor tuum in decore tuo, corrupta est scientia Ezexxviiiw 
tua in decore tuo. corrupta est enim scientia eius qui sciens 
prudensque errat, et studio affectatae sapientiae asserit dis- 
simulata ueritate mendacium, sicut Spiritus dicit: Cum n«i -21,21 

1 et terra] inter & et terra spatium trium litterarum in V 3 auaritia 

V 8, 24 (2°) cherubin V 15 ecclesia V 1G domus sjnritales V 

igneum V* 17. in malos] om in V 28 discendat V 20 cboro] coro V 



cognouissent Deum, non ut Deum magnificau&rwnt aut gratias V 
egerunt, sed nugati sunt in cogitationibus suis, dicentes se esse 
sapientes. corrupta est scientia eius qui alios docet, se ipsum 
non docet. corruptus est decor <eius> qui generi suo operum 
similitudine non responded 5 

Ezexxviiin Propter multitudinem peccatorum tuoruin in terrain pro- 
ieci te, in conspectu regum dedi te dehonestari. et diabolus 
proiectus est in terrain, id est in hominem, et homo de sub- 
limitate Ecclesiae in conculcationem, sicut Hieremias dicit : 
Threniii Deiecit de caelo in terrain gloriam Israhel. In conspectu 67 
regum : Christianorum dixit, quorum pedibus conculcatur 
diabolus et homo eius. 
Ezexxviiiis Propter multitudinem peccatorum tuorum et iniquitatem 
negotiations tuae contaminaui sancta tua. uidetur ueluti 
principalem titulum exprobrasse corpori diaboli negotia- 15 
tiones — magis dicit et thesauros — spiritalis nequitiae. sicut 
enim spiritalis iustitiae negotiatio est thesaurus, ut Dominus 
Mtxiii45 dicit: Simile est regnum caelorum liomini negotiatori, et 
MtxlvH iterum : Thesaurizate nobis thesauros in caelo, iterum Dedit 
cf Eze xxxviii seruis suis substantiam suam ut negotiarentur, iterum Nego- 20 
Esaixxiiiis tiatioties Garthagiiienses resistent tibi, iterum Negotiatio eius 
iTimvie et merces sancta Domino, et apostolus Est inquit negotiatio 
magna pietas ; ita spiritalis nequitia negotiatio est, thesaurus 
Mtxii35 peccatorum, sicut Dominus dicit: Homo mains de thesauro 
Ro ii 5 cordis emittit mala, et apostolus : Tliesaurizas tibi iram in die 25 

Ezoxxviiiis Propter iniquitatem inquit negotiationis tuae contaminetur 
sancta tua. qui enim non recte sanctitate Dei utitur, suam 
Esai i 13, ii efficit, sicut Deus dicit de sabbatis suis : Sabbata uestra odit 

anima mea. 3° 

Eze xxviii is Educam ignem de medio tut, hie te deuorabit. ignis Ec- 
C f2Theu7 clesia est, quae cum discesserit e medio mysterii facinoris 

1 deum] dmn V ntroquc loco 3 eius] eoruni V 4 eius] 

addidi ; om V 5 similitudinem V* mox corr 6 in terra V 

10 deiecit] V* rid ; deieci V corr 14 negationis V 15 exprobasse V 
15, 1G negotiationes] conieci ; negotiationis V 16, 17, 23 spiritales V 

21 chartaginierises V* ; chartaginenses V corr resistent] V; epoiW lsx 
27 inquid V* 28 scitatem V suaiu] sua V 32 mysteriis 


v tunc pluet ignem Dominus a Domino do Ecclesin, sicut scrip- 
turn est: Sol exortus est super terrain, et Loth intrauit in GexLr23,24 
Segor. etpluit Dominus super Sodomam et Gomorram sulphur 
et ignem a Domino de caelo. hie est ignis quern supra dixit : 
5 Domus Jacob ignis, domus autem Esau stipula ; et exardes- amis 
cent in eos et comedent illos, et non erit ignifer in domo Esau. 
in Genesi iterum scriptum est: Cum contereret Deus omnes Gexix29 
ciuitates in circuitu, commemoratus est Dens Abrahae, et 
emisit Loth e medio subuersionis, cum subuerteret Deus ciui- 

10 tates in quibus habitat in eis Loth, numquid Loth non 
merebatur propria iustitia liberari, ut diceret Scriptura : 
Commemoratus est Deus Abrahae, et emisit Loth e medio sub- 
uersionisl aut in ciuitatibus habitabat, et non in ciuitatc, ut 
diceret: Ciuitates in quibus Loth habitabat? sed prophetia 

15 est futurae discessionis. memor enim Deus promissionis ad 
Abraham eiecit Loth de omnibus ciuitatibus Sodomorum, 
quibus ueniet ignis ex igni Ecclesiae, quae de medio eorum 

Et dabo te in cinerem in terra tua, id est in hominibus, Eze xxvm is 

20 uel ipsos homines in terra sua, qui in terra Dei esse nolue- 
runt. In conspectu omnium uidentium te, id est intellegen- 
tium. numquid diabolus uideri potest nisi in homine ? 

Et omnes qui te nouerunt inter nationes contristabuntur n,i9 
super te. cum enim Dominus percutit aut detegit malos, 

25 contristantur qui eorum auxilio fulciri solent, corporis sui 
parte debilitata. 

Perditio facta es, et non eris in aeternum. * * * 

19 in cinere V* 21 omnium] hominum V 23 te nouerunt] 

tenuerunt V 27 in aeternu V* vid 



for the Rules of Tyconius, from a 13th cent ms at Laon (Depart- 
mental Catalogue of 1849, vol i, 88). See I id rod p xxi. 

Regula prima caput nostrum cum corpore iungit. 
corpore de uero loquitur mixtoque secunda. 
tertia describit quid lex quid gratia possit. 
quarta genus spcciem totuni partemque rependit. 
tempora disiungit maiora minoraque quinta. 
sexta refert iterum que prime- facta fuerunt. 
septima serpentis sibi membra caputque resoluit. 

Variants of the Roman mrs Pal 841 (14th cent) aud Vat 4290 (15th cent). 

2 corpore... secunda] nomine iustoruru notat altera facta nmlorum Vat 

3 describit] distinguit Pal 

4 rependit] reuoluit Pal ; resoluit Vat 

~> disiungit] distinguit Pal ; commutat Vat 
7 sibi] tibi Vat resoluit] reflectit Pal 



/ . c— 2 \ 

[Codex Modoetianus, saec. ix — x, n". -^ . J 

Note. The spelling and punctuation is that of the MS, but the con- 
tractions have been expanded throughout. Words in brackets are written 
above the line in the MS. The numbers at the side refer to the pages of this 
book. The sections not taken from the Book of Kules but from S. Augustine 
are printed in italics. See Introd. pp xxvii, xxxvi — xxxix. 

(f. 206 v.) Explicit tract, in epistola Pauli ad Hebreos. v vn. ticonit 

1 EEGVLAE : Necessarium dixi ante omnia quae mini uidentur libellum 
regularem scribere et secretorum legis ueluti claues et luminaria fabricare ; 
Sunt enim quaedam regulae mysticae quae uniuerse legis recessus obtinent. 
et ueritatis thesauros aliquibus inuisibiles faciunt; Quarum si ratio regu- 
larum sine inuidia ut communicamus accepta fuerit. clausa quaeque 
patefient. et obscura dilucidabuntur. ut quis prophetiae inmensam siluam 
perambulans his regulis quodammodo hicis tramitibus deductus ab errore 
liberetur ; Sunt autem regulae istae : de domino et corpore eius. de 
domini corpore bipertito. de promissis et lege, de specie et genere. de 

2 temporibus. de recapitulatione. de diabolo et eius corpore. Ecce esaias 
dicit. peccata nostra feret et pro nobis dolet et ipse uulneratus est propter 
facinora nostra et deus tradidit eum pro peccatis nostris et cetera quae 
domino conueniunt. Sequitur autem de eodem et deus unit purgare ilium 
a plaga et unit deus a dolore auferre animam eius. ostendere illi lucem et 
formare ilium p(ru)dentia ; numquid ei quern tradidit pro peccatis nostris 
unit ostendere lucem et eum formare prudentia cum ipse sit lux et 
sapientia dei et non corpori eius ? quare manifestum est sola ratione 
uideri posse quando a capite ad corpus transitum facit ; Danihel quoque 
lapidem de monte praecisum dominum dicit. et implesse uniuersam terram 
corpus eius. non enim sunt audiendi qui potestate ilium dicunt creuisse 
quia dominus ante mundi constitutionem hanc habuit potestatem et cum 
homo in illo dei Alius fieret, non paulatim ut lapis sed uno tempore accepit 

3 potestatem in caelo et in terra v (f. 207 r.) Quod si potestate non corpore 


implesset terrain, lapidi non compararefcur quia potestas. res est inpal- 
pabilis. lapis uero res est palpabilis ; Nee sola ratione manifestatur corpus 
non caput crescere sed etiam apostolica auctoritate. confirmatur. Cre- 
scimus inquid in eum qui est caput christus ex quo omne corpus con- 
structum et conexum per omne tactum subministrationis in mensuram 
uniuscuiusque partis incrementum corporis facit in sedificationem sui. et 
iterum non tenens caput ex quo omne corpus per tactum et coniunctiones 
constructum et subministratuni crescit in incrementum dei. Non ergo 
caput quod ex origine idem est. sed corpus crescit ex capite : Ad proposition 
redeamus ; Scriptum est de domino et eius corpore quid cui conueniat 
ratione discernendum ; Angelis suis mandauit de te et cetera usque 
ostendam illi salutare meum. numquid de cuius obsequio mandauit angelis 
suis deus eidem ostendit salutare suum et non corpori eius 1 Item, sicut 
sponso inposuit mihi mitram et sicut sponsam ornauit me ornamento ; 
Vnum corpus dixit utriusque sensus sponsi et sponsae. Sed quid in 
domino quid in ecclesia conueniat ratione cognoscitur. Idem dicit in 
apocalypsi. ego sum sponsus et sponsa. et iterum. exierunt obuiam sponso 
et sponsae. Iterum quid capitis quid corporis ratione discernendum sit, 

4 per esaiam declaratur. Sic dicit dominus christo meo domino cuius ego 
tenui dexteram ut exaudiant eum gentes. Sequitur et dicit quod non nisi 
corpori conueniat ; et dabo tibi thesauros absconditos inuisibiles aperiam 
tibi ut scias quoniam ego sum dominus qui uoco nomen tuum deus israhel 
propter iacob puerum meum et israhel electum meum ; propter testamenta 
enim quae disposuit patribus.(ad)cognoscendum se deus aperit corpori 
christi thesauros inuisibiles quod occubus non uidit &c usque nee in cor 
hominis ascendit id est obdurati hominis qui non est in corpore christi ; 
Ecclesia? autem reuelauit deus per spiriturn suum ; Sunt enim in quibus 
haec ratio minus claret eo quod sine in dominum sine in corpus eius 
minus conuenit dictum, quarn ob rem sola et maiora dei gratia uideri 
possunt ; A modo inquid uidebitis filium hominis sedentem ad dexteram 
uirtutis et uenientem in nubibus cadi ; Non uisuros uenientem in nubibus 
cseli nisi in nouissimo tantum die plangent se omnes tribus terrae ; et 
tunc uidebunt filium hominis uenientem in nubibus caeli ; Vtrumquo 
autem fieri necesse est. Sed primo corporis est aduentus id est rccclesiae 
iugiter uenientis in eadem claritate ; Si enim diceret modo uidebitis 
uenientem, solius corporis intelligendus esset aduentus ; Si autem uidebitis 
capitis aduentus, Nunc uero a modo inquit uidebitis uenientem quoniam 
corpore suo iugiter uenit natiuitatem et similium passionum claritatem. 
Si enim renati christi membra efheiuntur et membra corpus efficiunt, 
christus est qui uenit. quoniam natiuitas aduentus est ut illud inluminat 

5 &c. usque in hunc mundum. Item generatio uadit et generatio uenit. 
Item, sicut audistis antichristus uenit. Item de eodem corpore : si enim 
iste qui uenit alium iesum predicat. unde dominus cum de signo aduentus 
sui interrogaretur '. de illo aduentu suo cepit disputare qui ab i(ni)mico 
corpore signis et prodigiis imitari potest, cauctc inquid ne quis uos 


seducat. nmlti enim uenient in nomine meo id est in nomine corporis mei. 
Nouissimo autem aduentu domini id est consummationis et manifestation is 
totius aduentus eius nemo ut aliqui putant mentietur ; Nee ilhul erit 
ab*sur*dum quod ex uno totum corpus uolumus intelligi ut filium hominis 
ecclesiam. quoniam ecelesia id est filii dei redacti in ununi corpus, dicti 
unus homo dieti etiam deus. sicut per apostolum : super omne quod 
dicitur deus ant quod colitur. quoniam ecelesia dicitur, summus adoratur 
ut in templo dei sedcat ostendens se quod ipse sit deus id est ecelesia. 
quale si diceret in templo dei sedeat ostendens se quod ipse sit templum. 
aut in deum sedeat (f. 207 v.) ostendens se quod ipse sit deus. et dominus 
totum populum sponsam dicit et sororem et apostolus uirginem castam et 
aduersum corpus hominem peccati. et dauid totam ecclesiam christum 
dicit : faciens misericordias christo suo dauid. et semini eius in aeternum. 

6 et apostolus corpus christi christum uocat ; Sicut enim corpus unum est. 
membra autem habet multa. omnia autem membra ex uno corpore cum 
sint multa unum corpus est sic et christus. id est christi corpus quod 
ecelesia. Item, subpleo quae desunt pressurarum christi id est ecclesiae. 
nihil enim defuit christi passionibus quoniam suffieit discipulo ut sit sicut 
magister eius. Sic ergo aduentum christi pro locis sontiemus. lcgimus in 
exodo omnes filios dei unum nlium. Israhel filius mens primogenitus. 
Item ibi omnes promitiuos unum primitiuum. Ecce ego occido filiuin 
tuum primitiuum. Et david uineam domini unum nlium. uineam de 
egypto &c usque filium hominis quern confirmasti tibi. et apostolus filium 
dicit qui filium dei mixtus est paulus seruus christi iesu segregatus in 
euangelio dei &c usque iesu ehristi domini nostri. si diceret de filio suo 
ex resurrectione mortuorum unum ostenderet. nunc autem de filio inquit 
suo ex resurrectione mortuorum iesu christi domini nostri. Sed quis 

7 factus sit filius dei ex resurrectione christi apertius ostendit dicens. de 
filio suo qui factus est &c usque secundum carnem qui predestinatus est 
filius dei. dominus enim noster non est predestinatus filius dei qui ex quo 
natus est hoc est. sed ille cui secundum lucam dicit. in baptismo. filius 
mens es tu ego hodie genui te : Qui ex semine dauid mixtus est principali 
spiritui et factus est ipse filius dei ex resurrectione domini nostri iesu 
christi id est dum resurgit in christo semen dauid. non ille de quo ait 
ipse dauid. Dicit dominus domino meo ; Itaque facti sunt duo una caro. 
uerbum caro factum est et caro deus. qui non ex sanguine sed ex deo nati 
sunt ; Apostolus dicit. crunt duo in carne una quod interpretatur in 
christo et ecelesia. Vnum namque semen prOmisit deus abrahae :' ut 
quanticumque in chi'isto miseerentur ' unus essct in christo. unde 
apostolus, omnes uos unum estis in christo iesu ; si autem uos unum 
estis in christo iesu i ergo abrahae semen estis. et secundum promissionem 
heredes. Distat autem inter unum estis et unus estis. quotiescumque 
alter alteri voluntate myscetur * ut illud ego et pater unum sumus unum 
sunt. Quotiens autem et corporaliter myseentur et in unam carnem duo 
golidantur unus sunt ; Corpus itaque in capite suo filius est dei. ct ileus 


in corpore suo Alius est hominis qui cotidie nascendo uenit et crescit in 
templum sancti dei. Templum enim dei bipertitum est cuius pars altera 

8 quamuis lapidibus magnis extruatur destruitur ; neque in eo lapis super 
lapidem relinquetur. Istius nobis iugis aduentus cauendus est donee de 
medio eius discedat ecclesia : finit 

Regula bipertiti corporis domini multo necessarior est et a nobis 
diligentius perspicienda et per omnes scripturas ante oculos habenda est 
sicut enim supradictum est. a capite ad corpus ratione sola uidetur. ita a 
parte corporis ad partem, adextera ad sinistram uel a sinistra ad dexteram 
transitus reditusque ut in supradicto capite claret. Dum enim dicit uni 
corpori. thesauros inuisibiles aperiam tibi ut scias quoniatn ego sum 
dominus et assumam te et adiecit. tu autem me non cognouisti et 
nesciebas me. numquid licet unum corpus adloquatur in unam mentem 
conuenit et tbesaurorum dei apertio et dei ignorantia ? non cognouisti 
autem illi dicitur '. qui licet ad boc uocatus sit ut cognoscat et eiusdem 
corporis sit uisibiliter et deo labiis appropinquet longe tamen corde 

9 separatus est. Item, ducam cajcos in uiam quam ignorauerunt. et semitas 
quas non nouerunt calcabunt et faciam illis tenebras in luccm. Haec 
verba faciam et non derelinquam eos. Ipsi autem conuersi sunt retro : 
numquid quos dixit non derelinquam idem conuersi sunt et non pars 
eorum : Item dicit dominus ad iacob. Ab oriente adducam semen tuum 
et ab occidento colligam te. dicam aquiloni da et austro noli probibere et 
paulo post, in gloriain enim mcam (f. 208 r.) paraui ilium et finxi et feci 
ilium, et produxi plebem caecam et oculi eorum sunt similiter caeci et 
surdas aures babent. numquid quos in gloriam suam parauit idem sunt 
caeci et surdi ; Item dedi perire iacob et israhel i(u) maledictum. nunc 
audi me puer meus iacob et israhel quern elegi ; ostendit ilium iacob et 
israhel perire quern non elegit; Item scio quoniam reprobatus repro- 
baberis. propter noincn meum ostendam tibi dignitatem meam. Numquid 

10 reprobatio ostendit dignitatem suam ? Item, breuiter bipertitum osten- 
ditur christi corpus, fusca sum et decora. Absit enim ut ecclesia qui non 
habet maculam aut rugam aliqua ex parte fusca sit nisi in parte sinistra 
per quam nomen dei blasfematur in gentibus alias tota speciosa est sicut 
dicit. tota speciosa es proxima mea et macula non est in te ; quare fusca 
sit et speciosa ostendit. ut tabernaculum cedar ut pellis salomonis. duo 
tabernacula ostendit regium et seruile utrumque tamen semen abrahse. 
cedar enim filius est ismahel. cuius serin abrahse cohabitationem sanctus 
deplorat dicens. eu mihi quia incolatus meus prolongatus est. &c usque 
inpugnabant me gratis ; Non possumus autem dicere tabernaculum cedar 
praeter ecclesiam esse unde cedar et salomonis inde fusca et decora, non 

11 est fusca ecclesia in his qui foris sunt, hoc mysterio dominus in apocalypsi 
septem angelos dicit id est ecclesiam septiformem nunc sanctos et pre- 
ceptorum custodes nunc eosdem multorum criminum reos et psenitentia 
dignos ostendit. Et in euangelio unum prepositorum corpus diuersi 
meriti manifestat dicens ; Beatus ille seruus quern cum uenerit dominus 


inuenerit sic facientem. Dc eodcm. si autem nequam fuerit diuidet eurn 
dominus et partem eius cum hypocritis ponet. non omnem sic diuidet aut 
lindet. deuique lion totum sed partem eius cum hypocritis ponet. In uno 
enim corpus ostendit. Hoc itaque mysterio accipiendum est per omnes 
scripturas sicubi deus dicit. ob merita. israhel periturum aut hereditatem 
suam execrabilem. Apostolus enim copiose ita disputat maxinie ad 
romam in parte accipiendum quicquid de toto corpore dictum est ad 
israhel inquid quid dicit. tota die expandi mauus meas ad populum non 
credentem. ct ut ostenderet de parte dictum, dico inquid numquid 
reppulit deus hereditatem suam ? absit. nam et ego israhelita sum &c 
usque presciuit : Et post quam ostendit quern ad modum. haec locutio 
intelligenda esset! eodem genere locutionis ostendit unum corpus et 

(26)bonum et malum esse dicens. § non de omnibus uobis dico ; Magna breuitas 
ostendentis unum corpus et separautis. si enim diceret non de uobis dico 

(11) aut non de omnibus dico non ostenderet unum corpus. " [ Secundum euan- 
gelium inquit inimici propter uos. secundum electionem autem dilecti 
propter patres. Numquid idem dilecti. qui inimici I aut potest in caifan 
utrumque conuenire ? Ita dominus in omnibus scripturis unum corpus 
seminis abrahae omnibus gentibus crescere et florere atque perire testatur ; 


12 Auctoritas est diuina nemine aliquando ex operibus legis iustilicari 
potuisse. eadem firmissimum est numquam defuisse qui legem facerent et 
iustificarentur. Scriptum est quaecumque lex loquitur his qui in lege 
sunt loquitur ut omne os obstruatur et subditus fiat omnis mundus deo 
quia non iustiticabitur ex lege omnis caro in conspectu eius. Item, si 
enim data esset lex quae posset iustificare et reliqua usque credentibus v 
Sed dicit q\iis. a christo et infra non iustificat lex. suo tamen tempore 
iustificauit. Huic occm'rit petrus. quid temptatis iugum imponere super 
ceruices nostras &c usque illi. (f. 208 v.) Qui(s) uero tarn peruersae 

13 mentis est qui neget moysen uel reliquos sanctos legem fecisse 2 Sed 
quomodo eos lex iustificauit qui ad hoc data est ut peccatuni multi- 
plicaretur. lex autem subintrauit ut habundaret delictum ; Illud autem 
scire debemus et tenere numquam omnino interceptum esse semen 
abrahae ab isaac usque nunc, semen autem abrehae non carnale sed spiri- 
tale quod non ex lege sed ex promissione est ut illud quoniam qui ex fide 
sunt hi sunt filii abrahae. si autem constat semen abrehae ante legem fuisse 
et ex fide '. constat et quia numquam fuit ex lege ; Non enim potuit ex 
lege esse et ex fide, lex enim et fides diuersa res est '. quia lex non est fidei 
sed operum. ut illud lex non est ex fide sed qui fecerit ea uiuet in eis ; 

14 uidemus legem ad promissionem non pertinere nee aliquando alteram in 
alteram inpegisse. quia sicut lex numquam fidei obfuit '. ita nee fides legem 
destruxit. ut illud legem ergo destruimus per fidem ? absit. sed legem 

15 statuimus id est firrnamus. Inuicem namque se firmant. Non enim 
potuit quisquam iustus in lege positus uiuere nisi opera legis fecisset et 
omnia. Sin maledictus esset neque aliquando liberari potuit nisi sola 


gratia per fidem. est autem crimen magnum perfidiac non adtcndisse 
genus armorum quibus uiolentia peccatorum cxpugnaretur. e contra 
magnificae fidei est inquisisse et uidisse bonum deum qui sciebat legem 
16 non posse fieri alteram uitae aditum relinquisse. dens enim cum diceret 
non concupisces '. non nudauit quern ad modum id prouenire posset sed 
seuere atque decise dixit non concupisces. quoniam id fide reperiendum 
reliquid. Si enim mandaret a se prouentum postulari et legem destruxerat 
et fidem. ut quid enim legem daret si se legem in omnibus factorum 
polliceretur ? aut quid fidei relinqueret si fidem auxilium pollicendo pro- 
uenirct ? nunc autem bono fidei legem ministram mortis ut amatores 
uitae fide uitam uiderent et iusti fide uiuerent. qui opus legis non ex sua 

18 uirtute sed ex dei dono fieri posse crederent : Dicit enim apostolus 
propterea datam legem ut nos custodia sui concluderet in fidem quam 
futurum erat reuelari in christum qui est finis legis qua uixerunt omnes 
qui fide gratiam dei inquisierunt prius inquit quam ueniret fides sub lege 
custodiebamlu• conclusi in eadem fidem. quam futurum erat reuelari ; lex 
itaque pedagogus noster fuit in christo. lex fidei erat demonstratrix ; Sed 
dicit quis si in utilitatem fidei data est lex cur non ab origine seminis 
abrahae. si quidem iuge fuit. re uera iugc fuit iugis et fides ut geneti-ix 
filiorum abrahae. Iugis et lex per dinoscentiam boni et mali. sed post 
promissionem filiorum abrahae multiplicatis eis secundum carncm multi- 
plicandum erat et semen abrahae quod non est nisi ex fide ; Quae multi- 
plicatio euenire non posset sine adiutorio legis multiplicate ut multitudo 
in fidem necdum reuelatum ut iam dictum est uel necessitate dcduccretur. 
prouidentia itaque dei factum augendo gubernandoque semini abrahae ut 
seueritate et nietu legis multi conpellerentur in fidem et semen fulciretur 
usque ad fidei reuelationem. lex subintrauit ut abundaret delictum et 
reliqua usque gratia, non dixit ut daretur sed ut abundaret gratia ; ab 
inicio enim data est per christum fugientibus legis molestias atque domi- 

19 niam. Idem namque spiritus eadem fides et gratia per christum semper 
data est quorum plenitudinem * ueniens remoto legis uclamine omni genti 
largitus est. si quis absque fide iustificatus est, non fuit filius abrahae ; 

21 quoniam filius abrahae non ex lege sed ex fide iustificatur : non 
est bene et melius in lege '. qui si iustificasset omnes iusti unius cssent 

22 meriti quia partem de omnibus exigit observationem ; Cogimus autem 
loqui ea qui sine igne doloris (f. 209 r.) fari non possumus. dicunt enim 
quidam promis(is)se deum abrahae omnes geutes sed saluo libero arbitrio 

23 si legem custodissent ; Non enim si futuri essent et non quia futuri erant 
promisit. quia non propter fidem abrahae placuit dco saluas fore gentes 
qua* non ante fidem abrahae sed ante mundi constitutionem possedit. sed 
quisiuit fidelem cui donaret ex quo esset quod futurum statuerat ; 
Abraham ergo non id meruit ut essent sed ut per ipsum essent qui futuri 

24 erant quos deus elegerat ; Quid enim iusto lex qui propitio deo legem sine 

25 lege faciunt qui ad imaginem dei uiuunt. uoluntate enim boni sunt. Non 
est misericors qui timet es:sc crudelis. non fiutum odit sed penam timet ; 


qui autem amat bonum imago dci est ut iam 11011 sit ancillae filins. quia 

28 timor non est in dilectionc : Do eo quod iacob et csau in uno sunt 
corpore et ex uno semine propter duos populos futuros in uno corpore. 

29 De eo quod numquam iacob id est ecclcsia uenit ab bcnedictioncni non 
coinitante dolo id est falsis fratribus sed non simul innoccntia et dolus 

31 De specie et genere loquimur non secundum retoricam humanae 
sapientiae quam qui magis omnibus potuit locutus non est ne crucem 
christi fecisset inanem. si auxilio atque ornamento sermonis ut falsitas 
indiguisset. Sed loquimur secundum mysteria caelestis sapientiae magi- 
stcrio spiritus sancti : Qui cum ueritatis pretium fidem constitueret 
mysteriis narrauit in specie genus absconders, aut in ueterem hierusalem 
totam qui nunc est per orbem. aut in imum membrum totum corpus ut 
in salomone ; Si hoc non tarn occultum est quam cetera quae non solum 
specie breuitate sed etiam mortiformi ratione occultantur ; Quam ob rem 
dei gratia in auxilio postulata elaborandum nobis est. Dum enim speciem 
narrat ' ita in genus transit i ut transitus non statim liquide appereat. sed 

32 talia transiens ponit uerba qui in utrumque conueniant. donee paulatim 
speciei modum excedat et transitus dilucidetur. cumque ab specie 
coeperant non nisi in genus conuenerint. et eodem modo genus relinquid 
in speciem rediens ; Aliquando autem ab specie in genus non supradicto 
modo sed euidenter transit et supradicto modo reuertitur ; Aliquando 
supradicto modo transit et euidenter reuertitur simili ordinis uarietate ut 
ab speciae in genere. aut a genere in specie finit rationem. Aliquando 
secedit ex hoc in illud non semel et omnis narratio nee speciem excedit 
nee genus preterit in utrumque conueniens. haec Uarietas translationis et 
ordinis exigit fidem quae gratiam dei quaerat deus per ezechielem egressui 
coruin qui ab hierusalem capti et dispersi fuerant gentium iuugit aduen- 
tum. et in terrain quam patres nostri possiderunt exprimit mundum ; 
Septem enim gentes abrahae promissae figura est omnium gentium ; 
factus est inquit sermo domini ad me dicens. fili hominis domus israhel 
habitauit in terra et polluerunt illam in uia sua et in idolis suis. et post 

33 aliqua incipit iungere genus : et sanctificabo nomen meum secundum 
quod pollutum est inter gentes. et scient gentes quondam ego sum 
dominus dum sanctificor in uobis ante ocidos eorum. Adtingit speciem 
non tamen relinquens genus, et uocabo triticum et multiplicabo illud ; In 
figura uero terrae iudeae qui bellis uastata fuerat promittit inuocari 

34 mundum qui a deo recesserat cum dicitur : Reaedificabuntur deserta et 
terra quae exterminata fuerat coletur. Apostolus quoque in regressu 
iacob promissum esse introitum gentium sic interpretatur. donee plenitudo 
gentium intraret &c usque fiet. sicut scriptum est. uenict a sion qui 
liberet et auferat impietates ab iacob. Et eodem genere locutionis 
redit in speciem dicens : Secundum euangelium inimici quid est propter 
uos ; Item, in ezechelo (f. 209 v.) Incipit ab specie qui conueniat in genus 
et finit in solo genere. ostendens terra patrum mundi esse possessionem. 


haec dicit dominus. ego accipiam omnem domum israhel de medio gentium, 
et post aperte transit in genus : et seruus mens dauid princeps in medio 

36 eorum. Item illic. ueluti in nouissima resurrectione prima significata est. 
fili hominis ossa haec donms israhel est Ipsi dicunt arida facta sunt ossa 
nostra et paulo post, ecce ego aperiam. monumenta uestra et scietis quia 
ego dominus. numquid cum perspicue surrexerimus cognoscemus dominum 
et non nunc cum per baptismum resurgimus. aut mortui possunt dicere. 
Arida nostra sunt ossa? duas enim resurrectiones dominus ostendit 

37 secundum iohannem. Item in uno homine totum corpus ostenditur 
dicente deo ad dauid de salomone. suscitabo semen tuurn post te et parabo 
regnum eius. et excedit speciem dicendo. Et dirigam thronum eius in 

38 aeternum. quae promissio ecclesiae congruit magis quam cbristo. Mani- 
festum est salomonem sapientem et idolatrem figuram fuisse ecclesiae 

39 bipertite cotidie disrumpit(ur) regnum salomonis in malis et cotidie 
solidatur in bonis. In achan totum corpus malum intelligitur. Illud 
etiam multo necessarium est scire omnes onmino ciuitates israhel uel 
gentium uel prouintias quas scriptura adloquitur. aut (in) quibus aliquid 
gestum refert figuram esse ecclesiae. aliquas quidem partis male aliquas 

50 bonae. aliquas utriusque. Babilon inimica hierusalem totus est mundus. 

51 Subtiliter inserit genus cum dicit. ecce excito nobis medos qui aurum non 
53 quirint. quis enim hostis aurum non quaerit nisi ecclesia ? ubicumque 

autem idu(m)eam. theman. bosor. seir. nominat. malos significat. serras uero 

55 ferreashomines durissimos qui secant parturientes ecclesias. temporumquan- 
titas frequenter in scripturis mystica est tropo sinecdoc(h)e aut legitimis 
numeris qui multis modis positi sunt et pro loco intellegendi. sinecdoc(h)e 
uero aut parte totum est aut a toto pars, hoc tropo dictum est et adfligent eos 
annis. cccc qui post mortem ioseph coepit seruirc populus ex ccccxxx anms 
deducemus annos regni ioseph. Regnauit autem a xxx annis usque 

56 in .ex. et erunt rcliqui seruitutis anni cccl quos dixit cccc. si autem omni 
tempore peregrinationis suae israhel seruiuit plus est quam deus dixit. Si 
autem ex morte ioseph secundum scripturae fidem minus, quo manifestum 
est eum a toto parte esse nam post ccc annos pars aliorum annorum. c 
propterea dixit cccc annos. Sic in omni summa temporis ut puta post 
vim dies prima hora xmi. dici dies est et post vim menses primus dies 
mensis. mensis est ut illud. x mensuum tempore coagalatus sum in 
sanguine. Sicut autem in prima parte cuius temporis totum tempus est 
ita et nouissima. ut nouissima hora totus dies sit aut reliquiae mille 
annorum mille anni sint. sex dies sunt inundi aetas id est vi annorum in 
rcliqui is sexti die id est mille annorum natus est dominus passus resurrexit. 
Itidem reliquiae mille annorum dictac sunt mille anni primae resurrec- 
tionis. Sicut enim reliquiae vi fcriac id est in hore totus dies est unus 
ex tribus sepulturae domini ! Ita reliquiae vi diei maioris quo resurrexit 
ecclesia totus dies est id est mille anni. hoc tropo soluitur quod dominus 

59 tertia die surrexit. Ex legitimis autem numeris. denarius, xn denarius 
idem autem est numerus cum multiplicantur ut lxx. dcc Sed aut 


perfectionem significant ant a parte totnm ant simplicem snmmani per- 
fectionem. nt vn spiritus ecclesiae. ant nt dicit septies in die landem dixit. 
ant septies tantnm recipies in hoc saecnlo. similiter denarius nt centies 

60 recipies in hoc saecido. Et danihel decies milies dena milia. et danid. 
cnrrns dei decies milies tantnm. Item per dnodenarinm cxliiii milia 
(f. 210 r.) et xn milia tribns omnes gentes sicnt iudicabitis xn tribus 
israhel ap(ar)te tot urn est. quoniam certum tempus legitimis numeris 
definitur nt in apocalypsi ; habebitis pressuram x diebus cum significct 
usque in finem. ponitur hora pro tempore ut illud nouissima hora est di- 
es nt illud ecce dies salutis annus ut illud. predicare annum domini. 
aliquando hora dies et annos et mensis est. sicnt in apocalypsi. parati in 
horam et diem et mensem et annum quod est in anni et dimidius. 
Ibidem menses pro annis. datum est ledere homines mensibus. v. aliquando 
dies denario numero .c. dies sunt, sicut in apocalypsi dies cc.lx. Nam 

61 milli dies ducentes centeni et sexagies centeni ccxxn. dies sunt, qui fiunt 
anni cccl. mensibus tricenorum dierum. Ibidem unus mensis denario 
numero .c. menses sunt, ut ciuitatem sanctam calcabunt mensibus XL 
duobus. centeni mi & cc menses sunt, qui sunt anni cccl. Sicut per vi 
dies fecit mundum corporalem. ita per vi milium annos edificat spiritalem 
id est ecclesiam sanctificaturus vn quern benedixit fecitque aeternum. 

