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Full text of "Book of veterinary doses, therapeutic terms and prescription writing"

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BOOK 

OF 

VETERINARY DOSES 

THERAPEUTIC TERMS 

AND 

PRESCRIPTION WRITING 

BY 

PIERRE A. FISH, D.Sc, D.V,M. 



PROFESSOR OF VETERINARY PHYSIOLOGY 

AND PHARMACOLOGY 

NEW YORK STATE VETERINARY COLLEGE 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY 

SECOND EDITION 
REVISED AND ENLARGED 



PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR of CARPENTER 



ITHACA, NEW YORK 
I906 



LIBRARY of 00NGRE8S 

Two Gooies Received 

APH 16 1906 

Co ay right Entry 

OLfajO,f9<><> 

CLASS OL XXc. No, 
COPY B. 



1 



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COPYRIGHT, I906 

BY 
PIERRE A. FISH 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 



This manual has been prepared primarily as 
an adjunct to the laboratory and clinical work 
given by the writer. It is hoped that much of the 
information it contains will also be of use when 
the student becomes a practitioner, and that he 
may herein find, in compact and convenient form, 
data which will enable him to practise his profes- 
sion with benefit to his patients and himself. 
December, 1904. P. A. F. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 



Care has been taken in this edition to bring it 
up to date by making use of the changes recom- 
mended in the eighth revision of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia, which became official September 1, 
1905, so far as veterinary remedies are concerned. 

The chapter on prescription writing has been 
rearranged and amplified, so that it may be of 
greater use to students as a guide or drill book for 
class room work. Prescription writing is difficult 
to the beginner, but with the work arranged on a 
graded plan the difficulties do not appear so insur- 
mountable, and greater interest is likely to be 
developed. 

A call for a new edition within a little over a 
year has been gratifying to the writer and he trusts 
that the additions that have been made will render 
the book still more useful. 

April, 1906. P. A. F. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 
Dosage or Posology 5 

Pharmacopoeial Changes 7 

Veterinary Doses 13 

Therapeutic Terms 49 

Termination of Medical Terms 64 

Prescription Writing 68 

Weights and Measures 82 

The Principles of Combining Drugs in a Pre- 
scription 86 

Examples of Prescription Writing 90 

Thermometric Equivalents 99 

Deliquescent and Efflorescent Salts 101 

Latin Words and Phrases with abbreviations 

and English Equivalents 102 

Incompatibility. 112 

Poisons and their Antidotes 137 

Classification of Medicines according to their 

Physiologic Actions 157 

Pages for Selected Prescriptions 174 



DOSAGE OR POSOLOGY. 



The most accurate system of dosage is to admin- 
ister a given weight of medicine per kilogram or 
pound weight of the animal. Although this is 
frequently done in experimental work, the prac- 
tice is attended with so much inconvenience when 
applied to the routine of the practitioner that the 
system is, for ordinary purposes, regarded as im- 
practicable. A more or less arbitrary method is 
adopted by fixing the amounts to be given to the 
different animals. Except, perhaps, in the case of 
powerful medicines or poisons, there is consider- 
able latitude allowed in the amount of the doses. 
In veterinary practice the dose for the horse is 
commonly taken as the standard and the doses of 
the other domestic animals may be reckoned from 
this. As for example : 

If the dose for the horse is I (Say 2 ounces) 

the dose for the cow would be 1^ ( ' 3 ) 

Sheep and goat i ( " 3 drams) 

Swine #'('".« " ) 

Dog tV ( " 1 " ) 

Cat A'( " # " > 

In general the dose for' the dog is about the 

same as the human dose, but the size of the dog 

must be considered. Reckoning from the dose 

for the dog or man as the standard ; the pig would 

take twice as much, the sheep and goat three times 

as much, the horse sixteen times as much and the 

cow twenty-four times as much. The dose for the 

cat is usually one-half as much as for the dog. In 



many cases the dose for the horse and cow would 
be the same ; the higher dose for the cow is usually 
recommended on the ground of a slower rate of 
absorption because of the compound stomach and 
a larger mass of food with which the medicines 
mix before absorption may occur. 

In the list of doses which follows, the horse and 
cow have been placed in the same group, and the 
sheep and swine have been placed in a group by 
themselves. The dose given in either case is the 
average dose, but from the explanation just given, 
the dose, in most instances, may be increased 
sornew 7 hat for either the cow or the sheep. 

In a general way the doses of different prepara- 
tions of drugs for the horse may be given upon 
the following basis. If there is error in this classi- 
fication, it is upon the safe and conservative side 
of too little rather than too much. Poisons and 
powerful medicines are, of course, an exception. 

Fluid extracts . one nuidram 

Powders (not alkaloids) one dram 

Tinctures one fluid ounce 

Hypodermics of alkaloids are given usually at 
one-half the dose by mouth. Intravenous doses 
one-half or two-thirds of the hypodermic dose. 
Rectal doses should be the same as those given by 
the mouth. In the following tables the doses are 
intended for administration by mouth unless other- 
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THERAPEUTIC TERMS 



Abluent. A cleansing agent. (Soap and water.) 

Abortifacient. An agent causing prematnre 
birth of young. (Ergot. ) 

Absorbent. An agent causing absorption of 
exudates or diseased tissues. ( Iodine. Chalk. ) 

Acrid. A sharp, biting substance. (Pepper.) 

Adjuvant. A medicine that assists the action 
of another. (Calomel with Aloes.) 

Aliment. A material which nourishes. (Food.) 

Alkaloid. A term derived from the Arabic 
1 'Alkali" for Potash The t ending oid is from the 
Greek which means like, hence "Alkaloid" is a 
substance which reacts with litmus like an alkali 
and forms a salt with an acid. The prefix in "Al- 
kali" is the Arabic "al" which is the definite arti- 
cle, "the," hence "alkali" literally means "the 
Potash." The modern use of the term alkaloid, 
however, has no reference to potash, but is used to 
designate a certain class of active principles ob- 
tained from plants. They are organic bases con- 
taining nitrogen and form salts with acids. 
(Atropine.) 

Alterative. A medicine used to modify nu- 
trition so as to overcome morbid processes. (Po- 
tassium Iodide.) 

Anasthetic. An agent used to produce insen- 
sibility to pain. (Chloroform.) 

Analgesic. A medicine used to alleviate pain. 
(Opium.) 

Anaphrodisiac. A medicine used to allay 

sexual excitement. (Potassium Bromide.) 

\ 



5o 



Anhidrotic. An agent which lessens the se- 
cretion of sweat. (Belladonna. ) 

Anodyne. An agent which diminishes sensi- 
bility to pain. (Compound Spirit of Ether.) 

Antacid. A medicine used to neutralize acids 
in the stomach and intestines. (Liquor Potassae.) 

Antagonist. A medicine which opposes the 
action of another medicine in the system. ( Potas- 
sium Bromide and Strychnine. ) 

Anthelmintic. A remedy for destroying or 
expelling worms or, to prevent their development. 
(Santonin.) 

Antidote. A substance to counteract poisons. 
(Sulphates in Carbolic Acid poisoning.) 

Antiemetic. An agent which allays vomiting. 
(Bismuth Subnitrate.) 

Antifebrile. An agent for the reduction of 
fever. ( Acetanilid. ) 

Antilithic. An agent tending to dissolve or 
cure stone or gravel. (Potassium Citrate. ) 

Antiparasitic. A substance that destroys or 
drives away insects. (Essential Oils. ) 

AnTiperiodic. A medicine which tends to pre- 
vent the periodic recurrence of disease. (Quinine. ) 

Antiphlogistic. Any medicine or treatment 
which tends to check inflammation. ( Aconite.) 

Antipyretic. A medicine to reduce body 
temperature in fevers. (Salicylic Acid. ) 

Antiseptic. An agent antagonizing sepsis or 
putrefaction. (Carbolic Acid.) 

Antispasmodic. A medicine for preventing or 
relieving spasms. (Valerian.) 

Antithermic. An agent for the reduction of 
high temperature. (Antipyrin.) 



5i 



Antizymotic. A substance preventing fermen- 
tation. ( Salicylic Acid.) 

Aperient. A mild agent for opening the bow- 
els. (Rochelle Salts.) 

Aphrodisiac. An agent for stimulating sexual 
power. (Damiana.) 

Aromatic. A medicine possessing a spicy or 
pungent taste and odor, and more or less stimulat- 
ing to the mucosa of the alimentary tract. ( Car- 
damom) 

Astringent. A medicine causing contraction 
or constriction of tissues. (Tannin. ) 

Auxiliary. Amedicine that assists another. 
(Chloral with Potassium Bromide.) 

Bitter. A medicine with a bitter taste stimu- 
lating the gastro-intestinal mucosa without mate- 
rially affecting the general system. (Gentian.) 

Blenorrhagic. A remedy for increasing the 
secretion of mucus. ( Balsam Tolu. ) 

Blister. An agent, which when applied to the 
skin, causes a local inflammatory exudation of se- 
rum under the epidermis. ( Cantharides. ) 

Cachexia. A term used to designate any mor- 
bid tendency, dyscrasia, or depraved condition of 
general nutrition, etc., used particularly in con- 
nection w T ith scrofula, syphilis, cancer, etc. 

CalEFACient. A medicine applied externally 
to produce a sensation of warmth to the part to 
which it is applied. (Mustard) 

Calmant. A medicine which lowers functional 
activity. (Aconite.) 

Calmative. A medicine which quiets. (Mor- 
phine. ) 

Calorifacient. A substance which has the 



52 

power of developing heat in the system. (Fats, 
Cod Iyiver oil.) 

Calorific. Same as Calorifacient. 

Cardiac Depressant. A medicine to reduce 
the heart's action. (Veratrine.) 

Cardiac Stimulant. A medicine used to in- 
crease the heart's action. (Digitalis.) 

Carminative. A remedy which allays pain by 
causing the expulsion of flatus from the alimentary 
canal. (Asafetida.) 

Cataleptic. An agent causing animals to lose 
power over their muscles. (Cannabis. ) 

Catalytic. A medicine counter-acting or de- 
stroying morbid agencies in the blood. (Calomel.) 

Cathartic. A medicine which quickens or 
increases evacuations from the intestines. ( Castor 
Oil.) 

Cathartic, Cholagogue. An agent stimu- 
lating the stool and flow of bile at the same time. 
(Podophyllin.) 

Cathartic, Drastic. A medicine producing 
violent action of the bowels with griping pain. 
(Jalap.) 

Cathartic, Hydragogue. A remedy which 
causes copious watery stools. (Elaterium. ) 

Cathartic, Saline. Neutral salts of metals 
of the alkalies or alkaline earths which increase 
the stools. (Magnesium Sulphate.) 

Cathartic, Simple. A substance which causes 
one or two actions of the bowels. (Senna). 

Caustic. An agent used to destroy living tissue. 
(Silver Nitrate.) 

Cautery. A substance used to corrode or de- 
stroy living tissues. ( Nitric Acid. ) 



53 



Cautery, Actual. A heated metal or fire* em- 
ployed to destroy living flesh. 

Cautery, Potential. A chemical used to de- 
stroy flesh. (Nitric Acid.) 

Chalybeate. A tonic containing iron. (Tinct- 
ure of Chloride of Iron. ) 

Cholagogue. A drug provoking the flow of 
bile. (Podophyllum. ) 

Condiment. A substance used to improve the 
savor of food. (Salt, Pepper.) 

Conservative. A substance used for the pre- 
servation of others. (Honey.) 

Constringent. An agent producing constric- 
tion of organic tissue. (Oak Bark.) 

Convulsant. A medicine causing convulsions. 
(Strychnine.) 

Cordial. A medicine which increases the 
strength and raises the spirits when depressed. 
(Alcohol. ) 

Corrective. An agent used to correct or ren- 
der more pleasant the action of other remedies, 
especially purgatives. ( Coriander. ) 

Corrosive. A substance which disorganizes 
or destroys living tissue. (Nitric Acid.) 

Counter Irritant. A remedy used to pro- 
duce an irritation in one part to relieve a pain in 
another part. (Blister.) 

Cumulative Poison. A poison which finally 
acts with violence after several successive doses 
have been taken with little or no apparent effect. 
(Strychnine.) 

Debilitant An agent which diminishes the 
energy of organs. ( Lobelia. ) 



54 



Defervescent. A agent to reduce fever. 
(Aconite. ) 

DelirianT. A substance which produces deli- 
rium. ( Stramonium. ) 

DeurieacienT. (like deliriant). Tending to 
cause delirium. (Alcohol. ) 

Demulcent. A mucilaginous or oily substance 
to soothe and protect irritated mucous membranes. 
(Ulmus. ) 

DeobstruenT. A medicine to remove func- 
tional obstructions in the system. (Aloes.) 

Deodorant. A substance to conceal or destroy 
foul odors. (Phenol.) 

Deodorizer (like deodorant) to hide or destroy 
foul odors. (Chlorine.) 

Depilatory. A substance to remove hair. 
(Barium Sulphide. ) 

Depletive. A substance to reduce the vital 
power of the system. (Aconite. ) 

Depletory. An agent to diminish the quantity 
of liquid in the body. (Potassium Nitrate.) 

Depressant. An agent to lower the vital 
power. (Aconite. ) 

Depresso-Motor. A medicine to lessen motor 
activity. (Bromides.) 

Depurant. An agent to cleanse foul sores, etc. 
(Hydrogen Dioxide.) 

DepuraTive. A medicine to act upon the 
emunctories so as to cause excretion and thereby 
purify the system. (Hot Drinks.) 

Depuratory. An agent to purify the blood, 
etc. ( Sulphur. ) 

Dermatic. A remedy used in skin diseases. 
(Resorcin.) 



55 



Dermic. A medicine acting through the skin. 
(Liniments.) 

Derivative. An agent to draw the fluids from 
one part of the body to another to lessen or relieve 
a morbid process. (Mustard.) 

Desiccant. A medicine or application for dry- 
ing up sores. (Boric Acid. ) 

Desiccative. An application for drying up se- 
cretions. (Zinc Oxide.) 

Desiccatory. A remedy applied externally to 
dry up the moisture or fluids from a wound. 
(Starch.) 

Desquamatic, A remedy to remove scales 
from the skin or bones. (Potassium Iodide. ) 

Detergent. An agent to cleanse wounds and 
ulcers ( Soap and Water. ) 

Diaphoretic. A medicine to produce sweat- 
ing. (Pilocarpine.) 

Diarrhetic. A remedy producing profuse 
stools. ( Mandrake . ) 

Dietetic. A nutritious remedy. (Arrow- 
Root.) 

Digestant. A substance to aid the solution of 
food in the mouth, stomach, or intestines. iTep- 
sin, Pancreatin.) 

Digestive. A tonic which promotes digestive 
processes. (Quassia.) 

Diluent. A medicine to dilute secretions and 
excretions. (Gamboge.) 

Discutient. A remedy to effect the absorp- 
tion of tumors. 

Disinfectant. A substance with the power of 
destroying disease germs or the noxious proper- 
ties of decaying organic matter. (Formaldehyde. ) 



56 

Dissolvent. A remedy promoting solution of 
tissue. (Iodides.) 

Diuretic. A drug to increase the secretion of 
urine. ( Buchu. ) 

Drastic. An agent to cause violent action of 
the bowels. (CrotonOil.) 

Ecbolic. A drug to produce abortion. (Ergot.) 

Electuary. A composition of soft consistence 
taken internally to allay irritation or alleviate 
disease. (Honey, Molasses ) 

Euminative. An agent to remove material 
from the body. (Magnesium Sulphate.) 

Emetic. A medicine to produce vomiting. 
(Ipecac.) 

Emmenagogue. A drug to stimulate menstru- 
ation. (Potassium Permanganate.) 

Emollient. A substance used externally to 
mechanically soften and protect tissues. ( Flaxseed 
Poultice, Oils. ) 

Epispastic. An agent to produce a blister. 
( Strong Ammonia. ) 

Errhine. An agent to increase the nasal se- 
cretions. (Formalin.) 

Escharotic. A substance to destroy tissue. 
(Chromic Acid) 

Evacuant. A medicine to expel substances 
from the body — chiefly with reference to the in- 
testines. (Aloes.) 

Excitant. An agent to arouse vital activity, 
or to produce increased action in an organism or 
any of its tissues. (Nux Vomica.) 

Exhilarant. An agent to stimulate the mind. 
(Alcohol.) 

Expectorant. A medicine to act upon the 



pulmonary mucous membrane to increase or alter 
its secretions. (Ammonium Chloride.) 

Febrifuge. An agent to decrease fever. 
(Aconite.) 

Galactagogue. A medicine to increase the 
secretion of milk. ( Pilocarpine. ) 

Germicide. An agent to destroy parasites. 
(Carbolic Acid. ) 

Hematinic. A tonic for the blood. (Hemo- 
globin. Iron Preparations. ) 

Hemolytic. An agent which impoverishes the 
blood. (Mineral Acids. ) 

Hemostatic. A remedy to check bleeding. 
(Iron Subsulphate. Monsell's Powder. ) 

Hepatic Depressant or Sedative. A medi- 
cine to decrease the functions of the liver. 
(Opium. ) 

Hepatic Stimulant. A drug to increase the 
liver's functions ( Nitrohydrochloric Acid. J 

HidroTic or Hydrotic. An agent to produce 
perspiration. (Spirit Nitrous Ether.) 

Hydragogue. An agent causing full watery 
discharges from the bowels. (Gamboge!) 

Hyper^ESTHetic. Increasing the sensitiveness 
of the skin. 

Hypnotic A drug producing sleep. (Chloral). 

Hyposthenic. A debilitating medicine. 
(Lobelia. ) 

Incitant. A remedy to excite functional ac- 
tivity. (Strychnine.) 

Insecticide. A remedy to destroy insects. 
(Benzine. | 

Intoxicant. An agent to excite or stupefy. 
(Alcohol, i 



58 



Irritant. A substance causing irritation, 
pain, inflammation and tension, either by mechan- 
ical or chemical action. (Heat, Mustard.) 

LactaGOGUE. An agent to increase the secre- 
tion of milk. (Malt.) 

Laxative. A medicine acting mildly in open- 
ing or loosening the bowels. (Sulphur.) 

Lenitive. An agent having the quality of 
easing pain or protecting tissues from the action 
of irritants. (Oils. ) 

LiQUEEACiENT. An agent promoting the lique- 
fying processes of the system. (Iodine.) 

LiThagogue. An agent to expel calculi from 
bladder or kidney. (Benzoic Acid or Benzoates.) 

LITHOI.YTIC An agent to dissolve gravel. 
(Ammonium Benzoate.) 

L/IThonTriptic. An agent to dissolve gravel. 
(Potassium Carbonate.) 

Local Anesthetic. A medicine to destroy 
sensation, when applied locally. (Cocaine Hydro- 
chlorate. ) 

Local Astringent. An agent to contract the 
tissues with which it comes in contact. (Lead 
Acetate. ) 

Lubricant. An agent to soothe irritation in 
the throat, fauces, etc. (Olive oil. Honey.) 

Mechanical. An agent acting on a physical 
basis. (Slippery Elm. ) 

Medicament. Any agent used for curing dis- 
eases or wounds. (Belladonna.) 

Medicine. A substance administered in the 
treatment of disease. (Arsenic. ) 

Mydriatic. An agent causing dilatation of 
the pupil. (Atropine. Cocaine.) 



59 

Myotic. A drug causing contraction of the 
pupil. (Morphine.) 

Narcotic. A powerful remedy causing stupor. 
(Opium). 

Nauseant. A substance causing sickness in the 
stomach. (Ipecac.) 

Nephritic. Medicine used in renal diseases. 
(UvaUrsi.) 

Nervine. Medicine to calm the nervous sys- 
tem. (Bromides.) 

Neurotic. A medicine acting upon the nerv- 
ous system. (Camphor Monobromate. ) 

Nutrient. A substance to build up the wasted 
tissues of the system. (Cod Liver Oil. ) 

Nutriment. Any substance which promotes 
growth and repairs the waste of the tissues. ( Food. ) 

Obtundent. An agent which relieves irrita- 
tion or reduces sensibility. ( Opium. ) 

Odontalgic. An agent for the relief of tooth- 
ache. (Oil of Cloves.) 

Odorant. A substance with a pronounced 
odor. (Musk.) 

Opiate. A medicine causiug sleep. (Opium, 
Chloral. ) 

Oxytocic. An agent to aid or produce parturi- 
tion. (Ergot. Cotton Root. ) 

Oxyuricide. An agent destructive to parasitic 
(Oxyuris) worms. (Santonin.) 

Pabulum. Any material which affords nour- 
ishment to the tissues. (Food. ) 

Palliative. A remedy for the relief but not 
necessarily the cure of a disease. (Morphine.) 

Panacea. A remedy pretending to cure all 
diseases. (Some Patent Medicines. ) 



6o 



Parasiticide. A remedy for the destruction 
of parasites. (Calcium Sulphide.) 

Parturient or Parturifacient. A medicine to 
aid in the birth of the young. (Ustilago.) 

Peristaltic. A drug increasing the movement 
or contraction of the intestines. ( Strychnine. ) 

Placebo. An inert substance given to satisfy a 
patient. (Sugar of Milk, Bread Pill. ) 

Poison. A substance which in sufficient amount 
is destructive to life. (Prussic Acid. ) 

Potential. A remedy which though powerful, 
is somewhat delayed in its action. (Arsenic.) 

Preservative — An agent to prevent deteriora- 
tion of another substance. (Boric Acid ) 

Preventive. Any measure or agent which re- 
tards or prevents disease. (Hygiene. Quinine as 
a preventive of malaria. ) 

Prophylactic. A medicine to prevent the 
taking or development of disease. (Vaccine. ) 

Protective. An agent to protect the part to 
which it is applied. ( Collodion.) 

Pungent. An agent sharp and stimulating in 
its action. ( Ammonia. ) 

Purgative. A medicine to produce increased 
discharges from the bowels. (Aloes. ) 

Pustulant An agent which, when applied 
externally, causes the formation of pus. (Croton 
Oil.) 

Recuperative. A medicine to restore strength. 
(Cod Liver Oil.) 

Refrigerant. An agent which produces the 
sensation of coolness. (Alcohol externally. ) 

Relaxant. An agent that relieves contracted 
tissues, muscles, etc. (Chloroform.) 



6i 



Remedy. An agent used in the treatment of 
disease. ( Medicine. ) 

Reparative. A substance to restore debili- 
tated tissues. (Food. Tonics.) 

Resolvent. A remedy for the removal of hard 
tumors (Iodine. ) 

Restorative A medicine for causing a re- 
turn of bodily vigor. (Arsenic. Strychnine.) 

RevulsanT or Revulsive. An agent that by 
irritation, draws fluid from a distant diseased part. 
(Cantharides. ) » 

Rubefacient. An agent causing irritation and 
redness of the skin. (Mustard.) 

Saline. A cooling salt. (Magnesium Sulphate.) 

Sedative. A medicine to decrease functional 
activity. (Potassium Bromide.) 

Septic. An agent that promotes putrefaction. 
( Bacteria. ) 

Sialagogue. A medicine that promotes the 
flow of saliva. (Pyrethrum. Pilocarpus. ) 

Simple Bitter. A drug with a bitter taste and 
tonic action. (Calumba. Quassia). 

