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« ». 

gu (mufftt ^ «> (^<Mi^ 

.' ♦. 

f r 


€^ (§00^ of (pt09tt6B 

in Ibebrew 

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• ■ ;> 

. / i 

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* • 





. i 


c .^ 


She present edition of the Sacred Books of tht Old Ttstamint 
1 Hebrew cxiiiliils the leconslrucied text on Ihe basis of which 
iiir new Version in the J\ilychrome Bible has been prepared by 
1 the learned contributors mentioned on the inside page of the 
F back cover. 5 
Departures from the Received Text are indicated by critical 
marks: — •• (>. «. V — Versions) designate a reading adopted on 
the authority of the Ancient Versions (•'■, ^■, &c. indicate that the 
respective glosses relegated to tlie foot of the page are onutted 
in the Versions, esp. i, if. Prov. 35,21); — ■■ {i.e. c =• conjecture') are used for 10 
Conjectural Emendations; and " (/. e. 1 >• 171), for changes involving merely a 
departure itoxa the Masoretic points, or a difiereni division of the consonantal 
text («. .f. 30, 0- A pB' ' indicates transposition of the Masorelic piDtt i|ID; 
— ••are used in cases where the ^p has been adopted instead of the SVO, 
and " for changes introduced by reason of Parallel Passages. A small note of ex- ij 
clamation,! {^e.g. 34,31) calls attention to readings deliberately preferred on the 
strength of some Mcli. MSS or early printed editions of good authority. Doubt- 
ful Words or Passages are enclosed in notes of interrogation (• 1). Occasionally 
two critical marks are combined, e.g. ••,>. e. Deviations from the Received 
Text suggested by the Versions as well as by Parallel Passages; or ".i.e. Depar- 30 
lures from the Masoretic points, supported by the Versions, &c. [] calls attention 
to transposed passages , the traditional position of the words in the Received Text 
being marked by [] while the transposed words are enclosed in []. In addition 
to these brackets, [], braces, j{, anA parentheses, (), are used if there are two or 
three transpositions on the same page (f.g. 13,3.8). In cases where two or three 2; 
consecutive words are transposed the traditional sequence is indicated by < > 1 
&c, respectively prefixed to the individual words {.e.g. 10,31.33). Transposition of 
consonants is indicated by figures above the respective letters {e.g. 14,33). Pas- 
sages corrupted beyond emendation are indicated by while ••« point 

to Laama in the original. 30 

Headings (i , i ; 10, i ; 34, 33; 35 , i ; 30, 1 ; 31 , i) and Introductory Lines (i ,3-y; 
33,17-31) have been printed in RED, also the ^frut/u' Letters in the Alphabetical 
Poems (34, 1 .3. J: 31 , 10-31). 

The Ancient Versions are referred to in the Notet under the following 
abbreviations:— 41 •= Masoretic Text; • — LXX; ( — Targum; 3 » Peshitai 35 
A— Arabic Version; 3 (/. e. Jerome) = Vulgate; It— Eihiopic Version; K = Aquila; 
e— Theodotion 1 1 — Symmachos. 6* means Codex Alcxandrinus (A), t^ ™ Codex 
Ephraemi Syri rescriptus Parisiensis (C); CS.. Sinaiticus (m), V* — Valicanus 
(B). The symbol c-* &c. in connection with <s denotes corrections in the ver- 
sion of the poetical books, supposed to have been inserted in the 7'i> cent, a.d, 40 

The heavy-faced figures in tlie left margin of the Notes (i, 3, 3, &c.) refer 
to the chapters, tiic numbers in ( ) to the verses of the I lebrew IciL The mark^ 
means omil(s) or omitted by; alt. — as an alternative; i", 3" ^ first at tteond 
oeeurrentt, respectively, AV « Authorized Version; RV— Revised Version. 


tit QgFooft of (proverBs 






Sjl etiHtietif Q§ft6ficar scQofors of Butopt atib JRmertca 





Z^i (gooK of (provetBd 







QBooft of (ptovcv&$ 









Bnc^dBi ttMUftaihn of i^t ({lofee 






fgatiimott Bonbon* (ff>.C. 


^I Cg T^ ^ 


Semitic D 


Cam HK I fvtK. Mass. 



[AU rights rtstrvtd] 

i >. 

th (pofgcjtome qgfiBfe 

in Hebrew 


Paul Ibaupt 











dfi 6.50 







ciL 6.00 







M 6.00 

t4k 6.00 

Now ready: 

I. ^en(0{0, by C. J. Ball, Oxford. 120 pp. in eight colors, 1896. . 

3. £evi(iett0, by S. R. Driver, Oxford. 32 pp. in three colors, 1894 . 

4. ({ltttii6eT0, by J. A. Paterson, Edinburgh, 67 pp. in 8 colors, 1900 

6. Joefttd, by W. H. Bennett, London. 32 pp. m eight colors, 1895 

7. 3tt^S<(f» by Geo. F. MooRE, Andover. 72 pp. in seven colors, 1900 

8. f^dmucf, by K. Budde, Marburg. 100 pp. in nine colors, 1894 . 

10. 30A{d(» by T. K. Cheyne, Oxford. 208 pp. in seven colors, 1899 . 

11. ^ixtmKt%t byC. H.CoRNiLL,BresIau. 80pp. in black and red, 1895 

12. ^(Ricf, by C. H. Toy, Cambridge, Mass. 118 pp., 1899. . . . 

1 4. (p0dfmir, by J. Wellhausen, Gottingen. 96 pp. in black and red, 1895 

15. Q)rov(r60, by £. Kautzsch, Halle. 86 pp. in black and red, 1901 

17. 306, by C. Siegfried, Jena. 50 pp. in four colors, 1893 • • • 

18. ®dn{(f, by A. Kamphausen, Bonn. 43 pp. in black and red, 1896 

19. 6)rd-(P(((m{A(, by II. GUTHE, Leipzig. 72 pp. in ten colors, 1901 

20. €|roii{cf(0, by R. Kittel, Leipzig. 82 pp. in five colors, 1895 

In press: 

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Published by 



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in English 


Paul 1>auptt 

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31 ,36 [Addi— J. D. MiCHAELis, L^searUn der ConsonattUn sowokl als tUr 

Puttktt, wilch* er in der dtutschen Vbersettung dem gedruckten 
Text vorgtMOgtn hat odtr gleieh scMatMel in Neut orUntalische und j 
ex*getische Biblioikek, Part 7, pp. i68ff. — P. H.] 

33,36 (1,1) On the strophic division of the Prologue to Proverbs ef. the views 
of D. H. MUller in his Strophenbau in den Pfoverbien (VieniiK, 
1901) pp. ii (T. He divides 1,8-19 '^^^ ^ i^o ^^ introduction and 
two Rve line stanzas, substituting for *'p\ h* in ioi> [-|'^K] W/K' DK lo 
from io<=. it is true that K^ ^H is an awkward anticipation as it is 
not staled to what end the sinners try to mislead us. This warn- 
ing is not introduced before the beginning of the second stania 
(»v. lilt). 

Ibid., pp. 4ir. c. J is divided into tliree seven line stnnias and 15 
one final three line siania, the introduction (rv. 1.3) being con- 
ndered a part of the first stanza. 

Ibid,, pp, vii ff. c. 8 is divided into three double stanzas and one 
final single stanza, each of five lines. To obtain this he omits 
v. II (as the gloss of a reader from 3, ut), 13" (so, too, Bickell), 30 
=9"'i y^ ('»)'• n>nm), y^ ("Wrtm). 33* follows 33*, then 34' and 
3a'', then 34''-= &c. 

33ii3 ( fi) [Contrast my paper The Btginning 0/ the Babylonian Nimrod Epic 
in vol. 33 of the Journal of the American Oriental Society 
(New Haven, 1901). 35 

40 ( 8) C/: DuHM's commentary on Jeremiah (Tiibingen, 1901) p. 365. 

35,33 ( 3,7) See Dr. K. J. Griuh's paper on n^ in 38,21 (S,i8) Cf. p. 75, 
1. 36. JAOS 33. 

S't'S (>9i8) Cf. also Hos. 13,3 wms 3pr 'tf ip»^ hunv^ 09 nwS anii see 

Dr. K. J. Grimm's dissertation Euphtmistic Liturgical Appendixts 30 
in Mf ^^(Balttmore, 1901) p. 76; ^ also Ges.-KautzSCH. J 114, p. 

62,16 (26,8) Geo. Bkkr in his review of Toy's Commentajy on l'roverbs(7Xeo/, 
Literaturttiliing 36,287 (May 25 'ol) suggests R^JTB, KlrtlTB ■■ 
papfaplTHt pearl for K tlUID (he who honors a fool is like a man 
who mixes up pearls with stones). He raises the question whether 35 
papfiiplTnt is not a Semitic loanword. 
48 ( 33) The Syriac term for litharge is ^t***- — P- H.] 

aft?— as -«8>»«* (ptoette* *»«-eM— 85 

39 (7) 6 translates A 7** twice UAc): the second translation Kal irTiux4' '■^X i^ndpxci 
voO; jnitviiitiuiv (in</ a beggar has no judicious understanding presupposes tf^ 
in the beginning for fll p»i. Tliis change, however, must not be considered, 
with JXc, as a transcriptional error, but, with Lac, as an intentional alteration (t/ 
above, p. 70, 1. 16). It is an example of the frequent playing with texts on the S 
fonnula. Read not Ihii but that, and does not involve any real textual variant. 
We may therefore pass over DAUftiG.'s remark that v\ may be a misuoderstand- 
ing of the abbreviation 'Vrt for Jlin, and that the second rendering is in accord- 
ance with the translator's usual meihod ralber than the first 
(35) The third and fourth hemistichs in S: . 10 

hai^aa dvbpi blbwoiv aifi\\m, 

B; ht itfiToiecv tw\ Tif> bcoirbTi) aute^ocTM. 
are evidently a parallel to v. i^^*--. 

qto^ilB^vTC^ kqI afffxuvOJvTf; dvQpdjitou; uitEUKcXIoOncov' 

6 hi iTCTToiBilj; M Kuplifi (btppaveV'Tai. 15 

According to Lagarde both translations are by the first translator who, after 
having joined 35' to 25**, translated the whole v. 25 a second time. But it is 
difficult to see what led him to do anything of the kind. It is mudi more natural 
to suppose that the object of the second translation, 1. 1. C ^y^-^, was a more 
exact rendering of A. Lag. himself admits that tai^aa is intended to render so 
Dill Km/ear o/man as opposed to ^toai^aa. 


84 -••la^M^ (pro9(r60 ♦K>»»*>*- 27,26—28, 1 7 

26 In the recently found Hebrew fragments of Sir. these words run as follows: — 

jm 1133 n«^3 «r»i pj^ nnlpe n«^a w^ ^3 

SCHECHTER and Taylor, The Wisdom of Ben Sira (Cambridge, 1899) print on 
p. 4 of their Hebrew text: — *\S\ hictfl V^ ^3. In the original manuscript the K is 
crossed out and not simply marked as delendum by a superimposed dot {ff, Crit 5 
Notes on the Psalms, p. 80, 1. 33). This M is, of course, notliing but a transcrip- 
tional error due to the M in the following nMVD. I would therefore read simply 
nitf3. The two dots above the V and 3 in the original are placed a little more 
toward the left; they represent, of course, the ^\r\ of the initial \ and the dia- 
critical point of the Vf (contrast Gbs.-Kautzsch, $ 8,g). Both dots as well as the 10 
^UD under the tf were added by a later hand to avoid all possible misunder- 
standing. SCHECHTER and Taylor translate this hwb on p. xviii:— 

For there is a shame (?) that ladeth with iniquity; 
and there is a shame that is honor and grace. 
For \i9 TW^I^ they refer (on p. xviii) to Lev. 22,16: HDf^M pv onui IM'lefm and 15 
to Zeph. 3,18: r\rs\X\ n'!?)» nMlefO [f^Ml^O, or rather HKtefO {ff, above, p. 34, 1. 44) is 
fern, part Hif. of Mlef^ to pronounce {cf, Crit. Notes on Numbers, p. 57, 1. 8) for 
nHbf© = manii'tu, manli'(a)tu ; cf. Ges.-Kautzsch, $ 53 , o. — P. H.) In the Notes 
on the Text (p. 41) SCHECHTER and Taylor remark on t\imii "The dot indicates 
that the letter is to be canceled. For ]m TO3, cf. \ji 84,12." Cf. also Ryssel in 20 
TheoL Studien und Kritiken^ 1900, p. 375. We cannot explain why this quo- 
tation was introduced in this passage; Toy suggests that it may be due to a 
Christian scribe. 

27 (20) After V. 20, and in very loose connection with it, % adds: — 25 

pbAuT^a Kup(q) onipiZuiv d^GaX^dv, 
Kal ol diTa(b€UTOi dKparet^ Y^diaaij. 
He who stares with his eye is an abomination to Jhvh; 
and fools are of impudent tongue, 
Ew. (p. 235) and Del. agree in retranslating {ff 16,30): — 30 

]w? MP D^!?^D3) n^ n!t)> mn^ n3jnn 

Here and in v. 21, if anywhere, we may have some original lines of Proverbs 
which have been lost in iR. 
(21) After V. 21 € adds: — Kapb(a dv6^ou ^Kj^nrct xaxd, 

Kapb(a hi €660? J!:nT€t tviBaiv. 35 

The heart of the wicked seeks evil; 

but an honest heart seeks after knowledge, 
Ew. (p. 236) retranslates these lines as follows: — 

tnjn n^iT yf\ 3^1 n^-j «fpy yf^ 3!? 

while Delitzsch renders:— 4P 

injn wp50 ^^ 3i) jn »p50 ^t\ 'A 

On the probable genuineness of this hwb cf above on v. 20 (L 32). 

28 (10) On the fourth hemistich which € adds, xal oOx clacXcdaovTai €(? aOxd, cf above, 

p. 65, 11. 25 ff. So much is certain that this hemistich is not "a third corruption 45 
of £X io<=" but an expansion of v. io« into a hwi, which may be even original. 
(17) After V. 17 fb adds a variant of 29,17 and i8». But tlie difference between the 
third hemistich in the addition here (28,I7«) and 29,i8» is so great that it is 
doubtful whether they are renderings of the same original. In 6^ 28, 17* runs 
as follows: — oO \jii\ OiTaKoOai]<; («Sc.a OiraxoOaci, wliich Del. translates: jm«n \fh 50 
D)> ^2nto in) ?ev€i irapavdMq) listen not to godless people. On the other hand 
29,18* runs: oO \i^ OirdpEij («A OirdpEci) ^EnTnTi^<: Wv€i Tiapav6}x\^ give thyself 
not away as a leader for godless people. 

a5,9— 26, 1 1 -'•«fi8KK^ (ptO9(t60 ^^9hBi*>- 83 

24 Several indications, like ul6^ in the first hemistich and ifiaircp q)X6EB«^M) in the 
tenth, point to a Hebrew original, which is restored by Del., beginning from 
the third hemistich, as follows: — 

t-aw* m^a ie> wh tai nlefa h!?i ite jwV ann 5 

nw ^iai tana iw ^a nj^ 

But the last line here says the opposite of the Greek text; we should probably 
render: nvn ^nVa!?. 10 

In his JahrbUcher fur Bibl. Wiss,, 11 (1863) pp. 18 ff., Ew. regarded these 
verses as an original element in Proverbs, adding a retranslation into Hebrew; 
but in the second edition of his Salomonische Schriften (Gottingen, 1867) there 
is not a word about them, so he seems to have himself given up all belief in 
their originality. Certainly, both the structure, with its lack of exact parallelism 15 
or clean cut antithesis, and the thought, with its wild and in part absurd ex- 
aggerations in the sixth hemistich, are at variance with the spirit of the Hebrew 
Book of Proverbs. Baumg. finds additional arguments against the originality of 
this section in the prolix development of the same thought and in the fact that 
these verses are omitted in the other Versions. 20 

25 (9) The omission of 9* in % is to be explained by homceoieleuiom the translator 

passed over from 'yp^ at the end of v. 8 to "iP at the end of v. 9. 
(10) € adds after lo**, The hostility and enmity to thee will not pass afivay^ four 
hemistichs: — &XX* larai ao( Tan Oavdrqi. 25 

Xdpi<; xal qpiXCa ^XcuOcpoT, 

fi( Ti^pn^ov acauTip, fva ^f) ^irovcCbidTo^ T^vij, 

&XXd q>6XaEov rd^ 6bo6^ aou cOauvaXXdxTUJ^. 
but will be to thee like unto death. 
Favor and friendship make free; 30 

Preserve them for thyself that thou may est not incur reproaches. 
Guard thy ways rather, easy of intercourse. 
Ew. thinks from the bad Greek of these verses that they have been translated 
from Hebrew, but attempts no retranslation. According to Del. the original 
ran as follows:— xxwxft ^^ nMn ^3 35 

tvti waif a i^am nbw ik 

(20) After V. 20 € adds this bttffi: — 

i&aiTcp 01^^ ^v l^aTCqi xal axdiXriE ^Hkssf, 

oOtui^ XOtrn dvbpd^ pXdiTTei xapbiav. 40 

As the moth in a garment and the worm in wood^ 
^0 g^^f i(ils out the heart of man. 
It can hardly be doubted that this bvD is based on a Hebrew original, though 
it may have been added later on account of its affinity in thought with v. 20. 

EwALD (p. 224) translates: — ia!? naD VM mini f)^a ag*] isaa dd 45 

and Delitzsch:— la^ n!?p& xr\k min p v)»^ apnai i^aa tfp 

26 (i i) After V. 1 1 € adds a ^Vd which was recognized by Jag. to be identical with 

Sir. 4,21 (in Sir., however, these lines are joined to v. 20 with laxiv T^p): — 

SdTiv atcJxOvn ^irdtouaa dfiaprfav, 50 

xal CdTiv alcjx^vii, b6Ea xal X<tpi^ 
There is a shame which brings sin, 
and there is a shame *which leads /t> honor and favor. 

82 --oilS^H^ (ptOV<t6ir 4M>«f<>*- 33, 1 1—34,23 

22 as Hebrew original: — ]Pib W*Hi ^^rn nw, but considered this hemistich a variant 
translation of v. 19^; Daumg., on the other hand, thinks it is a gloss to 18,16. 
Following HiTZ. the second hemistich has been generally regarded as a variant 
translation of 1,19 (plf^ V^d Vt) HM). But this cannot possibly mean and con- 
quers the soul of him who receives the gift (Ew.); it can only mean but (h^vtoi) * 5 
// snatches away the life of its possessor (€ wrongly takes \hfy as a real plural; 
see, however, above, p. 34, 1. 31). In 1,19 this is at once plain, for there the 
seeking of illegal gain is the grammatical subject; vb)^a refers to him who is 
guilty of this striving after unjust lucre. In this passage, on the other hand, it 
must refer to him who seeks to give bribes and thus endangers liis life, viz,^ if he 10 
is caught by a just judge. It cannot refer to him who receives bribes; cf above, 
£w.*s translation (p. 81, L 52) and 3 animam autem aufert accipientium. It cannot 
be denied that this interpretation is somewhat artificial ; nevertheless it is far more 
probable than to supply, with DEL., as subject to dtpaipeirai, cavetousness in op- 
position to munificence. 15 

(11) For the hemistich missing in iR afler v. w^ cf above, p. 54, 11. 44 fT. 
(14) After V. 14 all texts of <5 read the following addition: — 

etalv 6bol KOKal ^vdimov &vbp6^, 

Kal oOk &YaiTA toO Airoarp^^iai dtr' aOrdiv* 

diT00Tp^9€iv bi bet &it6 6bo0 axoXid^ xal kokI^^. 20 

There are evil ways before a man \ and he hates to turn from them; \ but from 
a crooked and evil way one ought to turn. Form and thought show that we 
have here no verse but a prosaic gloss (to v. 14?). Nevertheless it is probable, 
especially on account of ^vdiinov &vbp6^, that the gloss lay before € in a Hebrew 
garb. According to DEL. the Hebrew original ran: — 25 

x^'w i|n} -pw Twxtb A HM IH orm noit^ yfcn^ ¥h\ w^h ^ifi!? D^)>n D^am m. 

23 (23) V. 23 is lacking in <5. Its originality, at least in the present context, is certainly 

dubious, since it breaks the connection between w. 22 and 23 fT. In ^CompL &c. 
this verse is added as usually from 6. 

24 (32) Afler V. 22 adds several hemistichs, ten to eleven in number according as the 

verse is divided: — X6tov 9uXaaa6M€vo^ ul6? diruiXefa; ^kt6? ?<rrai, 

b€x6p€vo^ hi ^b^Earo aOrdv. 
\ki\hiv MfcObo^ diT6 'ihhaorx^ paoiXct Xct^oOui, 

Kal oObiv ^icObo^ qOtoO dir6 TXdiooii^ yi^ ^EAOij. 35 

^dxaipa TXi&aaa paoiX^uj^ xal oO aapKlvri' 

8^ b' Av trapaboOQ, ouvrpipi^acTat. 
^dv Tdp 6EuvOQ 6 Ou^d^ aOroO, 

aOv veOpoK dvOpdiirou^ dvoXloKCi, 
xal dard dvGpdiiruiv xaTarpdiYci, 40 

xal autxalei tDoircp tpXdE, 

ifiarc dppuita cTvai vcoaaot^ dcTi&v. 
A son who keeps the word *of God* will be kept from destruction. 

(beyond translation) 

By no tongue shall a lie be said to the king, 45 

and no manner of lie shall pass his tongue. 
The kin^s tongue is a sword and not of flesh, 

and whoever is given over •to it* will be shattered. 
For when his wrath is violently excited, 

it consumes men and their sinews. 5^ 

And gnaws in pieces the bones of men, 
and bums them up as with fire, 

so that they are undatable for young eagles. 

20, 1 4—32,9 -'Mf|8«(K^ (ptO9(t60 4M»*eH<>*- 8 1 

xg The first bWQ forms an independent whole which no doubt goes back to a 

Hebrew original. Ew.'s restoration of that original (p. 183) runs: — 

iniMiiD^ n))nn vmi anpn )^*irV ^vo np 

Del.'s rendering probably comes nearer the original text: — 

The second ^VfD is very difficult, and the above translation is only an attempt 
The text is evidently very corrupt. Only one thing seems certain, namely that 
the last hemistich is intended to correspond to the superfluous third hemistich 
in iB V. 7, although the corruption of fiVtt^ vh into Httn Hb can hardly be explain- 
ed. But the principal difficulty lies in the fact that this last hemistich contains lo 
neither a sequel nor an antithesis to the preceding, probably owing to the cor- 
ruption of the latter. £w. (p. 184)' conjectured that the original ran: — 

itAtt^ ifb D^*«iK ^rpy pn: D^an hp*) 

//> who has too many friends has much evil; 

and he who pursues words will not be saved. 15 

i. e., he who pursues the empty words of hypocritical friends. But this interpre- 
tation is artificial and forced in the highest degree. Nor is Deu's restoration, 
proposed on p. 14 of the introduction to his Commentary, any better: — 

He who is the friend of many will be rewarded with einl; 20 

he who pursues words will not be saved. 
On p. 307 of Del.'s Commentary this last hemistich is explained to mean that 
courting the friendship of as many as possible is a pursuit of words which mean 
nothing and lead to nothing. On p. 545 Del. gives as a literal translation of the 
last but one hemistich: — \oXp:^ 3?1J npn nan^l. 25 

20 (14) VV. 14-19 are lacking in 6; in Cod. 23 of H-P and some minuscules {cf above, 

p. 80, 1. 41) they are added from 6. The omission of these verses is probably 
due to the insertion of vv. 20-22 in 6 after v. 9 (so Toy). 


21 (S) V. S is lacking in 6 for no apparent reason; the addition in Cod. 23 of H-P and 

6 minuscules is taken again from {ff above, 1. 28). 
(18) V. 18^ ^ 6; the addition in Cod. 23 of H-P and some minuscules xal dvrl cOO^ujv 
&a0v6€To^ (a//V diaOvcTo; or irapdvoMoOi which corresponds exactly to ill, is ac- 
cording to Lag. due to a later hand. 35 

22 (6) V. 6, ^ 0, is added again from 6 in Cod. 23 of H-P and some minuscules. 

(8) After v. 8 € adds two hemistichs: — 

&vbpa iXapdv xal bdniv eOXotct 6 6€6(, 

^araidTHTa hi Sptuiv aOroO auvT€X^a€i. 40 

The first hemistich is a more exact (and therefore probably later) though not 
entirely literal translation of v. 9% 1. ^., a doublet of the freer translation which 
follows. Tlie second hemistich, on the other hand, is a doublet of the translation 
of V. 8^, the only difference being that the translator read, and rendered by 
^QTaidTHTa, some other word than A ba^^. Lag. conjectured that he read b^n, 45 
which, however, is unknown to the OT; Baumg. thought that it was Vjn, which 
is graphically difficult; £w. was probably right in supposing that it was Kl^; cf 
\)f 35 \SX 26), 4 &c. 

(9) After V. 9 6 again has two additional hemistichs: — 

vIk^v xal Ti^i^v iT€pmoi€iTai 6 bitipa bo6(, 50 

Ti^v ^^VToi Hfuxi^v dqpaipetrai Tdiv xcxT^M^vuiv. 
The first hemistich, according to £w. (p. 201), ran in the original: mp^ maa) Tli\ 
)A0 pii He who gives gifts, gains honor cmd glory. Del. (p. 354) presupposed 

Frov. II 

8o --Kiia^K^ (prov(r6ir ^M>*ai<>^ 17,6—19,7 

17 (6) After v. 6 fb^ &c. (in (RA &c. after v. 4) adds this double hemistich: — 

ToO triaroO 8X0? 6 K<SaMO^ xi&v xPH^ct'^uiv, 
TOO hi diriOTOU obhi 6poX6^. 
To the faithful belongs the whole world of treasures ; 
but to the unfaithful not an obolos. 5 

Lag. considers this distich to be a transformation of v. 7; it was read: — 

and in translating it the order of the hemistichs was inverted. But this hypo- 
thesb is so artificial that it has rightly met with no acceptance. It is another 
question whether this verse ever had a Hebrew original. Ew. (p. 171) thought it 10 
had, and translated back (reading dirXi^arou for dirlarou, following 28,25): — 

Del., on the other hand, rendered: — 

But both translations cover up the strangeness of the expression 6 xdafjio^ rdfv 15 
XpiWxd'KMiy^ Ew. rendering k6(5\xo^ by the obscure n^ian [cf Crit Notes on Eze- 
kiel, p. 85, 1. 39. — P. H.], while Del. arbitrarily inverts nomen regens and nomen 
rectum. Toy may be right in maintaining that the form is Greek. A reason for 
the addition cannot be discovered, unless it be that trtard re-occurs in v. 7. 

(21) € reads, as a tliird hemistich, ul6^ hi 9p6vi^o^ €0(ppa(v€i MnT^pa aOroO. Regard- 20 
ing this antithesis to 21^, our opinion is the same as in the case of the addition 

to 17 1 5 (see above p. 79, 1. 52). In Hebrew this hemistich would run: — 

)ttM rm\f^ Dan pi {cf 10, i). 

z8 (8) Instead of v. 8 6 has, as JAg. recognized, a variant to the translation of 19,15. 25 
'i1ic thought is akin to that of ill 18,9 but not to 18,9 in (5. The anticipation of 
19,15 in this passage is, therefore, just as inexplicable as the omission of 18,8; 
this latter verse joins well to 18,7 and can hardly be a later addition. 

(22) After V. 22 % adds the following double hemistich: — 

8<; ^KpdXX€t T^vaixa dtaOf|v ^KpdXX€i rd dtaOd, jo 

6 b^ KOT^xu'v ^oixaX(ba fiqppuiv xal dacpi^^. 
He who casts off a good wife casts off good, 

and he who retains an adulteress is foolish and godless. 
Lag. rightly considers this !?VD to be a transformation of v. 22, which was added 
to the Hebrew text, ill a)0 MY& no^K MVD suggested to the glossator the 35 
word-play 310 H'»lllO naio n«^H K^SltJ; and, as Toy remarks, ^ is the natural anti- 
thesis. Quite uncalled for is Ew.'s hypothesis that this verse was added by a 
later hand in order to reduce the apparently too great praise of wives. DEL. 
recognized that the glossator was led by ill MYD to M^Slt), nevertheless he trans- 
lated:— pvni Mvi ^;9 nbMbs p'tnbi vinio vnjD n^io n«^K vnjts 40 
(23 ff.) VV. 18,23-19,2 are lacking in <D; in Cod. 23 of H-P and some minuscules they 
have been added from 0. 

xg (7) After v. 7»-»» (5 adds two D^!?lWi:— • 

Cvvoia d^aOfi rot? €lb6(nv aOxfiv ^TT»€»i 45 

dvf|p hi 9p<SviM0^ cOpi^aci aOri^v. 
6 iToXXd xaKoiTOUliv T€X€(noupT€t KaK(av, 
8<; hi ^p€e(2:€i X<Syou( 06 ouiOi^aeTai. 
Good consideration is near to those who understand it, (or, who care for it\ cf. 
Gen. 39,6); I and an intelligent man will find it, I He who wdrks much evil, 50 
finally consummates evil, \ and he who irritates to violent words (or rather, irri- 
tates with words, following, with DEL., Baumg., the reading of C Compi.^ X6toiO 
will not escape. 

i6, 1 7— 17,5 -««9^M^ (prop«t6e ^m>*8H^ 79 

x6 map nxn^b Mi^a piii ni\efy a^M n^wnn 

idAw ttrp5^ nipf^m n)>i W3ia* iTIiT ^wpjia 

Del.'s rendering of the three last D^VvfD is: — 

maH^ npn ova D^jwnni nvn^ ^itoi u)\bi vjj^ ^It^jm ta 

;nai nam D^n!?K^ nnaii pi» mkfj^ ai»n t^t n^B^m 5 

iD^V«f \»tia^ nB^^a VB^nli '"'Pl^^ '^PT ^^^ "^'"»' tt^*^^ 

[For ^nai preferable see above, p. 44, 1. 16. — P. HJ 
(17) After 17* 6 adds three hemistichs: — 

Mf^KO^ b^ p(ou 6bol biKaioaOvrj^. 
6 b€x6^€vo^ iTaib€(av ^v &t<i6oT^ Carai, 10 

6 b^ (puXdaauJv ^X^txou^ aoqpiaOi^acTai. 
and ways of righteousness *bring^ long life. 
He who accepts chastisement will be happy, 
and he who heeds rebukes will become wise. 
£w. regarded this as the original text, out of which the present text was sliorten- 15 
ed by li^-^ ^ being dropped because the combination of the first and the last hemi- 
stichs (17* and^) formed a suitable VttfD. That the intervening Unes in (5 are based 
on a Hebrew original can hardly be doubted. Del. raised the objection against 
their genuineness in the present context that all the ideas in the additional 
hemistichs had already occurred, but this argument would apply to many passages 20 
in iK. A more valid objection might be found in the fact that we have in 6 a 
double translation of ill 17^. Consequently <B's arrangement of v. 17 in three 
double hemistichs could only be made when the double translation of 17^ was 
already in existence; otherwise one hemistich would have been lacking. Ac- 
cording to Ew. (p. 167) the Hebrew original of 6 i7b.c.d was: — 25 

^p^:l pT D^D^ TiK) 

Dan^ n\nain '\^\\ ai»a n\n^ noiD np^ 
Similarly Del. : — oan^ nnain j^oW^ a>ba hm^ -w^d np^ pnii ^am d^o^ t^h 

The original translation of 17^ was, as Lag. recognized, the hemistich standing 
second in all texts (17^ in 6): — &t<i^^v hi Iuji^v aOroO q)€(aeTai aT6fiaT0^ 30 
aiiToO, (for 0x6^10X0^ aOroO = 1W instead of \%yi cf Sir. 14, i). The immediately 
preceding, more exact translation certainly read originally b^ before q)uXdaa€t, 
but this had to be struck out when the three preceding hemistichs had been in- 
serted after 17* so that 8^ qpuXdaaei came to stand at the beginning of the first 
hemistich of a VtEft) (Baumg.). 35 

(26) In place of 26^ has two hemistichs, the first of which, xal ^KpidZcTai 4auToO 
T]?|v ditdiXciav (/'. ^., as was pointed out by HiTZiG, 1T6 instead of ^ I1T6), is to 
be regarded as the translation of iK. According to Lag. the following hemistich 
(6 ^^vToi axoXid^ ^irl Tip 4auToD ard^ari q)op€t ri^v ditdiXeiav) also emanated from 
the first translator, "who, in the fashion of a midrash, developed statement and 40 
contradiction out of the hemistich." But there is no contradiction in the exact 
sense in this case ; besides, the same translator, after having read V!% for Xi in^D 
in 26^, could not read in^ in 26^. This third hemistich can, therefore, only be 
the gloss of some one who intended to give a more exact translation of 26^, 
based on the reading liTb. 45 

(30) The superfluous third hemistich, oOto^ Kd^iv6^ ^jtiv xaxia^ (« X\y\X\ na), originally 
belonged, it may be supposed, to v. 27^, where it was superseded by 6p6aa€i 
^auTi}i KttKd, /. e, njn nna (Jag., Lag.). 

Vj (5) After V. 5** 6 reads a third hemistich: — 6 b^ ^inaitXaxviZ;6M€vo^ ^XcnOi'iacTat. 50 
In this case the addition of an antithesis after the fashion of a midrash is con- 
ceivable (see above, 1. 40), and it may even, perhaps, have stood already in the 
Hebrew text of the translator (according to Del. *» DIT]^ vVp Dn)^). 

78 -^Kiia^K^ (pxoptx%0 4M>*»*»- 15.1—16,1 

15 (0 '^^^ beginning of this verse in (5, 6pT^ Ait6XXuoiv koI (ppov(pou^, is, in reality, a 

parallel translation of 14,35** (I-AG.); only the translator read pO instead of Bf^aD 
(J Ac). Drlitzsch, on the other hand, presupposes as the Hebrew original: — 

D'lni laMn d:i n&n. 
(6) read originally: ^v irXeovaloOoi] biKaiooOvi) taxO<; iroXXi'i, ol hi dacpci^ 6X6pi2:ot 5 
^^ T^? (^?W3, Lag.) dwoXoOvrai, /. ^., according to JAo., "IJJJ, the translator con- 
fusing nsj^ with npj^ uproot, pluck up (Eccl. 3,2), or nij?, which Toy also holds 
to have been the original reading. The younger and more exact version, which 
is not yet in ©S^ reads: — oTkok biKaluiv loxO? iroXXi^, 

KapiTol hk. d(J€p(Iiv diroXoOvrai. 10 

(18) Of the two translations in 6 of this verse the first, by its greater exactness, shows 
itself to be the younger which was subsequendy added by a reviser. The second 

|iaKp6euMo^ dWjp Karaap^aei xplaei^, 
bhi docpi^; ^T€(pei M&XXov. 
transposes the two heniistichs. Baumg. holds that this was done first by a 15 
clumsy compiler; but if this conjecture were correct this verse would have a 
different form. Further, the second translation read Dipn for n&n. For do^peia 
= Don cf, i|i 72 (^ 73), 6; Jer. 6,7; Ez. 12,19; Hab. 2, 17. 
(31) This verse was originally lacking in <5, but a reason for its omission cannot be 
discovered. In Cod. 23 of H-P and in a number of minuscules it is inserted ac- 20 
cording to the rendering of the other Greek translators: — oO^ dxcOov ^X^tX^u; 
(nhaiA, not nh^in as Lag. supposes) luif^t ^v ^^aip aoqpdiv aOXioOi^acTai. 

16 (i) In place of the first three verses of this chapter <5 reads in some MSS after 

^5f 33' — ^^^ M^To? €l, ToaoOTOv Totrcfvou acauxAv 25 

Kal ?vovTi Kuplou [toO OcoO] cOpi'iaci^ x^^^P^v. 
llicn in all MSS:— 

irdvra rd Spta toO xaireivoO cpavepd trapd t(|i Ocip, 
ol hi dacpet^ ^v \\yAp^ xaxQ 6XoOvTai. 
Finally after v. 5 (which however, according to LAG., is a subsequent addition 30 
in C, put together from 11, 20* and 21*): — 

dpx^ 6bo0 dTa6f)<; rd iTot€iv Td bfxaia, 

bcxrd hi irapd Ocip ^dXXov f^ OOciv Guala;. 
6 ZlnTiIiv Tdv K6piov cOpi^aci fvii^cnv M€Td btxaioauvn^, 

ol hi 6p6(&^ lr|ToOvT€^ aOxdv cOpi^aouaiv clpnvrjv. 35 

The greater thou art, the ntore do thou humble thyself; 

then wilt thou find grace before JtiVH, 
All the works of the humble are open before God, 

but the godless will perish on an evil day. 
The beginning of the good way is the doing of that which is right; 40 

this is better pleasing to God than slaughtering of sacrifices. 
He who seeks fHVif, will find knowledge and justice, 
and they who seek Him uprightly, will find peace. 
The substitution for ill 16,1-3.5 of four entirely different D^^Vb was evidently 
due to the confusion which must have existed in the Hebrew text from which © 45 
was translated. In these verses are arranged as follows (but with several 
variations in different MSS): — 15,27; 16,6; 15,28; 16,7; 15,29; 16,8.9; 15. 30; 
32,33; then the two first of the above D^VttfD; then 16,5 and thereafter the two 
other D^ittfD. Nevertheless we cannot doubt that these four xshw^ are based on 
a Hebrew original, though it may have been somewhat younger thanilt 16,1-3. 5o 
According to Ew. this Hebrew text may have run as follows: — 

tin K«Dn mn^ ^jfiVi i«ffti my iVijs 

man^ x\y\ ova tk^ytrw nw nai )j)> ^sm ia 

12,26—14,23 — rta^M^ (provetSff ♦•4>"«*»- 77 

12 (26) After V. 26* 6A &c. (but not ©V) add: — 

al hi tv^^MQi i^^v d(7€Pt£iv dveiruiKcT^ ^1// M^ p/atfs of the godless are unfair. 
Lag. sees in this, no doubt lightly, the original translation of v. lo**. Then 
follows in ©AV and, in brackets, also in (^Sac. — dMaprdvovTa^ (©V-^l>0 kuto- 
bidiEcrai xaxd. That this hemistich comes from 13,21'' is cerdiicd by the fact 5 
that in <6^ and some minuscules 13,21^ is further added. 

13 (6) The omission of this verse in ^v can only be accidental, 6^ &c. read biKaioauvii 

qpuXdaaci dndKOu^ 6bip, rou^ hi daepei^ (paOXou^ iroiei 6^apT(a. The second 
hemisdch here takes nMbn erroneously as subject; nevertheless it may be the 10 
work of the first translator (so LAG.). 
(9) After this verse ©^v (3 after v. 13) add: — 

Hiuxai b6Xiai irXavuivrai ^v &^apT(aK, x«<8^»M- 

blKaiOl b^ 0(KT€(p0UaiV Kal ^XcUfCnv." (a) %^ cXiOuatv. 

For the second hemisdch cf, with LAG., V 37 (© 36), 21**: — 6 b^ biKaio^ oIk- 15 
T€{p€i Kal biboT. £w. (p. 148) translates this addition: — 

Del. renders:— mn^ifii \\\\ Y^'i\ Mbnn mvn n^&n Vbl 
A connection with vv. 9 or 10 cannot be established, TOY remarks, The couplet 
is not improbably a combination of glosses. 20 

(11) <B reads as a third clause in the verse: blKaio^ otKTcfpei Kal Kixpf ■=* n}!?^^ ph p^V, 
evidently only a misplaced variant to 9* (see above), following H1112 (6 iii),5 : — 
XPn^^'T^^ &v]^P ^ oiKTipfiuJv Kal KixpiKiv. 
(13) After V. 13 63 add three hemistichs: — 

ulip boXfqj oObdv Carai dta66v* 25 

oU^Ti] b^ aoq)i|i cOoboi SaovTai irpdHcK, 
Kul KareuOuvOr^acTui \\ 6b6^ aCiToO. 
Ew. (p. 149) translates:— nam n^^3l^ ^'DljfD inpi aito 1^ ]*H nD^D ]a 
and Del.:— \\sx\ n^^w^^ rbpD w^hr^ osn najn aw iV ]^k nono p 

The content suggests 17,2 (Ew.), and a Hebrew original is very probable. Toy 30 
says, Tliis is apparently a scribal addition, taken, perhaps, from some current 
coUecUon of proverbs. 
(15) Between 15* and ^ fb reads t6 b^ TvtXfvai v6fiov biavola^ ^axlv d^aOf^^, word for 
word the addiuon in 9,10. The addiUon here is intended to explain what is 
meant by aOveai^ dtaOi^ in I5^ 35 

14 (22) All MSS offer a double translation. First, a younger: — 

irXavdiMevoi TeKTalvouai KaKd, 

^Xcov hi Kal dXi'iOeiav T€KTa(vou0iv dtaOol* 
then: — oOk ^irlaravTai CXcov Kal itIgtiv t^ktovc^ KaKuiv, 40 

^XcHfioaOvai hi Kal irlarcK itapd r^KToaiv dfaOoi^. 
which can be recognized again as the older by its deviadng further from ^. In 
this second case the translator probably read: — 

laiB ^enh^ naKi noni naH) ion y\ ^»nh )jnj \ih 

Can we regard this as the original text, or is it merely due to dittography ol 45 
DDKl ion? The latter view is the more probable one, unless HbM^ IDH were ar- 
bitrarily supplied from the second hemisdch in order to provide an object for 
Vl\ On the other hand, *BnnV may possibly be original {cf above, p. 47, I. 42). 
(23) Instead of 23** gives an antithesis to 23* (Lag.), reading ailf for ajy (HiTZ.). Ac- 
cording to Lag. this antithesis, 6 hi /)bO^ Kal dvdXTnfo^ ^v ^vbelqi £(jTat, was due 50 
to a Christian who had in mind Luke 16,19-31; 10,42. For ^v ^vbclcf Lag. 
conjectured ^v 6b0vQ; it may have come from tlie lost second hemistich (*^\DnDV). 
That f)bO<; Kal dydXtn'^'o^ is a free translation of D^^fikf nan (so Toy), is impossible. 

76 "iW 'OW (ptovetrBir ^M>*ai<>^ 10^—13,13 

9 best escaped, and thereafter (perhaps by another hand) a positive admonition 

is added on the model of 5,i5flr., strengthened with the promise of 9,11. 

10 (4) After 10,4 (but in Cod. 23 of H-P and in some minuscules before the addition 

to 9,12) adds: — ul6^ iretraibeu^^vo^ 0096^ larax, 5 

Ti|i b^ Aqppovi biaK6vqi xp^<7€Tai. 
A well trained son will be wise, and the fool will he use as a servant. According 
to £w. the Hebrew original ran perhaps as follows: — 

)Ta naps ^^m iT,t oan notb p 

The connection of tliis bVD with v. 4 is loose, but it probably had a Hebrew 10 
original which was added by some transcriber on the margin. 

11 (3) VV. 3** and 4 are lacking in (5; in their place v. 10** is inserted (J Ac, Lag.); 

in most MSS (6AS &c.) the gap b filled by an insertion after v. 2 (in some be- 
fore V. 5) from 6. Since ill nplll, according to the parallelism, seems to mean 15 
altns (so Lag.) the omission of v. 4 may be regarded, with Heidenh. and Daumg., 
as a protest against the doctrine of merit from good works; cf. above, p. 41, 1. 36. 

(10) For the omission of vv. 10* and 11** in (10** was inserted in the place of v. 4; 
see above 1. 13) and the filling of the gap from 9, cf. above p. 44, II. 44 fT. 

(16) The plus in <D between ill 16* and ^ has been accepted in our text; see p. 9, 20 
11. 39 and 41 and cf. p. 44, 11. 50 fT. Baumg., however, explains it as an addition 
by the translator who, not recognizing the parallelism between 16* and ^ in ilt, 
tried to help it out Toy also doubts the originality of <5's text on the ground 
that throne is used nowhere else of a person. In this, however, he has not taken 
account of Is. 23,23 ("^^^ ^DS) which was probably in the mind of the author of 16^*^ 25 

12 (11) After v. II 6 adds: — 6? iaxiv f|bd? iv oTvujv biarpipat^, 

^v Tot^ dauToO 6xupdipaaiv KaroXcItiiet drt^lav. 
3 renders thb literally, qui suavis est in vini demorationibus, in suis munitioni- 
bus relinquit contumeliam. According to Ew. (p. 141) the Hebrew original was 30 

perhaps:— \\h^ aip^ un^Hj p r\\yh7\i oyino 

Del. (p. 543) renders:— :rnl«Da p^p atj^^ p^ >r\w^ i3)>no 

The strangeness of the Greek expressions point to a Hebrew original, /'. e. to an 
illustrative quotation on the margin of the MS from which the Greek was trans- 
lated. This was not, however, an exemplifying gloss on v. 11** but stood in some 35 
relation or other to v. 12. Baumg. rightly finds it noteworthy that ^v 6xupdi^a- 
otv occurs again in v. 12^, and Del. is certainly on the right track in presuppos- 
ing vmWba {cf nwo in v. 12) as its Hebrew equivalent. But whether fb 11*^** is 
an attempt to restore v. 12 in ill after it had become illegible and unintelligible 
{cf above, p. 71, 1. 28), or is simply a gloss caused by ni»0, we cannot venture 40 
to decide. 
(13) After V. 13 6 adds:— 6 pX^iTU)v Xcta A€n6i^0€Tat, 

6 hi auvavTCtJv ^v irOXai; ^KeX(\)f€i Mfuxd<;. 
According to E\v. (p. 143) the Hebrew original was: — 

:nwM Vn^ D^ny«^a onpoi orn^ \^ y\ 45 

He who is kind-hearted, will find compassion; he who is helpful in the gates, 
will deliver souls. But the rendering of ^kOXImici by Vr is very arbitrary, and 
we should rather expect an antithesis. Del.'s rendering is certainly better, which 
runs:— t rt5 H3T D^'^y?'^ »P^ DHT^JjaiO 

Here Del. takes Dnj^«D U^fJl in the sense he who carries on a lawsuit and re- 50 
gards WM {crushes himself) as possible in place of WW. The proverb is most 
probably based on a' Hebrew original, but how it came into its present context 
is inexplicable. 

9, 1 8 -«i«8H3H^ (prop«t6» ^W»»en^ 75 

biairopeuerai hi bi* dvObpou ip^\xov 
kqI t^v biaTCTQYu^vnv ^v biiiidibcaiv, 
auvd^ci hi x^P^iv dKapirfav. 
W4^ props himself on lies hunts the wind, \ he pursues fluttering birds; I for 
he abandoned the ways of his vineyard \ and wandered from the paths of his 5 
farmland; U he strays through waterless wastes \ and a land in regions of thirst; \ 
and he gathers with his hands unfruitfulness. According to £w. (p. I2S) tlie 
Hebrew original ran:— :«|13 triVi «jnT HVI) nvw njh "ip«f ^V IJ^Wi 

inpn \rrl» ^^ijm\ \cro ^sm ixp ^a 

iD^»» ncijw pm D^D ^ta ]to^w'a nap^i lo 

n^^i vn^a «|Dhi 

Del., on the other liand, rendered it: — 

xrwtTj D^ngii «|^n^ Hwi nn nyv npa^a ipwin 
ipK9^^ mw^ pm D^D ]^H •una naijn 15 

Here, too, the possibility of a Hebrew original cannot be denied. In form and 
content these verses have real life and weight. But they are certainly not the 
original sequel of £Si v. 12. They appear to have been added (perhaps as an 
illustrative quotation) by a later sage in order to warn the disciples of that true 20 
wbdom, which springs from the fear of JHYH {cf v. 10), to keep aloof from 
false and lying wisdom (above all, probably, from heatlien pliilosophy), which 
promises satisfaction but brings only sad disappointment. 
(18) % adds four double hemistichs: — 

dXXd diTOTTi^briaov, \if\ xpov(ai)^ ^v xiji Tdirqj,* 25 

\kvfii ixixarixoxi^ t6 a6v d^^a? irpd^ aOri^v* 
oOtuj^ T^P biap^iai] Obuip dXX6Tpiov 

Kal C)iT€ppi^ar| iroTa^dv dXXdTpiovT 
ditd b^ dbaro^ dXXoTpCou diT6(7xou, 

Kal ditd iTHT^^ dXXoTp(a^ ^i^ itfij^, 30 

tva iroXOv Ii'iari^ xP^^vov, 
^^^^,^1^ irpooTeeq hi 001 Irn luif^^. M»to.<i»# 

(«) •S*^*+a'it^«. — (p) So all except ^ which readi 6iofi3. — (7) This hemistich in ^^caAj ||V ^ , 

But flee, linger not in the place, I nor let thine eye dwell on her; for so passest 35 
thou through strange water \ and over a strange river, From strange water ' 
abide thou far I and from a strange fountain drink not, || that much time thou 
may est live I and that years of life may be added to thee. The Hebrew original 
ran according to Ew. (p. 126): — 

xrci "I'ry n'vn k^i nDpDn nnnn S\k i\ dm ^a 40 

Af^A Vm nai \ycici\ DHD Viiin ont o'&i 

:D«n niittf i^ ib^dvj D^an d^d^ n^nn jpbV 

Del. renders (p. 543): — 

tn^VM T^')^ M^n ^M> n&ipDa nnt^n I^m^ mtt& n^D *]M 45 

nt DipDd ritt^n Vmi nnt D'dd Mi-prr) 

D^^n nuw 1^ ifc^DV) D'^an D*a'» n^nn ]po!J 

The last line agrees exacdy with Ew.'s translation. 

