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Full text of "The Book Of Snuff And Snuff Boxes"

The Book of Snuff 
and Snuff Boxes 

by 
MATTOON M. CURTIS 

Formerly Professor of Philosophy, 

Western Reserve University and member 

'Royal Society of Arts, London. 

A unique book, with many fine re- 
productions of snuff containers in 
varicolored gold and silver, ivory ? shell, 
horn, and precious woods and stones 
from the collection of the author and 
from museums both here and abroad. 

It is thoroughly readable and in- 
cludes a really surprising amount of 
curious, intriguing and little known in- 
formation about snuff, eminent "snuf- 
fers" and tobacco, and an excellent col- 
lection of curiosities. 

"Mr. Curtis' book is a scholarly pro- 
duction, with a twenty-page annotated 
bibliography and extensive quotations 
from ancient volumes, but it is also 
written with humor and charm and 
pithy phraseology, amusing anecdotes 
and pungent comments . . ." 

New York Times 



JUL 3M979 

APR I 138$ 
Lt\ M 

*n- .~,r. ? : 1980 



= " Ll; ii^j 
;^AY2 I 





875 



7^9 'C979*> 66-05026 

Curtis 

Tbe book of snuff and snuff 

"boxes 



MAIN 




DATE DUE 



THE BOOK 



SNtJFF AND SNUFF BOXES 




FIG. i. LARGE COMMUNAL OR GUILD MULL 
Fine Rams Horn. Mounted in Silver. Close of i8th century. 



THE BOOK OF 




11 ui 



ana 




nvii 




oxes 



BY 



MATTOON M. CURTIS 

Formerly Professor of Philosophy, Western 

Reserve University, and Member Royal 

Society of Arts, London 



WITH 119 RARE AND UNUSUAL REPRODUCTIONS OF 

SNUFF BOXES IN VARICOLORED GOLD, SILVER, IVORY, 

AND PRECIOUS WOODS AND STONES 




BRAMHALL HOUSE NEW YORK 



Copyright, MCXXXV, By 
MARY C. CURTIS 



All Rights Resented 



This edition is published by Bramhall House, a division of 

Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. by arrangement with the 

Liveright Publishing Corporation. 

(A) 



MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 



INTRODUCTION ..... ix 

CHAPTER 

I. TOBACCO IN ABORIGINAL 

AMERICA ..... 15 

II. THE INTRODUCTION OF TO- 

BACCO TO EUROPE . . . 30 

III. EUROPEAN OPPOSITION TO 

TOBACCO . ..51 

IV. MODES OF PRODUCTION AND 

CONSUMPTION OF SNUFF . 65 

V. FORM AND MATTER OF 

CONTAINERS ... 79 

VI. COLLECTING AND COLLECTIONS 101 

VII. REVIEW OF SELECTED 

LITERATURE ..... 117 

SOME EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

DEALERS IN SNUFF BOXES . 138 

VIII. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . 141 



UH (MU.) rUtJLlG LIBKAKT 

6G05G26 ' 



PART ONE 
TEXT 



INTRODUCTION 

THIS little book is the offspring of a desire 
to make clear to myself the rise, development 
and disappearance of the great vogue of snuffing 
tobacco which for about three hundred years 
played one of the most dramatic roles in the 
social life of modern peoples. Tobacco, pipes, 
and smoking have their several histories, but 
one looks " in vain for the story of snuff , or 
snuffers or snuff containers. I am not aware of 
any monograph in this field although the wide 
literature of tobacco furnishes many vagrant yet 
interesting references to each aspect of our sub- 
ject. This neglect of systematic or historical 
treatment is surprising in view of the fact that 
for about one hundred years historians have 
been claiming a representation of the habits, 
customs, fashions, and social aspects of organ- 
ised societies. Yet to-day one must revert, even 
in the English language, about one hundred 
years to Fairholt, Billings, and Bragge to get a 
reliable history of tobacco and its various forms 



INTRODUCTION 

of consumption. Equally surprising is this neglect 
from an aesthetic point of view when we realise 
the undoubted facts that the snuff boxes of 
Europe and the snuff bottles of China constitute 
one of the most complete popular expressions, 
if not the most complete expression of occidental 
and oriental art for about two hundred years. The 
scholastic world has fallen upon evil days when 
it adopts commercial standards, "sells educa- 
tion," pushes its elective curriculum into the 
form of an up-to-date department store or cafe- 
teria and repudiates unity, continuity, and 
totality by producing those expert or specialised 
crazy quilts of syndicated history, syndicated 
science, and syndicated philosophy where over- 
lappings, contradictions, and lacunae are the 
consternation of the student. It is to be hoped 
that these murderous assaults upon literature, 
art, and education will pass with the present 
obsession of radical empiricism and pluralism. 
Our brief story of the rise, extension and dis- 
appearance of snuffing, as well as our reflections 
on historical vagaries, make no claim to com- 
pleteness or to exemption from error in this in- 
teresting and dramatic episode. Quite enough 
heresy in the field of current orthodoxy is pres- 



INTRODUCTION 

ent in the following pages to invite criticism and 
further study. The strange persistence of tra- 
ditional error justifies our special effort to 
relegate the Nicot, Raleigh and Rook myths 
from the serious history of tobacco to the field 
of fiction or romance. 

It is a curious fact in the realm of fashion 
that in both Occident and orient the cessation of 
ostensible snuffing was synchronous about the 
middle of the nineteenth century. From this 
time the picturesque snuff boxes, bottles and 
mulls became more desirable to collectors and to 
museums; and more inviting to fraudulent com- 
mercialism. It was during the debacle of the 
fine arts that Thackeray wrote in his Paris 
Sketch Book) 1 840, "The Palace of Versailles 
has been turned into a bric-a-brac shop of late 
years, and its time-honoured walls have been 
covered with many thousand yards of the worst 
pictures that eye ever looked on." The aesthetic 
poverty of America in domestic snuff containers 
throughout the vogue of snuffing was due 
mainly to the economic pressure of colonisation, 
of wars, of pioneering, and to puritanic and 
democratic adherence to the simplicities of life. 

The illustrations are intended to give some 

[xi] 



INTRODUCTION 

idea of the great variety of materials, forms 
and decorations presented by snuff containers. 
If we should take current commercial art and 
museum exhibitions as a standard of taste our 
talk would be gratuitous for the ornate snuff 
box would be as much out of place to-day as a 
bobbed hair and skull-capped female would be 
in a miniature. The present vogue of no pic- 
tures on the walls of the home is not a compli- 
ment to contemporary art, while the extensive 
reproductions of old-time furniture are re- 
minders that the sense of beauty and elegance 
has not vanished. This reflection encourages us 
to believe that a few illustrations of the mon- 
archic, and aristocratic, and democratic types 
of snuff containers will not be unwelcome. As 
regards time, place, and relations of individual 
pieces our reticence is in sharp contrast with the 
volubility of the dealer, and we hesitate to say, 
"it is said." Even costume is not a valid cri- 
terion, as was shown long ago by Dtirer. We 
are accustomed to think of France as the super- 
lative in art without reflecting that she has never 
produced a painter or a musician of the first 
magnitude. France has furnished more snuff 
boxes of a high order than any other country, yet 
[xii] 



INTRODUCTION 

she probably has no miniaturist superior to the 
English Cosway and no market values that rival 
two or three German boxes. We have avoided 
footnotes which are a disturbing factor to the 
ordinary reader by giving the impression that 
he is missing something if he does not read them 
and the contrary conviction if he does. As a 
substitute our final chapter gives a select bibli- 
ography, with some comments, which will an- 
swer all demands of the critical reader and at 
the same time give a general view of our many 
obligations. If this survey throws a ray of light 
upon the perturbations of our common human 
nature, and gives some assistance in pursuing a 
delightful journey into this particular field of 
the beautiful, its purposes will be realised. 

M.M.C. 



CHAPTER I 

TOBACCO IN ABORIGINAL AMERICA 

A SURVEY of the habits of primitive people, 
especially as they advance in culture, justifies 
the statement that man has universally drunk, 
smoked, chewed, and snuffed something not 
necessarily connected with his normal diet. Va- 
rious plants roots, barks, leaves, blossoms, and 
fruits have been used for these purposes. All 
the ancient medicine men or physicians, includ- 
ing Hippocrates, prescribed for human ills the 
drinking of the juices, or the inhaling of the 
smoke or dust, or the chewing of the roots, 
barks, and leaves of certain plants. The smoke 
of hempseed was used by the ancient Scythians, 
Thracians, and Babylonians for both medicinal 
and narcotic effects, opium serving the same 
purpose in the Far East. It is only within the 
last hundred years that the matena medica has 
much changed. 

[15] 



THE STORY OF 

Thus the early discoverers and explorers of 
America found the plant now known as tobacco 
widely distributed and used as a curative and 
narcotic by the aborigines from the Esquimaux 
regions in the north to Patagonia in the south. 
If we consider the American Indians as not 
homogeneous but of several different stocks, the 
academic question arises as to whether the use 
of tobacco arose in different times, places, and 
tribes, or in some one time, place, and tribe, and 
was then slowly dispersed over the whole hemi- 
sphere. So far as tobacco is concerned the for- 
mer view might be taken, but the far more 
mysterious maize or Indian corn is never found 
"wild" nor can it develop without the care of 
man. Some Indian Burbank or Mendel stands 
in a very remote background, as all the varieties 
of corn flint, dent, pop, soft and sweet are 
prehistoric, and were probably the possession of 
the Indians north and south of the equator more 
than two thousand years ago. As regards the 
origins of tobacco and maize we may say with 
the Indians Waka which means mysterious or 
unknown. 

The remarkable similarity of smoking cus- 
toms throughout North America proves the 
[16] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

great antiquity of the practice, just as the great 
diversity in material, forms, and decoration of 
pipes shows wide freedom of artistic taste, even 
within such limited areas as the mounds of Ohio 
and the tumuli of Mexico. Many of these 
pipes exhibit artistic ability not only in the se- 
lection of material and colour and model, but in 
the engraving and painting of human and ani- 
mal heads, in fine detail and expression. The 
totems of Indian tribes often appear engraved 
or moulded as pipes. One of the most common 
totems of the North American Indians is the 
snake, which frequently appears carved on 
pipes. The two most desirable materials for 
pipes were the indurated red clay of south- 
western Minnesota and the serpentine of the 
Alleghany region. The former locality was 
sacredly regarded as a neutral territory where 
even warring tribes might quarry the red stone 
in peace. Of this material the Calumet was 
generally made. It is a curious fact that the 
pipe does not appear in the aboriginal West 
Indies or in Central America, all smoking in 
these regions being confined to the cigar, cigar- 
ette, and tubes for inhaling smoke. In a rather 
technical review of tobacco in the life of South 

[17] 



THE STORY OF 

American peoples Stahl has corrected a com- 
mon error by showing that pipes in various 
forms and materials were widely used by the 
aborigines even in Ecuador and Peru. 

Why the tobacco plant was first domesticated 
by the Indians we do not know. Its aesthetic 
appeal may have been a factor, but its effects 
on the human organism are far more probable. 
In any case it is Waka^ the mysterious and valu- 
able gift of the Great Spirit to his children. 
Nor do we know when its uses arose. From an 
archaeological point of view the relatively in- 
destructible pipe takes us back at least two 
thousand years, and this is probably a brief 
period in the many uses of tobacco by the early 
Americans. One might suppose no prehistoric 
evidence of the perishable snuff, cigar, or cigar- 
ette, yet the old shrine-caves of Arizona have 
yielded thousands of cigarettes, votive offerings 
made long before the discovery of the New 
World. Thus we may hold a permanent pos- 
sibility of new discoveries in the prehistory of 
tobacco. Allowing for sectional variations and 
emphases we may enumerate the uses of to- 
bacco among the aborigines as follows: (i) A 
curative of certain diseases, sores, wounds, and 
[18] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

a defence against insects and pests; (2) A pre- 
ventive of hunger, thirst, and fatigue; a re- 
storative of physical and mental energy; (3) 
a factor in all religious, civil and social cere- 
monies, tobacco being considered the best gift 
to man and to visiting chiefs in council, and 
being often used at birth, marriage, and funeral 
ceremonies; (4) a source of pleasure to taste 
and smell, and effective at the same time as a 
narcotic and a stimulant in different modes of 
consumption; (5) a medium of exchange or 
barter a sort of wampum. We must not gen- 
eralise all or any one of these uses, for possibly 
Prescott correctly remarks, "The Peruvians dif- 
fered from any other nation to whom tobacco 
was known by using it only for medicinal pur- 
poses in the form of snuff." 

The early explorers were looking for gold, 
and the fringes of their observation were very 
contracted. Even Columbus on his first land- 
ing at San Salvador, October 12, 1492, when 
presented with golden tobacco leaves threw 
them away not knowing they were the most 
precious gifts the Indians could bring far 
more precious to these "benighted savages" than 
the gold which civilised Europe craved, and 



THE STORY OF 

for the possession of which she was ready to 
resort to treachery, rapine and murder. Still, 
they did note that the natives everywhere were 
using tobacco, and as early as 1503 the 
Spaniards found that the Indian device of 
bloodless warfare was to squirt tobacco juice 
into the eyes of the enemy. This accomplish- 
ment had its counterpart later in the American 
cowboy who could say to the tenderfoot, "Sit 
still, stranger, Pll clear you," and hit the cus- 
pidor twenty feet away. Chewing seems to 
have been a common practice, especially when 
hard work or long marches were demanded. 
It has been said that an Indian could trek for 
two or three days with no other support against 
hunger, thirst, and fatigue than tobacco. It 
was an interesting custom of several American 
tribes to mix lime or finely powdered burned 
shells with their chewing tobacco, for this is 
precisely what was done by the Andean high- 
landers who chewed the coco leaf and by the 
betel-nut chewers in the East Indies. Tobacco 
was a part of the medicine man's kit and he used 
it not only to put himself in revery or dream or 
ecstasy for prophecy, but as a cure of wounds 
and diseases, for colds, headache, and vascular 

[20] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

difficulties. No wonder that the American 
aborigines generally regarded the tobacco plant 
as their most valuable possession, and that it was 
regarded as a gift of the Great Spirit! 

To assert the religious origin of the uses of 
tobacco is fanciful or meaningless. Shall we 
infer that the eating of bread and the drinking 
of wine had a religious origin because they were 
thus used in the agape? Among the most 
primitive as well as the most civilised, "Every 
good and perfect gift" is referred to God as the 
giver. Like all primitive people who has passed 
through savagery and barbarism, whatever 
these terms may mean, to the like vagueness of 
civilisation, the Mexicans and Peruvians be- 
lieved their advancement and all elements of 
culture to be indigenous and the gifts of God. 
It was Pachacamac who created the Peruvian 
tribes with all their distinctions out of the one 
clay of the Titicaca valley. So with the Mex- 
icans it was Quetzalcohuatl who communicated 
to them all the arts of life and the uses of the 
vegetable world. Only in this comprehensive 
sense may we speak of the religious origin of 
tobacco and its uses. The Indians sacrificed 
tobacco to God because it was the most valued 

[21] 



THE STORY OF 

a very precious thing, and they grow it in their 
gardens and plantations for the purpose afore- 
said," The few snuffing tubes which have been 
discovered and are now reposing in museums 
may be classified as the straight one-nostril tube; 
the straight two-nostril tubes bound together; 
the bifurcated Y tube about a span long; the X 
tube by which two persons blow snuff into each 
other's nostrils, and a triangular or V-shaped 
tube in which a pinch of snuff is put, then with 
one prong in the mouth and the other in the 
nostril an exhaling puff shoots the snuff into the 
nose. Surely the evolution of snuffing has not 
been from the simple to the complex but rather 
like all machinery quite the reverse. Not even 
a Scotchman with all the paraphernalia of the 
mull could vie with these aristocrats of Peru, 
Brazil and the West Indies in their snuff mak- 
ing and snuff taking. They must have entered 
fully into the joys of invention and of the super- 
fluous. Cortes found tobacco widely cultivated 
in Mexico, and also that the Mexicans were 
acquainted with it as a powder to be snuffed 
by the nose in order to produce sneezing thus 
relieving colds and stoppages in the head, while 
he found that at the court of Montezuma to- 
[24! 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

bacco for smoking and snuffing was scented with 
various gums and roses. We are informed by 
the early Portuguese explorers that the Indians 
of Brazil had snuff mills, and that their product 
was "the finest in the world." Billings quotes 
Ewbank as saying: "Columbus first beheld 
smokers in the Antilles, Pizarro found chewers 
in Peru, but it was in the country discovered by 
Cabral that the great sternutatory was originally 
found. Brazilian Indians were the fathers of 
snuff and its best fabricators." One of their 
methods was to make a cup in a rosewood block 
and with a pestle of the same wood pulverise 
the leaves of tobacco into the finest powder, this 
friction giving the most delicate rosewood 
aroma to the hot snuff. The snuff, still hot, was 
put into bone tubes the ends of which were 
plugged to preserve the rich fragrance. These 
mills and snuff tubes were finely decorated, and 
could be easily carried from place to place. It 
is quite probable that the quality of this product 
has never been surpassed. Alexander von 
Humboldt describes quite a different snuff made 
by the Otomacs, who gathered the long pods 
of a mimosa, cut them in pieces, moistened them 
and caused them to ferment, mixed with the 



THE STORY OF 

flour of cassava and lime procured from the 
shell of a helix. The whole mass was exposed 
to a brisk fire. When it was to be used it was 
reduced to a very fine powder and placed in a 
dish. The snuffer held the dish in the right 
hand and inhaled the niopo by the nose, through 
the forked bone of a bird. Father Gumilla says, 
"This diabolical powder of the Otomacs, fur- 
nished by an arborescent tobacco plant, intox- 
icates them by the nostrils, deprives them of 
reason, and renders them furious in battle. " 
Niopo, widely used as snuff, was not tabacum 
though similar in smell and effects. 

This method stands in sharp contrast to the 
general manner of the North American Indians 
in preparing the tobacco leaf for use. The 
leaves were sun- or fire- or wigwam-cured, then 
rubbed in the hands or put into a mortar to be 
pulverised. Often the whole leaf, sometimes 
the soft parts only, and again the stems alone 
were mortared. As a rule the finest powder was 
used for snuff and the coarser parts for smok- 
ing and chewing. Even the forerunners of the 
later snuff-, cigar-, and cigarette-box are found 
among the American aborigines animal bones 
and gourds for the storage of snuff, and 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

bark boxes and skin pouches for the storage of 
rolls of tobacco in various sized leaves, and for 
mortar products. Nor did the Indians lack 
fastidiousness of taste in the mixtures of to- 
bacco with other plants, such as red willow, 
partridge, yew, and sumac, and in flavouring 
their mixtures with various barks, musks, and 
gums. Some of the Indians prepared their 
chewing tobacco with powdered shells, which 
might suggest a plug or twist or carotte or moist 
snuff. 

The discussion of the origin of the name 
"tobacco" is fruitless. Among the many tribes 
of natives different names are given to the plant. 
In Brazil <petum or petun was the most general, 
and it was adopted by the Portuguese. In the 
great Caribbean district there are several places 
named Tobaco, or Tobago, any one of which 
might satisfy patronymic curiosity. But some 
writers are of the opinion that as the Y-shaped 
tube by which the powder and smoke of the 
weed was snuffed was called tobacco, by meton- 
ymy it became the name of the weed, Uhle 
believes "there is no doubt that the modern 
name of tobacco is derived from the word 
taboca of Tupi origin which in Haiti signified 



THE STORY OF 

tube." Nor can we be sure just how far the 
Spaniards and Portuguese in the early days stim- 
ulated the production of tobacco. We know 
they were very friendly to the development, 
that their sailors were known as "incorrigible 
smokers," that they introduced slave labour to 
the West Indies, and soon began the exportation 
of tobacco to Europe. 

It was one hundred and twenty years after 
the discovery of tobacco that the English col- 
onists at Jamestown, Virginia, began its cul- 
tivation. Seven years later, 1619, a Dutch 
man-of-war sold twenty negroes to these plant- 
ers. In 1620 the production for the English 
market was about 60,000 pounds, and the price 
of an imported young white woman was 120 
pounds of tobacco. But the thraldom of the 
white man to tobacco began in Cuba, Tuesday, 
November 6, 1492, when his interpreters of 
oriental languages, Rodrigo de Jerez and Luis 
de Torres, after a five days' visit to the interior, 
reported to Columbus that they saw many 
natives "puffing smoke from their mouths and 
noses." Tobacco's first speedy conquest was the 
maritime world, then the great port cities, and 
finally the Church and State capitals of the 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

world. About 1575 it was used in every nation 
of the earth including Japan and the Philippine 
Islands. The immediate social effects of the 
discovery of tobacco are suggested in these lines, 
which might have been written in Spanish or 
Portuguese at least sixty years before the time 
of Hawkins: 

Up comes brave Hawkins on the beach 

"Shiver my hull!" he cries; 
"What's these here games ^ my merry men?" 