Somnifacient. An agent to induce sleep. 
(Morphine. ) 

Soporific. A drug causing drowsiness and 
sleep. (Morphine.) 

Sorbefacient. A medicine causing abortion. 
(Ergot. ) 

Specific. A remedy supposed to exert a spec- 
ial action in the prevention or cure of certain dis- 
eases. (Quinine in Malaria, Potassium Iodide in 
Actinomycosis. ) 

Sternutatory. An agent causing sneezing. 
(White Hellebore.) 



62 



Stimulant. A medicine to increase or quicken 
functional activity. (Ammonium Carbonate. ) 

Stomachic. A drug to stimulate functional 
activity of the stomach (Gentian.) 

Stomatic. A medicine used for diseases of the 
mouth (Potassium Chlorate. Borax. ) 

StupefacienT. A drug causing stupefaction. 
(Opium. ) 

Styptic. Agents causing contraction of blood 
vessels to check bleeding. (Alum. ) 

Succedaneum. A medicine that may be sub- 
stituted for others possessing similar properties. 
(Chloral for Potassium Bromide.) 

Sudorific. A medicine or agent causing in- 
creased sweating. ( Jaborandi. ) 

SuppuranT. A substance causing the forma- 
tion of pus. (Croton Oil.) 

Synergist. A drug which cooperates or as- 
sists the action of another. (Chloral with Bro- 
mides. ) 

T^nicide. A remedy for destroying tape 
worms. (Male Fern.) 

T^Enifuge. An agent to expel tape worms. 
(Areca Nut.) 

Tetanic. A drug which increases the irrita- 
bility of the cord or muscles producing spasms. 
(Strychnine.) 

Tonic. A medicine promoting nutrition and 
giving tone to the system. (Arsenic. ) 

Topic or Topical. An external local remedy. 
(Liniment.) 

Toxic. A poisonous substance. (Phosphorus.) 

Tricophyia. Remedies promoting the growth 
of the hair. (Pilocarpine.) 



63 



Uterine. An agent acting upon the uterus. 
(Ustilago. ) 

Vehicle. A substance used as a medium for 
th,e administration of medicines. (Syrups. ) 

Vermicide. An agent to destroy parasitic 
worms. (Creosote.) 

Vermifuge. An agent to expel parasitic worms. 
(Arecoline Hydrobromate. Purgatives). 

Vesicant. A blistering agent. (Cantharides. ) 

Virus. A poison causing a morbid process or 
disease; a pathogenic organism. (Cowpox. Virus 
of Rabies. ) 

Vulnerary. Any remedy or agent for healing 
wounds. (Ointments, etc.) 

Zoiatrica. Veterinary Medicines. 



TERMINATION OF MEDICAL 
TERMS. * 



^E-RE-SiS (airesis, a taking of anything). Ex- 
ample (dia, throughout), Di-se-re-sis, a breach of 
continuity. 

A-GOGUE [agogos, one who leads), denoting 
substances which expel others. Example, chola- 
gogues [chole, bile) , purgatives expelling bile. 

Ag-ra (agra, seizure), denoting seizure or pain, 
generally applied to gout. Ex. , Cheir-ag-ra (cheir) 
gout in the hand. Ment-ag-ra (mentum, chin) , 
eruption on the chin. 

Al-gi-a [algos, pain). Ex., Ceph-al-al-gi-a (kep- 
hale, the head). Neu-ral-gi-a, pain in a nerve. 

Cele (kele, a tumor). Ex. {bonbon, the groin), 
Bu-bon-o-cele, a tumor in the groin. 

Ceph-a-lus [kephale, the head), denoting some 
affection of the head. Ex., A-ceph-a-lus, without 
a head. 

Cra-ni-um {kr anion, the skull), denoting the 
head of anything ; (olene, the ulna ). O-le-cra-non, 
the head of the ulna. 

Dem-ic, {demos, a people). En-dem-ic, dis- 
eases in or among, or peculiar to a people. 

En-ter-y {entera, the bowels), denoting affec- 
tions of the bowels. Ex. (dus, with difficulty ) . 
Dys-en-ter-y, inflammation of mucous membrane 
of large intestines. 

Fa-ci-ent {fa-ci-o, to make), denoting the pro- 
duction of any particular effect. Ex., Ru-be-fa- 
ci-ent, a substance which makes the body red. 



*Adapted from Hoblyn's Medical Dictionary. 



65 



Form {forma, likeness), denoting resemblance, 
Ex., A-e-ri-form, like air. 

Fuge {fugo % I expel), denoting that which ex- 
pels. Ex., Feb-ri-fuge, a substance which expels 
fever. 

Gen — Gen-e-sis — Gen-ous {genesis, genera- 
tion), denoting production or generation. Ex., 
Oxygen {ox us, acid), generating acid, as was 
supposed, Ex-o-ge-nous, outside growing, applied 
to plants growing by external increase. 

Gnosis [gnosis, knowledge). Ex. (dia, through- 
out) . Di-ag-no-sis, distinction of diseases. 

Graph- y [graphe, writing), a description of 
anything. Ex., Ad-e-no-graph-y, [aden y a gland), 
a description of the glands. 

Hex-i-a (exis, a habit), denoting an habitual 
state. Cac-hex-i-a (kakos, bad), bad state of the 
body. 

Lep-SY {lepsis, a taking), denoting the act of 
taking). Cat-a-lep-sy (kata, thoroughly), a spas- 
modic attack of the limbs retaining them in one 
position. 

Lo-gy {logos, an account), denoting a treatise 
on or description of anything. Ex. , Os-te-ol-o-gy 
{osteos, a bone), a description of the bones. 

Ly-sis [lusts, a loosening). Ex., A-nal-y-sis, 
the resolution of a compound body into its con- 
stituent parts. 

Ma-ni-a (mani a, madness). Ex. , Mo-no-ma-ni-a 
(monos, alone), madness on one subject. 

Me-ter (metron, a measure). Ex., Ther-mom- 
e-ter {therme, heat), a measurer of heat. 

O-dyne — O-dyn-i-a (oduue pain). Ex-, An-o- 
dyne, without pain. 



66 



Oid (eidos, likeness). Ex., Ad-en-oid (aden, 
gland), like a gland. 

Oph-thai,-mos {opthalmos, the eye). Xer-oph- 
thal-mi-a (xeros, dry), dryness of the eye. 

O-rkx-i-a. (orexis, appetite or desire). Ex., 
An-o-rex-i-a, want of appetite. 

Path-i-a — Pathy (pathos, affection). Ex., 
Ho-moe-o-path-y {onioios, similar), the art of cur- 
ing by inducing a similar disease. 

Pkp-SI-a [pep sis, digestion). Dys-pep-si-a (dus 
with difficulty) , difficult digestion. 

Pha-GI-a {phago, to eat). Ex., Dys-pha-gi-a, 
difficulty of swallowing. 

Pho-bi-a, (phodos, fear). Ex , Hy-dro-pho-bi-a, 
{udor, water), dread of water. 

Pho-ni-a {phone, voice). Ex., A-pho-ni-a, loss 
of voice. 

Pho-rus (phero, I convey). Ex., Phos-phor-us 
(phos, light) , conveying light. 

Phy-sis {phusis, nature), denoting production 
or existence. Ex., Sym-phy-sis (sum, with), the 
growing together of bones, as of ossa pubis. 

PivE-Gi-A (plege, a stroke) He-mi-ple-gi-a (He?n- 
isus, half) , a paralysis of one side of the body. 

Pncea ( pnoia, breathing) . Ex. , Dys-pnoea, dif- 
ficulty of breathing. 

Ptosis {.ptosis, a falling down)., 

Pty-sis (ptusis, a spitting). Ex., Hae-mo-pty- 
sis (Haima, blood), a spitting of blood. 

Rha-gi-a {rago, I burst forth). Ex., Haem-or- 
rha-gia, a bursting forth of blood. 

Raph-e {raphe, a seam). Ex., Staph-y-lor- 
raph-y, a sewing up of fissures of the palate. 



67 



Rhcea [reo, I flow). Ex., Leu-cor-rhoea (Leukos, 
white), a white discharge. 

Sar-CA or Sar-CI-a (sar.v, flesh). Ex., Poly- 
sar-ci-a ( polus, much) , excess of flesh. 

Scope — Sco-pv {skopos, an inspection). Oph- 
thal-mo-scope, an instrument to inspect the eye. 

Sta-sis (istemi, I stand), denoting a standing or 
preposition in a place. Ex., Met-a-sta-sis (meta, 
a position denoting change from one place to 
another), transference to another part. 

Sto-ma (stoma, the mouth). Di-sto-ma (dis f 
twice), two-mouthed. 

The-SIS (thesis, a position). Di-ath-e-sis, (dta, 
throughout. ) The condition throughout, consti- 
tutional condition. 

Tome — To-my [tome, a section.) An-at-o-my, 
cutting up a dissection. Ker-a-tome, a knife for 
dividing the cornea. 

To-xi-a — To-nos (tonos, tension). Ex. 

A-to-nia ) .,, 
A-ton-ic , without tone. 

Tro-phy (trophe, nourishment). A-tro-phy 
defective nutrition. 

U-RE-Sis — U-ri-a [o uresis, the act of discharg- 
ing urine ). Ex., Dys-u-ri-a, difficulty in discharg- 
ing the urine. 



PRESCRIPTION WRITING 



A prescription may be defined as a written order 
or formula of ingredients, with directions to the 
compounder and instructions for the guidance of 
the patient. The term is derived from the Latin 
prae "before" and scriptum "written." 

It is generally conceded that Latin is the best 
language for prescriptions. It is a dead language 
and therefore not subject to the variations which 
modern languages are continually undergoing. It 
is unchangeable the world over and a prescription 
written in this country may be put up in a foreign 
country with equal facility. The Latin name of a 
drug is distinctive and as a rule means only a given 
drug and ambiguity is therefore avoided ; in some 
of the modern languages a given drug may have a 
variety of names, and in some cases the same name 
is applied to different drugs. Finally there is an 
element of secrecy which is often desirable to pre- 
vent the patient or general public from knowing 
what has been prescribed, and there is less likeli- 
hood of "self doctoring" or using the prescription 
for some disorder for which it is not applicable.. 

A true principle of a prescription as based upon 
a maxim of Asclepiades, Curare cito } tuto et 
fucunde, is to Cure quickly, safely and pleasantly. 
According to this rule the typical prescription 
should contain, in the first place, an ingredient 
which is expected to relieve or cure the patient 
and is therefore called the Basis ; second, an in- 
gredient designed to assist the action of the basis 
so that it may do its work more quickly, desig- 



6 9 

nated as the Adjuvant ; third, a substance intended 
to correct or modify any undesirable or injurious 
effect of the basis or adjuvant, or to cause it to act 
more safely than if used alone, and on this account 
is referred to as a Corrective ; and fourth, a sub- 
stance may be added, which will give such form 
and consistence to the preparation as to make it 
pleasant and at the same time dilute the whole 
preparation to the proper proportion for measuring 
out the intended doses, termed the Vehicle. The 
following table will express the idea in a concrete 
form : 



Curare (Cure) 
Cito ^Quickly) 
Tuto (Safely)' 
et 


with the (Basis). 

" (Adjuvant). 
11 " (Corrective). 


Jucunde (Pleasantly) 


" " (Vehicle). 



In Veterinary practice jucunde is generally ig- 
nored as the patients do not take to the idea of 
medicines pleasantly as a rule, and the principal 
use of the Vehicle is to dilute the ingredients to 
the proper dosage. 

In addition to the ingredients other data are 
given, such as the date, name of patient, direc- 
tions to the compounder and to the patient, and 
the signature of the physician. Taking the pre- 
scription in its entirety it may be divided as 
follows : 

Superscription or heading includes the symbol 
{fc [Recipe) the first direction, "take". 
Inscription, the ingredients, or basis, adjuvant, 

corrective and vehicle. 
Subscription, the directions to the compounder. 



7o 



Signature, the directions to the patient and the 
signature of the prescribef with the date. 

In a simple prescription the basis may be the 
only ingredient. In a compound prescription 
(with two or more ingredients), the agents added 
may be neither adjuvant nor corrective and yet be 
a good prescription. It is desirable, however, to 
keep the consideration of a ''typical" prescription 
in mind. 

Unusual doses of a powerful drug may be re- 
fused by the pharmacist unless some indication is 
made that the dose is intended. This is usually 
done by underscoring the dose, or better yet 
writing after it the abbreviation o. R. (Quantum 
Rectum). 

A tonic prescription for the horse illustrating 
the points referred to may be given as follows : 

Mr. G . Bay Mare, Daisy. 

Superscription, JJ Apoth. Met. 

Inscription, 

(Basis) Nucis Vomicae pulv. 5vj 24 

(Adjuvant) Ferri Sulphatis pulv. ovj 24 

(Corrective) Aloes Barbadensis pulv. 5nj 12 

(Vehicle) Syrupi Zingiberis. q. s. 
Subscription. Misce et fiant boli sex. 
Signature. Give one ball morning and night. 

Richard Roe, D.V.M., 

Jan. 2, 1905. 148 Second Street. 

The metric system is coming more and more into 
use so that a knowledge of it will in a few years, 



71 



be indispensable. The beginner should learn to 
write his prescriptions in both the apothecary and 
metric systems. 

The ingredients of a prescription are frequently 
abbreviated and although writing out in full is 
better there is no special objection to the former 
practice if there is no ambiguity in the abbrevia- 
tions. Grievous errors have occurred in this way 
and too much caution cannot be exercised in mak- 
ing the meaning clear, so that the most ignorant 
drug clerk may avoid error. 

Numerous examples of ambiguous abbreviations 
might be given, but a few mentioned below will 
serve as examples : 

Acid hyd. may mean either hydrobromic, hydro- 
chloric, hydriodic, or hydrocyanic acid. 
Chlor. may mean chlorine, chloroform, chloral 

hydrate, chlorate or chloride. 
Hyd)\ Chlor. may mean calomel, corrosive sub- 
limate, hydrate of chloral, or hydrastin 
hydrochlorate. 

The context may often assist in arriving at the 
correct meaning of the abbreviation but it is not 
safe in all cases to depend upon this. 

A limited knowledge of Latin will serve to en- 
able one to write prescriptions properly. The 
student becomes familiar with the Latin names of 
drugs if he has studied his Materia Medica faith- 
fully. The principal difficulty that he encounters 
is in making the changes necessary for the correct 
grammatical wording to the dispenser and the 
grammatical ending of the ingredients and their 
quantities. 

The following simple rules taken from Mann, 



72 

will, it is believed, enable one not previously ac- 
quainted with Latin, to write proper prescriptions 
with correct endings. 

Rule I. The noun expressing the name of the 
medicine is put in the genitive case, when the 
quantity of it to be used is expressed. 

Rule II. If no quantity is expressed, but only 
a numeral adjective follows, the noun is put in the 
accusative. 

Rule III. The quantity is put in the accusative 
case governed by the imperative Recipe. 

Rule IV. Adjectives agree with these nouns 
in gender, number and case. 

For every day practice the accusative of the 
quantity is seldom written out but is usually ex- 
pressed by the more convenient symbols. The 
principal difficulty is the formation of the genitive 
case. The following rules (Mann) will assist in 
overcoming the difficulty. They apply only to 
pharmacopoeial nouns. 

RULES FOR FORMATION OF GENITIVE CASE. 

i. All nouns ending in a form the genitive in 
se as quinina, quininse. Exception. — Phy so stigma, 
Physostigmatis and some others. 

II. All nouns ending in us, um, os, on, form 
the genitive in i as Couium, Conii. Exceptions. — 
Rhus, gen. Rho.is, Flos, gen. F lor is, Erigeron, 
gen. Erigerontis ; Fruclus, Cornus, Querctis, 
Spiritus, do not change. 

III. All other nouns of whatever termination 
make the genitive in s, or is, chloral^ gen. chlor- 
alis. vSome lengthen the termination thus : 



73 



as genitive atis as Acetas, Acetatis. 
is " idis as Anthemis, Anthemidis. 
o " o;masPepo, Peponis. 

x fl cis as Cortex, Corticis. 

There are a few exceptions. Asclepias, gen. 
Asclepiadis ; Mas, gen. Maris; Phosphis, Sul- 
phis, etc. gen. *#$; Mucilago, gen. Mucilaginis ; 
So lid ago, gen. Solidaginis, etc. 

The following words do not change in their 
genitive: Amyl*, Azedarach, Berberis, Buchu, 
Cajuputi, Cannabis, Catechu, Condurango, Cor- 
nus, Curare, Fructus, Digitalis, Hydrastis, Jabor- 
andi, Kino, 3/atico, Ouercus, Sassafras, Sago, 
Sinapis, Spiritus. 

It is seldom necessary to nse the accusative of 
the nouns expressing the ingredients, only when 
the quantity is omitted, and a numeral adjective 
takes its place. 

As before stated, the use of the appropriate sym- 
bols renders it unnecessary, as a rule, to write out 
in the accusative the words expressing quantity. 
Sometimes, however, it is desirable to do so, and 
the following simple rules for the formation of the 
accusative of these words are appended : 

I. Nouns expressing quantity ending in a, are 
feminine and make the accusative -singular in am 
and the plural in as. Example, Drachma, ace. 
sing. Drachmam, pi. Drachmas. 

II. Those ending 1 in um or us make the accu- 



*Those in italics are indeclinable, those in us are of the 
fourth declension ; the others are of the third. Apiol and 
Sumbul are given as indeclinable by some authorities, 
Dunglison gives Apiolum, i: Sumbul, i; Amyl, Amylis is 
also given. 



74 

sative singular in um. The accusative plural of 
those in us is in os, and of those in um in a. Those 
in us are masculine, those in um are neuter. 
Congius, ace. sing. Congium, ace. pi. Congios. 
Granum, " " Granum, " " Grana. 

The adjectives are declined like the nouns. The 
numeral cardinal adjectives are indeclinable except 
unus, duo and tres. 

They are thus declined : 

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. 



Nom. 


unus, 


una, 


unum. 


Gen. 


unius, 


unius, 


unius. 


Ace. 


unum, 


unam, 


unum. 


Nom. 


duo, 


duae, 


duo. 


Gen. 


duorum, 


duarum, 


duorum. 


Ace. 


duos, 


duas, 


duo. 


Nom. 


tres, 


tres, 


tria. 


Gen. 


trium, 


trium, 


trium. 


Ace. 


tres, 


tres, 


tria. 



The following is a list of some of the more fre- 
quently used numeral adjectives : 





CARDINALS. 


ORDINALS 


I 


I Unus 


ist Primus 


2 


II Duo 


2nd Secundus 


3 


III Tres 


3rd Tertius 


4 


IV Quatuor 


4th Ouartus 


5 


V Ouinque 


5th Ouintus 


6 


VI Sex 


6th Sextus 


7 


VII Septem 


7th Septimus 


8 


VIII Octo 


8th Octavus 


9 


IX Novem 


9th Nonus 



75 



io X Decern 

11 XI Undecini 

12 XII Duodecim 

13 XIII Tredecim 

14 XIV Ouatuordecim 

15 XV Ouindecim 

16 XVI Sexdecim 

17 XVII Septetidecim 

18 XVIII Octodecim 

19 XIX Novendecim 

20 XX Vigenti 

21 XXI Vigenti unum 

22 XXII Vigenti duo 

30 XXX Triginta 
40 XL Quadraginta 
50 L Ouinquaginta 

60 LX Sexaginta 

70 LXX Septuaginta 
80 LXXX Octaginta 
90 XC Nonaginta 

100 C Centum 

The verbs are nearly all used in the imperative 
mood, being addressed to the compounder. Only 
a few prepositions are commonly used ; they are 
ad, to; ana (Greek), of each; cum, with ; in, 
into ; ad and in govern the accusative, cum, the 
ablative and ana the genitive cases. 

The following abbreviated prescription may be 
used, when written out in full and rendered into 
Latin, to illustrate many of the points already 
referred to : 



10th Decimus 
nth Undecimus 
12th Duodecimus 
13th Tertius decimus 
14th Quartus decimus 
15th Ouintus decimus 
16th Sextus decimus 
17th Septimus decimus 
18th Octavus decimus 
19th Nonus decimus 
20th Vicesimus 
21st Vicesimus primus 
22nd Vicesimus secun- 

dus 
30th Tricesimus 
40th Ouadragesimus 
50th Ouinquagesimus 
60th Sexigesimus 
70th Septuagesimus 
80th Octogesimus 
90th Nonagesimus 
100th Centesimus 



7 6 

f{, Powd. Scammotiy g ss 

Jalap grv 

Calomel gr nj 

M. Fiat pulvis purgans. 

The prescription is taken from Pereira and 
Griffiths and when put into Latin would appear 
and be explained as follows : 



.Ill ~ fj 

""^ Cd '«0 g «* !I3 

*£3 to cd fc fc ."£ 

485-$ ** 



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79 

A few drugs in a prescription are usually better 
than many. It is irrational to combine a number 
of agents { shotgun prescription) without especial 
attention to the specific action of each. 

In constructing a prescription, it is first neces- 
sary to decide upon the proper remedial agents ; 
then upon the size of the dose and lastly the num- 
ber of doses to be given. The prescription on p. 
70 written out to show these details would be as 
follows : 

Nucis Vomicae (^single dose 01 / 6 = )ovj 
Ferri Sulphatis ( " " 01 > 6 = )5vj 

Aloes Barb. ( u " oss X6 — )3nj 

Syrupi Zingiberis q. s. 
Mix and make into six balls. 
In practice the multiplication of single doses is 
carried out mentally and the product only is 
written down. 

The Roman numerals should always be used to 
designate the quantities ; thus : i, ij, iij, iv, v, vj, 
vij, viij, ix, etc. Always dot each i to avoid mis- 
takes ; the last i is usually made in the form of a j 
to show that it is the last of a series. 

AN EASY METHOD OF WRITING PRESCRIPTIONS IN 
THE METRIC SYSTEM (AFTER EEONARD ). 

In a two ounce prescription a single dose, in 
grains or minims, is given in the same figures as 
the total amount of the drug in the prescription 



8o 



expressed in grams or cubic centimeters, as for 
example : 

j£ Kxtracti Belladonnae Radicis Fluidi 

(2 minims dose)= 2 cc. 
Potassii Bromidi (8 grains dose) =; 8 grams 
Aquae q. s. 2 fluid ounces =60 cc. 

In a two ounce prescription there would be fif- 
teen doses. In a gram or 1 cc. there are approx- 
imately 15 grains or minims ; the basis is therefore 
15 to 1. In a one ounce mixture there would be 
one half the above amounts ; in a four ounce pre- 
scription there would be twice the above amounts. 

COLEMAN'S EASY METHOD OE WRITING 
PRESCRIPTIONS. 

(< It may be assumed for the purpose of writing 
prescriptions, that there are fifteen doses of a 
teaspoonful each in a 2 ounce mixture ; 30 in a 4 
ounce mixture ; 60 in an 8 ounce mixture. Only 
in the case of dangerous drugs is a more accurate 
estimation necessary. 