That these lines are based on a Hebrew original must be admitted. But they 50 
are certainly the addition of some one who missed an express statement of how 
dangerous the counsel of Folly in v. 17 must be. Advice is therefore first given 
in four hemistichs how the danger of being led astray by the adulteress may be 

74 -««9^M^ (prop«r8r ^M>*ai<>^ 7,1—9, 12 

6 \xr\hi dtp. is only a free rendering of iR and does not presuppose npjj, as Baumg. 
thinks. The second rendering, \xr)hi auvapiraaOQ; .4it6 ti&v aiix^^ pX€q>dpuJV, 
which subsequently pushed its way into the text, is later and more exact 

7 (i) Between vv. i and 2 C adds:— uU, xCjia t6v Kdpiov Kal laxita^Ki, 5 

iTXf|v hi aOroO \i^ cpopoO AXXov. 

Del. (p. 543) renders this:— tiniw KTn ^H) ptnm mn^ nK na? ^ia 

This verse has undeniably a Hebrew flavor, and Ew. held that its original 

ran:— iHTH ^H n)>*?ab) ptm nw* nH naa *» 

He was inclined to insert this after v. 3 on account of its breaking the connection 10 
so badly between vv. i and 2. More probably this verse is a protest on the 
part of some reader, Hebrew or Greek, against the overemphasis upon a human 
command as opposed to the fear of God which should alone be considered. 
(25) The second hemistich in this verse, which is lacking in 6^, is supplied by ^ScaA 
&c. in the form xal jifj trXaviiefl^ ^v dTpdiroi^ aOxf^? from 9; c/. Middeldorpf, 15 
Cod. Syr,'HexapL^ p. 576. 

8 (21) © adds: — ^dv dvafT^IXui 6jitv xd Ka9' ^^^pav T»v6iui€va, 

^vnMovcdou) Td ^ alilivo^ dpiO^f^aat. 
If I declare to you what takes place from day to day, 20 

/ must remember to recount the things that have been from eternity. 
This may be based on a Hebrew original. According to Ewald (p. 122) it 

ran:— inftp!? xh\f> *mK n-otm w or^ yotk ds!? tih dh 

while Del. (p. 543) renders it: — 

iD^^po ifipi no natH DV or mp^ ytn< nK oa!? n^iK ^a 25 

But it is certainly only an addition for the purpose of facilitating the transition 
from the section which described rd xaO' V^P<>v T>vd^€va (vv. i -21) to tliat on 
Td ^ at(Dvo<; (vv. 22 ff.); so Baumgartner. 
(29) Tlic omission of v. 29* in C can be due to accident only. Tlie inserdon in ©Sea A 
^v Ti|i TiO^vat Tfl OotXdaai] dxpipaapdv aOroO xal Obaxa oO irapcXcOaovrai ard^a- 30 
TO? oOtoO is derived from 9. 

9 (6) renders v. 6* diroXcdrcTe dq)poaOvTiv (reading *nto with all other Versions, and 

apparently rightly, instead of ill D^Hnto) fvo €(? Tdv atdiva paoiXcOonTC (a free 
rendering of ill rm, influenced by Wisd. 6,20 ^mOuM^a &pa ao(p(a? dvdtci ^irl 35 
PaaiXcfav). The further addition kqI Isyiixsix-x^ <pp6vri<Jiv and seek after insight 
may be explained on the supposidon that to the above free rendering, as so 
often, a correction xal Ii^(T€T€ was added. From this arose by error lTiT»\aaT€, 
and then the necessary object was added in the form of q»p6vn(Jiv. This hypo- 
thesis would seem to be simpler than Lag.'s that <pp6vn(Tiv, originally a gloss to 40 
auvcaiv in the third hemistich, had come to stand after Zi^O€T€, and that Zi^acTC 
had then, for the sake of sense, been changed by a reviser to Xx\'Ki\<5o.i^, 
(10) The addition in (5 Td T<3tp Tvi&vai v6|iov biavo(a<; ^cjtIv dtaOf^? for to know the 
Imw is (the test of) true knowledge (according to DEL., p. 543, -» te^ mui njn!? 
aib) cannot be regarded as a second, and still less, with LAG., Baumg., as the 45 
authentic translation of Hi lo**. It is rather the gloss of some transcriber for 
whom all wisdom and knowledge of God was comprised in the study and know- 
ledge of the Law. 
(12) Between vv. 12 and 13 (5 adds: — 

8<; ^p€(b€Tai ^irl \)f€0b€Oiv, oOto? irot^afvei dv^^iou?, 50 

6 V aOT6? bidiEcTai tfpvca ircTdMCvo* 
dirAmev fdp 6bo0? toO 4auToO dMircXCbvo?, 

ToO? bi dSova? TOO Ib{ou Y^uiptiou ircirXdviiTar 

5i3— 6,25 . -««9^M^ (ptop«r6» ♦K>*»*>^ 71 

4 and on p. 543 he renders more literally: — 

nufpyi ^Hokf ^ami miT jm^ j^d^ •»3m 

According to Ewald {Spruche Salomo's*^ p. 94) the Hebrew text read as 

follows:— nVKDlTD DH nOM) niiT 1^ fft^ T^l O 5 

We doubt, however, whether these two verses are derived from a Hebrew original: 
the first contains a gloss on ill 27* in which right and left is interpreted ethically 
and made to apply to the right and to the crooked ways; the second, on the 
other hand, is a dogmatic correction {cf. above, p. 70, 1. 16) of ^ 26 where man 10 
is commanded to remove his foot from evil^ and consequently looked upon as 
capable of molding aright his own ways. Lag.'s suggestion deserves considera- 
tion that it was a Greek speaking Christian who, having in mind the much dis- 
cussed doctrine of the two ways^ first added these words. 

5 (3) ^ prefixes \x^ iTp6a€X€ 906X13 tuvqikC heed not an eitil woman. This is evidently 

not based on a Hebrew original but is an imitation of v. i, uU, i^% aoq){(f irp6aex€, 
freely expanded in order to bridge the chasm between vv. 2 and 3 of ^. 
(23) <5 has two translations of v. 23^ The first, oOto< reXcuTd ^€Td ditaibcOruiv, 
which is probably the original rendering, takes !) in the sense among and )^K 20 
*^Dtt as paraphrase of a personal adjective, dissolute {cf. Ges.-Kautzsch, $ i52,u). 
The second, kqI (evidently substituted for the original oGto^ in order to obtain 
a better connection) dirdiXcTO h\ d(ppoa6vr)v, is a later correction which was 
subsequently inserted after 23^. 


6 (8) After v. 8 <5 has a long addition which may perhaps be divided, with SWBTE, 

into seven hemistichs: — fj iropcOOnTi irpd^ Tf|v fi^Xiacrav 

Ti^v T€ ^ptaafav di^ ac^vi^iv iroietrar 
f)^ ToO^ it6vou^ PaoiXct^ Kal IbidDTai irpd^ 6t€(av irpoa- 30 

iTo6€iW| b^ ^ariv trdoiv Kal ^irlboEo^* [qp^povrai, 

Ka(ir€p oOaa tQ ^^V''^ daOcvi^^, 
Ti^v aoq)(av Tifii'iaaaa irpoi^xdn* 
Or go to the bee^ I and leant how diligent she is^ \ and ho^v nobly she does her 
work. Kings and people use her labors for their liealth, \ and with all she is 35 
honored and beloved. || Although weak in strength, she is highly esteemed, | be- 
cause she honors wisdom. There can be no question of a Hebrew original for 
this addition (HiTZ., Lag., Toy). It originated with some Greek who thought 
that the bee was at least as well suited as the ant to be an example of diligence 
and prudence; but to the Hebrew OT such a view of the bee, as Baumg. rightly 40 
points out, is quite foreign. 
(11) After a somewhat arbitrary translation of this verse 41 adds: — 

^dv b^ &OKvo< 9\<i, i^Hei i&airep irriT^ 6 dfi^Td^ aou, 
f\ hi Svbcia iljairep xaxd^ bpo^eu^ dirauTOMoXi'iaci. 
But if thou art unwearied, thy harvest-wealth will come as a fountain, 45 

And want will desert thee like a bad runner. 
These words are evidently an antithesis to v. 1 1 of ^, but in all probability were 
balanced against 6 in its present form. It is therefore useless, with Lag. and 
others, to labor over a supposed Hebrew original and its possible origin. Tlie 
reference to harvest is derived from v. 8, and the comparison of it to a richly 50 
streaming fountain may have been suggested by such passages as Amos 5 , 24. 
(25) 6 renders 25^ in a double form: first, by \kvfii dtp€u6Q^ aoT^ 6(p6aXfioi^ which 
is the original translation; it presupposes *]^b)^by3 instead of A n^fiy^pa, but 
Pkov. 10 

72 ' iCT 'OH q>topetS0 -^to^tH- 2,19—4,27 

a dXX6Tptov rf^^ biKoCa^ tvib^vi^. v\i, yi^ ac KaraXdpi) xaxi^ pouXi^ to a different 

Hebrew original. Toy's judgment (p. 51 of his Commentary) is correct: — "This 
is not a scribal heterogram of the particular words of ill, but an independent, 
allegorizing reading of the schools. The next section also is taken as a descrip- 
tion of moral folly and is introduced by the words v\i, \if\ k. t. X." 5 
(19) 6 gives two translations of 19^: oOb^ \i^ xaToXdpuxnv TpCpou^ eOOcfo^ (certainly 
only a free rendering of M D^^n n^n'Ut and not another reading) and oO ydp koto- 
Xa^pdvovTal Oitd ^viauTiBv Iu)f^^ (^'n matted ^^^^,)« Tlie first, and more exact, 
translation must again be considered, with Lag. (against Baumg.), to be a cor- 
rection of the second and somewhat strange rendering. The variant Ond ^vtau- 10 
Tdiv I. has probably arisen under the influence of 3,2 (so Toy), although 6 there 
renders D^^n nw» with ljr\ lujf^^. 

(21) In 6 we find two translations of this verse. One, rendering it xpr\aTo\ laovxai 
olKi^Topc^ ff\^, Akokoi hi ((5^* Kol 6atoi) OiroXtqpO/iaovTOi ^v a()r% is found in €S*c.a.A 
and (along with the other form), in Compi.^ Aid. This is regarded by Lag. and 15 
Baumg. as the more original. The second rendering, 5ti eOOel^ KaTaaKnvdiaoum 
Xf^v, Kal 6aioi OiToX6i9Gi^aovTai ^v aOr^, is the text of %^ and, according to Toy, 
appears to show the hand of an Alexandrian reviser. 

3 (15) Between 15* and ^ 6 has two doublets: — oOk dvriTdEeTai ((SScaA dvTixdaacTat) 20 

aOr^i oObiv iTovTip6v (read, with JAg., Grabb, Baumg., iToenT6v) and eOfvuiard^ 
^axiv irdatv toT^ ^TT^^Couaiv aOx^j. The latter would probably run in Hebrew 
n'bK D'anpn-^dV M^n np*]Ui, and thus varies absolutely from £t. According to Lag. 
these two hemistichs, but in reversed order, represent the original translation, 
while 1 5*** is the work of a reviser. 25 

(16) After v. 16 % has two additional hemistichs. One of these (^k toO aT6^aT0^ aOrfjc 
^KiTopcOcTOi biKaioaOvii) is almost word for word from Is. 45,23 (changing aOrfjc 
to Mou, as the utterance is from the mouth of God) and the other (v6^ov hk xal 
^eov ^irl T^diaavi^ <pop€i) is a rough rendering of iK ajitt6"Vj> 10n'n*^V)1 in Prov. 
31 1 26. 30 

(22) Afler this verse % repeats v. 8 with slight variants. 

(28) % adds oO ir<^P olba^ t( t^Ectqi \\ lirioOaa from 27,1, only writing olba^ instead 
of TtvdiaK€K. 

4 (*o) • gives two translations of 10^: — xal irXiieuvOi^aeTai (6Sc.aA-|.(joi) ^rn Zujf|c <you 35 

and 7va act x^vwvTat iroXXal 6bol p(ou. The latter departs much more from ilt 
but is no doubt more original O^Sm Lag., Baumg.). The strange 6bo( does not 
point to a different reading (nimM for nuv, Lag.) but is only a transcriptional 
error induced by 6bo6^ in v. 11 (so Toy). 
(27) After this verse €3, but not ^S", add four lines: — 40 

6bo0^ T<^P '^^^ ^K bcEiiBv olbev 6 6€6^, 

bl€aTpa^^^vot hi clctv al Hi dpiaTcpuiv 
aOxd^ bd 6p6d^ iroii^act Td^ xpoxid^ ecu, 
Td^ bd iropcfa^ ecu ^v clpi^vi) irpodSci. 
For God knows the ways of the right hand, 45 

But the tvays of the left are crooked. 
Thy paths He Himself will straighten 
And lead forward thy ways in peace. 
On p. 39 of his commentary DEL. has the following very neat rendering into 
Hebrew:— jdV^HWO ^3^1 D^rpJ^I niiT jn^ D^i^^.iJ ^3m o 50 


• The asterisk in §S* &c. denotes corrections by the original scribe. 

1 ,7—2, 1 6 -«<«I8<K^ Cprovcr Str ^K>-efi»- 7 1 

After 24,22 iK and 6 differ also in the arrangement of the text: after the 
Collection of Aphorisms in 22, 17-24,22 has the first half of the Sayings of 
Agur benjakeh (30, 1 - 14), preceded by five proverbs not found in SSi (see below, 
p. 82, 1. 32); then follows the conclusion of c. 24, viz. vv. 23-34, containing the 
additional small collection of Aphorisms of the Sages (D^D3nV xh\^ D3), and there- 5 
after comes the second half of the Sayings of Agur benjakeh (30,15-33), con- 
taining the Numerical Proverbs (see above, p. 67, L 32) and followed by the 
Sayings of Lemuel in 31,1-9. 

In the final chapters 25-31 the arrangement is practically the same in both 
recensions except that, as stated above (11. 2.6), ^^ Sayings of Agur and Lemuel 10 
(30-31,9) precede in (6 cc. 25-29, the first section (30, 1-14) being inserted be- 
tween vv. 22 and 23 of c. 24, and the final section (30,15-31,9) after the last 
verse of c. 24: thus cc. 25-29 are inserted, in 6, between vv. 9 and 10 of c. 31 ; 
and the section 24,23-34 (D^D3nV n^M D2) is interposed between vv. 14 and 15 of 
c. 30. This arrangement of (5 (22, 17. 24, 22; 30, 1 -14; 24, 23-34; 30, 15 -33; 31, 1 -9; 15 
25-29; 31 1*0-31) is manifestly inferior to that of A. — P. H. 


Z (7) Between 7* and 7^ of iK two additional hemistichs are inserted in <S: — 20 

aii^^ox^ hi dxaO^i irflai rot? iroioOaiv aOxi^v 
eCia^Peia hi cl^ 6c6v dpxi^ aloOi^acui^, 
The first of these is derived from i|i no (iK in), 10, where, also, it is preceded 
by &PX^ aoq>(a^ <p6po^ Kuplou; the other is evidently a second translation of 7* 
(so, too. Toy). 25 

(12) Instead of 12^ % reads kqI Apuj^ev aCiToO t^v |iv/mqv ^k t^I^i which is probably 
derived from mi 33 (ill 34), 17 toO ^EoXcGpeOaai ^k '\f\% t6 |ivnM6auvov aOrifiv. 
It may be a substitute for some illegible passage in the Hebrew original (so 
Lag.); cf Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 80, 1. 6; p. 86, 1. 15; p. 138, 1. 28; p. 152, 1. 3, &c. 

(14) In (6 14^ has a double translation: — 30 

Koiv6v hi paXXdvTiov KTnadi|i€6a irdvTe^ 
Kal liapalTTTriov ^v TtvnSi^TUJ fmiv. 
The first and freer rendering is to be regarded, with Jag., Lag., and Baumg., 
as the original; the second is lacking in Cod. 23 of Holmes and Parsons. 

(18) 41 adds a third clause f) hi KaTaaxpoq)^ dvbpiZiv irapavd^ujv \iwiii\for the endiox 35 
destruction) of the godless is evil, Heb. pn jwn ^W3h i^rw (Del.). This brings to 
mind <D's version of Job 8,19: 6ti KaTaaTpo<pf| dacpoOq ToiauTn, but is probably 
nothing but an explanatory gloss to the preceding 6r)aaup(Iouaiv ^auToT^ KOKd. 

(21) Between 21* and ** inserts ixii hi irOXai^ buvaaxujv irapebpcuci and she sits at 
the door of the mighty, which is evidendy derived from 8,3 where irapd T^p 40 
irOXaK buvaOTiDv irapcbpcOci is an inaccurate translation of ilt nnp ^dV D^yv T^. 

(27) fb (but not (ftp) adds a fourth clause ^ 5Tav CpxHTai i^^iv dXe6po^, an evident 
doublet to 27^, Kal fixav ^pxHTai Ci)liIv 6XiiffW kqI iroXiopKia, which was sub- 
sequently added and connected by means of fj. According to Lag., this fourth 
clause 27^ was rather a second translation of 27* kqI ib^ dv d9{Kr)Tai OpTv &q>vuj 45 
66pupo(, which was moved down here because a parallel was required for 27^ 

a (2) <S gives two translations of 2^: — Kal uapaPaXcK Kapb{av aou elq ouveaiv and irapa- 
PaXeK hi aOT]p)v ^nl vouedTr^oiv (<I5P vouOcalav) tiJj ulip ecu. The first rendering 
is, without doubt, a correction of the second and more original one, which pre- 50 
supposes as Hebrew original: n^nnV *]}:3^ nbPi. It is probably connected with the 
reading DM ^3 in 3* which is attested by ^, 
(16) It is useless to attempt to trace % toO paxpdv ae iroif^aai dird 6boO cOGela^ xal 


Mmtimat BiMB and Igemieticite 

found in the 
Septuagintal Version of the Book 

Mints tvanftng i» l^td (ptrefon. 

[he SEPTUAGENTAL version of the Book of Proverbs coa- 

5 a number of D'SrD tuid hemUtichs not found in the received 

^Hebrew text (t/T 1,7.14. [8.31.37; 3,3.19.21; 3, 15. 16.11.18; 4,10. 

: ji3'33: 6,8.11.25; 7,1; 8,21; 9, 11. iSj 10,4; 11,16; 

,11.13.36: 13,; M.aii iS.'iB; 16,1-; j 


I 36, 10.17; 39,35). On the olher hand, a number of hcmistichs of 
a\ arc not repTCsenled in e (9^ 7,35; 8,39; 11,3''. 4. 10". 11''; 13,6; 
ii,3U 16,1-3; 18,23-19,3; 30,14-19; 21,5.18; 33,23: 35,9), and 
it is impossible to attribute all the clauses wanting in fi to subsequent scribal to 
expansions of the Hebrew text Some of ihe additional proverbs in 6, however, 
may be mere variants or vtrswnal doubUti iff. 1,14.27; 3,3.19.21; 3, 1$; 4, lo; 
5,33; 6,25: 9,6; 14,22; 15,1.18: 33, S. 9: a8,I7i 19,7.35) or ilhistrath'i quo- 
tations {cf. 1,7; 3, 16. 33; 9,13; 13,11; 13,13; 36, 1 1) and explanatory giossts (cf. 
I,i8: 4,37; 13,15; 33,14) or correettut interpolations (j:f. 4,27; 7,i and B's 15 
omission of 11,3^.4; sec also above, p. 62, I. 6) which afterwards crept from 
the margin into the text; others may have been found by the Greek transla- 
tors, as subsequent expansions of Hebrew scribes, in their Egyptian re- 
cension of the Hebrew text (c/l 7,1; 8,31; 9,12.18: 10,4; 13,11.13; '3.13: 
16,1-3.17; 17,5.31; 19,7; 31,11.14: 34.22; 35,10.30: 37,20.21); but we can 20 
hardly suppose that all of the additional lines in fi are based on a Hebrew 
original {ef. 4,27; 5,3; 6,8.11 ; 14,33; 17,6). The cases in which seems to 
have preserved some D'^VD which formed part of the original Hebrew text of 
the Book of Proverbs iff. ii,i6j 37,10.21) are exceptional. Some of the addi- 
tional proverbs of C are not given in 3. A Hebrew version of ihe additional 25 
lines found in fi is appended to Franz DEUTZSCH's commentary on Oas salo- 
momsche SfiruMuek (Leipzig, 1873) pp. 543-547- 

31,8—27 -^»au g>twttt» 

Tuioav; S It** *A^i U^-**** ^a, ff HW (Tivi ^ivAv pv,; both 3 and C be- 
gin the verse wiih an impcraiive, Beware. 

-IS with llie Q*re ; W with the K'ditb. Kamph. suggesu ^s [so, too, Oort, Em., 
i, e. Tixtus Hebraiei EmcHdatuittii quibus in Velere Tistamento Neerlandict 
veriende usi sunt A. Kuknkn, [. IIoovkaas, W. H. Kosters, H. Oort, etUdit 5 
H. Oort. Lugduni Uatavonim, typjs E. J. Brill, MCMj; but sec KOnig, Ltkr- 
gebdude, vol. a, p. 245, note 1. 
(8) iSi >|i^ni but perhaps the 1 is due to dittography (the following verse begins 
with ntf ) and we must read, with Dys., Toy {fill viho suffer), '^n. 

(11) For the alliteration in the first hemistich see above, note on 34,1. 

(15) According to Toy A n"inj(A plli is a gloss, a repetitioo or explanation of the 
second hemistich. 15 

(16) nffl with the Q'rA and %i; K'thib JTBI (— n) Dvs.: p^l GrStz). [I should 
prefer to read 1^\, omitting 0^3 which spoils the rhythm: D'^3 is a subsequent 
explanatory addition just as Dm and Dn^ in 3; ,3 1 or D'laK in Ecd. 3,5. — P. H.] 

(18) V'>fl with the K'thib ; Q"re nJ^J. 

(31) For the alliteration in this verse see note on 34,1. 30 

For A V^^ we should, perhaps, read vyif, with Luther Sic, following 

bioad; which, however, S takes with v. 33. 
(35) Jtt pnlfn], perhaps better pnvm for the same reasons as in y>,^%fi. Cf. above, 

p. 68, L 36. 
(37) K*thtb nuV'n is transcriptional error for tKshn-, so Q*rS. 3$ 

68 -««ii3K»M^ Q)tovetS0 ^%€hBi¥^ 30,16—31,4 

30 clause ; perhaps we should read, with enclitic, emphatic nip : — n^34< •:*nbin^ate^ ¥h\ 

ijri^^ verxehrend war deine Gluth {\2yksu^^ c^^^io) — ^0?^"=10?\'V; cf.Hx, 
3,2. Note also cases like M Dnyto» for JRpDttf, Jer. 3,13 &c. For the emphatic 
-ma in Arab. AllAkumma (see Crit. Notes on Numbers, p. 48, 1. 45) cf. also Arab. 
halumma, Heb. b^Jj; see also Wright-de Goeje3 2,343, I. 10. 5 

In Ezek. 19,2, on the other hand, the nb alter n*U3M> seems to correspond 
to the Assyr. mA 'thus, as follows,' introducing oratio directa {cf. Del., Ass, Gr, 
S 78; HW 387^): nto may be combined with the preceding nniDH so that tlie r\y^ 
begins with ^IpK like the second allegory in v. 10. 

The matter deserves further investigation. 10 

The prefixed V in h^vh b perhaps the emphatic particle (« Assyr. lA-ikkal^ 
cf, above, p. 52, 1. 11 and below, p. 86, 1. 28); otherwise we should have no apodosis. 

(15) Cf Cheyne, PSBA 23,143. — P. H.] 

(16) in n|)) (so, too, 311) is struck out by BiCKBLL. Cpu)^ iruvaiK6c probably read 
only Dmi. 15 

(17) For itt nnjf^.^ {cf Ges.-Kautzsch S 24,e) we should perhaps read, with Frank., 
Toy, following 6, nipt; cf 23,22**. 

(18) nf^HI with the QV6; yanw K*thtb. 

(20) Both the subject-matter and the prosaic form of this verse prove it to be a later 
addition \cf above, p. 67, L 28]; so Dathe, Hitz., Del., Frankenberg. 20 

(24) [Omission of D^tdSn in the second hemistich would improve the rhythm; it is 
probably a gloss on D^MTO. OORT, Enu reads D^ppnb. — P. H.] 

(25) A u^3^, impf. consec. (in the same way v. 26: 1D%;i, v. 27: K»n) might be ex- 
plained as indicating y<i^/x known by experience; according to KOnig, Synt, 

S 369, f the emphatic copulative connection may be used instead of other coordi- 25 
nating conjunctions. But we should probably point \Yy^ &c. as simple modus 
ret repeiita^ just as we have the simple impf. in a negative clause in v. 30. 

(28) For tti ^tX\X\ we should perhaps read, with Mt)HLAU, Dys., following ® cOdXwTOC 
J»v, te^ftRFi [so, too, OoRT, Em, 

(29) The first henustich would gain by omitting n»n. — P. H.] 30 
(31) The text is hopeless; Dys. conjectures ingeniously «^ni HwnB "W^, 

For in IftV D^p^K 6 has bimnxopil^v dv C6v€t; so, too, % Jjams^. Kas \^jaMs and 
% n^Boy n^3 Worn D^HpT Hitz. conjectured IttJ? D\nVK, Dys. >Dp d^.^Vh, Bick. 

VSfh Dp. 
(33) The third clause of v. 33 may be the complement to a lost hemistich; but it is 35 
probably nothing but scribal expansion added by some one who felt called upon 
to append a moral. \Cf p. 65, 1. 29; p. 6i, 1. 8. — P. II.] 



31 (2) The addition ^^a :i^^« ni?H ^13} bWB^-n© is preserved in € ; its omission in itt and 
Sf is probably due to homceoteleuton of ^*^a. [The second na, however, is better 
omitted. Oort, Em. inserts "i^H afler Jl no. — P. H.] 

(3) Instead of the curious ^l^J")^ of iH we should perhaps read, with Dys., Kamph., 
Wild., ^nti; cf Cant 7, 13 and above, p. 38, 1. 22. Toy suggests :ia5^. 45 
For in nintoV Gesenius conjectured ninb^ (so also Del., Wild., Strack, Toy, 
Oort, £"/«.); MDhlau better nin©^^, those who enervate. % cl^ OaTcpopouXtav, 

(4) in bnibV trireh Vk, (similarly %t\ but 6 has jicrd PouXf^<; irdvTO irolci), is rhyth- 
mically superfluous and evidently only a dittogram of the words which follow, 50 
with the addition of ^KtbV. 

The evident gap after D^lin^^ should probably be filled with h)^Xf^ or some such 
expression; 6 ends the verse with ol buvdarai Gu^dibcK €la(v, olvov hk ^f| wivi- 

30,3—13 -i*8<B^ (ptO9<t60 i«o*E**»- 67 

30 ill ^y«5 Vhwk^ ^H^O^H^ (so, too, 9i (6 TGI? maTeOouoiv ecCp Kal irauonai; 3 has 

only ViJ^lJI P*'*) cannot be proper names, in spite of Neh. 11,7. Long ago 
J. D. MiCHAELiS conjectured ^3W h» ^n^n) h» ^n^H^, and so most modern com- 
mentators read, except that instead of b^\f[ (£2.43,8) the Qal b^H) should evi- 
dently be read, with Dahler [contrast Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 196, 1. ii; note 5 
•TriHJ Prov. 3,30, njHHj 24,32, &c. — P. H.]. EwALD's view JF/M me is God 
(reading ^H ^flH like ^« Uiyp) and I prevail (readmg SSi VpH)) has been defended 
by Smend in his Religionsgesch} ^ p. 480 (^ second ed.). [Oort, £";;/., ^JH).] 

(3) For ^ ^w-]^]p fc6 we should perhaps use, with Gratz, Smend, the reading of <S 
6€6^ bcblbax^v ^€«^^1l^^ ^K G^G.); in that case we should have to translate the 10 
second hemistich: and I have learned the knowledge of the Holy One. 

(4) Instead of the meaningless D^pn of ^ (so, too, 3t) read p^tnn, with ^ ^Kpdrriacv. 
For SSi ^ppH-Vj (so, too 3; If ^ -^^) read ^Dp^}, with «. 

[For the brief hemistichs IbV riD and un DV HDl see above, p. 34, 1. 13. — P. H.] 
^ PIO ^? (so, too, 38) is rhythmically superfluous and should be struck out, 15 
with 6, as a gloss from Job 38,5. 

(5) For giVg in all probability r\\;y^ stood originally; cf. iji 18,31. 

(6) [The form «^DVi {cf. Ges.-Kautzsch*^ $$ 28,d; 75,q) indicates the correct pronun- 
ciation of apocopated imperfect forms. Even forms like >)Din or tt^llp are, 
stricdy speaking, not dissyllabic. It is a mistake to pronounce in^, n^^, fj^, &c. 20 
as dissyllabic forms, ii-f^d &c. They are all monosyllables and should be 
sounded as though they were written ^Scu, k>4j>., (>f^.; ^^^ ^ in ^n^ and n^^. 

is merely an auxiliary vowel as in Vn^ which docs not difler in pronunciation 
from l^Ss:^ ; \^\ is simply ibn^ the initial / being pronounced without a preced- 
ing M, while the final n is simply a sonant nasal as in English listen^ wliich is 25 
not dissyllabic but practically ^^yJL}, Cf. Beitr. s. Assyr. 1,294.328. 
(8) I beHevc that 8^ is a subsequent addition just as the fmal hemistich of the 
chapter, 33**, and v. 20; but it seems to me that not only 8^.20, and 33® but also 
10.15^.17.32 are out of place and must be relegated to the margin. I do not 
mean to say that vv. 10.17.32 are glosses, they may be genuine D^VvD, and may 30 
have belonged to the collection, but they are not in their proper place in this 
section of numerical proverbs and should be inserted elsewhere. — P. H.] 

(10) >^jn« with the Q*r6; K*thlb \r». 

(13) [1 can hardly believe that vry Uin no represents an exclamative clause;* it b not 
taken as an exclamation in the Versions: (6 (Swete, p. 464) has ^kyovov (Kaxdv) 35 
OifinXoO^ 696aX^oO(; i.fsx (in the Arabic Version : ^IXUIa ^^^U.^ ^ \S^^^ ^y^\\ 
3 generatio cujus excelsi sunt oculi\ % also has a relative clause, Mi^y \X!iW K^l, 
and the original reading of % may have been wioaw ^Yi '<;; the Im we find 
before ] in the Received Text may be a subsequent insertion ; it is hardly prob- 
able that the conditional-temporal ) Urn (NOld.' $ 258) is a correction of the 40 
exclamative jLso (NOld.^ J 232, A, 3). The no may be the enclitic emphatic -ma^ 
which is so frequent in Assyrian and in Arabic. In a great many cases in Arabic 
where U is said to be indefinite we have this emphatic particle, e. ^. in cases 
like ^1^J^^^ m j^^jHj^Jo &c. Cf. my remarks on the particle Ki" in the Johns 
Hopkins University Circulars, No. 114, p. 109 (cited in Ges.-KautzsCH*^ $ 105, 45 
n. 3); see also Reckendorf, Die syntact. Verhdltnisse des Arabischen, Lcyden 
1895-98, pp. 165 &425. The emphatic -ma appears in Hebrew in three forms: — 
(i) as Kr (^ above, 1. 44); — (2) as ID in 1DD &c. (Assyr. ki-ma &c.; cf my Akkad. 
und Sufner, Keilschrifttexte, Leipzig, 1881, p. 195); — (3) no. 

Nor can ill iin^^ nboM no xtK»^ K^ HMD D^il in Ezek. 16,30 be an exclamative 50 

« [In X5»23^ the case is different. — P. H.] 

66 " tW 'Oii CproverSa W4>»0Hi' 28,16—30,1 

a8 (16) Toy omits ill T3i as a gloss. [This improves the rhythm. — P. H.] 
For ill ai) read 31, with Ricuss, BiCK., Frank., Tov, following eS9. 
0's reading niKUA for M nuxan deserves consideration ; it is accepted by £w., 
GrAtz, Kamph., Wildeboer. 
Instead of the K«thtb m)ff read the Q*r6 Hiter, with 03f and BiCK. (Toy, Kitefl). 5 

(18) DO"j^ for in D^am as in V. 6**. 

Instead of M rtntta, which cannot mean a// at once^ read nnj^^ or nntt^^, with 
Lag., Gratz, Bick., Kamph., Strack, Oort, Em,, following 3 and perhaps 
also % (see Pink.); € ^. Toy omits nnna as a gloss. 

(23) For iK ^HK, which gives no meaning in this place and is rhydimically super- 10 
fluous, read V*]nM, with Bick., at the end of the verse. This reading, it is true, 
has not tlie support of tlic Versions; 6 6bo0c (=irr)K; Lag. imKa), % Mftip, S ^. 
The meaning afterwards, at last (Strack in his Commentary: schliesslicH) 

is uncertain; tlie reading of ill seems to be influenced by dogmatic considera- 
tions, to make God the speaker (therefore the accentuation DnH, with n^^td 15 
instead of the disjunctive ttnjlj yY\ as attested by Wickes); \cf. p. 41, 1, 36]. 
Toy cancels ^nriK as gloss or dittogram. [OORT, Em, reads p ^"^riH.] 

(24) m IftMf (so, too, 63() is rhythmically superfluous and should be struck out, 
with Dys., Bick., as a scribal expansion. 


ag (2) itt D^p^^» nnna; but 07^11 nnna when the righteous rule, as suggested by Toy, 
would better suit the parallelism. 
(6) For in y^^f (so, too, ^%Z, probably following 12,13), which gives no satisfactory 
sense, read, with PiNSKER (see Del. in lcc.\ yl^fij in the step (cf, 1 S 20, 3), or, 
with Mandelkern (oral communication), ^^^7^ in stepping, 25 

For iH pv (so, too, ©5^ read, with Pinsker, BiCK., OORT, uE";;/., f nj (Dys. Dnj). 

(10) For iK V^^^ >'^f[^\ (so, too, 61^; 3 x^/kji*^ is evidently only a guess on the basis of 
the parallelism), which could only mean they seek his life (Ex. 4,19; i S 20,3), 
read WW n|}5^ with Dys., Kamph., following Ez. 34,1 if. Toy prefers D^J^^^l for 
XL onttn [so, too, Oort, Em.\ cf, however, rpa in Ez. 34,4.16; Eccl. 3,6; see 30 
Grit. Notes on Ezckiel, p. 94, 1. 46. 

(16) For in nn-a Toy {cf above, 1. 21) prefers nni?, 

(19) For nap to respond see above, p. 48, 1. 44. — P. H.] 

(21) itt ptp; § 6buvnei^a€Tai ; % uuIKi; % HD^b (1. e, npfb is torn away, PiNK.). Read 

piip, with Bertheau, Strack. [Oort, Em, suggests iu\ 35 

(24) For n^K cf Jud. 17,2; Lev. 5,1 which must be translated: If a person, in spite 
of his having heard the adjuration *of the judge*, sin by not giving testimony 
when he is a witness, no matter whether he have seen the thing or *only* heard 
of it, and thus ifuur guilt &c. The apodosis to the four coordinated conditional 
clauses begins in v. 6, not in v. 5. Cf. the translation m Johns Hopkins University 40 
Circulars, July '94, p. 114* and contrast Bantsch ad loc, — P. H.] 


30 For the section 30-31,9 see MOhlau's dissertation quoted above, p. 32, 1. i. 45 
[For c. 30 cf. lepheti ben-Eli Karaita in Proverbiorum Solomonis caput XXX 
Commentarius ed. Zacharias Auerbach, Bonnse, 1866. See also E. J. Dillon, 
The Sceptics of the (7r (London, 1895) PP« '33— »56; 269—272. 
(i) nUH may mean hired slave-, cf Arab, y^y Assyr. agru, agarru (Del., HW 
17**), or thinker, cf Assyr. egirrA (DEL., HW i8»); the etymology is, of course, 50 
very uncertain. — P. H.] 

For ill Kiplpn, which probably means the oracle or prophetic utterance [cf 
note on Num. 23,7] we must read, with Dys., either K^lpp or ^M^tpn. 

28,2—12 -oHa^Mf CptoverSe ^04>*6H>^ 65 

28 For ill ^D} Dys., Gratz read D}; they regard the 1 as due to dittography of the 

1 that follows. 

(2) 3( follow Ml 9 b\* &f.iapT(a^ &acpaiv KplacK (— D^^*^ Jag.) dv^p hi iravoOpTO^ 
KttTaap^aci (== ipr Ew., Hitz.) abrd^. Gratz I3pn\ Bick. M«»T. P^ ^W- 
Unless we arc ready to adopt BiCK.'s emendation we must omit ^30 as an ex- 5 
planatory gloss to pl^ (c/. Neh. 10,29): otherwise the hemistich would be too long. 

(3) For M tth (so, too, SIT) read y^h (Toy, prfV W^ •^'?)) as in v. 15. e iy dacfelaK 
points to the same reading. HiTZ. takes vn-BK^t<n; [so, too OORT, Em.], 

(4) M p?h ; 63f read Vt^. 

(6) For ^ D^.?lli the basis of which must be some artificial interpretation, read 10 
D^Pl^i with «SJ, Strack (following Ibn Ezra), Kamph., Toy; Gratz prefers 
Vp'n. [The idea underlying the dual is the double life the K^^V leads. Cf, Sir. 
2,12; Pro V. 20, 10.23; Deut. 25,13 pHI pH (AV, divers weights i see Ges.- 
Kautzsch $ I23,f); I Chr. 12,33 3^1 "ih ¥hl (AV, /ftf/ ^a double heart)-, v ia,3 
I'ai^ a^> ate (AV, «///// a double heart do they speak) and our double-dealings double- 1 5 
eyed^ double-faced ^ double-handed^ double hearted^ double-tongued (German doppel- 
ziingig) &c. The two ways do not refer to the good way and the bad way 
between which the man has to choose (Toy) but to the two parts the ^fti acts, 
one secretly, and the other openly, the evil way which he pursues and the good 
way which he pretends to follow (so Fleischer in Delitzsch's Comm. and 20 
Wildeboer). — P. H.] 
(8) n^^-jn?^ with the K*thib and 5f ; Q*r6 and C n^?in), and so BiCK. [n^annai, how- 
ever, may be a scribal expansion, suggested by Lev. 25,36; Ez. 18,8.13.17; 
22,12. — P. II.] 

(10) The unnecessary third hemistich of iK is found also in BS"; it exists, too, in §, 25 
but there, by the addition of another hemistich, it has been developed into an 
independent verse of quite different context; BiCK. v(h D^y^")^ ajD ^^pj^ D^^^^n 
X\^T, The hemistich is doubdess to be struck out as an antithetic scribal ex- 
pansion. [Cf, p. 68, 1. 36 and Grit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 164, 1. 12. 

(12) For M tef^n^ we must read ^^X\\ from K^finevan to imprison ^ Syr. a^j^^, Arab. 30 
^j'y^^^i cf. Job 40, 13 l^Obj B^an DiTiD, which is rightly translated by Geo. HOFF- 
MANN {Hiob^ Kiel '91): Kerkere ein ihren Trotz in der Unterwelt, In the 
cuneiform incantatory legend of the Descent of Istar* to Hades (Obv., 1. 38) the 
same expression is used; uppissima {^huppii-\-ii\ cf. Grit. Notes on Ezekiel, 
p. 115, 1. 45; Del., HW ii6^).P The/ in Assyr. W6K3 = ^^,* as well as in ii%t\\ 35 
in our passage is due to pardal assimilation of the original 1 to the following 
»; cf Mandaic HWBn = H»3n honey, Assyr. dispu (for dipsu, dibsu cf Assyr. 
ulpelu for VyawH, ipdst for nEfa\ Del., HW 514 j. v. Vhb, 188* below); see Grit. 
Notes on Isaiah, p. 84, 1. 45 and Notes on Ezekiel, p. 67, 1. 13; cf. ZA 4,268. 
The form ^^T\\ may have been preferred in order to distinguish it from V^^n to 40 
be bound up, bandaged, dressed (Is. 1,6; Ez. 30,21). <5's rendering of £Bi Vfin^ 
bIK, &X(<JKOVTai &v6pujiToi is quite correct; 6X(aKovTai, however, does not mean 
here they perish (A ^^yXJi^ ^^UJl^ ; cf 3's ruince hominum) but they are caught, 
captured {jju»\, ^^y^, ^aa^^. It is by no means necessary to suppose, with 
JXger, that <§ read )0^r\\ {cf Umbreit's Commentary, Heidelberg, 1826, p. 381) 45 
or te^^n^ (Lag., p. 88); nor need we emend to ^r\\ or Dtt^fi^ (Dys.) or \tr\\ 
(Perles; cf Wild.) or nnD^ (Toy), ill's reading )o^n\ is supported by f na ^ISD 
MV^ and % J^j^Ka*, as we must read instead of the received Uj^^)^ (ZAT 
14,211). — P. H.] 

P In i 

the reference in Siegfried-Stade's Lexicon, p. i84l>, above. 
Sciirader's KB 6, l, p. 82 uppissi is translated treat her, but this rendering is 
marked as doubtful. — P. H.] 

Prov. 9 

64 -«H3K»» JprovitBe -*•«>•«•»- 27,17—28,1 

VI I would therefore propose, with due reserve, the following restoration of the 

text: — iQ-aor ►ins^ jt>^ivi {H<np^} -nfFp** mV i*b>jA 

For nrp nntafivcMO^ ckXhp^? (/". Is. 27,8 where itt Httfpn m"ia = © ^v itvcOjioti 
T(|i OKXvipCp, and for ]tt9 and ]t)^n see Cant. 4,16. It is evident that ]&'n might 
easily have dropped out before Vtd\ and it is curious that we have in £t, instead 5 
of two derivatives of p^ at the beginning of the second hemistich, two derivatives 
of )M at the beginning of the first hemistich. 

(17) For itt nrr we must read, with M, nnj, impf. Hof. of mn, and for Jl in^, in the 
second hemistich, nn; or in^., impf. Hif. Oort, Em, reads nn; and ^n^ — P. H.] 

iK ^SID is perhaps to be struck out, following Toy. 10 

(18) [nuui should be pronounced njKri; see above, p. 34, 1. 44. — P. H.] 
After l|3^. we should perhaps add ia, with Dyserinck. 

(19) Instead of iK D^9 the parallelism would lead us to expect a noun governing 
D^^^n in the genitive; % dliaTrcp oOx 6^ota (=?), so, too, 3. Hitz. conjectures 
D»y; VoGEL, BiCK., FRANK., ToY, OoRT, Em,, following 6, toy. 15 

(20} n^SK with the K^^tlitb; it is, perhaps, only a miswriting of ]1l)K which occurs 
everywhere else \cf., however, nDVv»^U.JLM», xh^f (gent. oVr) = ^yu*ai, ^i]pl?, 
patron, of n^?^. xh\ (gent. ^^\)\ see Ges.-Kautzsch S 19, 1. — P. HJ. Q*r6 rQH, 
but according to others, 1^)81. 

(21) Instead of S^ iV^n^ we should, perhaps, read, with Dvs., V^^nip, following %%%% 20 
GrAtz )^^J5. 

(22) The first hemistich is evidently overburdened; iK, followed by (f, reads V^n3tP9, a 
reading which was probably due, in the first instance, to WISH; BiCK. strikes it 
out, following 65. Nestle {Expository Times 8,6, p. 287) thinks that r\\tr^ 
(probably to be read, with Chryne, nifi^in, n to be taken as a radical on ac- 25 
count of 2 S 17, 19) is a mistake for some form derived from >)*19 with the mean- 
ing crucible, and that the same word lies behind ^Vps (notice, before V), as in 

M> 12,7 {ff, Wellhausen ad loc). On the other hand, Cheyne {foe, cit 8,7, 
pp. 335 f.) reminds us that nifinn *|VO is supported by 6, except that ® read 
V\\V1X\ *|ina in the midst of insults and paraphrased its reading dv ^i<s\3^ (Juv€bp(ou 30 
dTi^d2!u)v. The word ^Vp, which belongs to tlie language of the Mishnah, 
Cheyne further holds, is only a variant of vnstd, and tliis again is only an ex- 
ample of the explanatory additions which transcribers delight in. 
in V^P& (so, too, H) is to be struck out, with BiCK., following 63. 

(23) For ki D^IIJ we should perhaps read, with 6, ^^"JTJ. 35 

(24) Instead of £^ DK) read )'K], with Dys., following 6 oOb^ and 3. The final ) appears 
in iit as the first consonant of the following word. 

Under ill no some expression parallel to ]Dh must lie concealed; Gratz suggests 
ntt^P (?), Toy y%)^, % irapablbuioiv, 3 yi!***, t oVttf do not help. BiCK. conjec- 
tures V^n before 10. 40 
nn nn^ with the K*th!b ; Q*r6, unnecessarily, WJ "W^ 

(25) [For ill r^\ we should perhaps read n^J, although, in OT, nVi is used exclusively 
of the shaving of the hair, but cf, (vl^ » ^^. 

H«n docs not mean aftergrowth (Toy) but fresh verdure, shoots from the seed, 
comprising all plants in their incipient stage. In Gen. i , 1 1 H«n denotes shoots 45 
from the seeds both of ate^y and of ^^P. — P. H.] 
(27) in :|n^5 Dn^V (so, too, 3 J) is to be struck out, with BiCK., Toy, following 6; it 
is a gloss on *]DnVV, and overburdens the hemistich. 
For itt D^»nj (so, too, 6«) Gratz most suitably conjectures phj on the analogy 

of 31,15- 50 

a8 (i) For iH J^ read D^J^lJ^T and, reversed, for ill D^g^l^ read y^"^ [so, too, OORT, 
Em\^ 6 has the singular in both hemistichs while %% have the plural 

26,24—27,16 -«H3K»» g)tOV«»S0 "»0««i^ 63 

26 earthenware (^Uao cr*^)* ^^^ *® covering vessels of base metal with silver. — 
P. H.] 

M D^p^ (so, too, 3() is usually, but artificially, explained as fcn'cnt lips, /. e. 
overflowing with assurances of friendship; read, rather, with BiCK., D^p^n, follow- 
ing <S Xeta, cf. Gen. 27,11 &c. where Xeio^ap^n; Gratz prefers nip^n. 5 

(24) r(»f\p? with the Q*ra and «Sf ; K*thtb infiW. 

(26) iK HD^n leaves the suf!ix in \T\y\ unexplained; read nepb, with $ 6 KpOnruiv, 3 
AmiM, 9 nD3&; [so, too, OORT, Ein\ HiTZ. read Vl^'sty, and BiCK. no^. 

(28) Xi\yi\ cf, on this reading, to which witness b expressly borne by QlMHl and 
others, BXr, Uber Pr<n>erbiorum^ p. 49; GlNSBURG, VJ^. Further, % dXi^eetav, 10 
% (KAOii, 9 Kbttnpl MnnnM, can hardly have read otherwise. Reiske, £w., Hitz., 
r j^il} ; Toy rtpj (^^^^/j Us possessor), 

27 (6) Jl niipyai, but unintelligible; Dys. conjectures niyjj^lj read, with BiCK., n^lIP, 

following <§ ^KoOaia. 3 read nip'f^fp, but f )V^ai. iS 

(9) M n^J© W»n pn^^; so. too, 3f. but unintelligible; read, with HiTZ., BiCK., 
T^n ^T\W^^i following <5 Karap/jYvuTai hi 0it6 au^TTTUJ^dTuiv ^Mxi\. Kamph. 
renders quite differently: but a friend is sweeter to a man than fragrant woods 
(»:«^D^ ^|9l$; for Vfia cf Is. 3,20, but contrast Grit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 82, 
1. 10). For Kamph.'s rendering it would be better to read with Dys. np for 20 
inpn. [OORT, Em. reads np and nas^D. — P. H.] 
(10) yi) with the Q*r6; nyil K«thfb. 

£Si V^ q^n^ (so, too, (6311) has arisen from taking the proverb in a sense origin- 
ally foreign to it; read, with BiCK., riM and omit Vfti, which is better both m 
rhythm and meaning. 25 

(12) For £Si "^93 we should perhaps read, with TOY, nnoil. 

