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Full text of "The book of sun-dials; originally compiled by the late Mrs. Alfred Gatty; now enl. and re-edited by H. K. F. Eden and Eleanor Lloyd"

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Original edit ion pul>lished 1872. 

Second edition, revised, 1889. 

Third edition, enlarged, 1890. 

Fiti/rfli edition, re-arranged and enlarged, 1900. 

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M. G. 


The original edition of tliis Book of Sun-dials was written by my 
Mother, Mrs. Alfred Gatty. It was published in 1872, only a year 
before her death ; but she had begun the work many years previously, 
whilst she was still unmarried, and living with her father, the Rev. 
Alexander J. Scott, D.D., Vicar of Catterick. 

During the last few years of her life she was unable to travel much, 
owing to illness, but the number of her dials continued to increase, 
thanks to the kindness of friends, who sent additions to her unique 
collection from different parts of the world. 

In Mrs. Gatty's Preface she specially mentioned one dear friend, 
" without whom it is probable that the work would never have 
appeared — Miss Eleanor Lloyd. To her the reader is indebted for 
by far the greater number of the continental mottoes, and for much of 
the pleasant notices which accompany them, as well as for general, un- 
wearied enthusiasm in her researches. Being an artist too, she has 
adopted the habit which we ourselves had pursued for so many years, 
and made sketches of all the dials she saw, both at home and abroad." 

These introductory details will e.xplain a further quotation from 
Mrs. Gatty's words : 

" The present collection of dials, with their mottoes, was begun about 
the year 1835. Perhaps the presence of a curious old dial over our 
church porch (Catterick), with something like a punning motto, Ftigit 
hora, ora, may have had somewhat to do with originating the idea. 
Also at the home of some dear friends, a few miles off, the porch of 
their picturesque little church (Wycliffe) on the banks of the Tees, bore 
another inscription, JllanJIccfh as a shadonK A third motto surmounted 
an archway in a stable-yard (Kiplin), Moi's cic die accclerat. A fourth 
was over the door of a cottage in a village (Brompton-on-Swale), bear- 
ing the warning words. Vestigia nulla retrorsuvi, which shone out in 
gold and colour amidst evergreens. Here lived the venerable sister of 
a canon of Lincoln, which may perhaps account for the presence of 
the dial. A fifth looked out from the depths of pyracanthus on a house 


at Middleton-Tyas, hinting to callers not to waste the precious hour, 
with its Maneo neinmi ; while last, and not least in our esteem, stood 
the touching inscription, Ehcii, fugaccs ! on a pillar dial outside the 
drawing-room at Sedbury Hall, Yorkshire, where it betokened the 
scholarly character of the hospitable owner. These six mottoes (all, 
somewhat remarkably, in one neighbourhood) made an admirable 
beginning of a list which soon swelled to twenty or thirty pages by 
taking a wide circuit, and with the assistance of the contributions of 
friends. And thus the matter went on from more to more ; but the 
great impulse was given when the friend alluded to in the preface, 
undertook to collect in the south of France and Italy, a fair field indeed 
and one even yet imperfectly explored. As to these dial mottoes, there 
are perhaps as many differences of opinion, as there are differences of 
character, in those who read them. We, who have studied them for 
so many years, feel with Charles Lamb, that they are often " more 
touching than tombstones," while to other people they seem flat, stale, 
and unprofitable. One correspondent describes them as a ' compen- 
dium of all the lazy, hazy, sunshiny thoughts of men past, present, and 
ill posse' and says, ' the burden of all their songs is a play upon sun- 
shine and shadow.' But this is no fair description ; the poet's words : 

' Liberal applications lie 
In art as nature,' 

have never been more fully realized than in the teachings which have 
arisen from dials, as we trust the following pages will prove beyond a 
doubt. So far from the burden of all their songs being a play upon 
sunshine and shadow, one of the most fertile subjects of thought is the 
sun's power, as being his own timekeeper, which he certainly is, whilst 
the mottoes constantly assert the fact. 

" The sun describes his own progress on the dial-plate as clearly as 
he paints pictures on the photographer's glass — human art assisting in 
both cases. Solis ct artis opus, says the dial in a street at Grasse, near 
Cannes — somewhat baldly, perhaps. More refined is the Non sine 
luminc of Leadenhall Street ; and perhaps higher still the Non nisi 
coelesti I'adio, of Ha>don Bridge. Ahvi irgo, nisi regar is the modest 
avowal of another dial in a street at Uppingham, acknowledging itself 
to be but an instrument governed by an overruling power. And these 
are but a few of the many ' applications ' the poet speaks of." 

After my mother's death (1873) Miss Eleanor Lloyd and I con- 
tinued to collect notes on dials, with the result that in 1889 we published 
a second edition of the book nearly twice as large as the first. This 
was followed, in 1890, by a reprint, to which new mottoes and other 


matter were added ; but as these had to take the form of Addenda the 
arrangement was not satisfactory, and we are glad now to be able to 
bring out a new book in which the materials have been entirely re- 
arranged and classified. Miss Eleanor Lloyd has accomplished nearly 
the whole of this task of reconstruction, and a large number of new 
mottoes are also due to her diligent research. She discovered that 
whilst Mrs. Gatty was making her collection, a similar one was being 
gathered together in France, unknown to her, by the Baron Edmond 
de Riviere, and published at intervals in the " Bulletin Monumental 
de la Societe Frangaise pour la conservation des monuments," under the 
title of " Devises Horaires." This collection included several mottoes 
copied by M. G. de Vallier, and published in the " Revue de Marseille 
et Provence," 1875. 
^ That the Baron was not acquainted with "The Book of Sun-dials," 
is evident from the fact that it contained several French mottoes which 
are not given by him, and that he mentions no English dial except the 
one at Kirkdale. The papers on " Devises Horaires " were followed by 
a collection made by Dr. A. Bla-nchard entitled " L'Art populaire dans 
le Brian^onnais," and published in the " Bulletin de la Societe des Etudes 
des Hautes Alpes." A great number of the additional mottoes in the 
present volume have been drawn from these sources. The writers in 
most cases gave the localities where they had seen the mottoes in- 
scribed ; many of them are in French. I have also taken about fifty 
Italian and Latin ones from another source, an interesting MS. note- 
book on dialling, " Notizie Gnomoniche," which Mr. Lewis Evans 
recently bought in Italy. The notes and diagrams are very elegantly 
penned, but the writer's name does not appear; only the initials, 
D. D. G., and the date 1761. It is not stated whether the mottoes were 
copied from dials, or merely suggested as suitable inscriptions, but some 
of them are taken from the Italian poets, so I have decided to give 
them the benefit of the doubt and to insert them in the Book. 

Many of the early writers on dialling, Johannes Paduani, Seb. 
Munster, and others, give lists of suitable mottoes ; and in books of 
emblems and devices, such as Pere le Moyne's " L'Art des Devises" 
(1688), the dial, and the lessons to be drawn from it, are constantly 
found ; but if all of these were to be added the list would be endless. 
Want of space likewise makes it impossible to give a quaint letter of 
seventeenth century date, written by the Norman poet Garaby de La 
Luzern to the Comte de Matignon, who had asked him to write 
mottoes for four sun-dials which were being erected on the Comte's 
stables, at the Chateau de Torigny. The letter was quoted by Baron 



de Riviere in his " Devises Horaires ; " he did not know whether the 
inscriptions had been put up, but stated that there are no traces of 
sun-dials left now at the chateau. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, one William Rhodes, 
a tobacconist and pewterer, was living in Liverpool, and he possessed 
several works on the art of dialling, by Fale, De la Hire, and others, 
which he annotated in his own writing with mottoes from dials. He 
bought Fale's work in 1802, but the copy had belonged, in 1675, ^^ 
"Thomas Skelson," who had copied into it from Lilly's " Merlini 
Anglici for 1650," some curious astrological calculations as to " whether 
King Charles y" first should live or Dye; being Friday y" 19th of 
January 1648-9." It is rather curious that an exact science such as 
mathematics should have been often associated with superstitions. 

In a paper on Manx sun-dials, which was read by Miss A. M. 
Crellin in 1889, before the Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society, she gave a short account of a dial maker named 
Ewan Christian. He made a dial at Kirk Michael (see No. 1330), 
and lived at Lewaigue. Miss Crellin says he was "commonly known 
by the name of ' Kione Prash,' or Brass Head, and was perhaps so 
named from the colour of his hair, or he may have been Ewan Prash 
from the metal that he worked in." Another possibility is that he 
earned the title from the story told of him, that "like Roger Bacon 
he attempted to make a brazen head, which having uttered the words, 
Time is, Time was, Time is past, fell to pieces." 

The descriptions of remarkable dials without mottoes, which in 
previous editions were given partly in the "Introduction" and partly 
in " Further Notes," have now been re-arranged and placed together. 
.So many discoveries of these sculptured stones have been made of late 
years, since the attention of archeeologists was directed to them, that it 
has been possible to gather a considerable amount of information, both 
as to early dials and to the more beautiful and elaborate works of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This part of the book has there- 
fore been re-written and greatly enlarged, and the dials arranged to 
some extent in chronological order, or otherwise with regard to their 
different types. It would have been impossible to bring the Book of 
Sun-dials abreast with the archaeological knowledge of the day without 
the help of those who had personally examined the dial stones, and 
this has been most kindly and freely given. Miss Eleanor Lloyd, who 
is mainly responsible for this part of the work, joins with me in especi- 
ally thanking Thomas Ross, Esq., F.S.A. (Scotland), to whom we owe 
the greater part of the notices of Scottish dials, as well as the drawings 


which accompany them. For descriptions and figures of other early 
dials we are indebted to the late Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., F.S.A., 
Robert Blair, Esq., F.S.A., Christopher Markham, Esq., F.S.A., 
W. G. CoUingwood, Esq., C. Hodges, Esq., the Rev. H. Lang, and 
many others. 

A new and most valuable addition to this edition is the Chapter on 
Portable Dials, by Lewis Evans, Esq., F.S.A. Many of the illustra- 
tions are drawn from specimens in his own magnificent collection. 
Portable dials form a complete group, and it is a great advantage to 
have them described by a master-pen. The few specimens that were 
mentioned in previous editions have now been included in Mr. Evans' 

The short article on the Construction of simple forms of dials has 
been revised by the writer, J. Wigham Richardson, Esq. 

For the translations of the Latin and Greek, French and Italian 
mottoes added to this edition, we are indebted to Professor Robinson 
Ellis, Maurice L. Waller, Esq., C. E. Noel James, Esq., W. Dewar, 
Esq., and B. B. Dickinson, Esq. Mr. Waller has had the further 
difficult task of interpreting some extracts from Nicholas Kratzer's MS. 
work on Dialling, to which we had access, through the courtesy of the 
Rev. Thomas Fowler, D.D., President of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and F. Madan, Esq., of the Bodleian Library. 

Very grateful thanks are also due to those who have helped us by 
supplying information, or by lending blocks of illustrations, especially 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the Society of Antiquaries of 
Newcastle, the Council of the Yorkshire Archaeological Society, the 
East Riding Antiquarian Society, Messrs. Macmillan and Co., Mr. W. 
Mark of Northampton, Messrs. F. Barker and Co. (12, Clerkenwell 
Road, London), the late Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., and the editor 
of " The Wilts Archaeological and Natural History Society's Magazine." 
We have also to thank Miss Adeline Illingworth for her sketches, 
and last, though not least. Miss Margaret A. Meyler, without whose 
valuable aid in verifying references and correcting inaccuracies I could 
not have completed my share of the Book. She has further assisted 
me by making the Index. 

HoRATiA K. F. Eden. 

June 30//;, 1900. 



I. Introduction .... 

II. Antique Dials .... 

III. Early English Dials . 

IV. Early English Dials — continued 
V. Early Irish Dials 

VI. Renaissance Dials, Detached 

VII. Cylindrical, Globe Cross and Star- 
Headed, AND Horizontal Dials 

VIII. Vertical Dials, Detached . 

IX. Vertical Dials, Attached . 

X. Scottish Dials .... 

XL Foreign Dials .... 

Shaped, Facet 

Portable Sun-dials. By Lewis Eyans, F.S.A. . 

Sun-dial Mottoes 

On the Construction of Sun-dials. By J. Wigham 
Richardson ....... 

Sun-dial Tables 


Index . . 














I. Nicholas Kratzer. (From the Portrait by Holbein in the Louvre). 

Photogravure plate Frontispiece 

II. Facsimile of Page from Kr.^tzer's MS. " De Horologiis" .... 21 

III. Facsi.mile of Page from Kratzer's MS. "De Horologiis" 23 

IV. Saxon Dial at Kirkdale, Yorks 54 

V. Sun-dial at Moccas Court, Herefordshire 100 

VI. Engraved Dial-Plate in the Possession of Messrs. Barker, 

Clerkenwell . 134 

VII. Portable Dials 185 

VIII. Ascot Church, Eyam Church 286 

IX. Old Place, Lindfield 424 



Turkish wall dial 13 

SlGNAL-GUN sun-dial I4 

Castleberg, Settle 17 

Hand dial 22 

zoccolo dial 2 2 

Greek dial, Leyden Museum . . 31 

Greek dial, British Museum . . 32 

Gr-« dial, Vatican ... 34 

Greek dial, Berlin 35 

Roman dial from Tor Paterno . 36 

Phcenician dial. Louvre .... 37 

Greek dial, Louvre 38 

Tower of the Winds, Athens . . 39 

Greek dial, British Museum . . 40 

Greek dial, Orchomenes .... 41 

Roman dials. Villa Scipio ... 42 

^ViND and Sun dial, Rome ... 45 

Antique di.\l, Madrid 47 

Bewcastle Cross 50 

Escombe 52 

Pittington 52 

St. Cuthbert's, Darlington ... 53 

We.averthorpe 54 

Great Ed.stone 56 

Old Byland 56 

Aldbrough 57 

Scheme of the dial at Skelton, 

Cleveland 58 

Bamburgh 62 

Isel 63 

Caldbeck 65 

West Kirby 65 

Bishopstone 67 

St. Michael's, Winchester ... 67 

Stoke d'Abernon 68 

Hardingham 69 

Daglingworth 70 

South Cerney 70 

Uphill 7°, 71 

Langford 72 

North Stoke, Oxfordshire ... 73 

Barnack 74 

Ecton 76 

Potterspurv 76 

Grafton Regis 76 

Higham Ferrers 77 



St. Sepulchre's, Northampton . . 77 

Geddington 78 

dunchurch 80 

Iniscaltra 82 



Saul, co. Down 84 

Cleobury Mortimer 87 

Dover Museum 88 

IvYCHURCH Priory dial .... 89 
Kratzer's dial, Corpus Christi 

College Gardens 90 

Westwood Old Manor House, near 

Bradford, Wilts 91 

Great Fosters 92 

Madeley Court 93 

Badminton House 95 

Upton, Northants 97 

Patrington 98 

Elmley Castle Churchyard ... 99 

Wilton Cross 100 

Sun-dial at Cheeseburn, North- 
umberland 103 

Hartburn 103 

Newcastle Museum 103 

Deanery Garden, Rochester . . 104 

Fellside 105 

Dial from Wigborough House . . 105 

Saxmundham Churchyard. . . . 105 

Bleadon 106 

ScoTscRAir, 107 

Walton Hall 108 

Dalston 113 

St. Mary's, Scilly 114 

Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 119 

The Countess' Pillar 121 

Market Cross, Carlisle . . . . 122 

Ashleworth Churchyard .... 123 

Covent Garden, 1747 125 

Seven Dials Column before 1773. 125 
Stone formerly the " Seven Dials," 

Weybridge 126 

Lydney 127 

Over the Doorway of a Boot-shop 

at Rye 133 

Bolton Abbey 133 

AliERDOUR 141 

Dial stone found in Taymouth 

Castle Gardens 142 

Heriot's Hospital 











Lee Castle 

Mount Melville 


Glamis Castle 



Chateau de Josselin 

From the Chateau Tournouei.les . 
Buen Retiro, Churriana .... 

Church near Brixen 

Palace, Schwerin 

Arab dial, Victoria and Albert 


Dial from Herculaneum . . . . 
Pillar dial, seventeenth century 
Modern Pyrenean dial . . . . 

German Tablets 

German Nocturnal diai 

English Ring diai 

German dial 

Disc dial, French Republic . . . 

German Chalice dial 

Roman dial (circa a.d. 300) . . . 

German dial, 17 13 

English universal ring dial (circa, 


Quadrant made for Richard H. . 

German ship-diai 

Brass box dial 

Finger ring diai 

Pocket diai 

Nuremberg dial and comp.\ss . . 
German metal folding dial . . . 

French silver dial 

Italian disc dial 

Crucifix dial 

Japanese silver dial 

Design by Rev. G. J. Chester , . 








LiBERTON House 214 

Melbury Castle, Dorset . . . . 223 

Hatford Church 224 

Sir Francis Howard's dial, Corby 

Castle 233 

Barnes Hall, Sheffield .... 241 
Dutch Church, Austin Friars . . 243 
WiNDO\v DIAL, High Street, Mar- 
borough 246 

Rosenheim 249 

Abbotsford 252 

Trellech Churchyard 254 

United States National Note . . 261 

Catterick 263 

Malvern 273 

Sun-dial at Windsor Castle . . 276 

Castleton, Derbyshire 280 

From the "Book of Emblems" . 285 
On the Porch of Bakewell 

Church 294 

In the Cloister Garden, Win- 
chester College 294 

Stanwardine Hall, near Bas- 


An Inn in Rougemont .... 302 

Waltham Rectory 304 

The Close, Salisbury 316 

St. John the Baptist, Morwenstow 316 

York Minster 320 

Sta. Barbara Mission, California . 322 

Wycliffe-on-the-Tees 324 

Abbeyfield, near Sheffield . . . 334 

Haydon Bridge, Northumberland. 341 

Near Danby Mill, Yorkshire . . 345 

Greystoke Churchyard .... 345 

From "De Symbolis Heroicis" 
In Priestgate, Peterborough 

Brougham Hall 

All Souls, Oxford .... 
Leyland Churchyard . . . 
Nun-Appleton Hall. . . . 
Dial House, Twickenham . . 
Fountains Hall, near Ripon 

Inveresk Church 

Compton Wynyates .... 
Monthey, Canton Valais . . 
Shenstone Vicarage .... 


John Knox's House, Edinburgh 
The Grammar School, Rye 
Thorp Perrow, Yorkshire 
St. Mary's Church, Putney 
Robinson's Hospital, Burneston 
Norman Keep, Newcastle-on-Ty: 
Valcrosi.\, near Bordighera 
MoccAs Court .... 
St. Beat, Htes. Pyrenees 
Helston Churchyard . 
Cawston Lodge, Rugby 
AsHURST Church, Kent 
Belfry at Pra .... 
Wigmore Grange . . . 
Yarrow Kirk .... 
Ecclesfield Churchyard 
Dryburgh Abbey . . . 
Church of King Charles the 

Martyr, Tunbridge Wells 
Silver Pocket dial in the posses 

SIGN of the Rev. J. E Stacye 

















" The Dial which doth houres direct — 
(Life's guider, Daye's divider, Sun's consorter, 
Shadow's dull shifter and Time's dumb Reporter.) " 

Sylvester's Dii Bartas, Divine JVeekes. 

There is no human invention more ancient, or more interesting, than 
that of the sun-dial ; so ancient that the exquisite essayist, Charles Lamb, 
says, " Adam could scarce have missed it in Paradise " ; and so interest- 
ing, that we may be sure that man's first want, after supplying the 
cravings of hunger, would be to invent some instrument by which he 
could measure the day-time into portions, to be allotted to his several 

" Please, sir, what's o'clock?" is the child's enquiry, as he "tents" 
his mother's cow in the lane pastures ; and the hardy backwoodsman, 
hewing out a settlement for himself in the primaeval forest, leans on his 
axe, and looks to the sun's position in the heavens for information how 
soon he may retire to his hut for food and sleep. Time is a blank if 
we cannot mark the stages of its progress ; and it has been found that 
the human mind is incapable of sustaining itself against the burden of 
solitary confinement in a dark room, where no note can be taken of 
time. The great Creator, Who made the sun to rule the day, and the 
moon and the stars to govern the night, has adapted our nature to these 
intermitting changes, and implanted in us an immediate desire to count 
how, drop by drop, or grain by grain, time and life are passing away. 



Edgar Poe sings, in melancholy strain, as he stands in imagination 
on the seashore : 

" I hold within my hand 
Grains of the golden sand ; 
How few, yet how they creep 
Through my fingers to the deep. 
While I weep ! " 

The first notion of dissecting time would, of course, be suggested 
by a tree, or a pole stuck in the soil, the shadow of which, moving from 
west to east, as the sun rose or declined in the sky, would lead men to 
indicate by strokes on the ground the gradual progression of the hours 
during which the daylight lasted. Further observation would discover 
that if the pole were slanted so as to point to the north star, and lie 
parallel with the earth's axis, a sun-dial would be constructed that would 
measure the day. But the fixing of a complete instrument, varying in 
its lines and numbers, according to the locality, whether horizontally or 
vertically placed, would be a matter of progressive astronomical and 
mathematical calculation, which only the scientific could accomplish, 
long after the rude art of uncivilized man had discovered the means of 
ascertaining midday, and dividing into spaces the morning and 

Herodotus (443 b.c.) says, " It was from the Babylonians that the 
Greeks learned concerning the pole, the gnomon, and the twelve parts 
of the day" (B. ii., cap. 109).' These twelve parts, however, would 
always differ in length according to the season, except at the equinox, 
because the ancients always reckoned their day from sunrise to sunset. 
The word " hour," therefore, as they used it, must be regarded as an 
uncertain space of time, until it was accurately defined by astronomical 

The Jewish Scriptures, our oldest literature, give us no clear infor- 
mation as to how time was reckoned in the ancient world. "The 
evening and the morning were the first day " (Gen. i. 5) is the earliest 
description of a period of time whose duration we cannot precisely 

' "The Greeks of later times had a double mode of reckoning the hours. According 
to the popular method, they divided the period from sunrise to sunset into twelve equal 
parts. The hours reckoned upon this principle varied in length with the season. Accord- 
ing to the more scientific method, the day and night at the equinox were severally divided 
into twelve equal parts, and each of them was reckoned as an hour. The division of the 
day into twelve parts, which Herodotus describes . . . was doubtless reckoned according 
to the former method. U6\og signified a hollow hemisphere ; and hence came to signify 
the basin or bowl of a sun-dial in which the hour lines were marked. In this sense it is 
used by Herodotus." — Adapted from Sir G. C. Lewls, "Astronomy of the Ancients," 


estimate. A week is also thus defined : " On the seventh day God 
ended His work which He had made, and He rested on the seventh 
day from all His work which He had made" {Gen. ii. 2). 

Farther on in the Jewish history we find the day divided into four 
parts. In Nehemiah, ix. 3, we read : " They stood up in their place, 
and read in the book of the law of the Lord their God one fourth part 
of the day ; and another fourth part they confessed, and worshipped 
the Lord their God." This mode of computation appears to have 
lasted until our Saviour's time ; the householder in the parable, hiring 
servants, is described as going out at the third, sixth, and ninth hours 
to engage additional labourers, and afterwards at the eleventh hour 
before the day closed (Matt. xx. 1-8). The night was not divided into 
hours, but into military watches ; the Jews recognized three such 
divisions, the "beginning of the watches" (Lam. ii. 19), the "middle 
watch" (Judges, vii. 19), and the "morning watch" (Ex. xiv. 24; 
I Sam. xi. 11); "the second watch," or the "third watch" (Luke, xii. 
T)"], 38). The Greeks and Romans had four of these night watches, 
and after the establishment of the Roman supremacy in Judaea it is 
evident that the division of the Jewish night was altered. In Acts, 
xii. 4, four relays of soldiers are spoken of; and in Matt. xiv. the 
" fourth watch " ; whilst in Mark, xiii. 35, the four watches are described 
as "even, midnight, cockcrowing, and morning." 

The mention of the hour as a distinct space of time occurs first in 
the Book of Daniel ; ' it is probable, therefore, that after the Captivity 
the Babylonian division of day and night into twelve parts was adopted 
by the Jews, and amalgamated with their own system. This was also 
the case with the Assyrians, amongst whom the calendar of their 
Accadian neighbours was in use as early as the reign of Tiglath 
Pileser I. " Along with the establishment of a settled calendar," 
writes Professor Sayce, "came the settled division of day and night. 
The old rough division of the night into three watches, which we find 
in the Old Testament, remained long in use ; but although the astro- 
logical works of Sargon's library do not know of any other reckoning of 
time, it was gradually superseded by a more accurate system."'' 

The Egyptians divided their day and night into twenty-four parts 
at a very early period. 

But our business is with sun-dials, and the first on historical record is 
that of Ahaz, who reigned over Judah in the eighth century B.C. It has 

' Daniel, iii. 6 ; iv. 19. 

^ "On the Astronomy and Astrology of the Babylonians," Professor A. H. Sayce; 
" Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology," vol. iii., 1874. 


been observed that the Babylonians or Chald^eans were the first people 
who seem to have divided time by any mechanical contrivance. A 
lucid atmosphere is favourable to celestial contemplation, of which the 
people of the East have always availed themselves ; and, even now, 
those countries most abound in sun-dials which have the clearest skies. 
The Rev. S. C. Malan thus writes of a visit to Ur of the Chaldees, and 
the landscape of serene beauty presented to him on the site of Rebekah's 
well : " As the shadows of the grass and of the low shrubs around the 
well lengthened and grew dim, and the sun sank below the horizon, the 
women left in small groups ; the shepherds followed them, and I was left 
in this vast solitude, yet not alone ; the bright evening star in the 
glowing sky to westward seemed to point to the promised land, as 
when Abraham took it for his guide." 

From this people of Chaldaea, these star-searchers of the old world, 
we may conclude that Ahaz got his dial, and we read in the history of 
the unfortunate reign of this king a possible, nay, a likely, cause of his 
introduction of Babylonian customs. Being pressed in war by the 
kings of Israel and Syria, Ahaz sought alliance and rescue from Tiglath 
Pileser II., king of Assyria, who, indeed, relieved him in his emergency, 
but made him pay a heavy tribute, and conform his worship to that of 
the Assyrians. " The altars at the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz " ^ 
which Josiah removed, were probably connected with the worship of the 
stars, and they prove the adoption of Babylonian usages. Among these 
we may imagine that the " dial of Ahaz " " held a conspicuous place ; 
but what its actual form was, remains a matter of conjecture. 

The word "degrees" in our translation of the Bible has been, in the 
margin and in the Revised Version, rendered " steps," and this reading 
has given rise to various suppositions. Some writers have thought 
that a pillar outside the king's palace threw a shadow on the terrace 
walk, which indicated the time of day. The Rev. J. W. Bosanquet 
considers^ that " the invention of the pole and gnomon combined, pro- 
ducing an instrument perfect in itself for all observations, was probably 
connected with the rectification of the Babylonian calendar in B.C. 747, 
nineteen years before the accession of Ahaz," and that the dial was 
therefore a scientific instrument, the shadow being cast on steps in the 
open air, " or more probably within a closed chamber, in which a ray of 
light was admitted from above, which passed from winter to summer up 
and down an apparatus in the form of steps. Such chambers were in 
use in Eastern observatories till the middle of the eighteenth century." 

2 Kings, xxiii. 12. '2 Kings, x.\. y-ii. 

' "Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archceology," vol. iii., 1874. 


On the other hand, one of the explanations which the Rabbins give of 
the dial of Ahaz is, that it was " a concave hemisphere, in the middle 
of which was a globe, the shadow of which fell upon diverse lines 
engraved on the concavity." They add that these lines were twenty- 
eight in number.' This description is not unlike the dial attributed to 

It is remarkable that no sun-dials of the ancient Egyptians are 
known. Those which have been found associated with Egyptian 
monuments, such as the one discovered at the base of Cleopatra's 
Needle, are of Greek origin. Professor Renouf, writing in 1887, says : 
" We are at a loss as to the method used by the Egyptians for measur- 
ing time. They certainly had some method, for we have copies of a 
very ancient calendar, giving the hours of the night at which certain 
stars culminated. Of course this could not have been a dial, and it 
must have been an instrument by which cqtial intervals of time were 
measured. It may have been an hour-glass or a water-clock, but no 
such instruments have been found. There is an Egyptian word signify- 
ing a clock, but the picture of the hieroglyph looks to me like a meridian 
instrument. There is no reason for supposing that the obelisks were 
intended for gnomons, though they might possibly have been utilized 
for the purpose. We know that at a later time they actually served as 
lightning conductors." 

Whether obelisks or pillars were formerly used as time-tellers or not, 
a primitive mode of dividing time by similar means is still practised in 
Upper Egypt. The natives, we are told, plant a palm-rod in the open 
ground, and arrange a circle of stones round it, thus forming a sort of 
clock face, and on this the shadow of the palm falls, and marks the 
time of day. The plougher will leave his buffalo standing in the furrow 
to consult this rude horologe, and learn how soon he may cease from his 
work — illustrating the words of Job (vii. 2), "As a servant earnestly 
desireth the shadow." 

Sun-dials of this sort, used for regulating the hours of work for a 
waterwheel, were noticed as recently as 1893 by Mr. E. A. Floyer. 
He writes that " two kinds were used. At Edfu a horizontal dhurra 
stalk lay north and south on two forked uprights. East and west were 
pegs in the ground, dividing evenly the sphere of earth between the 
sunrise and sunset shadows of the horizontal gnomon. Further south, 
the gnomon was a vertical stick. The gnomon and the space between 
the two pegs are equally called alka. To the question, ' What do you 

' Kitto's "Pictorial Bible," notes, vol. i. 


do when the shadow reaches this peg ? ' the answer always comes, 
'We harness, or hitch on, another pair of bullocks.' At Aswan, instead 
of a stick, a wall or boulder is sometimes used, and the dividing pegs 
are pressed in level with the soil, lest they should be removed by the 
feet of cattle or passers-by. The phrase may often be heard, ' Go and see 
the alka ' ; that is, ' Go and see the time.' . . . Some twenty years ago, 
in Arabia, the celebrated sheikh Daij of Koweit, wishing to test the 
astronomical knowledge of the writer, asked him to construct a sun-dial. 
He interrupted learned explanations about knowledge of latitude, hori- 
zontal planes, etc., by abruptly planting his spear in the ground and 
marking with his foot where the shadow would fall at the hour of 
prayer." ^ 

A learned friend offers the following remarks : " The shadow of a 
tree or vertical pillar cannot permanently indicate the time of day, 
because its motion is not uniform. The sun's motion in his diurnal track 
is uniform ; he always describes the same angle in the same time ; but the 
angular velocity of the shadow of a tree or pillar is greater at noon than it 
is at sunrise or sunset ; it also varies with the time of year. The gnomon 
that indicates the time of day must slope to the horizontal plane at an 
angle equal to the latitude of the place, and must also lie due north and 
south. This may be illustrated by the blunder the Romans made in 
bringing a Sicilian sun-dial to Rome." '^ The same authority proceeds 
to say, " The proper slope of the gnomon may be obtained without a 
knowledge of the latitude ; and the Babylonians probably did obtain 
this, and from it determined the latitude, and ascertained that the earth 
is spherical ; so also the Greeks. A vertical gnomon may be used to 
determine, not the time of day, but its length and variation of length in 
terms of equinoctial hours, and thus the Egyptian obelisk brought to 
Rome by Augustus was used,^ though from causes which Pliny con- 
jectures, the inferences they drew were subsequently found to be 
erroneous. During the Attic period, the Greeks of that city ascertained 
the time of day by measuring a shadow, but it is difficult to determine 
how they did this. They talk of a six-foot shadow or mark, a ten-foot 
shadow or mark, etc. Expressions of this kind are very frequent, and 
yet they give little or nothing whereby to show the particulars of the 
measurement — whether it was the length of the shadow that was 
measured, or its angular distance from a given line, or even what the 
thing was that gave the shadow." [In Aristophanes (Eccl. 652) is 

' "Primitive Sun-dials in Upper Egypt," Ath., 1895, ii. 458. 
^ Pliny, H. N., vii. 214; Censorin, de D. N., 23. 
' Pliny, H. N., xxxvi. 72. 


found the expression a-Tot-^uov Ssxccttow, a gnomon 10 feet long, probably 
meaning " supper-time " ; and in Greek writers of a later period the 
same word is used, with epithets signifying 6, 12, and 7 feet. There 
also occurs the word y\ a-xii, the skadoza, to which the same epithets are 
applied.] " There is little in any of these writers to suggest even a 
conjecture, still less to support a probable one, respecting the mode of 
measuring the shadow. The shadow was thrown on the ground ; it 
was 20 feet long in the morning, about 6 at noon, and 10 or 1 2 in 
the afternoon. Salmasius conjectures that it was each man's own 
shadow, which he measured with his own foot. This is really ingenious, 
but all that is certain is, that the method was far from exact, very im- 
perfect, and required altering several times in the year." 

Such was the conclusion at which our learned friend arrived ; but 
one more quotation must be given from his kindly comments : " There 
certainly is a considerable probability that what is called poetic 
astronomy is as old as human nature itself; and it is a very perfect 
system. Without any instrumental aid the first occupiers of Arabia 
could determine the time of year and the time of day with as much 
accuracy as they had any occasion for. The loss of this science, and 
the causes, moral and historical, that produced it, are curious, and as 
connected with the Holy Bible, they are important ; but all these 
matters require leisure, long life, and patience, — things which few pos- 
sess, and still fewer wish for." 

Salmasius' conjecture that a man's shadow was measured by the 
foot, though probably the foot of another person, receives confirmation 
from a passage in Flacourt's travels in Madagascar. In the middle of 
the seventeenth century Flacourt found that the Malay population, 
having learned the divisions of the day from the Arabs, made use of 
the shadow of a man to tell the time, and measured by the length of 
the foot. In that latitude there is not much variation between the 
seasons. When the shadow was twenty-four times the length of the 
foot, they said that the sun was within an hour of rising or setting, as 
the case might be.^ 

Traces of the Semitic use of the gnomon have lately been found in 
Rhodesia. In a paper read before the Royal Geographical Society in 
February, 1899, Dr. H. Schlicter stated that amongst the ruins dis- 
covered at Zimbabye there was an enormous gnomon comprising a 
total angle of 1 20 degrees, which he thought might date from about 
1000 B.C. The country was then colonized by Semitic races from the 

' Houzeau et Lancaster, " Bib. Mathematique," Introd., vol. i. 


borders of the Red Sea, Jews, Phoenicians, and Western Arabians. 
Strabo ' speaks of countries " where a gnomon is placed perpendicularly 
on a plane surface ; the shadow which it casts at midday falls first to 
one side and then to the other. This, however, only occurs in the 
tropics, with us the shadow always falls to the north." 

Amongst the " Laws of the Buddhist Priesthood " there is one 
which directs that instruction shall be given to the candidate for the 
priesthood "respecting the measuring of the shadow, the several 
seasons, the divisions of the day, and concerning the uses of the whole 
of these." 

When we turn to the known history of sun-dials the first name 
which meets us is that of Anaximander of Miletus. He placed 
gnomons in the Sciothera of Lacedsemon for the purpose of indicating 
the solstices and equinoxes, and is said to have introduced sun-dials 
into Greece about the year B.C. 560. Anaximander had studied under 
Thales, who was of a Phoenician family, and had travelled in Egypt, 
and an art which had reached Jerusalem in the days of Ahaz must 
equally have become known to the Phoenicians. 

The Greek sun-dials do not seem to have told the hours of the day 
before the fourth century b.c. Till then, and after, the time was 
ascertained by clepsydrce, which, though dividing the day into equal 
periods, had this disadvantage, that they required to be constantly 
watched, and could not be carried about. But the great advance in 
scientific knowledge, due to the labours of astronomers and mathe- 
maticians, as Berosus the Chaldeean, Eudox of Cnidus, Aristarchus of 
Samos, Archimedes, Apollonios of Perga, Dionysidorus of Melos, and 
others, brought with it the invention of instruments which told the 
time more conveniently than the clepsydrae, and not less accurately. 
Meton the astronomer is said to have set up a sun-dial against the wall 
of the Pnyx at Athens in 433 B.C., and there was a similar dial at 
Achradina near Syracuse in the time of Archimedes, a copy of which 
was placed on the deck of the great ship of Hiero. In the third 
century B.C. the comic poet Baton speaks of a horologium or sun-dial 
as a means for determining the time of day. A specimen Greek sun- 
dial found at Heraclea, and now in the Louvre, is thought to date 
from the early part of the same century. As in Greek the numerals 
are represented by letters of the alphabet, it so happens that those 
letters which indicate the hours from noon to 4 p.m. also spell the 
word ^ii9i = " live." An epigram attributed to Lucian plays upon this 
word in the lines : 

' Bk. II., pp. 125-136. 


?£ ti'pai [/.o^^Oii; lx.xiiU!Tce.ra.t, a.1 S\ jUet' ccutix; 
■ypajUjUixa-i J'£l>cl'u'|U£^al ZH0I Asyouo"! |3poToic. 

" Six hours to toil, the rest to leisure give ; 
In them — so say the dialled letters — live." ' 

The Romans adopted dials from the Greeks, and Papirius Cursor set 
up the first in Rome in the court of the Temple of Ouirinus in 293 b.c. 
At this time the astronomical year of twelve months was introduced 
instead of the old Roman year of ten months ; " and," writes Mr. Dyer,- 
" perhaps with a sly innuendo on the part of its dedicator, this dial was 
placed in front of the Temple of Ouirinus, or Romulus, who was 
reputed to have established the year of ten months." Before this time 
noon was proclaimed by a crier — the Consul's marshal — from the front 
of the Curia, when the sun appeared between the Rostra and a spot 
called " the station of the Greeks." About thirty years later, in 263 b.c, 
during the first Punic war, Valerius Messala, having taken the town of 
Catania in Sicily, brought a sun-dial from that place. This was set on 
a pillar near the Rostra, but not being calculated for the latitude of 
Rome, it told the time inaccurately enough. It remained, however, 
without a rival for ninety-nine years, until, in 164 B.C., Marcius Philippus, 
then Censor, put up a more carefully designed dial beside it. Another 
sun-dial was subsequently placed in the Forum, on the Basilica Emilia, 
and was probably drawn upon a plane surface. That of Marcius 
Philippus seems to have been a concave spherical dial. 

The obelisk which now stands in the Piazza Monte Citorio, Rome, 
was brought from Egypt by the Emperor Augustus, and set up as a 
gnomon in the Campus Martins, under the direction of the mathema- 
tician Facundus Novus. The pavement around it was marked out 
with lines in bronze, which were sunk as deeply in the ground as the 
height of the obelisk itself. The obelisk seems to have kept its place for 
some centuries, but was ultimately thrown down and lost sight of. It 

' Another epigram, throwing better light on the way to live, was composed by a later 
author, Philip Doddridge (1702-1751). He wrote it upon the motto of his family, " Dum 
vivimus vivamus " : 

" ' Live while you live,' the epicure would say, 
' And seize the pleasures of the passing day.' 
' Live while you live,' the sacred preacher cries, 
' And give to God each moment as it flies.' 
Lord, in my views, let both united be ; 
I live in pleasure when I live to Thee." 

" "City of Rome," Introd., p. Ivi. See also Pliny, H. N., vii. 60. 



was found, together with parts of the figures of the dial, in 1463, but 
again suffered neglect, and was not placed where it is now till 1792.' 

That dials were frequently to be seen in ancient Rome is evident 
from the lines attributed to Plautus, who died about 184 B.C., and it is 
probable that the information they gave was noisily announced at stated 
intervals by a trumpeter or crier : 

" The gods confound the man who first found out 

How to distinguish hours — confound him, too, 

Who in this place set up a sun-dial. 

To rub and hack my days so wretchedly 

Into small pieces ! When I was a boy, 

My belly was my sun-dial — one more sure, 

Truer, and more exact than any of them. 

The Dial told me when 'twas proper time 

To go to dinner, when I had aught to eat ; 

But, now-a-days, why even when I have, 

I can't fall to, unless the sun gives leave. 

The town 's so full of these confounded dials, 

The greatest part of its inhabitants, 

Shrunk up with hunger, creep along the street." 

— Quoted by Aulus Gellius, B. 3, C. 3. 

Cicero, in the year B.C. 48, writes to Tiro about a sun-dial which he 
desired to put up at his villa at Tusculum ; and his death is said to 
have been foretold by the omen of a raven striking off the gnomon of a 

An epigram, attributed to the Emperor Trajan,^ refers to the art of 
dialling ; 


AvTiov riiKiov (TTiKTa? pica xai (rrojua p^airxou, 
(Tfi^fi? ra? wpaj Troctri Trxpip^oj^ivoii;. 

"Set your nose and wide mouth to the sun, and you will tell the hours to every 

He was ridiculing a man who had a long nose and a wide mouth, very 
much curved, and grinning; while his many teeth, all visible, resembled 
the characters that denote the hours, and their double line. 

There can be little doubt that the use of sun-dials extended over the 
greater part of the Roman Empire. From inscriptions which have 

' Pliny, H. N., xxxvi. 9, § 71, 72; "Astronomy of the Ancients," by Sir G. C. Lewis; 
" Encyc. Brit.," 8th edit. ; " Rome and the Campagna," by R. Burn. 

^ "Epist. ad Fam.," xvi. 18; Lewis, "Astronomy of the Ancients"; Val. Max., 
i- 5. 5- 

3 11 

Anthol. Pal.,"xi. 418. 


been preserved Ave may trace them in Italy, France, Germany, Spain, 
Dacia, and Algeria. Even a village such as t\\& pagiis Lcebactitan, now 
Castel Lavazzo, near Belluno, possessed its horologium. Vitruvius 
enumerates thirteen different kinds of dials as known in his day, some 
of which were portable, and were to the larger dials what watches are 
to clocks. Plutarch, says M. Houzeau, mentions an equatorial tablet 
which was used in his time in Egypt. It was parallel with the plane 
of the equator, as was the style with the axis of the earth, and the equal 
hours were described on it. Most of the detached antique dials which 
remain to us appear to have been the work of Greek artists. The 
beautiful four-faced marble dial, brought from Athens by Lord Elgin, 
and now in the British Museum, bears the name of Phaidros, a Greek 
architect of the second or third century of the Christian era. This told 
the time of day to the passers-by in the streets of Athens, as did the 
eight vertical dials on the Tower of the Winds, which may be a little 
earlier in their date. A hemicycle, or hollowed dial, of the kind said to 
have been invented by Berosus, stood near the theatre of Dionysios ; 
indeed neither Athens nor any other great city, had for some hundreds 
of years any lack of time-tellers. As for the Romans, they placed them, 
we are told,' on their temples, their baths, their town houses, their 
country villas, in their public places, and on their tombs. 

Dials were sometimes dedicated to the gods, notably to Jupiter, 
Juno, and Diana, and, indeed, some of the gods were provided with 
slaves whose special duty it was to tell them the time of day. For 

" Peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked." 

Baron de Riviere notices an inscription dating from about 47 B.C., 
and found at old Toulouse, which tells how a temple and horologium 
had been constructed by one Cirratus, and gives the names of the 
slaves who did the work. Dials were set on the tombs in order to draw 
attention to the epitaphs which recorded the name and virtues of the 
deceased. It was hoped the passers-by might read these when they 
paused to note the time. 

After the fall of the Roman Empire the inscriptions cease, but we 
find other notices of sun-dials even in the " dark ages." Thus, in the 
sixth century, Theodoric, the great " Dietrich," sent a sun-dial and a 
clepsydra as presents to Gondebert, King of the Burgundians ; and 
Cassiodorus, who himself gives us this piece of information, put up a 
dial on a monastery in Languedoc. In the time of Justin II., a.d. 565- 

' Marquardt, " Vie privee des Romains." 


578, there was a sun-dial at Constantinople with an inscriiDtion quoted by 
Sir George Lewis : 

" Watch the wise brazen index of the hours 
From very unity until the t'wet/th." 

Pope Sabianus, who succeeded Gregory the Great in a.d. 606, is said 
to have ordered dials and clocks (clepsydrae) to be placed on churches 
so as to distinguish the time of day. In the ninth century the Venerable 
Bede gave directions ' for the construction of sun-dials {e.g., " to make a 
dial of metal or wood with six sides, each with a gnomon ") ; and in the 
tenth century Gerbert, the monk of Auvergne, placed a horologium in 
Magdeburg for the Emperor Otho, "after observing through a tube 
the star which guides the seaman " 

Gerbert, who was born and brought up at Aurillac (where a modern 
sun-dial records his name and fame), died in 1003, as Pope Sylvester IL 
In his treatise on Geometry directions for making a sun-dial may be 
found.' He had been educated on " the Marches of Spain," which then 
included Barcelona, and appears to have studied mathematics through 
the works of the Arabs, the inheritors of Greek learning. The best 
known Arabian writer is probably one who lived after Gerbert's time, 
at the beginning of the thirteenth century, Abul Hasan, or Ali ibn' 
Ismael, whose works were translated into French by M. de Sedillot, 
and published in Paris in 1834. They contain rules for the construction 
of plane, conical, and also of cylindrical dials, concave and convex. One 
of the plane dials is shaped like a horseshoe, and intended to be placed 
horizontally. Abul Hasan is said to have been the first to develope, 
practically, the theory of equal hours ; and the invention of clocks, which 
took place about the same period, brought this division of night and 
day at last into general use. We do not know whether there was a 
sun-dial in the observatory at Samarcand built by Ulugh Bey, a Tartar 
prince, who died in 1489 ; but there is no doubt that the interest taken 
in the study of gnomonics long lingered in the East, and this is probably 
the reason why sun-dials are still commonly to be found in Moham- 
medan countries. 

As prayer is ordered to be observed five times in every twenty- 

* "Libellus de Mensura Horologio," licde. Op. Colon., 161 2, torn, ii., p. 392. 

■ " Geometria Gurbcrli," caput xciv. : Alia Ratio meridianum describendi. The text is 
obscure, and the "Cod." has instead of the above title: Dc horologio per uinbram 



J > V y J)- IT y la 

four hours, all the principal mosques in Constantinople are provided 
with dials, in order that people may ascertain the exact time of worship. 
The sun-dials on the mosques of S. Sophia, Mohammed, and Sulimania, 
have no motto or inscription, except what expresses the course of the 
shadow and the name of the maker. But on some, in addition to the 
lines which mark the solar movement, there is a line drawn which 
points to the sacred city of Mecca, towards which the faces of the 
faithful must be turned during the performance of their religious offices. 
It is said that the Turks erect a sun-dial whenever they build a mosque, 
and that those on the 
mosques in Constantinople 
would form a historical suc- 
cession, supposing always 
that the dials were coeval 
with the buildings. The 
example in our figure is 
painted on the wall of the 
Kassim Pasha barracks, 
where the marines who work 
in the arsenal are quartered. 
The inscription in the right- 
hand corner means : " The 
engraver, Essiid Osman. 
At the Arsenal. Hidjra, 
one thousand one hundred 
and ninety-seven. 1197." 

Our information as to 
the history of sun-dials in the farther East is scanty, but as to their 
modern use the following testimony was given in 1870 by a private 
correspondent of the highest authority : 

" Sun-dials are the commonest things possible in China. You 
cannot get into your chair or palanquin, but a flat board, with a dial 
fixed in the centre, is put before you to keep you in. They are on the 
sides of houses, and on boxes ; indeed, they are most common, but none 
of us recollect any mottoes under them : though the Chinese have such 
a habit of putting mottoes to everything, that it is more than likely 
that sun-dials are no exception. They are probably ancient. There 
are sun-dials in Japan, for I had one in my garden." 

Touching Japanese dials, one who was long resident in Japan wrote 
about the same time : " In regard to sun-dials, I can only say that there 
are sun-dials in Japan, but not as fixtures; and that they are not pro- 




vided with mottoes, as is the case on old sun-dials in Europe. You will 
probably remember the small bronze portable sun-dial every Japanese 
carries about with him ; but I never saw a large fixed sun-dial anywhere, 
except at a watchmaker's shop in Yokohama, who had made use of the 
railing round his shop as a kind of dial, according to which he adjusted 
his watches. The shadow of the railing had been previously adjusted, 
and was marked off after the Saturday gun from the flagship." 

We may here remark that at Paris, and we believe also at Edinburgh 
and elsewhere, the hour of noon was at one time proclaimed by a cannon, 

Svn'dia.1 lr» 
MH"IDJ"ToNE ^Mu/-evm. 


which was fired by the rays of the sun being concentrated on a magni- 
fying glass so placed as to ignite the powder in the touch-hole when 
the sun reached its meridian height. The gun stood on a platform 
which was marked as a sun-dial, and therefore, simultaneously with the 
explosion, the gnomon cast its shadow on the figure XII. Small sun- 
dials made after this pattern are not uncommon. 

Some few years ago little portable tablet dials, fitted with com- 
passes, were commonly sold in Chinese towns. They had silken string 
gnomons, stretching from the inside of the lid or upper tablet to the 
lower one, and were sun-dials and moon-dials combined, the former being 
marked inside, the latter outside the lid. These dials closely resembled 
the ivory portaria made at Nuremberg in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and were probably introduced into China by the Jesuits, 
although a family in the province of Ngduhwni is said to have had the 


monopoly of their manufacture " from remote antiquity." ^ The Chinese 
are known to have been able to determine the obliquity of the ecliptic 
by means of the gnomon as early as B.C. iioo,^ but it is not certain 
when they became acquainted with the use of the pole. Possibly this 
discovery may have come to them, as to the Greeks, from Babylon. 
Their night and day, like that of the Chaldeans, is divided into twelve 
parts, and begins at what with us is 11 p.m. These spaces, which 
are marked by signs, are divided into eight kih, answering to our 
quarters of an hour. This system is of later date than Confucius, in 
whose time the ten-hour division was in use. 

Passing from Asia to America, we meet with traces of sun-dials 
before the Spanish Conquest. Prescott ^ tells us of the immense 
circular block of carved porphyry disinterred in 1 790 in the great 
square of the city of Mexico, on which the calendar was engraved, and 
which is declared by Gama to have been a vertical sun-dial. The 
Peruvians also had erected pillars of curious and costly workmanship 
serving as dials, and from these they learned to determine the time of 
the equinox. When the shadow was scarcely visible under the noon- 
tide rays, they said that " the god sat with all his light " upon the 
column.* Their Spanish conquerors threw down these pillars as 
savouring of idolatry. 

We shall not expect to find amongst the northern nations that 
understanding of the art of dialling which the Arabs inherited from 
Greece. We have, however, some record of the manner in which our 
Teutonic forefathers measured time, in the dials which are here and 
there found built into the walls of old churches. These stones, roughly 
engraved with lines placed at varying intervals, and radiating from a 
common centre where once a gnomon was placed, were the time-tellers 
of Englishmen before the Conquest, and have been thought to show 
the manner in which the tribes by whom Britain was settled were 
wont to divide their day. 

The Greek and Latin method of dividing night and day into 
twenty-four hours, which now prevails over Europe, made its way 
slowly in England. It is probable that it was not adopted by the 
invading tribes for a long time after their settlement in Britain. If the 
Britons, as is likely, learned it from the Romans, they kept their know- 
ledge to themselves, and this time division must have been re- 

' Macgowan, "Timekeeping," "Chinese Repository," vol. xx. 
' "Trans, of Soc. of Biblical Archaeology," vol. iii., pt. i. 
' Prescott, "Conquest of Mexico," 1850, vol. i., p. 103. 
' Ibid., "Conquest of Peru," vol. i., p. no. 


introduced with Cliristianity, and was only gradually adopted by the 
inhabitants of the country. The Rev. D. H. Haigh, from whose 
exhaustive paper in the " Yorkshire Archaeological Society's Journal " ' 
these facts are mainly drawn, finds in the early sun-dials of the Teutonic 
settlers evidence of four different ways of dividing the day-night, viz. : 

I. The octaval system, a division of day-night into sixteen and 
thirty-two parts, customary amongst the Norsemen and Angles.- 

II. The duodecimal, or Chaldean division of day-night into twelve 
portions, still in use in China. 

III. The decimal, or division into ten, a system followed by the 
Jutes and early Danes, as also by the Chinese in the time of Confucius, 
and even now amongst the Hindus. 

IV. The twenty-four hour system adopted by the Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans. 

V. The combination of the Greek and Latin hours with the octaval 

The octaval system is of very ancient origin. We find in Job, xxiii. 
8, 9, allusion made to a man with his face toward the sunrising, look- 
ing before, behind, to the right hand and to the left, or, as it is rendered 
by the Targum, " rising, setting, glowing, hiding," corresponding with 
the four cardinal points ; and the course of day and night was similarly 
divided into four parts. This the Chaldeans subdivided by three. 
The four in their hands became twelve ; in those of the Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans, twenty-four. But the Northmen — nor they 
alone, for the same practice has been found to exist in parts of 
Hindustan and Burmah — held to the four great divisions of time, 
dividing and subdividing them as follows : 

1. Morgan. Sun E.N.E. to E.S.E. = i eikt, or tide (old English) 

= 2 stundr =: 4^ a.m. to y^ a.m. 

2. Dagr. Sun E.S.E. to W.S.W. = 3 eikts, or tides = 6 stundr = 

y^ a.m. to 4|- p.m. 

3. Aftan. Sun w"s.W. to W.N.W. = i eikt, or tide =: 2 stundr = 

4^ p.m. to 7^ p.m. 

4. Nott. Sun W.N.W. to E.N.E. = 3 eikts, or tides =: 6 stundr = 

7|- p.m. to 4^ a.m. 

" From the hours allotted to Morgan and Nott, it would seem," 
says Dr. Haigh, " that this system took its rise in Lat. 42° N., the 
Caucasian home of the Aryan race, light and darkness being at the 
summer solstice about fifteen and nine hours respectively." 

' Vol. v., pt. 17. " The Mexicans divided their day-night into sixteen parts. 



In Iceland and the Faroe Islands the octaval division of time still 
goes on. Sir Richard Burton in " Ultima Thule," written in 1878, tells 
us that day-night is divided by the Faroese into eight, and by the Ice- 
landers into nine watches. Seven of these watches have each three 
hours, and the remaining two an hour and a half. This practically cor- 
responds with the eight tides of the Norsemen (if the subdivision of 
one portion be allowed for), while the names of three of the divisions 
agree with those of the olden time. In Iceland the primitive mode of 
measuring time by the sun's passage over natural objects was practised 
as late as 18 13-14, when Dr. Henderson visited the country. He 
found that very few persons owned a clock, and that the only dial in use 
was the natural horizon of each township, divided into eight equal parts 
by mountain peaks, when such were situated conveniently, and by 


pyramids of stones where natural marks were wanting. These marks, 
natural or artificial, had been fixed by the first colonists, and the latter 
had been renewed and kept in repair from generation to generation. 
Twelve years before Dr. Henderson's journey, an indefatigable anti- 
quarian wanderer, Arentz, visited the district of Sondfjord in Norway, 
and has left a record of the eight tides of day-night which were in use 
amongst the people there, and of the regulation thereof by marks on 
hill and valley, so accurate that midday was seldom at variance with 
clock time.' 

A device of the same kind existed up to the end of the eighteenth 
century at Settle in Yorkshire. A hill called Castleberg, which rises at 

' A natural sun-dial is said to be seen on the shores of the ALgean Sea, where the 
shadow of a mountain on the mainland touches certain islands, each in their turn, thereby 
marking different periods of the day. 



the back of the town, was crowned by a pile of rock which cast a shadow 
upon large slabs of stone placed at regular intervals and marked with 
Roman numerals, telling the hour of the day from eight to twelve. 
These stones have long since disappeared.' 

The stone circle at Wallsend, co. Durham, has been thought to 
show the twelve-hour division of night and day. A Roman altar 
thrown on its side served as a base for the gnomon, and stood in the 
midst of a circle of twelve stones, each i 2 inches high and 9 inches 
deep. Twelve rudely-cut lines radiated from the centre of the altar, 
beneath which Roman coins were found buried. Evidently this 
money was still in circulation when the dial was made. It is thought 
to have been the work of early Danish settlers, and must have been as 
incorrect a time-teller as was the obelisk which the Emperor Augustus 
set up in Rome, It will be remembered that this division of night and 
day into twelve was followed by Alfred the Great in his contrivance for 
measuring time by the burning of candles. 

If the early dials which remain to us on the walls of Saxon or 
Norman churches, and on ancient upright gravestones in Ireland, are 
really evidences of the octaval time division, and not, as some have 
thought, of the canonical hours, we may see that it lasted to the 
Conquest, or even beyond the Conquest. The Kirkdale dial, the most 
perfect example, belongs to the reign of Edward the Confessor. That 
on the cross at Bewcastle, which combines the octaval with the Roman 
twenty-four hour division, is much earlier, and belongs to the first year 
of King Egfrith, a.d. 670. 

To the monasteries sun-dials must — before the invention of clocks, 
which were early adopted by the monks — have been almost indispens- 
able. People who lived in remote places would, no doubt, have their 
own primitive ways of telling or guessing the time. It is, indeed, only 

' The illustration is reproduced from a copy of a pen-and-ink sketch in the Warburton 
Collection of MSS. in the British Museum. It was probably drawn by one of the brothers 
Buck, other sketches in the same volume and apparently by the same hand, being signed 
" S. Buck." It does not appear to have been engraved, and is most likely to have been 
drawn in the early part of the eighteenth century. Samuel Buck died in 1779, aged 
eighty-five; his brother Nathaniel died some years earlier. In 1778 a large engraving 
of the " very extraordinary sun-dial, facing the Market-place at Settle, in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire, drawn and engraved by S. Buck," was published, and has been ]3hotographed 
and printed by Mr. Eckroyd Smith in his " Illustrations of Old Yorkshire." He adds 
that the late Dean Howson, who was educated at Giggleswick School, and died in 1885, 
aged si.xty-nine, remembered old people who had heard of the dial, if they iiad not actually 
seen it. The hour slabs had probably been destroyed before Mr. Buck's engraving was 


the other day that a farmer's wife on the Yorkshire moors was wont to 
set her clock according to the moment when the sunhght struck along 
a groove in the stone floor just within the house door, and at an angle 
with the threshold. But men who were fortunate enough to dwell 
near a church or a monastery, would consult the shadow on the dial, 
and this would also regulate the bell which the " tide shower " rang out 
from time to time to tell how the hours passed away; a sound- still 
familiar to those who live beside some of the older parish churches 
where the custom of ringing a bell at six in the morning, at noon, and 
at curfew is still kept up. 

From the latest Saxon dial to the earliest dated specimen on which 
time is measured according to the system of twenty-four equal hours, 
there is a wide interval. But the gap may be nearly filled from his- 
torical records. We are told that in the twelfth century sun-dials were 
commonly placed beside the public roads for the benefit of wayfarers. 
The dial on the south side of the minster of Freiburg-in-Breisgau is 
thought to belonof to the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the 
fourteenth century ; and a little cube of dials found at Ivychurch in 
Wiltshire has been assigned to the latter period. Perhaps the earliest 
distinct notice of a fourteenth-century sun-dial belongs to Arbroath, 
where, in 1303, Abbot John — a " pious abbot of Aberbrothock "• — 
granted to Galfrid Runcald a parcel of land ..." lying in the street 
of Cowgate, between the sun-dial which was made by Adam the son of 
Martin on the one part, and the lands of Lawrence Cryn on the 
other." ' 

In the middle of the fifteenth century, and even earlier, we find that 
portable cylinder dials were commonly used in England. Lydgate, who 
about the year 1430 wrote the " Storie of Thebes, an additional Canter- 
bury Tale," which was printed with Chaucer's Works in 1651, writes 
as if a dial were part of an ordinary traveller's equipment : 

" Passed y'' thrope of Boughton on the Blee ; 
By my kalendar I gan anon to see, 
Through the sonne that full clear gan shine, 
Of the clock that it drew to nine." 

and Warton adds the note on " Kalendar" : " Chilindre, a cylinder, a 
kind of pocket sun-dial." In 1520 Hormann notices in his " Vulgaria" 
two kinds of portable dials : " There be jorney rings, and instruments 
like a hanging pillar, with a tunge hanging out, to know the tyme of day." 
The wonderful revival of learning in the fifteenth century brought 

' "Arbroath and its Abbey," by David Miller. 


Greek and Arabian science within the compass of European know- 
ledge. Equal hours were then in general use, and the study of 
gnomonics was resumed. The mathematician Purbachius, or George 
of Peurbach, a Bavarian, who died in 1462 at a comparatively early 
age, gave great attention to this branch of learning, as did his 
better known pupil, Regiomontanus (so called from his birthplace, 
Konigsberg in Bavaria, but otherwise known as Johann Miiller), who 
was considered to be the greatest astronomer and mathematician of his 
time. Regiomontanus set up a printing press at Nuremberg, and also 
made astronomical instruments, with the help of a worthy and studious 
citizen, Bernard Walther, and it was no doubt owing to these two men 
that the making of sun-dials became one of the special industries of 
Nuremberg. Regiomontanus died in 1476 in Rome, where he had 
gone to assist Pope Sixtus IV. to reform the Calendar, but for a 
century or more Nuremberg continued to be the home of a succession 
of scientific men. 

Scultetus (Bartholomew Schulz), in the dedicatory epistle pre- 
fixed to his "Gnomonice de Solaris" (1572), gives a sketch of the 
history of gnomonics, and says that Regiomontanus was followed by 
Stabius, an Austrian, and Andreas Stiborius, a Bavarian and professor 
at Vienna, who invented new forms of dials, and gave directions for 
making spherical, concave, columnar, pyramidal, ring dials, and others. 
The works of these two writers have never been printed, but those of 
others named by Scultetus may still be met with, as the four books 
of " De Solaribus Horologiis " by Orontius Finai^us (Oronce Fine), the 
works of Sebastian Miinster, Peter Apian (mathematician to Charles V. 
and professor at Ingoldstadt), Gemma Frisius, Georgius Hartmann, 
Andreas Schoner of Nuremberg, and Johannes Hommelius of Mein- 
ingen, who died in 1562, a hundred years after Purbachius. "By 
these and others the science of gnomonics had," says Scultetus, "in the 
course of a century, been brought to a great perfection." 

In fact, we find that in the sixteenth century the erection of sun- 
dials went on fast. In Scotland one was placed on the newly-founded 
King's College in Aberdeen soon after the year 1500. In England 
we have recorded in the book of disbursements of Sir Thomas Lucas, 
solicitor-general to Henry VII., that he paid xx'' for "a dial set on my 
bruge," at Little Saxham in Suffolk in 1 505 ; and in France the church of 
Rouelles, Normandy, still shows a two-faced dial of the same period, 
with the hours marked in Arabic numerals, underneath a beautiful 
projecting window. But the presence of a German mathematician at 
Oxford in the reign of Henry VIII. had probably the most important 


influence in our own country, for to him can be traced one of the earHest 
of those detached or monumental dials which afterwards took such 
curious and beautiful forms, especially in Scotland, and were worked 
out with all sorts of ingenious arranq-ements of lines and hollows. 

It was in the year 15 17 that Nicholas Kratzer, or Kratcher, a 
Bavarian, was admitted at the age of thirty to the new college of 
Corpus Christi at Oxford, founded by Bishop Fox. His name is on 
the list of lecturers appointed by Cardinal Wolsey, and he lectured on 
astronomy and mathematics. Tunstall, writing in 1520, calls Kratzer 
the " deviser of the King's horologies." He became a fellow of Corpus, 
and while at Oxford he constructed two sun-dials, one for St. Mary's 
Church, which stood on the churchyard wall till 1744, and another for 
the college garden. In a MS. work, " De Horologiis," now in the 
college library, Kratzer says that manv of the directions for making 
dials were taken from an old book in the Carthusian monastery at 
Auerbach, near Vienna. Kratzer was a man of a merry spirit, and much 
beloved. When Henry VIII. asked him how it was that after so 
many years in England he had not learned to speak the language, he 
is said to have replied frankly : " Pardon, your highness, but how can 
a man learn English in only thirty years ? " 

A portrait of Kratzer standing surrounded by mathematical in- 
struments, and holding a polyhedron in his hand, one of Holbein's 
finest works (see frontispiece), is now in the Louvre. Holbein himself 
was a lover of dials. He has introduced them into his picture of 
"The Two Ambassadors," possibly with some reference to special 
times and dates; and into his illustration to the Old Testament in 
the history of Hezekiah. He also designed an elaborate timekeeper, 
a clock, clepsydra, and sun-dial combined, for Sir Anthony Denny to 
present to Henry VIII. as a New Year's gift. 

Albert Diirer also made use of the dial in his designs, and, like 
Holbein, not idly, but with symbolic meaning. In the engraving of 
the " Melancholia, " a dial is on the wall above the hour-glass and near 
to the bell which tolls the passing day. Diirer may also be counted 
amongst the writers on dialling, from his reference to the subject in 
his book on geometry, printed in 1532. 

A Spanish painter of the same century, Martin Galindez, also 
turned his mind to the same pursuits, and constructed sun-dials for the 
Carthusian convent of Paular, where he died as a monk in 1627. 
When Mr. Ford travelled in Spain (1830-40), the sun-dial made by 
Torriano for the Emperor Charles V., and under his supervision, was 
still standing in the Emperor's private garden at the convent of Yuste. 



It is to be hoped that it is there still. Not only were sun-dials thought 
to be suitable offerings to kings, they were also considered worthy 
gifts from a prince to his people. The marble dial which projects 
from the faqade of Sta. Maria Novella in Florence bears an inscription 
to record that it was given by the Grand Duke Cosmo de' Medici to 
the students of astronomy, 1572. A dial was on the pillar made for 
Catherine de Medici at Paris by Jean Bullant, for the study of 
astrology. The date of 1537 on the dial on Schaffhausen Church, of 
1579 on the cathedral at Chartres, and 1578 on King's College Chapel, 
Cambridge, show how sun-dials were needed to meet the uses of the 
Church as well as the State, and indeed an ardent writer of the period, 
Andrew Schoner, gave it as his opinion that they could no more be 
dispensed with than meat and drink. 

Directions for a very simple portable dial, viz., the human hand 



held upright, with a stick placed between the finger and thumb, is given 
in Nicholas Kratzer's MS. work, as well as in those of other early 
writers, and the use of this must have continued for some time, for we 
find it again described in the fifth edition of " The Shepherd's Kalendar, 
or the Countryman's Companion," printed for J. Hodges at the Looking 
Glass, on London Bridge, about 1699. 

" To tell what is o'clock when the sun shines by one's hand. 

" Take a small streight stick of about four inches long, and hold it 
between the Forer Finger, and the Thumb of the left hand, and turn 
about towards the Sun till the Shadow of the Ball of the Thumb touch 
the line of Life, and then the Shadow of the Stick will appear on that 
part of the Hand, which tells the Right Hour of the Day." 

A dial which was almost as easily carried about is described by 
Muzio Oddi of Urbino, in 1614. This was called the Zoccolo, and 
the hour lines were drawn on the sole of a wooden shoe, under the 
instep, the heel serving as gnomon. 


. J,/^0 --^fy /vc.7^ f, --«>;■ fcw^ e,^o ZSLju- u13^, 
jp^^,,.^^t. ff-^jU^ -^-y .-v^/j-j y-L »!e!:^uo , . 



To face p. 23. 


The first English work treating solely of Dialling was published in 
1593, and was to a great extent a translation from Witikendus. It 
appears as a small black-letter quarto, entitled " Horologiographica, the 
Art of Dialling, teaching an easie and perfect way to make all sorts of 
dials on any plane pat, howsoever placed, with the drawing of the twelve 
signes, and houres unequall in them all. At London, Printed by Thomas 
Orwin, dwelling in Paternoster Row over against the Sign of the 
Checker." The author, Thomas Fale, writes in his preface that " many 
have promised (but none as yet performed) to write of this science in 
our English tongue which hath been published in other languages, as 
D. Recorde long since, M. Digges, M. Blagrave, with others, who if they 
would take the paines, I know could doe it with great commendation." 

Mr. Blagrave, who had already touched on the subject in his 
" Mathematical Jewell," seems to have responded to this appeal, for in 
1609 he brought out a book on the Art of Dialling. The Latin work 
of the mathematician Clavius, which had appeared in 1 581, is said to 
have exhausted the subject, but he was followed by many writers, both 
English and foreign, up to the middle of the eighteenth century. So 
highly esteemed were the dials set up in the King's Privy Garden at 
Whitehall, that in 1624 Mr. Edmund Gunter, Professor of Astronomy 
at Gresham College, wrote a full description of them by the special 
direction "of the Prince his Highness," and dedicated it to James I. 
The interest of Charles I. in the subject never flagged. He constantly 
carried about with him a small silver mathematical ring, a dial, of a 
construction invented by M. Delamain, which he much valued, and the 
night before his execution he gave it to his attendant Herbert, in charge 
for the Duke of York. Probably to his fine taste the beautiful dial 
at Holyrood House, called Queen Mary's, is due. It was made in 1638, 
the year in which the King visited Scotland and was crowned in Edin- 
burgh. He is said to have presented it to Queen Henrietta Maria. 

The Scottish dials of the seventeenth century form a unique and 
remarkable series, delightful alike to the artist, the architect, and the 
mathematician. They were designed with a view to the adornment of 
the house and garden, as well as for general use and the fancy of the 

About the same period, or a little later, people began to make use 
of the shafts of destroyed crosses, in churchyards and market-places, as 
supports for sun-dials. The destruction of the crosses was going on in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, as is shown by the following entry in the 
parish books of Prestbury, Lancashire: "1577. Item: for cuttynge 
the cross in the churchyard, and for charge of one with a certificate 


thereof to Manchester, xij' " ; and the practice was continued during the 
Civil Wars. The old cross of Ote de Tilli at Doncaster, broken 
down by the Earl of Manchester's army in 1644, was afterward repaired 
and crowned with dials ; several of the fine crosses in Somersetshire 
have been treated in like manner, while in many churchyards the pillar 
which now bears a plain horizontal dial-plate may be readily recognized 
as the shaft which was allowed to remain after the cutting up or 
" stumping " of the cross had taken place. 

Several entries in the household books, or the churchwarden's 
accounts of this period, refer to the cost of putting up dials. In 1620 
"two sun-dials were got" for Naworth Castle, after its rebuilding by. 
Lord William Howard; in 1608 the churchwardens of Hartland, in 
Devonshire, paid "for the diall on the church wall iii' " ; in 162 1 "for 
a diall for the church 12'"; while in 1651 those of Maresfield, Sussex, 
note that the "brazen sundyal " cost "on shilling I^" The Company 
of Clockmakers, incorporated in 1631, were given jurisdiction not only 
over clocks and watches, but over dials also, and were authorized to 
" search for and break up all bad and deceitful works." 

Shakespeare's allusions to dials will occur to the minds of all of our 
readers. The portable dial, sometimes thought to have been a ring dial, 
which Touchstone took from his fob, was no doubt what most men 
carried for daily use; and to "carve out dials "was the way in which 
the shepherd boy beguiled his time. Amongst the things which the 
early emigrants to America took with them were moulds for casting 
pewter spoons, and moulds for sun-dials. A specimen of one of these 
is now in a museum in the United States. It is circular, and about 
4 inches in diameter. 

The pillars, mounted on steps and crowned by a square block of 
stone with dials on one or more of the faces, erected in the seventeenth 
century, were often of fine proportions, and adorned the streets or squares 
where they were placed. Such an one was in 1668 subscribed for by 
some inhabitants of Covent Garden, and set up in the middle of the 
square. Another, designed by Inigo Jones, stood in the middle of the 
New Square at Lincoln's Inn. Sir John Dethick, Lord Mayor of 
London in 1655, placed a very handsome pillar with a dial and fountain 
at Leadenhall corner ; and the Seven Dials owes its name to the solid 
erection which once adorned that dreary and squalid quarter. 

Many of the London churches once bore dials. Mr. Collins, writing 
in 1659, mentions his friend " M' Thomas Rice, one of the gunners of 
the Tower, much exercised in the making of dyals in many eminent 
places in the city." The subject was pursued with interest by various 


writers in the early part of the eighteenth centurj', and the setting up of 
dials still went on. Mr. Thomas Wright, a distinguished mathema- 
tician, received a gratuity of twenty guineas from the Commissioners 
and Conservators of the river Wear, for a composition of dials which he 
invented, setting up the model on the pier at Sunderland in i yT,T, ; and 
a small cylindrical dial was presented by him to the Earl of Pembroke. 
Perhaps the last work of note on dialling was that of James Fergusson, 
re-edited by Sir David Brewster, from which Robert Stephenson con- 
structed the dial that may still be seen on his father's old cottage at 
Killingworth. After that time the subject was mainly left to the en- 

Dialling was at one time taught by the better class of village 
schoolmasters. We find that Robert Burns studied it, together with 
mensuration and surveying, when he was a lad at school at Kirk 

The meridian lines traced on the iloor of a church to show the hour 
of apparent noon scarcely fall within our subject, and yet can hardly be 
left unnoticed. The most celebrated, and perhaps the earliest, is that of 
St. Petronio, Bologna, 220 feet in length, and traced by Gian Francesco 
Cassini in 1653. In 1703 one was laid down on the Iloor of Sta. Maria 
degli Angeli, Rome. Others may be found in several places on the 
Continent, as at St. Sulpice in Paris. A meridian line was drawn in 
the cloister of Durham Cathedral, partly on a south wall and partly on 
the pavement, in 1829, by Mr. William Lloyd WHiarton, of Dryburn, 
and Mr. Carr, then Head Master of Durham School. The description 
of this, written some years ago by the late Rev. Temple Chevallier, will 
serve for all. 

"In the upper part of one of the unglazed windows of the cloister, 
about 10 feet from the floor, a piece of stone is inserted, in which is a 
circular aperture, about an inch in diameter, with a thin edge. When 
the sun is near noon, and thus almost directly opposite to this aperture, 
the light which streams through the aperture forms a luminous image 
which, when the sun is high, as near midsummer, falls on the pavement, 
and when the sun is low, as near the winter solstice, falls upon the 
opposite wall. By observing the time of the first contact of the circular 
spot of light with the meridian line, and also the time of the last contact, 
and taking the mean, I have found that the instant of apparent noon 
can be ascertained within a second of time." 

The practice of inscribing mottoes on sun-dials seems to have gone 
hand in hand with the art of making them since the middle of the six- 
teenth century. What could be more natural to a scholarly and reflect- 



ing mind than to point the moral of passing time in the brief sentence 
which arouses thought ? The very presence of the clock on the church 
tower teaches us, as it has been said, that " Time is a sacred thing": 
but the passing of the shadow on the dial is more suggestive and more 
poetical than the sound of the pendulum, and for upwards of two 
centuries it has spoken by word as well as by deed to many generations 
of inquirers. 

" With still more joy to thee I turn, 

Meet horologe for Bard to love ; 
Time's sweetest flight from thee I learn. 

Whose lore is borrowed from above. 

" I love in some sequestered nook 

Of antique garden to behold 
The page of thy sun-lighted book 

Its touching homily unfold ; 

" On some old terrace wall to greet 

Thy form and sight, which never cloys. 
'Tis more to thought than drink and meat, 

To feeling than Art's costliest toys. 

" These seem to track the path of time 

By vulgar means which man has given, 
Thou — simple, silent, and sublime — 

But show'st thy shadowy sign from Heaven ! " ' 

But time and the changes of weather have dealt hardly with the 
sun-dials. On public buildings they have been to a great degree super- 
seded by clocks, and dials removed at the "restoration" of a church 
often have not been replaced. They were frequently painted on wood, 
and the board has rotted and fallen to pieces ; and even when cut in 
stone, the material, if at all soft, has crumbled away. Many a mark on 
a church wall shows where a dial has once been, in a place which now 
knows it no more. Decay has also overtaken the sun-dials, with their 
graceful inscriptions, which once abounded on the plastered walls of 
Italian and Proven9al villages. The suppression of the monasteries 
has sealed the fate of others. Many of the mottoes in this book have 
been copied from convent walls, and have now become obliterated, for 
the hands which repaired them are gone. 

"Tcmpora mutantur, nos et niutamur in illis ! " 

There have been many quaint devices connected with dials. For 
instance, in the garden of Wentworth Castle, near Barnsley, a dial was 

' Bernard Barton. 


formed of box edgings cut into the proper numerals, whilst a clipped 
yew tree in the centre acted as the gnomon. A similar dial is shown 
in Loggan's " Views of Cambridge " as in the gardens of Peterhouse 
College in 1675. Floral dials have also been invented, being composed 
of flowers that bloomed in succession during the hours of sunshine. 
These, however, are conceits which hardly come within the compass of 
our subject. 

As clocks were erected in the church towers, or showed their faces 
in market-places, the vocation of the learned dialler gradually ceased. 
The old dial may still retain its footing in the quaint yew-treed garden, 
or may stand conspicuously in the churchyard, but few consult it as an 
oracle, and it rather lingers superfluously amongst us as a memento of 
the past. It has, nevertheless, to many minds a touching interest ; it 
has drawn forth maxims in the form of mottoes, and it would be like 
discarding wisdom were we not to preserve and cherish them. 

" But if these dials tell us after all 
W^e are laut shadows on life's sunny wall, 
They not less point us with a hope as bright 
To that good land above where all is light."' 

In spite, however, of the decay and destruction of older examples, 
the day of the sun-dial is not yet done. IVIany new ones have been set 
up within the last few years. Horizontal dials, with their graceful 
pedestals, are still erected in gardens, and vertical ones on country 
houses, and occasionally on a school or public building. The making of 
portable dials at Birmingham, and their exportation, still goes on,^ and 
Messrs. Barker of Clerkenwell Road inform us that a self-adjusting dial, 
which packs into small compass and can be fixed to suit any latitude, is 
made expressly for the use of explorers and travellers, and that one of 
this kind was carried by Dr. Livingstone through Africa. At the Horo- 
logical Exhibition held at Berlin in 1899 Professor Reuleaux showed an 
equatorial dial of his own construction, which was said to mark every 
five minutes of time, and a dial which gives mean time is now exhibited 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It was invented by Major-General 
Oliver, R.A., but is not the first of its kind, as the Gottingen Museum 
has a mean-time dial of more ancient date. Both in F'rance and 
Germany plain and easy works on dialling have been published within 
the last half century. 

' " Lines on a Collection of Sundial Mottoes," by H. V. Tebbs. 

- Ring dials are still used by the country folk in the Italian Tyrol. The writer 
bought one at Primiero in 1888. 


Howard the philanthropist is said to have thus spoken on his 
deathbed : " There is a spot near the village of Dauphigny where I 
should like to be buried. Suffer no pomp to be used at my funeral, no 
monument to mark the spot where I am laid, but put me quietly in the 
earth, place a sun-dial over my grave, and let me be forgotten." Sir 
William Temple ordered that his heart should be placed in a silver case 
and deposited under the sun-dial in his garden at Moor Park. So tender 
have been the uses to which the dial has been applied, so striking is the 
thought that the eyes of succeeding generations look to its time-telling 
face only to read their own memento inori, that we are ready to fall into 
David Copperfield's vein of meditation, as we see it ever cheerfully return 
with sunlight to the performance of its duties, and ask, " Is the. sun-dial 
glad, I wonder, that it can tell the time again ? " 



" Brutus. Did Cicero say aught ? 

Casca. Ay, he spoke Greek." 

Julius Casar. 

Every writer on the horology of the ancients begins by quoting 
Vitruvius, who enumerates thirteen different kinds of dials, and gives 
the names of some of their inventors. Several specimens of these dials 
have been found during the last hundred and fifty years amongst the 
ruins of ancient buildings, though it is not yet possible to identify all 
that are mentioned by Vitruvius. Those types which are known can, 
however, be classified,' and Professor Rayet, from whose admirably lucid 
paper we are tempted to quote largely, arranges them in three groups : 

I. Spherical. 

II. Conical. 

III. Plane. 

I. Spherical. — This is the simplest and most ancient form of all, the 
same that is mentioned by Alciphron, and it originated with the astro- 
nomical school which flourished on the shores of Asia Minor in the fourth 
century B.C. In the centre of a hollow hemisphere there was placed an 
upright rod, pointing to the zenith. As the sun rose above the horizon 
its rays touched the point of this rod, the shadow of which would, as 
the day wore on, trace, in a reverse course, the apparent movement of 
the sun. If the line followed by the shadow were then divided into 
twelve parts, the result would be a dial which marked the temporary 
hours of the day. If the same division were repeated at those seasons 
when the sun was at its highest, and the hour lines were then drawn 
through these divisions, the temporary or unequal hours for every day 
in the year would be ascertained. 

The spherical dials may be subdivided into two classes : 

' Prof. G. Rayet, " Sur les cadrans coniques," " Annales de Chimie et de kt Physiijue," 
Sieme S., t. vi., 1S75. 


1. The (Txaipy), or hemispherium. 

2. The hemicycle. 

1. The hemispherium is thought to have been the first form of dial, 
such as has just been described — a hollow hemisphere with a horizontal 
base, and a vertical style in the centre. This tallies with the account 
given by Apion of the gnomon and boat-shaped cavity used by the 
Egyptians ; but, so far as we are aware, no specimen remains of this 
form of the antique dial. 

2. The hemicycle, attributed to Berosus, was hollowed out of a 
rectangular block of stone or marble, and the front or south face was 
cut away from above at an inclination parallel with the plane of the 
equator. Thus the useless part of the hemisphere was taken away, 
and the inclination of the dial would cornispond with the latitude of the 
place for which it had been constructed. 

There were usually eleven hour lines, which divided the daytime 
into twelve hours, and these, in most of the dials which have been 
recovered, are crossed by three parallel arcs, which mark the equinox 
and the summer and winter solstices. 

The style was horizontal, and projected as far as the line along 
which the shadow would pass at the season of the equinox. At mid- 
summer the shadow, having reached the outer arc, would begin to 
recede, and by midwinter it would have dwindled to its shortest 
measure, so as to pass along the line of a brief day made up, literally, 
of "small hours." The position of the style and the curve of the 
hollow, together with the more vertical or more oblique position of the 
sun, effected the shortening of the shadow in winter and the lengthen- 
ing of it in summer. When the angle at which the front face was 
sloped did not correspond (as sometimes happened) with the latitude, 
a plane could be drawn through the arc of the summer solstice, and the 
number of degrees by which this exceeded a right angle could be added 
to the angle of inclination, in order to find the correct latitude. 

In several specimens of this dial the concavity is only a slight one, 
so slight indeed that it was urged by M. Delambre that the dial could 
not, with accuracy, be called a hemicycle. Nevertheless, it has kept 
the name. Our illustration is taken from a dial found at Athens, near 
the ancient academy, and placed, in 1826, in the museum at Leyden. 
It was sketched by Mr. J. Bytel. The dial is of white marble, and is 
23 centimetres high and 27 wide. 

The first of these antique specimens was brought to light by the 
excavators of the eighteenth century, being found at Tusculum in 1741. 
It produced quite a literature of its own. The great dial-making 



period had not wholly passed away, and the discovery of this relic 
attracted the attention of antiquaries, astronomers, and mathematicians, 
and, indeed, of all who studied the life and manners of the ancient 
world. The Jesuit Father Zuzzeri,^ who was at great pains to show 
that the villa where it was found might very well have been Cicero's, 
worked out the calculations and explained the construction of the dial. 
Other writers on the same subject followed, and the Tusculan specimen 
has ever since been quoted as the standing example of the hemicycle of 
Berosus. Imagination longed to see in it the very sun-dial that Cicero 
sent to Tiro, but this is one of the matters which can only be left to the 


Later archaeolosfists have assig-ned the ruined villa to 

;|' ' .' ^^^^^^^•".u^-iisaiiiai, 

GREEK niAi.. 


Tiberius. The dial resembled the specimen which is figured above. 
It was of Travertine marble, hollowed and engraved in the manner just 
described. The Kircher museum, in which it was placed, was after- 
wards transferred to the Collegio Romano, where the dial was seen by 
Mr. Burn in 1870.- It may possibly be there still, but recent inquirers 
failed to find it, and no one seems to know what has become of it. 
Several other specimens have been disinterred near Rome. One, found 
in 175 1 on the \^ia Flamminia, near Castelnuovo, is now in the museum 
of the Capitol. Pope Benedict XI\^ had the gnomon refixed, and 
placed the dial on a window-sill, where it still shows the time according 
to the temporary hours. Another, found at Citta Lavinia in 1891, 
was presented by Lord Savile to the British Museum. 

There is an interesting inscribed dial of the same class in the British 

' Zuzzeri, " Ui un antica villa scopcrta sul dosso del Tuscolo," Venezia, 1 746 ; Bos- 
covich, " Giornale dei Letterati," 1746; " Archseologia," x. 
" "Rome and the Campagna," 1873. 


Museum, and this was found in 1852 near Alexandria, at the base of 
Cleopatra's Needle. It probably belongs to the Roman period. The 
dial is hollowed out of a block of stone i6|- inches high, 17 inches wide, 
and 1 1 inches deep. The corners have been broken off, but most of 
the hour lines can be plainly seen, with the Greek letters ABFAESZH©!, 
which number them, thus recalling to mind the epigram already 
quoted. The inclination of the face of the block seems to correspond 
with the latitude of Alexandria, and the base is cut in six small sloping 

A similar specimen in white marble was found at Aphrodisias in the 
Valley of the Meander in 1876, during the making of a railway, and 


photographs of it were shown at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries 
in 1877. The hours were numbered in Greek letters, and on the 
pedestal was a Greek inscription stating that the dial was dedicated to 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. It had probably belonged to the Temple 
of Aphrodite. 

There is in the basement room of the British Museum a handsome 
marble dial of the same class, measuring 21 inches in height, 18 inches 
in width at the top and 14 inches at the base. It is hollowed to a 
greater depth than the Alexandrian dial, and lies more open to the sun. 
The back is globular, and the base slopes slightly forward between two 
lions' heads of a debased type, which support the dial, each resting upon 
a single foot. It is not known where the dial came from. 

The excavations at Aquileia, once an important Roman city, pro- 


duced four specimens, two of which are now in the Imperial Art-history 
Museum in Vienna. One of these was cut out of a block of grey 
limestone, measuring 10 x i6i^x 15, and the hollow has a maximum 
depth of 9^ inches. Another is, with its pedestal, cut out of a block 
about 38 inches high, the pedestal being ornamented with sculptured 
acanthus leaves and other designs. There could not have been more 
than seven hour lines, and no place for the gnomon is visible, but the 
upper edges of the stone are broken off. Baron v. Ritter Zahony had, 
in 1880, in his collection at Monastero, near Aquileia, a less ornamented 
dial of the same kind, calculated for the latitude of that place, and 
showing the time from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the hollow being divided by 
nine lines into ten hour spaces. A small fragment of a similar dial was 
found at Schloss Buttrio, near Udine ; it was mounted on a limestone 
pedestal, on which a half-draped female figure was sculptured. This 
was, in 1880, in the collection of Count Toppo.^ 

It would serve no good purpose to enumerate all the known hemi- 
cycles of Berosus which have been found in Greece, Asia Minor, and 
Italy, and placed in the various European museums. Athens, Rome, 
Naples, Paris, Berlin, Constantinople, each have their examples, and 
no doubt others have passed into private collections. At the time of 
discovery several of them were described in the antiquarian publications 
of the day. Antonini gives engravings of those which had been found 
in his day near Rome, Tivoli, Vejo, Velletri, etc.- Some were then in 
private hands. One was in the Piazza del Corte at Velletri, but 
that is nearly a hundred years ago, and whether it is there still we 
cannot say. 

As a rule these dials are very plain in appearance, except for the 
occasional decoration of lions' paws as supports. There is, however, 
one in the museum at Berlin, brought from Athens, which is orna- 
mented with a head of Helios in relief on the base. He is represented 
with hair floating back like the rays of the sun, a design which has 
often been reproduced in a rude and clumsy fashion on more modern 
dials. There is also a head in profile of Athena wearing a Corinthian 
helmet sculptured on one side of the block, and that of Dionysios with a 
fillet and ivy wreath on the other. At the back is the ornament of the 
Patera. This block of marble had probably formed part of some 
building before it was carved into a dial. It is said to be of fairly early 
date B.C. ^ A hemicycle found at Palestrina^ is still in the collec- 

' "Romische Sonnenuhren von Aquileia," Dr. Kenner, 1880. 
^ Antonini, "Varj Ornamenti," vols, iii., iv., 1798. 

^ " Archeologische Zeitung," 1880, p. 37. ' Ince Blundell Marbles. 




tion of marbles at I nee Blundell in Lancashire, and has a head of 
Berosus sculptured on its base. The head was not on the dial when 
the stone was unearthed, but was found n<;ar at hand, and evidently 
belonged to the position where it has been replaced. 

Travellers have often noticed a sun-dial at Athens at the foot oi the 
wall of Cimon, to the right of the Choragic monument of Thrasyllus, 
and near the theatre of Dionysios. Le Roy' introduces it into his 
engraving of the monument, and places it on the point of a rock, 
where it was noticed by Stuart, and also, in 1801, by Dr. Clarke. The 
dial is of Pentilic marble, of the hemicycle form, and possibly may have 
marked the hours for the performances in the Dionysian theatre. At 
what period it was placed there we cannot tell. The theatre was 



finished about B.C. 337, and was afterwards repaired and embellished 
by the Emperor Hadrian. It is most likely that the dial would belong 
to the latter period. 

A somewhat different form of hemispherical dial may be seen in the 
museum of the Vatican. This variety is more truly a hemicycle than 
those already describad, and is deeply hollowed out of a rectangular 
block. It has no base and no forward inclination, and the style must 
have been vertical instead of horizontal. The best specimen - (for there 
are two) was dug up in the Via Palombara on the Esquiline in 1805, 
and has the usual eleven hour lines crossed by seven arcs, between which 
the Latin names of the months and the first syllables of those of the 
signs of the Zodiac are engraved in Greek letters. In the centre 
is a circle, crossed at the equinoctial by two diagonal lines, which 

' Lc Roy, " Riiincs dcs jjlus beaux monuments dc la tlrccc," ii., p\. 2, I'aris, 1770. 
■ (luattani, "Mom. line. Roma," 1805. 



are continued to the line of the summer solstice. Professor Rayet sees 
in this arrangement of Hues crossing each other the arachnc or spider's 
web mentioned by Vitruvius. The dial has been assigned to the period 
of the Antonines, and also to that of Gallienus. The whole block 
measures about 8 inches in height, is 20 inches wide, and 10 inches deep. 

A still more completely hemispherical dial was brought from Rome 
in 1841 by Gerhardt, and placed in the Berlin Museum. It is of white 
marble, 50 centimetres high and 40 centimetres wide. The upper 
surface is sloped at an angle 
of 45°, and a complete hemi- 
sphere is hollowed out in it, 
with hour lines drawn. At the 
top there is a deep groove for 
the gnomon ; the places for the 
rivets can still be seen, but a 
hole has been broken below, 
through the deepest part of the 
hollow. The front face is orna- 
mented with two lions' paws, 
and the upper angles with 
rosettes. The peculiarity of 
this dial is, that it marks the 
equinoctial instead of the tem- 
porary hours, and consequently 
is, or was when described by 
Woepcke ' in 1843, a unique 

Whether the lions' feet have any special signification, or are purely 
ornamental, it would be hard to say. The lion was associated with 
Hercules, and Hercules with the sun, but so far as the hero appears in 
connection with sun-dials, it is only through the legend of Atlas, when he 
bore the earth on his shoulders. An antique statue of Hercules, sup- 
porting what some have thought to be an example of the (rxa^r) or 
hemispherium, was standing in Ravenna in the sixteenth century. 
Simeoni,- whose " Dernier Voyage en Italic I'an 1557," was published at 
Lyons in 1558, writes of this : " D'icy j'allay voeir la belle place de 
Rauenne, ou je trouay vne statue de marbre agenouillee, que les 
habitans appellent Hercules horarms, parce qu'il soustient vn quadrant 
sur ces espaules faict en la maniere que s'ensuit." 

' F. Woepcke, "Diss. Arch. Math.," Berlin, 1843. 
' (j. Simeoni, " lUus. degli epitaffe e niedaglie," 1558, 




A like figure of a kneeling Atlas, supporting a segment of a hollow 
globe marked with hour lines, is shown by Settele,' who says it 
resembles the Atlas in the Farnese collection. It was found at Tor 
Paterno about 1790, and sent to England. A cast was in the V^atican 
Museum in 18 16. 

The dials, mounted on cippi or small columns, which are sometimes 
seen on a sarcophagus or introduced into the background of a mosaic, 

can hardly be called spherical, though 
they seem to be hollowed more or 
less deeply ; but there is a small 
specimen in the British Museum 
which is certainly hemicycular. It 
has no forward inclination, and only 
the hour lines and the equinoctial 
arc are marked. It is of marble, and 
about 7 inches high and 4 inches 
deep. The place where it came 
from is unknown. 

1 1. Conical Dials. — An advance 
in mathematical science had taken 
place before conical dials were con- 
structed. The invention is ascribed 
by Vitruvius to Dionysiodorus of 
Milo. The dial consists of the con- 
cave segment of a circular cone, 
the axis of the cone lying parallel 
to the axis of the earth, and its point exactly coinciding with the point 
of a horizontal style. All that part of the cone which rose above the 
plane of the style would be taken away, and on the south side the dial 
would, as in the case of the hemicycle, be cut off by another plane 
perpendicular to the axis of the cone, and consequently parallel to the 
equator. Each arc traversed by the shadow would then be divided 
into twelve equal parts, and lines drawn through them, and thus the 
temporary hours would be shown. 

No example of this class of dial was known to be in existence until 
M. Renan discovered a fragment amongst the ruins of Oum el Awamid 
in Phoenicia. The archaeological mission, of which he was the head, 
was sent out by Napoleon III. in i860, during the French occupation 
of Northern Syria, and amongst the spoils brought back to the 


' Settele, "Mem. sopra la forma delle Linee," etc., t8i6. 



museum of the Louvre was this curious sun-dial. Only a portion of it 
remains, and this shows three hour lines in the hollow surface of a 
block of marble, the lower face of which is sloped according to the 
latitude. Professor Woepcke, who recognized it at once as a conical 
dial, intended to have written a paper upon the subject, but died before 
this was accomplished. The dial, however, was explained by Colonel 
Laussedat, who also made a complete model,' which now stands in the 
Louvre beside the Phoenician fragment. Colonel Laussedat points out 
that the conical was an improvement upon the spherical dial, as the 
surface of the cone presents an easier 
surface to work upon. Like the hemi- 
cycle, it was hollowed out of a rectan- 
gular block of marble, so it is not 
surprising that, to the casual observer, 
there seems to be very little difference 
betwixt the two forms. 

The Phoenician fragment bears the 
remains of an inscription : 

" Thy servant Abdosir, son of E ." 


It had evidently been dedicated to a 
god, and no doubt belonged to a 
temple. Abdosir is a well-known 
name in Phoenician inscriptions. The 
stone was found in the ruins of a 
house, and in the same locality other 
inscribed stones Avere discovered. 

One of these had belonged to a tomb, and the owner prayed for the 
protection of Baal-Shemish, lord of the skies, for himself and his family, 
and for their last resting-place. The houses had evidently been built 
about a century before Christ, out of the ruins of more ancient buildings. 
Oum el Awamid {i.e., the "mother of columns"), formerly Medina el 
Taharan, is now a desert place, one which has " become heaps," in 
the country to the south-east of Tyre. It was once a flourishing city, 
and when under Greek rule was called Laodicea, one of the many 
towns of that name. M. Renan considered that it was probably 
destroyed during the wars of the Seleucida;. 

A little further on in the Louvre stands another conical dial 
hollowed out of a greyish white block of crystalline marble. This 


'Mission de Phenecie," 1864, Paris. 

" Memoire sur un fragment de cadran solaire." 


was discovered in 1873 by M. O. Rayet near a little town in Caria, 
Heraclea by Latmos, and stood near the Agora on a step of a hall 
which had perhaps served for the meetings of the senate. The south 
face is cut away at an angle of 52" to correspond with the latitude 
of Heraclea, and on the lower part there is a Greek inscription 
dedicating the dial to King Ptolemy, probably Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
an astronomer and patron of astronomers and mathematicians. 


[Tfl the King Ptolemy, Apollonios son of Apollodotos 
Thcniistagoras son of JMcniscos, citizen of Alexandria has made?^ 

The inscription is of the Macedonian period. The hour lines 

in the hollow are crossed by 
seven arcs. Professor Rayet' 
sus:2:ests that this arrange- 
mf;nt may correspond with 
that which he terms the 
^■Irachnc on the spherical 
dials, and that this dial might 
belong to the class which Vi- 
truvius calls the Conarachne. 
Possibl)' Apollonios of Perga, 
who discovered the theory 
of conic sections, might have 
been the inventor. 

On the north side of the 

Heraclean block there is a small sundial very slightly hollowed. This 

would only tell the hours in summer, from March to September. 

The date of this dial may probably be placed in the early part of the 

third century B.C. 

Professor Rayet, writing in 1875, mentions two conical dials at 

Athens, one being in the museum, and the other in the ruins of the 

Acropolis. The first-named has the ornament of the lions' paws. 

The Naples museum contains five specimens from Pompeii. One of 

them was found in 1842 in excavating the ruins of a house behind the 

temple of F"ortuna Augusta. 

III. Plane Dials. — With the aspect of dials drawn on a plane 

surface, whether vertical or horizontal, we are familiar enough. 

The dial on the church wall, or the plate on a garden pillar, we know 
' Sur les cadrans coniques, " Annalcs de ("himic ct de la Physique," 3'''"" S. vi. 




of old, and need no careful description of their appearance or their 
method. It is only natural that the later products of civilization should 
be more familiar to us than the earlier. These plane dials seem at 
first sight to be the simplest, but in reality are not so ; for, just as the 
conical dials were an improvement on the spherical, so do the plane dials 
show an advance upon the conical ones. Their construction required a 
wider knowledge of the principles of conic sections. They had become 



scientific instruments, and their sphere of usefulness was proportionally 
greater. The spherical and conical dials could only be observed near 
at hand, but a vertical dial, like a clock, could be seen at a distance. 
" JFn'/e the vision and make it plain, that he may run that readeth it." 
There is a special interest in finding ancient dials still in their 
original places and doing the work that they were set to do many 
hundreds of years ago, and this is still the case at Athens. There, as 
has been said, a classical hemicycle still stands above the ruins of the 
theatre of Dionysios, though it no longer tells the time, but on the 



Tower of the Winds, as it is called, the eight-sided tower built by 
Andronicus of Cyrrha more than a century before Christ, there are 
dial lines engraved in the marble, by which, with the aid of the restored 
gnomons, the Athenians can still ascertain the hour of the day as they 
were used to do, not perhaps in the time of Andronicus, but in the days 
of the later empire. 

The tower was not built with any view to the dials ; they were an 
after-thought. Within the walls there was a more ancient time-teller, 
a water-clock, which in the time of Varro had given its name to the 
tower, and at the top of the conical roof a bronze figure of a Triton 
held a wand and showed which way the wind blew. These all disap- 
peared long ago. The tower is about 44 feet high, and the eight 
sides face the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. Under- 
neath the roof is a frieze, on which are sculptured ilying figures repre 


senting the eight winds, with their names attached. The eight dials 
are engraved on the walls below the frieze, and, as was ascertained by 
M. Delambre, the hours are shown with perfect accuracy. It is 
impossible to say at what date these dials were made. Vitruvius 
makes no mention of them in his description of the tower. It would 
seem that they were added after, but perhaps not long after, his time. 
The Roman numerals which are now painted at the foot of the lines 
are a modern addition. Professor Rayet considers that these lines, 
diverging from a common centre, look rather like arrows tossed out of 
a quiver, and suggests that this may be the type of dial called by 
Vitruvius \hQ phanira, or quiver of Apollonios, for which name, know- 
ing the inaccuracy of the- MS. copyists of Vitruvius, he would fain read 
Andronicus, and so identify the quiver dials with those on the Tower of 
the Winds. The professor sees an example of the same type in the fine 
dials of Phaidros, brought from Athens by Lord Elgin. They arc cut in 
a block of white marble, which is now in the Inscriptioa Room of the 



British Museum.^ These are engraved on four vertical planes placed 
angularly, and forming the front and sides of the block. They 
probably stood at the corner of a street, and commanded four ways. 
One face bears the inscription : 

\Phaidros son of Zoilos a Pcsanian made tJiis^ 

The last letter of the lower line is lost owing to the wearing away of 
the marble. The name of Phaidros, an architect, is found on the steps 
leading up to the Dionysian theatre, in the restoration of which building 
he was employed. He is said to have lived in the second or third 
century a.d. The shape of the letters shows that the dials cannot be 
earlier than the time of Hadrian. 

In the National Museum at Palermo there is also a white marble 
block with four dials on it. This was brought from the ruins of 
Tyndaris, one of the most purely Greek settlements in Sicily. 

When Dr. Clarke was travelling in Greece in 1801^ he visited 
Orchomenes, a ruined city of Boeotia, and there saw a vertical dial built 
into the wall of the monastery 
church called Panagia Kemis. 
The church stood on the site of 
a temple of the Graces, and the 
place is said to have been cele- 
brated in old times for its musi- 
cal and dramatic contests, which 
attracted competitors from all 
parts of Greece. The dial was 
divided into eleven hour spaces 

by ten lines numbered in Greek letters, and carved in relief. They 
were enclosed in a semicircle, and in the lower corners were the figures 
of two birds. From the enoravinsf griven in Dodwell's "Greece"^ it 
would seem that one at least of the birds was a goose, though the 
resemblance to a duck is rather strongf. The goose, it will be remem- 
bered, was a sacred bird ; indeed, in Egyptian mythology it was out of 
the Q.^^ laid by the celestial goose that the sun was said to break forth, 
when he rose in the east to pursue his journey through the sky. 
With the Greeks the goose was sacred to Heres. 

The monastery church dated from the ninth century, and was 


' " Museum Marbles," pt. ix. 

' "Travels in Greece," by Dr. Clarke, 1818. 

^ Vol. i., p. 231. 



almost entirely built of stones from the old Greek ruins. It was 
destroyed by an earthquake in 1889. 

A vertical dial of the same type was discovered at Herculaneum. 
This was divided into twelve hour spaces, the numbering letters being 
placed below ten of the spaces, and one on each side of the midday line 
left a blank. The heat of the noontide might suggest that these hours 
should be given to rest rather than employment, and the inhabit- 


ants of Herculaneum probably spent them in taking their siesta. An 
engraving of this dial in "The Literary Gazette"' shows a triangular 
metal gnomon, but possibly this may have been an addition made by 
the copyist. 

The excavations at the Villa Scipio in the same neighbourhood in 
1769 produced a curious pair of dials, standing one above the other, the 
upper one being vertical, and the arcs crossing the hour lines in an oval 

1 II 

Lit. Gazette," 1843, p. 284, and " Brit. Cyclopaedia," and Antonini. 


rather than a circular form. They are traced in a segment of a hollow 
cylinder. The lower dial was hemispherical, and supported on each 
side by a flying female figure, probably a winged Hour. These dials 
were figured by Antonini/ and at that time were in a private collection. 
Simeoni'^ also mentions a vertical dial in a cylindrical hollow flanked by 
two plane vertical declining dials. These three were of stone, and 
stood on the top of an ancient calendar, but what became of them no 
one knows. 

Some few years ago a long-lost sun-dial was brought to light on the 
south fa9ade of the cathedral at Palestrina. It had been spoken of by 
Varro as ancient even in his time. The cathedral was known to stand 
on the site of an ancient Roman building of opus quadratum, and in 
1886 Signor Cicercchia, perceiving an opening" in the masonry which 
had been covered by modern stonework, obtained the removal of part 
of the later work, and it was then found that in the opus quadrahim of 
the wall there were four incised lines or grooves radiating, two on each 
side, from a common centre. It was ascertained that the hours of 3, 4, 
8, and 9, according to the ancient reckoning, could be readily shown, 
and the remains of the metal by which the style had been fixed was 
still in the holes. The dial can now be discerned high up on the wall 
of the cathedral.^ 

On the line of the Roman Wall in Northumberland, at Housesteads, 
once the military station Borcovicium, a stone fragment has been dug up 
which seems to be half of a semicircular vertical dial. It is quadrant 
in shape, 10 inches deep and 2 inches thick. There are five distinct rays 
cut in the surface, springing from a hole in the upper edge, which no doubt 
held a gnomon ; these rays end in a border line that runs along the 
curved side of the stone, an inch from the margin. One side of the 
fragment is jagged, as if the semicircle had been broken across the 
middle ; if complete, it would have been divided into eleven spaces. 

A Greek dial in the form of a marble disc, once set vertically upon 
a pedestal and marked with six hour lines, was found in the island of 
Delos and brought to Paris. M. Delambre described it in 18 14,* when 
it was in the Cabinet des Antiquites. It is probably now in the Louvre. 

The Louvre also possesses a specimen of the horizontal dial of the 
ancients. This is placed in the middle of what is called an astrological 

' Antonini, "Varj Ornament!, " iii., iv., 1789. 
^ Simeoni, " Illustrazione degli epitaffe e medaglie," 1558. 
^ "Comptes Rendus de I'academie des Ins. et Belles Lettres," 1885, t. xiii. 
^ "Analyse des travau.x de I'lnstitut," 1814, and " Di un antico orologio solare," Fr. 
Peter, 1815, p. 36. 


altar, found at Gabii near Rome in 1792, by the Scottish painter Gavin 
Hamilton. The hour lines are engraved on a disc hollowed out of the 
centre of a round table of Pentilic marble. Around the disc are the 
heads of the twelve Olympian gods sculptured in relief, and on the 
border of the table are the twelve signs of the Zodiac, together with 
the emblems of the gods who presided over the months. The work is 
said to be Roman.' 

Amongst the dials lound at Aquileia," there was a horizontal one 
which had been engraved on a stone table made of slabs fastened 
together, 8 feet 3 inches long, and 2 feet 2 inches wide, with a raised 
border. The table stood on two round columns, 16 inches each in 
diameter, one 22 and the other 25 inches high, the front pillar having 
been more deeply sunk in the ground than the other. Certain flaws 
which mark the surface show where breakages have been mended, 
evidently in Roman times, by iron clamps set in lead. The dial is 
formed by eleven hour lines which spring from the line of the summer 
solstice, and are continued, after being crossed by the equinoctial line, 
to that of the winter solstice. Being horizontal, the long shadows of 
winter would fall on the outer line. The style was placed a little 
beyond the summer solstice arc. The whole is enclosed in a circle, the 
border of which is divided into eight parts, and marked with the names 
of eight winds, viz. : desolinvs evrvs avster africvs faonivs aqvilo 


The maker's signature, m. antistivs evporvs fecit, is added. The 
name of Euporus has frequently been found on the Aquileian remains. 

As the names given to the winds are apt to vary, it is worth noticing 
that Aquilo here stands for the north-west and Boreas for the north- 
east wind, according to the later custom, and contrary to the arrange- 
ment described by Vitruvius and Pliny, with whom Aquilo stands for 
the north-east wind. The Vatican wind dial (found in 1777 near the 
Colisseum) also places Aquilo in the north-east, below the Greek word 
Boreas. Desolinus seems to have been a local name for Solanus, the 
east wind, and Faonius a corruption of the Latin Favonius, the west. 
The word Bora is still used for the north-east wind in the neighbour- 
hood of Trieste and all down the coast of the Adriatic. The strangest 
feature about the dial is that the midday line lies between Eurus and 
Aquilo, and points south-east and north-west, instead of due north and 

The dial is drawn at the north end of the table, not in the middle, 

' Froehncr, " Notice sur la sculpture du Louvre," i. 9. 
'■' Keniier, " Romischc Sonnenuhren von Aquileia." 



probably out of regard to the position of some neighbouring building. 
It seems to have been moved to avoid the shadow of a wall above, and 
set down with some inaccuracy, so that the exact time could no longer 
have been told. 

At the three other sides, and fastened to the table, were three stone 
benches, the one at the south end havina; a block of stone higher than 
the table placed upon it, and in this were two little holes, partly filled 
with lead, where a weather-cock might have been fixed. The north end 
of the table was left open to the approach of anyone who wished to know 
how time went without running the risk of standing in his own light. 

This curious relic of Roman times was found about three feet below 
the surface of the ground in the Marignane, or salt marshes, to the north- 
west of Aquileia. From other researches which have been made, it 
appears that a circus formerly stood in this place, built probably 
towards the end of the time of the Republic, or at the beginning of the 
Empire. Two tablets, tickets for seats in the theatre, were found very 
near the dial table, with the names of the owner and the numbers of 
the seats engraved on them. Aquileia was then a big city and a strong 
frontier fortress. The fact that it possessed a circus, always a state 
institution, shows the importance of the place. It was frequently 
visited by the emperors, beginning with Augustus. The dial, from the 
character of its inscription, has been assigned to the time of Commodus, 
and probably served to mark the time for the races and other games in 
the circus, until Attila swept down upon Italy and left Aquileia a heap 
of ruins. 

Dr. Kenner, to whose pamphlet we 
owe all our information about the Aqui- 
leian discoveries, considers this dial to be 
an example of the lacunar named by 
Vitruvius, as well as of the disms in 
planitia, and also judged it to be the 
earliest known amenoscope where the 
names of the winds are given in Latin. 

A fragment of a very similar wind and 
sun-dial was found in 1814 in the Vigna 
Cassini, near the Via Appia, Rome.^ It 
had been used as a gravestone in an 
Arcnaria which formed part of the Cata- 
combs of St. Calixtus. The names of the twelve winds were inscribed 


' F. Peter, " Di un antica orologio solare," 181 5. 


on it in Greek, and as it was made of Pentilic marble from quarries 
which were owned by Herod Atticus, Signor Peter, who wrote on the 
subject, concluded that it had belonged to Herod's villa, which was little 
more than half a mile from the place where the dial was found. 

Part of another horizontal dial, with a portion of a wind circle 
traced on the same slab, was found near the mausoleum of Augustus in 
Rome in 1883. There seem to have been six winds named, but only 
two, Favonius and Africus, remain. On the back of the slab is the 
fragment of an inscription, one line of which is placed in a reverse 
position to the other two : 

ADOIIH osAiva 



A horizontal dial of the same type, with the first syllables of the names 
of the months in Greek engraved on it, was one of the treasures found 
at Pompei in 1865. Signor Fiorelli," in describing it, hazards the con- 
jecture that the form assumed by the lines may correspond with the 
pelicinou of Vitruvius, as they bear some slight resemblance to an axe 
without the haft. Other specimens, not inscribed, have been dis- 
covered in Italy, and it may be that the dial drawn, as it were, on the 
pages of an open book held by a kneeling cherub or cupid, and 
engraved by Antonini, was one of this same description. 

One might suggest another possible form for the pcliciiwii. Mont- 
faucon, in his great work,'' gives a series of illustrations from a MS. 
calendar of the time of Constantine. In the plate which shows the 
month of June, beside the naked figure of a young man, there is a 
vertical dial which might be described either as hatchet-shaped or as 
dovetailed, fixed upon a column. The lines written underneath are 
attributed to Ausonius : 


\^June goes naked, and shows us the sun-dial to signify that it is in his 
days that the sun begins to dcclinc.'\ 

A cast of a dial of this form is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
South Kensington. The original was found at Yecla in Spain, and is 

' "Notizie dei Scavi," Roma, 1883. 

' Fiorelli, " Giornali dei Scavi," Napoli, 1865. 

^ "Supp. au Livre de I'antiquite c.xpliquee," v., p. 20. 



now in the Archaeological Museum at Madrid. On the base is an 
inscription in Greek characters, but the language appears to be of the 
Semitic class. The method of using this dial is uncertain, though 
it seems to belong to the reflective class. It has been suggested 
that " at the upper part there was probably an iron limb, to mark 
the hours after the Roman system, dividing 
the hours in couples. For use the dial stood 
facing the north, and a small spherical mirror was 
placed at a short distance, which reflected the light 
of the sun upon the dial, and by that means pro- 
jected the shadow of the needle marking the 
hours." ^ 

The Crusaders appear to have destroyed a 
very remarkable dial at the taking of Constanti- 
nople in 1205 by Baldwin, Count of Flanders. 
Nicetas thus describes it : "In the Hippodrome 
was placed the brazen eagle, the work of Apol- 
lonius Tyjaneus, who, when visiting Byzantium, 
had been asked for a charm against the venomous 
bites of the serpents which infested the place. For 
this purpose he employed all his natural skill, with 
the devil for his coadjutor, and elevated upon 
a column a brazen eagle. The wings of this bird 

were expanded for flight ; but a serpent in his talons twining round 
him, impeded his soaring. The head of the reptile seemed approach- 
ing the wings to inflict a deadly bite, but the crooked points of the 
talons kept him harmless ; and instead of struggling with the bird, 
he was compelled to droop his head, and his breath and his venom 
expired together. The eagle was looking proudly, and almost crowing 
out ' Victory ! ' and for the joy of his eye one might suppose that he in- 
tended to transport the dead body of the reptile through the air. For- 
getful of his circling spires, and no longer venomous, the serpent 
remained as a warning to his species, and seemed to bid them betake 
themselves to their hiding places. But the figure of the eagle was more 
admirable still, for it served as a dial ; the horary divisions of the day 
were marked by lines inscribed on its wings ; these were easily dis- 
cernible by the skilful observer when the sun's rays were not interrupted 
by clouds." ^ 

A few specimens of portable dials belonging to classical times have 

' "Catalogue of the Loan Collection of Scientific Instruments," 1876, S. K. M. 
''' Clarke's " Travels," vol. vi., p. 434, app. ii., from a MS. in the Bodleian Library. 



been found, and show us that the ancients had time-tellers which could 
be carried about as easily as watches. These will be noticed in another 
part of this volume. 

It would be futile to suppose that by bringing together these 
scattered notices of the chief known forms of ancient dials anything 
like a complete record has been obtained. Other types may yet be 
found as more of the buried treasures of the Roman empire are brought 
to light. Nor is it unlikely that there are examples even now in 
provincial museums and private collections of which we are necessarily 
ignorant. None of us will probably ever attain to a perfect under- 
standing of Vitruvius's thirteen dial forms, but considering the destruction 
wrought in the last days of the Empire, we may be thankful that so 
many specimens have been left. Vesuvius, the destroyer, has proved 
to be in many cases the preserver also. The same cannot be said of 
the human beings who ravaged Europe in the dark ages. They, 
indeed, destroyed utterly. What the Arabs, the inheritors of Greek 
science, may have constructed we can only conjecture. Ruin has over- 
whelmed their works. For the dials of the Middle Ages we must 
look to the churches of Christendom, and there we shall find them, 
though of a rude and simple kind, and chiefly in our own country. 



"Theodore arrived at his church the second year after his consecration (a.d. 669). 
Soon after, he visited all the island, wherever the tribes of the Angles inhabited, for he 
was willingly entertained and heard by all persons ; and everywhere attended and assisted 
by Hadrian, he taught the right rule of life and the canonical custom of celebrating 
Easter. This was the first archbishop whom all the English church obeyed. And 
forasmuch as both of them were well read both in sacred and secular literature, they 
gathered a crowd of disciples, and there daily flowed from them rivers of knowledge to 
water the hearts of their hearers ; and, together with the books of holy writ, they also 
taught them the arts of ecclesiastical poetry, astronomy, and arithmetic.^' — Bede, Eccles. 
Hist., bk. iv., ch. 2. 

In the churchyard of Bewcastle in Cumberland, not far from the 
Scottish border, there stands a monoHth 14!^ feet high, the shaft of a 
fine cross. The head of the cross, which added another 2^ feet to the 
height, is lost, having been blown down some three centuries ago, 
when, instead of being replaced, it was sent to Lord William Howard, 
the warden of the Marches, who was a collector of antiquities, and it 
cannot now be traced. The sides of the shaft are covered with 
sculpture, both figures and ornamental designs, in high relief, and of 
great beauty and excellence. The base and angles are covered with 
runes, and on the south side, between panels of foliage and interlaced 
bands, there is a sun-dial. The date of this noble cross shaft is a.d. 670. 
Its history is told by the inscriptions, which have been deciphered and 
thus interpreted by the present Bishop of Bristol : 


[ This thill sign of victory Hwaetred IP'othgar Otw/wolthu set up 
after {in memory of) AlcJifrith once king and son of Oswy. Pray for 
the high sin of his soul.\ 

On the south side is the date : 





— ECGFRiTHU. \First year of the king 
of this realm Ecgfrith7\ 

On the north side the names : 


wuLFHERE. [Cyuiditrga, Cyncswitha, 
King of Mercia7is IVjdfherc.'] 

