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Che tlnivcrslti) of Chlfdiio 



IblUKlLAL AN!) LlAl 

;.!|K IN' LITERATURE RELA'l h.i > 

,^t\- NEWTESTAMENl 



^ THB DBPAltTM 




AkdoWr-harvarp^ 

THEOLOeEALUBKARY 



NMMMMHMMl 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 



The Department of Biblical and Patristic Greek of the 

University of Chicago proposes to issue, from time to time, 

historical and Linguistic Studies in Literature Related to the 

New l^estament. These Studies will be grouped in three series : 

I, Texts ; II, Linguistic and Exegetical Studies ; III, Historical 

Studies. The volumes in each series will be issued in parts 

from time to time. 

Ebnest D. Burton. 

Shaileb Mathews. 

Clyde W. Votaw. 

EdGAB J. GOODSPBED. 



-Act, 5| iTwdL o^'iL '1 l«<-l« . 2-Hw*f«:, !'*'>'- ^ «j<i^ K^ 

THE-^BOOK OF THEKLA 



BY 

EDGAR J. GOODSPEED, Ph.D. 

ASSOCIATE IN BIBLICAL AND PATRISTIC GREEK 
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 



CHICAGO 

^be Tllniveteftis ot Cbicaoo Pxcbb 

1 901 



^ • . .J k- . i> 



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M ll ll f 1 1 11^ 



;^/;AP %"' W^ 



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AaTV/VXA^aa 



O OK <r«J^ 



n icx 



^"^ 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA. 



The peculiar interest attaching to the history of the text of 
the Acts of Thekla in its various forms, Q-reek/ Latin,* Syriac,' 
Armenian,* and Coptic,*^ together with the problems, not yet fully 
solved, which that history raises, justifies the publication of another 
and quite unusual form of this early Christian romance. The 
Ethiopic "Book of Thekla" is preserved in two British Museum 
codices, dating respectively from the fifteenth ("A") and from 
the eighteenth ("B") centuries. 

Brit. Mus. Orient. 689 is a ponderous fifteenth-century syn- 
axarium of 237 heavy parchment leaves. It is well written in 
double columns, with forty-five to forty-seven lines to a column. 
The leaves measure cm. 31.9 by 46.2. They are carefully lined 
on the flesh side, and are set with flesh sides facing flesh sides. 
The outer and lower margins are wide. There are numerous 
erasures and some other corrections. The ornaments are few 
and generally simple, and there are no pictures. The quires are 
not at all uniform, but in most cases consist of the usual four 
double leaves, or their equivalent. The Book of Thekla stands 
fifth among the volume's sermons and martyrdoms, and occupies 
foil. 31a to 34a. 

Brit. Mus. Orient. 687-688 is an eighteenth-century folio of 
233 parchment leaves. The leaves, which measure cm. 31 by 
35.3, are gathered in quires of four — rarely of three — with flesh 

1 Lipsius, Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha^ I, 235-72. 

3 There are two Latin translations— one published in Bibliotheca CcunnensU^ III Flori- 
legiunti 271 899. ; the other in Mombritins, Sanctuarium II, 303 aqq, 

8 The Syriac, considered most important of the Tersions, at least until the Coptic, has 
been published by W. Wright, Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles (1871), I, pp. - --"^^ *QQ»i Hi 
pp. 116 sqq., on the basis of four British Museum manuscripts. 

* Translated by F. C. Gonybeare, The Apology and Acts of ApolUmius and Other Monu- 
ments of Early Christianity (1894), pp. 49-88, from select Armenian martyrdoms, published 
by the Mechitarists of San Lazaro, 1874. 

ft Parts of the Coptic version of the Acts of Paul, including the Acts of Thekla, are soon 
to be published, from a Heidelberg papyrus, by Dr. Earl Schmidt, of Berlin. Arabic (Asse- 
mani, Bibliotheca Orientalis, III, 1, 286— Hamack's reference to 268 is an error) and Slavonic 
versions also are known to exist, the latter in several codices ; cf. Bonwetsch, in Hamack, 
Geachichte der altchristlichen Liter atur bis Eusebius, I, pp. 904-5. 

5 



■■ ■■ fc ■ fc # I ^^. *-^ -r 



6 HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

sides facing flesh sides. They are carefully lined on the flesh 
side. The writing is fine and regular, and is arranged in three 
columns, of from thirty-one to thirty-three lines. There are 
more than fifty pictures, great and small, representing the mar- 
tyrdoms described, for the volume is a synaxarium of lives of 
saints. The names Jesus, Christ, Paul, Thekla, and Walda 
Giyorgis, who seems to have been the owner of the book, are 
usually in red. The Book of Thekla occupies foil, AQa to 516. 
Both manuscripts were presented to the British Museum in 
August, 1868, by the Secretary of State for India. 

The question of the relationship of the two manuscripts at 
once suggests itself, but their connection does not seem to be very 
close. A certain amount of modification from the archaism of 
a fifteenth-century exemplar is indeed to be expected in an 
eighteenth-century copy, and it is not surprising that B's read- 
ings are very often improvements upon A's. But the diver- 
gences of B are by no means all improvements or modernizations. 
Once at least B unwittingly allows us a glimpse of precisely 
what the parent manuscript read, and that manuscript was evi- 
dently not A. In the account of Thekla's second attempted 
martyrdom the immediate ancestor of B seems to have had a 
different order of words from that of A. After the words " lions 
and bears" (AB), the sentence "and they seized her and cast her 
into the den of bears and lions" (A) has fallen out of the text, 
doubtless by an error of the eye, homoioteleuton, and must thus 
have ended with the same word as the preceding sentence, i. e., 
with the order "lions and bears." The parent manuscript thus 
cannot have been A, which has the order " bears and lions." The 
alternative explanation that one or two complete lines of A were 
simply skipped is inadmissible, as the sentence in A begins and 
ends in the middle of the line. A few lines farther down the 
first hand of B has been guilty of a similar error, but this time 
of repetition. There, however, the corrector has set him right. 
But the distinguishing of A from the parent of B rests on broader 
grounds than this isolated, though instructive, instance. How 
frequently the two manuscripts differ a glance at the lower 
margins of the following pages will show. 

In a comparison of A and B the statistics of preferred read- 
ings rather favor the younger manuscript. Its text commends 
itself in over 25 per cent, more cases than does that of A. In 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 7 

the matter of fulness, on the other hand, the older manuscript 
excels in over 60 per cent, more readings than B, but B's omis- 
sions are often in the interests of clearness, if not absolutely 
required by the sense. In a large number of cases neither manu- 
script can be given the preference, both being right or both 
equally wrong. B has the smoother, easier text. A is occa- 
sionally found using a nominative -for an accusative, or a singular 
pronoun for a plural, while B is in general better in the matter 
of forms. As to roots, A rarely has a different root from B for 
the same meaning, but in general differences in roots are confined 
to the common confusions rt with v> , f with ib , with R , ♦ with 
h, h with 0, etc., A usually preserving the better reading. B 
shows a decided preference for a-long instead of short, especially 
in the case of 1>, for which guttural it evinces considerable 
fondness. 

The evidence supplied by a comparison of the tables of con- 
tents is not in itself decisive. To the thirty-five titles of the older 
manuscript the younger adds eleven. Five of these — Nos. 3, 16, 
31, 35, 36 — are scattered through the manuscript. The remain- 
ing six appear at the end. The place of each seems to have been 
determined by the ecclesiastical calendar, in accordance with 
which the contents of both manuscripts are arranged. But num- 
bers 25-28 of A, in which the calendar order is not observed, 
are correctly rearranged in B. 

It seems reasonable to conclude that, while B is a corrected 
and amplified manuscript of the synaxarium, it is not the imme- 
diate descendant of A, and probably not a direct descendant of 
A at all, but comes through a collateral line from some ancestor 
of A. 

The numerous modifications that the monument has under- 
gone in passing into the Ethiopic form suggest the propriety of 
prefacing the text with an epitome. 

Paul comes to Macedonia, and, taking up his abode with 
Tamerenos, preaches the new righteousness and the doctrine of 
virginity. Thekla, the betrothed of Tamerenos, from her window 
hears his discourse and believes. The importunities of Tamerenos 
and her mother only strengthen her new convictions. She escapes 
by night to the house of Paul and sits at his feet. For a week 
these visits continue. At the end of this time her mother dis- 
covers her and tells Thekla's lover, Tamerends, who must thus 



^W ■■■! I I i> 



8 HISTOBIOAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

be another than the entertainer of Paul. Unable to move Thekla, 
Tamerenos denounces Paul to the governor, who seizes him and 
orders him to be burned. Paul escapes death — how, is not quite 
clear — and is cast out of the city. Thekla's mother now renews 
her importunities, pointing to Paul's supposed fate as discredit- 
ing his teaching. When Thekla remains steadfast, her mother 
denounces her to the governor, as disobedient in refusing to 
marry. Repeating her refusal before the governor, she is sen- 
tenced to be burned. The maidens of the city bring fagots, and 
the fire is kindled. Thekla makes the sign of the cross, rain 
extinguishes the fire, and thunder deafens her judge. Upon her 
release her mother disowns her. Thekla meets a woman who 
owes her 1,000 pieces of money, and forgives her the debt, 
accepting only a few dinars. Meeting Paul's attendant on his 
way into the city to sell Paul's garment and buy bread for Paul 
and his followers, Thekla buys the garment with a part of her 
money and takes it back to Paul. She relates her experiences to 
himr^nd asks him to cut off her hair and disguise her as a man, 
which he reluctantly does. They then proceed to Thessalonica 
together. Thekla's mother learns of this, and at her instigation 
another magistrate has Thekla brought back, and condemns her 
to the lions for disobedience and refusing to marry. At the sign 
of the cross, however, the lions become harmless and play about 
her feet, while she breaks forth into a hymn of praise. Mean- 
time the magistrate is mysteriously troubled all night and sends 
men, apparently the next morning, to bury Thekla's bones. They 
report that she is alive. The magistrate himself comes and 
releases her, and entreats her to pray for the recovery of his 
superior and himself. She requires him to bring Paul to do 
it. Paul is brought, and prays for them, and they are healed 
and believe. 

The recent discovery of the Acts of Paul in a Coptic version, 
among the Heidelberg papyri, has shown that the Acts of Paul 
and Thekla were originally part of that work. Like all the 
known versions until the Coptic, the Ethiopic form of the Thekla 
story shows little trace, after its first sentence, of its origin as 
part of a larger body of Acts. It stands somewhat apart from 
the Syriac, Armenian, and Latin, however, in being, not a mere 
version, but a very free reworking of the story, with numerous 
omissions, transpositions, and interpolations. So frequent are 



THE BOOK OF THBKLA 9 

the writer's divergences from the earlier type of the monument 
that the question arises whether the Greek (or its equivalent in 
some intermediate version, e. gr., the Syriac or Arabic) was 
actually in his hands, or had only been seen or heard by him 
and was written up from memory. 