62 Ideoque precipitin- ut pondus peccati non inferatur per portas hierusalem. 

64 In genere autem nno in tempore est uterque enentus sic xiiii anni sub 
ioseph ubertatis et steritalitatis. Isto enim tempore minatur dominus 
diuitibus famem pauperibus uero saturitatem promittit. uno in tempore 

65 egyptus percutitur israhel saluatur. De eo quod XL. dies diluuii. cccc 
anni in egypto xl in deserto et xl dies ieiunii et xl quibus apparet 
post resurrectionem manducans et xl diebus aqua in statuto suo 
totidem defecit ; Nam in genere quo tempore inualescit carnaliter eo 
deficit spiritaliter. quia elatio defcctio est sic mundus repugnans ponitur 
sub pedibus ecclesiae id est filii hominis ; Qui sunt itaque xl dies idem 
cl dies ; ezechihel namque xl diebus exsoluit peccata iudae et israhel cl 
quod est unum atqne idem tempus. et vnmo mense sedit area. Item 
tempus est et deficiebat aqua usque in xmum mensem. Item tempus est 
exiuit de area, xnmo mense. hie est annus libertatis domini acceptabilis ! 
quo conpleto manifestabitur ecclcsia mundi pertransisse diluuium. Vna- 
quaeque pars huius anni id est annus est. quale si diceret exiuit de area. 
XL(rno) die. Aut mense aut sunt autem partes istae recapitu- 
lationis. sicut ab adam usque enoch id est ecclesiae. translationem vn 

66 generationes quod est omne tempus. rursum ab adam usque ad noe quod 
mundi reparatione. x generationes quod est tempus. et a noe usque 
abraham x generationes. nam et .c. anni quibus area fabricatur omne 
tempus est quo ecclesia edificatur ; Inter regulas quibus spiritus lege 
signauit quo luminis uia custodiretur non nihil custodit recapitulationis 
sigillus ea subtilitate ut continuatio magis narrationis quam recapitulatio 
uideatur. Sic enim aliquoties recapitulati tun. ilia hora. illo die. eo 

B. 7 


tempore, ut illud. die qua exiit loth &C 1 ; Et in genesi plantauit deus 
paradisian in quo posuit et produxit adhuc de terra lignum. Ita dignum 
uidetur ut postea factum sit quam posuit deus hominem <&c. Item in eodem 
libro cum commemorantur generationes filiorum noe hi filii cham in tribubus 
stus secundum ling uas suas ; Hoc autem quod adiunctum est et erat omnes 
terra labium unum. ita dictum uidetur ut eo tempore quo dispersi fuerunt 
super terrain una fuerit lingua omnibus quod omnino superioribus repugnat 
ac per hoc recapitulando dictum est jit ista recapitulatio obscurius ut illud 
die quo exiit loth a sodomis et paulo post secundum haec erunt dies filii 
hominis quo reuelabitur in ilia hora qui erit in tecto &c. numquid cum 
dominus fuerit reuelatus tunc ista seruanda sunt ne respiciat retro et non 
potius isto tempore? recapitidatio est; tempus ergo ipsum (f. 210 v.) q(uo) 
euangelium predicatur quousque dominus reueletur hora est in qua oportet 
ista seruari quia et ipsa reuelatio ad eandem horam pertinet qui die iudicii 

67 terminabitur ut illud filioli nouissima hora est. Aliquoties autem non 
sunt recapitulationes sed futurae similitudinis ut illud cum uideritis quod 
dictum est per danihelum prophetam. tunc qui in iudea sunt fugiant in 
mentes et inducit finem ; Quod dixit in africa geritur. neque in eo tempore 
finis sed in eo tamen titulo futurum est propterea dixit tunc, id est cum 
similiter factum fuerit per orbem. id est reualatio antichristi ; Et dauid 
ipso genere locutionis cum auerteret dominus captiui &c usque tunc 
repletum est gaudio os nostrum et usque laetante* per similitudinem 
tempus suum et nostrum [u]num fecit. Nee illud pretereundum puto 

68 quod spiritus sine mysteriis ali[u]d [sonare] aliud intelligi uoluit. Omnis 
spiritus qui negat iesum in carne uenisse. &c usque in isto mundo est 
numquid omnes qui non negat spiritum * * 2 ista negatio non in uoce sed 
in opere est ; 3 Timothei' 

Omnes homines saluos fieri tamquam diceretur nullum hominem fieri 
saluum nisi quern fieri ipse uoluerit. Non quod nullus sit hominum nisi 
quern saluum fieri uelit sed quod nullus fiat nisi quern uelit et ideo sit 
rogandus ut uelit quia nece[sse] est fieri si uoluerit. De orando quippe deo 
agebat apostolus cum hoc diceret ; Sic enim intelligimus quod dictum est qui 
inluminat omnem. et reliqua. id est qui inluminantur sine de omnibus 
gentibus ut illud decimatis omne olus ; 

Et illud obsecramus ut oretis pro scriptore ut deum omnipotentem 
habeatis protectorem 

et ego Liuthprandus scripsi hoc librum v 

1 What follows in italics is from Aug de Doct Christ iii 36 ( = Eur) 873—875). 

2 ' habet ' is supplied by a later hand. 

3 The passage in italics which follows is from Aug Enchirid 103. 


The aim of an editor should be to reproduce the text of his author, even 
in matters of spelling, but in the case of a 4th cent. African writer like 
Tyconius it is very difficult to say what that spelling was likely to have been. 
1 had therefore no other course than to be generally guided by the two mss 
I! and V. But it is improbable that 9th cent, mss should have entirely 
retained the spelling of a 4th cent, author ; the first question therefore is 
to try to isolate any peculiar element in the mss themselves. 

One of the most satisfactory methods of doing this is to compare the 
spellings of our mss with the mss of the Vulgate whose provenience is 
known. There is every probability that a learned scholar like S. Jerome 
would prefer correctness ; irregular spellings therefore in an Irish or Spanish 
ms probably represent the local usage. 

In this section Bp. Wordsworth's notation has been used for the Vulgate 
mss of Mt Mc and Lc, but with italic instead of roman capitals. 

1. Spellings in cod, R. 

Cod. R was given by Hincrnar to the Cathedral Library at Reims. It can 
hardly be earlier than the middle of the 9th century, but the MS bears no 
external marks of its origin. The most noticeable peculiar spellings are those 
generally classed as Irish. 

SSforS osseR28 10 

issac R a 13 10 ' 20 , 29 25 , etc [ = Z>Z Mc xii 26, D having usually issaac] 

precissum R 2 15 [for caesum Mc xv 15, DP (R) have cessuni] 
cf. dissimilitudine R 67 25 for de similitudine. 

S for SS promisis R l 13 [ = EptR (not D) Lc xxiv 49] 

presurarum R 6 6 [ = D (EEptR H Y) Lc xxi 23] 

similarly quatuor R 53 2 - 4 [ = D% Epf/j L G / 7 /2 3 / 4 ] 

querela R* 13 4 [ = J (K) V Mt W as well as (/)) Eptq\ 
IE for I in compounds of iacere. 

subiecere R a 26 24 [ = D Lc x 17] 
deieceretur R 71 12 

similarly iesaiam Rcorr 70 14 [ = ^Mt viii 17, (L) Mt xiii 14, Q Mc i 2]. 



for U commone{m) R 26 14 , 30 17 [ = DEptLQ Mc vii 2, 5] 

absordum R 5 11 [sordus D passim, Ept Mc vii 32] 

nobocodonosor R* 43 2G 

salamon R 4 / 4 38 and 2 / r 39 (also R a 39 9 ) [ = D L passim] 
sophyr (2ou$ei'p) R 51 15 . 

Traces of the hand of the archetype of R may be seen in the confusions of 

SS for RS uessum for uersurn R 65 6 , 
RS for RR cursus for currus R 60 4 . 

Other spellings rather suggest the 9th cent. French schools, such as 
quoties, loquutus, sequutus, etc (loquutionis R 34 13 ). Obstupuerunt (R 45 u ) may 
be either Irish or French, and the same is true of domu (R 70 24 ), which occurs 
in F 23 / 2r as well as in D 25 / 27 <? 16 / 2 r ^ 15 /23 MtP/x, the first-named MS being the 
best representative of Alcuin's recension. Hardly any other of Bp. Words- 
worth's MSS have domu but these. In Old Latin MSS domu is never found in the 
Irish MS r, but it occurs in d Ac xvi 34, and in k Mt viii 6 iacet domu mea 
stands for pcftXrjrcu iv rfj oIkiq (cf the Vulgate mss DL but no other authority). 

R has also a decided tendency to AMM- for ADM-. Thus we find con- 
stantly que7nammodum 1 , ammonere; also ammodo R 4 1C for a modo, but 
admisit R 16 1 . 

There is also a tendency to -ti- for -ci- and -si- in R. Thus besides con- 
ditio (22 8 , 24 r > 9 > 14 , etc), we find commertia 46 22 and ostentio 28 21 . 

Other noteworthy spellings are actenus 73 15 (comp. ericii 42 15 , and Lc xii 
20 d), cdligoria 67 30 and herimo 65 2 , antichristi (plene) 68 28 , archa 64 24 , 
clusisset 15 29 , chissise It! 4 (but daudent 47 23 ), demitte(re) 6 13 , insyh 45 22 , iuncxit 
67 27 , praeliabitur 49 8 (also supported by K Y and if 2 ), sterelitatis 64 14 . 

Many ancient forms have no doubt been corrected out of R. Thus pro- 
fecta R* 42 10 (pro/eta R a ) is good evidence for the spelling with / in R's 
ancestry, though propheta is the form in R elsewhere. Similarly JUi for filii 
(nom. pi.) occurs nowhere in R, though it is frequent in V. But the vocative 
fill has also become filii in R 32 ls , possibly by the same process. Assumpsit 
(sic) R 10 2 points to the spelling assumsit adopted by Bp. Wordsworth. 

R shews here and there a tendency to drop syllables, as absolano 40 23 for 
a subsolano, and illanineue or illamneue R 42 13 (there is often no difference 

1 Prof. Sanday suggests in Stadia Bihlica n 324 that quemammodum is a good 
test word. The evidence in Mt Mc Lc may therefore prove of interest. 

Z- is the contemporary corrector of 
B. M. Had 1775 (6th or 7th cent). 

Y the Lindisfarne Gospels. 

M is the Ambrosian Gospels (Oth cent), 
apparently the best us of the Vulgate. 

Mt xxiii 37 Y 



Mc iv 26 Y 

I K Z 2 

Lc viii 47 A Y 


H Mt GT XZ 2 

xiii 34 Y 


xxi 14 Y 

I Z 

xxii 4 iM V 

II z- 

xxiii 55 



between m and ni in the hand of the MS) for illam nineue. This may explain 
the curious reading cain. EIF for caifan 1 . 

On the whole, from the affinities of R with Irish and Alcuinian spellings 
we may conjecture that it was written in northern France, and copied from a 
ms in an Irish hand. 

2. Spellings in cod. V. 

The orthography of V does not afford so many indications of local use. 
In spite however of the blunders of the scribe there is some reason to 
believe that most of the peculiarities of orthography in V are derived from its 
predecessor, not introduced into the text of Tyconius for the first time in our 
MS. Thus the constantly recurring inquit is spelt inquid by V*, but in 40 2G , 
where inquit is wrongly inserted by V, the spelling is not inquid but inquit. 
In other words, the spelling inquid in V's ancestry is older than the insertion 
of inquit in 40 26 . 

Moreover many of the variations from the ordinary orthography are not 
those common in 9th and 10th cent, mss, but those which we find in the mss 
of the Old Latin. Thus 

inquid V* (e.g. 32 17 ). 

quodquod V* 49 1 ' 13 , but quotquot V 14 19 . 

cf also numquit V* 54 14 . 

hoc (= hue) V*61 14 . 

Zaccharias V 13 2 (not 22°) is well supported both in the 0. L. and vg. 

disparyere V* 45 5 , 52 21 (not 47 3 ). 

'Betacism' is not uncommon, e.g. uiuere V* 53 12 for bibere ; uerbiante 
V 31 1(i for breuiante. 

Cod. V is given to false aspiration. Thus 

amoneo (for amo meo) V* 44 8 [amum Mt xvii 27 M*J CT II & Q E\ 
arena V 26 20 ' 21 (not 39 1 ) [arenam Mt vii 2G J T V* Ept L II'] 

olochausta V 62 25 
ortus V 34 4 , 74 13 > 15 [or turn Lc xiii 19 a b R W, see Rbnsch 4G3] 


humeris V 52 18 [Mt xxiii 4, Lc xv 5 codd. mult incl C2'e6> 2 / 2 ] 

honera V 62 17 , 63 2 > 23 (but onera 62 13 ) [= CT I) Ept LR\ 

PT for BT occurs in 

optinere V 52 5 > 8 [optentu (Mt xxiii 14/,) Mc xii 40 b W] 

suptile V 31 19 [suptus Lc viii 16 J/]. 

1 A more serious fault in R, which hardly concerns Orthography, is the occa- 
sional substitution of an entirely different word. Instances are yentes R 4'2 U for 
greges, ciuitas R 42 19 for pascua, siluas R 46' for insulas, and mitigare R 50 17 for 


TI for CI or SI is not found in V, except in the well-known misspelling 
conditio for conditio (so V G /7, but condicione V 24 u ). 

MM for DM is not found in V, but the following instances seem to suggest 
that this spelling may have occurred in its ancestry. 

admonet V 68°, ammonet R 

amisit V 47 10 , admisit R 

admiserunt V 58 19 , amiserunt R. 
Compare aiecta V* 24 14 , aiecto V 54 15 for adiecta, adieclo. 
Spellings of a less ancient type are 

dextra V 8 9 etc 

intelligere V* 4 25 etc, but not e.g. 5 12 

epistola V 68 8 [ = 6 2 / 2 m 'epistola' ad Damasu7ii\ 

iocunditas V 2b w , 47 19 > M 

spvritcdes, e.g. V 84 ter for spiritcdis. 

Possibly ilium V 33 5 (for Mud) may be only a blunder, yet see Ronsch 276 ; 
inimicum V 41 4 > n (for iniquum) may be a relic of the spelling inicum [Lc xvi 
10, 11 d T]; charismatum is spelt chrismatum V* 69°, but carismatumY 69 14 . 

3. Spellings adopted in tJiis Edition, 

The rule of following the MSS in matters of spelling has been very generally 
followed in this edition, even in such cases as idolatria, Matheus and conditio. 
The spelling idololatria is assured in Tertullian, but hardly in any later Latin 
writer 1 . Matheus on the other hand is rarely met with earlier than the 9th 
cent. Conditio is the spelling of R and of V°/ r , and V has no general ten- 
dency to confuse ' ti ' and ' ci '. Moreover Tyconius himself uses the word of 
the Cosmos in a sense half way between ' contract ' and ' creation '. He says 
(p. 58) the three hours of darkness at the Crucifixion were ' praeter ordinem 
conditionis Dei. quicquid enim signi est non turbat elementorum rationalem 
enrsuni'. If the incorrect derivation of conditio from condere 'to create' 
were accepted by Tyconius, he would probably spell the word ' conditio ' as in 
this edition. 

With regard to the termination -i for -ii, I have adopted Aegypti 43 7 and 
reliquis 58 10 on the authority of RV*, but to print Jili for Jilii, which often 
occurs in V*, seemed to be introducing needless confusion. Filii occurs in 
R 32 18 iorfili. 

In questions of assimilation I have generally followed R. 

The interchange of F and PH causes much difhcnlty. The best represen- 
tative of the African text k has always F for <fi, except in Caphamaum Mt iv 
13, Mc ix 33. A good test word is prof eta, which I have almost always spelt 
thus in the text of Tyconius. It is true that both R and V have generally 

1 See Kofftnane, Gesch. d. Kirchenlateins 37. ' Idolatria ' also occurs in Priscil- 
lian 21 s . 


propheta, but each ms independently testifies to the original presence of 
pro/eta in their ancestry. Thus R* has profecta 42 10 , a mistake which would 
only arise from the spelling profeta, and in 42 2c V has prophetant for pro- 
fanant, which points to an intermediate corrupt reading profetant. Fanuhd 
is the spelling of RV in 22°, and therefore I have adopted Farao wherever V* 
supports it. On the other hand scenophegiae R 49 15 (scinofegiae V*) has no 
good support, neither from the 0. L. nor the good mss of the Vulgate. 

With regard to the spelling of the names Jesus and Ckristus I have followed 
the authority of Bp. Wordsworth, to whose exhaustive note on Mt i 1 I must 
refer the reader. Possibly however the form Hiesus is the best attested for 
African documents, and that is the spelling of R 39 18 in the name of Joshua. 
Elsewhere both R and V use the ordinary contractions. 

4. The name ' Tyconius'. 

The name Tyconius appears to be quite unique. I have not been able to 
find an instance of it in the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinorum, though the 
names Tychon and Tyche occur in all sorts of spellings. Unfortunately the 
treatises of S. Augustine against the Donatists and his book de Doctrina 
Christiana, in which he mentions our author, have not yet appeared in the 
Vienna Corpus Script. Eccl. Latt., so that the spellings in the ancient mss of 
these works are not easily ascertainable. The passages of de Doct Christ ill 
required for this purpose are however found in Eugippius, of which the leading 
ms (KnoelPs V, saec. vii) appears to be very carefully written. 

The following spellings occur. It will be seen at a glance that the oldest 
of each of our three main sources for the name of our author — mss of the 
Book of Rules itself, mss of S. Augustine, and mss of Primasius — confirm 
the spelling with -YC0-. I have therefore uniformly printed Tyconius, not 
Tychonius or Ticonius. 

1. mss of the Book of Rules. 

Tyconius R 

Thiconius V and its copy P 

Ticonius M 

Tichonius O and Editions. 

2. mss of Augustine de Doct Christ in and of Eugippius. 

Tyconius Bug codd-opt (incl V saec. vii) 
Tychonius Eug codd. Aug cod pal 188 saec. ix 
Ticonius Aug cod B. M. addl 11873 
Tichonius later mss and edd of Aug. 

3. mss of Primasius' commentary on the Apocalypse. 

Thyconius Bodl. Douce 140 (the oldest ms of Primasius) 
Ticonius other mss. 


In this list the Psalms and the chapters of Jeremiah are uniformly given according 
to the Greek numeration. 


i 5 
i 14 
i 16 

ii 2, 3 

ii 17 

iii 22, 24 
iv 17 
viii 4, 5 
xv 1 
xv 13 
xv 1G 

xviii 18, 19 
xix 23, 24 
xix 29 
xxi 9 

xxii 18, 16 
xxii 17 
xxv 23 
xxvi 3 — 5 
xxvii 35 

56 25 

58 - - 7 

57 !l 

61 27 

CI- 8 


42 9 

65 17 

23 23 


CI 14 



85 7 

30 13 


39 7 
72 i5 

23 8 

28 28 

xxiii 32 57 29 

i 6—10 55 13 

iv 22 6 11 

xii 40 55» 

xiii 18 61 1,J 

xvi 28 26 1B 


xxv 1 

80 7 



39 M 

vii 25 

39 24 


vii 12—16 

37 12 

vii 14, 15 

38'- 7 


ii 46a 

65 5 

iv 25 

38 S1 

viii 46 

20 24 

xi 11—13 

38 18 

xi 11, 12 

39 1 


39 15 

xii 24p 

65 8 

xiii 2 



xvi 30 

75 32 



iv 13 81 7 


xi 17 

75 4 

xiv 4, 5 

20 20 


82 17 


ii 6 


viii 3 

76 15 

xvii 8 

72- 5 

xvii 51 

5 28 

xxiii 4, 5 

29 1 


72 24 


20 24 

1 14 



76 11 

lxiv 12 


lxvii 18 

60 4 

lxxi 3 

72 yi 

lxxix 15, 16 


xc 11—16 

3 14 

xcvi 2 


cii 4 

20 29 

civ 8 

60 5 

cix 1 


cxiii 4 

73 1 

cxviii 164 

59 a5 

cxix 5 — 7 

10 24 

cxxv 1 — 3 

67 16 

cxxxvi 9 

52 5 

cxlii 2 

20 21 


xiv 28 

76 28 

xx 9 

20 25 




79 2,; 



10 H. so 
73 18 

iv 7 

10 18 

iv 16 

74 12 

v 1 





vil— 4 

72 3 

vii 1, 2 

56 ; » 

vii 22, 23 

31 18 

viii 21 

19 30 


i 7 31™ 

xii 2—4 28 w 

i 1, 3, 11 53 1 

viii 9 

iii 6 





ii 20 


iii 17 

73 8 


3, 4 

72 17 


83 17 , 85 5 


iii 3 


iii 3, 16, 19 42 s 

ii 13— iii 5 42" 

ii 22—24 80 M 

i 15 76 4 

ii 13 73 4 

iv 9 8I 9 

xiv 11—16 48^ 



iv 2 73 31 


i 10 

i 13, 14 
i 19 
i 23 

x 13, 14 

x 10— 19 
xiii 1 
xiii 2—18 
xiv 12—21 
xiv 12, 13 
xiv 13, 14 
xiv 14—17 
xiv 16 
xiv 17 
xiv 18, 19 
xiv 20, 21 
xiv 22—27 
xiv 25 
xix 1 — 3 
xix 19, 20 
xxiii 15 — 17 
xxiii 18 
xxiv 1 — 13 
xxix 13 
xxxiii 20 
xxxiii 23 
xiii 10, 17 
xliii 5—8 
xliii 27— xliv 1 
xliv 21, 22 
xiv 1 ff 
xiv 3 fl 
xlviii 8, 9 
xlviii 18, 19 
xlix 6 
xlix 18, 19 
liii 4, 5, 6 
liii 10, 11 
lviii 3 
lviii 10 
lix 9, 10 

50 7 


24 7 
76 io 

75 23 

79 -j8 

48 u 

50 12 
50 14 
70 i4 

71 8 , 72 10 
72 2o 

75 7 

71 14 , 75 ly , 76 3i 

75-'. 2i », 7G 1 

76 is 

77 3 
52 12 

72 30 


43 14 

46 14 

4G- 4 , 


8 23 

10 7 

10 1 " 

9 1 

9 7 




47 J5 , 84 21 


26 19 , 


2 4 


76 13 

57 23 


28 7 

lxi 10 3 24 

lxii 2—4 81 12 

lxiii 9, 10 9 31 

lxvi 20 63 7 


iii 12 75 1 

ix 23 79 33 

xvii 19—27 62 7 

xvii 21 62 31 

xvii 25 63 B 

xvii 27 63 29 

xxv 35—39 49 17 

xxxii 15—29 53 13 

xxxii 18, 26, 29 54« 


ii 1 84 lu 

vi 2 61 19 


iv 4 — 6 
xx 31—38 
xx 45 — xxi 5 
xx 46 
xxi 2, 3, 4 
xxvi 15—18 
xxvii 25, 26 
xxvii 26 
xxvii 27—36 
xxviii 2 — 19 
xxviii 2 
xxviii 2, 3 
xxviii 3 
xxviii 4, 5 
xxviii 6, 7 
xxviii 7, 8 
xxviii 9, 10 
xxviii 11 — 13 
xxviii 12, 13 
xxviii 13 
xxviii 14—16 
xxviii 16 
xxviii 17 
xxviii 18 


35 u 

40 16 


41 io 


78 29 


45 22 

77 16 

78- 3 , 79 1 

79 6 

79 15 

79 21 


80 ! » 
80 15 
80- 6 
81 18 


83 8 
S3 23 
83 31 , 84« 

8 413.27.31 t 85 ly 



xxviii 19 
xxx 2 — 5 
xxxii 3 — 15 
xxxii 7, 8 
xxxii 8 
xxxii 10 
xxxii 32 
xxxv 11 
xxxvi 5 — 10 
xxxvi 16 — 36 
xxxvii 11 — 14 
xxxvii 21 — 28 
xxxviii 13 
xxxix 1 — 4 

85 s3 


44 7 

45 s 

64 21 

45 12 

44 3 

73 i2 

35 s8 
32 17 
36 13 
34 17 

84 2 " 
74 18 

ii 34, 35 2 15 

ii 35 

vii 10 
xi 36, 38 

2 29 


5 24 
5 22 

vii 29 21 2 


v 19 

vi 10, 13 
vii 21 
vii 25 
xii 35 
xiii 28 
xiii 30 
xiii 39 
xiii 45 
xvi 18, 19 
xix 12 
xxii 11 £E 

69 17 

17 14 

84 19 

82 33 

69 4 

63 1 * 

13 5 

6 7 

63 2a 


41 3, ',56 20 ,57 30 ,59 8 

79 2 


79 3 

84 18 

63 13 


29 5 

60 7 

83 2u 

xxiii 2 ff 
xxiii 37 
xxiv 2 
xxiv 4 
xxiv 5 
xxiv 15 
xxiv 15, 16 
xxiv 30 
xxiv 46 ff 

XXV 1 

xxv 14 
xxv 14 ff 
xxv 40 
xxvi 64 
xxvii 40 
xxviii 1 

63 17 


8 1 

5 5 

5 24 
67 8 





68- 1 
4 1 ", 43' 

57 14 

x 30 59- 7 

xvi 2 57 11 



i 6 

13 3 

iii 22 

7 « 


60 1 *- 21 , 65 20 

xvi 8 


xvii 29—32 

66 17 

xviii 30 

59 25 

xix 13 ff 

61- 3 

xxiv 1 

57 12 




i 14, 13 

7 n 

i 47 

12 25 



v 24—29 

36 2y 

vii 39 

22 1 


7 21 

xiii 17, 18 

26 7 

xvi 7 

21 1G 

xvii 5, 24 

226 j 3727 

xix 42 

59 12 

XX 1 

57 15 



vii 51 

30 25 

xv 10 

12 17 




ii 5 

83 15 


ii 3, 4 

68 9 

ii 9 


ii 18 a 

5 1 

iil8 b 

60 15 

iii 14, 15 

68 2S 

iv 1—3 

67 31 

iv 2 

69 1 

iv 3 

30 26 , 69 16 

iv 18 


iv 20 

68 15 


70 s 


i 1—4 


i 21, 22 

83 s4 

ii 5 

84 as 

ii 24 

10 17 

iii 19, 20 

12 4 

iii 27 


iii 31 

14 10 

iv 2 

19 18 


19 15 

iv 13—15 

13- 7 

iv 15, 16 

24 u 


22- 4 


81- 1 

v 20 

138, igu 18J1 

vi 11 

12 7 

vi 16 

82 12 

vii 5 

12 w , 15 1 -, 17- 

vii 7, 8 

15 w 

vii 14—23 

15 15 

vii 22 

69 7 

viii7— 9 

16 lu 

viii 15 

25 » 

viii 29 

23 30 

ix 3 

27 14 

ix6— 8 


ix 21 

82 21 

ix 27, 29 

27 25 


18 3 


ll 18 

xi 1, 2 

ll 18 

xi 4, 5 

27 31 

xi 25, 26 

34 10 


ll 24 , 34 13 


76 16 

xiii 12, 13 

S7 23 


i 17 


i 28—31 

20 8 

i 31 

19 23 

ii 9, 10 


iv 7 

79 31 


25 30 

xii 3 — 5 

69 12 

xii 3 


xii 12 

6 2 

xv 46 

57- 5 

xv 56 

15 15 


iii 6 

21 15 

iii 18 

I99.U 2P 

iv 6 

57 21 

iv 13 

21 18 

vi 2 



S 27 


5 2 


i 18 

56 -23 

ii 4 

30 20 

ii 16 

12 8 

iii 7 

13 16 

iii 10 


iii 11 

14'-'-, 15-" 

iii 12 

13 25 

iii 16 

27 s 

iii 17, 


14 3 

iii 19 

14* 17 ls 

iii 21 

14 s 

iii 21, 


12 11 

iii 23, 


18 5 

iii 28, 


7 17 


13 u 


13 13 , 28 21 , 29•- , 





13 18 



v 18 

17 4 


i 10 

18 27 

ii 8—10 

20 14 

ii 17 

18 27 

ii 21 


iv 15, 16 

3 4 


10 M 

v 31, 32 

7 13 , 68 24 

vi 12 

3029, 54 s3 


i 17 

G9 25 

i 18 

70 1 

iii 6 


iii 18 

30 26 

ii 6—8 


ii 7 

8 2 , 30- 7 , 52 s , si 

ii 8 

31 1 

ii 9 

30 2S 


i 9 

vi 6 

17 s , 24-' 


ii 19 

63 15 

ii 20 

82 18 

iii 5 




i 16 




i 24 

6 5 

ii 16 

6 1 ' 

ii 19 

3 8 

iii 5, 6 

83 4 



ii 19 

6 8 


ii 3 

ii 4 

5 27 ,30« r ,31 4 ,50 10 ,67 M 


59 24 

ii 10 

GO 9 

ii 26, 28 

7 ]28 

ix 10 

GO 26 

ix 15 

GO 25 

xi 2 

61 3 

xi 3 

GO 28 

xi 8 

50 8 

xi 8, 9 

61 8 

xii 14 

Gl 5 

xvii 4 

82 25 

xxii 16, 17 

3*, ' 


For the Latinity of the Biblical quotations in the Book of Rules see Introd. 
lxix — cv. 