Above are three crosses, and the 
sacred name Gessus := /csiis. 

Thus, as Bishop Browne tells us, we 
have here the earliest English sepulchral 
inscription, the earliest piece of English 
literature, and, we may add, the earliest 
English sun-dial. 

With regard to Alchfrith, it is enough 
to remember that he was kincr of Deira 
under his father Oswy, and at one time a 
strong supporter of the lona missionaries, 
who, from their settlement at Lindis- 
farne, had converted the pagan Angles 
of Northumbria and Mercia to Chris- 
tianity. Afterwards, through the per- 
suasions of the king of Wessex, Alchfrith 
was drawn to the Roman party, and 
Wilfrith became his friend. What special 
" high sin " it was that was laid on his soul 
we shall never know. The other names 
on the cross are those of the princes 
who chiefly served the cause of English 
Christianity in the seventh 
century. Wulfhere was an 
actively Christian ruler ; 
Cyneberga and Cyne- 
swithawere his sisters; the 
former was the widow of 
Alchfrith, and both were 
benefactresses to the 
Church. The name of Cyneswitha was also borne by Wulfhere's 



mother, who was probably still living at that time. Oswy is called 
by Bede " the wise king and worshipper of God," and Alchfrith was 
his fellow-labourer in the same cause. The beautiful ornamental sculp- 
ture on the sides of the shaft stands in close relation with Byzantine 
art, and suggests the presence of a foreign designer, whose teaching 
the artistic Angles were quick to assimilate.' 

This indication of Greek influence is of special interest. It will 
be noticed that the dial on the Bewcastle Cross is drawn in the same 
semicircular form as those at Borcovicium, Orchomenes, and Hercu- 
laneum ; and possibly the connection may be traced through the 
lessons in astronomy given to the Angles by the archbishop. Theo- 
dore, who was himself a Greek, was accompanied by Hadrian, a monk 
whose life had been passed in that part of Italy which was peopled 
by the descendants of Greeks, saturated with Greek ideas, and at 
that time the special refuge of cultivated Greeks who had been driven 
out of their own country. Or if no foreign artist had accompanied the 
archbishop, there was no man more likely to have invited one to 
England than the eager Wilfrith, in memory of whose friend and 
patron this monument was reared, and who was at that time Bishop of 
Northumbria and in favour with Wulfhere of Mercia. 

The dial, which is at some height from the ground, is divided by 
five principal lines into four spaces, according to the octaval system of 
the Angles. Two of these lines, viz., those for 9 a.m. and midday, 
are crossed at the point. The four spaces are subdivided so as to give 
the twelve-day hours of the Roman and ecclesiastical use. On one side 
of the dial there is a vertical line which touches the semicircular border 
at the second afternoon hour. This may be an accident, but the 
same kind of line is found on the dial in the crypt of Bamburgh church, 
where it marks a later hour of the day. 

There are a great many early dials on churches, especially in the 
north of England, but only a few of these can be confidently assigned 
to a pre-Conquest date. The number of spaces into which they are 
divided varies unaccountably. The late Dr. Haigh found an explana- 
tion, as we have seen, in the different time systems which prevailed 
amongst the various tribes by whom England was conquered — Jute, 
Saxon, Angle, Norse, Danish. Other archaeologists have considered 
that the main divisions, and probably the crossed lines, marked the 
five canonical hours of the day, viz. : Prime, 6 a.m. ; Tierce, 9 a.m. ; 
Sext, noon; Nones, 3 p.m.; Vespers, 6 p.m.; the intermediate lines 

' " The Conversion of the Heptarchy," by the Right Rev. G. F. Browne. 



having probably been added for secular uses. The unequal or tem- 
porary hours were still in use when these dials were made. Bede 
states that " the hours were shorter or longer according to the season," 
and this method of reckoning lasted for several centuries. As the 
gnomon seems to have been placed horizontally, the dials could not 

have told the time with accuracy except 
"~ at the equinox, but the hour of noon 

would always be shown, and possibly 
most country people would, from their 
own observation of the sun's position, 
be able to guess to a certain extent at 
the amount of error in the shadow. 

The early dials are almost always 
semicircular; and circular dials, especi- 
ally when they are completely rayed, may 
generally be considered mediaeval. In 
conjecturing the probable date of a dial 
the quality of the stone as well as the style of architecture of the 
buildine must be taken into consideration. Unless the stone were 
hard it could not endure exposure to the sun on the south wall of a 
church, nor the effects of frost, for more than a few centuries. Nor 

is the probable date of a 
building conclusive evidence. 
Many dials have been cut on 
church walls long after the 
church itself was built. 
Others have been added dur- 
ing a reconstruction a hun- 
dred years or so after the 
original foundation. A few 
specimens of early date have 
been built into later walls, 
as is shown by the position in which they have ignorantly been placed. 
When we see a dial stone remaining where it was placed at the first 
building of the church it is an object of special interest. One of these 
few is on the pre-Conquest church of Escombe, near Bishop Auckland, 
It is on the south wall, at some height from the ground, and sheltered 
by a dripstone. The lines appear to divide the day into four parts, 
and the gnomon hole remains. There is a semi-circular dial also at 
Hart Church in the same county. This is divided into eight spaces. 
Another is built into the chancel wall at Middleton St. George, a 





fourth on the Norman church of Pittington. Here the dial shows six 
cHvisions of the day, with the midday Hne crossed. At Hamsterley 
Church there is a circle with a central hole, but no hour lines ; and 
at Staindrop the broken half of a semicircular dial which seems to 
have shown four day-divisions. In the choir of St. Cuthbert's, Darl- 
ington, a dial stone is built into the wall. This is circular, and divided 
into eight spaces, with four outer and two inner rings, and a curious 
kind of cross mark in one of 
the spaces. There are some 
remains of a dial on an in- 
terior wall of St. Andrew's 
Church at Dalton-le-dale ; 
only the numerals I to VII 
are to be seen now, and 
these are raised in relief upon 
the plaster, and are said to 
concealan older set of figures. 
The hours would be shown 
when the sun shone through 
the south window. A set 
of numerals, much defaced 
by age, were also round the head of the tower door at Easington 

From these examples of early church dials which have been noticed 
in the county of Durham, we pass to Yorkshire, where there are 
several remarkable specimens ; the inscribed stones of the Saxon period 
being especially valuable. 

Perhaps the earliest of these is over the south door of the church of 
Weaverthorpe, in the East Riding. It is semicircular, and divided into 
twelve spaces, every alternate line being crossed. The inscription is : 


MONASTERiVM FECIT : IN TEMPORE REGN . . . [/« honouT of St. Andrew. 
Apostle, Herebcrt of Winchester made this monastery, in the time of 
Regn . . .] 

The incomplete name is thought to be that of Regnald II., a 
Danish king of Northumbria, to whom King Eadmund of England 
stood godfather at his confirmation in 943. " The next year," says the 
Chronicle, " Eadmund subdued all Northumbria and expelled two 
kings, Anlaf son of Sihtric and Regnald son of Guthforth." From 
this one would conclude that the dial was set up before 944, but 



Dr. Haigh, who read the broken half line above the inscription as 
" OscESTULi Archepiscopi," inferred that Regnald might have returned 
to his kingdom as Anlaf did, and if so, the date of the dial would be 
some fifteen or twenty years later. Oscestul, or Oskytul, became 
Archbishop of York in 956, and was a great restorer and reformer of 
monasteries. Herebert of Winchester was no doubt the abbot of the 
restored community, but what buildings he erected were in their turn 
destroyed by the Normans, for Doomsday Book records Weaverthorpe 
as " waste." 

The dial at Kirkdale, in the North Riding, has been frequently 



^fc a "&'■»■ iLii-vit. 1 i'li^T' 


'^ mn^mf.t'MllP^^^ M^Hi 

-^ r^\y. 



noticed, but its completeness and importance deserve a special de- 
scription. A great part of the church is of pre-Conquest times, and the 
dial must have been placed in its present position over the south door 
when the church was rebuilt in the eleventh century. The whole stone 
is 7 feet long by nearly 2 feet high, the dial being in the centre ; 
the five greater lines which mark the central points of each tide are 
crossed, and the spaces between them halved by smaller lines, the 
whole being enclosed in a half circle, thus dividing the day into eight 
portions. The index line for the first tide of day, 7^ a.m., is marked 
by a X . 

The inscription is given as interpreted by the Rev. D. H. Haigh, 
and the contractions supplied in smaller letters. 







\Orm Gamalson bought St. Gregory s minster ivhen it was all utterly 
broken and fallen, and he it let make anew from ground to Christ 
and St. Gregoiy in Eadward [his) days King and in Tosti [his) days 

This is {the) days stcn marker at every tide. 
And Hawarth me wrought and Brand Provost^ 

(Or as others read, Presbyter) 

The date of the rebuilding of this monastery may be fixed between 
1063, the year in which Orm's father, Gamal Ormson, was treacherously 
murdered by Earl Tosti, and 1065, when the latter was deposed and 
banished. It is possible that this Provost (or Prior) Brand is the same 
who was elected Abbot of Peterborough in 1096, and Hawarth may 
have been his superior, and abbot of the newly-restored monastery of 
Kirkdale. The name of Brand may also have belonged to the district, 
as there is a dale called Bransdale not many miles away to the north. 
Tosti, the unworthy brother of King Harold, was made Earl of North- 
umberland on the death of Siward in 1056, and was slain at the battle 
of Stamford Bridge in 1066. Orm, the founder of the " minster," is 
named in Doomsday Book as holding the manor of " Chirchebi," Kirkby, 
under Hugh Fitzbaldric ; this is no doubt Kirkby Moorside in the same 
neighbourhood, and the manors which included Kirkdale, were also in 
his tenure. 

The dial is in good preservation. It is fortunately protected from 
the weather by a modern porch, on the face of which another sundial is 
placed, a simple slab of wood, without a motto. 

Orm's younger brother Gamal is mentioned in Doomsday as the 
holder of Michel-Edstun, or Great Edstone, two miles from Kirkby 
Moorside, and on this church there is also a Saxon dial. The arrange- 
ment of the hour lines is the same as at Kirkdale, and the stone measures 
3 feet 1 1 inches by i foot 7|- inches. Over the semicircular plane are 
the remains of the words " orologivm viatorivm," or "wayfarers' 
time-teller," an inscription which is also found on the drawing of a 
sun-dial in the Irish MS. Liber St. Isidori, in the library at Bale.^ 

' "Monumental History of the British Church," J. Romilly Allen, S.P.C.K., 1889. 



On one side of the dial at Great Edstone there is a half-iinished 
inscription : 


\Lothaii made me?\ 

Not many miles away, but farther to the north, amongst the 
Hambleton hills, in the little church of Old Byland, a dial stone was 


found built upside down into the church porch, with an inscription 
which for a long time perplexed the antiquaries. At Old Byland a 
band of Cistercian monks settled themselves in the twelfth century, 
and when after a few years they removed into the more fertile plains, 

and built the beautiful abbey which 
is now in ruins, they called its 
name Byland, in remembrance of 
the home they had left. But the 
dial must have marked time long 
before the first Cistercian set foot 
in Ryedale. It is semicircular and 
divided into ten spaces. Si.\ of 
the lines are crossed at the end, 
viz., the fourth, third, and fifth 
morning hours, and the first and 
third of the afternoon. The inscription : 

+ svMARLE^AN iivscAKL ME p^ECiT. [Sumarlei/ii's kuscarl made me.'\ 

Dr. Haigh considered to be the work of a Dane, and suggested that 
the decimal time division of the Jutes might have lingered on in 
Denmark and been brought to Northumbria by the Danish invaders. 
The name Sumarlethi is an uncommon one, and the title of huscarl 
(retainer) is not found in English annals before the reign of Cnut.' 
The dial in the south wall of the nave of Aldbrough Church in 


' "Yorks. Arch. Journal," v. ("Yorkshire Dials"), Rev. 1). II. Haigh. 




Holderness is of a different order. It is circular, about i^^ inches in 
diameter, and divided into eight equal parts, with a central hole for the 
style. In one of the spaces there is a rather elaborate fylfot. The 
inscription is on the outer circle, and runs thus : 


\U If bade a rear church for poor (or "for himself") and for Gun- 
wara {her) soul.~\ 

It is not unlikely that this was the Ulf Thoraldsen who gave lands to 
the minster at York, and whose horn is still preserved amongst its 
treasures. The inscription is a curious ex- 
ample of a mixed dialect, old English and 

Scandinavian. Aldbrough Church is chiefly 
built of pebble, and the arches are pointed, 
but near the foundations the material is hewn 
stone, and there are Saxon remains in the 

Dr. Haigh considers that the dial must once 
have been horizontal, but as it is not the only 
instance of an early dial inside a church, it is 
possible that it was so placed originally, and was only intended to 
catch the rays of the sun at a certain hour on a certain day, perhaps 
the day of the saint to whom the church was dedicated, or that of 
Gunwara's death. There is another point worth noting. Anglo-Saxon 
dials are usually semicircular, this one is completely circular, and 
exactly resembles those sun-wheels which have been found on stones 
and relics of the bronze age in Denmark, Ireland, and other parts of 
Europe, and which are considered to be sun symbols of great antiquity. 
On the same dial stone we find the fylfot, an Aryan emblem, repre- 
senting, says Count Goblet d'Alviella, " the sun in its apparent course, 
the branches being rays in motion." We shall see as we go on that 
these little wheel dials are frequently found on churches of much later 
date than Aldbrough. The equal division of the circle into eight parts, 
though it should indicate the eight tides of the Norsemen, is a useless 
one for a sun-dial, where the night hours are not needed. Of course a 
central hole of any depth is conclusive as to the use of part of the stone 
as a dial, but it does not seem unlikely that the eight-rayed circle may 
have been a form suggested by the old sun symbol. The fylfot also 
appears to have been used as a propitiatory symbol with regard to sun 
and weather. It is often found on church bells which were sounded in 
times of storm and darkness, as they are still rung during thunder- 




storms in Italy. In the days of Ulf Thoraldsen sun worship was still 
a living form of heathenism. The laws of Cnut, who reigned at the 
beginning of the eleventh century, forbade such heathen worship as 
that of the sun and moon, springs of water, storms, etc., and without 
attributing these pagan practices to the founder of Aldbrough Church, 
the remains of customs and symbols connected with the nature worship 
which Christianity absorbed and regenerated, are too numerous for us 
to wonder at the association of the sun-wheel with a Christian church, 
either in the time of Harold or for many centuries later.^ 


A few years ago a fragment of another inscribed stone dial was 
found in the churchyard of Skelton in Cleveland, by Mr. T. M. 
Fallow/ Part of the semicircle remains, and four hour lines, two of 
which, viz., midday and 2 p.m., are crossed. Apparendy the dial had 
been divided into twelve hour spaces. Below these lines there are 
portions of four lines of an inscription in Old Norse or Danish, viz. : 

S . LET 

A . COMA. 

with part of a line of runes down the side. "The runes," writes 
Bishop Browne, " I read as diebel ok, which Mr. Magnusson says 
is good Danish — of latish date — for 'devil and.' He tells me that 

• "Strange Survivals," S. Baring Gould; "Household Tales," S. O. Addy ; "La 
migration des Sym boles," Count Goblet d'Alviella. 

" "The Reliquary," vi. 2, N.S., and " Yorks. Arch. Journal," xlix. 


GRERA is part of the word ' to grow,' and coma is ' to come ' or ' they 
come.' The words ' devil and ' may well be a pious curse on creatures 
of that kind ; perhaps a proverbial saying that when the sun is up evil 
spirits are down." 

The thought of the " powers of darkness " is a familiar one to later 
ages. So too is the prayer : 

" And if the night 
Have gathered aught of evil, or concealed. 
Disperse it, as now light dispels the dark." 

From the style of the inscription this stone appears to belong to the 
early part of the twelfth century. 

A small dial built into the wall of the church at Sinnington, in the 
same Danish district of the North Riding, has but two words left of its 
inscription : mergen, ^fern (" morning, evening "). It is divided into 
eight, and subdivided into sixteen spaces. The like division occurs on 
a dial at Lockton near Pickering, in the same neighbourhood, cut on 
the rounded end of a rough block of stone, and now built into the wall 
of a cottage. 

Of three curious little engraved stones at Kirkburn, one, which was 
merely a ring cross, has apparently been lost during a " restoration." 
The two which are left are both circular, with half the circle divided, 
one into ten and the other into twelve spaces. 

At Swillington, in the West Riding, a specimen of the decimal division 
of time was found on a dial built into a fourteenth-century church. It 
was circular, and, if used as a horizontal dial, had, writes Dr. Haigh, 
" been designed to show seven equal tenths of day-night, with the 
spaces below the equinoctial line equally trithed, and to be used in a 
latitude where the sun rises at 3.36 a.m., which is almost exactly the 
case at Swillington." Another circular dial (or sun-wheel), about 
10 inches in diameter, and with eight divisions, was discovered on a 
gatepost at Mouse House on Elmley Moor.' 

Besides these there may be mentioned a fragment of an early dial 
beside one of the windows of the church at Kirkby Moorside, which 
has suffered much from having been chiselled all over at the restora- 
tion of the church, and this shows the division of the day into ten 
portions. At Marton-cum-Grafton a roughly executed dial, probably 
old, has been now built into the vestry wall. East Harlsey Church 
has some rudely-cut lines on the west side of the south door, and 
Kirkby Grindalyth an irregularly divided dial, and also a curious 

' "Yorks. Arch. Journal," v. ("Yorkshire Dials"), Rev. D. H. Haigh. 


double circle, marked by two diagonal lines and with a cross where one 
of these touches the outer circle. There are also three specimens of 
dials of different dates on Leake Church, and one at Over Silton near 
Thirsk ; another with eleven hour lines on the church porch at 
Amotherby, one at Hilton near Stokesley, three on the church at 
Driffield (one of these is circular, with some very irregular rays), two 
at Little Driffield, and one at Croft. Dials, probably mediaeval, have 
also been found on the churches of Buhner and Lastingham. There 
is a circular one, with lines showing the hours from 5 a.m. to 7 p.m., 
on the church porch at Kirkby Malzeard. The remains of twenty-four 
rays can be traced on an old dial in the south wall of Carnaby Church 
near Bridlington, and on Speeton Church there is also a rude stone 
which may possibly have once been a dial. 

Canon Fowler, in a contribution to the "Yorkshire Archaeological 
Journal," states that he found a great many specimens in Holderness, 
and also notices the following : " The church of Monk Fryston, near 
South Milford, has a dial on a stone worked in as a corner stone of the 
south aisle, and the circle of which is only about 4^ inches in diameter. 
Burton Agnes Church has two, one somewhat irregularly divided, and 
the other extending over three stones, telling the hours from g a.m. to 
7 p.m., and marked by Roman numerals, some of which have disap- 
peared." At Skipsea there is " a very distinctly-marked dial, the radius 
about a span, the lower half of the circle divided by thirteen radii into 
twelve spaces, the fourth and seventh line prolonged and with cross 
bars, apparently to mark 9 a.m. and noon ; the 1 1 a.m. line lengthened, 
but without a cross bar, At the same church I saw another similarly 
divided, not so large nor so deeply cut ; another smaller still, unequally 
divided into twelve portions below the horizontal line, and seven above, 
and there were traces of three others. At Armthorpe near Doncaster 
there are two dials close together on the face of an ashlar block, one 
somewhat larger than the other, and the two circles in contact. Each 
has a central hole for a gnomon, and radiating lines ending in little 
holes, disposed somewhat irregularly, but apparently meant to indicate 
twelve or thirteen day hours. These circular dials may be of any date, 
but are probably mediseval." ' 

Another instance of small holes marking the hours is on a dial on 
the south buttress of the little church at Bolton Castle in Wensleydale. 
They have evidently been drilled to correct the irregularity of the 
hour lines. On the fine fourteenth-century church at Kirklington near 

' "Yorks. Arch. Journal," vol. i.\. 


Bedale there is a nearly obliterated dial on a south buttress, and another 
is near the priest's door at Burneston Church in the same neighbour- 
hood. This one being cut in a soft sandstone is probably not destined to 
a long existence. A large dial carved on the church wall at Appleton- 
le-Wiske, and marked with Roman numerals, may not be more than a 
couple of centuries old, if so much ; and at Harpham Church an east 
dial cut in the stone shows the hours from 4 to 9 a.m. 




" How beautiful your presence, how benign, 
Servants of God ! who not a thought will share 
With the vain world ; who, outwardly as bare 
As winter trees, yield no fallacious sign 
That the firm soul is clothed with fruit divine ! " 

Wordsworth, Ecc. Sketches, xix. 

It is, at any rate, a happy imagination, if it may not be an established 
fact, which connects one of the early Northumbrian dials with the first 
and ereatest of those northern missionaries of whom Wordsworth 
wrote. Aidan, to whom above all others the north of England owes 
its Christianity, has been long overlooked by the descendants of the 

people he converted. He was a Celt, 
and the Teuton is apt to forget what he 
owes to the Celtic race. Other men 
entered into his labours, and are re- 
membered in the dedications of many 
churches. His followers, Cuthbert and 
Chad, are associated with two cathedrals 
of fame and beauty. To Aidan there 
remains only the little church of Bam- 
burgh on the Northumbrian coast, opposite Lindisfarne, where he and 
his monks had their humble monastery. He was at Bamburgh, Bede 
tells us, at the time " when death separated him from his body, for 
having a church and a chamber there, he was wont often to go and stay 
there, and to make excursions to preach in the country round about, 
which he likewise did at other of the King's country-seats, having 
nothing of his own beside his church, and a few fields about it. When 
he was sick, they set up a tent for him close to the wall at the west end 
of the church, by which means it happened that he gave up the ghost, 
leaning against a post that was on the outside to strengthen the wall. 




He died in the seventeenth year of his episcopacy, the last day of the 
month of August," a.d. 651. 

The church was shortly afterwards burned down, and must have 
been rebuilt more than once before the present structure was erected ; 
but it is dedicated to St. Aidan, and in the crypt there is a sun-dial. It 
measures about 1 1 inches by 8 inches. There are sixteen divisions 
of night and day, and some of the day hours are subdivided. The 
horizontal line is prolonged to the right and crossed twice, and, as at 
Bewcastle, there is a vertical line connecting the ninth hour of the day 
with the third of the night, or, as we might say, 3 p.m. and 9 p.m. It 
was said that on the last day of August, " the day of St. Aidan's rest," ' 
the sun in rising would strike the pointer, but in the present position of 
the dial this would be impossible. The stone must have been moved 
from its original place, and no sign of a gnomon hole can now be seen. 
We owe the tracing from which our sketch is taken to the kindness of 
the Vicar of Bamburgh. 

At Ingram, Northumberland, there is also a dial in the interior of 
the church. This is on a pillar just against a window in the south aisle, 
so that it catches the sunlight through the window. The parish church 
of All Saints, Rothbury, has two dials, one on the south wall of the 
chancel, and so much worn away that only the four divisions, a double 
circle round the edge, and the hole for the gnomon, can be traced The 
other may be of later date, and is in better 
condition. It is on a buttress on the 
south side of the chancel, and is divided 
into sixteen spaces. There is also an old 
dial cut in the masonry of the south wall 
of Morpeth Church. 

The valuable notes on some early dials 
in Cumberland and Westmoreland, given 
by the late Rev. W. S. Calverley in the last 
edition of this book, were afterwards ex- 
panded by him into a paper published in the 
" Transactions of the Cumberland Archaeo- 
logical Society," with sketches from rub- 

bings. The following account is taken 


from both papers. 

At St. Michael's, Isel, near Cockermouth, an ancient little church, 
there are four dials ; three of these are placed one above another in 
the west jamb of a decorated chancel window on the south side, close 

' The 31st i\ugust was marked in the calendar as " Quies Aidani." 


to a priest's doorway. The uppermost, cut in red sandstone, is 5 inches 
in diameter and has twenty-four division marks ; on the east side the 
letter N is clearly cut, just above the horizontal diameter, and beneath 
it another N, almost obliterated. This dial may have been used as a 
horizontal dial before being placed in its present position. Below this 
dial is another of the same diameter, but only marking the hours 
betwixt 9 a.m. and i p.m., and a nearly obliterated N opposite the 
9 o'clock line. The third and lowest dial has the day hours marked 
from 6 a.m. to 3 p.m., and 6 p.m., and a nail has been driven in at the 
same point where the upper N appears in the topmost dial. All have 
holes in the centre, and the lowest one still retains some of the iron of 
the gnomon. Its diameter is 6 J inches. The fourth dial is cut on the 
east jamb of the Norman south main entrance, now covered in by a rude 
porch. Part of the circle is not visible, and some of the rays are scarcely 
traceable. They appear to have marked the hours between 9 a.m. and 
3 p.m. These three last dials Mr. Calverley considered to have been 
used to mark the canonical hours. He tested them on St. Michael's 
Day, 1883. 

Similar dials to the last-described are found on either side of the 
Norman south entrance, now covered by an Early English porch, of 
Dearham Church, near Maryport ; also on the east jamb of the west 
doorway of Newton Arlosh ; and on the west side of the Norman south 
entrance of Milburn Church, Westmoreland ; where there are two, placed 
one above another, the upper one being wrong side up. The alternate 
rays of the last-named are more deeply cut and longer than the inter- 
mediate rays, as though the greater time divisions had here once been 
subdivided. Beside these two dials is a stone cut in a rude diaper pattern. 
It would seem as if all these stones had belonged to a former building, 
and the masons of the Norman period had worked them into the present 
church. A third and larger dial, measuring 16 inches by 14 inches, is 
on the south side of the chancel, about 8 feet from the ground. In the 
inside of Torpenhow Church there is a dial of the same kind as the 
smaller one at Milburn, discovered when the plaster and whitewash were 
removed some years ago. The walls of the old church, which dated 
from before the Norman Conquest, had evidently been pulled down in 
part in early times, and a south aisle added ; and "the building stuff of 
the original wall used for the south wall of what is now a very ancient 
aisle, and so it has come to pass that inside the church, between the two 
square windows of the south aisle, you may .see the traces of a dial which 
was once cut on the outer wall." 

Caldbeck Church, Cumberland, has a dial on a stone built into the 



south wall of the chancel, near the priest's doorway. It is 7 inches in 
diameter, the circle deeply cut, and part of the old gnomon remains in 
the centre, well wedged in with lead and nails. The upper half of the 
circle is plain, the lower half is divided 
into sixteen parts, each of the rays being 
marked by round holes drilled into the 
stone. The midday line projects beyond 
the circle, and ends in a cross. " To 
the right, outside the circle, are four drill 
marks which remind one of the N on 
the Isel dials. To the left also may be 
seen one of these holes, which appears 
to be of the same date as the dial, and 
intended for some real purpose. The 
number of rays and holes is seventeen, 
but one ray is evidently marked beyond 
the diameter, making the number of 

divisions in the half circle sixteen, and thus bringing us again into con- 
tact with the octaval system of time division common among the 



Angles. The dial has been removed from some other place, and was 
put in its present position when the lancet window was restored." 

A dial with five rays, marking one morning and three afternoon 
hours, is on the west capital of the south thirteenth-century doorway of 
Kirk Oswald Church, and there are five or six other stones in other 
parts of the church, each marked with two rays, which start from a 
central hole. It is a question whether these may not be merely mason's 


marks. They have been noticed also on Warwickshire churches. A 
stone with the remains of three rays is on the church at St. Bees. 
Another small dial has been noticed at Cliburn, and at Newbiggin on 
the Eden there is a projecting semicircular dial with an iron gnomon, 
which seems to be placed horizontally and then bent downwards at a 
right angle, like a hook. If this be a copy of the old Saxon style, it is 
an interesting discovery. 

A circular dial with the lower half divided into twelve hour spaces 
is on the south face of Bolton Church, Westmoreland. The stone is 
not in its original position. At Beetham in the same county there is a 
circle with the lower half irregularly rayed. The kindness of Mr. W. 
G. Collingwood enables us to give a sketch of a dial at St. Bridget's 
Church, West Kirby, Cheshire. It is on a stone built into the south 
side of the tower, about 5 feet from the ground, 44 inches long and 15 
inches high. The hole is filled with mortar, and the rays, which are in- 
distinct and rudely carved, are about 6 inches in length. The stone is 
a red sandstone, and the present aisle throws a shadow over the dial till 
nearly noon. 

Passing from the north of England to the south, we find an inscribed 
Saxon dial at Bishopstone in Sussex. It is over the church porch, the 
stone rounded at the top and bordered with a Greek fret. The five 
principal lines, which mark the division of the day into four parts, 
are crossed at the end ; and each part of the day is subdivided into 
three by plain lines. The time division is the same as at Bewcastle, 
having the octaval and twelve-hour sj^stems combined. Above this 
semicircular dial is the name eadric. Dr. Haigh attributed this dial 
to the seventh century, as a prince of the South Saxons of the name 
of Eadric was living in 685, but the form of the letters is of a later 
date, and the altar is of Caen stone, while the Saxon work of the church 
is of rough yellow sandstone. It seems most probable that Eadric was 
the name of the maker, and that the dial may date from the eleventh 

There are other church dials in Sussex, but apparently of later date. 
Mr. P. M. Johnstone, writing in 189S on "low side windows," ' mentions 
"a sundial marking cut on the right-hand external jamb " of three low 
chancel windows at Botolphs, F'ord, and Rustington. These are all 
thirteenth-century churches, and as a solution of the difficulty of 
accounting for a special low window, as to which many conjectures have 
been offered, Mr. Johnstone suggests that they were probably made for 

' "Sussex Archaeological Collections," xli. 176. 



the purpose of hearing confessions. The sun-dial " would seem to connect 
external approach to the window with certain times of the day." " The 
date of these windows coincides with that of the coming of the Friars," 
the great revival preachers and confessors of the Middle Ages, and 


" they gradually ceased to be made when the influence of the friars 
began to wane." The dial at Botolphs shows two morning and one 
afternoon hour. Other Sussex dials have been 
noticed at Boxgrove, West Thorney, Ardingly, 
and Alfriston. One on Isfield Church, with the 
date 1660 near it, has been cut on a south buttress, 
with part of the stone left projecting to serve as a 
gnomon. It is not often that we meet with a 
stone gnomon on an English dial, though in Scot- 
land it is common enouCTh. 

In Hampshire there are three little dials, 
much resembling each other, on the churches of 
Warnford, Corhampton, and St. Michael's, Win- 
chester. In each the dial forms half of a complete circle, and beyond 

ST. Michael's, 




the circle, in the four corners of the stone, are floriated ornaments. 
The dials at Warnford and Corhampton are divided into four day 
spaces ; in that at Winchester each of these spaces are subdivided, the 
morning tides into three, and the afternoon into two parts. The 9 a.m., 
the midday line, and that for the last afternoon hour, are crossed. 
These marks would correspond with the canonical hours of Undern 
or Tierce, Sext, and Vespers or Evensong. From the /leur-dc-lys 
ornament it appears certain that these dials cannot be earlier than the 
twelfth or thirteenth century. St. Michael's is a modern church built 
out of old materials, but Warnford and Corhampton, in the old district 
of the Meonwaras, are both ancient. Corhampton is considered to be 
of Saxon architecture, and the history of Warnford is told by two 
Latin inscriptions, one on the porch and the other on the north wall. 



\Bi-others, pray ; sanctify loilk your prayer the builders and the 

rebuilders of the cimrch. WilfritJi 
founded it ; the good Adam rebuilt 

Let the race that is signed with 
the sign of the Cross here bless from 
the rising oj the sun Adam of Port, 
by zvhom I am thus rebuilt.^ 

The dial, which is on the south 
side of the church, might be contem- 
porary with the rebuilding by Adam 
de Port in the twelfth contury. 

We have no other dials recorded 
from Hampshire. In Surrey there 
is one which appears to be fairly early, on Stoke d'Abernon Church. 
The stone on which it is cut projects from the wall near the old south 
door; the edges are broken away, and the lines divide the day into four 
not quite equal spaces, those of the morning being subdivided. Part of 
the church may have dated back to Saxon times, and there are Roman 


"The Conversion of tlie HepUireh),' by lip. lirowne, b.l'.L'.K., itiyO, p. 175. 


bricks worked into the wall, but the greater part of the building is 
of the thirteenth century. 

There are dial lines of later date on the old church of Shere near 

Several dials of the same character were described by Mr. Warring- 
ton Hogg in "The Strand Magazine," 1892, as having been noticed by 
him on several churches in Kent, viz., at Mersham, where there are 
seven circular dials beside the south doorway, the largest measuring 9 
inches in diameter ; at Barfreston and Patrixbourne, in a similar position ; 
at Smeeth, and Wingfield, and at Warehorne, where the stone had 
evidently formed part of an earlier building. On the south wall at 
Lyminge Church, which forms part of St. Dunstan's work, there is a 
dial cut on a corner stone, but from Mr. Hogg's sketch it would appear 
that the hour lines were cut after the stone was placed in its present 
position, as they nearly all project beyond the semicircle, and the 
midday line is carried on to the stone below. The day is divided into 
twelve hour spaces. A small circle with four hour lines is on a stone 
by the south door inside the nave at Heme Church, Kent. The dial is 
upside down, and has, one would think, belonged to an earlier building. 

A sketch of a circular dial-stone on the south face of the nave of 
Bricet Church in Suffolk was given by Mr. Syer Cuming in " The Journal 
of the British Archaeological Association " for 
September, 1873. The dial measures 15 inches 
across, and only five of the hour lines appear to 
be distinguishable. One of them terminates in 
a cross botonndc, another has a tripartite end. 
The church was founded about 1096, and the 
stone appears to have formed part of the original 
building. On a stone in the porch buttress of 
Hardingham Church, Norfolk, there is a semi- 
circle divided into eight equal spaces ; and at 
Hales Church in the same county are five 
small dials, and also one at Sporle, built into a buttress of the church. 

The Hardingham dial was noticed by Mr. J. Park Harrison, to 
whose kindness we also owe the following dials from Gloucestershire. 
One of them is at Daglingworth, and is circular, about 10 inches in 
diameter, and the lower half divided into four equal spaces. The three 
dividing lines are crossed, and the first space is subdivided by a plain 
line which would mark the beginning of the first tide of day, 7.30 a.m. 
The dial appears to be in sitti, though, covered by a porch of apparently 
almost contemporary date, and is in perfect preservation. 




At South Cerney, where the church is also of early date, three dials 
are built into the south buttress of the tower, and are formed by circles 




— _ * — 

- — . 


— - -^ •- 



.■ •■ . 


?' ^ 



• - ' > 

^■. \ 

"C ^==- 

>» "~ 

' • ' 




of small holes ; two of these are divided 
into day and night hours, and the 
third into six day spaces, with a 
supernumerary line sloping upwards 
to the left. In the uppermost dial, 
midnight and 3 a.m. are marked by 
larger holes than the rest. This 
dial has suffered the most from the 
weather. Other dials have been no- 
ticed on Norman churches in Glou- 
cestershire, as well as at Hasfield, 
Coaley, and Weston-under-Penyard 
in the same county. 

There are two early dials de- 
scribed by the Rev. G. J. Chester in 
1884, on the church of Uphill in 
Somersetshire. The church of Up- 
hill, which stands on a hill over- 



looking the Bristol Channel, has been for some years disused, a new 
church having been built below. " The chancel of the old church 
has, however, been preserved as a burial-chapel, and the tower still 
holds the bells. The nave has been unroofed and lies open to the 
weather. The lower part of the tower, which is central in position, 
is of Norman character, and has on its southern side a small and 


narrow round-headed window, apparently of Norman date. Worked 
into this window, and forming its top, is a more ancient stone, which 
bears upon it a sun-dial, possibly of the Saxon period. A small 
hole drilled in the face of the dial on the left side seems to indicate 
that the gnomon had a support. The south doorway of the nave at 
Uphill is of very early character, and may be of pre-Norman date. 
The tympanum is formed of a single block of limestone incised with a 
circle, the centre of which is a Greek cross. On the right of this are 
the radii of a second sun-dial, similar in character to that on the tower." 
In 1888 a sun-dial was discerned on the south porch of the church of 
North Stoke, Somerset, by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A.^ The 

' "Proceedings of Somerset Archaeological Society," 1888. 



stone on which it is cut forms part of the edge of the porch doorway, 
and is about 5-^- feet from the ground. The stone is the same kind as 
that of which the church is built. There is a mark beyond the circle of 
the dial to which the 4 o'clock afternoon ray extends. The gnomon is 
gone, but the holes by which it was fastened are clearly shown. The 
diameter of the circle is 6^ inches. 

Two dials of the same character are on the south porch of the 
church of Newton St. Loe, which is of the Decorated style, and another 

on a Perpendicular buttress at Stanton Prior. 
There are traces of two dials on stones built 
into the walls of the little church at Brympton 
in Somersetshire ; at Lydiard St. Lawrence 
there remains a deep gnomon hole, the faint 
outline of a semicircular dial, and the hour 
lines from 6 a.m. to i p.m. ; and on the walls 
of Bath Abbey Church there are no less than 
thirteen dials, varying in size, and in the num- 
ber of lines, and three of these are on the 
north side. 

At Tarrant Rushton in Dorsetshire the re- 
mains of a dial was noticed on the church wall 
when the plaster was being removed, and two 
circles with the lower half rayed are at Brad- 
ford Abbas. 

At Knook Church,* Wilts, the western 
cap of the south door is formed out of an 
early dial. Only the western half remains, 
and this is divided into eight spaces, and the 
"day mark," which showed, it is said, the 
change from morning to full day, is placed 
between the first and second hour lines. 
One of the most interesting of the early dials is on Langford 
Church, Berks. It was carefully described and figured by Sir Henry 
Dryden, Bart., and by his kind permission a reproduction of his draw- 
ing is given here. The tower of the church is Early Norman, or 
probably Saxon, and on the edge of each side is a projecting pilaster. 
A third pilaster is in the centre of each side, and it is in the lower part 
of this, on the south side, that the dial slab is inserted. Sir Henry 
Dryden writes : " " The slab is 3 feet 4 inches high, i foot 1 1 inches 

' "Arch. Journal." 

" " Notes on Langford Church," Rep. N. Oxon Arch. Soc. 




wide at the top, i foot 8 Inches at the bottom, and of 3 inches pro- 
jection. It is surmounted by a projecting block. On it, in low relief 
are two men, 2 feet 9 inches high, with bare heads and apparently 
short pointed beards, clad in short skirts or kilts, but as to the upper 
parts of the bodies and legs, in close-fitting garments. Behind them 
appear lines of drapery as cloaks. They support over their heads a 
flat semicircular disc of i foot 8 inches in diameter, and about i inch 
relief. The iron gnomon is gone, but the part of it inserted in the 
stone remains. As the stone 




/, V'' \ 

is much decayed, the form and 
arrangement of the numerals 
on the dial cannot now be as- 
certained. The date of the 
dial is of course doubtful. So 
far as the costume is evidence, 
it may well be cotemporary 
with the church, but it may 
have been inserted long subse- 

There are two other re- 
markable relics at Langford ; 
one a representation of the 
Crucifixion, carved in lime- 
stone, over the south porch, 
consistinir of three figures — 
the Saviour, the Blessed Vir- 
gin, and St. John. The figures 
are decayed from age, but not 

mutilated. The other is a Saxon sculpture of a "vested crucifix," 
the figure of our Lord on the Cross, draped in a stiff vestment re- 
sembling a cassock, with a girdle round the waist. It is 5 feet 10 
inches high, and the head is cut off Probably the figure has been 
moved to the porch from some other place, as there would not be 
room for a head in the sunk panel where it now stands. 

Mr. G. Leslie, in his charming " Letters to Marco," gives a sketch 
of a curious old dial in the wall of St. Mary's Church, North Stoke, 
Oxfordshire, which, by the kind permission of Messrs. Macmillan, we 
are enabled to reproduce. Here also the time is divided into eight 

There are two small circular dials at Binsey, in Oxfordshire, one 
on^i buttress near the priest's door, and the other on the porch. 





The fine pre-Norman tower of Barnack Church, in Northampton- 
shire, has upon it a dial which is possibly of later date than the 
building. It is semicircular, but the hour lines are unfortunately 
obliterated. There is a hole for the gnomon, and the remainder of 
the circular space above the dial is filled with sculptured trefoil orna- 
ment of the same character as that on the Hampshire dials. 


A great number of the mysterious little dials or circles, of which 
several specimens have been already noticed, are found on churches 
in Northamptonshire. Some of them, observed and sketched by 
Mr. A. ArmstroncT, were described in the second edition of this 
work. Several more are mentioned by Sir Henry Dryden in a 
paper read before the Northampton and Oakham Architectural Society 
in 1896. In this paper the question is again raised. Are these little 
rayed circles dials at all ? and if so, how could they possibly have told 
the time with any accuracy with their irregular lines, and in the extra- 


ordinary positions in whicli they are placed? In many of them the 
central hole is so shallow that it would not have held a gnomon, and 
there are no signs of any support nor trace of any of the lead by which 
a gnomon could have been fastened. Sir Henry writes : " They are 
usually circles or parts of circles from 3 inches to 10 inches in diameter, 
formed by grooves about I inch wide and the same deep, placed from 
4 feet to 7 feet from the ground. They have a central hole of ^ inch 
or I inch in diameter, and from I inch to i inch in depth, and lines or 
rows of small holes radiating from the centre, and in some instances 
small dots or cavities in the periphery of the circle. Some have rays 
or dots only in the lower half of the circle. There are many varieties. 
. . . They are found apparently all over the kingdom, and many could 
not have been cut without ladders. We may look with suspicion on 
those about breast high, on those with a central cavity which would 
not hold a gnomon, and on those with irregular rays. It is possible 
that some might have been a kind of time-table to show service 

Some of these stones are built into the churches in so irregular a 
way that it seems probable that they were intended for use in some 
other situation, and were either left unfinished or known to be imper- 
fect ; or if intended for use, they might possibly have been adapted 
only to certain days in the year, such as the dedication day of the 
church. Mr. Calverley tells us that he tested the Isel dials on St. 
Michael's day and found them correct. It was at first thought that 
the completely rayed circles must have originally been horizontal dials, 
but there is no evidence for this, and some of the hours marked must 
still have been useless. Their resemblance to the sun circles found on 
prehistoric remains is certainly striking. " The Journal of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Ireland" gives drawings of stones at Dowth and 
Lough Crew with small circles on them, either crossed or rayed, and 
with central holes. A stone on Patrickstown Hill, Lough Crew, shows 
a small rayed circle with a central hole, and below the circle a double 
semicircular arrangement of rays terminating in round holes, very much 
like some of those which we still find on churches. Is it possible that 
these circles may sometimes have been carved on the church for "luck," 
after the meaning of the original symbol had been forgotten ? It is 
said that the Irish remains show the influence of the later bronze age 
of Scandinavia. 

A sun-wheel of this type is at Ecton, on the east side of the porch, 
with a hole 4 inches deep for the gnomon in the centre, and divided 
into twelve spaces, which are subdivided by smaller lines at the outside 



circle. Another, on the south wall of St. Nicholas' Church, Potterspury, 
shows what appear to be two sets of lines cut at different times ; the 
smaller ones divide half the circle into thirteen spaces, the larger and 
deeper into ten. Four of these last project beyond the circle and are 



crossed, and possibly two others may have been treated in like manner, 
but the stone has been cut away for the splay of the window. The 
crossed lines are placed in the same position as on the dial at Old 
Byland. There are several other rough little dials on the walls of the 
same church. The date of the building is uncertain ; the oldest part 


may belong to the reign of Henry III., where mention is made of a 
church at Potterspury. "A priest" alone is named in Domesday 

At Grafton Regis three out of four dials would seem to be older 
than the present church. Two are circular, about 9 inches in diameter, 
one being built upside down into the side of a window, and the other 
on the west side of the porch. Both appear to divide the day into 


eight equal spaces, and later hours of the day are not marked. The 
circle of the upper dial is imperfect. A third specimen, beside a south 
window of the nave, consists of two in- 
complete circles of holes, with a large 
hole in the middle. The inner half 
circle would seem to mark the division 
of time according to the octaval system ; 
the outer one is irregular, and the holes 
are not all of the same size, and do not 
correspond with those on the inner line, 
and the arc itself is imperfect. 

Other dials of the same kind have 
been noticed at Earls Barton, on but- 
tresses of the south aisle ; at Blakesley, 
and at Higham Ferrers, where there are 
two groups of ten rays each in the semi- 
circle, one on each side of the gnomon 
hole, and spaces where four additional 
lines might have been added. This is 
about 1 6 feet from the ground, on a 
south buttress near the priest's door. Sir Henry Dryden also notices a 
circle on Towcester Church divided into four spaces, the lower ones 



being subdivided each into four ; another at Charwelton, where five 
rays diverge from a common centre to the right or eastern side ; and 



two at Collingtree, beside a door in the south wall of the chancel. One 
of these is only 4] inches in diameter, and has seventeen irregular rays, 
some of which pass through the circle. There are also three small 
dials at Moreton Pinkney, the remains of nine at Floore, one at 
Everdon, two at Norton by Daventry, one at Newnham, and two at 
St. Sepulchre's Church, Northampton. 

The last of these is of special interest. It is now built into the 
porch upside down, and has evidently belonged to an older building- 
The dial is circular, about 5J inches in diameter, and the hole for the 
gnomon is i ^ inch deep. Dr. Cox ' writes that " the actual markings 
or rough workings of the stone, irrespective of the circular incised 
pattern, shows that it was hewn prior to the Conquest, for it is plainly 
marked with the Anelo-Saxon chevron toolino^ in contradistinction to 
the diagonal Norman axeing." The dial is divided into four parts, and 
the lower half subdivided unequally by lines which Dr. Cox takes to 
show the canonical hours of prayer, and an additional line for the 
beginning of the third great division of the day according to the octaval 
rule, 10.30, which would also be the hour for high mass on festivals 

and Sundays. The centre hole 
is conical, and f of an inch 
deep. The second dial is on 
the east side of the porch en- 
trance, and probably as origin- 
ally placed. It is formed of an 
incomplete circle of small holes, 
which show the twenty-four 
hour divisions, and two faintly- 
marked rays. It may possibly 
be as old as the porch, which 
was rebuilt about 1400. 

We are indebted to Mr. C. 
A. Markham for the sketch of 
a dial on the south buttress of 
Geddington Church, on which the afternoon hours are marked by 
Roman numerals, cut, doubtless, by an ignorant mason (the VT beino- 
represented by IV) at a later date than the dial. The south-west 
quadrant, which shows the morning hours, is divided into four spaces, 
and the south-east quadrant into five, and neither of them corresponds 
with the ordinary modern hours as marked by the numerals. 

' " Hist, of the Chiircli of ilu- Holy Sepiilchiv," Northaiii|)lnii, Revs. J. C. Cox ,ind 
R. M. Serjeantson, 1899. 



In the neighbouring county of Buckingham, dials of the same type 
with circles or rays, have been seen at the following places : one on 
Loughton Church, where the dial is circular and has twenty-four 
divisions, three at Whaddon, three at Sherrington (one bearing the 
remains of Roman numerals), two at Castlethorpe (both circular, with 
the lower half divided into twelve spaces, and apparently coeval with 
the Perpendicular church), and several scattered about on stones near 
the priest's door at Great Linford, irregular both as to lines and holes. 

Mr. W. Andrews, in a paper read before the Archaeological In- 
stitute in 1888,^ drew attention to these rayed circles, and suggested 
that they might be sun symbols. He gave examples of twelve varieties, 
viz., the double, the spot, and the rayed circles; the circle with the 
lower half rayed ; the rays without an outer ring, and sometimes one or 
two rays only starting from a central hole ; as well as the semicircular, 
which is the most ancient form. On Nuneaton Church Mr. Andrews 
saw six spot circles, varying in size from i|- inches to 3^ inches, besides 
two rayed circles. On Cubbington Church there was a double ring and 
a circle with the lower half rayed. At Berkswell a rayed circle, at 
Knowle a group of sixteen rays without a ring. On Shilton Church 
four circles with the lower half rayed, and one at Chilvers Coton ; at 
Hampton-in-Arden a ring with a vertical groove, two concentric rings, 
and ten with the vertical groove only ; at Wootton Warren a half circle, 
and on the south wall of Catthorpe Church a circle divided into fifteen 
unequal spaces. At Tachbrook there are several dials, and also at 
Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Avhere one is inside the tower on the north wall. 
Another is at Anstey ; and on the south wall of the chapel at Kenilworth 
Castle, which belongs to the Norman portion of the ruins, there is a dial 
circle. The like have been noticed at Dudlington, Stoke Golding, and 
Aylestone in Leicestershire ; Marston Montgomery in Derbyshire ; 
Ledbury, Herefordshire ; and North Minims, Herts. Mr. Andrews adds 
that there is hardly an unrestored church in Warwickshire, Northamp- 
tonshire, or Leicestershire but has circles or imitation dials on its walls. 

On the church tower at Dunchurch near Rugby there is a very 
clearly-marked dial, circular, and cut on a square projecting stone, 
and with rays dividing it into twelve spaces. The gnomon hole is 
slightly splayed to the west. The dial-stone is placed above one of 
the corbels of the belfry window, and appears to be in its original 
position and of the same date as the window, which belongs to the 
earliest portion of the tower. It forms a distinct architectural feature, 

' " Archaiological Journal," vol. xlvi. ("Cup and Circle Markings on Church Walls in 
Warwickshire and the Neighbourhood"). 



and is of the same width as the corbel, which represents an animal 
carved "grotesque and grim." The church was built by the monks 
of Pipewell Abbey, who had a grange at Bilton near Rugby, and is 
pardy Early English and partly Decorated. The fine tower is mainly 
late fourteenth-century work, but material from an older building is 
worked into it. At the south-east angle there is a seat in the form of 

an armchair, called " Dasset's chair." 
Who Dasset was is not known, but a 
family of that name was living at Thur- 
laston near Dunchurch in the fourteenth 
century. The dial may have been the 
work of one of the early Cistercians of 

A circle of holes, with the lower half 
rayed, is on Caythorpe Church, Lincoln- 
shire, and at Bottesford in the same 
county there are two circles, the most 
perfect having twenty-four divisions, 
twelve of which are halved. On the 
church of Covenham St. Mary near 
Louth four small dials have been noticed 
and described by Sir Henry Dryden.* 
One of these, which is on the east side of a south window in the chancel, 
and is circular, 6\ inches in diameter, with a central hole about I inch 
wide, is divided into four quadrants ; in the north-west quadrant are 
three rays, not quite regularly spaced ; in the north-east one ray, near 
the perpendicular line ; in the south-west three rays ; and in the south- 
east quadrant six rays, irregularly spaced. Another dial, on the south 
wall of the chancel, is also circular, but with a double outer circle and 
twenty-four rays. The hours from 4 a.m. to noon are marked by 
Roman numerals, and these are cut, as at Geddington, to be read from 
the inside, as on a horizontal dial, although their position shows that the 
dial was a vertical one. They were probably added by an unskilled 
hand after the dial was cut. The central hole is ^ an inch in diameter 
and 2^ inches deep, and there was found in it a fragment of wood with 
lime on it, the remains, no doubt, of a gnomon. 

This list of dial-circles and half circles might grow indefinitely were 
all existing examples to be recorded, but it is already too long. What 
researches have been made are necessarily partial in character, and we 

' " Dials on the Church of Covenham St. Mary," u paper by Sir Henry Dryden, Bart. 
(Ass. Arch. Sec. Rep. and Papers, 1897). 



cannot yet tell whether these rayed circles ' are confined to those counties 
where they have been noticed by archaeologists, or whether they are 
scattered indifferently over England. At any rate, we have been able 
to trace the vertical dial in a regular progression from the eighth century 
to the fifteenth, through difference of time markings, Norse and Roman, 
lay and ecclesiastical, up to the time when it became scientifically accurate 
and artistically beautiful in the hands of the Renaissance builders. 

' The suggestion has been made by Mr. Lewis Evans, F.S.A., that some of the early dials, 
or circles, with but few rays on them, may have been used as horizontal dials for finding 
the north only, by means of morning and afternoon observations of the shadow of a 
vertical gnomon. Some of the others with the whole circle divided might have been 
placed horizontally to show the points of the compass, or they might have been used as 
equinoctial dials. It is possible also that some were divided with the object of serving as 
protractors, to give the stone-cutters certain angles. 



'■ In tht; evening and the morning and at noonday will 1 pray." — Ps. Iv. 

Thk early dials described in the previous chapters have been roughly 
called Ano-lo-Saxon, and considered in their relation to the different 
day-divisions which prevailed amongst the tribes 
of the conquering race. There are also certain sun- 
dials in Ireland which seem to belong to the same 
period, and to be relics of the old Celtic Church. 
They are cut on upright stones in old graveyards, 
and were first noticed by the late Mr. Du Noyer. 
His notes were included in a paper written by Mr. 
Albert Way for " The Archaeological Journal."' The 
dials are, as a rule, semicircular, and follow the 
octaval division of the day. The first was found at 
Iniscaltra, or Holy Island, in Lough Derg. . " It is 
on the top of a slab, measuring 5 feet in length by 16 
inches in breadth ; and intended to be placed erect 
in the ground. The semicircle is divided into four 
parts by five lines deeply cut ; the perforation at the 
top is large, and intended possibly to receive a 
gnomon of wood, which, being shaped to a point, 
threw a slender shadow on or near the circumference 
of the semicircle beneath." Each of these lines 
has lateral branches to right and left, where it 
touches the semicircle, excepting that at the western 
end of the horizontal line, which has only one 
branch. Mr. Du Noyer assigns this dial to the time 
of St. Camin (who died in a.d. 658, after having 
founded the abbey of Iniscaltra), on account of the similarity of its style 
of workmanship to that of the ancient sculptured stones of Kerry, one 

' Vol. xxiv., p. 213. 


1], fil.lvP^ . I 






of which has also dial lines cut upon it. This is at Kilmalkedar, and 
is a thick slab of grit, standing about 3 feet 8 inches from the ground. 
The semicircle, or rather horseshoe (for the height is 15 inches, and 
the width at the top 21), rests on a shaft 5 inches thick, 11 inches 
wide at the top, and 10 inches at the base. This shaft is ornamented 
with a Greek fret, but the bottom ornament, as shown in a sketch in 
"The Journal of the Irish Society of Antiquaries " (1892), is not visible 
in our illustration. 

The day-divisions are given by double lines, the ninth hour, or 3 p.m., 
being indicated by three lines. " All these branch off into small semi- 


circles, touching- the outer rim of the dial. The reverse of the dial is 
ornamented by the interlacing of four parts of circles, indicating a 
flower-like cross, but if we look at the spaces between the segments we 
get a cross of eight points of the form recognized by Irish antiquaries as 
characteristic of periods prior to the tenth century. The old church of 
Kilmalkedar is assigned to the early part of the twelfth century, and 
the graveyard is full of imitations of the old dial, which now serves as 
a headstone." The branch lines have a curious resemblance to the 
half moons which are sometimes found attached to the spokes of the 
sun-wheel symbols described by Professor Worsae,' but Mr. Du Noyer 
regarded them as marking certain times before and after the five chief 
canonical hours, which he believed to be indicated by the great divid- 


In a dial of the same character at Monasterboice, co. Louth, the 

■ Industrial Arts of Denmark," 



hole for the gnomon was found to be of a peculiar funnel shape. 
Mr. G. J. Hevvson' writes that on putting in his finger he "found that 
the hole widened within to fully one and a half diameter of the narrowest 
part, and then narrowed again till it came to a blunt point at the 
bottom" ; the hole in the stone at Kilmalkedar was precisely the same 
shape. It had been previously suggested that the Kilmalkedar stone 
was a "chalice cross," and the hole a betrothal or swearing hole, and 
this discovery seems to confirm the supposition. In former days, when 
a priest could not be had, it was a common practice amongst the Irish 
for the bride and bridegroom to put each a finger in the hole, and pledge 



themselves in the presence of witnesses. This engagement held good 
till a priest was procured to solemnize the marriage. The hole at Kil- 
malkedar is i-^ inch in diameter. One might suggest that the gnomon 
hole was turned to this use after the disappearance of the gnomon. 

Dr. Haigh gives an illustration of a dial with the horizontal line 
branched at the end, and the other lines dividing the day into three 
parts, found on a stone slab at Kilcummin, co. Mayo. St. Cummin or 
Camin, who founded, as already mentioned, the abbey of Iniscaltra, and 
was afterwards Bishop of Clonfert, was buried at Kilcummin, his cell, 
his church, and his burial cairn all being in the same inclosure with 
the dial, which is apparently of the same age. Shortly before his death 
Mr. Du Noycr saw another specimen at Saul, co. Down, in the church- 
yard. The church stands on the site of one founded by St. Patrick, on 
the ground given to him by his first convert, the chieftain Dichu, and 

' " lournal Soc. Ant. Ireland," 4th s. \iii. 249 : 5th s. ii. 43S. 


it was to the monastery of Saul that the saint, after his many wander- 
ings and labours, returned to die. The dial is shaped like a shield, and 
the spaces between 9 a.m., noon, and 3 p.m. are subdivided, but the first 
morning to the latest evening hour seem to correspond with the hours 
of 7 a.m. and 5 p.m., and the 6 o'clock horizontal line is wanting. 

On the south-east side of the old church of Clone, co. Wexford, 
there is a stone slab with a semicircular dial upon it. In 1895 it was 
described as lying on a small mound adjoining the churchyard. There 
are twelve hour lines, and the spaces between them were measured by 
Mr. Du Noyer, who found that they corresponded with the hours of 6, 
7^,9, 10, II, 12, 1 ^, 2^, 3 J-, 4, 5, and 6. Above the gnomon hole there is 
another, which may have held a diagonal brace or support for the 
gnomon. If this was the case, and if the gnomon was inclined to the 
complement of the latitude, there must have been a great advance in 
knowledge before this dial was constructed. The remains of the church 
appear to date from the thirteenth century, and the dial would seem to 
belong to the same period. 

The last dial described by Mr. Du Noyer is of later date, and is 
circular. It is cut on a slab of grit, which now serves as a headstone 
in the churchyard of Kells, co. Meath. It is divided into twenty- four 
equal parts, inclosed in a double circle. The four principal lines are 
elongated, and three of them end in crosses. They may have been 
intended to mark the points of the compass if the dial was originally 
placed horizontalh'. The letter R is carved on the stone, and resembles 
the capital letters of the sixteenth century. Part of the gnomon re- 
mains in the centre of the circle. 

The practice of cutting sun-dials on tombstones continued in Ireland 
up to the eighteenth century. There are specimens in the churchyard 
of Clogher; and a fragment of a stone, which is now in the Dublin 
Museum, shows a horizontal dial of the old pattern, a double circle, 
with lines radiating from a central hole, and showing hours, which are 
numbered, from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. Beside it, roughly cut, are the 
words : 

[i'r]av for terrencf. denneT 1748. 

It came from the churchyard of Killbay near Kells. 

Whether any of these tombstone dials are as ancient as Mr. Du 
Noyer supposed may, perhaps, be doubted, but they are certainly of 
singular interest. His view, that the canonical hours rather than the 
points of the " day tides " are marked by the radiating lines, gains con- 
firmation from the drawinsf of a " horolocrium " in an eleventh centurv 


Saxon Psalter in the British Museum ; each canonical hour is here 
marked by its initial letter ; the hours for Tierce, Sext, and Nones are 
crossed, and the noonday line projects beyond the circle in an orna- 
mental cross, not unlike those on the Kells stone. The lines are 
drawn for suggestion, not for use, and the hours of the day are numbered 
so as to bring the sixth to noon and the twelfth to eventide, after the 
ancient custom. The same use has been followed by D. G. Rossetti in 
his beautiful little sketch of an angel holding a vertical sun-dial, called 
" Dante's Amor." In this Saxon horologium there are seven circles ; 
the hour lines stream down like rays from the higher circles of light, 
and on the third circle the fylfot is twice marked, possibly with refer- 
ence to the two hours of prayer which are not included among the day 
hours. Durandus,^ writing in the thirteenth century, states that the 
" Horologium, by means of which the hours are read, teacheth the dili- 
gence that should be in priests to observe at the proper time the 
canonical hours, as he saith, ' seven times a day do I praise Thee.' " 

A Latin distich, which gives the reason for appointing these seven 
special hours for prayer, also accounts for each of them being marked 
on the dials with the sign of the Cross : 

" At Matins bound, at Prime reviled, condemned to death at Tierce, 
Nailed to the Cross at Sext, at Nones His blessed side they pierce. 
They take Him down at Vespertide, in grave at Compline lay. 
Who thenceforth bids His Church to keep His sevenfold hours alway." 

A dial of much later date than any of the above is built into the 
east wall of the cathedral of Killala, co. Mayo. It is an " east declining 
dial," and shows the hour from 4 a.m. to noon. The gnomon is 

Two curious little detached dials belonging to an early period are 
described in the same archaeological papers to which we have frequently- 
referred.- The first was turned up by the plough in 1S16 in the old 
fortress of Cleobury Mortimer in Shropshire. It was of shell lime- 
stone, flat on one side and convex on the other, about 3^ inches by 
3^ inches in size, and about i| inch thick. It was pierced through 
from edge to edge, as if intended to be strung on a cord, and with it 
were two beads or whorls with runes on them, evidently meant to be 
huno- on the same string as the dial. The dial itself is circular, with 
hour lines radiating from a central hole, and below are some smaller 

' " Rationale Divinorum Oiificiorum," translated by Dr. Nealc. 

■' " ArchKological Journal," v. 221 : "Yorkshire Archaeological Journal"; "Archjeo- 
logia Cambrensis," 3rd s. xiv. 446. 


holes irregularly placed, but corresponding with some of the lines. 
Mr. Du Noyer believed the rays to mark the canonical hours, and the 
dial not to be of later date than the twelfth century, while Dr. Haigh 
thought that the lines indicated the decimal time-division of the Jutes, 
and agreed with Professor Stephens of Copenhagen in assigning a verj- 
early date, the fifth or sixth century, to the dial. Mr. Lewis Evans 
suggests that it may have been a nocturnal dial, to be used by means 
of the pole star and the pointers of the Bear (with which the small 
holes have been thought to correspond), at certain times of the year. 
Professor Stephens gave an interpretation of the runes, but the 


accuracy of this has been questioned. The dial is still in the posses- 
sion of Dr. Whitcombe of Birmingham, but, unfortunately, it has not 
been possible to obtain a fresh examination of it. 

A small pear-shaped stone, measuring nearly 5 inches by 2 inches, 
and I inch thick, was found in the moat of Stokesay Castle in Shrop- 
shire. It is of soft sandstone, with a central hole and six conical holes 
in the edge. It was exhibited at the Midland Institute in Birmincrham 
in 1897. The surface is much worn, and it seems almost doubtful 
whether it is a dial at all, but Dr. Haigh found traces of cement round 
the central hole, as if a style had been fixed there, and there were faint 
remains of radiating lines which might have marked 9 a.m., io| a.m., 
noon, and 3 p.m. 



" It were a happy life 
To carve out dials quaintly, point by point." — 3 Henry VI. 

Few things are more variable than the dates assigned to things found 
in places where the relics of different ages have become mixed together. 
The small stone cube of dials now in the Dover Museum was, when 
first dug up, thought to be Roman. It was the only one of the kind 


known, and Roman relics had been found near the same spot, beside 
the desecrated church of St. Martin's-le-Grand. The church had once 
formed part of a Benedictine monastery, and it seems much more likely, 
from the appearance of the dials, that they were made by an ingenious 
Benedictine and set up on the wall of the monastery in the fourteenth 
or fifteenth century, than that they should have lain hidden since the 
Roman occupation.' 

'■Arch. Journal," x.\i. 262; " Yorks. Arch. Journal," v. ; "Strand Magazine, 1892." 



The stone Is a cube of fine-grained oolite, measuring 4I inches ; on 
the top there is the remnant ot" an iron pin, and on the four sides are 
sunk dials, heart-shaped, oblong or cylindrical, and triangular. The 
stone seems to have been intended to stand on a small pillar or bracket. 
The sun-dials are calculated for latitude 47 degrees, so would not have 
told the time very accurately at Dover ; but they may have served as 
models for other dial-makers, or the learned Benedictine may have had 
a special value for the relic of which we know nothing: 

" We cannot buy with gold the old associations." 

Compare with this cube the one found in the monastery at Ivy 
Church near Salisbury.' This is 5^5: inches in length and breadth, and 
6|- inches in height, but one inch had 
been inserted in a pillar, so that the cube 
is really perfect. " The corners have 
been cut off, so that besides the top and 
the four sides eight spaces were avail- 
able for dials. The south side has a 
heart-shaped hollow, like the Dover 
cube," with eleven hour lines in it, and 
the east face a double plane resembling 
an open book. " The west face has 
three excavations : a rectangular one 
with a plane base, a semi-lenticular one 
(the figure being obtained by bisecting 
a thick double convex lens), and a rect- 
angular one with a curved base. The semi-lenticular excavation was 
filled with a small stylus, indicating the afternoon hours. The north 
face has a large sharply-cut crescent recumbent on the convex side." 
The eight triangular dials at the corners are much damaged, but each 
had a small stylus and excavation. On the top of the cube was a 
horizontal dial, and the metallic sub-stile is still visible and many of the 
Roman numerals marking the hours. The gnomon was evidently 
inclined to the latitude of the place, ^o^ degrees. 

Dr. Dixon considered that the dial might be assigned to about the 
middle of the fourteenth century, when the learning of the Arabs had 
found its way into many parts of Europe. The little Dover dial 
probably came from France; here we find an English follower. Ivy 
Church was founded by Henry II., and for three centuries was a 
flourishing home of Augustinian canons. 

' "Wilts. Arch. iMag.," '• Notes on a Sun-dial," by Rev. R. Dixon, xxvii. 236. 





These little cubes are probably our earliest English examples of 
detached dials, that is, dials which stand alone, unattached to walls or 
buildings. They also show the return to the earliest antique type, 
where the shadow is cast in hollow places scooped out of the stone, 
with hour lines drawn upon them. These sunk dials became varied in 
form to a degree unknown to the ancients. They were hemispherical, 

heart-shaped, cylindrical, triangular, 
oblique, and so forth, and to these were 
added, on the same stone, the plane, hori- 
zontal, vertical, reclining, and indeed al- 
most every variety of dial. This com- 
bination of plane and sunk dials cut in 
stones which, whether great or small, were 
intended to stand alone, was developed 
till it became, not merely an ingenious 
instrument for ascertaining the time of 
day or for imparting scientific know- 
ledge, but a decorative pillar, a work of 
art to be placed in courtyards, gardens, 
and public squares, at a time when the 
luxury of domestic architecture and the 
laying out of pleasure grounds began to 
be cultivated. These monumental dials 
were a product of the Renaissance. 

No country shows such magnificent 
examples as Scotland. If we take the 
English specimens first, it is because 
we incline to the belief that some of 
them are of earlier date, and that the 
history of one of these, now, alas, no 
longer in existence, can be certainly 
traced to the beginning of the sixteenth 
This was the dial which has been already mentioned, made by Nicholas 
Cratcher, or Kratzer, for the garden at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
probably in some year between 1520 and 1530. The date of its removal 
is not known, but thanks to Robert Hegge, a scholar of Corpus in 1614, 
and " a prodigy of his time," says Wood, " for forward and good natural 
parts," we have a sketch of it, which we are enabled to reproduce here 
by the kindness of Dr. Thomas Fowler, now Vice-Chancellor of Oxford, 
in whose work on Corpus Christi College it originally appeared. 




Robert Hegge left behind him several MS. works, including twocopies 
of a treatise on dials and dialling. He thus describes Kratzer's dial : 

"In this beautiful Alter (on w'^ Art has Sacrificed such varietie of 
Invention to the Deitie of the Sun) are twelve Gnomons, the Sun's 
fellow travellers, who like farr distant inhabitants, dwell some vnder y" 
Aequinoctiall, some vnder the Poles, some in more temparat Climats : 
some vpon the plains in Piano, some vpon the Mountains in Convexo, 
and some in the vallies in Concavo. Here you may see the Aequin- 

"■ '^ It, front if ^VKfwood Old Manor HovieDcrcstwoodnfarirad/i^'-d 


octial dial the Mother of y^ rest, who hath the horizons of the paralel 
Sphere for her dubble Province, which suffer by course an half year's 
night : There the Polar dial wing'd with the lateral Meridian. Here 
you may behold the two fac'd Vertical dial which shakes hands with 
both Poles : There the Convex dial elevated in triumph vpon 4 iron 
arches : Here lastly the Concave dial which shews the Sun at noone the 
hemisphere of Night. In other dials neighbouring Clocks betray their 
errours, but in this consort of Dials informed with one Soul of Art, they 
move all with one motion : and vnite with their stiles the prayse of the 

The old dial which stands on a low pedestal in front of the manor 
house of Westwood near Bradford-on-Avon, appears from its shape to 



have carried on the tradition of Kratzer's work. It is covered also with 
dial hollows of various shapes, and has been thought to date from the 
seventeenth century. It has possibly been moved of late years into its 
present position. 

The dial-block at Great Fosters near Egham is of nearly the 
same shape as the above. It is about 2 feet high, i foot 8 inches wide, 
and 10 inches thick. It is placed on a pedestal built of alternate layers 
of stone of different size, after the style of the seventeenth century. 
All the faces of the block bear dials of different forms. At the top 

there is a short column with an iron rod, on 
which there was once a weather vane. Stand- 
ing, as this dial-pillar does, in the centre of a 
smooth green lawn bordered with flowers, and 
in front of a noble old red-brick Tudor mansion, 
with great elm trees round it where the rooks 
build, it looks a fitting accompaniment to a 
" haunt of ancient peace." The history of the 
dial is not known, but it is generally called 
"Sir Francis Drake's dial." In all probability 
the connection is not with the great sea captain, 
but with one of the Drakes of Esher Place, 
which, in 1583, was bought by Richard, third 
son of John Drake, of Ashe in Devon, the 
head of the family from which Sir Francis 
sprang. Richard Drake was succeeded by his 
son Francis, and he in his turn had a son 
Francis, who lived at Walton-on-Thames, and 
died in 1634. These places are only a few 
miles from Great Fosters House, which about 
that time belonged to Sir Robert Foster, Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, who died in 1663 and was buried at Egham. It is not clear 
when or from whom Sir Robert bought the place, but he was living- 
there in 1643. Another tradition has it that the house once belonged 
to a Duke of Northumberland, who drew an armillary sphere, which 
still remains, on the staircase wall. This would probably be Sir 
Robert Dudley, son of the Earl of Leicester, on whom the title of 
Duke of Northumberland was bestowed by the Emperor Ferdinand. 
He was an ingenious mathematician,' and many clever instruments de- 
signed by him are preserved in the British Museum, at the Institute 

' He was the author of a great wnik on instrunicnts of navinatioii, "])r\ Arcano del 
Mare," foL, Florence, 1 646. 



of " Studii Superiori " at Florence and elsewhere. The house itself 
claims a Tudor origin, for Queen Elizabeth's cipher is found there, and 
Anne Boleyn's badge, but its history cannot be certainly traced beyond 
Sir Robert Foster's time. The appearance of the dial and its pillar 
would lead us to connect it with the early part of the seventeenth 
century, and most probably with Mr. Francis Drake. 

Amonof the entries in the college books of Gonville and Caius 
College at Cambridge in 1576, there is a notice of a pillar in a court- 
yard, which was " a stone of marvellous workmanship, containing in 
itself sixty dials, made by Mr. Theo- 
dorus Haveas of Cleves, a famous 
artist and notable exponent of archi- 
tecture, blazoned with the arms of the 
nobles who then dined in the college, 
and dedicated by him to the college 

a token of gfoodwill. On the 



summit of this stone is placed a 

winnowing fan, placed 

like a Pegasus." .^'.^*!^ 

The name of 
Theodorus Haveas 
has been found at 
King's Lynn, where 
he settled with his 
family. The pillar 
was standing in 1769 when Loggan's views were taken, but the dials 
were gone. 

The fine cube of stone which stands near the side entrance to 
Madeley Court, Shropshire, probably belongs to the end of the si.x- 
teenth or the early part of the seventeenth century. It stands on four 
short pillars, mounted on a circular platform, and approached by steps. 
There is a great concave on three of the four sides, surrounded by 
smaller hollows of different shapes, and the top is convex. Each of 
the hollows shows the hour at a certain time of day, and the position 
of the moon in relation to the planets can also be ascertained. The 
dials have no history, but the house, which is now divided into dwell- 
ings for colliers and their families, was bought from the last prior of 
Wenlock Abbey by Robert Brooke, Justice of the Common Pleas, and 
probably rebuilt by him. In the time of Charles I. it belonged to Sir 
David Brooke, a devoted Royalist and friend of the King; and Charles II. 
was concealed for a time in a barn at Madeley during some of his 


wanderings. The convex or hemispherical dial is described by Sebas- 
tian Mijnster in his " Horologiographia," 1530. 

In Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting" it is stated that in 1619 the 
eminent sculptor Nicholas Stone made a dial at St. James's, the King 
finding stone and workmanship, for which he received £(y \t^s. ^d. 
"And in 1622," Stone says, "I made the great diall in the Privy 
Garden at Whitehall, for the which I had ^46, and in that year 1622 
I made a dial for my Lord Brooke, in Holbourn, for the which I had 
^8 I05-." Also for " Sir John Daves, at Chelsea," he made a dial, 
and two statues of an old man and woman, for which he received £"] 

The Privy Garden dials, executed by Stone, were, however, designed 
by Edmund Gunter, Professor of Astronomy at Gresham College, who 
in 1624 published a description and use of the same, which he dedi- 
cated to King James, praying him to accept these poor fruits of his 
younger studies when he was His Majesty's scholar in Westminster 
and Christ Church. The stone, he says, was of the same size as that 
which stood in the same place before, only that was of Caen stone, and 
this of one entire stone from Purbeck Quarry. The base was a square 
of more than 4I feet, the height 3!^ feet, and it was wrought with the 
like planes and concaves as the former, but many lines different and 
such as were not in before. There were five dials described upon the 
upper part, four in the four corners, and one, the great horizontal con- 
cave, 20 inches deep and 40 inches over, in the middle. The south side 
had one great vertical dial, two equinoctial dials, " whereon the sun 
never shineth but in winter," one vertical concave in the middle, two 
declining dials on either side of this concave, two small polar concaves, 
and two irregular dials with three styles in each dial. The east and 
west sides had each four great dials, plane, concave, cylindrical, and 
a square hollow of many sides, and on the north the lines were drawn 
so as to answer to those on the south side. There were also four tri- 
angular dials at the four corners. Latin verses explaining the lines and 
their colours were inscribed in each of the larger dials. 

This fine and curious work was defaced in the reign of Charles II. 
by a drunken nobleman of the Court, on which occurrence Andrew 
Marvell wrote : 

'' For a dial the place is too unsecure. 

Since the Privy Garden could not it defend ; 

And so near to the Court they will never endure 

Any monument how they their time may misspend." 



A dial which appears to resemble in several points this work of 
Stone's or Gunter's, is at Badminton House, Gloucestershire, and has 
lately been remounted on stone steps and placed in front of the church. 
Nothing is known of its history, but it is probably early seventeenth 
century work. There is a " great concave " at the top, with a hole near 
the bottom for the rain-water to run out, and around the top the hours 
are marked in Roman numerals, the signs of the Zodiac being carved 
above them, while the sides are covered with dials of different forms, 


hollowed and plane. Badminton House was not built till 1682, but it 
is possible that this dial may have been brought from Raglan Castle, 
and if so, its construction and ownership may be connected with two 
loyal friends and supporters of Charles I., the first and second Mar- 
quesses of Worcester. The second marquess, known also as Earl of 
Glamorgan, was not only a gallant soldier, but a man of science and a 
mechanician, and has left the record of his discoveries in his " Century 
of Inventions." 

The fancy of Charles I. for sun-dials was well known. Mr. Ought- 
red, the mathematician, on being asked by Elias Allen, one of the 
King's servants and a noted instrument maker, to advise him as to a 
suitable gift for His Majesty, replied that he had "heard that His 
Majesty delighted much in the great concave dial at Whitehall, and 
what fitter instrument could he have than my horizontal, which was 
the very same represented in flat .'' " 

Horace Walpole, in his "Anecdotes of Painting," gives a copy of a 


bill of [ohn de Critz, serjeant painter to His Majesty, wherein the 
colouring of a dial, opposite some part of the King and Queen's lodging, 
is described at some length. 

" For stveral times oyling and laying with I'ayre white a stone for a sundyall .... the 
lines thereof being drawn in several colours, the letters directing to the howers guilded with 
fine gould, as also the glorie, and a scrowle guilded with fine gould where the numbers 
and figures specifying the planetary howers are inscribed ; likewise certaine letters drawne 
in black, informing in what part of the compasses the sun at any time there shining shall 
be resident, the whole works being circumferenced with a fret painted in manner of a 
stone one, the complete measure of the whole being six foot." 

Critz also repaired pictures by Palma and Titian, and yet was not 
above painting the royal barge and coach. 

The catalogue of goods from Oatlands Palace, belonging to Charles I ., 
which were sold under the Commonwealth, includes : " Two stone sun- 
dyalls with a wooden seat at y" end of y'' arbour, valued ^3. Sold 
Mr. Lavender 29 March 1649 for £2 . o . 6^" 

Amonofst the king-'s Q^oods offered for sale at Greenwich was " a 
great stone sundyal, valued at ^^30." A purchaser does not appear to 
have been found for this. 

To the Great Fire of London in 1666 we probably owe the de- 
struction of Dr. Donne's sun-dial, which he set up at the deanery of 
St. Paul's, and which he mentions in his will : "My will is that the 
four large pictures of the four Great Prophets which hang in the hall, 
and that large picture of ancient church work in the lobby, and what- 
ever else I have placed in the chapel (except that wheel of Deskes 
which at this time stands there) shall remain in those places, as also 
the marble table sonnedyal and pictures which I have placed in the 
garden, and an inventory thereof to be made and the things to continue 
always in the house as they are." All are gone now ; the deanery 
was swept away by the Fire, and not a vestige of Dr. Donne's legacies 

hi the garden, or rather orchard, of what was formerly the manor 
house of Upton near Peterborough, there stands a fine monumental 
dial-stone of the seventeenth century. Upton was once the property 
of Thomas Dove, Bishop of Peterborough, whom Queen Elizabeth 
called her " Dove with the silver wings," and who died in 1630. His 
son, Sir William Dove, inherited the place, and lies buried in the little 
church or chapel hard by, where there is a noble monument to him and 
his two wives. The three figures, life size, lie under a cano[)y, and 
traces of the original colour can be faintly seen under a modern coating 
of drab paint. 



The dial has, fortunatel)', only been repaired so far as to fasten 
securely a top stone, which was formerly movable, and covered a con- 
cave dial. The whole block is 5 feet 10 inches in height, and 
3 feet 4 inches in width at the base moulding. The upper part of the 
south side is sloped lectern wise ; the vertical portion has a heart- 
shaped hollow. East, west, and north have their several dials, now 



overgrown with lichen, but it is not many years since the numerals 
could be distinguished. Not far off from this fine old dial-stone is the 
stem of a mulberry tree, said to have been planted in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, and near it are the remains of the old terraces of the garden. Of 
the manor house only the kitchen is left ; its wall is 6 feet thick, and 
the ivy growing over it has a stem which, from its size, must be some 
centuries old. The dial was described and sketched with great detail 
a century ago,' and it still stands, little altered, in the midst of the quiet 
fields and old-world surroundings of an out-of-the-way little hamlet. 

' Gibson and Gough's "Castor," "Bib. Top. Brit.,' x. 1795; Bridge's "Hist, of 
Northamptonshire " ; " Anastatic Drawing Soc,'' vol. xxiv. 





A stone somewhat resembling this at Upton, but which has met 
with much worse treatment, is now mounted on the gate-post of a farm- 
yard at Patrington, Yorkshire. It is also of the lectern shape, with an 
oblong hollow on the slope to the south, and a heart-shaped one below. 
There was once a concave at the top, and oblong, triangular, and circular 
hollows on the east and west sides ; these are all much worn away. 
The history of the stone has been traced back to 1770, when it was 

taken out of the remains of an old house 
which appeared to have once belonged to 
the Hildyard family. Sir R(jbert Hild- 
yard, of Patrington, who died 1685, was 
a Cavalier who fought in the wars on the 
King's side, compounded for delinquency 
under the Parliament, and at the restora- 
tion of Charles II. was created a baronet. 
From the appearance of the dial, as well 
as its history, it would seem likely that it 
was set up by the old Cavalier in his gar- 
den at Patrington, and probably before those civil wars which brought 
him into close contact with the great lover of dials, Charles I., to 
whom he was made Gentleman of the Privy Chamber in 1642.' 

There are two curious old dial-stones standing in the churchyard at 
Elmley Castle, Worcestershire. One of these is placed on the eastern 
side of the burial ground, and is a cube of ] foot 10 inches, rising to a 
blunt point, and surmounted by a globular-shaped top ; it is covered with 
hollows of different forms. In several of these hollows there remains 
a thin iron rod, once the gnomon ; in others the rods are beaten flat 
upon the stone, which is much worn away. The whole height of the 
dial does not exceed 3I feet. On the plane surfaces of the stone, 
which is bevelled off at the sides, the remains of two gnomons may be 
traced by the lead with which they were hxed. Two of the hemi- 
spherical hollows have an iron rod fixed across them, and two other 
hollows contain their metal gnomons, tolerably perfect. When the 
examination and sketch of this dial was made, about 9 inches of soil 
had to be cleared away from its base. This was done some jears ago, 
and since then the dial has suftered from weather and school-children, 
and is much defaced. 

The other dial stands near the north-west angle of the churchjard, 
and is erected on the base and one of the steps of the old cross. On 

' " 'I'raiisactions of ihc East Riding .\iuiquarian .Sucicty," vol. 
dial at I'atriiiglon.'' 

• Notes on a .Sun- 



as \\alkinton, Danyers, 

this toundation there are six courses of stone masonry, rising 2 feet 
6 inches in heig^ht, and above them is a stone so similar to the dial just 
described, that it has been conjectured that they m'nj^ht once have 
formed one structure. Three of the sides have hollow's of different 
shapes, and on the fourth, the north side, is a large shield bearing the 
arms of Savage, with numerous quarterings 
Swinerton, Beke, Stanley, Latham, Arderne, 
Bagot, Basset, Camvill. These arms were 
borne by Christopher Savage, to whom the 
manor of Elmley was granted by Henry VIII. 
It seems likely that he, or one of his imme- 
diate descendants, was the giver of the dial. 
The family of Savage held land in the parish 
till within the last twenty or thirty years. 
At the top of this pillar there is a more 
modern block, with four vertical dials on it. 

In the village of Elmley Castle there is 
a cubical dial on what seems to have been 
the shaft of an old cross, and on this the 
date ADO^[ cdcxlviii is inscribed. It stands 
where two roads meet. The dial-block has 
unfortunately been placed 
upside down, probably at 
the last " restoration." One 
might read the inscription as .., 

A. DO. MCDCXLViii, which 
would be a very probable 
one for the placing of a dial- 
stone on the cross, but not in its present inverted condition. 

A dial of the same type as that which bears the Savage arms has 
been built into the market cross at Wilton. .Some part of one of the 
gnomons remains, but the stone has long ceased to be used as a dial, 
and we have been unable to find out its history, or even to ascertain 
when the curious heterogeneous construction which goes by the name 
of " cross " was erected. 

The most beautiful and perfect of all known English dials of this 
class is at Moccas Court, Herefordshire. It is thoueht to belongf to 
the reign of Charles II., and was first set up at Mornington Court on 
the opposite side of the Wye, once the property of the Tompkins 
family. When this estate came into the possession of the Cornewalls, 
now represented by the Rev. Sir George Cornewall, Bart., the dial 




was brought to Moccas. It has several mottoes carved upon its sides, 
which will be found further on in this work. A dial-stone resembling 
this one, but in much worse condition, was once to be seen at Kinlet 
near Bewdley, but from inquiries lately made it seems that only a 

portion of it remains, and that is now 
used as a vase for holding plants ! 

There has been more than one de- 
scription published of the " Marvellous 
Pyramidicall dial at Whitehall," set up 
in 1669, by order of Charles II., in the 
Privy Garden facing the Banquetting 
House.^ It stood on a stone pedestal, 
and consisted of six pieces in the form of 
tables or hollow globes, placed one above 
another, standing on iron branches, and 
lessening in size as they neared the top. 
The inventor was the Rev. Francis 
Hall, alias Lyne, professor of mathe- 
matics in the Jesuit college at Liege, 
where he had previously erected a simi- 
lar set of dials, which, in 1 703, were re- 
ported to be " shamefully 
gone to decay." This pyra- 
mid is said to have con- 

tained no less than 271 
different dials, some show- 
ing the hours according to 
the Jewish, Babylonian, Ital- 
ian, and Astronomical ways 


of reckoning, others with the shadows of the hour lines falling upon 
the style ; some showing the hour by a style without a shadow, and 
others by a shadow without a style. There were also portraits on 
glass of the King, his Queen, and the Queen Mother, the Duke of 
York, and Prince Rupert. Perhaps the most unusual feature was 
a bowl which told the time by fire. This was about 3 inches in 
diameter, and was placed, filled with water, in the middle of another 
sphere, measuring about 6 inches across, and consisting of several 
iron rings which represented the circles of the heavens. By apply- 
ing the hand to these circles when the sun shone, the enquirer would 

' "Tractates," by W. T.eyhourn. 16S2 : Holwell'.s " Clavis Horologicfe," 171 2; "The 
Mirror," No. 400, 1825. 

Pl. V, 



.uv.'JV ' 


(See No. 1469, p. 448.) 

To face p. 100. 


feel the burning effect of the sun's rays which passed through the 
water bowl and struck upon the ring whereon the true hour was shown. 
This ingenious and fantastic construction, in faulty taste, for it was 
more curious than pretty, was ill adapted to resist the weather, for 
Mr. Leybourne complains, in 1689, that "the Diall for want of a cover, 
was much endamaged by the snow lying long frozen upon it, and that 
unless a cover were provided (of which he saw little hope), another or 
two such tempestuous winters would utterly deface it." Mr. Timbs 
says that, about 1710, William Allingham, a mathematician in Cannon 
Row, asked ;^500 to repair this dial, and it was last seen by Vertue at 
Buckingham House, from whence it was sold. Father Lyne's own 
description of this work was published in 1673, and is illustrated by 
seventy-three plates. An engraving of it may also be seen in Ley- 
bourne's Works. 




"Stands it not by the door — 
Love's Hour — . . . ? 

Its eyes invisible 
Watch till the dial's thin-thrown shade 
Be born, — yea, till the journeying line be laid 

Upon the point that wakes the spell." — D. G. Rossetti. 

Perhaps the most notable features of the dials just described are the 
hollows — round, heart-shaped, or angidar — which distinguish them. 
Some such hollows are found again on the lectern-shaped dials, but 
the most distinguishing mark of these is the half cylinder, with which 
plane dials, generally reclining and proclining, are combined. One 
such block, surmounted by a ball on which hour lines are also traced, is 
in a garden at Cheeseburn, Northumberland, mounted on a pedestal. 
It was drawn by Mr. R. Blomfield for his " Formal Garden," and 
Messrs. Macmillan have kindly allowed the reproduction of the sketch. 
Cheeseburn came into the family of the present owner, Mr. Riddell, 
through the marriage, in the eighteenth century, of Mr. Ralph Riddell 
with the heiress of the Widderingtons, to whom the place belonged. 
The dial strongly resembles some of the Scottish examples. A very 
similar stone is on the gable of the church at Hartburn, in the same county. 
Another cylindrical dial, surmounted by a cherub's head, not unlike 
those seen in Scottish sculpture of the eighteenth century, is in the 
Antiquarian Museum in the castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. At the back 
of the stone there is an old man's head, and on either side the halves of 
a north polar dial. Below these are two small hollowed dials, a plane 
dial, and a vertical north dial, with a stone gnomon ; and on the south 
side a plane vertical south dial with a stone gnomon below the half 
cylinder. On the east and west sides are two flattened hemispheres 
with metal gnomons.' 

' " ,\rili. ,l'",liana, I'ro.," 1S91-94. 



Mr. Warrington Hogg saw a modern example of the same type in 
the little village of Denton near Canterbury, and sketched it for " The 
Strand Magazine." ' It had been made some fifty years earlier by 
Richard Webb, a master mason, and was mounted on a fine pillar of 




red brick, built in a spiral form, and of beautiful workmanship. Mr. 
Hogg also describes the dial in the deanery garden at Rochester. 
This is shaped like a short thick anchor, the hour lines being drawn 
on the cylindrical hollows of the sides. It stands on a pedestal, and 
marks the boundary between the parishes of St. Margaret and St. 

June, 1 89 2. 



Nicholas. The dial and pedestal, of grey stone, are together about 5 
feet 6 inches in height, and on the south side is fixed a table of equa- 
tions engraved on metal. Another stone sun-dial shaped like an 

anchor is in the garden of Penn- 
sylvania Castle, Isle of Portland. It 
was made about the year 1830. 

A double cylindrical dial may be 
seen in a garden at Fellside, Essex, 
placed on an ivy-covered pedestal. 
Mr. G. Yarding, the owner, writes 
that it came into his father's posses- 
sion in 1828, and had previously 
stood on the lawn of an old mansion 
which had beloncjed to an engineer 
of scientific tastes, who had probably 
set up the dial. Another specimen 
of this kind was shown at the Loan 
Exhibition at the Midland Institute at 
Birmingham, in 1897. It belonged to 
Mr. Osier, who was always 
much interested in sun- 
dials, and who had this 
reproduced in marble from 
a drawing of one that he 
had seen, very much bro- 
ken, in 1842, at Hastings 

The semi - cylindrical 
hollow is also seen on a 
small stone which stands 
about 7 or 8 inches high, 
and was discovered in the 
centre of a wall at Wig- 
borough House, Somer- 
setshire. It is now in the 
museum at Taunton. The 
stone is said to be a hard 
freestone from the Mendip quarries. There is a semi-cylindrical dial 
on each side, and one on a reclining plane at the top. The hour 
lines and some of the numbers can still be seen painted in the 
hollows. The dial, no doubt, stood on a small pillar, or wall, so that 



the four sides could be seen, and probably dates from the seventeenth 

There is surely no more curious little specimen of a hollow cylinder 




K?,TOai,ns of 

MARY His Wife 
era Avg'yc 

than that which is cut on an upright gravestone in Saxmundham 
Churchyard. It is only 3 inches long, and marks the afternoon hours. 
The bodies of John Noller and Mary his wife rest below. Some few 
years ago the late Mr. George Roberts 
described in his " History of Loft- 
house" a curious dial, partly cylindri- 
cal, which he had seen at Hartshead 
Church, Yorkshire. The stone was 
cubical, fixed in a low position at the 
south-east corner of the nave, and on 
the south face there was an erect 
dial, while the east and west sides 
were deeply hollowed vertically, and 
the light was cut off by the sharply- 
chiselled edges of the stone. A hori- 
zontal dial inscribed " N.N., 161 1," 
is on a pedestal in the churchyard. 
Another cube of stone with a concave dial on one face is on a pedestal 
in Mr. Hunter's garden at West Boldon, co. Durham, and on the top of 
this cube there is a semi-cylindrical dial placed in a sloping position. 

There are sunk dials of the cylindrical form on the south buttress 
of the chancel of Bleadon Church, Somerset. The chancel belongs 
to the Decorated period, and one of the dials closely resembles that 
on the sloping face of the Upton dial (see a7i/e, p. 97). They were 
sketched for the " Antiquary "^ by Mr. J. L. Andre, F.S.A., and we 
have been allowed to reproduce the illustration. 

' December, 1893, vol. 28, No. 48, N.S. 





The next form of dial which comes under our notice is the convex 
or orlobular type. We have not many examples of this type, though 
we hear that it has been revived, and some globe dials made and set 
up within the last few years. 

Joseph Moxon in his "Tutor to Astronomie " (1659) describes a 
" Dyal upon a solid Ball or Globe, that shall shew the Hour of the day 

without a gnomon," and says that a 
" Dyal of this sort was made by Mr. 
John Leek, and set up on a com- 
posite columne at Leadenhall Corner, 
London, during the mayoralty of Sir 
John Dethick, K'.," in 1655. The 
column was flanked by four statues of 
women in caps and kirtles, and formed 
the centre of a fountain. It was re- 
produced in " Old London " in the 
Health Exhibition in 1884, and is 
figured in Chambers' " Book of 

Moxon also gives an example of 
u orlass crlobe dial borne on the 
shoulders of Atlas, which stood in the 
garden of Robert Titchborn, another 
Lord Mayor of London. The dial 
was made by dividing the middle or 
equinoctial circle into 24 equal parts, 
marked with two sets of figures from 
I to 12, and the globe then set according to the latitude of the place, 
with one i 2 line to the north and the other to the south. A figure 
of Atlas resting on one knee and bearing a globe dial stood for some 
time in the grounds of Gloucester House, Walworth, but was destroyed 
many years ago. A statue of Atlas, which probably bore a sun-dial, 
stood once in that part of the gardens of Wadham College, Oxford, 
which was laid out in 1650 by the then warden. Dr. Wilkins, and 
is shown in Loggan's engravings. It was blown down by a high 
wind in 1753 and broken to pieces. 

In the courtyard of Lewes Castle there is a stone ball on a pedestal 
which shows signs of having been covered with dial lines, and has 
some holes where gnomons were once fixed. It has been broken and 
mended with mortar, and was presented about fifty years ago to the 
Sussex Archaeological Society. Its history is not known. 




A globe bearing some resemblance to the above, but made of metal 
and marked with eight or ten hexagonal dials painted on the metal, and 
with curiously pierced gnomons, is at present in the possession of 
Messrs. Barker and Son, Clerkenwell Road. It stands about 3 feet 
high, and has apparently been placed on a pedestal and surmounted by 
a vane, for which there is a large hole at the top of the globe. Each 
dial marks the time at a different place — Amsterdam, Jerusalem, Rome, 
Madrid, Paris, etc., and ending with Fort St. George and " Port Sir 
Francis Drake." No English place of note is named. It is evidently 
eighteenth-century work. 

A handsome dial mounted on steps, in the gardens of Ford Castle, 
Northumberland, had the appearance, in a small sketch which we have 
seen, of a globular dial, though it may 
possibly have been facet-headed. Globe 
dials are sometimes found surmounting a 
block of vertical ones, as at Knowsley and 
other places. 

Cross dials have been revived of late 
years, and the Rev. R. W. Essington, late 
vicar of Shenstone, composed for one 
which he put up, some singularly beautiful 
and appropriate lines which will be found 
in the collection of mottoes. The shape 
is that of a Latin cross, placed slanting, so 
that the shadows from the angles fall on 
the sides where the hour lines are drawn, 
and no gnomon is needed. Mr. Ross ' 
gives an example of one at Scotscraig, Fifeshire, which stood in the 
courtyard of the old mansion house built by Archbishop Sharp in 
1667. The family of Sharp were in possession of the estate of Scots- 
craig for nearly a hundred years, and there is every reason to believe 
that the dial, which is of a close-grained brown stone, probably some 
form of sandstone, belonged to the Archbishop of St. Andrews — 

" Him whom butchers murdered on the field of Magus Muir." 

His arms and initials, A. I. S., are over the entrance gate. He was 
assassinated by a party of Covenanters in 1679. 

A cross dial made of iron stood formerly at the south corner of 
Middle Moorfield, by Moorgate, in London. It was fixed on a stone 
bearing this inscription : " This dial was placed here as a Boundary of 


'Castellated Architecture of Scotland,'' vol. 


the Parish of St. Stephen, Coleman St., in the memorable year 1706, 
in the 9th year of the glorious reign of our most gracious Sovereign, 
whom God long preserve." 

A cross dial on a stone pedestal, copied from the Shenstone dial, 
but without a motto, has been erected at Hamstall near Rugeley. 
It is in the churchyard, and stands on a pavement made partly of 
smooth river-stones, and partly from some beautiful old tiles found in 
the church. The cross is of white marble, and the pedestal is an 
alabaster one which formerly supported a font in the church, and was 
removed from thence about 1868. A dial of the same type was placed, 
by the late Rev. Charles Page Eden, in the garden of Aberford Vicar- 
age, Yorkshire ; and the Rev. T. Parnell removed one from King's Hill 
near Dursley to his garden at Staverton Vicarage, Gloucestershire. 

At Whitton Shields, Northumberland, a cross dial is placed below 
the east window of the chapel which belongs to the old house of the 
Thornton family ; and at Naburn Hall near York, one made of oak, 
projecting from a wooden post, has lately been placed in the garden. 
There are cross dials also at the Manor House, Rochdale ; and Lumley 
Castle, Durham. 

Some few years ago a dial in the form of a star, placed before a 
cottage at Hanslope in Northamptonshire, attracted the notice of a 
passer-by. It had been set up by the postmaster, who was said to 
have made several others and put them up in different parts of the 
country. They were reproductions of an old form, which is to be 
found in Schoner's book. 

The "facet-headed" dials, or stone blocks which are cut into a variety 

of plane surfaces and have a dial on each plane, are not uncommonly 

found mounted on a pillar and adorning a garden. 

One of these, mounted on steps, is in the garden at 

Heslington Hall near York, and harmonizes well 

with the architecture of the fine old house and the 

quaintly-cut yew trees near it. There is no date on 

the pillar. Another stone, consisting of " twenty 

equilateral triangles, so disposed as to form a similar 

number of dials," was made in 1813 by George 

Boulby, a working mason.' It was bought by Mr. 

WALTON HALL. Watertou, the naturalist, and set up at Walton 

Hall near Wakefield. 

In the Duke of Newcastle's garden at Clumber, betwixt the house 

' This form is technically known as an '' icosahedron." 


and a fine marble fountain that was brought from Italy, is a pedestal 
on which are two iron hoops about a yard in diameter, placed trans- 
versely one inside the other, with a rod across the middle. In the 
centre of this is a knob, which, when the sun shines, throws its shade 
on the figures that are marked with gold within the hoops. A dial, 
which from its description seems to be an equinoctial ring dial like the 
foregoing, and stands on the head of a stone figure of Atlas, is at Oakley 
Park in Shropshire. Similar dials have been made of late years, both 
for crardens and also of smaller size, to stand on a window-sill or a table. 
The detached dials with which everyone is most familiar are, of 
course, those horizontal plates which are mounted on pedestals or short 
columns, and have often the additional interest of being engraved with 
curious devices and mottoes. They were, perhaps, the latest in chrono- 
logical order ; our oldest specimen (from the churchyard of Wood- 
plumpton in Lancashire), has the date 159S on the plate; but they 
were probably used a century earlier. Being made of metal, they 
were more durable than the vertical dials carved or painted, as they 
often were, on walls ; and the pedestal might be either simple and 
cheap, or of artistic design and elaborately sculptured. When the 
formal garden came into fashion a sun-dial became the central object on 
a grass plot, or on a gravel walk where several paths converged. It 
is thus that we meet with it in poetry and in painting. Lovers make 
it their trysting-place, or the forlorn damsel watches sadly where 

". . . . round the sundial 
The reluctant hours of day 
Heartless, hopeless of their way, 

Rest and call "' ; 

or the old retainer sits on the step where grass grows up between the 
stones, and thinks of bygone days ; or the student moralizes beside it. 
The dial has become suggestive and picturesque, therefore its days 
have been prolonged. It is still wanted for the garden and the grass 
plot. Old dials, torn from their original resting-places, are frequently 
to be seen in the London curiosity shops ; new ones make their 
appearance in provincial exhibitions. It is only from the churchyard 
that the sun-dial disappears ; the plate gets loose and is stolen, the 
stones give way and are pushed aside ; it is not thought worth restor- 
ing : there is a new clock ; away with the dial ! 

The pedestal admits of great variety of treatment. Sometimes it is 
a kneeling figure, supporting the dial with hands and head. Such a 
figure, usually spoken of as " The Moor," stood for many years in the 
garden of Clement's Inn. Peter Cunningham, in his " Handbook of 


London," supposes it to have been brought from Italy by Lord Clare, 
but Mr. Timbs' account appears to be more correct. " There were in 
the eighteenth century," he says, "statuaries who made figures in lead, 
and whose yards lay between Piccadilly, Devonshire House, and Park 
Lane, and a favourite design of one of these men, John Van Nost, who 
came over with William III., was that of an African kneeling, with a 
sun-dial on his head ; the last owner of his yard, John Cheere, died in 
1787." The date on this dial plate is 1781 ; the designer, no doubt, 
inherited John Van Nost's traditions. The figure is of bronze, and was 
at one time painted black, when a wag stuck on to it the following lines : 

" In vain, poor sable son of woe, 

Thou seek'st the tender tear ; 
From thee in vain with pangs they flow. 

For mercy dwells not here. 
From cannibals thou fled'st in vain ; 

Lawyers less quarter give : 
The first won't eat you till you 're slain 

The last will do 't alive." 

At the sale of the property of Clement's Inn in 1884, the dial was 
bought by Mr. William Holmes and presented to the Society of the 
Inner Temple, and it now stands in the gardens, on the terrace by the 
Thames Embankment. 

A leaden figure of Time kneeling, supporting a sun-dial on his head, 
is on the lawn at Flaxley Abbey in Gloucestershire. The stone statue 
of Time carrying off the dial, on the terrace at Duncombe Park, is 
noticed in the collection of mottoes. 

Mr. Blomfield, in his " Formal Garden," describes a fine dial at 
Wroxton Abbey, Oxon, where the plate is fixed on " a moulded circular 
top carried by four draped female figures, who stand on a square 
pedestal, the angles of which are decorated with rams' heads, and 
swags of fruit and flowers." The figures may possibly represent the 
four seasons, as do those round the dial in the Dane John at Canter- 
bury, where the shaft is mounted on a square base, thus raising the 
dial to a considerable height. In 1895 a fine dial of this kind was set 
up in the grounds of Whatton House near Loughborough. It is sup- 
ported by four figures of the Muses, Clio, Euterpe, Erato, and Urania, 
and mounted on steps.' 

There is no record left to tell us the form of the dial, " once of great 
renowne," and now only remembered by the name " Dial Walk," in the 

' The designers were Messrs. Brewill and Daily, architects. Sir "'I'he Builder," 
October 19, 1895. 


private gardens of Kensington Palace ; nor of that erected on Richmond 
Green by Queen Caroline, wife of George II., which was still standing 
in I 776, and said to be " of a pretty taste, and encompassed with seats." 
There is a dial on a plain pedestal at Kew Palace remarkable for 
the stone base on which the pillar rests. It is inscribed as follows: 



MAJESTY King William the fourth. 

A relic of old London Bridge has been preserved and mounted with 
a dial, as the following letter from the Rev. C. W. Jones, who wrote 
from Pakenham, Suffolk, in 1895, informs us: 

" I have a dial in the Vicarage garden erected on one of the balus- 
trades of old London Bridge, which my father got when the bridge was 
taken down in 1832, and have set it on a square base, inscribed as 
follows : 

pontis londinensis. a.d. mdclxxvi extructi, a.d. mdcccxxxh diruti. 
Columella sto superstes. [/ survive, a little cohiiiin^ 

One of the balustrades of old Rochester Bridge was made use of 
for a like purpose by Charles Dickens. The sun-dial stood in the 
garden at Gadshill, and after the death of the novelist was bought by 
Mr. Crighton, of Rochester. 

Part of the shafts of crosses which were " stumped " at the 
Reformation have often been made use of to support horizontal dials. 
At one time a dial plate was on the base of the cross at Woodchurch, 
Cheshire. The dial was removed in 1889, and the upper part of the 
cross was restored by the rector. He added the following inscription : 
" I used to show the hours which pass away, but now I point to that 
which is eternal." 

In the garden at .Selborne, where Gilbert White lived, there is a 
pedestal dial which is said to have been put up and used by White 
himself. It has no date. 

Another dial associated with an imperishable name in English 


literature is that which was given to WilHani Cowper by his friend the 
Rev. J. Johnson, and the following letter of thanks (which we owe to 
the kindness of Mr. Thomas Wright, principal of the Cowper School 
at Olney) gives particulars as to how the present was made : 

"Sept. 4, 1793. 
" My dearest Johnny, — 

"To do a kind thing, and in a kind manner, is a double kindness, and no 
man is more addicted to both than you, or more skilful in contriving them. Your 
plan to surprise me agreably succeeded to admiration. It was only the day before 
yesterday that, while we walked after dinner in the orchard, Mrs. Unwin between Sam and 
me, hearing the Hall clock, I observed a great difference between that and ours, and began 
immediately to lament, as I had often done, that there was not a sun-dial in all Weston to 
ascertain the true time for me. My complaint was long, and lasted till, having turned into 
the grass-walk, we reached the new building at the end of it, where we sat awhile and 
reposed ourselves. In a few minutes we returned by the way we came, when what think you 
was my astonishment to see what I had not seen before, though I had passed close by it — 
a smart sun-dial mounted on a smart stone pedestal ! I assure you it seemed the effect of 
conjuration. I stopped short and e.xclaimed, ' Why, here is a sun-dial, and upon our 
ground 1 How is this ? Tell me, Sam, how came it here ? Do you know anything 
about it?' At first I really thought (that is to say, as soon as I could think at all) that this 
factotum of mine, Sam Roberts, having often heard me deplore the want of one, had given 
orders for the supply of that want himself, without my knowledge, and was half pleased 
and half offended. But he soon exculpated himself by imputing the fact to you." 

After Cowper left Weston Underwood (where the dial was erected) 
the sun-dial was removed by the Throgmortons to the hall where they 
lived, and in 1828 it was placed where it now stands, in the garden of 
the priest's house, on or near the site of the porch that belong^ed to the 
west front of the mansion. It is inscribed: "Walter Cough, No. 21, 
Middle Row, Holborn, London." 

A dial, which is said to have been calculated by Sir Isaac Newton, 
stands in the garden at Cranbury Park, Hants. The gnomon is pierced 
with the letters I. C, and the arms of Mr. Conduitt, the owner, as 
granted to him in 1717, are engraved on the plate with his motto: 
" Cada uno es hijo de sus obras." [Each one is the son of his dcedsJ] 
The maker's name, John Rowley, is below. Mr. Conduitt married Sir 
Isaac Newton's niece, and succeeded him in his office of Master of the 
Mint. In his later years the great astronomer made his home at 

A dial connected with the ancestors of George Washington was 
noticed in the " Athenaium " for June 24th, 1899. This was found in 
the garden of what is known as the " Washingtons' House," Little 
Brington, Northants, a house which was no doubt occupied at one 

' " John Keble and his Parishes," C. M. Vonge. 


1 1 

time by the Washingtons of Sulgrave. Over the door of the house 
is the inscription : " The Lord giveth and the Lord talceth away, 
blessed be the name of the Lord ; constructa 1606." This date would 
coincide with the change of fortune which brought the family to 
Little Brington. The dial is horizontal, and is cut on a round slab 
of sandstone 16J inches in diameter ; the numerals are placed so as 
to be read from the inside, and between the hours of 4 a.m. and 
8 p.m. are the Washington arms : argent, two bars and in chief 
three mullets (gules), with the date 161 7 and initials R. W., somewhat 
defaced. In the centre of the shield there appears to have been a 


crescent, the mark of the second son, which would point to Robert 
Washington, second son of Lawrence Washington of Sulgrave, as the 
owner of the dial. He died in 1622, and was buried in Brington 
Church ; and his nephew Lawrence, rector of Purleigh, Essex, was 
father of the two brothers, John and Lawrence Washington, who sailed 
for Virginia in 1657. 

In an old farmhouse garden near Dalston, Cumberland, there 
stands a picturesque old dial with a serpent twined round the stone 

A stone shaft in Bradbourne Churchyard, Derbyshire, bearing a 



horizontal dial of brass, has certain regimental badges cut on the cap, 
showing that the dial was set up by Captain Thomas Buckstone, who 
fought at Culloden in 1745. In the garden at Bradbourne Hall, the 
ancient seat of the Buckstone family, there is another dial entirely of 
stone, except the gnomon, dated 1 740, and by the same maker. 

A sun-dial in the Italian garden at Newstead Abbey, Notts, is 
mounted on a unique pedestal, viz., the white marble capital of a pillar 
brought from the Temple of Venus at Athens. The history of the 
capital is inscribed on the dial plate. 

A stone pedestal of classic mouldings in the formal garden at 
Canon's Ashby, Northants, the seat of Sir Henry Dryden, Bart., bears 
a sun-dial with the Dryden arms engraved on it, and the maker's name, 
"Jones, Holborn." It is certainly of later date than the pedestal, 
which was set up about 17 10, the garden having 
been laid out by Edward Dryden in 1700. 

Dial i^lates are often found with coats-of-arms 
engraved on them, and are sometimes very fine 
specimens of the engraver's art. A beautiful eigh- 
teenth-century specimen is at West Wycombe Park, 
Bucks, bearing the arms of the Lord Despencer of 
the day upon it. Another fine plate at Staverton 
Court, Gloucestershire, has the shield of Sir William 
Strachan, Bart., and the name of " Thomas Wright, 
Instrument maker to his Majesty George II." The 
Fortescue arms are found on the dial in Ripple 
Churchyard, Gloucestershire, with the name of the 
maker, " Nath: Witham, Chancery Lane, London." 
The late Mr. Bridgeman Simpson brought a 

ST. MARY'S, SCILLY. , .^ ,, , i- i 1 r *?- 1 

very beautituiiy engraved dial plate from Stoke 
Hall, Derbyshire, and placed it on a pedestal in his garden at Bab- 
worth Hall, Notts. Perhaps the designs on these plates are most 
often heraldic, but emblematic figures and arabesque patterns are 
sometimes found on them. Messrs. Barker, of Clerkenwell Road, have 
lately engraved a handsome plate on which the tables of the equation 
of time are disposed in separate columns, according to the months, 
between flowers appropriate to the different seasons of the year. The 
gnomons also can be made very ornamental, when pierced, or supported 
by scrollwork of graceful design. 

There is great scope for the artist in the treatment of horizontal 
dials, both in the adornment of the plate and the sculpture of the 
pedestal, but we will not be led astray into these paths of art. One 


more pedestal alone shall be noticed, and it is of a severely simple 

In the first edition of "The Book of Sundials," published 1872, 
Mrs. Gatty wrote: "At St. Mary's; the largest of the Scilly Isles, and 
near the fort called ' Star Castle ' (if we remember the spot where we 
sketched it), is an old cannon stuck upwards in the ground, and over 
its mouth a dial plate is fixed. What storms must have broken upon 
it in that tempestuous region ! What hurricanes must have blown 
around ! What dark nights covered it ! And yet, whenever the sun 
shines, and cheerfully as if no disturbance ever reached it, the dial 
face becomes brig-ht ao-ain, and the grnomon sends its shadow round 
the plate." 



"A Dial is the Visible map of Time, till whose Invention 'twas follie in the Sun to 
play with a shadow. It is the anatomic of the Day ; and a scale of miles for the journie 
of the Sun. It is the silent voice of Time, and without it the Day were dumbe. It is a 
Spheer stolen from Heaven whose little circle is the Sun's day labour. It is the book of 
y"" Sunn on which he writes the Storie of the day. It is the traveller's Ephemerides : and 
an enimie to envious Time that would steal away and have none to take notice of her. 
Lastly heaven itself is but a generall Dial, and a Dial it in a lesser volume." — R. Hegge's 
MS., Helioiropvm Sa'ofhcricvm. 

From the year 1520 to 1744 a pillar bearing a cubical stone with dials 
on its four sides, crowned by a pyramid with ball and cross, stood on 
the churchyard wall of St. Mary's, Oxford, and is figured by Loggan 
(1688). It was the work of Nicholas Kratzer, and his stonemason 
East. In his MS., " De Horologis," Kratzer gives a copy of the 
inscription, which contains his own biography and an explanation of 
the dial lines in verse, not unlike Gunter's description of the lines on 
the Privy Garden dial at Whitehall. The Latin is illspelt and imper- 
fect, very difficult to render into English ; some passages therefore can 
only be given conjecturally : 

"Anno 1520 Ego Nicolaus Krasterus bauarus monacensis natus 
servus regys Henricy viij jussu illius per-legi Oxoniae Astronomiam 
suple spheram materialem Johannis de Sacro Bosco et compositionem 
astrolaby et geographia Pthot, in illo tempore erexi columnam seu 
cilindrum ante ecclesiam Diui Virginis cum lapicida Wilhemo Aest 
servo regis. Eo tempore Lutherus fuit ab universitate condemnatus 
cuius testimonium ego Nicolaus Krasterus in columna manu propria 
scripta posui." 

\_" In the year 1520 /, Nicholas Kratzer, born a Bavarian of 
Munic/i, a servant of King Henry VIII., at /lis contviand lectured at 
Oxford on Astronomy and the supplement to Astronomy, the mundane 


sphere of John of Holy wood^ the composition of the astrolabe and the 
geography of Ptolemy. While there I set np a column or cylinder before 
the Church of the Blessed Virgin with the help of the stone cutter William 
Aest, the kitigs servant. At that time Luther was condemned by the 
University, a testimony of which I Nicholas Kratzer wrote and placed 
with my own hand upon the column."^ 

The dial thus speaks : 

Annis mille tribus quingentique adde decern bis 

Invenies tempus quo hie situatus eram, 
Oxonie rector Thomas Mosgrave medicinam 

Qui profitebatur quique peritus erat.' 
Me posuit lapicida suis Gulielmus Aestus 

perpulchre manibus, hunc dedit atque locum, 
Nicolaus cunctas Krasterus bavarus horas 

dicere me fecit qui monacensis erat, 
Quique suis illo prelegerat astronomiam 

tempore discipulis multaque tradiderat, 
Et fuit Henrici turn octavi nominis huius 

astronomus regis cui bene carus erat ; 
Anglus erat lapicida, fuit Germanus at alter, 

totius aetatis cum decus ipse fui ; 
Ambo viri semper Germano more bibebant, 

et poterant potus sugere quicquid erat. 
Anno D"' 1520. 

\To one thousand five hundred and three years add twice ten, and you ivill discover the 
time at which 1 7vas placed here. Thomas Mosgrave " (^then) professed medicine at Oxford, 
and was skilled therein. William Aest the stone cutter set me up fairly with his 07vn hands, 
and placed tne in this spot. Nicolas Kratzer, the Bavai-ian who was of Munich, caused me 
to tell all the hours. He also at that time lectured to his pupils on astronomy, and much 
learning he handed down. He was then the astronomer of King Henry, of that name the 
eighth, who held him very dear. The stone cutter 7vas English, the other German, at the 
time when I was the admiration of the whole age. Both men drank ever in the German 
fashion, and could swallow all the liquor that there was.'] 

This was very likely written on a sheet of paper and stuck up on 
the dial on the occasion of the visit of some distinguished person. 
Kratzer does not seem to have taken offence at the last two lines, as he 
inserts them whole in his book. 

Then follow other verses : 

' John de Sacro Bosco, or Holywood, was born at Halifax and educated at Oxford. 
He afterwards taught mathematics at Paris, and died in 1256. He wrote a celebrated 
treatise on the sphere, which is said to be an abridgment of Euclid. It has been 
often printed, and was commented on by Clavius. (See Hallam, " Lit. of Europe," i. 113.) 

- Thomas Mosgrave was " reader in medicine," not professor. 


Carmina inscripla in horologo Vniversitatis Oxoniensium edita per Ludovicum 
Viuum : 

Ad orientem 
Per Virgas Virides notantur horae 
Quas monstrant numeri a die renato 

Ad meridiem 
Solis meatus lucis alternas Vices 
Horas diurnas, signa, quae tempus notant, 
Vmbrae docebunt Gnomonum meatis suis 

Ad occidentem 
Ceruleae signant ex quo se condidit undis 
Temporis interea quot sol confecerit horas. 

Ad septentrionem 
Tempera, et obliqui solis lunaeque meatus 
Ostendi mirum possunt mortalibus umbris. 

[ Verses i/iscnlvd on a dial of Oxford Universiiy, produced by Ludovinis Vives : ' 

On the east : The hours are tnarked by green tines, whicli tlie numbers point out, 
beginning tvith the birth of the day. 

On the south : Tlie sun's journeys, the alternations of the tight, tJie liours of the day, 
and the signs 7vhieh niarh the season, the shadore's of tlie gnomons shall teach thee by tlieir 

On the west : The dark blue lines show lunv many hours of time the sun hath fulfilled 
since he hid himself beneath the waters. 