To undertake the creation of a text with so meager an appa- 
ratus as two manuscripts has not been deemed advisable. The 
text presented is therefore that of the older manuscript A, while 
the variants of B are collected in the footnotes. The only devia- 
tion from rigid fidelity to the text of A is in the spelling of the 
name of Paul, the usual ^ohltti i being substituted for A's occa- 
sional ^ohltti s A more serious inconsistency in A is its spelling 
of Thamyris now :^i^&9*fl: and now :^S^lo^tii which latter 
appears uniformly in B. But A's ^S^^^ti s is perhaps not quite 
a meaningless variation. In the first three occurrences of the 
name in the Book of Thekla it stands where a Greek original 
would have had a genitive, QafivpLSo^, The last vowel of 
^S^io^tii may be a reflection of this. The remaining five 
occurrences of the name stand where accusatives and nomina- 
tives would have stood in a Greek original, again supposing our 
Ethiopic text to have had one ; and for four of these A uses 
^F^iollii The persistence with which n appears in the forms 
of this name suggests the possibility that the writer is struggling 
with a stem, not in S, but in v, like ^aXafik ^dXafilvo^ ; but of 
this the Greek manuscripts of the Acts of Thekla show no trace. 
An alternative explanation is to suppose that our writer worked 
under the influence of the Syriac version, and misread yjoo-^z as 
^Ja2'^z — not an unnatural mistake. But Professor Noldeke, who 
has very kindly looked over the whole text for me, tells me that 
he finds many points reflecting the influence of an Arabic ver- 
sion lying back of the Ethiopic.^ It seems to me probable that 
this intermediate version was nearer the Greek than the Ethiopic 
form. But the Arabic form does not seem to have been pub- 
lished, and so it has not been possible to follow up the suggestion 
of Professor Noldeke. Assemani {Bibliotheca Orientalis, III, 
p. 286) simply mentions a [Fifa] Theclae virginis et martyris 

1 A case almost analogous is that of the Ethiopic form of the first six books of the Apos- 
tolic Constitations, which was based upon the Arabic Tersion. There, however, a Coptic 
form of the Constitutions seems to have been intermediate between the parent Arabic ver- 
sion and the Ethiopic, which, as in the case of Thekla, was a free reworking. Cf» Hamack, 
op, cit,^ I, p. 517. 






10 HISTOBIOAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

as present in an Arabic manuscript of lives and martyrdoms of 
saints in the library of the Vatican. 

In the lower margins such of the readings of B as seem 
preferable to those of A have been indicated {q, Z., recte), and in 
some cases, where neither mansucript gives a satisfactory reading, 
one is recommended (Z.), but A's occasional obvious confusions 
of nominative and accusative have not always been corrected in 
the notes. The numerous and remarkable shortcomings of the 
older text have thus been supplemented and an intelligible text 
secured throughout. At the same time, as Professor Noldeke 
reminds me, we must not lose sight of the fact that the harsh 
and unconventional reading may in many cases be the true and 
original one. 

For permission to publish the text and for helpful suggestions 
on the form of publication I am indebted to Mr. Margoliouth 
and Mr. Budge, of the British Museum. Professor Noldeke, of 
Strassburg, and Professor Charles, of Oxford and Dublin, have 
most kindly helped me on many doubtful points in the text and 
the translation ; but they are not to be held responsible for either 
text or translation as a whole. 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 11 



o^^thi. : m.^ I 



•hc « iDnx*«h « aoiiMy » m-^A^:* » 'ti Air « A;^^A«r a^ « ©jtn. « 
^1* « n/i'A » hinh-attHC « •flfl-'}i > KA » vh9^ • nAn**"* « nai 

AA > X'7H.K'fl<fi^ > KA0B > A.PA«A ' hCA-FA > •fl%A > 0»A")%'i 
9A^ « tthlli-CM « n/*';» « A-nh « XIH* h'7H.K'n<h.(f > a^Msi 

W > A<iV « hflo » ^JM^ t A-flK' « iDh«» » ^<D•;^v i ^Ap • fl»+*i 
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flA«» » lUfcu- » iD^^A* » «o'n/»'+ » A'?^^' « mf.'inio' t ftil^ih i 
iD^AA « Kfl-ih » AH I ah'h'P^'^ « ^IK- « ©Tflfl**' » ffl'^J&A'" » Ah 
'fItK'flA.C * "flfl-^l » hA « ^iA-p » >*Ao»- « XA«» « /fo»- ' «» 
1'7/*'+ > A'^AI* « •Ofl-^l « XA-/**"*** « XA«» « A-iDCfr « A^ai+ * 
•00-91" I hA « JRWt I JRAAm.^* • (1X1+ » :ifli.K*fl»*" » ll^lf 
«»•• » A^d^ » RA/1'1'* * -flihll » KA « AWt » ACIfl* « oiAX^ 
h.** I hA««» « hflw-l* • AXlfl* » nif-A-*' • RA-*o«»- « M+ « %lt » 
RAfl » -^n « MUh-ttdnC i h<»«» » ^I^Alf ««N * -flfl-^l « laCAi » 

• corr.; prim. man. iM\t * corr.; prim. man. <h"?"7l : 

• MS. A/oi. 31 verso, * corr. • corr.; prim. man. fiiiSffo"' : 

» affi££ t « iUI-y^ilft ,f » fi'WC i q.l * <*>fi. 

V*: if^^ii sN7HAi 7rt-flA:g.Z. sX 

f^ : 9 1 "JWIt J 10 h«» : " -OIK* J »» corr. 

IS fi.!irVto- 1 14 t*»«»J. ! g. t »» AHJO-Xt : i« tr. T 

Oft- : a»5»li«. : " (oitfitir ts ?. ^jj-^i : t9 ^iwi j 

20 fiAVOL : 31 2. faLAfao* i » afi.d^O- 1 " It t 

^X7a> : au^ I corr. 







12 HISTOBICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

tHuhi' I A-n' > hao-tii I fbdhy' > AXIIL^-nrfbC mil •Oih'}'} > 
K'fldbC I JB.A0»f^* « •nih'}! I hli > JB-AM. ' flMi- i JCX-4' * XA 

A-ah » JRRAKhfl"-* « nM+ i KX:¥ • +A/»'/h. • ffl+r^ipft" • JRK 
i- > XtL « •flU'd > -Oh/L > HJB.i'A' I ^^HH > h'Ttt.h-adhC » aif^ 
J^T « <«.;»*^ « ATI • "JA^ * •fle-* t Mi' I AJk<»» • -liftl* • Yt-ttr « 
T^S'hh I (Di'liahYi i ^xhh i KIH.K'flfh.C « •fldd^ • •nXA.^ > h 
ti- i A.;^lI»ft•n' » flU-^JM" I ATI « lA^ • ©JfJ^Ai • }k7+ » 

^.;^0A•n ' 0^)'flc • nh" t xm i nhitLh-adhC > ^•oa > hti 

HHAnl- 1 •OXA.H" • ^*^ • ^f*^ » ffl-fl^W » n'fl>iA.+'' * vih 
a^tt « liAJi i *<:" • iwhAAl'' » nsr * ID-M! V iDXiwfl I +"7 
•^X « X'7ll.h'fl<h.C i -hAOHh I o»'n/»''l' I bnS^ « l-iDCft <• fl»^ 
"kPGP > -ndA-'' I ATI1+ • 'htir « h*"*'® • Ii****" • a^Jk* * ©A 

j&flj+i 1 hi**" • iDiDC*i'^ • ©•n<.4.i « iii+*" > fl»H^««.4»(jit" « 

iDHJRl-fco»«?1t'<* I ©tf-A-" « fflh^tf-A* « f Ml."» l-dnl- • XA<^ ' 

H-n" • 2kA I jB.4>cfl« • -iin « ^iti.K'flrfbC « nji4.if <•«»• I iDflAno»* 

A** > CA.*** i UA- > Jk^-^n • >i'7ll.h'a<h.C « >i^*«"^lf <»»• « Aft 

* corr. ^ con.; prim. man. Mlhtltk : ? • corr. 

* corr.; prim. man. hl*F i • corr.; priin. man. MOrS^ i 

» I 'i»'*>i i 2 iihao J add.; 4. L, c. Mt 5 : 8. « JUAf' 

Piq.l,cUtb:8. « «r. J&A<n>& : d^A*^ : XTAiMldbC : »^ 

RMftfl"* : 6 (DttfoVf I g. I., c. Mt 5 : 12. » a>CJ»JW : I 

tAfh i 8 'PAI '. 9 AcD-ftflt s 10 ior>£l I 

» Oh ; corr.; c. 1 Cor. 7 : 11. « o^W-t : " -aXttt : q. I 

i« tr. fi^d i iOJi t I ii^Xt : » •flXft* : » hoo s om. 

»7 hH? tq.l. '8 a»c*t : «» atVitiAe : " a»Ht*n» 

?X <. 21 aiifft> : om. rede. 22 HfAh. : » AOfr^A : 

g. L »« ttO\ I » ai^naP-A : q. I. i« Cf*: >» » 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 13 

h-afii6P I mAXoBSr I x^K» I ^A^j&jP i mlihooX'' • •»<:♦' » KA 
•ahP * 0AK0»:t ' Ah» I KrVfc* > A-Orth"* • "7^^" • A-+ » ©hA 

•nfl" « iDH'i+ 1 AK0D i inch « K*rh«»" I hfit t +ft;»-;»'fl>i" • 

fl»1-fla»"p* « -Ifl « Chfr « 011 ff « ruth I ttf h" I Kttt'f « -^ 
111+ > tf-A-" • httoo • ^.;^h^C'* I M+ > -^fl » +X.A. • h<»» t li 

It" • ^n» I n,i- 1 iwA-Jk^ • fl»c* « ©-o*.!:*' « ©i6«»»jtrx • A<5-* • 

oj&AC« » fflf •^JC") • d^#*' * h«7u*h> « M^aa-x , fl^iJi i A.;*- 
K^<.^ I XII • Mi- « l-ooH-h" « H-»i « hr^^tt « XIH.K'fldbC » 
aifi,'i/*'M • AVPAhfl"-** « ©^-hfl*-*- « d^+hflo-^" • HMflA « Al 

**' I n4>£-0D I MtLhudu: * ©h-nchfl^-i^ « jri-at-a*' > an 

^Ah'^i • niy*?" a oj&MLSr I AAt'""' ©A-flfl**" • AChAhfl"^*' 
hAAh'^'" « iDhA+fl+^Olfl'^" « flA'w > }k'7U.h'n<h.C « Mtt,h 
»** » A.f A<A • tlCA-f A « hfl" I HiDU<lS'hfli»«»«' I +'7«|R « W+fl* * 
fl»1-1-<»»rhR*«" I Tlh, I OHM: • i.^fi. t A^'7tl.K'fl«h.C i h««» • 1" 

^n*. « ilA«^dli<»»* » fl»ilCA.h<»»* » iDHmf^a^^ » h<«» » KW^ « 
+2iHH*"> • A}k'7ll.K'a(lbC <• HiAt- 4 iDAilf-nA > hli * )/^K> > A 

• corr. *> prim. man. CXthh : ' MS. A foU 32 recto. 