Achar 39 22 

ad ( = ob) : ad merita ll 13 

adhaerere 81 30 

adiutorium 18 16 

adsignari 58 6 

adstringere 5 1 25 

aduersus (adj.): adu. corpus, pars 5 27 , 
50 11 , 72 1 , 73 29 , 82 25 ; ciuitas adu. Deo 
41 26 , Meridiano 42 12 

adunatus: adunati montem...faciunt 
72 23 , 83 10 

aetas, see mundus 

affectata sapieritia 83 :B 
affectus 27™ 

ait 6 15 , 7 1 ", 39 24 

alicubi 40 n 

alienigenae 40 a - u , 41 22 , 49 1G , 53 e , 80"' 

alio properantes (56 9 ; a. tendens 70 :i 

aliquotiens 61 13 - 18 > 25 , 64 22 , 66 ls , 67 7 

allegoria G7 30 

Allophyli 40 15 

altitudo saecuU 78 28 

altus : a. sensu 63 u 

arnatores uitae 16 13 

antichristus 68 28 , 70 3 

ars rhetorica 31 7 

baptisma 36 23 , 43 3 ; baptismo 7" 
bellans 54-- 
bellutn 33 2y 

bipertitus: bip. corpus Christi l 12 , 8 5 , 
10 13 , 24 1G ; bip. templum 7 2(! ; bip. 
Iacob, semen Abraham 29 13 - 15 ; bi- 
pertita Ecclesia 38 31 , 41- 2 , Aegyptus 
43 1 , Tyrus 46 1: \ Aelam 49 17 , Hierusalem 
63 3 ; bip. Salomon 65 7 , lucifer 71 25 , 
orbis 75 31 

blaudiri 44 :! 

breuiare 31 1(i , GO 13 

Caifas 11 2 « 

Cain 42 s , 81 23 

capere 2 s5 

captiuitas 35 26 

carnaliter 65 12 

causa 25 27 , 30 20 , 46 21 , 7(> 7 

charismata 69 9 

cherubin ministerium Dei 83 24 

chorus sanctorum 83 s9 

Christus, see Ecclesia 

Christus quem accepimus 71 29 
circumuentio 58 K 
clarere 4 13 , 8 10 
clarificare 5 2:t 
claritas 4 22 . 23 . 27 , 16 2 , 43 3 
clausula 52 10 
coaequalis 7 1 
coheres 38 10 
commemoratio 2G 29 
communicare 1" 



compendium 59 (i 

eonculcari 84 u 

concnlcatio 84 9 

conditio 22 8 . 2(i , 23 19 , 2i 7 -" u - w , 76 9 ; 
conditio 57 s8 , 58 21 

conformatio 2G 29 

conscientia: secundum c. 69 7 

conseqnens 69 19 

consummare inaliquo 28 14 

consummatio 5 8 

continuatio 66 13 

conuenire alicui 4 2 ; 

quid cui conueniat l 20 , 3 13 
conuenire in Ecclesiam, genus, 
ciem, etc. 2", 3 27 , 4 14 , ll 26 , 24 15 , 
26 5 ,- 32 1 . 3 .n 34 15 , 37 15 , 40 1 , 41 24 , 
4G 9 , 53", 72 1 ". 11 , 75 11 , 76 1 , 77 1 
78 25 , 79 5 ' 1U , 80- 4 , 81 29 
c. in unam mentem 8 15 > 19 
conueniri in aliqua (parte) 40 2 - 12 , 
54 19 , 75 1 

copia Scripturae 66 7 

copiose ll 14 

corporaliter 7 22 

corpus in capite 7 24 

crueiatus 48— 


25 24 , 
44 2 , 

(3.) 8 

50 12 , 

ebdomadas 59 5 


filium hominis E. 5' 2 , 7 25 , 37 M , 65 15 ; 
qui dicitur Deus E. est 5 1G ; totam 
E. Christum 5'-' 8 ; mundum spiritalem 
qui est E. 6P 1 

edere : ornanda eduntur 82 :i:! 

eicere 85 16 

elaborandum 31 18 

elatio 65 13 

elementorum cursus S8 22 

elici 74 15 

eloquium 31 19 

esca 82 23 

est (' it is permitted ') 63 M 

Euangelia 61 21 

euangelista 57 1:) , W 7 

euidentius 68 27 

euolui 81 21 

exceptare 76 16 

excessus 37'-' 3 

excidium 43 2S , 52 23 

excludere 19 12 , 83 25 - 30 

execrabilis ll 14 , 41 15 

exercitium 25 31 

exponere 63 19 - M 

Dagon idolum 40 14 , 41 15 
debilitatus 85 26 
definitio 64 30 
defossus 82 33 
delegatus 81 31 
delegere 76 20 
delitescere 29 26 
demon stratrix 18 9 
dignari 12' 27 
dilucidari l 7 , 32 2 
dimicari 80 33 
dinoscentia 18 12 
dispositio 27 1 
distat 7 19 
ditari 79 26 

diuturna mansio 10 23 
dominari alicuiiis ll 7 , 72 14 , 73 14 , 7C 7 
dominicus (dies) 58 8 > 12 ; fide dom. 25 9 
dominium 18 25 

dum l 20 , 7 9 , 3K 19 .) 21 , 51 7 , 61 23 , 65 13 (usque 
dum), 76 6 , 80 21 

fabricare l 3 , 66 3 , 73 24 
facile uideri 4 12 , 31 21 
facinus 82 30 

facilitates (to. vwdpxoPTa) 82 31 ; nee sub- 
Fanubel 22 6 

feria : sexta f. 56 17 , 57 5 , 58 17 , 59 4 - ] " 
fortuitum 23 19 
fulciri 18 20 , 85 25 

generalitas 76 5 

generaliter 41 12 , 43 s7 

gloria 19 20 ; gloriam habere 19 20 , 20 18 

habitator 52 26 
hactenus 73 15 
Helisabeth 22" 
heremus 35 8 , 65 1 - 2 
humanitus 15 24 

ibidem 60 26 , 61 2 ; see illic 



idolatria 38 12 , 39 1 - 12 

idolum 40 15 ; idolorum cultores 38 14 ' 29 

ignis doloris 22 9 

illic (never ibi) 29 21 - 24 , 35 7 - 26 , 36 12 , 41 15 , 

43 2 «, 44 l! , 50 4 , 53 12 , 54", 71 27 
illicubi 54 19 
imperitia 22 13 
impunitas 38 13 
in: in nullo 7G'~, in omnibus ll'-' 8 , in 

Regnoruni 37 12 , 38 18 
incarnatus 68 1S 
incaute 22 :i0 

incrementum 2 24 . 29 , 21 28 
inculcari 76 27 

incurrere : nihil conditionis inc. 22 26 
indigere 31 10 

inducere 9 30 , 27 2S , 67 10 , 80 u 
ingemescere 10 24 
inlucescere 57 17 , 58 12 
inluminare 57 13> — 
inminens 57 6 
inmoderatius 76 10 
innouari 33 30 
inpalpabilis 3 2 
inpedimentum 25 2 , 31 2 " 
inpingere 14 8 
inportunus 58". 18 , 60" 
inridentittm uox 75 21 
insequi 30 ir ' ; tempora se insequentia G4 9 
instar 73-'" 

intellectus 31 20 ; (' signification ') 5'-'°, 6G 8 
intentari 17" 
interceptus 13 9 
introit...intrat 63 18 
inualescere 05"' 12 
iugis, -e 8 2 , 18", 39 6 
iugiter 4 22 . 27 , 13 20 , 14 1 , 25 31 , 39 12 , 43 4 

legitimi numeri 55 3 , 59 20 , GO 8 - 12 
liberum arbitrium 22 12 - 19 , 26 2 , 27 1 , 28 9 ; 

calumnia lib. arbitrii 23 5 
liquido 31 23 

Lucas : secundum Lucan 7 s 
lucifer 71 24 ' 29 
ludificari 22 25 
lumiuaria l 3 

magis dicere 84 16 

magisterium 31 11 

magnificus 15 22 

magnitudo 19 27 

maiestas : eccl. maiestate 79 12 

mandare 16 9 , 62 7 , 67 4 , 69 27 

manere: iugiter mansit 13™, 14 1 

manna 26 15 , 63 23 . 24 

mansio 10 24 

martyr 21 1 

Maziam 80 8 

merere 23 14 , 81 7 ; mereri 85 u 

Meridianum 42 12 , 73 25 ' 28 , 75 3 ; pars me- 

ridiana 73 17 
metropolis 41 26 
militare 30 19 
ministerium 83 24 
ministra: lex m. mortis 1G 13 '17 10 
miscere 24-', 43 13 ; filio Dei, Christo, 

etc., misceri 6 19 , 7 7 ' 16 ^ 22 , 22 s , 26 13 , 38 7 ' 9 , 

83-', alien i uoluntate m. 7 20 
miserans 21" 
miseratio 16 :! 
mobilis et inmobilis 75 31 
mos : more 32 G , 43"- 19 
Moses 26 17 , Mosen 12 28 , Mosi 57 JS , hut 

e.g. Moysi 26 1(i 
multiformis 31 17 
mundus 61 3 °. 3 \ 65 21 , 73 s4 ; m. aetas 56 14 , 

mundus regnans 65 14 , m. reparatiouem 

66 1 , mundo fimto 75 14 
mundus {adj.): Nabuchodonosor mundus 

obiit 77 10 
mysterium ll 12 , 31 3 -" 13 , G7 29 
mysticus 28-', 55 2 

natiuitas aduentus 4 29 ; uenit natiuitate 

-ne V 9 , 31=1 

necessarior 8 s 

necessarium 3 ( ,) 2 ' r ', n. duxi l 1 ; necessario 

30 8 
necessitate 17 2:! , 18 18 , 24 27 , 25 2 ^ 21 
necessitudo 27 17 
negatio G8 8 

negotiari 84 2 "; negotiandi causa 46 21 
neomenia 58 26 
nequam 74 14 , 80 8 
nescire and non cognoscere 8 20 



nudare 16 B 

obduratio 83 2S 

obduratus 4 9 

obiurgare 76 4 

obsequium 82 n 

obseruare S7 29 , 62 2 , 67 1 ' 4 , 70 13 , 77 1 

obseruatio 21 7 

obstupescere : obstipuit 45 11 

obtinere l 4 , 30 3 , 52 6 

occultari 31 17 

operarius 23 20 

operatrix 25 31 

oportunus 46 u 

ordo 14 s , 32 s ' 12 , 58 21 ; ordini relinquere 

5 10 ; ordine 41 23 , nouitatis o. 59 15 ; ex 

ordine 64 s 
omamentum 31 10 , 82 2S 

palpabilis 3 2 

parabola 40 15 

parturiens 53 10 

parum 76 12 ; p. fait.. .nisi 20 26 

passiones 4 27 ; passio Domiui 45 9 

perambulare I s 

peregrinatio 56 2 , 61 15 

periocha 52 10 

perseuerare 81 20 

perspicue 28 21 - 23 , 54 15 

perspicuus 82 24 - 30 

plenitudo 21 26 . 29 

populus solis 42 12 

portator 82 31 

post (conj.) 27 3 

post modum 28 9 , 29 24 

posteritas 42 9 

praedicator 63 13 

praepositus ll 5 

praescientia 24 8 , 28 19 

praesidentes cathedrae 63 17 - 21 

pvirnogenitus 6 10 , 59 16 

principalis 84 15 

principari 76 3 

pro locis 6 8 , 55 4 , 64 29 , 72 9 , 77 1 

professio 68 6 - 12 , 69 8 ; sub p. ueteris Test. 

29 30 
promittere (' to set forth'') 58 14 
prophetare 40 s , 54 17 


prophetatio 43 27 

prophetia l 7 , 41 29 , 85 14 

propositum 3 12 , 48 8 

proprietas 40 8 

prospicere: huic quaestioni prospiciens 


pseudoapostolus 63 13 

quale si diceret...aut 5 18 , 65- 

qualitas 28 26 , 29 6 

quando 2 14 , 43 28 

quautitas 28 2(i , 55 2 

quasi 58 17 , 64 s 

quiescere 68 18 

quo (' in order that ') 5 10 , (31 19 ,) 66 11 

quoad usque 74 14 

rationalis cursus 58 22 

recapitulare 66 15 

recapitulate l 16 , 65 24 , 66 12 - 14 ; pi. 67 7 

recessus l 4 

recordatio 48 7 

redigere 5 13 

refert 39 27 

regularis l 2 

relaxare 76 2 

renati Christi 4 28 

reniti 71 12 

reparatio : mundi r. 66 1 

restaurari 40 u 

resurrectio 36 12 . 27 , 37 5 , 56 17 , 65 5 

resurrectiones 36 28 

rex nouissimus 5'-' 2 , 75 12 , 77 12 

sacraruenturn 36 23 

sacrilega mens 15 22 

saeculurn ('this ivorld') 41 18 , 78 s8 , 80 3 , 

83 2ti ; futuro saeculo 83 s9 
saturitas G4 14 > 16 
scilicet 43 10 , 75 20 
separation 64 8 
septiforrnis ll 3 
septum legis 17 29 
sermo 22 15 , 31 10 
sicubi 11 1:; 

sigillum : recapitulationis s. 66 12 
significari 71 7 
silua : prophetiae inmensam s. I 8 



similitude) 67 s ' 26 

simplicitatis nornen 70 a 

solidari 7 23 

soluere Iesum 69 Itf 

sonare 67 30 

Sor, see Tyrus 

specialiter 40 6 - 7 , 64 s5 , 79 10 

status 48 s , 65 9 

strepere 23 5 

strictim 46 11 

sub (with ace, cf. 35~) : sub proruissa 

39 10 
sublimitas 84 8 
subornare 5 25 
substantia 83 n ; ( = t<x vTrapxovTa) 61 22 , 

see facultates 
subtiliter 51 24 , 68 9 
sumnia 56 7 , 59 24 
superstitiones 79 14 
supputatio 58 2B 
surgere 36 22 , 56 19 , 61 12 ; but resurgere 

occurs 7 times 

synecdoche 55 3 ' 4 
synonyma 5 21 

titulus 67 12 , 80 16 , 84 15 

tolerantia 17 24 

translatio 32 u ; Ecclesiae transl. 65 26 

tropus 55 3 . G , 56 20 

tumore stuporis elatus 12 28 

Tyrus quae et Sor 40 10 

uetitum 26 15 

uicarii Christi, diaboli 63 11 ' 12 

undique uersum 15 28 , 17 26 , 65 6 

uniuersus 83 25 ; {all. aha.) 63 22 , 66 3 , (81 6 ) 

uotum: uoto 21 3 , non uoto sed... 24'- 7 , 70 3 

usque dum 65 13 

ut icith inf. 54 16 ; ut puta 56 7 

utique 75 30 

utrimque concluditur 58 3 

Zorobabel 81 5 















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The book of Daniel 6 

The book of Job 8 

The four books of Kings 9 

The Old Latin mss of the Gospels 10 

The ' African ' Text of the Gospels 11 

The 'European' Text of the Gospels 15 

The Great Interpolations found in early Latin Texts . . 16 

Note I. The use of the LXX text of Daniel in Latin writers . 18 — 31 

Tertullian 18 

S. Cyprian 25 

S. Victorinus of Pettau 29 

Note II. The text of Job in Latin Fathers 32—34 

Note III. On Cod. Colbertinus (c) 35—40 

Note IV. Tabulated Renderings 41 — 45 

61 Se fir) . . . . . . . . . . . 41 

irapafSoKr) .......... 42 

6 Koa-fios ........... 43 

Note V. On the ' Western ' Interpolations in the Gospels . . 46 — 53 

The Greater Interpolations and their Western Attestation 47 

The Smaller Interpolations and their Western Attestation 50 
Greater Interpolations characteristic of the Old Syriac 


The ' Italian ' group of Old Latin mss .... 
Remains of the African text in S. Augustine's earlier works 
S. Augustine and Felix the Manichee .... 
The text of the Fleury Palimpsest ..... 
S. Augustine's praise of the Vulgate Gospels 





The quotations in S. Augustine de Consensu Euangelistarum . 59 

The ' Itala interpretation 60 

Examination of S. Augustine's argument in de Doct. Christ. 

ii 16—22 61 

The term italus 64 

Note I. S. Augustine and Felix the Manichee .... 66 — VI 

The text of what S. Augustine read at the trial . . 66 

The accuracy and fidelity of the report .... 70 

Note II. The Gospel text in Aug. de Consensu .... 72—78 

Additional Note on the preservation of S. Augustine's text in 

extant mss of the New Testament 78 


The S. Gallen Fragment of Jeremiah 79 — 92 


On Micah v 2 in the Weingarten MS 93 

On Mark xvi 4 in Cod. Bohiensis (k) 94 

Index op Patristic Works 95, 96 


The following Essays have grown out of a lecture delivered at 
Oxford during the Lent Term of the present year. My original 
object was not so much to give a general summary of what is 
known about Latin Versions of the Bible as to call attention to 
certain detached points of interest connected with the subject, 
which could be studied with more or less completeness by 
themselves. These points once settled, a firmer hold would be 
gained upon the general problems which confront the student in 
this complicated subject. One of these points, the identification of 
S. Augustine's Itala with the Vulgate, was of sufficient im- 
portance to expand into an Essay by itself. The rest of the lecture 
has been left as it was originally delivered, but I have added 
some Notes to what might appear the more hazardous statements 
in the text. These Notes will, I hope, serve to justify and to 
illustrate the positions I have been led to take, and to form an 
apology for the publication of the Essays. 

To have come to novel conclusions after working at such 
familiar materials as the quotations of Tertullian and SS. Cyprian 
and Augustine fills me with some alarm for the correctness of my 
reasoning, and makes me wish to have the judgment of specialists 
upon my work. But whatever may be thought of the explana- 
tion of the Itala, here revived for the first time since the days of 
the compilation of the Glossa Ordinaria, I cannot but think that 
the story of Felix the Manichee, taken in connection with the 
undoubted use of the Vulgate in the de Consensu Euangelistarum, 
ought to modify current ideas of the composition of the New 
Testament in the African Church of the fifth century. In the 
present day S. Augustine is almost invariably considered as an 


'Old Latin' authority for all parts of the Bible and in all his 
writings, and the cautions uttered by Sabatier himself (Praef. 
p. lvii) are generally unheeded. 

The evidence for the use of the Septuagint version of Daniel 
in the early Latin Church does not seem to be so widely known as 
it should be. I have therefore given it somewhat fully. The 
early literary history of the book of Job in Latin is written here, 
I believe, for the first time. 

The fragments of Jeremiah from S. Gallen are republished 
from the MS. Tischendorfs transcript is inaccurate and not very 
accessible, and the text of the MS is of sufficient interest to deserve 
a critical estimate of its value. The uncial types used on pp. 
82 — 85 are those cut more than a hundred years ago for Kipling's 
edition of Codex Bezae. They must not of course be taken as 
accurately representing the shapes of the letters in the S. Gallen 

For convenience of reference I give a list of the chief Latin 
MSS of the N. Test, referred to in this volume, with their reputed 

a. Cod. Vercellensis (iv), at Vercelli. 

b. „ Veronensis (v), at Verona. 

c. „ Colbertinus (xii), at Paris, from Languedoc. 

d. „ Bezae (vi), at Cambridge, from Southern Gaul (?). 

e. „ Palatinus (v), at Vienna, once at Trent. 
/ „ Brixianus (vi), at Brescia. 

ff. „ Corbeiensis 2 (vi), at Paris, from Corbie in Picardy. 

h (evv.). Cod. Claromontanus (v— vii), at the Vatican. Only 
Mt in O. Latin. 

h (apoc, act., cath. epp.). Cod. Floriacensis (vi— vii), at Paris, 
from Fleury on the Loire. A palimpsest, and very fragmentary. 

i. Cod. Vindobonensis (vii), at Vienna, once at Naples (Lc Mc). 

k. „ Bobiensis (v), at Turin, once at Bobbio (Mc Mt). 

I. „ Rehdigeranus (vii), at Breslau, once apparently at 
Verona. As this MS has a Vulgate base with occasional Old Latin 
readings it is called reh by Westcott and Hort. 

m. Speculum [Ps-]Augustini. A collection of extracts from 
the Old and New Test., now edited in Corp. Scr. Eccl. Lot. vol. xii. 


n. Cod. Sangallensis (v), at S. Gallen (fragments only). Two 
leaves, formerly called a 2 , are now at Coire. 

o. Cod. Sangallensis (vii), at S. Gallen. Last leaf of n, but 
in a later hand. 

q. Cod. Monacensis (vii), at Munich, once at Freising. 

r. „ Usserianus (? vii), at Dublin. 

s. Fragmenta Ambrosiana (v — vi), at Milan (Lc). 

t. Fragmenta Bernensia (vi), at Berne (Mc). 

Among the best MSS of the Vulgate (following Wordsworth 
and White) are 
















A remark made by Dr Sanday at the head of his Essay on the 
text of k is so appropriate here that I will repeat it. He says : "In 
speaking of the ' texts ' of e, k, Cyprian, &c. all the phenomena of 
those texts is meant. For our present purpose it is not necessary 
to discriminate between those of reading, which imply a difference 
in the underlying Greek, and those of rendering, where the 
variation is confined to the Latin. It is one of the immense 
advantages which the Latin possesses over the Greek text, that 
in any attempt to trace the genealogical relations of the different 
authorities, both these distinct classes of phenomena are available. 
In the Greek where there are no varieties of reading the text is 
necessarily colourless: in the Latin where this is the case dif- 
ferences of rendering may still afford clear indications of parentage; 
and it is by following out such indications that we are able to 
determine the mutual connexions and affinities of the MSS." ( Old- 
Latin Biblical Texts, ii, p. xlii.) 



The importance of the Latin Versions is not confined to their 
critical worth. Whatever value we may attach to the Latin 
interpretations of phrases occurring in the original Greek, it is 
undeniable that they have greatly influenced Western theological 
thought. Even the most literal version is also in some sense a 
commentary : the Latin indeed has none of the authority which 
sometimes attaches itself to the Syriac rendering of words and 
phrases originally spoken in an Aramaic dialect ; yet to us it is 
historically more important. Many of our current conceptions of 
theological ideas have come to us through this Latin channel. 
The word ' eternal ' is a familiar instance : another is Luther's 
famous difficulty with agite paenitentiam as an equivalent for 
fjLeravoelre. But the influence in question is not confined to such 
serious matters. We more often think of the place of the Cruci- 
fixion as ' Calvary ' than as ' Golgotha '. Again, from the history 
of the Latin Bible we learn, that Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus and 
Deuteronomy have always been called by their Greek names in 
Western Europe. In Tertullian we also find Arithmi instead of 
Numeri; yet as early as S. Cyprian the fourth book of the 
Pentateuch had a vernacular name, as it has among ourselves 

Nevertheless the main worth of the Latin Versions to us is 
their critical value as ' authorities ' for the text. Since the time 
of Lachmann the importance of the ancient codices of the Old 
Latin has always been recognised in New Testament criticism, 
even by scholars to whom ' Western ' and ' corrupt ' were in all 
cases synonymous terms. It is however to those who frankly 
accept Dr Hort's theory of the Syrian (or Antiochian) revision 
that this value is necessarily greatest, whatever may be their 


feeling with regard to ' Western ' texts. As long as in the 
thousand Greek MSS of the Gospels were seen so many practically 
independent authorities the evidence of a version might be 
neglected. But Dr Hort's scheme so reduces the vast mass of 
Greek witnesses, that the Western texts found in the early versions 
regain much of their true numerical preponderance of attestation. 
Moreover with a comparatively narrow basis of really weighty 
Greek evidence, the possibility of sporadic error in our best MSS 
must always be a factor in the account, and the value of a version 
which in its origin at least was utterly independent of the eclectic 
Greek texts of the fourth century becomes more evident than 

I have spoken of the Old Latin Version ; the phrase is in itself 
an assumption. Tot exemplaria quot codices — ' every MS gives a 
new type of text ' — was the opinion of S. Jerome ; and it is only 
in quite recent years that criticism has got even a little beyond 
this stage. At the same time the fact that our Latin authorities 
often conspire together in variants found in hardly any extant 
Greek MS was early noticed ; whether there were one or two inde- 
pendent versions is a comparatively minor question in face of the 
undoubted fact that the independent versions were few in number. 
Among the more striking examples of the agreement of the Old 
Latin codices (or of a majority of them) against most other 
authorities are the substitution of Ps ii 7 ' Thou art My Son, this 
day have I begotten Thee ' for the words uttered from heaven at 
the Baptism in Lc iii 22 ; and the curious transposition of the 
clauses of Lc ix 62, so that the verse runs ' No man that looketh 
back and putteth his hand to the plough is fit for the kingdom of 
God.' Neither of these is in any way supported by the Old 
Syriac ; so that they seem to be examples of readings geographi- 
cally ' Western '. 

In classifying our Old Latin authorities and attempting to 
write a history of the texts they present, each group of the books 
of the Bible must be treated separately. It is not till the seventh 
century that we hear of Latin Pandects — great MSS of the whole 
mass of Canonical Scriptures. A mere glance indeed at the extant 
evidence for the various books shews the different ways in which 
their text has been manipulated. The perplexing variety of the 


Latin texts of the Gospels, the Psalms, and Isaiah, may be 
contrasted with the uninterrupted transmission of the book of 
Wisdom, a book highly esteemed and largely quoted, in which, 
strange to say, the text of S. Cyprian's citations hardly differs 
from the Clementine Vulgate. These however are extreme 

There are two books of the Old Testament which may be 
conveniently treated apart from the rest. The recensions in 
which they are extant are well known from Greek sources, and 
differ so extensively from one another as to be easily recognised 
in the corresponding Latin translations. These are the books of 
Daniel and Job. 

The Old Latin authorities for the book of Daniel may be divided 
into two families, according as they follow the genuine lxx or the 
version of Theodotion. Theodotion's version is by far the most 
commonly met with. The purely Latin attestation for it begins 
with the 3rd cent. African tract De Pascha computus (dated ad 
243) and Commodian 1 ; it further includes Lucifer and the other 
4th cent, writers 2 . But the ancient lxx version, as represented 
by the Cod. Chisianus and the Hexapla, is found in all the 
undoubtedly genuine works of Tertullian, including the Monta- 
nistic tracts written towards the end of his life. It is also found 
in the Commentary on the Apocalypse by S. Victorinus of Pettau, 
who was martyred in ad 303. The genuine chiliastic conclusion 
of this work, containing the clearest use of the LXX Daniel, was 
first published in the Theologisches Literaturblatt of April 26, 
1895, by Dr Haussleiter of Greifswald ; but the lxx text is to be 
traced in the earlier part of the work as well {Migne v 338, 340, 
and Beatus, pp. 440, 441). The quotations of S. Cyprian occupy 
a curious position midway between the LXX and Theodotion, 
suggesting that the change from the one version to the other 
was taking place in his own times, at least at Carthage 3 . 

Thus the earliest Latin version of Daniel as witnessed by 

1 See Instruc n 13 = Dan xiii 56 Theod ; and Apol 267, 268 = Dan ix 24, 26 Theod. 

2 Theodotion's version is also found in the Latin translation of Irenaeus. It is 
therefore probable that S. Irenaeus himself used Theodotion, as the differences 
between the two Greek versions of Daniel are too great to have been altogether 
obscured in translation. 

8 See Note i at the end of this Essay. 


Tertullian, by S. Victorinus of Pettau, and partly by S. Cyprian, 
was made from the lxx ; a later Latin version was made from 
Theodotion. And so we see that we cannot write the history 
of the Latin versions from the evidence of MSS alone. For in 
the book of Daniel we have fragments of two magnificent Latin 
codices of the 5th cent., the Weingarten MS and the Wihrzburg 
Palimpsest ; but both give Theodotion's version and show no trace 
of the lxx text. 

The language of all the Biblical quotations in Be Pascha 
computus distinctly points to Africa, and its date is contemporary 
with S. Cyprian. Yet in the long quotation of Dan ix 25 — 27 it 
keeps to Theodotion throughout, agreeing indeed very closely with 
the first hand of B. This might suggest that we have evidence 
of early revision from the Greek even in the African Bible. The 
book of Daniel may however have been subjected to exceptional 
treatment ; if Theodotion's version was to be preferred to the 
LXX, it was a question of the adoption of an entirely new work, 
not the gradual correction of one type of text by another. 
S. Cyprian's mixed text of Daniel never reappears except in those 
writers who directly quote the Testimonia, and it may never have 
existed as a Biblical text except in his own half-corrected MS. 
All other Latin authorities use a text wholly that of the LXX or 
wholly Theodotion's 1 . The fact that during the third century the 
African Church, following the example of the rest of Christendom, 
exchanged the LXX of this book for Theodotion need not make 
us reject the presumption that Greek MSS were less frequently met 
with in Africa than elsewhere, and that there, if anywhere, 
sporadic correction of the Latin version from Greek MSS of the 
Bible was uncommon. 

But there is another consideration of more general interest 
connected with the substitution of Theodotion for the lxx in 
the book of Daniel. It is a remarkable fact that Ecclesiastical 
writers are quite silent about this important change. The utmost 

1 In ' Tert ' aduersus Iudaeos the portions taken out of Tertullian contra 
Marcion iii follow the lxx; but in the earlier sections of adv. Iudaeos (e.g. § 8), 
to which there are no parallels in Tertullian, the quotations from Daniel follow 
Theodotion. Note that coneidenthim (adv. Iudaeos § 3), an interpolation in the 
text of Dan ii 35, appears to come directly from Cypr. Test u 17. 


that even the learned S. Jerome has to tell us upon the subject is 
that the Church did not use the LXX in this book, but Theodo- 
tion: ' et hoc cur accident nescio ' (Hieron. Praef. in Daniel.). No 
more direct proof can be given that the silence of Ecclesiastical 
writers is not a sufficient ground for assuming that revisions of 
the Bible of which they tell us nothing were never made. I leave 
it to my readers to apply this to the objections often urged against 
the parallel cases of the Antiochian revision of the Greek text 
of the New Testament, and of the transformation of the Old 
Syriac into the present Syriac Vulgate. 

The other case where the Old Latin authorities can at once be 
divided by recensions is the book of Job. This book passed through 
three stages in Greek. (1) In its original Greek form, as we know 
from the express statements of Origen, about 400 lines (i.e. half- 
verses of the Hebrew) were missing. Either they were absent 
from the translator's MS, or, as is more probable, they were inten- 
tionally omitted by him. This original state survives in the 
Thebaic version published by Ciasca. (2) But such large lacunae 
could not remain unnoticed after the publication of literal Greek 
versions from the Hebrew, and at some period most, but not quite 
all, of the missing lines were supplied from Theodotion. This is 
the form found in most of the extant MSS, including NBAC. 
(3) In the Hexapla Origen accurately filled up the gaps, placing 
however all the lines borrowed from Theodotion under asterisks. 
His work remains in several Greek MSS used by Field, and in the 
Syro-Hexaplar version. 

Now each of these three types of text is represented in the 
pre-Vulgate Latin. S. Jerome translated Origen's revision into 
Latin, reproducing the asterisks. His work survives in at least 
two MSS, and it is the text printed by Sabatier. It was used 
extensively by S. Augustine and the later African writers, but 
they make no distinction between the passages marked with 
asterisks and the rest ; all is quoted as of equal authority. Again, 
the revision found in NBA etc. is represented in Latin by S. 
Ambrose, who here as often exhibits a special type of text among 
Latin authorities, due to direct dependence upon Greek sources. 
f,H I But the original Latin version did not contain the interpolated 
I verses. This version is met with in the quotations of S. Cyprian 


and Lucifer : in Spain it survived to the fifth century, as is shewn 
by the Speculum and Priscillian 1 . 

Only in these two books, Daniel and Job, can we treat the 
Latin versions in this summary fashion. In the other books the 
extant Greek recensions are for the most part so late and mixed 
that the Latin does not easily fit in with any. Take the case of 
the four books of Kings. Here we have two main types of Greek 
text. One of these is represented by B, and also by A when its 
loosely-fitting interpolations have been set aside ; the other is the 
recension of Lucian. Now there is a good deal of evidence which 
connects the Old Latin with the ' Lucianic ' text ; but it would be 
a mistake to bring in the Old Latin as third century evidence for 
the Lucianic text as we know it, or indeed for the Lucianic 
recension properly so called. The Old Latin seems to me rather 
to represent one element, and that probably the most important, 
out of which the composite Lucianic text was constructed. 
Lucian's recension in fact corresponds in a way to the Antiochian 
text of the New Testament. Both are texts composed out of 
ancient elements welded together and polished down. A text akin 
to that underlying the Old Latin was a factor in each. In the 
case of the Gospels we actually possess in our numerous Greek, 
Latin and Syriac MSS continuous texts similar to the elements 
out of which the Antiochian text was constructed, and thus the 
Antiochian text rarely contains traces of an ancient text not 
better preserved elsewhere. But in the case of the books of Kings 
our Latin evidence is fragmentary, and there is no ancient Greek 
MS to take the place which Cod. Bezae occupies in the Gospels and 
Acts. Hence the importance of Lucian's recension, a mixed text 
with ancient elements otherwise unrepresented. If we had the 
Old Latin of the books of Kings in a complete and pure form the 
value of Lucian would be largely discounted. As it is, we can use 
Lucifer and the Vienna Palimpsest and the Speculum to prove 
the existence of ancient elements in Lucian : but we cannot use 
them as authenticating Lucian as a whole. I do not here refer to 
the margin of the Codex Gothicus Legionensis published by 
Vercellone, as it is by no means certain that this interesting 

1 For a justification of the statements in the text see Note n at the end of this 


document does not represent readings extracted and translated 
from some Greek codex, so that it may have no connection with the 
Old Latin properly so called 1 . Moreover the literary history of the 
book of Daniel in Latin will warn us against trusting too implicitly 
to the evidence of Latin MSS unauthenticated by ancient quotations. 

The Old Latin MSS of the Gospels. 

The different fates which befel the earliest Latin versions of 
Daniel and Job, — the former disappearing at the end of the third 
century, the latter surviving, at least in Spain, till the fifth, — shew 
us how impossible it is to form an a priori judgment about the 
history of the most important section of the Bible, viz. the Four 
Gospels. Here the evidence is at once most abundant and most 

A rough list of the Old Latin mss of the Gospels is to be found 
in the Introduction to this essay. I need only remark here that 
we now possess at least fragments of sixteen codices that are 
unhesitatingly assigned to the 'Old Latin '. Of these only one, the 
Latin side of Codex Bezae, forms part of a bilingual MS. Four of 
the mss are at least as old as Codex Bezae, while four mure, a, b, 
e and n, are said to be yet older, dating in fact from a time when 
the Old Latin was in full Church use in many parts of Western 
Europe. These facts are worth bearing in mind, in view of 
the not unnatural tendency to overestimate the number and 
influence of bilingual codices in the Latin Church, or even to 
regard the history of the Latin versions as a sub-province of the 
criticism of Codex Bezae. 

For the most part what we know about the provenance of our 
mss tells us nothing which can help us to localise their text. The 
fact, for instance, that n (together with the Coire fragment of the 
same MS, commonly called a J was in all probability part of the 
original library of the great monastery of S. Gallen, does not give 
us any clue to the wanderings of the Ms in the two centuries and 
a half which preceded the foundation of the Benedictine settle- 
ment there. Again, even if we accept the tradition that Cod. 

1 Compare for a parallel instance the Latin glosses in Cod. rescript. Crypto- 
ferratensis (V) to Isaiah and Jeremiah. 


Bobiensis (k) was once the private property of S. Columban, we are 
not helped towards the solution of the really important question, — 
where and why an African text, full of the strange clerical blunders 
which we find in the text of k, came to be transcribed in the 
generation before the Saint was born ? 

In the case of the oldest MS (a), and of the youngest (c), a 
knowledge of the history of the MSS does however help us in the 
criticism of their contents. Cod. a (Vercellensis) is said to have 
been written at Vercelli, where it still remains, by the hand of 
S. Eusebius during his retreat from the Arians after the Council 
of Milan. S. Eusebius died before the Vulgate was begun, and is 
not known ever to have left N. Italy. Here then, if anywhere, we 
have a pre-Vulgate ' European ' text. Its connection with S. 
Eusebius' friend Lucifer of Cagliari I shall touch upon at the end 
of this essay. Cod. c (Colbertinus), a MS of the 12th cent., came 
from Languedoc, the country of the Albigenses 1 . Only among 
heretics isolated from the rest of Western Christianity could an 
Old Latin text have been written at so late a period. In this 
case therefore our knowledge of the original home of the MS to a 
certain extent explains the character of its text. 

The ' African ' Text of the Gospels. 

The first great step in the scientific classification of the Old 
Latin MSS of the Gospels was made in Dr Hort's letter to the 
Academy of Aug. 14, 1880, in which he for the first time pointed 
out the close connection of the texts of k (Bobiensis) and e 
(Palatinus) with the numerous and accurate quotations of S. 
Cyprian. Previously to this Codd. a b c and i had been assumed 
to represent the original and therefore presumably African form 
of the Latin Version, all variations from this arbitrary standard 
being put down to correction from Greek MSS. 