(13) For in n;ij) (so, too, 3), which could only refer to a harlot {cf 5,20; 6,24, &c.), 
read, with Reuss, Strack, onDi, following € xd dXXdrpia, (which VOGEL regards, 
but probably wrongly, as a translation of n^^3)i and 20, 16 K*^thtb. 

(14) [Tlie first hemistich seems too long; Vni ^ipa and "ipjia may be scribal expan- 30 
sions. — P. H.] 

(15) For Jl n}nf^3, which could be nothing but Nif. of mv with abnormal transposition 
of n and \ {cf Ges.-Kautzsch, $ 75, x), read nnj^f^i, with Olshausen, Stade, 
BiCK., Toy. [For nw cf note 107 of the paper cited above, p. 33, 1, 43. — P. H.] 

(16) in M'^p' irb^ pttn nn ]fi:i iT^fiV is hopelessly corrupt. <D Pop^a^ (JKXnpd; &v€MO<;, 35 
6vdjiaTi bd dmb^HiOi; KaXcTxai; so, too, %^. BiCK. n'ji?^ ]bni ninn nn;^ n;)b? 
nnnp^; Wild, nn J&J n;ib? />%/ Northern region hides wind, but a masculine 
predicate after a preceding feminine subject is impossible. 

[Toy calls all the readings that have been suggested for tliis line, desperate ex- 
pedients. (H's rendering is intelligible but incorrect. It is possible that the author 40 
of this ^Cfb meant to allude to the fact that the North (more accurately North- 
west) wind is indeed cold and rough in winter {cf 25,23), but pleasant and 
refreshing during the summer months, while the South (or more accurately the 
Southeast) wind is called favorable (^;^>u%j), although it is, especially during 
the summer months, just as unbearable as the sirocco {cf Benzinger's Heb, 45 
Arch., p. 30 and ibid., p. 31 ,4, also Baedeker's Palcstina^, p. xlvii, and Luke 12, 55: 
6Tav [tb€T€] v6tov iTv^ovTa, X^Ttre 6ti Kauaujv laiax). 

In view of the numerous etymologies in J we can safely believe that the author 
of this line was conscious of the connection between p^n and ]Mi^; nor need we 
doubt the fact that poj meant favorable, propitious in Hebrew {cf ]^b^ll Gen. 50 
35,18) just as in Arabic. Assyr. Ihnnu 'evil' is probably a compound of Id-itnnu 
{cf above, p. 51, 1. 10) 'not right, inauspicious' (see Beitr, z. Assyr, 1,467); 
cf Assyr. Id banttu 'sin,* Zimmern, Busspsahnen, ^. yi, n. 2. 

62 -««II3K»M^ Q)VO9et60 ••K^^KH- 26,2—23 

26 (2) [In the cuneiform incantations we find : May the disease of the head (Assyr. 
muru^ qaqqadiy that is, perhaps, erysipelas^ St, Anthony s Jire\ see ZA 8,182) 
fly away like a bird (Assyr. klma i^^Uri littaprasi Del., HVV 545^); cf. also 
ZlMMERN, Dusspsalmen, p. 101 ; Del., HW 650* s, v, bnw. — P. H.] 
ih K^thtb with (SSiT; Q*r^ 1!?; cf. above, p. 52, 1. 5. 5 

(5) [V. 5 may be a corrective interpolation; cf my note on the corrective interpola- 
tions in Eccl. {Johns Hopkins University Circulars^ June 1891, p. 115, n. J) 
and above, p. 45, 1. 42; also p. 58, 1. 6; p. 65, 1. 28. Possibly v. 8, which inter- 
rupts the connection between vv. 7 and 9, should be inserted after v. 4. — P. H.] 

(6) Jl D^^il n»J?9 is unintelligible; 6 ^k tiDv dauroO 6biJ&v (read irobiBv), similarly 10 
OT. Ew. conjectures D^Vn nffjp; HlTZ. **) n||3l?; BiCK. n|gp (without n). 

(7) in V^ is grammatically impossible and probably to be emended, with Dys., 
to )V^ they hang dawn since V^^ could hardly stand out of pause. Del., Bick., 
Kamph., Wild., Strack, ^A^ {hanging downy, HiTZ. ilH ^ A^pcXoO; 3f XXL J- 

(8) Instead of iH nn?3 (so, too, t and BiCK.; 3 ^) read, with Dys., GrAtz, Toy, 15 
n*}t)^; § 5^ Anobca^cOci. 

(10) D^*ia)), which is unintelligible at the end of the verse, is to be put, with BiCR. 
and OoRT, Etn.^ after to. 

The second y^^ff] of iK is probably due to the misplacing of Dn^)^; read, with 
Bick., nif^. M also {cf Pink.) read the end of the verse DJ nap ni^v 20 

(17) For iK ^i}!}} §'s reading k^pkou (=»a?}a J Ac.) deserves consideration. [Cs read- 
ing tail instead of ears is perhaps preferable : if you take a snappish cur by the 
ears he will hardly be able to bite, but if you take hold of his tail the case is 
different — P. H.] 

Jl nn)) is either to be struck out, with §, as a false addition (so Toy) to *l!3yn&, 25 
besides being rhythmically superfluous, or to be attached to the first hembtich, 
as is done by Del., Now., Dys., Bick., Kamph, Wild. [It would seem to be 
more natural to read, with 3 commiscetur rixce alterius and 3 a^j |} Vix^ 4*^?! 
anynp intermeddling (so, too. Toy) instead of itt "Opno, % ^lino (contrast 
Delitzsch's Commentary^ p. 427, below). For 3 «AAib} we must substitute, with 30 
HiTZ., (^Aaij. (5 TTpoeCTib^ &XXoTp(a^ xpfoeui^ who takes up the quarrel of an- 
other man. In the Arabic Version, ed. Lag., v..,.^JL5' u^> <*Ji<M»\ ^y^ J^^^ 
dJ CXiM^ JL«yC^ ^ f '^^-'^. o^ ^oS (Paris Polyglot). Kpfoic, however, 
does not mean here i^^^^, but ^l^nJ; cf Herod. 5,5. The transposition of 
the two consonants in £t iSpnD was, of course, influenced by the preceding *ia)^ 35 
at the end of the first hemistich." We have here an intentional paronomasia, 
cf I. M. Casanowicz, Paronomasia (Boston, 1894), p. 68, No. 291. The pre- 
position by does not militate against tlie correctness of the reading 3*^pn&. In 
the first place, we may read ^M-ob 20, 19; furthermore, by may have the mean- 
ing in addition to (Ges.-Buhl»3 609**, i)\ cf^ m^i, by nwi, &c. — P. H.] 40 

(18) Some qualification of i^^nbnb^ can hardly be dispensed with ; BiCK. supplies tiVjf^ 
which, changed into nibl, has found its way to the end of the verse. 

The removal of tWXSK compels us to add ) before iK D^nn. 

(21) For iit Dn| Wild., following Perles' Analekten^ p. 90, suggests liB|p bellows \ 
but the parallelism is in favor of the Received Text 45 

(23) [D^^^D makes the first hemistich too long and should be omitted [cf above, p. 44, 
1. It); the »^D3 used for glazing pottery (Sir. 38,30*^) was, of course, not «^in:i «^03 
but D^i^, i. e. litharge (XtOdpyupoO or lead monoxide. The tertium compara- 
tionts is the smooth superficial covering. As tt^'^n is always crockery in distinction 
from vessels of metal {cf Lev. 6,21), MM must refer to tlie process of glazing 50 


« [Ziegler remarks in his translation of Proverbs (Leipzig, 1 791) that *09 belongs 
to ata; 80, too, Dathe (1789). — P. H.] 

25,i8--27 ' iW 'Oii iptovitBtf '#K>'efi»^ 6i 

25 find jaj Sis in the same meaning, it would seem that all these various forms 

are subsequent modifications of ^^ 4- 3. Lagardb's theory that jJ is shortened 
firom ^jJ (c/. Rbckendorf, Arad. Synt, $ 112) is not probable. The ii* in jJ 
represents a partial assimilation to the > (see Beitr, z, Assyr, 1,264 below) and 
the L in k* a subsequent assimilation of the > to the initial S {cf. above, p. 42, 5 
1. 29). ^ is a word like ^^ present which is originally identical with T\>f sheep; 
see Grit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 204, 1. 6. 

(18) For £^ f^l^ we must substitute f^Q, stem f9ID or fM, Assyr. napd(u *to strike, 
to smash,' DEL., HW 475* — P. H.] 

(19) Instead of £6i TC9\ which can only mean a pasturing (see below), not a crumb- 10 
ling tooth as it is commonly explamed, deriving from yp » f Yl, read, with OoRT 
(see below, 1. 18; ci.Em.\ n|r^, following 6 kokoO, and with similar meaning dlf. 
For iK n'lf^D read, with HiTZ. &c., n*i91&. How ^'s curious text arose firom 
Haggadistic interpretation see indicated in the Introduction to Ekha rabbathi 
(p. 13 of WOnschk's translation), and cf, M. T. HouTSMA in ZAT '95, pp. i5of. 15 
SX ny^p is passed over by 6, nor is it contained in v. 20* which is a doublet 

to V. 19^. We must strike it out, with Lagardb (he regarded it as-BbfHp 
and originally a gloss on j^fip in v. 18*) and with OORT {Feestbiindel . . . aan 
Dr. P, /. Veth^ pp. 21 f.). Yet this strangely shortens the second hemistich. 

(20) iK mp m)m (so, too, %^ but not C) is evidently, apart firom myo for n*l)nb 20 

and mp for nn:i, a doublet of 19^ and Uierefore to be struck out, with HiTZ., 


Instead of Jl Vi} (so, too, f ; also in 3 iiKi is to be read for h)L», see PlNK.) 
the context requires some word meaning wound, ® diaircp dHo( IXkci &a6|i<po- 
pov firom IXko? sore^ ulcer-, hence GrAtz, Oort (see above, 1. 18), pW Lev. 25 
13,30; BiCK. guesses nnj hv D^p ^^h V^ fbh; [but it is more probable that some- 
thing has dropped out before n<ni 7^ )^Dh, perhaps p|1^ (contrast ^itix^ujv £Xaiov, 
Luke 10,34.) The emendation <p»n} seems to be correct (contrast Toy ad loc,), 
6 has in Lev. 13,30-37; 14,54 6pa0a^a, for which it would be better to read 
TpaO|ia, as in Lev. 13,31 (3 U%Aai). The special meaning of pnj in Lev. is 30 
tinea tonsurans and tinea sycosis. — P, H.] 

(21) Strike out, with BiCK., following <Sd, iK on^ and D^p (so, too, H) as explanatory 
glosses. [Cf. below, note on 31 , 16. 

(22) nnn can hardly denote heap or snatch up and put upon (Toy), but it may mean 

to bum ; cf, Ethiopic *VtfO s xatdua 'to be kindled, to bum,' Ml\(D \ axtdua 35 
*lo kindle, to light,' ^'hW : mdxist 'lamp, candlestick, torch' (see Johns Hop- 
kins University Circulars^ March, 1884, p. 51* and Ges., Thes., s. v. nnn). Nor 
is this meaning unsuitable in 6,27 and Is. 30,14. In hi 52,7 *|nn^ must be deriv- 
ed from nnn {cf, Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten, part 6, p. 175; so, 
too, Gratz, Coming, Jerome in his Psalterium juxta Hebraeos renders terrebit 40 
or rather torrebit (cf. Nestle, Psalterium Tetraglottum^ Tiib., 1879); \ iTTOifi- 
aci <i^ (= ?inn^). Nor does post-Biblical nnn (Aram. Hnn) mean scharren^ schiiren 
(Dalman's Worterbuch s. v.). Assyr. xatil, which Brown-Driver-Briggs' 
Lexicon compares, has no connection with this stem, but corresponds to Arab. 

sru LoL =s ^.tix^AXi ^yA ^ gfi ^ Oj^ Cy* r****^^- Of- Assyr. xatti /a 45 
murgi (Del., HW 295** below), ixati NE 51,9, taxt/i 'overthrow.' — P. H.] 
(27) Instead of the meaningless trp} of M (6 Tiii^v hi xpi\ X6you^ ^vb6Eou(; Blf 
tKuHa%i Jlit ||TfcWi> JUU) it is perhaps, on the whole, best to read Dn^d, with 
Del., Dys., Bick., following Ex. 18,18; yet both the masculine plur. and tlie 
parallelism make this reading somewhat dubious. Frank., following <5 (see 50 
above, I. 47) reads map ^'^y\ "ipinj therefore use thy compliments (lit., words of 
^i2S&€) sparingly {ff, v. 17; Is. 13,12). [Tpin » Assyr. uidqir^ see Zeitschrift fur 
Keilschriftforschung, vol. 2, p. 269 Del., HW 240*. — P. H.] 

6o -«ii»-<M«^ (pfev<t6f '•K^^**- as,7— 16 

35 (7) iR T}^? ^MT) "^^^ (so, too, (; also M but with the addition klyi) is taken by 
BiCKELL, Frank, with v. 8*, where we should have then to read, with BiCK., 
K|>rtH (not H^»vi, Frank.). 
(8) M \t; Frank., Toy, ^3 {/or how wilt thou fare in the end &c.), but the follow- 
ing clause, f^nnnM nte^yn no, is the first heniistich of a second line, and the second 5 
hemistich of the first line, except ]ID, is lost 
(i i) For itt *mB5i Frank., Toy prefer ^mne, goldene GravUren auf siibemen Bild- 
stUcken [sic I], which is supposed to mean like golden gravings on carved figures of 
silver \ TOY: Like graved work of gold and carved work of silver (sciL just as 
indelible). But what 2lX^ goldene GravUren ox golden gravings'i And are those 10 
engraved on stones more easily effaced? 

[Luther's rendering GUldene Apfel in siibemen Schalen (AV, apples of gold 
in pictures of silver) cannot be justified, but is certainly better than the trans- 
lations suggested by modem commentators. I believe that Jl nV3\9&a is a cor- 
ruption of ni3)tefa (Syr. tKllUAa) on branches, plural to D'!!)^ nsite^ (C xXdbo^ EOXou) 15 
Jud. 9,48. There may have been even a collective noun n^lbfb Gesweig so that 
we might read t)D3 npTtef&S. Also V3 KIU) appears to mean branch, rod\ the Pael 
*l^^ to whip may be denominative. (P. S. — I have since noticed that Ilrrz. 
translated Goldene Apfel an siibemen Zweigen, reading nV^f^Q for iK nV3\(f&.) 

It is not impossible that the unintelligible V)^M~^y of £t, at the end of the line, 20 
is a misplaced and corrupted gloss on nstVftda or ni31l9!3, for ^KIDJ^; cf t)i 104, 12 
(Vip Un^ D'Kfi; pb); Dan. 4,9.11.18. At any ratejtliis conjecture is better than 
the traditional combination of iK Vl^trVy with ^Ij\ (^lf\) or ^U* (AiU* ^ 
—U!iyaProv. 15,33; so ABULWALlD)orwithD^^fi(r3fiirVy«-^L^;^^ y^in hisway, 
so Ibn Ezra); cf Delitzsch*s Commentary, p. 404, 1. 4 and Ges.-Buhl»3 j. v. 25 

However that may be, so much seems to me certain that we have here a 
mythological reminiscence, just as in the case of D^^n f y and D^^n *i^pD (cf above, 
p. 36, 1. 30), vis. an allusion to the Semitic prototype of the golden fruit of the 
Hesperides; cf the D^hVm p in Ezek. 28, I2fr. (see Toy's notes in our new English 
translation of Ezekiel, p. 155, 1. 9) and the description of the garden of the gods 30 
in the Babylonian Nimrod Epic (ed, Haupt, p. 63, IL 48-51), where the trees of 
the gods (/ff^ id ildni) bear pearls (sdndu; see my article IVo lag das Paradies? 
in Ober Land und Meer, 1894/95, No. 15) as fruit {inbu\ the branches (xunnatu) 
hanging full of them, pleasant to the sight (ana ddgdli (dbat; Gen. 3,6 Min n\Kn 
b^^\ffrh fpn lomi W'yyb; cf below, L 39; in Dan. 4,9.17 tbw nwtn, see Crit Notes 35 
on Daniel, p. 24, L 42), while the foliage (xaqxaltu ^ xa^xaqtu\ cf ^^^ Syr. 
\^, folinge, esp. palm leaves; Delitzsch, A>(e?«^ « rnHB, Is. 10,33) consisted 
of lapis lazuli (uknA\ seefohns Hopkins University Cirailars, July '94, p. iii); 
the fruit it bore was beautiful to behold {ana amdri ^a'dx\ cf Del., HW 566*. 
284*-^; see also Schrader's KB 6,1, p. 208, 11 47-51. I would therefore restore 40 
v. II as follows: — jQ«iftjD» w 'yy\ »^D3 {«)W3^a ant ^mBn n ♦ney ^ («) 
Like apples of gold on branches of silver is a word spoken in due season. 

It is a legendary reminiscence just as we speak of the Golden Age, the 
Philosopher's stone, the Holy Grail, &c. Contrast ZAT 21,80. — P. H.] 

(12) Instead of itt TOtO read, with HiTZ., rrlf^, following % X6to<;; 3f ll^JimAai 45 
(— nittV)? GrXtz); Bick. nj^. 

(13) iK y<^; VJ^iH «^JJ) (so, too, 3f ; but § v^X^i; hk. tiDv aOrCJi xp^m^vuiv dicpeXct) is 
a superfluous element in the verse, and is probably only an addition to the 
comparison completely expressed in the preceding two clauses. 

(15) For iW pp Frank, suggests t\'$p an angry one; Toy »)|B tpf) anger is appeased, 50 

(16) [n is not a secondary formation derived from ^T3 but OfA is a compound of D 
and n (cf e. g. Lev. 25,26). Syr. Oj^ means both enough and already, just as 
OJft (^. g, joj ;3J what is enough for Zeid and JLLmi ^^^^ ^ O^j)' ^ ^® 

24,17—25,4 -x^w^o^f q>topirS» W- O '0t»»' 59 

24 (17) Instead of the K^thtb ^^YJ^ follow 6d( and read the Q^d :|9^kt; the change is 
required also by lVv}3. 

(21) For M T\vr\ri bn D'^IV dp Frank., partly following ®, reads n^vrw-^K DH'^f^ DP 
^^ ^1^/ overbearing with either of them. But would not this admonition be rather 

(22) in Dn^3f^ (so, too, <SdS) cannot be satisfactorily explained; £w. suggests Drp^V 
(M^j^ who rise up against them^ scil. JHVH and the king), BiCK. Dft^V^. It is, 
perhaps, simpler to read, with Dys., D^Jtt^ as in the preceding line. 



(26) [A D^tin makes the second hemistich too long and may be scribal expansion, 
cf. above, p. 55, I. 23. — P. HJ 

(27) Since the first two clauses form a complete line we must recognize the existence of 

a gap after nnK; BiCK. supplies n)^M q^ n||JPi. 15 

SSi X^yi\ must be explained as perf. consec. after a disconnected adverb of time : 
afterwards, then thou mayest &c. Cf, the illustrations given in Ges.-Kautzscu 
S 112,00. 

(28) [For id D)n D. H. MOller, /. c, prefers D&n, following Ex. 23,1; Deut. 19,16; 
M>i|i 27,12; 35.»i- — P- H.] 20 
For Jl ri'^ni read, with Ew., n^A^n » <§ irXaTOvou. SSi n^Apn could be explained 
only as Pi'el of nnfi with the prefixed interrogative n, but for an interrogative 
particle after ) there would hardly be any analogy, except perhaps in tn^Q) 

2 S 15,35. A question, however, is out of place here, if only on account of the 
preceding prohibitive clause. 25 

(29) [The last clause of the verse, iK iwtS^ V^kV a^VK seems to be an explanatory 
gloss. D. H. MOllkk, /. c, inserU the words after ^DMn ^H, making nte^ nvii3 
"h ntefpH p "h the second hemistich. — P. H.] 

(31) D^)te^9{? with the majority of MSS (including Cod. Erfurt. 3, Jaman., and PetropoL 
a. loio) as well as in accordance with the statement of Samson Hannaqdan 30 
(about 1240 a. D.) and according to the editio prince fis (Naples, i486), Compl,^ 
BAR, and Ginsburg. tefDp corresponds to Arabic ^J^^ [,^U3» things thrown 
aside as of no use, ^*^ % i>"> to eat what one may chance to find, even if it be 
worthless]. The spellings D'^ltttop (so edd. Soncin. & Mant.) or D^^Vbp and D^llkfDp 
must be rejected. [Cf Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 167, L 24. 35 

Tlie following clause, D^V*}n V2fi ^D^, is an explanatory gloss on D^^lt^fp iVp nVy 
{cf Ges.-Kautzsch $ ii7,z, end). D. H. MOller, /. c, leaves ill D^V'in Vifc IDJ 
in the text, as second hemistich to iK D^^teft^p iVp n^9 nini, and inserts after it, as 
first hemistich to iK nonn^ v^^K y\l\ following 15,19; Is. 5,5; Mic. 7,4; Hos. 2,8, 
Piy^TX 1p"]n np^tefD its hedge of thorns was removed. In this way he arranges the 40 
five verses (30-34) in two stanzas, each consisting of three lines or six hemistichs. 
— P. H.] 

(34) Instead of iR l^nnp read, with Dys., Toy, Oort, Em., linto?, following 6,11 and C 
Instead of the inexplicable plural Vlb'[^9 of iK read the singular, n*]bn9, as in 6, 1 1, 
with %%ti [cf, however, above, p. 34, 1. 31. — P. H.] 45 

25 (4) itt ^^5 ^A\ ^ Kaeap6v dirav (according to Dys., Wild., ToY«ita «ji»|, Frank. 50 
ffi^fi, but B Us f^ Ui^, t Mfi-m p )Mb. 

Verse 5, whose structure is exactly the same, shows that we must read M^] for 
Jl Hjn. 

5« -i«9-<H* flPtov*»8f ^K>-eii— 23i35— 24i 1 5 

aj eiifpa^%^^yj\ v.^^ is common in Assyrian (Del., HW 619); D^ ^b^aAssyr. 

/«tf libbi tdmdi (SCHRADF.R's KB I, p. 166, 1. 59; DfxiTZSCH, HW 698»). As a 
rule, wc find in Assyrian ina qabal tdmdi (HW 579**) «= Djn "Jlina Ezck. 26,5; 
Neh. 9, II, also ina kirib tAmdi (HW 594^). For Vjn cf, H^jn Ezra 4,22. 
(35) For the brevity of the hemistich f ^p« ^no see above, note on i , 10. The entire 5 
verse is probably a gloss of an 'antiteetotaler,' who admits diat intoxicating 
liquors may be poison, but a very palatable and comparatively harmless poison 
from which he docs not propose to abstain in the future. The two verbs ^^)sn 
and ^yxhx\ represent conditional clauses: Jf they have struck me or They may 
have struck me. ^HD is here conjunction, « f«XA, } ^Ksst. 10 

24 (i) Note the alliteration in v. i: -- DAM nvnV \kTS\ Vki *n>n ^^ih Ml^n Vii 

and in V. 3: — W3n^ mwnai vA nii^ nosna 

In the ^ stanza, however, there is no trace of it; nor is the alphabetical device 
carried through. C/: in 31 ,2: — mi n5 n5l ^ib5 n5 nBl na n5 15 

and in v. II of the last chapter: — MVpB aV ni nbi 

/^V/., V. 21 : — DN^'W wS an^ala ^3 J5«fto nn^i? hth itf 

In all these cases, however, this alliteration may be accidental; cf. above, p.. 54, 
L 31. — P. H] 

(5) in nj^a D3n nsa can only be made intelligible by adding a verb, such as *iuri, 20 
following 31,17. But evidentiy ip© is to be read, with HiTZ., Dys., GrAtz, Bick., 
Kamph., Wild., Toy, following §39', and also f jpH|p In 5^ {cf. Job 9,4). Such 
comparisons are very common in the style of the Book of Proverbs (also in 
Ecclesiasticus) : not only persons are compared with each other {cf 16,32; 19,1; 
27,10; 28,6) but also conditions and actions (i5,i6f.; 16,8.19; 17,1; 21,9.19; 25 
25,7.24). Further, we have perhaps to add, with BiCK., Toy, aib after DDn. The 
suggestion' of GrXtz that 133 may be a corruption of in3| (see above, p. 41, 1. 40) 
breaks down on the alphabetical arrangement; \cf^ however, above, 1. 14.] 

(6) iK 3*13; Dys., following 6, 3^3 by the counselor's insight. 

(9) Instead of id n^JK read V^W (JBick. D^^W), with € ftcppujv, 3 |Lflj», t *rbr. 30 

(10) The beginning of the first hemistich is lost; BiCK. supplies nijb DV^. [D. H. 
MOller, /. f ., makes T\y% DV3 n^finnn the first hemistich, and inserts a second r\yt Dr3 
before nsni. He combines this line with the following two verses, and translates 
the passage as follows : — If thou hast been slack in the time of trouble *of others*, 
thy strength may fail on the day of *thy oivn* trouble. Therefore deliver those 35 
&c. If we adopt this explanation, it would be better to read, at the beginning of 
the second hemistich, "^ ni DV3; but the proposed restoration is hardly satis- 
factory. — P. H.] 

(14) n»^ should be read, with BiCK., instead of iK np'l; something, also, has fallen 
out after it BiCK. supplies '} ^35^^. iH ny^ is probably intended for np^j with 40 
mutation of Qftme^ to Segh61 under the influence of the following n {cf D^nnn 
and nip for nip before gutturals; Ges.-Kautzsch S yi y^» The form n»^ could 
be supported only by the doubtful analogy of n^jn (Gen. 46,3); of pT we have, in 
addition to n?i, only nPi and Ti\ cf Ges.-Kautzsch % 69, m. [iH nrj — np^, 
however, seems to be intended not as an infinitive but as an emphatic impera- 45 
tive like njn, nj^, &c. — P. H.] 

The last two hemisticlis of this verse, although itt is supported by Mf , are 
struck out by BiCK. as borrowings from 25,16 and 23,18. 

(15) ill y^ mars the rhythm and is perhaps better omitted, following BiCK. and 
Toy. 50 


« [» may alliterate with H; cf Casanowicz, Paronomasia (Boston, 1894), p. 28.] 

«3i29— 34 — «a-<Mi^ Q)rov<v6ir ^M>*6}i»^ 57 

33 (^9) L*^^ interjection ^OM (dir. XctO seems to me doubtful; C 66puPoq; 3 Cujus patri 
vai? (I); ff ftnin (/. /. \\i%\, Dalman ri)^ excitement, 3 ({i«|; Graec. Ven. t(vi 
aT, t(vi 9€0; J. D. Michaelis (Gott 1778) translated Obelkeit; Ziegler (Lpz. 
1791) Ekei, comparing *b\ (i/^i*) 'nausea/ K6NIG, Lehrgeb, ii, 1,339, derives 
^M from n^M to desire. In Gesenius' Thesaurus ^UM was translated paupertas, 5 
miseria and considered to be an abstract form to )V:^. Perhaps we should sub- 
stitute nri|( for iK ^UM. In Assyrian the interjection a-a, L e. ^JanriM is not un- 
frequently found alongside of /ra — MM; see Deutzsch in ZiMMERN, Babyl, 
Busspsalmen, p. 116, below; Assyr, Worterbuch, p. 218; Handworterbuck, p. 3a**; 
Assyr. Gr, % 54; ZiMMERN, Beitr. zur babyL Reli^ott, I (Lpz. '96), p. 23 below; 10 
cf. Crit. Notes on Ezekiel, p. 87, 1. 39. For the Assyr. ^ = Heb. d see ZA 
3,261, n. 3; contrast Delitzsch, Assyr, Worterb., p. 215, n. 4. The Ancient 
Versions may have read n^^n^ iff. 15,16); although this is doubtful (ff MnM)^, 
3 |«^, % insatiabiles, 6 Aq>op(a, corrected by Lag. to &a^peia, but dq>op(a may 
be used in the sense of Aa^Pcia). — - P. H.] 15 

D^^n^ or D^^n^ with the K^thib; the Q^r6, as elsewhere, D^r*]l^; see above, 
p. 50, 1. 29. 

(31) The K^thtb D^^ {purse) is a manifest transcriptional error for the Q^r6 DIJ. 

(32) iR KfTfi^ ^i^ppl is evidently a doublet to iR -^tt^^ OTiD. 

(34) iR ^^n; but the meaning is uncertain, and the whole phrase is peculiar. Nor is 20 
nijr^^a MW tahDI /i-^/ a sailor asleep during a gale (so FRANK, following C; TOY 
^12 n)^p3 ^pV3) any more satisfactory. [It is improbable that 33iEf3 should be used 
in both hemistichs. Perhaps we should substitute ^nn, at the end of the verse, 
for the first MWa, and read D^ ite ijhD p^\ni thou wilt be like a sailor in the 
midst of the sea, like a person suffering fi-om seasickness on the high seas. The 25 
pointing ^^h instead of iR ^^n is suggested by 6 djaircp KuPcpvi^rn^; but ^^h does 
not mean helmsman, nor is it necessary to restrict its use to professional sailors: 
any passenger on a ship may be called ^3h, just as we speak of a passenger 
who does not suffer from seasickness as being a good sailor, Cf, also Sindbad 
the Sailor, &c. For the etymology of inh note jblLH \Ai« sea-coast; cf Zeph. 2,5. 30 

Thus the first hemistich refers to the nauseating effect of intemperance, the 
squeamishness of the stomach: excessive drinking turns the stomach of the 
wine-bibber; cf Job 20, 14: — laipa D^infi ni'iD IMi Vp^n vorh 

(and the gloss ibid, v. 16). The second hemistich probably describes the last 
stage, the stupor caused by an overdose of intoxicating liquors; VMI must be the 35 
word for poison {cf 32» ^li^^ »ni3 innnn and Dcut. 32,33), and the last word of 
the verse, which was displaced by ten, was perhaps nn*iD; cf Matth. 27,34 
(olvo^ ^€Td xokf\(^ ^cmTM^voO- The a before WC\ is tlie 3 instrumenti, I would 
therefore restore this line as follows: — 

vvn\tk^* rma^ aDiefais d^4 ate3 i<5h>73» n^\ni 40 

And thou wilt be like a seafaring man in the midst of the sea 
And like one fallen asleep after a draught of poisonous gall, 
literally like one sleeping through the poison of gall. The rendering Or as he 
that lieth upon the top of a mast (so AV) is impossible : a man cannot lie or 
sleep upon the highest point of a mast. Nor is Toy's rendering much better: 45 
Thou wilt be like one who is sleeping at sea, like one asleep in a violent storm^ 
{cf above, 1. 22 ; € ^v itoXXiij KXObuivi). Sleeping at sea is a perfectly normal con- 
dition, and even in a violent storm to be asleep is certainly more comfortable 
than to be awake. Besides, we must remember Matth. 8,24. 

P. S. — BUDDE (viii/2 '00) suggests a>*v for M asW in the first hemistich. If 50 
we adopt this reading, ^*5h> could be explained as a misplaced gloss on n>*v {cf 
below p. 60, 1. 21), or ill ten might be connected with Arabic JUaL which is used 
oi deadly poison, Jjl» J^); cf Assyr. xabbUu 'pernicious' (HW 267*). Rakdbu 

Prov. 8 

56 -^<H9<^m^ Q)YovttBir ^K>««*- 23,4—27 

*3 (4-5) The first hemistich of v. 4 is combined by D. H. MOller with the three hemi- 
stichs of V. 5 in the following manner: — 

TJ:?// «/?/ //? ;//a^/ thyself rich, for riches makes itself wings, 5 

Like an eagle it flies heavemvard, if thou makes t thine eyes fly after it, it is gone. 
The n before t^'pn would have to be omitted. D. H. MOller's line can only 
mean Lassest du deinen Blick darauf hinfliegen? — Fort ist es (see Delitzsch's 
Comm., p. 366), but never Lassest du deinen Blick darauf hinfliegen^ without /*, 
as a conditional clause, n cannot be used as a conditional particle. — P. H.j 10 
(5) in wrm — «^Vnn (so, too, (53^) is an unnecessary third clause; BiCK. gets from 
i^ipnn a termination for v. 4** and strikes out My\K\ \i yyy^ as borrowed from Job 7,8. 
For f\X9f\T\ (so K*thfb; Q*rd *]^J?nn wilt thou cause to fly i^ f^ \i2iS iii\0Ti\<5x)^<;, 3 ^l, 
tf irn. [Paul Ruben, Crit. Remarks on Some Passages ^(^T (London, 1896), 
p. 4 {ad Is. 8,22) finds in <)^yn a stem ^^ to see, from which he derives D^^pfiP, 15 
pointing to the analogy of px^(papa from px^trciv. He translates £Si \Sl *|^r)^ 'l^pnn 
if thou lookest at it with pleasure. For n = ^ see above, 1. 10. — P. H.] 
Instead of £X n\t^9 (so, too, 03f ) read, with BiCR., Toy, itt^)^, since an expressed 
subject is absolutely essential 
The K*th!b »^^jn is evidently a transcriptional error for t^y^ (Q*r6). 20 

(7) in \tt\y nvf^ ^D3 (similarly %%%) in the first hemistich is unintelligible. 
Of the second hemistich of this line only M^n*]9 has survived. 

(8) On V. 3** as continuation of v. 8* see above in the note on v. 3; v. 8**, although 
its present position in iSi is supported by (53f , must be placed, with BiCK., 
after v. 9. [It seems to be a gloss to 8^ — P. H.] 25 

(10) Instead of iJl D^iy (so, too, «S(f) read nj^^H, with Reuss, Dys., Bick., Wild., 
Toy, and the panillclism. 

(17) iR nHTS; Toy '^-nn vcwfearfHVH, 

(18) 3^ presuppose the present £Si and do not indicate any gap; but (5 has ddv t^p 
THpi^oijq aOrd; following this, read either, with BiCK., *^yvft\ DM ^3, or, with 30 
GrAtz, ni'jbtt^n. [Oort, Em. inserts niwn, and after n^nnH, ^7, 

(20) \eh is a contraction of lahumH (see Wright- DE Goejb, i, $ 89, remark c; cf 
Crit Notes on Judges, p. 66, 1. l) and is therefore always plural (= Dn^), never 
singular («= lb). The passages where \xh seems to stand for lb (Ges.-Kautzsch 
S 103, f, note 3) must be corrected accordingly. In Is. 44,15 Cheyne reads "h 35 
for in Ibb; in Ml 11,7 Wellhausen substitutes nt for ill Ib^iD; in Job 27,23 
Siegfried corrects i^ 1D^B3 \cih^ plsto^ to iD^lss vby ipDlt^^ in the same way he 
restores in Job 20,23 "^^^ "^tici'\ for iH ID^b)^ neb^l; and in Job 22,2 he gives ^3 
bottna vby pD^ for in frstoD 1D''bp pD^ ^D. 

(22) In 22** we have an antiprolepsis-, cf Crit. Notes on Ezra, p. 71, 1. 3'- — P* H.] 40 

(24) Instead of the unused forms b«; h\\ (K^'thib) read, with the Q*r6, b^^J b^^ 

In the second hemistich read, with the Q*rd, n^V) and n^to^, instead of S^ 
K*thib nbr and HDlt^M. According to the K*thib nbr would be ^rtjwj pendens and 
equivalent to a conditional clause {cf above, on 17,21) with following Waw 
apodosis; cf Ges.-Kautzsch, $ 143, d. 45 

(25) V. 25 stands before v. 24 as apodosis to v. 23. It is strange that the modier 
should be mentioned twice ; Toy is probably right in omitting ^ttKl at the end 
of the first hemistich, [ittm may be a misplaced gloss {cf above, p. 45, 1. 35), witli 
Waw explicativum {cf Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 68, L 53; Crit Notes 
on Ezekiel, p. 116, L 2), on ^miv at the end of the second hemistich. — P. H.] 50 

(26) njfjn with the K*thfb; Q*r6 ^J^\ln, so €3f and BiCKELL. 

(27) For in njH (so, too, S^) we should probably read, with Gratz, following 0, rvyj 
in 2,16; 7,5 this stands parallel to npJJ. [Cf It^JH^adulteress, «4A^=n|.] 

32,17—23.4 -^<H9<^^ QI>toJHtB$f 4HheH^ 55 

22 (17) Before ttn insert, with BiCK., ^HV^Ii^^ following C t6v l\i6v X6tov; MB€ ^, but f 
has ^13 (— ^}?) before bn. 

£Si D^bsn ^nni; Toy, ^yy\, without D'b^n. € reads: A6yok ao<pdiv irapdpaXXc a6v 
oO<; Kol &Kou€ ^^6v X6tov, /. ^. '^n^DH* po^h*'> D^D3n* ^"nT*^ IMH bn. Toy considers 
this a doublet the second form of which apparently omits D^Dsn. 5 

Instead of the strange M ^AJl^ (so, too, (t) read, with Dys., Kamph., nn^, follow- 
ing (S Ifva Tvt))^ Sti KaXo( ctaiv and 3; join with this D^l^^l^} ^a from the beginning 
of V. 18 (so to be read for ill D^)^} ^9, c/, 23,8) where the words are out of place 
in sense and overburden the hemistich rhythmically (but Toy, Dnw^ip Hp^). 
(19.20) Instead of M ^nnn; Vf?^ innK (jM DVn (so, too, B and ff, only in ^ ^nsns is missing; 10 
also 6 Tf|v 6b6v aou' Kal a6 hi &iT6tpai|iai aCixd agrees with £IU^ in nnM ^M) 
read ^nsio ^IDHM tjN tDVn, with BiCK., Cheyne, Strack. AV, / have made known 
to thee this day, even to thee^ but there is no reason for emphasizing the pronom- 
inal suffix (Ges.-Kautzsch S 135, e) in this case; contrast Delitzsch ad loc, 

(20) DV^y with the K*^thtb; the Q^r£ reads mysteriously D^f^^f^ \cf, note on i K9,22]; 15 
the current interpretation of this as choice troops^ then, taken metaphorically for 
choice speeches^ has absolutely no foundation; fb%% express three-fold Qx for the 
third time, 

(21) iR bf^p {ff note on 30,6) according to TOY gloss of an Aramaic-speaking scribe. 
Instead of ^ ^^n^V^ (so, too, %%) read, with J. D. Michaelis, ^^^I;^^, following 20 
6 ToTq irpopoXXo^^voK aoi, /. /., according to Ernesti (see Lag.), ■> ToTq irpo- 
pdXXouaC aoi (Toy ^vmS sing.). \Cf also Oort, Em, 

in nOM ^"ifiM, in the first hemistich, and iR D^*l&N, in the second, may be scribal 
expansions {cf below, p. 59, 1. 12). For ntdM 3^vn ^ Dpb 'rind in 26,*i6 and 
Mbp a^nn Dan. 2, 14, — P. H.] 25 

(23) For 41 prspl and ^ DH^pn^ we must read, with Wellhausbn (on Mai. 3,8) and 
Frank., apjn and on^api^ {and He will cheat those who cheated them of^their* 

(25) rnhnU, with the Q«r6 and «3f ; K^thtb wmH. 30 

(27) ^ ni^^ is unnecessary for the meaning and for the rhythm, and should be struck 
out, with BiCK., following 6df ; its origin was probably through dittography of 
th in xhJBh (BiCK.). [In Eccl. 5 , 5 the case is different. — P. H.] 
Instead of £^ Ti'p, read, with (SSf, )n|p^; [see, however, Grit. Notes on Isaiah, 
p. 121, 1. 9 and above, p. 52, 1. 44. 35 

(29) For the etymology of THD and its connection widi mm {cf above, p. 33, L 24) 
see note 48 of the paper quoted above, p. 33, 1. 43. 

The second clause, £BL nrn^ D^^^b ^^fi^ is a superfluous explanatory gloss. — 
P. H.] 

33 (3) BiCR. is justified in striking out this verse, though 03^ agree with iK in support- 
ing it; 3* is a doublet to 6**, 3^ belongs to 8*, while 8** is a gloss to 9** (see 
below, p. 56, 1. 25). 
(4) M ^nrap (so, too, (BSf) is meaningless; BiCK. nVnn bin 'ap. [D. H. MOller 
in his Textkritische Glossen su den Proverbien^ cc. 23.24 (vol. 14 of the Vienna 45 
Oriental Journal, p. 150) inserts 4** between 9* and 9**, and adds 8** as fourth 
hemistich. He reads: -— bnn inraD lain Vk b^D3 ^imn 4**-9'' 

tD^b^yin y\y\ nn?h ^te tetob \\y^ ^a 8«».9«» [standing 

Speak not to a fool, desist from ^imparting to him* thy under- 

For he will despise thy wise words, and thou wilt have wasted thy good advice. 50 
lUit ina^ab Vin cannot mean Dcine Einsicht enthalte ihm vor. Withhold thy 
knowledge from him would be *]nrn llfib p^b (or M^a), or inyaD IDM piD; (/: i, 15; 

3.27; 23,13; 30,7. 

54 -'*«HSHM^ Q)rovet60 •M«>*6}i»^ 21,11—22,11 

21 neither schwiegerelterliches Haus (Delitzsch, Assyr, Worterb,^ p. 151, 1. 15) 
nor Haus der Verwandtschaft (Del., HW 82*); emAtu means union and corre- 
sponds to DMsp. It is not impossible that t\ya$^ which we find exclusively in Levit. 
and in Zech. 13,7, is a Babylonian loan-word. Perhaps we should read in all 
passages ni&y instead of Ti*ti$\ cf, below, p. 57, I. 18 and contrast Grit. Notes 5 
on Ezra-Neh., p. 66, 1. 53. As to ^nMDj? "Oi Zech. 13 , 7, translated by Wellhausen, 
A7. Propk>, p. 49: mein Vertrauter^ cf, ibid. p. 195 {intimus\ 3 vir coharms 
miki, % «aa^< '^^-^^i ^ ^^^ ^'^ nni;31 n^nan Kll&b^V, it might be well to add that 
Assyr. emA means not only to be united^ but also to be like\ seeZlMMERN, Buss- 
psalmen, p. 69. (For NE 81,46 cf, now KB 6, i, p. 155.) — P. H.] 10 

(11) 41 D?n^; %%t D3n; SO HiTZ., but probably in C's text S had dropped out (Jiaplo- 
graphy) after the i in i^atonai which immediately precedes (Pinkuss). 

(19) D^JnD, cf note on v. 9. 

(20) 41 fbtt^ (so, too, %t\ • read for it f^ff^ got into the verse, according to BiCK., 
from V. 17 and is to be struck out as rhythmically overloading the verse. 15 

(21) 41 ng*]!! (so, too, 39) is to be struck out, with (5, BiCR., and OORT, Em.^ as a 
repetition by mistake from 21 \ 

(26) Instead of 41 n}N9 (so, too, 39) there must of necessity have been a subject 
which formed the antithesis to p^^V; in % Aa€pf|q ^TriOu^eT SXr)v Tf|V f)|i^pav 
ImOuiilaq Kaxd^, beside mMfi which had already forced its way into the text 20 
[perhaps dittography of preceding n\Mnn. — P. H.], the original reading JT) (or 
yjh? GrAtz) has plainly survived. [Oort, Em, suggests ^JP. — P. H.] 

(27) For ia n^Pin (so, too, S«) read nin^ njjifl, with Dys., following 6 and 15,8. 

(28) 41 "QT* xwh pDW Bf^HI and a man who hears will speak for ever is absolutely 
unintelligible; similarly 038', only € has qpuXaaadfievo^, /. ^., according to GAP- 25 
pellus, "yrhx 3 has ^\^\l and (Tn^Kinr. Hirz. suggests nsT "Wh n^to Kf^MI. 

(29) pj with the K'^thtb and 3f ; ^x^ and • pj; cf above, p. 41, 1. 5. 
\r^ with the Q^r6 and f; 93 and K^htb V?*)^. 

22 (3) •^ftM] with the Q*r6; K*thtb nnf^ 30 

(4) [The recurrence of the initial y in vv. 2-4 {cf 11,9-12; 20,7-9.24-26) is acci- 
dental {cf p. 53, 1. 6); these verses form no groups (Driver, Introd.^^ p. 395, 
n. +); cf below, p. 58, 1. 18. — P. H.] 

(5) 41 D^ll (so, too, 03; f passes over one of the two words, probably D^nb accord- 
ing to Pink.) is suspicious in that D^nD follows without a conjunction. Its mean- 35 
ing also is a quesdon; elsewhere the word means thorns^ and niH means fish- 
hooks, Dvs.'s conjecture of U^yw hidden (so, too, GrAtz) deserves considera- 
tion. Frank, and Toy prefer to read DW, following Job 18,9, where DW stands 

in parallelism with nb, but the text diere is very doubtful. 
(8) 41 n^p^ ; so all texts, but unintelligible. 40 

(10) 41 n ni^h} (so, too, 38); (5 read y^ n} a^M (or ai^J)). The text is evidently corrupt 

(11) After nnh, following (5 KOpioq, %t KH^N, fill in miT, which is absolutely required 
by both rhythm and sense. [OoRT, Em. suggests niiT an«. — P. H] 

In 41 the parallel hemistich to 11* has dropped out; <D has bcxTol hi aOTip irdv- 
Tcq &|iU)^oi, /. e., according to BiCK., Til ^5^P?^? ^^^T* 45 

In 41 the remains of a second line of two hemisdchs have been joined 
into one hemistich which, it is true, will bear explanation as antithesis to v. ii* 
{jHVi! can be gained through a pure heart; the king, through graceful words). 
The fact is, however, that only ^n has survived of the original third hemistich 
(BiCK. restores ]n 15^ \i} H|D^ ]n), and in the fourth, instead of M WPl (so, too, 50 
38), we must read, with BiCK., r\9\ following (S iroifiaivci. 


ao,2o— 21,9 -*««a^>»^ g)ro»«8* •#M>««i^ 53 

20 (20) IW^^jjlf with the K«thtb (c/, 7,9)1 Q«rA .pie^HJi. 

(21) The K^thtb n^HDD is evidently a transcriptional error; the Q^r£ f^)*fi^ ^s also 
read by CBff; c/. 13,11 where Vn^D is to be read for M b^HD. 

(25) [M tf^p p^^ D'lM tt^pID is syntactically impossible. Nor can we point, with EWALD 
and Bertheau, p^^ as a substantive, p^;. We must read, as in 12, 13 (see above, 5 
p. 45, 1. 40), tt^l^i^ (cf, 6,2) instead of B V^^tD. M Vip pb' is an attributive relative 
clause, pb^ (point pi^ <j/: below, p. 67, 1. 20) is shortened impf. Qal (c/. above, 

p. 46, 1. 4) of npi « ^^ to speak rashly, and tt^nf ■= Koppfiv Mark 7,11. Ty/li 
**ttn|?" is practically equivalent to nijwa "inj mi; ^ Eccl. 5,5. For Igj we need 
not refer to Lev. 27,33; ^^ our passage the verb means simply to consider. The 10 
idea is, a man should not make a rash, inconsiderate vow but should consider 
the matter before he binds himself. 6's rendering of this line, iratU <3ivbpl xaxO 
Ti Tdiv lb(ujv b:i\ii<5a\f nerd tip t6 cOHaaOai ^cxavocTv ttvcxai, is free but correct ; 
it does not presuppose a different text. The primary meaning of ^cravoctv is 
not repentance but reconsideration, afterthought, — P. H.] 15 

(26) M iy}*^ is impf. consec. joined to a participle expressing a repeated action {cf, 
Ges.-Kautzsch S iii,u. It is questionable, however, whether the text is not 
intended for 3^^] as simple modus rei repetita. 

For M )fi1M Gr&tz and Chajes (p. 3) prefer D}1M {he shall bring upon them their 
own iniquity)', cf, 2 S 16,8 al. and exactly the same phrase in ip 94,23. 20 

[For the recurrence of the initial D in vv. 24-26 ^ p. 54, 1. 31. — P. H.] 

(27) For ^ ni it is perhaps better to read, with Chajrs (p. 36), I*! 

(28) [For riDMI IDH see above, p. 47, 1. 43 ; for 41 lonn in the second hemistich we 
should probably substitute pyxy, following (B ^v biKaioaOvq. — P. H.] 

(30) p^l&e with the K^'thtb, although a Hif. from pnD is not found elsewhere; for the 25 
Q*r6 pnpe cf. Est. 2,3.9.12. 

