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When I turned my attention many years ago to the Book of Wisdom, there was no Commentary 
in the English language that treated fully of this work, save that of Amald. This was copious 
indeed, but cumbersome and often speculative and uncritical. I felt also the want of some better 
revision of the text than was offered by the editions of the Septuagint usually met with in England. 
Even Tischendorf, who had sung the praises of his Sinaitic Codex far and wide, had made scarcely 
any use of this MS. in his own editions of the Septuagint, contenting himself with noting the 
variations of the Alexandrian and the Codex Ephraemi rescriptus. Taking the Vatican text as a 
basis therefore, I collated it with the Sinaitic and the other uncial MSS., and with the cursives 
given in Holmes and Parsons' work, with occasional reference to the Complutensian and Aldine 
editions. It was not till my own collation was just completed that I became acquainted with 
Fritzsche's Libri Apocryphi Veteris Testamenti, a work of the utmost value, though not quite free 
from mistakes in recording the readings both of the Vatican and Sinaitic MSS. These errors have 
been noted by E. Nestle in an appendix to the last (eighth) edition of Tischendorf. In confirming 
the text by reference to the Fathers, I have derived great assistance from Observationes Criticae in 
Libr. Sap. by F. H. Reusch, who has carefully noted the passages of the Book quoted by early writers. 
Walton's Polyglot has provided me with the Armenian, Syriac, and Arabic versions. For the sake 
of comparison I have printed the Latin Vulgate, and the so-called authorised English Version, in 
parallel columns with the Greek. The former is particularly interesting as containing many 
unusual words or forms, which are duly noted in the Commentary. In elucidating the text I have 
endeavoured to give the plain grammatical and historical meaning of each passage, illustrating 
it by reference to the writings of Philo, Josephus, the Alexandrian writers, and early Fathers ; but 
I have been sparing of quotations from Christian authors, not from want of materials, but because 
I did not wish my work to assume an homiletical form, or to be burdened by reflections which an 
educated reader is able to make for himself. 


The importance of the Septuagint in the study of the New Testament cannot be overrated ; 
and I trust it will be found that I have not often omitted to note passages and words in the Book 
of Wisdom which illustrate the writings of the later Covenant. Many statements and allusions 
in the Book are confirmed by traditions found in the Targums: these have been gathered from 
the works of Dr. Ginsburg and Etheridge. In preparing the Commentary great use has been 
made of the works of C. L. W. Grimm and Gutberlet; the former is too well known and appreciated 
to need commendation ; the latter is useful, and the writer's judgment can be trusted where it is 
uninfluenced by the desire to condone the mistakes and interpolations of the Latin Vulgate. The 
great Commentary of Cornelius a Lapide has of course been constantly consulted. The Rev. 
Canon Churton kindly permitted me to inspect his MS. when ray own notes were almost com- 
pleted; and I have availed myself of his paraphrase in some few passages. Dr. Bissell's work 
reached me only as my own pages were passing through the press ; but it does not afford any new 
light on obscure passages, and seems to be chiefly a compilation from German sources. 

Viewing the Book of Wisdom as an important product of Jewish-Alexandrine thought, it 
seemed desirable to ofier a brief sketch of the course taken by Greek philosophy in discussing the 
momentous questions with which it attempted to cope. An eflbrt is made to define the position 
occupied by our Book in the Jewish-Alexandrian school, and some notion is given of the influence 
exercised by that phase of thought on the language, though not on the doctrine, of Christianity. 
The later development of this school, which led to many fatal errors, is barely noticed, as being 
beyond the scope of this work, which aims only at affording a help to the student of the period 
immediately antecedent to Christianity. 



I. I. The Book op Wisdom : its claims on attention. 2. Sketch of the progress 
OP Greek Philosophy. 3. The Jewish -Alexandrian Philosophy. 4. Its 


II. Title. Plan. Contfjjts 23 

III. Language and Character 27 

IV. Place and date of Composition. Author 30 

V. History. Authority. Relation to the Canon of Scripture 35 

VI. Text 39 

VII. Versions, Editions, and Commentaries . . . 41 




INDEXES . 221 




1. The Book of Wisdom: iU claims on attention. — 2. Sketch of the progress of Greek Philosophy. — 3. The Jewish- 
Alexandrian Philosophy. — 4. Its influence on the Theology of the New Testament. 

1. The Book of Wisdom has many claims on our 
attention and respect. "Whatever views we may adopt 
as to its date and author (matters whicli will be dis- 
cussed later), we may confidently assert, that, occupying 
that period between the writing of the Old and New 
Testaments, when the more formal utterances of the 
Holy Spirit for a season had ceased to be heard, and, 
as far as remaining records attest, God had for the time 
ceased to speak by the prophets, it possesses an absorb- 
ing interest for every student of the history of Christi- 
anity. In conjunction with other writings of the same 
period, this Book exhibits the mind and doctrine of the 
Jews, the progress of religious belief among them, and 
the preparation for Christianity which was gradually 
being effected by the development of the Mosaic creed 
and ritual. Tlie gap between the two covenants is here 
bridged over. Herein is presented a view of the Hebrew 
religion, definite and consistent, which may well be re- 
garded as a necessary link in the chain of connection 
between the earlier and later revelations. Nowhere else 
can be seen so eloquent and profound an enunciation 
of the faith of a Hebrew educated away from the iso- 
lating and confining influence of Palestine, one who 
had studied the philosopliies of East and West, had 

learned much from those sources, yet acknowledged and 
exulted in the superiority of his own creed, and who, 
having tried other systems by that high standard, had 
found them to fail miserably. Nowhere else can be 
read so grand a statement of the doctrine of the im- 
mortality of the soul as the vindication of God's justice. 
The identification of the serpent who tempted Eve with 
Satan, the reference of the introduction of death into 
the world to the devil, the typical significance assigned 
to the history and ritual of the Pentateuch, the doc- 
trine of man's freedom of will exerted in bringing upon 
himself the punishment of his sins, and the sure re- 
tribution that accompanies transgression, — in treating 
of all these subjects, the Book is unique among pre- 
christian writings, and its neglect or omission cannot 
be compensated by any other existing work. 

It is remarkable how greatly this Book has been 
disregarded in England. While the Fathers have 
quoted it largely and continually, while commentators 
in old time delighted in plumbing its depths and in 
finding Christian verities underlying every page, while 
in later days Germany has poured forth a copious stream 
of versions and comments, England has been till lately' 
content with the single work of R. Arnald, and has 

' Lately the Ker. J. H. Blunt has published The Annotated 
Bible, Iiondon, 1879, vol. ii of which contains the Apocrypha, and 

the Rev.W. E. Churton has prepared an edition of the Book of 
Wisdom for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 



left the Book unstudied and uncriticized. Familiar 
as some of its chapters are to all English churchmen 
from their forming some of the daily and festival lec- 
tions in the Calendar, no student of Holy Scripture has 
seemed to think the Book of Wisdom worth serious 
labour, and it has been left for other nations to bestow 
upon this remarkable work that diligence which it 
deserves and will well repay. 

2, Before entering upon an examination of the text 
of the Book of Wisdom, some preliminary inquiries are 
necessary for determining its place in the history of 
religious development and its connection with preceding 
and subsequent systems. If, as we shall show reason 
hereafter for asserting, the work was produced at Alex- 
andria, and is a genuine offspring of the Jewish-Alex- 
andrian school which took its rise in that celebrated 
centre of commerce and philosophy, a short space must 
be devoted to an investigation into the origin, tenetg, 
and influence of that school. To trace at length its 
effects in producing gnosticism and other heresies in 
Christian times is beyond the scope of this outline, 
which aims only at recording its rise, and making a 
brief examination of the question, whether the Gospel 
o«-es any of its doctrines to this system. 

It we make a distinction between Theology and 
Philosophy, we must say Theology has to do with 
faith. Philosophy with research. Philosophy claims to 
systematise the conceptions furnished by Theology and 
Science, and to provide a doctrine which shall explain 
the world and the destiny of man '. Tlie basis of Theo- 
logy is revelation ; this principle Philosophy ignores, 
and casting away the help thus offered endeavours and 
claims to elucidate the phenomena of the universe by 
analysis and generalisation. 

Let us see first what progress the purely heathen 

Greek Philosophy made towards solving the great 
problems of being, and next bow it fared when com- 
bined with a belief in revelation. 

The history of Greek Philosophy may be divided 
into three periods, the Pre-Socratic, the Socratic, and 
tlie Post-Socratic '. 

Involved in a pol^-theistic religion, the earliest Greek 
philosophers attempted in vain to explain the mysteries 
around them by the agencies of the deities in whom 
the poets had taught them to believe. Failing to 
construct any satisfactory theory out of these elements, 
Thales' and the Ionic school tried other expedients. At 
one time water, at another time fire, at another air, 
became in their view the cause of life and power, 
the substance, as it were, of which all phenomena were 
only the modes. The utmost development at which 
these Phj'sicists arrived was to endow this primary 
element, be it air or other substance, with intelligence, 
rnxking it in fact equivalent to a soul possessed of 
reason and consciousness. Anaximander (b. c. 6io) 
held that ' The Infinite' (tA mrnpoi') was the origin of 
all things. What he meant exactly by this term it is 
perhaps impossible to discover ; but being a mathema- 
tician, and ' prone to regard abstractions as entities,' 
he was led to formulate a ' distinction between all 
Finite Things and the Infinite All *.' But this 'Infinite 
All ' was not developed into the idea of Infinite mind 
till the school of the Eleatics arose. 

Meantime the interest of the history centres itself 
upon the mysterious and justly celebrated Pytliagoras, 
the great founder of the Mathematicians. He was a 
lover of Wisdom for its own sake, not for the practical 
purposes to which it may be applied ; hence it was 
perhaps that he adopted the study of numbers as Iwst 
able to draw the mind away from the finite to the 

' Lewes, Hint, of Philoeophy, I. xviii. ed. 1867. In the follow- 
ing brief sketch of Greek Philosophy I have chiefly followed 
Mr. Lewes. 

' Zeller, Die Philusophie der Griechen, i. Ill ff. 

' 'O T^s Totoi5ri;s u^x'!^^' ^lAocro^mt. Aristot. Met. A. c. 3. 

Thales is considered to have been bora about B. 0. 636. Bitter, 
Hist, of Ancient Phil. i. bk. III. chap. 3. pp. 19J, ff. Eng. trans. 
Mosheim's trans, of Cudworth's Intell. Syst. i. pp. 35, 147. 
* Lewes, Hist, of Philos. i. 15. 



infinite, from the sensible to the incorporeal. In them 
he saw the principles of things, the cause of the material 
existence of thiuM '. All numbers resolve into one : 
all parts can be reduced to unity. All that we see 
around us are only copies of numbers, and numerical 
existence is the only invariable existence. And as this 
is the farthest point to which we can conduct our 
speculations, One is the infinite, the absolute, the Apxri 
which is the object of the philosophers' search. We 
must remember that with Pythagoras numbers were 
not, as with us, mere symbols, but real entities ' ; we 
can thus reailily conceive the meaning of his little- 
known theory. The doctrine of the transmigration 
of souls attributed to him is based on the same prin- 
ciple. The soul is One and perfect. Connecting itself 
witb man it passes into imperfection ; and according 
as one or other of its three elements, vovs, <t>pr)v, dv/ios, 
rule, BO is the man's scale in creation, rational, intelli- 
gent, sensual, so are the bodies which it may succes- 
sively inhabit ; but these changes are merely phenomena 
of the monad, the one invariable essence. 

Unsatisfied with the answer to the problem of exist- 
ence given by others, Xenophanes (a c. 6i6) fixing his 
gsze on the vast heavens determined that the One is 
God '. The position which he maintained is found in a 
couplet of his which has been preserved * : 

Ets 6f6s fv Tt Ofo'uTt Koi avBpamoifTi luymroi, 
ovTf Sfiias 6in]Tui(Tiv Ofiotlos ovTf vo^ifia. 

He may be considered the apostle of Monotheism, the 
teacher, amid the corruptions of the prevalent belief 
in multitudinous gods, of a faith in one perfect Being, 
though he could not tell who or what this being was, 
and looked upon all thibgs as manifestations of this 
one self-existent, eternal God. His Monotheism was 
in fact Pantheism. But his speculations opened the 

way to scepticism, led men to think that nothing could 
be known as certain. 

Parmenides' (B.C. 536) followed in his train, afiirm- 
ing that the only truth is obtained through reason with- 
out the aid of the senses, and that nothing really exists 
but the One Being. These two distinct doctrines, the 
latter of which was but little in advance of his pre- 
decessors, compose his system. This was supported by 
his pupil and friend Zeno of Elea (b. c. 500), the 
inventor of Dialectics, who, indeed, added nothing new, 
but contributed a mass of arguments, sophisms, and 
illustrations, many of which are more ingenious than 
solid, but which are valuable and interesting as being 
the earliest instances of that formal logic which plays 
so important a part in all subsequent discussions. 

The immediate precursors of Socrates and his school 
were the Sophists, but the intermediate tenets of some 
other philosophers, especially of Democritus and Hera- 
clitus, the so-called laughing and weeping philosophers, 
demand a passing notice. The men themselves may be 
mjiihical, but there is a germ of truth in all mjihs, 
and the story of these two represents doubtless a real 
step in the progress of inquiry. Heraclitus (b.c. 503) 
rejected the idea of reason being the sole criterion of 
truth, and held that the senses rightly educated are 
never deceived. Error springs from the imperfection of 
human reason, not from the falsity of the information 
or ideas derived from sensation. Perfect knowledge 
dwells with the universal Intelligence, and the more a 
man admits this into his soul, the more secure is he from 
error. The principle of all things is Fire, ever changing, 
moving, living, and out of the strife of contraries pro- 
ducing harmony. Democritus too (b.c. 460) upheld 
the truth of sensation, but sensation controlled by 
reflection (dmvota) ' ; and he was the first to answer the 
question of the modus operandi of the senses by the sup- 

* Toin if»9iu)hi tTrat r^i oiaiat. Aristot. Metaph. i. 6. ap, 
Lewes,!, p. a8; Grote, Plato, i. pp. 10, ff. (ed. 1865); Mosheim's 
Cudworth, i. pp. 567, 570, notes. 

' See the point argued againut Kitter by Lewefi, Hist, of Phil, 
i. pp. 30, ff. 

' Ti tv t!*<u ipr)<ji riv 0f6y. Aristot. Metaph. i. J ; Mosheim's 
Cudworth, 1. pp. j8o, ff. 

' Xenoph. Colophon. Fragm. illustr. S. Karsten. 
' Mosheim's Cudworth, i. pp. 592, ff. 
* Lewes, i. p. 98. 

B 8 


position, that all things threw off images of themselves 
which entered the soul through the organs of the body. 
The primary elements were atoms which were self- 
existent and possessed of inherent power of motion, 
from which the universe received its form and laws. 
The notion of a supreme Being to control these elements 
is foreign to his system, which is the merest ma- 
terialism ; destiny, to which he attributed the forma- 
tion of things, being a term used to cloke ignorance. 
Differing somewhat from former philosophers, Anaxa- 
goras, while holding that all knowledge of phenomena 
came from the senses, regarded this information as 
delusive because it did not penetrate to the substance 
of things, and needed reason to correct it ; and as 
regards cosmology, he taught that creation and de- 
struction were merely other names for aggregating or 
decomposing pre-existent atoms, the Arranger being 
Intelligence, vovs, the Force of the universe, not a 
moral or divine power, but an all-knowing unmixed 
and subtle principle '. This principle Empedocles con- 
ceived to be Love, which was opposed by Hate, who 
however operated only in the lower world, for the one 
supreme power, which he termed Love, was a sphere 
above the world, ever calm, rejoicing, and restful. 
These forces are in some sort identical with good and 
evil ; and it is the struggle between these powers that 
causes individual things and beings to come into exist- 
ence. Hate separating the elements which are combined 
by Love into one all-including sphere. 

To this period of Greek Philosophy belong the 

The Sophists did not form a school or sect '. They 
taught the art of disputation, how best to use language 
BO as to convince and persuade; but they were the 
natural successors of preceding speculators. Thought 
Ls sensation, said one', 'man is the measure of all 

things,' human knowledge is relative, truth is sub- 
jective ; therefore a wise man will regard all truth as 
opinion, and study only how to make what he considers 
true or expedient acceptable to others. It is easy to 
see how such sentiments might be perverted to the 
overthrow of morality, and hence we can understand 
the reason why Plato and others regarded the Sophists 
with such repugnance ; but there is little evidence to 
show that the teachers who had the name ever pushed 
their opinions to such dangerous consequences. 

To contend against these unsatisfactory sceptics an 
opponent arose who in most respects was a perfect 
contrast to them. In his abnegation of self, in his 
contempt for riches and honours, in his denunciation of 
abuses, in his proud humihty, Socrates (B.C. 469) con- 
tradicted their most cherished principles and assaulted 
their most esteemed practices. No flow of words could 
persuade him to act contrai-y to his sober convictions ; 
no arguments, however speciously propounded, could 
confuse his sense of right and wrong; no spurious 
wisdom could withstand his subtle questioning. To 
make him the model of a sophist leader, as Aristo- 
phanes has done in his Clouds, is to confound his 
method with his principles. If his method was, in 
some sort, sophistical, his object was quite distinct from 
that of the Sophists; for while they gave up the 
pursuit of abstract truth as hopeless, he never ceased 
his quest for it, showing men how ignorant they were 
of real knowledge and aiding them in its acquisition. 
But he founded no school, never set himself up as 
a teacher, left no system of philosophy behind him. 
Physics he early surrendered as incapable of satis- 
factory solution ; and he turned his attention to Ethics, 
and the right method of inquiry. In the latter subject 
he is properly judged to be the inventor of two im- 
portant processes. Inductive reasoning and Abstract 

" Lewes, i. pp. 78, 79, 83 ; Maurice, Ment. and Mor. PhU. pt. I. 
chap. vi. § 3. 

" For the fairest view of the Sophists see Grote, Hist of Greece, 
Tiii. 463 J Lewes, pp. 105, S.; Maurice, Philosophy, pt. I. chap. vi. 

dlv. ii. J I. 

' Protagoras, Bitter, pp. 573, S.; Moeheim'sCudworth, lib. II. 
cap. iii. 


definition ' ; by the first of which ' he endeavoured 
to discover the permanent element which underlies the 
clianging forms of appearances and the varieties of 
opinion; by the second he fixed the truth which he 
had thus gained.' It was a great step to force men to 
free the miud of half-realised conceptions and hazy 
notions, and to see clearly what a thing is and what it 
is not. And this is what the method of Socrates 
aimed at effecting. That it led to the common error 
of mistaking explanation of words for explanation of 
things is as true of the ages since Socrates as it was 
then '. In his ethical deliveries he seems to have been 
somewhat inconsistent, maintaining at one time that 
virtue is knowledge, vice ignorance, and at another 
that virtue cannot be taught, and yet again that it is a 
matter of practice and natural disposition'. But he 
always affirmed that man had within him a faculty 
that discerned right from wrong; he upheld the su- 
• premacy of conscience ; he considered that happiness 
consisted in knowing the truth and acting in accord- 
ance with it. The immortality of the soul, a doctrine 
so beautifully propounded in his last discourses, rested, 
in his view, on the beneficence of Divine Providence *. 
In his own profoundly religious mind that a voice 
divine (Sai/xdxio'i' n) should seem to utter warnings and 
advice, is what we might have antecedently expected °. 

The method of Socrates was followed in a greater or 
less degree by other philosophers who have been dis- 
tinguished as founders of three Schools, the Cyrenaic 
terminating in Epicurism, the Cynic combining to 
form Stoicism, and the Megarian, which contributed 
an important element to the speculations which in 
later times found their home at Alexandria'. 

But the real successor of Socrates is Plato, his pupil. 

friend, and biographer. To give an accurate description 
of Plato's many-sided pliilosophy would be a difficult 
matter in any case; in this present necessarily brief 
sketch it is impossible. Only a few salient points can 
here be indicated — opinions rather than a system being 
enunciated. And even this is only partly feasible, as 
he so often changes his opinions, refutes at one time 
that which at another he had maintained, implies 
doubts where he had previously stated certainties, 
repudiates the process which he himself often has 
adopted, that we are seldom sure, when we produce 
the views set forth in one Dialogue, whether they have 
not been modified or denied in another. One thing 
however is well assured, and that is, that in his search 
for truth he was severely logical. Universal proposi- 
tions, abstract terms, were the materials with which 
he worked, and to discover these was the aim of all 
his teaching. To attribute to these general notions, 
or ideas, a substantive existence, to consider them not 
merely conceptions of the mind, but entities, Tummena 
of which all individual things were the ])henonie7ia ', is 
simply an explanation of a difficulty for which he was 
indebted to his imaginative faculty. The soul, in his 
grand view, was always immortal, and before it became 
clogged with the body had seen Existence as it is, and 
had had glimpses, more or less perfect, of those ideas, 
those great realities, of which material tilings were the 
defective copy. Man's knowledge is a reminiscence of 
the verities seen in the disembodied state : sensation 
awakens the recollection : it is our business to en- 
courage this memory, to strengthen it, to guide it by 
reason. So that the teacher's object is not so much to 
impart new information, as to recall previous impres- 
sions, dim and weak, but still not wholly efiaced. This 

' Tois r' i-noKTiKovs \iyovs Kol ri ipi^eadai Ka96\ov. Arist. 
Metaph. xiii. 4 ; Diet, of Bible, Art. Philosophy, by Mr. Brooke 
Fobs Westcott. 

' Lewes, i. p. 161. 

' Compare Xen. Mem. I. ii. 19; III. ix. I ; Arist. Eth. Nic. 
VI. xiii. 3 ; Top. III. i. 4 ; Plato, Meno, xxxvi-xxxix. pp. 96, 97 ; 
Protagoras, xl. p. 361. 

* Xen. Mem. I. iv. 

» Theages, x. xi. pp. 128, 139; Grote, Plato, i. pp. 433, 434. 

• Maurice, chap. vi. § 3. Compare Ueberweg, Hist, of Phil. 
5 35. Eng. ed. 

^ Lewes, i. p. 241 ; Kitter, iL pp. 365, ff.; Grote, Plato, iii. p. 



tendency to seek for the idea of everything led to the con- 
ception of the one Good, that is God ; and though Plato 
never set himself to oppose the religious belief of his 
countrymen, it is plain that his speculations pointed to 
Monotheism. Following up the manifold ideas, he ar- 
rived at the supreme essence of all, the great Intelligence. 
By this power he supposed the world to have been 
created, arguing however at one time that God created 
only types of individual things from which other things 
of the same class proceeded ', and at another that God 
fashioned Chaos after the model of these types which 
have an independent and eternal pre-existence ". But 
however made, the world was an animal, and like other 
animals possessed a soul ', and God, who is all good, 
rejoiced to see the animated creature, to nav (wov*, 
and wished it to be all good likewise. Evil however 
dwells in this phenomenal world, which, being only a 
copy of the ideal world, must necessarily be imperfect, 
and which also, being composed of matter which is 
unintelligent, must be evil, for intelligence alone is 
good '. At the same time man, being endowed with 
free will, has his lot in his own hands, and may choose 
the evil or the good '. And on this choice depends the 
future destiny of the soul, which will have to pass into 
various bodies, undergo various transmigrations, till it 
return to its best and purest existence '. 

A new epoch begins with Aristotle (b.c. 384), who 
was bom about a century before the translation of the 
Hebrew Scriptures into Greek and the formation of 
the Alexandrian library '. Fi'om the calm stand-point 
of strict logic, this philosopher, uninfluenced by 
imagination, pronounced a judgment upon the specu- 
lations of his predecessors. Plato's doctrine of ideas 
he unhesitatingly condemned, holding tliat these ab- 

stractions had no existence separate from their pheno- 
mena, and that error arose not from the falsity of 
sensuous perceptions, but from wrong interpretation 
thereof. So in his view the great object of study was 
to set forth the rules and conditions under which the 
mind considers and discourses '", the formulas whereby 
it makes known its judgments. But we cannot dwell 
on his method and his dialectics. A few words must 
be said on his ethics and theology, and then we must 
pass on to the schools that followed, with which we are 
more concerned. 

A less devoutly religious man than Plato, Aristotle 
seems scarcely to have believed in a personal God, 
though he uses language that may imply such belief. 
A first Cause is that wliich he seeks to find, and whose 
attributes he seeks to establish by logic. And having 
demonstrated, with more or less success, the unity of 
this First Principle, he, perhaps in deference to popular 
opinion, does not further pursue the investigation". 
There is no recognition of the perfection of God as the 
ground-work of morals, as in the Platonic doctrine ; 
'the absolute good' is eliminated from his system. 
The Tt'Xor of mankind is Happiness, and this consists in 
the proper use of the highest faculties. Our faculties 
or energies have each their special excellence and 
virtue ; the acts of virtue are exercised by voluntary 
choice, and these separate acts make habits, and babies 
form character. Now the best habit of the highest 
part of man's nature, and that which makes his life 
most divine, is Contemplation. But to attain to this, 
there is need of restraint, discipline, and education, 
which forces can only be properly and effectually 
applied in the State. 

Thus we have seen that the early philosophers specu- 

' De Eep. X. i. u. pp. 596, 597; and v. vi. pp. 29, 30; Grote, 
Plato, iii. p. 248. 
' Timaeus, xviii. p. 51. 
' Timaeus, vi. p. 30. 

* TimaeuB, x. p. 37. 

" Lewes, i. p. 36a ; Ritter, ii. pp. 275, 276. 

• De Rep. X. xv. p. 619. 

' Timaeus, xiv. p. 42 ; Ritter, ii. p. 377. 

" Lewee, i. pp. 271, 272. 

' Aristot. De Anima, III. iii ; Metaph. IV. v. 

'" Maurice, Ment. and Metaph. Phil. pt. I. chap. vi. p. 184, 
ed. 1834; Lewes, Aristotle, chap. vi. pp. 108, ff; Ueberweg, §48. 

" In Met. xii. p. 1074, Bekker, Aristotle conceives God to be 
eternal Thought, and that his thought is life and action. See 
Maurice, pt. I. chap vi. J 6 ; Musheim's edition of Cudworth, 
i. pp. 639, ff. 


lated about nature, that Socrates turned their investi- 
gations on man, that Plato, while not wholly neglecting 
Phytics, made this study subordinate to that of Ethics. 
Arii-totle systematized the method of inquiry, and 
applied it to Physics, Metaphysics, and Ethics, paving 
the way for that invasion of Scepticism, which, using 
his instruments, exposed the vanity of philosophy '. 

The Sceptics, who next come on the stage, took their 
stand on the uncertainty of all knowledge. What had 
seemed determined in one ac;e had failed to satisfy 
another : the truth of this philosopher had seemed the 
Tainest eiTor to that. What is the criterion of truth ? 
Sensation ? Reason 1 No. You cannot trust them abso- 
lutely; you cannot prove that they distinguish correctly. 
There is no criterion of truth : the mystery of exist- 
ence cannot be penetrated ; all we can do is to study 
ajrpearances, to make a science of phenomena. Such 
a negative doctrine had little real influence ; but in 
thus denying the certainty of all higher speculations 
it prepared the way for the coming Philosophy, which 
concerned itself with questions of practical morality. 

Of the Post-Socratic School the Epicureans occupy a 
foremost place. Their founder Epicurus (b. c. 342) 
looked upon Philosophy as the Art of Life, the in- 
structress in the metliod of securing happiness ; and as 
to happiness, that, he said, is Pleasure— Pleasure regu- 
lated by common sense and experience ; not momentary 
gratification at the cost of future pain and trouble, but 
a life-long enjoyment. Now this can only be secured 
by virtue, and to live happily means really to live in 
accordance with justice, prudence, and temperance. It 
is easy to see how such teaching might be perverted, as 
we know it was, to fostering sensuality on the one side 
and a hard indifference on the other. Its basis was an 
enlightened selfishness, free from all high motive ; for 
there was no supreme Power to make men account for 
their actions, the gods, if there were gods, being too 

much wrapped up in their own happiness to interfere 
with the concerns of mortals '. 

In startling contrast to the softness of Epicurus, 
Zeno the Stoic (died B.C. 263) preached a stem, spiritual 
morality, a life of active virtue — a life in which man 
realises his true manhood. Virtue is, as Socrates 
taught, the knowledge of good : knowledge is gained 
by sensation, and fasliioued and utilised by reason, 
which is the God of the world. This, call it what 
you will. Reason, Fate, God, is that which gives its 
fi;rm to matter and the law to morals. Man bears 
within himself his ruling power : he should give free 
scope to this dominion, crush relentlessly every feeling 
that wars against it, rise superior to pain and suffering, 
and encourage that apathetic indifference which is the 
highest condition of humanity. If there was in this 
theory much that really tended to lower man's standard 
and to confuse his view of the object of life, it possessed 
at least one element which was of vital importance. 
It put man face to face with his conscience, bared to 
his sight his responsibility, and taught him to aim at 
an object higher than mere pleasure '. 

The New Academy, which evolved itself from Platonic 
elements, was what in modern times would be called 
an agnostic system. Beginning with distinctions be- 
tween probable and imi)robable perceptions, and Ije- 
tween assent simple, and assent reflective, it ended 
with denying the possibility of the existence of any 
satisfactory criterion of truth. Reason and Conception 
depend on Sensation for their knowledge, and the 
Senses are defective and convey only subjective effects, 
not the real nature of things. So neither Reason, 
Conception, nor Sensation can be the desired criterion. 
What remains ? Nothing but Common Sense, or a 
system of Probabilities, or utter Scepticism. 

Some influence in preparation for the coming religion 
was exerted by these philosophies : either in the way of 

« Lewes, i. pp 334, 335. 

' Lewes, i. pp. .142-348 ; Maurice, pt. 1. chap. 6. div. iv. § a ; Ueberweg, { 59. 
' Lewes, i. pp. 349-360; Maurice, pp. J41, a^J, ed. 1854. 


contrast or by their positive tenets they were in some 
sort a Praeparatio Evangelica. If on the one hand they 
had originated and encouraged that scepticism which 
springs from pride of intellect and the scornful denial 
of everything beyond and above nature, on the otlier 
hand they had fostered the need of something to believe, 
something which should have authority over the spirit 
of man and on which he might rest and be at peace. 
They had spiritualized to some extent the popular mode 
of regarding religion, they had restored a certain unity 
in the conception of the Divine essence, and had given 
man hopes of re<lemption from the blind power of 
nature and an elevation to a secure and higher life ' ; 
but here they stopped. They offered these as mere 
speculative opinions. Tbe best of philosophies had yet 
to learn that humility which a better religion teaches ; 
and till this was received and acquiesced in, men 
might argue and criticize and theorize, but they would 
never arrive at the truth. 

So that we may still sorrowfully ask, "What had been 
the result of ages of speculation and keenest contro- 
versy? Had the problems been solved which philo- 
sophy had so long and so confidently discussed 1 No ; 
baffled and defeated philosophy had almost ceased to 
prosecute its researches, and was ready to doubt if any 
adequate reward awaited further investigations. Whence 
comes this universe of things ? What is the science of 
life 1 Is there any rule for virtue 1 Is there any 
method of happiness 1 What and whence is the soul ? 
What will its future be ? Is God one or many t Is 
there a God at all ? Reason had attempted to answer 
these questions and had failed to afford any certain 
reply. Another element was needed to give assurance 
to inquiring minds ; and that element was faith *. 

3. It was at Alexandria that Philosophy first came 
in contact with Revelation. Of its after struggle with 
Christianity we are not now to speak. Our sketch is 

limited to the time immediately preceding the Christian 
era and to the period in which it may have influenced 
the writers of the New Testament. No place in all the 
world could be more appropriate than Alexandria for 
the comparison of the doctrines of various schools. The 
population of this great city was mixed from the first, 
and owing to its extensive commerce, its world-famed 
library, the liberality of its rulers, and the advantages of 
its situation, it attracted to its shores all that was great 
and famous, learned and ambitious, in the East and West 
alike. Tbe civilization of both quarters of the world 
here met at a common centre, and from this point sent 
forth an influence that extended through all countries'. 
It was however only by slow degrees that the rigid and 
unbending Oriental deigned to examine the tenets of 
other peoples. And when this investigation took place, 
the Greek did not absorb the Eastern philosophy, nor 
the Eastern the Greek ; but from the fusion of the two 
a new system arose, a combination of revealed truth 
and speculative opinion, which has received the name 
of Neo-Platonism, and of which Philo Judaeus was the 
most eminent supporter, if not the founder. If it was 
a new phase of opinion among the Jews thus to view 
with favour the guesses of heathen philosophers, if, 
based as their religion was on the sure word of Revela- 
tion, the endeavour to amalgamate it with alien specu- 
lations marks a certain change in sentiment ; we must 
remember that this people had been from tlie earliest 
times of their history always ready to introduce foreign 
superstitions into their religion. They never indeed 
fell into idolatry after their return from captivity ; 
but short of such apostacy, the contact with other 
races and the intercourse with people of different 
faith, had influenced and modified their opinions and 
prejudices *. The Hebrew dwellers in Alexandria had 
been for some time gradually severing themselves 
from connection with their brethren in Palestine. The 

' Keander, Hist of Christ. Relig. i. p. 46 (Bohn's transl.) 

• Lewes, i. p. 374 ; Ueberwcg, § 62. 

• Vacherot, Hist. Crit. de I'Ecole d'Alexandrie, vol. i. 

p. loi; Keander, Hist, of Christ. Relig. i. pp. 68, ff. (Bohn's 


. * See Burton, Bampt. Lect. iii. pp. 70, ff. (ed. 1829). 





translation of the Scriptures into Greek raised the 
barrier of langutige between the two bodies ', and the 
separation was further strengthened by the policy of 
the Palestinians who, after the persecution of Ptolemy 
Philopator (b. c. 217), threw in their lot with the 
fortunes of Syria. The erection of a temple at Leonto- 
polis* by the Egj-ptian Jews (b.c. 161), laying them 
open to the charge of schism, widened the breach ; and 
though these still paid a nominal respect to Jerusalem, 
its exclusive claims and isolating prejudices had lost 
their influence with them. And then the atmosphere 
in which they dwelt, the eclecticism which they saw 
around them ', the lectures of various philosophers, the 
restless activity of scholars and teachers, the magni- 
ficent library, produced a powerful effect. The con- 
servatism of the Oriental was not proof against the 
bold and energetic gpeculativeness of the Greek. The 
Hebrew became at first patient and then enamoured of 
Greek culture ; he searched the best writings of the 
West with the view of discovering truths that squared 
with his own divine traditions ; he examined the creeds 
of the heathen by the light of Bevelation, and in Hellenic 
myths saw the remnants of a higher religion. The 
sacred books moulded and limited his faith ; they did 
not restrain his thoughts ; they did not prevent him 
from interpreting and developing their stiitements with 
a freedom which often approached rationalism*. As it 
was with Judaism that the first contact of Eastern and 
Western doctrine was concerned, so the medium, the 
connecting link between the two systems, was Pla- 

tonism. The teachings of Aristotle and Zeno doubtless 
had some influence, but the assimilating principle was 
found in the tenets of Plato. The idealism, sublimity, 
richness of his philosophy struck a chord in the Hebrew 
breast that responded harmoniously, and from the union 
of these elements arose a strain which combined, more 
or less perfectly, the beauties of both. The writings of 
this period which have survived (of which the so-called 
' Apocrypha' forms an important portion) are few in 
number, but they show unmistakable traces of Greek 
culture, and of the spirit of compromise which en- 
larged its own conceptions in order to embrace those 
of heathendom '. 

Even in the Septuagint itself traces of this influence 
appear. Expressions that might have been misunder- 
stood and have conveyed wrong impressions to heathen 
minds have been softened or altered. Thus, Exod. 
xxiv. 9-1 1, where it is said that Moses and Aaron, 
Kadab and Abihu, and seventy elders, went up to the 
mountain, and they saw the God of Israel, ' And upon 
the nobles of the children of Israel He laid not His 
hand : also they saw God, and did eat and drink ;' the 
Greek renders ; xal tliov t6v rmov ov i'urn)Kfi 6 9»ot roC 

*\af>aj]k . . . Km Ttav tTn\(KT<ov tov IcrparjX ov dtetfMayr](r(P oii^ 
fis' (tat a<f>6i)iT<w iv ra totto) tov GcoC, icai ((fxryov xol 

tnuai. Here there seems to have been a studied attempt 
to obviate the plain meaning of the text lest it should 
give occasion to anthropomorphic ideas of God *. In 
the Books of Maccabees it is studiously shown that the 
Lord interferes in the affairs of the world only through 

' The Jews of Palestine observed annually a three days' fast 
in hnmiliation for the profanation offered to God's word by this 
version, the length of the fast being regulated by the duration 
of the plague of darkness in Egypt. 

* See DoUinger, The Gentile and Jew, ii. p. 396 (English 

' Alexander the Great built temples to Egyptian divinities as 
well as to his own Grecian gods. Arr. Exped. Alex. iii. t. The 
worship of Serapis, whose temple was one of the wonders of 
Alexandria, w»s introduced from Pontus. See Gibbon, Decl. and 
Fall, chap, xxviii. and references there. S. Aug. De Civ. xviii. 5. 

* Vacherot, i. p. 127, and 106, S. 

> Among these writings, besides those in the Greek Bible, may 
be mentioned the works of Aristobulus, who expounded the 
Pentateuch allegorically. Fragments of this production are to 
be found in Euseb. Praep. Ev. vii. 13, ff'.; viii. 9. ff.; xiii. 13. 
See Dahne, Judisch-Alexandr. Selig. Philoe. ii. pp. 73, ff. 
Another document of this period is the collection called the 
Sibylline Books or Oracles. Dahne, pp. 228, ff. ; Gfrorer, Philo, 
ii. pp. 71, ff and 121, ff. These are spoken of further on. 

• Gfrorer, Philo, ii. pp. 9, ff. The Targtims of Onkelos and 
Jonathan paraphrase the passage in much the same way as the 
Septuagint. See Etheridge, pp. 400, 526. Other instances are 
given by Gfrorer. See too Ginsborg, The Kabbalah, p. 6, nota. 




His ministers and agents. When (2 Mace, iii.) Helio- 
dorus came to the temple at Jerusalem to pillage its 
treasures, the Lord (m<j>caieiav iuya\i]v fVoii/o-tv ; and 
though a little after it is said (ver. 30) that ' the 
Almighty Lord appeared,' the expression is used in 
reference to an angelic manifestation '. 

Of philosophic connection is the expression applied to 
Almighty God, Tav SXav, or iwavrav, airpotrhfris in 2 Macc. 
xiv. 35 and 3 Macc. ii. 9 ; and not in accordance with 
the usage of the Old Testament, which speaks (i Kings 
viii. 27) of the heaven of heavens not contaiuing God, 
but never employs this term derived from Greek philo- 
sophy '. From the same source are derived the phrases 
about reason, the mind, etc., in the Fourth Book, e.g. 
o Upos rjyf fiav vov9 (ii. 23) ; Xoyiirnitt avTod(<nroTos (i. l) ; 
ira6i!)v rCpamot (xvi. I ) ; ^ ToC 6(lov Xoytir/ioO wadoKpilrfia 
(xiii. 1 6) ; and the four cardinal virtues (i. 1 8), which 
are also named in Wisd. viii. 7'. 

Of the Greek learning displayed in the Book of 
Wisdom we have spoken further on, when noting 
its character and language ; we may here give an in- 
stance or two of the writer's acquaintance with Western 
Philosophy. Tlie term votphv applied to the spirit of 
Wisdom (vii. 22) reflects the Stoic's definition of God as 
frwOpi vofpov *, the enumeration of the four cardinal 
virtues (viii. 7), Justice, Temperance, Prudence, Courage, 
is quite Platonic '. That the world was created c'^ apAp- 
001/ vXijs (xi. 17) is an orthodox opinion couched in 
Platonic language ; it is a philosophical expression for 
that ' earth without form and void' from which this our 

globe was evolved •. The pre-existence of souls was a 
theory common to many systems of philosophy as well 
as to Platonism ; and the author, in saying (viii. 19, 
20) : 'I was a witty child and had a good soul ; yea, 
rather, being good, I came into a body undcfiled,' 
showed that he was well acquainted with this opinion 
of the schools, while his statement was grounded on the 
language of Scripture ''. 

If we cast our eyes upon writings outside the sacred 
volume we shall find the same blending of Greek and 
Hebrew notions. In spite of Valckenaer's Diatribe' 
there seems no good reason to doubt that Aristobulus, 
of whose works Eusebius and Clemens Alex, have 
preserved considerable fragments, is that Jewish 
priest, 'king Ptolemaeus' master' (2 Macc. i. 10), 
who is addressed by Judas Maccabaeus as the repre- 
sentative of the Jews in Alexandria. The Ptolemy, 
whose teacher or counsellor (St&ia-KaXor) he was, was 
Ptolemy Philometor (a.d. 150), and the work, remains 
of which have reached us, was an allegorical exposition 
of the Pentateuch, after the form with which we are 
familiar in the writings of Philo and the Alexandrian 
Fathers, Origen and Clement. In this treatise, per- 
haps with the hope of winning the king over to the 
Jewish faith, he laboui-s to prove that the Law and the 
Prophets were the source from which the Greek philo- 
sophers, and specially the Peripatetics, had derived 
their doctrines. To this end he cites Orpheus, who, in 
one of his sacred legends (Itpoi Xoyo«), speaks of God as 
tlie Creator, Preserver, and Ruler of all things, accom- 

' Gfrorer, Ii. p. 55. But gee Grimm, Comment, in a Macc. iii. 
30. Diihne, ii. pp. 181, ff. Compare 3 Macc. ii. 9. 

' Dahne, ii. p. 187, and i. p. 130; Grimm, in 2 Macc. xiv. 35. 

' See more, ap. Dahne, i. p. 194. The Fourth Book of Mac- 
cabees is not printed in Tischendorf's edition of the Septuagint : 
it will be found, in Field, Apel, and Fritzsche. 

* Plut. Plac. Philos. vi. (p. 535) ; ZeUer, Phil. d. Griech. iii. 
p. 73. 

» Plato, de Rep. iv. pp. 444, ff. ; Hitter, Hist, of Philog. ii. 
p. 407 (£ng. transl.). 

• See note on ch. xi. 1 7. 

' Compare Isai. xlix. i, 5; Ivii. 16; Jer. i. 5, and notes on 

ch. viii. 19, 20. 

' Diatribe de Aristobulo, 1806. See Dahne, ii. pp. 73, ff. ; 
Gfrorer, Philo, ii. pp. 71, ff-; Vacherot, i. pp. 140, ff. ; Art. 
Aristobulus, in Smith's Diet, of Bible, by Professor Westcott ; 
Matter, Hist, de I'^cole d'Alex. iii. pp. 153, ff. ; Eusebius entitles 
Aristobulus' work, Bi^Aovr ifij-jn/nxas toC Vloiaiws vipov (Hist. 
Eccl. vii. 32'), or, T^y ran/ UpSiv r6pan> ipprivttav (Praep. Ev. vji. 
13). The quotations in Clem. Alex. (Strom, i. p. 304; v. p. 595 ; 
1. p. 342 ; vi. p. 632) are all found in Euseb. Praep. Ev. Sea 
Dahne, p. 89. Eusebius' Fragments are found, vii. 13, 14; viii. 
6, 8, 10; ix. 6; xiii. 12, pp. 663, ff. See also DoUinger, The 
Gentile and Jew, ii. p. 397 (Eng. transl ). 



modating what is said of Zeus to the Lord of the 
Hebrews : in his view the letter of Holy Scripture is 
not to be pressed : Moses' imagery is only figurative : 
the tranfactions on Mount Sinai are only emblematic 
statements of great truths. He unhesitatingly sacrifices 
the literal meaning of the sacred story, and explains 
and allegorises till nothing historical remains. In the 
same way he treats the Greek myths, making them 
symbolise revealed truths, and striving to find for them 
a divine origin and a place in the Biblical records. 

The letter of Aristeas ', giving the well-known ac- 
count of the production of the Septuagint translation, 
seems to have been the work of an Alexandrian Jew 
living at this period, though the writer, the better to 
maintain his assumed character, professes himself to be 
of another nation. In it he speaks of the Jews worship- 
ping the same God as the Greeks adored under the 
name of Zeus, but is careful to guard against Pantheism 
by maintaining that God's power and influence are 
through and in all things'; he explains away the peculiar 
laws concerning meats clean and unclean, as symbolising 
purity and separation ; he shows that all vice and evil 
springs from man's nature, all good from God, using 
the terms dptTr], aduti'a, iyKpartta, SiKatoavvr], in a truly 
philosophic manner. These sayings are supposed to 
be answers of the seventy-two elders to questions of 
the king; but as the whole story is fictitious, the doc- 
trines asserted may well be taken to represent the 
views prevalent among the Jews in Alexandiia in the 
century before Christ. 

The Sibylline Books ', which have come down to us, 
seem, on the best evidence, to be the production of 

AJexaudrian Jews, and contain signs of their place and 
time of birth. Thus in the ProSmium we read * ; 

Eit &t6s, Af n6vos apj^fi iiTTtpjifyidris, iytinfros, 
navTOKparap, uoparor, 6pa>v fiSvos airos Svavra, 
avrbs 8' oi /3XeV«T<u Bi/rynis imo aapKbs 07rd(n)r, 
Tt's yap ixap^ Sivarai t6v inovpaviov koi aKrjSri 
o^BdKpoiaiv IBf'tv SfoK S/i^porov, is viKov oiiui ', • • • 
avTQV rov ftdvov ovra fff^ttrff Tfyrjropa KOtr/iov, 
OS ii6vos fit alava, (tai t^ alSnios (TV)(di), 
avToytvrji, dyfvijTos, anavra KparSiv 8ia iravr&t 
na<Ti PpoToiaiv tvav ro KptTr]pu>v iv tf>ati Kotv^ . , . 
ovpavov rjyeiTai, yai'ijr Kparti, airrhs vndpxti. 

Here the expressions about God are wholly in accord 
with the Alexandrian philosophy, and seem also to 
embody a protest against the idolatry of Eg3rpt. 

Thus we see the progress of the attempt to reconcile 
Hebrew doctrine with Greek philosophy, to accommo- 
date the one to the other, to read revealed truths in 
time-honoured myths, and to obtain, from a profound 
investigation into the inner sense of the sacred volume, 
ground for believing that the chief dogmas taught by 
the wisest of philosophers were contained therein. 

But all these attempts are not comparable to what 
was effected by Philo Judaeus, whose voluminous works 
afford the most complete examples of the doctrine of 
the Jewish- Alexandrian school ". Himself a resident in 
Alexandria, and from his eai'ly youth a devoted student, 
he was admirably fitted to examine the tenets of the 
philosophers before him and to combine them, if such 
combination were loyally possible, with those which he 
had received from his fathers and which he had no 
intention of disparaging or repudiating*. Studious 

' Gallandi, Bibl. Patr. ii. 771 ; Gfrorer, Philo, ii. pp. 61, ff. ; 
Dahne, ii. pp. 305, ff. j Hody, De Bibl. Text. Orig. 

' iA6vos b 0C(>; Ian, Koi Sid vavTuv 1} Si/va/its Tov avTov ioTt, 
^aytpi yiyfTCu [?ird(To avr^i], veirAijpcu/xfVov travris Ttiirou t§s 
SwaaTfias. This seems to favour the theory of the Neo-platonists 
concerning the Anima Mundi. 

' See Dahne, ii. pp. a 28, ff. 

* Ap. Theophil. Ad Autol. ii. 36 ; Gfrorer, Philo, ii. p. 1 J3. 

' For Philo's doctrine, see Gfrorer, Pliilo, i. ; Dahne, i. ; Vache- 
rot, i.pp. 14J-167; Bitter, Hist. Phil. iv. pp. 407, ff. i,Eng. transl.). 

Of Philo's works the best edition is that by Mangey, 1 vols, fol., 
1742 ; but this does not contain the treatises discovered by Mai 
and Aucher. That by Riohter (Lips. 1828-1830) comprises all 
that is attributed to Philo. There is a translation of his works 
in Bohn's Ecclesiastical Library. For Philo's influence on suc- 
ceeding theology see Mosheim'a notes on Cudworth's Intellec- 
tual System, translated by Harrison, 1845 ; Kingsley, Alex, am) 
Her Schools, p. 79, ff. ; J. Bryant, The Sentiments of Philo. 
Cambr. 1797. 

' Vit. Mo«. iii. 33 (ii. p. 163 M.) : oi« Ayvoit dw wof-n tlri 

C 2 



rather than original, more fanciful than profound, 
he was incapable of forming a complete system of 
theology, and being led away by side issues and verbal 
niceties, he is often inconsistent with himself, fails to 
convey a distinct impression, because he has but vague 
notions or unrealised conceptions to offer. Of his 
piety and earnestness there can be no doubt ; equally 
certain it is that, owing to his want of logical method 
and division, his expressions are indefinite ; and to 
frame any regular doctrine from his works is a matter 
of extreme difficulty, if it be possible. 

The predominant idea of Philo was to present the 
Jewish religion in such a form as to make it acceptable 
to the Greek intellect. How to reconcile Revelation 
and Philosophy — this was the task to which he applied 
all the powers of his mind and all the stores of his 
learning. His great resource was allegory. In his 
hands the facts of history lost their reality and became 
only the embodiment of abstract truths, and the simple 
monotheism of Scripture was adapted to the refine- 
ments of Greek science '. 

First, as to the knowledge of God : Philo maintains 

that this is unattainable by man. He may know what 
God is not ; he may know of His existence {vnap^is), he 
can know nothing of His proper existence (i8ta vnap^is) 
or essence '. What we do know of God is that He is 
superior to the Good, more simple than the One, more 
ancient than the Unit'; He is unchangeable*, eternal', 
uncompounded *, wanting nothing ', the source of all 
life ', exclusively free ° and exclusively blessed '" ; He 
fills all things". He is ever working "'; His love, justice, 
and providence are over all His works ". 

Such being the nature of God, so ineffable and un- 
approachable, what communication can there be be- 
tween the Creator and the creature ? It is true that 
man ought to strive with all his powers to know God, 
but of himself he cannot attain to this knowledge. He 
cannot rise to God : God must reveal Himself to him ". 
Now there are two kinds of revelation which God uses 
in His communications with men. The first and most 
perfect is bestowed only on some favoured seers, who, 
elevated above the condition of finite consciousness, be- 
come, as it were, one with Him whom they contemplate". 
For the majority of men there remains only that in- 

XPtoiioi iaa iv rah Upais fii0Kois dvayfyparrrai, xpV<f9^>'T«s &' 
avToC «.T.A. His views on inspiration are collected by Gfrorer, 
i. pp. 54, ff. ^ 

' On Philo's reference of all that was best in Greek Philosophy 
to Moses see Quod omnia prob. 8. (ii. p. 454) ; De Jud. 2. (ii. 
p. 245) ; Quis rer. div. haer. 43. (i. p. 503) ; De conf. ling. jo. 
(i. p. 419); De Vit. Mos. ii. 4. (ii. p. 137). 

' De Praem. et Poen. 7. (ii. p. 415). 

' De Vit. Cent. 1. (ii. p. 472) : ri Sf, 6 «ai iyaBov Kpurriv 
iart, Koi Ms tlKiKpiviartpoy, koI noviSos ipx^tovwrfpov, where 
we may observe, that, while exaltingGod above the conceptions 
of philosophers, Philo says nothing of His Personality, sub- 
stituting rd Sf for i iiv of Exod. iii. 14. 

* Quod Deus immut. § 5. (i. p. 276) : ri yiip dv iaiffij/ia neiiov 
yivoiro rov vvoKafiPca/tiv rd aTptirrov Tp4iif<r9ai ; 

' De Caritate, 2. (ii. p. 386) : yef^qr^s yelp oiStU &\ij9(i^ 8fij, 
i\Xa S6(ii ii6vov, ri ivayxaloTarov iip^iprinivos, aXStdrriTa. 

' Leg. AUeg. ii. i : S Si 0(dt pidvos iaiX, xai tr, ov avyKpiim, 
ipiais iirKij . . , oiSi ix iroWwv awivriis, iWi i/uyfis dXAy 
(i. p. 66). 

' Quod det. potiori insid. 16. (i. p. 202) : Stirai yAp oilfvii 
6 -nX^ipris efis. So Quod Deus immut. la. (i. p. J8l) : i Si e«3s 
&Tf iyivvijTos iiv, «aJ rd &\Ka ayayani tU y{v«ny, oiSfybs iSfrfir) 

raiv ToTs ytvy^fxaai vpoff6yTojv. 

' De Profug. 36. (i. p. ,^75) : ij niv yap vKrj, vfKp6v i Si Otis 
nXiov ri ^ ^a;^, '"/T^ toO ^v^ its aiiTos einfv, dfyvaos. 

' De Somn. 38. (i. p. 692) : koJ ydtp i 0tbs ixobaiov. 

" De Septenar. 5. (ii. p. j8o) : nivos ydp fiSai^ioiy md fuudptos, 
vivToiv /iiv diiiroxos kokSiv, irX-qptjs Si iyaBwv TfXtW. 

" De Confus. ling. 27. (i. p. 425): vni Si toS 8fov rrfirk^iparrcu 
rd vivTa, trfpUxovTos, ov nfpifx^l^yov, ^ vayraxov T( xa2 oiiSa/iov 
avfi$40ijK(y elyai fji6vqi. 

" Leg. AUeg. i. 3. (i. p. 44) : vavfrat ydp oiSiirorf voiSiy 6 
&eos, dW' SiOTTip iSioy t6 KcUtty vvp^s^ xai x^^^^^ '''^ ^X*^^^ OVTV 
leal Qfov rd voiuy. 

" De Vict, offer, x- (!•• p. *53) '■ f^ titpyiTrp> Kci aan^pa 
6(6v, Fragm. ii. p. 685 M. : Pa<ri\(vs Ijfifpoy xal y&iuiiov dyijii- 
fUvos iiytpioyiav, iitrd SiKaioaiyrjs riy aiiatavTa oipav6y tj xal 
KkapMi Ppafffvfi. lb. imyTani iiiv rSiy \oyiaftov fuiioipaiiiyoiy 
idtSfToi, irpoiirjSftTai Si xai Tuiy iwatrias (uvToiy, dfui piiy mupiy 
tls iitw/6p6aiaiv outoTs SiSovs K.r.K. 

" De Abrah. 17. (ii. p. 13) : Sib Xiytrai, oix ?ti 6 ao<t>bs tttt 
Qfby, dAA* 5ri 6 Qfbs w<f>9i] T9) atxp^' Kol ydp ^v aSvyaroy xaroAa- 
fitiy Tiyd St a{)Tov rb tpbs dAi^dcKU' Sf , itrj impatpiiyaj'Tos ixfiyov 
iavrb <faJ ira/nSfi^ai'Tos. 

" De Abrah. 24. (ii. p. 19); De Poster. Cain. 5. (i. p. 339); 



ferior apprehensiou of God derived through some 
mediate existence or existences. This mediator in the 
first place is the "Word (Xayos), the interpreter of God's 
will, and the God to imperfect beings, as the Lord or 
true God is God only to wise and perfect men '. This 
' Logos is described as the image and firstborn of God ', 
the archangel and high priest of the world ', not the 
complete representative of the Supreme Being, but His 
figure and shadow*, the ideal type of human nature, as it 
were, a celestial Adam ', and God's instrument in the 
creation of the world. But there is a want of uni- 
formity in Philo's doctrine of the Logos, the descrip- 
tion being sometimes of a personal, sometimes of an 
impersonal, beirg *. He seems to have grasped the 
idea of a personsd mediator, and yet to have shunned 
to enunciate it on every occasion, as though it were 
too earthly a conception for his soaring philosophy; 
and he takes refuge in abstractions whenever, if his 
terms are precisely weighed, the concrete comes too 
prominently to the surface. 

The Logos, in Philo's view, is not the direct organ 
of communication between the Supreme God and His 
creatures. This office is dischai-ged by inferior minis- 

ters, angels, and incorporeal existences, who pass be- 
tween heaven and earth, and move in the minds of 
those who are still imperfect'. But his doctrine of 
angels is full of inconsistencies, as he calls by this name 
all the forces of nature, as well as divine powers, and 
introduces them on all occasions, and under various 
conditions, to suit his allegorising explanations of Holy 

With regard to Creation, the simple cosmogony of 
the Hebrews was much modified and altered to bring 
it into harmony with philosophic speculations. Li 
one place Pbilo says that God, who begat all things, 
not only, like the sun, brought to light hidden things, 
but even created what before had no existence, being 
not only the architect of the world, but the founder*. At 
another time he speaks of the impossibility of anything 
being generated out of nothing', and assumes an un- 
formed and lifeless mass of matter, brought into shape 
and order by the spirit of God". But he does not 
consider creation as a single act, that took place once 
for all ; rather, God never ceases from making ; it is 
His property to be always creating ". Only, His act is 
limited to willing ; the act of creation is carried out by 

48. (i. p. ij8) ; Quis rer. divin. haer. 13 and 14. (i. p. 483). See 
Art. Philoeophy by Professor Mansel in Kitto's Cyclopaedia. 

* L^. Alleg. iii. 73. (i. p. 128) : ovros yap [i ipurp/ttK K6foi\ 
^lum ■tSiy drtXaiy iw (tti 6(i;, tSiv Si acxpOv Koi tcAcuuv, i wpuiTos. 

' De Confus, ling. 38. (i. p. 427) : Trjs iXSlov I'lKiros auroS, 
X6nfOV ToC ifpaiTOTov Bfov y^ flKuiy \6yos i vptaPiraTos. lb. 
T^K 9pcr6rfovoy avrov Xdyov, Toy dyytKov rpta^vraroy, ws Apx^y^ 
yf\oy wokviiyvftoy vwapxoyra. 

' De Somn. i. 37. (i. p. 653) : dpxt*p*i>s, i npuToyovm canov 
0fi<K X&yos, 

* Leg. Aleg. iii. 31. (i. p. 106) : axii BtoS i \6yos airroO 
iariy, ^ mffdwep dpydv^ vpoaxpri(jdfi(vos iicoffixowoUi' avnj 5i if 
ffKid Kai T& ufffard dirftKovtafia irtpcjy iortv dpxfTvnw oiattp 
ydp i 9fAs mpaSfiypa t^s (lx6yos, ijy CKidy yvyl xiKKtjKfy, oCtus ^ 
€licwv dWuy yiyfTOi vapdSdypa. 

* To the question why it is said, ' in the image of God made 
He man ' and not ' in His own image,' Philo answers : Oyifriy 
yap oiSiy dir(iKoyia8^<u wpAs jhy dvorrdTt)) ml waripa tSv iXaiy 
IKmaro, dXXii upAs riy tfVTtpov Btiv, ti iunv ixfiyov \6yos. 
Fragm. ii. p. 635 M. 

* See the question argued is Gfriirer, Philo, i. pp. 176, S.; 

Domer, Person of Christ, i. pp. 37, ff. (Engl. transL) ; Jowett, Epp. 
ofS. Paul, i. 

' De Somn. i. 33, 33. (i. p. 643') : ratt ii ray in dwo\owJit{yan', 
ft^vo) Si Kard rh narriKh iKynf^iiivtov Tijy fvwuxriy mi KtmjktSoi- 
/ifyijv aitfiaai ^p4ffi ^ar^K, dyytkoi, \6yot 0(ioi [l/ivc^raroOffi], 
ipoiSpirovTn aiiTds roit KaXoKdyaSias imiaaty. See Vacherot, i. 

PP- l?^. 'SS- 

• De Somn. i. 13. (i. p. 632) : (JAAow t« in fiXim drarfiKas t<1 
KtKpvUfiiya Tttiv aupaToiy iwiSunwrat, oirraj icai 6 Qtis rd rayra 
yeyvTiaas, ou iiivoy tts ri Ifupayis ^yayty, dX\d «tu i wpdrtpoy ov« 
^y, iaoiijafyf ov Srjfuovpy^s ft6yov dXXd icaX MTiaTrjs avToi ^. 

* De Incorr. Mundi, a. (ii. p. 488) : itc tow ydp ovSa/aj Hyrot 
dfjcffxav6y iari ytviaOcu ti. 

'• De Plantat. i. (i.p. 829) ; De Cherub. 35. (i. pp. 161, 163); 
De Victim, offer. 13. (ii. p. 361) : <f tnin)s ydp [C\t]t] mrr' 
lyiyvTiaty i 0(it, ovk i<parr6fityos airrdr ov ydp ^v Si/us dwdpov 
ical iit<pvppiiyi]S vXijt >favtty riy iSfioya nai fuucdpioy, d\Kd rats 
daaiiiiTots Svydfuaty, Siy irviioy iyo/ia al lS4ai, taTtxf^aTo wpis 
tA yiyos imaTO' liiy ipiu/rrovaav Xafitar ftopifi^. Cf. De Mund. 
Opif. 3. 

" Leg. Allrg. i. 3. (i. p. 44) : quoted above, p. 12, note I3. 



the Word. As the pattern on which the world was 
formed Philo conceived the Platonic notion of a 
spiritual world composed of ideas or spiritual forms; 
and the powers which operated in the sensible creation 
he likened to the rays that proceed from a central 
light, the nearer (including in this idea the Logos) 
being the brightest effulgence, and the more distant, 
fainter and more imperfect reflections. That this is one 
germ of tlie later Gnostic doctrine of Emanations seems 
undoubted '. In pursuing his cosmology Philo now 
teaches that the world {6 vot]r6s K6<7fws) is nothing else 
but the Reason (Xoyoy) of God the Creator'. Thus the 
Xrfyot f'vSiadtros, Thought, as embracing all ideas, becomes 
Xdyot TTpotjiopiKos, Thought realised ; the living word, the 
power of Jehovah manifested, is the archetypal idea 
of things, ' the supreme unity of the primitive forms 
of the created world.' ' Some persons aflBrm,' he says ', 
' that the incorporeal ideas are an empty name, void of 
all reality, thus removing the most necessary of all 
essences from the number of existing things, while 
it is in fact the archetypal model of all things which 
have the distinctive qualities of essence, which are form 
and measure.' This twofold notion of the Word com- 
bined with the belief in the Supreme God foreshadows, 
not the Christian Trinity, the three Persons in one God, 
where the Divine Three are equal and consubstantial, 
but the three Principles of the later Alexandrian school 
as they are found in Plotinus *. Tending to a similar 
result is the comment on the three mysterious visitants 
to Abraham in the plain of Mamre °. ' The one in the 
centre is the Father of the Universe,' he says, ' Who is 

called in the Scriptures," I am that I am;" and the 
beings on each side are those most ancient powers and 
nearest to Him Who is, one of which is called the 
creative, the other the kingly, power. And the creative 
power is God ; for by this He made and arranged the 
universe; and the kingly power is the Lord; for it 
is meet that the Creator should rule and govern the 
creature '.' But on this subject Philo is incoherent and 
inconsistent, and it i£ vain to attempt to construct a 
regular system from his bewildered speculations. 

As to psychology, Philo, after Aristotle, distinguishes 
the three parts or characters of the soul, the rational, 
the vegetative, and the appetitive ', sometimes dividing 
the rational part into aurftjo-jt, Xoyor, and toOj, at another 
into Xoyof, Ovuos, and tVi^/xta '. The soul is immaterial 
and pre-existent, dwelling in the upper air till it 
sojourns in a mortal body ; and those souls only which 
are earthly in desires and have a love for mortal life 
are thus embodied ; others of higher aims and nobler 
ambition never assume a corporeal nature, but soar 
upwards to the vision of the Almighty, being what 
men call angels or demons *. 

Such is a very brief account of the philosophical 
theology of Philo. The attempt to combine philosophy 
and faith, however skilfully executed, appears to have 
been in his hands a failure : philosophy gained little by 
it, faith sufl'ered great loss. The simple narrative of 
Genesis was not improved or explained by imagining 
a twofold Logos, as concerned in the creation, the one 
being the archetypal idea, the other the sensible 
world ; and Plato's cosmogony, which recognised three 

' De Mund. Opif. 4, 6, 7. (i. pp. 4, 5) ; De Somn. i. 19. (i. p. 
6 j8) ; D&hue, i. pp. 340, if. ; Burton, Bampt. Lect. iv. note 49. 

' De Mund. Opif. 6. (i. p. 5) : «1 ii rts iStkijaiii yvfivoripois 
XpTjffaa$at rots 6v6^atVf oiihiv %v trtpov eiirot rhv voijrhv ftvax 
KSa/ioy, fl QfoC \6yov ^Si; KoaiiovmovvTos. See Gfriirer, i. p. 177 ; 
Leweg, i. p. 379 ; Vacherot, i. pp. 158, 159. 

' De Vict, offer. 13. (ii. p. 261). 

* For Flotiuus see Vacherot, i. pp. 360, ff., and specially 
pp. 431, if. 

' De Abraliani. 24. (ii. p. 19). 

• See another analogous fency, De Cherub. 9. (i. pp. 143, 

' Aristot. Ethic. Nicom. I. xiii. ; Philo, De congr. erud. grat. 
6. (i. p. 523) ; Fragm. ii. p. 668; Leg. Alleg. i. 12. (i. p. 57). 
See Gfrorer, i. pp. 382, ff. ; Diihne, i. pp. 288, ff. 

• De congr. erud. grat. 18. (i. p. 533); De Victim. 6. (ii. p. 
243); De Concupisc. 3. (ii. p. 350). 

• De Somn. i. 22. (i. pp. 641, 642); Quaest. in Qen. iii 10. 
(vii. pp. 14, 15, Richt.). 



independent existences, the Demiurge, Matter, and the 
Idea, was not corrected by a theory which left Matter 
as eternal as God, and merely assigned Scriptural ap- 
pellations to heathen notions. 

4. It has been confidently asserted that Christianity 
owes its prominent doctrines to Philo and the Alex- 
andrian School; some writers have even not scrupled 
to maintain that the religion of Christ is simply a 
product of the allegories of Philo and his imitatora '. 
The chief point with most of the writers who make 
such assertions is S. John's doctrine of the Logos, 
which is said to have been derived entirely from Philo's 
writings. Now we must distinguish between a doc- 
trine and the language in which it is expressed. A 
writer may employ terms previously in existence to 
denote an opinion very difierent from that which other 
teachers have used it to signify. There are limits to 
language, especially to philosophic language, and without 
the invention of new words it would have been impos- 
sible for Christianity to avoid fixing a diflFerent sense to 
many of the words and phrases which it adopted. This 
has been the case with the term Adyor. The Hebrew 
equivalent {Memra) had been employed in the Scriptures 
in a more or less personal sense : the angel of the Lord, 
the angel of the covenant, was identified in the popu- 
lar expositions of the Sacred Books with the Memra ' : 
the Books of Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom had further 
developed the idea of the Personality of the "Word : 
the term Logos had been heard in the speculations of 
heathen and Jew : it contained a mighty truth which 
had been obscured by a mass of error ; what wonder 
if S. John was directed to make use of this term in 
order to set forth the doctrine of our Lord's Person, 
and at the same time to correct the mistakes and 
heresies which had gathered aioxmd it 1 Familiar with 
the true dogma, knowing the fake notions of the 

Alexandrian School, the apostle thus tacitly rebuked 
the error by assigning a correct idea to that term which 
had been the subject of so much disputation, and whose 
meaning had been so greatly distorted'. 'In the 
beginning was the Logos, and the Logos was with God, 
and the Logos was God.' The language is philosophic 
and Alexandrian, the notion is solely Christian ; and 
that notion, to use the words of Canon Liddon*, is 
this : ' The divine Logos is God reflected in His own 
eternal Thought ; in the Logos God is His own object. 
The infinite Thought, the reflection and counterpart 
of God, subsisting in Grod as a Being or Hypostasis, 
and having a tendency to self-communication, — such is 
the Logos. The Logos is the Thought of God, not 
intermittent and precarious like human thought, but 
subsisting with the intensity of a personal form.' And 
He is eternal, e'l' dpxn, and not merely irapa r^ e*^, but 
irpos TOK Qc&v, a phrase which implies not only 'co- 
existence and immanence, but also perpetuated inter- 
communion.' And more, the Logos is ' not merely a 
divine Being, but He is in the absolute sense God,' 
Ofos ifv 6 \6yos, 

Philo did not say this. He has certain vague notions 
of a personal mediator, and at times seems to state the 
doctrine without reserve ; but he is not stable in this 
opinion. He is always fluctuating and hesitating and 
modifying ; and is very far from holding in its full 
meaning S. John's simple enunciation, ' The Word was 
God.' There is a grave difierence between one who is 
dimly feeling after a truth which he has not realised 
and could not define, and one who is fiuding language 
to denote a doctrine revealed to him and enshrined in 
his heart. 

Judging from Philo's language alone in certain pas- 
sages one would say, without hesitation, that he main- 
tained the Divinity and Personahty of the Word, and 

* Groesman, Quaest. Philon. p. 3, and among others of the 
German school, Emeiti, Lticke, De Wette, Straus; Gratz, Ges- 
chichte, iii. 217 ; Baur, Paul. u.Christenth.; Sch\regler, Nachap. 

* See Etheridge, The Targums of Onkelo*. etc. on the Penta- 
teuch, Introd. pp. 1 7, ff. 

' See Liddon, Bampton Lectures, t. pp 338, ff. (ed. 1866). 

• Bampt. Lect. p. 341. 



attributed to Him that nature and those offices and 
qualities which are assigned to Him by the New Testa- 
ment writers. Further investigation would considerably 
modify and correct this view. It would be seen that 
the teaching of the Jew and the Christian was similar 
in form only, not in substance : that while using the 
same language they held very different ideas. If Philo 
calls the Logos, the image of God ', His first-begotten 
Son ", the second deity Who is the Word of the Supreme 
deity', he speaks of Him also, as we have seen, in 
quite other terms, which are not consistent with the 
belief in His perfect divinity*. Thus in stating that 
the world was made according to the image of the 
Word, the archetypal model, the idea of ideas", he 
plainly cannot mean that this Word is of the same 
nature as Almighty God, otherwise he would be 
guilty of a materialistic conception, which would be 
entirely repugnant to his religious views; whereas, if 
the Word is merely an exemplar produced in the mind 
of the Supreme Being, this entirely evacuates the ex- 
pression of all personal meaning and reduces it to an 
architectural design subsequently carried out °. Besides 
this, the best and inmost part of God is regarded as in- 
communicable ; in the inmost divine sphere the Abso- 
lute does not admit of distinctions, but has only a circle 
of rays in which it is reflected, so that in this sense 
also, the Logos, the revelation of God, is not itself 
partaker of divinity ''. 

Certainly, as we have before noticed, Philo has no 
fixed belief in His Personality ; he cannot conceive the 

notion of His incarnation ; and the glorious hopes and 
aspirations which surround the Messiah he completely 
ignores. Of Christ's two natures he has no notion 
whatever. He speaks indeed of the mediatorial cha- 
racter of the Logos ", but by this he means something 
very different from the Christian doctrine, as we shall 
see further on. 

It was doubtless under divine guidance that S. Paul, 
S. John, and other writers of the New Testament em- 
ployed, in enunciating the truths which they had to 
promulgate, terms and expressions already used and 
partially understood. Here were already provided 
words which were capable of conveying the thought 
which they purposed to imprint on the mind of their 
hearers. The same terminology with which the con- 
verts had been familiarised in the Septuagint, the Greek 
philosophical writings, and the sapiential Books, needed 
only to receive a new modification of meaning to 
qualify it for the higher office of containing the form 
of Christian theology. The Greek language had al- 
ready been forced into the service of Jewish thought ' : 
it was now translated into a still nobler sphere, and 
under inspired manipulation learned to connote Chris- 
tian ideas and revealed mysteries. 

In Christian hands the term Logos was employed to 
express two definite ideas, that the Word was a Divine 
Person, and that He became incarnate in Jesus Christ'". 
Thus the vague conception of pre-Christian teachers, 
which never advanced beyond the idea of the Logos 
as the undefined inanifestatiou of the invisible God, 

> De Mund. Opif. 8. (i. p. 6), See Bryant, The Sentim. of 
Pliilo, p. 17, if., who maintains that Philo derived many of hia 
views from S. Paul. 

' De Agric. 13. (i. p. 308) ; De conf. ling. a8 : r&r uponiyoiiov 
avTov Kdyov . . . apxf) xal Uro^a ecoO Koi K6yos, 

' Fragm. (ii. p. 625). 

* De lieg. Alleg. iii. 73. (i. p. 128): quoted above, p. 1 3, note i . 

• Quaest. et Sol. (ii. p. 625) : 9vrirhv yip oiiiv dwttKovt- 
oB^vai ir/xiy riiv avojrdTU Kal irar^pa rwv SXew cSiVaro, dAAii irp^y 
■riv SfvTfpov ©for, 85 iariv Ixdvov \iyos. 'ES»i yoip rbv ^071- 
K&v iy if$pi)Ttov ^uxS riirov imb Bilov K6yov xopox^"'"*' i'f'^ <i 
rpd Toi) K6yov @fis tpfiacaiv larly J) vaixa Koyiiefj ^air rf 

Si tiirip riv \6yov, h tJ /3«\ti(Ttj; «ai Tiw i(atpir()) KaSforSm 
lS4(f, oviiv Sijui 9jv ytv/jTuv l(opoiova$<u, Euseb. Praep. Kv, 
vii. 13. 

• Cudworth, Intell. Syst. transl. by Harrison, ii. pp. 329, ff. 

' Dorner, Person of Christ, vol. i., note A (Clarke's trensl.). 
See also Introduction, pp. 22, 23. 

• Quis rer. div. haer. 41. (i. p. 501) : 6 8' airrbs IWnjs fily l<m 
rov 0V1JTOV KijpaiyovTos dtl vp6i tH d<pOapToy, vptafifm^i Si Tw 
^(H^yoi -npoi jb virfjKooy, 

• Jowett, on Ep. to Galat. p. 452. 

'• Bishop J, B. Lightfoot, on Ep. to Coloss. i. 15. 



received precise and exact signification ; and it seems 
impossible to resist the conclusion that, although the 
Jewish and the Christian writers use the same language 
and have certain ideas in common, their doctrines are 
very far from being identical, and that S. John may be 
regarded rather as one who is correcting and defining 
the vague notions of the Alexandrian school, than as 
one who is influenced by that philosophy and dependent 
upon its teaching. 

To turn for a moment to another portion of the 
same subject, the interpretation of Scripture, and to 
compare the treatment to which Philo subjected the 
historical statfments of Holy Writ with the method 
pursued, for instance, by the author of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews and S. Paul : can any two processes be 
more distinct ? In one case yon have always a strain- 
ing after allegorical interpretation, far-fetched and fanci- 
ful, a verbose exposition of details without regard to 
consistency or truth; in the other you find the chief 
attention concentrated on principles involved with little 
special reference to words and terms. Philo deals with 
the facts of revelation and history as Ttudia for mystical, 
spiritual, and allegorical interpretation, and as in a 
great measure not real hietory, but parables of heavenly 
or moral truths. The Christian writer treats his facts 
as events that happened in the sphere of Goil's Provii 
deuce, that were transacted on the stage of this world 
in the fulfilment of the Creator's will and carrying 
out His plans, leading on to the Incarnation of the 
Divine Son and His exaltation to the heaven of heavens. 
Let us take one instance where Philo and S. Paul have 
treated the same subject, and compare the method 
employed on either side. 8. Paul, Gal. iv. 22-31, has 
expounded the history of Hagar and Sarah allegorically. 
In doing this be first gives the facts, states them as true 
records of events that really happened, and then elicits 
from them a spiritual sense, shows what is their spiritual 

signification. ' It is written,' he says, ' that Abraham 
had two sons, one by the bondwoman, the other by 
the freewoman ; but he who was of the bondwoman was 
bom after the flesh, but he of the freewoman was by 
the promise.' This is the history. Then follows the 
allegorical interpretation*. These women represent two 
difierent covenants, the first given from Mount Sinai, 
which brings forth children unto bondage, inasmuch 
as it is Hagar. For Hagar represents Mount Sinai in 
Arabia, and answers to the earthly Jerusalem, which 
with all her children is still in bondage. But the other 
covenant, inasmuch as it is Sarah, bears free children 
and answers to the heavenly Jerusalem, which with all 
her children is free. Philo ' takes many pages to alle- 
gorise the history, and he executes his purpose in a 
verbose, pointless, unauthorised way, as different as 
possible from the terseness, strictness, and directness of 
S. Paul. Sarah, ' my princedom,' is the wisdom, justice, 
temperance, and all the other virtues which govern me, 
he says. She indeed is always bringing forth good 
reasonings, blameless counsels, and praiseworthy actions, 
but she does not bring them forth for me unless I first 
call in the aid of her handmaid which is the encyclical 
knowledge of logic and music obtained by previous 
instruction. For Hagar is the emblem of grammar, 
geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all other 
rational objects of study, which one must pass in order 
to arrive at virtue. And these are, as it were, infantile 
food prepared for the soul, till it is ready for the virtues 
of the perfect man. The handmaid is an Egyptian, 
that is, 'earthly,' because the man who delights in 
encyclical learning has need of all his external senses to 
profit by what he learns ; and her name is Hagar, that 
is, 'emigration,' because virtue is the only native 
citizen of the universe, and all other kinds of instruc- 
tion are strangers and foreigners. ' The same relation 
that a mistress has to her handmaiden, or a wife, who 

' 'kTiva ioTty iWijyopoviuva. Not ' which things are an 
allegory,' but as Vulg. 'Quae Bunt per allegoriam dicta.' The 
narrative contains an inner meaning. See Wordsw. in loc. ; 

Picon. Tripl. Expos.; Dr. J. B. Lightfoot, Ep. to Galat. pp. 
189, ff. 
» De congr. erud. gnit. 1-5. (i. pp. 519, ff.), 




is a citizen, to a concubine, that same relation has 
virtue, i.e. Sarah, to education, i.e. Hagar ; so that very 
naturally, since the husband, by name Abraham, is one 
who has an admiration for contemplation and know- 
ledge, virtue, i.e. Sarah, would be his wife, and Hagar, 
i.e. all kinds of encyclical accomplishments, would be 
his concubine. Whoever, therefore, has acquired wis- 
dom from his teachers, would never reject Hagar. 
For the acquisition of all the preliminary branches of 
education is necessary \' This is really a favourable 
specimen of Philo's allegorising treatment of Holy 
Scripture ; and it is obvious that the arbitrary, fanciful 
transference of plain facts to force a moral lesson which 
has no connection with the history, is an extreme con- 
trast with the method of S. Paul, where the history is 
the framework on which the allegory depends for its 
applicability, coherence, and usefulness. The fancy 
(for it is nothing more) that the apostle derived his 
method of treating Holy Scripture from the Alexandrian 
school is very far from the truth, and could hardly 
have been upheld by any one who had studied the two 
systems with common attention or a mind free from 
prejudice '. 

Take another doctrine which Philo is said to have 
taught the Christian Church. In a certain passage' 
he calls the Son of God irapaKXrjros, and herein is seen 
the source where S. John (i Ep. i. 2) derived the 
term as applied to Christ. But what are the facts ? 
' It was necessary,' says Philo, ' that one ministering to 
the Father of the world should use as Advocate the 
Son most perfect in virtue both for the forgiveness of 
sins and the supply of the richest blessings.' He is 
speaking of the dress of the high-priest, and explains 
the vestment as representing the world which was thus, 

as it were, brought into the temple whenever tlie priest 
entered to perform his sacred offices. And then he pro- 
ceeds as above, thus showing that by the Son he means 
the world ', and implies, as does likewise the author of 
the Book of Wisdom (xviii. 24), that the very sacri- 
ficial garments themselves were regarded as a means 
of intercession. What is there in this ceremonial figure 
to teach S. John the doctrine of the Advocacy of Jesus 
Christ the righteous, the propitiation for man's sin 1 
There is another psissage in Philo ' bearing on the same 
subject, where he says, that the Father has given 
to His archangel and most ancient Logos a pre- 
eminent gift to stand on the confines and separate the 
created from the Creator. And this Logos is con- 
tinually a suppliant to the immortal God in behalf of 
the mortal race, and is also the ambassador sent by the 
Ruler of all to the subject man. There is a similarity 
here to the verse of S. Paul (i Tim. ii. 5). 'There is 
one God and one Mediator between God and man, the 
man Christ Jesus ;' but the coincidence is not essential. 
In Philo the Logos is a mean between the good and the 
evil, as the cloud between Israel and the Egyptians, 
neither being uncreated as God, nor created as man, 
but being like a hostage to both parties, a pledge to 
God that the whole race would not rebel entirely, and 
to man that God will never overlook the work of 
His hands. That Clirist pai-takes of both natures, and 
is the only Mediator between God and man, is quite 
beyond the Jew's idea, who has mingled the particle of 
truth which he possessed with the Aristotelian notion 
of the mean and the Pythagorean theory of contrasts. 

There is throughout all such occasional coincidences 
the fundamental distinction between the ideal Logos of 
the Jewish philosopher and the one Christ, God and 

' Bohn's transl., il. p. 162. 

• See The Apostle Paul and the Christian Church at Philippi. 
By Rev. J. F. Todd, London, 1864. Here will be found a pains- 
taking endeavour to show the contrast between the teaching and 
method of Philo and S. Paul. Burton's Bampton Lectures, note 
93, &c.; Domer, Person of Christ, i. 32-41 (Clarke's ed.). 

' De Vit. Mos. iii. 14. (ii, p. 155) : iyayxtuor yaip fjv t4k Itpoj- 

liivov Ty ToC K6aixou varpi mipaxX^T^ xp5<^' rfXeioTir^ Hi* 
apfTriv tify, irp6s r( iityrjOrttav &na[rrqf>aToir Koi xoPTt^"" d^orcu- 
raraiv afaOSiv. 
* Philo calls the Logos K6(ritot oir^t. De Mund. Opif. 48. 

(«• P- 33)- 

' Quis rer. div. haer. 42. (ii. p. 501). See Jowett, Ep. to 
Galat. p. 48]. 


man, of the Christian. With a writer who saw in 
matter the source of all evil, the idea of the Incarnation 
was inconceivable, was indeed repugnant to his concep- 
tion of God and God's relation with the world. That 
the term Logos was well understood is evident, e.g. 
from the abrupt commencement of S. John's Gospel ; 
but none of the philosophers or theologians who were 
familiar with the expression would have admitted the 
statement that ' The Logos became flesh.' Such an 
assertion was utterly irreconcilable with their principles. 
With Philo the Logos is rather ' Reason' than ' Word,' 
metaphysical rather than personal, speculative rather 
than moral. With the Apostle the reverse is the case. 
The Personality of the Word, His historical manifest- 
ation, are the points brought out. And in the full 
Christian doctrine we trace the truth for which pre- 
ceding revelations had prepared the way, that the Son 
of God is that Angel of the Covenant who guided the 
ancient patriarchs, that Word who executed the Father's 
will, that Wisdom which was with God and was over 
all His works. 

Besides Philo and his school there are other sources 
whence Christianity is said to have derived its tenets 
and practices. Not satisfied with the opinion that 
Christianity is the ordained religion for which Judaism 
prepared the way, being itself the proper development 
of the earlier form, critics have, with a perseverance 
that might be better employed, sought to trace Christ's 
doctrines to human opinions prevalent in the age pre- 
ceding his own, and to state precisely whence they were 
borrowed or adopted. 

Among the heralds of Christianity have been reckoned 
the Essenes ', many of whose tenets and practices are 
said to have prepared the way for the reception of a 

purer and more definite faith. They were indeed the C> 
saintly livers among the Jews in all ages of their'' *^ 
history. From the time of Moses to the captivity, from 
the return to the era of the Maccabees and thence onward 
to Christian days, there had always been holy men, led 
by the Spirit of God, who, whether living in commimi- 
ties or solitary, kept in many respects to the strict«st 
traditions of their faith, and by purity, un worldliness, and 
the practice of many virtues anticipated no few of the 
Christian doctrines. Doubtless there were many excesses 
in their religion : they often showed as mere fanatics,often 
espoused philosophical tenets alien from and inconsis- 
tent with revelation ; but as their name connects them 
with the Chasidim, the holy', so all their rules and 
tenets and practices were intended to produce holiness. 
Of the analogy between their precepts and many of 
Christ's commands or of the usages of the early 
Christians, it is easy to judge'. Thus, the Essenea 
commended the poor in spirit, peacemakers, the mer- 
ciful, the pure in heart; they contemned the laying 
up riches ; they had all things in common, caJled no 
man master, sold their possessions and divided them 
among the poor ; they swore no oaths, but their com- 
munication was yea, yea, nay, nay. They believed that 
by prayer and fasting they could cast out devils ; that 
a man should abstain from marriage for the sake of the 
kingdom of heaven ; that by living a life of holiness 
and purity their bodies would become temples of the 
Holy Ghost and they would be able to prophesy (i Cor. 
xiv. I, 39). That Christianity derived any of its doc- 
trines and practices from the Essenes is an unproved 
assertion ; but that finding their principles and customs 
prevailing, Christ and His Apostles recognised what was 
good and right in them, while rejecting their excesses, 

4 >a\ 

' The accounts of the Eeaeneg are found in Philo, Quod onm. 
prob. lib. 1 2, 13. (ii. pp. 457-460) ; Fragm. ii. pp. 633, ff., Mang.; 
Joeeph. Bell. Jud. ii 8 ; Antiq. xiiL 5 ; xt. 10 ; zviii. i ; Solinos, 
PoljhiBt. XIV. 7, ff. ; Porphyr. «^ <l»ox- ''^ if'f^Xt P- 381, ed. 
1620 ; Epiphan. Adv. Haer. i. 10. p. a8, ed. 1681 ; i. 19. p. 39 ; 
mri 'Oaarpni*; Pliny, Hist. Nat. v. 17. See Dr. Ginsborg's 
Essay, The Essenes: their History and Doctrines, London, 

1864; GfrOrer, Philo, ii. pp. J99. ff.; Dahne, L pp. 469, ft 
' See Art. Chasidim, in Kitto's Bibl. Cyclop. This derivation 

is the subject of much dispute. See Lightfoot's Essay. 

* The following comparison i> based on Dr. Ginsburg's most 

complete and interesting Essay, where the whole literature of 

the subject is fully treated, and Dr. J. B. Lightfoot's Enay in 

his edition of 8. Paul's £p. to Coloss. 

O 2 



is certainly possible '. And the veiy existence of this 
sect, if it was a sect, or of these saintly persons, was 
doubtless one of those providential preparations for 
the triumph of the Gospel which the Christian student 
has at all times loved to trace. But much more has 
been made of the importance of these religionists than 
is warranted by their history or the tenets which are 
attributed to them. 

The fact is that the Essenes were an insignificant 
body, and played no prominent part in the national life 
of the Jews. There is no evidence that any intercourse 
existed between Essenism and Christianity, and to 
assume that Christ Himself, John the Baptist, and 
James the Lord's brother were members of this sect, 
as some authors do, is to read into history preconceived 
views, not to base theories on well-established facts. 
The coincidences of practice and teaching between the 
two are only so far connected as all high morality may 
be said to be derived from one source, or as the special 
points mentioned may be considered as the growth of 
the same country, climate, and circumstances. In 
many of their opinions and customs they directly 
contravened the Mosaic law, as for instance in their 
abstention from animal sacrifices ", and no more marked 
opposition to Christisinity could be found than in their 
persistent denial of the Resurrection of the body. 

From what has been said we may gather these 
inferences. The Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy was 
not the origin of any of the doctrines of the New 
Testament ; nor was the allegorical method of inter- 
preting certain parts of the historical Scriptures derived 
from or identical with that employed by Philo and his 
school. The two allegations to the contrary are based 
on verbal similitudes, sometimes accidental, sometimes in- 
tentional, but with no affinity in thought. But using the 

language current at the time as the vehicle of Christian 
truth, the Apostles explained their meaning intelligibly, 
suggested the origin of the erroneous speculations then 
prevalent, and at the same time corrected these mis- 
takes. For it was indeed incumbent on them to 
notice the prevailing theories which were to become 
the parents of future heresies in the Christian Church. 
It is beyond our design to trace the course of these de- 
clensions from the faith, but we may state briefly the 
effect of this Judaic-Alexandrian philosophy on one or 
two points of Christian dogma. 

The Arian heresy may reasonably be referred to 
the Logos doctrine of the Alexandrian school. This 
error gathered into one view all that had hitherto 
tended to lower the divinity of the Second Person of the 
Divine Trinity. The Logos, regarded by Philo often as 
not personal, sometimes as personal, but not so fier se ; 
the denial of any duality of Divine Persons ; the separ- 
ation of the Logos from the divine sphere. His sub- 
ordination to God, and His creation in time ; these and 
such-like opinions were a preparation for the notion 
that the Son was a creature begotten not eternally and 
not consubstantial with the Father. 

Again, the Sabellian doctrine which substituted three 
names or conceptions of God in place of three Persons, 
which regarded the Trinity as different modes of the 
existence of God, had its prefigurement in the dream of 
Philo concerning the threefold perfections of God. The 
trinity of Plato, as it is called, the discussions of philo- 
sophers respecting the three great principles of things, 
with which the schools of Alexandria had familiarised 
him, led to a theory, which, while it retained the gi-eat 
dogma of Monotheism, embraced the idea of a triad of 
operations or -virtues in the divine nature '. Vague 
and indeterminate as was Philo's conception of this 

' That S. John the Baptist belonged to this order is argued 
from his ascetic life, and from the &ct that Christ announced 
him to be Elias, which would be equivalent to saying that he 
had arrived at the highest degree among the Essenes. See 
Dr. Ginsburg's Art. The Essenes, Ap. Kitto's Cyclop.; Gr&tz, 
Geech. d. Jud. iii. p. 21 J. The same opinion has been held oon- 
ceming James, the Lord's brother, and even Christ Himselt 

See the refutation in Lightfoot. 

' This has been denied by Neander, Hist, of Christ. Relig. i. 
p. 67 (Bohn's transl.); but see Lightfoot, p. 134. 

' Cudworth, Intell. Syst. ii. 333, note (transl. by Harrison) ; 
Philo, De Cherub. 9 (i. p. 143) ; De Abrah. 34 (ii. p. 19) ; De 
Mut. Nom. 4 (L p. $83). 



trinity, it was the germ of that error which used the 
term while it destroyed the Christian connotation. 

And once more, that Judaizing Platonism, which 
with certain additions merged into Gnosticism, derived 
some of its chief elements from these Alexandrian theo- 
logasters, as Erasmus would have called them. This 
widely penetrating system, which formed the chief dan- 
ger of early Christianity, was the natural offspring of 
Oriental mysticism. Gnosticism furnished no essentially 
new speculations ; it gave a new emphasis to truths 
already held, it combined them in new relations, but it 
did not create or invent novel theories and produce 
an altogether fresh system. Of the elements that con- 
tributed to this philosophy Alexandrian Judaism was 
one of the most important. If we may trace some of its 
factors to oriental Pantheism or Parsism, we are con- 
strained to acknowledge the supreme influence of the 
school of Alexandria, and to look upon this as the 
medium by which the tenets of the various religion- 
isms which composed it were held together and con- 
solidated. The distinction between the highest God 
and the Demiurgus, the derivation of evil from an evil 
principle called matter (uAi?), the doctrine of emanation, 
the representation of the visible world as an image of the 
world of light, the arbitrary allegorising of Scripture, 
and the notion of a secret doctrine which belonged only 
to the highest intellects, all these were the direct pro- 
duct of the Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy. 

To this school also we may trace many of the 
opinions and much of the method of the early Christian 
Fathers. In defending and developing Christian doc- 
trines they were necessarily brought face to face with 
Alexandrian teachers, and were constrained either to 
accept or oppose their statements. With the writings 
of Philo Justin Martyr was well acquainted, and he 
adopts many of the Jew's opinions and uses his lan- 
guage. In his idea of God he is much more in accord- 

ance with Philo than with the Catholic Creed, con- 
ceiving the Father, the Word, and the Spirit, not as 
three Persons of one divine substance, but as three 
Principles of differing rank'. After PhUo's example 
also he endeavours to reconcile the cosmogony of Plato 
with that of Moses ; and at another time he introduces 
thoughts concerning the soul from the Stoics and other 
Greek philosophers '. 

Of the deep influences of the Graeco- Jewish philosophy 
upon the Alexandrian Fathers every student is aware. 
' Any one,' say Vacherot ', ' who desires to understand 
Clement and Origen, must keep in mind the three 
sources from which they drew their thoughts. Gnosti- 
cism, Philoism, and Platonism.' 

Clemens Alexandrinus regarded Greek Philosophy 
as a mere plagiarism from the Jewish Scriptures *. In 
his Stromata his chief object is to furnish materials for 
the construction of a Christian philosophy on the basis 
of faith in revealed religion ; and in carrying out this 
design he shows how in various particulars the heathens 
were indebted to Hebrew sources for their wisdom, thus 
following up the investigation in which Philo had led 
the way. Nor does he confine himself simply to the 
truths which philosophy has to teach : from her he 
borrows his method of inquiry; he calls to his aid 
dialectics, geometry, arithmetic and other sciences, to 
contribute their support to his theological speculations. 
All, in his view, have their part in this supreme science, 
which is Knowledge, Gnosis ° ; and the end and object 
of this is union with God through the Word. 

In Origen we see the allegorising method of inter- 
preting the Scriptures reduced, as we may say, to a 
system. This great teacher seems to revel in the ob- 
scurities and dark sayings of the divine oracles. He 
finds in them subjects worthy of his deepest thought. 
It was in his opinion an error fraught with much evil 
to adhere to the external, the carnal part of Scripture ; 

' Apol. Prim. p. 51 ; Vacherot, i. p. 230. 

' Apol. Prim. p. 78 ; Cum Tryph. Di»L p. 3Ji. 

' lb. i. p. 248. 

* Strom, xi. i. 

* Strom, vi. 10; Vacherot, i. p. 351. 



in every portion we should seek hidden and mystic 
meanings which are the spirit of the Word of God and 
its veritable substance. The letter leads astray and brings 
little benefit'. Consistently with this theory he lays 
comparatively little stress on the historical facts con- 
nected with Christ's life, and seeks to rise to the contem- 
plation of the essence of the Logos, as He is in Himself, 
using the life and character of the historical Jesus as a 
symbol of the agency of the Divine Logos, seeing in 
all Scripture the incarnation of the Word '. Like Philo, 
he explained the earthly events narrated in the Bible 
and the temporary enactments recorded there as sym- 
bolical veils of spiritual mysteries. The outer husk 
he deemed to be suitable food for the uninstructed 
multitude; the higher truths were to be reserved for 
those who had arrived at the most perfect condition. 
If there were any persons standing between these two 
states, for them the allegorical sense was suitable, as 
best conveying to their capacities moral instruction and 
edification. There are many other points in which 
both Origen and Clement exhibited remarkable affinity 
in doctrine to Philo. In their language concerning 
God and the Word and the Holy Spirit and the destiny 
of man they are in close accord with the Jewish writer. 
They also owed much to Greek Philosophy; in their 
cosmology, their psychology, their ethics they intro- 
duced the ideas of Stoics and Platonists ; and although, 
in the case of Origen, these foreign elements were de- 
veloped into formal heresy, yet they were on the whole 
serviceable to the cause of Christianity, and formed a 
part of that Providential arrangement which prepared 
the way for the acceptance and dissemination of the 
true faith '. 

These writers and their followers had the high merit 
of introducing Christianity in the only form in which 
it would be likely to find acceptance with cultivated 
and scientific intellects ; and if they exhibited a tendency 
to merge practice in speculation, to make men think 

rather than act, stiU both of these elements are neces- 
sary for all education, and we must not decry the 
merits of those who taught the one if they failed 
sufficiently to supply the other. The argumintum ad 
hominem, which they were thus enabled to use was 
eminently serviceable to them in conciliating opponents 
and in establishing the doctrines which they laboured 
to disseminate. They could show how philosophers had 
long been feeling after a Trinity in the Divine nature, 
how the Woi-d of God had been an object of abundant 
speculation for many a day. The very terms with 
which their adversaries were familiar could convey the 
instruction which they desired to give ; the very dogmas 
which heathen sages had announced were echoes of re- 
vealed truths ; and those who had set these forth were 
guided by that Holy Spirit whom Christians adored. 

Before concluding this brief and necessarily imper- 
fect sketch there is one other result of the Jewish- 
Alexandrian teaching which we must mention. An 
earnest pagan, when he turned his attention to the 
conclusions attained by his most eminent philosophers, 
and saw how empty, unsatisfactory and barren of 
issue were their speculations, naturally longed for 
something better, some completer solutions of the 
questions by which his mind was agitated. And, look- 
ing around on the varying faiths of the nations, he en- 
deavoured to calm his disquiet and quench his longing 
by elaborating an eclectic philosophy which should 
combine in one the best points of heathenism and 
Oriental religion. In this connection it was impossible 
to avoid following in the steps of Philo and his school. 
In attempting to breathe into the expiring heathen- 
dom a new breath of life, a method, which had already 
more or less successfully glorified and exalted ancient 
myths and philosophic theories by conceding to them 
a place in the shrine of revealed religion, was the very 
element needed to inspire new zeal in behalf of the old 
rites, and to form the basis of polemical and apologetic 

' Orig. in Ep. ad Rom. lib. viii. 8. p. 633 Ben. 
• See Neander, Hist, of Chrigt. Belig. ii. p. 357, ff. (BoWs transl.) 

' Vacherot, i. p. 294, ft 



discussion. Successful opposition to Christianity could 
only be offered by a spiritualizing of the polytheistic 
religion which would conceal its grossness and soften the 
contrast between the popular superstitions and the pure 
doctrines by which they were being undermined and 
supplanted. This antagonistic system is known as the 
later Neo-Platonism. Its struggles with Christianity 
and its utter defeat form an interesting episode in Church 
history which it is beyond our scope to describe. 
If then we allow that there is token of immediate 

connection between the Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy 
and the early Fathers, and if we concede that the at- 
tempt to conciliate philosophy and religion led the way 
to that new phase of doctrine which was so bitterly 
hostile to Christianity, we have shown that we dissent 
heartily and altogether from the opinion that any 
prominent doctrines of Christianity are derived from 
any alien sources, and we can see no ground for such 
opinion but certain verbal similarities which are capable 
of another and more reasonable explanation. 


Title.— Plan.— Ciontentfc 

The Book which we are about to consider has 
generally gone by the name of The Wisdom of Solo- 
mon. It is so entitled in the earliest Manuscripts. 
Thus the Sinaitic Codex calls it So^ta SoXo/xavrur, the 
Vatican ScK^ia ^aXafiav, and the Alexandrian Socjjia 
2oKona>vTos : the early translations have usually given 
it the like appellation, the Syriac tei-ming it 'The 
Book of the Great Wisdom of Solomon,' and the Arabic 
'The Book of the Wisdom of Solomon, the son of 
David.' But by many of the Greek Fathers, and by 
Western writers since the time of SS. Jerome and 
Augustine, the name of Solomon has been dropped. 
Epiphanius and Athanasius cite it under the designation 
of Uavaperos 2o0i'a, ' All-virtuous Wisdom,' a title also 
applied to Proverbs and Ecclesiasticus. Clement of 
Alexandria ' and Origen ^ called it 'H Beta 2o<pia. The 
Latin Vulgate prefixes the title ' Liber Sapientiae,' and 

Augustine • names it ' Liber Christianae Sapientiae,' 
and says it is improperly termed Solomon's. That it 
had no claim to be considered a production of the 
royal author whose name it bore was generally felt, 
though some few writers in uncritical times main- 
tained the contrary. Jerome, in his preface to the 
Books of Solomon, says : ' Fertur et Panaeretos Jesu 
Filii Sirach' liber, et alius paeud-epigrajihiis, qui Sa- 
pientia Salomonis inscribitur,' intending probably by 
this epithet to shew merely that in his judgment it 
was wrongly attributed to King Solomon. Elsewhere 
he refers to it as 'The Wisdom that is ascribed to 
Solomon, if any one thinks proper to receive the Book.' 
Augustine in his Retractations * remarks : ' Salomonis 
duo hi libri a pluribus adpellantur propter quamdam, 
sicut existimo, eloquii similitudinem. Nam Salomonis 
non esse nihil dubitant quique doctiores.' That the 

* Strom, iv. i6. p. 515. ' In Ep. ad Rom. vii. 14. 

' Ep. 130; De Doctr. Christ, ii. 8; Specul. p. 11 37, C. D.; 
De CSvitat. Dei, xvii. 20 : ' Alii vero duo, quorum unuB Sa- 
pientia, alter Ecclesiasticus dicitur, propter eloquii nonnullam 

similitudinem, ut Salomonis dicantur, obtinuit consuetudo ; non 
autem esse ipsius, non dubitant doctiores ; eos tamen in auctori- 
tatem, maxime occidentalis, antiquitus recepit Ecclesia.' 
* ii, 4. Cf. Spec, de lib. Sap. 



author assumes the name of Solomon is of course ap- 
parent. Such a use of fiction lias been common in all 
ages without any suspicion of fraud being attached to 
the writer. Plato and Cicero in their Dialogues in- 
troduce real characters as vehicles for supporting or 
opposing their own views. If it could be proved that 
any of the Psalms ascribed to David were written after 
his time, we might reasonably suppose that they had 
his name prefixed to them, as being composed in his 
spirit or in that form of sacred poetry employed by 
him. So all the Sapiential Books, though some of 
them were confessedly of much later date, were com- 
monly attributed to Solomon, as being himself the ideal 
of the personification of Wisdom and the author far 
excellence of works on this subject. And when the 
writer introduces Solomon himself speaking, this is not 
done with any intention of leading his readers to be- 
lieve that the work was a genuine production of the 
Son of David. Written, as we shall see, at a period 
many centuries removed from the palmy days of Israel, 
at a place far distant from Jerusalem, in a language 
and style unfamiliar to the Hebrew king, the Book 
could never have claimed for itself the authority of that 
royal name except by a fiction universally understood 
and allowed. An analogous use of fiction is found in 
the Books of Tobit and Judith, where under circum- 
stances professedly historical, but which in many par- 
ticulars do violence to history, moral and political 
truths are forcibly enunciated. There is this further 
reason for the use of the name of Solomon in the title 
of the Book, namely, that many of the sentiments and 
much of the language found therein are derived from 
the genuine works of the royal author, as will be seen 
in the Commentary. 

The plan and contents of the Book have next to be 
considered. And first we must ask, What is meant by 
Wisdom (Soc^i'a) of which it treats ? Dismissing from 
our minds later definitions of the term, and taking our 
stand on the Old Testament Scriptures, we see that it 
is used chiefly in two pregnant senses. First, it signi- 
fies that quality, so named, which is an attribute of the 
Godhead, or the thought of God which has its ex- 
pression in the Logos, the Son ; secondly, it denotes 
the habit of mind infused in angels and men by God 
Himself, and the rules and dictates of religion and 
practical godliness. In the latter sense it is equivalent 
to what is elsewhere called the knowledge of God, a 
term which includes the high contemplation of glorified 
saints and angels, as well as the religious culture and 
practice of devout men on earth. As to the Divine 
Wisdom, this originally resides in God. As Job says 
(xii. 13), 'with Him are Wisdom and strength;' 'God 
understandeth the ways thereof, and He knoweth its 
place' (xxviii. 23). And then more definitely in the 
Book of Proverbs it is said of Wisdom : ' The Lord 
possessed me in the beginning of His way, before his 
works of old. I was set up from everlasting, from the 
beginning or ever the earth was. I was by Him, as one 
brought up with Him, and I was daily His delight, re- 
joicing always before Him' (ch. viii). Though we do not 
here see Wisdom actually distinguished as a Person of the 
Godhead, yet it is shown as more than a mere abstrac- 
tion or poetical personification ; it is shown at least as 
uncreated and as coetemal with God. Thus much we 
may gather from the canonical Scriptures of the Old 
Testament'. In the Book of Ecclesiasticus a further 
advance is made. ' Wisdom comes from the Lord and 
is with Him for ever ' (i. i) ; She is indeed said to be 

' See Liddon, Bampton Lectures, ii. pp. 89-95, ed. 1867. 
Christ ' is stated, according to His earthly nature, to be " the 
firstborn of every creature " ; a passage which bears out the opinion 
of S. Athanasius [Orat. II Contr. Arian. 47], that the reference 
to the creation of Wisdom in the Book of Proverbs is designed, 
among other things, to set forth the Incarnation of our Lord, as 
the head and pattern of humanity. 8. Athanasius, following 
the Septuagint [Ki;pioi timai /if dpxfjv iSSiyaiiroS ds Ipya afiroC], 

and expressing the Hebrew with more exactness than is done in 
our translation, renders Prov. viii. 22, "The Lord created me 
a beginning of His ways," which is equivalent, he observes, to 
the assertion that the Father prepared me a body, and He 
created me for man, on behalf of their salvation.' Wilberforce, 
Incamat. chap. ii. pp. 24, 25. ed. 1852. The Revised Bible 
translates, ' The Lord possessed [or, prepared, marg.^ me in the 
beginning of His way.' 



created, 'created before all things' (i. 4), but she is 
also said to be ' poui-ed out upon all God's works ' 
(ver. 9), ' and never to fail ' (xxiv. 9), ' but to have her 
habitation in Jacob, and to take root in the inheritance 
of the Lord' {ib. 8, and 1 2). And thus we are led on to 
the doctrine of the Logos, the expression of the thought 
of Orod, and the manifestation of Wisdom among man- 
kind and in all creation. In the Book of Wisdom this 
idea has become more definite and precise. The nature 
and sphere and operation of Wisdom are clearly stated. 
She is the breath of the power of God and a pure in- 
fluence flowing from the glory of the Almighty, the 
brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror 
of the power of God, and the image of His goodness. 
Being One she can do all things, remaining immutable 
herself she maketh all things new, and in all ages 
entering into holy souls she maketh them friends of 
God and prophets. She is privy to the mysteries of 
God, sits by His throne, loves His works, was present 
when He formed the world, and gives to men all the 
virtues which they need in every station and condition 
of life •. 

As regards Wisdom in its human aspect we may say 
generally that, as used in the Sapiential Books, the 
term expresses the perfection of knowledge showing 
itself in action, whether in the case of king or peasant, 
statesman or artisan, philosopher or unlearned. Its 
contradictory is Folly {avom), which signifies all wilful 
ignorance, sinfulness and carelessness, every act and 
habit opposed to the love of God and the practice of 
holiness. Professor Hxixley remarks in one of his 
essays : ' The only medicine for sufi'ering, crime, and 

all the other woes of mankind, is Wisdom.' And 
though his notion of wisdom is very difierent from that 
of him who is called ' Pseudo-Solomon,' and involves 
no principle of divine revelation, yet taken as it standi 
the statement contains a great truth. The habit of 
making a right choice, of using aright the knowledge 
and powers given, is enforced alike by the Jewish 
teacher and the modem philosopher. That gift of 
God the Holy Spirit which is called Wisdom directs 
men to seek God as the end and object of their life and 
faculties, to give themselves up to His guiding hand, to 
know and to do His will. The Jew was not a specu- 
lative philosopher; he did not employ his mind on 
abstruse theories concerning the mutual connection 
and interdependence of nature and spirit. Abstract 
investigation had little charm for him. All his views 
were based on revealed truths ; it was from reflection 
on past revelations that his literature arose. Thus 
with him Wisdom embraces what a Greek would call 
virtue, a habit of choosing the good and excellent way ; 
but it comprises also the notion of a deep knowledge, 
an appropriation of the history of God's dealings with 
His people, and a thorough trust in the di^nne aid 
which is never refused to the prayer of the faithful. 

In the Book before us Divine Wisdom is presented 
under two aspects : sometimes as the Spirit, sometimes 
as the Word of God, different operations being at- 
tributeil to each ^ As the Spirit of God, Wisdom fills 
the world, is the means by which the Divine omni- 
presence is effectuated and expressed, and inspires men 
to be prophets ; as the Word of God, Wisdom made 
the world, and is the executor of God's commands both 

' Wisd. vii, viii, ix ; Vacherot, i. pp. 1 34, 135; Dahne, pp. 
154, ff. ; Gfriirer, Philo, i. pp. 243, ff. ; ii. pp. 216, ffi 

* Thus, chap. i. 4-6 : ' Into a malicious soul wisdom shall not 
enter, nor dwell in the body that is subject to sin. For the holy 
spirit of discipline will flee deceit, and remove from thoughts 
that are without understanding. Wisdom is a loving spirit.' 
' For the Spirit of the Lord filleth the world ; and that which 
containeth all things hath knowledge of the voice,' ver. 7. Com- 
pare also iz. 1 7. Here Wisdom is identified with the Holy Spirit. 
In the following passages it assumes the character of the Word : 

vii. 22, 'Wisdom, which is the worker of all things, taught 
me ; ' xviii. 15, • Thine Almighty word leaped down from heaven 
out of Thy royal throne, as a fierce man of war . . . and brought 
Thine unfeigned commandment ; ' ix. 1 , 2, ' O God of my &therB, 
Who hast made all things with Thy Word, and ordained man 
through Thy Wisdom.' In Philo also the conception of Wisdom 
is not consistent or uniform. Some passages expressly identify 
the Logos and Wisdom ; elsewhere Wisdom is represented aa 
the spouse of God, and again as the mother of the Logos. 



in the reward and punishment of His creatures. By 
personifying Wisdom in the former view the author 
prepares the way in a most remarkable manner for the 
full doctrine of the Personality of the Holy Ghost, 
which was not plainly revealed till later times ; and by 
his personification of the Word he adumbrates the true 
Christian doctrine expressed by S. John. 

Hnman Wisdom is portrayed as that gift of God 
to men which is the guide and aim of all good conduct 
in life, and which leads to a happy immortality. This 
gift contains all virtues, moral, physical, and intellec- 
tual, holy living, manual dexterity, cultivated under- 
standing. In developing this principle the author is 
in advance of many of the books of the Old Testament 
in regard to the Providence of God, the immortality 
of the Boul, and the future judgment, thus lighting 
the way to the full knowledge of Christianity. Inci- 
dentally, or it may be formally, he refutes the per- 
nicious doctrines of Epicureans and materialists ; he 
ehews the superiority of the Hebrew religion to heathen 
philosophy in its purity and strictness, in its faith in a 
future Ufe, in its trust in Divine Providence, and 
tacitly confutes many of those arguments alleged by 
Pagans both then and afterwards against Hebraism. 
And, further, as in the inspiration of his genius, and 
fii-ed by the majesty of his subject, a poet is often led 
to give utterance to thoughts which have a meaning 
and a fulness far beyond anything that he intended, so 
the author of the Book of Wisdom, if not directly in- 
spired by God as were the writers of the earlier Scrip- 
tures, has exhibited a deep knowledge of divine things, 
and a forward reach into mysteries still unrevealed, 
which seem greater than have been elsewhere displayed 
beyond the limits of Scripture. Those magnificent en- 
comiums of Wisdom wherein our Book abounds seem 
to illustrate and glorify Him Who is the Wisdom of 
God. Nothing can be more appropriate to Christ than 
the grand pei-sonification of this attribute of Deity. 
In such passages as the following the writer seems to 

have been guided beyond his own thought to indicate 
the operations and attributes of the second Person of 
the Holy Trinity. ' O God of my fathers, and Lord of 
mercy. Who hast made all things by Thy Word ' (ix. i). 
' For it was neither herb, nor mollifying plaister that 
restored them [the people bitten by fiery serpents] to 
health ; but Thy Word, O Lord, which healeth all 
things.' 'That Thy children, Lord, whom Thou 
lovest, might know that it is not the growing of fruits 
that nourisheth man ; but that it is Thy Word which pre- 
serveth them that put their trust in Thee' (xvi. 12, 26). 
' While all things were in quiet silence, and night was 
in the midst of her swift course, Thine Almighty Word 
leaped down from heaven out of Thy royal throne, as a 
fierce man of war in the midst of a land of destruction, 
and brought Thine unfeigned commandment as a sharp 
sword' (xviii. 14-16). As regards the second passage 
here quoted, our Lord Himself has explained the alle- 
gorical import of the ' serpent lifted up in the wilder- 
ness.' The last passage has for ages been applied by 
the Latin Church to the Incarnation, and is interwoven 
into her offices for Christmas and Epiphany. And 
once more, that language which the author puts into 
the mouth of the wicked persecuting the righteous is 
more true of the mockery heaped upon the Saviour as 
He hung upon the Cross '. ' He professeth to have the 
knowledge of God, and he calleth himself the child of 
God . . . He maketh his boast that God is his Father. 
Let us see if his words be true : and let us prove what 
shall happen in the end of him. For if the just man 
be the Son of God, He will help him, and deliver him 
from the hand of his enemies.' 

The Book itself may be broadly divided into two parts, 
the first nine chapters treating of Wisdom under its 
more speculative aspect, exhorting men to strive after 
it, and describing its origin, and its moral and intel- 
lectual effects; the last ten chapters being confined to 
the historical view, showing how Wisdom has dis- 
played its power in the lives of the Fathers and in its 

' Wlsd. ii. 13, 16-18 ; S. Matt, xxvii. 4], 43. The words in Ps. zxii. 8, are not so full or so similar. 



dealings with the Israelites in connection with Egypt. 
Herein incidentally are answered many of the heathen 
cavils against Hebraism ; and that problem which Job 
found impossible to explain, the difficulties which occur 
to any one who reflects upon the moral government of 
the world, is in a measure resolved, and the faith- 
ful believers are comforted with the sssurance that 

although they suffer here and the wicked prosper, yet 
a day of retribution is at hand, and in another life all 
shall be adjusted and rectified, — a fact, the truth of 
which, as regards individuals, may be inferred from 
God's dealings with nations which have no future, but 
are rewarded and punished in this world. 


Language and Character. 

The language and style of the Book are very re- 
markable. Compared with the Septuagint version of the 
canonical Scriptures, it is seen at once to be no mere 
translation from the Hebrew, but an original work of 
high character and of marked peculiarity. S. Jerome 
was quite justified in the opinion expressed in his Preface 
to the Books of Solomon : ' Secundus apud Hebraeos 
nusquam est, quin et ipse stylus Graecam eloquentiam 
^dolet.' It is indeed written in the purest form of 
Alexandrian Greek, free from the Hebraisms and ano- 
malies of the Septuagint, and full of passages which 
combine the richest vocabulary with genuine rhetorical 
eloquence. The originality of the work is seen in 
many particulars. We may remark the many unusual 
compound words and novel and combined expressions 
with which it abounds ; such are, kokoiioxOos (xv. 8) ; 
vrripftaxos (xvi. I7)> dnijXiSojTos (iv. 9); avanoSurnos (ii. 
5) ; ttifxOfUi (xvi. 3) ; ytvf aiapxr)s (xiii. 3) ; rvipavfia 
(xiii. 19) ; vrfitioKToms (xi. 7); /Spa^vrtX^r (xv. 9). Many 
expressions in this Book have become, as it were, house- 
hold words among us, others exhibit a remarkable 
felicity which has given them a general currency. 

Mediaeval illuminations on the walls of Churches or 
in devotional manuals show how deeply the heart of 
the religious had imbibed the notion that 'the souls 
of the righteous are in the hand of God' (iii. i). Ma- 
terialistic and rude as such representations may seem to 
modem eyes, they preach a great truth which is clearly 
set forth in Wisdom. Many a man quotes or hears the 
words 'a hope full of immortality' (iii. 4) without 
knowing the source of this noble expression. 'They 
are Thine, O Lord, Thou Lover of soub,' 8«<nrora i^iX(J- 
^X' (''i- 26). Here is an old term with a new and 
beautifiil sense affixed to it, the classical notion of 
' loving life too well,' and hence of being cowardly, being 
elevated into an attribute of Almighty God Who hateth 
nothing that He hath made. Modem science is fond 
of talking about Protoplasm and the Protoplast, little 
imagining that it is indebted to Wisdom for the word' : 
' I myself am a mortal man . . . the offspring of him 
that was first made of the earth,' yrfytvovs cm6yovoi vptt- 
TonXitmm (viii. I ; x. i). That saying of our Lord, 
' Whoso committeth sin is the servant of sin,' and still 
more that of S. Paul, ' We are debtors not to the flesh 

' Forgetting this, WUberforce writes (Doctr. of Incamat. 
chap. iii. p. 49, ed, 185]): 'Wherein did the Protoplut, aa 
Biahop Bull calls him, after S. Irenaeus, differ irom as all t ' as 

though the latter were the originator of the ezpreasion in ita 
application to Adam. 

B a 



to live after the flesh,' had already been shadowed forth 
by our author where he speaks of Wisdom not dwell- 
ing in the body pawned, pledged, bound over to sin, 
Kardxptcf anaprrias '. Classical Gi'eek knows a verb pc/i/3<», 
pe/x/3o/Mu, to roam, be restless or unsteady ; it remained 
with the author of the Book of Wisdom (iv. 1 2) to use 
the noun pffx^aaiios to express the wandering desire of 
man, the restlessness of unchecked concupiscence, the 
giddiness and moral vertigo caused by passion. 

Ab we have already seen, the author shews many 
traces of acquaintance with Greek thought and philo- 
sophy, and many of his expressions are couched in the 
phraseology of Plato and the Stoics. The phrase ap- 
plied to the material of which the world was formed, 
vX.TI aixofxfioi (xi. 17), is Platonic, so are the terms 
npovoia (xiv. 3), TTftC/ia votpov (vii. 22). 

To Greek literature and customs are owed many 
allusions and terms. Thus the manna is called am- 
brosial food (xix. 21); revellers are crowned with 
garlands (ii. 8) ; victors in athletic games are rewarded 
with a wreath (iv. 2) ; men have their household gods 
and ships their tutelary divinities (xiii. 15 ; xiv. i). 

From these circumstances the treatise presents a 
closer analogy to profane writings than any other book 
contained in the Greek Bible, and its language is con- 
sequently richer tmd more varied. 

There are other points to remark in the form and 
character of the work. It is modelled in some degree on 
the ancient Hebrew poetry. That rhythm of thought, 
and parallelism of members, which are the distinguish- 
ing form of Hebrew poetry, are also conspicuous 
features in Wisdom. This is more carefully managed 
in the first portion, the latter part of the book being 
more rhetorical in construction. But that the whole 
was written in what has been called 'verse rhythm' is 
obvious, and the Alexandrian MS. has transmitted it 

to us in this form, in which it will be found printed in 
the text. Epiphanius ' too speaks of Wisilom as written 
stichometrically, and critics ' have ascertained that it is 
divided in our present Greek MSS. into 1098 stiches, 
while Nicephorus found iioo verses in his codices. 
Hence it is argued* that one or two of the Vulgate 
additions are probably grounded on ancient authority. 
Be this as it may, the writer of Wisdom, while employ- 
ing the familiar parallelism to give force and emphasis 
to his periods, has also availed himself of some other ap- 
pliances more or less foreign to Hebrew poetry. Some- 
times he seems to have adopted almost the strophe and 
antistrophe of the Greek poets ; at other times he has 
condescended to paronomasias, alliterations, and asso- 
nances for the sake of giving greater effect to his con- 
trasts or prominence to his verbal expressions. Some 
of these forms of parallelism may be observed in the 
very beginning of the Book. 

'AyaTnJffoT* hiKoioavvrjv oj Kplvomi njv yrp/, 
<j)povTi(raTe Trepi tov Kvpiov iv aya66n}Ttf 
Koi (V drrXdnpri Kaphias fi/r^ffOTf avrdv' 
OTt tvpiaKfrai roir fiij nfipd^oviriv aiirov, 
flK^Msvi^trat 8( Toic jiif airunoviru) airr^. 

Here are seen the verbal artifice in the words ayrnn)- 

(rare, ^TyrrjuaTe, (ppovrjaaTt, ayadoTrjn, ajrXonjn, and the 
parallelism of thought in the various members of the 
sentence ; pfj dn-toroCo-t and pfj neipd^ovai are parallel to 
(V ajrX<ir?)Ti and ev dya66Tr)Ti, tipidKfTm answer to fv'"'?" 
(Tare, ifi^xail^fTai to (^povrjaaTt. 

Take the noble passage descriptive of Wisdom, 
vii. 24 ff. : — 

' More active than all action is Wisdom ; 
And she passes and goes through all things by reason 

of her purity. 
For a vapour is she of the power of God, 
And a pure effluence of the glory of the Almighty, 

. ' S. John Tiii. 34; Wisd. 1. 4; Bom. vi. 16, ao ; viii. 12. 

* Epiph. De Mens, et Pond, iv : al yip crtx^pus 8i!o piffXoi, 
IJT* rov 'SoXopSn/rot, ^ vwfdftrot \tyopiry], nai i) toC IrjaoO tou 
vlov St/xtx «.r.A. 

' Credner, Geachichte das Kanon. {^ 108, I30; Thilo, Speci- 
men exercit, crit. p. 34. 
' See Grimm on ch. L 1$. 



Therefore falleth unto her naught defiled; 
For a refiection is ghe of Eternal Light ; 
And a mirror nnspotted of the majesty of God, 
And an image of His goodness.* 

Or again, mark the delicate balancing of sentences 
in the language put into the mouth of the sensualist, 

'Short is our life and full of pain, 
And there is no healing for the death of man, 
And none was ever known to have returned &om the 

For we were bom at all adventure. 
And hereafter shall be as though we never had been ; 
For smoke is the breath in our nostrils, 
And thought is a spark at the beat of our heart, 
And when this is quenched the body shall turn to ashes. 
And the spirit shall be dispersed as empty air; 
And our name shall be forgotten in time. 
And no man shall remember our works; 
And our life shall pass away as track of cloud. 
And shall be scattered abroad as a mist 
Chased away by the beams of the sun 
And by his heat oppressed. 
For the passage of a shadow is our life, 
Au(^ there is no return of our death. 
For it is fast sealed, and no man cometh back.' 

As an instance of another kind of parallelism ex- 
hibiting great ingenuity may be mentioned the famous 
Sorites in chap, vi, whereby the writer proves that the 
desire of Wisdom leads to a kingdom ' : — 

'The desire of Wisdom is the beginning of Wisdom, 
And the truest beginning of Wisdom is the dedre for 

And the care for instruction is love, 
And love is the keeping of her laws. 
And attention to her laws is assurance of immortality. 
And immortality maketh us to be near unto God, 
Therefore the desire of Wisdom leadeth unto a kingdom.' 

The first member of the argument is not expressed, but 
b virtually contained in the preceding verse, and the 

final premiss before the conclusion might be, 'To be 
near imto God is to reign.' The wording of some of 
the clauses is a little varied, otherwise the Sorites is 
complete, and the predicate of the last of the premisses 
is predicated of the subject of the first in accordance 
with the rules of Logic. 

Instances of verbal refinement meet ub in every 

page. Thus, ol (ftvkd^avTfs 6<ria>t ra ocrta 6<Ttii>6ri<royr<u 
(vi. Il); ois — 6poii (i. lo) ; iraiaa) — (/Droty/iov — irat- 

yyloit (xii. 25, 26) ; apyi — ?pya (xiv. 5), are examples of 
artificial adornment which, though not so frequent in 
other Greek authors, are not without example in either 
of the Testaments ^ But it must be confessed that the 
straining after such effects sometimes degenerates into 
turgidity, and seems to be below the dignity of the subject. 
But while the contrasts are occasionally forced and the 
treatment is unequal, the general tenour of the work is 
highly pleasing, rising often into grand eloquence and 
expressing the noblest thought in the choicest diction. 

There is another connection in which the language 
of the Book is most interesting and valuable. Its 
utility in the study of the New Testament is undoubted. 
Hany phrases that are commonly found in the later 
Scriptures can be traced to, or are illustrated by their 
use in, the Book of Wisdom. These are mentioned in 
the Commentary as they occur, but a few may be 
noticed here. When the author of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews would express the co-eternity and consub- 
stantiality of the Son with the Father, he uses the 
remarkable term anavyairiia r^r io|i;t — a phrase which 
is not found in the Old Testament elsewhere but in 
Wisdom vii. 26, where Wisdom is called atravyaviui 
(poToc aiSiov. The expression x*"/"' ""^ ?X*ot, familiar to 
us in the New Testament (e.g. i Tim. i. 2), is used more 
than once in our Book ' ; so 017/1*10 koi ripara (S. John 
iv. 48) occurs viii. 8, and x. 16. That mysterious 

• See note on vi. 18. 

* Cf. } Cor. L 3, 4, where S. Paul accumulates leapoKoXfa' and 
its derivatives. For such verbal refinements in Wisdom see 
Grimm, Einleit., p. 7. For examples of play on words in the 
New Testament see FhiL iii. 3, 3, /ntraro/i^, ir(/)iro/i^ : GaL v. 

II, u, rtpiTonfyr, Amiii'^oyrai: Rom. L ag, 30, 31, wopftl^ 
woyripuf ; <p66rov, <p6vov ; iawiTovi, imifOiTov*. Comp. notes in 
Bishop Wordsworth's Greek Test., Matt. xxvi. t. and 2 Thess. 
iii. It ; and Jowett, on Rom. i. 38. 
' Chap. iii. 9; iv. 15. 



phrase, of which so much has been made in modeni 
controversy, tts t6v al&pa (i John ii. 17) is used (ch. v. 
15) in speaking of the just man's life beyond the 
gate of death. More than once in the Eevelation we 
meet with the words, S^ioi yap da-i ' : these are illus- 
trated by the text in Wisdom : ' God proved them and 
found them worthy of Himself,' d^lovc iavrov. 'The 

day of visitation,' (v rjiupif imaKonris, of I S. Peter (ii. 1 2) 
is explained by the similar phrase in Wisd. iii. 7, iv 
Kmpw fm<TKOTrrjs. The New Testament expressions, c^oSor 
meaning ' death' ; 7ra»8fia 'suffering'; Trapairra/ia 'trans- 
gi-ession'; d/iuuros 'undefiled'; cirtn^m 'punishment'; 
are all illustrated by their use in this Book. 


Place and date of Composition. — Author, 

Before we attempt to investigate the authorship 
of the Book of Wisdom, it will be necessary to 
settle the place and approximate date of its com- 
position. With regard to the former we can have no 
hesitation in assigning it to Alexandria. In no other 
locality could a Jew, as the author confessedly is, have 
written such a work. A Palestinian Hebrew, at the 
era when we shall shew reason to suppose it to have 
been composed, would scarcely have possessed so 
thorough a command of the Greek language as the 
author displays. Such a passage as that in chap. xiii. 3, 
which speaks of the beauty of material objects and calls 
Almighty God ' the first author of beauty,' is essentially 
different from purely Hebrew thought and points to a 
Hellenistic writer '. Josephus himself confesses ' that 
his countrymen had no taste for the study of foreign 
tongues, and were especially averse from Greek culture 
and education. The intimate acquaintance with Greek 
thought and philosophy displayed in this Book is su- 
perior to anything found at Jerusalem. The dogmas 
of the Old Testament were never developed in the form 
herein exhibited till the Jewish system came in con- 
tact with western philosophy, and thence drew terms, 

modifications, and contrasts before unknown. Where 
could this close contact have occurred but at Alex- 
andria? and who but an Alexandrian Jew could have 
clothed the results in the only language that could 
adequately express them 1 Alexandria in the time of 
the Ptolemies was filled with Jews. It is computed 
that they numbered nearly one third of the whole 
population. Living thus in the very centre of heathen 
culture they could not fail to be influenced by the spirit 
of the place, and to compare their own imperishable 
belief and their own divine revelation with the restless 
speculations and manifold traditions which were pre- 
sented to their notice by the heathens among whom 
they dwelt. Here they saw that Epicurean indiffer- 
ence, that luxurious selfishness, that gross materialism, 
that virtual denial of Providence, which are so sternly 
and eloquently rebuked in the Book of Wisdom. Here 
they witnessed that bestial idolatry, and that debased 
revolt against the pure worship of God, which meet 
with such severe handling in this work. A man who 
had these things daily before his eyes, whose righteous 
soul was continually vexed with this opposition to all 
his cherished beliefs, would naturally thus deliver his 

' Kev. iii. 4; xvi. 6; Wi»d. iii. 5. 

* G&orer, Philo und die Alexandr. Theoeophie, ii. p. an. 

' Ant. XX. I], 



testimony, and brand the surrounding heathenism with 
the fire of his words. The modes of worship thus 
assailed, the local colouring of details, the political 
allusions, are distinctively Egyptian, point conclusively 
to an Alexandrian author, are too personally antagon- 
istic, and shew too familiar an acquaintance with the 
whole subject, to be the word of one who, living at 
a distance, merely described past events and gave an 
unbiassed judgment upon them. They lead irresistibly 
to the conclusion that the writer composed his work 
amid the people and the scenes to which he continually 
refers. Some persons' have thought that the Book 
ends abruptly, and that the present is only a portion 
of a larger treatise which carried on the author's 
historical view of the operations of divine wisdom down 
to the latest times of the Jewish commonwealth. But 
if we consider that the author is writing in Egypt, 
and partly with the purpose of exposing the cor- 
ruptions of its idol worship in contrast with the pure 
religion of the Israelites, it is seen at once that in 
bringing his comparison down to the time of the 
Exodus and the judgment executed on the gods of 
Egypt, he leaves his subject at the most appropriate 
conclusion, and that a survey of succeeding events, in 
which that country had no concern, would rather have 
diminished than increased the effect of the contrast. 

As we can assume Alexandria to be the birthplace 
of our Book, so by internal evidence we can approach 
the date of its production. Disregarding the fictitious 
name of Solomon adopted merely for literary purposes, 
we have two facts wliich limit the period during which 
it must have been composed. First, it contains evident 
traces of the use of the Septuagiut version of the 
Scriptures, and must therefore have been written sub- 
sequently to that translation. Thus in ch. ii. 12 the 
ungodly are made to use the words of Isa. iii. 10: 

bfjKraiuv [eVrdptvo'ca/uii Wisd.] rov iUatov, Sri ivarxpr)(rrot 
ij/uv fort, where the Hebrew has something quite dif- 
ferent ; and in xv. 10 the author writes <nro8Ar ij Kopiia 
avTov, which is a quotation from the Septuagint of 
Isai. xliv. 20 where the variation from the Hebrew is 
remarkable *. Now the Septuagint version was begun 
at least in the time of the earlier Ptolemies about 
B.C. 280, and was continued at various intervals. 
When it was concluded is quite uncertain, For our 
purpose it is enough to fix a date earlier than which 
Wisdom could not have been written, and this limit we 
may set at B.C. 200. The second limitation is derived 
from the fact that the Book contains no trace of 
distinctively Christian doctrine. The Incarnation, the 
Atonement, and the Resurrection of the body, find no 
place in its teaching. It is true that some comment- 
ators ' have satisfied themselves that there are passages 
which could only have come from a Christian hand, 
but as these are allowed by them to be interpolations, 
(though there is no evidence of the fact and the pas- 
sages themselves are in accordance with the rest of the 
work), we may leave this opinion out of our considera- 

But in addition to these data, there is another fact 
to be inferred from the treatise which defines the 
period during which it could have been composed. 
Its language in many places points to a time of op- 
pression wholly inappropriate to the era of Solomon. 
Such statements as these : ' The souls of the righteous 
are in the hand of God, and there shall no torment 
touch them' (iii. i); 'Then shall the righteous man 
stand in great boldness before the face of such as have 
afflicted him' (v. i) ; seem to be the utterances of one 
who was consoling himself and others under persecu- 
tion and affliction. Hence the author inveighs against 
unrighteous rulers, and threatens them with heavy 

* Eichhom, Einldt. in d. ApokiTph. ; Grotins, Annot. in libr. 

* Other iostAnces of reference to the Septuagint version are 
found in the following : vi 7 ; zi. 4 ; xii. 8 ; zvi. 22 ; xix. 2 1 . 

• Noack, Der Uraprung des Christenthnnu, i. p. aia, ff. ; 
Kirschbaum, Der JUd. Alex. p. 5 2 ; Grotins, in Comm. ; Gratz, 
Gesch. der Jud. iii. p. 495 ; Erasmus, De Ratione Concion. iii. 
(vol. V. p. 1049). 



judgment (vi. 5, 9); speaks of present sufferings and 
chastisements (xii. 22, 23); and connects these things 
with the diatribe against idolatry and the deification of 
man (xiv. etc.). 