On the north : The times and the oblique movements of the sun and moon, can be sho'tvn 
forth, a miracle to mortal shades^ 

It is evident from these inscriptions that the eastern dial showed the 
hours reckoned from sunrise, i.e., the old German or Babylonian hours ; 
while that on the west gave those reckoned from sunset, or the Italian 
hours. The inscription on the column implies that a scale of degrees 
was marked below the gnomon. 

Tanget, quum medij notam diei 
Phebus, lunane, stilus indicabit 
A coeli medio, polls, horizonte 
Ad sidus spacium quod esse dices. 

[ When Pluvbus or the moon touch the midday mark the style will show you the space 
which you will say there is betiveen it (T/nvbus or the moon) and the zenith, the poles, and 
the horizon.] 

Some resemblance to the form of Kratzer's work on St. Mary's 
churchyard wall may be traced in the graceful column of dials which 
still stands in the quadrangle of his old college of Corpus Christi. It is 
taller and of finer proportions, but there is the same cubical block with 
dials on its four sides, and dials also on the slopes of the pyramid, 
besides a perpetual calendar on the column, and mottoes which will be 

' Ludovicus Vives was one of the lecturers of Corpus. 



found later on in this book. Tlie date 1581 is on the south face, and 
the initials C. T. and date mdcv on the column. 

The initials are those of Charles Turnbull, a Lincolnshire man, 
by whom these dials were constructed. 
He was admitted to the colles^e in 
1573, and was the author of a treatise 
on the Celestial Globe. The first date 
probably applies to the setting up of 
the dials, and the second to the tables 
which are painted on the cylindrical 
shaft. Hegge gives a drawing of the 
dial as it appeared in his time, 1625-30, 
and this has been reproduced in Mr. 
Fowler's " History of Corpus Christi 
College." The shaft then rested on 
steps, which the present square pede- 
stal afterwards replaced. The verti- 
cal dials were partly covered by the 
coats-of-arms, carved in relief, of (i) 
Bishop Fox, the founder of the col- 
lege; (2) Bishop Oldham; (3) the Uni- 
versity of Oxford ; and (4) also by the 
Royal arms. In each case the scroll- 
work round the shield acts as a 
gnomon to the dial face engraved be- 
low it. The column is said to have 
been regarded as "inconvenient" dur- 
ing the old days when invasion was 
threatened, and the quadrangle was 
used as a drill ground, but happily it 
was not removed from its place, and 
still stands as a monument of Turn- 
bull's mathematical skill. 

Few sun-dials are of greater his- 
torical interest than that which bears 
the name of the celebrated Anne 
Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, the ^"'^^"^ ^«^''^' ^°^^''°''' °^'°^°- 
able and excellent lady who could discourse on every subject, " from 
predestination to slea' silk," the heiress of the great house of Clifford, 
who fought in the courts for her vast estates with the tenacity and ruled 
them with the wisdom of a Maria Theresa ; raising also her castles from 



their ruins, repairing the churches, building again, as the inscriptions 
state, the old waste places. Amongst the monuments reared by her, 
this pillar by the wayside between Brougham and Appleby still stands 
to record her name. It is octagonal, and surmounted by a square block 
bearing dials on two of its sides ; on the other two are the arms of the 
Viponts, from whom the estate of Brougham came to the Cliffords, and 
those of Clifford impaling Russell, surmounted by an earl's coronet. 
There is also the following inscription : 













The Stone table for the alms stands at the foot ot the pillar. An- 
other dial pillar set up by the Countess at Appleby is noticed in the 
motto collection. 

For some part of the eighteenth century the base of the High 
Cross in Warwickshire bore a conical sun-dial crowned by a vase and 
cross. It marks the place where the old Roman fosse-way crossed 
Watling Street, and is locally called the "centre of England." The 
dial was struck down by lightning in 1791, and only the base of the 
cross remains. This bears two Latin inscriptions written by George 
Greenaway, a schoolmaster at Coventry, one to draw attention to the 
Roman roads and castra, and the other in praise of the Earl of Den- 
bigh, by whose care the column was erected a.d. 1722. 

Of another dial-stone only the memory remains. This was a 
square pillar 122- feet high, which stood in the hamlet of Three Mile 
Bridge near Newcastle-on-Tyne. It was erected by John Pigg, town 
surveyor of Newcastle during the Civil Wars, who walked daily from his 
house in the town to Three Mile Bridge, and derived so much health 
and pleasure from the habit that he put up a lasting monument of his 


12 I 

gratitude. There were three dials on the pillar and several texts from 
Scripture, together with the following lines in praise of wisdom : 

" Who would not love thee while they may 

Enjoy thee walking ? For thy way 

Is pleasure and delight : let such 

As see thee, choose thee, prize thee much." 

Pigg seems to have been a Puritan and a very 
eccentric character. He " usually wore a high 
crowned hat, a strait coat, and would never 
ride, but walk't the pace of any horse, hundreds 
of miles on foot with a quarter staff fenced with 
an iron foot at one end." He died in January, 
1668-9, ^nd left some money for the relief of 
the poor and the support of a clergyman. The 
pillar was removed in 1829, when the road at 
Three Mile Bridge was altered. 

Pillars more elegant than the Countess of 
Pembroke's, and crowned by a cube of stone 
bearing dials on some or all of its faces, and 
sometimes tapering to a point above to be 
crowned by a ball or some other ornament, are 
still to be seen in the market-places of country 
towns. There is a fine specimen at Carlisle. 
The dial-block is placed on an Ionic 
column standing on six steps, and >ja^tb>^-^ 

is crowned by a lion sejant holding 
a shield which bears the city arms. 
Above the capital of the column is 
the inscription : " Thomas Reed, 
Maior, 1682." 

A pillar with a cube of dials sur- - 
mounted by a ball, and with a drink- 
ing-fountain at its base, stands also 
in the market-place at Mansfield. At Steeple Ashton, Wiltshire, a 
column about 20 feet high, bearing four vertical dials, stands on the 
steps of an old cross in the market-place.' It is thus inscribed : " T. S. 
Repaired in 1785, and in 1826. Founded in 1071. Rebuilt 1679. Re- 
paired in 1 714." The dials probably date from the rebuilding. In the 

THE countess' PILLAR. 

Engraved in "The Antiquarian Cabinet," vol. vii., 1819. 




market-place at Guisborouyh, Yorkshire, a stone pillar crowned by a 
dial and ball has been set up in recent times. It stands on a block 
of masonry and has a drinking-fountain at its base. 

The cross at Chichester, really a market-house, built in the fifteenth 
century and repaired in the reign of Charles II., had at one time four 
sun-dials facing the four principal streets of the city. These have now 



given place to a clock. Taunton Cross, which likewise bore dials, was 
taken down in 1 715. At Woodstock a central pillar, round which the 
■ market-house was built, was surmounted by a stone cube with an erect 
dial on its south face. This is shown in an engraving of 1777 in 
Grose's " Antiquarian Repertory." The market cross with its dials is 
still standing at Oakham, and the parish stocks are at its foot. 

The Queen Eleanor cross at Northampton, and also the cross at 
Geddington, were at one time furnished with dials, and the Tottenham 
High cross, after being rebuilt in 1600 by Dean Wood, had two vertical 


dials placed on its south and west sides, one of which remained till 

But how many dial-pillars stand on the bases of ancient crosses in 
market-places, churchyards, or by the wayside, it were hard to say. 
The old wayside cross at Culmerden, Gloucestershire, has a dial-block 
mounted on an Early English shaft. At Ashleworth, in the same 
county, the shaft of a former churchyard cross, 5 feet high, now 
supports a block of dials, those on the east 
and west sides being hollowed. One in Ham 
Churchyard, Derbyshire, was sketched for the 
Anastatic Drawing Society in i860; another 
is at Biddulph, in Staffordshire, and is thought 
to date from the sixteenth century. At Mar- 
tock, Somerset, a tall fluted column, surmounted 
by a cube with four dials, a ball, and vane, 
stands on an ancient base ; and at Backwell, 
Kenn, Queen's Charlton, and Chelvey, in the 
same county, as well as at Saintsbury, Glouces- 
tershire, these picturesque monuments are still, 
we trust, to be found. A modern dial-block of 
this type, mounted on a pillar, was set up some 
thirty years ago at Henbury, Gloucestershire. 
It has a drinking fountain at its base, and is a 
great ornament to the village. 

Mr. E. C. Middleton' has noticed a fine old ' 
cross shaft, with a cube of four dials, crowned 
by a ball, at Whatcote, Warwickshire, and others 
at Chaddesley Corbett, Worcestershire, and Congleton in Cheshire, 
At Packwood House, Warwickshire, there are no less than seven dials 
(two of which will be found noticed in the collection of mottoes). In front 
of the house, an old shaft on steps bears a cubical block with four dials, 
dated 1667 ; and there is a curious stone seat in the garden made of a 
square block, which has evidently borne gnomons. 

London possessed at least three specimens of this class of dial-pillar. 
There was a column in New Square, Lincoln's Inn, with four vertical 
dials, surmounted by a pinnacle, said to have been designed by Inigo 
Jones. Like Sir John Dethick's dial in Leadenhall Street, it formed 
the centre of a fountain ; the water spouted forth from shells held 
by four tritons, and fell into a basin at the foot of the column. It is 



'The Sundials of Warwickshire," 1896. 


possible that the verse given by Charles Leadbetter in 1737, as on a 
dial at Lincoln's Inn — "Let your light so shine before men" — may 
have been on this column. But nineteenth century taste preferred gas 
lights, and in 1847 Inigo Jones's work was taken away to make room 
for a lamp. The column is shown in an engraving of the New Square 
by Nicholls in 1730. 

Covent Garden was originally the convent garden belonging to the 
Abbey of Westminster, and when, in 1631, Francis, Earl of Bedford, 
to whom the jaroperty then belonged, had the present square formed, 
it was laid out by Inigo Jones, but not completed by him. The piazza 
ran along the whole of the north and east sides, the church of St. Paul 
was on the west, on the south was the garden wall of Bedford House, 
and under its overhanging trees a few temporary stalls were set up at 
market times. The square was gravelled over, and in the centre was 
erected, in 1668, a Corinthian column, surmounted by a block of stone, 
with four dial faces, and the whole crowned by a globe supported on 
four scrolls. 

The accounts of the churchwardens of St. Paul's give some details 
as to the cost of the column : 

£ s. d. 
" Dec. 7, 1668. Received of the Right Honourable the 
Earl of Bedford as a gratuity towards the erecting of 
y*" column . . . . . . . . 20 o o 

Received from the Honourable S' Charles Cot- 
terill. Master of the Ceremonys, as a gift towards 
the said column . . . . . . .1000 

April 29, 1669. Received from the Right Honourable 
the Lord Denzil Holies as a present towards the 
erecting of the aforesaid column . . . . 10 o o 

20 Nov. 1668. For drawing a Modell of the Column to 

be presented to the Vestry . . . . .0100 

2 Dec. 1668. To M' Wainwright for 4 gnomons . . 086" 

The column was raised on six steps of black marble, and there old 
women sold barley broth and milk porridge. A brochure, " The 
Humours of Covent Garden," 1738, describes the scene : 

" High in the midst of this most liappy land, 
A well-built marble pyramid doth stand, 
By which spectators know the time o' the day. 
From beams reflecting of the solar ray ; 
The basis with ascending steps is graced, 
Around whose area cleanly matrons jilaced, 



Vend their most wholesome food, by nature good, 
To cheer the spirits and enrich the blood." 

The pillar 


in Hogarth's print of " Rich's glory, or his 

triumphal entry into Covent Garden," published in 1732, and also in 
engravings of the "Covent Garden Morning Frolic," by Boitard, 1747, 
where it is represented as surrounded by the tiled roof of a market 


BEFORE 1773. 

shed, and with the market women clustering about the steps. It was 
probably taken away when the present market was built. 

The "Seven Dials" which gave their name to a district in the 
parish of St. Giles in the Fields, were, curiously enough, only six in 
number. They formed the six faces of a block of stone which crowned 
a Doric column, and each dial fronted one of the streets which met In 
the open space where the pillar stood. Two of these streets opened 
into one angle, so that the seven formed an irregular star, as described 
by John Evelyn. " I went," he writes, October 5th, 1694, " to see the 
building near St. Giles, where seven streets make a star from a Doric 
pillar placed in the middle of a circular area, said to be built by 
Mr, Neale, introducer of the late lotteries." 

Cunningham, in his " Handbook of London," says " It was re- 



moved in July, 1773, on the supposition that a considerable sum of 
money was lodged at the base. But the search was ineffectual." The 
old column spent some time in a stone mason's yard, and in 1822 was 

bought by the inhabitants of Weybridge 
and set up on the Green as a memorial to 
the Duchess of York. 

It is mounted on a square base and 
crowned by a very inartistic object, a ducal 
coronet ; while the block of stone which 
formed the six dials, and in which the holes 
filled with the lead which had fastened the 
gnomons can still be seen, lies embedded in the ground near the neigh- 
bouring "Ship" Inn, after having been used for many years as a 

In Gay's " Trivia" we read : 

" Where famed St. Giles' ancient limits spread. 
An in-railed column rears its lofty head : 
Here to seven streets seven dials count the day. 
And from each other catch the circling ray : 
How oft the peasant with enquiring face, 
Bewilder'd trudges on from place to place : 
He dwells on every sign with stupid gaze, 
Enters the narrow alley's doubtful maze. 
Tries every winding court and street in vain. 
And doubles o'er his weary steps again." 

There must have been many vertical sun-dials attached to buildings 
in London, in former days, besides those which have been noticed with 
mottoes. A print of 1725 shows one on the wall of Coney Court, 
Gray's Inn, and another engraving of 1715, gives two on the tower of 
St. Clement Danes, one of which remains to this day. The old church 
of St. Martin in the Fields, pulled down and rebuilt about 1721, had a 
dial on the west, and another on the south side of the tower. St. 
Dunstan's, Stepney, had also a dial. That on St. Sepulchre's, Newgate, 
still remains, as does the one on the great hall of the Charterhouse. 
An old print of the Guildhall shows dials on the cupola. It is sup- 
posed that they were placed there at the end of the seventeenth or 
beginning of the eighteenth century. Another dial appears on one of 
the buttresses in the same encjravin"-. 

A very handsome dial stands in the Earl of Derby's park at 
Knowsley. The cube is mounted on a spiral pedestal with a base of 
three steps, supported by four eagles. The dials face the four points of 



the compass, and are crowned by a globe. The eagles doubtless refer 
to the crest of the eagle and child which belongs to the Stanley family. 
Another fine dial of this kind is in the park at Blenheim, the successor, 
perhaps, to that " dial aged and green " which stood near Woodstock 
Lodge in the days of Mistress Alice Lee. 

An old stone shaft which may once have formed part of a cross, 
stands in the deer park at Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, and is now 
surmounted by a quaintly pierced stone cap bearing a cubical block 
with a dial on each face and a cup-shaped hollow at the top, in the 
centre of which is a small upright gnomon. At the four corners of the 
palings which surround the dial are wooden posts, cut in the same 
shape as the cap. 

The Dublin Museum contains a stone block with a vertical dial to 
the south, and circular, elliptical, heart-shaped, and triangular hollows 
on the other three sides. There are proclining dials on the under 
slopes where the block was narrowed to the pedestal. The sun's face 
surrounded by projecting rays is carved in relief on two sides, and 
at the corner of the south face is a Tudor rose. The north side has 
a coat of arms, and a monogram of the letters M. T. I. S. S. B., with 
possibly another I on the slope below. Two of the numerals which 
give the date are defaced, but they probably gave the year 1688. A 
horizontal dial is on the top, and remains of metal 
gnomons are in the hollows. The history of this dial 
as of the one at Stoneleigh has not been ascertained. 

A cubical stone with vertical dials is sometimes 
placed as a finial on the point of a gable, as on a 
church porch, or lych gate, or occasionally on a house. 
There are examples of this treatment in Scotland, and 
we have them also in England; as at Felton, North- 
umberland; Gilcrux, in Cumberland ; Ashover, Derby- 
shire ; Wolfhamcote, Warwickshire, and other places. 
Ecton Church, Northamptonshire, has a much worn 
block with four faces, at the corner of the south porch. 
At Lydney, in Gloucestershire, there is a cube with 
four dials on the lych gate ; and at Wimborne Minster 
a block of solid masonry 6 feet high, now stands in the churchyard, 
bearing dials on three of its faces, the south face being 4 feet, and the 
east and west 3 feet wide. This was formerly on the gable of 
the north transept, but was taken down when the church was restored, 
and placed temporarily under a yew tree, in hopes that funds might in 
course of time be provided to set it up again on a suitable pedestal. It 



is dated 1732.' A cubical sun-dial, dated 1636, stands on a wall at 
Guiting Grange, in Gloucestershire ; and several others, including one 
on a tombstone at Greystoke, will be noticed in the collection of mottoes. 
One at Monkton Combe, Somerset, formerly on the church, and dated 
1 786, is now in the Vicarage Garden ; the east and west gnomons are 
of slate. 

In Loggan's " Views of Cambridge," 1675, a cube of dials is repre- 
sented on the Gate Tower of Caius College. 

It is impossible to mention even a tenth part of the ordinary dials 
without mottoes scattered up and down the country, nor, indeed, is it 
desirable. Many districts where they abound have either never been 
visited, or have been very slightly explored. Even in respect of 
English churches the record is very partial, and of churchyards still 
more so. Thanks to the late Mr. Ladbroke, who published sketches of 
all, or nearly all, the churches of Norfolk, the dials of that county have 
been more completely noted than that of any other. But many of the 
dials which appear in his drawings have since disappeared. They 
became decayed and were not replaced. The late Mr. George Roberts, 
who contributed a valuable series of notes on church sun-dials, chiefly 
in Yorkshire, to " The Yorkshire Post," and afterwards reprinted them 
in his " History of Lofthouse," went very thoroughly through certain 
districts of the West Riding, but he, also, in his last contribution, in 
1890, observes with regret the decay which had overtaken many of the 
dials which he had noted in i S60, Dials are wont to cling to certain 
neighbourhoods. They are plentiful in some districts in Yorkshire, 
while other parts of the county are entirely without them. Amongst 
those counties which have contributed most largely to this work, 
Cornwall and Devon take a high place. Somerset and Dorset have 
dials, but not many mottoes on them. A village in the County of 
Durham, Hurworth, was noticed by William Howitt, in his "Visits to 
Remarkable Places," as distinguished by the greatest number of sun-dials 
on the points of its houses of perhaps any village in the kingdom." 
" These are due to William Emerson, a rough fellow, but one of the 
first mathematicians of his age," who was born at Hurworth and died 
there in 1782. His works include a book on " Geography, Navigation, 
and Dialling," published in 1750. 

A type of dial frequently to be seen in Scotland, viz., two vertical 
dials placed at an angle with each other, and facing south-east and south- 
west, is very rare in England. There is, however, or was a few years ago, 

' I'igurcd in "Strand Mag.," 1892. 


such a one placed on the top of a buttress at Thornhill Church, in 
Yorkshire ; the numerals were much defaced and the gnomons bent. 

Occasionally a dial may be seen mounted on the chimney of a 
house ; there is one such at Seend, Wiltshire, the chimney being part 
of a seventeeth-century addition to an old Tudor House. Mr. E. C. 
Middleton ' found two in Warwickshire, one on an old stone cottage 
at Halford Bridge, and another at the Moat House, Sutton Coldfield, 
built by William Wilson, the assistant of Sir Christopher Wren. He 
heard of a third at the Glass House, between Packwood and Lapworth. 
Another will be found noticed in the collection of mottoes. 

Amongst the curious fancies of builders, one has been recorded of a 
" house so contrived that the shadows from the different angles give the 
hours of the day." This was at Hesket Hall, Cumberland, built by the 
first Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart. The roof is circular, the chimneys 
running up in the centre. It is now a farm house.^ 

Mr. William Osmond, sculptor, has described a very simple form of 
dial, or rather meridian, which is on the north boundary wall of the 
Close at Salisbury. It consists of a perpendicular line, over which the 
shadow of the Cathedral spire, thus acting as a gnomon, passes at mid- 
day, and shows the hour of noon. The word Mcridies is engraved 
beside the line. This dial has been in existence for several generations. 
Mr. Osmond's father, who died at the age of eighty-six, was once em- 
ployed in his youth to recut and repaint the letters. It might, indeed 
be the very dial mentioned by Evelyn in his " Diary," when, in 1653^ 
he visited Salisbury, and "saw the Cathedral . . . the cloysters of the 
palace and gardens and the great mural dial." 

In a paper on Manx sun-dials, by Miss A. M. Crellin, which was 
read before the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, in 
January, 1889, it was stated that one of the oldest and rudest dials in 
the island is at Peel Castle, " by the side of a flight of steps leading to 
the entrance." This is what is generally known as " the white line," 
a perpendicular stroke of white paint, some 3^^ feet long, and 4 inches 
wide, quite roughly done ; at noon the shadow from the corner of the 
wall on the south side falls on this line, and it can be seen across the 
harbour, far away up the quay ; this being the ordinary dinner hour, the 
importance of such a time teller is apparent, especially as until lately 
there was no public clock in the town. Alongside this white line, a 
little distance away, is another stroke, painted black ; this denotes 
English time, which is eighteen minutes earlier than Manx. 

' " The Sun-dials of Warwickshire." 

" Whelan's " Hist, of Cumberland and Westmoreland," p. 225. 



Another interesting dial stands in the marketplace at Castletown. 
It consists of a " massive column of masonry some i6 feet high, and 18 
feet in circumference, and is generally known by the name of 'the 
Babby House.' It has twelve faces, but three of them, on which the 
sun never shines, are dummies, and have no numerals ; the date 1720 is 
cut on the principal face. On the castle just above the dial is a one- 
fingered clock, which was given by Queen Elizabeth in 1597." 

At Lewaigue House in the parish of Maughold, Isle of Man, there 
is a dial with a fine brass face about 8 inches square on which is 
engraved, "Ed" Culpeper fecit, 1666." 

Window dials, in coloured glass, are very pretty ornaments to an 
old-fashioned house. Occasionally they have been seen in churches. 
One in the church of All Hallows, Staining Lane, put up by Isaac 
Oliver in 1664, is mentioned in "The Universal Museum," 1762, when 
there was scarcely any part of the painted glass remaining. In a window 
on the south side of Ledbury Church in Herefordshire such a dial still 
remains. There is also one at Lambeth Palace, with the fly painted on 
it. It is thought to have been removed from the Presence Chamber to 
its present place in a window of the Lollard's Tower. A portion of a glass 
dial in the possession of Charles T. Gatty, P'.S. A., has only the numerals 
IX, X, IV, V, and VI remaining and the date 1741, and differs from 
other specimens of the kind in having the butterfly, as well as the fly, 
painted on it. The fly is supposed to be a punning suggestion that 
the hours "fly"; probably the butterfly is introduced to represent the 
opposite thought of immortality. It is used in ancient missal borders 
in this emblematical sense. 

In a window of the private chapel at Berkeley Castle there is a 
small dial in stained glass, showing the morning hours from 4 to 10 a.m. 
It appears to be of the seventeenth or eighteenth centurj-. The fly is 
painted and apparently raised on the outside of the central glass, which 
is thick, part of it being ground glass. The west window of the Con- 
vocation House at O.xford has a dial showing the afternoon hours. 

A curiously designed gnomon belonging to a vertical dial on Lelant 
Church, Cornwall, was noticed by Mr. Arthur Langford in " The 
Reliquar)-," January, 1898. The dial is of copper, probably belonging 
to the eighteenth century, and the gnomon bracket is pierced to represent 
" a figure standing on a horizontal bar. The figure, which is symbolical 
of Time and Death, consists of a crowned skeleton, holding in his right 
hand a dart, and in the left an hour-glass. His vertebra;, features, 
parts of the crown, and sides of the hour-glass are pierced." A sketch 
of this quaint figure is given by Mr. Langford. 


The gnomons of horizontal dials are often finely designed, but to 
meet with such work in a vertical gnomon is rare. The emblematic 
figures of Time and Death, which adorn alike dials and gravestones, 
probably came down to us from those mediaival representations of the 
Dance of Death with which Holbein and others have made the world 
familiar. At once grotesque and gruesome, the skeleton seems to have 
rooted itself in the stern imagination of the northern races as the only 
fit picture of the last enemy. And Time and Death are rightly por- 
trayed alike, seeing that they go hand in hand through what we call 
Life, and that the end of Time will also be the end of Death. But the 
representation of Death as the skeleton is not true art nor Christian art, 
and we may be glad that the great painter of our own time, G. F. Watts, 
has restored to both figures that dignity and nobleness of aspect which 
is their due, and thus formed a truer conception of their meaning than 
either Holbein, or the dials, or the tombstones can give. 


" Make the passing shadow serve thy will." — Tr.NNYSON, The Ancient Sage. 

We traced the succession of vertical dials on churches from the days of 
the Saxons to those of the Tudors in a former chapter. From the 
frequent entries of payments " for a Dial! " in churchwardens' accounts 
we may judge that there was hardly a church without one, and also that 
they did not last very long. Stone, wood, and paint are alike perish- 
able, and metal might be stolen ; but still the timekeeper was replaced 
up to the present century. In the sixteenth century they began to 
appear on houses also. The oldest dated vertical attached dial which 
we have on a house is in Lord Street, Rochdale. The building is said 
to have been the old inanor house of the Byron family. The dial has 
two dates, 1521 and 1630, the latter probably refers to a time when it 
was repaired. It seems to have undergone several restorations. These 
dates are apt to be uncertain ; sometimes they refer to the building of 
the house, as at Warwick Priory, where the dial, though dated 1556, 
is quite a recent addition. Our English mural dials are not, as a rule, 
much ornamented. A figure of Time with his scythe, as over a shop 
at Rye, or some floriated border, or a pediment with pilasters, is pretty 
nearly all that they aspire to. Sometimes they have a variety of lines, 
and show the time at different places all over the world, and this is more 
for ornament than use ; but even the gilded rays around the sun's face 
are not always present. 

On one of the tower buttresses of Bolton Abbey, facing south, there 
is a stone figure of a pilgrim with a staff in one hand and a broad flat 
hat in the other, and beneath it a sun-dial, dated 1646. The figure is no 
doubt of much earlier date, but it is possible that there might have been 
an earlier dial in the place of the present slab. 

Four dials on English cathedrals have been noticed in the collection 
of mottoes. There is one without a motto on Ripon Minster, and in 
former claj's there was one on Bristol Cathedral. The collegiate chiuxh 



(now cathedral) of Manchester bore one in i 794, and there is at the 
present day a horizontal dial standing erect amongst the flat gravestones 
of the cathedral churchyard. It is, however, so closely imprisoned by 

■'boor-'yh.j'b at 
- R.YE 

noF.TON AnnEY. 

heavy iron railings as to be practically useless. And yet the authorities 
might remember that 

" A prison is a house of care, 
A place where none can thrive," 

not even a sun-dial ! 

The finest specimen of an erect engraved metal dial which we have 
seen is a plate which came into Messrs. Barker's hands to be restored, 
some few years ago, and which we have been allowed to reproduce. It 
represents the figure of our Lord seated amidst the clouds and sur- 
rounded with cherubs. There is no date. 

When the Cathedral of St. Paul's was rebuilt it would seem that 
clocks had begun to supplant sun-dials. The tower of old St. Paul's had 
borne, as we learn from Mr. Charles Knight's " London," " a goodly 
dial made with all the splendour that might be, with its angel pointing 


to the hour both of the day and night," but in the new building the 
"clock chamber" held an important place. Sir Christopher Wren had, 
nevertheless, in early days interested himself in the subject; in 1647, 
while only fifteen and a scholar at Wadham, he translated Oughtred's 
"Geometrical Dialling" into Latin, and afterwards drew a rellecting 
dial on the ceiling of a room embellished with various devices, including 
emblematical figures of Astronomy and Geometry and their attributes, 
and with the following inscription : ' 


QVAi co:eum hoc peragret luce VICARIA 

cursusque effigiem fingeret annui ; 

post annos epoch.e 

VIrgIneo qVIbVs 

Vere faCtVs hoMo est eX Vtero DeVs 

ETAT Is()Ve sV/E nVpER.^J. 

\_0//c Zl'/zo 7L'as content npon this narrow ceiling to depict the times to 
the pattern of t lie sky, gained from PJnvbus the boon that he ivotdd leave 
an image, rival of his rays, upon the mirror, to tvander over this heaven 
with borrowed light and shape a likefiess of his yearly course ; 1648 years 
after the time at which in very truth man was made God from a Virgins 
womb and in the sixteenth year of his oion {the maker s) youthful age.^ 

These dates are given by the Chronograms in the three last lines. 

In 1653 Wren was elected a fellow of All Souls, where he designed, it 
is said, the dial which was formerly on the wall of the chapel, and is now 
on that of the library. Evelyn, who visited Oxford in that same year, met 
Wren at the house of the distinguished mathematician who was then 
Warden of Wadham and afterwards Bishop of Chester. " I dined," he 
writes, "with the universally curious Dr. Wilkins, at Wadham College. 
He was the first who showed me the transparent apiaries which he had 
built like castles or palaces, and so ordered them one upon another as 
to take the honey without destroying the bees. These were adorned 
with a variety of dials, little statues, vanes, etc., and he was so abound- 
antly civil, finding me pleased with them, to present me with one of y'' 
hives which he had empty, and which I afterwards had in my garden at 

' Elmer's " Life and Works of Wren." 

Pl. VI. 


V ^r 

.5.sji _'=jr;'»>"'c;'^j"v ! ' •! 


To fate p. 134. 


Sayes Court, where it continued many years, and which his Majestic 
came on purpose to see and contemplate with much satisfaction. He 
had above in his lodgings and gallery, a variety of shadows, dyals, per- 
spectives, and many other artificial, mathematical, and magical curiosities, 
a way-wiser, a thermometer, a monstrous magnet, conic and ofher 
sections, a ballance on a demi-arch, most of them of his own and that 
prodigious young scholar M' Ch' W'ren." 

When Loggan took his views of Oxford, published 1688, there were 
several dials on the colleges, but most of these are gone. He shows 
them at Exeter, St. John's, Trinity, Wadham, Brasenose, Christchurch, 
All Souls, Magdalen, and St. Mary Hall, besides pedestal dials at 
Queen's, Balliol, and Pembroke, and a tall pillar in New College 
gardens. Of these there remains the great dial at All Souls, and one 
in Brasenose quadrangle ; a gnomon on the south-east buttress of 
Wadham Chapel, possibly placed there by Dr. Wilkins, and a gnomon 
on the south-east buttress of Christ Church Cathedral overlooking Dean 
Liddell's grave in the quiet little churchyard. There is also a more 
modern dial near the Peckwater quadrangle, almost hidden by an acacia, 
and one on Holywell Church. In Pugin's time there was one on 
Merton Chapel, with the date 1622. 

Cambridcre still boasts the fine dial at Oueen's Colleg-e, which tra- 
dition ascribes to Sir Isaac Newton, but erroneously, as the college 
books show that it was not put up till 1733, five years after the great 
astronomer's death, and then rejolaced one made in 1642. The dial at 
Christ's College was put up in 1670, on the parapet at the junction of 
the hall with the master's lodge, and was repainted in 1673. This is 
gone, as are those at Trinity, St. John's, Jesus, Peterhouse, Sidney 
Sussex, and Pembroke. At the last named college the dial had been 
put up in 1553. 

In the cloister of the college at Winchester, there are still the 
remains of a vertical dial to be seen on one of the buttresses, dated 1 7 1 2. 
The church of St. Maurice, at Winchester, has a dial on its south wall. 
There is also one on St. George's Chapel, Windsor. On the Leicester 
Hospital, Warwick, a vertical dial bears the initials E. R., and is pro- 
bably a reproduction of an older one. In the views taken by Buck, 
Kip, and others in the eighteenth century, we constantly see sun-dials 
figured on the walls of the great houses, but most of them have now 
disappeared. There were some on the towers of Hatfield House, and 
on those of Houghton, before the fire. At Sudeley Castle there are still 
two stone dials, one inside the court nearly over the entrance archway ; 
the other, much worn, on the battlement over the principal entrance. 


Charlecote also has its dial on the south wing, and there is one on the 
Old Bar at Southampton. On the beautiful ruins of Wingfield Manor 
House, in Derbyshire, the gnomons of two vertical dials can still be 
seen. The dials were made about 1678 by Immanuel Halton, astro- 
nomer and mathematician, who then lived in the Manor House, which 
his family had bought after the Civil Wars, and which he partly repaired. 
It had stood two sieges and was left in a ruinous condition. One of the 
dials is over the bay window of the banquetting hall, the other over 
a window near the state rooms, once occupied by Mary, Queen of 

Though the dial at Queen's College was not designed by Sir Isaac 
Newton, he left tokens of his boyish handiwork as a dialler. One he 
painted on a ceiling in his grandmother's house at Market Overton. It 
was no doubt like Wren's, a reflective, or as it was then called, a " spot 
dial," where a speck of light was cast upon the hour lines on the ceiling 
from a piece of looking-glass which was fixed horizontally in a south 
window, and reflected the rays of the sun. The house in which Mrs. 
Ayscough lived was pulled down some years ago, but the piece of 
plaster with the dial face upon it has been preserved, and is kept in the 
house built upon the old site. 

Sir Isaac Newton also carved both the dials on the south end of the 
Manor House at Woolsthorpe, in the parish of Colsterworth, Lincoln- 
shire, where he was born. They are figured in a view of the house 
given in Sir David Brewster's " Life of Newton," and are semicircular, 
and divided into twelve hour spaces. Under one of the dials Newton 
carved his name, and this dial stone was taken out of the wall in 1844, 
and presented to the Museum of the Royal Society, where it is carefully 
preserved. In 1876-77 the manorial aisle to the chancel of Colsterworth 
Church was rebuilt ; it is called the Newton Chapel, because Sir Isaac's 
ancestors were buried in it, and Sir William Erie offered to present a 
copy of the dial in the Royal Society's Museum to Colsterworth Church. 
The Rev. John Mirehouse, vicar of the parish, at first accepted this offer, 
but afterwards thought he would make a search at Woolsthorpe Manor 
and see if the second dial which Newton was known to have carved 
could be found. His effort was rewarded with success. The old stone 
was found in its original position on the south wall, covered up by a 
small coal house, and the relic was given by the owner of Woolsthorpe 
to the church. The disc is 1 1 inches wide at the top, and nearly 
6 inches deep ; it has been enclosed in a frame of alabaster and placed 
on the north wall of the Newton Chapel, with the following inscription : 

" Newton : aged 9 years, cut with his penknife this dial : The stone 


was given by C. Turner, Esq., and placed here at the cost of the 
Rt. Hon: Sir William Erie, a collateral descendant of Newton, 1877." 

On the church of Seaton Ross, a little village in the East Riding of 
Yorkshire, there is a plain south dial, made by William Watson, a 
farmer, who died in 1857 and lies buried in the churchyard. On his 
gravestone are the lines : 

" At this church I so often with pleasure did call, 
That I made a sun-dial upon the church wall." 

Mr. Watson made several other dials in the neighbourhood, and printed 
a little book of directions for their construction. The house where he 
lived is still called Dial House, and had four dials on the walls, now 
quite gone to decay. His successors did not value them. " Them 
fond things," as they were disrespectfully called by one of the younger 
generation ; " If I were thou. Father, I'd have them figures away if I 
scratted them off wi' my nails." The father only laughed, and observed 
that " the lad mun' ha' a deal o' time to waaste ; " and the dials were left 
to perish in their own way. 

A younger neighbour of William Watson's, John Smith of Beilby, 
who also distinguished himself as a dialler, is mentioned in the collection 
of mottoes. He was a remarkable man in his way. From his boyhood 
he took great interest in astronomy, meteorology, dialling", and mechanics, 
and spent much of his spare time in a carpenter's shop, where he made 
a pedometer for his father's waggon. The ability came from his 
mother's side of the house, and she encouraged these pursuits, but John 
had to encounter a good deal of opposition from his father, who com- 
plained that the lad was always "agate o' them gimcracks." He left 
signs of his handiwork behind him at Beilby, and after living for several 
years as a farmer in the East and North Ridings, removed to South 
Stockton, where he devoted himself to astronomical pursuits, including 
the construction of sun-dials, and the publication of a meteorological 
almanack. Smith was a Wesleyan local preacher, and his active life 
was once graphically described by one of his neighbours at Spalding- 
ton, when asked to subscribe towards a testimonial which was to take 
the form of an easy chair, " Pooh pooh ! Smith is a man that nivver 
sits. Pray what use will an easy hame chair be tiv him? He's 
working hard all t' day lang i' t' farm, and up star-gazing at neets, and 
out preaching o' Sundays. Ah weant be a farthing towards nae sic 
thing as that, that ah wean't, sea ah'l say it at yance." 

John Smith lived to the age of eighty-eight, and died at South 
Stockton in 1895. 




The race of country diallers is happily not yet extinct. Mr. Joseph 
Angus, a foreman quarryman, has made several dials, horizontal and 
vertical, for his cottage and garden at Crawleyside, co. Durham. The 
late Mr. Serjeantson, of Camphill, Yorkshire, who put up two or three 
dials on his farms, had them made by two intelligent village masons, 
according to the directions given in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," and 
they were set up with the help of a candle, a piece of string, and the 
north star. Mr. Serjeantson, who died a few years ago at the age of 
eighty-nine, used to relate how, in his earlier days, he had painted a 
signboard representing the Queen and Prince Albert on horseback, for 
the village inn at Kirkby Malham, near his own property. He wished 
to put a sun-dial above it, and accordingly wrote to a well-known dialler 
in the neighbourhood. Time went on, a general election was pending, 
and late one evening the dialler was driven up to Mr. Serjeantson's 
door by a neighbour, who had fetched him out of a public-house, and 
urged the squire to keep him, or he would vote wrong. When politics 
had been discussed the squire began to speak about the dial, and sup- 
posed nothing could be done about it that night as it was so late. 
" Naw," said the old man looking up at the stars, " it'll do varra weel, 
its a gran' neet." " But you want the sun, don't you.-'" " Nay, nay, 
t' sun's nought to do wi't. I wants nouafht but a tall cannel and a 
bit o' band." With these materials the party proceeded to the village 
and the position of the dial was fixed. But the order was so long in 
being executed, that after waiting some months the squire wrote to 
remonstrate, and received in return the following curious letter : 

" Carlton, July, 1843. 
" Dear .Sir, 

" Ever since I have imbrased every applicable opportunity possible for a com- 
plition, and yet after all defeated ! if I could possess you (but I have treated you so) we 
will let alone fixing a time, the model will take two or three days yet to finish it, you need 
not be afraid of any preposterous executions (because it might fright Her Majesties 
Horses as her Royal Highness and her consort Prince will ride over every day) ' though 
I could like somewhat handsome with regard to its perspicuous situation, and a little 
towards a melioration of my conduct towards you. 

" I have for the present resolved it the most extant job I have on hand, if I am well 
shall not delay another hour till it is finished, but every process requires its own time, say 
two days to finish the Model, one day in casting, when I take it to Keighley (on my way 
to Wilsden to see my sister whom I've anxiously expected), then its to paint and Gild, 
but I must be over at Kirby in the meantime but cannot with any propriety fix a 
day yet. 

" Dear Sir, 

" Your humble Servant, 

" Wm. Crvkr.'' 
' Alluding to the signboard. 


The dial was brought at last and fixed up on the village inn, where 
it is still. " But no one wants a sun-dial, or anything of the sort here- 
abouts, now," remarked the squire, when he had finished telling the 
story, " for they all take their time from the buzzer." ' 

A dialler of former days, as a man of learning, combined no doubt 
other employments with that of making time tellers : 

" Lands he could measure, terms and tides presnge. 
And e'en the story ran that he could gauge." 

But perhaps it was only in Cornwall that he became an exorcist. 
Mr. Matthews''' tells us that Mr. James Wallis, of St. Ives, one of 
whose dials, with his name and date, 1790, is still on the wall of a 
house in the little fishing town, was a noted ghost-layer, and on one 
occasion exorcised the spirits publicly in the market-place with candle, 
book, and bell, the bell being rung by a boy in attendance. The ghosts 
who so greatly troubled St. Ives were forced by this ceremony to 
remain shut up in a tower, where they avenged themselves by making 
terrific noises, and greatly alarming the inhabitants. 

Amongst the eminent men who have paid respect to the sun-dial 
may be reckoned George Stephenson, the great railway engineer, who 
set his son Robert (still a boy at school), the task of making a dial to 
be placed over their cottage door at West Moor, near Newcastle. 
Father and son together got a stone which they hewed, carved, and 
polished; and, with the aid of Ferguson's "Astronomy," they found 
out the method of making the necessary calculations to adapt the dial 
to the latitude of Killinoworth. The dial, with the sfnomon coming 
from the sun's face, may still be seen over the entrance to the humble 
early home of these distinguished men. Let us hope that the healthy 
taste of the Stephensons, who by their inventive genius have con- 
tributed more than any other men to disturb society in its stationary 
customs, may plead in favour of the sun-dial — its preservation and its 
continued use : 

" 'Tis an old dial, dark with many a stain ; 

In summer crowned with drifting orchard bloom, 
Trick'd in the autumn with the yellow rain, 

And white in winter like a marble tomb ; 

And round about its grey, time-eaten brow 
Lean letters speak, a worn and shatter'd row — ■ 

• 31 atn a sjjaBe: a sJjaDotDC too art iljoii : 

3J marfe tbe S^tmc : sajjc iSosaip, Dost tfjou aoe ? ' " 

' Belonging to some machine works in the neighbourhood, 
-■ " Hist, of St. Ives." 



" Evermore 
The simpler essence lower lies, 
More complex is more perfect." 

Tennvson, Memoir, vol. i. 

The Scottish dials are so remarkable that they require a chapter to 
themselves, but here a difficulty awaits us. The work has already been 
done, and far better than we could do it, by Messrs. McGibbon and 
Ross in their " Castellated Architecture of Scotland." Mr. Ross con- 
tributed a valuable paper on Scottish sun-dials to the " Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Session 1891," and this paper 
has been enlarged, and incorporated in the book which he and Mr. 
McGibbon have issued together. The chapter describes two hundred 
and thirty dials, and is fully illustrated. For several of the specimens 
noticed in the last edition of the " Book of Sun-dials " we were indebted 
to Mr. Ross. All we can do now is to select in addition a few of the 
most remarkable examples from his work, and arrange them according 
to the lines which he has marked out. We are indebted to his kindness 
and that of the Society of Scottish Antiquaries for the illustrations. 

"Sun-dials," Mr. Ross tells us, "may be divided into two great 
classes, the attached, and the detached. The attached dials are those 
displayed on the walls of a building, the detached those standing 
alone. The former are subsidiary works, the latter are often of a very 
monumental character. Of the attached dials almost every town and 
village contains examples, and they occur in all imaginable positions — 
in wall panels, on the apex and eaves of gables, on the corners of 
houses, over archways and doorways, and every other 'coign of van- 
tage.' Although detached dials exist in hundreds, there are only four 
independent types of them in this country. And as it is convenient 
and necessary to have some descriptive name by which the dial of each 
type may be known, they will be referred to as : ( i ) the obelisk dials ; 
(2) the lectern dials; (3) the facet-headed dials; and (4) the horizontal 



dials. These names are suggested by the appearance of the dials 

With regard to the attached erect or vertical dials with a single face, 
several of which will be found noticed in the collection of mottoes, the 
Scottish ones differ but little from the English. Perhaps a greater 
proportion of them are made of stone, and the addition of an ornamental 

*^- 1^ u^---- 



border is more frequent. The most ancient specimen is, however, of 
metal, and is set on one of the buttresses of the chapel at King's 
College, Aberdeen. It is 3 feet square, and placed at a height of about 
25 feet from the ground. It appears to be an original part of the 
college, which was founded in 1494, though the building does not seem 
to have been begun till 1506. The dial may therefore belong to an 
early part of the sixteenth century. 

The tower of the Canonrate Tolbooth in Edinburgh has a much 
worn dial on its south front. It is probably later than the building, 
which is dated 1591. A few years ago a dial stone about 5 inches 


square was found on the site of the Greyfriars convent. It is dated 

At Aberdour Castle, Fifeshire, a vertical dial in a circle engraved 
on a square slab is set in a kind of niche cutting across the corner of the 
building and facing south-west. The date 1635 and the initials of 
William, Earl of Morton, and Anne, his wife, are faintly discernible on 
the stone. This Earl of Morton was Lord High Treasurer of Scotland 
and one of the most powerful noblemen of his time ; a Knight of the 
Garter and a strong supporter of Charles I. He married Lady Anne 
Keith, daughter of the Earl Marischal. I n the gardens of " The Place " 
there is a horizontal dial on a square pedestal which stands on four 
stone balls and strongly resembles one in the same neighbourhood, at 
Pitreavie, dated 1644. The north face of the pedestal at Aberdour 
bears a coronet with the insignia and motto of the Garter and on the 
south-west face is the Douglas heart. This would indicate that the 
dial was made for the same Earl of Morton whose initials are on the 
Castle dial. 

At Balcomie Castle, Fifeshire, a small dial is singularly placed in 
the arch spandrel of a fine gateway leading into the courtyard. Over 
the arch there are three large panels containing escutcheons, in the 
centre are the arms and supporters of the Learmonths of Balcomie with 
the date 1660, on the left are the same arms with the initials of John 
Learmonth and the motto " Sans Feintise," while the remaining panel 
has the arms and initials of his wife Elizabeth Myreton, heiress of 
Randerston, with the motto, " Advysedlie." On a frieze running along 
the top of the gateway is the inscription : (except) the . lord , bvld . 


On Hatton House, Midlothian, there are three dials, besides one 
over the gateway and another in the garden. Of those on the building 
two are on the south-east tower and the upper one 
has the monogram E. C. M., the initials of Eliza- 
beth Lauder, heiress of Hatton, wife of Charles 
Maitland, Earl of Lauderdale, by whom a great 
part of the house was built. It is dated 1664. A 
west dial on another part of the house has the same 
initials, and date 1675. 

In the "Scottish Notes and Queries" for May, 
1889, a curious dial relic was figured and described, 
and through the kindness of the editor a reproduction is given here. 
It is a stone which was found when a drain was opened in Taymouth 
Castle gardens. The face is dressed, and bears traces of an inscription 


and numerals. The stone is a native one and is thought to have been 
taken from the island castle on Loch Tay when its occupants departed. 

In what is called the Earl Marischal's bedroom, in the ruins of 
Dunnottar Castle, there is a stone with a clock face carved in relief and 
fitted with a gnomon. It is placed close under a west wall, so that for 
nearly half the day it must be useless, and at all times some imagination 
would be required to read it aright on account of the arrangement of 
the numerals. The stone has probably been shifted from its original 
place, and the addition of the gnomon was no doubt the fancy of some 
custodian of fifty or a hundred years ago. 

The village of Prestonpans contains probably more dials than any 
other place in Scotland, unless it be Newstead, near Melrose. They 
are chiefly found on houses which once belonged to stonemasons. "In 
the upper corner of one of these there is a representation of the sun and 
moon, with the initials of John Howison and his wife Agnes Wood, and 
date I 729. Round the top there is an ornamental scroll containing the 
mason's arms, a chevron between three castles. Immediately over the 
dial, on the skew stone of the gable, there is sculptured a right hand 
holding a mallet and striking a chisel held in the left hand." 

On the corner of the church at Prestonpans there is a three-faced 
dial set into and projecting from a niche in the wall. 

The dial lines cut on a buttress near the south aisle of Melrose 
Abbey have above them the date 1661. On the south face of the 
porch of St. Michael's Church, Linlithgow, "Linlithgow's holy dome " — 
where King James IV. received the warning which might have saved 
Scotland the disaster of Flodden — -there is a seventeenth century dial 
carved on a stone of the building, but it is very small and insignificant. 
The church dates from the middle of the fifteenth century. 

A very gruesome dial appears over the door of the Greyfriars 
Church in Perth. The dial projects slightly from the wall, and has 
carved over it a grinning death's head flanked by two hour glasses. 

Two-faced dials projected on corbels are a marked feature of the 
Scottish series. These are seen in their greatest perfection on Heriot's 
Hospital, where " there are eleven of them, eight being on the outside 
walls, and three facing in the courtyard. Some are supported by a 
cherub's head with wings, others have demons' heads with wings, and one 
a curious grotesque head somewhat resembling an elephant's. The dials 
seem to have been made by William Aytoun, who succeeded William 
Wallace as architect and superintendent of the hospital buildings in 
163 1-2. In the contract between Heriot'sTrusteesand Aytoun, the latter 
was bound ' to mak and carve his Majestie's portrait or any other portrait 



liL- beis requyrit to niak in that wark ; and to mak all sort of dyallis as 
sal be fund fitting for samyn.'" 

Similar dials are on Innes House, Morayshire, built between 1640 

and 1653, from the plans given by 
the same William Aytoun, " maister 
maissoun at Heriot," to his work, and 
also at Fisherow and other places. 
One is on a chimney stack at South 
Oueensferry. A very fine specimen 
made for his own house by Tobias 
Baak or Bachup, master mason, is on 
the front wall of a house in Kirkgate, 
Alloa. Baak's initials, with those of 
his wife, Margaret Lindsay, and the 
date 1695, are carved on the stone 
below. He was at one time architect 
and contractor for the town hall at 
Dumfries, besides doing some of the 
work about Kinross House, and in 
1680 was employed in repairing, and 
almost rebuilding, the old kirk and 
steeple at Alloa. 

A double dial at Jedburgh projects 
from a panel with an ornamented 
border, and above, in the same panel, 
are two cup-shaped dials, and the re- 
mains of an imperfect inscription. 

Skilled masons of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries have left 
upon the walls of their houses at 
near Melrose, in many curious little 
dials, two-faced, three-faced, and in one case semi- 
cylindrical. Some of them are dated. One on 
a carved bracket has the initials W. M. : L. M. : 
16S3 ; another J. B., 1754. The names of Mein 
and Bunyan both belong to mason families in 

At Cockburnspath and Oldhamstocks, Ber- 
wickshire, semi-cylindrical dials appear on the 
church buttresses. At Oldhamstocks there is also 
a dial on the sloping under-surface of the cylinder, 



their mark 




with a stone gnomon, left when the face of the stone was otherwise 
cut away. There is a date 1581 on another part of the church, but it 
is thought that the dial may belong to an even earlier period. 

A curious dial of the same type is affixed to the wall of a bastion 
tower about 10 feet high, which forms part of the boundary of the 


old garden at Seton Palace. The top of the stone forms a 
horizontal dial. 

On Auchterhouse church, Forfarshire, a semi-cylindrical and two 
triangular dials are sunk in a stone on the gable, which bears the date 

There are several examples of terminal dials, placed on the apex or 
on the lower end of a gable. Corstorphine Church (near Edinburgh) has 



seven to its own share. Belmont, in the same neighbourhood, has one. 
Pencaitland Church has one with four faces on the apex of the east gable, 
another with three faces on the south-west buttress, and a single-faced 
dial with a large iron gnomon near the top of the quaint tower. A view 
of St. Giles' Church, Edinburgh, taken in 1790, shows a terminal dial 
on the apex of the gable of the Chapman aisle. At Hawick a block of 
stone with two dial faces, and date 1683, was found, in 1888, built into 
the fireplace of a house. It had been in its palmy days the chief time 
teller to the inhabitants of Hawick, who possessed no public clock till 

the erection of the Tolbooth in 1694. Similar 
dial stones are often seen on cottages at the ter- 
mination of the eaves or end of gables. 

At Clackmannan the dial on the lower end of 
a gable is circular on a square basis, and sur- 
mounted by a cherub's head. A similar specimen 
is at Summerhall, Edinburgh. 

A fine hexagonal block with four vertical dials 
is at Kinross House, and the following informa- 
tion as to the maker was supplied to Mr. 
Ross: "John Hamilton, mason, servitor to Mr. 
James Smith, overseer of his Majesty's works, cut 
the two sun-dials still standing on the walls of the 
office courts to the right and left of the house, 
between 14th April and 28th June, 1686." Mr. 
Smith was son-in-law to Robert Mylne, the King's 
master mason. James Anderson, a local mason, 
hewed the "basses" for the dials. 

On a modern house at Elie, Fifeshire, a very 
fine old doorway has been placed. It is dated 
1682, and bears an armorial shield, and the initials of Andrew 
Gillespie and his wife. Christian Small. This is crowned at the top of 
the archway by a block of stone cut into several dial faces, both sunk 
and plane. The doorway and dial formerly belonged to a house 
called the " Muckle Yett," which was taken down some years ago. 

There is a dial with two faces in a peculiar position at Fountain- 
hall, Midlothian. It stands on the lower "corbie" step of a pigeon- 
house, with the strange accompaniment of a pair of " jougs," an iron 
collar for securing a prisoner. The house belonged, in the seventeenth 
century, to Sir John Lauder, Lord Fountainhall, a distinguished 
Scottish judge, who occasionally held courts of justice at his own 
residence. He was counsel to the unfortunate Earl of Argyle in 1681, 



and died at an advanced age in 1722. The road to the house led past 
the pigeon-house, so that the dial and jougs could be seen by all. Did 
any thought of Shakespeare suggest itself to some of the travellers 
alonor- that road ? 

" Orl. Who doth Time gallop withal ? 

Ros. With a thief to the gallows ; for though he go as softly as foot can fall, he thinks 
himself too soon there. 

Orl. Who stays it still withal ? 

Ros. With lawyers in the vacation ; for they sleep between term and term, and then 
they perceive not how time moves." 

The dial is now in a dilapidated condition. There is another, single 
faced, on a corner of the old mansion of Fountainhall, thought to have 
been put up by Sir Andrew Lauder at the end of the eighteenth 

There are several market crosses which bear dials, and these being 
often pillars of fine design, mounted on steps and adorned with the shield 
and crest of the lord of the manor, are fine features in the market-place of 
a country town. At Inverkeithing, Fifeshire, the pillar is surmounted by 
a unicorn, sejant and collared, supporting a shield whereon is the cross of 
St. Andrew, and below the unicorn are the dials. On the capital of the 
pillar are placed shields with the royal arms impaled with those of Drum- 
mond. The dials are probably of the seventeenth century, the pillar 
may be much earlier. The height of the whole is 14 feet 6 inches. 

At Airth, Stirlingshire, the pillar is mounted on a base with several 
steps, and supports a cubical stone with dials on two faces ; over 
one of which is the date 1697. Of the other two faces one bears the 
Elphinstone arms, and motto, " Doe well let them say : " with the 
initials C. E. above it; and the other has the Elphinstone and Bruce 
arms quartered, and the initials of Richard Elphinstone, eldest son of 
Sir Thomas Elphinstone, of Cadder Hall, and those of his wife, Isabella 

At Fettercairn, Kincardineshire, the shaft is octagonal, and the 
crowning block has a dial on its south face only. The date, 1670, is on 
the north side, and on the other are the initials and arms of John, first 
Earl of Middleton ; and on the shaft, which was brought from Kincar- 
dine, is a representation of the standard Scottish ell, 3 feet i^ inches 
long. This pillar is noticed by the Queen in her " Journal of our life in 
the Highlands." 

The dials on the cross at Doune are small and somewhat defaced, 
and are surmounted by a lion. At Galashiels the dial has been re- 
newed, but the vane at the top has the date 1695. The dial pillars at 



Pencaitland and Houston are probably also seventeenth century work. 
The pillar at Nairn is small and plain, about 7 feet 6 inches high, and 
is in a bad condition. 

The market cross of Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire, is surmounted by a 
dial having four faces, and is crowned by a stone ball. The shaft, 


made of a single stone 9 feet high, is older than the dials and the 
cornice, which all belong to the seventeenth century. 

The cross at Peebles, which stood on a platform ten feet high, was 
taken down some years ago, and put away in the Chambers Museum. 
It also has shields of arms round the capital, and is about 12 feet high, 
and dated 1699. The dial block at Elgin has four faces, and is dated 
1733, but the pillar and steps are probably much older. 

Horizontal attached dials are found in two places of interest, on the 
bridge of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and the " Auld Brig" of Ayr. There 
is also a specimen on a window-sill of the first floor at Crichtoun House, 
which must have been put in when the house was built, in the seven- 
teenth century ; and another occupies a similar position on the sill of a 
window in an old house situated on the north side of Melrose Abbey. 

The " detached dials " are also divided by Mr. Ross into four classes ; 
obelisk, lectern-shaped, facet-headed, and horizontal. Of the first class 
he writes : 

" The constant parts of these dials are — a square shaft, a bulged 
capital, and a tapering finial. Where the dial is of the normal type and 
unaltered, the shaft is divided on each side into five horizontal spaces 
by incised lines, thus presenting twenty cempartments. These com- 
partments are hollowed out into cup-shaped, heart-shaped, triangular, 
and other sinkings, which are generally lineated so as to mark the hours, 
and were without doubt always meant to be so. The sharp edge of the 
figure casts the shadow, which is especially distinct in the angular shapes 
and at the top of the heart-sinkings, where there is often a certain 
amount of undercutting. Stone gnomons of various forms are frequently 
left in the cup-hollows, and metal styles are to be found in all the dials. 
Occasionally some of the spaces are left blank, and on the north side, 
initials, dates, and arms, sometimes occur. 

" The capital is always bulged out so as to form an octagon in the 
centre, with an upright facet on each of the eight sides, having a dial on 
each. Above and below each facet over the four sides of the shafts are 
sloping facets, with a reclining dial or a proclining dial on each — the 
former being those dials whose faces slope towards the sky, and the 
latter those whose faces slope towards the ground. The eight triangular 
pieces formed by the meeting of the square and octagon are cut out, and 
most effective shadows, from an artistic point of view, result from this 
arrangement, giving an air of dignity to the capital, which is wanting 
in the one instance (at Drummond Castle) where this arrangement is 
departed from. The upright facets of the octagonal part have heart- 
shaped and cup-shaped sinkings, as in the shaft ; but the proclining and 



reclining parts seldom have sinkings. Nor has the tapering finial ever 
any sinkings ; like the shaft, this part is divided by horizontal incised 
lines, the number of spaces, for which there appears to have been no 
rule, varying according to the height of the finial. 

" These dials are generally set 
on some kind of base, consisting 
either of steps or a pedestal — the 
forms frequently alternate — being 
set square and diagonally as they 
ascend. The pedestals have a 
general resemblance to each other, 
being frequently ornamented with 
representations of the sun and the 
moon in almost identical lines, as 
at McCTo-atland and Kelburn." 

The dials at Kelburn House, 
Ayrshire, where there are two 
obelisks much resembling each 
other, are not the earliest, though 
they are among the noblest of this 
class. The finest of the pillars at 
Kelburn is dated i 707, and the 
initials ''o°' and ,% are those of 
David Boyle, first Earl of Glas- 
gow, and his wife, Margaret Lind- 
say Crawford. The pillar rises 
to a height of 8 feet 6 inches, and 
is crowned by a vane of beauti- 
fuU}' wrought iron work, in which 
these initials, entwined, again ap- 
pear, surmounted by a coronet, 
and the point of the vane ends 
in a thistle. The second obelisk, 
which stands on a pedestal in 
filled with water, is constructed like the 

It looks as 


'I'll! It! 1.4^. 

the centre of a stone basin 

first, but the upper part is plain and crowned with a ball 

if the stone had at some time giv^en way, and been replaced by a 

tapering finial of an ordinary type. 

The dial formerly at Barnton House (dated 1692), and now removed 
to Sauchie, Stirlingshire, as well as those at Bonnington House, and 
Meggatland, Midlothian, are from 7 to 9 feet high ; the latter is set on 



a fine pedestal, and the two former on steps placed anglewise. The one 
at Barnbougle Castle is a few inches lower, and like the Bonnington 
dial, bears the Cunningham arms. It stood for some time in a cottage 
garden at Lang-Green, but was removed to Barnbougle when the castle 
was rebuilt by the Earl of Rosebery a few years ago. 

The remains of an obelisk dial, formerly the town cross of Leven, 

into a garden 


of the 

in Fifeshire, were found in 1889 built 

removed and put together, the dial was placed in the care 

trustees of the Greig Institute, and the base inscribed as follows 

" Leven Cross, formerly on Carpenter's Brae. 
Removed 1767. Restored and rebuilt by James 
Anderson of Norton, 1889." 

The pillar had been taken down in 1767 to 
give room for the passage of the funeral of Mr. 
John Gibson of Durie ! 

Lord Reay's dial at Tongue House, Sutherland, 
is a remarkably fine pillar, with dials almost in- 
numerable. It is 7 feet 4 inches high, and dated 
1 7 14. It was noticed by Bishop Pocock when he 
travelled through Scotland in 1760. It is said that 
the stone, a red sandstone, has perished from the 
weather, and that the dials have suffered accordingly. 
The upper part has been restored. 

The obelisk dial at Mountstuart reaches the 
height of 1 1 feet 4 inches including the pedestal. 
There are dials all over the pillar, and the sun's face 
on three sides of the pedestal. The dial at Ballin- 
dalloch is of the same type. At Lennox Castle the 
shaft is shorter and the dials fewer. At Carberry Tower the obelisk 
stands on four balls, as does the plainer one at Invermay. That in 
Drummond Castle gardens, which is much clumsier in design, is 
noticed in the collection of mottoes. 

An old dial in the garden of Auchenbowie near Stirling resembles 
the lower half of an obelisk dial. There is also a very fine obelisk dial 
in the gardens at Ardlamont in Argyleshire. 

At Craigiehall, Midlothian, an obelisk dial, which had probably been 
broken, was set up again about the middle of the last century on a new 
base of unique design. This consisted of " a globe about 2 feet 2 
inches in diameter, into which the shaft is fitted, burying the whole of 
one of the five spaces. The globe is supported on a rounded base, 
and the whole rests on a square plinth." The upper portion was 



also renewed, but the outline is slightly curved, and there are no dials 
upon it. 

The obelisk dial at Lochgoilhead formerly stood in what formed the 
marketplace, and in front of the village inn. It now stands about 20 
yards away from its old position, and has been repaired and protected, 
but all the gnomons are gone. The stone bears the date 1626, above 
which is a St. Andrew's cross, the initials q^q, and on another 
stone H.°M. The initials are thought to refer to some member of the 
family of Campbell of Ardkinglas. 

Throughout the great sun-dial making period in Scotland, which, 
beginning in the sixteenth, lasted far into the eighteenth century, the 
making of dials of all the types already named seems to have gone on 
at one and the same time. The greatest number as well as the finest 
specimens belong to the period between 1620 and 1720. From whence 
came the inspiration ? As regards Scottish architecture we are told ^ 
that the mixed style of the period between 1542 and 1700 is rather 
from Germany and the Low Countries than French. Our English 
sixteenth century detached dials are associated with such names as 
Kratzer, Holbein, Haveas of Cleves ; but whether the art crossed the 
border from Scotland in the reign of James I., or whether the Scotsmen 
brought the first conception from Germany, and then carried it to a 
perfection which seems to have been attained nowhere else is a question 
which must, for the present, at any rate, remain undecided. 

" The characteristic elements of the lectern-shaped dials," says 
Mr. Ross, " are a shaft (on which there are no dials) and a stone supported 
upon it, cut in a peculiar manner so as to contain several sun-dials, the 
whole having a very decided resemblance to a music stand or lectern. 
The dial stone is cut, angled, bevelled, and hollowed into a multiplicity of 
parts not easily described. In a general way the front and back present 
sloping surfaces, and the ends or sides are perpendicular. On the 
front slope there is left a square block, 3 or 4 inches thick, not unlike a 
closed book resting on a lectern. Suppose a square cut out of each 
corner of the book so as to leave the form of a Greek cross, and four semi- 
circles cut out of the ends of the four arms of the cross, thus leaving eig-ht 
horns, and you have the principal and universal feature of this kind of dial. 
Further, suppose the cross to be placed well up on the slope so as to 
project beyond it, and the projecting part containing the semi-cylinder 
cut out of its upper side continued down the sloping back of the dial, 
and you have another constant feature of this design. The forerunners 

' "McGibbon and Ross. Cast. Arch. .Scot." v. ii. 13. 



of this pattern we saw in the dials at Oldhamstocks and Cockburnspath, 
where a semicircular hollow is employed. The lower parts of the stone 
generally contains proclining dials, which are almost concealed from 

Mr. Ross traces the design of these dials to that of an astronomical 
instrument such as is figured in Apian's " Book of Instruments " (1533), 
called the Torquetum of Apian. By this in- 
strument " the position of the sun, moon, and 
stars can be indicated at any hour, and the 
hour of the day and night can be told from any 
visible star." It is represented in Holbein's 
picture of " The Ambassadors." ' "The study 
of astronomy and the invention of all kinds of 
instruments connected with it were very com- 
mon in the sixteenth century, and the above 
figure, or some similar one, invented for astro- 
nomical purposes, has in all probability sug- 
gested the shape of the dial." 

The finest dial of this type is now at Wood- 
houselee, having been brought there from 
Wrychtis House, Edinburgh, and has eight ver- 
tical dials besides the usual ones common to 
the lectern-shaped type. It is 3 feet 6 inches 
high, and mounted on a twisted column. 

The dial at Ruchlaw, in East Lothian, is 
perhaps more graceful if less elaborate ; it has 
thirty-five dial faces and stands on an octagonal { 
shaft of grey stone. It was repaired and set up '* 
in its present position about the beginning of 
this century by the great-grandfather of the 
present owner. Ruchlaw has been in the pos- 
session of the family of Sydserf since 1537. 
On the house there are two carved window pediments with initials of 
Archibald Sydserf and his wife, and the date 1663, which is probably 
also the date of the dial. There is a second dial in the same earden, 
horizontal and of white marble, on a red sandstone pillar. This is 
a much later work. 

Another fine lectern dial, formerly at Neidpath Castle, is now pre- 
served in the Chambers' Institute, Peebles. 

' See " The Mystery of Holbein's ' Ambassadors,' '' by W. Dickes (" Magazine of Art," 
November, 1896). 



The dial at Midcalder House, repaired by Lord Torpichen, varies 
from the usual type by having round the centre an "octagonal band, 
which is cut away beneath, and then splayed out from the octagon to 
the square with sloping and perpendicular dials." It is placed on a 
modern shaft designed by Mr. Ross. 

A smaller specimen of the lectern type at Pitreavie, stands on a 
square pedestal, which bears the initials and arms of Sir Henry Ward- 
law, and date 1644. The one at Ladyland's House is dated 1673. 

One of the most remarkably placed dials of this class is at Dundas 
Castle, Linlithgowshire. It is on the terrace, which is probably not 
its original position, and stands above a castellated fountain, the top 
of which is reached by a flight of steps, and on this the dial stands, 
supported by an octagonal shaft adorned with winged figures, and in 
the centre of the basin of a second fountain. The sides of the fountain 
are elaborately decorated, and round them runs a Latin inscription, 
of which the following translation was given in " Summer Life on Land 
and Water at South Queensferry," by Mr. W. W. Fife : 

" See, read, think and attend. 
Through rocks and crags by pipes we lead these streams of water. 
That the parched garden may be moistened by the spring. 
Forbear to do harm therefore to the fountain and garden which thou seest. 
Nor yet shouldst thou incHne to injure the signs of the dial. 
View and with grateful eyes enjoy these hours, and the garden. 
And to the flowers may eager thirst be allayed by the fountain. 
In the year of human salvation 1623." 

Below this inscription is a further one, of which we again quote Mr, 
Fyfe's translation : 

"Sir Walter Dundas in the year of our Lord, 1623, and sixty-first of his own age, 
erected and adorned, as an ornament of his country and family, sacred to the memory of 
himself, and as a future memorial of his posterity, as also an amusing recreation for 
friends, guests, and visitors, this fountain in the form of a castle, this dial with its retinue 
of goddesses, and this garden with its buildings, walls, and quadrangular walks, surrounded 
with stones, piled on high, rocks having been on all sides deeply cut out, which incon. 
veniently covered the ground. Whoever thou art, who comest hither, we, so many half- 
fiendish spectres, are placed here lately by order, expressly for bugbears to the bad, so 
that the hideous show their visages, lest any meddling evil disposed person, should put 
forth his hand on the dial or garden. We warn robbers to depart, burglars to desist, 
nothing here is prey for plunder ! For the pleasure and enjoyment of spectators are all 
these placed here : but we, who rather laugh with joyous front to a free sight, we bid 
frankly the kind and welcome friends of the host. Boldly use every freedom with the 
master, the dial, the garden, and the garden-beds and couches — him for friendship and 
conversation, them for the recreation of the mind and thought. Whh ordinary things to 
content us here, is to be even with others, wc envy not their better things." 



The " fiends " alluded to are faces carved in medallions round the 
lower part of the fountain. 

The pillar at Skibo Castle, Sutherland, is of simpler character than 
the preceding one, and stands about 3 feet 2 inches high. The block 
of dials faces the four points of the compass ; on the north and south 
sides the dials are vertical, while on the east and west, and on the 
sloping top, they are sunk, and are concave, semi-cylindrical, and 
angular. The dial pillar doubtless belongs to the seventeenth century. 



A curiously cut lectern-shaped block, on a pedestal, which once 
stood in the Zoological Gardens in Edinburgh, has disappeared and 
cannot be traced. It is figured in " Chambers's Cyclopaedia." The 
pedestal dial at Heriot's Hospital has also vanished into unknown 

The dial stone at Carberry, Haddingtonshire, is set on a unique 
pedestal, a short column, the capital of which is a female bust, with one 
face to the north and another to the south. The Ionic volutes and 
abacus above support the dial stone. There are eleven dials on this 
block, and one, pendant, on each shoulder. The base and steps are set 
diagonally, and the height of the whole is 3 feet 3 inches. 



A very pretty specimen of a lectern dial was not long ago found, 
in pieces, in the garden at Lainshaw near Stewarton, Ayrshire, and 
was repaired and set up again by the present owner, Sir A. Cunning- 
ham. On the east and west sides are shields with the Cunningham 
arms, and beside them the initials a.^c. and m/'c, probably those of 


Sir Alexander Cunningham, created a baronet in 1672, and Dame 
Mary Cunningham, his wife, daughter of John Stewart, younger, of 

One of the most interesting dials in Scotland, that called " Oueen 
Mary's" at Holyrood, has not yet been mentioned. It belongs to 
the class of " facet-headed " dials, but the facets are covered with sink- 
ings ; heart-shaped, cup-shaped, and angular, and also with figures of 
very unusual forms, as in one hollow the nose of a grotesque face 


forms the gnomon, in another a thistle-leaved ornament casts the neces- 
sary shadow. The dial stands in the palace gardens, on an hexagonal 
pillar, which is mounted on three steps. The under-surfaces bear the 
royal arms of Scotland with the collar and badge of the thistle, figures 
of St. Andrew and St. George, and the initials of Charles I. and 
Henrietta Maria. It is said to have been presented by Charles 
to the Queen, and the accounts of the Masters of Works show 
that in 1633 the sum of ^408 155-. bd. Scots was paid to "John 
Mylne, Maisonne, for the working and hewing of the diyell in the 
north yaird, with the pillar, stapis, degrees, and foundations thereof, and 
^66 13^-. ■\^d. to John Bartoun for gilding, making, and graving the 
dyell " John Mylne was the King's master mason, and made the dial 
with the help of his two sons, John and Alexander. It stands, with 
the steps and base, 10 feet 3 inches high, and was rescued from a 
broken and ruined condition, repaired, and set up again in its present 
position, by desire of Queen Victoria.^ 

A fine specimen of a dial of the Holyrood type, which was in the 
gardens of Warriston, Edinburgh, and probably belonged to Warriston 
House, now destroyed, has lately been removed to Fettes College. 
Another, dated 1697, is now at Melville House, Fifeshire, where it was 
erected about 1862, having been brought from Balgonie Castle after 
the sale of that estate. In the reisfn of Charles I. Baloonie Castle 
passed from the possession of the Sibbald family into that of General 
Alex. Lesley, first Earl of Leven. The dial was set up in the time of 
his granddaughter Katherine, Countess of Leven, and wife of the 
second Earl of Melville. There is a smaller dial of the same type at 
Invermay in Perthshire. 

At Ellon Castle, Aberdeenshire, a dial with each facet hollowed, 
and crowned with a tapering finial and ball, stands on a finely-carved 
pedestal mounted on steps. The height is 8 feet 6 inches. It forms 
a singularly fine architectural monument. A similar dial block with a 
plainer pedestal is at Pitmedden, in the same county. 

A dial stone now at Cammo, near Cramond, bearing sunk as well 
as plane dials, was brought there from the gardens of Minto House, 
Edinburgh. According to a plan of the city taken in 1 742, Minto 
House lay south of the Cowgate, and its entrance was from Horse 
Wynd. The staircase of the house, says Robert Chambers, was for- 
gotten till after the house was built ! 

Another very elaborate dial, bearing thirty-three gnomons, is at 

'Proceedings of tht Edinburgh iVrchitcctural Asbociution," vol. iii., Stssions iSSo-Si. 





Cramond near Edinburgh. One of the faces is dated 1732, and bears 
the name "Sir Rob. Dickson." On another face is inscribed " Arch. 
Handasyde fecit." Sir Robert was chief baillie in Musselburgh in 
1745, in which same town Handasyde worked as a mason. Some 
other dials in the neighbourhood appear to be also the work of 
Handasyde, as well as one on Inveresk Church. The dial at Cramond 

its said to have been brought there from 
Lauriston Castle, about two miles dis- 
tant. When it was first seen by Mr. 
Ross it was broken into three or four 
pieces, but he called the attention of the 
Committee of the Edinburgh Exhibition 
(1886) to it, and the dial was borrowed 
for exhibition and put into repair. 
The ball now at the top is a recent 

In the garden at Lee Castle, Lanark- 
shire, there is a fine dial, having the 
facets deeply hollowed, supported by a 
lion sitting on his haunches and holding 
"an enriched cartouch," on which are 
sculptured the family arms, the Lock 
Heart, from which the Lockharts of Lee 
took their name. At Waygateshaw a 
lion of grim appearance also holds a dial 
stone on his head, and at Pitferran, the 
lion alone remains. It holds a shield 
liiigii^^^-- bearing the arms of Halkett, but the 
dial has disappeared. 

Mount Melville, near St. Andrews, 
has in its garden a remarkable octagonal 
column crowned with a facet-headed dial stone. The column, which 
stands on four steps, has dials both plane and sunk arranged in 
regular rows round it, and of all varieties of shapes, oblong, angular, 
heart-shaped, and circular. The lower part of the shaft is carved 
with rose and thistle patterns, and on one face are two twisted 
serpents. " Above the dial shaft a collar contains a series of five 
cylinder-shaped hollows, and behind these four slanting oblong sunk 
dials. Above the collar, and resting on the base, there is a square 
block, having three large cup-shaped hollows, and a large heart-shaped 
hollow. Above the square block is j^laced the facet head." There are 




altogether seventy dials. A somewhat similar dial is said to be at 
Craignethan Castle, Lanarkshire. 

At Rubislaw Den, Aberdeenshire, two blocks of concave dials 
stand one above another on a wide stone base, supported by balusters. 
At the top is a stone ball marked with dial lines. The whole reaches 
a height of 9 feet 5 inches. It originally stood in the garden of the 

>?■; -Oh! 


Earl Marischal's Aberdeen house, which was destroyed in 1789, and 
the dial was removed b)' Mr. Skene to Rubislaw, It remained there 
till the house fell to decay, and was then transferred to Rubislaw 

The dials at Midmar Castle and Duthie Park, Aberdeen, bear a 
strong resemblance to each other. Both have four concave dials 
mounted on a pedestal, and surmounted by four others — at Midmar 
sunk, and at Duthie Park plane dials — on the slope of the pinnacle. 



There is a ball at the top of each, and at Aberdeen the hours and hour 
lines are painted on it. On the pedestal of this latter dial there are 
shields with the initials " C. G.," " G. B.," and date 1707, and also a 
pestle and mortar. 

In the "formal crarden " at Stobhall Castle, Perthshire, a sin^u- 
larly beautiful and interesting; place, there is a dial pillar about 6 feet 3 
inches high, with a square block at the top crowned by a ball, and each 
face of the block has a circular hollow about 10 inches in diameter. 
Half way up the shaft of the pillar is another square block, bearing 

vertical dials, and at the ansfle of 
the north face there is a shield 
with the Drummond arms, an 
earl's coronet, and the initials 
E. I. P., for John, Earl of Perth. 
This probably refers to the second 
earl, who succeeded to the estates 
about 161 2. 

Dr. Martine, of Haddington, 
possesses a very remarkable dial 
on a stone hollowed and shaped 
like a bowl or small font. One 
dial face is within the hollow, and 
round the outside there are eight 
concave dials with a mask be- 
tween each. The stone is 11^ 
inches high, 15^ inches wide, and 
6 inches deep inside. 

There is another curious speci- 
men at Haddington in the posses- 
It is made out of one block, and cut in a 
most irregular manner with plane and concave faces. A horizontal 
dial is on the top. The block stands on a wreathed pillar 2 feet 
6 inches high. 

At North Barr, Renfrewshire, a dial stone in the old garden is 
mounted on a pedestal which is quite unique. This is the figure of a 
lady in seventeenth-century costume, holding a rose in one hand and 
gathering up her skirts with the other. Two solid stone curls, which 
rest upon her shoulders, help to support the block of dials which she 
carries on her head. This is octagonal, and has seventeen faces, some 
of which are plane and some hollowed. The figure stands as origin- 
ally placed, and bears the date 1679, and the initials of Donald McGil- 


sion of Dr. Howden. 



livray, a Glasgow merchant, who built his house at North Barr, and 
died in 1 684. Mr. Ross considers it to be the work of one James Gifford, 
a sculptor, who lived at West Linton, Peebleshire. He erected a 


cross on a well there, and on the top of it he placed a statue of his wife, 
which bears a considerable resemblance to the fisfure at North Barr. 

Perhaps the most beautiful dial which the world can show is at 
Glamis Castle, that place of mystery and legend. It is simply a 



masterpiece; nothing so grand can be seen anywhere else. It stands 
2 1 feet 3 inches high. Above the base there are four lions erect, each 
holding a shield on which is a dial face, and the names of months and 
days are engraved below. These figures, between which are twisted 
pillars, support a cornice and canopy, and above there is a faceted 
block, cut into eighty triangular dial planes. An earl's coronet sup- 
ported by four carved scrolls is on the top. The name and arms of 
the Strathmore family account for the introduction of the lions. Glamis 
was originally the inheritance of Macbeth : 

" By Sinel's death I know I am Thane of Glamis." 

It was granted in the fourteenth century to Sir John Lyon, an- 
cestor of the present Earl of Strathmore, and the castle was rebuilt in 
the seventeenth century. We are told that the Chevalier slept there 
in 1 715, "and had above eighty beds made up for himself and his re- 
tinue." The dial stands on the lawn in front of the castle, and was set 
up in the time of Earl Patrick (1647-1695), who mentions it in his 
" Book of Record." 

The two dials at Newbattle Abbey, which are still in the gardens, 
though not as originally placed, are exactly alike, and stand about 
16 feet high, including the steps on which they are mounted. Each 
consists of an octagonal block, which, placed on a pedestal, bears two 
tiers of vertical dials, and is surmounted by a carved finial. The arms 
and initials of William, first Earl of Lothian, and Anne his wife, with 
a sun, the crest of the Kers, are on the north side of the block. These 
dials were erected in 1635. 

At Polton, near Edinburgh, there are two dials of late seventeenth 
century date. One shows a figure of Time in relief, holding a scythe, 
and supporting a globe on his knee ; a square dial face is below. The 
other is a fragment ; a hexagonally carved stone rests on a square base, 
and on the faces of both there have been dials. The date 1685 is on 
one of the blocks, and 1672 on a lintel which is now placed with them. 
They are arranged somewhat confusedly against a garden wall, so as to 
form a rockery, but are evidently the remains of what was once a very 
fine structure. The carved finial at the top resembles those at New- 

At Dunglass, Haddingtonshire, on the top of a mound near the 
ruined collegiate church, a square stone with four vertical dials stands 
on what seems to be a broad projecting square basin, " the pedestal of 
which, cut out of one stone, is fashioned with four pilasters at the 


angles ; these are fully relieved, showing daylight between." The 
upper surface of the serving basin is flat. 

An obelisk dial, formerly at Barnton House, has been already 
noticed. Another stone structure, once at the same place, but now at 
Sauchie, Stirlingshire, has two tiers of vertical dials mounted on a 
pedestal which stands on steps placed anglewise, and reaches altogether 
to the height of 10 feet 2^ inches. Lord Balmerinoch's arms are on 
the north face. It would seem that this dial must have been removed 
from the old house at Barnton, built by Lord Balmerinoch in 1623, and 
was probably set up by the fourth lord, who sold Barnton in 1688. 
His son, the last Lord Balmerinoch, took part in the rebellion of 1745, 
and was beheaded on Tower Hill. 

The dial at Pinkie House, Midlothian, is supposed to have been 
put up by Alexander Seton, Earl of Dunfermline, who died there in 
1622. It is a stone cube with vertical dials, crowned by a finial of the 
same style as those at Newbattle, and stands on a garden wall. There 
is also a fine specimen of a horizontal dial at Pinkie, but it is broken 
into two pieces. The sides are scalloped, and enclose sunk and plane 
vertical dials, and twisted serpents. There are vertical dials also on 
the house. 

At Forgue, Elgin, a block of vertical dials with cherubs' heads at 
the top, which seems once to have been built into the corner of the 
wall, has now been mounted on a pedestal and fixed on the buttress of 
St. Margaret's Church. It has belonged for several generations to the 
family of the Rev. William Temple, and the names of six of his an- 
cestors, with the dates of their death, are cut on the pedestal. The date 
of the dial is 1710. 

At Bowland, near Galashiels, there are two solid stone posts to 
what was once a gateway entrance, and on the tapering top of each is a 
globe round which the hours are figured. The gnomon is an iron rod 
pointing from the north pole. 

At Inch House, Midlothian, a horizontal octagonal dial is sur- 
rounded by vertical and hollow faces on the eight sides. These are 
supported by cherubs' heads, like those at Heriot's Hospital, which in 
their turn rest upon a cubical base bearing three dials and the arms 
of the Preston family. The whole stands on an ivy-covered pedestal. 

At New Hall, Penicuik, a globe is poised on the top of a hollow 
cylinder, which serves as the gnomon of a horizontal dial. 

In the grounds of Kilmarten, in Glen Urquhart, Inverness-shire, 
there is a dial 5 feet high, consisting of a square block of stone resting 
on four marble balls. The face is of copper, and has the Ogilvy crest 


engraved on it, and the motto Alma fide. It was set up at Conlemony, 
in Glen Urquhart, in 1840, by Mr. Thomas Ogilvy, and on the sale of 
that estate the dial was removed to Kilmarten. 

Another modern dial is at Leuchars, and was designed by Lady 
John Scott. 

A curious dial at the Raining, Selkirk, is covered with masonic sym- 
bols : " an arch springing from Ionic columns enclosing the All-seeing 
Eye within a wreath, the compass, square, and triangle, and various other 
figures." It was the work of a mason employed at the Haining in 1 8 1 7. 

For particulars as well as illustrations of these and other dials we 
can only refer our readers to the beautiful work already mentioned, 
" Castellated Architecture of Scotland," vol. v., where there are many 
more described, especially of the vertical and horizontal types, than we 
have space even to name, and there are probably quite as many still 
unnoticed. It is satisfactory to learn that, by the attention called to 
some of the finer specimens, several have been rescued from decay and 
set up again. 

At Riccarton Castle, Midlothian, there is a dial of grey stone 
inscribed "Robert Palmer fecit, 1829," most scientifically constructed, 
and another by the same maker is in the neighbouring churchyard of 
Currie. This was presented by Palmer to the parishioners and heritors 
in 1836. Palmer was a village schoolmaster and taught the elements 
of astronomy, the walls of his schoolroom being covered with astro- 
nomical diagrams. Other schoolmasters made dials and taught dialling 
to their pupils. Burns studied it ; Hugh Wilson, composer of the hymn 
tune " Martyrdom," made a dial which is still at Fenwick near Falkirk, 
and the number of dials at such places as Prestonpans and Newstead 
shows how thoroughly the art was understood by working masons. 

The Kirk Sessions records for 1744, of Essie and Nevay, Forfar- 
shire, notice that a mason had been fined £(> (Scots) for some misde- 
meanour, but being a poor man, and having with other work " made a 
dyal for the West Church," he was forgiven. This shows the high 
esteem in which dial-makers were held in the eighteenth century.' 

A splendid Celtic cross which stands near the old Priory Church on 
the island of Oronsay, has a horizontal dial roughly cut on the corner 
of its socket stone. The cross is inscribed with the name of Prior 
Colin, who died in 1510 : Haec est crux Colmi filii Christi. The dial, 
which is probably of later date, is circular, with seventeen distinct rays, 
an outer ring, and a central hole for the gnomon. It has a diameter of 
1 1 \ inches. There may once have been twenty-four rays, but part of 

' " Slrathmorc Past and Present " (Rev. J. G. Macpherson). 


the stone is now decayed, and the rubbing which has been sent to us 
only shows hour lines from 4 a.m. to 8 p.m. Tradition says that 
people who passed the cross to enter the church, used to place a stone, 
sunwise, in the gnomon hole " for luck." It must be many years since 
anyone went to worship in the church, which, with the adjacent build- 
ings of the priory, founded in the fourteenth century by John of Isla, 
Lord of the Isles, has long been in ruins. The dial is shown in a 
lithograph of the cross given by Dr. Stuart in his " Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland." 

The dial made by Hugh Miller when a young man still stands at 
Cromarty, and near it are the remains of an old lectern-shaped block 
dug up by him in his boyhood, which had once belonged to the Castle 
garden at Cromarty. There was, too, a sun-dial, moss-grown and 
weatherbeaten, standing in the lonely graveyard beside the ruined 
chapel on Conan-side, which lived in his memory for many years.. "A 
few broken walls rose on the highest peak of the eminence, the slope 
was occupied by little mossy hillocks and sorely-lichened tombstones 
that mark the ancient graveyard, and among the tombs immediately 
beside the ruin there stood a rustic dial, with its iron gnomon worn to 
an oxidized film, and green with weather stains and moss. And around 
this little lonely yard sprang the young wood, but just open enough 
towards the west to admit in slant lines along the tombstones and the 
ruins, the red light of the setting sun." ' 

The thoughts suggested by this scene were embodied in " Lines to 
a Sun-dial in a Churchyard " : 

* * # * 

" Grey dial stone, I fain would know 

What motive placed thee here. 
Where' sadness heaves the frequent sigh 

And drops the frequent tear. 
Like thy carved plane, grey dial stone, 

Griefs weary mourners be : 
Dark sorrow metes out time to them. 

Dark shade metes time to thee. 

# # * # 

Grey dial stone, while yet thy shade 

Points out those hours are mine, — 
While yet at every morn I rise. 

And rest at day's decline, — 
Would that the Sun that formed thine. 

His bright rays beamed on me, 
That I, wise for the final day, 

Might measure time, like thee ! " 

My .Schools and Schoolmasters," by Hugh Miller. 



" Thy glass will show thee how thy beauties wear. 
Thy dial how thy precious minutes waste." 

Shakespeare, Sonnet Ixxvii. 

The collections of sun-dial mottoes made by Baron de Riviere and Dr. 
Blanchard, which we have incorporated with our own, add greatly to 
our knowledge, not only of the inscriptions, but of the forms of many 
French dials. So far as we can judge from these notices there are 
either no remains in France of those monumental dials of which 
Scotland possesses so many, and England a few fine examples, or else 
they have escaped the observation of these accomplished writers. 
French influence was so strong in Scotland in the days of the Stuart 
kings, that we might have expected to iind in France the prototype 
of the Scottish dials. But we have looked in vain. It is true that 
a fine specimen of the two-faced attached dial with stone gnomons, 
such as is found on Heriot's Hospital and other houses in Scotland, has 
been noticed at Rouelles^ in Normandy, above a window of the church, 
and is thought to date from about the year 1 500, but the majority of 
French dials appear to be of the simple vertical and horizontal types, 
with the exception of some curious and elaborate constructions which 
will be hereafter described. 

No dial could be more beautifully placed than the one on Chartres 
Cathedral. It is semicircular, on a stone slab held by an angel, one of 
the tall and dignified Byzantine figures that adorn the outside of that 
noble building. It stands under a canopy at the south-west angle of 
the cathedral. The date on the dial is 1582, but some antiquaries have 
thought that there may have been an earlier stone, coeval with the 
figure, and that the dial had formed part of the original design. 
Amongst the angels which stand above the flying buttresses on the 
south side of Rheims Cathedral there is one which holds a semicircular 

' " Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc," September, 1873, P- -S°- 



stone in a similar position, and though neither numerals nor lines can 
be discerned from below, and there is no gnomon, the resemblance to a 
dial is certainly strong. It was a beautiful thought to place the figure 
of an angelic watcher as recorder of those hours which an angel can only 
know in his capacity as a ministering spirit to man. Perhaps it was 
suggested by the mention of the angel in the Book of Revelation stand- 
ing on the earth and the sea and proclaiming the end of Time and the 
finishing of the mystery of God. 

At Laon Cathedral the angel is on one of the outbuildings, and the date 



on the dial-slab is 1 748. The figure and canopy are, of course, much 
earlier. On Falaise Cathedral there is a dial, but a perfectly plain one ; 
Amiens has one also, almost illegible ; and on the ruined abbey church 
of Jumieges there are the outlines of one with the numerals still visible. 
Baron de Riviere notices a dial on the porch of the cathedral at Albi. 

In a list of dated church dials without mottoes from the Depart- 
ment du Morbihan, given by the same writer, the earliest date is a.d. 
1550, from the church of Lanvenegen. A dial on the church of Vieil 
Beauge(Maine-et- Loire), dated 1543, with one at St. Aubin des Fonts de 
Ce, are said to be the oldest in Anjou. At the Chateau de Josselin in 
Brittany there is a picturesque semicircular dial perched on a buttress, 
representing the bust of a man with the dial on his breast. The date 

1 68 


below is 1578. A dial once stood on the chapel of the Chateau de St. 
Foy, near Lyons, and was removed to the Musee Lapidaire at Lyons 
when the chapel was destroyed about fifty or sixty years ago. 

In the old Place des Cordeliers at Lyons there formerly stood a tall 
column surmounted by a statue of Urania, holding a long gnomon which 
showed the hour of noon on a meridian line. The square was the 
rendezvous for all the wheeled traffic between Switzerland and Franche 
Comte, and the whole space between the column and the church of the 
Cordeliers was wont to be filled by the long chars of the country. The 
column was taken down in 1858.' 

Paris in former days possessed a great number of dials, several of 
which are noticed in the collection of mottoes. Only a few remain. 
One of these is in the first court of the Institut, for- 
merly the College des Ouatre Nations, founded by 
Cardinal Mazarin. It is inscribed : " Veteris Collegii / 
Mazarinaci / Horarium Solare / Anno Domini / 
MDCCCLVi / Restitutum /." Fr. Bedos de Celles gives 
in his " Gnomonique Pratique" (1771) an engraving 
of a vertical dial, 12 feet high by 10 feet 6 inches 
wide, made by him for the Abbey of St. Denis, and 
set up there in 1765. 

A dial of very barbarous design was on the Bas- 
tille. It had for supporters the figures of a man and 
woman chained together by hands, feet, and neck, the 
chains also forming a wreath round the dial and the 
inscription belonging to it. The inscription has not 
been preserved, but an appropriate one might readily be suj^plied from 
the book of Job : "A land of darkness and of the shadow of death, and 
where the light is as darkness." 

The column erected by Jean BuUant for Catherine de' Medici at the 
Hotel de la Reine, afterwards the Hotel de Soissons, and later the Halles 
au BI4 which served as an observatory for her astrologer, has now been 
built into the Halles. Originally there was a large ring of metal round 
it, on which the hours were shown by a ray of light passing over them. 
In the middle of the eighteenth century the astronomer Pingre drew 
lines for two dials upon the column, but none of these remain. 

In 1763 an elaborate arrangement of meridian and hour lines, with 
tables of comparison showing the time of day in different parts of the 
world, etc., was drawn on the staircase walls of the Lycee at Grenoble 
bya learned Jesuit,probablyunder the direction of the celebrated Athana- 
sius Kirchcr, who was in France at that time. The lines were traced 



on the different flights of stairs, and the light was thrown on them from 
mirrors placed horizontally over the windows. By this means there 
was shown in lines and letters of different colours: (i) the French 
hours ; (2) the Italian hours ; (3) the Babylonian hours ; (4) the signs of 
the Zodiac; (5) the months ; (6) the four seasons ; (7) the hours of sun- 
rise and sunset. On the first flight there was also to be seen : (i) the 
Zodiac signs with their attributes ; (2) the calendar of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and her seven feasts ; (3) a table of hours, or horologitun uni- 
versale, showing the time of day at twelve other towns beside Grenoble, 
and in ten countries; this was 8 feet high and 10 feet wide; (4) a 
Jwrologiuni novum, or table to find the place of the sun and moon in 
the universe, of the same size as the other table ; (5) a calendar of 
Jesuit saints. 

On the second flight of stairs there was: (i) a calendar of the 
exploits of Louis XIV. ; (2) a table to find the days of the moon ; (3) 
a table of epacts from 1674 to 1721. 

The meridian itself consisted of oblique lines traced on the side walls 
and vaulting of the staircase. Below the side window were the words : 
" Tempori et /Eternitate, Picturus Anno 1673. Restauratum Prime 
1755. Iter 1855." When the last account of these instruments was 
written, neither the gnomons nor their supports remained. 

An ingenious dial was set up at Besancon in the eighteenth century 
by M. Bizot, a counsellor and a distinguished mathematician. The dial 
represented an angel holding a child in his right hand, and with his left 
hand pointing to the heavens. The hour lines and numerals were left 
in open work, and the rays of light which passed through them fell on the 
finger of the angel and showed the time of day. There was a slight 
projecting roof of zinc which protected the dial and cast a shadow over 
the head and hand of the angel. This dial was described in the " Journal 
des Savants" by the astronomer Lalande. M. Bizot made a second 
dial in the church of the Madeleine at Besan9on, and there the light fell 
through a hole in a metal plate inserted in a window upon hour lines 
chiselled on the floor. 

In the churchyard of Brou, near Bourg-en-Bresse, a curious sun-dial 
was made for the use of the workmen who built the church known to 
us through Matthew Arnold's poem : 

" On Sundays at the matin chime 
The Alpine peasants, two and three, 

Climb up here to pray : 
Burghers and dames, at summer's prime, 
Ride out to church from Chambery, 


Dight with mantles gay; 
But else it is a lonely time 

Round the church of Brou." 

The building was begun in 1506. The dial was a horizontal circle, 
33 feet in diameter. The spectator himself formed the gnomon, and 
by standing on a particular spot on the initial letter which indicated the 
current month, saw his shadow fall upon the hour he wished to ascertain. 
The hours were marked in bricks, which were nearly worn away when 
M. Lalande replaced them by stones. This was nearly a century and 
a half ago, and probably by this time the stones have also been worn 
away and displaced, and the hours are known no more. 

A dial was made in a similar manner at Dijon early in the nine- 
teenth century by M. Caumont. There were twenty-four stone slabs 
placed in a circle on the ground, and within them were four octagonal 
blocks which gave the points of the compass, and slabs of 6 feet long 
to mark the meridian and the east and west lines. The outer slabs 
were numbered according to the hours, and the signs of the Zodiac 
were engraved on the blocks. The observer, by placing an upright 
stick on the meridian line opposite the initial letter of the month, could 
ascertain the correct time. In 1840 this dial had to be removed to 
make way for the building of the citadel, and after some years was 
placed at the end of the promenade in the Pare, near the river Ouche. 
The account of it was written in 1856. 

With regard to the artistic merit of the French dials, it will 
easily be believed that some of the designs are very fine, particularly 
in those that are cut in slate or engraved in metal. M. de Riviere 
gives an example of a slate slab beautifully carved in relief, dated 1655, 
which is now in the museum at Moulins.' 

Slate is a favourite substance for diallers to work upon. On a ver- 
tical dial on the church at Coutures (Maine-et-Loire) each of the hour 
lines terminates in ajh'itr-dc-lys, and there follows an inscription : 




CVREVR . LE 1'" I . 1 69 1 



\ Fail par ii/oi /acqiics Roitssc, iiwir/iaiii sergier, Jiomme procurenr, Ic 
\'" Janvier, 1691. Je dc won iiiicnx devise le viilieii dii soleiL'\ 

' "Bull : Mon." vol. xliv., p. 623. 


A finely-ent^raved leaden plate is in the museum at Varzy. M. 
Grasset, the curator, published a description of it,^ but was unable to 
decipher the last line of the inscription. The hour lines are in relief, 
and above them are the instruments of the Passion, viz., the crown 
of thorns, lance, scourge, reed and sponge, hammer and nails, with 
the cock, the ear of Malchus, thirty silver pieces, dice and lantern. 
Below the cross is a shield with the monogram "A. M.," and an in- 
scription in Gothic characters is round the dial : 


In a country house at Tourcil, belonging in 1876 to M. Henri 
Joubert, a horizontal sun-dial of lead, with ornamental engraving in the 
corners, was preserved. The style was of copper, the numerals in 
Roman letters, and in the centre was inscribed : 


A very finely-engraved horizontal dial is described by M. Plante.'^ 
It was found at Craon, and had belonged to the abbot of St. Serge, 
R^ne de Briolay, to whom it was dedicated by the engraver, D. Jacobus 
Moraine, Carthusian, a.d. 1643. The plate was of copper gilt, a 
square of 33 centimetres, ornamented in the angles and about the centre 
with a charming arabesque design. In the centre of all are the arms 
of the abbot, with his name and anagram surrounding them : " Renatus 
Brioleus. Ut Rosa lenis rube." 

Around the dial are the following lines, which contain the same 
anagram : 

" Ornant stemma rosaj solis virtute rubentes, 
Ut Rosa sic nobis lenis odore rube. 
Dum tua sol lustrat solaria prresul amande 
Totus divino solis amore rubes." 

" J^osfs adorn f/ie 'tt>rea/h, /'//is/iinj^ witli the su/is/i//u\ 
Do thou, like the rose, blush for us, gentle in perfume. 
While the sun illumines thy sun-dials, beloved patron, 
. Thou dost blush all over 7vith the sun's di'vine love.'' 

The arms are three roses with a star in the centre. There is also a 
dedicatory inscription. 

' " Cadran solaire en plomb, portant la date 15 14." 

- "Clnomons et clepsydres," par Jules Plante, Laval, 1890. 



Rene de Briolay was abbot of St. Serge in the diocese of Angers 
from 1628 to 1671. His humility and generosity were ahke remarkable. 
He shared his revenues equally with the brethren of the monastery, 
and at his death desired that he might be buried in that part of the 
cemetery which was reserved for criminals, and that only a simple 
stone with a cross on it should be placed over his grave, and the 

words : 

" Hie jacet Renatus abbas et peccator maximus 
Ita confidentissimus in misericordia Uomini 
Pareat illi Ueus." 

During the Revolution a dial was placed on the chateau of Nevers, 
and was inscribed as follows by the celebrated Fouch6 : " Ce cadran a 

ete place, le soleil entrant dans le signe du 
Taureau par ordre de la Convention Na- 
tional." (!) 

References to the Revolution are also to be 
found on some of the Dauphine dials, as on 
those at Veyrins (Isere) : " Fait par Liobar I'an 
de I'heureuse Revolution Fran9aise, 1789." 

In the Museum at Clermont-Ferrand there 
is a curious little detached dial about a foot 
and a half high, and brought there from the 
Chateau de Tournouelles in Auvergne. It is 
made of white marble, but the lower half has 
been coloured a bright red, and a star painted 
on it. The top is a hollow globe, set, as it were, in a cup of a larger 
size, upon the rim of which the hours are marked by the shadow of a 
gnomon. On the pedestal there are various hollows and plane surfaces, 
on each of which one or more dials, amounting to thirty in all, are 
traced. It is said to be of the si.xteenth century. M. de Riviere 
notices a dial in the same museum, with the inscription : la . mil . 

VE . XXVIH . AV . l\IOVS . I)K . .\OU.S . V . KT . Al'USSE . I'AK . CLAVDE AVVRAV 
FAICT . LAN . 1613. 

Spain is the only foreign country where we have found a dial 
block of the elaborate seventeenth-century type seen in Fngland 
and Scotland. This fine specimen is at Buen Retiro, Churriana, near 
Malaga, and is of white marble and lectern-shaped. There are 150 
dial faces upon it. On the upper face is a star, and below it are the 
royal arms of Spain, two castles and a lion for Castille and Leon. The 
dials on the sides are semi-cylindrical. The second tier bears vertical 
and small dials, one ot the latter being in the form of a scallop shell. 




On the lower part of the block there is another star, a cross, and plane 
dials are at different angles. The step on which the dial block rests is 
formed of thin flat bricks, the pavement being black and white. It 
stands beside a stone tank, on a terrace which faces a lovely view over 
a fruitful plain. The neighbouring hills glow in the sunlight, the 
sombre cypress trees cast their gloom around ; and the melancholy 


glance of Time seems to be present, throwing its shade over its own 
fleeting footsteps as these are expressed by the many gnomons on 
this remarkable instrument. 

The white marble of the dial stone strongly contrasts with the dark 
sad green of the funereal trees ; and as among the devices cut on the 
sides are the scallop shell of the pilgrim, the star of hope, and the cross 
of Christian faith, in contrast with the ducal coronet, the cardinal's 
hat, and the royal quarterings, enough and more than enough is 


suggested for serious meditation to anyone who visits this remarkable 

We have hardly any other dials from Spain. That of Charles V. at 
Yuste has been already noticed. A vertical one, surmounted by a royal 
crown, and placed on the top of a tower above a window, was 
sketched some thirty years ago in the cloisters of Burgos Cathedral ; 
and another vertical dial on one side of a stone, surmounted by a 
pinnacle, was seen on a grass plot near the railway station at Pancorba. 
It seems strange that no others should have been noticed, and that no 
vestiofes of the work of the Arab astronomers should remain amongst 
the Moorish buildings of Andalusia. But the power of whitewash is 
great, and the average Spaniard, perhaps, did not much care whether 
the flight of Time was recorded for him or no. 

In Italy it is different. Sun-dials abound, or did abound till a 
few years ago, when decay and whitewash overtook many of them. 
Yet, even there, we have few records of fine detached dials, though in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Italy produced several 
writers on gnomonics, and some members of the religious orders made 
a special study of the subject. It must be acknowledged that the 
researches which we have been able to make on the spot have been 
very partial and perfunctory. In recording the mottoes, of which there 
were many to be seen on mural dials, the uninscribed dials were apt to 
be overlooked. Two specimens have, however, been noticed which 
resemble in their form the hollowed hemicycle of the ancients. One of 
them is on a convent at Assisi ; another, standing on a little column, 
a t:i/>J>(?, is perched on the corner of a shop roof on the Ponte Vecchio 
at Florence. 

There is also at Florence the interestinof white marble vertical dial 
which projects from the facade of the church of Sta. Maria Novella, 
and bears the following inscription : cos.m . med . mag . etr . dux . 


M. D. LX X 1 1 . \_Cosmo Medici, Grand Duke of Eti'uria, student of the eniiobling 
arts, gave this to the students of astronomy, a.d. 1572.] A corresponding 
slab on the left-hand side of the portal shows the •' Armilla di 
Tolomeo," or sphere of Ptolemy, for observing the ingress of the sun 
into the first point of Aries. Both these dials were the work of I*"ra 
Egnatio Danti of the Dominicans, to which order the church and 
convent belonged.' 

The church of Sta. Maria Novella was called by Michael Angelo, 

' Both of these instruments are described in the sixtii p.nrt of his hook, " Dell 'uso et 
fahrica dell' Astrolahio," 3rd ed., I''lorence, 1578. 



from its beauty and perfection, " La Sposa," the Bride. A clock in one 
of the transepts bears the following inscription : 

Sic fluit occulte, sic multos decipit a;tas : 

Sic vcnit ad finem quidquid in orbe nianet, 
Heu ! lieu ! praeteritum non est revocabile tenipus ; 

Heu ! proprius tacito mors venit ipsa pede. 

So flows the age unpeneived, so it deceives many ; 

So comes to an end whatever remains in the world. 
Alas ! alas ! the time past is not to he recalled ; 

Alas ! death itself comes nearer with silent step. 

At the south-west angle of the cathedral at Genoa there is the 
figure of an angel holding a dial. 

A facet-headed dial of white 
marble was noticed a few years 
aeo in the gardens of the Villa 
Giulia at Palermo. There were 
ten facets with dials, and a hori- 
zontal dial at the top, inscribed : 
" Girolamo Ganguzza f'." 

In the north of Italy, and espe- 
cially in the Alpine valleys, the 
dials frescoed on the walls were 
often quaint and picturesque in 
design. Some of the finest speci- 
mens of these are to be found in 
the Italian Tyrol. On old houses 
they are combined with the coats 
of arms of those noble families 
who were once the owners, and 
on the churches with the figures 
of the Virofin and Child, and saints. 
Two or three specimens north of 
the Alps are noticed in the collection of mottoes, but there is none 
finer than the fresco on a church near Brixen, where the Blessed 
Virgin appears with the Infant Saviour and attendant angels in 
vision to St. Dominic and St. Francis, whose figures are represented 

The dial designs on German houses are also sometimes heraldic in 
character, but more frequently of elaborate scientific construction, show- 
ing the signs of the Zodiac, the hours at different localities,. etc. There 




are several dials at Nuremberg, two of which, facing south and east, are 
at the angle of the Nassauerhaus; and in the courts of the Royal Palace 
at Munich two, if not three, were noticed some few years ago. In the 
museum at Nuremberg there is a fine collection of portable dials, for 
the manufacture of which the city was, in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, renowned. 

The late Mr. Albert Way, F".S.A., noticed a semicircular vertical 
dial held in the left hand of a figure in a niche on the south side of the 
minster at Freyberg-in-Breisgau. The figure is in secular dress, and is 
said to represent the architect of the church. The south aisle of the 
building is assigned to the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the 
fourteenth century. There is another vertical dial, of much later date, 
painted on the gable of the south transept. 

The remains of a mural dial can still be traced on the castle of 

Heidelberg, facing the court and above the 
entrance to the F"riedrichsbau; and in an 
old engfravino; taken before the destruc- 
tion of the castle in 1764, two dials of the 
same character are shown on the turret 
beside the fagade of Otto Heinrich. A white 
marble horizontal dial, called "The Queen 
of Bohemia's dial," used formerly to be 
shown, but has now been put away in some 
part of the building to which strangers are 
not admitted. It once stood in the gar- 
dens, which were laid out by the engineer 
Solomon de Caux, whose work on gno- 
The marble pedestal of the dial is supported 
on lions' paws. 

A facet-headed dial, mounted on a stone pedestal, stands in the 
Palace garden at Schwerin. 

A very remarkable instrument, called the Horologium Achaz, now 
in the museum of the Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, was de- 
scribed in 1895 by Mr. J. F. Sachse. There are, he says, two 
metal plates, the smaller measuring 5^ inches in diameter, made of an 
alloy of silver and copper, which formed the base, with a compass 
I inch in diameter in the centre. Beneath this is a finely-engraved 
plate slightly concave, and divided into five panels, two of which are 
engraved with scenes from the second book of Kings ; in one the 


monies is still extant.^ 

' La Praticjuc ct Demonstration dus Horloges Solaires," 1624. 


prophet Isaiah is pointing to a vertical dial, and in the other healing 
the king. In the centre is written : 

" Notat concha isthac hemiciclea capitis 38 Esaia miracvlvm : nam 
hanc si acqva labrvm vsqve impleveris vmbra solis 10 imo : 20 gradibvs 
retrorsvm fertvr signvm ac gradvm solis : quin etiam horam diei vvl- 
garem qvamcvnqve vna cvm planetarvm qvas vocant horas denvncians." 

\This semicircular shell explains the miracle of the T,S>th chapter 
of Isaiah. For if you fill it to the brim zuith ivater, the shadow of the 
sun is bo7'ne backward by ten or tiuenty degrees. Moreover it indicates 
any common hour of the day whatever, together with 7C'hat they call 
hours of the plane ts.'\ 

The larger piece is a basin-shaped plate made of brass or gun- 
metal, with a flat movable rim i inch wide. Upon this are engraved 
the signs of the Zodiac. On the reverse of this rim, which surrounds 
the large basin, is engraved as follows : 

" Christophorvs Schissler, geometricvs ac astronomicvs artifex, 
Avgvstae Vindelicorvm, faciebat anno 1578." 

"The centre or concave part of the dial is 10 inches in diameter, and 
geometrically divided into the different planetary hours. The depth 
of the basin is i\ inches, and the whole formed the dial." A brass 
figure about 3 inches high, with the left hand extended to hold the 
gnomon, is placed on the rim. " The instrument was formerly used 
for calculating nativities, . . . and when filled with water to the brim, 
the shadow was advanced or retarded as many degrees as the angle 
of refraction." 

Christopher Schissler was a brassworker and also an astronomical 
and geometrical " werkmeister " at Augrsburo:. The four large sun-dials 
which he made for the Perlachthurm, a tall watch-tower, in 1561, are 
still to be seen. Some of his smaller instruments may be found in 
collections such as that at the British Museum. His greatest work, a 
quadrant, dated i 569, was placed in the museum at Dresden. Schissler 
seems to have discovered the laws of refraction some fifty years before 
they were made known generally by the mathematicians. 

The Horologium Achaz belonged in the seventeenth century to 
Anton Zimmerman, a distinguished astronomer, and magister of the 
Rosicrucians, who was on the point of emigrating to America with the 
members of his society when he died, between the years 1691-93. His 
effects had been placed on shipboard, and were taken to America by 
Johannes Kelpius, who was the next elected magister. The Rosi- 

A A 


crucians settled on the shores of the Wissahickon, near Philadelphia, 
and the observatory or " lantern " which they set up for the study of the 
stars was the first regular observatory established in America. The 
last surviving member of the Rosicrucians, Christopher Witt, who had 
received the scientific instruments from Kelpius, gave some of them to 
the Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, of which Benjamin Franklin 
was president. Amongst them, no doubt, was this " Horologium 
Achaz." Mr. Sachse says he has searched Europe in vain to find a 

There is a fine collection of Scandinavian dials in the Northern 
Museum at Stockholm. A letter of inquiry about this was most 
courteously replied to by Dr. A. Hazelius, the curator, as follows : 

" Nordiska Museet has a great number of sun-dials from the 
latter part of the sixteenth century to far on in the nineteenth century. 
Their size, as well as shape and material, vary. We have sun-dials in 
pocket size, and dials that have been intended for walls and pillars ; 
one has even been affixed to a mile-post. The form is usually quadratic, 
but cubes are not unusual. The material of which they are made is, as 
above mentioned, very varying. We have dials of bone, stone, clay, 
etc., and even metal and wood. The ornamentation consists usually of 
escutcheons with ideographs, initials, and sometimes of motives of plants 
in different styles and manner. Mottoes do not often occur." Dr. 
Hazelius also mentions the dial with a Runic inscription, dated 1754, 
which Prof. Stephens described in 1877.^ It is of marble, nearly a foot 
square, and was found in 1876 at Norrkoping. "A line of modern 
Runic runs all round the four edges, and gives a rule how to arrange 
the gnomon in leap-year." 

That the sun-dial was once as much at home in the churchyards of 
Sweden as of those of Great Britain we may see from Bishop Tegnier's 
lines : 

" Even the dial, that stood on a hillock among the departed 

(There full a hundred years had it stood) was embellished with blossoms, 

Like to the patriarch hoary, the sage of his kith and the hamlet. 

Who on his birthday is crowned by children and children's children. 

So stood the ancient prophet, and mute with his pencil of iron 

Marked on the tablet of stone, and measured the time and its changes, 

While all around at his feet an eternity slumbered in quiet." 

Children of the Lord's Supper (Longfellow's trans.). 

The wish which the philanthropist John Howard expressed on his 

' "Pro. Am. Phil. Soc," vol. xxxvi., 1895. " Horologium Acha/." 

° "Monats blad," Nos. 67 and 68, also "Old Northern Scandinavian Monuments." 


deathbed, to have a sun-dial placed on his grave, was not fulfilled after 
his interment. He was buried at the spot he had selected, near the 
village of Dophinovka, now called Stepanovka, six versts north of 
Kherson, and a monument, consisting of a brick pyramid inscribed with 
his name, was placed on the grave by his friends. An obelisk, 30 feet 
high, was, however, erected in memory of Howard by the Emperor 
Alexander I., near the Church of the Assumption at Kherson. On one 
side there is a sun-dial, showing the hours from ten to two, and on the 
other a portrait medallion of Howard. There is also an inscription in 
Russian and Latin : 

died on the 20th January 

in the year i 790 
in the 65th year of his age 

Vixit propter alios 

Alios salvos fecit. 

Howard's last wishes were thus gracefully remembered, though the sun- 
dial was not upon his graye. 

This, and the dial brought from Kelbouroun Spit, noticed in the 
collection of mottoes, are the only specimens which we have from 

The great equatorial dial at Delhi, constructed in 1724 by Jey 
Singh, Rajah of Jeypore, and called by him the prince of sun-dials, 
one of the most marvellous specimens in the world, almost defies de- 
scription. We are told that the dimensions of the gnomon are as 
follows : 

ft. in. 
Length of hypothenuse . . . . 118 5 

„ base. . . . . . 104 o 

„ perpendicular . . . • 56 7 

The gnomon is of solid masonry edged with marble, and the shadow 
is thrown upon a graduated circle, also of marble. 

"At a short distance, nearly in front of the great dial, is another 
building in somewhat better preservation ; it is also a sun-dial, or rather 
several dials combined in one building. In the centre is a staircase 
leading to the top, and its side walls form gnomons to concentric 
semicircles, having a certain inclination to the horizon, and they repre- 
sent meridians removed by a certain angle from the meridian of the 
observatory ; the outer walls form gnomons to graduated quadrants, one 
to the east and one to the west ; a wall connects the four gnomons, and 



on its north lace is described a large graduated semicircle tor taking- 
altitudes of the celestial bodies." ' 

The Rajah Jey Singh, who was an accomplished engineer, 
mathematician, and astronomer, gave it as his reason for constructing 
these ereat buildings, that he had found the brass astronomical instru- 
ments untrustworthy from their small size, "the want of division into 
minutes, the shaking of their axles, and the displacement of the centre 
of their circles and the shifting of their planes." He made the like 
buildings at other places, as Benares. Muttra, Ujani, and Jeypore, 
the city over which he ruled, to confirm the observations made at Delhi. 


■^. .^.CXM^^^'^^-^ rj<7{l. 



It is said that the Emperor Mahmoud Shah gave the Rajah the title 
of " Sawai," =: " one and a quarter," to .show that he was a quarter 
more excellent than any of his contemporaries. He arranged a series 
of astronomical tables, which are still used by the natives of India ; and 
having heard from a Portuguese missionary of the European dis- 
coveries, he dispatched an embassy to King John of Portugal, who in 
return sent him a savaiU, Xavier da Silva. Jey .Singh thus became 
acquainted with the tables of De La Hire, published in 1702, and found 
the more advanced European knowledge of great service to his own 
calculations. A collection of models of the Jeypore dials, which are 
identical with those at Delhi, may be .seen in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, South Kensington. 

Handbook lo BLiigal." 

I a ■ 


We are told that suii-dials are frequently to be found on the mosques 
in India, and also in Egj'pt. Some examples at Constantinople have 
been already mentioned. In the Victoria and Albert Museum there is 
an Arab dial of marble, made by Khalil the son of Ramtash, a.h. 720 
(a.d. 1326), and also some portable compass dials from Persia. A brief 
account of two dials in Palestine we owe to the kindness of Colonel 
Conder, R.E. : 

"The sun-dial on the mosque at Hebron is marked in black on the 
wall of the inner court ; as far as I remember it appeared to be 
modern. In the Jerusalem mosque, south of the Dome of the Rock, was 
a dial which appears to have been as old as the seventeenth century. 
It was removed before 1881. It stood on a block of masonry, and was 
horizontal, not on a wall as at Hebron. It was (wrongly) said to mark 
the site of the altar of the Temple." 