Of these two codices k is more faithful to the Cyprianic text 
than e ; but both are on quite a different plane from the rest of 
the Latin mss. We may therefore take k and e to represent the 

1 Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate, pp. 74, 75. A curious parallel is furnished by 
a 13th cent, ms of the N.T., in which about half the text of the Acts is Old Latin 
of good quality. The ms originally came from Perpignan, and the Old Latin 
portion has lately been published by M. Berger (Notices et Extraits, xxxv, pt. i). 


form in which the Gospels were read in Africa (or at least at 
Carthage) as early as the middle of the third century. The only 
other non-Patristic authorities which shew a distinctive ' African ' 
character are the contemporary corrections in the text of n (esp. 
in Lc and Mc), which must have been made from a MS very like e ; 
and isolated sections of c, such as the last chapters of the Gospel 
of S. Luke. The strongly African character of Lc xxiii, xxiv in 
this MS is somewhat obscured by the fact that the well-known 
Western Non-Interpolations in cap. xxiv — verses and clauses 
omitted by a b d e ff I r — have been inserted into c from the 
Vulgate, with the language of which they almost always verbally 
agree, though the other verses of the context differ widely from it 1 . 

The character of this ' African ' version differs much from other 
Old Latin texts both in language and in the underlying Greek 
text B . But one fact stands out above all others — its utter un- 
likeness to the eclectic texts of the fourth century, both Greek and 
Latin. For the most part the interpolations of this, the oldest 
continuous Latin text of the Gospels which has come down to us, 
are not the interpolations of the eclectic texts, and its omissions 
are not their omissions : moreover its renderings are not the 
renderings of the later revised Latin texts such as the Vulgate 
and its immediate predecessors. 

It is this note of singularity and independence which is the 
chief characteristic of the 'African' version, whether in the Gospels 
or elsewhere ; not any positive quality of its own style considered 
apart from other Latin versions of the Bible. 

1. Thus we find occasional transliterations of Greek words, 
where other texts have vernacular renderings. Examples are 

agape 1 Cor. xiii passim Cypr. Test III 3 

anastasis Mc xii 23 k 

discolvm Mc x 24 k 

martyria Ps cxviii 2 Cypr. Test in 10 

iiwns Eleon Mc xiv 26 k, and Ac i 12 Aug. contra Fel i 4 

In the titles of books we find not only cata Mattheum, cata 

1 See Note in at the end of this Essay. 

2 The only thorough investigation of any part of the African text is to be found 
in Dr Sanday's Essay on k in Old-Latin Biblical Texts, vol. ii. 


Lucan, etc., but in Cyprian also we have in Paroemiis (e.g. Test 
III 6G), and in Basilion (i.e. Ba<ri\eicov) for in Reg nor am [libra]. 

2. Quite as often the opposite practice prevails. Several well 
known adaptations of Greek words either do not occur at all in the 
African texts or are found side by side with attempts at Latin 
equivalents. Examples are 

similitudo side by side with parabola 

bene nuntiare euangelizare 

ting it ere baptizare 

3. In the African texts many common words, familiar to us 
through the Vulgate or the service books, are represented by less 
usual synonyms. Among the more prominent examples are 

illic for ibi 

nenipe ergo 

si quo minus alioquin 

fuit (t]v) erat 

claritas gloria 

sermo (X0709) uerbum 

felix beatus 

discens discipulus 

jwessura (most books) tribulatio (Apoc) 

colligere (exc. Ezech) congregare 

maledicere {ovethi^eiv) improperare 

saecidum (in S. Joh) mundus 

Among texts which thus assume an unfamiliar aspect in 
African documents a notable instance is Joh i 1, which appears in 
Test 11 3 (codd. opt.) as In principio fuit sermo. In Joh viii 12 e 
and Cypr. Ep 63 have not Lux Mundi but Lumen Saeculi. 

This unusual vocabulary is extremely useful to the critic : it 
shews the comparative independence of the African documents ; it 
is also a most useful test for discovering whether documents of 
uncertain ancestry be ' African ' or not, — : African ', that is, in the 
sense in which the word has been so often used in this essay, viz. 
homogeneous with the Biblical text used by S. Cyprian. 

For it can scarcely be maintained that differences of rendering 
such as these are dialectical in the ordinary sense of the word. 


They can only in part be paralleled from the original works of 
African writers ; it is absurd for instance to claim sermo or saeculum 
as a predominantly 'African' word, except in the sense that the 
translator of the Gospels (presumed from other considerations to 
have been an African by nationality) took these words as his 
rendering of the Johannine A.0705 and the Johannine tcoa-fio?, and 
mechanically retained them throughout. Indeed in so literal a 
version as the Old Latin there is not much room for dialectical 

The most promising field for real ' Africanisms ' would be, I 
should imagine, the common adverbial locutions and the smaller 
parts of speech generally 1 . Thus illic occurs in the African Fathers 
not only when they are giving the words of Scripture, but also in 
the formula of quotation item illic, where the Europeans use item 
ibi. In the Book of Rules composed by Tyconius, an African who 
flourished about 380 AD, illic occurs a dozen times, ibi never. 
Here then we seem to have a genuine Africanism. 

But such clear instances are rare ; and two passages from S. 
Augustine, in which he expressly declares the interchangeability 
of some of these synonyms, shew how little the difference of 
rendering corresponds to real difference of dialect. He says (con- 
tra sermonem Arrianorum 35): " Olorificare autem et honorificare 
et clarificare tria quidem uerba, sed una res est, quod Graece 
dicitur 8o%d£etv; interpretum autem uarietate aliter atque aliter 
positum est in Latino." And again (de Consensu Euangelistarum 
iii 71): "Marcus [xvi 12] inquit.. . .Euntibus in uillam. castellum 
quippe illud non absurde etiam uillam potuisse appellant ... et in 
codicibus quidem graecis magis agrum inuenimus quam uillam. 
agri autem nomine non castella tantum uerum etiam municiiria 
et coloniae solent uocari extra ciuitatem, quae caput et quasi 
mater est ceterarum, unde metropolis appellatur." From the last 
sentence we may gather that though in S. Augustine's Africa the 
' municipium ' was larger than the ' castellum ', either might quite 
well be used to indicate Ktofirj as an inhabited place inferior to the 
7roX,t9, which is constantly rendered by 'ciuitas 2 '. 

1 See Note iv. 

2 See 0. Lat. Bihl. Texts, ii 137 f. 


The ' European ' Texts of the Gospels. 

The general criticism of the European documents has yet to be 
written. It is a task encompassed with peculiar difficulties. If 
the received theory of the Latin Versions be true — that they 
originated in Africa, and were adopted in Italy, Gaul and Spain 
with such changes as local usage seemed to recommend, and with 
occasional partial revisions from such Greek MSS as were available, 
— then we can indeed investigate the original African text, but 
the original European text is almost a contradiction in terms. The 
history of the European text would be that of a continuous de- 
velopment, or rather degeneration, from the African standard. 
This is however only a theory, though a very probable one ; and it 
is held on the other hand by some scholars that there was an 
original European version independent of the African text. The 
question has a very practical issue. When one or two European 
authorities side with the Africans against the rest, are we to 
regard these 'African' readings as relics of a more ancient stage 
of the ' European ' Latin when it was only half Europeanised ? Or 
are these African readings mere excrescences in the true European 
text — like, for instance, the corrections in n ? 

The European MSS group themselves round the two great 
codices a (Vercellensis) and b ( Veronensis) ; and of late there has 
been a disposition to look upon b as giving the truest picture of 
the European text. Mr White, whose acquaintance with the 
details of these mss must be as great as any scholar's, says : " b 
seems to be almost a typical European MS, as the other mss of 
European and of Italian origin, such as a, f, h, i, q, r, all resemble 
b more closely than they resemble each other." 1 He might indeed 
have added the Vulgate to this list of mss. There is no doubt 
that b occupies a central position, and that its great rival a often 
has African renderings ; the only question is whether a does not in 
this respect represent an altogether earlier stage of the European 
Latin than b. Nor is a entirely without followers. It is supported 
in Mt Mc Lc by the Swiss MS n, while in S. John (where the ex- 
emplar followed by n seems to have been corrected to the b text) 

1 0. Lat. Bibl. Texts, iii, p. xxxii. 


the quotations of Lucifer of Cagliari generally agree with a. A 
still more important witness to the age of the text of a is Novatian 
of Rome (the contemporary of S. Cyprian), whose quotations are 
decidedly nearer to a than to b. And in this connection a remark 
in Dr Sanday's essay on k is well worthy of attention. Comment- 
ing on Mc xii 40 he says : " The older translators had great diffi- 
culty with 7rpo(f)daei fxaKpd Trpoaevxofievoi, though they ended by 
hitting upon an admirable rendering in ' sub obtentu prolixae 
orationis ' of b, adopted in Vulg." 

This I believe to be what has often happened, though as a rule 
b is supported by ff, f and q as well as the Vulgate : in other 
words b is the oldest representative of that stage of the European 
text from which most of the later forms of the Old Latin, and 
finally the Vulgate, are descended 1 . 

Before taking leave of this part of the subject I should like to 
draw attention to a point of very great importance intimately 
connected with the history of the Latin versions. No feature in 
the textual criticism of the Gospels is more striking, or of more 
vital interest, than the Great Interpolations, such as Mt xvi 2, 3 
(the Signs of the Sky), Mt xx 28 fin. ('Seek from little to increase'), 
Lc xxii 43, 44 (the Bloody Sweat), Joh v 3, 4 (the Descent of the 
Angel), and the story of the Woman taken in Adultery. Now the 
stronghold of these interpolations is the Old Latin. As we trace 
the history of the text of the N.T. in other languages we find the 
earliest form is free from these interpolations. In Greek they are 
absent from B and its allies ; in Syriac they are absent from the 
Sinai Palimpsest, a MS with a very different text in other respects 
from B. But they seem to form an integral part of the earliest 
Latin version. They are especially characteristic of the African 
text : a fact all the more remarkable, as the best African documents 
often side with KB in rejecting the harmonistic and other ordinary 
additions found in most other authorities. The extant European 
documents often contain these great Interpolations, but in other 
cases they omit them, and as a rule they are supported in their 
choice by the 'Textus Receptus'. The European Latin thus seems 
to have been the channel by which some of these valuable fragments 

1 See Note iv on irapafioKr). 


of ancient tradition have found their way into the dominant 
Ecclesiastical recensions of the fourth century. This by no means 
inevitably implies that the passages in question were translated 
from the Latin ; it is equally consistent with the evidence to 
suppose that the Antiochian revisers were sometimes guided in 
their choice by the knowledge that this or that otherwise doubtful 
passage was read by the Church of Rome or of Milan. 

Quite distinct from these great additions to the true text is 
a series of smaller interpolations, which cannot so certainly be 
referred to independent sources, and seem rather to be due to the 
inventiveness of scribes. From these the African text is com- 
paratively free, while on the other hand the 'European' texts with 
hardly an exception contain them all. It is difficult to separate 
the study of both these classes of additions to the true text from 
the well-known 'Western' additions to the Acts; these, it should 
never be forgotten, are quite as characteristic of the African texts 
of h (Floriacensis) and S. Cyprian as of Codex Bezae. The ulti- 
mate local source of all these interpolations is still quite obscure. 
It is tempting to suppose that they may have originated at some 
very early centre of Christianity such as Rome, and have been 
thus early taken to Carthage, and preserved there through the 
comparative isolation of Roman Africa from Greek influences 1 . 

But speculations of this kind do not take us beyond the region 
of conjecture. I have only suggested them here for the benefit 
of those who, like myself, believe that we shall not really advance 
the study of these questions until the mutual relations of the 
various forms of the European Latin have been placed on a 
firmer basis by the laborious but scientific method of classifying 
the peculiarities of the MSS and quotations which have come down 
to us. 

1 See Note v. 


The use of the LXX text of Daniel in Latin writers. 

That the Church used Theodotion's text of Daniel, and not the 
LXX, is a statement which has been commonly repeated since the 
days of S. Jerome. Nevertheless there remain considerable traces 
of the use of the lxx in the earlier stages of the Latin Church ; 
a collection of the available evidence may therefore prove not 
uninteresting. Excluding S. Irenaeus as not truly a Latin Father, 
the four writers who quote Daniel sufficiently for our purpose are 
Tertullian, S. Cyprian, the author of Be Pascha Computus, and 
S. Victorinus of Pettau. Of these the first and the last used the 
LXX, the author of Be Pascha Computus used Theodotion, and 
S. Cyprian used a mixed text. 

1. Tertullian. 

Tertullian's quotations from Daniel are given below side by 
side with Origen's revision of the LXX as it stands in Dr Swete's 
edition. That edition here rests upon the Greek cursive Cod. 
Chisianus (87) and the Syro-Hexaplar version (Syr). Origen's 
work was provided with asterisks and obeli as in the other books 
of the Bible, the asterisk (*) being supposed to represent an 
addition from the Hebrew not found in the original LXX text, 
while the obelus (-=-) marks words belonging indeed to the lxx 
but absent from the Hebrew. An interesting result of the present 
investigation is that wo gain some idea of how much these marks 
are to be depended upon in our two authorities. 


The quotations from ' Tort ' aduei'sus Tudaeos are not included 
in this list. 

Dan i 17 
adv. Psych § 9 (Oehl. i 863) LXX 

Dedit enim Deus adolescentulis /ecu Tots veavio-Kots «8wk€v 6 xvpios 

scieutiam et intellegentiaro eVio-n^io/v kol avvea-iv kol cppovrjaiv 

in omni litteratura iv iraa-rj ypap,p.a.TiKyj re^vr) 

et Danieli kcu tu> Aavtr/\ eScoKe crvvecriv 

in omni uerbo iv iravrl pTJfiari kcu opafian 

et in somniis et in omni sophia. kol Ivvttvlois kol iv iraa-yj trotpia. 

-r K<u ev it. <70<f>ia 87 

Theodotion has: /cat ret iratSdpta ravra, oi T&rcrapes avrot, HSwuev clvtois 6 Oebs 
avv€<nv /cat <ppbvr}<siv iv wdar) ypapLfiariKrj /cat corpta ' /cat AaeiTjX aw^/cei' eV irdari oparm 
/cat ivvwvlois. So B; A and Q have minor variations in the opening words. 

Tertullian's words are not an exact quotation, but they contain 
the decisive phrase at the end corresponding to teal ev ir/tar) 
crocpia, a clause not found in Theodotion. The construction also 
of Danieli (= t&> AavirjX) agrees with LXX against Theodotion. 

Dan ii 10—24 
adv. Psych § 7 (Oehl. I 862) 

Circa somnium regis Babylonis omnes turbantur sophislae, negant 
ultro de praestantia hum ana posse cognosci, solus Daniel Deo fidens... 
spatium tridui postulat, ctim sua fraternitate ieiunat, atque ata orationibus 
commendatis et ordinem et significationem somnii per omnia instruitnr, 
tyranni sophislis parcitur, Dens gloriticatnr, Daniel honoratur. 

The italicised portions of this summary occur only in the 
lxx. For the wise men of Babylon lxx has in w. 14 and 24 
crocpuTTai, Theodotion ao<poL In vv. 17 b , 18 LXX has tois crvve- 
Taipots vireSec^e irdvTa, ™/cal 7rapijyy€i\e vr)o~Teiav Kal Seyaip 
Kal Tificoplav, where Theodotion has roU (f>i\oi<i avrov eyvwpiaev 
to prjfia. w kuI otKT€ipp,ov<; etyrovv. 

9. 9 



Dan ii 34, 44 
adv. Marc iii § 7 (Oehl. n 130) 

et petra sane ilia apud Danielem 
de monte praecisa quae 
imaginem saecularium regnorum 

comminuet et conteret. 

cf LXX 

!4 ews otov eTfi.y]dr] \l8os e£ opous... 

■^TraTa^ei Se Kai acpavicrei Ta.s 
^SatriXeias TavTas... 

Theodotion has iu ver. 34 ( + ov A) dweax^^V ("7x776*77 AQ) \ldos i$ opovs, and in 
ver. 44 \errwa /ecu XiK/xyjirei wdcras ras ftaaihelas. 

Here the text followed by Tertullian was nearer Theodotion. 
Compare however the quotation from Dan vii given below, which 
immediately follows this allusion. 

Dan iii 16 b — 18 

Scorp § 8 (Oehl. i 51G) 

Non habemus necessitatem 
respondendi huic tuo iniperio. 

17 est enim Deus noster 

quern colimus 
potens eruere nos 
de foi'nace ismis 

et ex manibus tuis. 

18 et tunc manifestum 

fiet tibi 

quod neque idolo tuo famulabimur, 

nee imaginem tnam auream 

quam statuisti 



ou xpeiav c^ofiev 7//x,ets 

£7ri rrj iTTiTayfj ravrrf aTroKpiurjvai 

17 ecrT i yap 8eb<; 

-=- ev oupavois ei? Kvpios rjp.u>v, 
or cpofSov/xeOa, 

os i(TTL Swaro? e£eAeo"#ai rjp,a<i 
(.k rfj<; Kap.Lvov mv 7rupos * Tvys 

/cat €K twv xnpHiv aov, fia(ri\ev, 
e^eXetTat Ty-pas" 
18 /cat Tore <pai'€pov 
crot coral, * /3ao-iA.€u , 
OTl oure tw etSojXw ctov \aTpevop\ev 
ovre T7) cikwi crov Tjj xpvafj, 
y)v t(TTi](Ta<;, 
[ou] Trpo(TKvi'ovp.ev. 

om on Syr 

Theodotion has according to cod B: Ov xp^ av ^X°^ a ' W Le ^ 7re P i ToC M/* aros 
tovtov dwoKpidfyal aoi. " tffTiv yap 6e6s, cy Ty/ACiS Xarpevo^iev, Swards t£e\{ff6ai 
ijfiai £k Tijs Kafilvov rod irvphs tijs kcuo/x^i't??- koX ck tuv x {i P^ v aov ' /3a<nXeO, ptaerai 


Tjfids' Kai ("etc ixi), *jVwo~tov iaroi croi, flacriXeu, oti rots Otols <xov ou \a.TptvofAa> 
Kai rrj cIkovl y tcrr/cras ou Trpo<TKWOup.ev. 

The following are the more important variants of AQ. 17 deos] + rinwv ev ovpavois 
gab mg ) ^j tj/jluv a, ouvois A 18 ecrrw] ecrrai Q clkovl] + rr\ XP var ) A.Q 

Here the spaced type exhibits seven points where Theodotion 
differs from the united evidence of LXX and Tertullian. 

In de Res. Cam § 58 (Oehl. n 545) and de Orat § 15 (Oehl. I 
567) the sarabarae and tiarae of Shadrach and his companions are 
mentioned. Both garments occur in the LXX, ras napas Dan 
iii 21 where they are thrown into the flames, and to. aapdfiapa 
Dan iii 94 where they come out. In Dan iii 21, according to 
Theodotion, both garments are mentioned together. 

Dan iii 92 (25) 

adv. Marc iv § 10 (Oehl. n 179) 

...nomen sortitus est Christi, et appellationem Jilii hominis, Iesus 
scilicet Creatoris. hie erat uisus Babylonis regi inj'omace cum martyribus 
suia quartus, tamquam filius hominis. 

adv. Marc iv § 21 (Oehl. n 213) 

Perspice...cum rege Babylonio fomacem eius ardentem, et inuenies 
illic tamquam filium hominis ; nondum enim uere erat, nondum scilicet 
natus ex homine. 

adv. Prax % 16 (Oehl. n 676) 

in for nace Babylonii regis quartus apparuit, quamquam filius hominis 
est dictus. 

LXX : Kai 7] opaais TOV Ti.j6.pTOv 6/xoiw/xa dyye'Aou 6tov. 

Theodotion : Kai r) opaais tov TeTcxprou ojxoia vl<Z Otov. 

The original Aramaic is j*i"l /SS "D? HDI. There is, I believe, 
no authority which supports Tertullian here. 

In de Paenit § 12 (Oehl. n 064) and de Pat § 13 (Oehl. n 610) 
Tertullian uses the phrase ' septenni squalore '. This is nearer 
the err] eirra of LXX in Dan iv 29 than the eTrrd fcatpol of 



Dan vii 10 

adv. Prax § 3 (Oehl. n 657) 

Milies centies centena milia 
adsistebant ei 
et milies centena milia 
apparebant ei. 

approperabant ei codd. 


XtAicu ^lAiciScs 
kOtparrevov avrov 
Kat fxvpiai /xuptaots 
irapeta-Trj Keiaav aura). 

Theodotion has %i\(,ai xtXid&es iXeirovpyovv aurco, kclI fivpiai 
pbvpidhes 7rap[e]icrT7]/ceicrav avTw, which is also found in Justin 
Tryph §31. The inversion of the clauses witnessed by Tertullian 
is found in S. Clement of Rome (Ep § 34), but with eXenovpyovv 
avro) instead of idepdirevov avrov 1 . 

Dan vii 13, 14 

adv. Marc iii § 7 (Oehl. n 130) 

Et ecce cum nubibus caeli 
tamquam tilius honiinis ueniens, 
uenit usque ad ueterum dierum, 
[et] aderat in conspectu eius, 
et qui adsistebant adduxerunt 

14 et data est ei potestas regia 

et omnes nationes terrae 

secundum genera 

et omnis gloria famulabunda, 

et potestas eius usque in aeuum 

quae non auferetur, 

et regnum eius 

(piod non uitiabitur. 


Kai Ibov £7ri tow vecpeXwu rov ovpavov 

COS UtOS U.v0p(D7TOV T)p)(£TO, 

teal a>s y/xepiov 


Kat ol 7rup£0"T^KOT£S Trapijvav avrw. 

u ko1 i866r] aura) e^ouata * ko.1 Tifxi] 

Kat TrdvTa ra. i.uvtj rrj<; yrjs 
Kara yevrj 

Kat Tratra So£a awrtp AaTpevautra* 
Kat rj efoutrta avrov e'£oucria attoVtos 
i^Tts ov p.y] dp9f), 
Kat rj (3ao~L\eia avrov, 
rjris ov firj (pOapfj. 

1 Apparebant { = edepa.Trevov apparently) also occurs in Tyconius (Reg p. 60), but 
the clauses are not inverted. In Tyc 2, in an allusion to Dan ii 34, 45, commoluissc 
appears to correspond rather to the awqXorjire of lxx than to the eXiwrvvev of 
Theodotion. On the other hand the very curious reference in Tyc 5 to Dan xi 30, 
38 is nearer Theodotion. 


Variants of Tertullian Variants of Justin Tryph § 31 

ado. Marc iv § 39 (Oehl. n 264) ^n M<rTa 

Ecce cum caeli nubibus tarnquam filius 7)pxeTo...irapT)i>] ipxb/JLevos- Kai rjXdtv 

horninis adueniens, et cetera. Et data ews rod TraXaioO r&v TjfiepQv Kai wapTju 
est illi regia gloria omnis ivwiriov avrov 
seruiens illi, et potestas eius aeterna irapijaav avrw] irpoo-qyayov avrov 

quae uon aut'eretur, et regnum eius quod avr^ Xa^ei/oucra] om. avry 

non corrumpetur. ^ tjVis 2"] om. ( — Cypr 92) 

Compare also 

de Came Christ § 15 et Daniel: et super nubes tarnquam filius hominis. 

adv. Marc iii § 24: illo scilicet filio hominis ueniente in nubibus secundum 

adv. Marc iv § 10: filius hominis ueniens cum caeli nubibus. 

Theodotion has: /ecu idov fxera (iwi Q) ruiv pecpeXuiv rob ovpavov los vibs avdpwirov 
ipxbfievos, Kai ews rod iraXaiov tQiv Tj/j.tpwv itpdaaev /ecu 7rpocnfix^V avTijj. 14 /cai ai)ry 
edbdrj i] dpxv Kai r\ rip-rj Kai r/ /3a<ri\et'a, Kai vdvres oi \aoi, (pvXai, Kai yX(bo~o~ai 
dovXevovaiv avri^' 77 e^oi'crta avrov i^ovaLa aicictos 77m ov wapeXevo-erai,, Kai r\ 
fiacnXeia ai/rov ov dLa(pffapfiaerai. 

I have marked the peculiarities of Theodotion which are repre- 
sented neither in Tertullian nor LXX by spaced type. What 
however is most important to observe here is the close agreement 
of Tertullian with Justin Martyr. The Greek text implied by 
Tertullian does not differ from that of our only MS of Justin 
except in three small points. In ver. 13 the MS of Justin inserts 
koI between ep^oyu-eyo? and i}\dev, and in ver. 14 it has the full 
phrase i^ovala Kai rt/u,r] fiaaiKiKi). In these two points Tertullian 
is supported by Cypr 92 (see below), and a glance at the Hexaplar 
text shews that in the second at least Tertullian preserves the 
true reading. In the Hexaplar MSS the metobelus marking the 
end of an interpolation has been placed after fiaaikiKi'i instead of 
after xt/ir), so that the words Kai rifirj are probably an interpolation 
in Justin. On the other hand Cyprian and Justin both omit the 
second tfris. 

The remainder of Tertullian's references to Daniel consist of 
allusions to Dan ix, x, in adv. Psychicos, which where they follow 
the Biblical text agree with LXX against Theodotion. 

Dan ix 1—4, 21, 23 
adv. Psych % 7 (Oehl. 1 862) LXX 

ls anno primo regis Darii iV Etovs -rrpwrov brl Aapeiou rov 




2 "cum ex recogitatu 

praedicatorum temporum 

ab Hieremia 

s dedit faciem suam Deo 

in ieiuniis et sacco et cinere 

adv. Psych § 10 (Oelil. i 867) 

3 ... Daniel, anno prinio regis Darii 
cum ieiunus in sacco et cinere 

4 exoniologesin Deo ageret, 

21 Et adhuc inquit 

loquente me in oratione, 

ecce uir quern uideram 

in somnis initio 

uelociter uolans 

appropinquauit milii 

quasi hora uespertini sacriticii. 

adv. Psych § 7 (Oehl. i 862) 

23b ueni inquit demonstrare tibi 
qua tenus miserabilis es. 

3 in ieiuniis] om. in Ed. princ. 

2b cyo) Aaviy]\ Suvorjdrjv iv Tats 

tov dpiOfjiov twv eTajf ore iyevero 

TTpoarayfia rrj yrj 
€7ri lepefj-cav toy 7rpo<pr)Tr]v... 
Kat eowKa to irpoaoiirov p.ov €7ri 

K.vpiov tov 6tbv 
evpeiv Trpo(T(.v)(i]v Kat eXeos 

iv V7]<TT£LO.l<S Kat (TOLKKW Kat 0"7ToSui. 

4 /cat Trpocn]v£dp.r]v Trpbs K.vpiov tov 

Bedv • 
i^ojxo\oyi]o-dp,7]v . . . 
21 Kat en 

AaXowTos p.ov iv rrj irponiv^fj p.ov, 
Kat loov b dvrjp bv ciSov 

iv TW VTTVip p.OV T1JV dp\T]V, 

YafSpir/X, Ta^et (pepop-evos 

Trpoar/yyL(T€ p,ot 

iv u>pa #uo~tas eairepivrjs. 

2,i ' . . .Kat eyto r]\0ov viroSei^ai aoi 
on eAeeti'os «t. 

cum ieiunus] cum ieiuniis Ed. princ. 

Dan x 1—12 

adv. Psych % 9 (Oehl. I 863) 

1 Anno deuiqtce tertio 
Cyri regis Persarum 
cum in recogitatu 
incidisset tdsionis. . . 

1 in recogitatu] regicogitatum Ed. 


1 El/ TW iviCLVTU) TW TTpWTlx) 

Kvpov tov /JacriAews Ylepcrwv.. 
. . .8uvorj6r]v...iv bpdp,a.Ti 

1 Theod has t/htcjj for 7r/)u>ry with 
Tert, but differs from both lxx and Tert 
in having d\t/j./j.a for Acttoe, avrip itri- 
0vfjuwi> for avdpuiros eXteivbs d, KaKudrjvai 
for Tcnreivu8t]vai, and in other points. 



" tv tuis r//xepais 

tyoj Aavir/X rjp.rjv irzvvOiv 

rpa.% £/?8o/Atx8as 

'apTov liriOvfJuoiv ovk t<payov 

kclI Kpeas kcu oifos 

ovk elo~rj\6ev eis to o-rofxa fxov 

eXaLov ovk rjXu^jdfxrjv 

eais tou avvreXeaat fxe 

tos Tpcts ey8Sopu8us twv yjfxipuiv. 

n Kal et7T€ /xot 

Aai/a;A, avflpcoTros eAecii/os el'... 

12,1 M?) <po(3ov, Aava/A. 

on dVo T17S rjjxipa<; Trjs tt |jojti/s 

v)s eSwKas to irpoo-omov trov 

^Lavot]9rjvat Kat TaTretvwOrjvaL 

ivavriov KVpiov tov Oeov o~ov, 

ela-rjKOVO-dr] to prjp.d aov, 

Kai eyw elo~rj\9ov T(3 prjjxaTt aov. 

2 In illis inquit diebus 
ego Daniel eram lugens 
pei' tres hebdomadas, 
3 panem suauem non edi, 
caro et uiiium 

non introierunt in os meum, 
oleo iinctus non sum, 
donee consurnmarentur 
tres hebdomades, 
quibus transactis angelus 
emissus est taliter aUoquens: 
11:1 Daniel homo es miserabilis, 
12b ne timueris, 
quoniam ex die prima 
qua dedisti animam tuam 
recogitatui et humiliation! 
coram Deo 

exauditum est uerbum tuum, 
et ego iutroiui uerbo tuo. 
2 lugens] legens Ed. princ. 

The general result of this lengthy comparison may be stated in 
a few words. The text of Daniel used by Tertullian is a form of 
the lxx differing slightly from Origen's edition, but agreeing 
most closely with the quotations of Justin Martyr 1 . 

2. S. Cyprian. 

The use of the lxx of Daniel once recognised in the Latin 
Church from a study of the quotations of Tertullian, it will not be 
necessary to treat S. Cyprian in such detail. I give below his not 
very numerous quotations from Daniel, marking what is distinc- 

1 I cannot resist adding two very important deductions, which immediately 
follow from what has been stated above, though they deal with questions not directly 
connected with the Old Latin. The first is, that the small range of pre-Hexaplaric 
variants in the lxx text of Daniel now known to us comes from the poverty of our 
material rather than from the good preservation of the text. The second deduction 
is, that the text of Justin's quotations is very fairly preserved. Justin's text rests 
upon a single late ms, and it has been conjectured (e.g. by Hatch, Essays in Biblical 
Greek, p. 190) that the longer quotations are entirely untrustworthy. But the 
almost complete agreement of Justin's long quotation of Dan vii 9 — 28 in Tryph § 31 
with the text of Tertullian, wherever the two quotations run parallel, shews that no 
systematic alterations of this kind have been made. 


tively from the LXX in bold-face type, and what is distinctively 
from Theodotion in italics. In quoting the Testimonia I have 
chiefly followed Hartel's L and the Oxford MS O x (0. Led. Bibl. 
Texts, ii 123). 

Test ii 17 (Hartel 84) = Dan ii 31—35 
Et ecce imago nimis magna, et contemplatio eius imaginis metuenda 
et elata stabat contra te, B cuius caput fuit ex auro bono, pectus et 
brachia eius argentea, uenter et femora aerea, 33 pedes autem ex parte 
quidem ferrei ex parte autem lictiles ; 84 quoad usque abscisus est 
lapis de monte sine manibus concidentium, et percussit imaginem super 
pedes ferreos [et] fictiles et comminuit eos 33 minutatim. et factum 
est simul ferrum et testa et aeramentum et ai-gentum et aurum — 
facta sunt minuli quasi palea aut piduis in area aestaie, et uenti- 
lauit ilia uentus ita ut nihil remanserit ex illis, et lapis qui 
percussit imaginem factus est mons magnus et inpleuit totam terram. 

Selected variants (incl. Firmicus Maternus 20). 31 imago, imago Firm 

ipsius Firm 33 quidem] om. Y M abscissus LMB ferreos et] om. A; om. 

et BO x * 35 aut] ut Firm remanserint LOj* ex] in A Firm; om. BOjOj 

Test in 10 (Hart. 121); ad Fort 11 (Hart. 337); Ep 6 (Hart. 483); 
Ep 58 (Hart. 660) -Dan iii 16—18 
16 Responderunt autem Sidrac Misac Abdenago, et dixerunt regi : 
Nabuchodonosor rex, non opus est nobis de hoc uerbo respondere tibi. 
17 est enini Deus cui nos seruimus potens eripere nos de camino ignis 
ardentis; et de manibus tuis, rex, liberabit nos. 18 et si non, notum sit 
tibi quia diis tuis non seruimus et imaginem auream quam statuiati non 

16 resp....dix.] om. ad Fort, Epp uerbo] sermone M{Tcst) Q(Ep 6) 

17 rex] om. Ep 58 M(Test) Q{Ep 6) 18 si nou] om. W [Test) quoniam Ep 6 

A (Test) deseruimus LBOj (Test) 

de Laps 31 (Hartel 260) = Dan iii 25 
Stans Azarias precatus est et aperuit os suum et exomologesim 
faciebat Deo simul cum sodalibus suis in medio igni. 

de Dom. Or 8 (Hartel 271) -Dan iii 51 
Tunc illi tres quasi ex uno ore hymnum canebant et benedicebant 

quasi] tauijuam S deum] S; dnm G; om. W 


de Op. et Eleemos 5 (Hartel 377) = Dan iv 24 

Propterea, rex, consilium nieum placeat tibi, et peccata tua eleemosynis 
redime, et iniustitias tuas miser ationibas pauperum, et erit Deus pattern 
peccatis titis. 

Test II 26 (Hartel 92) = Dan vii 13, 14 (of. Tert quoted above, 

p. 22 f.) 