Now under the earlier Ptolemies the Jews in Alex- 
andria enjoyed the utmost peace and prosperity, had 
all the privileges of Macedonian citizens, were in high 
&vour at court, and exercised their own peculiar wor- 
ship without restraint '. Such too was their condition 
under the later kings down to the time of the Christian 
era. The only persecutions which they suffered took 
place in the reigns of Ptolemy Philopator (b.c. 221- 
204), and Ptolemy VII or Physcon (b.c. 170-117). 
The sufferings of the Jews under the latter are men- 
tioned by Josephua'. They had their rise in the 
inhuman and sanguinary temper of the king, and ex- 
tended not merely to the Hebrews, but to all the 
inhabitants, insomuch that the populace in general fled 
from the scene of blood, and the city was almost 
deserted. The only special persecution of the Jews in 
the period of which we are speaking was that which 
raged under Ptolemy Philopator. This monarch on 
his return from the defeat of Antiochus (b.c. 217) 
passed through Jerusalem, and being repulsed in an 
attempt to penetrate, against the High Priest's remon- 
strances, into the Most Holy Place of the Temple, 
conceived an implacable hatred for the Jews, and on 
his return to Egypt revenged himself for his humilia- 

tion by the most atrocious persecutions. It is thought 
that the highly coloured account in the third Book of 
Maccabees refers to this occurrence. But be that as it 
may, without any undue assumption, and leaving un- 
decided the special tribulation to which the writer of 
"Wisdom refers, we may safely date the production of 
the Book between B.c. 217 and B.C. 145, that is be- 
tween the epoch marked by the religious oppression 
tinder Philopator, and that rendered memorable by the 
enormities of the bloated sensualist Physcon. 

If we come now to consider the question of the 
author of the Book, we are at once launched into a 
controversy which, with our present information, knows 
no possible settlement. It is easy to find objections to 
all the writers to whom the work has been attributed : 
to fix on a more probable name is beyond our power. 
"We can here only very briefly indicate the line which 
this fruitless inquiry has taken. 

We have seen already that the name of Solomon was 
assumed by the author for literary purposes ', but many 
in old time * and some in later years ° have contended 
for the Solomonic authorship. However, the language, 
the style, the development of doctrine, the local colour- 
ing, the quotations from the Septuagint, entirely pre- 
clude the notion of the writer being David's son. And 
as to the work lacing a translation from the Hebrew, 
or (as the critic" who attributes it to Zerubbabel 
suggests,) the Chaldee, considerations have already 

• Joseph. Ant. xii. i ; Contr. Ap. ii. 4. 

' Contr. Ap. ii. 5. See also Athenaeusi, iv. p. 184; vi. p. 253, 
ed. Casaub. ; Justin. Hiat. xxxviii. 8, 9. 

' Thus Eusebius, quoting vi. 24, says: «ai toCto ii mj l( 
airrov \iytTai rov vpoawnov (i. e. personifying Solomon) ; Praep. 
Evang. vii. i a. (xxi. p. 544, Migne). 

' E.g. Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 1 1 (p. 786, Pott.), quoting xiv. 2, 3, 
says : lirura H ovk iviyvwaav ri irpis rov XoXoiuuvtos ilin/ftlvov, 
S. Cypr. Exh. Mart. xii. ; Orig. Horn, in Jer. viii. (xiii. p. 337, M.) : 
^prjclv ^ ^oifna 1} iviyeypafifiivi] ^oKoftaiyros. So Holkot in his 
Commentary. Didymus attributes the book to Solomon, De Trin. 
ii. 6. (xzxix. p. 536, M.): it SoAo/wk Klyti- iptti^ Si irivToay, xi. 26 ; 
•nd DeSpir. § £4, he refers to vii. 18, 20, as showing that Solomon 
knew ' violentias spirituum, rapidos ventorum flatus.' De Trin. 
i. 16. (xxxix. p. 337, M.) : SoKoftSiv ycip \(yti- dyaXiyus rUr 

KTtafiAToiv 6 ytv. Oiap,, xiii. 5. Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. iv. 13, blames 
Clem. Alex, because in his Stromata he cites as Scripture ' some 
books which are impugned by many, iirb rHy ivTiXtyonivar 
ypacpSiv, as the Book of Wisdom which is attributed to Solomon, 
the epistles of Barnabas and Clement,' etc. Hippol. Rom. 
Demonstr. adv. Jud. p. 67. (ed. Lagarde): niAif XoKoftwv wfpi 
XpKTToG Kol "lovScuojv tprffflv 5ri 6t( ffTrffffrat & Slicaiot . . . irivra 
OK axii. Tertullian, De Praescript. 7, refers to a pa'^sage in 
Wisdom thus : ' Nostra institutio de portion Salomonis est, qui 
et ipse tradiderat Dominnm in simplicitate cordis esse quaeren- 
dum.' (i. 1). 

» Schmidt, Das Buch der Weisheit ; Azariah de Rossi, Meor 
En.ijim, p. 281 b. ed. 1829. 

• Faber, Ap. Grimm, Einleit., pp. 8, 18. See Huetius, 
Demonstr. Evangel, p. 250, ed. 1722. 



been adduced which render this theory untenable. S. 
Jerome, in his Preface to the Books of Solomon \ 
asserts that some ancient writers consider the author 
to be Philo Judaeus ; and many in later times have 
adopted this opinion, referring the persecutions of 
which the text gives intimations to the oppressive acts 
of the Romans, culminating in Caligula's attempt to 
erect his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem, which was 
the occasion of Philo's legation to the Emperor ". But 
this idea fails to command assent on internal evidence, 
even if there were not many reasons already mentioned 
which render the date of that learned Jew inapplicable. 
Roman Catholics, who are bound by the decrees of the 
Council of Trent to believe in the inspiration of the 
Book of Wisdom, have a summary method of dismiss- 
ing Philo's claim. Living at the time of our Lord he 
must be regarded as one of the unbelieving Jews, and 
to suppose such a man inspired by the Holy Spirit 
would be sacrilegious. ' Quis enim credat,' asks Corn, 
a Lapide, ' hominera Judaeum, jam abrogato Judaismo, 
infidelem et perfidum, esse auctorem libri canonici et 
sacri ' V But without adopting this very formidable 
argument, there are such great differences in style, in 
doctriue, in treatment, that we cannot for a moment 
acquiesce in the theory which identifies Philo with the 
author of the Book of Wisdom. Leaving the question 
of style, which is a matter more to be felt by readers 
than discussed on paper, we will notice a few dis- 
crepancies which are found in these two writers. In 
Wisdom* the serpent who tempted Eve is identified 
with the devil ; but Philo ignores that evil power, and 
terms the serpent a symbol of pleasure, which speaks 

with seductive voice to men, and draws them away 
from temperance and obedience to law. In the same 
way the latter interprets the Brazen Serpent as o-ox/jpo- 
avvrj or Kaprtpia : in Wisdoni the matter is treated in its 
plain historical sense °. And in general the treatment 
of Scriptural narratives by the two authors presents a 
veiy marked contrast, Philo always straining after 
spiritual, anagogical, recondite interpretations, and losing 
the reality of the histoiy in the fanciful lessons evolved 
from it, the author of Wisdom taking the facts as they 
stand and meditating religiously upon them, with no 
attempt to explain away their obvious meaning. It 
would be entirely alien to the method and treatment 
of the latter to introduce the Pythagorean doctriue of 
numbers in speaking of the six days of creation, aa 
Philo does ', or to resolve the four rivers of Paradise 
into the four cardinal virtues ', or to explain the manna 
as God's word*. Philo scarcely ever refers to the 
Psalms and Prophets ; in Wisdom the allusions to these 
writings and especially to Isaiah are numerous and im- 
portant. In his desire to maiutain the absolute per- 
fection of God, and looking on matter as the source of 
evil, Philo conceives the Logos as tlie mediate cause of 
the world, assisted by other powers, angels and demons. 
The Book of Wisdom enters into none of these abstruse 
speculations, and is satisfied with the avowal that God 
made all things by His word (ix. i). Where, if he held 
the opinion, the author might naturally have introduced 
the doctrine of ideas ', which forms so prominent a 
feature in Philo's philosophy, we find no trace of the 
same. The Egyptian darkness is said in Wisdom 
(xvii. 14) to have 'come upon them out of the bottoma 

' 'Konnulli Scriptorum veterum hunc e88e Judaei Fbilonis 
s65rmant.' This opinion has been maintained by Lyranus, 
Postill. ; Luther, in the introduction to hia translation of the 
Book ; Cosin, Hist, of the Canon ; and many others. See an in- 
genious conjecture by Dr. Tregellea in reference to a corrupt 
passage of the Muratorian Canon, where the Latin text reads, 
* Sapientia ab amicis Salomonis scripta,' and which he inia^nes 
may have been in the original vird OXaivos instead of inru UKaiv ; 
Journal of Philol., 1855, p. 37. 

' Joseph. Ant. xviii. 8, i ; Philo, De Leg. ad Caium. 
' In Sap. libr. xv. 14. 

• Chap. ii. 24; PhUo, De Mund. Opif. 56. (i. p. 38); Da 
Agric. 23. (i. p. 315). 

Wisd. xvi. 5, 7; Philo, Leg. AUeg. ii. 20; De Agric. 22. 

• De Mundi Opif. 3. (i. p. 3). 

' Philo, De Poster. Caini 37. (i. p. 250). 

• Philo, Leg. Alleg. iii. 60. (i. p. 1 2 1 ). 

• E.g. i. 3; vii. 22 ; viii. 19, ff. ; ix. ij. 




of inevitable hell ;' whereas Philo ' attributes it to an 
eclipse of the sun. The description of the origin of 
idolatry in Wisdom and in Philo's works could never 
have been written by the same author, as there are 
many points discrepant and contradictory ^ 

Such differences might be greatly extended, but enough 
has been said to show that the opinion which makes 
Philo the author of the Book of Wisdom is untenable ; 
if indeed more proofs of the same were wanting, they 
might be found in contrasting the ideas of the two 
authors as to divine Wisdom, which will be found to 
be irreconcileable. 

The theory ' which assigns the work to Aristobulus, 
the favourite of Ptolemy Philometor, fails to satisfy for 
these reasons : the little that is known of his writings 
is quite different in style and treatment from Wisdom, 
and at any rate is too insignificant, even if we grant its 
genuineness, to support the notion ; secondly, in his 
time the Jews were in great prosperity, and not suffer- 
ing from the persecutions to which we have seen 
allusions in our Book ; and thirdly, being a courtier 
and a king's favourite minister, Aristobulus is not likely 
to have inveighed against kings and tyrants, and to 
have proffered unpalatable advice. 

Despairing of finding a single author to whom to at- 
tribute the Book, some writers* have impugned its unity. 
That perverse criticism which is always straining after 
startling effects, and which is never satisfied except it 
evolve new theories, and on very insufficient grounds up- 
root long-established convictions, has seen in the struc- 
ture of this Book evidence of the handiwork of two or 
more authors. Solomon and his translators, according to 
Houbigant, have shared the work between them. Four 
Jews of varying sentiments, and one of them belonging 

to Christian times, seem to Bretschneider to have com- 
posed the treatise. Nachtigal finds herein a collection 
of sentences, or a kind of Psalm in praise of Wisdom, 
which two sets of Rabbis sung antiphonally at three 
separate sittings of the sacred company. Eichhorn, if 
he is not quite clear as to the work being the produc- 
tion of two different writers, assures himself that it was 
composed in a most peculiar fashion, the second part 
(from chap, xi.) being the offspring of the author's 
younger days, before he had learned to free himself 
from the shackles of Jewish prejudices and had enlarged 
his mind by the study of Greek Philosophy, the first 
portion giving token of riper 3'ears and maturer know- 
ledge. For these theories of a plurality of authors 
there is really no evidence of any weight ^ Uncertain 
as all such subjective criticism must be, it is remark- 
ably ill-placed on this occasion, as we have seen that 
the Book presents an unity of design and an identity of 
treatment which imply the work of a single author, and 
which indeed would be marvellous if it were the pro- 
duction of two or more writei-s composing at different 
periods and under different circumstances. A theory 
started by Noack°, attributing the authorship to 
Apollos, has recently been maintained by Professor 
Plumptre, who in two articles in The Expositor' claims 
this apostle as the writer of Wisdom and of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, the former being the production of the 
author while unconverted, the latter the fruit of his ma- 
ture Christianity. The hypothesis is attractive, but it 
rests on no secure basis, there being nothing in its favour 
except that Apollos was an eloquent Jew of Alexandria 
and might have written the Book. The argument is sup- 
ported chiefly by a certain coincidence of phraseology in 
the two writings ; and it is certain that there are many 

' Vitu Moys. i. ai. (ii. p. 100) : Tffois ftiv koJ i}X/ov -/(voniviji 
IxXfi^fas Tci»' iy ISfi TfXfioripas. Giniiburg, ap. Kitto'g Cyclop., 
Art. WUdom of Solomon. 

' Comp. Wisd. xii. xiii. and Philo, De Monarch, i. 1-3. (ii. pp. 

» Lutterbeck, Die Neutest. Lehrbegr. i. 407, ff. 

* Uoubigant, Proleg. in Not. Crit. i. pp . ccivi, ccxzi ; Eichhorn, 

Einleit. in d. Apokr. p. 14J, ff. ; Bretschneider, De libr. Sap. 
parte priore ; Nachtigal, Das Buch Weisheit. 

' The refutation of these dreamings teriatim may be seen in 
Grimm, Einleit. See also Migne, Script. Sacr. Cun, Compl. 
Prolegom. in libr. Sap. ; Dahne, ii. p. 154, ff. 

• Der Ursprung des Cbristenth. i. p. 2]]. 

' Vol. i. pp. 329, ff. and 409, ff. 



words and expressions common to both. But this cor- 
respondence may prove nothing more than the fact that 
the Christian author was acquainted with the Alex- 
tindrian work, or that they both drew from some com- 
mon source. To any unprejudiced mi:id the contrast 
between the two is most marked ; the difference of style 
is too great to be reasonably attributed to different 
phases of the same intellect. There is nothing in 
"Wisdom like the continuous interweaving of Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures which is found in the Epistle ; there 
is no exhibition in the Epistle of the acquaintance with 
pagan learning which is so prominent a feature of the 
earlier work. The resemblances in language may be 
paralleled from Philo, and miglit be equally well used 
to support his claim to the authorship of either. For 
those who hold the Pauline origin of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, no other argument is needed to discredit this 

theory ; for those who leave the question about the 
Epistle doubtful, it is enough to say that the date of 
ApoUos does not coincide with what we have shown 
to be the probable date of our Book, that we know abso- 
lutely nothing of that apostle's writings, that the verbal 
similarities are capable of another explanation, and that 
the scope and objects of the two writings are wholly 

The authorship of the Book of Wisdom is a problem 
which j»-ill never be solved ; and we may be well con- 
tent to let it rest. The name of the writer could add 
little to the imjwrtance of the work ; and we may 
believe that he, like the author of Dt imitatione Christi, 
would pray : ' Da mihi omnibus raori quae in mundo 
sunt, et propter Te amare coutemni, et nesciri in hoc 

Hiit(»7, aathority, and relation to the Canon of Scripture. 

We must now speak of the history of the Book, of 
its recognition as inspired, and its relegation to those 
which are called the Apocryphal writings. It seems to 
be quoted by no pre-christian writer'. Neither Philo 
nor Josephus notice or refer to it. There is however, 
as we have already hinted ', evidence to show that some 
of the authors of the New Testament were acquainted 
with, if they did not quote, its language. Allusions to its 
phraseology are frequent in S. Paul's Epistles. That 
noble passage in the fifth chapter of "Wisdom seems to 
be the groundwork of the grand description of the 

Christian's armour in Ephesians (vi. 13-17). 'He 
shall take to him his jealousy for compIet« armour,' 
X^rroi ■navorrKiav : ' Take unto you the whole armour 
of God,' awiXdjScTc r^v troyoirXiay rov StoS, ' He shall 
put on righteousness as a breastplate,' ivivatrm Bapaxa 
iucauMTvv7]y : ' Ha\-ing on the breastplate of righteous- 
ness,' Mvtraiitmi rov dapaxa r^( iueaioaiiyrit. ' And true 

judgment instead of a helmet. He sliall take holiness 
for an invincible shield :' ' above all taking the shield 
of faith . . . and take the helmet of salvation.' The 
passage too about the potter in Rom. ix. is an echo 

' Vacherot (Hist, de I'fcole d'Alexaadr. i. p. 134) says that 
Wisdom is quoted by Aristobulus, but I have not been able 
to identify the passage. The author has probably niisAppropriated 
a citation fixttn Clemens, which occurs in Eusebius, immediately 

contiguous to a passage Irom Aristobulus. 

' Prolegom. § iii. A copious list of supposed citations or 
references is given in Grimm, Einleit. p. 36, note a. See also 
au article by Bleek, in Theol. Stud, und Krit. 1853, pp. 339, ff. 

F 2 



of a similar sentiment in Wisd. xv". 'Hath not the 
potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make 
one vessel unto honour and another unto dishonour 1' 
says St. Paul. ' The potter tempering soft earth,' we 
find in Wisdom, ' fashioneth every vessel with much 
labour for our service ; yea, of the same clay he maketh 
both the vessels that serve for clean uses and likewise 
all such as serve to the contrary ; but what is tlie use 
of either sort, the potter himself is the judge.' We 
have already spoken of the remarkable expression 
airaiyatrna applied (Heb. i. 3) to the divine Son, being 
the ' brightness of the Father's glory and the express 
image {xapaKTrjp) of His Person,' which is found no- 
where else in Scripture but in the description of 
Wisdom (chap. vii. 26), ' She is the brightness (airav- 
yaa-fia) of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of 
the power of God, and the image of His goodness.' 
The similarity here is too close to be accidental. 
Desiring to indicate the consubstantiality and co- 
equality of the Son with the Father, the writer was 
guided to use the language with which he was familiar 
in the Book of Wisdom, and which has now been 
formulated in the Nicene Creed, Gcot €« 0cov, (jtat c'k 
(jtarros. It see^ very probable' that St. Paul in 
writing to the Eamans has many references to Wisdom. 
Thus, when he is showing the wilful wickedness of the 
Gentiles in not understanding the invisible things of 
Gk)d from the things that are made, he had, it may be, 
in his mind the passage in Wisdom, 'Surely vain are all 
men by nature, who are ignorant of God, and could not 
out of the good things that are seen know Him that is'.' 
S. Paul's words in verses 24-27 of the same chapter, 
when he describes the iniquities of the heathen, read like 
a commentary on Wisd. xiv. 21:' The worshipping of 

idols not to be named is the beginning, the cause and 
the end of all evil.' Bom. ii. 4, toO wXovtov t^s xP1''^°^V' 
rot airrov km ttjs avo)(ris xai r^t fioKpofivfuas, is like Wisd. 
xy. I, iri Bi 6 6(bi i^fiav xpriaros Kai dXijdij;, iiaitpodvfiot 
Koi fv iXfft SioiKav ra navra ; Bom. xi. 32, iva roiic iravras 
fKti]<rr], corresponds with Wisd. xi. 24, tKtfis navras, on 
navra Sivatrai, Kol napopft aiutprrniaTa avBpanrav us fitra- 
Doiav. The passage Rom. ix. 22, 23 has many striking 
parallelisms with Wisd. vii. 22-24; s^d these coinci- 
dences of thought and expression might be largely 
multiplied ' ; but enough has been said to show that 
there is great probability that some of the New Testa- 
ment writers were well acquainted with our Book. 

The first direct quotation with which we are ac- 
quainted (though in this case the writer himself does 
not name the author whose words he cites), is found in 
Clemens Rom. Ep. I. ad Cor. xxvii. 5, where we read : 
Ws cpfl avT^' Ti (jrolrjaas ; § ris diTiorijo-frai t^ Kpdrti rijr 
icrxios avrov ; Now although the words rit ipti avr^' ti 
tnoirja-as are found in Job xi. 12, the second question 
n't avTioTTjafTm occurs nowhere but Wisd. xi. 22 and xii. 
1 2 ; and Clement, quoting from memory, lias mingled 
the two passages together *. That Irenaeus made use 
of the Book is testified by Eusebius (Hist. v. 8), who 
tells us that he cited certain passages therefi-om, viz. : 
opaais Sfou irfpntoiTfTUiJ) d<j>6apa-las, which does not OCCUr, 
and d<}>dapiTia if ryyvt ttvai rro(« Qtov, which is found in 
Wisd. vi. 20°. He also adds (v. 26) that he has seen 
another work of Irenaeus, jSi/SXioi' n biaXe^fav iia^opav, 
in which are inserted quotations from the Epistle to 
the Hebrews and r^t Xfyo/xt'wjt So^tat SoXo/imiTot. From 
the time of Clemens Alexaudrinus it is cited continually 
by the Fathers, often under Solomon's name, and often 
as inspired. With Clemens Alexandrinus • it is usually 

* See Bleek, yhi tupr. p. 340, ff. 

* Rom. i. 20 : ipaTaii/Brjoar iy Tots iiaKoyiciiots airSiv. Wiad. 
xiii. I : liiraun yiip wanrfs avtpwiroi k.t.K. 

' Compare also i Cor. vi. 2 with Wisd. iii. 8 ; 2 Cor. v. 4 with 
Wisd. iic. 15 ; S. John xvii. j with Wisd. xv. i, 3 ; S. Matt. xiii. 
43 with Wisd. iii. J ; Rev. ii. 10 with Wisd. v. 16. 

* Wisd. xi. 22 : Kparti 0pax(or6s aov rls i)m<rHi<rtTtu ; xii. 12 : 
r/r yAp ipfif ri kvoirjaast fj Tts dfTiaT^fftrcUf Ty Hpipari am, 
Grimm. Einleit. p. 36. 

* This passage is found in Irenaeos' work, Adr. Haer. iv. 


* Strom, iv. 16. p, 609 Pott. ; v. p. 699 ; vi. p. 795. 

•^ V, 


called T) 6(ia <To<f>ia ; S. Athanasias calls it <) Xo<^ia, but 
cites it as Scripture ' ; thus too Eusebius ^, after tran- 
scribing the paEsage vii. 22 — viii. i, ends with the 
words Tavra fuv i) rpa<l)fj. S. Cyprian ' introduces Wisd. 
V. 1-9 with the words : ' Secundum Scripturae sanctae 
fidem.' S. Augustine' too on some occasions classes 
it with Scripture. The high regard in which it was 
held may be inferred from the frequent use made of it 
by Origen, Didymus, Ephraem Syrus, Hippolytus Ilo- 
manus, Ghrysostom ', and other Fathers, who appeal to 
it in proof of doctrine as to the rest of the Bible. For 
those writers who knew the Word of God only as pre- 
sented to them in the Greek language, it was natural 
to accord to the Book of Wisdom this high position. 
If we may judge from the Manuscripts that have come 
down to us, it would be impossible for anyone, looking 
merely to the Septuagint version and its allied works, 
to distinguish any of the Books in the collection as of 
less authority thafi others. There is nothing whatever 
to mark off the canonical writings from what have been 
called the deutero-canonical. They are all presented 
as of equal standing and authority, and if we must 
make distinctions between them, and place some on a 
higher platform than others, this separation must be 
made on grounds which are not afforded by the ar- 
rangement of the various documents themselves. The 
place which the Book of Wisdom occupies in the 
MSS. which contain it is not in all cases identical, but 
in none is it relegated to a position apart from the 
universally allowetl canonical Books. In the Sinaitic 

and Alexandrian Codices it stands between the Song of , <P. " v' ' := 

Solomon and Ecclesiasticus, in the Vatican MS. Job « > ^^^ ^ 

stands next before it; and it must be observed that 

Isaiah and the other prophets are arranged after these, 

the Sapiential Books holding an intermediate position 

between the Historical and the Prophetical. The 

copies of the Greek Scriptures in use among the Jews 

at the time of our Lord contained the Books thus 

arranged without any distinctive mark ; and, as far as 

we know, neither Christ nor His Apostles, in citing 

the Septuagint (which they continually do)', ever gave 

any warning against what we call the Apocryphal 

writings, many of which formed an integral part of the 


That the Book of Wisdom was not included among 
the twenty-two volumes of the Hebrew canon is ob- 
vious '. Its language alone would render its admission 
impossible. Tlie first public recognition of its claims 
is said to have been made by a canon of the Council 
of Carthage, a.d. 397, though the same canon had 
already appeared in a provincial Council at Hippo four 
years previously *. This verdict is not confirmed by 
the Apostolic Canons, which place Ecclesiasticus in 
a secondary rank, but omit all mention of Wisdom. 
Very few of the private catalogues of Scripture class 
our Book with the canonical writings. S. Augustine ' 
includes it in his list, but seems elsewhere to speak some- 
what apologetically thus : ' Liber Sapientiae, qui tanta 
numerositate annorum legi meruit in Ecclesia Christi :' 
it is also found in the catalogues of Innocentius '", 

1 S. Atiuui. Apol. de Fugs, 19. (p. 263 Ben.): it cTrn' ij 
Toipia, quoting Wisd. iii. 5, 6; Contr. Gent. II. (p. 9) he intro- 
duces Wisd. xir. i]-]i with ^ ^p<"f"j Kiyovaa. But in the Feat. 
Ep. 39, he excludes it irom the Canon. 

' Praep. Ev. vii. la. (p. 322 Ben.) and xi. 14. (p. 53a). 

' Ad Demetr. p. 224 (ed. Paris, 1726) ; so, quoting Wiad. iii. 
4-8, he ralUi it ' Scriptura divina,' £p. 81. 

* De Civit. Dei, xi. 10, l, he quotes 'Spiritus sapientiae mul- 
tiplex ' (Wisd. vii. 2 a), as being ' in Scriptura sacra.' See also in 
Ps. Ivii. I. 

* Numerous quotatioiu will be found in the Commentary. To 

have iiLserted half that I h.-\ve collected would hare indeed 
enriched my notes, but at the same time would have swelled 
their dimensions unreasonably. 

• See Grinfield, Nov. Test. ed. Hellen. 

' Joseph. Contr. Ap. i. 8 ; Euseb. Hist. Eccl. iv. a6. 

• Coein, Hist, of C.->non, § 82 ; Smith's Bible Diet., Art. Canon ; 
Labb. Cone. iii. p. 891, wherein are enumerated as canonical 
' Salonionis libii quinque.' Hefele, Hist, of Counc. ii. p. 400 

• DeDoctr. Christ. ii. 8. Compare DePraedest.i. 27.(1. p.807). 
" £p. ad Exsup. ap. Galland. viii. pp. 56, ff. 



Cassiodorus *, and Isidorus'. But individual writers 
continued to deny its claims to canonicity, while they 
maintained its importance and utility in moral teach- 
ing. Thus S. Jerome', after naming the twenty-two 
Books of the Hebrew Canon, proceeds : ' Hie prologus, 
Scripturarum quasi galeatum principium, omnibus 
libris quos de Hebraeo vertiniua in Latinum, convenire 
potest, ut scire valeamus, quidquid extra hos est, inter 
apocrypha esse ponendum. Igitur Sapientia, quae 
vulgo Salomonis inscribitur, et Jesu filii Sirach liber, 
et Judith, et Tobias, et Pastor *, non sunt in Canoae.' 
And of the two Sapiential Books he says " : ' Sic et 
haec duo volumiua legat [Ecclesia] ad aedificationem 
plebis, non ad auctoritatem ecclesiasticorura dogmatum 
coniirmandam.' Similar sentiments are to be found in 
various authors down to the time of the Council of 
Trent, which put an end to all differences of opinion 
among the members of the Roman Catholic Church by 
decreeing the canouicity of this Book °. This hasty 
and uncritical enactment ordered all the Books of which 
a list was given, including Wisdom, to be received 
' pari pietatis affectu,' on pain of incurring anathema. 

The early Greek Church was naturally influenced by 
the use of the Septuagint version in its reception of 
the Book of Wisdom. But later the Confession of 
Cyril Lucar ' confirmed the Catalogue of the Council 
of Laodicea ', held between a. d. 343 and 381, in which 
our Book is wanting °. The same verdict is given in 
the Confession of Metrophanes Critopulus, the friend 
of Lucar, who enumerates the twenty-two books of the 
Hebrew Canon, and then adds : tq Xoin-a 8« j3t/3X('n, Snip 
Tivis )3ovXoKrat avyKaTaXtyfui r^ &yuf ypatfij olov , , . Sotplav 

Tov SoXofiavTos . , . ano^Xr/Tovs fiiv ovx ^yoiittOa' iroXXa yip 
rjSucd, w\fi(TTov (naivov a(ia, tiJin(pti)((Tai ravrmr. i>t 
KavoviKas &( (tai aWevTiKai oiSinoT dirfSf^aro rj tov XpKTTOv 
(KKKi)(ria . . , A16 ovht ra boypaTa rjpoiv ireipaypfda €K rovrav 
wapa(rnj(Tm '". The Orthodox Confession, which was 
put forth with authority a.d. 1643, merely refers the 
Canon to the decision of Oecumenical synods, but does 
not name the volumes which compose it". On the 
other hand, the Synod of Jerusalem, a.d. 1672, intro- 
duced Wisdom and the other deutero-canonical Books 
to a place in Holy Scripture, and, following the lead of 
the Patriarch Dositheus, inveighed strongly against the 
Confession of Cyril Lucar which was of no authority 
in the Oriental Church. Having endorsed the Laodi- 
cean Canon of Scripture, the Council says : koi npos 

Tourotf airfp aavverai Kai dpa6a>s fir ovv eSfKoKOKoipyas 
drroKpWpa Karavopaaf [o KiJpiXXos]' t^v So(f)ita' di;Xa8^ tov 
^oXopaiTos , . , fjpfis yap prra tu>v aK\a>v tt^s Bfias *ypo<^^j 
yvr)aiav ^ijSXioiK Ka\ Tavra yvijaia ttjs ypa(f)fji pipr) Kplvoptv ". 
In the Longer Catechism of the Russian Church, which 
gives the Catalogue of the Old Testament according to 
the Hebrew Canon, the question is asked. Why are not 
the Books of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus mentioned ia 
this list ? The answer is : Athanasius says, that they 
have been appointed by the Fathers to be read by 
proselytes who are preparing for admission into the 
Church, but they are excluded from the catalogue 
because they do not exist in the Hebrew ". The pre- 
sent view of the rest of the Greek Church is in accord- 
ance with the verdict of the Synod of Jerusalem. 

From the time of the Reformation Protestant 
Churches have always, following the example of 

» De Instit. Div. Litt. xiv. 
. ' De Orig. vi. i . 

' Prol. Galeat. in Ubr. Reg. See Bleek, Theol. Stud. n. Krit. 
1853, pp. 370, ff. 

* The Shepherd of Hennas ie meant. This is foand at the end 
of the Codex Sinaiticus. 

' Praef. in Ubr. Salom.; Orig. irtpi 'Apx- Jv. 33, Bays: 'Qui 
ntiqne liber non ab omnibus in auctoritate habetur' (p. 193 Ben.). 

• Concil. Trid. Sess. iv. ; Sarpi, p. 139, tf. (ed. 1655). 

' Kimmel, Monum. Fid. Eccles. Orient. P. Ixxxviii ; Bleek, ubi 
supr. p. 377. 

' Kimmel, ib. i. p. 43. 

» Hefele, Hist, of Counc. ii. p. 333 (Clarke). 

'" Kimmel, ii. pp. 105, 106. 

" Kimmel, i. p. 159, and Froleg. p. Iv; Blackmore, Doctr. of 
Buss. Ch. pp. xvi, fif. 

" Kimmel, ii p. 467 ; Mignc, Diet. dc« Cone. 

" Blackmore, Ductr. of Rues. Church, pp. 38, 39. 



Luther', separated the so-called Apocryphal Books 
from the rest of the Scripture. The verdict of the 
Anglican Church is found in her Sixth Article ; at the 
Bame time, with an inconsistency occasioned doubtless 
*by the general use of the Latin Vulgate, she continually 
in her authorised Homilies quotes Wisdom as Scrip- 
ture. Thus in the Homily Of Obedience, pt. i.', she 
introduces a citation with the words, ' the infallible 
and undeceivable word of God ;' and in another place, 
' as the word of God testifieth '.' 

With regard to the position and authority of the 
Book of Wisdom we may sum up our opinion in the 
following terms. Written anterior to Christianity, it 
is entirely in accordance with the mind of the Spirit 
as expressed in the Canonical Scriptures : many co- 
incidences of thought and expression, designed or un- 
designed, exist between it and the writings of the New 
Covenant: it exhibits views and doctrines in advance 
of those found in the Old Testament : it shows in a 
marked manner the effect of the union of Jewish and 
Greek ideas, and in many respects anticipates the 
dogmas and the language which Christianity introduced. 
And further, it has been commonly quoted as Scripture 
by some Fathers and Councils, and is couBidered in 

this light by the Eastern and Roman Churches. On 
the other hand, it is certain that Wisdom was never in- 
cluded in the Hebrew Canon, was distinctly repudiated 
by many early writers, is wanting in evidence of general 
reception, and is rejected by the Anglican and all 
reformed Churches as inspired. We therefore regard 
as probable and safe the dictum of the Sixth Article, 
at the same time acknowledging that the absence of 
sufficient proof of canonicity, and not any internal 
marks of error or inferiority, is the chief ground for 
assigning to this work a lower place than the other 
writings of the Old Testament. Whether we consider 
its high tone, its moral and religious teaching, its 
devotional spirit, its polished diction, and its perfect 
accordance with the word of God*, or whether we 
regard it as supplementary to the Old Testament, as 
filling a gap in the intellectual and religious history of 
God's people, as bridging over a space which would 
otherwise be left unoccupied, it is worthy of all respect, 
and claims an honour and a reverence which, with 
perhaps the exception of Ecclesiasticus, no other book, 
exterior to those universally acknowledged as divine 
Scripture, can be said to possess. 


The Text. 

The authorities for the Text of the Book of Wisdom 
are chiefly the following Uncial Manuscripts. 

1. The Codex Sinaiticus (S), discovered by Tischen- 
dorf at the Monastery on Mount Sinai in 1844 and 

1859, written, as he supposes, (though others have seen 
reason to doubt this opinion,) in the middle of the fourth 
century, now in the possession of the Emperor of Russia, 
and of which a facsimile edition was published in 1862. 

' Luther, in his translation of 'The Apocrypha," assigned an 
inferior position to these Books. See Credner, Gescb. d. Kan. 
pp. 291, ff. 

' P. 97. ed. Oxf. 1844. 

' Peril of Idolatry, pt. iii. p. J Jo ; conip. p. 1 1 6 and pt. i. p. i(J4. 

' The charges of Flatonism, heathenism, and false teaching, 
brought against the Book by vnrious writers, are noticed in the 
Commentary on the various passage* referred to- 



It contains the whole of Wisdom, but has not been 
used by Tischendorf, except in a chapter or two, in his 
own latest edition of the Septuagint. Since his death an 
edition (the sixth) has been published (1880) containing 
a collation of S and V by E. Nestle. The corrections 
in the MS. are in my edition noted S' and S'. 

2. The Codex Alexandrinus (A), written about the 
middle of the fifth century, presented to King Charles I 
in 1628 by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, and 
now preserved in the British Museum. It contains the 
whole of the Book of Wisdom. A facsimile edition was 
published by Baber, Lond. 181 6- 1828. The various 
readings of this MS. are very accurately given by 
Tischendorf. It forms the foundation of the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge edition of the LxX, ed. 
Field, though the learned editor has in some instances 
admitted doubtful corrections of the text, even where 
the reading of the original ^was quite intelligible. As 
above, A' and A' denote corrections in the MS. by first 
or second hand. So in V below. 

3. The Codex Vaticanus (V), the most valuable of 
all the MSS. for antiquity and accuracy, now in the 
Vatican Library, written about the middle of the fourth 
century. It contains the whole of our Book. It was 
published, but very incorrectly, by Cardinal Mai in 
1857 ; and has now been re-edited with great care by 
Vercellone and Cozza (Romae, 1868-18 74), the types 
used in the magnificent facsimile of the Sinaitic Codex 
being employed. Tischendorfs last edition of the 
Septuagint gives a fairly acciu-ate reprint of this text. 

4. Tlie Codex Ephraem rescriptus (C). This is a 
MS. of certain portions of the text over which a work 
of S. Ephraem had been written. The original has 
been restored by a chemical process. Its date is prob- 
ably the middle of the fifth century, and it contains 
the following portions of Wisdom: viii. 5 — xii. 10; 
xiv. 19 — xvii. 18; xviii. 24 — xix. 22. Its readings 
are noted by Tischendorf. 

6. Codex Venetus Marcianus (Yen.). This is a MS. 
of the eighth or ninth century in the library of 
S. Mark at Venice. It was collated for Holmes and 

Parsons' edition of the Lxx, and numbered by them 
(23) on the erroneous supposition that it was written 
in cursive characters. Its readings in the majority of 
instances support the Vatican. 

The cursive MSS. which contain the Book of Wisdom 
collated by Holmes and Parsons are of later age and 
much inferior authority. They are numbered 55, 68, 
106, 155, 157, 248, 253, 254, 261, 296. The best of 
these is 68. The Complutensian edition chiefly follows 
248. Besides the above, a pai-tial collation of some Paris 
MSS. was published by I. C. Thilo in his Specimen 
exercitation. critic, in Sapient. Sal. Halis, 1825. These 
are numbered A, Aa, B, C, D, E, F, H, I ; they are of 
little critical value. 

The two first editions of the Lxx. have a peculiar 
interest though founded on inferior MSS. They are 
the Complutensian Polyglot of Cardinal Ximenes, 151 7, 
and the Aldine^ 15 18. The former seems to have been 
the text generally used by the translators of the 
English Version. 

A valuable assistance to the criticism of our Book 
has been put forth by F. H. E«usch, Observationes 
Criticae in Librum Sapientiae. Friburgi in Brisgovia,- 
1861. In this little work (which he designed as a 
companion volume to his edition of the Greek and 
Latin texts), he not only gives a selection of various 
readings, but a copious account of the passages quoted 
by the Fathers and early writers, which are of manifest 
utility in the confirmation and correction of the text. 

The best edition of the text is that by 0. F. Fritzsche, 
Libri Apocrjphi Veteris Testamenti Graece. Lipsiae, 
1 87 1. This text is an original one, formed from a 
careful review of all attainable sources, the various 
readings being accurately given with a fulness to be 
found in no other edition of these Books. 

The edition by Apel (Libri Yet. Test. Apocryphi 
Graece. Accurate recognitos brevique diversarum 
lectionum delectu instructos, ed. H. E. Apel. Lipsiae, 
1838) is of little critical value. 

The groundwork of the present edition is the Vatican 
MS. as edited by Vercellone and Cozza, from which I 



have departed in very few instances, which are duly 
noted. The stichometrical arrangement of the text ia 
from the Alexandrian MS. The critical apparatus con- 
tains the variations of the uncial MSS. : those of the 
cursive, given by Holmes and Parsons, and partially 
reprinted by Fritzache, as of less importance, I have 
not thought it necessary to exhibit in their entirety. 

The references to the Septuagint are to Tischendorf s 
last edition. This is mentioned as in some Books the 

chapters and verses are differently numbered. The 
references to the Old Testament are chiefly to the 
Greek text. In quoting from Philo I have added in 
brackets the volume and page of Mangey's edition. In 
the references to the Fathers, where any difficulty was 
likely to arise, I have generally given the volume and 
page of the Benedictine editions. The editions of other 
writers used are mentioned as they occur. 


Versions, Editions, and CommenUuries. 

Op the Versions, the Latin contained in the Vulgate 
is the most important for antiquity and literalness. It 
is really the old Italic rendering of the second or third 
century, and was left untouched by S. Jerome when 
he re-edited the rest of the Bible. In his Preface to 
the Books of Solomon he says : ' In eo libro, qui a pleris- 
que Sapientia Salomonis inscribitur . . . calamo tem- 
peravi, tantummodo canonicas Scripturas vobis emen- 
dare desiderans.' Although this version has been 
authorized by the Council of Trent, and declared to be 
the very "Word of God, impartial criticism will detect 
in it many errors arising from misunderstanding of the 
original, and many obscurities of expression which only 
tend to ' darken knowledge.' Tliere are also some ad- 
ditions to the text which are plainly not sanctioned by 
the original. But, with due allowance for these defects, 
it probably represents the reading of MSS. earlier than 
any that have come down to us, and in this respect, at 
any rate, is of great critical value, while its language is 
interesting as presenting provincialisms and phrases 

which point to an African origin. These are noted in 
the commentary as they occur. In their elucidation 
much use has been made of a work by H. Ronsch, 
Itala und Vulgata. Marburg, 1875.' 

Other versions are the Syriac and Arabic, given in 
Walton's Polj'glot, and the Armenian. The former 
(Peschito) has been republished by Lagarde. (Libri 
Yeteris Testamenti Apocryphi e recognitione P. Ant. de 
Lagarde. Lips., 1861.) It is too free and paraphrastic 
to be of much critical use, but it often supplies a 
traditional rendering which is serviceable in the exe- 
gesis of the text. Much the same account may be 
given of the Arabic, which however seems not to be 
older than the seventh century. The Armenian Ver- 
sion is of higher antiquity and of much greater ac- 
curacy. So close is it to the original that it is easy 
to see what reading the translator has followed. The 
variations are noted by Reusch in his Observ. Grit. 
The Book of Wisdom in Armenian, Greek, and Latin 
was published by the Mechitarists in 1827. (Reusch). 




The following is a fairly complete list of the chief 
Commentaries on the Book of Wisdom, wherein 
Germany, as usual, is verj' copious, and England, till 
quite lately, has contributed scarcely anything. In 
early times we have these : 
Rabanus Maurus : Commentariorum in Libr. Sap. libri 

tres. Migne, Patrol. Lat. cix. 
Walafrid Strabo : Glossa Ordinaria. Migne, 113, 114. 
Anselm, Episc. Laudunensis ; Glossa interlinearis. 

Basil., 1502, etc. 
Matthaeus Cantacuzenus : Scholia in Libr. Sap. 

Migne, Patrol. Graec. clii. The fragments are given 

in Tom. c. pp. 395, 411, 418, 447, 489. 
Bonaventura: Expositio in Libr. Sap. 0pp. vol. i. 

Roraae, 1588; Venetiis, 1574. 
Hugo a Sancto Caro : PostiUae, sive breves commentar. 

in univ. Bibl. Basil. 1487, 1504; Lugd. 1669. 
Nicolas Lyranus : PostiUae in univ. Bibl. Eomae, 

Robert Holkot (ti34o), an English Dominican: In 

Libr. Sap. Praelectiones ccxiii. pub. in 1481, 151 1, 

1586, 1689. 

Since the Reformation, among Roman Catholics, the 
following are the chief Commentaries : 
Dionysius Carthusianus : In quisque Libr. Sapient. 

Salom., Paris,. 1 548. 
P. Nanuius : Sap. Salomonis una cum Scholiis, Petro 

Nannio interprete. Bas. 1552. 
Com. Jansen, Bishop of Ghent : Adnotationes in Libr. 

Sap. Sol. Duac. 1577, 1660. Paraphrasis in omnes 

Psalmos David, etc. ac in Sapientiam Notae. Antv. 

1614. This Comm. is given in Migne's Script. 

Sacr. Curs. Compl. Tom. xvii. 
Hier. Osorius : Paraphrasis in Salomonis Sapientiam. 

Boulogn. 1577. 
Joann. Lorinue: Commentar. in Sap. Lugd. 1607, 


De Castro: Comm. in. Sap. Sal. Lugd. 16 13. 

Com. a Lapide : Commentar. in Libr. Sap. Antv. 

1638. Often reprinted. 
Job. Maldonatus : Comm. in Sap. Sal. Paris. 1 643. 
Pet. Gorsius : Explicatio in Lib. Sapientiae. Par. 


Job. Menochius : Brevis Explicatio sensus literalis to- 
tius Scripturae. Ant. 1678. 

De Sacy: La Sainte Bible. Par. 1692. (Vol. 14 con- 
tains a commentary on Wisdom.) 

Augustin Calmet : Commentaire littoral. Par. 1724. 

Jac. Tiriuus : Comment, in S. Scripturam, in the Biblia 
Magna of De la Haye, where are also the notes of 
Estius, Sa, and others. 

Duguet et d'Asfeld : Explication du livre de la Sa- 
gesse. Paris, 1755. 

Weitenauer: Job, Psalm., Salom., Siracides . . . e.Kplic. 

F. W. Smets : Sapientia Vulg. edit. Vers. Belgica notis 
Grammat. etc. Antv. et Amst. 1749. 

Du Hamel : Salomonis Libri tres . . . item Liber Sap. 
et Ecclesiasticus. Par. 1703. 

C. F. Houbigant : Notae criticae in univ. Vet. Test. 
libros, etc. Francof. 1777. 

Fr. Boaretti : II Libro della Sapienza recato . . . con 
aualisi, annotazioni, etc. Venezia, 1792. 

T. A. Dereser : Die Spruchworter . . . das Buch der 
Weisheit . . . libersetzt und'erklart. Frankf. 1825. 

J. A. Schmid : Das Buch der "Weisheit iibereetzt und 
erklart. Wien, 1858, 1865. 

C. Gutberlet: Das Buch der Weisheit iibersetzt und 
erklart. Mttnster, 1874. This forms part of tlie new 
edition of the Old Testament by Roman Catholic ex- 
positors, under the title : Die heiligen Schriften des 
alten Testamentes nach katholischen Prinzipien 
iibersetzt und erklart von einem Verein befreundeter 



Anglican : 

R. Arnald : A critical commentary upon the Apocryphal 

Books, 1744-1752. It is usually printed with the 

Commentaries of Patrick, Lowth, and Whitby. 
J. H. Blunt : The Annotated Bible, vol. ii. Apocrypha. 

London, 1879. 
The Wisdom of Solomon, edited for the Society for 

Promoting Christian Knowledge, by the Rev. W. R. 

Churton, B.D. 1880. 
Protestant : 
Critici Sacri. Amst. 1698-1732. Of this ed. vol. v. 

contains the notes on 'Libri Apocryphi.' Herein 

are comprised the Annotations of Grotius. 
Conr. Pellicanus : In Libros quos vocant Apocryphos 

vel potius Ecclesiasticos . . . commentarii. Tiguri, 

Nic. Selueccerus: Lib. Sap. ad tyrannos, etc. Lips. 1568. 
Vict. Strigel : Sapientia Sirach . . . Sapientia. Francof. 

et Lips. 1 69 1. 
J. G. Hasse : Saloraos Weisheit, neu iibersetzt niit 

Anmerkungen und Untersuchungen. Jena, 1785. 
Brochmannua : Comm. in iv. capp. Sapientiae. Hafn. 

Wilh. Petersen : Petachia, od. schriftmassige Erk- 

larung der Welsh. Sal. Biidingen, 1727. 
Gottfr. Schuband : Das Buch der Welsh. Sal. liTagdeb. 

J. A. Steinmetz : Das Buch der Welsh, Mugd. und 
Leipz. 1747. 

J. F. Kleuker: Salora. DenkwUnligkeiten, Als An- 

hang : Das Buch der Welsh, etc. Riga, 1785. 
Jac. Wallenius : Salomos Vishet. Greifswald, 1786. 

Annotationes philologico-criticae in Libr. qui inscri- 

bitur 2o</»'a SaXufiav. Gryphisw. 1786. 
J. C. C. Nachtigal : Das Buch der Welsh. Halle, 1799. 
K. G. Kelle : Die heiligen Schriften in ihrer Urgestalt. 

i. Band. Salom. Schriften. Freib. 1815. 
A. L. C. Heydenreich : Uebersetzung und Erlauterung 

des Buches der Welsh., in Tzschirner's Memorabilien. 
W. F. Engelbreth : Librum Sap. Sal. interpretandi 

speciraina. Hafniae, 1816. 
J. Schulthess : Exegetisch. theolog. Forschungen. 

Zurich, 1820. 
J. P. Bauermeister : Comment, in Sap. Sal. Gotting. 

C. L. W. Grimm : Commentar fiber das Buch der 

Welsh. Leipz. 1837. 
Fritzsche und Grimm : Kurzgefasstes exegetisches 

Handbuch zu den Apocryphen des Alt Test. Leipz. 

1 851-1860. vi. Lieferung: Das Buch der Welsh. 

erklart von C. L. W. Grimm. 
Edwin Cone Bissell, D.D. : The Apocrypha of the Old 

Testament, with Historical Introductions, a Revised 

Translation, and Notes, Critical and Explanatory. 

Edinburgh, 1880. 

Though not a Commentary, here must be added, Claris 
Librorum Veteris Testamenti Apocryphorum Philo- 
logica, Auctore Christ. Abrah. Wahl. Lipsiae, 1 853, 

n 3 






1 DiLiGiTE justitiam, qui judica- 
tis terrain. Sentite de Domino 
in bonitate, et in simplicitate 

2 cordis quaerite ilium; quoniam^ 
invenitur ab his, qui non ten- 
tant ilium, apparet autem eis 
qui (idem habent in ilium. 

3 Perversae enim cogitationes se- 
parant a Deo; probata autem 

4 virtus corripit insipientes. Quo- 
uiam in malevolam animam non 
introibit sapieutia, nee habita- 
bit in corpore subdito peccatis. 

5 SpirituB euim sanctus disciplinae 
effugiet fictum, et auferet se a 
cogitationibuB quae sunt sine in- 

204>IA 2AAQMQN. 


1 'AFAriHSATE iiKaiocrvvriv oi 

KptvovTfs Trjv yrjv, 
(ppovqaaTi Tcepl tov KvpCov iv 

Kcu (V aiiKoTryn KgpbCas C'T'ri- 

(TOTi avTov 

2 OTt fVpC(TK(Tal TOIS pil) TtilpO.- 

^ovaw avTov, 
ffi.<Pavi^iTai bf Tols /xJ) dm- 
<rrov<7iv avTif. 

3 (TKoXiol yap Koyi.(rp.o\ ^wpC^ov- 

(Tiv ano @€ov, 
boKipLuCopkivr] r* fi bvvaim f\4y- 
X«' rovs acppovai. 

4 OTl eli KaKOTf^VOV ^V\7JV OVK 

(l(T€XfV<T(Tai (TO(l>ia, f 

o\jb\ KaroiK^fret iv <iu>p.Kn tttr 
rdxpeu hfiaprCas. 

5 S,yiov yap TSV(vp.a -naibfCas 

Kpfv^trai, b6\ov, 
Kal airava(TTri(r(Tat, &it6 Xoyi- 
a/iup iurvvirmv, 



1 Love righteousness, ye that be 
judges of the earth : think of 
the Lord with a good (heart), 
and in simplicity of heart seek 

2 him. For he will be found of 
them that tempt him not ; and 
sheweth himself unto such as do 

3 not distrust him. For froward 
thoughts separate from God : 
and his power, when it is tried, 

4 ' reproveth the unwise. For • or, 


into a malicious Boul wisdom ""'"^'^' 
shall not enter; nor dwell in 
the body that is subject unto 
6 sin. For the holy spirit of 
discipline will flee deceit, and 
remove from thoughts that are 

IHtuluB : Zo^m ZoAw/ion' V. Z. ZoAo/uui^of A. Z. ZoAo/ion'TO? S. I. 2. iir) awtarovaai avr^ S. V. iirj wiOTfvowriy a. A. 

Ton -narfvovaar 261 et fora. Vulg. Syr. 3. t« V. A. it S. 4. a/m/rrta! Omnes Ck)dd. attaprtaii Eus. in Ps. 159; Ath. ii. 

4a, 378. Vulg. Syr. 5. ir(uJ«ia» V. S. Ven. Vulg. Syr. Ar. (ro</nos A. Arm. diroFa(rT^(r«Toi. oiro<rn/o-«Tai S'. 




> Or, u without understanding, and ' will 

nbuked, or, ° 

J^** not abide when unrighteousness 

6 Cometh in. For wisdom is a 
loving spirit ; and will not ac- 

» Or, lipt. quit a blasphemer of his ^words : 
for God is witness of his reins, 
and a true beholder of his 
heart, and a hearer of his 

7 tongue. For the Spirit of the 
Lord filleth the world : and 

» o», up- that which 'containeth all things 
hath knowledge of the voice. 

8 Therefore he that speaketh un- 
righteous things cannot be hid : 
neither shall vengeance, when 
it punisheth, pass by him. 

. ■ 9 For inquisition shall be made 
into the counsels of the un- 
godly : and the sound of his 
words shall come unto the 
Lord for the manifestation* of 

10 his wicked deeds. For the ear 
\ of jealousy heareth sJl things : 

and the noise of murmurings 

11 is not hid. Therefore beware 
of murmuring, which is un- 
profitable ; and refrain your 
tongue from backbiting : for 
there is no word so secret, that 
shall go for nought : and the 

• Or, mouth that belieth ° slayeth the 


• Or, re. 


Kai i\fy)($i^(T(Tai iirfKOovatji 

6 ^tXdvOpumov yap irvtvixa <To<pCa, 
Koi oiiK aO(am<Tti fi\d(T<f>r]iiov 

iitb \(t\(uv avTov, 
on T&v vf^pS>v avTov fiAprvs 

6 0«os, 
KoX Trjs (capSiay avroiJ ^TTiffKoiros 

Kai TTJi yXwo-cTT/y aKOVTrrji' 

7 Srt TTixC/xa Kvpiov TTtTtXripuKf 

■n]v olKOVfifvr)v, 
(cat TO avvfxpv to, Travra yvacriv 

8 8io roCro <^d(yy6fi(vos &biKa 

ovhiXs jXT) \a9ri, 
ov8f /XT) iropoSevoTj avrbv 
(\(y\ovcra t) blKt], 

9 ^i* yap hLaj3ov\[ois acre^ovi 

i^iraa-is tarrai, 
Xoymv bi avrov axor; irpbs 

KvpLOv rj^fi 
els IXeyxoi' avo\xr]p.i.Tu>v avrov' 
lo 5rt ovj fj)\w(7ea)s aKpoarai to. 

KaX Opovs yoyyva-jiuv ovk iiro- 


IT (f)v\d^a(T6f roCwv yoyyv<Tfibv 

Kat dwo KaraXoAias <f>f{(ra<r6e 

ort ^Biyfxa XaOpaiov Kfvhv av 


aTOjia bi Karaxjffvbofuvov 
ivaipfi yfrvxriv. 

tellectu, et corripietur a super- 

6 veniente iniquitate. Benignus 
est enim spiritus sapientiae, et 
non liberabit maledicum a labiis 
suis, quoniam renum illius testis 
est Dens, et cordis illius scru- 
tator est verus, et linguae ejus 

7 auditor. Quoniam spiritus Do- 
mini replevit orbem terrarum; 
et hoc, quod continet omnia, 

8 scientiam habet vocis. Propter 
hoc qui loquitur iniqua non 
potest latere, nee praeteriet il- 

9 lum corripiens judicium. In 
cogitationibus enim impii in- 
terrogatio erit ; sermonum au- 
tem illius auditio ad Deum 
veniet, ad correptionera iniqui- 

10 tatum illius. Quoniam auris 
zeli audit omnia, et tumultus 
murmurationum non absconde- 

1 1 tur. Custodite ergo vos a mur- 
muratione quae nihil prodest, 
et a detractione parcit« linguae, 
quoniam sermo obscurus in va- 
cuum non ibit, os autem quod 
mentitur occidit animam. 

5. atiKias Codd. avo/uas Coinpl. 148. 6. rvf vim ao<piaS.V. cro^iat A. Veil, Vulg. Syr. Ar. Arm. Didym. 299. o0caa»T<(V. 

0000)17(1 S. A. v. aXTjBris S. V. A. Ven. aXrjBivof 106. a6i. T17S y\oi<rar]i avrov ok. A. Ar. Arm. 7. ir«irXi;/»)«« S. V. 

(irXi7fM»r(i' A. 8. ov8« nrpr V. ov8f /»ij S. A. Ven. ovS<it ov lu) 106. 253. a6i . irapoJtuffp S. V. al. napfKtvtrrfTat CJompl. 

napoltvat S*. 9. avrov axor) V. A. al. ax. avra S. ayoiirifmrajy S. V. al. aaffirinaraiv J48. 10. ows (ijAorcrfm S'. 

11. «f»w V. A. al. Kaivov S. ov noptvatToi oni. S. add. eor. 

-n. ..] 



I J Nolite zelare mortem in er- 
rore vitae vestrae, neque acqui- 
ratis perditionem in operibus 

13 manuum vestrarum. Quouiam 
Deus mortem non fecit, nee 
Isietatur in perditione vivorum. 

14 Creavit enim, ut essent omnia ; 
et tjunabiles fecit nationes orbis 
terrarum ; et non est in illis 
medicftmentum exterminii, nee 
inferorum regnum in terra. 

15 JuBtitia enim perpetua est, et 

16 immcrtalis. Impii autem ma- 
nibus et verbis accersierunt il- 
1am ; et aestimantes illam ami- 
cam, defluxerunt, et sponsiones 
posuerunt ad illam ; quoniam 
digni sunt qui sint ex parte 


1 Dixerunt enim cogitantes 
apud 86 non recte : Exiguum, 
et cum taedio est tempus vitae 
nostrae, et non est refrigerium 
in fine hominis, et non est qui 
agnitus sit reversus ab inferis. 

ij Mjj Cv^ovTf Oivarov iv irXdinj 

fxrjS^ iitia-naffde SkfOpov Ipyots 
Xeip&v vfJiQv 
13 8ti, 6 Qebs Oavarov ovk i-noLr]- 


ovbi TfpTTerai it:' aircoXtCq 

J 4 iKTia-f yap els to elvai to. 

Koi (TU>Tr\piOI. oX yfVi(TflS TOV 

Koi OVK icrriv iv avrais <f>ip- 

p-OKov oXfdpov, 
ovre qbov fiaffiXtiov inX y^s. 

15 hiKaioavvr] yap adavaros (oriv' 

16 aa-f^eis be rais x^P""' *"*' '""'* 

Xoyois TTpo<TeKa\4(ravTO av- 


<\>iXov r)Yi\(Tap.tvoi avrov iri,- 

Kal aw0r]Kriv tOiVTo trpos av- 

oTi &$ioi (la-i TTJi iKfCvov fitpl- 
bos tlvai, 


I Etiroi' yap iv kavroZs Xoyia-d- 
(jifvoL oiiK 6p6ois' 
6kCyos iari koI Avwr/pos 6 fiCos 

Kol OVK i<m.v lacris iv TeAevr^ 

Kol OVK iyv<i)(x0r] 6 ivaXvcras 
i$ qbov. 

13 soul. Seek not death in the 
error of your life : and pull not 
upon yourselves destruction 
with the works of your hands. 

13 For God made not death : neiA 
ther hath he pleasure in the 

14 destruction of the living. For' 
he created all things, that they 
might have their being : and 
the generations of the world 
were healthful ; and there is no 
poison of destruction in them, 
nor the kingdom of death upon 

15 the earth : (For righteousness is 
J 6 immortal :) But ungodly men 

with their works and words 
called it to them : for when 
they thought to have it their 
friend, they consumed to nought, 
and made a covenant with it, 
because they are worthy to take 
part with it. 


,v«»^or the ungodly ssdd, reasoning 
wi^h themselves, but not aright, 
Our life is short and tedious, 
and in the death of a man 
there is no remedy : neither 
was there any man known to 
have returned from the grave. 

12. tpyots S. v. tp tpyois A. Vulg. 13. tw' airaiXtuf 8. V. al. «»' ayy*}^f'<f A. tv arwXcif Aid. Orig. iu. 137. 

14. 01; yap ficTtatv <» lap «is to fivai S'. ow« atou V. S. oi/8« a A. Compl. twi -yrp V. S. cm njt 71^ A. 15. 8i«. yap 

A. v. S. al. 8i«. J« J48. Compl. 16. \oyois S A. V. \oyianoit 348. II. 1. tv tavr. A. S. V.Ven. Aid. Compl. 



[ll. 2- 

2 For we are born at all adven- 
ture : and we shall be hereafter 
as though we had never been : 

^ for the breath in our nostrils 

is as smoke, and a little spark 
in the moving of our heart : 

■" 3 Wliich being extinguished, our 

body shall be turned into ashes, 
and our spirit shall vanish as 
'^' 'iT>r, moUi. 4 the Boft ' air, And our name 
shall be forgotten in time, and 
no man shall have our works 
in remembrance, and our life 
shall pass away as the trace of 
a cloud, and shall be dispersed 
as a mist, that is driven away 
with the beams of the sun, and 
overcome ' with the heat thereof. 

5 For our time is a very shadow 
that passeth away; and after 
our end there is no returning : 
for it ' is fast sealed, so that no 

6 man cometh again. Come on 
therefore, let us enjoy the good 
things that are present :.- and 
let us speedily* use the crea- 

7 tures like as in youth. Let us 
fill ourselves with costly wine 

> Or, op. 

' Or, ht. 

* Or, 

2 8ti avT0(rx«8'a)y iyfvvi^Ornifv, 
Koi fi(Ta TovTO iaoiifda as 

ov\ VTrdp^avTfs' 
5rt KOirroy r/ irvori iv pialv 


Koi 6 Xoyos (TinvOrip h Kirjjirfi 
Kapblas r]fiwv, 

3 ov (T^fo-Oivros r4(t>pa aiso^-^af- 

rai TO <r5>p.a, 
KoX TO TTPfVixa biaxy6T](reTai 
its \avvos irjp. 

4 KOI TO ovoy.a rj\xlav iTsOo]rT6r\- 

(TfTai Iv xpova, 
Kol ovOeli y.vr)p.oviv<T(i t5>v 

ipyuiv fjfx&v' 
Koi irapikfycrfTai 6 ^I'os fifiHv 

ois Ix*"? ve(p4kT]i, 
KOI is ofiix^V biacTKfbaa-Ori- 

6ta>x^fi<ra vtio aKTivoiv r]\iov 
Kol vTrb dfpiJLorqTos avTov /3a- 


5 (TKias yap iripobos 6 Kaipos 

KoX ovK eariv avairobia-pibs rijs 

TeXevTTJs fifioiv, 
5rt KaTf<T<j)payC<Tdr], Koi ovbfls 


6 bfVTf ovv Koi airokavcTiaiifv 

Ttav ovTcov ayaO&v, 
KoX \pr](r<iiji(da tj] kticth i>s 
vfOTTjTi o-TTOuSaicoy. 

7 otrou TtoX.vTfX.ovs xat p-iprnv 


2 Quia ex nihilo nati sumus, et 
post hoc erimus tanquam non 
fuerimus ; quoniam fumus flatus 
est in naribuB nostris, et sermo 
scintilla ad commovendum cor 

3 nostrum ; qua extincta, cinis 
erit corpus nostrum, et spiritus 
diffundetur tanquam mollis afir, 
et transibit vita nostra tanquam 
vestigium nubis, et sicut nebula 
dissolvetur, quae fugata est a 
radiis solis, et a calore illins 

4 aggravate ; et nomen nostrum 
oblivionem accipiet per tenipus, 
et nemo memoriam habebit ope- 

5 rum nostrorum. Umbrae enim 
transitus est tempus nostrum, 
et non est reversio finis nostri ; 
quoniam consignata est, et nemo 

6 revertitur. Venite ergo, et 
fniamur bonis quae sunt, et 
utaraur creatura tanquam in 

7 juventute celeriter. Vino pre- 
tioso et ungiientis nos implea- 

2. ait ovx Vulgo. ore ftr/ 157. xnraft(avr(s Vulgo. wapxovrts S'. Kamos 7] mori 17 A. V. al. Kamm tv piaiv t) mot] ijiun 8. 
ij wvori (V p. S'. o Koyot Vulgo. oXiyos Compl. C. Par. 3. afieaStvro! V. afffvaSfin-o! A. ff/ScvfltiTos S. Siaxvfl^fffToi V. S. 

Siaxvv6ria(Tai A. SiaXi/ftjffcTOi 55. J48. J54. 4. iiyriiiovfvau V. A. al. iu^iio»(v(i S. ftrriiioi'fvaei S'. irapcX. Vulgo. 

«opetia(T(u 106. ]6i. 0apm$tiaaYxx^. impav$€i<ra 106. 6. mupos A'. S. V. Compl. Aid. Vulg. /3ioj V. Vulgo. o»«ir. 

A. V. al. twTatroSitriws 8. 6. eiv Kal. A. om. Km. nonjTi V. Ven. yeonpos A. S. cfonp-ti S'. tr ytonrri Compl. 

al. Athan. ad Matt. ii. 8. 

-n. 15.] 



mus ; et uon praetereat nos flos 

8 temporis. Coronemus nos rosis, 
antequam marcescant ; nullum 
pratura sit quod non pertrans- 

9 eat luxuria nostra. Nemo nos- 
trum exsors sit luxuriae nos- 
trae; ubiqne relinquamus signa 
laetitiae ; quoniam haec est pars 

10 nostra, et haec est sors. Op- 
primamus pauperem justum, et 
non parcamus viduae, nee vete- 
ran! revereamur canos multi 

11 temporis. Sit autem fortitude 
nostra lex justitiae ; quod enim 
infirmum est inutile invenitur. 

I a Circumveniamus ergo justum, 
quoniam inutilis est nobis, et 
contrarius est operibus nostris, 
et improperat nobis peccata legis, 
et difiamat in nos peccata 

13 disciplinae nostras. Fromittit 
se Bcientiam Dei habere, et 

14 filium Dei se nominat. Factus 
est nobis in traductionem cogi- 

15 tationum nostrarum. Gravis 
est nobis etiam ad videndum, 

Kol fifi trapobeva-iTO) rjiMS &v- 
0OS iapos. 

8 oTtyjrtiijLfda poboDV KoXv^i itpXv 

rj fJiapavOrjvai.' 

9 fjLTibels r}p.Stv ip-oipos iarut r^f 

TjUfripas ay(p<i>x_(as, 
iravraxfj KaToXlTroipLfv avy.- 

^oKa TTis tvippoavirrj?, 
5ti, avTTj T) pifpls fiixlav koX 6 

Kkripos ovTos. 

10 #caTa8wa(TT€i/<ra)fxfi» we'rr/ra 81- 

fiT) <pti.(T<ip.(Oa \r)pai, 
p.T)h\ irpearjBvTov ivrpaTiwfifv 


11 loTo) bi fjixQv fj i<r)(ys vojios 

Trjs biKaiocrvirqs, 
rb yap aaOfvis i.)(j)r)(TTov 

I J ivfbpeu<TU)p.€v Tov bUaiov, Sti 

bvaxprjoTos Vfuv iari, 
KOI fvavTwvTai, tols l/jyois 

KoX dveibl^fi, f)p.iv hfiaprrinaTa 

Kcl ^irK^Tj/xifei rnuv afiaprr)- 
p-ara iratbeCas r]p.Q>v. 

13 i-nayyiXKiTai. yvSxriv Ixetv 

KoX iralba KvpCov iavrbv 6vo- 

14 iyiviTo fipXv eJj iKfy\ov iv- 

voiuv r)p.&v, 

15 fiapVi ioTlV Tlfllv KOt fikflTO- 


and ointmeiits : and let no 
flower of the spring pass by 

8 us : Let us crown ourselves 
with rosebuds, before they be 

9 withered : Let none of us go 
without his part of our ' volup- 1 Otjouog. 
tuousneBs : let us leave tokens 

of our joyfulness in every place : 
for this is our portion, and our 

10 lot is this. Let us oppress the 
poor righteous man, let us not 
spare the widow, nor reverence 
the ancient grey hairs of the 

11 aged. Let our strength be the 
law of justice : for that which 
is feeble is found to be nothing 

■ 2 worth. Therefore let us lie 
in wait for the righteous ; be- 
cause he is not for our turn, 
and he is clean contrary to our 
doings : he upbraideth us with 
our o£fending the law, and ob- 
jecteth to our infamy the trans- 

13 gressings of our education. He 
professeth to have the know- 
ledge of God : and he calleth 
himself the child of the Lord. 

14 He was made to reprove our 

15 thoughts. He is grievous uuto 
us even to behold : for his life 

7. i)ltat. ^ S. sed cor.' ij/mi «o(>o« A. 55. 106. 157. a6i. 396. Arm. Vulg. atpos'V.S.aL 9. iara). fan 8. KonXtw. 

S. v. <caTaAci«ai>MV A. oin-oiS. V. ij/taiy A. 10. rptafivrmY.S. wp*a0mp<Hi A. wokvxpovtovs S. A.V. woXv- 

Xpovtov Yen. 12. tytSp. St V. om. Sf A. S. (S' iiddit.) ra a/iapr. ro/i. S. ira/xnrTw/iaTa 148. votSnat V. 

muitof S. A. , 



[ii. i6- 

• or,/,j« feits' 


is not like other men's, his 

1 6 ways are of another fashion. We 
are esteemed of him as counter- 
he abstaineth from our 

ways as from filthiness : he 
pronounceth the end of the just 
to be blessed, and maketh his 
boast that Ood is his father. 

1 7 Let us see if his words be true : 
and let us prove what shall 
happen in the end of him. 

i8 For if the just man be the son 
of God, he will help him, and 
deliver him from the hand of 
19 his enemies. Let us examine 
him with despitefulness and tor- 
ture, that we may know his 
meekness, and prove his pa- 
ao tience. Let us condemn him 
with a shameful death : for by 
his own saying he shall be re- 
al spected. Such things they did 
imagine, and were deceived : 
for their own wickedness hath 
31 blinded them. As for the mys- 
steries of God, they knew them 
not : neither hoped they for the 
wages of righteousness, nor dis- 
cerned' a reward for blameless 
ri^r* *** '3 Bouls. For God created man to 

a Or. pre- 
ferrf'-t. or, 

Sti &v6ftoios Tois 6X\ois 6 
fiios avTov, 


16 (Is KC^trjkov ikoyCtrdriiiev aiirif, 
Kol a.TTfXf'ai T&v ob&v rjfi&v 

b)i a-nb &,KaOapcnSiv' 
y.aKapi^ei iayara hiKaiiav, 
KOI okaCovfViTai Trarepa ©eoV. 

17 Ibcaixfv el 01 AtJyot avTov akriOfls, 
KoX TTfipdamfifV to iv ^(cjSdorei 


18 (I yip kcrriv 6 hiKaios vlbs 

®(ov, aiTiA^i/^fTai avrov 
Kol ^vcrerai avrov ^k x*'pos 

19 v^pei KoX I3a(riv<^ irdKratiifv 

tva yvQ>p.(v Tr\v liruiKeiav airrov 
KoX boKifida-oofXfv rriv avf^i- 
KaKlav avTov. 
io Oavdra curxriixovi (caraSiicio-co- 
jxev avTov' 
iarai yap avrov iituTKOTtrf fx 
Xoymv avrov, 
21 Tavra ikoyia-avro, koI ^irXai'Tj- 
&TTfrv(})X.()ia-f yap avTovs f) Ka- 
Kia avT&v' 
12 Kol oiiK lyvaxrav jLiv(mj/)ia ©eoC, 
ovb( p,icrObv j/XTritrar ocriorrfros, 
ovb^ iKpivav y^pas \jn)\&v 
23 Srt 6 ®fbs iKTio-f rbv avdpatiTov 
iiT i,(f>dap(TLq, 

quoniam dissimilis est aliis vita 
illius, et immutatae sunt viae 

16 ejus. Tanquam nugaces aesti- 
mati sumus ab illo ; et abstinet 
se a viis nostris tanquam ab 
immunditiis, et praefert novis- 
sima justorum, et gloriatur pat- 

17 rem se habere Deum. Videa- 
mus ergo si sermones illius veri 
sint, et tentemus quae ventora 
sunt illi, et sciemus quae erunt 

18 novissima illius. Si enim est 
vems filius Dei, suscipiet ilium, 
et liberabit eum de manibus 

19 contrariorum. Contumelia et 
tormento interrogemus eum, ut 
sciamus reverentiam ejus, et 
probemus patientiam illius. 

30 Morte turpissima condemnemus 
eum ; erit enim ei respectus ex 
sermonibus illius. 

21 Haec cogitaverunt, et errave- 
runt ; excaecavit enim illos ma- 

33 litia eorura. Et nescierunt sa- 
cramenta Dei, neque mercedem 
speraverunt justitiae, nee judi- 
caverunt honorem animarura 

23 sanctarum. Quoniam Deus crea- 

16. (XoyiaBrjiifvY. A. S'. fy(vri9rintv B. oJon/S. A. V. tprpanWeTi. lax^ra. tpya tcuv S. 155. 17. mu (liai/itrS^, 

18. ofTiXfj^tToi V. al. ai/Ti\i;^<TOU S. A. 19. SoKtu. A. S. itKaaaiiuv V. Vercell. 68. Aid. 21. «\o-)r«ro»'TO V. A. 

tKoftaBTjaavS. (fXo7i(rai'ToS'.)ad<lunt 55. 106. 361. al.m a<;>poi'Ct. avnv<f>\. A..Y . «Ti>^o«rcK S. Orig. il. 713. 7,1. tKpttvavV. 

yfivxay. ifwxay S. 

-m. 7.] 



vit bominem inexterminabilem, 
et ad imaginem similituilinis 

34 suae fecit ilium. Invidia autem 
diaboli mors introivit in orbem 

35 terrarum; imitantur autem il- 
ium qui sunt ex parte illius. 

CAPUT in. 

I Justorum autem animae in 
manu Dei sunt, et non tanget 

3 iUos tormentum mortis. Visi 
sunt oculis insipientium mori, 
et aestimata est afilictio exitus 

3 illorum ; et quod a nobis est 
iter, exterminium ; illi autem 

4 sunt in pace. Et si coram 
hominibus tormenta passi sunt^ 
spes illorum immortalitate plena 

5 est. In paucis vexati, in multis 
bene disponentur, quoniam Deus 
tentavit eos, et invenit illos 

6 diguos se. Tanquam aurum in 
fornace probavit illos, et quasi 
holocausti bostiam accepit illos, 
et in tempore erit respectus 

7 illorum. Fulgebunt justi, et 
tanquam scintillac in arundi- 

KoX flKova rfis IbCas Ibiorqros 

ii(oij](Tiv avTov' 
14 (f>66va he 8io/3oXou Odvaros 

flcnjKdfv fis TOP Koajxov, 
■jrtipdfoucri 8^ avrov ol tjjs 

iKfCpov iJLfpibos Sirrei. 

KE*AAA10N r. 

1 AiKaCdiv Se ylnj\al (v X"P' &fov, 
Kol oil fiJri a\jrr]Tai avr&v ^i- 


2 tho^av (V o^doAjuois a<j)p6voiv 

Kol iXoyCcrOt] KaKOxrii ^ l£o8os 

3 icoi T) a<p' fjiiHv nopiia <r6v- 

ol bf eicnv iv elp-^vrj. 

4 Kol yap fv o\jr€L avOpdiroiv iav 


fj eXTTis avrStv adavaa-las 

5 Koi d\Cya TTaibfvOevTes pieydXo 

on 6 &ebs tTieipacrev avTovi, 
KaX evpev avrovs &^lovs eavrov. 

6 is xpvcrbv iv xuiveuni]pL(f kbo- 

KiyMcrfv avToiis, 
Kal bi9 okoKapTToana 6v(TCas 
TTpooebi^aTo avrovs. 

7 KOI iv KaipQ fTrto-fcoTT^s avT&v 

Koi (uy a-irivOijpfs fv KoKdiiri 

be immortal, and made bim to 
be an image of his own eternity. 
24 Nevertbeless through envy of 
the devil came death into the 
world : and they that do hold 
of his side do find it. 


I But the souls of the righteous 
are in the hand of God, and 
there shall no torment touch 

3 them. In the sight of the un- 
wise they seemed to die: and 
their departure is taken for 

3 misery. And their going from 
us to be utter destruction : but 

4 they are in peace. For though 
they be punished in the sight 
of men, yet is their hope full 

5 of immortality. And having 
been a little chastised, they shall 

be greatly rewarded ' : for God ' Or. tme- 


proved them, and found them 

6 worthy ' for himself As gold " Oi , mret. 
in the furnace bath he tried 

them, and received them as a 

7 burnt offering. And in the 
time of their visitation they 
shall shine, and run to and fro 
like sparks among the stubble. 

28. iJionjTos V. A. S. Ven. Aid. Compl. oiSiod/tos Field. 248. 253. E. F. G. H. Par. Ath. i. 41. Method. 788. Niceph. U. 
aoo. Epiph. 543. 557. 0/1010T17TOS 106. 361. Aa. B. Par. Vulg. Syr. UI. 2. jJofoK -jap S'. iippivuv. (aSptnoiir Ven. 

8. t) aipr) jiiuuv V. Vercell. 6. oAo«<V»a'/«». oAo/rawroi/io Ven. 

H 2 



[m. 8- 

8 They shall judge the nations, 
and have dominion over the 
people, and their Lord shall 

9 reign for ever. They that put 
their trust in him shall under- 

I Or, and stand the truth : and ' such as 
faiih/ui be faithful in love shall abide 

Mhatt re- 
main wtih with him : for grace and mercy 
Autt in tove, 

is to his saints, and he hath 
10 care for his elect. But the un- 
godly shall be punished accord- 
ing to their own imaginations, 
which have neglected the right- 
eous, and forsaken the Lord. 
It For whoso despiseth wisdom 
and nurture, he is miserable, 
and their hope is vain, their 
labours unfruitful, and their 
ij works unprofitable : Their wives 
« Or, UgM, are foolish '', and their children 
eiuuu' 13 wicked ; Their offspring is 
cursed. Wherefore blessed is 
the barren that is undefiled, 
which hath not known the sinful 
bed : she shaU have fruit in 
14 the visitation of souls. And 
blessed is the eunuch, which 
with his hands hath wrought no 
iniquity, nor imagined wicked 
things against God : for unto 
•Of. tt« him shall be given the ' special 

gift of faith, and an inheritance 

8 Kpivovariv idvr) koX Kparq(TOV(Ti 

Kol j3a(Ti\(v<rft avTmv Kvpios 
els Tovs al&vas. 

9 ot ■nciTOidoTes iir' awru avvrj- 

(Tova-iv tiXridiiav, 
Kol 01 irtoTol iv ay&irri itpocr- 

fj.ivov(Tt,v avrijJ, 
5rt xi-pis <col ^Aeoy iv rois 

oarCoLs avTov 
Koi iiricTKOirri iv toTs ^(cXt/crois 


10 Oi fie aa-f^els xa^ h iko- 

yLaavTo t^ov(nv iTiiTi.p.iav, 
ot a\j.e\r\(ravm tov hiKaiov koX 
Tov Kvpiov aTToardvTfs. 

11 (ro(t>lav yap Kal TtaiMav 6 

i^ov9ev&v ToXaCiTuipoi, 
Kot Kfvrj T] (kids avruv, koi 01 

k6itoi, &v6vrjT0i, 
Kol &xpr\(rra to ipya. avrfiy. 

12 ai ywaiKfj avT&v &<f>poves, 
Koi TTovqpa ra TiKva aiiT&v' 

13 iTTLKardpaTos fj yivtcris avr&v. 
on fxaKapia (mlpa fj ap,lavTos, 
TJTis oiiK iyvoi Kolrr]v iv ira- 

^^f I KapTTOv iv iiria-Koirfi \{rv\(iiv 

14 Koi (ivov\os, 6 i^rj ipyaaafxtvos 

iv X*'P'' avofjLrjfxa, 
Hrjhe ivOvp,r]0els Kara tov Kv- 
piov irorjjpd' 
8o5j}(r€rai yap avr<S rjjs iT[<r- 

rews X<^P'* iKkfKT^ 

8 neto discurrent. Judicabunt 
nationes, et dominabuntur po- 
pulis, et regnabit Dominus illo- 

9 rum in perpetuum. Qui confi- 
dunt in illo intelligent veri- 
tatem, et fideles in dilectione 
acquiescent illi ; quoniam do- 
num et pax est electis ejus. 

10 Impii autem secundum quae 
cogitaverunt correptionem ha- 
bebunt, qui neglexerunt justum, 

11 et a Domino recesserunt. Sa- 
pientiam enim et disciplinam 
qui abjicit, infelix est ; et 
vacua est spes illorum, et la- 
bores sine finictu, et inutilia 

12 opera eonim. Mulieres eorum 
insensatae sunt, et nequissimi 

13 filii eorum. Maledicta creatura 
eorum, quoniam felix est steri- 
lis et incoinquinata, quae nes- 
civit thorum in delicto ; ha- 
bebit fructum in respectione 

14 animarum sanctarum. Et spado, 
qui non operatus est per manus 
suas iniquitatem, nee cogitavit 
adversus Deum nequissima ; 

9. {»' atrrf. ciri Kvpiov Yen. X"/"' **" <^«» fo" ucKtierms avrov V. Yulg. al, x^f- *"' *^- ^ '*'"" **^- "^'^o" *»< *wiTKom) tr 
Toit offioK avTov A . Ven. <X<(» t. oatoit ovt. koi fmaKoirr) tv t. ««A. avrov S. «v t. offiois Aid. Compl. Ita Sjr. Ann. Ar. 

10. KaSaed.Tora. iiriri/iiai', ari/uav 248. 11. ao<piav S( S. yapS'. waiSttoo'Y. sniSiavA.S. Koum avrwv ayaiyrirot S, 

12. 01 ym>. A. V. «ai ai S. 13. ftyyy^atts S. t) ante a/uavT. om. S. ifivxM' avraiy A. 14. i /o). o om. S. ty X"P* 

S. V. A. ty xtfaiy Ven. 

-IV. 3] 



dabitor enim illi fidei donntn 
electam, et sors in templo Dei 

15 accepiissima. Bonomm enim 
laborum gloriosus est fructus, 
et quae non concidat radix sa- 

16 pientiae. Filii autem adalte- 
rorum in inconsummatione 
erunt, et ab iniquo thoro semen 

17 exterminabitor. Et si qnidem 
longae vitae emut, in nihilum 
computabontur, et sine honore 
erit noTissima senectos illonun. 

18 £t si celerius defuncti iherint, 
nou habebunt spem, nee in die 

19 agnitionis allocutionem. Na- 
tionis enim iniquae dirae snnt 


I O quam pulchra est casta 
generatio cum claritate ! im- 
mortalis est enim memoria il- 
lius, quoniam et apad Deum 
nota est et apud homines. 

a Cum praesens est, imitantor 
illam, et desiderant earn cum se 
eduxerit ; et in perpetuum co- 
ronata triumphat incoinquina- 
torum certaminom praemium 

3 vincens. llultigena autem im- 
piorum multitudo non erit utilis, 

Kol Kkijpos iv va<f Kvpiov 6v- 

15 iyaBav yap itovoiv KapTsos 


KoX dSwiiiTcoTOff tj piCa r^s 

16 riKva hi iJU)ix<jivaT4\f(TTa lorat, 
Kol iK irapavofiov Koirrjs ntip- 

fjM a(f)avi<Tdri(rfTai. 

17 ((!u> T€ yap liUKpo^ioi ytvavrai, 

ets ovdfv Xoyiorfl^troirrot, 
Kot ariftov fit' icrxdT(i>v rb 
y^pas avT&v. 

18 iiv Ti 6^(0)9 TeAnrnjo-axrir, 

ov\ l^ov<rii/ ikirCba, 
ovbi iv rifupa biayvii<r(ws 

19 yfveas yap HIkov \ak(ith, rii 



1 Kpeitrtrtoif OLTeKvCa fiera aperrjs' 
iiOavairia yip foriv iv fu^M?7 

\oTi Kai Ttapa 0€<3 yaxavKtrai 
KoL Ttapa avdpdTTOis. 

2 Trapovaav t( /xt/xorirrai avrfiv, 
Kal TTodova-tv aT!€\0ov<TaV 

Kol iv Tif cdiivL <rrf(t>avr]<f>o- 

pov(ra ■nop.Ttevei, 
Tov Tav afiMVTwv idkciiv dyura 


3 -noXvyovov h\ acrt^iStv ttX^^os 

ov xpr](niJ.(v<r(i, 

in ' the temple of the Lord ' or. anumt 
more acceptable to his mind. 

15 For glorious is the fruit of good 
labours : and the root of wis- 

16 dom shall never fall away. As 
for the children of adulterers, 
they shaU not come * to their > or, be 


perfection, and the seed of ana/'V'' 
unrighteous bed shall be rooted 

1 7 out For though they live long, 
yet shall they be nothing re- 
garded : and their last age shall 

18 be without honour. Or, if they 
die quickly, they have no hope, 
neither comfort in the day of 
trial '. For horrible is the end » Or, 


of the unrighteous generation. 



I Better it is to have no chil- 
dren, and to have virtue : for 
the memorial thereof is im- 
mortal: because it is known * V^Jj^*^ 
with God, and with men. 

3 When it is present, men take 
example at it ; and when it is 
gone, they desire it : it weareth 
a crown, and triumpheth for 
ever, having gotten the vic- 
tory, striving for undefiled re- 

3 wards. But the multiplying 

14. BvnTiitarffot Ven. 35.1. 15. Ka/rwot V. 17. «ir ovScr Compl. 55. 106. 254. a6i. 18. S. ita : (fo*" t« yip 

ofcsn rtKfvrriaovaiv) «ij miSty XoyKr^tiaoyrtu («(u ari/tov ex' tcrxoTow to y^ipas auran') far rt fap o((m TAttrr^aovaw ovx ffovam 
tXwita. ovx •xo*"* ^- '9- X"*-*"^- irovrj/a 106. 161. IV. 1. Kptiaaan' yap S. japum.Sf. 2. fUitomraiS.'V. 

Van. Vuls. Syr. Ax. Arm. ri/iax7U' A. Method. 676. iro^*<v<i. MS. A : wowtfiwu. ! arovc/im Tisch. 



[iv. 4- 

brood of the ungodly shall not 
thrive, nor take deep rooting 
from bastard slips, nor lay any 

4 fast foundation. For though 
they flourish in branches for a 
time ; yet standing not fast, 
they shall be shaken with the 
wind, and through the force 
of winds they shall be rooted 

5 out. The imperfect branches 
sliall be broken off, their fruit 
unprofitable, not ripe to eat, 

6 yea, meet for nothing. For 
children begotten of unlawful 

>Or.<bri». beds' are witnesses of wicked- 
ness against their parents in 

7 their trial. But tiiough the 
righteous be prevented with 
death, yet shall he be in rest. 

8 For honourable age is not that 
which standeth in length of 
time, nor that is measured by 

9 number of years. But wisdom 
is the grey hair unto men, and 
an unspotted life is old age. 

10 He pleased God, and was be- 
loved of him: so that living 
among sinners he was trans- 

Ji lated. Yea, speedQy was he 
taken away, lest that wicked- 
ness should alter his under- 
standing, or deceit beguile his 

Koi iK v60<i)v iJ.O(rxfViJ.aT<i)v ov 

Scoo-ei ptXai" fls jSaOos, 
oibf aacfxiXi] jSaariv (bpd<T(t,. 

4 Khv yap iv KXibois irpbs Kaipbv 

i'inar(f>aX.&s fif^riKora virb dvi- 

p,OV tT(lK(v6{](TfTai., 


5 Ttf piKXaa-drjcrovTai (cXwrej dre- 

Koi 6 KapTios avT&v ctj^prjoros, 
acopos eh fip&cnv, koX eiy ovQfv 


6 (K yap dv6p.u>v virvatv reKva 

p,dpTvpii fieri vovripias koto 
yoviUiv iv i^€Taa-p.(f air&v. 

7 AUaioi 8^ iav (pdatrr) 

TekfVTTJa-ai, iv dvanava-ei 


8 yijpas yap rlp-iov ov to -noXv- 

ovb( dpi0p.(f ir&v nffifTp-qtat' 

9 TToXio d^ iartv <Pp6vr\(ns Slv- 

(col fiKiKia yrjpooi ^los d(cr;Xi- 

10 (vdpfOTos &€<D yevopLfvos »/ya- 

KOI ^wv p-fTa^v afiapToiXoiv 


11 fjpTtdyr), p.ri f] kok^o aWd^ri 

avvfcriv airov, 
fi So'Aos diron/crTj yjrvxriv aiiTov. 

et spuria vitulamina non da- 
bunt radices altas, nee stabile 

4 firmamentum coUocabunt. Et 
si in ramis in tempore germi- 
naverint, infiriniter posita, a 
vento commovebuntur, et a ni- 
inietate ventorum eradieabuntur. 

5 Confringentur enim rami incon- 
summati ; et fructus illorum 
inutiles et acerbi ad mandu- 
candum, et ad nihilum apti. 

6 Ex iniquis enim somnis filii qui 
nascuutur testes sunt nequitiae 
adversus parentes in iuterro- 
gatione sua. 

7 Justus autem si morte prae- 
occupatus fuerit, in refrigerio 

8 erit. Senectus enim venerabilis 
est non diuturna, neque anno- 
rum numero computata; cani 

9 autera sunt seusus hominis, et 
aetas senectutis vita immaculata. 

10 Placens Deo factus est dilectus, 
et vivens inter peccatores trans- 

11 latus est. Kaptus est, ne ma- 
litia mutaret intellectum ejus, 
aut ne fictio deciperet animam 

3. /loxcv/uxTon' S. /locrx. S*. 4. tc&r yap. koi yap S'. «ai' S'. 0(fii]K&Ta. etfiio'i'ora S. fitPriKora S'. 5. avnm 

•Aan-ts S. lo6. 253. 261. avr. S. corr. improb. aT«Xei7Tw V. S. OTfXeffTaroi A. 9. &r6pinroit. ty ay$p. S'. 10. ry 

»«»iS. V. om. Ty A. Ven. v. ytvoii.e.Ven. 11. pa/ yj Kcuaa S. Compl /iij KCut.V. A. ir/xK ij «a«. Vcn. Theod. iv. 1327. 

avTov post mvtaty om. S. add. S'. imT^<Tji. awar^afi S. 

-IV. 19] 



12 illius. Fascinatio enim nnga- 
citatis obscurat bona, et incon- 
Btantia concnpiscentiae trans- 
vertit sensum sine nialitia. 

13 Consummatus in brevi explevit 

14 tempora miilta ; placita enim 
erat Deo anima illius; propter 
hoc properavit educere ilium 
de medio iniquitatum. Populi 
autem videntes et non intelli- 
gentes, nee ponentes in prae- 

15 cordiis talia, quoniam gratia 
Dei, et misericordia est in sanc- 
tos ejus, et respectus in electos 

16 illins. Condemnat an tern Jus- 
tus mortuus vivos impios, et 
juventus celerius consummata 

17 longam vitam injusti. Yidebunt 
enim finem sapientis, et non 
intelligent quid cogitaverit de 
illo Dens, et quare munierit 

18 ilium Dorainns. Videbunt, et 
contemnent eum ; illos antem 
Dominus irridebit; et erunt 
post haec decidentes sine ho- 
nore, et in contumelia inter 

19 mortuos in perpetnnm ; quo- 
niam disrumpet illos inflates 

I J {ficuTKavia yap <f>avX.6Tj]ros 
afjiavpol TO. KoXa, 
Koi pip.^avy.o'i ^TitOvfiCas (le- 
ToXXevfi vovv 6.KaK0v.) 

13 TeAeicofleis iv 6Kiy<f iTtXrjpaxrf 

■jfjiovovs naKpovs. 

14 dpeoT^ yap ^v Kvp[<f i] i/fvx^ 

8ta TovTo (a~iifV(Tev iK fjJaov 

15 01 be Xaol ibovTes koi uri vorj- 

firjbi OfVTfs iirl bi,avoiq rh 

oTi X'^P'^ *"' iXeoy €P tois 

fKkfKTOiS avTov, 

Koi iTTia-KOTiri iv tois oaCois 

16 Karcucpii'ei be biKaios Ka/xb>i> 

rovj ftSrraj acrefiels, 
Kul veorqs rekeadelffa rax^ws 
7ro\ver«s yfjpai abiKov. 

17 o^ovrai yap reKevrrfv ao<l>ov, 
Koi oil vorja-ova-i n ifiovXev- 

oraro TsepX avrov, 
Koi els tI ri<r<f>aXC(Taro avrov 
6 Kvpios. 

18 oyjrovrai Kal i^ovdeinqarovaiv, 
avTovs be 6 Kvpios iKyeXi(reTac 
KOI laovrai fxera tovto ets 

TTT&fia 6.Tip,ov, 
Kol els i^piv iv veKpois bi 

19 oTi prj^ei aiiTOVS cufxavovs Ttpr\- 


I J soul. For the bewitching of 
naughtiness doth obscure things 
that are honest ; and the wan- 
dering of concupiscence doth 
undermine ' the simple mind. > Or. 


13 He, being made perfect' in Ator.ianetu 
short time, fulfilled a long time : mmmated. 

14 For his soul pleased the Lord : 
therefore hasted he to take him 
away from among the wicked. 

15 This the people saw, and under- 
stood it not, neither laid they 
up this in their minds. That 
his grace and mercy is with his 
saints, and that he hath respect 

16 unto his chosen. Thus the 
righteous that is dead shall 
condemn the ungodly which are 
living ; and youth that is soon 
perfected the many years and 

17 old age of the unrighteous. For 
they shall see the end of the 
wise, and shall not understand 
what God in his counsel hath 
decreed of him, and to what end 
the Lord hath set him in safety. 

18 Tliey shall see him, and despise 
him ; but God shall laugh them 
to scorn : and they shall here- 
after be a vile carcase, and a 
reproach among the dead for 

19 evermore. For he shaU rend 
them, and cast them down head- 

14. (V «v/xfi S. ff impr. S". 171' fK 106. 15. Xaoi. oAAoi A cor. 155. 296. cv bis om. S. «X(«t. et ixrioii inv. ord. 

legnstor in A. Vulg. Compl. Aid. Syr. Ar. Ann. 16. «a/ia» V. S. Ven. 0ayani A. V. Compl. Aid. Aivarfi 106. 361. B. Par. 

vtmrp V. S. Compl. vtorrim A. Aid. 17. tiaipa^aaro. ri<T<paXtaas. airdy. favror 106. 248. Compl. 18. t(ovStv. 

avTor Ven. o^rrai avrov mt S'. o^^. yap mi .S'. S»' cuiwot S. V. om. St' A. 



[rv. 20- 

long, that they shall be speech- 
less ; and he shall shake them 
from the foundation ; and they 
shall be utterly laid waste, and 
be in sorrow ; and their memo- 
< Or, id u< 10 rial shall perish. And when ' 
tfOieae. they cast up the accounts of 
their sins, they shall come with 
fear : and their own iniquities 
shall convince them to their face. 


I Then shall the righteous man 
stand in great boldness before 
the face of such as have afflicted 
him, and made no account of 

a his labours. When they see it, 
they shall be troubled with ter- 
rible fear, and shall be amazed 
at the strangeness of his salva- 
tion, BO far beyond all that they 

3 looked for. And they repent- 
ing and groaning for anguish of 
spirit shall say within them- 
selves, This was he, whom we 
had sometimes in derision, and 
» Or, porn- 4 a proverb ' of reproach : We 
fools accounted his life madness, 
and his end to be without ho- 

5 nour : How is he numbered 

Kffli ^ojy i(rx<iTov \fp(Ta>0ricrov- 
rat, Koi iiTovrai kv ohivrt, 

KoX fi [ivrfy.r) avrStv k'noKtirai. 
ao IXevvovTai iv avXKoyicrjxi^ 
afjLapTrjudraiv avT&v SeiXoi, 

KoX i\.fy^ei avToiis i^evavrCas 
TO, avofirif/uTa avT&v. 


1 ToVe oTrja-fTai, iv irapprjcrlcf 

TToXkfj 6 bCKaios 
Kara irpoa-untoe rlav dX.i\l/dvT(t)v 

KOi T&V 6.0fTOVVTOlV Toi>S wrf- 

vovs avTov. 

2 IbovTfs Tapa)(6ri(T0VTaL <^6fiu> 

KoX iK(TTr\(TOVTai iiil ru irapa- 
b6^<o Trjs <TU>Tr]pias. 

3 tpovfTiv iv lovroiy ixeravoovvres, 
Kol 6io aTevo\u>pCav ■nvevp.aTos 

OTfvdCovTes' Kal ipovcnv' 
ovTOi rjv hv (iar)(pii.iv irore di 

KOI (Is Trapa^oXrjv ovfibicrfiov. 

4 ol a(f)povfs rbv fiCov avrov 

ikoyicrdpifda fxavCav, 
Kol Triv TeXfvn^v avrov iTip-ov, 

5 ircSy Karekoylcrdr] iv viols &fov, 

sine voce, et commovebit illos 
a fundamentis, et usque ad 
Bupremum desolabuntur ; et 
erunt gementes, et memoria il- 
20 lorum peribit Venient in co- 
gitatione peccatorum suorum 
timidi, et traducent illos ex ad- 
verso iniquitates ipsorum. 


1 Tunc stabunt justi in magna 
constantia ad versus eos qui 
se angustiaverunt, et qui abstu- 

2 lerunt labores eonmi. Viden- 
tes turbabuntur timore horribili, 
et mirabuntur in subitatione in- 

3 speratae salutis ; dicentes intra 
se, poenitentiam agentes, et 
prae angustia spiritus gementes : 
Hi sunt quos habuimus ali- 
quando in derisum, et in simi- 

4 litudinem improperii. Nos in- 
sensati vitam illorum aestima- 
bamus insaniara, et iinem illorum 

5 sine honore; ecce quomodo 

19. eaXfwrfi S. V. A. aaKtvS^m Ven. iaxarov. taxaTOiv A. 20. 8i;Xoi S*. ri ivo/t^iMra. to vor/imTa 155. 

V. 1. o itKaiof (V wapp. iroK.Yen. SMtf/avToiyS.V. iXojiovTm' A. ii6vovs. Ao7ovt 55. 354. 2. ffomjpias avrov S. 55. 353. 354. 

8. (povaiv S. V. KOI fpovaiv A. Compl. tpovaiv yap "Ven. al. jovrott S. <v eairr. V. A. Ven. 55. CompL Aid. Vulg. Ephr. artva- 
(ovTts V. Vulg. artvaiovaiv km fpovaiv S. Ven. iTTtva(ovr<u koi tpovaiv A. Compl. Aid. i. 01 cupportt cum anteced. conj. A. S. 

ij;i€ij 01 atpp. Ven. 353. aTi/uay S. an/iov S'. 




computati sunt inter filios Dei, 
et inter sanctos sors illorum est. 

6 Ergo erravimus a via veritatis, 
et justitiae lumen non luxit 
nobis, et sol intelligentiae non 

7 est ortuB nobis. Lassati sumus 
in via iniquitatis et perditionis, 
et ambulavimus vias difficiles, 
viam antem Domini ignoravi- 

8 mus. Quid nobis profuit su- 
perbia 1 aut divitiarum jactantia 

9 quid contulit nobis 1 Transi- 
erunt omnia ilia tanquam umbra, 
et tanquam nuntius percurrens, 

10 et tanquam navis, quae per- 
transit fluctuautem aquam,cujus, 
cum praeterierit, non est vesti- 
gium invenire, neque semitam 

1 1 carinae illius in fluctibus ; aut 
tanquam avis quae transvolat 
in a€re, cujus nullum invenitur 
argumentum itineris, sed tan- 
tum sonitus alarum verberans 

• levem ventum, et scindens per vim 
itineris a^rem ; commotis alis 

Kol iv iiylois 6 KXrjpos avrov 
ioTiv ; 

6 &pa iTTXavrjOrjixfv airb Sbov 

Koi TO rfjs SiKaiocn/VT/f <f>&s 

ovK iXa/xi/rei; fifuv, 
Koi 6 rjXios OVK &.vtTti\(v fifiiv. 

7 ivofxlas lvcnkri<T6r]p.iv rplfiois 

Koi avcDX-elas, 
KoL bia)Sev<Tafi(v iprjy.ovi dj3d- 


Ti]v he obov KvpCov ovk lyixu/xer. 

8 rl d><t>4\r)<Tev rjixas fj vneprj- 

<f>avla ; 
Koi tI ttXovtos jifTo. aXaCovfCas 
avp.^i^\T]Tai ; 

9 napfjXOtv iKflva irdvTa is 

Koi is ayyfXCa -naparpi- 

10 is fat's bi€p\op.(vri Kvp,aiv6- 

fifvov Hboop, 
^s 8ia/3<ioTjs OVK l<mv 1xy°^ 

ovbi hrpaitov rpoitioi avr^s 

iv K6p.a<nv' 
It ^ is opviov hiairravTOi iApa 

ovdiv (vpCaKfTai rtKixripiov 

7sKr]yfi hi rapaSv fxaoTtfo- 

PitVOV TlVfVpa K0V<(>0V 

Kal (TxtCoM*"'"' ^''? poiCov 
Kivovp,€va>v TtTfpvyuiv 8k»- 

among the children of God, and 
his lot is among the saints ! 

6 Therefore have we erred from 
the way of truth, and the light 
of righteousness hath not shined 
unto us, and the sun of right- 

7 eousness rose not upon us. We 

wearied ourselves ' in the way > OT,.mud 

of Wickedness and destruction : <". «"■- 


yea, we have gone through de- 
serts, where there lay no way : 
but as for the way of the Lord, 

8 we have not known it. What 
hath pride profited us ? or what 
good hath riches with our vaunt- 

9 ing brought us t All those 
things are passed away like a 
shadow, and as a post that 

10 hasted by ; And as a ship that 
passeth over the waves of the 
water, which when it is gone 
by, the trace thereof cannot be 
found, neither the pathway of 

11 the keel in the waves; Or as 

when a bird hath flown * through » Or.jUtth. 
the air, tliere is no token of her 
way to be found, but the light 
air being beaten with the stroke 
of her wings, and parted with 
the violent noise and motion 

6. tXa/afify V. A. HKkaiej/fv S. Ven. Ephr. ij/uf mu V. S. (v rjiuv mi A. i;Xiot tijj lnuuoavtnit Yen. Compl. Arm. 

7. Ji«oS«i»ffo/if» S. V. attvaanfv A. tyvai/iof V. A. tweyvaitty S. 8. wrtpij<fovia i;/mui' Ven. 353. «m ri V. S. i> « 

A. Vulg. oKaiovtas A. 8. trvy$(fikiiTai S. 10. ij a« 8". rpowios V. rpovias S. rpowtat S'. A. rpt/lwr V. 

11. i!«»Toi^oj V. Ephr. tiawravrof A. 8. V. Compl. Aid. noptlas. noviiptat S. wopiot S'. /leuTTif. rapaaiy V, ip airf, 

avTov S. Ephr. iv ai/ry S^ 




[v. 13- 

of them, is passed through, and 
therein afterwards no sign where 

12 she went is to be found; Or 
like as when an arrow is shot 
at a mark, it parteth the air, 
which immediately cometh toge- 
ther again, so that a man can- 
not know where it went through : 

13 Even so we in like manner, 
as soon as we were born, began 
to draw to our end, and had no 
sign of virtue to shew ; but 
were consumed in our own 

14 wickedness. For the hope of 

• Or.ttWfc- the ungodly is like dust' that 

is blown away with the wind ; 
like a thin froth that is driven 
away with the storm ; like as 

* Or, chaff. the smoke' which is dispersed 

here and there with a tempest, 
and passeth away as the re- 
membrance of a guest that tar- 

15 rieth but a day. But the right- 
eous live for evermore ; their 
reward also is with the Lord, 
and the care of them is with 

16 the most High. Therefore shall 
they receive a glorious king- 

» Or, dom ', and a beautiful crown 

leu the from the Lord's hand : for with 

ukcn im- his right hand shall he cover 
j'mk/J." them, and with his arm shall 
''■ 17 he protect them. He shall take 

to him his jealousy for complete 

Kol fJifTa TOVTO ovx fvpiOri ffrj- 
fjLeiov ^Trt/3d<rfa>s iv avrif' 


Tnr]6f\s 6 arip evfl^'ajs els eav- 

Tov &ve\v0r], 
iy ayvoTJcrai Triv hCohov avrov' 

13 oijT<os Koi Tfixfis yevvr]6ivTes 

KOI apeTTJs p.iv (rqneiov oihiv 

iv hi TTJ Kaxlq fip,&v Kareba- 

14 on kXiiis &(re^ovs is ^epo- 

fifvos y^vovs VJ70 avlyiov, 
KoX ws n&xvri into \al\aitos 

8t£ox^€i<ra XfTir^, 
KoX is Kaisvos v-nh &v4ixov 8ie- 

Koi is fivela KaraX^ov fiovo- 

rjp.ipov TTapiibeva-e. 

15 AiKaioi Se els rbv aZifa ^uo't, 
KOI iv KvpC<a 6 ixi<t6os ovt&v, 
KOI fi ffypovrh aiiToiv Ttapa 

16 6ia TOVTO X'qyjfovrai to fiacC- 


KOI TO biibr]p.a tov KdXXovs 

iK xf'pos Kvpiov 
OTi rjj fiesta trKeirdirei avroiis, 
KOI T(2 ^payLovi viapaaTtuX 


17 Xj/\/f€rai Tiavo-nklav tov C^Xor 


transvolavit, et post hoc nullum 
signum invenitur itineris illius ; 
13 aut tanquam sagitta emissa in 
locum destinatum, divisus aSr 
continuo in se reclusus est, ut 

13 ignoretur transitus illius ; sic 
et nos nati continuo desivimus 
esse ; et virtntis quidem nul- 
lum signum valuimus ostendere, 
in malignitate autem nostra 

14 consumti sumus. Talia dixerunt 
in inferno hi, qui peccaverunt ; 

15 [14] quoniam spes impii tanquam 
lanugo est, quae a vento toUi- 
tur; et tanquam spuma gracilis, 
quae a procella dispergitur ; et 
tanquam fumus, qui a vento 
difFusus est ; et tanquam me- 
moria hospitis unius diei prae- 

16 [15] Justi autem in perpetuum 
vivent, et apud Dominum est 
merces eorum, et cogitatio illo- 

17 rum apud Altissimum. [i6]Ideo 
accipient regnum decoris, et 
diadema specie! de manu Do- 
mini ; quoniam dextera sua 
teget eos, et brachio sancto sno 

i8 defendet illos. [17] Accipiet ar- 

12. aytkuatv Ven. nji' dSov S. StoSov S'. 13. y*vr)6tvr(% V. ttfKnnittr S. V. t^tXtmoiuv A. Compl. 14. xous 

Apel. al. x**"" S. A. V. Ven. Compl. Aid. Vulg. toxvij V. A. S. axvij 157. F. G. Par. Vulg. Syr. apaxvri Yety. SitxiOii. 
titX.v0ri 248. Compl. as iweiav S. t) as /atta S'. rj km oui ftytia J48 Compl. iiovorinipoV' itovrjiupov S. ira/xuSfvi7< V. A. 
liittifvafv S. 15. <ppoyris. (ppovn)ais 248. CompL 16. Xrnaj/ovrtu S. A. Ita vv. 1 7. 19 Krjiafjfrai. St(i<f nipiov S. 

Tjf J. avrou 106. Compl. vrtpuuniiaft avrov S. imp. S'. 17. to itjKos S. imp. S*. 

-VI. I.] 



maturam zelus illius, et armabit 
creaturam ad ultionem inimi- 

19 corum. [is] laclaet pro thorace 
juBtitiam, et accipiet pro galea 

ao judicium certum : [iQJsumet scu- 
tum inezpugnabile, aequitatem ; 

2 1 [20] acuet autem duram iram in 
lanceam, et pugnabit cum illo 
orbis terrarum contra Lnsen- 

aa satoB. [31] Ibunt directe emis- 
Biones fulgurum, et tanquam a 
bene cnrvato arcu nubium erter- 
minabuntor, et ad certum locum 

13 insUient. [22] £t a petroM ira 
plenae mittentur grandines ; 
excandescet in illos aqua maris, 
et flumina concurrent duriter. 

34 [23] Contra illoB Btabit spiritns 
virtutis, et tanquam turbo venti 
dividet illos; et ad eremum 
perducet omnem terram ini- 
quitas illorum, et malignitas 
evertet Eedes potentium. 


I Melior est sapieutia quam vires, 
et vir prudens quam fortis. 

a [1] Audite ergo, reges, et intelli- 
gite ; discite, judices finium ter- 

Kal iirXoiroijjcret tt^v Kxiiru) 
fls ifivvav f)(dpCiv' 

18 (vhicrtrax OutpaKa biKaiocrvirqv, 
Koi ittpidr)(T(Tax KopvOa KpLcriv 


19 Xiji/ftrai aa-n(ha aKaTafi.ix.r]Tov 


20 i^vei 8i airoTOfiop 6pyi]v (Is 

(ruv€KTio\.(pLri<r(i if avr(|i 6 KO<r- 
fios ivl Toiis irapi(f>povas. 

21 isopev(TovTai euaroyjoi ^oKCdes 


KOI Uf 0.1:0 eVKVKkoV TO^OV T(av 

v«f><iiv (Til (TKO-abv aXovvrai,' 

22 KoX (K TTerpo^oKov Ovfiov irKri- 

peis pt<f>rjiTOVTaL xiXa(ai' 
ayavaicrriaei koi' avrQv vbmp 

TTOTaiioi bi <rvyKk6<Tov<nv ino- 


23 dvrioT^o-trat avrols irreOfta 

KoX ois kcuX.a\lr iK\iKnrj(rfi av- 


Kol (prip.(L(Tii -naaav rr\v yrjp 

Koi J] KaKOTipayCa ireptrpe'^et 

Opovovs bwaoTtiv. 


I 'AKovtraTf oZv, fiaa-iXfis, koX 
fiidfTe, biKaffToi vepdronv yijs' 

armour, and make the creature 
his weapon for the revenge of 

18 his enemies. He shall put on 
righteousness as a breastplate, 
and true judgment instead of 

19 an helmet. He shall take holi- 
ness ' for an invincible shield. ' '^• 


20 His severe wrath shall he sharpen 
for a sword, and the world shall 
fight with him against the un- 

21 wise. Then shall the right 
aiming thunderbolts go abroad; 
and from the clouds, as from a 
well drawn bow, shall they fly 

22 to the mark. And hailstones 
full of wrath shall be cast as 
out of a stone bow, and the 
water of the sea ehall rage 
against them, and the floods 

23 shall cruelly drown them. Yea, 
a mighty wind shall stand up 
against them, and like a storm 
shall blow them away : thus 
iniquity shall lay waste the 
whole earth, and ill dealing shall 
overthrow the thrones of the 


I Hear therefore, O ye kings, and 
understand ; learn, ye that be 
judges of the ends of the earth. 

17. AwKonniiaft. aJcnroo/ffci S. imp. S'. 18. iiicmoamTp S. Yen. al. koi Wf/nBtiatrai it Veo. 20. avrroktfaiati S. 

8< ante avr. om. A. al. 21. (vaTfio<p<H 253. vc^wv. yt^tXaiy S. 22. mi Ik. not om. S. itXi/pijs S. rora^ Si. 

roT. Tc S. avynKvatmaiv S. V. ovytcXvoiMnv A. tnriisXtiaottciv 106. 157. 261. 23. tK^itftqau A. Xuc/u/vci 396. 
VI. 1. Paaiktvs S. ^curiAut S*. 

I a 



[VI. 2- 

2 Give ear, ye that rule the people, 
and glory in the multitude of 

3 nations. For power is given you 
of the Lord, and sovereignty 
from the Highest, who shall 
try your works, and search 

4 out your counsels. Because, 
being ministers of his kingdom, 
ye have not judged aright, nor 
kept the law, nor walked after 

5 the counsel of God ; Horribly 
and speedily shall he come 
upon you : for a sharp judgment 
shall be to them that be in high 

6 places. For mercy will soon 
pardon the meanest : but mighty 
men shall be mightily tormented. 

7 For he which is Lord over 
all shall fear no man's person, 
neither shall he stand in awe 
of any man's greatness : for he 
hath made the small and great, 

8 and careth for all alike. But 
a sore trial shall come upon the 

9 mighty. "Unto you therefore, 
O kings, do I speak, that ye may 
learn wisdom, and not fall away. 

1 iv(t>TCara<r0f, oi Kparovvres ttXtj- 
Koi yvyavptofilvoi ItiX Sykois 

3 OTi ihoOr) Ttapa rov KvpCov ij 

Kpdrqtris vulv, 
Koi fj bwaoTfCa ■napa "T'^Cotov, 
5s e^erdo-ei vpMv to, tpya, 
KoX rai ^ovXas bupevvria-fi,. 

4 on virr}p4Tai owts rijs av- 

Tov fiaa-L\flas ovk iKpivarf 

ovbe f<f>v\d^aTe vofiov, 
ovbf Korh TTjv fiov\r)v rov 

Qeov iTropevdt]T(, 

5 (^piKT&i /cot Ta\i(oi Ittuttti- 

<r«Toi vyXv, 
Sri Kplcris ctTTorofxcy iv roiy 
vitfpfxowiv yivfTai. 

6 6 yap kki.yj.crro^ avyyvanrros 

iariv i\4ovs, 
bwarol bi bvvaTus fraa-d'q- 

7 ov yap VTroartkeiTai Ttpocrioitov 

6 irdvTaiv Aeo-TTo'rTjy, 
ovbi ivrpairrjo-fTai fifytOos' 
Sti p.iKpbv Kol fifyav avrbs 

6p.oi(i)s re irpovoel wept irivTatv' 

8 TOLS bi Kparaiois lcr)(Vpa i(f>[- 

(TTarai Ipevva. 

9 TTpbs ow, a> vupavvoi, ol 

\.6yoi fiov, 
tva p,6.Qr\Te (TO<f>Cav koI uri 

3 rae. [2] Praebete aures vos, qui 
continetis multitudines, et place- 
tis vobis in turbis nationum : 

4 [3] quouiam data est a Domino 
potestas vobis, et virtus ab Al- 
tissimo, qui interrogabit opera 
vestra, et cogitationes scruta- 

5 bitur ; [4] quoniam cum essetis 
ministri regni illius, non recte 
judicaatis, nee custodistis legem 
justitiae, neque secundum volun- 

6 tatem Dei ambulastis. [5] Hor- 
rende et cito apparebit vobis; 
quoniam judicium durissimum 

7 his qui praesunt fiet. [6] Exi- 
guo enim conceditur nusericor- 
dia ; potentes autem potenter 

8 tormenta patientur. [7] Non 
enim subtrahet personam cujus- 
quam Deus, neo verebitur 
magnitudiuem cujusquam, quo- 
niam pusillum et magnum ipse 
fecit, et aequaliter cura est illi 

9 de omnibus, [s] Fortioribua 
autem fortior instat cruciatio. 

10 [9] Ad T08 ergo, reges, sunt hi 
sermones mei, ut discatis sapien- 

2. firi oxXovt S. 3. rov om. A. al. Compl. ti/ttK A. V. S. Ven. w/uw 106. 155. iniuv 361. tou «^i<tt. Ven. 253. 

4. Supewijad A. t^fpawrjau S. ((tptin^att S'. titfrnvvrjau V. 5. tmanjafTat vfuv o^tSpos Ven. al. 6. avyyyoMrros V. 

eniyvaiaTm A. S'. fvyyoxTTOs S. «rTii' om. 55. 354. 396. t\tov A. 7. lUyay, /tcifa 106. 155. 396. •/km'Mj A. V. Ven. 
vfovouTot S. Compl. al. 8. iirnrraTo* V. (pauva V. tpnva V. 

-VI. 1 8.] 



1 1 tiam, et non excidatis. [lo] Qui 
enim custodierint justa juste, 
justificabuntur ; et qui didi- 
cerint ista, invenient quid re- 

12 spondeant. [ii] Concupiscite 
ergo Bermones meo8,diligite illos, 
et habebitis diaciplinam. 

13 [12] Clara est, et quae nunquam 
marcescit, sapientia ; et facile 
videtur ab his qui diligunt earn, 
et invenitur ab his qui quae- 

i4rnntillam. [13] Praeoccupat qui 
se concupiscunt, ut illis se prior 

15 ostendat. [14] Qui de luce vigi- 
laverit ad illam non laborabit ; 
assidentem enim illam foribus 

16 suis inveniet. [i-;] Cogitare ergo 
de ilia sensus est consummatus ; 
et qui vigilaverit propter illam 

17 citosecuruserit. [16] Quoniam 
digno; se ipsa circuit quaerens, et 
in viis ostendit se illis hilariter, 
et in omni providentia occurrit 

18 illis. [17] Initium enim illius 
verissima est disciplinae con- 

19 cupisceutia. [18] Cura ergo dis- 
ciplinae, dilectio est ; et dilectio 
custodia legum illius est ; custo- 
ditio autem legum consummatio 

10 01 yap ^vXd^avTfs 6(rC(os rci 

o<na 6(nui9ria-ovTai, 
(cot ol hibaxOfVTes airra fiprj- 
(TovfTiv aiToXoyiav. 

11 iTri0vp,ri(raTf dvv rSiv koyaiv 


TToOria-aTe koL iraihevOrlcrfa^f. 
I J Aafiirpa Kal afiipavTos eanv 
fi ao(f)la, 
Kal tv\€p&s OaopfiTai viro t5>v 

ayanaivTUiv avTT]v, 
Kal fvpicrKfTai vtto t&v Ch- 
Tovirrmv avrriv' 

13 <f)6iv ft TOVS (TTlOvfiOVVTaS Ttpo- 


14 o opOplcras iir' airrriv oi 

irdpfbpov yap fvpr)(r(i tS>v 
•nv\<av avTov. 

15 TO yap ivBvfJLrjOrjvai Ttfpl avriji 

((>povT)(T(ws Tfkdorrjs, 
Kal 6 &ypvin>rj(ras fit' avTrjv 
Tax^ws ap.ipip.voi itrraC 

16 on Tovi a^iovs avTTJs avrq 

ireptepx^rai fr;roC(ra, 
Koi iv Tats Tplfioii (t>avTa^€Tai 

avTOis (vpfv&i, 
Kal iv Ttdarri iTrivoiq aTraw^ 


17 dpxrj yap avrfji f] aXrjdeariTTj 

iraibdas iindvpCa, 

18 (^poirls 6^ TraibeCas iydTrq, 
dydirrj he Trjprjcris vopMV avnjs, 
TTpocroxT] hi vopxav fifj3aCa)a-is 


to For they that keep holiness 
holily shall be judged holy ■ : i or, 


and they that have learned 
such things shall find what to 

1 1 answer *. Wherefore set your » or, 
affection upon my words ; de- 
sire them, and ye shall be in- 

12 structed. Wisdom is glorious, 
and never fadeth away : yea, 
she is easily seen of them that 
love her, and found of such as 

13 seek her. She preventeth them 
that desire her, in making her- 
self first known unto them. 

14 Whoso seeketh her early shall 
have no great travail : for he 
shall find her sitting at his 

15 doors. To think therefore upon 
her is perfection of wisdom : 
and whoso watcheth for her 
shall quickly be without care. 

16 For she goeth about seeking 
such as are worthy of her, 
sheweth herself favourably unto 
them in the ways, and meetetb 

17 them in every thought. For 
the very true beginning of her 

is the desire of discipline ' ; and » or. 
the care of discipline is love; 

18 And love is the keeping of her 
laws ; and the giving heed unto 
her laws is the assurance of in- 

10. <pv\a(ovT(s "V. TO offiQ offiou S. 106. 361. 12. Kafirpa yap Ven. 253. 13. (vi0vii. camp' S. 155. 261. atmjt 106. 

irpo Tov yviuaSrjvou 106. 261. 14. €»' otmjv S. V. spot avr. A. al. CompU rvXHy. wXovraiy S. imp. S'. 15. wt/n 

avTi]s ivS. S. 16. avn] om. S. 253. <pavT. ovrovs Ven. al. avavra S. A. Ven. »1. Oompl. vtama V. Clem. Al. 18. 
*(u8. iyimj. vcuS. mSviua ayanr) S, cupOapata S. imp. S'. 



[vi. 19- 

19 corruption ; And incorruption 

maketh us near unto Glod : 

ao Therefore the desire of wisdom 

31 bringeth to a kingdom. If 
your delight be then in thrones 
and sceptres, ye kings of the 
people, honour wisdom, that ye 

32 may reign for evermore. As 
for wisdom, what she is, and 
how she came up, I will tell 
you, and will not hide mysteries 
from you : but will seek her out 
from the beginning of her na- 
tivity, and bring the knowledge 
of her into light, and will not 

23 pass over the truth. Neither 
will I go with consuming envy ; 
for such a man shall have no 

24 fellowship with wisdom. But 
the multitude of the wise is 
the welfare of the world : and 
a wise king is the upholding of 

25 the people. Keceive therefore 
instruction through my words, 
and it shall do you good. 

I I myself also am a mortal man, 
like to all, and the o£&pring of 
him that was first made of the 

19 a<p6ap(rCa 8e iyyiis flvai irotei 


20 i-Kidvy-la &pa (ro<t>las &viy(i 

(111 ^acriKfCav. 

21 el ovv libfO-Of iirl dpovQK (cat 

o-K^irrpoty, rvpavvot, \aoiv, 
Tt/x^crare (TO<j)lav, Iva (is rbv 
aldva fiaa-iKfvcrrjTf. 
23 T^ 6e' eoTi <ro(j)la icat itms iyi- 
vtTO, a-nayytXii, 

(cat OVK &TTOKpV\l/Oi VfUV fXlKT- 

dX\' a-n ipxVi yeye'trecos ^^- 

KoX 6r)<rat « Jy rh kp.<^av\s t^v 

yvStcnv avrfji, 
KoX ov fxri irapobeuaat Tr}V dA.7j- 
23 ovTe fifiv <f>66v(f rerrfKOTi avv- 
ort ovTos ov (cotrcowjo-ft (TO(f)Cq. 
34 irkfjOos 6^ crocl)&v craiTripia 
(cat /SacrtXevs (^p6vip.os fvard- 
Ofia fijjfxov. 
25 wore iraLhevecrOf rots prj\i.aa-L 
fxov, Koi m(l)e\r)di](T(a6e, 


I EJjLii piiv (cdyo) OirqTos ivOpcoTtos, 
X<TOS fiira(rtr, 
Kot yTjyeroCs aTro'yoros itpmro- 

20 incorruptionis est ; [19] incor- 
ruptio autem facit esse proxi- 

21 mum Deo. [20] Concupiscentia 
itaque sapientiae deducit ad reg- 

22 num perpetuum. [21] Si ergo 
delectamini sedibus et sceptris, o 
reges populi, diligite sapien- 
tiam, ut in perpetuum regnetis. 

23 Diligite lumen sapientiae, omnes 

24 quipraeestis populis. [22] Quid 
est autera sapientia, et quemad- 
modum facta sit referam, et 
non abscondam a vobis sacra- 
menta Dei ; sed ab initio nati- 
vitatis investigabo, et ponam in 
lucem scientiam illius, et non 

25 praeteriboveritatem. [isjNeque 
cum invidia tabescente iter ha- 
bebo,quoniam talis homo non erit 

36 particeps «apientiae. [24] Mul- 
titudo autem eapientium sauitas 
est orbis teiTarum ; et rex sa- 
piens stabilimentum populi est. 

37 [25] Ergo accipite disciplinam 
per sermones meos, et proderit 


I Sum quidem et ego mortalis 
homo, similis omnibus, et ex 
genere terreni illius qui prior 
&ctus est ; et in ventre matris 

20. tTiBv/ua yap aao<pias A. €m9viua y' apa a(xpias Field. fniOv/uai yap ayatpti «iri Paa. S. tviSvfua yap ao^as avo7« S'. yap 
106. 155. al. 21. a; Tvpavvoi Ven. aL 22. Tis it S. imp. cor. tytytro (y avSponoit 248. 23. oirre pati D. Par, 

ovtt uri B. Par. 106. 261. KOtvoiyriau V. S. xoivwfci A. Yen. 55. 157. VII. 1. arOpcnot om, 8. V. avoyoyoy S. 

avoyoyos S'. 

-vn. lo.] 



3 figuratus sum caro, decern men- 
Bium tempore coagulatus Bum 
in sanguine, ex semine hominis, 
et delectamento somni conve- 

3 niente. Et ego natns accepi 
communera aSrem, et in simi- 
liter factam tlecidi terrara, et 
primam vocem similem omnibus 

4 emisi plorans. In involumentis 
nutritus sum, et cnris magnis. 

5 Nemo enim ex regibus aliud 

6 habuit nativitatia initium. Unus 
ergo introitus est omnibus ad 

7 vitam, et similis exitus. Propter 
hoc optavi, et datus est mihi 
seiisus ; et invocavi, et venit 

8 in me spiritus sapientiae ; et 
praeposui illam regnis et sedi- 
buB, et divitias nihil esse duxi 

9 in comparatione illius ; ncc com- 
paravi illi lapidem pretiosum, 
quoniam omne aurum in com- 
paratione illius arena est exi- 
gna, et tanquam lutum aesti- 
mabitur argentum in conspecta 

10 illius. Super salutem et Bpe- 
ciem dilexi illam, et proposui 

2 Koi iv KOiXCq fjLrjrpbs fy\v<f>riv 

a-ap^ beKaiJ,r]vial(f xpovio, 
iroyels iv atfiart (k a-TTtpixaros 
d,v5pbs Kol rjbojrijs VTtv(f 

3 Koi iyi> h( yfv6p.{Vos la-Tfa<ra 

Tov Koivbv aepa, 
Koi (111 TT]V onoioTTaOrj Kar^- 

i!i(Tov yrjv, 
■npdtrr\v (fxuvrfv ttiv op-oiav natrw 

l(Ta Kkaituv. 

4 fv a~!Tapy(ivois av(Tp6.(f)r)v Koi 

iv (^povrLcriv. 

5 oiSels yap ^ao-iXevs iripav 

ia\f yivio-eiiis o-pyjiv 

6 /xia he TidvTwv etcrobos ds tov 

^Cov, f^obos Tf t<rq, 

7 Aia roCro r)v^&p,r\v, koX <^p6- 

vr](ns ihoQr] fxoi' 
iTtiKaXi<Ti.p.r]Vf koX TjKOi y.oi 
TTvevp-a (ro<f)las. 

8 TtpoiKpiva avTrjv <rKi^iTTpa>v Koi 

KoX ttXovtov oib^v 7]yri(rdp,'qv 
iv (TvyKpicreL avTr)i' 

9 ovh\ u>p.oLui<ra avrfj kiOov arC- 


on 6 irSs XP*"''°* *" oi|ret 
avTrfi yjfdjJLiios oklyr], 

KOI Q)S TTTjkos XoyiaOrja-fTai 
dpyvpos (vavriov avTT]^. 
lo inikp vyUiav Kal evfiop({)iav 
fiyiirrja-a avrriv, 

Kflt TTpoeikofxriv avrfiv iirrl 

i earth, And in my mother's womb 
was fashioned to be flesh in 
the time of ten months, being 
compacted in blood, of the seed 
of man, and the pleasure that 

3 came with sleep. And when 
I was bom, I drew in the com- 
mon air, and fell upon the earth, 
which is of like nature, and the 
first voice which I uttered was 

4 crying, as all others do. I was 
nursed in swaddling clothes, 

5 and that with cares. For there 
is no king that had any other 

6 beginning of birth. For all 
men have one entrance into life, 

7 and the like going out. Where- 
fore I prayed, and understand- 
ing was given me : I called 
upon God, and the spirit of 

8 wisdom came to me. I pre- 
ferred her before sceptres and 
thrones, and esteemed riches 
nothing in comparison of her. 

9 Neither compared I unto her 

any precious stone ', because i or. tume 
all gold in respect of her is aa«iaUepna. 
a little sand, and silver shall 
be counted as clay before her. 
10 I loved her above health and 
beauty, and chose to have her 

2. tnrvy V. A. inwov S. Ven. 3. Kotvov rjiuv atpa Compl. 248. xari-wfaa S. Compl. 248. <(ra V. A. al. r/m Compl. 

Field. o/iaiaf awaai KKaiajr S. om. ura. Ita F. Par. 4. aytTi>a<fir]y Y. S. aytoTpcuptjy A. 157. icai ippoyr. A. S. «tu tw 

<pp. V. 5. ffaaiXtvs V. S. 0aai\«ui' A. 6. 0iov V. A. xoanov S. ttat) S. 7. tviafopf V. 9. oirrp V. 8. al. 

jivnjv A. wt ^/i/iot Ven. S', 10. wthw S.. ir/)o«iAo/»iji' V. S. ir/)o«<^fiiji' A. Ven. Compl. 



[vn. II- 

> Or. wilh- 
out guile. 

» Gr. wilh. 
out envy. 

> Or, alter 
iriM Qod. 

• Or, ftxJ 

8 Or, are to 

instead of light: for the light 
that Cometh from her never 

II goeth out. All good things 
together came to me with her, 
and innumerable riches in her 

13 hands. And I rejoiced in (hem 
all, because wisdom goeth be- 
fore them : and I knew not 
that she was the mother of 

13 them. I learned diligently' 
and do communicate her libe- 
rally ' : I do not hide her riches. 

14 For she is a treasure unto men 
that never faileth : which they 
that use become the friends of 
God ', being commended for the 
gifts that come from learning. 

15 God hath granted* me to speak 
as I would, and to conceive 
as is meet for the things that 
are given me " : because it is 
he that leadeth unto wisdom, 

16 and directeth the wise. For in 
his hand are both we and our 
words ; all wisdom also, and 
knowledge of workmanship. 

17 For he hath given me certain 
knowledge of the things that 
are, namely, to know how the 
world was made, and the opera- 

5ri &Kolixr]Tov rb iK TavT7]s 

II 'HA^e 8t' ^01 TO, dyadci ofxoC 
■ni-vra fitT avTrjs, 
Kal avapidfj.r\To^ irXoi3ros iv 
\(pcrlv avTTJs. 
13 fiipp&vdrjv be ewt tiacriv, 8ti. 
avT&v fiyflrai (TO(f)[a, 
fjyvoovv hi avTrjv ytvirw itvai 


13 dSo'Xtos re ip.a6ov, atpOovois 

re fX€Tabiba)p.i, 
Tov Tr\ovTov avtifs ovk cltto- 

14 aveKXiTTTis yap O-qaavpos iariv 

hv 01 XP'?<'''^M*'"" fpos &(bv 

(OTeikavTo (f>i,\[av, 
bia ras iK iraibflas bwpeas 


15 'Ejuol b\ bofrj 6 &ebs flireiv 

Kara yv(ay.r)v, 
KoX iv0vp.-q0T]vai a^lois tuv 

OTi avTos KoX rrjs tro<f)Cas 

obrjyos iari 
KOI T&v (ro(f>&v StopflojTTjy. 

16 iv yap Xfipl avrov Kal TjpLfis 

Kal ol koyoi fm&p, 
Ttaai re (})p6vr)(ris Kal ipya- 
TiiStv ^WKmy/iij. 

17 avros y6.p fioi IScoxe tS>v Svtu>v 

yvSxTiv hy]rivbi\, 
fibivat. avtrratnv koVjuou kuI 
ivipyfiav (TTOi\elu>V, 

pro luce habere illam, quoniam 
inextinguibile est lumen illius. 

II Yenerunt autem mihi omnia 
bona pariter cum ilia, et innu- 
merabilis honestas per manus 

I] illius; et laetatuB sum in om- 
nibus, quoniam antecedebat me 
ista snpientia, et ignorabam 
quoniam horum omnium mater 

13 est. Quam sine fictione didici, 
et sine invidia communico, et 
honestatem illius non abscondo. 

14 Infinitus enim thesaurus est 
hominibus ; quo qui usi sunt, 
participes facti sunt amicitiae 
Dei, propter disciplinae dona 

15 commendati. Mihi autem dedit 
Deus dicere ex sententia, et 
praesumere digna horum quae 
mihi dantur, quoniam ipse sa- 
pientiae dux est, et sapientium 

16 emendator. In manu enim il- 
lius, et nos, et sermones nostri, 
et omnis sapientia, et operum 

17 scieutia, et disciplina. Ipse 
enim dedit mihi horum quae 
sunt scientiam veram, ut sciam 
dispositionem orbis terrarum, 

11. tv x'P""' V. A. Ven. tv x<'/>i S. tv rau xtpaiv V. 12. tiMppavOrjv V. S. tiwppewBrp' A. tin iraiTcui' V. al. twi 

raaiv A. S. Compl. rjppiootv S'. •ycverii' A. yfvtTrjr j6i B. Par. ftvKnv V. S. Ven. 14. timv 9riaavpos S. ov V. 