One would naturally expect that the sun-dial would have travelled 
to the New World with the Spaniards, to Africa with the Dutch, and to 
Australasia with the English, and that in remote parts of the country 
where, when clocks and watches get out of order, and there are no 
means of mending them, the sun-dial would be found useful. Whether 
this is the case or not, we are not able to say. There is a large mural 
dial over an archway in the castle at Capetown, and an horizontal one 
in the Botanical Gardens, both of which date from the Dutch occupa- 
tion ; and in the collection of mottoes one recently set up in California 
will be noticAl. In Rumbold's " Great Silver River" a sketch is given 
of a reclining sun-dial on a pillar of red sandstone, which stood soli- 
tary in a court of the ruined Jesuit College of La Cruz, at Missiones in 
Argentina. It was dated 1730, and bore a representation of the Sacred 
Heart and the monogram of the Blessed Virgin. The college was 
founded in 1629. The dial has probably by this time shared the fate 
of the bujd^igs which once surrounded it. 

So, hlftng tracked the sun-dial from its first beginning in the 
farthest East, we take leave of it in the farthest West. 


By lewis EVANS, F.S.A., F.R.A.S. 

Pl. VII. 



Although everyone knows that sundials are often to be seen on the 
walls of churches or on stone pedestals in old gardens, and though we 
all understand that such dials were the immediate ancestors of our 
public clocks, still there are comparatively few who know any members 
of the younger branch of the family, namely, the pocket dials, the rude 
forefathers of the modern watch. And it will probably be a surprise 
to most people to learn how many 
have been the varieties and how pro- 
tean the forms of the portable dials 
that were used in various ages and 
countries, and what a vast amount 
of time and thought was expended 
on their design and construction. 

There is no doubt that fixed dials 
preceded portable ones by many ages, 
and that the length of his own shadow 
long continued to be the only visible 
timekeeper that a man carried about 
with him, and one that was in recog- 
nized use in classical times (see p. 
6), to which period the earliest known 
specimen of a portable dial must also 
be ascribed. This dial, which is made 
in the shape of a ham, was found in 
excavations at Herculaneum in i 754, 
and is now in the Naples museum, 
where Miss Lloyd made the drawing from which the illustration is 

Its material is bronze, and on its flat side are vertical lines enclosing 
six spaces, below which are engraved the shortened names of the 
months, with the winter months under the shortest space and the 

B B 


1 86 


summer under the longest ; while across the upright lines are curved 
ones dividing the spaces each into six sections to represent six hours 
from sunrise to noon, and from noon to sunset, in accordance with the 
plan adopted in other Roman dials, which gave to the day twelve long 
hours in summer and twelve short ones in winter. The tail-piece on 
the left must originally have been much longer so as to come round in 
front of the hour lines in such a way that its shadow would fall on the 
proper month space and show the hour when the dial was suspended 

by the ring and turned towards the sun. The 
age of this dial is fixed within narrow limits by 
the fact that it must have been made after B.C. 
28, when the month Sextilis was changed to 
Augustus in honour of the emperor, and before 
A.u. 79 when the great eruption of Vesuvius 
buried Herculaneum, while it seems probable 
that it was made after a.d. 63 when the town 
was greatly injured by an earthquake. 

An instrument of this kind could only be 
used in one latitude, and that the later Romans 
knew and felt the disadvantage of this fact is 
shown by another dial on the same principle 
found a few years ago at Aquileia and described 
by Dr. Kenner.^ This is a circular disc of 
bronze i| inch diameter by j^g inch thick, with 
dials on each side of it, one being lettered RO 
for Rome and the other RA for Ravenna ; the 
lines dividing off the month spaces in this in- 
strument are not parallel but radiate from an 
apex opposite which the gnomon once projected. 
The lettering for the months is practically the 
same as in the " ham " dial, and the division of 
the day is the same, but it was probably not made until about the 
fifth century. The hour lines were originally inlaid with silver, but 
much of this is now wanting, as well as the gnomon and the attach- 
ment for suspending the dial. 

This class of dial, in which the hour lines are drawn on a vertical 
surface and the gnomon stands out horizontally above them, has 
continued in use ever since it was first invented, but the form of it 
that was most common, because the easiest to make, was a cylinder, 


(scale, I). 

Roniischc Sonncnuhrcn aus Aquileia,"' \'ienna, 1880. 



the " Kalendar," or " Chilindre " on which treatises are extant written 
in this country as early as the thirteenth century.' 

These dials, also called "column," "pillar," or " Shepherds' dials," 
were small cylinders of wood or ivory, having at the top a kind of 
stopper with a hinged gnomon in it. When in use this stopper had to 
be taken out and replaced with the gnomon turned out and projecting 
over the proper month space, or line ; then, when the dial was allowed 
to hang vertically with the pointer towards the sun, a shadow fell on 
the curved hour lines and gave the time. The accompanying illustra- 
tions show two dials of this kind, one of the type used in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries in all parts of Europe, 
and the other a dial as now used in the Pyrenees. 

A dial of this type adapted to a walking-stick 
is to be seen in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
and another made by Edmund Culpepper (1666 to 
1 706), which forms also a telescope, belongs 
to Albert Hartshorne, Esq, F.S.A, The same 
type, but in an exaggerated form, is used by the 
Indian pilgrims, who carry staves 4 feet 6 inches 
to 5 feet 6 inches long with dials on them when 
making a pilgrimage to Benares. An account of 
one of these, translated from the " Deutsche 
Uhrmacher Zeitung," was given in the " Horo- 
logical Journal " for January, 1899, which seems 
to agree with a specimen now in the British 
Museum and with one in my collection, except 
that the writer ascribes to it the fabulous age of 
" about two thousand years." " Ashadah ' is given 
as the name of these staves after the month of 

that name — from the middle of June to the middle of July — in which 
pilgrimages to Benares usually commenced, and they seem to have 
been made in the country about Bhutan and Eastern Nepal. The 
staves are octagonal with divisions and numerals carved on each side 
to show the number of half hours froni sunrise or sunset ; four of the 
sides having each to serve for two months. The gnomon, a small 
stick or wire, is carried in a hollow down the centre of the staff, and 
when in use is placed in the transverse hole above the hour lines for 
the month. 

Other modifications of this class of dial are given in the illustrations. 

DIAL (scale, |-). 

"Chaucer Society Publicalions,'' second series, No. 2, Part I., and No. 9, Part II. 



one of which, showing the back of a German nocturnal dial of brass, 
dated about 1650, closely imitates the Herculaneum " ham," except 
that the gnomon is hinged to a sliding piece of metal which allows it to 
stand over any desired month, whereas in the Roman dial this adjust- 
ment was got by bending the wire gnomon. The seventeenth century 
dial, engraved on the gilt brass tablet-covers, is also German, and has a 
pin to be fixed in any of the holes above the months to serve as its 
"style." The side illustrated is made for use in the summer, the 
winter dial being engraved on the other cover. 

The earliest form of the ring dial was only another modification of 
the same type, a hole being pierced in the side of a very wide ring and 


(scale, I). 


(scale, f). 

german nocturnal dial 
(back) (scale, 4)- 

the hour lines marked by sloping or curved lines drawn across the 
breadth of the rine inside so as to suit the various seasons. When in 
use these dials were turned towards the sun so that a ray of light might 
shine through the small hole and show the time on the hour lines 
inside the ring. From this developed the ordinary form of ring dial, 
which was in such general use in this country during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, in which the hole was drilled in a separate \ 
band of metal that moved in a groove round the ring so that it might 
be adjusted to its proper place for the time of the year, as shown by 
the initials of the months engraved on the outside of the ring ; by this 
means the hour lines could be drawn much straighter and with greater 

Another improvement was the introduction of a second hole and a 
second set of markings, one half of the ring being used in the summer 



and the other in the winter. The ring-dial, of which an ilhistration is 
given, is one of this kind, made about 1730; it was found at Kemerton 
Court, Gloucestershire, and belongs to Mrs. Dent of Sudeley Castle. 
In the British Museum are two of these dials made as ordinary finger 
rings, one is English and of brass with three fixed holes in it, made 
about 1400, the other a beautiful gold dial from Germany, probably of 
the sixteenth century; these small ring dials are extremely rare, but 
those measuring i-| to 2} inches in diameter are comparatively common, 
and can be seen in most of the museums in this country. Ring-dials 
were more used in England than elsewhere, their manufacture having 




been continued, at any rate in Sheffield, until about a hundred years 

The dial Shakespeare had in his mind in "As You Like It," act ii., 

scene 7 : 

" And then he drew a dial from his poke. 
And, looking on it with lack-lustre eye, 
Says very wisely, ' It is ten o'clock,' " 

may have been a ring dial, a shepherd's dial, or even a compass dial, 
all of which were in use in his time, and all probably equally common ; 
Out of the ring-dial arose various forms of flat dials, as, for instance, 
the very pretty disc-shaped hanging dial of gilt brass and silver, made 
about the year 1700 in Germany, which has a dial with the motto, 
" Ouasvis hora mortis indicina " on one side of it, and a perpetual 
calendar with lunar tables (not quite perfect) on the other, besides 
the inscriptions, " Ouicquid sub Sole natum Lunare est," " Crescunt 
omnia Decrescimt," " Transeunt iit rcvertantur." 

I go 


REPUBLIC (scale, |-). 

The little leaden dial, which is of the same type, is interesting, both 
as being a reproduction on a fiat surface of the simplest form of ring- 
dial, and also because it is the only dial I know 
giving the names of the months as devised by 
Fabre D'Eglantine and instituted under Robes- 
pierre for the French republic, September 22nd, 
1793. It is about the size of a crown piece, and 
is unfortunately not very well preserved, in fact 
it was sold to a former owner as a Roman dial. 
The summer side only is shown, with the initials 
of the spring and summer months, Germinal, 
Floreal, Prairial, Messidor, Thermidor, Fructi- 
dor on it 

Another very beautiful development is the 
chalice or goblet dial. The specimen here illustrated was made in 
1550 by Bartholomeus, abbot of Aldersbach, in Bavaria, and is now in 
the British Museum. The hour is shown by the shadow of a wire 

gnomon standing up vertically in the 
centre of the cup ; this is not shown, 
as the gnomon now in the dial is not 
the original one. 

Havinor traced the descent of one 
type of Roman portable dial through 
various shapes and in various coun- 
tries, it will be interesting to follow up 
the only other kind of which examples 
have come down to us from Roman 
times. The first specimen of this 
second and more advanced type was 
found in Italy about one hundred and 
sixty years ago, and was described by 
Baldini in 1741, but neither he nor 
others who have since written about 
it could correctly describe its use or 
construction, owing to the absence 
of part of the gnomon.' Luckily 
another specimen, in almost perfect preservation, has recently come 
into my possession, and though the place in which it was found is 

' "Saggi di DissL-rtazioni etct nell' .Accadcmia l-^trusca di Cortona," vol. iii., p. 185. 
(;. 15aldini. " .Xbhandlung von den .Sonnenuhren der Alien." (.'•. H. Martini, 1777. 
" Disquisitiones, etct." F. Woepke, 1842. 



uncertain, it is undoubtedly of Roman origin, and was probably made 
about A.D. 300. 

The most noticeable points about this instrument are, first, that it is 
an universal dial, that is to say, it can be used anywhere (outside the 
Arctic circles), and secondly, that it gives the hours according to our 
present method of reckoning, and not the " unequal " hours that were 
in common use when it was made ; in fact it is a scientific instrument 
intended to give the equinoctial hours that were then used by few 
except astronomers and men of science. 

This dial consists of a recessed disc of bronze 2g inches diameter, 
and ^ of an inch thick, with its rim divided into four quadrants, one 
of which is farther subdivided into three sections ot 30°, the centre one 
of them being marked off at each 10°, so that the divisions correspond- 
ing to latitudes, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60° are shown. 

Sunk in the hollow of this larger disc is a smaller one, about 
2 inches diameter, which has its surface 
bisected by a line, " the equinoctial line," 
with divisions on each side of it representing 
the sun's declination north or south on enter- 
ing each sign of the zodiac, the outer ones 
being lettered viii. k. ivl. and viii. k. ian., 
that is, the eighth day before the first of July 
and January, i.e., June 24th and December 
25th; on one side of the equinoctial line 
another is drawn at right angles to it from ^0,1,^ ^ial (scale, |). 

the centre to the circumference passing circa a.d. 300. 

through a raised knob. 

The square projecting gnomon and the triangular piece with the 
hour lines drawn on its curved side, stand out at right angles to the 
discs, and are both carried on a stout pin passing through the dial ; as 
in most other Roman dials the hour lines are not numbered in 
any way. 

To use this instrument it was necessary first to set the line with the 
knob on it opposite the latitude of the place, as shown on the outer 
disc, and then to adjust the gnomon to the season of the year. In the 
drawing it is shown set for about latitude 52°, and for one month from 
the winter solstice, that is, about the 25th of January or November, 

When the dial was thus set it was allowed to hang from a string 
fastened to the small loop at its top, and turned until the shadow of the 
gnomon fell exactly along the hour circle, which it would completely 
cover at noon, and the number of hour spaces not in shadow would 



show the number of hours before or after noon up to six : for the early 
morning and late evening hours a modification of the setting was 
needed. When the dial is used in the forenoon set in this way, and the 
shadow falls exactly along the hour circle, the plane of the discs lies exactly 
north and south, so that the instrument can be used as a compass. To 
serve this purpose in the afternoon, the position of the gnomon on the 
face of the discs must be reversed. 

On the back of the dial is a list of thirty places, with their 

It is easy to recognize the same principles in this third century 
dial, and in the German dial, dated 17 13, from the British Museum 
Collection, which is shown in the next illustration. In this the discs 

are clearly reproduced with little change ; the 
hour lines, which are now drawn on a true 
circle, are extended so as to include the 
morning and evening hours ; but as the ad- 
justment for season is effected by shifting the 
gnomon only, the hour circle always remains 
in the equinoctial position, that is to say, in 
a plane parallel to the equator. In use the 
shadow of the extreme point of the gnomon 
has always to fall on the central line of the 
hour circle, and the position of the gnomon 
must be varied according to the season by 
sliding it up or down the flat plate on which 
it is fixed, in accordance with the calendar 
engraved on it. To make the dial serve for the morning and afternoon, 
both the hour circle and the carrier for the gnomon are on pivots, and 
can be turned over to the other side of the dial, or folded level with the 
disc to carry in the pocket. This morning and afternoon adjustment 
is got over in the pretty little dial made by Johan Martin, of Augsburg, 
about 1 720, of silver and gilt brass (Plate vii. No. 8), which is fitted with 
two hour circles or rather segments, and, instead of being hung from a 
ring, is levelled by means of a small plummet, the arched double gnomon 
being regulated exactly as in the last dial, and the hour circles set for 
latitude by the little quadrant between them, so that they also will 
adjust themselves to the plane of the equator, while the graduated 
quadrant will point north, and the engraved star at its base give all the 
points of the compass. Below the square base plate is a revolving 
perpetual calendar, and a list of about forty towns with their 
latitudes. These two forms, though showing very clearly the con- 


(scale, i). 



nection between Roman and recent dials, are much less often met with 
than the " universal ring dial," which was a kind of armillary sphere 
constructed on similar principles to these dials, and was in general use 
over Europe from the beginning of the sixteenth century. The one 
shown in the illustration was made by Elias Allen, of London, about 
1620. In this dial a spot of sunlight falling on the central line of the 
hour circle, shows the time, the gnomon being a small hole in a sliding 
piece of brass, which has to be set according to the season. When in 
use the outer circle will re- 
present a meridian circle ; 
the hour ring, the equator ; 
and the slotted plate in which 
the gnomon slides, the pole. 
These universal ring dials 
were sometimes furnished 
with sights, and mounted for 
use as levels or surveying- 
instruments, as in the dial 
made by J. Heath about 
I 740 (Plate vii, No. 4), which 
is 15 inches high, and has 
a large compass in the base, 
with two spirit levels let into 
it, and three levelling screws 
in the feet. The instrument 
shown on the same plate 
(No. 2) is designed on the 
same lines as the last two 
dials, the ornamented plate 
with the toothed wheel round 
its edge has to be sloped more or less according to the latitude, and 
when in use lies parallel to the equatorial plane, while the small arm, 
with the perforated sights on it, has to be shifted to suit the sun's de- 
clination by means of the calendar at its northern end, the hour being 
shown by the pointer just below this, and the minute on the clock 
face opposite by means of the little hand which is attached to, and 
turns with, a pinion geared into the toothed edge of the main dial 

There are other forms of dial in which the principal circles of the 
sphere are projected on a plane, instead of being reproduced in metal 
rings or bands, as was attempted in the dials last described. The 

c c 

(SCALE, i). 



Eiii^lish quadrant, shown in the ilhistration, is an early specimen of this 
class of dial. It is made of brass, and has on it the badge ot King 
Richard II., and the date 1399, the last year of his reign, and is now 
in the British Museum. In this and other quadrant dials the time is 
shown by a bead, which can be moved up and down a plumb-line 
hanging from the centre of the quadrant, the bead being adjusted to the 
day of the month, in the calendar on the edge of the quadrant, and 
placed at the point where the day-line crosses the twelve o'clock line ; 
then the sun's altitude is taken by means of the pierced sights on the 
quadrant, and the hour is shown by the position of the bead on the 
hour-lines. There were many varieties of these quadrants, some of 

(,)UAUK.\NT MAliE FOR Kit HAKJ) II. (SCALE, |). 

which were in use up to the end of the last century even in this 

The dial, in the shape of an ancient ship with turrets at each end, 
which was probably made in Germany at the end of the fifteenth 
century, has also a bead on a plumb-line to show the time, but it is an 
universal dial. The slider on the mast, to which the plumb-line is 
fastened, has to be raised or lowered according to the latitude, and the 
rake of the mast set, according to the time of the year, by means of 
the calendar near the bottom of the ship, and the bead duly placed in 
position on the thread, after which, if the sun's height is taken by the 
sights in the two turrets, the bead will show the time as in the quadrant 
dials. The same dial was sometimes drawn on a plain surface, the 
thread being fastened to the end of a jointed arm which could be 
adjusted for latitude and season by its position on a series of graduated 



lines arranged in the form of a triangle, and corresponding to the 
space covered by the mast of the ship at its greatest rake fore and 
aft, and to the traverse of the slider up and down the mast. There 
were also varieties of these dials, 
with modifications of the arrange- 
ment of the thread, sights, and hour 
lines, differing but slightly from these 
two, and all designed to preserve 
the essential feature of being com- 
plete on a flat surface without any 
projecting parts. 

With all the before mentioned 
dials, in which the sun's altitude 
above the horizon was the only 
basis of calculation, it was of course 
necessary to know whether the hour 
was before or after noon, in order 
to learn the time, and this must 
always have been a matter of diffi- 
culty towards the middle of the 
day. However, the introduction of the mariner's compass into 
Europe in the thirteenth century provided a means of overcoming 
this difficulty, a fact which was promptly recognized by the dial 
makers, and we find compass dials to have been in use in this 




country from the end of that century, and similar dials have been made 
till quite recent times with little variation of form ; they were usually 
small round brass bo.xes, containing a compass with a horizontal sun- 
dial above it, the e»omon bein^' hineed so as to allow the lid to close : 
the illustration shows a seventeenth century dial of this form. 

Very minute dials of this type were sometimes made in finger-rings. 



the bezels of which opened and disclosed a small compass and a dial 
with a string gnomon ; there are three or four of these dials in the 
collection of rings at the British Museum, but the illustration is taken 
from " Symbola Heroica " and includes a portrait of the sun. 

The interesting circular folding dial with a verse round its outer 
edge {No. 68 in the list of mottoes), of which an illustration is given, is 
another English variety of the compass-dial, made to suit all latitudes ; 
it is now in the Museum of Antiquities at Edinburgh, and has on it, in 
addition to the dial and compass, a list of the latitudes " of all the 
principall townes and cities of Europe," and a calendar inscribed, 
"This table beginneth at 1572 and so on for ever." It was made in 
'575 tjy Humphrey Cole, who is mentioned in " Archseologia," vol. xl., 
[). 348 and 354. as having been the leading English maker of astrolabes 


and other instruments in the reigns of Edward VI. and Elizabeth ; 
there are specimens of his work in the British Museum and Cireenwich 

The carefully made dial, Plate vii, No. i, with a coat-of-arms and 
an earl's coronet engraved on it, made by " Thos. Wright, instrument 
maker to his majesty" (1730-50), is rather similar in construction to 
the German dial, No. 2, but differs from it, inasmuch as it needs a 
compass for its adjustment. It is a very fine piece of English work- 
manship and must originally have been a very costly instrument. 

The pretty silver compass dial. No. 6, made by " Lasnier aux 
Deux Globes a Paris " at the beginning of the last century, is the 
type that modern dial makers adopted as the best, and the one with 
which our soldiers and colonists generally provided themselves before 
leaving home. 

In Germany the number and variety of the comijass-dials that were 
made was very great ; one is shown in the ivory dial by Gebhardt, of 



Nuremberg, dated 1561, in which a thread forms the gnomon. It is a 
type that was to some extent used in all countries, but which was an 
especial favourite in Germany, and the ivory dial by Hans Troschel 
about 1640, Plate vii, No. 3, with the motto, " Hora fugit mors venit," 
on it, is one of a similar class; when closed it takes the form of a book 
3| inches by 2§ inches in measurement. No. 5 on the same plate 
shows another ivory dial by the same maker. 

The metal folding dial, 2\ inches by 2 inches, made by V. S. (probably 
Ulric Schneip, of Munich) is another form of the same dial that was 
popular at the end of the sixteenth century. 

Plate vii, No. 7, shows a cube with five dials on it which is sup- 

(SCALE, 1). 

cer^l\n metal folding dial 
(scale, |). 

ported by a hinged leg standing on an oblong base with a compass in 
it. This instrument illustrates one of the commonest forms of a type of 
dial that can be set in the true position without the use of a compass, 
and which derives this property from the fact that if a .series of dials 
for one and the same latitude are drawn on several sides of a solid 
body, the dials will be standing in their true position when they all 
show the same hour. This individual German dial can be set to suit 
various latitudes by means of a plumb-line and graduated quadrant on 
one of its sides, but most dials of the type are only suited to one 
latitude and have no compass attached to them. Besides the varieties 
of German dials which I have described, there were a great many 
others in use which, together with the numerous books on the subject 
published in Germany, show that the art of dialling was more closely 
followed there than in any other part of Europe. The French dial 
makers, however, were not far behind in the variety of their patterns, 



whilst their workmanship, at any rate in the eighteenth century, was 
only inferior to that of the best English makers. The French ivory 
dials made by Hloud, of Dieppe, and others towards the end of the 
seventeenth century, were followed by metal instruments like the 
enamelled silver dial made by Macquart, of Paris, about one hundred 
and sixty years ago, of which there is an illustration. Dials of this 
class were generally made with shagreen or fish skin cases to protect 
them when carried about, the " bird " style being folded down flat with 



the dial-plate when in the case, and they furnish some of the prettiest 
examples of portable dials that are to be met with. 

Two forms of dial are peculiar to Italy, the disc dials of gilt brass 
with the Italian hours (reckoned from sunset) marked on them, which 
were made in Rome towards the end of the sixteenth century. The 
dial shown is dated 1585, it has a sun-dial on each side of the disc, and 
the compass is pivoted so as to turn over and serve for both dials ; 
in some specimens there are several dials for different latitudes drawn 
on each side of the disc. 'I'he gnomons are little upright pins or pegs, 
and the arrangement of the hour lines differs in a notable way from 

that on the dials previously described. 
This type of dial continued to be made 
of both brass and wood, usually in Hat 
round boxes, until the beginning of this 

The other form of dial, which is 
almost confmed to Italj', and which is but 
rarely to be met with even there, is the cross-shaped dial containing 
a reliquary. In this dial the cross is sloped in accordance with the 
latitude by means of graduations on the lower part of the dial ; it is 
then set north and south by aid of the small compass, ami the shadow 

CRUCIIIX DIAL (scale, ^). 

PORTA];!.!-: SIIN-!)IA!.S 


of tlie limbs of tlie cross will show the hour. The dial ol this type 
shown in the illustration is a German one by M. P. (Marcus Purman), 
1596, it is made of brass and gilt. 

None of the other European countries seems to have been specially 
prolific in portable dials, though no doubt they were made in all of them. 
America, Africa, and Australia have produced few or none of these solar 
time-keepers, but in Asia, and especially in China and Japan they are even 
now much used. A Chinese dial very similar to the German folding 
dials of ivory already mentioned was bought by me as an ordinary 
article of commerce, in a Chinese shop at San Francisco, about twenty 
years ago. The Japanese are rather fond of circular dials, and the 


last illustrations show the interior and exterior of one of their silver 
dials with very characteristic ornamentation upon it. 

The portable dials that have been described in this chapter are all, 
except in the instances specially mentioned, in my own collection, and 
there remain unmentioned very many more varieties which might have 
been described had space permitted. It must, therefore, by no means 
be inferred that any form of dial which is unrecorded here must in 
consequence be an uncommon variety or one of special interest ; but I 
should advise anyone who wishes to know more about this subject to 
go and study the very fine collection of sun-dials and other instruments 
at the British Museum. 


D D 



Recorded in " Fen and Wold" as seen on a dial in the Fens. 


On the church porch, Seamer, Yorkshire. 

3. A DiEu SEUL HONNEUR ET GLOiRE. To God aloiic hououT aiici glov}'. 
On the Cafe de la Gare, La Roche-de-Rame (Hautes Alpes). 

4. A LA BONNE HEURE. In Go(f s good time, w.a.b.i;. fau re fecit. 1724. 
At Villeneuve (Hautes Alpes). 

5. A lumine motus. Moved by the light. 

Copied in 1S70 from a dial at Sestri Ponente, near Genoa. 

6. A ME TOCCA poi LA soRTE That to zvhich fate urges me 
Di seguirti find a morte. Is unto death to follow thee. 

At Graglia, in Piedmont. 

7. A soLis ORTU USQUE AD occAsuM. Frovi the rising up of the snn 

unto the going doiun of the same. 

On the cemetery wall at St. Gervais, Savoy; copied 1S74. The 
motto (Psalm cxiii. 3), in a slightly different form, was once on the 
upper part of the Queen's Cross near Northampton, where there were 
four dials, facing the four points of the compass. On the east side were 
the words ab ortv solls, on the west vsqve ad occasv.m, on the south 
LAVD.\TVR DOMiNVs, and on the north amen . mdccxiii. The cross was 
erected by Edward I. in memory of his wife, Eleanor of Castile, and in 
I 713 it was repaired by order of the Justices of Northampton, and the 
dials and mottoes added ; but in 1762 the latter were omitted when the 
faces of the dials were repainted, and the cross again repaired. The 
dials have since been removed. 


The Lords Name is praised from the rising 7ip of the siai 2into the going 
down of the same (Psalm cxiii. 3). 


On an ivory compass and dial in the Musee Cluny, Paris, made by 
HansTroschel, Nuremberg, 1627, witli No. 207. Also on the church at 
La Cour, near Durtal ; at St. Trinite, Laval ; the Place d' Amies, Brianqon, 
with Nos. 48, 365, I 2 13, 1591 ; the Mairie at Ville Vieille, Oueyras, with 
date 1852 ; on the Presbytere at Prelles (Hautes Alpes), surmounted by 
I . H • s ; and at other places in the south of France. The same text is 
engraved on a brass quadrant made by Poppel, now in Mr. Lewis Evans' 
collection, usque being contracted. Mr. Evans once saw a honestone dial 
exhibited tor sale in London, on which the latter part of the inscription 
had been altered to " Laudabile Dominum," apparently for the purpose of 
getting the whole verse on to the space allowed. The words, " Nulla 
meis sine te quaeratur gloria rebus" Let vie seek Jionoicr for myself only 
to honour Thee, were also on the dial stone. It was made in 1750 by 
" Conrad Schmeid, canonlcus, Collegii, Wetterhausen." In Athanasius 
Kircher's " Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae" (1646), there is a large 
folding plate of twenty-four dials arranged in the form of a tree, and 
four dials in the corners. From these radiate thirty-four versions of 
this verse (Psalm cxiii. 3) in as many different languages. On a scroll 
across the tree is Sicut oliva fructifera in domo Dei (see Psalm clii. 2). 
The whole plate is intended to be mounted on a board, and to have 
small gnomons (of which the size is given) affixed to the dials, which 
would then show the hour of the day at the different places named. 

A Soils ortu usque ad occasum, laiidate Doininc, Dovilnc alleluia, 
was inscribed a few years ago beneath the clock, which stands beside 
the north aisle of the choir in York Minster. This clock used to be 
outside the building, above the entrance to the south transept, but was 
taken inside when that part of the cathedral was restored. 

9. A soLIs ortV VsqVe aD oCCasVM. Laudabile nomen 

Coetus Apostolicus coelestia sidera bis sex, 

Zodiacusque fides, sol tibi Jesus erit ; 
Temporis ut minime momentum crescit in horam 

Et brevis in longam crescitur hora diem, 
Multiplicata dies in mensem, mensis in annum, 
Sic tuus in Jesum tempore crescat amor. 

The band of the Apostles shall be thy tivelve heavenly stars. Faith thy 
zodiac, and Jesus thy sun ; as the S7nallest moment of time grows into 
an hour, the short hour into the long day, the recurring days into the 
month, the mouth into the year, so with the flight of time may thy love 
for Jesus increase. 

On a honestone or marble dial, sold in London, 1S96. The 
chronogram is 1771. 

The above text, with the words rather differently placed, is also 
on a portable dial in Mr. Evans' collection. It is signed Joseph Bayer. 
Soc. Jesu. 


10. a span is all that we can boast, 

An inch or so of time : 
Man is but vanity and dust 
In all his flower and prime. 

At East Lodge Farm, Carthorpe, Yorkshire, erected by G. J. 
Serjeantson, Esq. His initials and the date 1862 also appear. 


On the farm buildings at Camphill, Yorkshire, with No. 1426. 

12. a toute heure aux mfichants dieu prodigue ses dons. 
Son soleil luit sur eux ainsi que sur les bons. 
Verse ses faveurs sur lame infidI;le 

Que l'abus de ses dons rendra plus criminelle. 

Each hour on sinners God His gifts bestows. 
For thcni His Stm as for the righteous glows : 
But faithless souls misuse the gifts outpoured 
And guiltier grow with blessings thiis ignored. 

On the church at Aime, Savoy. There was another inscription, but it 
has become illegible. 

13. A TOUTE HEURE SOYEZ LES BiENVENUS. Wclcowe at all timcs. 
On a cabaret, Hameau de Flosaille, St. Savin (Isere). 

14. Ab hoc mo.\U':nto pendet aeternitas. On this moment hangs 

This favourite motto may be seen at the following places : on the 
porch of St. Andrew's Church, Auckland, co. Durham, with date 1749; 
over the door of a house at Wentworth, Yorks, with " 26 Dec. 1765. 
dellneavit Johan Metcalfe " ; on the parish church of Great Sankey, 
Lanes, with " j. Simpkin 1781 " ; in the churchyard of Childwall, Lanes, 
with" I. Simpkin, Burtonwood 1791" above the motto, and " W"' 
Spencer, and W" Owen, churchwardens, 1791 " below; on the pedestal 
of a dial in the churchyard of St. John the Baptist, Margate, with No. 
1669 ; on a house at Offerton, Cheshire ; at Sprawley, Worcestershire ; 
on a dial in Frankfort Museum ; on a chapel at East London, near 
Rawdon, Yorks ; on the porch of Soham church, Cambridgeshire. Also 
at Newmills House, Balerno, Scotland. This dial was removed from 
Mayshade, Loanhead, to Newmills House; it is dated 1794. 

15. Ab origine virtus 
Ad sublima cursu(s) 

From the souree is {my) goodness 
To the heights {my) eoursc. 

On a dial-stone with two faces in the Germanic Museum at Nurem- 
berg. Verses 2 and 3 of Psalm cxiii, Sit nomen Domini, etc., are engraved 


between the two lines of numerals ; and the stone is elaborately decorated 
with the signs of the zodiac, and various heraldic designs and mottoes. 
The name of Philippo Antonio Libero Baroni de Reinach appears, who 
probably owned the dial, and also the name of the maker, " Devot™° 
Franc: Xav: Josephus Bovius, S.S. Can. Exam, approb. presbyter 
Eystettensis invenit, fecit, et demississime dedicavit 171 7." The first 
line of this motto is on a stone dial in the V^ictoria and Albert 
Museum, South Kensington, with a further inscription of which only 
one line can be read : " Quot Maio flores tibi tot dicantur honores," 
May hoHOitrs be assigned thee, njiinbcrlcss as are the floivers in May. 

16. Ab ULTIMA CAVE, 1838. Of tlic lasl Jioitr bewarc. Seen in 1870 in 
a house at Porto Fino, Gulf of Genoa. The same motto is on the Casa 
Beltrami, Ameno, dated 1846. 

17. Ab ultima aeternitas. From the last hour begins eternity. 
Formerly on the Convent of the R^collets, Paris. 

18. Ab una pendet aeternitas, 1833. One hour leads i?ito eternity. 
On the Cure's house, Cognin, France. 

ig. About your business. 

On the General Post Office, London, in 1756; and in 1S15, on a 
dial erected by John Devaston, a friend of the poet Shenstone, at the 
Nursery, West Felton, Salop. 

20. Absque SOLE, absque usu. IVithoiit snn,zc'itho7tt itse. Roger Har- 
greaves, Richard Whittle, Chapel Wardens, A. Dom. 1826. On 
Heapey Church, Lancashire. 

21. Abuse me not, i do no ill : 

i stand to serve thee with good will ; 
as careful then be sure thou be 
to serve thy god, as i serve thee. 

This inscription used to be on a copper horizontal dial in Shaw 
churchyard, in the parish of Oldham ; the cross on which it was erected 
remains, but the dial-plate was stolen, and a new plate and a different 
motto have been substituted for the old ones. Three mottoes 
somewhat resembling the above have been noted as occurring on 
clocks. The first was supplied to Mrs. Gatty some years ago, and 
was found in her common-place book : 

" I labour here with all my might 
To tell the hour by day and night. 
If thou wilt be advised by me 
Thou'lt serve thy God as I serve thee." 

The second, which differs very slightly from this version, is on the 
Town Hall at Bala, Merionethshire. The third version was kindly 
sent to us in 1881, by the Rev. H. Maclean, then Vicar of Lanteglos- 


by-Fowey, Cornwall, who while visiting a parishioner noticed the fol- 
lowing lines placed under an ancient timepiece, neatly written and 
framed in coloured paper : 

" Here my M" bids me stand 

And mark the time with faithful hand. 

What is her will is my delight. 

To tell the hours by day by night. 

M" be wise and learn of me 

To serve thy God as I serve thee." 

22. Ad occasum tendimus omnes. IVe are travelling each towards his 
sunsci. Recorded in " Bulletin Monumental de la Societe Francaise 
d'Archeologie," 18S1. No locality given. 


DEVI CHE DIG SOLO. MDCCCLXvi. At every hottr zvJiicIi I mark reiucnibcr 
that thou ongJitest to seek after none but God only. On the Institute delle 
Suore di San Vicenzo di Paolo, Rome. 

24. Adveniet illa dies : semper paratum. That day zuill come : {be 
thou) always ready. On the terrace at Derwent Hall, Derbyshire, with 
No. 1536. Some such words as decet esse, or habe te must be understood. 

25. Advesperascit. It is toioard evening. (St. Luke, xxiv. 29.) On the 
fagade of a presbytere near Beziers. 

26. Advgcat aeternos quaelibet hora [deos]. Every Iiour may bring 
the Eternal Gods [to 21s]. In the Court of Signer Luigi Novello's house 
at Serravalle d'Asti, Italy. 

27. A ETAS ciTO pede praeterit, 1 78/. The age passes zcith swift foot. 
On the porch of the church of St. Hilary, near Marazion, Cornwall. 

28. Aetas rapiet diem, I 783. Time zv ill hurry aivay the day. At Sally 
Hill, near Gosforth, Cumberland. 

29. Afflictis lentae. Ouinton, 1762. Sloio to the sorroioftil. At 
Beaurepaire (Isere). "Ouinton " probably was the maker's name. 

30. Afflictis lentae celeres gaudentibus horae. 

To thou that mourn the hotirs are slow, 
But with the joyful stuiftly go. 

The above translation was given by the late Dean Alford, who noticed 
this motto on the Riviera, probably in the Municipio of Rossiglione, 
near Voltri. The motto has also been seen at Courmayeur : Hyeres ; 
Milan ; in the garden of the Chateau de Kerouartz, Lannilis (Finistere) ; 
and on the Sacro Monte at Varese, with the date 26 Febbraio, 1857, 
and Amicis quaelibet hora. In 1888 it was observed by M. Benoit, 
author of " Les bibliophiles des trois eveches," on what was once the 
church of the Carmelite Convent at Vic (anciently Meurthe). The 


church had been turned into a market! The dial was near the door. 
In 1896 a brass dial-plate was sold in London, bearing the same motto 
on a scroll above two heraldic shields surmounted by a coronet. Below 
was the line, Vos genus et metas vos laudet gratia morum. May 
your race, yotir devotion, and your courtesy bring you honour. 

The sentiment of this motto is a favourite theme with poets. It 
is gracefully expressed by Lamartine in " Le Lac " : 

" O temps, suspend ton vol ! et vous, heures propices, 

Suspendez votre cours ! 
Laissez-nous savourer les rapides delices 

Des plus beaux de nos jours ! 

"Assez de malheureux ici-bas vous implorent : 

Coulez, coulez pour eux ; 
Prenez avec leurs jours les soins qui les devorent ; 

Oubliez les heureux. 

" Mais je demande en vain quelques moments encore, 

Le temps m'echappe et fuit ; 
Je dis a cette nuit : ' Sois plus lente,' et I'aurore 

Va dissiper la nuit. 

" Aimons done ! aimons done ! de I'heure fugitive 

Hatons-nous, jouissons ! 
L'homme n'a point de port, le temps n'a point de rive ; 

II coule, et nous passons ! " 

31. Ah, what is human life ! 

How LIKE the Dial's tardy moving shade : 
Day after day glides by us unperceived. 
Yet soon man's life is up and we are gone. 

On a dial at Hesketh, Lancashire. See No. 1414. The idea 
contained in this stanza is finely expressed in a sentence from the 
Talmud, translated by Emmanuel Deutsch : " Life is a passing shadow, 
says the Scripture. Is it the shadow of a tower, of a tree ? a shadow 
that prevails for a while ? No, it is the shadow of a bird in his flight — 
away flies the bird and there is neither bird nor shadow." The Book 
of Wisdom (v. 11, 12, 13) gives analogous teaching. 


Ah ! hozo swiftly time passes. Near Montpellier ; the dialect is that of 

33. AiNsi PASSE LA VIE. L'an 1819, 21 Juin. J. H. Jacob. C. Paillas. 
So life passes. On a slate dial at Les Hieres (Hautes Alpes) ; also 
(fecit Pascalis) at St. Cassien ; Gavet (Isere) ; and La Tour-du-Pin 
(Isere) dated 1762. With slight variations, or transposition of words, 
it has been read on the church of St. Paul (Savoy) ; at the Hameau de 
Chogne (Isere), dated 1768 ; and at Pierre Rue (Basses Alpes). 

34. AiNsi .s'ficoULE LA VIE. Thus the ycars roll on. On the church of 
the fortress of Izeaux (Isere). 


35. Al proprio occaso in poco d'ora inchina 

La vita tua, o mortal, che ognor vien m£no 
Ed UN ombra sei tu, che gia declina. 

A few short hours now, O mortal man, thy life inclining. 
Towards its own setting, less and less henceforth I grow ; 
Thou too a shadow art, to nothingness declining. 

Given in "Notizie Gnomoniche," with reference: — Sal. ci. 12; 

36. All that pleases, all that troubles, is but for a moment : that 
ONLY IS important WHICH IS ETERNAL. On a dial erected by a lady in 
her garden at Dorking, in the year of Jubilee, 1887. Round the base 
No. 141 9 is inscribed. 


Verlest er nicht in keiner Not 

In ALLEN Tuhn und Lassen dein 

Las Got dein Ent und Anfang sein. 
Mors venit, hora fugit, metuas mortem venientem. quaelibet est 
index funeris hora tul hd. 1560. 

In direst need God will not forsake those who place their trust in Him. 
In all thou doest andleavest undone, let God be thine end and thy beginning. 

Death approaches, the hour flies, fear thou the approach of death. Any 
hour is the signal for thy death. On an ivory portable compass dial 
in Mr. Evans' collection. The initials are those of Hans Ducher, the 
maker, a well-known diallist of Nuremberg. He spelt his name Ducher, 
or Tucher, indifferently. 

38. Allez vous. Pass oti. Some years ago a Dutch vessel came into 
port at Dartmouth, and brought a Dutch sun-dial of singular workman- 
ship, which bore this motto. The dial came into the possession of the 
Vicar of St. Petrox, Dartmouth, and it was placed at the time in the 
vicarage garden, but it is no longer there. 

39. Alloquar te, mors instat. / speak to thee, death is at hand. 
Formerly on the church of Loudwater, Bucks, but in 1889 both the 
motto and the numerals on the dial were found to be obliterated. 

40. Altera pars oti est, pars est et justa labori. O tie part is for 
rest, and a due part is for toil. At Mirepoix (Ariege). 

41. Am ant alterna camoenae. The Muses love the alternate strain. 
From Virgil, E. 3, 59. On a house in Paris, once the College du 
Cardinal Lemoine. 

42. Ambiguis ALis LABiLis HORA voLAT. The gliditig hour fies on its 
fitful wings (Cicero). Given on an engraving in " Fabrica degli 

Horologi Solari," by Valentino Pini, 1598. 

e e 






— (p 


1 P 
t J 
in <t) 

.** » 



43. Amicis QUAELiBET noRA. To friciids any JiouT yozi phase. Placed 
by the painter Jules Lenoir, on his house at Montereau. It is also at 
Veurey (Isere) ; at Voreppe (Isere), dated 1770; at Grasse (in i860) ; 
at the Sacro Monte, Varese (No. 30) ; at Oropa ; at Chatillon, with 
No. 1028; at Calciavacca, Verolengo. In 1866 seen on a house in 
Murano with No. 589, dated 1862, and having the hour of noon marked 
by a bell. It was adopted in 1899 by Dr. G. W. Sidebotham for a 
horizontal dial erected at Broughton Astley Hall, Leicestershire. 

44. Amoena (hora) sit quam optas. Pleasant be the hoiu- thoic dost 
desire. On St. Chaffrey (Hautes Alpes). 

45. Amyddst y" fflowres I TELL y" houres, ETC. {Sce Illustration^ 

This design and motto were devised by the Rev. Greville J. Chester, 

and given in his 
story, " Aurelia," 
with the following- 
description (pp. 1 60, 
161) : "... inside 
the old espaliers, 
drooping with rus- 
set apples and jar- 
gonelle pears, a 
double row of 
Hollyhock - spires 
of flame, and rose- 
colour, and prim- 
rose, and white, 
and crimson, . . . 
and bunches of 
golden x'\aron's rod, 
and Canterbury 
bells, brought from 
my Lord Archbis- 
hop's garden at Ad- 
dington in flowery 
Kent, and Bee lark- 
spurs, and Prince's feathers, and later on in the year, tufts of 
purple, golden-eyed Michaelmas daisies; and at the end of all, upon a 
lump of turf, stood a grey time-tinged sun-dial, inscribed on its four 
sides with the quaint distiches devised by Bishop Edmund Redyngton, 
who set it up a.d. 1665." 

Mr. Chester's vivid description led some readers to believe that he 
quoted the motto from an ancient dial, and did not write it himself, but 
he had considerable talent as a verse writer, and No. 465 is another 
instance of his grace and wit. The above motto was adopted by 
Ebenezer Erskine Scott, Esq., for a dial erected by him at Linburn, 

JBeyond y^ totiibe 

f freshe fflowrets tloome 


_ ^ 







Midlothian, in 1892. It was designed by Thomas Ross, Esq., F.S.A., 
and is nine feet in height. The verses are engraved on the lower 
step of the base, and on the upper one is verse 3, Psalm cxiii. No. 32 i. 
The Hon. Francis Bovves-Lyon has also inscribed Mr. Chester's 
verses on the base of a dial which he has erected at Ridley Hall, 
Northumberland. The design is somewhat similar to the fine dial at 
his family home, Glamis Castle. The shaft stands on five steps, and 
supports an octagon crowned by a ball finial. The dials and gnomons 
are on four facets of the octacjon, the other four sides beine carved 
recesses ; the upper and lower portions of the octagon are also cut 
into deep recesses. The shaft is square, and on the upper part is 
engraved: (i) Ut umhra sic fugit vita; (2) Post tenebras spero 


46. Anen,, q'ues ouro. (Allons, enfants, c'est l'heure.) 
Co;/ic boys, mnv's the time ! At La Licune near Narbonne ; the dialect 
is that of Languedoc. 

47. Ante gerbertum silebant. Before Gerbert they mere silent. On 
a wall of the college at Aurillac. Gerbert, afterwards Pope Sylvester II. 
(999-1002), was a native either of Aurillac, or of the neighbouring 
village of St. Simon, and was brought up at the first named place. 
The motto claims too much, however, for the scientific monk. There 
were dials before his time, though he may have improved and 
popularized them. (See Introduction, page 12.) 

48. Ante solem permanet nomen ejus. His Name shall be continned 
as long as the sun. Psalm Ixxii. 17 (Bible version). At St. Martin 
d'Heres (Isere) with date " 20 Septembre, 1833," the same text, with 
Domini instead of ejjis, is found on the church at Abries ; with other 
mottoes in the Place d'Armes, Brian9on, see No. 8 ; and at Chateau 
Oueyras (Hautes Alpes), with other mottoes and date 1828. 

49. Ante solis occasum debet dies clara fecit 
Itaque Deus duo magna ilea luminaria luminare 
Majus ad dominium diei et luminare minus 

Ad dominium noctis atque stellas 
Innocui vivite numen adest. 

Before the setting of the sun the day ought [to be) bright, 

So God made the two great lights ; 

The greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light 

To rule the mght. He made the stars also. 

Live blamelessly, God is at hand. 

Horam qua FILIUS HOMINIS veniet. 

Watch, for ye know not the day 7ior the hoJir nor the appointed hotir 
in which the Son of ma)i will come. 


Optima quaeque dies miseris mortalibus aevi 
Prima fugit subeunt morbi trtstis que senectus. 

Each day is tJie best of life to poor moi'tal man. 
The first flies by, disease comes on, and sad old age. 


Maris necnon toti astrolabii dioptram 

Paed OS LABORATUM fuit. 

This whicJi contains an aequinoctial dial 0/ sun, moon, and sea, 
also a measure of the whole compass, tvas made by John Bonar of Ayrl^^), 

These mottoes and inscription are on tlie front half of a remarkable 
dial at Kenmure Castle, Kirkcudbright, which has been fully described 
by Mr. Ross in his "Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scot- 
land," vol. v., p. 438 et scq. He says : "The dial consists of two flat 
slate slabs, three-quarters of an inch thick, set up against each other at 
an angle, like the sides of a lectern or music stand, and they are sup- 
ported on a modern shaft. . . . The faces are both of the same size, and 
measure about 2 feet by i foot 8-^ inches." The old rhyme, " Thirty days 
hath September," etc., the names of the zodiacal signs, the months, and 
numerous towns (mostly English and Scotch), are all cut on the same 
slab as the above mottoes. The second slab has two inscriptions, a 
quaint rhymed one in Scottish dialect relating to the signs of the zodiac, 
which we have not space to transcribe, and the following Latin lines : 


While time is granted, and even nozv, ye set forth years that are real. 
Learn ye, years pass by like ricnning zvatcr. 

The date, " 1623 11 Dec ", is given on each face of the dial. 

KTPIOT. The Lo7'd's Name is praised from the rising up of the sun 
unto the goitig down of the same. — Psalm cxiii. 3. 

On a painted cylinder dial 14 inches high, ot Italian make, with 
No. 155. This specimen was sold a few years ago at Puttick and 
Simpson's in London. 

51. ArpROPiNQUAT HORA, A.D. MncTiii (or CLiii) Tlic hojir IS at hatid. 
On a cylindrical dial in a woodcut in Marius Bettini's " Recreationum 
Mathematicarum Apiaria," folio, Bologna, 1659. Also on the Church 
of St. Marcellin (Isere). 

52. Aro es l'ouro de pla fe. 1868. (C'est maintenant l'heure 
DE bien faire.) Now is the tijjte to do good. 

On a house at Pamiers (Ariege). 


53. Aro es l'ouro del tribal. (C'est maintenant l'iieure de la 
TRAVAIL.) Now is tlic time to work. 

Read at Castelnaudary. This, and the motto above, are in the 
dialect of Languedoc. 

54. ArRESTE ICI, passant, PENSE a TA fin DERNli:RE, 

Pause in life s journey, give to Death one thought ; 
Know that one moment may your course cut short. 

At La Fontenil sous Briancjon. There are two dates on the dial, 
1 83 1 and 1883, the latter being that of its restoration. The same 
motto in a slightly different form is on the church at St. Chaffrey, 
(Hautes Alpes) ; and at Le Monetier-les-Bains, dated 1865. 


FOUTEZ MOi LE CAMP.) Stop a 7nonicnt, wayfarer, look what time it is, 
and then be off I 

In the dialect of Provence, seen near Aix. 

56. Arripe horam, ultimamque timeas. S""" 181 2 
Snatch the ^present) hour, and fear the last. 

On a meridian dial at Tours. 

57. Ars longa vita brevis. a rt is long, life is short . At Ballafreer 
Farm, Braddan, Isle of Man, see No. 1020. The dial was made by John 

58. Arte mira mortalium temperat horas. With wondrous skill 
he regulates the hours of men's lives. 

On a house belonging to the Grand Seminaire at Frejus ; also at 
Villeneuve, Val d'Aosta. 

59. A ring is round and hath no end 
So IS my love unto my friend. 

This posy is on a ring dial in the British Museum, probably the 
same one that was exhibited by the Society of Antiquaries, 1884, and 
described in their Proceedings, vol. xi.. No. i. 

60. As a shadow,, such is life. Lat. 52° 20' 1848. Over the porch 
entrance of Wensley Church, Yorkshire. 

61. As A servant earnestly desireth the shadow. 

These words from Job, vii. 2, with eight other mottoes, were on a 
dial pillar, called Prince Albert Victor's Dial, shown in the Edinburgh 
Exhibition, 1886. See No. 1306. 



62. As o'er the dial flits the rapid shade, 

So speed the hours of life's eventful dav : 

As FROM the plate thou see'st the shadows fade, 

Time unimproved fleets tracelesslv A\VA^•. 

Let thy bright hours, like sunbeams, call forth flowers : 

Truth, mercv, justice, holiness, and love ; 

Here they may droop beneath affliction's showers — 

Doubt not iheir fragrance shall ascend above. 

These lines, under the title " Inscription for a Sun-dial," are in 
" Poems " by Lady Flora Hastings. 

63. As SHADOWE so MAN SPEEDETH. 1613. At Church Farmhouse, 

Marston Magna, Somersetshire. 


53. 15. J. Smurthwaite 1804. On a 
wooden sun-dial which until 1889 was on 
the Red House Farm, near Kirkling- 
ton, Yorkshire, where the Smurthwaite 
family had lived as tenants for several 

W L. 1683. 

At Liberton House, Midlothian. The 
initials and arms are those of William 
Little. The same motto was inscribed 
in 1892 on one of two window dials at 
Inch House, on the Liberton estate. 


as these hours doth pass away 
so doth the life of men decay 
Memento mori. 1731. 

On a pillar dial in Wetherall church- 
yard, Cumberland. The church con- 
tains some monuments of the Howards 
of Corby Castle, and a tomb bearing the effigies of Sir Richard de 
Salkeld and " his lady Dame Jane," from whose descendants Lord 
William Howard bought the Manor of Corby. 

" Pray for their souls for charitie : 

For as they are now — so must we all be." 

Epitaph on Sir Richard de Salkeld. 



This motto, which is almost identical with that at Wetherall, occurs 
on a slate sun-dial, above the porch of Diptford Church, Devon. 



In the corners are the initials ^ W ^ W evidently those of the wardens 
for the year 1694, their office being signified by the letter W. It is 
also on the dial on Brent Church, South Devon, with initials and date 
E. M. 1685. A notice in the "Gentleman's Magazine," quoted by 
Mr. Suckling in the " History of Suffolk," says that in Blythburgh 
Church, at the west end of the middle aisle, there was a clock with the 
figure of a man who used to strike the hours on a bell (after the manner 
of the figures at old St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street) ; and under the clock 
the following lines were painted on wood : 

"As the hours pass away 
So doth the life of men decay." 

The last version is on a ring dial in the British Museum. 

68. as time and hovres paseth awaye 
so doeth the life of man decaye, 

as time can be redeemed with no cost 
Bestow it well and let no howre be lost. 

These lines are engraved round the outer edge of a portable brass 
dial, the size of an old-fashioned watch, which is preserved in the 
Antiquarian Museum in Edinburgh. When opened a dial and compass 
are seen on one face, and on the opposite face, which forms the inside 
of the lid, the meridians of " all the principal townes and cities of 
Europe" are inscribed, with the words, " This table beginneth at 1572, 
and so on for ever." The name of the maker, " Humfrey Cole," and 
the date 1575, are also given. 

During the reigns of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth Humfrey 
Cole was the leading English maker of astrolabes and similar instru- 
ments, some of which are now in Greenwich Hospital. 

69. AspicE et abl Look 0)1 inc and pass on. On a sun-dial in High 
Street, Banbury. 

70. AsPICE IN HORAM, ET MEMENTO MORI. R.E. 1775- Look UpOtl 

the hater, and remember death. 

On an old house in Thomas Street North, Monkwearmouth. The 
initials R. E. are those of Robert Emerson, who was parish clerk and 
schoolmaster of Boldon from i 770 to 1805. He possessed considerable 
mathematical knowledge, and constructed two dials in his own village. 
One of these he placed over his house, where it still remains, but the 
motto of this is now illegible ; the other is above the church porch. 

71. AspiCE ME. Look on me. 

This in 1787 was at Montmorency, near the Cheval Blanc. 

72. AsPiCE, RESPiCE, PRospiCE. Look, look back, look forward. 

At Tornaveen, Torphins, Aberdeen, with No. 109. It has also 


been inscribed on a dial at Inch House, Midlothian, which was once 
at Craigmillar, and after having been lost for several years was re- 
turned to the owner. Major Gilmour, who placed it in the garden at 
Inch House, and added the above motto and three others. He also 
put the following inscription on the pedestal : " This dial stood 
at Craigmillar Castle. Falling into ruin it was re-erected here wnth 
needful additions Anno Dom. 1894." See Nos. 306, 415, 1490. 

73. AspiCE UT ASPiciAR. Look Oil Die that I may be looked on. 

This graceful appeal from the dial to the sun was inscribed upon a 
device belonging to Queen Louise de Vaudemont, the wife of Henry III. 
of France. 

74. AsPiCE UT ASPiciAS. See that thou mayest see. 

At Teche (Isere), and in the Rue Vaugirard, Paris. 

This motto was also engraved on the south side of a pillar-dial in 
the churchyard of Areley Kings, Worcestershire. Below the motto 
was a figure of Time, with an hour-glass and spade, and the lines : 

Tlme's glass and scythe g 

Thy life and death declare, g 

Spend well thy time, and 3 

For thy end prepare. ^ 

O MAN, NOW OR never. 

While there is time turn unto the lord 
And put not off from day to day. 

On the north side of the pillar is inscribed : 

Three things there be in very deede. 
Which make my heart in grief to bleede : 
The first doth vex my very heart. 
In that from hence i must departe ; 
The second grieves me now and then. 
That i must dyh but know not when; 
The third with tears bedew.s my face, 
That i must lodge nor know the place. 

I. w. fecit, anno Diiii 1687. Under the date is a figure of Death 
standing on a human body, holding a dart and spade, and with a fallen 
hour-glass beside him : 

Behold my killing dart and delving spade, 
Prepare for death before 'niv grave be made ; 


After death there 's no hope. 

If a man die, shall he live again ? 

All the days of my appointed time 
^ Will 1 wait till my change couv..— Job, xiv. 14. 


The death of saints is precious, 

And miserable is the death of sinners. 

On the east side there was : 

Si vis ingredi in vitam 
Serva maxdata. 

IJ thoii woiddst enter into life, keep the commandments. 

Judgments are prepared for sinners. — Prov. xix. 19. 

and on the west : 

Sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram. 

Let not the sun go down upon your wrath. 

Whatsoever ye would that men 

Should do unto you 

Do YE even so unto them. 

This dial pillar formerly stood in a private garden at Norchard, in 
the parish of Hartlebury. According to tradition it was erected, or at 
any rate inscribed, by an occupant of the house, who was a student and 
recluse, and went by the title of " The Wizard." The Rev. F. Simcox 
Lea, late of Tedstone Delamere, recollects "the wizard's pillar" as 
being one of the sights of Hartlebury in 1834, and he believes that the 
somewhat morbid tone of all the inscriptions arose from the introversial 
character ot the inscriber's mind, who seems to have held much solitary 
communion with himself, and to have had a great dread of the future 
life. The house was pulled down about the year 1827, and the dial was 
given to the Rev. H. J. Hastings, rector of Areley Kings, who put it 
into the churchyard there. 

75. Aspiciendo senescis. Thou, growest old in beholding. 
A. F. Arsenio Capucinorum. 1853. 

On a meridian dial at Aix-les- Bains ; the maker, Fra Arsenio, con- 
structed several other dials, at Annecy and elsewhere. The motto has 
also been seen at Nice, and at Sennecey-le-Grand, where it was possibly 
chosen as a play on the words Senncccy and senescis. It occurs likewise 
at Paray le Monial (Sa6ne-et-Loire),with Nos. 134, 302, 1514,1597; and 
at the Convent of St. Pens, near Nice ; the Grand Seminaire, Avignon ; 
and at several other places in France and Italy. Me aspiciendo 
SENESCIS is on the church of Vitry sur Seine ; and in the garden of the 
Hospital of St. Jacques at Besangon, with Nos. 233, 717, 966, 975, 
1070, 1297, 1548. 

76. AssiDuo labuntur tempora motu. Ovid, " Metam." xv. 179. 
The seasons glide by with constant motion. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

77- Astra regunt homines. The stars rule men, 

Sed Deus regit ASTRA. But God rules the stars. 

f f 


On the belfry of St. Germain la Blanche Herbe, near Caen, with 
No. 1484. 

78. Aujourd'hui a mui, demain a TGI. To-dii)' is mine, io-iiiorroiv 

On church of St. Veran (Isere) ; and in the cemetery at Courmayeur. 

79. AuGET FiDEM CONCORDIA. Concoj'd increases faith. 
Formerly on the Seminaire de St. Sulpice, Paris. 

80. Aurora hora aurea. Dawn the golden hour. 

Engraved on the gnomon of an old pedestal dial which once stood 
on the lawn at Mountains, near Hildenborough, Kent. 

81. AuT DiscE, AUT DiscEDE. Either leai'n o)' go. 

On a dial at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. The same 
motto, with the addition, Manet sor.s tertia Caedi, A third choice 
remains, to be /logged, is preserved on a tablet at the end of the school- 
room of Winchester College, being characteristic of the hardy discipline 
of that ancient public school. 

82. AuT lauda vel emenda. 1738. R. Nellson, Fecit. Either 
commend, or amend. 

The note respecting this dial has been imperfectly filled up, and the 
collector has lost all recollection of the locality. Its application is 
dubious, but possibly the same as No. 182. 


Reward or punishment awaits the honrs of otir life. 
On the Hotel de Ville, Mende. 

84. AuTANT BOIRE ici qu'ailleurs. As Well drink here as elsezulicre. 
On an inn at St. Didier de la Tour (Isere) ; and at Vasselin (Isere). 

85. Autrefois nous comptions les iieures comme vous, 
A present nous sommes mortes, comptez-les nous. 

In life like you ive marked the passing hours. 
Now we have passed away the task is yours. 

On a mausoleum in the cemetery at Rabastens d'Albigeois. A 
clock dial is engraved above. 

86. AvANT de regarder si je suis juste, regarde si tu l'est toi- 
MEME. Before thou lookest if I am right, look if thou are right thyself. 

At Laon. 

87. Ave Maria Dni mei Mater. Hail, Mary, Mother of my Lord. 
On a dial dated 1881, within the church of Harcourt (Eure) 


88. AvEC l'o.n[BRE je marquerai. By the shadow I shall viark {time). 
At St. Ismier (Isere). 

8g. Badan, far toun camin, l'ouro passo. (Passant, va ton ciiemix, 
l'iieure passe.) Wayfarer, go thy zvay, the day zuanes. 

On an old house by the roadside, between Brignoles and Vins 
(Var), in the dialect of Provence. 

90. Baase jiu bioys mairagh. Death to-day, life to-morrotu. 
At Ballafreer Farm, Isle of Man. See No. 1020. 

gi. Be thankful, watch, pray, work. 1886. H. Leeson, Cornhill. 

On a dial plate, which rests on an ancient pedestal in Maxtoke 
churchyard, Warwickshire. 

92. Be the day weary, be the day long. 

Soon shall it ring ,to evensong. 

On a wall in the village of Ashcott, Somerset. 


93. Begone about your business. 

Is inscribed on a wooden dial of a house at High Lane, near 
Disley, in Cheshire. Mr. Timbs records that it was on the dial of the 
old brick house which stood at the east end of the Inner Temple terrace, 
whence it was removed in 1828. The brusqueness of the advice is 
accounted for by the following pleasant legend, given in " Notes and 
Queries," 2nd S , v. i.x., p. 279 : "When the dial was put up, the artist 
inquired whether he should (as was customary) paint a motto under it. 
The Benchers assented, and appointed him to call at the Library on a 
certain day and hour, at which time they would have agreed upon a 
motto. It appears, however, that they had totally forgotten this ; and 
when the artist or his messenger called at the Library at the time 
appointed, he found no one but a cross-looking old gentleman poring 
over some musty book. ' Please, sir, I am come for the motto for the 
sun-dial.' ' What do you want ? ' was the pettish answer : ' why do you 
disturb me ? ' ' Please, sir, the gentleman told me I was to call at this 
hour for a motto for the sun-dial.' 'Begone abottt your Imsiness T was 
the testy reply. The man, either by design or mistake, chose to take 
this as an answer to his inquiry, and accordingly painted in large letters 
under the dial, begone about your business. The Benchers, when 
they saw it, decided that it was very appropriate, and that the)' would 
let it stand — chance having done their work for them as well as they 
could have done it for themselves. Anything which reminds us of the 
lapse of time should remind us also of the right employment of time in 
doing whatever business is required to be done." 

The same idea is repeated on the gable of a cottage between 
Stockport and New Mills; and on the church of Bury St. Edmunds. 


94. Behold and apply yourself to duty 
Consume not your time in idleness. 

1839. Lat. 53° 30.' 

At Upper Mill, Saddleworth, Yorkshire. 

95. Behold now is the accepted time (2 Cor. vi. 2). 
Seek ye the Lord while He may re found (Isa. 1y. 6). 

On Cains Cross, near Stroud, Gloucestershire, with No. 1 126. 

96. Blessed are the dead which die in the lord. 

These words, from Rev. xiv. 13, have been inscribed at the base of 
a pedestal-dial in the churchyard of St. Botolph Without, Aldersgate 
Street, London. The plate has on it an engraving of the old Alders 
Gate ; and the following inscriptions are cut on three sides of the 
pedestal : 

" This ancient burial-ground, converted into a garden by vote of the 
parish, and with the concurrence of the Vicar, was opened to the 
parishioners by John Staples, Esq., F.S.A., Alderman, on Thursday 
28 October, 1S80. S. Flood Jones, M.A., Vicar. George Sims, C.C. 
John Hutchinson, Churchwardens, 1881." This marks the date of the 

97. Boast not thyself of to-morrow 

For on thine eyelids is the shadow of death. 

Taken from Prov. xxvii. i, and from Job, xxvi. 16. On a dial in 
the Albert Park, Middlesbrough (see Nos. 291, 1334, 1366, 1378, 1381, 
1406). Also on the Wesleyan Chapel, Bielby, near Pocklington, dated 
1838, with No. 1259. Both of these dials were made by Mr. J. Smith, 
of South Stockton. 

98. Bon jour 1728. Good morning. 

At St. Hilaire du Rosier (Isere) ; and at Chatte (I sere), dated 1763. 

99. BoN soiR. Good night. 
At St. Quentin (Isere). 

100. Breves sunt dies hominis. Short arc the days of man. 
On the church, Niederwald, Haute Valais, Switzerland. 

" La vie est vaine " La vie est breve ; 

Un peu d'amour Un peu d'espoir, 

Un peu de haine Un peu de lire, 

Et puis— bon jour ! " Et puis— bon soir ! " 

lOi. Brevis /ETAS, VITA FUOAX. Time is short, life is fleeting. 

On the south transept of Leighton Buzzard Church. There are three 
Other dials on the transept, all with mottoes (see Nos. 1S5, 249, 1582). 
On the north transept there is a fifth dial, but it has no motto. 


102. Brevis hominum vita. Short is the life of man. 

On the dial which was formerly on the porch of Aberford Church, 
Yorkshire. It was removed when the church was rebuilt, and is now 
laid aside. 

The motto recalls the lines of Bernard de Morlaix : 

" Hie breve vivitur, hie breve plangitur, hie breve fletur ; 
Non breve vivere, non breve plangere, retribuetur." 

Here brief is ttie sig/iiitg, tiere In-ief is tlie crying, tie re l>ri(f is /tie life : 
Ttie life ttiere is endtess, ttie joy ftiere is endtess, for ended /tie s/rife." 

103. Bright sol and luna time and tide doth hold. 

Chronodix Humbrale, 1720. 
Over the church door at Towednack, Cornwall. 

104. Bulla est vita hu.mana. The life of man is a l>ul>ble. 

With nine other mottoes on a cross dial at Elleslie, near Chichester 
(see Nos. 329, 827, 841, 966, 1048, 1172, 1485, 1541, 1574)- 

105. Bv light from heaven I MARK HOW DAVS DO DIE; 

how rise again at morning-tide i mark. 

When clouds obscure that light, i patiently, 

Stretch mv dump, gnomon, hopeful in the dark, 

Waiting to catch once more some guiding heavenly spark. 

to die, to rise, to hope in time of trial, 

Take, master, thus thy lessons from thy dial ! 

These lines were written by the Rev. J. T. Jeffcock in 1861, and he 
intended to have them inscribed on the dial in the oarden of the vicaraoe 
at Wolstanton, where he was then Vicar, but his intention was not 
carried into execution. 

106. Cade l'ombra ai rai 

Nel mezzo giorno, 
E siNO all' occaso 
II lor soggiorno. 


The shadoiv falls under the rays {of the sun) at noontide, and nntil 
sunset is their sojourn. 

Alluding to the position of the dial which declines west, and therefore 
catches the sun's rays from midday to sunset. It is on a house at La 
Tour, the little capital of the Waldensian valleys of Piedmont, and is 
painted on the wall, the motto being in one corner. Copied in 1865. 

107. Capit omnia nusquam devius. SfThe sun~\ never swerving em- 
braces all. 

Recorded in " Bulletin Monumental," 1878, but no locality given. 

108. Carpe diem. Seize the {present^ moment. 

The earliest dated example of this motto is at Cadder House, near 


Glasgow, where it appears with Nos. 443, 896, and the date 1698. It 
is on a vertical dial, dated mdccxvii, on a house in High Street, Lewes, 
and on a horizontal dial at Brahan Castle, Ross-shire, dated 1794 : and 
at Kings Cono^hton House, near Alcester, on a horizontal dial brought 
from Salford Priors, inscribed "John Clark, fecit 1742. Petworth." It 
was formerly on the church tower at Offchurch, Warwickshire (where the 
dial is painted with the sun's face, the gnomon acting as nose), with 
" William Snow, Churchwarden, i 795," but is now illegible. It is also at 
Burton Hastings, Warwickshire; in Overton churchyard, Flintshire, with 
Nos. 940, 1 1 76, and date 1 803 ; and in 1855 it was inscribed on a circular 
erect dial painted in blue and gold on the gable of a modern wing, 
which was added in that year to the old Elizabethan mansion of Hes- 
lington Hall, near York. 

log. Carpe diem, hora adest vespertina. Seize the present moment, 
the hour of evening is nigh. 

Upon the stone support of a dial at Tornaveen, near Torphins, 
Aberdeen. On the dial plate No. 72 is engraved. 

no. Carpe, fugit. Seize it, — it flies. 
At Chinon (Indre et Loire), 1881. 

111. Carpe viator licet: sol tenebras dissipat : 
Ut hora sic vita ; virtute sola mores. 

Traveller, thou mayest proceed : i lie sun dispels the darkness : 
Life is but as an hour ; character is by virtue alone. 

Two dismantled sun-dials placed in a corner of the garden walls at 
Effingham Castle, Northumberland, bear these mottoes. 

112. Caute cave medio ne desit lumine lumen. — Take heed that 
light be not zvanting at mid-day. 

Recorded in "Bulletin Monumental," 1883. 

113. C'est l'heure d'aimer (de servik) Dieu. Noiu is the time to 
love (serve) God. 

At Ouincieux ; and on the Ecole des Freres, St. Simeon de Bres- 
sieux (Isere) respectively. 

114. C'est l'heure de bh;n faire. It is the hour for well-doing. 

On a dial erected by Lord Ilchester at Melbury Castle, Uonset. 
The dial is placed below a bay window, and the signs of the zodiac 
are engraved down either side of the face. A second motto 
(No. 632) is below the gnomon. The projecting bay extends to the 
top of the house, and has the appearance of a turret. It was built 
about 1890, when extensive additions were made to the house, the 


22 ■ 


design being copied from an older part ol the building dated circa 
1400. The illustration is from a kodak photograpli taken by Lady Muriel 
Fox Strang- 
vvays. The same 
motto (114) is at 
Holmhurst, Sus- 
sex, inscribed by 
A. J. C. Hare, 
Esq. ; at Erles- 
dene (formerly 
at The Beeches), 
Bowdon, Che- 
shire, inscribed 
by the late J. 
Esq. It has been 
read at the Char- 
treuse, Auray 
(Morbihan); and 
in the South of 

France at Bozel (Savoy) ; Champagnier (Isere), dated 1S49; Lentiel, 
dated 1862 ; Les Alberts (Hautes Alpes) ; Nice ; and at Porto Maurizio, 
the words being slightly varied in some instances. 

iUE BIEN VIVRE, 1 83 I. 

Noiii is the time to live well, to repent, to be eonvei'ted. 

These slightly varied mottoes are at Apprieu (Isere) ; at Tarascon ; 
at La Riviere (Isere) ; and at the Hameau du Sabot at Vatilieu (Isere). 

116. C'est l'iieure DE BOiRE. Now is the time fov djnukiiig. 

On an Inn at Libourne ; and on a cabaret at Beaucroissant, dated 
1796-1808. Also at La Murette (Isere). 

117. Celui qui dort la grasse matinee 
Doit travailler l'apr£:s-dinee. 

He who sleeps the morning tJiro2igh 
His work ill afternoon must do. 

At La Tour du Pin (Isere). 

118. Certa mihi mors, incerta est funeris iiora. 
certain, but the hour of my death is tmcertain. 

Recorded in "Bulletin Monumental," 1881. 

iig. Certa ratio, 1772. A sure reckoning. 
On Deighton Church, Yorkshire. 

My death is 





l'ombre passent nos jours.) 

This marker marks by its shadoiu that like a shadow our days pass 

The style divides the letters of the last word but une, of this 
curiously spelt and divided motto which dates from the eighteenth 
century, and is on the church at Argentieres (Hautes Alpes). The 
first words of a Latin rendering, " Signat mon — " are also just 


Cette ombre solaire est a la fois 

La mesure du temps, kt l'image de la vie. 

This solar shadoiu is at once the inca- 
sure of time and the symbol of life. 

At Courmayeur. 

122. Charitas 
Ubi charitas ibi claritas unam qu^re 
Alium time alteram spera. 

Where charity is, there is fame ; en- 
sue the one and keep it, hope for the other. 

On the former convent of the 
INIinimes, Vitry le Frangois. 

123. Cheminez tandis que vous avez la 

LUMlfeRE. 1668. 

Walk zuhile yo2i have the light. 

The day is short and the ivork great. 

These two inscriptions, together with No. 1530, and a Greek motto 
now quite illegible, are on a dial on the church wall at Hatford, near 
Faringdon, Berks, just below the bell turret. The Hebrew line (which 
was ill cut and even in 1888 very nearly defaced) was from the 

124. Christus SOLUS Mini salus. Jo. Gierke. Christ alone is my 

Inscribed on the step of the base of a broken pillar at Ingoldswick, 
near Skegness. The pillar forms the gnomon, and the square base the 
dial. The hours are cut at the edge, with the date 1600. M.B. The 
pillar probably once formed the shaft of a cross. 



125. Christus ubi paret protinus umbra fugit. IVheir Christ 
appears, straightway the sJiadozvs fly. 

On an eighteenth century dial on Bourges Cathedral. 

126. CiTO PEDE labitur .-ETAS. I 724. ]\^ith swift foot doth ti))ie glide by . 

On the stone pedestal of a dial in the churchyard of Frant, Kent. 
The metal plate is beautifully engraved with ornamental devices. 

127. CiTO PEDE PR.BTERIT .ETAS 1 679. ]Vith szc'ift foot tiiiic goes by. 

On a dial, the pedestal of which is a "stumped" cross, in Over 
Peover Churchyard, Cheshire ; also at Wigmore Grange, near Ludlow, 
with No. 1604; and on St. Peter's Church, Ermington, Devon. 

The words are prefixed to the parish register at Loweswater, West- 
moreland. They are from the poet Columella : 

' " Vigilate viri, tacito nam tempora gressu 

Diffugiunt, nulloque sono convertitur annus ; 
Utendum est aatate, cito pede prsterit setas. 

128. CiTO PR.ETERiT /ETAS. The age passcs swiftly. 

On a buttress of the east or lesser transept of Lincoln Cathedral. 
Another dial close beside this one bears the motto : Pereunt et 
IMPUTANTUR. The two dials face respectively south and east, and were 
probably put up in the seventeenth century. 

129. CcELESTiA monstrat IN UMBRA. Ill a sliadoiu he explaineth the 

Given in " Apelles Symbolicus " (Kettner, Amsterdam), as on a dial 
in France. 


the heavenly bodies produces the shade. 

Recorded in " Bulletin Monumental," 1881. 


ANNUNTiAT FIRMAMENTUM. The heavens declare the glory of God, and 
the firmament showeth His handy-iuork (Ps. xix. i). 

On the dial at Moccas Court, Herefordshire, with other mottoes. 
See No. 1469. The first four words are on a dial on St. Martin's 
Church, Leicester ; and have been also read at Lindau, Bavaria. 
Enarrant GLORIAM Dei, with " Juin 181 1," is on the Grand Seminaire, 

132. CcELi LUX NOSTRA DUX. Hcavcns light our guide. 

On a horizontal dial made in 1898 by F. Barker, London, for 
E. M. S. Testcombe, Esq. 

133. C(t:lum regula 1779. Heaven {is our) guide. 

At Mont Genevre (Hautes Alpes) ; and at Vallouise (Hautes Alpes), 

g g 


with three other mottoes (Nos. 305, 501, 1591), the date 1840, and the 
initials Z. G. F. and M. D. B. 

These first initials are those of Giovanni Francesco Zarbula (or 
Zerbola), a Piedmontese mason and stone painter, who designed and 
painted a great number of dials in Dauphine, chiefly in the neighbour- 
hood of Briancjon. " His works," says Dr. Blanchard, "are generally 
dated, and signed Z. G. F., G. Z. F.,or Z. J. F. The design of the border 
is often surmounted by fantastic or heraldic ornaments, either birds 
and pots of flowers, or a cock. In Queyras birds prevail, and have 
their ordinary names attached to them. The mottoes are in F"rench 
and Latin indifferently, and are rarely incorrect in spelling. Probably 
Zarbula had a book of designs from which he copied. The birds have 
a certain resemblance to the Byzantine type. 

The initials M. D. B. on the Vallouise dial are probably those of 
the Marquise de Bardonneche to whom the house belonged. Above the 
dial was the monogram IHS. 

134. CoGiTA FiNEM. Think on thy end. 

At Paray le Monial (Saone et Loire). See No. 75. 


I have considered the days of old and the years that are past. Ps. Ixxvii. 5. 

With No. 1587 on an oval portable dial and compass of gilt brass 
bought in Antwerp by Mr. L. Evans. It was probably made about 1600. 

136. Col distinguer del sol veloce il moto, 
l'ore del viver tuo breve dinoto. 

Whilst I record the progress of his rays, 
Thtis do I mark the shortness of thy days. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

137. Come in time. 

On the church of Bradfield St. George, Suffolk. It was also read 
in 1896 at a furniture broker's shop in London, on a dial which had 
been removed from a garden near Sydenham. 

138. Come, light! visit me! 1846. 

At the Knoll, Ambleside. 

The history of this motto, and of the sun-dial which bears it, is 
given by Harriet Martineau in her autobiography, vol. i. and ii., pp. 
80, 265. At the age of seven she visited her grandfather, near New- 
castle, and in his garden there was a large, heavy stone sun-dial. 
" That dial," she says, " was of immeasurable value to me. I could 
see its face only by raising myself on its step, and there, with my eyes 
on a level with the plate, did I watch and ponder, day by day, painfully 
forming my first conceptions of Time, amidst a bright confusion of 
notions of day and night, and of the seasons, and of the weather. I 


loved that dial with a sort of superstition ; and when, nearly forty years 
after, I built a house for myself at Ambleside, my first strong wish was 
to have this very dial for the platform below the terrace, but it was not 
to be had. It had been removed once already, when the railway cut 
through the old garden, but the stone was too heavy and far too much 
fractured for a second removal. A friend in London who knew my 
desire for a sun-dial, and heard that I could not obtain the old one 
which had told me so important a story in my youth, presented me with 
one to stand under my terrace wall, and above the quarry which was 
already beginning to fill with shrubs and wild flowers. The design of 
the dial is beautiful, being a copy of an ancient font, and in gray granite 
to accord with the gray stone house above it. The motto was an im- 
portant affair. A neighbour had one so perfect in its way as to eclipse 
a whole class, 'The night cometh.' In asking my friends for sugges- 
tions, I told them of this, and they agreed that we could not approach 
this motto in the same direction. I preferred a motto of my own to 
all that were offered in English, and Wordsworth gave it his emphatic 
approbation : ' Come, light! visit me !' stands emblazoned on my dial, 
and it has been, I believe, as frequent and impressive a monitor to me 
as ever was any dial which bore warning of the fugacious nature of life 
and time." 


Like the shadoiv which we see hei'e following our steps, so pass our 
days aiid we take no heed. 

At the Chateau, He d'Oleron. 

140. comme un coulant ruissau de sa source argentine, 
Droit au seing de thetis precipite son cours 




D.\NiEL lovFROV. A Besan9on, 1629. 

As when a river /row its silvery source 
Speeds on its headlotig course right to the sea. 
And seeming not to change, doth change unceasingly, 
So runs from birth to death man's changeful course. 
So as we enter life, our exit needs must be. 

On a bronze dial plate now in the possession of Charles T. Gatty. 
The lines are engraved in two concentric circles, outside the numerals, 
the divisions between the lines being marked by asterisks. A similar 
plate, with the same inscription, is in the Museum at Varzy, and was 
the subject of a brochure by M. Grasset, " Sur un cadran solaire en 


141. Con lore anco la vita. As the hours, so our life. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

142. CoNcrro gkadu. W^ilh Iiurricd step. 

On the porcli, and formerly on the tower, of Ruishton Church, 
Somersetshire. Also at South Ella. See No. 932. 

143. CoNCORDL^. 1 71 5. Fratrum. 1 823. The lovc of brothers. 
On two complementary dials at Arvieux (Hautes Alpes). 


Pr.^sens REGE. 
Cerne futurum. 

Correct the past, direct the present, discern the fjititrc. 

Formerly in the Altmarkt at Dresden. The English version was 
placed on a horizontal dial made by F. Barker, London, in 1895. 


Una farA l'italica contrada. 

/ haste to that day ivhen God's almighty hand 
Of Italy luill make one iindivided land. 


Segna l'ora d'un popolo risorto. 

This faithful shaft I hear one day shall trace 
The hour of freedom for our doivntrod race. 

These inscriptions are placed above two dials, which stand side by 
side on the cathedral wall of Chieri, in Piedmont. One of them also 
shows the meridians of the chief cities of the world. The motto is 
patriotic, and a literal translation of it is most difficult. It has puzzled 
not only good Italian scholars, but native Italians also. The above 
verses have been written for the present edition by B. Bentham 
Dickinson, Esq., of Rugby, and though he has used some poetical 
license in rendering such words as spada and risorto, the translation 
follows the idea of the original very closely, and is much better than 
any previous rendering. In the last edition we had only a literal trans- 
lation of the mottoes. The word lanec may be taken as a shortened 
form oi lancctta — gnomon, dart, or small lance; possibly the gnomon in 
this instance was shaped as a weapon. Chieri is a {cw miles from 
Turin, on the left bank of the Po. It is an old town, but has suffered 
too much in the mediaeval wars to retain many vestiges of antiquit)-. 
It has a round church of early Lombard architecture, which is now used 
as a baptistery. In its brighter days it was a free town, sending traders 
over half of Europe. It often changed its protectors : sometimes from 
choice, but more frequently from necessity ; and at last gave its 
allegiance to the Counts of Savoy in 1347. The family of Balbo springs 


from Chieri ; and one branch of this house, the Bertoni, refusing to 
accede to the treaty of 1 347, emigrated to Avignon, where they assumed 
the name of Crillon, and were ancestors oi the " Brave Crillon," f/ionniie 
sans pair, or /e brave dcs braves, as he was called when serving under 
Henry IV. The other branch remained Piedmontese, to the glory and 
benefit of their country. 

146. Cosi LA VITA. Sjich is life. 
Copied from a dial at Albizzola. 

147. Courier, avance, car il est plus tard que tu ne pense i^sic). 
Pascalis. 28 Octobre 1787. Fortvard, traveller, it is later than you 

At La Teche (Isere). 

148. Craignez la DERNifeRE. Fear the last [hour). 

On the church of Notre Dame, Roscoff (Finistere). The place is 
remarkable in history as being the landing-place of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, when she came from Scotland to be married to the Dauphin, 
afterwards Francis II. of France. The weather being very stormy, the 
young queen and her escort were glad to be put ashore at this small 
village, and from thence to go forward to Paris. The church on which 
this melancholy motto is inscribed, has in it the memorials of many 
shipwrecks, as well as of escapes from drowning, several large votive 
ships being suspended from the roof. From both these circumstances 
the imperative warning of the dial gathers solemnity. The shadow of 
the "last hour" stretches back over the whole course of Mary Stuart's 
life, and the fear of it has made sad the hearts of many a fisher family 
on those stormy shores. The motto, with No. 615, is also on a 
dial at St. Girons (Ariege) ; and as Grains la DERNifeRE on the church 
of St. Martin, Moissac (Tarn et Garonne). There is a similar motto 
on the church of St. Jean, Chalons-sur-Marne, Craignez celle qui 
SUIT. Fear that zuhich conies after. 


hours lost zvhich are not accompanied by some worthy deed. 
On the Chateau de St. Fargeau (Yonne). 

150. Crepusculum mens nesciat. Let the mind knoiv no tivilight. 

On a horizontal dial in the cloisters of the Certosa, Val d'Ema, near 
Florence (see Nos. 297, 1005). The Italian hours from xv to xxii 
are shown. 

151. Crescit in horas doctrina 1819. Hour by hour the doctrine 

At the University, Padua. 


152. Croiez ici crestiens passant qu'en ce s'^ lieu il nous fault 
prier le fils de dieu et aussi s'^ venant qu'lls nous veuille de 
MAL DELiVREK. 1620. M.F (m'a fuit) Francois Morcar. Believe here. 
Christian passers h)\ that in this holy place we must pray the Son 0/ God 
and also St. Vena7it that they ici I I vonchsafe to deliver us from evil. 

On a church at Murs, of which St. Venant was the patron saint. 

153. Croiez tous ceci 

Cretiens passant 


L'heure latans {sic). 

Believe vie Christian passers-by 
The hour aioaits ye, yon imist die. 

On an eighteenth century dial at Epire (Maine et Loire). 

154. Cui DOMUS HUic HORA. 1 834. The hoitr is His to IVhotn this 
house belongs. 

On the church La Fontenil sous Brianqon. 

155. Cum ca;LUM aspicio quam mihi sordet humus. When / behold 
the heavens, hoto vile a thing earth seems to me. 

With No. 50 on a painted cyHnder dial of Italian make. 

156. Cum recte vivas, ne cures verba malorum. So thoit livest 
aright, heed not the words of the wicked. 

Copied several years ago at Poirino, Piedmont. 

157. Cum tempus non existet morior. When time shall be no 
more, — / die. 

On a dial in the garden at Cargen, Dumfries. 

158. Cum umbra nihil 

Sine umhra nihil. 

With the shadoiv nothing : witho7it the shadow nothing. 

Copied in 1866 from the Italian custom-house on the Splugen Pass, 
near Campo Dolcino. The motto has also been read at Castasegna, 
in the Val Bregaglia ; and at Bezzeca in the Trentino, where the first 
nihil is written nichil. 

159. Cuncta uubia. Nothing is certain. 
At Meylan (Isere). 

160. Cuncta recit dum pareat uni. All else he govertis, so he One 

At the Chateau d'Anet (Eure et Loire), once the residence of 
Diana of Poitiers, who died there in 1 566. The original building, 
begun in 1548 and finished in 1554, was one of the finest works of the 


French Renaissance. In 1793 it was the property of the Due de Pen- 
thievre, whose death was hastened by the tragic fate of his daughter- 
in-law, the Princesse de Lamballe ; the estate was afterwards seized 
and sold by the National Assembly, and the greater part of the chateau 
destroyed. One wing and the entrance gateway is all that now remains, 
and is preserved as a " monument historique." Before the destruction 
of 1793 there was an elaborate dial, which has been fully described 
by Le Marquant, on the inner side of the gateway, bearing the 
inscription : 


Ut sapere adversis moxeat felicibus uti. 

IV/iv doth Diana viezu the fleeting hours f 

To zoarn ns to be wise when they froion, to employ them ivhen they smile. 

The motto is mentioned in the works of Mellin de St. Gelais, 
edited by M. Prosper Blanchemain. It is probable that the mention 
of Diana also contains an allusion to the dial being calculated for use 
by night as well as by day. 

161. Cur geil da'an sca 

Shen myr ta'n tra. 

Observe the mark of the shadow, 
In that manner is time represented. 

Mr. Jeffcott, of Castletown, Isle of Man, who has kindly translated 
this and the other many mottoes on the same dial, says that some of 
the words are abbreviated ; if fully given the lines would run thus : 

Cur geill dean scaa ! 
Shen myr tayrn traa. 

"Dean" denotes a mark, and "tayrn" means to draw, delineate, or 
represent. There are several mottoes on this dial block, the above 
with QUID celerius umbra } What is sivifter than a shadow f being on 
the east side. See Nos. 761, 788, 1049, 1349, 1536, 1660. The dial 
is now in the possession of Lewis Evans, Esq., and has been erected 
by him in his garden at Barnes Lodge, King's Langley. 

162. Cur tibi spem vit^ i.ongos producis in annos? 
Ut momentum hor/e sic tua vita fugit. 1573. 

Why dost prolong the hope of life for long years to come ? 
As a moment of time doth life flit. 

On a brass dial plate in the Museum of Nuremberg. 

163. Da matematiche linee l'ora vedrai, 

Se densa nube non copre del sole I rai. 1858. 

By mathematical lines thoii shalt see the hour. 
If dense clouds do not cover the rays of the sun. 


On a dial painted on the wall of a house at Caprile, V'enetia, 
bearincr the face of the sun on a blue ground. 

164. Dammi il sole e del giorno l'ora e certa ; 
Solo del uomo e l'ultlma ora incerta. 

Give me the sun, and t!ie hour of the day is certain ; of man alone is 
the last Jiottr uncertain. 

On the church at Arola, a village between Lago d'Orta and Val 

165. Dans ce jardin, tout se rencontre 

ExceptE l'ombrage et les fleurs ; 
Si l'on y d£r£gle ses mceurs 
Du moins on y regle sa montre. 

This garden is a common meeting-place J or all, except for flower and 
shade. If our maimers become irregular, we can at any rate keep our 
watches regiclar. 

Lines by Jacques Delille on, or for, the sun-dial in the Palais Royal 
Garden, Paris. 

166. Datam do. 

Nego neg.\tam. 

I give what hath been given, I deny what hath been denied. 

At a village near Fenestrelles. 

167. Day gives place to night ; life soon ends in death ; and 


This dial belongs to And. Cowan. 
T. W. fecit. 1825. 

In the grounds of Amisfield, near Lochmaben, Dumfriesshire. 

168. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night 
showeth knowledge. 1856. 

Psalm xix. 2. The dial was made by the late Henry Grange, Esq., 
of Grange, Barrowstonness, Linlithgowshire. 

169. Days and ages are but as a shadow of the eternal ; but 
their use, o man, determines thy future weal or woe. 


For the days shall come, etc. 

These mottoes, with No. 1008, were formerly on the keep of Carlisle 
Castle, just above the magazine, but are now obliterated. When last 
e.xamined, in 1882, the dial was a wreck, and the last remains of it have 
now probably disappeared. 



170. De l'univkrs JE RtGLELEs DESTiNs. 1838. 1 Vide the desHtiies of 
the universe. 

At Castelnaudary (Aude); and in a slightly varied form at Cordes 


alike the course of life and the progress of the sun. 
At Rabastens d'Albigeois (Tarn). 

/ measure 

172. Deatiie judgment heaven hell 

Upon this moment depens eternitie. 
O eternitie o eternitie o eternitie. 


on what is called " Sir 

C-- :Eg'SKNi'rie;^.i;^- 

The foreeoinof is inscribed in several lines 
Francis Howard's Dial," at Corby Castle, which 
stands on the lawn, before the house. The 
dial is horizontal ; the stone pedestal consists 
of a twisted column with four shields at the 
top, on one of which the above words are 
carved ; another shows the emblems of the 
Passion in relief, namely : St. Peter's cock, the 
scourge, the crown of thorns, the cross, and the 
five wounds (the hands, feet and heart being re- 
presented) ; the seamless coat, and below it, the 
dice, the manacles in the form of I H S., and the 
hammer and nails. On another shield are the 
family initials, and on the fourth the arms of 
Howard impaling Widdrington. Sir Francis 
Howard, who set up this dial, was the second 
son of Lord William Howard (a son of Thomas, 
fourth Duke of Norfolk), who was the " Belted 
Will Howard " of Sir Walter Scott's " Lay of 
the Last Minstrel :" 

" Belted \\'ill Howard is marching here, 
And hot Lord Dacre with many a spear." 

Sir Francis Howard was born August 29th, i 588, and died in May, 1 680. 
He first married Margaret, daughter of John Preston, Esq., of the 
manor of F'urness ; and secondly, Mary, daughter of Sir Henry W^id- 
drington of Widdrington Castle, Northumberland. 

Round the base of the dial-column the following inscription has been 
cut. " Re-mounted by Henry Howard of Corby Castle, a.d. mdcccxlii." 

173. Debemur morti nos nostraque. We and ours arc a debt oivcd to 

From Horace, " Ars Poetica," v. 63. On a house at Ivry. 



174. Defecerunt sicut fumus dies nostri. Otir days arc consulted 
like smoke (Ps. cii. 3). 

Recorded in " Bulletin Monumental." 1883. 

175. Deficit sol, nemo respicit. 15 Maggio, 1839. A^one hims to 
look ivhen clouds the sun conceal. 

Seen in i860 on the wall of the Italian Custom House at Fornasette, 
between Lugano and Luino, together with No. 224. 

176. Del cerchio il plvno abbraccla. un punto solo 
Del tempo imago all uom, che fugge a volo. 

We cannot give a satisfactory translation of this motto, although the 
literal meaning of each word is quite simple. Possibly there was some 
emblem attached to the dial of which we have not been told, and which 
would explain the text. It is on the church at Tesero, Val Fiemme, 

177. Della vita il cammin l'astro maggiore 
Segna veloce al giusto e al peccatore. 

The glorioles orb of day with breathless speed 
To good and bad alike the zvay of life doth read. 

Copied in 1867, with No. 331, from the wall of the former convent 
della Quiete, afterwards a girls' school, near Florence. 

178. Dell' orbe in linee miro 

Il diurno e l'annuo giro. 

O, Sun, in sable hues I trace 
Thy daily and thy yearly race. 

On a church at Varazze, Riviera di Levante. 

179. Deo soli gloria. To God alone be glory. 
On a church at Sierre, in the Canton du Valais. 

180. Depuis le soleil 

JusQu'A l'ombre. 

Voi 18 1 5 ron. 

From sunshine to shadozv. 

This dial is engraved on a slab of green marble let into the wall 
above the door of the Maison Voiron, in the village of Le Rosier, Val des 
Pres (Hautes Alpes). Near it is a stone with the letters vv. 11. m. 1809. 
The united Vs stand for Viva Viva. The custom of introducing these 
letters into inscriptions came from Italy, and was much practised about 
the time of the Revolution. Inscriptions such as vv La nation, vv La 
loi, etc., were often to be seen. 

i8i. Der mensch lebt so daiiin und nimt es nicht in acht, 
Das jede stund sein leben kurzer ^L\c^T. 


Man heedless lives, iior takes to thought. 
Each hour lifes end hath nearer brought. 

Copied in 1873 from a dial painted on the wall of a small village inn 
(the sign of the " Dancing Bear") at Graf, near Landeck, Tyrol. On 
each side of the dial are rough frescoes, one of St. Florian, with the 
inscription : 

Heilige florian beschutze dieses haus, 

Und losch die feuers flame aus. 

St. Florian, guard this house about. 
And put the flames of fire out. 

And the other of the Blessed Virgin : 


Steh in diesem haus zugen. 

Mother, with thy blessing bide 
In this house at every tide. 

182. Der spoter sol nights verachten 
Den er kans besser machen. 

Hans Dvcher, N.R.B.G. (Nuremberg). 

The scorncr should not despise anything iinless he can do it better himself. 

This motto is one which was frequently inscribed on his works by 
Hans Ducher or Tucher. He was a dial-maker at Nuremberg in the 
sixteenth century ; and many of the ivory compass dials met with in 
museums are marked with his name. The motto is on two specimens 
in the British Museum : a small silvered clock with sun-dials on the 
sides ; and also on a cube-shaped dial. It is on a portable dial in the 
possession of Mr. Lewis Evans with No. 1651 and date 1578; and on 
an ivory cube mounted in brass in the museum at Nuremberg, with 
No. 1650. Mr. Evans' dial also bears a version of No. 1650, referring 
to the compass. 

183. Der tod ist gwiss, ungwiss der tag, 
Vielleicht dass deine stunde sein mag ; 
Darum thu' recht, und duenkt dabei, 
Dass jede stunde letzte sei. 

Death certain is, its day icnknowti, 
This very hour may be its oivn ; 
Therefore do right, and hold this fast. 
That every hour may be thy last. 

The sense of the second line is doubtful ; but the probable meaning 
is expressed above. The dial was on Herr Weber's house at Schwyz, 
in 1865, when a sketch of it was taken. The painting represented the 
Blessed Virgin with the Child in her lap, her head encircled with stars. 
The gnomon and numerals were below these figures ; some of the 
words of the inscription were ill-spelt and imperfect. 


184. Detego tegendo. By covering I discover. 

Copied in i860 from a house in the Rue cl'Antibes, Cannes. 

185. Deus adest laborantibus. God stands by those toJio labour. 

At Hermit Hill, Wortley, near Sheffield ; also on the parish church 
at Leighton Buzzard. See Nos. loi, 249, 1582. 

186. Deus est lumen luminis. God is the light of light. 

On the engraved table of " Horologiographia Optica," by Sylvanus 
Morgan, published 1652. 

187. Deus habet horas et moras. God has times and delays. 

This beautiful motto has been said to have been seen on a dial, and 
has been attributed to one in fiction, but where it exists in fact we know 

188. Deus mihi lux. God is lioht to me. 

At Marrington Hall, Shropshire. See No. 1394. 

This was probably the motto originally on the old hall at Gains- 
borough, quoted in the history of Gainsborough, of which only " Deus 
mi — " with No. 1536 and "W. H. 1600," was legible. The dial is still 
visible on the plaster of the south wing, but is quite a wreck. \\'. H. 
probably stands for William Hickman, knighted by James I., whose 
family is now represented by Sir Hickman Bacon, Bart. 

189. Deus movet, umbra docet. God movcth {the shadoio), the shadow 
telleth it. 

With No. 345 on a slate dial of French make, dated 1631. 

190. Devs movet, vmbra docet. Cernls qva vivis, qva moriere 

Confectum tertio calendas ivnii An. Dhi (date lost). 

God moves [the shadoiv), the shadoiv teaches. 

Thon seest {the hour) in which tho7i livest, that wherein than shalt die is 

On a slate dial, now in the museum at Vannes (Brittan)). 

It bears the signs of the Zodiac over the face, and a crown with 
two blank shields. At the corners are four figures, two of which hold 
swords. It was the gift of M. Guyot-Jomard. 

191. Deus potens et . . . solem suum 


Poivcrful is God . . . and He makcth His sun to rise iipon the evil and 
the good. 

From St. Matthew, v. 45 ; on \\\v. church at Landr)-, Savoy. 


192. Dl FERRO f: LO STILO ; d'oRO fe IL TEMPO. 

Al par dell' OMBRA passa e pilj non torna. 

The style is of iron ; time is golden, 

It passes by like a shadoiv, and returns not again. 

On a house at Ceppmorelli. The first Hne is also at Pie Cavallo, 
Val d'Oropa, near Biella; and, sHghtly varied, at Cambiano, Piedmont. 

193. Didst thou not see the lord, how he extended thy shadow. 

Is the translation of a verse of the Koran, which is inscribed on a 
dial erected by the astronomer Ali Kushaji, near the mosque of 
Muhammed II., by the gate of the Dyers at Constantinople. 

194. Die augen des herrn sind heller 
Als die sonnenstrahlen. 

The eyes of the Lord are brighter than sunbeams. 

On the wall of a church at Hallstadt. 

195. Die dies truditur. One day presses hard iipon another. 

John Hull. 1704. 

Engraved on the dial plate, which is set upon a pedestal of red 
sandstone in Bispham Churchyard. In Colonel Fish wick's " History of 
Bispham " it is stated that the pedestal is probably the base of an 
ancient stone cross. The initials " R.B." are carved upon one side of 
the pedestal, and on the other the letters "J. H." appear, which 
evidently are the initials of John Hull, the probable donor of the dial. 
He is buried in the churchyard, and the inscription on his gravestone 
runs in this quaint fashion : 

Here lye 

the B 

ody of Jo 

hn Hull 

the son of Mathe 

w Hull of 

Lyttle Bisph 


196. 16 19 

Die jetzyge stund und das zytliche gluck 
Schlicht hin in einem augenblick. 1762. 

The present hour and this world's cheer 
Are in a moment gone from here. 

On an Inn, " zu den drei Eidgenossen " in the " Ober Balliz " at 
Thun, Switzerland. The dial is large, and painted on the wall, the 
hours are marked by Roman numerals. 


197. Die SONNE scheinet uberall. The situ shines evayivhere. 
In a Qfarden on the banks of the Lake of Lug-ano. 

198. Die zeit die stund wie aucii der tag lauft schnei.l dahin 
Drum o mescii wer du bist bedenke deine sund 


The time the hour and eke the day, swiftly pass azuay : 
Therefore O man, zuhoe'er thou art consider thou thy sins, 
Like the floiuers fades away oiir sinfil life. 

On a perpetual calendar of brass, in Mr. L. Evans's collection. 

199. Diem dimetior umbra. I measure out the day by my shadow. 
On Maison Renil, Albi (Tarn). 

200. DiE.s affert multa. The day brings ivith it many things. 

This inscription was cut on a dial, the work of an ingenious and 
well educated man for his time, named Daniel Rose, who placed it over 
the doorway of his cottage house called " Shutts," near Ashopton in 
Derbyshire. He was the clerk of Derwent Chapel, and was also a 
schoolmaster and dial maker. It is said that he carved the dials in a 
soft slate stone during school-time with a penknife : the dials both in 
Derwent Churchyard (No. 749) and at the Hall (Nos. 24, 1536) are 
specimens of his skill. 

201. Dies diem docet : disce. One day tclleth another, learn. 

A block of stone with four dial faces placed over the porch of the 
old church at Barmston near Bridlington, Yorkshire, was thus inscribed. 
The letters, when sketched some thirty years ago, were much defaced. 
The motto was probably suggested by Ps. .\ix. 2. " One day telleth 
another," or, as in the Bible version, " Day unto day uttereth speech." 

202. Dies dimetior umbris. / measure out the days by the shadows. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." It is also on a dial at Tarascon, 

but is imperfectly spelt. 

203. Dies ejus sicut umbra pr^tereunt. 1863. His time passeth 
away like a shadoiv. — Ps. cxliv. 4. 

On a church by the Grand Canal, Venice : on the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, Paris (formerly the Cloister of the Convent of the " Petits 

" La perte de la vie est imperceptible, c'est raiguille du cadran que nous ne voyons 
pas aller." — Mme. de Sevignc. 

204. Dies fugit sicut umbra. The day flceth like a shadow. 

At Cluny (.Saone et Loire) ; and as Dies sicut umbra fugit 
at Niozelle. 


205. Dies hominis quasi umbra super terram. The days of man 
upon earth are as a shadow. 

Maison St. Pierre, Bretmoux (Lot). 

206. Dies hominis sic pr.^tereunt. 1643. The days of man thus 
pass aiuay. 

On the Church of Rieux, near Vannes The dial is of slate, with 
the arms of the Comtes de Rieux engraved upon it. 

207. Dies hominis sicut umbra pr^etereunt. 1590. The days of 
man pass away like a shadow. 

On the church of St. Etienne at Epineuil (Yonne) ; and on an ivory 
portarium in the British Museum, marked " Hans Troschel Nuremberg 
faciebat MDCXXIII"; also on a similar one in the Musee Cluny, 
Paris, by the same maker, dated 1627. 

208. Dies mei sicut umbra declin.werunt. My days are gone like 
a shadozo (Ps. cii. 11). 

Copied in 1866 from a dial traced on the marble wall of the Capella 
Emiliana, at San Michele in Isola, near Venice. The chapel was built 
by Bergamasco in 1530, and has been stigmatized by Mr. Ruskin as 
"a beehive set on alow hexagonal tower, with dashes of stonework 
about its windows, like the flourishes of an idle penman." The motto 
has a special fitness, as the building stands near the shore where the 
Venetians land their dead for interment in this " quiet sleeping ground 
in the midst of the sea." 

The same verse is on the Roman Catholic Church at Langen 
Schwalbach ; at the hamlet of Arcisses, St. Chef (I sere), with date 
1787; and at Charavines (Isere). The first four words are on the 
Ursuline Convent at Nant (Aveyron). 

209. Dies nostri quasi umbra super terram et nulla est mora. 
Our days on the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding 
(i Chron. xxix. 15). 

In the cloister of the Capuchin Convent at Amalfi, afterwards used 
as an hotel, and in 1899 destroyed by a landslip. 

The first four words with "]. R., 1685," are at Haresfield Court, 
Gloucestershire. In the centre of the motto there is a complicated 
cipher giving the name of Mr. John Rogers, and the gnomon springs 
from a shield which bears his arms. He was the owner of the Court, 
and put up a dial on the church, and a clock, in 1692. The motto may 
also be read at Riva, Lago di Garda ; and at Padua. 

210. Dies nostri sicut umbra. Our days are as a shadow. 
At Fiesole ; at Duccio ; and at Grasse. 


211. Dies serenus, 

Serenus sit animus. 

Sunny be the day. 
Sunny iky spirit. 

On a west declinincr dial at Lawford Hall, near Manriinortree. The 
motto is in the form of a scroll, painted on stucco ; above it is the 
date 1583, and below 1867. Edward Waldegrave was living at Lawford 
Hall in 1583, and no doubt he erected the dial. The property remained 
in the possession of his family until 1621, when it passed into other 
hands. In 1867 the house was bought by Francis Nichols, Esq., and 
he had the dial restored exactly in its original form. 


dieu dit qu'll ait dans le ciel des astres qui 
Marquent les ann£es, les saisons, les mois, 

LeS fetes ET DES JOURS DE l'aNN£E. 


God saith that He hath in the heavens, stai's which mark the years, the 
seasons, the montlis, the holy days, and days of the year. 

The sun and moon do that which has deen commanded them, but we 
transgress the lato of the Lord. 

The above inscriptions are on two dials on a school belonging to 
the Freres Chretiens at Iss)', near Paris. A Latin version of the 
second is at Notre Dame, St. Affrique (Aveyron). See No. 1232. 

213. DiEU PROTGE {sic) LA FRANCE. God protcct France. 
At Charnecles (Isere). 


cet astre etincelant 
(Rend le) matin plus doux par sa clarte premiere 


Soli Deo Gloria 1835. 

God Who guides the glittering sun in its long course, makes morning 
sweeter by its first radiance, and liken'ise makes the burning tioontide. 

At La Croiza (Hautes Alpes). 

215. DiEU soiT BENi . 1873. Blessed be God. 
At Brunissard (Hautes Alpes) ; and St. Clair (Isere). 

216. Digitus dei ducet me. 1859. The finger 0/ God will lead me. 
With No. 1065, on the church, Villeneuve sur Vere (Tarn). 



217. DiLiGE DOMiNUM DEUM TOTO coRDE. Love the Lord thy God ivith 
all thy heart (Deut. vi. 5). 

At Moccas Court. See No. 1469. 

218. DiLiGENTiBUS PATRiAM FAUSTA. Happy this hour to them that 
love their country. 

At Eyguieres (Bouches du Rhone). 


your office. 

On the hospital at Milan. 

220. DiscE BENE vivERE ET MORI. Leant to Hve and die well. 

" Erected by the Corporation of Conway. Robert Wynne J' Esq. 
Alderman ; Hugh Williams & John Nuttall Bailiffs. 1761." 
On a pedestal dial in Conway churchyard. 

221. DiscE DIES NUMERARE TUOS. Learn to number thy days. 

On an old school-house at Wortley, near Sheffield ; at Dirtcar 
House, Wakefield, with No. 1172 ; and also on 
a large vertical stone dial in the kitchen garden 
at Barnes Hall, near Sheffield. The date upon 
this dial is 173S, and without doubt it was the 
handiwork of a very remarkable man, Samuel 
Walker, of Masbrough. He was of humble 
origin, born in the parish of Ecclesfield, and 
began life as a parish schoolmaster and a dial- 
maker. When fixing this identical dial at Barnes 
Hall, then occupied by Sir William Horton, that 
gentleman remarked to a friend, " Sam Walker 
will one day ride in his carriage." The words 
were prophetic, for in a few years Walker had 
laid the foundation of the largest ironworks in 
the country at Masbrough, near Rotherham, and 
his descendants have since occupied and still 
maintain a good position as country gentlefolk. See No. 248. 

The first three words of this motto, with the date 1 744, are on the 
wall of Arundel Church, Sussex. 

222. DiscE MORI MUNDO. Learn to die to the zuorld. 
Seen on Batley church porch, Yorkshire, in 1879. 

223. DisciTE JUSTITIAM, MONiTi. Learn justicc, being zvamcd. 

This motto, from Virgil, yEn. vi. 620, is on a dial in the Middle 

Professor Beckmann, in his " History of Inventions and Dis- 
coveries," says : " On the side of New Palace Yard, which is opposite 

I I 



to Westminster Hall, and in the second pediment of the new buildings 
from the Thames, a dial is inserted with this remarkable motto upon 
it : Discitc justitiam moniti, which seems most clearly to relate to the 
fine imposed on Radulphus de Hengham being applied to the paying 
for a clock." The professor proceeds to state that the dial was fixed 
exactly where Strype describes the clock-house to have stood. 

Blackstone tells the well-known story, how Chief Justice Ralph 
Hengham — "a very learned judge to whom we are obliged for two 
excellent treatises of practice " — out of mere compassion for a very 
poor man, altered a fine of \2,s. i\d. to 6jr. Srt'., and was consequently 
fined 800 marks by King Edward I., which were expended in building 
a clock-house to regulate the sittings of the Courts. This sovereign, 
who has been styled the Justinian of England, did so much to reform 
the Courts, that Sir Matthew Hale says, "that more was done in the 
first thirteen years of his reign to settle and establish the distributive 
justice of the kingdom, than in all the ages since that time put 
together." We may consider that the present clock tower at West- 
minster, from which " Big Ben " gives forth his loud utterances, is a 
more than sufficient substitute for that with which Judge Hengham's 
name is associated. 

224. DiSEGNA I.E ORE SENZA FAR ROMORE. A silcilt si^^ll dciioics tllC 


Seen on the Italian Custom House at Fornasette, in 1866, with 
No. 175. Adopted in 1899 for a dial erected by George W. Side- 
botham, Esq., M.D., at Broughton Astley Hall, Leicestershire. He 
has designed and calculated the dial, and inclined the plate so as to 
allow the gnomon, which is at right angles to it, to correspond with the 
latitude. The dial faces north, and xii (noon) is at the lowest point. 
In the outer circle, opposite the names indicating degrees of longitude, 
appear the names of a number of places, most of which were visited by 
Dr. and Mrs. Sidebotham during a recent tour round the world. The 
chief interest of the dial is this, that if at any given time they wish to 
know what o'clock it is at some other place named in the circle, all that 
need be done is to rotate the dial until the named place reaches the 
zero mark, when the shadow gives the required hour. 

225. DiviDiT UMBRA DIEM. The shcidoiu divides the day. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

226. Do, SI SOL. I give {/he hour) if ihe sjiii {does). 
On the fagade of the Chateau d'Agnelas (Isere). 

227. Do TO-nAV's WORK TO-DAY. 1 875. 

Placed on a dial at Golder's Hill, Hampstead, by the late Sir 
Spencer Wells, Bart. In connection with this motto we may recall a 
saying of the Duke of Wellington recorded by Earl Stanhope : " We 


talked," he writes, " of Gurwood's publication (the ' Wellington Dis- 
patches ') and I expressed my astonishment that the Duke should have 
been able to write so many letters in the midst of active operations." 
He said : " My rule has always been to do the business of the day in 
the day." ' 

228. Dock, disce, aut discede. 

Teach or learn 
Or out yoti turn. 

On the school porch at Shepey Magna, Leicestershire. Comp. No. 

229. DocET UMBRA. 1 700. Tkc shadoio teaches. 

A large vertical dial of stone on the Dutch Church in Austin Friars, 
London, bears this motto. This Church, foimded for the Friars Ere- 
mites of St. Augustine, was after the Dissolution 
granted by Edward VI. to the fugitives from 
the Netherlands, a.d. 1550. For a few months 
the church was used both by the French and 
Dutch congregations, but the number of refugees 
increased so greatly that another building was 
given for the use of the French. Both churches 
were closed during the reign of Mary, but re- 
opened when Elizabeth came to the throne, and 
Austin Friars has remained in the possession of the Dutch ever since. 
The motto has a singular appropriateness, but the church is now so 
surrounded by high offices that neither the building nor the dial can 
be seen to advantage, and the motto is scarcely legible. 


COR AIT'LICATUM AD SAPIENTIAM. Lcrd, tcach US to nuiubcr onr days 
rightly, and to apply our hearts unto wisdom.- — Psalm xc. 14. 

This text appears with two other mottoes, Nos. 247, 394, on a 
beautiful engraving of a portable cross-dial in Johann Gaupp's " Tabulae 
Gnomonicse," 170S. 

231. DoMiNE, USQUE AD VESPERAM MANES. Lord, thoti rcmaiucst until 

Formerly on a country-house at Ivry. 

232. DoMiNUS iLLUMiNATio MEA. The Lord is viy light . — Ps. xxvi. i. 

The motto of the University of Oxford. It has been inscribed with 
No. 1200, by George Yarding, Esq., on a double semi-cylindrical dial 
which is on a pedestal in his garden at Fellside, Snaresbrook. The 
dial was brought away in 1828 from an old house, and was probably 

' " Conversations with the Duke of Wellington," Murray, 1889. 


constructed by a scientific man who had Hved there. See Illustration, 
p. 105. The above text was formerly on a dial in the garden of the 
Petits Peres, Place des Victoires, Paris. 

233. Dona pr.esentis cape l.etus iior.I'. Gladly accept the gifts of 
the prese7it hour. 

From Horace, Odes, Bk. iii. 8, 27. This was formerly with No. 1 16 
on the convent of the Grands Augustins at Paris, and is still on the 
Franciscan convent at Cimiez, Nice, with others; see Nos. 598, 11 11, 
1463, 1475, 1618; also at Gieres (Isere) ; and at the Hameau de 
Chatelard a Reaumont (Isere); and in the garden of the Hospital of 
St. Jacques at Besan9on (see No. 75). 

234. DoNEC DIES. Until the day. 

On a dial erected by the late Rev. Samuel J. Bowles in his rectory 
garden at Beaconsfield, Bucks. The motto was possibly abbreviated 
from Canticles, ii. 17: Donee aspiret dies et inclinctii}- iimbrcc. 

235. douze heures mesurent le jour, 
Quelle finira ton sejour ? 

Tivelve hours make the day, 
A Which will end yottr stay ? 

On a dial in the Musee Lorrain, Bar-le-Duc. See No. 1006. 

236. Dubia cunctis ultima multis 


extremamque tibi semper adesse putes. 

No man knoweth zoJiat this hour may bring, to many a man it is his 
last ; Traveller, if thou be zuise be zoatchful at all hoicrs, and ever think 
thy last at hand. 

On a dial which is now in the Musee lapidaire at Beaune. There 
is a further inscription, see No. 1007, and the date 1786. 

237. Dubia multis certa omnibus. Doubtful to many, certain to all. 

At the Lycee, formerly a Jesuit college, at Cahors ; also at Aups 

238. Dubia omnibus ultima multis. Doubtful to all, the last to many. 

Copied in 1861, at Grasse ; and in 1869 from the church at Cambo 
(Basses Pyrenees). 

239. Dum fugit umbra, quiesco. While the shadoiu flees, I am at rest. 

Inscribed by M. de Fieubet, counsellor of state to Louis XIV., on 
a dial on his country house. See No. 975. The motto was formerly 
with No. 233 on the convent of the Grands Augustins, Paris ; and is 
found at Lc Poet, Vallouisc (H antes Alpes). 


240. DuM LICET UTERE. While time is giveu, use it . 

Is on a dial in the courtyard of the old Castle at Stazzano, near 
Serravalle Scrivia, in the province of Alessandria, North Italy. The 
castle is now a priests' school. The expression is used by Seneca : 

" Quis sapiens bono 
Confidat fragili ? dum licet utere : 
Tempus te taciturn subruet, horaque 
Semper praeterita deterior subit." 

Seneca, Hippul. tj^. 


JV/iile time is granted, and even noiv ye set forth 

Years that arc real, Learn ye, years pass by like running water. 

At Kenmure Castle. See No. 49. 

242. Dum loquimur fugerit invida .etas, 
Carpe diem quam minime credula postero. 

]Vhile we speak the envious time will have fled, 

Seize the present day, and put but little faith in the next. 

Over the door of Dingley Rectory, Northants. The dial is dated 
1703; it records the hours from II to VII only. There is a second 
dial-face placed at right-angles on the side of the house, and this gives 
the morning hours, but it has no motto. 

243. Dum lucem habetis, credite in lucem. While ye have light, 
believe in the light. — St. John, xii. 36. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

244. Dum nos moramur, menses annosque diesque 

Obrepit tacito mors inopina gradu, 


While lue pursue our folly, death unawares zvith silent step creeps on, 
devouring days and months and years : death, which ivill bring us either 
eternal day or the depths of night : oft should ive think -upon that day. 

On an engraving of a sun-dial in Ritter's " Speculum Solis," 1652. 

245. Dum petis, illa fugit, 
Quid aspicis, fugit. 

While thou seekest to knoza the hour, it has flown ; 
What beholdest thoti ? — it is gone. 

On a house in the Rue de Lille, Paris. 