In a 4 ounce mixture, then, with a teaspoonful 
dose, each dose will contain ^ of the total amount 
of any drug which may be in solution or uniform 
suspension. 

In the case of drugs with a usual dose of about 
5 gr. or m. , 1 dram may be taken as the basis of 
calculation. 

If 1 dram of a drug be added to a four ounce 
• mixture, each teaspoonful will contain -fa of a 
dram, or 2 grains or minims. 

Taking 2, then, as a unit, it is only necessary to 
find the multiple of 2 which will give the desired 



8i 

dose and this Avill represent the number of drams 
to be put into the prescription. 
To take an example, 

Tincturae Opii Camphoratae (dose 15 m. ) .. 

2X7/^ = 5vij SS 

Salol (dose 5 gr. ) 2x2/2 =3 11 SS 

Misturae Cretae q. s. ad giv~ 

M. et Sig. 

In a 2 ounce mixture, each teaspoonful will con- 
tain Jg of a dram, or 4 gr. or m. 

In an 8 ounce mixture, each teaspoonful will 
contain ^ of a dram, or 1 gr. or m. 

From the above statements the following rule 
may be formulated : 

Divide 60 (one dram ) by the number of doses in 
the prescription and multiply the result by the 
numeral necessary to give the desired dose. This 
numeral will represent the number of drams to be 
used. 

In the case of drugs with a maximum dose of 
less than a grain, 1 grain instead of 1 dram may be 
taken as the basis of calculation. Thus, if one 
grain be added to a 4 ounce mixture with a tea- 
spoonful dose, each dose will contain s \ of a 
grai n . " 

The above methods are applicable especially in 
human and canine practice. 

LEONARD'S QUICK WAY OF REDUCING 
PERCENTAGES. 
Rule I. Call the numerator of the fraction 
one grain. 



82 



RuiyK II. Double the first figure of the denom- 
inator and call this ounces. This will then give 
almost mathematically correct reductions. 

Thus : i to 1,000 would be i grain to 2 ounces ; 
1 to 2,000 would be one grain to 4 ounces ; 1 to 
3,000 would be 1 grain to 6 ounces : 1 to 4,000 
would be 1 grain to 8 ounces ; 1 to 5,000 would be 
1 grain to 10 ounces and so on. If you want 1 to 
500, this would be 1 grain to 1 ounce — there being 
480 (500) grains or minims to the ounce. One to 
100 would be 5 grains to 1 ounce. 

By committing these two simple rules to mem- 
ory, an instantaneous reduction for any percentage 
mixture can be made to the apothecary's basis." 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

Those most generally used by the physicians 
and pharmacists in the United States are the Troy 
or Apothecaries Weights, and the Wine or Apothe- 
caries Measures. The Metric System, however, 
has been recognized to such a great extent that it 
has beeome a necessity for physicians to become 
familiar with it. 

TROY OR APOTHECARIES WEIGHTS 

Pound Ounce Drachm Scruple Grain 

{Libra) (Uncia) {Drachma) (Scrupulum) (Granum) 

lb 1 — 12 = 96 = 

01 = 8 = 

5i 



288 


= 


5760 


24 


= 


480 


3 


= 


60 


9i 


== 


gr. 20 



83 



WINE OR APOTHECARIES MEASURES 

Gallon Pint Fluidounce Fluidrachm Minim 
( Congius) ( Oct a riu s ) ( Flu idu ncia){ Flu idrach ma)( Min im u m ) 



Cong, i 



= 8 — 128 = 1024 


= 61440 


1 = 16 = 128 


= 7680 


fgi = 8 


480 


foi 


= M. 60 


AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS 




Pound Ounce Grain 


{Libra ) ( Uncia ) ( Gra 


num.) 


lb. 1 = 16 = 7l 


300 



oz. 1 = gr. 437| 
To avoid misapprehension in the use of the 
apothecary and avoirdupois systems, the symbols 
ft), o, 5, 9 should be consistently used for the 
apothecary , and the abbreviation lb. , oz. , gr. , for 
the avoirdupois. The abbreviation for the Troy 
pound is characterized by the cross line drawn 
through the letters ft) and should always mean 
twelve ounces, while the avoirdupois pound stands 
for sixteen ounces. The symbol 5 means an apoth- 
ecaries ounce of 480 grains, while "oz." means an 
avoirdupois ounce of 437^ grains. The grain 
weight is the same for both systems and the abbre- 
viation gr. will cause no confusion. The grain is 
therefore the unit in both systems and the term is 
derived from the old system of weighing, which 
required that there should be used a "grain of 
wheat, well dried and gathered out of the middle 
of the ear." The abbreviation gr., for grain, should 
be consistently used in the apothecary system, 
gm. for gram, in the metric system. 

In using the metric system of weights the gram 



8 4 



is ordinarily used as the standard and the other 
subdivisions are reckoned from it. 

METRIC WEIGHTS 

10 milligrams (mg.) make i centigram (eg.) 

10 centigrams make i decigram (dg. ) 

10 decigrams make r gram (gm.) 

iooo grani9 make i kilogram (kilo.) 

METRIC MEASURES 

iooo Cubic centimeters (cc. )( Milliliters) make i 
liter (L). 

i Gram equals the weight of i cc. of distilled 
water at a temperature of 4 C. 

TABLE OF APPROXIMATELY EQUIVALENT 
WEIGHTS 



1 milligram .001 = 


6? g raitl 


1 centigram .01 = 


i g rain 


1 decigram .1 = 


1 J grains 


1 gram = 


15I grains 


4 grams ( 3.9 gm.) = 


1 dram 


30 grams ( 31. 1 gm.) == 


1 ounce 


500 grams (453- 6 g m - ) = 


1 pound (av. ) 


1 kilogram = 


2 A pounds (av.) 


g X ? grain = 1 milligram^ 


.001 gram 


| grain— 1 centigram— 


. r gram 


1 grain = 


.065 gram 


^5.43 grains 


1. gram 


1 dram (apoth.) = 


3.90 grams 


1 ounce (apoth.) = 


3 1 . 1 grams 


1 minim = 


.061 cc. 


16 minims — 


1. cc. 


1 fluidram 


3-75 cc. 


1 fluidounce 


30. cc. 



85 



i cc. == 16 minims 

4 cc. (3.7 cc.) 1 fluidram 

30 cc. = 1 fluidounce 

To convert grains into centigrams, multiply by 
6.5. Thus 3 grains multiplied by 6.5 equals 19.5 
centigrams, or 10 grains equals 65 centigrams or, 
.65 gram. To convert centigrams into grains 
divide by 6.5. Thus 26 centigrams divided by 6.5 
equals 4 grains. 

DOMESTIC MEASURES 

A drop, gutta, (gtt.) is usually reckoned at about 
one minim. 

A tea-spoonful is about one fluidram. 

A table-spoonful is about one-half fluidounce. 

A wine-glassful is about two fluidounces. 

A tea-cupful is about five fluidounces. 

A breakfast-cupful is about eight fluidounces. 

A tumblerful is about eight fluidounces. 

Domestic measures vary considerably. There 
may be from 50 to 150 drops in a fluidram, a tea- 
spoon generally holds more than one dram, even 
as much as 2 drams or more. Cups and glasses 
also vary widely. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF COMBINING 
DRUGS IN A PRESCRIPTION. 



Although the tendency in modern therapeutics 
is toward simplicity rather than complexity in pre- 
scriptions, one may go to the extreme even in 
this direction. There is no doubt but that in very 
many cases a judicious combination of drugs will 
produce effects of a beneficial character which 
might be sought in vain from the use of a single 
remedy. A "shot gun" prescription, containing a 
great number of remedies introduced with the 
idea ithat by some lucky chance one or more of 
the ingredients may hit the disorder, is thoroughly 
unscientific and not to be encouraged. 

The rational combination of drugs was, perhaps, 
first discussed fully by Dr. John Ayrton Paris 
(Paris Pharmacologia, 1822). His treatment of 
the question has been so clear and exhaustive, 
that there has been but little room for improve- 
ment. The following paragraphs are based prin- 
cipally upon his work : 

1. The Action of a Medicine May be Aug* 
mented (Adjuvant Action). 

(a) By combining different forms of the same 
substance. An infusion is strengthened by the 
addition of the fluid extract or tincture of the 
same drug, in cases where all the active principles 
are not soluble in the same vehicle. Digitalis 
may be taken as an example, all of its active prin- 
ciples are not soluble in water. 

(b) By combining the medicine with others 



87 

which produce similar effects. A rule enunciated 
by Dr. Fordyce is to the effect that combination 
of similar remedies will produce a more certain, 
speedy, and considerable effect than an equivalent 
dose of any single one. A combination of chloral 
and bromide potassium is more certain for hyp- 
notic effects than either one alone. From the 
standpoint of purgation the same would be true of 
a combination of aloes and calomel, or as an emetic 
a mixture of ipecac and tartar emetic is more 
reliable for its effects than either drug singly. 

(c) By combining with the basis substances of 
a different nature which can, in some unknoivn 
manner enhance its action. The diuretic effect 
of squill is increased by calomel, and ipecac assists 
in the purgative action of jalap. 

II. The Action of a Medicine May be 
Modified ^corrective action) in order to 

OVERCOME UNPLEASANT EFFECTS. The griping 

tendency of purgatives may be corrected by com- 
bination with aromatics or essential oils. Acrid 
substances may be more or less overcome by tri- 
turating with mucilage. The constipating effect 
of iron may be overcome by the addition of aloes. 
See prescription p. 70. 

III. TO OBTAIN THE COMBINED OR JOINT 
ACTION OF TWO OR MORE MEDICINES. 

(a) Upon the same tissue. Purgative medi- 
cines will serve as an illustration. Some act by 
increasing peristalsis, others by augmenting the 
secretion of the intestines, as in the case of eserine 
and pilocarpine. The combination of podophyl- 
lum with calomel, for their joint action upon the 
liver, may be cited as another example. 



88 



(b) Upon different tissues or to combat dif- 
ferent symptoms. Probably the greatest number 
of prescriptions will come under this head. The 
desire to combat a number of different symtoms 
should not lead to excess in the combination of 
drugs. A well directed rifle ball will have a 
greater effect than a charge from a shot gun where 
only a few of the shot hit the mark. Some pre- 
scriptions have been reported which contained as 
many as 400 ingredients. The more complicated 
a prescription, the greater are the chances for 
failure. 

The symptoms of fever with cough may be 
treated with small doses of ipecac as .a sedative 
expectorant, tincture of aconite to quiet the cir- 
culation and allay the fever, with potassium 
bromide to alleviate excessive coughing. Other 
cases will readily suggest themselves. It may be 
desirable, in a given instance to stimulate the 
heart with one drug and the kidney or bowels with 
others. 

IV. To Form new Compounds the effects 
of which Differ from any of the Indi- 
vidual Constituents. Dover's Powder is a 
good illustration. This preparation has marked 
diaphoretic properties, while neither of its con- 
stituents, opium or ipecac, when taken separately, 
exert any powerful action upon the skin. "White 
Lotion" made by dissolving lead acetate and zinc 
sulphate in water ; "Black Lotion" by adding cal- 
omel to a solution of lime and "Yellow Lotion" 
by adding corrosive sublimate to a solution of 
lime, are also examples. 



8 9 



V. To Afford a Convenient and Agree- 
able Form of Administration. Solids, such 
as pills, capsules and powders are often times to be 
preferred. Liquid preparations are sometimes 
more desirable and they have the advantage of 
being more readily absorbed. The main thing, of 
course, is that the patient should get the proper 
remedy indicated by the symptoms ; but, at the 
same time, it is the duty of the prescriber to see 
that it is no more obnoxious than need be. This 
fact is sometimes lost sight of in veterinary prac- 
tice where the animal may be compelled to take 
the medicine, but nothing is lost to the patient 
nor prescriber, if the medicine is prepared in as 
palatable a form as possible without sacrificing 
anything of its pharmacologic action 

Due care should be exercised in selecting a 
vehicle which has little or no medicinal action of 
its own, or if it has that it will assist or correct the 
action of the medicines prescribed, and, if prac- 
ticable, one in which the other ingredients are 
soluble. 

The taste of many bitter substances like quinine, 
and salty drugs like ammonium chloride, may be 
made more agreeable by the addition of any of 
the preparations of glycyrrhiza. Caustic or irri- 
tating medicines, whether liquid or solid, must be 
well diluted before beins: swallowed. 



90 



EXAMPLES OF PRESCRIPTIONS 

The following graded scheme for the beginner 
in prescription writing may be employed ; ist, a 
prescription written out in Latin is translated into 
English with the quantities of the ingredients ex- 
pressed in both the apothecaries and metric sys- 
tems. 2d. An abbreviated prescription is written 
out in English, apothecaries and metric. 3d. An 
abbreviated prescription is written out in Latin ; 
apothecaries and metric. 4th. After a student has 
studied therapeutics a card is given him bearing 
the name of a disease, with the basis or principal 
remedy indicated from which he is to construct a 
compound prescription suitable for the disease 
mentioned. 

The following prescriptions are given as illus- 
trations of the scheme and serve merely as an out- 
line of the way in which the work may be carried 
on. The instructor can prepare any number of 
prescriptions under each grade for the student's 
exercises. 

The various symbols, unusual endings and com- 
binations may be included in such prescriptions 
for purposes of instruction. 



91 

LATIN INTO ENGLISH 

Plumbi Acetatis unciam 

Zinci Sulphatis drachmas sex 

Aquae ad Octarium. 

Misce. 

Signa. Fiat lotio alba. 
Take 

of Lead Acetate one ounce 30 

of Zinc Sulphate six drachms 24 

of Water to one pint 480 

Mix. 

Signature. Let a white lotion be made. 

J& (For horse) 

Aloes drachmas quatuor 

Fluidextracti Bella- 

donnae Radicis semidrachmam, 

Zingiberis pulveris drachmam cum semisse. 

Theriacae quantum sufficit. 

Misce. 

Signa. Fiat Bolus. 
Take 

of Aloes four drachms 15 

of Fluidextract of Bel- 
ladonna Root, half dram 2 

of Powdered Ginger one and a half drams 6 

of Molasses as much as suffices 
(sufficient quantity ) 

Mix. 

Signature. Let a bolus be made. 

Jfc (For dog) 

Olei Terebinthinae unciae semissem 
Olei Ricini unciam cum semisse 



9 2 



Ovum 


unum 




Aquae Ferventis 


uncias quatuordecim 




Misce et fiat enema. 






1 aKc 

of Oil of Turpentine 


half of one ounce 


15 


of Castor Oil 


one and a half ounces 


45 


One Egg 






of hot water 


fourteen ounces 


420 


Mix and let be made into an enema. 




{t 






Vitellum Ovi 


unius 




Olei Morrhuae 


uncias duas 




Spiritus Frumenti 


unciam cum semisse 




Acidi Phosphorici Di- 




luti 


drachmas tres 




Syrupi 


drachmas quinque 




Aquae Cinnamoni quan- 




tum sufficiat ad 


uncias octo. 




Misce et fiat emulsio. 






Take 






Yolk of one egg 






of Cod Liver Oil 


two ounces 


60 


of Whisky 


one and a half ounces 


45 


of Dilute Phosphoric 




Acid 


three drams 


12 


of Syrup 


five drams 


20 


of Cinnamon Water as much as may suffice 





to (make) eight ounces 240 

Mix and let an emulsion be made. 
J£ (For Dog) 

Morphinae Sulphatis granum 

Camphorae 

Pulveris Glycyrrhizae 



93 



Sacchari Lactis ana grana decem 

Misce. Divide in chartulas sex. 
Take 

of Morphine Sulphate one grain 

of Camphor 

of Powdered Liquorice Root 

of vSugar of Milk of each ten grains 

Mix. Divide into six powders. 



065 



Pepsinae 


drachmas duas 




Vini albi 


uncias septem 




Syrupi 


unciam dimidiam 




Fluidextracti Zingi- 






beris 


guttas octo 




Misce. Fiat Elixir. 






Take 






of Pepsin 


two drams 


8 


of White Wine 


seven ounces 


210 


of Syrup 


half an ounce 


15 


of Fluidextract of 






Ginger 


eight drops 





Mix. Let an Elixir be made. 



# 



Extracti Nucis Vomi- 
cae grani semissem 
Pulveris Scammonii granum 
Pulveris Aloes 
Pulveris Rhei ana grani tres quartas 

partes 
Alcoholis quantum sufncit. 

Misce. Facpilulas tales duodecim. 



94 



Take 

of Extract of Nux 

Vomica half of a grain 032 

of Powdered Scam- 

mony one grain 065 

of Powdered Aloes 
of Powdered Rhubarb 

of each three-fourths parts 

of a grain 048 

of Alcohol as much as', suffices. 

Mix. Make twelve such pills. 

Examples of abbreviated prescriptions written 
out in English in the Apothecary and Metric 
Systems. 

Ac. Carbol. 

Liq. Iodi. Comp. a a m xv 

Aq. Chloroformi. q. s. 5 11 

M. 
Take 

Carbolic Acid 

Compound Solution of 
Iodine of each 15 minims 1 

Chloroform Water suffi- 
cient quantity (to make) 2 ounces 60 

Mix. 

Ac. Sulph. Arom. 
Tr. Opii 

Spts. Camph. a a Svi 

M. 
Take 

Aromatic Sulphuric Acid 
Tincture of Opium 



95 

Spirits of Camphor of each 6 ounces 180 
Mix. 



£ 








Ouin. Sulph. 




3j 




Pulv. Belladon. Fol. 




sir 




Sod. Salicyl. 








Pulv. Cimicif. 


a a. 


OH] 




M. 








Ft. pulv. No. XII. 








Take 








Quinine Sulphate 




i ounce 


30 


Powdered Belladonna Leaves 


2 ounces 


60 



Sodium Salicylate 

Powdered Cimicifuga of each 3 ounces 90 

Mix. Make into 12 powders. 

Examples of Abbreviated prescriptions written 
out in Latin in the Apothecary aud Metric 
Systems. 



Ouin. Sulph. 


sr 


F. E. Nuc. Vom. 


3f~ 


Tr. Capsic. 


Sir) 


Ac. Muriat. Dil. 


5 1 vss 


M. 





# 



Quininae vSulphatis 


unciam 


30 


Fluidextracti Nucis 






Vomicae 


unciam 


30 


Tincturae Capsici 


uncias tres 


90 


Acidi Muriatici Diluti 


uncias quatuor 






cuin semisse 


135 



Misce. 



# 



Pot. Acet. 
Tr. Digital. 

Spts. Ether. Nit. 

Aquae 

M. 



q. s. 



3x 



# 



Potassii Acetatis uncias duas 

Tincturae Digitalis drachmas decern 

Spiritus Etheris Nitrosi uncias quinque 
Aquae quantum sufficit Octarium 



Jt 



Ouin. Sulph. 
Pulv. Opii 

Pulv. Ammon. Carb. 

Pulv. Camph. 

M. Make 12 powders. 



h 

3 if 

IV 



60 
40 

150 
480 



97 



Quinine Suiphatis 


unciam 


30 


Pulveris Opii 


drachmas duas 


8 


Pulveris Ammonii Car- 






bonatis 


uucias duas 


60 


Pulveris Camphorae 


unciani 


30 



Misce. Fiant pulveres numero duodecim. 

The next step in the series is the construction 
of the prescription according to its indication for 
a given disorder, the basis being mentioned and 
allowing the student to fill in the other ingredi- 
ents. The writer has found the following list 
serviceable in this connection, due regard being 
given to incompatibity, form, case endings, etc. 
The prescriptions may be written out in the ordi- 
nary abbreviated form or in Latin in the Apothe- 
cary or Metric systems. Any variety of subjects 
or combinations are available and excellent drill 
is furnished to the student. 



98 



Indication. 



Basis. 



Gastric Tonic. 

Diuretic. 

Cardiac Tonic. 

Influenza. 

Irritable Stomach. 

Skin Disease. 

Blister. 

Hepatic Congestion. 

Purgative. 

Diaphoresis. 

Sedative. 

Cathartic. 

Anodyne Liniment. 

Round Worms. 

Fever. 

Mange. 

Cough. 

Rickets. 

Purgative. 

Flat Worms. 

Indigestion. 

Diarrhoea. 

Anemia. 

Rheumatism. 

Edema. 

Diabetes Insipidus. 

Catarrhal Fever. 

General Tonic. 

Counter Irritant. 

Intestinal Antiseptic. 

Chorea. 



Gentian. 

Potassium Nitrate. 

Digitalis. 

Tr. Nux. Vomica. 

Bismuth. 

Fowler's Solution. 

Cantharides. 

Sodium Sulphate. 

Barium Chloride. 

Tr. Arnica Root. 

Chloral. 

Bserine Sulphate. 

Tr. Aconite. 

Santonin. 

Acetanilid. 

Sulphur. 

Belladonna. 

Oleum Phosporatum. 

Aloes. 

Male Fern. 

Pepsin. 

Tr. Opium. 

Iron Sulphate. 

Sodium Salicylate. 

Potassium Acetate. 

Iodine. 

Quinine. 

Nux Vomica. 

Aqua Ammonia. 

Salol. 

Arsenic. 



99 



TABL,E OF THERMOMETRIC EQUIVALENTS 

FAHRENHEIT AND CENTIGRADE SCALES 

To reduce Centigrade degrees to those of Fahrenheit 

Multiply by 9, divide by 5, and add 32 

To reduce Fahrenheit degrees to those of the Centigrade scale 

Subtract 32. uiultply by 5, and divide by 9 

TABLE OF EQUIVALENTS 



Centi- 


Fahren- 


Centi- 


Fahren- 


Centi- 


Fahren- 


grade. 


heit. 


grade. 


heit. 


grade. 


heit. 


—25 


— 13- 


6 


42.8 


37 


98.6 


—24 


II. 2 


7 


44.6 


38 


IOO.4 


—23 


—9-4 


8 


46.4 


39 


I02.2 


— 22 


-7-6 


9 


48.2 


40 


104. 


— 21 


-5-8 


10 


50. 


4i 


IO5.8 


— 20 


-4- 


11 


51.8 


42 


I07.6 


—19 


— 2.2 


12 


53-6 


43 


IO9.4 


— l8 


—O.4 


i3 


554 


44 


III. 2 


— 17 


1-4 


14 


57-2 


45 


"3- 


— l6 


3-2 


15 


59- 


46 


II4.8 


—15 


5- 


16 


60.8 


47 


II6.6 


—14 


6.8 


17 


62.6 


48 


II8.4 


— 13 


8.6 


18 


64.4 


49 


120.2 


— 12 


10.4 


19 


66.2 


5o 


122. 


— II 


12.2 


20 


68. 


5i 


I23.8 


— IO 


14. 


21 


69.8 


52 


125.6 


—9 


15.8 


22 


71.6 


53 


I27.4 


—8 


17.6 


23 


73-4 


54 


I29.2 


—7 


19.4 


24 


75-2 


55 


131. 


—6 


21.2 


25 


77- 


56 


132.8 


—5 


23- 


26 


78.8 


57 


134.6 


—4 


24.8 


27 


80.6 


58 


I36.4 


—3 


26.6 


28 


82.4 


59 


138.2 


— 2 


28.4 


29 


84.2 


60 


I40. 