A. S. f) Ven. 353. H. Par. ■xprjaaiuvoi V. S. Ven. KTrjaaiityot A. S'. vol. scrib. vid. Ha al. miaTaBhrrtt Vulgo. mi (rraStvrtt 
100. 261. 15. 89J5. SfScuKfv Compl. Aid. Arab. Vulg. ray StSofuvav V. 68. al. t. SiSo/icKur 253. Compl. Vulg.T. Xryofuyoiy 

A. 8. Ven. al. Syr. Arab. Arm. 16. fiyyarian' S. 

-vn. 25.] 



18 etviituteaelementorum, initiuin, 
et conEummationem, et metlie- 
tatem temporum, Ticissitudinuiu 
permutationes, et comiuutationes 

J9 temporam, anni cursus, et stel- 

20 larum dispoBitiones, naturae 
animaliuin, et ii-as bestiarum, 
vim ventorum, et cogitationes 
horainum, differentiiis virgulto- 

21 rum, et virtutes radicum. Et 
quaecunque sunt absconsa et im- 
provisa didici; [22] omnium enim 
artifex docuit me sapientia. 

22 Est enim in ilia spiritus intel- 
ligentiae, sanctus, unicus, multi- 
plex, Bubtilis, disertus, mobilis, 
incoinquinatuB, certus, Buavis, 
amans bonum, acutus, quern nihil 

23 vetat, benefaciens, humanus, 
benignus, stabilis, certus, se- 
curus, omnem habens virtutem, 
omnia prospiciens, et qui capiat 
omnes spiritus, intelligibilis, 

24 mundus, subtilis. Omnibus 
enim mobilibus mobilior est sa- 
pientia ; attingit autem ubique 

25 propter suam munditiam. . Va- 
por est enim virtutis Dei, et 
emanatio quacdam est claritatis 

18 i-pxri" tat rt'Aos Koi f/,fcr6Tr]Ta 


rpoTT&v aWayas (cai /x€ro/3o- 
\as Kai.pS>v, 

19 kviavrSiv kvkXovs koX iarptov 

20 ^VCrHS ^(i>U)V KOI OvpLOVS 6r]pi(ov, 

•nvtviiArcav /3ias koI biaKoyia- 

fxovs avOpJmutv, 
bia(f>opa.s <tiVT&v Koi 8w(i/X€t$ 

21 0<Ta tI ioTL KpVTITO. KoX fp,^aV7J 


22 fj yap TtdvTcov Texvins fblba^4 

pie <TO((>[a, 
'EoTi yap iv avrfi irvtvpia 

votpov, &yLov, 
fiovoyeves, iroXvpepts, Xeirrbv, 
fVKivrjTov, Tpavov, api,6\vvTov, 
<ra(/)ey, aTtr]p.avrov, <f>0\.dyadov, 

23 &ic(i\vTov, evepyiTLKov, <j)i\dv- 

/Senator, a(r<f)a\fi, ap.ipip.vov, 
Ttavrobvvapov, vavfTrlfrKOnov, 
Ka\ bid Tidwoiv X'^po^v Ttviv- 

voepatv KadapSav AeTrrordrojr. 

24 TraoTjs yap Kivrjatois KivrjTL- 

KtoTtpov <TO(\>ia, 

SiijKei 8e Kol X'^P*' ^'" isdv- 
ruiv bid TTiv KaOaporqTa. 

25 &TIUS ydp i(m r^s tov ©eoO 

/cai aTToppoia TTjy tov iravro- 

Kpdropos bo^s ilkiKpivri^' 

18 tion of the elements : The be- 
ginning, ending, and midst of 
the times : the alterations of 
the turning of the sun, and the 

19 change of seasons : The circuits 
of years, and the positions of 

20 stars : The natures of living 
creatures, and the furies of wild 
beasts : the violence of winds, 
and the reasonings of men : the 
diversities of plants, and the 

21 virtues of roots : And all such 
things as are either secret or 

22 manifest, them I know. For 
wisdom, which is the worker of 
all things, tauglit me : for in 
her is an understanding spirit, 

holy, one only ', manifold, sub- ' or. onty 
til, lively, clear, undefiled, plain, 
not subject to hurt, loving the 
thing that is good, quick, which 
cannot be letted, ready to do 

23 good, Kind to man, stedfast, 
sure, free from care, having all 
power, overseeing all things, 
and going through all »inder- 
standing, pure, and most subtil, 

24 spirits. For wisdom is more 
moving than any motion : she 
passeth and goeth through all 
things by reason of her pureness. 

25 For she is the breath " of the ' or, 


power of God, and a pure in- 
fluence ' flowing &x>m the glory » Or, 


18. mupaiK om. 106. 261. 19. cfiavroir V. Yen. al. Syr. Arm. cviavrov A. S. al. Compl. Yulg. Arab. «v«XovS. atrrpomS. 

Siafis. avySfaus 55. Spu/iovs 248. 20. Bv/iovs. yo/iovs «ai 6r)pta>r S. 22. tartv V. fv ourp V. 8. Ven. al. Vulg. 

Syr. Arab. Arm. auri; A. 55. io5. al. Euueb. Praep. vii. 12. tvt/r)(Tov S. 23. vavrtmaKovov A. S*. al. votpov 261. 

KoSapov 106. KaSapoirarov 261. KfitroTaTov io6. 261. Cf. Vulg. 24. KaSaptonjTa S. Ven. 261. Aid, 1 autem eras. S'. 

25. anopoia S. (imp. S'.) fl\iKptnis Y. S. iKiKpivuas A. 



[vii. 26- 

of the Almighty : therefore can 
no defiled thing fall into her. 

26 For she is the brightness of the 
everlasting light, the unspotted 
mirror of the power of God, 
and the image of his goodness. 

37 And being but one, she can do 
all tilings : and remaining in 
> Or, herself, she niaketh * all things 

new : and in all ages entering 
into holy souls, she maketh 
them friends of God, and pro- 

a8 phets. For God loveth none 
but him that dwelleth with 

29 wisdom. For she is more 
beautiful than the sun, and 
above all the order of stars : 
being compared with the light, 

30 she is found before it. For 
after this cometh night : but 
vice shall not prevail against 


1 Wisdom reacheth from one end 
to another mightily : and 

« Or, sweetly ' doth she order all 


2 things. I loved her, and sought 
her out from my youth, I de- 

• Or, to sired to make /ler my spouse ', 

to mim^. j^ J J ^j^g j^ lover of her beauty. 

610 Toirro ovhiv \i.niia(ifj.ivov 
(Is aiiTijv irapefjiTTiTTTd, 

26 aiiavyaa-^a ydp tori (pwTos 

KOI laoTTTpov aKTjXiSwroj; r^s 

Tov &eov fvepyeias, 
Kol (iKbiv Trjs ayaOoTTjTos avrov. 

27 fiia 6e ovcra Travra bvvarai, 
(cat p.ivov(Ta Iv avrfj to Ttivra 

KoL Kara yeveas els \jfi>\a.s 
oa-ias p.fTaj3aCvov(Ta 

<fiL\ovs Qiov Koi irpo^^ras 

28 ovdfv yap ayairq 6 &fos fl fi^ 

TOV (TO<l>iq avvoiKOVVTa. 

29 IffTi yap avrrj exnTpeTtearipa 

KOt VTTep TTOKrav icrrptav 6ia-iv, 
ifxoTl (TuyKpivojiivr] evpiarKerai 


30 ToiJro p.iv yap biab^^trai vv^, 
ao<l>Cas 6^ ovk Amcr^vet xaKla, 


1 Aioreiret 8f airb Tsiparos eJs 

•nipas (vpdcTTcas, 
Kttt bioiKti Ta iraifra xpJJtrruy. 

2 TavTTjv i<f)iXri(ra koi ^^efjjrjjcra 

(K VeOTTJTOS p.OV, ffjjTTjcra iwpi<f>r)v ayayiaOai 

Koi ipaarris iyfvofxrjv tov kA\- 

\ovs avriis. 

omniiwtentis Dei siucera ; et 
ideo nDiil inquinatum in earn 

26 incurrit ; candor est enim lucis 
aeternae, et speculum sine ma- 
cula Dei majestatis, et imago 

27 bonitatis illius. Et cum sit una, 
omnia potest; et in se perma- 
nens omnia innovat, et per na- 
tiones in animas sanctas se trans- 
fert, amicos Dei et prophetas 

28 constituit. Neminera enim di- 
ligit Deus, nisi eum qui cum 

29 sapientia iuhabitat. Est enim 
haec speciosior sole, et super 
omnem dispositionem stella- 
rum ; luci comparata invenitur 

30 prior. lUi enim succcdit nox, 
sapieutiam autem non viucit 


I Attingit ergo a fine usque ad 
finem fortiter, et disponit omnia 

a Hanc amavi, et exquisivi a 
juventute mea, et quaesivi 
sponsam mihi earn assumere, 
et amator factus sum formae 

25. lUfuaaitcyoy 248 Compl. 27. w avrg V. S. fv fovrji A. Yen. al. Compl. rd irirra. to om. A. 28. ow!«k yap 

o 9«os ayavq A. al. 29. aarfpaiy A. wforipa. \afivpoTfpa 106. 261. B. Par. 30. ffof las V. ao(t>ia S. (imp. cor.). 

ao<t>iav A. 55. 254. ovk earriaxuti V. ov KaTtaxyti S. A. al. 011 can^xvcci 248. CompL VIII. 1. «is rc/xu V. Ven. aL 

i»i nffos S. A'. SioiirciTai A. Ven. to om. Ven. 

-vm. 9.] 



3 illiuB. Geoerositatem illius 
glorificat, contubemium habens 
Dei ; sed et omnium Domiuus 

4 dilexit illam ; doctrix enim est 
disciplinae Dei, et electrix ope- 

5 rum illiuB. Et si divitiae ap- 
petuntur in vita, quid sapientia 
locupletius quae operatur omnia? 

6 Si autem sensus operatur, quis 
horum quae sunt magis quam 

7 ilia est artifex ? Et si justitiam 
quis diligit, labores hujus mag- 
nas Iiabent virtutes: sobrieta- 
tem enim, et prudentiam docet, 
et justitiam, et virtutem, quibus 
utilius nihil est in vita homi- 

8 nibuB. £t si multitudinem 
scientiae desiderat quis, scit 
praeterita, et de futuris aestimat, 
scit versutias sermonum, et dis- 
solutiones argumentorum ; signa 
et monstra scit antequam iiant, 
et eventuB temporum et saecu- 

9 lorum. Proposui ergo banc 
adducere mihi ad convivendum, 
BcienB quoniam mecum commu- 

3 fvyivfiav So^dfet cnnj.^i<ji<nv 

&iov iypva-a, 
(cat 6 ■n&.vTutv AfaTioTrjs ^yi- 
mriiTiv avrrfv. 

4 nvoTis ydp ioTi ttjs tov &eov 

Kai aipfrls t&v tpyiov avrov. 

5 el bi TiKovTos eariv iindvuriTbv 

KTTJfJ,a fV j3l(D, 

tI <ro(f)ias irAovo'icorepov Trjs ra 
TrAvra fpya(on4vris ; 

6 el he (j)p6vq(ns ipyiC^rai, 

tIs avTTJs T&v ovTwv naWov 
iari re\vCrr]i • 

7 Kal el biKaioavvqv ctyawa riy, 
01 woVoi TovTrjs elarlp aperai' 
(r<o(f>po(TVvriv yap koX <f>p6vr)<Tiv 

biKaioavirqv Kal avbpeCav, 
&v \pr]<np.ciTepov ovb4v iariv 

ev l3i(o 6.vdp(6Tro(,s, 

8 el bk Kal iiokvneipiav "noBei 

dibe TO. hpyaia /cat ra fieWoiTa 

iirlaraTai aTpo(f>as \6yu>v Kal 

Avcrets alvtyixiiTUiv, 
cnjp.e'ia Kal repara ispoyivd- 

KOt eK^6.(Teii KaipSiV Kal XP^- 


9 eKpiva Toivvv Tavrqv ayayicrdai 

Tipbs crvp,^(M(nv, 
elbuis Sti lorat fiot (rvp.fiovkos 

3' In that she is conversant with 
God, she magnifieth her nobility: 
yea, the Lord of all things him- 

4 self loved her. For she is privy' ' "r, 
to the mysteries of the know- 
ledge of God, and a lover* of'Or, 

5 his works. If riches be a pos- 
session to be desired in this 
life ; what is richer than wis- 
dom, that worketh all things? 

6 And if prudence work ; who of 
all that are is a more cunning 

7 workman than she ? And if a 
man love righteousness, her 
labours are virtues : for she 
teacheth temperance and pru- 
dence, justice and fortitude : 
which are such things, as men 
can have nothing more profit- 

8 able in their life. If a man 
desire much experience, she 
knoweth things of old, and con- 
jectureth aright what is to come : 
she knoweth the subtilties of 
speeches, and can expound dark 
sentences : she foreseeth signs 
and wonders, and the events 

9 of seasons and times. Therefore 
I purposed to take her to me 
to live with me, knowing that 

she would ' be s counsellor of > Gr. tdtt. 

4. oipcris A. v. fpfTis S. ai/xTrii Par. I. tvptris Par. A. 55. 106. (vptrris Par. C. D. H. 261. 6. wKovotarrtpw 

V. A.Ven. Ti^arrtpoi' S. ir«/)«p7ofo/j€Vi)f S. 6. (pToferai ti 55. 353. 354. T«x>'i''i;t V. A. al. TfxwTis S. 106. 

7. aoxppoaivriv ri mu Ven. caiiptay A. S. C. 8. MoKontipav A. (ixaiuv V. C. 55. al. Arm. C(«aC<i A. S'. Ven. Vulg. CompL 

9, afaftaSoi om. C. a^. tfmvT(fi 106. 248. CompL 

K 2 



[viii. lO- 

good things, and a comfort in 

10 cares and grief. For her 
Bake I shall have estimation 
among the multitude, and ho- 
nour with the elders, though 

11 I be young. I shall be found 
of a quick conceit in judgment, 
and shall be admired in the 

12 sight of great men. "When I 
hold my tongue, they shall bide 
my leisure, and when I speak, 
they shall give good ear unto me : 
if I talk much, they shall lay 
their hands upon their mouth. 

13 Moreover by the means of her 
I shall obtain immortality, and 
leave behind me an everlasting 
memorial to them that come 

• Or, 14 after me. I shall set ' the peo- 
pie m order, and the nations 

15 shall be subject unto me. Hor- 
rible tyrants shall be afraid, 
when they do but hear of me ; 

» Or, op. I shaU be found ' good among 
the multitude, and valiant in 

16 war. After I am come into 
» Or, Bting mine house ', I will repose my- 
miZ house. Self with her : for her conver- 
sation hath no bitterness ; and 
to live with her hath no sorrow, 

17 but mirth and joy. Now when 
I considered these things in 
myself, and pondered them in 
my heart, how that to be allied 
unto wisdom is immortality ; 

18 And great pleasure it is to have 

KoX irapaivfcrii i^povrlhuiv koX 


10 1^0) 81' avTr\v ho^av iv ^^Xoiy, 
icat Ti)xr\v irapa irpfa-fivr^pois 

6 v4os. 

11 o^vs fvpf6ri(T0fiai iv Kpicrti, 
KoX iv o\jffi bvvaoT&v Oavfia- 

13 (TiySivTa fxf Tttpifievovcn, 
Kal (pOfyYOfifva upoa-i^ovcri, 
Ka\ XaKovvTOi iiti ■nKtiov X**P" 
iTn6-i]crovaiv iiri aropLa av- 

13 1^0) 81' avTT]v adavacrCav, 

Koi p,vT)ixr)v aldviov rots fier 
ip.e &i:o\e[\jfa>. 

14 8toticjjcra) Xaoir;, itat lOvq iiro- 

TayrjCTfTaC fxot. 
If (l>o^ri6ri(rovTaC fxe aKova-avTfi 
Tvpavvoi <t>plKTOl, 
(V irXridet <f> iyaObs 
Kol iv iTo\ip.<a di'Spetos. 

16 (la-f\6a>v fls tov oIkov fxov 

TTpocravaTTa^o'Onai air^' 
ov yap Ix* ' TTiKpCav rj avvava- 

(TTpo(pTi avTTJs, 
ovbe 6bvvr}v f] avfi^Cma-ii avTTJs, 
&\\a fV(f>poarivrjv Kal yapav. 

17 Tama \oyi.(Tjj.Ap.ivos iv ii^av- 

Kal <})povTicras iv Kapbtq p.ov, 
5ri ^Oavairia iarlv iv avyyevflq 

18 KOl iv <f>ikl(} air^s ripn^K 


nicabit de bonis, et erit allocntio 

10 cogitationis et taedii mei. Ha- 
bebo propter banc claritatem 
ad turbas, et honorem apud 

1 1 seniores juvenis ; et acutus in- 
veniar in judicio, et in conspectu 
potentium admirabilis ero, ^ 
facies principum mirabuntur 

13 me; tacentem me sustinebunt, 
et loquentem me respicient, et 
sermocinante me plura, manus 

13 on suo imponent. Praeterea 
babebo per banc immortalita- 
tem, et memoriam aeteruam liis 
qui post me futuri sunt relin- 

14 quam. Disponam populos, et 
nationes mihi erunt subditae. 

15 Timebunt me audientes reges 
horrendi ; in multitudine vi- 
debor bonus, et in bello fortis. 

16 Intrans in domum meain, con- 
quiescam cum ilia ; non enim 
habet amaritudinem conversatio 
illius, nee taedium convictua 
illius, sed laetitiam et gaudium. 

17 Haec cogitans apud me, et com- 
memorans in corde meo, quo- 
niam immortalitas est in C<^- 

18 natione sapientiae, et in amicitia 

10. «» oxXv C. 12. x«V" ^- •*■■ X^'P" *« C. X"P"» S. 55. 157. 353. fmff. x«P« Ven. roaroiiaS. 13. Poet 

aBavas. add. C. Atai Tiitrjv wapa (cetera non liquent). iiro\(hf'ai. KaraXiifiai C. 14. vwoTayri<r(Tat A. V. S. al. inroTttyt)- 

aovrat S'. 106. 348. 261. Compl. 15. <pavri<rofuu C. 16. ovSt . . . aurijs om. 106. 261. ij av/iP. at/rijj om. 254. 17. 

oAiraffia tarir A. 8. V. C. Ven. aL tariv oftu-. V. al. tr tvyfvfui 348. fv om. S. suppl. S'. 18. T^fuj/ts. r/x^it C. 

-rr. 2.] 



illius delectatio bona, et in ope- 
ribus manoam illius honestas 
sine defectione, et in certamine 
loquelae illius sapientia, et prae- 
claritas in communicatione ser- 
roonum ipsius, circuibam quae- 
rens, nt mihi illam assumerem. 

19 Puer antem eram ingeniosus, et 
sortitus sum animam bonam. 

20 Et cum essem magis bonus, veni 
ad corpus incoinquinatum. 

31 Et nt sciri qnoniam aliter non 
possem esse continens, nisi Deus 
det ; et hoc ipsum erat sapien- 
tiae, scire cujus esset hoc do- 
mum ; adii Dominnm, et depre- 
catus sum Ulum, et dixi ex totis 
praecordiis meis : 


I Dens patrum meorum, et Do- 
mine misericordiae, qui fecisti 

i omnia verbo tuo, et sapientia 
tua constitnisti hominem, at 
dominaretur creaturae quae a 

Ktu iv Ttovois }(f(pui> atrrfji 

wAovros iptK\nn]i, 
ttai iv tTVYyvfivatrLa ofitXCas av- 

KOi d/xAeia iv KOivotpCq Koywv 

Vfpiriftv (rjT&v OTTODS Kifio) 

avTTiv (Is ifiavTov. 

T( fkaxov iya0TJs' 
JO /ioAAof 6^ iyaOos lav J)\0ov 

(If (Tafia ofxCavTov. 
a I rvovs be on ovk aAA<uy IffOfiai 

fyKparris, iav firi 6 0€oy 

(»cat TovTo 8' ^i* <l>poirtj<rf(iis to 
tlifvat rlvoi fj xipis,) 

ivtTvxpv T^ Kvp^&>, KcX ibf-qOrjv 

KoX (TiTov i^ o\»jy rijs Kapbias 


1 Qti aariptiiv koI Kvpie rov 

6 TTOi^o-oy ra irivra iv Xoy<j> 


2 Koi rfi (To<pCq (TOV Karaa-Kevd- 

(ras &v6pa>—ov, 
iva bfOTToQi tQv vwo aov ytvo- 
fUv«>v KTierfLarcov, 

her friendship ; and in the^ _ , 

work* of her hands are infinite*^ " ^ 1 Cl 
riches ; and in the exercJBe of ^ C^ '" =0 
conference with her, prudence ;\'^ y^ :^j 
and in talking with her, a good 
report ' ; I went about seeking ' Or,. 

19 how to take her to me '. For » or, many 


I was a witty child, and had 

20 a good spirit. Yea rather, being 
good, I came into a body un- 

21 defiled. NeTertheleas, when I 
perceived that I could not other- 
wise obtain her, except God 
gave her me ; and that was a 
point of wisdom also to know 
whose gift she was ; I prayed ' » or, teau. 
unto the Lord, and besought 
him, and with my whole heart 
I said, 


1 God of my fathers, and Lord 
of mercy, who hast made all 

2 things with thy word, And 
ordained man through thy wis- 
dom, that he should have do- 
minion over the creatures which 

IS. waroit tpyoiv xt'P"" ^en. »5$. vXovrot. T«fi^t S. imp. cor. irticXtwiit. ai^XXi*ip 106. 157. avyyiiramif A-Y. 
tm'yvfiy.S. tf yvitvaatfC i^J, o/aAia 106. 157. dMcAiut. tvxXfrp A. C. \ii0tt). 07070; S. tls tiuurrir. */io; f/<. 106. 157. 
260- CompL 19. T€. Sc 55. 106. 261. 21. o6k aXXars. ou mXax A. C. ToSrro. to C. V ijy. Si; C. S. (aed 8< S*.) 

^poyi/atois €<my C. (ppof. TcXtion/i 55. 254. twos 17 x"?- ^- S- *'■ ''"'''* X'P- ■*•■ rtrot tartr t) x<«/>. C. IX. 1. nw cXtovt 

vov V. S. A. Yen. <rm ab«st a C. 106. 248. 254. 261. B. C. F. 6. 1. Par. Compl. Valg. Syr. 2. ao^if am, C. om. cov. 

ManvKOicuna V . Yen. al. nanurKtmmu A. 8. al. Compl. Aid. tm co^panof 248. 261. CompL Aid. Stamin C. 



[jx. 3- 

3 thou hast made, And order 
the world according to equity 
and righteousness, and execute 
judgment with an upright 

4 heart : Give me wisdom, that 
sitteth by thy throne ; and re- 
ject me not from among thy 

5 children : For I thy servant 
and son of thine handmaid am 
a feeble person, and of a short 
time, and too young for the 
understanding of judgment and 

6 laws. For though a man 
be never so perfect among the 
children of men, yet if thy 
wisdom be not with him, he 
shall be nothing regarded. 

7 Thou hast chosen me to be 
a king of thy people, and a 
judge of thy sons and daughters : 

8 Thou hast commanded me to 
build a temple upon thy holy 
mount, and an altar in the 
city wherein thou dwellest, a 
resemblance of the holy taber- 
nacle, which thou hast pre- 
pared from the beginning. 

9 And wisdom was with thee : 
which knoweth thy works, and 
was present when thou madest 
the world, and knew what was 
acceptable in thy sight, and 
right in thy commandments. 

10 O send her out of thy holy 

3 Koi bUirri tov Koafiov iv 6(ti6- 

TtlTl KoX hiKaioavvTf, 
Kol iv tvdvTTjTi. V^x^s KpCaiv 

4 80s jLtoi TTJi' rStv <t5>v 6p6v(>>v 

irdpfbpov cro<j)iav, 
Koi p.rj pL€ diroSoKifnioTjs iK 
■nalhtav <rov. 

5 Srt iyai hovkos cros koX vioy 

TTji TiaibCa-KJjs <tov, 
i.v9po>vos iaOfprfS Koi d\iyo- 

KoL ik6.(T<T(t>v iv <rvv4a-(i Kpl- 

<r(u>s Kai vopxav. 

6 (cSf y&p Tts tJ Tfkfios iv viois 

Trji iiiio (TOV a-o<l)Cas dwojJoTjj 
(Is ovbev KoyiffdrjcTfTai. 
J av p.f TTpofCko) ^aatXia kaov 
Kot biKaarriv vl&v crov (cal 

8 eiwos olKobop,rj(rai vabv iv opei 

ayi'o) (TOV, 
Kol iv iroXfi Karaa-KTjvdcreds 

aov 6v(Tia(m^piov, 
p.ip.-r]p.a (TKTjvrjs ay [as fjv irpoij- 

ToCixa(ras air dpxijS' 

9 Koi p.(Ta (TOV fi (TO(pCa ^ (Ibvia 

Ta ^pya a-ov, 
KoX ■napov(Ta Sre iiroUis tov 

KoX iTncrrafiivT] ri ipicrrbv iv 

6(f>da\pL0is (TOV 
Koi tC fvOis iv iirroXaii (rov. 
10 i^aTtooTfikov avTr]v i$ ayCoiv 


3 te facta est ; ut disponat orbem 
terrarum in aequitate et jus- 
titia, et in directione cordis 

4 judicium judicet; da mihi so- 
dium tuarum assistricem sa- 
pieutiam, et noli me reprobare 

5 a pueris tuis ; quoniam servus 
tuus sum ego, et filius ancillae 
tuae, homo iufirmus, et exigui 
temporis, et minor ad intellec- 

6 tum judicii et legnm. Nam 
et si quis erit consummatus 
inter filios hominum, si ab illo 
abfuerit sapientia tua, in nihi- 

7 lum computabitur. Tu elegisti 
me regem populo tuo, et judi- 
cem filiorum tuorum, et filia- 

8 rum ; et dixisti me aedificare 
templum in monte sancto tuo. 
et in civitate habitationis tuae 
altare, similitudiuem tabernaculi 
sancti tui, quod praeparasti ab 

9 initio ; et tecum sapientia tua 
quae novit opera tua, quae et 
affuit tunc cum orbem terrarum 
faceres, et sciebat quid esset 
placitum oculis tuis, et quid 
directum in praeceptis tuis. 

10 Mitte illam de caelis Sanctis 

6. «o»'7a/)55. 157. i;TitC. «isom.S.C. lyuBtv A..C \oyia9ti(royTai S. -ffcroi S'. 7. wpoti\aiY.A. v/xwiXov S. Ven. al. 

Compl. wpoafi\ouC. S. outoSoiujau 0. «aTa<f«nji'€(r«(w A. 9. ciroici C. iv dtpO.aov. tyarwiov 2^8. 10. ayioiv aov 1^ J. \vilg. 

-IX. 17.] 



tuis, et a sede magnitudinis tuae, 
ut mecum sit et mecum laboret, 
ut sciam quid acceptum sit 

11 apud te; scit enim ilia omnia, 
et inteUigit, et deducet me in 
operibns meis sobrie, et cus- 

12 todiet me in sua potentia. Et 
emnt accepta opera mea, et 
disponam populum tuum juste, 
et ero dignus sedium patris mei. 

13 Quia enim hominum poterit 
scire consilium Dei ? aut quia 
poterit cogitare quid velit Deus ? 

14 Cogitationes enim mortalium 
timidae, et incertae providentiae 

15 nostrae. Corpus enim, quod 
corrumpitur, aggravat animam, 
et terrena inhabitatio deprimit 

1 6 sensum multa cogitantem. Et 
difficile aestimamus quae in 
terra sunt, et quae in prospectu 
sunt invenimus cum labore. 
Quae autcm in caelis sunt quis 

17 investigabit 1 Sensum autem 
tuum quis sciet, nisi tu dederis 

Kol diro dpovov bo^rjs <rou ire/i- 

yffov avTTip, 
Iva avfiTrapovad /xoi KOTSiia-p, 
Kal yvSt tL evdpiOTov kcm 

itapa (ToL 

11 oi8e yap iKeCirq irdvra Kat 

Koi ohriyrjo-fi /lie iv rais irpi^€(TC 

fjiov <ra)<f>p6va>s, 
Koi (f>v\(i^fi fj.e iv rfj bo^-p 

12 Kal larai irpoarbfKTa to, ipya 


Kal btaKpwQ Tov kaov <tov 

Kal l<ro/xai 3£ios QpdvoiV itar- 

p6s fwv. 

13 tCs yap &v0pmiios yvda-erai 

fiovKriv Qfov ; 
fj Hs evOvp-rjOrjcrfTai H Oikfi 
6 Kvpios ; 

14 Xoyicrnol yap OvqrSiv betXol, 
KOI iin<r<paX(ls al eiiCvoiai 

15 <^Oaprov yap a-Qfia fiapvvei 

Kal j3pi6fi TO yfdbfs (TKijvoi 
vovv iTo\v(j)povTCba, 

16 Kal jxokis (iKa^ofifv ra liri yijs, 
Kal ra tv xfpalv ivpiaKop.€v 

fifTa TTOVOV, 

TO. be iv ovpavois rts i^ixyCa- 
(rev ; 
1 1 Povkrjv bi aov rfs iyvo), d /*^ 
av IboiKas a-o(p(av 

heavens, and from the throne 
of thy glory, that being present 
she may labour with me, that 
I may know what is pleasing 

11 unto thee. For she knoweth 
and understandeth aU things, 
and she shall lead me soberly 
in my doings, and preserve me 

12 in her power'. So shall my'Or, i»»«r 


works be acceptable, and then**"*- 
shall I judge thy people righte- 
ously, and be worthy to sit in 

13 my father's seat. For what 
man is he that can know the 
counsel of Godi or who can 
think what the will of the Lord 

14 is ? For the thoughts of mortal 
men are miserable ', and our » or. 

15 devices are but uncertain. For 
the corruptible body presseth 
down the soul, and the earthy 
tabernacle weigheth down the 
mind that museth upon many 

16 things. And hardly do we 
guess aright at things that are 
upon earth, and with labour do 
we find the things that are 
before us ' : but the things that » Or. at 


are in heaven who hath searched 

17 out) And thy counsel who 
hath known, except thou give 


10. avrmftovaa S. avvvafmvaav /«m Koviaaa C. 11. to vavTa 55. 106. aL hf ToTt. tv om. C. Mwnjs S. a«m;i S'. 

12. SixoiOLicV. A. S. al. aoxppovoK C. $porovS. 13. aW/unnuv 348. Compl. i kv/hos. 0(ot Aid. CompL Vulg. 15. aicTJvos. 

aaiiia 106. 261. IS. /ioXi; V. /1071s A. S. C. al. x^P"'"^--^- »<><'■«' S. Ven. «fix»'<off«i 106. 261. Vulg. 17. ai ISwmt. 
vwcSawa; C. 



[ix. i8- 

» Or, in. 

'wisdom, and Bend thy Holy 
I? Spirit from above I For bo the 
ways of them which lived on 
the earth were reformed, and 
men were taught the things 
thst are pleasing unto thee, and 
were saved through wisdom. 


1 She preserved the first formed 
father of the world, that was 
created alone, and brought him 

3 out of his fall. And gave him 

3 power to rule all things. But 
when the unrighteous went 
away from her in his anger, 
he perished also in the fury 
wherewith he murdered his 

4 brother. For whose cause the 
earth being drowned with the 
flood, wisdom again preserved 
it, and directed the course of 
the righteous in a piece of 

5 wood of small value. More- 
over, the nations in their 
wicked conspiracy being con- 
founded, she found out the 
righteous, and preserved him 
blameless unto God, and kept 
him strong against' his tender 
compassion towards his son. 

6 When the ungodly perished, 
she delivered the ri^teous 

Koi iirenyj/as rit &yi6v a-ov 
■nvevfia airb {njfloTWV ; 
i8 (cat ovrws buopOdd-qa-av ai rpi- 
^01. Tmv ^TTi y^s, 

Koi TO. apeari. arov eSidix^l'rai' 


1 Avrrj wpwTowXaoToi' maripa 

Kocrfxov fiovov KTiaOivra 8te- 

Kot f^ftKaro avrov '« irapo- 
irrdfjiaTos IbLov, 

2 IbwKi re avTfa Jo^w Kparijcrai 

3 a-zoaras tk iv aiiTrjs ihtKos 

iv opyfi airoC, 
i.bfk<j)OKT6vois ovvaiTuKeTo 0v- 

4 bi bv KaTaKkvCoixevrjvyfjviiiX.i.v 

icruxTiv <TO(j)la, 
bi' fVTtKovs $vX.ov TOP bUaiov 

5 avTT] KOI iv bp-ovola TTOvtjpCas 

kOvSiv avy\vdivT(ov iyvut 
TOV biKaiov, 
Koi iTrjpTjcriv avrbv iy-iy/nTov 

Kai ^wl T^Kvov (TTrXtiyxvois 
l(r)(ypov (<})vKa^ev. 

6 avrq bUaiov (^airoWvu^vmv 

a(Tt^S>v ippvaaro 

sapientiam, et miseris spiritum 
sanctum tuum de altissimis ; 

i8 et sic correctae sint semitae 
eorum qui sunt in terris, et 
quae tibi placent didicerint ho- 

19 mines ? Nam per sapientiam 
sanati sunt quicunque placuerunt 
tibi Doniine a priucipio. 


1 Haec ilium qui primus for- 
matus est a Deo pater orbis 
terrarum, cum solus esset crea- 

2 tus, custodivit ; et eduxit ilium 
a delicto buo, [2] et dedit illi vir- 

3 tutem continendi omnia. Ab 
hac at recessit injustus in ira 
sua, per iram homicidii fratemi 

4 deperiit. Propter quern cum 
aqua deleret terram, sauavit 
iterum sapientia, per contempti- 
bile lignum justum guberuaus. 

j; Haec et in consensu ncquitiae 
cum se nationes contulissent, 
scivit justum, et conservavit 
sine querela Deo, et in filii 
misericordia fortem custodivit. 

6 Haec justum a pereuntibus 
impiis liberavit fugientem, de- 

17. a-no xAf^Xav S. aip v^ovt C. 18. ttopBaiSriaay S. C. raiv f0vaiv fm njs 71JS C. afnara C. aptara aot J48. Compl. 

rp amp. aov S. lo6. 296. X. 1. IfciAaro. titTtivtv 68. Aid. 2. fSaxt It C. oirm'Taii' V. wavraiy S. A. C. aX. 

awo iravToiy S\ 4. 81 ok V. A. S". Ven. Vulg. Sio S. C. SitaatatV. cffcwrtv S. A. C. Ven. al. Compl. Aid. &' «4t. 

8(' om. C. 6. awx"^- S. tyva S. A. C. Ven. Compl. Vulg. al. tvpt V. 68. ry 9«y C. Cumpl. rticvoK 106. 161. 

frvXa7x>'oi' 106. 6. tpvaaro 0. ita vs. 9, 13, Ij. 

-X, 12.] 



scendente igne in Pentapolim ; 

7 quibus in testimonium nequitiae 
fumigabunda constat deserta 
terra, et incerto tempore fruc- 
tus habentes arbores, et incre- 
dibilis animae memoria stans 

8 fignientum salis. Sapientiam 
enim praetereuntes, non tantum 
in hoc lapsi sunt ut ignorarent 
bona, Bed et insipientiae suae 
reliquerunt homiuibus memo- 
riam, ut in his quae peccave- 

9 runt nee latere potuissent. Sa- 
pientia autem hos qui se ob- 
servant a doloribus liberavit. 

10 Haec profugum irae fratris 
justum deduxit per vias rectas, 
et ostendit illi regnum Dei, et 
dedit illi scientiam sanctorum, 
honestavit ilium in laboribus, 

11 et complevit labores illius. In 
fraude circumvenientium ilium 
affuit illi, et honestum fecit 

13 ilium. Custodivit ilium ab ini- 
micis, et a seductoribus tutavit 
ilium, et certamen forte dedit 

(fivyovTa irvp Kara^daiov Yltv- 

7 fjs en fiapTvpiov Tjji i:ovr]pias 

KaTtviCofi-ivri KadiorqKe x^p- 

Kot areXiariv ctipaii KapitO(j>o- 

povvra <f)VTa, 
KM aTTtoToijiTrjs V'^'X^^ iivr]- 

jxfiov faTrjKVia ot^Atj dAo'y. 

8 (To^iav yap irapo^evcravTes oi 

fxovov (^\afij]<Tav rov p.r) 

yvZvai TO, KoXa, 
iXka KoX TTjs cuppoavvj]^ oTre- 

Xvnov r<5 /3ift> p-vrjiioavvov, 
tva iv ols (cr(f>a.\r](Tav nrjbi ka- 

Ofiv bvvi]d(ofn. 

9 <To<f>ia 6^ Toiiy OfpatrevaavTas 

avTr]V Ik ttovoov (ppvcraTO. 

10 avTT] i^vyaha opyiji abfX.(f)ov 

bUaiov i)briyr)<r(v ev rpi/3ots 
(bei^fv aiTO) ^aa-iXilav 0eoi3, 
Koi fbooKfv avT(o yvZcTLV ayloiv, 
evtiopTjaev avrov ev iJi6\6oii, 
Koi iirXriOvvf tovs ttovovs av- 

11 iv TrXf ov($Cq Kariar^yovTOiv av- 

rov Trape'oTTj, 
Kal eirkovTiafv avrov 

12 bu<f)vXa^(v avrov airb (xOp&v, 
Kal airo ivfbpevovrtov r)(T(^a- 

Koi iySiva lo^vpbv i^pd^eva-ev 

man, who fled from the fire 
which fell down upon the five 

7 cities '. Of whose wickedness 'J3t. 
even to this day the waste land 
that smoketh is a testimony, 
and plants bearing fruit that 
never come to ripeness : and a 
standing pillar of salt is a 
monument of an unbelieving 

8 soul. For regarding not wis- 
dom, they gat not only this 
hurt, that they knew not the 
things which were good ; but 
also left behind them to the 
world a memorial of their 
foolishness : so that in the 
things wherein they offended 
they could not so much as be 

9 hid. But wisdom delivered 
from pain those that attended 

10 upon her. When the righteous 
fled from his brother's wrath, 
she guided him in right paths, 
shewed him the kingdom of 
God, and gave him knowledge 
of holy things, made him rich 
in his travels, and multiplied 

11 the fruit of his labours. In 
the covetousness of such as op- 
pressed him she stood by him, 

12 and made him rich. She de- 
fended him from his enemies, 
and kept him safe from those 
that lay in wait, and in a sore 
conflict she gave him the vic- 


6. i^ttrjfoiTa S. ifivy. S'. «aTo/}. mp S. A. C. Ven. Compl. 7. oh M vulgo legitur. 17s tri S. A. V. al. Compl. Aid. 

171 (ffTiy Ven. r/ tan ftapT. C koi oitktt. 106. 261. Vulg. Syr. Arab, iwr/piuor. /iyij/iocrvi'ai' 106. 241. <rr)iutov n%. faTr)Kvir)S. 

8. vapoi, avBpainoi 55. 254. nj! (avroiv tvpp. 1 57. 248. Compl. airjAtoroi' A. fivrinr]v S. lanmoawoD S*. «p ms'Vea. 

9. Cf/miTfuffoi'TOs V. Ven. 68. 254. (9«/)air«wo>'Tat S.- A. C. al. W. ovtti koi tfnif. C. Iv rpi0. €y om. Ven. 0710W Ven. 253. 
ay6f>wv(vv C. voyovs. kotow S. A. Ven. 11. arkovrtatv out. tv /iOxOots C. 12. Stci^X. «<u «pvXa(fv S. Ven. 348. 
tPi>a0. atiroi' 261. 



[x. 13- 

tory; that he might know that 
godliness is stronger than all. 

13 When the righteous was sold, 
she forsook him not, but de- 
livered him from sin : she went 
down with him into the pit, 

14 And left him not in bonds, 
till she brought him the sceptre 
of the kingdom, and power 
against those that oppressed 

I Or, the him * : as for them that had ac- 

jxnctr of 

'iukdmr cused him, she shewed them to 

him. , 

be liars, and gave him per- 

15 petual glory. She delivered 
» Or, »«jy. the righteous ' people and blame- 
less seed from the nation that 

16 oppressed them. She entered 
into the soul of the servant of 
the Lord, and withstood dread- 
ful kings in wonders and signs ; 

17 Rendered to the righteous 
a reward of their labours, 
guided them in a marvellous 
way, and was unto them for 

» or,/diw. a cover by day, and a light ' 
of stars in the night season ; 

18 Brought them through the Red 

Xva yva on Travrbs bwarwripa 
earlv fva-e^fia. 

13 avrq TTpaOevra bCKaiov ovk 

iXXa i^ afiaprlas ippvaaro 

crvyKaTf^ri air<3 els XdKKOV, 

14 KOL iv huTp-ois OVK &<f)fJK(V 

?(09 rjveyKev avT<S a-KTJTiTpa 

Kal (^ova-lav TvpavvovvTuv av- 

y^fvbeis Tf ihei^e roiry futiixt]- 

(ra^ievovs avrov, 
Koi ihutKfv avT(f bo^av al<a- 


15 avTT] Xaov Scnov Kal (nr^pfia 

ip-fpLTTTov f^pvcraro i^ ed- 


16 (IcTTi'KOiv els ^xrjv depdiroiTOS 

Kal avTearr] ^aa-ikeva-i (po- 
^epois ev Tepacri Kal <rq- 

17 6,iTeba)Kfv oa-lois pucrOov Konoiv 

i>br)yr](rev avToxis iv 68(3 6av- 

Kal eyivero avTois els (nc^Tn/v 

Kal fls <f>k6Ya darpuiv rriv 


18 hie^ifiacrtv avTovs OdXaaaav 


illi ut vinceret, et sciret quo- 
niam omnium potentior est 

13 sapientia. Haec venditum jua- 
tum non dereliquit, sed a pec- 
catoribus libera vit eum ; des- 
cenditque cum illo in foveam, 

14 et in vinculis non dereliquit 
ilium, donee afferret illi scep- 
trum regni, et potentiam ad- 
versus eos qui eum deprimebant ; 
et mendaces ostendit qui ma- 
culaverunt ilium, et dedit illi 

15 claritatem aetemam. Haec 
populum justum et semen sine 
querela liberavit a nationibus 

16 quae ilium deprimebant. In- 
travit in animam servi Dei, et 
stetit contra reges horrendos in 

17 portentis et signis. Et reddi- 
dit justis mercedem laborum 
suorum, et deduxit illos in via 
mirabili, et fuit illis in vela- 
mento diei, et in luce ste)larum 

18 per noctem ; transtulit illos per 

12. mvTais S. imvTOJV S'. ij tvaffftia A. al. Compl. 13. fyKareXftiKy A. 148. Compl. t/maaro S. C. 14. ffw- 

itttT(0ri S. PaaiKdov 261. Tvpmiv. avrov Ven. C. al. S'. 16. iyTfarrj. avtart] Paai\(vs S. ' Sed post v. 19, ubi hio vs., at 

Bcriba ipse punctis indicavit, errore repetitus est, recte legitur avTfan] fiaaiKtvaiv.' Fritzsche. iirxypots «. <po0. 106. 361. 17. 

fuaSov o(rio(s A. al. fuaSoy oaiov 106. 261. oaiMs juaiov oaiOTtjTos 248. Compl. kowoiv avrov S. C. avraiy S'. ipXoyat S. ao'- 
Tf/KW A. C. S'. 18. tii SaXaaa. S. C. 

-XI. 5] 



mare fiubrutn, et transvexit 

19 illos per aquam nimiam. Ini- 

micos autem illorum demersit in 

mare, et ab altitudine inferorum 

eduxit illos. [jo] Ideo justi 

30 tulerunt spolia impiorum, et 

decantaverunt, Domine, nomen 

sanctum tuum, et victricem ma- 

num toam laudaverunt pariter ; 

XI quoniam sapientia aperuit os 

mutorum, et linguas infantium 

fecit disertas. 


I Direxit opera eorum in mani- 

3 bus prophetae sancti. Iter fe- 

cenint per deserts, quae non 

habitabantur, et in locis de- 

3 sertis fixerunt casas. Steterunt 
contra hostes, et de inimicis se 

4 vindicaveruut. Sitierunt, et 
invocaverunt te ; et data est 
illis aqua de petra altissima, et 
requies sitis de lapide dure. 

5 Per quae enim poenas passi 
sunt inimici illorum a defectione 
potus sui, et in eis cum abun- 
darent filii Israel laetati sunt, 

6 per haec, cum illis deessent, bene 

Kot birjyayfv avrovs 81' ibaros 
19 Toiis bi exOpovs avrav koWk- 


^paaev avTovi. 

30 810 Tovro bUaioi iaKvkeva-av 

Kai vp,vr](Tav, Kvpif, rb ovop.a 

TO &yi6v <rov, 
Trjv T€ VTtipp.W)(pv <rov xelpa 
fjve(Tav 6fj.o0vp.ab6v. 

31 oTk rj a-o(f>ia i]voi^f trTOjua 


Kol ykdcrcras vqirCaiv (Orjicf 


1 Kvcaboxre to ^pyo. avrStv (v 

Xf'pt vpo^-qTov aylov. 

2 bi,(ob(V(Tav eprjpov doiKTjTor, 
Koi iv dySdroiy i-nrf^av aKrjvds. 

3 iLVTi<TTr}<Tav iroXepCois, koI fx.- 

Opovs ripvvavTo, 

4 ibi'^r](rav koI ^reKoXecraiTo <Te, 
KoL ebodri avrols ^k itiTpas 

aKpoTopov vbuip, 
Koi lafia b(yjn]s « \ldov (tkXtj- 

5 Ai' &v yap iKoXaa-drjcrav ol 

fxOpol avTcov, 
bia TovTCdv avTol diropovvres 

sea, and led tbem through much 

19 water : But she drowned their 

enemies, and cast them up out 

of the bottom of the deep. 

30 Therefore the righteous spoiled 
the ungodly, and praised thy 
holy name, Lord, and mag- 
nified with one accord thine 
hand, that fought for them. 

31 For wisdom opened the mouth 
of the dumb, and made the 
tongues of them that cannot 
speak eloquent. 


1 She prospered their works in 
the hand of the holy prophet. 

2 They went through the wilder- 
ness that was not inhabited, 
and pitched tents in places where 

3 there lay no way. They stood 
against their enemies, and were 
avenged of their adversaries. 

4 When they were thirsty, they 
called upon thee, and water 
was given them out of the flinty 
rock, and their thirst was 
quenched out of the hard stone. 

5 For by what things their ene- 
mies were punished, by the 
same they in their need were 

18. Sta vSar. S. 19. (x^povs cairov C. KariKKvaay A. KOTtiravffo' S. 0i9. i0va<r. taii0ovs sine a0v<r<r. 8. iy{0paaa>. 

Sitfft$a(Tev C. (tirjiXBtr (t. i6) usque ad atjiuois repetivit S'. et uncis inclusit. 20. tt/v it C. x^'P"" C. S. 21. ijvoif tf S, 

XI. 1. EvoSoiffcv A. S. C. V. avrov A. eoram Vulg. upo^Toir ayiaiv A. 3. fX^P- '?M<""»>'''o S. A. C. Ven. V. al. rjimr. 

«X*. V. 6. -fap om. lo6. 361. 

Ii 3 



[xi. 6- 


6 benefited. For instead of 
a fountain of a perpetual 
running river troubled with 

7 foul blood, For a manifest re- 
proof of that commandment, 
whereby the infants were slain, 
thou gavest unto them abund- 
ance of water by a means which 

8 they hoped not for : Declaring 
by that thirst then how thou 
hadst punished their adver- 

9 Baries. For when they were 
tried, albeit but in mercy chas- 
tised, they knew how the un- 
godly were judged in wrath and 
tormented, thirsting in another 

10 manner than the just. For 
these thou didst admonish and 
try, as a father : but the other, 
as a severe king, thou didst 

1 1 condemn and punish. "Whether 
they were absent or present, 

I J they were vexed alike. For a 
double grief came upon them, 
and a groaning for the remem- 

13 brance of things past. For 
when they heard by their own 
punishments the other to be 
benefited, they had some feel- 

14 ing ' of the Lord. For whom 
they rejected with scorn, when 
he was long before thrown out 
at the casting forth of the in- 
fants, him in the end, when 
they saw what came to pass. 

6 &vrl ii€v 'mjyfjs ifvAov irora- 

fxov atnari XvOpdhei rapa- 


7 (Is tXfyx^ov trqiTLOKTOvov bia- 

IbiOKas airols ba^tXks vbcop 

8 hfC^as hih rod TOTf bC'^ovs 

■n&s Toiis vTrfvavrCovs ^ko- 

9 ore yap fireLpia-drja-av, Kainep 

fv iKfd Ttaib(v6p.fvoi, 
iyviacrav ttQs (v opyfj Kpivo- 
fifvoi dcre/Seiy €/3a<rori- 

10 TOVTovs p.iv yap is TTarrfp vov- 

dfTbiv ^6o/ctfiao-ay, 
^KfCvovs hi a)s aiTOTOfjios ^acn- 
Xeiiy KaTabiKa^uiv i^r^rao-as. 

11 (col aiTovTes 8^ Ka\ Trapovrei 

6pL0l<i>S kTp'U\OVTO, 

12 StirX^ yap avTow fXa^e Xvirrj, 
KOI oTfvayixos p.vrjy.<3iv ratv 


13 OTt yap TjKOVcrav hia tS>v lhla>v 

KoX6.(rf(DV (VfpyfTovnivovs 
■^(tOovto rov Kvplov. 

14 hv yap iv eKdicm -niXai pi- 

(jifVTa iireiTrov xXevdCofffs, 
ewl TtXei T&v iKjSda-tcav idai- 

ovx 5p.oia biKalois biyjnia-avTfs. 

7 cum illis actum est. [6] Nam 
pro fonte quidem sempitemi. 
fluniinis, humanum sanguinem 

8 dedisti injustis. [7] Qui cum 
minuerentur in traductione in- 
fautium occisorum, dedisti illis 
abundantem aquam insperate, 

9 [s] ostendens per sitim, quae tunc 
fuit, quemadmodum tuos exalta- 
res, et adversaries illos necares. 

10 [9] Cum enimtentati sunt, et qui- 
dem cum misericordia discipli- 
nam accipientes, scierunt quem- 
admodum cum ira judicati impii 

11 tormenta paterentur ; [10] bos 
quidem tanquam pater monens 
probasti; illos autem tanquam 
durus rex interrogans condem- 

11 nasti. [11] Absenteseniraet prae- 
sentes similiter toi-quebantur. 

13 [12] Duplex enim illos acceperat 
taedium,etgemitu8cum memoria 

14 praeteritorum. [13] Cum enim 
audirent per sua tormeutu bene 
secum agi, commemorati sunt 
Dominum, admirautes in finem 

15 exitus. [14] Quem enim in ex- 
positione prava projectum deri- 
serunt, in finem eventus mirati 
sunt, non similiter justis si- 

6. uv avri /itv Ven. atvaov A. S. V. aivyaxiv V. al. Ta/rax^t^TOJ S. A. A. F. G. Par. rafaxSivrfs V. al. Kv$pai Siara- 
^X**'^*'Ven. 7. l\fyxcv. firaivov 106.261. So^iXts om. io6. 261. Sajf/fiKisS. S.KoXaaasS. (xoKaaas S. cot. tKoXtaasC, 

9. (v opyQ A. V. /mt' opr/t]! S. C. Ven. 106. 353. 261. Vulg. 12. fiyjjiuay raiv mptKOovawv V. C. 68. 253. Arm. ^i^MV Taw 

wa/xMovraxi 296. B. Par. la/rjiuuv lav itapt\9ovTwv A. S. Ven. al. Compl. TraptKTi\v6oTtav 55. 254. A. Par. 13. mpytTov- 

Hwovt V. 68. al. tvfpytTtififvom S. A. C. 55. rov Kvpiov. aov mipit Ven. 253. S'. 14. rov yap V. S. or yap A. al. Compl. 

fX*««iS. A. fx^tct C iroXii'Ven. vaAai impv. S*. pt<l>€yTa waXai aySponror airtirovrts tx^fvaioy C. atttiwxiyS'. ttfov/ia^of A. 
Toit SiKaios S. Si<f^aavT(t. fffijiptaavra io6. 261. 

-XI. 20.] 



i6 tientes. [15] Pro cogitationibuB 
antem inseusatis iniquitatis illo- 
mm, quod quidam errantes cole- 
bant mutes serpentes, et bestias 
supervacuas, immisisti iilis mul- 
titudinemmutorumanimalium in 

17 vindiclam : [16] ut scirent, quia 
per quae peccat quis, per haec et 

18 torquetur. [17] Non euira im- 
poEsibilis erat omnipotens manus 
tna, quae creavit orbem terra- 
rum ex materia invisa, inimittere 
illis multitudinem nrsorum, aut 

19 audaces leones, [iS] aut novi ge- 
neris ira plenas ignotas bestias, 
ant vaporem ignium spirantes, 
aut fumi odorem proferentes, aut 
horrendas ab oculis scintillas 

30 emittentes; [19] quarum non so- 
lum laesura poterat illos extermi- 
nare, sed et aspectns per timorem 

21 occidere. [20] Sed et sine his 
uno spiritu poterant occidi, per- 
Becntionem passi ab ipsis factis 
Buis, et dispersi per spiritum 
virtutis tuae; sed omnia in 
mensura, et numero, et pon- 

15 avrl be koyio-fxiav kavviTuiv 

ahiKias avTuiv, 
fV oils it\avr\divrti iOfrqcTKfvov 
iXoya ipTtfTo, xal KvdbaXa 

iTraireaTfiKas avrois wXJ/floy 
aXoyiiiv ^<oa)v fls iKbiicria-ip, 

16 tva yv&a-iv, 5ti 5i' Sv Tts 

afMapTavfi, bia Tovrmv koI 

17 ov yap jjTTopei fj iravTobwanos 

<TOV Xflp 
icat KTl(Ta(ra rbv Koafwv i^ 

ifi6p(f)ov iX-ris 
(irnTep.\jfai avrois irX.^Oos S.p- 

Kwv, ri Opaa-fis \(ovTas, 

18 rl vfOKriiTTovs Ovfwv wX^peis 

Orjpas ayvioarovs, 
j/Toi TTvpwoov (f>v(roivTas diffOfia, 
T] fipofiov kiKiMopiivovs KaiT- 

^ bfivovs an' diifidTOiv aziv- 

Oijpas aoTpaTrrovras, 

19 &v ov p,6vov 7) fiXi^rj ■^vvaro 

avveKTpi\jfai avrovs, 
aXXa Koi fj o\jfis iK<f>oPri<ra<ra 

20 /cat x.<tipis be TovTcov kv\ irveu- 

fiari •KitTtiv kbvvavro 
inrb rrjs 8uj/s bi<i)\6iVTfs 
Kal \iKp.r]dfi>T€s VJTO TivevfiaTos 

bwifieds aav' 
bXka iravra ii^Tp<a koi api6pL<D 

Kal araOjj.^ bUra^as. 

15 they admired. But for the 
foolish devices of their wicked- 
ness, wherewith being deceived 
they worshipped serpents void 
of reason, and vile beasts, thou 
didst send a multitude of un- 
reasonable beasts upon them for 

16 vengeance ; That they might 
know, that wherewithal a man 
siuneth, by the same also shall 

17 he be punished. For thy Al- 
mighty hand, that made the 
world of matter without form, 
wanted not means to send 
among them a multitude of bears, 

18 or fierce lions, Or unknown 
wild beasts, full of rage, newly 
created, breathing out either a 
fiery vapour, or filthy scents of 
scattered smoke, or shooting 
horrible sparkles out of their 

19 eyes : "Whereof not only the 
harm might dispatch them at 
once, but also the terrible sight 

20 utterly destroy them. Yea, 
and without these might they 
have fallen down with one blast, 
being persecuted of vengeance, 
and scattered abroad through 
the breath of thy power : but 
thou hast ordered aU things in 
measure and number and weight. 

15. t0ri)aK(vov S. f9pri<rK. S. car. «Xtu8aAo A. (?). €ira»o<rT«A<u 106. 261. 16. mu iroXoffToi S. Ven. 253. Athan. 

17. Kal KTiaaaa. 17 itai kt. Ven. S'. ij kt. 106. 261. ij irXijtfoi A. 296. 18. wowriirroM V. Ven. S. Arm. vfoKTiarov A. C. 

al. Compl. Oviunn wKrunit S. epaavfuaiaTom S. Brffas ayraxrrovs S'. ruprnxof S. 296. rv/xpfopar 106. -npippopanr 261. 

aatjUiTa 261. Bpoiums V. 68 157. 248. epofuxr A. C. S. Ven. al. Compl. Vulg. Arm. fiptufuay 106. 261. XiKfuufitrovs V. A. S. 
Xiir/itti/ici'oi; 248. Compl. vu^ijyxu S. mrO. S*. 19. ^waro. «8w»'. S. A. ovr««Tpi^ V. S. Ven. al. «icr/Hi|<u A. 0. S*. aL 

tKTft^ 106. a6i. 20. tv «w rv. C. 253. Sutip cm. S. add. cor. aov om. C. kou tmSiuf om. C. 261. 



[XI. 21- 

> Or. llttU 

11 For thou canst shew thy great 
strength at all times when thou 
wilt ; and who may withstand 

2 2 the power of thine arm? For 

/the whole world before thee is 

as a little grain ' of the balance, 

yea, as a drop of the morning 

dew that falleth down upon the 

aj earth. But thou hast mercy 
upon all ; for thou canst do all 
things, and winkest at the sins 
of men, because they should 

24 amend. For thou lovest all the 
things that are, and abhorrest 
nothing which thou hast made : 
for never wouldest thou have 
made any thing, if thou hadst 

25 hated it. And how could 
any thing have endured, if it 
had not been thy will ? or been 
preserved, if not called by 

26 thee 1 But thou sparest all : 
for they are thine, Lord, thou 
lover of souls. 


1 For thine incorruptible Spirit 

2 is in all things. Therefore 
chastenest thou them by little 
and little that offend, and 
wamest them by putting them 
in remembrance wherein they 

21 TO yap fxeydAcos liTxvdv aoi 

irapecmv TravTOTf, 
Koi KpaTfi ^payjiovoi crov tCs 
avTicTTiqa-eTai ; 

22 oTi ws poTTTi iK TrXooriyytoj' 

axes' 6 Kooyxo; ivavrlov 
KoX ws pavXi bpocrov ipOpivr] 
KaT(\dov(Ta im yijv. 

23 iXeels hi irdivTas, ort irivra 

hvvaaai, • 

Koi TTapopqs afiaprrifiaTa &v- 
6p<oiT(ov (Is fifTavoiav. 

24 AyaTras yap to ojto Ttavra, 
Kal ovbiv /38e\t/(r(n/ &v ^ttoit/- 

ovhi yap hv fiia-wv rt Kore- 

25 ■77cSs be (p.iiviv av ti el y.r\ av 

^0f\r]<ras ; 
^ TO fiT} Kkrjdev VTfb crov bie- 

26 <t>elbr} be TrdifTotv, on ad. iari, 

AicnroTa (piXoyjrvxf- 


1 To yap 8.({>0apT6v crov Ylvevp,d, 

ioTiv iv iracri.. 

2 Ato Toiiy TrapairC-nTOirras Kar 

6\lyov ikeyxfii, 
Kal iv ols ap,apTdvov(rtv xmo- 
\t.ip.vf)(TK(ov vovdfTtis, 

22 dere disposuisti. [21] Multum 
enim valere, tibi soli super- 
erat semper; et virtuti brachii 

23 tui quis resistetl [22] Quoniam 
tanquam momentum staterae, 
sic est ante te orbis terrarum, 
et tanquam gutta roris ante- 
lucani quae descendit in terram. 

24 [23] Sed misereris omnium, quia 
omnia potes, et dissimulas pec- 
cata hominum propter poeuiten- 

25 tiam. [24] Diligis enim omnia 
quae sunt, et nihil odisti eorum 
quae fecisti ; nee enim odiens 
aliquid constituisti, aut fecisti. 

26 [25] Quomodo autem posset ali- 
quid permanere, nisi tu voluis- 
ses ) aut quod a te vocatum non 

27 esset conservaretur J [26] Parcis 
autcm omnibus, quoniam tua 
simt, Domine, qui amas animas. 


1 O quam bonus et suavis est, 
Domine, Spiritus tuus in om- 
nibus ! 

2 Ideoque eos qui ezerrant 
partibus corripis, et de quibuB 
peccant admones et alloqueris, 

21. ffox imfxaTiv A. C. S. V. Ven. al. wa/xart aoi V. al. aov tIs, oi;9<tc C. 22. itXootitiui' S. KaTtvayrtor C. opSirri C. 

ope/HYT]! 55. 264. Vulg. «in ytjv V. S. A. evt rrfv yrjy 157. 248. 296. Compl. fii 71;$ C. S'. 106. 261. 24. kcu ovS*ra A. 

25. irojs yap C. t/uivtv V. A. Ven. al. $i(ii(trev S. C. al. rii C. «Xi;9i;rai C. »<« ay SifTtjptjBi] Ven. 55. 253. 254. 

28. <ro tart V. S. Ven. al. Vulg. Ar. Arm. aa (an irayra A. C. 55. al. Orig. Syr. XII. 2. o/xa/rrovcwriK 248. Compl. 

-m. 10.] 



nt relicta malitia, credant in te, 

3 Domine. Hlos enim antiqaos 
iohabitatores terrae sanctae tuae, 

4 quos exfaorruisti, quoniam odi- 
bilia opera tibi faciebant per 
medicamina et sacrificia iojusta, 

5 et filiorum suorum necatores sine 
misericordia, et comestores vis- 
cerum hominum, et devoratorea 
sanguinis [6] a medio sacra- 

6 mento tuo, et anctores parentes 
animarum inanxiliatarum, per- 
dere voluisti per manus paren- 

7 tnm nostrorum, ut dignam per- 
ciperent peregrinatjonem puero- 
rura Dei, quae tibi omnium 

8 charior est terra. Sed et his 
tanquam hominibus pepercisti, 
et misisti antecessores exercitus 
tni vespas, ut illos paulatim ex- 

9 terminarent. Non quia im- 
potens eras in bello subjicere 
impios justis, aut bestiis saeyis, 
aut verbo duro simul extermi- 

lo nare ; sed partibus judicans 
dabas locum poenitentiae, non 

tpa &i:aXXayevres riji Kaic^a; 
■}!iaTev(f(>>o'iv firl <ri, Kvpit. 

3 Koi yap Toi/s tTaXaiovs oik^- 

Topas TTJs ayias crov yrjs 

4 ii!i r<a exdiarra ■npaaa-tiv ^pya. 

<f>apiw.Kfi&v Kol Tekeras avo- 

5 tIkviov Ti <\)OViai avfkfrjyMvas, 
KoX aTr\ay\yo<(>tiywv ai/Opct- 
• itivcav vapKotv Ooivav 

6 Kol atfiaros, ex niaov fviaras 

Koi avBivras yovfis yjrvxQv 

i^ov\i^0ris OTToXeVai bia x*'- 
puv varipoav fifi&v, 
J tva a^Cav airoiKiav bf^rai 
&fov TTaibciiv fj Tfapa a-ol 
vaa&v Tifxiu>T&Tr\ yfj. 

8 aXAa Koi Tovrtov its avdpdiriov 

direoretAdy re irpobpofiovi tov 

arparoTitbov trov <r(f>rJKas, 
tva avTovs Karafipaxy i^o\€- 
' 0peu<r<a<Tiv' 

9 oiiK abvvarwv iv irapard^fi 

da-ffifls btKaiois vTTo\eipiovs 
7j BrjpCois beivois, ^ \6y(o airo- 

TOflft) v<f>' If iKTpl\j/ai' 

lo Kpivoav bi Karafipaxy fbCbovs 
TOTSov fifTavoCas, 


have offended, that leaving their 
wickedness they may believe on 

3 thee, O Lord. For it was thy 
will to destroy by the hands of 
our fathers both those old ' > Or, 
inhabitants of thy holy land, 

4 Whom thou hatedst for doing 
most odious works of witch- 
crafts ', and wicked sacrifices : ' Or, 


5 And also those merciless mur- 
derers of children, and devourers 
of man's flesh, and the feasts of 

6 blood. With their priesta out 
of the midst of their idolatrous 
crew, and the parents, that 
killed with their own hands 

7 souls destitute of help : That 
the land, which thou esteemedst 
above all other, might receive 

a worthy colony * of God's ' or. mm 

8 children. Nevertheless even (oner, 
those thou sparedst as men, 
and didst send wasps, fore- 
runners of thine host, to de- 
stroy them by little and little. 

9 Not that thou wast unable to 
bring the ungodly under the 
hand of the righteous in battle, 
or to destroy them at once with 
cruel beasts, or with one rough 

lo word : But executing thy judg- 
ments upon them by little and 
little, thou gavest them place 
of repentance, not being igno- 

2. utaTfvaaiaiv om. S. add. S. cor. wianvaaiiuv A. airrov en at S. avrov S'. impr. 3. vaXai S. lo6. i. Ep- 

itaxial' S. <pa(>iuunas C. ayoaieay C. 5. mXayx'o^yo''^ Compl. aap*Oi C. ffoifo* 55. 354. Kai ay9f«)wiywi> aapKon, icat 

9(Hvav^ K€u atpajos Compl. fx fitaov ftvffra0fta{y\ aov V. pvaov fivaraaOuatTov V. a Sec. Man. tx ptaov pvcraStaaov S. 55. 106. 
al. tfifitaoj C. fiwrraaBfiaaov A. S'. pvaras Ouai trov Compl. c« /xvaov fivara^ re Ouas aov Aid. 6. avOivras. ki^ftrras C. 

fay fiovXrjOrp S. (^011X179718'. 81a x«pot 55. 106. al. 7.lrai(. xara afiay S. lya a(, S. cot. xat $tov 106. 361. waiitaty 

55. 354. i; wapa aoi S. om. 17. ij wapd aoi. warrmr S*. 8. row trrparowtSovt V. S. *lo\f9f(vao>ci» A. C. V, 9. SiSoyoiS. 

10. xtaiaxr yop S. xpfwav it S'. 



[XII. II- 

rant that they were a naughty 
generation, and that their malice 
was bred in them, and that their 
cogitation would never be 

11 changed. For it was a cursed 
seed from the beginning; nei- 
ther didst thou for fear of any 
man give them pardon for those 
things wherein they sinned. 

12 For who shall say, What hast 
thou done t or who shall with- 
stand thy judgment's or who 
shall accuse thee for the nations 
that perish, whom thou hast 
madel or who shall come to 

* Or, in ihg 'stand against thee', to be re- 

praence, " 

» Or, a re- venged " for the unrighteous 
venger. ^^ ^^^ j -p^^. jjgJ(J,gr jg -there any 

God but thou that careth for 
all, to whom thou mightest shew 
that thy judgment is not un- 

14 right. Neither shall king or 
tyrant be able to set his face 
against thee for any whom thou 

15 hast punished. Forsomuch then 
as thou art righteous thyself, 
thou orderest all things righte- 
ously : thinking it not agreeable 
with thy power to condemn him 
that hath not deserved to be 

16 punished. For thy power is 
the beginning of righteousness, 
and because thou art the Lord 
of all, it maketh thee to be 

ovK ayvoo)v, on vovrjpa fi 

yivfais avT&v 
KoL fiJ.(f)VTOs 7] KaKla avTuv, 
KOI OTi oil /xt) aWayfj 6 Xo- 

yia-fibs avT&v els rbv aZca- 


11 (ntipy.a yap fjv KaTr\pap.fvov 

dir' a.p\i}i' 
ovh\ evka^ovp.ev6i nva, i^' ols 
rjpiipTavov abeiav fbibovs. 

12 t[s yap ^pfi, ri iisoLrjo-as ', 

ri tIs diTioTTjo-erat ru Kpifiari 

(Tov ; 
tIs fie iyKaX4<rfi (roi, Kara iO- 

v&v dTroXwXorwr, & (tv 

iTTolria-as ; 
fi tCs (Is KaT6.<rracTiv croi iXev- 

<r£rai ^Kbinos Kara abiKUiv 

ivOpdiTcav ; 

13 ovTf yap Qeos iari, TrkrfV (Tov, 

<j5 fxeXet TTfpl TTavTcov, 
tva btC^rjs, OTL ovk abiKws ^K' 

14 ovTf I3a(n\(vs rj rupavvos drr- 

0(j)daXpiijcrai. bvvT^(r(Tal aoi 
wept &v iKokaaras. 

15 5iKa(o$ 6e cav biKatcus Ta Trivra 

b If IT t IS, 

avTov rhv fxr) d<f>fi\ovTa KoXa- 

<rOi]vai. KaTabiKd(rai 
aXkoTpiov fjyovfifvos Tijs OTJs 


16 fj yap l<r)(vs (tov biKatoavvrjs 

(cai TO TrdvTUiv (re Seo-iro'^eir 
■ndvTtav (jxlbfaOai, itoifi. 

ignorans quoniam nequam est 
natio eorum, et naturalis malitia 
ipsorum, et quoniam non poterat 
mutari cogitatio illorum in per- 

1 1 petuum. Semen enim erat ma- 
ledictum ab initio ; nee timens 
aliquem, veniam dabas peccatis 

12 illorum. Quis enim dicet tibi : 
Quid fecistil aut quis stabit 
contra judicium tuum 1 aut quis 
in conspectu tuo veniet vindex 
iiiiquorum hominum ? aut quis 
tibi imputabit, si perierint na- 

13 tiones quas tu fecisti 1 Non 
enim est alius Deus quam tu, 
cui cura est de omnibus, ut os- 
tendas quoniam non injuste ju- 

14 dicas judicium. Neque rex 
neque tyrannus in con.»pectu 
tuo inquirent de his quos per- 
is didisti. Cum ergo sis Justus, 

juste omnia disponis ; ipsuni 
quoque qui non debet puniri 
condemnare exterum aestimas 
16 a tua virtute. Virtus enim tua 
justitiae initium est, et ob hoc 
quod omnium Dominus es, 

10. on ante ov oin. S. addit S. cor. 11. Kdcarjipaittyov S. 12. cAciwcTtu <ro< S. Yen. 13. Si^i;s S. et S^ Stit) S*. 

U, OUT* 7a/) 106. 261. Swrjaovrai 106. 261. iK6\a<ras. avoiXfcas Beusch. Vulg (?). cxoAaaa; S. A. V. Ven. Compl. Aid. al. 
Ann. Ar. 15. to vairra Sixaiou S. Tjyovfuvor S. ifyov/itcoj S". 16. <t>(ii. ct voiti A. S'. al. Compl. 

-xn. 22.] 



17 omnibus te parcere facis. Vir- 
tutem enim ostendis tu, qui non 
crederis esse in virtute consum- 
matuR, et borum qui te nesciunt 

18 audaciam traducis. Tu autem 
dominatorvirtutis, cum tranquil- 
litate judicas, et cum magna 
reverentia disponis nos; subest 
enim tibi, cum volueris, posse. 

19 Docuisti autem populum tuum 
per talia opera, quoniam oportet 
justum esse et huraanum, et 
bonae spei fecisti filioa tuos, 
quoniam judicaus das locum in 

20 peccatis poenitentiae. Si enim 
inimicos servorum tuorum, et 
debitos morti, cum tanta cru- 
ciasti attentione, dans tempus 
et locum per quae possent mu- 

31 tari a malitia ; cum quanta dili- 
gentia judicasti filios tuos, quo- 
rum parentibus juramenta et 
coQventiones dedisti bouarum 

12 promissioiium ! Cum ergo das 
nobis disciplinam, inimicos nos- 
troB multipliciter flagellas, ut 

17 layyv yap ivbeCKWaai ain- 

oTov/xeros iitl bwdpLeats re- 

/col ev Tois €t6oVi TO 6pdcj-os 

18 crv bi bfo-TTo^iov l(r)(yos iv 

(itLeiKfCq Kplvtis, 

KoX p-fTO. TToWrjS ^flboVS 5(01- 

Kels r]pas' 
irdpeari, yip aoi orav fle'Ajjs 
TO bvvaaOai. 

19 (bCba^ai 8e' aov tov Xoop 8(a 


oTi Sfi rov bUaiov flvai <f)i- 

Koi eieXTTiday fitoirja-as rows 

vioVS (TOV, 

OTi bibtas eiri apMpTiqpa<ri pf- 

ao el yap lx.^povs iraibuiv (rov Koi 

6(f)fi.\opevovs OavaTca 
pfTO. TO(ravTr]s fTip(!>pr\(Tai 

irpoa-oxTJs KOI fiteVecoy, 

Sous ^(fiOVOVi Koi TOTTOV bi utv 

aitaXKaySxTi, TTJy Kaxiay 

21 pera i!6(rr]i oKpi^eCas Ixpivas 


Stv ToTs ■!;aTp&(Tiv opKovs Kal 
(TVpOriKas (ba>Kas ayadQv 

VTTO(T)(((T('CllV ; 

22 T/paS OVV TTaLbfVUyP, TOVS i\- 

Opoiis ripiav (v pvpiorqTi 

17 gracious unto all. For when 
men will not believe that thou 

art of a full ' power, thou shew- 1 or, /-.t. 


est thy strength, and among 
them that know it thou makest 

18 their boldness manifest. But 
thou, mastering thy power, 
judgest with equity, and orderest 
us with great favour : for thou 
mayest use power when thou 

19 wilt. But by such works hast 
thou taught thy people that the 
just man should be merciful, 
and hast made thy children to be 
of a good hope that thou givest 

20 re[)entance for sins. For if 
thou didst punish the enemies 
of thy children, and the con- 
demned to death, with such de- 
liberation, giving them time and 
place, whereby they might be 
delivered from their malice : 

2 1 With how great circumspection 
didst thou judge thine own sons, 
unto whose fathers thou ha&t 
sworn, and made covenants of 

22 good promises ? Tlierefore, 
whereas thou dost chasten us, 
thou scourgest our enemies a 
thousand times more, to tlie 
intent that, when we judge, we 

17. laxw (cor. KTxrn) yap ffStiKvvaoS. efttucnacu S'. an-to-r. 55. 106. 254. orjdnor. A. » rmi ov« tiJoffi A. "Vulg. Arm. 
ae fiioaiy H. ciSo<» trov 55. 254. 6ap<7o; 248. Compl. irov to Kparot H'. t((Kfyx*Tcu S. f(t\tyxut S'. 18. S« om.Ven. al. 

19. tu TOV om. S. add. S'. SiJoit V. A. 68. Aid. SiSon edd. 20. (Tiiuuprj<ras V. S. Ven. al. fTiiuaptjau A. 55. 106. al. Compl. 

mu Scjirfais Tulgo lect. om. A. al. Compl. Vulg. kcu Stfotas S. xtu Sitaaiaat 296. C. D. H. Par. Arm. Sow avrois Ven. xpo'c* 
Kcu Torov A. 55. 106. al. Vulg. Syr. Xfofoo iceu rporov 248. Compl. toitok «m x/'<»'<>'' Ven. 21. /wrd w6<np. «<u /irra wtunp S'. 

K/MKCts Ven. vwo(rx>}t a. inroffx****" S'. 22. «r /iv/xon^fft 106. 261. 



[xii. 23- 

should carefully think of thy 
goodness, and when we our- 
selves are judged, we should 
23 look for mere}'. Wherefore, 
whereas men have lived dis- 
solutely and unrighteously, thou 
hast tormented them with their 
' **'• .. 34 own abominations'. For they 

abonttnable c • l 

idott. went astray very far jn the 

ways of error, and held them 
for gods, which even among the 
beasts of their enemies were 
despised, being deceived, as 
children of no understanding. 

25 Therefore unto them, as to 
children without the use of 
reason, thou didst send a judg- 

26 ment to mock them. But they 
that would not be reformed by 
that correction, wherein he 
dallied with them, shall feel a 

27 judgment worthy of God. For, 
look, for what things they 
grudged, when they were 
punished, that is, for them 
whom the)' thought to he gods ; 
[now] being punished in them, 
when they saw it, they acknow- 
ledged him to be the true God, 
whom before they denied to 
know ; and therefore came ex- 
treme damnation upon them. 

I Surely vain are all men by na- 
ture, who are ignorant of God, 

Iva <rov TT{v iyaOoTrira fiepifi- 

V&llfV KpCvOirTfS, 

Kpivoftevoi be TTpoa-boKtoiifv 

23 56 fv Koi Tovs (V d((>poavvr] 

C<^rjs ^L<o(ravTas abiKOVi 
bib. t5>v Ibitnv l^acravicra^ 

24 Kol yap Tmv TrAdrTjs obZv fio(c- 

poTfpov iTsXav7]6r](Tav, 
Ofovs VTro\afij3AvovT€S to koL 

(V fc^oty T&v(\0pwv &Tiixa, 
vqirtoiv biKrjv a(f>p6vu>v yfrtv- 

25 biOL TovTO i>s iraKTiv a\oyl- 

arois TTjv Kpia-iv fls kp-isaiy- 
p-ov firep^as' 

26 01 bi TTaiyvloLs €7rtTifi7j(rea)y 

pri vovdiTrfdivTis 
a$Cav Qeov Kpicriv ireipdcrova-tv. 

27 tip' oh yap avTol Tria^ovres 

iirl rovTois oi/y tboKovv Oeovs, 

iv avTOLS KoKa^opevoi, 
IbovTfS bv iriXai rjpvovvTO fl- 

bivai, Qiov firiyvma-av dXrj- 

bib KOI TO Tippa TTJs KaraS^Kjjy 
i-n' airoiiy It!T)\6(v. 

I Mdraiot piv yap TsavTti 4i?- 

dpWTTOL IpVCTfl, oils TrapTJV 

&fov ayvma-ia. 

bonitatem tuam cogitemus judi- 
cantes, et cum de nobis judi- 
catur, speremus misericordiam 

23 tuam. Unde et illis, qui in 
vita sua insensate et injuste 
vixerunt, per haec quae colue- 
runt dedisti summa tormenta. 

24 Etenim in erroris via diutius 
erraverunt, decs aestimantes 
haec quae in animalibus sunt 
supervacua, infantium inscnsa- 

25 torum more viventes. Propter 
hoc tauquam pueris insensatis 
judicium in derisum dedisti. 

26 Qui autem ludibriis et incre- 
pationibus non sunt correcti, 
dignum Dei judicium experti 

2; sunt. In quibus euim patientes 
indignabantur, j)er haec quos 
putabant deos, in ipsis cum ex- 
terminarentur videntes, ilium, 
quem olira negabant se nosse, 
verum Deum agnoverunt ; prop- 
ter quod et finis condemnationis 
eorum venit super illos. 

CAPUT xni. 

I Vani autem sunt omnes ho- 
mines, in quibus non subest 
scientia Dei ; et de bis quae 

22. «Aeoi' Ven. 23. aippoavrais S. fonjj om. Ven. aSixovt S. V. 55. 68. Ar. aSi/ran A. S*. Ven. al. Vulg. Syr. Ann. 

Compl. 25. iiimiyniv. (vmypiovS. 28. myvtoti S. Kptatv 9(ov S. 27. ofe. ow S. ois (248. 261) cSoxovk 

ttott (261) KoKaioiifvoi fv avTois 106. iSovTfS it fi. fiSti-ai om. S. 157. iw' airroit. tir' avTor S. tirauTairS'. ri\$<v Ven. 
XIII. 1. fUiTaioi yap Ttavrfs ifvat avSp. S. 

-XIII. 7-] 



videntur bona, non potuerunt 
intelligere eum qui est, neqne 
operibus attendentes agnoverunt 

2 qois esset artifex ; sed aut ig- 
nem, aut spiritum, aut citatum 
agrem, aut gymm stellarum, aut 
nimiam aquam, aut eolem et 
lunam, rectores orbis terrarum 

3 decs putaverunt. Quorum si 
specie delectati, deos putave- 
runt, sciant quanto his Domi- 
nator eorum speciosior est; 
Bjwciei enim generator haec 

4 omnia constituit. Aut si tIt- 
tutem et opera eorum mirati 
sunt, intelligant ab illis quo- 
niam qui haec fecit, fortior est 

5 illis ; a magnitudine enim spe- 
dei et creaturae cognoscibiliter 
poterit creator horum videri. 

6 Sed tamen adhuc in his minor 
est querela ; et hi enim for- 
tasse errant, Deum quaerentes, 

7 et volentes invenire. Etenim 
cum in operibus illius conver- 

Koi iK Tuv opwyAvoiv ayaO&v ovk 
Itrxutror flhivai. tov ovra, 

ovTf rois Ipyois ■npo(Tcr\6vm 
fTttyvaxrav tov Ttyyirqv' 

2 dAX' rj TTvp, rj itvevna, ^ ra- 

Xirov afpa, 
rj kvkXov aoTpwv, fi ^Caiov 

rj <f>cooTfjpas ovpavov irpvraveis 

KoV/zov dtovs kv6p.i.(rav. 

3 aV (I flkv TTJ KOKXovrj TfpTtO- 

p.fvoi Tavra Ofovs vwfKdp,- 

yvdraia-av ■ffocro) tovtmv 6 Ae<r- 

Ttorqs f<rrl fieKrCwv' 
6 yap TOV KoXXovs yfv(cndp)(ris 

^KTia-fv avTa' 

4 (I hi bvvafiiv koI ivtpyfiav 

vorjadTOia-av dir' airrav irocif 
6 KaTa<rKfva<ras aurd bwa- 
rdrepos iariv. 

5 €K yap p.(ye6ovs (cal KoWovijs 

avaXoyun 6 yeveaiovpybs av- 
tQv OfOipdTai. 

6 dAA' opMis firi tovtois fori 

Hffi^is okiyq, 
Koi yap avTol rdxa TsXavStvTai 

@tOV (r]TOVVTfS KOt OekovTfs 

7 (V yap roiy epyoii avTov ava- 

OTp«f>6lX(V0l bl,(pfVl>(ii(n, 

and could not out of the good 
things that are seen know him 
that is : neither by considering 
the works did they acknowledge 

2 the workmaster ; But deemed 
either fire, or wind, or the swift 
air, or the circle of the stars, 
or the violent water, or the 
lights of heaven, to be the gods 

3 which govern the world. With 
whose beauty if they being de- 
lighted took them to be gods; 
let them know how much better 
the Lord of them is : for the 
first author of beauty hath 

4 created them. But if they were 
astonished at their power and 
virtue, let them understand by 
them, how much mightier he is 

5 that made them. For by the 
greatness and beauty of the 
creatures proportionably the 

6 maker of them is seen. But 
yet for this they are the less to 
be blamed : for they peradven- 
ture err, seeking God, and de- 

7 sirous to find him. For being 
conversant in his works they 

1. ««T(w8«Ven. traca tow io6. ov9eS. ortVen. »po<rxo»T*s V.55.68. 253. »/>o<rfxoKT«s A. S. Ven-aLCompL c/raxrarS. 
2. ij KOI mv/m 348. aarfpav S^ 3. $tom V. 55. 68. Vulg. towto fltotis A. Ven. al Compl. Syr. Arm. Ar. Tu»e dne 

fcow S. Tou» S*. 0iom mrtXaiiffayor €irai 253. wreA. 6. tivat Ven. pfkruov S. P(\T(uav S'. KaWovs. Koaiuni S'. 
4. U om. S. «(t J« S». Tip- Sw. 106. Smaitft nu trffrffuf V. Ven. 68. Compl. Aid. tvvaiuy «. fK/rytiax S. A. V. Mai. ecu 
*n\. S. irm S. cor. impr. woaip /jaXXoy 55. 254. 5. xakkoyiis mu KTiaii. S. Ven. al. Compl. Aid. Vulg. m KaWov^t S'. 

55. 248. al. Compl. ^€7€flovt «aAAoKi;5 (CTKr^Ta* V. A. 68. 157. Syr. 6. iti tri A. /«««f« cffTii' A. 157. al. Compl. 

7. Supamaaiv S. V. {kikwowi S'. 

M 2 



[xin. 8- 


1 Or, «&•». search ^ him diligently, and be- 
lieve their sight : because the 
things are beautiful that are 

8 seen. Howbeit neither are they 

9 to be pardoned. For if they 
were able to know so much, 
that they could aim at the 
world ; how did they not sooner 
find out the Lord thereof 1 

10 But miserable are they, and in 
dead things is their hope, who 
called them gods, which are the 
works of men's hands, gold and 
silver, to shew art in, and re- 
semblances of beasts, or a stone 
good for nothing, the work of 

1 1 an ancient hand. Now a car- 
»Or.«in».r. penter * that felleth timber, 

after he hath sawn down a tree 
meet for the purpose, and taken 
ofi" all the bark skilfully round 
about, and hath wrought it 
handsomely, and made a vessel 
thereof fit for the service of 

12 man's life; And after spending 
sor, chip$. the refuse ' of his work to dress 

his meat, hath filled himself; 

13 And taking the very refuse 
among those which served to no 

y use, being a crooked piece of 
wood, and full of knots, hath 
carved it diligently, when he 
had nothing else to do, and 

Kal TTfiOovrai rrj ov/ret, Srt (coXa 

TO ^XfTTOflfVa. 

8 irdXif be ovb' avrol (rvyyvuiaToi. 

9 fl yap TO(rovTov Icrxya-av ei- 

tva bvvoivrai (rroxdcTa<TOai tov 

TOV TovToiv Afa-TroTrjv TTwy rd- 

\iov ovx ivpov ; 

10 TaXatircopoi 6^ icat iv vfKpoh 

al e\irCbfi avr&v, 
otTLVfS iK6Xf(Tap Ofoiii ^pya 

■)(€ip&V avdpaTTOiV, 

Xpva-ov KoL apyvpov Te-)(vr]i 
fpiifkiTTjua Koi aTTeLK<i.(rp.ara 

fj XCdov axprjarov xeipbi tpyov 

11 fl be Kal TtS v\ot6iXOS TfKT<x>V 

fVKivqrov <pvTov (KTTplaras, 
iTfpU^vafv (Vfxad&i Tsi.vTa tov 

(pXoiov avTov, 
Kal Texyrja-dfifvos fVTrpcnmi 
KaTf(TK{Va(T€ xPW^h'-o^ (TKevos 

fls VTTripgcriav C'^fjS, 

12 TO, bf aTTo^\r)iiaTa rijs ipya- 

eiy tToip-acrlav Tpo(l>T]s ivaXd- 
a-ai (.vi-nk-qcrOr], 
I}, TO bi i^ avTdv aTr6^\r)p.a fls 

OvOfV fVXpT]<yTOV, 

^vkov (tkoKlov Koi o^ois avp.- 

Ao/3&)i' iy\v\j/ev fv i-nifjifkelq 

apylas avTov, 

sentur inquirunt, et persuasum 
habent quoniam bona sunt quae 

8 videntur. Iterum autem neo 

9 his debet ignosci. Si enim tan- 
tum potuerunt scire, ut pos- 
sent aestimare saeculum, quo- 
modo hujus Dominum non fiwi- 
lius invenerunt 1 

10 Infelices autem sunt, et inter 
mortuos spes illorum est, qui 
appellaverunt deos opera ma- 
nuum homiuum, aurum et ar- 
gentum, artis inventionem, etsi- 
militudines auimulium, aut lapi- 
dem inutilem opus manus anti- 

1 1 quae. Aut si quis artifex faber 
de sylva lignum rectum secuerit, 
et hujus docte eradat omnem 
corticem, et arte sua usus, dili- 
genter fabricet vas utile in con- 

1 3 Versationem vitae ; reliquiis 
autem ejus operis ad praepara- 

13 tionem escae abutatur ; et reli- 
quum horum quod ad nulios 
usus facit, lignum curvum et 
vorticibus plenum, sculpat dili- 
genter per vacuitatem suam, et 

8. (n/v7»'o«rToi S. (WyvowrToi A. 9. tovtov Stair. 106.261. 10. c/i^XipTj/xaTo S'. 106. 253. «i';<€Ai;Ti;/«ZTa Vcn. 

11. eiKlvrjTov. e«K(Vi;Tai Aid. irfpuf «<r€i' Ven. 248. Compl. ttrrptnais S. 1 2. airo0Xij/«iTa V. to 8« ojto^A.ijtok Ven. 

woXi/i^Ta A. viio\niinaTa 55. 296. al. avofiht/Ta 106. 261. iroiiiaaiay. vmiptatav A. ava\tiia«>is S. tKnKtiatr Ven. 
IS. avnirf(pvKws Si. (Tvnirf(pvKos S'. tpmtipvKm i^J. tv nniif\ti<f\. al. f f abest nb A. S. 0/17105 V. S. Ven. al. Vulg. tpyaiTias 
8'. A. Codd. Par. plerique. Syr. Ar. Arm. 



per Bcientiam suae artis figuret 
illud, et assimilet illud imagini 

14 hominis, aut alicui ex anima- 
libus illud comparet, perliniens 
rubrica, et rubicundum faciens 
fuco colorem illius, et omnem 
maculatn quae in illo est per- 

15 liniens ; et faciat ei dignatn 
babitationem, et in pariete po- 
nens illud, et confirmans ferro, 

16 ne forte cadat, prospiciens illi, 
sciens quoniam non potest ad- 
juvare se ; imago enim est, et 

17 opus est illi adjutorium. Et de 
substantia sua, et de filiis suis, 
et de nuptiis votum faciens in- 
quirit. Non erubescit loqui 
cum illo, qui sine anima est ; 

18 et pro sanitate quidem infirmum 
deprecatur, et pro vita rogat 
mortuum, et in adjutorium 

19 inutilem invocat; et pro itinere 
petit ab eo, qui ambulare non 
potest ; [19] et de acquirendo, et 
deoperando, et de omnium rerum 

Kol (fXTTfipCq &vi(rews M- 

Tra>(r€V avro, 
aTTfiKaa-fv avrb flKovi avOpdirov, 

14 ?; foiu Tivl €VTi\fl iifxaiwartv 

KaraxpCa-as fiiXrca, Koi (j)VKei 

fpvdrjvai Xpoav avTov, 
KoX iracrav KrjAtSa ttjv (v avrS 


15 KOI TTOtT/cras airM aiiTov 6.^iov 


ev Toi\(o iOr)K(v avro dcr^aXi- 

16 Iva fxlv ovv fir) Karaireari trpoe- 

v6r)(Tev avTov, 
(Ibiiis on dSwarei iavra /3o?j- 

KOL ydp eariv iiKtav, koX \p(Cav 

fXfL ^orjOiias. 

17 irfpl hi KTT}p,6.T(i)v Kol ydpuiov 

aVTOV Koi TiKVOOV TTpO(r(V\6- 

OVK al(r)(yv(Tai t<2 a\jnxui 

18 /col TTepl jiev iycfiai to d- 

aOfViS fTTlKoXflTai, 
Ttfpl 8e (wfji TO ViKpOV d^wi, 

Tifpl be (TiiKovpias Tb oTret- 

poTarov 'iKerevfi, 
■jcfpl be oboLTTOpLas to fxi/Se 

^daei xpf]crdaL bvvdpLevov, 

19 TTfpi b^ •nopitry.ov koX epyacrias 

KoX yeipStv iTnTV}(J,as 

formed it by the skill of bis 
understanding, and fashioned it 

14 to the image of a man ; Or made 
it like some vile beast, laying it 
over with vermilion, and with 
paint colouring it red, and 
covering every spot therein ; 

15 And when he had made a con- 
venient room for it, set it in a 
wall, and made it fast with iron : 

16 For he provided for it that it 
might not fall, knowing that it 
was unable to help itself; for it 
is an image, and hath need of 

1 7 help : Then maketh he prayer 
for his goods, for his wife and 
children, and is not ashamed to 
speak to that which hath no life. 

18 For health he calleth upon that 
which is weak : for life prayeth 
to that which is dead : for aid 
humbly beseecheth that which 
bath least means to help ' : and ' r.r. that 

hath no 

for a good journey he asketh "■p|?:*'"« 
of that which cannot set a foot 

19 forward : And for gaining and 
getting, and for good success 
of his hands, asketh ability to 

13. KOI fv (fnrapKf Ven. avvfatais V. S*. aviatais A. S. V. Ven. al. Aid. anuKaafv re A. 14. a^jM/totatrtv S- 296. 

tii\T<fi. 71J /«A.T« S'. Veil. 3.53. t/n/fl/jiji'a! 248. Compl. epvSrj/MS. (pvOtjyas S'. V . tpuft/yos A. x/xx'sS. V". xpoo' S'. 
Xpoiav 106. 261. Karaxprjaas yr) Ven. 71J add. S'. 15. avrov om. S. Ven. 261. 16. tavrip. avroi S. 106. 

17. 7a/iou Ven. ouroi/ om. Ven. 106. al. Te/tyoa' outou Ven. 253. fuxo/wvos S. Ven. XoXoa'Ven. 18. iryms S. tfyeiar 

106.361. TO vfKpov S>. A,Y. 157. 348. Compl. iniKovpias. f/iinipias S. fviKovptas S^. to air«<(>oTaTov S. A. al. Compl. 
i«(T€V(i om. S. add. S'. ropias S. oSoiiroptas S'. XP^"""^'" 55. 253. al. 19. xat vtpt it S. S« S. cor. impr. ical xfi/w)". 

K<u om. S, 



[xiv. I- 

do of him, that is most unable 
to do any thing. 

\_ f 


1 Again, one preparing himself to 
sail, and about to pass through 
the raging waves, calleth upon 
a piece of wood more rotten 

' Or, Mp. than the vessel ' that carrieth 

2 him. For verily desire of gain 
» Or. w«rf, devised that ', and the workman 

or, thip. 

3 built it by his skill. But thy 
providence, O Father, governeth 
it ; for thou hast made a way 
in the sea, and a safe path in 

4 the waves ; Shewing that thou 
canst save from all danger : 
yea, though a man went to sea 

5 without art. Nevertheless thou 
wouldest not that the works of 
thy wisdom should be idle, and 
therefore do men commit their 
lives to a small piece of wood, 
and passing the rough sea in 

6 a weak vessel are saved. For 
in the old time also, when the 
])roud giants perished, the hope 
of the world governed by thy 

TO obpaviaraTov rals xfpa-lv 
tibpaveiav aJrtirai. 


1 nXoi}!; rts irdXiv (TTfkX.6fj.(vos 
KoX &ypia p.fK\u>v biobfVfiv 

Tov (pfpovTos avTov ttXoCov 
(TaOpoTipov ^vkov ewi^oarai. 

2 iKiivo p.iv yap opt^is iropia-- 

p.u>v (Tifvorjaf, 
Te\viTris 6« (TO(f)iq KOTt- 
3^8^ a-tj, nirep, biaKV^tpva 
OTi fbcDKai Koi tv 0ak6.CT(rT) 

Kol (V Kvp.a(Ti Tpi^ov a<T<^aXr\, 
4 biiKvvs oTi bvvaa-ai tK -navToi 

Iva Khv &v(v Tfxvrjs Tty f-ni^^. 
J dikfis bi fijj apya ftvai ra 

TTJS (T0(f>Ca9 (TOV (pyw 

bia TOVTO Koi fKa\CaT<a ^v\<f 
irLcrreuoviTiv avOputnoi yfrv- 

KOI bifXdovTis KXvbtava <7)(e8ia 
6 nal apxfjs yap a.Trokkvixiv(i>v 
VTTfpr}<f>(!iv(iov yiyAvTUiv, 
1} ikiiis TOV k6(tp.ov (ttI a^tbCas 

eventu, petit ab eo, qui in omni- 
bus est inutilis. 


1 Iterum alius navigare cogitans, 
et per feros iluctus iter facere 
incipiens, ligno portante se, 

2 fragilius lignum invocat. Illud 
enim cupiditas acquirendi ex- 
cogitavit, et artifex sapientia 

3 fabricavit sua. Tua autem. 
Pater, providentia gubernat ; 
quoniam dedisti et in mari 
viam, et inter fluctus semitam 

4 iirmissimam, ostendens quoniam 
potens es ex omnibus salvare, 
etiam si sine arte aliquis adeat 

5 mare. Sed ut non essent vacua 
sapientiae tuae opera, propter 
hoc etiam et exiguo ligno cre- 
dunt homines auimas suas, et 
transeuntes mare per ratem li- 

6 berati sunt. Sed et ab initio 
cum perirent superbi gigantes, 
spes orbis terrarum ad ratem 

19. ToaSparaS. dtp. aiTurat. aSpai'iav tviKaXfiTcu S. tuTtirat S'. XIV. 1. SioSf vcik /uAAoif Ven. irXo«o« V. 8. 

Ven. al. fuXow A. 157. Ar. Vulg. «iri/3oo Ven. 253. 2. tvfyflija* Ven. TfxwTii 8c (To^io A. S.V. al. Compl. rtxoinjs odd. 

Ven. Vulg. Syr. Ar. Ann 3. 8ia<n/i9«f)i'OTai 106. 261. 4. tx vavTos Svyaaai S. €« irairon' A. Vulg. iva om. Ven. 253. S'. 

IKU' V. S Ven. al. «ai A. 55. 106. al. 5. t^j ffiji iro^at 253. ffou oin. S. Ven. 253, ck «\ox. Ven. 106. 157. KKvSayat Ven. 

SS- '54- ^- *'" oni. Ven. 106, 261. 

-■XIV. I5.J 



confugiens, retnisit saeculo semen 
nativitatis, quae manu tua erat 

7 gubernata. Benedictum est 
enim lignum, per quod fit jus- 

8 titia. Per manus autem quod 
fit idolnm, maledictum est et 
ipsum, et qui fecit illud ; quia 
ille quidem operatus eat, illud 
autem cum esset fragile, deus 

9 cognominatus est. Similiter 
autem odio sunt Deo impius et 

10 impietas ejus. Etenim quod 
factum est cum illo qui fecit 

1 1 tormenta patietur. Propter hoc 
et in idolis nationum non erit 
respectus, quoniam creaturae 
Dei in odium factae sunt, et in 
tentationem animabus hominum, 
et in muscipulam pedibus in- 

12 sipientium. luitium enim for- 
nicationis est exquisitio idolo- 
rum ; et adinventio illorum cor- 

13 ruptio vitae est ; neque enim 
eraut ab initio, neque erunt in 

14 perpetuum. Supervacuitas enim 
hominum haec advenit in or- 
bem teirarum ; et ideo brevis 
illorum finis inventus. 

15 Acerbo enim luctu dolens pater 
cito sibi rapti filii fecit imagi- 
nem ; et ilium, qui tunc quasi 

(Tfuis rfi of] KV^fpvqOeia-a 


7 fvKoyqrai yap ^vKov 81 ov 

yCvfTat. biKaioavvr], 

8 TO \(i,poTToir]rov 6« (TiiKaTi- 

parov avTo, Koi 6 iroirjcras 
on 6 p-iv eipyd^fTo, ro bi 
<f)0apTOV deos mvop-Aa-Or). 

9 (V larta yap //KnjTa Qeif Ka\ 6 

acri^Qiv Ka\ fj a<Tf/3(i,a avTOv' 

10 Kol yap TO TTpaxOkv crvv t(5 

bpitravTi Kokaardrjo-fTai. 

11 bia Tovro Kal iv ilbdXois idvStv 

iTticTKOiTT] tarai, 
Sti kv KTicrp-aTi ©eov eis j36«'- 

kvyp.a tyivrfQrja-av 
KOI eis (TKAvba\a yjrvy^^als &v- 

Ka\ e2s -nAyiba T!0(nv a<f)p6vuiv. 
I a 'Apxn yap TTOpveias firCvoia 

fvpeo-ty be ai/T&v <j)6opa C<^r]s. 

13 ovre yap 7]V aii ap)(rjs, ovTf 

fls Tov al&va icrrai. 

14 Kivobo^ia yap avOputirmv ilcrrjk- 

0fv els TOV ii6(rp,ov, 
Kal bia TOVTO (nivTop.ov ovtZv^ 
Te\os iiievor]Or]. 

15 d(u/>(i> yap TtevOei Tpv\6p,evos 

TOV Ta\4<t)i &(f)aipedevTOi TeK- 
vov eiKova TrotTjo-ay, 

hand escaped in a weak vessel, 
and left to all ages a seed of 

7 generation. For blessed is the 
wood whereby rigliteousness 

8 Cometh. But that which is 
made with hands is cursed, 
as well it, as he that made 
it : he, because he made it ; 
and it, because, being corrupt- 

9 ible, it was called god. For 
the ungodly and his ungodliness 
are both alike hateful unto God. 

10 For that which is made shall 
be punished together with him 

11 that made it. Therefore even 

upon ' the idols of the Gentiles • Of, (0, or, 
shall there be a visitation : be- 
cause in the creature of God 
they are become an abomination, 
and stumblingblocks ' to the ' Or. 
souls of men, and a snare ' to 3 ^^^ i^^p, 

1 2 the feet of the unwise. For the 
devising of idols was the be- 
ginning of spiritual fornication, 
and the invention of them the 

13 corruption of life. For neither 
were they from the beginning, 
neither shall they be for ever. 

14 For by the vainglory of men 
they entered into the world, 
and therefore shall they come 

15 shortly to an end. For a father 
afflicted with untimely mourn- 
ing, when he hath made an 
imiige of his child soon taken 
away, now honoured him as a 

6. airfAiir«i/V. vnfKiitfvS. atrtKfiirfv A. KareXciiTdi 2g6. xarfKiirfv 261. rai cuan'tS.V. Ty impr. V^ 7. tv\oy(iTat 2^fi. 

ivKoyrififvor 106. 261. «k 8ivaio<r. S. tv S. cor. impr. 8. to St x^'P' S. 157. I48. Compl. OTi /uvV. A. al. *oi o fuy S. 

fipya^fToV. Jipya(tTo A. S. 2s,i. {1^70(707055.254. 11. Kal iv. «ai om. S. cv om. 106. 261. 296. «Ti<r/<affii' Ven. 

axaviaKov 261. iroa. avOpaivan' a<pp. 106. 261. 12. yap om. 261. Compl. tvpfatis V. avToi S. 13. larai. fitvfi 157. 

14. KfvoS. yip. Ktv. St Ven. S*. ay$p. Oavarot (larjXSfv S. Savaros S. cor. impr. cit Koaium V. 68. €15 toi* «. A. S. Ven. al. 
Compl. avToiv to tcAos A. 55. 157. al. Compl. to TtAos awT<w 106. 296. to om. V. S. Ven. 68. 253. Athan. 



[xiv. r6- 

i Or. 

in time. 

' Or, 

' Or, 

« Gr. (« 

god, which was then a dead 
man, and delivered to those that 
were under him ceremonies and 

1 6 sacrifices. Tims in process of 
time ' an ungodly custom grown 
strong was ke]>t as a law, and 
graven images were worshipped 
by the commandments of kings '. 

17 Whom men could not honour 
in presence ', because they dwelt 
far off, they took the counterfeit 
of his visage from far, and made 
an express image of a king 
whom they honoured, to the 
end that by this their forward- 
ness they might flatter him that 
was absent, as if he were pre- 

18 sent. Also the singular dili- 
gence of the artificer did help 
to set forward the ignorant 

19 to more superstition. For he, 
peradventure willing to please 
one in authority, forced all his 
skill to make the resemblance 

tiu 20 of the best fashion *. And so 
the multitude, allured by the 
grace of the work, took liim 
now for a god, which a little 
before was but honoured as a 
21 man. And this was an occa- 
sion to deceive the world : for 

Tov Tore vfKpov &vdpwTrov vvv 

KoX TTaptbaiKf Tols VTTO\fl.plOt.S 

IxvcmjpM Koi T(K(Tas. 

16 etTO iv xpovta KparvvQkv to 

der€/3« Idos us ro'/xos f<f>v- 

Kol Tvpavviov fiTiTayals idpr)- 
CTKfVeTO TO. ykvTTTii' 

17 ois fv oxjfd p.r) bvvdp.evoi ripiav 

av6poi>Tiot, bia to ixaKpav 
Tr]v TToppuiOev oxj/iv avaTvirca- 


ffKPavfj (iKova TOV Tip.utp.ivov 

/iafTtXe'toy fTtoirfcrav, 
Xva TOV OLTtovTa its itapovTa 

KoXaKfvotai bia tijs (tttou- 


18 fis fisiTa(Ti,v h( 6pr\(TK(las Koi 

Tovs ayvoovvTas 
^ Toi; Te\viTov irpoiTptyjfaTo 

19 6 pev yap Td\a tu KpaTovvTi 

^ovXoptvos dpetrai 
€^f/3tdcraro r^ Ti\vri ttjv 6poi6- 
TTjra eiri to KtxWiov' 

20 TO bf ttXtJOos f<f>f\K6pevov bia 

TO (v\api Trjs ipyacTiai 
TOV irpb oKCyov TiprjOtvTa Hv- 
OpcuTTOv vvv (Ti^atrpa i\oyC- 

31 Kol TOVTO iyiViTO TU) /3^<i) fJs 

homo mortuuB fuerat, nunc tan- 
quam deum colere coepit, et 
constituit inter servos suos sa- 

16 era et sacrificia. Delude inter- 
veniente tempore, convalescente 
iniqua consuetudine, hie error 
tanquam le.x custoditus est, et 
tjTannorum imperio colebantur 

17 figmenta. Et hos quos in pa- 
lam homines honorare non pote- 
rant propter hoc quod longe 
essent, e longinquo figura eo- 
nim allata, evideutem imaginem 
regis quem honorare volebant 
fecerunt, ut ilium qui aberat 
tanquam praesentem colerent 

18 sua soUicitudine. Provexit au- 
tem ad horura culturam et hos 
qui ignorabant artificis exiniia 

19 diligentia. Hie enim, volens 
placere illi qui se assumpsit, 
elaboravit arte sua ut similitu- 
dinem in melius figuraret. 

20 Multitudo autem hominum ab- 
ducta per speciem operis, eum, 
qui ante tempus tanquam homo 
honoratus fuerat, nuuc deum 

21 aestimaverunt. Et haec fuit 
vitiie humanae deceptio, quo- 

15. Tof TOTf V. S. Ven. al. t. irort A. 296. 16. KparijOfv 106. Aid. Compl. tOyos S. (y srasum) voftoy S. yofim S'. 

i<pv\ax$7]. uvoiJiaaSrj J06. 361. iSfnjaxfvovTO 106. 261. 17. rvnat avaTvnuaaiuvoiYen. 153. TviroiaayKvoi 354. t€ti/<i7/j«kou 

157. Athan. toc air. ois ira/i. V. A. al. on vap. tov air. S. Ven. al. KoXaKtuowi V. S. Ven. al. KoKaxfvaoiaiv A. 55. 106. al. rt/t 
awovirjs S. V. Ven. al. Ath. T17S om. A. 55. 106. al. 18. /t«TO tovto i; tou 253. 19. ry Kpar. V. Mai. ry om. S. A. C. 

V. Vercell 253. al. Aid. tj; om. 253. 20. l<p(\«6ii(yov. tftpxoixfyov 106. 261 . eiixa/x V. S. al. fvxapa A. C. tit 

n^off^a 55, 354. at0aaiuoy i6i. 21. tistvfSpaS. eytSpov S*. 

-xrv. a8.] 



nism aut affectui aut regibos 
deservientes homines, incoin- 
mnnicabile nomen lapidibos et 

a 2 lignis imposuerunt. Et uon 
suffecerat errasse eos circa Dei 
scientiam ; sed et in magno vi- 
ventes inscientiae bello, tot et 
tain magna mala pacem appel- 

33 lant. Aut enim filios suos sa- 
crificantes, aut obscura Eacrificia 
facientes, aut inganiae plenas 

H vigilias babentes, neque vitam, 
neque nuptias mundas jam cus- 
todiunt ; sed alius alium per 
invidiam occidit aut adulterans 

35 contristat ; et omnia commista 
Bunt, sanguis, homicidium, fur- 
tum et iictio, corruptio et in- 
iidelitas, turbatio et perjurium, 

36 tamnltos bonorum, Dei imme- 
moratio, animanim inquinatio, 
nativitatis immutatio, niiptiarum 
inconstantia, inordinatio moe- 

37 chiae et impudicitiae. lufando- 
nim enimidolorumcultura omnb 
mail causa e8t,et initium,et finis. 

38 Aut enim dum laetantur, in- 
saniunt, aut certe vaticinantur 

Sti fj <rviJi<(>opq fj rvpavvibi 

bovkeva-avTfi avOpamoi 
TO OKOiviairqTOV ovop-a kCOois 

Koi ^Kois TrepUOfo-av. 
3 2 eir' ovK ijpKf(T{ to Trkavacrdat 

irtpl TTfv Tov Qfov yvuxTiv, 
aXXa KoX (V fji(ya\<D ftSiTey 

ayvoCas irokefuf 
TO. Toaravra kuku flprjvr]v Ttpoff- 


33 r) yap TfKvo<p6vovs reXeras, fj 

Kpv<f)i.a fivcrr/jpia, 
^ ififiaveii e^aXkoiv dfo-p-dv 
K(ip,ovi ayovTfs, 

34 ovTf ^Covs ovT€ ydixovs KoOa- 

poiis (Ti <pv\a<r(rovcriv, 
(Tfpos 8' trtpov ri KoyStv avai- 
pti, fi vo6eu(i>v obvvq. 
25 Travra 8' iTtipl^ l^ei alp.a koi 

tf>6v0S, KkOTTTI KOt SoAoj, 

(j)9opa, aTTKTrCa, Tipa\os, 


36 Oopvfioi ayoButVy \apiT0i d- 
■^\<av yLUury-os, yfVf<r(a>s ivaX- 

yifiMV dra^ta, pMiXfCa koi 
2j ff yap T&v ivrnvvpLtov (lb<iX.a)v 
TcavTos dpx^ KOKOv Koi alTia, 
KoX vepas forCv. 
38 Tj yap fV(f>paiv6n(voi fiffirjiia- 
<Tiv, ^ Trpo<pr)Tfvov<ri, ^evbij, 

men, serving either calamity or 
tyranny, did ascribe unto stones 
and stocks the incommunicable 
23 name'. Moreover this was not 'Or.ij^Oed. 
enough for them, that they erred 
in the knowledge of Grod ; but 
whereas they lived in the great 
war of ignorance, those so great 

23 plagues called they peace. For 
whilst they slew their children 
in sacrifices, or used secret cere- 
monies, or made revellings of 

24 strange rites ; They kept neither 
lives nor marriages any longer 
undefiled : but either one slew 
another traitorously, or grieved 

25 him by adultery. So that there 
reigned in all men without ex- 
ception' blood, manslaughter,' Or, 
theft, and dissimulation, cor- 
ruption, tmfaithfulness, tumults, 

36 perjury. Disquieting of good 
men, forgetfulness of good turns, 
defiling of souls, changing of 
kind ', disorder in marriages, • Or, tex. 
adultery, and shameless un- 

27 cleanness. For the worshipping 

of idols not to be named * is the * O'- 


beginning, the cause, and the 

28 end, of all evil. For either they 
are mad when they be merry, 

21. wtpifStaayV. \. S. vcpifffij/tar S*. C. loti. 157. 248. Compl. 22. Jipmtat roV. ^p*tatr w\areur8<u S. t/pufafr avroit 

A. a *ec. man. 106. 261. t/picfaSijaca' Vea. /«7aA^< V. Ven. «f /»e-)f<iAtt; A. C. 157. al. Compl. S'. luyaKusS. 24. (ti miAi- 

povs 248. Compl. Koxfoair S*. 25. warras Ven. 253. »aKTO S. A.V. C. 55. aL Compl. Vulg. Syr. Ar. Arm. tn/xtfo' S. 296. 

fwiiufuw S'. «x« om. 248. S'. awtOTfiat C. rapaxyi Ven. 254. rapaxot S. A. V. C. 55. tX. Compl. Aid. npiopiaif C. 

26. afan/aui S. V. 68. al. aianfTtui A. C. S'. Ven. al. Compl. iuhx^ku koi aaiXytuu 396. 27. 0f^itia A. 




[xrv. 29- 

1 Or, 

or prophesy lies, or live unjustly, 
or else lightly forswear them- 

29 selves. For insomuch as their 
trust is in idols, which have no 
life ; though they swear falsely, 
yet they look not to be hurt. 

30 Howbeit for both causes sliuU 
they be justly punished: both 
because they thought not well 
of God, giving heed ' unto idols, 
and also unjustly swore in de- 

31 ceit, despising holiness. For it 
is not the power of them by 
whom they aware: but it is 
the just vengeance of sinners, 
that punisheth always the oflfence 
of the ungodly. 


1 But thou, God, art gracious 
and true, longsuffering, and in 

2 mercy ordering all things. For 
if we sin, we are thine, knowing 
thy power : but we will not 
sin, knowing that we are counted 

3 thine. For to know thee is 
perfect righteousness : yea, to 
know thy power is the root of 

71 (acriv abiKOis, ^ iinopKOvcri. 

39 a\jrv-)(ois yhp ireirot^oVej flbat- 
KaK&s diioa-avres &biKrf6rjvai 
ov Trpocrb(\ovTai. 

30 an(f)6Tfpa bk avTovs pLfrtkeu- 

cTfTai Ta SiKOia, 
Sti KaKcas i<f>p6vr](rav itepi 

Qiov TTpoa-(Tx6vTfs ilbdkois, 
Kol abUcas &p.ocTav iv 6oXo> 

KaTa<})povri<ravTes oo-torijroy. 

31 ov yap T) T&v 6p,wp.ivu>v bv- 

oAX' 7) tS>v ap-apravovrMV blKr\ 

(V€^tp\fTai &€l Trjv TUtV &bl- 

KQ)f irapifiaa-iv. 


1 2v 5^ 6 Qehs fniGtv •)(jpt]<ttos 

KoX aXrjOrfs, 
fxaKpoOvfjios KoL iv fXiei Stot- 
K&v TO, Trdvra. 

2 Kal yap iav ap.apTaip.iv, aoi 

Icrpiv, eiSoVes crov to Kpd- 


ovx apapTTjaopfOa bi, elbores 
5ti (Tol k(\oyC(rp(6a. 

3 TO yap iirCaracrOal tre oXo'kXjj- 

pos biKaioavirq, 
Kal flbivai aov to /cpdros pi'fa 

falsa, aut vivunt injust*, aut 

29 pejeraut cito. Dum enim con- 
fidunt in idolis quae sine anima 
sunt, male jurantes noceri se 

30 non sperant. Utraque ergo 
illis evenient digne, quoniam 
male senserunt de Deo, atten- 
dentes idolis, et juraverunt in- 
juste, in dolo conteranentes jus- 

31 titiara. Non enim juratorum 
virtus, sed peccantium poena 
perambulat semper injustorum 


1 Tu autem, Deus noster, suavis 
et verus es, patiens, et in miseri- 

2 cordia disponens omnia. Ete- 
nim si peccaverimus, tui sumus, 
scieiites magnitudinem tuam ; 
et si non peccaverimus, scimus 
quoniam apud te sumus com- 

3 putati. Nosse enim te, con- 
summata justitia est; et scire 
justitiam, et virtutem tuam ra- 

28. tipiopKovatv A. 30. aftcpoT, S< ovtov C. ra tima S. ra Sincoia S'. V. to aSixa A. a pr. man. on «ai kok. S. 

irptxrxovTfs V. 68. al. rpoatxovrn S. A C. Ven. al. Compl. 31. i; post yap om. S. add. S. cor. o/wvotifyai' V. al. Ofov- 

lifvaiy A. S. v. ss. 106. al. Aid. XV. 1. oXijftjt icai (ntimis 253. (y (X«i V. fv om. S. A. V. C. al. cX«i;/ia»> S*. 

2. ai" 253. a/ia/)Tai'«;/<f;' S. 106. 261. a/m/)T<u/«f V. A. S'. al. aov (fffifv 106. 2g6. xpiros. Kpi/mS. «poTos S'. 8«om. V. 
aov k(\oy. 106. 261. 3. to ttSfyai Ven. 353. 296. S'. to xparos aou V. Mai. aov T. Kp. S. A. V. Vercell. Ven. al. Compl. 

-XV. 9-] 



4 dix est immortulitatis. Non 
enim in errorem induxit nos 
hominum malae artis excogi- 
tatio, nee umbra picturae labor 
sine fructu, eflSgies sculpta per 

5 varies colores, cujus aspectus 
insensato dat concupiscentiam, 
et diligit mortuae imaginis ef- 

6 figiem sine anima. Malorum 
amatores digni sunt qui spem 
habeant in talibus, et qui faciuut 
Ulos, et qui diligunt, et qui co- 

7 lunt. Sed et figulus mollem 
terrani premens laboriose fingit 
ad usas nostros unumquodque 
vas, et de eodein luto fingit 
quae munda sunt in usum vasa, 
et Bimiliter quae his sunt con- 
traria ; horum autem vasorum 

, quis sit usus, judex est figulus. 

8 Et cum labore vano deura fingit 
de eodem luto, ille qui paulo 
ante de terra factus fuerat, et 
post pusillum reducit se unde 
acceptus est, repetitus animae 

9 debitnm quam habebat. Sed 
cura est illi, non quia labora- 

4 ovTf yap fitkivqa-fv ^/xSs av- 

Opd-noiv KaK6T()^voi imvoia, 
oibf (rKiaypd(f>oi)v ttovos axap- 


ftSos (TTTiXco^er \pmixa(Ti bii)\- 

5 &v o\j/is &(f)povi fii Spf^iv 

■nodfl Te veKpas elicovoi eI8os 

6 KUK&v ipaaral ct^toi re roiov- 

TQiV f\lTLb<OV, 

Ka'i ol bp&vTfs Kttt 01 TTodovvres 

KOI oi (Tf^OfifVOl. 

7 Kol yap KfpapLfvs airaXriv yfjv 

6\lj3<iiv fvipLOxOov, 
■<rei irpos vTir]p«Tiav r]p.av 

%v ^Kaarov, 
aXX. eK Tov avrov ii-qKov avf- 

t6. Tf Tutv KadapMV ipymv hovka 

ri. re ivavrCa, irdvO ofioiws' 
TovTwv 6e exare'pov rts ejcicrroii 

(OTIV f) )(J)rj<TlS, 

KpiTTis 6 TnjXovpyoy. 

8 Kal KaKOfioxOos Oeov fiaraiov 

iK TOV avTov Ttkiaarei irqXov, 
Ss irpo iiiKpov iK yrji ytvirridds 
\j.(T okiyov TiopevfTai i( rjs 

TO Tjjs '^Injxijs &vaiTr]0fls XP*'°s. 

9 dAA' icmp avT<a ipporrrls o^x 

on fxe'AAet Kafivfiv, 

4 immortality. For neither did 
the mischievous invention of 
men deceive us, nor an image 
spotted with divers coloui-s, the 

5 painter's fruitless labour; The 
sight whereof enticeth fools to 
lust after it ', and so they desire > Or, 
the form of a dead image, that reproach to 

6 hath no breath. Both they that 
make them, they that desire 
them, and they that worship 
them, are lovers of evil things, 
and are worthy to have such 

7 things to ti-ust upon. For the 
potter, tempering soft earth, 
fashioneth every vessel with 
much labour for our service : 
yea, of the same clay he maketh 
both the vessels that serve for 
clean uses, and likewise also all 
such as serve to the contrary: but 
what is the use of either sort, 
the potter himself is the judge. 

8 And employing his laboui's 
lewdly, he maketh a vain god 
of the same clay, even he which 
a little before was made of 
earth himself, and within a 
little while after retumeth to 
the same, out of the which 
he was taken, when his life 
which was lent him shall be 

9 demanded. Notwithstanding 
his care is, not that he shall 

4. ovt( yap io6. 261. ovri ax. 157. 248. Aid. al. amoypa-p- S». 396. Aid. amvoiefy S. Ven. ffiriAoitfo' S*. et caet. fcijX- 
XayiifVM S. Ji7XAa7^€yoij S'. et caet. 6. aw 17 S'. 55. 254. a<ppori S. A. (!) 55. 106. al. Vulg. o^/xxrii' V. C. Ven. S'. al. 

o/>e£iK S. A. C. Ven. CompL al. Vulg. Syr. Arm. Ar. ovtiSos V. To$urt. irotftirm C. Ven. ayvow \. 7. t/tSM/Sow 157. 

fy (an. V. Ven. add. S. A. C. al. Compl. (xaoroi Ven. -ravra A. S. C. om. ra rt aavria rayef Oft. (Karipov V. A. nca- 
TtpovrC. twoTt/xw JJ3. ««/*»■ S. 106. fr«pou S'. Ven. Aid. i; xp- S. om. ij. 8. o •aim/i. 157. w\aaa{i f* tov avrov A. 

ytvifiut C. V. »o/MU(TfT<u 55. 157. al. Compl. f\riiup0^ A. S. C. 

N 2 



[xv. 10- 

■ Or, ht 
«icA, or, die. 

have much labour ', nor that his 
life is short : but striveth to 
excel goldsmiths and silver- 
smiths, and endeavoureth to do 
like the workers in brass, and 
counteth it his glory to make 

10 counterfeit things. His heart 
is ashes, his hope is more vile 
than earth, and his life of less 

1 1 value than clay : Forasmuch as 
he knew not his Maker, and 
him that inspired into him an 
active soul, and breathed in a 

12 living spirit. But they counted 
» Or. ii/t. our life a pastime, and our time ' 

here a market for gain : for, say 
they, we must be getting every 
way, though it be by evil means. 
» Or. So. 13 For' this man, that of earthly 
matter maketh brittle vessels and 
graven images, knoweth himself 
14 to offend above all others. And 
all the enemies of thy people, 
that hold them in subjection, are 
most foolish, and are more 

ovb' Sri ^pa\vTfk7J fiCov ^ei, 
aXA.' avTfpeibfTai ixev x/'^"'" 

ovpyoii Kol apyvpoxoois, 
XaAKOTrXaoray re (xijietrai, 
Kol bo^av fj-ye'iTai ort Ki^rjXa 


10 (TTTobbs r] Kapbia avTov, 

Koi yrjs evT(\f(rTipa fi iXirls 

T^rjKov re arijuo'repos 6 ^Cos 


11 on riyv6r)<Tf tov irkaa'avTa av- 


Kal rov ijXTrvfvcravTa avT(2 

"^vxrjv ivipyovaav, 
KOI ifK^tvcrqa-avTa livtv^ia ^oi- 


12 oX\' kXoyLcravTO italyviov ilvai 

Tr)V ftoTji' 7]ix(av 
KOI TOV jSCov i:avr\yvpia-p.ov 

buv ydp ((>ri(nv oOev bi} k&v ^k 


13 oCroy yap -rtapa Trdvras otbtv 

on aixaprdva,, 
vKr]S yedbovs tiidpavara CTKivrj 
Koi y\vTTTa brjiMovpy&v. 

14 TT<i.vTfs b a.(f>povf(rraToi. Kal 

ToXaves vTTfp ^v^i^v vrj- 


01 fx^pol TOV kaov aov Kora- 
bvvaareua-avTfs avTov' 

turns est, nee quoniam brevis 
illi vita est, sed concertatur auri- 
ficibus et argentariis ; sed et 
aerarios imitatur, et gloriam 
praefert, quoniam res superva- 

10 cufts fingit. Cinis est enim cor 
ejus, et terra supervacua spes 
illius, et Into vilior vita ejus; 

1 1 quoniam ignoravit qui se finxit, 
et qui inspiravit illi animam quae 
operatur, et qui insuflBavit ei 

1 2 spiritum vitalem. Sed et aesti- 
maverunt lusum esse vitam nos- 
tram, et conversationem vitae 
compositum ad lucrum, et opor- 
tere undecunque etiam ex nialo 

13 acquirere. Hie enim scit se 
super omnes delinquere, qui ex 
terrae materia fragilia vasa et 

14 sculptilia fiugit. Omnes enim 
iu!^ipieutes, et infelices supra 
modum animae superbi, sunt 
inimici populi tui, et impe- 

9. xpvaovfriiAi. apyvpovpyoisYen. vXaaau. vpaaatiC i-,',. 10. xapS. avTaiv 157. 248. euTt/xi S. tvTf\f<jTtpaS>'. 

«Xir. auToii' 157. 348. Compl. 11. r)^voii 261. irKaaavra S. V.Ven. al. Vulg. Syr. Arm. noiriaavra A. C. 55. al. Ar. «if 

^XV C. 55. al. fVipvarjaavTa S. avrai nvtviia Ven. S^. C. 106 261. 12. oXAo A. tKoytaayro V. S. A. C. Yen. Vulg. Syr. 

Arm. Ar. (Koytaaro V. S". 106. al. iptjaiv V. Ven. S. al. Ar. ipaatv A. C. 157. al. Compl. Arm. oOtv 8ij om. S. Sij «oi «« A. 
55. al. 817 <K C. xaKouv 106. 248. 261. 18.01)705261.296. 7a/) om. Ven. tuflpoffra S. A. C. Ven. 157. «i/9/wu<rra V. 55. al. 

14. irovTfs i( S. V. Ven. al. Vulg. Syr Ann. Ar. irai'Ta;!' S« A. C. 254. 296. iravToit 253. atppomrrarot V. Ven. A. al. Vulg. Syr. 
Arm. Ar. tuppovfarfpot S. C. 106. al. imxt* vrfniou V. Ven. S. al. xf/vxas vrptinf A. C. 248. 296. Compl. tfnixai om. 55. 254. 01 
dOToJ. V. Ven. iC). al. S". avraiv S". 

-XV. 19.] 



15 rantes illi ; quoniam omnia idola 
nationnm deoB aestimaverunt, 
quibus neque oculorum usus est 
ad videndum, neque nares ad 
percipiendum spiritum, neque 
aures ad audiendum, neque digit! 
manuum ad tractandum, sed et 
pedes eornm pigri ad ambu- 

16 landum. Homo enim fecit il- 
los ; et qui spiritum mutuatus 
est, is iinxit illos. Nemo enim 
sibi sirailem homo poterit deum 

17 fingere. Cum enim sit morta- 
lis, mortuum fingit manibus 
iniquis. Melior enim est ipse 
his quos colit, quia ipse quidem 
visit, cum esset mortalis, illi 

18 nutem nunquam. Sed et ani- 
nialia miserrima colunt ; insen- 
sata enim comparata his, illis 

ig sunt deteriora. Sed nee as- 
pectu aliquis ex his animalibus 
bona potest conspicere ; effuge- 
runt autem Dei laudem et bene- 
dictionem ejus. 

15 on KOI iravra ra eISa>A.a t<ov 

iOvCiv ikoyLa-avTO fleovs, 
oTj ovT( dixjxaTwv xprjcrii ets 

ovre pivfs eh <tvvo\kt)v aipoi, 

CWTi ZiTa aKOVilV, 

mrrt h&KTvXoi. ytiplav eJs ^- 

KoL oi 7ro'8ey avrZv apyoX 
iTpbi iirilSaffiv. 

16 &v0p<tHTos yap eTToir\crfv av- 


Koi TO TTveviia hebavtiviJifvos 

tnKa(T(v avTovs. 
ovbfls yap avT(^ opLoiov av- 

Opcoiroi Ifrxyei irkdcrai dtov 

17 dvrjTbs be atv veKpov epy&^eTai 

\epa\v hvofiois' 
KpeCmov yip iari tQv ae^aa- 

ivO c5r avTos fiep e^Tja-er, 

iKelva be oibeTroTf. 
:8 (cat ra foJa 6e ra ^xOiora ari- 

&voia yap <rvyKpiv6p,eva t&v 

&kX.(ov iarl ^(^eCpova. 
19 ovb' o(Tov eitittodria-ai is Iv 

(duiv o-^ei Koka Tuyxd- 

iKirecfievye be nal tov tov &eov 

inaivov Koi r^v evkoyiav 


15 miserable than very babes. For 
they counted all the idols of the 
heathen to be gods : which nei- 
ther have the use of eyes to see, 

nor noses to draw breath •, nor ' Or, irfr. 
ears to hear, nor fingers of hands 
to handle ; and as for their feet, 

16 they are slow to go. For man 
made them, and he that bor- 
rowed his own spirit fashioned 
them : but no man can make a 

17 god like unto himself For being 
mortal, he worketh a dead thing 
with wicked hands : for he him- 
self is better than the things 
which he worshippeth : whereas 
he lived imce, but they never. 

18 Yea, they worshipped those 
beasta also that are most hate- 
ful : for being compared toge- 
ther, some are worse than others. 

19 Neither are they beautiful, so 
much as to be desired in respect 
of beasts: but they went with- 
out the praise of God and hia 

15. oT< itai vavTa. leai om. A. C. al. CompL Vutg. to ctSoiXa A. S. C. V. Ven. al. to om. V. al. us ouSt 55. 157. 354. 
X/wjffc's S. a6 1 . (Is opaatv. (» oin. C. pttvts S. 16. SfSaveta/tfyosY. StSavia/uyos A.V^.C. Si'. SfSayiaiurov S, 

airr^, favratVen. ai/T^ ofwiov dvOponros. avTuv Ofiot. avOpcivos {(wOpcjir^ ^^. 2^^. aySpwjiois 2^^. ay$ponrary 2^6.) 2^i,Compl.aX. 
ayOponrois ojiotov avBpojwoy 106. 261. ayBponwy ofwioy tffx^^^ ^^- avBpojitojv itXaaai 0toy ofiotoy ta-xyfi S. avroJV o/iotoy ay$pam}t 
KTxvci v\aaai 0(oy S^. 17 . Kpuxacay A. C. Kptaaoy S. xpttaaoy 261. KpfirrmiW. atfirifuiTuy A. avrov ayV.onet. 

ovfl* ow S. aw om. 157. 253. avro? /i«i< 70/1 157. 18. (xtfiara S. dfoia ed. Sixt. et Mai. Aid. Ck>mpL 



[XVL I- 

1 Or, ttji 


I Therefore by the like were they 
punished worthily, and by the 
multitude of beasts tormented. 

1 Instead of which punishment, 
dealing graciously with thine 
own people, thou preparedst for 
them meat of a strange taste, 
even quails to stir up their ap- 

3 petite ; To the end that they, 
desiring food, might for the ugly 
sight of the beasts sent among 
them loathe even that, which 
they must needs desire : but 
these, suffering penury for a 
short space, might be made 
partakers of a strange taste. 

4 For it was requisite, that upon 
them exercising tyranny should 
come penury, which they could 
not avoid : but to those it 
should only be shewed how 
their enemies were tormented. 

5 For when the horrible fierceness 
of beasts came upon these ', and 
they perishe<l with the stings of 
crooked serpents, thy wrath 


1 Aia TovTO hi ojxoCuiv (Ko\a- 

crdr]<rav d^i'cos, 
KOI 6ia trXijOovi KvmbiXwv 

2 avSi' T]s KoXa.(T(Uis (vepyfTqaas 

Tov \a6v <rov, 

Tpo<pr]V fiToCp,a(Tai oprvyo- 

3 Iva iKilvoi fiiv fTTidvpMvvres 


8ia TTjv (IbexOfLav t&v i-nan- 

KoX TTjv avayKaiav ope^iv cltto- 

oCrot hi eTt' 6\Lyov (vhais 

KOI ^(.vq'S y.(T6.(T\(i>(Ti yeva-fMS. 