And then^ "Why blame my eyes I 
Here's one as chaws ^ and one as snuffs^ 

And t'other of the three 
Is smoking like a chimney-pot 

They've found out Tobac-keel" 



[29] 



CHAPTER II 

THE INTRODUCTION OF TOBACCO 
TO EUROPE 

THE discovery of America aroused Europe 
and drew attention to the men and things of a 
new world. Many expeditions went forth from 
Lisbon, Cadiz, and the Mediterranean ports of 
France and Italy. Holland and England soon 
followed in the exploitation of new lands and 
seas. The returning Spanish and Portuguese 
sailors were the first to acquaint their people 
with tobacco and its uses. Las Casas, the great- 
est missionary of the old world to the new, in 
his preservation of the journals of Columbus, 
fully justifies Singer in saying: "There can be 
no doubt that the knowledge of tobacco reached 
the old world from America, and that the first 
acquaintance of Europeans with the herb is 
contemporary, almost to a day, with the dis- 
covery of the western continent." Columbus 
himself records at least three instances where 
[30] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

tobacco and its uses were called to his attention. 
Rodrigo de Jerez, who was with Columbus on 
his first voyage, and was the first European to 
set foot on Cuban soil, was also the first man 
to be arrested and imprisoned for smoking by 
the Inquisition. Had he remained in port he 
would have been safe, but when his fellow- 
townsmen of Ayamonte saw smoke pouring 
from his mouth and nose they regarded him as 
a minion of the Devil. Thus technically the 
smoking of tobacco was introduced to Europe 
soon after the return of Columbus, and we infer 
from the analogies of nautical experience that 
the chewing and snuffing of tobacco were not 
long strangers in southern European ports. 

Early in the sixteenth century, physicians, 
especially in Seville and Salamanca, and pro- 
fessors in some of the universities became in- 
terested in the curative powers of tobacco. In 
1 523 Giovanni Verazzano, in a letter to Francis 
I of France, called attention to the medicinal 
properties of tobacco and its smoke. It is not 
our present purpose either to present or discuss 
the extravagant medical claims for tobacco in 
the sixteenth century. This extravagance is 
rivalled by the social claims for tobacco in 1924 

[31] 



THE STORY OF 

by Laufer who writes: "The association of 
coffee with tobacco is very close, and their al- 
liance has stimulated and promoted thought, 
scholarship, literature and art; it probably af- 
fected social customs, intensified sociability, 
and paved the way to the era of humanism. Of 
all the gifts of nature, tobacco has been the most 
potent social factor, the most efficient peace- 
maker, and a great benefactor to mankind. It 
has made the whole world akin, and united it 
into a common bond. Of all luxuries it is the 
most democratic and the most universal; it has 
contributed a large share toward democratising 
the world." One might infer from this either 
that sociology in the twentieth century has ar- 
rived at about the position of medicine in the 
sixteenth century, or that the long-despised 
philosophy of history is finally in the saddle. 

When we raise the question as to the domes- 
tication of the tobacco plant and its wider use 
in Europe we are in trouble with contradictions, 
anachronisms, and myths. History may repeat 
itself with variations, but historians repeat his- 
torians with dull monotony. It is perhaps well 
to remember that until recently history was el- 
liptical, having as its two centres church and 

[32] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

state. Whatever did not float into these two 
realms was negligible or did not exist. To exist 
tobacco had to arrive at court, or become the 
concern of the state, or come under the purview 
of the church, as in the case of Rodrigo. One 
of the complaints of James I against tobacco 
was that "it was neither broght in by King, great 
Conqueror, nor learned Doctor of Phisike." 
Without discussion we accept the view that the 
tobacco plant was domesticated in Spain and 
Portugal about 1519 Nadaillac says 1518. 
Singer, who has made a special study of this 
period, says it is not unlikely that the first in- 
troduction of the plant into Europe was by Her- 
nando Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, who 
is said to have presented tobacco seeds to Charles 
V in 1 5 1 8. In France and Holland production 
began not much later than 1550. Corti says, 
"Tobacco was widely cultivated in Holland as 
early as 1560, partly owing to the presence of 
refugees from religious persecutions in France." 
This rapid development was due largely to the 
growing belief in the prophylactic and curative 
effects of tobacco, but apart from this it had 
opened up new avenues of delight in the mys- 
terious regions of taste and smell. 

[33] 



THE STORY OF 

In 1559 Henry II of France sent his private 
secretary, Jean Nicot, 1530-16005 as ambassa- 
dor to Lisbon to bring about the marriage of his 
daughter to Sebastian, the King of Portugal. 
This mission failed, and Nicot turned his at- 
tention to tobacco, which he discovered growing 
in the gardens of Lisbon. Here we must fol- 
low Frampton, who in his English translation 
of Monardes, 1 577, introduced a special chap- 
ter not in Monardes, captioned "Nicotiana," 
the content of which apparently he had received 
from his friend Nicot. But appearances are 
here deceptive, as a casual reading of Framp- 
ton's "Nicotiana" chapter suggests that its au- 
thor is a Frenchman, France being the country 
referred to as "This Realme." As Frampton 
gives no hint that he is not the author and offers 
no other source of information than Nicot we 
turn to the Tudor edition of Frampton's Mon- 
ardes, 1925, with an introduction by Stephen 
Gaselee covering twenty-seven pages, and find 
no ray of light on any question. The facts are 
that the "Nicotiana" chapter has no background 
in Monardes 5 that it is a close translation by 
Frampton of L' agriculture -et la maison rus- 
tique, book II, chapter 76 of the sixth edition, 

[34] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Paris 15705 that this edition had not a dual 
authorship as generally asserted but was essen- 
tially the work of Jean Liebault, the son-in-law 
of Charles Estienne; that Jean Liebault re- 
ceived directly from Nicot the "Nicotiana" 
chapter, thus accounting for the use of first 
personal pronouns in the Liebault chapter. 
Why Frampton did not acquaint his readers 
with this important information does not con- 
cern us here. We turn now to Nicot's appraisal 
of himself in the Liebault "Nicotiana" chap- 
ter. Liebault concludes this chapter with the 
words: "Lo, here have you the true Historic of 
Nicotiane of the whiche the saide Lorde Nicot, 
one of the Kinge's Counsellors, first founder out 
of this hearbe, hath made me privee as well by 
woorde as by writyng." Nicot represented 
himself to his credulous friend Liebault as "the 
finder out by careful experimentation of the 
wonderful medicinal and curative properties of 
tobacco for severe cuts and bruises, as well as for 
Noli-me-tangere, all old Scares, and cankered 
Ulcers, hurtes, Ringwormes, greate scabbes, 
dropsie, short breathes, Kinge's evill * * * * 
and the people began to name it the Ambassa- 
dor's hearbe, * * * the first authour, in- 

[35] 



THE STORY OF 

venter, and bringer of this hearbe into France, 
* # # anc ] (the one who) did send it to King 
Fraunces the Seconde, and to the Queen 
Mother, and to many other Lordes of the 
Courte, with the manner of governyng the 
same; and how to applie it unto saide diseases, 
even as he had found it by experience." 
Finally, the origin of the word is given : "This 
Hearbe is called Nicotiane, of the name of 
hym that gave the firste intelligence thereof 
into this Realme * * * for that he hath in- 
riched our Countrie, with so singular an 
hearbe." 

Nicot's story reminds me of an incident dur- 
ing a voyage, when a friend said to me, "Do 
you know we have on board the greatest photog- 
rapher in the world? " I replied, "I will take 
your word for it." He retorted, "Don't do 
that he told me so himself." Without giving 
Talleyrand's definition of diplomacy, we may 
note that seven years before Nicot was born the 
attention of Francis I of France was called to 
the medical properties of tobacco, and that 
Diego Columbus, the eldest son of Christopher, 
in his will dated May and, 1523, made a legacy 
to a tobacco merchant in Lisbon. About 1541, 

[36] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Girolamo Benzoni of Milan, in writing his 
History of the Ne*w World y records his disgust 
of the a sharp fetid smell" of tobacco, and ex- 
claims, "See what a wicked and pestiferous 
poison from the devil this must be." Yet he 
notes that the American medicine men treated 
the sick by administering tobacco smoke and 
"when the patient was thoroughly intoxicated 
by it the cure was mostly effected." Still relat- 
ing his experiences in America Benzoni gives a 
list of the curative powers of tobacco, saying: 
"These leaves are strung together, hung in the 
shade and dried, and used whole or powdered, 
and are considered good for headaches, lock- 
jaw, toothache, coughs, asthma, stomach-ache, 
obstructions, kidney troubles, diseases of the 
heart, rheumatism, the poisoning from arrows, 
carbuncles, polypus, consumption." In 1535 
the great French explorer Jacques Cartier in his 
second exploration of the St. Lawrence River 
describes the uses of tobacco, rustlca^ among the 
natives of that area. Thus about twenty years 
before Nicot made his wonderful discoveries at 
Lisbon the attention of Europe was being called 
to tobacco and its uses by first-hand historians. 
Another Frenchman closely connected with the 

[37] 



THE STORY OF 

court, Andre Thevet, was growing tobacco at 
Angouleme in France several years before Nicot 
set out for Lisbon. Thevet introduced the best 
Brazilian tabacum^ the plant which France 
clung to for her great revenues, while Nicot, 
according to his own story, introduced the in- 
ferior rustica from Florida without explaining 
how the Portuguese could have secured the 
rustica from Florida. Presuming a minimum 
of intelligence the French Court must have 
heard of tobacco long before it was discovered 
and announced by Nicot. Lauf er expresses sur- 
prise that Thevet did not push his claims at 
court, but even supposing Thevet eager for pri- 
ority what chance had he against "Lord Nicot," 
the protege of Catherine and the prescriber of 
tobacco for the many ills and frequent head- 
aches of the royal family. Laufer makes the 
astonishing claim that there were "two intro- 
ductions," and "that France owes her tobacco to 
Thevet and Nicot equally." This is a doubly 
bad straddle when one considers tabacum and 
rustica as well as indubitable dates. Thus at 
the present moment we agree with Paul Gaf- 
farel, "The legitimate vindication of Thevet 
has never found hearing." Nicot probably in- 
[38] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

troduced tobacco effectively to the court of 
France and on his return to Paris in 1561 rec- 
ommended tobacco smoke or powder taken 
through the nostrils. With the single excep- 
tion of Thevet's protest of Nicot's audacity (see 
Thevet) Nicot is the only one who, in the ex- 
tension of tobacco to every nation of the earth, 
has ever made a claim either of invention, or of 
discovery, or of introduction. He claims all 
three. In 1570 the botanical name Nicotiana 
was given to tobacco by Nicot and Jean Lie- 
bault of Paris, in 1 577 it captioned the chapter 
"Nicotiana" in Frampton's Monardes, and in 
the eighteenth century the name Nicotine was 
given to the active, toxic element by Linnaeus. 
Thus Nicot, failing to marry Marguerite to 
Sebastian, succeeded diplomatically in marrying 
himself to tobacco forever. 

But we must not ignore the Catherine de 3 
Medici, 1519-89, widow of Henry II and 
mother of Charles IX, for about 1 572 the schol- 
ars called tobacco Herbe Medicee, while it was 
more popularly known as Herbe de la Reine. 
Was Catherine the "Queen of Snuffers"? We 
do not know. Could Catherine live with to- 
bacco for nearly forty years and not know all 

[39] 



THE STORY OF 

about it experimentally? We do not know. 
We have no indubitable proof. Still, "the 
argument from silence" would leave many a 
hero unborn, and most of the people who were 
born still alive. Perhaps Bishops Berkeley and 
Butler were right in holding that probability 
is the test of truth. Assuming that Catherine 
was as innocent of snuffing as of the events of St. 
Bartholomew's day we are at no loss for evidence 
that the practice of snuffing arose within the 
French court circle about 1560, and is thus au 
regie , as it could not have arisen elsewhere. 
Nicot's "Grande Prior of France," better known 
as the Duke of Lorraine, made the acquaintance 
of tobacco while visiting Nicot in Lisbon where 
tobacco, including snuff, was a merchandise. 
The Duke became an habitual snuff taker using 
three ounces daily and, according to Liebault, 
propagated snuffing in France more than any 
one else. Laufer is incorrect in saying that 
from this time in France "snuff remained the 
only mode of taking tobacco on the part of 
gentlemen until the nineteenth century." This 
ignores the fact that smoking took possession of 
the court under Henry IV and that Louis XIII 

[40] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

and Richelieu had much trouble in changing the 
court habit to snuffing. 

The introduction of tobacco to England has 
been variously attributed to Hawkins, Lane, 
Drake, and Raleigh. Recently Singer has writ- 
ten: "It was not until July 28, 1586, that 
Francis Drake, with Governor Lane and Walter 
Raleigh on board, brought to England the first 
tobacco that reached this country." On eviden- 
tial ground we must dissent from this opinion, 
and while not able to fix any definite date we 
assume that tobacco was in England as early as 
the close of Hawkins's second voyage in 1565. 
Considering that this date is about twenty years 
after the introduction of tobacco to China, 
Japan, and the Philippines according to Conti, 
and considering also the intimate relations of 
England with Spain and Portugal, we are put- 
ting a sufficient strain upon "English insular- 
ity." Before referring to documentary proof 
of the correctness of our view, it is important 
to notice the Raleigh and the Rook traditions 
which are current even in the sober histories 
of our own day. 

In song and story Sir Walter Raleigh, 1552- 
1 6 1 8, holds the centre of the stage. We recall 

[41] 



THE STORY OF 

how this gallant courtier cast his mantle before 
the queen so that her majesty's feet might not 
touch the unhallowed moisture of English soil; 
how he introduced smoking into the court, and 
to Elizabeth, and demonstrated to her that to- 
bacco smoke could be weighed j how his high 
social position and example made smoking pop- 
ular throughout the realm, including the House 
of Lords 5 how in the Mermaid Tavern he in- 
oculated Ben Jonson, Shakespeare, Beaumont, 
Fletcher, Selden, and possibly Bacon with what 
Jonson describes as "the most soothing, sover- 
eign and precious weed that ever our dear old 
Mother Earth tendered to the use of man"; 
how following an Indian custom of inhaling 
or swallowing smoke he brought to England the 
continental nomenclature "drinking tobacco"; 
how working at his desk and at his pipe he was 
doused by a pail of water by a servant moved 
by impulse on a first impression or by reasoning 
that where there was so much smoke there must 
be some fire ; how he was criticised for smoking 
at the execution of Essex, and later for smoking 
on his own journey to the scaffold. Such are 
some of the traditions associated with the most 
[42] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

romantic and dramatic figure in English history 
and in the story of tobacco. 

The glamour of the name Raleigh and its 
associations with tobacco should not blind us to 
the fact that Sir Walter never thought of him- 
self as introducing tobacco and smoking to Eng- 
land. This was first done by his enemy King 
James, who in his Counterblast ignorantly as- 
sumed that the discovery of Virginia and the 
appearance of tobacco in England were con- 
temporaneous, and who refers to smoking as a 
"vile barbarous custom brought in by a father 
so generally hated," the "father" being of 
course Raleigh. A few years later James took 
the opportunity to please both Spain and him- 
self by executing Sir Walter. Public opinion 
as it was in England at this time is much better 
expressed in the lines written long after the 
death of James: 

Sir Walter Raleigh! name of worth , 
How sweet for thee to know. 
King James who never smoked on earthy 
Is smoking down below. 

Before Raleigh left England on his first voyage 
to America, 1584, he might have equipped 

[43] 



THE STORY OF 

himself with a sufficient supply of tobacco from 
the London market, and at the same time pur- 
chased copies of Thevet's The New Founde 
World and of Frampton's Monardes at any im- 
portant bookshop. Indeed the old tar with 
arm outstretched toward the sea, lecturing the 
boy Raleigh, so admirably painted by Millais, 
might well have had a bit of tobacco within his 
cheek. 

As regards the beginning of snuffing tobacco 
in England we have the familiar story that in 
1702 George Rooke captured near Cadiz "sev- 
eral thousand barrels of very choice Spanish 
snuff," which he took to England, where it was 
christened Vigo snuff and sold at very reasonable 
rates. Even Haydn's Dictionary of Dates says 
that "snuff taking took its rise in England" 
from this event. Billings quotes English statis- 
tics of the reign of Queen Anne to show that 
there were in London at this time, 1702, no less 
than seven thousand shops where snuff was sold. 
These Spanish and English snuff figures seem 
enormous, but as an explanation of the begin- 
nings of snuff in England they are comic. 
Count Corti in his interesting History of Smok- 
ing holds that "snuff was introduced into Eng- 

[44] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

land by the courtiers and officers who had been 
with Charles II in France/ 5 about 1 660. (This 
is as surprising as his statement that syphilis 
was introduced to Europe from America. Even 
bibliography shows that the former is Eliza- 
bethan and the latter of the Roman Empire. 
Sailors brought the former to Europe and the 
latter to America and Polynesia.) Butler in his 
Hudibras tells us that the saints of the Crom- 
wellian period were not averse to snuff. Al- 
though Cromwell ordered his cavalry to trample 
down the tobacco fields of England he enjoyed 
the pipe and possibly the snuff box. In a popu- 
lar satire of the time, News from the New Ex- 
change^ 1650, the Puritan Mistress Campbell 
held the socially significant maxim: 

"She that with pure tobacco will not prime 
Her nose, can be no lady of the time" 

If this was the situation among the purists and 
Roundheads many years before Corti's date for 
the introduction of snuff into England, what 
must have been the habits of the Tories, Cava- 
liers, Anglicans, and other people of "the world, 
the flesh and the devil"? In the polite literature 

[45] 



THE STORY OF 

from 1 600 to 1 650 there are many references to 
snuff, ladles, and boxes. Even in the sixteenth 
century Henry Buttes, 1 599, speaks of a tobacco 
"which the nose sooneth taketh in snuffe." 
Dekker, picturing the manners of his time in 
The Gulls Hornbook^ 1602, speaks of cc the 
ladle for the cold snuff into the nostril," and 
though the instruments for snuff making are 
seldom dated, Bragge describes a boxwood cy- 
lindrical snuff mill with three belts of carved 
figures dated 1607. If we could conjure up 
Ben Jonson, who carried snuff loose in his 
pocket, he would probably have something in- 
teresting to say as to when snuff first appeared 
in England. 

There is ample documentary evidence to 
show that tobacco was introduced, cultivated 
and widely used in England long before the 
days of Raleigh's voyage to America. One of 
his companions gives us the first account of Vir- 
ginia tobacco, then rustica but much later ta- 
bacum. In Thomas Harriot's A brief and true 
report of the new found land of Virginia, 1588, 
we read: "There is an herbe which is sowed a 
part by itselfe & is called by the inhabitants 
vppowoc: In the West Indies it hath diuers 

[46] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

names, according to the seuerall places & coun- 
tries where it groweth and is vsed: The Span- 
iardes generally called it Tobacco. The leaues 
thereof being dried and brought into powder: 
they vse to take the fume of smoke thereof by 
sucking it through pipes made of claie into their 
stomacke and headej from whence it purgeth 
superfluous fleame & other grosse humors, open- 
eth all the pores & passages of the body: by 
which meanes the vse thereof, not only preseru- 
eth the body from obstructions; but also if any 
be, so that they haue not beene of too long con- 
tinuance, in short time it breaketh them: 
whereby their bodies are notably preserued in 
health, & know not many greeuous diseases 
wherewithall wee in England are oftentimes 
afflicted. This Vppowoc is of so precious esti- 
mation amongest the, that they thinke their 
gods are maruelously delighted therwith: 
Wherupon sometime they make hallowed fires 
& cast some of the pouder therein for a sacrifice: 
being in a storme vppon the waters, to pacific 
their gods, they cast some vp into the aire and 
into the water: so a weare for fish being newly 
set vp, they cast some therein and into the aire: 
also after an escape of danger, they cast some 

[47] 



THE STORY OF 

into the aire likewise: but all done with strange 
gestures, stamping, sometime dauncing, clap- 
ping of hands, holding vp of hands, & staring 
vp into the heaues, vttering therewithal & 
chattering strange words & noises. We our 
selues during the time w r e were there vsed to 
suck it after their maner, as also since our re- 
turne, & haue found manie rare and wonderful 
experiments of the vertues thereof; of which 
the relation woulde require a volume by itself e: 
the vse of it by so manie of late, men & women 
of great calling as else, and some learned Phisi- 
tions also, is sufficient witnes." The prevalence 
of smoking in England is also witnessed by a 
German traveller, Paul Heutzner who in his 
Itinerarium, or Journey to England, 1 598, says: 
"At bull-baiting, bear-whipping, and every- 
where else the English are constantly smoking 
the Nicotian weed, which in America is called 
'Tobaco.' " Singer has noted that, at this time, 
1598, a handbook for seamen was published 
and dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, recommend- 
ing tobacco juice for erysipelas and skin lesions, 
and that this remedy was probably used until 
recent times. 

Partington, in his Smoke Rings and Roun- 
[48] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

delay >s, notes that "in the State Archives there is 
still extant an edict issued by Queen Elizabeth 
against the use and abuse of tobacco, dated 1584 
the year Raleigh's first expedition sailed to 
the new world." The early use of tobacco in 
England is further emphasised by L'ObePs 
work on botany, 1 570, which records that "the 
West Indian tobacco plant has become an in- 
mate of England." Harrison's Chronicle or 
Great Chronologie shows that tobacco was 
smoked in England as early as 1573 : "In these 
daies the taking-in of the smoke of the Indian 
herbe called Tabaco, by an instrument formed 
like a little ladell, whereby it passeth from the 
mouth into the hed and stomach, is greatlie 
taken up and used in England." Maclnnes 
holds that "Tobacco probably reached England 
during the reign of Queen Mary as a result of 
the close connection which at that time existed 
between England and Spain." Both Taylor the 
Water Poet and Edmund Howes of Stow's 
Annals say that tobacco was first brought into 
England by Hawkins, who returned from his 
second voyage September 20, 1565. This view 
is confirmed by John Sparkes, the younger, who 
in his account of this voyage shows that 

[49] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Hawkins became acquainted with tobacco in 
Florida. In view of these evidences and of the 
estimate by Barnaby Rich in his Honestie of 
this Age, 1614, that the tobacco trade of Lon- 
don was 319,275 pounds sterling, quite apart 
from the enormous activity in smuggling, we 
may conclude that at about this time, 

"Prince and peasant , lord a?id lackey. 
All in some form take their Baccy " 

It is one of the comedies of human life that 
Europe rioted in American tobacco for more 
than one hundred and twenty-five years before 
she recognised the value of the American 
potato, which according to Alexander von 
Humboldt and Goethe was as great a blessing as 
tobacco was a curse. The imperious fascination 
of tobacco throughout Europe is suggested by 
the Scotchman who when told by his physician 
that if he continued smoking he would soon be 
blind, replied after a moment's reflection, 
"Weel, I am athinking I h'ae seen about every- 
thing." 