— 1 


30.2 


30 


86. 


61 


141. 8 





32 


31 


87.8 


62 


143-6 


1 


33.8 


32 


89.6 


63 


145-4 


2 


35.6 


33 


91.4 


64 


147.2 


3 


37.4 


34 


93-2 


65 


149. 


4 


39-2 


35 


95- 


66 


150.8 


5 


4i. 


36 


96.8 


67 


152.6 



°Centi- 


Fahren- 


Centi- 


Fahren- 


Centi- 


Fahren- 


grade. 


heit. 


grade. 


heit. 


grade. 


heit. 


68 


154.4 


85 


185. 


102 


215.6 


69 


156.2 


86 


186.8 


I03 


217.4 


70 , 


158. 


87 


188.6 


104 


219.2 


71 


159.8 


88 


190.4 


I05 


221. 


72 


161. 6 


89 


192.2 


106 


222.8 


73 


163.4 


90 


194. 


I07 


224.6 


74 


165.2 


9i 


195.8 


I08 


226.4 


75 


167. 


92 


197.6 


109 


228.2 


76 


168.8 


93 


199.4 


110 


23O. 


77 


170.6 


94 


20I.2 


III 


23I.8 


78 


172.4 


95 


203. 


112 


233- 6 


79 


174.2 


96 


204.8 


113 


235-4 


80 


176. 


97 


206.6 


114 


237.2 


81 


177.8 


98 


208.4 


115 


239- 


82 


179.6 


99 


2I0.2 


Il6 


240.8 


83 


181. 4 


100 


212 


117 


242.6 


84 


183.2 


101 


213.8 


Il8 


244.4 



IOI 



The following is a list of official deliquescent 
and efflorescent salts : 

DELIQUESCENT SALTS EFFLORESCENT SALTS 



Ammonii Iodidum 

Xitras 

Valerianas 
Auri Chloridum 
Calcii Chloridum 
Lithii Citras 

Brornidum 

Salicylas 
Magnesia Citras 
Potassa (caustic) 

Cum Calce 
Potassii Acetas 

Carbonas 

Citras 

Cyanidum 

Hypophosphis 

Sulphis 

Tartras 
Quinolin salts ( except the 

Tartrate^ 
Sodii Hypophosphis 

Iodidum 
Zinci Brornidum 

Chloridum 

Iodidum 



Alumen (slightly) 
Ammonii Carbonas 

Phosphas 
Antim. et Potass. Tartras 

(slightly). 
Cupri Acetas 

Sulphas 
Magnesii Sulphas 

(Slightly) 
Potassii et Sodii Tartras 
(slightly) 

Ferrocyanidum 
(slightly) 
Ouiuinae Bisulphas 

Sulphas (after a time) 
Soda (caustic) 
Sodii Acetas 

Arsenas (slightly) 

Benzoas 

Boras i slightly) 

Carbonas 

Hyposulphis 

Phosphas 

Santoninas (slightly) 

Sulphas 

Sulphis 
Strychninae Sulphas 
Zinci Acetas 

Sulphas 
For the various symbols, Latin words and phrases 
with their abbreviations see the following pages. 



102 



LATIN WORDS AND PHRASES WITH THEIR ABBRE- 
VIATIONS AND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS 

WORDS OR PHRASES CONTRACTION ENG. EQUIVALENTS 

Abdomen Abd The belly. 

Ad Ad To, or up to. 

Adde Add Add. 

Addantur Add Let (them)be added 

Addendus Add To be added. 

Addendo Add By adding. 

Adhibendus Adhib. To be administered. 

Adjacens __ Adjac. Adjacent. 

Ad libitum Ad lib At pleasure. 

Admove Admov. Apply. 

Admoveatur Admov. Let (it) be applied. 

Adversum Adv Against. 

Aliquot Aliq. Some. 

Alter Alt The other. 

Alternis horis Alt. nor. Every other hour. 

Amplus Amp. Large. 

Ampulla Ampul. A large bottle. 

Ana A. or aa Of each. 

Aqua Aq Water. 

Aqua bulliens Aq. bull Boiling water. 

Aqua communis. Aq. com Common water. 

Aqua fervens Aq. ferv Hot water. 

Aqua fluviatilis. Aq. fluv River water. 

Aqua fontalis __Aq. font Spring water. 

Aqua marina Aq. mar Sea water. 

Aqua nivalis Aq. niv. Snow water. 

Aqua pluvialis __Aq. pluv. Rain water. 

Aut Aut Or. 

Balneum vaporish. V. Vapor bath. 

Balsamum Bals. Balsam. 



103 

Bene Bene Well. 

Bibe Bib. Drink (thou). 

Biduum Bid. Two days. 

Bis Bis Twice. 

Bis in die, or dies Bis, die Twice a day. 

Bolus Bol. A large pill. 

Bid Hat or Bulli- 
ant Bull Let boil. 

Butyrum But. Butter. 

Cceruleus Ccerul Blue. 

Calef actus Calef Warmed. 

Cape Cap. Take (thou). 

Capiat Cap. Let him take. 

Capsula Capsul. A capsule. 

Caute Caute Cautiously. 

Charta Chart. Paper. 

Chart ula Chartul. A small paper. 

Cibus Cib. Food. 

Cochlear ,or Coch- 
leare Coch A spoonful. 

Cochleare am- 
plum Coch. amp A dessertspoonful. 

Cochleare mag- 
num Coch. mag A tablespoonful. 

Cochlear p a r- 

vuvi Coch. parv. __A teaspoonful. 

Cola Col. Strain. 

Colatus ___Colat Strained. 

Collutorium Collut A mouth wash. 

Collyrium Collyr An eye wash. 

Coloretur Let it be colored. 

Compositus Comp. Compounded. 

Concisus Concis. Cut. 

Congius Cong A gallon. 



104 

Conserva Cons. A conserve, also, 

Keep (thou). 

Contusus Contus. Bruised. 

Cor, Cordis. __. Cor. The heart. 

Cortex, corticis _Cort. _The bark. 

Coxa Cox __The hip. 

Cras, crastinus Crast. To-morrow. 

Cujus, eujus-libelCu]. Of which, of any. 

Cum C. With. 

Cyathus, vel Cya- 
thus vinarius Cyath, C.vinarA wine-glass. 

Da, detur D., det. Give, let be given. 

De De Of or from. 

Debitus Deb Due, proper. 

Decanta Dtec. Pour off . 

Decern, decimus .Decern. Ten, the tenth. 

Decoctum Decoct. A decoction. 

Deciibitus ___Decub. Lying down. 

De die in diem__De d. in d From day to day. 

Dein vel Deinde_T>ein. Thereupon. 

Deglutiatur Deglut. Let be swallowed. 

Dentur tales, dos- Let 4 such doses be 

es No. iv D. t. d. No. iv. given. 

Dexter, Dextra.Dext The right. 

Diebis alternis __Dieb. alt. Every other day. 

Dilue, Dilutus_SDi\ Dilute (thou), Di- 
luted. 

Dimidius Dim. One-half. 

Dividatur in Let it be divided 

partes equates. D. in p. aeq. __ into equal parts. 

D ivi den dus-a- 

um Divid. To be divided. 

Dolor Dolor Pain. 

Donee Donee Until. 






105 



Dosis.. D A dose. 

Drachma Dr. or 5 A dram (60 grains). 

Eadem (fern. )__Ead. The same. 

Ejusdem Ejusd. ._ Of the same. 

Electuarium Elect. An electuary 

Eme sis Emesis Vomiting. 

Enema En Aclyster or enema. 

Et Et And. 

Extende Ext. Spread. 

Extractum Extr. An Extract. 

Extrahe Extrahe Extract thou. 

Fac F. Make. 

Fac pi I it las duo- 

decim F. pil. XII ___Make twelve pills. 

Farina Flour. 

Febris Febr. Fever. 

Fervens Ferv Boiling. 

Fiat Ft. Let be madefsing.) 

Fiant Ft. Let be made (plu.) 

Filtra Filtra Filter (thou). 

Fill ram, filirum A filter. 

Flnidiis Fluid., Fl Liquid. 

Formula A prescription. 

Gargarysma Garg. A gargle. 

Gradation Grad. By degrees, gradu- 
ally. 

Granum,Grana_Gr. Grain, Grains. 

Grains Grat. Pleasant. 

Gutta, Gutter .-.Gtt. A drop. Drops. 

Guttatim Guttat. By drops. 

Haustus Haust. ._ A draught. 

Hebdomada Hebdom. A week. 

Herbarnm recen- 

tium Herb, recent. _0f fresh herbs. 



io6 



Hie, Haec, //6>^_Hic,h2ec, hoc .This 

Hirudo Hirudo A leech 

Hora H ___An hour. 

Idem Id. __. The same. 

Imprimis Impr. First. 

Incide, Incisus __Inc. Cut (thou), Being 

cut. 
In dies .__• Ind. Daily, or from day 

to day. 

Infunde Infun. Pour in. 

Infusum Infus An infusion. 

Injection . ■_ An injection. 

In pulmento In gruel. 

lnstar _ : Instar As big as, the size of 

Inter Inter Between. 

Internus r a,-um _Int. Inner or Internal. 

Intus Intus. Inwardty. 

Jam Jam Now. 

Juxta _Juxta Near to. 

Lac, Lactis Lac. „_Milk, of Milk. 

Lagena Lag. A flask or bottle. 

Languor Lang Faintness. 

Libra Lb., or lb A pound. 

Linime7itum Linim A liniment. 

Linteum Lint Lint. 

Liquor Liq. A solution. 

Lotio Lot. A lotion. 

Macera Mac Macerate. 

Magnus Mag. Large. 

Mane Mane In the morning 

Manipulus M. or Man A handful. 

Manus Manus The hand. 

Massa, mass a 
pilularis A mass, a pill-mass. 



io7 



Matutinis Matut. In the morning. 

Medius Med. Middle. 

Mens ura Mensu. By Measure. 

Mica Pants Mic. pan Crumb of Bread. 

Minimum M. or min A minim. 

Minutum A minute. 

Misce M Mix. 

Mistura Mist. A mixture. 

Mitte Mit. Send. 

Modo pr cc scrip to ^SloH. prsesc.__In the manner pre- 
scribed. 

More dictu Mor. dictu.___In the manner di- 
rected. 

More solito Mor. sol In the usual man- 
ner. 

Mortarium, z__~Mort. A mortar. 

Necnon Necn Also. 

Ne trades sine Ne tr. s. num. _Do not deliver with- 
nummo out the money. 

Nisi Nisi Unless. 

Non Non Not. 

A o)i repetatur Non repetat. _Let it not be re- 
peated. 

Nox. Noctis Noc, noct. The night, of the 

night. 

Nucha The nape of the 

neck. 

Numero No. In number. 

Octarius O. Oct A pint (5xvj ). 

Octavus Eight 

Octo Octo. Eight. 

Omni hori Omn. hor. Every hour. 

Opus Opus Need, or occasion. 

Ovum Ov. An Egg. 



io8 



Pars, Partis Par. Pt, A;part, of a part. 

Partes cz quale S-S?t. aeq. Equal parts. 

Parvulus Parvul. An infant. A par- 

vule. 

Parvus Little. 

Pastillus Pastil. _______ A pastille. 

Pediluvium A foot-bath. 

Penicillum cam-V enicil. cam. _ A camel's-hair pen- 
elinum cil or brush. 

Per Per Through, By. 

Phiala Phil. A vial or bottle. 

Phiala prius agi- The bottle having 

tate P. P. A been first shaken. 

Pilula Pil. A pill. 

Pocillum Pocill A little cup. 

Poculum Pocul. A cup. 

Po7idere P. By weight. 

Pondus civile P. civ. Civil weight (avoir- 
dupois). 

Pond us medicin- Medicinal (apothe- 

ale ___ caries') Weight. 

Post cibo Post cib After eating. 

Poius Potus Drink. 

Prczparata Prsep. Prepared. 

Pfimus Primus The first. 

Pro Pro For. 

Pro re nata_ P. r. n. _. Occasionally, ac- 
cording to cir- 
cumstances. 

Pulvis Pulv. A powder. 

Quadrans-antis .Quad _ A quart. 

Quantum libet Q. lib. As much as you 

please. 



109 

Quantum sufficatO. s. As much as is suf- 
ficient. 

Quaque Qq. Each, or Every. 

Quartus Quart. Fourth. 

Quatuor Quat. Four. 

Ouibus Ouibus From which. 

Quinque Quinq Five. 

Quintus Quint. The fifth. 

Quoque Q. Q. Also. 

Quorum Quor. Of which. 

Quotidie Quotid. Daily. 

Ratio Proportion. 

Recens,-entis Rec Fresh. 

Recipe J& Take. 

Reductus in pul- Red. in pulv._Let it be reduced 

verern _ to powder. 

Reliquum Reliq. Remaining. 

Repetatur Rept. Let it be repeated. 

Reti?iere Retin. To keep. 

Ruber, rubra, ru- 

brum Rub. Red, ruddy. 

Saltern Saltern At least. 

Saltim Saltim By leaps. 

Sat uratu s-a-um _Sat Saturated. 

Scatula Scat A box. 

Scilicet vScil Namely. 

Scrupulum Scrup. or 3__A scruple (2ogrs.). 

Secundem artem.S. A According to art. 

Secundus Secund Second. 

Semel Semel_ Once. 

Semis or semis sis Ss A half. 

Septem Sept. Seven. 

Septtmana Septim A week. 

Sescuncia . An ounce and a 

half. 



Sesquihora An hour and a half . 

Sex Sex Six. 

Si Si If. 

Signa Sig. Write, or Mark 

(thou). 

Signatur nomine Let it be written 

proprio Sig.nom.prop. with its proper 

name. 

Simul Simul Together. 

Sine Sin Without. 

Singulorum Sing. Of each. 

Si opus sit Si op. sit If necessary. 

Sit ___: Sit Let it be. 

Solus Sol Alone. 

Solve Solv. Dissolve. 

Somnus Somnus Sleep. 

Spiritus vini rec- Rectified spirit of 

tificatus Spt. vin. rect._ wine (alcohol). 

Spiritus vini te- 
nuis Spt. vin. ten. .Proof spirit. 

Statim _Stat Immediately. 

Stet, or Stent St. Let it (or them) 

stand. 

Subinde Subind. Frequently. 

Sumat talent Sum. tal. Let him take one 

like this. 

Sume Sum Take. 

Supra Supra Above. 

Tabella Tab. A lozenge. 

Talis Tal Such a one. 

Ter Ter Thrice, or Three 

times. 

Ter in die, or Ter 
die T.i.d.,orT.D._Thrice daily. 



Ill 



Tero Tero I rub. 

Tere simul Tere sim. Rub together. 

Tertius Tert Third. 

Tinctura Tinct. or Tr. ...Tincture. 

Tres Tres Three. 

Triduum Trid. Three days. 

Tritura Trit Triturate. 

Troschiscus, Tro- 
chisin Troch. A lozenge or troche 

Tussis Tus. A cough. 

Ultimo (or Ulti- 
ma)prczscriptus\J\t. praesc The last ordered. 

Una Una Together. 

Uncia Uuc. or 5 An ounce. 

Ut dictum Ut diet As directed. 

Vas vitreum Vas vit A glass vessel. 

Vehiculum Vehic. A vehicle or men- 
strum. 

Vel Vel Or. 

Vesper-eris Vesp. The evening. 

Vices Vic. Turns. 

Vinum Vin. Wine. 

Vires Vir. Strength. 

Vitellus Vitel __Yolk. 

Vitreum, V it- 
rum Vitr Glass. 

Volatilis, is, Vol- 
atile Volat. Volatile. 



INCOMPATIBILITY. 

In prescription writing, incompatability may be 
defined as an interference, with each other, of the 
constituents of a mixture in a way not intended by 
the prescriber. Sometimes there is intentional 
incompatibility by the prescriber as in the case of 
white lotion, p. 88. 

There are three types of incompatibility: Chemic, 
Pharmaceutic and Physiologic. 

Chemic Incompatibility occurs when a new 
chemic compound results. In general it may be 
recognized in one of three ways: I. By precip- 
itation—the formation of an insoluble compound. 
2. By effervescence or explosion— evolution of 
gas. 3. By a change in color. Another form may 
be referred to, because it is not easy to recognize 
any change and therefore more dangerous. A new 
product may be formed, possibly of a poisonous 
nature and remain in solution without in the least 
changing the appearance of the mixture. The 
avoidance of this form of incompatibility rests 
upon a knowledge of the ordinary chemic reac- 
tions, and the knowledge cannot be too greatly 
emphasized. Chemic incompatibility is not always 
evident immediately, some little time may elapse 
before changes occur. A general rule is that sub- 
stances are incompatible if they are used in test- 
ing for each other or if they form antidotes. • 

Pharmaceutic Incompatibility results in the pro- 
duction of an unsightly appearance due to physical 
changes. It is, therefore, largely a question of 
solvents and solubility, and often occurs when 
solids or liquids are added to solutions, thereby 
changing their densities. It occurs when there is 



a combination of such substances as are physically- 
incapable of mixing ; thus, if spirit of nitrous 
ether be added to tincture of guaicuma gelatinous 
mass will result, or if resinous tinctures be added 
to aqueous solutions the resins will separate. 

Physiologic or Therapeutic Incompatibility de- 
pends upon the antagonistic or opposite phy si- 
logic or therapeutic actions of the drugs, so that 
one drug may weaken or neutralize the action of 
another with regard to its effects upon the tissues. 
Atropine and pilocarpine are examples of antag- 
onists therapeutically. No two drugs, however, 
are exactly opposed to each other throughout 
their whole range of action, and more or less lati- 
tude in this respect may be permitted in pre- 
scribing. 

Incompatibility must always be kept in mind in 
writing a prescription. It is best avoided, as a 
rule, by not attempting to combine too many 
drugs. Some general principles which it is well 
to keep in mind may be formulated as follows : 

Acids should not be added to alkalies, alkaline 
salts or vegetable acids on account of decomposi- 
tion and chemic change. 

Solutions of alkaloids are incompatible with 
tannic acid, alkalies, alkaline salts, iodides and 
bromides on account of precipitation. 

Glucosides (Digitalin, Salicin, etc. ) are decom- 
posed by acids. 

A mixture of salts in solution will decompose if 
either an insoluble compound or double salt can 
be formed. 

Chloral is incompatible with alkaline solutions, 
chloroform is produced. 



H4 



Potassium chlorate, nitrate or permanganate 
liberate oxygen and should not be mixed with 
readily oxidizable substances, such as charcoal, 
sugar, sulphur, glycerin, carbolic acid, iodine, tur- 
pentine, and organic materials, lest explosive 
compounds be formed. 

L,ime water precipitates mercury salts. Calomel 
and prussic acid form the poisonous mercuric 
cyanide. 

Calomel should not be combined with nitro- 
hydrochloric acid as corrosive sublimate may be 
produced. Both calomel and antipyrin are in- 
compatible with sweet spirit of nitre. 

Liquid iron preparations are incompatible with 
fluid preparations of the vegetable bitters (except 
calumba and quassia) , because the tannic acid in 
them forms a precipitate. 

Considerable quantities of acid are incompatible 
with tinctures, because ethers are formed. 

Water causes precipitates with tinctures con- 
taining resins. 

Gum arabic is incompatible with lead and iron 
salts and mineral acids. 

Solutions of potassium chlorate and iodide unite 
to form a poisonous compound. 

For convenient reference, the following list 
of the more important incompatibles, taken from 
Merck, is given. 

Acacia — mineral acids ; alcohol ; ammonia ; an- 
timony and potassium tartrate ; borax (unless 
syrup or glycerin is present); ether; ferric salts 
(not if excess of acid present]; lead subacetate 
(not acetate); lead-water ; mercuric chloride (con- 
cent, sol. ) ; potassium bitartrate and tartrate ; 



silicates; syrup squill ; tinct. guaiac (blue color), 
tinctures (alcoholic and ethereal). 

Acktanilid — ainyl nitrite ; bromine and bromi- 
des of alkalies ; carbolic acid ; chloral hydrate : 
iodides of alkalies : nitrites ; piperazine ; potas- 
sium hydroxide ; pyrocatechin ; resorcin ; sodium 
hydroxide ; spirit nitrous ether ; thymol. 

Acids — alcohol (with strong acids); alkalies; 
alkaloids ; benzoates and borates (with strong 
acids); bismuth and ammonium citrate ; bicar- 
bonates ; bromides (of weak acids); carbonates; 
chlorides (of weak acids); iodides (of weak 
bases); metallic salts (with organic acids); pan- 
creatin ; potassium and sodium tartrate ; potassium 
tartrate ; salicylates ; silicates. 

Acid, Arsen*ous — copper sulphate; decoction 
cinchona ; dialyzed iron ; ferric hydrate ; lime 
water ; salts of aluminium ; antimony, barium, 
calcium, chromium, copper, lead, magnesium, 
mercury, silver, zinc ; potassium iodide ; tannic 
acid ; vegetable astringent decoctions and in- 
fusions. 

Acid, Benzoic — free bromine or chlorine ; ferric 
salts ; hydrogen dioxide with sulphuric acid ; 
urethane. 

Acid, Boric — alkaline hydrates ; alkaline earths 
(hydrates); carbonates. See also Borates. 

Acid, Carbolic — acetanilid ; albumin ; anti- 
pyrin ; antisepsin ; bromal hydrate ; bromine 
water ; butyl-chloral hydrate ; camphor ; cam- 
phor monobromated ; chloral hydrate ; collodion ; 
diuretin ; exalgin ; ferric salts ; gelatin (in dilute 
solution ) ; hydrogen dioxide ; lead acetate ; men- 
thol ; naphtalin ; naphtol ; nitric acid; phen- 



n6 



acetin ; potassium permanganate ; pyrogallol ; re- 
sorcin ; salol ; sodium phosphate ; thymol ; ure- 
thane ; terpin hydrate. 

Acid, Chromic — alcohol ; bromides ; chlorides ; 
ether ; glycerin ; hypophosphites ; iodides ; oxal- 
ates ; sulphides ; sulphites ; tartrates. See also 
chromates. 

Acid, Citric — acetates; acids (mineral); car- 
bonates ; potassium tartrate ; sulphides. See also 
citrates. 

Acid, Gallic — arsenic acid; carbonates; cop- 
per salts; ferric salts (if excess of acid absent) ; 
gold salts ; lead acetate ; iodine ; lime water ; 
nitric acid ; opium in solution ; potassium perman- 
ganate ; silver salts ; sodium bicarbonate ; tartar 
emetic. 

Acid, Hydrochloric — alkalies; bromates ; 
carbonates ; chlorates ; chromates ; lead salts ; 
mercurous salts ; oxides ; permanganates ; silver 
salts ; tartar emetic. See also chlorides. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic, Dilute — acids (mineral); 
antimony oxides ; copper and iron salts ; mer- 
cury oxides ; silver nitrate ; sulphides. See also 
cyanides. 

Acid, Lactic — albumin ; milk ; oxidizers gen- 
erally. 

Acid, Nitric — alcohol, alkalies; carbonates; 
ferrous sulphate ; lead acetate ; oils (essential); 
sulphides. 