4 ehei yap fKfivois pLiv aTsapairt}- 

Tov (vhfiav (■nfXOii.v Tvpav- 
TovTois hi fiovov h(i)(6r}vai 
irois 01 i\9pol avTuiv e/3a- 

5 KoX yap ore avTols hfivos 

eiTTJXflf Orjpioov Ovp-os, 
hriyfjia(Ti re (TKoKioiv hie<f>dfl- 

povTo o^etov, 
ov /ji«'x/)i Tt'AoDS i}Xiiviv 1} opyrj 



1 Propter haec et per his similia 
passi sunt digue tormeuta, et 
per multitudinem bestiarum ex- 

2 terminati sunt. Pro quibus 
tormcntis bene disposuisti popu- 
lum tuum, quibus dedisti con- 
cupiscentiam delectameuti sui 
novum saporem, escam parans 

3 sis ortygometram ; ut illi qui- 
dem concupiscentes escam prop- 
ter ea quae illis ostensa et 
missa sunt, etiam a necessaria 
concupiscentia averterentur. Hi 
autem in brevi inopes facti no- 

4 vam gustaverunt escam. Opor- 
tebat enim illis sine excusatione 
quidem supervenire interitum 
exercentibus tyrannidem ; his 
autem tantum ostcndere quem- 
admodum iuiiuici eorum exter- 

5 minabantur. Eteuim cum illis 
Bupervenit saeva bestiarum ira, 
morsibus perversorum colubro- 

XVI. 2. «wi?/)7€Tij(r«i' S. tv))f)ytTi)aay S'. finjpYfnjaos 253. 01; (is A. 55. 348 Vulg. ytvatoKS. ytvvtip S*. Tpo^rio6. 
Aid. 3. T/Kxpijt S. Ven. al. fiJtx**""' C. 55. Field. Ap. Fr. Mai. Reusch Tisch. iixOttaay S. iixBr/aav Veu. S(ix9tiaay 

A. v. 68. al, Compl. Aid. Vulg. Ar. Arm. SfixStiaay rajv fvav.Xercell. drctrraA/iO'cuv 55. aiT*(TTaA/i«i'eu>' 157. frawoaTpf<povratC, 
avrot 8« V. Veil. ouroi It S. A. C. al. Compl. »»' oXt^iu 148. Compl. /ut o\iyov 106. ■yii'o^ti'oi 106. 261. 4. /*«■ cm. V. 

6. tipSupovro S. tit(p6fif>ovTO S'. 

-XVL. 12.] 



6 ruin extenuinabantur. Sed non 
in perpetuum ira tua permansit, 
[6] sed ad correptionem in brevi 
turbati sunt, signum habentes 
Balutis ad commeinorationem 

J mandati legis tune. Qui enim 
conversus est, non per hoc quod 
■vadebat sanabatur, sed per te 

8 omnium salvatorem ; in hoc 
autem ostendisti inimieis nostris, 
quia tu es qui liberas ab omni 

9 malo. Hlos enim locustarum 
et muscarum occiderunt morsus, 
et non est inventa sanitas ani- 
mae Ulorum, quia digni erant 
ab hujuscemodi exterminari. 

10 Filios autem tuos nee draconum 
venenatorum vicerunt dentes ; 
misericordia enim tua adveniens 

1 1 sanabat illos. In memoria enim 
sermonum tuorum examinaban- 
tur, et velociter salvabantur, ne 
in altam incidentes oblivionem, 
non possent tuo uti adjutorio. 

12 Etenim neque herba, neque ma- 
lagma sanavit eos, sed tuus, 
Domine, sermo, qui sanat omnia. 

6 (h vovOicriap he irpbs oklyov 

oviJu^oXov (\ovT(S (rojTTjplas, 
(Is avdixirrjaiv ivTokrjs vofxov 


7 6 yap iviarpaipfis ov bta to 

diutpovp.evov Icrta^iTO, 
aXKa 6ia <re rov iravroav (ron- 

8 Kal iv T0VT(a be eiretcros tovs 

i)($povs finmv, 
ort (TV el 6 pvofifvos e/c iravros 


9 ots fxiv yap aKpiboiv koI liVL&v 

aiTfKTfivf briyixara, 
Kai ovx ivpedr\ lap.a rfi i/'vxp 

oTi a^ioi rjorav viro TOLOvrmv 


10 roily 8e viovs <rov ovbi lofiokaiv 

bpaKovrmv fViKri(rav obovTes, 
TO eAeos ydp trou avTnTapij\de 
Kal lAa-aTo avTovs. 

11 els yap inronvrja-Lv tQv Xoy[(i>v 

a-ov iveKevTpL^ovTo, 
Ka\ o^eoos biea-d^ovTo, tva fxr} 

els ^aOelav kp.-necr6vTes X^- 

aTTep[(nraaToi yevwvrai Trjs <njs 


12 Kal yap oiiTe ^OTavr) oflrf p.6.- 

\ayy.a iOepcnreva-ev avTovs, 
aXka 6 (rbs, Kvpie, \6yos 6 
TTdvTa l<ip,evos. 

6 endured not for ever : But they 
were troubled for a small sea- 
son, that they might be a<l- 
monished, having a sign of sal- 
vation, to put them in remem- 
brance of the commandment of 

7 thy law. For he that turned 
himself toward it was not saved 
by the thing that he saw, but 
by thee, that art the Saviour 

8 of all. And in this thou madest 
thine enemies confess, that it is 
thou who deliverest from all 

9 evil : For them the bitings 
of grasshoppers and flies killed, 
neither was there found any 
remedy for their life : for they 
were worthy to be punished by 

10 such. But thy sons not the 
very teeth of venomous dragons 
overcame : for thy mercy was 
ever by them, and healed them. 

11 For they were pricked', thatiGr.ftiuv. 
they should remember thy 
words ; and were quickly saved, 

that not falling into deep for- 
getfulness, they might be con- 
tinually mindful of thy good- ' Or, nmer 

12 ness. For it was neither herb,."''^- 
nor mollifying plaister, that re- 
stored them to health : but thy 
word, Lord, which healeth 

6. tTopoxft; S". (TapaxSiaav S'. (nii0ov\oy S. A. Yen. Aid. av/iffoKovY. Fr. Field. I'o/ioi' A. 248. 296. (rov om. S. 106. 
Aid. 8. fxfp. fov a. f.rifuiivS'. 9. Trap om. S'. add. S^ /jweui' io6. 157. Aid. air««T«i'a>' 157. 8ij/iaToS. Sij^f/jaToS*. 

Si;7^ri 261. Aid. TotovTOiV. tovtojvS. toiovtuvS*, 10. Tovt 5( 5ov\ovsYen. Spax. to$o\ojy Yen. oovyapS. irv/xc add. 

106.261. ai'Ttii-a/)ij7fi' Ven. 253. laro S.Ven. 253. 11. Ao7aii' ffoi/ 106. 261. €»'««i'T/«fo>'TO A. C. (?) 6{iois. tvSfoKYea. 

iva loj fit ^o9. om S. add. S. cor. air(f»<7TaT0i Ven. 253. 12. Xo7oi S. rtavrat A. 55. al. U>iuvm. twa/uvm S'. 



[XVI. IS- 

IS all things. For tliou hast power 
of life and death : thou leadest 
to the gates of hell, and bringest 

14 up again. A man indeed kill- 
eth through his malice : and the 
spirit, when it is gone forth, 
returneth not ; neither the soul 

15 received up cometh again. But 
it is not possible to escape thine 

16 hand. For the ungodly, that 
denied to know thee, were 
scourged by the strength of 
thine arm : with strange rains, 
hails, and showers, were they 
persecuted, that they could not 
avoid, and through fire were 

17 they consumed. For, which is 
most to be wondered at, the fire 
had more force in the water, 
that quencheth all things : for 
the world fighteth for the right- 

18 eous. For sometime the flame 
was mitigated, that it might not 
bum up the beasts that were 
sent against the ungodly; but 
themselves might see and per- 
ceive that they were persecuted 
with the judgment of God. 

19 And at another time it burneth 
eveu in the midst of water above 

13 <rv yap (wfjs (cat Bavirov i$ov- 

aCav «X*'*' 
Koi KaTdyeii fls Trv\as abov 
Koi avayds. 

14 avOpoiiTos 8e aiTOKTfvvfi, p^v rfj 

KaKCq. avTov, 
i^f\dov bi TrreC/xa ovk &va- 

ovbf avaKvfi '^XV" wapoXT;- 


15 TT}V bi OTjr X^'P** <f>vyelv 

abwarov i(mv. 

16 apvovjxevoi yip <r€ flbevai atre- 


iv l(r)(yi l3pa\[ov6s <rov ip.a(T- 

^fvoii vfTois Koi xo^t^C"'* ''"'' 

opL^pois Sio)(co/i«i»ot iitapai- 


Koi Tivpi KaTavaKi(TK6p.evoi. 

17 TO yap irapabo^oTarov, iv T(5 

vdvra a-^evvvvTi vbart. TrXei- 
ov Ivqpyo. to iriip' 
vi!fpp.axp9 yap 6 Kocpos eori 

18 wore pfv yap fip,(povTO (f>\b^, 
tva prj KaTa(}>\.f^y to. iir d<r<- 

/3eTs aT!f(rra\p.iva fcSo, 
dAA' avrol /SAeirojTes tbiocriv 
ort &fov KpCcrei ikavvov- 

19 irore bi (cai fxera^ii vbaros 

VTTfp TTiv Twpbs bvpap.iv 

i.l Tu es enim, Domine, qui vitae 
et mortis habes potestatem, et 
deducis ad portas mortis, et re- 

14 ducis. Homo autem occidit 
quidem per raalitiam, et cum 
exierit spiritus, nou revertetur, 
nee revocabit auiraam quae re- 

15 cepta est ; sed tuam manum 

16 effugere impossibile est. Ne- 
gantes enim te nosse impii, per 
fortitudinem brachii tui flagel- 
lati sunt ; novis aquis, et grandi- 
nibus, et pluviis persecutionem 
passi, et per ignem consumti. 

17 Quod enim mirabile erat, in 
aqua, quae omnia extinguit, 
plus ignis valebat ; vindex est 

18 enim orbis justorum. Quodam 
enim tempore mansuetabatur 
ignis, ne comburerentur quae 
ad impios missa erant animalia, 
sed ut ipsi videntes scirent quo- 
niain Dei judicio patiuntur per- 

19 secutionem. Et quodam tem- 
pore in aqua supra virtutem ignis 

13. Acai ^anjs KOI io6. 261. txf iivfuf 106. 261. a!ow in;Xos Ven. iri/Xas om. 1 06. 261. 14. aySpamm ftty S. ntv yap 

106.261. anoKTvt TT) KaKta S. avoKTfvrjVen. airoxrcKd 106. al. Aid. airoirrcifci Compl. tavTovVen, to ante avcv/m adJ. S'. 
irapa\r;iup6fiaav A. S. C. 15. €K(pvy€tv 157. 16. «o( ante on0p. om. I06. 261. avapfTTjrm A. OTaf>airi;Ta); 157. 248. 

Compl. 17. ra vavra S. ff/SfwiioKTi 106. 261. irXtoi/ S. fffTir o Koir/j. S. 106. 296. SiKaiois A. 18. €i/«poirro V. S. 

TllupovTo S'. (irantaToXiifva Van. aKoaraXfyTa 157, avoariWontva 106. faia om. S. tidd. S'. oAAa PKtvovTts S. 

oAX' tva S'. 01 PKfirovTff Ven. xpiati 9tov C. 248. Compl. tKavvaivTOi A. 19. ti/k tow wpoi 106. 261. 

-XVI. 24] 



exardescebat nndique, ut ini- 
quae terrae nationem extermi- 

ao naret. Pro quibus angelonim 
esca nutrivisti popnlum tuum, 
et paratum panem de caelo 
praestitiBti illis sine labore, 
onine delectamentura in se ha- 
bentem, et omnis sapon's suavi- 

si tatem. Substantia enim tua 
dulcedinem tuam quam in filios 
habes ostendebat, et deserviens 
uniuscujusque voluntati, ad quod 
quisque volebat convertebatur. 

32 Nix auf em et glacies sustinebant 
vim ignis, et non tabescebant, 
ut scirent quoniam fructns ini- 
micorum exterminabat ignis 
ardens in grandine et pluvia 

23 coruscans. Hie autem iterum 
ut nutrirentur justi. etiam suae 

24 virtutis oblitus est. Creatura 
euim tibi Factori deserviens, 
exardescit in tomientum ad- 
versus injustos, et lenior fit ad 
benefaciendum pro his qui in te 

tva a&[Kov y^y yf rr^/iara KUTa- 

ao drd' (ov ayy(\(ov Tpo(^r)v i'^d- 

HLo-as Tov Xaov (tov, 
KoX (Toinov ipTov aiiToi? air' 

ovpavov ~ap((j\(i aKOTTiaTUis, 
TTan-av fjbovr^v laxuovTa kol 

npbs TTCKTav appLovtov ytvaiv. 

21 f/ pifv yap {moaran-is <rov ti]v 

<rr]v yXvKi/r>jTa irpoy riKva 

rfj Se TOV i:po<r<f>fpopi(vov iiri- 

dvp.[q VTrqpiTotv, 
Trpoy o ris (^ovKfro p.eTfKip- 


22 Xi(i>v bf (cat KpvaraWos int(- 

fxeire irvp koi ovk eJTjKero, 

iva yv(i(T>.V OTl TOVS TUtV fx- 

Opmv KapTToi/s KaTi(\>6(ip( 
■Rvp <pXfy6fi(vov, 
iv Tjj \aXdQ) Kol iv rois vfTols 

23 TovTo bi ■JToAii', Xva Tpo<^a)(ri 

Koi ri]s IbCas iTri\fkrj(r6ai bv- 

24 f/ yap (criVts <roi t^ iroujo-ayri 

iinTfivfrai, tls KoKacriv Kara 

TMv abiKOiv, 
Kal avlfTai (h dtpyea-Cav vnip 

rap fls <ri TreTtoiOortov. 

the power of fire, that it might 
destroy the fruits of an unjust 
ao land. Instead whereof thou 
feddest thine own people with 
angels' food, and didst send 
them from heaven bread pre- 
pared without their labour, able 
to content every man's delight, 
and agreeing to every taste. 

2 1 For thy sustenance ' declared ' or. 


thy sweetness unto thy children, 
and Eer\'ing to the appetite of 
the eater, tempered itself to'Or, wm 

' _ \ temfertd. 

22 every man's liking. But snow 
and ice endured the fire, and 
melted not, that they might 
know that fire burning in the 
hail, and sparkling in the rain, 
•did destroy the fruits of the 

23 enemies. But this again did 
even forget his own strength, 
that the righteous might be 

24 nourished. For the creature 
that serveth thee, who art the 
Maker, iucreaseth his strength 
against the unrighteous for their 
punishment, and abateth his 
strength for the benefit of such 
ns put their trust in thee. 

19. yfyijfiaTa C V. 8ta^9rifn; V. 68. al. «OTa^«i/>i; A. S. Ven. 55. al. naToipOapti C. «aTa</)Sapi; 254. 20. apTov 

aw' ovpavov wapfax's avToif A. S. C. (?) 55. 106. al. A. B. E. H. Par. aprov (( Ven. vapiaxtt- tTttfitfias V. 248. Compl. axo- 
moron V. S. C. Ven. axomaaTut A. 106. al. mpos waaav 178. 248. Compl. tirxyavaav Ven. ic6. ipos ante raff. o/)/». om. 106. 261. 
cat ante T/x» om. 155. apixoriav &. 21. ffo» om. C. 55. ain-ou 248. »por t««. 7A1;. S. Ven. 5 1 . al. (vfipavt^fv S. X. 

fyt<payi<Tfr Ven. 155. vpot t. tvf<p yK. A. 155. al. Compl. tvt0. miroBaiv xai vnfp. 155. fifTfKpivaro S'. 22. vwtfuvt A. 

yraiuv S'. Pro «x^/'<"'' •*>'•'•' A. ^XeyoK S. Ven. 155. al. ir rots. fjKMs S'. 23. 8* roXii' A. C. 106. al. 5< om. S. 

raXiv 8" V. Ven. al. (inAcAi;<r9<u V. Ven. 68. 261. tviXcXTjo-rai A. S. C. 55. al. Compl. 24. iroii;ffa»Ti to iravra 348. Compl. 

wonjaam avroy C. ut at V. Ven. 68. 296. «iri aoi A. S. C. 55. al. Compl. m a* 155. 284. 261. 



[xvi. 25- 

25 Therefore! even then was it al- 

> Oi.thin^. tered into all fashions ', and 

was obedient to thy grace, that 

nourisheth all things, according 

to the desire of them that had 

» Or. <!f 36 need ' : That thy children, 

Otm tluit •' 

framed. Lord, whom thou lovest, might 

know, that it is not the growing 
of fruits that nourisheth man : 
but that it is thy word, which 
preserveth them that put their 

27 trust in thee. For that which 
was not destroyed of the fire, 
being warmed with a little sun- 

iS beam, soon melted away : That 
it might be known, that we 
must prevent the sun to give 
thee thanks, and at the day- 

29 spring pray unto thee. For the 
hope of the unthankful shall 
melt away as the winter's hoar 
frost, and shall run away as un- 
profit le water. 

I For great are thy judgments, 
and cannot be expressed : there- 
»Or. »<wJ« fore unnurtured souls' have 


not be re- 


25 bia TOVTO KOL TOTf (h TTOiVTa 

Tfl TTavT0Tp6(f>to (Tov boopfa im)- 

TTpos TTiv rav heop-fpcov ^c'At/- 


26 tva fiiOoaariv ol vtoi crov, ots 

^ydwjjo-as, Kvpie, 
8ti ov\ ai yevfo-fis tQv Kapirotv 

Tp(<pOV(TlV &vdpCl)TTOV, 

aXXa TO pT]p.a aov Toiis (toI ttio-- 

Tfvovras biarrjpd. 

37 TO yap vTrb ■nvpoi fir] <t>0fip6- 


avk&s VTTO ^pa\(ias dxriroy 

fiXiov depp.aiv6pfvov eiTj- 


28 Sircos yvioarbv ^ on 6eT <^5d- 

vfiv TOV rjKiov {tt' iV)(api(T- 
rCav trov, 
Koi TTpos avaToXrjv (jxttrbs iv- 
Tvy\Av(LV croi. 

29 ii\api(rrov yap iXTTts its x*'" 

fjLipios irdxvi} TaK?;(r«Tat, 
Koi pVTJa-fTai t»s vSojp a\pri<T- 



I MeyclAai ydp <tov a\ Kpiareis 
Kol bvabiriyrjTof 
Sid TOVTO diratSevToi yjrvxal 

35 confidunt. Propter hoc et tunc 
in omnia transiigurata omnium 
nutrici gratiae tuae deserviebat, 
ad voluntatem eorum qui a te 

26 desiderabant ; ut scirent filii tui 
quos dilexisti, Domine, quo- 
niam non nativitatis fructus 
paecunt homines, Bed eermo 
tuus hos qui in te crediderint 

27 conservat. Quod enim ab igne 
non poterat exterminari, statim 
ab exigno radio soils calefactum 

28 tabescebat ; ut notum omnibus 
esset quoniam oportet praeve- 
nire solem ad benedietionem 
tuam, et ad ortum lucis te 

29 adorare. Ingrati enim spes 
tanquam hibemalis glacies ta- 
bescet, et disperiet tanquam aqua 

CAPUT xvn. 

I Miigna sunt enim judicia tua, 
Domine, et inenarrabilia verba 
tua : propter hoc indisciplinatae 

25. tit mivra om. S. 
ffvtafts Toiv ayBpomav A. 
ii€up$ftpofi€voy S. 
avaTo\j]S Tou ^orros 8', 
at Kftait S, 

/t<raAA<vo/K>^ >/ 71; 353. 71J lo6. Soifnia S. 8«o/«w«' ffotiVen. 55. S'. Vulg. Syr. 26. /loffouffuiC. 

(KTpapovaif 157. Toy avSpaivov Ven. 106. 261. S*. wtarfvaavras Ven. 253. Vulg. 27. M"? <"•>• S. 

28. yvaMXTov r/y V. SicujiSavtv S. S<i ipOayuy S'. ipSayvtty A. C. «vx<if>«^'0 lo^- ><^l- "P^ 

29. axofiOTuv 155. oxntf 106. 261. x*'/"/'"^ S. x'M'/"""? A. x^'M'^os S*. V. XVIL 1. 

-XVII. 7-1 



3 animae errarerunt. Bum enim 
persuasum habent iniqui posse 
dominari nationi sanctae, vin- 
culis tenebrarum et longae noc- 
tis compediti, inclusi sub tectis, 
fugitivi perpetuae providentiae 

3 jacnerunt. £t dam putant se 
latere in obscuris peccatis, tene- 
broso oblivionis velamento dis- 
persi sunt, paventes horrende, 
et cum admiratione nimia per- 

4 turbati. Neque enim quae con- 
tinebat illos spelunca sine ti- 
more custodiebat, quoniam soni- 
tus deseendens perturbabat il- 
los, et personae tristes illis appa- 
rentes pavorem illis praestabant. 

5 Et ignis quidem nulla vis poterat 
illis lumen praebere, nee side- 
rum limpidae flammae illuminare 
poteraut illam noctem faorren- 

6 dam. Apparebat autem Ulis 
Bubitaneus ignis, timore plenus ; 
et timore perculsi illiiis quae 
non videbatur faciei aestimabant 
deteriora esse quae videbantur ; 

7 et magicae artis appositi erant 

2 vTrfikr}(f>6T(s yap KarabwaaT- 

(vetv iOvos Syiov avonoi, 
bia-fiioi (TKOTovs (cat fiUKpas 

TifbrJTai WKTOS, 
KaTaK\(i(T0ivTfi 6p6(f)Oii, (f>vy- 

ibei rrjs alwvCov irpovoCas 


3 kavOavfiv yap vofii^ovra iitl 

<cpv(^oioi? a/iopT7;fia<rir, 
iupeyyfi Atj^tj^ irapaicoXi/fx/xori 

6afj.^ovp.(voi huvS)s Kttt IvhaX- 

p.a(Tiv lKTapa(r<T6)j.ivoi. 

4 ovhk yap 6 )tor«x«oi' avrovs 

fivxps a<f>6^ovs 8ie(^vA.a(T(rer, 
ijXOt 8e KaTapa<r(TovT(s airovs 


Kol (jxia-jiara dfi«i87}T0iy ica- 
Tr]<f>rj irpoadTrois ivf<f>avi- 

5 (cal TTVpos p.ev ovhffjLCa fiLa Ka- 

TLOxve (j>a>Ti^fi.v, 
0VT6 aarpatv ?icXa/xrpoi <^Xoyey 
Karairyd^fiv viTtp.fvov rrfv 
cmjyvr)V iKfCvr)V vvKTa. 

6 bi«j)a[vfTo 6' avTols p.6vov av- 

TOfiaTTj TTvpa (^o'/3o« itXjj- 

iKbeifxarovpLfvoi b^ rrji fxri Otm-'! iKfivrfs o^e.u>s, 
rjyovvTo Xflpoi> to. /SXfffo'/xei'a. 

7 fjLayiKrjs bi iixTiaCyp.aTa Kore- 

KdTo Texvrji, 

2 erred. For when unrighteous 
men thought to oppress the holy 
nation ; they being shut up in 

their houses ', the prisoners of' Or mdtr 


darkness, and fettered with the 
bonds of a long night, lay 
ftherel exiled ' from the eternal ' Or. 

3 providence. For while they 
supposed to lie hid in their 
secret sins, they were scattered 
under ' a dark veil of forgetful- ' Or, m. 
ness, being horribly astonished, 

and troubled with [strange] ap- 
4paritions*. For neither might 'Or, »•?«». 
the comer that held them keep 
them from fear : but noises [as 
of waters] falling down sounded 
about them, and sad visions 
appeared unto them with heavy 

5 countenances. No power of the 
fire might give them light : 
neither could the bright flames 
of the stars endure to lighten 

6 that horrible night. Only there 
appeared unto them a fire 
kindled of itself, very dreadful : 
for being much terrified, they 
thought the things which they 
saw to be worse than the sight 

7 they saw not. As for the illu- 
sions of art magick, they were 

2. twtikirtMntt C. avoitm ttofuois S. avoiuu ttaium S*. 3. KprnptMS Ven. Xi;^ C. KiKOfwiairiaar V. Yen. 68. aL 

CompL Vulg. Syr. Ar. Arm. iKaKofma^riaav S. fOKOTiaOrjixav A. C. 55. al. B. C. H. Par. fv iviaXnaaiv rapaaaoixfyot 106. j6i. 
4. >UKXot S. /iux<» S. cor. /ivSosA. o<^o;3o)s'V. S. 68. 396. a^^ous A. C. Ven. 55. al. Compl. ?if^u\aTT«i' A. C. Stu'hapaa- 
aorrn (tic) V. (A. C. Ven. al.) J' fKrapaaaovrfs V. 55. 253. 254. rapaaaoyrfs S. 106. j6i. KaTtKpt] S. kotti^ S*. icaTri<fxat Ven. 
6. <fmTtai C. (?) iaT/xM. mpaav 15J. A. Par. wvpoytvfis add. S'. Karayav^ttv S. KaTavya^fiv S'. 8. itorots 157. 

irXi)p<it S. ficitin. it V. al. T« S. A. Ven. al. luv C. T$t. ti» Ven. itti om. A. 106. 361. tcms Btwpovfttrois csfivoit 261. 
TO ft^ ^A(vo/i(va 106. 261. 7. titwtyiiaTa S. xaTtxtrro A. KartKnyro 157. 154. 396. 348. 




[xvii. 8- 

< Or, n- 

fusiitg to 


they couid 
do nothing, 

put down, and their vaunting in 
wisdom was reproved with dis- 

8 grace. For they, that promised 
to drive away terrors and trou- 
bles from a sick soul, were sick 
themselves of fear, worthy to 

9 be laughed at. For though no 
terrible thing did fear them ; 
yet being scared with beasts 
that passed by, and hissing of 

to serpents, They died for fear, 
denying that they saw * the air, 
which could of no side be 

II avoided. For wickedness, con- 
demned by her own witness, is 
very timorous, and being pressed 
with conscience, always fore- 

L2 castetb grievous things. For 
fear is nothing else but a be- 
traying of the succours which 

13 reason offereth. And the ex- 
pectation from within, being 
less, counteth the ignorance 
more than the cause which 

14 bringeth the torment. But they 
sleeping the same sleep that 
night, which was indeed in- 
tolerable", and which came 
upon them out of the bottoms 

15 of inevitable hell, Were partly 
vexed with monstrous appari- 
tions, and partly fainted, their 

Kal TTJs M (ppovqa-fi oAafo- 
Vftas IXf/xoj f^v^pi(TTOs. 

8 01 yap vina\voviJ.tvoi bfCfxara 

Kol rapax^as aviKavvdv \jrv- 
Xrjs V0(T0V<rr)s, 
ovToi Karaytkaarov fv\d^€iav 

9 Kal yap el ^r^biv avTovs rapa- 

\abes i(f)6l3ei, 
KvcabaXoiv vapobots Kal fpinT&v 
(TVpi(rp.oii iKcr«To^rjnfvoL, 

10 SicoXAwTo ivTpofxoi 

KOI Tov fx-qbapLoOev t^evxrov 
a4pa irpooribelv a.pvovp,fvoi. 

11 hiiXov yap IbCctis Ttovqpia ft,ap- 

TvpeZ KarabiKa^opLiVT], 
ad 8e iTpo<TeiKr](f>f to, xakfira 
<rvvf\on^vr) Trj (rvviibrjcrfi, 
13 ov6(v ykp foTL <(>6j3os fi p.!] 
■npoboffia ruv airb XoyKTjxov 

13 ivboQiv b\ oxKTa rjircnv rj irpoa- 

■nkfiova koyi^erai rqv iyvoiav 
TTji ■napf^ovarji Tr]v /3d<ra- 
vov airiai. 

14 oi 6^ Ti]v abvvarov ovrua 


(col t^ &.bvvi.Tov qbov fjivxHv 


15 TO. fikv Ttpaariv r)\avvovTo (pav- 


derisus, et sapientiae gloriae 

8 correptio cum contumelia. Illi 
enim qui promittebimt timores 
et jjcrturbationes expellere se 
ab anima languente, hi cum 
derisu pleni timore lauguebant. 

9 Nam etsi nihil illos ex monstris 
perturbabat, transitu animalium 
et serpentium sibillatione com- 
moti, [10] tremebundi peribant, 
et aerem, quem nulla ratione 
quis effugere posset, negantes se 

10 videre. [i 1] Cum sit enim timida 
nequitia, dat testimonium con- 
demuatiouis ; semper enim prae- 
sumit saeva, perturbata consci- 

11 entia. [12] Nihil enim est timor 
nisi proditio cogitationis auxili- 

12 orum. [13] Et dum ab intus 
minor est expectatio, majorem 
computat inscientiam ejus cau- 
sae, de qua tormentum praestat. 

13 [14] Illi autem qui inipotentem 
vere noctem, et ab iufimis, et ab 
altissimis inferis supervenientem, 
eundem somnum dormientes, 

14 [15] aliquando monstrorum ex- 
agitabantur timore, aliquando 

7. twKtupofitviis (ppoyrjati aXa^ovia S. ^poy. oAa^oviot S'. A. C. V. 8. Si/iara S. Siynara C. Si/ia <po$om to t€ /rm Ven. 

rapaxis. xarapxas S. rapaxas S'. tvKoPtav S. tvKa0iav S*. 9. iirfitv Ven. rf paroiSti Ven. S'. avptyfiois V. S". aL 

ffwpiff/iois S. A. C. Compl. €«<r«(ro^);/x«i'Oi V. C. S. Ven. al. tKmroBiaffyoi 155. fKTff<po0tjtifvoi A. 106. (xiit<t>o0ovfievan> 261. 
10. tv TpofUfi C. «ai TO iir]i. S. Koi tov H'. ouptvitTov S. o eras. pr. man. irpoitSiv S. 11. tivov Ven. yap om, C. tiup 

Compl. S'. /«ipTi;p«i V. Ven. al. Vulg. Syr. Ar. Arm. /ia/)rupi A. S. 55. Compl. al. /lapTvpuiG. iipos«iKri<t>(y S, iipofiK7i<p(y^. 
12. oi^fi' ouSev A'. S. C. oi;8« A'. lo6. 253. vpoioaia. npostoniaS. 13. o»'aAo7if«ra( oTfoiai'S. Ven. J53. 

14. dSvvaTou ^Sov. aivraTwy 106. ]6i. 15. i;Aavi'CTo S. tiKavrorro S', 

— xvn. 30.] 



animae deficiebant traductione ; 
Bubitaneusenini illis etinsperatus 

15 timor supervenerat. [i6]Deuide 
si quisquam ex illis decidisset, 
'custodiebatur in carcere sine fer- 

16 TO reclusus. [ 1 7] Si enim nisticus 
quis erat, aut pastor, aat agri 
Inborum operarius praeoccapatns 
esset, ine£fugibilem sustinebat 

i; uecessitatem. Una enim catena 
tenebrarum omnes erant colli- 
gati. [18] Sive spiritus sibilans, 
aut inter spissos arborum ramos 
aTium sonus saavis,aatvis aquae 

18 decurrentis nimium, [19] aut 
sonus validus praecipitatarura 
petramm, aut ludentium ani- 
uialium cursus invisns, aut mu- 
gientium valida bestiarum vox, 
aut resonans de altissimis mon- 
tibus echo, deficientes faciebant 

19 illos prae timore. [20] Omnia 
enim orbis terrarum Umpido 
illuminabatur lumine, et non 
impeditis operibus continebatur. 

Ttt 8^ TTJi \jrv)(TJs ■naptkvovTO 

al<t>vibioi yap avrois koI anpocr- 

boKrjTOS <f>6j3oi (iTf\v0r], 

16 (IS' ovTuiS, hs briTTOT ovv rjv, 


((f>povpflTo €19 TTjv aa-Cbrfpov 
fipKTTjv KaraKX(i(rd(Cs. 

17 elre yap ytatpyos fjv Tis, fj itoi- 

T) rav Kar (pr\\xiav tpyarris 

'npo\T)(f)d(ls Tr)v bv(ra\vKTov 

ififvfv aviyKtjV 
mq yap aXvtrei aitorous ir<liTes 


18 fiTf TtvevpLa avpiCov, 

fi irepl aix^i\a<f>(ls K\abovs op- 

viiav fixos €vp.(.\r\s, 
Tf pvOp.os iharoi itopf.vop.fvcm 

19 fj KTVTTOS awTjirqs KaTappiTTro- 

fiivoiv irerpav, 
7) a-KipTiivTcov ^(ia>v hp6p.os 

ri utpvoyAvuiv aTrr)ViaTaTu>v 6r\- 

fj aLVTavaK\u)pAvr\ (k KoiXonjros 

dpetov i7X^> 
TTopfKva-fv avTow fK<f>o^ovvTa. 
30 oAos yap 6 KOtr/xoy \ap.i!p<f 

KaTfKapiiTfro (fxoTi, 
Koi ivep.TtobiaToi,s (rvv(ix,(To 


heart failing them : for a sudden 
fear, and not looked for, came 

16 upon them. So then whosoever 
there fell down was straitly 
kept, shut up in a prison with- 

1 7 out iron bars. For whether ho 
were husbandman, or shepherd, 

or a labourer in the field *, be ■ Or, datrt. 
was overtaken, and endured that 
necessity, which could not be 
avoided : for they were all bound 
with one chain of darkness. 

18 WTiether it were a whittling 
wind, or a melodious noise of 
birds among the spreading 
branches, or a pleasing fall of 

19 water running violently. Or a 
terrible * sound of stones cast ' "■•- 


down, or a running that could 
not be seen of skipping beasts, 
or a roaring voice of most 
savage wild beasts, or a re- 
bounding echo from the hollow 
mountains ; these things made 

20 them to swoon for fear. For 
the whole world shined with 
clear light, and none were hin- 

IS. c^iStOT S. «»€xti^ S. Ven. al. trjiXStpV. al. (rtkvOi] 361. 17. 7«>'/'705 ti» ijk S 157. 296. 1; ante voi/njr 

om. S. add. H'. Kar tfrifuas S, rpok7]iut>0tit S.A.C. SvaaXrjKTor S. A. 8vca\vTor 106. fiuaifr Vea. td. cSciTdiTtrav Yen. 

18. Suiovpi^or S. 2ui eras. pr. man. wt/n aiv/ns xXaSovt S. a)uptX.a<pis S'. 1; oprtar A. tii/ifkijs 254. t/Afukfis 155. 

19. KarapivTo/ui'av .S. A. V. thuMor awijr. S. owiji-earaTot A. uoiAoTaTow 'Hsch. Reusch 157. 151. Ann. ««A.oTijro$ V. S. A. 
Ven. al. plur. Compl. Aid. va^Xwr A. 55. 148 Compl. waptKvafr V . S. HKpo0ovoa ^. t jj. 20. ^oirci S'. «aT<- 
Xaitw/mrfTu 155. 



[XTII. 21 — 

' Or, incor- 

a I dered in their labour : Over 
them only was spread an heavy 
night, an image of that darkness 
which should afterward receive 
them : but yet were they imto 
themselves more grievous than 
the darkness. 


I Nevertheless thy saints had a 
very great light, whose voice 
they hearing, and not seeing 
their shape, because they also 
had not suffered the same things, 

a they counted them happy. But 
for that they did not hurt them 
now, of whom they had been 
wronged before, they thanked 
them, and besought them pardon 
for that they had been enemies. 

3 Instead whereof thou gavest 
them a burning pillar of fire, 
both to be a guide of the un- 
known journey, and an harm- 
less sun to entertain them ho- 

4 nourably. For they were worthy 
to be deprived of light, and 
imprisoned in darkness, who 
had kept thy sons shut up, by 
whom the uncorrupt ' light of 
the law was to be given unto 

21 novois bi iKflvois iiTfTlraTO 

(Ikw tov jLicXXorros avrovs 

8ta6e)(€(r0ai (tkotods, 
iavTois hi j}<rav jSapvTfpoi, 



1 Toly 8^ 6<rfois (TOV p,iyiarov 

S>v (}>a>vr]v nfv aKOvovTfs, fi-op- 
<f>r]v bi ov)( op&vTfs, 

O T{ jxkv OVV KCLKflVOl infTTOV- 

6fi(rav, ^ixaKaptCov, 

2 OTi b( oi pXcLTTTovaL irpo»)8t- 

KrjfJifVOl, (V\apl(TTOV(TI,, 

Koi TOV bifvexBrjvai xapiv 

3 dvO' d)i» ■7npi.<f>\eyjj arvXov, 
6br]yov p.\v iyvdarov obomo- 

■IjKiov bi a^Kafii] (f>ikoTip.ov 
^evLTeias irapio-xes- 

4 dfiot p.ev yap (Ktlvoi <TTepr\~ 

drjvai, <f)(oTos Kol ^rXaxt- 
adrjvai iv (r/corei, 
01 KaTaK\fl(TTovs (f>vK6.$avT(i 


bC S)V Tj/ieWe ro a^Oaprov 
VQ)xov (f)&s T(f al&vi bibo- 

30 [21] Soils autem illis superposita 
erat gravis nox, imago tenebra- 
rum, quae superventura illis 
erat. Ipsi ergo sibi erant gra- 
viores tenebris. 


1 Sanctis autem tuis maxima 
erat lux, et horum quidem vo- 
cem audiebant, Bed figuram non 
videbant. Et quia non et ipsi 
eadem passi erant, maguifica- 

2 bant te ; et qui ante laesi erant, 
quia non laedebantur, gratias 
agebant; et ut esset differentia 

3 donum petebant. Propter quod 
ignis ardentem columnam du- 
cem habuerunt ignotae viae, 
et solem sine laesura boni hos- 

4 pitii praestitisti. Digni qui- 
dem illi carere luce, et pati car- 
cerem tenebrarum, qui inclusos 
custodiebant filios tuos per quos 
inci^nebat incorruptum legis 

21. «ir«TOTo A. v. 68. 106. Aid. €ir»«(To S. firtrcTa/tro 254. tStJoro Ven. auTOtit. ovtow S. owtowi S'. XVIII. 1. 
lyv (pmVTiv S^ /ley om. V. opaivrts fTpvxovTo 106. 26 1 . ovr V. S. al. Syr. Ar. Arm. Aid. ov A. 254. Conipl. Vulg. yap Ven. 

2. 0Ka<XTOv<riv S. 0Keitovatv S". (vxapiaTov<n V. S. 68. rivxapKnow A. Ven. oaet. •St'oi'To. (ifx<i>'ro Ven. oiaivToiv S. «!«oi'to S'. 

3. iS:]y6v. 0X1701' S. oSrjfov >i'. (piXoTtfua! irap*<rx* ("c) S. ipiKoTinov (tnriai >ra/M<rx'S ^'. ((vqnas A. ira/xffxou Ven. 
»a/)«<Tx<'' '.^5- iraptffxoi' 248. 4. (Ktivov A. €»> (T«otm V. 68. 106. 157. «f om. A. Ven. 55. ill. aitoTovi S. <r«oTti S'. 
<t><rovTts S. fittWtv S. ^5. (poTos S. ipius S'. 

i-XVlII. 10 




5 lumen saeculo dari. Cnm cogi- 
tarent justoruin occidere in- 
fantes et, uno exposito filio et 
liberato, in traductionem illo- 
mm, multitudinem filiorum abs- 
tulisti, et pariter illos perdi- 

6 disti in aqua valida. Ilia enim 
nox ante cognita est a patribus 
nostris, ut vere Bcientes quibus 
juramentis crediderunt animae- 

7 quiores esseut. Suscepta est 
autem a populo tuo sanitas 
quidem justorum, injustorum 

8 autem extemiinatio. Sicut enim 
laeslsti adversarios, sic et nos 

9 provocans maguificasti. Abs- 
conse enim sacrificabant justi . 
pueri bonorum, et justitiae 
legem in concordia disposuerunt, 
similiter et bona et mala re- 
cepturos justos, patrum jam 

10 decantantes laudes. Besonabat 
autem inconveniens inimicorum 
vox, et flebilis audiebatur planc- 

5 BovXevo-ajn^rous 8' aiirmii to. 

T&v 6<r[wv aTioKTflvai r7/7rta, 

Kai (VOS iKTfdivTOS TfKVOV Kol 

(T(o0(VTos (Is (Xfy\ov, 
TO avTwv a<p(l\tt) TTkrjOos t4k- 


KoX ofioOvfiahov aTSfhkicras iv 
vbari (r<l)obp<f. 

6 iKeCvT] fi vv^ ■npoeyvdxrBn iro- 

tpcuTiv {]p.&v, 
tva d(T(j>aX&s elborts ols iirC- 
OTiva-av opKOis (invOvp.rj- 

7 TipoiTtbiyOi) 8e inio Xaov (rov 
(rujT-qpia fj.iv biKaiwv, ^xOp&v 

8 i>s yap fTipMpria-ai rovs we- 

rovKo f]p.a.s Trpo<rKaX.f<rdnfvos 

9 Kpv<})rj yap iOvcriaCov otnot 

iralbfs ayaOStv, 

KOI TOV T^S daOTtlTOi v6pL0V 

(V ofiovoCa bUOevTo, 
Tciv avTuiv ojioCoos Kol ayaO&v 
Koi Kivbvvoiv /xeroA^x/reo-flat, 
Toiis aylovs irarfpayv j/Stj irpo- 
avafif\TrovT(9 aivovs. 
lo dmjxei 8' a<rvpL(f>a)voi i)(6p5>v 

Kol olKTpa 8if<^«'pero <fnovTi 
6pr]vm)\iiv(ov Traiboiv, 

5 the world. And when they had 
determined to slay the babes 
of the saints, one child being 
cast forth, and saved, to re- 
prove them, thou tookest away 
the multitude of their children, 
and destroyedst them altogether 

6 in a mighty water. Of that 
night were our fathers certified 
afore, that assuredly knowing 
unto what oaths they had given 
credence, tbey might afterwards 

7 be of good cheer. So of thy 
people was accepted both the 
salvation of the righteous, and 

8 destruction of the enemies. For 
wherewith thou didst punish 
our adversaries, by the same 
thou didst glorify us, whom 

9 thou hadst called. For the 
righteous children of good men 
did sacrifice secretly, and with 

one consent made a holy law ', ' or, « 


that the saints should be like «/ c«*, or, 


partakers of the same good and 
evil, the fathers now singing out 
10 the songs of praise. But on 
the other side there sounded 
an ill according cry of the ene- 
mies, and a lamentable noise 
was carried abroad for children 

5. 8' om. S. io6. 35.V Aid. J'aurous om. 157. oo'ian> <rov 261. oiromwu' S. avoKTtratS', cis (xSiinyirii' 253. Tor oirrooi' A. 
raiy avrair 55. al. Compl. to om. 106. al. impr. S. cor. at/nXov A. a<^<iAov 55. 106. al. Compl. a<pi\ts Ven. Post nxvair S. : 
Tovs it fx^povf TOV Xaov oiioOvftaHov avaiXcffa;. S. cor. sicut V. 6. Toit vaTpaaiv 106. al. uriSvifqaoiaai S. 106. 248. al. 

(vxo/xoTijiTaiaiv Ven. 7. if om. S. V. 106. 261. Aid. wpoiSex^ A. 8. or yap V. a sec. m. Vm. al. Ann. «w yip S. A. 

V. a pr. ni. Compl. Aid. Vulg. Ar. 9. oatoi ora. A. SnorriTos V. A. Ven. al. oitiotijto! S. 106. al. Vulg. Syr. Ann. Kai 

iyadSiv. cu impr. S^ tuTaXruapiatai S. A. ir/wava/MXiroi'Tav V. S. 68. 261. Ar. upoavafifKirovTtt A. S'. 55. 106. al. Compl. 
Vulg. »/»ora;i«\»o»'To» Ven. ayapaXwrnTtt S^. 10. 1/^0)78. 7 em. S. cor. &«<^. <^)4»i7 A. S. Ven. 55. al. Compl. Vulg. 

Ar. Arm. ^uri] om. V. 68. al. tittpotro A. 



[xvrii. II- 

1 1 that were bewailed. The master 
and the servant were punished 
after one manner ; and like as 
the king, so suffered the common 

12 person. So they all together 
had innumerable dead with one 
kind of death ; neither were 
the living sufficient to bury 
them : for in one moment the 
noblest offspring of them was 

13 destroyed. For whereas they 
would not believe any thing by 
reason of the enchantments ; 
upon the destruction of the 
firstborn, they acknowledged 
this people to be the sons of 

14 God. For while all things were 
in quiet silence, and that night 
was in the midst of her swift 

15 course, Thine Almighty word 
leaped down from heaven out of 
thy royal throne, as a fierce man 
of war into the midst of a land 

16 of destruction, And brought 
thine unfeigned commandment 
as a sharp sword, and standing 
up filled all things with death ; 
and it touched the . heaven, but 

17 it stood upon the earth. Tlien 
1 Or, ima- suddenly visions ' of horrible 


dreams troubled them sore, and 

II 6/xoia 6^ bUr] hovXos S.^a hecr- 
■noTTTj KoAao-flsis, 
KoX brjixoTrji ^a(nX.(i to. avra. 

13 oiiodvfiabov bi irdvTfs (v ivl 

ovofxaTL Oavirov 
v€Kpovs €l\ov avaptOfiriTovs' 
ovbk yap irphs to da.\j/ai ol 

(oivTfs rja-av luavol, 
infl Trpos p,iav poiTi)v »/ ivTL- 

ixoripa yivfcri's avT&v bU- 


13 Trdvra yap cnriaTovvres bia ras 

i-nl 76) T&v TrpcoTOTO/ccor dXe- 
6p<D u>p^oK6yt](Tav 0eoS vlov 
\aov iXvai. 

14 TjiTvyov yap crty^s irepuxovcnis 

TO, irdvTa, 
Kal wKTos iv Ibltf r<ix<t fitaa- 

15 6 TravTobvvafj.6s a-ov \6yoi aii' 

ovpav&v ^K dpovcov fia<ri- 
aiTOTop-os TToKepLicTT-qs, eh p.i(rov 
TTJs 6\f6pCas r}\aTO yrjs, 

16 ^l(f)OS O^V TIJV dwiTOKplTOV 

flTLTayi^V <TOV (fjfpiUV, 

Kal (TTas ^■TrA^poxre to. vdvra 

Kal ovpavov p.fv jjfirrero, ^s/Stj- 

K€i S' M yrjs. 

17 roVe ■napaxprjp.a (fiavTaaCai fikv 

6velp(ov bfLvHv (ifTdpa^av 

1 1 tus ploratorum infantium. Si- 
mili autem poena servus cum 
domino afflictus est, et popularis 

12 homo regi similia passus. Si- 
militer ergo omnes, uno nomine 
mortis, mortuos habebant innu- 
merabiles. Nee enim ad se- 
peliendum vivi sufficiebant, quo- 
niam uno momento, quae erat 
praeclarior natio illorum exter- 

13 minata est. De omnibus enim 
non credentes, propter veneficia ; 
tunc vero primum cum fuit 
exterminium primogenitorum, 
spoponderunt populum Dei esse. 

14 Cum enim quietum silentium 
contineret omnia, et nox in suo 
cursu medium iter haberet, 

15 omnipotens sernio tuus de caelo 
a regalibus sedibus, durus de- 
bellator in mediam exterrainii 

16 terram prosilivit, gladius acutus 
insimulatura imperium tuum 
portans, et stans replevit omnia 
morte, et usque ad caelum at- 

17 tingebat stans in terra. Tunc 
continuo visus somniorum ma- 
lorum turbaveruut illos, et ti- 

ll. BamKfia S. /3a<nA«i S'. 12. 5* om. S. add. S'. yap om. 106. 261. /lomjv. a)fiai> 106. 261. ij om. S 106. 261. add. S*. 

&f<f>fti/)i; V. al. Ap. Si(c^/>TO S. A. 55. al. pi. IS. Kaov Sfov Ven. 14. <v om. 106. 348. 261. (uaovarj! lob. 261. 

lt(aa(ovaris ra iravTa VK i6. (mrayijy Y.S. al. vwoTayriy A., al. (0<j3i;«fi 106. «iri om. S. Ven. add. S'. 17. 8<tKa» 

V. Ven. al. Savoiy A. S. 55. al. Compl. Viilg. Syr. Ar. Arm. trapa^av 155. 254. 

-xvin. 23.] 



mores supervenerunt insperati. 

18 Et alius alibi projectus semi- 
vivus, propter quam moriebatur 
caosam demonstrabat mortis. 

19 Visiones enim quae illos turba- 
verunt haec praemonebant, ne 
inscii quare mala patiebautur 

20 perirent. Tetigit autem tunc 
et justos teutatio mortis, et 
commotio in eremo facta est 
multitudinis ; sed non din per- 

»i mansit ira tua. Froperans enim 
homo sine querela deprecari 
pro populis, proferens servitutis 
suae scutum, orationem et per 
incensum deprecationem alle- 
gans, restitit irae, et finem im- 
poBuit necessitati, ostendens 
quoniam tuus est famulus. 

23 Vicit autem turbas, non in 
virtute corporis, nee armaturae 
potentia ; sed verbo ilium qui 
se vexabat subjecit, juramenta 
parentum, et testamentum com- 

23 memorans. Cum enim jam acer- 
vatim cecidiBsent super alter- 
utrum mortui, interstitit, et 
amputavit impetum, et divisit 
illara quae ad vivos ducebat 

^ojSoi hi li!iaTrj<rav d8oKr/rot" 
18 KoX SXAos dAXaxv pi<f>(h rini- 

81' fjv eOvija-Kfp alrlav ivf(f>i- 

15 01 yap oveipoi, dopvfi-qa-avres 

avTovs Tovro •npoi\i,r)W(Tav, 
Iva y.r\ ayvoovvTfs bi 6 kukHs 

■it(i.(r)(ov(nv dTsoXoavrai. 

20 rj^aro hi koI biKal(ov iretpo 

Koi 6pav(Tis kv ipripL(f kyivtro 

&XX'ovK fill irokv liMeiVfvri ipyr). 

21 a~nev(Tai yap dvfip ifxeixiTTOs 

TO TTj's Ihlas \fiTovpylai Sirkov, 
•npoa-(V)(riv Ka\ OvfiidpLaros f^i- 

\a(rp.ov KOjj.Co'as, 
avTicrrq roJ 6vp.^, koX iripas 

fTTiOrjKe TTJ <rvfx<}>opq, 
hfiKvvs on cros ecm Oepdvav. 

32 fvUr^a-f be tov Sxkov 

ovK l<r)(vi TOV (rdnaros, o^x 

SttXcov ivepyeCa, 
dXXd k6y(f TOV Ko\d(ovTa imi- 

5pK0vs TtaTipcov KoX hiaOrJKas 


33 tr<opr)bov yap i]hr} ■ffewTOMccJrmv 

iii" dWrjKoiv vfKp&v, 
fifTa^ii aras dviKoijff ttjv 6pyriv, 
Ka\ 8t€crxKT€ ttiv irpbi tovs 

CtovTUi ohov. 

and terrors came upon them un- 

18 looked for. And one thrown 
here, and another there, half 
dead, shewed the cause of his 

19 death. For the dreams that 
troubled them did foreshew 
this, lest they should perish, 
and not know why they were 

20 afflicted. Yea, the tasting of 
death touched the righteous 
also, and there was a destruc- 
tion of the multitude in the 
wilderness : but the wrath en- 

21 dured not long. For then the 
blameless man made haste, and 
stood forth to defend them ; 
and bringing the shield of his 
proper ministry, even prayer, 
and the propitiation of incense, 
set himself against the wrath, 
and so brought the calamity to 
an end, declaring that he was 

22 thy servant. So he overcame 
the destroyer, not with strength 
of body, nor force of arms, but 
with a word subdued he him 
that punished, alleging the oaths 
and covenants made with the 

23 fathers. For when the dead 
were now fallen down by heaps 
one upon another, standing be- 
tween, he stayed the wrath, and 
parted' the way to the living. >or,«i<4f. 

17. Kat <t>o0oi l( 155. (rfrfffoy 157. mrpctSoicrrToi 157. 18. pi^it A. i]iu9avrjs 157. 296. tBnjaKor A. S. 55. al. 

t^njiTAtO' V. Ven. S'. al. t>'«^»'ifo' V. S. Ven. al. tvc^i'ifoi' A. 55. 157. al. 19. to»to om. S. ir/)Of;«i;)T«ro»' V. S, 

wpostiajyvaar A. 20. 8« iroT« 248. Compl. irore irtipoVen. 353. totc vdpaS. iroT« ». S'. eytviTo ty tpr]nu'Ven. o/tyi] aou 

S. Ven. 55. al. Vulg. <roti erag. S'. 21. oirXof Xa/Siw 253. irpostwx';' Veu. S'. rw om. 8. add. S'. 22. ox^oi' Mn. 

fere omn. oKo0ptmyTa 157. 348. Compl. 23. ttivx^'- 8"««oV'«>' S'. 



[xvm. 24- 

34 For in the long garment was 

24 iirl yh.p itobi^povs ivtviiaros ijv 

34 viam. In veste enim poderis 

the whole world, and in the 

SXos 6 Koarfios, 

quam habebat totus erat orbis 

four rows of the stones was the 

(Cat •naTtpcav ho^ai i-nX rerpa- 

terrarum ; et parentum magna- 

glory of the fathers graven, 

arixov XlOov ykv(})i]S, 

lia in quatuor ordinibus lapidum 

and thy Majesty upon the dia- 

KoX pityaXtiiavin} arov iirl bia- 

erant sculpta, et magnificentia 

as dem of his head. Unto these 

bi^pLttTos Keipakiji avTov. 

tua in diademate capitis illius 

the destroyer gave place, and 

35 TOVTOLS (t^fV 6 6\o6pPUUtV, 

25 sculpta erat His autem cessit 

was afraid of them : for it was 

Tavra h\ ki^o^rjO-q' 

qui exterminabat, et haec ex- 

enough that they only tasted of 

Tiv yap fiovrj f] ireipa rrjs 6pyrjs 

timuit; erat enim sola tentatio 

the wrath. 


irae suflSciens. 


KE4)AAAI0N 10'. 


I Ab for the ungodly, wrath came 

1 ToTs 6^ d(r(j3f(n p.(xpi. riXovs 

I Impiis autem usque in novis- 

upon them without mercy unto 

dve\erip,mv i-nicm]' 

simum sine misericordia ira 

the end : for he knew before 

Trpojj'Sei yap ovtSiv koi to p.iK- 
2 Sn avTol (in<np^\j/avT(s rov 

supervenit ; praesciebat enim et 

3 what they would do ; How that 

3 futura iUorum; quoniam cum 

having given them leave to de- 


ipsi permisissent ut se educe- 

part, and sent them hastily away, 

KOI fif ra (riTovbrjs upoTr^iii/^oires 

rent, et cum magna soUicitudine 

they would repent and pursue 

Sitafoucrt p,erap.eXr}6evTes. 
3 Irt yap iv x^pcrlv Ix*"""** ''" 

praemisissent illos, conseque- 

3 them. For whilst they were 

bantur illos poenitentia acti. 

yet mourning and making la- 


3 Adhuc enim inter manus ha- 

mentation at the graves of the 

Kal i:po(yohvp6p.evot, T6.<f>oi.s v(k- 

bentes luctum, et deplorantes ad 

dead, they added another foolish 


monumenta mortuorum, aliam 

device, and pursued them as 

Irepov Iweairdtrowo \oyt< 

sibi assumserunt cogitationem 

fugitives, whom they had in- 

KOI ois iK(T(V0VTf9 i^ffiokov, 

inscientiae, et quos rogantes pro- 

> Or, ow« 4 treated to be gone '. For the 


TOVTOvs 0)9 ^vyaSaj iblw- 

jecerant, hos tanquam fugitivos 

*^'^- destiny, whereof they were wor- 


4 elXxe yh.p abrovs f) h^Ca iirl 
TovTO rh TT^pas &vAyKr], 

4 persequebantur. Ducebat enim 

thy, drew them unto this end. 

illos ad hunc finem digna ne- 

and made them forget the things 

Koi T&v Tup-fie^riKOTODV ap-irq- 

cessitas ; et horum quae acci- 

that had already happened, that 

arlav ivifiakfv. 

derant commemorationem amit- 

24. Xiflou V. S. 68. al. KtSaiv A. C. Ven. 55. al. Compl. Xi9ov 155. yXiKpri S. y\v<p7)s S'. 17 ante fuyak. add. S*. 

25. oXiSptvan' A. C. 8« om. Ven. 353. S". t<po$rfii]aoa> V. S. 68. al. Syr. Ar. tipofitiBrf A. Ven. S*. 55. al. Compl. Vulg. imvov Ven. 
op-jpjs aov S. XIX. 2. tmaTpff/avTfs. V. S'. C. Ven. al. frnTpf^iafTts A. S'. js. al. Compl. Vulg. amoxu 106. al, Compl, 

3. on yap Ven. woiat om. S. add, S'. 4. to om, S. V. Ven. al. Aid, tffaktv C. tvtPaM.ty Ven. 

-XII. lO.] 



tebant, ut qutie deerant tormen- 

5 tis, repleret punitio, et populus 
quidem tana mirabiliter trans- 
iret, illi autem noram mortem 

6 inTenirent. Omnia enim crea- 
tura ad suura genus ab initio 
refigurabatur, deserviens tais 
praeceptis, ut paeri tui custodi- 

7 rentur illaesi. Nam nubea castra 
eorum obumbrabat ; et ex aqua 
quae ante erat, terra arida ap- 
pamit, et in man Bnbro via 
sine impedimento, et campus 
germinans de profondo nimio ; 

8 per quem omnis natio transivit 
quae tegebatur tua manu, vi- 
dentee tua mirabilia et monstra. 

9 Tanquam enim equi depaverunt 
escam, et tanquam agni exulta- 
verunt, magnificantes te, Do- 
le mine, qui liberasti illos. Me- 

mores enim erant adbuc eorum, 
quae in incolatu illorum facta 
fuerant, qnemadmodum pro na- 
tione animalium eduxit terra 
muscas, et pro piscibns emc- 
tarit flaviaa multitudinem rft- 

tva Triv\(CTrov(rav rais ^aadvois 
T!po<TavaTt\r)pa><TU)cn KoKacriv, 

5 Koi 6 fiev Kaos <rov Trapabo^ov 

obomopCav ■7repa(rri, 
fKf'.voi he ^ivov (vpiixn Qavarov. 

6 5A»j yap if ktCo-is iv iSiu yfvei 

■niXiv &vaidiv bifTVTTOvro, 
xmrfpiTovcra rais iSiats €iri- 

Iva ol <To\ iraiSes <^v\a\6S>(TU) 

7 ^ riji' TTap€fiPo\Tiv (XKii^ovaa 

iK bf trpovtfxaTaTos vbaTos ^- 
pas avdbv(ns y^s edaapriBr}, 

i^ (pvBpas daXda-oTjs 6b6s 

Koi ykOTf^OpOV TTfbCoV ^K kXv- 

bcovos ^iaiov, 

8 bi oi TTOv iOvos birikdov ol t^ 

OtJ (TKfTZa^OpLfVOI. X(i-pl, 

6tu>pri(TavT(i davp.a<Trh Ttpara. 

9 iy yap tmoi fVfp.riOrf(rav, 
Koi 0)9 ifivol bifo-KCpTrjaav, 
alvovvTfs <re, Kvpie, tov pvo- 

fievov axiTovs. 
lo ipiipLVqvTo yap in tw iv ttj 

irapoiKia avrav, 
Has Aj^l fiiv yfvfo-ftoi ^dav 

i$riyayev f) yij a-KviTta, 
avTt bf finjbpoiv f^rfpev^aro 6 

irora/ios irkfjOos fiarpdxtov. 

they might fiilfil the punish- 
ment which was wanting to their 

5 torments : And that thy people 
might pass a wonderful way : 
but they might find a strange 

6 death. For the whole creature 
in his proper kind was fashioned 
again anew, serving the peculiar 
commandments that were given 
unto them, that thy children 
might be kept without hurt : 

J As namely, a cloud shadowing 
the camp; and where water 
stood before, dry land appeared ; 
and out of the Red sea a way 
without impediment ; and out 
of the violent stream a green 

8 field : Wherethrough all the 
people went that were defended 
with thy hand, seeing thy mar- 

9 vellous strange wonders. For 
they went at large like horses, 
and leaped like lambs, praising 
thee, O Lord, who hadst de- 

lo livered thera. For they were 
yet mindful of the things that 
were done while they sojourned 
in the strange land, how the 
ground brought forth flies ' in- 1 Or, lu*. 
stead of cattle, and how the 
river cast up a multitude of 

4. Xivovirar S. upofatmA^pttxroHri A. C. 155. »/>oararXi7/wiffCMri V. Yen. al. wpommirXjipvaovaiv S. S. v«f>a<n;S. V. 

6. Post 7«K€i add. S*. raxi (' Tax** vel ra{u). aymnrovro 55. 248. 254. Ck>mpl. Vulg. iSuut V. C. Ven. al. Ar. aais A. S. 106. al. 
Vulg. Syr. Ann. uwora-iraii 106. 261. a0\aBt>s 261. 7. tti rriv ■*. atua^ovati A. f« 8« tou Ven. «« 70(1 S'. ara&xrii 261. 

tStaipttro S. (6(o>ptTo K. fOnuprieij'V.S'. aX. mu (f «/>i>9/>. 248. S'. Compl. Vulg. vcuSiavS. 8. ttay(0y tV. Yen. S*.»L 

mavtByft (tie) V. »av «9»05 A. S. C. 55. al. Compl. Aid. Vulg. Syr. Ar. rtpara. wpayfiara 106. 9. Sifi-c/ujOija-oK 106. a6i. 

pvontvorY.S.Wen. »i. pi/ffa/Jti'Oi' A. C. 55. al. Aid. Vulg. Ann. 10. /wy om. C. y*yi<rta>f. x*^"**"' 155- ■*•• I"*"". ■) 77- 

1; om. C. (rtcviira V.C. 68. al. Arm. ffCKi^i A.Ven. 106. 261. Ald.Vulg. S*. acri^S. $5. i57.aL crvS/Nur V. S. al. arvSptw A. 
fiarpaxovs S. w\ifios suppL in marg. fiarpaxoir S*. 

F 2 




II frogs instead of fishes. But 
, afterwards they saw a new gene- 

ration of fowls, when, being led 
with their appetite, they asked 

13 delicate meats. For quails came 
up unto them from the sea for 

' ^> 13 their contentment *. And punish- 
ments came upon the sinners 
not without former signs by 
the force of thunders : for they 
suffered justly according to their 
own wickedness, insomuch as 
they used a more hard and hate- 
ful behaviour toward strangers. 

14 For the Sodomites did not re- 
ceive those, whom they knew 
not when they came : but these 
brought friends into bondage, 
that had well deserved of them. 

15 And not only so, but perad ven- 
ture some respect shall be had 
of those, because they used 

16 strangers not friendly : But 
these very gdevously afflicted 
them, whom they had received 
with feastings, and were already 
made partakers of the same 

17 laws with them. Therefore 
even with blindness were these 
stricken, as those were at the 
doors of the righteous man : 
when, being compassed about 
with horrible great darkness. 

II i<()' v<rrip<f h'i dbov kolL viav 

yivtcnv opvicov, 
5Tf, TtpoayOivrfs JJTtj- 

(TavTO fbia-iiara Tpv<f>i]s. 
13 (Is yap ttapafivQlav avi^xj av- 

ToTs diro 6akd(r(rrfs 6pTV- 


13 Kai al Tificoplai, rois afiap- 

TOikols iirrjkdov 
OVK &V€V T&v TipoyeyovoTMV 

T(Kp.r]piu)v Ty ;3t^ t&v (ce- 

biKalws yap iTtaayov rais Ihiaii 

avT&v ■jrovrjplai.9' 
Koi yap xaXeTTOiTtpav /xitro- 

^fvlav iireTT^bfva-aV 

14 ol p.iv yap roiis ayvoovvras ovk 

ibixovTO irapovTas, 
ovToi be evfpyeras ^ivovs ibov- 

15 Kal ov fjiSvov, &k\'r}Tis iiria-KOTTTi 

loTttl avT&v, 
(Ttd aT^ex^Oas itpoa-thiyov^o 
Tovs dWoTpCovs' 

16 ol 6^ p,€Ta kopTa(Tp.6.TUiv (l<rbf$- 

Toiii ijbr] rSiv avT&v ixfTfoxf- 
KOTas biKalwv beivois iKd- 
Kuxrav irovois. 

17 iirkriyrja-av bk xai dopaa-Cq, 
&(riTfp (Kiivoi iirl rais rov 

biKaiov dvpais, 
3re d\avfi irepi^k-qdivTei (rK6- 


II narum. Novissime autem vide- 
runt novam creaturam avium, 
cum adducti concupiscentia pos- 

II tulaverunt escas epulationis. In 
allocutione enim desiderii as- . 
cendit illis de mari ortygometra ; 
[13] et vexationes peccatoribus 
supervenerunt, non sine illis 
quae ante facta eraut argumentis 
per vim fulminum ; juste enim 
patiebantur secundum suas ne- 

13 quitias. Etenim detestabiliorem 
inhospitalitatem instituerunt : 
[14] alii quidem ignotos non reci- 
piebant advena8,alii autem bonoa 
hospites in servitutem redige- 

14 bant. [15] Et non solum haec, 
sed et alius quidam respectus il- 
lorum erat, quoniam inviti reci- 

15 piebant extraneos. [16] Qui au- 
tem cum laetitia receperunt hos 
qui eisdem usi erant justitiis, 
saevissimis afflixerunt doloribus. 

16 [17] Percussi sunt autem caeci- 
tate, sicut ill! in foribus justi, 
cum subitaueis cooperti essent 

11. itovA. C. 7(v<(7ii' craf A. al. Compl. on Beusch. Tisch. 68. ore V. S. A. C. Ven. »1. 12. iropa/iu^ioi' Ven. 106. a6i. 

tic Sakaaarit aviPri avTois B. (« 0aA. 348. Compl. 13. <u om. 106. 261. 6ytv. avicroi 106. 361. 7<7ovoTan> V. Ven. al. 

wpoytyovoram A. S. C. al. Compl. VuJg. Syr. Ar. Arm. rfK/tripiov om. Io6. a6l. ram xtfawon S. rtnr et. S. OOP. wovr^puui 
ovT-oiv S. Tap om. S. 361. 14. napivras. ok mif lovras lo(>.'i6l. atrroi Sc C. 16. jm** fo/woff/iaii' Ven. 253. i/*? 

/»«T«ffxij«oTas Tcuc tufouuv S, 17. o» firi rais Yen. aKorai Ven. 

-XIX. 2 2.] 



tenebris, unosquisque transitum 

1 7 ostii sui quaerebat. [i8] In se 
enim elementa dum conver- 
tuntor, Bicut in organo qnali- 
tatis sonus immutatur, et om- 
nia Buum Eonum custodiiint ; 
unde aestimari ex ipso visa 

1 8 certo potest, [ig] Agrestiaenim 
in aquatica convertebantur ; et 
quaecunque erant natantia in 

19 terram transibant. [20] Ignis in 
aqua valebat supra suam virtu- 
tem, et aqua extinguentLs natu- 

ao rae obliviscebatur. [21] Flam- 
mae e contrario corruptibilium 
animalium non vexaverunt 
carnes coambulantium, nee dis- 
Bolvebant illam, quae facile dis- 
solvebatur sicut glacies, bonam 
escam. [22] In omnibus enim 
magnificasti populum tuum, 
Domine, et honorasti, et non 
despexisti, in omni tempo e et 
in omni loco assistens eis. 

Ikootos t&v avTov dvpZv ttjv 
blobov IC^Tet. 

18 61' iavTbiv yap ra aroixfia 

&cntep Iv \^akrr]pl<if (pOoyyoi. 

roS pv6p,ov rb ovopa biaX- 

irdvTOTf pivovra t]x<?> 
Sirep iarrlv eixdo-ai ck t^s 

T&v ycyovoTiov o'v/fecoy aKpi- 

19 )(fp<raia yap els ItoiSpa /xere- 

Kal vrjKTCL peT^jSaivfv IttI yrjs' 

20 TTVp Icrxyiv iv vSari Trjs IbCas 

Kal vboip TTJs o-/3eoTwc^s <^v- 
(Tfcos ivfkavdivfTO' 

21 <p\6y fs dv6.TraXLv fv<f>0ipTcov 

((iatv ovK ip.i.pavav a-dpKas 
ovhi TTiKTov KpvcrraXKoiib\s 
€vrr}KTOv yivoi dp.^po(rlas 

22 Kara TrAvra yap, Kvpif, ip-eyi- 

\vvas Tov \a6v a-ov Kol 
K(xl ov\ vTvepiibfs, iv TTOVrl 
Kaipb) Kol ro'ir<j> irapiari,- 

every one sought the passage 

18 of his own doors. For the 
elements were changed in 
themselves ' by a kind of bar- 1 Gt. 6y 
mony, like as in a psaltery notes 
change the name of a tune, and 

yet are always sounds ; which 
may well be perceived by the 
sight of the things that have 

19 been done. For earthly things 
were turned into watery, and 
the things, that before swam in 
the water, now went upon the 

20 ground. The fire had power in 
the water, forgetting his own 
virtue : and the water forgat 

2 1 his own quenching nature. On 
the other side, the flames wasted 
not the flesh of the corruptible 
livingthings, though they walked 
tlierein : neither melted they 
the icy kind of heavenly meat, 
that was of nature apt to melt. 

22 For in all things, O Lord, thou 
didst magnify thy people, and 
glorify them, neither didst thou 
lightly regard them : but didst 
assist them in every time and 

17. TOW avTov v. S. Ven. al. tuv fatirov A. C. al. Conipl. rt/v oioy 106. 261. 18. yip. St C. umtp 01 ty 106. 261. 

■nivroTf. »ai'TaVen.S'. tvijxwVen. 157. 254. S'. 19. x«/>««S. tvfSpa^. cvuJ/xiS". firi7i)yVen. usTi/rS. 155. 253. 

«»i 71JS S'. 20. nrxuffef v. Ven. al. i(rx«<i' S. A. C. al. Itiai tvvaiuan. post Sui'. addunt. A. C. al. Compl. firiAfXjyff/icvoi'. 

afitaTim]! Sma/itm V. 68. al. Syr. aP. <pvatm S. A. C. Ven. al. Compl. Aid. Vulg. Ar. Arm. 21. (irntpimrovrrm' S. 

tvrriicTov Kfrnar. V. 68. KpvardKKottta fim/Krov S. A. C. V. Ven. al. Compl. Aid. rpu^s S. t/)o^« S'. 22. mpit om. Ven. 

fitvrfitovtvaas tou Xaav aov 253. «oJ oux- «<" <""• C. ranpoii S. wtptaraiitvos C. Subscriptio : So^ia SoAo/ian'ot A. 

'Sixp. SoAw/taiKor V. So^. ZoXofuvfros S. Z. ioKonmnoi C. 



Chaftebs I-V. Comhbndatiok or Wisdom as Guidi to Haffiness abd Immobtalitt. 

I. 1-5. ExhoricUion to the pursuit of Wisdom, in 
which pursuit the condition is purity in thought, 
6—11 and in word. 

1. MKauxruytif, 'righteousness,' not merely justice 
between man and man, but moral uprightness, which 
is equivalent to Wisdom in its full theoretical and 
practical meaning. Comp. 2 Sam. xxiii. 2, 3. 

Ot KpirorrES tJ|i' ytji', i. e. kings and princes (cp. 
vi. I, 4; ix. 7); for, as Grimm quotes, Kplvfw rh Spxfw 
t\€yov oi rrdKaioi, Artemid. ii. 12, p. 56, ed. Aid. In 
Ecclus. X. I, 2, the words KpiTTjs and rfytpav are inter- 
changed as synonymous; and Solomon's prayer, i Kings 
iii. 9, is that he may judge {Kpmiv) the people righteously. 
Comp. Exod. ii. 14; i Sam. viii. 20; Ep. Jer. 14 (13 
Tbch.). In the Oriental point of view judgment ap- 
pertains to the office of ruler. 

♦poinfj<roT« irepi t. K. iv dYa9<STi|Ti. A Lap. : ' Sen- 
tite et sapite de Deo, quod ipse sit probissimus, hones- 
tissimus, eanctissimus, justissimus.' But this spoils the 
parallelism with &ir\onfn, which belongs to the verb 
ftr^o-oTt. 'Ev ayaOinfn is ^ ayaBios, ' think of the 

Lord with sincerity.' See on ayaBaxrimj, the word in 
N. T., Trench, Syn, of N. T., Ser. H. § xiii. 

'Ef dirXiTijTi KopSias, ' in singleness of heart,' with 
pure intention, a Hebraistic expression, i Chron. xiix. 
1 7 ; Eph. vi. 5. The opposite vice is duplicity. Comp. 
S. Matt. vi. 22. In Acts ii. 46 we find iv at^fX&rrfri 
KapSlas. With this verse comp. Ps. ii. 10 if. 

ZtjTi^o-oTe. The expression Cl^eio t6v Kipiov is 
common, e.g. Deut. iv. 29 ; Isai. Iv. 6; Hebr. xi. 6 ; 
Philo, De Mon. 5 (ii. p. 217, Mang.) : oiSiv Spttvov tov 
fip-fiK TOV ak7]dri Qtov. The first verse contains the sub- 
ject of the whole Book, to recommend righteousness, 
which is Wisdom, to all men, and specially to princes 
and governors. 

2. The parallelism is to be remarked : (vp'uTKPrm, 

answers to (rfnjcrart, €ii<j>avl((Tai to <ppovi]<Tart, pi) ittipi- 
(ovo'i and pr) cmiaTOvai. to iv (nrKonfri xapBlas and iv aya- 
BanjTi. Gutb. Comp. 2 Chron. xv. 2, and Proleg. p. 28. 
Utip&lfiuaiv, ' tempt ' God by doubting His power, 
justice, and love, and by trusting in themselves. S. Matt, 
iv. 7. Comp. Deut. vi. 16 ; Acts v. 9 ; i Cor. x. 9. 

A. reads toic pf/ irumvovaiv for tow pi) cmiaroiiTiv, in 

which case ip<j>avi{fTm would imply, ' showeth Himself 
in hostile fashion.' But the reading of the text has 
highest authority. The Vulg. seems to have read rots 




7rioT€uou(ro», ' eis qui fidem habent in ilium ;' unless the 
translators expressed the phrase fir) airurrf'iv by ' fidem 
habere;' Eeusch. Origen, Exc. in Ps. xiii. (vol. xvii. 
p. 1 08, Migne) quotes rolr /ifi awurrovtrui aiir^ ; also 
Schol. in Luc. i. 14 (xvii. p. 31 7, Migne) ; and so S. Jer. 
iv. 649, vi. 853. Didym. in Ps. Lx. 11 (xxxLx. p. 1193, 
Migne) : Taplmarm 6 rp&iros i>s htX (^ifrfai t6v 6«oi>, ck rav 
fv TJj ^(Xpiif ouTo)t (\6vTav' <l>povliiTaTf K.T.\. TOtr iifi airi- 
<rTov<riv aina. 'A7rioT«i» occurs X. 7 ; xii. 1 7 ; xviii. 1 3. 
Comp. S. Mark xvi. 16. 

'Efi+oi'iteTot, ' manifests himself,' as S. John xiv. 
21, 22. ' Apparet his qui non sunt ei iucreduli.' 
Hieron. in Isai. Iv (iv. p. 649). 

3. XkoXioI, ' perverse,' opp. to ' simple ; ' Deut. xxxii. 
5; Acts ii. 40; Phil. ii. 15. Such thoughts separate 
from God as leading to sin. 

AoKi)ia^o|i,^n) re, k. t. X., ' His (God's) power when 
tried,' tried by men's unbelief. Tirin. : ' potentia Dei 
tentata et lacessita impiorum diffidentia et infidelitate.' 
Ps. xciv. 9. Sept. Comp. ch. ii. 17. 19 ; 2 Cor. xiii. 5 ; 
Hebr. iii. 9, where SoxifiaC- is found in connection with 
n(tpd((ii/. The many similar expressions in Wisd. 
and Hebr. have often been noticed. See Prolegom. 

pp. 29, 34. 

'EX^YXei, ' convicts,' convinces the fools of folly by 
punishing their unbelief. 

ToOs a4>poi'as. ' Fool,' in the Sapiential Books, 
means a godless, impious man, a sinner. Folly is the 
opposite of Wisdom ; it is the work of the devil, as 
wisdom is the effect of the grace of God. Prov. ii. 6 
andxxiv. 9: ' The Lord giveth wisdom; but the thought 
of foolishness is sin.' Comp. Prov. x. 2 1 : ' Fools 
die for want of wisdom.' The wicked woman is the 
personification of folly (ix. 13 ff.), and the dead are in 
her house and her guests in the depths of hell. Thus 
a^poaivT], Judg. XX. 6 (Al. Codex), plainly means gross 
wickedness, and a<l>pa>v, 2 Sam. xiii. 13, is an evil man. 
And thus throughout the Book of Proverbs. Comp. 
Prov. i. 22 ; xiii. 19, 20; xix. i ; Eccles. vii. 25, 46. 
So 8. Paul, Rom. i. 30, uses d(Tvi»rror, of moral degra- 
dation. Comp. Ps. xiii. i ff. ; 2 Mace. iv. 6 ; xv. 33. 

4. 'On gives the reason why perverse thoughts 
separate from God, and shows in what the punishment 
of fools consists. S. Bas. Mag. Horn, in Prov. 4 (xxxi. 
393, Migne) : KaBaipti nponpov bici ToC Ofiov <f>6fim rhs 
^vxas Tmv pfWovraiv rg iTo<j}it} wpotropiXflv, 

KaK^TCxKOs, ' using evil arts,' ' artful,' xv. 4 ; Horn. 
II. XV. 1 4 : KaK6Tt)(vos SoKos, 

Zo^io, here first mentioned, includes the know- 
ledge of things divine and human, and the practice of 
godliness, and is identical with the 'holy Spirit of 
discipline,' verse 5. As personified by Solomon and our 
author (Prov. i. 20; "Wisd. vii. 27, and elsewhere) it 
becomes applicable sometimes to the Son of God and 
sometimes to the Holy Spirit. As defined by the 

Stoics ^oipia is (iTitTTTjptj Ofitav Ktn avQpamlvoiv Koi rutv rov- 

Twv amui'. So Cicer. De OflBc. ii. 2, § 5 ; Philo, Congr. 
erud. grat. 14 (i. p. 530). Stx^i'a, <l>p6in]<Tis, and aivtau 
are in Aristot. (Eth. Nic. vi. 6, 7) the three intellectual 
virtues (iiavorfriKoi aprraC). See Dr. J. B. Lightfoot on 
Ep. to Col. i. 9. 

Kardxpcu AfJiapTia;, a happy expression, not found 
elsewhere in Scripture. It means, ' pledged, pawned to 
sin.' ALap. : 'peccatoobnoxio[corpore],oppignorato, et 
velut acre peccati obaerato et obstricto.' Comp. S. John 
viii. 34 ; Rom. vii. 1 4. Some Fathers read a/iapn'oir ; but 
Didym. De Trin. ii. 20 (xxxix. 740, Migne) has 6pap- 
Ti'ar. So Orig. Contr. Cels. iii. 60. Pseudo-Ath. De 

Pass. Dom. 4 (ii. p. 82 Ben.) : Syiov yap Tlvevpa traibfiat 
. . . atTvvfTu>v, Koi oil KaToucj]aft iv aapari KaTd)(p«j> apaprlais. 
Comp. S. James iii. 15. ' Soul and body,' in Old Testa- 
ment use, make up the whole man. 2 Mace. vii. 37. 
Christianity added a new element, spirit, i Thess. v. 23. 
Some have deduced from this passage that the author 
saw in the body the source of all moral evil ; but the 
words do not speak of the original creation, and we are 
taught elsewhere that holiness is necessary for the 
knowledge of the Lord. Ps. cxi. 10; Jer. iv. 14; 
and comp. Wisd. i. 14 ; viii. 20. 

5. 'AyioK rifcufia, without the article, as a Proper 
Name. So S. Matt. i. 18, 20; S. John xx. 22; Acts 
ii. 4. The expression ro n»C/ia r6 Syiov occurs in Isai. 

-I. ?.] 



Ixiii. 1 1 ; TO Ovfviia tA Syiov atiTov, lb. V. 10. So Wisd. 

ix, 17: TO ayiov <Tov XlvfC/ia. Pb. I. 13 : tA Uvdiia to 
Syi6¥ (Tov. Thus the way was prepared for the later 
use. At this time the Jews had scarcely realised the 
distinct Personality of the Holy Ghost, though there 
are intimations of the truth in the Old Testament, as in 
the Psalm just quoted, and CJen. i. 2 : ' The Spirit of 
God moved upon the face of the waters,' where, while the 
Targum of Onkelos translates : ' a wind from before the 
Lord blew upon the face of the waters,' the Targum of 
Jonathan paraphrases : ' the Spirit of mercies from be- 
fore the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters.' 
Etheridge, The Targums, etc., vol. i. pp. 33, 157. 
Comp. Isai. xlviii. 16:' The Lord God and His Spirit 
hath sent me.' See on ver. 6. 

naiSeias (vo<j>ias, the reading of A, was probably 
introduced from ver. 6) belongs to nvfiiia, not to hoKov, 
as some take it. ' The Holy Spirit of (= which teaches) 
discipline, instruction, education.' ' Sanctus enim quum 
sit spirituB ad morum humanorum conformationem 
spectans ;' Wahl. Clav. in voc. Comp. Isai. xi. 2. 
Didym. De Trin. ii. 3 (xxxix. 468, Migne) : irviviia 
irmSfiaf, tovt toTt, iTO<f>ias. 'H yap io<pia Xcyti, nvcv/ia 
rraiitiar (j>fv^fTai SSKov. 

t6\ov. Vulg. : 'fietum'= Actionem, which occurs 
iv. II ; xiv. 25. It is not found elsewhere in Vulg. 

'EXcyxfi'lo'""'. 'corripietur,' Vulg. ; 'will not abide,' 
Eng. ; ' will be scared away, hasten away in shame,' 
Gutb., Grimm. Literally, ' will be reproved ' by men's 
sins. Gen. vi. 3 : ' my spirit shall not remain (pi fir) 
KaTaiuitni) in men.' So the people are said, Isai. Ixiii. 
10, to ' have vexed' (vapit^wav) the Holy Spirit. Comp. 
Eph. iv. 30. 

e. rdp. The connection seems to be this : Evil 
in a man's heart drives Wisdom away from him ; for 
Wisdom knows man too well and loves him too dearly 
not to punish the blasphemer by withdrawing her 
presence from him and leaving him to vengeance. 
Cp. vii. 23. Didym. De Trin. ii. 26. (xxxix. 752, 
Migne) introduces this passage vers. 6, 7, thus: 'H 
So^i'a 6(oKoyov(Ta to Stueiv Hvtifui, km an' avTOU dnfiXoiaa 

Tolt ff\air<f>Tiitov<rtp avri, Xtyti' cj>i\av6pcmov yap m/tviia 
co^lac, Kai ovK aOaaati, x.r.X. 

Zo<^ia. The reading o-o</)iar was probably derived 
from the previous verse, where A gives &y. imvpa 


'aOuuctci, ' will let go unpunished,' ' absolve.' The 
verb does not occur in classical Greek. Comp. Ecclus. 
xi. 10; xvi. II. 

S\&a^r\fu>r, 'a blasphemer of God.' This word 
and those akin to it are in Scriptural use restx-icted 
commonly to this one sense, as in modem languages. 

XciX^uK = prifioTav. Isai. xxix. 1 3. 

Tuf fc^puf auT. There is an inverted climax 
here : God is a witness of a man's reins (his inmost 
feelings), much more of his heart (his thoughts un- 
expressed), still more of his tongue (his spoken words). 
I Chr. xxviii. 9 ; Hebr. iv. 12 ; Rev. ii. 23. 

'Emo-Koiros, applied to God, Job xx. 29; i Pet. ii. 
25. Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Cor. lix. 3 : tAv navros mti- 
fiaTos Krltmiv Ka\ twicrKOTrov. 

7. 'On, the proof that God knows all things and that 
no one can escape Him. Prov. xv. 3 ; Ps. vii. 9. 

nfcCiia K. without the article, as vers. 5, 6 ; Judg. 
iii. 10. 

DcirXi^pwKc, 'hath filled and doth fill,'=completam 
tenet rerum universitatem. Otto in Act. Mart. Just. 3. 
The reading of A, ftrkifpouTfv, is not supported by the 
Fathers who quote the passage. See below. Comp. 
Jer. xxiii. 24. Grimm compares Philo, Leg. Alleg. 
iii. 2 : ' God has filled (»reirX^p<i)itei>) everything and has 
penetrated everything, and has left no one of all His 
works empty or deserted.' So De Conf. Ling. 27. 
S. Cyr. Al. De Recta Fide ad Pulcher. : avnt 6 iairrip 

vepirtiv f<f>aaKt np&s Jjpias tov JlapaKkTiTov, Ka'noi nKrfpoviTot 
Ta Trdvra Tov dyiov TlvevfxaTos' Uvivfia yap KvpioVf <f>1<r\j 
irfitkripaKt T^K otKOVjievriv, p. 1 37 Aub. 

Ji iTuvixov, Vulg. : ' Hoc quod continet,' not re- 
ferring the words grammatically to ' Spiritus Domini,' 
just preceding, with which they are plainly connected. 
' That which containeth all things' (Eng.), i.e. holds all 
together, keeps from falling asunder. So Xen. Hem. 




IV- 3' ^3 • ^ ^'"' O^O" KiTftOV (rVVTOTTaV Tt Koi (TVPfX"'"'- 

Philo, Vit. Mos. iii. 31:' The Creator of the universe, 
the Father of the world, Who holds together {crvvixaiv) 
earth and heaven.' There is nothing in the text about 
the ' anima mundi' of Plato. The writer speaks merely 
of the Omniscience and Omnipresence of God, even 
as the Psalmist, Ps. cxxxix, and Zech. iv. 10. Comp. 
Eph. i. 23. The use of o-wt'^a is parallel with 
S. Paul's phrase, Col. i. 17: ra ■travra iv avTa avvftTTr)Ke. 
S. Aug. says that there is no necessity to refer this 
passage to the spirit that is supposed by some to 
animate the world, ' invisibilem scilicet creaturam 
cuncta visibilia universali quadam conspiratione vege- 
tantem atque continentem. Sed,' he proceeds, ' neque 
hie video quid impediat intelligere Spiritum Sanctum, 
cum ipse Deus dicat apud Prophetam, " Caelum et 
terram ego impleo." Non enim sine Suo Spiritu Sancto 
implet Deus caelum et terram.' De div. quaest. ad 
Simpl. ii. 25, (vi. io8 Ben.). Compare S. Bas. Magn. 
Adv. Eunom. v. (p. 321 Ben.): naBanep yap TjXiov |3oXai 
<po)riaaa6ai vf^os kol Xd^nFftv n'otovo't, \pviTOfibri o^iv TrotoO- 
<T(U' ovTO} Kai Uvtvpxi aytoVy fTTf\66v ctr avBpimov a5>pa, 
cdcuKC /xcv ^*>^h^i e8<aKc df dBavaalaVi t&wKfv dyiatTftop, ijyeipf 
bi Kelpfvov. t6 8f Ktvrjdiv Kivqiriv atbiov vno Hvdiwros Aytov 
(Siov aytov eyfvero. 'E^x* Se d^iav avBpamos, Hvivfiaros 
flaoiKiaOivTis, npo(j)fjTOV, dffoo-ToXou, dyyeKov Qfov, t>v npi 
TovTov yij leai ottMs. Am. and others mention a read- 
ing 6 (rvv(xa>v; but this is found in no uncial MS., nor 
in Holmes and Parsons' revision. Clem. Al. Strom, i. 5 
(p. 332 Pott.) quotes the verse as given in the text. 
On the Soul of the world S. Cyril Al. has the following 
passage : oi 8« tS>v 'EWr/vav Xoya8*t dvTi ToC Ayiov Tlvfv- 
fuxTos Tplrov (IcTKopl^ovai ^X"?") ^'/*' 5* *''' Sttov ^jfvxovTal (Siov, 
mf I'oTjs avToTt rfju fw^i*, Koi ras rov aytov Hvfiparos Swapm 
T€ <tai fvtpytias wpotrvfVfpiTiKatTiv airjj . . , 'Apapi 8f on tat 
iripa (jivirts, napa iravra tVrJ ra fit aiirov Kivovjieva, to Bt'tov 
Tt Ka\ ^aoirotov, xal aytov Hvivpa, Kai yap iariv ayei/j/rov 
6foD Tlvfiipa, Mtov airov ttat f| avrov trpotov, iwir6<rrar6v 
Tt Koi (S)V, Kai Of I tv, art tov 'Ovtos t'trri, Kai avrl) rd itavra 
ifKqpoi, Kat tS>v SKav e'orl wfpitKTtKiv, €W(i Toi Kat o/xoovo'iov 
T^ wXr/poivTi Tct irdyra, Kai d/ifpiirrat 3iti navraxov, irdfra 

yap airrov Heard. Contr. Jul. viii. p. 275 (Aub.). See 
note on xii. i. 

8. OuStls ji^ is used on the analogy of oi fjJi with 

Oi&i jiT) irapoScucrp. I have edited from S. A. Ven. 
The reading of V. oidi /i^v occasions a difficulty with 
the verb in the subj., no such use being found for cer- 
tain elsewhere. The MSS. vary between pijv and /iij in 
other places, e.g. ch. vi. 23. Job xxvii. 6 ; xxviii. 13. 

napoSEuoT). Vulg. ' praeteriet,' a verb inflected on 
the analogy of ambire, as Ecclus. xi. 20 ; xxxix. 37, 
though we find ' praeteribo,' Wisd. vi. 24 and ' trans- 
ibit,' ii. 3. Comp. Deut. xxii. i ; Jer. v. 32, and see on 
ch. xvi. 27. 

'EX^YXOuo-o, 'justice when it punisheth ;' Heb. xii. 
5 ; Rev. iii. 19. Comp. Philo, In Flacc. 18 (II. p. 538): 
Tijv efpopov Tuv dvdpa>irfta}v diKrjv, 

'H 81KIJ. Justice personified, as Acts xxviii. 4 ; 
2 Mace. viii. n ; 4 Mace. iv. 13, 21. 

9. Aia^ouXiois. Atd/Soi/Xiov, a late word, used by Folyb, 
iii. 20. I, etc. Comp. Ps. ix. 23 Sept. ; Hos. iv. 9. 

Aoyui' dKOT) ^ \6yot aKovtrdivTft, as in Thuc. i. 73, 
where see Poppo. 'Akojj is used objectively for ' the 
thing heard,' i Kings ii. 28; S. Matt. iv. 24 ; xiv. I. 
So ' auditio,' as in Cic. Pro Plane, xxiii : ' fictae audi- 
tiones.' S. Aug. reads ' serraonum autem illius auditio 
a Domino veniet,' instead of 'ad Deum veniet.' De 
Mendac. I. xvi. 31. 

Els JXcyxoi', ' ad correptionem.' Vulg. ' For the re- 
proving of his wicked deeds.' Eng. Marg., as v. 8, 
fXfyxovaa, 'when it punisheth.' 'Correptio' in the sense 
of ' reproof is late Latin. It occurs continually in the 
Vulg. e. g. ch. iii. 10 ; xvii. 7 ; Ecclus. viii. 6 ; xvi. r3. 

10. Ous IriXwffeus = the jealous ear. Comp. oiVovd/ioc 
dhiKias, Kptrljt d&iKtas, S. Luke xvi. 8 ; xviii. 6. S. John 
xvii. 12. S. James i. 25 j v. 15. There is a play of 
words "in ovs and Bpovs. 

OuK diroKpuirrtTai. 'Non abscondetnr.' Vulg. 
Rather, ' absconditur.' 

11. 'Aku^cXt). The commentators consider this to be 
a litotes for ' very hurtful.' Comp. S. Jude i6. 

-I- 13] 



KaraXaXias, ' detractione.' Vulg. ' Backbiting.' 
Eng. Rather, as the connection shows, calumny against 
God, blasphemy, is meant. The word KaraXakta, not 
found in clsissical writers, is used in N. T., 2 Cor. xii. 
20 ; I Pet. ii. i. Clem. Rom. Ep. ad Cor. 30 : <t>evyovrfs 
/earoXaXtar. ' Detractio ' in the sense of ' slander,' ' de- 
traction ' is also unclassical. Comp. Ecclus. xlii. 11. 

nopcuo-cTai, 'shall come from the lips;' it can 
scarcely mean ' pass away.' 

KaTa<|icu8dfiErai', lying agaiust God, speaking falsely 
of things pertaining to Him, His ways and attributes. 

'Afaipci <|/uxT]i'> 'slayeth the soul.' The writer 
evidently refers not to physical, but to eternal death. 
The doctrine of future rewards and punishments, only 
darkly adumbrated in the O. T., is greatly developed 
in the Book of Wisdom, and men's actions are always 
regarded as influencing the life beyond the grave. 
Comp. iii. I, 4, 5, 18, 19. S. Aug. Serm. cvii. 10, 
Ben. : ' Decides me ? Melius tu occides carnem meam, 
quam ego per linguam falsam animam meam. Quid 
facturus es mihi ? Occisurus es carnem : exit anima 
libera, in fine saeculi et ipsam quam contempsit carnem 
receptura. Quid ergo mihi facturus esl Si autem 
falsum testimonium dixero pro te, de lingua mea occido 
me : et non in came occido me : Os enim quod menti- 
tur occidit animam.' See also De Mendac. 318". (vi. 
p. 437 Ben.). 

12-16. A third condition of the 2ytirsuit of Wisdom 
is holiness in action. Sin is the cause of death, which 
men, being ];ossessed of free will, may choose or reject. 

12. Zi]XouTc with ace. ' strive after,' as i Cor. xii. 3 1 ; 
or ' court,' as Gal. iv. 1 7. Vulg. : ' Nolite zelare mor- 
tem.' Zelo is a verb formed from the Greek and 
common in the Latin Fathers, but unknown previously. 
Thus S. Aug. Conf. i. 7 : ' vidi ego et expertus sum 
zelantem parvum.' Tert. Carm. Adv. Marc. iv. 36. 
Words of similar formation used in Vulg. are these : 
thesaurizare. Matt. vi. 19, 20 ; sabbatizare, Lev. xxv. 2 ; 
anathematizare, Mark xiv. 7 1 ; evangelizare, Luke ii. 10 ; 
scandalizare. Matt. xvii. 26; catechizare, Gal. vi. 6; 
agonizare, Ecclus. iv. 33. 

'Ev irXinj, i.e. by leading a life that strays from the 
path of virtue. There is no allusion to suicide, as 
some have thought. See Blunt in loo. 

'Eirunrao-Oe oXeOpoc, a stronger expression than 
fijXoCre Bavmov, ' draw not upon yourselves destruction.' I 
Both expressions imply that men using their free will 
amiss constrain God to punish them. Death spiritual 
as well as temporal is meant. This distinction is found 
in Philo, Leg. All. i. 33 (L p. 65, M.) : Sirrdr ear 
Oavarov, & fiiv av6pamov, 6 bt '^vx/is Viiot, 'O fuv oSv 
av6pimov xapifryMt (an ^X'i^ ''"'^ (ra>/uaror, o de yjrv^t 
Odvaros dp€TjJ! fuv <j)6opa (art, KOKias di avd\t]\(ni. Hap' 
o Kai (jjrjora/ ovK dnoOavf'iv avTo pomp, oXXa 6avdTa anodaveiv, 
hrjKHv oil TOP KOIPOP, aWa tov tSiov Kai kot e^opf^n OdrnTOP, 
or (OTi ^vxijs ivrvp^evopipTis nadeiri Ka\ KOKiais ijrcurcus. 

We may remark here Philo's method of explaining 
direct statements of Scripture in a moral or spiritual 
sense in such a way as to eliminate their historical 

13. It is men who bring death upon themselves, for 
God designed not that man should die physically or 
eternally. If Adam had not sinned, that separation of 
soul and body which we call death would not have 
taken place, and the second death was prepared not for 
man, but for ' the devil and his angels ;' S. Matt. xxy. '' 
41. Comp. Prov. viii. 36; Ezek. xviii. 32; Hos. xiii. 
9 ; 2 Esdr. viii. 59. Thus Const. Apost. vii. i : (f/va-iicfi 
(jLfp (imp ^ T^r fw^s 680c, fiTfiaaKros 8e rj tov Bavdrov, oi 
roO Kara ypaptjv 0(ov vnap^dpTos, dKka tov «f (Vi/SouX^r 
TOV dXXorpjou. 

T^pirtToi lit' diruX. Jiinxai'. Comp. Ezek. 1. c. and 
xxxiii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 9. f(i»To)K is probably neuter. 
S. Aug. explains the apparent anomaly between this 
statement and the fact that it is by God's judgment 
that the sinner dies. ' Convenit judicio ejus ut moriatur 
peccator; nee tamen operi ejus convenit mora. Ejus 
quippe justum est judicium ut peccato suo quisque 
pereat, cum peccatum Deus non faciat ; sicut mortem 
non fecit, et tamen quem morte dignum censet, occidit.' 
Contr. Jul. Op. imperf. iv. 32 (x. 11 50 B.). A good 
comment on the passage is found in the sermon of 

Q a 



[i. 14- 

Florus, prefixed to Hincmar's Dissert, ii. de Praedest. 
(Ixxv. p. 58, Migne) : ' Non ergo omnipotens Deus ulli 
hominum causa mortis vel perditionis existit, sed ipsam 
mortem et perditionem manibus et verbis ipsi impii 
accersunt, dum nequiter operando, et nequius aliis 
persuadendo, et sibi et illis damnationem adducunt ; 
dum viam iniquitatis et perditionis amantes, a recto 
itinere deflectuntur, et ad perpetuam damnationem, 
tanquam datis inter se dextris, pari consensu nequitiae, 
quasi ex voto et sponsione festinant, foederati mortis, 
et vitae aetemae inimici, ipsi secundum duritiam suam 
et cor impenitens, thesaurizant sibi iram in die irae.' 

14. Els t6 etrai, ' that they might he,' carry out the 
laws of their proper existence. This would include the 
growth and decay of plants and brutes, and the im- 
mortality of man. Comp. Gen. i, 28, 31 ; Eom. viii. 
20, 21 ; Rev. iv. 11. Cp.-S. Cyr. Al. De rect. Fid. ad 
Pulch. p. 152. 

luTi^pioi, «c. tlirl, ' saving, not hurtful ' but tending 
to preserve life, ' salutares.' 

rtvivui T. KiSo-fi. ' the creatures,' created things of 
the world (xvi. 26; xix. 11), as commonly in Philo, 
e.g. De Leg. AUeg. ii. 21, (I. p. 81). The Vulg. gives 
'nationes' iu the sense of 'races' or 'species,' which 
the word sometimes bears in classical Latin. Plin. xxii. 
24. 50 : ' Nationesque et iudicationem in apium ac 
deinde florum natura diximus.' 

^dpfiaKov 6\i6pou, ' medicamentum exterminii.' 
Vulg. '0\fdpov is added because (pdpfiaKov is used in 
a bad or good sense. Comp. Ecclus. vi. 16 : </)tXis marbs 
^ppiaKov C<'>V'- -^ Lap- thinks that the author means 
to assert that though noxious animals and plants were 
created at first, yet that they had no power to injure 
man before he fell. But the wording, ' there is in them 
no poison of destruction,' points rather to the nature 
of things generally, and implies that there is no destruc- 
tive agency in nature, this clause being parallel to the 
one immediately preceding. The Vulg. word 'exter- 
minium' occurs iii. 3; xviii. 13, 15, and in ecclesias- 
tical Latin. So Tertull. Adv. Jud. viii : ' exterminii 
civitatis Jerusalem.' S. Aug. Conf. ii. 4. 

'AiSou pacriXciof. ' Nor is the kingdom of death 
upon the earth.' Baa-iKciov and plur. /Suo-iXtm mean in 
classical Greek 'a royal palace.' So S. Luke vii. 25. 
But it seems here to be = /Sao-iXf ta, and in ch. v. 1 6, 
and I Kings xiv. 8 (Cod. Alex.). Calmet however and 
some others retain the usual meaning of 'court' or 
'palace.' 'Le roi des enfers n'avoit pas son palais 
sur la terre.' Hades is personified as king of death, 
Hos. xiii. 1 4 ; Isai. v. 1 4 ; Rom. v. 1 4 ; Rev. vi. 8 ; 
XX. 14. Some commentators (see Burton, Bampt. 
Lect. note 30) find Platonism in vers. 13-15, but the 
author says no more than is warranted by Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures, and he explains how death was 
introduced, ii. 24. 

16. This verse is placed in a parenthesis in the 
English Version, but this is unnecessary. ' Righteous- 
ness ' (as in ver. i = Wisdom) leads to immortality. 
The Vulg. has 'justitia enim perpetua est et immor- 
talis,' where the Greek has nothing to represent ' per- 
petua.' The Sixt. ed. adds : ' injustitia autem mortis 
acquisitio est,' which is received by Fritzsche and 
Grimm. This is probably a gloss added by one who 
wished to complete the parallelism and to give avriv 
in ver. 16 something to refer to. It has no authority 
from any Greek MS., and is found in very few Latin 
MSS. of weight. For the sentiment comp. Prov. iii. 18: 
^v\ov C'^'js (<m (r) (To(f>ta) na(Ti Toit dvrtxoitfvois avTrjt. 

16. This verse repeats the thought of ver. 12 with 
an emphatic irony. There is a fine climax here ; men's 
frantic love for their own destruction is exhibited in a 
terrible picture. First, they call death to them like an 
honoured guest with inviting gestures {x^ptrlv) and 
words, they are, as it were, love-sick and faint (tVain;- 
irap) with desire of death, and then to keep it always 
with them they make with it a covenant of truth and 
love. Gutb. See quotation from Hincmar in note 
on ver. 1 2. 

' Called it to them.' Eng. 'It' is wrongly italicised 
as it represents aMv, i. e. Bavarov, which is understood 
from aSdvaTos, ver. 1 5. Vulg. : ' accersierunt,' from 
accer£io=arcesso, with the change of one b into r, both 

-11. ,.] 



verbs being cansatives from accedo. Comp. Acts x. 5, 
32, Vulg. So we find linio for lino, Ezek. xiii. 15. 

'EtiIktjo'oi', ' they were consumed, they pined away 
for love.' Vulg. : ' defluxerunt.' Eng. : ' They con- 
Bumed to nought.' But if they perished, how could 
they be said to make a covenant with death ? Amald, 
seeing this difficulty, wishes to transpose the clauses ; 
but this is unnecessary if we take froK. as above. The 
' making a covenant with death ' is from Isai. xxviii. 
15, 18, (comp. Ecclus. xiv. 12.) There is a close con- 
nection between this book and the Greek version of 

'Exctfou {jiEpiSos, as in ii. 25, where eee note. If 
fKtlyov refers to a different object from avrbv, it is best 
to refer it to diov, v. 14. Cp. 2 Mace. i. 26. 

Additional note on v. 1 3. Our author's teaching on 
the subject of death and judgment has been thus 
epitomised by Grimm and others, (i.) God is not the 
author of death, but gave their being to all things, and 
willed man to be immortal, ii. 23. (ii.) The envy of 
Satan brought death into the world, ii. 24. (iii.) But 

through virtue and wisdom men obtain immortality, 
i. 15; ii. 22; vi. 18; viii. I'j ; xv. 3, and a blessed 
life with God in heaven, iii. i ff. ; iv. 2, 7, lO ff. ; v. a 
15; vi. 19. Only the ungodly meet with the punish- 
ment of fluvoTor, i. 12, i6; ii. 24 ; they have no hope, 
iii. II, 18; V. 14; XV. 6, 10; darkness will cover 
them, zvii. 2 1 ; their souls shall perish, in that they 
will be in torment, and deprived of the comfort of 
God's presence, i. 11; iv. 19; but they will have 
knowledge of the blessedness of the righteous and be 
conscious of what they have lost when it is too late, 
V. I ff. The author assumes tiiat judgment follows 
immediately upon death, and that sinners are not 
annihilated, but suffer the second death (Rev. ii. li 5 
xxi. 8), i. e. positively, pain and consciousness of guilt, 
negatively, the loss of blessedness. There is no trace 
in the Book of the doctrine of the resurrection of the 
body. The souls of the righteous are in heaven, the 
souls of the evil in hell ; the body perishes like all 
other material substances; and there is no return 
for it. 


II. 1-20. The Reasoning of the materialist or sen- 
sualist. 1—5. His view of life. 

This is one of the finest passages in the Book, full 
of a kind of evil grandeur rhythmically expressed. 
Comp. I Cor. XV. 32 : 'Let us eat and drink, for to- 
morrow we die.' Isai. xxii. 13; Ivi. 12. Hor. Sat. U. 
vi. 93 ff. 

L ETttoi' Y^p, sc. ol oo-f/Sflr, i. 16. This is the reason 
why ' they are worthy to take part with death :' their 
own thoughts and words prove it. 

'El' lauTois (for which reading there is most au- 
thority : thus Vulg. : ' cogitantes apud se,') must be 
taken with Xoyura/<. 'reasoning one with another' =dAXi]- 
Xuc, as V. 3. I Mace. x. 71. 

Auini)p<Ss, Vulg. : ' cum taedio.' Eng. ' tedious,' 

used in the sense of ' painful,' like Jacob's words : ' Few 
and evil have the days of the years of my life l)een.' 
Gen. xlvii. 9. Comp. Job xiv. i ; Eccles. ii. 23. 

'By TeX. &v%p., ' in the death of man,' when death 
comes, ' there is no remedy,' uteris, Vulg. : ' refrigerium,' 
MS. Corb. 2 : ' sanatio.' Schleusner conjectures that 
the Vulg. translator read uwo-k from (otra/uu ; but the 
word is unknown. 'Refrigerium' is found iv. 7; 
Isai. xxviu. 1 2 ; Acts iii. 20, and in the Latin Fathers, 
e. g. Tertull. Apol. 39 med. ; Fug. 12. p. 194. Idol. 13 : 
' Lazarus apud inferos in sinu Abrahae refrigerium 
consecutus.' Pseudo-Ambr. Serm. 19 (p. 515 B). 

'AfaXuo-as, ' reversus,' Vulg, : ' having returned,' as 
I Esdr. iii. 3. Tob. ii. 9 : wtXi/o-a Ba^lras, ' I returned 
home after burying.' So S. Luke ziL 36. Comp. the 



[ll. 2- 

Latin solvo, to loose from moorings, hence, to depart. 
*0 ava\v(ras may also be taken as = a redeemer, saviour, 
liberator. But comp. ch. xvi. 1 4 ; Eccles. viii. 8. 

2. AuTo<7xe8iws, usually ain-oa-xMv, ofiF-hand, at bap- 
hazard. Vulg. : ' ex nihilo,' which misrepresents the 
meaning. Eng. ; ' at all adventure.' Comp. Lev. xxvi. 
ai, marg. Thus Shakspeare, Com. of Errors, ii. 2 : 

•I'll say as they say, and pers^ver so, 
And in this wish at all adventures go.' 

Qrimm quotes Lactant. Instt. II. i. 2 : ' Homines . . . 
ne se, ut quidatn pliilosophi faciunt, tantopere despi- 
ciant, neve se infirmos et supervacuos et frustra omnino 
natos putent, quae opinio plerosque ad vitia compellit.' 
Comp. Cicero, Tusc. i. 49 : ' Non temere nee fortuito 
sati et creati sumus,' et caet. 

MctA tohto, ' afterwards,' when this life is over. 

Oux is closely joined with indp^., so the correction 
ftri is unnecessary. Obad. 16 : koi ftrovrm Ka6as oix 

'0 Xoyos. Eng. : ' a little spark.' The Eng. ver- 
sion here, as usually, follows the Compl. which reads 
oXt'yof amvdrip. Vulg. : ' sermo scintilla ad commoven- 
dum cor nostrum.' Gutb. understands by ' sermo' 
Xoyo; f'i'8id5fros= thought. The meaning is, our thought 
is a spark which arises at the beating of the heart. 
This is like the notion of our modem materialists, who 
see in the movements of the mind only certain molecu- 
lar, chemical, or electrical, changes and nothing beyond. 
Ancient philosophers have similar speculations. Thus 
Heraclitus deemed that Fire was the apxfi, the principle, 
the moving power of all things ; and if we may believe 
Cicero (Tusc. Disp. i. 9), Zeno considered that the 
'animus' itself was fire. (See "Wolfs note, I.e. § 19.) 
' Aliis,' says Cicero, ' cor ipsum animus videtur, ex 
quo excordes, vecordes, concordesque vocantur.' See 
Prolegom. § I. 3. Isidor. Pelus. Ep. iv. 146, refers to 
this passage : ol yap d(r«j3<if (mtv^^pa voiil<TavTfS tivai t^v 
^vxrjv, o5 dno<r^f<r6ivTos, i>s t(f>a(rav, r(<f>pa dTro/S^o-crat tA 
tr£>iui, fi6vov Tfffvdvai vopi^ovTfs, fxi] KpivtaOai be. 

3. Tt'+pa dirop. as if the life were a spark of fire 
which gradually consumed the body and left only ashes. 

The notion in Eccles. iii. ao and Ecclus. xvii. i is 

XauKos Aiip. Vulg. : ' mollis,' whence Eng. ' soft* 
Bather, ' empty, unsubstantial.' With the general sen- 
timent contained in vers. 1-3 we may compare Lucret. 
De Rer. Nat. iii. 233 ff. and 456, 457. 

4. The Vulg. transfers the first clause of this verse 
to the end. Similar transpositions occur iV. 19; xii. 
12. Beusch. 

' Our name shall be forgotten.' Comp. Eccles. 
ii. 16 and ix. 5. 'Zni\ritidr)<r(Tm, passive, as Ecclus. 
iii. 14. xxxii. 9 : rb livrifioavvov air^s ovk cirtXijo-d^arriu. 
So S. Luke xii. 6. 

Mnrnxofcuo-ei. Found with ace. S. Matt. xvi. 9 ; 
Rev. xviii. 5. On the desire to live in the memory of 
posterity see Ecclus. xxxvii. 26; xii v. 7 ff. 

Bapui^ciaa, 'aggravata,' Vulg., 'overcome,' Eng. 
Am. conjectures impavBfiaa, which indeed is found in 
one cursive MS. Retaining the word ^pwGt'ura, we 
must take Bauermeister's comment as satisfactory: 
' nebula vi caloris pressa redit in aquam atque decidit,' 
the science of those days being rather phenomenal than 

' 6. iKias. The comparison of man's life to a shadoir 
is frequent in O. T. Comp. Job xiv. 2 ; i Chr. xxix. 
15 ; Ps. cii. 1 1 ; cix. 23 ; cxliv. 4 ; Eccl. vi. 12 ; viii. 13. 

Katpos, ' tempus nostrum.' Vulg. : ' non est re- 
versio finis nostri.' ' Tliere is no return of our end,' 
t. e. ' no death a second time.' ' It is appointed unto 
men once to die,' Heb. ix. 27. The Eng. version makes 
tautology : ' after our end is no returning ... no man 
Cometh again.' 

KaTca^paYiaOr), sc. dvairoSurnos, ' Return is sealed 
up, closed,' as if in a sealed tomb. The ancients sealed 
what we shut or lock up. Job xiv. 1 7 ; Dan. vi. 17; 
S. Matt, xxvii. 66 ; Rev. xx. 3. 

' No man cometh again.' Comp. Job vii. 9 ; 
a Sam. xii. 23; Ecclus. xxxviii. 21. The doctrine of 
the resurrection of the body is not found in this Book. 
The prevalent idea is that, though the soul lived for 
ever, it would never return to earth. 

-11. 12.] 



6-9. First result of the materialist's view of life : 
sensual gratifications are to be pursued vdth eagerness. 

With this paragraph comp. i Cor. xv. 32 ; Isai. 
xxii, 13 ; Horat. Sat. IL vi. 93 ff. 

6. Tuc orruv iyo^^^i') ' present, actual good things,' in 
opposition to imaginary blessings, as virtue, wisdom, or 
future, as happiness in another state. The author 
Beems to have in mind Isai. xxii. 1 3. Cp. S. Luke xii. 1 9, 

'Qs fcoTTjTi. The MSS. vary between vtoTr/Ti and 
vt&rryros. Vulg. : ' tanquam in juventute.' Syr..: ' in 
juventute nostra.' Arab. : ' quamdiu durat tempus 
juventutis.' Ntdrijrt may be dat. of time, or as (criVct, 
dependent on xf"l''^f^^''- Perhaps the clause is best 
translated : ' Let us use the creature eagerly as in 
youth,' with the energy which youth is wont to exert. 

Trj KTio-ti, ' the creature,' i.e. created things, as often 
in N. T. Rom. viii. 19, 20 ; Heb. iv. 13. Some cursive 
MSS. read KTf)CT(i, the two words being often confounded. 

7. nXr)iT6a)(ji£i' is applied by zeugma to fiipav as well 
as o'vov to which it properly belongs. Amos, vi. 6, 
speaks of the luxuiy of those oi irivovrts tov BivXurfifvov 
oivov, KOI TO irpara fiipa xpiofuvot. Comp. Ps. xxiii. 5 ; 

S. Luke vii. 46. 

"At^os fopos. 'Flower of spring.' 'Non prae- 
tereat nos flos temporis,' Vulg. probably reading tapos, 
as it translates ' the early rain,' S. James v. 7, by ' tem- 
poraneum,' and the 'early fig,' Isai. xxviii. 4, by the 
same word. Gutb. The reading itpot probably was 
originally a mere oversight in copying. Am. suggests 
that the meaning may be, ' Let no fragrant breath of 
air arising from the wine or ointments pass by or 
escape us.' This is more ingenious tlian sol'd. Mr. 
Churton paraphrases : ' the flower that scents the air.' 

8. Ire+ujieOa. The crowning with flowers is a no- 
tion derived from the Greeks. See Judith xv. 1 3 for 
something similar. 

' Nullum pratum sit quod non pertranseat luxuria 
nostra,' Vulg. ; this addition is possibly correct. It is 
true that nothing to correspond with this clause is 
found in any existing Greek MS., but a clause parallel 
to the first half of the verse is required, if we regard 

the careful balancing of periods exhibited in the rest of 
the paragraph. There are too, it seems (see Prolegora. 
p. 28), two more stiches in the Latin version than in 
the present Greek text, which ought to consist of 1 1 00 
verses, but contains only 1 098 ; hence it is thought that 
some have fallen out of the Greek. Further, in a 
glossary attached to the Codex Coislinianus 394 collated 
by Thilo, the word Xfi/iav is mentioned as occurring in 
this Book. Now it is found nowhere in the existing 
text, and the only natural conjecture is that the original 
of the Vulg. addition commenced with the words fiijSfit 
\eip.a>v, and that these were accidentally omitted owing 
to the itaeismus in ver. 9, /xijStls rjpSiv. The Eheims 
version translates : ' Let no meadow escape our riot.' 

9. 'Ayepwxfas. This word in classical Greek means 
insolence, haughtiness. Here, ' unrestrained volup- 
tuousness ;' insolentia in luxurie vitaeque moUitie con- 
spicua, Wahl. Clav. Comp. 2 Mace. ix. 753 Mace, 
ii. 3. It is derived from d intensive, ytpas, and ?x(b. 

'Oti auTir). To enjoy life while it lasts : we have 
nothing else to do, nothing more to expect. Grimm. 

10—20. Second result of the materialist's view, op- 
pression of the weak and the righteous. 

10. KaToSumoT. ' Let us tyrannize over, oppress ;' 
Ezek. xviii. 1 2 ; Acts x. 38 ; S. James ii. 6. Comp. 
the advice of Kaxia to Hercules in the story of Pro- 
dicus, Xenoph. Mem. II. i. 25 : oit &v oi S\\oi ipya^avrm, 
Toxnois av xph'HIt oiSfvos anfxo/ifvos o6ev iv hwarov ^ « 
KfphavaC navraxodev yap ox^cXdo'dai Tois tpoi ^vvovirai e'fou- 
<Tiav eyayt irapix'"- 

'EiTpoirw(i£i', ' reverence,' as S. Matt. xxi. 37. 

11. ' Let might be right.' Juven. Sat. vi. 223 : 
'Hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntaa.' 

For 'lex justitiae,' Vulg., some MSS. read 'lex injustitiae.' 
'EX^YX"ai, ' proves itself.' 

12. 'EveSptuff. K.T.X. This passage seems to be a 
citation from Isai. iii. i o according to the Sept. : 
hriiTiopev TOV SUaiov, on SiirxplOTOs fipiv itrrt, where the 
Hebrew gives something quite difierent : ' Say j'e to the 
righteous that it shall be well with him,' It is quoted 
by many of the Fathers as referring to Christ. Comp. 



[n. 13- 

8. Bamab. Ep. vi. 7 ; Just. Dial, xvii ; EuBeb. Eel. 
Proph. iv. 2 (Praep. Ev. xiii. 1 3) : Spa/itv a<f> ruiav rbv 
tUaiov. And 80 Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 14 (p. 714 

Pott.) : apuifuv a(f>' r)na>v tov SiVmoic OTi Si(rxpi<rTOS rifiiv 

im-ui. He then partly quotes Plato, De Rep. ii. 5 
(p. 361 Stepb.) : oaa SioKfiiitvos 6 diKcuos fjaortyuo-fTOj, 
OTp€/3X«<rcTai, 8f Jij^erai, iKKav6t]a(TM Ta> ocpGaXfiai, TeXevriiv' 
irdvra Kwca na6a>v afa(r;^ti'8uXfv54(7€Taf Ka\ yvatrtrm, on 
ovK tivai iUaiov, oXXa SoKflv fift ediKfiv. Hippol. Kom. 
Demonstr. Adv. Jud. pp. 66, 67, (ed. Lagarde) : (pfpa 
tr/ (S /if(rov icat njK itpcx^rfrtiav 2^\o}xu>v, ttjv X(yov<Tav irtpt 
Xpurrov, to rpos 'loviaiovr iratjiiis koI apiSriXas BiayyeWov- 
irav, oi nitiov ra Kara tov itapovra xaipov, aWa ra Kara tok 
fuhXoma alava aiirols avp^aivtiv 8m rrjv av6ab(tav Koi ToKfuw, 
^v iiroajirav apj^Tfy^ ttjs C<orjs. Xty« yap 6 wpo(f>T]T7]s, oi 
Sif\oyl<ravTO oi d<r»j3f ir, trtpi Xptvrov fliT6vTes, op6as itifbptv^ 
tra/xtv . , . t<TXOTa iiKalav. Ka\ ndXiv oKovaov, i 'lovSaU. 
ov&eic « Tav i^Ka^av ^ 7rpo<f>r]Ta)v fKoKevev favrliv vlov Qeov. 
Xc'-yft o^v avSts o>r €k npotrayjTov iovhaitav 6 SoXo^oii' irtpX rov- 
Tov TOV SiKaiov, OS ioTtv 6 XpiOTos, oTi iyivrro fip,iy us tXeyxo" 

. . . cV XSyav avTov. So S. Cypr. Testim. Ub. ii. 14. 
These words are used in Hegesippus' account of the 
martyrdom of S. James the Just. Ap. Eouth, Rel. 
Sacr. vol. i. p. 195, quoted from Euseb. Hist. ii. 23. 

AuiTXp^oTos, Vulg. : ' inutilis.' Eog. : ' not for our 
turn,' t. e. not for our convenience, not to our purpose. 
Thus Shakspeare : ' My daughter Catharine is not for 
your turn,' Taming of the Shrew, ii. i. So Christ 
^rt/iacrdi; itai ovk tXoytV^, Isai. liii. 3. 

'OfciSi^ci ■^. dfiapT. f^pou. ' Casts in our teeth 
offences against the law.' Ndjiot without the article 
means ' The Mosaic law ' (see Winer, Gr. § 19). Hence 
the sensualists in this chapter must be regarded as 
renegade Jews, who with Greek culture had adopted 
Greek vices. See Gutberl. Einleit. §§ 3, 4 ; Neander, 
Hist, of Chr. Rel. i. p. 70 (Bohn). Thus Philo, Vit. 
Mos. 1. 6 (II. p. 85) '■ vofiovs napafiaivovtri Kaff ovs eytwi)- 
firftrav ical €Tpa(l>ri(Tav, rjhrj hi noTpia, otr fujviris oiSf/iia irpoa- 
ttrri hiKaiOf Ktvovinv fKdfdiJjTTjfifvoi, icai dia Trjv riov TrapotTtav 
ano&ox'li', oiSfvos tri Tav apxaiav fivr)iir)v Xafi^avovaiv. 

Comp. De Conf. Ling. 2 (I. p. 405). Sec note on iv. 15. 

Vulg. : ' improperat nobis,' ' easts as a reproach.' 
So Rom. XV. 3 : ' improperia improperantium.' This is a 
rare post-Aug. word formed from ' in,' ' probrum.' It 
is found in some MSS. of Plautus, Rud. III. iv. 28 ; 
but others read 'opprobas.' See on v. 3. Comp. 
Ecclus. viii. 6 ; S. Matt, xxvii. 44, Vulg. 

'Eiri^fii^ci ^^y, Vulg. : ' diffamat in uos.' Eng. : 
• objecteth to our infamy.' Or simply, ' utters, asserts 
against us.' 

'Afiopr. iraiSci'as i\^v. ' Offences against our reli- 
gious training.' There is continual confusion in MSS. 
between naMa and naiida. 

13. 'EirayyA. 'professes.' i Tim. ii. 10; vi. 21. 
So Christ claimed ' to know' God. Matt. xi. 27 ; John 
vi. 46. In the text the knowledge of God means the 
knowledge of His will and requirements, what He re- 
wards and what He punishes. 

HaiSa Kupiou. This expression seems here to mean 
'child of the Lord,' as it is said ver. 16, 'he maketh his 
boast that God is his father,' aud ver. 18, 'if the just man 
be the Son of God,' though in the latter passage the 
term is Qcov vlbs not vaXs. But the two expressions 
are used interchangeably in this Book, comp. ix. 4, 7 ; 
xii. 19, 20. Our Saviour is called tov tral&a ovtoC (Otov) 
'Iijaovv, Acts iii. 13, where the word probably means 
'servant,' iraU not being used to express the eternal 
generation of the Son. It is applied in this sense to 
Christ, Is. xlii. i, while, xlviii 20, floOXor is used in the 
same connection. So xlix. 3 : SoiXos pov »i <ri, 'l<rpari\, 
and ver. 6 : j*eyo trol «ot» toD K\ri6iivai <r( traifid fiov. Of 
Christ it is said, 8. Matt, xxvii. 43 : «?»r< yap 'Oti Btov 
fifu vi6s. S. John xix. 7. The Syriae of the t-ext is 
translated : ' He says, I am the Son of God.' 

In all this passage the Fathers have generally seen 
a prophecy of the Pussion of Christ ; and there are 
some wonderful coincidences of thought and language 
between it and the Gospel. Comp. here S. Matt, 
xxvii. 43 ; S. John xix. 7. But the similarity may 
be owing partly to the 0. T. quotations embodied in 
the text, partly to the recurrence of each typical form 
of reproach in the Passion of Christ. See Is. Williams, 

-u. ig] 



The Passion, p. 226, (ed. 1870). Comp. the quotations 
in note on ver. 1 2. S. Aug. De Civit. xvii. 20 : 'Quorum 
[librorum] in uno, qui appellatur Sapientia Salomonis, 
passio Christi apertissime prophetatur. Impii quippe 
interfectores ejus commemorantur dicentes : " Circum- 
Teniamus justum," ' etc. Comp. also Cont. Faust. xiL 
in Ps. xlviii. Enarr. ; Serm. L 1 1 ; Ep. cxL 20. 

14. 'Eyiytro : he tended to expose our views to 
public reproach, by forcing comparisons with his own. 
So Vulg. : ' factus est nobis in traductionem cogitatio- 
num nostrarum.' Comp. S. John iii. 20 ; vii. 7. Mr. 
Chorton paraphrases : ' the effect of his words is to 
rebuke our inward thoughts and purposes.' 

' Traductio,' blame, reproof. See on ch. iv. 20, and 
comp. xL 7 ; xviiL 5, Vulg. 

15. Koi pXnrofiEros, ' even when merely seen,' t. «. the 
mere sight of him is annoying. Prov. xxi. 15 : Saios 
dxaBapTos mpa KOKovpyois. Comp. I King^ xxi. 20 ; Isai. 
liiL 3 ; 8. Matt. viii. 34 ; S. John xv. 19. 

Tois aXXois = r^ (P'-'f) ''''"' ^>^<i»', like Homer's 
Ko/uu XaptTt(r<Ti» o/ioUu, H. xviL 51' So ch. viL 3 : (fxovfpt 
Sitoiap tratro', where see note. 

'E|T)XXaYp^K(u, 'immutatae,' Vulg. 'strange, un- 
usual ;' Aristot. Poet. ZXl. 20 : an-ov ovo/id €<rra> $ Kupiop 
• • • V <^^X<ryfi<rov. 

Tpi^ot, as 666t ver. 16 and in N. T., ' path of life,' 
religious views. Comp. Acts xix. 9 ; xxi v. 14. 

16. Els Kl^Sr]Xov. ' We were reckoned by him as 
dross, impure.' The Eng. translation 'counterfeits' 
(which indeed is the usual meaning of the word) conveys 
a wrong impression, as the persons mentioned would 
probably not take the trouble to assume the mask of 
religion. The parallel member its ano aKoBapiriav sup- 
ports this view. The Vulg. ' tanquam nugaces ' seems 
weak, though Gloss. Philox. gives : ' nugas o-mrpot.' 
The word 'nngax' does not occur again in the Vulg. 
It is found in S. Ambr. Ep. 58, when he is quoting 
a Sam. vi. 22: ' ero nugax ante oculos tuos,' where 
Vulg. gives 'humilis' (p. 1099 Ben.). 

Maxopi^ci, ' praefert,' Vulg. ; rather, ' calls blessed 
the end of the just' '£<rxara, ' the death,' as Ecclus. 

L 13 ; viL 36 ; li. 14. Comp. Numb, xxiii. 10 (Heb.) ; 
Rev. xiv. 13. In Job xlii. 12 ra iaxara means the 
latter part of life. 

'AXa^oKCucrai, ' maketh his boast,' a fine expression. 
Comp. ver. 13. This is the complaint made against 
Christ, John v. 18. 

17. ' If his words be true,' viz. that he is a child of 
God. Comp. Ps. xxii. 7, 8 ; Matt, xxvii. 4 1 fit 

TjL iv iK^6xru aurou, ' quae in exitu ejus eventura 
sunt,' Grimm; i.e. whether his end is blessed, ver. 16. 
The sensualist himself thinks of no life beyond this 
'end.' The Vulg. adds : ' et sciemus quae erunt novis- 
sima illioB.' Gutberlet deems this to be merely an 
expansion of the idea contained in the Greek ; but it 
is more probably another version of the same which has 
crept into the text. It is not found in S. Cypr. Test 
Adv. Jud. iL 14, where this passage is cited; but it occurs 
in S. Aug. De Civ. Dei, xvii. 20. *E<c3<Kri9 in the sense 
of 'end' or 'issue' is of late Greek. Polybius has 

vtpi TTjV ?K$a(riv t^k « row ^iXiWov woXi/tov, Hist. iii. 7. 2. 

Comp. "Wisd. viii. 8 ; xi. 14 ; Heb. xiii. 7. 

18. Some see in this verse an interpolation by a 
Christian hand, owing to its marvellous similarity to 
the taunts levelled at the Saviour, S. Matt, xxvii. 43. 
But see on ver. 13, and oomp. Ps. xxii. 8, 9. So 
Euseb. Hist. Eccles. v. i, tells of the treatment of 
martyrs by their persecutors who derided them in 

similar terms : iroi 6 Ot&s avrir, kcu n ttiiTovs &vri<rtv if 
B/xiftTKiia, TV KCU trp6 r^r iavrSm tlXorro ^x^i • • • "^ 
liuiuv (I avaorriiTotrrai, kiu tl ivvarai Poi/Sijirai auroir 6 Otis 
airrSiv, Kat i^tKifrdai iK rap X'H*^" 7M^- 

'O SiKoios, Vulg. : ' Si enim est varus filios Dei,' 
where ' venis" is the translation of 6 iuauos. 

19. 'EtA<t(ii}1€I', 'let us test.' Acts xxiL 24. See on 
vi. 7. Comp. Jer. xi. 19. 

'EirieiKEuxK, ' meekness, goodness,' opp. to v^i, as 
avt^ucoKLfu/ is to ^acaxf. Acts xxiv. 4. Vulg. : ' reve- 
rentiam ejus,' as Heb. v. 7 : ' exaoditos pro sua reve- 
rentia.' Gutb. See on xii. 18. 

'Aye^mtuday, ' patience, forbearance.' 3 Tim. iL 24 : 
apf^aKop. Comp. Is. liii. 7. 



[ll. 20- 

20. KoTaSiKCio'uji.ti', as .TaS. v. 6 : (careSticdo-aTC, i(j)ovfi- 
cart rhv Hkoiov. Grimm. 

*Eiriaicoirf) is used in a good or bad sense. Comp. 
iii. 7, and xiv. ii.- Here it means 'regard, respect/ 
(xix. 1 4), with an ironical turn, ' God is sure to regard 
him.' Comp. Gen. xxxvii. 20; Jer. xi. 19; xviii. 18. 

'Ek X^yuK a. ' ex sermonibus Ulius.' Vulg. ' according 
to his words,' as he boasts, vers. 16, 18. The Greek 
will hardly bear Mr. Churton's paraphrase : ' there 
shall be an inquiry into the truth of his words.' 

21—24. Stich views s])ring from toilful ignorance of 
the purpose of God who created man to be immortal, but 
death cama into the world with sin by reason of the 
deviVs envy. 

2L 'EXoyur. koi JirX., like ver. I : tmov iavrois "Koyuri- 
fuvoi ovK 6p6S>t. This is one of the passages supposed 
(by Graetz and others) to have been introduced by a 
Christian copyist. The supposition is quite gratuitous, 
and unsupported by any evidence. 

'AircTu^Xuae, Aristot. Eth. Nic. VI. v. 6 : tort yap 
)j Kcucla <f>6apTtKrj dpxrjs. S. Athan. Hist. Arian. 71 
(i. p. 386 Ben.) : iTv(f>\a>(Tt yovi> airav iv roi^Totr t^k 
iuivouai 1) KaKta. S. Ephr.'s translator (de Humil. 94) 
reads airfTv<f>Ka><T(v. Comp. Eph. iv. 18. 

22. Muonqpio 9. ' Sacramenta Dei,' Vulg. See on 
vi. 22. 'The secret counsel of God' with regard to 
the trials of the just, and the reward that awaits them 
in the future life. Comp. iv. 17. For a similar use 
of the word in the N. T. see Bom. xvi. 25 ; Col. i. 26 ; 
Eph. i. 9. 

OuSe iKf. Y^pas, sc. eivtu, ' nor judged that there is 
a reward.' 

'AfuifUiiv. Rev. xiv. 5. 

23. 'Eir' i.^6ap<Titf, 'with a view to incorruption,' 
'to be immortal' (comp. vi. 18, 19; 4 Mace. ix. 22, 
33; I Cor. XV. 50,' S3, 54), referring to the eternal 
life beyond the grave, as Samros in the next verse 
denotes rather the second death than physical death. 

' Hominem inexterminabilem,' Vulg. This adjective 
is very uacommou. It is mentioned as occtu'ring in 

Claud. Mamert. De Stat. Anim. ii. 3. See note on 
X. 4. 