246. DuM proficit d(efici)t. While {time) gains, it loses. 

Seen in 1861 in the cloisters of the Cathedral at Chambery. The 



reader may amuse himself by supplying the illegible word to his own 
taste. A friend suggests deficit, which seems most probable. See 
No. 847. 


while the stin shines not. 

Thou vnist be patient 

This, with Nos. 230, 394, is on the engraving of a portable cross- 
dial in Johann Gaupp's "Tabulae Gnomonicae," 1708. 


Sic vita. 

Whilst thou lookest I fly ; so doth life. 

In a three-sided bay-window over a shop in the High Street, Marl- 
borough, is a handsomely illumi- 
nated glass dial of oval shape, 
which nearly occupies four of the 
twelve panes that compose the 
projecting centre of the window, 
and which is inscribed with this 
motto. A golden scroll on a red 
ground surrounds the dial face, 
in the centre of which is a fly, so 
beautifully depicted that you can 
hardly believe it is not a real in- 
sect incorporated in the glass as 
in amber, for it is not perceptible 
to the touch. There was no 
gnomon when the sketch was 
taken {circa 1863), for singularly 
enough it had been destroyed by 
lightning. At Winchester Col- 
lege there is also the fly in a 
similar glass dial ; and likewise at 
Lacock Abbey, North Wilts. In 
many of the plates of dials have a 

Leadbetter's " Mechanick Uiallini 

fly figured ; it is supposed that the introduction of the fly is meant for 
a punning suggestion of the thought, " May (the hours) fly." 

The dial at Marlborough attracted the attention of Messrs Britton 
and Brayley, and is mentioned by them in the " Beauties of England," 
vol. i. (1801), as are two similar window-dials in the Rectory, North-hill, 
Bedfordshire. These had also been noticed by Mr. Arthur Young, in 
his " Six Weeks Tour," and he gave particular praise to the painting of 
the fly. The dials were of green glass; on one the fly was represented 
with two cherries before it, and the wings painted on one side of the 
glass while the body and legs were on the other side, so as to deceive 


the spectator. The dials bore the mottoes Dinn spcctas fttgio, and Sic 
transit gloria mundi, and on one of them, " John OHver, fecit 1664." 
As the rectory at North-hill had lately been rebuilt, and the paintings 
were described by Mr. Britton as lying useless, it is probable that they 
no longer exist. 

Duui spectas ftigio is on a window-dial described in the " Strand 
Magazine," in 1892, as being in Mr. E. P. Johnson's office, Derby. A 
bird and a fly are in the centre. It was made in 1888 by Frederick 
Drake, Glazier, Exeter, and copied from one taken out of an old Devon- 
shire manor house. The same motto, with the date 1739, was on one 
of four vertical dials which surmounted a short column standing on a 
step in the garden of " The Holmes," Rotherham. On the step is 
inscribed the name of the maker, Sam". Walker, fecit. See No. 221. 

Diiin spcctas fugio may be read on a dial which adorns an old gabled 
entrance to one of the canons' houses at Exeter. It is supported by a 
small stone figure, and is placed between two mullioned windows, 
above which is a medallion of Queen Elizabeth. Over the arched door- 
way is a coat of arms, and the words " Vincit Veritas." The motto is 
inscribed on a dial in the churchyard of Cranbrook, Kent, with "John 
Hague and Ellis Troughton, 1855 ; on the farmhouse of Greenbury in 
the parish of Scorton, Yorkshire, with "J. Fawcitt " 1751, the "i" in 
fiigio being omitted b}' mistake. It was formerly on the market house 
at King's Lynn, with Nos. 745, 1 109, 1167; and is still, we hope, at 
Ripley, in Surrey (see No. 1002); and Thorp Perrow, with No. 1396. 
At Kirkby in Cleveland, a dial dated 1S15 once bore it, but in 1887 
the motto was found to be almost obliterated, 

Ditm spectas fugio has also been read on Ingleton Church, Yorkshire ; 
and on the old tower of Willesden Church, with the date 1736. 

249. DuM SPECTAS FUGiT. Uliilst t/iou art looking {the hour) is flying. 

Formerly on Felkirk Church, Yorkshire, dated 1769, but in 1884 the 
dial had fallen to the ground in a gale. The motto is on the parish 
church, Leighton Buzzard (see No. loi); and on St. Patrick's Church, 
Isle of Man (see No. 864). It is also on Heighington Church, co. 
Durham, with the additional word hora ; and on a house at VValsing- 
ham ending with carpc dicni. 

250. DuM TEMPUS HABEMUS OPEREMUR BONUM. While zve have time 
let ns do good. — Gal. vi. 10. 

On the Convent of the Annunziata, Florence ; and with No. 1450 in 
the courtyard of the Eveche, Blois. Also on the south dial of the pillar 
at Tytherton Kellaways, Wilts (see No. 16 19), with the following para- 
phrase, composed by the Rev. W. L. Bowles : 

Life steals away ; O man, this hour is lent thee, 
Patiently work the work of Him who sent thee. 



shadoiv fices, man passes, and God is. 
On the church of La Fert6 Bernard. 


In sadness let them long endnre, in gladness let them fly. 
On a country house at Bas Vacon. 


All that time is lost zvhich is not spe7tt in loving God. 
Maison de Segrais, near Rives (Isere). 

254. EccE ERAT VAEDE BONUM. Behold, it was very good. 

On the engraved title-page of " Horologiographia Optica," by 
Sylvanus Morgan, 1652. 

255. EcCE MENSURAI5ILES POSUISTI DIES MEGS. 180I. Bchold, thoil hast 

made my days as it were a span long.- — Psahn xxxix. 6. 
On a chapel at Montagny, Savoy. 


MisuRANO CON l'ombra I GioRNo Tuoi. — Anon. 

Jf^ell, mortal, may st thoji call thyself a thing of nought. 
While lordly Death, and Time that eatcth all. 
Measure thy span by fleeting shadozvs zvronght. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche " as a suitable motto for a dial on 
which is painted, " il Tempo e la Morte con lo stilo in mano rapprcsent- 
ante uno scetro." 

257. Ecco da DEr.OL FiL SEGNATO IL TEMPO. See cuhat slender thread 
has -marked the hour. 

Casa Cecco, Via Pio Corsi, at Nizza, Monferrato. 

258. Edwardus fovet ut sol. Edward, beneflcent as the sun. 

Quoted by Charles Leadbetter in his " Mechanick Dialling," 1756, 
as on Christ's Hospital, and referring to Edward VL, the founder of 
the school. 

259. Ego certas, lilia eaustas. / make the hours sure, the lilies 
make them fortimate. 

At Camurat (Aude), on a dial bearing the arms of France. 

260. Ego redibo, tu nunquam. I shall return, thou never. 
On the church of .St. John the Baptist, Erith. 



261. Ehelt, fugaces. Alas, hoiv Jlceting. 

A quotation from Horace, Carm. II. xiv. i : 

" Eheu, fugaces, Postume, Postume, labuiitur amii.'' 
At Sedbury Hall, near Richmond, Yorkshire, there is a horizontal dial 
with stone pedestal attached to the sill of the drawing-room window, 
with this touching motto engraved upon it. The same words are found 
on the plate of a dial in the rectory garden, Copgrove, Yorkshire, with 
" Goodall, Tadcaster, fecit 1846." 

Also (as Dr. Doran tells us in his " Life of the Rev. Dr. Young "), 
the author of the " Night Thoughts" set up a dial in the rectory garden 
at Welwyn, Hertfordshire, with the motto, " Eheu, fugaces," and a few 
nights afterwards thieves entered the garden, and proved the wisdom of 
the poet's choice of a motto by carrying the dial away. 

On the walls of the entrance tower of Farnham Castle, the palace of 
the bishops of Winchester, there are two dials which formerly bore the 
inscription, " Eheu, fugaces labuntur anni. ' Other mottoes, more 
appropriate to an episcopal residence, have been substituted, as will be 
shown hereafter (see No. 987). 

The word " lUieu " could be traced in 1890 on a dial on Elwick 
Church, CO. Durham; probably "fugaces" had once completed the 


we speak, irretrievable time Jlies. 

In the cloisters of the Capuchin convent at Velletri. 

263. Eheu ! quam festinat dies. 
1789. A las I how the day flies 

At Les Avenieres (Isere). 

264. Elapsas signat iiokas. // 
marks the passing of the hours. 

On an eighteenth century 
dial at Chambery, on the Arche- 

265. ELeCta Vt soL heat ok- 
beM spLenDore. Bright as the 
Sun, she blesseth the earth with 




Give the day of thy life to do Marys behest. 
So loill thy last hour in death be the best. 
These mottoes were read at Rosenheim, between 1860-70, one 

K K 


above and one below a fresco of the Blessed Virgin, who is represented 
as the crowned Queen of Heaven, against a background of rays, 
and with clouds beneath her feet. A scroll above bears the Latin line, 
in which there is a chronogram giving the date MDCLLLV= 1755. 
The hour numerals and the German lines are on a curling double 
scroll below. 


L'an iv. Days pass quickly for those ivho are happy. 

At Izeaux (Isere). The date is year 4 of the Republic = 1797. 

267. Elle fuit, HiiLAS ! 1801. Alas ! it flies. 

At Plampinet ; also at Sachat (dated 1813), both in Dep. Hautes 

268. Elle r^gle la repos et l'action, 


It governs rest and action, 
Above all it causes reflection. 

At Villard St. Pancrace (Hautes Alpes). 


Et d'ou tu vikns car la mort tk suit pas a pas. 

1841. Z. A. F. 
Remember ye that mark my face 
That Death 's behind you pace by pace ; 
IVhence are ye come, yc do not know 
Nor zvhither aftcrivards yoiill go. 

At Abries, in the Vallce du Oueyras (Hautes Alpes). 

270. En regardant l'iieure (^)u'il est 
Pense a la mort et tiens toi pret. 

As the hour here you sec 
Think on death and ready be. 

At La Bessee, and at Le Poet (Hautes Alpes) ; and on the Church 
at Chateau Oueyras (see No. 694). 

271. En re(;akdant vous vieillissez. Whilst beholding you become 

On the church at St. Nicholas (Haute Savoie). 

272. En supra vita fugax 

En infra certa mors : 
Hinc vivere dlsce 



Lo, above is fleeting life : 
A lid below is ecrtain death. 
From the one learn to live. 
Front the other learn to die. 

These mottoes are quoted by Mr. Leadbetter (" Mechanick 
Dialling," 1 756), as being on the two faces of the dial on St. Mary 
Overy's Church (now St. Saviour's), Southwark, which hung over the 
burial ground. It was probably put up after 1647, as there is no sign 
of it in Hollar's etching of that date. If not destroyed before 1822, it 
must have been cleared away then, as the church was altered. 

273. En toutk action tense A la fin. In all thy doings think upon 
the end. 

On the sanctuary of Notre Dame des Vertus, at Peisey, Savoy. 
The saying is from Thomas a Kempis. 

274. Enfant, souviens-toi que je sers 
A marquer le temps que tu perds. 

Remember, ehild, that I mark the time which thou dost lose. 

In the court of the college at Forcalquier. 

275. Eu gratiores e6 breviores. The szucetest are the shortest. 
At Annonay (Ardeche). 

276. Erit lapis lste in signum . MDcciv . PAR TA PUISSANCE. That 
stone shall be for a sign. By Thy power. 

On a small stone dial bought at Cologne in 1885 by Mr. Lewis 
Evans. A crown and the letters l. p. is. in a monogram are also 
engraved on the face. 

277. Errar puo il fadbro 

Errar puo il ferro 


The maker may err 
The iron may err 
I never err. 

At Graglia in Piedmont. 


For the night eomcth. 

A sketch of this dial was made by the collector (Mrs. Gatty) at 
Abbotsford in 1839, where the pedestal stood outside a small planta- 
tion near the house. But the dial plate with its gnomon was gone ; 
only two nails, which had once served to fasten it, remained. So the 




motto had been a j)rophecy ; for the dial's work was over, shice it could 
henceforth record nothing, except that the night was coming — which, 

indeed, had come as if in mockery of itself. 
One could not help thinking further of the 
night that came down upon Abbotsford when 
its illustrious master was lost to tlie world. 

The motto was also adopted by Dr. 
Johnson, as we learn from the following pas- 
sage in Boswell : " At this time I observed 
upon the dial-plate of his (Dr. Johnson's) 
watch a short Greek inscription, taken Ironi 
the New Testament, Nug yocp iVx^rai, being 
the first words of our Saviour's solemn ad- 
monition to the improvement of that time 
which is allowed to us to prepare for eternity 
— ' The night cometh when no man can work.' 
He sometime afterwards laid aside this dial 
plate, and when I asked him the reason, he 
said, ' It might do very well upon a clock 
which a man keeps in his closet ; but to have it upon his watch which 
he carries about with him and which is looked at by others, might be 
censured as ostentatious.'" Croker adds in a note: "The inscription, 
however, was made unintelligible by the mistake of putting i./^^ for n;^. 
We would observe that this error is quite sufficient to account for the 
learned scholar putting aside his watch, and we know that he did not 
always condescend to fully enlighten his shadow, " Bozzy," as to his 
motives. It is also remarkable that in both cases the word yocp should 
have been introduced, for it is not in the New Testament. Probabl)', 
however. Sir Walter copied the passage from Johnson without referring 
to the original. With the beautiful candour which bek)ngs to his 
character and marks the brief autobiography prefixed to Lockhart's life of 
him. Sir Walter Scott confesses that when he went to the college at 
Edinburgh he had no knowledge of the Greek language, and adds, " I 
forgot the very letters of the Greek alphabet." His comment on his 
own ignorance cannot be too often repeated : " If it should ever fall to 
the lot of youth to peruse these pages, let such a reader remember that 
it was with the deepest regret that I recollect in my manhood the 
opportunities of learning which I neglected in my youth ; tnat through 
every part of my literary career I have felt pinched and hampered by 
my own ignorance ; and that I would at this moment give half the 
reputation I have had the good fortune to acquire, if by so doing I 
could rest the remaining part upon a solid foundation of learning and 

The same quotation 'EPXETAI NTE, rightly rendered, is to be found 
as a motto upon the plate of a horizontal dial in the beautiful grounds of 
Dromore Castle, co. Kerry, inscribed by the late owner,R. Mahony, Esq., 


= 00 

in 1 87 1, when the dial was erected. NOg yap 'ip^iToci is with other mottoes 
on a dial at the House of Mercy, Horbury, Yorks. See No. 1629. 

279. Es ouRO (c'est l'iieure). // is time. 

In the Provencal dialect, given by Baron di Riviere, but without 

280. Est DEO GRATIA. Thanks are to God. Est reposita justiti.e 
CORONA. There is laid tip a crmvii of righteoitstiess (2 Tim. iv. 8). 
(See illustration, p. 119.) 

These mottoes, with Nos. 360, 981, are inscribed round the mould- 
ing above the capital of the dial pillar at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford. It stands in the quadrangle, a pillar surmounted by a cubical 
capital, above which is a pyramidal block of stone, with a dial face on 
each side, and this is crowned by a pelican on a globe, the crest of the 
College. On the four sides of the cube are four coats of arms carved in 
relief, viz. : (i) those of Bishop Fox, the founder of the College ; (2) of 
Bishop Oldham; (3) of the University; (4) the Royal arms. In each 
case the scroll work round the shield acts as a gnomon to a dial face 
engraved below it. On the cylindrical shaft there is a fifth dial face, 
with a perpetual calendar engraved below it, and near the base is 
another motto, Horas omnes complecta. The initials C. T. and two 
dates, 1 58 1 and mdcv, the latter date being probably that of the tables 
on the shaft, and the former that of the construction of the dial by 
Charles Turnbull, a member of the college, a Lincolnshire man, and 
the author of a treatise on the use of the celestial globe. The dial is 
described in a MS. work by Robert Hegge, written 1625-30, now in 
the College Library (see p. i 19), and his drawing is reproduced in 
the Rev. T. Fowler's "History of Corpus Christi College." In this 
sketch " the octagonal base of the cylinder rests on a platform and 
is approached by four steps and surrounded with rails. The present 
square pedestal is not figured." The pillar is said to have been regarded 
as " inconvenient," during the old days of threatened invasion, when the 
quadrangle was used as a drilling ground, but happily it was not re- 
moved from its place and still stands as a memorial of Turnbull's 
mathematical skill. The four mottoes on the pyramid are adapted from 
the Vulgate. 

281. Esteem thy precious time 

Which pass so swift away 
Prepare then for eternity 
And do not make delay. 

An incorrect version of No. 1074, in the same neighbourhood. 
The above is on one face of a cube of stone, bearing three dials on the 
other three faces, crowned with a ball and mounted on a stone column 
which stands on Wilton Bridge, near Ross, Herefordshire. It probably 
dates from the eighteenth century. 




The rich and the poor, I he slroiio- and the wcak\ alt pass alike from 
sorrow to death. 

On one of Zarbula's dials at Ville-Vieille (Mantes Alpes). 

283. Et I'lLO SLA UMURA. Eveu tlic hair luis its sJiadoio. 

A writer in " The Antiquary" (vii. 1S6), quoting from " The Gentle- 
man's Magazine" (181 1), on ancient bedsteads, 
says: "There is at Hinckley a very ancient 
oak bedstead, much gilt and ornamented with 
various panelled compartments richly painted, 
with emblematical devices and Latin mottoes 
in capital letters conspicuously introduced in 
each place. . . . Amongst them is " the repre- 
sentation of" a horizontal sun-dial with the 
above motto. 


nEPinATEiTE Ens TO ^ns EXETE. 
Yet a LITTLE WHILE IS the i.icht 


Walk while ve ilw e the light. 
St. John, xii. 35. 

The dial-plate from which these 
inscriptions were copied was fixed 
on an old disused school-house at 
Aynho, near Bicester. The sun 
is represented as a full human 
face, with rays surrounding it, and 
the gnomon forms the nose. In 
the centre are the initials of the 
builder, " ALC," "one Mary Cart- 
wright," and the date of the build- 
ing, 1 67 1. 


As it goes, the hour consumes t lie day. 
Inscribed on a curious sun-dial in the churchyard of Trellech, Mon- 
mouthshire (cp. No. 1334). It was erected in 1648 by Lady Maud 
Probert, widow of Sir George Probert, and on three sides of the 
pedestal are represented in relief the three marvels peculiar to the place, 
viz. (i) A tumulus, supposed to be of Roman origin, and above it the 
words " Magna muli " {Great in its mound"), " O quot hie sepulti " (" O 
hoio many buried liere"). (2) Three stone pillars (whence the name 



Tri-llech, the town of three stones), with the inscription, " Major 
Saxis" (" Greater in its stones"), the height of the stones, — viz., 8 feet, 
10 feet, 14 feet, — being- also given, and the words, "Hie fuifvictor 
Harald" i(' Here ivas Harald victorious"). (3) A representation of the 
well of chalybeate water and two drinking cups with " Maxima fonte " 
{^'Greatest in its spring"), and below, " Dom. Magd. Probert ostendit." 
Trellech is supposed to have been anciently a large town and place 
of importance. Tradition states that the pillars were erected by Harald 
to commemorate a victory over the Britons, but they are known to have 
existed in the seventh century, and are probably of Druidical origin. 
Nor does the tumulus cover the bodies of the slain, as suggested by 
Lady Probert's inscription ; it is simply in the neighbourhood of the 
battlefield. In later days it was surmounted by the keep of a castle 
belonging to the Earl of Clare. The motto of the dial was almost 
illegible in 1887. The stone is described in "The Archaeological 
Journal," xi. 129. 

286. Every pay lrings life nearer. 

At Ballakilley, Isle of Man. See No. 1122. 

287. Every hour shortens life. 

Was formerly on the church porch at Barnard Castle, but at the 
restoration of the building the dial was removed and laid by in the 
church tower. The motto is also on a mural dial at " Turner's 
Hospital" at Kirkleatham, Yorkshire, a noble charity founded at his 
birthplace by Sir William Turner, Lord Mayor of London in 1699. 
The same motto is on a dial on the church at St. Austell, Cornwall. 

288. Ex his una tibi. 0/ these [honrs) one is for thee. 

On a church in Brittany ; and in a garden at Chatelaudren (Cotes 
du Nord). Also at La Johadiere (Loire Inferieure), where " tibi " is 
rendered " mihi." 

289. Ex HOC MOMENTo I'ENDET /ETERNiTAs. On this iiionicnt hciugs 

On an old gable in Lincoln's Inn there was formerly a dial thus in- 
scribed, which had been restored in 1840, and showed the hours from 
6 a.m. to 4 p.m.; but it was taken down in 1874 and could not be 
replaced. A newspaper of i 8 1 2 informs us that a book was one morning 
found to have been suspended on the gnomon by the hand of some wag. 
When taken down, the volume proved to bean old edition of " Practice 
in Chancery." The same motto is at Sandhurst, Kent, " W Hawney 
fecit 1720" ; at St. Budeaux, Cornwall ; and was formerly on Glasgow 
Cathedral. It has also been read on a sometime seminary at Bourg 
d'Oisans, dated 1684. 


290. Ex UNUIS K.MERCiUNT IN AURAS. FvOJU tltC IVtlfi'I'S. tJlC)' visC itlto 

(he air. 

In the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, Paris; on a sculptured 
stone dial, probably intended for the centre of a fountain. 

Redeeming the titne because the days arc evil. Eph. v. 16. 

In the Albert Park, Middlesbrough. See No. 97. 


/ aivait the coming of my light, that I with the others may be strong 
to serve. 

This was inscribed on the north side of a casket-shaped dial of brass 
silvered and gilt, which was offered for sale in London, in 1898. It 
measured 4 in. in height, x 81 x 6 in. at the base, and 5? x 3-^ in. 
at the lid. On the top and four sloping sides were five dials, showing 
both the Italian and the ordinary hours, the gnomons represented by 
boyish figures, and the shadow cast by an outstretched finger of the 
hand. About the figures are scrolls on which mottoes are engraved. 
That on the south side is : 

" Vespere cum eis pariter ct mane in eodem die ostendere non de- 

At evening, as the others do, and in the morning likexvisc, I shall not 
delay to tell my talc. 

On the east : 

" A solis ortu usque ad meridiem intervalla ipsa diei aeque denuncio. " 
From snnrisc till noon I announce at equal periods the divisions of 

the day. 

On the west : 

" (A') merldie usque ad solis occasum itaque cum ilia gradior." 
Like the last my steps I take from noon to sunset. 

In addition to these four mottoes there are inscriptions inside the 
lid, and outside the hinged flap, giving the initials of the maker, 
A. M. v., and the name of the owner, and the date, 1770 : "ad latitud 
Napolis Grad : 40, 50." Also a description of the use of the instru- 
ment, and inside the casket there is a compass and plumblinc fastened 
to two cross bars. 

293. Exi'LElK) NUMEKUM REI)I)AR(JUE TENEliRlS. / shall COmplctC the 

number of my days, and be restored to the shades. 

From the " yEneid, ' vi. 545, inscribed by the Rev. W. Tuckwell, 


with other mottoes, on a dial which he has placed in his garden, Waltham 
Rectory, Grimsby. See No. 559. 


darkness, he revives the earth with his rays. 

On the Campanile at Sori, Riviera de Levante. 

295. Fac dum tempus opus. Work while it is day. 

This, with other mottoes, is on an octohedral dial-block in Mr. L. 
Evans' collection. There is no motto on the horizontal face at the top, 
and the eighth side, on which the block rests, is plain. Each face 
measures 7^ x ']\ x 9 inches. It is of French workmanship, of the first 
half of the seventeenth century. For the other mottoes see Nos. 395, 
900, 945. 

296. Facciamo bene adesso CHE ABBiAMO TEMPO. While wc have time 
let us do good. 

At the Trinitarian Convent on Monte Soracte. 

297. Factus dies hic transeat. The day that is done here let it pass. 

This has also been read as Lcetiis dies hic transeat, but the above is 
probably the correct version, as the dial, which is horizontal, is on the 
western side of the cloisters of the Certosa, Val d'Ema, near Florence ; 
and receives the last rays of the sun. In 1889 the gnomon w^as no 
longer there. See No. 150. 

298. Fais ce que dois, advienne que pourra, 
L'heure est a Dieu, l'esperance a tous. 

Do that which thoti oiightest, come what may ; 
The hour belongs to God, hope to all. 

Noted in "The Monthly Packet," October, 1886, but no locality 
assigned. See No. 572. 

299. Fay me lum e t'y beyras. (Eclair-moi et tu y verras.) Shine 
upon me, and thou shall behold it. 

On the front of an inn at Rieucros (Ariege). The dialect is 

300. Fecit solem in potestatem diei. He made the sun to rule by day. 
(Psalm cxxxvi. 8.) 

Formerly on a house at Bruges. 

301. Felicibus brevis, miseris hoka longa. The hour is short to the 
happy, long to the wretched. 

Copied in 1866 from a dial on a house at Martigny. Time's hour- 
glass and wings were painted above the dial. Comp. No. 30. 

L L 


302. Felicibus brevis miseris vita longa. Short is life to the happy, 
to the wretched long. 

At Paray le Monial. With four other mottoes. See No. 75. 

303. Felix harmonia manet si tendimus una 


si theMIs et CIVes IVra VetVsta DoCet. 

A happy harmony is maintained if u<e strive in tcnity, if P ho: bus shows 
ns the hour, Minerva teaches tongues, and Themis instructs the cittzeiis m 
the old law. 

On the Rathhaus at Stolberg, in the Harz. The dial dates from the 
sixteenth century, but was repainted in 1723, the date being shown in a 
chronogram, mdccvvvviii. The arms of the town are painted on the 
dial between the figures of Minerva and Themis. The town belongs 
to Count Stolberg, whose castle stands on the hill above it. 


304. Ferrea virga est, umbratilis motus. The rod is of iron, the 
motion that of shadow. 

The iron rod is, of course, the gnomon. The motto was copied in 
t86i, and the last word was difficult to read ; motus has been supplied 
as the most probable reading, but Baron de Riviere gives it as ictus. 
It was on a large vertical north dial on the archiepiscopal palace which 
adjoins the cathedral of Chambery. See No. 847. 

305. Fert omnia ^tas. Time bears all away. 

On the door of a farm, over the Manor House at Lund, Yorks. ; 
and at Vallouise. See No. 133. 

306. Festina lente. Hasten slowly. 

On a vertical dial on a house at Deeping St. James, Lincolnshire ; 
at Inch House, Midlothian, on a dial which was formerly at Craigmillar 
Castle (sec No. 72) ; also on the Public Library at Albi. 

307. Festina mox nox. Hasten, the night [cometh) soon. 

Noticed in the " Graphic" for Aug. 1 1, 1883, as on a sun-dial on the 
King's House, Thetford. This house was once a Royal Mint, and was 
afterwards occupied by Queen Elizabeth and James I. successively. 

308. Festinat suprema. The last {hour) hastens on. 
Seen in North Italy by Mr. Howard Hopley. 

309. Fiat lux. Let there be light.— Gen. i. 3. 
At La Blanque, near Riaus, Provence. 


310. Fiat lux, et facta est lux, factusque est vespere et mane 
dies unus. 

Let there be light and there ivas light : and the evening and the morn- 
ing were the first day. — Gen. i. 3, 5. 

Seen at Courmayeur ; and also at St. Didier, Val d'Aosta. 

311. Figurati sentir il mio rumore, 


As on each hour my shade ' s abont to fall, 

Thou in thy mind shouldst hear my sounding call. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

312. FiLi CONSERVA TEMPUS. My SOU, observe the Opportunity . — Ecclus. 
V. 20. 

On the tower of San Stefano, Belluno, with No. 904 ; also at 
Palermo ; at Carenna ; and on a house on the Superga, near Turin. 


Sequor ore MATREM, 


The darighter of the sun am /, an iron tnother bore me, 

In countenance I resemble my mother, in my movements my father. 

At Montagny, Savoy. This motto seems to be uttered by the 
shadow of the metal gnomon. 

314. FiNiET una labores. One (Jiour) luill end our toils. 
Recorded in " Bulletin Monumental," 1883 ; no locality assigned. 

315. Finis itineris sepulchrum. The grave is the end of the journey. 

On the dial at Marrington Hall, Shropshire. See No. 1394. The 
motto recalls the more hopeful sentiment inscribed on Dean Alford's 
grave in St. Martin's Churchyard, Canterbury : 

" Diversorium viatoris Hierosolymam proficiscentis." The resting 
place of a traveller on his way to Jerusalem. 

316. Floreat ecclesia. Alay the Church floiirish. 

"This dial was given by Mr. W. Buck, minister here in anno 1697." 

This inscription is over the church porch at Kirkby Malzeard, 
Yorks. Mr. Buck afterwards became Vicar of Marton-cum-Grafton, 
Yorks., and put up a dial bearing the same motto, with his initials and 
date 1 700, on the chancel wall of that Church. When the Church was 
rebuilt in 1873, the dial was removed to its present position on the 
vestry chimney, and the iron gnomon having been broken, the Rev. 
J. R. Lunn, then vicar, replaced it with a copper gnomon pierced with 


his initials and the Sunday Letter and Golden Number for the year of 
rebuilding. An older stone dial, possibly of the twelfth century, was 
found in the old church, and has now been inserted in the wall inside 
the vestry. 

317. FoRSiTAN ULTIMA. Perhaps the last. 
At La Riviere (Isere). 

318. Forte tua. 1760. L C. C. fecit. Perhaps {this hour) is thine. 
At Vallouise (Isere), also at Vars, dated 1827, and at Les Orres 

(Hautes Alpes), 1831. 

319. Forte ULTIMA. 1825. Perhaps {this hour is) the last. 
At Vallouise (Isere). 

320. FoRTUNA UT UMBRA FUGiT. Good fortune fleeth like a shadow. 

On a dial engraved in " Der unbetrugliche Stunden Weiser," by 
J. H. Mullen Munich, 1702. 

321. From the rising of the sun to the going down of the same 

THE lord's name IS TO BE PRAISED. 

On the step of a dial at Linburn, Midlothian, recently erected by 
Ebenezer Erskine Scott, Esq. See No. 45. 

322. Fronte capillata, post est occasio calva. Opportunity has 
locks in front, and is bald behind. 182S. 

This well-known line is inscribed on a dial on the school-house at 
Guilsborough, Northamptonshire. It is quoted from " Disticharum 
de Moribus," lib. ii. D. xxv., written by Dionysius Cato, who is sup- 
posed to have lived in the time of the Antonines, in the second century. 
The lines are : 

Rem tibi quam nosces aptam dimittere noli ; 
Fronte capillata, post est occasio calva. 

Sir Francis Bacon in his essay " Of Delays," thus writes : " For 
occasion (as it is in the common verse) turneth a bald noddle after 
she hath presented her locks in front and no hold taken." " Take 
Time by the forelock," is a proverb ; and the conventional figure of 
Time represents an old man bald, except for a tuft of hair on the crown 
on his head. Shakespeare recognizes the same idea : 

Let's take the instant by the forward top; 
For we are old, and on our quick'st decrees 
The inaudible and noiseless foot of time 
Steals ere \vc can effect them." 

All's Well that Ends Well, act \. sc. 3. 


In the Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalist's Club, 1885, there 
is a paper by Walter Laidlaw, Esq., on "Armorial bearings and Inscrip- 
tions in Jedburgh and its vicinity," and in this Mr. Laidlaw states : " On 



the front of Blackhills house in Castlegate is a stone, having the appear- 
ance of armorial bearings. Having examined it, I found two rather 
peculiar sun-dials with an inscription on an iron scroll, Fiicrat cnncta 
novatitlms." No suggestion is made as to the meaning of the words. 

324. FuGACEM DIRIGIT UMBRAM. He guides tlic fleeting sliadow. 
On the church of St. Sulpice, Paris. 

325. FuGAX EST .€TAS. Time is fleet mg. 
On the church, Westbury on Severn. 

t§§HALF A DOLLAR. §^j 

^Pj-infed hy Hall & Sellers,© 
§' in Philadelphia. 1776. ^ 



to a Refolution 

if Congress, jfj^v 

■paj.d at Phi- iPLgs,.^^, 

D R U A R Y 17,, 

1776. L 






The days that make (he year like shadows soon are past ; 

So said the seer fob, that tritthfnl sage ; 

JVoe be to thee if thou on death no thought doth east. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


Thy days like wind or shadoio soon are spent. 
And canst thoii- live one single Junir content ? 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

328. FuGio. d fly. Mind your business. 

On the woodcut of a sun-dial which was on the first set of National- 


notes (commonly called " Greenbacks "), issued by the United States 
after the Declaration of Independence, dated 1776. The facsimile here 
given is made from an original note kindly lent by Mr. Wilson 
Crewdson. Mr. E. C. Middleton of Birmingham (who has made a 
special study of the sun-dials of Warwickshire) states that he possesses 
a coin, " The first issued by the United States, a Franklin cent, dated 
1787. On each side there are designs similar to those on the Half- 
dollar Note. One side bears a sun-dial with the sun above it, and 
below Mind your Imsiness. The other a ring of linked circles, but these 
are not inscribed with the name of the states ; round the centre ring in 
place o{ Amcricati Congi'css the words United States are engraved, and 
within the circle ]]'c arc one, as on the note. 

329. FuGio, FUGE. I fly, fly thou. 

On a cross dial at Elleslie, near Chichester. See No. 104. 

330. Fl'git, dum aspicis. It flics, whilst thou lookcst. 

In a hamlet, near Baslow, Derbyshire, with three other mottoes 
(Nos. 711, 800, 1536); also on the wall of a building called Cairns' 
Chambers (Law offices). Church Street, Sheffield. 

331. FuGiT, ET NON RECEDiT TEMPUS. Tiuic flics, and covtcs not back. 

Appears as a dial and a clock motto at once on the wall of a little 
court in the Convent della Quiete, near Florence. There is an over- 
hanging roof, and above is suspended a tinkling bell. The convent 
was originally a royal villa, and received its name — " La Quiete della 
Granduchessa Cristina" — from its noble owner. It afterwards became 
the property of Donna Eleonora Ramirez di Montalvo, the foundress of 
the existing school. See No. 177. 

332. FuGiT HORA. The hour flies. 

On a stone mural dial at Moat Hall, near Great Ouseburn, York- 
shire. It is also at Lamancha House, Peeblesshire, on a fine composite 
dial of the seventeenth century. There is a sloping stone block, with a 
pedestal representing a basket of fruit, bearing a plain dial on its upper 
face, and cylindrical, heart-shaped and oblong hollows on the sides. 
" The under side is cut so as to leave a drum-shaped dial, the shadows 
on which are cast by the sides of the cutting. The oblong hollow on 
the one side has two carved serpents starting with their intertwisted 
tails and wriggling round the sides of the hollow, the upper edge of 
which forms the style." The dial and pedestal are cut out of one stone. 
(" Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland," by Ross and 
Macgibbon, vol. v., p. 430.) 

„ iiORA rj,, hour n- , 

'X'\ri FuGIT , (ARITAS MANET. J hi , , fllCS, loVC rcmaiHS. 

>J>J«J I'M BR A shadow-' 

The first version is at Mirepoix ; and the second at Les Allemans, 
both in the department of Ariege. 


334. FuGiT HORA, ORA. The hour flies, pi-ay. 

On a circular dial in a square slab of stone, which stood over the 
porch entrance of Catterick Church, Yorkshire. The face was painted 
blue, the lettering gilt, and the gnomon sprang 
from a golden sun which was immediately be- 
low the motto. This was the dial alluded to 
in the Preface. It was removed from the 
porch when the church was restored, and was 
unfortunately broken, but an exact reproduction 
of the original slab was put up in its place 
through the kindness of William Booth, Esq., 
of Oran. 

The Rev. A. J. Scott, D.D., the friend and 
chaplain of Lord Nelson, who died in his arms catterick. 

at Trafalgar, was vicar of Catterick from 18 16, 
and was the father of Mrs. Gatty, the first compiler of this collection. 

Fugit hora, ora, is on a dial at Gilling Church, near Catterick ; and 
was formerly on the porch of Merthyr Mawr church, co. Glamorgan, 
dated 1720, but about fifty years ago the church was rebuilt, and the 
dial taken down and laid in the churchyard, where it still was in 1888. 

Most e.xquisitely does Tennyson touch the three successive chroni- 
clers of time — the hour-glass, dial, and watch — in one of the poems of 
his " In Memoriam." 

" O days and hours, your work is this, 

To hold me from my proper place, 

A little while from his embrace, 
For fuller gain of after bliss : 

" That out of distance might ensue 

Desire of nearness doubly sweet ; 

And unto meeting when we meet, 
Delight a hundred fold accrue. 

" For every grain of sand that runs, 

And every space of shade that steals. 

And every kiss of toothed wheels, 
And all the courses of the suns." 

335. FuGiT HORA. ORA. LABORA. Nath' Priestley calculavit. Abr. 
Sharp delineavit. 1722. The hour flies, pray\ luork. 

On a horizontal dial in the old garden of Alderhill, near Leeds, 
described in " The Yorkshire Weekly Post," June 19, 1897. The dial 
was brought from Meanwood in the same neighbourhood. Abraham 
Sharp was a distinguished mathematician and astronomer, the friend 
and assistant of Flamsteed, Astronomer Royal from 1675 to 1719, and 
passed the later years of his life at Horton, near Bradford. Amongst 
the friends who visited him there was the Rev. Nathaniel Priestley, of 
Ovenden, a Nonconformist minister. He died in 1728, and as his 
grandson Henry is known to have been living at Leeds in 1781, it has 


been conjectured that the dial may have been brought by him to 
Meanwood. The dial plate is finely worked, and is placed on a stone 

The same motto was read some years ago on a house in Southgate 
Street, Gloucester, but the dial is no longer there. 

336. FuGiT iioRA SIC EST VITA. The houv Jlies, so ivitJi life. 

This is given as the probable reading of a dial on the church tower 
of Cubberley, Gloucestershire. The motto seemed to be Fiigit hora 
suevet, and has, says a writer in " Notes and Queries," proved a very 
sphinx to inquirers. The solution is suggested by a correspondent in 
" Notes and Queries," 4th series, x. 254, 323. 

337. FuGiT HORA sicuT UMBRA. The Jiour flies Hkc ci sluidow. 

This motto is written on an illustration in a French MS. on dials in 
the possession of Lewis Evans, Esq. The MS. appears to have been 
written at Nancy in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

338. FuGiT IIORA SINE MORA. The houT Jlies loithotit delay. 
Seen at North Wingfield, Derbyshire. 

339. FuGiT (hora) utere. The hour flies, use it. 

In the court of the Lycee at Limoges ; and on the fagade of the 
Petit Seminaire, Dorat, France. 

340. FuGiT HORA, venit HORA. The hoiir flics, the Jioiir draws nigh. 

On a horizontal slate dial in the kitchen garden at the Chateau de 
Vaux (Calvados), the residence of M. Caumont, founder of the Societe 
Fran^aise d'Archeologie. The dial was brought from the Abbey of 
St. Barbe-en-Ange. In the centre there is a shield of arms surmounted 
by a count's coronet. 

341. FuGiT IRREPARABILE. 1 829. Time flies, and camiot be retrieved. 
On the Caserne de I'Oratoire, Grenoble. 

342. FuGiT IRREPARABILE TEMPUS. Time passcs ucver to be retrieved. 

Sedente Gregorio XVI. p.o.m. Antonius Mattevcius Oper. Vatican, 
prepositus. loanni Antonio Teppati hocce horarium lineari mandavit. 
Anno Dni. mdcccxliii. 

This sentence records that the dial was made and erected in the 
pontificate of Gregory XVI., a.u. 1843, by Giovanni Antonio Teppati. 
It is on the south corner of the balustrade on the roof of St. Peter's, 
Rome ; the dial being engraved on a horizontal slab of white marble. 
The words of the motto are from Virgil (see No. 11 23). They were 
also formerly to be seen with No. 380 in the Cimetiere St. Severne, 
Paris ; and were copied in i860 from a circular vertical dial placed below 
the gable and bell-cot of the church at Vallauris, near Cannes, and dated 
1839. The same motto has been noticed at Guitalan (Tarn) ; St. 


Maurice I'Exil (Isere); and on the Chateau de la Rochefoucauld. In 
England it has been read at Bridgend, co. Glamorgan ; at St. Giles's, 
Little Torrington, Devon ; and it was formerly on the church of 
St. Nectan, Wellcombe, Devon. 

343. FuGiT IRREVOCABILE TEMi'US. Time Jlies, and cauHot bc recalled. 
With No. 879 on the Mairie at Voulx, France ; and at Tesero, Val 

Fie m me, Tyrol. 

344. FuGiT TEMPUS MANET RiQUETTi GLORIA. Time fiies, the glory of 
Riquet remains. 

Near the Bureau de la Navigation du Canal du Midi, Toulouse. 

It" records the name of Riquet, the great French engineer, who in 
the seventeenth century made the canal which connects the Mediter- 
ranean with the Bay of Biscay. 

345. FuGiT TEMPUS, VENiTQUE AETERMTAS. Time Jlies, etcmily ap- 

On a square slate dial of the seventeenth century, sold in London 
in 1898 or 1899. .See No. 189. 

346. FuGiT UMBRA. The shadow flics. 
Formerly on the church at La Ferte Bernard. 

347. Fui UT Es, ERis UT SUM. / loas as thou art, thou wilt he as I 

At Marrington Hall, Shropshire. See No. 1394. 

348. FuMUs ET UMBRA SUMUS. 1 699. We are smokc and shadoiv. 
On a house in the Via Maestro, Salbertrand, a village at about an 

hour's distance from Exilles. 

349. Garo u'uxo d'aquestei 

(TRENDS GARDE .\ l'uNE d'eI.LEs). 

Beware of one of them ! 
In the Provencal dialect, at Val, near Brignoles. 

350. Gedenct am dein end. 1726. Think upon thine end. 
On the church at Interlaken. 

351. Gedenke dass du sterben musst. 1838. Remember that thou 
mjist die. 

Copied in 1863 from a dial on the south wall of the church at 
Ringenburg, near Interlaken. The gnomon was in the centre of an 
eight-pointed star at the top of the dial, and the motto on a half circle 
below. The church was built on the site, and out of the ruins of an old 
castle, and stands on a hill overlooking the little lake of Goldswyl, or 
Faulensee. The tower of the castle still stands amongst the trees in 

M m 


tlie churchyard. The church was transferred to this place from Golds- 
wyl in 1674. 


On a pedestal dial in the garden of St. Lucy's Home, Gloucester. 
The dial rests upon a metal plate, and on this the above lines are en- 
graved. The pedestal is a wooden baluster which was taken from old 
London Bridfje when it was pulled down in 18.^2. The Warden of the 
Home, who in 1888 owned the dial, could recollect it for sixty years, 
and before it was placed on its present pedestal. 

The late Rev. F. E. Paget introduced a motto greatly resembling 
the above into one of his " Tales of the Villacre," The Miser s Heir, 
as follows : 

"As I proceeded leisurely round Baggesden Hall, I observed an 
ancient sun-dial, adorned with heraldic devices, and grotesque emblems 
of mortality, carved in stone, according to the style which prevailed at 
the close of the sixteenth century. On a scroll above it was inscribed, 
' Homfrie and Elianor Bagges. a.d. 1598'; and beneath it, in smaller 
but still very legible characters, the following rhyme : 

" ' Give God thy heart, thy hopes, thy gifts, thy gold, 
The day wears on, the times are waxing old I ' " 

The description is altogether imaginary, and Mr. Paget had no 
recollection in later years of ever having seen the lines, but there can 
be little doubt that they had come originally from .St. Lucy's Home. 

353- Give light to them that sit ix darkness, 

and (iuide our eeet into the way oe peace. 

(St. Luke, i. 79.) 
At Broughton Castle, near Banbury, there is a garden dial, the 
gnomon of which is of clipped box, and the hour numerals are of 
flowers and foliage cut close, and set in a semi-circular bed surrounded 
by green turf. The above motto surrounds the numerals, and is also 
written in flowers and foliage. See "Country Life," December 17th, 




Know the time, in time no tarrying, 

misspend no time, they perish and are reckoned. 

These four mottoes, which seem intended to be read consecutively, 
are on four sides of the cubical top of a column about four feet high 
which supports a horizontal dial in the rectory garden at Micheldean, 
Gloucestershire. The shaft is ornamented with n Tudor rose and 
diamond in relief. On the two sides of the plinth are the words 


" Rector rectoris " ( TJie nriors director), and there appear to have been 
other words on the remaining sides, but these are now obliterated, and of 
the date only 16 — remains. 


On a buttress of St. James's Church, Bury St. Edmunds ; on 
Cavendish Chiu'ch, Suffolk ; and on Bromham Hall, Bedfordshire, for 
many years the residence of the Dynes family. Formerly on the 
Church at Kllnwick on the Wolds, Yorks., but the motto haviny' been 
obliterated by the weather, another — " The time is short " — was, in 1882, 
painted in its place. 

It is said that the witty Dean Cotton of Bangor had a very cross 
old gardener, who protected his master from troublesome visitors by 
saying to everyone he saw near the place, "Go about your business." 
When the gardener died, the Dean had his servant's favourite formula 
engraved round the sun-dial in his garden, in this wise : 

Goa bou tyo urb us in ess. 1838. 

with the result that the motto was usually supposed to be in Welsh. 
After Dean Cotton's death the dial was bought by Mr. Doyle Watkins, 
of Glan Adda, and is now at Tanyfrou, near Bangor. 

The same words rather differently, but as irregularly divided, are on 
a sun-dial in the garden at Brook Lodge, Chester. 

Similar mottoes may be found at Nos. 19, 93. 


Reg. Jones. Rector, W". Joliffe. Rich. Woodford 1727. 

On the church porch, Brighstone, Isle of Wight. Bishop Samuel 
Wilberforce was at one time Rector of this parish, and, in earlier days, 
Bishop Ken. See Ps. c. 3. 

357. God giveth all. 1570. 

This motto is recorded in " West Country Stories," by Mr. Hamil- 
ton Rogers, as follows : 

" At A.xmouth on a broad stone in the south face of a tall Tudor 
chimney are the lines and numerals of a sun-dial nearly obliterated. 
On the companion stone facing west are the initials of the original 
owner with the motto." 

358. God's providence is my inheritance. 1676. R. H. I. C. 
In a garden at Liberton, Midlothian. 

359. Grata brevissima. The Iiappy hour is the sJiortest. 
At Maison Catusse, Moissac (Tarn et Garonne). 

360. Grata superveniet qu.k non sperabitur hora. The hour that 
is not hoped for is most grateful when it comes. 

On the south-west angle of a seventeenth centur)- house, named 


Denburn, at Crail, Fifeshire. The line is from Horace, Ep. i. 4, 14. 
The preceding line, " Omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremam " 
{Think every dawn of day to be thy last) is used as a motto on another 
dial on the same house, though it is now almost illegible. 

361. Gratia dei mecum. The grace of God with me. 

One of the mottoes on the dial pillar at Corpus Christi College. 
Oxford. See No. 280. 


hour thoii seest, of eventide bethink thyself. 
Read in a garden in Tuscany. 

363. GuARDANDO l'ore, pensa CHE SI MUORE. Gazing OH thc hour, 
think ! death comes to all. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


Behold, O man, the day it fleeth without tarrying. 
At Whitford Church, Flintshire. 

365. Haec cum sole fugax themidis martisque labores 

Et venale forum dirigit umbra simul. 

This shadozv, fleeting zvith the stm, controls the toils of laiv-court, camp, 
and market-place. 

With other mottoes in the Place d'Armes, Brianqon. See No. 8. 

366. Haec mea fortuna tua. This my fate is thine. 
F"ormerly at St. Lazaire, Paris. 

367. Haec monet ut celeri fugit impetu tempus i.mag(j. 


This picture ivarns thee how siviftly flies the time. 
In the garden of the Presbytere at Plaudren (Morbihan). 

368. Haec patet et tua latet, 

Fac modoque moriens. 
Facta fuisse velis. 

Di"- 9. 7°"^ ANo 1702 

What hour 'tis noio, is plain, — thy hour is hid : 
Work, and desire not to cease until death comes. 

At Les Tombetes, Savoy. 

369. Haec vltima forsan. Perchance this is thy last [hour). 
At Malemort (Bouches du Rhone). 


370. Haec vltima multis. To many a man it is the last {/lour). 
At Causans (Vaucluse). 

371. Hanc quam tu gaudens in gnomonk consulis horam, 
forsitan interitus cras erit hora tui. 

T/iis hour, which now thou cheerfully readcst by the pointer. 
Perhaps ivill to-morrozv be the honr of thy death. 

Copied in 1866, at Voltri, near Genoa. 


C. C. Walker 1881. | Lat 54° 58'. 
W. R. 

Watching these fleeting hours soon past 
Remember that ivhich comes at last. 

On a storehouse of tlie Neptune Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne, erected 
by J. Wigham Richardson, Esq., to whom the motto and its translation 
are due. 

373. Haste, traveller, the sln is sinking low : 
He shall return again, but never thou. 

At Tytherton Kellaways, Wilts (see No. 1619); and, in 1896, 
placed on a horizontal dial in a garden at Mill Hill. 

374. 'H SKIA KOT$H IONIAN SE AIAASKETfi. Let the slight shadow 
teach thee wisdom. 

At Torrington, Devon. 

375. He that to his noble linna(;e addeth vertv and good con- 


They that be perfectli wise despise worldli honor, wher 
RICHES are honored good men are despised. 

These two sayings are inscribed on the outer edges of a circular box 
of gilt brass, 2 1 inches in diameter, now in the British Museum. On 
the upper surface there is a nocturnal dial, and within the box a compass 
and three circular metal plates, on one of which the twenty-four hours 
of the day and night are engraved. The instrument is designed for 
various uses — as the observation of the moon, and to ascertaining the 
sun's altitude and declination, etc. — and also contains a calendar and 
table of latitudes. It was made for Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, 
and bears his arms. It is signed " James Kynuyn fecit, 1593." 

Mr. Bruce, who fully describes this dial in " Archeologia," xl. 343, 
gives also a transcript of a marginal note by Gabriel Harvey, in a copy 
of Blagrave's "Mathematical Jewel" (1584), in which he commends 
highly the maker : " M. Kynuin of London near Powles : a fine work- 
man and my kind frend : first commended to me bie M. Digges and 
M. Blagrave himself Meaner artificers much praysed by Cardan, 


Gauricus, and others, than he and old Humfrie Cole, nice mathematical 
mechanicians. As M. Lucas newly commends Jon Reynolds, Jon Read, 
Christopher Paine, Londoners, for making- geometrical tables with their 
feet frames, rulers, compasses and squires. Mr. Blagrave also in his 
F"amiliar Staff commends Jon Read for a verie artificial workman." 

376. He that would thrive muste rise at five. 
He that hath thriven mav stay till seven, 

He that will never thrive, may lie till eleve:;. 
On a house at Stanwardine in the Fields, near Baschurch. See 
No. 506. 

377. 'HMEPAI wo-fi XKIA. Our days air as a s/iadah'. 

With No. 1040, on the Grammar School, Wellingborough. 

378. Here in Christ's acre, where this dial stands. 
With pious care and borne by reverent hands, 
Some wanderers garnered in from east and west, 
Among the home-loved lie in solemn rest ; 
Severed in life by lineage, race, faith, clime, 
They iude alike the last soft stroke of time ; 
And when god's sun which shone uron their birth 
Ends his bright course and \tgil o'er the earth — 
When o'er this disc that day's last shadows flee, 
And " death no more divides as doth the sea," 
The dead will rise,— retake the life god gave, 
Creation's saviour bless earth's opening grave ! 

Thy word hath writ the blest- — no conscience clear 
In thought and word, all must thy judgement fear. 
Only our own wild words, which fashioned prayer 
When life was parting, still move the ambient air, 
Pleading that god, who made, will grant that we 
May with the pure in heart, the godhead see. 
The dial erected in 1879 by Lady Burdett-Coutts in St. Pancras' 
Gardens, bears these lines. It is upwards of thirty feet in height, and 
in the Early Decorated style. It is built of Portland stone, and has a 
marble tablet on each side and clustered granite columns at the corners. 
The above lines are inscribed with the Beatitudes on one of the tablets 
below the dial. On the tablets on the other three sides are the names 
of the illustrious men who lie buried in the old churchyard of St. Pancras ; 
and also a statement that the gardens, formed out of the burying- 
ground of St. Giles' and the churchyard of St. Pancras, are assigned 
for ever to the loving care of the parishioners. The dial is especially 
dedicated to the memory of those whose graves are now unseen, or the 
record of whose names may have become obliterated. 

379. Here mi, nescis hora 

MoRiERis, SI (,)U.1':ris, qua. 

John Owen. 1683. 


]\Iy master, thoii knoivest not, ij thou askcst, the lunir in i^'liich t/ioit 
shalt die. 

A motto, in bad Latin, on a dial set on a spirally carved pedestal in 
the garden of the Hon. W. R. Stanley, at Penrhos, Holyhead. Let no 
one imagine that this motto is either misspelt or mis-transcribed. Mrs. 
Vaughan, from whom the collector (Mrs. Gatty) received it before 1870, 
vouched for its accuracy on the authority of her husband, the late Master 
of the Temple and Dean of Llandaff, who compared it with the original, 
and found it correctly copied, however incorrect in itself. It afterwards 
brought a smile to the lips of Lord Tennyson, who, when translating it, 
broke out into exclamations, " But you've no notion what bad Latin it 
is !" " But you can't imagine how vile the Latin is !" Oh ! my master, 
if tJiou should' st seek to knoxo the hour of thy death, thou shalt be ignorant 
'of it. 

At Caereglwyd, Anglesey, in the near neighbourhood of Penrhos, 
there is a pretty little horizontal dial-plate of brass, with the initials I. O. 
and date 1697 engraved upon it. It was evidently by the same maker as 
the above, John Owen ; and it belonged to Richard Hughes, of Treeddol, 
who died 1771. It was in 1898 presented to Lady Reade by a de- 
scendant of Richard Hughes, Mr. Robert Lewis, of Plasymynydd, and 
is now set up at Caereglwyd. 

380. Heu miser mortalis ! ULTIMA LATET MORA. A his, poor vwrtal ! 
the last hour is hidden. 

Painted on the wall of a house, new in 1889, at Mollia, Val Sesia. 
In addition to the dial, there is the Wheel of Fortune, having four spokes, 
and four little figures on it : the first, clad in a green coat and top boots, 
is climbing up the wheel ; the second is seated in triumph at the top, 
wearing a blue coat and a gold crown ; the third is descending in a 
white shirt ; the fourth is lying on the ground clad in rags only. 
Attached to these figures are the four sentences : 
" Regnabo." " / ii<ill be kino-i' 

" Ego regno." " I am king." 

" Regnavi." " / haz<e been king." 

" Sum sine regno." " / am loithout a kingdom." 
No doubt the figures and inscriptions are meant to signify the four 
ages of man. Below the wheel is the motto, "Sic transit gloria 
mundi." Thus passeth the glory of the world. See No. 1594. 

On the same house, at a little distance, a cat is painted, glowering 
from a painted window-sill. 

381. Heu! mortis fortasse tuae quam prospicis hora. Alas I the 
hour thou dost behold is perchance the hour of thy death. 

Formerly in the Cimetiere St. Severne, Paris, with No. 342. 

382. Heu patimur umbram. Alas I lue endure the shadoio. 
Formerly at Sleningford Hall, near Ripon. 


383. Heu, QU.iLRiMUS UMBRA.M. A /us ! we pursiie a sliadow . 
Recorded in the " Leisure Hour" some years ago ; without locality. 

384. Heu: quam pr.ecipite labuntur tempora cursu. 
Respice mortalis sunt vei.ut umbra dies. 16 1 3. 

Alas ! with what headlong course time passes by! 
Look back, mortal, the days are like a shadow. 

On the Franciscan convent at Mesma, province of Novara. 

385. Hit' labor hic requies musarum pendit ab umbra. Here the 
shadow marks the hours for st?cdy, and for rest. 

Baron de Riviere quotes this motto from a collection made in 1806 
by M. Dubois, who suggested it as suitable for a college, and rendered 
it thus : 

L'ombre s'enfuit, revient, et dans son cour egal 
De I'etude et des jeux donne ici le signal." 

In 1869 it was said to be on the Lycee at Rouen, in a slightly 
altered form : 

" Hic labor, hic requies musarum pendit ab horis." 

386. Hic licet indulgere genio. Here you may indulge your taste. 

" Indulgere genio " is from Persius, v. 151. Dean Alford wrote : 
" I observed between Mentone and Bordighera a brand new villa 
conspicuously inscribed," as above. " On inquiry I found that it 
belonged to an eccentric lady." 

387. Hic NEC CURA juvat meritis acquirere (laudem) 
Namque malis oritur sol pariterque bonis. 

Here, though thou be car cf til to gain (^praise) by thy merits thou dost 
7iot profit, for the sun rises alike on the good, and on the evil. 

At Montoire (Loire et Cher). M. Jusserand thus describes the place : 
" On the main square rises the pile of the old church of St. Oustrille 
{i.e., St. Austregesille, Bishop of Bourges) rebuilt by Louis de Bourbon 
Vendome, the companion in arms of Joan of Arc. On another side 
may be seen the finest Renaissance houses in Montoire. One of them 
has a sun-dial with a sceptical pessimistic inscription : "What is the 
ofood of doinof well ? The wicked have as much sunshine as the 
righteous" [Ronsard and his Vendomois. " Nuieteenth Century," April, 

388. Hic Piicebo solitu.m renovo fulgente laborem, 
Nam miiii xi lumen subvenit, hora i.atet. 

IVhcn Pha'bus shines my wonted course I go ; 
JVithout his aid the hour I cannot show. 

Contributed by C. E. Noel James, Esq. ; no locality assigned. 



389. HI qVI hoC teMpore bene VtentVr 
gaVDIIs CceLI perenne frVentVr. 

Those 20/10 their time hei^e ivell employ. 
Shall Heaven s eternal bliss enjoy. 

On a German hone-stone dial in Mr. L. Evans' collection, 
chronogram gives the date 1785. 

390. Hic SOL et umbra prosunt. Here sun and 
shade alike avail. 

On a mill at Manosque (Alpes Maritimes). 

391. HiNc .... DiscE. Hence .... Learn. 

In Malvern Churchyard stands a graceful shaft 19 
feet high, of a cross of the fifteenth century, crowned 
with a cube and ball, and with dials on the four sides 
of the cube. On the north face there is an illegible 
inscription which apparently consisted of two lines, one 
above and one below the gnomon, and the initials 
W. K. From the position of the only two words 
which could be made out, it seems as if the motto 
had been that which was formerly on St. Mary Overy, 
Southwark : Hinc vivere disce, Illinc disce mori (see 
No. 272). Half-way up the shaft is a 
pretty niche in which there was prob- 
ably once a figure of the Blessed Virgin. 
Hinc disce wslS engraved on a dial which 
formerly stood on the West Pier at 
Brighton, with Nos. 443, 1207, 1487. 


:£«^"%*-;^-/.;^-'— - ■ 


392. Hinc unda hinc labitur .-etas. 
Hence glides the water, hence the time. 

Formerly in the court of the Theatin Convent, Paris 
1004, 1026. 

See Nos. 

393. Hinc vivere discas. Hence learn to live. J. Dougall fecit, Kirk- 
caldy, 1778. 

On a pedestal dial at Mount Melville, St. Andrews. The inscrip- 
tion is on the metal plate, which also tells the latitude and longitude, and 
that the time at Constantinople is 2 hours 10 minutes, and at Bergen 
57 minutes earlier than at Craigton (as St. Andrews is called by its old 
name), whilst at Kingston it is 5 hours 5 minutes later. 


Time passes aivay, death draweth on, 
Therefore men do 7'ight, and fear God. 

N N 


On the cross dial engraved in Johann Gaupp's " Tabulae Gnomoni- 
cse," 1708. See Nos. 230, 247. 

The lines are from a hymn written by Emilia Juliana, Countess of 
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, on the death of Duke Johann George of 
Sachsen- Eisenach in 1686. 

The sun divides all things. 

TJie moment passes. 
On two of the faces of an octohedral dial of early seventeenth 
century French work in Mr. Evans' collection. See No. 295. It 
seems probable that the writer of this motto has made a mistake in 
using the word ^i^n. as if it were |U£pi^£i. The word \j.i^ii, as it stands, 
is the dative case of a noun : the tense seems to require a verb. 

396. 'O KAIPOI 'OHTS. Time is swift. 

remain are the surest witnesses. 

On Alleyne's Grammar School, Uttoxeter. The dial was originally 
on the school-house built 1568, and was moved to the present building 
in 1859. The second motto is from Pindar, Olymp., i. 53. 


in light, death in darkttess. 
At Cossila, near Biella. 

398. Hoc AGE LUMEN ADEST. Be diligent , luhHc the light abides, 1816. 

On a gable of the parish church at Chirnside, Berwickshire. The 
building has been restored, but part of it is Norman and the dial looks 
older than its date. Mr. Thomas Ross, who copied the motto in 1888, 
had difficulty in deciphering the word rendered lumen, but there is 
every reason to believe that the above reading is correct. A stone on 
the north gable is inscribed, " Repaired 1705," which ma)- also be the 
orijjinal date of the dial. There are several old dials in the village of 
Chirnside, chiefly made by a man of the name of Dunbar. 

399. Hoc TUUM EST. This {Jtour) is thine own. 

On the south porch of Whitworth Church, co. Durham. 

400. HoDiE MiHi, CRAs TiBi. To-day for me, to-morrow for thee. 

At Les Brevieres, and at Mont Valezan, near Bellentre (both in 
Savoy). It is also on a silver folding-dial and calendar, of German 
workmanship, with a silver outer case like that of a watch, in Mr. L. 
Evans' collection. The opening lines of St. Bernard de Morlai.x's 
hymn are also engraved on this dial, but the word sunt is omitted : 
Hora novissima, tempora pessima {sunt) ; vigilemusl 


401. Homme mortel ! les heures dont tu vois l'image 
passent vite, tu doi.s en faire un saint usage. 

Learn from these fleeting shades the shortness of thy days. 
And strive, O mortal man ! to tread God's holy zcays. 

On the Ecole des Freres Maristes, at St. Pierre de Bressieux 

402. Homme mortel si tu es fin 


Vt styi.i vmbra fvgit 
Sic tva vita perit. 

Desclos fecit. 

Mortal man, if thou art 7uise, behold, this dial marks thine end. As 
the style the shadoiu flies, so thy life perishes. 

On the church of St. Michel Chef (Loire Inferieure). Gilles Desclos 
was the cure of the parish. He is mentioned in an inscription inside 
the church which alludes to " M. Gilles Declos qui avec soin agissait." 

403. Homo fugit quasi umbra. Man fleeth as a shadow. 
At Mont Valezan, near Bellentre, Savoy. 

404. Homo proponit deus disponit. Man proposes, God disposes. 
With No. 967 on the outside of the lid of a small ivory box and 

compass dial, or portarium, in the Musee Cluny, Paris. There are 
two mottoes inside the lid (Nos. 8 and 207), and the maker's name, 
" Hans Troschel, Noribergae faciebat, Anno mdcxxvii." 

405. Homo quasi umbra. Man is as a shadoiv. 

On the south wall of Cumwhitton Church, Cumberland. 

406. Homo quasi flos conteritur et fugit velut umbra. Man is 
eut doivn like afloiver, he fleeth also as a shadoiv. From Job, xiv. 2. 

In the Seminaire at Issy, near Paris. 

407. Homo quidem cogitat, sed deus disponit. 
In tempore venire est omnium primum. 

Man indeed pi^oposes, but God disposes. 

To come at the right time is of all things the first. 

These mottoes, with No. 1320, are on an ivory compass dial in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, signed " Hans 
Troschel faciebat." 

408. Homo sapiens in omnibus metuet. He who is wise will fear at 
all times. 

At Alleins (Bouches du Rhone). 



409. Homo vanitati similis factus est : 

Dies ejus sicut umbra praetereunt. 


]\'Ian is like to vanity : his days arc as a shadow that passcth away. 
Psalm cxliv. 4. 

On an old stone dial, bearingf 
the arms of the family of Bour- 
ofuiCTnan, in the De Bresc collec- 


Evil be to him who thinks evil 
thereof. Henricus Wynne. Lon- 
dinii, fecit. 

On a dial which Charles II. 
caused to be erected at \\'indsor, 
on the East Terrace, close to what 
are still known as " The Star 
Buildings." The plate is circular 
and horizontal, and in the centre 
the star of the Garter is engraved, 
with the motto upon it ; the gno- 
mon rises from this and is per- 
forated, with the king's monogram 
and crown entwined therein. The 
pedestal is marble, and decorated 
with carving in high relief, which 
is said to have been the work of 
Grinling Gibbons. 

411. Honor DoMIno pro paCe 
popVLo sVo parta. Honour de 
to the Lord for the peace procicred 

for His people. 

Mentioned in Mr. Hilton's 
work on " Chronograms," as a 
motto on the upper border of a sun-dial formerly at the west end of 
Nantwich Church. It was removed in 1800. The date 1661 points 
to the year after the Restoration of Charles II. 

412. Honor soli Deo. Glojy to God alone. 
At D^scines (Isere). 

413. HoRA agendi. // is the hour to act. 
At Malosa, near Voiron (Isere). 

414. HoRA bene faciendi. It is the hour to do good. 


At Montferrat (Isere) ; on the church of St. Pierre de Paladru ; and 
at Hyeres. 

415. HoRA BiBEXDi. Thc Iiour fov drinking. 

With three other mottoes on a dial at Inch House, Midlothian, 
which was formerly at Craigmillar Castle (see No. 72). With No. 624 
at Pont de Cervieres (Hautes i\lpes). At Le Pinet (Hautes Alpes), it 
is over the door of a house which was once a cabaret, and accompanies 
a picture of a wine pot and the words " Bon Vin." It has been seen in 
a similar position near Grenoble ; and at Villard-Bonnot (Isere) ; and has 
also been read in the Crau, Provence, and, with the additional words, 
et solvendi (" and to take your ease "), in the department of Isere. 

A writer in the " Bulletin de la Societe Astronomique de France," 
vii., 1S60, speaking of the country about Abries, near the Monte Viso, 
says : " Toutes les eglises que nous avons vues dans notre excursions 
portaient sur leur clocher un cadran solaire, orne d'une devise latine, 
quelquefois assez singulierement choisie — Nunc hora bibcndi, par 

416. Hora brevis amici lenta onerosi. Pech^, 8 Aout 1847. Short 
is the time spent with a friend, long that spent with a bore. 

At Meaudre (Isere). 

417. Hora, dies, et vita fugiunt ; manet unica virtus. The hojir, 
day, and life, all fly away, virtue alone remains. 

On the column of a dial at St. Georsfe's Vicarage, Truro. 

418. Hora est in qua veri adorates adorabunt. It is thc hour in 
which true zvorshippers will zcorship (from St. John, iv. 23). 

On a church in France belonging to the nuns of the Holy Sacrament, 
by whom Perpetual Adoration is maintained ; also on a house at La 
Salle (Hautes Alpes). 

419. Hora est jam nos de somno surgere. Noiu it is high tiine to 
awake out of sleep (Rom. xiii. 1 1). 

At Bellegarde ; and on the Cure's house at Eyzin (Isere). Formerly 
on the Seminaire Magloire, Paris ; and at Montmorency. 

420. Hora est orandi. // is thc hour for prayer. 
At Maussane (Bouches du Rhone). 

421. Hora est ultima multis 
advigila ; tua te inopina manet. 

For )nany 'tis their last hour. Watch thou, thine hour awaits thee when 
thou thinkest not. 


Formerly in the College de Navarre, which is now the Ecole Poly- 
technique, Paris. 

422. hora fluit, cl'lp/l-: crescunt, mors imminet ; 
Heu, vit.-e corrige facta tuae. 

The honr fioiK.'s on,/att/ts increase, death impends: 
Alas ! amend the deeds of thy life. 

Copied in 1866 from a dial on the church of St. Pierre, Canton, 
V'alais. The motto was then somewhat defaced. The dial was painted 
on the south wall and protected by a buttress, and faced the snowy 
Mont Velan. 

423. HoRA FUGiT. The hour flies. 

At Chapareillan, and Le Touront (Isere). Also at Bletchley Park, 
on a dial erected by H. S. Leon, Esq., in 1891. 


fies, with swift step doth eojiqjiering death hasten on. leronimus W'ul- 
paria, Florentinus. a.d. mdlxxvii. See No. 801. 

On the back of a brass dial and astrolabe in the museum at Perugia. 

425. HoRA FUGur ; memento mori. Time passes ; re7nember death. 

On a dial which, until the recent restoration, was on the porch of 
the parish church of Rotherham. The motto replaced an older one, 

Pereunt et impntantnr. 

" Remember Death ! for now my tongue 
To sing of Death shall tuned be : 
Remember Death ! which else ere long 
Will to thy pain remember thee. 

Remember Death ! whose voice doth say, 

This night a man, to-morrow clay. 

" Remember Death no truce hath made, 

A year, a month, or week to stay ; 
Remember how thy flesh doth fade, 
And how thy time doth steal away. 
Remember Death will neither spare 
Wit, wealth, nor those that lovely are. 

" kemember Death forgoes the dooms 

Which due to thy deservings be ; 
Remember this before it comes. 
And that despair oppress not thee. 
Remember Death, remember Him 
Who doth from death and hell redeem. 

Ceorge Wither. 

426. HoKA FUGiT : MORS VENIT. Time passes : death advances. 1703. 
Copied in 1888 from a dial painted on the wall of the old Court 

House at La Fiera di Primiero. There was a skull crowned by an 
hour glass in one corner, and a second motto. No. 1238, but both were 
somewhat defaced. 


427. HoRA FUGiT, NE TARDES. Time flies, delay t/iou not. 
Formerly in the Rue du Petit Muse, Paris. 

428. hora fugit vos pceniteat si transit inanis 
Nam qu.e pr.1£terita est hora redire nequit. 

Time files, repent ye, if it zvasted goes, 
For time that lias passed never can return. 

In the garden of Notre Dame des Anges, formerly a convent of 
the Recollets, at Landecla, near Abervrach (Finistere). 

429. hora horIs CEdIt, pereVnt sIC teMpora nobIs : 

Vt tIbI fInalIs sIt bona, VIVe bene. 

A]i hour yields to hours, so onr time perishes : 
That thy last hour may dc good, live well. 

Many years ago the collector's (Mrs. Gatty's) old and kind friend, the 
late Lord Chief Justice Tindal, brought over for her from Karlsbad a 
mysterious inscription, which he had carefully copied in scholarly hand- 
writing. The dial was formed on two sides of the angle of the upper storey 
of a substantial house in the market-place. The Chief Justice wrote, 
" The letters which are written in capitals were so in the original inscrip- 
tion, and were coloured red : probably the anagram of some one's name 
is concealed under them." By consulting that useful oracle, " Notes and 
Queries," we had the difficulty solved. We suggested that it might be 
a chronogram, but for the introduction of the letter E. A correspondent 
replied that probably CEdIt ought to be written CeDIt, when the 
following numerals could be extracted: MDCCVVVVIIII IIIIII : 
MDCCXXX : 1730, which we may suppose to be the date of the 

It is amusing to record further, that some friends who were staying 
more recently at Karlsbad, kindly looked for this dial, which they 
found, but in a dilapidated state. They made out the motto, however, 
with the help of the Burgomaster of the place, who owned that he had 
lived opposite to it all his life, but had never noticed it. Nevertheless, 
he became much interested, and said he would eive orders that it 
should be cleaned and repainted. The Doctor, too, confessed that he 
had never seen it before, but should henceforth point it out to his 
patients for their contemplation and improvement. 

430. Hora omnis tempus senex tua munera laudant 
Egris hinc fluit alma salus. 

This motto is difficult to interpret, but a learned scholar suggests 
that if laudant be read laiidat, the meaning may be as follows : 

Father Time every hour praises thy bounteous gifts 
Since from them the sick obtain kindly relief. 

In the Jardin du Feuillant, Rue St. Honore, Paris. 



431. HoRA PARS viT.^i. An hour is a portion of life. 

J. Wood fecit. 1815. J. James, G. Hearn, Churchwardens. 
On a horizontal dial plate, mounted on a stone shaft in Brading 
Churchyard, Isle of Wight. The shaft is about four feet high, and 
appears to have been part of a churchyard cross. It stands on three 
circular steps which are much worn, and shows signs of age. There 
is a second date, 1715, which may have belonged to a previous dial. 
The motto is also on Kirk Whelpington Church, Northumberland, 
dated 1764; on the church of St. Eustachius, Tavistock, dated 1814; 
on Stokesley Church, Yorkshire, dated 1822; on Thursley Church, 
Surrey ; on St. Nicholas' Church, Skirbeck, Lincolnshire ; at Charlton, 
Somerset ; at Loddington, Northamptonshire, where it is misspelt ; 

on a dial formerly on St. 
John's Church, Glastonbury, 
but now in the Town Museum ; 
and in Mr. Egginton's garden. 
South Ella, Yorkshire, w^ith 
other mottoes. See No. 932. 


PARS UMBR.E. The hour is a 
portion of life, the honr is a 
portion of shadow. 

On the plate of a dial in 
Castleton Churchyard, Derby- 

433- HoRA RUIT. The hour hurries away. 

At Val-de-la-Haye, on the Seine, near Rouen. 

434. HoRA TRADiTUR HoRA. Hour passcs iiito hour. 
At Malaucene (Vaucluse). 


While thou seekest to know the hour little by little thy fate draivs nigh : 
Remember this, and get thee that which is imperishable. 
At the convent of the Camaldoli, Naples. 

436. HoRAM DUM PETIS ULTiMAM PAKA. IVhilf thou scekest to knoxu the 
present hour prepare (to meet) thy last. 

At L'Albenc ; and on the Maison Gresset, Pierrebrune de I'Albenc 

437. HoRAM PKTis DUM PETIS IPSA FUGiT. Thou scekest to kuoio the 
hour; zvhile thou seekest, it has flown. 

At Montcarra (Isere). 



if the hotir tkotc seekest be the ho2ir of death. 

On the church at St. Gengoux (Saone et Loire). 

439. HoRAM SI QU.KRIS IIORA LABORIS ADEST. If thoU dost ask the 

hour — it is the hour for ivork. 

Chateau d'Ardenne (Basses Alpes). 

440. HoRAM SOLE NOLENTE NEGO. The hoiir I tell iiot zohcu the sun 
ivill not. 

Copied at Poirino, Piedmont. 

441. horas hora dies menses detrudit eundo ; 
Bisque senex senis mensibus annus obit. ' 

The hour in its course treads doivn hours, days, and mouths : 
And in twice six mouths the year dies, an old matt. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

442. HoRAS IMI'LE, UMBRAM l^'SI'ICE, OCCASUM TIME. Fulfil the hourS, 

consider the shadoiu, fear the sunset. 

On one of four dials, each with a motto (see Nos. 966, 1504, 1548), 
upon the campanile of the Church of San Crocifisso, near Pieve di 
Cadore. Copied in 1888. 

443. HoRAS non numero NISI SERENAS. / couut the bright hours 

This motto is found in several forms, in several languages, and in 
many places. In England we have it on the old Moot Hall at Alde- 
burgh, which was built cir. a.d. 1500, though the dial is probably 
later ; on a vertical dial over the front door of Bell Hall, near York, 
dated 1680; at Highclere, Newbury; in a garden at Frome, having 
been removed there from the Rectory Garden at Compton Basset ; at 
Stoke Edith Park, Worcestershire; and at Ember Court, Surrey (see 
No. 1238) ; on a house at Halliford on Thames; on a farm-house, near 
Farnworth, Lancashire ; at Arley Hall, Cheshire (see No. 715) ; at Hors- 
ley, near Stanhope, co. Durham ; at Sydnope Hall, Matlock, where the 
plate is dated 1833, but the pedestal is probably older; at Leam ; at 
West Hill, Cubbington ; at Reepham, Norfolk; at Dover; in Weavere 
ham churchyard ; once on the West Pier, Brighton (No. 391) ; at Buck- 
minster Hall, Grantham (No. 1421); on the stable at Old Place, Lind- 
field, Sussex ; on a dial behind the chapel at Harrow, erected to th- 
memory of George F. Plarris, formerly a master in the school ; at 
Sackville College, East Grinstead, a building that dates from 161 6, 
but the face of the dial was renewed, and the motto painted on it 
during the wardenship of the Rev. Dr. Neale (1846-1S66): previously 
it bore the inscription, Tempus fugit. 

o o 


Horas non tiicmei'o, etc., was inscribed by tlie late Dr. Hamilton 
Kinglake on a dial in his garden at Wilton House, Taunton. The 
pedestal on which it stands is part of a pinnacle taken from the tower 
of St. Mary Magdalen's church when the building was restored. The 
stone still stands within the sound of those bells of " old Marlen," 
that were so exquisitely described by A. W. Kinglake in " Eothen," as 
being heard by him when he was far away in the Desert. The pinnacle 
is mounted on a base, and round the sides of this Dr. Kinglake had 
four lines from Shakespeare inscribed. Unluckily they were only painted 
on the stone, and are now almost obliterated : 

N. Blow, blow, thou winter wind. 

Thou art not so unkind as man's ingratitude. 

S. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May. 

E. Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day 
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. 

W. Men shut their doors against the setting sun. 

In Scotlandwe find Horas non «2^w^(";-<;?,etc.,atCharlesfield, Midlothian, 
with No. 1 358 ; at Cadder, near Glasgow (see No. 896). Also at Troqua- 
hain, Galloway ; here the dial face is vertical and of metal, dated 16 16, the 
oldest dated dial known in Scotland. The shaft was erected in 1855, 
and, besides the motto, it bears the initials of the Rev. George Murray, 
minister of Balmaclellan, and of his wife Elizabeth Hislop Murray. 

In Ireland the motto is in a garden at Killiney, with date 1864, 
and name of Richard Melvin, Dublin, fecit. In France it is at Troyes ; 
at the Luxemburg; and in the labyrinth of the Jardin des Plantes. In 
Buffon's time the motto was on the upper corner of the meridian con- 
structed in the reign of Louis XIV. for the Jardin des Plantes. 

The motto is constantly being inscribed on new dials, and though 
there are several variants, this is no doubt the favourite form. It is 
alluded to by Sir Arthur Helps in his " Friends in Council" (ist Ser., 
I, ii.) : " Milverton had put up a sun-dial in the centre of his lawn, with 
the motto, ' Horas non numcro nisi serenas,' which gave occasion to 
Ellesmere to say that for man the dial was either totally useless or 
utterly false." 

In Lord Tennyson's life it is recorded that he intendeil to put up a 
dial at Aldworth, and that he had chosen this motto for it. 

444. Horas non numero, nisi, rna:Bo instante, serenas 


The hours, unless the hotirs arc bright, 

It is not mine to mark ; 
I am the prophet of the light, 

Dumb zvhcn the sjoi is dark. 

This motto and its translation were both composed by the late 


W. H. Hyett, Esq., and were placed by him on a dial at Painswick 
House, Gloucestershire. 

445. HoRAS NULLAS NISI AUKEAS. I couut iioue but goldcn houvs. 

On a dial designed and placed by A. G. Humphry, Esq., in a 
garden at Crowborough Cross, Sussex. The motto and hour numerals 
are in open ironwork on a transparent gilt ground, which becomes 
golden in sunshine. The dial is vertical, and mounted on a pole. Until 
the sun lights up the golden background, the hours are not noticed. 
Hence the double meaning of the motto. 

446. HoRAS OMNEs coMPLECToR, I iiiidracc all h02l7'S. 

One of the mottoes on the dial pillar at Corpus Christi College. 
See No. 280. 


o-arden bore both, lei us also vtcditate in the Qarden. 

This motto is on a dial in the Nuns' Garden at Polesworth, near 
Tamworth. It must be imperfect ; and it has been suggested that a 
previous line may have referred to the two trees of Life and Knowledge 
in the Garden of Eden. If so, the meaning is clear. 

Peculiar interest attaches to the foundation of the Benedictine 
nunnery at Polesworth. Dugdale gives the following account : 
" Egbert, king of the West Saxons, built this monastery of nuns, and 
made his daughter Edith the first abbess, having caused her to be 
instructed in the Rule of St. Benedict by Modwen, an Irish lady, whom 
he had sent for out of that country, because she had there cured his 
son, Arnulf, by her prayers, of a leprosy. King William the Conqueror 
gave to Sir Robert Marmyon the castle of Tamworth, with all the lands 
about it, in which was the nunnery of Polesworth. This knight turned 
out the nuns ; but a year after, being terrified by a vision, he restored 
them, they having retired during that time to a cell they had at Old- 
bury or Aldbury, given to their monastery by Walter de Hastings. 
However, the aforesaid Marmyon was afterwards reckoned the founder 
of Polesworth." 

This spot appears to have been the site of the first religious house 
that was planted in the centre of England, and one of the first that 
found a local habitation in the kingdom. The name of the foundress is 
still preserved in the neighbourhood. This parish church of Burton- 
upon-Trent is dedicated to the joint names of St. Mary and St. Mod- 
wenna. The site of her chapel is still called " St. Modwen's Orchard," 
and " St. Modwen's Well " was celebrated, two hundred years ago, for 
the sanatory properties of its water. The nunnery became the place of 
education to which the young ladies of the highest families were sent 
before they entered the society of the world. 

The nunnery was dissolved in 1539, when Sir Francis Nethersole 
became possessed of the conventual lands, and built the hall out of the 


ruins of the luinnery. It is supposed that the dial was then erected in 
the centre of a square yardcn on the site of the cloisters. It is now 
placed on the corner of an old wall, as if to get it out of the way. The 
garden has disappeared, but the spot is still an orchard with a pretty 
green sloping to the river side. As to the construction of the dial : 
there is a projecting base surmounted by several courses of wall stone 
on which is the principal object. This consists of a curved pediment 
of stone, su|)porting a square block, on the east side of which is repre- 
sented a tomb : below is the motto, and on a scroll above are the words, 
" Non est hie : resurrexit" — He is not Iiej^e : he is risen. The top is 
finished off so as to correspond with the pediment, and contains the 
Nethersole coat of arms. Among the devices are the Death's head 
and cross bones : also an apple, which seems to identify the reference 

in the motto with — 

"The fruit 
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste, 
Brought death into the world, and all our woe." 

448. HoRUL.V UUiM ()UOT,\ SIT QUyKRITUR IIOKA FUGIT. ]\'hilc OUC asks 

what the little hour is, the honrjiies by. 

On a dial plate which was foimd in 1S89 on a shelf in a cottage in 
Kirk Arbory, Isle of Man. It had, at some unknown date, been taken 
from the churchyard, where the pedestal still stood, and where, it is 
hoped, the dial has ere now been replaced. The motto was formerly 
on a dial in Rushen churchyard, but the present one, dated 1S29, bears 
no inscription. 



On a wooden dial attached to the wall of an old house in the village 
of Lumbutts, among the hills near Todmorden. 

449. How WE GO 

Shadow show. 

On a dial at Woodville, Leicestershire, belonging (in 1889) to John 
Shefford, Esq. The motto was devised by Rev. E. Z. Lyttel, vicar of 


This motto has on two tjccasions been appropriately placed on sun- 
dials dedicated to the memory of soldiers. Robert Pearse, Esq., H.E.I.C., 
had a summer-house in his garden at Perridge in the parish of Pilton, 
Somerset, on which was a dial bearing on the top the above text, and 
below, from Shakespeare's Sonnet CXVI : 

" Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks 
Within his bending sickle's compass come ; 
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, 
But bears it out even to the edge of doom." 



The dial was dedicated to the memory of a brother officer who died in 
India, but no record remains of his name. Mr. Pearse died in 1830, 
liis property passed into other hands, and the summer-house was pulled 

In 1896 some members of the Guinness family joined with the late 
Rev. Beauchamp Kerr-Pearse, rector of Ascot, a nephew of Mr. Robert 
Pearse, in erecting a memorial on a buttress of Ascot church, in memory 
of their two relatives Colonel Wolfran Guinness, C.B., and Claude 
Guinness. It consists, as will be seen from the illustration (Plate 
VIII.),of areclining dial 
bearing the motto, I also 
am under antJioriiy ; 
below which is a lamp 
inscribed : 

TIio7i art )uy La Dip, O 

The Lord sJiall lighten 

my darkness. 

with the date of erec- 
tion, 1896. The memo- 
rial is intended to incor- 
porate the three kinds 
of light, (i) natural, on 
the dial, (2) artificial, 
by the lamp, (3) saper- 
natural, in the inscrip- 

Colonel Guinness 
served with the Sea- 
forth Highlanders 
throuohout the Afi,dian 

war of 1878-1880, and the Egyptian campaign of 1882, was h-equently 
mentioned in despatches and was made C.B. He died at the age of 
fifty-five, having spent thirty-three years in the service. The career 
of his brother Claude was scarcely less distinguished : he was at Win- 
chester, and was captain of the Eleven in 1869 and 1870; in 1870 
scholar of New College, taking second class in moderations, 1872, and 
in classics, 1 874. He was for some years managing director of the great 
Guinness brewery, and died at a comparatively early age, after a life of 
un.sparing work and unselfish activity. 

In the late Mrs. Alfred Gatty's " Book of Emblems" there was an 
illustration of a sun-dial with the motto N'on rego nisi regar. (See 
No. 816.) She gave as its English equivalent the text L also am under 
authority, and drew the lesson of her "Emblem" from it. The same 
teaching has also been finely worked out by Rudyard Kipling in 



" McAndrews' Hymn " where he leads the old Scotch engineer who 
had lost the thread of his childhood's faith to find it again amid the 
throbbing notes of his engine hammers : 

"True beat, full powL-r, llie clangin' chorus goes 
Clear lo the tunnel where they sit my purrin' dynamos. 
Interdependence absolute, foreseen, ordained, decreed, 
'l"o work, ye'il note, at any tilt an' every rate o' speed. 
Fra sky-light lift to furnace bars, backed, bolted, braced, an' stayed, 
An' singin' like the. mornin' stars for joy that they are made ; 
While, out o' touch o' vanity, the sweatin' thrust-block says : 
' Not unto us the praise, O man — not unto us the praise ! ' 
Now a' together, hear them lift their lesson — theirs an' mine; 
'Law, Orrder, Duty, an' Restraint, Obedience, Discipline!' 
Mill, forge, an' try-[)it taught them that when roarin' they arose, 
An' whiles I wonder if a soul was gied them wi' the blows. 
Oh for a man to weld it then, in one trip-hammer strain. 
Till even first-class passengers could tell the meanin' plain !" 



At the Manor House, Chew Magna, Somerset. The lines are also 
to be foimd in " Vignettes in Rhyme," by Austin Dobson. 


Inscribed on a dial in tlie Grey Friars churchyard, Stirling ; and in 
1884 placed on West Lodge, Carthorpe, Yorkshire. (With No. 464.) 

453. I COUNT NONE HUT SUNNY HOURS. Erected 1863. 
Dial in the Fort, Delhi. 


At Portway Hall, near Oldbury. On a fine dial engraved in 189S 
by F. Barker and Son, London, for the Skinners' Almshouses, and in- 
.scribed : " Presented to the Skinners' Alm.shouses, Palmer's Green, by 
Henry Luke Hansard, Esq., Master 1893-4." The Arms of the Skinners' 
Company and the motto, to god only v,e all glory, are also on the 
plate. A slightly different version was on Prince Albert Victor's dial. 
See No. 1306. 


On a dial recently erected on the house of Capt. Hart, Grove Lane, 
Hands worth. 


For men are shadows and a shadow i. 

At Esher Place, Surrey, the seat of Sir Edgar Vincent, K.C.M.G. 
— "Country Life," Jan. 6, 1900. 


i ; • 

u ^ 

P d 

U ^ 

o ^ 






And POINT OUT the course his chariot doth run. 

These lines, with No. 813, are engraved upon the pedestal of a dial 
in the garden of Downham Hall, Norfolk, together with the following 
inscription : 

" Taken from a gun battery on Kelbouroun Spit, at the entrance of 
the Dneiper, captured by the English and French on Oct. 17th, 1855, 
being the first fort and portion of territory of Russia proper taken by 
the allied forces in the war of 1854-55." 

The dial is of slate and was presented to the Duchess of Cleveland, 
who at one time owned Downham Hall, and was erected on a stone 
pedestal and inscribed by her orders. 

458. I MARK only the SUNNY HOURS. 

On a window dial for a south aspect, which was exhibited at a 
bazaar in Crathie, and purchased, it is believed, for the Queen. Round 
the dial face was a view in Siena, and below it the inscription : " This 
dyal was fashioned by Oscar Patterson. The same being vitrarius and 
glass painter inne Glasgowe, shewinge the tyme in this tovne." 1 mark 
NONE but sunny HOURS is at Bournestream House, Wotton-under- 
Edge. The date of the house is 16 14. 

459. I mark the moments trod for good or ill. 

At The Priory, Warwick, with the initials T. H. and date 1556. 
The date, however, is that of the house, the dial being modern. 

460. I MARK time, dost TIKjU ? 

On a pedestal dial in the garden of Cubbington Vicarage, co. War- 
wick, erected in 1S47. Also on the south gable of Elmhurst, Rugby, 
erected by Mr. Hunter, the owner. The dial-face is supported by 
graceful figures of Night and Day in low relief; the former is shrouded 
in a mantle, the latter holds a bird on her finger. 

461. I note the bright hours of day. 

Over the entrance door of Copthorne Hall, Shrewsbury. 

462. I number none but sunny hours. 
At Galtfaenen, North Wales. 

463. I only mark bright hours. 

A horizontal dial, mounted on a square stone pedestal, which stands, 
in the gardens of Kiplin Hall, Yorkshire, bears this motto. It was 


inscribed and erected by the late Countess of Tyrconnel. The motto 
is also on a vertical dial at Messrs. Barker's works, No. 12, Clerkenwell 
Road, London. 



These lines, Dean Alford's paraphrase of No. 11 39, were placed, 
with No. 452, on a vertical dial on West Lodge farmhouse, near Car- 
thorpe, Yorkshire, in 1885, by the late G. J. Serjeantson, Esq. 

To TELL Y'= passage OF V" HOURES. 

When winter steals v'' flowers awave 

I tell V'- PASSINGE of their DAVE. 

o man whose klksii is 1!ut as (jrasse 
Like summere flowers tiiv life shall passe. 
Whiles tvme is thine lave up in store 
And thou shalt live for ever more. 

Sent to Mrs. Gatty in i860 for her collection, by her friend the Rev. 
Greville J. Chester, as being inscribed on the four sides of a dial in the 
garden at S. Windleham. It was an ingenious practical joke, as the 
motto was invented for the occasion, but the lines were so pretty and 
quaint that she was loath to let them pass away unrecorded. 

466. I STAY FOR no MAN. 

On a house at Colley Weston, Northants. 

467. I WISH THE sun would shine, on all men's fruits AND FLOWERS, 

In the Earl of Crawford's garden at Balcarres, Fife, there is an 
ancient pillar dial with many faces cut upon its sides. It has been 
mounted on a base of four steps, and the motto is carved on the lowest 
of them. 

468. Icii DiKN. I serve. 

On a dial in the garden at Menwith Hill, Darley, Yorkshire, with 
Nos. 1 147, 1530. 



On an iron octagonal dial, 13 inches diameter, made by Moellingen, 

470. Icil ZICIGE NUR DIE HEITEKN STUNDEN. / sIlOlV the bright hoUI'S 


In the Zoological Gardens, Berlin. 


471. Ici FRAPPE A TOUTE HEURE. Striking here at all Jiours. 
Over the door of a blacksmith's forg-e at Reaumont (Isere). 

472. Ici tu verras l'heure, 
Et plus bas ton demeure. 

Here see the hour tipon thy road, 
And over there thy last abode. 

On a house opposite the Cemetery at St, Savin (Isere). 

473. If my master use me well 
I'll try all others to excel. 

On a small brass ring dial in the Exeter Museum. 

474. If o'er the dial glides a shade, redeem 
The time ; for, lo, it passes like a dream. 
But if 'tis all a blank, then mark the loss 
Of hours unblest by shadows from the cross. 

These lines were written by the Rev. R. W. Essington, and in- 
scribed on a dial in the form of a cross, which he placed on a pillar in 
Shenstone Churchyard, near Lichfield, in 1848. The pillar had pre- 
viously borne a dial-plate of simple form, but this had been lost. Mr. 
Essington also erected a cross-dial in the garden of Shenstone Vicar- 
age, with No. 1263 as a motto, and both were copied from a cross-dial 
at Highlands, near Calne, Wilts. After leaving Shenstone Mr. Essing- 
ton went to live at Plen, Newquay, Cornwall, where he has placed a 
cross-dial in front of his house, inscribed with a slightly different version 
of the lines above. See No. 1369. 

A cross-dial bearing Mr. Essington's lines (No. 474) was made and 
presented to the Museum Gardens at Lichfield, by Mr. Hopcraft, stone- 
mason in the city. The same lines, with slight verbal alterations, are 
on a beautiful little white marble cross-dial, mounted on a red sand- 
stone pillar, which was placed over a child's grave in the churchyard 
of North Collaton, Devon, about the year 1857. 

475. Ignotum time. Fear the unknoivn. 

With Nos. 862, 980, in the Passage du Petit St. Antoine, Paris. 

476. Il est plus tard que jeunesse ne pense. 

Tot ou tard il faut mourir 
Avare pensez y. 


Youth doth not think hoiv fast the vwinents Jly, 
Greedy of life, remember thou must die. 

On a circular vertical dial at Pelvoux (Hautes Alpes). 

P P 


477. II est plus tard que tu ne pense, 
Prends garde a toi, ton heure s'avance. 

Time moves apace while here we stand, 
Beioare, O man ! thine hour's at hand. 

Formerly in the Faubourg St. Antoine, Paris. The first Hne is on 
a house on the roadside between Valbonne and the Grande Chartreuse ; 
and on the churches at Roche and St. Savin (Isere). 

478. Il est plus tard que vous ne croyez. 1 85 1. Z. G. F. It 
is later than you think. 

At Abries (Hautes Alpes). 

479. Il (f)aut (fiviTER LA re)tard. We must not be late. 

In an old courtyard, Rue Contrescarpe, Paris. In 1883 the motto 
was almost obliterated, but the missing letters were supplied by Baron 
de Riviere. 

480. Il faut partir tot ou tard. Soo7ier or later all must go. 

Formerly on the Bureau des Messageries, Rue Contrescarpe, Paris. 
It was the place whence the mails and the diligences used to start, so 
the double meaning of the motto is evident. 

481. Il luit pour tout le monde. It sJiincs for all the zvorld. 

See No. 541. In 1864 this motto was, with the picture of the sun, 
on the siirn of an inn at Viviers. Above the door was written : 

" Aujourd'hui comptant, demain credit ! " 

482. Il ne saurait trompek, 

C'eST le CI el qui le RfiGLE. 

Heaven is its guide, it cannot go zvrong. 
In the Court of the Eveche, Angouleme. 

483. Il passato fuggi, fugge il presente, 
Verra fuggendo l'avvenir repente. 

The present flics, fled is the past. 

The future comes, with flight how fasti 

On the church wall at Campitello, in the Italian Tyrol. 

484. Il tempo avaro ogni cosa fr.\cassa, 

Il tempo annulla ogni gran fama in terra, 
Ogni cosa mortal col tempo passa. 

Enviojis Time destroys all things, 

It obliterates all earthly fame ; 

Whatsoever is mortal passes away with Time. 

Dean Burgon, writing to " The Guardian," February 26th, 1874, an 
account of the ancient inscriptions at Ravenna, concluded his letter with 
the above lines, copied from a sun-dial on the facade of the church of 


St. Apollinare in Classe, and which, after wandering over the scenes of 
vanished greatness around the old city, struck him as possessing 
pecuHar interest. "After traversing," he says, "for miles the level 
plain outside Ravenna, and noting with interest the heaps of flat, 
rounded pebbles, alternating with heaps of detritus from the Bosco — 
which record the nature of the change which has passed over the entire 
aspect of the country — the humble words inscribed on this sun-dial struck 
me very forcibly." The motto is now entirely effaced. 

485. Il tempo fugge anche ai solleciti. Time, even to the carc- 
woi'fi, flies apace. 

On the Palazzo del Marchese Scalzi, Via dei Servl, Florence. 

486. Il tempo fugge e non s'arresta un ora. Time flics and stays 
not a7i /tour. 

On Casa Bacci, in the Piazza at San Marcello Pistoiese, Italy. The 
line is slightly altered from that of Petrarch : 

" La vita fugge e non s'arresta un ora." 

487. Il tempo passa, e l'eternita s'.wvicina. Time passes azuay, 
eternity draws near. 

With No. 790 on a dial at Riva, Val Sesia, dated 1829. 

488. Il travaille toujours, mi<;nager.s, imitez le. It ivorks without 
ceasing ; labourers, folloio its example. 

On the farmhouse of St. Barnabe, near Sillans (Var). 

489. Ille ego sum, longum qui metior annum, 
Omnia qui video, per quem videt omnia tellu.s, 
mundi oculus. 

/ am he that measures the length of the years, that seeth all things ; — 
through whom the earth seeth all things ; the eye 0/ the universe. 

On a white freestone dial, inserted in the gable of an Early English 
porch at Wootton Church, O.xon, with the initials and date as follows : 
" R. H., 1623, J R. Ch. Wa." The motto is taken and altered from 
Ovid's " Metamorphoses " : 

" Ille ego sum, dixit, qui longum metior annum. 
Omnia qui video, per quem videt omnia tellus, 
Mundi oculus." (Book iv., 226.) 

490. Illumin.a.t umbra. He gives light with a shadow. 
At a village on the Lake of Como, copied 1897. 

491. Illustrat et urit. He gives light, and burns. 
Formerly in the Cour du St. Esprit, Paris. 

492. Imitons le, travaillons sans relache. Let us imitate [the suti); 
let us work unceasingly. 

At Ouinsons (Basses Alpes). 


493. Imminet mors. Death is upon thee. 

Formerly in the convent garden of the Petits Augustins, Paris. 

494. Immotus verto. Without moving, I turn. 
At Sylve Benite (Isere). 

495. Impari l'uomo al numerar dell' ore, 
Che quanto li vive pi5, tanto piu muore. 
Learn, mortals, from this tale of hojirs told, 
Death is more certain than the life ye hold. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

496. Improve the present hour, for all beside 
Is A mere feather on a torrent's tide. 

Copied by Juliana H. Ewing from a dial on a wooden pedestal, 
shaped like a nine-pin, which stood in the garden of Rose Cottage, 
Fredericton, New Brunswick, in 1867. Mrs. Shore, who then owned 
the house, was a great friend of Mrs. Ewing, and frequently mentioned 
in the latter's letters. In October, 1867, she wrote to Mrs. Gatty : " I 
have got you a dial, and mean to make you a sketch and send it here- 
with. It is in the garden of a little old lady here, Mrs. Shore. She is 
very tiny and very old. She goes to the 7.30 Service like clockwork, 
has a garden, paints life-sized portraits in oils ! ! and complains that, 
' between housekeeping, literature, and the fine arts, she never has time 
for anything.'" A grandson of Mrs. Shore, R. Pennefather, Esq., 
has written recently about the dial from Sinzig am Rhein, as follows : 
" When my mother and I last went out to Canada, she missed the 
sun-dial, though the pedestal was still standing. The house (Rose 
Cottage) had been let to various people, and we supposed it had been 
' annexed.' One day. Mother wanted some horse-radish, and, as that 
newly laid clown in the garden was not yet large enough for use, I 
volunteered to try and dig for some, having noticed some leaves like 
that behind an old stable the year before. I dug down about 2 or 3 feet 
before I got a good thick piece of root, and threw up an old silver 
button with the Fleur-de-Iys on it. (The house was the oldest in the 
town, and had been the original Governor's when Fredericton was an 
old French post under Louis le Grand.) Of course, that set me grub- 
bing away, and what should come to light ? The plate of the sun-dial 
mentioned above. The gnomon, or style, was missing, but the plate 
now lies on the table before me. It was made for par. 46, but evidently 
of English workmanship. The date is 1826. I do not know whether 
it was [)ut up by my great-grandfather, old Chief Justice Saunders, or 
by his widow. He raised a troop of hussars at the breaking out of 
the ' War of Independence,' and fought for the King all through the 
war. He was given large tracts of land in New Brunswick to replace 


his estates in Maryland, etc., confiscated by the rebels. The old house 
is no more. The railway passes right over the site, and all the old 
carved butternut mantel-pieces, doorways, etc., have passed away in 
smoke, and all I have left of the old home is a photograph and the sun- 

497. Improve THE TIME. 1765. 

On an oval dial on the Unicorn Inn at Uppingham ; and on 
Market Harborough Church, dated 1850. 

498. In coelo quies. 1793. In heaven is rest. 

On a vertical dial affixed to the wall of Glaisdale Church, Yorkshire. 

499. In his own image the creator made, 

His own pure sunbeam quickened thee, o man ! 
Thou breathing dial ! since thy day began 
The present hour was ever marked with shade. 

Written by Walter Savage Landor as a motto for a dial, but it is 
not known whether it has been adopted. 

500. In hora nulla mora. 

In hours 0/ day 
Is 710 delay. 

In the Rectory garden at Micheldean. See No. 354. 

501. In lucem omnia vana. All things are vanity (when brought) into 
the lio/it. 

At Biella-alta, in Piedmont ; and on a house at Ville Vallouise. 
See No. 133. 

502. In omnibus rebus respice einem. /// all things look to the end. 
This line, from Thomas a Kempis, was inscribed on a pedestal-dial 

in the garden of Crowder House, Ecclesfield, Yorkshire, by the late 
Bernard Wake, Esq., the owner. The house formerly belonged to a 
yeoman family named Wilkinson, who had held the land for more than 
four hundred years, one Julyan Wilkinson, of Crowder House, being 
named in an existing deed which bears the date 1402. 

503. In reason's eye thy sedentary shadow travels hard. 1S19. 
On a dial which once stood at Port Elphinstone, Aberdeenshire, but 

is now at Ardkeen, Inverness. 

504. In such an hour as ye look not for, the son of man COMETH. 


Was on a plain oval dial on the south porch of Bakewell Church, 



> T' 

Derbyshire, but when last lieard of, in 1888, the motto was nearly 
obliterated. . .. ..-, 

505. In such an hour as yk think not 
the son of man cometh. 

Ex dono Robert! Watson. Ann. Doni. 

This inscription, from St. Matt. xxiv. 
44, was found nearly effaced on the dial 
which was removed from the parish church 
of Wakefield, Yorkshire, 
in 1 88 1, during repairs. 
That it was not the first 
sun-dial on the church is 
shown by the Churchwar- 
dens' accounts : 

1592. The dyall in the 
Churchyard was sett up. 

1595-96. Diall in the 

1597. A new sun- 
diall set up. 



In front of Stanwardine Hall, near Baschurch, Shropshire, a fine 
old Elizabethan mansion, now converted into a farmhouse, stands a 

pillar-dial, havinsT ;i 
.J^^'^^^My^i-} A silver plate, on which 

■2t**sk>>'''^^^^'5\^1"^.-^ f.) f^ these and other in- 

scriptions are en- 
graved. The dial 
is circular and hori- 
zontal, drawn in a 
square ; and the four 
vacant corners of 
the square are oc- 
cupied by the above 
two couplets we have 
"^r^'.'crr. _ . ^'' — — — --^---^ given ; and below, on 

STANWARDINE HAi.i,, NEAR liAscHURCH. ouc sidc, by an ele- 

phant with a castle 
on his back ; and in the opposite corner is a squirrel sitting up and 


eatingr. In the centre of the plate there is a stanza of four lines 
(see "No. 375), and beneath is a bird on a shield, with the date, 
" anno 1560." Stanwardine Hall belonged to the Corbet family, from 
which it passed to the Wynnes, and it is now in other hands. The 
elephant and squirrel are the Corbet crests. 

507. In umbra desixo. In shadoiu I cease. 

Seen on the picture of a dial in a scrap-book at Florence. 

508. In una si muore. 

One of these luill be the hour of death. 
14 di Febbraio. 
On a restaurant at Beaulieu, near Nice. 

509. Incessant down the stream of time 
And hours, and years, and ages roll. 

On a horizontal dial with stone pedestal in the kitchen garden at 

Lansdowne Lodge, Kenmare, co. Kerry. 

" Time is a river or violent torrent of things coming into being ; each one, as soon as 
it has appeared, is swept off, and disappears, and is succeeded by another which is swept 
away in its turn." — Meditations of Ma mis Aurelius Antoninus. 

510. InDeX Vt VMbras sIC tVos Ie.sV regIs. 1635. 
NesCItIs In qVa hoka DoMInVs Vester VentVrVs, 1635. 

As the gnomon rules the shadows, so dost Thou, O Jesu, rule thine own. 
Ye knoiv not at xchat hour your Lord will come. 

These lines are given in Hunter's "South Yorkshire" as having 
been "formerly on a piece of marble fixed over a gate," near Darfield 
Church, Yorkshire. They can hardly have belonged to anything but 
a sun-dial. The capitals are chronograms, and can be transposed so as 
to form the date 1635 in each line. 

511. Induce animum sapientem. 1775- Take to thyself a wise mind. 
May be seen on the south porch of the church at Eyam, Derbyshire. 

The place is renowned for a terrible visitation of the Plague which 
nearly depopulated it in 1666 ; still more so for the gallant conduct of 
its rector, the Rev. William Mompesson, who, with his wife, remained 
at home tending the sick, burying the dead, and inducing his people to 
keep within their narrow valley, so that the disease spread no further. 
Mr. Mompesson lived through the visitation, but his wife and 258 
other people died. See Plate VIII., p. 286. 

The dial is very elaborate, and has the tropics of Cancer and Capri- 
corn marked upon it ; also the names of various places, showing their 
difference from English time, and "W"Lee, Th"' Froggatt, Church 
Wardens " The face has recently been restored, and the further motto 
Ut hora sic vita, added below. 


512. Instar globi STAT MACHiNA MUXDi. Likc a ball staiids the frame- 
ivork of the zuoi'ld. 

At Moccas Court. See No. 1469. 

513. I N.STAT FORTE SUPREMA. Perchaucc the last houv is drawhig ncttv. 
In the kitchen warden of the former convent of the Celestins, Paris. 

514. Intra et adora soi.em qui non facit occasum. Enter, and 
-ivorship the Stm which settcth not. 

Above the church door at Villedieu (Cantal). 

515. Intus APOLLO SOL EXTRA. Apollo luithvi, the Sun outside. 



Two names I have of wondro7is pozuer, 
By day I mark for you the hour. 
At nis^ht within these walls yoti II fnd 
Time leaves no impress on your mind. 

Motto proposed for a sun-dial on the Theatre Favart. 

516. Inveni sortem, spes et fortuna valete, 
Sat me lusistis, ludite nunc alios. 

/ have found my destiny, farewell hope and fortune. 
You have played with me lottg eno7igh, now play with others. 
Baron de Riviere tells us that a public official who had retired to a 
country house near Beziers, after long buffetting with men and circum- 
stances, to enjoy the delights of home and literary pursuits, inscribed 
this motto on a dial which he placed in front of his house. 

517. lo passa comme l'omijra. I pass azvay like the shadoiv. 
In the Hameau de la Maladiere, near Rives (Isere). 

518. lo sec;no l'ora e tu rammente iddio. I mark the hour and do 
thou think up07i God. 

In the Cloister of the Convent of Santa Sabina, Rome. 


Conti tu fokse, come 10 coNTO, l'ora ? 
A passing shade am I, so too art thou ; 
I count the passing hours ; say, dost thou ? 
At the Villino Vanwiller, Milan. 

520. lo Ti D(j l'ora, se il sol risplende. I give the hour, if the sun 

In the Val Mastallone ; contributed to " Notes and Queries " (6th S., 
xi. 45). 



Ma tu andrai senza ritorno. 

I go and come every day; 

But thou shalt go zvithout returning. 

Copied in i860 from a house in the Rue de France, Nice. The dial 
was traced in brown on a white-washed wall. The late Dean Alford 
translated the motto as follows : 

'' I come and go and go and come each day ; 
But thou ivithout return shalt pass azvay." 

In 1S80 the dial was repainted, and the last part of the motto 
altered thus : 

Ma tu se vai piu non ritorni. 

But thou, if thou goest, returnest no more. 

This new rendering was, in 1888, becoming illesfible, owino; to the 
effects of weather upon the thin coating of plaster on which the words 
were painted, and the original motto could be discerned below. The 
dial was first set up in 1830. 

The same motto has been read at Arma di Taggia ; and at Pisa. It 
is also inscribed on a dial which stands in the Italian garden of the 
Manor House, Monkton Farleigh, Wilts. This dial was erected by 
Mr. Wade Browne, a tenant of the manor (1842-57), in memory of his 
younger brother, who was killed in the Kaffir war. Of this motto on a 
dial in a Riviera garden, E. V. B. writes : " The music of the words 
still seems to haunt the soul in opal tinted dreams, whose colour some- 
how does not fade with the fading lights of other days." — A Garden of 

522. IrsE suo cuRSU viRTUTEM MONSTRAT ET iioRAS. Himself III his 
course slwivcth both virtue and the hour. 

On an altitude dial in Mr. Evans' collection, which seems to 
have been made in commemoration of a friendship between Corbin, 
the Abbot of Scheyern, and Martin, the Prior of Indersdorf (or Unders- 
dorf), in Bavaria. The dial is engraved on a gilt brass plate, and 
elaborately adorned with various emblematical devices. At the top 
is the sun's face, with arrows for rays, and crowned with a bishop's 
mitre; possibly this is a portrait of Abbot Corbin, to whom the dial 
was presented. The motto is on a scroll above the sun. In each 
corner of the plate there is a (laming heart bearing numerals, as if it 
were a dial, and transfixed with an arrow for a gnomon. Above these 
hearts are the following lines : 

" His magis Vndenses llammis augentur Amoris ; 
Non faciunt vulnus vel certe vulnus Amoris." 

By these fames, O men of Undersdorf Love is evermore increased ; 
They make no wound, except the ivound of Love. 

Q Q 


Along the base of the plate is the couplet : 

" Pectora sunt Augustini, sunt tela Sebasti, 
Arcus Martini vulnus Amoris erit." 

TJie hearts are i hose of Augiis/inc, the darts {an'ozvs) those of Sebastian, 
The boiv is Martitis, the looiiiid zuill be tJiat of Love. 

In the centre of the plate there is a building resembling the front 
of a Greek temple, with arrows as pillars, and a hole at the apex for 
the gnomon. On this is written : 

" Horas designat simul ac demonstrat amorem idem Index." 
The pointer indicates at the same time the hours and love. 

The back of the plate is engraved for printing universal dials, and 
this is also elaborately decorated. In place of the "temple" there is 
a double lyre, over which two pastoral staves are joined in a ring. 
Two mitres, a sheaf of arrows, and the hilt of a sword also appear, 
but the "bow of Martin" is not given on either side. Perhaps the 
presence of arrows presupposes the bow. There is an inscription 
written on enfolded scrolls in such a fashion that it is difficult to tell 
in what order the words are meant to follow : 

" Abbatis .Schirrst Prepos : Vnderst Horologa Concordi:u Bicithera 
quam Gemino Natali R. R'"™ et Amplissim: Corbini Martini Prcesulum 
Germanorilq fratril Nouediali festo paravit pulsavit obsequiosa manus." 

Mr. Evans suggests that the meaning of this may be somewhat as 
follows : 

The dial of love in the shape of a double lyre which a dutiful hand 
made and struck {as a lyre') for the double birthday of the Abbot of 
Schcyern Corbin, and the Prior of Indersdorf Martin, very reverent and 
important chiefs of the German Brothers, on their nine day festival. 

It does not seem quite clear whether the "festival" was actually 
the day on which the friends were born, or the festival of their patron 
saints. At the base of the lyre where the staves unite in the ring is 
inscribed : 

" Obliget :eternis fratres hie annulis annis." 

May this ring bind the brothers together for evermore. 

523. Irrkparabile tempus. Time cannot be retrieved. 
At the Certosa dei Calci, near Pisa, 

524. Irrevocabile. {Time) cannot be recalled. 

On Little Milton Vicarage, Oxon ; and also with No. 114 on a 
vertical dial lately fixed on a new wing at Holmhurst, Sussex, by 
Mr. A. J. C. Hare. 

525. Ikrevocabilis iiora, 1842. The hour that cannot be recalled. 
Copied in 1 S60 from the toll house on the Pont du Siagne, near 


Cannes. The dial was vertical and painted in white on a yellow wall, 
and over the door were the words, " logcmcnt du garde du pout." The 
motto was also read in the same year, roughly written, and mis-spelt, 
with date 1850, on a south dial over the door of a shed in the Vallee 
de Gourdalon, two miles from Cannes. 

526. Irrevocabilis labitur iiora. 


Nk sis inutilis semper LABORA, 

Never ret timing 

Hotirs glide aioay, 

Thou, titough vmeh yearning 

Canst not delay. 

Labouring, learning, 

Spend thou thy day, 

Indolence spurning 

WatcJi thou and pray. 
This motto was written by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet. It is identical 
with No. 852, though the lines have been altered in arrangement. 
The verse has been inscribed by Messrs. Barker and Sons on a dial 
made by them for a house at Cawley Wood, Essex. The English 
rendering was written by Sir Herbert Maxwell and printed in " Black- 
wood's Magazine," 1S91. 


Transit in aeternos sic tua vita dies. 
As that shadozv glides away ivith silent passage. 
So thy life passes into the days of eternity. 
This was read somewhere in Tuscan)'. 

528. It is a light thing eor the shadow to go down ten degrees ; 
Nav, but let the shadow return backward(s) ten degrees. 

With No. 1647 on an elaborate dial erected in 1840 in the gardens 
of Bredisholm, near Glasgow. The quotation is from 2 Kings, xx. 10. 

529. Ita Vita. Such is life. 

At Porchere (Basses Alpes) ; and also on a dial represented in one 
of Bewick's illustrations to "yEsop's P'ables." 



An Italian (dial) shoivs times sacred to God. 
The inscription states that in the thirteenth year of the pontificate 


of Gregory XVI., Giovanni Antonio Teppati restored and embellished 
this dial, by the order of Antonio Matteucci, clerk of the works of the 
church of the Vatican. The dial is a laroe horizontal one of white 
marble placed on the balustrade which surrounds the roof of the nave 
of St. Peter's at Rome. It tells the hours from x to xxii, following the 
old Italian method by which the twenty-four hoiu's are counted from 
the ringing of Ave Maria, half an hour after sunset. This dial, and its 
companion. No. 342, placed on the corresponding corner of the balus- 
trade, are remarkable from their position, standing as they do at more 
than a hundred and fifty feet above the ground. Probably no other 
dials in the world have been raised so high. Their use is, however, 
undeniable. The roof of .St. Peter's is a village in itself. " There are," 
says Mr. Wey, " workshops, huts, sheds for domestic beasts, a forge and 
carpenter's stores,, ovens. For .several families it is a 
native land. The workmen of St. Peter's, called San Pietrini, succeed 
one another from father to son, and form a tribe. The; natives of the 
terrace have laws and customs of their own, " and as it appears, their 
timekeepers also. 

The hours are marked in Roman numerals. ihe motto, probably, 
refers to the Italian hours, which are shown on this dial as the ordinary 
ones are on its fellow. It recalls a saying suggested by the sight of a 
clock on a northern cathedral : 

" I was thinking," said I, "why it was that men jilaced clocks in the 
towers of churches." 

" That is easily answered, man ; to t(;ach you that Time is a sacred 
thing." (" Old Church Clock '.) 


(7chs and n'/iiriis the shade in its iiiicrying track, 
A fleeting shade are %ve and no return is ours. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

532. Jam ixcLiNATA EST iioKA. The hou)' is uoio far Spent. 

This motto is written on an illustration in a French MS. on dials in 
the possession of Lewis Fvans, Esq. The MS. appears to have been 
written at Nancy in the first half of the eighteenth century. 



Haste noiv, nor until coming hours delay, 
Less fit to-morrow he zmfit to-day. 

On a house near Newton House Woods, near Whitby. The first 
line is above, the second below the dial face. They are from Ovid, 
Rem. Amor. 93, 94. See Nos. 1043, 1601. 