[50] 



CHAPTER III 
EUROPEAN OPPOSITION TO TOBACCO 

WHEN the Inquisition arrested and impris- 
oned Rodrigo for smoking it did not take any 
definite position as regards tobacco in general 
but only against the alarming phenomena of 
this form of its consumption. That this alarm 
quickly subsided is evident, for on Rodrigo's 
release after a few years he found some of his 
fellows smoking without fear of imprisonment. 
It is interesting to note that from these days of 
Columbus to the present the great tobacco con- 
troversy has been almost wholly concerned with 
smoking. Some recent scientific reports on to- 
bacco and health do not even mention chewing 
and snuffing, although the production for these 
exercises is enormous. 

From the beginning, smoking has often been 
a private and a public nuisance. It has always 
kept the forest fires, as well as the home fires, 
burning. In the early days of steel, flint, tinder 



THE STORY OF 

and coals, complaints of property damage were 
common. Nothing can be more disgusting than 
a room after a smoking bee, or the halitosis 
caused by a foul pipe or a bad cigar. Still for 
about one hundred years after its discovery there 
was little opposition to tobacco, partly because 
it was largely confined to port towns, and was 
often dispensed in cities by pharmacists only. 
The chief reason for the delay of organised op- 
position was the reputation of tobacco as a cure- 
all, supported by many leading physicians in all 
parts of Europe. In 1576 L'Obel, one of the 
leading botanists of his time, says of tobacco, 
cc it satisfieth hunger, it helps ulcers and wounds, 
and it is good for diseases of the chest and the 
wasting of the lungs. In fact there is no new 
thing that our age has obtained from America 
that is more efficacious as a remedy." Chewing, 
smoking, snuffing, fresh tobacco leaves, and 
various tobacco ointments were specific centres 
for as many groups of diseases, and the general 
attitude toward tobacco might be expressed then 
as now: 

Por rich and poor, in peace or strife, 
It smooths the rugged path of life. 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

To Spenser in his Faerie Queene^ 1590, it is 
"divine tobacco"; in Ben Jonson's "Every Man 
in his Humour ? 1596, Bobadilla says, " 'tis 
most divine" 5 to Lilly, court poet to Elizabeth, 
1597, tobacco is "our holy herbe nicotian"; in 
John Davies, 1598, it is "an herb of heavenly 
power." 

But by 1 600 the times were ripening for an 
onslaught against the rapidly rising use of to- 
bacco throughout Europe. There was a grow- 
ing scepticism regarding its medicinal values. 
There was a well-founded suspicion that the 
axiom, "prevention is better than cure" was 
leading people to anticipate all the diseases for 
which tobacco was a remedy. Pharmacology had 
succumbed to prophylaxis. Under puritanic in- 
fluences it was coming to be regarded as a wicked 
comfort and luxury. Church and state saw in 
its popularity an extravagant expenditure of 
money that should go elsewhere, and especially 
a corrupting element in their official families. 
Antagonism began to show itself in the press 
and on the bema by those who loved negation 
or sought reform. 

A generous volume would be required to give 
even a brief survey of the pro and contra liter- 

[53] 



THE STORY OF 

ature in this field. While some find in tobacco 
the cure of all the ills of life, others regard it 
as the cause of all human miseries. The latter 
have expanded the vocabulary of vituperation 
in every European language. We shall not 
dwell on the gruesome bloody persecutions of 
the users of tobacco in Russia, Turkey, Persia 
and elsewhere; nor the cutting off of the heads, 
the noses and the tongues so intimately involved 
in smoking, chewing, and snuffing. A single 
example of this helpless and hopeless bigotry 
must suffice. In 1634 the Czar of Russia, 
Michael, decreed that for the first offence 
smokers should be whipped, and for the second 
offence executed, while snuff takers were to 
have the nose amputated. In a few words fit 
to print we may give the general drift of verbal 
opposition. Here is Joshua Sylvester, 1615, 
court poet to James I, who calls tobacco a "hell- 
dust, England's shame, a madness, a frenzy, 
that by the DeviPs agency has been brought 
from the savages to England." Here is Robert 
Burton, 1620, who gives a melancholy view of 
it as "a plague, a mischief, a violent purger of 
goods, lands, health; hellish, devilish and 
damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body 

[54] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

and soul." Fairholt says, "Grave doctors were 
not wanting to declare that the brains of snuff 
takers were found after death, dried to a sort 
of dirty membrane, clogged with soot." Dr. 
John Hill, 1761, avers regarding snuff that 
"many persons have perished miserably of dis- 
eases occasioned or rendered incurable by its 
use." This Dr. Hill, later Sir John, was also a 
writer of farces. To him Garrick paid the epi- 
grammatic compliment: 

"For physic and farces his equal there scarce is; 
His farces are physic^ his physic a farce is" 

Another poet, whose language is even less or- 
nate than that of his Jacobean brother, repre- 
sents the nineteenth century. Mr, Swinburne, 
the author of Songs Before Sunrise , remarks: 
"James I was a knave, a tyrant, a fool, a liar, 
a coward. But I love him, I worship him, be- 
cause he slit the throat of the blackguard 
Raleigh who invented this filthy smoking." 
The cogency of such arguments has been ig- 
nored by an irrational world. An ample if 
mild summary lies in the familiar lines: 

[55] 



THE STORY OF 

"Tobacco is an Indian 'weed, 
~From the devil it doth proceed, 
It picks your pockets, burns your clothes, 
And makes a chimney of your nose" 

In this connection snuff might qualify as a 
chimney-sweep. Whether tobacco is to be re- 
ferred to God or to the Devil is still an open 
question depending on the referee. A neglected 
argument against the use of manufactured to- 
bacco is suggested by Fairholt in his remarks on 
Prescott's Tobacco and Its Adulterations. 
Among such adulterations the following sub- 
stances have been used: leaves of rhubarb, dock, 
burdock, coltsfoot, beech, plantain, oak, elm, 
cabbage, lettuce and chicory leaves steeped in 
tar-oil. Other adulterations mentioned are 
peat-earth, bran, sawdust, malt-rootlets, barley- 
meal, pea-meal, and potato-starch. This brief 
list could easily be extended. Fairholt men- 
tions a case in which a cigar manufacturer re- 
sisted successfully an attempt at enforcing the 
legal penalty for the unlawful fabrication of 
cheap "Havannah Cigars" from tobacco which 
had paid no duty, as he was able to show in his 

[56] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

own defence that he never made use of the to- 
bacco leaf at all. 

We turn to a brief notice of church and state 
in this controversy. Elizabeth died in 1603, 
and James I, the devotee of absolutism and the 
divine right of kings, came to the throne of 
England. James had already sworn to himself 
to stamp out this "damnable tobacco/ 5 and he 
had all the f oolhardiness of bigotry to aid him. 
The story is a long and fruitless one. To him 
Presbyterianism and tobacco were inventions of 
the Devil, while tobacco alone was "the lively 
image and pattern of hell." He prohibited 
tobacco-growing in England, and told the Vir- 
ginians to quit raising tobacco and turn to mul- 
berry trees and silkworms. He urged Par- 
liament to raise duties on tobacco from two 
pence to six shillings and ten pence per pound, 
At this point we must correct some current his- 
torical errors. Laufer tells us that the import 
duty on tobacco was "raised by James in 1 604 
to 6s. icd. per pound, (equal to 258, present 
value), an advance of 4000 per cent. This 
heavy tax nearly ruined Virginia whose eco- 
nomic life was based on the cultivation of the 
plant. In 1 6 1 1 the imports of tobacco from 

[57] 



THE STORY OF 

Virginia, were reduced to 142,085 pounds, one- 
sixth of the quantity previously exported to 
England." On this amazing statement we re- 
mark: ( i ) The above tax was ordered by James 
October 17, 1604, through the High Treasurer, 
the Earl of Dorset, but Parliament gave it no 
sanction and in 1613 this abject monarch 
farmed out the tobacco duties for the sole bene- 
fit of the Crown. (2) The first European to 
cultivate tobacco in Virginia was John Rolf 
who began the work in his garden at Jamestown 
in 1612. No exportation of tobacco from Vir- 
ginia to England is recorded before 1619. ( 3 ) 
The hard times in Virginia and Maryland were 
not primarily the result of duties on their to- 
bacco but were due to their stupidity in pro- 
ducing nothing but tobacco, to competition with 
the superior Spanish products, and to tobacco 
production in England. In spite of all this the 
exports of tobacco from Virginia to England 
rose from 20,000 pounds in 1619 to 1,500,000 
pounds in 1629. (4) That England was very 
arbitrary in holding the trade of her colonies is 
illustrated in Sir John Pennington's lawless 
seizure of the White Greyhound of Rotterdam, 
laden with colonial tobacco and cotton. Sir 

[58] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

John felt sure that the government would take 
a reasonable view of the episode as it would 
bring to the impecunious Charles I at least a 
thousand pounds. England owes to America 
the development of her sea power. Returning 
to James, here is a specimen of his polemics 
against smoking: "A custom lothsome to the 
eye, hateful to the nose, harmful to the braine, 
dangerous to the lungs, and in the black stink- 
ing fume thereof, neerest resembling the 
horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that is bot- 
tomlesse." There is little evidence that James, 
claiming to be the vice-regent of God with 
plenary divine rights, realised his powerlessness 
in the presence of Nicotiana. The 'Birmingham 
Daily Post of December 16, 1870, probably 
expresses an enlightened opinion when it says: 
"In his insular ignorance, King James never 
knew that some form of narcotic had been 
smoked and snuffed and chewed, by all tribes 
and in all ages of the world. He wrote his 
'counterblast,' and in his royal conceit doubtless 
thought he had c put out the light' in England 
and in Europe too." The upshot of the matter 
in England was that the stupid policy of pro- 
hibition was abandoned, and tobacco as a royal 

[59] 



THE STORY OF 

monopoly became one of the most fruitful rev- 
enue producers of the realm. There are limita- 
tions to the powers of courts and governments, 
but not to their pretensions and stupidities. 

Meanwhile interesting developments were 
going on in France. In 1610, Louis XIII, son 
of Henry IV, came to the throne disgusted with 
the smoking habits of the court. Of course he 
found the nobility and the clergy in full agree- 
ment with him. He regarded smoking as un- 
dignified and offensive, especially among the 
ladies of the court, but was too wise to prohibit 
the practise by edict. The custom of puffing 
was gradually changed to snuffing, as being far 
more dainty and elegant. Thus arose and flour- 
ished snuffers and snuff boxes, under the suf- 
ferance of Louis himself, yet under the 
patronage of both church and state, for the 
priesthood was already more inclined toward 
snuff. Richelieu, who became Louis's Minister 
in 1624, was like his king very unfriendly to 
tobacco, but he saw clearly that to prohibit to- 
bacco would be a practical failure and would 
at the same time deprive the state of important 
revenue. In 1635 Louis XIII restricted the 
sale of tobacco to apothecaries and then only by 
[60] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

prescription from a physician. He saw, what 
James I could not see, that arbitrary sumptuary 
laws are sure to fail and to weaken respect for 
more fundamental laws. Thus there grew up 
in France a system of tobacco control by taxation 
and supervision which with perturbations exists 
to-day as a state monopoly. It is interesting 
to note that Benjamin Franklin in 1777 bor- 
rowed two million louis from the fermiers 
general^ holders of the French tobacco monop- 
oly, by agreeing to deliver Virginia tobacco. 

Louis XIV was like James I in two respects 
only. He hated tobacco in every form and 
could say, "L'etat c'est moi." He had an 
enormous appetite for foods and funds and a 
good digestion for both. He farmed out the 
taxes and lavished the proceeds upon kingly 
magnificence. During his reign (1643-1715) 
snuffing grew as a courtly exercise throughout 
Europe, and the goldsmiths were busy in devis- 
ing snuff boxes for the elite which should be 
more in harmony with the splendour of le Roi 
SoleiL He tried to eliminate snuff-taking from 
his court, and the royal physician Fagon is said 
to have made a public oration against snuffing, 
but failed to convince his audience because in 

[61] 



THE STORY OF 

the violence of his onslaught he occasionally re- 
freshed himself with a pinch of the hateful 
dust. But smoking continued to some extent 
within the court. Miss Pardoe in her History 
of the Court of Louis XIV shows that the 
daughters of the Grand Monarque occasionally 
held a smoking orgy in their own apartments 
after supper, with pipes borrowed from the of- 
ficers of the Swiss guard. Still, a prejudice 
against smoking seems to have existed in French 
court circles to the time of Napoleon. Corti 
relates that Napoleon, who from his youth up 
was a mighty snuff taker, told the smoking 
Prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, "If you come to 
Paris with your clothes smelling of smoke not 
a woman will look at you." This is a very ex- 
travagant statement about Paris, but it indicates 
a certain court dislike of smoking. 

The opposition to the use of tobacco on the 
part of the church seems to have been amply 
justified, and perhaps unduly delayed. It ap- 
pears that some of the Catholic missionaries in 
the New World, especially in Peru, had become 
so intemperate and bad-mannered as to take 
their snuffing, chewing, and smoking into the 
churches and even into the celebration of the 

[62] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

mass, to the scandal of the people they were 
sent to serve. Similar outrages of decency were 
perpetrated in Spain, particularly in Seville, and 
also in some of the Italian cities. On the 
ground of many complaints, Pope Urban VIII 
in 1624 issued a bull in which he says, "Tobacco 
has gained so strong a hold on persons of both 
sexes, yea, even priests and clerics, that We 
blush to state during the actual celebration of 
Holy Mass, they do not shrink from taking to- 
bacco through the mouth or nostrils, thus soil- 
ing the altar linen and infecting the churches 
with its noxious fumes. * * * All persons thus 
offending shall be punished by immediate ex- 
communication, etc." His successor, Innocent 
X, in 1650 interdicted the use of tobacco in any 
form in St. Peter's Church under penalty of 
instant excommunication. 

The net result in western Europe of the op- 
position of church and state to tobacco was 
negligible. On the whole, snuffing gained in 
popularity on account of its relative safety, 
simplicity, and decency. The state found that 
sumptuary prohibition did not prohibit, and 
turned its attention to revenue from tobacco, 
often taking special concessions for the Crown. 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

The church was equally powerless, with her 
excommunications perforated by loopholes. In 
1655 she gave up the fight, farmed out tobacco 
and brandy, and gave her attention to revenue 
for the Papal States. As the church at first re- 
jected Aristotle but finally glorified him as the 
wisest of all philosophers, so her early opposi- 
tion to tobacco culminated in the use of snuff 
by several of her supreme pontiffs. Thus about 
the middle of the seventeenth century church 
and state came to the same conclusion regarding 
the tobacco problem, abandoning both pro- 
hibition and excommunication. 



CHAPTER IV 

MODES OF PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION 
OF SNUFF 

FOR an indefinite period the production of 
snuff in Europe followed the methods of the 
native Americans. This means in part that the 
variously cured tobacco leaves were treated by 
hand or in a mortar with pestle. But as Spain 
became acquainted with Central America, and 
Portugal with Brazil, it is reasonable to suppose 
that the more refined methods of the culture of 
Montezuma, and of the Indians of the Orinoco, 
were adopted. This would mean the introduc- 
tion of hand mills, of containers and of various 
scents or aromas in snuff production. Later, 
Seville became the emporium for snuff, and it 
was probably here that the first differentiations 
in curing, preparing, scenting and packing to- 
bacco were worked out. With the growth of 
snuffing, factories sprang up throughout the 
world. Chambers, in his Encyclopaedia^ 1727, 

[65] 



THE STORY OF 

says, "The kinds of snuff and their several 
names are infinite." To this we add nothing. 
The adulterations of snuff were as numerous as 
its varieties. The flavour of tobacco was often 
destroyed through washings and scents and 
sometimes the tobacco itself was eliminated by 
substitutes. The history of snuff production is 
almost as intricate as that of wine making. Let 
the reader consider the great variety of tobacco 
plants, of soils and climates, modes of cultiva- 
tion and cure, of ways of packing and time of 
fermentation, of temperatures, mixtures, and 
scents in manufacturing we shall then be ex- 
cused for giving but two simple examples. As 
stated by Billings, the recipe for making a pop- 
ular snuff named "Maroco" is: "Take forty 
parts of French or St. Omar tobacco with 
twenty parts of fermented Virginia stalks in 
powder; the whole to be ground and sifted. To 
this powder must be added two pounds and one- 
half of rose leaves in fine powder; and the 
whole must be moistened with salt and water 
and thoroughly incorporated. After that it 
must be worked up with cream and salts of tar- 
tar, and packed in lead to preserve its delicate 
aroma." The celebrated gros gram Paris snuff 
[66] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

is composed of "equal parts of Amersf oort and 
James River tobacco, and the scent is imparted 
by a Sauce/ among the ingredients of which 
are salt, soda, tamarinds, red wine, syrup, co- 
gnac, and cream of tartar." It is interesting to 
compare these eighteenth-century productions 
with those of the Brazilian Indians in the six- 
teenth century as found in our first chapter. 

Within the frame of the larger picture of 
snuff production we should notice the snuff- 
mill and the grater, which were early used by 
the pharmacist dispenser of snuff or by private 
persons. For these devices tobacco leaves were 
pressed or curled into plugs, carottes, pigtails, 
and twists of different forms and sizes. The 
mills passed through the mortar stage into small 
grinding mills similar to those used later for 
coffee. The graters, rasps, or rappees appear in 
different sizes, ranging from two or three inches 
for the pocket to twelve or sixteen inches for 
family use. The terms carotte and rappee take 
us back to about 1 600, when tobacco for snuff 
was prepared in the form of a carrot to be rasped 
as wanted. Thus we have Tabac rape, or 
rappee or grated tobacco and its attendant snuff 
rasp-box. The best graters had a cover of ivory, 



THE STORY OF 

wood, or metal, elaborately ornamented, 
painted, or engraved, rivalling in workmanship 
their later successful competitors, the ornate 
snuff boxes. Graters have become very rare but 
are sometimes found in museums. A small 
pocket grater in my collection is contained in a 
silver cylinder about two inches long, with 
hinges at either end, and is in perfect adjust- 
ment, combining carotte, grater, and snuff con- 
tainer. I am a bit skeptical about the "nutmeg- 
grater" which the English Puritan carried in 
his travels "to satisfy an individual taste, as 
mulled wine, or negus was a night cap," and 
which the New England Puritan carried "to 
season food when travelling." The Reverend 
George Whitefield, "who thrilled his vast au- 
diences by his eloquence and powerful rich 
voice," owned one of these. The fact that the 
pocket nutmeg grater and the snuff grater ap- 
peared and disappeared together in time is as 
interesting as the possibility that our fathers of 
the eighteenth century indulged the nutmeg 
luxury. My suspicion is that the container held 
neither a "wooden nutmeg" nor a real one but 
a carotte of Virginia tobacco, which yields the 
[68] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

rich brown dust that might be mistaken for 
nutmeg. 

When Schopenhauer was reproved for abus- 
ing "God's chosen people," he laconically re- 
marked, "Tastes differ." Some might think 
this is a rather impious application of the old 
axiom <Le gustibus non est disputandum^ but it 
expresses the truth not only in the general realm 
of the fine arts but also in those mysterious 
regions of taste and smell that have been so 
strangely neglected in the field of aesthetics, and 
which tobacco has partially explored. The 
multiplicity of kinds, scents, containers, and 
names of snuff was partly due to "variety is the 
spice of life" or chacun a son gout and partly 
to the effort of producers to stimulate consump- 
tion by new labels or nomenclature. The re- 
juvenating power of new names for old things 
or processes is very great. Thus we feel quite 
au fait in psychology and sociology when we 
learn that psycho-analysis gives rise to behavior- 
ism and this in turn to mental and cultural com- 
plexes, and that Europe took over from 
America the tobacco complex, the potato com- 
plex, and the maize complex. 

Snuff played a considerable social role for 



THE STORY OF 

about three hundred years in the life of all 
peoples. It broke the ice of silence in all gath- 
erings and furnished an unlimited field for 
conversation and controversy. It stimulated 
friendships and made new conquests, as well 
as revealed human attitudes and manners. 

What introduces Whig or Tory y 
And reconciles them in their story ) 
When each is boasting in his glory ? 
A -pinch of snuff. 

Where speech and tongue together fail. 
What helps old ladies in their tale^ 
And adds fresh canvas to their sail? 
A pinch of snuff. 