'l8i<5Tr)Tos, ' proprietatis.' ' His own peculiar na- 
ture, being ;' ' q. d. Homo est imago Divinae naturae, 
quae Deo est propria ; vel, Homo est imago divinarum 
proprietatum, attributorum et dotum, quae Deo sunt 
propria,' A. Lap. Comp. Gen. i. 26, 27 ; ii. 7 ; v. i ; 
Ecclus. xvii. 3 ; i Cor. xi. 7. Col. iii. 10 ; kot ciVdva toO 
Krla-avTot airrov. See 2 Pet. i. 4, which, however, refers 
to the Incarnation of Christ, and the Christian's sacra- 
mental incorporation with Him. The reading Ibiarjjros 
has the greatest weight of authority. The Eng. trans- 
lators read dlSioTip-os, which has some patristic, but 
little MS. authority. Thus S. Method. De Resur. xi. 
(xviii. p. 280, Migne): €ictio-« tov av6pajrov 6 Scor 
CTTt a<f>6apa'uf, koi tlxova Ttjs i6tas dididrijrot cVoiijo'n' avroD. 
ovK Spa dvoWvrai to tTafia' 6 yap avdpanos <k V'^XV* *"' 
aapoTos. And Athanas. Cont. Apoll. i. 7 (i. p. 927, 
Ben.) : on iieriatv o &(hs tov SvBpairor c'lrt a<f>6apaia, Ka\ 
eiKova T^s l&las aiSiortjTos tVotij<7fv avT&v . . . Koapov ; and 
ib. (p. 934) ' *t'' a<^8apala Ka\ tiKovi rffs Ihlas diSidnjror, 
ciroir](T(V aiiTov (jivaiv avaitdpTr)Tov, xa't 6(\r)crtv avTt^oiatoV 
<l>66va . . . KOCTfjov, fipafuvov r^s napn^<Tftos rriv f'lrlvotav. 
The Vulg. and Syr. read opoidrrrros, which seems to 
have reached the text from the gloss of some scribe 
who wished to make the wording conform to Gen. i. 
26 : TTOirjaatixfV tivOpaTTov Kar fiKova rjpcripaii xat Kaff 
ofioiairiv. Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 12, reads liianiTos, 
Thus : oiiK (yvaxrav p,v(TTr]pia Qtov' on 6 Qths (KTUTf tA* 
av6pa>isov cVi d(}>dap<Tiq: , Kal tiKOva Trjs ISias tduyniTos (iroiT)- 
<T(v avTov. P. 788, Pott. Epiphan. ap. Hieron. i. 251 : 
' iraaginem suae proprietatis dedit ei.' 

24. 'Through envy of the devil came death into 
the world.' The serpent is here identified with the 
Devil and Satan, a very remarkable development of 
0. T. teaching; anticipating the Christian revelation 
of the existence and personality of the great evil spirit. 
See Rev. xii. 9 ; xx. 2 ; S. John viii. 44. Fhilo 
allegorizes the whole story of the fall, making the ser- 
pent the symbol of pleasure, De Mund. Opif. 56 (I. 
p. 38). Orig. in Joan. torn. xx. 22 (i. p. 343 Ben.): 

-III. 2.] 



ovr« <f>66va Savarot *ls rov Koa/ioii, aft tV ow (a» 
9vpTf ^axTiv dvdpartroKTOvoiivTos (AiajStJXou), (0}S &v irdvrtav tS>» 
ixBpav vrtoTtBitnav Tois jrocri tov v'lov rov Qiov, f<T)(aTos 
€X0p6s airrov ddmtos KarapyrjOj. So ib. t. xxii. (p. 407). 

That the serpent who seduced our first parents is the 
same as Satan is stated in the Kabbalah and Talmud. 
See Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, p. 29. 

AtaP<SXou, without the article, a? i Chr. xxi. r ; 
Acts xiii. 10; I Pet. v. 8. The word Sm^oXos means, 
'one who sets at variance,' then 'a slanderer ;' and it 
is used throughout the Sept. as the translation of the 
Hebrew Satan. For the O. T. idea of the Devil's envy, 
Bee Job i. 9-1 1, etc., and Isai. xiv. 13. Josephus, Ant. 
I. i. 4, speaks thus of the serpent's en\'y : 6 o<j)is aw 

Siatrafitvot r^ ii 'ASafi^ Kai T^ yvvaiKi <^6ovfpa>s (l^fv 
i<t>' ols airToi/s tvh(up.ovrifrttv ^iro irtnturpfvovs rots rov 
OfoO n-apayyfXpaa-i. S. Bernard makes the following 
suggestion as to the cause of this envy : ' Potuit con- 
tingere (si tamen incredibiie non putetur), plenum 
sapientia et perfectum decore, homines praescire po- 

tuisse futures, etiam et profecturos in pari gloria, 
Scd si praescivit, in Dei verbo absque dubio vidit, et 
in livore suo invidit, et molitus est habere subjectos, 
socios dedignatus. Infirmiores sunt, inquit, inferiores.- 
que natura: non decet esse concives, nee aequales in 
gloria.' In Cant. Sermo xvii (p. 2758 A.). 

6<ii'aT05 ci(rfjX6cf eis t. K6ay.oy. Comp. Rom. v. 12. 
ffdvaros is the death of the soul. See on ver. 23. 
Kdo-jtov is not the universe, but the world of men, as 
2 John 7. The devil is called 'him that hath the 
power of death,' Hebr. ii. 14. 

ricipd^ouat Sc auT^K. Vulg. : ' imitantur autem 
ilium,' i. e. diabolum. Eng. : ' do find it,' i. e. death. 
Rather, ' they who are his ((Kiivov, the devil's) portion, 
who have given themselves over unto him, tempt, court 
it,' (avT^v, death). Comp. Rom. vi. 23 : ' The wages 
of sin is death.' See also the ending of chap. i. with 
which this is parallel. 

Ttjs ^KEirau fitp. Comp. I John iii. 12 : Kalv fit 

TOV iroinjpov tjv. 


tll.-V. Contrast between the godly and the evil. 
III. 1-9. How the godly are rewarded for their mf- 

1. 'Ef x<4*^ 6cou. ' Hoc est, habitant in adjutorio 
altissimi, et in protectione Dei caeli commorantur.' 
S. Aug. Enarr. in Ps. Ixxxvii. 5. The souls of de- 
parted saints are under God's special protection. For 
Xfipi Q. comp. Deut. xxxiii. 3, and Isai. li. 16, and see 
1 Pet. iv. 19. The words Auca/u* . . . etoC are found 
in Const. Apost. 1. vi. cap. 30. Pseudo-Clem. Rom. Ep. 

II. ad Cor. xvii. 7:0*^ 8i«c<uoi (impayrjaavra Kai vno- 
fjLflvavTfs Tas ^aapovs koI fiunjaavrts ras rjbvTradeiafTijf >/^X^^) 
Stop 6fdara>VTai rout d<rT0)(ri<ravTar Kai dpvrfiraiiiyovs hia tS>v 
Xoycof f) dia rcof fpyav rov *lr](rovv, 07ra)r Ko\d^Qvrai d€iva7s 
/Saa-oKMc mipi aa^arif, tcovrai io^av biiovrts r^ Or^ alriai 

"kiyovTti, in tarai tXtrir ra itSovXrvKori 0»y «^ oXi;r Kapilas, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. i r quotes iixaiav . . . jSaVamr. 
He then adduces, apparently from memory, Plat. Apol. 
Socr. 1 8 : ipi piv ydp '\wT6t Tt Koi McXtror monTtitxifV 
fuvT Av, j3Xd\^f« 8" &v ovS" mraxTTiovv' ov yip oipai Bepurbv 
tivai ri> apfivov irp6s roii x^eipovoi fiXdnrftidai. Comp. 

S. Luke xsiii. 46 ; Rev. xx. 4. 

BcUrai^s. Vulg. : ' tormentum mortis.' Some 
MSS. give ' tormentum malitiae,' and S. Aug. Serm. 
cccvL I, notes that ' malitia' here means 'poena.' The 
meaning is 'tonnent after death,' as S. Luke xvi. 
23, 28. 

2. "ESolac . . . Tcdcdfai. ' They seemed to be dead.' 
The author of the Ep. ad Diognet, x. 7 speaks of 
good men despising roC ioKoivrot ivOdbt Bavarov. 

R 2 



[in. 3- 

'Ef i^6aX)iois=m the judgment ; as ix. 9 ; Ecclus. 
viii. 16 ; X. 20. 

"EjoSos, ' departure '= death, as vii. 6. Ecclus. 
xxxviii. 23; 8. Luke ix. 31 ; 2 Pet i. 15. 

3. riopcia, aa S. Luke xxii. 22:6 vi6s toS avSpamov 
iTopdfTai. So to Abraham God said, Gen. xv. 15 : 
ail Si arrtXivini npos roiit iraripas aov n> tlpT/vg, 

ZuiTf>i|ifia, ' breaking to pieces,' ' destruction.' 
Vulg. : ' exterminium.' Comp. Ps. ii. 9 ; Jer. xix. 1 1 ; 
Isai. xxii. 4; lix. 7; Ecclos. xl. 9; Bom. iii. 16. 
Like some modem philosophers who consider death 
equivalent to annihilation. 

'Ek elpfiyr\. This is somewhat in advance of 0. T. 
doctrine, which seems to have been content with the 
notion of rest in the grave, though there is an intima- 
tion of something more in Isai. Ivii. 2. Comp. Job 
iii. 17, 18. Grimm appositely quotes Philo, Quod 
det. pot. invid. 15 (I. p. 200) : 6 ntv i^ o-cxjms TtSytjKeyai 
doKav TOif (pdaprhv ^tov (^ t6v a<pBapTOP. 

4. 'EAk KoXaoBwrii', ' if they shall have been punished ' 
as men think. The writer may refer to those who 
perished in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, i Mace. 

i. 57 ff- 

' Yet is their hope full of immortality,' a beautiful 
expression, which has become, as has been said, a house- 
hold word. He here gives the reason why the right- 
eous endure with patience all the ills of this life; 
they have full assurance of immortality. Heb. vi. 19; 
I Pet. i. 3. 2 Mace. vii. 9 : 2v piv, aKd<rTa>p, <'k tov Tra- 
p6vTOs fipas ^u OTroXvrcr, 6 6i tov Koapov /3a(nX(vc airo6a- 
p6vTas fipas xmip tS>v airrov vopav tls alaviov ava^iatriv ^afji 

ijpat ava(TTr)<Tfi. See also ib. ver. 14. Comp. 2 Cor, v. i, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 15, quotes vers. 2-8. 

5-6. These verses give the reason why God lets the 
righteous suffer in this life. Trouble educates, proves, 
purifies them, gives them opportunities of self-sacrifice. 
This is high teaching, to which the life and death of 
Christ put the crown. Gutb. 

6. 'oXiyo iraiScuO. ' In paucis vexati,' Vulg. ' Hav- 
ing been lightly chastised.' i\lya being opposed to 
luyaKa cannot be=oXtyoi>, ' for a little time,' bat must 

refer to the littleness of earthly afflictions compared 
with the greatness of future reward. Comp. Rom. 
viii. 18 ; 2 Cor. iv. 17 ; i Pet. L 6, 7. The sufieringB 
of the saints are termed irmifia in Heb. xii. 1 1 ; and 
' whom the Lord loveth He chastenetli,' iratStMt, 
Heb. xii. 6; Rev. iii. 19. To complain, as some do, 
of the author as confining God's merciful providence 
to the Jews, while representing Him as hostile to all 
others, is not warranted by the general tone of his 
utterances. God hateth nothing that He hath made 
(xi. 24), and chastises even His elect to win them to 
what is good. 

McyciXa tinpy/trrfiiyaomu., 'in multis bene dispo- 
nentur,' Vulg., reading as Grimm, suggests, tvdvni6rf- 
(Tovrm, which, however is found in no MS. 

'Eircipao-cK, ' put them to the proof.' Heb. xi. 
37. Gen. xxii. I : o 6«6r indpaaf rw A^paap, Ex. 

XV. 25. 

'Ajious iauToO, ' worthy of (communion with) Him- 
self.' S. Matt. X. 37, 38. Clem. Alex. Strom, iv. 15 : 
fTTtipaiTfv aiirois' TovTfimv, tls Soxlpiov Koi Sucrwjriai' tov 
TTtipa^ovToc t'a<Tft> avToiis TrdpaaBrjvai' xai (vpfv airovs 
a^iovs iavTov, vioi/t kKtjBfjVM, SijXovoTi. Cf. I ThesS. ii. 1 2 J 

Rev. iii. 4 ; xvi. 6. 

6. XufcuTi^pioi'. ' Smelting furnace.' The word is 
peculiar to Sept. and ecclesiastical writers, i Kings 
viii. 51 ; Zech. xi. 13. 

'ESoKi|uiorEK. ' He tested them.' Prov. xvii. 3 ; 
Ecclus. ii. 5 ; i Pet. i. 7. Comp. Isai. xlviii. 10. 

euatas, an epexegetical genitive, ' a perfect sacri- 
ficial ofiering.' Comp. Ecclus. xlv. 14 : OvtrUu avroS 
oKoKapira)6r)(TovT(u, Tlie word oXorapirm/ia loses its sense 
of ' an offering of fruits,' and is used for any ' burnt- 
offering.' Lev. i. 14 ; xvi. 24. S. Paul speaks 
triumphantly of his own death as a drink-offering, 
2 Tim. iv. 6 : eyi> yap tjbtf (ntivhopai. Gomp. Phil. ii. 
17. S. Basil the Great thus speaks about tempta- 
tion, Horn, de Divit. in Luc. xii. 18 (p. 43 Ben.) : 
AitrXovv rh tViot tS>v nttpatrpav. *H y^p al ffXiylrtis /3a- 
<Tai>l(ov<Ti Tat Kapiias, amrtp ;Kpi;<r6r <•> xapiiMf, Bt& Tijt 
viro/xoi^s t6 doKifuov airS>i> antXtyj^ouavu' if Kat iroXXout 

-m. 9.j 



aural al tifirp>lai Tov fiiov an\ nufxtnipiov yamTai roir 

7. 'EinaKoiri)s. 'The time of their Tisitation,' i.e. 
of their recompence in the other world, as ver. 13. 
Comp. Jer. vi. 15: *" luup^ CTrxmnr^s avrwy andkmvriu, 
I Pet. ii 12. As the whole passage evidently refers 
to the life beyond the grave, it is a mistake to under- 
stand ' the time of visitation ' as alluding to this world. 
The Vulg. connects this with the former verse, making 
two distinct statements. ' Et in tempore erit respectus 
eorum. Fulgebunt justi et . . .' 'In time there shall be 
respect had to them,' DouaL Beusch thinks that the 
original Latin ran : ' Et in tempore respectus illorum 
fulgebunt ;' and then, from mistaking ' respectus ' for 
nom. instead of gen., ' erit ' was added, and ' fiilgebunt' 
joined to the next sentence. Gutberlet, on the other 
hand, who always defends the renderings of the Vulgate, 
asserts that the change was made intentionally in order 
to bring out distinctly the two thoughts contained in 
the original clause, viz. that the just should be re- 
compensed, and that they should shine. 

'Ara.X((|ii|K>uo'ii', according to the idea in Dan. xii. 
3 : ' They shall shine (e'lcXd/i^uo-i) as the brightness erf 
the firmament, and ... as the stars for ever and ever ;' 
and in S. Matt. xiii. 43. 4 Esdr. vii. 55 : ' super 
Stellas fulgebunt facies eorum.' In Eclog. ex Script. 
Proph. xli. ap2)ended to the works of Clem. Alex. (p. 
1000, Pott.) we have : 6 duuuot at mraBijp dta KaKafU)s 
(xXd/iiro Kcti npitxi fSyt], 

AiaSpafiouirrai. Explica kcu nrovrot *>t imwOfiptt » 
Kakafiri Stadpaiioiacu. Wahl. The passage refers to the 
exceeding swiftness and brightness of the disembodied 
spirit. S. Thomas Aquinas refers to this passage to 
prove the agility of the glorified body ; but there 
is no trace of the doctrine of the resurrection of the 
body in this book. In Symb. Apost. Expos, xxxviii. 
Blunt thinks the idea to be, that the martyrdom 
of the saints would raise a flame in the ' stubble ' of 
heathendom, by which it would be consumed. But 
this thought is alien from the whole tenour of the 
passage. Churton, referring the scene to this life. 

paraphrases : ' when the fire of God's wrath shall con- 
sume the ungo<lly as stubble, they shall be as the 
sparks which fly upward (Job v. 7), or like the torch of 
fire in the sheaf of com (Zech. xii. 16), witnesses to 
the justice of God, and to the guilt of His euemies.' 
Cp. Mai. iv. I. 

8. 'They shall judge nations, and have dominion 
over peoples.' So in Dan. vii. 2 a it is said : ' Judg- 
ment was given to the saints of the Most High - and 
the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.' 
And in the N. T. the saints are to be assessors with 
Christ at the final judgment. Matt. xix. 28 ; i Cor. 
vi. 2 ; Rev. xx. 4. Comp. Ecclus. iv. 15. 

AtrTwK. ' Regnabit Dominua illorum.' Vulg. Auriv 
is best governed by ;3a<r«X(i5<r«, ' The Lord shall be their 
King,' He whose service is perfect freedom. For ' Deo 
servire regnare est.' Gutb. In the Vulg. version 
' illorum ' is probably governed by ' regnavit,' as 
I Mace. xiL 39 : ' et cum cogitasset Tryphon regnare 
Asiae.' This construction is also found in classical 
authors, e.g. Hor. Carm. ILL xxx. 12. There is no 
trace in this passage of a personal MessiaL 

Ei$ -rous aiwfos. ' In perpetuimi.' Vulg. See on 
iv. a. 

9. Oi irriroiddTes, ' they who have trusted and still 
do trust in Him,' the same as oi nurroi. 

'AX^Oeuti', 'shall understand truth,' shall possess 
the knowledge of divine things. S. John viL 1 7. 

'Ek dydin) is best taken, as Eng. marg., with 
wpoafuvownv, ' His faithful shall abide with Him in 
love.' S. John xv. 9 ; Acts xi. 23. 

Xdpis Kol eXcos, as i Tim. L 2. The clause occurs 
again iv. 15, and there is much variety iu MSS. re- 
specting the wording and arrangement. The Vulg. 
and Vat. omit km fmaKoirfj iv rocc oauHS airroi : but the 
authority of the Sinaitic, Alexandrian, and Venetian 
MSS., and all the versions except the Latin, seems to 
be conclusive of its genuineness. See on iv. 15. 

'Emo-KOTrii, ' care, regard.' 

'EkXcktois. Comp. Esth. viii. 40 (xvi. 31); Tob. 
viii. 15; S. Matt. xxiv. 22. 



[in. lo- 

lO-IV. 6. Contrast of the good and evil, specially in 
their families. 

10. Ko6' & l\oyl(T. ' Secundum quae cogitaverunt.' 
Vulg. The allusion is to their language in chap. ii. 

'EiriTiiiiaf, ' correptionera,' ' punishment.' In classi- 
cal Greek emriixiov is used for ' penalty,' imriiiTjtTK, 
(xii. 26) for ' punishment,' never iirvniiia, which means 
' citizenship.' It is used once for ' punishment ' in the 
Nt T., 2 Cor. ii. 6. For the punishment of ' fools ' in 
the moral sense see Prov. i. 29-31. 

Tou SiKaiou, probably neuter = ' justice.' ' Jus- 
titiam violarunt.' A. Lap. So S. Aug. Spec., quoting 
this passage, ' Qui neglexerunt justitiam.' That this is 
right the parallelism with (ro(f>lav t^ovdevav seems to 
show. We have to SUaiov used 2 Mace. iv. 34 ; x. la. 

11. AuTuK, referring to the collective term o i^ov- 

12. According to the Hebrew notion barrenness was 
the greatest misfortune to a woman, and a numerous 
progeny the greatest blessing. See Gen. xxx. 23 ; 
Isai. iv. t ; S. Luke i. 25. The autlior takes another 
view. Comp. Ecclus. xvi. i, z. 

'Ac^pOfcs, ' insensatae.' Vulg. ' Light, or un- 
chaste.' Eng. marg. Folly being= wickedness in the 
Sapiential Books (tee on i. 3), a(}>poves here means 
' evil, godless.' The Vulg. word ' insensatus ' is not 
classical. It is found often in the Vulg. Thus, Wisd. 
v. 4, 21; xi. i6 ; xii. 24; xv. 5 ; Gal. iii. i. And it fre- 
quently occurs in ecclesiastical writers, e. g. S. Iren. 
Haer. ii. 30. 8. (p. 163, Ben.): ' Deus qui omnia 
fecit solus omnipotens . . . et sensibilia et insensata.' 
Hieron. in Gal. c. iii. p. 416 : ' post peccatum compa- 
ratus est peccatoribus insensatis.' S. Aug. De Gen. 
ad lit. iii. c. 12. tg. In Ps. xlviii. Enarr. Serm. ii. fin. 
(iv. p. 443, Ben.). Tertull. De praescr. Haer. 27. 
See note on Xvii: i. 

'Their children wicked.' As Ezek. xvi. 44; 
Ecclus. xvi. 1,2; xli. 5 ; 2 Esdr. ix. 17. 

13. *EiriKaT<£paTos, ' doubly accursed,' xiv. 8 ; Gal. 
iii. 10, 13. In Tobit xiii. 12 it is opposed to «iXo- 

rivnri%, 'offspring,' as xviii. 12. Vulg.='crea- 
tura,' in the same sense. 

'Oti, which Am. regards as pleonastical, gives a 
further illustration of the author's position, that the 
happiness of the ungodly is false and baseless. It was 
promised by the Mosaic law that the righteous should 
be blessed with children, and that the wicked should 
be childless. (Comp. Ps. cxxviii. 3 ; Ex. xxiii. 26 ; 
Deut. vii. 14; Lev. xx. 20, 21; Hos. ix. 14.) But 
the unfruitful wife, being chaste and pure, is happier 
now than tlie evil mother of children, and shall be 
highly blessed hereafter. The same is true of the 
eunuch to whom by the Law (Deut. xxiii. i) some 
imperfection attached. This passage is supposed by 
Graetz to be an interpolation by a Cliristian writer who 
desired to teach high ascetic doctrine. But it really 
teaches no special view of celibacy, but merely shows 
that to be childless is better than to have ungodly 
children, and that a blessing awaits the continent. 

Zrcipa. ' A barren wife.' Some think the author 
is referring to mixed marriages, as in Ezra ix, x ; 
others see a reference to the celibacy practised by the 
Therapeutae, and thus described by Philo, De Vita 
Contenipl. § 8 (II. p. 482): 'S.vve^nMVTai koi yvvalKts, S>v 
irKtiirrai yrjpniai napdtvoi Tvy\dvov<Ti r^v Ayvfiav, oyic amyKtj, 
Kaddmp tviai twv nap' "EXXijctik Upiiav, 8ia(f>v\a^a<Tai /inXXov 
5 Kaff tKovaiov yvaifijjv, Hiii &f QXov icat n60ov <TO(j)tasi 1/ 
avfi^Lovv a'7rov5d(ovtri f rav nfpi atafia rjdovav rjXoyrjaav, ov 
6vi]tS>v cKyovtov, aXX' ddavaTtov ope^Buaai, & fidvrj tiktiiv a<^ 
iavrqs oia rt fortv r) 6fO(pi\ris V"'A(^) OTttipavTOS fU auTi^K 
OKT'ivat vat)Tas rov narphs, ats fiuvijcTfrai Btatptiv ra iro^iat 

hoypara. The passage in the text seems to be intended 
to console the childless. 

'H dfiiaio-os, ' incoinquinata,' Vulg. A late Latin 
word found four times in this Book (iv. 2 ; vii. 22; 
viii. 20), and nowhere else in Vulg. Comp. Heb. 
vii. 24 ; xiii. 4, 

*Hti$, ' such an one as,' defining more exactly ^ 


KoiTTjc Iv irapairr. ' concubitum cum peccato con- 
junctum.' Walil. Comp. ver. 16: vapavinov KoiTt)t, 

-ui. i8.] 


and iv. 6. Num. xxxi. i8 : ijnr ouu fyva Koinjv apvfvos. 

For napaTTToifia COnip. X. I. 

Kapichv, recompence better than the fruit of the 
womb (Ps. cxxvii. 3). 

'EiruTKoirtj i|(ux. See on ver. 7. Vulg. : ' In re- 
spectione auimarum sanctarum.' MS. Egert. and others 
omit ' sanctarum.' Possibly the translators read ayiav 
instead of atrmv, which A. gives. S. Jer. in Isai. 56, 
(col. 410 a,) has ' iu visitatione animarum.' ' Respectio ' 
is a late word, occurring nowhere else in Vujg. See 
on vi. 1 8. The ' visitation of souls ' is the judgment, 
when all anomalies shall be righted. 

14. Kol tuTOuxos, sc. ftoKopwi ian. Eivovxos doubt- 
less in the first two senses mentioned by our Lord, 
Matt. xix. 12. See Is. Ivi. 4, 5. Vulg.: ' spado ' = 
(nradwv. So Ecclus. xxx. 21. 

'Epyoa. . . . ivQuy..r=m deed or thought, — ^parall. 
with ri afiiavTos. 

Ttjs irioT. xi'P^S ^''^' 'The special gift of faith.' 
Eng. But the words must refer to the future life, 
as ' the visitation of souls,' ver. 1 3, and the ' inherit- 
ance ' {KKrjpoi) below. So Am. translates, ' some special 
gift or reward shall be given him for his faithfulness ;' 
and the Syr. : ' Dabitur ei pro ipsius gratia et fideiitate 
haereditas desiderii.' Holkot and Lorinus refer the 
words to the ' aureola virginum.' Gutb. takes them 
as denoting the eternal reward in store for the con- 
tinent. So we may best render, 'a choice reward of 
his faithfulness.' x"P" *nd (uaBbs are interchanged, 
Matt. V. 46 ; Luke vi. 32. 

KXtjpos. In Isai. Ivi. 4, 5 : 'a place and a name,' 
which they may have lost upon earth by having no 
children. Comp. Numb, xxvii. 4. 

'Ec mw K., ' in heaven,' as Ps. x. 4 ; Bar. ii. 16 ; 
Rev. vii. 15. 'He shall have a place in the eternal 
temple,' with special reference to his exclusion from the 
Jewish sanctuary. Deut. xxiii. i. For ' in the temple,' 
the Eng. marg. gives ' among the people,' reading iv 
Xay, for which there is no authority. This clause shows 
that in the opinion of the writer heaven is to be the 
dwelling-place of righteous souls. Comp. Tob. iii. 6. 

eu|it)p^(TTtpos, ' more acceptable than aught else.' "^ c 

Vulg. : ' acceptissima.' This passage is quoted by i '^ t4 -; r- 
Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 14 (p. 797, Pott). '^ ?^ S =» 

15. rip, proof of the blessedness of the two classes *^ ~\ :x^, 
mentioned above. ' For the reward (as ver. 13) of \^ ^..5 .^/ 
good works is glorious.' ^ * - ^ '' 

Trjs <|>poiTicreus, gen. epexeget. 'The root (from 
which such fruit springs) which is wisdom.' Ecclus. 
i. 6. No dry tree is the childless righteous man, but 
a fruitful tree that falleth not away (aiianvTOi), See 
Ps. cxii. 6, 7. 

16. The writer carries on the thought in ver. 13, 
' their offspring is cursed,' taking adultery as a typical 
characteristic of the ungodly. 

'ArtXtoTo loToi, ' shall not come to perfection.' 
' Neque in hac vita ad gloriam, neque in altera ad 
felicitatem perveniunt.' Bauerm. ap. Wahl. Comp. 
iv. 4, 5. S. Method. Conv. dec. Virg. iii. (xviii. p. 52, 
Migne) : TtKva iiot\£>v dT(\«r<j>6priTa. The Vulg. word 
' inconsummatio ' is found nowhere else in that version 
(' inconsummatus,' iv. 5), but occurs in TertuU. Adv. 
Val. X : ' inconsummatio generationis.' The marg. 
rendering of Eng., ' be partakers of holy things,' 
regards the other meaning of d«X., ' uninitiated,' 
and the restriction in Deut. xxiii. 2 : 'a bastard 
shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord.' 
But this sense seems less suitable in the present con- 

'Ek irapaf. koit. aitipfLa. See on ver. 13. 

'A<^ai'ia8i^<7ETai, ' shall come to nothing.' So David's 
child by Bathsheba died. 2 Sam. xii. 1 4. 

17. MaKft6fi. Y^>^*^ai, sc. TO TiKva. Constructio ad 

'Eir* iaxirav. ' At last,' as Prov. xxv. 8. Vulg. : 
' novissima senectus,' whence Eng., ' their last age.' 
See iv. 8. 

18. 'Oiioi, ' quickly,' t. e. early. Vulg. : ' celerius.' 
Comp. xvi. 1 1 ; Ecclus. xli. 4. 

'EXiriSa. They shall have no hope of acceptance 
with God. 

/luayvwrktti, ' trial/ Eng. or, ' decision,' when the 



[in. 19- 

cause is decided, for which the regular law term is 
SurytyvaxTKu. Comp. Acts XXV. 2 1 . Vulg. : ' agniti- 
onis,' which seems to be a miBtranslation, unless it be 
equivalent to the revelation of the secrets of all hearts." 
Bom. ii. 16. Conip. Mai. iii. 18. 

nopafiudiof. Phil. ii. I. Vulg. : ' allocntionem, 
which is a late word for ' comfort,' found in this sense 
in Catull. Carm. xxxviii. 5 : ' Qua solatus es allocu- 
tione.' Senec. Cons, ad Helv. c. i : ' Quid quod novis 
verbis, nee ex vulgari et quotidiana sumtis allocutione, 

opus erat homini ad consolandos suos, ex ipso rogo 
caput allevanti . . .' See on viii. 9. 

19. TcKcas ydp. 8. Matt. xvL 4. This sums up the 
preceding statements, which are enforced in the fol- 
lowing chapter, iv. 1-6. See Ps. Ixxiii. 17-20; Phil, 
iii. 19. Yulg : ' nationis,'= breed, stock. The whole 
paragraph is an amplification of the truth that Ood 
visits the sins of parents upon children. Deut. v. 9 ; 
Ex. xxxiv. 7 ; 2 Kings xxiv. 3, 4. See a different 
view Ezek. xviii. 19, 20. 


1. The Vulg. here (as in xii. i) introduces an ex- 
clamation not warranted by the original : ' O quam 
pulchra est casta generatio cum claritate.' ' Casta ' 
seems to be the translation of iut dpfrris ; but it does 
not appear whence the words ' cum claritate' were de- 
rived, unless from a double translation of /ifr' apeTijs. 
Brev. Moz. 208 has : ' Melior enim est generatio cum 
claritate.' Pseudo-Cypr. p. 866, Migne : ' Melius est 
Bine filiis cum claritate.' 

'AreKfia refers to the cases of ardpa and dmvxos 
mentioned in chap. iii. Blunt thinks that the author 
is referring to mixed marriages. But see on iii. 13. 

'AptT^s, ' moral excellence.' Gutb. would confine 
the sense here to chastity, but it may well be taken 
generally. In ver. 2 the sense is more limited. Comp. 
Ecclus. xvi. 3. On the view of marriage entertained 
by the Therapeutae (which sect some suppose our 
author to have favoured) see Philo, De Vit. Cent. 8. 
Comp. notes iii. 13 and x. 9. 

'Ec (ii^fiiD aurrjs, 'the remembrance of it,' i.e. of 
oTfKvia lUT dfjrr^t. Vulg. : ' immortalis est memoria 
illius.' See on viii. 13. 

riKiuaxcTai, ' is known, marked, recognised.' Comp. 
Nab. i. 7 ; S. Matt. vii. 23 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19. S. Method. 
Conv. dec. Virg. iii (xviii. p. 44, Migne) : iv rj irowi- 

pfTtf Soc^i'a, yvfiCffif ^iSi; rovt oKpoaras tls iyKparetap i<f>t\- 
Ko/ievov Kai (Tai(j)po<Tvpr]v to Uvfv/jta ro aytov, rotavra /jitXef&fl' 
KpfiatTov aTfKvia /ut' dptrijs, KfKpayos ... napovaav Tt n- 
fiaaip airr^v . . . viK^aaaa, 

2. The writer seems here to have in view the virtue 
of chastity. A Lap. : ' Castitas adeo speciosa est, ut, 
cum se praesentem in castis exhibet, multos trahat ad 
sui amorem et iraitatiuncm, cum vero absens est sui 
acuat desiderium.' Horat. Carm. III. xxiv. 31 sqq. 

'Ev Tw aiufi. ' In perpetnum.' Vulg. ' For ever.' 
Eng. Better, ' in the life to come, the eternal future.' 
The word alutv is derived from the same root as del, 
aevum, aeternus, Sanskrit 6vas, Goth, aivs. Germ, 
ewig, Eng. ever. This same root Alf is probably 
seen in fi/u, ire ; and the original idea expressed by 
it is ' going, motion onwards.' Hence cuuk denotes 
extended time, and takes its limitation or modification 
from the connection in which it appears. No one 
could apply alanos in tlie same sense to material things 
as mountains (Hab. iii. 6), and to Almighty Ood 
(Bar. iv. 8). The aii>v of God is everlasting, the alov 
of a mountain is limited. Applied to man, aluv is his 
age, his period; applied to the world it denotes one 
of the successive cycles in the onward march of the 
universe. As the duration of each aliiv is practically 

-IV. 6.] 



unknown, the word has come to be used of prolonged 
indefinite existence, and hence for that which is per- 
petual and endless, i Tim. vi. 19. See notes on 
xiii. 9 ; xviii. 4. 

ZTc4>an)(t>opou<ra. Crowns of rejoicing (ch. ii. 8 ; 
Lara. V. 16; Ecclus. i. 11) were used among the Jews 
at festivals, etc. ; but the idea of a crown of victory 
was imported later from Greece. Thus 4 Mace. xvii. 
15 : 6eo<rf^ta fV/ito, tovs lavT^s dflXijraf aTt<f>avov<Ta, 

Comp. 4 Esdr. ii. 43 ; i Cor. ix. 25 ; Rev. ii. 10. 

Thy T. dfiidrr. ' Having conquered in the struggle 
of (consisting in) undefiled contests.' 'Kyava vixav, like 
'Gkvtima vucatr, ' to conquer in the games.' Comp. 
2 Tim. iv. 7. 'KBXiav from iffKos. ViXijpovoiiia aitiavTot 
occurs I Pet. i. 4. The Vulgate renders : ' incoinqui- 
natorum certaminum praemium vincens,' where Reusch 
thinks that ' proelium ' ought to be read. Philo, Congr. 
Erud. Grat. 29 (I. p. 543) : t6v ayava Tov jSi'ou dirjffkriaav 
ahia^iopov Kai a^n/roi/ ^vKa^avTfs. 

3-6. The idea started in iii. 16 ('children of adul- 
terers shall not come to perfection') is here enforced. 

3. XpT)(rificu<re(, ' shall be useful.' A late Greek 
word. Ecclus. xiii. 4 ; Diod. Sic. i. 8r. 

'Ek t^6uK fUMrxEufidiTUi', SC. yiyvofitvov TrX^doc, ' being 
from bastard slips, i. e. whereas this brood springs from 
illegitimate sources.' Vulg. : ' spuria vitulamina,' a 
rendering censured by S. Aug. Doctr. Christ, ii. 12: 
' Quoniam ii6axos Graece vitulus dicitur, iiofrxfiiuvra 
quidam non intellexerunt esse plantationes, et vitula- 
mina interpretati sunt.' Gutb. thinks it possible 
that the translator used ' vitulamina ' in the sense of 
' suckers,' on the analogy of iwa-xos, which means 
primarily ' a yoimg shoot ;' or else that the word may be 
connected with ' vitis,' as Ducange gives : ' vitulamen, 
planta ilia infructuosa, quae uascitur a radice vitis.' 
The word is used by 8. Ambrose, Ep. xxvii : ' Quid 
Theclam, quid Agnen, quid Pelagiam loquar, quae 
tanquam nobilia vitulamina pullulautes ad moi-tem 
quasi ad immortalitatem festinaverunt ]' (p. ioo6, Ben.) 

06hi . . . iZpiafi, ' nor lay a secure foundation.' 
Cf. CoL ii. 7. 

4. ripds Kcupdy di^OiiXr), sc. novxtifurra. We see 
from the word /3«j3i)«(!Ta that the subject can no longer 
be ttX^Oos. ' For even if they flourish in branches for 
a tima' Upi>s Kaipiv, as i Cor. vii. 5, in the sense 
of the adj. npoatccupot, lasting only a short time. Matt, 
xiii. 21. 

'EiruTi^aXu; Pc^i]K<STa, ' standing not fast,' Eng. 
' Infirmiter posita,' Vulg., where we may note the 
late form of the adverb for ' infirme.' See on xiii. 5. 
BffiriKat in the sense of ' standing ' is found in the 
phrase d(r<fxiK(as jSf/S^Kwr, ' standing steady.' Archil. 52. 
So €v ^f^rjKiic, Soph. El. 979; Herod, vii. 164. Others 
translate the word here, ' ascendentia,' ' succrescentia,' 
' as they have grown insecurely.' The meaning, how- 
ever, is much the same whichever way it is taken. 
Comp. Ps. xcii. 7 ; S. Matt. vii. 27. The Sin. MS. 
reads /St/SuoicoTa, which is probably an alteration. 

'Y-ird 3ios, ' a nimietate,' Vulg. ' Nimietas ' is 
a post-classical word found in late authors, and does 
not occur again in Vulg. Thus. Colum. vi. 24 : ' Na- 
turalia congruunt desideria, quoniam nimietate vemi 
pabuli pecudes exhilaratae lasciviunt.' Pallad. vii. 7 : 
' Sanguinis nimietatem prohibet.' Comp. Hieron. Ep. 
Ixii. I : Tert. Adv. Hermog. xliii. ; Eutrop. Brev. x. 9. 
See note on vii. 5. 

5. KXii-es, ' branches,' = children. Comp. Rom. xi. 1 7. 
'ArtXeoToi, ' immature.' Vulg. : ' inconsummati,' 

a very uncommon word, which occurs in Ammian. xxi, 
10; xxxi. 14. 

Kofir&s auTwf, the works of the unrighteous. 
S. Matt. vii. 16, 20. 

"AxptiiTTos, sc. iari. Profitless for the master's 
service. Comp. Ps. xxxviL 35, 36; S. Matt. iii. 10. 

6. Tap introduces an illustration of the temporal 
and eternal misery of the children of the ungodly who 
follow their parents' example. See Ecclus. xxiii. 35, 
26 ; xli. 6, 7. 

"^itvav, ' concubitus,' an euphemism, as viL 2 ; 
Horn. Od. xi. 245. 

'Ef ^$cTao')iw airStv, ' in their trial,' t. e. the judg- 
ment of parents and children. 



[iv. 7- 

'Ejrr. =: r/iupa Stayvaireas, iii. 1 8. S. Method. 

Couv. dec. Virg. vi (xviii. p. 57, Migne) gives iv e'fer. 

iri6av£>v \6yav. 

7-20. Contragt 0/ the good and evil as regards length 

of life. 

7-15. These verses occur in the Mozarab. Missal, 
p. 20, ed. Leslie (Ixxxv. p. 144, Migne). 

7. 'EAf 4>0d(r^ TcXfu-r^aai, 'Si morte praeoccupatus 
fuerit.' Vulg. ' If he die prematurely.' Comp. Isa. 
Ivii. I ; "Wisd. xvi. 28 ; S. Matt. xvii. 25. <l>6avti» 
with inf. instead of part, as in Eurip. Med. 1169. 
So in ch. vi. 13 : <pdavfi Trpoyvaadrjvai. 

'Avairau<Tei, ' rest, peace,' iii. 3. "Vulg. : ' refrige- 
rium,' which in the Ital. is the translation of ara^ufir, 
or avenjnix'l} Ps- l^'^* I*; Acts ii. 20. But no such 
reading is found here. See on ii. i . The Syr. adds : 
'Sive in longitudine dierum moriatur, in honore in- 
venietur.' No extant Gr. MS. authorizes this inter- 
polation, which indeed is inconsistent with the follow- 
ing verse. S. Ephr. quotes from ver. 7 to ver. 17, 
i. pp. 241, 242. 

8. Comp. Philo. De Abr. § 46 (II. p. 39) : 6 ah)6ei<f 

itpta^irfpos, ovk iv lifjKd )(p6vov, dW iv imuvtrif /3t^ 6(a>- 

pfa-at. So, speaking of the Therapeutae, he says, De 

Vita Contempl. § 8 (II. p. 481): npea^vripovs ov Tovs 
mKxKTfis Kai jrdKaioiis voiii(ov(riv, aXX' crt KOfuS^ viovi jraiSar, 
iav otfre rrjc irpoaipfcrfas ipaadaiTtv, diKKa Toiis ix irparrit 
fiKiKias ivrj^rjiravTas Koi ivwcpdaavras r^ BtaprfriK^ M^P" 
<piXo<ro<j>las, 8 Sfj leoXXtorov koL BtiorarSv iarri. 

9. ♦p6n)<ris and Pios dKrjX. are the subjects. ' Judg- 
ment, sound sense, is gray hair.' ' Cani sunt sensus 
bominis.' Vulg., q. d. 'Cani capilli, puta canities 
hominis aestimatur et censetur esse non coma cana. 
Bed ipse sensus et prudentia.' A Lap. Comp. Cic. De 
Senect. xviii. 62 : ' Non cani, non rugae repente aucto- 
ritatem arripere possunt; sed honeste acta superior 
aetas fructus capit auctoritatis extremos.' Fseudo-Bas. 
in Isai. iii. (p. 451, Ben.) : irktiov yap t^ Svn ttt vpt<r- 
Pvripov avaraaiv r^j iv 6pi^t XfVKirrjTOS, t6 iv (ftpovrjirti 

irptv^vTtKov. Thus S. Ambrose, Ep. xvi : ' Ipsa est 
vere senectus ilia veuerabilis, quae non canis, sed 

meritis albescit ; ea est enim reverenda canities, quae 
est canities animae, in canis cogitationibus et operibus 
effulgens.' (P. 865, Ben.) 

'HXiKia ynpus, 'the age of greyness,' hoary ag^ 
' Mature old age.' Am. 

'Akt|Xi8(i)tos. ' Immaculata.' Vulg. ' Immacn- 
latus' is a post-classical word, found in Vulg. Ps. xviL 
24 ; I Pet. i. 19 ; Lucan. Phars. ii. 736. 

10. The author cites Enoch as an example that the 
removal of the righteous is a mark of God's love. 
That Enoch is meant seems to be proved by the com- 
parison with Gen. v. 24 : (vrjpfimifrev 'Evi>x T^ 6fij>, ital 
"^K ';^P'''^**To, 8»dri fitTidrjKtv avTov 6 0(6s. So Ecclus. 
xliv. 16 : 'Evax (irjpftmjae Kvpi<f, Koi fterfrcdri. See also 
Ecclus. xlix. 1 4 ; Heb. xi. 5. Clem. Rom. i ad Cor. ix. 

3 : Xd^topfv 'Ei'6);(, &s iv inrweo^ bixaios tipf6f\t fifTFriSr], Koi 

oix (vpiBi) airov Savaros. Comp. the promise to Josiab, 
2 Kings xxii. 20. 

ecu. The Tu before Of^ has been expunged in V. 
It is added by the translator of S. Ephr. i. p. 241, ed. 

rtf^fiei^, ' having become (proved himself by life 
and conduct) well pleasing to God.' Prov. xiv. 18. 

M€T£T€0t], ' he was translated,' taken to the unseen 
world without dying, being thus rewarded as the first 
example of eminent piety. In Ecclus. xliv. 16, Vulg. 
renders the word, ' translatus est in paradisum.' Mrrf- 
riBr) is applied to Enoch, Heb. xi. 5, and he is said 

(iript(m]K€vai Ty 6f«. 

11. 'HpiriiYTi. The ist aor. is usual in Attic. ' Rap- 
tus est' Vulg. 'ApndCa is used of the miraculous 
disappearance of Philip, Acts viii. 39, and of the rap- 
ture of S. Paul, 2 Cor. xii. 2. Comp. i Th. iv. 17. 
For the sentiment comp. Isai. Ivii. i. Thus Horn. 
Od. XV. 250, of the early death of Cleitus : 

aXX' 5 rot KXth-ov xpviroOpovot fjpmatv *H«br 
KdKKtos f'vtKa 010, 'f' ddayaroto't fUTfiri, 

luvvnv, ' imderstanding ' of divine things, ' in- 
sight' into truth. 

A^Xos. 'Fictio.' Vulg. See on xiv. 25. It means 

-nr. 13.] 



the crafts and wiles which the wicked use to pervert 
the good. God knows not only the absolute future, 
but also the couditional future; and foreseeing that 
under certain circumstances a good man would fall 
away, He removes him before the occasion arises. 
S. Augustine's view is different : ' Dictum est secun- 
dum pericula vitae hujus, non secundum praescientiam 
Dei, qui hoc praescivit quod futurum erat, non quod 
futurum non erat : id est, quod ei mortem immaturam 
fnerat largiturus ut tentationnm subtraheretur incerto, 
non quod peccaturus est, qui mansurus in tentatione 
non esset.' De Praedest. 26 (x. p. 807, Ben.). In an- 
other place he argues from this passage that God does 
not punish men for sins foreseen, but not actually 
committed. 'Quod si qui baptizatus hinc raptus est 
apostata erat futurus, si viveret ; nullumne illi bene- 
ficium putabimus esse collatum, quod " raptus est ne 
malitia mutaret intellectum ejus;" et propter Dei prae- 
scientiam, non sicut fidele membrum Christi, sed sicut 
apostatam judicandum esse censebimus V De Anima, 
>■ § 15 (x- 345. Ben.). 

'AiraTii<rj), Gen. iii. 13 : 6 S(fut ^iranitrf fif. James 
1. 26 : airaTav Kapiiav auroC. 

12. BowTKaKta +auX<5TT)Tos. ' The fascination, witchery, 
of wickedness.' Gal. iii. I : tU i/ias f^aaKavev ; Ba<r- 
Kolva is the Latin ' fascino,' and is often applied in 
Sept. to the effect of the eye, e. g. Deut. xxviii. 54 ; 
Ecclus. xiv. 8. ' Fascinatio nugacitatis.' Vulg. ' For 
'fascinatio' see note on vi. 18. 'Nugacitas' is a late 
word, which A. Lap. explains as ' malitia nugax, h. e. 
nugis suis illiciens.' It is found nowhere else in Vulg., 
but occurs S. Aug. Ep. 67 : ' Omnis ab eo deleta est 
nugacitas.' And De Music. 6. See note on vii. 5. 

'Pcfi^ao-fi&s, an uncommon word, formed from 
pfli^i<o=p(lifioiiat, ' to reel, to be giddy or unsteady.' 
'P€/ij9. fwi6vii. , ' the giddiness, intoxication of (caused by) 
passion.' The Eng, ' Wandering of concupiscence,' 
misses the point, as does the Vulg., ' inconstantia con- 
cupiscentiae. Prov. vii. 1 2 : ■)(p6vov yap riva f^a pifi- 
/SfTot (^wopiTj). SeeProlegom. p. 28. 'PipSo/iat is used 
in the Sibylline verses of persona who stray away from 

the true God after other objects of worship. Thus : 

$pOTci navtra<r6f /uirawt 
p(/x/3d/MV0( fTKorlri, kcu a<j>tyy(X WKrX luXaufg. 

Theoph. ad Autol. ii. 36. See Gfrorer, Philo, ii. pp. 
122, 123. Jer. Taylor: 'Sensual pleasure is a 
great abuse in the spirit of a man, being a kind 
of fascination or witchcraft, blinding the understand- 
ing, and enslaving the will. ... A longing after sen- 
sual pleasures is a dissolution of the spirit of a man, 
and makes it loose, soft, and wandering ; unapt for 
noble, wise, or spiritual employments; because the 
principles upon which pleasure is chosen and pursued 
are sottish, weak, and unlearned, such as prefer the 
body before the soul, the appetite before reason, sense 
before the spirit, the pleasures of a short abode before 
the pleasures of eternity.' Holy Living, chap. ii. § i. 

McroXXeuei. Tiiis verb in class. Greek means 
' to mine,' or ' to get by mining,' and later ' to explore.' 
A Lap., trying to adhere to the usual signification, takes 
it to mean here, ' mines out, digs out, all prudence, 
innocence,' etc. But this will not suit xvi. 25, where 
it recurs. The Vulg. renders, ' transvertit,' as if= 
fUTaWoioi. Eng. : ' doth undermine.' Grimm thinks 
that the author uses it here and /. c.=/«raXXdo-(rfii', 
' to change, transform,' deriving it by a false etymo- 
logy from aXXor. And this seems most probable, espe- 
cially as Suidas explains: pfraXKfveiv, p.era<P(pfiv. It 
is not, however, found in this sense anywhere but in 
Wisdom. The Greek translator of S. Ephr. ad init. 
Prov. (i. p. 67, Assem.) gives : 6 xoXiraycoyuv 6<p6dXitovt 
iavTov Kov<j>6Tfpos itrrai' 6 8( pfp^aidfuvos iin6rja-tt cavr^ 
Papos, ptp^ao-pif yap, 0i7<rti>, iTriSv/tiat luroKKtid raGv 
oKOKov. This last clause is rendered by the Lat. trans- 
lator : ' Distractio concupiscentiue puram ac simplicem 
[mentem] immutat.' As an instance of an erroneous 
use of a Greek word by an Hellenistic writer, Grimm 
quotes KEC^aXawOv, used by S. Mark xii. 4, to mean, 
' to wound in the head,' a signification found nowhere 
else. See Kuinoel, in loe. See note ch. v. 14. 

13. T<Xuu9. iv iXiytf. ' Having been perfected in a 

s 2 



[iv. 14- 

short time,' not as tckvov iioixSiv arfXtarov (iii. 16), nor 
as kXiav (iTcXfOTor (iv. 5), but after he had reached his 
term. Gutb. His education for eternal life was early 
completed. For nXtuoSiis (which is a word used in 
the Grecian mysteries) comp. Ecclus. vii. 32; xxxiv. 
10; Phil. iii. 12; Heb. V. 9 ; x. 14. The author here 
returns to the subject of Enoch, ver. la being paren- 
thetical. For e'v oXiyif, Orig., Enarr. in Job xxii. 16, 
reads eV oKiyai, but in Prov. iii. p. 10, Ben., iv oXiya. 

' Fulfilled a long time.' Advanced in holiness as 
much as if he had lived a long life. S. Ambr. De 
Obit. Theodor. : ' Perfecta est aetas ubi perfecta est 
virtus.' Enoch's age of 365 years was short as com- 
pared with that of the other antediluvians. Hooker 
applies the passage to Edward VI : ' The son and suc- 
.cessor of which famous king (Henry VIII.) as we know 
was Edward the saint ; in whom (for so by the event 
we may gather) it pleased God righteous and just to let 
England see what a blessing sin and iniquity would not 
suffer it to enjoy. Howbeit that which the wise man 
hath said concerning Enoch (whose days were though 
many in respect of ours, yet scarce as three to nine in 
comparison of theirs with whom he Uved) the same to 
that admirable child most worthily may be applied, 
" Though he departed this world soon, yet fulfilled he 
much time." ' Eccl. Pol. IV. xiv. 7. 

14. 'Ap£<rrf| ydp . . . iroKT]pias shows how God re- 
garded him as reXeiaSf is. 

"Eo-ireuo'H', sc. Kvpun, ' sped him, took him hastily 
away.' Vulg. : ' properavit educere ilium,' whenceEng. : 
' hasted He to take him away.' Thus S. Cypr. : ' Per 
Salomonem docet Spiritus Sanctus eos qui Deo placeant 
maturius istinc eximi et citius liberari, ne dum in isto 
mundo diutius immorantur, mundi contactibus pol- 
luantur.' De Mortal, p. 235 Ben. 'Einrevafv may be 
taken intransitively here, making V"'x4 ^^^ subject, 
' it hasted.' 

15. Ol 8e Xaol, not 'the people,' (Eng.) but 'the 
peoples.' The plur. is used of heathen nations ; here 
it includes the renegade Jews, who are chiefly intended 
by the term ' ungodly' in this Book. Comp. ii. 1 2 and 

note. The words oi 8« Xaol have no verb in the sen- 
tence. Some comraeutators take the participles t'Sdi/r. 
and vo^iT. as equivalent to finite verbs by an Hebraistic 
use; Gutb. makes 3\^owai, ver. 17, the principal verb, 
putting ver. 1 6 in a parenthesis. The truth is, there is 
an anacolutlion occasioned by the introduction of the 
paragraph ver. 16, the author resuming his sentence 
ver. 1 7, with a change of construction : ' Because the 
heathen perceived this (viz. the early death of the 
righteous), and did not understand nor lay to heart 
that grace and mercy, etc. ... for they shall see . . .' 
S-\jrovTai repeating ISomts, and vofjcrova-i, voriaavrti. The 
object of vo^a-. and Ofurts is ro toiovto, explained by art 

Xapis K.T.X, 

QiyT€% iirl Siafoi^. Comp. S. Luke ix. 44 : Bta-df 
€is Ta ira. Acts xix. 21. Hom. Od. xviii. 158: tJ 
8" ap (Vl <t>pf(Ti 6^K(. "With this verse and ver. 17 
comp. Isai. Ivii. i. 

Xdpis K. cXcos, ' Grace (help and favour) and mercy,' 
sc. cirri. See on iii. 9, where this clause also occurs. 
The arrangement of the words varies here as there in 

'EkXcktois outoG, ' God's chosen people.' Tob. viii. 
15 ; I Chr. xvi. 13 ; 3 Mace. i. 25 ; Rom. viii. 33. 

'Eirio-Kotrq. See on ii. 20, and iii. 9. The idea is 
that the righteous are the object of God's favour and 
mercy on earth, and after death shall receive their full 

16. KaraKpifct, 'condemnat,' Vulg. in the present. 
The righteous man dying early virtually condemns the 
wicked, because that in his short life he became per- 
fected in righteousness (i/toVijt rfXttrSdaa), while they, 
though they lived long, were still driXfaroi. Comp. 
S. Matt. xii. 41, 42. 

Ka(iui' = Oaiiav, which, doubtless originally a gloss, 
has found its way into the text in some MSS. S. 
Ephraem has 6avav, and omits raxtwr at the end of the 
veree, I. p. 241 ed. Assem. Ka/iav with the meaning 
of ' dead ' is found frequently in classical Greek (e. g. 
Hom. II. iii. 278 ; Aesch. Suppl. 231), but in Sept only 
here and, as some think, ch. zv. 9, where see note. 

—IT. 20.J 



17. 'O+orrai ydp. Tap is epexegetical, reintroducing 
and confirming the statement in ver. 15. This verse 
is cited by Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 14 (p. 795, Pott). 

Zo^u = the righteous, vers. 7, 16. 

'E^ouXEuo-aTO, ' decreed,' vers. 8 ff. 

Eis Ti, as S. Matt. xiv. 31. 

'Ho^aXuraTo, 'set him in safety,' (Eng.) by re- 
moving him from the wicked world. S. Eph. has mpl 
airrSiv, instead of airroi, I. p. 24I. 

18. 'Eicy«X<Ict€toi, Ps. ii. 4 ; Iviii. 9. This and the 
foil, verses (to ver. 20) point out the fate of the ungodly 
in this world. 

Mera touto, ' hereafter,' after all this contempt of 
the righteous. 

Eis irrwiMi aTifiof, 'a vile carcase' (Eng.), without 
the rites of sepulture, as Isai. xiv. 19, Grimm. But 
it seems unnatural to speak of all the wicked as being 
' a carcase ;' and the connection with what follows is 
better observed by taking irra/m in the sense of ' a fall,' 
as Ecclus. xxxiv. 6. So Vulg : ' decidentes sine honore.' 
A. Lap. : ' Erunt in ruinam, casum, lapsum inhonora- 
tum.* Am. : ' shall fall shamefully.' To the same 
effect the Syr. and Arab, versions. The metaphor of 
a tall tree, that bears no fruit, being root«d up (comp. 
ver. 3 ff.) is intended, but is not absolutely maintained. 
Thus the expressions tit v^piv iv ixKpo'a, a^avovs n/nprtii, 
and iv oUvri, can only be used of persona. 

Al' aiufos, ' for ever.' Deut. v. 39. 

19. 'P^l^'i ^<^- ° K.ipios. This is the punishment of 
their pride. Comp. Ps. xxxvLi. 35, 36. 'He shall 
rend them so that they fall headlong speechless.' Thus 
their great swelling words ehall be requited. vVe may 
compare the account of the death of king Antiochus, 
I Mace. vi. 8-16, and of Herod, Acts xii. 20-23. 
'VxTfvvpx sometimes is used = paira-a, ' to knock down, 
to fell,' of combatants, as Artem. i. 60. Wahl. The 
reference in Liddell and Scott to Demosth. 1259. 10 
is erroneous, as the reading there is pa^ama. Schafer's 
remark is pithy : ' Passovio, cum in Lex. Or. eundem 
citaret s. v. ptfyvvpi, humani quid accidit.' 

npTiceis, 'disrumpet illos infiatos,' Yulg. What 

was the reading of the Latin translator is hard to 
conjecture. Even Gutberlet can make nothing of it. 
Some suggest nptjBfU or irpriirrovs from vprfia ; but no 
such words exist ; or vp^a-eis, ' inflationes,' which gives 
no sense. ' Pronos ' or ' in faciem lapsos ' gives the 
correct meaning. ' Disrumpet illos sine voce pronos,' 
Pagnin. ' Speechless,' as the wedding guest in Matt, 
xxii. 12. 

'Ek Qefkikiuv. The metaphor here is of a bnilding 

'Eus i(T\drou X'P"-) 'they shall be left utterly 

*E<jt>iTai iv dSurp. This is appropriate to the un- 
godly personally, the metaphor of trees being dropped. 
So in the foil, words. There is intended a contrast to 
the condition of the righteous who are ' in rest,' iiL i ; 
iv. 7. 

20. This verse refers rather to the fiiture state of 
the ungodly, which is further developed in the next 

'EXcuo-otTai. 'They shall come fearing in the 
reckoning up of their sins ;' t. e. fear shall seize them 
as they count over their sins, whether at death or after 

'EX^lei, ' tradncent.' Vulg. : ' shall censure, put 
to shame.' So xii. 17:' audaciam traducb.' S. Matt, 
i. 19; Col. ii. 15. Hence we see the origin of the 
common meaning of the Eng. word 'traduce,' French 
'traduire.' Comp. 'traductio,' ii. 14. 

'Ejtf on-ios, ' ex adverso,' Vulg. ' To their face.' Eng. 
rather, ' appearing against them.' Comp. Judg. ix. 1 7 ; 
Mark XV. 39. Ps. xlix. 21 ; «X«y|<i> trt i««i 7r(ipa<rnj<r«» 
Kara irp6<Tam6v aov. Here is a very remarkable antici- 
pation of the effect of conscience in the punishment of 
the judgment day. Jer. ii. 19; Rom. ii. 15. Thus 
S. Aug. Scrm. Ix. 10, Ben. : ' Considerando conscientias 
suas, considerando omnia vulnera animae suae, quando 
auderent dicere, Injuste damnamur ) De quibus ante 
in Sapientia dictum est : Tradncent eos ex adverso ini- 
quitates eorum. Sine dubio videbunt ae juste damnari 
pro sceleribus et criminibus suis.' 





V. Contrast of the Godly and thk Wicked afteb Death. 

1-14. Tlie wicked under remorse of conseience. 

1. Tdre, i.e. in the day of account alluded to in the 
last verse of ch. iv. S. Augustine refers this to the Day 
of Judgment. Ep. clxxxv. 41 ; Contr. Qaudent. i. 51 ; 
Serm. Iviii. 7, Ben. 

Ingo-eToi, as S. Luke xxi. 36. 

riapprjaif iroXXg, ' much confidence,' as I John ii. 
28; iv. 17. Comp. Prov. xiii. 5, Sept. The ungodly 
' come fearing' to the judgment (ch. iv. 20) and in 
irTfvo)(a>pia nviifiaTos (ver. 3). 

KarSl irp6(r(>nroK, ' before the face, in the sight of.' 
Part of the punishment of the ungodly shall be the 
sight of the happiness of the blessed, as in S. Luke xiii. 
28. See on verse 2. 

eXit|>(i»Tuf. The aor., as Gutb. observes, expresses 
the past acts of the ungodly, the pres. d6fTovvTu>v their 
habitual principle. The Vulg. translates SXtylfdvr. by 
' qui se angustiaverunt.' ' Angustio ' is = post-Aug. 
' angusto,' and is found often in Vulg., e. g. Ecclus. 
iv. 3 ; 2 Cor. iv. 8; Heb. xi. 37. The pronoun 'se' 
is the translation of avrbv, pronouns being used very 
loosely in that version. 

' AfitiouvTiav T. ■mScous out., ' despise his labours,' viz. 
for eternal life. See vers. 3, 4, and comp. ii. 17; iii. 2, 
3. The Vulg. gives a very different meaning to the 
words : ' qui abstulerunt labores eorum,' understanding 
them of oppressors who robbed the righteous of the 
labours of their hands. So S. Cypr. p. 309, Ben. : ' di- 
ripuerunt labores eorum.' But this seems to strain the 
received signification of dtffreo', which is common in 
both Testaments. IloVout might mean ' sufferings,' but 
taking into consideration the passages named above, 
I think ' labours' is the best rendering. 

2. 'l&Sn^s, at the sight of the coufidence of the 
righteous. The author represents the righteous and 

the wicked as standing together before the judgment 
seat and witnessing each others' destiny. Our Lord 
introduces the same idea in the parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus. S. Luke xvi. 23. S. Epbr. (i. 241) 

has l&ovTti avTov. 

'EKimQo-orrai ^irl tw it., ' shall be astonished at." 
Ex. xviii. 9 ; S. Luke. ii. 47. 

Tu irapa86$u Trjs <ruTr)pias. The S. MS. and one 
or two Cursives add airov. The weight of evidence is 
against it ; and if it is omitted we must consider that 
the author makes the ungodly wonder not so much at 
the ' salvation' of the righteous, as at ' the unexpected 
allotment of happiness,' the strange interchange of fates 
between those who thought themselves alone happy, 
and him whom they deemed wretched and contemptible. 
Now he is comforted and they are tormented. Luke 
xvi. 23, 25. The Eng. gives a long paraphrase: 'the 
strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond all that they 
looked for.' The Vulg. has ' in subitatione insperatae 
salutis.' This word 'subitatio' occurs nowhere else in 
the Vulg., whence it found its way into the writings 
of some of the Latin Fathers. It seems to have been 
derived from the vernacular use of Africa, where this 
ancient vei-siou was vaaA&. S. Cypr. uses the verb 
'subitare' (Ep. 57), and the subst., ad Demetrian. e. 
2 1 . An unusual word of similar formation is ' sibilatio,' 
xvii. 9. So 'salvatio,' Is. xxxvii. 32. 

3. Here begins the fine description of the vain 
remorse of the ungodly, the gnawing of the worm that 
never dies, vers. 3—13. Comp. Pseudo-Clem. Rom, 
Ep. ii. ad Cor. xvii. 5 ; S. Barn. Ep. vii. 9. 

*Ef jauTois, ' within themselves ;' or better, as ii. i : 
< one with another,' this passage being the counterpart 
to the former, ii. 1-20, Grimm. 

McTcxvooufTcs. Vulg. : ' poeniteutiam ageutes,' and 

^v. 7.] 



Eng. : 'repenting,' if taken in the usual theological 
sense, give an erroneous idea. The time of repentance 
is past. ' Clianging their opinion, learning the truth too 
late/ is rather the meaning. In Judas' case the word 
nsed is luTafitKrjdtit, S. Matt, xxvii. 3. S. Athanasius 
applies the passage to the judgment of Christ ; Serm. 
Mag. de Fide, 28 (ii. p. 15, Montf.): onrrp (v rj Kpitrti 
opMTtt Kpivoirra iarras icai tXKpovs . . . lurafuXofUvoi, (jniKrl 
Kara (fniX^s, epoviriV OSror ^v ov f<r;(;o^V ttotc fit ■ytXwro, 
XeyovTft avra, 'AWovt taairas, iavrop oii dvva<rai (rSxrai. 

AicL (TTCKoxupiai' nveufuiT. ' Prae angustia spiritus,' 
Vulg. So Ecclus. X. 26 : eV Koip^ (rrtmxupiat. Comp. 
4 Mace. ix. 1 1 ; £«ni. iL 9 ; viii. 35 ; 2 Cor. vi 4. 
See also Ps. Ixv. 14. 

Kal ^poCo'u', ' yea, they shall say.' All the best MSS., 
except v., add these words here. Clem. Ales. Strom, 
vi. 14 (p. 795> Pott.) : fni « r^r 3ofijt ipoiaa avrou' 
OSrot fjv OP fa^oiuv trore fit , , . dv(t3i(r/io0, 01 S(f)povfs, 

riofMiPoXT)!' ifciSicrfMu, ' in similitudinem impro- 
peril,' Vulg. Rather, ' as a proverb of reproach,' as 
2 Chr. vii. 20 ; Tob. iii. 4. Comp. Jer. xxiv. 9. Hapa- 
Pdkii in the sense of ' proverb ' occurs S. Luke iv. 23 ; 
vi. 39. ' Improperium ' occurs continually in the Vulg., 
e.g. Bom. xv. 3; Heb. xi. 26. The term 'impro- 
peria,' the reproaches, is applied to an anthem used in 
some Churches on Good Friday. See on ii. 1 2. 

4. Hayuw. So our blessed Lord and S. Paul were 
taunted, John x. 20 ; Act« xxvi. 24. Compare 4 Mace. 
X. 13. Merc. Tris. ad Aesculap. xv. 43 : oJ fv yvaum 
Si>T€s oCrt Tois jroXXoIr aplaKovai, oSre o< iroXXoi ovroTt" 
ftfiapifvai if SoKoviTi, Km ycXtn-a 6<f>\iinau'ov<Ti, quoted by 

Hooker, Eccl. Pol. Pref. iii. 14. 

'EXoYurdfuSa, with double ace. as xiv. 20 ; £om. 
vi. 1 1 ; Grimm. There is a play of words with koti- 
Xayurdi) in the next verse, lost in the Vulg. and Eng. 

6. 'Ef uiois 6eou some take 'among the angels,' 
comparing Job L 6; ii. i, etc.; but it is probably 
equivalent to aytwr (Hos. i. 10) and refers to ch. ii. 13, 
18. Comp. xviii. 1 3 ; i John iii. 2. Am.: ' The very 
same scoffers, who rallied the just man upon his glorious 

title of " Son of God," at length confess the truth of 
what he said.' 

KXijpof, alluding to iii. 14. Col. i. 12. Comp. 
Dan. xii. 13: 'Thou shalt rest and stand in Ihy lot 
(oKoirr^ffi; tU Tov ickfipov croti) at the end of the days.' 
Translate : ' and how is his lot among the saints )' the 
force of irii being carried on. 

0. "Apo as a particle of inference never stands first in 
Attic Greek, but is thus placed in Hellenistic, e. g. 
S. Luke XL 48 ; Gal. ii. 2 1 ; iii. 29 ; v. 1 1 ; Heb. iv. 9. 

'The way of truth,' i.e. the right path of life. 
Comp. S. James v. 19 ; 2 Pet. ii. 2. 

'The light of righteousness,' the manifestation of, 
that which shows, what is the only true object of life, 
viz. virtue and godliness. 

'O ^Xios. This belongs to r. ducauxr. as much as 
^r does, and hence one MS. (Ven.) inserts r^r iuccuo- 
(rwijr here again, and is followed by the Arm. version, 
Vulg., Compl., and Eng., but the words are evidently 
an interpolation. The phrase ^toi Suituoavinjr occurs 
Mai. iv. 2. Sin is that which blinds the light, S. John 
iii. 19, 20 ; 2 Cor. iv. 4. S. Aug. : ' lUis non est ortus 
Christus, a quibus non est agnitus Christns. Sol Ule 
justitiae, sine nube, sine nocte; ipse non oritur malis,non 
oritur impiig, non oritur infidelibus.' Serm. ccxcii. 4. 

7. '^vfa\r\a^^v, ' laBsati Eumus,' Vulg. So Eng. : 
'we wearied ourselves.' Rather: 'we were surfeited 
with the ways of sin.' Comp. xiii. 1 2 ; Ecclus. xxxiv. 3. 
Am. suggests ivnikiyxOmuv ; others propose irtirkixStuttp 
or fvticXainjdtiiuv ; but there is no necessity for any 
change. The received text seems to be a mixture of 

two phrases, avofiias ivnrkiitrBriiuv and tprrroptiOtjiuv rpiffou 

oTruXftor, ' improbitate oppleti et tramite ad pemiciem 
ducente ingressi sumus.' Wahl. Kal an-iuX. a climax, 
' yea, of destruction.' 

'Epi^fious d^<iTous, ' pathless deserts.' Vulg. : ' viaa 
difficiles,' perhaps making a^drovs (»c. odovs) a substan- 
tive. BeuBch supposes that 'vias' was originally a 
clerical error for ' eremias,' which reading is noted by 
Luc. Brug. Comp. Job xii. 24. Ps. cvi. 40 : nrXai<i|- 

(Tfy airrovs iv affaref Kcu ov^ 6i^, 



[v. 8- 

'olhy Kupiou, so Ps. xxv. 4 : ' Shew me Thy ways 
(rat 68ois <rov), Lord.' 

8. Kal Ti. ' Aut,' Vulg. Whence Eng. : ' or.' 

nXouTOS |jieTcl dXa^oKcids, ' cli\Tltiarum jactantia,' 
Vulg. ' Riches accompanied with arrogant ostentation.' 
Eng. : ' What good hath riches with our vaunting 
brought us V ' Hath,' not ' have,' ' riches ' being singu- 
lar = richesse. 80 Rev. xviii. 17: ' great riches is 
come to nought.' Shakesp. Othello, III. 3 : 

' Riches, fineless, is as poor as winter 
To him that ever fears he shall be poor.' 

Elsewhere the word is plural, as Wisd. viii. 18 ; 
Ecclus. xiii. 24. 

Zufi.^^pXT)Tai, ' quid contulit nobis Y Vulg. ' Con- 
tributed to us,' as Acts xviii. 27. 

8. "EKCii-a irtiiTo, ' earthly pleasures, goods,' etc. 

iKia. See on ii. 5. 

'Sis dvYeXto TrapaTp^x""*^"*) ' tanquam nuntius per- 
currens,' Vulg. ' As a post that hasted by,' Eng. So 
Gutb. and others taking dyy. as = nfyytXos, ' a courier,' 
comparing Job ix. 25, 26, which is very similar to the 
passage here. But such an use of dyye\ia is probably 
unprecedented, and it seems preferable to take it in the 
sense of ' rumour, report.' Thus Am. and Grimm. 
There is a various reading in Hes. Theog. 781 : dyyeXltj 
iraXf'iTm, where ayy. may mean ' messenger.' But prob- 
ably ayyt\ir)S IB genuine. Polyb. has iraprjii ayyeViTj, 

Hist. iii. 61. 8. 

10. 'Qs faus, SC. naprjXde. 

'IXKos . . . dTpairoK, ace. governed by oiit timv tlpttv, 
' it is not possible to find.' Comp. xix. 1 8 : cotJv t iW- 
vai, Vulg. : ' non est invenire,' as Ecclus. xiv. 1 7. 

Tpdmos. A. and the corrector of S. read the 
Attic form rpontas. The var. lect. nupelas (Ven. Compl. 
al.) is derived from the following verse. There may be 
a paronomasia in arpairbv rpmruK, Tpiiris is in. \ty. in 
the Greek Bible. 

11. 'H is. This commences a new paragraph and 
set of similes, which are concluded by ovras xal ^/letr, 
ver. 13. Comp. Prov. xxx. X9. 

MairrAirroi. The form duTmivros given by V. does 

not occur, and is contrary to analogy. There is a late 

present, but the aor. is hUirrriv, hiamis. 

Tapais, ' the flat of the wing,' hence, ' the wing.' 
Bio ^oi^ou KiK. irrep., ' parted with the violent noise 
and motion of them,' Eng. This seems to be a some- 
what feeble paraphrase. ' Scindens (sc. avis) per vim 
itineris aerem,' Vulg. This is better, though the trans- 
lator has mistaken the construction of the sentence. 
'Poifor means here not ' the sound ' but ' the rush,' ' the 
impulse ;' kivov/i. imp. ' as the wings move.' Comp. 
3 Mace. ix. 7, where poll^a is rightly rendered, 'impetu 
euntem.' The adv. poif 17801/ occurs 2 Pet. iii. 10. 

The aorists SiaSivdri, (vpiBrj, dvfKidr) (ver. 12), mark 
the rapidity of the actions epoken of. 

12. Els iauToK dftXiiSr), ' in se reclusus est,' Vulg., 
perhaps reading dv(K\eidrj. ' Cometh together again, 
Eng., which is like a translation of Grotius' conjecture 
dv(\fi\v6e. Various explanations are given of dvt\vBii, 
but it seems most simple to take it in the sense of 
' returns,' as ii. i. ' Aer sagitta divisus in se rediens in 
pristinum statum restituitur.' Wahl. Ven. reads dvt- 
Xuo-f I/, which would have the same meaning. ' Is at 
once resolved into itself again.' Bissell. 

'Qs Ay''""!*'''*') *"• """^j '8" *'^** <"^8 knows not.' 
&s = &aTf with infin. Comp. 4 Mace. xiv. i : as fifi 
fiovov Twv oKyqiovav ntpifjipov^iTai aiiTovs. Acts XX. 24. 

13. OuTus KOI. Here begins the apodosis to vers. 11,12. 
rei'ini]Biirrts, ' having been bom,' not ' as soon as 

we were born.' 

'EleXiTTojitK. ' Continuo desivimus esse,' Vulg. 
' Died,' as Gen. xxv. 8. Luke xvi. 9 : Srav iieKiinfrf (ace. 
to the common reading) ; Tobit xiv. 11. We were bom, 
we died : this takes the point of comparison of swift- 
ness and transitoriness. The following words : ' we had 
no sign of virtue to show,' embrace the point of leaving 
no trace behind. The Eng. : ' began to draw to our 
end,' is probably from the Compl. reading tf fXtiVo^fv. 

KaTcSoiroki^Orjiiei', 'we were consumed, cut off, in 
the midst of our wickedness,' and thus ' had no sign of 
virtue to show.' Comp. Ps. Iviii. 14. Here end the 
words of remorse supposed to be spoken by the wicked. 

-V. 17.] 



The Vulgate, to make this plainer, inserts a paragraph 
which has no equivalent in the Greek : ' Talia dixerunt 
in inferno hi qui peccaverunt.' It may have been sug- 
gested by our Lord's parable of Dives and Lazarus, 
Luke xvi. 23, 24. S. Cypr. : ' Erit tunc sine fructu 
poenitentiae dolor poenae, inanis ploratio, et inefficax 
deprecatio. In aetemam poenam sero credent qui in 
yitam aeternam credere uoluerunt. Securitati igitur et 
vitae, dum licet, providete.' Ad Demetr. (p. 324). 

14. 'On. This gives the ground for putting the 
above words in the mouth of the ungodly. 

'EXtis, that on which the ungodly rest their 
hope, e, g. riches, pleasure, etc., Prov. x. 28. 

Xcouf, ' dust, down.' Vulg. : ' lanugo.' The other 
reading is x"^^ (Mark vi. 11). It seems more likely 
that x'^vr was altered to x"^') than vice versa. Comp. 
Ps. i. 4; xvii. 43; Isai. xvii. 13. S. Ephr. i. 242, 
reads x°"f- In Job xxi. 18 the ungodly are compared 
to axypa and KovtoprSs. 

n<ix>^ (' hoar frost ') is the reading of the best 
MSS., but it is not very gatisfactory, ax>^ (' foam ') 
being much more suitable. The Vulg. gives ' spuma ;' 
to the same effect the Arab, and Arm. versions, and 
some inferior MSS. It is possible that the author 
himself confused the meaning of the words, S. Ephr. 
has irax<^. See note on ch. iv. 1 2. 

Kairv^s, Eng. Marg. translates ' chaff ;' why, it is 
difficult to say. Comp. Ps. Ixvii. 3. 'Wliich is dis- 
persed,' Eng., where ' which ' is not in the Greek, and 
ought to be printed in italics. But the use of italics 
in this Book is very capricious. 

KaraXuTou (lof., ' the guest (at an inn) for a day.' 

Aicx"^ • • iropuSeuae. The construction is slightly 
changed. See on ver. 1 1. 

16, 16. The recompense of the righteous in the life 
to come. 

15. Eis Tif alSim Jfin, ' live for evermore.' Ecclus. 
xli. 1 3. Grimm compares i John ii. 17: ' He that 
doeth the will of God abideth for ever,' fumi tls riw 
tuuva. Ztjv is used of a blessed life, the life of grace 
and glory. S. John vi. 57 ; i John iv. 9. 

'Ek Kupiu, se. (otL ' In the Lord is their reward,' 
in communion with Him, in possessing Him, as Gen. 
XV. I : ' I am thy shield and thy exceeding great 
reward.' Pa. xvi. 5. Or, 'Their recompense is in 
the Lord's keeping,' which the parallel clause seema 
rather to favour. Comp. Rev. xxii. 12. 

♦porris ooTwi'. 'Care for them.' Comp. i Pet. v. 7. 

16. Aid TouTO. Because God cares for them. 

Ttjs euirpe-ireias . . tou KdXXous, genitive of quality 
=the glorious kingdom, the beautiful diadem. 

B<uriXcu>i', 'kingdom' (as i. 14; 2 Mace. ii. 17), 
as is shown by Sidirifia. S. Matt. xxv. 34. 

Ai({8t))ux t. koX; This is an atlvance on the 0. T. 
revelation of the future reward of the righteous, and 
may be compared vrith S. Paul's woids : ' Henceforth 
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness,' etc. 
2 Tim. iv. 8 ; i Pet. v. 4 ; Eev. ii. 10. But comp. Is. 
xxviii. 5; XXXV. 10; Ixii. 3; and see 2 Esdr. ii. 43-46. 
16-23. God protects the righteotts, andfiglUs against 
the loieked in this life. 

ZKnrciaret. Comp. xix. 8 ; Ps. xc. i. 

Bpax^i. ' Brachio sancto suo.' Vulg. The 
addition ' sancto ' has little MS. authority in the Latin, 
and none in the Greek. Dent, xxxiii. 27. 

'YircpoCTTTiei, ' will hold His shield over them.' 
So the Psalmist calls God his ' buckler ' {viTfpatTirurri)%), 
Ps. xviL 3. Comp. Ps. v. 12 ; xc. 4. 

17. Almighty God is here introduced as an earthly 
warrior arming himself for the battle. Such descrip- 
tions of God as ' a man of war' (Ex. xv. 3) are not 
unusual in Scripture. Is. lix. 1 7 : ivthwraro Succuoavinjp 
ins OatpoKa, Koi WfpifSrro tt(piK(^>aK<uav (rarripiov c'lrt ttjs 
icc^KiX));, Koi iripu^aKfTo IpaTiov (Vduc^o'cair, koi to ntpi^oXaior 
airrov (rtXow, Field). Comp. also Ezek. xxxviii. 18-23 ; 
Ps. xvii. 13, 14. It seems probable that S. Paul had 
this passage in his mind when he wrote Eph. vi. 
11-17. Comp. 1 Thess. v. 8. Tlie panoplia consisted 
of the greaves, breastplate, sword, shield, helmet, and 
spear. If ' thunderbolts ' stand for spear, all those 
parts are mentioned except greaves. See Hom. 11. 
iii. 328 ff. 



[v. i8- 

Tbv ttjXoi'. S. reads the later form to f^^or, which 
may be nominative, as the Vulg. ' zelus.' Zech. i. 14 : 
«f^X<o(ca T^v 'ifpovaiiXfifi Koi tt/v ^uov f^Xof fuyav. 

'OirXoTToiiio-ei T. KTt'aii'. ' He shall use creation as 
His weapon.' The verb is not found elsewhere, though 
inXonoios and on-XoTroia occur. Comp. the song of 
Deborah, Judg. v. 20 : ' They fought from heaven ; 
the stars in their courses fought against Sisera.' The 
game thought is found in Ecclus. xxxix. 25-31. See 
on ver. 20. Cod. Sin. gives o8ojroi^o-ft, ' shall make the 
creature His way.' This is a fine expression, but is 
probably a mere clerical error. It is corrected in 
the !MS. by an early hand. 

Els ofiucac. 'Ad ultionem inimicorum.' Vulg., 
whence Eng. : ' For the revenge of His enemies.' 
Better, ' For the repulse of His enemies,' i.e. 'defending 
the righteous from them.' Philo, Vit. Mos. i. 17 (II. 
p. 96) : ra yap <TToi)(fia tov Travrbs, yij, (cai v&ap, Kai afip, 
Kai nip (mTidfvrai SiKaiaxravros ,6f oC, ors djrcTf Xto-fli; o (eoc/ior, 
rfjv a<T(^u>v x^P""' fjiSaprjvat. So Pseudo-Bas. : e'n-i Ta>v 
TrXT^ycoc Tci)V AtyvTTTiaKOJVj napraxodfp aiiroit 6 TToXf/xos, dnb 
aipoi, OTTO yrji, anb iibaros. In Isai. l8l (p. 5 1 1, Ben.). 

18. AiKoioaun)!', 'justice.' He will proceed accord- 
ing to the eternal rules of justice, and deliver a plain 
and impartial sentence [Kpla-iv dwn6KptTov). ' True judg- 
ment instead of a helmet,' Eng. (omitting TrepiBfja-crm) 
is from the Vulg. : ' Pro galea certum judicium.' 
Translate : ' Shall put on as helmet judgment without 
disguise.' Comp. xviii. 1 6 : awwoKpiTos (nirayri. Eom. 
zSL 9 ; Jas. iii. 17. Vers. 18-21 are quoted accurately 
by Orig., Sel. in Psalm, xxxiv. 2 (ii. p. 650). 

19. 'Oai<5TT)To, ' holiness,' which repels the slanders 
and reproaches of the impious when they presume to 
question the motive of God in punishing them. Vulg. 
' aequitatem,' whence Eng. Marg. ' equity.' But this 
quality has been implied above. 'Oo-tor, as applied 
to God, occurs Deut. xxxii. 4 ; Rev. xv. 4 ; xvi. 5. 
'Oo-ioTijt means ' piety towards God ' in the N. T., S. 
Luke i. 75 ; Eph. iv. 24. 

20. 'Air^To/ioi', ' severe, stern.' ' Duram,' Vulg. 
Grimm compares the use of ' abscisus,' e. g. Val. Max. 

II. vii. 14 : ' Aspero et abscise castigationis genere 
militaris disciplina aget.' So ' abscissa sententia,' ' ab- 
scissior justitia,' VI. iii. 10; VI. v. 4. Comp. Bom. 
xi. 22 ; 2 Cor. xiii. lo. 

Els ^fM^aiaf, ' shall sharpen into a sword.' ' In 
lanceam,' Vulg., in which sense the word seems not 
to occur. Comp. Rev. ii. 1 6 : 'I will fight against thee 
with the sword of My mouth,' iv rg po^Kpaii} tov oto- 
Iiut6s pov. Is. xlix. 2. 

lufCKiroXcp.^a'ci, ' fchall with Him fight it out,' 
' fight to the end, against the unwise.' 

'0 KcSvfios. This still further illustrates how God 
employs created things (ver. 17) to do His will against 
the unrighteous. Of this the plagues of Egypt are the 
great example. Comp. xi. 15-20; xvi. 24, 25; xix. 
6. See note on ver. 17. 

Tous •irap<l<}>pocas^rois a^povas, i. 3. On this pas- 
sage S. Greg. M., Horn, in Evang. 35 (161 3, Ben.), 
comments thus : ' Qui in cunctis deliquimus, in cuncta 
ferimur . . . Omnia namque quae ad usum vitae acce- 
pimus, ad usum convertimus culpae ; sed cuncta, quae 
ad usum pravitatis infleximus, ad usum nobis vertuntur 
ultionis. Tranquillitatem quippe humanae pacis ad 
usum vertimus humanae securitatis, peregriiiationem 
terrae pro habitatione dileximus patriae, salutem cor- 
porum redegimus in usum vitiorum, ubertatis abundan- 
tiam non ad necessitatem carnis, sed ad perversitatera 
intorsimus voluptatis, ipsa sereiia blandimcnta agris 
ad amorem nobis servire cofigimus terrenae delectatio- 
nis. Jure ergo restat, ut siraul nos omnia feriant, quae 
simul omnia vitiis nostris male subacta serviebant, 
ut quot prius in mundo incolumes habuimus gaudia, 
tot de ipso postmodum cogamur sentire tormenta.' 

21. EuoToxoi poXiSes dcrrpoirSi'. ' Well-aimed light- 
ning flashes.' 'A<rrp. is a gen. of apposition, ' missiles 
which are flashes.' So tuv v«f>iov. Vulg. reads ' di- 
recte ;' this seems to be an error for ' directae,' which 
some MSS. give. 'And from the clouds, as from a 
well-drawn bow, shall they fly to the mark.' Eng. 
' Tanquam a bene curvato arcu nubium extennina- 
buutur et ad certum locum iusilicnt.' Vulg. This is 

-VI. I 




right in that it attributes t. ptipwv to ro^oti, but the addi- 
tion of ' extenninabuiitur ' is unwarranted. It must 
raeau ' shall be driven beyond limits.' Translate : 
'As from a well-curved (= tight-stretched) bow of 
clouds (t. e. which the clouds compose) shall leap to 
the mark.' Comp. Ps. vii. 13: ' He ordaineth His 
arrows against the persecutors.' 2 Sam. xxii. 15 ; 
2 Esdr. xvi. 13. Grimm notes that 3\\f 0-601 is used 
of the flight of an arrow, Horn. II. iv. 125. The ' bow 
in the clouds ' (Gen. ix. 1 3), which is a sign of mercy, 
is turned away from the earth ; this, the engine of 
wrath, is aimed at earth. 

22. 'Ek irrrpopoXou 6ufu>u irXi^pcis pi^. \£k. These 
words may be taken in various ways. Ilrrpo^dXou may 
be an adj., in which case it agrees whh dv/i., ' From 
his wrath that hurls stones.' Vulg. : ' a petrosa ira.' 
Or Trrrpo^. may be a subst. meaning 'an engine for 
throwing stones,' a ' balista.' Eng. ' a stone bow,' 
t. e. a bow for hurling stones, as Shakesp. Twelfth 
Night, ii. 5 : ' Oh, for a stone-bow to hit him in the 
eye.' Bvfiov may be governed by irX^ptiy, or be in app. 
with TTfTpo^., ' stone-bow which is His wrath,' in which 
case 7rXijp«t must mean ' solid, massy.' It seems most 
natural to take the sentence as Eng., though Grimm 
aud Gutb. translate : ' from the sling of His anger,' 
Comp. Josh. X. 11; Eev. viii. 7. 

XdXa^ai, as in the plagues of Egypt (Ex. ix. 23- 
25), which seem here to be adumbrated. 

'Ayoi'OKTi7<m, ' shall show its wrath.' Vulg. : 
' excandescet,' which makes a strange confusion of 
metaphors. This word occurs nowhere else in Vulg. 

ZuYxXuaoiMTiK, ' shall wash over them,' as the sea 
overwhelmed the EgjT)tians, Ex. xiv. 27. The act. 
voice of this verb is not found in classical Greek, 
but is used in the Sept., e.g. Cant. viii. 7 : noTafjuil 

oi ovyKKva-ova-iv avTr)!/. Is. xliii. 2. KoToxXv^a) is found 
in N. T., 2 Pet. iii. 6, and in Wisd. x. 4, 19. Vulg. 
translates ' concurrent.' 

'AiroT<5(«i»s, ' inexorably.' There is a paronomasia 
in irorano'i . . dn-ord^o)!.' Vulg. ' duriter.' See on xiii. 


23. nceufia ' Spiritus virtutis,' Vulg. 
'A mighty wind,' Eng. This might stand were it not for 
the following clause. But to say ' a wind shall blow 
them away like a storm ' is inadmissible. We might 
take Ot6s as the subject of tWiKiifjiTfi, but this would 
be harsh. It is best with Gr. and Gutb. to take irv. 
8vv. as ' the breath of God's power.' See xi. 20, where 
the same expression, coupled with Xot/iijdtVer, occurs. 
Comp. Is. xi. 4 ; 2 Thess. ii. 8. 

'EKXiKiti^aei, ' shall wiunow.' Judith ii. 27. Comp. 
Is. xli. 16 ; S. Matt. xxi. 44. 

Kol ^pT)(i. ' And Bo,' consecutive. 

AufcuTTUK. This brings the author back to his 
original address to rulers and judges, which is carried 
on in the following chapter. 



vi. 1-11. Rulers are enjoined to learn wisdom, which been introduced as a heading, and is compiled from 

is always to be found hj those wfio seek it. Eccles. ix. 16, 18, and Prov. xvL 32, 'Melior est 

1. The Vulg. begins this chapter with an inter- sapientia quam vires, et vir prudens quam fortis.' 
polation which has no authority. It seems to have 'AKouaaxi. The writer sjieaks with authority in 

T a 



[vi. 2- 

the person of King Solomon. Hence Xoyot nov, ver. 
II, et<5. This section begins like Pb. ii. lo. Comp. 
ch. i. I. 

'AKoucif and aunlvai are used together, Isai. vi. 9 : 
OKOJj OKoiiTtTe KOI oi fifi (rvvijrf. S. Matt. Xlii. 1 4. 

Depdruf yris. Ps. ii. 8 ; xxi. 28 ; 8. Matt zii. 42. 
Thus Horn. Od. iv. 563 : 

aKKa or' is 'HXvaiov ntiiov lau irfipara yalris 
dSavaToi jreii^ovcriv. 

2. 'Evis)Tl<ia<r9t, ' give ear.' This is a word of later 
Greek found in Byzantine writers. Comp. Gen. iv. 
23; Ecclus. XXX. 27 (Tisch.) ; Acts ii. 14, where see 

nXi^Sous. Vulg. : ' multitudines.' Or, as some 
MSS. : ' multitudinem.' Comp. xiv. 20. Not ' the 
people,' as Eng., but ' a multitude,' a host of sub- 

rryaup(>))xcVot, ' priding yourselves,' in a middle 
Beuse. Usually with dat. 3 Mace. iii. 11; vi. 5 ; with 
Arl, Xen. Hiero, ii. 15. The expression, 'ends of the 
earth,' ver. i, and 'multitudes of nations' here, point 
to some great world power. Grimm suggests that 
Rome is referred to. 

3. 'Oti introduces that to which rulers have to 

riopA T. Kupiou. Prov. viii. 15 : 'By Me kings 
reign.' Comp. i Chr. xxix. 11, 12; Rom. xiii. i. 
Gutb. notes that Christian kings are said to reign 
'Gratia Dei.' Clem. Ep. I. ad Cor. Ixi. i : tri, Attnrora, 

tiaxas TTjv i^oviriav Trjs PatriKtlas avrnir. 

Kpi-njcTis, an unclassical word, and &ir. Xry. in Sept. 
It occurs in Jos. contr. Ap. i. 26, p. 461 : Sot* n^v r»i> 

irpodprjfifvav Kpi-njcriv xdpltmiv (fiaivfaOai rois rdrt to 
rovTiav aaf^TjiuiTa dfa/ifvoK. 

4. 'Oti, ' because,' the ground of God's judgment of 

Trjs ofrr. Pcur. For ' His kingdom ruleth over 
all.' Pb. ciii. 19. 

H6fioy, that law of right and wrong, to which even 
heathens are subject. Rom. i. 19 if. The Vulg. has 

' legem justitiae,' which is well as an explanation, but 
is not found in the Greek. 

5. *Eiri<rnio-€Toi, sc. 6 Otos. Ven. unnecessarily in- 
troduces Skf6poi as the subject of the verb. 'Etpiaraiuxi 
is used in a hostile sense with a dative, ' to stand up 
against, to surprise.' S. Luke xxi. 34 ; Acts xvii. 5 ; 
I Th. V. 3. 

'El* Tois umpi-)(owTiv. Vulg. : ' his ' (or ' in his,' as 
some MSS. give) ' qui praesuiit.' ' Those in autho- 
rity.' Gen. xli. 40 ; Rom. xiii. i ; i Pet. ii. 13. 

riytjcu. ' Fiet.' Vulg. ' Shall be.' Eng. Better 
' is,' ' cometh to pass,' the general ground of what 

6. 1vyyy<i><n6s i<mv Ac'ous. ' The mean man is to be 
pardoned for pity's sake.' 'EX«'our is a gen. of cause, 
whereas usually the gen. after ixvyyvaxrr. denotes the 
object to which the pardon extends. The Vulg. has 
' exiguo conceditur misericordia.' Grimm quotes 
Philostr. Soph. i. 8, 3 : avyyvaiTTos <l»\oTifilas. Maxim. 
Tyr. iv. 3 : ^X'l trvyyvaarot T^t ayvoias, Comp. ProV. 

vi. 30 : ' Men do not despise a thief if he steal to 
satisfy his soul when he is hungry.' 

'E-iaa^aovTox, ' shall be punished.' ' Torments 
patientur.' Vulg. "Whence Eng. : ' shall be tormented.' 
'EraCa in classical Greek means ' to test,' but it is 
used as f'f frdfo) in Sept. for ' to chastise ;' e. g. Gen. xiii. 

17 : yjraiifv 6 OfAr rhv tapaot iratriiois firyaXoit. Ex- 
amples of what seem light faults in 'mighty men,' 
being heavily punished, are seen in the case of Moses 
(Numb. XX. 12), David (2 Sam. xxiv. 12), Hezekiah 
(2 Kings XX. 17, 18). Comp. S. Luke xii. 47, 48. 
In the commentary on Isaiah which passes under the 
name of Basil the Great, this passage is applied as a 
warning not only to the rich and i)owerful in material 
resources, but thus : Koi tt t«i iripov tjjv itdvomr fv- 
TpiXfOTtpoi, fifj diroxp'JTai rfj tirxvi riji <f>C(r(a>t irpir ttjv tS>» 
6fia>v epfvvai>' koi roury ova), orav aTraiT^rai kotcl r^i» ava- 
Xoyiov Tuv dfSoftfvav to Ipyov (p. 42O, Ben.). 

7. 00 yAp iinxrreXciTat irp<S<Tuir. ' The lord of all 
(Ecclus. xxxiii. i, Tisch.) shall cower before no man's 
person.' Matt xxii. 16; Eph. vi. 9. Comp. Deut i. 17 : 

-VI. 15.] 



ov ftri vnoartikri npo<ramov auSpawov. Job XXxiv. 1 9. In 
the Bense of 'shrink from,' 'draw back,' the verb is found 
in Job xiii. 8; Hab. ii. 4 ; Acts xx. 27 ; Heb. x. 38. The 
Vulg. has, ' Non snbtrahet personam ciijusquam Deus,' 
' scilicet,' adds a Lap., ' judicio suo et vindictae,' which 
is not at all the meaning of the Greek. Clem. Al. 
Strom, vi. 6 (p. 766, Pott.) gives : ov yap vtrom-cXXtrot 
irpmrittTrov . . . Sfwiuit t( npovofi iravrar. 

'Ofioius, ' alike,' in so far as none are excluded from 
His care. Comp. xii. 1 3 ; Ps. cxlv. 9 ; S. Matt. v. 


DporociK is generally constructed with the gen. 
without a preposition, as xiii. 16 ; 2 Mace. xiv. 9 ; 

1 Tim. V. 8. 

8. 'laxupA cpcum, 'severe scrutiny,' i.e. for the mis- 
use of power. Vulg., ' cruciatio,' a woi-d unknown to 
claseicHl Latin, £ind an. >.ty. in Vulg. S. Aug., Tract, 
in Joan., has ' usque ad immanem cruciationem.' See 
note on ver. 18. 

0. Tupawoi, ' kings,' rrjSao-tXfir, ver. i. Comp. Prov. 
viiL 15, 16; Hab. i. 10. 

01 X^Y'"' t"***) *"• y'^»ovTm. Solomon is introduced 

riapoir^injTe, ' excidatis.' Vulg. ' Fall away.' Eng. 
' Swerve from right,' ' sin,' xii. 2 ; Heb. vi. 6. Comp. 
iropdnru/ia, iii. 13; Matt. vL I5j Gal. vi. I. Hapaniimiv, 

in the sense of ' to err, to make a mistake,' is classical, 

e. g. Xen. Hist. Gr. i. 6. 4 : iiaBpooivrav iv raw 7toke<nv 
ort AoKtiaifwyuu fifyurra vapaitiirTOi(» ('» r^ duiXXarrciv rovf 

10. TA o<rio = the commandments of God. Clem. 
Al. Strom, vi. 1 1 (p. 786, Pott.) has oi yap (fnikatra-ovrfs 
instead of <f>v\a^avTfs. 

'Oaius, ' piously,' with pious intention, without 
which outward obedience is of little worth. 

'OaiwOi^aoKTai. Vulg. : 'Qui custodierint justa 
juste justificabuntur.' Lit. ' shall be made holy.' Comp, 

2 Sam. xxii. 26. Thus i John iii. 7 : ' He that doeth 
righteousness is righteous.' ' Justiiico ' is a post-classical 
word, common in the Vulg., e. g. Ecclus. vii. 5 ; Rom. 
iii. 4, etc. For the language comp. Pseudo-Clem. 

Epist. de Gest, S. Pet. xviii. : olii yap xakhv tA nX^ 

orav p.if KaXws yivrfrai. Greg. NaZ. Orat. 33 (p. 53 1 ) : tA 
Kakov ov Ka\6v, Stop ptfi xaXas yi'iT/ro*. 

Oi 8i8ox6^*T£5 outA, sc. to otna, ' they who have 
learned them.' Obedience precedes perfect knowledge. 
S. John vii. 17. 

E6pii<roo<rii' dLiroXoyioi', ' shall find what to answer.' 
Eng. Vulg. i.e. shall be able to endure the scrutiny 
into their actions, ver. 8. 

11. nai8cu9T]<T€(r9e, ' ye shall be taught,' shall learn 
true wisdom, which is the daily practice of virtue. 

13-16. Wisdom is easily found. 

12. 'Ap.(iipaiTos, ' unfading,' used by S. Peter (L i. 4) 
of the heavenly inheritance. It seems here to refer 
to the unfailing beauty of wisdom rather than to its 
imperishable nature. See Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 15 
(p. 800, Pott.). 

Eiixcpus Oeup. ' She is easily seen and recognised,' 
because she is Xafurpa, ' bright and beauteous.' See Is. 
Williams, The Resurrection, Pt. I. § ii. extr. p. 158. 
Comp. Prov. viii. 17: 'I love them that love Me: 
and those that seek Me early shall find Me;' Ecclus. 
xxvii. 8 ; S. Matt. xi. 19. 

13. npoYKwa^TJvcu with <j>6di>(i, as iv. 7. ' Praevenit 
illoB qui appetunt ipsam. ut praenoscatur.' SchL 
Comp. Prov. i. 20, 21 ; viii. 3, 34, etc. Ps. Iviii. 11 : 

Qfos fiov TO cXcof avrov irpo<pBa<rti fit. S. Bern. De 

dilig. Deo, vii. (I. p. 1347): ' Sed enim in hoc est 
minim, quod nemo Te quaerere valet, nisi qui prius 
invenerit. Vis igitur inveniri ut quaeraris, quaeri nt in- 
veniaris. Potes quidem quaeri et inveniri, non tamen 

14. 'O ApOpicras, 'he who risea early after her.' 
Prov. viii. 17. 'Opdpi^a is a late ■word= opSptia. See 

1 Mace. iv. 52 ; Ecclus. iv. 12 (irpos airriv) ; Luke xxi. 
38. Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 15 (p. 800, Pott) reads 

6 op6pi(Tas in avrrjv. 

nt^M&pof . . iruXuK. Like a counsellor of a king as 
he sits at the gate to administer justice. 2 Sam. xix. 
8 ; Jer. xxxix. 3. 

15. To Y^p iviuy.. Wisdom is close at hand to those 





[vi. i6- 

■who seek her, for to ponder deeply on her is the per- 
fection of prudence, i. e. is wisdom. ' Sensus est con- 
summatus,' Vulg., which Gutb. takes in the same 

♦pon^o-. TcXetoT. seems to be a synonjTn for wisdom. 
<f>p6vr](ns usually means practical wisdom, wisdom in 
the conduct of life. This may be seen in the parable 
of the unjust steward, Luke xvi. 8 : iirjiveaev o Kvptos 
Tov oIkovo^ov T^ff abtKtas, oti K^povifxas t7roiT]<rfV' OTt ol vioi 
ToC aia>vos tovtov (^povip-airepoi imtp Tovs vlovs row ^tos eii 
rfiv yfvtav Trjv eavT&y eliri. 

'Aypuirnicras . Prov. viii. 34 : itoKapios . . . nv6pamos 
8r Tar (fuis 080VS <}>v\a^(i, dypvnvav in e'fiats 6vpais Kaff 
fi(iipai). ' He that watcheth for her sake.' Eph. vi. 18 : 
fis aM TovTo aypvnvovvres, like the Latin, ' invigilare 
rei.' Virg. Georg. iv. 158:' Namque aliae victu invi- 

'A)icpi)j,fOS, vii. 23. 

16. "Oti, a stfll further confirmation of ver. 1 4. 
riepi^pXCTai ir)ToG<Ta, viii. i8 : wcpij^iw fijTwi/. Comp. 

I Pet. V. 8. Jlr. Churton paraphrases : ' She circum- 
vents those whom she seeks ;' but the notion of delud- 
ing people even to their good is foreign to the passage. 

Tois Tpt'Pois, ' ways, roads ;' as Prov. viii. 2. In 
outer life. Comp. also Prov. i. 20 ff. Thus S. Aug. : 
' Quoquo enim te verteris, vestigiis quibusdam, quae 
operibus suis impressit, loquitur tibi, et te in exteriora 
relabentem, ipsis exteriorum formis intro revocat.' De 
Lib. Arbitr. ii. § 41. 

'El* Tr<£<rj) ^iricoia, ' in every thought,' in their inner 
life. Vulg. : ' in omni providentia ;' referring tmvoia 
to wisdom, ' with all care and foresight ;' but this seems 
to injure the parallelism with rpi^oic, which refers to 
the seekers after wisdom. 

'AiroiTa. This reading has most authority. V. 
has vnavT^. 

17-21. Wisdom leads to a kingdom. 

17. Here begins the famous sorites, the conclusion of 
which is, ' The desire of wisdom leadeth to a kingdom,' 
ver. 20. As this should consist of the first subject and 
last predicate of the premisses, the first premiss is not 

formally expressed. It should run : The desire of Wis- 
dom is the beginning of Wisdom ; and then, through 
the rest of the series, the predicate of one premiss is 
the subject of the next. See Prolegora. p. 29. It is 
quoted by Clem. Alex. Strom, vi. 15 (p. 800, Pott.). 

rdp introduces the argument to prove that Wis- 
dom is worth man's thought and pains, ' for ... it 
leads to eternal happiness.' 

AuTrjs, SC. ao^i'df. 

'Apx^, 'beginning, foundation.' Ps. cxi. 10; Prov. 

i, 7 '• ^PX'I <"><^Las <^d/3os Kupi'ou. 

'H d\T)9e(rrdTi] is taken by Vulg. with iTri6vp.ia. 
S. Aug. however quotes, ' initium enira illius verissi- 
mum;' De Mor. Eccl. i. § 32 (p. 699, D.). This is 
perhaps best : ' the truest, most real, and solid founda- 
tion of Wisdom is the desire of instruction, or training.' 
The Sin. Codex seems to have intended to substitute 
ayaTTT) for f'nidviiia. Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 15 (p. 800, 
Pott.) reads : ap\fi yap airrjs aXijAeordn; wai&iias tmSviiia, 

TOVTCUTiV Trjs yVCifffUS, 

18. <l>poms, changed for iiridvpla in the former pre- 
miss. This is quoted by Clem. Al. Faedag. ii. i (p. 
167, Pott.) 

'AYdinj, i.e. of Wisdom. 

TiipTjais fop,. auT. The Decalogue speaks of ' them, 
that love Me and keep my commandments,' Ex. xx. 6 ; 
and Christ's word is, ' If ye love Me, keep my command- 
ments.' S.John xiv. 15. Comp. Rom. xiii. 10. Grimm 
observes that the plural vopoi. = ivToKai occurs in N. T. 
only Heb. x. 1 6 in a citation, but frequently in 0. T., 
e.g. Jer. xxxviii. 33 ; Ezek. v. 6 ; 2 Mace. iv. 17. 

ripocrox^ = Tijpijffis. Obedience to the commands 
works assurance of immortality. So our Blessed Lord 
says : ' If thou wilt enter into life, keep the command- 
ments,' Matt. xix. 17. Upoa-oxn- Vulg. ' custoditio,' 
an. \cy. Unusual words in Vulg. of like formation are 
these: ' cruciatio,' ver. 9 ; 'exquisitio,' xiv. 12 ; 'exter- 
minatio,' xviii. 7; ' fascinatio,' iv. 12; ' increpatio,' 
xii. 26; ' respectio,' iii. 13; 'sibilatio,' xvii. 9; 'subi- 
tatio,' V. 2 ; ' tribulatio,' Matt. xiii. 21;' salvatio,' Is. 
xxxvii. 32; ' sanctificatio,' Am. vii. 9; 'contritio,' 

-VI. 23.] 



Bom. in. i6; ' abominatio,' Ex. viiL 26; ' compunctio,' 
Rom. xi. 8; ' corrogatio,' Ecclus. xxxii. 3; 'justifi- 
catio,' Luke i. 6 ; ' regeneratio,' Tit. iii. 5 ; with many 

'A<^0apo'ias, ' blessed immortality,' as li. 23. 
4 Mace. xvii. 12 : to vueot d(})0ap<Tia cv fwg voKvxpovia, 
So 2 Tim. i. 10. Vulg. : ' incorruptionis,' a post-classical 
word. Comp. Rom. ii. 7 ; i Cor. xv. 53, Vulg. 

19. ' Immortality maketh us near unto God,' even 
in His heavenly kingdom ; whence it follows, ver. 20, 
that ' the desire of "Wisdom leads to a kingdom.' This 
verse is quoted by S. Iren. Contr. Haer. iv. 38. 3 (ap. 
Migne), who gives the following sorites (ib. p. 285, 
Ben.) : tSti t6v avOpamov TrpSrrov yeviaOai, Koi ytimficyov 
{W^tjtraij KQi av^travTa dvSpaBijvat, Koi dvbptaBfvra nXrjOvvBrjvaif 
Koi TiXridvvGfVTa fVttTxvtrcu, nu ivuTxixravra Bo^irSrjmi, Koi 
do^aBttrra i8(iP TOP iavTov Aftnron^v. Qfos yap 6 ptXKav 
opaffdaC opaais 8c 0(ov TTfpiTrnLrjTiK^ a<j)6ap(Tias' IdfpBaptrta 
ii cyyvs thai noifl Otov, Migne]. Clem. Alexandr. 
(Strom, vi. 1 5, p. 80 r, Pott.) sums up the argument thus : 

&8ao-|C« ■yap, o(/xa(, <m9 dXij^ii/ij ^aiSct'a iiriBvpla Tit e'trri 
yim<Tfas' aaxtjaK Si TraiSflas iTwiirTaTai aydrnjv yvaurttos' 
Kol fj ftfv dyaTTij rqprjati Tav (Is yvanriv dvayovaup evTokwv' 
rj TTjpijtTts de avruiv ^clialaxTis riyv fwoXcoi', 8i* 7)v ff d<jiBap<rta 
firurvp^aivfi' d<fi6apa'ia de cyyup (Lvat noifl Qeov. 

20. The MSS. vary here, but the reading in the 
text seems plainly to be correct. 

*Eirl ^curiX., 'ad regnum perpetuum,' Vulg. 8. 
Aug. De. Mor. Eccl. i. 32 (T. i. p. 699 D) omits 'per- 
petuum.' So S. Paul says : ' They who receive abund- 
ance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall 
reign in life by Jesus Christ.' Rom. v. 1 7. Comp. Philo, 
Quod DeUB imm. 30 (I. p. 294) : KaT€<pd€ipf irSa-a <rap^ 
Tijv Tov alioviov Kai d<f>SdpTov TfXemv o8ok t^v rpos Qtou 
Syovtrav. Tai^i/ urOi ao^iav. Am yap Tavn)s 6 vovs jrofiij- 
ytTOviuvos, fiOtlas tau X(ui(f>6pov vnapxpiai)!, S^pi rwv Tfp- 
fucrav d<f>tKVflTai' ra 8c Ttppara rrji 680S yvuals lim kclI 
ivurniiiri ©cov. 

21. 'HSeoO* ^m ipivoi%. This verb is found with cn-J 
and the dat. in Xen. Mem. IV. v. 9 ; Cyr. VIII. iv. 12. 
For the sentiment comp. Prov. viii. 15, 16. 

BaariXcu<n)TC. Prov. ix. 6 : dnoKfl-ntrt d<l>poavvri», 
tva fls TOV alaiva ^airiKfvirrfTf. Rev. xxii. 5- The Vulg. 
adds to this verse a second translation which has crept 
into the text of the MSS. : ' Diligite lumen sapientiae, 
omnes qui praeestis populis.' 
22-25. Nature of Wisdom. 

22. Ti liTTi. oo4>ia; The author nowhere gives a 
definition of Wisdom, but presents to us her properties 
and her effects on men's lives.' 

riws h/lvero. ' How she came into being.' Comp. 
Prov. viii. 23 ff. ; Job xxviii. 20 ff. Some uuderstaud 
tfiol with iyiv., ' how she came unto me,' with a refer- 
ence to the next chapter; but this seems an un- 
necessary restriction. The expression however may 
mean, 'how she began her work in man.' So Mr. 
Clmrton takes it, remarking that in herself she is im- 
mortal. Perhaps Dr. Bissell's rendering, ' how she 
arose,' is safest. 

Muo-n^pia. Vulg. : ' sacramenta Dei,' as ii. 22; 
Dan. ii. 30 ; Eph. i. 9, and often. The author differs 
from the heathen, who made a profound secret of their 
mysteries, and professes his willingness to divulge all 
that he knows about Wisdom. 

*Air" ^x^^ Y*''^"*'**' ' From the beginning of her 
nativity,' referring to nu>s (yivtro. This, which is the 
Eng. rendering, would require the addition of aur^r. 
It is better with Arn., Grimm, and others to under- 
stand, ' from the beginning of creation.' Prov. viii. 2 2, 
23. Vulg.: 'ab initio nativitatis.' 'Nativitas' is a 
post-classical word found in Ulpian and Tertull. and 
frequently in Vulg., whence it made its way into 
English. See on vii. 5. 

'E$ix>'iii£(>> = classical i^ixytva. Comp. ix. 16; Ecclas. 
i. 3 ; xviii. 4, 6. 

riapoSeuau, ' pass by, neglect, despise,' as x. 8. The 
Vulg. gives ' praeteribo,' which is used in the same sense. 

23. ♦Ooru t£ti)k<5ti. So Ovid : ' Livor edax,' Am. 
i. 15. I ; Pers. Sat. iii. 37 : 

* Virtatem videant, intabcscantque relicta.' 
ZuKoSeucru, a play of words. If this be subj. we 
must read oiht fui. Retaining oir* fiijv, we must take 



[vi. 24- 

<rvvoS. as fut. See on i. 8. The meaning is : I will 
disclose all I know without envy or grudging. Ck)mp. 
vii. 13; Acts XX. 20, 27. Philo, De Vict. Offer. 12 
(II. p. 260) ; T« yap, ti KoXa raSr' eirrli', £ fivarai, Kai 
crvfjLif>epoirTa, <ivyK\ticrafUvoi iavrovi iv trKora ^adti, rptit tj 
TfTTapas fLovovs Q><f)f\fLTfj TTOpov iiTTavTas dvOpo>novs (V ayopa 
/icai; Ta t^( ^<f)fKfias npoOevraSf tva natrw a6(o>s f^fj ^fXriovos 
Kcu fi/rvxtarepov Koiviovrjina j3tov; <j>66vos yap dpfTijs duoKUTTai, 
OuTos, i. e. either c^Bovos, or as Vulg. : ' talis homo,' 

& rw <l>B6vta (TvvoBevojv, 

Koiybivelr with dat. ' to go shares with,' ' have deal- 
ing with.' Plat. Rep. i. p. 343 D. : mrov tiv 6 roioOror 
ToJ Tojoyroj Koaiavri<rii. 

24. ' I will do my best to increase the roll of wise 
men, for the more numeroua they are, the better it is 
for the world.' Comp. Philo, De Sacr. Ab. et Cain. 
§ 37 (I. p. 187)* tSi (rtxfios Xur/>oi/ fori toC (ptwXov . . . 
KuddiTfp laTpiis ToS voaovvTos dvTiTtTaypivoi rots dppaaTrjfiaai 

Eo<rr<i9eio, ' the upholding,' Eng. ; ' stabilimentum,' 
Vnlg. The word is generally applied to ' good health,' 
which is the meaning here. Comp. 2 Mace. xiv. 6 ; 3 Mace, 
iii. 26 ; Addit. ad Esth. iii. 18 (Tisch.). Comp. Clem. 
Rom. Ep. I. ad Cor. Ixi. i : ols Sot, Kipu, iylttav, tipl)vjiv, 

opovotav, fvardBfrnv, fir to duTTfiv avroiis r^v {nr6 aoi 8«?o- 
fUmiv aiiTols ffytnoviav drtpodKOTrais. See EccleB. ix. 1 3— 18. 
In confirmation of vers. 24, 25 one may recall that 
dictum itoKvdpiiWTfrov of Plato, De Rep. v. p. 473: iav 
fjiri ^ ol <p^\6lTo^l liatTi\fva'a>atv iv rate itiiKtaui, Pj ol ^aaiXtit 
Tf vxiv \<y6pti>oi Kai Svmarai <j)i)io<To<f>fi<Ta<Ti yvrf<Ti(j»t Tt Ka\ 
ucavas, kcu toCto «is ravTov ^vpiTf(njj &vvapis t« iroXiriKq Kai 
<j)i\oiXo(piaf T03V if vvv iropfvofjuvtov \apLs f<l> fKartpov ai 
TToXXat <l>va(is t'^ dvayKrjs an'oicXciO'dun'U', oiic tan KaKuip 
navXa rals noXtaif 8oKa> 6e oi/ie Tci dvOpomivta ytvfi. 

25. "QoT€, ' and so,' ' therefore,' as i Cor. iv. 5 ; 
I Pet. iv. 19. Soph. El. 1172 : 

ft'/jrAs 8' 'Optarrji' &crTf pr/ Xiav arivf. 


1-10. Solomon, realising his mortality, prayed for 
Wisdom, which he valued above every earthly good. 

1. Ei|ti ^v xdyo), ' I too as others.' Tlie author 
speaks in the character of Solomon, at the same time 
humbling himself as knowing that wisdom is given 
only to the meek. The p.iv has no answering 8*. See 
Jelf, Gr. Gram. § 766. Perhaps ver. 7 is meant to be 
the corresponding member, the hi being omitted owing 
to the long paragraph, vers. 1-6, preceding. So Grimm. 
Comp. Acts X. 26; xiv. 15. 

ri)Y€KOUS. Gen. ii. 7 '• ttXaatv 6 G«os ritv avBpwitov 
Xovv oTrd T^t yijs. Comp. Ecclus. xvii. I ; i Cor. xv. 47. 
So Philo calls man yrr/fyrjt, De Mund. Op. 47 (I. p. 32), 
and Plato, De Legg. v. I (p. 727 E.): oiSiv yriytvit 'OXu- 
fitiiav fVTipihfpov. 

ripuTiSTrXaoTo?, only here and x. i. From its use 
in this Book the word came to be employed commonly 
as the designation of our first parent. (See Prolegoni. 
p. 27.) Thus Clem. Alex. Strom, iii. 17 : ni* dn6 t&v 

dXnyuv ^vXtov r^K iTnTi)hev(riv T^t avp^vXias 6 ocftn fiXrj(f>i>s, 
Km irapandaas rp Koivioyia t^s Kvas avyKaraBiaBat t6v 'A8ap, 
Xiyri, it &r fir) <j)vafi TauTjj Kixpipfix*" Tav npanonXdirrav, 
its d^iovai rtvrr. S. Athau. cont. Apoll. i. 15 : 9 ndvrtiit 
Kara t^» t^s aapKos iiri&fi^iv, Ka'i Kara r^i/ pop^rfv roO 8otjXou, 
Toure'trri toC irpayronXdarov '\Sap, fji) fXaiiev o iv pop^r) Bcov 
(mapxav Btos. S. Iren. Haer. iii. 21. 10: ' Et quem- 
admodum protoplastus ille Adam dc rudi terra, et do 
adhuc virgiue, (" nondum enim pluerat Deus, et homo 
nou erat operatus terram,") babuit substautiani ; et 
2)lasinatus est manu Dei, i. e. verbo Dei, (" omnia enim 

-vn. 6.] 



per Ipsum facta sunt,") et sumpsit Dominus limnm a 
terra et plasmavit hominem . . .' And so Christian 
poets, with a painful disregard of quantities. S. Avitus, 
Poem. ii. 35 : 

* His protoplogtorum senaum primordla sacra 
Continuere bonis, donee certamine prinio 
Yinceret oppressna fallacem culpa per hostem.' 

Ovientius, Commonit. ii. 108 : 

' Per pomum, Protoplaste, cadis ; cruce, Christe, mederis ; 
lllic mortiferam draco pestifer detuUt escam.* 

2. 'EyXu+tji' aiipi, ' I was formed flesh.' Comp. xiii. 
13. Prop, 'was carved,' 'cutout:' used of ' engraving,' 
Ecclus. xxxviii. 27. The tyw (with which irayfU agrees) 
implies the whole man. Another question arises about 
the derivation of the soul, viii. 19, where see notes. 

AcKa)iT)Ktaiu x. 4 Mace. xvi. 7 ; Plut. Num. 1 2. 
The period of gestation is from 273 to 280 days ^40 
weeks, or 10 lunar months at 4 weeks to the month. 
Speaking of the reasons which induced Romulus to 
make the year ten months long, Ovid says, Fast. i. 33 : 

'Quod satis est utero matris dum prodeat infans. 
Hoc anno statuit temporis esse satis.' 

Comp. Virg. Eel. iv. 61. In 2 Mace. vii. 27 however 
the period is stated at ' nine months.' 

rioyeis, as Job X. 10 : onj^ar (eVupao-ar, V.) Sf fit 
ura rvpw, Al. MS. The author follows the common 
opinion of his age ; and as Calmet properly asks : ' Quis 
jubet sacros auctores ex physicorum principiis loqui V 

Kat ijSoi^s dep. on », not gen. abs. as Gutb. takes it. 

'YirTOs, euphemistic, as iv. 6. 

8. 'Ecrtroao, ' I drew in,' ' sucked in,' expressive of 
the breathing of a new-bom child. 

'OfiotoiraOr). ' Similiter factam,' Vulg. ' Which 
is of like nature,' Eng. In this sense the word occurs 
Acts xiv. 15. Flat. Timae. xvi. p. 45 C: oiwionaSis 
S^ Si oitManfra nav 'ycxo'/wvoy. Arab. : ' dolores meos 
reddentem.' Grimm and Gutb. translate : ' the earth 
which endures the same from all her children,'^' aeque 
omnibus calcatum,' or, ' upon whom all her children 
fall in helpless infancy.' 

KaT^itfoxii' expresses the helplessness of the new- 
bom infant Comp. Horn. II. xix. 1 10 : 

or Kev tit' tjfiari ruSf Ttcrj /irra Trocral yvvaueot, 

♦ui^i', acc. cogn. after xXai'mi/. 

'OfLoiay iroaii', a shortened expression for S/i. rrj 
iravrav <f)a»^. Comp. ii. 15. Rev. xiii. II : Kepara ofivia 

"lo-o, adv. = €v la-a, xiv. 9, ' aequaliter,' ' perinde ac' 
Job X. 10, quoted in note on ver. 2. Tlie Vulg. has 
' emisi,' Eng. ' I uttered,' reading apparently, as Compl., 
fjKa, which is found in no existing MS. The Sin. Cod. 
omits lo-a, which indeed is hardly necessary to the sense. 
'I cried when I was born,' says an old proverb, and 'every 
day tells me why.' "We may compare Lucret. v. 223 ff. : 

* Turn porro puer, ut saevis projectus ab undis 
Kavita, nudus bumi jacet, infans, indigus omni 
Yitali auxilio, quom primum in luminis oras 
Kixibus ex alvo niatris Katura profudit ; 
Yagituque locum lugubri complet, ut aequum est, 
Quoi tantum in vita restet transire malorum.' 

4. *Ei' ^povTurw, 'curis magnis,' Vulg. Comp. S. 
Luke ii. 7. 

5. rtK^aeus ifX^**' ^i- 24. Gutb. takes ytvia-fios as a 
genit. explicativus elucidating dpxriv. The expression 
means simply ' beginning of existence.' Vulg. ' nativi- 
tatis initium.' 'Nativitas' (vi. 24; xvi. 26, q.v. Ps. 
cvi. 37), a late word, may be compared with other 
words of like formation used in Vulg., e. g. ' niraietas,' 
iv. 4 ; ' nugacitas,' iv. 12; ' praeclaritas,' viii. 18 ; ' possi- 
bilitas,' Neh. v. 8; ' longitumitas,' Bar. iii. 14; ' otio- 
sitas,' Ecclus. xxxiii. 29. 

6. Theodoret. Orat. ix. De Provid- (p. 577): atpa 
(i((rov ($(x" (^ 6<oi) Koai6ii rtva ml rovroi' irXoCrov ira<ru> 
Ofwias npoT(6(tKa)S, oSrt yap (nrixTtv avrov jrXf'ov rwK wtv*- 
Tav oi irXovo'tot, dXXa r^v tirriv poipay xavravSa ^ irtvia 
Xa^t|3di>« . . . ffXfirt Sf Kai ra TUCToptva opoiat yvpva nptxr- 
lovra' ov yap to ruC irXovcriou Pp(<f>os AXovpylSa ir<pi/3</3X7- 
rai, t6 ii tov nivriros paKia ntpUtiTai, dXXa ap<j>a) yvpvii 
npo4p\erai, tov brjpunipyov KjjpwKTOvTos Tjpi la&rrfTa, opoias 
<rira tov aipa, opoias (\Kti Trfv BqKijV. otix f^'Pf yaXaicri t6 
Toi TtfinfTot Tp«^«Ta«, tTtpov ii T^ TOV TrXovaiov npo<r<f>*pfTai, 



[vii. 7- 

aXX' i(n)s koI toDto KuKtivo xoi ttjs airrrjt diroXavrt Tpo(^^f. 
Oi ftovov S( Tfjv fls Tov jSt'ov 6»iro8oi' iJilav, aWa xai ttjx t^oSov 
tariv f)^ofX(v' €is yap Tjfxas viroSf^tTai ddvaros, 

"E^oSos. See on iii. 2, and coinp. Job i. 21 ; xxi. 
23-26; Eccl. iii. 19, 20. Horat. Carm. I. iv. 13 : 

•Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede pauperum tabemas 
Kegumque turres.' 

7. AiA TouTO. Because by nature he was no wiser 
than others, and yet as king had more constant need for 
the exercise of wisdom. 

Hu$(ifi.T]i'. I Kings iii. 5-12; Wisd. viii. 21. 

♦p<5n]cris, parallel but not identical with irvfvfia 
tro^ias, meaning good sense, understanding, i Kings 
iv. 29. See on vi. 15. 

rir. cro<|>ias, not the Holy Spirit, but the principle 
of wisdom, as Eph. i. 1 7. Comp. Deut. xxxiv. 9 : 
■nvtiiiaTos avviafas. ' If any of you lack wisdom,' says 
S. James i. 5, 'let him ask of God . . . and it shall be 
given him.' 

'EircKaX«r(i|iT)>', ' I called upon, invoked God.' So 
Acts vii. 59 : f\tdo^6\ovv tov Srecfxtvov, emKdKovixfvov Koi 
Xt'-yon-a ie.T.X., where however one must supply t6v Kvpiov 
'Itjaovv from the following prayer. The verb usually is 
joined with Odv or Kvpuiv, as Judith vi. 21. So Herod, 
li. 39 : firiKaXfoavra tov Beov. 

8. 'Ec auyKpicrci, ' in comparison.' So trvyKplva, ver. 
29; XV. 18; I Cor. ii. 13 ; 2 Cor. x. 12. This is alate 
use of the word, found, e.ff., in Plut. Vit. Flamin. zi 
extr. ; Aeli. Var. Hist. iii. 16. Comp. S. Matt. xiii. 44. 

9. Comp. Job xxviii. 12 ff.; Prov. iii. 14 ff.; viii. 
10, II, 19. ' ATlfitp-ov, 'priceless,' 'beyond value,' as 
3 Mac. iii. 23 : T^f aTip.T)Tov iroXiTtiav, Sophocles, Lex. 
sub voe. refers for this use of the word to Greg. Naz. 
iii. 1232 A; and Greg. Nyss. 1092 D (Migne). See 
also Eustathius, 781. 19. Schleusner, s.v.: ' eodem 
sensu Graecis ipiXos arifiqTot dicitur. Etiam adjectivum 
aT^fu>v per jToXuTi/ioi' explicatur a Schol. Aeschyl. Agam. 
421.' Vulg. : 'lapidem pretiosum.' The Compl. ed. 
reads rliauv, 

'O Ttds xp''<'^i ' all the gold in the world,' sc. iari. 
'Ek oi|/ei, ' in comparatione,' Vulg. So possibly xv. 

19, where see note. Here comp. the parallel expres- 
sion ivavriov airris, ' adversus illam,' and xi. 22. 8. 
Method. Conv. dec. Virg. xi. (xviii p. 205, Migne) 
quotes from memory : vas yap trXovror ivimiov avr^r, koX 
Xpvaos ii>s yjrafifios oXt'yij. 

10. 'Am <|>ut6s, ' pro luce,' Vulg. ' Instead of light,' 
Eng., Gutb., Grimm. The interpretation of the Vulg. 
is preferred by Am., who paraplirases : ' I determined to 
have her for a light or guide.' But the context favours 
the other explanation : ' I had rather lose light itself 
than wisdom, because,' as he continues, ' the light of day 
wanes and perishes, but the light of wisdom never 
fails.' Comp. Ps. cxix. 105. 

'AKoi(jit)Toi', ' never goes to rest,' as the poets feign 
the sun sinks to sleep. ' Inextiuguibile,' Vulg. Matt, 
iii. 1 2 ; Mark ix. 42, 44. See on x. 4. Clem. 
Alex. Paed. ii. 10 seems to allude to this passage 

when he says, Xoytanois dvSpav aya6S>» oils aKoifiriTovs 
\ixvovs iivofiaatv f) ypacj>r]. P. 230, Pott. 

11-21. ]Vith her came all earthly blessings, friendsTtip 
with God, and scientific knowledge. 

11. I Kings iii. 13: 'I have also given thee that 
which thou ha-st not asked, both riches and honour.' 
Comp. Prov. iii. 1 6 ; viii. 1 7-35 ; Ecclus. li. 28 ; S. Matt. 

vi- 33- 

'AcapWiiriTos irXouTos. ' Innumerabilis honestas.' 
Vulg. Sc. fill or 5Xflf. The Vulg. often renders ttXoC- 
TOE and jrXoto-ioj by ' honestas,' and ' honestus.' Comp. 
ver. 13; viii. 18; Ecclus. xi. 14, 23 ; xiii. 2. This is 
a use unknown to classical Latin. The lexicons refer 
to a remark of Asconius in Cic. Verr. II. i. 47 : 'An ve- 
tuste bonos pro magnis, honestos pro divitibus posuit V 
This sense is found in the Fathers, e. g. S. Aug. Contr. 
Adim. xix. (viii. 142 D.), translating Wisdom vii. 8 : 
' Et honestatem nihil esse duxi ad comparationem ip- 
sius.' So S. Ambr. De Parad. 3, renders Heb. xi. 26: 
'majorem honestatem aestimavit' (p. 175, Ben.). 

12. 'Em iraaii'. The MSS. vary between n-dvrav and 
natriv, but the dat. is the more usual construction. 
Comp. Ps. cxxi. I ; Ecclus. xvi. i, 2 ; Rev. xviii. 
20, ace. to the best MSS. 

-vn. IS.] 



'HyttToi. ' Heads them,' brings them with her, 
the term being parallel with yevtrtv tivai rovrav. ' I 
rejoiced in them all because they had their value from 
being the accompaniments of Wisdom.' The Vulg. gives : 
' quouiam antecedebat me ista gai)ientia.' Quasi dux 
deducens me ad omnia bona jam dicta. A. Lap. 
Comp. 2 Chr. i. 12. 

'Hyv6ouy. I knew not when I prayed. I had no 
lower motive. 

revini^yfVfTfipa, is found nowhere else, but is 
formed after the usual manner, as Scottotis, Tt^vlTit, etc. 
The Vulg. and Arm. give 'mater.' There is good 
MS. authority for y(v«nv, but the uncommon word is 
more probably genuine. Apel, Field, and Tisch. read 
ytvfTw. See the praise of Wisdom, Prov. iii. 1 3-20. 

13. 'A8<SX(as, with pure intentions, without any secret 
reservation, not hoping to gain any selfish or earthly 
benefit. ' Quam sine fictione didici.' Vulg. For ' fictio ' 
see on xiv. 25. The Eng. 'diligently' is very weak; 
the margin is better, ' without guile.' Comp. vi. 23. 
Observe the neat balancing of words, dSdXws . . d(f>66vij)s. 
Euseb. in Psalm, xxxiii. 8 (p. 132, Ben.) : dSdXms tXa^ov, 
a(f>d6vas luTaiiSoixai, Just. Mart. Apol. i. 6 : rravrX ^ovXo- 
u€V(o fxaOdVy as ihtha\STifxfVj d<j)06v(o^ irapadidomft^ 

Jbv irXouToi', ' honestatem,' Vulg. See on ver. 
ir. I Pet iv. 10: 'As every man hath received the 
gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good 
stewards of the manifold grace of God.' Comp. Ecclus. 
XX. 30 ; S. Matt. x. 8. 

14. 'Ai'£KXnrTis=di«(cX«7n-or. See on viii. 18. 

'Ok 01 xpritr. This reading has the highest autho- 
rity. The unusual construction of xpaof" 'vM'^ aco. 
bas led to the change into «? in the one case, and itn;- 
crd/i(voi in the other. There is a similar variation in 
the MSS. in i Cor. vii. 31 : ol xp^ffo^ tok k6(tiu>v 
(Tisch.), where some read ry Koafuf, and Acts xxvii. 17. 
In 2 Mace. iv. 19 all MSS. give the ace. : is rj^ioxrav o« 
napoKoiilaaiTes fif) xP^O'^a' irpos 6v<rtav. But the author 
may have intended it to be governed by irapoKOfiiaavrfs. 
Bp. Wordsworth, in his note on i Cor. vii. 31, says 
that the ace. after xpwjBat is not found in Sept., which 

is true, if we confine the name Septuagint to tlie 
canonical portion of the Old Testament. The Vulg. 
of our passage is ' quo qui usi sunt.' 

ripos Qihv ioTtiXorro (^iXiav. ' Participes facti sunt 
amicitiae Dei.' Vulg. ' Prepare for themselves friend- 
ship with God.' So Abraham for his faitli was called 
' the friend of God.' 8. James ii. 23 ; Is. xli. 8. Comp. 
S. John XV. 14. The use of the grace of wisdom 
makes men beloved by God. Comp. ver. 27. Philo, 
De Sobr. 1 1 (I. p. 401) : <f)i\ov yap to <ro<f>ov Qta naWov 
5 ioCXoK. Trap' 6 KOI <Ta(f)aic «V1 'A^paap. (fmvKfi, M^ cTriKa- 
\vyjra> iyi) ano'A^paaii Tov (j)t\ov fiov ; (Gen. xviii. 17). 

XucrroO. ' Being recommended to God.' i Mace, 
xii. 43 ; Rom. iii. 5 ; v. 8 ; 2 Cor. iv. 2. 'The gifts 
that come from discipline ' are the fruits of the due 
use of Wisdom, the good works which a holy man will 
do, energizing from the grace given to him. 