Videbam in uisu nocte, et ecce in nubibus caeli quasi filius hominis 
ueniens; uenit usque ad ueterum dierum et stetit in conspcctu eius, et 
qui adsistebant obtulerunt eum. 14 et data est ei potestas regia, 
et omnes reges terrae per genus, et omnis claritas seruiens ei, 
et potestas eius aeterna quae non auferetur et regnurn eius non 

nocte] noctes L*; noctis B per genus] et regnurn Firmicus Maternua 

seruient B Firm 

de Laps 31 (Hartel 260) = Dan ix 4—6 

(Daniel sacco ac einere uolutatur exomologesim faciens 
dolenter et dieens :) Doniine Deus inagnus et fortis et metuendus 
qui seruas testarnentuni et miserationem eis qui te diligunt et con- 
seruant inperia tua. 'peccauimus, facinus admisimus, inpii fuimus, 
transgressi sumus ac deseruimus praecepta tua et iudicia tua; ''non 
audiuimus puerorum tuoruni prophetarum quae locuti suut in nomine 
tuo super reges nostros et omires gentes et super omnem terram. 
tibi Doniine, tibi iustitia ; nobis autem confusio. 

Test i 4 (Hartel 42) = Dan xii 4 b , 7 b 

Muni sermones et signa libruin usque ad tenipus consunimationis, 
quoad cliscant multi et inpleatur ayuitio. '''quoniam cum fiet dispersio 
cognoscent omnia haec. 

ad Fort 11 (Hartel 337); Ep 58 (Hartel 661) -Dan xiv 5 

Nihil colo ego nisi Dominum Deum meum qui condidit caelum 
et terram. 

The difference of types makes clearly evident the mixed char- 
acter of the text in these nineteen verses. Dan iv 24 and xii 4, 7 
are wholly from Theodotion. On the other hand the quotations 
from the additions to the original Daniel — two verses from the 


Song of the Three Children and one from Bel and the Dragon — 
predominantly follow the LXX. 

Turning to the verses which run parallel with the quotations 
of Tertullian, it will be noticed at once that where S. Cyprian uses 
the LXX his text is in fundamental agreement with them, in spite 
of some difference in Latinity. They both in fact here use the 
peculiar form of the LXX found in Justin Martyr. Nevertheless 
S. Cyprian does not use altogether the same text as Tertullian. 
It might have been conjectured that both Fathers quoted from the 
same mixed version of LXX and Theodotion, and that Tertullian 
had happened to quote only passages where the LXX element 
largely predominates, while on the other hand the element from 
Theodotion is clearly visible in S. Cyprian. But this cannot be 
the case. Dan iii 16 — 18 is cited by both writers, in Tertullian 
from the lxx, but in S. Cyprian almost entirely from Theodotion. 

It is not necessary to conjecture a fresh translation into Latin 
of a corrupted lxx text to account for the peculiarities of S. 
Cyprian's Daniel. We know from de Pascha Computus that a 
pure version from Theodotion was current in Africa in the life- 
time of S. Cyprian. We also see from a comparison of S. Cyprian's 
quotations with those of Tertullian that where he follows the LXX 
he agrees with Tertullian, i.e. with the primitive African version. 
It is therefore probable that his MS was a copy of the old Latin 
version from the lxx, half-corrected to the new Latin version 
from Theodotion. Traces of the process can yet be seen. In Dan 
ii 35 T)y3 ' like chaff' is translated by lxx coo-el Xeirrorepov 
d^vpov, but by Theodotion (Lael Koviopros. S. Cyprian has 
minuta quasi palea aut pvluis. The last two words are evidently 
a marginal gloss from Theodotion, which has been added to S. 
Cyprian's form of the LXX reading. That S. Cyprian's text of 
Daniel reappears in Firmicus Maternus, and partly in Lactantius, 
causes no difficulty ; here, as elsewhere, these writers copy the 
Biblical passages directly from the Testimonia. 

Corruption from Theodotion does not however explain all the 
peculiarities of S. Cyprian's citations. In many points his text in 
passages which predominantly follow the LXX differs both from it 
and from Theodotion. This feature, remarkable in so accurate a 
quoter as S. Cyprian, must be taken in conjunction with his agree- 


ment with Justin and Tertullian in vii 13, 14. It is evident that 
the Origenian recension was nut the only form in which the lxx 
text of Daniel was circulated in early times 1 . 

3. S. Victorinus of Pettau. 

The only non-African Latin evidence for the LXX Daniel is 
found in the scholiaof S. Victorinus of Pettauupon the Apocalypse. 
The clearest allusions to Daniel occur in the lately recovered con- 
clusion to the work, published for the first time in the Theo- 
logisclies Literaturblatt of Apr. 26, 1895 by Prof. Haussleiter 
from MS Ottob. 3288 in the Vatican (= A). This MS is late (15th 
cent.) and very corrupt; I give therefore an emended text with 
the various readings of the MS, and of Dr Haussleiter's text, in the 
notes. As in the case of S. Cyprian, readings agreeing with the 
LXX against Theodotion are marked in bold-face type. The 
extract begins at Th. Libt. col 197, line 23. 

Dan ii 40 Quartum autem regnum durissimum et potentissimum tam- 

quam ferrum, quod domat omnia et omnem arborem 

41, 43 excidet. Et iu nouissimo in se, inquit, tamquam testa 

ferrum mixtum miscebuntur homines, et non erunt con- 

44 a cordes neque consentanei. Et in illis temporibus 

vii 18 suscitabit Dominus Deus regnum aliud, quod suseipient 

ii 44 1 ' inquit, sancti Summi Domini regnum, et regnum hoc alia 

gens non iudagabit, namque Dominus percutiet et indagabit 

omnia regna terrae, et ipsud manebit in perpetuum. 

potissinium A omnia] Haussl; oram A arborem] ualorem A Haussl 

iu se] ipse A; om. Haussl testa] testum A (cf. Iren v 26); testae Haussl in 

illis] Haussl; michi A regnum] A; regum Haussl omnia regna terrae] 

uiam regnature A; uniuersa regna Haussl 

1 A full discussion of the composition of 'Tert' adv. ludaeos ought to follow 
here, but I am unwilling to write an Excursus to an Excursus, and shall confine 
myself to stating the main facts concerning the text of Daniel found in the work. 
(1) In the sections borrowed from Tert adv. Marc iii, the adv. ludaeos mainly 
follows the text of Tert. Where it differs, it almost invariably agrees with the 
Testimonia. (2) In the sections not taken from adv. Marc there are many points of 
contact with the Testimonia. One very striking instance, the addition of con- 
cidentium to Dan ii 34, is noticed in the text of this Essay, p. 7, note. (3) Dan ix 
24 — 27, a passage not quoted by S. Cyprian, is quoted in adv. ludaeos § 9 from 
Theodotion. The same verses are quoted in de Pascha Computus, and the two 


I expect that in the MS ' oram ' is written oia, ' ipse ' is written 
ise, and ' uiam regnature ' nia regna tre. 

The corresponding passages in the LXX Greek are 

ver. 40 kcu j3(un\eia TirdpTT] lcr)(vpa * cos 6 triS?7pos x utcnrep 6 trufypos 

6 Safld^lOV TTUVTa, KOI # COS 6 (TL&7)fJO<; X TTU.V StVSpOV (KKOTTTOiV . . . 

When the interpolations under asterisks are removed, this 
agrees verbally with S. Victorinus, as restored. Theodotion is 
quite different, and has nothing about cutting down trees. 

ver. 41, 43 Kai.../3atriA£ia a\\r) 8t/Aepr)s ctrrat ev airy . . . 43 kol cos elSes 
tov (riZrjpov urap.epiyp.eVov ap.a tco 77-nAu'cp ocTTpuKco, kcu cruppiyeis eaovTat 
eis yevecriv d»/^pco7ra)v. ovk ecrovrai Se 6p.ovoowTes ovt€ ewooiWes UAA77- 

Here again the agreement of S. Victorinus with lxx is very 
marked. Theodotion's version of the last clause quoted is ical ovk 
eaovTat, TrpoaKoWcofievoi ovtos /xerd tovtov. 

The lxx version of the remaining clauses alluded to is 

ver. 44 a kcu ev tois XpovoLs T< ^ v pO-aiXeutv tovtwv (tttjo'cl o 0eos tov 
ovpavov paxriKeiav aWrjv. 

ver. 44 b kcu avrt] rj fiacriXeia aWo e#ros ov prj iaxrg, 7raTa£ei Se kclI 
acftavicrei ras /JatriAeias Tatrras. 

Dan vii 18 both in LXX and Theod is TrapaXr^ovraL rrjv 
f3a(Ji\eiav liyioi "T^icnov. 

Immediately preceding the extracts here given, the last clause 
of Dan ii 35 is referred to with a text which evidently implies 
iirkrjpaxrev as in Theodotion and Cypr. Test 11 17, not eirciTa^e as 
in the Hexaplar LXX. 

Besides these clear instances of the use of the lxx of Daniel 
there are two allusions to Dan xi 37, 38, 45 in S. Victorinus 
(Migne, v 338, 340 = Beatus, p. 441, 440). For the sake of com- 
pleteness I give them below with the corresponding LXX. 

quotations, though differing in Latinity, agree in supporting B*, though the gloss 
in ix 27 is also known to the author of adv. Iudaeos. It would indeed be remarkable, 
if the disputed treatise adv. Iudaeos were really the work of Tertullian, that the only 
use of Theodotion in all his works should occur there, and that the quotations in it 
should have such a tendency to agraersitlgtke Testimoitia. 


Beatus, p. 441. Desideria mulierum non coguoscet. 
cf. Dan xi 37 iv iwiOvfJiia ywaiKos ov fj.rj irpovo-qOf). 

Beatus, p. 441. Et nullum Deum patrum morum cognoscet. 
cf. Dan xi 38 koll 6ebv 6V ovk eyvoxrav ol iraTipe<; avrov ri/x^o-fi. 

Beatus, p. 440. Statuit ternphim smim inter maria super monlem 
inch/turn et sanctum. 

cf. Dan xi 45 koX aryaet avrov rijv aKfjvrjv rore ava [xecov rwv 
6a\ao~cr(2v KCU rov opovs Tiys ^eXrycrtoj? rov ayiov. 

If the resemblance between these curious allusions and the 
LXX text is but small, they resemble the text of Theodotion even 
less. It is the quotation of ii 43 cited above which makes 
a decisive case for the use of the LXX text of Daniel by S. 
Victorinus ; but it was necessary to give his other allusions to the 
book, lest it should be thought that he used Theodotion elsewhere. 


The text of Job in Latin Fathers. 

1. S. Cyprian quotes in all only sixteen verses from the book 
of Job, but it is clear from Test III 1 that his text omitted the first 
half of xxix 13, which is one of the arl^oi derived from Theodotion. 
It is also omitted by Lucifer 137, though there Lucifer omits 
other verses as well. This quotation alone would not be enough 
to shew that Lucifer used the shorter text ; that he did so 
however is clear from his long citations from Job xxi — xxvii at the 
end of De regions apostaticis (pp. 61 ff.). The Speculum (m) also 
omits the Theodotion verses, though it shews here and there 
signs of corruption from the Vulgate, the most startling being 
Job xxxvi 13" in m 375. The Speculum text reappears in Pris- 
cillian, Job xl 3 — 9 being quoted by him (ed. p. 12) almost word 
for word with m 436. The version used by Priscillian contained 
the 'ridiculous name Leusibora ' laughed at by S. Jerome (e.g. Ep 
75 and contra Vigilantium § 7); that is to say, Job xxxviii 39" 
6i]pev(rei<i 8e \eovai ftopdv appears as Ha capies Leosiboram,' which 
was supposed to refer to some monster. The 'Leosibora' is unknown 
to the Egyptian versions, to Origen, and to the Greek Uncials, 
which have the v ZfyekKvo-TLicbv to Xeovai. It probably therefore 
was a mistake of the original Latin translator, in whose copy the 
;/ must have been absent. In fact we do not meet with this Beast 
except in the unrevised Old Latin ; it occurs in none of the 
Onomastica published by Lagarde. 

2. That the verses derived from Theodotion were read by 
S. Ambrose and S. Augustine is clear from Sabatier's notes to 
Job xxi 23, xxiv 8 a , xxvi 5 — 11, 14 ah . All these verses are omitted 


by the Thebaic and put under asterisks in the Hexaplar authorities 
(including S. Jerome's Latin version), but they are quoted by 
Ambrose and Augustine without suspicion. 

3. S. Augustine's quotations generally agree verbally with 
S. Jerome. Those of S. Ambrose do not so agree. More definite 
proofs however are not wanting of the absolute independence of 
the latter. 

Job v 23" on fiera twv \l9cov tov dypov r? BtaOr/fcr) aov 

These words are absent from the Thebaic and are under 
asterisks in all forms of the Hexapla. But for some reason they 
were not inserted like the other missing vriyoi in the common 
text, and so are absent from NB etc. (C is defective). It is there- 
fore most important to notice that they are also omitted by 

Job xxi 15 HB> HIS] Tt itcavos NABC. 

This occurs in a passage under asterisk in the Hexapla. Here 
Ambrose ~/ 2 has quid prodest, but Jerome *quid est Dominus*. 
'\icavb<i, as is well known, is the standing Greek rendering of 
' Shaddai '. 

Job xix 12. This passage exhibits in the clearest form the 
close connection of Augustine and Jerome, together with 
Ambrose's independence of them, while shewing at the same 
time that both have the interpolated verses. 

Heb. "hriih md urn am hy lStn mm i*c tit 

LXX ofjLodvfxahbv he rjXdov rd Treipcmqpia aviov eir ifiol 
Tats 68ol<; fiov' €Ki>K\(ocrav evKa0T]TOL. 

The division is that of N Theb. The translation is arrived at 
by omitting 17D* 1 ) and reading ^*1X for the last word (cf. xxxi 9). 

Ambrose : — simid mihi uenerunt temptationes grauissimae 
circumdederunt me insidiantes. 

Jerome (following the Hexapla): — 

simul uenerunt temptationes eius 
*et fecerunt per me uiam suam 
*et circumdederunt tabernaculum suum. 


Tho last of these clauses is quoted word for word by Augustine. 

It is unfortunate that we have no decisive evidence as to the 
genuine O. L. rendering of Treiparrjpia. In M. Berger's extracts 
from the margin of the Codex Gothicus Legionensis (Notices et 
Extraits, xxxiv, 2 me partie, p. 21) pyratheria occurs in Job x 17, 
but it is not absolutely clear that the whole of this interesting 
margin was not taken directly from a Greek MS 1 . The Thebaic 
takes the word in the^sense of 'pirates' nests'. 

4. I have not noticed any followers of S. Ambrose, but the 
later Africans are all like S. Augustine dependent on S. Jerome's 
version from the Hexapla. It will be enough here to refer to the 
crucial passages in Sabatier. For Vigilius of Tapsus they are 
Job xxvi 13 (astra Vig, corrupted from claustra Hier-Aug); xxviii 
21; xxxvii 12 d ([m] gubernaculis Vig-Hier-Aug = tv 6eefiovXa6u>0 
Theod); xl 10 — 14. For Fulgentius we may refer to Job xiv 16, 
xxx 3 and xxxvi 10 b , 11, and for Chromatins of Aqnileia to xxxi 
7— 12 a , 34 b — 39 a . The Opus Imperfectum in Mattheum also had 
the interpolated crri^oi, as may be seen from Job xxxi 1 and 
xl 10. 

1 See pp. 9 and 10 of this Essay. 


On cod. Golbertinus (c). 

The African character of the text of c at the end of S. Luke 
is best exhibited by the comparison of a few verses with the 
various European documents. The passage given below, Lc xxiv 
36 — end, was chosen as covering a quotation from Cypr. Test I 4 
(Hartel, p. 43). In the left-hand column is given the text of c 
with the variants of e, and Cyprian where extant ; in the right- 
hand column is the text of the Vulgate from Wordsworth and 
White, with the variants of the chief European MSS a b d ff and /. 
Italics in the left-hand column indicate where the ' African ' au- 
thorities c e Cyprian differ among themselves ; in the right-hand 
column italics denote where more than one of the O. L. authorities 
desert the Vulgate text. We may thus assume with comparative 
certainty that the non-italic portions of each column give an African 
and a European text respectively. For clearness, the points where 
the Africans agree against all other authorities are printed in bold- 
face type. No account is here taken of the orthography of c, 
which is in the main that of an ordinary MS of the 12th cent. 1 

1 Belsheim in the preface to his transcript of c gives as a specimen from 
Mc xii 32 : Un'-f-W ds & n 6 ali' pt eu. 




Lc xxiv 36 — end 

(with variants of e Cypr 43, bold-face 
type shewing agreement of the Africans 
against the rest. The brackets shew 
what I regard as comparatively late 
interpolations in the African base 
of c) 

36 haec cum illi loquerentur 
ipse dominus stetit in medio 

[et dixit illis pax uobiscum 

ego sum nolite timere] 
37 turbati autem et in timore 

putauerunt se spiritum uidere 
:iS ille autem dixit illis quid tur- 

bati estis 
et quare cogitationes ascendant 
in cor uestruni 1 

(with variants of a b d ff f) 

36 Dum haec autem loquwwfaw 
iesus stetit in medio eorum 

et dicit eis pax nobis 

ego sum nolite timere 
37 conturbati uero et conterriti 

existim&bant se spiritum uidere 
3S et dixit eis quid turbati estis 

et A cogitationes ascendunt 
in covda uestra ? 

36 dominus] om. e ipsorum] eorum 
e et dixit... timere] om. e 

37 timorem e 

38 et] om. e 

[Agreements of single 'European' mss 
with the ' African ' text given in small 

36 dum haec autem loq.] + illi b ; et 
dum h. loq. a ; haec autem eorum lo- 
quentium d; h. au. illis loquentibus / 
iesus] ipse ab dff; ipse iesus / et 
dicit... timere] om. ab dff dixit /vg. 

37 cont. uero] exterriti autem a ; 
conturbatique b ff ipsi autem 
pauerunt d et timoke adprehensi 
a; et timore tacti d putabant 
se a ; putabant d spiritum] fan- 
tasma d 

38 qui dixit illis a • dixit autem ad 
illos b ff ; ad ille dixit illis d quare 
conturbati d et 2°] + quare abfff; 
+ ut quid in d (sic) ascenderunt ff 
corde uestro a b ff; cor uestRUM d ; 
cordibus uestris / 



3 ' J uidete manus meas et pedes 

quoniain ego ipse sum 
palpate et uidete me quoniam 

carnem et ossa non habet 
sicut me uidetis habeutem 

40 [et cum hoc dixisset 

ostendit eis manus et pedes\ 

41 cum adkuc autem non crede- 

et mirabantur a gaudio 
dixit ad eos iesus 
habetis hie aliquid quod mandu- 

cetur 1 
42 [at illi obtularunt ei\ partem 

piscis assi 
et porrexerunt ei et [fa uum mellis] 
43 accepit coram illis 
\sumens reliqaias dedit eis\ 

39 me] om. e quoniain 2°] quia e 

40] om. e 

41 crederent] + illi e et cum ad- 

mirarentur e iesus] oni. e quod 

mand. ] manducare e 

42 at illi obt. ei] om. e 
illi piscis assi partem e 
mellis] om. c 

43 sumens...eis] om. e 

et porr. 

"'uidete manus meas et pedes A 

<iuia ipse ego sum 
palpate et uidete quia spiritus 

carnem et ossa non habet 
sicut me uidetis habere 
40 et cum hoc dixisset 

ostendit eis manus et pedes. 
"Adhuc autem illis non credeuti- 
bus A 

et mirantibus prae gaudio 

habetis hie aliquid quod mandu- 

cetur 1 
42 at illi optulerunt ei partem 

piscis assi 

et fauum mellis 
43 et cum m'Anducasset coram eis 

sumens reliquias dedit eis. 

39 uidete] + ecce b ff pedes] + meos 
a b d ff quoniam a ego sum 

ipse (a) b ff' f (ipsi a) ; ego ipse sum d 
palpate] tractate a quoniam a d 

ossum a ossa n. h. nee carnes d 

sicut] + et d habeNTEM a d 

40] om. a b d ff 

41 non cred. illis a (d) ff (eis d) et 
lnirant.] post gaudio df mirantibus] 
stupentibus a ; mirantium d a 
gaudio d dixit] + eis / aliquid 
quod edamus hie a; aliquid hie q. 
mand. b ; aliq. manducare hie d ; hie 
aliq. manducare ff 

42 at illi] qui a ; et d opt. (tiel 
obt.)] roERExerunt a d ei] illi a d 
piscis assi partem a d assam b 
et f. mellis] om. d ; om. mellis a b (et de 
fabo b) 

43 cum... eis] Accipiens manducauit 
coram iLLis a (d) (/) (accipiens in con- 
spectu eorum manducauit d ; accipiens 
coram ipsis manducauit/) ; manducans 
coram ipsis bff sumens.. .eis] om. 
a bdff 



44 et dixit ad eos 

isti sermones sunt quos locutus 
sum ad uos 

cum adhuc essem uobiscum 
quia oportet impleri 

omnia quae scripta sunt 
in lege mojsi et in prophetis 

et in psalmis de me 

45 tunc operuit illis sensum 

ut intellegerent scripturas 
46 et dixit illis 
quia scriptum est 

christian pati 
et resurgere a mortuis 

tertia die 
47 et praedicari in nomine eius 

et remissa peccatorum 

usque, in omnes gentes 
incipiens ab hierusalem 
48 et uos estis testes eoruin 

44 Et dixit ad eos 

haec sunt uerba quae locutus sum 
ad uos 

cum adhuc essem uobiscum 
quoniam necesse est impleri 

omnia quae scripta sunt 
in lege mosi et prophetis 

et psalmis de me 
^tunc aperuit illis sensum 

ut intellegerent scripturas 
46 et dixit eis 

quoniam sic scriptum est 
et sic ojyortebat christum pati 
et resurgere a mortuis 

die tertia 
47 et praedicari in nomine eius 

et remissionem peccatorum 

in omnes gentes 
incipientibus ab hierosol[/ma 
48 uos autem estis testes horuni 

44 ad eos] illis c isti] § Cypr 

sunt sermones Cypr ; om. sunt e quia] 
quoniam e adimpleri c Cypr quae 
scr. sunt] scripta Cypr in 2° et 3°] 

om. c Cypr. 

45 adaperuit Cypr 


47 praedicare e 


gentes] If Cypr 

44 et] 07ii. b ff eis a d haec] 
isti d sunt] om. a d sermones 
mei quos d ad uos] aput uos a ; 
om. vg. codd adhuc] om. d ne- 
cesse est] oportet a d ; oportuit / 
suppled b moysi a bfff vg. codd ; 
moysei d 

45 adaperti sunt eorum sensus d 
illis sensum] sensum illorum a ad 
intellegendum a ; ut intellegant d 
scripturas] ea quae scripta sunt b ff 

46 quia sic scr. d et sic oportebat] 
et sic oportuit /; om. a b dff die 
tertia] tertia die a ; ovi. b ff 

47 illius a predicare./?' re- 
misSA b in omn. gentibus a; in 
omni gente bff; super omnES gentES d 
incipientibus] incipiENS a ; incipientium 
d hierusALEM a df 

48 et uos autem d (om. estis) testes 
estis ff horum] + omnium / 



49 et ego mitto promissionem 

patris mei super uos 
uos autem sedete in ciuitate 
quojul usque induatis 

uirtutem ex alto. 
"'Produxit autem Ulosfbris 

in bethania 
et eleuauit manus suas 

et benedixit illos 
51 et factum est cum benedixisset 

discessit ab eis 
[et ferebatur in caelum] 
5 "et [ipsi adorantes] reuersi sunt in. 

hierusalem cum gaudio magno 
:,:! et fuerunt semper in templo 
laudantes [et benedicentes] deum 


"et ego mitto promissum 

patris mei in uos 
uos autem sedete in ciuitate 
quoad usque induamini 

uirtutem ex alto. 
"'Eduxit autem eoaforas 

in bethaniam 
et eleuatis manibus suis 

benedixit eis 
51 et factum est dum beimdiceret 

recessit ab eis 
et ferebatur in caelum 
'-et ipsi adorantes reyressi sunt in 

hierusalem cum gaudio magno 
53 et erant semper in templo 
laudantes et benedicentes deum 


49 patris mei] meam e 
illud c (sic) 

uos 2°] 

50 illis 
quasi e 

t'oris] oiu. 
bethaniam e 

51 -xissit e 
in cael.] om. c 

ab illis 

lubabit e 

ct fcr. 

52 ipsi adorantes] om. e 


53 erant e in templo semper e 

et benedicentes] out. e amen] om. e 

49 et]+ecce / mittam a vg. 
codd prom. pat. mei] repromissi- 
onem patris a ; promissa patris mei 
b ff; promissioNEM mea^i d in 1°] 
super a d ciuitate] ciuitatem aff; 
+ hac hierusalem / quoad usque] 
donee a ; usque dum d ex alto] a 
summo a; ab alto bff; de alto d 

50 illos a ; eum ff f oris b ff' ; 
om. a in] usque ad a ; ad d 
bethania/ et extollens manus suas 
a ; lebans autem manus d suis] 
om.ff eis] eos a b dfff 

51 dum] cum d benedicit b ff 
illos a bff ; eos df Discessit a d 
et fer. in cael.] om. a b dff ferebatur] 
eleuabatur f 

52 adorantes] om. a b d ff; +eum/ 
reuEissi a d 

53 conlaudantes a et benedicentes] 
om. a b dff deum] om. b amen] 
om. a b dff'vg. codd 

The words bracketed in vv. 3G, 40, 42, 43 and 51 — 53 are 

instances of what I venture to consider interpolations in c from the 


Vulgate. It will be noticed that apart from these bracketed 
passages the text of c is quite of a different type from that of the 
Vulgate. It will also be noticed that the 'African ' text of c e Cypr 
is not unfrequently supported by single MSS of the ' European ' 
type ; this is especially the case with a and d. But there remain 
eighteen readings in the thirteen verses where c e (with Cyprian 
where extant) are agreed against all the other Latin texts. These 
are the readings printed in the left-hand column in bold-face type, 
and they are sufficient both in number and character to prove that 
in this passage c has a fundamentally ' African ' text. The reading 
quia scriptum est in ver. 46 is especially noteworthy, in the first 
place because c e and Cyprian join in omitting sic against every 
known authority, both Greek and Latin, and again because they 
join (with d) in reading quia for quoniam, although the ' African ' 
text often has quoniam where the others have quia. 

The text of c contains a valuable ' African ' element elsewhere 
than in the later chapters of S. Luke. Examples may be found 
for instance in Mc xii 22, 40. In many parts of the Gospels on 
the other hand c sides rather with the ordinary ' European ' Old 
Latin than with h or e. But in any case African texts are so 
uncommon, that the smallest fragment is of great value to the 
textual critic ; and my object in writing this Note is not so much 
to investigate the composition of c, as to draw attention to the 
fact that there is in it a genuine African strain of good quality 
and of considerable extent. 


Tabulated Renderings. 

[In the following tables the chief O. L;it. uss are quoted wherever available, 
so that silence may be taken to mean that a ms is not extant at that point.] 

~2 a, 

U cS 


(DO o m o x 

a a — •— ' ^-v 

O l*i 

6D ftD 6D 6C 60 6C 


> > >. > > > 

"-■> <*-> •-, '--. 


&< ^1 &i 5n 

-^ ~* <>. C- 


u ^ ■§ fej fe» 

*«•«•« -e 

-=> .o -o .o .a -o 

e « e e e e 

>, u o « „ .j? 

_L^ — • •« "e t; "c "e *e 

S , ■!> v <u ^ « 

m :g > « :s 



The bracketed authorities in Job xiv 11 add uel to the render- 
ing under which they are quoted. 

What is especially noteworthy in the above table is the way in 
which the African text is entirely unaffected by the great shifting 
of the European attestation in Lc x 6 and xiii 9 from alioquin to 
sin autem. No more decisive proof of the essential unity of the 
European texts could be given. A similar case will be found in 
Mt xxiv 21 under 6 fcoa/Aos. 

2. TrapafioXr] 



Mt xiii 3—36 

& u /u 


l a abddx."l u 

(eleven tiroes) 


abd ,, 

xv 15 



a d ,, 

xxi 33 


abd ,, 



abd ,, 

xxii 1 


abd ,, 

xxiv 32 
Mc iii 23 


Aug*l 2 


abd ,, 
abd „ 

iv 2 



a d ,, 



a d „ 


Sina et Sion § 1 

abd „ 



a d ,, 



a d „ 




d „ 



bd „ 


(<»u. e) 

bd „ 

vii 17 


bd „ 

xii 1 


bd „ 



abd ,, 

xiii 28 

k a 

d „ 

N.B. In an interpolation prefixed to Mt xiii 44 b has ' similitudo 

Before proceeding to the evidence from S. Luke we may notice 
that similitudo seems thoroughly African. It is found in k where- 
ever extant, and though e here often joins the European array, the 
African character of the word is vindicated by its occurrence in the 
tract De montibus Sina et Sion. On the other hand 'parabola is 
always found in/vg, though here and there the best European MSS 
have singly similitudo. 






iv 23 



a d 

v 36 


bff 7 \'A Amb 

a dc r f 

vi 39 


b ff rqfvg Aug 

il tic 

viii 4 



(I lie 




dbdcff qj vg 



abdcff rg/vg 



r (Tert) 

nhiirff qfvg 

xii 10 

mi bffirqfvg 

,t dc (Tert) 



b ffi q 

dc r /vg 




a d 

xiv 7 


q (om. b) 

a dcffir /vg 

xv 3 


bcffi q 

a d /vg 

viii 1 


abdcffirqfvg Tert 



bcffirq Opt Aug 

a /vg (om. </) 

xix 11 



a d /vg 

xx 9 


a dcffirqfwg 



cff rq vg 

ad if 

xxi 29 


effir /vg 

a d q 

N.B. irapoL/j.ia=proucrbium (Job. x 0; xvi 25 bis, 29), but similitudo occurs iu 
Joh xvi 25 bin a Aug ; 29 « a. 

It is obvious that the balance of evidence is here much dis- 
turbed, many European documents supporting similitudo against 
parabola. What is of great importance to note is that when b has 
'similitudo' (which the analogy of the other Gospels would lead us 
to suppose was the original rendering), some but not all the MSS 
retain the word also. On the other hand, when b has the non- 
African word 'parabola' it carries witJi it all the European mss. The 
only exception is the reading of r in Lc viii 9, 11, which may be 
due to mechanical assimilation to viii 4. So far therefore as the 
criticism of this single word takes us, b seems to represent an 
eclectic stage of the European text which was the ultimate 
foundation of the later revisions such as ff, f, and so of the 

3. [6] /coct/ao?. This word occurs 95 times in the four 
Gospels. The chief facts about the three Latin renderings mun- 
dus, orbis [terrae], and saeculum, are given below. 

(i) Mundus is by far the most common except in the African 
text of S. John, and is found there also when any interpretation but 
the physical world is excluded, e.g. in the last verse of the Gospel. 


(ii) Orbis (or orbis terrae, or o. terrarum) is the regular Latin 
equivalent of rj oUovfievrf. As a rendering of ko<t/j,o<; it occurs as 

in Mt : — iv 8 Hil (o. terrarum, from Lc iv 5); xvi 26 de laud, mart ; 

xxvi 13 A and Wordsworth's British mss QR. 
in Lc : — ix 25 sess [but ' mundus ' Cypr. Test in 61 codd. opt] 
in Joh : — never 

but in Mc : — viii 36 c d [' mundus ' k b rell. ; ' saeculum ' a ri\ 
xiv 9 c (k) [' orbis terrae ' k ; ' mundus ' a rell .] 
xvi 15 c o g ilm& [' mundus * ff vg] 

In xvi 15 the attestation includes most of the extant O. L. 
evidence ; o is the supplementary last leaf of n. The evidence of 
sess in Lc ix 25 suggests that orbis is sometimes a late African 
substitution for mundus. In the addition to k Mc xvi 4 orbis 
terrae probably stands for rj oUovfievr) not 6 /coo-yu,o? 2 . 

(iii) Saeculum is the regular equivalent for al<ov in all Latin 
texts 3 , but as a rendering of /coa/nos it is never found in the 
African text of Mt Mc and Lc. Even in Mt xxiv 21 e and 
Cyprian have mundus, though all the good European mss have 

In European texts of Mt Mc Lc saeculum ( = icoo-fios) occurs 

Mt xiii 38 d Iren 
Mc viii 36 a n 
Lc xii 30 a 

and for air dp^rj<; Koafxov Mt xxiv 21 we find 

ab initio saeculi in a b d h cffrq corb Wordsworth's ER 
and Iren. 

This affords by the way a striking instance of the ' European ' 
character of IrenXoX. The allied phrase diro Kara^oXij<i tcoa/jbov 

1 In the four passages from the Gospels where 77 oiKovfilvt} occurs the only 
exceptions I know are that in Mt xxiv 14 d and Wordsworth's E have mundus, and 
that in Lc iv 5 De 1 ' has tov k6<t/jlov for ttjs olKov/xivrjs followed by d and by/. 

2 Cf. Anaph. Pilati (Tisch, ed. 2, p. 4-16). 

:i A partial exception is formed by phrases meaning 'for ever' (els tov aiuva, 
etc.), where in determent and in aeuum occur. In perpetuum is also occasionally 


(Mt xiii 38) is also rendered ab initio saeculi in dh, but a constitu- 
tione mundi in a b c ff q f vg Hil and ab origins in k e, the two 
African mss omitting koct/jlov with the true Greek text. 

On the other hand saeculum is the characteristic African 
rendering for /cooyio? in S. John, the European documents having 
generally hie mundus, corrected in the Vulgate to mundus alone. 