534. J'atan l'eure (sic) (J 'attends l'heure). I aivait the hour. 

Seen in Dauphine. Another curiously spelt version of the same 
motto was read on the Chateau of the Cite de Carcassonne, Je attends 

535. J'avaxck. I gofonvard. 

On a horizontal dial in the garden at Hall Place, Berks. It is the 
family motto of Sir Gilbert East, Bart., the owner, whose crest is a 
horse passant, sable. The same inscription has been placed on the 
gnomon of a horizontal dial lately put up at Lyndhurst, Hants. The 
arms of the owner, Mr. Penton, are engraved on the plate, and the 
maker's name, F. Barker. 

536. Je chanterai 


/ ivill croio — ivhen thou zvilt strike. 

At Noves (Bouches du Rhone), a cock and hen are depicted on 
the dial, and chanticleer speaks. Cp. No. 667. 

537- Ji- cherciie midi. I seek noon. 

Inscribed below a dial in the Rue du Cherche Midi, Paris. The 
street has borne this name since 1595, and probably owes it to the sun- 
dial, which now is on a stone slab in the wall of a house, with a bas- 
relief of a man tracing a sun-dial from which the noon-day line and 
figure XII are absent, and which bears the words " au cherche midi." 
Beside these is a child representing either the little god Cupid, or the 
Genius of Day. The reference, of course, is to the Italian hours, which 
were counted from sunset to sunset, and when these were in common 
use the phrase " chercher midi a quatorze heures," would be readily 
understood. It signified to waste time in a vain folly, to seek for the 
impossible — for though the hour of noon might fall at sixteen, seventeen, 
or eighteen o'clock, according to the hour of sunset and the time of 
year, it could never in these latitudes be at fourteen. There is a story 
told of Voltaire that in passing through a village where the inhabitants 
were putting up a sun-dial, he was intreated to give them a motto, and 
accordingly wrote the following impromptu : 

" Vous qui venez dans ces demeures, 

Etes vous bien ? tenez vous y, 
Et n'allez pas chercher midi 

A quatorze heures." 

538. Je DONNE LA LUMlfCRE A LA OLOIRE DE DIEU. I give light to the 

glory of God. 

With No. 595, formerly in the garden of the convent of Capuchin 
nuns in the Place Vendome, Paris. 

539- Jen vois passer plus d'un. I see more thiDi one pass away. 
On the cemetery chapel, Mirepoix (Ariege). 




At Charnecles (I sere). 

Jk fais ma ronde 
Pour tout i.k mondk. 

For every one, 
Jlfy course I rjin. 




/ shine for all the ivorld, 
A/y shado70 passes on sioi/lly, 
And ihy end rapidly approaches, O Mortal. 
V M. 1833. 

Copied ill 1866 from a sun-dial over 
the door of llie villaoe inn at Rouge- 
mont, Canton de Vaud, Switzerland. 
The sun's full face, surrounded by rays, 
with the gnomon projecting from the 
centre, shone from the upper part of the 
dial. Beneath this was the first motto, 
and the other two lines were under the 
numerals. The little inn was a pic- 
turesque old chalet with a deepl)' carved 
cornice supportinsj; the overhanging roof 
The windows, fitted with little square 
\ panes of glass, were small and flanked 
^ by solid shutters ; and jjroljabl) only one 
pane in the whole house could be opened 
to admit the outer air, so unwelcome to 
the Swiss domestic hearth. l\ round- 
arched porch with thick heavy dot)rs led 
into the house. Through the inner door- 
way the hostess could be seen on a seat 
knitting, and wearing a black silk cap 
with lace lappets, while her beehive hat hung on the wall beside her. 
These are things of the past, probably seen no more. They were the 
last remains of the picturesque costume of the Canton of Vaud. 
The first four words have been read at Nyon. 

542. Jk MARCHK SANS piku, 

Et jk tk parlk sans lAxNgue. 
/ walk without a foot, and I speak to thee without a tongue. 
At Les Pananches (Hautes Alpes). 

543. Je ^E\R(^UE LA derniere. I show tJic last {liour). 
Locality forgotten. 




544. Je marque le temps que vous perdiez. i860. I note the time 
that you waste. 

On the Chateau of La Brillane (Basses Alpes). 

545. Je marque le temps vrai, 
L'horloge marque le temps moyen. 

/ shozo the true time — 

The clock shoivs mean time. 
This is inscribed above a dial on a house at Pau, opposite the Halles. 
Beneath it are the words : " Les horologes et les Cadrans indiquent a 
quelques secondes pres la meme heure le 25 x^'^, le 15 Avril, le 25 juin, 
et le I'"' 7'''". 

546. Je mesure le temps, image mobile 


Z. G. F. 1840. 
/ measure time, a moving image of motionless eternity. 
At Ville Vieille, Oueyras. Also at St. Yeran (Hautes Alpes), 
signed Z. G. F. (Zarbula), and having a picture of a toucan above 
on the right, and a fly-catcher on the left. 

547. Je ne puis rien sans le suleil, 
Mais quand il luit point de pareil. 

Without the sun I am useless, but lohen lie shines I have no ecjual. 

At Les Cabanes, near Cordes (Tarn). 

548. Je ne saurait tromper. 

C'est le ciel qui le ri':gle. 

Heaven is my guide, 
I cannot go zarong. 

In the court of the Evcche, Anafouleme. 

549. Je PARLE SANS DIRE MOT. 1 885. I spcak zuithout sayiug a ziwrd. 
On a house in the Place, Puy-St. Pierre (Hautes Alpes). 


As through my daily course I range 
Life, fortune, time itself — I change. 

Once at Boulogne. 

551. Je suis juste, sovez le aussi. i8ii. / am true, be ye true 

This inscription is more modern than the date. The dial is near 
the Grande Seminaire, Moutiers, Savoy. The first half of the motto is 
on the Cure's house, Brides-les-Bains, Savoy. 




Tel qu'on mesure on sera MESURfi 
Giovanni Borgesio fecit. 

/ am the measurer of time. 
" With what measure yc mete, it shall be measured to yon again." 

On the Maison-du-Roi, Queyras (Hautes Alpes), with No. 1034. 

553. Je vis de ta presence, et mon utilite 

finit en ton absence. 

/ live by thy presence, and my usefulness ends in thy absence. 

Copied about the year 1870, near Courmayeur, but the inscription 
is imperfect, some words at the beginning having been defaced. 

554. Je vous la souhaitk iieureuse. 18 10. May this moment be a 
happy one for y 071. 

Rue de la Croi.x Verte, Albi (Tarn). 

555. JuniLATE Deo. June 21, 1887. Rejoice in God. 

On a dial in the garden at Elm Hall, Wanstead, Esse.x. 

556. Jungere equos TITAN, VELOCIBUS IMPERA T HORis. — Ovid, Metam. I I. 
Titan bids the sivift hours yoke their steeds. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

557. Justus homo non timI'.t horam (jua.m abscondo. 

The j'ltsf man fears not the hour I hide. 
At Biviers (Iscre). 

558. KAIPON rNIiGl. Knoia the season. 

Is over a dial placed on the wall of the south transept of Ely 

Cathedral. The face of the sun seems to emit 
the lines to the surrounding figures, as well 
as the gnomon ; and between the lines are 
the signs of the zodiac. There is no date, 
but the dial is probably older than the clock, 
which was placed in the tower about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, and later 
than the Dissolution, as the chapter-house, 
which formerly projected from the south face 
of the transept, is lielieved to have been de- 
stroyed at that time. 

<I>xri'j:iN. Coming dozon from the Father of 
lights. — Si. James, i. i 7. 

This text is carved on one side of the 
cap of a stone shaft, surmounted by a horizontal dial, which has been 


set up by the Rev. W. Tuckwell in his garden at Waltham Rectory, 
Lincolnshire. On the three remaining sides of the cap are cut: (i) 
The arms of Winchester College, with its motto " Manners makyth 
man " ; (2) A line from the ^neid, Book VL, 545 (See No. 293) ; and 
(3) A shield bearing a cross and crown, and the legend " Servire reg- 
nare," — a device and motto which Mr. Tuckwell has adopted as his 
own. The device was copied from a seal dug up at Osney Abbey. 

560. L'ambition est la perte de l'honneur. 1825. Ambition is 
the ruin 0/ honour. 

At La Bez (Hautes Alpes). 

561. La charitE nous unit. Love unites us. 

On the former convent of the Minimes, Vitry le Frangais. 1883. 

562. La DERNifeRE DECIDE DE TOUTES. 1792. All's ivcll that ends 

On the church at Les Claux, Vallouise (Hautes Alpes). 

563. La derniere est cachEe. The last is hidden. 
Chateauneuf de Gadagne (Vaucluse). 

564. La derniEre fait la compte. Reckoning comes at the last. 
On a house, Route de Versailles, Sevres. 

565. La derniEre peut-etre pour toi. Perhaps the last {hour) for 

At Pure (I sere). 

566. L'eternitE depend d'une heure. Eternity hangs upon aji hour. 
At Annecy (Haute Savoie). 

567. La gloire du monde, passe comme l'ombre. 19 Juillet, 1632. 

The glory of the world passeth away like a shadoiv. 
On the belfry, Le Pin (Isere). 

568. L'heure d'aimer dieu. 1 691. Noiv is the time for loving God. 
On the church at Polienas (Isere). 

569. L'heure d'elever son cceur A dieu. 18 Juin, 1791. Noiu is 
the time to lift our hearts to God. 

On the church at Polienas (Isere). 

570. L'heure dhobei av roi i^sic'). 1720. Now is the time to obey 
the King. 

At Beaucroissant (Isere), above a dolphin's head surrounded by 

r r 


571. L'heure du travail. 1796. L'An V. (of the Republic). 
Now is the time for ivork. 

At Izeaux (Isere). 

572. L'heure est .\ dieu, 

L'esp£ranxe a tous. 

Adele Essex. 1896. 

The hour belongs to God, 
Hope to alt. 

On a sun-dial, thirty feet in diameter, at Cassiobury, Herts, the 
letters being made in box on a double gravel ring in the turf, designed 
by Lady Essex. 

573. L'heure fuit, l'eternitk approche. The hour flies, eternity 
clraivs near. 

At R^aumont (Isere). 

574. L'heure Novs derobe LE jouK. 1703. The hour steals away the 

Hameau de la Combe, near Rovon (Isere). 

575. L'heure pace {sic) et toi aussi. 1776. Time passes, and thou 
dost the same. 

At La Folatiere (Isere). 

576. L'heure passe comme i.e temps. 1847. The hotir passes as doth 

At St. Marcellin (Isere). 

577. L'heure qu'on ne pense pas. 1809. The hour 07ie least expects. 
At Seyssins (Isere). 

578. L'heure que tu cherches te conduit A la mort. The hour 
that thou lookest for leads thee to death. 

At Les Orres, near Embrun (Hautes Alpes). 

579. L'heure qui suit n'est pas A vous. The hour which follows 
belongs not to you. 

On the belfry of St. Gervais. When the dial was finished the painter 
stepped back to look at his work, the scaffolding shook, he fell and was 
killed on the spot. (See " La Cloche," by M. Blavignac.) 

580. L'heure va naitre ; elle est; elle est passEe. 1868. The 
hour is about to be ; it is ; it passes away. 

On a house at Les Queyrelles (Hautes Alpes). The dial is orna- 
mented with paintings of a cock and a pot of Howers. 


581. La LUMltRE EST MA RfeGLE, 



Light rules me. 
The shadozu thcc. 

At Chamaloc (Drome). 

582. La mort n'a POINT d'heure fixe. 18 1 2. Death has no fixed 

On the cure's house, Eybens (Isere). 

583. La morte annunzio in distinguendo il giorno (Preti). Divid- 
ing hour from hour a messenger 0/ death am I. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

584. L'umbra che vedi u passagier da velocissime 


e da UN momento 


l'eterno gioir 


The shadow's hours, traveller, swiftly speed. 
One moment grants it, bidding thee take heed ; 
One hour hath gone, one hour the less remains. 
Ere joys eternal, or eternal pains. 

On a house in a village near the Lago di Garda. The words Soli, 
soli, soli, are written between the numerals. 

585. l'ombra £ figura della tua labil vita, 
Segnando l'ore a meditar t'invita. 


The shadow is a symbol of thy fieeting life. 
By tellifig the time it calls thee to refiection. 

On a house by the Grand Canal, Venice. 

" Men desire thousands of days and wish to live long here ; let them rather despise 
thousands of days, and desire that one which hath neither dawn nor darkening, to which 
no yesterday give place, which yields to no to-morrow." — S. Augustint:, quoted by Arch- 
bishop Leighton. 

586. L'ombre fuit et revient, et dans son cours Egal 
De l'£tude et des jeux donne ici le signal. 

The shadow goes and comes again, 

And in its even way 
The signal gives for work, and gives 

The signal too for play . 


On a dial for a college (school), exhibited in the Conservatoire des 
Arts et des Metiers, Paris. It is the same as the rendering given b)- M. 
Dubois, in 1806, of the Latin motto now on the Lycee at Rouen. 

587. L'OMl'.RE FL'IT, LA MORT .XPPROCHK. 1825. Tkc sliadoiO flicS, 

death draws nigh. 

At Crest (Drome). 


Et sans repasser e'homme passe. 

The shadow passes, passes yet again ; 
But with no second passing, passeth man. 

In a garden not far from Falaise, Normandy. 


This hour marked by my constant ray, 
Is one more taken from ihy little day. 

On a house at Murano, near Venice, with No. 43. 

590. La paix ram£ne l'abondance. 181 5. Peace restores plenty. 
At St. Savin (Isere). 

591. La vertu EXCEPTfiE TOUT PASSE coMME l'ombre. All things, save 
virtue, pass away like a shadow. 

At Roybon (Isere). 

592. La vie ainsi que l'ombre se passe en peu d'heures. Life, like 
the shadozv, passes azvay in a feiv hours. 

No place assigned. 

593. La vie est COMME l'ombre, 

Insensible A son cours 
On la croit immobile ; 
Elle avance toujours. 

Our life is like the shades. 
Unseen upon its zuay ; 
At rest we dozvn are laid. 
It moveth on for aye. 

On a house at Bourges, with No. 1177. 

594. La vie n'est qu'un soupir, 

Si tot il faut mourir. 

Our life is but a sigh, 
So sooti ivc all must die. 

On the chapel of St. Jacques, Hameau de Bellentre (Savoy). 


595. La vie passe comme l'ombre. Life passes like the shadotv. 

At Ouaix (Isere) ; at St. Egreve ; and formerly, with No. 538, in 
tlie garden of the Capuchin Nuns' Convent, Place Vendome, Paris. 
With slight variations it may be also read at La Saxe, near Courmayeur ; 
and La Cachourie, Savoy. 

596. La vita fugge e non s'arresta un' ora (Petrarch). Life flies 
apace with not an hour s delay. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

597. Labente tempore futurum cogita. As time glides think on the 

On the University of Padua. 

598. Labitur et labetur. It glides, and will glide away. 

On a dial over the church porch at Leake, Yorks ; and at the 
Convent of Cimiez, Nice (see Nos. 233, 11 11, 1463, 1475, 1618). 
The words are from Horace, Epist. i. 2, 43. The simile is that of the 
countryman who when he comes to the river waits stolidly for the water 
to flow away so that he may be able to cross to the other side. 

" Qui recte vivendi prorogat horam, 
Rusticus expectat dum defluat amnis ; at ille 
Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis aevum." 

Ovid has a similar passage : 

" Eunt anni more fluentis aquae. 

Nee quae praeteriit cursu revocabitur unda ; 

Nee quae praeteriit hora redire potest." 

De Arte Amandi, iii. 62. 

Dr. Young has adopted a like metaphor in his " Night Thoughts." 

" Life glides away, Lorenzo, like a brook ; 

For ever ehanging, unpereeived the change. 

In the same brook none ever bathed him twice ; 

To the same life none ever twice awoke, 

We call the brook the same ; the same we think 

Our life, though still more rapid in its flow ; 

Nor mark the much, irrevocably lapsed 

And mingled with the sea." 

{Night Fifth.) 

599. Labitur occulte, fallitque volubile tempus. On-rolling lime 
glides by silently and unpereeived. 

On a house built in 1889, at Civiasco, near Varallo. 

At Colonel Helyar's very interesting house, Poundisford, near 
Taunton, there is an old dial with an inscription so nearly obliterated 
that only Labitnr occ — can now be read. Probably it originally bore 
the whole of the motto above. The line is slightly altered from Ovid, 

Eleg. i. : 

" Labitur occulte, fallitque volubilis aetas, 
Et celer admissis labitur annus equis." 


600. Labor et gloria vita fuit, mors requies. Life ivas work and 
honour, death is repose. 

Sent by the Hon. Mrs. R. C. Boyle. 

601. Labor ipse voluptas. Toil itself is pleasure. 

With initials and date C. H. i 718, on the Old Hall, Bransby, near 
Saxilby. The kitchen buildings, on which the dial is placed, are all 
that now remain of the original hall. 

602. Labora dum lucet. Work while it is light. 
At Les Avenieres (Isere). 

603. Laborare est orare. To work is to pray. 

Seen on an outhouse near Nice in i860, by Mr. Cowden Clarke. 

604. Labuntur anni. The years glide away. 

On Burnham Church, .Somerset. See No. 780. 

605. Laeta rogo xiteaxt divina illumina piioebi 
Et sine nube tibi qu.elibet hora fluat. 

Joyfully I pray that the rays of the heavenly sun may shine. 
And that every Iionr may pass happily to thee. 

Contributed by Viscount de Vesci. Locality not known. 

606. Las keine stund furuber ghan 
Du habst den etwas gut gethan. 

Of the hours let there none 

Pass when thon no good hast done. 

On an ivory portable compass dial in the National Museum at 
Munich, with No. 1016. 

607. Latet ultima. The last {hour) is hidden. 

On a dial in the garden at Bispham Hall, Lancashire ; and with 
date, 1793, on a chalet at Alagna. Compare No. 1475. 

608. L'amour et la jeunesse 
C'est UN simple passage 


Love and youth are but day-dreams, which pass away like the sunshine 
a7id the shadoio. 

In a village near Courmayeur. 

609. I . H . s 


Larreste . en . est . donne . qvil . favt . qve 
I'homme . mevre . et . qvil . paroisse . ensvite . 


vn . tribvnal . den . havt . pechevr . y . penset . 
pevt-etre . estce . icy . I'hevre . qvi . terminant . 

tes . jovrs . 

condvit . av . tombeav . povr . penser . a . toy . 

me . icy . pechevr . demevre . ce . qvadran . 

est . trompevr . crois . moy , ne . ty . fie . pas 

au . liev . de . vie jovr . marqver . 

I'hevre . pevt-estre . y . apprend . tv . celle . 

de . ton . trepas . icy . I'ombre . passant . 

An inscription engraved on the four sides of a slate dial, formerly 
at Brulon (Sarthe), now at Le Mans. The verses should be read 
thus : 

L'arret en est donne, il faut que I'homme meurt, 
Et qu'il paroisse ensuite au tribunal d'en haut. 
Pecheur, y pense tu .'' peut-etre icy I'heure 
Qui terminant tes jours conduit au tombeau, 
Pour penser a toy meme, icy, pecheur, demeure, 
Ce quadran est trompeur, crois moy, ne t'y fie pas 
Au lieu de vie, ou de jour, marquer I'heure, 
Peut-etre y apprend tu celle de ton trepas. 
Icy I'ombre passant — 

The last line has been broken off. 

The decree hath gone forth that man must die 
And must then appear before God's judgment seat. 
Sinner, think theretipon, perhaps this is the hour 
Which ending thy days unll lead thee to the tomb. 
Rest aivhile, sinner, consider thy destiny. 
Believe me this dial is deceptive, trust it not. 
Instead of showing the hour of life or of day 
Perhaps it reveals to thee that oj thy death 
Here the shadow passing — 

610. Le ciel est ma patrie. Heaven is my country 
On the church at Fortville, near Brian9on. 

611. Le ciel est ma r£gle. Heaven is my r^der. 

At Florence, on the studio of Signor Gelli, artist. Also at Romans 
(Drome), dated 1848 ; and at Fontenay aux Roses (Seine). 

612. Le do buone, le do male. / give good (seasons), I give bad 

At La Versine, near Chantilly, on the house of the Comte de 
St. Simon. 

312 ' SUN-DIALS 


COURSE. The Eternal hath spoken : the mountains shall not hinder thee 
in thy course. 

This was designed about 1850, and was till lately on a house at 
Les Oueyrelles (Hautes Alpes). 

614. L'homme DiicLiNE coMME l'ombre. Man declines Ukc the sliadow. 
At Maussane. 

615. L'homme est semblable A la vanite ; ses jours sont comme 
UN ombre qui passe. Man is like to vanity : his days are as a shadoio 
that passeth azvay. Psalm cxliv. 4 (Bible version). 

On a dial above the porch of St. Brelade's Church, Jersey. There 
is a free rendering of the same te.xt on an eighteenth century dial which 
is mounted on an antique marble pedestal in a garden, Rue du College, 
St. Girons, and No. 148 is also engraved upon it. 


Est l'image de l'ame pure. 
Natures brilliant eye is the emblem of the pure soul. 
At the Hotel Garqon Freres, Peisey (Savoy). 


Ma UN dI non contarai le ventiquattro. 

The hours of day to sixfold four amount, 

One day those twenty-four thou shall not count. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

618. L'ore del viver tuo incerte e corte, 

Ti fanno in UN pensier temer la morte ; 


Se vuoi vincer la morte, e trionfar de' guai. 

The short and dubiotis hour thou drazvesf breath, 

Mtist every instant bring the fear of death ; 

L ive thou with God, a life devoid oj sin^ 

If over death and woe a triumph thou wouldst win. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

6ig. L'ore non segno se mi manca l'ombra, 

E allora il muro in van da "me s'ingomra. 

A burden vain to my supporting walls, 
No hotir I mark unless the shadoio falls. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

620. Le plaisir les abr£ge. 1790. Pleasure shortens thetn. 
At Izeaux (Isere). 


621. Le present x'est jamais NOTRE BUT. Tliis is )wt yoiiv Rcst. 
On the church at San Martino, parish of Casaleggio, near Novi, 


622. Le soleil et la lune eclairent tout le monde. Aris. Auber- 
giste. The sun and moon give light to all. 

On the front of an inn at Betharram. 

623. Le soleil fuit yjx l'ombre reste. The sun files and the shadoiu 

In the Rue Neuve, Aime (Savoy). 

624. Le soleil l6ve pour tous. The stcn ariseth for all. 
Hora bibendi. Noio is the honr for drinking. 

Pont de Cervieres (Hautes Alpes). 

625. Le soleil luit pour tout le monde. The sun shines for all. 
On a cabaret at La Vachette (Hautes Alpes) This is not an in- 
frequent motto for cabarets, and once figured on the celebrated cabaret 
de Ramponneau aux Porcherons, Paris. It Is also found at Ste. 
Euphemie (Dr6me). 

626. Le soleil se l£ve pour tout le monde. The sun rises for all. 
On the " Auberge du Mouton Cheri," Rue de Cartres, Toulouse. 

627. Le temps c'est de l'or. 1703. Time is golden. 
Formerly at Noippy (Moselle). 

628. Le temps fuit emportant les heures sur les ailes, 
La justice et les lois ici sont eternelles. 

Time flies bearing the hours on its wings. 
Laiu and justice remain for ever. 
Suggested for a Palais de Justice. From a collection made by 
M. Dubois, 1806 (Rom. 1881). 

629. Le temps fuit, l'eternite s'avance. Time flies, eternity draws 

Near the source of the Isere, at Tignes (Savoy), partly defaced. 

630. Le temps fuit. Time flies. 
La mort suit. Death follows. 

On the Ecole des Freres, Moissac (Tarn et Garonne) ; and at 
Le Purler (Isere). 

631. Le temps MfeNE A l'£ternit£, qui en sait 
Bien profiter se la rendra heureuse. I 84 1. 

Time leads to eternity, he zuho knozos how to use the one well will 
make the other happy for hitnself. 

At Villard St. Pancrace (Hautes Alpes). 

s s 


632. Le temps passe et l'eternitk vient. Time passes and eternity 

On the church in the cemetery at Anet (Eure et Loire). 

633. Le temps passe et toi aussi. 1849. Time passes away, and 
t/iou passest away also. 

At Virleu (Isere). 

634. Le TEMPS passe, l'amitie reste. Time goes, friendship stays. 

With No. 114. On a dial placed by Lord Ilchester on the south- 
west front of Melbury Castle, Dorset. 

635. Le temps passe, l'eternite s'avance. Time passes, eternity 

Copied in 1870 at Entreves, near Courmayeur. There was a 
second line, but it was too much defaced to be leo-ible. 

636. Le TEMPS PASSE, les actions restent. 1840. Time passes, onr 
deeds remain. 

Formerly at Les V^acheres (Hautes Alpes). 

637. Le TEMPS passe n'est plus, l'eternite commence, 
Pensez y mortels et pensez y d'avance. 

The past is gone, etei'nity begins, 
Mortals think on this, ere it is too late. 

On a church at Lens, Canton Valais. 

638. Lead kindly light. 

These words, from Cardinal Newman's beautiful poem, have been 
inscribed on a modern dial at Castle Hall, Painswick, Gloucestershire, 
by Mr. Baddeley, the owner. 

639. Learn to \alue your time. 

At Ballakilley, Isle of Man. See No. 1 122. 

640. Les GiiNfiRATiQNS PASSENT COMME LES HEURES. 1 828. Genera- 
tions pass aivay like hours. 

At Montjoie (Ariege). 

" E fieramente mi stringe il core 
A pensar come tutto il mondo passa 
E quasi orma non lascia. 


641. Les iieures heureuses ne se comptent pas. Happy hours do 
not count themselves. 

\\\ an article, " My Plaisaunce," published in the "Lady's Realm" 
(v. I. No. i), the Countess of Warwick describes a sun-dial of which 
" the gnomon is a yew-tree, and the figures which record the hours are 


all cut and trimmed in box, and there is on the outer rinsr a legend" (as 
above) " which read in whatever way you will." 


CAR EN PEV DE TEMPS PASSE i.'hevre. 1 657. Hoiii's, days, moiit/is and 
years pass aivay, but the righteous man shall live for evermore, in that 
place where years, months, days and hours have no end. There is not too 
much time left for zvell doing, since the hour passes quickly azaay. 

On a dial taken from an old house at Beaune, and now placed in 
the museum at the Hotel de Ville. 

643. Les jours PASSENT coMME LES pElerins. Days go by like 

At St. Geoire (Isere). 

644. Let not the sun go down upon your wrath. 

St. Paul's monition (Eph. iv. 26) was used by Bishop Copleston for 
a dial motto in a villagre near which he resided. 

645. Let others tell of storms and showers, 
I'll only count your sunny hours. 

This motto, belonging to the numerous family of Moras non nu?nero 
7tisi Serenas, is inscribed on a horizontal dial set up about 1870 in the 
grounds of Lansdowne Lodge, Kenmare, co. Kerry. In 1895 the same 
motto was chosen by H.R. H. the Princess of Wales for a vertical dial 
at Sandringham House, together with No. 767. 

646. Lex anchora regni. Laiv is the atichor of the realm. 
At Lincoln's Inn. 

647. Lex dei lux diei. The law of God is the light of day. 

On the church of St. Thomas a Becket, Dodbrooke, Devon ; and 
over the south entrance of Mickleton Church, Gloucestershire. It was 
formerly on the church of Great Smeaton, Yorkshire (see Nos. 693, 
914, 1020); and is recorded as having been on the south side of the 
tower of Rugby Church, but the dial was replaced b)' a clock when the 
buildine was restored. 


648. Lex mea lux. Jlie law (is) my light. 

On the Palais Royal, Paris, in 1787. F"rom a contemporary MS. 
list, printed by the Comte du Marsy (Bull : Mon :). 

649. Life as this shade 

Doth fly and fade. 

On a vertical dial of sandstone, on the south wall ot St. Mary's at 
Marlston, near Bucklebury, Berks. 



650. Life 's but a fleetinc; shadow. 

At Langton Matravers, Dorset. A slightly different version, Life 
PASSETH AS A SHADOW, was formerly on the nave of Cardington Church, 
Bedford, with date, circa 1780, and initials " C. W." The dial was 
taken down during the restoration of the church, but is being repaired 
and re-adjusted by Mr. E. C. Middleton, and will be replaced on the 
south wall of the building. " C. W." was probably a member of the 
Whitehead family who own the adjoining estate of Southill. The 
present head of the family has represented Bedford for many years in 

651. Life 's but a shadow, 

Man 's but dust. 
This dyall saves, 
Dy all we must. 
On the church of All Saints, Winkleigh, Devon. 

652. Life 's but a walking shadow, i 769. 

From " Macbeth," Act V., Scene 5, is on an erect south dial on 
an old house in the Close, Salisbury, formerly inhabited by James 
Harris, the author of " Hermes," a Salisbury man, who died in 1780, 


and who may have erected and inscribed the dial. The same motto is 
on Woodborough Manor House, Wilts, and on a vertical dial on the 
stables at Arbury, Warwickshire — the " Cheveril Manor" described by 
George Eliot. 

653. Life is likf. a shadow. 

Over the porch of the fine old church of .St. John the Baptist, 
Morwenstow, Cornwall, which dates its foundation from the ninth or 
tenth century. The entrance door to the nave is very good Norman 


work, and the font is one of the oldest Saxon ones in Eng-land. The 
dial appears to be modern. Morwenstow, according to its former 
vicar, the late Rev. R. S. Hawker, means the "stow " or "place" of 
St. Morwenna. 

" My Saxon shrine ! the only ground 
Wherein this wearied heart hath rest ! 
What years the birds of God have found 
Among thy walls their sacred nest : 
The storm — the blast — the tempest shock, 
Have beat upon those walls in vain, 
She stands — a daughter of the rock — 
The changeless God's eternal fane. 

Firm was their faith, the ancient bands 
The wise of heart in wood and stone ; 
Who reared with stern and trembling hands 
These dark grey towers of days unknown ; 

* * * * 

They pitched no tent for change or death, 
No home to last man's shadowy day ! 
There ! there ! the everlasting breath 
Would breathe whole centuries away." 

R. S. Hawker. 

654. Life is short, time is swift, much is to be done. J. S. 1833. 

The dial is circular, and of slate, and was erected on a barn near 
Bassenthwaite, Cumberland, by the late James Spedding. 

655. Light come light go. 

This motto was devised by the late James Payn, for a sun-dial at 
Brighton set up by Mr. Pym. 

656. Light is the shadow of God. 

One of the mottoes on " Prince Albert Victor's dial," at the 
Edinburgh Exhibition, 1886. See No. 1306. 

657. Like to the hour of the day 

Our time and life soon pass away. 1821. 
On the south porch of Westbury Church, Wiltshire. 

658. Like to this sirkell round 

no end to love is found. 

On a bronze ring-dial found in a garden at Yattendon, and belong- 
ing to Alfred Waterhouse, Esq., R.A. 

659. Little sun upon the ceiling 
Ever moving ever stealing 

Moments, minutes, hours away. 
May no shade forbid thy shining 
While the heavenly sun declining 

Calls us to improve the day. 


On a ceiling dial, usually called a spot dial, made by a western 
window at Theobalds ; described in C. Leadbetter's " Mechanick 
Dialling," 1756. 

660. l'orologio ruo errar segnando le ore, 
Ma la sfera del sole glammai tkascorre. 

The clock may mistake in the hours of the day. 
But the orb of the sun never goeth astray. 

On a mill near Riva, Lago di Garda. 

661. Lo SOL sen' va, soggiunse, e vien la sera : 
NoN v'arrestate, ma studiate il tasso 


" The Sim," it added, " sinks, and eve is nigh : 
Linger not here, but swift pursue your xoay. 
Ere night arriving shroiids the zvcstern sky." 

Wright's Trans. 

On a dial erected by the late Lord Iddesleigh on the terrace at 
Pynes, Devon, and inscribed, "Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart. In 
memory of a friendship of three generations, 1787-1876." 

The lines are from the " Divina Commedia" of Dante, Puroatorio, 
c. xxvii. 

662. Long live the king. 

On the tower of Old Thundridge Church, Herts. 

663. 17 Loose no time 13 

A (the royal crown) R 

William Munden 
May v-^ 5. 

On the south side of High Street, Kensington, nearly midway 
between Young Street and the entrance to Jennings' Buildings (pulled 
down by Baron Grant) the old Red Lion Inn was entered by a yard 
which still remained in 1874. About forty feet from the ground on the 
south wall of the old house, a large stone slab let into the wall formed 
the plate of a sun-dial, the gnomon of which was propped by an S-like 
bar of iron. The above inscription was found to be engraved on the 
dial. Mr. W. Munden was a barber-chirurgeon (surgery was not con- 
stituted a distinct service till i 745). He held property in various parts 
of Kensington, and was churchwarden of the parish church, 1698 
(" Notes and Queries," 5th Series, 1874). 

664. LoQUOR, SKI) NON CAECis. I Speak, but uol to tlic blind. 

In Mrs. .Schimmelpennick's account of her visit to the ruins of Port 
Royal, she states that in the burj'ing ground attached to the chapel 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, there was a sun-dial which bore this 


motto ; and she adds that, " above the portal entrance to the burying- 
ground were the following inscriptions : — without, 

' Time is yet before thee ; ' 

' Time is for ever behind thee.' 

A quaint verse in old French was also often repeated : 

' Tous ces morts ont vecu, toi qui vis, tu mourras ; 
Ce jour terrible approche, et tu n'y pense pas.' 

which might be thus rendered : 

' These dead once lived, and thou who liv'st shalt die : 
Thou heedst it not, yet that dread day draws nigh.' " 

/ speak, but not to t/ie blind, was formerly on a sun-dial at Bath. 

665. Lord remember me 

When time no more shii, be. 
We shall die all. 
M. M. R. 1658. 

Formerly on an old public house in Peterborough, and now in the 
museum of the Natural History and Archaeological Society there. 

666. Lord through this hour 

Be thou my guide. 

So BY THY power 


Copied from an almanack, and there called " A Sun-dial Motto " ; no 
further particulars were given. 

667. Lorsque tu sonneras, je chante. When thou shalt strike, I 

On a house in the Rue d'Antibes, Cannes, there was in i860 a 
circular dial, surmounted by a gaily painted cock. Right and left of 
the bird there spread a scroll, inscribed as above. It is, of course, the 
cock's challenge to the dial. When sketched the dial had long passed 
its prime, and has probably now disappeared altogether. See No. 536. 

668. Lose no time. 

On a very large dial which is fastened outside the chancel wall of 
Middleton Church, Lancashire. 




The sun shines alike on cottage and oji palace. 
At Marseilles — in the Provencal dialect. 


670. Lovk's not Tnri;'.s fool, though rosv lu's & cheeks 


Love alters not with his brief hours & weeks, 
But bears it out even to the edge of doom. 

Shakespeare — Sonnet CXVL 

Formerly on a summer-house in the garden at Perridge, Pilton, 
Somerset. See No. 450. 

671. Luce lucente renascar. JVkeii Ike liaikt shines, I shall be born 

Sta. Maria Formosa, Venice. 

672. LucEM demonstrat umbra. 
The shadoiv shows the light. 

This motto was inscribed by 
the Very Rev. Arthur Purey-Cust, 
Dean of York, on a dial which 
he placed in 1889 over the south 
transept entrance of York Minster. 
There had once been a dial in the 
same place, but for some years a 
clock had superseded it. The clock 
was removed when the transept was 
restored, and the dial erected in its 
stead. The words of the inscrip- 
tion were chosen to express both 
a spiritual and scientific truth, the 
shadows of death making manifest 
the ineffable brightness of the Light 
of Life. 

673. LuCERNA ejus est AGNUS. 

The Lamb is the light thereof. — 
Rev. xxi. 23. 

VORK MINSTER. q^ ^ building which WaS till 

lately a boys' school connected with the parish church of Frome, 

674. Lucet omnibus. // shines for all. 

At La Cote d'Aime, Savoy. The inscription was added not long 
before 1877 by the Abbe du Cognon, cure of the parish. 


play be sought at the time appointed. 

Formerly in the College du March^, Paris, with No. 681. 

676. Lumen ducit oves. Light leads the sheep. 

On a horizontal dial at Evantard (Maine et Loire), formerly the 


residence of the Bishops of Angers. On the dial are the arms of Jean 
de Vaugirard who was Bishop in 1753. The sun's face in the centre 
sends its rays towards the hours. The arms of France are on the style, 
which is of copper. The motto is a flattering allusion to the Bishop's 

677. Lumen et tenebr.-e sumus. We are light and darkness. 
On a seventeenth century house at Kaysersberg. 

678. Lumen et umbra Dei. 1672. Light and shadoiv of God. 

" At Tredegar, Monmouthshire, in a room panelled with cedar, one 
pane of the window is marked with the lines and hours for a sun-dial, 
radiating from a projecting gnomon, and beneath it is the above 
motto burnt in the glass. (N. and O., 4th S., iv. 143.) 

679. Lumen in umbra : 

Lumen ab intus. 

Light in shadozo : light from zuithin. 

On the cathedral at Autun, below two dials painted on the south 
angle of the Chapel of St. Joseph. The building seems to belong to 
the eighteenth century. 

680. Lumen me regit vos umbra. The light guides vie, the shadozo 

At Barlow Hall, Lancashire, on a dial supposed to have been 
erected about the year 1574 by Alexander Barlow. 

681. Lumen non flamma. Light not fame. 

Formerly on the College du Marche, Paris, with No. 675. 

682. Lumen umbra del Light {is) the shadozv of God. 

On a window dial, and also in the garden, at Groombridge Place, 
Kent. See No. 1506. 


the light, let us love lighfs Creator for His love to us. 
On the cathedral, Nevers. 



The light of God shozveth the zvay of L ife. 

But the shadozv telle th both the hour and teacheth the faith. 

On a fine vertical dial set up in 1S91 on an old stone wall which 
marked the northern boundary of the grounds of the Sta. Barbara 
Mission in California. It is in full view of the highway, so can be seen 
by all the passers by. " It is a pretty sight," says the writer in the 
" Andover Review," " to see the picturesque native Calilornians stopping 
to read the Latin, in their softened Spanish accent, with evident compre- 

T T 


hension." There is also the inscription : " This dial was made, inscribed 
and set by Rowland Hazard of Peace Dale, Rhode Island, in a part of 
the Sta. Barbara Mission wall, built 1786, standing on his land." 

685. Lux DEI VESTIGIUM. Liglit is God's footprint. 
At the Church of the Frari, Venice. 

686. Lux niEi, lex del The light of day is the law of God. 
On Whitburn Church, co. Durham. 


Lux et umbra vicissim sed semper amor. 
Light and shad 010 by ttirns, but love alzvays. 

This motto was composed by Mr. Bodley, F.S. A., and given by him 

to the Hon. Mrs. R. C. Boyle for 
a horizontal dial in the garden at 
Huntercombe Manor, Maidenhead. 
It is also on a dial at Parkstone, 
erected by the owner in memory 
of a brother, and placed in his 
favourite garden. 

688. LVX.In tenebris LVCet 
MetItVr qVk DIes. Light shincth 

ill the darkness and nieasnreth out 
the days. 

On a brass universal ring dial 
bought in London by Mr. Hilton 
(see Chronograms, vol. iii.). The 
date given is 1734. 

68g. Lux LAETiTiA EST. Light is 


On the presbytere, Le Chazelet 
(Hautes Alpes). 


690. Lux MEA LEX. Light my laio. 

In the court of the Hotel de Ville at Epinal. 

691. Lux POST umbram. Light after shadozo. 
Was read as a dial motto in the north of Italy. 

692. Lux lUA vita MEA. 77!;;' light {is) my life. 

At Maplcdurham House, near Reading. The motto is that of the 
Blount family, to whom the place belongs. 

693. Lux UMBRA DEI. Light {is) the shadozo of God. 

At Ripley, Surrey, with other mottoes (see No. 1002) ; on Dymock 
Church, Gloucestershire ; at Finchley ; at West Boldon, co. Durham ; 


it has been seen in the north of Italy ; and was formerly on the church 
at Great Smeaton, Yorkshire (see No. 1020). 


light makes shadow, but the tnith makes mysteries. 

On the church at Chateau Oueyras (with Nos. 270 and 775). 

695. 1740 VKARS OF 



PS. CXIX. 165. EZEK. III. 20. 



MAL. I. II. 




This extraordinary inscription is carved in stone on the two sides of 
a dial plate which is inserted in the slab, and fixed against a house in 
the village of Wentworth, on Earl Fitzwilliam's Yorkshire estate. It 
has puzzled many passers by ; but the Rev. Dr. Moses Margoliouth has 
offered a solution of the mysterious motto in " Notes and Queries," ist 
Ser., vol. iv., p. 378. He assumes it to have been the work of a Jewish 
mason, probably employed in the erection of Wentworth Woodhouse, 
who had become a convert to Christianity, and who sought to allure his 
Hebrew brethren to a like change of faith. The Hebrew characters 
form no word that can be found in the language, but they are the initial 
letters of the following words : 

'jn nin- nVa' n^a'a tVo 

which express, " The King Messiah, the Shiloh, the Lord my Shepherd." 
Dr. Margoliouth regards the motto as a veiled admission on the part of 
the Israelite of his conversion to Christianity, given after a national 
mode of Eastern communication. It will be observed that the Scriptural 
references are confined to the books of the Old Testament, so as not to 
alarm the inquiring reader. Dr. Margoliouth concludes his criticism 
thus : " One may well imagine an Israelite or two observing from the 
road the Hebrew characters, rmoo, for they are very large, and are 
seen afar off — and after puzzling over their intent and purport for some 
time, proceed to ask for an explanation from the major-domo. The 
master, delighted that the bait caught, vouchsafes, in his peculiarly 
eccentric style, to lecture on his own device, and thus reads to his 
brethren a sermon in stone." By referring to the passages cited in the 
inscription, the reader will better understand the learned Hebraist's 



MaCIIINA, bis SEXTAS (JUAK justk dividit iioras 

This device, 70/iich rightly divides the twelve hoius {0/ day), 
JJ^arns yon to giiai'd jtistice and observe the larvs. 
This appears in Paris, on a turret of the Palais de Justice ; a sun-dial 
was formerly there, but has been replaced by a clock. 

697. Maestis eextak, ceeeres (lAUDENTinus iioRAE. Slozo to the 
sorrowing, swift to the joying, pass the hours. 

At Stra, near Padua ; and also, with the iirst word missing, on a 

house by the roadside between Ventimitjlia and Bordighera. 

" Mow lazily time creeps about 
To one that mourns ! " 

Bishop II. King. 

698. Magni momenti MINUTIAE. Trifles arc oj great import. 
On the Grand Seminaire, Avignon (with Nos. 75 and 1587). 

699. Make haste, time flies. 

On Lady Ossington's coffee house, Newark. 

700. Max best erwaiii.t 


He hath made his choice aright, 
, 117/0 eoiinteth lutt the hours of light. 

At Nuremberg, recorded in "The Monthly Packet," October, 1886, 
p. 396. 

701. Man eleeth as a su.vnow. 

A square dial, once painted red willi a green border, is t)n a gable 

over the porch of the picturesque old 
church at Wycliffe-on-the-Tees, and bore 
the above motto from Job, xiv. 2. The 
dial is now quite defaced and useless. 
Wycliffe is the reputed birthplace of the 
great Reformer, and is very beautifully 
situated. The same motto was formerly 
on the church at Staindrop, co. Durham ; 

_^^_^ and it is still on a square dial upon the 

^,r~-ir" T^" "'""""'.T, ~7r south wall of the aisle of Maxey Church, 
^ - ._. Northamptonshire. 

702. Man eleeth as it wicric a shadow. 

On the south porch of liamsterley 


Church, CO. Durham. 
703. Man goeth to his work. Children ok light. The night 




These mottoes are inscribed on the four faces of a stone shaft in the 
churchyard at Upton St. Leonards, Gloucestershire ; there are dial- 
plates on the east, south, and west faces. 

704. Max is a shadow. 1808. 

Over the porch of Stowmarket Church, Suffolk. 

705. Man is like a thing ok nought, his time tassetii away like 
a shadow (Psalm cxliv. 4). 

On a horizontal dial in b'rittenden Churchyard. 

706. Man's days are as a shadow that passeth awav. 

With other mottoes on Prince Albert Victor's dial, Edinburgh Ex- 
hibition, 1886. See No. 1306. 

707. Mancher acts, manciier verlaciits, mancher bp:tracts. Was 
machts ? Mussigang mutter alle lasd(t)er. Omnia humana vana. 
MEiN werk ja nicht veracht, bevor du nicht hast ein besseres 


gloria mundi. Many a man heeds it, many a man despises it, many a 
man looks at it. What matters it'' Idleness is the mother of all vice. 
All things Intnian are vain. Be stire yon do not despise my handiivork 
before yon, have made a better yourself. Nothing is difficult to the 7oilling. 
The hour flies. So passes the glory of the world. 

These quaint mottoes are all inscribed on a curious wooden block, 
bearing several dials, in Mr. livans' collection. 

708. Mane nobiscum, domine, ouoniam advesperascit. Abide with us, 
O Lord, for it is toi>.<ard evening (St. Luke, xxiv. 29). 

This text is written on an illustration of a west dial in a French 
MS. on dials in the possession of Lewis Evans, Esq. The MS. appears 
to have been written at Nancy in the first part of the eighteenth cen- 

709. Mane piger stertis, fugit hora. /;/ the morning thou snorest 
sluggishly — the hour flies. 

Recorded as a dial motto, but no locality assigned. The first three 
words are from Persius, 5, 132. 

710. Mane quaeris horam : 

Sero forte (tua). 18 14. 

In the morning thou askest the hour : later perchance comes thy hour. 

On two complementary dials at Abries (Hautes Alpes). 

711. Maneo nemini. I wait for 710 one. 

There is a dial which bears this inscription, and surrounded by 
creeper foliage, on Middleton Tyas Hall, near Richmond, Yorks. The 



same motto occurs in a small hamlet, near Baslow, Derbyshire. See 
No. 330. 

712. Manet ultima ccklo. The end is in heaven. 
At Regime, Canton de Taverne (Tarn). 

713. Mark wkll .mv siiauk, and .skriouslv attend 
The common les.son of a silent friend, 
For time and life speed rapidly away, 
Neither can you recall the former day. 


But live thou this day as if the last. 
On the sun-dial of Thornby Church, Northamptonshire. 

714. Mari^ui quand jalo (jl alvrque quand il c.elk). / mark {/he 
time) lohcn it free.zes. 

On the facade of the old Mairie at Montolieu (Aude), which stood 
above one of the now destroyed city gates. In front of this building 
was a tree which intercepted the rays of the sun, except in winter when 
it was leafless. The dial then showed the hours. 

715. May thic dread hook at our last trial. 
When open spread, i;k like this dial; 
May heaven forijear to mark therein 
The hours made dark p.y deeds of sin; 
Those only in that record write 
Which virtue, like the sun, makes pright. 

On a dial which projects from the sill of the library window at 
Arley Hall, Cheshire, the seat of R. Egerton-Warburton, Esq. It has 
also Horas noii nuviero nisi serenas. Comp. No. 1384. 

716. May those be blest with length of days 
Who still proclaim king William's praise. 

This pious tribute to the "glorious and immortal memory" is 
recorded in " Notes and Queries," 4th Sen, x., November, 1872, as an 
Orange inscription in the Green County of Roscommon. 

717. Me lumen vos umbra regit. The light rules vie, the shae/ovj 

At Lesneven, in Brittany; in the garden of the hospital of 
St. Jacques, Besan^on (see No. 75) ; and on the Town Hall, Saltash, 
with "Edward Stephens, fecit 1727." The first four words and date 
1783 are at La Salle (Hautes Alpes). 

718. Me ortum vides forsan non occasual Risen thou scest me {the 
sicn) perhaps not set. 

On one of the faces of a pillar-dial at Borranshill House, near Car- 
lisle, with No. 1337. The pillar was erected by a member of the 


Heysham family; it bears on the summit a vase ornamented with 
doves, and crowned by a lion passant regardant — the Heysham crest. 
The pillar is about 7 feet high. Borranshill now belongs to Colonel 

719. Me sol vos umbra regit. TJic siiii rides me, the shadoio yoti-. 

At Auterive, near Auch (Gers) ; at St. Andras (Ariege) ; at 
Tonneins (Lot et Garonne) ; and formerly in the Rue d'Enfer, Paris. 

720. Meam non tuam noscis. Thou knoivest my hour, not thine oivn. 
Copied at Poirino, Piedmont. 

721. Meam vide umbram, 

Tuam videuis vitam. 

Behold my shadow, and thou shalt behold thy life. 

On a small leaden dial in the Musee Bar-le-duc, adorned 
with the sun's face in the centre. The figures 1432 also appear, but 
these cannot represent the date of the instrument, which is compara- 
tively modern. 

722. Medium non deserit unquam. // never leaves the middle. 

On the parish church, Capolago. The motto probably refers to the 

723. Mein leben weiciiet sciinell dahin 
In dem icit nur ein sciiatten bin. 

My life passes quickly azuay, 
For I am but a shadozv. 

On a honestone dial in Mr. Evans' collection. 

724. Memento finis. 18 16. Remember the end. Ecclus. xxxvi. 10. 
At Ville Vallouise, and at Le Villard (Hautes Alpes). 

725. Memento homo (^uia tulvere es, 


Remember, man, that thou art dust, and unto dust shalt thou return. 
At Evian (Savoy). 

726. Memento iiorae novissimae. i 798. Remember thy last hour. 

Inscribed on a semi-circular dial on a cottage beside the road, 
on the eastern side of Bordighera, near Ospedaletti. It is placed 
almost immediately under the roof, the motto and date being below. 
On the right hand side a lamp projects from the wall, and hangs in front 
of a niche, where there is an image of the Madonna, 

727. Memento mori. Remember death. 

This admonition has frequently been chosen as a motto for dials, 
especially in the North of England. It was formerly on Croft Church, 


Yorkshire, dated 1816; and on Rotherham Church (see No. 425). It 
has been seen on Bishop Middleham Church, dated 1741 ; on AycHfTfe 
Church, CO. Durham ; at Wetherall, Cumberland, with No. 66 ; and 
also on the Sun-dial Inn at Stroud (see No. 1337). 

It has been read abroad on a dial at Monthey, Canton Valais, dated 
1804; on the church at Amsoldingen, Canton Berne ; on the church at 
Anet ; and at Cherville (Maine et Loire). 

The same motto is on the church porch at Skipton, Yorkshire. 
The porch was built in 1866, and replaced an old structure on which 
there was a stone sun-dial ; the present one is of brass. The words 
also occur in the parish register with a note of the burial, in 1665, of 
Robert Sutton, M.A., who for " fforty & three years was Vicar of the 
sayde place. His funeral sermon was preached by his son & onelyson 
Thomas Sutton, on this text (2 Kings, xi. 12), ' Memento mori. One 
generation goeth & another cometh ! ' " An older dial, without a motto, 
is traced on the church tower, which was destroyed during the siege of 
Skipton Castle in the Civil Wars, 1642-45, and was rebuilt by Anne, 
Countess of Pembroke, in 1655. 

The same words were chosen by Thackeray for the dial at Castle- 
wood, which figures in one of his beautiful descriptions : " There was in 
the court a peculiar silence somehow; and the scene remained long in 
Esmond's memory. The sky bright overhead ; the buttresses of the 
building, and the sun-dial casting shadow over the gilt ' Memento 
Mori ' inscribed underneath ; the two dogs — a black greyhound, a 
spaniel nearly white, the one with his face up to the sun, and the other 
snuffing amongst the grass and stones : and my lord leaning over the 
fountain which was plashing audibly. 'Tis strange how that scene, and 
the sound of that fountain, remain fixed on the memory of a man who 
has beheld a hundred sights of s])lendour and danger, too, of which he 
has kept no account" (" Esmond," chap. xiv.). 

A correspondent reminds us that a certain well-known Fellow of 
Worcester College, Oxford, suggested as the motto for a snuff-box made 
out of an old mulberry tree, " Memento mori — Remcmdcr t/ic viuldcrryinr." 

728. Memor esto brevi.s aevi. 1764. Bear in mind how short lifcis. 

Over the porch entrance at Bittadon Church, North Devon. The 
porch is enveloped in ivy, from which the dial face peers out. The 
same motto, without date, also occurs at Checkley, Staffordshire. 

So Hotspur : 

"O gentlemen, the lime of life is short, 
To spend that shortness basely were too long 
If life did ride upon a dial's [wint 
Still ending at the arrival of an hour." 

Shakespeark, Hen. IV. 


Dom. MDCccxxxiv. Joh. Antonivs Teppati, Tavrini, delineavit. Mind- 
ful 0/ the last [/lottr], employ the present. 


On the wall of a court in the Hospital della Consolazione, or Santa 
Maria in Portico, Rome. 

730. Memorare novissima tua. 1832. Remetnbcr iky end. — Ecclus. 
vii. 36. 

At St. Geoire (Isere) ; and on the Maison du Bac, La Riviere. The 
first two words are on the cure's house, St. Paul d'Izeaux, dated 1812 ; 
and at St. Etienne de St. Geoirs. The same words were inscribed by 
Bishop Lancelot Andrewes inside the ring which he wore as prelate ot 
the Order of the Garter. 

731. Menagers, soyez vigilants, les heures passent. Labourers, 
take heed, the hours fly. 

On a country house at La Verdiere. 

732. Mentiri non est meum. It is not possible to me to lie. 

Given by Charles Leadbetter in his " Mechanick Dialling," 1756, 
as on a dial " facine BillinsfSCTate where the Dealers in Coals assemble 
daily." The motto was formerly on Ebberston Church, near Scarborough, 
with No. 942. 

733. Mentrech'io PARLo iL TEMPO FUGGi. I 776. While I spcak, time flies. 
With three other words now illegible. At Rives (Isere). 

734. Mentre l'astro supremo il disco ruota 

E l'ore, e il tempo all'uom viator misura, 
Ah ! l'uom viator trapassa e quello dura. 

While the supreme star turns its disc 
It measures the hours and time to man the traveller. 
Ah ! man, the traveller, dies, and that {the sun) endures. 
By the roadside wall between Santa Caterina and Bormio. 

735. Mets ciiaque iieure a PKf)Frr et surtout la DERNifeRE. Use 
each hour well, especially the last. 

At Pezenas (Herault). 

736. Mi di cor tegni cunt o menasin, podet dinn altretant ? 
(lo delle ore tengo conto. vol Di menaggio, potete dire attri- 
tanto ?) / keep an account of the hours ; O citizen of Menaggio, can 
you say the same ? 

This motto, in the Lombard dialect, is at Menaggio, on the Lake 
of Como. 

737. Ml fece d'arciiimede l'alta scuola 
Il sol mi da la vita e la parola. 

Designed by Archimedes lofty mind, 
In sunlight life and speech I fi^id. 

u u 


This motto, with the date 1859, and name, " Carolus Sachi, Trigon, 
desine, pinxit," is on a dial erected on the wall of one of the courts of 
the immense chateau of the Counts Arcohati, at Rho, near Milan. 
The last descendant of this ancient Milanese family, which dated from 
the fourteenth century, was buried at Milan in 1870. 

738. Mia vita t il sol : dell' uom la vita £ dig ; 
Senza esso £ l'uom, qual senza sol son' 10. 

My life is the sun : God is the life of man, 
Man without Him, is as I am without the S7in. 

On the wall of a monastery, now suppressed, in the neighbourhood 
of Florence. 

739. Mig leder solen EI SKUGGEN. The sun leads me, not the 

This was read in 1897 on the inside band of a globe dial which 
was lying on a rubbish heap in an outhouse at the royal residence, 
Rosendal Djurgarden, near Stockholm. 

740. MIhI DeVs LVX et saLVs. God is viy light and salvation. 
At Hadleigh, Suffolk (see No. 1393). A chronogram, a.d. 1627. 

741. Mind your business. 

On the church tow^er at Furneaux Pelham, Herts, with No. 1408 ; 
formerly at Falsgrave, Scarborough. 

742. Minute sunt qu/E spectas, non qu.^ perdis. What yon look at 
are niimttes, not what yo7i lose. 

A moment — mark how small a space 
The Dial shows upon its face ; 
Yet waste but one — and you will see 
Of how great moment it can be. 

On a sun-dial in Oxford, near the Clerk of the Peace's office. The 
dial bears the arms of Thomas, Earl (afterwards Marquis) of Wharton, 
Lord Lieutenant of Oxfordshire from 1691 to 1702. 

743. Misspend no Time. 

At Micheldean (see No. 354). 

" Employ thy time well if thou meanest to gain leisure, and since thou art not sure 
of a minute, throw not away an hour." — Benjamin Franklin. 

744. Mobile tempus iiora non remorantk fugit. 77ie hour stays 
not, the time quick moving flics. 

At Moulins. 

745. Moneo, dum moveo. I loarn whilst I move. 

Formerly on a summer-house at Danby Hall, near Lcyburn, 
Yorkshire ; but the dial has now been moved, and placed abo\'e the 


principal door of the stables. The same motto was formerly on the 
Market Cross at King's Lynn (see No. 248). 

746. MoNEO NGN MANEO. / zvavu, I do iiot Stay. 

In the flower garden at Cokethorpe Park, Oxfordshire. 

747. MoNSTRAT IN siLENTio. W. Keall fecit. 1 801. // shoiijs {the 
/w2tr) in silence. 

On a dial in a garden belonging to a correspondent of " Country 
Life," December 24th, 1898 (Mr. J. C. Davies). 

748. MoNSTRO viAM, PERGE SECURUS. / slioio the ivay, proceed trust- 
ful ly. 

On an ivory compass dial made by Hans Troschel, 1600- 1668, in 
Mr. Evans' collection (comp. No. 967). This motto is often used on 
compass dials. Mr. Evans has three in his collection similarly in- 
scribed ; one of these is dated 161 2. 

749. Mors de die accelerat. 1796. Death hastens on day by day. 

This inscription was on a dial over an archway in the stable-yard 
at Kiplin Hall, near Catterick. 

When the collector (Mrs. Gatty) last saw it, in 1S64, the motto had 
been painted over. The dial was made by a villager named Bonner, 
who died about 1818 ; and in 1838 the collector sketched his widow at 
her cottage in Kiplin, and received the information from her. 

The same motto is in the churchyard at Derwent, in Derbyshire. 
This dial is made of a soft gray stone or slate, in shape like an heraldic 
shield, and is mounted on an oak beam, which was probably taken out 
of the old chapel of the fourteenth century. 

750. Mors venit, hora fugit, metuas mortem venientem. 
Death approaches, the hour flies, fear thou the approach of death. 
On an ivory compass dial in Mr. Evans' collection (see No. 2il)- 

751. Mortal, while the sunny beam 

Tells thee here how time is flying ; 
Haste the moments to redeem, 
For eternity providing. 

Winters pass and springs renew 

to maturity advancing, 
Youth to pleasure sighs adieu 

In the fields of childhood dancing. 

Manhood sinks to hoary age 

And a night that has no morning ; 

O LET wisdom now ENGAGE, 

Hear her dictates and take warning. 


Wisely still the moments use, 

Man is every moment dying ; 
Whilst this tablet you peruse, 

O remember time is flying. 

W. Lamb. 

In the " Gentleman's Magazine" for 1829, ii. p. 39, it is stated that 
the above stanzas are written on a sun-dial on Gainford Church porch. 
They are no longer there. 

752. Mortel, L'liTERNiTii APPROCiiE. 1823. Mortal, eternity dvaivs near. 
On the church at Meaudre (Isere). 

753- Mortel qui cherissez ce temple de folie, 

Pense que votre jour s'y passe avec la vu;. 1835. 

Mortal, why cling to this temple of frailty 
Since your time therein ends zvith yo7ir life f 

At St. Chaffrey (Hautes Alpes). 

754. Muriel, sans le travau. rii:.\ n'kxiste pour idl Mortal, life 
is zaorth nothing zvithont zvork. 

At Ardennes, near Forcalquier (Basses Alpes). 

755. Mortel veux tu fixer li: i'artagi: hu tems 
Marqui': par u.\ iuenfait chacun de tes lxstaxs. 

Mortal, wojddst thou note the division of time 
Let a good deed mark each moment of thy life. 

At Bellerive, near Albi (Tarn). 


Le petit rien .s'en va nous ni pensons pas. 1770. 

Mortals loho living resemble the shadow 

The little nothing goes by and zoe think not of it. 

Le Pinet, Briancon. 

757. MosTRo l'ure a ciascun, cue nun sia gunzu 
Pero dipinto son, e non di bronzo. 

/ shoiv the hour to all except the ass, 
'Tis true I am hand-painted, not of brass. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

758. Mutum suLis ADAEQUAT. It copics the movcmcnt of tlic sun. 
On the Prefecture Maritime, Toulon. 

759. motus perpetuus, solis distinguit tempura . vigilate . qu/ere 
ut invenias. 1687. 

Ever it moves, and marks out the periods of the sun ; 
Watch ye. Seek that thou mayest find. 


On an engraving of a dial in " The making of a small portable instru- 
ment," by C. Delamain. 

760. Mox Nox. Soon (cometli) night. 

On the south porch of Elsworth Church, near Cambridge ; and on a 
house in Double Street, Spalding, with the date 1773. Also on a flint 
church at Denninoton, Suffolk, where the dial is fixed on the battle- 
ment, and beneath, on a scroll, is written : 

Mox NOX. 

The moment past 
Laid many fast. 

Many of these flint-built churches are very handsome ; round the base 
of this one the flints are arranged in patterns to represent the emblems 
of the Passion and other designs. Mrs. Ewing saw and sketched the 
dial at Dennington. 

" Our mechanical arbitrary division of time is a very false one. See how one day 
drags along, and how quickly another passes. The true measure of time is that which 
makes every man's life a day. Tiie real night is that in which no man can work." — 
J. H. Ewing. 

761. MuVLL V laa mie fastvr 
Baase jiu agh bioys maragii. 

Praise the good day in the evening. 

Death may be greedy of life on the morroiv. 

Formerly in the Isle of Man, now in Mr. Evans' possession (see 
Nos. 161, 788). 


Lady, clothed zuith the snn, pray for us, holy Mother 0/ God. 

At Hallstadt, near Salzburg, on the house of the Roman Catholic 
priest. The figure of the Blessed Virgin is painted on the wall, seated, 
and holding the gnomon of a dial. Its shadow falls on a scroll beneath 
where the numerals are figured. 


Many a good thitig they bring with them, many a one they take as they 

From Horace, " Ars Poetica," 175, 176. Formerly on the Route 
de Marly, Paris (with No. 769). 

764. mvtva sic homines vtina cocordia ivgat 
Vt sibi partiri comoda cucta velint. 

O that mutual goodwill would so unite mankind, that they should de 
willing to share all goods alike. 





The sons of Tyndanis lived on alternate days, but one day cuts the 
thread of our life. 

Seen on the cathedral at Albi, in 1877. The mottoes were upon two 
dials, facing east and west ; the gnomons had disappeared, and the 
numerals were nearly illegible. Above each dial was an angel bearing 
a scroll. 



mv change is sure, it may be soon, 
Each hastening minute leads me on : 
The aweul summons drawetii nigh, 
And every day i live to die. 1697. 

On the south wall of the Unita- 
rian chapel, at Blackley, Lancashire 

766. My days are like a shadow 

THAT DECLINETH. — Psalni cii. II. 

Over the door of St. Vigean's 
church, Arbroath, N.B.; and on 
a horizontal dial supported by a 
cluster of light columns, in Haley 
Hill Cemetery, near Halifax. There 
is no date, but the dial was probably 
erected in 1856 when the cemetery 
was opened. 

" Every day is a little life, in the account 

whereof we may reckon a birth from the 

womb of the morning, our growing time from 

thence to noon (when we are as the sun in 

"' "' its strength) ; after which, like a shadow that 

ai,,jf,.M declineth, we hasten to the evenings of our 

NEAR SHEFFIELD. i^S^' ''" f !=^^' ^^ "^^°''^ "^ Tf '']•?''"•''' ,"''' 

miage of death ; and our whole life is but 


, T'-'l THE LI&HTor THY rOt)«ITE«>N(E|ll!lte 


1, 11; 


the tale of a day told over and over." — .Sir William Waller 

767. My time is in thy iland. — Psalm xxxi. 17. 

R.A.G. F.E.G. 1875. 
This text was engraved on the base of a pedestal, bearing a hori- 
zontal dial, which stood in the garden of Bradhekl Rectory, Sheffield, 
whilst the Rev. Reginald Alfred Gatty was rector there. The dial plate 
has since been removed. The same text was adopted by the late 
Bernard Wake, Esq., and placed by him, with verse 18 from the same 
Psalm (xxxi.) on a handsome vertical dial at Abbeyficld near Shctfield. 
It was recently inscribed (with No. 645) by H.R.H. the Princess of 
Wales on a dial at Sandringham ; and in 1 899 was placed by the Rev. 


Desf2fe W. Sitwell on the church of Leaminoton HastlnQs, when the 
dial there was repainted. 

768. Nae man can tether time or tide. 

On a dial lately erected by Lord Torpichen, at Calder Hall. The 
motto, from Burns' " Tam o' Shanter," was chosen by Mr. Thomas Ross. 

769. Nasce, muore. It is bor7t, it dies. 
At Dolce Acqua, near Bordighera. 

770. Nascimur ad mortem. We are born unto death. 
Formerly on the Route de Marly, Paris. See No. 763. 

771. Natus homo ex utero, breviori tempore vivens, 
Ut elos egreditur, sed velut umbra fugit. 

Mail born ofu'cmian, living for a very short time, 
Cometh forth like a floiocr, btit fleet h as a shadow. 

On a church above Menaggio ; the text is taken from Job, xiv. i, 2. 

772. Natus moriere fac bene vivas. Having been born, thou shalt 
die, see thoti live ivell. 

On an engraving of a dial in Joanis Voellius' " De horologiis 
Sciothericis," 1608. 

773. Natus mortuus. Born dead. 

On a dial at Bellentre, near Bourg S. Maurice. It is very difficult 
to understand this motto. Dr. Littledale thought it perhaps meant 
that time is gone immediately on coming, so that its birth and death 
are at once But then the words ought to be feminine to agree with 
hora, or neuter to agree with tempos, not masculine. 

774. Ne abutere. Misuse it not. 
St. Etienne de St. Geoirs (Isere). 

775. Ne compte pas sur la premiere, 
Car tout d£pend de la derni^re. 

Reckon not iipon the beginning. 
For all hangs tipon the end. 

At Le Villard, dated 1869; at Brunissard (Hautes Alpes), dated 
1853; and at La Bez (Hautes Alpes), dated 1861 : all of these dials 
bear the initials of Zarbula, the maker. The motto is also on the 
churches of Chateau Oueyras (see No. 694) ; and of Melezes, dated 1 853. 

776. Ne differas de die in diem. Put not off from day to da v. 
Ecclus. V. 7. 

On an inn at Ventavon (Hautes Alpes). 



777. N'f.x terd aucune. Lose none. 
At P'ontienne (Basses Alpes). 

778. Ne me perdas. Lest thou destroy me. 
In the Rue St. Martin, Bayeux. 

779. Ne perdez point le temps A des choses krivoles. 
Le sage est manager des temps et des paroles. 



Waste not thy time on foolish things. 

The wise man is careful of his words and honrs. 

What eye may be raised to the ruler of thy being. 

At La Bez (Hautes Alpes). These three inscriptions are on one 
dial, but the last line has been added later than the first two. 


Let nothing be lost. 
On Burnham Church, Somerset, with No. 604. 

781. Ne sistas te lux altius ire monplt. 1832. Stay not, the light 
biddcth t/iee go up higher. 

At Le Villard La Madeleine (Hautes Alpes). A slightly different 
version has been seen at St. Chaffrey (Hautes Alpes) : 

Ne vous arretez (pas la). 

LuMltRE d'eN HAUT (vOUS DIt) 

D'aller (plus haut). 
Stay not there, the light from on high calls thee to come above. 

782. Ne viator aberret. That the traveller stray not. 
At AUeins (Bouches du Rhone). 

783. Nec momentum sine linea. No moment without its hue. 
Said to have been on the Chateau of Cardinal Richelieu. 

784. Nice PLURinus iMPAR. Eqiuil to any foc. 

At Bauden (Var). This was the motto of Louis XIV. 

785. Nkc plus ultra. Thus far and no farther. 
At St. Jean de Maurienne ; and at St. Ouentin. 

786. Nec sol nec umbra. No sun, no shadoiv. 

On a window-dial at Old Place, Lindfield,, erected by C. E. 
Kempe, Esq. 


787. Nec ultima si trior 

Denotal fallaces annos. 

This somewhat mysterious inscrij^tion is on two faces of a dial which 
is painted upon the wall of the courtyard of an old hotel, No. 47, Vieille 
Rue du Temple, Paris. There are four faces, and possibly the painter 
may have made a mistake in rendering in the inscription. It has been 
suggested that the words should run thus : 

Nec ultimos si priores, 
Fallacis denotal annos. 

N'or does it mark the last year as deceiving, though it may the first. 

If the lines are quoted from a poem the context might throw light 
on their meaning. Some difficulty was experienced in copying the 
motto, as the inmates of the hotel evidently objected to its being 
transcribed, and on two occasions came out and drove away people who 
were attempting to copy the lines. 

A writer in " L'Intermediaire" (ix. p. 267) informs us that the dial 
was made by a Carmelite, Pere Sebastien Trachet, and the hotel once 
belonged to Louis Latellier, the King's architect and controller of the 
buildings of Versailles. At the end of the eighteenth century the house 
was called Hotel Tarare, and inhabited by Beaumarchais. 

788. Nemo sine crimine vivit. No one lives without reproach. 

John Kewley, Ballafreer, fecit, 1774. 

The dial, which bears this and six other mottoes (see No. 161) 
is made of Pooilvaish marble, and formerly stood in the Isle of Man. 
The shape is that of a cube surmounted by a pyramid. It is supposed 
to have originally belonged to Sir George Moore, of Balla Mooar, 
Patrick, and is now in the possession of Mr. Lewis Evans, who has set 
it up in his garden at Barnes Lodge, King's Langley. The dial, or 
rather dials, show the time at Boston, Port Royal, and other places. 

Kewley, the maker, is said to have lived at the farm at Ballafreer, 
and he erected another dial there. See No. 57. 

789. Nescia mens fati est iior.k sortisque FUTi'R.E. Thc viiud hioiv- 
eth not the appointed hour, or thc lot that is in store fior if. 

Formerly in the convent of the Minimes, Place Royal, Paris. 

790. Nescies ()ua iiora veniam. Than ivilt not knoiu wJiat hour I come. 

On a dial at Riva, Val Sesia, dated 1829, with No. 487. A fine 
old watch in the York Museum dated " H. K. 1840," has the inscription 
" Nescis qua hora, vigila." 

791. Nescimus diem neque iioram. Jf^ehno7v neither the day nor the hour. 
At Paladru (Isere). 

X X 


792. Nescit occasum lumen ecclesiae. Thelightofthc Church knows 
no setting. 

At Standish Vicarage, Gloucestershire. There is a hidden meaning 
in this motto, due to its having been chosen by Bishop Frampton, who 
was deprived of the See of Gloucester as a non-juror, but was permitted 
to hold the vicarage of Standish, and died there in 1708. He erected 
the dial, and in addition to the allusion to his career, which he put into 
the motto, he had the gnomon shaped like the sword of the See, reversed, 
and pointing upwards, as an emblem of martyrdom. He is buried within 
the sanctuary of Standish Church, and his gravestone bears the quaint 
inscription, " Robertus Frampton Episcopus Gloucestrensis, caetera 
quis nescit? " 

793. Nescitis DIEM NEQUE HORATii. 1715. Yc knoio ncithcv thc day nov 
the hour (St. Matt. xxv. 13). 

On the chapel of the Addolorato, Moltrasio, Lago di Como : on the 
Abbaye du Ronceray at Angers ; and the Chateau de Terrebasse 
(Isere). It is also given in Kircher's " Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae. 


794. Neve al sol, lampo al ciel, fumo al vento, 

COSI l'uOM FUGGE, QUAl' OMBRA in UN momento. 

Like April snozv, a flash in Heaven, or smoke in gale. 
So man, short lived, is lost to vicio, a shadoiv frail. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

795. Nihil sine sole. 1861. Nothing tvithout the snn. 

At Aiguilles, and at La Verdiere (Var) ; also seen on a portable dial 
at Frankfort, with the additional word Inviinc and date, 171 1. 

796. Nihil supra. There is nothing higher. 

At Les Avenieres (Isere) ; and seen at Monquin in 1778. 

797. Nihil volentiisus arduum. Nothing is difficult to the xoilling. 

Is on a dial at Fyning House, Sussex, which was erected in the 
reign of George II. 

798. Nil aliui) est vivere quam mori. Life is nought else but death. 
At Les Avenieres (Isere), dated 1838. 

799. Nil ni sit sol i\h. Less than nothing ivitliout the sun. 
At Alzo, on the Lake of Orta, North Italy. 

800. Nil nisi caelesti radio. Nought save by a ray from heaven. 

Applicable alike to the dial, the church, and the services, this motto 
is over the south door of the church of St. Mary the Virgin, at Lower 


Hejford, in Oxfordshire, where there has been a church from before 
the Conquest. It is also found near Baslow with other mottoes (see 
No. 330) ; and on a house at Beau Coin, Jersey. 

801. Nil nomen nil fama juvat nil Candida virtus : tempus enim 


Nought doth a name, notight doth renozun avail, nought doth bjnght 

valour : 
For time luith its sioift tooth devoiirs each thing. 

On a large brass astrolabe and sun-dial, in the Museum at Perugia. 
On the reverse side of the plate is — 

" leronomus Wulparia, Florentinus, faciebat a.d. mdlxxvii," and 
a second motto. See No. 424. 

802. Nil sine nobis, a. b. e. 1674. Nothing exists without us. 

A dial on the wall of a courtyard on the south side of the Hotel 
Cluny, Paris, had this inscription. The word nobis referred to 
the rays of the sun which were represented on its face. The Hotel 
Cluny, a very beautiful specimen of rather elaborate fourteenth century 
Gothic architecture, was bought in 1625 for the abbess and nuns of 
Port Royal, and was known as Port Royal de Paris. It was re-estab- 
lished by Louis XIV. in 1665, on a fresh basis, and was looked upon 
as schismatic by the community of Port Royal des Champs. This dial 
must have been erected in the time of the first abbess of the new 
foundation, Soeur Dorothee Perdreau, who held office till 1684. 

803. Nisi dominus aedificaverit domum in vanum laboraverunt 
QUI aedificant eam. Except the Lord build the house, they labour in 
vain that build it (Ps. cxxvii. i). 

On a house called the Moulin du Pied, dated 17 19, at Le Fontenil 
sous Briancon. 

804. No light unthinking fondness, such as oft 
Enshrines in pomp th' unworthiest of their line. 
Prompted the tender thought which here found words 
To tell of him we valued ; one whose form 

Under this turf is mingled with the dust, 
no more to live; but whose recorded name, 


Near to this time-recording pillar's base 
Entomb'd, and, as became his merits, mourn'd — 
Poor neppy lies ! the generous and the fond — 
The brave and vigilant — in whose nature shone 
United, all the virtues of his race : 


Nor gkud(;i;i) i!K this .m1':m(.>kiai., ik us ikl'tii 
Enkorck tiik ciiARGi';, " itr. lAiTnia'i. unto dkatii." 

— Obiit, September 9th, 1839, Anno Aclate Dccinio. 

\\\ the yarden of the VicaraL^c^ House at Borden, Kent, there is a 
pedestal bearing a sun-dial and havini^ on its eastern and western sides 
two tablets inscribed with these acrostic epitaphs to the memory of a 
favourite Newfoundland watch dog, called " Neptune," by his sorrowing 
owner. These lines recall Lord l>)'ron's " Inscription on the Monument 
of a Newfoundland Dog," dated Newstead Abbey, October 30th, 1808. 

805. No .MARin.K I'OMI', ,\(_) MoNUMKN TAL I'RAISK; 

Pride and low mouldering clay but ill agri;e. 
Death levels me to beggar, kings to mi:. 
Alive, instruction was mv work each day, 
Dead, i perish, instruction to convey. 
Here, reader, mark (pERiiArs now in tiiv I'Riah;) 
The stealing steps of never-standing timic ; 
Thou'lt be what I am, catch the present hour. 
Employ that wi:ll, for that's within thy power. 

Quoted in the "Gent. IMag.," vol. xlv., p. 2)1-^ ^•"- '744' from 
Faulkner's " Dublin Journal," as " Inscription on a dial to be erected 
by his desire on the grave of Edward liond, of liondvil, in the county 
of Armagh, Esq." 

806. Nobis pereunt et imputantur ibirae. TIu- hours perish to ns, 
and arc accounted also lo us. 

On the cathedral of St. Colman, at Cloyne, near Cork. Et 
nobis pereunt iCT imputantur may be read at Les Crottes, near 
Embrun (Hautes Alpes). 

807. ■ Noiseless falls the foot of tinh''. 

Which only treads on flowers. 

This quotation from a song by the Hon. W. R. Spencer is 
inscribed on the vase of a stone pedestal with a horizontal dial, in the 
garden of Jordan Gate, Macclesfield, erected by Samuel Pearson, Esq., 
and Jane, his wife. The name " Quiz " and date 1876, are also carved 
on the stone, in memory of a favourite terrier who was buried close by. 
On the dial plate is No. 980. 

808. Noli confidere nocti. Trust not lo the nioht. 


On the Manor House, Mickleton, co. Gloucester. 

809. NoN CEDiT UMBRA SOLI. Thc shadozo yicldcth iiot lo thc SHU. 

A horizontal dial with the gnomon turned towards the sun, and this 
motto accompanying it, was the device of Giovanni Trivulzio, Governor 



of Milan in the year 1500 for Louis XI L The motto evidently implies 
that the shadow is of equal importance with the sun in telling the time. 


TJie gods above have given iJicc but the present Jionr. 
Look on to the end, the futnrc hour lies hid. 

At Carville Hall, an old mansion on the Roman Wall, near Wallsend, 
is a fine old sun-dial with faces so that the i^ointer is parallel to the face 
[i.e., declining dials). The motto is perhaps of more recent date than 
the dial. (From a correspondent in " The Guardian.") 

811. NoN iiORAS NUMERO NISI SERENAS. / eoimt uo hoiirs that are not 

On a horizontal dial in the flower-garden 
at Mount Ouhanny, Fifeshire, and also on a 
window dial designed by Mr. T. Ross at Inch 
House, Midlothian. See No. 65. 

812. Nox NISI c.ELESTi RADIO. Not save by 
a ray from heaven (do I tell the tune). 

On the church porch at llaydon Bridge, 
Northumberland. The dial is square, and 
the motto is above it, the words being divided 
by a full-faced sun which emits rays all round. 
They bear an obvious moral signification. ^^/jjiJ^^^^i^OM^ 
There is no date on this dial, but the church J. 
was built out of the nave of an (^Ider church 
and opened for service, July, 1796. The „^voon bridge, northum- 
features of the Sun God are too decidedly i!erl.\nd. 

Hanoverian to suppose a much earlier date. 

"The spirit of man is like a sun-dial, which is of no use but when the sun reflecteth 
on it. You likewise expect not your understanding may have any true light and direction 
for the government of people, if not enlightened with a ray of God."- — N. Caussin, T/k 
Holy Court, translated by .Sir Thomas Hawkins. 

813. NoN NUMERO HORAS NISI SEREN.\s. I coiiiit 110 hoiirs that ai'e iiot 

On a dial at Downham Hall, Norfolk, with No. 457. It has also 
been cut round the pedestal of a horizontal dial in the garden of 
Holmhurst, Sussex, by Mr. A. J. C. Hare. The dial-plate is of the 
eighteenth century and came from the Vatche, Bucks. It belonged to 
Bishop Hare, who lived in the reign of George II. and married 
Miss Alston, heiress of the Vatche ; their arms are engraved on the 
plate. The same motto is on an east vertical dial on a house in the 
Burg Strasse, Nuremberg; and in a slightly different form (" Non 



numero nisi serenas horas ") is on an old mural dial in the garden of 
the Chateau de Passy, set up by an ancestor of Arago. 

814. NON RKUIIiO. 

/ shall not rchirn. 


On a house in Westgate, Grantham. 

" Be watchful Ihou ; Time posts away amain, 
Nor can the hour that 's past return again." 

Thos. Elwood, " To such as stand idle in 
the market place." 

815. NoN REDITU RA. Not to rctttvu. 
At Evian, Savoy. 

816. NoN KEGO NISI REGAR. I I'ulc liot if I bc liot Tuhd. 

On the Crown Inn at Uppingham. The dial is square — black and 
eilt — and the motto acknowledoes submission to the sun. It also 
illustrates the profound truth that, as A'Kempis expresses it, " No 
man ruleth safely but he that is willing to be ruled." See No. 450. 

817. NoN SINE LUMINE. Not loitlwut light. 

On the south wall of the church (jf St. Catherine Cree, Leadenhall 
Street, London. The dial is cut in the stones of the building between 
two of the windows facing the street, and has lately been cleaned and 
re-gilt, so that it can once more tell the time of day to anyone who 
looks at it, though owing to the height of the opposite houses there 
must be many hours in the day when "Sine lumine" would be only 
too appropriate a motto. St. Catherine Cree is one of the few churches 
built in the seventeenth century. It was consecrated by Archbishop 
Laud in 1631. The dial is shown in an engraving of 1736 as bearing 
the date mdccvi. There was a dial also on the tower at the same 
period. The same motto is on Stoke Albany Church, Northants. 

818. NoN sit VOBIS VANUM ANTE LUCEiM SURGERE. 1 765. Lct it 

not be fruitless to yoic to rise before the daion. 
At Izeaux (Isere). 

819. NoN SONO, 



In otium prono 
occasionem morae. 

/ smite 110 clanging bell, 
And yet each hour I tell 
Of every day. 


My noiseless s/iadow cries 
In speech heard by the zvise 
Against delay. 

Written by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet for a dial intended to be 
placed on the south porch of Painswick Church, Gloucestershire, by 
the Rev. \V. H. Seddon, whose family motto is " Non sono sed 
dono " ; but the idea has never been carried into e.xecution. 

820. Non tardum opperior. / tarry not for the slow. 

There is a stone figure of Time, bearded and with wino-s, on the 
terrace atDuncombe Park, Yorkshire (the seat of the Earl of Feversham), 
which is represented as about to carry away a vase-shaped pedestal, on 
the top of which is a dial thus inscribed. The figure, which is boldly 
sculptured, was the work of a local artist, the Helmsley stonemason, 
about the year 1750, when the terrace was made. Dr. Drake, in his 
" Lines on Duncombe Park" ("Gent. Mag.," 1823), describes the place : 

" Where Saturn's statue bids the iron shade 
Point the swift minutes as they rise and fade." 

821. Non umbra sed lumine pari. 1772. With equal light, not 
zoitJi equal shadows. 

On the farm buildings of the Chateau de Cayla (Tarn), the home 
of Eugenie and Maurice de Guerin. 

822. None but a villain will deface me. 

Is to be seen on the parish church, Kidderminster. 

823. Norma del tempo infallibile 10 song. Unfailing rule of time 
am I. 

On the church at Pieve, near Cento, in the Romagna. 

824. Nos EXiGUUM tempus habemus, sed multum perdimus. We 
have little time, bnt zve waste nmch. 

At Hatherley in Gloucestershire. Sir W. Scott says likewise : 

" Redeem mine hours — the space is brief — 
While in my glass the sand-grains shiver ; 
And measureless thy joy or grief. 
When time and thou shalt part for ever." 

825. Nos JOURS PASSENT CGMMi- l'ombre. Oiw days pass by like the 

Copied in i860 from a dial painted on the wall of a house at 
Antibes (Alpes Maritimes). The same motto has been read at 
Blandin (Isere), dated 1749; on the church of Vieux (Tarn), between 
Brignoles and Le Luc (Var), dated 1 808 ; and on the Presbytere at 
Causson (Ariege). With a slight change (Nos jours se passent 
COMME l'ombre) it has been seen at the Hotel Dieu, Paris. 


826. Nos JOURS s'kcoulkxt comme iA)mi;ri:. Our days glide azi'ay 
like a shadow. 

At Pont-en-Royans (Isere). 

827. NoscK TEiPsuM, 1740, T. s. Kiioio tliysclf. 

This is on Whitley Hall in the parish of Ecclesfield, an Elizabethan 
house, which belonged to Thomas Shirecliffe in 1740; also on a 
house which stands in the High Street, Lewes; and on the cross-dial 
at Elleslie, near Chichester. See No. 104. 

828. NoscE TEIPSUM, NIHIL NiMis. Kuow tkysclf, naitght in excess. 

Is on an engraving of a dial in " Gnomonice de Solariis," 1572, by 
Barthol: Schultz, with other mottoes. 

" For how may we to other things attain, 
When none of us his own soul understands ? 
For which the devil mocks our curious brain. 
When — Know thyself, his oracle commands. 

" For wliy should we the busy soul believe, 
\\'hen boldly she concludes of that and this ; 
When of herself she can no judgment give, 
Nor how, nor where, nor whence, nor what she is. 

" If aught can teach us aught, aftliction's looks 
Making us pry into ourselves so near, 
Teach us to know ourselves beyond our books 
Or all the learned schools that ever were." 

Sir John Davies' Nosce Teipsiim. 


know the different toils of snn and moon. 

On a brass dial with a movable plate for lunar hours, seen in a 
shop in London. 

830. Nostra latet. Our hour is hidden. 
Locality unknown. Quoted by Leadbetter, 1756. 

831. NcsTRA salus pendet ab UNA. Our salvation depends on one 

At Maison Millaiz, La Riviere (Iscre). 


btU little, and for a little time. 

This sentiment is versified by Goldsmith in " The Hermit": 

" Man wants but little here below, 
Nor wants that little long." 

The motto is on a house near Aigle, in Canton de Vaud, Switzer- 

833. Nous PAssoNS coMME l'ombre. We pass aivay Hkc t lic shadozo. 
At a mountain hamlet near La Frette (Isere). 




834. Now IS THE ACCEPTED TIME (2 Cor. vi. 2). 

Formerly on a dial near Danby Mill, in the parish of Leyburn, 
Yorkshire, but in 1884 it could not be found. 

835. Now IS yesterday's TO-MORROW. 

On the porch of East Leake Church, Notts. 

" To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow. 
Creeps in this petty pace from day to day. 
To the last syllable of recorded time ; 
And all our yesterdays have lighted fools 
The way to dusty death." 

Mad>e//i, Act v, Scene 5. 

836. Now OR NEVER. 1614. 

Once rudely engraved on a vertical dial 
fixed on the top of a buttress of Monk Fryston -4>^,r^«i;,0=<>^-:s^--^^^ 
Church, Yorkshire, but in 1884 it was nearly "^y'^^^^'^Tvm^^''^, 


obliterated. The inscription ran thus : 


Ivne -f- 1614" 

It has been deciphered on a square-faced dial, with four gnomons, 
and surmounted by a ball, which rests on a tall elegant stone shaft 
in Bolton Percy Churchyard, Yorkshire. It is on the south face, 
and on the north side there is a faint trace of a former inscription, now 
wholly illegible from time and weather. The Rector says a tradition 
exists that the effaced words were " rationibus suis computandis," which 
may be supposed to be an exhortation to sum up your accounts. On 
Bolton Percy Rectory is an uninscribed dial, bearing the date 1698. 

837. Now OR WHEN. 

On the south-west tower of Beverley Minster. 

838. Nox VENiT. Redime. Lux es. Night coincth. 
time). Thou art light. 

These inscriptions 
are respectively on the 
west, south, and east 
faces of a cubical dial 
which stands upon a 
flat tombstone in Grey- 
stoke Churchyard. On 
the north side of the 
block is engraved, 
" Graystock. Lat. 54" 
three of the faces. 

Redeem, {the 



46. J. G. MDCCX." 

There are gnomons on 

839. NuL Qu'uN. No7te but one. 

This motto was formerly used by the family of Digby, and it is 

Y Y 


engraved with their arms and the date 1670 on a dial at Gayhurst 
House, near Ohiey. The Digbys owned Gayhurst from 1596 to 1704. 
There is also the inscription, "Walter Hayes at the Cross Daggers in 
Moorfields, Londini fecit." The Cross Daggers seems to have been 
a renowned place for dial-making. 

840. Nulla certa manet. Nought remains snrc. 
At Evian (Savoy). 

841. Nulla dies sine linea. No day wii/iout its mark. 

On the cross-dial at Elleslie, near Chichester (see No. 104). 

842. Nulla i; Piu prezioso del tempo. 1859. Nothing is more 
preeious than time. 

At Pieve di Rendana. 

843. Nulla est australis umbra. There is no shadoiu in the south. 
On a house at Campo Rosso, near Bordighera. 

844. Nulla est meta laboris. "No rest from toil. 
In the Place at Moissac (Tarn). 

845. Nulla fluat cujus non meminisse juvet. l\Iay no lionr pass 
which it is not a delifrht to remember. 


On the Lycee at Compiegne ; and was in 17S7 on the College de 
Navarre, Paris. It has also been read at Bruges. 


846. Nulla fluat cujus non meminisse velis. Let no ho7ir go by 
which you do not loish to remember. 

On a convent at Frejus ; and in the square La Fayette at Toulouse. 
It was formerly in the abbey gardens of St. Germain des Pres, Paris; 
and in the Rue St. Antoine, Paris. 

847. Nulla iiora sine linea. No hour witliojit its mark. 

This motto was read in 1861 in the cloisters of the cathedral at 
Chambery. There was a large mural dial on each side of the quad- 
rangle (see Nos. 246, 304, 1157), but two of them were much broken 
and defaced. They had evidently borne many years of Alpine storms. 
The building is now the Archevechc, and adjoins the cathedral, whicli 
was built in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, having been finished 
in 1430. 

The motto is also on two hanging portable dials with calendars at 
the back, in Mr. Evans' collection. One is dated 1716, and both were 
made by Christian Karl Schindler of Nuremberg. 



In " De Symbolis Heroicis," Lib. vl. 250 (Antwerp, 1634), this 
motto is given with the ac- 
companying design. Under 
it is inscribed, " Laurentij 
Prioli, Ducis Yenetce Rei- 
public3e,symbohnn fuit solare 
horologinm cum ea epi- 
graphe : Nitlla liora sine 
linea. Nullam in Principatu 
horam transigere sine linea, 
et benefactio ars est et laus 
multo praestantior, quani 
cum Apelles non fuit dies 
sine linea." 

FROM "de symbolis HEROICIS.' 

848. Nulla il raggio mi 


Certani). NoiigJit doth the 
ray avail if shadoiu there is no7ie. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

849. Nulla meis sine te quaeratur gloria rebus. Let me seek no 
hojiour for my own estate without giving Iionour to thee. 

On a honestone dial (see No. 8). 

850. Nulla sine sole umbra. No shadoiv zcnthout sun. 
At Malaucene (Vaucluse). 

851. Nulla vestigia retrorsum. Indice utere. There arc no steps 
backzvard. Mark the pointer. 

On a horizontal dial with a stone pedestal, at Lake House, Wilts, 
an interesting building of Elizabethan date. Comp. No. 1572. 



Labitur hora : 

Ne sit inutilis 
Semper labora, 

Neve sis futilis. 
Vigila, ora. 

None from Time's hurrying wain 

Winncth delay ; 
Ne'er to come back again 

Speedeth each day : 


While its fezv hours remain 

Labour ak<.'ay. 
Lest thou shoti/d'st live in vain, 

Wateh thou and pray. 

These lines and the free English rendering of them were written by 
the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, and put by him upon a dial which stood on the 
lawn of the vicarage garden at Crompton (or as it is more commonly 
called, Shaw), near Oldham, Lancashire. The dial-plate has since 
been moved into the church)-ard and placed upon the shaft of the old 
mortuary cross, from which a previous plate had been stolen. The 
Latin lines were inserted in the " Guardian," and they have been 
inscribed, but in slightly different order, upon a dial erected by Henry 
Hucks Gibbs, Esq., at Aldenham Manor House, Elstree. It is worth 
recording that this motto of Mr. Bartleet's has received, from several 
people, the compliment of being considered "too good to be true." 
He had so thoroughly caught the style and spirit of the mediceval 
inscriptions that one correspondent went so far as to write to the 
" Guardian," and contradict the fact of Mr. Bardeet's authorship by 
stating that Lo}-d Coleridge found the motto on an old clock i7i Devon- 
shire, and gave it to Mr. Justice Denman to translate, 7oho Jianded it in 
to the correspondent I 

It is due to Mr. Bartleet to give an extract from Lord Chief Justice 
Coleridge's reply to this statement, adding the explanatory fact that Mr. 
Bartleet's dial was made and engraved in Manchester, and exhibited in 
a shop-window there, before it was set up at Shaw. 

Lord Coleridge wrote: 28 Oct. 1889. — "It was given me many 
years ago as having been seen at Manchester, and as I understood, on 
a dial. I was charmed with the verses, and in speaking of them said, 
I thought they must be mediaeval, but that I did not know the author 
in the least. I gave them to my old friend, Mr. Justice Denman, who 
gave me in return a very fine version of it. ... I am very glad to 
know the real author. Mr. Justice Denman tells me that he very likely 
mentioned Devonshire, having forgotten that I had spoken of Man- 
chester, and from the fact that I live in Devonshire in the neighbourhood 
of fine old churches and houses." 

The following translation was given by Mr. Justice Denman to 
Mr. C. E. Kempe, who inscribed it on a window dial at Old Place, 
Lindfield, Sussex : 


Right of delay ; 
Noted in heaven 
Passeth each day ; 


Work while \y. may ; 
Trifling were bootless, 
Watch thou and i'Rav. 


A slightly different version, also attributed to Mr. Justice Denman, 
has appeared in the "Guardian"; and another translation by Sir 
Herbert Maxwell, Bart., was given in " Blackwood's Magazine," Jan. 
1891. See No. 526. 

853. NuLLius rocxiTEAT. May no hom' cause thcc to regret it. 
On the Church at Nemours (Seine et Marne). 

854. NuMERA UTERE PROi'ERA. Coiiiit them, iise tlieiii, viakc spccd. 

On the Presbytere of St. Pierre des Corps, Tours. Also on a former 
Jesuit college at Tours, with No. 1 194. 

SAPIENTI/E. A.D. 1 664. 

So teach us to number our days that Tl'c may apply our hearts unto 
wisdom. — Psalm xc. 12. 

This text, which is taken from the Zurich version of the Bible 
printed in 1 543, is engraved on the north side of a cube of red sand- 
stone which was found in 1873 at Woodford Halse, Northamptonshire. 
The cube is 8^ in. wide on each side, and 8|- in. high. It was dis- 
covered in " Parson's Close," adjoining the Vicarage garden, in a pond 
which was being emptied. On the east, south, and west sides there 
are dial faces, but the gnomons are lost. The east and west dials are 
drawn on parallelograms set diagonally with the face, and show the 
hours from 4 to 10 a.m., and 2 to 8 p.m. respectively. In the base is 
a carefully made semi-globular cavity, 4 in. in diameter, and this was 
probably for the sake of accurate adjustment. On the top there is also 
a small cavity. The "Zurich" Bible is a Latin translation from the 

856. numeras momenta, dies metiris et annos, 
Nescius extremum qu.e; ferat hora diem 


Thou numbcirst the moments, thotc measurest the days and years, 
knoiving not lohat hour may bring the last day. 

On the Abbey of St. Corneille, near Compiegne, in 18 16. 


Never acceptable to the car, but often to the eye. 

This motto was read in 1870 on a south-west declining dial, on the 
wall of the courtyard of the Mairie at Perpignan. It stood between 
windows, some distance below the overhanging Spanish roof, whose 
border of greenish glazed tiles rests here and there on carved wooden 
owl-like figures, which project like gurgoyles from the wall. There were 
two or three dials in this court over the low marble arcades, but only 
one bore an inscription. The building itself torms a part of the old 




Loge — from the Spanish " Lonja," or " Exchange of the Merchants." 
The facade, with its pointed arches, "exhibiting flamboyant ornaments, 
foHage and tracery " dates from the fifteenth century. The carving is 
a good deal injured ; the arches are now filled with glass, and that 
portion of the building is used as a cafe. It is one of the most remark- 
able structures in the old capital of Roussillon. The dial, however, is 
not of Spanish construction, as Perpignan came into the possession of 
the French in 1650. 

858. numquid non paucitas dierum finietur dkevi ? 

dimitte ergo me, ut plangam dolorem meum. — job, x. 20. 

Cur faciem tuam abscondis et arbitraris me 
INIMICUM TUUM. — Job, xiii. 24. 

Are not my days few ? cease then and let nie alone that I may take 
comfort a little. 

Wherefore hidest thoic thy face, and coimtest me for thine enemy? 

At the Abbey of Ferrieres ; on either side of the dial there are two 
figures, on one an angel beside a woman who holds her head in her 
hands, and on the other a woman showing a small sun-dial to an angel. 

859. NUN(JUAM MALE LATSA REDEBIT. TIlC ill-SpCllt llOttr Zuill nCVCr 


Locality not known. 

860. NuNQUAM REDiTLiRA. Never s/iall t/ic time rctum. 

With Nos. 475, 980, in the Passage du Petit St. Antoine, Paris. 

861. NuNQUAM SINE LUCE. Never luithout 

Locality not known. 

7 \ 862. Nunc ex pRAETERrnj discas. 

Noio mayst thon learn from the past. 
Is on Warrington School. 

/6 ^^Lzrj-^ 63 



tariness — O solitary blessedness : the toivn 
to me is a prison, and solitude my Para- 
dise. O God, be with us, and crown the work of otcr hands. Long live 
Charles II. 

The dial which is thus inscribed is formed of a single stone set into 
a plastered gable of a house fronting a garden in Priestgate, Peter- 



borough. At the time when it was sketched the house belonged to 
Mr. G. Wyman. It was formerly held by a family named Hake, which 
may account for the initials, W. H. The crown on the lower part of 
the dial is much worn away. It was once gilt. 

864. O cooNiEE CRE CHA GiARE AS TA MY HRAA. Oh renietnber /low 
short my time is. — Psalm Ixxxix. 46. 

This motto, from the Manx Psalter, is, with Nos. 249, 1385, 1530, 
on a sun-dial which stands at the gateway of St. Patrick's Church, in 
the village of Patrick, near Holm Peel, Isle of Man. The dial is of 
Pooilvaish marble from the quarries near Castletown. 

865. o count the hours as one by one they fly, 
And stamp the cross upon them ere they die. 

On a cross dial erected for a member of the Baring family, possibly 
for a daughter of the first Lord Ashburton, who lived at Alverstoke, 
near Gosport. 

866. O Jesu mon amour, dieu soit bi^ni {sic). L'an vni de la re 
(?de la Republique) (1800). O Jesu, my Beloved, blessed de God. 

At the Hameau de Chimilin, near Aoste (Isere). 

867. o jungfrau die der schlange feind, 
Bleib imer elephantens freund : 

MiT deinem schutz bedecke dieses haus, 
Treib krankheit noth und jedes unheil aus. 
O Virgin, enemy of the serpent, remain ever the Elephant' s friend, zoith 
thy protection cover this house, drive sickness, zuant, and every evil out. 

This motto, on the wall of the Gasthof zum Elephanten, Brixen, 
Tyrol, can only be explained by a description of the dial. It represents 
the Blessed Virgin crushing the serpent which has wound itself round 
the globe on which she stands. One foot is on the serpent's body, the 
other rests on the crescent moon, from beneath which the reptile strives 
to lift its head. The Virgin's eyes are raised to heaven, and she holds 
in her hand the lily and the cross. The hours are marked on a scroll 
across the globe, and the inscription is on another scroll below. The 
hotel takes its name from an Elephant which is painted in fresco on the 
other side of the house, where also is an inscription in old German 
explaining the picture, as follows : 

" Als ma sagt 1551 Jar dP 2 tag Juni furwar 

Was dises thier Elephadt in teutschUid unerkiit 

Al hier durch gfuere worde unsere de gros nan f" un Hern 

Maximilian In Behan Kngreich Erhz^" su Ost'"'*' de 

Andre Bosch der liesz mahi Lenhart Mair daz vefahn 

Gott will das haus in seiner verhuetung haben 

Des Inhaber leib Ehr und guet allizen bewaren 

Au 1645 hat Lenhart Muller dis wider beerneurn lasen." 


(As they say, 1551 year 2nd day of June in truth was this animal 
the Elephant, unknown in Germany, brought here by our high and 
mighty Prince our Lord Maximilian in Bohemia kingdom, Archduke of 
Austria. Andre Bosch who experienced this made Lenhart INLiis paint 
it. God vouchsafe to hold the house in His protection, the inhabitants' 
body, honour, and property, to keep from harm. In 1645 Lenhart 
Muller had this renewed again.) 

There are also the following inscriptions : 

Wen da baut an der strassen muss Jederman zu davon reden lassen. 

In [ahre 1S70 hat Hanns Heiss diese Bilder wieder erneuern lassen 
V. mal." AR. 

He who biiilds in the street must expect everyone to talk about it. 1 7 1 3. 

In the year 1870 Hanns Heiss caused the pictiires to be renovated by 
the painter (?) A. R. 

Thfe sun-dial was probably painted at the same time. 

858. O MORTEL, PENSE A LA MORT. O mortal, think -upon death. 
At Les Br^vieres (Savoy). 


O sun, thouappearest, thou, smilcst, thou coinfortest the earth. 

On a house at La Vachette, on the road from Briancon to the 
Mont Genevre. The dial is simply outlined, and has a peacock at the 

870. 'n 0F,OS, 'O 0EO2, MOT EPOS SR 'OPQPIZn. 

O God, thou art mv God, early ivill I seek Thee. — Psalm Ixiii. i, from 

the LXX. 

This verse is over the south porch of the church at Walkern, Herts. 
" The inscription is nearly obliterated," said Archdeacon Grant of 
St. Alban's in 1878, "but ought certainly to be preserved." 

The following passage from Geikie's "Life of Christ" (vol. 1., 
pp. 219, 222) helps to reveal the full meaning of this and similar verses 
in the Psalms. " The morning sacrifice could not be slain before the 
first appearance of the morning light. A watcher, therefore, standing 
on the roof of the Temple, looked out for the first glimpse of Hebron, 
far off on the hills, as the sign of morning having come. When it was 
visible the summons was given : ' Priests, to your ministry! Lcvites, 
to your places ! Israelites, take your stations ! ' The priests then once 
more washed their feet and hands, and the service finally began. " With 
the first sight of the rising sun everyone bows his head in prayer, 
wherever at the moment he maybe. Yonder a Pharisee, who has pur- 
posely let the hour overtake him in the street, suddenly stops, and ties 
his Tephillin broader and larger than common on his forehead and arm. 


The olive gatherer, with his basket, prays when he is in the tree. 
Pilgrims and citizens are alike bent in prayer." 



Che piv CHE xu schivar 10 ben so farli. 

O thou tvho gasest on me here, 
Time will be thoic shall find me near. 
When I deal bloivs thou canst not see. 
Ay, more of them than thou canst flee. 
So deft in striking them am I. 

On the church of the Madonna di Campagna, near Pallanza. The 
dial lines are traced in red on a plastered wall ; a skeleton, half length, 
is resting his right hand on the gnomon, and in his left holds a torch or 
scythe. The dial was sketched in 1888, and was then much defaced. 

872. o tu, qui binam uno gnomone conspicis horam, 

Heu! miser, ignoras qua moriturus eris. 1822. 

On one dial hours tivain thoit canst descry. 
But not, alas I the hojir ivhen thou, shall die. 

The " hours twain " referred to in this motto indicated the arrange- 
ment of the figures on the dial, which, besides telling the hour of the 
day in the usual manner, also showed the time by the Italian mode of 
reckoning ; that is, as the hours are counted from sunset to sunset, 
going through the whole course of the twenty-four numbers. The lines 
of these additional hours, from xii to xxiv, which were traced upon the 
dial plane, declared the time by the shadow of a point in the style, as it 
fell upon them. The dial itself was, when sketched in 1867, a large and 
wide one, the figures being represented in rolling clouds ; and it was 
painted on a house wall that faces the sea at an opening of the main 
street of Cojjoletto, a fishinfj village about eisrhteen miles west of 
Genoa, and a reputed birthplace of Christopher Columbus. The room 
in which, it is said, he was born, is still shown, and there are many 
inscriptions on the outside of the house testifying to the tradition, which 
were placed there by a member of the family in 1650. The tradition is 
firmly held by the inhabitants; and Washington Irving, who disputes 
the claims of all other places, save Genoa, nevertheless admits that there 
is some evidence in favour of Cogoletto. Admiral Colombo, with 
whom the great discoverer first sailed, was a native of this place ; and 
the portrait of Columbus has been preserved here by his descendants. 
Tennyson seems to yield to this local claim : 

How young Columbus seem'd to rove, 
Yet present in his native grove. 

Now watching liigh on mountain cornice, 
And steering, now, from a purple cove, 

z z 



Now pacing mute by ocean's rim ; 
Till, in a narrow street and dim, 

I stay'd the wheels at Cogoletto, 
And drank, and loyally drank to him. 

The Daisy. 

873. O VIATOR, HORAM BiBENDi ASPICE. 1870. O zvay/arci', behold 
the hour of drinking. 

On a house at Champs, on the Col de Sestrieres, near Fenestrelles. 


O traveller, behold the hour. 
Think 7tpon thy last resting place. 

At St. Simeon de Bressieux (Isere). 




This inscription is cut on one side of the 
cubical top of a pedestal at Brougham Hall, 
Westmoreland, which bears a horizontal dial on 
the top. On another side are Nos. 1355, 1530, 
with a skull and hour-glass : a third side bears 
an armorial shield, Brougham impalino- either 

" f — - 1 ' r fill • 

^^/iL?J^^'^'^!k. Fleming or Hudlestone : and on the fourth side 
^.—^ ri^"r\^;'^'i. is the date 1660 and initials t Be for Thomas 
'"'%'-,t^j-%-,>2 •"■ and Elizabeth Brougham. 


Old age creeps on nnazcares. 
On St. Bridget's Church, Bridestowe ; and on St. Andrews', South 
Tawton, Devon. The motto is from Ausonii Epigramm. 13. 

" Senescimus, effugit aetas, 

Obrepit non intellecta senectus. 

Nee revocare potes, qui periere, dies." 

877. Observe how fast, time hurries past, 

Then use each hour, while in your power 
For comes the sun, but time flies on, 
Proceeding ever, returning never. 
R. B. 1810. 

On a fine pedestal dial at Newhall, near Penicuik, N.B., which stands 
in the garden, upon four steps. Round the base of the pillar there are 
eight panels, arranged round the four side.s, one above another. The 
motto is engraved on one of these panels, in another there is the following 
inscription : " Here Alexander Penicuik of Newhall M.D. is said to have 
given Allan Ramsay the plot of his celebrated Pastoral Comedy of the 


Gentle Shepherd." This explains the contents of the six remaining 
panels, (i) Contains a design consisting of shejoherd's crook, and other 
pastoral implements. (2) Habbie's How, and Mause's Cottage (Habbie's 
How is a romantic spot in the neighbourhood of Newhall, and Mause 
is one of the characters in the comedy). (3) The Washing Green, and 
Symon's House. (4) The Craigg Bield and Gland's Onstead (Gland 
and Symon are also characters in the poem). (5) A ship inclosed in an 
oval margin. (6) " Here Allan Ramsay recited to his distinguished and 
literary patrons, as he proceeded with them, the scenes of his unequalled 
Pastoral Comedy, amid the objects and characters introduced into it." 

878. oCVLls NGN aVrIbVs aDsVM. I speak to eyes, not cars. 

In 1859 this motto was on the Abbey of Royamont (Seine et Marne). 
The chronogram gives the date of the construction of the dial 1672, a 
year in which many important repairs of the building were made. 

879. Odium sine sole transit. Hatred passeth by iuitJio2it the sun. 
With No. 343. On the Mairie at Voulx (Seine et Marne). 

880. O'er every hour that's brightest 

A SHADOW creeps ; 
And he whose laugh is lightest 

Full often weeps. 
O look we for the morrow 

Which hath no night, 
When lost is every sorrow 

In God's own light. 

Suggested as a motto by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet. 

881. Of shade and sunshine for each hour 

See here a measure made : 
Then wonder not if life consist 
Of sunshine and of shade. 

This stanza is at Dial House, Wadsley, near Sheffield, on a stone 
dial let into the wall. 

882. Oggi in vita, dimane morto. In life to-day, to-morrow dead. 
At Bon Conseil, Savoy ; and at Chapelle St. Jacques. 

883. Ogn' ora UN altra al viver tuo scema, 
NoN al usarne mal pensati e tema. 

Each hour another from thy life doth bear : 
See thou misuse it not, bethink thee, fear. 

On a house. Piazza San Michele, Ventimiglia. 

884. Oh! employez-les bien. 1835. Oh! tt,se them zuell. 
At Mirabel, France. 


885. Oh qe le temps passe vite ! Oh, hoiv qtiickly time passes I 

This quaintly spelt motto was seen in i860 over the door of a small 
house which stood in a garden a little distance from the road between 
Cannes and Grasse. The dial was circular and faced south. It re- 
presented the sun, full-face, broad and smiling, with his hair dressed 
after the fashion of a king in a pack of cards, on a green background. 
He held the gnomon like a pipe in the corner of his mouth, and seemed 
to be regretting the swift passage of a jolly life. 

886. OisiF, le temps passe. Idler, time passes aivay. 
At Elne (Pyrenees Orientales). 

887. Ombra fallace, cue mentre s'appressafugge. Ah, cheating shade, 
thy near approach is flight. 

No place assigned. 

888. Omp.ka fugace dalla luce uscita 
MisuKO al sole I PASSi, all' uom la vita. 

A fleeting shade of heavenly light begot, 
I mark, O sun, thy steps, O man, thy lot. 

At San Bartolomeo, near Spezia. 

889. Ombre trompeuse qui fuit a mesure qu'elle approciie, 



Deceptive shadoio ^ohich flics as it approaches. 

This mortal life ivhich pleases, flics more quickly than the shadow. 

At Mayres (Isere). 

890. Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit UTILE DULCi (Hor. " Ars 
Poetica," 343). He toho has mingled sivectness zoith ntility has gained 
the applause of all. 

On a dial erected by the late Sir John Peter Grant, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
in the kitchen garden at Rothiemurchus, Aberdeenshire. The garden 
is very beautifully situated on the slope of Ord Bain Hill, and the 
pedestal stands at the intersection of four grassy paths bordered with 
flowers and vegetables growing together, an intermixture which led to 
the selection of the motto. 

891. Omnes aequales sola virtute discrepantes. 

fecit Bourdet 1786. 

All men are equal, and differ only in virtue. 
At the Hameau de I'Agnelas, Voiron (Isere). 

892. Omnes secant, ultima necat. All tvound, the last kills. 
At Vispthal. 


893. Omnes sint DEO. 1868. Ld all men de for God. 
Route des Salces, Perpignan. 

894. Omnes time propter unam. Fear every hour because of one (the 

At Visp, Switzerland. 

895. Omnes una nos manet. 0>ie hour awaits us all alike. 
At La Thuile de Granier, Savoy. 

8g6. Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat. All zuouud, the last kills. 

This motto, with Nos. loS, 443, is on a dial at Cadder, near Glasgow. 
The dial consists of a stone block, 14I inches square, mounted on a 
shaft three feet high. "On the east, west, and south faces there are 
large cup hollows, 9I inches in diameter, all carefully lineated. Over 
each hollow is a motto. The gnomons consist of thin pieces of metal 
stretched across the cups. There is a metal dial plate on the upper 
surface, with a most beautifully worked gnomon of thin brass, perforated 
and chased, and containing the arms ot the Maitland and Lauderdale 
family — a lion rampant within a double tressure." 

On the north side of the dial are the initials of Charles Maitland 
and his wife, Lilias Colquhoun, entwined, with the date 1698. Lilias 
Colquhoun was the widow of Sir John Stirling, of Keir, and had his 
estate of Cadder settled on her for life. She married, secondly, Charles 
Maitland, son of the third Earl of Lauderdale. 

897. Omnia a deo. 166S. All thino-s are from God. 

The family motto of Prince Rospigliosi, which, with his coat of 
arms is on a sun-dial on the farm at Spicchio, near Lamparecchio, 
belonging to the Villa Rospigliosi. 

898. Omnia cum tempore pr.eterevnt. All things pass away with 

On a small brass sun-dial and calendar in the British Museum. It 
is beautifully engraved with the face of the sun and other ornaments. 

899. Omnia pert /ETAS. Time brings all things. 

(From Virgil, Eel. ix. 51.) On the porch of an Elizabethan manor 
house in the village of North Luffenham. 

900. Omnia fit ^etas. Time does all tlmtgs. 

On an octohedral dial in Mr. Evans' collection. See No. 295. 

901. Omnia humana vana, All human affairs are but vanity. 
Locality unknown. 

902. Omnia somnia. a.d. 1680. All things are dreams. 
On the convent of St. Ursula, Valetta. 


903. Omnia sunt hominum pendentia filo. 1764. All things that 
are of men are hanging on a thread. 

On the Lodge, Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire. 

904. Omnia tempus habent. To everything there is a season. (Eccl. 
iii. I.) 

On the church of St. Stefano, Belkino (see No. 312). 

905. Omnia vana. All is vanity. 

On the engraving of a dial in " Der unbetrugHche Stunden Weiser," 
by J. H. Mullen 1702. 

go6. Omnia velut umbra. All is as a shadow. 
At Aups (Var). 

907. Omnibus brevis ultima multis. This hour is short for all, their 
last for many. 

At Castanel (Tarn). 

908. Omnibus exemplum et regula. A pattern and a rule to all. 

On the church of St. Joseph (which formerly belonged to the 
Jesuits), at Montauban (Tarn et Garonne). 

909. Omnibus exoritur. For all men he rises. 
Place unknown. 

910. Omnibus mora velut ultima judicetur. Let the hour be 
Judged for all men as though it lucrc the last. 

Locality unknown. 

911. Omnibus iioris ora. Pray at all hours. 

In front of the Presbytere at Larroque (Ariege). 

912. Omnibus incerta. No man knowcth it. 
At Voreppe (Isere). 

913. Omnibus lucet. The {sun) shines for all. 

On the tower of Long Sutton Church, Lincolnshire. 

914. Omnis spiritus laudet dominum. Let everything that hath 
breath praise the Lord (Psalm cl. 6). 

Formerly at Great Smeaton, Yorkshire (see No. 647). 

915. On this moment iianc^s eternity. 

Formerly on the church tower of Alfrick, Worcestershire (com- 
pare No. 172). 


916. Once at a potent leader's voice i stay'd, 

Once i went back when a good monarch pray'd ; 
Mortals, howe'er we grieve, howe'er deplore, 
The flying shadow will return no more. 
Taken from Cyrus Redding's " Fiftj' Years' Personal Recollec- 

917. Only as i abide in the light of heaven 
do i fulfil the will of my maker. 1 895. 

On a glass window dial at Charlesfield, Midlothian, placed there by 
H. B. McCall, February, 1895. 

918. OpPOSTO DI ME, 


Think of thyself instead of inc. 

At the Chateau of the Count Pinsuti, in Piedmont. 

919. Optima forte tibi. Perchance thy happiest ho7tr. 
At Barraux (Isere). 

920. Ora EST hora. 1858. Pray,' tis the time. 
On the cure's house at St. Quentin (Isere). 

921. Ora et labora. Pray and ivork. 

On the church at Northallerton, Yorks. ; and at West Wickham 
House, Surrey. Also with other mottoes on a cross dial at the House 
of Mercy, Horbury, near Wakefield (see Nos. 278, 1629). 

922. Ora ne te fallat iiora. 1760. Pray that the hour take thee 
not unawares. 

At Auberives (Isere) ; on the church at Cavaillon (Vaucluse) ; on 
a house at Plampinet (Hautes Alpes) ; and at Le Puy St. Andre, 1868. 
The last two dials were designed by Zarbula. 

923. 1870. Respublica. 

Ora ne te fallat hora labens velvt vnda velox sicut avra. 

M. Mondru, Cure. 
Pray that the hour, gliding like zvater, swift as the wind, take thee not 

On the Presbytere, La Vachette (Hautes Alpes). The dial is sur- 
mounted by a bird, in Zarbula's style. 