15. AuT) is undoubtedly correct. The Vulg. 'dedit' 
probably arose from the reading ' det,' which is found 
in MSS. Sang, and Corb., noted by Sabatier. The 
Eng. ' hath granted ' is in accordance with tlie Compl. 
and Aid. editions, which give Sc'Sukc without any exist- 
ing MS. authority. 

KotA yiKifi.i\r, ' according to my opinion or wishes,' 
' ex sententia.' i Cor. vii. 40. It is a prayer for 
eloquence, the power of expressing his thoughts. 

'EvOufi.Ti]df[vai, the Vulg. translates by ' praesumere,' 
' to conceive thoughts,' a meaning scarcely recognized 
by the lexicons, though it occurs in the sense of ' ima- 
gining,' 'picturing beforehand,' in Virg. Aen. xi. 18 : 

'Arma parate animis et spe praesomite bellum.' 

AcSofi^twi', ' in a way worthy of the gifts bestowed 
upon me.' The reading Xfyofifvav has high authority, 
and is received by Fr. The Eng. ' that are given me ' 
may be the rendering of the Compl. bi&oiuvu>v. The 
Marg. rendering, ' are to be spoken of,' is meant for 
a translation of r. \ryojuvav. Vulg. : ' digna horum 
quae mihi dantur.' ' Dignus ' with gen. occurs also 
ix. 12. Plant. Trin. V. ii. 29 : ' non ego sum salutis 
dignus ;' where however some read ' salute.' In a 

u 2 



[vn. i6- 

letter of Balbus to Cicero (Ad Attic, viii. 15) we have : 
' cogitationem dignissimam tuae virtutis.' It is found 
with dat. 2 Mace. vi. 24 : ' Non enim aetati nostrae 
dignum est.' 

Auris, emphatic, as ver. 17: 'He and no other ' 
is both the guide {68riy6s) of Wisdom, leading her whither 
He wills, and the director of those who possess her 
(iiopdaT^s tS>v arxjyav). For Siopd. cp. Plut. Sol. 1 6. 

16. 'Hjieis. Comp. Acts xvii. 28 : (v avr^ i,S>iuv (tal 
Kwovfuda Koi ianiv. 

Adyoi. Comp. Exod. iv. II. 

♦p6rt)ats, practical good sense for the conduct of 
afbirs, vi. 15. 

'EpYaTciuf, ' handicrafts.' Comp. Exod. xxxi. 3, 
where God is said to have inspired Bezaleel : koX ivi- 
ir\r)<Ta airrou nvfyfia Bfiov cro^las Koi avve'aeas Koi ci!kjtt]iu)s 
iv navTt tpyw. The Vulg. gives a double translation of 
imariiiiri, ' operum Ecientia et disciplina.' Some of Sa- 
batier's MSS. read ' operum scientiae disciplina.' This 
verse is quoted by Clem. Al. Strom, vi. 11 (p. 786, 

Potter) : i» X"P' avroi, TOVTfOTi, Tg 8vi/aftft xat iTO(f>ia. 

17. EiS^Ktu, K.T.X., explains t. Sirrav yvSia-iv. Wisdom 
is an ' universitas literarum.' See i Kings iv. 29 ff. ; 
Exod. xxxi. 3. 'H <To(t>ta, says Philo, de Ebriet. 22 (I. 

p. 370), "X"^ Tf^vav ov<Ta 8o«i fitv rais Sia<f>6pois vXais 
fvaXXdrTKrdai, to 8e avTrjs dKrjOis fiSos arpcTrrov ipn^aivtt 
Tois 6^SopKov<ri, 

TiitmuTiv, ' constitution,' ' construction,' used by 
Plato in this connection, Tim. vii. p. 32 C: tSk Si 8^ tit- 
Tapav iv SKov CKatrrov fiXrjKJuv f) rov xdir/iov ^varams' c'x yap 
jrvp6s iravrbs uflardr rt Kai aipos Koi yrjt ^Wforrriatv avTov o 

^vvurras. Comp. Clem. Rom. Ep. I. Ad Cor. Ix. i r 

(TV Trp/ aevaov rov xdcp-ov tTvaracriv Sia tS>v ivfpyovpeviov 
i(f>aii€po7roir)(Tas. Philo, De Vit. Cont. 8 (II. p. 481): 
SiTfp cWif apxr) T^r Tail' oXuv ytvfirfa>s Kai trvirrdiTfios. In 
this passage of Wisdom the author claims the know- 
ledge of natural philosophy. S. Athan., Or. c. Gent. 
44, applies the word o-uorao-ir to Christ, thus : air&s eiri 
n'oiTaii' ffytpav T* Kai /3a(riA<vc Kai aritrraaii ytvofitvos tS>v 

'Evipydoy (noi,\tiuy, ' the operation of the ele- 

ments.' 2 Pet. iii. 10, 12. Comp. Philo, De Incorr. 

Mundi, § 21 (II. p. 5°^) ■ '■"■Top*)!' SvTav <rT0l)^(iar, «f 
S)v 6 Koapos <n)V((m)K(, y^s, vSaros, dipos, nvpos, 

18, 19. 'ApxV . . 6iatis- These terms would include 
chronology and astronomy. 

18. ' Beginning, ending, and midst of times,' a 
poetical circumlocution for the difference and variety 
of the periods concerned in astronomical chronology, 
Grimm, Gutb. 

MetrirnTo. Vulg. : ' medietatem,' a word which 
Cicero (De Univ. vii.) scarcely acknowledges, occurs 
often in the Vulg., e. g. Ex. xxvi. 12; 2 Chr. ix. 6. 

TpoTTWK dXXayds, sc. r)\iov, as Deut. xxxiii. 14. ' The 
solstices.' So Horn. Od. xv. 404 : odi rpondi Tif\lou). 
Tpon-mv is from Tporrrj, The reading rpoirav, from rponos, 
which was given by Mai, is opposed to the context. 

McTa^oXds Kaipuf, not only 'changes of seasons,' 
but all changes produced by the position of the sun, 
as day and night, heat and cold, etc. 

19. 'EciauTwi' kukXous, ' the cycles of years,' the lunar 
and solar cycles, the intercalary method, the sacred 
and'civil reckonings, etc. 

"Aorpftii' 6^crcis, ver. 29, 'positions of stars' at 
various times of the year. With this passage Grimm 
compares Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii. 61 : ' Horainum ratio 
non in caelum usque penetravit ) Soli enim ex aui- 
mantibus nos astrorum ortus, obitus, cursusque cogno- 
vimus : ab hominum genere finitus est dies, mensis, 
annus : defectiones solis et lunae cognitae, praedictae- 
qne in omne posterum tempus, quae, quantae, quando 
futurae sint.' 

20. ^uo-eis . . Otipiuf. This would comprise zoology, 
^cr. liimv. ' Natures of animals.' This includes the 

more general department; Ovpoi/s 6r)piav, 'the rage of wild 
beasts,' the special. This latter phrase occurs xvi. 5. 
Comp. Deut. xxxii. 33 : Bvpits SpoKovrtov , . BvpAt dcnridui/. 
Solomon, we are told, i Kings iv. 33, ' spake of trees, 
from the cedar tree in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop 
that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of 
beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of 
fishes.' The Book of Proverbs teems with allusions 

-VII. 2 




to the life and habita of animals, e.g.i. 17; vi. 6-8 ; 
xxvi. 2, II ; XXX. 15, 19, 25-31. 

n>'cu)i<lT<iii' pios, ' vim ventorum,' Vulg. This 
translation seems plainly erroneous, though the phrase 
does occur in this sense in Philo, De Mund. Opif. 19 
(I. p. 13) : vTjvfitias Km pias irvtvuatav. Our author uses 
/Si'ai avfuav, iv. 4. The enumeration of the objects of 
Wisdom is given in pairs connected together in thought. 
Tlvfvii. ^ias is joined to StaXoyttriioiis av6pasna>v : both refer 
to rational beings, and therefore can have nothing to do 
with winds. The meaning doubtless is, ' the powers of 
spirits.' The opinion of Solomon's supremacy over the 
spirit-world was widely spread. Thus Joseph. Ant. viii. 
3 : irapt<rxf 8' avT<f fiaBe'iv 6 eeor Kai t^v Kara tS>v taifiovav 
TC)(yr)v fli la^fKfiav Ka\ dtparteiav Toii avdpuynoi^, ETrcoSdf TC 
mivTo^afievos ats waprjyopf'iTai ra voar^para, (tat rpoiTovs ($op- 
Ka>(Tta>v KaT(\(mfV, oit (vSovfifva ra Saiiiovta 01s firjKer inavf\6tXv 
fK^iaKovai. Kai avrrj p^xP^ ^^^ "^^P VM**' h ^^po-TTfla irXfifTTOv 
Urx^"- See Fabric, Cod. Pseud. V. T. vol. i. cap. cxciv. 

AiaXoyiaiious d^Bp. Not ' the thoughts of men,' 
which none but God can know, but ' reasonings,' the 
ways in which men reason and argue, =: psychology. 
This would also include insight into character. 

Aiai^opd; ^utSiv, ' differences of plants,' = botany. 

Auvtificis p'twc, ' virtues of roots,' = pharmacy. 
Clem. Alex, quoting this passage, Strom, ii. 2 (p. 430, 
Pott.), remarks : iVtoutois airaat ti)v (jjvaiitfiv fp,nfpifiKr)(\)e 
Bttopiav Trfv Kara Tor alcrdrp-ov Koorpov inavrav tS>v yFyoKoroH'* 
c^^r &i Ka\ irtpi raJK voijTav alfiTTfTot, 81 i)v cnaryfi' oaa t« 

rfoTi )c.T.X. On the proper use of medicines see Ecclus. 
xxxviii. 1-15. 

21. KpuirT(i. Vulg.: 'abscon8a,'=abscondita. See 
on xviii. 9. 

' All such things as are secret or manifest ' in- 
clude all the objects of Wisdom before mentioned. For 
tpfJMvrj the Vulg. gives ' improvisa,' reading, it may be, 
a<t>avTJ, which is found in no MS., but is quoted by 
Euseb. Praep. Evang. xi. 7. So S. Ambr. de Abrah. 
ii- 7 (P- 383. Ben.). 

'Eyvuv. ' Them I know,' Eng. Bather : ' I knew;' 
' didici,' Vulg. 

22. Ttxi'iTis ■ . flfo+io, so xiv. 2, according to some 
MSS. God (ver. 15), who used Wisdom to frame the 
worlds, taught him. Hence he can call Wisdom his 
teacher, because it was through her mediately that he 
arrived at his knowledge. See Prov. iii. 19 and viii. 
22-31, which tells how Wisdom was witli God when 
He created the universe. This personifying of Wisdom 
is a prophecy of its use as a title of the Son of God. 
Comp. a similar personification Ecclus. xxiv. S. Aug. 
says, De Trin. iv. 20 : ' Cum pronunciatur in Scriptura 
aut enarratur aliquid de eapientia sive dicente ipsa sive 
cum de ilia dicitur, Filius nobis potissimum insinuatur.' 

22.-viii. 1. Properties of Wisdom; her nature and 

In this very fine description of Wisdom her attri- 
butes are stated to be twenty-one ; in which some 
have seen a cabalistic use of numbers, taking that 
number as the product of the sacred 3 and 7, 3 being 
the symbol of what is divine, 7 of completion and rest. 
The number of epithets varies in some of the versions ; 
but this seems to have arisen from the double trans- 
lations of some words, as in the Vulg. (f>iKav6pamos is 
rendered by ' humanus,' ' benignus.' For an accumula- 
tion of epithets similar to those in this passage Grimm 
quotes (from Nitzsch) Clem. Alex. Protr. vi. 72, who 
gives a long catalogue of attributes to r ayaBov. 

"EoTi yAp iy aurrj. The reading aunj, found in A. 
and Euseb. Praep. Ev. vii. 12, and xi. 14, favours the 
patristic identification of Wisdom with the Holy Spirit ; 
a notion which is somewhat in advance of the author's 
theology, though half implied in ix. 1 7. The ideas of 
•divine and human wisdom are not always clearly dis- 
tinguished, and run up into each other. S. Method. 
Conv. dec. Virg. vii. (xviii. p. 121, Migne) has to t^c 
iTcxftiat vofpou nvfvpa Ka\ aywv Kai povaytvis. 

r&p gives the reason for the first clause of ver. 33, 
especially proving that Wisdom is itavruv Ttxylrit. 
Many of the epithets in this famous passage are ap- 
plicable to our Blessed Lord. Comp. Heb. iv. 12. 
S. Aug. : ' Neque enim multae, sed una sapientia est, 
in qua sunt immensi quidam atque infiniti thesauri 



[ra. 23-^ 

rerum intelligibilium, in quibus sunt omnes invisibiles 
atque incommutabiles rationes rerum, etiam visibi- 
lium et mutabilium, quae per ipsam factae sunt.' De 
Civ. XI. X. 3. 

NocpoK, ' intelligent,' ' intellectual.' S. Greg. Naz. 
Carm. lib. i. § ii. 83 (ii. p. 303, Ben.) calls angels vdft: 

^irj ftfv Kadapoi Koi dei(aoi depanovrfs ' 

ovpm/ov tvpiv (xovaiVy dyyoi v6es, ayyiKoi taffKoL 

So again, ml v6fs daiv f\a(f>pol, and OTrXot rt voepoi 
T(. lb. This passage has been accused of Platonism. 
See Burton, Bampt. Lect. III. note 30. Tlie Stoics 
called the Supreme Being rh wfpn'xov ra oka voipov (Cud- 
worth, Syst. Intell. iv. 25, p. 655, ed. Mosh.), and mievfia 
votpov Ka\ irvpS>8fs, Plut. Plac. Philos. c. vi. The author 
uses philosophical terms to express orthodox doctrine. 
He nowhere oversteps the limits of Scriptural belief. 
We may note that Philo, De Concup. 10 (II. p. 356), 
divides the soul into i/otpa, XoyiKt), and aiaSqTiKT). 

Movoyevks, ' unicus,' Vulg. ' Single in nature,' 
"•alone of its kind,' in opposition to noKviifph (Heb. i. i), 
which means ' manifold ' in its attributes and opera- 
tions. I Cor. xii. II : 'All these worketh that one 
and the self-same spirit, dividing to every man seve- 
rally as He will.' This epithet, as applied to the Son 
of God, occurs John i. 14, 18, etc. Clem. Bom. Ep. I. 
ad Cor, xxv. uses it of the Phoenix : roCro itovoyevh 
imapxov. For the use of p.ovoy(VT)s in Plato (expressing 
the universe figuratively) see Bunsen, God in Hist, 
vol. ii. note O, Append, p. 317, Eng. ed. 

Atirrii', ' subtle,' ' immaterial,' beyond the ken of 
the natural man. i Cor. ii. 14. 

EuKiiTjTOK (ver. 24), ' active,' ' energetic,' ever in 

Tpttfoc, 'disertus,' Vulg., which also places this 
epithet before ' mobilis ' ((vkIv.). The usual word is 
Tpiivris, 'piercing.' TpavU in connection with -/KSiaaa 
is found X. 21, and Is. xxxv. 6, where it means ' elo- 
quent.' Here probably the signification is ' pene- 
trating,' 'keen.' So Philo, De Mund. Opif. 21 (I. 
p. 15)- 

'A(i6Xurroi', like the sunbeam, ' unpolluted' by its 
contact with earthly objects. Epict. iv. 11. 8. 

Ia^€S, ' certus,' Vulg. ' Sure,' ' unerring.' Euseb. 
Fraep. Ev. vii. 12 and xi. 14 omits from o-q^c to 
a/ifpifivov inclusive. 

'AirfniaiTov, ' suavis,' Vulg. Taking it in the 
active sense, ' uuharming,' which seems a little weak. 
' Unharmed ' is better, as Gutb. expresses it, ' which 
works in everything, but is affected and influenced by 

♦iXdyaGoi'. 2 Tim. iii. 3 ; Tit. i. 8 ; Polyb. vi. 

53- 9- 

'0|il, 'acute,' keen and sagacious. 

'AkuXutoc, ' which cannot be letted,' Eng. ' irre- 

EuEpycTiKiSi'. ' Beneficent ' even to the unthankful. 
Luke vi. 35. 

23. ^iKivSpijiirov the Vulg. translates by two words, 
' humanus,' ' beniguus.' 

B^^aioi', da4>aXes, ' stedfast and secure ' in all its 

'Aficpip.i'oi', a litotes for airapKfs, = ' self-sufiScing.' 

rion-oSumfioc, a new word, xi. 17; xviii. 15, 
' having all power.' Method, p. 373 A (Migne). 

noftmo-Koiroc, 'all-surveying,' overlooking all the 
operations of mind and nature. 

Aid itivrav x'^po"*' iri'eupidTui', 'permeating, pene- 
trating all spirits,' the intelligent, as men (yoepwp), the 
pure, as angels {icadapav), yea, the most subtle of all 
(XmroTorai/). The Vulg. gives : ' qui capiat omnes spi- 
ritus, intelligibilis, mundus, subtilis,' reading votpov, 
KaOapbv, XfjTToTorov, which is found only in one or two 
inferior cursive MSS. For 'intelligibilis' (Ecclus. iii. 
32, Vulg.) see on x. 4. 

24r-26. See Prolegomena, pp. 28 f. 

24. r(ip. She penetrates all spirits, for she exerts 
the greatest activity. 

Kin^orctjf , ' motion,' ' action.' ' Mobilibus,' Vulg. 
Reusch proposes ' motibus,' which S. Aug. indeed once 
reads, iii. 304. 

— vn. 26.] 



Aii^Kci Se KOI xi'P^^- The Vulg. renders : ' attingit 
autem ubique.' Am. compares Tertullian's phrase, 
' Perinea tor universitatis spiritus ' (Apol. c. 21), which, 
however, he attributes to Seneca. Hooker, Eccl. Pol. 
V. Ivi. 5 : ' All things are partakers of God, they are 
His offspring. His influence is in them, and the per- 
sonal Wisdom of God is for that very cause said to 
excel in nimbleness or agility, to pierce into all intel- 
lectual, pure and subtile spirits, to go through all, and 
to reach unto everything. Otherwise, how should the 
same Wisdom be that which supporteth, beareth up 
(Heb. i. 3), and sustaineth all V Clem. Al. Strom, v. 

14 (p. 699, Pott.) quotes 8t^w« . . . KaBapo-rrfra. Grimm 

notes that the verbs StriKdv and x^P"" are used by 
Stoical writers in connection with the spirituality and 
immateriality of the Anima mundi. Thus he quotes 
Plutarch, Plac. Phil. i. 8. 1 7 : 01 ZtwikoI . . . 6(6r dnofPai- 
vovrai . , . nvfy/ia /icv StiJKoi/ 8i' oKov tov KSirfiov, ray fie 
Trpotnjyopiat fifrdXait^avov 8m rac ryy i/Xiyr, 81' 5^ *'X*'/"/''f> 
frnp<iXXd|(tr. Atlienag. Suppl. vi. (pp. 32, 34, ed. Otto) : 
01 ottA T^ff trroas fii v\rjs . , . <^atTi tA irvtiifta xf^ptiv tov Ofov 

. . . fillJKfl 8c fit okov TOV Koafiov. 

25. rdp. Tlie proof of the purity and immateriality 
of Wisdom. 

'At|iis, (parallel with dwSppota,) ' breath,' Eng. 
Ecclus. xxiv. 3 : ' I came out of the mouth of the Most 
High, and covered the earth as a cloud.' Usually 
'vapour.' It serves to show the Divine nature of 
Wisdom. S., quoting Dionysius, applies this 
passage to Christ, De Sent. Dion. 15 (I. p. 254): 

avdXoyas jriiXii/ o Xpioror aTfjus X/ytToi* 'Arfils yop, <f>ii<rtv, 
tan rijc tov Qfov Swa/ifac. 

'Airop^ia, ' effluence,' ' emanatio quaedam,' Vulg. 
(perhaps reading tis for r^r). These and the following 
expressions prepare the way for the recognition of the 
Aiyos, the Son of God. There is no Platonism here. 
The passage is quoted by Orig. Cont. Cels. iii. 72 (I. p. 
494), who reads tiktKpivfit, and may be compared with 
Ecclus. i. I ; Prov. ii. 6. 

M€|iia)i)i^i'oi'. The usual form is nfiuaatifvos, but 
lufuajin. is found Tob. ii. 9, and iu Dio Cass. 51, 52. 

Orig. Fragm. in Prov. (xiii. p. 20, Migne), quoting 
memoriter, reads, oiStx yap tU avriiv aKortivot dniriimi. 
Comp. S. James iii. 15 

nap€|X7riirTei, lit. ' steals in unnoticed.' * 

26. 'AirauYowr/ia, ' reflection,' or ' radiance.' The •■ 
latter probably is the meaning here, ' light emitted,' 
'splendour,' like (pas « iparbs of the Nicene Creed. The 
word does not occur again in 0. T. S. Paul, Heb. i. 3, 
speaking of Christ (it may be with this passage in his 
memory), calls Him awaiyaafia t^s S6^t]s koI xapaTrip Tijs 
imoaTaiTfms avTov. See also 2 Cor. iii. 18. Philo uses 
the word De Mund. Op. 51 (I. p. 35): vis avdp<mos 

Kara pav t^c fiiafomi' aKtlurai Bdio Xoyo), Trjs p,aKapias (f>V(T((os 
(Kfiaydov r) airoavaapa ij dnavyaapa ytyovas. And De 

Concup. II, referring to the 'breath {nvdpa) breathed 
into man,' he calls it t^s pxtKapiat Koi Tptapwcapias ^vtrtas 
diravyatrpa (II. p. 356). The meaning of anavy. may be 

doubtful in these passages, but in the following it must 
be taken in the sense of ' reflection.' He is commenting 
on Ex. XV. 1 7 : ' Thou . . . shalt plant them ... in the 
Sanctuary which Thy hands have established.' to de 

iyiaapa, oiov ayiiav dnavyaarpia, filpripa ap\tTVirov, Dc 

Plantat. § 12. (I. p. 337). S. Aug. (De Trinit. iv. 20) 
uses the passage to show the consubstantiality of the 
Father and the Son, and indeed takes generally what 
is said of Wisdom to be spoken of the Son. Thus 
Serni. cxviii. 2. Ben. : ' De sapientia Patris, quod est 
Filius, dictum est. Candor est enim lucis aeternae. 
Quaeris Filium sine Patre ] Da mihi lucem sine can- 
dore. Si aliquando non erat Filius, Pater lux obscui-a 
erat. Quomodo enim non obscura lux erat, si candorem 
non habebat t Ergo semper Pater, semper Filius. Si 
semper Pater, semper Filius.' And this is usual among 
the Fathers. See Arn. and A. Lap. in I. Our author 
probably means (primarily) that Wisdom is a divine 
attribute, communicated iu some sort to man, and seeu 
in creation. 

'AKTjXiSuToi'. This word occurs in Philo, De Cherub. 
28 (I. p. 156); De Nobil. 6 (II. p. 443). 

"Ei-epYcios, ' majestatis,' Vulg. Gutb. Rather, 
' operation,' ' action.' Eph. iii. 7. 



[vn. 27- 

EiKi>K, SO Christ is called €iito>i< tov OfoO, 2 Cor. iv. 
4. Euseb. in Psalm. Ixxii. i (p. 426, Ben.) gives : rrjs 
TOV Barpos (Vfpydas. Orig. in Matt. Tom. XV. § 10 (III. 
p. 665) '• Kol o iaTTjp d(, a>s fiTTiv fiKav tov Qiov dopdrov, 
ovTtas Ka\ TTji dyadoTTjTOs avrov fiKoiv, So in Joann. Tom. 
vi. § 37 (IV. p. 156), and Tom. xiii. § 25 (IV. p. 236). 
Cont. Gels. vi. 62 : Tray dviip, ov Xpiarot icm Kf<j)a\ri, flKav 
Koi io^a Ofov virapxft. For tUav implying not likeness 
only, but also representation and manifestation, see 
Dr. J. B. Lightfoot, on Ep. to Coloss. i. 15. It is fre- 
quently used by Philo, e.g. De Conf. Ling. 20 (I. p. 
419) : Trjv flxdva avTov, tov UpaToTov \6yov, De Profug. 
19 (I. p. 561); De Somn. I. 41 (I. p. 656). 

27. Mio he o3(ra. ' Though she is one,' with refer- 
ence to the epithets ver. 22, povoyevh, 7ro\vpepfs. I Cor. 

xii. 1 1 : TTtivra ravra evfpyfi to fv Kai to avT6 Tlvevfia. 

tAivouaa ly aurrj. Hemaiuing the same, without 

KaiKi^ci. She is the author of all changes and 
spiritual renovations. Ps. civ. 30 : ' Thou sendest forth 
Thy Spirit, they are created, and Thou renewest (dra- 
KatvifU) the face of the earth.' Comp. Ps. cii. 26, 27 ; 
Heb. vi. 6 ; Rev. xxi. 5. Grimm compares Aristot. 
Phys. viii. 5 : 8«A km ' Aua^ayopas opdas Xey«t, tov vovv 
anaBj] (pdiXKav Ka\ dptyri fivai, (neidrjirfp Kivriaeas dpxrjv avrov 
noui dvai' oCto) yap &v povas Kivoiij (utiwjror i>v koi Kparoit) 
dpiyfjs &v. S. Aug., De Fid. et Symb. cap. iii., refers 
the words to the "Word : ' Manet enim illud Verbum 
incommutabiliter : nam de ipso dictum est, cum 
de Sapientia diceretur, in se ipsa manens iunovat 

KarA yet-tos, ' per nationes,' Vulg. ' Quaque 
hominura aetate,' Wahl. ' Through (all) generations,' 
as Esth. ix. 27. 

MeTaPaiKouo-a, passing from one to another. 

^iXous 6cou. As Abraham. Comp. ver. 14; 2Chron. 
XX. 7 ; Is. xli. 8 ; Jas. ii. 23. So Philo says : wot arocj)6s 
B(ov 0iXor. Fragm. ii. p. 652. Comp. Clem. Rom. 
Ep. ad Cor. I. x. i. and xvii. 2. Hooker, Eccl. Pol. I. 
V. 3, writes thus : ' With Plato what one thing more 
usual, than to excite men unto love of wisdom, by show- 

ing how much wise men are thereby exalted above men ; 
how knowledge doth raise them up into heaven ; how 
it maketh them, though not gods, yet as gods, high, 
atlmirable, and divine V 

npo<^Tas. Upo^iyrris means ' an interpreter of 
God's will,' not necessarily 'one who foretells the future,' 
just as the Eng. word ' prophesying ' is used of pre- 
diction and of preaching or interpreting. Abraham is 
called ' a Prophet,' Gen. xx. 7 ; Tob. iv. 1 2. Comp. 
Rom. xii. 6; I Cor. xiv. 3. Nothing can be deter- 
mined from this passage concerning the continuance 
or cessation of prophecy after the return from captivity. 
But see I Mace. iv. 46; ix. 27; xiv. 41. Josephus 
mentions various instances of prophecy in later Jewish 
history. Thus, Bell. Jud. I. iii. 5, he relates how one 
Judas foretold the murder of Antigonus, and (III. viii. 
3 and 9) how he himself was inspired to predict certain 
events. He also says that the Essenes aspired to this 
gift, and that their predictions generally were verified by 
the event ; Bell. Jud. II. viii. 12. See Prolegom. p. 19. 

Canon Liddon, after quoting some of the remark- 
able terms applied to Wisdom in this Book, observes 
(Bampton Lectures, ii. pp. 94, 95, ed. 1867): 'Her 
[Wisdom's] sphere is not merely Palestine, but the 
world, not this or that age, but the history of humanity. 
All that is good and true in human thought is due to 
her : " in all ages . . . prophets." Is there not here, 
in an Alexandrian dress, a precious and vital truth 
sufficiently familiar to believing Christians 1 Do we not 
already seem to catch the accents of those weighty 
formulae by which Apostles will presently define the 
pre-existent Glory of their Majestic Lord ? Yet are we 
not steadily continuing, with no very considerable 
measure of expansion, in that very line of sacred 
thought to which the patient servant of God in the 
desert, and the wisest of kings in Jerusalem, have 
already and so authoritatively, introduced us V 

28. OuB^i'. MSS. often vary between ov6iv and ovbiv. 
Vulg. gives ' nemiuem.' 

ZuraiKouKTa, ' making a home with,' ' being wedded 
to.' Used commonly with <fo;3y, "x^**? etc. 

-vni. 2 




29, 30. The arrangement of the words in these 
verses is very forcible. 

20. rip gives the reason why God loves those who 
are wedded to Wisdom, ver. 28. It is because of the 
beauty and purity which she imparts to them. 
Qi<TUf, ' order,' ' harmonious arrangement.' 

30. TouTo, sc. <t>as. Light yields its place to darkness. 
'An-iorxu'et, ' withstands,' ' prevails against.' Diod. 

xvii. 88 (var. lect.); Dion Cass, xlviii. 11, a. Vice 

is never conqueror as long as a man is governed by 
practical Wisdom. When the wise are led astray, as 
Solomon was, they cease to be wise. S. Bern. (Serm. xiv. 
De Sept. Donjs) joins this verse to the nest chapter 
(vol. i. p. 2343, ed. Mab.) : ' Sapieutia vincit mali- 
tiam, dum Satanam content Dei virtus, et Dei sapientis 
Christus. Attingit ergo a fine usque ad finem fortiter, 
in caelo quidem dejiciendo superbura, in raundo su- 
perando maliguum, in inferno spoliaudo avarum.' 


L This verse is best joined to the preceding chapter, 
W carrying on the same subject, and not =' ergo,' as the 
Vulg. gives it. The Eng. version omits the particle 
altogether. See on vii. 30. 

AiarciKci, ' she reacheth,' ' extendeth herself' This 
verb is used intransitively by late authors, e. g. Polyb. 
and Diod. Thus Polyb. Hist. V. Ixxxvi : otros . . . 
iimtv* jrpor raCar. Diod. Sic. xii. 70. In Attic the 
intr. sense is expressed by the middle voice of this verb. 

'Atth Ttiparoi cis Wpas. ' From one end of the uni" 
verse to the other.' Cp. Bom. x. 18 ; Philo, Vit. Mos. 
i. 19 (II. p. 98). This passage is often quoted and ex- 
plained by the Fathers, e.g. S. Bern. I. p. 2343, A, B ; 
p. 1680, C; pp. 1387, 1388 (ed. Mab.); Orig. in Matt, 
torn. xvi. (III. p. 712, Ben.): oJ (Jesu Christi)ro fiiytBos 
<f>mi>tTai durretvovTos air6 nfparos yrjs fit to irepac avTijs (v- 
pwrrtra, icat iioncovvrot rat 'EncXijtriar xpqmas. The Anti- 
phon in the old English Church, sung Dec. 1 6, and still 
marked in the P. B. Calendar as 'O Sapientia,' is taken 
from this verse : 'O Sapientia, quae ex ore Altissimi 
prodiisti, attingens a fine usque ad finem fortiter, sua- 
viterque disponens omnia, veni ad docendum nos viam 
prndentiae.' Boethius, who is said not to have quoted 
Scripture in his De Consol. Phil., has in this work the 
following words, which look like a recollection of this 

passage : ' Est igitur, inquit, summum bonum, quod 
regit cunctos fortiter, suaviterque disponit,' iii. 1 2. 

EupwoTwf . . . xpiloTus. ' Fortiter . . suaviter,' Vulg. 
' Mightily . . . sweetly,' Eng. Energy and mildness 
('fortiter iu re,' 'suaviter in modo') are requisites of 
good government. ' In most decent and comely sort,' 
says Hooker, Eccl. Pol. I. ii. 3. 

2-20. Properties of Wisdom under the representation 
of a Bride : how s/ie sways ail life, gives ability to 
govern, and largely blesses him who loves her. 

2. The author returns to his quest for Wisdom, vii. 7 ff. 

'E|«t^Tr)aa . . i5rjTr]o-(». ' Exquisivi . . quaesivi,' 

'Ek i-ciTTiTos. Ecclus. vi. 1 8 : TtKvov, (K vfOTJirds aou 
(ViX(^at iraiSflav, xai tas iroXimv €vpria(ic (rocplav. 

'Ayay^ffflcu, ' to take home,' with ('navra, as 3 Mace, 
i. 1 2 : iTpo<f>fp6iifms iavrdn. For iryo/iot, ' to take a wife,' 
comp. Hom. Od. vi. 1 59. xiv. 211: riyay6ftt)v it ywaiKa. 

Ton (j)iK6<To<f>oy, says Plato, De Rep. vL p. 475, <ro<pias 

<f)il<T0iuv iifiBvuJfnjv »wu oi T^s iiiv, T^t 8' oi, aXXd namit. 
S. Dionys. Areop. (i. e. the author writing under his 
name), quoting part of this verse, speaks of our Book 
as a prepai'ation for, or an entrance into. Holy Scrip- 
ture : CK roll trpoujrayayais tuk \oyiav tl/p^aiit riva Xiyovra 

k.tX De Div. Kom. iv. 12. 



[viii. 3- 

3. Eiyiviiav. ' Generositatem illius glorificat,' Vulg. 
' She glorifies his noble birth,' i. e. the lover's. Eng. : 
'She magnifieth her nobility.' One cannot be quite 
sure that the Vulg. did not mean 'illius' to be= 
' suam,' as it uses pronouns with some irregularity, 
e. g. S. Luke i. 5 1 : ' Dispersit superbos mente cordis 
sni,' where the use of the reflexive pronoun has misled 
S. Augustine, who refers ' sui,' which really represents 
avT&v, to ' Deus.' S. Hil. in Ps. cxxvii. (p. 427, C) 
renders : ' Honestatem glorificat convictum Dei iiabens.' 
But it seems most natural to take eiyev. as belonging 
to "Wisdom herself, as Calmet says : ' EUe fait voir la 
gloire de son origine, en ce qu'elle est ^troitement unie 
a. Dieu.' In connection with vers. 5-8 the meaning is : 
' If a man wants noble birth in a bride, who is nobler 
born than Wisdom ]' S. Aug. : ' An vero generositas 
solet significare aliud quam parentes? Contubernium 
vero nonne cum ipso patre aequalitatem clamat atque 
asseritf De Mor. Eccl. 28. 

Tufi^iiiHTiv 0. Ixouo-a. Comp. ver. 9, 16. ' Dwelling 
with God, as a wife with her husband.' See Prov. viii. 
2 2. Thus Philo, De Ebriet. § 8 (I. p. 36 1) : t6v yovv To8e 
TO nav (pyaaafji€vov ojjfjuovpyop ofxov xai irartpa ttvat tov 
ytyovvTOS €v6vs iv Si'ki; (prjaofifV firyrfpa Se Trjn tov irtTToirf- 
Korros inKrrrjurjV, g (Tvvwv 6 Gfoj, oi)( i>s miBpumoi, tfrnfipt 
yivtmv. For (rvfi^. comp. Ecclus. xxxi. 26; Polyb. v. 
81. 2 ; Cic. ad Att. xLii. 23. Su/jjSicor^t occurs Bel and 
Drag. 2. 

4. rdp. We know that God loves her because she is 
privy to His mysteries. 

MdoTis, fem. of fiuonjr = /ivirrayayns, ' one who 
initiates into mysteries,' ' a teacher,' as Eng. Marg. 
Here, ' a teacher of God's knowledge,' which He im- 
parts to her. Vulg., ' doctrix.' This word is found no- 
where else in the Vulg. or in class, authors, but occurs 
in S. Aug. De Mor. Eccl. xvi, and in Serv. in Virg. 
Aen. xii. 159. Mvorit means sometimes 'one initiated,' 
and is by some so taken in this passage. 

AipcTi's. Vulg., ' electrix,' Sn. Xty. ' Lover,' Eng., 
is certainly wrong. The marg. rendering, ' chooser,' 
is correct. God shares His works with Wisdom, who 

chooses what His works shall be. Unusual words of 
similar formation to ' doctrix ' and ' electrix ' in Vulg. 
are these: 'assistrix,' ix. 4; 'apostatrix,' Ezek. ii. 3; 
' auguratrix,' Isai. Ivii. 3; ' provocatrix,' Zeph. iii. i; 
' criminatrix,' Tit. ii. 3; ' aversatrix,' Jer. iii. 6; 'exas- 
peratrix,' Ezek. ii. 8. 

5. Trjs ri iriirra ipyatflfkivr^s. ' The creator and pre- 
server of all tilings.' S. Aug. De Mor. Eccl. i. 698 A : 
' Quodsi honestas est possessio quae concupiscitur in 
vita, quid sapientia est honestius, quae omnia operatur V 
Comp. Prov. \ iii. 18: ' Kiches and honour are with 
me ; yea, durable riches and right eou^-uess ;' and 2 
Chron. i. 12. 

6. ' If practical intelligence is wanted in a bride, 
where can it be found better than in Wisdom 1' Corap. 
Prov. xxxi. 10 ff. 

Tis ouT^s Tuc orrui' p,. e. Tcxi*. ; ' Qtiis honim qliae 
sunt . . . artifex V Vulg. The Eng., ' Who of all that 
are V is opposed to the collocation of the words and to 
the parallel ra wdvra, ver. 5. Translate : ' Who more 
than she is the artificer of all things that are V 

Tex>'iTr)9. This has been altered into Tf;(WT»t as vii. 
22 ; but it is not uncommon to find the masc. substantive 
as predicate to the feminine. So xiv, 2, in some MSS. 

7. AiKatoaunji' in its fullest sense, including all vir- 
tues ; and among the four cardinal virtues SMaioavin)v in 
a more restricted signification =' justice.' Clem. Al., 
Strom, vi. 11 (p. 788, Pott.), has (raxppoavvr) Knt (ppoinjarts 
cxSiSdiTKCt diKaioa-ivTjv xai dvSpfiav K.r.X. 

Oi Tr6yoi TouTtjs. ' Her (Wisdom's) labours among 
men are virtues.' Vulg. : ' Labores hujus magnas ha- 
bent virtutes,' which waters down the forcible expres- 
sion of the Greek, ndiwi may well mean ' the produce 
of labour,' as x. 10, where see note. 

loM^poo'ui^i'. Here are named the four cardinal 
virtues of Greek Ethics, araxfipoaivri, (ppotnja-ts, ducaioirvyi;, 
and avhpfia. In 4 Mace. v. 22, 23 the four virtues are 
aruxf)po(Tvvt], dv8p(ia, SiKawtrvin}, and (vtri^ita; but i, 18 
we read : r^r ii irotfitas IStm KoBtoTatri (ppomiaK Kai 
SiKouxrvin} xai dvSpfla Ka\ aa^poavvr). With the latter 

enumeration agrees Philo, Quod Omn. Prol. § 10 (II. 





875), and Leg. Alleg. i. 19 (I. 56), where he speaks of 
the four rivers of Eden : im roirar /SovXcrai rat koto 
fifpos dptrat {•noypdcpfiv. Ei<r\ Si tAk apiSfiov reiraapfs, 
<j>p6vTiaii, <ra<t>p»xn>ni , avipia, Sixauxrvvii. This is derived 
from the Platonic school. Cicero, De Fin. v. 23. § 67 : 
' Proprium suum cujusque niunus est, ut Fortitude in 
laboribus periculisque cernatur ; Temperantia in praeter- 
mittendis voluptatibus ; Prudentia in delectu bouorum 
et malorum ; Jastitia in sue cuique tribueiido.' Comp. 
De Off. i. 5. See Tit. ii. 11, 12 ; and for the Christian 
virtues, Faith, Hope, and Charity, i Cor. xiii. 

'ExSiSaaKCi, ' she teacheth thoroughly ;' ' edocet.' 
4 Mace. V. 22 : iraxppoavyriv yap ruias {Kii&diTKft. 

'fly yuyr)anuir€pw. Past. Herm. Mand. viii. 9 : 
Ttwrav ayaOwTfpov ovStv (tmv (V r^ ^ap tUp av^patrtav, 
Ecclus. XXV. II ; .\1. 27. 

8. noXinrcipulf, ' wide experience.' Ecclus. xxv. 
6. But as experience cannot be concerned with the 
future (ja ptfKKovTa), the word is probably used in a 
secondary sense = ' great knowledge.' So Vulg. : ' mul- 
titudinem sapientiae;' in which signification Wahl 
quotes Ael. Var. Hist iv. 19. This verse is partially 
quoted by Clem. AL, Strom, vi. 8. (p. 755, Pott.), who 
has tUa^fi. 

EUd{ci seems more correct than tiKa^dv, for ' to 
conjecture things of old ' is absurd as said by an un- 
scientific Jew. What is meant is, that "Wisdom, in her 
perfection of knowledge, knows the jiast and coiyectures 
the future. In the ' locu? classieus ' about Culchas, 
Horn. II. i. 70, it is said : 

4r 581; TO T forra, rd r* iatroiuva^ irpo r f6trra, 

Zxpo^^s Xoy. ' Subtilties of words.' ' Breviter, 
sententiuse et acute dicta,' Wahl. Applied to pro- 
verbs, Prov. i. 3. Comp. Ecclus. xxxix. 2, 3 : 'He 
will keep the sayings of the renowned men ; and where 
subtle parables are {tv <rrpo<l>aU irapa06Ki>v), he will lie 
there also. He will seek out the secrets of grave 
sentences (napmiuav), and be conversant in dark par- 
ables {iy ahiyfiaat iTapa^Xav).' 

/iinyfUimv. ' Argumentorum,' Vulg. Forsit. 

' aenigmatum,' Reusch. The word is used of the 
' hard questions ' of the Queen of Sheba, r Kings x. i . 
Comp. Numb. xii. 8; i Cor. xiii. 12. For instances 
of ^enigmas see Ezek. xvii. 3 ff., and Judg. xiv. 12, 14, 
and I Esdr. iii. and iv. 

Zi])jicia Kal T^para, x. 16. This expression has 
been imported into the N. T., e.g. S. John iv. 48 ; Acts 
ii. 19. Comp. Jer. xxxix. 20. iription is a 'sign' or 'cre- 
dential ' of a mission from God, not necessarily super- 
natural: Ttpas is a 'portent' or 'prodigy' transcending 
experience. See Trench, Syn. of N. T. pt. ii. 

npoynwo-Kci, ' foreseeth,' Eng. Kather, ' under- 
standeth beforehand,' ' interprets their meaning.' 

KaipwK, definite part of time; XP^"""! indefinite, 
translated in Vulg. ' saeculorum.' Comp. Acts i. 7 ; 
I Thess. v. I ; Dan. ii. 21. The two words are clearly 
distinguished in Dem. (?) Contr. Naeer. p. 1357, 2 : 

rjv Si 6 )(p6yos oJror ta 'Aortlor fiir 5» ap\u>v 'ABijtnitrw, 6 
Kaipbs Si fv If ivokfiuiff i/uls irp&s AoKiSaifioviovi Ton v<rrt- 
pov TtoKtpov. Schaf. in loc. : ' xpovos simpliciter tempus : 
mipos tale tempus, cujus sit momentum in causa de qua 

9. 'Ayoy^crOai, see on ver. 2. Upos avp^iaxr. ver. 3. 
Zufx^ouX. iyoAStr, ' giving counsel by which I might 
obtain all good things.' ' Mecum communicabit de 
bonis,' Vulg. 

riofaiKEais, usually taken as = napapvSla, ' com- 
fort,' of which sense it is difficult to find another ex- 
ample, though the Vulg. ' allocutio,' which is used to 
signify ' an address for the sake of consolation,' shows 
how the above sense is obtained. So ' alluqui ' and 
'alloquium' su-e used. See Orell. in Hor. Epod. xiiL 
1 8, and note on ch. iii. 18. In S. John xi. 31 instead 
of the usual reading, ' consolabantur earn,' MS. Corb. 
gives 'adloquebantur earn.' 

♦poKTiSwi'. ' Cogitationis,' Vulg. ' Cog^tatio,' in 
the sense of ' anxiety,' ' care,' is uncommon. In this 
signification 'cogitatus' occurs Ecclus. xxxi. i, a. 

10-16. These verses are in thought dependent on 
tlSi>s on, ver. 9, and express Solomon's hopes and 
expectations wbeu he was seeking after Wisdom. 

X 2 



[tiii. 10- 

10. At* auT^f. 'On account of her,' as the final 
cause. So ver. 13, where Eng. wrongly changes the 

'O vioi. Solomon says, i Kings iii. 7 : ' I am but 
a little child.' Comp. ch. ix. 5. Ecclus. xlvii. 14. 

11. 'Ef Kpiirei. This refers doubtless to Solomon's 
famous judgment, i Kings iii. 16-28, where it is said 
that ' all Israel . . . feared the king ; for they saw that 
the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment.' 
The Vulg. adds at the end of the verse : ' et facies 
principura mirabuutur me ;' a clause which has arisen 
from a double translation of the Greek. ' Of a quick 
conceit,' Eng. ' Conceit ' is conception, thought, under- 
standing. Comp. Shakesp., The Merchant of Venice, 
I. i : 

' With purpose to be dressed in an opinion 
Of wisdom, gravity, profound conceit." 

12. ncpijicrouot, ' sustinebunt.' ' Sustinere,' in the 
sense of ' to wait,' occurs often in Vulg., e.g. Ps. xxiv. 
3 ; Ecclus. i. 29 ; xxxvi. 18. 

ripoai^ownv, sc. top vovv, ' give heed.' Comp. xiii. 
I ; xiv. 30 ; Acts viii. 6 ; i Tim. i. 4. 

AaXouKTos em irXeioi'. ' Wlien I discourse at greater 
length.' Suppl. /imj. So 2 Mace, xii. 36 : tu>v ie mpX 

Tov'Ea&piv cVl irXflox iui\oiuva>v. 

Xcipa. An expression implying keeping the utmost 
silence, as in Job xxi. 5 ; xxix. 9, etc. ; Ecclus. v. 1 2. 

13. ' Praeterea,' Vulg. ' Moreover,' Eng. There is 
nothing to answer to this in the Greek. 

'hAavojaiav (parall. with ^v^/i. 010)1/.), ' immortal 
fame.' Comp. iv. i. The word has a higher meaning 
ver. 1 7 and xv. 3. The MS. Ephr. (C) here adds a 
clause commencing Koi Ttpfiv napa, the rest being illegible. 
It is found nowhere else. 

MtT^ji. aiui'. Ps. Cxi. 6 : fls iivripommov alwvtov Itrrat 

14. Aaottf, ' my own people.' 'E^wj, ' foreign nations.' 
Solomon is represented speaking as an ideal king. 
Grimm. So ver. 15. Comp. i Kings iv. 2i, 24. 

15. Me, with </)oj3i7fl. 

'AicouaoiTcs, ' when they hear of me.' 

'Ev irXTjflei, 'my own people,' contrasted with »V 
■noKfiuf. ' Good and gentle to my subjects, and brave in 
warJ Comp. Hom. II. iii. 1 79 : 

afK^ioTfpov, ffaaikeis t ayaOos, Kpanpot t ai;y«jTijr. 

Tl\rjdos used absolutely, as i Esdr. viii. 88 : K\av6iii>s yip 
^v iifyas iv tm irXi^dti. Dr. Bissel, following Bunsen 
(Bibelwerk), translates 'in counsel,' or 'the popular 
assembly.' But this is an idea quite foreign to our 
author's notions. 

16. Eio-eXOwK, 'returning to private life, I shall 
rest at her side, as by a beloved wife.' 

For irpoaafair. comp. Polyb. iv. 73. 3 ; Jos. Ant. 
XX. 2. I. 

Zui'ai<a(rTpo<)>T|. 3 Mace. ii. 31, 33; Died. Sic. iii. 18. 

Eu^po<run)i' k. x^P'^i'- I Mace. v. 54. Ps. 1. 10 : 
(wouTifif fit ayoXXiacrii' Km d^poirivrfv. Joel i. 16 ; 

Isai. xxii. 13 ; li. 3 ; S. Luke i. 14. Aristot. Eth. Nie. 

X. 7 • ^St'(rn7 rSav nar apfrrjv ivepytiwv rj koto t^v (roiplap 
dfioXnyoviifvas iaTiv. SoKU yovv f) <l>i\o<roq}ia BavficurTas 
riiovas fx*'" ta^aptonjTt Koi rw ^f^aia. 

17. TouTo, the considerations mentioned in vers. 

'AOavauia, v. 13. 

'Ee avyytytla, ' in affinity with Wisdom ;' speak- 
ing still of Wisdom as a bride who imparts of her 
possessions to her husband. Comp. Eccles. vii. 12 : 
Ufpttraeta yvunrftos T^f (TO<f}ias foHwroii/trfi tov irap aiirrjs. 

18. 'Ec i^iXia, ' married love,' parallel with ovyytv., 
ver. 17. 

T^pi|iis &Y<^^) ' pure delight.' Ecclus. xiv. 1 4 : 
emdviiias aya^^t. The Eng. ' great pleasure,' is feeble. 

'In the works of her hands are infinite riches.' 
Comp. the description of a good wife. Pro v. xxxi. 10- 
31 ; and Eccles. vii. 11, 12. 

nXouTos. Vulg., ' honestas.' See on vii. 11. 

'AKCKXiirfis, 'that fadeth not away,' as vii. 14. 8. 

Luke xii. 33 : Grjaavpov dvficKftirroi>, 

'Ev o-uyyup,!'. ip,iXias ofir. ' In the practice of 
intercourse with her.' S. Paul exhorts Timothy yv/i- 
va(f utavTov trpot fva-t^tiav, I Tim. iv. 7, 8. 

-vin. 20.] 



EiSkXcui. Vulg., ' praeclaritas,' &n. Xty. See on 
vii. 5. ' Fame, in the participation of her words.' 

19. After describing the qualities of the bride, 
the author mentions what the suitor has to oflFer on 
his part. 

'Hjitjf, as in S. John xvi. 4, etc. 

Eu^Mrhs, ' of good natural jjarts,' referrinp; to body 
and disposition, and explained by what follows, ^v\r)s 
re tkaxpv and >jX6ov els troifia a/jtiavrov. Gutb. The 
passage has been interpreted of the pre-existence and 
Incarnation of Christ. Thus S. Aug., De Gen. ad Lit. 
lib. X. cap. 18, of which chapter the heading in the 
Bened. ed. is : ' De anima Christi, an possit in ipsum 
convenire illud, " Puer autem ingeniosus eram V etc' 
He says here : ' Neque enim negligendi sunt, seu 
errent, seu verum sapiant, qui hoc specialiter et singu- 
lariter de aninia ilia dictum putant mediatoris Dei et 
hominum hominis Christi Jesu.' 

"eXoxoc, ' I obtained ;' a word which, as it might 
convey a wrong impression, as if the soul was a for- 
tuitous addition, the writer corrects by /laXXov fit, ver. 
20. So that the whole passage may be thus para- 
phrased : ' I was by nature endowed with good qualities 
of body and soul, or rather, it was because my soul 
was good and pure that a corresponding body was 
given it, and thus the ev<f>vta was brought about.' The 
author thus maintains that men are not ' born at all 
adventure ' (ii. 2), but come into the world by God's 
appointment. See Church Quart. Rev. Apr. 1874, ai-t. 
' The Book of Wisdom.' Compare Isai. Ivii. 16 : nvfviia 
yhp Ttap ifiov f^fX(v<r(Tai, xai Trvorjv iratrav (yi> (noirjtja. 
Jer. xxxviii. (xlv. Sept.) 16. That the soul comes 
from God is maintained by Solonjon, Eccles. iii. 2 1 ; 
xii. 7. Cp. Zech. xii. i. These passages seem to 
favour the doctrine of Creatioiiism, i. e. that souls are 
not derived by propagation from parents (which is 
Traducianism), but are created by God, and infused 
into the child before birth. S. Aug., commenting on 
this passage, says : ' Magis enim videtur adtestari opi- 
nioni, qua non ex una propagari, sed desuper animae 
venire creduntur ad corpora.' De Gen. ad Lit. lib. x. 

cap. vii. § 12. And again, interpreting S. John i. 9, 
he .says : ' Fortasse hoc dictum est ad discernendum 
spiritalem illuminationem ab ista coq)orali quae sive 
per caeli lumiuaria, sive quibusque ignibus illuminat 
oculos carnis ; ut hominem interiorem dixerit veni- 
entem in hunc mundum, quia exterior corporeus est, 
sicut hie mundus ; tanquam diceret, Illuminat omuem 
hominem veuientem in corpus, secundum illud quod 
scriptum est : " Sortitus sum . . . invoinquiuatum." ' 
De Peccat. Merit, i. 25. § 38. 

♦uxris dyoOris. ' Dicendum animam bonam hoc 
loco intelligi nou bonitate morali, aut gratiae justifi- 
cautis, sed bonitate naturali, quae est quacdam ad 
multas virtutes morales, in quibusdam hominibus, dis- 
positio, ex qua dicuutur esse bona indole, et bonas ha- 
bere propeusiones.' Estius, in I. 

20. MoXXoi' Be the Vulg. takes with aya66s, ' magis 
bonus ' (cp. ' magis versutus,' Plant. Asin. L i. 105), 
which is plainly wrong. It is a common form of cor- 
recting a previous statement, and here it modifies 
TKaxov, ver. 1 9. See above. Agreeably with this view, 
Mr. Churton paraphrases thus : ' If I should not rather 
say that I myself am the immortal soul, the offspring 
of God, the Father of spirits from whom that soul 
derived its goodness and generous nature, ajid came 
into a body that was free from blemish, and fitted to 
be its servant and instrument.' From this passage it 
is inferred that the author believed iu the pre-existence 
of souls, an idea supposed to be foreign to the purely 
Hebrew thought, and introduced from Plato and Py- 
thagoras. Josephup, however (Bell. Jud. II. vui. 1 1, 
1 4), mentions that the Pharisees believed that the souls 
of good men jiassed into other bodies, and that the 
Essenes held that souls ]>re-existed, and were drawn 
into bodies by a natural yearning (tvyyi nw). The 
doctrine is found in the Talmud, e. g. Cliagiga, 126, 
and in the Kabbalah. According to this all souls 
pre-exist in the World of Emanations, and are without 
exception destined to inhabit human bodies, and pursue 
their course upon earth for a certain number of yeai-s. 
Hence we are told that ' when the Holy One wished 



[vin. 21- 

to create the world, the universe was before Him in 
idea. He then formed all the souls which were des- 
tined for the whole human race. All were minutely 
before Him in the same form which they were to 
assume in the human body.' Ginsburg, The Kabbalah, 
pp. 31, 32. Philo has many passages on this subject. 
Thus De Somn. 22 (I. pp. 641, 642): ovtos 8« (6 arip) 

t<m \lrv)(S)V dtraiuiTav oikos. , . . Tovrav tmx yfrv^av nl fitv 
Kariamv ivbtSritroiKvai (Tu>ixa(Ti Bvtjtois, Saai TrpocryfioraToi 
Koi (piKoddftaToi. at &e avtp^ovTai, SiaKpi6fi(Tai iraXiv Kara 
roil iuro ((>v<rt<os opiaSfvras opurfwvs (cai xpovovs. See 
also De Mundo, 3 (II. p. 604), and De Gigant. 2, 3 
(I. pp. 263, 264). Traces of this opinion are said to 
be found in Deut. xxix. 14, 15 ; Job xxxviii. 19-21, 
Sept. ; and in S. John ix. 2, where the Apostles ask 
Christ whether the blind man or his parents had 
sinned that he was born with this infirmity. But 
this passage is capable of another interpretation. 
The author's opinion certainly is not identical with 
the Neo-Platonic, for by speaking of o-u/xa d/iian-oi' he 
plainly does not consider all matter necessarily evil. 
Nor is it the same as Philo's, who deems that souls 
are confined in bodies as punishment for sins com- 
mitted in their disembodied state ; while here the soul 
is good, and on that account is sent into a pure body. 
The doctrine of the pre-existeuce of souls has been 
condemned in Christian times as heretical (e. ff. in tlie 
Second Council of Constantinople), and those who hold 
the inspiration of the Book of "Wisdom are neces- 
sarily obliged to refuse to see it in this passage. But 
the plain meaning of the words points to some such 
opinion, which indeed may be held in an orthodox 
manner, as that in God's foreknowledge and purpose 
all souls pre-exist (see quotations on ver. 19), and that 
they descend from Him. Isai. xlix. i, 5 ; Jer. i. 5. 
Tertuli., de Anim. Artie, ii., says : ' Consequens est, 
ut ex Dei flatu animam professi, initiuni ei deputcmus. 
Hoc Plato excludit, iuuatam et iufectara animam 

volens : et natam autem docemus et factam, ex initii 
coustitutione.' The author says nothing of what is 
called the transmigration of souls, nor that God made 
some souls good and others evil. 

'HX60C The personality in ^\dov and ^lirjv, ver. 19, 
is rather confused, as we use the term ' I ' sometimes 
of body and soul regarded as an unity, sometimes uf 
soul alone. 

'Antorrof. There is no question here of original 
sin. The author seems to hold that there is a kind 
of harmony between soul and body, and that the 
purity of the former necessitates a pure corporeal re- 
ceptacle. Tiiat the outward form does in some mea- 
sure express the inward character \re all allow. The 
passage has been inter|)reted of the Incarnation of 
Christ, to which it readily accommodates itself. See 
on ver. 19. 

21. Wisdom is the gift of God in answer to prayer. 

'EyKpa-nis. Vulg- •' ' Et ut sciri quoniam aliter 
non possem esse continens.' S. Aug. quotes the pas- 
sage as referring to the grace of continency. De S. 
Virgin. § 43 (torn. iv. 362 g) ; Confess, vi. 11 ; Serm. 
clx. 7. But there is no question of chastity here, and 
the word ' continens ' may mean ' possessed of,' ' parti- 
cipant of,' as Ecclus. XV. i : ' continens justitiae,' iy 
Kparfis ToC vop-ov. Certainly the Eng. is right : ' that 
I could not otherwise obtain her,' i.e. Wisdom. *Ey- 
KpaTTji occurs in the same sense Ecclus. vi. 27 ; lyKparfis 

yivopicvoi fij) d^ijs avrrjv ((xofplav^ 

Kol toOto . . . x<ipi$- A parentliesis. ' And this 
was a part of good sense,' viz. to know whose gift 
Wisdom is. Comp. S. James i. 5, 17. 

'Ec^Tuxoi', ' I addressed,' ' approached in prayeh' 
Comp. xvi. 28 J 3 Mace. vi. 37 ; Born. xi. 2 ; Hebr. 
vii. 25. 

'E{ oXt]s Ti)? KopSias (lou. This expression occurs 
Deut. vi. 5 ; Josh. xxii. 5, and elsewhere, e. g. S. Mark 
xii. 30. 





1-18. Solomon's Prayer for Wisdom. 

1. For Solomon's Pi-ayer see i Kings iii. 6 ff. ; 
2 Chion. i. 8 ff. 

Bii. This late vocative is found in Deut. iii. 24 ; 
Ecclus. xxiii. 4 ; S. Matt, xxvii. 46. See Const. Ap. 
viii. 37. 

Kupie ToC A^ous. Comp. 2 Cor. i. 3 : Xlarrjp twv 
otKTipiiSni, and I Pet. v. 10 : Gf6s Trdcrijr ^npiros. The 
reading fXt'our <tov seems to have been derived from 
the words below, iv \6ytf vov ; or the reading may have 
been av cwoitja-as, which receives some support from 
the var. KaretrKfiaa-as in the next verse. 

'Ev Xoy. 'Ev, instrumental. Ps. xxxiii. 6 : ' By 
the word of the Lord were the heavens made.' 'Ev 
>oy. is parallel with tJ vo<j>la aov, ver. 2, and adum- 
brates the Personal Word, as S. John i. 3. 

2. Aeo-ircSir). Gen. i. 26 ; Ps. viii. 7. Past. Herm. 

Vis. III. C. iv. I ; OK irapfSaKtv 6 Kipios iraaav TrfV ktiitiv 
airrov at/|«ti< Kai otKoSo/xciK xai dfcnro^fiv rr/s KTiafas 

3. 'El' 6flri<5T. K. SiKaioo-. Comp. S. Luke i. 75 ; Eph. 
iv. 24. 'Offidr. 'piety towards God;' 8«aioo-. 'con- 
formity to law,' 'justice towards man.' 

Eu6uTT]Ti, ' rectitude,' ' straightforwardness of pur- 
pose.' 1 Kings iii. 6. 

4. ep6vb)y, plur. of majesty. So ver. 1 2, and xviii. 
15. Ps. cxxi, 5 : €Kf1 (Kadiaav Bpovoi (Is Kpiaiv, 6p6voi 
tin. oiKov Aavib. 

ndpeSpol', 'assessor.' Prov. viii. 27: 'When 
He prepared the heavens, I (Wisdom) was there.' 
Ecclus. i. I : 'All wisdom cometh from the Lord, and 
is with Him for ever.' Philo (Vit. Mos. IL p. 142) 
speaks of Justice as being ndptSpos ra ee^. Thus Pind. 
01. viii. 28 : 

Ai6f ((viov naptSpos d(/uf. 

Soph. Oed. Col. 1382 : A/kij $ip(ipos Ziji-dr. The Vulg. 
gives ' assistricem,' Sir. Xry. See on viii. 4. 'Asses- 

trix' occurs in Afran. ap. Non. Marcell. 73, 29. The 
passage in the text seems to identify Wisdom with 
the Word of God. S. John i. i. i Cor. i. 24 : Xpurrov 
BfoO bvvapiv Koi Qeov aotfilav, 

'Airo8oKtfi<ioT)s, ' reject as unqualified.' Comp. Ps. 
cxvii. 22 ; S. Matt. xxi. 42 ; Hebr. xii. 17. 

'Ek iraiSuf, ' from the number of Thy children.' 
If God gave him not Wisdom, it would prove that ho 
was not of the children of God. Comp. ii. 1 3. 

6. "On introduces a consideration why God should 
hear his prayer. 'For I am Thy servant,' etc. 

' Son of Thy handmaid ' (Ex. xxiii. 12), and there- 
fore doubly Thy servant, according to the Hebrew law, 
which regarded slaves' children (' born in the house,' 
Gen. xiv. 14 ; Eccl. ii. 7) as slaves. The phrase 'son 
of Thy handmaid' is common in 0. T. Comp. Ps. 
Ixxxv. 16 ; cxv. 7. 

'OXiyoxpii'ios, referring to the shortness of man's 
life, not to his own youth. 

'EXdaauc. Vulg. : ' minor ad intellectum.' ' Too 
weak to understand.' i Kings iii. 7 : ' I am but a 
little child : I know not how to go out or come in.' 
Comp. ch. viii. 10. 

e. K&v yip Tis. Orig. Contr. Cels. vi. 13 (I. 639, 

TAeios. ' Consummatus,' Vulg. ' Perfect in na- 
tural endowments,' 'accomplished.' With this verse 
comp. I Cor. xiii. 1-3, and 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17. Orig. 
in Matt. t. x. 19 (III. p. 467, Ben.): t6 ytypaupJimv 
W€p\ (rtxptas i(j)apii6(Tfis, xai tj Triorn itai rais apiTmi «car' 
(tSoc, i><TTf rowvTOV iTOiTJ<Tai \6yov, KSi> yap Tts »; TfXnos iv 
niuTfi (V vioii dvdpairojPj ttjs dno cov dvvdfjuois aTroucri^ff, fir 
oiSfv 'Xoyia6t]<T(Tai. He goes on to apply the same words 
to Temperance and Justice, quoting Jer. ix. 23. 

7, 8. Another reason for the need of Wisdom is that 
he was chosen to rule Israel and to build the Temple. 

7. npofiXfti, ' Thou chosest me,' perhaps with the 



[ix. 8- 

additional notion of his being preferred to his elder 
brothers, i Chr. x.\viii. 4, 5 ; 2 Chr. i. 9. Some 
think that there is here an allusion to Nathan's pre- 
dictioD, 2 Sam. vii. 1 2, some nine years before Solomon's 

Ylwf (TOu K. 6uyoT. Isai. xliii. 6, 7, compared with 
2 Cor. vi. 18. 

8. Etiros. 2 Sam. vii. 13; I Kings v. 5 ; Ecclus. 
xlvii. 13. 

'Opet dytw aou : If oriah, hallowed already by 
Abraham's sacrifice, and the altar reared by David in 
the threshing-floor of Araunah ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16, 25. 
Comp. Ps. xcviii. 9 : npo<TKVV(7T( ci's opos Sywv avrov. 

KaTaaKi]i^c(>>$. ' Of thy dwelling ' ^ where Thou 
dwellest. Comp. Ps. xlvi. 4 (xlv. 5, Tisch.) : ' the holy 
place of the tabernacles (tA aKrivapa) of the most High.' 
2 Mace. xiv. 35. And S. John i. 14 : 'The Word was 
made flesh, and dwelt {fa-Kfivaa-fv) among us.' 

Mi|it)|ui, in app. to vaiv and dvaiaar. Solomon's 
Temple was a reproduction of the First Tabernacle, the 
pattern of which was shown to Moses in the Mount. 
Ex. XXV. 9, 40 ; Acts vii. 44 ; Hebr. viii. 5. This was 
an image of the heavenly Temple. Rev. xv. 5. Burton 
(Bampt. Lect.) and others see here a trace of Plato's 
doctrine of Ideas ; but the author has the warrant of 
Scripture for all he says. Clem. Al. Strom, iv. 8 (p. 
593) : flKap TTJs ovpavlov (KKktjaias f) imyftos. 

'Air* dpxTJs. As Christ is the Lamb slain from the 
foundation of the world (Rev. xiii. 8), so the Temple 
and altar are aw' dpxrjs. Gutb. 

9. MctA otou. ' Wisdom is (not ' was') with Thee,' an 
elucidation of irdptdpot, ver. 4. Vulg. : ' Sapientia tua.' 
S. Aug., De Mor. Eccl. i. 698, C, quotes ' tecum 
Sapientia ' without ' tua.' 

napoutra. Comp. Prov. viii. 22-30; S. John i. i. 
Horn. Od. xiii. 393 : 

(tai \irjii Toi iyiryf ■napiaaofuu, oiSt fit X^(r«f. 

Eu9is, from cift)? = dOis. It occurs 2 Sam. xix. 
18 ; Ps. xxxii. 4 ; xci. 16, etc. Philo, Leg. All. 74 (I. 
p. 129). 

'Ef jiat>Xats coo. 'According to Thy command- 

10. 'k-f'uiiv oop. Ps. xix. 7 : i^ oipavov ayiov airrov, 
n^fii|(oi>. Vulg. and Eng. omit this word ; but it 

is found in all MSS. There may be a distinction in- 
tended between (ianoar. and vipy^r., the former implying 
the sending forth of one to represent the sender, the 
latter denoting that the sender accompanies or escorts 
his messenger. See Sewell, Microsc. of the N. T. pp. 

Koiriticrr). ' That she may be with me in my 

11. luKiei. The form awUia — avvirnu is late. It 
occurs Jer. xx. 12 ; Tob. iii. 8 ; S. Matt. xiii. 13, etc. 

'Ev TT) 86|t] ouTTJs. ' In sua potentia,' Vulg., so 
Eng. : ' in her power.' Commentators compare Rom. 
vi. 4 : ' by the glory of the Father,' where, they say, 
8d|i;f is used in the sense of 'power,' which is not 
necessarily the case. Grimm explains it, ' in her bright- 
ness,' which keeps a man from straying out of the right 
path. Gutberlet translates : ' through her counsel,' 
making the expression parallel with aa<{>p6f<os. Aofj 
seems to be used of the ' glorious attributes ' of wisdom, 
including power, and counsel. So 'by {iv) her glory' 
means 'by her opei-ations.' The expressions in Ps. 
Ixxii. 24 are somewhat similar, though the notion is 
difierent : iv rg /3ouX^ <ro« i>8fiyricras fu, xat fiird S6(r]s 
jrpoiTfXd/Sov /!€, 

12. npoo-ScKT&s occurs Prov. xi. 20; xvi. 15; Clem. 
Al. p. 849. Martyr. S. Polyc. 14 : iv BwrUf irt'ow km . 

irpotrhfKTTJ , 

Aiaxpifu. ' Disponam,' Vulg. ' I shall judge,' 
merely an intensitive form of Kptvm. See on i. i. The 
actual prayer seems to end here, though the rest of the 
Book is mostly addressed to God. 

ep6vav. See on ver. 4. 

13. rdp. The connection seems to be this : ' To rule 
aright the holy people of Israel demands more than 
human knowledge, and this cannot be attained without 
wisdom, the fpecial gift of God,' ver. 17. 

Tis yiip- Comp. I Cor. ii. 16: ris yiip iyw vow 

-IX. 17-] 



Kv/Hov; Rom. xi. 34 : tk yap tyva vovv Kvpiov ; ^ Wt 
(Tvfi^ouXor airrov tyhfTo ; S. Paul may have had this 
passage from Wisdom in his mind, but the words are 
found also in Isaiah xl. 13; whence doubtless our 
author derived them. 

'Ey9v^^■l\^<T., ' shall think.' 

Tt used for n, as in the indirect question. 

14. AciXol, ' poor,' ' weak,' or ' uncertain,' ' wavering.' 
Comp. Homer's use of StiXol jSporoi. See Ps. xciii. 1 1 ; 

1 Cor. iii. 20. 

'Eirivoioi, 'notions,"device8.' Vulg.: 'Providentiae.' 
The plur. of ' providentia ' is of very late use. TertuU. 
Adv. Marc ii. 4 : ' Agnosce bonitatem Dei ex provi- 
dentiis.' So S. Aug. De Trinit. iii. § 21. (viii. 805 A, 
Ben.); S. Fulg. De Verit. Praed. ii. 11. 

'Eirur4>aXcis, ' insecure,' ' not safe,' iv. 4. In Acts 
zxvii. 9, 'dangerous.' 

15. The thought of this verse is common to heathen 
and Christian writers alike. Comp. Hor. Sat. II. ii. 
77~79 j Virg. Aen. vi. 730-734. Cic. Somn. Scip. iii : 
' Ii vivunt qui e corporum vinculis tanquam e carcere 
evolaverunt.' De Senect. xxi : ' Dum sumus in his 
inclusi compagibus corporis, munere quodam necessitatis 
et gravi opere perfungimur. Est enim animus caelestis 
ex altissimo domicilio depressus et quasi demersus in 
terram, locum divinae naturae aetemitatique contra- 
rium.' Comp. for the Scriptural view Rom. vii. 23 ; 

2 Cor. V. 1-4. Thus Philo, de Migr. Abrah. 2 (I. p. 
437) • o^f^^f f'* '■"'' ftfpi creavTov yia&ovs, tA Trafi/iiapov, 
& oSrot, (K(j>vya>v S«riuiiTTiptov, to aapa, Joseph. Cont. 
Ap. ii. 24 : Kai yap ip^vopivt) ai>pa<n KOKonaOei r) ^v\i], 
Koi TovroDV aS iraXiv aic Bavartf 8uucpid«to'a. S. Aug. says : 
' Non corpus aggravat animum (nam et tunc habebimus 
corpus), sed " corpus quod corrumpitur." Ergo car- 
cerem facit non corpus, sed corruptio.' Enarr. in Ps. 
cxli. 19. Comp. Serm. clxxx. 3, Ben. 

T6 Y^^^^s o-KTJKos, amplified by 8. Paul 2 Cor. v. i : 
ij imytioi ijpwv oIkio tov iTKfjvovt, and ver. 4 : ol SvTts ip 
T^ irKTivti (rrfvd(oftfp ^apovptvoi, Comp. Plat. Phaedo, 
cap. XXX. p. 8 1 C : tp^piBh ht yt rovro \rh o-u/ui] oUoSm 
XP^ tlvai Koi ^pii Koi ytwSfs xoi 6par6v' i ir/ (cai fxovira f) 

ToiavTTi yjrvxri /SapwfToj. Philo, De Somn. I. 20 (I. p. 639) : 
TOV <rvp(f>va ttjs ^frvxrjs oucov, rA (rSifta. De Migr. Abrah. 
36 (I. p. 467) : To7s ayyciois t^s ^l">X'ih ooipari (eai at(r^^(r<i, 

Comp. Ep. ad Diognet. 6, and 2 S. Pet i. 14. 

NoOf and ^xh" seem here to be identical. 

noXu<t>poi^is. Usually, 'full of care,' here 'full of 
thought.' Vulg. : ' multa cogitantem.' Eng. : ' that 
museth upon many things.' 

16. S. John iii. 12: ' If I have told you earthly 
things {to (niyfui), and ye believe not, how shall ye 
believe, if I tell you of heavenly things {ra (wovpdvui) V 

Miyis, so (not po\ts) Orig. De. Orat. (xi. 416), 
quoting vers. 13-16. 

Ti if xffxriif. Sin. gives r. *. jroffiK, which has 
much the same meaning, ' things immediately before 
us.' Vulg. : ' quae in prospectu sunt.' Comp. 4 Esdr. 
iv. 2 1 : ' Quemadmodum terra silvae data est et mare 
fluctibus suis, sic et qui super terram inhabitant quae 
sunt super terram intellegere solummodo possunt, et 
qui super caelos quae super altitudinem caelorum.' 

'EjixctcMrei'. If the Vulg. ' investigabit' is not 
simply an error for ' investigavit,' it conveys the read- 
ing of two cursive MSS. i^ixvuiarH. There is no varia- 
tion to account for ' sciet' instead of ' scivit' in the fol- 
lowing verse. Hooker (Eccl. Pol. I. vii. 7) renders 
these two verses thus : ' A corruptible body is heavy 
unto the soul, and the earthly mansion keepeth down 
the mind that is ftill of cares. And hardly can we 
discern the things that are upon earth, and with great 
labour find we out the things which are before us. 
"Who can then seek out the things that are in heaven V 

17. BouXfiK, what God means man to do. 

El (if| <ri) ISuxas. ' Unless Thou gavest' as Thou 
hast done. 

Zo^iaf . . . nftufui. Here is an identification of 
the Wisdom and the Holy Spirit of God. Comp. 
Ecclus. xxiv. 3 : ' I [Wisdom] came out of the mouth 
of the Most High, and covered the earth as a cloud.' 
I Cor. ii. 10: 'God hath revealed them unto us by 
His Spirit ; for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the 
deep things of God.' See note on i. 5. Clem. Al., 




[ix. i8- 

Strom. vi. ii (p. 786, Pott.), quotes this and the follow- 
ing verse as in the text. 

'AttA uiliioTucrr ' Heaven.' So Job xxii. 1 2 ; 8. Luke 
ii. 14. 

18. Kol ouTus, t. e. while they had Wisdom to guide 
them, ver. 12. 

AiwpO. ' were made straight.' Jer. vii. 5. Vulg. : 
' correctae sint.' It should be ' sunt,' and ' didicerunt,' 
not ' diilicex-int.' Reusch. The Vulg. joins vers. 1 7 and 
18 together. 

T4 ipoTTd ffou. Bar. iv. 4 (Vat.) : to dpcora toO 

Ofov. Jer. xvi. 12 : t£>v apfarav r^t Kapbtas vfiav. Th 
apfOTov is used as a substantive. 

'Eo-<u6T|aai'. (Comp. X. 4.) This clause introduces 
a new idea, which is developed in the remainder of the 
Book. The Vulgate adds a clause limiting this divine 

guidance to good men : ' Sanati sunt quicunque pla- 
cuerunt tibi, Domine, a principio' — of which there is no 
trace in any extant Greek MS. S. Aug., De Mor. Eccl. 
I. $ 28 (torn. I. p. 698 D), quotes the passage without 
the addition. At the same time it must be noted, as 
Gutb. remarks (Eiiileit. p. 51), that something very 
like it is found in the ancient Liturgies. Thus in the 

Lit. of S. Clement : itrip ■navrav Twv ano alavot fiiaptarrr)- 
aavTtov (Tot ayioiv. S. Chrys. ; navratv twv ayia)if ratv ott' 
aiavos (roi fvapf<TTt]<TdvTav, S. James ; tva tvpaiftf* cX«oi> 
Kai xapiv ptra navraiv ruK ayiov tSi> ott almvos troi fvapfirr, 

Kara yfvtav xai ytvtav. And S. Basil as in S. James. 
So that it is possible that the MS. used by the Vulg. 
translator may have contained the passage. The refer- 
ence to the righteous men of early times is confirmed 
by what follows. 


Chaptebs X-XU. Shows iTsixr in Saving and Pdnishino. 

X. 1-XI. 4. Exhibited in the guidance of the Fathers 
from Adam to Moses. 

With this we may compare the effects of Faith in 
Heb. xi. 

L npuT6irXa(rroi'. See on vii. i. 

Mvov KriaQivra. ' Cum solus esset creatus,' 
Vulg. See Gen. ii. 18. The expression in the text 
may mean that Adam alone was created, all other men 
being begotten, as he is called in the genealogy (S. 
Luke iii. 38) ' son of God.' Gutberlet takes /xo'toc with 
narepa Kdtrpov, translating: 'who was created as only 
father of the world,' = father of the whole world. 
Grimm and Wahl render /idi'oi', ' defenceless.' Probably 
the Vulg. is right, and the meaning is simply that 

Adam was created alone, with no other human being to 
diminish his supremacy or share his dignity. The 
Targum of Jonathan, on Gen. iii, has the gloss : ' The 
Lord said to the angels. Behold, Adam is sole (unicus, 
unigenitus) on the earth, as I am sole in the heavens.' 
Etheridge, i. p. 168. This Targum has also a curious 
note on the creation of man, which adumbrates the 
sanctity of his origin and the unity of his race. The 
Lord is here said to have taken dust from Mount 
Moriah and from the four winds of heaven, mixed it 
with all the waters of the world, and created man red, 
black, and white, and breathed into his nostrils the 
breath of life. 

Aic<tiuXa$ci>, ' preserved him ' from error and ig^or- 

-X. ..] 



ance while in his original righteousness, ' and,' it goes 
on, 'delivered him after his fall.' The restoration of 
Adam was a very general opinion both among Jews and 
Christians, and occasioned a plentiful crop of legends. 
S. Aug. says. ' it is rightly believed that Christ released 
Adam from hell("ab infemi vinculi8")when He preached 
to the spirits in prison.' This is stated as a past event 
by the author of Wisdom, as the Psalmist says, ' they 
pierced my hands,' referring to a future event. Op. 
impcrf. Contr. JuL VI. xxx. fin. 

The Fathers assert generally that Adam was saved 
through repentance and faith in the Redeemer. Thus 
Tertull. De Poenit. xii : ' Adam exomologesi restitutus 
in Paradisum.' S. Irenaeus reasons from a ])riori 
grounds (Adv. Haer. iii. 23. § 2. p. 220, Ben.) : 'Cum 
autem salvetur homo, oportet salvari eum, qui prior 
formatus est, quoniam nimis irrationabile est, iUum 
quidem, qui vehem enter ab inimico laesus erat et 
prior captivitatem passus est, dicere non eripi ab eo, 
qui vicerit inimicum, ereptos vero tilios ejus, quos in 
eadem captivitate generavit.' And a little above : ' Vic- 
tus autem erat Adam, ablata ab eo omni vita : propter 
hoc victo rursus inimico recepit vitam Adam ; " novis- 
sima autem inimica evacuatur mors," quae primum 
possederat hominem. Quapropter liberato homine, 
" fiet quod scriptum est : Absorpta est mors in victo- 
ria ; ubi est mors victoria tua 1 Ubi est mors aculeus 
tuus 1" Quod non poterit just^ dici, si non ille liber- 
atus fuerit, cui primum domiuata est mors. Illius 
enim salus, evacuatio est mortis. Domino igitur vivi- 
ficante hominem, id est Adam, evacuata est et mors. 
Mentiuntur ergo omnes qui contradicunt ejus saluti, 
semper seipsos excludentes a vita, in eo quod non 
credunt inventam ovem quae perierat. Si autem ilia 
non est inventa, adhuc possidetur in perditione oinnis 
hominis generatio.' See also ib. (pp. 960, 961). Epi- 
phanius mentions among the heresies of Tatian bis 
opinion that Adam was not saved. Adv. Haer. xlvi 
(xli. p. 840, Migne) : n&s oi o-m^rrat o 'Ada/i, 6 rrapa crot 
dn'fXnt^ufiM'ot, oirort airros 6 Kupioc ^nwv 'bjaois Xptarbt, 
e\6a>v tis Tov koV/xok, vttpovs fura r^v reXei/T^K iytiptt iv 

airr^ ra o-eijiaTi ; , , . tl 8f iraiktv avrSt iimv & Kvptoi 'Ada/i 
nXdtras, KOt avriv tov TrpanorrXafrrov airoWid, Toiis 8( oXXout 
ffwfft, & TToXX^ <7ov fiaTaio<f>po<Tvvri, Tariavi. 'Adveap'ox 
yap T^ Kvpltf Kara Svmfuv irpocrdnTtts, ru ivmpitxf rov 
jrpmro'jrXaoTop avrov, iia n'tav napoKoxfv tK0f8\i]fiii>o» ToO 
napadflaoVf koi naidflas ov Trjs tvj^oCoijs fitratT^ovraf iv 
ISpSm Koi (ca/mr^ StarfreXfUoro, ical Karivavri roO irapaSficrov 
Kara)ici;Kora, onas fivTiiiovtvot tjjs dya6ris 8ta T^r (Is iivrifUjv 
fitravoiai <ra(fiv' tj bvvafiivtf ftiv, fifj AcoOio't 8<. And he 
goes on to relate how Adam in the course of time 
made his way to Jerusalem, died there, and was buried 
in Golgotha, which was called roiror Kpaviov, because 
his skull was afterwards discovered there. Our Savi- 
our, shedding His blood upon the cross, watered with 
those precious drops the mortal remains of our first 
father, a token and sign of the purification of the whole 
race of man. S. Aug. (?) Serm. vi. in App. (torn. v. 
p. ii. 14) alludes to the same legend, adding: 'Et 
vere, fratres, non incongrue creditur, quia ibi erectua 
sit medicus, ubi jacebat aegrotus. Et dignum erat, ut 
ubi occiderat humana superbia, ibi se inclinaret diviua 
misericordia ; et sanguis ille pretiosus etiam corpo- 
raliter pulverera antiqui peccatoris dum dignatur 
stillando contingere, redemisse credatur.' This sermon 
is probably spurious, but that Augustine believed in 
Adam's salvation is certain from passages iu his genuine 
works, e. g. Ep. clxiv. (cap. iii. § 6) : ' Et de illo qui- 
dem primo homine patre generis' humani, quod eum 
inde (ex inferno) solvent Christus, E^clesia fere tota 
consentit ; quod earn non inaniter credidisse creden- 
dum est.' Comp. Ep. xcix; Lib. de Haer. 25. See 
Fabric. Cod. Pseud-epigr. V. T. vol. i. capp. xii, xxv, 
xxviii ; vol. ii. capp. x, xi, xix. And an excellent note 
on this passage in Mr. Churton's commentary. 

"EjtiXoTo, an Alexandrine form of 2 aor. mid., 
by a change of termination to the i aor. See Buttm. 
Irr. Verbs, v. aipta. 

riapairrufiaTos iSiou. ' His own fall,' this recovery 
of his not affecting his descendants. Uapairrmna is 
used in relation to Adam's transgression by S. Paul, 
Rom. v. 15, 17, 18. Comp. Job xxxvi. 9; Ezek. 

Y 3 




xiv. 13. See on xii. 2. There is a certain similarity 
between the effects of Wisdom mentioned in this 
chapter, and the effects of faith in Hebr. xi, but the 
scope of the writers is entirely different. The sup- 
position of Gfrorer (Urchrist. ii. 242), referred to by 
Bissell, that our author endorses the opinion of Philo, 
that Adam's fall consisted in his sinking from the 
condition of a pure spirit to a material existence, has 
no support whatever from this passage, and can only 
be read into it by blinded prejudice. 

2. This supremacy was given before the Fall (Gen. 
i. 26, 28; ii. 20) and renewed after the Flood (Gen. 
ix. 2), being indeed a natural attribute of man. Comp. 
Ps. viii. I ; Heb. ii. 6-8 ; Ecclus. xvii. 4. 

3. 'ASikos. Cain. Gen. iv. ' When he in his wrath 
deserted Wisdom.' For the omission of the names of 
the characters referred to see on xix. 1 3. 

ZuKaiTuX€TO. ' Deperiit,' Vulg. And so Gntberlet 
regards viv as merely strengthening the verb. But 
this seems inadmissible, being without example. The 
word occurs in a similar connection in the prayer of 
Manasses, 13:;!^ awanoKiwus fit raU dvofilms /inv, where 

the Vulg. translates : ' Ne simul perdas me cum ini- 
quitatibus meis.' Comp. Gen. xviii. 23. The meaning 
here is that Cain perished in and with his fratri- 
cidal wrath. A tradition mentioned by Jerome (Ep. 
xxxvi. t. i. p. 163) said that he was accidentally 
killed by Lamech, and some commentators see here an 
allusion to this legend. But this is unnecessary. The 
' perishing ' is a spiritual death. As Wisdom led Adam 
to repentance and salvation, so the rejection of Wisdom 
led Cain to destruction. See Fabric. Cod. Pseudepigr. 
V. T. i. cap. 42 ; Kab. Maur. De Univ. ii. i (cxi. p, 
33, Migne) ; Pseudo-Aug. Quaest. ex Vet. Test. Qu. vi 
(iii. 45, App.). 

4. Ai' ty, referring to SSikos, ver. 3. The flood was 
the consequence of the sin of Cain and his descendants, 
who imitated his wickedness. Comp. Gen. vi. 4, 5, 
which passage connects the deluge with the giants, the 
progeny of Cain, and the ' sons of God.' Comp. Orig. 
in Joann. torn. xx. 4 (iv. p. 312, Ben.). 

Ai' cuTcX. |uXou, 'by means of valueless wood,' 
i.e. the ark. Gen. vi, vii. ' Per contemptibile lig- 
num,' Vulg. ' Contemptibilis ' is a post-classical word 
found in Ulpian and late writers. Comp. Is. xlix. 7 ; 

1 Cor. i. 28, Vulg. Other uncommon words of like 
formation are these: ' incommunicabilis,' xiv. 21 ; 
'ineffugibilis,' xvii. 16; ' inexterminabilis,' ii. 23 ; 'in- 
telligibilis,' vii. 23 ; ' odibilis,' xii. 4 ; ' inextinguibilis,' 
vii. 10. 

Tic SiKaioK. Noah, called 'just,' Gen. vi. 9 ; 
Ecclus. xliv. 17. Comp. Ezek. xiv. 14; Heb. xi. 7. 

5. ZuYX>'0^>^<'>'- ' In consensu nequitiae cum se 
nationes contulissent,' Vulg. So Am. : ' When the 
nations around conspired or joined together in wicked- 
ness,' i.e. when they were all sunk in idolatry. But 
as <Tvyxf<o is used of the ' confounding ' at Babel, Gen. 
xi. 7, 9, and nowhere in the sense of ' conspiring,' it is 
better to translate : ' After the nations had been con- 
founded in their conspiracy of wickedness.' After the 
attempt at Babel, and the widespread corruption that 
succeeded. Wisdom knew the righteous man. A rab- 
binical tradition mentioned by S. Jerome (Quaest. 
Hebr. in Gen.), with a sacrifice of chronology not un- 
usual, connects Abraham with Nimrod, making the 
latter cast the patriarch into a fiery furnace to punish 
him for renouncing idolatry. In the legend the fur- 
nace becomes a cool meadow, and Abraham suffers no 
harm, a circumstance which recalls the ' moist whistling 
wind ' in the case of the three holy children. See ver. 

2 7 of the Addit. to Daniel. The legend about Abraham 
can be read in Etheridge's translation of The Targums 
on the Pentateuch, vol. i. p. 191, note 5, and in Fabric. 
Cod. Pseud. V. T. vol. i. cap. 107. 

'Eyw». ' Scivit,' Vulg. This reading has the au- 
thority of most MSS., ancient versions, and Orig. in 
Johann. tom. xx (i. 599). Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 19 : ' The 
Lord knoweth them that are His.' Numb. xvi. 5. 
Eng. : ' found out,' reading tSpt, 

Tif SiKaiof. Abraham. Gen. xii. i ; Hebr. xi. 

"Aiwjnrroi'. 'Sine querela,' Vulg. 'Querela,' in 




the sense of ' blame,* occurs S. Luke i. 6 ; Ecclus. viii. 
lo ; Wisd. xiii. 6 ; xviii. 21, Vulg. 

'Eirl -riKvou (nt\iy)(yoi-i- ' Kept him strong against 
his pity for his son.' Gen. xxii. 10. "En-i, 'against,' 
as S. Luke xii. 53. lirXdyxva, ' afiFection,' ' compassion.' 
Prov. xii. 10 : ra it airXdyxva tuw aaf^ov avtXfrnunia. 

Comp. S. Luke i. 78; Col. iii. 12. 

6. AiKauw. Lot. xix. 17; 2 Pet. ii. 7. See Gen. 
xix. 17-32. 

nop KaraPdo-iof rietToiriSXeus. 'The fie which 
fell upon Pentapolis.' Karat^or^r is used of Zeus as 
descending in lightning. Aristoph. Pax, 42 ; Aeschyl. 
Prom. 359. The five cities were Sodom, Gomorrah, 
Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar or Bela. Gen. xiv. 2. Zoar 
indeed was saved, but it is usual to speak of all the 
cities M perishing together. Comp. Joseph. Bell. Jud. 
iv. 8. 4. ncio-diroXi; is found in Herod, i. 144, etc., 
applied to a confederation of five cities. 

7. *Hs In. The preponderance of authority is in 
favour of this reading. The Vulg. gives, ' Quibus in 
testimonium ;' but many MSS. have ' cujus ;' and the 
other versions seem generally to have read tjs en. 

Kairftj^. KaOe(m)Ke. ' Stands smoking.' Gen. xix. 
38 ; Deut. xxix. 23. Recent travellers have not ob- 
served this ; but Philo says : iif'xp^ »'<'>' Kaitrai, De 
Abrah. 27 (II. p. 21). Joseph. Bell. Jud. iv. 8. 4: 
vvv di KtKOVfuin] rrmra . . . (tm ■yoCv m \fiifrapa rov Stun) 

frvpor. And so, other authors. Thus Tertull. Apologet. 
40 ; ' Regiones affines ejus Sodoma et Gomorra ig- 
neus imber excussit [? exussit] ; olet adhuc incendio 
terra, et si qua illic arborum poma conantur oculis 
tenus, caeterum contacta cinerescunt.' Comp. Ejusd. 
De Pallio, 2. Tacit. Hist. v. 7 : ' Hand procul inde 
campi quos ferunt olim uberes magnisque urbibus 
habitatos fulminum ictu arsisse ; et manere vestigia, 
terramque ipsam, specie torridam, vim finigiferam per- 
didisse. Nam cuncta sponte edita aut manu sata, sive 
herba tenus aut fiore, seu solitam in speciem adolevere, 
atra et inania velut in cinerem vanescunt.' Strabu, 
XVI. ii. 44, calls the country yrjv rttppadt). 

Kairvilofi.ivr\. ' Fumigabunda,' Vulg. This un- 

common word is found in 8. Ambr. iL 9 : • fomax 
fumigabunda.' S. Aug. uses ' fumabunda,' translating 
Gen. XV. 17, De Civ. xvi. 24. A word of similar form- 
ation is ' tremebundus,' Wisd. xvii. 9; Hebr. xii. 21. 

Xipaos, ' waste land.' So x^P"") ' waste places.' 
Aesch. Frag. 192. Cp. x'po'ooH^h i^- I9- 

'A-nkiaiv. ' Incerto tempore fructus habentes ar- 
bores,' Vulg. 'Imperfectis germinibus fructificantes 
arbores,' Sabat. ' Plants bearing fruit at immature 
seasons.' The fruits are forced by the climate into 
premature ripeness, and bo are worthless. The refer- 
ence is probably to what are called The Apples of 
Sodom, of which Josephus speaks (Bell. Jud. iv. 8) r 
fori i( Koi fv Tols Kapirdis awoSiav avayfvva>iuvjiv, o\ xpoav 
luv f)(Ov(Ti rotf iiail/toK diiolav, ipr^ajiivav ii ^ffxrlv rii 
Kanvov dvaKvovTOi Koi T€<f>pcw. The only flTlit at all 
.answering to this description (and that very imperfectly), 
now found in this region, is that of the Calotropia 
Procera. See Bible Educator, iv. 312. 

'AirujTouoTjs. Vulg. : ' incredibilis.' ' Unbelieving.' 
In this sense ' incredibilis ' is post-classical. Cf. Tit 
i. 16; Bar. i. 19; Ecclus. i. 36, Vulg. 

Z-niXri dX(5s. Lot's wife. Gen. xix. 26 ; Luke 
xvii. 32. Joseph. (Ant. i. 11. 4) says: laropriKa S 
aiiTTfv, fTi yap Koi vvu dia/xcvri. The unscientific writers 
of subsequent times assigned the name of ' Lot's wife ' 
to some of the fantastic figures which are often as- 
sumed by the crumbling rock at the south of the Dead 
Sea. According to the Targum of Jerusalem : ' Be- 
cause the wife of Lot was of the children of the people 
of Sodom, she looked behind to see what would be the 
end of her father's house ; and behold she was made 
to stand a statue of salt, until the time of the resur- 
rection shall come, when the dead shall rise.' Ethe- 
ridge, i. p. 217. Clem. Rom. ad Cor. I. xi: <ruix|fX- 

6oi<njt yap airr^ T^t ywotxic mpoyvaftovos vnapxoiarjs ko) 
oiiK iv opovo'u}, (Is TOVTO (rrifit'uip rriffi], mrrt yfviaOoi aMpr 
otIjKtiv (SXot (as T^r ^pipas rairrfs, (Is ri yvairrov (um iraaw, 
oTi o( ityfrvxoi Kai o( iurrdiovT(s jr(pi TJjs rov Oeov ivvdiuas (Is 
Kpipa Koi (Is irrifuiaau' irdcratc rati yfixais yivoirrai. Other 

early writers speak of ' the Pillar ' existing in their 



[x. 8- 

(lay, e.g. Iren. Adv. Haer. IV. xxxi. 3, and xxxiii. 9 ; 
Justin M. Apol. i. 53; Prudent. Hamartig. 740 ff. 

'E<rn)Kuro and the other participles depend on 

8. fdp. This verse confirms ver. 7. 
'Ep\dPr]aay. ' They suffered loss so as not to 

know what was good.' Lit. : ' "Were stopped from, 
deprived of, the knowing.' ' Lapsi sunt,' Vulg., for 
which Beusch conjectures ' laesi sunt.' Aeschyl. Ag. 

j3Xa/3<in-a Xoio'dtW bpofiav. 
See Donalds. New Cratyl. iv. 5. p. 549, ed. 1839. 

Tw Piu. ' Hominibus,' Vulg. ' To the world,' Eng. 
' Life '=' the living,' as xiv. 21; 4 Mace. xvii. 14. 
Demosth. De Cor. p. 330: ori tw vap6vra fiiov, 'the 
present generation.' 

"Iko. For their punishment the knowledge of their 
sin is handed down to all time. 

9. eepaTTtuCTarras. ' Delivered from distress those 
who honoured her,' referring to the instances given in 
the text. OfpcmtvovTas, the other reading, involves a 
general statement. The word itself recalls to one's 
mind the Therapeutae, by whose teaching the author 
may have been influenced. See on xvi. 28. 

10. ♦irydSa. Jacob. Gen. xxvii. 42 ff.; xxviii. 5, 
10. Grimm, comp. (jivyas nopripias, Thuc. vi. 92. So 
PLilo's treatise about Jacob is called Ilfpi (j>vyabav. 

'Ev Tpip. euOciais. ' In straight paths,' without 

BacriX. 6eou. In his dream. Gen. xxviii. 12, 17. 
He saw the spirit-world and the way in which God 
governs the universe. So Corn, a Lap., Tirin., etc. 
Comp. Hos. xii. 4,5: 'He found him in Bethel, and 
there He spake with us ; even the Lord of hosts ; the 
Lord in his memorial.' In the Song of the Three 
Children, ver. 32, we have : ti^oyijptvos ci inl 6p6vov t^s 
Paa-iXtias iTov. Comp. S. Luke xiLi. 29. 

'Ayiwi'. ' Holy things,' ' mysteries,' parallel to 'the 
Kingdom of God.' 

Eiit6pr\<Tty, ' Enriched him amid hardships.' Vulg. : 
'honestavit.' See on vii. 11; cp. Ecclus. xi. 23, Vulg. 

' In his travels.' Eng. t. e. 'travails '=' labours.' See 
Gen. XXX. 30, 43 ; xxxi. i, 41, 42. 

'EirXrj9u>'€ T. ■tt6vous. Either rrovovs must mean (as 
Eng.) ' the fruit of his labours,' as viii. 7 ; or fn\f;$. 
signifies, ' made to succeed,' ' prospered.' no'i>ot in the 
above sense occurs Prov. iii. 9 ; Ecclus. xiv. 15. Comp. 
Past. Herm. Simil. IX. c. xxir. 3 : en\fi0vv(v airoiit iv 

Tols KoiTOis Tov )((ipa>v avTav, 

11. ' In the covetousness of his oppressors,' t. e. 
Laban. Gen. xxxi. 7. 

'EirXouTiffti'. ' Honestum fecit,' Vulg. See on vii. 
1 1 ; and comp. Ecclus. xiii. 2 ; 3 Esdr. iii. 21, Vulg. 

13. 'E)(6pS>v, ' open enemies ;' eveSptvovrav, ' secret ene- 
mies,' e. g. Laban, Esau, the Canaanites. Gen. xxxiii. 
4 ; XXXV. 5. 

*Ho-4)oXi(roTo. ' Tutavit,' Vulg. Act. for deponent 
forms are found elsewhere, e, g. ' suffragare,' 3 Esdr. vi. 
10 ; ' gratificare,' Eph. i 6 ; 'demolire,' 3 Esdr. i. 55 ; 
'lamentare,' Matt. xi. 17; 'praedare,' Judith ii. 16; 
' radicare,' Ecclus. xxiv. 16. The form 'tutare' occurs 
in Plaut. Merc. V. ii. 24: 

' Invoco Tos, Lares viales, ut me bene tutetis,' 

where however some MSS. read ' juvetis.' 

'E^pd^euaEi'. ' Decided in his favour a strong con- 
flict.' Col. iii. 1 5. This refers to Jacob's wrestling 
with the angel. Gen. xxxii. 24 ff. ; Hos. xii. 3, 4. 
See Pusey in I. The ace. with ^pa^va is to be com- 
pared with such phrases as vik^v dyiipa, '0\vpnia. 

Eucr^^cia. Comp. i Tim. iv. 8 ; vi. 6. Philo, De 
Leg. ad Cai. 32 (II. p. 582): ea>s oi nenpfa^iptda, /iij 
dnoKoyj/Jjs ras dfiflvovs iXnl&as fivpidSwv to<tovto}Vj als ovy 
imep K<p8ovs, aXX' virip fiorjSfiar f'oru' t) (twovS^. koI toL yt 
rjfidpTopfv roiro dnovrts, ri yap &v drj KtpSos XvaiTeXeare- 
pov oaioTTjTos dfdpanois ; 

13. AiKoioc Joseph. Gen. xxxvii ; Acts vii. 9. 
*E{ d|iapTia9 ^p^. refers to the matter with Poti- 
phar's wife. Gen. xxxix. The Vulg. renders : ' a pec- 
catoribus liberavit eum,' taking it of Joseph's brethren ; 
unless, indeed, as Eeusch thiuks, ' peccatoribus ' is a 
mistake for ' peccato.' 





14. AdKKOf, the dungeon in which Potiphar confiued 
Joseph. Gen. xxxix. 20. It occurs in the same sense 
£xod. xii. 29 ; las nparoroKOv r^t mxi"iK<oTiSos Trjs iv t^ 
XaicK^. Comp. Gen. xl. 15. 

ZxTJnrpa. Gen. xli. 40-43; Acts vii. 10. The 
plural is comnionly used in a metaphorical sense, thus 
Soph. Oed. Col. 449 ; Herod, vii. 52. 

TupavKoun-uK aurou. ' Power over his oppressors,' 
viz. his brethren, Potiphar, etc. Gen. xli. 43 ; xlii. 6. 

'E^otHTia with gen. S. Matt. x. i. 

Toiis (lufiTio-afiifous, ' those that blamed him,' refers 
not only to Potiphar's wife (Gen. xxxix. 17), but to 
his brethren also, who hated him for his dreams and 
hb father's partiality. Gen. xxxvii. 4, 5. 

AluKioi'. 'Glory to all time,' handed down from 
age to age. 

15. AoiK oo-toi'. The Israelites. ' A holy people,' as 
being separated from all other nations and made God's 
peculiar inheritance. See Ex. xix. 5, 6 ; 2 Cor. vi. 17, 
18. Past. Henn. Sim. IX. c. xviii. 4 : drrfiXi/c^ur rhv \aav 
avTOv KaOapov. 

ZWpfia ayitfiirrov. This is taken by some to refer 
to the blamelessness of the Jews as regards the 
Egyptians; but more probably it alludes to their 
official characteristic, as S. Paul calls all Christians 
holy.' That they fell into idolatry and other sins 
while sojourning in Ejrypt is clear from Ezek. xx. 8 ; 
xxiii. 3. For the deliverance spoken of see Ex. i. 1 2, 
17 ; and xii. 41. 

16. EitrT)Xe£f. See Ex. iv. 12. 

eep<iTroiTos Kopiou. This, and the similar expres- 
sion, SoCXor &fov, are commonly applied to Moses in the 
Sept. Ex. xiv. 31 ; Numb. xii. 7; Ps. civ. 26. Comp. 
Hebr. iii. 5. 

Boo-iXcuai. Pharaoh. So Ps. civ. 30 : ' even in 
their kings' [rwf /Sao-tXcui'] chambers.' 

Tep. Kol cn\fi.. See on viii. 8. Ps. cxxxiv. 9 : 
•fmrc'oreXe )n)jit'ui xat ripara Iv fuato frov, Aiyvmt, iv 
iapaw Kai iv nain Tols iovXoit avrov. 

17. "Att^ukci'. The Israelites were 'repaid' for their 
hard labour in Egypt by the goods, jewels, etc. which 

they asked of the Egyptians. Ex. xii. 35, 36. This was 
according to God's promise to Abraham, Gen. xv. 1 4. 

'QSi^YTjaei' refers to the pillar of cloud. Ex. xiii. 
21, 22 ; Deut. viii. 2. 

Eis aK^irr|i> r)p,^pa;. So Ps. civ. 39 : 8i»7r*Va<re w- 
(j)e\j]V (Is iTKfirrjV avTois. Ecclus. xxxi. 1 9 : aKtm) djrd 
Kaiaavos au aKiwi) anb fumfii^pias (xxxiv. 16). 

"Acrrpui' Gutb. takes to mean the sun and moon, 
to which alone the flame of the pillar of fire would be 
compared. But taking acrrpov In its proper sense of 
' constellation,' this seems hardly necessary. Comp. Ps. 

Ixxvii. 14 '• a>SrfYri<r(v avTOVS iv vi<^(Kt) T)ptfpas, Kai oXi)i' TffV 

VVKTa iv tjXilTUTfui TTvpos. 

18. 19. Ex. xiv. Ps. Ixxvii. 13 : Stippq^e OaKturaav 
Kai Striyayfv avToiis, (orqaev vbara wcrf i aaxov. 

19. 'kvi^paoiv. Vulg., ' eduxit,' which is tame and 
inadequate. ' Cast them up,' Eng., is better. The 
Vulg. refers it to the Israelites as being restored to life 
from the grave, ' ab altitudine inferorum.' But ai-rovs 
doubtless refers to t. ixSpois ; and dvr^p., ' threw up,' 
' ejected,' alludes to the tradition that the sea cast out 
the bodies of the drowned Egyptians. Targum of 
Jerusalem : ' The sea and the earth had controversy 
one with the other. The sea said to the earth. Receive 
thy children ; and the earth faid to the sea, Receive 
thy murderers. But the earth willed not to swallow 
them, and the sea willed not to overwhelm them.' See 
Ginsburg, ap. Kitt. Cycopl. Art. 'Book of Wisdom,' 
note p. 1 1 16, vol. III. (ed. 1866). Josephus, Ant. ii. 
16. 6, mentions that all the arms and baggage of the 
Egyptians were driven ashore near the camp of the 
Israelites, who were thus provided with weapons. 
Comp. Ex. xiv. 30 : ' And Israel saw the Egyptians 
dead upon the sea shore.' See next verse. 

20. AiA TouTo. Because the Egyptians were found 
dead on the shore. See on ver. 19. 'Leviathan,' in 
Ps. Ixxiv. 14, refers to the Egj-ptians, whose corpses 
became a prey to the creatures that inhabit the desert. 

"YjiniaoK. Exod. xv. Comp. Is. xii. 5 : v/injo-ort 
tA oiiopa Kvpiov. Esth. IV. (15) odditam: tva (Styrtt 
vfivi>iiiv aov to Svofta, Kvpit, 



[X. 2t- 

'YWpiioxoc. ' Victricem,' Vulg. Rather ' defend- 
ing,' ' that fought for them,' as xvi. 1 7 ; 2 Mace. viii. 
36. Philo, De Somn. II. 42 (I. p. 696) : fityaXij yt ^ 
Wipiuixos x*'P> referring to the same event. 

21. Ku4>ui'. Moses, who was slow of speech (Ex. iv. 
10 ; vi. 12, 30), and the people, who through fear had 
not dared to sing unto Qod in the house of bondage, 
now praised Him in a hymn of victory. 

Nijiriwi'. Ps. viii. 2 : ' Out of the mouth of babes 
and sucklings hast Thou ordained strength.' 

TpaKAs from rpavAs = rpav^s, ' piercing,' ' distinct.' 

Vulg., 'disertas,' vii. 22. The Vulg. rendering: 'os 
mutorum et linguas infantium,' seems to imply, in 
the eyes of some commentators, a special miracle; 
but there is no warrant for this in Scripture nor 
tradition, if we except the gloss in the spurious 
treatise among the works of S. Aug., De Mirab. S. 
Script, c. 21, where it is said that, though few 
out of the great multitude could have heard Moses 
leading the song, yet that all, young, and old, joined 
in it with one accord, and sang in perfect unison 
with him. 


1. Eiiihuce . . SiwSeu(rai', v. 2, a play of words. The 
subject is still Wisdom. 

'Ec x«'pi' ' By the hand,' as Acts vii. 35. Vulg., 

' in manibus.' Ps. Ixxvi. 2 1 : mS^yi/o-as it irpo^ara tok 
Xadv aov iv Xfipi Miotxr^ Kai 'Aapa>v. 

npo<|>i^Tou dyiou. Moses. Deut. xviii. 18 ; xxxiv. 
10-12. For the tenn 'holy' applied to Prophets 
comp. S. Luke i. 70; 2 S. Pet. iii. 2. 

2. "Eirtjjac. The classical word for ' pitching' a tent? 
Plat. De Legg. vii. 19 (p. 817 C) : a-Ktfvas n^^avras KOT 
ayopav. Heb. viii. 2. See Jer. ii. 6. 

3. rioXtjiiois, 'open enemies' in battle, as the Amale- 
kites (Ex xvii. 8-16); Arad (Numb. xxi. 1-3); the 
Amorites (Numb. xxi. 21-25); ^^'^ Og (Numb. xxi. 


'ExOpois, ' those who hated them,' as the Moabites 
and Midianites (Numb. xxv. 17, 18; xxxi. 2). 

4. The author omits the murmuring of the people, 
and alludes only to God's mercy in relieving their 
wants. Ex. xvii. 4-6; Numb. xx. 8-1 1. 

*Ek Wrpas dxpordfiou. ' De petra altissima,' Vulg. 
'The flinty rock,' Eng. 'hKpor. is 'abrupt,' 'preci- 
pitous.' It is used sometimes without virpa, as 

Ecclus. xlviii. 17. Comp. Deut. viii. 15: rov f|a- 
yayovTos <roi ik irfTpas aKpoT6pov ■n'qyrjv vSarot. The 
word is of late use. Thus Polyb. Hist. ix. 37. 4 : 
Ke'irat tA Tei)(OS «V» irtTpas dxporopov Km iripippSiyot, 
Philo, All. II. 2 1 (I. p. 82) : f) yap OKpOTopoi ntrpa 
i) a-o<j>ia roC 6<oii iimv. So Vit. Mos. I. 38 (H. p. 
114): Xa/Smv Mwvcr^r rrjv Upav fK(lvr)V ^tcrrjplav . , . 6€o- 
<popri6f]s Trjv dxpoTopov nalei TtiTpav. Ps. Ixxvii. 15, 16, 
20. See I Cor. x. 4. We may note that our author 
seems to have had the words of the Septuagint version 
before him. 

5.-XII. 1. Wisdom exhibited in the punishment of 
God's enemies : the Egyptians. 

6. The principle of retributive justice is seen to 
pervade all God's dealings with the Israelites and 
Egyptians and Canaanites. 

'Ex6poi auTwi'. After these words the Vulg. intro- 
duces a gloss, which is entirely without authority from 
the Greek : ' A defectione potus sui, et in eis cum abun- 
darent filii Israel laetati sunt.' It seems to be an ex- 
planation of the text, contrasting the want of water 
suffered by the Egyptians when the Nile was turned 
into blood with the abundant supply bestowed on the 

-XI. 9-] 



Israelites. But it is most unnecessary, as the follow- 
ing verses sufficiently explain the allusion. 

AicL Tov-niy, viz. by miracles connected with water. 

AuToi. The Israelites. Ex. vii. 19; xvii. 6; 
Numb. XX. 10, II. 

6. 'Aecdou seems more correct than afwdov. The 
MSS. vary. Bar. v. 7 ; 2 Mace. vii. 36. 

AifxaTi Xu6p<u8ei Tapa\Oim^. ' Of a river troubled 
(or, turbid) with foul blood.' The reference of course 
is to the first Plague. Av^paiSr]s is a very uncommon 
word. AvBpov is found in Homer, meaning ' defilement 
from blood.' The reading Tapaxdivres introduces a 
harsh anacoluthon, not in accordance with our writer's 
habit. The Vulg. diflfers widely from the text : ' Hu- 
manum sanguinem dedisti injustis ;' and it seems to 
translate Tapax6(irres by ' Qui cum minuerentur.' Philo, 
Vit. Mos. 17 (II. p. 96) : avvf^aifULToivrat fl* atrco Xl/ivcu, 
SiapvxfS, Kp^vai, (f>peaTa, Tn/yai, trvfirraaa tj kot Atyimrov 
ovtria vSaroSf q)C diropta ttotov to irapa rais oxBats dva- 
(TTfWfiv, rm 8' dvaTfiivopLtvas <p\(^as, KaBarrrp iv rais aifioppa- 
yiaiSj Kpovvrjiov avXovs aKovrl^dv aifiaros, fiijdffuds (voputfi(vr)s 
itavyovs Xt^dSor. Joseph. Ant. II. xiv. i : ovxi Tr)v xpdav 
a fidvov ^v ToiovTos (gc, aiiiaraiSiis), dXKa Koi rots vfipap-ivots 
nlvtiv dXy^/iora koi niKpav obivrjv irpixTtcfxpfv, 5" ^' roiovrot 
(liv AlyxmrioK, 'E/3paiotf tf y\vKvs koi noTinos, xai prjhev tov 
Kara (piiriv wapt]\\ayiifvos. So III. i. 4 : 6 aiTos votayJn 
tKiivois jifp aliia Jfv Koi anorot, avroii ie iroTt/iot Koi yKvKvs. 

'AwtX fitv with no 8i, but the clause eSarar k.t.X., 
ver. 7, virtually contains the contrast. For the regard 
paid b}' the Egyptians to their river-god Nilus or Hapi- 
man see Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, iii. p. 206. 

7. Eis IXcyxoi'. ' For reproof,' ' punishment,' refer- 
ring to the verse preceding. See Ex. i. 16, 22. 
Vulg. : 'Qui cum minuerentur in traductione infantium 
occisorum.' For 'traductio' as the translation of 
fXiyxos comp. ii. 1 4 ; xviii. 5, Vulg., and see on iv. 20. 
S. Ephr. Syr. in Exod. c. vii. (p. 207): 'Et quidem 
verisimile est regem Aegypti patrio flumine statum et 
solenne sacrificium frequenter factitasse juxta decreta 
magorum, quibus plurimum deferebat. Hie Pharao, 
quum a Moyse Dei nomine interpellatus, Hebraeos se 

dimissurum negaret, Mojrses percussit flumen, quod 
antiquus ille Pharao polluerat; ut aquae infantium 
sanguine foedatae in sanguinem verterentur, et pisces 
hominum mortuorum carnibus saginati, et ipsi more- 
rentur.' ' All this was the Lord God of the Hebrews 
his doing, that the blood of the Hebrew infants might 
be required of the Egj-ptians, koto dvrm(itov66s, accoi-d- 
ing to the law of retaliation, or most exquisite rule of 
primitive justice.' Jackson, ix. pp. 414, 415, ed. 1844. 
Nr)iriOKT<5i'ou. A new word, as TfKvixpdvos, xiv. 23. 
AuTois. The Israelites in the wilderness. 

8. Tire, when the Israelites were without water in 
the wilderness. 

'EKoXcura;. Ex. vii. 20. See on ver. 5. Vulg.: 'Quem- 
admodum tuos exaltares et adversaries illos necares,' 
where ' tuos exaltares et ' seems to be an interpolation. 

8. ' "When they, the Israelites, were tried by thirst 
(although indeed it was in mercy that they were thus dis- 
ciplined), they learned how the ungodly, the Egyptians, 
being judged in wrath, were tormented.' Tliey recog- 
nised the different treatment accorded to them and to 
their enemies. This passage is a good instance of the 
careful balancing of words and clauses affected by the 
writer. See Gutb. Cp. Deut. viii. 2, 3. The Eng. 
Vers, adds, ' thirsting in another manner than the just ;' 
which words occur in the original at the end of ver. 14, 
and are found in this ver. 9 neither in MSS., nor Conipl., 
nor Aid., nor in other versions. Arn. thinks it shows 
great sagacity in our translators to have discovered the 
right place for this clause, which he considers to be 
unmeaning in ver. 14. Most readers will not agree 
with him. Dean Jackson (bk. x. ch. 40) sees in thia 
and similar passages what he calls an opinion ' so far 
from being canonical, scarce orthodoxal,' viz. that the 
Jews, because they were the seed of Abraham, were 
the only righteous seed, and that the Lord, though He 
corrected and chastised them, would never plague 
them as He did the unrighteous heathen, or punish 
them with blindness of heart. ' The receipt or medi- 
cine for curing this disease we have set down Rom. ix. 
18: "Therefore hath He mercy on whom He will 



[XI. 10- 

have mercy, and whom He will He hardeneth." ' 
Works, ix. p. 416. It is true that the author makes 
the most of the contrast between the treatment of 
the Jews and that shown to their heathen enemies, 
but he follows the line of Scripture in so doing. 
Comp. Deut. xi. 2-4 with viii. 5, 15, 16; vii. 13, 14 
with vers. 15, 16. 

10. 'Qs iraTrip. Comp. Deut. viii. 5 ; 2 Sara. vii. 14 ; 
Hebr. xii. 5, 6. 

'Air6TO)xos, ' severe.' Comp. Rom. xi. 22: M« oJi» 
^pr/aTOTrjTa (cai dnoTOfjilav Qfov. 

KaraSiK. kir\T. Vulg. : ' interrogans condemnasti.' 
Sabat. : ' condemnans interrogasti.' 

11. 'Air^rres. ' Whether they were far away from the 
Israelites, or in their presence.' While the Israelites 
were in Egypt, the Egyptians were vexed with the 
Plagues ; when the Israelites were departed, the 
Egj-ptians were vexed with grief and envy. 

'Expuxon-o. Comp. xiv. 15. 

12. AiitXtj yip. Explained in ver. 13. First, the 
thought that their punishment brought deliverance to 
the Hebrews ; secondly, the enforced recognition of 
the power of the Lord, and the nothingness of their 

t^yr\fiuv r&y irapfMovTuv. ' Gemitus memor (cum 
memoria, Vulg.) praeteritorum.' Eeusch. This read- 
ing has the greatest authority ; that of Vat., fivrj^iav 
Tmii irap(X6ov(Ta>v, must mean, ' groaning over past re- 

13. AiA Tuc 18. KoX. ' By that which punished 
them,' the Egyptians, e.g. water. 

EbcpycToufi^fous, 'were being continually benefited.' 
The reading (itpycrrififvovi is the alteration of some 
scribe who did not underatand the force of the present 

'HitAnvn T. Kupiou, 'they took knowledge of the 
Lord,' recognised His hand in that which befel them, 
xii. 27. Vulg. : 'Commemorati sunt Dominum, admi- 
rantes in finem exitus;' where we may note 'com- 
memorari ' used as a deponent verb (cp. Bar. iii. 23), 
Bud the added clause, which seems to be an inter- 

polation from the next verse. Blunt observes that it 
is noteworthy that the Egyptians made no attack on 
the Israelites from the exodus till the reign of Reho- 
boam. Cp. Ps. Ixiv. 9. 

14. *0i' Y<£p. The other reading, t6k yap, has more 
authority, but mars the sentence. ' For him whom, 
long before cast forth when the children were ex- 
posed.' The reference, of course, is to Moses. Ex. ii. 
3. Vulg. : ' In expositione prava projectum,' omitting 
iraXm, or reading kokj. Comp. xviii. 5 ; Acts vii. 19, 21. 

'AireiTToi' x^cudp. ' They rejected with scoffs,' t. e. 
when he was endeavouring to effect the deliverance of 
his people. Ex. v. 3, 4 ; vii. 23 ; x. 10, 11, 28. 

'Em rAei T. Ik^. ' At the end of the events.' 
Grimm interprets this to mean, at the end of the 
Ten Plagues; but the succeeding clause confines the 
reference to the miraculous supply of water in the 
wilderness, marvellous stories of which may have 
reached the Egyptians. For the reputation of Moses 
among the Egyptians before the Exodus see Ex. 
xi. 3. 

Ai+iitrarres, »• «• having themselves thirsted in a 
very diflerent manner from the Hebrews. Oix opoia, 
a litotes. Eng. omits this clause. See on ver. 9. 
They had no relief for their thirst when their river 
was turned into blood. 

15. 'Airrl. 'For'=in punishment of 'the foolish 
thoughts of (proceeding from) their iniquity.' Comp. 
Rom. i. 2 1 : ' became vain in their imaginations (S<aXo- 
yifffioif), and their foolish (acrivfTos) heart was dark- 

'AXoyo IpirtTd. ' Mutos serpentes,' Vulg. Rather, 
'irrational.' Ch. xvii. 9; 2 Pet. ii. 12. The word tpjrfra, 
' reptiles,' may include crocodiles. See next not& 

KfuSaXa tuTtXij. ' Vile, worthless animals.' The 

Egyptians worshipped animals of all kinds, from the 

crocodile to the mosquito. Vulg., 'bestias super- 

vacuas.' And so xii. 24 ; xv. 10 ; xvi. 29. ' Useless 


'ETToWoTtiXos. Deut. xxviii. 48; Ecclus. xxviii. 

23 (A. C.) ; Polyb. I. Uii. 5. 

-XI. i8.] 



Zwwi>, ' living creatures,' e. g. frogs, flies, lice, 
lociists. Ex. viii. and x. Blunt thinks that the writer 
refers to the crocodiles which infest the Nile. But the 
reference seems to be to some of the Ten Plagues. 
Comp. ch. xvi. 9. 

16. This retribution may be traced throughout the 
Ten Plagues, according to the distich : ' Per quod quis 
peccat, per idem punitur et idem.' Comp. xii. 23; 
xvi. I. S. Athan. applies this principle to the circum- 
stances of Herod's death. See below. 

Kal KoKiX,. The addition of xai is found in a 
Fragment attributed to S. Athanasius (xxvi. p. 1256, 
Migne ; Montfauc. ii. 26). 

17. Oi Y&p iynipti. . . . ^iriir^fi.i|/ai. ' Non enim im- 
possibilts erat . . . immittere,' Vulg. ' Impossibilis ' 
is a late word, not found with the sense of ' unable,' 
as here, but with a passive sense = ' that cannot be 
done,' ' impossible.' It is here = ' impotens.' 

X«ip. Pearson (On the Creed, Art. II. note e, 
pp. 131, 132, ed. 1833) notes that as in Isai. xlviii. 13, 
the ' hand of God ' is by the Chaldee paraphrast trans- 
lated the ' Word of God,' so here fj navrMvajias a-ov 
Xf^ip Koi KTifraaa rttv koitjiov becomes, XVlii. 1 5, 'i!avTobivafii6i 
oov Xoyoj aiT ovpavav. 

'Bi dfi<Sp<j>ou uXrjs. ' Out of matter without form,' 
t. e. out of chaos. The term is Plato's, but the idea ia 
not necessarily the same as his. Our author says no- 
thing about matter being eternal, and is speaking of 
the moulding and adaptation of the previously created 
material. The commentators quote a passage from 
Timaeus Locr., the supposed teacher of Plato, p. 94 A : 

ravrav 8c too v\av di&tov /ifv t<j)a, oil fiav aKivaTov, aiiop<f>ov 
hi Kaff iavrav Kal aaxruiariarov, be^oiievav Si wacrav fwp(f)dv. 
The Vulg. translates, 'ex materia invisa,' with refer- 
ence probably to Gen. i. 2 : ^ Si yij ^v aoparos ral 
aKaTaa-KfiaoTot. S. Aug. de Gen. ad Lit. I. § 28 (t. iii. 
126) : ' Qui fecisti mundam ex materia informi.' But 
De Fid. et Symb. cap. ii. he writes : ' Qui fecisti mun- 
dum ex materia invisa, vel etiam informi sicut non* 
nulla exemplaria tenent.' Just. Mart. Apol. i. 10 : koI 

irayra tijv dpxi" dya06v Sfra Srniiovpy^vm avTov e'f ap6p<f>ov 

vXr/s 81 di>3pa>7roys Mt8dypt6a, Comp. Philo, De Cherub, 

35 (I. p. 1 62) : fori piv TO v<l>' o?, ri atriov, f| of it, i) vXij. 
See Orig. UtpX 'Apx- iv. 33 (I. p. 192, Ben.). S. Aug. 
sees nothing erroneous in our author's statement. 
About this he writes thus : ' Primo ergo materia facta 
est coufusa et informis, unde omnia fierent quae dis- 
tincta atque formata sunt, quod credo a Graecis chaos 
appellari . . . Et ideo Deus rectissinie creditur omnia de 
nihilo fecisse, quia etiamsi omnia formata de ista ma- 
teria facta sunt, haec ipsa materia tamen de omnino 
nihilo facta est.' De Gen. contr. Manich. i. §§9, 10. In 
the passage quoted above from De Fide et SjTub. he 
continues : ' Et si ipsum caelum et terram, i. e. mundum 
et omnia quae in eo sunt, ex aliqua materia fecerat, 
sicut Bcriptum est " Qui fecisti . . . invisa," nullo modo 
credendum est illam ipsam raateriam, de qua factus est 
mundus, quamvis informem, quamvls invisam, quocun 
que modo asset, per se ipsam esse potuisse, tamquam 
coaeternara et coaevam Deo : sed quemlibet modum 
suum, quem habebat, ut quoquo modo esset, et dis- 
tinctarum rerum formas posset accipere, non habebat 
nisi ab omnipotente Deo, cujus beneficio est res non 
solum quaecunque formata, sed etiam quaecunque for- 
mabilis . . . Hoc autem diximus, ne quis existimet con- 
trarias sibi esse divinarum Scripturarum sententias, 
quoniam et omnia Deum fecisse de nihilo scriptum est, 
et mundum esse factum de informi materia.' 

' A multitude of bears.' As God threatened the 
Israelites, Lev. xxvi. 22 ; Jer. viii. 1 7. Comp. Philo, de 
Vit. Mos. i. 19 (II. p. 97). 'Apicot is the Alex, form of 
SpKTos. Bears were sent to punish the mocking chil- 
dren, 2 Kings ii. 24, and lions punished the disobedient 
prophet, I Kings xiii. 24, and the strangers in Samaria, 
2 Kings xvii. 26. Comp. r Kings xx. 36. See also 
ch. xii. 9, and note there. 

18. NcoKTioTous, ' newly-formed ' by Him who made 
(ftTtVat) the world. 

eu|xou irXi^p. ' Ira plenas.' Comp. vii. 20 ; xvi. 
5. Some unnecessarily have supposed that 6vpi>s here 
means ' poison,' as perhaps in Deut. xxxii. 33 j Job 
XX. 16. 

z 2 



[XI. 19- 

Bp6fu>v XiKfiufx^Kous Koirrou. ' Fumi odorem pro- 
ferentes,' Vulg. Bpo/ios is here = /Spw/xos, ' a stink.' 
Tlie MSS. vary much in this passage. The reading in 
the text has most authority. The Eng. seems to have 
read ^po/iovs (V. al.) XiKfuafuvov (Comp.) Kairvov. Mr. 
Churton compares the description of the monster in 
Job xli. 20, 21. 

19. BXd^T). ' Laesura,' Vulg. A post-class, word ; it 
occurs also xviii. 3. Tertull. De Patient, vii : ' laesura 
divitiarum.' Grut. Inscr. Rom. 567, 8 : 'Quae vixit 
mecum Annis xvii. M. ii. D. iii. sine ulla animi 

Zui^KTpi<|iai. The crii' is intensive, like the prefix 
' to ' in old English. Thus Judg. ix. 53 : ' And all to- 
brake his skull.' Chaucer, Knight's Tale, 261 1 : 

■The helmes they to-hewen and to-shrede.' 

20. 'Ei-i irceujiaTi . . . uir6 ircetSfioTos Suk. ' Blast.' 
See V. 23. So of Sennacherib it was said, 2 Kings 
xix. 7 : ' Behold, I will send a blast (n-vtC/ia) upon 
him.' Job iv. 9 : otto St nvtviiaros opyrjs airrov d<f>an- 

'Yir6 Trjs SiKTjs 8iux9. Vulg. : ' Persecutionem 
passi ab ipsis factis suis.' Many of these unauthorised 
variations from the Greek text are not noted by Gutb., 
whose Church considers the Vulg. of equal authority 
with the original. For the notion of vengeance dogging 
the sinner see Acts xxviii. 4. 

'AXXd irivra, k.t.X. Comp. Job xxviii. 25 ; Isai. 
xl. 12. Thus 4 Eedr. iv. 36, 37 : ' Quoniam in statera 
ponderavit saeculum, et^mensura mensuravit tempera, 
et numero numeravit tempora.' The statement is true 
of the physical and moral world. Here it refers to 
the latter, and means generally that God, limiting His 
Omnipotence, awards His punishment by impartial 
rules, trying to lead men to repentance. The sym- 
metry, harmony, and order that reign in the material 
universe are a figure and example of those which pre- 
vail in the moral government of the world. Comp. 
Ecclus. i. 9 ; xvi. 25. S. Bas. Magn. Horn. iii. in 
Hexaem. 5 (p. 27, Ben.) : 6 rolmv mavra tnaBii^ Ka\ 

/icrp^ iiara^ayifvos (apifffjiyjTat yap airr^, Kerra tov 'l<i>|3, Ka\ 
(jToyouts fl{T\v vfTov\ tjdti TTotTov Tip K6(rfi<o ^p6vov af^aptafv 
els hiapovijv, (tat noarjv \p^ Ty irvpi npoaTrodtadai Smrdvijv. 
S. Aug., too, has treated this passage at some length 
(De Gen. ad Lit. IV. v. § 12). Thus : ' Facinmus ita 
dictum esse " Omnia . . . disposuisti," tanquam dictum 
esset, ita disposita ut haberent proprias mensuras suas, 
et proprios numeros, et proprium pondus, quae in eis pro 
sui cujusque generis mutabilitate mutarentur, aug- 
mentis et diminutionibus, multitudine et paucitate, 
levitate et gravitate, secundum dispositionem Dei.' 
Cf contr. Jul. Op. Imp. ii. § 87 (t. x. 987). 

21. T6 yAp (icy. lox. gives the ground for 18-20. 
lol irdlpcoTii'. Vulg. : ' Tibi soli supererat,' where 

' soli ' is an interpolation, and ' supererat ' ought to be 
' superat,' which is found in some MSS. 

Tis Ain-ioT. This is quoted by Clem. Rom., and it 
is remarkable as being the earliest citation of the 
Book of Wisdom exterior to the N. T., t'v \6ytf T^t 
fifyoXoxrvwjf avroO (TVV€(rTTj(raTo ra navra Koi ev Xoy^ dvportu 
aiira Karaarpi-^m. Tit fpti avru' Tt t'lroitiiras ; ^ ris am- 
aTTi<TfTai r«5 Kparti r^t Itrxios avrov ; 'Ort fltXtt koi its 
6f\ft, Troirjaft ndira Ka\ ovSfv fifj napfKBg tuv StSoyparia- 

fUvav vir airrov. Ep. ad Cor. xxvii. See Prolegom. 
p. 36, and note on xii. 12. 

22. 'PowT) ^K irXcMJTiYYWK. ' The turn of the scales.' 
' Momentum staterae.' Eng. : ' Little grain of the 
balance ;' taking pon-ij for ' that which turns the scale.' 
So Grimm : 'an atom in the scale.' Is. xl. 15 : ur 

ponfj ^vyoi/, 

'OpOpii^. 'A morning drop of dew.' Usually 
taken per hypallagen for ' a drop of morning dew ;' 
as Vulg. : ' Gutta roris antelucani ;' reading perhaps 
opBpivjjs. Comp. Hos. vi. 4, and xiii. 3 : as 8p6<Tos dpdpivtj 
iropevoptvr). Const. Apost. viii. 37 : pera TO prjdSjvai riy 
opOpivbv [v/ivof], i. e. Matins. 

23. 'On. ' Because.' ' God's Almighty power is 
the foundation of His mercy.' Comp. Collect in P. B. 
for Xlth Sund. after Trinity : ' O God, who declarest 
Thy Almighty power most chiefly in showing mercy 
and pity.' This is taken from the Sarum Missal, and 





is also found in the Sacramentary of Gelasius. See 
ch. xii. 1 6, and Ecclus. xviii. 13. 

riopopas . . . |jieT(ifoiai'. A remarkable anticipation 
of S. Paul's language, Rom. ii. 4 : ' Not knowing that 
the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance.' Comp. 
Acts xvii. 30 : ' The times of this ignorance God 
winked at {imtpitav), but now commandeth all men 
everywhere to repent (firroj'otu').' 2 Pet. iii. 9. Ecclus. 
xxviii. 7 : vipiit ayrotav. ' Because they should amend,' 
Eng., where ' becauEC '=' in order that.' Comp. S. Matt. 
XX. 31: ' Rebuked them because they should hold 
their peace.' So 'quia' is used in late Latin for 

24. 'Ayoiros yip. The reason of God's long- 
suffering and mercy. Euseb. in Psalm xxiv. 10 (p. 
93, Ben.) : Iktu yap to ovra Koi ovhiv /38*Xucr<7Tra( hv 
htoirjirff oi/df yap iturav n KaTtauvaat — quoting from 


OuBtK p8tV. Comp. Coll. for Ash-Wednesday : 
' Omnipotens aeteme Deus, Qui nihil odisti eomm quae 
fecisti ;' which is the Vulg. version of this passage, and 
is found in the Sarum Missal, with the addition of a 
clause from ver. 23 : ' Dissimulans peccata omnium 
propter poenitentiam.' Comp. Prov. xvi. 4. S. Bas. 
Lit. Copt. : ' Deus magne et aeteme, qui homiuem 
absque vitio condidisti, et mortem quae Satanae invidia 
in mundum intraverat, per adventum Filii Tui . . . de- 

struxisti ' (XXXI. p. 1666, Migne). Clem. Al. Paed. 
i. 8. 62 (p. 135) : fiv yap oiiSiv & ptati 6 Kvpior. 