» R^9 : 6 Ctn ! add. ' a>w* : » •Oh : » fch 

t ; g. Z. >o ^-OAh :? g. I " 7^.e : g. I. »2 a>MV-a^ : 

g. I. >» L JKW» ! " :ffttPflX : g. I. »» i. C*.h : 

16 wfLlr^-f t om. " H-flr : g. I. >8 MrhP'C s " XT 

t ; g. L «• ^•ArO : L fitK : 2» ohK. : C : « a»W 

.€■7 8 0<54 ; om. " A.tAy»t i corr. " Ztt s Xlt : *<"»«• 

X : corr. " Affflho^ s »• d**»i«>»* : " l ^^* s 

•am. : q. I. 3J ACXAhOB* . j. i a X{lXAlK>>>' s g. t »♦ a» 

AfttO«MlKn»' : 36 X71LX( : »« "H : ailMI?lK"»* s g. I. 

«« ^XHH* : g. L «i >h.^> : 2. ihJ^l i «2 £><»{ 4> odd. 9 



■■■l^M *^-«iK m\ w* 



r I II ■ I 



14 



HISTOBICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 



nn^-thfl"- » A^l^* • MCA? • Ahfl"*- 1 flM+ • +*tc' I 

4*^11 « iDA<^d)ia»- > Kin > JMIA > X'TH.M > ii^fA^A ' tlCA'f A • 
H0»m<D » »*A • AM-tK*" • ©nhH' I ^A « f Ji^V » 100X7+* • 
labm-f' I An"- 1 HhOffl" t f.V i a2i'}'t:M > h<»» t iaj:^* i h-aa 

A I KT'-^aiahKli' » KA • »fc*^'"* i P* « mf^Mih'' » fl/J-A • ffll 

o«A • ;l-<t*CJP I A>i'7ll.h'n«h.C » +4.;»*4."'« flfli&^-thflo-^o , a,;^ 
**<. • fl.Xh'^' » *><»» t i^Miao' I iDHA.+i{.4*^ I j&*7fl4. • Ah 
«»»• • fl-flJk « Xlfl-fl^-i" 1 A,1-7fl4. 1 MdX: * iDjRn." i X1II.M i 
iDoBjt'^W*' I A.f ft-A I tiCA-f A » Hit « ttfir * l-KHIl" * fflJtX 
V.X 1 A,;i*a»-Afl'" • H^Jh-nh*"* • Yttir t «dA.1-i:4»^ » •flXA.'h • Q 
dJt * fl»Xo»fl i T»+ » ^;>* » ^l-ac^ • flh » K,^a>'H-a^" « oi^ 
tf»A » K^lnfii t ^O^A*^^ • HhlflA « •OhA. • ;^ll»•A•0 1 3iAA» t 
KA<»» • J&'U&A » hah 1 An"* » h9'n9'P « fl»KC • 1-ll^fl»^' • M 

u I /^/Ju- i Ahrmh'aih.c • MI-a^ • ©/»•;» • >i'7ii.K'n<h.c » /»» 

jailflo. * iDj&MLlt » A.1*<;AP » /»•;» i K'7ll.^'flrfi.C i /";» i H«7 * 

* ^. Isa. 53:13, John 6 : 46. >> corr.; prim. man. OXtt 

Ms? * corr.; prim. man. (UMK"**; * corr.; prim. man. 

X.^a^{|■a ; • corr.; prim. man. 1"07rt : 

add. * aiaXIt s I^ALAtl : (M^d iwst OXTtAi : ^ d pro 

oinXTt* s }. J. 6 HM(0 1 I. HhO<0 : ^ .ft^ : om. 8 ^ 

(ht: iK^^tntD-w. >o;taD}, a (D.^aAs i: X 

Wfl«»*fl : corr.; prim. man. hVra^ :? » AflX : j. I. " aO 

^tfcOB" : 18 corr.; prim. man. Af^d : " X"" : ^A.^C 

Pi q.l » mCOiTHJMau: i >» O^A i i» t4-<H': $. I 

20 aO^ftlKiO' I corr. »i Alto"* : I i 2* ^A s «» a>ao 

Ai>U : " tXHH i. q. I « ir. amj-to-tUt i fiXlU. i 

J6 YiaC i " aHLfat-M : m tWs^ i l tOT^ : qf. 

1 Cor. 7:9. " l^s »« Aaiftpt 3. L »» tlfc^ 

(□.s J. 2. 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 15 

htiao • h.V'hao I i-f^aol, , ^iXfl. i ^ftA • HthM"^ • •OKA.'* • h 

ii«7 1 tf-Viu- » i»+* « aiw * K^-nh. » V<i:fth«»»*' » Hhsii'ii^ » 

hCA-f A < (DAf. I >i'7H.K'fl<ii.C I XA0D 1 1[^A• * llK'7'flK i Wit-' * 

fli^A" « iD<i:4»Cl- » JRh-t » A;i*^ii;ft" > amwAIi'I' i fl.;i- 1 mox 
II" 1 1|.;^"' « «^'»ft4. • M.(0-trh > J61-9XC" « oiJ&K'fcA • ^M-i- 

mWdt « tf'Aft'h « ©iPArfl*' • dAt- 1 MM » h,taicX: • X<>i>A1n 
+«• 1 n.+2' • flil-S-I^:;*- • hn « fl>1-n.A • oiAl-f • A.1-a»c^». I A 
^Hl* • aotitt^t « ©I^A'i"! WflA • tD^tli-f'^^ * M>*- • *AC 

«h(f« » fitt « AOHA-A I iD^/^Jil- 1 I11.+A « h"JnA-y i HfliC* • ©9 
flfl-^ • A'JXt*' « fl,-f 7* I iD^fkA- • OW^ » H'J+ » OiA.I-JlC » h 
ao • AAf « Kfl»*K * «D»/»'K i TlYh > IX*^ • hlflA-V « lliDCf * i 

ffl-^A;*^ i i-^cf* • -^n I AiD*A-A <• ©nx.*'' • mhI-'^ i ^tic 

• corr. ; p^m. man. •(lXrt.1* : '' 2'»'»'»*' tnan. f'VIP^ s 

* corr.; jwum. man. fiH^O t * corr.; |)n»n. man. o'^rt'f'^ : 

* Dillmann, Xex., s. v. hlOA* : cites the substance of this passage 
from the Synaxaria, for the 27th of the month Maskaram, thus: 
(DOM- : fiOVe : 0,^ t hiatfV i ttatC^ : 

1 y'liA I 'QhtUV t corr., q.l > •ahtit om.recte. * tAi 

* r^i q.l ^ itpAHao' i q.l. > MMi : om. i Vt-t^ : 
q.l. 8 0H-Ar : 9. 2. * 2. lU'A : 10 <n>4'n i q. I 
" «r. (a'9'initL I fiM: * " W.fi : »» ftt :' g. I. 1* t 
t«lC 8 » a>«^0 : 16 H-A> : 9. {. " HfirHD-H : 
18 (Dl-9^ s i» wAfll* I a> om. rede. '• corr.; prim. man. 
X«n»Iit 8 »»*:»•: J. I. J2 a» o»w. «» a»YftW- s ot/d. 

" nOrt" : «8 t Wy : q. I. " X«n>ft»»t s add. th^i »o t 

(frC : g. 2. *> AMV 8 2. A0<1« : a m\n I 01^ s S3 9 

4« : 2. Oit« : s« Ha>C^ : om. " a>:>^ i » t^C 8 

»» corr.; I Ofc-h s »« «:>Ht : 



" <* '* '*— *'**^^ ' ■ I ■ ■ ' —.«— ■■ ^ - ni^ii4 "hi 



l*<fchM»^i ■~iil« II < 



16 HISTOBICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

aotl/^-t- • A^^l- • KAtfo • •O0.6* « fl-flfc"* • ttf.t-ac » 1*}kHH« i 
K1tl.K'n<h.C • rnVhooJ'" > h<w * tiCn-f-b • <D AA > XlH.h'flffi.C a 
(Df,a^^ « -flddl* I hJ-b » m.*A • MH • IKft-t'" • fcl-t • ;^A*<5 • 
Hli* > iD^<{.4>^ H hiia^ ' •Htf.d i ii-tth » ntfff*'^ I Axrra.h'nrfi. 
C « iDAA.f A*A > hCA-f A ' iDHJ&HflT" > nM-fc^tf* > iDf.nfJir^* > 

•a > aihf.aii: I nnii: > lA?" > atj^dlL * C2iA > hao I 0*74 i H0» 
m(D'P » AT-nrS'l''* • fl»?i1-K<»»'l^ » rnhht't • flA<»»* » AoiAA « 
hin.hHtlbC I A.f A*A * YlCb-t-b a h<n> • tf-A* < H<n>miD i C2i^ * 
ttMi- » Ao» « lUKU" • H'J'h • H-A-** i fiaoohh^ a hftno . hqi^^ 
i • flinA«»^ I ll.hu- 1 atlihii, I MAC* • i.*f-^* • KA''" » Tft*** • 

f:h « ©A.'^M^ « fl»A.+A*A-'' • iDh.«n»A?ih+'' • <DA.hAJk^ • 
qifdt » fliA.^hA'" « KlJS-^-h** • ¥*C • AhCA-f A" • hinJM* » 
oih^TI I •OH"*'' > a^Vdh • vn<:1* I I11.+A » Mil » 1"Aa»-cf • fl» 

-h:3i/»'Mf a •h/'TiA'f'' ^ • A'JXfl!" • <D>7^ i A<{|f i tDih^t » X«^ i 

* -a 0*0 : MS. A /o?. 32 verso. *> j>nm. man. AflX : ? 

' j^nm. man. IflXfll; : ^ |>nm. man. 17-aC : * corr. 

f qf. Rom. 8 : 38. 

1 attMiH I s corr. BAA : * XT^O" : a> om. * h 

aoi prom 6 7ni;:f : 6 fy-. a^tMX : X7HAf : i Kfi. 

h-hlr :? 8 (Mii i q. I. « tXHH i " aXAy"! : q. I. 

n»ft:l. "IXftt! 12 HK^^s <»a»*HttT: » a»^ 

rtAC- : 2. L «» fOfJUyd ; «6 (D^t<n>I.M : add. " « 

?9C* 8 18 HH-A* : q. I. >» Ai^TflAt s g. Z. «o a» om. 