21 (4) ^ *)^ b evidently Ti breaking up of fallow ground (Lat. novate) and is thus of 

intention distinguished from "\\ light', yet some MSS read '^i, (5B9' express 1i. 
HiTZ. conjectures 1} fruit, Chajes (p. 42) nni. [Ti is an Assyr. loanword (just as 30 
Ti^, 1^, J^, (Jfy^i &c.) which has passed also into Aram, and Arab, {cf 
Frankel, Aram, Fremdw., pp. 94.131), but in these languages Ti means j^^^^, 
not tillage-, cf, however, ntru"' id eqli («Kbpn), Del., HW 461**. Heb. l*i tillage 
is properly subactio agri. Tlie stem of Ass. niru *yoke, collar' isj^. — P. H.] 
(6) S^ t^^ (so, too, Sf); « biOiKci (=«i"3'i Jag.; so Hitz.). 35 

Instead of the meaningless 41 ^tsrpnb (so, too, Bff) read ^yj^^, with Cappellus, 
Wild., Oort, Em., following (5; Hitz., Ew., Dys., Toy, ^tt^pbj. 

(8) ^V\ is supposed to be an intransitive adjective (derived from j| \* uazira, impf. 
Jliy. i^^^^^^ *^° commit a crime, to be laden with iniquity,' syn. J-%a., ^\) like 
"l?! Gen. 11,30 (so KOnig ii, 1,556, n. i); but it is impossible that the^initial 1 40 
should have been preserved in this case : "yx\ is probably nothing but a corrupt 
dittogram of the following ^\\ (so Stade, TLZ '94, col. 234). As in a great 
many cases, the dittogram has displaced the original word qualifying VTM, cf 

e. g, V. 26 and Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 169, 1. 21. In nbl Gen. 11,30 tlie 1 for ^ 
is simply due to an accidental error; so, too, in the Oriental 3^ro at the end of 45 
2S 6,23; ^ Driver ad he. See also Crit. Notes on Numbers, p. 49, 1. 11. — P. H.] 

(9) n^^nb (^p. 50,1.29) with the K*thtb; Q*rA D^^^^t?. — [Toy, following GrAtz, reads 
am n*aa instead of 41 nan n^a> {cf 25 ,24), but the Received Text would seem to be 
correct ; lan n^D, however, probably does not mean house in common (RVM) but 
conjugal chamber, although the Assyr. bU ebdri, quoted in my Akkadische Sprache 50 
(Berlin, 1883) p. xxxiv was based on the incorrect publication of the cuneiform 
text in iv R' 27, 11**. The new edition in iv R* shows that we must read, not bit 
ebdri, but bit emUti as in iv R i ,40* (^ Nimr. Ep. 81,46.48). Bit emi^ti means 

$2 -«4i8^»M^(pvo9et6ir^M>>etiM. 197—20,16 

19 (7) The first two hemistichs of v. 7 form one line independent and complete in itself; 

the third clause belongs to a second line, the first hemistich of which is lacking 
in M \cf. Driver's Introdf*, p. 396, below]. has two additional hemistichs 
before this second line, but without connection with the v. 7 of ill. 
H^ with the K*thfb; Q*^r6 A to him they belong\ c/. 26,2; Ezra 4,2; i^i 100,3. 5 

(8) According to ^'s punctuation novf would be casus pendens and equivalent to a 
conditional clause {ff, above, note on 17,21) and KXO^ \AOuld have to be under- 
stood as dependent on some verbal idea like /'/ happens (cf. Ges.-Kautzsch 
S ii4,h.i). But for M Hsip^ we should perhaps read k;^^ with Dvs., Toy, follow- 
ing • eOpi^aci and t {cf. 16,20; 17,20). [It is not impossible that we have in this 10 
Mlth a trace of the prefixed emphatic i {cf, above p. 48, 1. 15): H5rD^-f J veHfy 
(see Crit Notes on Ezekiel, p. 46, L 19; p. 63, 1. 41); ^ also IJIJ^ in 2,8; ^yff^ 
in 6,24; 7,5; aWrt 16,30; te«i 30,14. In Is. 38,20 •vir'Wn*? mn^ seems to be 
imperative (so Marti, alt,) with prefixed emphatic h. To add rvf\^ with Cheyne, 
or «nn or Dip (Marti) would mar the rhythm. — P. H.] 15 

(l i) Instead of iX V16? (^^^ wliich we should expect at least the impf. as the modus 
ret repetita, Ges.-Kautzsch $ 107, e) read yywy with GrAtz, Pink., Wild., 
following 3 and corresponding to the parallel Ib9. 

(16) As almost all the antithetic hemistichs standing second are joined on with 1, 
read rm\ with %bhi Kaxaqppovi&v, Kamph., Wild., Stracr, instead of ^ miD; 20 
1 and a were transposed, or 1 fell out after the preceding 1 {hapiography), 
Frank.'s and Toy's suggestion to read, following 13,13, "T^^ for itt VSm (r ditto- 
gram from following V) deserves consideration. 

X\xa\ with the Q^r6 (so % and BiCR., perhaps also € diroXetTai, cf Job 4,21); 
K*th!b n^r and so S. Dys. conjectures n^^^ niD. 25 

(19) Instead of H^ (K^thtb) which is an evident transcriptional error, read, with the 
Q^rd, \r^. Yet it is certainly a question whether the original reading was not 
something absolutely different; cf HiTZlG. 

(20) iR in^'ViMa; it is perhaps better to read, with Frank., following Syr. Sir. 3,3, 
•^^nrrjk? on thy paths (but Cod. Ambros. also in^nnna). 30 

(22) SX niMn; £w., Frank., following (S xaptrdq, rUfN^ produce, income^ gain. 
{pZ) ^ yhy\ better perhaps ra\ with Frank., following 15,28. 
(29) For in DNDpl^ judgments^ punishments read, with Wild., Frank., following % 
|idaTiT€q {cf Job 21,9) O^ea^; cf 10,13; 26,3, and note on Num. 35,5. 


20 (2) For itt no^H Chajes (p. 36) reads nb« the command (of the king); better perhaps 

^lOH, as the plural is used exclusively in Proverbs. 

(3) [It would perhaps be better to point, with GrXtz, Frank., Tiiyf instead of ill 
^V} ((/• V 127,2), unless we prefer to read aw, following € AiroaTp^qpcaOai. — P. H.] 
Chajes' suggestion (p. 24) to read for SX !?ai, following 18,1, ^ia^ deserves con- 40 
sideration {a fool quarrels about every thing, or better with every one), 

(4) il?f^ with the Q«rd and 5^; K*th!b ^H^^ cf above, p. 50, 1. 23. 

(6) Instead of iK in|^^, with indefinite subject, read Mn{f\ following St and Kamph.; 
[cf, however, Crit. Notes on EzraNeh., p. 33, I.28 and above, p. 45, 1. 45. — P. H.] 
B 1^90 arose through dittography of the 1; read IDH with (53f and Kamphausen. 45 

(8) [The p-H©? on which the Babylonian barii (see above, p. 33, 1. 38) seated him- 
self before rendering a decision is called, in the cuneiform ritual tablets, kusst 
da'Ani {cf i S 1 ,9; 4, 18); see ZiMMERN, Beitr. sur BabyL Religion, p. 104, 1. 122. 

(9) For the recurrence of the initial in vv. 7-9 ^ p. 54, 1. 31. — P. H.] 

(11) Instead of Si I^Pf (so, too, %%\ according to BiCR. it comes from 21,8) read 50 

MTfl, with «. 
(16) D"*)?; with the K^'thtb; the Q^6 (so, too, M; • is lacking for vv. 14-19) nf)a} 

comes from 27,13. 

i8,24— I9.I —«a-<M#^ g)rop«r8* •••«>««*»- 5» 

i8 nounced //* (Gks.-Kautzsch, $ 47,b, note); cf, Aram. n^K (Lidzbarski, Epigr., 
p. 214), Assyr. /^ (Del., HW 310), idu 'hand' (fem. ///« *side', itti *my side' « 
^JFIH,P originally ^^^^ see -5^//r. z, Assyr, 1,172**); see also Crit. Notes on Chron., 
p. 61, I 31. The nota accusativi ni( (LiDZ., p. 230) has no connection with the 
preposition nn (contrast Geo. Hoffmann, Phon, Jmchr,, 18S9, p. 39), but b 5 
originally identical with t7\ nM representing a form Uk (Punic ^^M) or //M (like 
bin *son;' cf. NOld., Mand, Gr,, p. 294, n.) while nw — jfJM (contrast Deutzsch, 
Proleg., p. 169 below), i. e. a form like ddmu 'blood/ The n in nM is just as 
irregular as the -»» instead of ^^ in Arabic ^y*^^ (Assyr. iasiu, i. e. Idhi^ 
lAUu\ cf, Dl^B^pu &c.). It is, however, possible that the v in V is a Vj (SFG 10 
20, 3; GGN 25 Ap. '83, 101) = *, so that the ^ in Arabic would be quite regu- 
lar, and the n in the Heb. nota accusativi and Aram. ^n^M and T\\ (N6ld., Syr, 
Gr.^ % 287, n. i)^ would then have to be explained in the same way as the n 
in ]nn^ instead of ]rn^|* (see Beitr, g. Assyr, I,i8i).» In Assyr. (Del., HW 5iK 
i6o*')'we find dti, dli, idti, (dH — all = *nk«. The original meaning of idl, (dt 15 
was beings cf Assyr. dsH 'living being, animal' (Del., HW 143**), and the nota 
accusativi \\ as originally used only before pronominal suffixes like iid in Arabic 
and kUd in Ethiopic;^ the use of nM before nouns ^ is secondary. 

The form for the second person, Heb. :{nkt, should be dtuka in Assyr., but 
instead of dtuka (written attuka-, cf Del., HW 160 and above, 1. 9) we find 20 
kdtu^ kdiu (Del., HW 357*), the pronominal suffix being prefixed. This is due 
to the influence of the forms for the first person, dti^ d^\ alongside of which we 
have idti and id/i. The initial i is here undoubtedly identical with tlie ^ in the 
Aramaic form of the nota accusativi n^, but it produced the impression of the 
suffix of the first person -ia being prefixed. Therefore the final /-vowel con- 25 
taining the suffix of the first person was no longer preserved but changed into 
'U and -A, on the analogy of other nouns, and the suffix -i'a of the second 
person was prefixed, kdtu^ kdsa instead of dtuka^ the feminine forms (Jtdti^ kdO) 
being subsequently differentiated on the analogy of the personal pronoun, 
anta, antii so, too, /dsu^ /ud/u 'him' for d^/u, id/ulu; nidifi 'us' for dHni^ 30 
idHni^ &c. (Del. S 55, b). Contrast Beitr. x, Assyr, 1,296.328.457.467. — P. H.] 

19 (i) Instead of iSi vn^b, which does not correspond exactly to the parallel hemistich, 
read V;*)^, with HiTZ., Gratz, following Sif (6 is lacking in this chapter for 
vv. 1-3) and 28,6. 35 

Read v?^p for S^ i^pD, with HiTZ., Kamph., Strack, Toy, following 5. 

« That is, iS, not *iS\ see Beitr, z, Assyr, x,a6o, n. 27; ^. ibid. p. 328. 

P The preposiiton HM 7vi/A is not a feminine form of the Assyr. preposition ina 
(Lagarde, MUtheil. 1,226); ina corresponds to Ethiopic en in XlH • and XlHA * 
\cf, Assyr. itia batl^ Heb. ^^33, Del., HW 174*) contrast DlLLM.> S 166,23; S I70f5» 

T CI^J utinam has, of course, no connection with ,^y*^* I" Wright-de Go£j£ 
2,83, below, it is explained as a modification of *^^.^ ^ *^--^.^^» hut it seems to 
be an emphatic form of the precative ^ lit (Del., HW 373^ below) just as the rare 
a/i (Wrigiit-de Gokje I, p. 96, below) appears to be an emphatic form of the 
negative ^. Cf. GGN 25 Ap. '83, p. 98, n. 2; Reckendorf S 132 and p. 709. 

' This remark has been misunderstood in G£S.-Buhlk3, 82^. N6ldek£ does not 
mean to say that K* being' is difTerent from the twta accusativi; he only wants to 
emphasize the fact that the archaic use of KS in cases like ^Bo %Ai» (where ^B^ 
a Assyr. idti) is different from the common reflexive use of K«* 

« For n=^^ cf above, p. 50, L 5. 

C In t^d and Mid the fmal consonant has been dropped, while the initial k in 
Ethiopic represents a prefixed pronominal element. 

n Cf, Delitzsch, Prot,, p. 117 below; HW 154*. 

50 -^H9<^^ Q)vov<t6K ^«4>.«i^ 17,26—18,24 

17 (26) 41 "llfh >)v ($0, too, apparently •S^) = on account of or m spite of uprightness, 
gives a very feeble sense and stands, further, in no intelligible relationship with 
26*; it also fails to expLiin the D2 which indicates a climax. Of corrections ^^a 
n«^^ (Dvs.) or l^j ia (Gratz, Toy) do not help at all. Read, with Kamph.', 
following HI 31,24, nnj ^^5 in abundance, in full measure. [So, too, OoRT, Em\ 5 

(27) np) with the K*tlifb ; the Q«r6 changes unnecessarily np^ {^dignified of spirit*), 

(28) 03 ^ DJ; BiCR. even strikes out ^^1K D3, but there is no reason to suspect ilX. 

x8 (i) ill njHn^ (so, too, 3t); but % has iTpo9da€iq, hence Cappellus, Hitz., Frank., 

Chajes (p. 30) read njHh; cf Jud. 14,4. 10 

(3) For Oi jri^i (so, too, (53^ read pfh with J. D. MiCH., HiTZ., Dys., Toy. 
For in p5p Toy reads in| insolence, 

(4) A n^pn (so, too, 5f; but see Baumg.); • D^n as in io,ii; 13,14; 14,27; 16,22. 

(5) [itt nnto should be pronounced t^\^^\ cf above, p. 34, 1. 44. — P. H.] 

(8) in Dnan^nDS as in 26,22; but the rendering dainty food is nothing but a guess, 15 
and the form (part. Hithpael!) would certainly be very strange. LOhr (TLZ '99, 
coL 652) considers it to be mbwriting for D^pAlp^ (Cant. 5, 16; Nch. 8, 10) brought 
about by the preceding niD^no^ in v. 6. 

(10) in ynj (so, too, %5it)\ Hitz., perhaps rightly, on;. 

(14) For ^ injrjo Frank, reads inVnb {The wrath of a man may be endured by him 20 
who soothes him); Chajes (p. 43) suggests T^nt^ {the courage of a man makes 
him endure suffering), 

(17) Read, with the Q*r6, \iq\\ K*thfb «b;; [cf, 20,4 and contrast 2,7; 17,27. 
For sn cf 25,8.9 and Crit. Notes on Ezra-Neh., p. 66, 1. 37. — P. H.] 

(19) Instead of ^'s strange 'p ^yft^ HK (5 has dbeXqpd^ 0it6 dbeXqpoO pon6o6|i€vo^ diq 25 
K.T.X.«'y vn«p p^^U HH (VoGEL); SO, too, 3 <^K» and t mpriD CvnD, which is 
also read, is, according to Pink., only a correction). lIiTZ.'s ingenious conjecture 
'p y^^fi thM does not give a satisfactory sense. 

For D^anb (K*thlb, = o^ilio or DW^; Q*r6, with similar meaning, D^^nb; cf p. 43, 
1. 16), has Kal O^inXi^ (ending i9*) = D^W-tt3i 0^0.); 5oMfA*?»; 8'MnnHl (n^^l^iW?). 30 

(21) M n^?ijki (so, too, 3f); C ol bd KpoToOvTcq aOTF|<; = nnnk) (so Dys., perhaps 
righdy; BicK. aj ankj). [Oort, Em., i*?3K^ nnnw. — P. H.] 
For in teH^ (so, too 3il; ^ above, p. 35, I. 28; p. 36, L 43) read, with Dys., \^^^\ 
following 6 Cbovrai. 

(24) Instead of £Si l^^H (in the usual interpretation D^]|^l V^^K means one who has many 35 
comrades) read tt^ with GrAtz, FRANK., Toy, following J8il. According to the 
Masora parva ttf^ might be expected here for VTM as in 2 S 14, 19 and Mic. 6, 10. 
[In Mic. 6,10 we must read instead of itt l^Hn, with Wellhausen, Nowack, 
Ges.-Buhl*3, ntt^Hn shall I overlook or wink at (ntt^i), in parallelism to S^ nsiHn 
(RV, shall I be Pure), at the beginning of the following verse, for which we 40 
must point, with 3 numquid justificabo (AV, shall I count them pure) «n|lH»fl shall 
I acquit him (Pf^n-nH, v. 10) or njj-vn shall *he* be pure (GUTHE in Kautzsch). 
Schnurrer (1783) proposed to read n^%^\l^ instead of itt T(% tt^Hn; see Ryssel, 
Micha, p. 106, n. 2. It is not necessary to read the Hif declarativum njjHn 
(Ryssel, p. 107): in Assyrian the Piel uzakkt is used in the meaning to declare 45 
free (Del., HW 254"). 

In 2 S 14, 19 Klostermann, Driver, Budde, L5hr take in tt^M asa«^, with 
the Masorah, but H. P. SMITH and Ges.-Buhl*3 adopt Perles' suggestion, 
reading rstt^K instead of iH ttfM; it would perhaps be better to read noM (Deut 
2,17 &c.) following 3 Ka^ l^aAA. U Ila^aA, h cf d Ai\t^l : (DhJUey^ I 50 
/Iu1'ft/h+ ; Xy"l : H-ft* : Hfi^(h : X7ILXt &c. The Hebrew phrase is equivalent 
to Thou hast 'cornered ' me or thou hast hit tlie nail on the head. 

As to vnM in Pro v. 18,24, it cannot be denied that ttf^ may have been pro- 

i6,i3— I7i22 -«4i8^»M^ Q)voviv6k '#M>«eH^ 49 

16 (13) ^ t)^?^9 ^ ^ repetition by mistake from v. 12; read '^)t^ with <S (which has the 

sing, even in v. 12) 38*; also ^HK^ in v. 13^ agrees with the sing. [The plural, 

however, may be amplificativc {j^^tk^ the great king, even the greatest king); 

cf, above, p. 34, 1. 31. — P. HJ 
(16) in HD is probably a dittogram by mistake from the preceding n& in HD^n (so 5 

Gratz); it should be struck out, following fiSf. [Contrast below, note on 30,13, 

p. 67, 1. 41. — P. HJ 
(19) Read D^IJJ, with the Q*r6 and the sense; K*th!b D^»^J; cf, above, p. 37, 1. 15. 
(22) Instead of ^^ v^y? bat? read vVyai ^DV, with Dys., Gratz, Wild., Toy, Oort, 

£';;i., following ^3 (jtaplography). 10 

(27) vn^te^ with the Knhtb and €f ; Q^rd in^lp is unnecessary (B cOi^A). 
(30) For ill njV we should perhaps, following Is. 29,10; 33,15, read D|Vi with GrXtz, 

Toy. Frank, prefers in these three passages, fDj? [= Ja^, j*»^; cf, Assyr. fan 

/^ ^/ narrow ^ Del., H W 88*; but transposition of D is not exceptional. — P. H.] 


17 (5) For in T|i^ (so, too, (t) read 13h^ with Gratz, following 6 AiroXXu^^vifi (parallel 

to itfiV). 
(7) Chajes' suggestion (p. 28) to read \^ for S^ ^^^ deserves consideration. It 
goes without saying ^2X pretentious speech is not proper for a fool, 

(11) ^ Sn"^Sd^. ^19 ^^ requires the translation only rebellion does the evil man seek; 20 
hence <D AvTiXoT(a^ i-^elpex irdq kok^^. On the other hand, 2 renders {«a^ 
iKjuA i^^ JLufM and 9 Mnvo ^p3 MTno K*a^; did they read, as Toy supposes, *|M 
as VTM? 

(13) K*thib ^""pn; the Q*r6 requires unnecessarily tt^^Dp. 

(18) ^ ^nyi ^It^^ before (in the presence of) his neighbor ^ which must be artificially 25 
interpreted as for his neighbor. But 6 has tiIjv ^qutoO (p(Xujv, and S si^ajA* 
and % n^"Dn ^p can hardly have read differently from f\. [)npi ^'Oh refers to the 
creditor (nj^^. no^ to the debtor (nV^, ^. 22,7); \7\V\ ^yih y\^ or inpnV any 6,1 
means to give security to another {not for another person). For y\cfiZ,\y, A 
man who pledges himself in this way, inp *\'Sl M3 6,3. In ilie latter passage f\ 30 
refers again to the creditor, not to the debtor. ^ ^^^ ^^ means I pledge 
myself to thee (not for thee). 71? ^zir/^ security for a thing ox for a man is ^^r*^ 
*,^^4iJ\ or ^^^^^iJb {praestare rem^ cf Prov. 22 , 26, or </^ re) or J>^ r? J-*^. iJ-*^ 
may be construed also \>ith ^ or J (dJ ^^ii" ,^1^ or with the accusative 
(^^^^^l ^SjS he made him guarantee the thing). In the same way T\V is con- 35 
strued with the accusative of the person for whom security is given, cf 11,15; 
20, 16; 37, 13. He gave security to the num for his brother is r^K^ vnH nK any or 
W^KH ^iD^ (in German, er iibemahm dem Manne gegeniiber Biirgschaft fiir seinen 
Bruder\ cf Greek ^TT^floOaC xiva irp6? Tiva or xivd xivi). In Syriac the verb 
aiy to become surety for a person may be construed either with the accusative or 40 
with the prepositions 3, b, or ^p. The correct explanation of our passage is given 
in Delitzsch's commentary, who quotes Fleischer's translation apud alterum 
(sc. creditorem pro debitore). TOY renders, who becomes security to another, and 
adds," The another refers to the creditor. To another is lit. in the presence of his 
neighbor:* See also Ges.-Buhl*3 s, v, any. — P. H.] 45 

(21) For the participle ^ as casus pendens^ which is, at the same tune, equivalent 
to a conditional clause (as in Gen. 9,6), cf Ges.-Kautzsch J Ii6,w. 

^ 1^ nj^n^ (so, too, S) would mean (// happens) to his sorrow. Probably, how- 
ever, the ^ is only a dittogram of the b preceding; hence (5 dbuvr], f MVID^n. 
[The prefixed V, however, might be emphatic in this case; see above, p. 48, 1. 15. 50 
— P. H.] 

(22) iK nri| (so, too, apparently (5) according to the usual interpretation = healing; 
read, with Dys., r\\\^ following B i^aAO^^and if MDU. 

Prov. 7 

4S -'*«ifSHM^ Q)vov<r6ir ^M>*e}i»^ 14,26—16, 1 1 

14 but the conjecture Httl^ plans their destruction (HiTZ., Dvs., Tov) is not suc- 


(26) For ill tV Chajes (p. 9) prefers the adjective !P. It is true that the suflix in na 
would then have a natural antecedent which is lacking in the Received Text 

(32) For SSi mioa (so, too, f ) which could only mean (trusts) in his death, read 1ttn| 5 
with 6 iTCiroiedj? x^j ^auxoO 6016x11x1 {cf, i K 9,4); so 3 and Dys., Bick., 
Kamph., Frank., Toy, Oort, Em. 

{^ii The tenor of ill in the second hemistich is not witliout difficulty; but to insert 
a negative before V^\Pi (so «5; 9 cuts the knot \uth yvt\X\ WnX'^W folly is recogfiised) 
is too arbitrary (cf, above, p. 44, 1. 37). For ill jnin Toy reads n^JH. 10 

(34) [^ Ton = f^caJ& is doubtful (in Lev. 20,17 it may be a euphemism); perhaps we 
should read, witli Jag., GrAtz, following (S ^aoaovoOai, ion (cf. 28,22); see, 
however, 25,10. 

(35) ^^D^W\ is not predicate (Frank.) as in 15,8; 16,13; in that case the h prefixed 

to the following subject would have to be taken as the emphatic h {cf Crit. Notes 15 
on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 58, 1. 20 and below, p. 49, 1. 50; p. 52, 1. 11). The con- 
struction is the same as in 15,10*. 24*, &c.; 3 >y>\-». — P. H.] 
If ill n\in were a sound reading, we would expect after it ttf^3b!?. Dys.'s and 
WiLD.'s conjecture of iTnri cannot be defended with 6 xfj hk ^auxoO eOaxpoq)((f 
Aqpaipetxai dxifA(av. Chajes (p. 43), following (5, omits h before Tap but prefixes 20 
it to ttf' no. 

'5 W The conjecture i^^^ft (Dys., GrAtz, Kamph., Frank., Toy, Oort, Em) deserves 
notice as it corresponds to the parallel TV. much better than Mi a^tt^D. 

(6) £Si (and, also, Sf) p^^» n^a (here n''a is accus. /i?a=»n^5a; cf. especially Ges.- 25 
Kautzsch S ii8,g; contrast Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nchemiah, p. 71, 1. 25); but (5 

^v iTX€ova2:ouaij biKaioouvij = p^j niaia Qag.); Bick. p^^| nia>T|. 
For the second hemistich of iU, (5 had originally ot hi daePet^ 6X6pi2:oi ^K t^^ 
dnoXoOvxai; a younger doublet, in which 3f agree, is xapnol hi daepOjv diro- 
XoOvxm. 30 

(7) For iU np Frank., Toy prefer nr, following I, 9uXdaaouai. 

(12) For ill ^H Toy reads HH, followmg (5 n€xd; [cf Crit Notes on Ezekiel, p. 45, 1. 35; 
p. 9O1 1. 32; p. 115, 1. 31; contrast ibid, p. 109, 1. 7. — P. H.] 

(14) Instead of the K*thib ^ip^ (which comes from D^ifi in v. 13) read the Q*r^ ^p^ 
with ©33:. " 35 

(15) For B yw\ it is perhaps better to read, with TOY, aie^l. 

(19) For iU Dnuf^ Toy prefers D^JlTn, followmg (5 dvbpeiujv; cf 10,4. 

(24) [vh'yth and nbD (cf Eccl. 3,21) may be subsequent additions. The omission of 

^ before nbD, after the preceding ^WW, may be due to haplography. — P. H.J 
(26) For ill onfiBl Frank, is probably right in conjecturing UWTl but His pleasure 40 

are &c. 
(28) [nUP^ 7\^7\'' pn!l "A cannot mean The righteous considers his word (Toy) or das 

Hers des Gerechten denkt nach, wenn es antworten will (GKS.-BunL*3 s. v. Hin) 

but the mi?td of the righteous meditates {cf. 24,2) a response, tries to give a 
favorable ans7uer {cf below, p. 66, 1. 33); 3 mens justi mcditatur obedientiam. 45 

Gratz suggested nuiDK^, following (538', HlTZlon^JP {denkt tugendhaft).— P. H.] 
(31) Instead of ill D^»n (so, too, ^; in © the verse is missing; cf Lag. on v. 27**) HiTZ. 

suggests D3n; but this makes poor sense. 

16 (4) ill imjmV, but the article is here syntactically impossible; cf. Ges.** S I27.i. 50 

(11) Very attractive is Frank.'s conjecture mn^b iSDVD "O'^itltel vht steelyard and 
scales are judgment for fuvH, i. e., tlie employment of false balances will be 
judged by JHVH. 

14,1—25 -^<H9<^m^ Q)vovet6K '#M>-eH^ 47 

14 (i) F or ^ D^Bfl nibpn M^ most prudent among women {cf, Jud. 5 , 29), read nibsn, with 
Dblitzsch, Dys., Wild., Strack, Toy, Oort, Em., on the analogy of i ,20; 9, i ; 
[cf. above, p. 34, 1. 31. — P. II.]. ^l D^Vi is an explanatoiy gloss (so Toy). 

(3) For £Si mHi HiTZ., Frank, read nSl; cf, 10,13. 

Instead of the grammatically impossible (cf. Ges.-Kautzsch $ 47,g) Diua^^ft of 5 
£^ read Dnoffn with 03 Y and HiTZ., Lagarde, Oort, Em, 

(4) For M WiH Krochmal (see Gratz), Frank., Chajes, Toy read d^m {without 
oxen there is no grain), 

(7) ^l np ^nuto jwjn^ %\ ^^dd »^h^ 15|I? ^i (so, too, •) is evidently corrupt; 

literally it runs Go from the presence of a foolish man, and thou dost not know 10 
tips of knowledge, ® (according to Jag.), S, and HiTZ. read Vpy tt^^K^ njll? bi 
nyi ^nj^f nn '^?^- similarly BiCK., only bi? and nVT ^^J^ ^ 10,21. (AVe must 
bear in mind, however, that i:|D does not necessarily mean from the presence 
{cf i^ap Num. 22,5; DlgO Gen. 2,8, &c.); lilD ^^^ need not be identical with 
^ifite ¥Ct^ &c. The verse may therefore mean, Walk in the presence of a foolish 15 
man, and thou wilt not know lips of knowledge^ i. e.. If you are in constant 
intercourse with a fool (V^DD ttf^H^ anpAD, cf, 20,19; or ^^M »^K ntl Hi, 22,24), 
you will not learn very much. — P. H.] 

(9) iR Df^K f ^^^ D^^^IM means literally, but without the least connection with the second 
half of the verse, the guilt-offering nwcks at fools. Quite differently 6 (and 3) 20 
olK(ai iTapav6fAUJv 69€iX/|aouaiv Ka8apia^6v and % Knenn p^nD ^^^D. 

(10) For SSi •)} Frank, reads ]ni following € OPpci; contrast Toy. 

(11) 41 xy^\\ similarly % n^ieo, and probably % i«f« «//// rejoice presupposes the 
same reading. Against this 6 ari^aovrai and JB^ v5^»aj^, probably following 
12,7 nbP!. 25 

(13) For the grammatically impossible S^ (with (t) nnptef nn^^HM {cf the case in Is. 
17,6, which is quite analogous, and Gks.-Kautzscu, % 131, n, note i) it is cer- 
tainly an easy correction, taking the n over to nnDV9, to read nriDbn n^riM; so 
HiTZ., Dys., Bick., Wild., Chajes. According to JXg. this was the reading of 

6, but that is uncertain, as is, also, the reading of 3. Yet since the article here 30 
would be very strange, nn^nriM must rather be due to a mistaken repetition from 
V. 12**. Cf below, note on 16,13. 

(14) Instead of the meaningless S^ v^^D read V^^Jtpp^ with Cappellus, Del., Bick., 
Kamph., Frank., Strack, Toy, Oort, Em.\ cf Jer. 17 , lo; Zech. 1,4.6. 6 Air6 
TiDv biavonMTujv aOroO; 3 {K\jy) «; % n^n^nn p. 35 

(17) For ill Hihf^ Wild, suggests, following fb%VL, \Mf\ but the man of deliberation 
keeps calm; of the stem \}M, however, only the Pi*lel \lWt [contrast p. 35, 1. 15; 
p. 34, 1. 46. — P. H.] occurs in OT. TOY, following (S itoXXd 6iT09^p€i, suggests 
M^^; but iToXXd, which is almost indispensable, is an arbitrary addition. 

(21) £Bi K*thtb DV??; the Q*r6 DMJP is unnecessary; contrast above, p. 37, I. 15. 40 

(22) Chajes (p. 16, note e) proposes to read in 22*^ taw '•Wlh-nK non) but His mercy 
shall be with them that devise good. Perhaps we should insert, with Toy, b be- 
fore the second ^Wlh. [For n»H1 non, i. e. kindness and faithfulness, not mercy 
and truth, see Crit. Notes on Psalms, p. 80, 1. 27 ; cf. Toy's Comm. on Prov., 

p. 295. — P. H.] 45 

(24) M uyfv does not give a satisfactory sense; 6 iravoOpYo^, and following it HiTZ. 
D^np \cf Job 5,13) and Dys., Wild., Frank., Oort, Em,, nD")j which in i ,4 and 
elsewhere is used in a good sense; Toy Dlp^y or DH^'if ; cf. below, I. 51. 

[For £^ n^JH at the beginning of the second hcmislich read, with Gratz, Frank., 
Toy, Oort, Em., in accordance with the parallelism, nM^ (c/- '.9j 4»9)- ^'or ^^^ 5° 
second n^jM GrAtz and Toy prefer DnV^M, in the same way Dnon^ at the end 
of the first hemistich. — P. H.] 

(25) Instead of £Si nrfy^ (so, too, €) we would expect a participle parallel to ^^0 

46 -'*«ifSHM^ (pvoverBir ^M>*e}i»^ 12,26—13,22 

12 Ges.-KautzsCH J I45,u. Nor can ab be construed as feminine. According to 
Albrkcht (ZAT 16,81) the K^tlitb should be pointed n}n^\ and Hintt^^. 

(26) For ill W (=«W?) read W, with HiTZ., BiCK., Strack,' aithough iri W niight 
be explained as a "rhythmical" jussive at the beginning of the clause; c/, the 
numerous instances in Ges.-Kautzsch $ 109, k. 5 
For M wyib (so, too, 6St) read wr^b, with DOderlein, Hitz.. Del., Now., 
BiCK., Kamph., Wild., Strackj c/. Job 39,8. 

(27) For M ngj D*]« read, with C38' and BiCK., DIH "ig;. 

(28) Instead of ill nyni read rqay, with (5W», Bickell, and Oort, Em. 

For Vk (so M according to the best evidence, cf. BXr, Lt'Ber Pr(n;erbtonim^ 10 
p. 40; meaning no-death) read !?N with all the Ancient Versions and almost all 
commentators; only Bertheau, Del., and probably Baumg., are opposed. 

13 (i) Since ill iH "IMD cannot mean is the result of a father* s instruction^ as Del. 

renders, the verb governing it must have dropped out. % forces sense with 15 
Mni*nD b:spO ; an equally violent rendering of in is attempted by € (so, too, 3) 
(^Tri^KOO^ irarpi ; they regard IDID as a passive participle from "ID^ (PiNK.). Read, 
with Dys., following 12, i, an« ipD (GrAtz prefers ank), and compare on the object 
coming first, M^M^ il)7; 99,4; [contrast Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 136, 1. 35. — P. H.] 

(4) Instead of £Si 11^1)^, which is grammatically impossible (it could be explained 20 
only as an archaic form like ln;n, lia, &c.; cf Ges.-Kautzsch $ 9o,n), read l^f J, 
with Dys., Bick., Oort, Em.\ in 63if the verse runs quite differently. 

(6) For in nKbn Toy prefers DKt^n (so one MS). 

(9) GrAtz and Toy read rrip shines brightly, following 2 K 3,22; Is. 58, 10, &c., in- 
stead of S^ n^lff^ which is certainly strange. 25 
(10) Instead of ill p*^ (so, too, 8^ we would expect a participle, as a subject must be 
expressed; (53 Kaxd^Bpi (so, since Vogel, most commentators; PiNK. thinks 
that it is rather p*]) is certainly not original. 

For JH vrr^\ Frank, prefers O^piW with the lowly {cf 11,2). This is probably 
right since in all other passages yf\\ means nothing but to take counsel, to con- 30 
suit with others. [So, too, OoRT, Em. — P. H.] 
(i i) in Vsnfi (so, too, 3^, according to the usual but linguistically impossible render- 
ing, {gained) by fraud, is evidenUy a transcriptional error for Siib; <b im,- 
anoubaZon^vTi =» bnbto (Vogel and almost all commentators); cf 20,21 Q*r6. 
(13) For in oV^^ we should perhaps read, with Frank., following € Ottctlvci, D^^^ 35 
7vill keep well, will be safe. Cf 11,31 where D^^f^* (^ DVtt^;)-= 6 aibZiCTai. 

(15) Instead of in in^M read Dl/K, with JAg., Dys., following fb iv &iTU)X€(qi and 29. 

(16) Instead of in Dny^y every prudent man read Wi with Kamph.; cf 16,4. 

(17) For ^ Pfh we should perhaps read, with GrAtz, Toy, y\. 

in ^b^. (so, too, (53) falls into evil\ the context absolutely requires (hence even 40 
Luther bringt UngUick) \^\\ so Arnoldi, Now., Dys., Bick., Kamph., Wild., 
Frank., Strack, Oort, Em. 

(19) The first and second hemistichs of this verse are not parallel; two hemistichs 
have probably dropped out between them. 

(20) Instead of the Q*r^ '^\\ (S* and perhaps also ©) read "Jjl^n imper. {cf «^n) and 45 
similarly the second K«thtb, D^m; so «(?); but Sff follow the Q*rd Djn^^. For tl\e 
second imperative as expression of the certain consequence of an action {thus 
thou wilt become wise/) cf. Ges.-Kautzsch % iio,f. 

(21) For in xfyi\ (so, too, si"; though, perhaps, with anotiier pronunciation), to which 
God must be understood as subject, read rirn with Ew., Kamph., Toy, follow- 50 
ing % KaxaXi^miiCTai; cf. the same translation of i^^n Gen. 31,25; Ex. 15,9; 
Deut 28,45 and often; the parallelism with «^Tin is exact. 

(22) [For \\Vt predestined st^ above, note on 2,7. — P. H.] 

11,19— ia,25 -*««8^M^ Q)rov<v6iK ^K>««*>- 45 

IX (19) Instead of the strange \^just (as?) q(M (so, too, €) 03 and Dys., Bick. read, no 
less strangely, \^. The parallel (^n*iD requires a participle; read, therefore, nph with 
Kamph., Wild., Toy, following 15,14; Hos. ia,2 (where r\f\ stands beside f^i 
^3713' [QC also OORT, £";//. 

(25) For ^ Kl^^ we must read, with Frank., ny\\ {cf, A^^K) or njv (so Gratz and 5 
OORT, Etn), 3 inebriabitur\ HiTZ. pointed K^jj^^mv — P. H.j 

(28) For ^ ^16^ (so, too, «3t) read bia^ with Ew., Dys., Oort, Em,, and the parallelism. 
Notice the plene written form as regularly in the case of Vla\ 
tti n^93} and so, too, %%\ (6, followed by BiCK., 6 bd dvTiXa)iPav6^€voq (—n^PO^ 
JAg.) and, correspondingly, for SSi inifi^ (so, too, SI), n'MJV 10 

(30) ^ pn!! ^nt (so, too, 3^; (S npn» ^neb (or pn*, Baumg., Frank., Toy) with the 
arbitrary addition <pu€Tai. 

^ DSn nivfia np^l (so, too, d); 6 (3) dqpaipoOvTai bd &ujpoi i|iuxal irapav6^u)v » 
(iDDhO D^n tt^D} t^e^} «i>?S^l- So Lag. renders, according to whom Itsra is to be 
expunged as an attempt to correct C^ca. Cf, Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 90, 1. 7. 15 
Frank, thinks that <5 read Dl^n instead of iR d^H; for &ujpoq«DDn cf, 10,6; 13,2. 

(31) For SSi pna (so, too, %) € offers n6Xi(;. This is most probably right, but the 
Hebrew equivalent cannot be reached; GrAtz suggests bV^d, but that means 
almost [In order to give K)yo3 the required meaning hardly^ scarcely, it is nec- 
essary to insert the negative, Dbt9^ M^ b^DS; in modem Hebrew this combination 20 
is not uncommon: M*^p^ ^3V vh DpDd means he can hardly read^ Arab, v^yo L* 
b^JL* '^\ i3 y^L* ®'^ version of this line, ct 6 ^^v b(Kaio^ ^6Xk cdj^^erai k. t. 4. 

is quoted in i Peter 4, 18. ^ pK3 represents of course an intentional alteration, 

for dogmatic purposes, of the original text; cf, below, 1. 43. — P. H.] 

Instead of ^ oVy^ (so, too, f) read, with 63 and Gratz, Bick., u)^\i cf, 13,13. 25 

12 (9) For £Si li W) (so, too, 8) read, with (53 and Hrrz., Bick., Frank., Strack, 
1^ "\i9\\ Dys. reads na^} «;/</ //^^/j 1//; Gratz, ntoin and has a span (of oxen). 
[For 11351 <;/; Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 122, 1. 51 ; but we should perhaps read "OP 
(Assyr. ebiirit, Del., IIW ii^ below); cf Josh. 5,11.12 (P). — P. II.] 30 

(12) Instead of the unintelligible i^ D'Vl 11^? Pf^ "lOn (followed by i) 63 offer 
^irieu^iai doepiiv KOKaC =* nip, D^y^^T n^lpn (Lag.), thus omittmg IWD. [The 
original text may have been D^ycn nWD nDir\ cf 14,11; IWD ((/C Eccl. 9,i4)« 
Ijro or mWD Is. 29,7; £z. 19,9 {cf 2 viunimentum pessimortnn), ^ pwn before 
nWD may be a misplaced variant to D*p (^ below, p. 56, 1. 48; p. 57, 1. 5 1). — P. H.] 35 
For ill ^Fi\ with which ^1^ is generally but arbitrarily understood, read in^K or 
in^HS with Dys., Gratz, Kamph., Wild., Strack, Toy, following fb iy 6x\)fidj' 
liaaiv; 3 ouOAi sprout, bear (Pink.) thus rendering (^nj)) jn^ 3" (ed. MiDDEL- 

DORPF) Uajuo. 

(13) For iR tt^plD (cf 20,2$; 29,6) we should perhaps read B^pli entangles himself with 40 
Gratz, Kamph., Wild., Toy, Oort, Em,, following 6,2 and (5; Dys. reads i^g«D. 

(14) itt + ^ll) (so, too, (S3(l) is a mistaken limitation of a general statement; \cf above, 
1. 23 and p. 44, I. 35; also p. 41, I. 36 and p. 62, 1. 6. — P. H.] 

Read, with the K'lhib, a^U^j; Q*r^ a^?^; = one (or God) will recompense him, [Cf 
below, p. 52, I. 44; p. 55, 1. 35 and Crit. Notes on Numbers, p. 43, 1. 31. 45 

(17) The stem of nP witness, nip, means originally to repeat. Gen. 43,3 O^ lyn IPn 
*ibK^ tt^^Mn may be translated: the man told us repeatedly, a witness is a person 
who repeats the facts of a case. Afterwards the stem my to repeat, to reiterate 
came to mean to make a solemn declaration (nn»); cf, Assyr. «/'/</ (DEL., HW 
32^); the translation testimony for nn» is inconect. — P. H.] 50 

(25) Instead of ill ninc^^. and r\\nt^>$\ read, with t53il, «ntt^n and «nto\?a The cases 
in which a masculine predicate is used after a feminine subject are either due 
to special reasons (anacoluthon &c.) or are textually suspicious; cf the list in 

44 -•'♦laH**^ JptovitS* ^•4>«i^ 10,23—11,16 

10 in Jer. 9,6 (DWnai up^'i *ljn, 6 IboO ifth irupdKJui oOtoO? koI boKijia) aOxoOO; 
Zech. 13 ,9 (D^ninai — D^nti!!, 6 nupdjauj . . . koI boKimJD); tp 66, loOinui!! linana, 

(5 ^boxC^aaaq fijifl? kqI ^irupu)oa<;). It is not necessary to suppose that (S ircirupu)- 
H^voq is a transcriptional error for ircTreipaM^voc (so Lagarde). In Prov. 8, 10 (5^ 
has Oirdp xpu^tov b€boKi|uiaaKi^vov for M nn« ynriD {c/. above, p. 41, 1. 9), but in 5 
8, 19 Kpdaaxu dpTup(ou ^kXcktoO for £X nnai «^D3»; in 16, 16 both ynnb aie and 
«^D3D nnai arc translated alpcTibTcpo^ Xpuolou or On^p dptOpiov; so, too, in 22,1 
(itt an ni^y^ DV nWi = (5 afp€TiljT€pov dvo^ia KaX6v f^ TrXoOTO^ iroXuO; in 21 ,3 we 
find (5 Apcard irapd eeifi jiaXXov f^ Ouoit&v oTna ■= ^ nam mn^i nnaj. 
For the corrupt ^ epos, at the end of the verse, € Hfino //r^w would suggest 10 
D^yo (^ 25,4; for 26,23 see below, p. 62, 1. 46) or Vna (Is. 1,25); but neither 
D^i^ nor ^na could have been corrupted to ill B^Da. The origmal reading must 
have been D«m; ^ Jer. 6,30 where 41 OHb^ *]Da «= 9 dptOpiov dirobeboKi^aa- 
H^vov (]na ■= boKijidJw, DMO « diToboKijuidJIu), ]na^ practically = b6Ki|ioO. Read 
therefore:—- :«ot«» D^y«n ai p^^!i pwV <^»nai »|Da 15 

nnai means throughout /r^r<£i^/(f and is nowhere used attributively, but is always 
participial predicate; c/. above, p. 41, 1. 11. — P. H.] 

(23) For ill nbani Frank, suggests ntona^ («a« ofy'ec^ of wrath) parallel to pinira at 
the beginning of the first hemistich; Toy prefers naPin. 

(24) Only God could be subject of iW ^ri\ but He has not been mentioned previously. 20 
(5 bcKTH, following which BiCK. emends: ]5in. Read 19^^, with HiTZ., following B 
<^owKm and % an^nn. '» mnn would then be object, not subject, of yf\\\ cf, Ges.- 
Kautzsch $ 121, a. [OORT, Em. suggests ]nn or \X\\r\, — P. H.] 

(29) itt Dh^, but the abstract noun is strange. Read, with ® and in accordance 
with the parallelism, Dfi^; %% express the same but in the plural. Perhaps 25 
we should disregard the accentuation and combine, with FRANK., following 13,6; 
Job 4,6, T\T on^ (to be pointed ort ?), so that nw^ would be the subject, not miT "pi. 

(31) In this transposidon, which is suggested by the sense, we follow HrrziG. 

XI (3) Read the Q'^rd, W6\, corresponding to the impf. omn; the K*thtb D^«^ (is the 30 
perf. meant?) is simply a transcriptional blunder. 

(6) For ill wn Toy prefers Dnjn, following (53^3; tliis is grammatically easier, but 
mars the rhythm. [Perhaps we should read n\n; cf. 19,13; Lam. 4,20. — P. H.] 

(7) The first hemistich is evidently too long; in pfh (so, too, 39^) seems added in 
order to prevent the offense that might be taken at a statement that this took 35 
place at the death of every man [Eccl. 9,4]. (5 avoids the difficulty by adding pn», 
instead ofpttfl, and the negadve: TcXcuTi^aavTO? dvbpdq bixalou oOk dXXurai dXirl?. 

in thrms (so, too, Sd); © Td b^ KadxnMa ■= nVnw. 
(9) Si nfia is right, t^X\ is subject like D^pn^; € reads ^fta wrongly. 

For i^ r\r\X(\ HiTZ., Bick. read nntt^O; Chajes (p. 11) and Toy, nn«f, following 40 
<6 iraTk. Toy, however, gives nni^l^ as an alternative. 
(10) in f^jn and so •: ynn rejoices \ % «aA^l«ty^nn; it probably took y^n in the 
sense to be equipped, active , strong (Pink.), hence v. 9 ynia^Kj ■■ wirr ; (5, 
meaninglessly, xaTibpOwaev. Lag. suggests for this : KaTwpx/joaTO. (S jumped 
from iTip to mp and dropped out, in consequence, vv. 10** and ii*. The addi- 45 
tion to the text of fb in some Greek MSS, kqI ItC dirwXelqi daepctiv dYaXXfapa* 
**fev €OXoT(aK bixatujv 0i(iu)6i^aeTai it6Xk is from 0. So Lag. who further 
ascribes 10*. 11^ and 12.13 lo the same source. 
(12) [For the recurrence of the initial a in vv. 9-12 cf below, p. 54, 1. 31. — P. H.] 
(16) The second and third hemisdchs of this verse are added from (5^ against ^C, 50 
with Ew., HiTZ., Bick. (Bick. however reads i6<=: — ^^n ^|ki ^|yp). 
Instead of in D^Jrnpi (so, too, %%\ which does not suit the context, read D^l^^tJI, 
with (5 dvbp€ioi and HiTZ., £w., Bickelu 

11,19—12,25 -*««8^M^ Q)rov(T6iK «<>»*»«- 45 

11 (19) Instead of the strange \^just (as?) of in (so, too, T) 03 and Dys., Bick. read, no 

less strangely, \^, The parallel t^nib requires a participle; read, therefore, t\f\ with 
Kamph., Wild., Toy, following 15,14; Hos. 12,2 (where ny*i stands beside ^)i 
V 37i3' [Q^- also OORT, Em, 

(25) For 41 Kli^ we must read, with FRANK., nj^J {cf, A^^X) or njv (so Gratz and 5 
OORT, Em), 3 inebnabitiir\ HiTZ. pointed Knvr-njv — P. H.] 

(28) For ^ Hwi" (so, too, (53f ) read ^\i\ with Ew., Dys., Oort, £"///., and the parallelism. 
Notice the piene written form as regulaily in the case of Vla\ 
S^ n^93^ and so, too, 39; (6, followed by BlCK., 6 bd dvTiXa)iPav6fAevoq (""^^$9^ 
Jag.) and, correspondingly, for £^ wr^ti" (so, too, 31), n'M)\ 10 

(30) ^ pn« ^fc (so, too, 39); dS npn» ^neo (or pnjr, Baumg., Frank., Toy) with the 
arbitrary addition (pOerai. 