Ou8€ Y<4p. ' Nee enim odiens aliquid constituisti 
aut fecisti,' Vulg. This is not accurate and contains an 
unauthorised addition. Eng.: ' For never wouldest Thou 
have made anything if Thou hadst hated it.' ' Odiens' 
is a form unknown to classical Latin, but various parts 
of the verb ' odio' are used in the Vulg. and by late 
authors. Thus, 'odirent,' Ps. civ. 25; ' odiet,' Luke 
xvi. 13; 'odibunt,' Prov. i. 22 : ' odite,' Ps. xcvL 10; 
' oditur,' Tert. Apol. 3. 

25. KXrje^i'. ' Called into being.' Is. xli. 4 1 : ' Who 
hath wrought and done it, calling the generations from 
the beginning?' lb. xlviii. 13, and Rom. iv. 17: 'God, 
Who . . . calleth those things which be not as though 
they were.' Comp. Neh. ix. 6. 

26. 2a c'oTt iravra, <fii\6^x*t Orig. con. Cels. iv. 28 
(I. 521, Ben.). Did. De Trin. ii. 6 (xxxix. 509, M.) 

reads : ^ to pfi /3Xi)dev vn6 aoS irtjpi]6i] ; (ptiin ^ irivrav, 
ort irdvra ad tariv, Ac'inrora (piXoy^rvj^t, xot to S<l>dapT6y <rov 
Hixvpd tarty iv vcuri. 

^iX<Si)(uxof in classical Greek means, ' fond of life,' 
' cowardly.' (Comp. S. John xii. 25 : 6 <piK5>v ttjv 
irvxr)")' Here it means, ' lover of souls,' ' qui amas 
animas,' a beautiful expression. Comp. i. 13; Ezek. 
xviii. 4 : ' Behold, all souls are Mine.' S. Matt, xviii. 
14. See Prolegom. p. 27. 


1. Ti yip gives the reason why God is ' a lover of 
souls,' xi. 26. The Vulg. here, as in iv. i, introduces 
an exclamatory sentence, not warranted by the Greek : 
' quam bonus et suavis est, Domine, spiritus Tuns in 
omnibus I' Some countenance is lent to this clause by 
the Ar. and Syr. versions, which give respectively, 
Arab. : ' Nam spiritus bonus omnibus inest.' Syr. : 
' Amator es animarum, quia spiritus bonus habitat in 

omnibus.' But the Greek MSS. do not vary. S. Aug. 
Con. Faust, xix. 28 (VIII. 320 D) has : ' Bonus enim 
spiritus Tuns est in omnibus.' 

'Ec iroat. Eng., 'in all things,' taking irao-i as 
neut., as rrdrray, xi. 26. This is not Pantheism, 
but a truth expressed elsewhere in the Bible. Thus 
Ps. civ. 30: 'Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit, they 
are created : and Thou renewest the face of the earth.' 



[xii. 2- 

Job xxxiii. 4 : ' The Spirit of God hath made me, 
and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.' 
Comp. Gen. ii. 'j ; vi. 3 (Sept.), and see note on i. 
7. It is easier however to take naa-i as masc. with 
reference to ^tXd^ux* (ra™ mjvea-tv). Gutb. quotes 
Thom. Aquin. i. 9. 8 a 3 : ' Deus dicitur esse in 
re aliqua dupliciter : Uno modo per modum causae 
agentia et sic est in omnibus rebus creatis ab ipso. 
Alio modo sicut objectum operationis est in operante, 
quod proprium est in operationibus animae, secundum 
quod cognitum est in cognoscente et desideratum in 
desiderante . . . Est in omnibus per potentiam, in- 
quantum omnia ejus potestate subduntur/ etc. The 
author does not mean to imply that the Spirit of God 
is in the same degree and in the same manner present 
in all men good or bad : otherwise he would contradict 
himself. See i. 3-5. So the charge of Platonism 
founded on this passage is futile. S. Athan., Ep. I. ad 

Scrap. 26 (I. pp. 674, 675), quotes to yap difidaprov <70V 

Hvdud f'oTtf ev naa-i, and then a little further on says : 
TO ficK nvfvfia Kvpiov ireTrXi^pa/ce Trjv 0(Icov/icVi;k. Ovt<» yap 
Ka\ 6 Aa^id ^dXX«" IIoC iropcvBa airb tov nvfvfiaTos (rov ; 
Kat TTaXii/ fv Tff Soipia ytypainaC Ti yap, k.t.X. And Ep. 

m. ad Scrap. 4 (p. 693), after citing the Psalm as 
above, JIou . . . Hvfiparos aov; he proceeds, i>s pfj Swot 
aiToO tv TOJTS), aXX' ff<a /ifi/ tSiv irdyroav, iv hi t^ Yi^ ovtos, 
S>s (OTi Ka\ 6 Yi'of iv tm TlaTpi. 

2-27. Wisdom exhibited in the punishment of God's 
enemies, especially tlie Canaaniles. . The lesacm to he 
learned therefrom. 

2. AiA, i. e. because God is pitiful, xi. 23-26. 

nopo-irtTTTOiTas. So sin is irapdm-afia, Rom. xi. 1 1 . 
See on x. i, and comp. vi. 9. Vulg., 'eos qui exer- 
rant.' ' Exerro' is a very rare word, occurring 2 Mace, 
ii. 2 ; S. Cypr. Ep. i. 12. Stat. Theb. vi. 444 : 

'Spargitur in gyros, dexterque exerrat Orion.' 

KoT iXiyov, 'by little and little.' Vulg., 'par- 
tibus' = 'partim,' which is not found in Vulg. ' Par- 
tibus' occurs again ver. 10. The statement is general, 
but with special reference to the Canaanit«s, as the 

following verse shows. Comp. Ps. cxl. 5 ; Hebr. xii. 
5-10; and see Amos iv. 6-1 1. 'It is a great gift of 
God, that He should care for us, so as to chasten us.' 
Pusey in lac. 

'YtrofuikvfjaKiity, by judgments which show the con- 
nection between sin and punishment, xi. 16. 

3. riaX. oiKi^ropos, governed by fito^o-ar. The 'old in- 
habitants ' are the seven nations of Canaan conquered 
by the Israelites. Deut. vii. 1. ' Inhabi tat ores,' Vulg. 
Zeph. ii. 5. See on ver. 5 for words of similar 

'Ayios Y^iS) so called 2 Mace. i. 7. 

Mi(7T)(ros. Ps. V. 6, 7 • «fiio"i)(7ar ndvras Tour fpyo- 
^opivovs Tr/v avoiiiav . . . avSpa alparav Koi Boktov (i&eXitr' 
artTai Kvpios. God hates the sinner's sin, though He is 
merciful to the sinner. See ver. 8. 

4. 'Etti tm. The ground of God's hatred of them. 
' For performing most odious works of sorcery and 
impious rites.' Ex. xxii. 18 ; Lev. xviii. 24-28 ; Deut. 
xviii. 9-14. 

'Ex9i(jTa. 'Odibilia,' Vulg. So Ecclus. vii. 28; 
Bom. i. 30; Rev. xviii. 2. This is an ante-classical 
word revived in later Latin. It occurs in Accius 
(b. c. 136), in Prise, p. 709 P: 'Gnati mater pessimi 
odibilis;' and in Lamprid. Heliogab. c. 18: 'Vita, 
moribus, improbitate ita odibilis ut ejus nomen senatus 
eraserit.' Comp. S. Ambr. Ep. 14 ; De Cain et Abel, 
i. 4. See note on x. 4. 

♦apjAOKciuK. Rev. ix. 21. 'Witchcrafts.' Ex. 
vii. 22 ; Is. xlvii. 9, 12. 

5. TiKvuv T« (fM^KEas. Fritzsche reads <f>ovas, which he 
would join with tpya and TtXtrds. But the change is 
against the authority of all MSS., and unnecessary. The 
'murderers of children' refer to the worshippers of 
Moloch and Baal, Lev. xx. 2-5; 2 Kings iii. 27; Ps. 
cvi. 37. 38; Jer. vii. 31; xix. 5. The idea of these 
sacrifices was that the worth of such vicarious atone- 
ment was enhanced by the preciousness of the thing 
offered, the enormity of this violation of the holiest 
instincts being covered by the proof thus afforded of 
the superiority of religious to human obligations. See 

-xii. 6.] 



farther, on xiv. 23. For the Vulg. word 'necator' 
(Macrob. Sat. i. 22) see below. 

IirXayxi'o^Ywt' depends on Bo'uxui, which is governed, 
as the other accusatives, by iutrri<Tas, ver. 3. ^kv6p. 
vapicSiv depends on tnt^ayx"; ' the feast of the entrail- 
eaters of men's flesh.' There is a reading a-irXayxvorjid- 
yovt found in Compl., but without MS. authority. The 
Vulg. may perhaps have so read, translating : ' Et 
comestores viscerum hominum et devoratores sanguinis.' 
There seems to be no evidence that the Canaanites 
were guilty of cannibalism. It is probably an exagger- 
ation of the author. Comp. 2 Mace. vi. 7. The Vulg. 
word ' comestor ' is Sir. Xry. ' Comessor ' occurs in 
Tertull. Adv. Marc. I. i. Other unusual words of the 
eame formation are these : ' adnuntiator,' Acts xvii. 
18; 'clusor,' 2 Kings xxiv. 14 ; 'ascensor,' Exod. xv. 
i; ' conspector,' Ecclus. xxxvi. 19; 'exterminator,' 
I Cor. X. 16; 'malefactor,' i Pet. ii. 12; 'mediator,' 
Qal. iii. 19; 'miserator,' James v. 1 1 ; 'devorator' oc- 
curs Luke vii. 34, and in Tertull. De Resurr. XXX. ii. 

Kol atfiaTos. This clause is one of the most diffi- 
cult passages in the whole Book, owing to the evident 
corruption of the text and the impossibility of restoring 
it satisfactorily. The readings of the MSS. will be seen 
in the critical note. The versions afiFord little help. 
Taking the Vat. reading, «it ^cVov nvtrraOtias <rov, as the 
Btarting-point, we have almost as many variations as 
MSS., and as many conjectures as editors. The Vat. 
itself has been altered into itv<Toviiv<rra<T0tia<rov. Vulg. : 
' a medio Sacramento tno,' perhaps having nwrrripiov am. 
The Syr. gives : ' Fecerunt in medio sacramento sine 
lege.' The Ar. : ' Quum abstulissent e medio sui divi- 
norum sacrameutorum cognitionem.' Of the editions, 
that of Basil, I545> reads : «V fUaav itvaras re Btias <rov. 
Compl. : «V fieaov nvaras 6(ias <rov, with the wonderful 
translation : ' De medio sacramenti Divini tui.' Basil, 
1550 : « iiiaovs fivaras re Otunrfioii. Eeinecc. and Aug. 
ftS Vat. Apel : mfiorot cKiivaov fiiirras Biatrov. Grimm, 
1837 : ^Kfivo'oCr /ivorar Oiaa-ov. i860 : « /ivirovi jiioTas 
Oidirov, Fntzsche : o'lutrot « uttrov fivarai Btairov. 
Gutb. retains the Vat. reading. If we can be satisfied 

with retaining words which occur nowhere else, we have 
three alternatives. "We may keep /ivoraflfiar, deriving 
it from /ivoTo^ijr, which Hesychius admits, explaining it 
ciiSos Ti Kol ipparpta pairrtwr. Or we may adopt the Sin. 
word pwradtaa-os, a compound of pvtrrrjs and dia<ros. 
Or, leaving fivarat Siaaov, we may, with Grimm and 
Reusch, turn «'«: fiiaov into the new word (Kpiaov, from 
(KiivaT)s, ' abominandus.' Neither of these alternatives 
approves itself to me ; and, failing any better sug- 
gestion, I am inclined to read, with Fntzsche, ^iixrrar 
Btdaov, but taking icai alparos with the preceding clause. 
6. Kal atfuiTos, with anXayxvxpayav, ' eaters of men's 
flesh and of blood.' This was expressly contrary to God's 
ordinance, Gen. ix. 4; Lev. xvii. 10. Calmet : 'Sunt 
qui ferant : Epulum sanguinis ex medio choreae Mena- 
dum. Satis constat, in Bacchi orgiis cruda exsta 
cruentasque carnes vorari consuevisse.' Ap. Migne, 
Script. Sacr. Curs. 

'Ek fiiaou fiuoras 6i(i<rou. Mvorar is probably 
governed by diroXeam. ' Thou wishedst to destroy the 
initiated (the votaries) from the midst of their com- 
pany,' or, as Arnald words it : ' Thou wast determined 
to destroy those priests particularly amidst all the 
crew of idolaters, ex medio tripudiantium coetu.' This 
is very much the sense of the Eng. version. 

Au6^rras, ' murderers with their own hand,' or 
' murderers of their own flesh and blood,' like Aescbyl. 
Agam. 1573: 

Tpi^w BavttTois ov^Vrouri. 

The Vulg. ' auctores' is quite a mistake, as Gutb. allows, 
unless the word ' caedis' has dropped out. ' Soula 
destitute of help,' t. e. their own children. The Jews 
learned these horrid rites from the Canaanites. Thus 
Ps. cvi. 37,38: ' They sacrificed their sons and daughters 
unto devils, and shed innocent blood, even the blood of 
their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed 
unto the idols of Canaan.' Comp. Jer. vii. 31; Deut. 
xii. 31. See on ver. 5. 

*A^or)ft^T<l)^', Ps. Ixxxvii. 5 ; 2 Mace. iii. 28. ' In- 
auxiliatarum,' Vulg. This is air. X«y. 



[xii. 7- 

rtaripuv ^jft. Ex. xxiii. 23, 24 ; Num. xxxiii. 52 
ff. ; Deut. vii ; xx. 16-18. 

7. 'AiroiKioi'. This seems hardly the word to apply 
to the settlement of the Hebrews in what Was virtually 
their own land ; hence Grimm suspects that the author 
uses the word for inoiKiav, which would not denote re- 
moval from the mother-country. Vulg., ' peregrina- 
tionem.' Eug. Marg., ' new inhabitance'= 'population.' 
A. Lap. : ' Ideo expulisti Chananaeos ut eorum terra, 
i.e. terrae et regiones, perciperent novam dignamque 
se peregrinationem, hoc est, peregrinorum et advenarura 
coloniam ; coloniam, inquam, filiorum Dei, i.e. fidelium 
et piorum Israelitarum.' 

A^trjTai, ' perciperent,' Vulg. This plainly ought 
to be ' perciperet,' sc. ' terra.' 

TiiituTdTr) yij. Deut. xi. 12. 

8. 'Qs iyOpaitiDv. God had mercy even on the 
Canaanites ' as being men ' possessed of souls and weak 
and prone to sin. Comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 38, 39. God's 
long-suffering waited till the fourth generation. Gen. 
XV. 16. 

Z<{iiiKas. From the Sept. Ex. xxiii. 28 : airo(rrt\S> 
Tos <T<pr]Kias ir port pas aov. Deut. vii. 20, and Josh. xxiv. 
1 2 : f^Ti(<rrfi\e wporipav vfiav ttjv (T<j)T]Klav. The author 
seems to take this literally of hornets and wasps, ac- 
cording to the rabbinical legend ; and instances are 
given in profane history where these insects have de- 
populated whole districts, as the venomous fly in Africa 
does now. (See Smith's Diet, of Bible, s. v. Hornets.) 
Philo, De Praem. et Poen. § 16 (II. p. 423), says the 
same thing. Commentators generally consider 'hornets' 
are to be taken metaphorically for panic. Comp. 
Deut. i. 44. Thus S. Aug. says, we do not read that 
the hornets were sent, so, he proceeds: 'Per hoc " vespae 
istae " aculei timoris intelligendi sunt fortasse, quibus 
agitabantur memoratae gentes, ut cederent filiis Israel.' 
Quaest. in Exod. ii. 93 (t. iii. 452). 

Karoppaxi, 'little by little.' Thuc. i. 64. Ex. 
xxiii. 30 : Kara jxiKpov fUKpdi> (K|3aXu airoiis dji6 <roO. 
Comp. Deut. vii. 22. 

'EjoXeOp. Exod. xxii. 20 ; Acts iii. 23. 

0. 'Ey irapaT(i$ci, ' in regular battle.' Judith i. 6 ; 
I Mace. iii. 26. 

6i)pioi$. Comp. 2 Kings xvii. 25, 26; Lev. xxvi. 
22 ; Deut. xxxii. 24. See on xi. 17. 

'Y4>' iv. Vulg.: 'simul.' 'Together.' 'Unoeodem- 
que momento'= npot /itav ponrjv, xviii. 12. Wahl. 

10. KaraPpaxu, ver. 8. Vulg., 'partibus.' See on 
ver. 2. Comp. Judg. ii. 21-23. 

TcJttoc ficTafouxs occurs Heb. xii. 17. Comp. 
Clem. Horn. Ep. ad Cor. vii. 5 : tv ytvta koI yfi/f9 ptra- 
voias tSttov e&wKev 6 Atcnrdrijt roir /SouXo^c'vott c7r<o'Tpa<^i)Kai 
in avT6v. Const. Ap. ii. 38. 

OuK Ayvoijv. ' Though Thou knewest well.' God's 
foreknowledge leaves man's free will unfettered. 

rive<ris, ' birth,' ' origin.' Vulg., ' natio.' 

''Epi<j)UTos, ' innate,' ' planted in their very nature ;' 
an adumbration of the doctrine of original sin, and 
(together with the following verse) quoted by S. Aug. 
Contr. Julian. Op. imperf.iii. i i(X. p. 1056) : 'Puto quod 
Datura, non iniitatio redarguitur; et quoraodo natura 
nisi vitiata peccato, non in primo homine sic creata ] ' 

Ou (IT) dXXayrj. ' Non poterat mutari,' Vulg. The 
Latin is too strong for the Greek expression, which 
merely implies God's absolute knowledge of their per- 
verse abuse of free-will. 

AoyKTfios, ' way of reasoning,' as 2 Mace. vii. 2 1 : 

Tov SrjXvv XoyKT/ioK apg-tvi 6vnu Sieyfipaira. 

11. Ka-nipap.^t'oi'. Eeferring to the curse pronounced 
on Canaan by Noah, Gen. ix. 24-27, which had not 
only political but moral consequences. Joseph. Ant. I. 
VI. 3 : Ncifoy alaBofifvo! roir fiiv aXXotr wma'iv (iSatitovlav 
(v;((Tai, TO 8f Xafia dia r^i/ (rvyytvtiav avrat fiiv ov (tan/po- 
(TOTo, Tots 8' ficydi««r avTov. Kol rSa> SKKav iumf<p(vy6Tai> 
Tr/v dpciv, Tovs Xavadvov naiiai fitTturui 6 Ocdr. 

EuXaPoi!pic>'(Ss TiKO. ' From fear of anyone.' Ecclus. 
xxiii. 18; 2 Mace. viii. 16; Job xiii. 25. So evXd/3»a, 
xvii. 8. 

"ASeiac. ' Indulgence,' ' impunity in those things 
in which they sinned.' 

12. Tis Y^P ^P"! see on xi. 21. Tit . . . ti moirjiras ; 
these words are found in Job ix. 12. 

-xn. 19.] 



*A aO iitoiT](ros. Am. takes these words thus : 
' Who shall call Thee to account for the things which 
Thou hast done against the nations V But the Greek 
rather favours the Ei<g. version and the Vulg., ' Na- 
tiones quas tu fecisti.' The Vulg. transposes the two 
last clauses. 

Eis KaTdaraaiv mi^va KaTairrjj trot, 'In order to 
stand forth against Thee,' Grimm. ' In conspectu tuo,' 
Vulg. ' In Thy presence,' Eng. Marg. Karda-Taa-iv 
and licJtKot seem rather to be used here in a forensic 
sense : ' "Who will come to set forth the cause against 
Thee, as an advocate in respect of unrighteous men t ' 

13. *Qt. It seems best to refer this to <rov. ' Thou 
who carest for all, in order to show Thy impartiality.' 
Ch. vi. 7; I Pet. V. 7. Whence the Eng. gets 'to 
whom Thou mightest show ' is doubtful. ' Unright ' is 
^ ' unrighteous.' The distinguishing mark of heathen- 
dom is that its gods presided only over particular pro- 
vinces, not ' caring for all.' See i Kings xx. 23. 

14. 'Arro+eoXjitJCTOi, ' to look in the face,' ' to defy.' 
EccluB. six. 5 (Gompl. and Field) : 6 Si avTo<t>dd\ixS>v 
ijjowilr. Acts xxvii. 15. The Vulg. is very tame : ' In 
conspectu tuo inquirent.' The word occurs in Clem. 
Bom. Ep. ad Cor. xxxiv. i : 6 vadpos k<u napcifiivos ovk 

diiro<}>6aXiui t^ ipyonaptKry airrov, S. Barn. Ep. V. I O : 
in^XiTToVTis OVK liTXvov(ru) (h Tat aurivas avrov [ijXtowl 
avro<p6a\firia-cu. Polyb. I. xvii. 3 ; kviii. 7. 

'EK^Xocas has more authority than mriiKtaas. 
Vulg.: ' perdidisti,' proves nothing, as it translates 
KoXaftiv, ver. 27, by ' exterminare,' Eeusch. 

ricpl S>v = iTfpX fKcivav our. 

15. Auric. It is inconsistent with God's power that, 
as mortal judges often do, He should punish ' even ' 
(ovrAi') the innocent. 

Auvdfiioji. ' Multi homines, ut videantur potentes, 
innoxios vexant ; sed haec potentia est tyrannis mag- 
naque animi 'impotentia. Dei autera potentia vera 
est potentia, quia vera est aequitas veraque justitia.' 
Com. a Lap. 

16. 'Apx»i, 'foundation.' God's almighty power is 
not, as man's often is, a cause of injustice and wrong. 

but is the basis of, and inseparably joined with, just 
dealing. Grimm quotes Joseph. Ant. iv. 8. 14: toO 

0COV IVXVS fOTl t6 biKaiov, 

To It. IT. ht<nr6l(iv, ' Thy lordship over all.' Comp. 
xi. 23, 26 ; and Rom. xi. 32. 

1 7. *Airi<TTOu(iei'os. ' When Thou art doubted, dis- 
credited, as regards the fulness, perfection of Thy 
power.' It is then that God displays His might ; e. g. 
in the case of Pharaoh, Ex. v. 2 ; and Babshakeh, 
2 Kings xviii. 32. Comp. 2 Mace. ix. 4. 

'Ef Tois ei8<i(n. The addition of ovk in A. seems to 
be a scribe's correction. The Vulg. (text, rec.) in- 
deed gives : ' Horum qui te nesciunt ;' but many Lat. 
MSS. have ' qui sciunt,' and it is so quoted by S. Aug. 
Quaest. in Hept. vi. 23. 'In the case of those who 
know (intellectually and theoretically) Thee, or Thy 
power, and acknowledge it not practically by life and 
action.' Comp. Rom. i. 21. 

'E$cX^YX<is. 'Thou puttest their audacity to 
shame.' ' Audaciam traducis,' Vulg., as iv. 20. 

18. ^e<nr6t,(i)y loxuos. ' Mastering, controlling Thy 
strength.' Vulg. takes these words as a title of God : 
' Dominator virtutis.' So S. Aug. (/. »«/;. dt.) : ' Do- 
minus virtutum.' But it is best rendered as above, 
Comp. Ps. Ixxviii. 38, 39. 

'Ev cirieiKci^i. Vulg. : ' cum tranquUlitate.' ' With 
mildness, lenity.' Cant. Tr. Puer. 18; Bar. ii. 27: 
'Thou hast dealt with us after all Thy goodness,' 
(WKUeiav. Comp. ch. ii. 19. 

^eiSous, ' forbearance.' ' Reverentia,' Vulg. So 
ittu'iKfia is translated, ii. 19, q. v. It is the rendering 
of tvka^tia, Heb. V. 7 : ' exauditus pro sua reverentia.' 
Comp. Esth. iii. (21), additam : Svtv navrbt oIktov toI 

ndpeoTi . . . 8u)'ao'9ai. The passage is found in 
Const. Apost. vii. 35. Vulg. renders well : ' Subest 
enim tibi, cum volueris, posse.' Cp. Rom. iv. 21, 

19. From this verse to the end of the chapter the 
author enforces the lesson of mercy and judgment to 
be learned from God's dealings 

4>i.Xdy0pwirof. This is a great advance on the 
A a 



[xn. 20— 

Jewish principle, ' Thou shalt love thy neighbour, 
and hate thine enemy ' (S. Matt. v. 43 : comp. Deut. 
vii. 2 ; xxiii. 6 ; and Tacit. Hist. V. v. 2), and an ap- 
proach to the Gospel law, S. Matt. v. 44 ; xviii. 32, 33. 
'Em dfuipT. 'On the occasion of = 'when we 
Bin.' Vulg. : ' Judicans das locum in peccatis poeni- 
tentiae.' Many MSS. omit 'judicans,' which is not in 
the Greek. 

20. 'ETi(i<upr)o-os. A. and some cursives have m- 
Hapijao. But the act. voice is used in the sense of 
'taking vengeance on.' Comp. Soph. Oed. Tyr. 107. 
'ETt/iapija-a occurs, without any various reading, xviii. 8. 

npoo-oxTis, ' attention,' ' caution.' Ecclus. Prol. : 
lTapaK€icKri(rdc ptT (vvoias Koi npo(70)fis Tfjv avdyvaaiv iroi- 
t'urSm. Comp. £,om. ix. 22. 

Kol Si^cEus. ' And indulgence.' aUo-k, ' discharge,' 
' letting through.' These two words are omitted by A, 
some cursives, and Vulg. Auaeas is owed to S. The 
usual reading is Km Sdjatas, which is supposed to be 
explained by such passages as Is. Ixv. 2 : 'I have 
spread out My hands all the day onto a rebellious 
people.' Rom. x. 21; Prov. i. 24. But it seems 
unsuitable to God's dealings with the abominable 
Canaanites. The other reading, koI SitVaxrar, probably 
is owed to the Sin. iua-fas : it certainly cannot have 
been the original expression, as it is quite foreign to 
the intention of the passage. The Eng. version leaves 
the word untranslated. It is omitted in Compl. 

21. 'AKpi^Eias, ' carefulness,' ' circumspection,' opp. 
to the rashness and partiality of men's judgments. 

"OpKou; xal crui^Kas. Comp. xviii. 22. Deut. vii. 
8 ; Gal. iii. 1 6. ' Juramenta et conventiones,' Vulg. 
' Juramentum'is a post-classical word=' jusjurandum,' 
found xviii. 6, 22 ; Hab. iii. 9. 

'AyoO. mto<r)ii<Tfii>y. Comp. Eph. ii. 12 : twv dia- 
OrjKwv TTit inayyfXias, and 2 Pet. i. 4. Wahl renders : 
' Foedera cum promissionibus eximiis juncta.' 

22. natSciiuf . . . (lairriYois. ' Chastening,' as 
children. . . . ' Thou scourgest,' as slaves. The two 
words occur Prov. iii. 12 : ov yap ayaira Kvpws iraiifiei 
[cXeyxct v.], luurriyol di iravra v'Av t» wapait)(eTai, quoted 

Heb. xii. 6. Comp. ch. xvi. 16 ; Ps. xxxi. 10: ttoXXoI 
al poKTTiyfs Tov ApapTtSKov, t6v 8f (Kiti^ovra t'lri Kuptov 
eXfoi KvKkaxTd. 

Mcpifif, Kpi'rarrcs. ' When judging others we 
should think earnestly on Thy goodness.' Comp. S. 
Matt, xviii; 33. 

Kpii'<Sp.e>'oi, 8C. into crov. 

23. 'OBec (Acts xxvi. 19; Heb. iii. i), i.e. because 
God punished His enemies with more rigour than the 
Israelites. The author here and in the following 
verses speaks of the Egyptians. This is pladn from 
his allusions to their being punished by the objects of 
their worship, which is not recorded of the Canaanites. 
Ch. xi. 15, 16 ; xvi. i. 

To6s ^i" d<t>p. i- p. A81KOUS. ' Whereas men have 
lived dissolutely and unrighteously ' (d8i)c(or), Eng. 
This is very inadequate. ' The unrighteous who per- 
sisted in folly of life,' or, 'a foolish life,' folly being 
sin, as i. 3. Comp. Rom. i. 21. 

BScXuYfitiTWf, ' abominations,' i. e. objects of idol- 
atrous worship. So continually in Sept. Ecclus. 
xlix. 2 ; 1 Kings xi. 6 ; Is. ii. 8, 20. All the Plagues 
were directed against the idols of Egypt. ' Against all 
the gods {dfoU) of Egypt I will execute judgment,' Ex. 
xii. 12. Thus the Nile, the sacred river, was turned 
to blood ; the murrain on cattle discredited the wor- 
ship of Apis ; frogs, flies, etc., which they adored, 
became means of punishment ; the sun -god himself 
had no power to shield them from the darkness. 

24. Tuy irXariis 68. (laxp. iirK. ' In erroris via diu- 
tius erraverunt,' Vulg. Better, as Grimm and Gutb. : 
'They wandered further than the ways of error,' 
hyperbolically ='they went beyond the usual limits,' 
' were sunk in the grossest depths of error.' 

ecoi^s iiroX. ' In that they held as gods even 
creatures which their enemies despised as being worth- 
less,' e. g. frogs, crocodiles, serpents, xi. 1 5 ; Lev. xi. 
41-43; Rom. i. 23. 

'Anjto, ' supervacua,' Vulg., as xi. 16. 

AiKT)!', ' after the manner of ;' oljr. Xty. in Greek 
Scriptures, Grimm. 

-mi. I 



i|'eu(r6^iTet. Vnlg. : ' viventes.' There is no vari- 
ation in the Greek MSS. Eeusch suggests ' errantes.' 
26. nouriK . . . ^fiiraiYfioi' . . . iraiyi'iois, ver. 26, a play 
of words. ' Cum pueris pueriliter lusisti/ Gr. The 
mocking judgments were the earlier and lighter Plagues. 

26. noiyi'iois iiriTi(iii<T£us. ' Play-games of punish, 
ment.' Eng. : ' Correction wherein He dallied with 
them.' Churton : ' Sportive likenesses of rebuke.' 

So Philo, Vit. Mos. i. 38 (II. p. 114): to wapaio^ 
Tavra Koi irapaKoya O(ov naiyvid (Itriv, Vulg. : ' Ludibriis 
et increpationibus.' Or, as some MSS. have, 'incre- 
pationis.' The word ' increpatio ' is mr. Xry. in Vulg. 
See on vi. 18. 

ncip<i«rou(ni'. The author makes a general state- 
ment, or else speaks as though he were waiting with 
his forefathers for the final exhibition of the ' judgment 
worthy of God,' i.e. the death of the firstborn, and 
the destruction of the host iu the Eed Sea. 

27. The Eng. version is very confused. The Vulg. 
is not much better. The passage may be thus trans- 
lated : ' For in the things, at suffering from which 

they were distressed, yea, in these same things, whicfe-« . 
they deemed to be gods, they saw, when they were' 5 t wj ' 
punished thereby, Him whom before they had refusd^,; *' ^/i 
to know, and acknowledged Him as the true GodX '>-y> *^ 
They saw God's hand in what happened to thein\ ""y 
through the creatures which they worshipped, xi. 13. 
Churton paraphrases : ' For the vexation which they 
felt at these petty chastisements which befel them 
through their gods, constrained them to acknowledge 
the true God whom they once denied.' 

'HpTOOKTo. See Ex. v. 2. See on xvi. i6. 

Qthv dXrjOr). Ex. viii. 8 ; ix. 27 ; x. 16. 

Aid, because, though they were forced to recognise 
the Lord, yet they did not let the knowledge influence 
their actions. Ex. xiv. 5-9. 

T^pjio -riis KaraSiKT);. ' The extreme point o^ 
the severest, condemnation.' Eurip. Suppl. 369 : 

c'tti Tfpita Kai t6 nXiov €/i£v kok&v, 

Comp. I Thess. ii. 16 : ' The wrath is come npon them 
to the uttermost (fit tAot).' 


Chaftebs Xni, XrV. the Obioik, Growth, aitd Effects of Idolatbt, the Oppostte or Wisdom. 

Xin. 1-9. Idolatry begins with the worship of 

L Here commences a digression on the folly of 
idolatry in general, the subject springing naturally 
from the remarks at the end of ch. xiL Comp. Philo, 
De Monarch, i. 1-3 (II. pp. 213, 217). 

Miiraioi ^iv, answered by raXai7ra>po( 8t, ver. 10. 
Understand fiaav. For narauts and lurrmorqs, applied 
to idolaters, see 2 Kings xviL 15 ; Rom. i. 21 ; Eph. 
iv. 17. So the heathen are called, 3 Mace. vL 11, 

^u<rci (om. by Vulg. and some other versions), 
here, ' the intellectual nature.' 

Kal Ik t. 6p«i)i.. &y-> *<>■ °% ' ^^^ ^^o &<)i>i ^^^' ^^ 
For the sentiment comp. S. Paul's speech to the people 
of Lystra, Acts xiv. 15-17, and Rom. i. 20. S. Clem. 

ad Cor. Ix. I : irv t^k aevaov ToC Koaiiov (rwrrcuriv but rStv 
fvtpyoviuvtiv i<]>avfpoiroiTi<Tas . . , 6 aya^o; tr roir Spat/ifvoii 
Kai jriorAr fv rots iTrtroi06<riv orl ai. ' De his quae vi- 

dentur,' Vulg. For ' de '= ' ex ' comp. i Mace. xiii. 47 ; 
S. Matt. iii. 9 ; S. Luke i. yr, Vulg. 

Tiv otTO. ' The incommunicable name of God.' 

Ex. iii. 1 4 : 'Eyci <ifu 6iy..,'0*Qv dwt(rra\Ki fit irpbt v/iat. 

Comp. Rev. i. 4, 8. Among the Egyptians the worship 
of the tutelary deity of the Nile was conspicuous. 
The annual festival called Niloa was celebrated with 

A a 2 



[XIII. 2- 

the utmost solemnity about the time of the summer 
solstice, -when the river began to rise. See Wilkinson, 
Anc. Egyptians, iii. 369 ff. (ed. 1878). 

EiS^Koi edv, 2 Thess. i. 8. 

npoctrxivrts, ' by heeding,' ' attending to.' 

Texi'iT»)i'. Hebr. xi. 10. 
2. The objects of worship here mentioned are what 
S. Paul calls, Oal. iv. 3, 9 : to oTMxtia roO Koaiiov. 
Comp. Philo, De Decalog. 12 (II. p. 189) : TrXavot ris ov 

fUKpht ri TrXuarov rav dvSpamov yejwr Karicr^Kf, nepi jrpay- 
fuzToc Imtp t) fiovov TJ /ioXurra rjv tiKos anXavf<TTaTov rait 
(KaaTtav iiavoiais iviipva6ai. 'EKTfdtiaKairi yap oi pip ras 
rtiraapas dpxas, yfiv Ka\ viiop kcu aipa Km irvp' oi hi ijXiov 
KM <rtKfivr)», KQi rovs SSXovs nKavtfrat Ka\ miKiaifis aarepas' 
oj 8e rhv trupiravTa Koa-pov. Plat. Cratyl. jrvi, p. 397 : 
(jialvovTai poi oi irparoi tS>v dvdpamav rSni ntpi t^k 'EXXada 
Tovrovr povovs roit Bfoiis fiyf'urBai, ovairtp vvv jroXXol tS>v 
fiap^pav, ij\iov Koi <rt\rivt]v xai yrju Koi aarpa Ka\ oipavov. 

Herod. (I. 131) says of the Persians : Oiova-t fi\i<o rt km 

trfKifvn KoL yjj koi irvpl koi vSoti koi avipouri. tovtouti piv 
bfj poivoitn 6uov(n ap)(Tj6fv, Cp. I Cor. viii. 5- 

nOp. The worship of fire prevailed among the 
Persians and Chaldeans. The Greek god Hephaestus 
■was adored chiefly as the patron of arts and manu- 
factures. The earliest form of idolatry seems to have 
been the worship of Nature. 

DfcCfia. ' Wind,' as Aeolus. The Egyptians too 
worshipped the winds as connected with the annual 
overflow of the Nile ; so did the Persians, Her. i. 131 ; 
vii. 191. See above. 

Toxii^i' &ipo,, ' the rapid air,' like Spenser's, ' The 
flitting skies,' referring probably to the atmosphere, 
personified in Zeus and Hera. 

KukX. cUrrpuy. See Deut. iv. 19; xvii. 3. 

Biaiof u8(i)p. ' Forceful water,' worshipped by the 
Persians, as by the Greeks under the names of Po- 
seidon (Jvoa-ix6av), Oceanus, etc. So the Egyptians 
worshipped the Nile. 

♦uirrijpcis oup. The sun and moon, as Gen. i. 16: 

row bvo (jiaxrTTJpac rovs ptyaXovs. Comp. Job xxxi. 26— 

a8 ; Ecclua. xliii. 7. The Egyptians worshipped the 

sun at Heliopolis (Beth-shemesh, Jer. xliii. 13) under 
the name of Osiris, and the moon under that of Isia, 
Comp. Warburton, Div. Legat. bk. iv. § 5. The 
Egyptian word for sun is Ra, and the royal name 
which we call Pharaoh is really Phrah, that is, Ba 
with the definite article Pi prefixed. Wilkinson, Anc. 
Egypt. III. 44 (ed. 1878). 

npuTdi^is, in app. with Beoiis, as in Eng. and Vulg. 
So Pindar, Pyth. vi. 24, speaks of Kpoviitjc as 

papvonav (TTtponav Ktpctvvav T( irpiraviv. 

3. Tfj KaXXoKfj. It is rather the grandeur of the 
powers of nature than their beauty which influenced 
the Hebrew mind. But see Ecclus. xliii. 9, 11. So 
ToC KoXXov; ytvf<Tidpx>is below seems to be a notion more 
consonant with Greek feeling than Hebrew. 

TouTo Reusch thinks is an interpolation, but there 
is sufiScient authority for it. S. Cypr. has : ' Quorum 
si propter speciem hoc aestimaverunt,' Ep. ad Fortun. 1. 

TouTui' is best taken with SfOTrdnjt, as in ver. 9. 
Comp. 6 KOTaa-Ktvaa-as aura, ver. 4. The Vulg. translates 
it twice : ' Quanto his dominator eorum speciosior est.' 
S. Proclus : tu yap 6 vopos KtjpvTTd Stipiovpyiiv, rovrov 7 
oyjns Sia rav KTicrparav mirrovTai, Orat. II. de Incam. 

(Gall. IX. p. 623). 

ro-eo-icSpxtis, Sit. X«y. in Sept. and unknown in older 
writings. Euseb. De Laud. Const, (p. 640, Migne) : 
eeor 8« 6 (WfK€iva Aoyov y(vtcndpyT)S. Epiph. Adv. Haer. 
n. ii. 52 (II. p. 273, Migne). The word ytvapxtc is 
used in classical Greek for ' the founder of a family.' 
Comp. yfV€(Tiovpy6c, ver. 5- 

4. El 8^ . . ^KirXay^tres, SC. Btoiis vTTfXdpfiavov aiird. 
For the sentiment in vers. 3, 4, Grimm compares 

Lactant. Instit. II. 3, 5 : ' Qui quum Dei opera mira- 
rentur . . . earum rerum obstupefacti et ipsius Artificis 
obliti, quem videre non poterant, ejus opera venerari 
et colere coeperunt, nee unquam intelligere quiverunt, 
quanto major quantoque mirabilior, qui ilia fecit ex 
nihilo.' See a fine passage in S. Aug., Serm. Ixviii, on 
this subject, partly quoted below on ver. 9. 

6. McY^6. Kal KaXXoKtis seems the best reading, the 

-xm. 10.] 



mi having dropped ont in some MSS. owing to the 
commencement of the next word. Thus fiiytBos refers 
to iuvafixv and mpyfiav, ver, 4, KakXovfi to ver. 3, Euseb. 
in Ps. xviii. 2 (p. 71, Ben.) has « yap luytOms cat 
KoXXcn^s. 80 in Pb. Ixv. 2 (p. 326, Ben.), and in Ps. 
xci. 5 (p. 610, Ben.). S. Athan. : » fuyiOovt Koi koX- 

Xortjt rrurfiarav euxAdyat 6 ytvftrunipyhs Ofopfinu, Contr. 

Gent. 44 (I. p. 43, Ben,). Thus in Or. ii. cont. Arian. 
32 (I. p. 500, Ben.). Comp. Pseud. -Athan. contr. Ar. 
13 (n. p. 210, Ben.) : c3<( ovp nu vi ex Tijs r&r otm- 
Xttov cimprrov crvfiirfi^tcoc avakoyiiraiTSai tAk irifitovpyop apa- 
Xoyas, Koi (lavTov iTriyvtufjMva ytviaBai, on aidlov GfoC 
Tvyxaift tpyov 6 Koiriiot, ov lerurr^s ii <f>v<TftDt, nr/ tupafuvrit 
inapK€<Tai roaavra Sp^v. 

KiuTfidnn'. The Vulg. reads kcu Krur/i., as Aid. and 
Compl., 'A magnitudine enim speciei et creaturae.' 
Bat most of the Fathers who cite the passage omit rai. 
Thus S. Greg. M. i. 817 : ' Per magnitudinem enim crea- 
turae et speciem potest intelligibiliter creator videri. 
ToO fuyiSovs rrjs raXXof^c rS» KTiafiarav, Pseudo-Bas. 

Comm. in Is. t6i. cap. v. (L p. 695, Ben.). See Reusch. 

'AKaXtSyus, ' proportionably,' Eng. ' Cognoscibi- 
liter,' Vulg. * Conseqiienter,' Hil. de Trin. i. p. 770. 
' By comparing the creature with the Creator, as far as 
the ratio between finite and infinite will allow,' Am. 
Comp. Eom. i. 20 ; Acts xiv. 1 7 . The Vulg. word ' cog- 
noscibiliter' is unknown. Comp. the adverbs, ' duriter,' 
T. 23 ; ' infinniter,' iv. 4 ; ' sinceriter,' Tob. iii. 5 ; ' ig- 
noranter,' Ecclus. xiv. 7 ; • sufficienter/ Nah. ii. 1 2. 

6. ' But yet,' t. e. ' though they might have known 
God by His works.' 

'E»i rbuTois, masc. ' In the case of these,' the 
worshippers of the heavenly bodies ; the same as avrol 
just after. 

'oXiyT|, 'minor,' Vulg. 'Little blame,' in com- 
parison with the fault of those who worship idols. 

Koi yip, 'etenim,' 'for truly they perhaps (rdxa) 
err while th^y seek after God and have the will to find 
Him.' Acta xviL 27 : 'That they should seek {CiTt'w) 
the Lord, if haply they might feel after Him, and find 
Him (npouf).' 

7. *A»'o<jTp«<^ji«roi, like Lat. ' versari ;' ' being occu- 
pied, conversant with,' referring rather to practical 
afiairs of life than to philosophical speculations. 

T^ o+€i, omitted by Vulg., ' persuasum habent.' 
Sabat. : ' persuadentur aspectu.' ' Let themselves be 
influenced by, or trust to, the appearance.' 

T& pXcir<S)xcKa. Comp. Heb. xi. 3. 

8. ndXiK hi. ' On the other hand,' xvi. 23 ; i Cor. 
xii. 21. 

AuTol, the same persons as those before spoken of. 
Ou . . <r\rYyviii<rro\=zaraiToX6yrirot. Rom. i. 20, 3 1, q.v. 

9. 'Ifa hvy., after rocroOroK. ' Knew so much as to be 
able to.' For Ira = on cp. S. Matt. xx. 33. 

ZTOxttcaoAoi T^y aiufo. ' To make guesses about,' 
' to criticize.' Always with gen. in classical Greek ; but 
with ace. Deut. xix. 3 ; Ecclus. ix. 14, Vat. It is here 
parallel with SupevuSxri, ver. 7. See i Cor. i. 19-21. 

S. Aug. has a beautiful comment on this passage 
(Serm. Ixviii. ed. Ben.), which ends thus : ' Optime 
itaqne et rectissime accusati sunt, qui potuerunt in- 
vestigare numeros siderum, intervalla temporum, de- 
fectum luminum cognoscere et praedicere : recte accu- 
sati sunt, quoniam a quo ista facta et ordinata sunt, 
non invenerunt, quia quaerere neglexerunt. Tu autem 
non valde cura, si gyros siderum et caelestium terreno- 
rumve corporum numeros ignores. Vide pulchritudinem 
mundi et lauda concilium Creatoris. Vide quod fecit, 
ama qui fecit : tene hoc maxime. Ama qui fecit : quia 
et te ipsum amatorem suum ad imaginem suam fecit.' 

Aliiy represents ' the world,' properly in its time- 
not its space-aspect. It is so used xiv. 6, and in 
N. T., Matt. xiiL 39 ; xxviii. 20 ; Heb. i. 2 ; xi. 3 ; 
I Cor. ii. 7. Comp. Eccl. iiL 11. So Lat, 'saeculum,' 
e. g. 4 Esdr. vi. 55 : ' Propter nos creasti saeculum,' and 
ver. 59 : 'Si propter nos creatum est saeculum, quare 
non haereditatem possidemus cum saeculo V Grimm. 
See notes on chs. iv. 2, and xviii. 4 ; and compare Dr. 
T. Lewis, Six Days of Creation, ch. xxvii ; also Burton, 
Bampt. Lect. iv. p. iii, and note 49 (ed. 1829). 
10-XIV. 1 3. The xoorship of idols or imagt$. 

10. TaXoiir. Sj, te. otrot ^<rar. 



[xni. II- 

'Ek KCKpois. 'Inter mortuos,' Vulg. 'In dead 
things,' Eng. The latter eeema preferable. Comp. 
ver. 1 8, and xv. 17:' He worketh a dead thing (veKpliv) 
with wicked hands.' There are many similar passages 
in 0. T. e.g. Deut. iv. 28; Is. xl. 18-20; xliv. 9-20, 
etc. ; Ep. of Jeremy, 4 ff. 

OiTires, ' in that they.' 

'E)jifi.cX^TT))ia, ' an exercise' of art. The word occurs 
in Anth. Pal. vi. 83. It is in apposition with xpwo-ov xai 
Spyvpov. Comp. Acts xvii. 29 : ' We ought not to think 
that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, 
graven by art {xapdypan rex"'!^) and man's device.' 

Aid. axptjoT., like the shapeless block of stone 
worshipped in Diana's Temple at Ephesus (Acts xix. 
35), or the apxa'tov Operas of Athena at Athens (Eurip. 
Iph. Taur. 977), both of which are said to have fallen 
from Zeus, their antiquity and unknown origin invest- 
ing them with mystery. 

11. El 8^. The apodosis is in ver. 13, aneiKaa-tv aM. 
The whole description is similar to, and in parts identical 
with, Is. xl. 20; xliv. 13-20; Jer. x; and Bar. vi. 
Ep. Jer. The comm. compare Hor. Sat. I. viii. i : 

'Olim truncus eram ficulnua, inutile lignum, 
Quum faber incertus acamnmn faceretne Friapuiu, 
Malnit esse deum.' 

EuKimrjTor. 'Meet for the purpose,' Eng. 'Rec- 
tum,' Vulg. ' Easy to handle.' 

'Exirpuras, ' having sawed out' from the rest of the 

Els omjp. (urjf. Comp. TTpot vmjp. ^pav, XV. 7. 

12. 'Ei-eirXiQaOT), 'fills himself.' Vulg. omits the 
word. Is. xliv. 16. It is implied that the idol-maker 
first satisfies his own hunger before thinking of turning 
the refuse to account. 

13. 'Ej afirui', sc. dno^XrjpaTwv. 'The refuse of the 

"Olois ouftire^. ' Grown thick with knots.' 
El* ^irificXcia ipyiaj. ' In the industry of idle- 
ness ;' such industry as a man uses when he is enjoying 
his leisure ; a sarcastic expression, which is lost in the 

reading ipyaaias, found in A. and some Paris MSS. 
Vulg., 'per vacuitatem suam.' ' Vacuitas,' in the sense 
of ' idleness,' ' leisure,' is very uncommon. 

'Efiireipia iylanit^. ' With' the skill of negligence,' 
' such skill as carelessness gives.' The common reading 
is <Tvvc<T«i>s. ' Skill of his understanding,' Eng. ' Per 
Bcientiam suae artis,' Vulg. But A. S., Ven., and V. 
prim, man., read avitrtat, which I have adopted as the 
harder reading, and more likely to have been changed 
by scribes, and also as making a parallel with eVi/i(X. 
apylas. Thus Polyb. i. 66 ; flia ttoXXou xp^vov TCTtvxiTts 
aviatai Ka\ (r;(oX5r. 

'AireiKaacr. Here begins the apodosis to €j it, ver. 
II. So Grimm. 

14. EuTeXei, ' cheap,' ' vile,' ch. x. 4 ; xi. 15. Vulg. 
omits it. 

MiXtu, 'ochre,' or 'red lead,' 'minium.' Comp. 
Jer. xxii. 14 ; Ezek. xxiii. 14. Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxxv. 
45 (see also H. N. xxxiii. 36), speaks of the statue of 
Jupiter being coloured red on festal days. Other gods 
were thus adorned. Virgil, Eel. x. 26 (where see 
Conington) : 

' Fan deus Arcadiae venit, quern vidimus ipsi 
Sanguineis ebuli bacis minioque rubentem.' 

15. 0"KT]|xa, ' a shrine,' probably a niche in the walL 
'Ao'4>aXio'(ificKos. (S. Matt, xxviu 65). Comp. Isai. 

xli. 7 : ' He fastened it with naUs, that it should not 
be moved;' xl. 19; Jer. x. 4 ; Ep. of Jer. 27. 

16. 'Iko (ICC, answered by wtp\ 8», ver. 1 7. The help- 
lessness of the image being contrasted with the de- 
mands made upon it. 

17. rdjiui'. VapM, like Lat. 'nuptiae,' is used for 'mar- 
riage,' but nowhere for ' a wife.' The Vulg. alters the 
order of the words and inserts ' inquirit,' making a new 
sentence at ovk aurxyvtrai. This has no support from 
MSS. The well-balanced parallelism of vers. 17— 19 is 
very remarkable. Am. compares it to the passage 
of S. Paul, 2 Cor. vi. 8-10. See also Jer. ii. 26-28. 
These private household gods, like the Roman Lares 
and Penates, seem to have been used among the 

-XIV. 3-] 



Hebrews in lax times. See the case of Laban's images, 
Gen. xxxi. 30, 34, and the Teraphim, Judg. xvii. 3-5 ; 
xviii. 17-20; I Sam. xix. 13, 16. 

18. T6 KCKf. and tS on-ctp. best coincide with ri 
atrdevh and to dvvd/i. The Vulg. seems to use the 
masc. throughout. 

'Aircip<STaToi', ' inutilem,' Vulg. ' That which hath 
least means to help,' Eng. The marg. rendering is 
better, ' That hath no experience at all,' t. e. ' ignorant 
of the means of helping.' 

Bdvci, 'foot.' So m&Stp /3Ar«r, Eur. Hec. 837. 
See Ps. cxv. 7 : ' Feet have they, but they walk not' 

19. nopi<r/iou, xiv. 2 ; I Tim. vi. 6 ; Diod. iii. 4. 
'EpYttffios, ' de operand©,' Vulg. ' Getting,' Eng. 

The word may mean either ' daily labour,' or ' trade,' 
what we call ' business.' 

Xeipui' firiTuxuis, ' good success of hands.' Folyb. 
L vi. 4. Vulg. : ' De omnium rerum eventu,' where 

the translator must either have read irtpX irJvrap hm-., 
or written ' de manuum eventu.' S«usch. 

Td dSpaf^oraTOK, ' Petit ab eo qui in omnibus est 
inntilb,' Vulg., followed by Eng., 'Asketh ability to do 
of him that is most unable to do ainything.' It is : 
' that which b most feeble with its hands.' 

EuSp^Kcia, Sir. Xcy., derived from Spatva, a desi- 
derative verb=8pa<r««». Vulg. omits the word al- 
together. Reusch suggests that 'in omnibus' is a 
clerical error for 'in manibus,' raU x^P"^*- Hooker, 
Eccl. Pol. I. viii. II, thus expresses these verses: 'He 
is not ashamed to speak unto that which hath no life, 
he calleth on him that is weak for health, he prayeth 
for life imto him which is dead, of him which hath no 
experience he requireth help, for his journey he sueth 
to him which is not able to go, for gains and work and 
success in his afiairs he seeketh furtherance of him that 
hath no manner of power.' 


L ZtAXcoOcu irXouc, ' to prepare for, undertake a 

voyage.' 2 Mace. v. I : t^x Sfvrf pav t^miov 6 'Avrioxos 

(OTftXaro. Sophocles uses the active, Phil. 911 : tw 

irXoCv <TTt\(u'. 

nXoiou. The other reading, ^v\m, is perhaps owed 
to a scribe who wished to make the antithesis neater. 

'Em3oaTai. Comp. Jonah i. 5 : xal (^^ridr^aav ol 
vfWTUcoi, Kai avt^orjaap fxaoTos jrpit Tov 6(ov avrov. Prob- 
ably the Pataeci, the tutelary deities of the Phoenicians, 
are referred to. See Herod, iii. 37, and Bahr's note. 

Comp. Acts XXviiL 11. 'E6os yap was ad f'v raU 'AX»|- 
anipiav fwXurra vavirt, vpos yt r^t itpaptjs Sc^ui re koL 
tvitnipa, yp€t(l>at tivat rouivrai (»c. ^uxTKOVpovs), S. CyT. 
Al. in Cat. Act. /. c. These insignia were sometimes 
of costly material, as gold and ivory ; they were at the 
prow of the ship ; the tutelary deity (' tutela ' among 
the Romans) was usually at the stem, though some- 
times one image served both purposes. See Kuinoel 

in Act. I. c. ; Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians, vol. i. cL iii. 
p. 276, ed. 1878, and the woodcut, voL ii. p. 209. 

2. 'Exciro, t. e. ' the ship.' This is made of better 
materials, and with greater skill than the idols. 

Zo^ia, 'man's natural sagacity.' The reading 
rex""^ (Tcxfiia is not SO probable ; but • and i; are often 
interchanged in MSS. Clem. Al., Strom, vi. 1 1 (p. 786, 
Pott.), quotes formally as tA vpos tov SoXopwcTur flpi- 
fievov' Tf^'^'iTis d« iro<^ia, 

3. AuiKu^cpt^ ' directeth it,' the ship. Many Lat. 
MSS. insert ' omnia,' but there is no authority for this 
in the original. Kv^tpvifnis (' gubemator ') b a ' steers- 
man.' Comp. ver. 6. S. Chrys. Hom. in Gfen. xi. (t. iv. 

p. 83, Ben.) : o?8t yap 6 KV^pVTfrqs, nOTt Stl KaBfXKvo'at 
t6 jrXoiov, Koi « TOV Xififvos ffc/SuXfiv, xai Ta jrfXdyij trtp- 
aiixraaffai. Kai n-oXX^v paXurra irapit Tovroit ?OTU> litiv 
TTjU avvtaiv, ffv ij tov Otov ao<f)ui ivaniStTo rg avSpamiyj/ 
<f>vo-ti, oiiii yip ovraif o2 rat Xrax^povr iuxTpixwns uratn 



[xiv. 4- 

fifTa aKpifitias rat drpaTTois, &s ofroi of iv rolt uiacri /ifxA 
aot^oXciac ttjv nopelav rroiovvrat. dio xat f) rpatprj fKn\t]<T- 
troiuvt) rijv itr«p/3dXXoiH7av tov Oeov ao^iav T^tyiv 6 Sois 
iv BoKaaoT) oSov ic.T.X. 

riporaia (xvii. 2). God's providential care watches 
over those engaged in their lawful calling, so that they 
can cross the sea in ships ; but idolaters have no such 
assurance, npivoia is used by Herod., Plat., and others 
for 'Divine Providence.' Thus Her. iii. 108: kuI 

KUf TOV 6floV r/ jrpOVolj], SxTTTtp KOI OIKOS, toTi (ovao (ro(j)rj. 

Plato speaks frequently of 6eov or dfav npovoui, e. g. 
Timae. pp. 30, 44, and De Leg. x. Xenophon uses 
the word absolutely for Divine Providence (Mem. I. 
iv. 6), where he introduces Socrates asserting that the 
eyelid in its wonderful contrivance is plainly npovoias 
(pyov. It does not occur in this sense in the canonical 
Scriptures. We have, however, in 3 Mace. iv. 21 : 
TovTO 8( 5" ivepyna T^r tov fiorjBovvTos rois 'lovSaiots i^ 
ovpavov TTpovoias aviKrfrov : and 4 Macc. ix. 24 : T] bixaia 
Koi waTpws fjpav irpovota. Philo, de Mund. Op. 2 (I. 
p. 2) : &v (tov k6<thov) oi (pdaKOVTfs i>c iirnv ayfvtp-os XeX^- 
6a<rt t6 ^^(KipunaTov Koi avayKcuoTorov Totv fts rvai^dav 
r/KovTav vnoTefivopevot, tt)v npovoiav. Philo wrote three 
treatises on Providence, which are mentioned by 
Euseb. Hist. Eccl. ii. 18, but are extant only in an 
Armenian version, rendered into Latin by Aucher 
(Opp. vol. viii. Richter). Comp. Jos. Bell. Jud. III. 
viii. 7 ; Clem. Rom. Ep. I. ad Cor. xxiv. 5 ; ij peya- 
XdOTTjs T^f wpovoias TOV fito-jroTov. To found a charge 
of Platonism against tlie author of Wisdom from the 
use of the terra Providence, as some have done, is 
quite unwarranted. In all such cases we should rather 
admire the skill with which the writer employs the 
terms of heathen philosophy to convey scriptural ideas. 
In the present instance, the expression is parallel with 
that in the Collect for the Eighth Sund. after Trin. : 
' God, whose never-failing Providence ordereth all 
things both in heaven and earth.' 

'Oti. The special Providence of God was shown 
in the passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites. Ex. 
xiv. 2 2. Comp. Ps. Ixxvi. 20, and evi. 23-30, Sept. 

4. 'I CO K&f. The construction is elliptical, = ha r« 
«rt^5, K&v avcv Tfxvrjs Tis 5 or eVt/Sfl. The various read- 
ings have sprung from the construction not being 
understood. The Vulg., as some Gr. MSS., omits iva ; 
so Eng. The idea is that a man may trust in God's 
protection even though, like Noah (ver. 6), he put to 
sea knowing nothing of navigation. 

T^X'^S) ' the art of managing a ship.' Some Lat. 
MSS., by a clerical error, give ' sine rate ' instead of 
' sine arte ;' and the commentators thereupon expound 
Tfxvris as * a work of art,'=' a ship.' Thus Houbig, and 

'EiriPrj, ' went on board.' Acts xxi. 2. Vulg. : 
' adeat mare.' 

6. 'Apyoi . . . tpYci, a play on the words. God wills 
that men should employ the faculties which He gives 
them, and use the products of sea and land which Ho 
has provided for them. 

Zx<Si<i> ' ^ raft, or light boat.' Prop, something 
hastily put together. Eng. : ' weak vesseL' 

Aiea'u6T|o'ai'. The aorist seems to be used with 
some reference to the example given in the next verse, 
= ' are saved,' generally, and ' were saved ' on the parti- 
cular occasion alluded to. 

e. 'Apxrjs, gen. of time. ' In the beginning.' Used 
with a preposition in Attic. 

riydyruy, the ringleaders of the sinful race. Gen. 
vi. 4, 1 7. Comp. 3 Macc. ii. 4 : ari roi/s (pTTpotrdtv 
dSiKtav noiriaavTas, iv olt km Viyavra tjaav papji koi 6paa-(t 
neiTot^oTfs, 8if<t>d(ipas, (irayayaiv avTols ajurpiiTov vbtap. 

Ecclus. xvi. 7 ; Bar. iii. 26-28. 

' The hope of the world,' Noah and his family, 
and the creatures with him. So Virg. Aen. xii. 168 : 
' Ascanius, magnae spes altera Romae.' Gutb. Comp. 
2 Pet. ii. 5. 

klStvi. The article is added in S., as xviii. 4. 
But it is used without the art., as K6apos, vi. 24 ; x. i. 
' The world.' See on xiii. 9. 

ZWpfia ytv. ' The seed of a new generation.' 
Gen. ix. 1, 7. 

7. Some {e.g. Griitz, Gesch. der Jud. iii. 495) 

-XIV. II.] 



have supposed this verse to be an interpolation by a 
Christian hand ; but there is no reason for this notion. 
The Fathers have, as was natural, accommodated this 
passage to the idea of the cross of Christ, but the 
author manifestly is referring only to the material of 
which the ark was made ; and this leads hira back to 
his subject, viz. idols of wood, ver. 8. For the appli- 
cation of the term ' blessed ' to material things comp. 
I Tim. iv. 4. As examples of the way in which the 
Fathers have treated this passage, take the following : 
S. Ambr., Serm. viii. in Ps. cxviii (p. 455), renders the 
words thus : ' Benedictum lignum quod fit per justi- 
tiam, maledictum autem lignum quod fit per manus 
hominum,' and then proceeds : ' superius ad crucem 
Domini retulit, posterius ad errorem gentilium qui ligna 
venerantur. Justitia autem quae est crucis, nisi quod 
adscendens illud patibulum Dominus Jesus Christus, 
peccatorum nostrorum chirographum erucifixit, et to- 
tius orbis peccatum suo errore mundavit V S. German. 
Orat. i. (XCVni. p. 237, Migne) : flXoyias yap, dXX' ov 
KOTttpat opyavov 6 irravpos' (WfiSfi evXoytirat ^v\ov, Kara r6v 
tlnovra, 81' ov ylvrrm o-arripta. Pseudo-Chrys. De Ador. 
CrUC. (II. p. 823, Ben.) : Sn fie uf^airiuos Kcii TrpotrKwryriis 
6 ToC XpMTToO trraupbi kiu. i rwror avrov, icol rowro oi jrpo- 
<^^rat iiicuTKOvdi , . , koI o ToKo/iav \iyei, EvXoy«r€ ^vXov bi 

o5 yimrai. StKauMrvvtj. The Homilies say quaintly : ' He 
praiseth the tree whereof the gibbet is made, as happy 
in comparison to the tree that an image or idol is 
made of, even by these very words, " Happy is the tree 
wherethrough righteousness cometh" (meaning the 
gibbet).' Against Peril of Idol. pt. i. p. 162 (Oxf, 
1844). S.Aug. De Civit. xv. 26: 'Quod Noe ho- 
mini juste . . . imperat Deus, ut arcam faciat, in qua 
cum Buis . . . liberaretur a diluvii vastitate, procul- 
dubio figura est peregrinantis in hoc saeculo Civitatis 
Dei, hoc est, Ecclesiae, quae fit salva per lignum, in 
quo pependit Mediator Dei et hominum homo Cbristus 

AiKaicxnit^, the carrying out of God's will, whereby 
the righteous was saved. Noah is called ' a preacher 
of righteousness,' 2 Pet. ii. 5. Comp. Heb. xi. 7 : 

' heir of the righteousness which is by faith.' Some 
have thought that the reference in this verse is to iloses' 
rod ; but the context seems to direct us to the ark. 

8. T6 x<4>oir.) sc. eltaKov. It is a common name for 
idols. Comp. Lev. xxvi. I ; Is. ii. 18 ; xxi. 9. 6(ois 
XfipoTroiTjToK, Judith viii. 18. 

'EiriKOTdpaTo*', sc. e<rri, iii. 13. Comp. Deut. vii. 
25, 26 ; xxvii. 15. 

< He is cursed because he made it, and it (is 
cursed) because, though it is corruptible, it is named 
God.' Kom. i. 23 : tpi.\a^av r^v 86^v toC a<p3dpTov Beov 
(V o/xo«u/xar( (Ikovos ipOaprov avBpamov (c.r.X. 

9. 'Aaifieia = ' his ungodly work.' God's hatred ia 
known by His punishments, ver. 11. He loves His 
creatures (xi. 24, 25), but hates the sin in them. It 
is shallow criticism that considers the sentiment in this 
verse unscriptural. (See Bissell.) ' Cursed be the man,' 
says God, Deut. xxvii. 15, ' that maketh any graven or 
molten image ; ' and He proclaims, ' I will not justify 
the wicked (t6» aa-e^rj),'' ' and by no means clear the 
guilty,' Exod. xxiii. 7 ; xxxiv. 7. There are many 
passages in the Psalms to the same efifect. Thus Ps. 
V. 5 : ' Thou hatest all workers of iniquity.' Comp. 
Ecclus. XV. 20. 

10. Ti irpaxBev . . . t<u Sp(i<i'(UTi. ' The work . . , the 
culprit.' Is. ii. 18-21. 

11. 'Ek £i8<iXois. Idols are punished by being de- 
stroyed, as symbols of devils (i Cor. x. 20; Ps. xcvi. 
5) and leading men astray, Ex. xii. 12:' Against all 
the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment.' Comp. 
Numb, xxxiii. 4 ; i Sam. v. 3, 4 ; Is. xix. i ; xlvi. i ; 
Jer. X. 1 1. 

*EiruritoTrf|, 'visitation,' 'judgment,' 'punishment,' 
xix. 15. See on iii. 7. The author probably had in 
mind Jer. X. 15 : iv xaip^ eVto-itojr^r airav dnoXovyrtu. 

Vulg. renders : ' In idolis nationum non erit respectus.' 
There is no authority in Gr. MSS. for the insertion of 
the negative, which seems to have been the act of some 
scribe ignorant of the double use of ' respectus,* ' a 
visitation,' whether for reward or punishment. 

'Ee KTuriMTi Qtou, in the sphere of the creature of 
B b 



[xrv. 12- 

God which is meant for His glory, idols, misusing and 
perverting things otherwise harmless, became an abomi- 
nation. The Vulg. translates : ' Creaturae Dei in 
odium factae sunt ; ' which Gutb. explains, ' creatures 
of God, i. e. idols, are become abominable.' 

BSAtryfjia, see on xii. 23. 

ZKdi'SaXa . . . iroYiSa. So Josh, xxiii. 13; Ps. 
Ixviii. 23 ; Eom. xi. 9. See the warnings, Deut. vii. 
25, 26 ; Exod. xxxiv. I2-14 ; S. Matt. xiii. 41. 

12. riopfcios, 'spiritual fornication,' Eng., which 
seems correct. Idolatry is often so called, e.g. Lev. 
xvii. 7 ; Hos. ix. i ; Kev. xiv. 8 ; xvii. 2. So Philo, 
De Migr. Abrah. 12 (I. p. 447) : a/KpoTtpas n vSfios i'k- 

KKrjaias Upas OTrfXi^Xajcf, ttjv fiiv adcoVj t« 0Xablav Kai ajro- 
mKOftfuvov tip^as fic(cXi)<ndff4v' t^v Se jro\idfOv, ra tov €K 
Tropin]! o/ioiais (caXucat aKovfiv § X/yfix. S6eos fiiv yap 6 
ayovoi, rroKvdfOS Se 6 ck rrdpi^r, TV(j>KaTT<ov Trepi tov dKrjSrj 
iroTfpa, K(H hia tovto jroXXouc avff ivi>s yovfts aivirrd/id'or. 
As regards the reading in the text there is no varia- 
tion in the MSS. ; but while Euseb. (Praep. Ev. i. 9) 
retains the text, Didym. reads wpan) nopvfla, enivom 
«5ciX<oi/. De Trin. iii. 16 (XXXIX. p. 865, Migne). 

'Eirtwia, ' exquisitio ' (not elsewhere in Vulg.), ' the 
imagining,' parallel with evpeais. 

Eupco-is, ' adinventio,' Vulg. A late word occur- 
ring Ecclus. XXXV. 12 and elsewhere. See on vi. 18. 

^opcl, 'moral corruption' (2 Pet. i. 4; ii. 19), or 
' seduction.' 

13. 'Air' dpx^f- It was not in the first age that 
primitive man worshipped the creature, and even the 
first false worshippers probably adored the heavenly 
bodies without making images of them. 

Els tAk atura, ' for ever,' found in Plato, Axioch. 
X. p. 370 C : TO TOV Koapov nadrjpaTa napcmi]^a<i6ai, «r 
TOV ciava, where however Stalb. reads nphs t6v al. So 
' in aevum,' Horat. Od. IV. xiv. 3. For the destruc- 
tion of idols comp. Isai. ii. 18 ; Zech. xiii. 2. 
14-21. Tfie worship of deified man. 

14. Kct^8o|ia, ' conceit,' ' vanity,' ' empty fancy.' 
Vulg. (taking it as nom.) translates, ' supervacuitas,' 
At. Xry. See on vii. 5. V.tvobo^ia, translated, here and 

Phil. ii. 3, ' vain -glory,' occurs 4 Mace. ii. 15; viii. 19; 
Polyb. iii. 8r. 9; Philo, De Jos. 7 (I. p. 47). 
Ptolemy Philometer is called god on his coins ; and 
Diod. Sic. i. 90 says : ' The Egyptians seem to worship 
and honour their kings as if they were really gods.' 
Blunt. See note on ver. 17. 

El<rfjX6e>', SC. ra t'SaXa. A. and S. insert Odvarog 

before fiV^Xfle from ii. 24. Avtwv in the next clause 
shows that the subject is idols. 

Els rhv K^o'p.oi' is given by S. Athan., who quotes 
vers. 12-21, Contr. Gent. xi. (I. p. 11, Ben.). 

Aid TouTo, because they were originated by the 
vanity of men. 

'E-KtvorfBri, ' is destined, intended by God,' with 
an allusion to iirimia, ver. 12. The Eng. version, 
' Shall they come shortly to an end,' is no translation 
of the Greek. 

15. "Awpu, 'untimely,'. because his son was cut off 
prematurely. Vulg. : ' acerbo,' ' unlovely.' Eurip. Ale. 
168 : 6av(iv aapovs ■jra'tdas. The author gives here (vers. 
15, 16) one cause of the rise of idolatry, viz. inordinate 
grief for a lost friend. An instance of this tendency is 
seen in Cicero, who designed to raise a magnificent 
temple in honour of his lost daughter Tullia. See 
Epp. ad Att. xii. 35 ff. The insane love of Hadrian 
for Antinous, which led the emperor to deify his 
lost favourite, and erect temples in his honour, is well 
known. Euseb. Hist. iv. 8. 

'Qs 6fi)v, S. Athan. has i>s C^pra, Con. Gent. xi. 

Tois uiroxeipiois, ' those under his control.' 

TtXexAs, 'sacrificia,' Vulg., so Eng. Rather, 'rites,' 
' ceremonies.' Comp. ver. 23. Mvarripm and rfXtras would 
comprise all the services and initiations practised in 
the Mysteries so celebrated both in Egypt and Greece. 
S. Chrys. accounts for the origin of idolatry thns, 
Hom. de Stat. i. 7 * ToXXoi (em iroXtpovt KaropdaiaravTes, 
KOI Tporraui trrriaairrfs, Koi jrSXcK oiKoSo^ijo-avrtr, xai mpa 
Tiva ToiavTa Toit rdre fv(py€Tr)eavTfs, 6(o\ itapa roit iroXXotr 
(vofiiaBntrav, Kai vaois iTipriBijirav Kai pmpolc. For SOUS to 

deify their fathers was more natural and agreeable to 
human feeling. Thus Antiochus writes to Lysias, 

-XIV. 2 



ir> ^^ 

2 Mace. xi. 23: 'Since our father is translated unto 
the gods.' 

16. 'E(t)uX<lx6T). The Vulg. inserts 'hie error/ for 
which there is no authority in the Greek MSS. The aor. 
merely states the fact, the imperfect, edprjaKfCero, ex- 
presses the continuance of the custom, which, from being 
a family institution, became a public and political one. 

'Emrayats. The word occurs xviii. 16; xix. 6; 
I Esdr. i. 16 ; 3 Mace. vii. 20 ; Polyb. xiii. 4. 3 ; 
Diod. i. 70. 

rXuirrd. See on xv. 13. 

17. Another cause of idolatry was the erection of the 
statues of dreaded monarchs, such as the image on the 
plain of Dura, probably a statue of Nebuchadnezzar 
himself, Dan. iii. Some, who date this Book of Wisdom 
very late, see here a reference to the deification of 
Caligula and the attempted introduction of his statue 
into the temple at Jerusalem, Joseph. Ant. xviii. 8. 
But the statement is plainly general. See Prolegom. 
p. 33. ' Mauri,' says S. Cypr., ' manifeste reges colunt, 
nee ullo velamento hoc nomen obtexunt,' De Idol. 
Vanit. The invocation of deified kings had early become 
in Egypt an addition to the worship of the traditional 
deities. Instances of apotheosis occuc in the times of 
the ancient Pharaohs, and the Lagidae regularly pro- 
vided for the payment of divine honours to their 
predecessors. See Dollinger, The Gentile and Jew, i. 
p. 486 ff., Eng. transl. ; Pusey, Daniel the Prophet, p. 
440 and notes ; Warburt. Div. Legat. u. § 4. Hooker 
quotes vers. 15, i6, EccL Pol. I. viii. n. 

'Ef oi|<€i. ' In palam,' Vulg. For examples of pre- 
positions before adverbs see note xvii. 13. 

T^i' iropp. oi|/ii' di'aTuiF<iHT(ip,ci>o(, ' representing the 
distant face.' ' E longinquo figura eorum allata,' Vulg. 
This translation seems to mean that they copied a 
picture of the king brought from far ; but this is 
unnecessary, iroppaOiv being used, like t6v fxtiOtv noXfitov 
tti/po rj^oma, Demosth. 01. i. p. 13. 17, ubi vide Schaef. 
Syr. : ' effigiem fecerunt eorum qui procul habita- 
baut.' For avarviTda cp. xix. 6 (Compl.) ; Philo, De 
Plant. 6 (I. p. 333); Plut. ii. 329 B (Paris, 1624). 

'Efi^aio) with tlKova, 'an express, manifest ivai 
On the art of painting in Egypt see Wilkinson's A: 
Egyptians, vol. ii. pp. 262-267, and pp. 287, 28 
(new ed. 1878). 

KoXaKcuuai, pres. Bubj., implies continuance. The 
aor. Kn\aKfvcro)(Ti, which some MSS. read, is not so suit- 

18. A third cause of idolatry was the beauty of the 

Els iiriraaiv, ' unto increase, intensity.' 

eptio-Kcias. Acts xxvi. 5. Vulg., ' ad horum cul- 
turam.' Comp. Horat. Ep. I. xviii. 86 : ' cultura po- 
tentis amici.' 

Koi Tois &yy; even those that knew not who was 
represented by the image. 

npo£Tp€<|/aTO. Cp.Acts xviii. 27; Xen. Mem. I. iv. i. 

4>iXoTi(iia, 'eximia diligentia,' Vulg. 'Singular 
diligence,' Eng. ' The artist's ambition to excel,' ex- 
plained in the next verse. 

19. 'O (let-, the artist. 

Tdx" Grimm takes to mean ' quickly,' not ' per- 
haps.' The artist made all speed to execute the 
work. The Vulg. omits the word. S. Athan., Contr 
Gent. 1 1 (p. 9), has ttras instead of raxa. Arab. : ' for- 

Tu Kparoui^i, ' the potentate.' Vulg., ' illi qui se 
assumpsit.' ' Him that employed him,' Douai. This 
seems to be erroneous. 

'Elepido-aTo, used all the efforts of his art to make 
the likeness assume greater beauty. The verb is used 
by Plutarch to express the elaboration of art, ri 
Aiowaiov ^<t>ypa^r]iiaTa tSv KuXo^ufi'mv, laxyv t)(ovTa Ktu 
t6vov, (K^f^uuTiUvoii Kcu KOTandvois foucf, Timol. 36. 

20. Eoxapi='the grace.' The reading tixapit{A. C.) 
is doubtful, as the adj. €vxapris is not found, except per- 
haps in Menander, ap. Walz. Rhett. Gr. vol. ix. p. 274, 
5. Steph. Thesaur. sub voc, S. Athan. cent. Gent, i r 
has (vx<'P'- 

■E<|)«Xk6(i€I'oi', 'abducta,' Vulg. MSS. ap. Sab.: 
' adducta.' 

np6 dXiYou. Comp, iTpo lUKpov, XV. 8. 
B b 2 



[XIV. 21- 

liPatTfia, 'an object of worship.' 'Deum,' Vulg. 
Eng. Comp. ch. xv. 17 ; Bel and Drag. 27 ; 2 Thess. 
ii. 4 ; Acts xvii. 23. So Philo, De Monarch, i. 3 (II. 2 1 6), 
Epeuks of the employment of the arts of music, statuary, 
and painting to win men to idolatry : oi ittjv aK\a <tai 
TrXaoTuc^j' neat ^<iiypa(f>iap irvvfpyovs ttJs awoTijr irpotriKa^ov, 
Xva xpafmrav icai tTxrijiaTav (tal TtoioTr)TU>v eu hfhr^niovpyriixiyaa 
Idiats iinayovTts tovs opamas Km ras fiyfftovlSas a<<r^<re»t 
H^iv Koi aKorjV SfXfdaavTfs, t^k fiev d\j/i)^ois (viiop<j}lais rriv 
ii €v(f>avia ttocijtix^, (TVvapjrd(Ta<Ti rfju V'UXV" d^f^cuov rat 
aviSpvTov TavTijK aTrtfxya^ofievoi. 

21. TooTo explained by Stl following. 

Tu ^lu £is IceSp. ' A snare to the living,' as x. 8. 
Here again the Eng. translates, ' the world.' ' Vitae 
humanae deceptio,' Vulg. ' Fuit id mundo invidiosum,' 
Arab. For tvtbpov cp. Numb. xxv. 20; Ecclus. viii. 
1 1 ; Acts xxiii. 1 6. 

AouXeuaarres belongs properly to rvpawlii, but is 
used by zeugma with (rvp.(^opa also ; ' induced by 
calamity oi* humouring a tyrant.' The 'calamity' is 
the death of a beloved child, ver. 1 5 ; the ' tyranny ' is 
that mentioned vers. 16-19. Vulg., 'aut affectui aut 
regibus deservientes.' 

T6 Axoii'unjToi' SfOfia. ' The incommunicable name.' 
Jehovah (as we read it) is meant by this term 
among the Jews. Being used here in reference to 
heathens it signifies merely God. (In later ecclesiastical 
language dKoiva>vr)T. came to mean 'excommunicated.') 
See Deut. vi. 4, 14, 15; Isai. xlii. 8, which passages 
show that the form of error intended is the distributing 
of the attributes of God among a host of idol deities. 
Thus S. Athan. Cont. Gent. 1 7 : eV«t6^ yap tj)v toC Qcov 

dKOtvavr^rov, a>s tmfv fj Tpa<pr), irpocrqyopiav Kai rifirp) Tois ofie 
ofo-i 6(ois f(moiia(nv dvaOuvai. Comp. S. Aug. De 
Civit. vii. 29, 30, of which two chapters the headings 
are : ' Quod omnia quae physiologi ad mundum partes- 
que ipsius retulerunt, ad unum vere Deum referre debu- 
erint. Qua pietate discernatur a creaturis Creator, ne pro 
uno tot dii colantur, quot sunt opera uuius auctoris.' 

'Akoivuk. Vulg., ' incommuuicabilc.' See- note on 
X. 4. 

ntpUdvjav, 'conferred,' 'bestowed.' Comp. i Cor. 

xi. 23 : TovTois Tififiv ir(pi<T(TOT€pav n( pinBf fiev. Some 
MSS. and S. Athan. /. sup. cit, read ■tt€pii6ifKav, Alex- 
andrian Greek affecting rather the i aor. in preference 
to the second. 

22-31. Effects of idolatry on morals and life. 

22. 'AyKoios iroX^fiu. ' War arising from ignorance,' 
i. e. the strife with all goodness and virtue occasioned 
by the heathens' ignorance of God. This is called 
ToaavTa Kcucd directly afterwards, and further explained 
in the following verses. 

Bipriyr\v. This war and strife and deep unrest 
they call peace, ' saying, Peace, peace ; when there is 
no peace,' Jer. vi. 14. Comp. Tacit. Agric. xxx : 'ubi 
Bolitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant.' 

23. Tcki'o4kSi'ous tcX., ' rites in which children were 
offered in sacrifice.' 

JtKvo^. is an. \(y. See on xi. 7. For such sacri- 
fices see on xii. 5, and Warburt. Div. Leg. book ii. § 4, 
notes CC, and DD; and book viii. ch. 2, note G, where 
the whole subjects of infanticide and child-sacrifice are 
fully discussed. They were not confined to the 
Canaanites. Classical readers will remember Iphigenia 
and Folyxena, and the circumstances mentioned in 
Her. vii. 114. By using the pres. Syovrcs and ^uXao-- 
<7ou(ri the author does not necessarily imply (as Grimm, 
supposes) that this practice obtained in his own time ; 
but indeed it seems that in Carthage it existed till the 
second century A.D. See Gutb. and the article on 
' Moloch ' in Smith's Diet, of Bible. 

'Efifiaceis ^t(iXX. OiiTfi.. K., ' frantic revels of strange 
customs.' Eng. gives, ' or made revellings of strange 
rites,' where Arn. thinks ' made ' a misprint for mad. 
Vulg. translates strangely, ' aut insaniae plenas vigilias 
habentes.' The allusion is to the orgies of Bacchus. 
Comp. 2 Mace. vi. 4; Rom. xiii. 13. I have printed 
($dXKa>v, instead of c'f ilKKav, as giving a better sense. 
So Field, Tbchend., Apel, and Gutb. 'E^aXXor occurs 
3 Mace. iv. 4; 2 Sam. vi. 14; Esth. iii. 8; and else- 
where. For the shameful customs practised in the 
name of religion among the Babylonians see Herod. 

-nv. 30.] 



i. 199. Comp. also i Pet. iv. 3 ; Bar. vi. 43 ; Strabo, 
xvi. p. 1058. 

24. Comp. the description of heathenism Bom. L 
24-32 ; Gal. V. 19-21 ; i Tim. i. 9, 10; S. Bam. Ep. 
XX ; Pseudo-Clem. Ep. ii. ad Cor. i. 6. 

AoxwK, ' per invidiam,' Vulg., probably a mistake 
for ' insidiam' or ' insidias.' The correct word, \oxi>i>, 
has b^en altered in S. by a later hand to \oxnia>v, which 
is quite a different word. Later Latin uses the sin- 
gular.form of some words instead of the classical plural. 
Thus S. Aug., Locut. 59 de Num., comments on the use 
of ' piimitia.' Lamprid., Commod. 1 6, has ' tenebra.' 
Plautus too writes 'delicia,' True. v. 29. So the ori- 
ginal word in the Vulg. above is probably ' insidiam.' 

HoOtuuv = ' by adultery ;' lit. ' making spurious, 
foisting a spurious ofepring.' Philo, De Jos. 9 (II. 
p. 48) : voOtiav avrov yafiov ; and Quod Deus imm. 
22 (I. p. 288). 

25. ndtTo, 'has the great weight of authority.' 
' Omnia commista sunt,' Vulg. 

'Eirtfu^ ' sine discrimine.' 

A6X0S. 'Fictio,' Vulg.='fraus.' Comp. iv. 11; 
vii. 13. 

eopu^. dYad., 'persecution of good men.' 2 Tim. 

ui. 3 ' a<l)iXaya6oi, 

26. 'A)u^<rria. This form is more usual than aiunjala, 
and occurs without variation, xix. 4. Yulg. : ' Dei 
immemoratio.' Probably written 'DoS' or 'Di imme- 
moratio,' i. e. ' Doni,' x^p^^os, and mistaken for ' Dom'z= 
' Domini,' or ' DeL' ' Immemoratio ' occurs nowhere else. 

Mioo-fids = iiitwais, 1 Mace. iv. 43; 2 Pet. ii. 10; 
Herm. Past. Sim. v. 7. 

Tcf ^(jc(i>s ^vaXXay^. ' Abuse of sex,' or ' sodomy.' 
Bom. i. 26, 27. The Vulg. rendering, 'nativitatis im- 
mntatio,' seems to refer to supposititious children. See 

'ATi(|ia. 'Nuptiarum inconstantia,' Vulg., 'un- 
settlement in marriages,' the marriage tie not being 
considered binding, and being easUy dissolved. The 
word ' inordinatio' in Vulg. seems to have been another 
rendering of orofui, and so slipped into the text, and 

was then made to govern the following words. It is 
a very unusual word, but found in S. Aug. De Civit 
Dei, xiv. 26 : ' perversa inordinatio.' 

27. 'AvwvvfiMi', ' having no real existence,' as ver. 29, 
and I Cor. viii. 4 ; Gal. iv. 3, or, ' mean and pitiful.' 
Vulg., ' infandorum,' which points, as Eng., ' not to be 
named,' to the command in Ex. xxiii. 13 ; Josh, xxiii. 
7. Comp. Ps. xvi. 4. TertuU. De Idolatr. xv : ' Dae- 
monia nullum habent nomen singulatim, sed ibi nomen 
inveniunt, ubi et pignus ' (p. 169). 

'Af>x*| . • . irtpcxs. Greg. Naz., Orat xxxviiL De 
Idol., calls idolatry Ta^xorov koX irparov tq)I» kokuv. For 
the connection of idolatry and immorality see Jowett 
on Ep. to Bom. pp. 70 ff. 

28. This verse combines the chief features of- vers. 

Eu^f>cu.K6^vot,. Ecclus. XXX. 5 ; i Sam. xvi. 5 ; 
Luke xvi. 19. 

29. ' Look not to be hurt,' not really believing in these 
deities, though they used their names in confirmation of 
oaths. Bar. vi. 35 (Ep. Jer.). Vulg. : ' nooeri se non 
sperant.' ' Noceo ' is used with ace. Ecclus. xxviii. 2 ; 
Liike iv. 35 ; Acta vii. 26, So Plant Mil. Glor. v. 18 : 

■Jnia te non nodtunim esse hominem.' 

30. 'Afi^oTspo, explained by Sri ict.X. MrrcXrvomu 
takes a double ace. in the sense of ' prosecute.' ' Justice 
shall pursue them on account of both crimes.' The 
feeling that perjury always meets with punishment was 
universal. Thus Hesiod writes, 'Epy. leal'H/*. 801 : 

tv ntfiirrrf yap <l>aaw ^piwas (^k/uttoXcvcu', 
OpKOV ruof/u'rar, rov 'Epis Tint vijn' emopKMt. 

Thus Eurip. Med. 754 : 

Med. apart' rt K opK<f rudf ^ 'fi/upav wa6ott', 
Aeg. 4 Touri Svcro'c^oCo'i ■yiyitra* /Sporuy. 

Thucydides mentions (vii. 18) that on one occasion the 
Lacedaemonians attributed their former failures to their 
breach of treaties, and were quite confident of success 
on another occasion because the Athenians had been 
the offenders. The vulgar name for erysipelas, St. 



[xrv. 31- 

Anthony's fire, is derived from the notion that the 
disease is sent as a punishment on those who have 
sworn falsely by St. Anthony's name. Superstition often 
stands in the place of moral principle. 

Td SiKaia, ' just punishment.' 

'Offio-niTos. 'Justitiam,' Vulg. 'Truth and ho- 
nour.' See the case of Zedekiah in Ezek. xvii. 18, 19. 

31. Tuf ifwufUyuf, ' the things by which one swears.' 
' Numina jurata,' Ov. Her. ii. 23. Grimm. 

'H T. dfiapT. SiKT], ' the punishment which God in- 
flicts on sinners.' 'The vengeance due to perjury,' 
Hooker explains it, Eccl. Pol. V. i. 3. 

napdPao'lf. ' Praevaricationem,' Vulg. = 'delictum,' 
losing the sense of ' collusion.' Bom. iL 23, etc. 



1-5. Tfie relation of the Israelites to the true God 
jyreserved tliemfrom idolatry. 

1. lu 8^. In contrast to the false gods of heathendom. 
'H/Aui', ' of us Israelites.' Tbis is omitted by Eng. 

version. Is. Ixiii. 8. 

Xpr)<rT6s K.T.X. Cp. Ex. xxxiv. 6 ; Numb. xiv. 18. 

2. Kai Y<ip. The goodness and long-suffering of God 
are our hope and shield even when we fall into sin, 
so that we do not despair, but are rather moved to 
repentance. Rom. ii. 4. S. Aug., De Fid. et Operr. 
xxii. § 41, gives the passage thus : ' Et si peccaverimus, 
tui sumus, scientes potentiam tuam : non peccabimus 
autem, scientes quoniam tui sumus deputati.' And 
then he quotes i John ii. i, 2. 

Kpdros, ' lordship,' ' supremacy.' 

Oux AfiopTtjo-ofitGa 8^. ' Et si non peccaverimus,' 
Vulg., against all authority of Greek MSS., also rendering 
flh&rfs, ' scimus.' The Arab, gives ' si minime peccemus.' 
' We will not sin ' is correct, the motive following. 

AcXoyio'p.Eda, ' we have been reckoned as the sheep 
of Thy pasture.' S. Aug. comments thus : ' Quis digue 
cogitans habitationera a])ud Deum, in qua omnes prae- 
destinatione sunt deputati, qui secundum propositum 
vocati sunt, non epitatur ita vivere, ut tali habitatione 
congruat?' DeFid. et 0pp. xxii. 41. Cp. Lev. xi. 44. 

3. T6 ybift itsun. Corap. viii. 13, 17. S. John xvii. 
3 : ' This is life eternal, that they might know Thee 

the only true God and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast 
sent.' Jer. ix. 23, 24. This verse is quoted by S. 
Method. De Sim. et An. vi. (XVIII. p. 361, Migne), 

'oX<5kXiipos, ' complete,' ' omnibus numerls abso- 
lutus.' S. James i. 4 ; i Thess. v. 23 ; 1 Mace. iv. 47 ; 
4 Mace. XV. 17. 'To know Thy power' leads to 
wholesome fear and awe, and so is the ground of a 
blessed immortality. The Vulg. gives, with some 
confusion : ' et scire justitiam et virtutem tuam.' Comp. 
Ecclus. i. 13 ; and ch. viii. 13. 

'Pijo, iii. 15 ; Ecclus. i. 20 : ' Tlie root of Wisdom 
is to fear the Lord, and the branches thereof are long 
life.' Comp. I Tim. vi. 10 : ' The love of money is 
the root of all evil.' 
4. KaKorexfos, i. 4. 

'ETriroio, xiv. 1 2. ' Device.' Acts xvii. 29 : x^P^' 
yuan Tfxvr)! Koi ivdviitjaeas dvBpairov. 

OuT€ followed by oid6=' neither ... nor yet,' is 
not unusual, but copyists often, as here, have altered 
the words for uniformity's sake. 

iKiaypi^v, ' of perspective painters.' The Vulg. 
renders : ' umbra picturae,' reading as Compl., er«A 
ypa(pS)p. Coloured statues seem to be referred to. 
Comp. xiii. 14. 

ElSos <nriX. in app. to Trrfror, ' A figure stained.' 
Vulg. : ' effigies sculpta,' which Gutb. thinks is not a 
mistake for 'picta,' but that mriXadii) is taken as de- 

-IV. 9-] 



rived from (nriXar, 'a rock,' and not from (nrtXor, 'a 
stain.' But this is equally an error. For (nriXoa, 
comp. S. James iii. 6 ; S. Jude 23 ; Dion. Hal. vi. 93. 

5. ^flf, ' of which objects.' 

"A^poft seems more probable than a<f>po(rw, on ac- 
count of the sing, jroflti. Vulg. : ' insensato.' 

'Optjic (' concupiscentiam,' Vulg.) has the highest 
authority. ' Enticeth fools to lust after it,' Eng. 
' Tnmeth a reproach to the foolish,' Eng. Marg., render- 
ing the alternative reading els owi8or. ' Becomes a 
passion in the case of a fool.' The commentators 
quote the case of Pygmalion who fell in love with the 
statue of Venus, and others who have fallen victims 
to the same folly. S. Agobardus (a. D. 779) wrote 
a treatise most strongly condemning image-worship, 
denying such representations of God and the saints the 
appellation of ' sacred,' and recommending that they 
should be utterly destroyed. Galland. Bibl. vet. Patr. 
ix J Migne, Patr. Lat. civ. The iambic rhythm in some 
of the stiches, vers. 4, 5 ff., should be remarked. 

6—17. The folly of idolaters in wcrraliipping idols 
of clay. 

6. KaK. ipaoTol a|ioi t€ t. L are predicates. 'And 
worthy of such hopes,' t. e. objects to trust in. Vulg. : 
' Digni sunt qui spem habeant in talibus.' Comp. Col. 
i. 37. I Tim. i. i : 'Christ, who is our hope.' 

Oi SpwiTts, ' fabricatores,' "Wahl. ' Qui faciunt 
illos,' Vulg. Hcysch., quoted by Schleusn, : ipavrts, 
noiovvres, (pya^oitevoi. 

7. Koi Y^ gives the reason for the expressions in 

ver. 6, KOKav ifKurrai k.t.X. 

eXipuf, ' kneading,' ' rubbing.' 

'EirijioxOoK, used adverbially. ' Laboriose,' Vulg. 
Or agreeing with yfjv, ' soft earth that causes trouble ' in 
working. Gutb. takes cmdXfiv as predicative, ' working 
troublesome earth (so as to be) soft,' which is possibly 
right. iiTtiu>x6oi is a very uncommon word. It is found 
in Schol. Ap. Aristoph. Pac. 384 : i v6vripot, i> 0111x0x601. 

ripos uin)p. i\^y, like ds inrqpea-iav (arjt, xiii. 1 1 . Cp. 

the very similar passage Bom. ix. 2 1 ; and see Ecclus. 
xxxviii. 30-34 ; Is. xlv. 9; Ixiv. 8 ; Jer. xviii. 2-10. 

*Ev luaarroi'. The ty seems to have fallen out of 
some MSS. owing to the preceding word rmap. ' Unum- 
quodque vas,' Vulg. 

'AreuXcio'aTo, 'he moulds, shapes,' in each sepa- 
rate case, the aorist not predicating special time ; so 
it is used in similes. 

AoCXa, adj. with gen. = SouXevowa, ' that serve 
clean uses;' with dat. Rom. vi. 19. 

nivff 6fi., ' with equal toil or skill.' 

ritiXoupYdf occurs Lucian. Prometh. 2 (I. p. 26, 

8. KoKOfioxOos, ' labouring ill.' Chnrton : ' with a 
misdirected industry.' The word is an-. Xry. 

'Os TrpS (iiKpou, ' he who a little while before.' 
Comp. Trpo oXi'you, xiv. 20. See Gen. ii. 7 ; iii. 19. 

riopcucTai, se. cis y^v i^ 5' iKri<l)6ri. Gen. iii. 1 9, Sept. 

*AiroiTi)6£is, ' when the debt of life is demanded 
from him.' S. Luke xii. 20 : ' This night thy soul 
shall be required (airairov(n) of thee.' See on xv. 1 6. 

9. K(i|jii'ciK, ' to be weak and sick,' as is shown by 
the contrasted phrase that follows. The Vulg., ' labo- 
raturus est,' may have this meaning. The notion of 
' labour ' is foreign to the passage, and if we take it 
as ' die,' there is tautology. 

BpaxuTcXTJ. The word is unknown to classical 
Greek, and Srr. Xty. in the Greek Script., but occurs 
Dion. Alex. 1256 A ; Isid. 201 B. It is explained by 
Suidas and Hesychius a-ivronos and fuKpos. 

'AXX' drrcpciScrai. The construction is slightly 
changed. ' But he seta himself against, vies with.' 
The fuv seems to be answered by ^oXieoirXatrrar re. See 
Jelf, Gr. Gram. § 765. 7 a. The idea is that the 
potter, instead of learning a lesson of his own frailty 
from the frailty of the materials on which he works, 
strives to make these assume a show of strength and 
solidity by giving them a metallic appearance. 

Xpuaoupyois. The word is found in Pollux, vii. 
97 (Bekker). XoXKoirXdo-njr is air. Xry. 

KiP8T)Xa, ' counterfeits,' earthen figures coloured 
and glazed, or varnished to look like metal. ' Ees 
supervacuas,' Vulg., which is wrong. Wilkinson : 



[xv. lO- 

' Many [counterfeit gems], in the form of beads, have 
been met with in diflferent parts of Egypt, particularly 
at Thebes; and so far did the Egyptians carry this 
spirit of imitation, that even small figures, scarabaei, 
and objects made of ordinary porcelain, were counter- 
feited, being composed of still cheaper materials. A 
figure which was entirely of earthenware, with a glazed 
exterior, underwent a somewhat more complicated pro- 
cess than when cut out of stone, and simply covered 
with a vitrified coating ; this last could therefore be 
sold at a low price ; it offered all the brilliancy of the 
former, and its weight alone betrayed its inferiority,' 
Anc. Egyptians, ii. p. 148. ed. 1878. 

10. IiioSos 1^ KapS. auT., a quotation from the Sept., 
IsaL xliv. 20, where it differs from the Hebrew. The 
heart of the idol-maker is dead to all noble aims, and 
wholly set on his worthless work. Orig., Exh. ad Mart. 
32 (I. p. 294., Ben.), quotes from memory : <nroS6s ^ 
KapSia t£>v tldaXoii \aTp€v6vTav, (tat ttoXii y1 7n;XoC) arifio- 
Tfpos 6 fiios airrav. 

ri)s eflreXeoT^po, ' cheaper, more vile than earth.' 
Such men have no hope of a future. Ch. iii. 18; 
Eph. ii. 12:' having no hope, and without God in 
the world.' The Vulg. translates : ' terra supervacua 
spes Dlius,' reading prob. yfj, though Jansen suggests 
that ' terra ' is abl., ' supervacua ' being = the compa- 
rative, which is more ingenious than demonstrable. 
These verses (10, 11) are cited by Method. Conv. dec. 
Virg. vii. (XVIII. p. 57, Migne). 

U. 'Hyvir\at implies here wilful ignorance, i Cor. 
i. 21. 

nXdaatTO . . . iy^u<rl\aavra. Gen. ii. 7 : tiiKaatv 
6 ©foj Toi/ avSpamov, )(Ovv diro rrjt y^r, Ka\ ivf<l>v<rrjiT(v (h 
ri 7rp6<Tamov airov nvofjv ^arjs' Ka\ iyivfTO 6 avOpairos tls 

V^XV" fwc'"'. The author seems to make no very 
marked distinction between ' soul ' and ' spirit,' only 
he calls the one ' active,' the other ' living.' Comp. 
i. 4 ; viii. 19 ; ix. 15 ; S. Luke i. 46, 47. 

12. 'EXoyiaoiTO, the plural (which is doubtless the 
ori^nal reading, and not Aoyiaaro,) includes all heathen, 
and not merely the potter and such like. 

Uaiynov, 'a plaything," 'game.' Aristotle knew 
better than this. He teaches that happiness stands 
not in amusement. See Etb. Nicom. x. 6. 

Jju^v . . . Piof. The former is mere animal life, 
the latter, life with its business and duties. Comp. 
Aristot. Eth. x. 6. 8, where he denies to slaves the 

possession of j3ior. He says : diroKavane t &v tS>v (rapa- 
riKuiv rjSovwv 6 tvx^v «ai dv8pdjro8ov oi^ iJttoi' toC dpitrrov' 
(ihaipMiias S ovheis dvhpanoho) ptraSibaxriv, tl /iij Ka\ |9iov. 

narT)Yupi<j'p,of £iriK. ' The holding of a market for 
gain.' Dion. Hal. vii. 71 ; Plut. Symp. Probl. 2. The 
Greek Panegureis were originally great national reli- 
gious gatherings, which degenerated by degrees into 
mere fairs where articles of every sort were sold. Thus 
the Olympic games were called ' Mercatus Olympiacus.' 
Diet, of Antiq. s. v. The saying in the text is similar 
to that which Cicero attributes to Pythagoras, Tuscul. 
Disp. V. iiL § 9 : ' Pythagoram autem respondisse, 
similem sibi videri vitara hominum et mercatum eum, 
qui haberetur maximo ludorum apparatu totius Graeciae 
celebritate.' Read the description of Tyre in Ezek. 
xxvii., and cp. S. James iv. 13. 

♦t)o-ii', ' says one,' used generally. 

'OOev 8}|, ' whence one can.' Ktw, sc. ?, e* kokov. 
This is like Horace's (Ep. I. i. 65) — 

' Isne tibi melius suadet, qui rem facias, rem. 
Si possis, rectej si non, quocunque modo rem.* 

The maxim would be specially appropriate to the un- 
scrupulous commercial activity of Alexandria, then 
and for many centuries the greatest emporium in the 
world. Sophocles teaches better. Ant. 312: 

ovK i^ &imvTOi Act rh Ktpbalvfoi (fiikfiv. 

13. riapA irdvTos, ' more than all,' ' before all.' Comp. 
Eom. xii. 3. The maker of such frail images must 
have known better than any one his imposture. 

Eu9pau(rra. Some of the best MSS. read (vBpaara, 
but the word nowhere occurs. ' Brittle,' in the ed. of 
1610, ' brickie,' with the same meaning. 

rXuirrA, 'graven images.' So continually in the 

-XV. 1 8.] 



Sept. Deut. vii. 5; Judg. xviii. 24; Ib. xliv. 10; 
I Mace. V. 68. 

14. ndrres • . • d+pok^oTOToi. This seems to be the 
original reading, jrdiTwv a<^pov(ar(poi being probably 
a correction. 

TiiXaffs 6iT. +UX. viyit. Vulg. : ' infelices supra 
modum animae superbi,' where Reusch supposes that 
' superbi ' is a mistake for ' pueri.' Gutbert. thinks 
that the original was 'supra animam pueri,' which 
became by accretions what it now is. But which is 
the word of God for Roman Catholics 1 The Douai ver- 
sion has merely : 'foolish and unhappy, and proud beyond 
measure.' The words mean, ' more miserable than an 
infant's soul,' i.e. in respect of ignorance. Comp. xii. 24. 

Ol Jx^pol . . . KaTaSuf. These words cannot refer 
t-o Solomon's times, nor would it be true of the As- 
syrians, etc., that they accounted all other nations' 
idols to be gods (ver. 15). The fact mentioned in 
ver. 18 and the present ai^ovrai point to the Egyptians, 
or Grseco-Egyptians, as ' the enemies ' meant. As to 
the time when the Jews were ' held in subjection,' we 
may reasonably refer it to the reign of Ptolemy Philo- 
pator, who, on his return from his repulse at Jeru- 
salem, B. c. 217, treated the Jews most cruelly. See 
Proleg. p. 32. Those who attribute the Book of "Wis- 
dom to PbUo quote this passage as suitable to the state 
of the Jews under Caligula. 

15. 'EXoyurarro 6eou$. The Greeks in Alexandria 
seem to have identified their gods with those of other 
nations, and to have honoured the images of foreign 
divinities equally with their own. Rome certainly did 
this in later times. And though the Egyptians were 
too vain of their own institutions to borrow other gods 
(Herod, ii. 79 and 91), yet they allowed them to be deities 
at any rate in their own special localities. See on six. 3. 

Ois oure. Comp. Ps. cxv. 5, 6, 7 ; cxxxv. 16, 17. 

ZuroXxfiK, 'drawing together,' a very late word, ap- 
parently found nowhere else in the sense of 'breathing.' 
It occurs in Dioscor. De Venenis, 1 4, and Galen, ii. 266 C. 

^riXd^aic. Pint. Aemil. i, 262 C. ; Clem. Al. 
Paedag. iii. 5. 33 (p. 273 Pott). 

'Apyoi Trpis ^Ttp., ' useless for walking.' 

16. 'Eiroirjcrei'. Ps. cxv. 4. They are the work of 
men's hands and therefore cannot have life and sense. 

AcSafcio-fi^fos. ' Having had his spirit lent to him.' 
See on ver. 8. Man therefore cannot impart it to 
others, nor even retain it himself. Eccl. viiL 8. 

AuTu = ^auTw is certainly the right reading. 

17. NeKpiSf. Comp. xiii. 10, 18. 

lifiaa^&Ttitv, objects of worship, xiv. 20. Lact. 
Inst. II. ii. 13 : 'Melior est qui fecit quam ilia quae 
facta sunt.' Grimm. Comp. Bar. Ep. to Jer. 46. 

'kvV S>v. The common reading is trf^a-fi. airrov, 
i}p, where i>v must be explained as a part. gen. con- 
nected with avror and (xttva, which is harsh. The Sin. 
MS. relieves the difficulty by reading a»ff &» (suggested 
by Am.), ' in opposition to,' ' in contradistinction from 
which.' Vulg., ' quia,' perhaps reading i>t ; but it may 
well be the translation of dvff iv, which is used to 
signify 'because,' e.g. Soph. Ant. 1068. Vulg. adds, 
'cum esset mortalis,' a manifest interpolation from the 
beginning of the verse. 

18. 19. Greatest folly of all in beast-worship. 

18. It^ovrai. 'They,' viz. the enemies of Thy people, 
'worship,' ver. 14. 'The beasts' are serpents, croco- 
diles, dogs, birds, and indeed nearly all animals. See 
Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians, ch. xiv. and vol. ii. pp. 
468-471, ed. 1878. The Greeks and Bomans often 
ridiculed this animal worship. See Athenae. Deipno- 
soph. vii. p. 299, ed. Casaub., quoted by Wilkinson, 
and Juven. Sat. xv. i sqq. Plutarch explains the 
origin of beast-worship by the idea that the animals 
consecrated to the gods became in the course of time 
confounded with the deities themselves. See De Iside 
et Osir. c. 7 1 . Warburton deduces it from hierogly- 
phic writing, the characters of which being the figures 
of animals, and standing for gods and heroes, in time 
became the object of direct worship. Div. Legat. bk. 
iii. § 6 ; and bk. iv. § 4. 

"ExOwrro. ' Miserrima,' Vulg., reading perhaps 
a'erxKn-a. Reusch. Comp. xii. 24. 

'Araif. 'In respect of folly in the worshippers, 
c c 



[XT. 19- 

they (beasts) are ■worse than the others (idols).' It is 
more foolish to worship a beast than an image, 
because tbe latter may be taken as the representative 
of the deity, but beasts, in the author's view, are 
worshipped in themselves, with blind adoration, hateful 
{(xStirra) as they are. All MSS. read mom, which some 
editors have thought to be = Svoa ; others have sug- 
gested dvtq, and others, as the Eng. translators, read 
tvia. Retaining the received reading, I think the above 
given interpretation is the most probable. If we refer 
avola to the beasts, it is not true that the creatures 
worshipped by the Egyptians were the most unintelligent 
of all animals. The Arm. version refers it to the 
worshippers, rendering: 'haec est pessima stultitia.' 
So Gutb. The Vulg., ' insensata,' points to 3iioa, un- 
less the var. 'insensate' be the true reading. Mr. 
Churton paraphrases : ' The Egyptians also worshipped 
the vilest of animals, which appear worse than others 
even in the judgment of the ignorant and thought- 
less.' Dr. Bissell reads Svota, and translates : ' For 
being compared together as it respects stupidity some 
animals are worse than others ;' but he does not ex- 
plain how he obtains this rendering from the Greek 
text. Philo, Pe Vit. Contempl. i (II. p. 472): tS>v /i«v 

yhp Trap AlyvTrriots oiSf iicfivfiaBw, KoKhv, oi (S>a Skoya Koi 
oix fjpfpa povov, aXKa Km Briplav ra aypiifTara 7rapayria>xa<nv 
tit $(S>v Tt/iit €( iKcuTTOv Tuf KaTO) (TfX^vi;;, \tp(raiav fiiv 

Xfovra, ivihpiov be tov iy)(i>piOV KpoKobeiXov, atponopav ii 
tKTivov, Ka\ TTiv AlyvTTriav ifiiv. S. Aug. De Un. Bapt. iv : 
' Talia quippe novimus fuisse simulacra Aegyptiorum, 
ubi et instituta esse multiplicior multoque ignominosior 
idolatria perhibetur.' 

J.uyK()iv6fjLeva. Comp. Philo, ub. gup. : 7rpo<r(tviw)- 
aiu Oi TJpfpoi Ta dvrjpepa koI aridatra'aj Ka\ oi XoyucoX ra 
akoya, Koi oi irvyyevftav txovTfs rrpbs to 6t7ov, ra /iiyS' tb> 
dtjpai run avyKpiBfiira, oi ap^ovres Ka\ bftmorm ra wrijicoa 
<f>v(Tfi Koi 8ov\a, 

16. The construction is ; ovBe Tvyxdvfi KoKa (ovra) 
oo'DV ( = e7ri TotrovTov more) tmiro&ijaai (aura) fv (amv Syjffi, 
In KoKa there is an allusion to the original creation, 
when 'God saw everything that He had made, and, 
behold, it was very good (ncoXa \iav),' Gen. i 31. The 
Eng. version is very clumsy ; the Vulg. is impossible. 

'Qs ^i' luKov o<|/ei. 'Qs used in a limiting sense =' if 
the question is about the appearance of beasts.' Or, 
' in comparison,' as vii. 9. 

■EKTr^<{)«uY€, ' Went without' = ' were deprived of,' 
referring partly to the curse upon the serpent, Glen, 
iii. 14, but more specially to the truth that all things 
employed in idolatry are ipso facto accursed (see xiv. 
8), and become abominable in God's sight. So the very 
flocks and herds were to be involved in the punishment 
of Israel's disobedience. Deut. xxviii. 18. 

'EirairoK . . . cfiXoyiaf. Gen. i. 28, 31 ; i Cor. iv. 5. 


1-14. Contrast at the Exodus as regards the action 
of beasts on the Israelites and EgyjMans. 

1. In order to show more fully the folly of idolatry 
the author resumes the comparison, begun in ch. xi., 
between God's dealings with His own people and with 
the Egyptians. 

Aid TouTo. Because they worshipped hateful beasts, 
XV. 18. 

Ki'uSdXui'. Frogs, locusts, flies, etc. 
2. Eutf^tTr[<To,% is the part. Some who read ols tU 
fiTidvplav make it a verb (evepyln)<ras). So A. and the 
Vulg., ' bene disposuisti populum tuum quibus dedisti.' 
I have retained the V. reading, wliich is confirmed by 
C. Ven. and other MSS. 

Els iTriBufi. ipiitui. Eng., ' to stir up their ap- 
petite.' This rendering is wrong, as the people showed 

-XVI. 5-] 



no want of appetite, when they were lusting after the 
delicious food which they had eaten in Egypt (see Ex. 
xvi. 12, 13; Numb. xi. 4, 5, 18 foil.), and were punished 
at Kibroth-hattaavah. The words are better translated 
in the Bishops' Bible, ' for the desire of their appetite,' 
or by Coverdale, ' the desire that they longed for.' So 
Ps. Ixxvii. 29 : nji/ imOviitav aiirSiv tjvfyKev airrois. 

=.iirnv Ycuo-iK. ' Strange flavour.' reitris here and 
ver. 3 seems = ' object of taste.' 

'Opmr/ofir[Tpay, ' quail as food.' Tpix^^v in opp. to 
■yfv<7-o'. 'Opruyoftrfrpa is used in Ex. xvi, and Numb, 
xi, and is explained by Hesych. as oprti| vnfpiifyiOjjs. 
Philo's account of the quails is as follows (Vit. Mos. 37, 
ll. p. 114): oKka yap xai t£>v fls aPpobiaiTov ^lov ovK (Is 
ficuepav tinopovv, wrairtp iv dtKovixivji xaipa Km tv&atiiovi, jSov- 
\i)6(VToi Tov GfoO Kara TroXX^v ittpiovaiav i<j>6ova X'^pr/yiiv iv 
fpTjixia. Tois yap eairipats uprvyoprjrpav V('<f)ot (rwfXfs « 
daXuTTiji ein<f>(p6fi€vop itav to arparonihov (vfcrKia^t, rat 
jrr^<rfit wpoayfioraras irotov/itvov fls tA ev6r}pov, (rvXKafi^- 
vovTfs ovi> Ka\ iTKfva^ovTts i>s ^iXov fKaarois, Kptau dnfKavvov 
^ilarav, Spa Kai ttjv rpo<^r)v napriyopovvrts avayKala Trpcxro- 
■^pari. The Vulg. retains the word ' ortygometra' 
here and xix. 1 2, using ' coturnix' elsewhere. S. Aug. 
Quaest. 62 in Ex. : ' Aves quas coturnices multi Latine 
interpretati sunt, cum sit aliud genus avium ortygo- 
metra, quamvis coturnicibus non usquequaque dis- 

8. 'EkcItoi. The Egyptians, as in ver. 4. 

Tpo^v. The S. and Ven. MSS. give rpcx^^s, but 
ini6vpia> is constiTicted with the ace. EccluB. xvi. i ; 
Ex. XX. 17. 

EiS^X^eiaf. This almost unknown word occurs in 
Zonar. p. 632 : ctSt^^fca ^ apop<f>ia, and in S. Chrys. t. iv. 
p. 788. Steph. Thes. in voc. Ei8*x^t is found in Polyb. 
xxvii. 2. i; Died. iii. 29 ; tl8(x6<os, Greg. Nyss. i. p. 410 : 

irapfias flifx6<!>s fv aiXj KoiXaa-BeioTis : and ii. p. 70I : ciSc- 
x6as Koi yfXoi'ai. The word (l&fx6eiav being so uncommon 
has been variously dealt with in the MSS. It is the 
reading of G 55 and some other cursives, and from its 
suitableness to the sense of the passage, and from the 
improbability of its being invented by scribes, it has 

found favour with most editors. It was so printed by 
Mai in his edition of V. ; but Vercellone's new edition 
gives 6'ix6<t(Tav (sic), which appears to have been the 
reading of the Vulg. The verse seems to be nowhere 
quoted by the Fathers. The word means ' ugly look ;' 
and the meaning of the passage is, that the Egyptians, 
owing to the sight of the loathsome creatures (frogs, 
etc.) that covered everything, might lose even (<tal) the 
natural desire for food. (Ex. viii. 3-6.) Sabatier 
renders : ' Propter odiosam deformitatem eomm quae 
immissa sunt.' 

"Opc^ii'. ' Concupiscentia,' Vulg., which translates 
fTTiBvpia by the same word, Rom. vii. 7, 8 ; Gal. v. 24. 
It is a late word found in ecclesiastical authors and 
introduced from them into the terminology of the 
Church. Tertull. De Anim. xxxviii. (p. 295): 'Con- 
cupiscentia oculis arbitris utitur.' Comp. De Resur. 
xlv; Hieron. Ep. 128. 

'Airo<rrp^(^rrat with acc, as 3 Macc. iii. 23 : ant- 
<rTp(\jfayTO r^v ariprjrov iroXiTf lav. So S. Matt. V. 4 2 : tov 
6(\ovTa diro (rov hantiaaaOai prj cmooTpa(pgs, Comp. 2 Tim. 
i. 15. 

OiSroi 8^. The Israelites. This seems preferable 
to airol the reading of V. and Ven. So in ver. 4 : 

TovTois he. 

rcuaeus, as In ver. 2, 'diet.' The author omits all 
reference to the people's sin of gluttony in connection 
with the quails and their consequent punishment 
(Numb. xi. 33; Ps. Ixxviii. 30, 31), and dilates only 
on the miraculous supply vouchsafed to them because 
they were God's people. 

4. *AiropoiT»)TOK, 'inexorable,' 'inevitable.' So ver. 
1 6. The lengthened distress of the Egyptians oc- 
casioned by the plagues which affected their supplies of 
food is contrasted with the temporary neetl of the 
Israelites so soon satisfied with abundance of delicacies^ 

5. AuTois. The Israelites. ' Thy people,' Eng. Marg., 
is a paraphrase not a translation. The reference is to 
the wild animals of the desert and especially to the 
fiery serpents. Numb. xxi. 6 ff. For 0i]piav comp. Deut. 
xxxii. 34, and Acts xxviii. 4. 

C c 2 



[xvi. 6- 

eufi&f Am. wishes to translate ' poison,' comparing 
Dent, xxxii. 33 and Job xx. 16; but 'fury' seems 
more correct, as it would apply to other animals beside 
serpents. This sense is found elsewhere in "Wisdom, 
e.g. vii. 20; xi. 18 q.v. 

ZKoXiuf. Isai. xxvii. i : ' Leriathan that crooked 
serpent,' o<j)iv trKoKwv, 

Ou iki\pi T^ous. Comp. xviii. 20 ; xix. i ; Heb. 
iii. 6. 

6. Eis vou6talav, as xL 10: uc irar^p vovStraiv. Judith 
viii. 27 : f'i vov6enj<Ttv ftaiTTiyoi Kuptoc roiis ryyi'fojras avr^, 

ZufiPoXoK aunjpias (comp. ii. 9), ' a sign, token of 
safety,' viz. the Brazen Serpent, Numb. xxi. 9. See 
the use made by our Lord of this symbol S. John iii. 
14 and "Wordsworth's note in loe. Sv^^SouXoi/, the read- 
ing of A., S. and Ven., would mean ' counsellor,' 
' teacher of salvation,' which seems hardly likely to be 
used by the author as applied to an inanimate object. 
The Fathers do not help to determine the text here. 
S. Basil calls the Serpent rwrot, which supports the 
reading of the text : 6 im arffuiov kujuvos o<f>is tov aamj- 
piov naOovs [rirtrorj rov Sia tov (rravpov TtKajBivTos. Just. 

Mart, speaks thus of the matter : (cal kot (mnvoiav koI 

ivipytuai ttjv wapa tov Ofov yfvofuvrjv XojSfiv riv iiavaea 
^oKkov KOI TToi^o-ni Tvirov (rravpov, Ka\ tovtov OT^aai (ni rg 
dyl^ <ria)vfi koi flirtiv ra \a^' 'Eav wpoir^XiirrfTf t^ Twry 
TOVTif Kai moTfiniTe, iv avT^ iT<i)6rj(T«r6(, ApoL L 60. 

Eis &¥iy.yrfaiv is best taken as belonging to the 
whole sentence. The punishment and the remedy alike 
showed them the necessity of strictly complying with 
God's commandment. Philo allegorises the serpent 
as a type of temperance, Leg. Alleg. ii. 20 (I. p. 80); 
De Agr. 22 (I. p. 315). It is a disputed point what 
the brazen serpent was intended to symbolise. Cer- 
tainly the serpent was known among the Egyptians 
as the symbol of life and health (Wilkinson, Anc. 
Egyptians, ii. 134; iv. 375, etc); but it seems on this 
occasion rather to have represented the Old Serpent 
deprived of his poison, and, as it were, hung up as a 
trophy of victory. And it becomes a type of the 
Passion of Christ, who by His death overcame death, 

and destroyed ' him that had the power of death ' (Heb. 
ii. 14; Col. iL 15). They who are woimded by sin, 
looking with faith to the Passion of Christ, are saved. 
See Theodor. in Num. xxi. 9, Quaest. 38 ; Tertull. De 
Idol. v. (p. 152); S. Aug. De Civit. x. 8; Maldonatb 
in John iii. 14. Corn, a Lap. in Num. xxi. 8 : 'Alle- 
gorica et potissima causa fuit, ut serpens hie in ligno 
erectuB, significaret Christum in cruce erectum, tam- 
quam noxium et sceleratum, cujus intuitu per fidem et 
contritionem sanamur a letalibus peccatorum morsibus. 
Sicut enim serpens hie habebat formam peccatoris sed 
non venenum, ita Christus assumpsit formam peccatoris 
sed non peccatum.' 

7. Faith in the Great Healer was the necessary 
condition of safety. So Christ says (Mark ix. 23): 
' If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him 
that believeth.' The Targum of Jonathan on Numb, 
xxi. makes the divine voice accuse the people of in- 
gratitude, comparing them with the serpent, who, 
though doomed to have dust for his food, murmured 
not. ' Now shall the serpents who have not com- 
plained of their food come and bite the people who 
complain.' And when the serpent of brass was made, 
Lf it was gazed at and the sufferer's ' heart was intent 
upon the name of the Word of the Lord, he lived.' 
Etheridge, pp. 410, 411. 'Neither is it ordinarily 
His will to bestow the grace of sacraments on any, 
but by the sacraments; which grace also they that 
receive of sacraments or with sacraments, receive it 
from Him and not from them. For of sacraments 
the very same is true which Solomon's "Wisdom ob- 
serveth in the brazen serpent, " He that turned towards 
it," ' etc. Hooker, Eccl. Pol. V. Ivii. 4. 

Ai& ac riv irdrr. auriipa. Isai. xlv. 21 ; i Tim. 
iy. 10 : oc coTt trarrip iravrwv avBpamap. The author 
here repudiates the magical power afterwards attri- 
buted to the brazen serpent which occasioned its de- 
struction by Hezekiah, 2 Kings xviii. 4. Com. a Lap. 
refers to Philastrius, Lib. de Haeres., as giving an 
account of the ceremonies used in the worship of 
this idol. Gallaud. vii. 480. 

-xn. 13.] 



' Salvatorem,' Vulg. This word is unknown in 
classical Latin. It occurs in one of Gruter's In- 
scriptions, p. 19. 5: 'Jot! custodi, Quirino salvatori.' 
See note on ch. xii. 5. 

8. Kal ^i* Toury. ' Herein also,' as in the passage of 
the Bed Sea, and in other instances. 

'O ^ixSfiCKOS. 2 Tim. ilL 11: » nam-ctv fu ippixraro 
i Kipios. Ps. vii. 2. 

9, 10. The contrast in these verses is this : the 
Egyptians perished by creatures that do not generally 
kill men ; the Israelites were saved even from poisonous 
serpents. Gutb. 

9. Ous fiiv, answered by tovs it, ver. 10, is demon- 
strative. 80 Hatt. xiii. 8 : & lUv ... 6 it : 2 Mace. xiL 
24 : itKdovfs . . . ot if. Polyb. I. viiL 3 : our iiiy i^i- 
^akoVj ov( de drrf<r<f>ti^av. 

'AnpiBwc, ' locusts.' Exod. X. 4-15 ; Ps. lxx\iii. 
46 ; Rev. ix. j. 

MuiuK. Exod. viiL 16-24. Ps. Ixxvii. 45: *'^- 

ir((TTC(X(v (IS avToiic Kwoftviav Koi Kazf<f>ayfii avrovc, mi 
(iaTpa)(ov Kcu hU<^6(ipfv airrovs, 

'A-niKTtive. Pharaoh calls the plague of locusts 
'this death,' Exod. x. 17, but we do not read there 
that either the locusts or flies destroyed men's lives. 
There sure flies, especially in Africa, whose sting is 
deadly. Schleusner, in voc., quotes a writer 
who, commenting on Ps. Ixxvii. 45, says : <cvyd/ivta>> ot 

'Effptuoi ipp^vrvovai irX^doi irdfiptyoy ayp'uav itat aapKo^opuiv 
Brjpiav, ol ii "EXXijVft \iyov<nv TTfy rou kvvos {iXoktovvtos 

fmar. Josephus (Ant. II. xiv. 3) asserts that the lice 
destroyed men's lives, and then he describes the plague 

of flies thus : BijpLav iravToia>y <cat woKvTponwv, Ity (Is 
<l^u> ovifis aivjvrijKfk irpdripoy, t^i» x^P"" avrav tyipxaiv, 
v<l> &V airrol t( diriuXXvta'o, Ka\ j) yrj r^c ciri/xcXctor r^t Ttapa 
TOP ffapywy airtOTfpifro. tl dc n Kal tu<pvyf T171' vjr' 
(KCtvou oiruXciov, yoiT^ rovro, col ray avSpumay vnoptvovray, 
iSoTTavaro. Philo's account is as follows : <}}opa aa/mav 
f)(yOr}, Koi ToBtura KaSairtp yi^s airatrmi (ir(<TXfv Alyimrov, 
tA 4« (imy, «i Km ^pa\VTaToy, S/ias dpyaKtararoy, ov yap 
ftovoy TTiy (iri(f>a»tuai Xvftaiyrrai KmjfTfiovt f/iKoiovy aiiius k(u 
ffkafitpuTdrovs, dXXa mi (U ra twos ^ui^crat dta liVKTripan 

KCU arav. (rlvtrai hi Ka\ xSpas o<^6aikpS>y tlinnTopryoy, tl /u) 
(pvXd^aiTO Ttt. <l>v\aKq 8« Ti'r c/icXXc irp6s roaavniy t<Tf(r6at 
<l>opav, KOI fiaktirra Qtov KoXa^oKrot j Vit. U OS. i. 1 9 (II. 

P- 97)- ^ 

10. 'AtaiircxpriXOe. ' Adveniens,' Vulg. ' Ex ad- 
verso advenit,' Sabat. ' Came to meet,' ' came to their 
aid against the poison of the serpents.' It is the word 
used of the conduct of the Priest and Levite in the 
Parable of the Good Samaritan, S. Luke x. 31, 32, 
with a different shade of meaning. The verb dmna- 
pti/u is used by Xenophon of two armies marching 
along on opposite sides of a river, Anab. iv. 3. 17. 

11. Eis uTt6furi\inv T. Xoy. aou, parallel with tis ayaim. 
iyroXrit xo'/j. a-ov, ver. 6. Aoyia, ' dicta divina,' ' com- 
mands,' 'laws,' as Ps. cxviii. 158, 169 (Sept.); Acta 
vii. 38. 

'EKCKCKTpi^oKTo, ' wcrc pricked with the goad.' 
Vulg. : ' examinabantur.' 

*0|^ci»s, 'quickly,' as iii. 18. But Mr. Churton : 
' they escaped with sharp anguish.' 

'll'O depends on (VfKfyrp. and ittrra^ovro. 

'AirtpunrooToi, prop. ' not drawn hither and thither,' 
' distracted.' So Ecclus. xli. i. Here it means ' es- 
tranged from,' ' not participating in.' The Eng. : 
' continually mindful ' is tautological. The Vulg. is 
more to the purpose: 'Non possent Tuo uti adju- 

12. M({XaY|MX. Comp. Is. L 6 : ovk (<m imKaypa 
(mdfivai ovTt tXaiov ovrt Karatiapovt. On the Use cH 

the physician with his material remedies see Ecclus. 
xxxviii. 1-8. 

A(5yos, as p^pa^ ver. 26, ' the word ' of God as the 
expression of His will. Comp. Ps. cvL 20 : dWorriX* 

Toy \6yov avTov kiu lacaro avrovt. See on ver. 7. 

13. eou'C^Tou. So Christ says, Rev. i. 18 : 'I have 
the keys of hell and of death.' 

Kordytis, k-t.X. Comp. Deut. xxxii 39 ; i Sam. 
ii. 6; Tob. xiii. 2. 

riuXas *Ai8ou. Job xxxviii. 17 : apoiyoyrai if trot 
(fio^tf TTvXot Bavdrov, irvXcopoi di ^iov iSovrct at (imj^ay • 

Ps. cvL 18; IsaL xxxviii. 10. The expression in the 



[xvi. 14- 

text means, ' death, or the grave.' It ia used in an- 
other sense, Matt. xvi. 18. Vulg.: 'portas mortis' here, 
but ' portae inferi ' in the Gospel. 

'Amyeis, as Heb. xiii. 20 : S dmyayav tK vtKpav 
Toi' noifiiva twv ■npo^arav. 

14. ' k-ttoKTivvix., nearly all the MSS. give this form. 
So Josh. viii. 24 ; Tob. i. 18. In N. T. it has been 
usually altered to mtoKxtivai. S. Aug., Spec. 100, reads: 
' Homo autem se occidit per malitiam ;' but this seems 
to be an error, as is the reading found in some MSS. of 
the Vulg. : ' per malitiam animam suam.' The notion 
is parallel to that in Matt. x. 28, viz. that men may 
kill the body, but cannot touch the soul. 

' kvanrrpi^t^ . . . dcaXuci, the subject of both is 
avSpamoi. ' Man killeth (man), but he bringeth not 
back the spirit when it hath gone forth, no, nor 
delivereth the soul taken to (or received in) the other 
world.' Comp. EccL viii. 8. 

napaXti<t)etio-oi', sc. fis'AtSou. The Eng. translators 
seem to have read t/^xt ■'rapdKri<i)6(i(ra, a variation found 
in no MSS. The word is used by Polyb. iii. 69. 2. of 
taking prisoners : tovs hi TrapoKrjtpdfvras SvSpas d/SXa/Stir 
fuff iavTov irporjye, 

15-29. Contrast, as regards the aetton of the poioers 
of nature, water and fire. 

15. Comp. Tob. xiii. 2; Amos ix. 1-4; Ps. cxxxix. 8. 

16. 'Aprou|i£TOi . . . ciS^roi, ' asserting that they knew 
Thee not,' as xii. 27. This refers to Pharaoh's speech. 
Ex v. 2 : ' Who is the Lord that I should obey His 
voice to let Israel go ? I know not the Lord.' 

'E|iaflrTiY<i9r)<rai', xii. 22 ; Tob. xi. 14. 

H^fois, ' strange,' ' novis,' not only because storms 
of rain and hail were almost unknown in Egypt, but 
because their character was abnormal, as it is said 

Exod. ix. 24 : 5" ®' h X^^^f" ""^ rA niip (f>\oyi(ov ev rj 
yaXa^j* t] fie )^a\a^a ttoXX^ (r<f)68pa <T^6bpa, rJTLS ov yeyovt 
ToiavTT) (V \lyvrrr<f d(f>' ov ytyivrfrai iir air^t (6vos. ' And 
when Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail and the 
thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more,' Exod. 
ix. 34. Comp. Philo, Vit. Mos., quoted on ver. 19. 
The absence of rain, especially in the inland parts of 

Egypt, is a marked feature of the climate, and as such 
is noticed Deut. xi. 10, 11, and Zech. xiv. 18. Comp. 
Herod, ii. 13, 14. Thus Philo, Vit. Mos. iii. 24 

(II. p. 164): rrjs xdpas ov\ vrra KaBamtp ai SK\ai vK^o- 
fiivr)!, aK\a ralr Toii nora/wv nkrJiiiivpaK ela&vias ava wav 
tros \ipva(ta6(U, BeorrKaaToviTi. t^ \6ytf tov NelXox Ai- 
ywTTioi at avTi/uiiov ovpavov yfyovdra, leal irtpi T^s x<''f'' 

'YcTots . . . ojippois. The distinction between vrrAt 
and o/i/3por seems to be that the former (Lat. 'nimbus ') 
means 'a sudden heavy shower,' the latter (Lat. 'imber'), 
' a lasting rain.' 

'AiropoiTnTois. See on ver. 4. Omitted in Vulg. 
Ajn. quotes Milton, Par. Reg. iv : 

' Fierce rain with lightning mixt, water with fire 
In ruin reconciled.' 

17. nXeioK ivr\pyei, 'had more power than usual.' 
Calmet refers to the account of Elijah's sacrifice, 
I Kings xviii. 38. The notion in the test is that the 
hail was not melted, nor the water quenched by the 
fires of heaven. S. Ephr. Syr. in Exod. c. ix. (p. 210): 
' Ruit itaque praeceps grandinis nimbus, intermican- 
tibus fulgetris mistus : adeo nee grando ignem extinxit, 
nee ignis grandinem tabefecit ; quin ea adjuncta, velut 
aggestis vepribus, flammam extulit luculentiorem. 
Simili miraculo grando, velut in fornace ferrum, sio 
igne torrente excandescere visa est, et quod etiam 
mirabile est, ignis grandinem inflammavit, ligna mini- 
me adussit.' Comp. Ps. xviii. 12, 13. 

'Yir^Pfioxos, see on x. 20. The same idea is found 
ch. V. 17 foil. 

18. floTc (lif . . . irore 8e refer to different times 
and plagues, as is shown also by the tenses of the 
verbs ij/xcpoOro and ^Xry«», ver. 19. The present repre- 
sents the Plague of fire as present to the writer, the 
imperfect introduces the extinguishing of the fire 
as something more distant, imported for the sake of 
contrast. Gutb. 