2» »te I g. l 22 .poocD-O « 23 a> om., recfe. «« A^ 

/^ : 9. 2. SB Tt^ : 2s 0ii:>M : I oMfiii. : 27 

tMflr ; 28 0&^nXlit : 5. L 29 mtMb^K i q.l »o a» 

(m. rede. >> AA.tA'Zl : bCA-HI : " 'aiK> : '^ ttfttP* 

C : »« <r. X*^ : ^wwrf s »» a»S"P&»' : " fllXAt i 

;. I " AM« : I. A0<« : 



THE BOOK OF THBKLA 17 

+ • ^^^JM » iDHahd9* • h^^&'ib > atttitf > A«^1' • AH* • 

•fl>iA.^h' > Afl-d I f^ t hf'ntiih* > AoHA-A • nf^fiif* * -niiA. i 

©/'•A i n,hO- i i-^U^Jl- • fflK-^Hl- • ai*tO- • AAf • fl»A^Af ' « 1* 
iD^X • at^diOhC* I •^OM' « flift9»5'^ • H^'ilA • fl»n^ « -^(LV » ;>• 

*«■ a iD^a.A « ;*y«t7ft • \.1'ft^df"" • AOHTii: i •OKA. • ^dbA 
fflh." I ©•!• AT^A.'® • 111+ » "iA^" • nh7+«* i »!<:'' i (000^11^ 1 
«DC4» » ID-(M3^ f fli"«.^f" > fl»*^Al*** « m^^T^'^ « fl.1-Ji"J " 
<D^fl>A- > iii.4>A ' 0C4>h < oi'TK'Ch • Ah t f.XtlXk > aiA.^J&h^ 1 
iD'^Al-h" » Ah" I jtMh" « flJA.+A*' • <DC*f » at-ai-^?^ « id 
A.<^^f '" » <D"iAl*f « fflirtih-nf '^ » ««»'J'?/^+ • fynf^ « flih-nh 

'flhfl»-A»* I Mtao' I AiMfrl*' t iDA.1^^iJr" I H'l+ 1 »1C" « mi' 
/•A^ I ;^^^S*A'* • anDili'" 1 fl»«h<: 1 fl.-h 1 <«»h-"l7 » ©iic » 

<DjB>fl>A- I 'H'TI^A. • Hoojr^ • Ohiii' • •fkfi.O • <w»CO^ « A» 1 MA 

JJ43 , t^f»^^m , ai6f,ahX I x-jh" I -TjAt-" i MA-t^lf «»• » 

* prim. man. toftlF^ i 

• corr.; prim. man. otQif t J li9^ i » A'flXA.Yh s 
om. Ht I « X^HaX'/h t q.l. • AAf : a> om. rede. e 
t/hcD-C : » a»rt^9 ; g. J. 8 X^^ j corr.? g. f./ prim, 
man. X/» . h i » HI7«5tl. : »• om.; J. a»A-tt-OXL : " a> 
XooAsom. 12 (0X^(0naf.X : is <fi-C: >« 9?th: 
J. I. » Afl'ln iq.l i« A-M^^r : >» ^/fcfla>h. ; g. Z. 
18 (DfiTHi. ! i« M<»«> s q. I. 20 I flh'H- : 21 yiq . 
g. I. J2 (DODmili ! corr., q. I. *» ©C* : amW : a»A&? s 3. L 
J4 a)«T{^1' : J. /. as at^q^^ i cf. ila\uxoi. 26 ow./ L a» 
■l^.^h ! 27 om. 28 (0 om. 29 (0>a{<C{ : q. I. 
so (Dl&^f : g. L »i aHn-a*iM '.q.l '2 tDh'flii'aiiao'A : q. I. 
»» A om. »* a)A.tt«^I, ! g. I. »» I7i : g. I. »6 ^^ 
&1ft : »» 01 om. 38 (IOC9 , 39 KitltSl : «o Ki 
ht". add. *« Z. tXHH s «2 rt.«'W^ : «» :>^ : 
«« om. » it^h s 



18 HI8TOBICAL AND LINGUISTIO STUDIES 

AA<D*A-A « M-hA • ^•Jt-'i M+ « ©^"H-y-i Tf^-KHTI" • ll^9» 
ilhh I AdA.i* • OhM- 1 U-IC* I AKlft-t^J" i J6'lJt;» i f»-f 7 1 (D-a 

y- 1 H^'QA ' Mh iDj&fl. I A<D<A-A I K^). I j&'U&A" ' Ka>*Any- > 

(D<^0D I A+A" « MlU^-flA-C « atnaoJiM » 4»^A a iDj&n>A- » 
-Hid. I ifDh.*}! I CM » "J-^ « haof^'P^^hX.''' " fflJRfl. « l/^JkJ'' • 

fl»/^^1?»" « rWi4-f ««»• « AAio-A-ft « ha»-*f"*"i XAflo t nDfiLA « 
4»J5.A • AdA.ih « 0Mh<: » Trth® t «»h-11® > aiJ6fl, i ao'i\ic • Tl 
WC • JkAl- « HA,JRJiA" « hOHdP-^ « fciD-dWP^ » hV^VlCi » 1/»' 

<» • CKA » T* • AM i K*"1T » at*^ao , mu i ;»'iDAfl.)* » fl»1* 
fl.A * A^A'Otl.^ I All. > ^IhllU I hlA" I •nr t A.f A'Ay'*' < tiCA-f 
A" I y'h'wl'* • H^OHA-A • ^Allh • flA""- » Jk^lUfc » A^yi^ « 
©^JtC i nohhi^* I ^A'h^A* « A.*- « 9/*'th I nA«^^1* » fl»h««» 

• Trt-XHTI : ? «» *fl»-nn : ? « MS. A /oZ. 33 redo. 

^ Dillmann refiises to recognize MH : man, given by Ludolf in 
his Lexicon, cf. Dillmann, Lexicon 771. 

<• s 5 ar^AAr : llh- : $. 2. • ^It i q.l » "HtXHTf 8 

;. I. 8 nOA>f : g. 2. » AAlAtK : lo a>A>aXAi. i 

41 ^Of : >» «a»-ft<» : ?. I »» .fijBft : }. i. " l^A s 

J. L >» h«» : f^'rVfia. i q. I. « wKHCP : " •aCrT i 

q.l ^<i Jia 1 1. JM I 19 oiniJ'WZ s if ^tp-.e : «i a» 

MlP i I toUMP i " tr. Afl»-Or+ s AftflJ-A-ft : q. I. «» corr. 

21 X.M)A : om. H i >< (»AcD-dX9> : 26 H^to-AjafU- : 2. HA 

at-Ofifnh I 27 (Djtini ; 28 I, (DtiyOf i 29 A-fl^-flh. i 

q.l. »9 y om. »i cory./ jjnwi. man. llCAtA . : (tiCA-i-Ay i?) 

•3 oy3i^»l : »J A'^jB : S4 h su^pl. corr. 



THE BOOK OF THBKLA 19 

h-of • oas* I A^A-n' t n.-t • <DAii»"f i' « Ah. » i»»9f ' > mfi+ • 

«l»<i»<:1* • -lin • <n»h-1'J • ©^'fl.A- i Ao»h-1*> • ll.f htf-*** » MH « 
•Of" « hlrli^^^ t X^-^n • fl»Al-f « M-h 1 1-Kfl^" i hi»-An • 

a I UAI* > hnam * fat-cf,^* • doat • in-A-ft i -It^l • monjal-^ • 

II. « idKid*<:^^ t W7 A « HiD«M! • OIC • lO-A-li » OAJRI-" • to 
•%^t'^ » *0fl» a (DtDdf!.^ I in.*A** » fCb^"" » fl»AA^^ « tf""**! 
C » fl>J6flJtA I /^*C;»- > YihXi > Ah-9y i fflKj-n'i.y • HiD-T i ©-I 

"hfhbM * (Dhohbt^ i ^AnA.y > <Dtf*4> > ^dT4*<P > antti-^ < 
h'^u- « <D^n>A<P • Ani.4>A • '^LH;^fllAfl.»•" « m^ao i HA.;^a)A 
0.*. I fl»«^flo I j&aic<»'li.y-'* « ffll'fl.A-'' « m.*^ « A^'ll-*-'* • tv 
CflHi** • AAf > h(ia»-h » fflA.^oiA'O'* • idM^J^ « Tllfr > Ml-" • 

• J)n»». MOW. ""JtWd ! 

? : q. l; add. (oAF'ttti'n <• * 9(1^ : 2. Ofl^ : > A«A 

•0 : g. Z. 6 X |)ro i » »»9j6 ; g. i. « a»A.tX i q. I. 

9 aytr"i^ I I aUrsn'OOt : lo tufhZ : g, i. " A^H>a( : 

pro X"JH : -O? ! " JltpM : «3 tm : Z. 1*Aa i " An 

AC : « om. l« XfoXCAf : " XX&^A s is ^ 

HJ-CcD-T ; J. ?. 19 sat-C/i i q. I. »<> a>M^t : «» a> 

(MM. 2« AHM? ; 13 tDHat-iA t q. I. J< M^t : 

>* (D-U-'it q.l. « Z: odd. j)ost m.*1 s »» L ftCT-;*' s 

28 a»^0/X ! " v>C^ : »• a>7-04. s g. l »» «W» : H 

:^(Of|(U■ I q.l. 32 ,^ai>cai.hii •:• g. l " attO, : '4 A 

^■Jt : »» tfCOU. ; 36 corr. " Vtf : X/»t : g. I. 

38 00^176 ! g. i. 39 owiojt-At tq.l to om. rede. «i A 



20 HISTOBIOAL AND LINOUISTIO STUDIES 

<DAA > KltLtfttA^ I Hfta»*A-A • j&A-fDi > h0» i nHhi: i tofiif: • 

Alflfr I o»h-17 1 Xftiw I rhAf I Mhf > A6A° • "hnUCt • XTH.^ 
•flA.C » flMwlA I Ml>. I fli^Xf " « m^aoao^^ <. iD0DjfJi^ i Tfth" i 
m.4>A ' hlhllli I M^ > Mil ' hAP ' UfS^f^"" I mAfj:^ I X 

M+" I A.+ <• 

MM" 1 t-i-ac • <:hni- « •ahiiA^ * Jk-J* i ^-^ut^ » t|^v<: « 
fl»1-fl.A • m.*A i Kh»- 1 Tj;^v<: • nt^j^f^^* » fli1-n.A « j&A-t « 
•nxA.1- 1 Jifli" » hmh^t'' I -^ii'h" » Ah. • H-A-'** « o-a% • r-^ 

9<: I anDoa^ I fli'1ft7l-''i A-t « l**A- « Hl-AJ?:^ » Kft<»» « h'^u- « 

J6^A » <n»Jtr#h* « Ahao > "llAlfl"-" • WlAlfo"* » AlUthfl"- « f^ 

JtT^2 1 A*|fl^ I •^rti.X'hhfl"*'^ • 3ilMf|fl»* i A"7^^ « fflHIl- » +H 
h.<!- » m.+A • -^Ail- • Hl-AJt-^ » fl»?i?^ • chf l-^*^ • <:Jf^*i. » A* 

iD-A-ft" I (D-fAmf- 1 ffll-n.A-'® • XJ6* t UA<D I X^IU^f » Afl»-A- 

» ? b |)n»». «ia«. XW i • ver. tof. ras. * corr. 

• H- 1 ft- : M& A fol 33 rerso. 

» X^«y : g. L i a):5t'»7 : g. i. » 0"7'»ttf«»' s ♦ A 

hCfltil: 8 flln J- i- * X'it: g. i. » X'lt; q. I. 

8 "H?^ : g. t 9 su^l corr, »» "Hh- s g. I. " X'H* i 

J. i, t» oKiDjt-A ; corr. rec., q.l '» 090 s j. Z. •< a) 

H»aoao t g. ^. 16 wtdi :q.l is cdRop iq.l " Ht: 

q. I. 18 Uf.lJ\f i q.l »9 Alt ! q. I. " i. *?"ft s 

" hfht'. add. 2» a» om. " •flXn.t: g. ?. " HlTi. 

Afii. i «« iito i add. »« oitft'l : fli*A : add./ g. I 

ii :>.g7. . 28 itif I q. I 29 g so a»:>^7Y ; »i 1> 

Xiao'i »«C>A7s »» M/lfto"*" : »<CX?+: ^^ prim, 

man.; corr. rec AiAli : iaHrh i q. I. ss j^rtm. man. oin.; 

suj^l. eorr. 