In documents not predominantly African saeculum occurs 

Joh iv 42 



vi 14 


[e ora. ver] 



[= e ; q has hoc saec] 



[=e Cypr Aug; against Tert\ 

ix 5 


[=•] l 

xii 46 


[against e] 

xiv 30 

HiP/ 4 


xv 18, 19 (sexies) 


[=e Cypr 2 / 3 ; against Cypr l j.^\ 

xvi 28 



33 d 

r HU 

[= e Cypr 2 j s ; against Cypr l /^\ 

xvii 6 

r Hil 





xviii 3G (bis) 


[= e Cy/)r] 

i.e. instances are only found in 14 verses out of 58 in which /coa/ios 

With regard to the variation of rendering in e it may be re- 
marked that in addition to Joh xvii 5, 24, and xxi 25, where 6 
/cocr/Lio9 means the whole creation and consequently mundus is alone 
appropriate, mundus not saeculum is found in e from Joh i 1 — iii 
I7 a (seven times), x 36 — xii 46 (eight times), xvi 11, and xvii 25. 
In the last of these passages it is probably the result of mechanical 
assimilation to the preceding verse. But though the change from 
saeculum to mundus in x 36 — xii 46 is decisively not confirmed by 
S. Cyprian's quotations, the use of mundus in chap, i is confirmed, 
as in all five places S. Cyprian also has mundus not saecidum. It 
is possible therefore that the original African translator started the 
Gospel with mundus, but changed the rendering later on to saecu- 
lum, from a sense perhaps of the close relation in which the Johan- 
nine fcoafios stands to the alwv of the Synoptists. 


On the ' Western' Interpolations in the Gospels. 

The main object of this Note is to bring together those addi- 
tions to the Gospels, which from the novelty of their contents 
might be held to indicate the use of independent sources for the 
enrichment of the narrative by ' Western' scribes. The passages 
are assumed to be no part of the original text on the authority of 
B and its allies, which with a few exceptions omit them all. By 
exhibiting the early attestation of these Interpolations in a 
tabular form we gain some idea of how far they are supported as 
a body by the 'African' or the 'European' groups of the Old 
Latin, or again by the Old Syriac ; we may even by this means 
gain some idea of their local origin. 

No account is here taken of mere harmonistic additions, nor 
of variations which can plausibly be assigned to palaeographical 
error. The passages chosen have been divided into two classes. 
Those in Table A are the longer Interpolations, each containing a 
sentence complete in itself; some indeed are complete narratives. 
They have been arranged in what has seemed to the present writer 
their degree of independence of the true text. They begin with 
the wholly new narrative of the Woman taken in Adultery, a 
narrative not even suggested by the context in which it now 
occurs ; and they end with adaptations of words found elsewhere 
in the Gospels (Nos. 13 — 16), which are distinguished from the 
class of harmonistic additions by the peculiar context in which 
they are introduced, whereby a new turn is given to the words. 
The passages given in Table B are mere expansions of the Evan- 
gelical text ; they are mostly very short, and rarely contain a verb 
except in a dependent clause. 



The very general absence of these Interpolations from the 
Sinai Palimpsest (syr.swi) might seem to suggest that an ancestor 
of that ms had been corrected to the KB text by excision. I have 
therefore added in a separate Table the Interpolations of the same 
internal character as those in Tables A and B which are found in 
syr.sin or syr. crt, but not in the earlier forms of the Latin. Had 
the ancestors of syr.sin really suffered mutilation, these passages 
would have been cut out with the others. The fact that these 
interpolations are found in syr.sin makes it less probable that 
its ancestors ever contained the passages collected in Table A. 

In the following Tables the critical symbol for a ms indicates that 
the MS in question contains such and such a reading; 'om.' indicates 
that it omits the reading; ' — ' indicates that it is not extant at the point. 
Where a is missing I have given the reading of the kindred MS n. 

A. Tlie Greater Interpolations and their Western Attestation. 

Manuscripts quoted 


lilt, afr 
k Cypr e 

lat eur 



' lie- 

i'i'l I't'lt 

(i (or it) 


Text ' 


Johvii53-viii 11 (The Wo- 

man taken in Adultery) 


— e 







Lc vi 5 (The Man working 

on the Sabbath) 









Mt iii 15 fin. (The Light 

at the Baptism) 


— — 







Mc xvi 3 (The Light at 

the Resurrection) 



— [om. 

n] - 





Lc xxii 43, 44 (The Bloody 



— e 







Lc xxiii 34 n ("Father, 

forgive them ") 









Joh v 4 (The Angel at the 



— e 







Mt xvi 2 b , 3 ("The Face 

of the Sky ") 


— e 







Mt xx 28 fin. ("Seek from 

little to increase ") 









Lc ix 55 (" Ye know not 
what spirit ye are of... 

...but to save them ") 


— Cypr e 







Mc xii 22, 23 (" To whom 

is the woman clean ") 










Manuscripts quoted 


lat. afr 
A Cypr e 










Text ' 


Lc xxiii 2, 5 


("Loosing the Law...") \ 
("our sons and wives. . . ")( 


— e 







Lc xxiii 53 (The great 



— om. 







Mt xviii 11 (" To save the 

lost ") 


— om. 







Mt xx 16 b ("Many are 

called ") 


— e 







Mc xiii 2 Jin. (" Another 

made without hands ") 


k Cypr e 







Joh iii 6 (" For God is a 

Spirit ") 


— e 







Joh vi 56 (" The Body of 
the Son of Man as the 


Bread of Life ") 


— om. 






The merest glance at the above Table is enough to shew that 
the important additions to the Gospel narrative here collected 
together are thoroughly characteristic of the African text. Of 
the 18 passages only four are rejected by any extant African 
authority 2 , and of these four it is quite doubtful whether No. 14 
should not have been excluded from this list as a harmonistic 
addition, while No. 18 may be regarded as a mere adaptation from 
the context. The only one of the more important Interpolations 
actually omitted in the extant fragments of e or k is the famous 
story of the Man working on the Sabbath, which appears at 
Lc vi 5 in Codex Bezae only. Here however k, the better African 
MS, is missing. Nos. 12 and 13 are also found in c, a MS which in 
this chapter has a fundamentally African text. 

It is worth while pointing out also that neither k nor e is 
extant for Mt iii 15. The story of the Fire on Jordan at the 

1 To No. 15 perhaps should be added Mc vii 16 ("He that hath ears to hear"), 
which is found in syr. sin as well as S~ Dab (hiant e A). 

2 An apparent exception is Joh iii 6 (No. 17), a verse twice quoted by S. Cyprian 
without the final addition " For God in a Spirit," but as he does not go on to quote 
ver. 7 it cannot be proved that the clause was not in his Bible. The verse was 
quoted with the additional clause by S. Cyprian's suffragan Nemesianus of Thu- 
bunae at the Council of Carthage. 


Baptism (No. 3) is now only found in a among the older texts, 
being omitted by D b and syr. vt. It is clearly analogous to the 
story of the Light at the Resurrection, preserved only in k (Mc 
xvi 4, No. 4) ; a has a large element akin to the African text, and 
it is probable that it derived this interpolation from that element. 
We may even conjecture that the passage had a place in the miss- 
ing leaf oik. In other words the interpolation is not unlikely to 
have had the same origin as the rest of those in Table A. 

The absence of several of the most characteristic of these 
passages from the European Latin MSS, and also from the bi- 
lingual Codex Bezae, seems to shew the sobering influence of 
later Greek texts. 

This Table moreover affords one of many indications that 
syr. crt has been partially revised from the Greek. Most of the 
interpolations it has accepted are those found also in the Tecctus 
Receptits, i.e. interpolations which had a wide circulation in the 
East at the beginning of the 4th cent. The presence of the 
long interpolation after Mt xx 28 in the Greek Uncial <I> and in 
syr. hi. mg proves that this passage also was not unknown in later 
times in the East, though it was not taken up into the Antiochian 
text. No stress can therefore be laid on its presence in syr. crt as 
a proof of special affinity with the older forms of the Latin. 

I have not inserted the 'Longer Conclusion' to S. Mark in 
this list, from which it differs entirely in character. In the first 
place it is a supplement to an imperfect document 1 , not an inter- 
polation into a text complete without it. Again, in internal 
character it is more like a narrative freely compiled from Lc and 
Mt than the quite independent stories that stand at the head of 
Table A; [Mc] xvi 9 — 20 indeed contains hardly a detail of fad 
which is not found elsewhere in the Gospels or Acts. It is there- 
fore of the highest importance from the point of view of Textual 
Criticism to observe that the attestation of the ' Longer Con- 
clusion' differs in a vital point from that of the passages in 
Table A. Codd. a and b are unfortunately missing here, but the 
verses are found in D and in n, a MS closely resembling a in 

1 In no case would the Gospel have originally ended with {(pofiovvTo yap. Ought 
we not indeed to print e<£o/3otWo yap...' with a grave accent? It is very unusual to 
find clauses, much less paragraphs, wbich end with yap. Cf. Mc xi 18 and ix (>. 

B. 4 



S. Mark ; there is therefore no doubt that they are part of the 
European Latin text. But they are absent from k. In their 
place k has the well-known 'Shorter Conclusion', which is found 
also in L and other later Egyptian texts as an alternative. In its 
independence of the genuine text of the New Testament the 
' Shorter Conclusion' resembles the more characteristic passages 
in Table A, and seems to me not improbably to belong to the 
same stratum of interpolation, i.e. to be bound up with the history 
of the African Latin. 

B. The Smaller Interpolations and tlieir Western Attestation. 

lat. afr 



i , 

syr. vt 


Manuscripts quoted 


k Cypr f 



art tin 


1. Mt vii 21 ,/?«.] + oi'tos elffeketi- 

aerai els ttjv jiaaiKelav tGiv 



k Cypr — 



crt — 


2. Mt x 23 (pevyere els ttjv iripav] 

+ kclv ^k ravrrfs 8aIiKCj(Tii> 

iifids, (pevyere els ttjv aWrjv 


k — 



— sin 


3. Mt XXV 1 TOV WfX(piov] + KO.I 

T7)S VVfX(p7)S 


— — 



— tin 


4. Mc iii 32 ol d.5e\<pol <rov] + Kal 

ai d8e\(pai crov 


— oni. 





5. Mc iv 9 aKovtTu] + K<xi 6 crv- 

vlwv awie'rio 


— — 



— om. 


6. Mc v 33 rpip-owra] + 816 ire- 

■jroffjKtL \ddpq. 


— ora. 



— — 


7. Mc vii 4 xaX/dwe] + kclI kXivQv 


— — 



— om. 


8. Mc vii 13 rrj irapaSoaei up.wi>] 

+ rrj fiiopa 


— — 



— om. 


9. Mc ix 24 Trai5lov] + /j.era 8a- 



om. — 



— om. 


10. Mc ix 29 irpo<revxv] + Kal vrj- 



om. — 





11. Mc x 22 KTri/j-ara iroWd] + Kal 






— om. 


12. MC X 24 0U<TKo\6l> C'ffTll'] + TOVS 

ireiroiddTas eVt (tojs) \PV' 



om. — 



— sin 


13. Mc xii 40 XVP^] + Ka -1 op<pavG>v 


om. om 



— om. 


14. Mc xiv 68 Jin.] + kclI aXe'KTuip 






— om. 





lat. afr 
A - Cypr i> 



syr. vt 
crt sin 

' H< - 

Manuscripts quoted 


b " 


15. Lc i 28 fin.] -\-ev\oyrj[j.ii>r) av 

iv yvvai^iv 


— e 



— — 


16. Levi 1 iv <ra/3^3dr<f)] + Sevrepo- 






— — 


17. Lc vi 17 'lepovcraXij/j.] + Kal 



— om. 



— om. 


18. Lc ix 54 dvaXuiaai clvtovs] + 

ws Kal 'HXetas iiroinatv 


— om. 



om. om. 


19. Lc xvii 11 PaXiXa/as] + et 






crt om. 


20. Lc xx 34 ol vlol...TovTov] + 

yevvCivrai Kal yevvQiav 


- (e) 



crt sin 


21. Lc xxi 11 ?o-tcll] + et Memes 


— om. 



crt om. 


22. Lc xxii 68 ov /xt) aTTOKpidrjre] 

+ n diroXijavre 





crt sin 


23. Lc xxiv 42 Ixdvos owtov p.ipo$] 

+ Kal dwo /j.e\iao~Lou Kriplov 

(V. KTJpiov) 


— om. 



crt om. 


24. Joh iii 6 ffdpi; io-rtv] + oTi e/c 

ttjs (rapKOS iyevvr)drj 


— e 



crt om. 


25. Joh iii 8 tK] + rov i/5aros Kal 


— e 



crt sin 


26. Joh iii 13 tov dv0piLirov] + 6 

u>v iv ti2 oupavui 





(crt) (sin) 


27. Joh v 3" £r)pQv ] + irapaXvn- 



— om. 



om. — 


28. Joh v 3 h iKdexop-ivwv rr/v tov 

voaros Kivrjaiv 





om. — 


29. Joh vi 59 Ka(papvaoi>/x] + aafi- 



— om. 



om. om. 


The difference of character between the passages in Tables A 
and B is paralleled by the difference between their attestation. 
In Table A the passages were most steadily supported by the 
African text, while they were almost wholly absent from the 
earlier form of the Old Syriac as represented by syr. sin. The 
more modest interpolations comprised in Table B are regularly 
found only in the European Latin. Some of them appear also in 
syr. sin, but on the other hand about half are absent from the 
African Latin. No. 14 might perhaps have been placed in 
Table A. 



It is worth noting that subsidiary glosses are now and then 
found in the European Latin in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the more important interpolations given under Table A. Instances 
are Lc ix 54, Joh iii 6 and v 3. 

Some few of these ' interpolations' may possibly not be inter- 
polations at all, but portions of the true text which have fallen 
out in KB. This is especially the case with the addition in Mt 
x 23, which may be held to improve the run of the sentence ; the 
longer reading here has moreover very considerable Greek support 
in addition to lat. afr-eur and syr. vt. Almost as much may be 
said for the addition to Mt xxv 1, though at this point it is more 
difficult to see how the words 'and the bride' could have dropped 
out, on the supposition that they are genuine. 

The general impression left on my mind by Tables A and B 
may be expressed as follows. (1) The earliest Latin version con- 
tained a text of the Gospels enriched by additions, some of which 
go far beyond the mere inventiveness of scribes, and must ulti- 
mately have been derived from independent historical sources. In 
this respect the African text has most faithfully preserved the 
original Latin version. (2) Another series of interpolations of a 
less bold type is especially characteristic of the European Latin. 
This series is less certainly based on independent sources and 
seems to be of later origin, though from the comparatively small 
scale of each addition they were easily introduced into MSS and so 
are widely spread among various types of text. The comparative 
isolation of the African text, which has preserved the longer inter- 
polations, has kept that text more free from these lesser interpo- 
lations than any other predominantly 'Western' text. (3) The 
eclectic texts of the 4th cent, in various languages took up a 
certain number of both classes of interpolations, some of them 
even finding a place in the great Vulgates of later times. 

C. Greater Interpolations characteristic of tJte Old Syria/}. 

1. Mt iv 9 ku\ etTrev avrw] + ' These kingdoms and their glory hast 
thou seen?' syr. sin [om. crt\ 

2. Mt xxvii 16, 17 ' Jesus Barabbas' syr. sin 

3. Mc xii 23 ci' rfj avaa-rdcrei] + ovv orav dvacrTiocriv s y r - sitl 


4. Mc xiii 8 Aiju.01] + xai rapa^at syr. sin 

5. Lc xxiii 48 fin.] + 'and saying: Woe to us! what has befallen 
us? Woe to tis from our sins!' syr. sin-crl 

G. Joh xi 39 Kvpi€,] + 'whi/ are they taking atvaij the stone V syr.sin 

7. Joh xii 12 tt} l-rravpiov] + 'he went out and came to the Mount 
of Olives' syr. sin 

8. Joh xx 16 SiSa'o-MiAe] + kul Trpocrt&paixtv cuf/aaOai avrov syr. sin 

Except in Nos. 1 and 5 syr. crt is missing, but to Lc xxiii 43 syr. rrt adds /cai 
Xapwv to. (iriXoiira £5wKei> avroh with the later Syriac and Latin versions (includ- 
ing lat. vg) as well as some Gk mss, but not syr. sin uor Babe; in fact, this 
gloss is found in no document which does not also contain the clause about the 

The Greek and Latin attestation of these additions is as follows. 
Nos. 1, 6 and 7 are unsupported. No. 2 was known to Origen and 
is found in the group of cursives 1-118-209. No. 3 is in c and 
late Gk mss generally ; in Latin it is found in a (b) ff i q and vg. 
No. 4 is also in r, but the Latin attestation is confined to q. 
No. 5 appears to be alluded to in Evang. Petri § 7, and is found 
with an extra clause in the late and professedly eclectic MS g 1 . 
It is a natural conjecture that g 1 derived it from some Latin 
form of the Diatessaron. No. 8 is found in K ca , as well as in g l 
gat and Wordsworth's DE. (It will be remembered that g x is 
Wordsworth's G in Mc Lc and Joh : Westcott and Hort call it 
ger. Wordsworth's E used to be called mm.) 

This list of interpolations found in syr. vt, but not the older 
Latin texts, would have been somewhat enlarged if account had 
been taken of the ' Non- Western Interpolations'. Many of these 
passages are omitted by syr. vt, but some are retained, although 
the balance of internal evidence is decidedly against them. A 
notable instance is Lc xxiv 12, omitted by D lat. vt, but found in 
syr. sin-crt as well as NBr. 

S. Isidori Hispalensis Etym. vi 4. 

Presbyter quoque Hieronymvs trium linguarum perifcus ex Hebraeo 
in Latinum eloquium easdem Scripturas conuertit eloquenterque 
transfudit, cvivs Interpretatio merito ceteris antefertvr ; nam est 


utpote a Christiano interprete uerior. 

The first half of this statement was taken by S. Isidore from Aug. 
de Giuitate Dei xviii 43 ; the second half is an adaptation of de Doctrina 
Christiana ii 22. 


The non-African texts of the Old Latin were divided by Dr 
Hort into sub-families, ' European ' and ' Italian ', the latter term 
being defined as the text used by S. Augustine and praised by 
him under the name of Itala. The object of the following Essay 
is to shew that the text of the Gospels found in S. Augustine's 
later works is not an ' Old Latin ' text at all, but the Vulgate 
itself, and that this was the Itala commended by him in the 
famous passage of the de Doctrina Christiana. 

Dr Hort assigned the Gospel mss f (Brixianus) and q (Mu- 
nacensis) to the 'Italian' family (Introd. §§ 110, 111). These 
codices differ from almost all the other Old Latin MSS in containing 
many Antiochian readings, and it is undeniable that S. Augustine's 
quotations also contain many such readings 1 . But the same is true 
of the Vulgate ; it is therefore necessary to look more minutely at 
the various texts to ascertain their mutual relations. For the sake 
of convenience I shall speak of the Revised Version of S. Jerome 
as the Vulgate, although in the fourth and fifth centuries the name 
was not uncommonly used for what is now called the 'Old Latin'. 

As soon as the Latinity of the ' Italian ' group is studied with- 
out special reference to the type of Greek text represented by the 
various mss, it becomes at once evident that Dr Hort's classifica- 
tion is unsatisfactory. The first blow to it was dealt by Mr White 

1 Scrivener's Introduction (ed. 4, vol. ii, p. 350) thus adduces the testimony of 
S. Augustine to support the Received Text of Lc x 41, 42: "His Old Latin copies, 
at any rate, contained the words '...porro unum est necessarium...'". Now 'jxnro' 
never occurs in the Old Latin Gospeh. It is found in the Vulgate in the three 
places Sit viii 27, Lc x 42 and xi 20, but never in a single Old Latin jis, sed or 
autem being used instead. This instance alone would make the use of the Vulgate 
by S. Augustine highly probable. 



in his edition of q (Old Latin Bibl. Texts, iii). In that work he 
shewed that, although /and q have a good many readings in com- 
mon that affect the underlying Greek text (mostly of an Antiochian 
type), their renderings of Greek words are often quite different, / 
as a rule agreeing with the Vulgate and q with b. This, I may 
add, is not due to the intrusion of a Vulgate element in /. The 
more that Ms is studied the more evident appears the probability 
of the common opinion, that / is an example of the type of text 
from which S. Jerome prepared his Revised Version. But neither 
the renderings found in /, nor those in q, nor those found in both 
combined, agree especially with those of S. Augustine's quotations, 
except where they also agree with the Vulgate 1 . 

What then was the text actually used by S. Augustine ? 

To reconstruct S. Augustine's Bible is a task of much difficulty. 
In the first place it is most important to separate off the quota- 
tions made by S. Augustine at first hand from the Bible from those 
which he makes in quoting the works of others. In the latter case 
he keeps to the Biblical text used by the person from whom he is 
quoting. A good instance is de Doct. Christ, iii 30 ff., where more 
than twenty verses of the Bible are quoted accurately from 
Tyconius, though Tyconius's own words are paraphrased. 

Not less necessary is it to note the date of each treatise. In 
some of S. Augustine's earlier works, as for instance the contra 
Faustum, the old African text is clearly visible even in the quota- 
tions from the Gospel. Thus to render oIvottot^, ' wine-bibber ', 
in Mt xi 19 (Lc vii 34) we have 

' potator ' ab q (Mt) but ' uinaria ' k Aug 2 / 3 (Mt) 

' potator uini ' cf vg (Mt) < uinarius ' e r (Lc) 

'uiui potator' dh (Mt); cdl (Lc) 

('uinosus' Aug'/s Epp ; Aug 

' bibens uinutn ' a bffqfvg (Lc) de bono coniug has 'uinaria' 

codd. opt, but 'uinarius' codd, 
' potator uini ' codd) 

Here we see how the rare word uinaria, preserved in the African 
authorities, has been variously improved away in the other MSS, 
while 8. Augustine himself once substitutes uinosus. 'Africanisms 

1 See the Note on the text of the de Consensu for an example. 

THE ' ITALA . o7 

of this kind are rare in his later writings, though not entirely 
absent in the case of quotations made from memory. 

The three works of S. Augustine which will come under im- 
mediate consideration in this Essay were written in the few years 
preceding and following 400 ad. The mention of the Itala occurs 
in the first edition of de Doctrina Christiana , issued in 397 ad, 
and the Acta contra Felicem date from 404. At some date between 
these limits comes the publication of de Consensu Euangelistarum. 
It may be convenient here to remind ourselves that the Vulgate 
Gospels were issued in 384, the rest of the Bible following at inter- 
vals till about 405, so that when S. Augustine was writing the de 
Doctrina Christiana the portions of S. Jerome's version actually 
published were the N. Test., Sam. and Kings, Ezr. and Nehem., 
and the sixteen Prophets. 

S. Augustine's relations with the Vulgate have not, I venture 
to think, been properly understood. It will indeed be acknow- 
ledged by all that to the end of his days in short easily remembered 
phrases from the Gospel S. Augustine often used the Old Latin. 
In other words, there is no doubt that in the kind of quotation 
where it is least likely that a writer would look the passage up in 
his Codex he used the type of text current in his younger days. 
But what I believe has not received sufficient attention is the 
remarkable extant evidence tending to shew that during S. Au- 
gustine's episcopate, from about 400 AD onwards, the Church at 
Hippo read the Gospels from S. Jerome's version, though for the 
Acts it retained a very pure form of the Old African Latin. 

The evidence is as follows. In ad 404 a Manichee preacher 
named Felix appeared at Hippo, where he was arrested and brought 
to trial before the ecclesiastical courts. This trial is reported at 
length in the tract called Acta contra Felicem Manichaeum (or 
Aug. contra, Felicem). The statements of Felix about the coming 
of the Holy Spirit had been so unsatisfactory that S. Augustine 
determined to read to him the full Biblical account. Accordingly 
a codex of the Gospels was handed to him and he read from it to 
Felix Lc xxiv 36 — 49. Having read these verses he gave back the 
book of the Gospels and was then handed a codex of the Acts, from 
which he read the whole of the first chapter and the first eleven 
verses of the second. What S. Augustine read out is given in 

58 THE 'ITALA'. 

extenso in our MBS of Aug. contra Felicem, and an examination of the 
two passages leads to the surprising result that the passage from 
S. Luke is pure Vulgate, while the text of the Acts is that of S. 
Cyprian — the very oldest form of the African version known to us. 
This very remarkable state of things cannot very well be the result 
of corruption in our Mss of Aug. contra Felicem, for had the Gospel 
passage been corrected wholesale to the Vulgate, it is difficult to 
see why the still longer passage from the Acts should have wholly 
escaped. We cannot therefore but conclude that the codex of the 
Gospels handed to S. Augustine was a Vulgate codex, and the 
codex of the Acts was an Old Latin codex containing an ' African ' 
text — in other words, that by 404- AD the Gospels were read at 
Hippo from the Vulgate, while in some other books of the Bible, 
such as the Acts, the unrevised Old Latin was still publicly used 1 . 

To such a composite late African New Testament belongs the 
Fleury Palimpsest (h), a 6th cent. MS of the Apocalypse, Acts, and 
Catholic Epistles. M. Berger, its editor, has acutely pointed out 
that, while the Acts and Apocalypse are Cyprianic in character, 
the text of the Cath. Epp. is distinctly late African'-. Indeed the 
mere fact that the MS contains the Second Epistle of Peter is 
enough to shew that it does not represent exclusively the old 
African tradition. But the mixed character of the text of h is 
accounted for, when we recognise that while the late African 
Church accepted S. Jerome's revision of the Gospels and enlarged 
its Canon by receiving all seven Catholic Epistles, it nevertheless 
retained the old version of the Acts and Apocalypse. 

This remarkable eclecticism is also borne out by what we 
actually find in some of S. Augustine's own works. To begin 
with we have his direct approval of S. Jerome's recension of the 
Gospels. In 403 AD, the year before the episode of Felix, S. 
Augustine wrote to S. Jerome to express his doubts as to the 
expediency of the great changes made by the latter in the Old 
Testament but said at the same time : " Proinde non paruas Deo 
gratias agimus de opere tuo quod Euancjelium ex Graeco interpre- 
tatus es, quia paene in omnibus nulla offensio est." Nor was this 
approval academic only. The evidence that the Gospel text in S. 

1 See Note i for the text of what S. Augustine read. 

2 S. Berger, Lc Palimpscste de Fleury, p. 18. 

THE ' ITALA '. 59 

Augustine's great critical work de Consensu Euangelistarum (circ. 
400 ad) was based exclusively on the Vulgate is simply over- 
whelming. The circumstance that the work includes several well- 
known references to Old Latin readings (given as the text of 
'some codices') has apparently obscured the fact that the text 
accepted by S. Augustine as the base of his explanations is not a 
form however late of the so-called Vetus Itala, but the Revised 
Version of S. Jerome itself with all its peculiarities. A full exami- 
nation of the Gospel text of the de Consensu is given in Note II to 
this Essay ; I shall here merely quote the judgment of Sabatier, 
who will certainly not be accused of prejudice in such a case as 
this. Speaking of sources whence quotations from the ' Itala ' may 
be drawn, he says (Praef. ad vol. i, p. lvii) : " Leve etiam modicum- 
que est quod suppeditarunt libri de consensu Evangelistaru m. 
Collatis namque his Augustini libris cum Vulgata nostra, utraque 
interpretatio una & eadem esse visa est ; quod tamen de unis acci- 
piendum est Evangeliis, quorum Augustinus interpretationem ab 
Hicronymo adornatum sic adhibuit, ut nihilominus alios Scripturse 
libros, tarn ipsius novi, quam veteris Testamenti, juxta antiquam 
LXX. interpretationem laudarit. Hinc quamvis nullas Evange- 
liorum ex eo libro, plurimas tamen Actuum Apostolorum, necnon 
& Epistolarum & Apocalypsis sententias a Vulgata nostra discre- 
pantes reperimus, nee praetermisimus." 

The mass of evidence which I have collected in the Note upon 
the Biblical text of the de Consensu will I think carry conviction. 
In the work, therefore, for which accuracy of textual detail was 
most necessary S. Augustine used the Vulgate as the basis of his 
argument, A recognition of this fact will clear up many difficulties 
presented by the Gospel quotations in the rest of his later works. 
Their general character is a Vulgate base with occasional Old 
Latin readings. This non-Vulgate element is mostly late African, 
and not so far as we know North Italian, in character ; its inser- 
tion into the Vulgate text appears to be mostly fortuitous. That 
is to say, he quotes a verse (e.g. in his Homilies on S. John) in 
accordance sometimes with the Vulgate, sometimes with an Old 
Latin reading, the latter being perhaps due to a reminiscence of 
the text of his younger days. In other words he is just such an 
authority as the ' mixed ' MSS Jf l or I, and only of independent value 

60 THE ' ITALA'. 

for the criticism of the pre-Hieronymian texts where he differs 
from the Vulgate. 

' But ', it will be said, ' is it not the case that S. Augustine used 
a certain form of the Old Latin called by him Itala inter pretatio, 
which he praises as uerborum tenacior ? ' 

This objection, which I think fairly expresses what is generally 
held about S. Augustine's text, is based of course upon the famous 
passage in the De Doctrina Christiana ii 22, where he says : " in 
ipsis autem interpretationibus Itala ceteris praeferatur, nam est 
uerborum tenacior cum perspicuitate sententiae ". It is generally 
assumed that Itala cannot refer to the Vulgate, because S. Augus- 
tine notoriously used the Old Latin, and held the LXX in very 
high esteem. But that this difficulty was not felt in ancient times 
is sufficiently proved by the quotation from S. Isidore's Etymo- 
logium which stands as a motto to this Essay. I trust also that the 
facts which I have brought forward about the de Consensu will help 
to remove the difficulty, at least so far as regards the text of the 

There are many objections to taking ' Itala ' to mean a certain 
Old Latin text out of the many then extant, especially if it refers 
to the forms of the New Testament. It has often been urged by 
Bentley and others that S. Augustine never again praises this 
hypothetical version, though he does elsewhere praise S. Jerome's 
translation of the Prophets for its fidelity (De Ciuit. Dei xviii 42). 
A more serious difficulty is that it is not usual for S. Augustine 
when referring to the various forms of the Old Latin to call them 
interpretationes. It is true that he speaks vaguely of interpretum 
numerositas and uses similar phrases in speaking of what happened 
in the first ages of the faith ; but his usual way of speaking of 
what we call Old Latin readings is that such and such a translation 
is found ' in some codices '. Once at least he speaks of a reading 
which is attested by S. Cyprian as found 'in many codices, but 
they are African ' (codices plurimos uerumtamen afros, Retr. i 21). 
On the other hand S. Augustine actually uses interpretari of 
S. Jerome's revision of the Gospels, as opposed to ' Old Latin ' in 
general, and the same is true to a still greater extent for the Old 

But the form of the sentence ' in ipsis autem interpretationibus ' 


shews that the words must be taken with what goes before, and 
in the attempts to identify the Itala I do not think sufficient 
Aveight has hitherto been generally allowed to the nature of 
S. Augustine's argument in the five chapters preceding Be Doct. 
Christ, ii 22, or to the examples he has used to support it. 

He says in § 16: "propter diuersitates ut dictum est inter- 
pretum, illarum linguarum est cognitio necessaria. qui enim 
Scripturas ex hebraea lingua in graecam uerterunt numerari 
possunt, latini autem interpretes nullo modo ; ut enim cuique 
primis fidei temporibus in maims uenit codex graecus et ali- 
quantulum facultatis sibi utriusque linguae habere uidebatur, 
ausus est interpretari ". After these celebrated words he goes on 
immediately to say that this state of things is not altogether 
unfortunate (§ 17) : " Quae quidem res plus adiuuit intellegentiam 
quam impediuit, si modo legentes non sint neglegentes. nam 
nonnullas obscuriores sententias plurium codicum saepe mani- 
festabit 1 inspectio." Here follow four instances, all of which are of 
the highest importance for understanding his point of view, both 
in respect of the examples themselves and of the way in which 
they are introduced. The first two are from Isaiah and contain 
a comparison, not of two Old Latin texts with each other, but of 
the Old Latin with the modem Vulgate. He says: "sicut illud 
Isaiae prophetae unus interpres ait Et domesticos seminis tui ne 
despexeris ; alius autem ait Et carnem tuam ne despexeris ". The 
first passage is Isaiah lviii 7 from the lxx, the second is the same 
passage from the Vulgate. A little lower down he goes on to 
say : " Item illud eiusdem Isaiae prophetae Nisi credideritis non 
intellegetis alius interpretatus est Nisi credideritis non per- 
manebitis," i.e. a quotation of Isaiah vii 9, first from the LXX, then 
from the Vulgate. All this agrees with what he says in § 22 
(quoted below) : " As far as the O. T. is concerned the authority of 
the LXX is paramount ; yet, as I said above, the collation of those 
translators who have stuck more closely (tenacius) to the words is 
not without its use." Evidently therefore this sentence refers to 
the pair of examples which I have just quoted, and with regard to 
which S. Augustine says that both translations are good for 
edification. One of these translations is the Latin rendering of the 

1 Ed. manifestavit. 

62 THE ' ITALA '. 

LXX ; hence the other, with which S. Augustine has ' collated ' 
Isaiah vii 9 and lviii 7, is that translation which ' sticks more 
closely to the words '. But this alternative text is none other than 
the Vulgate ! 

To these examples from Isaiah are added one from the Psalms, 
a book for which S. Augustine in common with the rest of the 
Western Church never thought of using an inter pretatio from the 
Hebrew 1 , and one from the book of Wisdom, of which the Hebrew 
does not exist. In the latter case he blames the common reading 
(spuria) uitulamina in Wisd iv 3, and wishes to substitute 
adulterinae plantationes ; but he says that the former reading — 
which by the way is attested by S. Optatus — is so common ' ut uix 
inueniatur aliter scriptum '. Here we seem to be dealing with a 
mere conjectural emendation from the Greek. In the example 
from the Psalms he says ' quidam codices habent acuti pedes ' in 
Ps xiii 3 for ueloces pedes, and he rejects the former reading 
absolutely, saying that it is a mere mistranslation of the Greek 
d£u9. All extant Latin authorities have here ueloces, but it is 
probable that acuti is the genuine African rendering in this 
phrase. The verse is not quoted by S. Cyprian; but in Ps xliv 1 
for o^vypdcjjov, where most Latins have uelociter scribentis, he has 
acute scribentis (Test II 29 codd. opt) 2 . This rough 'comparative 
criticism ' of Latin variants by means of the Greek is doubtless 
what S. Augustine means by the words which sum up the 
discussion at the end of § 21 : " plurimum hie quoque iuuat 
interpretum numerositas collatis codicibus inspecta atque discussa, 
tantum abest falsitas ; nam codicibus emendandis primitus debet 
inuigilare solertia eorum qui Scripturas diuinas nosse desiderant, 
ut emendatis non emendati cedant, ex eo duntaxat interpretationis 
genere uenientes ". He means, I suppose, that we may emend one 
Old Latin codex by another, or by the Greek itself, but we cannot 
correct a translation from the Hebrew by a translation from the 
Greek, or vice versa, for both of these are authoritative. 