^ D^n nitifD^ np^l (so, too, d); 6 (3) &q)aipoOvTai b^ &ujpoi i|iuxal irapav6^u)v » 
(lODh*) D^n tt^^} c^tt^} ^CS^V ^^ ^^^- renders, according to whom ^l is to be 
expunged as an attempt to correct VD2. Cf, Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 90, 1. 7. 15 
Frank, thinks that (5 read Dbn instead of iR D^H; for &ujpoq = DDn ^. 10,6; 13,2. 

(31) For ^ |^1M3 (so, too, 9) 6 offers ^6Xi^. This is most probably right, but the 
Hebrew equivalent cannot be reached; Gratz suggests bVD^, but that means 
almost, [In order to give K)yo3 the required meaning hardly, scarcely^ it is nec- 
essary to insert the negative, D^t9^ M^ D^Dd; in modem Hebrew this combination 20 
is not uncommon: M*^p^ ^3V M^ &pD3 means he can hardly read^ Arab, v^yo L* 
b^JlS ^) L5rH> ®^ version of this line, et 6 ^^v biKaio^ m6Xi^ adiilcTai k. t. 4. 

is quoted in i Peter 4, 18. iX pM3 represents of course an intentional alteration, 

for dogmatic purposes, of the original text; cf, below, I. 43. — P. H.] 

Instead of ^ xif^\ (so, too, f) read, with 63 and Gratz, Bick., vhxi\\ cf 13,13. 25 

12 (9) For in li wi (so, too, 8) read, with 63 and Hirz., Bick., Frank., Strack, 

lb n^y^J; Dys. reads 15^} and heaps up\ Gratz, nbjj and has a span (of oxen). 
[For IM cf Grit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 122, 1. 51 ; but we should perhaps read "DP 
(Assyr. ehtiru, Del., II W Il^ below); cf. Josh. 5,11.12 (P). — P. II.] 30 

(12) Instead of the unintelligible SX ^T\ "11^9 Pf^ *iOn (followed by d) (53 offer 
^Tneu^Cai daepoiv KOKaC =* mjH D^)??'l '^^pfj (Lag.), thus omitting nWD. [The 
original text may have been D^ycn nwto nDir\ ^. 14,11; IWD ((/C Eccl. 9,14) = 
njto or mWD Is. 29,7; Ez. 19,9 (^^ 3 viunimentum pessimorum). M pwn before 
nWD may be a misplaced variant to D*jn (<:/: below, p. 56, 1. 48; p. 57, 1. 5 1). — P. H.] 35 
For ill \Pi\ with which ^1^ is generally but arbitrarily understood, read in^K or 
^n^HD with Dys., Gratz, Kamph., Wild., Strack, Toy, following ® ^v dxwp*i^- 
liaaiv; 3 ouOAi sprout, bear (Pink.) thus rendering 0^!)) in\ S" (ed. Middel- 

DORPF) \jlmoma, 

(13) For £Si tfi^l^lD (^r/*. 20,25; 29>6) ^'^ should perhaps read tfi^}?U entangles himself with 40 
Gratz, Kamph., Wild., Toy, Oort, Em,, following 6, 2 and (5; Dys. reads tt^g«D. 

(14) ^ + 31K) (so, too, (S3f) is a mistaken limitation of a general statement; [cf, above, 
1. 23 and p. 44, 1. 35; also p. 41, 1. 36 and p. 62, 1. 6. — P. H.] 

Read, with the K'thib, a^U^j; Q*r6 a^^; = one (or God) will recompense him. [Cf 
below, p. 52, 1. 44; p. 55, 1. 35 and Crit. Notes on Numbers, p. 43, 1. 31. 45 

(17) The stem of nP witness, lip, means originally to repeat, Gen. 43,3 oa 1J?n npn 
*^bK^ V^^Kn may be translated: the man told us repeatedly, a witness is a person 
who repeats the facts of a case. Afterwards the stem my to repeat, to reiterate 
came to mean to make a solemn declaration (nnp); cf Assyr. urUi (Del., HW 
32^); the translation testimony for nnp is incorrect. — P. H.] 50 

(25) Instead of ill ninc^^. and nini?\?^, read, mth (838', untt^ri and untotoa The cases 
in which a masculine predicate is used after a feminine subject are either due 
to special reasons {anacoluthon &c.) or are textually suspicious; cf, the list in 

44 -**«8HMf flptOVW 60 iHWH^ 10,23—11,16 

10 in Jer. 9,6 (D^nmi D^*]^ ^lin, (boO ^t^ iruptboui aOroO^ xal ^0Kl^(& aOroOO; 

Zcch. i3,9(D^wnai — D^nfin*, (6injpU;au)...Kal boKim&); v 66,10 Oin!>n!r....iariin3, 
6 ihoKi\iaoai; f\\id<; xal ^irOpwaa^). It is not necessary to suppose that (5 ircirupu)- 
^dvo^ is a transcriptional error for Tr€iT€tpa^dvo^ (so Lagarde). In Prov. 8, 10 ^^ 
has <mip xpualov bcboKi^aa^dvov for M inai ynna (c/, above, p. 41, I. 9), but in 5 
8, 19 Kpclaau) dpTupCou ^kXcktoO for M *ina^ ^D30; in 16, 16 both )^nn& ait) and 
>)D3& *ina^ are translated aip€TdJT€po^ XP^<'Iou or Oir^p dpTOpiov; so, too, in 22,1 
(M y\ 1«^J^Jj DV nnai « 6 alpCTibxcpov 6vo\ia KaX6v f^ TrXoOTO? iroXO<;); in 21 ,3 we 
find € Apcard irapd Geifi ^aXXov f\ euoiiEiv aT^a = Jt nam nvn'h ina3. 
For the corrupt M t)P&a, at the end of the verse, 8^ MnriD ifross would suggest 10 
W^ (cf, 25,4; for 26,23 see below, p. 62, 1. 46) or ^a (Is. 1,25); but neither 
D^^^ nor h^m could have been corrupted to M bp&a. The original reading must 
have been DKD^; c/. Jer. 6,30 where M DKl^^ fp^ «= dpTOpiov &Tro^€boKl^aa- 
^dvov (]na « boKi^dZIu), DMD = ^TroboKl^d21u), ]na^ practically « b6Ki^o<;)« Read 
therefore:— J«DK4>> D^pn a!? p^1» p«f!? -^nai «^Da 15 

inai means throughout /r^r<fi^/(f and is nowhere used attributively, but is always 
participial predicate; c/, above, p. 41, I. 11. — P. H.] 

(23) For M niDDni Frank, suggests nttna^ («=«» ofijea of wrath) parallel to pmWa at 
the beginning of the first hembtich; TOY prefers napvi. 

(24) Only God could be subject of ill ]A\ but He has not been mentioned previously. 20 
€ beKxri, following which BiCK. emends: ^^'i. Read ]Fi^^, with HiTZ., following S 
aomBoo and % an^fin. '!! niKn would then be object, not subject, of y^\\ cf, Ges.- 
Kautzsch S 121, a. [OORT, Em, suggests \VS\ or ]n|ft. — P. H.] 

(29) 41 d)^^, but the abstract noun is strange. Read, with % and in accordance 
with the parallelism, DA^; iSff express the same but in the plural. Perhaps 25 
we should disregard the accentuation and combine, with Frank., following 13,6; 
Job 4,6, T^T on^ (to be pointed Dfi^?), so that nw would be the subject, not nvr pi. 

(31) In this transposition, which is suggested by the sense, we follow HiTZiG. 

IX (3) Read the Q*rd, Dl«^^, corresponding to the impf. DHin; the K^thfb D^l (is the 30 
perf. meant?) is simply a transcriptional blunder. 

(6) For Jl wn Toy prefers Dnjn, following €38'3; this is grammatically easier, but 
mars the rhythm. [Perhaps we should read n^n; cf 19,13; Lam. 4,20. — P. H.] 

(7) The first hemistich is evidendy too long; ill ^Vjr\ (so, too, Sf) seems added in 
order to prevent the offense that might be taken at a statement that this took 35 
place at the death of every man [Eccl. 9,4]. (5 avoids the difficulty by adding pmi, 
instead of J^vn, and the negative: TcXcuri^aavTo? dvbp6? bixalou oOk dXXurai Airl^. 
41 xhxm\ (so, too, SH); (5 rd hi xaOxima -= ^^7?^- 

(9) iR nta is right, «^in is subject like D^pnil; (6 reads ^M wrongly. 

For f^ nn^i HiTZ., Kick, read nntf^ij?; Chajes (p. 11) and Toy, nntt^, following 40 
(5 Traxt?. Toy, however, gives T\y\yf^ as an alternative. 
(10) iH fVjn and so (t ynn rejoices \ % »ajii.l = y^nn; it probably took y^n in the 
sense to be equipped, active , strong (Pink.), hence v. 9 ynta^Vi «iiir^n^; ^^ 
meaninglessly, KaTiIipGwacv. Lag. suggests for this : KaTU)px»'|<TaTO. <5 jumped 
from nnp to nip and dropped out, in consequence, vv. 10^ and 11*. The addi- 45 
tion to the text of C in some Greek MSS, Kal ^tt* dTrwXcCqi dacpOiv dxa^^taMa* 
*Uv €OXoT<ai<; bixaCwv O^pwOi^aeTai Tr6Xi? is from 0. So Lag. who further 
ascribes io*.ii** and 12.13 ^o the same source. 
(12) [For the recurrence of the initial a in vv. 9-12 cf below, p. 54, 1. 31. — P. H.] 
(16) The second and third hemistichs of this verse are added from (53 against ^8^, 50 
with Ew., HiTZ., BiCK. (BiCK. however reads i6<^: — ^^n ^?H1 ^ir?D), 
Instead of ill D^mj^) (so, too, 58), which does not suit the context, read D^^nm, 
with ^ dvbpcioi and HiTZ., £w., Bickell. 

6,3—10,20 -««ii8«<B«^ ^ro9er60 m>BH>^ 43 

6 (3) ^ 191 1^3 rtM3 ^3 (so, too, (63(1) seems to be an unnecessary clause. If it be 
original, we must, with BiCK., presuppose that a corresponding second hemistich 
has been lost. 
(5) Instead of tlie colorless n;& of £X read n^tp, with Oort, Bick., following (6 (^k 
Pp6xujv) a, Perles {AnaUkten^ 1895, P- 5^) and Wild, read n;^^, wliich would 5 
suit the paraUelism very well. 
(7.8) [Verses 7 and 8* must be combined so as to form one line. To improve the rhythm 
of the first hemistich omit nvN and nisV; the latter is a gloss on pp {cf, 25,15) 
which Slf («n!rn) misread n^Sp ((D T€ii)pTtov). 
V. 8*» is a gloss on 8*. — P. H.] 10 

(13) Read 1i^»a with the K*th!b and C>; Q*r6 and Blf have vy»a; so, too, read lVj*lj 
with the K*thfb and «5; the Q*r6 and ^ have V^nj. 

(14) By transposing, with Dys., the M^nM from np to pn we get two well-balanced 
hemistichs. [pi, however, is superfluous and mars the rhythm; it would be better 

to omit it (so BiCK., Toy); cf. above, p. 35, 1. 38. — P. H.] 15 

K*thtb, as in V. 19, D^^l^; Q*r6, D^Jj^p; cf. below, p. 50, 1. 29; p. 53, 1. 47. 
(16) The sense requires the Q^rS l)^91A (so, too, M)i the K^thtb arose from a mis- 
taken combination of seven abominations. 



10 (4) For iR tB^tT) we should perhaps read, with Frank., followmg 6, 11 ; 30,8, v^^l and 
then nWp for iK nWp {A slack hand produces poverty), 

(6) The second hemistich is read by %% in general as by 41. BiCK. conjectures in- 
geniously n^n) DPS D'Pf^") ^nt^; Gratz inDnm nor D^pvn ^^i; 3, also, takes ^ as 25 
obj. and D&n as subj. (PiNKUSS). 

(7) [na^a!? p^^S 13| does not mean The memory of the righteous will be blessed (yoy\ 
but T'^tf «<iwtf of the just will be used as a blessing {cf. Gen. 12,2); nD| is simply 
a synonym of Dtt^ just as Assyr. zikru (Del., HW 255**); see Hebraica 1,230. 

In the second hemistich we must read, with Krochmal, Gratz, ap^^ (Frank. 30 
3pr), instead of itt ap^^ (contrast Job 5,3); ^ also OORT, Em, — P. H.] 
(9) Instead of iK pnj^ Toy suggests either (with Gratz) yV, following 11,15; 'Si^o; 
or A PT iff, V 106,32). 
(10) iR baV^ D^nfcb Vmhi (so, too, f) is evidently repeated by mistake from v. 8^ € 
(and so 3) 6 bd ^X^fx^v ^crd Tra^j>Tio(a^ ctprivoYToicT, which perhaps means, ac- 35 
cording to Lag., D^*?»^ m^pDp n^?1W; Ew. renders it Dl^Kf D^ni)»a rTDlD) and BiCK. 
(^ Is. 27, 5) dA» n»p^ n^aiDl. Ewald's suggestion (in which Gratz agrees, 
only changing D^n&va to D^^fi t^N) seems most defensible. On behalf of the text of 
fb it can be urged that the parallelism in cc. 10 to 22,16 is almost everywhere 
antithetic. [Perhaps we should read; D^Vttn nW)fc aVa rrsibl. — P. H.] 40 

(16) Instead of Jt nMbn Toy reads nnnb or niip. 

(17) [iK nnM should be pointed as participle, linkt, corresponding to nvni^ in the sec- 
ond hemistich (so Frank.). — P. H.] 

(18) For iB nwb Chajes (p. 32) reads no Jp = Lying lips are a cover of hatred (LVTHKK : 
falsche Mauler decken Hass). Tliis is undoubtedly easier than M so far as the 45 
syntax is concerned, 'b HDp^ would have the same meaning; cf Is. 14,11; 
23,18. [In the same way nopb in Lev. 3,3 &c. seems to have been a substan- 
tive and not a participle; cf Dillm.-Ryssel and Bantsch ad loc. — P. H.] 

(20) 41 bpba can hardly be original; ($ ^kXcIhici, 3 (lp», 9 Knnb seem to have read 
differently. [Following (5 fipyupo^ ireirupw^^vo^ we might be inclined to substitute 50 
tfr\t iff \\i 12,7; Prov. 30,5; see also 25,4; 17,3; 27,21) for itt nnsi, but ^nJI 
would hardly have been corrupted to nn:u. The original text must have been 
]na) (so, too, GrAtz in his Emend), The two verbs, ]nn and ^n!r, are combined 

42 "«fQ 'OW fptOVttU •««>•«•»- 8,29—6,2 

8 (29) Instead of in Ipiro, which seems to have been introduced in error from v. 27, 

read, with Vogrl, 1p)nf, following ^ di^ (ax^pd ^Tro(€i; 3 has only {AV ^; 9, 

After pK a hemistich seems to be lacking. BiCK. strikes out f ^M ^DID Xpym 
as a variant to the second hemistich of v. 27. 5 

(30) [For M IIIDH we must read ]\blf nursling- (AV ^«^ brought up\ pass, part, to the 
act i^h, mipH; so Frank., Toy. — P. H.] 

in D^jnvpv n\nM)».9 ^t^ fj^nv lll irpoa^xoipcv (3, too, read the words); BiCR. 
strikes out <TnMl as a dittogram out of which has resulted, by D^)^ltef3n9 having 
been taken over from v. 31, a very strangely expressed piece of tautology. 10 

(3O [V. 31 seems to be a gloss. 

(32) The second hemistich of v. 32 must be transposed: 32** and 34* go together; cf. 
Toy ad loc, and OoRT, Em. 

(32.33) The first hemistich of v. 32 goes with 33*; 33** (ipfiTi ^H1) must be omitted as an 

interruptive gloss. The order of the hembtichs in (5^ is 32*. 34*. 32**. 34^. 34*, 15 
while 33 is omitted. — P. H.] 

(33) V. 33 ^ 6; ©Sea and C^ are corrected from ill. 

(35) Q*r^ with 9i K^thlb (preferred by Dvs., yet cf. ^V^ in v. 35**) D^^n ^H?b ^»?b ^?, or, 
otherwise pronounced, D'^M ^K|b ^MYb, has the testimony of (5 al t^P ^obo( (iou 
CEoboi t^3i?[i and of 3. 20 

9 (i) Instead of ill mirn Vogel, Frank., Toy, Oort, Em. read ny»n set up. 

(3) [Hipn must belong to 3^, but nnp na*iO ^Bi hv H'^pn would make the second hemistich 
too long ; H3^b should probably be canceled as a gloss or variant to ^i3, though 
^^^ seems to be the Aramaic equivalent of nifi^3. For in Knpn read the plural 25 

mnnpn, thus: — jmp ^0i Vp ninnpn n^n^yi nn!?Kf 

Cy: Assyr. agappu, gappu, kappu *wing' (Del., HW i7*.203».340»). The primi- 
tive form of the word for wing vr?^ gadfux thb became, with assimilation of the d 
{cf. above, p. 35, 1. 34), gappu\ with partial assimilation of the initial^ to the 
final p {cf. below, p. 61, 1. 4; p. 65, 1. 36) kappu \ and widi resolution of the 30 
doubling (Del., Ass. Gr, $ 52), kanpu, »|iD. Cf. Schulthkss, /. ^., p. 17. — P. H.] 

(4) Instead of the perf. rr^lfH of ill (« clircv, t miDH) read, witli OORT, FRANK., Ttyti^ 
(i" sing, cohor.); according to Pink, this may be what is meant by ^•J.• in 3. 
Cf. V. 16. 

(7-10) Although read by M and (Sdlf these verses are a later insertion, as GrXtz saw. 35 
They do not address the simple as do vv. 4-6 and 11 ff.; further, ^3 in v. 11 joins 
excellently with v. 6. 
(9) in ff is either corrupt, or a word has dropped out after D3nS ^ (smd so, too, 3) 
blbou aoqpCp &9op^/|v; % Mb'^n^ f^^M. 

(13) £X WfiB; but instead of this abstract noun, which is very strange here, read, 40 
with Oort, Toy, nw^tp. (5 dvbcfj? vwnoO (=»nh6, Jag.) tIvctoi. 

For £X nip (for the meaning anything we might, perhaps, refer to 2 S 18,22; Job 
I3ii3; tf' Ges.-Kautzsch J 137, c) read, with JAc, HiTZ., Gratz, Lag., Oort, 
Em.^ following fb alox^vnv, n^^s (yet Pink, doubts; ^ can only, he thinks, 
like 9, have set some expression which appealed to him in the place of the 45 
colorless rrb). 3 ^; If MniB. 

(14) Instead of Jl MD3 TOY reads ^B|; cf. v. 3. 

(16) For Jl maw read, with OORT, as in v. 4, vr\Xjf\K\ (i«' sing, cohor.). <5 iropaKcXcOo- 
^ai X^Touaa; 9 nnbM. 

6 (i) Instead of the plur. :|^f? of M read, with 63* and Lag., Bick., Toy, xm, sing. 
(2) Instead of yt niDHa of Jl (so, too, 3(1), which has been taken from 2**, read, 
with Oort, Toy, following 6 x^CXn, TCf^?* 

8,a— 28 -*<Ha<b^ ^roverS^ «#«►•«*»*- 41 

8 (2) Instead of n^a of ittd read ii|lnf, with and Gr&tz, Dys., as in v. 20; 9^ m^. 

(4) [For the plur. D^v^N (/: v' 141,4; is. 53,3; see, however, Cheynb and Marti ad 
loc, — P. H.] 

(5) 41 U^nn in both hemistichs is strange; GrAtz and BiCK. read in the second 
hemistich, irsn; so, perhaps, also <& SvOeaOc; \cf, CriL Notes on Ezra, p. 60, 1. 47]. 5 

(6) For iX Dn^ii, which is doubtful, Gratz, Toy read D^nbi verity, as in v. 9. 

(7) Toy conjectures, following 12,22, j^an ^nfib "h napin (or ^naj^in). 

(10) Instead of iB ^ipw ///^ imtruction read, with «5f , OORT, and Toy, n9», 

[The second hemistich, inai ynn^ nj>1\ does not mean And knowledge rather 
than choice gold {so AV, Del. et scientiam prae auro lectissimo); nnai ynno is 10 
an attributive relative clause (^ynnD nriM n»H; cf. 16,16; 22, i; nnai in 8,19 
must be explained in the same way) in which p*^n& is placed before "ins^ for the 
sake of emphasis. The following ^3, at the beginning of v. 11, is confirmative 
(not =y2?r, but = indeed), npil is accusative dependent on Wp. Cf. p. 44, 1. 16. 

(12) 4|n&3n, which makes tlie first hemistich too long, may be scribal expansion. — P. H.] 15 
Instead of £IX ^maitf Frank, reads ^ni3to or rather 'Wjon, following v I39i3 (r^ich 
verstehe mich auf Klugheit, I am acquainted with prudence, I am an expert in 
prudence)', TOY ^n^^g I possess, [ill ^msv, however, may be correct; it is a de- 
nominative verb, derived from ]pf^ neighbor (27,10; Ex. 12,4; 3,22; Rudi 4,17; 
Jer. 6,21 ; i|i 31 , 12) ; TVay^ ^niyo means / live close by, am well acquainted with, 20 
T\tn!p, I am n3*ipn nwj^f^ (not ego sapientia incolo sollertiam^ Del.). The phrase 
nanj^ ^XiiW ^iH is practically equivalent to unpH nra^ jrjb 7, 4*». Cf. also *Vn J^HM 

Is. 53.3. — P. H.] 

For SSi twoip Ti^^\ thoughtful knowledge read niDm) npni, with %%t. 

(13) in p X^lOb niiT nMT (also in (Sit) is a hemistich too many and breaks the 25 
context; BiCK., who also puts v. 13 after v. 17, strikes it out as a gloss. 

(14) Instead of ill mni "h ni^a ^iK I am understanding; I have might, we have prob- 
ably, with <D i^^ (ppdvnaK, i\ii\ hi XayS^fit and JS m^j, to read '\i\ n^^a ^^M ^^; 
or, at any rate, with Oort, Toy, nra ^b. m ni^a ^iH would be on the analogy 

of numerous genuine Semitic nominal clauses expressing the identity or absolute 30 
congruity of subject and predicate [ff Ges.-Kautzsch % I4i,c.d), but here 
contrary to the context. (I has simply Mnnn^l M^rai. 

(16) Instead of ill ^bfiW to Toy reads, following «, V^^^\, 

(17) ^ K^ihtb n'jn^, not n', an^ as Bick. wishes to pronounce it. Read Q^rd ^^^ikl, 
with (&39^. Ew. points to v. 11 where also Wisdom speaks of itself in the 3^ 35 
pers. According to Heid. the K*^thib is a dogmadc correction intended to pre- 
vent the use of the verse in defense of the Christian X6ifo^ doctrine; the Torah 
enters in the place of Wisdom. \Cf. below, p. 45, 1. 24; p. 66, 1. 14. 

For an« ■= anh cf above, p. 33, 1. 25; p. 34, I 44. 
(19) For nnai see above, 1. 11. — P. II.] 40 

(24) SBi D^b n2)a) in apposidon to Twyyti is strange grammatically and in sense; stricdy 
speaking, it can mean notliing but the most honored among the waters {cf Is. 
23, 8 f. and Ges.-Kautzsch % 133, h). ^ iip6 toO irpoeXeeiv xd^ uriTA? '^^v Cibd- 
Tuiv passes over na^i, as also does 5 {cf Pink.); i h^dt ^ilbV ^ryo. [Oort sug- 
gests D^j^pai; Toy, d^D ^«toi or ^hVd; but perhaps we should substitute D^D ^ipw 45 
(Lev. 1 1 , 36, Syr. f &^aSJ», Assyr. qiUu) or D^D ^HJTbl {cf note on Is. 58 ,11). — P. H.] 

(26) iX JO^y\ (so, too, ^i and also (&, if it did not read ^VMn) does not give a sads- 
factory sense. 

(27) [For £X Ipna (=lpna) it would be better to read Wina; cf Crit. Notes on Isaiah, 

p. 137, 1. 13. The p may be due to the influence of v. 29** where Ip^na was cor- 50 
rupted to 1p)na; see below, p. 42, 1. 2. — P. H.] 

(28) Instead of M W\V^ read, with ^S^t and Oort, Toy, 1){9f , according to the usage 
of infinitives with suffixes in vv. 27-29. 

Prov. 6 

40 -«<«»H»ff (ptovttU w o 'c a> ' 7,6—27 

7 (6) In place of M *n^3 pVria 63 express an^3 pVn» (Frank., therefore, substitutes 
throughout in vv. 6.7 the 3 fern, for the i pcrs.), and i has Hnvjn Mnp JD. OORT 
reads ^ftfjn yhn2; the rhythm suggests rather ^nwn ^D^a pVnD. 

(8) ^ n|^ (instead of nn|^; Ges.-Kautzsch $ 91 ,e; (/: notes on Gen. 40, lo; Is. 28,4) is 
doubtful; perhaps we should read A|^ following (5, Kamph., \Vild.,Strack;(/:v.12. 5 

(9) For M p«rH Frank, reads ptt^H, following 20,20 Q*r6. He adds that p«^{5 is fre- 
quently used in the Evangel. Hierosol. with the meaning fime; but this usage 
may be derived from the passages in Proverbs. 

(10) M ^^ r\yf} could only mean /t'^e one guarded of heart {cf, 14,2 and Ges.- 
Kautzsch S ii6,k); 6 (so, too, %€) f^ iroi€t v^ujv ^Sdrraaeai Kapbla^ (««m^V, 10 
PiNKUSS). [OoRT, Em, suggests nnib. — P. H.] 

(11) Instead of ^ miD Toy reads naaiD {cf. Cant, z, 2. i) gadding about 

(16) Instead of ^ niabn with striped {carpets) GrAtz conjectured ^A^bn / have made 
beautiful. Read, with OoRT, ^n^bn, following <5 CarpwKa, S diKitfA and % n^)l9. 

(18) iR nD^)^n^, usually explained as a by-form to "hf (if^)^), is probably only a sub- 15 
stitute for a coarser word; (5 ^TKuXtaOwficv; %% (for d's p^D)^)1 read, with PlNK., 
p^tpii) we will embrace, 

(22) For iSi Dknt, which is doubtful, Dys., Wild, prefer to read nnbn, following 6 
K€YTq>w6€(^; the article, however, would be peculiar, and the part nnb is found 
only in Job 5,2. Toy suggests a part Nif. nri^), Frank. MPtfiip; Oort considers 20 
DMnD to be an adverb from the same stem (« like a simpleton); cf below, 1. 50. 
For iR Ha; (so, too, 3 J) read with OORT «};, following © &t€toi. 
(22.23) After QMnfi, at the end of the first hemistich, the second hemistich has fallen 
out, as the parallelism shows; 22^ (Kl' nab t^N niva) goes with nD Vm *ilB!r *inDa 
in v. 23. V. 23^ (Kin IVt^a '3 3^1^ M^i) coming after a hemistich that has now 25 
dropped out, formed the close of the period, as 9,18 shows. 22^ (nD)& ^N oapi 
!?^ and like a fetter for the correction of a fool) and 23* (naa ^X\ n!?^^ TJ? «;i/r7 
M^ arrow cleaves his liver) in itt are hopelessly corrupt Nor does % kqI 
(fiaircp kOujv ^irl b€a^o6<;, f^ tb^ {Xa9o^ ToScOfiaTi ttcytXtit^C c^C '^^ f)irap (so, 
too, 39) help us out Perhaps ^^)K has come from a t?ar parallel to Ka^, so 30 
Gratz; cf Is. 53,7. [Ruben, Crit. Remarks on some Passages ^07* (London, 
1896) p. II, n. * considers ^9^0 a by-form of ^DMb {cf nDI&enptto) and proposes 
to read •» IWD ^^ D3W1 and as a hart thai is caught *in* the fetter. He takes 
iR 1>^1«, at the end of v. 22, to be a corrupt repetition of V;k and, following Lag., 
he supposes that (5 djoircp KOwv—a^sa is a transposition of t^aja (\pi|f 105,18; 35 
149,8) which is a gloss on £Bi 03)^31. £Bi ^M may be a contraction of ^^M, cf Syr. 
|LJ, fem. f^X»[. In Assyr. the words for ram (^\\k) and luirt (!>;») are both 
written alike (see Del., HW 32**. 48**) aalu. It is possible, however, that one 
of these words does not represent ^;« hart but ^^ ibex; see my remarks in 
Beitr. 2, Assyr. 1,170. Toy reads pa^ispi ^a^^ hm like a calf that is led to the 40 
stalls which is very improbable. Perhaps we should arrange the hemistichs in 
the following order: — 

Hin wMa ^a yv vh\ D<Hn>D jinmi i^w «3* . ««* 

r\t ^H 11M nnt?a Ha^ na^ Vh nwa a3«'.ii«' 

N inaa f n nV^^ np Dayi«» n<pW33 ^h* V^oh43i a3» . «a« 45 

./4//^r A^r M^ simpleton follows, not knowing his life is at stake, 

Like an ox that goes to the slaughter, like a bird rushing into a snare. 
Like a hart to the grip of the trap, till its liver is cleaved by the arrow. 

Transposition of Dap and b^lH was suggested long ago by Delitzsch. For V;h 

cf ^a5l 6,5. DHni {J0X OfcwpB; cf, 3,25) is amplificative plural {^this colossal sim- 50 

pieton^ this arrant fool); cf above, p. 34, 1. 31. — P. H.] 
(27) Meaning and rhythm demand a repetition of ^Dm before nn^a; so 3, but opposed 

is Jt with M\ BiCK. X^ 

5,22—6,30 -«H8^M^ Q>fO9iv80 ^M>.«*»*- 39 

5 Tdp liU?i(; o(iK ^YT^px€Tai, f M3nn lit? ^^m KmM3, Si UZj K«Ia Ui } !«,« 3 per semiiam 
vitae non ambulant. It is impossible to take, with G^s.-BuHL'^ j. v, |fi, £^ mki 
D^pn ]b D^*n as a prefixed final clause subordinated to ^ Tlie appeal to Amharic 
syntax (KOnig, Syntax^ % 414)0 does not help matters. 

In v'llf 58,3; 78, 50 D^D seems to stand for v6fi (see above, p. 38, 1. 41): in v' 78,50 5 
we must probably point D^^^^^Assyr. /j^/i// (impf. Qal), ^ ibboirolriaev, 3 viam 
fecit^ 3 ^(1, while in hi 58 , 3 the l^iel may be causative « cause to fnake way^ or 
clear the way for ^ so that •'J-^i^fi D3n^ VfiOX^^ your hands make way for in- 
justice^ or in idiomatic German: offnen der Ungerechtigkeit Thiir und Thor 
(^il).P This tht a Jeht to make way is identical with Eth. ^AA S iter fecit ^ 10 
migravit. (P. S. — Cf Pkiser in his OLZ 3,451, n. 6.) 

In the three passages in Prov., however, tht undoubtedly corresponds to 
Assyr. thh to regard, consider, and nowhere in OT does tht mean to weigh. The 
original meaning of D^f steelyard may be indicator. — P. H.] 

(22) iR yr\s\ nN (so, too, d^, evidently an explanatory gloss to the preceding suffix; 15 
it appeared necessary because v. 21 did not speak of the godless exclusively. 

fb ftvbpa; hence BiCK. w^Hn nn nDV\ Toy suggests P|^n nDV\ 

(23) iR n^v^ (3 iv^Kj, f 'Vb^) is evidently corrupt. ^ dirdbXcTO presupposes *DN^ or 
some similar verb, [probably nDD\ (/! 13,23; Gen. 19,15; Num. 16,26; in all 
these passages ^ uses the same verb for M xxt^y — P. H.] Dys. m'^\i TOY pu\ 20 

6 (1-19) For the notes on w. 1-19 see below, p. 42, 11. 51 ff. 

(22) V. 22 is, with BiCK. and others, to be inserted after v. 23 {cf on the transposition 
7i3>4); ^^^ &c. are evidendy predicates of ni2ID and niw. In the transposition 
of the verses the first hemistich has fallen out. 25 

(23) Instead of M ID^D Wnjin {reproofs of imtruction) read, with (858', OORT, nnjvn 
"lOlb); \ and n have changed places. 

(24) For §^ y\ read, with Gkatz, Bick., yn, following <& ^Trdvbpou and v. 29; Toy iTM. 
For in pitf^ Wild., following 10, reads \\9i) from the smoothness of the tongue 

of the strange woman {cf A V). 30 

(26) For the first hemistich DnV ^3 <6 (also 3 and, essentially, S) offers Ti(jif| 

Tip Tr6pvn? fian xal 4vd^ ftpxcu (=Dn!?nD3 mnva^s, Bick.) Frank, conjectures 
Dni -OD pp *\ n«^H "pp ^Dyi;r the price of a harlot is the price of a loaf of bread. 

(27) [For nnn^ see below, p. 61, 1. 38. — P. H.] 

(29} ^^ *\y\ K3n p (so, too, <D and, essentially, ^T) is an explanatory gloss to vv. 27. 35 
28, and, as such, is struck out by Bickell. 

(30) For iK M^ Wild., Frank, read k^H; n drbpped out owing to the preceding n at 
the end of v. 29 {haplography)\ the traditional rendering Men do not despise a 
thief \& certainly very strange. 

41 3Sn^ ^3 (so, too, (Ddf) is an element too many and an evident gloss inter- 40 
preting \Ot!l on the basis of passages hke Is. 58,10. It disagrees with v. 31 and 
is struck out by Bickell. 

(35) [^3 is here concessive, as in Eccl. 4, 14* = ^3 Dli Is. 1,15 or D^ ^3 Eccl. 4,14**; cf 
the translation of Eccl. 4, 13-16 in note 23 of my lecture on Ecclcsiastcs, Orien- 
tal Studies, Boston, 1894, p. 272; see also Ges.Kautzsch % 160, b. — P. H.] 45 

« [PiNKUSS remarks: Mit dein Verbum xh^ weiss S, so oft es vorkommt, tiickts 
RechUs anuifoMgen. 

P The Received Text p^Pfin tb\9 in the preceding line (cf Job 36.23) seems 
to be correct; the conjecture 7^^2 is very improbable; contrast Welliiausen, 
SkitMtn und VortMrbiiUu, part 6, p. 176. iB 3^3 is, of course, impossible; but BXtii- 
GEN*s emendation D3^3 ye all does not commend itself. Perhaps we should read: 

poVpn t»*r oi|?n pw \hvtT\ rb^s *jk. For pobftn d3^t cf Ge8.-Kautzsch % 144, 

m. — p. H.] 

3$ -^ W 'OW Q>to9<t60 ^•«><«H»^ 5i5— 21 

second hemistich with n^nai nwKD. 6V aToOr^m^ b^ ^^Ctiv x€iX^u)v ^vT^XXeraC aoi; 
IJASca aToOncnv ^vr^XXoum, /. e., according to OoRT, n»|^. t|^ ^npb wyii; yet € 
probably read nn, and took my actively with an indefinite subject According 
to JXg. and BiCK. 6 read \\T instead of nirv. 

(5) Perhaps ^M is to be inserted, with OoRT, before r\\b. 5 

(6) ill II ; 9Sii involve tUbi Toy suggests ^3. [C/. below, 1. 53. — P. H.] 

(9) M TTW; Sit l^^n (-=^J1^ GrAtz, Oort, Toy); € t\ui\y aou, taking Tin, as some 
have Iby, as meaning soul (Lag.; c/. Wellhausen's translation of the Psalms, 
p. 187, 1. 27); see, however, Crit. Notes on Genesis, p. 107, 1. 51. 
nWHV with ill; Toy, foUowing f, ^DJ^. 10 

(10) M n^ia must be a miswriting of some verb; € (so, too, 39) ct^ oTkou^ &XXoTp(u)v 
CX6ui<nv, — in all probability an arbitrary addition of a verb, after n^aa had 
appeared in the text. The parallelism requires something like and thy hard- 
won gain an alien snatch away, OORT suggests vaV^; Frank, omits 3 before 
n^a, taking na^ n^a as subject, corresponding to Qnt in the first hemistich. 15 

(16) Frank, thinks that \t or ^K should be inserted before M \r^\ 

(17) According to Frank, we should read Vh instead of Xi J^K. 

(18) [Verses 18 — 20 give the explanation of the allegorical language in vv. 15-17 (just 
as Is. 51,10* explains the mythological allusions in the preceding line S^%9^)\ cf. 
my lecture on Ecclesiastes, p. 20^ Oriental Studies (Boston, 1894) p. 261. — 20 
P. H.] 

(19) Read, with Graec. Ven. al toutii? 9iX(ai, HiTZ., Oort, following 7,18, ly^. 
The reading n^^ of £Ei probably originated first in the Rabbinic interpretation of 
the whole section (so explicitly in Midrash Mishle from v. 15 on) as bearing on 
the study of the Torah {her breasts will nourish thee; cf, Heid.) 25 
nnan %\V0T\ rinanKa of in, although found also in ^iS8', is suspicious if only as a 
third hemistich in the verse. It is evidently a kind of softening gloss to 19^. 

(20) The first hemistich is overloaded; we should probably, with Dys., omit £Si ^^9, 
following €; cf. 1,15. 

(21) [M th^ti rrtipD hy\ means neither He weighs all his paths (TOY; RVM weigheih 30 
carefully^ AV He pondereth all his goings^ Graec. Ven. Kal irdaa^ xd? dvaarpoqpd^ 
a{»ToO ToXavTcOci), nor He makes plane (Toy, tf//., Del., Kamph., Wild.; RV 
maketh level\ but He watches all his tracks^ observes all his doings (3 omnes 
gressus ejus considerate C €l? hi Ti&aa% rd^ Tpoxid^ aOroO OKOircOci). FRANK., 
who leaves vht'Q untranslated, thinks (5 read HD^TD instead of £^ D^fils, but D^fe, 35 
or rather the Nif. napiusu^ is a common Assyr. word for regard^ observe^ notice^ 
consider. Ziegler (1791) translated correctly: auf alle ihre Lebensbahnen blickt 

er scharf, comparing Job 34,21: nHT vnjni ^31 D BTH ^3m ^^ vrj^ *3. 

For the Assyr. stem xht see Zimmern, Baby I. Busspsalmen^ p. I7; Del., HW 
528*; cf. also post-Biblical and Aramaic W^a inspect, examine^ search; Syr. «^ 40 
investigate &c., which is different from «2iA to break through = Assyr. tht (DEL., 
HW 529; Beitr, 2. Assyr. 1, 177* s. v. ntpiiu)i ^^ perfodit is a genuine Syriac 
word, but «2iA perguisivit (as well as Aram. v6a) seems to be an Assyrian loan- 
word. (In SCHULTHESS' Homonyme Wurzeln this stem is not discussed.) 

In Is. 26,7 oVtn " n«^;«»» ^3V»* B onvna O'-p^ltl? n"ih should be rendered: The 45 
way of the just is plain, || Thou watchest the steps of the upright (W, which 
follows DnVTD in in, must be substituted for pnil in the second hemistich; con- 
trast 6). D^p^TI ^iJ^D D^tO is nearly equivalent to D^pn* ^n jnv He gives heed 
to the course of the righteous in v 1,6. 

In Prov. 4,26 ^:i\ Vij^D D^^ means Watch the path of thy feet or Mind thy 50 
steps, and xhtx\ h^ D^»n mk in 5,6 (left untranslated by Frank.) must be ex- 
plained in the same way ; p*in M^ at the end of this verse is an explanatory gloss 
on iSi xh^r\ )t. For ^ ]fi we must read, with the Versions, M^ or ^a, cf ^ 6bou^ 

3 (26) For 41 1^D^:i Lag., Dys. read ']^rfVpD'^3:i, following • ^irl iraaiEiv 6biJLiv aou. This 

would make the first hemistich too long unless we omit n\T as dittogram of 
mn^ (c/. Crit Notes on Ezekiel, p. 52, 1. 52). 

(27) For M rtj^SD, which is somewhat peculiar, Toy reads yv'^f/rom thy neighbor \ 
[OORT, Em., 1^3815, and y\\yh for ill nirpV. — P. H.] 5 
iit K*thlb :|'"]j, but Gen. 31,29; Deut. 28,32; Mic. 2, i support the Q*r6 ^ji;. 

(28) iR K'thib q^yij, plur. /<? />%y neighbors-, read, with the Q*r^, the sing, qjnj in 
agreement with the imp. sing, which follows. 

(30) Instead of ii K*thtb ann read, with the Q*r6, ynn; a root an (mediae 1) quarrel 
does not occur. 10 

(31) Instead of the flat 41 nnan ^M choose not read, with HiTZ. and GrXtz, against 
Del. and Now. but following 24,19 and Hf 37,1 (7), nnnn-SK; (5 firibd 2:r)Xdj(n)^. 

(34) Instead of 41 D^!l^^ DM Dys. reads D'H^'D)^, following hi 18,27; the dittography 
of the V led to the change of op to DM. 

Read, with the Q*r6, DMJJ^); for miserable or wretched ones (so 41 K«thtb D^iJ) 15 
cannot be opposed to the D^!!^ in the first hemistich of the verse.; it should be 
those bending humbly before God. Cf, below, p. 49, 1. 8 and Rahlfs, ^Yf und 
up in den Psalmen, G6ttingen, 1892. 

(35) Wild, conjectures, following Hos. 4,7, p^pa It^D D^Voa niaai but the glory of 
the fools shall be changed into shame \ Toy suggests tt^nh or yf^, 20 

4 (3) Toy reads ^a-M ^>fci I^V) Ti •» ^n^\1 p ^3; — nn^ following 6 dTairibficvoc. 
(4.5) 41 nva mp Vit^y^ n^p t iTm; so, too, df but not €. In the first hemistich of v. 5 

of 41, as it now exists, are fragments of v. 7 which originally (see next note) 
followed V. 5. iTm was added at the end of v. 4 to complete the line afler the 25 
connection with navn h\^ had been broken. 
(6.7) 41 (and so, too, 39) reads v. 6 before v. 7 although the suffixes in v. 6 can only 
refer to nban and nra. V. 7 is lacking in 6, yet is not a gloss, as Oort thinks ; 
it had dropped out of the archetype of 4I(S, was entered later on the margin, 
and came in 41 to stand in the wrong place. 30 

(13) For ML noiDa €3 have ^noiua (so Toy); either can be right. 

(15) For 41 inpnfi (so perhaps also 8^ 6, followed by S, has ^v ip &v T6iTqi arpaTO- 
Tr€b€60U)(nv, 1. e, according to JAg., ^npip; according to Lag., IDF^D; according 
to Oort, onn^; the last is perhaps right [OORT, Em., wpnD. — P. H.] 

(16) iB K*thtb )yiwa\ Q«r6 l^^»a\ fb (xal oO) xoifiOuvToi « «j?^^ (Lagarde), wV* \ih DK 35 
(BiCK.); t M^^n pap presupposes Q^rS; 3 voeo^^j ^r^^! read probably ^^HE^fi^ 
(so rightly Pink.; Heid. retranslates: lV^l9D\ but the Hif can hardly be supported 
with Job 25,2). The true reading is obscure; Oort guesses \n^nw\ 

(18.19) V. 19 must be inserted before v. 18, following HiTZ. and Del. and against 

ii<63S. Otherwise we should have, at least, to strike out the \ before nnM as a 40 
dittogram of the preceding \. 

(21) Read ^W ^H, or ^^r, with 3 ^a and If ]^ri, and comparing ^^W in Jer. 2,36. 
41 «*V^ (in 3,21 ^rtj) means, according to the usual view, let them fiot depart/ 
but the usage of the language recognizes only the Nif al. <& (diruj^ ^i^ ^kXIituj- 
o(v 0€ al iTr)Ya( aouB^^r^l^ \h\\ ^k), in spite of its erroneous view of the mean- 45 
ing of the verse, is a witness for the conjecture )^|\ 

(23) For 41 "Vj9 (so, too, t) read, with 93, -Vj| and cf Deut 12,21. 

(26) For D^l see below, p. 38, 1. 50. 

5 (2) The first hemistich has probably reached us incomplete; to read, with BiCK., 50 

q*)lpf^^ for ii 'yoneh does not help. ^ Cvvoiav dxaOi^v, but the adjective seems to 
be an arbitrary addition. Dys. joins to niDm, at the end of the first hemistich, 
Dpll at the beginning of the second ; he then further arbitrarily supplements the 

(22) vnf\t so HiTZ., OoRT, BiCK., following Mf (Frank., Nifal <nD|^3; 41 ^w w/7/ 
/^tfr tAem out. Siegfried (TLZ '99, col. 329) suggests ^njp^ 7w7/ be wiped away 
W' 6,33). Or should we read VihD* in the first hemistich, so that the 3 plur. 
impf. would be used in both hemistichs for the passive as in Aramaic (Ges.- 
Kautzsch $ 144, g)? 5 

(i) For the sing. ^n*}TA reads here and often elsewhere the plur. ^{i^TA; attention 
will not be drawn to further occurrences of this. 

(3) The third hemistich of the verse, iR *|2^ m^ \r^ Q^?i although found also in 
%%^ is to be struck out, with 6, OORT, BlCK.; it is a gloss from 7,3. 10 

(4) For iR ^Dljf, which was probably influenced by 13,15; v 111,10, Toy suggests 
XStf good repute. 

(8) iR ^9^\ to thy navel (so, too, 9) is rather strange in spite of Del. and Baumg. 
^ T^i aJiiiaTC aou and 3 ^^Mal* presuppose either :|*)|^^ (""^2-T^* ^ above, 
p. 34, 1. 44 and below, 1. 42) or ^2^?^* Agreement with 41 K^tb speaks for 15 
the first (HiTZ., Oort); 4,22, for the second (Clericus, Gratz, Bick., Frank., 
Strack, Toy). 

(10) nji^ with Oort, Frank., following airqi ; 41 y^y (so, too, %X), satiety {abundance), 

(11) 41 ^33 should probably be omitted, with Toy, as (early) scribal insertion; cf. 1,15. 

(12) 38^ with Oort, following the context; 41 aKp^ which can only mean and even 20 
eis a father, Dys., following 6 ^aariTOi b^, conjectures SMpI, in parallelism 
with nor. But as only the Qal and Hiffl occur of the stem aM3, we should 
have at least to read, with BiCK., Frank., Strack, Toy, 3HD1). 

For 41 p Toy prefers to read nwH or nw«-bD. 

(13) For 41 D*TM1 at the beginning of the second hemistich we should probably read, 25 
with Kamph., Wild., Oort, Em,, w^k (^ 6,12; Is. 2,9, &c.) or, with Toy, ttniH. 

(15) 4t K^thtb D^'SbO is a transcriptional error; read, with the Q'^rd, D^^^ffi. 

41 TIW? read, with OORT, BiCK., Pink., Toy, following € and 8,11, D^»pn. 

(18) [o^n IfP is by no means ein ganz farbloses Bi/d (FRAHKEfiBERG)', we may safely 
assume that the D^^V^fi were conscious of the original meaning of D^n y)^ (ii|30; 30 
13 1 12; 15,4) as well as of D^^n nipD (io,ii; 13,14; 14,27; 16,22) just as modem 
German poets have not entirely forgotten the import of the term /ungbrunnen, 
although Toy, Comm,, p. 206 remarks, "there seems to be no reason to suppose 
a reference to a primitive spring of life correspondbg to the tree of life of 
Gen. 2." For the tree of life and the spring of life (Assyr. namsA\ cf Grit Notes 35 
on Ezekiel, p. 64, 1. 27) in Oriental folklore see Meissner, Alexander und Gil- 
gamos (Leipzig, 1894), p. \(i\ cf JASTROW, ReL of Bab, and Assyr,, pp. 510.516. 
See also Schrader's KB 6,1, p. 248, 1. 254: p. 252, 1. 298. TYit plant of life is 
mentioned, apart from the Nimrod Epic, in the cuneiform historical texts, e, g. 
in an inscription of Esarhaddon {Beitr, s. Assyr. 3,254,11; cf ibid. p. 360): 40 
idrriitu kima sammi ballHi elt itr nise lifSb 'may the kingdom be beneficial to 
the welfare (iHlpO o( mankind like the plant of life." Cf below, p. 60, 1. 27. — P. H.] 
41 *^«^Kb; read, with Lag., Oort, following the parallelism, D'^V^Kb. The singular 
might be explained as distributive: every one of them will be made happy {cf 
Ges.-Kautzsch % 145,1) but in almost all analogous instances the text is doubt- 45 
ful. Bick. emends 41 ^if'Mb n'3bhi to ^yfw^ ^^^'^\' 

(21) £^ ^^r^b XiY'^^ is uninteltigible; it is impossible to get from v. 20 a subject for 
1!^. Probably the words were taken fi-om 4,21 to fill out a text which had be- 
come illegible {cf English translation of Isaiah, p. 209, 1. 35). % \)\i, \x^ irapa- 
puP|<; Oort ^""yyfi ^^f."^*?. [Toy inserts 41 'b) 'jp 1^} after ^». — P. H.j 50 

Si% read yy^^i; but compare, on f , PiNKUSS. 