THB BOOK OF THBKLA 21 

J&AJtJtl'* • oii-Aahf* I •nM*:i*> i A-n^ t iDj&a>AF » id-K* <»»• • A 
•ah I ^A*>' » Vlh I •hAiD'ih' I av^-id • ;»»Ah i idM'YM « 9^ 
+i » HlflAd^ I aif.M.Vt'' • Cl-n* « iDlihc" i ^rXrX « KJlA « A 

tfA* * iDjRn,A-ii»- 1 ifiihii"-" I s'U'" • jRWi • h<»»jtrx • M • ©n 

M+Tf » A»fl» • fl»'Am.+" • aoMit' • ©A V* I Jt-tT » Tfth • <D 

AJt • A-flfl • AAfl»-A-A » aii*^h i 'i-flAI*" i mon* i m.*A » g-1 
VC" • <D>/»'^1* I Till." I oDAflA'^i iD'hAoi-f I tid!i:h • Ao^A-A » 
-^n t UA- i f -^JtC" « ^flJ-A-A « ^AA.ih « ai^dfir » #h«A « hin, 
hV • Afl^A-A « hTi • 0rU6*' » MlUX • H;^fl^» Ah i M+ 1 mCK, 
Vh I hfl» « JRI-WITI" • A-+" • A«7j& « ©K-^-J I fm'iih^ • Ml-" • 
©J&^ll « AH » i-Wfira^^ i A^'7'nC'l* • ^IH.K'Ofh.C » ©J&}ilL 
X * MH*;i < ©©Af^^ > ©'Ai* > M^ * aKJef-M > MH i AX*?!!. 
hHilhC > K'flA''' ' ©A.X<{.4'/^" > All I lA?" » hHao i HX©<An * 
HTI i 1A^ • ©-Ms » ©X^+A^ » o»XAff 1- i ^^^C » MAnh • M 
i- « ©i&ML% I +7/^^"** • M+ • ©*«:Ri'**i ©K*V+i" » ©M* 

A-h I ©Wn-1'' • ht^i^ I XTM.fc'iWi.C" « ©+A'P«P" • A©'A^ • 

©J6fl,A" • K*n « A«^*ln- • y^l'^Tl-h." • fS^itK • KIH.^'OA. 



• 5^. Dillmann, Lexicon, 111. •• :»^^* :? 

» KHhT'e i » a>*£M» s » aJ^eoKT s < am.; I. 

W s « tp^mjf I 6 *A,*f : J. t ' "rAoKTi s g. i. 

» <r. maiiO : a>A.^»ltl : « Z ow. »• anOhC t " « 

ftfl»* ; I fAiVifl^ I " CJ-ni ! a> adti ante TO- s " to-T 

AL1- : l ohlwift : >« A(Dii^ : q.l. is 'Mlfil' : is Kfi 

<S ; }. l; om. I i» Hh. s j. ?. « oo^nrt ; q.l " O 

AC s »• 9aj6 : »» ^tAHH' ; »« «fp|)l. corr. 

33 om. *4 2. X'tt : ^^ UltArav ; 26 i, X-aO^ : 

»T toKfi^^f. I g. t >8 a>M s; owt. 3i^ recte. «» Yii-ii : g. I 
90 m^CSa. I q.l »» a>A*Ttt J q. I »» a» o»i. 3» 9 

flot s s< <DX7aC : A^^ : X7lUra<l)^ : oM. " a>t»»'PT : 

»6 (D^o/) ! odd. " Z. y^^yfflii : »8 h-At : j. L »» * 



22 HI8T0BICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

Vt I ^d<: B iDA(h4>^' • fll.*A » ©I'fl.A- » HJ&A'fl}| « AjWff* • 
AA.U- 1 Ih* I fliA.1^ff4»"> I Ji-J+l I fflWk^C I KK^C" » h<»» • 
<»1««.A » *^A • i6<:Jthi a fliii»-K+ I X!t i Mh<:" i Aa>*A-A « 

;^ I iD«h4. 1 +AA-'J*'" I 

1- « -lin > fl"h-'J7 « hAV' « O^Ojf'^^ • AH I hfrao'P > MlT > Jtrl 
A" I iD^fl.A- 1 m.4>AU' I -^tli^^ • Jk^tf-A- • oowti- > ^JtC « 

T;»* 8 fl»^fl,A • o;i»fl.u-" > ATiVh • Ail • X'Jd** • Mt«»oT»^ • m.*A » 

Ae-n" I jky-tf-A- • -iif Al-*^ t «hf.» t K^jrx'p • ffl+tOA'p «« ©<: 
fli^fl.A • m.+A'* » hrititih • :*f Ah. • K-J-f* « l-l-t^JW • M 

A. a <D+AflMD*'* i m.+A • m^tLtf i ll.^h • M • A.AA^Vh" » <» 
}k<ioif "s*! f |»fl,»» I HA-i: 1 >^Af 1 aotnOhXt i m-K* I jUlfiithX*^ B 

* 2>rtm. man. ^"H :; A> sujiipZ. man. ree. i* MS. A/o{. 34 recto. 

» *«(?. »)th.A : g. Z. « a>**'M-I-h. : g. L » (Oi-KfJa. : 

g. L < AO^ : » Z. ©Ifltt : « HX-foh^ : om. h. : 

' VOA : 8 I » L »»(ft*t : 10 a» om. " «+ 

X : add. »« M**^ s? >» A«»?f s >« a>*« ; corr. 

« trtft-l* ♦ >6 aiAy»9t ; Z. rt^Ot : aut |witMS rtai* : »t »i 

AX : g. L 18 9#aih ; " e9d : q.l «* tr. iJ'Wt 8 m. 

*A : OM. 0- >i tt+^ffZ s g. I «» a)«a 8 »»».(»«. 

j)nm. man.; suppl corr. *« 9^(10* : '* 090 iq.l. ** A0 
«"»*• ! »7 00-a ! I OSM s «8 5»?At ! » <h.<< : 

»« om. »i tr. Kit t i>iMi '. »» tt*ai. : »» om. 

»« a>tt*lt s g. l 8» tDHafi.h, i om.HfO'i »« ailTM«i»a»+ : 

" X.:>(Ml- : g. I »8 «7Xy»T? ; s« no. i *o SJMil l 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 23 

fl»j&fl.A-* • flh<»» • CM- « tA^I* • Mt- « l-^A. a <Di&fl>A » ah}^ 

HOI*" I flAoa « A.f frft'" I fliAft i ^IH.^'Ofh.C • fl»Jkflfl»-}k » f" 
^i" « Mil • jE.<:Jt^i I ao-ii,H 1 4»^ft a iDfl>i1i"H i I'l-A'^ 
A'* a ai0aAA-<Kx I Mih I idA«"P'» i HJS.nAd<P • TlYh*" • ^^ 
^1- a ai/tn • Okit'P « Trth*' i K^«e'> » +7/^h. • oiAi;?, • At « 
0^-)H' • i&A<hA'P I mfinci^ I ^n > Xl^sy a mS^Mih > A9 
A1- • Kf^Vt • ©fc-^Hl- 1 1-XA. 1 ffll-fl. I ;^h»^'^" i WM « AK 

tit • A'JAi'a i 1A^ • AiiL^-nrfbC » nhj^aoaht I OT-n*: » rt«^ 

f « fl»^Jt<: » n^rh^^ » /I'A » ©H-A*" » UOhii-b^'ii^^ » H-Ml^ » A 

n^iC ' iDAIf-A* I HfO'A'l;;!- < Hl-ai; I AMA^*^! ha^thfoh > flhCK 
fo- 1 ailUi9<'4A.ih » iO'Ms • md « A.+ » AH • KiiofVh i nftaa* i 

©fl'^^A'" « ©flTfln*** « fl»fl9»h<. » AHfl/i'A' » +'i'0<: » miHMs i 

him • flUf-A-** I hi I atah}^'|: I iP^iS I IDtf-A-" » •ti.fd » AlP» 

2i'7ll.K'a<li.C I ohMi I A'fl^^' > -hoaAA > idM i A-nK ■ mhtt+C 
hf a idX-JM I h,in,h-aih.C « 1»+ » athao I '^AA+"» *A1* • +1 

1 o'N^lfft' I 9. L s nXdXXt i q.l * ^■TW' : q. I 

* KCllfi.li I corr. » toftklf i q. I • tr. i^MI i to-M t 

1 XC«JP: 8 A+; 9 1 Of«{|tl 10 tOhP^V... (DM 

prim, man.; om. corr. *' drfa"^ : *• tiCOf'A : " t 

om. »8 tt4"IA ; »» fiJDhAV i *^ Ittt i q. I 

«> +*H+ : *» "yUft-: q. I «» ag «* anttet q. I 

>o HcD'Alr^f : 2« AO:{A t s^ atfOf^ : >« om. 

2» oiHib i q.l. so A {. XIH : " AOA : g. I. " fA 



t. 



24 HISTOBICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

•JAA • *J5.A « JiAJ?.' » OhMi 1 <iD94>^ i A^x i id0i> A'ho<7/^^<' • 

a»-jk* I <ii»:J^" I nKfta-i^hi^^ * HAh+V* > AdA.»" » ioKt* 

X > iflAilA > M^ I tDhtV^h ' A» • K^-nA^'' > Ah • A-Qrh^ i 
<DKh»*1- « fl»Ah > ♦tA^I-" « Ah-fl » iiMDAJt • mao-iiJi 1 4.^/1 a 

TlVh > iwh-l** • fAl^*^^ « 0;i*a.ih" • ATftl- • All « XlO" t hX 
ao4p , i.^*/**^ 1 tf-A • A^Af *• « atKfhaod 1 Uj^^/^G » ffljE-fl, 1 

ffllJM"*" I Jk^ > Til* I aoilfwtfPir « iD^ifl I f Afl*-*.** • ilC3iJ& 
•P** » iXMit^ » ihfah^ a iDl'flK. I ')fl I Uln* I ooh-ll » ©lie 
F I hao I OtUDt I ihfah^ a lDj&n.A-<*** • ««»h-'J'l » "J^hC*' 1 id 
-TrtjCiio^^ I j&fl.A. 1 Afl-A I K'7ll.^'n<h.C • llhJf^'^Wl.'" » A^IUX 

flJklfrh.'' i a»-A+il»' I KS'-nAl''* • Jk1'+i»'* » if » KAh 1 f-9» a 1 
'^ > f A. ' aiJlAft. > AdA>r I 0AM < im*'* < <n>)l-11 1 HTiAh i r- 
9* > nVL*^ • Xliy-'^' a ID^ILA" > fll.4>A > XlhAlb • \bMi% * (DA 
*A » HVhlt" I fl»h-'J7 1 A.jMfl A t XAf- • AJk<»» » A,^^RMfl^F « 

• corr./ prim, man. totedCYi i ^ corr.; prim. man. MKMi : 

« MS. A /(rf. 34 verso. 

1 ^a»-:tt : g. i. 2 rtXA : «*y"». ; j. J. » (V^£t : add, 

* I. atOCt I > dd, man. rec.? * t'^i : q.l ^ IMi 

8 A9A^ ! }. r. » om. »o ataohntJ" : " «»/fi* : I 

lo^ii i « HfAt^^/b '. om. h. t» MOtI : " 10 

fl.1* g. ?. «s I IK-flllt: 16 ^Jtf^'.q. I. " #A: 3. J. 