Both the Greek and the Hebrew are authoritative, and, as he 
endeavoured to shew by his examples from Isaiah, both are 

1 Cf. especially § 20 ante vied. 

- So the Oxford ms 0, ; L has acute scribens : Hartel's text has the common 

THE ; ITALA '. 63 

spiritually instructive even where they differ. Yet there must 
come places where we have to choose between them, and he goes 
on to say (§ 22) : " In ipsis autem interpretationibus Itala ceteris 
praeferatur ". Taken with what has gone before, does it not seem 
probable that the other inter pretatio, which is not the LXX, is here 
meant ? S. Augustine does not say he always uses the ' Itala'; in- 
deed his whole argument is to prove that to the understanding man 
the very diversities of translations are instructive. But we have 
seen that he does sometimes use the Vulgate Gospels, especially 
where minute accuracy is required, while in the Old Testament we 
have seen that while habitually using the LXX — i.e. the Old 
Latin — he values the new translation highly and occasionally uses 
it for comparison 1 . 

I venture to think that S. Augustine, while writing De Doct. 
Christ, ii 22, had in mind the Epistula ad Damasum, S. Jerome's 
celebrated preface to the Vulgate Gospels. The same sequence of 
thought is expressed in both passages in the same order though in 
different language. For purposes of comparison I give the two 
passages in parallel columns. 

Aug. de Doct. Christ, ii 22 Hieron. Ep. ad Damasum 

In ipsis autem interpretationibus Si enim Latinis exemplaribus 

Itala ceteris praeferatur, nam est titles est adhibenda, respondeant 

uerborum tenacior cum perspicui- quibus : tot sunt paene quot 

tate sententiae. codices. 

Et Latinis quibuslibet emen- Sin autem ueritas est quaerenda 

dandis de pluribus, cur non ad Graecam 

Graeci adhibeantur originem reuertentes ea quae...aut 

in quibus addita sunt aut mutata corrigi- 

mus ? 

1 E.g. De Doct. Christ, iv 1G, where Am vi 1 — 6 is quoted expressly from the 
Vulgate. This latter part of the work dates from 42G ad. It is probable that in 
397 ad, when the first three books up to iii 35 were written, S. Jerome's Pentateuch 
was not yet issued. Possibly some expressions may have been altered when the 
second edition, which we now possess, was published. The only quotation of any 
significance from the Gospels in this part of the work is in ii 62, where Mt xi 28 — 30 
is cited with all the characteristics of S. Augustine's quotations from memory. 
They are: — (i) Vulgate element, reficiam uos ; (ii) African element, sarcina; 
(iii) Peculiar elements (i.e. inaccuracies), (1) om. omnes, (2) lene for ' bonum ' 
(afr.) or ' suaue ' (eur-vg). 

64 THE ' IT ALA '. 

LXX interpretum Neque uero ego de ueleri disputo 

quod ad uetus testamentum testamento quod a LXX senioribus 

attinet in Graecam linguam 

excellit auctoritas . . .sed tamen uersum tertio gradu ad nos 

ut superius dixi horum quoque usque peruenit. Non quaero quid 

interpretum qui uerbis tenacius Aquila quid Symmachus sapiant, 

inhaeserunt conlatio non est in- quare Theodotion inter nouos et 

utilis ad explanandum saepe sen- ueteres medius incedat: sit ilia uera 

tentiam. Latini ergo ut dicere interpretatio quam apostoli pro- 

coeperam codices ueteris testa- bauerunt. 
menti si necesse fuerit Graecorum 
auctoritate emendandi sunt... 

Libros autem noui testamenti si De nouo nunc loquor testamento 

quid in Latinis uarietatihus titubat quod Graecum esse 

Graecis cedere oportere non dubium non dubiwm est. 

est, et maxime qui apud Ecclesias 
doctiores et diligentiores repperi- 

The last clause of this extract (which has no parallel in the 
Ep. ad Damasuni) I believe to be a direct reference to the one 
great Biblical scholar of the day, the learned and industrious 
S. Jerome himself. 

One objection remains to be noticed. If S. Augustine was 
thinking of the Vulgate, why should he call it Italian ? I do not 
think this objection is fatal. In spite of all that has been written 
on the word italus to prove that it meant in the fourth century 
North Italian, few will doubt that it might mean Italian in a 
more general sense in the work of an African writing to Africans 1 . 
At least Arnobius the African twice calls Latin sermo italus. Now 
the Vulgate Gospels, the first part of the new work to come out, 
were jcmblished in Italy at the instigation and under the patronage 
of the Pope of Rome. And though S. Jerome had gone to 
Bethlehem when the Doctrina CJiHstiana was being written, 
S. Augustine was not aware of the fact, as he sent about this 
time letters to S. Jerome to Italy, where they were opened and 
read by his enemies. As opposed to the ' African codices ' or 

1 On this point see Rdnseh, Collectanea 2(56, on the phrase of Nonius Marcellus : 
' ita ut nunc Itali dicunt'. 

THE ' ITALA '. 65 

the Greek Bible the Vulgate was 'Italian' to S. Augustine 1 . 
But this does not directly affect the main point which I have 
endeavoured to prove; which is, that the evidence afforded by 
the Gospel text of the De Consensu on the one hand, and the 
arguments and examples used by S. Augustine in De Doctrina 
Christiana ii 17 — 21 on the other, so decisively point to the 
conclusion that the translation which he calls Itala is the 
Revised Version of S. Jerome, that very strong positive evidence 
would be required to make any other identification equally 

1 For S. Augustine's use of the word italus elsewhere we may compare de 
Ordine ii 45. Speaking of a correct style and pronunciation he says: "me enim 
ipsum, cui magna necessitas fuit ista perdiscere, adhuc in multis uerborum sonis 
Itali exagitant, et a me uicissim quod ad ipsum sonum adtinet reprehenduntur. 

aliud est enim esse arte aliud gente securum Barbarismorum autem genus 

nostris temporibus tale compertum est, ut et ipsa eius oratio barbara uideatur qua 
Roma seruata est." Here therefore the 'Italian' pronunciation is that of Rome 
itself, a pronunciation which the African S. Augustine, in spite of a good education, 
had only imperfectly attained. 


S. Augustine and Felix the Manichee. 

The following extract is taken from Aug. contra Felicem, i.e. 
the report of the trial of Felix (C. S. E. L. xxv. pp. 802—807, 
edited by Zycha). In the footnotes to the quotation of Lc xxiv 
36 — 49 I have given the readings of Wordsworth and White's 
text of the Vulgate (= vg), in the few places where it differs from 
the contra Felicem. 

Augustinus dixit : Quoniani ergo tu ' probare non potuisti quo- 
modo sit Manichaeus apostolus Christi, et exigis ut ego probem 
quomodo miserit Spiritum Sanctum Paracletum quern promisit, ut 
tunc respuas scripturas Manichaei, si inueneris inpletam promissionem 
Christi praeter scripturas Manichaei, quamuis prior ad interrogata mea 
respondere debueris, tamen ecce ego prior respondeo et ostendo tibi, 
quando missus sit Spiritus Sanctus quern Christus promisit. et accedit 
ad Euangelium et Actus Apostolorum. 
Lcxxiv Et cum accepisset codicem Euangelii, recitauit : 36 Dum autem haec 

36—49 loquuntur, stetit Iesus in medio eorum et dixit eis : pax uobis ; ego 
sum, nolite timere. et cum legeret, dixit : hoc post resurrectionem. et 
cum dixisset, legit : 37 conturbati uero et conterriti aestimabant se 
spiritum uidere. 38 et dixit eis: quid turbati estis et cogitationes 
ascendunt in corda uestral 39 uidete manus meas et pedes, quia ego 
ipse sum ; palpate et uidete, quia spiritus carnem et ossa non habet, 
sicut me uidetis habere. 40 et cum hoc dixisset, ostendit eis manus et 
pedes. 41 Adhuc autem illis non credentibus et mirantibus prae gaudio 
dixit: habetis hie aliquid quod manducetur? 42 at illi obtulerunt ei 

36 haec autem vg Iesus stetit vg dixit] dicit vg 37 existima- 

bant vg 39 ipse ego vg 

i I.e. Felix. 


partem piscis assi et fauum mellis. 13 et cum mauducasset coram eis, 

sumens reliquias dedit eis. 44 Et dixit ad eos : haec sunt uerba quae 

locutus sum ad uos cum adhuc essem uobiscum, quoniam necesse est 

inpleri omnia quae scripta sunt in lege Moysi et prophetis et psalmis 

de me. ^tunc aperuit illis sensum ut intellegerent scripturas, 46 et 

dixit eis : quoniam sic scriptum est et sic oportebat Christum pati et 

resurgere a mortuis die tertio, 47 et praedicari in nomine eius paeni- 

tentiam et remissionem peccatorum in omnes gentes, incipientibus ab 

Hierusalem. 48 uos autem estis testes horum. 49 et ego mittam pro- 

missum patris mei in uos ; uos autem sedete in ciuitate, quoad usque 

induamini uirtutem ex alto, et cum reddidisset codicem Euangelii, 

accepit Actus Apostolorum 

Et recitauit ex Actibus Apostolorum 1 : 'Primum quidem sermonem Ac i 

r x \ 2G 

feci de omnibus, o Theophile, quae coepit Iesus facere et docere 2 in die 

quo apostolos elegit per Spiritum Sanctum et praecepit praedicare 

Euangelium : 3 quibus praebuit se uiuum post passionem in multis 

argumentis dierum uisus eis dies quadi-aginta et docens de regno Dei, 

4 et quomodo conuersatus est cum illis, et praecepit eis ne discederent ab 

Hierosolymis, sed sustinerent pollicitationem Patris, quam audistis, 

inquit, ex ore meo; 5 quoniam Iohannes quidem baptizauit aqua, uos 

autem Spiritu Sancto incipietis baptizari, quern et accepturi estis non 

post multos istos dies usque ad Pentecosten. 6 illi ergo conuenientes 

interrogabant eum dicentes : Domine, si in hoc tempore praesentabis 

regnum Israhel 1 7 ille autem dixit : nemo potest cognoscere tempus 

quod pater posuit in sua potestate ; 8 sed accipietis uirtutem Spiritus 

Sancti superuenientem in uos, et eritis mini testes apud Rierosolymam 

et in tota Iudaea et Samaria et usque in totam terram. 9 cum haec 

diceret, nubes suscepit eum et sublatus est ab eis. ,0 et quomodo 

contemplantes erant cum iret in caelum, ecce duo uiri astabant illis in 

ueste alba, "qui dixerunt ad eos: uiri Galilaei, quid statis respicientes 

44 Mosi vg. codd. opt 46 die tertia vg (exc AY) 47 Hierosolyma vg 

49 mitto vg. codd. opt 

1 fecimus Fund. cod. opt 2 die qua Fund; usque in diem quo de Cons prae- 
ceperit Fund et praecepit] mandans iussit de Cons 3 uisus est eis per Fund 

4 et 1°] o?ft. Fund, codd est] sit Fund 5 dies istos Fund 6 ergo] quidem Fund 
conuenientes] cum uenissent Fund hoc in tempore Fund praesentabis] repre- 
sentaberis et quando Fund 8 Hierusalem Fund terram] H Fund 

1 The variants given are tbose of Aug's quotations of Ac i, ii in contra Ep. 
Fundamenti (C. S. E. L. xxv, pp. 203, 204). For the first two verses of Acts there 

fa further parallel in Aug. de Consensu iv 8, a quotation made probably from 
emory. The Vulgate text of Ac i 1 — 4 is given below, p. 70. 


68 THE 'ITALA'. 

in caelum ? iste Iesus qui adsumptus est in caelum a uobis sic ueniet, 
quemadmodum uidistis eum euntem in caelum. 12 tunc reuersi sunt 
Hierosolymam a monte qui uocatur Eleon, qui est iuxta Hierosolymam 
sabbati habens iter. 13 et cum introissent, ascenderant in superiora, ubi 
habitabaut Petrus et Iohannes, Iacobus et Andreas, Philippus et 
Thomas, Bartholomaeus et Matthaeus, Iacobus Alphaei et Symon 
Zelotes et Iuclas Iacobi. 14 et erant perseuerantes omnes unanimes in 
orationibus cum mulieribus et Maria quae fuerat mater Iesu et fratribus 
eius. 15 et in diebus illis exurrexit Petrus in medio discentium, et dixit 
— fuit autem turba in uno hominum quasi cxx : — 16 uiri fratres, oportet 
adinpleri scripturam istam, quam praedixit Spiritus Sanctus ore sancti 
Dauid de Iuda, qui fuit deductor illorum qui comprehenderunt Iesum, 
17 quoniam adnumeratus ei'at inter nos, qui habuit sortem buius 
ministerii. 18 hic igitur possedit agrum de mercede iniustitiae suae, 
et collum sibi alligauit et deiectus in faciem diruptns est medius et 
effusa sunt omnia uiscera eius. 19 quod et cognitum factum est omnibus 
qui inhabitabant Hierosolymam, ita ut uocaretur ager ille ipsorum 
lingua Achelflemach, id est ager sanguinis. 2u scriptum est enim in 
libro Psalmorum : Fiat uilla eius deserta, et non sit qui inhabitet in 
ea, et episcopatum eius accipiat alter. 21 oportet itaque ex his uiris qui 
conuenerunt nobiscum in omni tempore quo introiuit super nos et 
excessit Dominus Iesus Christus, 22 incipiens a baptismo Iohannis usque 
in ilium diem quo adsumptus est a nobis, testem resurrectionis eius 
nobiscum esse. 23 et statuit duos, Ioseph qui uocabatur Barsabas qui et 
Iustus, et Matthiam. ^et precatus dixit : Tu Domine cordis omnium 
intellector, ostende ex his duobus quern elegisti 25 ad suscipiendum locum 
huius ministerii et adnuntiationis, a qua excessit Iudas ambulare in 
locum suum. 2G et dederunt sortes suas, et cecidit sors super Matthiam, 
et simul deputatus est cum undecim apostolis duodecimus. et cum 
legisset, dixit : Audiuimus quis ordinatus est in locum Iudae traditoris... 
Ac ii Et cum dixisset, legit : J In illo tempore quo subpletus est dies Pentecostes 

fuerunt omnes simul iu uno. 2 et factus est subito de caelo sonus, quasi 
ferretur flatus uehemens, et inpleuit totam illam domum in qua erant 
sedentes. 3 et uisae sunt illis liuguae diuisae quasi ignis, qui et insedit 
super unumquemque eorum. 4 et inpleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sancto, et 

15 discentium] dicentium codd. omn, audientium Zycha ! (cf Cypr 738) 
cxx: — 1B uiri fratres] centum uiginti uiri— fratres Zycha 

1 Iu illo tempore] § Fund illo] loco Fel. codd. omn (legit in loco: tempore, 
quo Zycha) simul in uno] eadem animatione simul in uuum Fund 2 totum 
ilium locum Fund quo Fund 



coeperunt loqui uariis Unguis quomodo Spiritus dabat eis pronuntiare. 
5 Hierosolymis autem fuerunt habitatores Iudaei, homines ex omni 
natione quae est sub caelo. 6 et cum facta esset uox, collecta est turba 
et confusa, qnoniam audiebat unusquisque suo sermone et suis Unguis 
loquentes eos. 7 stupebant autem et admirabantur ad inuicem dicentes : 
Nonne omnes qui loquuntur natione sunt Galilaei? "et quomodo 
agnoscimus in illis sermonem in quo nati sumus? "Parthi Medi et 
Elamitae, et qui inhabitant Mesopotamiam Iudaeam et Cappadociam, 
Pontum Asiam 10 Frigiam et Pamphyliam, Aegyptum et partes Libyae 
quae est ad Cyreneru, et qui aderant Romani "Iudaeique et proselyti, 
Cretenses et Arabes, audiebant loquentes illos suis linguis magnalia 
Dei. et cum recitaret, dixit : Audisti nunc iam Spiritum Sanctum et 
quomodo sit missus? quod de me exegisti probaui 

4 uariis] om. Fund 5 habitantes Fund 6 confusa] + est Fund 

9 Parthi] + et Fel. codd ()ion opt) Medi et] om. et Fund Iudaeam] Armeniam 

Fund 10 Frygiain Fund ; Phrigiamque Fel. cod, Phrygiam Fel. cod Zycha 

partes Libyae] regiones Africae Fund aduenerant Fund 11 Iudaeique et 

proselyti] et Iudaei incolae et Fund Dei] + ls stupebant autem et haesitabant 

ob id quod factum est dicentes quidnam hoc uult esse? 13 alii autem iuridebant 
dicentes : Hi musto omnes onerati sunt Fund 

The close agreement of the text of Lc xxiv in this extract 
with the Vulgate, and of Ac i and ii with that of the book 
contra Ep. Fundamenti is obvious at a mere glance. Moreover 
the strongly ' African ' character of the text of the Acts will be 
at once visible to anyone at all familiar with the Cod. Bobiensis (k) 
or the Fleury Palimpsest (h). I need only mention contemplari 
(Mc x 27 k, Ac iii 3, 5 It), Eleon (Mc xi 1, xiii 3, xiv 26 k), 
discens (Mt viii 21 etc k, Ac vi 5, ix 10 h), and the repeated use 
of quomodo for cu<? ; these with many other points of language are 
hardly found except in African documents 1 . 

For the sake of comparison I repeat the first four verses of the 
Acts as read in contra Felicem, arranged parallel with the Vulgate. 
Sixteen variations will be found in four verses, some of them of the 
most serious kind (such as the complete omission of adsumtus est 
in Aug 3 / 3 ). On the other hand in the fourteen verses of the quo- 
tation from S. Luke the text of the contra Felicem only differs nine 
times from the Vulgate, all nine being minor points. 

1 For a more extended discussion see P. Corssen, Der Gyprianische Text der 
Acta Apostolorum, Berlin, 1892. 



contra Fel. (cf. contr. ep. Fund) 

Primum quidem sermonem 
feci de omnibus, o Theophile, 
quae coepit Iesus facei'e et docere 
2 in die quo apostolos elegit 

per Spiritum Sanctum A 

et praecepit praedicare 

Euangelium : 

3 quibus praebuit se uiuum 

post passionem A 

in multis argumentis dierum 

uisus eis A dies XL 

et docens de regno Dei, 

4 et quomodo conuersatus est cum 

et praecepit eis 

ne discederent ab Hiei'osolymis, 
sed susiinerent 
pollicitationem Patris 
quam audistis inquit ex ore meo 

from cod. Amiatinus 

Primum quidem sermonem 
feci de omnibus, o Theophile, 
quae coepit Iesus facere et docere 
2 usque in die?/i qua praecipie/ts 

per Spiritum Sanctum 
quos elegit 
adsumtus est A 

3 quibus et praebuit se ipsum uiuum 
post passionem suam 
in multis argumentis 
per dies XL apparens eis 
et loquens de regno Dei 
4 et conuescens 

praecepit eis 

ab Hierosolymis ne discederent 

sed expectarent 

promissionum Patris 

quam audistis [inquit] per os me«»i 

I do not see any reason to doubt the accuracy of the account of 
the trial of Felix. In many parts the work reads like the transcript 
of a shorthand report, e.g. contra Fel ii 14 {Zycha, p. 843), 

Aug. dixit : Anathemandus est error, qui dicit corruptibilem Deum, 
an non est anathemandus ? 

Fel. dixit : Iterum die. 

Aug. dixit: Anathemandus est error, qui dicit corruptibilem Deum, 
an non est anathemandus 1 

And again, a little lower down, 

Fel. dixit : Non intellexi, quod dixisti. 

Unless this is mere literary fraud, the text of contra Felicem 
must rest on mechanical reporting ; if so, the probability is all the 
stronger that the words of the Biblical text of Lc xxiv, and of 
Ac i and ii, were taken down as they were read out of the codices. 


This agrees too with what S. Augustine himself says of the book 
in Retr ii 8 : " Gesta sunt ecclesiastica, sed inter meos libros 
computantur." The MS tradition of the work appears to be fairly 
good, though all known copies are somewhat late and belong to a 
single family. Zycha's oldest MS is of the 12th century. In 
Ac i 15, where all Zycha's MSS have dicentium for discentium, the 
MS of contra Felicem in the Cambridge University Library (Ii. III. 2) 
has the further corruption docentium. The parallel quotation in 
contra Ep. Fundamenti rests upon much more ancient MS authority, 
and contains on the whole more primitive readings. This is espe- 
cially the case from Ac ii 9 onwards. 

The extract I have given from the contra Felicem is thus doubly 
valuable to the textual critic. On the one hand it affords one 
of the clearest proofs of S. Augustine's use of the Vulgate Gospels 
at the beginning of the fifth century, and on the other it gives us 
a continuous text of the Old African version of the greater part 
of the first two chapters of the Acts, a section altogether wanting 
in the Fleury MS, the first fragment of which begins at Ac iii 2. 
A quotation so long and so curious as that of Ac i and ii in the 
contra Felicem has not of course remained unnoticed, the most 
satisfactory investigation of it being Corssen's tract Der Gyprianische 
Text der Acta Apostolorum noticed above. Corssen rightly brings 
out its thoroughly Cyprianic character, and notices that the 
quotation from S. Luke which precedes it " comes quite close to 
the Vulgate" (p. 25), but he only uses this circumstance to dis- 
prove Ziegler's assertion that S. Augustine always quotes from a 
single form of text. He does not apparently notice that S. Augustine, 
in changing from the Vulgate Gospels to what strikes us as an 
ancient ' African ' text of the Acts, is still consistent with himself. 
With Ziegler I recognise that S. Augustine, like S. Cyprian, 
habitually used a single text, at least from about 400 AD onwards ; 
but this text, unlike S. Cyprian's, is of a different character in 
different books of the New Testament. 


The Gospel text in Aug. de Consensu Euangelistarum. 

Notwithstanding Sabatier's explicit judgment, quoted above 
on p. 59, the proofs in this Note that the Gospel text in the de 
Consensu was taken by S. Augustine himself from the Vulgate 
may not be altogether superfluous. I have used the following 
additional abbreviations : 

vg = Wordsworth and White's text of the Vulgate, 
vg. cl = the Clementine text of the Vulgate, 
Aug. cons = text of Be Consensu Euangelistarum. 

Single MSS of the Vulgate are cited by Wordsworth and 
White's notation. 

The references to Aug. cons are by the smaller chapters of 
the Paris reprint of the Benedictine edition (1836 — 1839). 

1. The quotations have not been assimilated wholesale to the 
Vulgate in the MS transmission of Aug. cons. 

This appears from e.g. Aug. cons i 44 (=Esai ii 5 — 21); i 47 
(=Esai lii 13— liv 5); iv 9 (= Ac i 1, 2); iii 84 (=Ac x 41); 
iii 70 (= 1 Cor xv 3 — 8). In all these passages the text differs 
greatly from the Vulgate. 

2. The Gospel quotations in Aug. cons as they stand, both long 
and short, agree so closely with the Vulgate as to render it certain 
that they were derived from it. 

a. The actual amount of difference between Aug. cons and 
the text of Wordsworth and White hardly comes up to one varia- 


tion in three verses, the most trifling variations (except spelling) 
being included. 

An example, chosen at random, exhibiting the mutual relations 
of Aug. cons, the Vulgate and /will make this clear. As hitherto 
the text of/ has been supposed to represent the basis not only of 
the Vulgate but also of Aug, I give it in full with variants of vg 
and Aug (cons iii 46) below. 

J oh xix 4 — 16 from cod. Brixianus (/) 

(Italics mark the readings where vg and Aug agree against /). 

i exiuit iterum pilatus foras. et dixit eis. ecce adduco nobis enni 
foras. ut sciatis quia non inuenio ullam causam in eo. 5 exiit ergo 
iesus foras. habens spineam coronani et tunicam purpuream. et dixit 
eis. ecce homo. 6 cum ergo uidissent earn principes sacerdotum et 
ministri eorum. exclamauerunt dicentes. crucifige crucifige eum. dicit 
eis pilatus accipite eum uos. et crucifigite ego enim. non inuenio in 
eo causam. 7 responderun£ iudaei. nos legem habemus. et secundum 
legem, debet mori. quia filium dei se fecit. 8 cum ergo audisset 
pilatus hoc uerbum. magis timuit. 9 et introiuit iterum in praetorio. 
et ait ad iesum. unde es tu. iesus autem responsum non dedit ei. 
10 dicit ergo ei pilatus. mihi non loqueris. nescis quia potestatem 
habeo crucifigere te. et potestatem habeo dimittere te. u respondit 
iesus. non haberes in me ullam potestatem. nisi tibi data fuisset de- 
super, proptei-ea. qui me tibi tradidit. maius peccatum habefc. 12 et 
exinde quaerebat pilatus dimittere eum. iudaei autem clamabant 
dicentes si hunc dimiseris. non es amicus caesaris. omnis enim qui 
se regem facit. contradicit caesari. 13 pilatus autem his uerbis auditis. 
adduxit foras iesum. et sedit pro tribunali in locum qui dicitur litho- 

Variants of vg and Aug. 4 exiit vg Aug dicit vg Aug eum uobis Aug 

cognoscatis vg Aug in eo nullam causam inuenio vg Aug 5 foras] om. vg Aug 
habens] portans vg Aug tun. pur.] purpureum uestimentum vg Aug dicit 

vg Aug 6 pr. sac] pontifices vg Aug eorum] om. vg Aug clamabant 

vg Aug eum] om. vg [sic) Aug 7 resp.] + ei vg Aug 8 hunc sermonem 

vg Aug 9 ingressus est praetorium iterum vg Aug ait] dicit vg Aug 

11 in me u. pot.] pot. aduersum me ullam vg Aug (aduersus Aug"*) data fuisset] 

esset datum vg, datum esset Aug tradidit me tibi vg Aug 12 et] om. vg Aug 

pilatus quaerebat Aug dimittis vg Aug enim] om. vg Aug 13 autem] 

ergo vg Aug cum audisset bos sermones vg Aug in loco Aug ei litho- 

strotos Aug ed , lithostrotus vg (sic) 

74 THE 'ITALA'. 

stratus, hebraice autem gennesar. u erat autem parasceue paschae. 
hora quasi sexta. et dixit iudaeis. ecce rex uester. 15 illi autem 
exclamauerunt. tolle. tolle. crucifige eum. dixit eis pilatus. regem 
uestrum crucifigam. responderunt principes sacerdotum. non habemus 
regem nisi caesarem. 16 tunc ergo. tradidit eis ilium. ut cruci- 

13 gabbatha vg Aug 14 dicit vg Aug (dicit ergo Aug, taking up the Gospel 

narrative after some reviarks) 15 clamabant vg Aug pr. sac] pontifices 

vg Aug 

Here then in 13 verses Augustine goes with the best text of 
the Vulgate against / 26 times, against both / and vg three (or 
four) times, with / against vg not at all ! And no known purely 
Old Latin MS is so near to vg as /. 

/3. The coincidences of Aug. cons with vg include many 
readings and renderings found in no. Old Latin authority — 
readings therefore which probably originated with S. Jerome. 

Examples are : — 

Aug. cons ii 17 sciscitabatur = Mt ii 4 vg (= iirvv6dv€To) ; but 
quaes\iu\it, requisiuit, interrogabat lat. vt 

Aug. cons ii 138 in sermone meo = Joh viii 31 vg; but in uerbo meo 
lat. vt, incl Aug. Joh 41 

Aug. cons ii 70 eiciat = Mt ix 38 vg. codd. opt (= iKfSaXrj) ; but mittat 

The last is an especially noteworthy case, as any text to 
which the MSS of Aug. cons would be likely to be conformed in 
later times would almost certainly have mittat. 

7 . The differences between Aug. cons and the text of 
Wordsworth and White are mostly minutiae, and in these cases 
Aug. cons generally has support from some MSS of the Vulgate, 
i.e. the variations do not go beyond the variations actually found 
in MSS of the Vulgate itself 

Examples : — 

Aug. cons iii 27 (Job xviii 28) ad Caipham for a Caiapha. Our 
knowledge of the text of Aug. cons is not exact enough to determine 
the spelling of the proper name, but ad for a is expressly attested by 
the mss and is required by the context. Among MSS of the Vulgate ad 


Caipham (Caiapha, Cai/an, etc) is read by Wordsworth's MI£F CT ©H 
SOXZ* BKTS* DE K W as well as e a cfffaur gat. 

Aug. cons iii 28 (Mt xxvii 9) filii Israel for a filiis Isr. filii 
israhel {or filii srael etc, as/) is also read by C(T) a >m «DLQ(R*) as well 

Aug. cons ii 45 codd (Lc vi 17) mariti?na tyri for maritime/, et tyri ; 
' maritima tyri' is read by H*©P and acefffqr (hiat b), ' mariti- 
maetyri ' is read by MG. 

3. The few serious variations of Aug. cons from the Vulgate 
are very seldom Old Latin readings. 

In Aug. cons ii 71 there is a short quotation of Joh v 29 from 
the O. L., while in iv 6 Mt xxv 45 is cited from memory with the 
unsupported variant quando for quamdiu, and in iii 86 and iv 20 
in the peroration of the books we have Joh xiv 21 with the 0. L. 
ostendam for manifestabo. But these stand almost alone, unless we 
add the variations of Ac i 1, 2 in Aug. cons iv 9, which seems to be 
a quotation from memory of the African text as found e.g. in contr. 
Fel 804. Again, the readings regnum euangelii for euangelii 
regnum (Aug. cons ii 70 = Mt ix 35) and gloria sua for gloria patris 
sui (Aug. cons ii 111 = Mc viii 38) are absolutely unsupported by 
any known authority, and are most probably due to S. Augustine 
himself. That he was now and then capable of a simple slip is 
shewn by his substitution of Barnabas for Silas in an allusion to 
Ac xvi 25 (Aug. Joh 113). 

There are two passages where S. Augustine expressly quotes a 
Gospel by name for a reading which it is hard to believe was 
anything more than a mere blunder in the MS before him. These 
two passages in fact form the only argument for supposing that the 
text S. Augustine took as the basis for the Be consensu was ori- 
ginally different from that of the Vulgate. 

In Aug. cons ii 26 we read : — " Me uero baptizabit uos Spiritu 
" Sancto. De baptismo autem hoc [Ev. sc. Marci] ab utroque 
" [distat], quia non dixit et igni sed tantum in Spiritu Sancto. 
" Sicut enim Mt ita et Lc dixit et eodem ordine Ipse uos baptizabit 
" in Spiritu et igni, nisi quod Lc non addidit Sancto, sicut Mt dixit 
" in Spiritu Sancto et igni." All these quotations agree literally 
with the Vulgate except for the omission of Sancto in Lc iii 16, a 

76 THE f ITALA'. 

reading for which there is some faint Greek evidence, but the only 
Latin evidence which is quoted for it is a doubtful allusion in Tert. 
de Bapt § 10. Is it not a simpler hypothesis to suppose that the 
word was accidentally omitted in S. Augustine's codex ? We know 
at least from Retr ii 12 that S. Augustine in Quaest. Ev i 27 had 
been deluded into unnecessary subtleties by the error of the codex 
he was then using, which read duobus instead of duodecim in 
Mt xx VI 1 . It is worth adding, lest it should be thought that S. 
Augustine's express mention of readings usually shew variation 
from the Vulgate, that in this very passage (Aug. cons ii 26) he 
expressly says that procumbens is found in Mc i 7 and that in 
poenitentiam is not added in Lc iii 16. This is true of the text of 
Wordsworth and White in each place, but the exact contrary is the 
case in every extant Old Latin text except /, which however differs 
verbally in some other respects in both passages. Thus but for the 
single omission of Sancto m Lc iii 16 Aug is here using a text 
distinctively Vulgate in character. 

Again in Aug. cons iii 25 we read : " lam uero illud quod Mt ipsi 
" Petro dictum fuisse asserit Vere et tu ex Mis eo, nam et loquela tua 
"manifestum te faciei (Mt xxvi 73) ; sicut Ioh eidem Petro dictum 
"asseuerat " Nonne ego te uidi in horto cum Mo? (Joh xviii 26); 
"Mc autem inter se illos de Petro locutos dicit Vere ex Mis est, 
" nam et Galilaeus est (cf Mc xiv 70) ; sicut et Lc non Petro sed 
"de Petro dicit Alius quidam ajjirmabat dicens, Vere et hie cum 
" Mo erat, nam et Galilaeus est (Lc xxii 59)...". The true text of 
Mc xiv 70 as witnessed by every other authority Greek and Latin, 
including Aug himself at the beginning of the section, has Petro for 
de Petro and es for est in each place, thereby rendering the remark 
quoted above inaccurate. Aug seems in fact to confuse this remark 
with that in the previous verse (Mc xiv 69), where the maid says 
of Peter Hie ex Mis est. Those who have occasion to work at 
the diction of the parallel narratives of the Synoptists will not 
wonder at occasional confusions of this kind in the most careful 

I have treated these two passages more fully, because they are 

1 The present writer has in his possession a Vulgate Bible of the 14th cent, 
which actually agrees with Aug in omitting sco here ; the ms has elsewhere several 
readings of an interesting type, but this is no doubt a mere blunder. 


I believe the only places where even a prima facie case can be 
raised against the hypothesis, that S. Augustine in the De 
consensu was working on a MS of the Vulgate 1 . 

The references to Various Readings in the De Consensu. 

In several places S. Augustine gives various readings found in 
' some codices '. This is his usual way of indicating an Old Latin 
reading as distinct from the Vulgate. 