Acid, Osmic — all organic or oxidizable sub- 
stances ; iodides. 

Acid, Oxalic-— arsenates- ; gold salts; metallic 
salts generally^ (all but those of aluminium, chro- 
mium and magnesium). 



ii7 



Acid, Phosphoric, Mkta — albumin ; ferric 
chloride ; gelatin ; lead acetate ; silver nitrate. 

Acid, Phosphoric, Ortho — chlorides of bari- 
um, calcium and magnesium (in ammoniacal 
solutions); lead acetate; silver nitrate; soluble 
iron phosphate); and pyrophosphate. 

Acid, Picric — albumin ; alkaloids ; gelatin ; 
oxidizable substances ; piperazine. 

Acid, Salicylic — Ferric salts ; exalgin ; lead 
acetate ; lime water ; potassium iodide ; quinine 
salts ; sodium phosphate ; spirit nitrous ether ; 
urethane. 

Acid, Sulphuric — alcohol ; barium and cal- 
cium salts ; carbonates ; hypophosphorous acid ; 
metals; oils (essential); lead, mercurous, silver 
and strontium salts ; organic substances ; sul- 
phides ; vegetable astringent infusions. 

Acid, Tannic — albumin ; alkaloids ; amyl 
nitrite ; antipyrin ; arsenic acid ; bromine ; cal- 
cium chloride (concent, solution) ; chlorine, 
chromic acid ; ferric salts ; gelatin ; glucosides ; 
gluten ; hydrochloric acid ; iodine ; iodoform ; 
lime water ; nitric acid ; permanganates ; pipera- 
zine ; salts of antimony, bismuth, chromium, 
copper, gold, lead, mercury and silver; spirit 
nitrous ether ; potassium chlorate or other 
oxidizers; sulphuric acid ; potassium bichromate. 

Acid, Tartaric — alkalies ; calcium salts ; car- 
bonates ; lead salts ; lime water ; mercury salts ; 
vegetable astringents. 

AconiTine — hot acids, alkalies or water. An- 
tagonists : atropine; digitalis; morphine; sco- 
parin ; strychnine. See also alkaloids. 

Albumin — acetic acid (with heat); alcohol; 



n8 



alum; ammonium sulphate; camphor; carbolic 
acid ; coniine ; collodion ; copper sulphate ; ether ; 
ferric chloride ; heat ; hydrogen peroxide ; lactic 
acid ; mercuric chloride ; metallic salts ; meta- 
phosphoric acid ; mineral acids ; picric acid ; tannic 
acid ; thymol ; volatile oils. 

Ai^cohoi,— acacia ; albumin ; bromine ; chlor- 
ine ; chromic acid ; inorganic salts ; mercuric 
chloride ; mineral acids ; potassium permanganate. 
Antagonists : Cocaine ; strychnine. 

At^kai^oids — alkalies; alkali carbonates and 
bicarbonates ; ammonium chloride ; benzoates ; 
bichromates ; bromides ; borax ; cyanides ; gold 
chloride ; ichthyol ; iodides ; mercuric chloride ; 
oxalic acid ; picric acid ; piperazine ; potassio- 
mercuric iodide (not if acacia present); oxidizers; 
sodium phosphate ; tannic acid ; salicylates. 

AiyOKS — mercury nitrate ; silver nitrate. 

Ai,oin — Alkali hydrates ; bromine water ; ferric 
chloride; lead acetate, basic (not neutral); tannic 
acid. 

Alum — alkali hydrates ; borax ; carbonates ; 
galls ; kino ; lead acetate ; lime water ; magnesia 
and magnesium carbonate ; mercury salts ; phos- 
phates ; tartaric acid ; potassium chlorate. 

Ammonium Carbonate — acid salts ; alkalies ; 
alum ; calomel ; copper, iron, lead and silver 
salts ; magnesia ; magnesium sulphate ; mercuric 
chloride ; potassium bitartrate and bisulphate ; 
silver salts ; tartar emetic ; zinc sulphate. See also 
carbonates. 

Amyi, Nitrite — alcohol ; antipyrin ; caustic 
potassa. Antagonists : chloroform, cocaine ; mor- 
phine ; strychnine. 



ii9 

Axgustura — acids (mineral) ; cinchona infu- 
sion ; copper sulphate ; galls infusion ; ferrous 
sulphate ; lead acetate ; mercuric chloride ; silver 
nitrate ; catechu infusion ; zinc sulphate. 

Anthemis — cinchona infusion ; gelatin ; iron 
salts ; lead salts ; mercuric chloride ; silver nitrate. 

Antimony and Potassium Tartrate — 
acacia ; acids (mineral) ; albumin ; alcohol ; alka- 
lies ; ammonia ; ammonium carbonate ; antipyrin; 
bicarbonates ; calcium chloride ; carbonates ; gela- 
tin ; lead salts ; lime water ; mercuric chloride ; 
metallic salts ; sulphides ; tannic acid ; vegetable 
decoctions and infusions. 

Antimony Sulphide — chlorates and other 
oxidizers ; nitric acid. 

Antipyrin — alum ; ammonia water ; amyl 
nitrite ; benzoates ; beta naphtol ; bromine ; car- 
bolic acid ; calomel ; chloral hydrate ; copper 
sulphate ; chromic acid ; cinchona alkaloids ; 
euphorin ; ferric chloride ; ferrous sulphate ; 
hydrocyanic acid ; iodides ; iodine ; lead subacet- 
ate ; mercuric chloride ; potassium permanganate ; 
pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol ; resorcin ; sodium bi- 
carbonate ; sodium salicylate ; solution arsenic 
and mercury iodide ; spirit nitrous ether ; syrup 
ferrous iodide ; tartar emetic ; tannic acid ; 
thymol ; urethane ; infusions of catechu, cin- 
chona , rose leaves and uva ursi ; tinctures of 
catechu , cinchona , hamamelis, iodine and rhu- 
barb ; orthoform. 

Apomorphine Hydrochxorate — alkali hy- 
drates and carbonates ; alkaloidal reagents gen- 
erally ; ferric chloride ; iodides ; lime water; per- 
manganates ; picric acid ; silver nitrate ; tannic 



120 



acid. Antagonists ; chloral hydrate ; chloroform ; 
strychnine. 

Aristol — Water; substances having affinity for 
iodine. 

Arnica — acids (mineral) ; ferrous sulphate, 
lead acetate ; zinc sulphate. 

Arsenates — hypophosphites ; iodides and 
Sulphides in acid solutions ; salts of aluminium, 
antimony, barium, calcium, chromium ; copper, 
lead, mercury, silver, and zinc in neutral solu- 
tions ; tannic acid ; iron salts. 

Arsenic — See acid arsenous. 

Arsenic Iodide — alkaloids generally. 

Arsenites — dialyzed iron ; ferric hydrate ; hy- 
pophosphorus acid and hypophosphites (in acid 
solution); salts of heavy metals ; tannic acid ; cop- 
per sulphate ; potassium iodide ; silver nitrate ; 
sulphides ; vegetable astringent decoctions and 
infusions 

Atropine — See belladonna. 

Balsam Peru — ferric salts ; iodoform ; hydro- 
gen peroxide. 

Barium Salts — carbonates ; chromates ; oxalic 
acid or oxalates ; phosphoric acid or phosphates ; 
sulphuric acid or sulphates ; tannic acid ; tartaric 
acid or tartrates. 

Belladonna — alkaloidal precipitants ; alkali 
hydrates or acids with heat ; tannic acid ; vegeta- 
ble decoctions or infusions. Antagonists: acon- 
itine ; bromal hydrate ; chloral hydrate ; hydro- 
cyanic acid ; jaborandi ; morphine ; muscarine ; 
physostigmine ; Phytolacca ; pilocarpine ; quinine. 

Benzaldehyde — ammonia water ; caustic po- 
tassa ; phenol, resorcin or pyrocatechin in absence 
of hydrochloric acid ; sodium bisulphite. 



BexzoaTES — acids ; ferric salts. 

Benzoin— acids ; alkalies ; water. 

Berberine Salts — alkaloidal precipitants, sol- 
uble tartrates. 

Bicarbonates— like carbonates. 

Bismuth and Ammonium Citrate — acids. 

Bismuth Subgallate — acids. 

Bismuth Subnitr ate— alkali carbonates and 
hydrates ; calomel ; hypophosphites ; gallic acid; 
iodides ; salicylic acid ; sulphur ; tannic acid. 

Borates — acids (mineral); alkaloidal salts; 
metallic salts. 

Bromal Hydrate — acetamide ; borneol ; car- 
bolic acid ; exalgin ; menthol ; pyrocatechin ; 
urea ; urethane. Antagonist : Atropine. 

Bromides — acids ; alkaloids ; antimony salts ; 
bismuth salts ; chlorine water ; chlorates (in acid 
solution ) ; chromates (in acid solution) ; copper, 
lead, mercurous, and silver salts ; spirit nitrous 
ether (if acid) ; nitric acid. 

Bromine Water— alkali hydrates ; arsenites ; 
ferrous salts ; hypophosphites ; hydriodic acid ; 
mercurous salts. 

Bromoform — caustic alkalies ; aqueous liquids. 

Buchu — ferrous sulphate ; infusion galls. 

Butyl-chloral Hydrate ( Croton-chloral Hy- 
drate ) — acetamide ; alkalies ; camphor ; carbolic 
acid ; exalgin ; menthol ; piperazine ; pyroca- 
techin ; thymol ; urethane. 

Cadmium Salts (Soluble)— alkalies, carbon- 
ates ; chromates ; phospates ; sulphides. 

Caffeine — like alkaloids in general. Antag- 
onists : chloral hydrate ; cocaine ; morphine ; 
physostigmine. 



Calcium Carbonate — acids; alum; ammo- 
nium chloride. 

Calcium Salts (Soluble) — alkalies; carbon- 
ates ; citrates (with heat ) ; oxalates ; phosphates ; 
tartrates. 

Calomel — See mercurous chloride. 

Calumba — acids (mineral); ammonia; cin- 
chona infusion ; galls infusion ; ferric salts ; lead 
acetate ; lime water ; mercuric chloride ; silver 
nitrate ; tartar emetic. 

Camphor — butyl-chloral hydrate ; carbolic 
acid ; chloral hydrate ; chromic acid ; ftichloracetic 
acid ; euphorin ; hydrochloric acid ; menthol ; 
monochloracetic acid ; naphtol ; potassium per- 
manganate ; pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol ; resorcin ; 
salol ; salicylic acid ; thymol ; urethane ; water. 

Camphor, Monobromated — carbolic acid; 
chloral hydrate ; euphorin ; pyrocatechin ; salol ; 
thymol. 

CanTharidin — copper sulphate ; lead acetate ; 
mercuric chloride ; silver nitrate. 

Capsicum — alum; ammonia; carbonates (alka- 
line); copper sulphate; ferrous sulphate; galls 
infusion ; lead acetate ; mercuric chloride ; silver 
nitrate ; zinc sulphate. 

Carbonates — acids ; acid salts ; alkaloidal salts; 
bismuth subnitrate ; salts of aluminium, antimony, 
barium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, chromium, 
cobalt, copper, iron (ic and ous), lead, manganese, 
mercury (ic and ous), nickel, silver, strontium and 
zinc ; urethane. 

Cardamon — acids ; ferrous sulphate ; mercuric 
chloride. 

Catechu — acids (mineral); albumin; alkalies; 



123 

calcium salts ; cinchona infusion ; ferric and fer- 
rous salts ; gelatin ; lime water ; mercuric chlor- 
ide ; zinc sulphate. 

Charcoal— all oxidizers (potassium chlorate, 
potassium permanganate, etc.). 

Chloral Hydrate — acetanilid ; alcohol ; al- 
kalies ; ammonium salts ; borax ; borneol ; cam- 
phor ; camphor monobromated ; carbolic acid ; 
diuretin ; euphorin ; exalgin ; glycerin (with heat); 
lead acetate ; menthol ; mercuric oxide and ni- 
trate ; phenacetin ; piperazine; potassium cyanide; 
potassium permanganate ; potassium iodide ; pyro- 
catechin ; quinine sulphate ; salol ; sodium phos- 
phate ; thymol ; urea ; urethane. Antagonists : 
ammonium chloride ; atropine ; brucine ; carbolic 
acid ; caffeine ; cocaine ; codeine ; digitalis; phy- 
sostigmine ; picrotoxin ; strychnine, thebaine. 

Chlorates — ammonium picrate ; arsenites or 
bromides (in acid solution); carbolic acid; char- 
coal ; cyanides ; ferrous salts (in acid solution) ; 
gallic acid ; glycerin ; honey ; hydrochloric acid ; 
hypophosphites ; hyposulphites ; iodides (in acid 
solution) ; iodine ; iron (reduced); lycopodium ; 
mercurous salts (in acid solution) ; oxalic acid ; 
phosphorus (amorphous); sulphides in acid solu- 
tion ; sulphuric acid ; salicylic acid ; shellac ; 
starch ; sugar ; sulphides ; sulphites. 

Chlorides — hydrogen peroxide ; lead, mer- 
curous, and silver salts ; nitric and sulphuric 
acids. 

Chlorinated Lime — fats ; glycerine ; iodides ; 
oils. 

Chlorine Water — alkalies; ammonium salts ; 
arsenous salts ; bromides ; ferrous salts ; hypophos- 



124 



phites ; iodides ; lead salts; lime water ; mercurous 
salts ; oxalic acid ; silver salts. 

Chloroform — caustic alkalies aqueous fluids. 
Antagonist : amyl nitrite. 

ChromaTES — barium, bismuth, lead, mangan- 
ese, mercury, silver, and strontium salts. 

Cinchona— acids (mineral); alkalies; carbon- 
ates ; alkaloidal precipitants ; ferric and ferrous 
salts ; lead acetate ; lime water ; magnesia ; mer- 
curic chloride ; rhubarb infusion ; silver nitrate ; 
tartar emetic ; zinc sulphate. 

Citrates — alcohol ; lead acetate .; potassium 
permanganate (in acid solution) ; silver nitrate. 

Cocaine— acids (concent.) ; alkaloidal precipi- 
tants ; alkalies ; caustic alkalies ; hot water. Co- 
caine hydrochlorate is incompatible with calomel, 
chloroform water, mercuric oxide and silver 
nitrate. Antagonists : alcohol; amyl nitrite ; caf- 
feine ; chloral hydrate ; digitalis ; morphine. 

Codeine — alkalies ; alkaloidal precipitants ; 
ammonium bromide or chloride; ammonium 
valerianate ; copper, iron, and lead salts. Antag- 
onist : chloral hydrate. 

Colchicine — acids ; alkalies ; alkaloidal pre- 
cipitants. 

Collodion — carbolic acid ; aqueous fluids. 

Colocynth — alkalies ; ferrous sulphate ; lead 
sulphate ; lime water ; mercuric chloride ; silver 
nitrate. 

Coniine — albumin ; aluminium salts; alkaloidal 
precipitants ; chromic acid ; copper, iron, man- 
ganese, and zinc salts. 

Conium— acids (vegetable); alkalies; tannic 
acid. 



125 



Copaiba — acids (mineral); caustic alkalies; 
both calcium hydrate and magnesia solidify it ; 
water. 

Copper Ammoniated — acids ; alkalies ; lime 
water. 

Copper Sulphate — alkalies ; ammonium ace- 
tate ; arsenites ; arsenous acid ; calcium chloride ; 
carbonates ; ferric acetate ; glucose (in alk. sol.) ; 
iodides ; lead acetate ; lime water ; mercuric 
chloride ; potassium tartrate ; phosphates ; silver 
nitrate ; sodium borate ; vegetable astringent in- 
fusions and tinctures. 

Corrosive Sublimate — See mercuric chloride. 

Creosote (Beechavood) — acacia; albumin; 
cupric, ferric, gold, and silver salts ; nitric acid • 
oxidizers. 

Cyanides— acids ; alkaloids ; chloral hydrate ; 
iodine , lead, mercurous, and silver salts ; per- 
manganates ; potassium chlorate ; potassium 
nitrate. Antagonist : atropine. 

Decoctions — like infusions. 

Digitalis — acids ; alkalies ; alkaloidal precipi- 
tants ; cinchona infusion ; ferrous sulphate ; lead 
acetate ; tannic acid and other vegetable astrin- 
gents. Antagonists : aconite; chloral hydrate; 
cocaine ; glonoin ; muscarine ; saponin ; scoparin ; 
strychnine. 

Diuretin — acids ;* bicarbonates ; borates ; car- 
bolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; ferric chloride ; phos- 
phates ; phosphoric acid. Also those of salicylates. 

Ergot — alkaloidal precipitants ; tannic acid. 

Ether — bromine ; chromic acid. 

Ether Acetic — alkalies ; chlorine water ; 
chromic acid ; water. 



126 



Ethyl Bromide— alkalies ; ammonia water. 

Eucalyptol — potassium permanganate. 

Exalgin — bromal hydrate ; butyl-chloral hy- 
drate ; carbolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; euphorin ; 
menthol ; naphtol ; pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol ; 
resorcin ; salicylic acid ; salol ; thymol ; urethane. 

Formaldehyde — albumin ; alkalies, ammonia; 
bisulphites ; gelatin ; copper, gold, and silver salts; 
phenylhydrazine ; iron and tannin preparations. 

Gelatin— alcohol ; alumnol ; chlorine water ; 
ferric salts ; formaldehyde ; mercuric chloride ; 
metaphosphoric acid ; picric acid ; platinum chlor- 
ide ; potassium ferrocyanide ; tannic acid ; tartar 
emetic. 

Gentian — ferric and ferrous salts ; lead acetate. 

Glonoin — alkalies; carbonates; hydrochloric 
acid ; hydriodic acid. 

Glucosides — acids ; alkalies ; ferments ; lead 
acetate and subacetate ; hot water ; tannic acid. 

Glycerin — chromic acid; hot acids; lead ox- 
ide ; potassium permanganate ; silver nitrate. 

Glycyrrhizin, Ammoniatkd — acids (min- 
eral) ; alkalies ; metallic salts. 

Gold and Sodium Chloride — alkalies ; alka- 
loids ; arsenites ; hypophosphorous acid ; ferrous 
and mercurous salts ; organic substances ; oxalic 
acid ; potassium iodide ; sulphurous acid; thymol ; 
vegetable infusions. 

Guaiac Resin — acids (mineral); acacia; chlo- 
rine water ; chromic acid ; ferric and gold chlo- 
rides ; metallic salts ; potassium permanganate ; 
spirit nitrous ether. 

Guaiacol — like creosote. 

Homatropine — like belladonna. 



127 



Hydrastis— alkaloidal precipitants. 

Hydrogen Dioxide — alkalies ; albumin ; am- 
monia ; arsenous salts ; balsam Peru ; carbolic 
acid ; charcoal ; chlorides ; chlorine water ; citrates 
of alkalies ; ferric salts ; glycerin ; gold salts ; 
hydrocyanic acid ; hypophosphites ; iodides ; lime 
water ; manganese dioxide ; mercurous salts ; 
nitrates ; potassium bromide ; potassium perman- 
ganate ; sulphates ; solution of chlorinated soda; 
tartrates ; tinctures generally. 

Hyoscyamus — acids: alkaloidal precipitants; 
ferrous sulphate ; lead acetate ; silver nitrate ; 
vegetable astringents. 

Hypophosphites— arsenic salts ; bromine and 
bromates ; chlorine and chlorates ; chromates, 
cupric salts ; ferric salts ; iodine and iodates ; 
nitric acid ; permanganates ; sulphuric acid ; 
sulphurous acid. 

IchthyoIv — acids ; alcohol ; alkaloids ; carbon- 
ates : iron salts. 

Infusions— alkaloidal salts; aluminium-hydrate 
solution ; lead acetate and subacetate ; mercuric 
chloride ; silver nitrate ; tartar emetic. 

Iodides — alkaloids ; arsenic salts (in acid sol.); 
bromine ; chlorine ; bismuth, cupric, ferric, lead, 
mercury (ic and ous), and silver salts ; hydrogen 
peroxide (in acid sol.); nitric acid ; nitrites (in 
acid sol, ) 

Iodine — alkalies ; alkaline earths ; chloral hy- 
drate ; alkaloids ; ferrous salts ; hypophosphites ; 
hyposulphites ; mercurous salts , metals ; oils ; 
turpentine ; starch, tannic acid. 

Iodoform— alkalies (with heat) ; balsam Peru ; 



128 



calomel; mercuric oxide ; oils (in the light) ; 
silver nitrate ; tannic acid. 

Ipecac — lead acetate ; vegetable astringents. 

Iron (Ferrous) Salts— alkalies ; carbonates; 
chromates ; chlorates (in acid sol.); ferricyanides ; 
gold salts ; hydrogen dioxide ; mercuric salts ; 
phosphates ; permanganates ; sulphides ; tannic 
acid ; silver salts. 

Iron (Ferric) Salts — acacia ; albumin; alka- 
lies ; apomorphine ; aloin ; benzoates ; carbonates ; 
creosote ; balsam Peru ; benzoin (in alcohol sol.)*, 
diuretin ; gallic acid ; gelatin ; guaiac ; guaiacol ; 
hydriodic acid ; hypophosphites : hyposulphites ; 
iodides ; morphine ; oils of bay, cloves, cinnamon, 
pimento, thyme, and wintergreen ; pyrogallol ; 
resorcin ; salol ; sulphides ; sulphites ; salicylates ; 
tannic acid ; vegetable infusions and decoctions. 

Iron Chloride (Ferric) — acacia; albumin; 
alkalies ; carbonates : gelatin ; lime water ; mag- 
nesium carbonate ; piperazine ; vegetable decoc- 
tions, infusions and tinctures. 

Iron Sulphate (Ferrous)— alkalies ; am- 
monium, barium, and calcium chlorides ; carbon- 
ates ; gold and silver salts ; lead acetate ; lime 
water ; potassium iodide ; piperazine ; potassium 
nitrate ; Rochelle salt ; sodium borate ; tannin ; 
vegetable astringent infusions. 

IvEad Acetate — acids ; alkalies ; bromides ; car- 
bolic acid ; carbonates ; chloral hydrate ; chlor- 
ides ; chromates ; cyanides ; glucosides ; gums ; 
hydrochloric acid ; iodides ; opium ; pyrocatechin ; 
pyrogallol ; resorcin ; salicylic acid ; sodium phos- 
phate ; sodium salicylate ; sulphates ; sulphides 



129 



sulphites ; tannic acid : urea ; urethane ; vegetable 
decoctions, infusions, and tinctures. 

Lead Sub acetate — see sol. lead subacetate. 

LUPUUN — salts of iron, mercury, platinum and 
tin. 

Magnesia — acids ; with copaiba forms solid 
mass ; with little water becomes hydrated. 

Magnesium Salts — alkalies; arsenates; car- 
bonates ; lead acetate ; lime water ; oxalates ; 
phosphates ; silver nitrate ; sulphites ; tartrates. 

Manganese Salts — alkalies ; carbonates ; bro- 
mine ; chlorine, and iodine (in alk. sol. ) ; cyanides ; 
phosphates. 