(25) DKnB (cf note on 1,4) with OORT, Toy, in accordance with the parallelism; 18 
Wy^i cf below, p. 40, 1. 50. 

1,26—2,19 -««*CM#^ ^ro9n60 ^94>*6t4>^ 35 

X [One of the three hemistichs of this verse must be omitted; Toy cancels the first, 

M \2Wr\f or rather ^nn^^nV mer, but it seems preferable to eliminate the third, 
D3nM ^"lan nri^M, which appears to be an explanatory gloss to the second hemistich 
^mn D3^ ny^SiK nin, and it would perhaps be best to transpose the first and secdnfd 
hemistichs, thus reading:— i{^nn3W^ U1tt^») '^"nn DsV n^SM mn Q. 5 

(26) T« calamity (cf. v. 27; 6,15; -13, I5»; 24,22; 27, lo; for 17,5 see p. 49, 1. 16) is iden- 
tical with IK Jbod Gen. 2,6; Job 36,27; see Crit. Notes on Genesis, p. 118, 1. 3. 
For pnte^«=pn5l see Crit Notes on Judges, p. 59, 1. 6. — P. HJ 

(27) ill K*thlb nwWD, transcriptional error; Q«r^ HHWD. 

4l + npiXl nny uyh^ Nna; so, too, <$3C, yet in ^ between the first and second 10 
hemistichs of the verse in iB ; apparently the words stood on the margin of the 
common archetype of iB and (B. 

(29) BiCK. + D\n^K (^2,5) against iBMS. 

(30) [For fW cf. Crit. Notes on Ezekiel, p. 81, L 3. 

(33) pMV, in spite of U^KV Job 3,18, is not a form Vvt'f (Barth, $ 143*) but a form 15 
l^Bp, like ^^y-**^ lazy &c. (Barth $ 206*), so, too, \ff\i the form MJpn in 
Job 15,32 is adjective, not verbal; the two hembdchs of the verse must be 
transposed: — nii^n vh inB?) x^hr^r^ wav Mta. — P. H.] 

2 (7) 1^1) K'thtb and so •; ]b^^ Q*r6 and so Slf. [For ]fe!t to predestinate see Well- 20 
HAUSEN's translation of The Psalms, p. 169, 1. 36; cf, below, 13,22. 
The stem of nj^^n is ^^^\ {cf. below, p. 40, 1. 32) not nan. — P. H.] 

(8) iH K*thtb n^n, /. e. n^pH; or is it 1^*D^ and so only orthographically different 
from the Q^6 VTon with which 3 agrees? Both readings regard God as the 
subject of "^JJiV and nDttr\ that He may guard the paths ofjudgpnent and preserve 25 
the way of His saints. Yet v. 9 presupposes that we are to regard the saints 

as subject to yi:h. Read, with Oort, Vi^xy (BiCK. \y^}\) and for iB nbf^^ (so, too, 
639^), nbt^v This is evidently one of the not infrequent cases where the mater 
Uctionis was by accident not inserted; *]Df^^ then became "^bt^^, which led to the 
poindng \yGt\. [For n^}^ see below, p. 52, 1. 11. For the non- assimilation of the 30 
^ in in n5t}^ cf the Assyr. Safel uianqir (Del., HW 477''; Assyr. Gr. % 49, b). In 
Assyrian, antedental n is, as a rule, not assimilated in cases where the assimilation 
would produce ambiguity, e. g. emu *goat' in distinction from ezzu 'strong,' 
enhi 'weak' in distinction from eSiu (« edhi^ had^) 'new' &c. See Hebraica i , 227. 
V. 8^ should be inserted after 7* — P. H.] 35 

(9) Toy thinks the rhythm might be improved by reading nbl^n thou shall keep in- 
stead of iR D^V^b. 

(14) Xi-^rT^ (so, too, ®S9; Dys., Gratz n). This is a surprising pleonasm beside 
Xi13^nn; it is evidently repeated from 14* and is, with Oort, to be struck out 

(15) Read with Dys., Wild., Strack, following 10,9, D^V^jf^f. 41 D'f^i;)^ whose paths 40 
are crooked; but the parallel Dn>V3yt33 D^nVsi shows that the sinners are the subject 
(63 and Toy try vainly to help the sense out by passing over the 3 in DniV^yfia. 

(17) [For n^na see above, p. 33, 1. 38. — P. H.] 

It would perhaps be better to read, with BiCK. and Toy, D\-iVn for ill iTH^M. 

(18) iR nntfir, and so f ; this nntfir is evidently intended as predicate to nn^n, but n^n is 45 
masculine, and if we accent the last syllable (as perfect of 7\TW) the meaning 

is unsuitable. Lag., Oort, Bick., following (5 COcto, nnf^. [We might perhaps 
read: an^3 njip-nn?^; ^ 22, 14; 23,27; also Is. 38,17. 

(19) For the first hemisdch, \\yw^ vh n^MS ^3, cf. the line in the cuneiform descripdon 

of Hades (Haupt, Nimr. £p. 19,30): ana biti ia eribuiu Id dqH 'to the house 50 
whence no one issues who has once entered it; cf J astro w. Religion of Baby- 
lonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898), p. 566; SCHRADER's KB 6, i, p. 80, 1. 5; p. 188, 
1. 3a (P. S. — See now Peiser in his OLZ 3,451). — P. H.] 

34 -^ W 'OW Qpro9«r60 W O ' Ca> ' i>i 1—23 

of the third line consists merely of ^D^n (practically equivalent to Lift uf/ I 
say) while ^Mf|^n ^M represents the second hemistich. It is by no means neces- 
sary to suppose that a second hemistich (DuilM: D>^V ^y'DVn) has dropped out, 
or that ^^IK mn should be transposed from the beginning of v. 10 (Marti). See 
the translation of the openbg chapter of Deutero -Isaiah in No. 145 of the Johns 5 
Hopkins University Circulars^ p. 39**. In the same way ^^ft ]n and 'ii»^ ^^tt^ in 
Job 31,35 constitute two separate clauses (or lines), and we need not insert, with 
DUHM, nV^ "h fA^'^D; but 3113 in the last clause of the verse should be corrected 
to nn>>\ following S ottftukj, 3 et librum scribat (cf. Budde's Comin.^ p. 184, 
below). The words on the Luther Monument in Worms, with which the Reformer 10 
is said to have concluded his answer at the Diet on April 18'*^ 1521, Hier stehe 
icht Ich kann nicht anders!^ Gott helfe mirf Amen^ might form a tetrastich 
in Hebrew. Cf, also the last line of Prov. 30,4: VtifT^t^ and Uf-Qf^ n^). — P. H.] 
(1 1) iR vrh. GrAtz, Dys., Kamph., Wild., Toy, read Dn^ for the sake of the parallelism 
with ^p3^. But V. 18^ supports £Si (so OoRT). [Dn^ instead of iR Dl^ seems to 15 
be preferable. The error may be due to the influence of v. 18^ {cf, 12,6). 
D|n ^p^t? n3t93 appears to be an explanatory gloss (Toy). — P. H.] 

(15) iR ^» (so, too, «Sc.afS). ^ BiCK., with (ftSAV &c. 

Instead of itt DD^^nM) 03S read, probably more correcdy, Dlib^ntt; the only 
certain occurrence of the fem. sing, ni^n^ is Is. 43 , 16. 20 

(16) V. 16 is omitted by «svp Hitz., Now., Dys., Oort, Bick., Wild.; it b an 
evident gloss from Is. 59,7. (5Sc.a38', Baumg. support ill. 

(17) Toy thinks that we should perhaps read TW^ ri^ntob (which would require the 
emendation %\\r\ instead of the preceding C]|n of iH) or 'n ibnfi instead of ill n*i)0 
nvin. [D|n is certainly wrong; v. 17 is a proverbial quotation. — P. H.] 25 

(18) Wild, prefers to read D*]^, following C ol q>6vou ^€t^xovt£<;, instead of Jt Dlp*]^. 

(19) Toy is inclined to read nnnM such is the fate &c. instead of iR tWTSVK, but € has 
at 6bo( {ff^\^t &c.). 

Instead of iR \^7^ JAa, Heid., Oort (following 6 tQ ydp AacPelq) prefer to 
read nVtva; yet in that case we would expect IVfe^, (S Tf)v ^aurdiv miuxi^v. 30 

(20) [Jl niD^n for TiVa^n is amplificative plural; cf p. 40, 1. 50; p. 49, I. 3; p. 59, 1. 45, 
and Crit Notes on Ezekiel, p. 70, 1. 50; contrast Ges.Kautzsch*^ % I24,e. 

iR nih^ in tliis connection {cf 8,3) cannot be 3 f plur. (« tarun-na\ cf Arab. 
iaqima for jjaqrima^ &c.); nor can it be an emphatic form of the 3 f sing. (sArab. 
tarunnan)\ it might be explained as a form like Arab, tamudda for tamdud 35 
(Wright-de Goeje3 i^ % 121), but, unless we read, with Heid. and OORT, 
nn n!nna, it is better to point ^J^ft as in Job 39, 23 (KOnig, Synt. $348,c).— P.H.] 

(21) For Hi WIph € (tcix^iuv) seems to have read nwh. Toy is inclined to adopt 
thb reading [so, too, Oort, Em, — P. H.] or to substitute D^D^b, as in 8,2. 

iR y^'y overcrowds and disturbs the hemistich; it is evidently an explanatory 40 
gloss to D^nyr ^nnw. \Cf Oort, Em, (see below, p. 69, 1. i). 
In the same way the following nn&M must be omitted as superfluous scribal ex- 
pansion (so Toy); cf below, p. 55, 1. 23. 

(22) For 41 CnHft we must read «nHW (jShabA = tdhabd, tdhabti), so, too, nHb, nna, 
ant, &c for n«W, IH?, aHJ; see Crit Notes on Isaiah, p. 88, 1. 40. C/: n*ptt^ i S i , 17 45 
— nJlWf^ &c. The name ]HW n^3 was pronounced Xf n^3, in the Amarna tablets 

it appears as BU-sdni (Assyr. s^^^ cf Crit. Notes on Ezekiel, p. 64, 1. 31); see 

English translation of Joshua, p. 84, 1. 22. Cf also below, p. 36, 1. 14. 

41 Dni ITDH ]Xih D^llVl must be omitted, with Toy, as scribal expansion. — P. H.] 

(23) Dys., Toy prefer MVO to iR lawn; the n is perhaps dittogram of preceding n. 50 

« [It is hardly necessary to state that these first two clauses are not authentic; 
rf. Ranks, Deutsche Gesch, im Zeiialter der Reform,^ 6th ed., vol. i, p. 336. — P. H.] 

1,8— lo -oW'i^^ fptcvit%B '•M^^H^ 33 

Assyr. miUdni^ Arabic ^^kioi and that the term refers to the form (contrast 
above, p. 32, 1. 49); it means originally neitlier/<im^/f nox proverb &c. but simply 
a line of poetry or verse^ each stich consisting of two hemistichs. — (According 
to KOnig, Stilistik (Bonn, 1900) p. 81, L 19 Vf^lp means Tvib^Hi sentential 

For cuneiform proverbs see HALtVY, Melanges de critique et d'histoire re- 5 
latifs aux peuples s^mitiques (Paris, 1883) pp. 326 flf. and Jager's paper in Beitr. 
jr. Assyr. 2,274fr., esp. p. 281 ; cf, note 20 to my lecture on The Book of Ecclesi- 
astes (Boston, 1894). ^^^^- ". 23 I have quoted a specimen of an Assyrian 
*7^b: — dlu la kakkalu dannu nakru ina pdn abullihi ul ippafar 

"A city whose weapon is not strong — 10 

The enemy will not be scattered in front of her gate." 

The introductory verses at the beginning of the Book of Proverbs bear a 
certain resemblance to the opening lines of the Babylonian Nimrod Epic; see 
Beitr. 2. Assyr. 1, 102; MOrdter-Delitzsch, Geschichte Babyloniens und 
Assyriens (Calw, 1891), p. 47; A. Jeremias, Izdubar-Nimrod (Leipzig, 1891), 15 
p. 14. It might be well to state in this connection that it is by no means certain 
that the ideographic name of the hero of the Babylonian epic is to be read 
Gilgamei (see fourtial of the Amer. Orient. Soc.^ vol. 16, p. ix). Gilgamei may 
have been a surname like the appellation of the Babylonian Noah, Atra-xasis 
or Xasts-atra (see /. ^., p. cxi). To read the ideographic name of the hero of 20 
the Babylonian epic Gilgamei\& about as reasonable as the idea that the name 
Richard I. should be pronounced Cosur de Lion. Contrast KB 6,1, p. 116. 

(8) I have pointed out in the Critical Notes on Chronicles, p. 80, 1. 48 that rr]1A b a 
Babylonian loanword = tertu^ the indication of the divine will from which the 25 
sacred oracle is derived, while Aram. Kn^'^K and Ethiopic 6rit correspond to the 
byform of tertu: tMu. This iirtu has no connection with Hcb. D^*^1M, as 
ZiMMERN suggests in his Beitr. zur baby I. Religion^ part 2 (Leipzig, 1899) p. 91, 
n. 2; D^*^1M, the unfavorable, condemnatory answer of the oracle, is connected 
with n*^N to curse just as uUu^ the cuneiform technical term for the unfavorable 30 
answer is akin to n^K curse \ ullulu means in Assyrian spellbound from ^t^M to 
bind^ just as ardru means not only to curse but also to bind (Del., Heb. Lang.^ 
p. 53; HW 70*^.138*), or as njn denotes both association (see below, note on 
21,9) and enchantment. The technical name for the favorable answer, Heb. 
D^l^A blamelessness^ acquittal \s^ in the cuneiform texts, annu^ lit. response ^ ^ Heb. 35 
nsp (see below, note on 15,28); a connection with annH 'this' and Heb. n|n 
(Zimmern, /. c, p. 88, n. 4) is not probable. The name of the Babylonian 
diviners, baril {cf nna, ZiMMERN, /. c. p. 90) is not concealed in D^ttr •vnan 
Is. 47,13, as Zimmern suggests (/. c. p. 85, n. 8) but we find it in Is. 44,25; 
Jer. 50,36, where we must read D^.^ instead of ill D^^^ (3 divini). See the ab- 40 
stract of my paper on The Origin of the Afosaic Ceremonial in No. 145 of the 
fohns Hopkins University Circulars (May, 1900) p. 37* and my paper on Baby- 
lonian Elements in the Levitic Ritual in vol. 19 of t\i^ Journal of Biblical Liters 
ature (Boston, 1900) p. 58; cf Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 60, 1. 15. 
(10) MSl^'V^, solemnly pronounced, is a full hemistich. Toy, Comm.^ p. 19, remarks 45 
that this clause may be purposely short. Similarly the brevity of the first 
hemistich in 23,35^, f^pN ^nD, is intentional: after y^pM ^nfi tliere is a pause, 
practically equivalent to our modern dash ( — ); it is unnecessary to insert, with 
BiCK. and Tov, ^^^*lp (Gen. 9,24). For this intentional brevity of certain hemistichs 
see Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 172, 1. li cf also Is. 40,9, where the first hemistich 50 

« [For the d in n*)Vt >= Babyl. tertu see Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 31, 
!• 23; p. 58, 1. 7; Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 88, 1. 38. — P. H.] 

Prov. 5 

3* ■ tt O'^iW JpwvetS* n^^eno^ 1,3—6 

MOhlau, H. F., De proverbiorum quae dtamtur Aguri et Lemuelis origine 
atqiu indole^ Lipsiae, 1869. 

Now. = W. NOWACK, Die SpriUhe Sahmo*s (in Kurzgefasstes exegetisches 
Haniibiich Mum AT), Leipzig, 1883. 

OORT — H. OORT, Spreuken i-g, in TheoL Tijdschiff, Lcydcn, 1885, pp. 5 

379 ff. 

Pink. = H. Pinkuss, Die syrische Obersetzung lier Proverbien textkritisch 
und in ihrem Verhdltnisse zu dem masoretischen Text, den LXX und dem 
Targum untersucht\ in ZAT 14 (1894). 

Strack, Die Spriiche Sahmos, second edition, Nordlingen, 1899 (in Strack's 10 
and ZOCKLBR's Kurzgefasster Kommentar su den Heiligen Schrifien des A 
und NT, 

Toy ■=■ C. H. Toy, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on The Book of 
Proverbs, New York and Edinburgh, 1899, in The International Critical Com- 
meniary, 1 5 

VOGEL"- A. SCHULTENSII Versio integra Proverbiorum Salomonis etin eadem 
Commentarius, quern in compendium redegit et obsetvationibus crittcis auxit 
Geo. Jo. Ludov. Vogel, Halis, 1768. 

Wild. — G. Wildeboer, Die Spriiche, in Karl Marti's Kurzer Hand- 
Co9nmentar zum AT, Freiburg i. B., 1897 {cf. also Wildeb6er, De Tijdbepaling 20 
van het Boek der Spreuken in Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninkl, Akad. 
van Wetenschapen (Afd. Lctterkunde, 4. Reeks, deel iii) Amsterdam, 1899, 
pp. 233-265. 




X (3) Instead of iB Vs^n np^b, which is somewhat peculiar, OORT suggests V^iOXK np^D; 
it is better, however, to read ^i^xxs np^b, following 21,16 and Dan. 1,17. 

(4) [For iR o^.lin9 read D'«nf ; cf. ZA 2,275; NOt^deke, Syr Gr* S 40, E; Lagarde, 
Mittheil, 3,29, n. i; JAger, Beitr, jr. Assyr. 1,489. 30 

(6) The Hebrew term t^f^lp does not mean simile, parable, it refers to poetic lines 
consisting of two parallel halves or hemistichs; cf. Assyr. rniHu 'half (Arab. 
Jbumi), Del., HW 432^ and the Arabic term i^y^^^ i. e. broken in two, divided 
in the middle. Like Arabic y^ cuneiform poetry is generally arranged in 
two parallel columns, each line consisting of two hemistichs, as the Song of 35 
Moses in Deut 32 appears in the current editions of ill; (/I Schrader, Die 
HolUnfahrt der I star (Giessen, 1874) p. 60; Haupt, Akkad. Sprache (Berlin, 
1883) p. 25 and pp. xxxv.xxxvi below; Zimmern, Babyl. Busspsalmen (Leipzig, 
1885); Beitr. zur Kenntniss der Babyl. Religion, Part i (Leipzig, 1896) p. 53; 
ZA 8 , 1 2 1 ; 10 , 1 ; II , 86 ; 1 2 , 382 ; Delitzsch , Das babyl. Weltschopfungsepos 40 
(Leipzig, 1896), pp. 6 and 60 ff., especially pp. looff. and pp. 92 ff.; Gunkel, 
Schipfung und Chaos (Gottingen, 1895) PP- ^ ^"^ 4°* ^J Cheyne, Grit. Notes 
on Isaiah, p. 78, 1. 24. 

Brown-Driver-Briggs' Lex. translates hyft^ proverb, parable but adds in 
parenthesis : — "of sentences constructed in parallelism, usually of Hebrew wbdom, 45 
but occasionally of other types;" and Toy states in his Commentary on Pro- 
verbs, p. 3: — "The Hebrew word V^lp {proverb) probably signifies similarity, 
parallelism (nearly = compan'son), and seems to have been used at an early 
time of all poetry, hardly with reference to the form (parallelism of clauses, 
clause-rhythm, being the distincdve formal characteristic of old-Semitic poetry), 50 
but, probably, with reference to the thought (short distichs made by the juxta- 
position of related ideas, originally comparisons with familiar objects." I be- 
lieve, however, that ^^\^ means originally equality or equal parts or halves, • 

-*«■ ttitkat Qiotio on ^coverBe •«»- 

bllE I'RlNCirAL commentaries and critical notes on the Book 
If [>f Proverbs are referred to in the present notes under the follow- 
Kiog abbreviations: — 

Baumg. •- A. J. BaumcaRTNER, J^tniU critique sur I Hat Hit 5 
'^texle i/ii livre dts i^overbts ifaprh ks principalis traductiom 
\ncitnnes, Leipzig, 1890. 

Berth.— £.Bli:!tTHKAU, DieSprUcke Salami/ s (in Kurxgifasstts 
Exegetiscltes Haiuibuck sum AT), Leipzig, 1847- 

BiCK, — G. [IICKICLL, Kriliscke Bfar6eituii£ thr I'roveriieit, in 10 
the Vienna Oriental Journal, vol, 5 (1891). PP- 86ff, 

Chajks — H. P. Chajes, ProverbiaStuditn *u der iogenanntia Salomonischtn 
Sammlung C. i-xxii,i6. Berlin, 1899. 

Del. •- Franz Di^litzsch, Dus Salomonische Spruchbuch, in Kkil und 
Deuizsch, Bibl. Commenlar tibtr dfls AT, Leipzig, 1873. 15 

Dys. = JOH. DVSERINCK, Krifiscke Sck&liin bij dt verlaling van kef both der 
Spreuten, in Tkeol. Tijdschrift, Leyden. 1883. 

Ew, — H. EwALD, Die Dickler des Allen Bundts, part 3, second edition, 
Goltingen, 1867. 

Frank. = W. Frankknbkrg, Die Spruckt ubtrstttt und trkldrt in W, No- ao 
WACK's Handkommtniar sum AT, Gottingen, 1898. 

GrAtz ^ H. GbXtz, Exegetische Studitn su den SalomoniscXen Spriicken, in 
Monatssekrift fUr Gtichichle und Wissemchaft des Judentkunti, 1SS4, pp. 289(1.; 
337fr.i l,\\^.; 433ff. Cf. Gratz's critical notes on Proverbs in the second part 
pf his Emendaliones, Breslau, 1893, pp. 30-33 (covers cc. i-33). 35 

Hkid. — M. HKIDENHBltl, Zur Textkritik der Proverbien, in Deutsche Viertel- 
jahrssekrifi fiir englischfkeologiscke Forsckung und Kritik, t (Goiba, 1865), 
pp. 39Sff-; 3 (Zurich, 1867). 51 ff.. und 3i7ff. (covers cc. 1-9). 

HITZ. — F. HnziG, Die Sprucke Salomos iibtrsetst und ausgelegl, Zurich, 1858. 
JSg. — J. G. JaCEB, Observationes in Froverbiorum Salomonis versionem 30 
Alexandrinain, Meldorpii et Lipsiae, 178S. 

Kauph. — A. Kamphausen, OberaeUung der Sprucke in Kautzsch's AT 
(second edition, Freiburg, 1896) pp. 784?., with brief critical notes on the text 
in the Betlagen, pp. 81 ff. 

Lag.— p. de Lagarde, Anmerkungen *ur griechischen Ubtrseltung der 35 
■ Proverbien, Leipzig, 1863. 

t^ilf 'a ^3 jn nvt^ ppijo nac i rynvr ]t 3i,n 

niji T3P Kb ibojn isn naien nncr 7 

t*|>bn 'aa bs p ^r d^r^ t^ ""I s 

ip'jRi '3j) I'll pTi bu? Tfi nn? 9 

nbjfa ab na msu 

jn »b\ aiB VTj;itea u 

BvuPBi TBS nwm 13 

iniD nvi^ia nrvn 14 

nb^b ^lya opni m 

innpni mtf noot 16 

ij'ino nj)a rron 17 

mnD aw '•a nope is 

iw'aa nnW ^^''19 

"•yjfh mint p»a a 

abro niva^ hth Kb»i 

Pib nnlffj) D'131D »a 

r6pa DTjma jnia n 

laoni nrtpp pD 24 

pmsb Tm (j» m 

noana rwine .70 36 

nn^a nia-Sjin rrpn 97 

gnPB'i 5»3a iBp 38 

^n itfjf nua nan 29 

VT\ bam jnrr iptp i> 

tj'^ noo nb lan 31 

tFnao D^i'iBQ phfi 

iTDrp lA bbwi 

i!jm 13' ba 

ig'Ba ffioa Ifjffli 

irronb «'an prri^e 

i«nxi'ab 1Tb inm 

itna fl-yei ri^ea 'tbo 

;m} b'^a naa' Kb 

il^B laon ii''»ai 

iir?Kb nnW o*t^ 

iDsjiBj ff^b nn^a ba 'a 

tnenab ]mnKi bw 

lyiK ypt Djj ina»a 

payjab nana iiam 

iinnK arb pntcni 

tnawb bp TDn mini 

tbawn Kb mbsy onbi 

iFibpa nbbrri 

tnab? by n^by j|iki 

ibbnnn k'h mn' nKT ntfK 

i^tvo Dnyifa ^jibbn"-! 

'mpj^ pn> 31.1" (') 











nn nn 
:]in inDH «^ yni« 

ni!{ ^Sy B^ni Tin 
:n«b^ ^Din hS yni« nnni 

sDH'^n y^on io*^m 

nte y>rh H^rji 

site ^7D^nn «sni 

s itei 

vi^yn nine nn 30,12 
v^y ion no nn 13 

vaiy ninnn nn 14 
pHO D^»v te«^ 

4f « « « 4f « VlMtS^ 16 

n«S iyVn py 17 

^^tdD iMte^ HDH ms^^B^ 18 

D^ nte r?i« Tnn 

pH ntin BfiSiy nnn 21 

^te^ ^3 ^^y nnn 22 

^yan ^d nniifef nnn 23 

ynn ^aap on nynnn 24 

ty «V Dy D-^oin n^ 

DHy M^ Dy D*>dtifir 26 

njnwV p« T^o 27 

b^jDnn D^Tn nnsotp^ 28 

ny:i ^nto'^o non nts^^iy 29 

nDijM ni3i B^^^ 1? 

tBhij w D^jno Tn^3I 

Mh^mnn i^te^ dm 32 
nKDn H^^rv nte y^ ^d 33 

nsK ^me^ ne^K «tyD ite ^wd^ nm 3^.^ 

<tS« nDk< niDn 

mi nn ntDi 

*:pte <niwa>D^> T^^ni 

tnDg> ^H * * * » D^itnVi 

VhidS nD> nn no 2 

^iM in noi 

l^^n D^i^iV ]r\n ^« 3 

p ^niy doVd^ ^h 4 

VkidV D^aSfiV Vm 31.4 (8) 

*l!l)^ 30.16 (a) 

an r»i^ D^iM v*M 33 (T) 










tnni p«i pnfcn nni 
tWDi v>py Dnm 

jp3^ lyS 1HDD 

jittH Bf^iD n^^ lyii 

nrr«y« mm nobh 
jniyo PHI p^ o 
njttD h^^h mpn 

J 11^3 lon^ nn SjDBh 
taaljf^ niiT3 noni 

DM IMlfef^ Dial tSflK ' 

^^D H^v inn ^D II 

WiSl DODn Bf^HI B^n 

nD3n )n^ nnjini M^p^ 




nv yw pm p«i is 

nny lop hS Dnrnn 19 

in^nn pH b^^h nnn :> 

nny ly^D p^fiD 21 

ino nij^ «)« Bf^H 22 

liS^wn D^K nwi 23 

)\fft:^ »^)\» 3}:i Dy pSin 24 

BT^iD p Din nT^n ns 

^B^ID ^:iJD D^3D D'Hn 26 

^ijj Bf^K D^p^ royin 27 



tynn Dnjhp nyni 
:«un DB^ noi 

j\nb« DBf mfcfjDni 

]3 maK nm 

B^^KD ^DIH ly? ^D 2 

TODn omo^ «Si 3 

m^ D^eB^ n^y ^0 4 

njDns •ni^Hf nnon ^d n 

IJnHD m^HB^ D^eBf 7 

^itto prr\T\ io mm h^b^ s 

"wnpi ynfefH jto 9 

io>»in« ^H n^y ]tff)ti ^« ^ 

S^^ v^K nn II 

^ DiA «3bnbn s cio 

r»o "3 30.4 « 


27,34— a9.7 











:D'nn nutyy i&dk:ii 
:Tnnyi^ tD^nm 

IHM^ TMD □p^'spi 

jdhS )^hi inb ntoo 

:Dn n|n'« min nobh 

, t^D li^a^ nvr ^pjoi 

tvn« D^b^ D^^^i! nyii 

JDTH *^B»rj^ D'yiyn Dipni 
tDHT ityi nniDi 

ihi nv hy y»n Sb^id 

son iDDn^ V« Dii^ "in nyi 

snn<Bf>n ^ib^ Dv?^n e^pyii 

tB^n y2\tr D^pn «)niiDi 

nni yBfD^ Dn^ riJD hy) 

:<[«vnnH]> iwS p^^HDo 

:)B^i^ nirr bv nti^) 

tnntjD ni ri^y D^^yni 
:d^P^^ inT Dnnijjai 

1M91D pMi nntf^ yn$ 
iDy m«i )w^ Vbtoni 
;pn nng^ nuit nyhi 
tnaonn; nioinn b^^hi 
niDyjD \v bniJD «yi 
meb^i cy>n^ p^-nsi 

)Dh nhnfh vh ^d 37.24 
wan n«n^i T>rn nTi^i na 
T»nS^ DifefM 26 
-«>TDn^^ DHy n^n ni 27 

i-jntef D^ani yiH ytsf^n 2 
D^ pB^yi <y>iyn nai 3 
ytfifi iWd^ mm ^nry 4 

lann i?\n e^n nib 6 

pD p m\r\ yi)^ 7 

n^nnn«n> tb^^ uin nnno 8 

mm ybtyo i^tn i^e 9 

yi Tmn Dn»^ n:iB^D ^ 

i^y B^^H v:i^yn ddh h 

mHJDn nnn D'«p^^ j^^yn 12 

rr^y «^ ryBfjD nojo 13 

Ton nnDD dik ^ib^h 14 

ppw a^ii Dni n« » 

nv nioonn non n^i> 16 


BfjD:^ Dnn pi^y d^m 17 

ytyji D>tDn l^m 18 

DrA yab^^ inoiH nay 19 

nii9 t6 D';)d nsn 21 

)^y yn B^^H prA Snn:^ 22 

K^'' )n [J Dn« noio 23 

yB^D ]^« nDhi «va« hm 24 

)no mj^ BfjD:^ nnn na 

^^DD Hin i3^a Htoin 26 

IIOHD p« Bf-jS ]nii 27 

Dn« nn©^ D^yBn Dipn 28 

^ny HBfpe ninDin \tr^H 29,11 

Dyn TOfef^ D''p^^ nmin 2 

vn« HDl?^ nonn nnk< b^>« 3 

p« n^oy toWM i^o 4 

inyn ^y p'hrta nn:^ n 

Bfpita yn Bf^K y^te^n 6 

D^Vi p p^ns yn^ 7 

UDMi M (^ 3w i^n}^ D^^Dni a8.« (T) pnb a8.a (P) *|n^a nrh^ a7.«7 («) 











t)f? »h ^n hv >np»nD 
:^iK pn\?D K^n noHi 

i)ttn ^Tin HT Dm 

jyi nSi D^pS<rj> D'«njDiy 

inty\tf tw nipni 

t^np^ inyi nSan 

t2wr\ vhn p« Sbii 

jnnTp nte^jn pbn hjdi 

:Dr n^i no jnn «^ ^d 

tDmato n?D ^'•w oyji 
:n«}p ''iiD^ noy^ nDi 

sBfM niy*5 on<yn|2nD>i 
TTH Dvn «Dn on« jt'di 

jpini nwj 

:wiyi nny o'^nruD 

:i« *• ^35^ vn« idWi 

jDn«S Dnnn nb p 

tmyniyn «S dihh ^yyi 

:in^j« <p>niDn «^ 

rVj^ <^) 

nnVs^ IT Vjy pa a6,i& 

vi^yn ^jy ddh 16 
nay n^D ^^i^«o pnno 17 

<[niM>]> n^i7^nD3 18 
viyn nn nai b^^« p 19 

Bfi6 D'SKi D^SmV Dn^ 21 

DHDn^riDD p^^ ^nm aa 

}inn hv nv!^ •d'^^'^di «)dd 23 
M)\» 131^ v^nsfefn 24 

Sw na nn?^ nnb 27 

ii^T Hifcf^ npiy pb6 28 

nnD Dvn ^nnn S« a7,H 

yt Hh} nt T^Srj^ 2 
^inn ^iD)i )3« naS 3 

riD]) Dinn ny^fef tsf^i 7 
nsp p rmii iiasD s 

ntyn ^« yM «yii ^yi ^ 
anp ]3Bf nib 

"•aS nofen ^in ddtj u 

inoi nyi nm nr\y 12 

D^3iyn] nt nny ^d ma np 13 

np^n bn3 ^ipa vijn 7150 14 

TTiD DVa "nilD ')^ lb 


n<n;> Stiaa bnn 17 

nnjD ^D«^ niKn isi 18 

n^^th D^ijDn • • « 3 19 

3n6 niDi «)DD^ ^j^^D 21 
yr\:i<^ h^)Hn nn B^iron dh 22 

^iHS ^iD ynn yT 23 

^Mpl a7.«» («) 











:^^ hn vi« T1D1 
snwn «^' in^ni 

:npBf nnen bhnm b^^h 
jD^ti nniyn nan \\\ah\ 

:pn^9 p«e nniB nyiDtri 

nnD i&i3'> ipm 
nnn^ n^rjjD )^k ^b^h b^^« 

ivryn D3n iTiT {d 
niaD h'O^h )nii p 

naao ^^dd^ nipn 

:nnhnn pn n« 
nnap Sy V|yi 

Tits y\b wrn V« 35.8 
nn''in«n ntoyn no 

Dfo ^^ni nn? d?j 12 

n^p Dvn i^Bf n3?D 13 

p« DB^iJi nni D^«^b^a 14 

inrp nn^^ D^B« T^hn » 

^n teg nwro B^jn 16 

in n^3D T^3n iph 17 

piBf pi 3nni y^Do 18 

my^WD ^:ini ny^ jb^ 19 

•nnii ^y yoh ♦ ♦ * :> 

<^irAo«n iHjfef 3yn dm 21 

WH1 ^y rmh nn« D^^nj o 22 

DB^i ^^inn ]\M nn 23 

3:) m$ hv roB^ nib 24 

njD^y B^jDa ^y Dnp d^o na 

nnB^ iipoi toci^ I'^jfo 26 

nitt «^ niavi B^jn te« 27 

noin ]^« rwine Ty 28 

n^pn ntDMi i^^pn Ab^d a6.»i 

«]iy^ 111^3 nu^ niB>rD 2 

nionS :inD didS dw 3 

inVjK3 ^^3 ]yn ^« 4 
in^5H3 ^'•DD njy n 

nnti^ om 6 

n©?D D^pW iiNte 7 

nDjnjoa p« i<ii>rD> 8 

ii3B^ Tn n^y mn 9 

<[D^nay]> te S^ino ni ^ 

i«p ^y nB^ 2hx II 

rryn ddh b^h^ ty»n 12 

Tnn ^ngf ^sy nD« 13 
nn^ Sy nion nten 14 

DnV ax (d) 


SMET' VnK VM1 25.13 (•) 

iT^g Dva nia myo 25^ (x) 

34 -^H9'<H^ 'V VD WO' W ti 34i2 1 —3$ 7 




:nnynn ^« p^iw Dy iVdi ^in nw n« ht, 34.21 

jDn»^^ intDV?^ whv in^p^ nnn p^^m jnn^ nbh 24 

jiib ronn Kinn nrnv) nvx' dwdid^i to 

i? mtri mnyi inD«te yiw pri 27 

nn^^ 0^^^^ « * » * * in« 

20 j«iS ntoyH )D ^S ntev nty«D nenn ^« 29 

jiS non DiH D-D ^yi ^nnny ^?j; Bf^H mJff by *? 

inonni wn« nnji PD^iftfiifp ib:j n^ mm 31 

tiDio ^nnpb ^n^«n ^ab n^Bf« ^d>« nmni 32 

25 :MBfb DT* p^ri toyo nioun toyo nii^p^ oyo 33 


3S J Tan "pn O'sbo niai *ian i^po dni^k nto a 

jTpn fK D'abo aVi poyb y*iHi anb ms» 3 

P^D «)lSb H»iV *)DDD D^yO 1^0 4 


jT^ni ^ijdS ^b^wno mn nSy i^ iok nio ^d 7 

T^T^ HH WH 25.7 (T) D'Vnn r» i»; 31 (P) ^^8^3 «^h^ a'»^H 24,19 («) 

23,26— a4i2o 










tfp)r\ Dn«n Dn^ui 

HD^p nipn^ D^«n^ 

tSsni ty«nD mWdi 

iDn« nvn^ i«nn S«i 

tl^yv nhn nywni 
t}^*2 dihS rayini 

nib^n DM y\r6 o^boi 

n^n ^y pino neM 

man n^n ^« 
tnynn i^b^d^ dwii 

MBH vSye nH?m 
tD'ytns Ki^pn ^k 

^^ laS '•in mn 33,26 
n«>t npijy nnw o 27 
nn«n «)nri3 «\n «)« 28 

•MDHi "nh M« nD^ 29 

D}n D'y^tD '•ta^ 

pn ^y D^nngo^ h 

D^Hn^ ^D p nnn ^h 3» 

I Di-iB^nDn ^S^n^ 32 

nnt WT 71^ 33 

n> 2h2 nD*fcD n^NTi 34 

Da^ n^m "nts^ ''d 2 

n^n nia^ noDna 3 
w^s^ Dmn nynai 4 

nonte 1^ ntoyn ni^nnn ^D e 

nionn ^^1^5^ 'iniDH-v 7 

VTnh Miyt^ 8 

n^jDinn * ♦ ♦ « ^ 
m liyr ft6 p nonn ^ 12 

niiD ^3 B^jn ^in te^} 13 
* * » ♦ * tvsi^ p 14 

p^"!W m^^ lytni n'wn ^« ie 
Dpi p^"n>r ^iB^ yncf ^d 16 

ntMn hn i«n^w ht^^ 17 
vyyn yii nin^ n«T ]jd 18 

D^yion innn ^« 19 
yn^ n''Vi« rrnn «^ ^d d 

in*^»n mV in}pni n'^^mi in f>K^ dm 24.X4 m 

«nb^ ^i^ppi aso* («) 











«p T^phn \nn S« aa,26 
D^ 1^ r« D« 27 

D^iy ^in:) :iDn ^m 28 

SQsnnM tifft^ ^n dm "jp^a plif ^1 2 

t^Tn i i^pn^ yyr\ h» 4 

«in p ♦ ♦ ♦ * • • ♦ o 7 

nttj^ ^n 13^1 T^ iDH^ nwi ^Dg 

OjjD^nD mh Hini}> mH^pn w^dh ini? 3*».8* 

tnjn n»«^ ^imi 


:^nrn ^iKtfins w^^) 

cni'D^ ^ini :iDn ^« ^ 
pm D^«i ""D II 

lab ID10S n«^nn 12 

xio "VJD yion ^K 13 
)ni3^ entfifD nnn 14 

73^ DDH DM ^in na 

jDrn to mm hmtd dm '►d o^Mijnn la^ Mip^ ^m 17 
jnnsn m^ injpm mnnM Bf^ <n3n2rn> dm ^d is 

tl3^ ^ina 10^) 

t^th 11^3 i^^ta 

:nDii Bf^n^n D^yipi 

HttM nipT ^D nan ^mi 
snyni IDIDI iTDDn 
i^mhY hit)) 
nn HDly^y ddh n^i^[i> 

Dam ^^a hdm VDtf 19 
p ^Maba \nn ^m a 
enj^ S^in Mab ^a 21 

Ti^^ m f aM^ j;db^ 22 
•DDn ^Mi njp riDM 23 

IttMl X^*<* HDfef^ na 

pVlS ^aM ^o>»i^ b-^ai 24 

crD'psn -pai nnieFi 8«» (t) 

vni»)^DDS Mtnn ^m 23.1* (ft) 











:nj;wnn rr\ivh) non^o di^^ puD did 31 

:nie) )n nntDi ^dsd an ne^e db^ nnn^ aa,x 
:nirr 0^5 nj?^ wiw mi nvj; 2 

jwvii inny d^^jjjdi nnD«w nyn n«i Diiy 3 

jDHD pnT WDi now Bfgj ^nn d^hd *D^asi n 

jin^>^ imny m^ 

^WD^ D^m n^y 7 
•pb^ «in j^y DIE) 9 

tp^pi ip rOBf^li piD Kri 1^ Bh|J * 

;T^d n<x|f> vriDfef 
n:ji ^nm ^i^c^i 

njn rai nvr ^i^p 12 

xrm^ ninhn imn yinn ^n« h^v *id« u 

jDiy biB^ nin^ Diyt 

nnt ""D npijy nnw 14 
1^ r\^y^nb hi pts^y 16 


D'»D3n nm yDij^i ^3^« en ^•^fnow^- 17 
^:njni nwyba mtySe^i ^^ '^nana "SiiD^riK «i« ^ 


nytt^n ^jy «Din^^«i «in hi ^3 ^n ^un ^« 22 
wt^ Dn^apy n« ap^i Dan nn^ mn^ o 23 

:«nn «^ niDO Bf^« n«i *)« ^yn n« yvin ^« 24 










J131JI yDrr* ib^h to Sy 

tnm^ rwsh phi 

mnro mm^ nnni 

niiT' Tn ite nS d^d ^i^D ai,ii 

Yyxy^ -IBf. Bf^H TIT to 2 

DJDtifDi np^ nts^ 3 
nV nrjni D^yy on 4 

n)vmh i« yn ^di nnio^ i« yinn ni^iwiD n 

npB^ jufif^n nnsh byb 6 

Diir D^yen tW 7 

•ntv Bf^H im ^B?6n 8 

:i:i nii^ Sy n^ts^V ^ie 9 

yi nn^ yt^i t^w ^ 

^riB DDH^ yb wyi II 

tyn^ D^ytfifn *)^5d jfttn noS pT^r ^^dI^d 12 

J my: K^l Hlp^ HVT Dli 

tn^ ntDH pnn nnbh 

bn npyjD iitM DDh 13 

ijit« ''bvtb nnooi bdm^d nitoy p^^^ rmtto » 
tnii^ D^W)n Snpn h^n yra^ nyin Dn« 16 

n^n D''-iBf^ nnni 

tm^no ty niM 

tjnt m^yn nfcfiy 
inifcfyb VT 11KD o 

nnofcf 2n^ iidhd Bn« 17 

ytfifn p^"ns^ iDb 18 

nmo yn«n nauf nib 19 

noni np-p ^jn^i 21 

DDH nSy D'«i^ Ty 22 
uw^i VD now 23 

U3Bf y^ Tn^ ni 24 

linden ^sy nn$n na 
<y> m^nn Dvn ^d 26 


nrp n (» 

ti«3in p^ Kin niy'«i 

n<iiT n>ayin dw"i nnt 27 

nn«^ D^ntD ny 28 

viM y»n B^''« tyn 29 


]eV1 2I»9 (a) 

ao,i— JO 



JDDH^ «^ n n:iW ^31 

•OB^ moh p!n 1^ ao.ii 








:j;S:in^ ^^i« tei ane roBf Bf^«^ niM 3 
inii^i^ n^nn Br»«i b^^h aVn rw» D'«pt;y d^d n 

pwone ^nnno 
jDiTiiy Dii niiT nnyin 

:DiT^ d:i ntoy nvr 
xmh yalff T^^y npif 

:nyT ^neb^ up) ^^di 
lyVO "^^^ «^»^ *^«^ 

p^ lana T^nriD 7 

^aS W3t nD«^ "ID 9 
nfi^MI HD^M pMI pM ' 

nijj'i ]^yi nyeW pK 12 

B^Tjn p n^ an«n S« 13 

ny\pn noH'* yn yn 14 

a'y:^^ yr\ nn? ly^ » 

nt niy o n:Q np^ 16 

ipiy DH^ Bn«^ a^y 17 

)i3n rnrya nne^riD 18 

h^^^ ']h)n niD nSu 19 

itdMi van ^^pD :> 

mwHin nS«»>bD n^m ai 

yn nDV({^« iDHn ^« 2a 

p«i )n« mm nnyin 23 

nn:» ny^ mmo 24 

:np3^ Dmi nnni \tnlp y^^ Dn« B^pVDina 

:pw Dm^y 2f\) 
n«DD nonn nyoi 
:nn^ly D^ipt mm 

tan Tte D^yen mp 26 

Dn« ruDB^^ mn^ "u 27 

1^0 ns^ViDW ion 28 

DnS Dmns ni^fin 29 

:]M nnn m3Di yna •p^'Ti>n )»b nn^n ^ 







j<v<Bfj^ Kim voTT» Bfgj?D itwjn i^in tyn niiD x9.11 

Ji:ab *jpn nvr ^yi Din *)Spn dih n^jK 3 
tnift^ injrjo ^Ti D^an d^vt «]^* pn 4 

t]m }trHh rfl ^31 
litttD ipnn injrjD ^a «)« 

naK'« D^no rrfi^i 

iHKjfcf Bfi ^rw to 7 
iB^jD^ anh a^ nip s 

tnnlya ^ naj6 ^a «]« ii^n ^^oaS njHi nh ^ 

tywt hy iby iniKDni )w T>t$n> dih tot? n 

twisi ateTi ^J^ ^M^ 1^0 *)yi Twa dh) « 

tntetWD ntt^H mrrtDi man nbni pni n^a 14 





m*iD«'» vain nr<i> wjDi idW ni!pD now 16 

tih D^ iVpi Sn )iin mm hiVd 17 

JTB^w Kirn b» innsn ^ki mj?n Bf^ ^a iia no; 18 

:«lDin Tiyi ^^n dk ^a e^ij; kW non ^•>:i 19 

nn^nn«a Dann )yoS idid ^ai?i mrj yw^ a 
tDipn K\n mm rayi ir^n a^a mawio man n 

tata Bf^Ko Bfn aiBi 

jjn npB^ ba pV^ j^jlyi 

J many'* H^ imD ^« Di 

tnjn YT pai^ n^aim 

tTJDHDi B^^ao la 

jp^ yiSa'« D^jwn '•D1 
:D'«b^Da 13^ ma^noi 

non DTK n»n$in 22 

tx^mh mm n«T 23 

nn^sa it Ssy joid 24 

DTV^ ^noi nan y^ na 

DM mia'« an riete 26 

iDitD »ybi^S ^ia ^irj 27 

MB^o l^^^i ^y;^a 18 28 

D'i9«a»Bf D*>!rV^ iiiai 29 











lyiH nspn S^dd ^1^1 

moDH i^M "^iD n« 17,24 

^"DD p VaK^ DVD na 

t>n>'» ^by D^nni nisn^ sib «^ p^Tib iruy dii 26 

tn:iun b^''« nn npi njn yii^ riDH Tfenn 27 

i)n:i vncts^ Di9i< Dts^; nsn \tmm h^^H n^ 28 

mtm yhp Dyi na Di nn y^B^ «Da 3 

ntfifjD^ (SfpiD vnjDtsn 
;iton mn in^ dhi 

ta:ilyii p^^ i^^iT in 

a^nn i«n^ ^^d ^nsly 6 
W^ nnp iHyy pn n 

:ni)y ninn ""ifi^i ly^n a^ any "iniy ^^jd^ 12 
tna^Di 1^ «\n n^jn yoiy^ dim nrn n^cfo 13 

inyn e^pan d^odh ]!«i 

nan}! D'»^'ii >:^th) 
inpm in»n «n^ 

tT'U^ D^Disy )^ai 

in^no te^D^ ty^« nn 14 
nyn mp^ pna 2b id 

U'^nn jw«nn p^^^i 17 
^ni:in JT^ne^^ d^i^o 18 

:pDi« n^nnn 


tj; n^jM> 


tyat^ vnBfef n«un liM ysb^n b^ ^jd nso a 

:nny nay* nWi 
inKc p5T snK B^i 


nib \x^ ntfM HiTD 22 

Bfi inT D^:ii:inn 23 

yjinnn^ D^n BT'u 24 












tn^; isVd imnn Veto) 

^niin n« Sbv p^a 33 

tnn >nir K^ n^jD na m^Kn n^^n hb nio i7,h 
tn^m pSn^ D'^nn Timi b^^id pa Sbto^ ^^Dfcfo nay 2 

tnpi'' «S »t6 nefcf 

mniaM D^in nnHJDni 

WV ITJ B^*^^ ^J'^ " 

tnpBf rofcf ani^ ^D «]« nn" ncfcf »Sai^ mHi h^ 7 
:^3fcf^ mjD^ n»H to ^H v^ya ^i^a nnWn ]n p« 8 

t«)i^« nnjDO nam mbh 
tin n^i^^ noH ^Htei 

x\tm^ am yS:inn ^itoSi 
tD.Ti» D:i mm nayin 

nanM tifp^D ytsf^ hd^d 9 

poa nnj^i nnn ^ 

yn Bfpa^ "^nD • • •! u 

Bf^«a ^i3Bf a^ Bfi^ 12 

naiiD nnn nyi a^cfo 13 

p^ns ynyiDi ytfifi pnsTD w 

tpH a^i noan mipS ^^a Ta tho nr rtch 16 

\)n)n ^iJD^ nany any 

tnauf typ3D mni? maio 
tnyna ^ib^ iiw^a icnii 

tDni Bfa^n nnji nni 

vy^ anh ny tea 17 

fp yph a^ non dih 18 

mto anh yts^^ anh 19 
aii9 M^D*> M^ a^ tifpy 3 

1^ nivio ^^oa n*?^ 21 

n<vi a^to^^ nijfcf a^ 2a 

mM^D nvnM ntisnb 

np^ Vttn poo nnW 23 




tDsy ]tnn nniiD njnoiy s^ nojt^^ D^yy iwo is> 








tnijy TIM ^iJD^i 

{)^b6 njyo ninnai 

:nw nvin phi 

s-pnbB^riD US'*! 