One of the social customs may be referred 
to in an amusing anecdote. After a dinner in 
Portman Square the snuff boxes made their ap- 
pearance, and that of Beau Brummell was much 
admired. One guest found it hard to open and 
applied a dessert knife to the lid. Brummell 
was on thorns, and finally addressed his host 
with suavity, "Will you be good enough to tell 
your friend that my snuff box is not an oyster? " 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Stewart as quoted by Billings sees in the con- 
sumption of snuff a philosophy of history and 
a benefactor of humanity. His view is that 
when we consider the beneficial influence which 
snuff has exercised over mankind generally, we 
can not help regretting that its virtues were not 
sooner known. "For we put forth the proposi- 
tion seriously/ 5 says Stewart, "that its effect 
upon the world has been to render it more hu- 
mane and even-tempered, and that had the 
western hemisphere discovered the tobacco 
plant earlier, historians would have had more 
pleasant events to chronicle. It is most prob- 
able that the fate of Rome, discussed by the 
triumvirate over their snuff boxes would have 
been different." After reviewing many his- 
torical events, and claiming that the great deeds 
of great men who were snuff takers may be 
traced to this dearly prized luxury he remarks: 
"My hypothesis may seem an absurd one, but 
history supports it." He believes that snuff 
civilised Scotland and produced her many great 
men of the eighteenth century. Had Stewart 
lived until our day he would explain present 
depressions and political stupidities by the aban- 
donment of the snuff box. 

[71] 



THE STORY OF 

The snuffer had an aesthetic advantage of the 
smoker, as he was not dependent on the tinder- 
box with its steel, flint, and punk, or on the 
sputtering candle, or the coals of the fire pot. 
Among the elite the manner of handling the 
snuff box, and the correct way of conveying the 
titillating dust to the expectant nostrils, were 
of the utmost importance. Schools were 
formed to this end; one in London added to 
its snuff curriculum, instruction in the proper 
use of the fan. Thus Pope writes: 

Snuff or the fan supply each pause of chat 
With singing, laughing, ogling and all that. 

An advertisement in the Spectator^ August 8, 
1711, reads, "The exercise of the Snuff Box, 
according to the most fashionable Airs and No- 
tions in opposition to the exercise of the Fan 
will be taught with the best plain or perfumed 
Snuff, at Charles Lillis's & C." After the snuff 
box was drawn from the pocket by the left hand, 
the fingers of the right hand gave the cover 
three taps, then the box was opened and a pinch 
of snuff placed on the back of the left hand or 
on the thumb-nail enclosed by the forefinger, 
[72] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

and so inhaled. But generally the pinch of 
snuff went directly to the nose and elsewhere 
in careless addicts. The why of the three taps, 
which was almost universal, is not known. It 
is not necessary to refer it to any triad, or trinity, 
or to the "God bless you" after the sneeze. The 
sneeze, like most omens, has different and even 
opposite meanings in time and place. Catullus 
tells us that when Cupid sneezed 

The little loves that waited by y 
Bowed and blessed the augury. 

The mannerisms of snuffing were sure to ex- 
cite the interest of the satirists, even on the part 
of those masters who were not strangers to its 
charms. Thus Stewart says that Steele, whose 
weakness for dress and show was proverbial, 
levelled many of his blunt shafts at its use; 
while Pope, who himself tells us of his a wig 
all powdered and all snuff his band" let fly one 
of his keener arrows at the beaux whose wit lay 
in their snuff boxes. But of all satirists of 
snuffing none can compare with John Heinrich 
Cohausen who in his ~Lust of the Longing Nose, 
1720, writes: "Do but notice what grimaces 

[73] 



THE STORY OF 

snuff takers make, how their whole features are 
convulsed, how they dip into their snuff boxes 
in measured rhythm, cock up their noses, com- 
pose their mouths, eyes, and all their features 
to a pompous dignity, and, as they perform the 
solemn rite of snuff -taking, they look as if they 
scorned the whole world, or were bent on some 
enterprise of which they might say, like Bouflet, 
C I will make the whole world tremble! ' " Here 
the aesthetically neglected nose rises to a dra- 
matic dignity commensurate with its position in 
the human physiognomy. But we may turn 
from this sarcastic abstraction to the concrete 
and caressing experience of the poet: 

Knows he that never took a pinch 
Nosey! the pleasure thence 'which flows? 
Knows he the titillating joy 
Which my nose knows? 

nose! / am as -proud of thee 
As any mountain of its snows! 

1 gaze on thee and feel that pride 
A Roman knows! 

The use of the tiny spoon, such as are found 
in Chinese snuff bottles, was not uncommon in 

[74] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Europe, especially among women. Thus we 
have the complaint: 

To such a height with some is fashion grown 
They feed their very nostrils <with a spoon. 

This device had the advantages of keeping the 
nails clean, and of excluding other people's 
nails and noses from one's powder. 

Snuffing had so many psychical aspects of 
status and attitude that an attempt has been 
made to classify them. Thus we have the pinch 
military as with Frederick the Great and 
Napoleon, the pinch malicious of Pope, the 
pinch dictatorial of Ben Jonson, the pinch 
sublimely contemptuous of Reynolds, and the 
pinch polite of Talleyrand. The latter held 
snuff-taking to be essential to politicians, as it 
gives time for thought in answering awkward 
questions while pretending only to indulge in a 
pinch. 

Among the elite the snuff box was not more 
democratic than the toothbrush or the pipe. 
It might be pro bono amico but never pro bono 
publico. When someone took a pinch from the 
box of George II which was lying on the table, 

[75] 



THE STORY OF 

the king threw the box out of the window. 
Frederick the Great, discovering a page pur- 
loining a pinch from his box, exclaimed: "Boy, 
put that box in your pocket; it is not large 
enough for both of us." Lord X, visiting his 
tailor, laid his box on the counter, whereupon 
the tailor took a pinch. Lord X remarked, 
"Since we are equals you are no longer my 
tailor/ 5 and walked out of the shop. Still, we 
are warned not to generalise for both sexes, as 
Addison complains in the London Spectator that 
a lady of fashion too often pulls out her box full 
of good Brazile in the middle of the sermon 5 
and to show she has the audacity of a well-bred 
woman offers it to the men as well as the women 
who sit near her. The serio-comic aspect of the 
habit is shown by the Scotch clergyman who, 
running out of snuff, was miserable and unable 
to work until his clever servant, going to the 
kirk, swept up the dust about the pulpit and thus 
relieved the malaise of his master. Similar re- 
sults would have been attained by shaking out 
the garments of Ben Jonson, or Swedenborg, or 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. 

Because the spectacular snuff box has disap- 
peared into museums and private collections be- 

[76] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

fore the all-conquering cloud of smoke, it is 
often inferred that snuff also has disappeared. 
Yet statistically the consumption of snuff is 
keeping pace with the growth of population. 
In these years of abnormal depression the three 
leading producers of snuff in the United States 
show combined earnings, production, and sur- 
plus for 1931 respectively of $7,084,601, 
39>543>96 pounds, and $30,657,584. The 
chief mode of snuff consumption to-day is not 
snuffing, or dipping, or rubbing, or chewing, but 
soaking or holding it in the cheek with an occa- 
sional pressure. It is estimated that less than 
two percent of the snuff manufactured to- 
day enters the nostrils. There are still many 
species and sub-species of snuff sweet, strong, 
and salt ; plain, fine, and coarse ; dry, semi-moist, 
and moist; scented with rose, lemon, verbena, 
or bergamot, etc. The spirit of advertising 
remains about the same, though differing a bit 
in letter, as may be seen by the statement of 
Samuel Major in the General Advertiser , Lon- 
don, June 21, 1749: "I have published my 
Imperial Snuff for all disorders in the head 5 and 
I think I might have gone farther, and said, for 
all disorders of body and mind." The banner 

[77] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

has passed in our day to the manufacturer of 
the all-conquering cigarette, of which one may 
say, 

Without joking, the cigarette is the poetry of 

smoking^ 

And needs no constant stoking, as my pipe. 
I like a good cigar ^ but my funds dotft go so far 
As for the cigarette^ with even more delight. 



CHAPTER V 
FORM AND MATTER OF SNUFF CONTAINERS 

THE containers of snuff include a great vari- 
ety of pockets, bags, pouches, mulls, bottles, and 
boxes. The beginnings of all these are found 
among the American aborigines. The Indian 
custom of carrying tobacco in small animal 
skins or leather bags decorated with coloured 
thread or paints, and later with beads, has pre- 
vailed throughout the world even to our own 
day. In the Orient bags and pouches were sus- 
pended from the girdle, and were often beau- 
tifully ornamented, as may be seen in Persian 
and Turkish collections or in the exquisitely 
simple lac and Japan of the Far East. 

Snuff bottles were not uncommon in Europe 
even in the seventeenth century. Bragge de- 
scribes a Norwegian bottle of bone mounted 
with brass; brass stopper and chain; circles of 
brass on sides; on side initial G.E.S. and date 
1647; dimensions 3^x%. Both table and 

[79] 



THE STORY OF 

pocket bottles seem to have been very popular 
in Norway and were made of wood, bone, horn, 
deer's hoof, amber, ivory, walrus tusk, silver 
and other metals. The decorations of many of 
these bottles with medallions, figures, and en- 
gravings show the value attributed to them. 
While in Germany and Italy some bottles were 
used, they never became widely popular, being 
less easily carried than the box. Of Chinese 
bottles we shall discourse later. 

The word "mull" has its origin in the Scot- 
tish Highlanders' pronunciation of "mill," the 
name of the implement used for pulverising 
tobacco. A mull is generally of natural horn, 
with the small end often artificially curved and 
the larger end capped by bone, wood, or metal, 
often bearing in the centre a cairngorm or some 
other semi-precious stone. Dr. Mott, in a note 
to his edition of Dekker's GuIVs Hornbook^ says, 
"The Scotch mull, or sneeshing mull, was often 
accompanied by a spoon and hare's foot attached 
by chain, the one for applying snuff to the nose, 
the other for wiping the upper lip." More tools 
were appended by those who put great emphasis 
on the antecedents and consequences of snuffing. 
I have seen but two examples of the communal 
[80] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

or guild mull, one of which I possess. It is a 
very large ram's horn with one and one-half 
turns, the small end in plain silver, the large 
end capped with an engraved silver box, on the 
hinged lid of which is a rampant eagle one and 
three-fourths inches high. The feet are in 
turned silver, so that they may move easily about 
the table. The length of the whole is ten 
inches, the height eight inches, and the diam- 
eter of the snuff box three and one-fourth 
inches. The mull described by Bragge has mal- 
let, pricker, rake, spoon, and hare's foot, all 
attached by chains evidently a private table 
mull. 

Snuff boxes vary in size from the tiny ones 
carried by milady in hand or bag or on chate- 
laine to the generous table and mantel boxes for 
the benefit of the family and guests. It is re- 
ported that Frederick the Great had a snuff box 
in every room in his palaces. If his other guests 
were like Voltaire, an ample supply of snuff was 
needed! It is said that Mary Lamb would put 
a half-dozen small boxes in her bag and make 
as many social calls, returning with her stock of 
snuff quite replenished. The term snuff box is 
somewhat ambiguous, as it belongs to that large 

[81] 



THE STORY OF 

group of small boxes which includes the comfit, 
"bonbon," and "powder boxes." When snuffing 
arose, small boxes used for other purposes were 
probably requisitioned, and when the habit sub- 
sided the boxes were used according to the fancy 
of the possessor. Evidently many of the most 
valuable snuff boxes never contained snuff, but 
remained unsullied, as beautiful and cherished 
mementos. One knows a snuff box more by 
intuition than by definition. No classification 
of forms by periods is possible. It is idle to 
speak of the rounds of Louis XIV, or the ovals 
of Louis XV, or the rectangulars of Louis XVI. 
These are prevailing forms from Henry IV to 
Louis Philippe, and throughout this period 
nearly every geometrical form is probably rep- 
resented. The oldest dated snuff box known is 
an oval in silver, of 1655, and Bragge describes 
one, in the form of a shell, done in copper, with 
the date 1662. The older snuff boxes are very 
rarely dated. By analogies as well as by direct 
evidence we may be sure that throughout the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the artists 
worked with freedom, not only in form, but in 
material, colour, and decoration. Still, it was 
not until the time of the French Revolution and 

[82] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

subsequent years that inventions really ran riot 
in the field of form. Here we have hats, caps, 
shoes, boots, human and animal heads and fig- 
ures, fishes, turtles, flies, bellows, fans, pistols, 
and what not. I have a mutilated copy of the 
legendary Devonshire Pistol, made to shoot 
snuff into the nostrils. There are also boxes 
with false or double inner tops or bottoms; 
boxes with secret portraits or erotic paintings; 
screw, spring, and slip boxes or the puzzle sort; 
and boxes with double lids and containers, insur- 
ing both public and private use, 

My collection contains a Spanish applewood 
box with five lids and containers top, bottom, 
ends, and one side yet in measurement only 
four and three-fourths by two and three-fourths 
inches. The hinges are of wood, and the whole 
so perfectly made as to be water tight, with 
jointures almost invisible. 

Psychological crotchets are not of our day 
only for form, colour, and decoration of the 
snuff box were at one time thought to be more 
significant of character than clothes. Early in 
the eighteenth century a contributor to the 
Tatler writes, "I will call at Bubbleboy's shop 
and find out the shape of the fellow's snuff box, 



THE STORY OF 

by which I can settle his character." This 
enigma must have been a very ordinary fellow; 
otherwise he would have had at least a half- 
dozen containers. It was quite common to have 
a different box for every day of the week, and 
for very special occasions. Still, individual taste 
played a great role in ordinary life, while among 
the elite there was more uniformity in material 
and decoration engraved and ornamented gold 
boxes probably taking the lead. 

In respect to the materials for snuff boxes, 
the mineral, vegetable, and animal realms have 
responded bounteously, both in their simplicity 
and in combination. All the minerals are rep- 
resented, from platinum, gold and crystal to 
lead and iron. The vegetable products are rep- 
resented by almost every kind of wood, bamboo, 
gourd, and amber. The lower forms of animal 
life yield all sorts of shells, the queen of which 
is the pearl oyster, and its rival for the throne, 
the amphibian tortoise. The higher animals 
have furnished leather, bones, horns, tusks, and, 
the king of all animal products, ivory, which is 
not only beautiful in itself but takes colours with 
brilliancy, and has challenged by its fine grain 
the skill of artists and engravers since the early 

[84] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Egyptian dynasties. Though the origins of 
painting on ivory go back to an indefinitely early 
date, it is to Richard Cosway of the eighteenth 
century that we owe the perfecting of this tech- 
nique. For many years Cosway did miniature 
work on snuff boxes for leading goldsmiths. 
Then about 1761 he began independent portrait 
work on ivory, and soon became the most popu- 
lar miniaturist in England, at the very time 
when Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney, Rae- 
burn, Lawrence, and Hoppner were glorifying 
portraiture on canvas. A good idea of the boxes 
of Queen Anne's time is given in Pandora's 
Box; a Satyr Against Snuff, published in 1719: 

For females fair and formal fops to -please. 
The mines are robbed of ore, of shells the seas, 
With all that Mother Earth and beast afford 
To man, unworthy now, tho* once their lord; 
Which wrought into a box, with all the show 
Of art the greatest artists can bestow, 
Charming in shape, with polish* t rays of light, 
A joint so fine it shuns the sharpest sight y 
Must still be graced, with all the radiant gems 
And precious stones that ere arrived in Thames. 

[85] 



THE STORY OF 

Within the lid the painter plays his part, 
And with his pencil proves his matchless art; 
There drawn to life some spark or mistress 

dwells^ 
Like hermits chaste and constant to their cells. 

To all these natural materials for snuff boxes 
we must add such composites as glass, porcelain, 
and papier-mache, which, though not orna- 
mented with pearls and precious stones, are not 
less artistic and brilliant in their choicest exam- 
ples. To these materials, including tortoise 
shell, a more detailed emphasis should be given. 
The shield of the tortoise is formed in very 
thin layers or shingles about three times as long 
as their breadth. These layers are easily soft- 
ened by heat and may be welded together in any 
shape or thickness required. Unlike ivory, tor- 
toise shell seldom cracks, checks, or warps 
in changing temperatures. These remarkable 
qualities, to which must be added fine texture 
and translucent colours, render it very desirable 
for decoration and engraving. Tortoise shell 
played a considerable role in the fine arts of the 
Orient, long before it entered Europe where it 
was given varied expression by Boule in Paris 
[86] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

and Laurentini in Naples. Boule used the shell 
chiefly for inlay work on larger pieces, while 
Laurentini developed the finer inlays of gold 
which gave rise to marquetries, to the pose d y or 
of silhouettes, and to the pique <Por of the 
very delicate gold-point inlays that form many 
beautiful designs on shell snuff boxes. The 
heavier work of this latter sort takes the 
name of cloute cPor. I have a snuff box in 
which the relief carving of human figures and 
trees is as excellent as any similar work done in 
ivory; and also other tortoise shell boxes deco- 
rated with gold in the styles mentioned, includ- 
ing marquetry and guilloche, which show how 
exquisite are the two materials in combination. 
It has been said that the more ancient shell boxes 
are light in colour. I doubt this statement be- 
cause this is the colour of my box, whereon is 
depicted, in chased gold associated with pique 
d'or y a balloon ascension, Paris, 1773; and an- 
other box of the same period of Louis XVI, in 
the Piogey collection in Paris, is in pose d'or on 
light shell. My carved box already mentioned 
is in dark shell, and supposed to be older than 
the light one. Probably a time classification of 
colour is as arbitrary as that of form. 



THE STORY OF 

Papier-mache has given us more snuff boxes 
than any other single material, a fact which 
arises from the number of its peculiar merits. 
It is the lightest, and at the same time one of the 
most durable of materials. It never cracks, 
checks, or warps. It keeps the snuff cool and 
moist better than any other container except 
lead. It takes a very fine finish, giving an ex- 
cellent ground for the painter's skill. It lends 
itself agreeably to all such prints as are held by 
paste and varnish. For all these reasons, the 
range of value is very great, and depends pri- 
marily on the quality of decoration and varnish- 
ing. Papier-mache is a synthesis of the finest 
paper paste, lacquer or gum arabic, and china 
clay. This synthesis is moulded or pressed into 
the desired form, lacquered, finished with rot- 
ten stone for decoration, and then given a final 
varnish. 

Much mystery hangs about the lacquers and 
varnishes, notwithstanding John Stalker's Trea- 
tise of Japanning and Varnishing, being a Com- 
plete Discovery of those Arts, published in 
London, 1688. What we do not know about 
the brilliant varnishes of the eighteenth century 
would be very interesting. It is said they were 
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SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

developed and carried to great perfection in 
Japan. Thither China sent her workmen to 
learn the secrets of the art, preparatory to the 
making of the Ti-Tscheon lacquers of Peking. 
With lacquer the indebtedness of China to 
Japan apparently begins and ends. Japan's 
snuff boxes are almost wholly confined to the 
lower vegetable world and to lacquer. They are 
much less interesting than the little button, 
toggle, or netsuke at the end of the cord which 
attaches the box or inro to sash or belt. These 
are often grotesque and charming among 
them may be found all sorts of tiny human and 
animal figures cleverly carved from ivory, illus- 
trating the daily lives, occupations, and beliefs of 
the people. Why this aesthetic contrast of China 
and Japan? Until recently Japan was relatively 
isolated, China open; Japan is probably south- 
western Asiatic; China Mongolian; the soul of 
Japan is reflected in the simple Shinto worship 
and in Bushida, "the way of the Samurai/ 3 an 
intense fearless nationalism; China is essentially 
metaphysical, with her Confucius, Lao-tse, and 
Mencius. If comparisons are odious, contrasts 
are apt to be even more so. I am fully aware 
that each of the above propositions is debatable 

[89] 



THE STORY OF 

and that the Japanese of all peoples in history 
have made the most sudden and cataclysmic 
change to western modernism while conserva- 
tive China is still tumultuously waiting to be 
born. I am also inclined to the view that such 
beloved and overworked terms as "Race," 
"Heredity," and "Environment" are superficial 
fictions which invite loquacity and darken un- 
derstanding, much as did those old refuges of 
ignorance, "Turanian," and "Aryan." 

But let us return to Europe and to the mys- 
tery of Vernis Martin. About 1740 Etienne 
and Robert Martin went from Germany to 
Paris, where they joined a paper maker named 
Lefevre and began to produce -papier-mache 
snuff boxes. About 1744 Vernis Martin, under 
the patronage of the Crown, became known 
throughout Europe, and before 1764 it was 
considered a mark of distinction to own a Vernis 
Martin snuff-box. The Martins had succeeded 
in making a durable, translucent, and brilliant 
varnish; they also had secured the best artists to 
do their work on papier-mache y wood, ivory, 
and certain metals. Perhaps, like Joseph Strass 
of Vienna, whose paste became famous in 
French jewelry about 1750, they brought their 

[90] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

secret with them to Paris. Proof of the high 
contemporary esteem in which their work was 
held is shown by a payment by Louis XVI to 
Robert of about 15,460 litres for decorative 
workers at Versailles, and by the fact that their 
lacquer snuff boxes sold readily at the then 
enormous price of twenty-four to thirty livres 
each, while their etuis, fans, carnets, and bon- 
bonnieres commanded corresponding prices. 
The secret of Vernis Martin passed with Rob- 
ert's death into the realm of lost arts, there to 
join the Egyptian Nile blue and the ruby red. 
Meanwhile Johann Heinrich Stobwasser, born 
in 1740, was developing a new lacquer product 
under the patronage of the Duke of Brunswick, 
and in 1772 the Stobwasser factory was opened 
in Berlin. Here too the best artists were secured, 
and decoration of a high order in portraiture, 
landscape, and genre was produced. These 
boxes, mostly in papier-mache, are known as 
Braunschweig or Stobwasser, and on account of 
their superior varnish and excellent workman- 
ship are very desirable. 

In entering upon the relation of snuff boxes 
and bottles to the field of ceramics we find our- 
selves in a realm of vagaries and controversy. 