Menthol — bromal hydrate ; butyl-chloral hy- 
drate ; camphor ; carbolic acid ; . chloral hydrate ; 
chromic acid ; exalgin ; naphtol ; potassium per- 
manganate ; pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol ; resorcin ; 
thymol ; urethane. 

Mercuric Chloride (Corrosive Sublimate) 
— albumin ; alkalies ; alkaloids ; ammonia ; anti- 
monous and arsenous salts ; bromides ; borax ; 
carbonates ; copper salts ; ferrous salts ; formic 
acid ; glucosides ; honey ; hypophosphites or 
hypophosphorous acid ; iodides ; infusions of 
cinchona, columbo, oak bark, and senna ; lead 
salts ; lime water, milk ; phosphates ; piperazine ; 
silver nitrate ; soap ; sulphates of potassium or 
sodium ; sulphides ; syrup sarsaparilla compound ; 
tannic acid ; tartar emetic ; vegetable astringents ; 
zinc salts. 

Mercurous Chloride (Calomel)— acacia ; 
acids (mineral) ; alkalies ; ammonia ; antimony 
sulphide, golden ; arsenites (in alk. mixtures); 
bromides ; carbonates ; chlorides ; citric acid ; 



130 

cocaine ; cyanides ; copper salts ; hydrocyanic 
acid ; hydrogen peroxide ; hypophosphorous acid ; 
iodides ; iodine ; iodoform ; lead salts ; lime water ; 
mercuric oxides; pilocarpine ; sodium bicarbon- 
ate ; sugar ( cane and milk ) ; silver salts ; soaps ; 
sulphides ; tragacanth. 

Mercury Ammoniated (White Precipi- 
tate) — acids; alkalies; bromine ; chlorine ; iodine; 
lime water. 

Mercury Iodide, Red — like mercuric 
chloride. 

Mercury Iodide, Yellow — like mercuroue 
chloride. 

Mercury Oxide — mineral acids; chloral hy- 
drate ; mercuric chloride. 

Mercury Subsulphate (Turpeth Mineral) 
— acids ; caustic alkalies. 

Methylene Blue — caustic potassa ; potassium 
bichromate ; potassium iodide ; reducing agents ; 
sulphuric acid. 

Morphine — alkaloidal precipitants ; borax ; 
chlorates ; ferric chloride ; iodates ; iodides ; 
iodine ; lead acetate and subacetate ; magnesia ; 
spirit nitrous ether ; silver nitrate. See also alka- 
loids. Antagonists: atropine; caffeine ; chloro- 
form ; cocaine ; daturine ; gelsemium ; hyoscya- 
mine ; nicotine ; paraldehyde ; physostigmine ; 
picrotoxin ; veratrum viride. 

Musk — acids (mineral); cinchona infusion ; fer- 
rous sulphate ; mercuric chloride ; silver nitrate. 

Naphtalin — carbolic acid ; chromic acid ; pyro- 
catechin ; salol. 

Naphtol Beta — antipyrin ; camphor ; carbolic 
acid ; chlorinated lime ; exalgin ; ferric chloride ; 



i3i 



menthol; potassium permanganate ; pyrocatechin ; 
urethane. 

Nitrites — Acetaniltd ; antipyrin ; chlorates ; 
chromates ; gold chloride ; hypophosphites ; io- 
dates ; iodides; mercury salts (ic and ous); per- 
manganates ; sulphites ; tannic acid ; vegetable 
astringent decoctions ; infusions or tinctures. 

Nitroglycerin — see glonoin. 

Nux Vomica — see strychnine. 

Oil, Turpentine — bromine ; chlorine ; iodine ; 
water. 

On. Wintergreen — like acid salicylic. 

Opium — alkalies ; alkaloidal precipitants ; car- 
bonates ; catechu ; cinchona ; copper salts ; galls ; 
iron salts ; kino ; lead acetate and subacetate ; 
lime water ; mercuric chloride ; silver nitrate ; 
zinc sulphate. Antagonists : see morphine. 

Oxalates — see oxalic acid. 

Pancreatin — acids ; alcohol ; sodium chloride 
(in excess) . 

Paraldehyde — alkalies ; hydrocyanic acid ; 
iodides ; oxidizers. 

Pepsin— alcohol ; alkalies ; tannic acid ; vege- 
table decoctions and infusions. 

Phenacetin — acids (strong); alkalies (strong); 
carbolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; iodine ; oxidizers ; 
piperazine ; pyrocatechin; salicylic acid. 

Phenocoll Hydrochlorate — acids (nitric 
or nitro hydrochloric) ; alum ; benzoates ; chloral 
hydrate ; cinchona ; compound tincture or decoc- 
tion ; mercuric chloride ; piperazine ; potassium 
acetate, bicarbonate, bromide, citrate or sulphate. 

Phosphates — see acid phosphoric. 

Phosphorus — all oxidizers. 



132 



Physostigmine— see alkaloids. Antagonists ; 
atropine ; caffeine ; chloral hydrate ; morphine ; 
strychnine. 

Picrotoxin — acids. Antagonists : chloral hy- 
drate ; morphine. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochlorate — alkaloidal 
precipitants ; calomel ; potassium permanganate. 
Antagonists : atropine. 

PipERazink — acetanilid ; alkaloidal salts ; 
alum ; butyl-chloral hydrate ; carbolic acid ; 
chloral hydrate ; copper sulphate ; ferric chloride ; 
ferrous sulphate ; mercuric chloride ; phenacetin ; 
phenocoll hydrochlorate ; picric acid ; potassium 
permanganate ; quinine ; silver nitrate; solution 
arsenic and mercury iodide ; sodium salicylate ; 
spirit nitrous ether ; tannic acid. 

Potassa, Sulphurated — acids ; acid salts. 

Potassium and Sodium Tartrate — acids; 
ammonium chloride ; barium salts ; calcium salts ; 
lead salts ; magnesium sulphate ; silver nitrate ; 
sodium sulphate. 

Potassium Permanganate — acids (mineral); 
alcohol ; ammonia ; arsenites ; bromides ; carbolic 
acid ; chlorides ; charcoal ; fats ; ferrous salts ; 
glycerine ; gums ; hydrogen dioxide ; hypo phos- 
phites ; hyposulphites ; mercurous salts ; oils ; or- 
ganic substances ; oxalic acid ; oxalates ; picric 
acid ; piperazine ; sulphites ; tannic acid ; tartaric 
acid. 

Pyoktanin — alkalies ; mercuric chloride. 

Pyrocatechin — acetanilid; alkalies; antipy- 
rine ; ammonium carbonate ; bromal hydrate ; 
butyl-chloral hydrate ; camphor ; camphor mono- 
bromated ; carbolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; diure- 



*33 

tin ; euphorin ; exalgin ; ferric chloride ; lead 
acetate ; menthol ; naphtalin ; naphtol ; nitric 
acid ; phenacetin ; pyrogallol ; resorcin ; salol ; 
sodium phosphate; thymol; urea; urethane. 

Pyrogallol — alkalies ; ammonia ; autipyrine ; 
camphor ; carbolic acid ; diuretin ; exalgin ; fer- 
ric acetate or chloride ; ferrous sulphate ; gold 
salts ; iodine ; lead acetate ; lime water ; menthol ; 
mercury salts ; potassium permanganate ; pyro- 
catechin ; sodium phosphate ; urea ; urethane. 

Quinine and Salts — like alkaloids. 

Resin — carbolic acid ; caustic alkalies ; men- 
thol ; salol ; thymol ; urethane. 

Resorcin — acetanilid ; albumin ; alkalies ; an- 
tipyrin ; camphor ; exalgin ; ferric chloride ; 
menthol; potassium iodide (in alk. sol. ; spirit 
nitrous ether ; urethane. 

Rhubarb— acids (mineral); ferrous sulphate: 
infusion of catechu ; cinchona or galls ; lead ace- 
tate ; lime water ; mercuric chloride ; silver ni- 
trate ; tartar emetic ; zinc sulphate. 

Salicylates — see acid, salicylic. 

Salol — alkalies (with heat ) ; bromine water ; 
camphor ; camphor monobromated ; carbolic 
acid ; chloral hydrate ; exalgin ; ferric chloride ; 
naphtalin ; pyrocatechin ; resin ; thymol ; urethane. 

Sarsaparilla — galls infusion ; lead acetate ; 
lime w r ater ; mercuric chloride (with comp. syr. 
of). 

Senna — acids (mineral); carbonates; cinchona 
infusion ; lead acetate ; lime water ; mercuric 
chloride ; silver nitrate ; tartar emetic. 

Silver Nitrate— acetates ; alcohol ; alkalies ; 
antimony salts ; arsenites ; bromides ; carbonates ; 



134 



chlorides ; chromates ; creosote ; cyanides ; copper 
salts ; ferrous sulphate ; glucose ; hypophosphites ; 
iodides ; morphine salts ; oils ; manganous salts ; 
organic substances ; phosphates ; sulphides ; sul- 
phates ; tartrates ; vegetable astringent infusions 
and decoctions. 

Silver Oxide— antimony and arsenic sul- 
phides; bismuth ; copper, iron, and mercury salts ; 
creosote ; iodine ; organic substances ; phos- 
phorus ; tannic acid. 

Sodium Hyposulphite ( Thiosulphate )— 
acids ; barium, lead, mercurous, and silver salts ; 
arsenic and ferric salts, and chromates and per- 
manganates (all in acid solution) ; chlorates ; 
iodine ; nitrates ; oxidizers. 

Sodium Phosphate — alkaloids ; antipyrine ; 
carbolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; lead acetate ; 
pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol ; resorcin ; salicylic 
acid ; sodium salicylate. See also acid, phos- 
phoric. 

Solution Arsenic and Mercury Iodide 
(Donovan's Solution) — alkaloids; caustic alka- 
lies ; piperazine. See also acid arsenous and 
iodides. 

Solution Lead Subacetate — acacia ; acids 
(organic) ; albumin ; alkaloids ; antipyrine ; gluco- 
sides. Otherwise like lead acetate. 

Solution Sodium Silicate — acacia; acids; 
alcohol. 

Spirit Ammonia, Aromatic — acids ; acid salts ; 
lime water ; aqueous fluids. 

Spirit Camphor — acacia; aqueous fluids; 
gelatin, 

Spirit Lemon — acacia, aqueous fluids; gelatin. 



135 



Spirit Peppermint — acacia ; aqueous fluids ; 
gelatin. 

Spirit Nitrous Ether — acacia ; acetanilid ; 
alkalies ; antipyrin ; carbonates ; ferrous sul- 
phate ; gelatin ; guaiac tincture : iodides ; mor- 
phine ; tannic acid ; piperazine ; preparations of 
uva ursi ; thymol. See also nitrites. 

Starch (in Solution | — acids ; alcohol ; alka- 
lies ; diastase ; iodine ; lead subacetate ; lime 
water ; tannic acid. 

Stramonium — acids (mineral) salts of iron, lead, 
mercury and silver. Otherwise like belladonna. 

Strontium Salts — alkalies ; carbonates ; chro- 
mates ; oxalates ; phosphates ; sulphates. 

Strychnine — all alkaloidal precipitants. An- 
tagonists : aconite ; alcohol ; amyl nitrite ; atro- 
pine ; chloral hydrate ; chloroform ; curarine ; 
digitalis ; hydrocyanic acid ; morphine ; nicotine ; 
paraldehyde ; physostigmine ; potassium bromide ; 
urethane. 

Sulphates — see acid sulphuric. 

Sulphur — potassium chlorate ; potassium per- 
manganate. 

Taraxacum — galls infusion, iron, lead, mer- 
cury, and silver salts. 

Tartar Emetic — see antimony and potassium 
tartrate. 

Terebene — chlorine ; bromine ; iodine ; water. 

Theobromine Salts — gold, mercury, and silver 
salts ; water. See also diuretin. 

Thymol — Acetanilid ; antipyrin ; butyl-chloral 
hydrate ; camphor ; camphor monobromated ; car- 
bolic acid ; chloral hydrate ; exalgin ; gold salts ; 



136 



menthol ; pyrocatechin ; quinine sulphate ; resin ; 
salol ; spirit nitrous ether ; urethane. 

TragacanTh — alcohol ; copper sulphate ; fer- 
rous sulphate ; lead acetate (basic and neutral). 

Urea — bromal hydrate ; chloral hydrate ; lead 
acetate ; pyrocatechin ; pyrogallol. 

Urethane — aldehydes ; alkalies ; antipyrin ; 
benzoic acid ; bromal hydrate ; butyl-chloral 
hydrate ; camphor ; carbonates ; carbolic acid ; 
exalgin ; menthol ; naphtol ; pyrocatechin ; pyro- 
gallol ; resin ; resorcin ; salicylic acid ; salol ; 
thymol. 

Uva Ursi — alkalies ; gelatin ; cinchona infu- 
sion, iron and lead salts ; opium ; silver nitrate ; 
spirit nitrous ether ; tartar emetic. 

Valerian — cinchona infusion; iron and silver 
salts. 

Vegetable Preparations— iron and lead salts. 

Water — alcoholic extracts and tinctures ; alka- 
loids generally ; collodion ; fats ; oils ; gum resins ; 
resins ; resinous extracts and tinctures. 

Zinc Salts — acacia ; alkalies ; arsenates ; car- 
bonates ; cyanides ; lime water ; milk ; oxalates ; 
phosphates ; sulphates ; sulphides ; vegetable as- 
tringent decoctions and infusions. 



POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES* 



In treating cases of poisoning, four indications 
must be kept in mind : (A) How to most quickly 
get the bulk of the poison out of the stomach by 
forcibly emptying it; (B) how to antidote the 
residual poison after evacuating the stomach ; 
(C) how to eliminate from the system the poison 
that has entered the blood or gone on into the 
intestines ; D) how to treat the dangerous symp- 
toms as they arise from the effects of the poison. 

Acetaxilid, Axtifebrin, Antipyrin. — Place 
patient in a recumbent position, allow plenty of 
fresh air ; give stimulants (brandy, whiskey, 
aromatic spirit of ammonia, etc.) Apply heat ex- 
ternally ; use atropine or belladonna to maintain 
blood pressure ; strychnine to aid respiration ; 
oxygen inhalations if there is excessive cyanosis. 

Acid Acetic. — Administer magnesia freely ; 
soap and water, lime water, chalk ; milk, oils and 
thick gruel may be given. 

Acid Carbolic. — Unless great destruction of 
mucous membrane has occurred, produce vomit- 
ing by means of warm water containing some 
sodium bicarbonate or zinc sulphate ; mustard, 
apo morphine. Demulcent drinks, flaxseed or 
elm tea, and white of egg beaten up with water, 
protect mucous surfaces. Do not give oils or 



*From Merck's Report Read}- Reference. (Adapted to 
veterinary practice. When vomiting is mentioned it is 
understood to refer to the smaller animals as the pig, dog 
and cat ; not to the herbivora. | 



i3» 



glycerin. As stimulants use whiskey, alcohol, 
ammonia, etc. , hypodermically if need be ; warmth, 
friction. Opium relieves pain. Excite counter 
irritation over the abdomen. Give digitalis and 
strychnine if needed. Recently whiskey and 
brandy have been warmly recommended, followed 
in a few T minutes by a hypodermic injection of 
apomorphine to produce vomiting. A Dublin 
veterinarian, Allen, has lately recommended tur- 
pentine for carbolic acid poisoning. 

Acid, Carbonic and Coal Gas. — Bring the 
patient at once into the open air. If the respira- 
tory movements have ceased, cold water should 
be dashed on the face and chest, to awaken them 
to reflex action. If no effect is thereby produced 
resort to artificial respiration which should be 
continued for at least an hour. A series of quick 
sharp blows over the cardiac region will some- 
times start the heart into action after it has 
stopped. Inhalation of oxygen or ammonia vapor, 
or an enema of black coffee, and venesection, may 
be of service. 

Acid, Chromic, Potassium Chromate and 
Bichromate. — Evacuate the stomach with ^ oz. 
of mustard stirred to a cream with i oz. of water ; 
(man or dog), or with zinc sulphate, apomor- 
phine ; ipecac or pump. Follow with magnesium 
oxide or carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or chalk, 
.in water; as demulcent drinks give barley, elm or 
flaxseed water. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic, Cyanides, Cherry- 
laurel Water, Oil Bitter Almond. — Fifteen 
minims of official acid, or i grain of anhydrous 
acid, usually kills (man or dog) in 10 to 15 min- 



*39 

utes. Place in recumbent position, allow plenty 
of fresh air ; empty the stomach by mustard, zinc 
sulphate, or pump ; keep the body warm. If 
breathing ceases, use artificial respiration, mild 
faradic current to the heart, alternate cold and 
warm affusion to head, chest and spine ; adminis- 
ter ammonia by inhalation or give it by mouth or 
veins ; inject atropine solution 2 to 4 drops every 
half hour, to assist the heart's action. Ferrous 
sulphate with ferric sulphate, followed by potas- 
sium carbonate solution, yields inert Prussian 
blue. Ferrous sulphate alone or with calcined 
magnesia renders the acid insoluble, but the action 
of the acid is so quick that there is scarcely time 
for the application of many remedies. Brandy by 
the mouth, skin, or rectum has been found valu- 
able. 

Acid, Oxalic and Oxalates: — Half to one 
ounce usually proves fatal (man or dog). If not 
already vomited by the poison, empty the stomach 
at once with mustard, zinc sulphate, pump or 
tube, then neutralize with chalk, whiting, or 
wall plaster in water, or lime water itself, never 
with sodium, potassium or ammonia salts, as these 
form soluble oxalates ; apply hot fomentations to 
the loins. Give an enema to empty the bowels. 
Give much water to facilate elimination by the 
kidneys. 

Acids, Mineral : Hydrochloric, Nitric, Ni- 
tro-hydrochloric, sulphuric, phosphoric. 
One to four drams of the stronger acids usually 
proves fatal (man and dog). Neutralize with 
sodium bicarbonate, calcined magnesia, lime, 
chalk, or wall plaster mixed with water ; if none 



140 



of these are accessible, dilute and wash out the 
stomach with considerable water. One may use 
with advantage any of the following — soap, milk, 
gruel, olive and almond oil, eggs beaten up. 
Avoid the stomach pump as it might perforate the 
softened oesophagus, 

Aconite and Aconitine. —Thirty to sixty 
drops of tincture or one-twentieth grain of alka- 
loid generally prove fatal (man or dog). Evacu- 
ate the stomach at once with zinc sulphate, 
apomorphine, mustard, or pump ; place in a 
recumbent position, the head the lowest ; apply 
warmth to the extremities ; give solution, four 
drops hypodermically or, give tincture of bella- 
donna twenty drops by the mouth, repeated. If 
heart syncope presents, give tincture of digitalis 
fifteen drops hypodermically or thirty drops by 
the mouth. As stimulants, use ammonia, brandy, 
strychnine, mustard plasters to the chest. Aid 
vomiting and elimination of the poisoning by 
abundant water, to which may be added brandy 
or alcohol in any form. Inhale amyl nitrite, or 
oxygen, and if breathing stops use artificial res- 
piration. Animal charcoal and tannin are of 
service. 

(The doses of the antidotes mentioned above 
are for man and dog ; for larger animals the dosage 
should be in proportion to size). 

Alcohol. — Inebriation somewhat resembles 
opium poisoning and concussion of the brain. 
Empty the stomach, wash out well with warm 
coffee, keep the body very warm, but apply cold 
douche to the head ; allow plenty of fresh air ; 
apply interrupted current to the respiratory mus- 



Ui 



cles ; ammonia water or amyl nitrite to the nos- 
trils ; keep the patient awake mechanically by 
shaking, shouting, etc. 

Alkalies, Potassa, Soda and Ammonia. — 
They usually cause vomiting, but if they do not, 
accomplish this by plenty of luke-warm water, to 
be followed by vinegar (dilute acetic acid, lemon 
or orange juice, tartaric or citric acid solution, 2 
drams to a pint of water) ; olive oil ( 1 to 4 drams 
for man and dog); egg white, milk, demulcent 
drinks (arrowroot, elm, barley, or flaxseed water) 
to protect the mucous membranes and sustain 
vital powers. May always give plenty of water and 
relieve pain with laudanum or hypodermics of 
morphine: 

Alkaloids in General.— Tannin generally 
forms comparatively insoluble tannates : albumin; 
iodine, and charcoal also of service ; use emetics 
and cathartics later. 

Ammonia. — Administer vinegar, lemon juice, 
orange juice, or any vegetable acid, followed by 
demulcents to protect the mucous surfaces. When 
inhaled, give vapor of acetic or hydrochloric acid 
or chlorine water by inhalation. 

Amyl Nitrite. — Atropine, ergotin, or strych- 
nine Irypodermically are the best antidotes ; stim- 
ulants, alternate hot and cold douches, with cold 
to the head, and artificial respiration are also 
useful measures. 

Antimony Compounds, Tartar Emetic. — In 
man, 2 to 5 grains have occasioned death, while 
several drams have failed to produce more than 
great vomiting and alarming general symptoms. 
Should these fail to cause the patient to vomit 



142 

one must create this by mustard, zinc sulphate, 
apomorphine or pump ; follow with strong tea or 
coffee, solution of tannic or gallic acid, to form an 
insoluble compound. Give demulcent drinks 
(flaxseed, slippery elm, egg white, milk) ; opium 
and stimulants in small but frequent doses. If 
the body be cold, apply blankets ; faradic current 
over the heart if necessary. Instead of tannin, 
freshly precipitated ferric hydroxide can be used, 
following with opium or morphine for the pain. 

AnTipyrin. — See Acetanilid. 

Apocynin.— Like Digitalis. 

Arsenic Compounds.— Unless the poison itself 
vomits, accomplish this with mustard, zinc sul- 
phate, apomorphine, pump, or tube. Either wash 
out the stomach with a large quantity of water or 
give freshly precipitated hydrated oxide of iron, 
made by double decomposition between any ferr*£ 
solution and a solution of either diluted ammonia 
water, sodium carbonate, or magnesium oxide, the 
object being to form insoluble ferric arsenite or 
arsenate. The ammonia acts as a stimulant, the 
calcined magnesia as an aperient. One may give 
with advantage, oil, mucilaginous drinks, egg 
white, and in case of faintness, stimulants. If the 
skin be cold, apply hot blankets, and relieve the 
pain by opium or morphine; one may conclude 
with a dose of castor oil. 

Atropine. — See Belladonna. 
Barium Compounds. — See Lead compounds. 
Belladonna or Atropine, Hyoscyamus or 
Hyoscyamine, Stramonium or Daturine, Dul- 
camara OR SOLANINE, DUBOISIA OR DUBOISINE. 

—Empty the stomach by mustard, zinc sulphate, 



»43 



apomorphine, pump or tube ; give strong infusion 
of coffee or tea by the mouth or rectum ; also 
pilocarpine nitrate ; or instead, use morphine, 
opium, or physostigmine to antagonize the 
nervous disturbances of the poison. Apply hot 
water to the feet ; alternate douches of hot and 
cold water are useful. Give stimulants (whiskey 
or brandy), ammonia to the nostrils ; also practise 
artificial respiration. 