:npi'' «^ T^ T 

nn« D^Bf^ wi« d:i 

nny^r p^ nim 

:mnD3'« ddh t^w 

D^^ nnjin nj^eW ]r« 3" 

IfiS^ftl DH1D TDUd plJD 32 

HDDn TDiD niiT n«i^ 33 

wp T? Bf^« ^Din ta 2 
l*^yo nvr b« ^i 3 

2b na:i ^D nw nnyin n 

IIJJ ifty HDHi nonn 6 

iy'«« ^Dm mm n\ra 7 

np-jrin lapD nib & 

IDTI ne^D' DTH n^ 9 

ite ^nDfef ^p DDp ^ 

mmS MBfD ^i!fc<D1 Dte n 

pis ^nDfef ^ite )wn 13 

mo ''3«^D T^o xusn »4 

D^^n ite ^iD ii«a » 

j«)DDo Tnn:i m'«n mipi yinno ni»<-> riDDn nip 16 

mn nni p^^n '•ijdSi pto nniy '•:jd^ 18 

iD^«3 n« ^^ly p^no Dvtajy iw mi ^6B^ sib 19 

nnty« mms nbiai 
mph «)^^ D'^ODfef priDi 

mp^ «]"<D^ vriDly hv\ 

imyb HdiDi tfifjD^S pinn 

tmo ^311 nn^inni 

nm© v^y f\M o 

jnni^ B^«D vruDb^ ^yi 

l«)lV« TIDb ]}"|)1 

:aib vd Tim D^^im 
tnyi nto vncb^ pp 

nib «»D^ ini Sy ^^nfena a 

pni «ip^ 2h Dnn^ 21 

v^yn<^> te^ D^»n iipD 2a 

imjD ^'•Dbh DDH n^ 23 

Dyi ^iDH Bfn^ *)« 24 

Bf^H ^IJD^ IBf'' Til B^ na 

1^ ni^byi ^v B^w 26 

nyi niS Sy;Vn b^« 27 

ino nb^t mn^nn b^^« 28 

inyi nw ddh b^'^m 29 

no^nn Mr6 wy irwy v 

HD 16.16 («) 







tm^D n^Bf nn f\hu\ D>»n yv \wb hjid 15,4 

tDTV> W3h TDbh va« nolo y»y h^)» n 

tn^iDj^^ yttfi nnirmai 

ni ph p>^ no 6 

tp «^ D>^>D3 n^ np n}> D^DH >nfikf 7 

tui!n DnBf> nVpni 
tnn«^ i^rp f\rp) 

tnio> nnjin loifcf 

jnn Tn nirr nnj^in 9 
mh :^\)fh p nolo ^ 

ti^^ Hb DnDDH ^« 1^ njin yb an«^ «^ la 

jn«5^ nn a^ nn^j^ni 

D^^jD a^?>> n^fcf n^ 13 

np Bfp3^ pDi n^ 14 
n^^ >^}f ^> ^3 ^B 



MBH n?n Dn« ^^di 

|no my non }tr» 18 

pm rolj^oD ^IJ^ "pT 19 

n^ non^ nnoto n^j« 21 


:Dipn D^j^v nhni niD ]>«n nntyno npn aa 
:niiD no wj^n •mi vt njjnDn b^>«^ nnoto aj 

jniso ^WB^D niD ]j;d^ *?>DbnD^ nhvtih D>»n mK 24 


tn^T' nino H^ib^i 

jnra j^sn mo td); 27 

imp j^o^ D^ytrn 01 niij;^ nun^ pn:« n^ as 

:jnDBf> DT^ns nVpni 

D^yttnij nin^ pim 29 











:»n>^«'' D>tB^> ^n«i 

TDtth D^ytt^i n^a 14.1 1 

:nio >3in annnm »^« >^fi^ "tch ^pn Bf^ la 
mwn) nnyriD ^^di yno noi hi^ ddh 16 

in^T\ iwy >nnin 
tine^H D'k^^'j^ ]mm 

Hoin injn^ ra ai 

tnio H^ih riDHi Tom j^i H^ih vn> «i^n aa 

tniono^ 1« D^nfito nail nniD iTn^ yxp ten as 

tn^JK D^^^'DD tYlA^ <n-i^V D^DDH m^j; a4 

:nDnD rrrr na^i r); hmd mn^ riHTn 26 

:n^3K D^ne nn n^pi 

tp>'n2r i<D(n>n nohi 
nynjn D^^>DD nnpnii 

mnn nn D^e« T^ 29 

inWy *)7j te pB^ 31 

HDDn nun pa^ nte 33 

:n«Bn D^Dij^ Hion) >u ddivi np^s 34 

iB^09 in\nni innnyi ^^DbfD nny^ iVd jisn rt 

t*)« n^y^ Mj; •mi 
;D>nmi D'yn nifiir 

nDn DHfi^^ Ti mjnD is,h 
njn nnD^n onDDn \\wh 2 
nw >yy DipD ton 3 


12 -«8^M#^ ^m ^MMH^ 13.13—14.10 

tD^ tm rvip Hy) )h ^arr xnh ?a 13.13 

tnuD H^pbo niD^ D'^^n nipo Dan mm 14 

tn^jK bhJD> Vi)3i npn nlyj^ Dnj^ Sine 

tna?^ nnjin iDfeh noio pie p^pi »n 18 

«««««««««« tfft^h aijn mm mt$n 19 

ijno niD D^^^D rayini ♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

tj^n: D>^^D nyhi Dt5rjj» onsDn n« ^g> d 

:aio oMy> D^p^ n«i njn *)Tin o^Kijn ai 


inouD 1-inB^ nnm i^a H^ib^ 10 w ifenn 24 

as ^^^910P 'T*^^^ ^^)*<^ ?»^'^ ^'^^ «nio>iT'i4.H 

tiniu rain ?i^}i mrr «y ^'t?';^ l*?^n a 



tD«ntwn D^DDn ^ro»i m^ji neh ^^k ^ca 3 

tiw nia nw):m yw ^2 ^)2^ d>jd^« p«n 4 

35 j^p^ ]n^^ njni |>«i noDn ^^^ Bfpn 6 

4 . 4 ...... . 7 

no^p D^^^DD n^jKi • Din pn any noDn 8 

40 :psi D^TB^'' pni . . • * 9 

n) nnym v6 )rvm\i^y\ wjd^ mij jni^ n^ ^ 

12,15— I3.I2 -^oH8«<»t» ^yP #» §> ' «» ■ II 

JDDH rwjj^ j;dWi r^^n naf^ ^^i« yn ia.» 

tony p^p noil iDp yn)> Dva ^>i« i6 

trroy? onpB^ n»i pTS Tr niiD« n^fi^ 17 

5 tKgnD D>DDn jw^i nnn nnpnoD nbn b^^ is 

npty ]w^ njr^nH nyi ny^ p3n hdk neb^ 19 

jyn i«^D D^jnyni py to p^'^^h m^> «^ 21 

10 t ui2rn miDH >Wj;i nptt^ ^roto mn^ rayin 22 

tn^jK «np^ D^^^DD n^i njn noi any dhk 23 

tDD^ rrnn iTpii ^umdh Dn^im t 24 

iDjjne nytt^^ yrt) p^:i 1nJ^^p> mj^ 26 

jpm Dn«f np><»> pni m iTpn i^n^ «^ 27 

:niD ^^> r^>ncj^ ^ni D^»n np-p nnl^a as 

25 tDDH D>n:i^ trfi^l nilD ^DK^ BT^H ^fi >njDD 2 

ti^ nnriD vroto py© ww ^W vjd m 3 

30 n^m Bh«a> yeni p>^ «^iy^ npBf •m n 

:nn pm iwinnD ^d p«i te^ynD b^> 7 

trvnn^ VIM Hh trni i*us^)^ tt;"^ fisfJD^ nfilD s 


40 inoDn DN^ryu* n«) rRMo jn^ pnn • . * 

xnyr r bv ynpi eyo^ ^5d> ]in n 



11.17— ia.i4 

non ti^'M wt^ htii 11,17 

d^^n? np^ «njh> 19 
n^ 'typs rriiT nnjnn ^ 

Tm «)»c nnr a?^ 22 








t may D^vttn nipn aio ik D>p>^s nitjn 23 

nij^ «)D1^1 1?tD Bf^ 24 

dik(> vi^p^ •n v^b 26 
prri Bfpj'' Die nnW 27 

timjD^ D^p^^ n^jjDi Vv3>^ Hin ntt^jja neu 28 

nr\ ^m^ in^n naj^ 29 

D^»n i^j; pns nD h 
n^y ♦ • . p^!r jn 31 

njn nnK noio snK z2,m 
ninns psi p^t^ nto 2 

:nB^^M rniDsya ng^pi n^j^a n'lttj^ ^^rj nef^j 4 

iMDIP D^jnn ni^:jnn 

. nra^^ own nan 6 
Diw D>yBn TiJDn 7 

Bf>« ^Vi-j^ l^^ljf ^^ 8 

tnoH D^ye^i >Dmi inonn trc^ p^n jnr ^ 


)^n ti^pi>t> D'njDts^ ytsr^D 13 
•ynto^ Bf>H ^fi into 14 

nw I2.M («) 

io,23— ii,i6 








tmnn ^16 ntsDm nai nib^ ^^d^ pintoD 10,23 
jvn^b6 ^yn p d^^^^ pjf^) tx^itt^b yoto 26 

naKH D^tyn r\)j>tx\ 

D>D> n^Din miT n«T 27 
nnDly D>p^ n^nin 28 
mm Tn d<iv^ ?ijnD 29 

. TODn niy p^^ ^fi 32*»-3i* 

p:iT \\VT^ p^^5 >nDly43ib.32« 

n^i:ii HD^ p«i m#T nayin no^p ^^tHd ii,h 

tHD^^ Dnii mgai 

p^p fco^i pnr «n 2 

Dnjn D^iBf^ n©^ 3 

iTiDjj Dvn )vi ^^yr «7 4 

xsn "wrn d^dh np^? n 

D^^jin D^ity^ npTj 6 

umM D>^i« n^mni nipn na«n ■onn niDDi 7 

trnnn jnyn «yi 

y^n^ nn^ p"^:! 8 

tnbni ny^t nynai \nyi nriBh *)}n ncn 9 

:nn D^jwn niKDi m^p y^yn D^p^^ n^M ^ 
:Dnnn D>y»i ^eai nnp nr\n d^tb^^ ro^jn u 

n^ non inyn^ tn 12 
mo n^jD ^w T*?in 13 

jj^yr nhn nywni oy h&^ nih^nn yn^ 14 


men D>yp)n fc<jbi 
j-vB^"* n«)to rm^K p^p «ddi> 

nt nny >D yni yn ^b 
<inDm D^jy pn i6«i.c 


jnfrn H.7 («) 




mrr Hjb^ mn trty 6,i6 
np» ]w^ niDn D^yy 17 
111* nntwio tnh n^ 18 









ntDM roin ^^d ]3i dm ntii^ osn )d zo,m 

tiDon noj^ D'^yen ^dv 
jij^nj^ VDnn Bfpsoi 

iDDH noj^ D^JWI ^fil 

p^ B^w m#T n^^T K^ 3 
p^'n:i Bf«n^ nonn 6 

HD^a^ p^^ "TDl 7 
ni^D np> n^ DDH 8 

pn:i 1© D>*n nipD II 

D^^no nnj^n riK^to la 

n»3n Mstan )n^ '^nfibfn 13 
np )^tT D>DDn 14 

IV ^^p y^V pn 1ft 
D>*n^ p^ rhjft 16 

snyno nnjm ntj^i noiD tdw D>»n^ m« 17 

nptr >r^ mp nD3& 18 

pBffi ^n^ «^ Dnan nna 19 

p^ |w^ nna^ *)DD 3 

D>S11 v^^ p'*^^ ^^15^ 21 

tney nsj; *)pv «^i nH^vn hnt mrr ^o^? aa 



pnnD rtiTD lo^b di^ or ^nh^n ^y npBf^ 8,34*^»> 







tmp n3hD ^Bi f?y 
proDD ]^n irwi 

:«lyn 1^3^ ]j:i^i 

;mp '^ti'^i^ HDD ^y 

joyi^ Dnno Dn^i 

1-M iT^ ijypn 

tarn Tj^^rt n^jn 
^DBf^ d't^ P?D Wi5 

:vny;M«a nib 
jnf?B>^ D^^iD ny tea 

nn^'a nma n\DDn 9»m 
m^^ HDDD nnniD nnnb a 
«npn i^n^y^ nn^ 3 
mn n«}^ ^ni) ^d 4 

7»D> UT O ^D II 
"l^ AD3n JSIDDH DM la 

iTpSi nif?^DD «y« 13 

nn^a nn^^ nne^M m 

TIT ^nay^ Hnp^ u) 

mn n«}^ ^riD ^d 16 

ipno^ D'^nu^ DnD 17 

DB^ D>KD1 ^3 jn^ K^l i8 

IVi^ jjmy DM ^i3 6,H 

p^:iim ^ia kids nn? nb^y 3 

T^^y^ mg^ |nn '^« 4 

<nD>D >a:rD tei»n n 


^jy nhif^ hn i? e 

I ^Btel *pp P!^ l^T 8.7 

DDB^n ^^y ^nD ny 9 
niDi^n tsyD ni^ tsyn ^ 

T»H1 T^ODD Kai 11 
Jl^ Bh« ^yjte DTK I a 

<lS:nn hh)t^ <i>^yn }^np 13 
y^'y B^nh late nn^nn 14 
1TK «iy DKnD p ^y » 


i^bdMD n'upa nn^M 8 (•) 

tiDiD )m*i^ n^3iDi 

:'«ianHM Dsnb nam 

mp^ «|ori p^'iiib )n>,-i 

snya D^«hp npi 

*^I9V (6) 

pip lb npl? vi? "lo^ 9.7 («) 
,nvi^ n»n' nasn nVnn » 

•IIWI 7 (T) IP. «l3a P»W ^3 6^ 0) 





trvrp to DnD^pn 

:na»^ nn^ro «Ti»nn 

J yen ^nito nayini 
tnp ^«!rb^ D^TBf^ 

^^ xjfts^ D^^a nnyi 7.24 

nn^a ^Di> ^i«Bf >Dm 27 
Hipn HDDn «St 8^ 
nnp >th Dnjw n^^ 3 

H'^pH D^»^K DD>^« 4 

nonj; D^«nfi i^an n 
^3n nurr nD« ^d 7 

*1DD ^K1 oTDID inp ^ 






:pn!r ippin^ D>irti 

jnpw pny pn 

SID WD nn^m Tina 
:«^DK DiTnh:ihi 

j^3n nnDp . . ♦ . 
tDinn niyj^ <it^S3» 

:nj; ^m riD^ npnfefD 

TM^HP ^niDBf ntDDn '•^K la 

nbf^ D>ntef ^n 16 
anil? «>3nK >^« 17 

»Di yMm >'»TD Die 19 

l^nK np-p m«a a 

B^> >3nK h^mnb ai 

^roDi dVivd 23 
>n^^in niDhn i^«n 24 

ni:iin) ynn nbfj; «^ ny 26 
"iH DBf DnDBf li^Dna 27 

^yt)D D'pntSf 1!tDKn 28 

ipn D'»^ iDiton 29 
w w PjiDH i^!r«. rrn«) h 

I n >f? lyDB^ D^^a nnj^) 33*. aa* 

>^ ytDW D^K >tB^K 32'».34« 

IjnWl Sm 33 (T) 

D'pwyV n'HMI 8.^ (P) 

pi nnak^ nw^ oht 8.13 («) 





s^BK rn\n Bton ^ki 
:iD^D<i nn>in D>»n yni 

nwn nnu> t^Di b^>k ntrni 
jmenlrn k^ mini 

qn^ in^n pn to n« 

innan k^ inenn) 
:Dpi Dvn ^iDn> K^) 

T»n« ntjD ^^n nii 6,3 

niK n^^r^) nip ii *>d 23 

««««*«««« 22 

<in> tw^ij y^tf? 24 

on^ 13D ny niit nii^« nyni >d 26 
ip'»nn t^K B^H nnn^g 27 

n\T\V2\» p^vh ^Dii 31 

^h ion nu^H *)Ki 32 

k:id^ p^pi yij 33 

ini non nKip >d 34 






n^i^j; ]w^«D >mini 

tKTpn m^a^ ynbi 
:np^^nn gn»K iT^d^d 

t^nfipefi ^n)fii^K nyn 

:n^ non ny^ D^^nn 

ny:r^ nn>n ^ni 

:n^pKi n^>^ jiBhwn 

; 1 nil? n^tfi^ 

:aiKn me to ^:i«i 

n^ iD«ni ri^^D m»n 

:mi ^riD^B^ Dvn 

i^«!rD«i y^t yrab 

ijiDjpi D^SnK lb 

sD^nnga iHD^ymi 

:pinn9 i*na i^n 

nn^n «a> «D3n di>^ 

tun^^n rpnDto p^na 

c:>nD ^« 11M inoD 
I Kin Wfiia ''D yT k^i 

iTi?i wp nD» 2 

^nj^arrn ^y dib^u 3 

jnK ^nh« HDDn^ nbK 4 

mt rwHij tidb6 n 

I* ♦ ♦ ♦! wa jiVna o 6 
n^^nn D>KJifin k*imi 7 
fHidip h^^ pitrn ^)^ 8 

innnp^ nti^H mm ^ 

mnbi «\T iTDh II 

nbhia Dye yma oye 12 

1^ np»ii ia npwm 13 

^^y D^D^ty ''nn? 14 

inKnp^ >nK2r^ p ^y » 

npnn Ty D>ti ni-u mh is 

in^aa Bf^Kn j'^h ^d 19 

iTa np^ *)DDn nn? a 

nnp^ nhn imn 21 

DhnD i7*in« i^in 22c.a 

I K<5>^ nao ^« nwD 23b. 22b 

• t t t • • • t • t • • f * 23C.a 

a)n^ ^3 6.^ 0) 

} ns yi^n ^9 npr Mb invn nvM hn Man p 6.29 («) 










jD^n T^n TBfijn ^«i 
:*njn r^y© n»lff 

tlM^ Tina D^ij^ff 

:j^no l^:n noi'j 

n^w eg >n)^rh 

insn ]DiWD p^m 

M3Dn^ rinj« ^i«ty 

pfi ^iDHo nion hH) 
:nn^a nnD ^« nipn ^ki 

piDi .... yyiV) 

p^tK wen «^ >*m^D^i 
imyi ^np Tina 

:TnKa Tino d^^tui 

tT'niv^ «y«e HDlffi 

s«nj; tea Tp^ mT^' 

siTT)^ pn panm 

HDn^ innan ^tenai 

«)'in ^K noioa pmn 4,13 

«an ^« D>jHn nn«a 14 

ta nayn ^« in»snD» 10 

ijn^ »6 DK iittfi «^ ^a 16 

jnri on^ iDH^ ^a 17 

n^pna dwi T^t "9 

nii ni«a D^p^^s nn«) 18 

navpn nan^ ^^a ^ 

DiTKSb^ on D^*n ^a 2a 

Ta^ nii lattn^ Sa<a>23 

ne niB^ps T»o non 24 

le^a^ nai^ yyy hd 

h)Ht:to\ pD'' DJj ^K 27 
navpn ^noan^ >^a s.*« 

niOTD IDBf^ 2 

mt >nDly niJDbn nei o 3 

my^3 nno nn^nrwi 4 

niD » nnT" sj^^in n 

^^ VDiy D>^a nnyi 7 
nam iT!?yD prrp 8 

inb Dnr lyafcn jjd ^ 

niD ^ipa >nyDBf «^i 13 
yi tea WNT ejn^a 14 

Tiiao D>o nw >» 

mnn yn^jft^ w^^ 16 

•pa^ T^ riT 17 

•pna iiipo \n^ 18 

]n T\hv>) D^anH n^»« 19 

nnta ^^a nuiyn hd^i a 

ty^« >am nin> ^i>v rai ^3 21 

Pti^a^^ vnuiW 22 

noiD ]'»Ka nio^ Kin 23 


n rut aa (p) 

nndn n^vn nnanMa 5.19 («) 

3.II— 4.12 









nnnDinn yP^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ '^^ ^^ '^^^ 3." 
tnn> jn m ny>> n>Dr mrr nn«^ tb^h n« ^d 12 

tmm rwin nii 
n^n*i^n:i^ jm 

nnity nnnyi raDjyi 

nnK HM^ nB^r Kim 
inyi ^^Di K^ DM 

nniD D^nry^ m\ 
;p^p Dno D^^DDi 

tns« ^^^ Tn"*! -p 

qa^ ^an Ton> 

pfi ^nDK9 ton ^Ki 

:m>n n}p i^;ip toai 

t'sj^sn) nan« 

tn^paon ^d i^ajn 

i^3n K^ i^inn D«i 

nfi^n k:id d^k >ib^k 13 

ynn no^ noDna nim 19 
lypn^ niDinn inpa a 

^K ^^n 31 

y^t^b D^*n rm 22 
^^•^^ m^h ^jbn tk 23 
nnfin k^ n^ts^n dm 24 

179?^ iTiT niiT ^D 26 

i^^yaD ym y^Dn ^k 27 

awi 1^ l«j;i^ *«o«n !?K 28 

np TV! ^y ts^nnn ^« 29 

Dan Dn« oy >^nn ^k ^ 

DDH ts^^fc<n K^pn ^K 31 

n^a mn^ nnyin ^d 32 

ytt^n n'^na mm mno 33 

y^^^ Kin Dnr^^ dk 34 

nn noiD D^in lyDtt^ 4,m 
DD^ ^jnna aiD np^ ^d 2 
^a«^ >n>NT ]a '^D 3 

^^ 1DKM ^^1*1 4 

nDts^n ^« I <«>^ni:«D ibBf n 

noDn n}p noDn rwix^ 7 

^nD»ni yjaryn ^h 6 

TDDinm gte^D 8 

jn n^^ T»«i^ jnn 9 

nDK npi >iD yDif^ ^ 

•pj;:j •tti «^ ^nD^a 12 

nra n^p no^n n^p irrm 4.1.4 («) 










:«nn«> toidd mthi 
pnroin te wk^ 
:nj;i nnfiD pwsfi 

iTefn "'Dma hd^^ 
:np>^nn ^tidh h^^id^o 

nDtrn D>pn:r nin'^«i 
jmao in©<j» onim 

5Dn«i DNn^K ^i^ya 

:T»rtn« tb^:^ Him 

n>niD:ij;^ >ipB>i 

nnnnn to n>B^«ioi 

n:«nD^ T^p^ BfiTni 

I ^ 

D^nro i>H>«fD Hnn 1,27 

my« «^i ^^«jnp^ ?« 28 
io\n^K» nj^n w^ ^D nnn 29 

DDin ^nfiD ite«^) 31 

Djnnn D^nD roitwo >d 3* 

nw fDBf> ^^ yt>V) 33 

n^K npn dm '^s 2,n 

1M« noDn^ a^Bfpnf? 2 

«npn m^a^ DM >D 3 

fpx n3trp9n DM 4 

niiT n«n^ pn t« n 

HDDn ]n^ nin^ ^3 6 

nnsfin d^'w^,^ ]bs«>a 7 

tDJDBnDi pns )'nn TM 9 

la^n noDn «nn >d ^ 

T^j^ iDiyn nsTD II 

p T^D 1^"'2in^ 12 

ittf"^ nim« D^atJ^n 13 

yn mb^y^ DTHjbfn 14 

niT nu^HD i^sn^ 16 

nnv^ I^Vh natVn 17 

nn^a niD ^« n<n>ty ^d 18 

JIDW^ K^ .T«a to 19 

ims^ ynKD DW11 22 

riDBfn ^« ^min ^^a 3,h 
D^n nuBfi D^D> "ph o 2 
i:jTy^ ^« riDHi nDn 3 

nitD ^3^1 )n K!{D1 4 

la^ tea nin^ *?« no? n 

in»T T^Dm tea 6 

T^^a Dan \nn ^« 7 

^<^h Nnn n^«pT 8 

l^inp nin^ m naa 9 

<'vaB^ 7DDH wte^i ^ 

11^ ml? hv Djnj 3.3 (T) 

P 2.«4 (P) 

npw m» D3*^p wa x,t7 (•) 

snra nD« pn^ iDioi rmsn rjn^ 

np^ «|Dn Dsn yot?^ 
nta D^ -iDiDi iTDsn njn rmvr\ mrc nxr 

:D^-«?ei BB»01 pis 

snap m^ann ttaii 

:TaM mwi eian ^m 

;iia nira o^^ni 
1^^ wro t6ea 

mntfBi^ liBS' 
inp' v^ya mj n« 

la^ip ]Bn ni3hT3 

i-iBKn 'D'ljw ■'nnDs 

snjn itoto* D'^-oai 

(t^rm 03^ ny^BR nan 

tyvpo ytn n> 'n'oa 

TtPKi^ on p n-'iV ^a 9 

D'Wjn "pnt' DK '33 ' 

lanK n^ ttott'' dk h 

□»n ^itw3 Dji^aa u 

toca •^■' pn ta 13 

laaina Van t^iu 14 

DIW T>^3 1^" ^«'^ « 

nipin mto oan »3 17 

)na jn^ ^s nvrw p 19 

nshn f ma nimn 3 

RTpn m»Dh Bftna ai 

"ns lanyn o<I}b *nD iy 32 

'nnain^ lawn 33 

i:«9ra ■-ninp )j)> »4 

Tiay ^3 ij?TBni to 

pTi\B» DSTKa ^aK Da a6 

101 tbtV nnpi im' jnS on^Ji '3 i* d) *33 i-» W) wn >pj^ nun o 

Bivt of €onttrf6utor» 

Genesis: C.J. Ball (Oxford). 

Exodusi H. E. Ryu (Cambridge). 

LevitkM: S. R. Drivir and H. A. White" (Oxford). 

Nnmbers: J. A. Patrrsoh (Edinburgh). 
S Deuteronomy: Geo. A. Smith (Glasgow). 

Joihua: W. H.BeHHKTT (London). 

Judges; Geo. F. Moore (Andover). 

Samuel: K. BUDDK (Marburg). 

Kings: Bbrhmard StaDB (Giessen) and F, Schwallv (Strasaburg). 
lo Isaiah: T. K. CheynE (Oxford). 

Jeremiah: C. H. Cornill (Breslau). 

Eiekiel: C. H. Toy (Cambridge, Mass.). 

Hosea; Albert Sohn^ (Leipzig) and Karl Marti (Bern). 

Joel: Francis Brown (New York), 
15 Amos: JoHH TAYLOR (V^chcombc). 

Obadlah: A. Harfer (Melbourne, Australia). 

Jonah: Friedrich Delitzsch (Berlin). 

Micah: J. F. McCurdv (Toronto). 

Nabum: ALFRED JKREMIAS (Leipzig). 
30 Habakkuki W. H.Ward (New York). 

Zephaniah: E. L. Curtis (New Haven). 

Ilaggai: G. A. Cooke (Oxford). 

Zechariah: W. R. Harper (Chicago). 

Malachi: Claude G. MoKTRnoRE and 1. Abrahams (London). 
35 Psalms: J. WellhauseK (GSttingen). 

Proverbs: August MOllerT and Euil Kautzsch (Halle). 

Job: C.Siegfried (Jena). 

Song of Songs: R. Martineau * (London) and J. P.Petkrs (New York). 

Ruth: C. A. Briggs (New York). 
30 Lamentations: MORRIS JASTROW, Jr. (Pliiladelphia). • 

Ecclesiastes : Paul Haupt (Baltimore). 

Esther: T. K. Abbott (Dublin). 

Daniel: A. Kamphausen (Bonn). 

Eira-Nehemiah : H. Guthe (Leipzig) and L. W. Battem (New York), 
35 Chronicles: R. Kittel (Leipzig). 


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ije^ -wa- tviticat i^oUe on ^rooetBe -w^ 

kllE I'RINCII'AL coinmeouriei and critical noies on the Book 
Woi Proverbs are referred to in the present notes under the follow- 
l^ing abbreviations: — 

ItAUMC. — A. j. BaumGARTNER, Ji/uit^ eri/igiu sur VHiU du 5 
OuxU du Ihire d<s I'rovtrbtt iFaprit In principals Iraductioms 
ntiennes, Leipzig, 1 890. 
Bbrtm. — E. DlCRTHKAU, Die Spriiche Saloim's (in KurigtfasUes 
Exegtiischts Maiidiuch xuiii A T), Leipiig, 1847. 

Hick. — G. ltiCKU[.i., Kriliscke Dearbeitung der I'ravrriifn, in 10 
the Vienna Oriental Journal, vol. 5 {1891), PP- 86flr. 

ChaJks — H.P. Chajes, Provtrbia-Sluditn tu dtr sogenaanten SalomoHitckiit 
Sammlung C. x-xxii,l6, Derlln, 1899. 

Del. — Franz DKUTZSCH, Dtu Sahmoniscke Spruchbuch, in KEIL und 
DKUTZSCH, iTiij/. Coinmenlar iiber dffi AT, Leipzig, 1873. IS 

DyS. — JOH. DVSERINCK, Kritiicht ScholUn bij de vertaling van het boek dtr 
Sprtuttn, in Thtol. Tijdsckrijt, Leydto, 1883. 

Ew. — H. EwALD, Dit Dickter dii Alien Bundes, part 2, second edition, 
Gottingen, 1867. 

Frank. = W. Frankenberc, Die SprUckt iiberseitt und erildrl in W. No- 20 
WACK's Handiommentar muih AT^ Gottingen, 1898. 

GrAtz » H. CrXTZ, Extgetisckt Sludien *u den Salomaniscken Spriicken, in 
Menalisckrifl fiir Getckickte und Wisienschaft des Judenlhums, 18S4, pp. 289IT.; 
33?ff-; 4"4ff.s 433ff- Cf. GrStz's critical notes on Proverbs in the second part 
pf his Emendationts, Breslau, 1893, pp. 30-33 (covers cc. i-aa). 35 

HMD. - M. HEIDKNHSIM, Zur TixtkrHHi der Prm/erbien, in Deuttcke Viertel- 
jakrsschrijt fiir taglischtkeologiscke Forsckung und Krilik, 2 (Gotha, 1865), 
PP- 395ff-: 3 (Ziiiich. 1867), 51 ff., und 31711 (covers cc. 1-9). 

HiTZ. = F. HITZIO, Die Spriicke Salomot iibersetit und ausgelegt. Zurich, 1858. 
JXc. —J, G. JXger, Obiervationet in Provertiorum Salomonis vtrsionem 30 
Alexandrinam, Meldorpii el Lip^ae, 1788. 

KaMph. - A. KaMPHausen, Oberseiiung der Spriicke in KaUTZSCH's AT 
(second edition, Freiburg, 1896) pp. 7841?., with brief critical notes on the text 
in Ihe Beilagen, pp. 81 ff. 

Lag. ~ P. DE Lacardk, Anmerkungen *ur gritckiichen Oberseltung der 35 
■ Prmierbien, Leipzig, 1863. 

!■* 13 fe p m^ ;f<jB TO«n tv\tr }p 3i,n 

!*|>^ -Ki ^3 n Sk 0^^^ T* nn» h 

:jrjm 'jj) pi pis BUT T" "'^^ « 

n^ya 3^ na neaii 
p K^i aw mp^j ri 

VTiD nv3(i3 nn'n 14 

nb'b Tiya opni w 

inni>ni rriff nooi i« 

;j'anD nya rrun if 

mno ate <a rvspo 1$ 

TW3a tvtw )|p* 19 

ihvn wrah rm n^ >< 
rp iwwp crvu » 
fi7]'a o^nfn jms (3 
^xm nrts']' pc m 

rccTQ nm ^s sc 
iVTS JTD^Wl rpp3 «■ 

Wt ^^ mc nc »v 

■pn Witt jnn *^p ; 

;7-r -TBC s? lar 31 

JTorr i6 >^ 

)ij*n V ^a 

>-T*a fHi3 kfjrni 

lawi^ H'an prrj^D 

i"an*2^ 1)10 1^1 

imj h'i^ naa' hV 

n^t 13Dn JJ'»31 

iD>)«' v^b n/i»a ^3 xs 

tmna^ prvi) vm 

iVw *:p( Dji ina»a 

fipis'y ninj Tum 

spviH arh pnfcwfl 

inans^ ^y tdh xttvh 

I wnnn kti mrr nftv n^K 
iT^^Vo ffnjsra ^p?7n^ 

3o,i2— 31,4 










pjmD^Vn *ini i^nv 
tnnfe^ ^Din «^ ynn« nnni 

:Dn>n pon iD'»to^i 
nte ph «2rii 

: i^Di 

n^yn nine nn 30,12 

v^V ^0"^ HD *in 13 
p«D D^»iy ^DH^ 

nn nn ni^n ^nty npi^y^ 119 

«««♦*♦ ^iKti^ 16 
n«^ iV^n 1^ 17 

>iO& l^^^fii MDH ms6Bf 18 
DiOBfa iBfin TIT 19 

D^ n^n r??« 711 

pH nnn Bfi^iy nnn 21 

li^D^ o nny nnn 22 

^ysin ^D n«iiiy nnn 23 

pH ^iop on nynnn 24 

ty Hh ny D"6wn na 

Di^rv t6 njf D^i(t2^ 26 

njnw^ p« T^D 27 

toenn on^n n^DD^ 28 

njn^ isB^D non ntsfbtt^ 29 

nonM m3i iy>^ ^ 

ichn w D^jniD '^>n^3^ 

t^b^^nnn i^^n^ d»< 32 
n«Dn «^sv 2hn fis o 33 

nsK ^m^^ ity« «tyD i?Q bMQb nm 3i.« 

p*ni nn nDi 

^HiD^ n»> nn nD a 

^ion nn noi 

']^'»n n>mh ]p\r\ ^« 3 

1^ iniy D^D^D^ ^H 4 


^mob D^steb ^K 31.4 (8) 

*^VV 30.16 (a) 

an r»i^ D^iH f ^Di 13 (7) 










jnni pHi pnfen wni 

tWW V*>p3'' Dniy^i 

tmrr Drr» ^^^^ th9 

qi3^ ^Vh WDD 

ti»H Bf^aD n^Bto nyii 

aTiBfH mm nDbh 
naao ^^DD^ mpn 

taaijf'' nin^n noiai 

tBf^H owe nin^Di 

qm iB^^, yirn najnni 

on wiiy^ onDT tsfiH ^ 
^^D H^v inn ^D II 

•ipBf w hy a>B9» Veto 12 

Wifi^ D^DDn ly^Hi B^n 13 

noDh p nnjini oaip^ ib 
jn^B nyr dwi main 16 

Dy JHB^ \\m l^W 18 

nny *iD)^ H^ Dnana 19 
nny *)y)& p^^fi 21 

PTD ni}^ «]« ttTH 22 

n^ wn Di« nitji 23 

)^t^ H^itif :3}:i Dy pb)n 24 

B91D jn^ DiH nTjH .13 

^1D ^^fi D^DD D^an 26 

^ijj Bfi^ D-p^ns royin 27 



:j;n« DHSfTp nyni 

v^Bnn nn idk ^d 

yi« ^DBK<> pMA>n ^D 

nn D^Din^ Kin jjd 
jjjaoii in n^DV jB 

i^^h ]nn ^« TB^yi BfH*D 
tnoB^Ki l^^p^ JB 

]3 -iia« nm 

ntDDH I'^niD^ hSi 3 

Tin D^eBf n^y ^D 4 

n^iyn ons nn:r ns 

itdBf no 

nwn:r »ni^H» nnpijj ^d n 

mm b}f ^ipin ^H 6 

inHD ^n^HBf D^nef 7 

''iteD prnD ntD ini «^^ 8 

''mm) j^ntifK )fi 9 
^nniii Bf-i)« ]ci 

^V]?> V3H nn II 

^ on^ ^sb^bn s od 

pn ^3 30^ (co 











tD^nn nntyy iddh^i 

:ni9S> n^BDD DpT^ii 

:Dn^ ]>«i ^jnb noD 

J on nan^ min nabh 

, :^D ii^s> nvp >jyp3Di 

n^n« D^^D^ D^^^iT nyhi 
:d^m lis^Biyj^ DW^ t3ipni 

;»ia iDDn> h» DU^ *in nyi 

jiyn ynto^ D^pn *iniDi 
:npr «^ n>jyj;n^ y«i 

jn^ntytD w^»h Hin "inn 

j^ti^j^ nw h}f noil 

50^13^ «in moDhn i?\rr\ 

s]in ing^ niiit njhi 
jnaDW niDinn ty^«i 

ph nhnf^ Hh ^D 27.24 

T»ia^^ D^bf^D 26 

•pn^^ D>iy s^n ni 27 


c[D^>yBn *)^h ]w iDi a8,M 
jjnto D^ani ynn jw^n 2 
D^T pB^jn <y>iyn nsi 3 
jwn i^S"3^ mm ^ntv 4 

j^sD p niin n^ii 7 

iTiin ybi^D iit« *i^9 9 
yn Tnn Dniy^ n^B^D ^ 

nn«cn nan D^p"*^ i^^ya 12 

n^^y H^ \W^ HDJD 13 

TDn nnjD d^th nB^« 14 
ppiB^ n*ii Dni n« le 
nv nwonn non inu> 16 

B^D^ Dnn pl^y D^fe^ 17 

V\ffy D^Dn i^in 18 
Dn^ yDto> inonK nDj^ 19 
niD*D nn nuiD« b^^h d 

nit9 i6 D^i& nsn 21 

]>y p B^^« pn^ ^nDi 22 

«:md^ jn [J Dn« n^Dio 23 

jny© ]^« niDhi »VDK ^m 24 

pTD nnj'' B^Bi nnn hd 

^^DD «in la^a non 26 

mono p« Bf-j^ ]nn 27 

Dn« nnD'' dw'^ d^P^ 28 

^ny nB^D ninain b^m 29,11 
Dyn noteri D''p^^ nnna 2 
ra« HDl?^ nDDn nnh Br»« 3 

p« n^Dy> BCB^M l^D 4 

in»n ^y p^^nD nai n 

D-Vl p p^2r p^ 7 

iiftm «4 (<) 3119 i^nr Didnan) a8.« (t) pat) a8.a (P) *|n'a taf^b 27.17 («) 


a6.i 5-17.23 






n^ 16 nn ^y >sjwud 

tan nmn^ d^^vtd b^w 
qon nnn ht om 

j^npn inp n^an 
jniBfn v^« p« hh)i) 
jnn-p nfefjn p^n nw 

JDiTillte 133 ^^1« DVJ^ 

TTH Dvn Knn on« n^ni 

tpini nwj 

:i» *i nay r^w idWi 
:d*t«^ DHHn a^ p 

r^^ya ^ly Dan 16 
nay a^a »'^iii«»a pnnD 17 

<[n»a']> rfrn^noa 18 
vvn n« nan Bf'^w p 19 

B^K naan d^j; Dt^a 3 

Bft6 D'SKi D^^m^ Dn^ 21 

DnDn^noa p^j ^nan aa 

tenn hv riB^p tD^i^oi 'joa 23 

Kiibf -oi^ v^nBiya 24 

ia p«n ^H 1^ ]in^ o ns 

pH^&a HM^l^ nea<t^26 
^iB^ na W H'tS 27 
1191 Hibf^ npBf pb6 28 
•VTtD Dva ^^nnn ^h a7,H 

7© Hh) nr i^St 2 

^inn ^0)1 pH niD 3 

*)« *)iD?h ntDh nviDH 4 

nV^ nn?in naio n 

ani»< 'y:iB dodm^ 6 

nB^ Dian nj^akr wt^ 7 

nip ]D nnu nwa 8 

a^ riDi?'' nnbpi pe^ 9 

aryn ^k Ta« «n^ Tyn ^ 

anp j5B^ aio 

''a^ notoi ''ia Darj n 

nnoi np n«T ony 12 

D^aiyn] nt any >a nia np 13 

npsa ^nj ^ipa vijjn x^o 14 

nnio Dva mo 'j^ )» 

• • • 16 

n<n;> ^tnaa ^na 17 

n^D ^a«'' mnn nsi 18 

D^iB^ D^ifin • • • a 19 

nivaton nh nna«i ^wb^ a 

an6 niai *iDa^ f\yf\? 21 

lina<«> ^^iHH n« Bfinan d» 22 

li«s ^iD ynn yT 23 

r^ (?) 

i^ftDOa 27." («) 











4( « ♦ ♦ « ♦ ]D 

t^ipBf nnen ^Sino iy^« 
jD'ti nniyn ran \\tah) 

:pm,9 pHij HDio njnDiyi 
J TIM b^^h nj«) «^ p 

niM ^^DD^ jnii p 

nitaD ^''DD^ nipn 
jnnhnn j-s n« 

nba& 19 (()) 
01) (» 

nne ^n^ «^e ^« as.8 

j^dW ^l^lD^^ ]t ^ 

Dro ^^m aunt Dtj 12 

nnip Dvn i^ na?D 13 

j^« w:» nni D^w^bfi 14 

j'^p nnif> D^e« i^hs >» 

in n>SD T^n nph 17 

]iity pi nnni y'^tti 18 

rnjMo ^ini nv^ p 19 

•nnii ^y ph * * ♦ 3 

<^in^^D«n iHjtef njji DM 21 

w«n ^y nnh nn« D^^n} o 22 

Dififi ^^n JIM nn 23 

:i:i m$ ^y ro^ ni» 24 

nnBto nipDi toDTi i^jp 26 

310 io ninnn B^jn ^b« 27 

ntDin Y» Txmt tv 28 

n'^pa TBDDi y^gn ^^b^d a6.n 

*liy^ nn^D Tii^ niBSD 2 

niDh^ ino did^ bw 3 

in^j«D ^^DD ]yn ^h 4 
in^i«D ^^DD njy n 

nnts^ DDh 6 

HDJD D^pW ilN^n 7 

TOjnDn ]a« V3i2r> 8 
ni3B^ Tn n^V mn 9 

It^P ^)^ 3B^ n^SD II 

i>yy3 DDn Bn« n^«n 12 

Xnn ^ng^ ^?y nD« 13 
nrt h}f niDfi n^nn 14 


DH^ at (d) 


y*tr mM vui 25,13 (a) 

mp^ Dva n» mim 25,3 d) 

24 -<«8KH#' ^Vw -••€>•»»- a4,ai— as.7 




:nnynn hnn^i^w oy tVdi ^^n mrp hk «t 24,21 

tnie ta ♦ ♦ ♦ »BfDn D^^fi isn 23 

:Dn»^}^ imoyp onay in^p^ mw p^^ jnn^ n»h 24 

tnito ronn Kinn on^^yi oyy dwdw^ hd 

:D^nb^ lonmi T\tm puh o^ofifef 26 

qno 0^^^^ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ inn 

20 t«i^ nfefpK ]3 ^^ ntoy nB^HD n»Kn hn 29 

tn^ ion D^K DID by) ^n-oy ^p Bf^« miff hv h 

trrom^ nan ^nji Po^^^ijfp iV:j nVy mm 31 

iTDiD ^nnp^ wtn ^a^ n>WH ^^^h nm«i 32 

as J^3ty^ tan^ pan eyo niDi^n eye nwg^ eyo 33 


:npn pK d^d^d a^i pDj;^ pKi on^ dnob^ 3 

Pta «]l5l^ K^lT* ^DDD D^:i^D 1ii7 4 


filt wn WH 25.7 (T) D'Vnn nfe ^w} y m lifDS «rHi i^rK a4,a9 («) 

i,S— lo -««i««<»M^ ^rovevSir w< » » M i»' 33 

Assyr. miifldni^ Arabic ji^Wiot and that the term refers to the form (contrast 
above, p. 32, 1. 49); it means originally neitlier/ara^/^ nor proverb &c. but simply 
a line 0/ poetry or verse^ each stich consisting of two hemistichs. — (According 
to KOnig, Sttiistik (Bonn, 1900) p. 81, 1. 19 hyft^ means TviliMH. sentential 

For cuneiform proverbs see Hal^vy, Melanges de critique et d'histoire re- 5 
latifs aux peupies s^mitiques (Paris, 1883) pp. 326 ff. and Jager's paper in Beitr, 
s. Assyr. 2, 274 if., esp. p. 281 ; cf. note 20 to my lecture on The Book of Ecclesi- 
astes (Boston, 1894). Ibid, n. 23 I have quoted a specimen of an Assyrian 
^f^lp : — dlu la kakkasu dannu nakru ina pdn abuUihi ul ippafar 

"A city whose weapon is not strong — 10 

The enemy will not be scattered in front of her gate." 

The introductory verses at the beginning of the Book of Proverbs bear a 
certain resemblance to the opening lines of the Babylonian Nimrod Epic; see 
Beitr, s, Assyr. 1,102; MOrdter-Delitzsch, Geschichte Babyloniens und 
Assyriens (Calw, 1891), p. 47; A. JEREMIAS, Isdubar-Nimrod (Leipzig, 1891), 15 
p. 14. It might be well to state in this connection that it is by no means certain 
that the ideographic name of the hero of the Babylonian epic is to be read 
Gilgame^ (see Journal of the Amer, Orient. Soc.^ vol. 16, p. ix). Gilgame/ may 
have been a surname like the appellation of the Babylonian Noah, Atra-xasis 
or Xastsatra (see /. r., p. cxi). To read the ideographic name of the hero of 20 
the Babylonian epic Gilgamelv& about as reasonable as the idea that the name 
Richard I. should be pronounced Casur de Lion. Contrast KB 6,1, p. 116. 

(8) I have pointed out in the Critical Notes on Chronicles, p. 80, 1. 48 that n^lA is a 
Babylonian loanword » tertu^ the indication of the divine will from which the 25 
sacred oracle is derived, while Aram. Kn^K and Ethiopic 6rit correspond to the 
byform of tertu: Artu. This {^rtu has no connection with Hcb. D^IM, as 
ZiMMKRN suggests in his Beitr. zur baby I. Religion^ part 2 (Leipzig, 1899) p. 91, 
n. 2; D^VK, the unfavorable, condemnatory answer of the oracle, is connected 
with *1*1K to curse just as ullu^ the cuneiform technical term for the unfavorable 30 
answer is akin to Th\^ curse \ ullulu means in Assyrian spell-bound from V^K to 
bind^ just as ardru means not only to curse but also to bind (DEL., Heb. Lang,^ 
p. 53; HW 70^.138^), or as njn denotes both association (see below, note on 
21,9) and enchantment. The technical name for the favorable answer, Heb. 
D^^n blamelessness^ acquittal \&^ in the cuneiform texts, annu^ lit. response^ cf Heb. 35 
n^y (see below, note on 15,28); a connection with anni^ 'this' and Heb. n|n 
(ZiMMBRN, /. r., p. 88, n. 4) is not probable. The name of the Babylonian 
diviners, barH {cf n^D, Zimmern, /. c. p. 90) is not concealed in D'DV •v*ian 
Is. 47,13, as Zimmern suggests (/. c. p. 85, n. 8) but we find it in Is. 44,25; 
Jer. 50,36, where we must read D^i; instead of ill D^^$ (3 divini). See the ab- 40 
stract of my paper on The Origin of the Mosaic Ceremonial in No. 145 of the 
Johns Hopkins University Circulars (May, 1900) p. 37* and my paper on Baby- 
lonian Elements in the Levitic Ritual in vol. 19 of ^^ Journal of Biblical Uter- 
ature (Boston, 1900) p. 58; cf Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 60, 1. 15. 
(10) Kn)^~^9, solemnly pronounced, is a full hemistich. Toy, Comm.^ p. 19, remarks 45 
that this clause may be purposely short. Similarly the brevity of the first 
hemistich in 23,35^, )^^pK ^nD, is intentional: after )^^pK ^n& tliere is a pause, 
practically equivalent to our modem dash ( — ) ; it is unnecessary to insert, with 
BiCK. and Toy, ^^^^9 (Gen. 9,24). For this intentional brevity of certain hemistichs 
see Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 172, 1. i; cf. also Is. 40,9, where the first hemistich 50 

« [For the d in rrjIA «= Babyl. tertu see Crit. Notes on Ezra-Nehemiah, p. 3I9 
L 23; p. 58, 1. 7; Crit. Notes on Isaiah, p. 88, L 38. — P. H.] 