[91] 



THE STORY OF 

Here we come at once upon "crystal glass/ 5 
which, like "psycho-physics," seems a contra- 
diction in terms. I am sure the crystal would 
say to the glass: CC I was formed in nature's great 
laboratory through millions of years and with 
definite structure, while you are a synthetic, 
amorphous stuff made in the laboratories of 
man; I am quartz, diamond, ruby, sapphire, 
emerald, while you are nothing but a pasty imi- 
tation of my everlasting qualities." Of course 
the crystal is right, and all the glories of glass, 
and glaze, and enamel, and porcelain must ad- 
mit their human origins and inheritances. All 
these are essentially of one family, having as 
their physical background a synthesis of sand, 
potash, and oxide of lead, however much they 
may differ as aesthetic products by variations and 
additions, and by the introduction of other me- 
tallic oxides for purposes of colour. 

Concerning the origin of pottery, glass, 
glazes, and soft pastes we know nothing. Like 
fire, the wheel, the wedge, and the lever, they 
are beyond the horizon of history. We know 
that the potter's wheel was working in the 
fourth Egyptian dynasty, about 3,800 years 
B.C., that glass was manufactured in Mesopo 

[92] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

tamia and Egypt, 2500 B.C., and that a glass 
factory was established in China by Wu-ti of 
the Han dynasty, 140 B.C. This last event, 
moreover, had been preceded by hundreds of 
years of excellent Chinese work in porcelain and 
bronze. 

The general type, as to size and form, of the 
Chinese snuff bottle, which was fixed for snuff 
with spoon, cork, and semi-precious stone cap 
in the Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, apparently 
antedates the Christian era. Many specimens 
of Chinese decorated porcelain bottles have been 
found in Egypt at Thebes, Sakkarah, and Ghi- 
seh, possibly dating as early as 1 500 B.C., show- 
ing, like the Tel-el- Amarna tablets, Egyptian 
intercourse with the East. The discoveries of 
Layard and Cesnola, as well as the seventeen 
specimens now in the museum of the New York 
Historical Society, seem to establish a direct or 
indirect relation of Egypt with Cathay. As bot- 
tles of this type were widely used for perfumes, 
scents, medicines, and opiates, the Oriental taste 
for these explains their wide distribution and 
their later adaptation to snuff. The Portuguese 
were in Asiatic waters as early as 1511; a little 
later Magellan was in the Philippines, and in 

[93] 



THE STORY OF 

1537 the Portuguese established the first Euro- 
pean colony in the Far East at Macao, on the 
confines of China. Tobacco was introduced to 
China about this time, and soon after snuffing 
seems to have become the favourite form of its 
consumption. We might call the period from 
1537-1644 one of adaptation of the bottle to 
the uses of snuff while the great period of the 
snuff bottle floruit in production, reproduction, 
and trade is that of the Manchu dynasty, 1644- 
1912, with its leading emperors K'ang Hsi, 
Yung Cheng, and Ch'ien Lung, and its develop- 
ment of the great centre of fine ceramic produc- 
tion in China, Ching-te Chen. Perhaps the 
more outstanding work began under Ch'ien 
Lung about 1736. Still, names do not limit the 
production of snuff bottles, in which the Chi- 
nese patience and skill have so completely ex- 
pressed themselves. The glass bottles show such 
a variety of glazes, colours with their combina- 
tions, imitations of semi-precious stones, and 
cameo cuttings as to beggar description. Bragge 
lists thirteen snuff boxes in imitation of mocha- 
stone and agate said to be made by the use of 
the silex of the rice plant. The layers of glass 
in cameo are sometimes undercut, which adds to 

[94] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

the brilliancy of the superior figures and sym- 
bols. It is said that eight figures express love, 
luck, fame, and immortality, and are sometimes 
called Buddhistic emblems. But the mysterious 
Chinese symbolism shall not detain us. The 
more interesting and elaborate bottles made of 
vitreous pastes and done in high relief are at- 
tributed to the great artist Hu of Peking. 

Of all Chinese bottles the most exquisite, 
mysterious, and highly prized are those in which 
the painting and lettering is made on the inside 
of the bottle by the artist. The origin of inside 
painting has been attributed to the greatest of 
all Chinese artists, Wu Tao-Tzu of the T'ang 
dynasty, who worked the miracle in quartz or 
crystal. Laufer says the inside of the bottle is 
treated with pulverised iron oxydul mixed with 
water, which, shaken for a half day, forms a 
milk-white coating suitable for receiving paints. 
The artist lies on his back holding the bottle up 
to the light between the thumb and index finger 
of the left hand. "The hairy tip of the brush 
is not straight, as usual, but stands under a right 
angle against the handle." His eyes are con- 
stantly fixed on the outer surface of the glass, 
thus watching the gradual development of the 

[95] 



THE STORY OF 

picture as it emerges from under the glass. He 
first outlines a skeleton sketch in black ink, 
starting from below and then passing on to the 
middle and sides, finally inserting the colours. 
This art industry commenced in the K'ien-Lung 
period, 1736-95, and the little masterpieces 
turned out at that time are unsurpassed. The 
modern output is chiefly intended for the for- 
eign market, and does not stand comparison 
with the products of bygone days; the bottles 
are large, coarse, and clumsy, and the paintings 
are usually crude. 

Precious stones and pearls very rarely appear 
as decorations in Chinese snuff bottles, yet 
Bragge lists a bottle in brown chalcedony with 
a large ruby as a stopper cap, and a glass bottle 
"incrusted with groups of pearls, which the 
Chinese cause the pearl oyster to secrete in the 
form desired.' 7 The pocket or sash bottles range 
from two inches to three and one-half inches in 
height, while the table bottles are from three 
and one-half inches to four and one-half inches. 

It is interesting to note that the decline of 
snuffing in the Orient and Occident was syn- 
chronous. After the period of Tao Kuang, 
1821-1850, the bottle and box seldom graced 

[96] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

the hand, sash, or pocket of the Chinese elite. 
While the Chinese snuff bottle was rarely used 
in the Western world for the pocket, there 
seems to have been a good trade in Europe and 
America in glass table bottles of various colours, 
some of which are now regarded as very desir- 
able, especially those with the original labels. 
About 1769 Richard Wister in New Jersey and 
a little later Thomas Leiper of Philadelphia are 
said to have made a few pocket bottles. I have 
a small pear-shaped glass bottle, with an acorn 
screw cap at the small end and a full screw bot- 
tom, lined with cork for filling. Bottles of wood 
and leather are more common, however. While 
there are many public and private collections of 
Chinese snuff bottles in Europe and America, 
the Metropolitan Museum of New York City 
is fortunate in possessing three, the Altman, the 
Bishop, and the Converse collections, which 
taken together give an excellent idea of the 
materials, form, sizes, colours, engravings, 
paintings, and cameo work of the choicest field 
of Chinese art. The Altman collection is espe- 
cially interesting for the variety of material and 
excellence of workmanship displayed. Among 
the one hundred and seventy-one specimens in 

[97] 



THE STORY OF 

hard stone are found bottles of agate, agalatolite, 
alabaster, aquamarine, bloodstone, carneliao, 
chalcedony, crystal, jasper, lapis-lazuli, mala- 
chite, sardonyx, serpentine, tourmaline, and tur- 
quoise, many marvellously carved or engraved. 
The relation of the snuff box to the ceramics 
of the Western world opens a very large field 
concerning which only a few words are neces- 
sary. Brevity of treatment does not imply that 
the best porcelain and enamel snuff boxes with 
their metal mountings are not very desirable to 
museums and collectors. The hard porcelain 
paste, a synthesis of kaolin and feldspar, was 
first produced at Meissen in Saxony in 1710 and 
was put on sale at the Leipzig fair in 1715. 
Though preceded by many hundreds of years in 
the Orient, this was an outstanding event in 
Europe. The Capo di Monte factory began 
operation in 1743, and its small boxes done 
in the style of the Chinese Te-Hwa were 
much prized. A little later factories be- 
gan appearing in all parts of Europe, and Eng- 
land in particular became an important center, 
boasting its famous Bow, Chelsea, Battersea, 
and Wedgwood. Bragge lists five bottles of 
Chinese porcelain which closely resemble in 

[98] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

density, hardness, and polish the best specimens 
of Wedgwood's jasper ware, Horace Walpole 
was delighted with the Battersea enamels, and 
sent to his friend Richard Bentley "one of these 
new snuff boxes done on copper plate." In 1753 
Louis XV and Madame de Pompadour removed 
the Vincennes factory to Sevres 5 in 1761 hard 
paste products were added, and Sevres soon be- 
came the rival of Meissen or Royal Dresden 
among the artifact lovers of Europe. The 
Pompadour period, 1753-1763, brought porce- 
lain snuff boxes into great vogue among the 
ladies, who, if they followed the example of 
the mistress of Louis XV, had a different box 
for every day of the year. This remarkable de- 
velopment was hardly under way when Satan 
entered this ceramic Eden in the person of John 
Sadler, who invented printing on both hard and 
soft pastes in 1753 and successfully tempted the 
leading factories to increase and so cheapen 
their production. Whether this "Fall" was 
upward or downwards depends on whether we 
maintain an aristocratic or a democratic stand- 
ard of judgment. The Liverpool prints are in- 
teresting, but they are the beginnings of a drift 
in the invention, imitation, and mass production 

[99] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

which has eliminated handwork, workmanship, 
and the apprentice system at the same time that 
it has enabled the humblest housewife of to-day 
to furnish her home and table with prints and 
herself with "pearls and precious stones" at a 
cost (and quality) undreamed of in the day of 
Josiah Wedgwood and Flaxman. 



[100] 



CHAPTER VI 

COLLECTING AND COLLECTIONS 

THE impulse to collect objects of art or of 
personal interest is one of the many by-products 
of that element in human nature sometimes 
called "sporting blood." This is not to be asso- 
ciated with the economic prevision and provi- 
sion that in animal and human communities 
support social life and institutions. It is an 
aesthetic exercise and refinement that may be 
said to develop from the contents of the healthy 
small boy's pocket, variously specialised. Col- 
lecting, in its purity, is carried on just for the 
fun of seeking and finding the desired and de- 
sirable object. Some urge, like Longfellow in 
his Evangeline, that the pleasure is in the pur- 
suing, while others, like Lotz, hold that the 
continual whetting of the knife is irksome if 
nothing is to be cut. But why attempt to render 
disjunctive a unified process? We do not fish 
in the bathtub nor in the stagnant pool. It is 

[101] 



THE STORY OF 

the permanent possibility of finding the object 
that keeps the sportsman and the collector out 
of the maison de sante. To formulate such a 
definition is not to overlook the pleasures of 
pursuing, or the occasional disappointment felt 
in looking at the bagged game. In collectors 
there is a great variety of types, ranging from 
that of the man who collects just for fun to the 
one who, like some big game hunters, finances 
the expedition, or perhaps goes along with it to 
some interesting point of safety or general head- 
quarters, and then does the real hunting by 
proxy. But to the normal collector the snuff 
box enters into his personal experience first 
ideally; then, when he has discovered it, and its 
price, the deliciously exciting and critical mo- 
ment has arrived when Hamlet's "to be or not 
to be" is pitted against the aphorism "he who 
hesitates is lost." 

One hundred and fifty years ago the collector 
of snuff boxes and snuff bottles had a compara- 
tively easy task in selecting types and varieties. 
Then the artists and factories were many, and 
were vying with each other in supplying the de- 
mands of the great vogue. It is interesting that 
at the height of this fashion many saw in these 
[102] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

tiny works of art "a thing of beauty and a joy 
forever," and that crowned heads found no 
mementos comparable to the snuff box. Jacque- 
mart, one of the ablest critics of art, regards the 
snuff boxes of France as classic in their perfec- 
tion, and he adds: "We should pardon an eccen- 
tricity of fashion which has furnished so many 
beautiful things." Perhaps all fashions are ec- 
centric, but very few produce anything of per- 
manent value. It was in this period that Sylvain 
Pons, according to Balzac the first collector of 
snuff boxes, made his selections, and the Due de 
Richelieu his very choice collection. Frederick 
the Great was reported as having fifteen hun- 
dred boxes, some of which have been pictured 
and described in Martin Klar's Die Tabatieren 
Fredericks des Grossen. The Prince de Conti 
is said to have left to his heirs eight hundred 
boxes, while those of Napoleon are called "num- 
berless." Many small private collections of 
snuff boxes must have been made at this time, 
as is witnessed by subsequent donations to public 
museums throughout Europe. 

The best workmanship in boxes declined rap- 
idly after the Napoleonic period, caused partly, 
at least, by the fact that, with the rapid rise of 

[103] 



THE STORY OF 

democracy and its standardisation of the medio- 
cre, personal vanities and ostentations were dis- 
continued. The revolution of 1848 and the 
abdication of Louis Philippe saw the vulgar 
cheapening of boxes by prints, pastes, and infe- 
rior varnishes. This debacle was accompanied 
by the invention of cheap and serviceable 
matches, which stimulated first pipe smoking, 
then the cigar, and finally the cigarette. The 
snuff box and bottle have disappeared from 
use; the beautifully, carved pipe and the ornate 
cigar- and cigarette-holder are rapidly following 
the same gloomy path and the consumption of 
tobacco has become less picturesque than a quick 
luncheon in a Canal Street cafeteria. No longer 
milady holds the box that puts her at ease while 
displaying her fair white arm and flashing 
rings; instead she sells her picture to advertise 
some new or old brand of tobacco. No longer 
does my gentleman raise from its velvet bed the 
artistic pipe or cigar-holder, but picks at a cello- 
phane package, smokes his stupid briar often 
upside-down, or from the identical enunciatory 
organ manages simultaneously his cigar and his 
conversation. 

One might suppose that the disappearance of 
[104] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

the snuff box and bottle from public use would 
be accompanied by their disappearance from 
public interest. This would be true if men were 
mere utilitarians and were not lovers of the old 
and the beautiful. That the old or the antique 
is a highly relative term is illustrated by the re- 
cent announcement that "the Old Snuff Mill in 
the Bronx, erected in 1760, is being preserved 
by the City of New York on account of its great 
antiquity." Thus the collector is reminded that 
the relativity of words and things to time and 
space is of great significance. I have visited 
antique shops the contents of which have not 
transcended in time the surroundings of my 
boyhood days, nor is this a macrobiotic confes- 
sion. 

The snuff box cannot at present pretend to a 
proved antiquity much beyond the middle of 
the seventeenth century, and there were com- 
paratively few before 1740. Thus the field of 
the collector is practically limited to the little 
more than two hundred years of the floruit of 
the bonafide snuff box, which cannot always be 
distinguished from the popular bonbonniere. 
Napoleon carried both, one containing the excit- 
ant snuff, the other pellets to relieve his cough. 

[105] 



THE STORY OF 

Remembering that Napoleon was one of the 
most intemperate of snuffers and that he suf- 
fered from occasional paroxysms of choking, 
one might enquire into the relation of his snuf- 
fing to Moscow and Waterloo. The brilliant 
Italian, Paolo Mantegazza, always a up to 
snuff ," suggests that Napoleon might have saved 
his Empire had he been a smoker, since smoking 
steadies while snuffing impels. He also holds 
that "the influence of smoking and snuffing on 
politics and war is ascertainable." 

The reference to Napoleon reminds one that 
the collector should harbour a healthy skepticism 
regarding the phrase "decorated with precious 
stones." Indeed, from the beginning of his ven- 
ture he should adopt the motto, Caveat emptor. 
About the middle of the eighteenth century 
Strass pastes and other synthetic processes, as 
well as some "artificial crystals," excelled pre- 
cious stones or natural crystals in actual colour 
and often in brilliancy. Even Napoleon, the 
collector of snuff boxes and the lover of bril- 
liant decorations, presented to Captain Ussher 
at Elba, May 27, 1 8 14, a finely engraved gold 
snuff box holding the emperor's miniature 
framed in paste brilliants, now in the Victoria 
[106] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

and Albert Museum. If experts were divided 
in opinion on the material of the celebrated 
Portland Vase for more than two hundred years, 
some calling it agate, others sardonyx, and still 
others, like Montfaucon, a precious stone all 
disfavoured by Josiah Wedgwood who in 1786 
showed it to be glass what is the value of the 
judgment of a novice to-day in the realm of 
natural and "artificial crystals" which parade 
themselves democratically or indistinguishably 
in every social status? 

In the embellished boxes the jointures and 
especially the hinges tell most of the story. The 
least defect in workmanship in either of these 
may well arouse suspicion, in metal or porcelain 
or any other material. In all boxes printing and 
hand-coloured prints are a stumbling block to 
the novice, especially as regards the period from 
1770 to about 1848, when public heroes and 
events were celebrated chiefly upon papier- 
mache and porcelain boxes. But the collector 
does not a jest at scars" nor is he anxious to show 
them. He has the secret knowledge that ex- 
perts, antique brokers, and museum curators are 
occasionally fellow sufferers. Probably the dis- 
tinguished pieces of furniture that came to 



THE STORY OF 

America in the Mayflower are not much in ex- 
cess of the number of snuff boxes made from 
Shakespeare's mulberry tree or Nelson's Victory 
or Napoleon's table at Waterloo. 

Count Corti in his History of Smoking says, 
"If one could collect all Napoleon's snuff boxes 
in one room and arrange them in chronological 
order they would form a picture history of his 
life." One might suppose this statement a bit 
overdrawn, but in this particular period there is 
no higher authority. 

The balloon exploits of the Montgolfier 
brothers, and the later use of the parachute in 
1797, stimulated the imagination of artists, en- 
gravers, and printers to results quite as fruitful 
as did the events of the Napoleonic period. 
What a field for the collector with a penchant 
for biography and social history! Why not a 
review of French history from Louis XIV to 
Louis Philippe, or of English history from 
Elizabeth to Victoria, perhaps not merely in 
snuff boxes but in snuffing and smoking? 

Through many years some of the finest col- 
lections of snuff boxes have found their way 
into public art museums and galleries. Among 
others there are the Lenoir-Andre-Rothschild 
[108] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

cases in the Louvre, the Jones and Salting col- 
lections in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and 
the more extensive J. Pierpont Morgan exhibit 
in the Metropolitan Museum regarded by Sir 
Joseph Duveen as the most valuable collection 
in the world. These collections are made up of 
elite samples, which like the French court soci- 
ety have a certain ornate uniformity and mo- 
notony. While each piece is a gem deserving 
isolated study, the effect of the whole en masse 
is like a dinner where nothing is served but the 
most rare and expensive desserts. The gamut of 
taste is too abbreviated, and we feel the limita- 
tions of art rather than its freedom. For this 
reason some of the finer private collections are 
most interesting. But aside from questions of 
variety, and in spite of these large public col- 
lections, it may be confidently asserted that the 
greater number of good boxes are still in pri- 
vate hands or held as family heirlooms. The 
Hamilton family, for instance, possesses three 
snuff boxes of great historical interest ; a choice, 
decorated, Meissen porcelain box given by 
Frederick the Great to Baron Steuben, who 
gave it to Alexander Hamilton; and two en- 
graved gold snuff boxes, one belonging to 

[109] 



THE STORY OF 

Hamilton, the other presented to Mrs. Hamil- 
ton by Talleyrand. But here again the virus 
of doubt assails the collector or possessor of the 
snuff box in the story of Franklin's Patriotic 
Fib, in the North American Review of June, 
1932. Steuben was never more than a captain 
in the army of Frederick the Great and he left 
that service fourteen years before he sailed from 
France for America as "Lieutenant General in 
the service of the King of Prussia." Steuben, 
like Poor Richard, was a great man and a great 
actor, who added fresh laurels to the art of 
diplomacy while rendering inestimable service 
to the independence of America. Now and 
again the vicissitudes of life bring boxes to pub- 
lic attention and into the market. One of the 
most interesting private collections was that of 
Mr. C. H. T. Hawkins, who died at his home 
in Portland Place, London, in 1903. After his 
death numerous and valuable boxes were found 
scattered throughout the house and in bank 
vaults, many of them in original wrappers, un- 
opened since their purchase. The collection has 
been gradually dissipated in Christie's auction 
rooms, and though a part remains unsold, sev- 
eral hundred thousands of pounds sterling have 
[no] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

already been realised. Another illustration of 
how a private collection may come into the mar- 
ket is furnished by the very recent gold-selling 
rush in London, when forty gold snuff boxes 
were brought to a Piccadilly jeweler for melt- 
ing, among them many fine examples of the 
Louis XV period. The boxes were saved from 
the melting pot and sold for fifteen thousand 
pounds sterling. This governmental urge of the 
melting pot reminds us of Cromwell, who or- 
dered the silver statues of the twelve apostles of 
Winchester Cathedral to be minted into current 
coin, that they might "go about doing good like 
their Master." Cromwell was blind to the fal- 
sity of his analogy. How to keep civilisation 
out of the all-devouring melting pots of a sod- 
den, soulless materialism is a permanent prob- 
lem in human history. Fortunately the burial 
customs of ancient Egypt and Peru have pre- 
served to us the unequalled craftsmanship of 
their goldsmiths. It is also well that the effac- 
ing fingers of time work chiefly on the surface 
of things. Boxes of various grades frequently 
pass through the markets, but good ones are 
rare. It is not uncommon in recent times to 
find a snuff box changing ownership at prices 

[in] 



THE STORY OF 

ranging from two to ten thousand dollars. In 
the March sale of 1904 Sir Joseph Duveen gave 
6,400, or about $32,000, for a Louis XV gold 
snuff box by Hainelin. Even in the time of 
George IV, we read in an account of money 
expended at his coronation: "For snuff boxes to 
foreign ministers, 8,295, 155., 5d." I am sure 
that the expenditures of crowned heads from 
Louis XIV to George IV for snuff boxes would 
reach an amazing figure. Two kings who dis- 
liked tobacco in every form were proteges of 
the box. Louis XIV employed the best gold- 
smiths and had studios erected for them in the 
gardens of the Tuileries. In a study of Madame 
de Pompadour by Marcelle Tinayre we are in- 
formed that Louis XV, being clever with his 
hands, amused himself in cooking, turnery, and 
fashioning snuff boxes. He made one of these 
of firwood, unpeeled and hollowed out, which 
was copied by professional craftsmen for the 
New Year gifts of 1739. 