Benzene. — Evacuate the stomach (mustard, 
zinc sulphate, apomorphine, ipecac, pump). Give 
abundant fresh air ; hypodermic atropine, or 
tincture of belladonna. Apply alternately hot and 
cold water douches to the chest ; practise arti- 
ficial respiration, and apply a mild interrupted 
current over the heart. 

Beue Stone. — See copper, under mercury 
compounds. 

Bromides. — Give strong coffee, caffeine , citrate, 
digitalis; morphine is antagonistic to mental 
symptoms ; ergot and belladonna are sometimes 
used. 

Bromine. — Give albumin, starch, gelatin, sodium 
or potassium carbonate or bicarbonate. Against 
the irritant vapor, inhalations of steam' and am- 
monia vapor may be employed. 

Brucine. — See strychnine. 

Calabar Bean. — See Physostigma. 

Camphor. — Empty the stomach (by mustard, 
zinc sulphate, pump, etc.) ; give alcohol or brandy 
in small and frequent doses (best hypodermically); 
ether inhalations ; alternate hot and cold douches ; 
warmth to the extremities by hot blankets, etc. 



144 

Cannabis Indica.— Treat as in opium, but also 
in the first stages use lemon juice. 

Cantharides or CanTHARIDIn.— -In man or 
dog a half dram of powder or one ounce of the 
tincture usually proves fatal. Empty the stomach 
(mustard, zinc sulphate, apomorphine, ipecac, 
pump); allay pain with morphine hypodermically 
ortincture of opium (through the mouth orrectum). 
Give plenty of demulcent drinks (barley, elm, 
flaxseed tea, gruel or pure water) but no oils or 
oily emulsion, in which catharidin is very soluble ; 
opium, stimulants, warm baths, cataplasms to the 
abdomen. 

Carbon Disulphidk.— Quiet the nervous ex- 
citement with potassium bromide and chloral ; 
support the circulation with stimulants ; may 
vomit with mustard at first ; ammonia to nostrils, 
warmth to the body, cold douche to the head ; 
artificial respiration. 

Castor Beans.— In man three seeds in one case, 
and twenty in another, have caused death in two 
and five days respectively. As soon as they have 
been swallowed give an emetic (mustard, etc.); 
later give demulcent drinks, opium to quiet vio- 
lent symptoms which resemble those of cholera. 
Cat Bites.— See Dog Bites. 

Cherry-Laurel Water.— See Acid Hydro- 
cyanic. 

Chloral.— One-half to one dram may prove fatal 
(small animals); empty the stomach (mustard, 
zinc sulphate, apomorphine, ipecac, pump). When 
the stomach is empty introduce coffee by tube 
(mouth or rectum) ; keep limbs warm (friction, 
mustard plasters, water bags). Administer hypo- 



145 

dermically, fresh 2% solution of strychnine nitrate 
every fifteen minutes. Picrotoxin may be substi- 
tuted for strychnine. Arouse the patient and keep 
him awake by coffee, caffeine, flagellation, shak- 
ing, shouting ; apply ammonia to the nostrils, 
cold to the head ; amyl nitrite inhalations to stim- 
ulate the heart ; practise artificial respiration if 
necessary. 

Chlorates (and Nitrates — potassium, sodium, 
etc.) — Empty .the stomach (mustard, zinc, sul- 
phate, amorphine). Give plenty of water and 
mucilaginous drinks to dilute the poison, opium 
to relieve the pain ; amyl nitrite inhalations ; 
avoid stimulants that would increase kidney con- 
gestion, keep warm by hot fomentations to the 
loins. 

Chloroform (or Ether, Nitrous Oxide Gas).— 
Withdraw the inhalation at once, lower well the 
head; pull the tongue forward so as to admit plen- 
ty of fresh air. Use artificial respiration and heat ; 
weak current — one pole at the larynx, the other 
on the pit of the stomach (not far from diaphragm). 
Apply hot and cold douche ; inhale amyl nitrite. 
If the heart has stopped, give several taps over 
that region, inhale ammonia, give brandy, atro- 
pine, strychnine. If swallowed evacuate the 
stomach (mustard, zinc sulphate, apomorphine,. 
pump) ; enema of hot coffee, large draughts of 
water, containing sodium carbonate or bicarbon- 
ate, and proceed as if inhaled. 

Chlorinated Lime.— Administer albumin, mu- 
cilaginous drinks, oils, milk, or flour and water ; 
avoid acids. Opium and alcohol are used for the 
vital depression. 



146 

Chlorine.— Against chlorine preparations in 
the stomach employ albumin or ammonia water in 
small quantity and well diluted ; emesis with warm 
water, then white of egg, or milk, flour, or lime 
water. Ammonia vapor is used against inhaled 
chlorine. 

Coal Gas.— See Acid, Carbonic. 
Cobalt.— See Arsenic. 

Cocaine.— Resembles closely atropine in its 
general action as to pulse; pupils, respiration, 
sweat glands and bowels. Give one of the usual 
emetics, then tannin. Morphine is probably the 
best all round antagonist; then in sequence, 
chloral, chloroform, and ether. Give amyl nitrite 
to counteract heart depression ; alcohol and opium 
to stimulate the heart; should these fail, use 
artificial respiration. One may employ ammonia 
inhalations and caffeine. 

Cocculus Indicus.— See Strychnine. 
Codeine.— See Opium. 

Colchicum (wine or tincture ; Colocynth, Elat- 
eritim). — If vomiting and purging have not oc- 
curred, accomplish the former by one of the usual 
emetics (mustard, zinc sulphate, ipecac, apomor- 
phine, or pump); follow with tannic or gallic acid, 
or strong tea or coffee ; plenty of water and 
demulcent drinks ; opium or morphine to -allay 
the pain in the stomach, purging, and to antag- 
onize heart depression, stimulants (alcohol, whis- 
key, etc. ). Keep the extremities warm and apply 
hot fomentations to the abdomen. 
CoivOCYNTH.— See Colchicum. 
Conium (or Coniine).— Empty the stomach 
(mustard, zinc sulphate, apomorphine, pump) ; 



M7 



apply external warmth (hot wraps, bags or bot- 
tles), give strong tea, coffee, tannic, or gallic acid, 
or any solution containing tannin ; stimulants, 
artificial respiration ; strychnine, picrotoxin, ac- 
tive exercise ; castor oil. 

Conyallaria. — See Digitalis. 

Copper Compounds. — See Mercury Com- 
pounds. 

Corrosive Sublimate. — See Mercury Com- 
pounds. 

Creosote. — Practically the same as with Car- 
bolic Acid. 

Croton Oil,. — Empty the stomach (mustard, 
zincsulphate, apomorphine, pump) ; give tincture 
of opium or morphine hypodermically, until pain 
and purging are abated. Give demulcent drinks 
(elm, flaxseed water, mucilage, milk, olive oil, 
albumin, soup) ; spirit of camphor in milk ; stim- 
ulants (brandy, alcohol, whiskey, ammonia), 
warm baths are also used. 

Curarine (or Curare). — If introduced in a 
wound, and all is not removed apply ligature, 
suck the injured part, washing it out with slightly 
alkaline solution of potassium permanganate ; ap- 
ply warmth to the loins, plenty of water inter- 
nally, artificial respiration ; spirit of nitrous ether 
rapidly eliminates the poison through the urine. 
The great difficulty is in sustaining life by artifi- 
cial respiration until elimination begins. 

Cyanides. — See Acid Hydrocyanic. 

Cvtisine (or Laburnum Seeds).— Induce vom- 
iting and wash out the stomach with strong tea or 
coffee ; follow with enema or quick purgative ; 



stimulant ; rouse the patient by hot and cold 
douche. 

DaTu rink. —See Belladonna. 
Digitalis (or Digitalin ; Scillain [Scillitin], 
(Strophantus, Strophanthin, Convallaria, Scopa- 
rius).— Evacuate the stomach (mustard, zinc sul- 
phate, apomorphine, pump) . Follow with strong 
tea or coffee or tannic or gallic acid in water. 
Hypodermic solution of aconitine nitrate may be 
given, or tincture of aconite by mouth ; if this 
has given good results repeat in thirty minutes, 
keep the patient quiet and do not allow an erect 
position, as that may cause fainting to death. 
Give stimulants frequently by the mouth, or if 
vomiting occurs, by the rectum. When the drug 
has been in continuous use, opium is the best anti- 
dote. Saponin and Senegin are the best physio- 
logic antagonists. 

Dog Bites (and Cat Bites).— Suck out the 
wound well with the mouth, wash with a weak al- 
kaline solution (ammonia, caustic potash, etc.), 
then cauterize with lunar caustic. 

DuboiSia (and Duboisine).— See Belladonna. 
Dulcamara (and Solanin).— See Belladonna. 
ElaTKRIUM.— See Colchicum. 
Ergot.— Evacuate the stomach (mustard, zinc 
sulphate, apomorphine, pump). Give purgative 
(Croton Oil) and assist the action by plenty of 
warm drinks. Tannic or gallic acid may be use- 
ful ; after vomiting and purging, administer small 
doses of opium at intervals. Nitroglycerin every 
15 minutes has been effective. Allow a recum- 
bent position. Apply warmth and friction to 
maintain the circulation ; stimulants, amyl nitrite. 



U9 



ESERINE. — See Physostigma. 

Ether. — See Chloroform. 

Fish Poison. — Administer emetics and cathar- 
tics ; potassium chlorate, solution ammonium 
acetate, opium, capsicum or chloroform. 

Fowler's Solution. — See Arsenic. 

Fungi. — See Mushrooms. 

Geusemium ( and Gelsemine ). — Empty the 
stomach (mustard or pump) ; give atropine hypo- 
dermically or tincture of belladonna by mouth ; 
apply external heat by rubbing ; stimulants 
(digitalis, ammonia, coffee, alcohol, artifical respi- 
ration, electricity); rouse the patient by hot and 
cold douches. 

Guonoin. — Like Amyl Nitrite. 

Gold Salts. — Like Mercury compounds. 

Hvoscine. — Similar to Belladonna, but chloral 
is used here with great advantage. 

Hvoscvamus (and Hyoscyamine). — See Bella- 
donna. 

IgnaTia. — See Strychnine. 

Iodine. — Empty the stomach (mustard, zinc 
sulphate, apomorphine, pump); follow with 
starch diffused in hot water or as a paste, or flour 
in warm water ; farinaceous substances (arrow- 
root, boiled rice, thin gruel); demulcent drinks ; 
may inhale amyl nitrite and relieve the pain by 
opium and morphine. 

Laburnum Seeds. — See Cytisine. 

Lactucarium. — See Opium. 

Laudanum. — See Opium. 

Lead Compounds (Lead Chromate and Acetate 
Barium Compounds). — If acute empty the stom- 
ach (mustard, zinc sulphate, apomorphine, pump) ; 



i5o 



follow with sulphate of magnesium or sodium, or 
dilute sulphuric acid ; milk, demulcent drinks. 
For the pain give opium or morphine : for lead 
colic, apply hot fomentations. If it be chronic 
lead poisoning, recognized by a blue line (sul- 
phide) along the margin of the gums, paralyzed 
extensors, constipation, etc., give iodides to satu- 
ration (sodium and calcium iodides being best) ; 
sulphurated potassa baths. 

IyOBEiviA. — If the patient has failed to vomit, 
use emetics ; follow with tannin, stimulants, 
strychnine, opiates. 

Lunar Caustic. — See Silver Compounds. 

Matches. — See Phosphorus. 

Mercury Compounds (also Copper Com- 
pounds). — Kmpty the stomach (mustard, zinc sul- 
phate, apomorphine, ipecac, pump) ; follow with 
albumin (white of one egg to every 4 grains of 
corrosive sublimate). Too much must not be 
given lest the precipitate formed by the mercuric 
salt and albumin be redissolved. Now give an 
emetic — warm water with sodium bicarbonate, 
zinc sulphate, or mustard, and wash out the 
stomach with demulcent drinks (flaxseed or elm). 
If egg white is not convenient, one may use for 
mercury salts, gluten, wheat flour in paste form, 
milk, or chop and diffuse in water fresh meat and 
administer the broth. Morphine for pain. For 
copper compounds also use stimulants ; relieve 
the pain with opium or give reduced iron or weak 
solution of potassium ferrocyanide; then potassium 
iodide until the system is saturated to promote 
elimination. 

Morphine Sai/ts.— See Opium. 



i5i 



Muscarine. — See Mushrooms. 

Mushrooms (and Poisonous Fungi ; also Mus- 
carine). — Empty the stomach (mustard, zinc sul- 
phate, apomorphine, pump) ; inject at once solu- 
tion of atropine, or after emesis give tincture of 
belladonna every half hour ; castor oil and enema 
to remove fungi from lower bowel ; stimulants ; 
the body should also be kept warm. 

Nicotine. — See Tobacco. 

Nitrates. — See Chlorates. 

Nitrobenzene. — (Oil Mirbane). — Empty the 
stomach (mustard, zinc sulphate, pump), washing 
it out with plenty of warm water if possible. Give 
stimulants by the mouth, the rectum or hypoder- 
mically ; artificial respiration which must be 
maintained, by weak, interrupted currents to the 
chest wall. Rouse the patient by the douche ; 
hypodermic atropine may be useful. 

Nitroglycerin. — Like Amyl Nitrite. 

Nitrous Oxide Gas. — See Chloroform. 

Nux Vomica. — See Strychnine. 

Oil Bitter Almond. -See Acid Hydrocyanic. 
. Oil Mirbane. — See Nitrobenzene. 

Opium (also Laudanum, Morphine, Codeine, 
Lactucarium, Cannabis Indica) — When the poison 
has been taken by the mouth give at once a solu- 
tion of potassium permanganate, then empty the 
stomach, which may be difficult, by pump, apo- 
morphine, mustard or zinc sulphate. Wash the 
stomach out well with hot coffee, leaving there a 
pint or more ; keep the body warm with hot 
wraps, but use alternate hot and cold douches to 
the head. Use hypodermic solution of atropine 
every 15 minutes for three doses ; tannin and 



152 



strychnine are also valuable. Apply electricity to 
chest muscles and artificial respiration. Keep the 
patient awake by shaking, nicking with a towel, 
applying cold water over the face and chest, 
keep patient moving : give inhalation of amyl 
nitrite. Evacuate the bladder often to prevent 
reabsorption. 

Phknacktin. — Like Acetanilid. 

Phosphorus (as well as Rat Poison and 
Matches.) — Empty the stomach ( copper sulphate 
until the patient has vomited sufficiently ; zinc 
sulphate, mustard, pump — the copper forming in- 
soluble black phosphide). Follow this with old 
(oxygenated, acid, French) oil of turpentine in 
mucilage or floating on water ; may also inhale 
diluted turpentine vapor ; give charcoal or lime 
water to prevent action on tissues ; also magnesium 
sulphate as a cathartic. Potassium permanganate, 
opium, and egg white may be of service, but 
never use fats or fatty oils, as these dissolve phos- 
phorus, thus aiding its absorption. It is mostly 
eliminated by the urine, hence the bladder should 
be frequently evacuated. 

Physostigma (and Physostigmine). — Evacuate 
the stomach (mustard, zinc sulphate, ipecac, 
apomorphine, pump); hypodermic of atropine 
until pupils dilate. Should this fail, give chloral, 
or hypodermic of strychnine. Diffusible stimu- 
lants, coffee, alcohol, etc., are used and artificial 
respiration should be induced if necessary ; empty 
the bladder often. 

Phytolacca. — It acts per se as' an emeto-ca- 
thartic, hence after the vomiting give stimulants, 
alcohol, ether, opium, digitalis. 



153 



Picrotoxin. — vSee Strychnine. 

Pilocarpus (and Pilocarpine). — Evacuate the 
stomach, follow with hypodermic of atropine, or 
tincture of belladonna, until pupils are dilated : 
may give tannin. 

Potassa — vSee Alkalies. 

Potassium Bichromate and Chromate. — See 
Chromic Acid. 

Potasium Cyanide. — See Acid Hydrocyanic. 

Potassium Nitrate. — See Chlorates. 

Prussic Acid. — See Acid Hydrocyanic. 

Pulsatilla. — Give tannic acid and follow with 
an emetic ; alcohol, opium, or digitalis may also 
be indicated. 

Rat Paste. — See Phosphorus ; also Arsenic. 

Rhus Toxicodendron. — Rub in a saturated 
solution of lead acetate in diluted alcohol, and re- 
peat for several days ; 5'V solution or 10% oleate 
of cocaine is also effective ; a solution of 2 drams 
of lead acetate and 4 drams of ammonium chloride 
in 8 fl. oz. of water has also been recommended. 
Internally, opium or coffee may be used to relieve 
the nervous irritability. 

Sabadilla.— See Veratrum Viride. 

Savine (oil and tops; also Tansy). — If not 
vomited and the throat not inflamed, evacuate the 
stomach with mustard, zinc sulphate, ipecac, 
pump. If the bowels have not moved freely, give 
either castor oil or epsom salt ; allay pain with 
morphine and demulcents. 

Scillain (Scillitin). — See Digitalis. 

Scoparius - See Digitalis. 

Silver Compounds. — Give common salt dis- 
solved in warm water, to form insoluble silver 



154 

chloride ; or use egg white or milk ; ( follow with 
an emetic ( mustard ) , and large draughts of warm 
water ; give demulcent drinks (arrowroot, elm, 
flaxseed, gruel). 

Snake Bites. — Suck the wound and apply to it 
an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate 
(may inject this under the skin). In severe cobra 
poisoning, with death threatening, bleed at one 
limb and transfuse blood by the other ; give arti- 
ficial respiration and weak interrupted galvanic 
shocks to the walls of the chest ; inhale and give 
ammonia by the mouth. 

Soda. — See alkalies. 

SOI.ANIN. — See Belladonna. 

Staphisagria (Stavesacre). — Evacuate the 
stomach (emetics, pump, draughts of warm water); 
give tannin, charcoal, diffusible stimulants. Keep 
the patient quiet and the extremities warm. Give 
chloral hydrate, or potassium bromide ; or better 
inhale chloroform for the spasms. Use all haste 
as death is usually caused by asphyxia. 

Stings (Bees, Hornets, Wasps). — Apply am- 
monia water or some alkaline solution to the 
part stung ; extract the sting ; use stimulants, if 
necessary. One may apply an onion to the part, 
but this is not as good as ammonia. 

Stramonium. — See Belladonna. 

Strophanti! us (or strophanthin).— See Digi- 
talis. 

Strychnine Sai/ts (or Brucine, Ignatia, Nux 
Vomica, Picrotoxin, Cocculus Indicus). — Remove 
the patient from all noise, quickly empty the 
stomach (mustard, zinc sulphate, apomorphine 
hypodermically) ; give tannin, charcoal, iodide of 



J55 • 

starch. Place the patient under chloroform, 
ether, or chloral and potassium bromide, thus 
keeping up gentle narcosis several hours if neces- 
sary ; inhale amyl nitrite. If spasms threaten 
respiration, induce it artificially ; empty the 
bladder often. 

Suufonal and Trionai,.— Give diuretics and 
saline cathartics ; sodium bicarbonate and water 
freely. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen. — Resort to artifi- 
cial respiration and inhalation of chlorine diluted 
with air ; or give chlorine water or chlorinated 
lime. 

Tansy.— See Savine. 

Tartar Emetic. — See Antimony Compounds. 

Tin Compounds.— Evacuate the stomach (mus- 
tard, zinc sulphate, ipecac, etc.). Give milk of 
calcined magnesia ; demulcent drinks (elm, flax- 
seed, etc.) ; laudanum if there is much pain. 

Tobacco (or Nicotine). — Concentrated enemas 
and large quantities of powder kill in a very few 
hours. If the patient has not already vomited the 
drug, empty the stomach by mustard, zinc sul- 
phate or pump ; give plenty of water ; let the pa- 
tient lie down ; inject a solution of strychnine 
nitrate or give tincture of nux vomica by the 
mouth; stimulants, brandy, whiskey, chloric 
ether, etc. ; keep the body warm but apply cold 
douche to the head ; tannin and astringent solu- 
tions may be given. 

Turpentine. — Empty the stomach (mustard, 
zinc sulphate, ipecac, apomorphine, pump, tube). 
If there is no purging give enema, plenty of water 
and demulcent drinks to eliminate it by the kid- 



156 



neys. Apply hot fomentations to the loins ; allay 
the pain with opium. 

Tyrotoxicon (in milk, cheese, ice cream, etc.). 
— Give emetics and rinse out stomach ; follow with 
purgative enema. 

Vkratrum Viridk (also Veratrine, Sabadilla, 
Veratrum Album). — Evacuate the stomach ( unless 
the veratroidine constituent has ejected itself by 
causing vomiting), by mustard, zinc sulphate, 
ipecac or pump. Give recumbent position, head 
lowest ; dry warmth to the body, wraps, blankets, 
etc. ; give hot coffee by the mouth or rectum ; 
tannin, diffusible stimulants, alcohol, brandy, 
whiskey, ammonia, morphine, electricity, artificial 
respiration ; atropine antagonizes the cardiac 
depression. 

Whitk Precipitate. — See Mercury Com- 
pounds. 

Zinc Compounds. — Should the patient not 
vomit, use plenty of warm water containing car- 
bonate or bicarbonate of sodium, or mustard ; fol- 
low this with white of egg and milk ; solution of 
tannin or strong tea to form insoluble tannate ; 
allay the abdominal pain by hot fomentations, 
morphine or tincture of opium. 



CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES 

ACCORDING TO 

THEIR PHYSIOLOGIC ACTIONS. 



Alteratives. 

Acid, Arsenous. 
Acid, Hydriodic. 
Ammonium Benzoate. 
Antimony Salts. 
Arsenic and Mercury 

Iodide Solution. 
Arsenites and Arsenates. 
Calcium Chloride. 
Colchicum. 
Copper Salts. 
Creosote and its 

Compounds. 
Gold Salts. 
Guaiacol and its 

Compounds. 
Ichthyol. 
Iodides. 
Iodipin. 
Iodoform. 

Manganese Dioxide. 
Mercurials. 

Potassium Bichromate. 
Potassium Chlorate. 
Pulsatilla. 



Sanguinaria. 
Silver Salts. 
Stillingia. 
Sulphur. 

Suprarenal Capsule. 
Xanthoxylum. 
Zinc Salts. 

Analgesics. See 
Anodynes, General. 

An aphrodisiacs. 
Belladonna. 
Bromides. 
Bromipin. 
Camphor. 
Cocaine. 
Conium. 
Digitalis. 
Gelsemium. 
Hyoscyamus. 
Opium. 
Stramonium. 

Anesthetics, General. 

Chloroform. 

Ether. 



158 



Ethyl Bromide. 
(Nitrous Oxide). 

Anesthetics Local. 

Chloretone. 

Cocaine Hydrochlorate. 

Ether Spray. 

Ethyl Chloride. 

Eucaine. 

Holocaine. 

Menthol. 

Tropacocaine. 

Anodynes, General. 

Acetanilid. 

Acid, Salicylic. 

Aconitine. 

Antipyrine. 

Aspirin. 

Atropine. 

Bromides. 

Butyl-chloral Hydrate. 

Caffeine. 

Camphor Monobrom. 

Chloroform. 