18 IiM>k.f : q. I. 13 A>aA : 20 ^<&« : g. ;. >i ng' 

AO* : 2S 9)0 : q. I. 23 2. AAt : >« dKf' : >» 9 

•^ : I. Ofioy ; 2» m-^lrtW" ; «' oJlJS^l s i^ iM-i 

«9 CXjKT : so atiMkV s 81 Idi^: s »! atthVei*^ : q.l; 

" HA^e^th. ! •* a»:><!ni s »» aHMMiti i »• *» 1; 

om. Jk^ " a»ftt : Xft- i g. L »» ?. W-Oftt t »» H 

hi. : «o ?W : L ?0t ; " XTIff s *i t, om. 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 



25 



Oh'' » hAfclf ^'^ • n-Tii&A'' « A.PfrA « llCA*A'' <• A*}Aii«> t «}A 



The translation that follows is in general based upon the text 
of A. Where the readings of B have been followed, or where the 
readings of both have been displaced by a conjectural emendation, 
the fact is duly indicated in the footnotes of the first margin. 
While some other of B's readings are translated in these notes, 
the notes are not designed to cover all the significant variants of 
B. These textual notes are referred to by superior numerals. 
Superior letters refer to the critical notes which occupy the 
second margin. The proper names of the Ethiopic are given in 
their usual English forms, the only exceptions being Tamerends 
or Tamerenes (for Thamyris) and Walda Giyorgis, in both of 
which it seemed desirable to imitate the Ethiopic closely. For 
the sake of uniformity, however, the former name has been thus 



6 JuKZ iq.l ^ (Dom. ^ *Ofl^« ♦ g. L 8 wdJim. i 

q. I. » fD^tp-OP I 10 oHiDfrii . g. I 11 5j am, n h0 

»D : q. I. 13 Moor i i* htiML i q.l " 9^aih s 

!• A^^% : t7 Wihfiaa. i q. l is jifao- -. is aPjUi i 

JO why^i. I BIT OD- : nftop s MMi i ItCMh ♦ h^Ih : dJO-fi i X7HJI : Xy» 
fi^(^ I i^h I (DP'P : A7*aCh : <»A^ : zrcih : add. 21 om. — oi 

M-l : iMMi/fi;W 1 7*aCh s :>TX s fDhdtL I Hdfi 8 (2. n^ :) I^ALAtt 8 (L 
f m-AM (oachi. <. add. 

Professor Noldeke, who has examined the Ethiopic proofs, kindly furnishes 
the following additional notes : P. 72, note 7, omit I. f^Vh • note 13, omit g. I. — 
P. 73, omit note 15 ; note 26, add q. I. ; note 36, omit g. I. ; note ^, read g. I. for I. 
ih.**! ! —P. 74, note 2, omit g. Z.— P. 75, 1. 7, read A:f^&5*fl I 1. 14, read 
XoPfHi^* ; note 31, omit I. MV^ \ note 32, omit I. 01* 5 —P. 76, note 11, omit 
h IXfl^ \ note 19, omit g. Z.— P. 79, note », omit I. CDt^OO^ 5 —P. 81, note U, 
omit I. fM'^iXitP^ I — P. 84, note 2, omit g. I.; note 37, omit g. Z. 



■Mia 



iAi^MAA 



aandMiafti^i>a>i^i«Bi^^B^u- 



26 



HISTOBIOAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 



far transliterated in the form in which it first appears in the 
Ethiopic of A, viz., Tamerends. While the eight occurrences of 
the name in A are evenly divided between the two forms, in B 
Tamerenes always appears. 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA. 

The Book of Thekla. When Paul was preaching in all lands,^^ he 
came to Macedonia^ and abode in the dwelling of Tamerends.'^ And he 
said as he was teaching and exhorting them : We have come to preach 
the kingdom of heaven, with the word of God. Blessed are they who 
believe in their heart in the son of God, that Jesus Christ, namely the 
Savior of the world, who appeared in human flesh, although he was God 
became man that he might save men ; and that he might make the dead 
to live he died and on the third day he rose ; and that he might heal the 
sick he suffered much for men ; though he was God he became man aod 

^ and add. A, B. 

*The Ethiopic begins hardly less abruptly than the others ; the Greek has 'Ava^alvov- 

Tos Ilai^Xov e/s *lK6ifu>p fierA. rijs <f>vy7js ; the Syriac .oln^)] - *"nSn^ ]ooi - ^V*^ ^ 

aUkSO^h 9l^ l-SfA (** When Paul had gone up to the city of Iconium after his persecu- 

tion," Wright) ; the Armenian, ** Paul was coming on his way up to the city of Iconium after 
his persecution " (F. C. Conybeare) ; and the Slayonic, ** When [once] Paul came up,** etc. 
(Bonwetsch). This abruptness is fully explained by the presence of the Acts of Paul and 
Thekla in the recently discovered Acts of Paul. First written as part of a larger work, 
including the (spurious) correspondence of Paul and the Corinthians, the Acts of Paul and 
Thekla, the martyrdom of Paul, and, if Hamack is right {Texte und Unterauchungen zur 
Oeschichte der altchrUtlichen Literature N. F., V, 3, p. 101), the story of the healing of Her- 
mocrates in Myra by Paul, and the history of Paul's fight with beasts at Ephesus, the story 
of Thekla was used separately in celebrating the anniyersary of the saint and thus became 
current as an independent work. That the popularity of the fragments soon exceeded that of 
the complete work is evidenced by Tertullian, a quarter of a century after the Acts of Paul 
were written ; for he seems to know the story of Thekla's teaching and baptizing as a work 
by itself. Still it is not impossible that by his earn acripturam he means the whole Acts of 
Paul, for which in any case his famous deposed Asiatic presbsrter must be held responsible. 

^ Macedonia : With this name we are introduced to a new geographiced setting for the 
story of Thekla. The whole list of Asiatic places — Iconium, Lystra, Daphne, Antioch, Myra, 
Seleucia — disappears from the narrative, and with them the local color so skilfully detected 
by Professor Bamsay (7Ae Church in the Roman Empire before A. Di 170, Part II, chap, zvi) 
and Mr. Conybeare (Apology and Acts of Apollonius^ etc., pp. 49-60). The writer evidently 
understands Macedonia to be a city, and thus decisively disclaims any familiarity with that 
part of Europe. The only other place mentioned is Thessalonica, which is made to do duty 
for the Antioch of the traditional form of these Acts. The story is thus made to fall — we 
can hardly suppose consciously — in a later missionary journey than the Greek, Syriac, 
Latin, and Armenian contemplate. The change of names is doubtless due to the greater 
familiarity of Macedonia and Thessalonica. 

'^ Tamer€nd» is the Ethiopic's substitute for the Onesiphorus of the earlier form of the 
Acts, and conspicuously illustrates the poverty of names which is characteristic of this 
Ethiopic reworking. For the six place names of the Greek the Ethiopic has but two ; while, 
instead of nearly a score of personal names in the Greek and early versions, the Ethiopic 
has only three. Demas and Hermogenes, Paul's false companions, disappear in the Ethiopic, 
as do the sons of Onesiphorus, his wife Lektra (Arm. Zenonia), Titus, Theokleia (who is 
called simply the ** mother of Thekla" in the Ethiopic), Castelius (Syr. Castelus) the gov* 
emor, Alexander, Tryphtena, and Falconilla. In Tamerenos tre obviously have a corruption 
of OdfivpLSj the name of Thekla 's betrothed, possibly due to Syriac influence. Further, the 
description of Paul and his meeting with Onesiphorus are lacking here. 




THE BOOK OF THEELA 27 

showed patience that those who believed in his name might be patient 
and inherit the kingdom of heaven, and stand with him and with his 
Father, whose are the counsel and the wisdom and the might of God. 
Blessed are they who make poor their soul, for theirs is the kingdom of 
heaven. Blessed are the righteous, for they shall inherit life. Blessed 
are they that mourn now for their sin ; them shall the righteous admon- 
ish.^ Blessed are they who hunger and thirst now, for they shall be 
satisfied in all their prayer when they pray unto God in their auction. 
Blessed are the doers of charity, for to them belongs mercy with God. 
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are they 
who make peace and reconcile,^ for they shall be called children of God. 
Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is 
the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye when men shall hate you for 
righteousness' sake ; rejoice at that time and be exceeding glad (Matt. 
5 : 3-12 ; Luke 6 : 20-23). Blessed is the man that follows the command- 
ment of God, and renounces the desire of this world. Blessed art thou, 
if thou dost leave thy substance and dost follow the command of God. 
Blessed is the woman who does not marry, but renounces this world, 
and the virgin who does not marry, but remains by herself (1 Cor. 7:38), 
saying unto God that he who marries is the portion of Gehenna. And if 
a woman has married in ignorance, she shall remain with her husband, 
and a man also with his wife (1 Cor. 7: 27). But if he marry another, he 
is the portion of Gehenna. But if thou dost follow the admonition of 
God, thou shalt inherit the kingdom of heaven. But know that the 
wealth of this world is vanity, and its life is vanity, and its gold and its 
silver, vanity, and he who loves it and he who trusts it ; and beyond all 
else is pride evil, for the proud God sets at naught. 

Be not like all gentiles who draw near unto God with their mouth, 
but their heart is far from God (Matt. 6 : 7). Because of them(?), ye shall 
not hate your enemies, and those who love you ye shall not love (Matt. 
5 : 43, 44). But if ye love him who loves you, ye do no more than other 
gentiles (Matt. 5 : 46). But if your enemy hunger, feed him ; and if he 
thirst, give him drink (Bom. 12 : 20) ; and if he be naked, clothe him 
(Matt. 25 : 36) ; and if thou hast one garment, divide with him, and clothe 
him. And if thou doest this, thou shalt gather and pour coals of fire 
upon his head. And when thou seest thy neighbor's property thou 
shalt not spend it upon thyself, and thou shalt not covet it (Exod. 20 : 17), 
and thou shalt not say, If I live I will gain all this ; for thou dost not 
know when^ thou prayest, that when a house is full of gold and silver, 
the thief comes and robs it, and leaves it bare (Matt. 6 : 19). Thus there- 
fore ye men also know not the time when judgment will come from God 

^Or "comfort/' ''encourage;" if we are to assume a Greek original, it 
probably had TapaxaKiffov^iv, 

^ Or become reconciled one with another. 

*MSS., ''where.'' It is suggested that in the Greek text lying more or 
less remotely back of the Book 6xov and hrel may have been confused. 



m'tt^fiiittKftatmm''tmmmmimmmmmitmti^mmm0im nm * namiii ^r«n .^^ 



28 HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

and he will take your soul away (Luke 12 : 20), and ye shall be naked, 
without provision^ before God ; and your glory and your soul also shall 
perish in Gehenna. And now reflect and take heed unto yourselves, I 
entreat you and beseech you in the name of God our Lord Jesus Christ, 
that ye be heedful of the admonition we have given you and accept it 
This, therefore, is the will of God, that ye do what ye have heard and 
seen and learned, and that the law of God be not a lie.^ But the people 
who received the law of God became alien. And now also, my brethren, 
love one another (John 15 : 12 ; 1 John 4 : 7). Why do I write to you ? 
Because of his love ye are admonished and taught of God' (1 Thes. 4 : 9) 
in the holy gospel. And ye have heard our Lord Jesus Christ speak, 
who laid down his life (John 10: 15, 17) for our sake^ and for the sake 
of those who believe in the shedding of his blood, which he shed* for 
our sake that we also who believe in him might be saved from our sins 
(Matt. 1 : 21). 