From an artistic point of view the most ex- 
pensive boxes are not always the most desirable. 
One of the most costly snuff boxes known, con- 
taining three hundred and fifty-eight diamonds 
and with a miniature exquisite in detail, fails to 

[112] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

satisfy through a maladjustment of its parts, the 
miniature being too large for the top and the 
ornamentation making the whole top-heavy. 
Neither cost nor ostentation is an aesthetic cri- 
terion. 

Comparatively few boxes are signed by the 
artists but of those whose names are occasionally 
seen we may mention the von Blarenberghes, 
father and son (whose microscopic landscapes 
are almost as marvellous as the Chinese intra- 
bottle paintings), Petitot, Watteau, Smart, 
Antoyne, Joaquet, Hall, Cooper, Cosway, 
Cheret, Neubert, Speth, Webber, Fragonard, 
Wieland, and Isabey; among the great enam- 
ellers are Petitot, Altaterre, Prevost, and Clavel, 
Many good copies from the older and greater 
artists are to be found on snuff boxes, as well as 
from such masters of genre as Teniers, van 
Ostade, Vermeer, Steen, and others. 

Mere size does not function in pure mathe- 
matics and aesthetics. It is quite possible that a 
small snuff box may give greater satisfaction 
than a Tintoretto. As Williamson and Buck- 
man remark in The Art of the Miniature 
Painter: "Miniature portraits may, in historical 
interest, often challenge comparison with large 



THE STORY OF 

oil paintings. Where, for example, can two 
large portraits be produced of greater historical 
interest than the two small highly-finished min- 
iatures by Holbein, the portrait of Henry VIII 
sent to Anne of Cleves, and the returned one 
from Anne?" Of course most people like to 
make both little and big things look bigger, but 
much would often be gained by occasionally 
looking through an inverted telescope. The 
revelations of the microscope may be more won- 
derful than those of the telescope, and the 
microbe that swims in our blood may be more 
significant for humanity than the planet Jupiter. 
Then why not economise time and space by 
an art gallery of Chinese bottles or French 
boxes? Chinese art expresses itself beautifully 
and completely in the snuff bottles, and the 
same may be said of French art in the eight- 
eenth century as regards snuff boxes. What 
larger piece of French art in any century could 
command the price of Napoleon's gold snuff 
box with its miniatures of himself, Marie 
Louise, and the King of Rome done by Isabey? 
These little hand-pieces are emancipated from 
frames, pedestals, and walls. By a simple 
manipulation they tell their stories, of form and 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

matter, of idea and artistry, in any light and at 
any time. They are more intimate, and per- 
sonal, and companionable than any other form 
of art save perhaps the old engraved hunting 
case watch, which may rival the boxes with its 
inner inscriptions and pictures and its satisfying 
appeal to the sense of touch, which psychologi- 
cally is perhaps the most fundamental of all 
sense-perceptional pleasures. 

The famous Westminster snuff box has been 
regarded by Reginald Myer as "the most won- 
derful box that ever existed." It is of horn, 
oval in form, and made for the pocket. In 
1713 Mr. Henry Mouck purchased it at the 
Horn Fair, held at Charlton in Kent, for the 
munificent sum of fourpence. Later he pre- 
sented it to the Past Overseers Society of the 
Parishes of St. Margaret and St. John the Evan- 
gelist in the City of Westminster. The Society 
ornamented it with a silver rim engraved with 
the donor's name, and committed it to the cus- 
tody of the Senior Overseer, who was to have 
recorded or symbolised on the box the outstand- 
ing event of the year, before turning it over to 
his successor. Thus every year brought a new 
event and a new artist to the task. When more 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

space was needed a new case for the original was 
devised, until, as the product of more than two 
centuries, there has resulted a box of boxes, con- 
taining a chronological history of the Society of 
England, and of some of her best artists. There 
are miniature engravings of kings and states- 
men, including one of the Duke of Cumberland 
of Culloden fame, 1746, by William Hogarth. 
A dramatic event occurred during the annual 
meeting of the Overseers in 1805, when news 
was received of the victory at Trafalgar and of 
the death of Nelson. The chairman arose and 
proposed the toast, "The Immortal Memory of 
Nelson," In every succeeding annual meeting 
to the present time the same toast has been given 
and, as then, drunk in silence. Quite as dra- 
matic and more epic is the annual appearance of 
the Westminster box with all its trappings, espe- 
cially when we remember that the heart of this 
venerated and priceless possession is a horn 
snuff box which originally cost f ourpence, now 
holding within its lid the work of another 
immortal Hogarth. 



CHAPTER VII 

REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE 

THE literature on tobacco, smoking and pipes 
is very extensive, but regarding snuff, snuffers, 
and snuff containers it is surprisingly meagre. 
A few general works bearing upon our subject 
may be noted. 

Allemagne, H. D. d*. Les accessoires du cos- 
tume et du mobilier. Paris, 1928. 3 vols. 
Includes an excellent review of snuff box 
production, with photographs of various 
types of boxes, vol. i, pp. 125-240. 
Anghiera, Pietro Martire. De orbe novo 
decades. First Decade, Seville, 1 5 1 1 j first 
complete edition (eight Decades}, 1530. 
This work was the first to describe in any 
fulness the early voyages to America. The 
first English translation was by Richard 
Eden: the first three Decades, 1555; the 
complete work, 1577. The only probable 
reference to tobacco is in Decade III, book 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

8, where it is said: "There is also an herbe 
whose smoke is deadly poison." 

Anonymous. A Work for Chimney Sweepers, 
or a Warning to tobaconists^ Describing the 
Pernicious Use of Tabaco . . . London, 
1602. The opening shot in the great Eng- 
lish controversy over tohacco. 

Arber, E. (Editor) English Reprints, James 
VI of Scotland, I of England. The Essays 
of a Prentise in the Divine Art of Poesie^ 
A Counter bias te to Tobacco. London, 
1869. The above contains documentary 
material relating to the early use of tobacco 
in France and England. 

Bain, A. W. Tobacco: Its History and Associa- 
tions, Use and Abuse, including an Account 
of the Plant, and its Modes of Use in all 
Ages and Countries; showing it to be the 
Solace of the King and the Beggar; com- 
prising Prints and Woodcuts-, Portraits of 
renowned Smokers; Tobacco Papers; Num- 
berless Cuttings and Extracts-, Pipes ^ 
Cigars^ Snuff and Snuff '-Boxes, and all the 
Smokers Paraphernalia ; Statistics of Con- 
sumption^ Revenue, etc., in relation to this 
Wonderful Weed, and in fact every con- 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

cemable Item of interest that could be 
gathered in relation to the subject; the re- 
suit of over thirty years' labor in collecting. 
1836. Mounted and arranged in 17 large 
folio volumes; with specially printed title 
pages; bound in half green morocco extra, 
gilt tops. (Copied from Bragge, No. 228, 
page 39.) 

Balde, Jakob. Satyra contra abusum tabaci. 
Monaco, 1 657. Translated into German as 
Die trockene Trunkenheit. . . . Satyra 
oder Straffrede wider den Missbrauch des 
Tabaka, Nurnberg, 1658. 

Bank, E. C. Geschichte und Geschichten i^om 
Tabak. Leipzig, [1927]. 

Barclay, William. Nepenthes^ or the Vertices 
of Tobacco^ Edinburg, 1614. 

Benzoni, Girolamo. La historia del mondo 
nuo'vo. Venetia, 1565. The result of 
fourteen years of exploration in the West 
Indies. Benzoni's work went through many 
editions and was translated into Latin and 
French. 

Billings, E. R. Tobacco: Its History, Varie- 
ties^ Culture^ Manufacture and Commerce^ 
with an Account of its Various Modes of 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Use, from Its First Discovery Until Now 
With Illustrations by Popular Artists. 
Hartford, Connecticut, 1875. A mono- 
graph of great interest and value. 

Blondel, Spire. Le tabac. Le Hire des fu- 
meurs et des priseurs. Paris, 1891. Pref- 
ace by Baron Oscar de Watteville; 16 
coloured plates and other illustrations. It is 
interesting to note that priser means at once 
to take snuff and to set a high value on one's 
self. 

Bouchot, Henry. La miniature frangaise, 1750- 
1825. Paris, 1 907. The standard French 
work with many fine illustrations. After 
Bouchot's death the above was revised by 
Frederick Masson as a handbook, 1910. 

Bragge, William. Eibliotheca Nicotiana; A 
Catalogue of Books about Tobacco, To- 
gether with a Catalogue of Objects Con- 
nected 'with the Use of Tobacco in All its 
Forms. Second, greatly enlarged edition, 
privately printed, 200 copies. Birming- 
ham, 1880. (My autographed copy is No. 
163.) Bragge assembled the most complete 
collection of articles used in the consump- 
tion of tobacco that has ever been made by 

[120] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

any one person or museum. In its disper- 
sion foundations have been made for a great 
number and variety of special collections. 
The catalogue of articles in the snuff 
section, pages 179-248, include mills, rasps, 
jars, spoons, boxes, netsukes^ and bottles. 
The descriptive catalogue of Chinese snuff- 
bottles is especially complete, covering 
thirty-five pages. 

Brathwait, Richard. The Smoking Age: or. 
The Man in a Mist, with the Life and 
Death of Tobacco. London, 1617. 

Brushfield, T. N. "Raleghana, Part II, The 
Introduction of the Potato and Tobacco into 
England and Ireland," Report and Trans- 
actions of the Devonshire Association for 
the Advancement of Science , Literature and 
Art, vol. XXX. Plymouth, 1898. (To- 
bacco, pp. 178-197.) 

Buttes, Henry. Dyets Dry Dinner. London, 
1599. 

Cartier, Jacques, 1494-1552. Bref Recit et 
succincte narration de la Navigation f aiteen 
1535 et 1536 . . . aux iles de Canada, 
Hochelaga, Sagueney, et autres. Paris, 
1545. Reprinted, edited by the Marquis 

[121] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

d'Avezac, Paris, 1863. English transla- 
tion by H. P. Biggar, The Voyages of 
Jacques C artier y Ottawa, 1924. The Brief 
recit is the narrative in Carder's second 
voyage, 1535, in which he tells of find- 
ing the Indians smoking tobacco along 
the St. Lawrence. The species was un- 
doubtedly Nicotiana rustica, not Nicotiana 
tabacum, which was known only in Central 
and South America before the coming of 
the Europeans. 

Columbus, Christopher. Diario de la primera 
viaje. First published by Martin Fernan- 
dez de Navarrete in his Coleccion de los 
wajesy descubrimientos, Madrid, 1825-37. 
The best English edition and translation is 
that by Cecil Jane, The Voyages of Chris- 
topher Columbus > London, 1930. Colum- 
bus's Journal for October 1 5 and November 
6, 1492, contains the first references to to- 
bacco by a European. See Las Casas. 

Corti, Egon Caesar, Conte. Die trockene 
Trunkenheit; Ur sprung, Kampf und Tri- 
umph des Rauchens. Leipzig, 1930. 64 
illustrations. Translated into English by 
Paul England as A History of Smoking^ 

[122] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

London, 1931. Corti borrows his title 
from the German translation of a satire 
against tobacco by Jakob Balde (see Balde). 
The bibliography is extensive but def ective, 
giving no light on the continuation of 
Schranka, and omitting any reference to the 
later (and infinitely more important) edi- 
tions of Bragge and Fairhold. Although 
Corti's work is not critical, and is sometimes 
historically open to contradiction, it is the 
most recent and the most readable treatise 
on the history of smoking. 
Curtis, E, S. The North American Indian^ 
Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and 
Describing the Indians of the United States , 
the Dominion of Canada , and Alaska. 
Seattle, Wash., E. S. Curtis, and Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1907-30. 20 volumes, folio, 
accompanied by 20 portfolios containing 
1,000 full-page photogravures and 700 
extra-sized plates printed in sepia. Edition 
limited to 500 sets. This is a truly monu- 
mental work in every way. The author 
hopes that it may be accepted as a partial 
atonement for the national disgrace in- 
volved in our treatment of the Indian. 

[123] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Delamotte, W. A. (?) Snuff and Snuff Takers: 
A Pungent^ Piquant , Comical, Veritable and 
Historic Disquisition. To which is added 
A Dissertation on The Poetry of Sneezing. 
London, 1846. 

Denis, Jules. Le tabac. Son histoire, sa pro- 
duction et sa consommation. Geneve, 1902. 

Fairholt, F. W. (F.S.A.) Tobacco: Its His- 
tory and Associations. Including an Ac- 
count of the Plant and Its Manufacture; 
with Its Modes of Use in All Ages and 
Countries. London, 1859; second, greatly 
enlarged edition, London, 1876. With 
100 illustrations by the author. Never us- 
ing tobacco in any form, Fairholt assisted 
his father in a tobacco warehouse until his 
twenty-second year. His monograph, the 
result of many years 7 study, travel, and close 
observation is one of the best in any lan- 
guage. 

Feinhals, Joseph. Der Tabak in Kunst und 
Kultur. Coin, 1911. 

Gumilla, Joseph. Historia Naturelle, civile et 
geographique de POrenoque. Avignon, 

1758. 

Harriot, Thomas. A Brief e and True Report 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

of the New Found Land of Virginia. . . . 
London, 1588. Reprinted, edited by L. S. 
Livingston, New York, 1903; facsimile. 
The first extended account of tobacco in 
England, apart from the translations of 
Thevet and Monardes. Harriot was in 
Virginia with Raleigh. 

Harrison, William. Great Chronologie. 
Manuscript, preserved in three folio vol- 
umes in the Diocesan Library, Derry, Ire- 
land. Extracts have been printed by F. J. 
Furnivall in his edition of Harrison's 
Description of England, London, The New 
Shakespeare Society, 1 876. The entry for 
the year 1573, included among FurnivalPs 
extracts, contains a discussion of tobacco. 
By virtue of this extract, Harrison becomes 
the first English author to use the word 
"tabaco," the first to record the custom of 
smoking in England, and the first to de- 
scribe the remedial effects of the plant. 

[Hill, Benson Earle] "Dean Snift of Brazen- 
Nose." A Pinch of Snuff: Composed of 
Curious Particulars and Original Anec- 
dotes of Snuff- Taking; as 'well as a Review 
of Snuff, Snuff -Boxes) Snuff -Takers and 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Snuff -Papers; with the Moral and Physical 
Effects of Snuff. London, 1840. The 
preface is signed "Pollexenes Digit Snift, 
Dean of Brazen-Nose. " There are six full- 
page plates by Thomas Sibson, as well as 
numerous lesser illustrations. HilPs book 
is amusing, interspersed with verses and an- 
ecdotes, but it is strictly a polite contribution 
to the literature of tobacco. 

Hobson, R. L. The Wares of the Ming Dy- 
nasty. London, 1923. The Later Ceramic 
Wares of China. London, 1925. These 
sumptuous works of Hobson are supreme in 
their field, both as regards authority of text 
and beauty of illustration. 

Hodge, F. W. Handbook of American In- 
dians. Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Bulletin XXX. 2 vols., 1907. Reissued 
1912, Washington. 

Humboldt, Alexander von. TJn voyage aux 
regions eqmnoxiales du nouveau continent. 
Paris, 1 8 1 4-25. 9 vols. 

James I. A Counter blaste to Tobacco. Lon- 
don, 1 604. Often reprinted. 

Las Casas, Bartolome de. 1 474- 1 566. Historia 
de las Indias. Written 1527-50. The 

[126] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mss. of Las Casas were long unknown but 
first published at Madrid, 1875-76, 6 vols., 
edited by the Marques de la Fuensanta del 
Valle and J. Sancho Rayon. Corti er- 
roneously states that the work is still in 
manuscript. We owe to Las Casas the pres- 
ervation of considerable primary source- 
material concerning Columbus, including 
the invaluable Journal of the first voyage, 
as well as additional material which Las 
Casas incorporated into his history. See 
Columbus. 

Laufer, Berthold. The Introduction of To- 
bacco into Europe^ also Tobacco and Its Use 
in Asia. Chicago, Field Museum of Natu- 
ral History, 1924. Anthropology leaflets. 
Interesting and suggestive. 

Le Moyne, Jacques. Brevis narratio eorum 
quae in Florida . . . acciderunt . . . 
anno MDLXIIIL . . . Published by 
Theodor de Bry in his Collections pere- 
grinatioum^ Frankfurt, 1591. 

Liebault, Jean. L* agriculture et maison 
rustique y sixth edition. Paris, 1 570. This 
work often erroneously referred to the 
brothers Liebault and less often to Charles 

[127] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Etienne or Estienne and Jean Liebault, was 
originally the work of Estienne who died 
before its publication. This was carried on 
by his son-in-law Jean Liebault, who added 
much as the work went through twenty edi- 
tions before 1600 and was translated into 
the chief languages of Europe. The Nicot 
chapter probably appeared first in the sixth 
edition which was the one from which 
Frampton made his translation and which 
fixed the technical term Nicotiana on to- 
bacco. 

L'Obel, Matthias, and Pena, Petrus. Stirpium 
adversaria nova. . . . London, 1570. This 
work states that tobacco was then being 
grown in England. Plantarum sev Stirpium 
Historia, Antwerp, 1576. L'Obel (Lobel, 
Lobelius) was later chief botanist to 
James I. 

Machen, Arthur (?). Tobacco Talk and 
Smokers' Gossip; an Amusing Miscellany 
of Fact and Anecdote Relating to the 
"Great Plant" in All Its Forms and Uses, 
Including a Selection from Nicotian Lit- 
erature. London, 1886. 

Maclnnes, C. M. The Early English Tobacco 

[128] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Trade. London, 1926. An excellent sur- 
vey. 

McGuire, J. D. Pipes and Smoking Customs 
of the American Aborigines. Washington, 
D. C., 1899; Report of U. S. National 
Museum, 1897, pp. 351-645. 239 illus- 
trations, plate, 4 maps. McGuire is in error 
as to pipes in South America. (See Stahl.) 

Meller, H. J. Nicotiana y or the Smokers and 
Snuff Taker's Companion, Containing the 
History of Tobacco with an Essay in its 
Defence. London, 1832. 

Mocq, Henry, and Dreyfus, Carl. Tabatieres^ 
boites et etuis. Paris, 1930. Chiefly de- 
voted to illustrations of snuff-boxes, with 
descriptions. 

Monardes, Nicolas. Primera y segunda y ter- 
cera partes de la historia medicinal de las 
Cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occi- 
dentales, que sirven en medicina. . . . Se- 
villa, 1 574. Translated by John Frampton 
as Joy full Ne<wes out of the Newe Founde 
Worlde^ London, 1577; second edition, 
1580^ reprinted with an introduction by 
Stephen Gaselee, London and New York, 
1925, 2 vols., 1,025 copies. The Spanish 

[ 129] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

edition published in 1 574 includes two 
earlier works of Monardes, 1569-1571, 
which had become very popular. Monardes 
did more than any one else to propagate a 
belief in the sovereign properties of tobacco 
as a panacea. His work was translated 
into all the leading languages of Europe. 
Frampton's version, which includes a sec- 
tion translated from the Agriculture of 
Liebault, contains the second printed refer- 
ence to tobacco in English (/. Sparke, 
Thevet, and Harrison), and introduced the 
union of Nicot and Nicotiana to the Eng- 
lish-speaking world. 

Nadaillac, Jean Francois Albert du Pouget, 
Marquis de. Les pipes et le tabac. Paris, 
1885. 

Neander, Johann, of Bremen. Tabacologia: 
hoc est) tabaci, sen Nicotianae descriptio 
Medico Cheirurgico Pharmaceutica^ 
&c. Ley den, Isaac Elzevir, 1626. The 
earliest attempt at a comprehensive treatise. 

Oppel, Alwin. Der Tabak in dem Wirtschafts- 
leben und der Sittengeschichte der Volker. 
Bremen, 1890. 

Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernandez de. Su- 

[130] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

mario de la natural y general istoria de las 
Indias. Madrid, 1526. Enlarged edition, 
1 535~57) reprinted, edited by J. Amador 
de los Rios, Madrid, 1851-55, 4 vols. 
Oviedo's history is next after that of Peter 
Martyr in point of time, preceding Las 
Casas, Gomara Diaz, and all the Portu- 
guese. Oviedo himself is commonly cred- 
ited with the introduction of tobacco into 
Europe, 1519, and his book contains one 
of the first clear descriptions of the plant. 

Pane, Ramon. De insularium ritibus. Writ- 
ten 1497. First published in the Historie 
del S.D.F.C. y nelle quali s y he particolare 
et vera relatione della vita et de* fatti delV 
AmmiragUo Cristoforo Colombo^ Venice, 
1571, an Italian translation by S. A. Ulloa 
of Ferdinand Columbus's life of his father. 
Pane's account, following close upon the 
allusions of Columbus, stands as the first 
definite discussion of tobacco, though it is 
not nearly so full as Oviedo's. 

Parisiene, Jacques Gohorry. Instruction sur 
Pherbe Petun ditte eu France PHerbe de 
la Royne^ ou Medicee. Paris, 1572. 

Partington, Wilfred. Smoke Rings and Roun- 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

delays^ Blendings from Prose and Verse 
since Raleigh* s Time. London, 1924; 
New York, 1925. 