'HjiepouTo, ' mansuetabatur,' Vulg. This is Svr. Xry. 
for the usual ' mansuefacio.' ' The animals sent against 
the ungodly ' must be the frogs, flies, lice, and locusts ; 

-in. ao.] 



but to what event in the history of these Plagues the 
author is alluding, is a matter of great doubt. Grimm 
thinks that he has erroneously combined the plagues 
of frogs, flies and lice with that of hail and lightning, 
BO as to assert that the flames spared the beasts sent 
at that same time to plague the Egyptians. Gutberlet 
defends the author from this charge, and supports the 
explanation of Calmet, that the flres spoken of were 
not the Ughtnings of the Plague, but the artificial 
fires kindled by the Egj'ptians to disperse the noxious 
animals, and which had no efliect on them. This how- 
ever is a pure hypothesis. Amald (whose view seems 
reasonable) says : ' I must acknowledge that our author, 
in this particular, seems to have exceeded historical 
truth, and to have used a rhetorical exaggeration to 
make God's dealings with the Egj-ptians appear more 
terrible.' At the same time it is possible that the 
writer may allude to some old tradition on the matter, 
as in the case of the manna, vers. 20, 21. Comp. six. 
20. Philo, after describing the plague of hail, as 
quoted below, states that it was followed by a strong 
and pestilential wind which brought the locusts ; but 
he nowhere says that the two plagues were simul- 

19. ♦Xffei, tc. <^X<J|. Vulg. : 'exardescebat undique,' 
where the tense is wrong, and ' undique ' is an addi- 

rtyyi\fiaTa, ' the fruits,' ' produce,' as is shown by 
ai^ i>i>, ver. 20, and Kapnovs, ver. 22. Vulg.: 'natio- 
nem.' See on i. 14. Philo, Vit Mos. i. 20 (H. 98, 

99) : ntpirron ^v a> Aiywrr^ \ttiia>va ymirBai . . . f^<f)vTis 
Smat iviaripuTtv a^p, mirff oaa iv roir iv<i-]((ip.ipon aOpoia 
KOTaanajy^ai, (fmpas wruv )(aKa(av ttuXX^v au ^oBficai, avifiav 
ffv/nrnrrdnTMi', (cai avmraTayaivTiav /3tat, n(f)S)i> p^{«r, »iraX- 
XijXovt cuTTpanas Km ^povras, trvvf^^us Kfpavvovs, o! Ttparu)- 
tforanjv o^w Trapfixovro. Gtovra yap dta r^t x°^''Cl'> 
fta)^opcvf\s oixTias, oCrt (Ttjkov airniv, oSrt ia^vnvro, pi- 
VOPTts If (V Spola Kai doXtxcvoi>r(C aino Kai kotw, Surripovp 
T^ \a\aiap, aXX ov popov 17 f'^aiirios <f>opa travrav rois 
ouofTopai tit vtrtp^aKKoiaas iva&vplas Tftv, aiXKa kcu t6 
Tov npaypoTOt aifitt. virfXajSoy yap, oitfp uu ^v, eV pjjn- 

paroy Btiav K€Katvovpy^a6ai ra avpiravra, ixaTtplaaiiTot itt 
oirir<a nportpov tov aipot iir\ Xvprj «cai <f>6opj biviptov Tt col 
Kaprrav, oit <rvi'«f>6apT] fia ovk 6\iya, ra piv iripiyjfv((ai, ra 
a /Sdpci r^r ortjrtBTOumyr ;(aXdfijf, amrip KoraKtvirBivra, Ti 
a vnit TOV rrvpot i^avoKtuBivra. tna it fipi<f>Xtiera biip^fvt, 
Toxit Tvtrovs t£>v Ktpaviiiuir Tpavparav tls yovBtcriav tS>v 
opavrav (Trtcfxpopfva, 

KaTo^eifn). The balance of authority is in favour 
of this reading, and not iun^tpj] (Vat). Comp. ver. 

20. *Ai^ S>v. Instead of the fruits destroyed by 
the lightning, etc. 

'AyyAuK Tpo+tji', Ps. Ixxvii. 24, 25 (Sept.) : t^pt^v 
avTois pavpa (paytiv, mi aproy oi'payov tiaKfv avTois' Sproy 
ayyiKay tc^Krytv aiiQparrtot, firuriTurpoy oircoTciXcv ovrotr tit 
irKqtrpovriv. Comp. 2 Esdr. i. 19; S. John vi. 31; 
E«v. ii. 1 7. See the account of the manna Ex. xvi. 
and Numb, xi., and Wisd. xix. 21; i Cor. x. 3. 

'E4>ufuaa{, with double ace., as Numb. xi. 4 : m 
r)pas ^aputX xpta ; Is. IviiL 14. It is used iu a dif- 
ferent sense I Cor. xiii. 3 : iia/ ^u/uVo) jroKra ra vrdp- 
;(Oi/Ta pov. 

'Etoijiov . . . &KOin(iT(i>s, (or dicojruurrau), ' paratum . . . 
sine labore,' Vulg. These expressions, and the term 
'angels' food,' imply merely that the manna was a 
supernatural substance, indebted to no labour of man 
for 'its production. Philo's account of the manna is 
given in Vit. Mos. i. 36, 37. But his treatment of the 
subject is very different from our author's, as he uses 
the history merely as a vehicle for allegory. Thus: 

V ^k^X^ yai>a>6t'i(Ta iroXXdnr tlirtly ovk «x»«, W to yavmray 
avTrjV loTi' iiSaaKtToi St inro tov lfpo(f>ayTov Ka\ trpo<f>iiTov 
Kiavcrfat, tt tptt, Ovtos iirrw 6 Sprot, 17 Tpotprj ^v tiaxty 
6 eeor TJ ^x5) vpocrtvtyKaaBai rd iavrov prjpa, kcu rii> 
iaxrrov \6yoy ovtos yap 6 Sprot t>v SidoKtv fipiv (j>aytly, 
TovTo t6 pni'o, Leg. Alleg. iii. 60 (I. p. 121). Comp. 
De Prof 25 (I. p. 566). Of the way in which the 
Fathers have treated the subject of manna take the fol- 
lowing examples (see also on ver. 22). S. Cyr. Al. in 

Joh. iii. (IV. p. 318, Anb.) ; iirav piv t« yfvtjTat irpat, 
Tovrianr aviaxoyTot ^St, Ka« r^y oUovpiyijy oXiji> irtpta- 



[XVI. 20- 

trrpdirrovTot tov Xpitrrov, tnav «ra» ^ Spotros KaraKfiyrj \oiir6v, 
TOVT fOTtv tj Traxtui, Koi ax\va)8Tjs tS>v vojukuv fViroy/idroj* 
€i<r^yi;<rn' TtXor yap vofiov, xai npo<j>rjTS>v 6 Xpiaros' r&rt 
iri wavrat rA oXij^st W'") '"'' *l ovpavov KnTa^ri<rfTai ftawa, 
tiayYfXucriv it 6r)XovoTi dibatTKoKiav <j>aiiiv, ovic iiri r^v 
'ItrpafXrrS)!/ avvayayfiv, oKKit Kvukcf rijt traptitPoKSjt, tls 
navra itjKovoTt ra fSvri, koi €irl irpoaamov r^f epifftov, tovt 
t(m Tijs «'{ iBvtov 'E<e(cXi;eriar, Trtpi rji f'pijral irou" 'Ori jroXXoi 
ri T€iti<a T^r ipfipov pSKKov § T^t i)(oinn]i t6v 3v8pa. There 
is much more to the same purpose. Berengaud. Exp. 
in Apoc. : ' Per manna sapientia quae Christus est 
intelligi potest. Ipse est enim panis vivus qui de caelo 
descendit. Hoc pane alimtur omnes electi, in deserto 
atque in itinere hujus saeculi positi, usque dum veniant 
ad terram repromissionis,' i.e. 'ad caelestem beatitu- 
dinem quara repromisit Deus diligentibus se.' In App. 
ad Opp. S. Ambr. (XVII. p. 86 1, Migne). S. Ambr. 
Exp. in Ps. cxviii. Serm. i8 (p. 641, Ben.): 'Non erat 
rerua ille panis, sed futuri umbra. Panem de caelo 
ilium verum mihi servavit Pater. Mihi ille panis Dei 
descendit de caelo, qui vitam dedit huic mundo.' 8. 
Greg. Magn. Moral, in Job lib. xxi. c. 15 (p. loio, 
Ben.) : ' Manna est verbum Dei, et quidquid bene 
voluntas suscipientis appetit, hoc profecto in ore come- 
dentis sapit.' And again, Lib. vi. c. 16 (p. 191, Ben.): 
' Manna quippe omne delectamentum atque onmis sa- 
poris in se suavitatem habuit, quod videlicet in ore 
spiritalium, juxta voluntatem edentiura, saporem dedit, 
quia divinus Bermo et omnibus congruens, et a semet- 
ipso non discrepans, qualitati audientium condescendit; 
quern dum electus qnisque utiliter juxta modum suum 
intelligit, quasi acceptum manna involuntarium sapo- 
rem vertit.' S. Aug. In Joann. Tract, xxvi. § 12: 
' Hunc panem significavit manna, hunc panem signifi- 
cavit altare Dei. Sacramenta ilia fuenmt ; in signis 
diversa sunt; in re quae significntur paria sunt . . . 
Manna umbra erat, Iste Veritas est '(T. III. 498). 

novaf i^Sot^c loxuorro, this is the reading of nearly 
all MSS. One cursive and the Compl. insert irpos 
before nairav; and this Fritzsche has received. So 
Grig. Exc. in Ps. Ixxvii. (vol. XVII. p. 144, Migne): 

SpTov OTT ovpavov fiaK€v S Ofir ry Xa<3 airrov, OKOiruitTTat 
irpis naaav fjiovi'ip laxvovTa' irpos 4 yap tw ffioiXfTO perfKpi- 

poTO. The Eng., Syr., and Ar. versions translate as if 
jrao-. fiS. were in the genitive case : ' Suaviorem omni 
dulcedine.' 'Able to content every man's delight.' 
The Vulg. seems to have read icrxovra, ' omne delecta- 
mentum in se habentem.' If we retain the usual read- 
ing, we must take Itrxvat with ace. of obj.=' vim habeo 
ratione habita alicujus rei.' Wahl. ' Having power 
over, comprehending, every pleasure.' Comp. Ecclus. 
xliii. 1 5 : "a-xv<Te >'«pe\at, where however A. reads vt- 
<f>f\pic. Bissell translates : ' strong in (with respect to) 
every kind of pleasant relish.' 

'Ap\i6nov agrees with Sprov. ' Suiting every taste,' 
as ver. 2r, 'tempered itself to every man's liking.' 
Vulg. : ' et omnis saporis suavitatem,' perhaps reading 
with S. appoviav. The author seems to have followed 
some tradition in this statement : the account in the 
Pentateuch would lead to a very different conclusion. 
See Ex. xvi. 31 ; Numb. xi. 6, 8; xxi. 5. Ginsburg, 
ap. Kitt. Cyclop, refers to Joma, 75, for the tradition. 
See also Barclay, The Talmud, p. 26 ; S. Ephr. Syr. in 
Exod. cap. xvi. (p. 218): ' Subdit Scriptura: manna 
specie quidem coriandrum, mel autem gustu reprae- 
sentasse, ut inde intelligeremus, manna ad omnem 
saporem compositum fuisse.' See also in Numer. cap. 
xi. (p. 256). S. Aug., speaking of the frequent reception 
of the Holy Communion, and illustrating his case with 
the difference of feeling exhibited by Zaccheus and the 
Centurion about receiving Christ into their houses, says, 
Ad Inquisit. Jan. (Ep. liv. § 4, Ben.) : ' Valet etiam ad 
banc similitudinem quod in primo populo unicuique 
manna secundum propriam voluntatem in ore sapiebat, 
sic uniuscujusque in corde Christiani Sacramentum 
illud, quo subjugatus est rauudus. Nam et ille honor- 
ando non audet quotidie sumere, et ille honorando non 
audet uUo die praetermittere.' In his Retractations 
he says that if the manna had really the quality 
ascribed to it, the people would not have murmured 
as they did. Thus Ketract. 11. xx : ' Quod de manna 
dixi, " quia unicuique secundum propriam voluntatem 

-XVI. 2 




in ore eapiebat," non mihi occurrit unde possit probari, 
nisi ex Libro Sapientiae, quem Judaei non recipiunt in 
auctoritatem canonicam ; quod tamen fidelibus potuit 
provenire, non illis adversus Deum murmurantibus, 
qui profecto alias escas non desiderarent, si hoc eis 
saperet manna quod vellent.' For apfiovtos conip. Clem. 
Al. Strom. iL 7 : &pit6vu>s ijbt ^ ho^. Dion. Hal. vi. 
102 1, 12 (Reiske). 

21. 'YttAttoctis aou. ' Thy sustenance,' the manna 
sent by Thee, so called as being something firm and 
real, not phantom food, remaining the same in sub- 
stance whatever taste it might assume subjectively. 
Gutb. Many commentators take the words to refer to 
the Person of the Logos, as Hebr. i. 3 (Vulg. : ' sub- 
stantia tua) ;' but the corresponding clause, tJ hi roC 
K.rX., shows that it refers to the manna. Comp. Judg. 
vi. 4 : ' And left no sustenance {yiroaracriv fo)^t) for 

rXuKUTHTo. The manna was sweet to the taste 
(Exod. xvi. 31), and they who ate it tasted the sweet- 
ness and graciousness of God. Ps. xxxiv. 8; i Pet. ii. 3. 

Tou 7rpo(r4>cpofji^fou, ' of the eater,' Eng. ■npoa(f>c- 
ptcrdai aiTov being a common phrase for ' taking food,' 
Judith xii. 9. S.Aug. Ep. 118: 'In primo populo 
unicuique manna secundum propriam voluntatem in 
ore sapiebat.' Arn. 

'Yinjp£Toif, sc. apTos, ver. 20. 

MercKipfaTO, ' changed itself.' lUTaKipviia-^pera- 
K€pavmfu, ' to mix by pouring from one vessel into 
another,' here, as Vulg. translates,='converti.' The 
Fathers continually refer to the manna as a type of 
the holy Eucharist. S. Aug. In Joh. Ev. Tract, xxvi. 
§ 13; 8. Chrys. Horn. xlvi. in Joann. (VIII. p. 271, 
Ben.). In the tract De Coena Domini, affixed to the 
Works of S. Cyprian, we find the following apposite 
remarks : ' Hujus panis figura fuit manna quod in de- 
serto pluit ; sic ubi ad verum panem in terra promis- 
sionis ventum est, cibus ille defecit . . . Panis iste 
angelorum omne delectamentum habens virtute mirifica, 
omnibus qui digne et devote sumunt, secundum suum 
desiderium sapit ; et amplius quam manna illud eremi 

implet et Eatiat edentium appetitus, et omnia cama- 
lium saporum irritamenta, et omnium exuperat dulce- 
dinum voluptates.' Ps. cxv. In another place (Ep. 76) 
S. Cyprian sees in the manna a figure of the grace of 
sacraments which is alike to all, whatever be their age, 
sex, or station. (P. 157.) 

22. Xiuf . . KpuoraXXos, t. e. ' the manna,' so called 
from its likeness to hoar-frost (Ex. xvi. 14) and being 
an ' icy kind of heavenly meat, that was of nature apt 
to melt' {fSrriKTOv KputrroXXoetSes), oh. xix. 21. 

'Yir^|ieit'« irup. We read that the manna was 
melted by the sun, Ex. xvi. 2 1 ; but on the sixth day 
that which was gathered might be seethed or baked, 
and kept good during the Sabbath, Ex. xvi. 23, 24. 
Also, though so soft by nature, it could be ground and 
made into cakes and baked (Numb. xi. i). Both 
these miracles seem to be referred to in order to point 
the contrast with the effect of the lightning in the 
seventh plague on the Egyptians. 

nOp <j>XeY. iv Tg x^'^^'^^TI is from Ex. ix. 24, show- 
ing a knowledge of the Sept. 

23. TouTo, se. jrvp. 
nciXif, see on xiii. 8. 

'EiriXcXtjaOai depends on yvSxriv, ver. 22, the con- 
struction being changed from on with indie, to ace. and 
inf. The desire of uniformity of construction has led 
to the change tViXeXi/orai in many MSS. ; but the 
alternation of on with an infinitive clause is not un- 
common. See Jelf, Gr. Gram. § 804. 6 ; Winer, § 64. 
ii. 2. 

24. 'H KTio-is, 'all created things' (Rom. viii. 22), 
here, specially, the element of fire. Comp. ch. v. 17, 20. 

'EiriTciWroi, ' exerts, intensifies itself.' Vulg. : 
' exardescit.' MSS. Sang, et Corb. 2 : ' excandescit.' 
S. Aug. viii. 871 : ' extenditur.' 

'Afieroi, ' abateth (t. e. weakens) his strength,' 
Eng. Exod ix. 26. 

Eis ai. The reading «rJ <roi is given by Method. 
De Hesurr. xiv. (XVIII. p. 288, Migne) : ij kt'uth <toi , . 

inrip Tav cVi uol wtTToidoTai'. 

25. Aiik TOUTO, because nature works out God's wilL 



[xvi, 26- 

McToXXtuofi^iT), se. fj KTiait, i.e. 'fire,' as ver. 24, and 
tbe manna. ' Changing itself into all fashions.' See 
on iv. 12. The manna changed its taste according to 
the desire of the eater (vers. 20, 21), and fire modified 
its usual effects in obedience to its Maker's will. 

T^ irarr. a. Suped, ' Omnium nutrici gratiae Tuae,' 
Vnlg. ' Thy mercy that provides for all.' So Sapta in 
the sense of ' bounty,' Eph. iv. 7. Grimm and others 
take Sapta to be ' the gift' of manna, which makes this 
verse a mere repetition of the preceding statements. 

ripAs T. T. Seoii^f. OArjaic 'In accordance with 
the will of those who desired it,' as ver. 2 1 ; or more 
generally, ' that He might give them that which they 
desired in their need.' Churton. For 6f\r]<rit comp. 
Tob. xii. 18 ; Heb. ii. 4 ; Just Tryph. 61. 

26. "Otv ofix • • AXXi, ' not so much . . as.' This verse 
is quoted by Clem. Al. Paedag. i. (p. 167, Pott.). 

rfvi<Tei.s T. KapTTui', ' races, sorts of fruits.' See on 
i. 14. ' Nativitatis fructus,' Vulg. ; ' Nativitates fruc- 
tuum,' Sabat. The Vulg. uses 'nativitas' in the sense 
of ' natural production.' See on vii. 5. 

T6 pTJfid aou. Deut. viii. 3 (Sept.), where ' word' 
(p^na) does not occur in the Hebrew. See Matt. iv. 4. 
It stands for ' will' here, as Xoyor, ver. 12. Philo, Leg. 

All. iii. 56 (I. p. 119) : 6pas Srt oi yritvois koi (pSaproie 
Tp((}>€Tai T) yjnxVt "XX' ols hv 6 Stor op^prffrri Xdyoir, eV T^r 
fjterapaiov Kal KoSapas <j}v<Ttas, ^i' ovpav6» kckXi;kci/ ; 

27. T6 yip. The proof that it is God's will alone 
that gives natural food its power of supporting life is 
Been in the facts connected with the manna ; 'e. g. 
it melted away in the sun and yet could be cooked 
and baked, Ex. xvi. 2 1 ; Numb. xi. 8. We read in the 
Targum of Jonathan : ' They gathered from the time of 
the dawn until the fourth hour of the day ; but at the 
fourth hour, when the sun had waxed hot upon it, it 
liquefied, and made streams of water which flowed 
away into the great sea ; and wild animals that were 
clean, and cattle came to drink of it, and the sons of 
Israel hunted and ate them,' Etheridge, p. 500. 

'AirXus, ' simply . . . melted away.' Vulg. : ' sta- 
tim.' Thus the Israelites were taught the lesson of 
daily dependence upon God, in agreement with the 
Christian prayer, ' Give us this day our daily bread.' 

28. This is one of the many beautiful passages in 
this Book. The lesson about early prayer is of course 
founded on the fact that the Israelites were obliged to 
gather the manna before the sun grew hot and melted 
it. Some commentators have inferred from this pas- 
sage that the author was an Essene or Therapeut. 
But see Fs. v. 3 ; Ixiii. i. Ixxxvii. 14 : ri wpaii ^ jrpo|- 
ev^ri fiov npo<f>dd(rei <rf. Ecclus. XXXV. 1 4. (xxxii. Eng.). 
Ginsburg,ap.Kitto, Cyclop., refers to Mishna Beracheth, 
i. 2, for a traditicm that prayer must be ofiered to God 
before sunrise. In his account of the Essenes PhDo 
writes (De Vit. Cout. 11. vol. ii. p. 485): rds rt Syfnit 
Koi oXoK TO au/xa irpos rriv fa (rrayrts, iirav 6fa<ra>VTai rhf 
ijXiov avLiT\ovra, ras )(fipas dvarfivavra fis ovpavop fiiiifplav 
Koi dXrjdfiav fwfi)(0irrat Kal o^vamiav XoyuTpiOV. See also 

Joseph. Bell. Jud. II. viii. 5. For the Essenes see 
Prolegom. pp. 19, 20. 

EuxopioTiaf aou (like irpoatvx'l tov Otov, S. Luke 
vi. 12), thanksgiving of which God is the object. 

npos AwT. +UT., ' at sunrise,' as npos i<ncipa», S. 
Luke xxiv. 29. Origen reads trpo dvoroX^r (fuoro!, De 
Orat. 31 (I. p. 267, Ben.). 

'Envyx'i''*"'- See on viii. 21. 

29. The connection is this : man should be grateful 
for God's blessings ; for without thankfulness he can 
have no hope of future favour. 

'AxapioTou looks back to (vxapurriav in the preced- 
ing verse. 

Xeifji^pios here, as generally in Attic, a word of two 
terminations. Vulg. : ' hibemalis,' here only. Corop. 
' aetemalis,' Ps. xxiii. 7 ; ' originaUs,' 2 Pet. ii. 5 ; ' an- 
nualis,' Ecclus. xxxvii. 14. 

'Pui1<r«Toi, 'disperiet,' Vulg. See on i. 8. So, 'exies,' 
Matt. v. 26 ; ' exiet,' Matt. ii. 6 ; ' peries,' Ecclus. viiL 
18; 'redieti' Lev. xxv. 10; 'transient,' 2 Pet. iii. 10. 

-xvn. 3.] 




xvn. l-XVin. 4. Contrast as regards the Plagite 
of Darkness. 

1. rip. This verse confirms and elucidates xvi. 29, 
with special reference to the hardening of the heart of 
Pharaoh and his servants. Their sin was ingratitude 
for the removal of the plagues ; and the author seems 
to view their obstinacy as a judicial punishment. See 
Rom. ix. 18 ; xi. 33. 

Zou 0.1 KpuTcis. ' Judgments and counsels.' The 
Vulg. inserts ' Domine,' and ' verba Tua.' 

AuaSii^Yn'<'°^- Comp. Ps. xl. 5 ; xcii. 5, 6. The 
word &v<Tiiriy. is air. \(y. in Sept., and not used in classi- 
cal Greek. It means, 'hard to narrate,' or 'to set forth 
in detail.' Comp. awic8i^7»p-ot Pallad. Hist. Laus. 33 
(xxxiv. p. 1092 B, Migne). 

Aid TouTo, because God's dealings with men are 

'AiraiScuToi, ' uninstructed ' in matters of true re- 
ligion. The Egyptians made the great mistake of 
fighting against God in their dealings with the Israel- 
ites. Vulg. : ' indisciplinatae.' This word is found 
frequently in Ecclus. {e.g. v. 14 ; vii. 17 ; xxii. 3, and 
4 Esdr. i. 8), but not elsewhere in Vulg. It occurs in 
S. Aug. De Civ. x. 29 : ' verbis indisciplinatis uti- 
mini.' Cypr. De IdoL Van. 6. Comp. ' insensatus,' 
iii. 12; .' discalceatus,' Deut. xxv. 10; ' pudoratus,' 
Ecclus. xxvi. 19. 

2. 'YireiXrn^. yAp. This paragraph confirms firXavti- 
fiijtraii, ver. I. See Jer. Taylor, Duct. dub. I. i. 14. 

A^afiioi ax^Tous. The plague of darkness (see 
Exod. X. 21-23) ^^""^ referred to, miraculous in its 
circumstances, but proceeding from natural causes, 
may have been produced by a terrible and abnormal 
Band-storm. The Sept. calls it o-Korot yv6(pos 6veWa. 

Maxpas . . . raKTiSs. See quotations from Philo and 
Josephus on ver. 5. 

ricSiiTai, ' compediti,' Vulg. This is a post- 

classical word, occurring elsewhere in Vulg., e. g. Ps. 
Ixxviii. II ; Dan. iii. 91 ; and in Lactaut Inst VII. 
i. 19. Plant. Capt. V. L 23 : 

'In lapicidinas compeditum condidi.' 

^uY<'^<$> excluded by their own act, like run- 
away slaves. ' Outlaws from the divine Providence.' 
Jer. Taylor, Cases of Conscience, i. i . 

Ekcikto. Ex. X. 23 : ovk t^aviaTri oiStU ix t^j 
KoiTqs avTov Tpfis rjftt'pas. 

3. They had sought darkness to hide their sins (Ps. 
X. 11), and now they were punished with darkness. 
Eng. : ' While they supposed to lie hid,' a rather un- 
common use of the verb ' suppose.' 

'EaicopTriaOi)o-ai', they were dispersed, separated 
from one another by the solid darkness, ' the dark 
veil of oblivion.' This, which is the usual reading, 
is confirmed by the S. MS., which gives iuiTKOfmia-Bria-ap. 
Fritzsche has received eo-nroriVflijo-av, which is easier, 
but of inferior authority (all the ancient versions 
having the reading in the text), and was probably 
introduced by some scribe who found a difficulty in 
explaining iaKopn. Gutb. sees in it a reference to 
the mysteries (xiv. 23) and orgies celebrated at night, 
which drew the heathen together to their ' secret sins.' 
This miraculous darkness drave them asunder, so that 
none helped or comforted other, in agreement with the 
view maintained xi. 15, 16, that men's own sins make 
the whips to scourge them withal. 

'IfStiXfuurif, ' appearances.' Sabat. : ' spectris.' 
Lucian. Somn. 5 (II. p. 711, Keitz). eKuXov is used 
of the ghosts of the dead, and iy&iXfia is very much the 
same in etymology and in meaning. The author adds 
many circumstances in this plague which are not found 
in iloses' narrative. The spectres may have been the 
product of the Egyptians' own terrified imaginations, 
though there seems to be an intimation of something 

D d 2 



[xvn. 4- 

real in Ps. Ixxviii. 49 : 'He cast upon them the fierce- 
ness of His anger, wrath, and indignation, by sending 
evil angels among them.' Am. refers to Ecclus. xxxix. 
28. The Vulg. rendering, 'cum adrairatione nimia 
perturbati,' is curious. S. Agobardus refers to this 
passage : ' Terrores etiam tribulationum per daemones 
fieri in Libr. Sap. legimus.' Ap. Galland. xiii. p. 453. 

4. Mux^s, 'the inmost recesses of the houses,' to 
■which they retreated. 

'A<|mS^ous, I have received tliis instead of ai^d^mr, 
as the author seems to use the pred. adj. in such cases. 
Comp. X. 5 ; xiv. 24. 

Karapdo-aotn-cs, ' sounds rushing down.' Vulg. : 
' sonitus descendens.' The Eng. addition, ' as of waters 
falling,' is unnecessary, as is the change from the 
received text to fKrapaatrovrft (Fr.), though this may 
Lave been the original reading of V. KaTapda-afiv is 
used intr. as well as trans., as our ' dashing down.' 
The notion is amplified in ver. 18. 

ncpiEK^fiiroui'. ' Sounded around.' This word is 
found in no good MS. of any classical author (the 
reading in Thuc. vi. 1 7 is spurious) ; it occurs in 
Joseph. Bell. Jud. i. 25. 2 : tovtoic nepiKoiiiTrjiras, Kainep 
trapaTerayftivov, 'HpaiSiji/ vrrdyiTai. 

'AfiEiS. irpoauirois dep. on KaTt^(j}rj. The Vulg. does 
not keep to the Greek. Jer. Taylor quotes much of 
this chap, in his treatise on Cases of Conscience, I. i. 

5. Comp. Philo, Vit. Mos. i. § 21 (II. p. 100): 
Xo/irrpac fj/ifpas oSarjs f^oTrtvaiais dva)(e'iTai itkotos, iaas pev 
Koi T]\iov yfvopeurjs cxXf/^fcoff rwv iv tdfi Tf\ftoTfpas' i<r(os 
i« Kai <TWfxciats vt<^£>v koi irVKVUTrjaiv dhiacrraTois, »cai jrtXi)- 
ofi ^laiordrrj rrjs rav aKrivav c}}opds dvaKorrftOTjSf ci)s ddta- 
(fiopuv Tjiitpav WKTOs. (tat n yap, dW rj plav vvkto vopl- 
(iirBai paKpoTarrjV, rpuriv rjpi'pais '(rrjv Kai rais laapiBpois 
w^l ; t6t€ Sf (JMcri roiit ptv ippipfiivovs c'v rate tiivdis /17 
ToKpMV f^avi(TTacr6at, Toiis 8' SnoTf KOTfTTfiyoi Ti Toil' r^s 
<l>va€a>s dvayKaiav, (■rra<f>ap(vovs Toi\iov ij rivor iripov Kaddntp 
TV^Xotf, /ioXic Tpoip\«T6ai. Kai yap rov j(p(ia>iovs 7rvp6c 
tA (fe'yyot, to ptv vtto t^j KaT()(oi(Tr)t foXTjr ia^ivvvTO, to be 
r^ /3udc« ToC <tk6tovs d/iavpoiiptvov (t>r]<f>av!(eTO, wt Tf/v dvay- 
K(uordn;i> S^w twv ui(rd^(r<a»> vyiaivovirai>, 7n)pov tTvai, pajiiu 

&pav bvvapfvrjv, Ttrpd^Bat ti Kai rat oXXar ola vTnjKoovc, 
iT((Toiirrit TTis fjyfpoviSos, Joseph. Ant. II. xiv. 5 '• tkotos 
^aSi/ Kai (ptyyovs apoipov irfpix^iTai Toir tdyvmlois, i(j>' oi 
Tas Tf o^|rels diroKkfwpfvon Ka\ rar dvanvods €p<f>paTTop€Voiv 
vno naxvrriTot olKTpSis T« diroBvriiTKfiv cvvi^aax, koI dcdt'cnu 
pi) KarairoB&o'iv imo toC vt<f>ovs. 

The author adds -some rhetorical touches to Moses' 
account, Ex. x. 23. 

'Yirlfitvov, ' ventured,' as if the very stars feared 
this darkness. 

l.Tuyvr)v. S. Matt. xvi. 3 ; wvppd((i UTuyvd^eov 6 oipavos, 
6. Aic(|)aiv6To, ' kept shining through ' the darkness, 
in flashes. Am. takes pdvov with dif<j>., implying that 
the fire was in appearance only ; but the collocation 
of the words is against this. The Vulg. omits it. The 
flashes were probably electrical. 

AuTOfidTT) TTupoi, ' a self-produced mass of fire,' in 
opposition to the lamps and torches used in vain by 
the Egyptians to dispel the darkness. The Vulg. gives 
' subitaneus,' which occurs in this chapter, ver. 14; 
and xix. 1 6, but nowhere else in Vulg. 

Ttjs . . . o+ews Eng. takes as gen. of comparison 
after x*'P"> which makes the sentence somewhat prob- 
lematical ; it is better taken (as Vulg.) for gen. of the 
cause after eKSupar. ' Affrighted by that sight, if so be 
(fi^) it was not beheld.' The 'sight' is the flashes of fire. 

TA pXciT6p.efa, ' the objects seen ' in the momentary 

Xccpu, ' worse ' than they really were. The above 
interpretation seems to be the best which is allowed 
by the text as it stands. There is, unfortunately, very 
scanty, and that inferior, authority for that which 
would seem to be the natural statement : ' They thought 
the things which they did not see to be worse than 
what they saw.' Calmet, Gutb., and Am. interpret 
the present text nearly as I have done. Thus Am. : 
' Being frightened at what they had only an accidental 
glimpse of (for the flashes were not strong enough, 
nor of a continuance sufficient to view and discern 
things distinctly), they were more afraid of the objects 
that passed before them, and thought them worse than 




they were.' Mr. Churton paraphrases thus; 'Tliere 
gleamed upon them at intervals a massive flame, burn- 
ing of itself without fuel, and full of terror ; and in 
their dread of that appearance which they durst not 
gaze upon, they imagined that the common objects 
■which met their sight were changed for the worse, 
assuming ghastly forms from the lurid aspect which 
was cast upon them' (see Ezek. xxxiii. 7, 8). Dr. 
Bissell : ' They saw a fire, without anything to cause 
it, and their fear because of that which was hidden 
made this fire and light worse than the darkness.' 
This is not satisfactory, and the explanation given 
above is more in accordance with the received text. 

7. MayiKiis Te'xiTis. 'Art magic,' Eng. Prom the 
Lat. ' ars magiea,' as ' arsmetrike,' in Chauc. Knight's 
Tale, 1900. Bible Word Book, «. ». For //oytitor comp. 
Philo, De Si)ec. Leg. 18 (II. p. 316) ; Just. Apol. i. 14 ; 
ii. 15. 

'E^iraiyfiaTa, ' tricks,' or ' scoffs.' (Ps. xxxvii. 8 ; 
Isai. Ixvi. 4.) The latter seems preferable in connection 
with the succeeding parallelism. So Vulg., ' derisus.' 
See Exod. ix. 1 1 ; 2 Tim. iii. 8, 9. 

KaT^KciTO, 'jacebant,' 'nihil valebant.' Ex. vii. 
22; viii. 7, 18; ix. II. The Vulg. rendering, 'ap- 
positi erant,' is unsatisfactorj-, unless, as Reusch sug- 
gests, ' arti,' be read, and ' apposita est ' be understood 
with ' correptio.' 

Trjs ^m +p. ' There was ignominious reproof of 
their false pretensions to wisdom.' 

'E^ii^pioTos is a very late word, occurring in 
Herodian, ii. i ; vi. 7, and Clem. i. 448 A (Migne), 
but nowhere else in Sept. 

8. Ol ydp. Tlie wise men and magicians, as Gen. 
xli. 8 ; 2 Tim. iii. 8. We may compare the proverb, 
'Physician, heal thyself,' S. Luke iv. 23. 

Noo-ouirris. I Tim. vi. 4 : yoo-wv nfpi fi)T^o-€«9. 

EuXti^ciaf, ace. cogn., ' were sick with a laughable 
timidity.' See on xii. 11. The comma after 'fear ' in 
the Eng. version ought to be removed ; so ' pleni ' in 
Vulg. is unnecessary. Sabat. : ' In ridiculo timore 
languebant.' Ex. ix. 11. 


8. TapoxuSes, 'troubling, perplexing, object.' 
Vulg. rendering, 'nihil ex monstris,' points to 
reading Ttpar&Sfs, which is found only in Ven., 
as a correction in S. 

'E4>oPci, 'did fear them,' Eng., where 'fear' = 
'frighten,' as often in Shakes., e. g. Ant. and Cleop. II. 
vi : ' Thou canst not fear us, Pompey, with thy sails.' 

Zupiaiiois. The earlier form, avpiyiniU, is given by 
some MSS. It is probably an alteration of the original 
reading. ' Sibilatione,' Vulg. an-. X»y. See on ch. v. 2. 

'EK<Te(Tofir\\i.ivoi, ' scared forth,' i. e. from their 
hiding-places. 'EKir^priSo/iivoi is plainly an alteration 
to a more usual word. 

10. AiuXXuKTo. Comp. S. Luke xxi. 26 : ajroi//'uxd>'- 
T(aii avdpaircov djro tjlo^ov. S. Matt. XXVlii, 4. 

"EtTpofioi. ' Tremebundi,' Vulg. Comp. Lucret. i. 
96 ; Ovid. Met. iv. 133. See on x. 7. For Zin-pofuis 
comp. Ps. Ixxvi. 19 ; Acts vii. 32 ; Plut. Fab. 3 (I. p. 
175 B). 

'Apfoufici'oi, 'refusing,' as Hebr. xi. 24. They 
dared not look around them for fear of seeing horrible 
objects. Some take aipa for ' mist,' ' darkness ;' but 
it is hardly likely that, after the harrowing description 
of the darkness given above, the author should apply 
to it the mild term atjp in a sense almost unknown to 
later writers. 

11. rAp, the reason of the magicians' fear. This 
verse has greatly exercised commentators. The Eng. 
gives good sense : ' "Wickedness condemned by her own 
witness is very timorous,' reading Ihltf paprupi with 
Compl. This is also adopted by Fritzsche. But then 
all original MSS. give IbLtot, and pdprvpi is found only 
in A. and some cursives. It is true that S. also reads 
fiaprvpi, but I is so constantly written for ti therein, 
that no certainty can be attributed to this. (In ver. 10 
S. reads irpoirtiiv for wpoaiSeiv.) I have therefore left 
the text as it stands in V. ; and we can either put 
a colon at iiaprvpil, as Gutbl. proposes, and make two 
coordinate clauses, thus : ' "Wickedness is naturally a 
timid thing ; it gives evidence thereof when it meets 
with punishment;' or keep it as one sentence, trans- 

the \\'Af v^ 




lating : ' Wickedness being naturally timorous testifies 
tbe same when condemned to punishment,' or, ' Wicked- 
ness when condemned to punishment testifies that it is 
naturally timorous.' The Vulg., omitting I'Si'ms, trans- 
lates : ' Cum sit enim tiraida nequitia dat testimonium 
condemnationis,' making raTaSticafo^eVij depend on nap- 
Tvpt'i, 'testifies that it is condemned.' This is quite 
possible, but the sense given above seems preferable, 
». «. evil men under some circumstances may hide their 
coward nature, but when put to the test of suffering 
they exhibit their base fear. As Hooker says, Eccl. 
Pol. V. i. 2, referring to this passage : ' Evils great 
and unexpected (the true touchstone of constant minds) 
do cause oftentimes even them to think upon divine 
power with fearfullest suspicions, which have been 
otherwise the most secure despisers thereof.' For in- 
stances of the eff'ects of an evil conscience see Gen. 
iii. 8; xliii. i8; i Kings xxi. 20 ; Job xv. 20 ; Prov. 
xxviii. I ; Jer. ii. 19. 

'Atl Zi, even without open punishment. 

PpcMTciXTi^c. Eng. : ' forecasteth.' Vulg. : ' prae- 
aumit,' reading probably npotiKriipt, into which the 
reading has been altered in S. But the received read- 
ing gives good sense : ' takes in addition, aggravates 
evils.' Comp. Prov. xxviii. i ; Job xv. 20-22. 

Xuvf)tfi^ivt[, ' pressed,' ' constrained.' See on ver. 

Zui'ciSi^o'ct, ' conscience,' here first occurring in 
this sense in the Greek version. The word indeed is 
found in Eccles. x. 20, but with a different meaning. 
It is common in N. T., e. g. Acts xxiii. i ; Heb. xiii. 18. 
12. npoSoffto. Vulg. : ' proditio cogitationis auxili- 
orum,' i. e. ' betrayal of the aids of thought.' There 
is a play on the word in the next verse by the intro- 
duction of npoaSoKia. Hooker (Eccl. Pol. V. iii. i) 
renders : ' Fear is a betrayer of the forces of reason- 
able understanding.' Clemens Alex, defines fear : eori 
fifv oil! fi fuv ?K7rXi;^it ^djSot eV (jtavraaiac a(rv»r)6ovt, ^ fir* 
tt7tp0(T&0KriT(f (j>avTatTig, art Kai ayyfXias, (^o/3o; Si it yf- 
yoKort rj tivTi, f) ^uvfiaffioTJjr vnfp^aWovcra, The last defi- 
nition of (KTT\r)^is occurs Arist Top. iv. 5. Clemens 

also calls <f>6^s, SXoyos (kkXio-is, Strom, ii. 8 (p. 448, 

13. The meaningseems to be : ' The expectation (of 
help) from within being weaker, makes the ignorance 
of the cause of torment greater,' i.e. when the succours 
of reason ^ail, the ignorance of the cause which baa 
occasioned the terror aggravates the fear in the mind 
of the wicked man. Churton : ' Where there is less 
self-reliance or expectation of succour from within, 
the mind is more bewildered through ita supposed 
ignorance of the cause whence the calamity proceeds. 

"EfSoeeK. ' Ab intus,' Vulg. So Mark vii. 21, 23. 
Similarly, ' ab invicem,' Acts xv. 39 ; ' a foris,' Matt, 
xxiii. 27, 28; 'a longe,' Matt. xxvi. 58; 'a modo,' 
Matt, xxiii. 39; 'de foris,' Matt, xxiii. 25, 26; ' de 
intus,' Luke xi. 7 ; ' de longe,' Ps. xxxvii. 12; ' de 
retro,' Bar. vi. 5 ; 'de sursum,' John iii. 31 ; 'ex tunc,' 
Is. xlviii. 3; 'in palam,' Mark iv. 22; 'in peregre,' 
Ecclus. xxix. 29. 

Dpoo-SoKia, SC. fiorjdrjuaTwv, ver. 12. 

Amas depends on Syvotav. Sabat. : ' Majorem com- 
putat inscientiam praebentis tormentum causae.' 

14. Oi 8e, the magicians, as in ver. 8, the passage 
about the terrors of a guilty conscience, vers. 11— 13, 
being parenthetical. 

Ttjc ASuf. fUKTa, ace. of duration of time. Wliat 
the epithet dbivaros, applied to wf and aSijr, means is a 
question of some difficulty. The Vulg. renders 'im- 
poteutem' in the first place, and in the second leaves 
it untranslated : at least the words ' ab infimis et ab 
altissimis inferis' can hardly be meant as a translation, 
and are probably a corniption of the original text. 
The Eng. gives ' intolerable,' and ' inevitable,' though 
the word must plainly have the same meaning in both 
places ; the margin suggests ' wherein they could do 
nothing.' Commentators vary between ' intolerable' (dS., 
SC. rX^vm), ' making men powerless,' ' incurable,' and 
the contradictory, 'mighty,' 'powerful.' Schmid and 
Grimm take the epithet as applied to the darkness 
because it was nothing terrible or dangerous in itself, 
but became so only owing to the conscience-stricken 

-xvn. 1 8.] 



terror of the Egyptians ; and as appropriate to Hades 
as having no power upon earth, according to i. 14. 
Gutberlet sees in the expression a covert irony — that 
night which the magicians called impotent, that hell 
which they scoffed at as feeble. These wise men, who 
had disparaged the plagues, and had pretended to be 
superior to them, were involved in the same deadly 
night as the rest of the people, and like them were 
terrified within and without. There is much to admire 
in this interpretation of Gutberlet, and it is helpful in 
determining the sense ; but oiaair is against the epithet 
being merely ironical, and there is nothing to show 
that any irony is intended. It seems better to under- 
stand the expression thus : ' The night which was really 
powerless to harm and which sprung from a Hades 
which had no power on earth.' This is the meaning 
to which Grimm's interpretation points, though he errs 
in considering the darkness as in itself, in the author's 
view, nothing terrible. A glance at the previous verses 
refutes this at once. 

*Ai8ou, as being the abode of darkness. Job x. 2 1 , 

Tif ouTov uitvoy, 'the same sleep' as the other 
Egyptians. This was truly vmns SCirms (Soph. Phil. 
848), troubled by the terrors of an evil conscience within 
and horrible sights without, ver. 15. With vnvov koi- 
Ita/ifvoi comp. T^S KoifJiatas tov vJTimv, S. John xi. 13. 

15. 'HXouKoiTt), ' were vexed with prodigies of ap- 
paritions.' See on ver. 3. S. Mark vi. 49. 

napcXuotn-o, see on ver 19. 'Their spirit failing, 
they were paralysed.' 

'Eircxu6i). This seems to have been the original 
reading altered by copyists to iirrjXBfv. C!omp. i Thess. 

V. 3 : al<j»>iiios avToic ((juirraTai oKf6pot. 

16. EiO* ovTus marks the transition to a different 
subject, all the Egyptians being here meant, and not 
only the magicians. 

*Os Si^itot' oov TJK, ' whosoever it was.' The punc- 
tuation of this clause has been varied by different 
editors. The Vulg. and Eng. versions join ^v txtt xora- 
niirratv with the preceding words, ' whosoever there fell 

down ;■ and thus Holmes, Field, Tischend., and Reusch 
place a comma at Kartmiimtiv. Apel, Grimm, and 
Fritzsche put the stop at c«i. But it seems very 
jejune to say ' whoever was there,' when they were all 
in the same circumstances ; and the resolved form fi» 
KOTcminratv would imply continuance, while here a mo- 
mentary action is contemplated. It is better therefore 
to place the comma at fjv, and to connect the following 
word with ftftpovpfiTo. 

'Ek£i KaTairiirTUK, ' sinking down there,' failing in 
limbs or spirits, or in both. Comp. ver. 2. 

'E^poupclTo. Ex. X. 23 : ' They saw not one another, 
neither rose any from his place for three days.' Comp. 
Gal. lil. 23 : inrb rofiov f(ppovpoCiif6a irvyKfKkttafkiyoi tls 
TTjv luWovaav niimv dnoKaXv<t>6rji'at. 

'AffiStjpoi'. Eurip. Bacch. 1104 : 

pi'^ai avftnrapaaami atriifipois fiv;(X(Hr. 

17. 'Eptifiiaf, ' country away from human habitation,' 
' waste.' 

npoXri^Ocis, ' anticipated,' ' suddenly overtaken.' 
The addition of 'essef to 'praeoccupatus' in Vulg. 
makes the sentence ungrammatical. 

Aua'(£XuKToi', a very late word. Vulg. : ' ineffugi- 
bilem.' This word Ls found in Appuleius, Mund. 280, 
but nowhere else in Vulg. See on x. 4. 

"EficKef, ' sustinebat,' a use of the word not found 
elsewhere in Greek Test. 

'aXimtci (2 Tim. i. 16) itk^tovs. Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 

4 : trupait (6<JMv Taprapaxras TiapiiaKfv. 

18. 'Ap.4>i.Xa^is, ' far spreading,' ' thickly grown.' 
'Opfcuf. Ps. liii. 5 : ' There were they in great 

fear, where no fear was.' Lev. xxvi. 36 : ' I will send 
a &intness into their hearts . . . and the sound of a 
shaken leaf shall chase them; and they shall flee, as 
fleeing from a sword ; and they shall fall when none 
pursueth.' As to the birds which sang in the darkness 
this may be only a rhetorical exaggeration; but 
Gutberlet aflSrms that in Eg}'pt not only are there 
nightingales that sing at night, but other birds also, 
viz. a kind of lark {Alattda arbor ea), and a reed- warbler 



[xvn. 19- 

{Calamoherpe palustria), and some others. The author 
may mean merely that the noises heard seemed to them 
like these sounds. 

19. Explanatory of ^x"^ Karapda-a-oyrfs, ver. 4. 

'Amji^S, ' harsh,' ' terrible.' lustead of aTri/vctrrd- 
T<Bi' {6riplav) the Vulg. seems to have read iinivtirTaTTi, 
'valida bestianini vox.' 

'Arrai'aKXu/ji^nj. This verb, meaning ' to reflect light 
or sound,' occurs in late authors, and Plut. De Placit. 
Phil. iv. 20. 

KoiX<5t»)tos is certainly the right reading, koiXo- 
rarav (printed eiToneously by Tisch. and Reusch as 
found in V.), having doubtless arisen from the copyist's 
eye catching the many genitives preceding. 

nopAuacf, 'disabled,' 'paralysed them.' Comp. 
ver. 15. 

20. rAp introduces the consideration how it was 
that the Egyptians' terrors were chiefly subjective. 

ZufcixcTo, 'was closely engaged in.' Comp. S. 
Luke xii. 50 ; Acts xviii. 5 : tnivfixtTo r^ \&y<f So mivi- 
Xta-dai oSvpftw, ' lamentationibus indulgere/ Ael. H. V. 
xiv. 22. 

21. ' That darkness which should afterward receive 
them.' Comp. S. Matt. iii. 7 ; viii. 12 ; xxii. 13:2 Pet. 
iii. 4, 17 ; Jude 6, 13. So Tobit xiv. 10: avror xarc'/Si; 


BapuTcpoi, owing to the torments of conscience. 


L 'Oatois. The Israelites. See on x. 1 5. ' But all 
the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.' 
Ex. X. 23. 

'Dk, i. e. of the Israelites. The subject of aKoiovrts, 
op&vTfi, f'lxaKapi^ov, is the Egyptians. Commentators 
have missed the sense of the passage from not seeing 
this. The Vulgate has fallen into the same error, and 
then has remedied the blunder by translating fiioKtip., 
' magnificabant Te.' 

"0 Ti \uv ouc, '"Wiiatsoever they also (the Israelites) 
had suffered (by reason of their bondage, etc.), they 
(the Egyptians) thought them happy,' compared with 
their own evil case. I have here adopted Gutberlet's 
suggestion to take on as the relative with ovv, not that 
it completely satisfies me, but because I have nothing 
better to offer. One would expect Sri to have the same 
meaning in both clauses ; but then it is difficult to 
know in what sense to take oSv. To alter it to oi, on 
the authority of A., does not mend matters, for then the 
tense of (■i!fn6vd(i(jav is wrong, the imperfect being re- 
quired. But the preponderance of authority is largely 
in favour of ovv, and we must make the best of it, 

as above ; or else, taking on as the conj., translate : 
' They (the Egyptians) deemed it a happy thing that 
they (the Israelites) too had suffered,' i. e. ' found 
comfort in thinking of the Israelites' former sufferings.' 
But the unusual sense thus given to ^larapifa makes the 
rendering first offered most probable. Mr. Churton, 
neglecting the force of the plup. irtfirovBturav, para- 
phrases : ' So they deemed them happy because of the 
things that happened to them.' 

2. The Egyptians were grateftil to the Israelites for 
not revenging themselves on their taskmasters. The 
Vulg. again mistakes the sense. 

BXoTTTouCTt . . euxapiaTouo-i, hist. pres. The latter 
verb has been changed into tilxapiarow for the sake of 
concinnity with t'/wuc. and ibiovro. 

Kal Tou 8. ' Et ut esset differentia donum pete- 
bant,' Vulg. This seems to mean that the Israelites 
asked of Qod the boon that there might always be a 
difference in the measure dealt to them and their 
enemies. But the subject is still the Egyptians, and 
the meaning plainly is : ' They begged pardon that they 
had been at variance.' ' Inimicitiarum gratiam et 

-xviu. 5.] 



Teniam petebant,' 6r. Just as later they besought the 
Israelites to depart and pressed presents upon them. 
Ex. xii. 33, 36. 

3. "A*^ &¥. In contrast with the plague of dark- 
ness and its accompanying horrors. The ' propter 
quod ' of the Vulg. does not represent this. 

riupi^XeYi) (rruXoK. Ex. xiii. 21 : c'v oruXy irvpot. 
So Ex. xiv. 24. Comp. Ps. Ixxvii. 14 ; civ. 39. Sept 

■08i)y6c |1£I' . . . ijXioi' 8^ ' a guide by day, and a 
son by night.' 

'A^XaPT). Ps. cxxi. 6 : ' The sun shall not smite 
thee by day, nor the ntoon by night' 

^XoTifjuMi leviTcias. ' Of their glorious pilgrimage.' 
SfviTfia is properly ' service,' or, ' life, in a foreign 
country.' The Eng. : ' to entertain them honourably,' 
and the Vulg. : ' solem sine laesura boni hospitii,' are 
equally beside the mark. Grimm makes ^. ^vmUu 
depend on d^a/3^, but this seems unnecessary. YatabL 
renders : ' Ad magnificam peregrinationem solem inno- 
cuum his exhibuisti.' 

4. 'Ajioi (Ml- Y<'p- This verse shows the special suit- 
ableness of the punishment. 

^XaKur^fiKai. ^Xoiu'^ai is a late form for (fnAaa-oa. 
It occurs Acts xxiL 19; Clem. Rom. ad Cor. xlv. 4. 

"A^OapTov, not like the sun's light, but ' imperish- 
able.' So Christ came not to destroy the law but to 
fnlfilL S. Matt v. 17. Eft Kkripovojuav 3<j>6apTO», I Pet 

L 4. 

T^ oIwKi, 'the present age,' the world regarded 
in its temporal aspect See on iv. 3 and xiiL 9. 
Valck. ad i Cor. i. 20 : ' Quod Graeci Scriptores udo-^iw, 
illud Judaei Graecienses etiam alS>va diserunt Hinc 
nonnunquam xStriiot et almr in libb. ss. permuiantur. 
Quern Paulus vocat tot deov toC alitros TtniTuv (a Cor. iv. 
4), ilium Joannes dixerat tow toO xoafuiv tovtov Spxovra 
(xiv. 30).' So S. Ignat seems to use the two words 
interchangeably, ad Rom. vi : ov8<V fiot oM^X^crct ra 

Ttpmra TQV KOVfiav oitdi al ^ocrtXdac rov aloHfOt tovtov. The 

statement in the text that the light of the law was 
to be given to the world is noteworthy. It shows 
that the Jews had begun to realise that the revelation 

made to them was not to be confined to their own 
nation exclusively — a truth expressed dimly in the 
prophets (Ps. xxii. 27 ; Isai. ii. i ff. ; Mic. iv. i ff.), but 
emphatically in later books, e, g. Tob. xiiL 1 1 ; xiv. 6. 
The injunctions about the treatment of strangers in the 
Law (Exod. xx. 10; Lev. xix. 33, 34) showed that the 
light which they possessed was to be imparted to 
others. Thus Philo speaks of the Jews as possessing 
Tiji* imip 3mavTos apSp^tTtav ytvovs ifpwtrvvTfV icat Tr/xx^i/TCiOv, 
De Abrah. 19 (II. p. 15). In another place he makes 
the Jewish nation the intercessor for the rest of tba 
world, rat imip toC yivovs ruv dr6piirm> iieavTur <U 
imaifrofumv €vxas, Vit. Mos. L 37 (II. p. 104). Comp. 

De Vict. 3 (II. p. 238). 

5—25. Contrast ag regards the action of Death. 

5. A fresh contrast is here begun, the various por- 
tions being, (1) The I^ptians had sinned by the 
slaughter of the Israelites' children : they were punished 
by the death of their own firstborn. (2) They drowned 
the children in the Nile : they were themselves drowned 
in the Red Sea. (3) The rescue of one child was the 
cause of their wholesale destruction. Gutb. The author 
still illustrates his principle (xi. 16), that a man's own 
sins make his punishment. For the facts alluded to 
see Ex. i. 15, 16; ii. 3; xii. 29; xiv. 27. Philo, Vit. 
Mos. 24 (II. p. 102). Josephus (Ant II. ix.) relates 
that the king of Egypt was induced to murder the 
male children at this time by the prevalence of a 
notion that a Hebrew was now to be bom who would 
humble the power of the Egyptians and exalt the 
Israelites to the highest pitch of glory. 
'Ov'tM*. See on ver. i . 
'Er6t. Moses, Ex. ii. 3, 9. 

'EKTcf^KTof, the usual word for exposing children 
with the intention of destroying them. Herod, i. 112; 
Aristoph. Nub. 531. 

Els JXryxo*", ' for their reproof,' is best taken with 
traSarrot, referring to Mobcs' actions in after time. 
Vulg. : ' in traductionem illorum,' where Reusch thinks 
that ' illorum' ought to belong to the next clause : 
' illorum multitudinem filiorum abstnlisti.' 

B e 



[xvin. 6- 

'OfioOuiiaSdc, ' conjunctim,' 'in common,' as ver. 
12. Job xvi. 10 : xxi. 26. 

e. *EK£in) <S ri-i, the night of the Exodus. 

naTp<laif. Most commentators take the 'fathers' 
to mean the Israelites in Egypt who were made ac- 
quainted with the details of the tenth plague before- 
hand, Ex. xi. 4 ff. ; xii. 2 1 ff. But the Israelites are 
called ' God's people,' ' sons,' ' saints,' etc., but never 
' fathers,* in this Book ; and the opposition in the next 
verse introduced by 8« would be lost if irarpaaiv and 
\aov were identical. It is better therefore, with Gutb., 
to refer ■narpiaiv to the patriarchs, and the ' oath' to the 
promise made to Abraham (Gen. xv. 1 3 ff.), and like- 
wise to such passages as Gen. xxii. 16 ff., xxvi. 3 ff; 
xxviii. 1 3 ff. 

'Aci^aXus c186tcs. Comp. Acts ii. 36 : air<\>uKSis oSv 
ytvaitTKtTa iras otKos 'lapariX. See also xxii. 30. 

'Eireudufii^o-uo-i, a word almost unknown. Vulg. : 
' animaequiores essent.' The word ' animaequus' seems 
almost peculiar to the Vulgate and other Latin trans- 
lations of the Bible. It occurs in a Latin version of 
Herm. Past. I. i. 3; Eiinsch, Itala und Vulg. p. 223. 

7. ' So of Thy people was accepted,' Eng. The 
translators evidently took ' the fathers ' and the ' peo- 
ple ' to be the same persons ; hence they render Si, ' so.' 
For the same cause the Sin. MS. expunges the particle, 
the scribe not understanding the opposition intended. 

npofftS^X^'li 'was expected.' 2 Mace. viii. 11. 
The 'suscepta est' of the Vulg. is only admissible 
with a very harsh zeugma. 

*AiT<tfXcia, ' extei'miuatio,' Vulg. See on vi. 18. 

8. 'Qs Y*'?- This, the original reading, has been altered 
into m to make it suit the tovtio, which answers to it. 
But the combination of as and the demonstrative {)ro- 
noun is not unexampled ; and the Vulg. gives ' sicut 
. . . sic' Thus Plat. Rep. ii. 8 (p. 365, D) : raurj; 
iTcoK, i)c Ta ixvri tS>v \6yav (pepii. The meaning is, that 
the death of the firstborn, by which the Egyptians 
were punished, was the means by which the Israelites 
were glorified. 

nfxxTKoXeadjiti^, 'calling us to Thee,' by the 

institution of the Passover and the Exodus. Vulg. : 
' nos provocans,' reading •npoKoktaaiuvos. 

9. Kpu^. The Passover, here referred to, was to 
be eaten in each house, Ex. xii. 13, 46, and. so as not 
to offend the susceptibilities of the Egyptians, Ex. viii. 
26. Vulg.: 'absconse,' 4 Esdr. xiv. 26. 80 'insen- 
sate,' ch. xii. 23; ' pompatice,' Amos vi. i. ' Abs- 
consus ' =. ' absconditus,' occurs vii. 2 1 j Ecclus. i. 39 ; 
iv. 21, etc. 

'EiuaioXflv. The Passover was a real sacrifice, 
and sacrificial terms are applied to it both in the Old 
and New Testaments. Ex. xii. 27 : $\MTia t6 maxa roCro 
Kupi'y. Dent. xvi. 5, 6 ; Ex. xxiii. 18; Heb. xi. 28. 
Philo : ' In praesenti vero paschate nominato univer- 
suB populus sacerdotio honoratus est; omnes enim 
per se peragunt sacrificium.' Quaest. in Exod. i. 10 
(P- 453. Auch.). 

riaiSes &Y<^^'^''> ' so''^ '^f good fathers.' (Comp. xiv. 
26.) ' Pueri bonorum,' Vulg. The children of the 
patriarchs, and therefore inheritors of the blessings. 
' The good men ' are the ' Fathers ' whose praises the 
Israelites are said to have sung on the night of the 
Exodus in contrast with the Egyptians' lamentations 
over their dying children, Gprivovp.. irai&av, ver. 10. 
Grimm takes ayoBdv as neuter, and compares the ex- 
pression vUts anaXfias, John xvii. 1 2 ; but the two 
phrases are far from corresponding, and there is here 
uo special propriety in forcing so barbarous an idiom 
upon the writer. Schleusner translates : ' Filii quibus 
destinata sunt bona paterna a Deo.' It is true that 
the writer does not elsewhere apply the term ayaOol 
to the Patriarchs, but that is no reason why he should 
not do so here. We may compare Plato's expression, 
bfcnrorrms ayaBoh t« leal (^ ayaBav, Phaedr. Iviii. (p. 

274, A). 

TAk t. 6ci<5t. t^|i,ot>. ' Established, or, came to agree- 
ment with, the divine law,' explained, as to the chief 
terms, in what follows. Instead of dtioTtfroi (Hom. i. 20) 
some MSS. read oo-idnjroi, which seems to be a gloss. 
The Vulg. indeed gives 'justitiae legem,' but one MS. at 
least has ' divinitatis.' But in either case the meaning 

-xvin. 13.] 



is much the same; as they celebrated the Passover, 
they agreed with one consent to observe the worship of 
God, and to share equally the dangers and the bless- 
ings consequent upon their release from Egypt. This 
unanimity was signified by their all eating of the 
lamb, and all taking of the bitter herbs and sauce that 
accompHnied the feast. 

Tous dyious is best taken with aXvovs, as Apel and 
Fritzsche edit. So Grimm and Gutb. 

npoafa^i^iroKTes. I have with Fr. adopted this 
reading from A., many cursives, the Corapl., the Vulg., 
and the correction in S., as it seems unlikely that the 
author would use irarpda-tv for the Patriarchs, ver. 6, 
and traripav for the Israelites in this place. ' "While 
they first sang the holy praises of the Forefathers,' to 
whom were made the promises now about to be ful- 
filled. The introduction of the Hallel at the Passover 
seems to have been of later date. But see 2 Chr. xxx. 
21, Sept., and 2 Chr. XXXV. 15. XIpoavaiifKnai is an. Xry. 

10. Ai«<^t'p«To ifutvi]. I have admitted <^avt) in agree- 
ment with the chief authorities, Beusch's suggestion of 
oiCT-pa as = oIktos being quite inadmissible. The word 
has slipped out of V. and a few cursives. For the 
'piteous cry' over the firstborn, see Ex. xi. 6; xii. 
30. And for the contrast between the Israelites' h3Tnns 
of joy and the Egyptians' mourning comp. Eurip. Ale. 
760 ff. ; Med. 1173 £F. ; Aesch. Agam. 321 fi". 

11. 'He must be supplied to the participles. For 
the universality of the destruction see Ex. xi. 5 ; xii. 
29, 30. Targum of Jonathan : ' And it was in the 
dividing of the night of the fifteenth, that the "Word 
of the Lord slew all the firstborn in the land of Miz- 
raim, from the firstborn son of Pharoh, who would 
have sat upon the throne of his kingdom, unto the 
firstborn sons of the kings -who were captives in the 
dungeon as hostages under Pharoh's hand ; and who, 
for having rejoiced at the servitude of Israel, were 
punished as the Mizraee : and all the firstborn of the 
cattle that did the work of the Mizraee died also. 
And Pharoh rose up in that night, and all the rest 
of his servants, and all the rest of the Mizraee ; and 

there was a great cry, because there was no house of 
the Mizraee where the firstborn was not dead. And 
the border of the land of Mizraim extended four 
hundred pharsee ; but the land of Goshen was in the 
midst of the land of Mizraim ; and the royal palace of 
Pharoh was at the entrance of the land of Mizraim. 
But when he cried to Mosheh and Aharon, in the 
night of the Pascha, his voice was heard unto the land 
of Goshen ; Pharoh crying with a voice of woe, and 
saying thus : Arise, go forth from among my people, 
both you. and the sons of Israel . . .' Etheridge, pp. 
477> 478. The following is Philo's graphic account: 

TTfpi yap fieaas vvktos oi wparoi nartpas Koi iirjTfpat 
npo(rfnr6vTfSf Kot \m fKelvav vloi TraXtv npSyrov ovofiatrBlvT^Sf 
vyiaivovTft, Ka\ to. aafiora ippafiivoi, iravres air oiSt/uat 
wpo<})a<Tftiis ^/3ij8of i^airivaias av^prjtn-o, Kai oiSfftlav oiKtav 
afjLOiprjtrai {fiacrt Tore Trji (rvix(f>opas. afia fi< rj co), Kara to 
tiK6t, fKairroi Btaaafuvoi rovs (piXrurovt airpoirSoKriTot rerf- 
XetmyKoTor, oU ofioSiatroi Koi onorpoKt^oi /ttXP'' '^* ((rnipas 
iyfyivrjVTO, ^opVTaTtf wfvBti Kara(T\f6ivT(s, otfiayr]! vcana 
ivivKifumi. Sxrrt (rvW/Si) Kai bta r^v Koivcmpayiav tov ira6ovs 
Anavrav a$p6a>s opoBvpahhi) fK^orjiravTav, (va Oprjvov airo 
irfparav f'w\ ntpara <TVi>ri)^riarai Kara 7rd<ri;f Tijt )(a>pas , , , 
Sntp S( iv Tois Totoiroii <f>iXfi, ra wapoyra vofiivavrts dpx^" 
fivai fxei^ivav, Km jr<pi r^r rStv cti C<^vt<>>v airaXdat kotu- 
SfiaavTei, iruvebpapov tls ra ^aaiXfia dtSaKpvpfvotj xal rac 
t'trfl^ras ittpupprfypivoi KciTcjSdcuc ToC jSairtXc'air, oit irav- 
rav aiTiov tS>v avpfif^riKorav 8(tva>v. Vit. Mos. i. 24 
(II. p. 102). 

12. 'iKaTOi. This is a rhetorical inference from 
Numb, xxxiii. 4, and the funeral ceremonies of the 
Egj'ptians were costly and long. See on xix. 3. 

ripis y-iay ^oirrji', ' Uno momento,' Vulg. 

'H iirrifi.. yivtais aur. Ps. cv. 36 : ' He smote all 
the firstborn in their land, the chief of all their 
strength.' See on iii. 13. ^ 

Ai^^opro, the plup. seems better suited to the 
passage, and has higher MS. authority, than dit<p6dpri, 
the reading of V. 

13. rip, further proof of the greatness of the 
Egjrptians' calamity, seen by its effect on their minds. 



[xviu. 14- 

^apfioKiiK, the sorceries and enchantments of the 
magicians. See Ex. vii. 11-13, 2a; viii. 7. C!omp. 
Rev. ix. 21. 

e«ou uUc, 80 God speaks of Israel, Ex. iv. 22, 23 : 
' Israel is my son, even my firstborn (utor jrpwroTomJs 
Itov) ; and I say unto thee (Pharaoh) let my son (rw 
XaoK fxov) go that he may serve Me ; and if thou refuse 
to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy 
firstborn ' (top vUv <rov tw wparoroKov). Comp. Jer. 
zxxi. 9, 20 ; Hos. xi. i ; and Matt. ii. 15. 

14. This and part of the following verse are given 
in the Roman Missal as the Introit for the Sunday 
within the octave of Christmas, being applied to the 
Advent of Christ, 'the Word' of God. S. Eustath. 
Antioch. quotes vers. 14-16, introducing them thus, 
De Engastrym. xix. (XVIII. p. 652, Migne) : d Si th 
*lov8aiKrjv appuKTTwv a^\(yfflat> Tat fvayyt\iKas oi rrpoirlerai 
^corat, cmucTtor airr^ to roC 2oXo/iivroc a7T0<f>deyiuiTa, koI 
ptjriov i>df nat' r)(TV)(OV yap . . . Ik Bpivav ^amXiKav ^i(f>os 
i^i rfiv avvn6KptTm> iiriToyriv a-ov (JHpav, (rras (nXtipaiTt 
Owarov ra itavra . . . im y^r. 

Mcaa^outnis. Ex. xii. 29 : 'At midnight the Lord 
emote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt.' The verb 
luvaCa is of late use. Comp. Diod. i. 32 ; Herodian. 
Gram. Schem. p. 586, i (Rliet. Gr. viii.) ; S. Cyr. Al. 
X. 1097 B. 

15. 'O iron-, crou XiJyos. The expressions in this pas- 
sage are certainly applicable to the Word of God in 
the language of S. John. That the author had in view 
the passage about the destroying angel, i Chr. xxi. 16, 
is very probable, and he here personifies the Almighty 
will of God, as Ps. cxlvii 15 : 'He sendeth forth His 
commandment upon earth, His word runneth very 
swiftly.' But the personal Logos seems plainly dis- 
tinguished from the spoken ' commandment ' in the 
following verse. See Pearson, on the Creed, Art. II. 
note e, vol. i. p. 215 (ed. 1833). Comp. Ezek. i. 24 : 
^MM>^ TOW Xoyou, and the description in Rev. xix. 13-16. 
Fast. Herm. Vis. III. iii. 5 : T^deptKiarm 6 ttipyoi ra 
ptjIuiTi Toi iraPTOKpoTopos Kill ('i>du^u ovofiaros. It is a 

most gratuitous assumption of Burton (Bampt. Lect. 

m. p. 75, ed. 1829), that the author in this passage 
speaks of the Word of God exactly in the same sense 
which the Flatonists attached to the term ' logos.' 
Bp. Bull takes a far juster view in his Def. Fid. Nic. 
I. i. 18 : 'It is clear,' he says, 'that the author is 
speaking of a personally-subsisting Word {\oyos immo- 
oTOTot). And it is no less evident that it is not some 
ministering angel, as Grotius would have it, but a 
divine Person, that is designated in this place ; for the 
author calls this Word " Almighty," and also assigns 
Him a " royal throne in heaven." ' Works, Anglo- 
Cath. Lib. i. p. 33. See Prolegom. p. 26. 

'Airir. iroX€|iMrr^s. ' The Lord is a man of war,* 
Ex. XV. 3. Comp. Josh. v. 13, 14. For airiT. see pn 
ch. V. 20. 

Tijs SXe6pias yrp, 'the land devoted to destruc- 
tion.' So (i Kings XX. 42) Benhadad is called Svhpa 
oKfBpiov, ' a man whom I appointed to utter destruc- 
tion,' Eng. 

16. Hi<t>os 6Ju, ' gladius acutus,' Vulg., in app. with 
' sermo ;' but it is best taken in app. with firiToyriv. 
Comp. Rev. i. 1 6. In Hebr. iv. 1 2 the Word of God 
is said to be Topatrtpos vtrtp iraaav pa^mpav Siaropov, 
Comp. I Chr. xxi. 15, 16. 

'AfoiriSKpiToi', (Rom. xii. 9), ' insimulatum,' Vulg. 
This Lat. word, in the sense of 'unfeigned,' occurs 
nowhere else. Comp. ' incoinquinatus,' iii. 13; ' in- 
auxiliatus,' xii. 6 ; ' inconsummatus,' iv. 5. The idea 
in the text is that God's decree was irreversible, and 
carried out its threats. Comp. Numb, xxiii. 19. 

'Em-royii'. This lat« word often occurs in the 
N. T., e. g. Rom. xvi. 26 ; i Cor. vii. 6 ; Tit. i. 3. 
See on xiv. 16. 

Kal oupa>'. Comp. the description of Discord in 
Horn. II. iv. 443, and of Fame in Virg. Aen. iv. 177. 
As used here, the expression must mean that the com- 
mand passed from heaven to eartli immediately. AVith 
our later knowledge of the Personality of the Word of 
God it is easy to see here an adumbration of the doc- 
trine of the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, who is 
God in heaven even while He walks on earth as man. 





BcP^KCi, plnp. without augment, as commonly in 
N. T. ' It stood,' ' stans,' Vulg., like e5, oin^aXeur 
/3(/3i)icur, in class. Greek. 

17. AeivwK has higher authority than itivas. These 
dreams gave the firstborn an intimation of their fate, as 
explained in the two following verses. Comp. xyii. 4. 

18. 'Evf^viltv, ' made clear ' by words, or more 
probably ' proved,' that their death was a punishment 
from God, and no mere accident. The addition of 
' mortis ' in the Vulg. at the end of the verse is tauto- 
logical, and is not sanctioned by some MSS. 

19. Kaxus triiTyfovaiy. S. Matt. xvii. 15. 

20. The author contrasts the mildness of the punish- 
ment inflicted on the Israelites, in many particulars, 
with the stem penalty exacted from the Egyptians. 

'Tetigit autem tunc,' Vulg. The unauthorised 
insertion of ' tunc ' introduces confusion into the pas- 
sage. The event alluded to is the rebellion of Korah, 
which happeneil long after the Exodus, indeed at the 
close of the joumeyings. See Numb. xvi. 

neipa Oafd-rou, ' trial,' ' experience,' as nei/m opyijs, 
ver. 25. 

6paucris, ' destruction,' the word used Nmnb. xxi. 
49 : ' They that died in the plague (o* rj 6pav<rti) were 
14,700.' So Ps. cv. 30, and elsewhere. 

21. 'Aktjp fiitcfiirros. Aaron, ' blameless ' ofiBcially, 
and in this case not involved in Korah's sin. 

npotfi,Ax''\<'f- ' Stood forth as champion.' Comp. 
Ps. xcviii. 6 ; cv. 30 ; Job xlii. 8. 

AciToupyias. This word is used throughout the 
Sept. to express the ministrations of the Levitical 
priesthood. Exod. xxxvii. 1 9 (xxxviii. 21); Numb, 
iv. 24, etc. Comp. Rom. xv. 16 ; Heb. viii. 6. For 
the fact referred to see Numb. xvi. 46-48. In 4 Mace. 

vii. 1 1 we have 6 narfip 'Aapav ry Sviuarrfpia KadoTrXuT- 
fuvos diA ToC (6iion\TiKTov wpic iiriTptxov rix ifarvpKrrijV 
tviKijiTtv ayyeXov. (Joseph. 0pp. ii. 507, Hav.) 

'E{i\aapiK. Ex. xxx. 10; Lev. xxiii. 27 ; Ecclus. 
V. 5, etc. 

6u)iu. In ver. 20 it is called opyri. The distinc- 
tion between the two words, the former regarding 

rather the feeling, the latter its exhibition, is not 
maintained in late authors. 

Qtpiituy. This term is applied to Moses, Hebr. 
iii. 5. 

22. "OxXof is the reading of all JfSS. except two 
cursives, which, as well as Compl., have oXoBptvovra. 
The Eng. version has adopted this reading, and trans- 
lates, ' the destroyer.' The old versions read o^Xok, 
Fritzsche receives ^oXoo from a conjecture of Bauer- 
meister. But it seems expedient to make no change 
in the face of this weight of authority, and to translate, 
' He overcame the commotion, the trouble,' i.e. the 
plague, and the sinfulness that caused it. Mr. Churton 
translates : ' the opposition of the multitude ;' but it 
was not till after the awful punishment of the guilty 
that Aaron made the atonement. Num. xvi. 47. 

A^(j>, by prayer and the remembrance of God's 
promises and covenant. Comp. Exod. xxxii. 13. 

2 Cor. X. 4 : TO yap oirXa r^r trrparfias fipav ov aapKUtd. 

Toe KoXdj^., the plague personified. 

AiaOi^xas, 'covenants,' as Ex. ii. 24; Lev. xxvi. 
42 ; Ecclus. xliv. 11, 20. The meaning 'testament' is 
not found in the O. T. 

23. ZuprjSii'. ' In heaps.' Polyb. I. xxxiv. 5 ; Lucian. 
Tim. 3 (I. 105) ; Philo, Vit. Mos. i. 17 (II. p. 96). 

M<Ta|u. ' He stood between the dead and the 
living; and the plague was stayed.' Numb. xvi. 48. 

Ai^ffXifft, ' shut ofif the way (of the destroyer) to 
the living.' Targum of Jonathan : ' Behold, the des- 
tructive burning had begun to destroy the people : but 
he put on incense, and made atonement for the people. 
And Aharon stood in the midst, between the dead and 
the living, with the censer, and interceded in prayer; 
and the plague was stayed.' Etheridge, p. 397. 

24. 'Em Y<£p. ' For upon the garment down to the 
feet was the whole world :' a further illustration of the 
efficacy of Aaron's intercession, which had this accept- 
ableness because it was offered by the appointed High 
Priest wearing his typical robes of office. For iroifiprig 
see Exod. rxviii. 4, 31 ; Ecclus. xlv. 8 ; and Rev. i. 13 
(ajT. Xry. in N. T.). ' Poderes' occurs in Vulg., Ecclus. 



[xvn. 2 4t- 

xxvii. 9; Kev. 1. 13. In the latter passage the word 
is used to describe the priestly garment of Christ. 
This robe, called the robe of the ephod, is described by 
Josephus, Bell. Jud. V. v. 7, as woBjjpfs Kadvwtp6(v vaKiv- 
Bivov evbvfia (TrpoyyvKov 6v<ravtar6v epyov, Ttov 8( dv<Tapa>v 
dmjpn/vro xaSiovts xpiatot, Kai pom TrapdXXijXot, /S^ovr^c p,tv 
ol KaSavts, doTpanfis St al poai crrjpciov. The High Priest's 

dress consisted of eight parts, viz. the breastplate, the 
ephod, tlie blue robe, the girdle, the drawers, the tunic, 
the turban, the mitre. Lev. viii. 7-8 ; Ecclus. xlv. 6-i2. 

Koafios. Some commentators take this word here 
in the sense of ' ornament ;' but the allegorical inter- 
pretation, which saw a representation of the world in the 
form or colour of the High Priest's robes, is supported 
by the testimony of rabbinical and patristic tradition. 
Thus Philo, De Monarch, ii. 5 (II. p. 225) : npoartTaKTai 
Koi (T€pa K(XpTiir6ai nam ttojiciXt;!' txoifrri KaTa(TKfvijv, iis 
aTTftKomtrpa Koi iii/iijpA Ti rot) xSapov 8oKfiv €ivai. So also 
De Profug. 20 (I. p. 562) : De Somn. i. 37 (I. p. 653); 
Vit. Mos. iii. 13 (II. p. 154). Comp. Joseph. Ant. III. 
vii. 4, 7. Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 6 (p. 668 Pott.) : tov 8« 
apxiepiais S nobfjpijs xdapov e'oriv aler^ToC avfi^Xoii, See 
A. Lap. in loc. 

Uarlpuv 86|ai, referring to the High Priest's breast- 
plate, on which were engraven the names of the twelve 
Patriarchs. Exod. xyviii. 15-21, 29. ' Magnalia,' 
Vulg., a word found often in that version (Ecclus. i. 15 ; 
Acts ii. II, etc.), and in ecclesiastical writers. Thus 
S. Aug. Conf. xiii. 27: ' magnalia miraculorum.' S. 
Cypr. Ep. Iviii : ' magualia diviiiae protectionis ' (p. 96). 

*Eiri TETp. \i9ou Y^"^-) ' on th® four-rowed graven 
stone,' 'stone of graving' being=' graven stone,' and 
the whole work, which really consisted of four rows of 

three jewels each, being regarded as one precious stone. 
The variant Xt'^iai' is probably an alteration, and has 
the further difficulty of making Tcr/iaori'xou into a sub- 
stantive, unless it be taken with y\v<l>!js, which is harsh. 
(See Ex. xxviii. 17.) This priestly breastplate is called 
Xoyt'iov or Xoytov by the Sept. (Ex. xxviii. 15), as being 
that by which the oracle was given. It is so named by 
Josephus in his description of it (Ant. III. vii. 5), and by 
Pliilo, De Monarch, ii. 5 (II. p. 226), who however con- 
siders it as a symbol of the heaven, and to be so named 
fTTddrj Tu tv ovpava iratna Xdyoir Kcti avaKoylan h(bi)fUOvpyryrai 
Kai (TVVTtTaKTai, Twv yap CK«i TOTrapairov aXoyov ovbtv. The 

twelve precious stones in the breastplate correspond to 
the twelve stones in the foundations of the New Jeru- 
salem in the Apocalypse. (Rev. xxi. 19, 20.) 

Aia8i^)i. Aaron's mitre had inscribed upon it, 
' Holiness to the Lord.' Ex. xxviii. 36 ; xxxix. 30. 

25. As though the very garments of the High Priest 
repulsed the destroyer and were a plea for restraining 
God's wrath. Thus Ex. xxviii. 38 : 'It shall be always 
upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before 
the Lord.' 

'OXoSpciIui' is written in some MSS. okfSptvay, both 
here and i Cor. x. 10, and Hebr. xi. 28. 

'E^P'tfii]. I have taken this into the text instead 
of t(t>offfi0r](Tav (S., V. and a few cursives), as possessing 
the higher authority and alone suiting the sense of the 
clause. The subject of the plural must be the Israelites; 
but the allusion is not to them, but to the agent of the 
plague. The Sin. MS. gives indeed j^o^i/flijo-ay, but 
the last three letters are marked as corrected, thus, 
i<l>o^r]0Ti<jav. Vulg. : ' et haec extirauit.' 

ricipa, see on ver. 20. 


1-21. Contrast as regards the powers of nature in 
their action on tlie Israelites and Egyptians. 

1. H^•)^p\. tAou;. In contrast to the wrath against 

the Israelites which 'endured not long' (xviii. 20), the 
anger which punished the Egyptians was lasting, pixP^ 
TfXovs, to their destruction. Comp. xvi. 5, and ver. 4 

-MX. 3-] 



of this chapter, where toCto r6 Ttipas expresses the same 
view. Comp. also i Thess. ii. i6. Iteuseh notes that 
he has not found this nineteenth chapter quoted by any 
Greek or Latin writer. 

DpoTJSEi, sc. 6 efoV. God's foreknowledge of the 
Egyptians' obduracy is alleged as the ground of their 
final punishment (comp. Exod. iii. 19; viL 4); i.e. 
their subsequent conduct showed that their previous 
chastisement had worked in them no moral change, 
and so God's wrath pursued them unrelentingly. The 
author does not mean that God punishes for sins fore- 
seen, but not actually committed : his doctrine would 
be, that men not using grace given, God, foreseeing 
that they would make no use of further supplies, 
punishes accordingly. See note on i. 13. 

AoTUi' tA (lAXorro, like avrHv f) reKovcra, Eurip. Alc. 
167, and d Ktivov TfKav, Id. Electr. 333, the participles 
with the article being = substantives. 

2. 'Oti, k.t.X. explanatory of xa /zeXXoi/ro, ver. i . 

'Em<rrp^i|ioiT£s seems to have been the original 
reading, which has been altered into the easier iniTpe- 
^|ralnfs, though the construction of this latter verb with 
the genitive is unusual. 'EiriaTp((f>«T6ai is used with a 
genitive in the sense of ' to regard,' ' pay attention to,' 
as Soph. Phil. 598, 599 : — 

TiVof 5* 'ArpfiSat Tov5 ayav ovTd) )(p6v<a 
Tocri^S' (■KforpitpovTO irpdyparus X"/"" > 

Reusch: ' Cum Aegyptii in eo elaborassent, ut Israelitae 
abessent.' The author uses the active in the place of 
the customary middle voice. 'Cum ipsi permisissent ut 
Be educerent,' the authorised edition of the Vulg. gives, 
but many important MSS. have : ' quoniam ipsi cum 
reversi essent,' some have both readings: 'cum ipsi 
reversi essent et permisissent.' The reflexive form, ' se 
educere,' for the passive (as in French), is found iv. 2. 

'Aircifai, some cursives give dirtemi, but there is no 
necessity for the change. ' When they had provided 
for their absence.' 

Merd <nr. irpoW|xi|(. Ex. xii. 31-33, 39. For npo- 
Kfpira comp. Acts xv. 3 ; Tit. iii. 13. Philo, Vit. Mos. 

i. 24 (II. p. 102); tW «fXXoc SKXov naptKoKd tov X«ai» 
/icra TrdoTjr (Tirovflrjs ('$ dn-acrijt t^s ^a>pas e^€\aivttp, koX t6 
/jiiav r]pipav fioKKov fie a>pav avTo ^dvov KaTa(TX(\v rrpos av^- 
KcaTov Tipapiav riBifievot. 

Auulouo-i. Ex. xiv. 5 ff. Philo : oj hi fKavvofifvoi, 
Kai SuoKopfvoi. lb. 25. 

3. 'Ev xcp<ri)' ixovTss tA ir^v^T], ' having their funeral 
ceremonies in hand.' These, as we learn from Herod, 
ii. 85-88, took a long time to complete; but before 
these were finished the Egyptians repented of their 
repentance. The Eng. version is very inadequate : 
' While they were yet mourning.' Numb, xxxiii. 4. 
For the funeral rites of the Egyptians see Wilkinson, 
Anc. Egypt, ch. xvi. vol. iii. pp. 427 S., ed. 1878. 

npoaoSupd)!,. This word is an. Xry. 

'Eite<rndaavro, ' they seized, called in, another coun- 
sel of folly.' Josephus says that Pharaoh was influenced 
by the idea that all the previous sufferings were the effect 
of Moses' enchantments, and that now having obtained 
their desire and escaped from the land, the Hebrews 
would make no more supplication to God, and would 
therefore fall an easy prey to them. (Autiq. II. xv.) 
He may have thought too, like the Syrians (i Kings 
XX. 23), that the God of Israel was merely a local god, 
whose power did not extend beyond the limits of the 
country (comp. i Sam. iv. 8), or that Moses' commis- 
sion was confined to a narrow sphere. ' Of all the 
infatuated resolutions which either king or people had 
adventured upon, the pursuing of the Israelites with 
such a mighty army or strong hand, after they had ■ 
fairly entreated them to depart out of their coasts, may 
well, to every indifferent reader, seem the most stupid.' 
Jackson, Works, vol. ix. p. 412; Paraphr. on Exod. 
ch. II. The Targum of Jonathan says that Pharaoh, 
hearing that the Israelites were bewildered near 
Migdol, attributed their mishap to the power of the 
idol Zephon, which had not been smitten with the 
other idols, and therefore he was the more encouraged 
to pursue them. Etheridge, p. 485. 

'AfOiaS. S. Luke vi. 1 1 : airoi Si iTt\f)<T6r)(Tav avoias. 
'E^i^OkKw. Ex. xi. I : orav ii (fan-oo'TcXXg u/iat a\t» 



[six. 4- 

nairr'i, fK^aku v^St (V/3oX.{. So xii. 33 : 'and the Egyptians 
were urgent upon the people, that they might send them 
out of the land in haste,' (rirovS^ fK^aktiv airms dno Tjjt yijs, 

4. r<£p. The Egyptians' aw>ia, ver. 3, was the conse- 
quenceof the hardeningof their heart. Ex.uc.i6; xiv.17. 

'Ai'dyKT). ' Destiny,' ' inevitabile fatum.' This is 
that judicial blindness and hardness of heart which 
God inflicts on the wilfully disobedient. See Exod. 
viii. 15, 32 ; Rom. is. 17, 22. On this S. Aug. says, 
Ep. cxciv. § 14, ad Sixt. : 'Nee obdurat (Deus) imper- 
tiendo malitiam, sed non impertiendo misericordiam.' 
See Wordsw. in Rom. I. e. 

TwK aufi^cPtiK., viz. ' the plague.' Ex. xiv. 4. 
Vulg : 'Horam quae acciderant commemorationem amit- 
tebant.' Reusch suggests that the right reading is, 
' immemorationem immittebat,' d^vijaTia being thus 
translated, xiv. 26. But ' commemoratio ' is used for 
' remembrance,' ' memory,' 8. Luke xxii. 19 ; i Cor. xi. 

Dpoaava'n'XTipua'bKn. This, the reading of A. C, 
is far preferable to wpoavanX. of V., and is now pre- 
ferred by Tischendorf in his Proleg. p. xiv. It occurs 
2 Cor. ix. 1 2 ; xi. 9. The Vulg. is very inexact : ' Ut quae 
deerant tormentis repleret punitio.' Better MS. Sang. : 
' Ut earn quae deerat tormentis replerent punitionem.' 
Comp. Gen. XV. 16 : oBira yap amircnXripavTai at Afiaprlat 
Ta>v'Aiioppaiav fait roi vvp: Dan. viii. 23; 1 Thess. ii. 16. 
See also Isai. li. 17, and 2 Mace. vi. 14 : dvafifvei fianpo- 
Ovftav 6 ^ftntirrit it'Xf '""'' KaTavrriiTavTas avTovs npbs «- 
n^TjpaMTiv ipapT taiv KoXatrat. 

5. rieptUrg. ' Might accomplish a wonderful passage.' 
Ex. xiv. 28, 29. So in classical Greek irepaa TrXovr. 
Xen. Oecon. xxi. 3 : irtp^v tnupiovi TrXoCt. The obstinate 
unbelief of the Egyptians became the occasion of the 
display of God's power and mercy towards the Israelites. 

H^KOf div. In the sea, which obeyed the word of 
Moses and overwhelmed them at his command. 

6. The general meaning of the verse is that the 
elements were so changed in their operations and effects 
on the Israelites and Egyptians that they might seem 
to be a new creation. 

'Ek ISiw yini,, ' its own, proper, kind,' as liiau in 
the next clause. 

"At^ei-, ' afresh,' S. John iii. 3. With irQXii< it is 

AicTuirouTo, ' refigurabatur,' Vulg. With this un- 
usual word we may compare ' reaedificare,' Am. ix. 11; 
' remandare,' ' reexpectare,' Isai. xxviii. 10, 13 ; 'repro- 
pitiare,' Heb. ii. 17; 'repedare,' 2 Mace. iii. 35. 

Tals ISiais i-Ktrayals, ' the peculiar commandments 
given unto them,' Eng. Grimm. This would be equi- 
valent to the variant rait a-a'is entr., which seems to be 
an alteration of the original. The words mean simply 
' their own conimaudments,' t. e. the commandments 
which they have to obey, the orders of their Creator. 
The facts referred to are given in the next verse. 

' Serving,' Eng. = ' observing,' ' keeping.' 
7. 'As, namely, a cloud,' Eng.; ' Nubes castra eorum 
obumbrabat,' Vulg. Both equally mistake the con- 
struction, vf<l>f\ri and the three other subjects being 
constructed with (6«opi)6jj. 

Nc^Ai]. The cloud which overshadowed the camp 
of the Israelites and gave light to them by night, while 
it brought darkness to the pursuing Egyptians and 
kept them from approaching their enemies' quarters. 
Ex. xiii. 21, 22; xiv, 19, 20. Comp. Numb. ix. 18: 
'As long as the cloud abode (o-xiaffi) upon the tabernacle 
they rested in their tents ' (napfp^aXovviv). 

npout^coTUTos. ' Before existing.' The verb occurs 
in Dion. Hal. vi. 93 (II. p. 1256) ; Plut. ii. 570 F. 

'Ai'tfiiriSioTos. Isai. Ixiii. 13: ' That led them 
through the deep, as an horse in the wilderness, that 
they should not stumble.' 

XXot)^. ireSiof, ' a plain of green grass.' (Ps. cv. 
9 : its iv fpr'iijuf.) Gutb. justifies the epithet by a refer- 
ence to the flora of the Bed Sea. Most commentators 
take it as a poetical amplification. Philu's account 
(Vit. Mos. iii. 34) is this : p^iis 6aKa<T<nit, dvaxiprfirtt 
tKuTtpov TprifiaTOs, vfi^is T&y Kara ro payiir ftipot bA vainbs 
ToC ^adovt KVfiaTav Xv avri T(i)(iiv ij KpaTaioTaTav, tiBvrtvric 
dvoToiifi Tijs iuya\ovpyrjdfiai)S iSoO, § t«i> )(pv<rTaiK\<a6ttT<ov 
liifd6pios ^v 6ioinopia, roO (tfvoi/c oKirBwcts ir<(<voyrot dii 

-XIX. 13.] 



6aXa€r(n]s i)S fn\ ^pais arpcmov xot X(4<u8ovr iia^mvs. 
'ExpavpaOri yap ij ^d/i/ioc, Kai fj trrropas ahr^t ovaia av/i- 
<f>vet<ra f/vaSr) (II. p. 174). Tlie narrative of Josephus 
will be found Ant. ii. 16. See note on ver. 13. 

8. rioK £01^ in apposition to the subject of SirjXBov, 
' they, a whole nation.' The V. reading, iravidvi, has been 
altered in the MSS. (see critical note), and all the best 
MSS. give the reading of the text, though S. is corrected 
by a later hand to iravtBvi. Comp. Ex. x. 9. 

9. '^vi^-f\<h\aay, ' they pastured,' ' grazed,' here 
'ranged,' as Eurip. El. 1162 : 

op€ia TIC i>s \eaiv' opydSav 
ipvoxa vffioiifva, 

'Depaverunt escam,' Vulg.; ('escam' is absent from 
many MSS.). Comp. x^°li>°P°<' "■fStoe, ver. 7 ; Is. Ixiii. 
11-14. A. Lap. notes that some MSS. have ixp'M- 
Turcw, but it is not mentioned by H. and P. 

Aieaxipniaaf . Ps. cxiii. 4 : ' The mountains 
skipped {faKipTTjo-av) like rams, and the little hills like 
young sheep.' Mai. iv. 2 : o-Kipr^orre i>c ftovxapui tK 
dfanav avfi/iiva. Cp. S. Luke vi. 23. The word tia- 
iTKipTda) occurs in Plut. Anim. an Corp. ii. 501 C. 

AiTOon-ts. Ex. XV. I— 19. 

'Pu<5(4€K0i' = ' their Deliverer.' The var. pvaapevov 
would refer to the particular occasioned mentioned. 

10. 'E(jit(imiTo y&ft. This reflection added to their 
exultation at the passage of the Red Sea. 

Tuf iv T. irop. ouTUf. ' What had happened in 
their sojourning ' in the land of Egypt, i Esdr. v. 7 : 
dva/SaiTf I « TTjr alxiuiKtocrias T^r napoiKias, ' their cap- 
tivity in a strange land.' Acts xiii. 17 : to» \aovxn\ra- 
atv iv Tj TiapotKia iv yj) PdyiiTTw. Vulg. : ' incolatu.' 
This word ' incolatus ' (from the post-class, form ' in- 
colare') is found also Ps. cxix. 5; Ezek. xx. 38 ; i Pet. 
i. 17. 'The things which befell them' are explained 
in what follows, vS>s, k.t.X, 

' How the land brought forth flies instead of 
cattle,' Eng. This version gives a wrong Impression, 
and omits ytviutai. The contrast is between the na- 
tural procreation of animals and their supernatural 

production. ' How, instead of their being produced 
(yfwVfwr, see on ver. 11) in the usual way, it was the 
earth that brought them forth,' Ex. viii. 17. This 
is the view also of Gutberlet, and it certainly seems 
to elicit the contrast better than the Eng. and other 

'ES^^yoyei'. Ps. ciii. 14 : xov i^yayelv aprov tic rrjs 
yrjs. Comp. Gen. i. 24 : i^ayayira 17 yrj, k.tX. 

'S.Kvvna,, used collectively as in Ex. viii. 18, and as 
oprvyofiJjTpa, ver. 12. The MSS. vary between o-m-ura 
and aKvi(pa. The reading aKPi<f>as is probably a cor- 
rection. What creature is meant by the word <rla>\^|r 
is very doubtful. Any small biting insect is called by 
this name, and probably ' lice ' is the best translation. 
See Exod. viii. 16, 17; Ps. civ. 3 1 ; and the quotation 
from Philo, eh. xvi. 9. The question is fully discussed 
in Smith's Diet, of Bibl., s. v. 'lice.' 

'Arrl 8^ ivuhpuv, sc. ytviacas, instead of aquatic ani- 
mals producing the frogs it was the water that vomited 
them out. Ex. viii. 1-6. 

11. r^i'£<rii', ' production,' as ver. 10. See ch. xvi. 
2 ; Ex. xvi. 13 ; Numb. xi. 13 ; Ps. Ixxviii. 26-29. 

'E-iriOu^ii^ -irpoaxO. Ex. xvi. 3 ; Numb. xi. 4, 34. 
'Led with {i.e. by) their appetite,' Eng. 

12. Els Y^P ■i''apa(iu9iai'. ' For their relief ' In 
allocutione desiderii,' Vulg. See on iii. 18. 

'OpriryojAiiTpo, collectively, as aKv'ma, ver. 10. 
Comp. d ^arpaxos, Ex. viii. 6; dxpis, Ex. X. 12, 14. 
The arrival of quails from ' the sea ' is in accordance 
with Numb. xi. 31. Their annual migration is a 
well-known fact. 

13. ' And punishments,' etc. A new paragraph > 
begins here. The mention of ' the sea ' leads the author 
to think of the punishment which it inflicted on the 
Egyptians. Apel, Reusch, and Tisch. have only a 
comma at oprvyo/i^rpa. Field has a full stop. Fritzsche, 
Grimm, and Gutberl. commence a new paragraph. So 
Eng. begins ver. 13 here. 

'AfiapT., the Egyptians; the reference is to the 
overthrow in the Red Sea. 

Qpoyfyoy&Tiiw. V. and Yen. give ytyovdrav, doubt- 



[xix. 14- 

less by a clerical error. Josephus, Aut. ii. 16. 3, says 
that the judgment on the Egyptians was preceded by 
violent storms of rain and hail, and terrible Ifghtning 
and thunder ; and the Psalmist alludes to the same 
fact, Ps. btxvii. 16-18, 'The voice of Thy thunder 
was in the heaven : the lightnings lightened the world,' 
etc. In Ex. xiv. 24, 25 it is said that 'the Lord 
troubled the host of the Egyptians ... so that they 
Raid, Let us flee from the face of Israel, for the Lord 
fighteth for them against the Egyptians.' The Egyptians 
might have repented of their purpose at the first 
' signs,' if they had willed to do so ; their destruction 
Was ' owing to their own wilful wickedness.' 

Tbe justice of the punishment inflicted on the 
Egyptians is proved by contrasting their conduct with 
that of the Sodomites, the mention of the storm per- 
haps leading to the thought of the dwellers in the 
Plain who were overwhelmed with a tempest of fire. 

Kol ydp. ' For they also perpetrated a harsher 
violation of hospitality.' 

XaXcTTon-^pai', i.e. in comparison of others, even of 
the Sodomites, whose sin was punished with fire. See 
S. Jude 7. 

. Muro|cfia is iir. Xcy. though iiia-6^(vos is found in 
Diod. Excerpt. 525. 61. 

14. Ol y.iv . . . ouToi 8e, the Sodomites . . . the 
Egyptians. The autlior here as elsewhere (comp. oh. 
X.) presupposes in his readers a knowledge of the his- 
tory of Bible characters sufiicient to enable them to 
identify the persons alluded to. Some suppose that 
the reference is to the Jewish settlers in Alexandria 
under the first Ptolemies; but ver. 17 plainly points 
to the Sodomites. 

Tois dyi'oourras. This expression has occasioned 
great difficulty to translators and commentators, some 
of whom have solved the matter by making it =: 
ayvoovfifvovs. Vulg. : ' ignotos.' Eng. : ' those whom 
they knew not;' a simple, but inadmissible explication. 
The MSS. do not vary, but editors have suggested 
ayvaoTovs, ayvafiovoiiVTas, ayvurai. No change is neces- 
sary. As Gutb. observes, the term is contrasted with 

(vfpyfTac. The Egyptians illtreated those who had 
been their benefactors, to whom they were bound by 
benefits received ; tlie Sodomites wronged persons who 
(speaking from the standpoint of the Sodomites) knew 
nothing of them. See Gen. xix. Chiu-ton : 'The 
men of Sodom refused hospitality to strangers to whom 
they were unknown, and in no way indebted.' 

nap6rras, ' adveuas,' Vulg. Mere visitors, in con- 
trast to the Israelites, who were $ti>ovs, ' guest friends.' 

EAepyfras, referring to Joseph's policy. Gen. xli. 
55-57 ; xlv. 8, and to the improvements effected by 
the Israelites' occupation of uncultivated land. See 
Ex. i. 7. 

'eSouXoOkto. Recent discoveries place the expul- 
sion of the shepherd dynasty, and the re-establishment 
of the native kings, in the interval between the death 
of Joseph and the birth of Moses. See a popular 
account of these discoveries in The fiible Educator, i. 
pp. 122-124. 

15. This verse has exercised the wits of commen- 
tators to little purpose. There is no variation in the 
MSS., and editors have resorted to conjecture in order 
to amend what they consider a corrupt text. Thus 
some read : ov iwvov' SKKt] rti. Others : ov /idvov avn/, 
aXX' aXXi; Tir ftrrai. Others : ov ftdfoi', dXX' »" Tir cm- 
(TKOTiii forr) aiirois. Gutb. suggests dXX' 5 '"'* «V«(r(C07rq 
€<7Ta«. Apel prints »it oi itovov, aXX', ^rtt tnuTKOtrr), 
(<rrai airav. This, or Gutberlet's suggestion, points the 
way to tbe right interpretation, which I conceive to be 
this : ' And not only so (not only is the contrast iu 
ver. 14 true), but whatever allowance is made shall 
belong to them (the Sodomites), inasmuch as they re- 
ceived with enmity those who were strangere.' This 
is the view taken by the English translators : ' And 
not only so, but peradventure some respect shall be 
had of those, because they used strangers not friendly.' 
Mr. Churton, overlooking the tense of ?crra», para- 
phrases: 'Besides this, it is evident that whatever 
visitation of judgment came upon tiie people of Sodom 
for their cruel reception of foreigners, the Egyptians 
merited a heavier one.' Dr. Bissell, with small regard 

-XIX. 1 9-] 



for the Greek, and in very peculiar English, trans- 
lates : ' And not only bo, but — for which they shall be 
punished — because they received strangers hostilely.' 
'Eiti<7K0irij, ' regard,' ' respect,' as ii. 20. 

16. Oi hi, the Egyptians, at whose invitation the 
Israelites had come to Egypt. See Gen. xlv. 1 7-20 ; 
xlvii. 6, II. 

'Eo(rraiT\iAr(av. This uncommon word occurs in 
S. Method. Senn. de Sim. la (p. 376 B, Migne). 

AiKautff, ' rights,' ' civil privileges.' This is not 
expressly stated in Genesis, but may be inferred from 
the accounts of their reception. 

'ExiiKuflrav'. Ex. i. 10-14. 

17. 'EirXiiYriCTOK. The Egyptians were effectively 
struck with blindness in the plague of darkness, as the 
Sodomites {iKt'ivoi) were actually at Lot's door. 

'Aopoo-ia, a word peculiar to the Sept. (Gen. xix. 
II ; Deut. xxviii. 28 ; 2 Kings vi. 18), is used here in 
the double sense of inability to see, and deprivation of 
sight, the darkness making the eyes of the Egyptians 
useless, and the Sodomites losing the power of sight. 

Too AiKaiou, Lot, as x. 6. See Gen. xix. ii. 

'Axoftt (TK(iTci, ' yawning darkness ;' or it may be 
' vast,' the word axavrjs, with d intensive, being applied 
to the sea, an army, etc. The Vulg. translates : ' subi- 
taneis teuebris,' taking the word in the sense of ' not 
gaping,' ' not lethargic,' the a in the compound being 
then negative. Mr. Churton takes it in the sense of 
' mute with astonishment,' ' a gloom that deprived 
them of speech,' the epithet appropriate to the persons 
being applied to the darkness. This seems to be an 
unnecessary refinement. The Vulg. word ' subitaneus ' 
maj' be compared with ' temporaneus,' R James v. 7 ; 
' coaetaneus,' Gal. i. 14 : ' collactaneus,' Acts xiii. i. 
See note on xvii. 6. 

TuK airoS 0., 'his, Lot's, door.' Gen. xix. 11. 
Some editors, who adopt the variant r. iavrov 6., make 
the clause refer to the Egyptians, which seems less 
appropriate, as we are expressly told that under the 
plague of darkness none of them left their place. 
See xvii. 2, 17; Ex. x. 23. 

18. The general meaning of this difficult verse is 
tliis : the interchange of operations in nature (in the 
case of the miracle mentioned) occasioned no disorder, 
nor marred the harmony of the Cosmos any more than 
the transposing of a melody to a different pitch occa- 
sions any real change in the tune. Or, if this idea is 
in advance of the musical practice of the age, we may 
take it thus : the elements were no more changed in 
their nature than are the notes of a psaltery by their 
pitch and measure, which indeed give the character to 
the tune, but remain notes still. The author, carried 
away by his grand conception, has regarded meaning 
rather than language, and lience has made the sentence 
somewhat grammatically unintelligible. A»aXXair<rov<rt 
is predicated of erroix"a and ^^dyyw (Qutb.) ; and the 
two members of the comparison are so mingled toge- 
ther, that the terms properly applicable to one only 
are also assigned to the other. The literal rendering 
therefore is this : ' For the elements being differently 
disposed among themselves change, as in a psaltery 
tones do, the name of the measure, remaining always 
sounds.' That is, the elements retain their nature 
though their operations are changed. 

M'aXrqpioi', a stringed instrument, Ecclus. xl. 31. 
In the Sept. the word is applied to instruments having 
different names in Hebrew. Thus Dan. iii. 7, etc., it 
represents pesanterin, in Ps. xxxii. 2, etc., it trans- 
lates nebel, elsewhere rendered va^Xa. i Sam. x. 
5, etc. Corap. S. Athan. Ep. Encycl. 4 (p. 91). 

Mivovra rjx'!'. ' remaining (the same) in sound,' 1. a. 
in their nature, the word which applies properly to 
the mu-i-ical instrument being applied also to aroixfia. 

19. The author sums up the chief instances of 
God's Providence in the case of the miracles that 
concerned land, water, and fire. It seems best to 
confine the allusions to events connected with th« 

Xcp<7aia, cKuSpa, KtjKrd, se. (mt. ' Land animals 
were (for the time) turned into aquatic' Alluding 
doubtless to the passage of the Israelites and their 
cattle through the Red Sea. Ex. xii. 38; xiv. 29; 

F f 2 



[xix. 20-22.] 

Ps. Ixv. 6 : o ii(Ta(rrp((p<iiy Trjt) 6dKa<T<Tay «»r $1pav, iv 
irora/jL^ SicXcuorovrcu iroSi. 

NtjictA, the frogs that came up from the river, and 
covered the land, and filled the houses. Exod. viii. 3, 
4. Ps. civ. 30. S. Ephr. in Exod. c. viii. (p. 208) : 
' Perierant pisces, subsiliere ranae, alteram natantium 
genus, ut scilicet de vivis ranis gravissime laborarent, 
qui de piscibus mortuis nihil laboraverant.' 

20. 'loxuec accords with the tense of the other verbs. 
It is used with a genitive in the sense of 'to be 
stronger than,' to ' exceed,' so that there is no need to 
add, as some MSS. do, em\e\r](rftfvov to govern Swdjieai. 
For the allusion see on xvi. 16, 17. 

^ucreus. The reading Bwajuois, found in V. and 
a few cursives, seems to have been introduced acci- 
dentally from the preceding clause. 

21. Eu<t>6c(pTui' Ifiuv, ' corruptibilium animalium,' 
Vulg. This seems to refer to the locusts. But see on 
xvi. 18. The author poetically regards some of the 
animals sent in judgment as still existing at the time 
of the Plague of hail and lightning. Mr. Churton : 
* Though they had bodies of flesh which were in no 
way proof against the devouring element.' The un- 
usual word ' corruptibiUs ' occurs Kom. i. 23; i Cor. 
ix. 25; I Pet. i. 18, 23, and elsewhere; S. Aug. de 
Civit. xiii. 16. See note on x. 4. 

'EfiircpiiraTOutTUf. (Lev. xxvi. 12; Job i. 7.) 
' Coambulantium,' Vulg. Post-classical. Cp. ' coan- 
gustare,' -Luke xix. 43 ; ' commanducare,' Kev. xvi. 
10; ' coUaborare,' 2 Tim. i. 8. 

OuSe TTjKTii', sc. fiv. The conjecture of Nannius, 
received by Grabe and Field, oW hriKov, suits the 
Yulg. : ' nee dissolvebant,' but has no MS. authority. 
For the allusion see on xvi. 22. 

'AfiPpocios, a classical word for oipaviot, and so 
equivalent to the ' bread from heaven,' or ' angels' food,' 
of xvi. 20; Ps. Ixxvii. 24, 25. Vulg. : ' bonam escam,' 
which is feeble. 

22. Kard ttivrd,, 'in respect of all things,' or, in 
every way. Comp. Deut, iv. 6-8. 

'EjicyiXucos. ' Magnificasti,' Vulg. This is an 
ante-classical word, common in the Vulg., e.g. Ecclus. 
xxxiii. 10; Luke i. 46; Acts x. 46; Plautus, Stich. 

I. ii. 43: 
'Pudicitia est, pater, eo8 nos magnificare, qui nos Bocias 
sumserunt sibi.' 

Philo deems that the Mosaic Law and the Temple and 
its worship are to last for ever. De Vit. Mos. ii. 3 : 

ra df TovTov iiovov /3c/3aui, do-oXtvra, oKpahavra, KaBamp 
crcPpayio-i cpvatas atrr^s afwriy-aujiiva, fuvti irayias d<^' fjs 
i/fifpas iypa(f)t) jxixP^ '^''> ""^ Jrpor rhv eweira iraiTa dta/ievctv 
Affir aira alStpa uxnttp aBavara, (as hv rfkios K<u ire\rjV7] koi 
6 (Tvfinas oipavos re koI KSarfios 5 (II. p. 1 36). De 
Monarch, ii. 3 : (<]> oaov yip tA dvdpimap yfvos Staiievfi, 
dtl Koi at rrpoaoSoi tov iepov <^v\a\6ijaovTcu irvvSuuavi^ovaiu 
iravrl ra Ki(rp<f (II. p. 224). 

Some have thought that the Book in its present 
shape is incomplete, and that the author ought to have 
carried his history of God's dealings with the Israelites 
down to later times ; but the present view is abund- 
antly sufficient for the scope of the writer ; and the 
last verse puts the finishing touch to the picture, by 
asserting that what God's dealings were in the period, 
and under the circumstances previously indicated, so 
they have ever been in every time and place. EiXoyijrAr 
6 puoTijs 'la-parjK tls Tois dtl XP°''°^'- '^l"!" (S Macc. Vli. 

23). On the other hand. Dean Jackson observes truly : 
' The calendar made by the learned author of the Book 
of Wisdom, for the opposite fates or destinies of the 
Egyptians and of the Jews, began in his own time, 
and shortly after our Saviour's resurrection, to be out 
of date, and more than so quite inverted, "Versa 
tabula currebant qui modo stabant ;" the lot or destiny 
which this good author assigned unto the ungodly 
Egyptians did fall upon his presumed holy ones the 
Jews, his countrymen.' Bk. x. ch. xl. 26. 




aPoriBrfrot, 175 ^• 

aya66nis, Ilia. 

dyyt\ia, 136 a. 

ay(pa)^ia, 119b. 

Syofiai, 153 b. 

jSijr, 197 b, 207 a. 

ddoXuc, 147 a. 

dSivaros, 2o6 b. 

aSavacria, 1 56 a. 

d6mia>, 113b. 

a'wtyna, 155 a. 

atptrXs, 154 a. 

a<aii>, alamos, 128 b, 137 &> 

167 a, l8lb, 184b, 186 

a, 209 a. 

OXIjXt'SojTOf, 151b. 

aKoivoivrjTos, 1 88 a. 
axpoTO/iOf, 168 a. 
djidpavTOS, 141 b. 
an^poiTlos, 3 20a. 
d/xi^oTia, 189 a. 
CLUoKvvTos, 1 50 ^• 
avaytaj, 2 1 6 a. 
dvoKia, 117 b. 
dwieXijr^f, 147 a, 1 56 b. 
dfe^utoKia, 1 2 1 b. 
dyrcoHUtKaa, 208 a. 
dvTiirap<pxofuu, 197 b. 
dyTKTxva, 153 a. 
diiTix^aKixia, I'J'J Hl, 
dyvnoKpiTos, 212b. 
ai>u6(v, 2 1 6 b. 

The references denote the Page and Column. 


a^ior, 124 b. 
dopcuria, 219a. 
ditaiyaana, 151 b. 
airtplinraaros, 197 b. 
il7rXdn;t, II I b. 
dn-odon^^ffi, 159 b. 
dn-oucm, 1 76 a. 
aTTOTO/ior, 138 a, 170 a. 
dpfnj, 128 a. 
dpfiovtos, 201 a. 
dWXfOTor, 127 b. 
driprfiot, 146 a. 
av6evTij9, 1 7 5 'j- 
aiToo^eSifflt, 1 1 8 a. 
d<f>6apiTia, 122 a, 143 a. 
atftpav, 126 a. 
dxayf/s, 219a. 
^aavot, 123b. 
/Soo'iXcui 6fov, 166 a. 
jSoo-tXaov, 116 a, 137 b. 
^avKavia, 131a. 
PifXvy fia, 178 b. 

fiiot, 166 a, 188 a, 192 b. 

^dtrcfyriiiot, 113 b. 
^paxvrtXfit, 191 b. 
^popoc, 172 a. 
yevfiTiapxts, 1 80 b. 
yiv«ns, 116 a, 126a, 217 b. 
ytvfTis, 147 a. 
ytaSric, 161 a. 
yny fyr/t, 144 b. 
yXvwra, 187 a, 192 b. 

dtd^oXor, 123a. 
ita^vXiov, 114b. 
SidyvaxTis, 127 b. 
diaBrfKr), 213b. 
dtao'Mprdo), 217 a. 
dtoTciVtt), 153 a. 
iifiris, 178 a. 
biKOiov, TO, 126a. 
SueaioiTvini, III a, 1 38 a, 
154 b, 159 a, 185 a. 

dlKt), 172a, 

iiiajv, 178 b. 
ioKipa^a, 112 a, 124 b. 
S6(a, 1 60 b. 
dwraXuKTOt, 207 b. 
Sva-SiTiyjiTos, 203 a. 
(yKpariji, 1 58 b. 
fBinj, 156 b. 
tlifx^tia, 195 a. 

fUitv, 152 a. 

&/3a(rtc, 1 2 1 b. 
(K/Sm^o/xoi, 187 b. 
(xXcicroi, 125 b, 132 b. 
(icKucpda, 139 b. 
(KTi$rifU, 209 b. 
€Xfyxo«iII4b, 169a, 209b. 
eXty^a, 112 a, II3 a, II4 

b, 119 b, 133 b. 
ifipfkenjixa, 1 82 a. 
iinrfprnariu), 2 20a. 
in&pov, 1 88 a. 
ivrpofias, 205 b. 

iyrvyxdva, 158 b. 
fvarlCofiai, 1 40 a. 
f|aXXor, 188 b. 
cf (Xao-^r, 213a. 
tiixvid^a, 143 b, 161 b. 
(|odof, 124 a, 146 a. 
fVayyeXXo^i, l2ob. 
tTraTTOoTcXXffl, 1 70 b. 
cVfvdv/xco), 2 1 a. 
inuiKua, 121 b, 177 b. 
rnCKavOdvoiuu, 1 1 8 b. 
imiu>\6oi, 191a. 
fwuTKOnrri, 122 a, 125 a, b, 

127 a, 185 b. 

iiria-Konos, 113b, 219a. 
f7ri<rrp(<l>a, 215 a- 
iituT<i>aki)s , 129 b, 161 a. 
iniTayf), 1 87 a, 212 b. 
cVtrt/u'a, 126 a. 
t<Tx<rra, rh, 121 a. 
(Ttt(tt>, 1 2 1 b, 1 40 b. 
nSpdvfUj, 183 b. 
tvfi^t, 1 60 a. 
cvXd/Sfio, 176 b. 
tvtrrdSfia, 1 44 b. 
€v<f>t/fis, fv<pvtd, 157 a* 
i<f)i<TTaiiat, 140 b. 
i^v^puTTos, 205 a. 

fd», 137 a. 

CriX6w, 115 a. 

(tfriiv T. Kv/Nor, 1 1 1 b. 

M, 192 t. 



Btiirr)!, 2 1 b. 
6tKr)aK, 203 a. 
Bpnvait, 213a. 

Ovfi})!, 1 96 a, 213a. 
i8i<iT?)r, 122 b. 
XvhaK\ui, 203 b. 
ura, 145b. 
Kaipbs, 155 b. 
KaK6fiox6oi, 191 b. 
KaKOTt)(yos, 112b. 
Kaiilov, 132 b. 
KuroXaXta, 115b. 
KoracrTatnt, I'J'J &. 
Karaxpfos, 112b. 
Kevoio^ia, 186 a, 
Ki/38ijXor, 121 a, 191b. 
K\fjpos, 127 a. 
Koa-fiot, 123b. 
KpoTtja-is, 140 a. 
Kplvo), Kpvrrit, It I a. 

KTlViJ, 119a. 

XaxKof, 167 a. 
XoAt, 156 a, 167 a. 
\ttTovpyLa, 213 a. 
Aciyo'r, 6, 151 a, 171 a, 201 

a, 212. 
Xi)flp<i8ijr, 1 69 a. 
payiKOi, 205 a. 
litadCa, 212a. 
ptTaKipvato, 201 a. 
jitrcCKKtia, 131b, 202 a. 
furdvoia, l73ai 176 b. 
fita<7/i6f, 189 a. 
pia-o^fvla, 218 a. 
fivrjiiovtvai, 1 1 8 b. 

ftovcryfVTfi, 1 50 a. 

livtrrdS f to, 175' 

fivirrripiov, 122 a, 1 43 b, 

186 b. 
fiiiTrit, 154 a. 
VTjmoKrdvos, 169 a. 
vodtva, 189 a. 
VOjlOS, 1 20 b. 
vovs, 161 b. 
^eviTfla, 209 a. 
SKoKapnafui, 124 b. 
oXciicXijpor, 190 b. 
OfioBviiahhv, 3 1 o a. 
6ixoio7ra6r)i, 1 45 a. 
{mKoiroiiu), 1 38 a. 
opdplCm, 141 b. 
6p6pwos, 173 b. 
opTvyop^Tpa, 195 a, 217 b. 
OCTta, ra, 1 41 a. 
^(Ttdnjr, 138 a, 159 a. 
oyfrd, (V, 146 a. 
nalyvwv, 1 79 a. 
nals Kvplov, 1 20 b. 
navriyvpia-pos, 192b. 
TravroSvvapos, 1 50 b. 
•napa^oKr), 135 a. 
irapaivforis, 1 551*. 
napaniiTTdv, Ttapcmrapa, 1 2 6 

b, 141a, 163 b, 174 a. 
irdptSpos, 159 a. 
TTfipd^O), 124 b. 
nepiKopnia, 204 a. 
nerpo^oKos, 139 a. 
TnjKovpyhs, 191b. 
TrX^^or, 1 56 b. 

ifKqpoa, 113b. 
nwO/ia, TO ayiov, 112 a, 
113 b. 

irohi)pr)s, 213b. 
noKxmeipia, 1 55 a. 
iraiKiKJipovTis,. 1 6 1 b. 
Trdvoi, 154 b, 166 b. 
■jropurphs, 1 83 a. 
TTOpvfia, 186 a. 
vpoavafuXira, 2 1 1 a. 
iTpovoia, 184 a. 
■np<mijiiTa>, 215a. 
irpoiravaTraiopxu, 156 b. 
TtpoaavanKripoii), 2 1 6 a. 
itpoahfKThs, 1 60 b. 

wpoa-fx"!, 15^ *• 
TtpoaobvpOjjLai, 215b. 
TrpovfploTTiiii, 2 1 6 b. 
iTpo<l>rfTt)s, 152 b. 
TrparoffXaoTot, 144 b. 
pfp.&a(Tpos, 131 a. 
poifoy, 1.36 b. 
poTTT], 172 b. 
(TfffaiTfia, 1 88 a, 193 b. 
(rqfitla Kai re par a, 155 ^i 

167 a. 
<TKV^^ff, 217 b. 
o-icoXtdr, 112a. 
(T0(j)ia, 112b, 146 a, 1 6l b. 
ir7r\ayxvn(j)dyos, 175^- 
<TvyK\v((o, 1 39 b. 
avyKpivio, (rvyKpuris, 1 46 a. 
(Tv/ijSt'ioo-is, 1 54 a. 
avp^oKov, 1 96 a, 
(nniavaa-Tptxpf), 1 56 b. 

trvvri'Sijirtf, 206 &. 
(TuW^a, 1 13 b, 208 b. 
iTvvua), 1 60 b. 
(tvvoXkti, 193 a. 
(Tvcrrawif, 1 48 a. 
tTapTjSnv, 213b. 
TfKvo(p6vos, 188 b. 
TfXfior, rcXndo), 1328,159 b. 
T«Xrr^, 186 b. 
rpavos, 150 a, 168 a. 
Tpi^os, 121 a. 
v»6s GeoC, 135 a. 
vXtj, 171 a. 
VTTCpnaxos, 1 68 a. 
uTTooTfXXo/im, 140 b. 
<f>dopa, 186 a. 
(t>i\dyados, 1 50 b. 
(f>tK6yjfvxor, 173 b. 
(ppovrjaK, 142 a, 146 a, 

154 b. 
<j>v\aKi^ai, 209 a. 
;^aXito7rXaoT))r, 191b. 
Xap» tat eXfot, 125 b, 

132 b. 
X«po-or, 165 b. 
xvovc, 137 a. 
xpaopai with acc, 147 a. 
Xpri(Ttp.ev<i>, 129 a. 
Xpdvoi, 155 b. 
Xpv<Tovpyos, 191b. 
XaivrvTriptov, 124 b. 
yjfoKrripiov, 219 b. 
■^i)Xa(^?;o-tr, 1 93 a. 

f^xn, 157. 161 b. 
&>T(, ' and go,' 144 b. 

Ab intuB, 206 b. 
Absconsus, absconse, 149 a, 
210 b. 


Accersio, ii6b. 
Adinventio, 186 a. 
Allocutio, 128 a, 155 b. 

Anima mundi, 114a. 
Assistrix, 159 a. 
Boethius, 153 a. 

Cogitatio, 155 b. 
Cognoscibiliter, 181a. 
Comessor, 175 a. 



Commemoror, 170 a. 
Comj^itus, 203 a. 
Concupiscentia, 195 b. 
Correptio, 114b. 
Creatura, 126 a. 
Gruciatio, 141a. 
Costoditio, 142 b. 
Detractio, 115a. 
DignuB with gen., 147 b. 
Doctrix, 154 a. 
Duriter, 181 a. 
Electrix, 154 a. 
Eo, inflection of, 202 b. 
Excandesco, 1 39 b. 
Exerro, 174 a. 
Exquisitio, 142 b, 186 a. 
Exterminium, extermino, 

exterminatio, 124 a, 

139 a, 142 b. 
Fascino, fascinatio, 131 a. 
Fictio, 189 a. 
Fictum, 113 a. 
Fumigabundus, 165 a, b. 

Hibernalis, 202 b. 
Honestas, honestus, 146 b, 

147 a. 
ImmaculatuB, 130 b. 
Immemoratio, 189 a. 
InipoBsibilis, 171a. 
Improperium, impropero, 

120 b, 135 a. 
Inauxiliatus, 175 b. 
Incoinquinatus, 126 b. 
Incolatus, 217a. 
Inconsummatio, inconsum- 

matus, 127 b, 129 b. 
Incredibilis, 165 b. 
Increpatio, 142 b, 179a. 
Indisciplinatus, 203 a. 
Inexterminabilis, 122a. 
Inextiuguibilis, 1 46 b. 
Infirmiter, 129 b, 181 a. 
Inhabitator, 174 b. 
Inordinatio, 189 a. 
In palam, 187 a. 
Insensatus, 126a. 

Insidia, 189 a. 
Insimulatus, 212b. 
Intelligibilis, 1 50 b. 
Juramentum, 178 a. 
Justifico, 141 a. 
Laesura, 172a. 
Maguifico, 220 b. 
Mausueto, 198 b. 
Medietas, 1 48 b. 
Katio, 116 a. 
Nativitas, 143 b, 145 b, 

202 a. 
Nimietas, 129 b, 145 b. 
Noceo, with ace, 189 b. 
Nugacitas, 131a, 145 b. 
Odibilis, 174 b. 
Ortygometra, 195 a. 
O sapientia, 153 a. 
Partibus, 174 a, 176 b. 
Foderes, 213 b, 214 a. 
Praeclaritas, 145 b, 157 a. 
Praesumo, 147 b. 
Praetereo, 114b. 

Praevaricatio, 1 90 b. 
Protoplastus, 144 b. 
Providentia, 142 a, 161 a. 
Querela, 1 64 b. 
Befiguro, 216b. 
Refrigerium, 117 b, 130 a. 
Bespectio, 127 a, 142 b. 
Reverentia, 177 b. 
Sacramentum, 122 a, 143b. 
Saecidum, 181 b. 
Sal va tor, 197 a. 
Sibilatio, 134 b, 142 b. 
Subitaneus, 204 b. 
Bubitatio, 134 b, 142 b. 
Supervacuus, supervacui- 

tas, 170 b, 178 b, 186 a, 

192 a. 
Sustinoo, 156 a. 
Traductio, 121a, 1 69 cl 
Tuto, 166 b. 
Vacuitas, 182 b. 
Vitulamen, 129 a. 
Zelo, 115 a. 


Aaron, 213. 

Abraham, 152 a, b, 164 b, 

210 a. 
Adam, 144 b, 162 f. 
Adventure, 1 1 8 a. 
Alexandria, 192 b, 193 a. 
Angels, 1 50 a. 
Animal worship, 1 9 3b, 1 9 4. 
Apotheosis, 187 a. 
Apples of Sodom, 165 b. 
Ark, the, 164 b. 
Art magic, 205 a. 
Astronomy, 1 48 b. 
Baal, 174 b. 
Babel, 1 64 b. 

Bacchus, orgies of, 188 b. 
Barrenness, ia6a. 
Bears, 171b. 
Because, 173 a. 
Bezaleel, 1 48 a. 
Birds, Egyptian, 207 b. 
Blood, plague of, 168 b, 

169 a. 
Body and soul, 157 f., 161. 
Botany, 149 a. 
Breastplate of High Priest, 

Cain, 164 a, b. - 
Caligula, 187 a, 193 a. 
Canaanites, 166 b, 174 a, 

175 b, 176. 
Chastity, 128, a, b. 
Child-sacrifice, 188 b. 
Christ, references to, 120, 

121 b, 135 a, 149 b, 

'SI a. t>, 152 a, 157 a, 

196, 212 a. 
Chronology, 148 b. 
Cloud, pillar of, 1 67 b, 

216 b. 
Conceit, 156 a. 
Conscienc*, 133 b, 206 a. 
Continency, 1 58 b. 
Counterfeits, Egyptian, 

192 a. 

Creationism, 157 a. 
Cross of Christ, The, 185 a. 
Crown, crowning, 119 a, 

129 a, 137 b. 
Darkness, plague of, 203, 

204, 219 a. 
Death, physical and eter> 

nal, 115, 122 a, 123 b. 
Devil, the, 122 b, 123 a. 
Egyptians, Egypt, 167 b, 

168 b, 169, 170, 178 b, 

193 a, 198 a, 211 b, 

218 a. 
Elements, the, worshipped, 

1 80 a. 



Enoch, 130 b, 132 a. 
Esau, 1 66 b. 
Eechatology, 117, 123a, 

133 b, 134 a. 
Essenes, 152 b, 202 b. 
Eucharist, the holy, 200 b. 
Eunuch, 126 b, 127 a. ■ 
Exodus, the, 210, 219 b. 
Fear, to, = frighten, 205 b. 
Fire, pillar of, 167 b, 

209 a. 
Firstborn, death of the, 

2ioa, 211, 213a. 
Flies, plague of, 197 a, 

217 a. 
Flood, the, 164 a. 
Fools, folly, 112a. 
Foreknowledge, God's, 

215 a. 
Freewill, 176 b. 
Frogs, plague of, 195 b, 

198 b, 217 b, 219 b. 
Funeral rites, 211b, 215b. 
Future state, 117, 118 b. 
Gestation, period of, 145 a. 
Giants, the, 1 84 b. 
God, son of, 1 20 b, 1 35 a. 
Greeks, the, 193 a. 
Hades, 1 1 6 a, b. 
Hail, plague of, 198 a, 

218 a. 
Heaven, 127 a. 
Hornets, 176 a. 
Idolatry, idols, 1 79a, 1 80 a, 

181 b, 185 b, 186, 187, 

Image-worship, 191 a. 
Inhabitance, 176 a. 
Jacob, 1 66 a, b. 
Jews, renegade, 1 20 a, 

132 a. 

Joseph, 166 b, 167, 2i8a. 

Know God, to, 1 70 a. 

Korah, 213 a. 

Laban, 166 b. 

Law, MosaiC; 120 a, 209, 

220 b. 
Lice, plague of, 197 a, 

217 b. 
Life, eternal, 122a, 124a. 
Lightning, plague of, 1 98 b, 

201 b. 
Liturgies, ancient, 162 b. 
Locusts, plague of, 197 a, 

220 a. 
Lot, 165 a, 219 a. 
Lot's wife, 165 b. 
Magicians, 205 a, 212 a. 
Manna, 199 b, 200, 201, 

Materialism, matter, 112b, 

Moloch, 174 b. 
Moriah, 1 60 a. 
Moses, 167 a, 168 a, 170 b, 

209 b, 213 b. 
Nebuchadnezzar, 187 a. 
Neo-Platonism, 158 a. 
Nile, the, 169 a, 178 b, 

179 b. 
Nimrod, 164 b. 
Noah, 164 b, 176 b, 184 b. 
Panoply, 137 b. 
Pantheism, 173 b. 
Passover, the, 210b, 211. 
Pataeci, the, 183 a. 
Patriarchs, the, 210. 
Pentapolis, 1 65 a. 
Perjury, 189 b. 
Pharaoh, 167 a, 169 a, 

177 b, i8ob, 211, 215b. 
Physician, 197 b. 


Plagues of Egypt, 139 a, 
168 b, 169, 171 a, 178b, 
197 a, 199 a, 209. 

Flatonism, 114 a, 150 a, 

151 a. 155 a. 157 h 

1 60 a, - 171 a, 174 a, 

184 a, 212 b. 
Potiphar, 167 a. 
Predestination, 131 a. 
Priest, dress of High, 213b, 

Prophecy, 152 b. 
Providence, 184 a. 
Psaltery, 219b. 
Ptolemy Philopator, 193 a. 
Punishmentof mighty men, 

140 b. 
Pythagoras, 157 b. 
Quails, 194 a, 217 b. 
Rabshakeh, 177 b. 
Red Sea, the, 184a, 3i6 b, 

217 b. 
Repentance, 173 a. 
Riches, 136 a. 
Righteousness, 1 1 1 a, 1 85 a. 
Sacraments, the, 201 b. 
Seal, 118 b. 

Serpent, the brazen, 196. 
Serpent, the Old, 122b, 

196 a. 
Serpents, fiery, 196. 
Serve, to, 216 b. 
Sin, original, 158 b, 176 b. 
Sodom, Sodomites, 165, 

Solomon, 140 a, 141 a, 

144 a, 148 b, 149 a, 

155 b, 156 a, 159 a. 
Solstices, the, 148 b. 
Son of God, 120 b, 212a. 
Sorites, 142 a. 


Soul, the, 112b, 123 a, 
125 a.. 157 ajb, 192 a. 

Spirit, the Holy, 1 ^ 2 b, 
114 a, 161 b. 

Spirits, 150 b, 151 a. 

Spirits, Solomon's supre- 
macy over, 149 a. 

Stoics, the, 150 a, 151 a. 

Stone-bow, 139 a. 

Sun, worship of the, 180 b. 

Suppose, 203 b. 

Temple, the, 1 60 a. 

Tempt God, to, in b, 
112 a. 

Teraphim, 183 a. 

Therapeutae, 126 b, 166a. 

To, the prefix, 172a. 

Traducianism, 157 a. 

Travel, 166 b. 

Turn, for our, 1 20 a. 

Unright, 177 a. 

Virtues, the Cardinal, r 54 b. 

Vulgate, additions in, 1 19a, 
128 a, 137 a, 139 a, 
143 b, 156 a, 162, 168 b, 

169 b, 170 a, 172 a, b, 
173 a, b, 180 b, 182 a, 
187 a, 193 b. 

Wasps, 176 a. 

Water, miracle of, 169 b, 

170 b. 

Wisdom, 112 b, 141b, 
142 a, 143 1>. 146 a, 
147 b, 149 b, 151 a, 
152 b, 153 a, 155 a, 
159 b. 

Word, the, 169 a, 171a, 
197 b, 2ia. 

Works, good, 147 b. 

Years, cycles of, 148 b. 

Zoology, 148 b. 


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