And he says to us in the word of the gospel : But do ye, O men, love 
one another, because thus God loved us (John 3 : 16). And he said. If 
ye love God, love one another (John 15 : 12). But there is none that has 
seen God (John 1 : 18) except the Son of man who came down from 
thence (John 3 : 13). But if ye love God, love one another (John 15 : 12), 
and love your neighbor as yourself (Matt. 19:19). And what ye 
will not that men should do to you, ye also shall not do to another 
(Matt. 7:12). And our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ spoke all this 
commandment. 

And now further ye shall not marry anyone whom ye find and ye 
shall not covet another's wife (Exod. 20:17; Deut. 5:21). But if her 
husband be dead, she shall dwell by herself : she shall not marry (1 Cor. 
7:39, 40). But if she is not able to refrain without a husband, she 
shall marry one, for it is better to marry than to commit fornication 
(1 Cor. 7: 9). And how will ye commit fornication when ye are the body 
of God, and your body the body of God ? Now, also, do not make the 
body of God the body of a harlot (1 Cor. 6 : 15), for when a man has 
intercourse with a woman* they become one flesh (1 CJor. 6 : 16). Do not, 
therefore, have intercourse with a harlot ; and as for one who marries a 
harlot, his judgment is death in Gehenna. Commit your soul to Jesus 
Christ, the son of God, for everyone who commits his soul before God 
shall inherit the kingdom of heaven.*^ 

^ Lit, the viaticum, 

2 In spite of the violence this translation does the verb, it seems the only 
poBsible rendering. 

3 by the word of God add, B. ^ who shed his blood, A. 
^and for the sake of our sins add. B. *the wife of a man, A. 

^ The extreme length of Paul's discourse— about one-fourth of the Ethiopic— finds no 
paraUel in the Greek, Syriac, ArmeniaUf or Latin. In the Ethiopic, as in the others, the 
inculcation of the virginity doctrine is framed in a series of beatitudes, but the Ethiopie 
has also made large use of the language of the gosi>el and epistles of John. 



THE BOOK OF THEELA 29 

And while Paul was proclaiming all this and preaching, Thekla 
heard. And she was the beloved of Tamerends, and the window of her 
house and the court of the house of the dwelling of Paul were opposite 
each other. But now she followed, and she thirsted for all this which 
delighted her, and kept it in her heart. And she staid three days with- 
out going down from the window of her house. And her mother spoke 
to her and said to her, My child, wilt thou not come down from the 
window, and eat food, and drink ^? Art thou not the betrothed of Tame- 
renos ? And the more she spoke to Thekla, the more she was unable to 
endure in her heart, and she came down from the window^ and desired 
to go unto Paul. And Thekla took her golden tire and she bribed the 
doorkeeper of their house and said, Put this on, and do not tell that I am 
going forth by myself.* And the doorkeeper took her golden tire, and let 
her go unto Paul. And when she came she began to roll herself beneath 
his feet and she licked the dust of his feet' and his footstool, and she 
said to Paul, Blessed is he that hears your exhortation, and is able to 
observe it. And now, my lord, teach me also it all, that I may not lose 
the kingdom of heaven. For blessed is the man that does the command- 
ment of God, and believes that Christ is Son of God. And he said to 
her. Blessed art thou, Thekla, while thou art young, to love this and seek 
it, for blessed is the man that seeks God and Jesus Christ, and that is 
persecuted for his sake and is cast out and is thirsty and hungry^ and 
naked and dies ; who possesses it all in life in this world, and lays down 
his life like sheep that are led to the slaughter^ (Isa. 53:7). And I 
trust and believe in the name of the Son of God, Jesus Christ, that every- 
one that gives himself up for his name's sake conquers all this, because 
he loved us. And in his name (and) we also will do his will, because it 
is certain that neither death nor life nor judgment nor that which now 
is nor that which is to come nor might nor height nor angels nor any 
other creature is able to separate us from the love of* Christ our Lord 
(Rom. 8 : 38, 39). 

And after that time for many days Thekla continued to go and 
return. So when her mother perceived it, she sought her and did not 

1 water add. B. ^and is afflicted cuid. B. 

3 of her house add, B. ^ slaughter-knife, B. 

*footBtool, B. * Jesus add. B. 

• The visit of Thamyris to Thekla and Theokleia^s protest against her conduct, which 
precede Thekla^s visits to Paul in the Greek and the versions, fall after her visits in the 
Ethiopic, and the account of Paulas imprisonment at the instance of Thamyris is omitted. 
Thekla ^s visit to Paul thus becomes in the Ethiopic a visit, to the house of his host, Tamere- 
nos, not, as in the Greek, Syriac, etc., a visit to his prison, and her behavior on that visit 
loses its original significance. The necessity for bribing the jailer with a silver mirror 
(Greek, Syr., Arm.) thus disappears. The single visit of the Greek, Syriac, and Armenian 
is seven times repeated in the Ethiopic, before Theokleia discovers what is going on. Then 
Paul is arrested for the first time, in the Ethiopic ; while according to the Greek and the 
versions it is then that he is scourged and set at liberty, while Thekla is brought before the 
governor, and sentenced to the flames. 



30 HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

find her. And while she sought her, she asked the doorkeeper, and as 
he was afraid, he told her. And her mother went to the house of Paul 
and found her. And she brought her back to her house and said, Summon 
Tamerenes to me. And they summoned Tamerenes. And she said to 
him. Hear about this thy wife. Today is the seventh day since a man 
whom they call Paul came, and she has learned his teaching and has 
received it, and behold^ she goes forth at night and goes unto him. 
And Tamerenes heard what she said, and he went unto her and said to 
her, My lady, what dost thou say of the thing that I have heard, even 
the story of thy mother'? Tell me' what it is, and do not hide it from 
me. But if ^ thou wilt not marry me, tell me. And she said to him. Go 
your way ; but my marriage is another one. And Tamerenes said to her. 
Do not listen to this man ; he deceives thee, and thou wilt lose this world 
for idle talk ; and the gold and silver and costly raiment and purple and 
samite ^ of your house are so much. And Thekla said to him. Let thy gold 
and thy silver be thine, and thy raiment and thy purple be thine ; but as 
for me, my gold and my silver and my raiment and my purple and my 
nuptials are the kingdom of heaven. But let your nuptials be yours, 
and do not mention this matter to me. But Tamerenos was angry at 
her and went forth and went to the house of the governor and told him 
and said to him. This man who has come into our country corrupts our 
wives, and many women hearing his teaching have left their husbands, 
and men moreover have left their wives, and virgins also follow his 
teaching and refuse to marry. And the governor said, Go, bring him. 
And they brought* Paul. And the governor said to Paul, But who art 
thou ? And what is this teaching that thou hast brought upon us in our 
city, to our wives that they should leave their husbands, and the husband 
also should leave his wife ? And the virgins refuse to marry. What is 
it that thou sayest, therefore ? And Paul said, Which is better, marrying 
or the commandment of God and of the Holy Spirit ? And the governor 
said to him. See, moreover, that he disputes me ! And he said. Seize him, 
bind him downward and put a circlet of brass upon his head and bum 
him with pitch and sulphur and with chaff of the floor. And they did 
so.' And they were not able to bum Paul with their fire because the 
Holy Spirit was upon him. And the governor was amazed.^ And he 
said, This thing is wonderful, that the fire is not able to burn him. Cast 
him out of our city, take the burning of his ashes, and bear them forth, 
saying, Behold the burning of Paul whom we have biuned, and have 
utterly cast forth. And they did so. 

^ by myself add, A. ^ Tell me om» B. 

^ which she has told me add. B. ^ But if om. B. 

^ The readings of the manuscripts here are, as Professor Charles suggests, 
perhaps corruptions for i^dfuros. 

* Lit., met. ^ Or wondered. 

^The attempted execution of Paul does not appear in the Greek or the yersions. 



THE BOOK OF THEELA 31 

And the mother of Thekla heard, and she said to Thekla, Behold, 
see that he was quite unable to save himself ; wilt thou, therefore, marry? 
And she said to her, Let thy marriage be thine own ; I have a husband, 
even Jesus Christ the faithful. Lord of heaven and earth, in whose name 
Paul preaches, who is preparing the passover for me in heaven. But if 
thou sayest it, my mother, take all this that thou hast cooked, the wine^ 
also and the fatlings and the bullocks, and give them to the poor and 
needy .^ But as for me, in my marriage great nuptials are mine, and 
honorable to my mother, even to thee, in this world, and to me thy child 
also.' And then her mother was angry, and she went to the governor 
and said to the governor. Although thou thyself also art with me, I am 
wronged by my child, who refuses to marry. Bum her, therefore, as ye 
burned Paul, because I prefer^ that she should die than that I should 
see her as I do not desire. And the governor said to her. Let them cast 
Thekla forth, and let them stone her. And her mother said. Wherever 
there are virgins also, therefore, command that the children of the good 
and great bring down fagots and see that they bum one who refuses to 
marry. And they did so. And the virgins of that city, the children of 
the great and good, brought fagots, and Thekla came down wonder- 
fully adorned and beautiful, and her hair reached even to her heel and 
toes, and her color was like ivory. But the governor said. Snatch her 
adornment from off her, and take away her garments, and gird sackcloth 
upon her. And they did so. And they said to Thekla, Wilt thou marry? 
or wilt thou not marry and^ shall they cast thee in ? And Thekla said. 
Why will ye cast me in ? I will go in myself ; and I will not marry. 
And they kindled the terrible and dreadful fire. And Thekla came^ to 
go in, and she stretched forth her hands, and signing* her forehead she 
said. With the sign of Christ the Son of God, whom Paul proclaims to 
be the Son of God, and since I believe him, I will go in, she said. And 
making the sign she went into the fire with the sign of Christ, and 
straightway the fire fled from before her, and there rained rain from 
heaven and extinguished the fire, and there came a crash of thunder 
and deafened the ear of the governor, because he had devised evil 
against the servants of God; and his ear festered and putrefied and 
was deaf.^ And Thekla came forth from the midst of the fire, while 

^ MSB., its wine. ^ and needy om. A. 

> Reading lidAC I with B; A, she prefers. 

^Litj or. 

^ and said add. A. ^Or sealing. 

s For this conyersation between Thekla and Theokleia there is naturally no place in the 
Qreek or the versions, as in them Thekla is harried from her visit to Panics prison immedi- 
ately to trial and execution. The Ethiopic thus stands alone in ascribing the arrest of 
Thekla to the instance of her mother. 

^ The deafening of Thekla's judge by the thunder is peculiar to the Ethiopic, as is the 
episode of the debt forgiven. 



^-^****'^*^ [ -'"- -^^^- ■■■■mil ■ if 



32 HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 

there was naught that detained her. And her mother cast her off, and 
said to her, Thou shalt not enter into my house nor approach me. From 
this day thou art a stranger to me. 