924. Ora ne te rapiat iiora. Pray that thou fallcst not a prey to 
the Iiour. 

On the tower of a large modern church in a village of the Val Sesia, 
near Varallo. Also on two of Zarbula's dials, one at Chateau Oueyras, 



dated 1848, the other on the church at Molines, Oueyras, dated 1849. 
The same motto as Ora ut te rapiat iiora is on the Hotel de Ville, 
Anet (Eiire et Loire). Ora ne te iiora, Pray that this Jiour 
may not be thy ho7ir of trial, is on the church at Teche ; at Les 
Avenieres ; and La Riviere (Isere). 

925. Ora ne te ultima fallat. Pray lest the last hour take thee 

Formerly on the Convent des Minimes, Paris. 

926. Orbem idoneo totvm impleat. ]\Iay he fill the i^'holc luorld 
zulfh the light ivhicJi brightens it. 

On a book-shaped portable brass dial in the Musee Cluny, Paris. 

927. Orius et umbra, a circle and a shadow. 
At Rome. 

928. Ordinatione tua perseverat dies. The day continues according 
to Thine ordinance. 

At the Salle d'Asile, Mende (Lozere). 

929. Ordinatione tua, rege et protege. By thy ordainment rule 
and protect. 

On Visp Church, Switzerland. The motto is on the dial face, 
which also has the sun and a church painted on it. It is also on a 
house at Sion, Canton Valais. 

930. Oriens ex alto visitavit nos : 
Memor esto occasus tui. 

The day spring from on high hath visited 11 s (St. Luke, i. "jS). 
Be than luindfcl of thine oivn setting. 

The first line is on the east face, the second on the west face of a 
dial at Round House Farm, Haverfield, Gloucestershire. Visitavit 
NOS oriens ex alto is written on an illustration of an east dial in a 
French MS. on dials in Mr. L. Evans' possession, apparently written 
at Nancy in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

931. Oriens nomen ejus. Arising in his name. 

Formerly above the door of the Maison des Jesuites, Rue St. 
Jacques, Paris. 

932. Oriens sol adornatur. 
George Bowlby, Ackworth ; 1810. 

The rising snn is eqiiipped {for hisj'onrney). 

On one of four dials which surround the pedestal of a globe dial 
in Mr. A. Egginton's kitchen garden, South Ella, near Hull. The 


globe shows when the sun is on the meridian. Each of the four dials 
has a motto. See Nos. 142, 431, 1048. 

933. Oriente oriens 

Cadente cadens. 

R/si;io as tlic sun rises, seizing as he sets. 

Maison Henrard d'Armieux, St. Gervais. 

934. Orimur, morimur. We rise up, lue die. 

With No. 1 141. On a gable at Packwood House, Warwickshire. 
We are told that when this motto was last painted, the artist unfor- 
tunately put mortiniiir for " morimur." We cannot doubt that this is 
a true account of the position, for a sketch of the square-shaped dial, 
immediately under a small window in the angle of the gable, is before 
us, with the legend below. An obliging communication, however, 
from Bishop Hobhouse, informs us that the same words are also on a 
clock-face at Packwood ; the word " orimur " being over an increasing 
series of figures, and the word " morimur " over a decreasing series. 

935. Orior uriente sole, sole cauente cado. i860. As the sun 
rises, I arise, as he sets, I fall. 

On a dial by Zarbula at Abries ; and also at Roquebrune (Var). 

936. Ospita, e peregrina ii nostra vita. 
Ad ora ad ora manca, e fa lartita. 

We are as guests anel pilgrims here below, 
A little ivhile loe stay, and then ive go. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


JEUNK HOMME, (1UI JE PASSE coMME LE vent). Forget not, O young man, 
that I go by like the wind. 

On a tower at Peirole. 

938. Our days decline like the shad(jw. 
On the Grammar School, Northampton. 

939. Our days on earth are as a shadow, and there is none 
abiding (i Chron. xx. 15). i860. 

On a house at Lyme, Dorsetshire; on a church at Charlton Kings, 
Somerset ; and on a buttress of Tutbury Church, Staffordshire. The 
iirst part of the text is in Overton Churchyard, Flintshire (see No. 
108) ; on Otterford Church, Somerset, with No. 1337, and date " 1826, 
J. Blackmore fecit" ; also on Clayworth Church, Notts ; the church at 
Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire ; and on Lilleshall Church, Salop, the 
dial having been restored by Mr. C. C. Walker, F.R.S.A., and on a 
modern vertical dial at Brighton, with No. 1528. 


940. Our days on earth are as a shadow, 

so soon passeth it away, and we are gone. 
In the gardens fronting the house at Gale Syke, Wastwater, is a 
horizontal dial thus inscribed. It was erected about 1852-3, and 
presented to the then owner of the place, Stansfield Rawson, Esq., by 
one of his daughters. It was said to have been designed by Mr. 
Rawson's son-in-law, the Rev. Dr. Worsley, late master of Downing 
College, Cambridge. 

941. Our d.vys pass like a shadow. 

On the old church at Whitby, Yorkshire, cut in the stone and 
dated 1757. 

942. Our life's a flying shadow, god's the pole: 
The index pointing at him is our soul : 
Death 's the horizon when our sun is set, 
Which will, through christ, a resurrection get. 

Formerly on Milton Church, Berks ; and on Ebberston Church, 
near Scarborough, with No. 732, and " F. Thorpe delineavit 1843"; 
The same motto, with Nos. 289, 1490, was on Glasgcnv Cathedral, but 
has now disappeared. Leadbetter (1756) mentions this as "on the 
High Church wall." 

943. Our time's at hand. 

On the church porch, Minster, Sheppey. 

944. 'OTPANON . 'A . XnPTIA . lO^A . AlQOi: . 
'A . AIA . TTT0OT . rNilMONOX . 
Exaequat caelum sapiens Lapis indice parvo, 
Mensiis qiwd solis flamnia diurnat iter. 

" Behold, epitomised in this small space. 
The siui/t revolving- eartJis diitrnal zuheel." 

A writer in the "Gentleman's Magazine," February, 1792, p. 121, 
said : " I found yesterday, in the ' Anthologia,' a curious philosophical 
bagatelle, an inscription for a dial containing twelve words, and, as it 
seems, intentionally limited to that number. It is well known to your 
Grecian readers that Ai9of, in the feminine, denotes a gem. This was 
probably therefore a very small dial." 

The Latin and English versions of the inscription were also given 
in the "Gentleman's Magazine." Both they and the Greek lines have 
been exactly copied. We are not responsible for the spelling. Prob- 
ably AEATI2 should be AEAIOT. 


Time briiigs all things back. 

On an octohedral dial in Mr. L. Evans' colleclicjn, see No. 295. 


946. nANTA IKIA. 

Edmond Burtox. 

Maud Burton, 1607, 

hora fugit sic tv. 

AH t/iiuQs arc Imt sJiadmo, Our days on earth {arc) as a shadoii'. 
Time passes, so dost thou. 

On the copper plate of a dial which has stood in the Rectory Garden 
at Sutton Montis, Somerset, ever since it was put up in 1607. Edmond 
Burton was rector at the time of its erection. 


Time bi-ings everything. 
In the villaoe of Larche (Basses Alpes). 

948. Par le soleil je donne l'heure, 
Et ex dieu tu trouves ton espoir. 

TJic sun reveals the hojir by me, 
A nd God it is gives hope to thee. 

At Abries (Hautes Alpes); and at Le Pinet. 

949. Parce tempori sequere deum. Save thy time and follow God. 

On an engraving of a dial in " Gnomonice de Solariis," 1572, by 
Bartholomew Scultetus (B. Schultz). 

950. Parta tueri. Protect what tho7i hast gained. 
Seen on an octagonal silver pocket-dial. 

951. Parte l'ombra col sol, col .sol ritorna : 

Ma l'uom qual ombra fugge, e piu non torna. 

The shadozv departs ivitli the sun, luith the sun returns : 
But man as the shadow flees, and rettirns no more. 

At Sordevole, in Piedmont. 

952. Particula boni doni nox te praetereat. Let not the part of a 
good desire overpass thee (Ecclus. xiv. 14). 

The text is thus translated in the Bible, but as used for a dial motto 
it would seem rather to mean : Let no atom of the good gift pass thee by, 
that is, the gift of Time. The motto is on the Hotel Boucicault, St. 
Francois, Tours. There are .several dials showing the astronomical, 
the Babylonian, and the Italian hours. 

953. Passager que que tu soit, 
Arrete toi ici et boit (sic), 1850. 

Wayfarer, whoever thou mayest be, stop here and drink. 

On an inn at Lans (Isere). 



954. Passant si tu veux jouir des douceurs be la vie, 
Repose tot a l'oaiere de ces forets. 

22 Juillet, 1832. 

Passer by, if you wish to enjoy tlie stcecfness of lif\ 
Rest here under the shaclo7i< of these luoods. 

At Sylve Benite (Isere). 

955. Pace . et . ne . ta . ketk . tar {sic). 

L'an 2 de la Republique (1794). 
(Passe et n'k t'akketk pas.) 
Pass aud stay not. 
At the Hamnau de Palliardin, Curtin (Isere). 

956. Passe, passant. Passer by, pass ou. 

At the Hameaii de la Terrasse, St. Oiientin (Isere). 

957. Passo ne 1-ta cii'io tokni, 

II viva run MISURA 

Dali.'opre e non \).\\ cioRXT. 1846. 

Onee past I cannot then retrace my 7K'ays, 
MeasJire thy life by works done, not by days. 

At Acqui, North Italy. 

958. Panse a l'eternite, 

LeURE VA MARQUE {sic) 1 827. 

Think on Eternity, the hour is about to strike. 

At Les Oueyrelles Hautes. The first line only is at La Tour d'en 
Trolliet (Hautes Alpes). 

959. Pansons a dieu {sic). Let us think upon God. 
At Sillans (Isere). 

960. Pense a ton iieure derntere. Think on thy last hour. 

On the facade of a convent at Carmaux (Tarn). In slighth' different 
forms the motto was formerly in the Rue St. Thomas du Loux-re, Paris ; 
and on a cabaret at Passy. 

961. PeNSA, UN IJIO, UN, l\ eternitA. 

Think, — One God, one soul, one eternity. 
Think aniin — o?ie hour will decide all. 


At Saure, near Tione, in the Trentino. 

962. Per diem sol non uret te neque luna per noctem. The sun 
shall not burn thee by day neither the moon by night (Ps. cxxi. 6). 

Formerly at Lisieux, on the College. 



963. Per I FELici Ku i tristi segno ugualmkntk le ore. I mark tin- 
/lours alike for the liappy and the sad. 

On a farmhouse in the neighbourhood of Lari, Tuscany ; recorded 
by Mrs. Janet Ross in " Macmillan's Magazine." 

964. Per l'orecciiia non son, ma sol I'ER l'occhio, 


Not for the car, luif for the eye, am I, 
Thus without sioyi of touQ;uc am I. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

965. Per me qui l'arte in 

suo trionfo adduce 
II tempo, ii. moto, il 
SOL, l'omrra, la luce. 

Art in its triumph drinos 

hither for my 71 se 
Time, motion, the sun, 

shadoio and light. 

On an old building near 
Montepulciano, N. Italy. 


966. Pereunt et imputantur. 
They pass by and are reckoned. J,_ 

This is one of the Temple 
dial mottoes. When first copied >^ 
by Mrs. Gatty, the dial, a ver- --^-^r-J' 
tical one in Temple Lane, bore 
the date 1818, but at each re- 
painting the date was altered. 
The present dial is not quite 
in the same position as the 
former one, owing to the re- 
buildincr of the chambers in 
the Lane. The motto was, until late years, on the south porch of 
Gloucester Cathedral, but the dial was removed at the recent restora- 
tion, and the older canopy work replaced. At one time the inscrip 
tion might have been read on Rotherham Church ; at Beadnell, 
and at Hamburgh, Northumberland (dated 182S), and probably made 
by William Armstrong, schoolmaster, but the restoration of these 
churches has been fatal to the dials. There was a dial on St. 
Buryan's Church, Cornwall, bearing this motto and the date 1747, 
but it was removed in 1874, and only restored to its place in 1S99. 
St. Margaret's Church, Ipswich, once had a vertical dial over the 
porch with this motto, but in 1867 it was removed, and after remaining 
for some time in a stonemason's yard, was sold by auction ; it was 


in i88g in a meat saleman's yard at Ipswich, and had been repainted 
and gilt. The fine dial placed by Sir Christopher Wren on the 
college of which he was a fellow, All Souls, Oxford, bears this motto. 
The dial was former])' on the chapel, but was some years ago moved 
to the wall of the library, where it is placed above one of the windows 
on a south wall. The motto may further be read at Hargrave Rectory, 
Northants ; at Lympne, Kent; and on Lincoln Cathedral with No. 
128; on the old Moot Hall at Aldeburgh, with No. 443 ; on Kildwick 
Church in Craven, Yorkshire ; and Great Barton Church porch, Suffolk ; 
in the churchyards of Garstang, Lancashire, with date i 757 ; of Alding- 
ton, Kent, dated 1 799 ; on a wooden shaft at Brympton, near Yeovil, 
with No. 1499; in the rectory garden at Micheldean, with No. 354; 
and in the vicarage garden at 13ishop Stortford, Herts ; on the cross- 
dial at Elleslie, Chichester (see No. 104); and at Lavendon Grange, 
near Olney, dated 1626, over the principal entrance. .Sir Isaac New- 
ton was a frequent visitor at Lavendon, and no doubt often consulted 
this time-teller. It is also on a curious clock at Exeter Cathedral. 

The same motto is found on several continental dials, as on the 
Municipio at Palermo ; and on the church of San Crocifisso, Pieve di 
Cadore (see Nos. 442, 1504, 1548); on that of Mens (Isere); at 
Mont Valezan sur Bellentre, .Savoy; at Nus, Val d'Aosta; in the garden 
of the hospital of St. Jacques, Besancon (see No. 75); and formerly 
was on the college at Lisieux. 

The words of the motto are taken from an epigram by Martial, v. 
20, II, the four last lines of which are as follows : 

" Nunc vivit sibi neuter, heu ! bonosque 
Soles effugere atque abire sentit, 
Qui nobis pereunt et imputantur ; 
Quisquam vivere cum sciat, moratur? " 

Cowley translates these : 

Now to himself, alas ! does neither live 
But sees good suns of which we are to give 
A strict account, set, and doth march away : 
Knows a man how to live, and does he stay?" 

The sentiment is remarkable from a heathen writer, and somewhat 
more Christian, though often not more true, than that given to a lady 
who was being lionized at Oxford, and asked the meaning of the words : 
" They perish," said her waggish companion, " and are not thought 

Pf.rkun r liT IMPUTANTUR is also in the garden of Bremhill Rectory, 
Wilts, on a dial which stands on a twisted column in the midst of flower 
beds. It was put up by the Rev. W. L. Bowles, who also inscribed the 
following lines upon a hermitage, now d(;stroyed, which stood near it : 

" To mark life's few but fleeting hours, 
I placed the dial 'midst the flowers 


Which one by one came forth and died 
Still -withering by its ancient side. 
Mortal ! let the sight impart 
Its pensive moral to thy heart I " 

967. Perge securus, monstru \i.\M. Proceed tnistftilly, I shoio 
the way. 

On an ivory portarium, now in tlie possession of Charles T. Gatty. 
The motto refers to the compass which is included in the portarium. 
It was made by Hans Troschel, and was bought at Nuremberg. The 
motto is also on a portarium in the Musee Cluny, Paris (see No. 404 
and comp. No. 748). 

968. Periclitamuk OMNI HOKA. ]Vc stdiid ill jeopardy every hour 
(i Cor. XV. 30). 

At Aime, Savoy; and on the wall of the old Capuchin convent at 

969. Petito quod justum. Seek what is Just. 

In Jamaica there is an old Spanish sun-dial placed on the parapet 
of the platform, before the main entrance to Great Pond House, parish 
of St. Anne, just in front of a pomegranate tree, which springs from 
the rock opposite the dial. The dial is inscribed as above. 


Favdra movrir et rendre conte {sic). 

Perhaps at the hour luhich thou dost count 
Thou wilt have to die and give accoitnt. 

On the church at Ornon (Isere). 

971. Peut-etre la derniere. Perhaps the last. 
At the Maison Avignon, Mirepoix (Ariege). 

972. Phoebo absente nil sum. Without Phoibus I am nothing. 
At Gardes (Vaucluse). 

973. Phoebus in hoc spera (sphera) dat nascere temporis iioris. 
On this sphere Phoebus permits the hours of time to be born. 

On a dial at the Chateau de I'lsle d'Aval, near Dinan, the residence 
of M. Gaulter dii Mottray. The dial is on a white marble slab and was 
brought from the Chateau du Voeu Meloisel, which belonged in the 
hfteenth and sixteenth centuries to the family of Desnos : on the upper 
part there is a shield quartered with the arms and mottoes of the 
families of Desnos and Matignon, and surrounded by the legend, " En 
tout par honneur." 




Than ftccting sliadc tnore fugitive 
This life zue cling to zuhilc zee live. 

No locality assigned. 

975. Pllrks lauuri, ULLciias nuiUAM uTiis. Most to loork, some to 
pleasant ease. 

M. de Fieubet, Counsellor of State to Louis XIV., set up many 
dials, and the one which he erected on his house in Paris bore the 
above motto. It was supported by figures of Labour and Rest ; for 
the motto on his country house see No. 239. The above was also on 
the Maison des Jesuites, Rue St. Jacques, Paris ; and is in the garden 
of the Hospital of St. Jacques, Besancjon. See No. 75. 


Si annotta, o tuona, o piove 
Noi fuggiam in grembo a giove. 

Bearers of zocalth to yon, the sons oj men, 
Are loe, the sunlight hours of days serene ; 
If night, or rain, or thunder blur the sky. 
Into our Father s bosom back zoe Jly. 

So the late Dean Alford translated the motto which he found at 
Vignale, in Piedmont. 

977. PcsT EST occAsio CALVA. Opportunity is bald behind. 

" Take time by the forelock," says the adage. The whole line is, 
" Fronte capillata, post est occasio calva," as already stated (see No. 
322). The above motto is on the church tower at Yaxley, Huntingdon- 
shire. The dial bears the date of its renewal in 1S18, but the motto is 
now almost obliterated. It is also on Horton Church, Dorset. 

" 'I'liu nioinent that is past returns no more : 
'rile hour mis-spent can never be recalled ! 
Old Chronos has but one poor lock before, 
His head, behind, is altoegether bald. 
Take that from me." 

Thomas Elwood. 

978. Post fatum sukgo. 1S14. After death I arise. 

On the Capuchin Convent, Nice. The arms of the seraphic Order 
are fieured on it. 


979. Post ienebr.vs lux. After darkness light. 

A motlern dial, near the corner of a house with a high garden wall 
at Varenna, on the lake of Como, bore this inscription in 1866. The 
Rev. Samuel Clark, writing in 1O56 (" Mirror for Saints and Sinners") 


observes that these words were written upon "a marble table in the 
town house of Geneva. Before Master Calvin opened their eyes by his 
ministry, their motto was Post tcucbras spcro biccni. Since they altered 
it to Post tcucbras lux." 

980. Post tenebras spero lucem. After darkness I hope for light. 
At Jordan Gate, Macclesfield (see No. 807). On a vertical dial in 

the courtyard of the Certosa, near Alatri ; with others in the Passage 
du Petit St. Antoine, Paris (see No. 860) ; and at Ridley Hall (see 
No. 45). 

981. Posui DEUM ADjuTOREM MEUM. I have placed God as my helper. 

One of the mottoes on the dial pillar at Corpus Christi College, 


Wliercfore look for it if it is only to be lost ? 

At Chateau Oueyras (Hautes Alpes), with other mottoes. 



Tout notre temps a LOUEk dieu. 

Il FAUT pour LE MARQUER la plus noble MANlfeRE 

Why is not the tisiial shadow visible on this snn-dial ? It is becatcse in 
this place all our time is given to praising God. We desire to mark it in 
the highest rvay, and that is by borrowing a ray of light from Heaven. 

Inscribed on a dial within a Franciscan convent. The hour is 
shown by a ray of light. This kind of dial is called in France Cadran 
a la capncine, " La Cloche." 

984. Praecipites validis tardae languentibus iiORAE. Sti'lft are 
the hours to the healthy, slow to the sick. 

In a chemist's shop, Rue Bourg I'Abbe, Paris. 

985. Praesens tibi ultima pluribus. The present hour is life to thee, 
and death to many others. 

At Caussade (Tarn et Garonne). 

986. Pr/ESTANT Sterna caducis. The things eternal excel the 

Noted in North Italy. 

987. Pr/etereunt. Imputantur. 
They pass by. They are reckoned. 

There are two sun-dials at Farnham Castle, on the walls of the 

.^ B 


entrance tower. They had formerly the inscription, " Eheu fugaces, 
labuntur anni," but have now the more befitting words, " Praetereunt" 
on the one, and " Imputantur" on the other. 

g88. Pr/eterit /etas nec remoranti 

Lapsa recedunt s^cula cursu, 
Ut fugit ^tas utque citatus 


Sic quoque nostra pr^ecipitanter 
Vita recedit ocior undis. 

Time passes, and loith no lingering passage the ages vanish. As iimc 
Hies, and as the year rolls on, hurried as the zohirlwind, so snddeniy doth 
otir life fail, stoiftcr than the waves. 

On the back of a curious old sun-dial formerly at Park Hill, near 
Oswestry. On the sides and base were three other mottoes, Nos. 1329, 
1334, 1351, and date 1578. The " Archaeological Journal " (xiii. 417) 
gives a figure of the dial, and says, "It measures about four feet in 
height, exclusive of the two footing courses. There has evidently been 
another inscription which is now defaced. There are seven dials on 
this curious example. At the time when the dial was erected the 
family of Ap Howell or Powell owned Park Hill, and it remained in 
their hands till 1717." This was written in 1856. Unfortunately the 
dial no longer exists ; an attempt was made to move it, and it fell to 

989. Pr.eterit figura iiujus mundi. 1788. The fashion of this 
world passeth aimy. (i Cor. vii. 31.) 

In the cloister of the old Abbey of Ronceray, Angers; also on a 
house at St. Chaffrey (I sere). 

990. Pr^ETERITUM nihil PR/ESENS instabile, futurum incertum. 
The past is nothing, the pi'esent unstable, the future 7incertain. 

On a marble pedestal dial, which formerly stood in a pleasure 
ground at Knole Park, Kent; and is now in the garden of a neighbour- 
ing farmhouse. Knole was the property of the Duke of Dorset, whose 
co-heiresses were his two sisters, the elder of whom married the Earl 
of Plymouth, and inherited the estate. She afterwards became the 
Countess Amherst. In default of issue, the estate passed to the 
younger sister, the wife of Earl Delawarr, who was created Baroness 
Buckhurst in her own right, with remainder to her younger son, who 
is now in possession of Knole. 

The motto is on a brass horizontal and analemmatic dial, 9^ in. x 
5^ in., made by Thomas Tuttell, in Mr. Evans' collection. Also with 
ignotuin instead of incertum, on a silver dial by the same maker, now 
in the museum at Copenhagen. 



ggi. Pray, for the hour passeth away. 

Recorded in the " Leeds Monthly," as being inscribed on the front 
of a house at Monk Fryston, Yorkshire. 

992. Prends garde X la DERNifeRE. Be iiihidfiil of tlic last koiir. 

On the church of Verdelais (Gironde). Before the Revolution the 
church was served by the order of the Celestines, and the dial belongs 
to their time. The motto is also on the Chateau de Fougeres (Basses 
Alpes). See No. 1062. 

993. Prends garde A toi, ton heure s'avance. Beiuare—thy hour 

Formerly in the Rue du Faubourg St. Antoine, Paris. 

994. Prenez garde, mortels, vous passez comme l'onde 


Sixte Bee et neveus, 1843. 

Beivare, mortals — you flow by like a wave, 
So vanishcth the glory of this ivorld. 

Via San Michele, Bousson, Prov. of Turin. 

995. Prepare to meet thy God. 

With No. 1345 and Gloria Dei (The glory of God), and " Lat. 
53 deg. 26 min.," on the porch dial of Bradfield Church, in the parish 
of Ecclesfield, Yorkshire. The church is a fine one of fifteenth century 
date, and is nobly placed, overlooking the moors and the valley 
through which the flood, caused by the bursting of the Dale Dyke 
Reservoir, poured down into Sheffield in the night of March 11, 1864, 
when 250 persons were drowned. The church was well restored during 
the years 1 871 -1888, whilst the Rev. Reginald A. Gatty was rector. 

996. Priez dieu a toute heure. Pray zvithout ceasing. 
Is at Bozel, Savoy. 

997. Prima fuit, pr/esens volat, ultima quando sonabit 
H.Ec latet, imprudens ergo, caveto tibi. 

The first hoiir hath bccji, the present files, the last soon shall sound : 
this thou knoioest not, therefore, unforeseeing one, let it be a warning to 

At Caudebec, on the church tower, where there is both a meridian 
dial and a clock. Perhaps the inscription has not survived the restora- 
tion of the church. 

998. Pro cunctis orior. 1698. I rise for all men. 

On the .^sile des Alienes de la Trinite, at Aix, in Provence. A 
similar motto. Pro omnibus — On behalf of all, is at La Ciotat (Bouches 
du Rhone). 


999. Prouit vestigia lucis. It shows the tracks of the light. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1000. Profitez du TEMrs. R. 1 868. Make good use of your ti vie. 
At Villefnmche, near Nice. 

looi. Properate fugit. Haste ye, it flics. 

On a dial, Ouai St. Eustache, Paris, in 1787. 

1002. Properat hora mortis : ultima cuivis expectanda dies. 
The hour of death hastens on : the last day is to be looked for by 
each one. 

With Nos. 248,693, 1360, and "Johannes Watkins, 1695," on a dial 
in the vicarage garden, Ripley, Surrey. The dial formerly stood in a 
garden at East Harptree, belonging to Lieut. William Hooper, R. N., 
from which it was removed on his death in 1861 ; it was placed in the 
garden at Ripley by his son, the Rev. H. Hooper, in 1870. 

1003. Propinquant omnes cave unam. All hours are approaching, 
beioare of one. 

No locality assigned. 

1004. Providus usque Deus. God ever foreseeth. 

Formerly on the Convent of the Theatins, Paris. The building is 
now a private house. See Nos. 392, 1026, 1120. 


shame be (rosy) as the daunt. 

The dial which bears this inscription is on a horizontal slab of white 
marble in the cloisters of the Certosa, Val d'Ema, near Florence. It 
tells the hours from two to six p.m. to the few remaining inmates of 

" . . . . The huge battlemented convent block 
Over the Httle forky flashing dreve 
That takes the quick turn at the foot o' the hill 
Just as one first sees Florence." 

The Kiiiii and Ihc Jiook. 


A toute iieure il iaut atti;ni)ri:. 

Be ever irady since death will overtake thee. 

On a bronze slab bearing a variety of astronomical dials which is in 
the Musee Lorrain, Bar-le-Duc, and was formerly at a house at Ligny. 
There is another motto on it, see No. 235. The engraving of the 
elaborate designs was the work of a well-known Lorrainese artist, 
named llanzelsl, at the begliuiing of the seventeenth century. 




IVit/i sand, ivith snn, loith luhccls, lui'th zvatcr we measure the iiinc : 
a/as, tlnis does life jrlide on, hnrry by, and is gone. 

The Lord shall be my refuge, and this stone the sign thereof. 

On a dial in the Musee Lapidaire at Beaune (Cotes d'Or). See 
No. 236. 

1008. PuLVis ET UMBRA suiMUS. JVc are dust and s/uidozo. 

In Leyland, and in Euxton churchyards, Lancashire ; also in 
Grappenhall churchyard, Cheshire, dated 17 14; and formerly on the 





keep of Carlisle Castle, see No. 169. The line is from Horace (Odes, iv. 
vii. 16). Hogarth inscribed it under a mural sun-dial in his picture 
of " Chairing the Member " ; a skull and cross-bones ornament the 2fate- 
posts below. The motto was once on the Chateau de Montmayeur, 
Savoy; and on a convent at Conflans. It is now in the market-place 
of the town of Sion, Canton Valais. The Rhone Valley is noted for 
the violent winds which spring up at noon during the summer months, 
raising great clouds of dust, and making the motto specially appropriate 
to the place. 

1009. PuNCTUM TEMPORis OMNis VITA. The lohok of life IS but a point 
of time. 

On an engraving of a dial in Franz Ritter's " Speculum Solis ", 
1652. Also on a cubiform limestone dial in the Nordiska Museet at 
Stockholm : the stone is damaged, and the continuation (il any) missing. 




The iron bell may wrongly tell, 
I ei'r not, if the sun shine zoell. 

At Comano, in the Trentino, 

loii. Qua iiora nun putatis filius iio.minis \eniet. 

The Son of Jlfan conicth at an hour when ye think not. — St. Luke, 
xii. 40. 

On a portable universal dial of brass in the Museum at Treves. 
The text has also been read at Mayenne. 

OuA xuN PUTATIS. In the hour ye think not. Was formerly in the 
Rue du Faubourg St. Martin, Paris. 

1012. Qua REniT nescitls iioram. Ye ktioio not the hour in witich 
He retiirns. 

The western dial thus inscribed stood formerly on an old gable in 
Lincoln's Inn. It was renewed in 1794, when the great William Pitt 
was treasurer, and bears this date and the initials W. P. When the old 
buildings were taken clown, the dial was removed to the Stone Build- 
ings, and placed near the windows of Mr. Pitt's chambers. The same 
motto is at the Chantry, Newark (see No. 1 176) ; and on Threckingham 
Church, Lincolnshire. 

On a stone pillar at Scartho, near Grimsby, is a brass dial engraved 
Qua redit iioram nescitis. 

1013. Quae i<:st enim vita vestra ? vapor enim est ad exiguum 
tempus apparens. 

For '-what is your life'^ It is even a vapour that appear dh for a little 
time. — St. James, iv. 14. 

Ambrose Crowley, anno 1713. 

On the outer gable of an old building in Grace's paper works, 
Swalwell, CO. Durham. These with- the steel works of Ridley and Co. 
formed the famous works of Ambrose Crowley at the end of the seven- 
teenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries. " He was, I believe," 
writes Mr. R. Blair, " the first iron worker on Tyneside, or rather on 
Derwentside, the Derwent being a tributary of the Tyne. His work- 
men were a very boisterous set, and to this day parents speak of their 
children when very rough and noisy, as being like ' Crowley's crew.'" 

1014. Qu.i'. LENTA AcxEDir (jUAM vI';l()X PR.K'rKKiT iiiiKA. .Simpson 

A.D. 1820. 

The hour that coiuls slowly, how swiftly doth it pass. 
On a dial at Wigton Hall, Cumberland. A writer in "Notes and 


Queries" (5th Ser. v. 235) says, "The following Latin motto is by 

Cowper ; the translation said to be by Hayley. 

Quae lenta accedit, quam velox praeterit hora ! 
Ut capias, patiens este, sed esto vigil ! 

Sloiv comes the hour, its passing speed how great ! 
Jl'a/tu/g to seize if, vigilantly ivait. 

I0I5- Quae tua sit nescis, horam dum fugit occupa. 

Thine hottr thoii knoivest nof, seise the hour ivJiile it Jlics. 
At Rayon (Basses Alpes). 

1016. Ouaelibet est index funeris hora tui. Any hojtr is the 
signal for thy death. 

On an ivory portarium in the National Museum at Munich, with 
No. 606. Also on a dial in Mr. Evans' collection. See No. i^] . 

1017. Quaere iion'UM. Seek that lohich is good. 
At Oyeu (Isere). 

1018. Quaevis iiora fortasse postrema. Any hour is perchanee the 

On the Franciscan convent of Mesma, Italy. 

10 19. Quaevis hora mortis indicina. 

Any hotter may be the stinwions of death. 

QuicQuiD sub sole natum lunare est. 
Crescunt omnia decrescunt. 
Transeunt ut revertantur. 

Everything under the snn is subject to the moon. 

All things ebb and flow. 

They pass azuay to appear again. 

On a brass and silver nocturnal dial in Mr. Evans' collection. It is 
of south German make, and the face is decorated with the engraving 
of a full moon. The last three lines of the motto are below the moon, 
and in context with the lunar tables. 

1020. QuALis umbra DIES NOSTRi. Our days are as a shadow. 
On a chateau belonging to Baron Perrier de la Batie, Savoy. 

1021. QuALis VITA FINIS ITA. As the Hfc, so the end. 

At Ballafreer Farm, Isle of Man, with Nos. 57, 90. Formerly on 
the church at Great Smeaton, Yorkshire, with " W. Deacon, 1809", 
but the dial was removed in 1872. See No. 647. 

1022. Quam ctto jucundi praeteriere dies. Hoio qtiickly the 
pleasant days have passed azvay. 

On a cruciform dial erected by the Rev. W. L. Bowles in the 


grounds of his canonical residence in the Close, Sah'sbury, 1829. It is 
no longer there. 

1023. OUAND JE NE VOIS PAS CLAIR, JE ME TAIS. Jl7ieil I Cailliot SCC, 

I am silent. 

From Boileau. 

1024. OuANDo APPARES EGO PROPERO. Wlicu tJw7i appcavcst I Jiasfcu on. 
On the church of St. Paulcn (Haute Loire). 


Allo stanco visitante adott' fe l' ORA 
Che lo chiama al ristoro e all' allkgrl\. 

When the path of the sun is free from clouds, 
To the weary traveller is brouoht round the hour 
Which calls him to refreshment and mirth. 

Beyond Varenna the road to Colico winds along the shores of the 
Lake of Como, and passes a little roadside osteria, over the door of 
which is a rough sun-dial with the above motto. It serves as a sign to 
the inn, as well as to indicate the time. 

1026. OuAS perditis horas quaeritis. Ye seek the hours ye xvastc. 
Formerly in the court of the Convent des Theatins, Paris. 

1027. OuAS UMBRA SIGNET VIRTUS. Let virtue mark the hour the 
shadow tells. 

On the Hotel de Ville, Beaufort, Savoy, with No. 1186. 

1028. Quasi phoenix ex cinere meg resurgam. Like the Phaviix / 
shall arise from mine ashes. 

At Chatillon, Val d'Aosta, with No. 43. 

1029. Qu'aquo sic tar, ou quaque si d'abouro 
El chau mouri, per segui, a qu'au qu'iioro. 


S'you r)]~:vE mal uza del resto de mon tem. 

[Que ce soit tard, ou que ce soit tout-A-l'iieure 
1l faut mourir pour sur, a quelque iieure. 


Be it late, or be it early. 

The hour of death must come. 

Lord, make me to die at this moment, 

Lest I should misuse the rest of my days. 

On a house opposite the gate of the Abbey of Maymac (Corrcze). 
(" L'Intermediaire," vol. .\v.) 


1030. Que la vertu soit he toute iieure. May virtue be ever 

At Beaufort, Savoy. 

1031. Que t'importe quelle iieure il est ou qu'il n'est pas ? 


What matters it ivhat the hour is or is not ? 
Enter, and thou ivilt always Jind a meal. 

Formerly over the door of a cabaret at Barde, near Montmorency. 

1032. Que toutes les iieures du jour vous trouvent 


1849. Z. G. F. 
Let every hour of the day find you ivorking for eternity. 
At Abries (Hautes Alpes). 

1033. Quelle heure est-il } 

Peut-etre la mienne. 

1853. Andeyer. 

What is the hour ? 
Perchance my [last). 

At Les Orres (Hautes Alpes). " Andeyer " was the name of a former 

1034. Qui bene vi\-it, bene moritur. Who liveth well, dicth well. 
At the Maison-du-Roi, Queyras (Hautes Alpes), with No. 552. 

1035- Qui cupis horarvm seriem cognosse diei 
Hoc specta justvm, candide lector, opvs ; 
Sive velis certam in medio cognoscere LVCIS 


Sive horas qvaeris deprendere solis ab ortu, 


sint licet aequales horae cvivsqve diei 
Sed SPATIO RELIQVAS dissimvli adspicivnt ; 
Illvd si nescis discrimen, hyperbola MONSTRAT 


Sebast : sperantius faciebat anno MDIII 





On a large dial painted on the wall above the south door of 

.^ c 


St. Lorenz Kirche at Nuremberg. The translation of this inscription 
has been kindly undertaken by Mr. Evans, and his extensive know- 
ledge of practical dialling and ancient instruments has thrown light on 
allusions which completely baffled those who were classical scholars 

"^ Fair Reader, zvko dost desire to kii02u the series of the hours of the 
day {i.e., the number of hours in the day, or length of daylight), look on 
this accurate work : or, if thou shouidcst wish to learn a certain hoitr in 
the middle of the daylight, a red line teaches thee the hour with certainty 
(liquido). Or if you seek to take down the hours from sunrise yo2t see 
that they are distinguished by dark lines, althotigh the hours of each day 
arc equal, still they face the others (that is the ordinary hours marked 
with the red lines) with itnlikc space ; if you do not understand the 
difference, the hyperbola explains it, which the renoioned [ox easily under- 
stood) conies of Apollonius ivill give you. 

" Apollonius of Perga, b.c. 240, wrote a great work on conic sections. 
This description is interesting when read in connection with cap. 
xxxvii. of Munster's ' Horologiographia' (published 1531), where he 
advocates the use of coloured lines to make more clear the various 
hours marked on the dials, and quotes two Latin poems bearing on the 
subject" (L. E.). 

Below the description is the name of the dial-maker, Sebastian 
Sperantius, and the date 1503 ; after this the motto Learn to live — think 
upon death. Then come two imperfect lines in which the name of 
Johannes Stabius appears, who is referred to by Munster as one of the 
chief writers on gnomonics in the sixteenth century; also the name 
Maximilian, and three dates recordinc: the renovations of the dial. 


1036. Qui fait du bien et le tublie 


He lijho makes knoivn his good deeds 
Will have no retuard hereafter. 

Le Replat, Aime (Savoy). 

1037. Qui (cui) iiora non tutris. For whom is the hotir not fleeting? 

On a dial made by Frere Arsene, capuchin, at Annccy (Haute 

1038. Qui laborat orat. 1784. Who ivorks prays. 
At St. Romans (Iscre). 

" O not unowned, Thou shall unnamed forgive, 

In worldly walks the prayerless heart prepare ; 
And if in work its life it seem to live 

Shalt make that work be prayer." 

A. H. Clouoh. 



1039- Qui logera le pauvre du bon dieu, 

avra le royavme des cieux. i 72 i. 
He ivho provides for God's poor shall inherit the kingdom of heaven. 
At St. Nicolas de Macherin (Isere). 

1040. Qui lucem de tenebris lucet in corde. He loho [sends) light 
from darkness shines in our heart. 

This text, taken from 2 Cor. iv. 6, is on the Grammar School at 
Wellingborough, with No. 377. A sun with rays occupies the upper 
part of the dial face, and the Latin line is written round it. The 
school was rebuilt in 1620. 

1041. Qui male agit odit lucem. Every one that docth evil hateth 
the light (St. John, iii. 20). 

No place assigned. 

1042. Qui non est hodie. Who is 
not to-day {lit.). 

Above a window dial in the hall at 
Nun-Appleton, Yorkshire. It is diffi- 
cult to suppose that the rest of the line 
from whence these words are taken 
(Ovid, " Rem. Amor." 94) did not at 
one time occupy the space below the 
first part, but it is not there now (see 
Nos. 533 and 1601). Above and below 
the dial are small landscapes with figures 
representing the four seasons, with the 
following lines from Ovid ("Rem. Amor." 

" Poma dat Autumnus, formosa 

est messibus Aestas, 
Ver praebet fiores, igne levatur hiems." 

Anttunn gives fruits, Summer fair with corn appears, 
Spring bestows flowers, Winter fire cheers. 

In the centre pane a Cupid holds contemplatively a small dial. 

The window probably dates from the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, when the greater part of the house was rebuilt by Sir William 
Milner, whose arms are displayed on a corresponding pane of glass. 
The hall itself may possibly belong to the older house, built by the 
great Lord Fairfax, and written of by Andrew Marvell, who fondly 
predicts that — 

" The after age 

-Shall hither come on pilgrimage. 

These sacred places to adore, 

By Vere and Fairfax trod before." 




1043. OVI ijVasI 1 Los egricDItVr kt CoNTKkLrX'R kt fYgIt 
VeLX^tI VMiiRA. He comdh fortli as a Jhn^'cr, and is cut dozon, he 

fleet h also as a shadow (Job, xiv. 2). 

On a brass hexaoonal dial-plate in the X'ictoria and Albert Museum. 
The chronogram appears to be 1746. 

1044. Oui RODiT RODiTUR. 7/ie coiisuiiicr is consiiiiicd. 
At St. Romans (Isere). 

1045. Qui scit an kxtrkma.m stilus i\iiui dknotet iioram ? ll'ko 
knows if the style is marking my lasl /lonrf 

Formerly in the cloister of the Convent des Petits Augustins, 
Paris, now thi' Ecole des Beaux Arts. 


He who loves God, the law, and the Fatherland, 
Deserves to enjoy the blessings of life. 

At Maison Boyer, Cormeil (Var). This version probably dates 
from the Revolution period. 


He tvho loves his God, his king and his country. 
Deserves to rejoice all the days of his life. 

Formerly on Maison Bertrand, Aups (Var), but was effaced in 
1792, and another motto, Amicis (jU/ELUiet mora, painted over it. 
The remains of the first one can still be seen below the other. 

1048. Quid celerius temtus ? What is swifter {than) time f 

One of the mottoes on the cross dial at EUeslie, near Chichester 
(see No. 104). Quid celerius tempore is on Mr. A. Egginton's dial 
at South Ella (see No. 932). 

1049. Quid celerius umbra ? What siuifter than shadozo"/ 

On a dial which formerly stood in the Isle of Man, and is now at 
Barnes Lodge, King's Langley (see Nos. 161 and 788). 

1050. Quid lucidius sole? et hic deeiciet. Mliat is brighter than 
the sun f Yet the light thereof zuill fail (Ecclus. xvii. 30). 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1051. Quid sine sole? nihil. 1694. What withoiit the sunf 

At Briollay (Maine et Loire). 



1052. Quid stas? transit iioka. fV/ij lingcrcsi thoiL? The hour 
is passing. 

Charles Leadbetter, in his " Mechanick Dialling," 1756, mentioned 
that this motto was over the porch of Caldbeck Church, Cumberland, 
but the Latin was given inaccurately. 


sH)i Speaks false ? 

On a buttress of Pocklington Church, Yorkshire, with the names 
of "A. English, and W. Cook, churchwardens," and date 1820. The 
line, slightly altered, is from Virgil's First Georgic (see No. 1247). 

1054. Quo GRATIORES : 


The more they charm, thc s'a>i/ter they go. 

On the Maison Gasquet, Montpellier, used as a hospital for the sick ; 
also at Bizanet (Aude) ; and Annonay (Ardeche). 


Jl'hithcrsocver thou go est death folloics thee as a sJiadow. 

On a brass portable dial marked A. S. 1697, in Mr. Evans' collec- 
tion ; also on an engraving of a dial in Franz Ritter's " Speculum Solis," 

1056. Quod addo, de traik > vit.e. What I add to life I take from it. 

On an eighteenth century dial on a fine Romanesque Church at 
Lanuejols (Lozere). 

1057. Quod fuit, est, et erit, perit articulo brevis orae {sic) 
Ergo quid prodest esse, fuisse, fore ? 

Esse, fuisse, fore, iieu ! tria Florida sunt sine flore. 
Nam simul omne perit quod fuit, est, et erit. 

What is, has been, shall come, 

Fades in a moment brief ; 
Three flowers that never bloom, 

Nought do they bring but grief. 
What is, has been, shall come. 

Dies like the fallen leaf. 

Inscribed beneath a sun-dial at Monza. See " Notes and Queries." 
7th Series, vol. i., p. 187 (March, 1886). The same lines in reverse 
order were read not long ago on the first page of an old parish register 
in Cumberland : 

" Esse, fuisse, fore, tria florida sunt sine flore, 
Omne simul periit quod fuit, est, et erit. 
Quod fuit, est, et erit, periit spatio brevis horas 
Ergo parum refert esse, fuisse, fore." 



1058. OuoD IGNORO DOCEO. I tcach that I IcHOlO uot. 
Locality unknown. 

1059. Quod moriere patet : 

oua moriere latet. 

That thou shalt die is plain : when thou shalt die is hidden. 

No locality is assigned. 

1060. OuoD PETis UMBRA EST. What thoii scekest is a shadow. 
At Hebden Bridge, Yorkshire. 

1061. OuoD SIS ESSE VELLs NiHiLQUE MALis. JVhat thou art, that ivish 
to be, and prefer notcght else. 

This line, from Martial, "Epigrams," lib. x. 47, 12, is engraved 
above the door of the Chateau de la Roquette, near St. Martin de 
Londres (Herault). 

1062. Ouoiqv'elle pvisse tarder elle ne manquera pas. 

Death may tarjy, but will not fail to come. 

At the Chateau de Fougeres (Basses Alpes) ; above the dial are the 
words " D -|- Soleil, Coeur," and on a second dial-plate, facing south, 
is No. 993. 


gone by, so many steps towards death. 

This motto is written on an illustration in a French MS. on dials in 
the possession of Lewis Evans, Esq. ; the MS. appears to have been 
written at Nancy in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

1064. ouot tractus fugitiva meos heu pr.eterit umllra, 
Tot gradibus certis mors venit atra tibi. 1830. 

Alas, each of my spaces that the fleeting shade traverses, is a sure step 
by which black death approaches thee. 

At Trevieres (Normandy). 

1065. Quota est iiora ? fursitan tua. ]\'hat hour is it ' perchance 
thy hour. 

Locality unknown. " Bull. Mon.," 1881. 

1066. Quota iiora est, umbram vide. 1859. What hour is it .' be- 
hold the shadoio. 

On the church at Villeneuve sur Vere (Tarn), with No. 216. 

1067. Quota sit iiora petis, dum petis ipsa eugit, 



Yoti ask tlic hour : mcamvliilc you see it fly, 
Nor can the hour return that passes by. 

At the Villa Modena, Varese, dated " il giorno 6 Maggio 1865." 
The first Hne is on a dial made by Zarbula, dated 185 i, on the pres- 
bytere at Cervieres (Hautes Alpes). 

1068. OuoTiDiE MORiOR. I die daily (i Cor. xv. 31). 

On a dial dated 1695, over the porch of St. Ives' Church, near Lis- 
keard. The plate is ornamented with a coiled serpent at the top, and a 
Tudor rose at the bottom. The same motto is on one of Zarbula's 
dials at Aiguilles (Hautes Alpes), on the presbytere, dated 185 1. 

1069. Rapiat hora diem. Let the hour consume the day. 
At Castel Nuovo, near Bormida. 

1070. Rapide praeterit. Swiftly it passes. 

On the north face of a meridian dial in the garden of the Hospital 
St. Jacques at Besancon. On each of the four sides and round the 
hemicycle are mottoes (see No. 75). It is dated Tissot, 1549. 

1071. Rapido vola il sol, ratte van l'ore, 
Ma piu veloce passa nostra vita, 

Che app£na t sul mattin, che manca, e more. 

Fast flies the sun and qtiickly pass the hours ; 

But speedier still, our life's brief day 

Scarce unto noontide conies, then fails and dies mcay. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


Bear your last hour in mind, afid you zvill never do wrong. 
On the church at Plampinet (Hautes Alpes). 

1073. Redeem thy misspent moments past 
And live this day as if thy last. 

These lines, incorrectly quoted from Bishop Ken's morning hymn, 
were formerly above the door of the village reading-room at Elvington, 
Yorkshire. The dial is no longer there. 

1074. Redeem thy precious time 
Which passeth swift away. 
Prepare for eternity 
And do not thou delay. 

At Pennoxton Court, Herefordshire (compare No. 281), on four 
vertical dial faces, the south face being a circular hollow. The dial- 
stone is much older than the pedestal on which it stands. 



1075. Redeem ¥("=) time. 

V.R.I. Reg. Ann° Dom' 1849. 

Over the porch of Shelton Church, Long Stratton, Norfolk. 
Possibly this dial has been restored, or it may have been put up to 
replace the older one which is figured in Ladbroke's " Churches of 
Norfolk," 1820-30, as being on the porch. The same motto is on 
St. John's Church, Cookbury, Devon ; at Brackley ; and at Lowick, 
Northamptonshire ; and it is probably a mutilated version of the same 
inscription which remains as " Rede the time" on one of the chimneys 
of Weston Mill farmhouse, in the parish of St. Budeaux. This dial 
plate is of Delabole slate, and is dated 1670 ; the letters of the inscrip- 
tion are cut in bold Roman characters. Mr. Harry Hems, in the 
"Western Morning News," said that the dial was erected in the same 
year as the one which is over the church porch, and the charge for this 
is entered in the churchwarden's accounts thus : 

"FortheDiall . . . £\ 
— time a fetching the Diall 



o 6." 

— beere for the workman when 
hee set up the Diall . 

Richard Knighton and John Marten were churchwardens at this time, 
and the former was owner of Weston Mill farm. For more than two 
hundred years the Knightons were connected with St. Budeaux' parish. 
Mrs. Janet Knighton was chosen churchwarden in 1690, and her name 
appears at different times in the parish accounts. In 1684 she charged 
for two repairs to parish property, " 6'' for mending the Dyell," and 9'' 
for repairing the stocks. The motto, " Redeem the time " can still, but 
with difficulty, be read on a dial on the south transept of Hedon Church, 

Yorkshire. The gnomon 
is gone and the dial 
almost effaced. Redeem 
lime, with date, 1829, is 
on the south wall of Hor- 
ton Church, co. Durham. 






1725. T. T. 

These words, from 
Eph. v. 16, are on the 
Dial House at Twicken- 
ham, the property of Richard Twining, Esq. The dial was put up by 
Mr. Thomas Twining, who died in 1741, and was the founder of the 
well-known tea warehouse in the Strand. It is thought that from con- 
tinually observing the dial on St. Clement Danes as he went to and 
from his business, he desired to have one of his own, and so added this 
to the house which he built in Twickenham. Some years ago it wa.s 


taken down and repainted, and under it was found a fresco painting of 
a figure of Time, with an hour-glass in his hand, and a cock at his 

1077. Redibo, tu nunquam. I shall rettcrn, thoti never. 

On the west dial of the pillar at Tytherton Kellaways, Wilts, with 
the following paraphrase added by the Rev. W. L. Bowles. (See No. 

" Haste, traveller, the sun is sinking now. 

He shall return again, but never thou." 

The Latin motto has been read at Erith, Kent. 

1078. Redime tempus. 1675. Retrieve the time. 
In the churchyard of Pannal, Yorkshire. 

1079. Reduxit umbram per lineas. He brought back the shadoio by 
its degrees. — 2 Kings, xx. 1 1 (Vulgate). 

At Montmery, Savoy, dated 1800. 

1080. Regarde, et pais ton chemin. 
Moi, JE fais la mienne. 

Look, and go yotir way, 
I go mine. 

At Aries, dated 1848. 

1081. Regi et regno fidelissima. 1830. To the King and his kingdom 
most loyal. 

The motto of the town of Compiegne, was in 1862 on a dial at the 
Hotel de Ville there. 

1082. Regit me sol dum dirigit orbem. Guiding the world the sun 
rules me. 

No locality assigned. 

1083. Regret pour celle qui fuit, effroi pour celle qui arrive. 
Sorrow for that which is gone, fear for that which is to come. 

No locality assigned. 

1084. Regula viatoris. The traveller s guide. 
At Prades (Pyrenees Orientales). 

1085. Remember. 1803. 
At West Ham. 

1086. Remember death. 

On the Church at Camborne. 


1087. Remember now thy creator in the days of thy youth. — 
Eccles. xii. i. 

On the Lyme Cage, Disley. See No. 1601. 

1088. Remember thy latter end. a.d. 18 10. 
On the tower of Haworth Church, Yorkshire. 

io8g. Remove not the ancient landmark 

Which thy fathers have set up. 

Richard Hart, Vestry Clerk, 1862. 

The above verse from Prov. xxii. 28, is inscribed round the shaft 
of a dial which stands upon four old steps in the parish churchyard at 
Folkestone, and marks the spot where by the ancient charters of the 
Corporation, the Mayor of Folkestone was annually elected. It was 
restored in 1863. On the dial plate the names of Thomas Baker and 
John Bolder, Churchwardens, are engraved, with the date, i 783. 

logo. Rendons gloire a dieu seul, 

Nous lui devons tout honneur. 

Let us give glory to God alone, 
To Him we owe all praise. 

At La Croiza (Hautes Alpes). 

log I. Res sacras cleri, themidis, martisque labores, 

Et patrios coetus, lumen, et umbra regit. 

The sacred ivork of the church, the toils of Themis and of Mars, the 
councils of the nation too, light and shadow ride. 

The Cathedral of Frejus is a Romanesque building of the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries. Over one of the doors, with ivy growing up the 
side, is a wooden dial, painted blue with gilt lettering, and thus inscribed. 

loga. Respicite, non mihi soli laboravi, i 593. Mark ye, not for 
myself alone have I toiled. 

On the triangular Lodge at Rushton, Northamptonshire, which was 
built by Sir Thomas Tresham, and is an architectural curiosity. The 
building is in fine preservation, and has on each side three gables, which 
severally terminate in a pinnacle, and on the central gable of each side 
there is a sun-dial with an inscription. On one is the word " Respicite " ; 
on another, " Non mihi " ; and "Soli laboravi" on the third. The plan 
of the building is symbolic of the Trinity, which is also expressed in the 
trefoil that forms part of the family crest. 

Sir Thomas Tresham, who founded this lodge on his estate, was 
knighted by Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle ; but being a firm 
adherent of the Roman Church, like his ancestors before him, he suffered 
a long imprisonment in the Castle of Wisbech for recusancy. Indeed, 
for this offence he was three times in custody ; his last commitment 


being on the 31st December, 1596, from which he was discharged by 
warrant on the 8th December, 1597. He was a skilful architect, and 
built the market-house at Rothwell. " Having many daughters," says 
Fuller, " and being a great housekeeper, he matched most of them into 
honourable, the rest of them into worshipful and wealthy families." 
They were six in number. The following extract from a letter, written 
by Sir Thomas Tresham, about 1584, is curious : — " If it be demanded 
why I labour so much in the Trinity and Passion of Christ, to depaint 
in this chamber, this is the principal instance thereof; That at my last 
being hither committed, and I usually having my servants here allowed 
me, to read nightly an hour to me after supper, it fortuned that Fulcis, 
my then servant, reading in the ' Christian Resolution,' in the treatise of 
' Proof that there is a God, &c.' there was upon a wainscot table at 
that instant three loud knocks (as if it had been with an iron hammer) 
given, to the great amazing of me and my two servants, Fulchis and 
Nilkton." This story remains to show that there is nothing new under 
the sun — not even "table-rapping." The triangular Lodge is rich in 
pious emblems and inscriptions — a noble monument of Sir Thomas's 
zeal for Trinitarian doctrine. His family was ancient, and influential by 
wealth and character. 

1093. Retain your loyalty, preserve your rights. 

This motto is engraved upon the base of a tall pillar dial at Appleby, 
which was erected and inscribed by Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, 
Dorset, and Montgomery. The dial pillar stands in a prominent posi- 
tion at the top of the principal street, opposite to the parish church, in 
which there is a monument with a life-sized recumbent figure of the 
countess — she lived from 1590 to 1675, and was a lady of very strong 
character and determined will. She fought successfully for her own 
" rights " on several occasions against strong enemies. James I. tried 
to prevent her from succeeding as her father's sole heiress to the office 
of hereditary high sheriff of Westmoreland, but she eventually obtained 
the post, and held it to the end of her life. She defended her castles 
against Cromwell, and had disputes with the court of Charles II., so it 
may fairly be concluded that the precept she chose for her dial was one 
which she had practised herself under considerable difficulties. For a 
description of another dial erected by her near Brougham see p. 1 19. 


Remember thou that here we two combine ; 
Thou reckonest my hour as I do thine. 
On Casa Valli, Ameno, Piedmont. 


of no avail, it is needful to start in time. 

At Valajanel (Aude). This is the first line in La Fontaine's fable, 


" Le Lievre et la Tortue," but there the two last words are "a point," 
in a note it is referred to as a proverbial expression used by Rabelais. 

1096. RiEN SANS LE SOLEIL. Nothing i^nihout the sun. 
At Marsac (Tarn). 



20 Ottobre 1855. 

With the S7ins retiirn the shade is seen once more 
But never more returns man's golden noontide hour. 

Via Giulia, Turin. 


Ma non ritorna, no, l'etA finita. 

From vanished night the siin nmo reappears. 
But never shall we see again our vanished years. 

This was on a house, 22, Via Gregoriana, in Rome, in 1865. 

logg. RuiT iiora sine mora. The hoiirjlies by, and stays not. 

On an old dial which formerly stood in the rectory grounds at 
Whickham, co. Durham. The motto was engraved on a scroll round 
the face of the sun. The dial is now lost. The two first words and 
date, 1 709, are on the vicarage, Ferryhill, co. Durham. There is a 
second dial on the house with Lux umbra Dei. 

IIOO. RuiT una, vulnerant omnes, ultima necat. One hour Jlies 
by, every hour inflicts a wound, the last hour kills. 

At Granier (Savoy). 

iioi. Sacra themis mors ut pendula dirkjit horas. 

It is difficult to interpret this motto satisfactorily. A friend suggests 
that if the word nobis was inserted in place of mors the line would be 
completed, and the translation would be simplified : Sacred fustice, as a 
pendulum, directs the hours for us. Another suggestion is that ut be 
changed to et, making the sense : Sacred yustice and impendiiig death 
direct the hours. 

At the Palais de Justice, Paris, above a clock. Formerly there 
was a sun-dial in its place. 

1 102, Sanctificat cunctas (horas) 

Auspice matre del 

He sanctifieth every hour, under the protection of the Mother of God. 

On the church of Notre Dame de Marseille, near Limou.\ (Aude), 
a shrine where pilgrims resort. 


1 103. Sans dieu l'on ne peut rien. WitJwut God one can do 

On a house at Briancon, with No. 1231. 

1 104. Sans le soleil je ne suis rien, 

Et toi sans dieu tu ne peux rien. 

JVitkout the sun I am loorth nothing, 
And luithoiit God tJion canst do nothing. 

On an outlined dial, dated 1S43, seen at the top of the Mont 
Genevre Pass. It is probably one of Zarbula's, as there are several 
with the same motto, bearing his initials, in the Brianconnais, with 
dates varying from 1839 to 1871. One at Vieille Ville is ornamented 
with a parroquet. 

1105. Sol. 

Sans ta clart£ et ta chaleur 

Nous n'aurions ni heure ni fleur. 1824. 

Unless the sun gave heat and light, 

A^o day would dazvn, no Jloiucr be bright. 

The sun's face is painted above the word sol. The dial is at 
La Bez (Hautes Alpes). The motto is found in several other villages 
in the same Department, on dials signed Z. G. F. 

1 106. Sapiens dominabitur astris. The vjise man shall bear rule 
among the stars. 

At Dergny (Seine Inferieure). Sapiens dominabitur orbis has been 
read on a small brass dial plate in a shop in Nuremberg. 

1107. Sapiens pr^evidet horas. The zoise man foreseeth the time. 
At Pont en Royans (Isere). 

1 108. Sapientes numerant horas. The zvise count the hours. 

Upon a dial on the front of Langston House, South Devon, which 
is the property of the Courtenay Bulteels, but the inscription is the 
punning motto of the Wise family. 

1109. Sapientis est numerare. // is the ivise who count. 

In the year 17 10 some old buildings were cleared away from the 
market-place of King's Lynn, Norfolk, and a market cross erected with 
four sun-dials, each having a motto (see No. 248). They are given 
in the private diary of a gentleman, dated 1890. He writes : " The 
market-place at Lynn very fine and spacious ; a very fine market cross, 
as it is called — a very elegant building, standing on pillars, adorned 
with statues and four dials, on which are the four mottoes." 


mo. Scio GUI CREDiDi. I kuoio whom I have believed. (2 Tim. i. 12). 
At Albi (Tarn), in the garden of the Archbishop's Palace. The 
dial is horizontal, of white marble, and the motto is that of Archbishop 
Jean Paul Lyonnet, who died 1875. His arms are also engraved on 
the dial, and the date 1858. 

iiii. Scis HORAS, NEScis HORAM. Thoti kiiowest the hours,thou knowest 
not the hour. 

On the convent at Cimiez, near Nice. See Nos. 233, 598, 1463, 
1475, 1618. 


Ifthoti hast virine and peace in thy heart, 

Thon ncedst not fear the passing awaj of the hours. 

At Villa Gamberini, Mazza Cozzile, Italy. 




If the shade sotiietimes fail the hour to name, 
The freak of ATatrire is alone to blame ; 
And if to wrath the critic be inclined, 
Anger, not reason, governeth his mind. 

The Eternal Maker all His xvorks hath made 
]]^itli justest measure, in right balance weighed ; 
If man there be who thinks they do him wrong, 
Fool ! what he claims to works divine belong. 

If the sun shineth forth in fullest day. 
And if the mount in front hide not his ray. 
The hours thou shall then have all marked around. 
And the least wise must still and dumb be found. 

These inscriptions are the mottoes on three separate dials, which are 
placed on the sides of the Tower of the Campanile at Trafiume, near 
Canobbio, on the Lago Maggiore. Near the top of the tower is the 
date thus given: "Anno Domini MDCCCVIII Ristaurato nel 1808. 


Capo Maestro Andrea de Bernard!." Each verse is written below its 
respective dial .We may assume that there were dials before the year 

1 1 14. Se il sol benigno mi concede il raggio 
l'ora ti mostra, e il ciel ti dia buon viaggio. 

If tJie S21U gra7iteth mc his kindly ray, 

It shoivs the hour, Heaven guide thee on thy way. 

Was read somewhere on the route between Florence and Bologna. 

1 1 15. Se il SOLE co' suoi raggi me percuote 
Regola son degl' orologi a ruote. 

If with its I'ays the sun upon me stea/s 
I am the ruler of all clocks zvith icheels. 

Given in "Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1 1 16. Se il sole mi guarda ognun mi loda e stima. 


If the sun look on me F ni praised all the time. 
If the day be darkling, finish thou the rhyme. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1117. Se il sole non si vede, 

Nessun mi crede. 

When the stm you cannot see, 
No man putteth trust in me. 

On a house at Alagna. 


Though but a shadow with the sun I go ; 
Yet all is shadow in this world below. 

On the Oratory of Sta. Marta at Pavone Canavese, prov. of Turin. 
See Nos. 1435 and 1436. 

iiig. Se me miras, me miran. If thou lookest at me, they look at me. 

Seen in Spain and also on the Mairie at Cablas (Pyrenees Orientales). 
The dial speaks to the sun, of men. Compare No. "jt,. 

1 120. Se non e questa, quella. If not this hour, loell then I the next. 
Formerly on the Convent of the Thdatins, Paris. See No. 1004. 

1 121. Se non riluce il sol, nessun mi guarda. If no sun shines, 
none looks on me. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


1 122. Skcula sic fugient, sic lux, sic umbra theatrum 
DoNEC (s)telligerum clauserit una dies. 

Sic petit oceanum phoebus, sic vita sepulcrum 
(D)uM (sensim) tacita volvitur hora rota. 

So fly the ages, light and shade shall fly , 
Till one day close the starry scene on high. 
So Phcebus seeks the ocean, life the tirn, 
While on still luliccls the hours softly turn. 

Inscribed round the circle of hours, on a slate dial face, at Ballakilley, 
in the parish of Rushen, Isle of Man. On referring to No. 1 166 it will 
be seen that the lines are identical with an " Inscription on a sun-dial 
in a circle," which was published in the " Gentleman's Magazine," 
September, 1802. There, however, the first two lines are those which 
the Ballakilley motto are placed last. It seems probable that the 
maker of the Manx dial in 1830 copied the inscription from the " Gentle- 
man's Magazine," and was a better mathematician than scholar, since he 
treated the Latin and Greek mottoes in a very reckless fashion. The 
word scnsiui was omitted, thereby preventing the fourth line from 
scanning, and clauserit written as two words — claus erit. There is a 
motto at each corner of the plate — 

(l) Zcdri a.T^r\ crxr/), 

rendered below Life is the Spectator (query Spcct7-e?) of a Shadow, 
instead of Life (is) smoke, shadow, which is the literal interpretation. 
In the word ar/^rj the smooth breathing ought to be over the letter x 
instead of t. The usual form of the word is a.-!^o(;. 

(2) "■V&vi\,^\d.&,V2\&" (Come, see, farewell). (3) " Learn to value 
your time." (4) " Every day brings life nearer." On the dial is further 
written : " Rich''. Watterson's Dial, Kentraigh Mill, in the Isle of Man. 
Lat. 54°, 20 N. ; Long. 4°, 30' W. mdcccxxx. 

1123. Sed fugit interea, fugit irreparabile tempus, 
Singula dum capti circumvectamur amore. 

John Devaston fecit. 1789. 

But meanwhile time flies, flies irretrievably. 
While IV e, love stricken, dzvell on each thing. 

These lines from Virgil, Georg. III. 284-285, were placed by Mr. 
Devaston on a house dial at West Felton, Salop. 

1 124. See, and begone about your business. 

On a dial over the south porch of Chesterton Church, county 

1 125. See the little day-star moving 
Life and time are worth improving, 

Seize the moments while they stay : 


Seize and use them 
Lest you lose them 

And lament the wasted day. 
Mr. Howard Hopley recorded this motto without naming- any 
locaUty, and added, "The little day-star was a spot of light falling 
through a hole in the pointer to indicate the hour" (" Leisure Hour," 
June, 1870). The lines are also given by Leadbetter in his " Mechanick 
Dialling," 1756. 

1126. Seek ye the lord while he may be found (Isaiah, Iv. 6). 

On the south-west porch of Mattishall Church, Norfolk, dated 1857, 
and probably a restoration of the older dial, figured in Mr. Ladbrooke's 
"Churches of Norfolk," 1825-30. The motto is also at Cains Cross, 
near Stroud, with No. 95. 


La vita tua, mortal, mesura e tace. 

y:ls the SHii s steps reeord the shadoio fleet, 
Thy lije in si/enee, mortal, doth it mete. 

On a house at Castel Lavazzo, near Longarone. This was the 
" pagus Labactantius " of Roman times, where there was a horologium 
or sun-dial in the time of the Empire. 

1 128. Sf:gno a ca.mpana, e la campana ancora 

DeVE sonar, yUANDO lO MOSTRO l'oRA. 

Like belfi-y s ehime the hours I tell 
The belfry ehiines luheii I the hours tell. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1129. Segno le ore si, ma non itu quelle. / mark the hours, 'tis 
true, but no longer those gone by. 

On a farmhouse in the neighbourhood of Lari, Tuscany, and noted 
by Mrs. Janet Ross in " Macmillan's Magazine." 

1 130. Segno solo le ore serene. I mark only the bright hours. 

On the wall of the back of Villa Novello, at Genoa. A bank sepa- 
rates the house from the sea, which it faces, and is lu.Kuriantly covered 
with aloes, prickly pear, and other plants so familiar along the Riviera. 

1131. Semitam, per quam non revertar, ambulo. I shall go the luay 
whence I shall not rettirn (Job, xvi. 22). 

On the wall of the church at Lavagna on the Riviera di Levante. 
Lavagna lies between Chiavari and Sestri Levante. It formerly be- 
longed, together with the greater part of the east coast, to the Fieschi 
of Genoa, who bore the title of Counts of Lavagna. The dial is beside 
the great door of the church, to which a flight of marble steps leads up, 
and which faces the sea. 

3 E 



Quasi raggio di lei che qui si cole. 

So be the hours the sun brings bright and clear. 
As 'tzvere a ray from Her who's zuorshipped Jicrc. 

At Villa Mylius, Genoa, there is a plaster cast of the Madonna and 
Child, and immediately above the figures a dial is painted on the wall 
with the above motto. It is also on the Sanctuary at Graglia, near 

1133. Send out thy light and thy truth that they may lead me. 
It was intended by the Rev. John Evelyn Stacye to inscribe this 

text (Psalm xliii. 3) on a dial in his garden at Grenoside, near Sheffield, 
but the project has not yet been carried out. 

1 134. Senescis aspiciendo. Thoit o-roivest o/der zuhi/st thou lookest. 
On a dial at Versailles. Compare Nos. 75, 271. 


Gently but siviftly floivs on the hour that can never return. 
Consider zuell, that thou lose not the day zoithout its zuork. 

On a hospital at Casamicciola, Ischia. The town was destroyed by 
an earthquake in 1881. 

1 136. Sensim sine sensu. Softly and no man knozvs. 

Friston, or Bechyngton Place, now a farmhouse in a deep dell, has 
features of antiquity, including a hall, the roof of which belongs to the 
fourteenth century. In the great window is a sun-dial, with the lly 
painted on it, and the motto given above (Lower's " History of Sussex," 
1870, vol. i., p. 103). The words are quoted from Cicero (3 Att. 15) : 
" Sensim et sine sensu setas senescit." 

1 137. Senza l'umura NoX diletto, 

E PUR l'ombra k mio difetto. 

Without a shadoio I do not please; 
Nevertheless a shadozv is my defect. 

At Strevi, Monferrato. 

1138. Senza lume del ciel si perue il tempo. IVithout Heavens 
light our time is lost. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1 139. Senza pa rear id sono inteso, 
Senza ear rumor le ore palesu. 

Without speaking I am understood : 
Without noise I reveal the hours. 


On a wall by the roadside, near Pieve di Son', Riviera di Levante ; 
also at Sordevole in Piedmont ; and at Bordighera. Dean Alford notes 
and translates this motto : 

" I speak not, yet all understand me well ; 
I make no sound, and yet the hours I tell. " 

A gentleman walking from Como to Monte Generoso observed at 
Balerna a slightly different version, which is also at Balmuccia, \'al 
Sesia ; and at Castasegna, Val Bregaglia. 

Senza parlar da tutti son inteso, 
Senza far rumor l'ora paleso. 

IVitkoni speaking I am 7tnder stood by all : 
Withoiit making a noise I reveal the Imtr. 

1 140. Senza sole id kiposo. Withoiit the sun I rest. 

Traced on the wall of the Albergo del Gatto, a wayside inn at Riva, 
Riviera di Ponente. 

1141. Septem sine horis. Seven ivithout the hours. 

The meaning of this bald inscription must be that there are in the 
longest days seven hours (and a trifle over) in which the dial is useless. 
The motto is on a dial declininor west, erected on a gable at Packwood 
House, Warwickshire. See No. 934. 

1142. Septies in die laudem dixi tibi. Seven limes a day do / praise 
thee. Ps. cxi.x. 164. 

Over the north door of the cathedral at Padua. 

1143. Serius est quam cogitas. 

Roland fecit. 18 19. 

It is later than you think. 
At Sermerieu (Isere). The Latin is misspelt on the dial. 

1 144. Set me right and use me well. 
And I v" time to you will tell. 

Ls engraved on an old pocket dial which its owner thus describes : 
" It is a ring of brass, much like a miniature dog collar, and has, 
movinor in a oroove in its circumference, a narrower ring with a boss, 
pierced by a small hole to admit a ray of light. The latter ring is 
made movable to allow for the varying declination of the sun in the 
several months of the year, and the initials of these are marked in 
ascendinor and descending scale on the larger ring which bears the motto. 
The hours are lined and numbered in the opposite concavity. A 
similar dial belonging to a cottager at Pelynt, Cornwall, is described 
and figured in the " The Reliquary." Mr. Lewis E^vans has a ring. 


made by Proctor, with a sliuhtly different version of the above in- 
scription ; it is arranged thus : 

Set me use me and I 
Right well Time t('ll. 

1145. Shadow and siiink is lifk. 

At Bramble Hill, in the New Forest. The quotation is from 
Tennyson's " Grandmother." 

"Shadow and shine is Hfe, httle Annie, flower and thorn.'' 

1 146. Shadows cast upon the dial show 
The presence of the sun aisove ; 
Shadows cast upon our life below 
True tokens are that God is love. 

April 6, 1882. 

On a dial in Ovingdean churchyard, Sussex. 

1147. Shadows we are, and 

LjkI'; shadows depart. 

In Pump Court, Temple; and at Menwith Hill, Darlej', York- 
shire. See Nos. 468, 1530. 

1 148. Shining spot for ever shining 
Brightest hours have no abiding 
Use tiiv golden moments well 

Life is wasting 
Death is hasting 
Death consigns to hea\en ok hell. 

Inscription for a "spot" dial, where the hour is shown by a ray of 
light instead of a shadow. Given by Charles Leadbetter, 1756. 

1149. Show me itiI'; light of thv countenance. 

From Psalm Ixxx. 7 is engraved below a handsome vertical dial, 
erected in 1883 at Abbeyfield, Sheffield, by Bernard Wake, Esq. 
Above the dial is No. 767. 

1 150. Si cette heure, chretien, n'est cellk de la mort, 
Celle qui suit peut-etre terminera ton .sort. 

Christian, if this ts not the hour of death, 
Perhaps that luJiich follows zvill cud thy career. 

On the church, La Garde (I sere). 

1 151. Si culpare velis, culpabilis esse cavebis. 

Nemo sine crimine vivit : idcirco ne temere judicato. 

If thoti luoiildst blame y thou %vilt beivare of being blameworthy. 
A^o one lives -without reproach ; therefore judge not rashly. 

At Moccas Court. See No. 1469. 


1152. Si mi-:a vita iuoit. So my life jUcs. 
At Asti, Piedmont. 

1153. St muork. To all dcatJi comes. 
Near Nice. 

1154. Si nescis, iiospes, sunt hic oracui.a phoebi, 
consule, respondent hoc tibi, nisce mori. 
Stranger, here the suns oracles reply : 

Ask them, they give the ansioer : Learn to die. 

Contributed by the Rev. R. F. Littledale, LL.D.; locality not known. 

1 155. si sans soleil vous viendrez, 
Sans reponse vous en retournerez. 

1766. 20 Martii. Christophorus a Saxadio fecit. 

If withotit the sun yon come, 
JVithont an ansioer you must go. 

These lines are on two dials in the garden of the Palazzo della Pre- 
fettura, formerly Palazzo Guilini, at Alessandria. 

1 156. Si SOI. DEFiciET nemo ME ASPiciET. Raniati. If the sun is 
hidden no one ivill look at me. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1 157. Si SOL DEFICIT, NEMO ME RESpiciT. // the siin fails, no one 
regards me. 

In the cloisters at Chambery. See No. 847. 

1 158. (Sic) eheu fugaces labuntur anni. So alas I the fleeting years 
glide by. 

This motto, taken from Horace, is on a dial at Grendon, co. 
Northton. It was erected by Arthur Bayly Markham, Esq., whose 
initials and those of his son, Charles W. Markham, appear on the 
plate with date, 1866, the family crest, and lat. 52, 14. 

1 159. Sic hominis vita. 

J. Snape delin. 1761. 

Stich is man's life. 

On a horizontal dial, mounted on a graceful pedestal of red .sand- 
stone in the churchyard, Sutton Coldfield. 

1160. Sic labitur aetas. 1778. 

Gasgrave Fecit. 

Tims life slips away. 

Formerly on Middleham Church, Yorks, but it was removed about 
the year 1876 when the church was rebuilt, and has not yet been 
replaced. The motto also occurs at Darlington. 


1161. Sic cunctis immixet iioris. Thus at all hours it is at hand. 
Formerly in Rue des Poules, Paris. 

1 162. Sic fortuna volutat. So fortune turncth. 

Formerly at Bercy, on the residence of the Peres de la Doctrine. 

1 163. Sic mea vita fugit. So luy life flies. 

At Asti, an old town between Turin and Alessandria. 

1 164. Sic nos mortales orimur .morimurquk mi.selli ; 
Flos levis, umbra fugax, bulla caduca sumus. 

Even so toe wretched little r/iortals arise and die ; 

A light blossom, a fleeting shade, a bubble ready to fall are toe. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1 165. Sic petis iiora ouota est, dum pftis iiora fugit. 
Thou seekest to knoiv the ho7tr, zohile thou seckcst the hour flics. 
Formerly in the Avenue de St. Cloud, Paris. 

1 166. Sic petit oceanvm phoebus, .sic vita sepulcrvm 
Dum sensim tacita volvitur hora rota : 
Secula sic fugiunt, sic lux, sic umbra, tiieatrum 
DoNEC stelligerum clauserit una dies. 

So Pho;bus seeks the ocean, life the -urn, 
While on still wheels the hours softly turn, 
So fly the ages, light and shade shall fly. 
Till one day close the starry scene on high. 

Contributed to the "Gentleman's Magazine," Sept., 1802, vol. Ixxii., 
p. 855, as an " Inscription on a dial in a circle." See No. 1 122. Lead- 
better gives it also in his " Mechanick Dialling," 1756, with the first 
word as " sed." 

1 167. Sic praeterit aetas. So doth time pass. 

Formerly on the Market Cross, King's Lynn. See No. 24S. 



Ever work thou and pray as if this tocrc thy hour of death : 

O Mother of God, make thou the heart of all a sweet savour of Christ 
at all hotirs. 

Eroni the rising of the sun to the going doton thereof praised be the 
A^ame of the Lord. 

On a honestone dial sold at Puttick and Simpson's, March Slh, 
1895 (Lot 66). 



1169. Sic sua cuique dies. 

So i's his day to each one. 

Paraphrase : 
Thus every passing life is fonnd, 
A passing shadoiv on the gronnd. 

On a dial in a village between Luoano and Como. 

1170. Sic tempora labuntur. Thus glides the time. 

On the woodcut of a dial in Arthur Hopton's " Baculum Geodes- 
tiami," Lond. 1610. 

1171. Sic transimus umxes. Thus pass ive all. 
Formerly in the Convent Garden of the Celestins, Paris. 

1 172. Sic transit gloria mundi. So passes the glory of the ivorld. 
Formerly on Foun- __^^ __ mii\',Iiiii^Ki _ ^lllimini.- -^^^=5 W^ 

tains Hall, near Ripon. ^f| 
The hall was built out of "^ 
the ruins of the abbey, '^'A 
by Stephen Proctor, one rg\ 
oftheesquires to James I. j.„ 
It was seen in 1891 on 1 
St. Ives' Church, Corn- =:^ 
wall, with the maker's ^ '' 
name, " And : Curnow. 
Towednack. 1739," but 
has now disappeared. 
The accounts of the 
churchwardens at St. 
Ives show that a dial 
was set up in 1731. In i8ot Arthur Young described a window dial 
at North-hill Rectory, Beds., as bearing this inscription (with No. 248), 
but the dial has gone; it was made in 1664 by Isaac Oliver. A dial 
on Foulden Church, Norfolk, with this motto and a figure of the sun, 
dated 1727, has been blown down and destroyed. In 1869 the words 
were on a seventeenth century house at Heigham, near Norwich. 
They are still, so far as we know, on the church at St. Just, Cornwall, 
with a representation of an angel holding an hour-glass with the sun 
halt-risen, and the name of Nicholas Raleigh below. The motto has 
also been read on Louth Church, Lincolnshire ; Brandon Church, Nor- 
folk ; on the gate of Dittisham Churchyard, Devon ; and on Ancroft 
Church, Northumberland. It is on a cross-dial with cylindrical hollows 
at the ends of the head and arms, which is now in the Museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries at Newcastle-on-Tyne ; this was brought from 
Carlisle and is dated " 1786. Ja". Jeffrey, fecit." The same motto, with 
No. 22i,and" John Hawksworth fecit Ann. Dom. i 799," is on a pedestal 
dial which stands on the lawn at Dirtcar House, near Wakefield ; also 




on a dial at Bridlington Ouay, dated 1844; on the gnomon oi one at 
Raughton Head, Cumberland, dated 1778 ; on the cross-dial at Elleslie, 
near Chichester, see No. 104 ; and at Dingley Rectory, Northants, 
dated 1755. 

It has been read on the convent of Pornier, near Geneva, and in 
two villages in Dauphine. The motto is also engraved in quaint 
characters (the capital letters being shaped like animals) upon a brass 
dial at Baudarapolla, Matale, Ceylon. A similar dial used to e.xist in 
front of the Rest House, Avisawelle, Ceylon, a building which belongs 
to the Dutch period, and bears an inscription in Dutch on its walls. 
Also on an ivory portable dial in the shape of a book, having the name 
of its maker, Hans Ducher of Nuremberg, and the date, 1586. 

In 1890 Mr. Ross described a vertical dial which he had seen 

lying against the wall of Inveresk Church, 
Midlothian, with the same motto and the 
name " Archbaldi Handasyde Piscatorii fecit 
MDCCXxxv." Piscatorii is a Latinized form 
of Fisherrow, the village where Handasyde 
lived. He was a mason and great dial- 
maker, and made amongst others the fine 
one at Cramond, and that of Nisbet. He 
is buried in Musselburgh Churchyard, and 
the epitaph on the stone records that he was 
a mason of Musselburgh, or as it is rendered, 
" Coementarii Conchi polensis." 

Another vertical dial, with a broken 
gnomon, and bearing this favourite motto, 
was seen by Mr. E. C. Middleton, propped 
against the wall of the Moat at Compton 
Wynyates. The dial was no doubt originally 
intended to be placed on the house. 

1173. Sic transit iiuka. 1697. So passes i/ic /lonr. 

Over an old doorway at Farnley Hall, Yorkshire; and at Wolves- 
don, CO. Durham, dated "J"". P'inch. 1723." 

1174. Sic ultima fortk Tiiii. Thus pcrchaiue unll be llty last houf. 
On the Hotel de Ville, at Riom. 

1175. Sic umijr.k declinavkruxt. So have the shadoios gone down. 
On the campanile of a church near Lugano. 

1 176. Sic vita. So is life. 

With No. 1013 on a horizontal dial at the Chantr)-, Newark; in 
Overton Churchyard, Flintshire (see No. loS) ; and in the Place St. 
Jean, MontaLiban. Mr. Lewis Evans j)osscsses a short MS. by his 
great grandfather, the Rev. Lewis Evans, F.R.S., who was a mathe- 
matical master at Woolwich, in which he gives a drawing, "the 




prototype of the marble vertical dial declining east 16° fixed against 
the south end of Mr. Joanes's (Jones's?) workshop, No. 16 Warwick 
Street, Worthing, latitude 50° 49 North." The dial has Sic vita above 
it. The date probably ranges from iSoo to 1823. 

1 177. Sic vita dum fugit stark videtur. So life while it fies seems 
to stand still. 

On a house at Bonrges (see No. 593). A somewhat similar motto 
was formerly on the Rue de la Chaussee des Minimes, Paris. 

1178. Sic vita fugit. So life flies. 

On an eighteenth-century dial of lead at Guillac (Tarn) ; on two of 
Zarbula's dials in Dauphine ; and at Sestri Levante. 

1 179. Sic vita per horas. Tints lif passes through the hours. 

On a French astrolabe dial of the sixteenth century in Mr. Evans' 

1 180. Sic vita traiXsit. So passes life. 

On the old house of Compton Wynyates, in Warwickshire, which 
belongs to the Marquis of North- 
ampton. It is sometimes called 
"Compton in the Hole" from its 
position, as it stands in a deep hollow 
surrounded by hills and woods, and 
seemingly shut in to perpetual loneli- 
ness. It is a grand old hall, and was 
built by Sir William Compton (temp. 
Henry VIII.), who is said to have 
brought the curious chimneys from 
the castle of Fulbrook, which is demolished. He stood in the favour 
of his king, and may be said to have founded the Compton family as 
noble. His grandson was created Earl of Northampton by James I., 
and was father of " the loyal earl," who followed Charles I., and grand- 
father of Compton, Bishop of London, who opposed James II. The 
old house suffered much in the Civil Wars, and is now dismantled. 
It is built round a court, and surrounded by a moat. The roof and 
ceilings are in good repair. It contains a small chapel for secret cele- 
bration of the Mass, with private staircases. The dial is on the south 
side of the house, overlooking what was formerly the Pleasaunce. 
There is a second dial over the main entrance, declining west, and a 
third on a pedestal in the garden. See No. 1 172. 

1 181. Sic vita ut umbra recedit. So doth life vanish like the 

At Sierre, on an old chateau which is now let out in tenements for 
the poor. 

3 F 



1182. Sic vitae certa ratio : 

Tempus fugit, mors venit. I 747. 

Tints is the sure reckoning of life : 
Tiniejiies : death comes. 
At Brough, Westmoreland, fixed on a tombstone-shaped stone on 
the church wall. 

1 183. Sic volvitur urbis. Thus the iK.'orld rolls on. 

At the Chateau de Kernuz (Morbihan). Above the dial is a coat- 
of-arms, and below it, "Sit nomen Domini benedictum. Fait par Jac. 
Derien 1677." 

1184. SicuT FLOS VT'iA PERii . Lifc pcisscs iiicay like a flower. 
At the Chateau de la Riviere (Isere). 

1185. SicuT FUMUS. 1731. {Life is) like smoke. 
Formerly on a chimney, Rue des Fosses, St. Victor, Paris. 

1 186. SicuT I'lscEs capiantur horae. Like flshes let the hours be 

On the Hotel de Ville, Beaufort (Savoy), with No. 1027. 

1 187. SicuT tenebrae ejus, ita et lumen ejus. The darkness and 
light to Ihce are both alike. M. D. F. 1888. 

This text, from Psalm cxxxix. 11, is on a dial erected by Albert 
Fleming, Esq., in his grounds at Neaum Crag, Westmoreland. The 
pedestal is of native slate. Mr. Fleming is well known as the bene- 
factor who has revived the use of the spinning-wheel amongst the 
housewives in Langdale. He erected the dial to the memory of his 
mother, whose initials and the date of whose death are given after the 
text. To her memory, also, the following lines have been engraved on 
the base of the pedestal ; they were chosen as being specially appro- 
priate to Mrs. Fleming's vigorous and dauntless character : 

"O strong soul, by what short; 
Tarriest thou now ? For that force, 
.Surely, has not been left vain ! 
Somewhere, surely, afar. 
In the sounding labour-house vast 
Of being, is practised that strength, 
Zealous, beneficent, firm ! " 

" Rugby Chapel." By Matthew Arnold. 

1188. SicuT UMBRA. As a shadoiv. 

On the porch of Maker Church, near Devonport. 

1 189. SicuT umbra cum UECLiN.vr, ablatus sum. I am gone like the 
shadow when it declineth (Ps. cix. 23). 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 



a s/iadino oiir days go down. 

On the Villa Ouiete, Varese. 

1191. SicuT UMBRA DIES NOSTKi. As a s/zadoio (arc) our doys. 

Formerly in the grreat court of the Sorbonne, Paris, on a fine vertical 
dial, with an admirable desiijn of Apollo driving- the chariot of the Sun. 
The motto was also in the court of the Celestin Convent, Paris, now 
destroyed ; and has been read at Le Ciotat (Bouches du Rhone). The 
three first words were on the Chateau de Preuilly (Seine et Marne). 

1192. SicuT UMBRA FUGiT HORA. As a skadozo tlic Iioiir fUes. 
At Verdun sur Garonne (Tarn et Garonne). 

1193. SicuT UMBRA TRANSEUNT DIES. As the sliadow pass tJic days. 

On the church porch of St. Levan, Cornwall. The church is rich 
in old oak, and also possesses a fragmentary copy of the letter of thanks 
written by King Charles I. to his people of Cornwall for their fidelity, 
dated from his camp at Sudeley Castle, 1643, and ordered to be printed, 
published, and read in every church or chapel in Cornwall, and to be 
kept for ever as a record of their king's gratitude. 

1194. SiDERA MENTE REGIT. ]Vith liis mind he 7'HlctIi thc sfars. 

On one of two dials on the Jesuit College at Tours. For the 
second motto see No. 854. The dials probably date from the seven- 
teenth century. 


Stulto longa, sapienti brevis. 

It marks and ivarns, long to the fool, to the wise man short. 

At the Hotel Cluny, Paris, or, according to another account, on a 
house near it, and now destroyed. The first line was in 1787 on a 
house in the Boulevard du Temple, Paris. 

1196. Sii AVARO del temto. Be 110 Spendthrift of thy time. 

On a tower which forms part of a large eighteenth-century building 
in the market-place, Fano, Italy. Miss Helen Zimmern, who saw it 
in 1892, adds "the good advice of the motto did not seem to be 
generally obeyed in its vicinity." 

1 197. SiLENS ET QUIETA CURRIT. SHcutly and noisclcssly it hurrics by . 
Once in the garden of the Minimes, Paris. 

1 198. SiLENS LOQUOR. Tlwugh silent, I speak. 
La Charite, Paris. 

1 199. Sine lumine inane. Without light all is useless. 

Formerly on a finely-painted dial, south declining west, which was 


in a window of the church of St. Benet Fink, Threadneedle Street, 
now destroyed. The foundation of this church was very ancient, but 
it was rebuilt by Robert Fink the elder in 1633, and after being burnt 
down, was again rebuilt in 1673. The following extract from the 
" Saint's Nosegay," by Mr. Samuel Clark, minister of this church from 
1642-66, may serve to illustrate the motto : " If the sunne be wanting 
it will be night for all the stars ; so if the light of God's countenance 
be wanting, a man may sit in the shadow of death for all the glyster of 
worldly contentment. As light continues not in the house, but by its 
dependance on the sun : shut out that, and all the light and beauty is 
presently gone : so we can see nothing but by the constant supply of 
the spirit of Christ. Hee that begins must finish every good work 
in us." 

1200. Sine lumine nihil. Nought without light. 

With No. 232, in the garden at Fellside, Great Snaresbrook. 

1201. Sine motu curro. Without moving, I run. 

On a house in the Piazza Nostra Signora di Campagna, Piacenza. 

1202. Sine nube placet. When there is no cloud [the dial) pleases. 
At Vallouise (Isere), dated 1869, Z. G. F. 

1203. Sine pede curro, sine lingua dico. Pascalls, anno domini, 
I 790. JVithout feet I run, zvithout a tongue I speak. 

At St. Sauveur (Isere), also at Pont en Royans, with " Pascalis le 
8 brumaire I'an 4 de la Republique, 30 : Octobre 1795." It also occurs 
at other villages in the same neighbourhood. 

1204. Sine sole nihil sum. Without the sun I am nothing. 

On a church at Ornavasso, Lago Maggiore, and at Vevey. With 
the last word omitted, it is at Cordes (Tarn) ; and in several other 
French villages ; and was formerly at La Charite, Paris ; and at 

1205. Sine sole sileo. ]]'ithout the sun I keep silence. 

On the church tower at Hoole, Lancashire, dated 181 5 ; on a house 
at Ashwick, near Bath ; at Goldney House, Clifton, erected by Lewis 
Fry, Esq. ; and in Chorlej' Churchyard, Lancashire. On the tower of 
Shillington Church, Bedfordshire, a clock and a sun-dial were formerly 
to be seen, the sun-dial having this motto, and the clock, as a contrast, 
Sine sole loquor (without the sun I speak). The dial has now been 

The motto is on the chapel of St Philippe, Nice; in the Castle of 
Monastero, near Bormida ; and has been read at Vevey; at Pino, 
Piedmont ; and at Alghero in Sardinia. 


1206. Sine sole sileo, sine nube placeo. IV/tcii there is no sun, I 
keep silence, w/ien no clouds, I do my office. 

On a dial at Cervieres. Above the gnomon a starry globe is 
depicted, with the sentence, Bcnedicitc stcllae coeli Dovii'. (O )'e stars of 
heaven, bless ye the Lord !) Below the numerals is Adonai memento 
me. O fehova adjnva me. (O Lord, be mindful of me : Jehovah, be 
thou my help.) 

1207. Sine umbra nihil. Without shadow there is nothing. 

Formerly on one of the dial faces on the west pier, Brighton (see 
No. 391). 

1208. SIngVLIs horIs LaVDetVr IesVs 
SaLVator noster, ab oMni CreatVra. 

Every hour, by every creature, let Jesus our Saviour be praised. 

Above the motto are the initials, "^ pe'' . The chronogram forms 
the date 1785. The inscription is on a small stone dial bought by 
Mr. Evans at Frankfort A. M. in 1893. 

1209. SiNT FELICES. May they be happy. 
At St. Remy (Bouches du Rhone). 

1210. SiNT TiBi serenae. May thine hours be bright. 
At Bormio. 

1211. Sis memor occasus, sole oriente, tui. At sunrise be thou 
mindful of thine oivn setting. 

At Vannes, dated i 743. 

1212. SiSTE VIATOR JAM HORA EST. Stay traveller, 'tis time. 
On an inn at Meyrargues, near Ai.\ (Bouches du Rh6ne). 

1213. Sit fausta quae latet. Anno Domini 1823. May the hour 
thou knowest not be prosperous. 

This motto, with five others, is in the Place d'Armes, Brian^on ; 
and below the dial, encircling a shield, are the words : Sit nomen 
Dominttm bcnedietum (see No. 8). 

1214. Sit nomen dominum jesu benedictum in secula. 

Laudabile nomen dominum. 1855. 

Blessed is the name of the Lord Jesus for all ages. Praise the name 
of the Lord. 

On the church at Abries (Hautes Alpes), with Nos. 478 and 1591). 

1215. Sit patriae aurea quavis. May there be for our country in some 
wise a golden ijiour). 

There was, until the last restoration of the building, a dial carved 


in stone and bearing this motto, on the facade of the Maison du Roi, 
or Broodhuys, at Brussels. This fine old building is opposite the 
Hotel de Ville, in the square where the executions of Counts Egmont 
and Horn took place. The ]5roodhuys has undergone many altera- 
tions. It was built ab(nit 1525, and in it the two noblemen passed 
the night before their execution, but it seems to have been rebuilt 
in 1668, by order of the Archdukes AlbcTt and Isabella, and again 
altered in 1757. Until a recent restoration it bore (jn its facade 
the following inscription, which contains a chronogram of the date 
1624 : 


iioC VotVM paCIs pViiLICAK kLIsai;ktii ConskCraVIt. 
From plague, famine, and ivar, deliver its, Mary of peace. 
This offering for the national peace Elizabeth dedicated. 

A statue of the Archduchess was placed above. The dial probably 
dates from the rebuilding in 1757. 

1216. Sit sine lite dies. Let the day be loithont strife. 

On Darlington church. The dial is placed high on the south wall ; 
the face is black, the lines and lettering gold. 

1217. Sit ultima felix. 1792. May thy last hour be happy. 
At Najac (Aveyron). 

1218. ZKIAS AIKHN DANTA. All passeth like a shadow. 
Hotel de Mars, Rue du Tournon, Paris. 

I2ig. 2KIAS 'ONAP 'ANGPnnoi. Mankind is as the dream of a shadow. 
From Pindar, P. 8, 136, cf .Sopli. Aj. 125 : 

(.pw yap »ijU.a? ouoti/ si/rac aAAo TrAni' 
'iiSuX' osoiirtf ^ufA£v, 1) xou(p»I^ (Tx1a.11. 

Formerly on the convent of the Minimes, in the Place Royal, 

1220. So FLIES LIFE. 

On an old house at Southall, Middlesex. 

1221. So ELYS LIFE AWAY. 1 738. 

On the church tower at .South Stoneham, Hampshire, "Jo. Sharpe, 
Ro: Houghton, Churchwardens;" also on "The Old Windmill" 
tavern at Turnham Green, Middlesex, with date, 17 17. 


At Hartington Church, Derbyshire. The inscription is probably 
taken from Leadbetter's absurd translations of Latin dial mottoes. 



On the church at Chipping Sodbury, Gloucesterbhire. 


And MEASURES OUT life's painful way : 
Through shifting scenes of shade and light, 
To endless day OR endless night. 

For the Ladv Abney at Newington, 1735. 
These Hnes were written by Dr. Watts as the motto on a pillar-dial 
which formerly stood in the garden of Lady Abney at Stoke Newington, 
Dr. Watts being resident there as tutor in the family of Sir J. Hartopp. 
Sir Thomas Abney was Lord Mayor of London in 1700, and died in 
1722. The dial has been removed to Edmond Castle, near Carlisle, 
the residence of T. H. Graham, Esq. Mr. H. Hopley has noted a 
different version of the lines, without recording any locality : 

" So glide the hours, so wears the day. 

These moments measure life away. 

With all its trains of Hope and Fear ; 

Till shiftino- scenes of Shade and Light 

Rise to Eternal Day, or sink in endless Night." 

Dr. Watts' lines are also on a dial placed, in 18S0, on the village 
school, Carthorpe, Yorkshire. 

1225. So SOON PASSETH IT AWAY (Ps. XC. lo). I 782. 

On the church of St. Martin by Looe, Cornwall ; and on St. Matthias'. 
Liskeard, with the names of Wm. Henry Hony, LL.D., vicar, Neh. 
Williams, and P'rans. Croker, churchwardens, and date, 1779. 

1226. So TEACH us to NUMBER OUR DAYS, 

That we may apply our hearts unto wisdom (Ps. xc. 12). 

On the porch of St. John's Church, Leeds. The dial was put up 
after the restoration of the church, about a.d. 1S68, in place of one 
removed forty years previously. Also in Trefnant churchyard (see 
No. 1295); and on the porch of Mancetter Church, Warwickshire. 
There is no date, but a dial is shown in an engraving of 1763. 

1227. Sol certas .-vura faustas. The sun makes the hours sure, the 
breeze prosperous. 

At Lausac (Bouches du Rhone). 

1228. Sol deus visibilis : 

Deus sol invisibilis. 

The sun is thy visible God ; God is the invisible sun 

At Stonehouse Court, Gloucestershire. 

1229. Sol diet dux est. 1890. The sun is the guide 0/ day. 
On a bureau de tabac, St. Veran (Hautes Alpes). 


1230. Sol est lux et glorl\ mundl The sun is the light and glory 
of the luorld. 

One of the moltoes at Moccas Court (see No. 1469) ; also on a 
horizontal dial made by Newton, of Cambourne, and exhibited at 
Falmouth in 1898 : 

" Lo ministro maggior della natura 

Che del valve del cielo il mondo imprenta 

E col suo lume il tempo ne niisura." 

Uante, Paradho, x. 28. 

1231. Sol est regula. The sun is the rule. 
On a house at Brian9on. See No. 1 103. 

1232. Sol kt luna faciunt quae pkecei'ta sunt eis ; xos autem 
I'EREGRiNAMUR A DOMINO. Tlic suii and vioou do what hath been bidden 
them, but 7ve wander away from the Lord. 

Near a great sun-dial on the parish church of St. Affrique (Aveyron), 
and described by Mr. Barker in his " Wanderings by Southern Waters." 
" The extraordinary astronomical dials," he writes, "cover most of the 
surface of the outer walls. They are exceedingly curious, and some of 
the calculations really astonishing, as e.g., a table showing the number 
of souls that have appeared before the tribunal of God." Baron de 
Riviere gives both this and another motto in French ; possibly both 
versions may be on the dials (see No. 212). 

1233. Sol glorla. mundl The siui is the glory of the world. 
On a house in Whitehorse Yard, Wellingborough. 

1234. Sol lucet omnibus. The sun shineth for all men. 

On a house at Secies (Carreze) ; and at Pont de Beauvoisin (I sere). 

1235. Sol me vos umbra regit. The siui guides nic, the shadow you. 

On the church of St. Stephen by Saltash, which is the original 
parish church of Saltash, the names of Joseph Avery and Savell 
Doidge, 1783, are also engraved on the dial. The motto is on three of 
Zarbula's dials in the Hautes Alpes. Also on a farmhouse at Cold- 
thorpe, Gloucestershire, the last word being omitted. 

1236. Sol ministrat umbram. Tlie sun provides the shadow. 

John Calcott fecit, 1824, George Ore, Samuel Worthen, Church- 

On the dial in the churchyard of Frees, Salop. 

1237. Sol momenta nicolaus mores. 1666. The Sun makes the 
moments, Nicolas the manners. 

On the wall of the former presbytere of the church of St. Nicolas 
des Champs, Paris. 


1238. Sol non occidat super iracundiam vestram. — Ephes. iv. 26. 
Let not the sun go donni upon your zorath. 

Richard Melvin, fecit, from London. 

This motto, with No. 443, is on a handsome pillar bearing a hori- 
zontal dial of slate at Ember Court, Surrey. The inscriptions are 
somewhat defaced. Besides the central dial there are four small ones 
at the four corners, showing the time of day at other places on the 
earth's surface. The same text is on dials at Areley Kings, Cheshire ; 
(No. 74) at Ninane, Belgium; La Fiera di Primiero, Tyrol (No. 426); 
and at Bozel, Savoy. 

Several dials made by Richard Melvin of London, and apparently 
also of Dublin, are noticed in this work. They are usually of slate, 
horizontal, and engraved with great care, sometimes showing the time 
at places abroad, and accompanied by smaller dials at the sides, in 
the corners, which are for the same purpose. Three of Melvin's dials 
are in Warwickshire, another at Ruthin Castle, one at Dover, and one 
at Killiney, dated 1864. Some have mottoes, and some not. 

1239. Sol oritur cadit et lustralls evolat hora 
At nobis immoto sistitur orbe dies. 

The sun ariseth, it sctteth, and the hour of ivorsJiip arrives, 
Jhit our day standeth fast in its unmoved eirele. 

On the church of St. Francis Xavier, Besancon. The lines were 
composed by the Abbe Pioche, Professor at the College of the Peres 
Eudistes. See No. 1251. 

1240. Sol pro omnibus lucet. The sun shines for all men. 
On the belfry of the church at Orly (Seine). 

1241. Sol redit vita transit. The sun returneth, life passeth. 
Locality unknown. 

1242. Sol regit omnia. The SJin rules all. 
At Mane (Basses Alpes). 

1243. Sol rex regula. The sun is King and guide. 
At Alleins (Bouches du Rhone). 

1244. Sol solus solvit. The sun is the only solver. 

Composed by William Fane, Esq., for a dial in his garden at Fulbcck 
Hall, Lincolnshire. 

1245. Sol tem[p]o di saturno il dente edace 

E del pallone il giocator fallace. 1826. 

Nothing save Times destructive tooth I dread. 
And the ball by unskilful player sped. 

At Chieri, in Piedmont. Two or three Italian scholars have tried 

^ G 


to make sense of this obscure motto, and have failed. The first allusion 
to the mythological legend of Saturn devouring his children will be 
recognized ; and the accompanying simile can only be explained by a 
reference to the favourite Italian game oi pallone. This game some- 
what resembles tenuis, and still remains a living representative of the 
old Roman game of pila. The manner of playing it has been thus 
described by Mr. Story (" Roba di Roma," vol. i.) : "It is played 
between two sides, each numbering from five to eight persons. Each 
of the players is armed with a bracciale, or gauntlet of wood, covering 
the hand and extending nearly up to the elbow, with which a heavy ball 
is beaten backwards and forwards, high into the air, from one side to 
another. The object of the game is to keep the ball in constant flight, 
and whoever suffers it to fall dead within the bounds loses. The game 
is played on an oblong figure, marked out on the ground, or designated 
by the wall around the sunken platform on which it is played, and 
across the centre is a transverse line dividing the two sides ; and as the 
ball falls here and there, now flying high in the air, and caught at once 
by the bracciale before touching the ground, now glancing back from 
the wall which generally forms one side of the lists, the players rush 
eagerly to hit it, calling loudly to each other, and often displaying great 
agility, skill, and strength." Allusions to the game of pallone may be 
found in the works of the modern Italian poets. Leopardi and Aleardi 
have both made use of it as a subject of their verse. The above motto 
was ultimately shown to Antonio Maschio, a gondolier in the service of 
the National Bank at Venice, well-known for his interpretation of 
Dante's " Divina Commedia." He said at once that the word tempo 
should be temo, and then the meaning would be, " I fear only the devour- 
ing tooth of Saturn and the inexpert player with the ball " — that is, the 
gnomon fears alike Saturn's wet weather which corrodes iron, and the 
h^id pallone player who may throw his ball against and break it. 

1246. Sol tempora diviijit /evi. — Lucan, Pharsalia, 10. The sun 
divides the seasons of time. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1247. Sol tiri signa dabit : solem quls dicere falsum audeat ? The 
sun will give thee the signs : zuho ivill dare to say the sun is false ? (From 
Virgil's First Georgic, line 463.) 

This is the motto of a sun dial on one of the terraces at Bramshill 
Park, Hants. At the same place there are three other dials, which bear 
the arms of the Cope family with dates and initials, but they have no 

This was the motto of the old " Sun " newspaper. Dryden's trans- 
lation of the line runs : 

" The sun reveals the secret of the day. 

And who dares give the source of light the lie ? " 


The first part of the motto, sol tibi signa dabit, was, until 1882, on 
the Bridge Trust Building, Bideford, erected in 1758. It is still on 
the wall of the cloister of St. Stefano, Belluno, now used as a public 
building. See No. 1434. 

The latter half of the line is on a dial at Newbiggin, near Carlisle, 
dated 1722 and inscribed "Carolus Aedes delineavit, Johannes Gosling 
sculpt." ; also on St. Mary's Church, Penzance, with No. 1334 ; this dial 
was removed from the old church to the present modern building. See 
also No. 1053. 

1248. SoLAREM siGNAT LiNEA PiCTA viAM. The painted Hiie marks the 
skill's path. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


The diallist splits up the day for tis into small parts. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1250. Sole horam do in dec spem vides. Z. G. F. 1841. By the 
sun I give [the time) ; iit God thou seest thy hope. 

At Abries. The dial, like many of those made by Zarbula, is 
ornamented with pictures of birds ; here there is a toucan and a para- 
keet, with their names attached. The motto, imperfectly rendered, is 
also at Le Pinet (Hautes Alpes). 

1251. Sole nitente loquor taceo sine solibus horas 
Tu NISI forte potes discere vera tace. 

When the suji shines I speak, in the sunless hours I keep silence : do 
thou, ttnless perchance thou canst learn the truth, hold thy peace. 

On the chapel of the College of the Peres Eudistes, and written by 
the Abbe Pioche, Professor of Rhetoric. See No. 1239. 

1252. Sole oriente, fugiunt tenebrae. With the 7'ising sun the dark- 
ness flies. 

On a dial in a garden in the diocese of Connor. 

Bishop Mant, in his Latin and English poem, "The Sun-dial of 

Armoy," writes thus : 

" Night flies before the orient morning, 

So speak the Dial's accents clear ; 
So better speaks the Prophet's warning 
To ears that hear. 

" Night flies before the Sun ascending ; 

The sun goes down, the shadow spreads — 
O, come the day which, never ending. 
No night succeeds. 

" And see a purer day-spring beaming, 
Unwonted light, nor moon nor sun ; 
But Light itself, with glory streaming, 
God on His throne ! " 


1253. Sole oriente orior, 

Sole ponente cubu. 

JVilh the rising sim I loakc, 
J I 'ith the setting sun I sleep. 

Believed to be in Malta. 

1254. SOLEM CERTISSLMA SIGNA SEijUUNTUR (Virgil, Geor. I. 439). 

Most sure are the signs which folloiv the sun. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


JUSTOS ET iNjusTOs. He viaketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the 
good, and scndcth rain on the just and on the unjust (St. Matt, v, 45). 

On a horizontal dial, dated mdccclxxxvl made by C. W. Dixey and 
Sons, New Bond Street. 

1256. Soles pereunt et imputantur. Days {literally, suns) depart 
and are reckoned. 

Outside the Dean's kitchen at Durham is a dial which bears this in- 
scription. In 1888 it was much decayed. The motto comes from 
Martial's " Epigrams," v. 20, 23. It is also over the south porch of 
Woodhorn Church, Northumberland, with letters T. R. S. and 1840. 

1257. Soli deo gloria. To God alone be glory. 

This inscription is cut on several stones in Nuremberg, and may 
have belonged to dials which have been removed. It is also on a port- 
able ivory compass dial in the Nuremberg Museum, made by Paulus 
Reinman, 1602 ; on another in the British Museum, " Paulus Reinmann 
zu Normberg, faciebat 1578"; on two marked " Nicolavs Miller, 
1 645," and on many similar dials in other collections. See No. 1320. 

1258. Soli deo honor et gloria. To God alone be honour and glory. 

On an old dial at Oueyrieres, and at other villages in the Hautes 
Alpes. The words used to be often found inscribed over old house 
doorways in Edinburgh ; amongst others over the notorious Major 
Weir's house, dated 1604. ^'^'^- Robert Chambers tells us that in the 
reign of Queen Mary the above was the "fashionable grace before 
meat " of the Scottish nobility. 

1259. Soli deo omnis gloria. J. Smith 1838. dclin. Bielby. To God 
alone be all glory. 

With No. 97, on the Wesleyan Chapel at Bielby, near Pockling- 
ton. See No. 1406. 

1260. Soli, soli, soli. 1756. 

Seen in 1863 on a house at Monthcy, Canton Valais. The motto 
and date (1756) were on a scroll above the dial, and the sun's face 




made a central point where the gnomon was fixed. The same 
words have also been read at Bonneville ; at Chateau Oueyras (see 
No. 48) ; and in other villages in Dauphine, in one case with the 
date 1700. They are also at Mouriez (Bouches ^— pt^ttt;—^ 

du Knone), on the house where iNostradamus „ 17 %r — rr~^-Wi^ 
once lived, and is said to have been placed there \ 
by the prophet himself. He died July 2nd, 1566. 
The word soli alone has been seen on a dial 
in the hamlet of Ozier (Isere) ; and soli, soli on 
others in the hamlets of La Valadiere, and of 
Legerie (Isere). The representation of the sun 
as a human face with rays all round it, which is 
often seen on dials, is of very ancient origin. It has been found 
carved in relief at Babain in Upper Egypt, with figures of priests 
below offering sacrifice. In this manner the Persians also represented 
the Sun God, as well as in the form of a young man, Mithras. It is 
possible that the words. Soli, soli, soli, and Deo soli gloria (which may 
bear a double meaning), were originally Mithraic inscriptions. Under 
the Roman Empire there were altars set up to Mithras with the in- 
scription, Deo iiivicto Mithrac. Several have been found in England 
inscribed Deo soli. To God the sun ; Deo soli invieto. To God the sun 
unconquerable. That traces of this ancient worship should still be 
found on sun-dials need surprise no one. [If Soli, soli, soli, be indeed a 
Mithraic inscription, it probably should be translated, " To the peerless 
sun, we only," i.e., the secret society of Mithraists. — -R. F. L.] 

1261. Soli posuit a. ferguson. 1803. To the sun A. Fcrgtison 
set up [this dial). 

At Hallyards, Peeblesshire, on a dial put up in his garden by 
Professor Adam Ferguson. 

1262. Soli pro fide. To the suti for the faith. 
At the hamlet of Les Murets, St. Egreve. 


solis adit lux, 

hic docet umbrae crux, 

Datur hora. 
Umbram addit nox, 

HiNC ABIT umbrae VOX, 

Abit hora absit mora. 

The suits light shineth here. 
The shade s cross teacheth elcar, 

Told is the hour of day. 
Night makes the shade more dense. 
The shade's voice goeth hence, 
The hour goes, let there be no delay. 



These lines are engraved on the eight sides of a shaft in the 
vicarage garden, Shenstone, near Lichfield, upon the top of which is 
across dial (see Nos. 474 and 1384), erected and inscribed by the Rev. 
R. W. Essington. On a slate step at the shaft's base there are two 
more mottoes, one in Greek and the other in Hebrew : (1) w'pai/ JiJ'win 

-j- o'l/Tof h'Aiou (the word o-raupo?, a cross, 
being supplied by -(-). The cross gives 
the hour in sunshine. And, (2) ii«'n;. 
Let there be light. 

Two other translations have been 
made of the Latin lines, but the one 
given above seems to follow the original 
more closely than the rest. 

(i) SnnligJit falls, and lo ! the Cross's 
shadoiii fain luould teach 

To us the present hour by heaven is 
letit I 

Night darkens, and then no lono-er 
can the shadow preach, 

Avoid delay, your time is almost 



L ight falls from heaven ! 
Then doth the Cross s shade 
This lesson sweetly teach : 
Thy time — Heaven s grace I 
Night's deeper shades 
Close round I the voi-ce is hushed 
So soon that grace is spent, 
It flies apace. 
Hold on thy race. 


solis ardor extra 
Caritas intra. 

The sun's heat without, charity within. 
On the Hospital, La Rochefoucauld, France. 

1265. Sous ET ARTis OPUS. The zuork of the Stin and of Art. 

A MAI CEssAR d' oprar sempre c' invita. To ccasclcss round 
of toil the hour ever calls us. 

il Giorno 23 Maggio 1867. 

Seen near Varese ; also at Milan ; and on a house between Palermo 
and Monreale, dated 1882. In i860 it was on a house at Grasse. 


1266. Solus non errat. Recedo non decedo. Oblique et ubique. 

He alone makes no mistake. I go back again, I do not go aivay. 
Aslant and everywhere. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1267. Son figlia del sole 

Ei'uR son ombra. 

/ am child of the sttn, and yet am shade. 

Seen by the Countess Martinengo Cesaresco on the Col di Tenda in 
1870. Dean Alford mentioned the same motto in his letters from the 
Riviera, and he paraphrased it thus : 

/ the sun my father call. 
Yet atn shadow after all. 

1268. Son rf)ciiE le ore mie, le tue son moltI':. Fe7i' arc my 
hours, how many thine ! 

At San Remo ; and also at Ventimiglia. 

1269. Son senza suon e senza voce, ancora 
Opur se luce il sol, ti dico l'ora. 

/ have no sound, nor voice, yet by the light 
Of sunbeams touched, I tell the hours aright. 

At Vegliasco, near Alassio. 


1270. SoNGEZ A niEU ET AU TROCHAiN. 1860. Think Upon God, and 
of thy neighbour. 

At Abries (Hautes Alpes). 

1271. SoNGEZ A LA DERNitRE. 1733- Think upou the last (Jiour). 
On the church at Mens (Isere). 


/ am an iron bar, black and fii-ni fixed, 
Yet am I handmaid of the sun 
And a slave to the laws of motion. 

On the tower of the Grand Hotel, Pegli ; placed there in 1874, 
and the motto added by the Marquis de Nicolay. 


l'ora MENTRE NON 6 SOLE.] I am ready to do my duty ; if the sun fails, 
I fail also. It is in vain to seek the hour when there is no sun. 

On No. 85, Via Vittorio Emanuele, Chiomonte (Prov. of Turin). 


1274. SouvENKZ vous DK vos FIN'S DERXiKRES. 1 846. Think Upon 
you!- latter end. 

On the church of the St. Crucifix, Cordes (Tarn). 


Remember, O man, that dust thou art, and tmto djist sha/t thou return. 
On the belfry tower, La Salle (Hautes Alpes). 

1276. SoYEZ MOi FiDfeLE. Dc thou faith fut unto me. 
At Sylve Benlte (Isere). 

1277. Spe ili.ectat inani. mdcv. With vain hope he attract*;^. 
Rue de la Prefecture, Nice. 

1278. Spectator fastidiosus sibi molestus. He that /ooks too proudly 
is a trotible to himself. 

At By well Abbey, near Newcastle-on-Tyne. It is difficult to 
understand what this motto means ; we have translated it literally. It 
may either point to a spectator bending over the dial so as to intercept 
the sunshine ; or as a passer-by who is too proud to use this humble 
means of learning the time. 


1279. Speculum vit/E. The mirror of life. 
At Voreppe (Isere). 

1280. Spero lucem. I hope for the light. 

On the church in the village of St. Antoine, Pelvoux (Hautes 

1281. Splendor et ordo. Light and order due. 

On the palace of the Tuileries in 1787. From a MS. list of dial 
mottoes of that period, published by the Comte du Marsy in 1881. 

1282. Sta promissis. Stand to your promises. 

On the stone pedestal of a dial at Niddrie Marischal, near Edin- 
burgh, the seat of the Don Wauchopes. The arms of the family are 
engraved on the bronze dial face, and also on the pedestal, but the 
motto is not their heraldic one. The words, W'achop of Niddrie, are 
inscribed beside the shield on the face ; and also Jacobus Clark, 
Dundee, fecit. There is no date. 