Penn, W. A. The Soverane Herbe; a History 
of Tobacco. London, Grant Richards, 
1901. Includes an intelligent discussion of 
snuff. 

Pilz, Hermann. Uber den Tabak und des 
Raitc/ien; Ernestes und Heiteres aue der 
Culturgeschichte. Leipzig, 1899. 

Roger-Miles, L. Comment Discerner les Styles 
du VIII au XIX Siecle. A practical study 
of forms and decorations with seventeen 
hundred reproductions. Paris, n.d. It was 
published under the patronage of the min- 
ister of public instruction, and of the 
Beaux-Arts. This edition dc luxe was 
later, 1909, published in three volumes. 

Shranka, Eduard Maria. Tabakanecdoten; ein 
historisches Braunbtich aus den verschied- 
ensten Quellen zusammengetragen und 
nach den Personlichkeiten al-phabetisch 
geordnet. . . . Coin, 1914. 175 illustra- 
tions. 

Sebillot, Paul. Le tabac dans les traditions, les 
superstitions et les coutumes. Paris, 1893. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Singer, Charles. "The Early History of To- 
bacco," in The Quarterly Review, No. 436 
(July, 1913). An excellent survey, with 
a judicious account of Thevet. 

Snuff-Tubes. Uhle, Dr. Max, "A Snuffing- 
Tube from Tiahuanaco," Bulletin, Phila- 
delphia Free Museum of Science and 
Art. L, 1898, pp. 159-177. Illus. Saf- 
ford, William E., "Identity of Cohoba, the 
Narcotic Snuff of Ancient Haiti.' 5 J. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 547-562 (1916). 
Latcham, Ricardo E., "Tubes para aspirar 
Rape, condecoracion Centra Americano," 
Rewsta Chilena de Historia Natural, 
XXXI (1927), pp. 252-255. Illus. 

Sparke, John. Acount of Hawkins's Second 
Voyage, 1564-65. Probably written 1565. 
First published in Hakluyt's The Principall 
Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the 
English Nation, London, 1589; standard 
edition, Glasgow, J. MacLehose and Sons, 
1903-05, 12 vols. Sparke's mention of to- 
bcco is the earliest in English, as far as is 
known, but it was not published until 
twenty-one years after the appearance of 
the anonymous translation of Thevet. 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Lon- 
don, 1590. Book III, canto v, stanza 32, 
contains the first reference to tobacco to be 
found in English poetry. 

Stahl, Gunther. "Der Tabak im Leben Siid- 
amerikanischer Volker," Zeitschrift filr 
Ethnologie, LVII (1925), pp. 81-152 111., 
maps; bibliography. A very technical re- 
view of the field, showing the presence of 
all modes of tobacco consumption, and that 
pipes in pre-Columbian times in South 
America were more widely used than is 
generally supposed. 

Stalker, John. A Treatise of Japanning and 
Varnishing, being a compleat Discovery of 
those Arts. With the best way of making 
all sorts of Varnish for Japan, Wood, 
Prints, or Pictures. The Method of Guild- 
ing, Burnishing, and Lackering, with the 
Art of Guilding, Separating, and Refining 
Metals, and of Painting Mezzo-tinto Prints. 
Also Rules for Counterfeiting Tortoise- 
shell, and Marble, and for Staining or Dying 
Wood, Ivory, and Horn. Together with 
above an Hundred distinct Patterns for 
Japan-work, in imitation of the Indians, for 

[1343 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Tables , Stands^ Frames y Cabinets, Boxes, 
&c. Oxford, 1688. Folio, with 24 cop- 
per plates of designs for Powder Boxes, 
etc., etc. 

Sylvester, Joshua. Tobacco Battered, and the 
Pipes Shattered {About Their Eares that 
Idley Idolise so Base and Baroarous a 
Weed ; or at least-wise Over-love so Loath- 
some Vanitie) : by a Volley of Holy Shot 
Thundered from Mount Helicon. . . . 
London, 1614. 

Teall, Gardner. "The Treasured Snuff Bottles 
of the Celestials," in House and Garden^ 
XXXIII, 3 (March, 1918, 26-27-28). 

Thevet, Andre. Les Singvlaritez de la France 
antarctiqve, avtrement nommee Ameriqve. 
. . . Antwerp and Paris, 1558. Anony- 
mously (Edward Place ? ) translated into 
English as The Ne<w Founde Worlde, 
or Antarcticke, London, 1568. Thevet 
brought tobacco tabacum with him from 
Brazil and planted it in the neighbourhood 
of his native town of Angouleme some 
years before Nicot "introduced" tobacco 
rustica into France from Portugal. The 
English translation of Les Singularitez has 

[135] 



SNUFF AND SNUFF BOXES 

the distinction of containing the first 
grimed account of tobacco in English (cf. 
Sparke, Harrison, and Monardes). Thevet 
also published La cosmographie universelle. 
Paris, 1575; 2 vols. In this later work, 
Thevet says: "I am the first who brought 
tobacco to France and planted it there and 
called it the herb of Angouleme. Since 
then a certain man who has never been in 
America has chosen to give it his own 
name." On Thevet see also Singer and 
Paul GaffarePs Notice Biographique pre- 
fixed to his reprint of the Singularitez, 
Paris, 1878. 

Tiedemann, Friedrich. Geschichte des Tabaks 
imd anderer anlicher GenussmitteL Frank- 
furt, 1854. 

Westminster Tobacco Box. The first descrip- 
tion of this box was printed and published 
by I. Clark, 27 Dartmouth Street, West- 
minster, in 1824, bearing the title: Repre- 
sentations of the Embossed, Chased^ & 
Engraved Subjects and Inscriptions which 
Decorate the Tobacco Box and Cases^ Be- 
longing to the Past Over seers' Society of 
the Parishes of St. Margaret and St. John 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

the 'Evangelist in the City of Westminster. 
The above is reproduced in Chats on Old 
English Tobacco Jars by Reginald Myer, 
London and Philadelphia, no date, but 
probably about 1930, and in Smith, J. E,, 
The Westminster Box, London, West- 
minster, 1887. 

Wiener, Leo. Africa and the Discovery of 
America. Philadelphia, 1920-22, three 
volumes, and a supplement, The Philo- 
logical History of "Tobacco" in America^ 
Goteborg, 1925. Professor Wiener pre- 
sents the astonishing theses that the early 
explorers of the New World nowhere 
found tobacco in use, and that tobacco was 
not native to America but was introduced 
from Africa by negro slaves. This type of 
historical method is aptly described by 
Maclnnes as "an attempt to discredit un- 
doubted descriptions of early writers, and, 
where this cannot be done, to ignore or 
misrepresent them." 



SOME EIGHTEENTH CENTURY DEALERS IN SNUFF BOXES 

THERE were a number of jewellers in the eighteenth 
century who dealt very extensively in snufT boxes. Among 
them the better known as miniaturists or makers are the 
Petitots (father and son); Jean Ducrolloy, Pierre Joseph 
Antoine, Jean Moynat, the Sagarets, Jean George and 
Charles Banabe, Pierre Jean Bellange, Mathieu Coiny, 
Louis Francois Auguste Taunay, fitienne Bleizy, Pierre 
Jean Leu f ant, Barthelemy Pittieu, Maximilian Vachette, 
Barbe, Daniel Chodowiecki of Dantzig, Neuber of Dres- 
den. 

Courtesy of Harriet Johnson 



PART TWO 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

(1) LARGE COMMUNAL OR GUILD MULL. Fine Rams Horn. 
Mounted in Silver. Close of i8th century. Frontispiece. 

(2) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Yunanjade. Dark emerald 
green. Flowers and birds carved in high relief in scrolls. 

(3) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Jadeite. Moss green. Finely 
carved. Coral top on metal. 

(4) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Rosequartz. Light pink. 
Tree pattern in high relief. 

(5) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Agate. Grey and black. 
Carved white figures of animals. Carnelian stopper. 

(6) SEVRES Two COMPARTMENT SNUFF Box. Delicate pink. 
Painted on all sides. 

(7) WHITE ENAMEL SPORTING SNUFF Box. Playing cards 
on each side. Bull fight score top and bottom. 

(8) BATTERSEA ENAMEL SNUFF Box. With ships, and por- 
trait of Admiral Nelson inside the lid. i 8th century. 

(9) CHINESE JADE SNUFF Box. Deeply carved and set in 
gilt. 

(10) ROUND COMBINATION SNUFF AND PATCH Box. Two lids. 
Alternate panels firegilt repousse and composition. Yel- 
low and brown. 

(i i) FIREGILT SNUFF Box. Engraved. On enamel center two 
cupids. Lapis Lazuli corners. 

(12) SNUFF Box DEEPLY CARVED. Ivory top. Bound in 
silver. Louis XV period. 

(13) SNUFFBOX. Carved mother of pearl. Octagonal. Bound 
and clamped in silver. Three figures in relief. "Sacra 
Familia." 

(14) SNUFF Box. Capo di Monte. Evidently old (i.e. be- 
fore 1759). Unmarked. Decorated in delicate flesh tones 
and colors on white background. Venus and three cupids. 
Bound and lined with gilt. 



LIST OF 

(15) CURIOSO. 

a. Papier Mache. Verni Martin shoe snuff box. Double. 
With portraits of two of Napoleon's Marshals. "Vive 
les chasseurs de la Garde." 

b. Boxwood snuff box. Mermaid. Double covers. 
Crude. Spanish. 

c. Olive wood snuff box, Monk, ivory buttons and eyes. 
Spanish. 

d. Red hardwood. Beautifully carved shoe with two 
sliding covers. i8th century. 

(16) SNUFF Box. Thunga wood with tortoise shell bands. 
Painting of woman holding cherries. The cover glass 
mounted in gold band. 

(17) SNUFF Box. Thunga wood. Top enriched with paint- 
ing of two figures in gay colors. Falstaff and maid. 
Signed E. Duchez. 

(18) CLASSICAL. TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. With gold 
bands. Glow of sunset over a delicate landscape. 

(19) TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Angel and kneeling 
woman. 

(20) THUNGA WOOD AND IVORY SNUFF Box. A young man 
and woman standing before a statue of Cupid. 

(21) THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Beautiful 
landscape with four figures. 

(22) ROUND THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box. "Henry Quatre le 
bien Aime." Tout perissait enfin lorsque Bourbon parut. 
French. 

(23) THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box. (Rare.) Cranologie du 
Docteur Gall. Reverse side "Systeme des organes Cere- 
breaux de Doc't Gall. 

(24) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Dr. Faustus. 
1525. Auerback's Keller, (top). Banquet scene, (bot- 
tom). 

(25) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Napoleon 
Hat. 1798. 

(26) SILVER SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Le Sage Gil Bias, 
Book form. 

(27) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Sailing ships, one flying 
Union Jack. Military flag and Admiral of the fleet. 

f 142] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(28) WOOD. POLYSANDER NEAR ROSEWOOD SNUF* Box. Bands 
and design of silver. "Man and oxen ploughing." 

(29) COPPER, BRONZE AND SILVER SNUFF Box. Repousse. 
Top several figures. 

(30) METAL VENEERED SNUFF Box. Inlaid with gold. Oval 
bloodstone in center. 

(310) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Cylindrical. Coral top. Four 
Mandarin figures in blue. Kang Hsi period. 1622- 

1723- 
CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Cylindrical. Silver top. Red 

dragon encircling bottle. Other marks in blue. 1662- 

1723. 
CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Cylindrical. Egg shell crackle. 

Blue dragon encircling bottle. Gold stone top. Yung 

Chang period. 250 years old. 
(320) CHINESE PATENDRE SNUFF BOTTLE. In grey, brown, 

lavender and light blue. Fifteen human figures in cameo. 

Elaborate inscription on bottom. Pink bronze stopper. 
(32^) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Pink porcelain with black 

symbols. Jade top. (New silver band.) Ming Dynasty, 

1522-50. 

(32^) PORCELAIN SNUFF BOTTLE. Figures on both sides in Me- 
dallion. Framed in blue. 
(32^) PORCELAIN SNUFF BOTTLE. Slightly grey. Figure and 

tree dark blue. These two bottles (c and d) found in 

effects of an old missionary to China. 1860-1880. 
(33*) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Clear glass overlaid with dark 

red dragons. Green jade top. 
(33^) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Twelve animal figures in blue 

on bluish white. Amber and silver top. zyth century. 
(330 CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE. Red symbols on grey glass. 

"Double fish double happiness" in all 8 symbols. Coral 

and jade stopper. 

(33<0 OPAQUE MOTTLED WHITE GLASS SNUFF BOTTLE. Over- 
laid with red glass flowers. Flat Calabash shape. 
(34) FOUR CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLES WITH INNER PAINTINGS. 

a. Crystal. Coral and gold top. Several figures and 
inscription. 



LIST OF 

b. Brown glass. Rich in color. Six figures. Inscription. 

Coral top. 
C. Glass. (Modern.) With several figures. Moonstone 

stopper. 
d. Glass. Painted on four sides and bottom. Seven 

figures, birds, flowers and lettering. 

(35) GOLD SNUFF Box. Engraved on all sides. Shield on top 
contains ivory miniature of Mme. Roland by Frangois 
Dumont (?). French. 

(36) JEAN PETITOT. 1607-1691. Miniature of Le Due 
d'Ollone of Louis XIV fame. Done in enamel. Placed 
later on gold enamel, i8th century oval snuff box. Done 
chiefly in gold starred translucent green surrounded by 
white enamel bands and pink stones. 

(37) IVORY POLYCHROME SNUFF BOTTLE. Imperial of ijth 
century. Carved on both sides. Horse and rider and 
other figures. Signature on bottom. 

(38) IVORY SNUFF BOTTLE. Beautifully decorated in black, 
white and red. Lacquered. Imperial bottle. Chien 

Lung. I73-I795. 

(39) IVORY SNUFF BOTTLE. Shape of Egyptian vase or 
mummy. Carved on both sides. 

(40) AMBER SNUFF BOTTLE. Carved with horse and human 
figures. Chinese stamp on bottom. Coral top. 

(41) SNUFF GRATER FORMED OF A SHELL OF THE TROPICAL 
STAG COWRY. Mounted in silver. English. Early i8th 
century. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

(42) SNUFF GRATER OF SILVER. Engraved with the crest of 
Edmonds (Yorkshire) and monogram of H. E. English. 
About 1700. (Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

(43) SNUFF GRATER OF SILVER. Cylindrical. Two hinges. 
Exquisite workmanship. (George III.) 

(44) SNUFF SPOON. Silver. Queen Anne. 1702-14. 

(45) STOBWASSER BOXES. 

a. Papier-Mache snuff box. Woman reclining on couch 
holding bunch of grapes. Beautiful in color and 
modeling. 

b. Papier-Mache snuff box. Portrait of Clarissa Har- 
lowe. Name inside the lid. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

c. Papier-Mache snuff box. Portrait of a lady. "Bon- 
jour" inside the lid. i8th century. 

(4.6) SCOTCH MULL. Polished horn with repousse silver top. 
Light cairngorm stone. Silver ball and tongue hinge. 
Duke of Sutherland's collection with crest. 
(47) SCOTCH MULL. Polished horn. Silver mountings. Dark 

cairngorm stone. Inscribed "John Graeme." 
(48^) SCOTCH MULL. Dark horn. Mounted in silver. Agate 

insert. 

(48^) SCOTCH MULL. Dark horn. Bound in silver. Silver 
hinge. Marked W.P.B. 

(49) GOLD SNUFF Box. Richly engraved. Set with diamonds. 
Early XIX century. Russian. (Courtesy of Cleveland 
Museum of Art.) 

(50) GOLD SNUFF Box. White enamel lines. Three figures. 
French. Louis XVI period. (Courtesy of Cleveland 
Museum of Art.) 

(51) DARK ENAMEL AND GOLD SNUFF Box. Diamond shape 
with landscape. Castle of Chillon. Swiss or French. 
(Courtesy of Cleveland Museum of Art.) 

(52) GOLD AND ENAMEL SNUFF Box SET WITH DIAMONDS. 
Inside of lid ivory miniature of Frederick the Great. 
Maker probably Daniel Bandisson. German. 1765- 
1775. (Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(53) GOLD AND ENAMEL SNUFF Box. Oval. Rococo orna- 
ment. Battle scene. Middle i8th century. Germany? 
(Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(54) HELIOTROPE SNUFF Box. Mounted in gold. Set with 
emerald and diamonds. Formerly in the Galitzine col- 
lection. First half i8th century. (Courtesy of The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(55) SNUFF BOTTLE. Amber. Chien Lung Period. 1736- 

1795. (Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(56) WHITE PORCELAIN SNUFF BOTTLE IN OPEN WORK DE- 
SIGN. Modern. Red glass stopper. (Courtesy of The 
Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(57) SNUFF BOTTLE. Twin. Porcelain. Decorated with 
famille rose enamel. Chien Lung period. 1736-1795. 
(Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

[145] 



LIST OF 

^58) LAVENDER AND GREEN SNUFF BOTTLE. Jadeitc. Chien 
Lung. 1/36-1795. (Courtesy of The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art.) 

59) SNUFF Box. Firegilt. Oval. Chased in diaper pattern. 
Enamel miniature. "Fabiola" after Henner. French. 

60) FIREGILT SNUFF Box. Round, heavy repousse at sides. 
Miniature on ivory. Signed "Hermandez." French. 

'61) FIREGILT SNUFF Box. Chased with diaper pattern. 
Painting on ivory. "Fishing Party. 31 Signed. A. de St. 
Marc. French. 

62) IVORY SNUFF Box. Round. Miniature on ivory set in 
gold. French. 

63) ECCLESIASTICAL ROUND BOX-WOOD SNUFF Box. Beauti- 
fully carved. Screw top with inner metal clasp. 
"Christus." 

64) REVERSE SIDE, "Mary." 

'65) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Black with cameo insert of 
Pope Pius IX. 1870. 

66) DARK WOOD SNUFF Box. Silver ends. Silver Monstrance 
on ivory cover. Clasp in silver. Marked, "Victoria 
B. F." Italian. 

67) COPPER SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Oval. Painting 
after "Bouchei." 

68) DARK TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Fluted. Gold 
hinges and gold stars inset. 

69) SNUFF BOXES MADE OF INDIAN BETEL NUT. Dark 
brown. Deeply carved on both sides. One with figures, 
the other with symbols and flowers. 

oa) DARK BLUE COMPOSITION SNUFF Box. Gilt bronze por- 
trait of Voltaire. 

ob) WOOD SNUFF Box. Medallion in silver. "Ceres." 

QC) WOOD SNUFF Box. General Washington. Medallion in 
gold. Under glass. Circa 1778. 

0^) MOTTLED WOOD SNUFF Box. Medallion in copper of 
Luther, Churf and Melanchthon. Dated 1830. Me- 
morial. 

o^) NAPOLEON AND LOUISE. 

146] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(71) TIN SNUFF Box. Verni Martin finish. Richly colored. 
Ballet dancer. 

(72) PEWTER SNUFF Box. Motto, "Sic Publico Commoda 
Stabunt." 

(73) BRASS AND BRONZE SNUFF Box. "England expects every 
man to do his duty." Admiral Nelson. Trafalgar. Oct. 
XXI, MDCCCV.' 

(74) APPLE WOOD SNUFF Box. With five lids. Dog in 
mother of pearl on bright red ground. 

(75) BLACK BONE SNUFF Box. Adam and Eve. The tree and 
the serpent. "Le fruit defendu." 

(76) OVAL BRASS SNUFF Box. With silver lid and hinge bot- 
tom. Floral engraving. "Chiolerio Cio Francesco." 
1856. 

(77) BRONZE OCTAGONAL SNUFF Box. Head of Gustavus 
Adolphus. Bottom, coat of arms. 

(78) BRASS AND MOTHER OF PEARL HEART SHAPED SNUFF 
Box. 

(79) W T ROUGHT IRON SNUFF Box. Very rare. Finely done in 
vines and flowers. Gold background. Given by a Ger- 
man Prince to Bishop of Washington, D. C. 

(80) EARLY IQTH CENTURY TIN SNUFF Box. Said to be 
portrait of Jenny Lind. Fashion of 1830. 

(81) TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Portrait on ivory Louis 
XVI II with decoration. French. 

(82) TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box WITH GILT BANDS. Minia- 
ture in ivory. Gentleman with stock. Early iQth cen- 
tury. 

(83) MOTTLED TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Miniature on 
ivory. Young student. Light blue background. Gold 
band. 

(84) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Copy Romney's portrait of 
"Cowper." 

(85) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Picture of 
St. Peter. Done in rich browns. 

(86) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Table box. Old man with 
red cap trimmed with fur. Brown cloak. 

(87) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Old bearded man with red 
cloak. i8th century. 

[147] 



LIST OF 

(88) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. "The Dentist Shop." 
After Teniers. 

(89) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Master with pipe. Servant 
bringing beer. 

(90) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Gaily painted hunting 
scene. Lines painted in gold. 

914) BONE SNUFF Box. Two finger opening. Book form. 
Hot needle engraving. 1847. Spanish. 
BONE SNL T FF Box. Oval with hot needle engraving; let- 
tering in German. 

HORN SNUFF Box. Brass bound ends. Top ivory with 
hot point drawing of flowers. 

(92) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. King Henry of Navarre in 
action. 

(93) HEAVY TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Bound in silver 
with silver hinges. Fine example of pique gold work. 

(94) ^ T OOD SNUFF Box. Bound in brass. Mosaic top. Made 
of fish scales in colors. Soldiers fighting. 

(95) BLONDE TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Inlaid with gold. 
Balloon ascension. Circa 1783. 