And Thekla tarried in a tomb (?) in the city,^ and^ while she was 
tarrying there she found a woman who owed her one thousand dinars. 
And Thekla said to her. Is it not one thousand dinars that thou 
owest me ? And the woman said, Tes,' my lady. And Thekla said,^ I 
forgive thee all of it. Give me three* dinars. And she gave her them. 
And she forgave her all that she owed. For thus says the Scripture, If 
you forgive your brethren their fault, your heavenly Father will forgive 
you your sins (Matt. 6 : 14). And because she remembered this, she for. 
gave what she owed her. And then she saw the attendant of Paul, and 
she followed him and said to him. Where is my lord Paul ? And because 
he was afraid, he said to her, I do not know the man, and I have not 
seen him.^ Now this young man was carrying the inner garment of Paul. 
For they were persecuting him. And many men^ followed him, and the 
men said to him, Alas, our master, behold we have followed thee in the 
enjoyment of thy discourse and we have not brought anything to eat. 
And now moreover we are hungry, and we will go and bring food for us 
all. And he said to them. Enough.* Behold now I will bring it And 
on this account he had sent his tunic by^ his servant, that the servant 
might sell Paul's garment and get bread.^ And Thekla gave him two 
dinars^ and she took up the garment and followed the attendant of Paul 
to where Paul was dwelling with him. And she said to him,'' O ^® my lord 

* a city, B. ^ eight, B. 

2 Om, B. • Are ye hungry ? B. 

' Yes, yes, B. ^ Lit, to ; om, A. 

^ And Thekla said om. A. 

^The coordination ot an inf. and impf. in an expression of purpose is bad 
Ethiopic and, as Professor Charles points out, may be due to a lapse on the 
part of the writer into the idiom of his Greek original, whether directly 
used or known through an Arabic version. 

» a dinar, B. ^^Or Very well. 

* By its departure from the older form of the story the Ethiopic is here betrayed into 
some inconsistency. Paulas attendant, afraid of further persecution, denies any knowledge 
of Paul, but seems immediately to conduct Thekla to Paulas abode. In the Greek, Syriac, 
Latin, and Armenian this attendant first accosts Thekla and offers his guidance to Paul, 
upon which their going to Paulas abode follows with all smoothness. 

J Many men: In the Greek and the versions these are Onesiphorus and his wife and 
children ; and it is the children who become hungry. 

^ For the responsive prayer with which Thekla' s appearance before Paul is so dramat- 
ically accompanied in the Greek and the versions, the Ethiopic substitutes Thekla*s brief 
account of her deliverance, and, omitting the (eucharistic ?) meal, proceeds with Thekla 's 
request that Paul cut her hair. In the Ethiopic he does this, though with reluctance ; but 
in the Greek, Syriac, and Armenian the hair-cutting seems to be postponed. Of the " seal 
of baptism '* the Ethiopic has no trace. 




THE BOOK OF THEELA 33 

Paul, verily the Lord whom thou dost worship is great, and I have seen 
that heaven obeys him. Verily he puts out the fire and judges him who 
oppresses the servants of God. And now also they laid hold of me and 
cast me into the fire for not marrying, because I am wedded^ to God and 
do not desire this world. For he that marries is of this world, and^ the 
word of the Scriptures which thou dost preach proclaims it And now, 
therefore, do thou rise up and cut off my hair and gird me, and I will 
follow thee, and I will be the handmaid of God.^ And Paul answered 
her and said to her. Truly I have heard of thy faith. God will preserve 
thee because all thy kinsfolk rejoice. But now I am not able to cut off 
thy hair and gird thee. And it is thy^ beauty on account of which it is 
impossible. Thou art very exceedingly beautiful, and thou art young, 
who hast not been proved ; and if perchance thou dost err in the manner 
of the young who do not know* even a very little, thou wilt go on and 
this thy faith then will be destroyed after the manner of the error that 
has been committed. Now therefore wait a little. And Thekla laughed 
and said to him. He who preaches does not doubt himself. See, and do 
not thou also be unbelieving. And® know certainly that the Holy Spirit 
will help me. And then Paul wondered and said to her. Thou speakest 
truly, my child. And he rose up and cut off her hair and girded her ; 
and they went to Thessalonica.^ 

And when her mother heard that she had cut off her hair and girded 
herself, she wept and went unto another governor, the minister of the 

'Reading X*flOil S ''I am rich" or ^*1 am wedded." Possibly a form of 
AAA • *'to be separate" is meant; cf, cK'AA^ ■ ''deaconess," 1 Tim. 5:11. 

^from add, A. 

^ and will do the will of God add, B. 

*0m. A. 

^ Liti have not seen. The text in this sentence is very obscure. 

*Do thou also add, B. 

^ Thesaalonica: For this the Greek and the yersions have Antioch, and they -proceed 
to recount the story of Thekla's persecutions in that city, through the love and jealousy 
of Alexander, how she was rei>eatedly saved from death by a lioness— no doubt Jerome's 
baptixati leonU /odiZam— baptized herself in the seal-tank of the arena, and was adopted 
by Tryphflona. Finally the older form of the Acts concludes with her visit to Iconium after 
the death of Thamyris, and her ultimate residence and evangelizing activity at Seleucia. 
With aU this the Ethiopic has few points of contact. The loss is the more conspicuous since 
in this part of the early Acts stood Thekla *s admitted claim to teach and to baptize, which 
gave the Acts of Paul and Thekla their chief interest and importance in the ancient church. 
It is enough to cite the locua claaaictu in Tertullian, De Baptitmo 17 {,ca. 190 A. D.) : Quodti 
qui Pauli perperam irucripta legunt^ exemplum Theclae ad licentiam mulierum docendi 
tinffuendique defenduntt aciant in Atia presbyterunit qui earn scripturam conttruxit^ qucui 
titulo Pauli de auo cumulana^ convictum atque confestum <e id amore Pauli feciaae loco 
dece$9iue. With the omission of two sayings— Thekla's answer to Paul, **He who com< 
manded thee to preach, the same commanded me also to baptize," and Paul's charge to 
her, "Go [to the city of Iconium], teach there the commands and words of God"— the 
writer of the Ethiopic Thekla has lost quite half the point of his original. What he has 
left is a discourse inculcating virginity, and a somewhat elaborate though unconsummated 
martyrdom. 



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34 



HISTOBIOAL AND LINGUISTIC STUDIES 



one whose ear the thunder deafened. And she said to him, Is Thekla 
stronger than all the governors of the land ? She has cut off her hair 
and girded herself, and she refuses to marry, and she governs herself 
while her mother is still alive. Will ye not help me^ to judge' her? 
And the minister of him whom the thunder deafened said to her, Thekla 
is hard to deal with ; she is stronger than all ; go, bring her, and take her. 
And they found her in Thessalonica. And they laid hold of her and 
brought her to the governor. And he said to her,' Art thou stronger 
than all ? Thou dost cut off thy hair and gird thyself, and dost thou 
refuse* to marry ? What sayest thou ? And Thekla answered him and 
said to him, I am thine, I am not strong.^ My defender is great, and 
unto him I commit my soul. He will deliver me from the hand of the 
governors and from everything that I fear. Now, therefore, what sayest 
thou ? And the governor said to her, Let me see then that thou art safe. 
And she said® to him, As those of old saw, thou shalt see. And the 
governor said to her, Moreover therefore let me see what^ will save her. 
Go, cast her into the den of lions and bears. And they took her and 
cast her into the den of bears and lions.^ And when they came to the 
door of the den of bears and lions, she spread out her hands again 
according to her custom and signed® herself with the sign of the cross, 
and at its door she signed® in the name of Jesus, Son of God, and she 
said, Now I will go in, since the Holy Spirit helps me. And on account 
of this she rejoiced. And it seemed to those yvho brought her that the 
beasts would devour her. But when the beasts saw her, they rose up 
and worshiped her, and they began to lick her and to roll at her feet. 
But she spread out her hands and began to pray. And she said. 

My soul praises*® God who was about the doing of his mercy before 
the world," and who is forever and ever God ; who dies not ; who made 
heaven and earth and all that is in them, with a word ,- who made the 
sea and all that is in it (Exod. 20 : 11) ; who made man in his image and 
in his likeness (Gen. 1 : 26).* He made me, who believe in his name and 
in his might and in his wisdom and in his understanding ; at whose word 
it was done; he who commanded and everything was; and he was 
pleased and everything was created. Although he was God, he became 
like man, and he was man and was manifested. And although he was 
God, he died, and on the third day he arose that he might make the dead 
to live and save those who believe on his name ; who likewise bowed the 
heavens*' and came down (2 Sam. 22:10; Fs. 18:9), and ascended and 
sat down on the right hand of his Father, having sat there before ; and 



* Litt Have ye none who will help me. 

2 Or control. 

8 Thekla add. A. 

^and thou dost refuse, B. 

<^ B ; A, I have not sung (or mocked). 

^He said, A. 



' Or who. 

^ And they .... lions om. B. 

® Or sealed. 

i<> Or thanks. 

" Or from eternity. 

" Om, A. 



THE BOOK OF THEKLA 



35 



he is forever Father and Son and Holy Spirit. He is one, loving man, 
and he is patient, he is compassionate ; who does not make our enemies 
to rejoice over us. And he has destroyed the flame of fire and blunted 
the teeth of the lions. To thee belong glory and praise, and to thee 
belongs holiness, to Father and Son and Holy Spirit. 

And while Thekla prayed thus, there came one to see whether the 
beasts had devoured her or she was alive. For because they had put 
her in,^ this latter governor, the minister of him whom the thunder 
deafened, was tormented all night and did not know what tormented 
him. And he said, Go therefore, look for'* the bones' of Thekla ; if you 
can find thenij we will bury them and be safe from this torment. And 
when they went to see her, they found her* alive. And they returned to 
the governor and told him that she was alive. And the governor said 
to them, Let us go. And when they were come, they said, Praised be 
God who has saved thee, thy Lord whom thou dost worship, and hast 
chosen and loved ;'^ for from the time that I sent thee among the lions, 
behold I have been tormented until now. Come, come forth and pray 
for me and for the governor® whose ear has been putrefying until now. 

And Thekla said to him, Therefore I cannot pray for thee and for 
the governor, unless ye bring Paul ; he shall pray for you. And he said 
to her. Is he then alive ? Have I not heard that they have burned him 
and cast forth his bones ? And she said to him, Tes, me also ye both 
burned,' and ye cast forth my bones. And they believed and sent to 
call Paul. And Paul came and prayed for the governor whose ears the 
thunder deafened, and for the other also, his nearest minister, who was 
tormented. And both of them lived, by the might of Jesus Christ^ for- 
ever and ever. Amen and amen.® 



^ he had put her in, B. 
^Lit, see. 
^Lit, bone. 



* they saw her and found her, B. 

^ who has chosen and loved thee, B. 

* also add, B. ^ Om, B. 



^ And they both believed on the name of Jesus Christ. So, Lord, heal of 
disease of soul and body thy servant, Walda Qlyorgis, add, B ; for ever and 



ever om. 



m 



'And me also, who have written it, thy servant, a sinner and wrongdoer, 
forgive my sin and bless add. B. 



^ By Walda QlydrgU {,t?ie ton of Oeorge) the British Museuxn Catalogae understands 
the owner of the manuscript. 



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ACTS of ftail and Thecla. 51^ 
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The book of Thekla.