Prov. 5 

32 — «WH* (pf09<r6ir n^^'BH^ 1,3—6 

MOhlau, H. F., De proverhiorum quae diamtur Aguri et Leinuelis origine 
atqtu indole^ Lipsiae, 1869. 

Now. — W. NOWACK, Die Spriicki Salowds (in Kurzgejasstes exegetisches 
Handbuch sum AT)^ Leipzig, 1883. 

OORT — H. OORT, Sfreitken i-g, in TheoL Tijdschrift, Lcyden, 1885, pp. 5 
379 ff. 

Pink. — H. Pinkuss, Die syrische Obersetzung tier Provefbien textkritisch 
und in ihrem Verhditnisse zu dem masaretischen Text, den LXX und dem 
Targitm untersucht\ in ZAT 14 (1894). 

Strack, Die Sptiiche Salomos^ second edition, Nordlingen, 1899 (in Strack's 10 
and ZOcklbr's Kurzgefasster Kommentar zu den Heiligen Schriften des A 
und NT. 

Toy =■ C. H. Toy, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on The Book of 
Proverbs^ New York and Edinburgh, 1899, in The International Critical Com- 
mentary, 1 5 

VOGEL— A. SCHULTBNSII Versio integra Proverhiorum Saiomonis etin eadem 
Commentarius, quern in compendium redegit et obsetvationibus crittcis auxit 
Geo. Jo. Ludov. Vogel, Halis, 1768. 

Wild. — G. Wildeborr, Die Spriiche, in Karl Marti's Kurzer Hand- 
Commentar zum AT^ Freiburg i. B., 1897 {cf, also Wildeb6br, De Tijdbepaling 20 
van het Boek der Spreuken in Verslagen en Afededeelingen der KoninkL Akad, 
van Wetenschapen (Afd. Letterkunde, 4. Reeks, deel iii) Amsterdam, 1899, 
pp. 333-265. 



X (3) Instead of in ^Stpn npm, which is somewhat peculiar, OORT suggests b^^k^n n9U); 
it is better, however, to read ^l^rn ^9^0, following 21,16 and Dan. 1,17. 

(4) [For in D^Kni read D*W)l; cf, ZA 2,275; NOldkkr, Syr, Gr,* $ 40, E; Lagarde, 
Mittheil, 3,29, n. i; JAger, Beitr, z, Assyr, 1,489. 30 

(6) The Hebrew term ^f^lp does not mean simile^ parable^ it refers to poetic lines 
consisting of two parallel halves or hemistichs; cf Assyr. miilu 'half (Arab. 
Jiio), Del., HW 432* and the Arabic term Sju^^ioS i. e. broken in two^ divided 
in the middle. Like Arabic y^Jii cuneiform poetry is generally arranged in 
two parallel colunms, each line consisting of two hemistichs, as the Song of 35 
Moses in Deut 32 appears in the current editions of ill; ^ Schrader, Die 
Hollenfahrt der I star (Giessen, 1874) p. 60; Haupt, Akkad. Sprache (Berlin, 
1883) p. 25 and pp. XXXV. XXX vi below; Zimmern, Baby I. Busspsalmen (Leipzig, 
1885); Beitr. zur Kenntniss der Baby I, Religion ^ Part i (Leipzig, 1896) p. 53; 
ZA 8 , 1 2 1 ; 10 , 1 ; II , 86 ; 1 2 , 382 ; Delitzsch , Das baby I, Weltschopftmgsepos 40 
(Leipzig, 1896), pp. 6 and 6ofr., especially pp. 100 ff. and pp. 92 ff.; Gunkel, 
Schopfung und Chaos (Gottingen, 1895) pp. ix and 401 ff.; Cheyne, Grit Notes 
on Isaiah, p. 78, 1. 24. 

Brown- Driver- Briggs' Lex. translates b^^9 proverb, parable but adds in 
parenthesis: — "of sentences constructed in /tfm//f/rj/;/, usually of Hebrew wisdom, 45 
but occasionally of other types;" and Toy states in his Commentary on Pro- 
verbs, p. 3: — "The Hebrew word h^t^ {proverb) probably signifies similarity, 
parallelism {ncsLvly ^ comparison)^ and seems to have been used at an early 
time of all poetry, hardly with reference to the form (parallelism of clauses, 
clause-rhythm, being the distinctive formal characteristic of old-Semitic poetry), 50 
but, probably, with reference to the thought (short distichs made by the juxta- 
position of related ideas, originally comparisons with familiar objects." I be- 
lieve, however, that Vf^9 means originally equality or equal parts or halves^ ' 

-^ tvUicat Qlofee on ^vovtrfie • 

tHE PRINCIPAL coinmentaTies and critical notes on the Book 
jruf Proverbs are referred to in the present notes under the follow- 
l&ing abbreviations 1 — 

Baumg. — A. j. Uaumgartnkr, AV«<(t critique tur IWIat Hu S 
txU du livre fits i'raverbts ifapris les principales traductions 
nciennes, Leipzig, 1890. 

Berth.— E, Bi^^RTHEAU, Die SpriUhe Saiomo's (in k'urig<fats/es 
Exegttisches Handbuch zum AT), Leipzig, 1847. 

BlCK. -• G. UlCKUi.L, Kritische Bearbcituug ilir I'rovcrbien, in 10 
the Vienna Oriental Journal, vol, 5 (iBgi), pp. 86ff. 

Chajks— H. p. Chajes, Provtrbia-Studitn xa der sostnannlenSalomonisehen 
Sammlung C. x-xxii,i6, Berlin, 1899. 

Del. — Franz Dklitzsch, D,ts Salomoniscke Spruchbuch, in Kkil und 
Deutzsch, Bibl. Commmtar iiber d(U AT, Leipdg, 1873. 15 

Dys. = JOH. DVSERINCK, Kritische Seholiin bij de vcrlaling van htt boekder 
Spreukai, in Tkeol. Tijdschrift, Leyden, 16S3. 

Ew. — H. EwALD, Die Dickt'r des Alten Bundes, part a, second edition, 
GottingeD, 1867. 

Frank. — W. Frankenberg, Die Spriicke Ubersfttt und erkliirt in W. No- 20 
WACK'i Handkommentar gum AT, Goctingen, 1898. 

GrXtz = H. GrXtz, Exegetischt Studien su den Sahmonischen Spriichen, in 
Atonatsschri/t fiir Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthumt, 1884, pp. 389fr.i 
337fr.i 4i4tr.i 433ff. Cf. GrAtz's critical notes on Proverbs in the second part 
pf his Emendationes. Dreslau, 1893, pp. 30-33 (covers cc. 1-33). 35 

HeID. — M, Heidenheiu, Zur Textkritik der Prmrerbiea, in Deutsche Vierlel- 
jahnsekri/t fiir englisch-theologiscke Forschung und Kritik, 3 (Gotha, 1865), 
pp. 395^-1 3 (Ziitich, 1867), 51 ff,, und 327(1. (covers cc. 1-9). 

HiTZ. — F. HiTZiG. Die Spriicke Salomes iibtrsettt and ausgelegt, Zurich, i8s8. 
Jag. -■ J, G. Jager, Observatioms in l^overbiorum Salomonis versionent 30 
Alexandriitam, Meldorpii et Lipslae, 1788. 

Kauph. — A. Kamphausen, Oberselzung der Spriicke in Kautzsch's AT 
(second edition, Freiburg, 1896J pp. 78417., with brief critical notes on the text 
in the Beilagen, pp, 81 ff. 

Lag. — P. DE Lagarde, Anmerkungen tur griechischen Obersetsung der 35 
■ Praverbien, Leiptig, 1863. 


vifi '» to p naah pprio naipi nmp» jb 3i,n 

fny 131'' B^ iVojn w^ mvn nr\v 7 

t*\ihn ^ia hs p Sh d^(«^ ft nn? s 

:p'?8i 'ip I'll pis ew tb nn^ 9 

n^jia a^ na rnoan 
y^ Hbi aiB innVos u 

B^mPBl TBS rWll 13 

nniD nn\p nn^n 14 

n^;^ Tijia Dpni w 

vir^ni rnitf rroer 16 

.•n^ano iipa mjn 17 

mnc aiB -la najro 18 

■flif aa rmWp ^' 19 

■■iy^ nttriB nsa 3 

s^ pwa^ urn Kbit 

rfj nrtSP nnjIO aa 

a^ya onjnpa p» aj 

pncia^ Tim iv m 

noana nwiB jj'b as 

nn'3 nia^iwi ,Tpis a? 

jyranf^) ^a mp as 

V-in iSJjf nua niai ag 

'rn Vani jnn ipip •> 

WT nBD n^ un 31 

tFTOO D'J'JBO phii 

i;j«n *' ^a 

i:j'Ba cBna fcfjjni 

tnenb K'an prriijD 

i«Fin'aV »)■» inni 

;DTa •ri'pBj ri'sa ^bd 

ijj'-njjni (nstjm 

imj ^"^a naa' t6 

i7^B laon ^j'Bsi 

tnN}«» B"?^ an^a ^a 'a 

ipRcia^ paiHi ipv 

lyTK »3pi By wiawa 

napja^ nam "mm 

iinnK uvb prrlcni 

iFUw6 ijj) ion mini 

i^aHn t6 ni^sy on^i 

ip6ya a^^iyi 

tnjV? ^y ni^y ^1 

iWnnn »'n mn* jimt rTUfK 

lO'fefyo Bnyipa •■ji^^n'i 

ri>n"ip)^ pni 3i.» <') 











an 2n 

:]in nDH «•? ynnn 
Dn*i* ****** 
j]in nnoH «^ tyKi 

DM nn|?^> i^ni 

n« ^^p trn: i^n 

ir\Mf ^Din kS VTiH nnni 
:nmai en^n o nnwi 


:DtDn^ pgn ^yT^ 
:Dn^a pM B^b^M 

M^3 ph HS? 

: ^^»1 

vi^yn nine yn 30,12 
n'^y 1D1 HD in 13 
Yw nunn nn 14 

pKD D^»^y ^DK^ 
****** ^iMtr 16 

^Hh yfbn py 17 

D^Otyn IB^in TIT 19 

D^ n^n iTiK im 

p« niii triSty nnn 21 

^1te^ o nny nnn 22 

by^n ^a nni^bf nnn 23 

pK ^^ep on nyniH 24 

tp «^ Dy n^hn^n na 

Di:rp K^ Dy u^^v^ 26 

n|i«^ p« T^D 27 

b^tnn D^^ii nnso^ as 

njni ^ato^D non hk^^b^ 29 

cf^jj )H D^jntD Tn^3I 

Kb^^nnn n^n^ dm 32 
n«Dn H^sv a^n y^ ^d 33 

nB« \Frp) Ktf» vmfQ ite ^wd^ nm 3i,h 

<T»Sk noh man 
itD^ ^^ * ♦ * * D^^nn^i 

^HitsS no> na no 2 
i?^n u'^mh ]nn hn 3 

tpv ^^^3^^ ^^ '^"^'^ ?'^ ^"^^ "^^^ ntn^D rni^M *pn p 30.9 (P) 

n»J> 30.16 (a) 

bm&^ D^^Sd^ bM 3Z.4 (6) 

an r»i^ D^^ f ^Di 33 (T) 










snni pKi pnfen mi 
:ww vn»p3^ Dnun 

:mrr DTPiBf ^^^ two 

t]13^ nyS WDD 

ti»K Bf^M n^Bte ^v^) 
:T»m!J D^iTJ^D )n^i 

njBD ^^ddS nij?n 
s]v>iD iTiT innnKi 

t2^\^> niiTii TOm 

^IH B^^M HM I9&Bf:i DDH Bf'M 9 
on IH^iy^ D^DT tJ^^H ^ 

^^D H^v inn to II 

•TpBf -DT bV n^BT^D ^D 12 
W:iM D^Mn BTHI Bfl 13 

HDDn ]n^ nnjini Mg^ w 

^n^i^i l^n no; 17 

oy jn0> \\m yn^ 18 
nay no)^ nh onana 19 

nisy nj^^D p^DD 21 

PTO my *JK BTH 22 

laS^wn mK nwi 23 

ytfft^ M^iisf D}: DP pb)n 24 

BT?iD ]n^ mK nrjn hd 

^BflD ^^D D^pSD D'^^ 26 

^ijj Bf^K D^p^^ r\:iTf)r\ 27 



p^ Dw m^n K^l 
viDna nn idk ^d 

t«Un DBf HDI 

nii D^Din^ Kin )3tD 
ijjSDii p nov ]D 

niiT ^D mniDKi 
pn^K DB^ ^ntofini 

|3 nwK nm 

S«t ,wK^ -Din ch;^ 3o,h 

Bf^KD ^Di« 1^3 ^D 2 

ntDDH i^mth kSi 3 

niii D^cBf nhv ^0 4 
n^lya DnD ms ns 


nfiins »niSKf mipji^ ^3 n 

inai hy «^9iJi ^k 6 

inKD "Thm D^riBf 7 

'•ittiD pn^D no •om H^B^ 8 

^nBfroi yn»K ]d 9 
'•raiii Bfi)K ]t) 

tniDBfKi i^Sp^ ]t v>>nK S« nny iBf^e ^K 

:T15^ »h ia« nKi 

^V|?^ V3K yn II 

«^ Dn^ ^^finfin 8 (p> 

r^ ^3 3o»4 («) 

a7.34— 29.7 











:D'nn nutyy iddm^i 
:Dnwy mfcf thdi 

mw^ TMD Dp^T2ii 

•.Dn^ p«i *jnb niDD 

tn2 njn^ mm nobh 

, t^D ir-}^ mrr ^pjDi 

ntj^y Him u'^yn bJ^sc 

tran D^^y D^^^n ny^ii 

:t^w Kin inirwa 

tonK ilywj^ DWi Dipni 

jon'j^ ntj^i miDi 

snyiD ^1D^ 13^ ntypDi 

tonD^ inK> jnij "Kjto 

:»n iDon^ ^« du^ m nj^ 

jnn<Bf>a SiB^ Dvp'in trpyii 

:tyn pnb^^ D^pn *)iiDi 

:np^^ K^ y^nh yni 

n:j^ yB^t^ dh^ nc ^yi 

:<[cvnnK]> ]W^ p^^notD 

in^ncnD tr^K^ Kin nan 

:)tt^^ nw ^y ntabi 

:taSa^ Kin noDna T^im 

:nneo ^'^ ^'^^V D'^y»^ 

iKjiD ^Ki inuh yni 

:Dy wk: v\ff^ ^bteni 

:pn nng^ nuiT nyhi 

tn^Dinj niDinn ty^Ki 

nnDVc \p bnic «yi 

mpb^i 'y>iT p^^i 

tnyn py k^ jwi 

ph D^iy^ K^ o 37.24 
KBH nK*ui T:rn in^^i hd 
Ttff)^hh D^bf^D 26 
•pn^^ DHj; 2hn ni 27 






c[D^}yBn *jTi ]w iDi 28,M 

jjnfef D^aii pK jnyjn a 

D^n pBfjn <v>w^ ini 3 

VBfT i^St nnin ^liij; 4 

tawD )y2> K^ p ^B^iK 

laijn l^in trn aio 

I^SD p niin yi)^ 

n^avi«n> Tt8^^a liin nana 

mm jrtatyD i^ik n^o 

yi Tna Dnc^^ n^B^D ^ 

ywy B^^K wya DDn n 

rr^tn nai o^p^^ i^^j;:^ 12 

rr^bv Hh vjn^D nojD 13 

n^Dn ingiD mK ^ib^k 14 

pp)^ a'Ti Dni nK le 

av nv>inn non iTi> 16 


Bfi):i Dnn pi^y D^K 17 

jnyj^ onsn i^m is 

on*? yab^^ mo^K naj^ 19 

niD^D ni niilDK B^^K D 

nit) K^ D^^ nsn 21 

py yi Bf^K ]in^ ^na^ 22 

K2ro^ ]n DiK n^DiD 23 

yB^fi ]^K i»hi «raK ^iii 24 

pTo Ti}^ Bfc^ ani HD 

S^DD Kin i3^a ntaia 26 

mono pK BTJ^ ]nii 27 
mK nnD^ D^VBfl Dlpa 28 

*jny; nBfpD ninam b^k 29,11 
oyn nobh o^p^^ main 2 
vaK TO\?^ nDDn anh b^k 3 

pK TD^ fiWM ^^D 4 

in»i bv p^^no -Di n 

B^ID y^ Bf>K jMSfifia 6 

D^Vi ]n p^is yn^ 7 

ittin H (^ aw )Vn}' DHdian) aS/ (y) pais a8.a (p) *|n^a dii^V a7,s7 («) 











n^ kS 15^ hv >:ijwiD 
t[]Dnirvi> D^p? rn*n 

t]fi3 ^Tin HT Dm 

i^wn v^K p« S^ii 

tnriTi? rrt^r P^n nw 

tor n^! niD ynij k^ ^d 

tDiT^Bto 133 ^^1K Dyjl 

;nKjp ^^D^ noy^ nsi 

JIOlplDtD TTli B^^K p 

TTH Dva nun oHK n^iii 

:pini HKc 

:»« *i nay i^^^k idW 
sm«S Dn«n 2h p 

r^f^ <^) 

nay; aSa »'0^«1a pnntD 17 

viyn n« nan tr^K p 19 

fiifM naan wiji DDMa 3 

fiift6 Dtr]2i D^Sm^ on^ 21 

onsn^riDa p^j ^nan 22 

tenn ^y ne^p fD^rof *jDa 23 

K^ifef nai^ v^riDfcfa 24 

u p«n Sk 1^^ pn^ ^a hd 

pH^Da HM^l^ n&a<2p>26 
Sw na W fns 27 
ii^T «ito^ npBf pb6 28 
inD Dra ^Snnn hn a7,H 

^inn ^fi)i pK nai 3 

*j« *jfi?^i norj nnTa« 4 

nV^ nnjw naio n 

nD^ Dian npafef tri)^ 7 

nap ]tD nT7U niasa s 

a^ HDbf^ nibpi p» 9 

aiyn ^« i^aK -yni tjh ^ 

anp ]yff aie 

^a^ HDtoi ^^a oarj n 

nnoi nyn HKi Diny 12 

D^aBfn] nr any ^a n^a np 13 

npsa ^n^ ^ipa vign 7150 14 

nn» Dva me «]^ w 


n<n> ^rnaa Sna 17 
•TiD ^aK^ n^Kn nxi 18 

D'^dS D^^iDH • • • a 19 

an?^ niai *)Da^ *)n?D 21 
^lna<«> ^^iKn n« B^inan d« 22 

•jiHS ^iD ynn yn^ 23 

K^njoa 27.M («) 


-««f«8^»^ ^^ ^H><^Ho- 









jipty nnpn hhnr^ ty^« 
<T>:m:f dvs nin<P> 

Dtrrh n:ijjD ]^« ity« ty^K 
jnriK Di )h man ]t 

niM ^^DD^ ]nu p 
n^tsD ^^DD^ n^n 

mt) :^i? wrn ^« as,8 
an^nnns nb^n no 

*]DD nvjfcfDi nm wen n 

Dro ^^ni nni dtj 12 

inrp Dvn ^^Bf nap 13 

]^K DBfii nni D^H^b^i 14 

)nrp nnip^ D^gK inhn le 

3»n teg JJK2rD B^3T 16 

in n^no T^ii nph 17 

inn^i ^p |nDh ♦ * ♦ a 

-Mn^^3«n iK)to ngn DH 21 

WKn ^v nnh nn« n^m o 22 

DB^i ^^tnn JIM nn 23 

::i m^ hv ra\^ nie 24 

n©:? tyci ^y Dnp d^d na 

nntt^ ^ipD^ b^c^^ ]^yD 26 

sifi «^ nnnn b^jt ^b« 27 

ntDin ]^« win© TV 28 

iidhS :»nD didS taw 3 
nritf DDH 6 

HD^D D^pW 0>^T 7 

noB^ n>s n^y nin 9 

1«P ^y ^Bf nteD II 
rypS DDH B^^H tyVC\ 12 

•pnii ^rnj^ ^^ n»K 13 
nn^ ^y siDn n^nn 14 

DnV SI (8) 


n^sn vyiH vui 25,13 (•) 

nng Dva nia mjm 25,3 (t) 


24 -<«8KH#' ^Vw -••€>•»>»- 14,11— as.7 

iwb^h inioyp o^ay in^p^ nnn p^^ ytffi? n»h 24 

tDito ro^^ Kian OiT^yi oy^^ d^itdidS hd 

jD^nbi lonmi a^iMD puh o^ntfef 26 

nno 0^^^^ ♦ * ♦ ♦ ♦ •inn 

20 :«i^ nb^K )3 ^^ nb^ ib^«3 idhh Sk 29 

t2b ion mn did Spi ^n-oy ^p tr^n miff ^y h 

iTDitD ^nnp^ wtn ^3^ n^Bf« ^d^h rvm) 32 

as t liDiyS m^ pai? eyo nioiin tajm tw^ eyo 33 

i)3D BTHD lo^TbrrDi ^Bfn iSido» «ni 34 




jTpO r** ^''^^ 3^^ po)>V yTHi on^ om» 3 

t^^D «]15I^ K^iT" *JDDO D^yO 1ii7 4 



T^^ ^'^ WK 25.7 (T) D'Vnn nt )•; 3« (P) >^JD3 «^Hi a'»« a4*«9 <«> 

23,26— 24«20 





:*]pin Di«n Dniui 

qoipp iipn^ D^Ki^ 

tSjru iffHXi ^dWdi 

my i3BT?3K *)^w 

jDjnK nvn^ i^nn b^) 

^h ^a^ ^^n mn 33.26 
n«>T njpijy nnw ^d 27 
:ii«n *)nn3 hnt «]« 28 

i^iiiHi ^h ^iK ns^ 29 

D^Kn^ ^D p «nn hn 31 

I D^iB^nDi ^S^n^ 3a 

nnt 1KT i^yy 33 






:D^yM np^ pn Sd 

tnDHb IS ms Dvii 

ipJ? ^y pino roil 

man TT^n ^k 
inynn 1^3^ D^^i 

MDK v^ye a^ni 

n^a ma^ noDna 3 
wSa^ omn nynai 4 

nnan ^*<mk n©? 9 

n^D^inn * ♦ « * ^ 
m 1VT «^ ]n iDKn ^ 12 

aie ^D BfJT ^^a teg 13 

« « ♦ « ♦ n^jf^i p 14 

p"^ mh ij;Bf> a*wn ^« m 
Dp) p^:r ^iB> yiB^ ^d 16 

HDton ^« i«a^iH ^bia 17 
wya pi mn^ my p 18 

D^nM innn ^k 19 

innm M^ in)pn) n'nnit m (ikvd dm 24.14 (P) 

riD^ ^a»f p) aa^jt («> 











fp ^ypta \nn *?« aa,26 

D^«f^ 1^ ]'« tJK 27 

D^y ^n:i iDn ^h 28 

j^^D^ nBfK nn pan p Vb^id nn oinS*? ^v;r\ o a3,H 

SQtrmM tiffin hv^ dm ^y^n psfef jnDfefi 2 

Kin p ♦ ♦ ♦ * . . ♦ o 7 

tiay ^n la^i T^ n»K^ nncn ^dk 

(>{:D^aD DnS Kin^> mn^pn jj^dk ini? 3«>.8* 

t(«)l^o ^3to^ ny ^D nmn hn ^^dd ^^iKa 9 

tinH Dan nK an^ Kin 
:np noK^ i^iki 

tniD^ K^ Datt^a i^arj o 
s^mn SiMfiifD ui^JD^i 

p^K Di ^a^ noto^ 
jD^-TB^ns "pncty laia 

<ni>DSK> ^lai iDn ^k ^ 
pm D^Ki o II 

la^ noioS nK^an 12 

noiD lyjD piDn ^K 13 
133(3 DaB^^ nnK h 

laS Dan dm ^^a » 
w^^a miVj^ni 16 

:Dvn to nin> nMTa dm ^a D'»M!5na ^aS M^p^ ^m 17 
tnnan mS injpni nnnM b^^ <n3n3in> dm ^a 18 

tia^ ima -w^ji 

HD^ itoa ^^^b 

jnou Bf^a^n D^yipi 

n»M n^pT o nan Smi 
tnrai TDiDi noan 

na nDto^[j oan i^i^i}* 

Dam ^^a nnM vtM 19 
Y^ ^Maba \nn ^m a 
Bn)'» SSin Mab ^a 21 

Ti^^ m "paM^ yoB^ 22 

•DDn ^Mi njjj nDM 23 

TOMi TaMnDto^ .13 

pns ^aK S>ai^ S^o 24 

wrm n ^^yp «^ij^nn 23..1 (t) 

a»^n^ D^ate ^irt »9 (P) 

nob 22,17 («) 
rmapbob i^jnn ^h 23^ («) 











?mjT "ly^h rn» ]>h) mun )^w iTDdh p« ax.^ 
jnjne^nn miT^i non^D or^ pio did 31 

jmrr d^^ n^ 
tDno pm^ WD^ now 

n^ *ifis^ nw nnn^ aa»x 

viD*>»i nyT HKn Diny 3 

mrr iikt ni)y lipj 4 

te^S imn D'»nD iD^» n 

jmDD n\D^ kS pp!^ ^D d:i iDm ^D hv ip:h 'p^ e 

jin^Di^ innny enijh 

pb^ Kin )^j; :3iB 9 

jp^pi fp wt^ni pnD HTj i^^ Bfii 

nA ^nnn ^^9^1 

njn Mn^ mrr ^i^y 12 

;ra*Hj niiihi iinn i^ins ^n« ^jy idh 13 

jDty ^iD^ nin^ Diyt 
natsD n^p^HT tdid taae^ 

nnt ^D npijy nnw 14 
1^ ry\yv\b bi ptitv 16 


ctwn ^nvTin inoao nirw nrn^ 19 
^ :njnn nispba cnty^B^. "|^ "^nnro "VciiD>n« «)k a 

tnytrs ^jy KDin^^w Kin ^t ^d ^t ^nn ^k 22 

ttrw Dn^£pp nK np^i Dsn :3n^ nin^ o 23 

jKun K^ niDD iy>K hki ^k ^ps hk jnnn ^k 24 

tTBfW^ BfpID ijnp^i l^ntTTK ff>»r\ )D na 



ai,I— 29 







twij: yfin^ •TK to Sy nw Tn ite a^ d^d ^^Sd ai,H 
:ntiT nia^ phi vyyn -w^ Bf^H Tn ^d 2 
tn^^i^ mrrS inn^ mbidi np-p nfc^ 3 

in«9n D^ytn •> 

:ih ao^i D^j^y on 4 

n)omb IK i^H tei viiD^ IK pvi nuB^ntD n 

tinjn I'^'V^ in; k^ 

nt\i BTK ^n iDDpn s 
yi nn^K yt^T Bfw ^ 

jy^^ D^jwn ^^0 jnn no^ p^s ^^d^d 12 

:nv HDH pns nnWi 

^*T npJMD I^TK DDK 13 

^K nty nnon ]nD 14 

t]i^ "hyth nnriDi dwd nib^y p^^^ nnofcf » 
imV D^'Kfii Sipii h^n yrtb nyin d^k 16 

ntj^y^ kS ptri p^ dhK 
tn:in D'»iB^^ nnni 

:DyD1 D'»>1'TtD nt^Ko 

nay^S^ mK ^^ddi 

:)nt nnnyn ntoiy 
qton^ K^i )n^ p^^si 

-DID pKii nnisf nifi 19 
iDHi np-j^r *)Ti 21 

DDH nSy D'»-6:i TV 22 

UW^I Vfi IDW 23 
)W Y^ TH^ 11 24 

<y> miunn orn ^d 26 


npT»« (p) 

nsK^n^ nap ^d *jk 

t1«DlT l^D** Kin Mff^) 

n<in^ n>nyin dw'i nn? 27 

ISK^ D^IiTD nj 28 
V^DS ytrn B^^K tun 29 


p9\ 21,9 (a) 

ao,i— 30 



:DDn^ «^ in mV ^Di 

iD|p^ TOh Yin fi ao.n 








jy^in^ ^M« ^Di yno naiy iy^«^ ninD 3 

j«^^ na D^iiDH BT'Hi oTon »^ «np>^ m« nn 6 

pwttnp ^nnnb 
jDiTi» 0:1 nw mvin 
nom> •^^^ D«i 1? DM 

jDiT^ Di ntoy miT 
JDH^ vnlff T^^y np^ 

:njn ^nDbf ip\ ^h^\ 

t)n22n tf>'DiSyni 

:i^ij iiTD «^a^ viHi 

jnivnn «^ WDto nnb^i 

tytfn iwnj?' 1*1} Tjm 

j-fibn »h nnnn«i 

nDn p^ no Dn«i 

p^ mnn T^nnD 7 

p HDD hV M)^ ^TD 8 

n^h ]^jn nyow ph 12 

B^njn ]D mi;^ nnMn ^m 13 

mipn •!»«> jn yn h 

D^'i^ij) nni am »^ » 
n? any ^d n^n np^p 16 
npBf DH^ BT^M^ my 17 

pan rayn nnis^nD 18 

h^:i^ l^in TiD n^u 19 

itdMi vnM ^^pD 3 

mw«na r\h^hc n^m 21 

yn nD^« iD«n ^« 22 

pw p« mrr nnyin 23 

nai ny^ nvrD 24 

j-ips^ Dm: vi«i mp y^^ m« »p\onD 

jpi« DiT^y a^f^i 
nMDD nona nyoi 

Dan T^D DW*^ nnjD 26 

Dn« noB^i miT 11 27 

ite n«^*nD«i iDn 28 

Dn^ Dnin^ nn^fin 29 

:]oa nnn niaoi yna ip^-tt>n ya^ nn^n ^ 



I9ii— 29 




tHtoin D^^inn y«i nib «!? Bfw njn «^a Di a 

ti3^ *)pn mn^ hy) iD-n *)^n di« n^jK 3 

tT«^ injrjo ^Ti D^an d^vt «)t5^ pn 4 

tino ir«^ jnn tei 
ia»D ipni injrjo '^ 1k 

tna«^ D^n?3 n^D^i 

ani ^iD 1^^ D^3n 6 

tjWD ^v *iiy in*i«Dni iB« yy^r> dw ^Dfef u 

1 1^1:1*1 nfef» ^v teal ite «)y! TMD onj la 

trw^H ^i^T© Tto «)^Ti ^^D3 p io«^ nin 13 

:ntolMD ntt^« ninw nia« n^m pni n^n 14 

:nynn n»t?*i »wi nD^nn ^^bh r^h:ijf >d 





tn-ii>'' va-n n?<i> wd^ noW m^ "tdW 16 

n^ dV^ iVipii ^n pin mm nite 17 

tTBfw Hlrn te inHDH ^«i nipn »^ o i^a 102 is 

j^Din niyi b^n dh o »ij; «Wi norj S>i 19 

nmin«a oann jyo^ noiD ta|?i raj jnsif^ 3 
jDipn «NT mm rayi »^« a^n maB^mo nia*i 21 

ja?D Bf^«D »n niiDi 

non Di« n»n$in 22 

tvn TpB'' b^ ]^^^ V3toi D^»n^ mn^ n«T a3 

tnn''^^ «^ imD h» ny 
:njn i^n^ pa^^ noim 


:nvn n»«!j miB^^ 
:d^Vd3 13^ m©^TOi 

nn^M IT Vjy pb 24 

DTV^ ^roi ran y^ na 

DK mna^ an rwte 26 

iDiD »ybt^^ ^3a ^Tfj 27 

D^b«n»» D^V^ 1^131 29 












lY"!^ mp^ ^^DD ^i^yi 

^DD ]a VDH^ DVD na 

:niun »^« nn y) nyn ynr i^n»« ibfin 27 

qui vncbf Dtdh DBfni mn »nnD ^^i« d:i 28 

ty^in^ n*^phn ^Da nnei »p3^ rv^rh i8,n 

tntnn p^p DV1 tn Di hd v^BfT^ «na 3 

tiBffii BfpiD vnfibh 
j)M mn in^ oni 

a^nn i«n^ ^^DD ^ncbf 6 

)h nr^D b^^ ^D 7 

D^DH^ruoD in? ^nm 8 

iroM^DD nennb 0:1 9 

tnijV niM ^3D^i »^« n^ nnr *in» "^^th 12 
ina^Di 1^ «NT n^5« yw^ dim nm d^imd 13 

jnjn »p3n d^ddh i?«i 

nan}! D^^*Ti ^it^i 
inpm insn «n*i» 
JT^D^ Dw:ry pai 

irfzTO ^D^3^ »^« mn 14 
nyn mp^ pn^ n^ >d 

1^ n'»m^ Dn« ]r\D i6 
n^nn ]w«nn p^^:r 17 
^nun lY^n^^ d^^^d 18 

t]VQr^ mnnD 


tj; txnpiit> 


synti^ vnebf nMun i^bs ysbfn b^^h ^d ^dd 3 
jn^nD ^^38^ iiNarwi pB6 nu D^»ni niD 21 

jniiTtD pT^ plJM 

tniv my^ nW^ 
mH9 p3i nnh B^'i 


nib KSD rm^M H!iD 22 

en n^T D^ii^nn 23 

yjimn^ D^y^ Br'« 24 












ty^ nste ininn ^1 

tlblDttfD ^3 niiTDI 

na^fef nn^Dn ni^v 16,31 
biwn n« tei^ p^a 33 

tan ^yt H^D n^jD aa m^en nyp wd nie i7.« 
tnbm pbn^ D^n« Tinai irsD pa "^bte^ b^Db^D ^av 2 

tmrr rwsih ]nbi 

am^ 1DI *)DD^ ffyst 3 

trtn ]w^ ^v ym ipw \\^ nfib^ ^v y^tt^pt^ jno 4 

jnpa^ «^ n<>«^ nijfef 

tDnuH D^^n mKDni 

infe^y 17J »i^ ij^ " 

tnpttf WDfef a^ib ^3 *)« nn^ WDfef »Sa:ib ni«i h^ 7 
t^^Dto^ niD^ TBfH to ^H v^va ^:i^a inWn ]n p« s 

t^iVw T*iM nana mfeh 

tin nVi^'' ntDH i«!?Di 

tinuD nvn »nDn h^ 

t»itD:i ann ybinn ^it^i 

tDiT^ d:i nw rayin 

pM nn^i nnin ^ 

n B^p3^ "^ntD . . .» II 

B^'Kn ^13B^ a^ B^i:it 12 

naiiD nnn nvn a^»D 13 
pn:t ytsf^Di ytrn pn» lo 

tv« a!?i TODH nup^ !?^DD nn tto m nn^ 16 

tnae^ B^p3D inji^ nn:iD 

tDii Bfa^n n«3i nni 

V>n anh lu; tea 17 
*p vph a^ ion d^« is 

nsD anh ytff^ anh 19 
aiiD 8:rD' nh a^ B^p)? ^ 

1^ mwo ^^a T*?'' 21 

n^l auD^^ nr}\ff a^ 2a 

tMBfD nin^M n^n^ 

np^ VBh POD nnw 23 




tmv itnn nni» njnDBf n^ noj?^ d^)^v iwd 15,^ 








jniJV TIM ^^D^l 

:]W^ njjm nirroi 
:nw nmn phi 

:nyn orb ytyi Dii 
:npr «^ T^ n^ 

nn« uitir YT)» oy 

IB^t^ DMID TD1D ynifi 32 

noDn IDID niiT n«*i^ 33 

l^^yD nvr ^« ^i 3 

in)jK5^» mn'' ^ye to 4 

a^ nni to niiT ruyin n 

pj{ ley riDHi 'ronn 6 

Bf^w om mrr rwro 7 

np*p3 tD^D nib s 

\D"iT DBfD' oi« n!? 9 

I^D ^riDto ^v oDp ' 

mn^^ MiWD ^i?t<Di Dte i« 

ytri nibfv Dote mvin ^^ 

pTr ^nfito ^ite p:rn 13 

t^DDD nnni m^n nupi yxin^ niia<«> hddh nip 16 
mn nni p^^j^D ^^d^i iifco nniy '^i^th 18 

n^*«^« nin^n ntDiai 

:n*?j« D^bi« IDIDI 

mp^ I'^D^ WDbf ^yi 

:D:ty^ ^^noi B^d^^ pinn 

iniD ^Dii nn^viHi 

nrrt v^v «)d« ^3 

jnnn^ Bf«D rncbf hy\ 

jnp nte vnDbf yip 

r^j;n<^> ^Dto a^n *iipD 22 

I1TD ^^Dbh DDn 2h 23 

Dvi now ly^T «)i:r 24 

B^^« ^^D^ iff"^ jn en HD 

1^ n/7D)h ^QV B^t^ 26 

nyn rrtD ^ih^ bt^h 27 

piD n^gh no^nn bt^w 28 

invn nnj^ ddh b^-^w 29 

niDif nn ^Vnh wv «n«J; ^ 


ilD 26.16 («) 







tmnn ^w m *)tei D^»n yv ]w^ «?n» 15,4 

tDTV' nnjh nDfeh van idid vh:^^ ^^i« n 

jn-DVi JW1 n«i;3nni 

T\ ph p^'n tv^ 6 

tiiw Dn»^ nVpni mn^ ravin u^v\n m\ s 
t^rw^ rrprp i)t»i jwn p^ mrr navm 9 

tniD^ nnjin toifef 

mh 2\)fb n "ioiD 

tn«3i nn ^b ra^ai 
tn^jK nyr D^!?t5D v»ti 

D^iD n^p^^ nijto a^ 13 

D>jn ^V HD^ ^3 ID 


nn TOinDi SI nswij mm ntn^n bjm sie 16 
jn n«ib^i onH *iiiWD db^ hmhi py, nrri« nie 17 


tnn »''piy> D^6« "pHi 
tiBH mn D^« ^^Di 

IHD my HDH B^^K 18 

pm rolj^DD ^?v Tin 19 
s^ non^ rmbbf n^^n 21 


jsiiD no imvs nmi rt njytDn b^^h^ nnoto 23 

tm»!?H ^ni S3>i nw hd^ d^«8 mn na 

:DVi "^iDH Dn'itoi vn ninB^n» mn^ nayin 26 


tnsT» ninD w^ifefi 

ysn v:nn ima idJ; 27 

tmyn v^a> D>j;»n ^di m^y^ nim p^n!t ^h 28 

jpw^ D^p''^:! nVpm 

DW^iO nin^ pinn 29 

tiH^n&o D^*«^^ hm) TDtth D^ytyi n'^n 14.11 

<niD ^DiT nnnnw Bh« ^^^ iBf^ ^pn b^M2 

15 tp^ njnsf ^v D^ytyii D^ni» ^^^ D^yi intt^ 19 

tu'^Ti y^y ^anhi b^i «ilr^ inv"i^ w d 

nne^H d^»}>V pviDi Htain injn^ ?s 21 

30 <ai» Hfi^nh nD«i Tom yi Hs^ih lyn^ wSn 2a 

niDHD^ •]« D^nfito nnm miD rrrr n:rv tan 23 

jn^jH D^^^D i>y^^ <i>tSnv D>Mn rr\^v 24 

iniD ^»ptoD iiD^ D''»n iipD nin^ n«T 27 

<}i?T nn^D Dh^ DD«ai ite niw dv nnn 28 

ir\h)H D^n? mi "ispi mian nn d^jh 71^ 29 

:n«}P n\D:rv np'ii «51d a^ n^it^ '••n *? 

35 M^^?^,P^ r^^y^y inwy «)irj ^i pB^ 31 

:p^i:r' )^h^ nohi jwi nn^> inynn 32 

ujn\r\ D^^^DD n^ipnif todh ni^n pni ata 33 

tn«Bn D^tst}^ nom ^u Donn np^:! 34 

40 tttr^ti i»Tnni innnyi b^^im inv^ ite pn nb 

jD^niei D^p nifiS nvi^ ^i^y DipD tea 3 



12 •-•cnHM^ ^wa '#K>-eii^ 13.13—14,10 

trht^ Kin m^ hti 1^ ^^rn ^i? ?n 13.13 

tn^5« l8hJD> ^t53i njna nfefr di*^V V^biie 

«««««««««« lefDi^ anjn rrni nujH 19 

jjno niD D''^t53 fDVini ♦*♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 
tyvxi D^^^a nv'ii &3ijj> dhddh n« '!f6n> a 

taib o>>4^> DT?^ n«i njn «)T)n D^wjn 21 
t«toin V'n p^^^ pt:n d^^s ^^a ^Tiy nie as 

tbfiVD «ba njw r^ d^b^ki t^ tah ai 23 
jiD>D rif^vf unHi i^a «iifef nsar itenn 24 

tiniia ram wb^) mrr ht iiB>;a i^in 2 




tD«nD»Bfn D^DDn ^WDtoi mtj:^ neh ^^h ^dd 3 

nw nba nwian nil nn «Dn*« d^d^k p«n 4 

35 ihp^ \\^^h njni p«i noDn y^ B^pn 6 

».».♦»...♦ 7 

^D^9 D^^^DD n^3«i • ran Y^n onv itddh s 

40 jp^*^ ^'"^^ P^ • • • * 9 

nt anvn^ h^ inntDlrni WDi mij jrn^ a^ ^ 

D'Vi 14^ («) 

12,15— i3>i2 -*<*t»<K» ^hvm wo' Wn ii 

:D3n mjih vtlih )''yv^ ^tir^ bm yn ia,» 

tony p^p nobi idvd ynf ova ^m« i6 

JHD^D Dnp» nji pTT Tr miD« mj)^ 17 

np» ]w^ njrin« nyi ny^ p3n now nefc^ 19 

^V^ i«!?D D^ytyni p^ ^3 p^^^i^ mij^ h^ 21 

10 I n«n miD« *fj;i np» ^nfibf mm nayin 22 

jn^}« «np^ D^^^a a^i njn nos ony mw 23 

jDD^ rrnn mpii ^usnan oniinn t 24 

<yim D*T«« np^«> pni m mpi ^irr «^ 27 

jniD ^isj> n«>a<v> Ti^i D^»n np-p nnhn 28 

tnnjji VDiy «^ V^i >n>« >d>id ddh p i3,n 

25 :DDn Dn:i^ e^d^i :31b ^dm^ k^h >t ^nen 2 

n^ nnriD vnfibf pWt ww idW vd *tri 3 

:itthin D^n b^d^i btP <>b^m pel meno 4 

30 jTDm »^«n^ yiyni p^^ Hifc^> np«f im n 

jnwan «)^5n nj^i Tn on *iSn npTS 6 

ui pm BWTHD to pHi TB^vno ly^ 7 


snnj;^ Vdb^ m^ b^^i nts^y b^^m b^d^ ub 8 

40 jriDDH DNSVUi n«i r«D in^ pnta . . * 



11,17— W.14 



non V'M Wfi^ htii 11,17 

D^*n7 npT^i «nv*v 19 

2h tsfpj? nirr rDjnn d 

Vi npr H^ T^ T 21 

Tin «)»c nnt D?i 22 

11V *)Diii ntpD ttr 24 

Di«^ m^p^ nn v^b 26 
p!tn »p3> aiiD inW 27 






nn^D^ D^p^^ n^j}Di Vv3>^ «in ne^n nbn 28 

nvn nnjin Kiifefi 

nn ^ny wa idJ; 29 

D^»n yy p^ ^u ^ 
D<^B^> . . . p^ in 31 

njn ^nh idid ^nh ia,M 
niiTD pn p^^fi^ nib 2 

jrw^SD vnto:rva ag^pi n^vn nnev ^^o ne^n 4 

tnny^ D^ym ni^^nn 
t?u^ n%T n^ niy:ii 

Dy«i D^ytn -pDn 7 

ty^K ^V;j^ lf??fcf ^D^ 8 

ton^ noni iDDnDb 1^ n<n)>i n^pj nib 9 

tn?D« D'^ytyi ^omi inbna b^w p^:t jnr * 

tn^ ion D'»pn 1)7101 . mb v^\ff> inonw iny u 

jp^ mfD *cr»i 


vn fisfpiibi D'JiDts^ ytsf^n 13 
■ynbh Bf^ ^t nfiD 14 

aiD ia.14 («) 

io,23— ii,i6 



:ninn ttrnb nDDni rm] n\bv ^^d^ pmtoD 10,23 
}rn^ ^?yn p u'^xv^ ^fffv^^ d^jb^^ pto 26 







na«n D^vtyn nipni 

D^D^ i)>Din miT n«T 27 
nnob^ D^p^^ n^O^^ ^^ 
miT Tn D«i3>^ tiyo 29 

. noDn niy p^^ ^D 32b.3i« 
pn7 ]iyT« p^^5 >ncfc^43ib.32« 

niwn HD^zBf p«i mrr nnyin no'ip ^^Mn ii.h 

midV^ Dnii nigai 

p^p »c^i pit HS 2 

Dnjn D^iB^ nts^ 3 

m:jl} Drn pn ^^vi^ «^ 4 

on iB^n D^Dn npi? n 

D^'^sn D^*«^^ npTT 6 

jimnK D^ii« n^mni nipn *Ta«n «di« nioat 7 

jvnnn ytrn «n^i 

ybni nn|D p^Tt 8 

m^n: D^p^i:r nv^ni inyn n^ *))n nsn 9 

nm nD3D nn )D«ii 

n^ non iny'i^ ?n 12 
mo n!?jD ^^51 T*?in 13 

lyvr nha nj^wni dv hv' ni^^nn ]^Hn 14 


man D^ypin Kjb^i 
jnef^ n«)b nii^« p*?p «ddv 

It nny o yn: yn w 
TIM T^nn ]n tw» i6b.« 

<inDrr d^^jv pn i6<i.c 


P«n IX.7 («) 




mm Hjfef nn tw 6.16 
npttf ]w^ mon D^yy 17 

"nptfif ns D^ntD mD^ 19 









nDTV vfSrQ 
tl&M T\X)r\ ^^3 )31 2H nDfen D3n p XO,m 

jm»D ^'•sn njrj:n 

jiDDH noy D^vm ^d\i 
:npT D^yB^n wi 

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i (|) 'J3 1.1 

DtiS ran y/A a^ » 

n ^A n 

•Hw BiBt of €on<rt6utoir« est* 

Genesis: C, J. Ball (Oxford). 

Exodus: H. E. RVLK (Cambridge). 

LevidcuB: S. R. DKiTBK and H. A.WMlTa* (Oxford), 

Numbers: J. A. PatSRSON (Edinburgh). 
5 Deuteronomy; Geo. A. Smith (Glasgow). 

Joshua: W. H. Bekkrtt (London). 

Judges: Geo. F. Moore (Andover). 

Samuel: K. BUDDE (Marburg). 

Kings: Bernhard Stadb (Giessen) and F, Sckwally (Strassburg). 
to Isaiah: T. K. Chevne (Oxford). 

Jeremiah: C. H. Cornill (Breslau). 

Eiekiel: C. H. Toy (Cambridge, Mass.). 

Hosea: Albert SoaN^ (Leipug) and Karl Marti (Bern). 

Joel: Francis Brown (New York). 
15 Amos: JOHN TAYLOR (Wnclicombe). 

Obadiah: A. HarfBR (Melbourne, Australia), 

Jonah: Friedrich Delitzsch (Berlin). 

Micah: J. F. McCURDV (Toronto). 

Nahum: ALFRED Jbremias (Leipug). 
ao Habakkulc! W. H.Ward (New York). 

Zephaniah: E. L. Curtis (New Haven). 

Haggai: G. A. Cooke (Oxford). 

Zechariah: W. R. Harper (Chicago). 

Malachi: CLAUDE G. Montefiore and LAbrahaus (London). 
35 Psalms: J. WKLLHAUSBtf (GSttingen). 

Proverbs: August MOllerT and EuilKautzsch (Halle). 

Job: C. Siegfried (Jena). 

Song of Songs: R. Martinsau ' (London) and J. P.Petkrs (New York). 

Rulh: C. A, Brigcs (New York). 
30 Lamentations: MoRRis Jastrow, Jr. (Philadelphia). ' 

Ecclcsiastcs: Paul Haupt (Baltimore). 

Esther: T. K. ABBOTT (Dublin). 

Daniel: A. Kamphausen (Boni). 

Eira-Nehcmiah: H. GUTHE (Leipzig) and L. W, BATTEN (New York). 
35 Chronicles: R. Kittel (Leipzig). 

■ Died Tii/30'98. • P Died vtji4'99- • f Died i^ii'ga. • * Died iii/i4'9S. 
> Profcuor A. Kubhsh who had agreed to do the Book died xii/10'91. 

This book is a presenradoii photocopy, 
produced oo Hammermill Laser Print natural 
a 60 # book weight acid-free archival paper 

which meets the requirenaents of 
NSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (permanence of papi 

Preservation photocopying and binding 


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