Codeine. 

Gelseminine. 

Methylene Blue. 

Morphine Salts. 

Oil Gaultheria. 

Phenacetin. 

Anodynes, Local. 

Acid, Carbolic. 



Aconite, Tincture. 

Aconitine. 

Ammonia water. 

Atropine. 

Belladonna. 

Chloroform. 

Chloral Hydrate. 

Guaiacol. 

Ichthyol. 

Antacids or Alkalines 

Calcium Carbonate. 
Lime Water. 
Lithium Carbonate. 
Magnesia. 

Magnesium Carbonate. 
Potassium Bicarbonate. 
Potassium Carbonate. 
Potassium Hydrate. 
Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Sodium Carbonate. 
Sodium Hydrate. 

Anthelmintics. 
Aloes. (Enema. ) 
Aspidium. 
Chenopodium. 
Koussein. / 
Naphtalin. 
Oil Turpentine. 
Extract Male Fern. 
Pelletierine Tannate. 
Pumpkin Seed. 
Quassia Infusion 



159 



Santonin with Calomel. 
Sodium Chloride. 
Sodium Santoninate. 
■ Spigelia. 
Thymol. 

Anti-emetics. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic. 

Bismuth Subcarbonate. 

Bismuth Subnitrate. 

Bromides. 

Cerium Oxalate. 

Chloroform. 

Codeine. 

Ether. 

Menthol. 

Morphine. 

Orexine Tannate. 

Antigalactagogues, 

Agaricin. 

Belladonna. 

Camphor ; topically. 

Conium. 

Ergot. 

Iodides. 

Saline Purgatives. 

ANTIHYDROTICS. 

Acid, Camphoric. 
Acid, Gallic. 
Acid, Tannic. 
Agaricin. 



Atropine. 
Lead Acetate. 
Picrotoxin. 
Quinine. 
Salicin. 

ANTIIvlTHICS. 

Acid, Benzoic. 
Alkalies. 
Benzoates. 
Lithium Salts. 
Magnesium Citrate. 
Magnesium Oxide . 
Piperazine. 

Potassium Bicarbonate. 
Potassium Carbonate. 
Potassium Citrate. 
Sodium Bicarbonate. 
Sodium Phosphate. 
Sodium Salicylate. 

Antiparasitics. 
See Parasiticides. 

Antiperiodics. 
Acid, Arsenous. 
Acid, Picric. 
Arsenites. 

Berberine Carbonate. 
Cinchona and 

Alkaloids. 
Methylene Blue. 
Quinine. 
Salicin. 



i6o 



Antiphlogistics. See 
also Antipyretics, 

Aconite, Tincture. 
Antimony-Potassium 

Tartrate. 
Gelsemium. 
Ichthyol ; internally. 
Lead Salts. 
Opium. 

Antipyretics. 
Acetanilid. 
Acid, Benzoic. 
Acid, Carbolic. 
Acid, Salicylic. 
Aconite, Tincture. 
Ammonium Acetate : 

Solution. 
Ammonium Benzoate. 
Aspirin. 
Phenacetin. 
Quinine and Salts. 
Re so rein. 
Veratrum Viride, 

Tincture. 

Antiseptics. See also 

Disinfectants 
Acetanilid. 
Acid Benzoic ; and 

Benzoates. 
Acid, Boric ; and Borates. 
Acid, Carbolic. 
Acid, Picric. 



Aristol. 

Bismuth, Benzoate. 
" Oxyiodide. 

Subgallate. 
Borolyptol. 
Chlorine Water. 
Creolin. 

Creosote and its Com- 
pounds. 
Kucalyptol. 
Formaldehyde. 
Glycozone. 
Hydrogen Peroxide. 
Hydrozone. 
Ichthyol. 
Iodoform. 
Iodole. 
Listerine. 
Magnesium Salicylate. 

Sulphite. 
Mercury Bichloride. 
Chloride. 
" Cyanide. 

Oxycyanide. 
Napthtalin. 
Napthol. 
Oil Cade. 
" Eucalyptus. 
" Gaultheria. 
" Pinus Sylvestris. 
" Turpentine. 
Potassium Chlorate. 

" Permanganate 
Pyoktanin. 



Quinine. 

Resorcin. 

Salol. 

Silver Citrate. 

11 Nitrate. 
Sodium Biborate. 
" Bisulphite. 

" Salicylate. 
Sodium Sulphocarbolate 

" Thiosulphate. 
Tannoform. 
Terebene. 
Thymol. 
Xeroform. 
Zinc Carbolate. 

11 Permanganate. 

11 Sulphocarbolate. 

Antisialagogues. 

Atropine. 

Belladonna. 

Cocaine Hydrochlorate. 

Myrrh. 

Opium. 

Potassium Chlorate. 

Sodium Borate. 

Antispasmodics. 

Acid, Camphoric. 

Ammonium Valerianate 

Amyl Nitrite. 

Atropine. 

Bromides. 

Bromoform. 



Camphor. 

' ' Monobrom. 
Chloral Hydrate. 
Chloroform. 

Coniine Hydrobroinate. 
Eserine. 
Ether. 

Ethyl Bromide. 
.Ethyl Iodide. 
Hyoscine Hydrobro- 

mate. 
Hyoscyamus. 
Lactucarium. 
Lobelia. 
Lupulin. 
Morphine. 
Musk. 
Nitrites. 
Nitroglycerine. 
Opium. 
Paraldehyde. 
Pulsatilla: tincture. 
Stramonium. 
Zinc Valerianate. 

ANTITUBERCUI.ARS. 

Acid, Cinnamic. 
Acid, Sulphurous. 
Arsenical Compounds. 
.Cantharidin. 
Cod-Liver Oil. 
Creosote and its 

Compounds. 
Guaiacol and Salts. 



1 62 



Glycerinophosphates. 
Ichthyol. 

Iodoform, topically. 
Menthol. 
Methylene Blue. 
Sodium Cacodylate. 
Sodium Cinnamate. 
Sodium Formate : Sub- 
cutaneously. 

Antizymotics, See 

Antiseptics and Dis- 
infectants. 

Aperients. See Cath- 
artics. 

Aphrodisiacs. 

Cantharides. 

Damiana. 

Glycerinophosphates. 

Gold. 

Nux Vomica. 

Phosphorus. 

Strychnine. 

Astringents. 

Acid, Chromic. 

<< Gallic. 

1 ' Lactic. 

" Tannic. 
Alum. 
Aluminum Acetate : 

Solution. 
Aluminum Chloride. 



Aluminum Sulphate. 
Bismuth Salts. 
Copper Acetate. 

" Sulphate. 
Hydrastine Hydrochlor- 

ate. 
Hydrastis. 
Ichthyol. 
Iron Sulphate, and other 

iron salts. 
Lead Acetate, and other 

lead salts. 
Potassium Bichromate. 
Silver Citrate. 

" Nitrate. 
Zinc Acetate. 

" Sulphate. 

Astringents, Intes- 
tinal. 

Acid, Lactic. 
" Tannic. 
Bismuth Salts. 
Catechu. 
Geranium. 
Kino. 
Krameria. 
Lead Acetate. 
Silver Nitrate. 
Tannalbin. 

Cardiac Sedatives. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic. 
Aconite. 



1 63 



Antimony preparations. 

Chloroform. 

Digitalis. 

Gelsemium. 

Pilocarpine. 

Veratrine. 

Veratrum Viride. 

Cardiac Stimulants. 

Ammonia. 

Ammonium Carbonate. 

Atropine. 

Caffeine. 

Digitalis. 

Ether. 

Nitroglycerin. 

(Oxygen). 

Sparteine Sulphate. 

Strophanthus. 

Strychnine. (Tonic) 

Carminatives. 

Anise. 

Calumba. 

Capsicum. 

Cardamon. 

Caraway. 

Cascarilla. 

Chamomile. 

Cinchona. 

Cinnamon. 

Cloves. 

Gentian. 

Ginger. 



Nutmeg. 
Nux Vomica. 
Oil Cajuput. 
" Mustard. 
Orange Peel. 
Orexine Tannate. 
Pepper 
Pimenta. 
Quassia. 
Sassafras. 
Serpentaria. 

Cathartics. 

Laxatives : 

Cascara Sagrada. 

Figs. 

Glycerin. 

Magnesium Carbonate. 

Oxide. 
Manna. 

Oil Almond, Expressed. 
Oil Olive. 
Rhamnus Cathart. 
Rhamnus Frang. 
Sulphur. 

Saline Purgatives : 
Magnesium Citrate. 

Sulphate. 
Potassium Bitartrate. 
Tartrate. 
" and Sodium 

Tartrate. 
Sodium Phosphate. 



1 64 



Sodium Sulphate. 
Tartrate. 


Cerebral Depres- 
sants. See also 


Simple Purgatives ; 


Narcotics. 
Anesthetics, general. 


Aloes. 
Calomel. 
Castor Oil. 
Rhubarb. 
Senna. 


Antispasmodics: Several 

Hypnotics. 

Narcotics. 

Cerebral Stimulants 


Drastic Cathartics : 


Alcohol. 
Amyl Nitrite. 


Colocynth. 


Atropine. 


Blaterium. 


Belladonna. 


Euonynim. 


Caffeine. 


Gamboge. 


Cannabis. 


Jalap. 


Coca.. 


Oil, Croton. 


Cocaine. 


Podophyllin. 


Coffee. 


Scammony. 


Ether. 


Hydragogues : 

Drastic Cathartics 

in large doses. 
Saline Purgatives. 

Cholagogues ; 

Aloin. 


Nitroglycerin. 
Strychnine. 

Cholagogues. See 

Cathartics : also Hepatic 

Stimulants. 

Constructives. See 
Tonics. 


Euonynim. 
Leptandrin. 
Mercurials. 


Cou nter-IrritanTS. 
See Irritants. 


Ox-Gall. 


Demulcents. 


Podophyllum. 


Acacia. 


Caustics. See 


Albumin. 


Escharotics. 


Althea. 



1 65 



Cetraria. 

Chondrus. 

Elm. 

Flaxseed. 

Gelatin. 

Glycerin. 

Oil Almond Expressed. 

Oil Olive. 

Starch. 

Deoxidizers. [Reduc- 
ing Agents. ) 

Acid, Pyrogallic. 

Ichthyol. 

Resorcin. 

Depilatories. 

Barium Sulphide. 
Calcium Oxide. 

(Calcium Sulphydrate) 
Cautery. 

Sodium Ethylate. 
Sulphide. 

Diaphoretics and 
Sudorifics. 

Acid, Salicylic and 

Salicylates. 
Aconite. 

Ammonium Acetate. 
Camphor. 
Dover's Powder. 
Ether. 
Guaiac. 



Opium. 

Pilocarpine Hydro- 
chlorate. 
Potassium Citrate. 
Nitrite. 
Sodium Nitrite. 
Spirit Nitrous Ether 
Veratrum Viride. 

Digestives. 

Acid, Hydrochloric. 

" Lactic. 
Ingluvin. 
Lactopeptine. 
Malt. 

Orexin Tannate. 
Pancreatin. 
Papain. 
Pepsin. 

Disinfectants. See also 
Deodorants. 

Acid, Boric. 

" Carbolic. 

11 Sulphurous. 
Aluminum Chloride. 
Ammonium Persulphate. 
Borates. 

Calcium Permanganate. 
Chlorine Water. 
Creolin. 
Eucalyptol. 
Formaldehyde. 
Glycozone. 



i66 



Hydrogen Peroxide. 

Hydrozone. 

Iron Sulphate. 

I4me, Chlorinated. 

Mercury, Bichloride. 

Naphtol. 

Oil Eucalyptus. 



Piperazine. 
Potassium Acetate. 

" Bitartrate. 
Citrate. 

" Nitrate. 
Sodium Acetate. 

" Nitrate. 



Potassium PermanganateSparteine Sulphate. 



Solution Chlorinated 

Soda. 
Thymol. 
Zinc Chloride. 

DIURETICS. 

Adonis Vernalis. 

Ammonium Acetate. 

Apocynum. 

Atropine. 

Belladonna. 

Cactus Grandiflorus. 

Caffeine. 

Convallamarin. 

Copaiba. 

Cubebs. 

Digitalis preparations. 

Diuretiri. 

Juniper. 

Kava Kava. 

lithium Salts. 

Matico. 

Nitrites. 

Oil Juniper. 

Oil Santal. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochlor. 



Spirit Nitrous Ether. 
Squill. 

Strophanthus. 
Theobromine. 

Ecbolics. See 
Oxytocics 

Emetics. 

Antimony and Potassium 
Tartrate. 

Apomorphine Hydro- 
chlorate. 

Copper Sulphate. 

Emetine. 

Ipecac. 

Mercury Subsulphate. 

Mustard with tepid water. 

Zinc Sulphate. 

Emmenagogues 
Aloes. 

Cantharides. 
Ergot. 
Guaiac. . 

Iron Chloride and other 
salts of iron. . 



vaier. 



1 67 



Manganese Dioxide. 

Myrrh. 

Pennyroyal. 

Potassium Perrnangan. 

Rue. 

Savine. 

Tansy. 

Errhines, (Stemuta 
to vies). 

Cubebs. 
Sanguinarine. 
Veratrine. 
White Hellebore. 

ESCHAROTICS. 

Caustics. 
Acid, Acetic Glacial. 

11 Arsenous. 

" Carbolic. 
Acid, Carbolic, Iodized 

M Chromic. 

11 Lactic. 

14 Nitric. 
Alum Burnt. 
Copper Sulphate. 
Iodine. 
Potassa. 
Silver Nitrate. 
Soda. 

Sodium Ethylate. 
Zinc Chloride. 

Expectorants. 
Acid, Benzoic. 



Ammoniac. 

Ammonium Carbonate. 
Chloride. 
" Salicylate. 

Antimony and Potassium 
Tartrate. 

Antimony Salts in 
general. 

Apomorphine Hydro- 
chlorate. 

Balsam Tolu. 

Benzoates. 

Emetine in small doses. 

Glycyrrhizin, Ammon- 
iated. 

Ipecac. 

Lobelia. 

Oil Turpentine. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochlor. 

Potassium Iodide. 

Sanguinarine. 

Saponin. 

Senegin. 

Squill. 

Tar. 
Terebene 

Galactagcgues. 

Acid, Lactic. 
Alcohol. 

Ammonium Chloride. 
Castor Oil : topically. 
Extract Malt. 
Jaborandi. 



1 68 



Pilocarpine Hydrochlor 

Gastric Tonics. 
{Stomachics. ) 

Alkalies : before meals. 

Aromatics. 

Berberine Carbonate. 

Bismuth Salts. 

Bitters. 

Carminatives. 

Hydrastis. 

Ichthalbin. 

Nux Vomica. 

Orexine Tannate. 

Quassin. 

Hematinics. 

Arsenical Compounds. 
Ext. Bone Marrow. 
Hemo-gallol. 
Hemoglobin. 
Iron Compounds. 
Manganese Compounds 
Sodium Cacodylate. 

Hemostatics. See 
Styptics and Hemo- 
statics. 

Hepatic Depressants. 

Lessening Bile : 
Lead Acetate. 
Purgatives : Many of 

them. 
Morphine. 



Opium. 
Quinine. 

Lessening Urea : 

Colchicum. 
Morphine. 
Opium. 
Quinine. 

Lessening Glycogen : 

Arsenic. 

Antimony. 

Codeine. 

Dionin. 

Morphine. 

Opium. 

Phosphorus. 

Hepatic Stimulants. 

Acid, Benzoic. 

11 Nitric. 

" Nitro hydrochlor. 
Aloes. 

Ammonium Chloride. 
Amyl Nitrite. 
Antimony. 
Arsenic. 
Benzoates. 
Calomel. 
Colocynth. 
Euonynim. 
Podophyllin. 
Resin Jalap. 
Sanguinarine. 



• 



ID9 



Sodium Bicarbonate. 
" Phosphate. 
11 Salicylate. 
Sulphate. 

Hypnotics {Soporifics) 

Acetauilid. 

Apomorphine Hydro- 
chlorate. 
Bromides. 
Cannabin Tannate. 
Chloral Hydrate. 
Chloralose. 
Chloretone. 
Codeine. 
Dionin. 

Duboisine Sulphate. 
Hyoscine Hydrobrom. 
Hyoscyamine. • 
Morphine. 
Paraldehyde. 
Sulfonal. 
Trional. 
Urethane. 

Intestinal Astring- 
ents. 
See A str 'in gents. 

Irritants. 
Rubefacients : 
Ammonia. 
Arnica. 
Capsicum. 
Iodine. 



Menthol. 

Mustard. 

Oil Turpentine. 

Oleoresin Capsicum. 

Pustulants : 
Antimony and Potassium 

Tartrate. 
Oil Croton. 
Silver Nitrate. 

Vesicants : 
Acid, Acetic, Glacial. 
Cantharides. 
Chrysarobin. 
Oil Mustard. 

Laxatives. See- 
Cathartics : 

Motor Depressants. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic. 
Aconite. 
Amyl Nitrite. 
Apomorphine Hydro- 
chlorate. 
Bromides. 
Bromipin. 
Bromoform. 
Chloral Hydrate. 
Chloroform ( large doses). 
Coniine Hydrobromate. 
Gelsemium. 
Gold Bromide. 
Lobelia. 
Muscarine. 



170 



Nitrites. 

Nitroglycerin. 

Phy sostigmine ( Eserine ) . 

Quinine (large doses). 

Sparteine Sulphate. 

Veratrum Viride. 

Motor Excitants. 

Alcohol. 

Atropine. 

Belladonna. 

Brucine. 

Camphor. 

Chloroform. 

Nux Vomica. 

Picrotoxin. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochlor. 

Pyridine. 

Strychnine. 

Mydriatics. 

Atropine. 

Homatropine Hydro- 
bromide. 

Hyoscine Hydrobrom. 

Scopolamine Hydro- 
bromide. 

Myotics. 

Arecoline Hydrobrom. 
Physostigmine. 

(Eserine. ) 
Pilocarpine Hydrochlor. 



Narcotics. See also 
Hypnotics. 

Chloroform. 

Chloral Hydrate. 

Conium. 

Hyoscine. 

Hyoscyamine. 

Morphine. 

Opium. 

Stramonium. 

Oxytocics (Ecbolics). 

Cotton Root Bark. 
Ergot. 
Hydrastine. 
Hydrastinine Hydro- 
chlorate. 
Pennyroyal. 
Quinine. 
Rue. 
Savine. 

Parasiticides. 

See Antiseptics and 

Disinfectants 

Purgativks. See Ca- 
thartics. 

Refrigerants. 

Acid, Citric. 

" Phosphoric, DiL 

" Tartaric. 
Ammonium Acetate. 
Magnesium Citrate. 



i7i 



Magnesium Sulphate. 
Potassium Bitartrate. 

Citrate. 

Nitrate. 

Tartrate. 
Sodium Nitrate. 
Tartrate. 

Resolvents (Dis- 
cutients). 

Arsenic. 

Ichthyol. 

Iodides. 

Iodine. 

Iodipin. 

Iodole. 

Mercurials. 

Thiosinamine. 

Respiratory Depres- 
sants. 

Acid, Hydrocyanic. 

Aconite. 

Chloral. 

Chloroform. 

Conium. 

Gelsemium. 

Muscarine. 

Opium. 

Physostigma. 

Veratrum Viride. 

Respiratory Stimu- 
lants. 

Aspiodiosperma. 

(Quebracho.) 



Aspidiospermine. 

Atropine. 

Caffeine. 

Cocaine. 

Strychnine. 

Restoratives. See 
HematinicSy Tonics. 

Rubefacients. See 
Irritaants. 

Sedatives (Nerve) . 
See also Depressants. 

Acetanilid. 

Acid, Hydrobromic. 

Amyl Nitrite. 

Antipyrin. 

Bromides. 

Bromipin. 

Bromoform. 

Butyl-Chloral Hydrate. 

Camphor. 

Camphor, Monobrom. 

Cardamon. 

Chloral Hydrate. 

Chloroform. 

Cocaine. 

Codeine. 

Conium. 

Ethyl Bromide. 

Hyoscine Hydrobrom. 

Hyoscyamine. 

Hyoscyamus. 

Lactucarium. 



172 



Lavender. 

Lobelia. 

Morphine. 

Paraldehyde. 

Scopolamine Hydro- 
bromide. 

Stramonium ; tincture. 

Sulfonal. 

Urethane. 

Valerian and Valerian- 
ates. 

SlALAGOGUES. 

( Ptyalagog ues). 

Acids and Alkalies. 

Antimony Compounds. 

Capsicum. 

Ginger. 

Iodine Compounds. 

Mercurials. 

Muscarine. 

Mustard. 

Pilocarpine Hydrochlor. 

Pyrethrum. 

Soporifics. See 
Hypnotics. 

Spinas Stimulants. 
See also Motor Excit- 
ants. 

Alcohol. 

Atropine. 

Camphor : small doses. 

Nux Vomica. 



Picrotoxin. 
Strychnine. 

Sternutatories. See 
Errhines. 

Stomachics. 
See Gastric Tonics. 



Styptics and 
statics. 



Hemo- 



Acid, Gallic. 
" Tannic. 

Adrenalin. 

Alum. 

Antipyrine. 

Copper Sulphate. 

Extract Suprarenal 
Capsule. 

Hamamelis. 

Hydrastinine Hydro- 
chlorate. 

Iron Chloride, Ferric. 

Iron Subsulphate. 

Iron Sulphate. 

Lead Acetate. 

Manganese Sulphate. 

Oil Turpentine. 

Silver Nitrate. 

vStypticin. 

Terpinol. 

Sudorifics. See 

Diaphoretics. 

Teniafuges. See 

A n th elm in tics. 







173 



Ichthyol. 

Iron Compounds. 

Manganese Compounds. 

Phosphorus. 

Vaso-Constrictors. 

Adrenalin. 

Ergot. 

Extract Suprarenal 
Capsule. 

Hydrastinine Hydro- 
chlorate. 

Stypticin. 



Tonics, General. 
See also Hematinics. 

Vegetable Tonics: 

Bitters. 

Berberine Carbonate. 

Cinchona Alkaloids and 

Salts. 
Cod-Liver Oil. 
Eucalyptus. 
Hydrastis. 
Ouassin. 
Salicin. 

Mineral Tonics : 

Vasodilators. 
Acids. Mineral. 
Acid, Arsenous and its 

salts. 
Acid, Hypophosphorous. Nitroglycerin. 
Acid. Lactic. Potassium Nitrite. 

Bismuth Salts. Sodium Nitrite. 

Calcium Glycerinophos. Spirit Nitrous Ether. 
Copper Salts: small doses 
Gold Salts. 
Glycerophosphates. 
Hypophosphites. Vesicants. See Irritants 



Amyl Nitrite. 
Ether. 



Vermicides. See 
Anthelmintics. 



PAGES FOR 
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The Pathology and Differential 
Diagnosis of Infectious Dis- 
eases of Animals 

By Veranus Alva Moore, B. S. , M. D., Professor 
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Veterinary Medicine 
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General Surgery 

BY DR. MED. EUGEN FROHNER 

Professor in the Royal Veterinary High 
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$3.00 Net 

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