(96) TURQUOISE ENCASED IN SILVER WITH SILVER TOP AND 
SPOON. Turquoise insets. 

(97) CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLES. Silver with silver top and 
spoons. Formerly medicine bottles. 

DARK TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box. Deeply carved (top) 
SAME. (Bottom.) Chinese. 
(99) PORCELAIN SNUFF Box. Mounted in gold. Profile por- 
trait of Washington. Flanked by sprays of oak leaves. 
Gilt on a white ground. Germany. (Meissen.) 1814- 
1818. (Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(100) IVORY AND GOLD SNUFF Box. Tortoise shell lining. 
Profile portrait of Franklin in stipple engraving on paper. 
English. Late i8th or early I9th century. (Courtesy of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

(101) TORTOISE SHELL AND GOLD SNUFF Box. Portrait of 
Lafayette painted in grisaille on a white porcelain plaque. 
Probably French. Late iSth century. (Courtesy of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art.) 

[148] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

(102) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Portrait of "Lady with red 
bag." Signed H. Weber. 1839. 

(103) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. "The Blind Fiddler" after 
Teniers. 

(104) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Woman pointing. "Un 
jour Ernst." "Sobiesky." French colors down. 

(105) PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box. Verni Martin. Rectangu- 
lar. Fine landscape. 

(106) CLEAR GLASS, PEAR SHAPED SNUFF BOTTLE. Pewter 
screw top and tin screw bottom. Early American. Circa 
1800. 

(107-108-109-110) FOUR PAPIER-MACHE TABLE SNUFF 
BOXES. Beautifully painted landscapes. Verni Martin 
finish. 

(111) THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box LINED WITH TORTOISE 
SHELL. Portrait of a lady. French. 

(112) HORN SNUFF Box, MOUNTED IN GOLD MINIATURE ON 
IVORY. Anne, Marchioness of Donegal, by Richard Cos- 
way. 1765-1770. English. (Courtesy the Metropoli- 
tan Museum of Art.) 

(113) SNUFF Box. On face of box, miniature portrait Henry 
VIII. On base, portrait, Anne Boleyn. 

(114) TORTOISE SHELL AND BONE SNUFF Box. Miniature in 
pen and ink. From collection Grand Duke Constantino- 
vich. Signed Masins 1799. (Artist, Royal Mint, 
Russia.) 

(115) SNUFF Box. Gold, decorated with panels of opalescent 
enamels, seme with red stars, carved and enameled bor- 
ders. Plaque of purple glass set with diamond cipher 
Catherine the Great. 

(116) SNUFF Box. Carved gold, encrusted with floral design in 
enamel. On cover, portrait of Queen Anne. Gold and 
enamel. 

(117) POLYCHROME WITH PANELS DEPICTING NAVAL BATTLES 
AND SEASCAPES. Gold-enamel. (Courtesy the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art.) 

Finis "PROFESSOR EMERITUS." 

NOTE 

All unattributed articles illustrated are from the author's col- 
lection. 

[H9l 





FIG. 2. 



CHINESE SNUFF 
BOTTLE 



Yunanjade. Dark emerald 

green. Flowers and birds 

carved in high relief in 

scrolls. 



FIG. 3, CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE 

Jadeite. Moss green. Finely 
carved. Coral top on metal. 





FIG. 4. 



CHINESE SNUFF 
BOTTLE 



Rosequartz. Light pink. 
Tree pattern in high re- 
lief. 



FIG. 5. CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLE 

Agate. Grey and black. Carved 

white figures of animals. Car- 

nelian stopper. 




FIG. 6. SEVRES. TTwo COMPARTMENT SNUFF Box 
Delicate pink. Painted on all sides. 




FIG, 7. WHITE ENAMEL SPORTING SNUFF Box 

Playing cards on each side. Bull fight score 
top and. bottom. 




FIG. 8. BATTERSEA. ENAMEL SNUFF Box 

With ships and portrait of .Admiral Nelson in- 
side the lid. 1 8th century. 




FIG. 9. CHINESE JADE SNUFF Box 
Deeply carved and set in gilt. 




FIG. 10. ROUND COMBINATION SNUFF AND PATCH 
Box 

Two lids. Alternate panels firegilt repousse and 
composition. Yellow and brown. 




FIG. ii. FIREGILT SNUFF Box 
Engraved. On enamel center two cupids. Lapis lazuli corners. 




FIG. 12. SNUFF Box. DEEPLY CARVED IVORY TOP 
Bound in silver. Louis XV period. 




FIG. 13. SNUFF Box. "SACRA FAMILIA" 

Carved mother of pearl. Octagonal. Bound and 
clamped in silver. Three figures in relief. 




FIG. 14. SNUFF Box. CAPO DI MONTE 

Evidently old (I.e. before 1759). Unmarked. Deco- 
rated in delicate flesh tones and colors on white 
background. Venus and three cupids. Bound and 
lined with gilt. 




FIG, 1 6. SNUFF Box 

Thunga wood with tortoise shell bands. Painting of woman 
holding cherries. The cover glass mounted in gold band. 




FIG. 17. SNUFF Box 

Thunga wood. Top enriched with painting of 

two figures in gay colors. Falstaff and maid. 

Signed EX Duchez. 




Classical 
FIG. 1 8. XORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 

\Vith gold bands. Glow of sunset over a deli- 
cate landscape. 




FIG. 19. TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 
Angel and kneeling woman. 




FIG. 20. XHUNGA WOOD AND IVORY SNUFF Box 

A young man and woman standing before a statue 
of Cupid. 




FIG. 21. THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box 

Verm Martin. Beautiful landscape with four 
figures. 




FIG. 22. ROUND XHUNGA \Vooo SNUFF Box 

'Henry Quatre le bien Aime." Tout perissait enfin 
lorsque Bourbon parut. French. 




FIG. 23. XHUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box 

(Rare.) Cranologie du Docteur Gall. Reverse 

side "Systeme des oreanes Cerebreaux de Doc't 

Gall." 





FIG. 24. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 

Verni Martin. Dr. Faustus. 1525. Auerbach's Keller 
(top). Banquet scene (bottom). 








FIG. 25 (upper left). Papier-Mache Snuff Box. Verm Martin. 



Napokon Hat. 1798. FIG. 26 (upper right). Silver Snuff Box. Verni Martin. 
Le Sage-Gil Bias. Book form. FIG. 27 (left centre). Papier-Mache Snuff 
Box bailing ships, one Hying Union Jack. Military nag and Admiral of the 
fleet FIG, 28 Bright centre). Wood. Polysander near- rosewood snuff box 
Bands and design of silver. "Man and oxen ploughing:" Fie. 29 (lower left)" 
Copper, bronze and silrer snuff box. Repousse. Top several figures. FIG 30 
(lower right). Metal veneered snuff box. Inlaid with gold. Oval bloodstone 
in centre. 




FIG. 32a. CHINESE PATENDRE SNUFF BOTTLE. In grey, brown, laven- 
der, and light blue. Fifteen human figures in cameo. Elaborate 
inscription on bottom. Pink bronze stopper. FIG. 32^. CHINESE 
SNUFF BOTTLE. Pink porcelain with black symbols. Jade top. (New 
silver band,) Ming Dynasty, 1522-50. FIG, 320. PORCELAIN SNUFF 
BOTTLE. Figures on both sides in Medallion. Framed in blue. 
FIG. szd. PORCELAIN SNUFF BOTTLE. Slightly grey. Figure and tree 
dark blue. These two bottles (r and d) found in effects of an old 
missionary to China. 1860-1880. 




FIG. 34. FOUR CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLES WITH INNER PAINTINGS 

a. Crystal. Coral and gold top. Several figures and inscription. 

b. Brown glass. Rich in color. Six figures. Inscription. Coral top. 

c. Glass. (Modern.) With several figures. Moonstone stopper. 

d. Glass. Painted on four sides and bottom. Seven figures, birds, 

flowers and lettering. 




FIG. 35. GOLD SNUFF Box 

Engraved on all sides. Shield on top contains ivory minia- 
ture of Mme. Roland by Frangois Dumont (?). 




FIG. 36. JEAN PETITOT. 1607-1691. 

Miniature of Le Due d'Ollone of Louis XIV fame. Done 
in enamel. Placed later on gold enamel. i8th century 
oval snuff box. Done chiefly in gold starred translucent 
green surrounded by white enamel bands and pink stones. 




FIG. 37. IVORY POLYCHROME SNUFF 
BOTTLE 

Imperial of lyth century. Carved on 

both sides. Horse and rider and other 

figures. Signature on bottom. 



FIG. 38. IVORY SNUFF BOTTLE 

Beautifully decorated in black, white 
and red. Lacquered. Imperial bot- 
tle. Chien Lung. 1736-1795. 





Fie. 39. IVORY SNUFF BOTTLE 

Shape of Egyptian vase or 
mummy. Carved on both sides. 



FIG. 40. AMBER SNUFF BOTTLE 
Carved with horse and human figures. 
Chinese stamp on bottom. Coral top. 




FIG. 43- SNUFF GRATER OF SILVER 
Cylindrical. Two hinges. Exqui- 
site workmanship. (George III.) 



FIG. 44. SNUFF SPOON 
Silver. Queen Anne. 1702-14- 




FIG. 45. STOBWASSER BOXES 

a. Papier-Mache snuff box. Woman reclining on couch holding 
bunch of grapes. Beautiful in color and modeling, b. Papier- 
Mache snuff box. Portrait of Clarissa Harlowe. Name inside the 
lid. c. Papier-Mache snuff box. Portrait of a Lady. "Bonjour 
inside the lid. iSth century. 




FIG. 4.6. SCOTCH MULL 

Polished horn with repousse silver top. Light 

cairngorm stone. Silver ball and tongue hinge. 

Duke of Sutherland's collection with crest. 




FIG. 47. SCOTCH MULL 

Polished horn. Silver mountings. Dark 

cairngorm stone. Inscribed a jkn 

Graeme." 




FIG. 48*2. SCOTCH MULL 
Dark horn. Mounted in silver. Agate insert. 




FIG. 48^. SCOTCH MULL 

Dark horn. Bound in silver. Silver hinge. 
Marked W.P.B. 




FIG. 49. GOLD SNUFF Box 
Richly engraved. Set with diamonds. Early XIX century. Russian. 

Courtesy of Cleveland Museum of Art 



_r^4-w4J-v-^^..-.^ .. 




FIG. 50. GOLD SNUFF Box 

White enamel lines. Three figures. French. Louis XVI period. 
Courtesy of Cleveland Museum of Art 




FIG. 51. DARK ENAMEL AND GOLD SNUFF Box 

Diamond shape with landscape. Castle of Chillon. Swiss or French. 
Courtesy of Cleveland Museum of Art 



71 




FIG. 52. GOLD AND ENAMEL SNUFF Box SET WITH DIAMONDS 

Inside of lid ivory miniature of Frederick the Great. Maker probably 
Daniel Bandisson. German. 1765-1775. 
Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 53. GOLD AND ENAMEL SNUFF Box 

Oval. Rococo ornament. Battle scene. Middle iSth century. 
Germany? 

Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG, 54. HELIOTROPE SNUFF Box 

Mounted In gold. Set with emerald and diamonds. 
Formerly in the Galitzine collection. First half i8th century. 

Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 55. SNUFF BOTTLE 

Amber. Chien Lung Period. 1736-1795- 

Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 



FIG, 56. WHITE PORCELAIN SNUFF BOTTLE 
IN OPEN WORK DESIGN 

Modern, Red glass stopper. 
Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum oj Art 




FIG. 57. SNXJTF BOTTLE 

Twin. Porcelain, Decorated with famille 

rose enamel. Chien Lung period. 

1736-1795. 

Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




;8. LAVENDER AND GREEN SNOTF 
BOTTLE 

Jadeite. Chien Lung. I736-I795- 
Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 59. SNUFF Box. FIREGILT. OVAL 

Chased in diaper pattern. Enamel miniature. 
"Fabiola" after Henner. French. 




FIG. 60. FIREGILT SNUFF Box 

Round, heavy repousse at sides. Miniature 
on ivory. Signed Hermandez. French. 




FIG. 61. FIREGILT SNUFF Box 



Chased with diaper pattern P * in * n * nch 
-Fishing Party." Signed A. de St. Marc. French. 




FIG. 62. IVORY SNUFF Box 

Round. Miniature on ivory set in gold. 

French. 




FIG. 63. ECCLESIASTICAL ROUND Box-Wooo 

SNUFF Box 

Beautifully carved. Screw top with Inner 
metal clasp. "Christus." 




FIG. 64. REVERSE SIDE, "MARY. ?> 




FIG. 65. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 

Black with cameo insert of 
Pope Pius IX. 1870. 




FIG. 66. DARK WOOD SNUFF Box 

Silver ends. Silver Monstrance on 
ivory cover. Clasp in silver. 
Marked, "Victoria B. F." Italian. 




FIG. 67. COPPER SNUFF Box 
Verni Martin. Oval. Painting after "Boucher." 




FIG. 68. DARK TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 
Fluted, Gold hinges and gold stars inset. 




FIG. 69. SNUFF BOXES MADE OF INDIAN BETEL NUT 

Dark brown. Deeply carved on both sides. One with 
figures, the other with symbols and flowers. 




FIG ioa DARK BLUE COMPOSITION SNUFFBOX. Gilt bronze portrait of Voltaire, 
FIG' 7 o/;". WOOD SNUFF Box. Medallion in silver. "Ceres." FIG. 7 oc. WOOD 
SNUFF Box. General Washington. Medallion in gold. Under glass. Circa 1778- 
FIG 7od MOTTLED WOOD SNUFF Box. Medallion in copper of Luther, Churf and 
Me'lanchthon. Dated 1830. Memorial FIG. joe. Napoleon and Louise. 




FIG. 71. TIN SNUFF Box 
Verni Martin finish. Richly colored. Ballet dancer. 




FIG. 72. PEWTER SNUFF Box 
Motto, "Sic Publico Commoda Stabunt." 




FIG. 73. BRASS AND BRONZE SNUFF Box 
il Ens:land expects every man to do his duty." 
Admiral Nelson. Trafalgar. Oct. XXI, MDCCCV. 




FIG. 74. APPLE WOOD SNUFF Box 
With five lids. Dog in mother of pearl on bright red ground. 




FIG. 75. BLACK BONE SNUFF Box 

Adam and Eve. The tree and the serpent. 
"Le fruit defendu." 




FIG, 76. OVAL BRASS SNUFF Box 

With silver lid and hinge bottom. Floral en- 
graving. "Chiolerie Cio Francisco." 1856. 



FIG. 77. BRONZE OCTAGONAL 
SNUFF Box. 

Head of Gustavus Adolphus. 
Bottom, coat of arms. 




FIG. 78. BRASS AND MOTHER OF PEARL 
HEART SHAPED SNUFF Box 




FIG. 79. WROUGHT IRON SNUFF Box 

Very rare. Finely done in vines and 
flowers. Gold background. Given by 

a German Prince to Bishop of 

Washington, D. C. 




FIG. So. EARLY xgTH CENTURY TINT 
SNUFF Box 

Said to be portrait of Jenny Lind- 
Kashion of 1830. 




FIG. 8 1. TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 
Portrait on ivory Louis XVIII with, decoration. 




FIG. 82. TORTOISE SHELL Box WITH GILT FIG. 83. MOTTLED TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF 

BANDS Box 

Miniature in ivory. Gentleman with Miniature on ivory. Young student. 

stock. Early i9th century. Light blue background. Gold band. 




FIG. 84. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Copy Romney's portrait of "Cowper.' 




FIG. 85. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Verni Martin. Picture of St. Peter, Done In rich browns. 




FIG. 86. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 

Table box. Old man with red cap trimmed with fur. Brown 

cloak. 




FIG. 87. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Old bearded man with red cloak. iSth century. 




FIG. 88. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
"The Dentist Shop," After Teniers. 




FIG. 89. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Master with pipe. Servant bringing beer. 




FIG. 90. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Gaily painted hunting scene. Lines painted in gold. 




FIG. gia. BONE SNUFF Box. 

Two finger opening. Book form. 
Hot needle engraving. 1847. Span- 
ish. 




FIG. gib. BONE SNUFF Box 

Oval with hot needle engraving; let- 
tering in German. 




FIG. 9 ir. HORN SNUFF Box 

Brass bound ends. Top ivory with hot point 
drawing of flowers. 




FIG. 92. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
King Henry of Navarre in action. 




Fic. 93. HEAVY TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 

Bound in silver with silver hinges. Fine ex- 
ample of pique gold work. 




FIG. 94.. WOOD SNUFF Box 

Bound in brass. Mosaic top. Made of fish scales In colors. 
Soldiers fighting. 




FIG. 95. BLONDE TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 

Inlaid with gold. Balloon ascension. 
Circa 1783. 




FIG. 



TURQUOISE ENCASED IN SILVER WITH 
SILVER Top AND SPOON 

Turquoise insets. 




FIG. 97. CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLES 
Silver with silver top and spoons. Formerly medicine bottles 




FIG. 98^1. DARK TORTOISE SHELL SNUFF Box 
Deeply carved (top). Chinese. 




FIG. ySb. SAME, (bottom). 




FIG. 99. PORCELAIN SNUFF Box 

Mounted in gold. Profile portrait of Washington. Flanked 
by sprays of oak leaves. Gilt on a white ground. Germany. 

(Meissen). 1814-1818. 
Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 100. IVORY AND GOLD SNUFF Box 
Tortoise shell lining. Profile portrait of 
Franklin in stipple engraving on paper. 
English. Late i8th or early 191*1 century. 

Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 101. TORTOISE SHELL AND GOLD SNUFF 
Box 

Portrait of Lafayette painted in grisaille on 

a white porcelain plaque. Probably French. 

Late iSth century- 

Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 102. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 



Portrait of "Lady with red bag." Signed H. 
Weber. 1839. 




FIG. 103. PAPIER-MACHE SNXJFF Box 
"The Blind Fiddler" after Teniers. 







FIG. 104. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 

Woman pointing. "Un jour Ernst." "Sobiesky." 
French colors down. 




FIG. 105. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Verni Martin. Rectangular. Fine landscape. 




FIG. 106. CLEAR GLASS, PEAR SHAPED 
SNUFF BOTTLE 

Pewter screw top and tin screw bottom- 
Early American. Circa 1800. 




FIG. 105. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Verni Martin. Rectangular. Fine landscape. 




FIG. 106. CLEAR GLASS, PEAR SHAPED 
SNUFF BOTTLE 

Pe\vter screw top and tin screw bottom- 
Early American. Circa 1800. 



' \\$&< *?*$$&*'' >'*" \ 




FIG. 107. PAPIER-MACHE TABLE SNUFF Box 
Painted landscape. Verni Martin finish. 




FIG. 108. PAPIER-MACHE TABLE SNUFF Box 
Painted landscape. Verni Martin finish. 




FIG. 109. PAPIER-MACHE TABLE SNUFF Box 
Painted landscape. Verni Martin finish. 




FIG. no. PAPIER-MACHE SNUFF Box 
Painted landscape. Verni Martin finish. 




FIG. in. THUNGA WOOD SNUFF Box LINED WITH 
TORTOISE SHELL 

Portrait of a lady. French. 




FIG. Hz- HORN SNUFF Box, MOUNTED IN GOLD 
MINIATURE ON IVORY 

Anne, Marchioness of Donegal, by Richard 
Cosway. 1765-1770- English. 

Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 




FIG. 113. 

face of 



SNUFF Box 

box:, miniature portrait 
On base, portrait Anne 

Boleyn. 
Courtesy oj the Metropolitan Museum of Art 



On 

Henry VIII. 




FIG. 114-. TORTOISE SMELL AND BONE SNTJTFF Box 

Miniature 5n pen and ink. From collection Grand 

Duke Constantinople!*- Signed IVtasxns, i 7 99 (Artist, 

Royal IVTint, Russia.). 




FIG. 115. SNUFF Box 

Gold, decorated with panels of opalescent enamels, seme with red 

stars, carved and enameled borders. Plaque of purple glass set 

with diamond cipher Catherine the Great. 




FIG. 1 1 6. SNUFF Box. 

Carved gold, encrusted with floral design in enamel. On cov 
portrait of Queen Anne. Gold and enamel. 




. ,,r~ js, ffiJSBSE 1 """ "'""' " 

C r/ e 5y o/ *A Metropolitan Museum of Art 




Finis. "PROFESSOR EMERITUS" 



HOW TO KNOW 

Breach 
tes 



Antique 



BY RUTH T. COSTAJVTINO 

A comprehensive guide to every major 
period and style of the world's most elegant 
furniture and decoration, profusely illus- 
trated with both photographs and line draw- 
ings to show examples of practically every 
kind of piece you may ever see. It is a book 
designed for anyone who has ever admired 
or wanted to own a piece of French furni- 
ture. It is the only objective history of 
French antiques which covers the entire 
field for the student, the collector, the in- 
defatigable browser, or the curious window- 
shopper. This book will help you identify 
your discovery whether it is a unique ex- 
ample housed in a museum or a piece 
offered for sale in the back of a furniture 
shop. Mrs. Costantino draws from a store- 
house of information and experience to ex- 
plain the meaning of "antique," to impart 
the joys and satisfactions of collecting, to 
instruct on how to tell the real from the 
fake, and to give a thoroughly unique, in- 
side view of how to buy at auctions. Espe- 
cially useful is a collection of short biogra- 
phies of all the greatest French furniture 
makers, a bibliography, and an index for 
immediate reference. 

A BRAMHALL HOUSE BOOK 

distributed by Clarkson N. Potter, Inc. 
12 TJ-. <7A <;<-,>< N^w York 10021