Aug. cons ii 31 nonnulli codices habent sec. Lucam (iii 22)... Filius 
mens es tu, ego hodie genui te ; quamquam in antiquioribus codicibus 
graecis non inueniri perhibeatur. 

Aug. cons ii 70 In nominibus...discipulorum Lucas... a Mt (x 3) 
non discrepat, nisi in nomine Iudae Iacobi quern Mt ' Thaddaeum ' 
appellat ; nonnulli autem codices habent ' Lebdaeum '. 2 

Aug. cons ii 106 ' Dalmanutha ', quod in quibusdam codicibus 
legitur (Mc viii 10), non dixit Mt, sed ' Magedan'...Nam plerique 
codices non habent etiam sec. Mc nisi ' Magedan '. 

(Aug. cons ii 128 codices ecclesiastici interpretationis : i.e. of Zech 
ix 9 lxx.) 

Aug. cons iii 29 Si quis autem moueter quod hoc testimonium non 
inuenitur in Scriptura Hieremiae prophetae...primo nouerit quod non 
omnes codices Euangeliorum habere quod per Hieremiam dictum sit... 
sed tantum per proplietam dicentem... Sed utatur ista defensione cui 
placet ; mihi autem cur non placet haec causa est, quia et plures codices 
habent Hieremiae nomen, et qui diligentius in graecis exemplaribus 
Euangelium considerauerunt in antiquioribus graecis ita se perhibent 
inuenisse cur autem de nonnullis codicibus tolleretur, etc. 

1 Numerical results of a collation of Aug. cons (C) and Wordsworth's Vulgate (W) 
with cod. Brixianus (/) and with cod. Monacensis (q) in Mt i, ii (including stray 
quotations up to Aug. cons ii 13) and Mt xxvi 1 — 26 [63 verses in all] : 

















90 101 

2 Cf. the early correction iebdaeus Mt x 3 k, where the first hand had written 
iebbaeus. The Benedictine editors of Aug read Lebbaeum with (?some) mss. 

78 THE 'ITALA'. 

The ms authorities for the four readings are as follows : 

ii 31 nonnulli codd.=Drf a b cff* I r Tyc Faust (not contradicted by 
Aug. contra Faust) HiP Iuv [not e,fq vg] 

ii 70 nonnulli codd. = D<Z k [' Iud. Zelotes' abh q gat GE; /=S"«'; 
' Thaddaeus ' vg] 

ii 106 quibusdam codd. =/ q vg and Aug 

plerique codd. = Dd k abcffir 

iii 29 non omnes codd. and nonnullis codd. = a h [not d vg ; k and e are 
not extant here] 


If, as I have attempted to shew, S. Augustine accepted the Vulgate 
for his text of the Gospels, the whole of the N.T. as used by him is 
now represented in extant mss. It has long been recognised that the 
Freising fragments, published by Ziegler and usually called r, give 
S. Augustine's text of the Pauline Epistles; his text in the Apocalypse, 
Acts, and Catholic Epistles is given by the Fleury Palimpsest, while in 
the Apocalypse we have the additional evidence of Primasius. Hitherto 
it has appeared surprising that none of our numerous Old Latin Codices 
of the Gospels should correspond to S. Augustine's 'Itala', seeing that 
the Augustinian text was so fully represented in our scanty list of Old 
Latin authorities for the rest of the N.T. But now the matter is clear 
enough. No ' Old Latin ' ms could give the Augustinian text of the 
Gospels, because the Augustinian text of the Gospels is the Vulgate. 



Cod. Sangallensis No. 912 is a palimpsest, the upper writing 
being a Latin Glossary of the 9th cent. Nearly all the leaves have 
older writing underneath, very faint and brown, and quite illegible 
except where the pages have been stained with a blue reagent. 
Pp. 303, 304, 309, 310, 25, 26, 31, 32 (and no others) are taken 
from an Old Latin MS of Jeremiah, making two nearly complete 
pages of the older writing. This, which will be cited here as g, 
appears to date from the fifth century at least 1 . There are no 
signatures preserved, so that no idea can be formed of the original 
contents of the book. There are fifteen lines in a column, and 
only one column in a page, making the original page nearly a 
square of about 8 in. — that is, about the shape and size of the 
Bobbio Gospels (k). The bodkin lines are 3{f in. apart for the 
columns, | in. for the lines. The length of the lines varies from 3| 
to 4 j in., mostly however they just reach 4 inches ; the letters are 
•^ in. high. The writing very much resembles the Old Latin 
fragments of the Gospels from the same Library, usually cited 
as n (in Cod. Sangall. 1394, torn, i), but the rather peculiar ' a ' 
found in n does not occur. 

The fragments of Jeremiah were edited by Tischendorf in the 
second edition (1861) of Monumenta Sacra et Pro/ana. The MS, 
as Tischendorf says, is hard to read ; but by the aid of a magnifying 
glass and a good light I have been able to read some words hitherto 
undeciphered. The mutilated fragments of Hier xvii are less 
clear than those of Hier xxix (49) : I doubt if they would come 
out better in a photograph. It will be seen that in Hier xvii a 
third of each line has been altogether cut away. 

1 The regular use of ' dms ' and ' dine ' (not ' dns ' and ' due ') makes in favour 
of this early date. 

B. 6 

Cod. S. 
Gall 912 
p. 25 

p. 32 


cuiquese cuNducrmi^seiuS 
6T5ecu Vid uon p j^ uc Tuonco 
cit\tio Viuoneoj^uonj^ed 
dejieei s cl^onMJirjej^dix 


jejoT- on ulTOST^_K I ^T5iBi 

pillOS\ dqU!Jl6M5dlUlTlXS 


d ion i d i o d i e j^ ucneiuid e _k e 

io llNqU6NT6UCneTUSq.|NNO 


6xMt;\y useST.eT6NionS/\Kic 
is r |lliuSiST_KAel. 

{fol 1 r) 

2 Littera T in Jructum non liquet: habet Tisch. 3 ' eorum red' et 

5 ' quos non pe ': non legit Tisch. 6 ' pariat' : rapiat Tisch. 7 'a' 

in adquirens legit Tisch., seel non exstat in menibranis. 10 ' m ' in enm et 

11 's' ad Jin. non liquent: habet Tisch. 12 'r' et 's' in uirtutis non 

liquent: virtute Tisch. 13 ' etenini sane ' : et erit Tisch. 14 ' tie 

in patientia, et partes ' n ' et ' t ' 2°, non satis liquent : habet Tisch. 


d on eoonKieSquiTedejieliN 


quidiseessejiuNT /SvTej^j^ 

SC_kiBAnituj^imIiH)Ji oonoj^Ti5 
qui^dej^eliNqueji untpon 

Cod. S. 
Gall 912 
p. 26 

TeonuiT^ j^Amedcne 
6TS^luu56j^o.Tue5 eMioncl^ 
j^T^sone^.eeeehn. die unit 

on i h mBi65TuejiB ucndcfii p 31 


hoeni NiSNONjde Sidej^ui 
Tu5Ci5quAejKOC6 deBMM rde 
lA.Bn^oneiSeTiNJCo Ni5pecTu 

•? TU05UNTOCTINIA. N * # # 

(fol lv) 

1 ' dme' sine linea superiori : habet Tiscb. 8 ' hii.' sic, cum puncto ad 

finem lineae ; om. punctum Tisch. 14 ' et ' : om. Tisch. 15 post omn ia. 

pars litterae ' n ' adbuc uisibilis est. 


Cod. S. 
Gall 912 
p. 304 

p. 309 


lexBi&eNdicMiceonB i hey. u kt 
eTTud ucncnuNid^T^xjideji i 5 
MONlonuMd^Be_lll5•J 1 6Jlcne 

s Memo^ejiTj^NSieTeTiKiox 



- \udiui\d end 6TnuntioS 
Adc6NiT65oni5iTdi C 6 nj 5 c o Nl 
c^ecVT euoseTueNiTexdueji 
Sucne^on e x S uji citeiNj^uc 

>s eeMTesdiCNJAecoNiTeonjTu 

(fol 2 r) 

5 'et': om. Tisch. 14 pupillum Tisch., sed littera ' p ' 2° non satis 

liquet. 15 lineola super 'u' in contemptu non satis liquet, et om. Tisch. 

Debebat esse digne-contemptum (evKara^phvriTov) . 


iNYej^hooniNeslusuSTu-s Cod - s 

j ^ " J Gall 912 

, p. 303 

Ti ACincoj^d l5Tuih\BiTAuit 

iNC\uejiN i5T6Tji \y. urn 

> con j\£ eheNdircniiNiTio 

Nemcol li5excel5i6Tqui^ 



6j;iTq.idumeA5iN6ue5Tii ,31() 




KX6TUlClMA6eiU5ClXJlT^T6 5 

S i c 5 u b u eji t Aonred i c irdms 
ocriNijoTeN^'N ONi^edeBi t 


1 'tu~s'sic: cf. ' ill~m ' Mt xiv 3 e 7 ' nidu' apographum mcum, for- 

tasse per errorem : nidu, Tisch. 12, 14, 15 litterae ' r ', ' s ', et ' t ' ad fin. 

abscissae sunt. Quae suppleui ad initia et fines linearum abscissarum in 

notis criticis defenduntur. 


Comparison of the Fragments with other texts of the LXX. 

The verses contained in the S. Gallen fragments are extant in 
no other Old Latin MS. Under these circumstances it seemed best 
to compare them with the Cambridge text of B, and to bring 
together such Latin parallels as were to be found, together with 
those variations of Greek MSS from Holmes and Parsons which 
might find an echo in a Latin text. It was necessary to give 
readings of certain secondary Greek MSS, even where they differed 
both from the S. Gallen Palimpsest and from BtfA etc., that the 
importance of their occasional points of contact with the Palimpsest 
might not be overrated. This is the case for example with 
Parsons' 106. 

LXX (B) Fragm. S. Gall. 

xvii 10 rov Sowcu 

wao-Tw Kara ras oSovs avrov Cuique secundum uias eius 

Kal Kara Tors KapTrov<; tuv et seczuiduni/ructum co- 

iirLTr]Sevfxa.T<Dv avrov. gitationmn eorum red- 

11 i<t>u>vr)o-iv Trep8i£, dere eis • "clamauit perdix 

<rvvijyayev a ovk coiigregSLuit quos non pe- 

«T€K£V perit • multos pai'iat sibi 

7roiwv irXovrov filios «dquirens diuitias 

avrou oi /x€Ta Kpiacws, iu suas non cum iudicio in 

yfALaeL yp.ep<Lv avrov iy/cara- dimidio dierum eius dere- 

XeLij/ovo-iv avrov, Kal eV eV- linquent earn et usq. in no- 

Xaruiv avrov <to-rai acppuv. uissimo SUO erit stultus. 

v ~6p6vo<; 86^r]<; l -ihron\is autem uirtutis. 

Selected Greek variants from the Carnb. lxx and Holmes and Parsons. The 
symbol l> is used to denote the MSS 22-36-48-51-96-229-231 or a majority of them. 

10 avrov 2 n ] B a ? b XAQ Ed. Rom (et MSS e nil); avrwv B* 106 144 Compl Aid 

11 o-vvrryayev] pr /ecu ^ ttXovtov avrw 144 Kara\ei\j/ovo-ii> ^ 62 Kai en- 
eaxcruv] Kac eweaxo-rov 41-49-87-90-91-228 ; om /ecu 62 

From Sabatier [add m 355 for ver. 10] 
10 cogitationum] studiorum m Aug Vig eorum reddere eis] eius m Aug Vig 

11 congregauit] pr. et Amb l l. 2 ; collegit Philastr quos] quae Aug Ami-/., Philastr 
parturiit Philastr multos pariat sibi filios] no other authority adquirens] 

faciens Aug Philastr diu. suas] sibi diuitias Philastr iudicio] sapientia 

Philastr dimidio] medio Philastr nouissimo suo] nouissimis suis Aug-j^; 

postremo Philastr stultus] insipiens Aug-/. 2 Philastr 12 init.] thronus 

uirtutis (om. autem) Ami; sedes autem gloriae Aug 


LXX (B) Fragm. S. Gall, 

xvii v\f/wp.ivo<s exaltatus est. etenim sanc- 

i ayiao~p.a rjfiwv' virop.ovrj tificatio nostra 13 pa£ientia 

'lapaijX, Hints (?) Istr&el. 

Kvpie, 7ravT6s ol KaTa\nr6vTe<; Dine omnes qui te derelin- 

cre KaTaiaxyvd-qTioo-av, querunt conimidantur 

dcptcTTrjKOTes on ttjs y?/s qui discesserunt a terra 

ypacpiJTwa-av, scribantur in libro mortis 

otl iyKaTeXnrov Trrjyrjv quia dereYmqueruiit fou- 

£wr}<; Toy Kvpiov. u lacrai p.e, Kvptc, tern uitae diili. "cura me dJiie 
kcu laurjcofiai' crwcrov pa. 

koX, otl Kav-^pA et saluus ero. tu es enim(1)cla- 

p.ov crv el. 15 iSoi> avTol Xiyovcrt ritas mea. 15 ecce hii. dicunt 

71-pos p.e Hov eo-Tiv 6 Xoyos Kvpluv ; mihi ubi est uerbwwi dmi 

iX.6o.Tw. 16 eyw 8e ovk iKoiriacra. ueni 16 ego autem non labo- 

KaTa.KoXov6<Zv oirio-to crov, kcu rfpepav raui subsequens te et die 

Selected Greek variants. 12 vxf/ufievos] om 144 ; + cur apxrjs tottos 106 ; + e£ 
apxys tottos ^ (Q'" B 87 sub #) 13 ay lclct p.aT os \ viro/xof^s N* /carcucrx.] 

TTToiidiTjaav ovtol Kai /Hi] irT07]9n)v eypio (corr eyw) eaxvOvTwcrav X* /carcucrxi/i/- 

6r)Two-av ypa<prjT waav] KaTai0xvvdi)o-ovTai ypcMpTjo-ovTat. (with varr) ^ 22 62 198 

ctti] cnro X ca ^ 26 62 198 eyypafirjTwcrcu' X L ' a Trrjyrjs] + udaTos 62 87 (sub #) 

14 auo-ov....audr]] orn A* vid av ei] et crv -41-91-228 26 106 198 on] oin A 

ffv] om A 15 e\0a.Tw] + dr] I 41 62 87 (sub #) ; om e\0. 49-90 

From Sabatier [add m 355 for ver. 10] 

12 est] Aug Amb (against Gk mss) illius (?)] om. Aug 

From Sabatier [add m 698 for ver. 13. The text of Contr. Fulg. Donatistam is 
quoted from B.M. Addl. 16896, saec. xi] 

13 omnes qui derelinqunt te confundantur, recedentes a te scribantur in libro 
mortis, quoniam derelinquerunt te, confundantur recedentes a te fonte uitae. Fulg 
ms (derelinquunt...confundentur...scribentur.. .derelinquerunt te fontem uitae Edd) 
uniuersi qui der. te confundantur, recedentes super terram scribantur Aug. c. 
adv. Leg 

Domine, uniuersi qui te der. terreantur; conf. qui recesser. in terram. Euer- 
tentur quoniam derelinquerunt fontem uitae Dominum Aug. Faust, xiii 

Domine, omnes qui te derelinquunt confundantur, discedentes a terra euurtantur, 
qui derelinquerunt fontem uitae Dominum m 698 

14 sana me Domine et sanabor, saluum me fac et saluus ero Aug Faust Amb l j 3 
(salua me Amb' 2 j 3 and De xlii Mans) quoniam gloriatio mea tu es Aug quia 
gloria mea tu es Amb 15 ubi est uerbum Domini, ueniat Amb % / a 16 non 
laboraui sequens post te Aug Amb' 2 /. 2 et diem hominis non concupiui Aug Hit 



LXX (B) 

xvii a.v$pwirov ovk, 

ov lirirrrrj' to. iKTropevo/xeva Sirx 
tcuv ^etXewv p.ov irpo Trpo<ru>irov 
crov ccttiv. " p.rj yevr]6r}<; 

xxix Ots ovk yv 

' VOp.O<i 7T661V TO TTOT7)piOV, (.TTtOV 
KOLl 0~V d6<i)wp,€V7) 

ov p.i) aOwuydrjs, 14 6ti kclt i- 

p.avrov <up,oo-a, Aeyct Kupios, on 

cis afiarov Kal eis oVei- kcll eis 

eo"ir] ev /xe'cro) avrrjs, Kal Trdcrat 

at 7roAeis avrrjs kaovrat eprj- 

fiOL eis aiooVa. ' aKorjv 

r/Kovaa irapa Kupiou, Kai ayyeAous 

tis Wvr] aVeVreiAev 

^,vvd)(6r]Ti Kal 7rapayeVeo"#e eis 

avrrjv, avaor^Te eis 7roAe- 

. lfi v "Cv / » 

p.OV /XLKpOV EOWKa 0"€ €1/ 

euvecriv, ev KaTa<ppovi]Tov 

ev avOpioTTois. rj iraxyvva. o~ov 
kvt\<ilpr\o-iv croi, 17 ira- 
/tu'a KapSias o-ou KareAucrei/ 
rpu/xaAias Trerpwr, 

Fragm. S. Gall, 
hominis non desideraui 
tu scis quae procede&<zw£ rie 
labiis meis et in conspectu 
tuo sunt omnia • 17 m 

Lex bibendi calicem biberunt 
et tu dum mundata uideris 
non mundaberis • 14 per me 
enim iuraui dicit dnis • quia 
nemo pertransiet et in op- 
probrio et in maledictione 
eris in parte tua • et omnes 
ciuitates tuae erunt deser- 
tae in aeternum • 15 auditu 
audiui a dmo et nuntios 
ad gentes misit dicens con- 
gregate uos et uenite aduer- 
sum earn exsurgite in pug- 
nam • 16 pu(p)illum dedi te inter 
gentes dignaecontemptu 

Inter homines lusus tuus 
adquisiuit hoc tibi 17 stulti- 
tiam cordis tui habitauit 
in cauernis petrarum 

Selected Greek variants. 16 <tov 2°] /xov A ean] eict 106 

13 etriov] iriovres ewiov Q mg sub# X 62 a9(owdr]s] + oti ttiuiv wieaai. (with 

variations) AQ X (in.vovaa X) 14 on 1°] om A on eis a/3 60-77] on eis a<pavi- 

(Tfiov /cat eis a/3, Kai ear; 86; on eis a<pav. nai eis ov ei5iapLov /cai eis a/3aroe (cat eis 

eirt.KaTapa.o-ii> ear} X Karapactv] Karapav XA 41 106 al ; eiriKaTapacnv X ev 

p.eow aiurjs] ev /j.eo~b) fxepei ai'rris (88) Syr-Hex (fxepTj 88) ; Bocrop ev p.eaw fiepovs avT7]$ 
X 62 15 a7reo"reiXei'] a7reo - reiXai' 62 ; e£a?reo"TeiXe 49-90 eis avTr/v] eir avrrjv 

X ; ev avTt) 62 avaoTTiTe] pr /cat X 62 eis TroXeyaov] + ew avrrjv X 62 

16 /AtKpov] t8ov puKpov AQ 23 X al nuilt ; on tdov p.. 62 ei»Karac/>p.] pr xai A 49-90 al 

evexeiprjcrev croi] evexetpio-e aoi raura X 62 17 napaa] irapiav Q ; /cai 7) an/uia X ; 

rjTapua 106 rpi'/uaXias] ev Tpvp.a\iais X 62 

There are no quotations in Sabatier. 



LXX (B) 

xxix (Tvve\a{3ev loyyv 

fiovvov vil/rjXov- oTt 

vywatv wcnrtp outo? vocrcriav 

avTov, tKtWev Ka6e\<S at. 

18 kgu tarai 7] 'loov/xaia eis a- 

fiarov, 7ras 6 Trap<nropevofx.evos 

£7T avTTjv avpiei' 19 a>o"7r£p Kare- 

crTpa<j>7] 2oSo/u.a Kal Toixoppa 

/ecu at TvapoiKoi avTrjs, 

enrev Kupt09 

Ilaj/TOKpaTCDp, ov p.7) KaOiai] 

Fragm. S. Gall, 
conprehendit munitio- 
nem collis excelsi et quia 
exaltasti sicut aquila niduy/i 
tmim hide detraham te 
18 eritq. idumea sine uesti- 
gio • omnis qui transiet 
per earn sibilabit "sicut sub- 
uersa est Sodoma et Gomor- 
ra et uicinae eius ciuitates 
sic subuertam te dicit dins 
omnipotens • non sedebif 

Selected Greek variants. 17 on i^wcrey] on eav v\pwoa.$ A 239 ; on eav vxpwcrjs 
Q \ 62 86 al muU ; on i^wcras 106 al p avrov] eavTov X ; aov A & 62 88 106 

na6e\w ere] + (p-qcri ks ^ 62 18 iras] pr /ecu Q crt'ptet] tKO-Tijaerai /cot avptei 

eiri wacxav ttjv TrXrjytjv avr-qs Q \ 62 (with variations) 19 irapotKoi] wapoiKiai 106 

Kadiaij] Ka,ToiK7)(jei A 

There are no quotations in Sabatier. 

List of ivords and expressions found in g. 

xvii 10 

adquirere {iroulv) Hier xvii 11 

(ly^zipeiv, or lyxf.ipit,eiv) xxix 17 

aeternus — in aet. (ets attoVa) xxix 14 

cauerna (TpvjxaXia) xxix 17 

claritas (kgu^/aci = gloria) xvii 14 

cf. Hier xiii 11 A 

cogitatio (iTTLTifSeviia) 

= Hier xxiii 22 Cypr ; 
but meditatio Hier xi 18 Cypr 
adfectatio Hier xxv 5 Cypr 
studium Hier xvii 10 m Aug 

congregare (avvdyav) 

congregare se {crvvdyzo-dai) 

curare (lao-6ai) 

derelinquere (KaTaAeiVciv, lyKaTaXziTruv) 

desidei'are (iTriOviLtlv) 

detrabere (Ka^cupeiv) 

xvii 11 
xxix 15 
xvii 14 
xvii 11, 13 
xvii 16 
xxix 17 



digue (— ev in compos.) 

diguecontemptus (eu/caTCK^poV^Tos) 

xxix 16 

discessere (d</>io-Tao-#ai) 

xvii 13 

dum (= Gk. part) 

dum mundata uideris (d 


xxix 13 

enim (on) 

(xvii 1 

4) xxix 14 [see quia] 

excelsus (ix/^Xo's) 

xxix 17 

exsurgere (dvicrTacr^ai) 

xxix 15 

habitare in (KaraXveiv) 

xxix 17 

lusus (inuyvta) 

xxix 17 

maledictio (KardpaaLs) 

xxix 14 

mundari (dOwovaOai) 

xxix 13 

mundatus uideri (id) 

xxix 13 

munitio (to-^v?) 

xxix 17 

nemo — nemo pertransiet (eis 


xxix 14 [see sine] 

nuntius (dyycAos) 

xxix 15 

opprobrium (ovetSto'/xo'v) 

xxix 14 

pugua (ttoAc/aos) 

xxix 15 

pupillus, or pusillus (jjuKpos) 

xxix 16 

-que (kcu) 

xxix 18 

quia (on) 

xxix 14, 17 [see enim] 

saluuru esse (aw^eo-Ocu) 

xvii 14 

sine (- a ])riv.) 

sine uestigio (d/?aTos) 

xxix 18 [see nemo] 

stultitia (ira/Ata) 

xxix 17 

stultus (d<ppwv) 

xvii 11 

subsequi («aTaKoAov^eti/ oiriaw) 

xvii 16 

thronus (dpovos) 

xvii 12 

uerbum (Ao'yos) 

xvii 15 

uirtus (86£a) 

xvii 12 

Points of special interest. 

The most striking feature of the S. Gallon fragments (g) is the 
number of interpolations not found in any Greek MS. They are as 
follows : 

Hier xvii 10 eorum] + reddei-e eis. 

1 1 peperit] + multos pariat sibi filios 

1 2 thronus] + autem (= Aug) 
exaltatus] + est (= Aug Amb) 


Hier xvii 1 2 sanctificatio] pr, etenim 

13 scribantur] + in libro mortis (= contr. Fidrj. Don) 
16 labiis meis] + et \ 
sunt] + omnia J 
xxix 15 misit] + dicens 

16 adquisiuit] + hoc (but cf. the addition o/ravTa in A etc) 

17 excelsi] + et 

19 uicinae eius] + ciuitates, sic subuertam te 

Of a similar nature is the strange rendering of etV afiarov by 
nemo pertransiet in xxix 14. 

There are no Latin quotations for Hier xxix, and not many for 
the verses of xvii found in g. It is tantalizing that the Wiirzburg 
Palimpsest (h) leaves off just where g begins 1 , and that a long 
quotation in Tyconius begins a verse after g leaves off. 

On the other hand there is a compensation in the quotation of 
Hier xvii 13 by the Donatist in the 'contra Fulgentiwm Donatistain . 
This interesting little work (Migne xliii 763), ascribed in the mss 
to S. Augustine, mainly consists of a Dialogue between a Catholic 
and a Donatist. The Catholic quotes predominantly from the 
Vulgate, but the Donatist from the Old Latin. This would seem to 
shew that the Donatists held longer by the old version, and also 
suggests that the Dialogue is a real one ; for, had the dispute been 
altogether a piece of literary fiction, the two disputants would 
hardly have been introduced as quoting from different versions, 
unless the one version or the other was to be represented as being 
more accurate or orthodox. The Catholic does indeed correct his 
opponent for quoting Joh vii 38 in the form sicut dicit Isaias, 
instead of sicut dicit Scriptura, but this variant occurs nowhere 
else, and seems to be a mere blunder of the Donatist. 

To return to our text : — in the course of the dispute the 
Donatist quotes Hier xvii 13 with the addition of in libro mortis 
to scribantur, just as in g. Is not this enough to found a working 
hypothesis — I do not say more — that g has a text such as was 
current among the Donatists of the 4th cent. ? 

The question is complicated by the reading of m 144 and Aug. 
contr. Faust xiii, which have a terra euertentur (in), in terrain 

1 g and h are mss of quite a different size and shape, so that g cannot be a stray 
leaf of h. 


euertentur (Aug), which seems to point to a variant in the Greek 1 . 
If this be really so, and not a mere attempt to make sense by 
emendation instead of addition, the reading of g Fulg would seem 
to be a later correction. 

Another point of interest in g (which it shares with such 
African authorities as de Pascha Computus) is its coincidences 
with B, especially the first hand. In these few verses we have 

Hier xvii 10 eorum g — avrwv B* 106 al but avrov B corr NAQA etc 

m Aug 
xxix 1 6 /xiKpov] g = BX but pr l8ov AQ\ etc 

1 7 et quia exaltasti g = on 
ui/fcucras 106 
on v{J/o)(T£v BN copt but on tav vif/. AQX etc 

In the last passage the softening of the construction found in 
g is evidently quite independent of the later Greek reading found 
in AQ etc. 

On the other hand g has one reading not known in Greek 
except as part of a conflation. In xxix 14 g has 'in parte tua' 
corresponding to iv /xepet <rov, a variant for iv /xeaw avrr]<;. Here 
'88' and Syr-Hex 2 have iv /xecrw fiepei ai>Tr)<; {fxepr] 88), and in \ 
we find iv fiecro) fiepovs avri]<;. 

In the Latin of g the strangest word is dignecontemptum for 
€VKara(f>p6vr]To<;. I have not been able to find a parallel. Possibly 
' bene ' was felt to be unsuitable for a compound in a term of 

If I have restored ' [clajritas ' rightly as an equivalent to 
KavxVf xa > ^ must probably be regarded as a substitute for 'gloria'. 
Similarly we find several instances, even in Cyprian, of ' sermo ' 
for 'uerbum' as an equivalent of prj/^a, e.g. Esai xl 8 (Test III 58, 
de Hub. Virg § 6). 

1 Hier xvii 13 LXX &TTOTHCrHCrpA.4>HTCOCAN 


2 r^^MJSoA £\iw_^=ar3 Syr-Hex. 


1. On Micah v 2 in Cod. Weingartensis (to). 

The fragmentary Cod. Weingartensis, perhaps the best surviving 
Latin MS of the Prophets, has lost about half the breadth of the column 
at Mic v 2, so that the verse runs 

Ettube . . . 
domu . . . 

TIONI . . . 
TA-NU . . . 
MINI . . . 
UTSIS . . . 
IUDA .... 

What has to be supplied is quite clear, except in the second and 
third lines. E. Ranke, the discoverer and editor of the MS, restored 
the passage thus : Et tu bet/tleem | domus habita\tionis e/rajta* num- 

quid | minima es | ut sis in milibus | iuda Now as the Greek of 

Mic V 2 a is Kat o-v, JirjOXee/x oikos 'Ec£pu#a, [/a?/] oAiyocrTOS el tov eii'cu eV 
^lAtao-iv 'W8a, it is evident that a gloss of some sort has been inserted 
in the Weingarten Ms after 'domus', of which the letters '-tioni-' are a 
survival and for which Ranke has conjectured l habitatioms' . This 
however has no support, and it is rather too long. I venture to 
substitute for it ' re/*ectionis\ 

In the Onomastica published by Lagarde no Latin explanation 
of Bethlehem happens to be given, but I have found in an ' Inter preta- 
tiones bibliothece' at the end of a 15th cent. Vulgate in my possession 
the following line 

Bethleem dom' panis 7 dom' refectois 1 
'Domus refectionis' was therefore a recognised gloss for Bethlehem, 
and the occurrence of this name in the text of the Bible, followed 
immediately by the word 'domus', seems to have led to the insertion of 
'refectionis' in the text of the Weingarten MS. By substituting 
'refec[tioni]s' for the missing letters the required space is exactly 
filled up, and the presence of the interpolation accounted for. 


2. On the Interpolation in Mc xvi 4 in Cod. Bobie7isis. 

The interpolation in k which describes the Light at the Resurrection 
runs as follows : su|bito . autem ad horam tertiam | tenebrae diei factae 
sunt per | totura orbem terrae et des|cenderunt de caelis angeli || et 
surgent in claritate uiui di | simul ascenderunt cum eo | et continuo 
lux facta est|. 

The text is evidently not quite sound here. (1) It is usual to read 
'diei tenebrae' for 'tenebrae diei'. But transpositions are not common 
in k, while confusions of case and the addition and dropping of letters 
are extremely common. It is therefore better to simply read with 
Dr Hort 'die' for 'diei', and to refer to Amos viii 9 (avo-KOTao-ei £tt\ ttj<; 
yrjs iv r'j/JLepa to <£ws), a passage so often quoted by the Fathers with 
reference to the Passion that its influence may be legitimately traced in 
the wording of a story of the Resurrection. 

(2) ' Surgent ' is evidently wrong. The accepted conjecture here 
appears to be 'surgentes' (Hort, Sanday). But this is open to the 
objection that in that case the only indication of our Lord's immediate 
Ascension to Heaven from the tomb, which is evidently implied, would 
have to be gathered from the words 'cum eo'. Moreover, as Prof. 
Robinson has pointed out to me, ' surgere ' is inappropriate to the 
angels. They ascended with our Lord, but He alone rose from the 
dead. It seems to me that 'surgent' must refer to Christ; I therefore 
conjecture 'surgente', i.e. 'as He arose'. 

For the rather peculiar construction thereby implied — a participle 
agreeing with something to follow, instead of an abl. abs. — we may 

Mt viii 1 k : et descendentem de montem secuti sunt eura populi multi 
( = KarafidvTos 8e avrov utvo tov opovs r]Ko\ovdrj<rav avrut o%\oi ttoWoI). 

Here then 

surgente simul ascenderunt cum eo 

seems to stand for 

eyepdevros avrov avvaveftrjaav avTai, 

a sentence exactly similar in construction to Mt viii 1. For the rendering of 
simul ascendere cum, see Mark xv 41 k. 



in Ps. 37 33 

contra serm. Arrianorum 
35 14 

de Ciuitate Dei 
xviii 42, 43 54, 60 

de Consensu Euangelistarum 

i 44, 



ii 17 



75 f 


77 f 




74, 75, 77 f 




77 f 







iii 25 







77 f 











iv 6, 20 



67, 72, 75 

de Doctrina Christiana 


ii 16- 


61 ff 


54, 60, 63 


63 n 

iii 30 ff 


iv 16 

63 n 




xiii 16 

91 f 



12, 57 f 

i 2- 





ii 14 






67 ff 

Epp. (ad Hieronymum) 

10 58 

Ilomil. in Iohannem 

113 75 

de Online 
ii 45 65 n 

Quaest. Euangeliorum 

i 27 76 

i 21 60 

ii 8 71 

12 76 


104 55 n 

Coram, in Apoc 
440 f 31 




267 f 



ii 13 





i 4 

27, 38 

ii 3 



7 n, 26, 30 



iii 1 










de Dominica Oratione 



ad Fortunatum 


26, 27 



de Lapsis 
31 26, 27 

de Op. et Eleemosynis 
5 27 

vi 3 26 

lviii 5 26, 27 

lxiii 18 13 

Haer. v 25 44 

Etym. vi 4 54 

Praef. in Danielem 

Ep. ad Damasum 
63 f 

contra Vigilantium 
7 32 

75 32 

Dial, cum Try phone 
31 22, 23, 25 n 


de S. Athanasio 
40 32 

de Regibus apostaticis 
11 32 

p. 11 32 


de Baptismo 
10 76 

de Came Christi 
15 23 




7 n, 29 n 


20, 22 f 



iv 10 

21, 23 









de Paenitentia 



de Patientia 












19, 23, 24 


19, 24 



de Resurrectione Carnis 
58 21 

8 20 

p. 2 22 n 

in Apoc 6, 29 ff 


contra Varimundum 

Contra Fulgentium Donatistam 
91 f 

De Montihns Sina et Sion 
1 42 

De Pascha Computus 

13 7 

'Tert* adv. Iudaeos 

8 7 n 

9 29 n