1283. DiALL. {loq.) State, passinger 

Tell me my name 
Thy natvre. {rcsp.) TiiY name is die 





DiALL. {/oq.) Since my name 
and thy natvre 

soe agree, 
Think on thy selfe 
when tpiov lookst 


There is an ancient dial, having four sides, at Millrigg, in the parish 
of Culgaith, near Penrith. The opening dialogue betwi.vt Dial and 
Passenger is inscribed on one side of the square, and on the other side 
is Dial's moral deduction from it. 
The two remaining sides of the 
square are occupied by the armorial 
bearings of the families of Dalston 
and Fallowfield, together with the 
initials " I. D." and " H. F." John 
Dalston resided and died at Mill- 
rigg in 1692. He was the son of 
Sir Christopher Dalston, of Acorn 
Bank, who was knighted by James I. 
in 161 5. This latter place was the 
chief residence of the family. The 
manor of Temple Sowerby, imme- 
diately adjoining", was granted by 
Henry VHI. to Thomas Dalston, Esq., on the distribution of religious 
houses. It belonged originally to the Knights Templars, and after- 
wards to the Hospitallers. Millrigg is now occupied as a farm-house. 

1284. Stat sua cuique dies, atque irremeaiulis hora. For each 
one his day is appointed, and the hotir from zohich there is 110 return. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1285. State, venit hora. Stay, the ho7ir is at hand. 
At Aiguieres (Var). 

1286. Steh' bey uns in aller noth, 
HiER in leben und in tod. 

Stand by ns in alt need, here in life and iyi death. 

At Salzburg. There is a fresco of the Virgin and Child with 
the dial. 

1287. sVb II aC VMbra DatVr seCVra qVIes. 
eX hoC oMnIs DeCor eXVrget. 

Under this shade is given rest without care. Hence will all grace 

Each line gives the date 1726. They are on a brass folding dial, 
ornamented with a bishop's mitre and crozier, in Mr. Evans' collection. 

3 " 


1288. Sub umbra quiescunt. 1770. 

Sub luce gaudent. 1785. 

Under the shade they rest. 
Under the light they rejoice. 

On the Hotel des Invalides at Paris. 

1289. Such is life. 1800. 

On the church at Buckminster, Leicestershire. 

1290. SuFFiciT una, ultimam TIME. One sufficetk, fcar the last. 

In the principal square at Annecy a meridian dial was placed by 
Frere Arsene, a Capuchin, the maker of several dials set up at different 
places in Savoy. This one is described in a brochure, " Le Montre 
Solaire d' Annecy." There were, as is often the case, dials of different 
kinds on the same stone. On the south side were two equinoctial 
dials, with the mottoes given above, and the additional lines : 

" Tel, qu'un Lion de sang avide 
Se precipitant sur tes pas. 
La mort suite un course rapide 
Avec I'arret de ton trepas." 

As a lion thirsting for blood pttrsncs thy steps, so Azrael rapidly follows 
bearing thy death warrant. 

There are also the arms of the town of Annecy, and the initials 
L. D. M., L. J. F., which stand for " Laus Deo Marice, Laus Joseph 

On the east side is : " Une de plus, une de moins "■ — One more, one 
less ; and on the west : " L'eternite depend d'une heure " — Eternity hangs 
upon an hour. 

1291. Sum genitor veri, domitor i.evoris, aperti 

Index, astrorum filius atque comes 
Me sequor et fugio mea per ve.stigia : numquam 
Cum sine quotidie nascor et intereo. 


I am the father of truth, the conqueror of malice, the pointer of the open 
sky, the son and comrade of the stars. I follow myself and flee along my 
own tracks, daily am I born, daily I die. 

At the Hameau de Platre-Rousel, near Monbonnet (Iscre). 

1292. Sum mutum at muti tamen explico lumina piicebi 
Umbra miiii lingua nec tamen vmbra sonat 
avribus hinc nvllis opvs me interprete temfvs 


V. F. 1706. 
Voiceless am I, yet do 1 interpret the light of voiceless Phccbus. The 


shadoiu is my tongue, yd the sJiadow gives no sound: hence when I inform 
thee tho7c needest 710 ears, thou shalt knoiu the time when thon wilt, if the 
shadoiv comes beneath thine eyes. 

On a German honestone dial sold in London. 

1293. Sum si sol sit. If the sun is, I am. 
At Viriville (Isere). 

1294. SuMUS UMBRA 1 6g I . A shadotu are loe. 

Seen on an old house in Lower Tottenham. " Notes and Queries," 
Fourth Series, iv. 188. 

1295. Suns rise and set, 

Till men forget 

The day is at the door 
When they shall rise no more. 

O everlasting sun, 

Whose race is never run. 

Be thou my endless light, 

Then shall i fear no night. 

In Memoriam T. E. W. D., 1880. 

These lines, with Prov. x. 7, and Ps. xc. 12, are on two sides of a 
column bearing a dial, in the churchyard of Trefnant, co. Denbigh. 
It was erected by Mrs. Whitehall Dod, of Llanerch. There are also 
devices, such as the cross within a triangle, a sickle, and an hour-glass 
inclosed in a serpent ring. See No. 1226. 

1296. Supra solem Veritas, sub sole vanitas. 

Pascalis, Anno Domini i 790. 
Alwvc the su.n is truth, beneath it vanity. 
At Beauvoir (Isere). 

1297. Suprema multis forsan tibi. For many men their last 
hour, perhaps for thee. 

At Rians (Var) ; and formerly at St. Genevieve, Paris. A similar 
motto has been read on the Riviera; and in the garden of the Hospital 
of St. Jacques, Besangon. See No. 75. 

1298. Sur ce cadran je vais et reviens chaque jour, 
Mais l'homme disparait, helas ! et sans retour. 

On this dial I go and come again each day. 
But man, alas I vanishes, and rettirns no more. 

On the church at Bellentre, Savoy. 

1299. Surge qui dormis. Aiuake thou that steepest (JL^\\. v. 14). 

On an engraving of a dial in J. Voellius's " De horologiis Scio- 
thericis." 1608. 


1300. Swift runs y" time, 

This dial face doth siiowe, 


TlIA-1' Y" shall PASS BELOWE. 

Mr. Harry Hems wrote in "The Building News," 1888: " It is 
twenty-four years ago or more that, at that time an apprentice lad in 
Yorkshire, I recut an inscription upon an old sun-dial as above." 

1301. Ta NY LAGiiVN AiN MYR SCAA. Ou}' days are like a shadozv. 

With No. 1337 on a dial at Kirk Braddan, Isle of Man, dated i860. 
Over the dial face are the arms of the island, three legs conjoined on 
the fess point, and beneath it are the mottoes. 

1302. Ta nyn lagmyn er y tiialloo myr scadoo. 1835. Our days 
on the earth are as a sJiadoiu (i Chron. xxix. 15). 

On Malew Church in the Isle of Man. The dial face is of white 

1303. Ta vie passe comme cet ombrage 
Prends y garde et tu seras sage. 

Life passes as this shadozv. 

If thoii art zoise thoit zoilt take care. 

At Renage (I sere). 

1304. Tacitis senescimus iioris. Wc grozv old in the silent hotirs. 
At Bozel (Savoy). 

1305. Tacito pede laboro. / toil zcith silent Joot. 

On the wall of the old palace of the Princes of Masserano (La Mar- 
mora) at Masserano, in the province of Novara, Italy. Lamartine 
expresses a similar idea : 

" L'ombrt; suulc niarquu uii silence 

Sur le cadran rempli, les pas niucts du temps." 

1306. Tak tent u' time, ere time be tint. 

One of eight mottoes that were inscribed on an octagonal pillar 
bearing a dial on each side, which stood in front of the Plxhibition 
Buildings at Edinburgh in 1886. There was also an inscrijition stating 
that the Exhibition was opened by Prince Albert Victor of Wales, and 
the dial was called after him. The other seven mottoes are given under 
their several headings (see Nos. 61, 656, 706, 1404, 1405, 141 2, 1649). 
The dial was removed when the Exhibition was taken down, and it 
is not known what became of it. The same motto is at Whitchester, 
Duns, Berwick, on a dial erected for Andrew Smith, Esq., by Mr. 
Bryson. It has also been inscribed on the new base of an ancient dial 
with twelve faces, a " dodecahedron," which was brought by Sir William 
Wedderburn, Bart., from Inveresk Lodge, Midlothian, and erected at 
Meredith Court, Gloucestershire. Thi.s dial is dated 1691. 


The late Sir William Stirling Maxwell, Bart., placed this motto on 
the clock tower at Keir, Perthshire, with the following lines : 

" It is later with the wise than he is aware." 

" Hours are Time's darts, and one comes wincjed with death." 

1307. Take heed, watch and pray, for ye know not what the 


On the tower of Ramsey Church, Huntingdonshire. 

1308. Take up the cross and follow me. 

Leadbetter states that this text, with a figure of St. Andrew and his 
cross, were on a sun-dial upon the south side of St. Andrew's Church, 
Holborn, in the eighteenth century. 

1309. Tarda se spera. 

Veloce se vera. 

Slow to Hope. Swift to Sight. 

On a house between Borgo Mazzano and Ponte a Mariano, near 
Bagni di Lucca. 

1310. Tardior egenti. Too sloto to the needy. 

On a dial in a picture b}' Jeaurat, called Le daiicnageinent dii peintre. 

131 1. Tardior umrra fluit, cum vos ad seria tempus 
Alligat, et p.revior, cum datur hora jocis. 

Too slowly glides the shadow, when the tiitze constrains thee to be 
grave : too quickly flies the hour that is given to vierrinicnt. 

On the court of the College at Avalion (Yonne). 

1312. Te deprecamur vespere : ultima time. To thee we pray at 
eventide : fear the end. 

On a west dial on a country house belonging to the Comte de 
Boulancy, near Noyon (Oise), which was formerly the dwelling of the 
Abbot of the Chartreuse of Mont Renaud. 

1313. Te mane laudamus carmine : ultima latet. At morn zue 
sing Thy praise : the end is hid. 

On an east dial on the Comte de Boulancy's house, facing the one 
described above. 

1314. Te MONET hora fugax, te MONET IPSE LOCUS. The fleeting 
hour, the very spot, warn thee alike. 

In the Cimitiere des Innocents, Paris. Formerly the inscription 
ran: Idem monet hora locus(jue i^'Thc lumr and the place warn thee 
alike), but when the dial was repaired the present version was sub- 


1315. Te non videns servire neqveo. 
pro memoria servio F, N. N. 1698. 

If I see thee not, I cannot serve thee. 

On a small honestone dial sold in London. 

1316. Tego quod detegu. / hide what I reveal. 
In the Basses Alpes, place unknown. 

1317. Tempora computantur. The time is reckoned. 
On the church at Roybon (I sere). 

1318. Tempora cuncta suis visitantes discite votis. Yoii who 
come to see me, learn all the hours by their prayers. 

On the church of St. Pierre, Saintes, which dates from the fifteenth 
century. The letters are in Gothic characters. 

1319. Tempora labuntur more fluentis aquae. Like flowing water 
glides the time. 

At Monastero, near Borniida, North Italy. 

1320. Tempora labuntur quae nobis pereunt et imputantur. 
Time glides by which for us perishes and is reckoned. 

On one of the chimneys of Minster Court, Isle of Thanet. The 
building dates from the twelfth century. The dial was restored and 
the motto added by J. Swiniford, Esq., in 1856. (" Strand Magazine," 

1321. Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis, 
Et fugiunt freno non remorante dies. 

Soli deo gloria. 
Paulus Reinman, Nuremberg;e fac. 

Ti^ne glides by, and we age with the silent years. 
And our day flies, ivith no rein to hold it back. 
To God alone be glory. 

On an ivory portarium in the British Museum. The lines are 
from Ovid, " Fasti," 6, 771. Also on a compass dial in the Victoria and 
y\lbert Museum. See No. 407. The first line is also on a dial at the 
old hospital Weekley, Northants. There is a doorway beneath the 
dial, on which are the words. What thou docst doc yt yn Faith, and the 
date 1 6 1 I . 

1322. Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis. The times 
change, and wc too change ivith them. 

On a pillar dial in the garden of Brockhampton Park, near Chelten- 
ham. This well-known line is not classical, but is by Matthew 


Borbonius, a Latin poet of the sixteenth century. The true readino- 
of the sentence is, Ofmiia imiiaiihir, etc. 


Pr.etereant; superest ecce perennis aMor. 
Time passes by ; now sun noiv shade in turn : 

Let it go by ; lo, Love is over all eternal. 

Time flies, suns rise, and sJiadows fall. 

Let it go by ; lo. Love is for ever over all. 

These lines — hexameter and pentameter — are written on a pillar 
dial with three faces at Old Place, Lindfield, Sussex. They are 
engraved and gilded above the dials, and also twine round the pillar 
in black, white, and gold. " Perennis Amor" is illustrated at the top 
of all by a "Pelican in her piety" with wings outstretched over her 
young. This topmost group is in bronze. Five capital letters indicate 
the date of erection, mm — vvc, or 1890. In addition to this pillar dial 
Mr. Kempe, the owner of Old Place, Lindfield, has placed a vertical 
dial on the stable, and three window dials in the house. 

1324. Tempora sic fugiunt pariter pariterque sequuntur. Time 
follozus as time flies. 

From Ovid, Metam. xiv. 183. Placed by J. B. Benedictus on a 
house in Turin, and quoted by him in " De Gnomonium," 1579. The 
first four words are on a dial by Zarbula at Le Villard-la-Madeleine 
(Hautes Alpes), dated 1857. 

1325. Tempora tempore tempera. Seasonably seize the seasons. 

It is very difficult to reproduce the alliteration of the original. 
The motto is on the church at Vian, Piedmont, and on a house at 
Arco, Lago di Garda, dated 1876. The first two words were seen on 
a portable dial in the Munich Museum, but the third was covered by 
the handle attached to the dial, and could not be deciphered. 

1326. Tempore nimboso securi sistite gradum, 
Ut mihi sic vobis hora quietis erit. 

In time of clouds stay your step in safety. 
As to me, so to you, it will be an hour of rest. 

This pretty and appropriate inscription is placed above a plain 
dial, south declining west, which is painted on the side wall of an inn 
near one of the stations on the Mont Cenis railway line, just before 
reaching St. Michel, and nearly at the foot of the mountain. It will 
be seen that the word gradum does not scan where it stands. 

1327. Tempore servio. z. g. f, 1870. I serve the time. 

At St. Blaise; also at Bouchier (Hautes Alpes), with the same 
initials and date. 


1328. Tempori kt aetkrnitate. For time and for eternity. 

In the Lycee at Grenoble, on the meridian, which was erected in 
1673, and repainted in 1755, and again in 1855. It consists of obHque 
lines traced on the side walls of the vaultinsf of two flijihts of stairs. 
It has been already noticed in chapter xi., p. 168. 

1329. Tempori pare. Obey ti7nc. 

Formerly at Park Hill, Oswestry. See No. 988. 

1330. Temporis memor mei, tibi posui monitorem. 

Christian. 1681. De Whitehouse. 

Mindful of my time, I have erected a warning for you. 

This inscription is said to have existed on a dial in the churchyard 
of Kirk Michael, Isle of Man. The dial was horizontal, erected upon 
a square stone, with a granite shaft below. The motto was engraved 
upon the south and west sides of the stone, and these are now so rrHjch 
broken away that only the first two letters of each of the first three 
words remain — te me me — on the west side ; on the east side are 
the arms of the Island, three legs conjoined in the f ess point ; and on 
the north side there is the name Christian, which was probably either 
that of the donor, or the maker. Whitehouse is the name of an estate 
in the parish where Christian may have lived. The remains of this 
dial stand close to the entrance of the church, and to the grave of 
Bishop Wilson. At Maughold there is a dial outside the church gates, 
erected on a pillar which seems to be part of the shaft of an ancient 
cross, and on the metal plate is inscribed " Ev. Christian yivvV 1666;" 
whilst on a dial which once stood at Lewaigue House, which is also 
dated 1666, the name of " Ewan Christian" appears as the donor, and 
" Edm. Culpeper " as the maker. 

1331. Tempus ABIT. Time passes away. 

On an iron dial plate attached to the wall over the south chancel 
door of St. Giles' Church, Burnby, near Pocklington, Yorkshire. 
Probably two hundred years old. 


sic vita est hominum, sic mensura dierum. 
linea et umbra diem signant, brevis utraque, wtje 
Index et gnomon, qui eegis lsta, tu/E. 
Vita fugit velut umbra, per umbras itur ad umbras. 

Time passes, the hour rushes on, the day flies, the year flies aiuay, life 

vanishes, sjirely we are as a shadow. 
So7'rozvs are mixed zoith joys, shadozvs zuith sunshine. 
So is the life of man, so is the measure of our days. 









The line and shadoiv mark the day, fleeting both. 

Index and gnomon of thy life -ivho scest this. 

Life flies like a shadow ; by shadows one passes to the shade. 

We owe these lines entitled " In HoroloCTium Sciothericum," to 
the Rev. W. D. Sweeting who has also rendered them into English. 
They are from " Musae Subsecivse, seu Poemata Stromata, autore J. D. 
Cantabridgiensi," 1676. The writer was J. Duport, Professor of Greek 
at Cambridge, and Dean of Peterborough. The volume is one of 
quaint Latin and Greek verses. 

1333- Tempus ad lucem ducit veritatem. Time brings truth to 

Noted by Mr. Howard Hopley, but no place named. 

1334. Tempus edax rerum. 1834. Time conszuneth all things. 

This phrase from Ovid, Metam. xv. 234, is on a horizontal dial on 
a pedestal in Easby churchyard, which is picturesquely situated close to 
the ruined abbey by the side of the river Swale, Yorkshire. It was 
formerly on the dial at Park Hill (see No. 988); and on Dewsbury 
Church, with the date 1816 ; and is also on the porch of Gulval Church, 
Cornwall, dated 18 10. Time is here represented with a scythe and 
hour-glass, above the dial face. The motto is on St. Mary's Church, 
Penzance, with No. 1247 ; on the post office, at Wheddon Cross, in the 
parish of Cutcombe, Somerset : in the Albert Park, Middlesbrough (see 
No. 1406) ; and at Rye with No. 1364. Also on a brass dial made by 
John Bell, London, i 7 10. It was at one time on the portal of Strasburg 
Cathedral with No. 1571. Ouarles writes in his " Emblems," 3, Bk. iii. : 

" Read on this dial, how the shades devour 

My short-lived winter's day ; hour eats up hour, 

Alas ! the total's but from eight to four.'' 

1335. Tempus enim prope est. For the time is at hand. 

Seen over a cottage window, but the note of the locality has been 

1336. Tempus et ignis omnia perdunt. Ap: 17. 1719- Time and 
fire destroy all things. 

On a house in the market-place, Stony Stratford, Bucks. 

1337. Tempus fugit. Time flies. <3^v»'b it. 

This motto has been very frequently inscribed on dials in Great 
Britain. It is at Ossington Hall, Notts, on a dial which is figured in 
a plate of the hall and church as they stood in the time of Charles I. 
(Thoroton's "Hist, of Notts.") Also at Darley Hall, Derbyshire, where 
the dial is a double semi-cylinder, the numerals being engraved on the 
half cylinder, the side of which casts the shadows. Below there is the 
head of a man reading from an open book on which the motto is 
written. It is in the Rectory Garden, Handsworth, Yorkshire; at the 
Corn Mill, Ecclesheld ; at Borranshill House, Cumberland, with No. 


718; on the Sun-dial Inn, Stroud, with No. 727 ; at Kirk Braddan, 
Isle of Man, 1S60, with No. 1301. Also in the garden at Buckminster 
Hall, near Grantham, on a dial plate, dated 1876, which was in 1SS5 
set on a pedestal constructed by Mr. C. Walton ; round the capital and 
base are Nos. 443, 1421. 

The same motto is or was on the churches of Easton, Norfolk, 
marked E. H., 1694; East Horndon, Essex, 1728; St. Mary the 
Virgin, Wiggenhall, Norfolk, 1748; Withiel, Cornwall; St. Merryn, 
Cornwall, 1800; Stalham, Norfolk, 1801 ; Plumstead, Kent, mdcccxviii ; 
North Bradley, Wilts; Otterford, Somerset; Holy Cross, Crediton ; 
Ellastone, Derbyshire (see No. 1585); the parish church, Reigate ; 
the Priory Church, Bridlington ; Brampton Church, Huntingdon- 
shire ; and Bourne Abbey Church, co. Lincoln. The words may 
be found on a dial mounted on what seems to be the base of an 
old cross in the churchyard of Astbury, Cheshire ; and in Wall 
Churchyard, Staffordshire. We have not as many examples of the 
motto abroad as in England, but it has been read at Les Avenieres 
(Isere), dated 1804; and La Brillane (Basses Alpes). 

1338. Tempus fugit adpropinquat ^ternitas. Time flies, eternily 

On a country house belonging to M. Crozet, near Marseilles. 

1339. Tempus fugit cave tibi. Time Jfics, look to thyself. 
Formerly on the church of Woburn, Bucks, but the dial has been 


1340. Tempus fugit iRRiiPAUABiLE. Timcfies, never to be retrieved. 
At Les Avenieres (Isere). 

1341. Tempus fugit, memento .eternitas. Time flies, remember 

Ricardus Melville fecit. Glasgow, a.d. 1848. 
This Latin motto, if it can be so described, is engraved on the plate 
of a horizontal dial which stands in the garden of the Royal Hotel, 
Bridge of Allan, Perthshire. Also at Ruthin Castle, Wales, on a hori- 
zontal slate slab, surrounded with eight smaller dials which show the 
time at various places. They are mounted on a stone pedestal. 
" Rich''. Melvin fecit" is on the central plate. All the gnomons have 

1342. Tempus fugit, mors vi'.nit. Time flies, death comes. 

With No. 1530, on a pedestal dial in Acton Churchyard, Cheshiri' ; 
also at Brough, Westmoreland, see No. 1 182, and on a stone pillar tlial 
in Matlock Churchyard. The dial at Matlock has been ill-treated, and 
in 1874 the gnomon had disappeared. 

1343. Tempus fugit, mors vicnit, nos ut ump.ra. Time flics, death 
comes we (are) as a shadozc. 

John Berry fecit. 1 762. 


Over the porch of Marwood Church, Devon. The " Exeter Daily 
Gazette," April 29th, 1891, gives an account of this dial and of its 
maker, John Berry, a mason who lived at Muddiford in the joarish of 
Marwood, and died February 20th, 1790, aged seventy-three. He is 
still remembered, as the local masons trace their skill through two or 
three generations back to him. His sun-dials may be seen over the 
church porches in the neighbourhood, and in the gardens of private 
houses. The Marwood dial has one curious feature. The style carries 
a needle placed about four inches from its upper extremity, and by its 
shadow shows the position of the sun in the zodiac. The signs of the 
zodiac are shown on the dial, and also the hour of noon at Vienna, 
Berlin, Jerusalem, and other places. 

1344. Tkmpus fugit per umbra (m). Time flies by the shadow. 

Runell Casson fecit, 1727. Thomas Hutton. 
In the churchyard of Cartmel, Lancashire. A previous dial evid- 
ently existed here, as the following entry appears in the transactions 
of " Twenty-four sworn men," in connection with Cartmel Priory 
church : " 1630 : Paid, It" for setting up the Sunne Dyell iij" vj**." 

1345. Tempus fugit ut umbra. Time flies as a shadoiu. 
On Bradfield Church, Yorkshire, with No. 992. 

1346. Tempus fugit via. Time flies on its way. 

This motto, remarkable for the barbarity of its Latin, was seen 
some years ago on Haydor, or Heydour Church, co. Lincoln. 

1347. Tempus labantur. 

Formerly on the old Custom House at Ipswich, but both building 
and dial have been taken away. Evidently labantur is a corruption of 
/abittir, meaning Time glides away. 

1348. Tempus labile. Gliding- time. 

This is on a dial, facing south, over the kitchen-garden door at 
Esholt Hall, near Leeds. There was originally a nunnery at " Este- 
holt," as Dugdale writes it, which was a cell to Sinningthwait, and of 
the Cistercian order. Pope Alexander HI. took this nunnery into his 
protection in 1 172. The present hall was built in the early part of the 
last century by Sir Walter Calverley, Bart., and in 1754-5 it was sold 
to Robert Stansfield, Esq., to whose representative it now belongs. 
The same motto is on an old, nicely-carved stone dial, which is fixed 
against the front of a cottage house in Bishopthorpe, near York ; and 
below is a small, ajjparently marble slab, let into the wall, with the date 
1691. They have possibly no connection with each other, and may be 
relics of some former archiepiscopal buildings. 

1349. Tempus obit, mors venit. Time dies, death comes. 

On the west side of a Manx dial at Barnes Lodge, King's Langley, 
with other mottoes. See Nos. 161, 788. 


1350. Tr.Mi'US OMNIA RKVKLAT. Time discloscs all I Iiiiigs. 
On a chapel at Yeadon, Yorkshire. 

1351. Tkmpus omnium parens. Time tlic parent of all thi7igs. 
y\t Park Hill, Oswestry. See No. 988. 

1352. Tl'.Ml'US ORANDl I'.T MliMORANDI NOVISSIMA. {^sic) ' Tis lilllC tO 

pray and think 7ipon thine end. 

On the Church, Mont-de-Lans (Iscre). 

1353. Tkmi'Us sicut umi'.ra. Time is as a shadcnu. 
On the fortification walls at Concarneau (Finistere). 

1354. Temi'US tkrit omnia. Time wears aivay all things. 
( )n an ivory portarium in the Nuremberg Museum. 

1355. Tk.mi'is ut UMiiRA I'R.KTKKiT. Timc pttsscs by as a sluidoio. 
At Brougham Hall. See No. 875. 

1356. Temi'Us vi'.Lur uMiiRA i'R.i:TKRrr. Eccles. vii. i. Time passes 
as a shadozii. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1357. TiiMPUs viNCiT ET DiRiGiT OMNIA. An". 1 7/3. Jime eonqners 
and rules everything. 

Over the front door of one of the Masters' houses at St. Paul's 
Collecre, Stony .Stratford, Bucks. The last two words are contracted 
on the dial. 

1358. Ti:mi'US vit.e: monitor. 'lime the z^'arning of life. 

Over the south porch of St. Peter's Church, Wolverhampton. Also 
with No. 443, at Charleslield, Midlothian ; this dial was taken from 
Warwickshire to Scotland in 1892. It is supposed to have been made 
about I 770. 

1359- I- Tenuimus una. 2. Nil sine te. 

We advance together. N^o thing zuitJiont thee. 

3. Et lumine et umcra. 
By light and shade. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


zvasting a day, although you cannot hold it. 

At Ripley, .Surrey, with other mottoes. See No. 1002. 

1361. Tenet nos vgsc^ue vocat. J. Silau, 181 2. (Js it holds, you 
it calls. 

On the church near the cemetery at Reaumont (Isere). 

1362. Ti:rras lumine spargit. 1800. He scatters light upoji the 

Near the railway station, L'Albenc (Isere). 



Testimonium \eritati pi':rhirI':t. He bears witness unto the 

Formerly in the cloister of the Celestin Convent, Paris. 


That solar shadow, as it measures life, 
It lii'T': ricsembles too. 

With No. 1334 on a vertical dial which used to be on the front 
of the Grammar .School 
at Rye. The centre of 
the plate shows a sculp- 
tured figure of Time 
with his scythe. The 
buildino- was erected in 
1 636. The dial was pre- 
sented to the school by 
Colonel Sir De Lacy 
Evans when he was one 
of the representatives of 
the borough in Parlia- 
ment, and it remained 
upon the school until 
1887, when the building- 
was re -pointed, and 
new windows were put 
in to commemorate the 
Queen's Jubilee. It 
was then found that the 
dial obscured one of the 
Avindows, so it was re- 
moved and placed upon 
the Town Hall. The 
motto is from Young's 
"Night Thoughts," 
Night II. Compare 
No. 121. 


1365. The day is thine. 1790 1880. 

On Market Deeping Church, Northamptonshire. The dial is on 
the south wall of the tower ; and there is a second dial on the north 
wall with No. 1383. 

1366. The earth is the lord's and the fulness thereof. 
In the Albert Park, Middlesbrough. See No. 1406. 

1367. The glory of the world passetii. 

Paul Quick fecit 1737. 
On Zennor Church, Cornwall. The dial Is of bronze, and bears the 


figure of a mermaid, the "mermaid of Zennor/' with whom, according 
to the legend, the squire's son fell in love. The mermaid allured him to 
the sea, and he was seen no more. The mermaid is also introduced 
into the carving of one of the old oak bench ends in the church. 

1368. The greater light to rule thi^ uav (Gen. i. 16). 

On a remarkable dial formerly on the church of St. Mary le Tower, 
Ipswich. It was of large size, and filled the whole space of a window 
within an arch which had apparently been plastered up to admit of the 
dial being placed there. On the dial face were painted the twelve signs 
of the zodiac in colours. Below, at the left-hand corner, there was 
a figure of Atlas bearing the terrestrial globe on his shoulders, 
and on the right. Science regarding the celestial globe; above, at the 
left-hand corner, Time, with his scythe and hour-glass, and at the right. 
Death. This dial was removed about 1S60, and cannot now be traced. 
It probably dated from the eighteenth century. The same text is on 
Copdock Church, Suffolk. On the tower of Thorp Arch Church, 
Yorkshire, there is a square stone dial inscribed, " i Gen. 16," which is 
no doubt intended to refer the spectator to the same text. 

1369. The hour cometh. a.d. 1826. 

On the porch of Saxthorpe Church, Norfolk. The dial was put up 
in 1826 by Lieutenant Davis, R.N. 

1370. The hour is at hand. 
At Harlston, Northants. 

1371. The hour is coming in the which all that are in the graves 
shall hear his voice, mdcccxxx III. St. John, v. 28. 

In the churchyard at Stretton, Cheshire. 

1372. The hour is shown on other dials 1!ut when the sun dotii 


They have a style projecting whose shadow casts a line; 
But always whether sun doth shine or whether clouds 

do lower. 
One of my hands will never fail to i'oint to the true hour. 

On a mock dial at an old inn in Somersetshire. There are four 
hands figured, each having three hours opposite to it, so that one of 
the hands is always pointing to the right hour (" Birmingham Weekly 
Mercury "). 

^373- Till': hour now shown I'Erhai's may jiI'; tmv last, 

Repent and pray iseiori: 'i'iiat H(il'r i;k i'ast. 
1733 ex dono Johannis Wilder. 
( )n a horizontal dial in Sulham Churchyard, Berks. 

1374. The hours are graven round tiii','s sides, 
And on them all in turn a shadow glides; 


If the sun shines, and draws a line, redeem 
The time, for lo ! it passes like a dream ; 
But if the line be absent, mark the loss 
Of hours not ruled bv shadows from the cross. 

These lines were written by the Rev. R. W. Essington, and engraved 
on a cross dial which he has erected at his present home, Plen, New- 
quay, Cornwall. The dial stands on a pedestal iormed from an old 
stone roller. The stanza is similar to that which Mr. Essington in- 
scribed on his cross dial at Shenstone (see No. 474), but he altered it 
in order to explain how the hour lines are thrown by the shadows of 
the cross. 

1375. The hours part us. 

But thev bring us together again. 

This motto was devised by the late Juliana Horatia Ewing, with 
the intention of placing- it on a sun-dial which she and her husband 
offered to erect, as a parting gift, upon the Mess Hut of the Royal 
Engineers, South Camp, Aldershot, 1877, " In grateful record of happy 
hours spent there." The dial was not erected, however, as another 
offering was preferred in its place, but the motto is inserted here as an 
illustration of one of the lessons which the devisor learnt from the 
shifting scenes of life amongst which she lived for seven years in 
Aldershot Camp. The same thought was more fully set forth in her 
" Story of a Short Life " (p. 75). " True to its character as an emblem 
of human life, the Camp stands on, with all its little manners and cus- 
toms, whilst the men who garrison it pass rapidly away. Strange as 
the vicissitudes of a whole generation elsewhere, are the changes and 
chances that a few years bring to those who were stationed there to- 
gether. To what unforeseen celebrity (or to a dropping out of one's life 
and even hearsay, that once seemed quite as little likely) do one's old 
neighbours sometimes come ! They seem to pass in a few dull seasons 
as other men pass by lifetimes. .Some to foolishness and forgetfulness, 
and some to fame. This old acquaintance to unexpected glory; that 
dear friend — alas! — to the grave. And some — God speed them! — to 
the world's end and back, following the drum till it leads them home 
again, with familiar faces little changed — with boys and girls, perchance, 
very greatly changed — and with hearts not changed at all. Can the 
last parting do much to hurt such friendships between good souls who 
have so long learnt to say farewell ; to love in absence, to trust through 
silence, and to have faith in reunion 1'" 

1376. The hours, unless the hours be bright, 

It is not mine to mark : 
I am the prophet of the light, 
Dumb when the sun is dark. 

Written by the late W. H. Hyett, Esq., and placed with the Latin 


motto of which it is a translation, on a dial at Painswick House, 
Gloucestershire (see No. 444). 

1377. The last imuR to many, possibly to you. 
On the church at Hartlepool, co. Durham. 

1378. The lord by wisdom hath founded the earth ; 

By understanding hath he established the heavens 

Prov. iii. 19. 
In the Albert Park, Middlesbrough. See No. 1406. 

1379. The love is true ; that i o v : 
as true to me ; then c. v. b. 

On the exterior of a ring dial, which is an inch and a half in diameter. 
The initial letters of the twelve months are also engraved on the 
exterior : the numerals of the hours are within. The present owner of 
this dial is not known. 

1380. The MOMENT PAST 

Laid many fast. 
At Dennington, Suffolk. See No. 760. 

1381. The morning cometh, and also the night. 

In the Albert Park, Middlesbrough. See No. 1406. 

1382. The natural clockwork by the mighty one 
Wound up at first, and ever since has gone ; 

No PIN drops out, its wheels and springs are good, 
It speaks its maker's praise tho' once it stood ; 
But that was by the order of the workman's power ; 
And when it stands again it goes no more. 
John Robinson, Rector, A. Douglass, Clerk Fecit, a.d. 1773. Thomas Smith, 
Samuel Stevenson, Churchwardens. Seaham in Latitude 54D. 51M. 

On the south porch of Seaham Church, co. Durham. The motto 
is above the dial, and is cut in a stone of ungainly shape. 

1383. The night cometh. 

On Barnes Church, Surrey ; on Market Deeping Church, Northants, 
with No. 1365; and on a vertical dial of slate, made in 1892 by 
F. Barker and .Son, for Sir Walter Besant, at Frognal End, H amp- 
stead. The text was formerly on Melsonby Church, Yorkshire, dated 
1800, but the dial has been removed. 

1384. The passing shadows which the sunbeams throw 
Athwart this cross, time's hastening footsteps show; 
Warned by their teaching work ere day be o'er, 
.Soon comes the night when man can work no more. 

On the plate of a cross sun-dial which stands on a stone pedestal 
upon the terrace of the hospital of St. Cross, Rugby. The building was 
erected in 1882, chiefly by the liberality of R. H. Wood, Esq., and his 
wife. There are mottoes in th(! wards and over some of the door- 



ways ; that over the porch is " Deus nobis haec otia fecit — anno salutis 
1882." Over the out-patients' entrance is one which is often used as 
a dial motto, " Post tenebras spero lucem." The lines on the cross 
dial were written by R. E. Egerton-Warburton, Esq. See No. 715. 
The dial was designed by the late Henry Wilson, Esq., of Gray's Inn 
Square, London, who was the architect of the hospital, and he selected 
the fine old characters in which the lines of the motto are engraved. 


1385. The small and the great are there : and the servant is 

FREE FROM HIS MASTER. Job, iii. 1 9. 

One of four mottoes on the dial at the gateway of St. Patrick's 
Church, Patrick, Isle of Man. See No. 864. 

1386. The sun rides post, time flys away, 
And hours lost are lost for aye. 

On a ring dial. See " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries," 
February, 1894. 

1387. The sun shall not smite thee isy day, nor the moon by 
NIGHT. Psalm cxxi. 6. 

On one side ot a stone cube, which bears a dial on the opposite 
side. This formerly stood on a pedestal, crowned with a stone ball, at 
Birnie, Morayshire. The cube is now in the possession of Mr. Muil, 
at Strypes, near Elgin. 

1388. The SUNLIT dial snows 

The FLEETING hours of day, 
The cross betokeneth thosI': 
Which never pass away. 

Composed by R. E. Egerton-Warburton, Esq., for a dial on a 
church at Warburton, Cheshire. 

1389. The time is at hand. 

Noticed in the "Gentleman's Magazine," November, 1765; no 
locality given. 

1390. The time is short, i Cor. vii. 24. 

Placed in 1882 on the church of Kilnwick, Yorkshire. See No. 355. 

1391. TlIEO rilYLACTEUS. 

Jactura temporis irreparabilis, 
Et nihil tempore pretiosius. 

Under God's protection. 
Wasted time cannot be recovered. 
And nothing is more vahiable than time. 

On an engraving of a dial in Franz Ritter's "Speculum Solis " 
(Nuremberg, 1652). 



1392. 0EOZ, DEUS, GOD. 

On the south-west corner of John Knox's house in Eduiburgh 
there is a curious piece of sculpture consisting of a man's figure 

kneehng on a stone base, on the 
sides of which are two sun-dials. 
The figure is that of Moses, who is 
represented as holding in one hand 
a tablet, whilst with the other he 
points towards a carved sun on the 
wall behind him. In the centre of 
this sun the Name of God is in- 
scribed in three languages. This 
projection, with the figure, has been 
popularly called John Knox's pulpit. 
Beside the stone there is a coat-of- 
arms and the initials, I. M. M. A., 
the arms of James Mossman and his 
wife Marriota Ares. James Moss- 
man is known to have owned a tene- 
ment in the Netherbow before 1573. 

1393. ©EOZ rEHMETPEI. God 

meastires the earth. 

This motto is taken from the 
saying attributed to Plato, " The 
God always geometrises," 0£o? in 
■ysuij.iTpii. See Plat. Sym., viii. 2. It 
was with other inscriptions (see Nos. 
740, 1657) on a dial on Hadleigh 
Church, Suffolk, but in 1858 the dial, 
which bore the date 1627, was re- 

Milton thus describes the son of 
God employed in the works of Creation : 

" In his hand 
He took the golden compasses, prepared 
In God's eternal store, to circumscribe 
The Universe, and all created things : 
One foot He centred, and the other turned 
Round through the vast profundity obscure. 
And said : Thus far extend, thus far thy bounds, 
This be thy just circumference, O world !" 

Milton's conception was derived from Proverbs, viii. 27: "When He 
prepared the heaven, I was there, when He set a compass upon the 
face of the deep." 


From DAY TO DAY : 




And so this life 
Passeth avvaie. 

In front of Marrington Hall, Shropshire, on the lawn, is a curious 
old four-sided dial, thus inscribed round the pillar. It is coeval with 
the house, and dated 1595. The shaft of the dial is set in a solid 
square stone at the base, round the chamfer of which runs the legend : 



These letters are the initials of Richard Lloyd. On the sides of the 
shafts are various heraldic bearings, emblems, and devices — the arrow, 
death's head, cross bones, oak branches, two serpents intertwined, a 
plant in a pot, an owl on an oak branch, etc., mingled in arrangement, and 
showing the arms of families who have owned the property. Amongst 
these are those of Newton, to which family it is believed that Sir Isaac 
Newton belonged. In out-of-the-way corners of the stone there are many 
dials curiously inserted. The other inscriptions are Nos. 188, 315, 347, 
1530. The dial seems to be the sepulchral monument of Richard Lloyd, 
either erected during his lifetime or placed over his remains. Amongst 
the devices before mentioned, there is an effigy of Richard Lloyd. 

1395. They also serve who only stand and wait. 

This — the concluding line of Milton's Sonnet on his own blindness 
— was placed by J. J. Freeman, Esq., upon a pedestal dial which he 
caused to be erected in the garden in front of Halliford House, Halli- 
ford-on-Thames, in 1889. 

1396. This fourfold index of swift time 
On which I shadow veereth round. 
Should man excite to themes sublime, 
Since nou'^ but shadows here are found. 

Made for Saddlebow, whose Lat. is 54 : 45. 

A solid block of stone, bearing three dials on the sides, and one 
on the top, now stands, 
mounted on steps, in the 
garden of Thorp Perrow, 
Yorkshire. It was for- 
merly at a farmhouse 
called Saddlebow,in Lune- 
dale, and was bought by 
the late Sir Frederick Mil- 
bank, Bart., and set up first 
at Wemmergill Lodge, 
and afterwards at Thorp 
Perrow. These lines and 
other mottoes (Nos. 248, 
1530, 1541) and the date 1747 are all carved in the stone. 




Thou by thy dial's shady stealth may'st know 
Time's thievish progress to eternity. 

(Shakespeare, Sonnet 77.) 

On a pedestal dial which formerly stood at Buxton Vicarage, Nor- 
folk, but was given away by the late vicar, Rev. \V. J. Stracey, when 


he quitted the living. The dial was designed by the Rev. Campbell 
Wodehouse, and was given to Mr. Stracey as a memorial of him. The 
pedestal was of stone, and bore a device on each side : a Cock to repre- 
sent Morning; an Owl for Night; a Scythe for Time; and a Serpent 


in a ring for Eternity. The same motto was on a dial erected by Lord 
Cranworth, at Holwood, in the parish of Keston, but it was removed in 

1398. Thus eternity approacheth. C. Holden. 1766. 

Over the south porch of the church of St. John the Baptist, Pilling. 
The Rev. C. Holden, a well-known mathematician, was incumbent 
when the dial was erected ; and the portrait of a man in clerical costume, 
which was painted in one corner of the dial face, no doubt was meant 
to represent Mr. Holden. 

1399. Thus the glory of the world passes away. 1807. 
Over the door of the church at Willerby, near Scarborough. 

1400. Thy days are luce a .shadow that declineth. 

On St. Madron's Church, near Penzance. The words are almost 
those of Psalm cii. 1 1 . 

1401. TiBi sit ultima coelo. May thy end be in heaven. 
On the belfry tower of St. Paterne, Orleans. 

1402. Time and shadduwes pass awaie. 

God and love make sure 
y" bettere day. 

In a paper on " Consolations in a Garden," published in " The Lady's 
Realm," 1896, the Duchess of Somerset describes a dial with the above 
motto, but we have authority for saying that the description was 

1403. Time and tide stay for no man. 

On the tower of St. Mary's Church, Putney, close to the Thames. 
In 1756 the same motto was on a dial at the Steelyard, London, 
which also faced the river. 

1404. Time and tide tarry for no man. 

This motto is on a dial in Brick Court, Middle Temple, which has 
been restored, and replaced on the new buildings. The dates on the 
Temple dials are altered every time they are repainted, so are no guide 
to the time of- their first erection. Probably they belong to the 
eighteenth century, and may have been seen by Goldsmith, who bought 
chambers in Brick Court for ^400, and died there in 1774. The 
Templars' device of the Holy Lamb and staff or flag with a red cross 
is on all the dials. The motto may be read with reference to the time 
when the lawyers went from their chambers to the courts at West- 
minster by boat, and the favouring tide in the river was an important 
clement in conveying them in time for business. The same inscription 
on a large vertical dial was formerly to be seen in the hall of New Inn, 
Wych Street, but the dial has long been removed. It was also on one 
of the two dials on Nonsuch House, one of the most curious and 


picturesque buildings of old London Bridge. These dials are said to 
have been put up in 1681, in the mayoralty of Sir Patience Ward. 
The houses on London Bridge were taken down in 1757 ; and the 
bridge was destroyed by fire in the following year. 

The above motto, with eight others, was on Prince Albert X'ictor's 
dial at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1886. 

1405. Time as he passes us, has a dove's wing, 
Unsoiled and swift, and of a silken sound. 

On Prince Albert Victor's dial at the Edinburgh Exhibition (see 
No. 1306). The lines are taken from Cowper's "Task," Book iv. 

1406. Time bv moments steals away, first the hour and then 

THE day. 


With all the blue ethereal sky. 
And spangled heavens a shining frame. 
Their great Original proclaim ! 
In reason's ear they all rejoice. 
And utter forth a glorious voice, 
For ever singing as they shine 
"The Hand that made us is divine." 

This motto with six others, and the eig-ht lines from Addison's 
paraphrase of Psalm xix., are engraved upon the face of a vertical 
south dial, erected in the Albert Park, Middlesbrough, by the gift of 
H. W. F. Bolckow, M.P. The design and workmanship were done 
by Mr. John Smith, of South Stockton, who was seventy years of age 
when he made it, but had been deeply interested in the art of dialing 
from his boyhood.^ He was born at Bielby, near Pocklington, York- 
shire, in 1807, and brought up as a farmer, but his taste for mechanical 
art was so strong, that by the time he was eighteen he had made a 
wooden sun-dial which indicated the time both in England and New 
York, and erected it in his father's garden. In 1830 he constructed a 
pedometer or cyclometer which was fastened to a waggon and showed 
the number of miles that the cart traversed. It is thus described 
in the " London Mechanic's Magazine :" " It is a species of clockwork 
. . . and receives its motion from one of the hind wheels. It has two 
pointers attached to it, one of which revolves round in one mile, and 
the other in thirty-six miles, and a hammer strikes at every revolution 
of the former. The dial-plate is also ornamented with a diagram of the 
heavens, representing the earth and moon revolving round the sun." 

Mr. Smith constructed other sun-dials, one of which has been 
already noticed (see No. 1259). On a horizontal one, which he 
called his " Art Sun-dial," are the same mottoes as those on the 
Middlesbrough dial, and in addition the questions, "What is Deity."* 
What is Eternity .'' " which are answered by the following inscription 

' .See «///(', chap, ix., p. 137. 


round the margin of the plate : " Deity is the King Eternal, Immortal, 
Invisible, the only Wise God our Saviour. Eternity is endless dura- 
tion. Reader, that God will be thy Judge and Eternity thy portion, 
Prepare in time and be for ever blest." 

This art sun-dial can be obtained from Messrs. Craig and 
Mackenzie, Stockton-on-Tees. 

In the year 1873 Alderman Matthew Smith (afterwards Mayor) 
presented a large dial to the People's Park at Halifax. It was con- 
structed by Mr. John Smith, and bears the first four mottoes which are 
on the Middlesl3rough dial. Mr. Smith died at South Stockton in 

1407. Time can do much. 1777. 

On a dial in the garden of Leventhorpe Hall, near Leeds. 

1408. Time flies. 1781. 

On a white house near the wall of the sea at Hartlepool. In the 
sixth book of Wordsworth's " Excursion " there is a pleasant episode 
showing how two political opponents, "flaming Jacobite and sullen 
Hanoverian," used to meet and discuss in " The churchyard among the 
mountains ; " and finally agreed to lie after death in one spot to be 
marked by a dial, bearing an inscription " in Latin numbers couched " 
These lines the poet rendered as below : 








" Tyme flys " is engraved on the gnomon of a portable box dial, 
belonging to Col. Baldwin of Dal ton in Furness, and was shown at 
the Archaeological Society meeting November, 1890. It is a brass 
octagonal plate 3? inches long by 2^ inches broad, with a compass 
below, and is engraved with the maker's name, " Phil. Ballock fecit." 

1409. Time flies, death hastes, a moment may be wished 
When worlds want wealth to buy. 

On a house at Newlyn St. Peter, near Penzance. The lines have 
been adapted from Young's " Night Thoughts," Night ii., lines 292, 
and 306, 307 : 

" Time flies, death urges, knells call, 
Heaven invites : " 

" A moment we may wish 

When worlds want wealth to buy." 

1410. Time flyes, death approacheth. 

Formerly on the wall of a paper mill in the parish of Woburn, 



141 1. Time frou the church tower cries to you and me. 
Upon this moment hangs eternity : 
The dial's index and the uelery's chime 
To eye and ear confirm this truth oe time. 
Prepare to meet it ; death will not delay ; 
Take then thy saviour's warning — watch and pray ! 

These lines, by James Montgomery, were, in 1883, placed beneath 
a vertical dial which replaced an old one without motto, on Robinson's 

Hospital, or Alms- 
houses, at Burneston, 
Yorkshire. The hos- 
pital, founded in 1680, 
is separated only by 
a road from the 
churchyard, and lies 
almost under the sha- 
dow of the belfry. 
The dial was put up 
by G. J. Serjeantson, 

1412. Time is the 
chrysalis oe eter- 

On Prince Albert 
Victor's dial at the 
Edinburgh Exhibi- 
tion, 1 886. See No. 


i^^^^'^t 1413. Time is more 



a cottage 

door in the village of Kirk Leavington, Yorkshire. 

1414. Time is on the wing, and the moments oe life are too 

precious to I!E squandered AWAY ON TRIFLES. 

At Hesketh, Lancashire, with No. 31. 

1415. Time's on the wing 

Death 's api'Roacihng 
The hour's uncertain. 

On the church, Botus Fleming, Cornwall. 

1416. Time is the monitor of life. 

Over the south porch of Welbury church, Yorkshire. 


1417. Time is, thou hast : see that thou well employ ; 
Time past is gone : thou canst not that enjoy. 
Time future is not, and may never be ; 

Time present is the only time for thee. 

Over the door of a schoolmaster's house at Leyburn, Yorkshire. 
Another version gives the first two Hnes thus : 

" Time was, is past : thou canst not it recall ; 
Time is, thou hast : employ the portion small." 

1418. Time passeth. 

Over the church porch at Somersby, co. Lincoln, the parish where 
Lord Tennyson's father was rector, and where the poet himself was 

1419. Time passeth away like a shadow. 

With No. 36 in a garden at Dorking ; on Isleworth church, with 
No. 1 63 1 ; it is on the porch of East Bergholt church, Suffolk ; and can 
be seen in Constable's picture of the church porch, now in the National 
Gallery (East Anglian, N.S., 3,136). 

1420. Time's glass and scythe 
TiiY life and death declare ; 
Speed well thy time, 

And for thy end prepare. 

Suggested as a dial motto by Mr. W. Osmond, of Salisbury. 

1421. Time steals away : the hour flies : slow but sure : i stay 
FOR no man. 

Round the capital of a small pedestal dial in the garden of Buck- 
minster Hall near Grantham. On the dial plate and base of the shaft 
are other mottoes. See Nos. 443, 1337. 

1422. Time the devourer of all things. 

On a dial made by H. Bon, 1689, seen in a shop in London. 

1423. Time tide 

Doth waist 
Make haste 
We shall — 

On a dial which originally stood in the garden at Carville Hall, the 
teaching of the motto being enforced by the position of the house, 
which stands midway between Newcastle and the sea, overlooking the 
Tyne. Carville Hall is now the property of J. Wigham Richardson, 
Esq., and he has presented the dial to the members of the Newcastle 

;; I. 



Society of Anti(|uarie.s, who have placed it upon the roof of the Norman 
keep of the Castle. The following description of the dial has been 
qiven by the Rev. J. R. Boyle : "The dial stone is an oblong slab, two 
sides of which are parallelograms, and two are rhomboids. This rests 
upon an upright pillar. The dial slab lies in the 
plane of the earth's equator. On its upper surface is 
a north polar dial, which will show the time from the 
vernal to the autumnal equino.x. On its under sur- 
face is a south polar dial, which will show the time 
from the autumnal to the vernal equinox. On the 
vertical sides of the dial are four erect direct dials, 
facing exactly the four quarters of the earth. The 
dials arc all graduated to half hours. I have placed 
the dial in the meridian of the castle of Newcastle. It 
will therefore show, when the equations of time are 
applied, not Greenwich, but local time. On the north 
side of the stone is a shield bearing t7vo doids and a 
crescent for difference, impaling, ermine, a clicvron en- 
grailed!' The latter are the arms of John Cosyn, who 
built Carville Hall, and died in 1662. He was 
buried at All Saints, Newcastle. The Hall is also 
called Cosyns House. The date 1667 is engraved on 
the pillar of the dial, and it was j^robably erected by 
John Cosyn's son-in-law, to whom the coat-of-arms 
evidently belonged. The motto is placed just above 
the north polar dial ; the .word " dial " being, of 
course, required to complete the sense of the inscription. 


1424. Time tries all. 

CN. Gc. 1890. 

On a horizonal dial made by F. Barker and Son, London. 

1425. Time wasted is existence, used is life. 1828. 

These lines from Young's " Night Thoughts" (Night II) arc over 
the porch of the church at Hutton-Buscel, Yorkshire. The same idea 
is expressed by Herrick. 

" Long liavc I lasted in this world 'tis true. 
But yet tliese years that I have lived, but few. 
Who by his grey hairs doth his lustres tell. 
Lives not those years, but that he lives them well. 
He lives, who lives to virtue, men who cast 
Their lives to pleasure do not live but last.'^ 

1426. Time wastes our bodies and our wits, 
But we waste time and so we're quits. 

These lines, altered to fit the size of the stone, are on a vertical 
(.lial placed, in 1880, on the farm buildings at Camphill, Yorkshire, by 


G. J. Serjeantson, Esq. The couplet was written by Dr. Roget and is 
called " The Retaliation." 

" Time wastes us all, our bodies and our wits, 
But we waste Time, so Time and we are quits." 

The old proverb, "A stitch in time saves nine," is cut on the same 

1427. Time will snow. 

On a house at Down, in Kent. 


hotir of judgment is come. Rev. xiv. 7. 
At Merges, Val d'Aosta. 

1429. TiMETE MORTALES. Fear, ye mortals. 
At Vindrac, near Cordes (Tarn). 

1430. Timor miiii crescit in horas. My fear groivethhoiir by hour. 
In the Rue des Petits Champs, Paris. 


The line is from Home's "Orion," and was formerly on the West 
Pier, Brighton, with other mottoes. See No. 391. 



To-day is viy care, bzit of to-morrozo zvho knoius ? 
Inscribed on the base of a dial pedestal at Whatton Abbey, York- 
shire. The lines are from Anacreon, Ode XV., 1. ix. 

1433- Toi qu'annonce l'aurore, admirable flambeau, 


Par quel ordre, soleil ! viens tu du sein de l'onde 


O Sun w/iose advent Phosphors ivondi'otis glow. 
Star ever constant, ever fresh, doth shoio, 
JFho bids thee leave the ocean s breast, once more 
On us thy quickening beams of light to pour ? 
At Les Hieres (Hautes Alpes) with Nos. 8 and 1613, and date 1806. 

1434. ToRNA iL SOLE, NGN IL TEMTO. TIic sun rctums, not so time. 

On the wall of the cloister of St. Stefano, Belluno, now used as 
public offices. See No. 1247. 

1435- ToRNA l'umbra col sol cue rinasce 


The shade returns with Phoebtis to nezo birth ; 
Man, once Death' s prey, is seen no more on earth. 
On the oratory of Sta. Marta, Pavone Canavese, Prov. of Turin. 
See Nos. i 1 18 and 1436. 



Ma a noi xon torxa mai l'kta fuggita. 

JJ7icn comes the suit the vanished shade appears, 
But ncer to us return our vanished years. 

These lines are oriven in " Notizie Gnomoniche," as suitable for a 
dial motto, and are attributed to Rancati. 

A dial at Bologna, near the Church of the Misericordia, has a motto 
almost identical with the above ; and another version appears on the 
Oratory of Sta. Marta, Pavone Canavese, with other mottoes (see 
Nos. 1 1 18, 1435). A third version was formerly on the Dogana at 
Isella, on the Italian frontier, but has now disappeared. Compare 
No. 1098. 

1437. Tot tela quot iior^. So many hours, so many darts. 

On St. Anne's Chapel, near Clermont-en-Argonne, with No. 1516. 

1438. Toto micat orbe. He shines over the world. 
Place unknown. "Bull. Mon.," 1877. 

1439. Tout passe. All passeth. 

In the garden of the Presbytere at Montjoie (Ariege). 

1440. Tout passe ici pas. All passeth here beloiv. M. Praderes. 
Maire. 1830. 

On the south wall of the Church of Durban (Ariege), beside an old 
graveyard. The words are nearly obliterated. 

1441. Tout passe ici, rien ne demeure, 
La vie finit ainsi que l'iieure. 

All things move omuard. ATothing here abides. 
Man' s life is like an hour that quickly glides. 

At Crepy-en-Valois, with No. 1551. 

1442. TouTEi mattrassoun, la darriero ensuco. (Toutes blessent, 
LA DERNifiRE ASSOMME.) All wouud, the last slays. 

At Montmeyran, hear Varages (Var). 

1443. Truoitur lies die. Cezar fecit. 1783. Day by day is thrust 

From Horace, Carm. II. 18. 15. At Beaurepaire (Isere). 

1444. Transeunt dies Tui. 1586. Thy days are passing. 

At Ilminster, on the Grammar School, which is now a girls' school. 
The date probably refers to the building, rather than to the dial. 

1445. Transeunt et imputantur. 1714. They pass and are rechoned. 
On the Cistercian abbey ofVallettc (Correze) ; and on the Priory 

of St. Croix near Eu (Seine Inferieure). 



1446. Transeunt. 

non sum qualis eram. 
They pass. I am not as I was. 
From Horace. At Chevry-en-Sereine (Seine-et-Marne). 

1447. Transibunt et augebitur scientia. T/iey shall pass, and 
knoxv ledge shall increase. 

On the house once occupied by Cuvier at the Jardin des Plantes, 

1448. This mysterious looking dial is jDainted on a house at Valcrosia, 
near Bordighera. The rebus forms the motto, Transls ut umbra. 

The note " si," followed by the let- 
ter "s," makes "sis" ; the next note 
is " ut," or, as it is now called, " do " ; 
but lit was the original use of the in- 
ventor of the Solfeggi, Guido d'Arezzo, 
a Benedictine monk. He formed it 
from the first syllable of each line of a 
hymn to St. John the Baptist, which 



begins : 

" U\. ciueaiit laxis 
R& sonare fibris," etc. 

It is not easy to see how the first 
two letters of iivibra are obtained, per- 
haps itn is taken from the numeral one, 
and the single stroke which follows 
this makes n into m. We can offer 
no interpretation of the cipher below 
the hour lines. 




1449. Transit iiora lux permanet. The hour passes, the 

Near the Grand Theatre, Nice, on the quay. 

1450. Transit iiora, manent opera. The hour passes, the deeds 

On the courtyard of the Eveche at Blois are two large vertical 
dials, one bearing the above motto, and the other No. 250. The dials 
are covered with lines showing the solstices, equinoxes, and feasts of 
the Church ; the signs of the zodiac are also given. 

1451. Trapassa la sua vita in UN momento 
Come fumo, balen, sogno, ombra, o vento. 

Sol. 143. 5, Matt. 
Thy life in one brief mo mejit all is past — 
Like to dust, lightning, dreams, a shade, a blast. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


1452. Travaillez, car Lie TEMPS s'enfuit. Woi'k, for time fiies. 

At Le Bez (Hautes Alpes), on a dial made by Zarbula, about 

1453. TPEXEI XnATITOS. // runs zoitho2it stopping. 
iL COURT EN POSTE. Time ridcs post. 

On the wall of an inn at Izeaux (Isere). 

1454. Trifle nut, your time's short. 1775. 

At Milton, near Gravesend. So says Sir Walter Scott : 

"Nay, dally not with Time, the wise man's treasure, 
Though fools are lavish on't. — The fatal Fisher 
Hooks souls, while we waste moments." 

1455. Tristis erat sine sole do.mus. Sad ivas the house without 
the sun. 

At Montauban (Tarn et Garonne). 

1456. True as the dial to the sun 
Although it be not shone upon. 


The lines are from Hudibras, and the dial is on the south aisle of 
Halifax Church, Yorkshire. The names of William Roberts, John 
Illingworth, Robert Abbott, and John Sutcliffe, churchwardens, are 
inscribed upon it. Another dial, probably older than this one, crowns 
the gable of the south porch. 


Ton trepas, mon eguille montre le 


Deux c'est ton uni()ue affaire, {sic.) 

Thou advancest zvith rapid strides towards the hour of thy death, my 
needle points out both heaven and earth, it is for thee to think upon them. 

On the church of St. Nicolas du Tertre (Morbihan). 

1458. Tu LEs coMPTEs, elles fuient. 1 569. 1692. 1857. Thou 
countest them, they fly. 

At Virieu (Isere). The two latter dates are those of the renewal of 
the dial. 

1459. Tu NUMERI l' ore ma NON SAI l' (IRA DKI.LA MORTE. TkoU 

countest the hours, but thou knozvcst not the hour of death. 
At Vigo, near Pinzola. 

1460. tu, quamcunque deus tibi fortunaverit horam, 
Grata sume manu ; (neu dulcia differ in annum). 

JVhatever happy hour Providence has allotted thee, grasp it 7oith 
grateful hand, and put not ojf its pleasures till the coming {next) year. 


From Horace's Epistles, Bk. I., Ep. XL, lines 22, 23, and inscribed 
on the eastern face of a double dial on the Chateau de Preuilly (Seine 

et Marne). On the west is No. 1191. 


Ombre sole ritruovi, et ombra lasci. (Paoli.) 

A shade thou Icavcst in thy earliest hreatli ; 

Shades and nought else thou Jindest in thy hour 0/ death. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1462. Tu sortiras quand ce cadran 
Marquera l'iieure et le moment. 

Thoic shalt go fortJi when this dial shall show the hour and the 

It is stated in Delaure's " History of Paris" that the above lines 
were inscribed by one Charnel of Chalons, above a dial which he traced 
on the wall of his prison in the Bastille, and adorned with a Death's 
head and cross bones. 

1463. TuA HORA RUiT MEA. The hour which is mine, destroys zuhat is 

In the cloister of the old Franciscan convent at Cimiez, near Nice 
(see No. 233). The Latin of the motto is monkish ; rjio is treated 
as an active verb, and the dial, as usual, is supposed to speak. 

1464. TuA LATET. Thine i^hour) is hidden. 

On the church of Cahahons (Pyrenees Orientales), which was once 
a hermitage. 

1465. TvAM NESCis. Thotc knowest not thine {liour). 

On a house in Palermo ; and also on the cathedral clock at Mon- 



The day is Thine, and the night is Thine, 

Thou, hast prepared the light and the sun. — Ps. Ixxiv. i 7. 

On a vertical dial on Maxey Vicarage, Northamptonshire, erected by 
the Rev. W. D. Sweeting. His initials, W. D. S., are on the stone, 
while the date, 1881, forms part of the copper support of the gnomon, 
so that the figures can be read backwards or forwards, and both in the 
morning and the afternoon the shadow gives the date of the erection nf 
the dial. 


1467. TuRRis MKA DEUs. God IS viy stroughold. 
At the Chateau de Virieu (Isere). 


perish, I am immortal. 

At Diano Castello, on the Riviera. 

1469. Tyme passeth and speketii not, 


Amende to-day and slack not, 
to-morrow thyself cannot. 

The above Hnes are inscribed round the four sides of a very beau- 
tiful old dial pillar at Moccas Court, Herefordshire. The dial belongs 
to the lectern-shaped class, and bears dials of various shapes in cup-like 
hollows, heart shaped, triangular, square, besides others on plain sur- 
faces (see Chapter VI, p. 99). Between and around them five other 
mottoes are carved, Nos. 131,217,512, 1151, 1230. 

On the north side, beneath the signs of the planets, is " Domus 
Planetarum Philippus Jones." 

The dial which now belongs to the Rev. Sir George Cornewall, 
Bart., is thought to have been made in the reign of Charles II., and 
was first set up at Mornington Court (on the opposite side of the Wye), 
the property of the Tompkins family. When this property came into 
the possession of the Cornewalls, the dial was brought to Moccas. 


On a dial in the village of Cradley, near Malvern ; and also on an 
old dial plate mounted on an embossed draining tile at Oatlands Park, 

1471. Vbi. vmbra. cadit. 1803. When tJic shadow falls. 

At Betenoud (Isere), round the gnomon. A second motto — Le 
ciEL EST ma RtCGLE is also on the dial. 

1472. Ultima decidet. 1848. B. A. F. The last {liotir) will 

On a house at Ventimi^lia. 

1473. Ultima FORSAN. Perhaps the last {hour). 

Seen in Switzerland on a house ; and also in the Piazza S. 
Domenico, Bologna; and at St. Remy (Bouches du Rliniie). 

1474. Ultima forte 11 pi. Perchance it is Ihv last hour. 
At La Riviere (Isere). 



1475- Ultima latkt. The las/ {Iiojir) is hidden. 

With No. 1313 on a country house near Noyon (Oise). Also at the 
angle of the cloister beneath the belfry of the Franciscan convent at 
Cimiez. See Nos. 233, 598, iiii, 1463, 1475, 1618. Mr. Howard 
Hopley read this inscription in 1873, and adds that "when the old 
monk tolled the Angelus, the dial was half in gloom, and the evening 
hours were shrouded in shade." The motto is also at Alagna, and in 
several villages in the south-east of France, and was in 1707 above a 
goldsmith's shop in Paris. Ultima latet iioka is at N^vache (Hautes 
Alpes), dated 1785. 

1476. Ultima latet et observantur omnes. The last hour is hidden, 
and a// arc zvatclicd. 

On an eighteenth-century dial in the court of 
the Seminaire at Autun. 

1477. Ultima multls. The last [hour) to many. 

On an old Romanesque church at St. Beat 
(Hautes Pyrenees). The dial is on the belfry tower, 
beside a clock. Also at Champagnier (Isere). 

1478. Ultima necat. The last [hour) hills. 

At Spotorno ; and at Bordighera ; also on the 
house of the " Gardien des Ruines," at Port Royal 
des Champs ; and on the church at Roscoff. 

1479. Ultima properat. The last hour hastens. 
On the church of Villeneuve-la-Guyard (Yonne). 

1480. Ultima terret. 1768. The last hour terrijies. 
At Beaufort (Isere). 

1481. Ultimam cogita. Think on the last hour. 

On the old Chateau of Vendome. Ultimam meditare, with the 
same meaning, is on the church at Biol (Isere). 

1482. Ultimam nescls. Thou knowest jiot tJie last hour. 
Formerly in a court of the Gobelins, Paris. 

1483. Ultimam pertimescas iioram. 1804. Thou greatly fearest the 
last hour. 

On the church of St. Pierre, Moissac (Tarn et Garonne). 

1484. Ultimam time. Fear the last hour. 

At St. Germain la Blanche Herbe, with No. -j^ ; also at Rouen ; 

% M 

St. Beat 

(Hautes Pyreni?;es). 


and in villages of the Departments Haute Garonne and Isere. Time 
ULTiMAM is on the church tower at Verdun (Ariege). 

1485. Umbra del The shadoio of God. 

On the cross-dial at Elleslie, near Chichester (see No. 104); and 
on Dymock Church, Gloucestershire. 

i486. Umbra diurna fugit, 


The daily shadow Jfies, dnt life doth not like it retttrn. 
At Roches (Loire Inferieure). 

1487. Umbra docet. The shadoio teaches. 

Once on Brighton pier (see No. 391). Baron de Riviere quotes 
from the " Magazin Pittoresque," 1873, that "in the east of France 
one may still see in the interior of several sixteenth or seventeenth 
century houses great bricks set in the wall which have been engraved 
before being fired, and serve as sun-dials." On one of these the motto 
Umbra docet was inscribed, and a basket of flowers was painted on 
the wall below. 

1488. ^ Umbra facit certas habitantibus iioras. 

Sculptor perpetuis cernens diem polleat suis. 

The shadoiu niaketh knoivn the hours to the dzoellers here. 
On one of two dials now placed on the transept wall of the church 
of Notre Dame, Chalons-sur-Marne. It has been suggested that the 
second Latin line may be rendered Let the sculptor as he marks the 
day, be famous for his ever-abiding works. (His Latinity will never 
bring him fame !) 

1489. Umbra fugit praecebs vitae mors imago. The shadow fieth 
headlong, death is the likeness of life. 

On the church of Formigny (Calvados). 

1490. Umbra labitur, et nos umbrae. The shadow glides azvay, and 
we are skadozvs. 

Once on Glasgow Cathedral, with Nos. 289, 942. It has now been 
inscribed on a dial at Inch House, Midlothian, which was once at 
Craigmillar. See No. 72. 

1491. Umbra latet. The shadow is hidden. 
On the curb's house, Recoing (Isere). 

1492. Umbra levis transit, et tu tran.sibis ipse. The shadoio 
quickly passes, and thou thyself shall pass. 

At Nevcrs. 


1493. Umbra monet umbRxVM. Shade zoarns shade. 

That is — the dial warns man. For a similar thought see No. 1503. 
The above motto was communicated by Sir Frederick Elliot. 

1494. Umbra perit, volat iiora, dies fugit, occidit annus. 
Stat nihil et stat homo qui velut umbra fugit. 

The shadow perishes, the hour flees, the day flies, the year dies. 
Nought stands fast, yet man, who flieth like a shadow, remains. 

Locality not known. 

1495- I- Umbra pulsat. 2. Non auri sed oculo. 

The shadow strikes. Not for the ear bit t for the eye. 

For sight — 7iot sotmd. 
Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1496. Umbra! quid aspicis ? umbram. Shadow/ what seest thoti? A 

At Krinan, Canton St. Gall, Switzerland. 

1497. Umbra redibit hoimo nunquam. The shadow zvill return, man- 
kind loiii never 7'eturn. 

At La Riviere (Isere). 

1498. Umbra regit. The shade bears rule. 

On a house at La Verrerie, near Carmaux (Tarn). 

1499. Umbra sumus, 1739. IVe ai-e a shadow. 

On the north side of a cubical stone dial at Brympton, near Yeovil ; 
there are dial-faces on all the four sides, and on the south side No. 966 
is inscribed. It is mounted on a shaft and crowned by a ball, and has 
been jolaced upon the terrace at Brympton by the present owner, Sir 
Spencer Ponsonby Fane. It was previously on the top of the kitchen 
garden wall. The motto has also been read on the churches of St. 
James, Parkham ; SS. Mary and Gregory, Frithelstock, Devon ; and 
on the parish church, Maidstone. 

1500. Umbra sumus — tamen his aevum componitur umbris. We are 
a shadow — yet time is made up of sneh shadows. 

Mr. Spencer Butler, Seaford, Surrey, writes : " I wanted to com- 
bine in one line the two ideas, that though we are fugitive like the dial 
shadow, yet like the dial shadows, in the aggregate we make up the 
space of time or eternity. The best shape I could give to the idea was 
the above line. I had on a south wall an ugly patch of cement where 


a sumnicr-huLise had been. A Irieiicl suggested fixing an iron rod 
against it in a line pointing to the noitli pole. The dial was painted 
grey with a black border, the figures red. 


Ere yd the i/ireatniins^ shade d crsprcads the hour, 
Hasten, bright virtue, and exert iJiy poxoer. 

On a dial in the garden at Brynbella, near .St. Asaph, where Mrs. 
Piozzi lived. She says in her " Autobiography," vol. ii., p. 345, " Dr. 
Robert Gray, who wrote the new book that every one is reading, wrote 
the lines under our sun-dial at Brynbella." The house was designed 
by Piozzi, and built some years after Dr. Johnson visited Wales. He 
stayed at another house on Mrs. Piozzi's property. 

1502. Umbra tiiii soi, .muii. Shade to thee, sun tu vie. 

At the convent of the Dames de Nevers, at Mirepoix (Ariege). 

1503. Umbra videt umbram 


A shado'io marks the shadow. 
Live to day. 

On a pedestal dial at Bradford Peverell House, near Dorchester. 
The inscription is somewhat defaced. The dial was possibly erected 
by George Purling, Esq., about 1815-20, when the garden was laid 
out. The correspondent who sent the motto points out that the 
" umbra" spoken of is evidently the man whose " days are as a shadow," 
and Pindar's o-xia? o^ap xx^^^u-noc (Pythia, viii. 95). The same mottoes arc 
on the tower of Broughton-Gifford Church, near Melksham, where 
there are two dials, but only one of them is inscribed (see No. 1506). 

1504. Umbrae transitus est templls nostrum. 

S. .Sykes fecit. Decern. 22, 1790. 

Our time is the passing aicay of a sliadoto. 

On a house-dial at Wentworth, Yorkshire ; also at Cuers (V'ar), 
Moutiers (Savoy) ; on the house of the parish priest at Bousson, Prov. 
of Turin ; and on the church of S. Crocifisso, Pieve di Cadore (see 
Nos. 442, 966, 154S). Umbrae transitus est vita nostra has been 
read on a church at Palermo. 

1505. Umiiram dum si'Ectas reeucit ri;v()Lubile tempus. Whilst 
thou lookest at the shadozo, on-rolling time escapes. 

In Alderley Churchj'ard, Cheshire. 

1506. Umbram vinic'i' UMiJRA. Shadoxo seeth shadoii'. 

This motto is on cjne of two window-dials at Groombridge Place, 
Kent ; the second bears No. 6S2. They arc quite small, and the lly, 


which rather resembles a beetle, is painted on them. The house was 
built in the reign of Charles II., by Mr. Packer, on the ruins of an older 
mansion, which had succeeded to a still older castle. The present house 
was designed by Wren, and the dials are probably of the seventeenth 
century, and may have been seen by Evelyn, who mentions the house 
in his diary. 

In the charming old-world garden at Groombridge the two mottoes 
again appear, round the base of a pedestal on which is mounted a 
horizontal dial, inscribed, "1716, Nath. Witham Londini fecit." The 
pedestal is modern, of red sandstone, and was copied from a fine one 
at Chilham Castle, Kent. 

1507. Una i)Ai;rr quod altkka nf.gat. One hour wi/I _^-ivc wJiat the 
next denies. 

At Aups (Var) ; and, with the last two words transposed, was 
formerly on the Due d'Enghien's house at Chantilly, the fine palace 
lately bequeathed by the Due d'Aumale to the Institut de France. 

1508. Una di qukste t' aprira le porte 
dl vita lieta, o di spietata morte. 

One of these hours shall open thee the gate 
Of blissful life, or of relentless fate. 

On the wall of a convent at Nervi; the motto was read and trans- 
lated by Dean Alford. 

1509. Una harum vitae horarum erit ultima. 1814. One of these 
hours icill be the last of life. 

On a church near Oueen Hortense's Chateau of Arenemberg. The 
dial is circular in form. Time with his scythe is in the centre, and over 
him, a sun, from which issues the gnomon. It was sketched in 1866. 

1510. Una MANET. One hour remains. 
Formerly at St. Lazaire, Paris. 

1511. Una quaque hora inveniat 

Te pingentem aeternitatem. Z. G. F. 1840. 

Let every hoiir diseover thee, refecting on eternity. 
At St. Veran (Hautes Alpes). 

1512. Una tibi. Thott hast but one. 

On a seventeenth century house at Montauban. 

1513. Una UMDRA ET VAPOR EST HOMiNUMViTA. Man' s life is at ouee 
a shadoio and smoke. 

There is a curious device 011 this sun-dial, which stands in Helston 



Churchyard, Cornwall. It represents St. Michael, robed, winged, antl 
with rays of glory round the head, standing betwixt two gate-towers, 

and driving his spear into a 
dragon at his feet. 

1514. Unam KAi'iTK. Grasp 
one hour. 

At Paray-le-Monial, with 
four other mottoes. 

1515. Unam spera 
one hojir. 


Hope for 
the top of a house in 




Unam time. Fear one 

On a brass pocket sun-dial in the collection of the Clockmakers' 
Company, made by T. Menant, Paris, 1743 ; on a house at St. Pierre, 
and also at Sierre, Canton Valais ; on the Chateau de Grignan (Drome) ; 
at Gass ; and in several villages in France. It is on a chapel dedicated 
to St. Anne, near Clermont-en-Argonne, with No. 1437. The place is 
a great resort for pilgrims, and in addition to the mottoes on the dial 
there are several texts inscribed on the walls, relating to death and 
judgment. Over the door of a hermitage the following words can be 
read at noon round a sun made of copper-gilt : " Oriens ex alto. Deus 
nobis hcecce ostia fecit " — Arising from on high. God hath made us this 
doorway. On the church at Stazzano, Piedmont, Unam Timeo — / 
fear one hour, is inscribed on a sun-dial. 

1517. Une suffix. 

Roland fecit. 

One hour suffices. 

At Arandon (Isere). 

1518. Unicuique sua est. For every man is his hour. 
Formerly on a dial in the Court of the Seminaire at Aulun. 

1519. Uniteu in time, parteu in time. 

To BE reunited, when time shall be no more. 

On a fine facet-headed dial, designed and erected by Lady John Scott, 
at Cawston Lodge, near Rugby, in 1863. It was partly copied from 
the dial in the King's garden at Holyrood, which Charles I. jiresented 
to Queen Henrietta Maria. The pillar is mounted on two steps, and 
near the base are the Scott arms and the Spottiswood arms — Lady 
John Scott being Alice, the eldest daughter of John Spottiswood, Fsq., 
of Spottiswood, CO. Berwick. In separate panels round the lower part 



of the pillar are engraved " John and Alice Scott " ; "A Bellenden," the 
old Border war-cry of the Scotts of Buccleuch ; " Amo," one of their 
mottoes ; " Best riding by moonlight," their ancient Moss-trooping 
motto; and " Patior ut potiar," the Spottiswood motto. The dial 
mottoes, the crests of the two families, and the monograms of Lord and 
Lady John Scott are 
carved in correspond- 
ing panels at the up- 
per part of the pillar, 
the top being en- 
circled by a serpent, 
the emblem of eter- 

1520. Unum arripe ^ 
PUNCTUM. Seize one 
moment. ''■3 

At Gentilly, near a 

1521. Urbis iioram H 
doctior linea mon- 
strat. The learned 
line shoiveth the city's "^ 

On the church of ■:-^*^^- 
St. Yittore, Milan. 

1522. Use the pre- 
sent TIME 

Redeem the past 
For thus uncer- 
Though impercept- 


The night of life 

Li Aldingham churchyard, Lancashire 


1523. Use well the present moments as they fleet, 
Your life, however short, will be complete, 
If at its fatal ending you can say : 

I've lived and made the most of every day. 

In the churchyard at Waterfall, Staffordshire. 

1524. Usque huc crescit. Eveii so far there is inereasc. 

At Beziers. This motto has also been recorded as Usque huc 


VENIE T, Till hither shall he conic, the meaning of both seems to be tliat 
the course of the shadow is Hmited. 

1525. Ut cusris SIC VITA fluit dl'm stare viuktlk. Life Jlies on 
like an arrow, ^I'hile if seems to stand still. 

In the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, and, with the omission of the word 
"sic" at the Jesuits' College, Clermont-Ferrand. 

1526. Ut FLOS vita perit et velut umijr.v el"(;it. Life perishes like 
a fio-Mcr, and like a shadow flees. 

At the Hameau du Chatelard (Isere). 

1527. Ut iiora fugit vita. K.C. 1675. L^ife flics as an hour. 
On Cortachy Church, Forfarshire. 

1528. Vt iiora praeterita Sic fugit vita. 1612. A. B. 

As the hour that is past, So doth life ply. 

Engraved on a horizontal dial, in the possession of Colonel 
Fishwick, at The Heights, Rochdale, Lancashire. The motto has 
been placed, with No. 939, on a large vertical dial on the offices of the 
IJrighton and Sussex Provident .Society, North Street, Brighton. 

1529. Ut iiora sic fugit vita. 1578. 

As an hour, so doth life Jly. 

Painted in old English letters above the south door of King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge. The motto is now nearly illegible. Tra- 
dition attributes the dial to Dr. John Cowell, the jurist, who was 
educated at King's, and became Professor of Civil Law. He died 161 i. 

1530. Ut iiora sic vita. Life is as an hour. 

It may fairly be said that this is the most common of all mottoes 
in England. One of the earliest dated examples is that of Ashurst 
Church, Kent, where it is cut in relief below a diamond-shaped dial of 
stone on the porch. The dial is dated 1643, ^"<^^ there is the further 
in.scription, " Si' lohn Rivers made this." Below the dial is the date 
1 62 1 and a shield with the Rivers arms in a sunk panel. A horizontal 
dial on a plain shaft in the churchyard is inscribed " Elias Allen made 
this diall and gave it to the parish of Ashurst, An". Domini 1644." 
Elias Allen, a diallist, died 1654. 

The same motto is on a curious carving, representing a death's 
head, and winged hour-glass over the porch of Sheepstor Church, 
Devon, with l\Iors janua vittv, and Aniina rcsurget, 1640, but no traces 
of numerals or crnomon are to be seen. A small stone dial which was 
formerly on the church porch at Stanhope, co. Durham, and has now 



been moved to the chancel wall, bears this motto, the date 1727. It 

was put up when Bishop Butler was rector. His "Analogy" was 

written while he lived at Stanhope. In 1828 Mrs. Gatty sketched the 

dial on the porch gable of Felton Church, Northumberland, which had 

the same motto, and date i 724 ; and it has also been read on the church 

porch of Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland ; on Whitton le Wear 

Church, dated 1773; and Jarrow Church, co. Durham; on the porch 

of Methwold Church, Norfolk, with the 

gnomon projecting from the sun's face, 

and the names of " Rich. Clarke, Rich. 

Younge, Jun^ churchwardens, 1721"; 

on St. Giles' Church, Sidbury, Devon ; 

on the church porch, Chapel-en-le-frith, 

Derbyshire, 1871 ; on Hatford Church -?♦< 

(No. 123) ; and on St. Patrick's Church, 

Patrick, Isle of Man (see No. 864) ; and 

with No. 1342, in Acton churchyard, 

Cheshire: in EyamChurch. See No. 511. 

The motto may also be seen on a 
horizontal dial mounted on an octagonal 
shaft in Adel churchyard, near Leeds ; 
it is engraved on a scroll with the name 
of "J. Munn, Ebor. fecit e.\ donatu. 
1682." About the same time Mr. Munn 
made a vertical dial for Almondbury 
Church, which is now on the south wall 
and bears his name and the date 1682 ; 
as well as a horizontal one for Wood- 
some Hall in the same neighbourhood 
in 1683. The same motto is on both 
these dials. It is also on a dial-plate in 
the churchyard of Wath, near Ripon, 
supported by what appears to have been part of the shaft of a cross. 
The names " Thos. Browne, Geo. Yeats, 1735," have been carefully cut 
on the side. It is on the Almshouse at Ormsby, Yorkshire, dated 
1724 ; at Menwith Hill (Nos. 468, 1 147) ; and Thorp Perrow (No. 1396) 
in the same county, at Brougham Hall (No. 875) and at Marrington 
Hall (No. 1394). 

" Ut hora sic vita " is likewise on the south front of Callaly Castle, 
Northumberland, dated 1676. The arms of the Clavering family, 
owners of the estate for several centuries, are on the same facade. It 
is at Gibside House, near Newcastle. The arms of Bowes and 
Blakeston, and the dates 1620 and 1805 are also on the hall, the first 
showing the date of its erection, and the latter of its restoration. The 
motto is on a house at Neasham, co. Durham ; and according to a 
statement of the Rev. R. V. Taylor in the "Yorkshire Post" was, with 



date 1672, upon a dial which formerly stood at Wooldale, near Holm- 
firth, in front of an old house. The plate was fastened upon a curious 
pillar of rudely hewn stones, which bore some resemblance to a house 
clock and was known by the name of " Old Genu's dial," or " Genu's 
clock." An engraving of it is in Morehouse's " History of Kirk- 
burton." The pillar has been removed and the dial erected on the wall 
of an outbuilding. It bears the initials H. G. and .S. H., supposed to 
be those of the sculptor and the owner. 

The same words are engraved on a horizontal dial dated 1630, 
which came from an old garden at Dereham, in Norfolk. The gnomon 
is pierced with the initials J. S., probably those of the first owner. 
The dial is now placed on an oak post in the garden of Woodburn, 

The motto appears to have been a favourite one in the Isle of 
Man, for it is found on a thin slate dial face now in Mr. Wallace's 
museum at Distington, near Whitehaven, but which there is reason to 
believe once belonged to Sautan Church, Isle of Man ; and also on a 
bronze dial plate found on a rubbish heap near the Albert Brewery at 
Ramsey, and which in 1889 was in the possession of a tailor in 
Ramsey named Corkhill. 

Lastly, " Ut hora sic vita" is inscribed on the clock which was 
placed in 1859 on the tower of Hoole Church, Lancashire, as a 
memorial of Jeremiah Horrox, who discovered the transit of Venus 
when he was curate at Hoole in 1639. 

1531. Ut jugulent homines, surgunt de nocte latrones. Robbers 
arise at night to vuirder men. 

From Horace, Epistles I., ii. 32, on a dial at the entrance of a 

1532. Ut ruit unda fug.w sic nostra illabitur aetas. As the 
Jlying water rushes on, so glides atoay 07ir age. 

At the Seminaire, Vesoul. 

1533. Vt sol ita mvndvs 

Rich . Bankes . couentriensis fecit . 1630. 
As the S71II, so is the universe. 
On a beautifully engraved horizontal dial plate belonging to the 
Duke of Sutherland, and placed on a pedestal at Lilleshall Manor, 
.Salop. The arms of " Leuison " and " Duddeley " (which names are 
inscribed above the shield) with their crests, one of which is the historic 
Bear with the ragged staff, are also on the plate, which is square though 
the dial is circular. The corners are filled with finely engraved designs, 
and there is the further inscription: "Restored 1896 by F. Barker, 

1534. Ut umbra declinanerunt. They have gone down as a shadoiv. 
At Trafiume, near Cannobio, Lago Maggiore. 


1535. Ut umbra sic kugit vita. As a shadoiv so life doth Jiy. 

On a metal dial which was formerly on the Town House, Aberdeen ; 
but has now been placed on the Municipal Buildings, built on the same site 
thirty years ago. The bracket of the gnomon is an ornamental design 
in wrought iron, and the gnomon springs from a radiant sun on the face. 

1536. Ut umbra sic vita. As a s/iadozu so is life. 

On a dial, dated 1695, at Morden College, Blackheath ; also at 
Morvah Church, West Cornwall, with the date 1-29 partially defaced. 
It is engraved, too, on one of the four corner pinnacles of the church- 
yard wall at Sleights, near Whitby. Here the motto is below the dial, 
which faces south. On the east side of the same pinnacle is another 
dial with the date 1761, and initials R. T. B. and G. B. It was in this 
year that Robert and Tabitha Bower built the church. The same 
words are on the church porch at Torpenhow, Cumberland ; at Ridley 
Hall, Northumberland, with No. 45, and Hartest Church, Suffolk. 
They may be read on the Red Lion Inn, Fenny Compton, which bears 
the date 1600 ; also near Baslow, with other mottoes ; at Derwent Hall, 
with No. 24 ; at Shaftesbury, Dorset ; and at Barnes Lodge, King's 
Langley (see No. 161). Ut umbra sic vita was also on the dial, now 
defaced, on the old hall, Gainsborough, with No. 188, and is on a 
diamond-shaped dial face, which in 1889 was lying dismounted in the 
garden of Flotterton House, near Rothbury. At the top of the plate 
the face of the sun-gfod is engraved with the motto below it ; the date 
1773 and the initials T. W. also appear on the plate. The latter are 
supposed to stand for John Weallans, but as the family of Weallans 
only became possessed of the house early in the present century, they 
probably brought the dial from some other place. 

1537- Ut umbra, sic vita transit. As a shadoio so doth life pass. 

On a glass dial in a window of Election Chamber, Winchester 
College. The shape of the dial is an oblong square, set in an oval 
frame of richly-coloured glass. The motto is on a scroll in the centre 
of the upper half of the pane which forms the plate, and at one corner 
is the mysterious fly already noticed, see No. 248. Bishop Henry 
King, writing in the seventeenth century, says : 

" What is the existence of man's Ufe ? 
* * # * 

It is a dial which points out 
The sunset as it moves about : 
And shadows out, in lines of night, 
The subtle changes of Time's flight ; 
Till all obscuring Earth hath laid 
The body in perpetual shade." 

1538. Ut umbra sumus. 1573. A s a shadoio are tue. 

On Cordell's Hospital, Long Melford, Suffolk. It also occurs on 
an old house at Edmonton. 


1539- Ut vita finis ita. 1692. As the life is so is its cud. 

On the tower of Chelsea Old Church. The dial has lately been re- 
paired, and also the brick tower. Sir Thomas More lies buried in the 

1540. Ut vita sic i-'ugit iiora. The hour passes auay like life. 

On the second chapel of the .Sacro Monte at Orta ; and on a large 
diagram of a sun-dial in " Rudimenta Mathematica," by Sebastian 
Miinster (Basle, 1551). 

1541. Ut vita sic u.mura. As life so is the shadoi^.'. 

On a house at Kirby Moorside, dated 1833; "'"' ^'^^ <^f ^^'^^ ^^'^ 
faces at Thorp Perrow, Yorkshire (sec No. 1396); and at Elleslie, 
Chichester (see No. 104). 

1542. Utkrk dum lauitur. llmploy it while it slides on. 
At Les Tilleuls, near Perpignan. 

1543. Uterk dum lycet (sic). Use it zchile it {time) is given. 

Formerly on a di'pendance of the Convent de la Merci, Paris, but 
this no longer exists. Compare No. 240. 

1544. UtI';rI': dum numeras. Employ, \ohile thou countcst them. 
No locality assigned. 

1545. UterI', fu(;it. Use it, it Jlies. 

At La Roquette, near Castelnaudary (Aude). 

1546. Utkri', non numkra. 1809. Employ them, count them not. 
At St. Foy (Savoy). 

1547. Utere non REDir IKJRA. Employ the hour, it returneth not. 
On the Ouai des Theatins, Paris, in 1787. 

1548. Utere i-raesenti memor cetimaI';. Use the present hour, mind- 
ful of the last. 

On the Church of S. Crocifisso, Pieve di Cadore, see No. 442 ; at 
Strevi ; on the Lycee, formerly a Jesuit college, at Montpellier: and at 
St. Blaise du Bois (Isere), dated 1786. The first two words, with 
" D. C. S 1784" are in the garden of the Hotel de Rochegarde, Albi 
(Tarn); at the Grand Seminaire at Ai.x in Provence; and in the 
garden of the Hospital of St. Jacques at Besancon, with other mottoes. 
See No. 75. 

1549. Utere prae.senti nam velut umiira, iemrcs EC(;n. Employ 
the present time, for like a shadozv, it Jlees. 

At Nevers. 


1550. Utinam sapekknt et novissima providerext. O that they xvcre 
zuise, that they zcould consider their latter cud ! (Deut. xxxii. 29.) 

At Bellentre (Savoy). 

1551. Utinam utaris non reditura. O that thou ivouldst use the 
hour ivhiich ivill not return. 

With No. 1 44 1 on a dial at Crcpy-en-Valois. 

1552. Utque redit \iam 

constans quam suspicis 
Umbra fugax homines 
Non reoituka su.mus. 

As he {the shadozo) returneth ever upon his path at zohich thou loohest 
up, so zoe men are a fleeting shade zvhieh returneth not. 

On a church at PozzuoH. 

1553. Vadam i;t rk\krtar. Hinc procul umbra (Picinelli). 
/ shall go and return. Hence ajar shade. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1554. Vadens et non REniENs. Going and not returning. 

On an eighteenth century dial at Les Pananches (Hautes Alpes). 

1555. Vae terrae et mari, olua descendit diabolus au vos, habens 


I 2. IVoe to the earth and to the sea, becajise the devil is come doivn unto 
you, having great zvrath, knozving that he hath but a short time. 

The locality in which we find this inscription, from the Vulgate 
translation and the Douay version, is very interesting. The dial is 
over an archway which leads into the great convent square at the top 
of the Sacro Monte at Varallo ; and through this opening, pilgrims from 
all parts of Italy have been wont to pass and repass, in order to pay 
their devotions at the '• Nuova Gerusalemme del Sacro Monte di 

The Sacro Monte was founded in i486 by Bernardino Caimo, a 
Milanese nobleman, and it grew rapidly in riches and reputation ; the 
visits paid to it by Archbishop Carlo Borromeo contributing not a little 
to its renown. Forty-six chapels or oratories are dotted over the hill, 
in each of which there is a scene from the life of our Lord, represented 
by groups of full-sized terra-cotta figures, clothed and painted to look 
like life, whilst the walls are covered with frescoes on which the Lombard 
artists exercised their skill for many years. Amongst these are some of 
Gaudenzio Ferrari's finest works, but the screens and partitions which 
enforce the distance that "lends enchantment to the view " of the figure 
groups are by no means favourable to an examination ot the frescoes. 
There are, however, some very striking groups, notwithstanding the 



drawbacks of age, eccentricity, and excessive realism. Sometimes a 
grand force and truth of expression are revealed, which must have 
made the sacred scenes come home to the hearts of the mountaineers. 
The Sacro Monte is crowned by the convent, which overlooks the 
lovely Val Sesia, where the town of Varallo lies at the foot of its Mount 

The dial is large, painted on the wall, and much ornamented. A 
kind of eagle's head and wings rise above the plane, and something of 
the same sort appears below, the whole being inclosed in a narrow 
border. The width of the dial exceeds that of the arch beneath. The 
lines on the face show the Italian hours only, from xii to xxiv. 
The tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are described, and the parallels of 
the sun's course at his entrance into the twelve signs of the zodiac, 
together with the characters of the signs. The motto is on a spiral 
scroll on one side of the dial, and a corresponding scroll on the other 
side, somewhat defaced, has an imperfect Latin inscription relating to 
the construction of the dial. This is preceded by the figures -645, 
which may be a partially obliterated date of 1645. 

1556. Vanum est vobis ante lucem surgere. // IS vain for you to 
rise up early (Psalm cxxvii. 2, Bible version). 

At the Hameau des Arcisses, St. Chef (Isere). 

1557. Vassene 'l tempo, e l' uom non se n' avvede. (Dante, 
" Purg." c. iv.) Time passes 011, aiid luau perceives it not. 

Copied in 1866 from a house in the Via Brondolo, Padua: so 
" Padova la dotta " may be said to maintain its character for learning, 
even in its dial, and to show its fidelity to the memory of Dante, who 
is reported to have lived here in 1306. Nevertheless this dial is 
modern, it declines to the east, and was painted on the wall just above 
the green shutters of the first story windows. The round-arched door- 
way below, supported by a pillar on each side, opened into a carpenter's 
shop ; and though in a back street, there was an air of departed 
erandeur about the buildinsr which suoxrested that its owners in the 
last century were people of greater consequence than the present 

1558. Vedi l'ora MIA, ]•; l'or.v lUA NON ? Dost t/iou see my hour 
and not know thine own ? 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1559. Veilee/. sur toute, craignez ea dermere. ]Vatch over every 
{hour), fear the last. 

On a scroll over a dial painted on the wall of a house at Cannes ; 
copied in i860. 


1560. Velocius sole tempus. Time flics quicker thatt the sun. 
On a former Capuchin convent, now a " filature," Orvieto. 

1561. Velox umbra vita velocior. 1763. Sivift is the shadow, 
siviftcr is life. 

At Moulins (Tarn). The dial has been renewed since the above 

1562. Velut umbra fugit. It flieth like a shadoiu. 

On the tower of the old church of St. Leger de Guebwiller (Haute 
Rhin). Beside the dial the mitre and cross of the Prince Abbot of 
Murbach, who was formerly lord of the town, is painted, as are also the 
arms of the town, the "calotte plebeienne," and below, in German, is 
the republican motto, " Live free or die. 1791." 

1563. Velut unda latens. Like luater it is hid. 

On the presbytere, Arvieux (Hautes Alpes), made by Zarbula. 

1564. Vexi, \ide, vale. Come, see,fareiuell. 
At Ballakilley, Isle of Man. See No. 11 22. 

1565. Venio ut fur. I come as a thief. Rev. xvi. 15. 
Recorded by Mr. Howard Hopley, but no place named. 

1566. Venite adoremus dominum. 27 Oct., 1863. O come, let ns 
adore the Lord. 

This line, from the hymn " Adeste fidelis," is on the church of 
St. Lattier (Isere). 

1567. Ventus est vita hominis. The life of man is zoind. 
On a wind dial at the Certosa dei Calci, Pisa. 

1568. V^er NGN SEMPER viRET. Spring is not aliuays green. 

At the Hameau des Glaises (Isere), with " Picard fecit. An. 1783." 
This is t\\e punning motto of the Vernon family. 

1569. Vera intuere media sequere. 1855. Regard the truth, 
follow the mean. 

In the Rue de Rivoli, Paris. A mirror with Number XII. is held 
by a figure. 

1570. Vera loqui aut silere. To speak the truth or to be silcJit. 
On Highgate Grammar School ; also at Cadenabbia. 

1571. Veritas temporis filia. TriUh is the daughter of time. 

Formerly on the portal of Strasburg Cathedral, dated 1669, with 
No. 1334. 


1572. V^KSTiciA NULLA RKTRORsuM. Tlicrc ai'c HO stcps backward. 

On the mural dial in Essex Court, in the Temple, and on a house 
at Brompton-on-Swale, Yorkshire. 

The same phrase is found in Horace, Epistles I. i. 74-75, in allusion 
to the fable of the fox invited into the lion's den, but astutely declining — 

" Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum." 

It is interesting to remember that this motto was adopted by John 
Hampden, when he took up arms for the Parliament. In "Amor 
Mundi," Christina Rossetti writes : 

" Oh, where are you going with your lovelocks flowing, 
On the west wind blowing, along this valley track ? 
The down hill path is easy, come with me an' it please ye, 
AVe shall escape the up hill hy never turning back. 

* * * if •;; 

Turn again, O my sweetest, turn again, false and fleetest : 
This way whereof thou weetest I fear is hell's own track ; 
Nay, too steep for hill-mounting, nay, too late for cost counting : 
This downhill path is easy, but there's no turning back." 

1573. Vla crucis vl\ lucls. The way of the cross is the li'ay of lioht. 

At Hurstpierpoint School there is a recumbent cross dial with this 
inscription. The hours are indicated by the position of the shadow on 
different points of the cross. 

1574. Vl\ vit.k. The way of life. 

Over a large square stone dial which was placed between pinnacles 
against the south side of the tower of Sheffield Parish Church. The 
dial was removed when a new clock was erected, but happily the vicar 
took care to have the older timekeeper restored to very nearly its 
former position. The same inscription is on the cross-dial at Elleslie, 
see No. 104 ; and was formerly on Himbleton Church, Worcestershire; 
it was also on Cawthorne Church, Yorkshire, " S. H. fecit. 1798," but 
was taken clown at the partial rebuilding of the church in 1876. 

1575. Vide, audi, tace. See, hear, and be silent. 
The position of this dial motto is not identified. 

1576. ViDKs iioRAM ET NEscis FUTURUM. 1 836. 'Thou sccst the hoitr, 
and thou knowest not the future. 

On the wall of a house at Pra on the Riviera, which forms part of 
what was once a little chapel. The belfry tower is the oldest portion 
of the building, constructed in the true Genoese style, with alternate 
.stripes of black and white marble. All other traces of its former use 
have now disappeared. The windows on either side of the dial may 
usually be .seen festooned outside with clothes after a washing day, and 
the tenants are poor people. It stands in the middle ot the Piazza, 
which is the great rendezvous of all the inhabitants of Pra. 



1577. ViDES HORAM NESCIS HORAM. 1 853. TIlOU SCest fllC /l07ir, thoU 

knoivest no/ the hour. 

Over the door of the church at Alassio. 


seest the present hour, think on that which comcth, from both sides arc 
7(je ruled. 

At the Cloitre des Jacobins, Rue St. Dominique, Paris. 


Take heed, watch and pray, for ye knozo neither the day nor the hour. — 
St. Mark, xiii. 33 ; St. Matt. 
XXV. 13. 

Over the south door of the 
Frauen Kirche at Munich. 
The dial is very large and hand- 
some, painted on a ground of 
blue with gold stars. A small ^ ^•'^ i' 

seated figure in the centre of a fji i^^tiS'G^^ 

glory of golden rays holds the // liW'l0'^.S^:lS4WW^^' 
gnomon, and a nymg angel on ^^ ., / ''««Ti fflij^[f)||(|||'n|-|^^^^^^ 
each side bears up the scroll 

on which the hours are marked. 
The dial seems to date from 
the seventeenth century. 


SUB SOLE. / sato there was no 
profit under the S7in. — Eccles. -'---^^^^::^ 
ii. II. _^ 

At Cividale, Friuli. 


1581. ViGET QUODCUMQUE viDET. What he looks Upon flourishes. 
At St. Jean de Grosbec, near Aups (Var). 

1582. ViGiLA, ORAQUE ; TEMPUS FUGiT. Wat ch and pray ; time flies. 

On a buttress of the south transept of the parish church, Leighton 
Buzzard. With others. See No. loi. 

1583. ViGiLARE ET ORARE TEMPUS DiRiGiT. To ivatch and pray, time 

Over the porch of Harewood Church, near Leeds. " Robert Smith 
fecit 1 75 1." is engraved on the plate. 

1584. ViGiLATE ET ORATE. Watch and pray . 

On Bridges' Almshouses, Thames Ditton, dated 1720 (the date of 
the building) and 1746 ; below is inscribed " Ex dono Henrici Bridges, 


Gent." Also on Rothwull Church, near Leeds, with " L Verity fecit 
1821 "; at Reading, " 1727 G.P." ; at Warwick; and over the church 
porch at Clovelly. There is a handsome dial at Loch Inch Castle, 
Wigtonshire, on which this motto has been inscribed. The graceful 
shaft and wide circular base of four steps are old, but the upper part, 
which bears the motto, and which consists of a facetted block of stone, 
surmounted by a pyramidal cap and crowned by a ball, was added in 
1889 by Lord Stair: his crest and mottoes also appear upon it. 

1585. ViGlLATE ET ORATE; TEMPUS FUGiT. I 78 1. IVaick and pray ; 
twie flies. 

High up on the tower of Ellastone Church, Derbyshire, are these 
mottoes. The dial is fixed over a small built-up window, or what 
seems like it, and below is the additional inscription, " Knowe th)- 
selfe," which looks of older date. 

The same mottoes, with the date 1 797, are on a dial upon the 
Wesleyan Chapel at Thorpe Hesley, near Rotherham ; and likewise 
on the endowed school at Brampton Bierlow, with the date 1807. 

1586. ViGiLATE, NESCiTis QUA HORA. WatcJi, ye I'Hozv not what Jl07ir. 
On the meridian dial at Nevers Cathedral. 


know neither the day nor the hoitr. St. Matt. xxv. 13. 

In the Via San Vittore al Teatro, Milan. The dial is 8 feet 
square, the gnomon a circular disk standing out from the wall by 
means of three iron rods. The motto was also on a western wall of 
the Capuchin convent at Velletri ; and has been read at the Grand 
S^minaire at Avignon, with Nos. 75, 698. It is also on a dial in 
Mr. L. Evans' collection. See No. 135. 

1588. ViGILATE, QUIA NESCITIS iiORAM. Watch, for ye know not the 

Seen in 1870 on a house at Aries (Pyrenees Orientales), which 
looks into the small square where on fete days the peasants dance their 
national dance in the white caps and espartillos worn in the Eastern 
Pyrenees. This Aries must not be confounded with Aries in Provence. 
It lies at the head of the valley of the Tech, thirty-nine kilometres 
from Perpignan. The motto has also been read near the baths of 
Diocletian at Rome ; and at Cimiez. 


Moulin) tourne sans le .soleil, moi je ne marque pas sans lux.] 
If {the mill) turns without the sun, I do not mark time without it. 

In the Provencal dialect on a Hour mill at .St Jean de P)resqup, 
near Fox Amphoule (Var). 


1590. Virtus ad astra tendit, in mortem timor. Cotirage strives 
towards the stars, fear to death. 

On the chateau of Oberhofen, Lake of Thun, Switzerland. 

1591. Vita fugit sicut umbra. Life /lies as a shadow. 

With date 1732 on a chateau at Sierre (Canton Valais), now the 
Hotel Bellevue ; also at Place d'Armes, Brian^on (see No. 8). The 
same motto is with Zarbula's initials on dials at Vallouise, dated 1840 
(see No. 133), and at Abries (Hautes Alpes). 

1592. Vita fugit velut umbra. 1790. Life fies as a shadow. 

Formerly on the church at Sandal, Yorkshire. The dial was 
removed when the church was restored, but is soon to be replaced. 

1593. Vita hominis sicut umbra fluit. The life of man flows away 
like a shadoiv. 

At Courmayeur. 

1594. Vita hominis ut umbra fugit. The life of man flics like the 

Painted on the front of a house at Mollia, Val Sesia. The dial 
looked new in 1889. There is a second dial on the same house, 
No. 380. 

1595. Vita quasi umbra. Life is as a shadow. 
At Sproughton Rectory, near Ipswich. 

1596. Vita sic transit. So life passes azvay. 

On a square dial on Pickering Church, Yorkshire, with " W. Put- 
sey, delineavit, 181 7." 

1597. Vita similis umbra. Life is like a shadow. 
At Paray-le-Monial, with others. 

1598. Vita tua semper incerta. Tliy life is ever tmeertain. 

Seen in the Chiostro del Noviziato, St. Antonio, Padua, in 1S88, 
but the words were nearly defaced. 

1599. Vita umbra. 1867. Life is as shadow. 

On Archbishop Abbot's Hospital, Guildford, over the entrance 
gate. The building dates from 16 19; probably the date 1867 refers 
to the restoration of the dial. 

1600. Vitae fugaces exhibet iioras. It shoius the fleeting hours of 

On the Maison des Ablets, near Marseilles. 

1601. Vive hodie 




Live to-day, 
To-viorroiv will he less seasonable. 
On two of three dials which adorn three sides of the tower of the 
Lyme Cage, a building standing in Lyme Park, Cheshire. For the 
third motto see No. 1087. Also compare Nos. 533, 1043. 

1602. Vive memor lethi, fugit iiora. Live iniiulfiil of death, the 

hour flies. 

On Makerston House, Kelso. The dial is a cubical block of stone 

which projects from the wall with dial faces on three sides : two of these 

are plain vertical dials, but the third on which the motto is engraved, is 

a cup-shaped hollow. It is seldom that this form is seen on an attached 


1603. Vive memor qu.\m sis aevi 
ijREVis. Live mindful hoio short- 
lived thou art. 

Outside the terrace walk at 
Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire, 
the seat of Earl Fitzwilliam, K.G., 
dated 1767; also on a glasshouse 
in the garden, dated 1 766. The 
maker's name, " John Metcalfe," ap- 
pears on both dials. The motto, 
which is taken from Horace, Sat. 
ii. 6, 97, is on the church at Goos- 
nargh, Lancashire, with " C. Swain- 
son, M.A., Minister of Goosnargh,'' 
and " H. Porter of Westfield, delin. 
& sculp., 1748." 
With the word "aevi" omitted, it is on a dial at Wigmore Grange, 

Herefordshire, on which No. 127 is also inscribed. 

1604. VivEN,s MORTALis. He that lives is mortal. 

On the church at La Ferte Bernard, written over an earlier motto : 
" Fugit umbra." 


teach thee to live, the hour ivarneth thee of death. 

On a house at Compiegne, in 1861 ; near a Calvary, 


Learn how to live. Think how to die. 

Apord (?) Johannes Maximiliani 
abio Austriaco ( ) us mai ( ) 



G. V. Mucxci Archical. 


Let the cross 


On a large dial painted upon the wall of St. Lorenzkirche, Nurem- 
berg", over the south door. Above the dial are ten lines in Latin 
explaining how the dial may be read, according to the different colours 
in which the lines are marked. This inscription is signed " Sebast. 
Sperantius, faciebat. Anno MDIIL" The dial shows the Italian, 
as well as the ordinary hours, the signs of the zodiac, etc. Two of the 
lines above the word " renovatum " are nearly illegible. Johannes 
Stabius was a noted mathematician of the sixteenth century, and a 
writer on gnomonics, but his works have never been printed. 


hour then close thine eye for aye. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1608. ViviT MEMORIA ET FUGIT HORA. Meuiory Hves and the hour 

Seen on a house at Monthey (Canton du Valais), in 1S63. 

" When Time who steals our years away 

Shall steal our pleasures too, 
The memory of the past will stay 

And half our joys renew. 

" Then talk no more of future gloom, 

Our joys shall always last ; 
For hope shall brighten days to come, 

And memory gild the past ! " 

T. Moore. 

i6og. ViviT RELiGio. Benedicamus domino. 

Chapoullier fecit. 1824. 

The faith liveth. Praise zuc the Lord. 

At St. Hilaire du Rosier (Isere). 

1610. ViviTE, AIT, FUGio. Live yc, it says : I fly. 

On a dial over the porch of Wrenbury Hall, near Nantwich. This 
inscription is thus alluded to in a letter from Bishop Atterbury to Pope, 
dated Bromley, May 25th, 1712 : " You know the motto of my sun-dial, 
J^ivite, ait, fjigio. I will, as far as I am able, follow its advice, and cut 
off all unnecessary avocations and amusements." In the same corre- 
spondence of the Bishop the following epigram occurs : 

" Vivite, ait, fugio. 
Labentem tacito quisquis pede conspicis umbram. 

Si sapis, haec audis : ' Vivite, nam fugio.' 
Utilis est oculis, nee inutilis auribus umbra ; 

Dum tacet, exclamat, 'Vivite, nam fugio.'" 

IV/ioso on hustled foot marlist tJie gliding sliade, 
If ivise ttiou /learesf, ^^ Live ye, for I fly." 
To eyes and ears tlie shadoiu lends its aid. 
Silently crying, " Live ye, for I fly." 


The dial was probably a mural one on the ancient moated palace of the 
Bishops of Rochester, at Bromley, which was pulled down by Bishop 
Thomas in 1774. The building which he substituted has ceased to be 
an episcopal residence. Yi\ite, fugio, Live yi\ I fly, with the date 
1774, is on the steeple of St. Cuthbert's, commonly called the West 
Kirk, Edinburgh. Vivite, ecce fugio, Live yc, behold L fly ! 171 2, is 
on the church of Kirkby Overblow, Yorkshire. 

161 1. Vivo tra viti ma il mio core ingombra 


Midst vines / dzvell, and yet my heart d eriueighed, 
Fears that it too may vanish like this shade. 

In the sacristy of the church of the Frari at Venice there is an old 
clock, having a wooden frame elaborately carved with figures and de- 
vices. One of these represents a man in armour standing amidst vines, 
and holding a sun-dial, above which the foregoing motto is inscribed. 
The four corners of the clock represent Childhood, Youth, Manhood, 
and Old Age, together with the Four Seasons, and the four winds or 
cardinal points. The setting sun, and waning moon, a skeleton, an 
owl, and various other emblems are also represented, and an exjDlana- 
tion of the carving written on parchment is affixed to the door. The 
frame was carved out of a single piece of cypress wood, by Francesco 
Pianta, a.d. 1500. 

1612. Vix ORiMUR ET occiDiMUS. Scarce do we arise, and we have 

Formerly in a court at St. Genevieve, Paris. 

1613. Voici votre heure. Behold your hour. 

Read near Geneva; and at Les Hieres (Hautes Alpes). 

1614. VoLA l'ora ed il tempo ancora. The hour flies and time yet 

At Castel Nuovo, near Bormida. 

1615. VoLANO l'ore, I giorni, gl'anni, e I MESi (Petrarch). Hours, days, 
months, years, all fly. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 


Time flies, never to be retrieved ; at length there zoill be nothing 
beneath the sun. 

At La Buiscrate (Isere). The first line was formerly at St. Apol- 
linare in Classe, Ravenna ; and also on an engraving of a sun-dial in 
" Gnomonicc de Solariis," 1572, b)- B. Schultz, with other mottoes. 


1617. VoLAT iRREVocABiLis HORA. Tlic Iioiir flics iicvcv to hc rccttllcd. 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." The first two words of this 
motto are on a house at Sierre. 

1618. VoLAT SINE MORA. It flics Without delay. 

In the Cloister of the Franciscan convent at Cimiez, with other 
mottoes. See No. iiii. 

1619. VoLAT TEMPUS. Time Jlies. 


And think how night and day time ever flies. 

On the east dial of the pillar at Tytherton Kellaways, Wiltshire. 
This pillar, surmounted by a block of stone bearing dials on three of 
its faces, stands on the banks of the Avon, beside a bridge over which 
runs the road from Chippenham to Tytherton. It was erected in 1698 
by the trustees of Maud Heath's Causeway, and each dial bore originally 
a Latin motto only; but about 1828 the Rev. William Lisle Bowles, 
who was rector of the adjoining parish of Bremhill, obtained leave to 
engrave a poetical paraphrase on each face, as he doubted the power of 
the ordinary passers-by to understand the mottoes as they stood. His 
couplets are engraved in small letters below each dial, the Latin mottoes 
being above. For the mottoes on the south and west faces see Nos. 
250, 1077. 

1620. VoLUMUS A te signum videre. Wc ivoiild see a sionfroin Thee. 
(St. Matt. xii. 38). 

Given in " Notizie Gnomoniche." 

1621. _ Volvitur in puncto. 

Puntoque resolvitur. 
1 7 Aetas 44. 

{Ti;ne) passes in a moment. 
And in a moment it is gone. 

This motto, with its inconsistent spelling, is on a wooden dial-plate 
bought by Charles T. Gatty at a sale at Sotheby's. " Bruyere fecit" is 
on the plate. 

1622. Vos UMBRA ME LUMEN REGIT. The light I'liles me , the shadozo you. 

On an eighteenth century dial on an old hospice at Doussard 
(Savoy). Vos umbra regit, sol me, The shadoto rules yon, the sun 
me, was once on the Bastille; but after the 14th July, 1789, both sun 
and shadow ceased to rule over the terrible building. 



If yc would happy be. 

Remain content at Iiodu- : 
Nor seek the noonday snn 

]]licn two d clock is come. 

It seems doubtful whether these lines, or the quatrain quoted with 
No. 537, formed the motto improvised by Voltaire for the sun-dial at 
La Ferte sous Jouarre, which was still in existence at the beginning of 
the nineteenth century. The explanation of the phrase " chercher midi 
a quatorze heures " is given under No. 537. 


TOUT PASSE COMME JE PASSE.) Yo2c 7vho pass by remember in passing 
that all passes as I pass. 

On a vertical dial which shows the hours from xii to vi, at Villard 
St. Pancrace (Hautes Alpes). 


Traveller, make haste, it is later than thon dost think. 
At Noyarey (Isere). 

1626. VuLNERANT OMNES, ULTIMA NECAT. All [hours) 2i'0?ind, the last 

On the church tower of Urrugne (Basses Pyrenees). Urrugne is 
on the great western road leading from France into Spain, and has the 
wild irregular ridges of the Spanish mountains in view. The dark 
Spanish-looking church has associations with the Peninsular war. The 
" Subaltern " gives an account of a night spent in it after the assault and 
capture of the village on the previous day, in November, 1S13, when he 
and his men were cantoned in the church, where the thick walls were proof 
against the field artillery of the French. This village formed part of 
Marshal Soult's famous position in front of St. Jean de Luz. The 
motto is also on the church at Ciboure in the same neighbourhood ; 
on a house at Negrepelisse ; at the Capuchin convent at Cimiez, dated 
1789; and, with slight variations, on several dials in Dauphine. It 
has been read on the Duomo at Grosseto ; at Crespano in Italy; 
and also on the tower of the Hotel de Ville at Middleburg, Holland. 

1627. Waciiet; denn imr wisset nicht, um welciie stunde euer 
IIERR KOMMEN WIRD. U'atch, for ye know not ivhat hour your Lord 
doth come. — St. Matt. xxiv. 42. 

At Erstfelden, near Altdorf, Canton Uri, there was in 1863 a dial 
on the wall of the little village church. It was circular, with the face of 
the sun at the top, out of which came the gnomon. A full-length 
skeleton was painted on each side of the dial, like the supporter to an 
heraldic shield, and appeared to hold it up. Beneath were cross bones 


and some words which had become defaced and illegible. The motto 
was above the dial. 

1628. Wan ich bin kin geschenckh vol, 
so zaig ich di stundt ger woi, ; 
Bin icii aber leiir, 

So DIE ALS nit MER. 

J J 'hen I avifnll, 
I shozv the hour ; 
But when I am empty, 
I do so no more. 

Engraved on the outside of a goblet-shaped dial in the Nuremberg 
Museum ; made of silver or of copper gilt. The gnomon is attached to 
the edge of the brim, and its shadow falls upon the numerals which are 
within the cup. The name of the maker, "Marcus Purman, Monach: 
fecit," and the date 1590, also appear on the dial. 

1629. Waste no time. 

This motto appears twice on a dial at the House of Mercy, Horbury, 
near Wakefield, which was brought there from Thornhill Churchyard. 
It is a cross dial, the gnomon being in the shape of a Greek cross, 
round the base of which this motto and two others (see Nos. 278, 921) 
are inscribed. 

1630. Watch. St. Mark, xiii. 2)1 ■ 

Inscribed by the Rev. E. Z. Lyttel on his dial at Woodville, 

1631. Watch and pray. 1735. 

On the south wall of Alwalton Church, Huntingdonshire; and on 
the church porch of Terrington St. Clement, Norfolk, with the