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The Bookworm. 



AN ILLUS'TRA'TEB TREASURT 



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OLD-TIME LITERATURE, 



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ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1893. 



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Our Note-Book. 




LTHOUGH it is not so stated on the title-page, it is never- 
theless a fact that Mr. James Baldwin's " The Book-Lover : 
A Guide to the Best Reading," which G. P. Putnam's Sons 
have just issued, is a new and cheaper edition of a book which has 
had a very considerable popularity in a more expensive form. We 
are not at all surprised that it has sold well, for it is exceedingly 
entertaining as well as useful. Personally, we dislike Courses of 
Reading and Schemes for Practical Study to which Mr. Baldwin 
refers, but when such things have been decided upon it is at all 
events very desirable to have a competent guide, and Mr. Baldwin 
may certainly claim to be this. The elder Pliny declared that no 
book was so bad but that some part of it might be read with profit, 
but amid the high pressure at which every phase of life is now carried 
on we cannot afford to read every book we come across upon the 
plea that it may contain something of profit for us. This was 
possible at a period when half a dozen books were considered a fairly 
extensive library even for a man of means and culture. Now, it is 
necessary to obtain the greatest amount of knowledge with the least 
possible waste of time. After a chapter of wise hints as to the choice 
of books, Mr. Baldwin gives some equally solid advice as to the best 
manner of reading, and then on the value and use of libraries. We 
might traverse a good many of the hints he lays down in his chapter 
on " Books for every Scholar," but our disagreements would perhaps 
be more matters of opinion than of fact. After several practical 
chapters, Mr. Baldwin comes to the almost inevitable question as to 
"The Best Hundred Books," and into this extremely debatable 
matter we do not now propose to enter. We can thoroughly com- 

I 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 



I 



mend Mr. Baldwin's little book, which is daintily got up and deserves 

an extensive sale. 

sic * -:= =:= 

The annual volume of Messrs. Macmillan & Co.'s English Illus- 
trated Magazine is not nearly so interesting from a purely literary 
point of view as some of its predecessors. The articles which will 
attract the reader of literary or artistic tastes are few indeed as com- 
pared with previous years. Archdeacon Farrar's paper on three 
portraits of Milton is good, and that on Messrs. W. H. Smith & 
Sons is graphic and exceedingly interesting. But even this article 
does not give a full idea of the wonderful order and magnitude of W. 
H. Smith & Sons' business. The astonishment is that there should 
be so few^ mistakes, and that every blunder is so readily traced to its 
immediate source. To every one interested in athletic sports, in 
natural history, and in railways, this volume will be especially wel- 
come ; whilst for any one, old or young, it would be difficult to name 
a handsomer presentation book. 



It has become an annual pleasure both to read and to praise Mr. 
Joseph Jacob's charming books of fairy tales. This year he has gone 
to Indian sources for his inspiration, and it is almost needless to say 
that the field is peculiarly rich. Most authorities, including our 
friend Mr. Clouston, argue that India is the home of the Fairy 
Tale, and we think that, on the whole, their arguments have a great 
deal of force in them. The examples which Mr. Jacobs has selected 
for his book are not unfamiliar to students of the science of Folk- 
Lore, but they will not on that account be less welcome to readers 
who do not consider themselves as coming within that category. A 
few years ago the fairy story was regarded as peculiarly the property 
of young people, but this can no longer be said to be true. The 
subject has now become almost an exact science, and the origin of 
many of the stories a matter of study and inquiry as keen as the 
most important branches of historic doubt. So long as men like 
Mr. Jacobs and Mr. Andrew Lang take up the subject there will be 
no want of grown-up readers, and their books will continue to receive 
their proper position on the bookshelves of both old and young. 
Mr. Jacobs has been again fortunate in having the co-operation of 
Mr. J. D. Batten in giving, by his beautiful pictures, a vivid reality 
to these stories ; and Mr. David Nutt, the publisher, is doubly for- 
tunate in having two such harmonious collaborators. 



I 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 5 

A prefatory note to " The London and Middlesex Note-book " 
(Elliot Stock) tells us that the experiment of publishing a work 
devoted solely to the antiquarian and historical interests of London 
and Middlesex has been carried out in the volume now before us, 
and though it does not compass all that the editor intended, he 
hopes that it will meet with the approval of those who are interested 
in the records of the past, and that much of its contents will prove 
of permanent value to students. A mere glance through this hand- 
some volume will prove that the editor, Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore, has 
succeeded in compiling a volume of very wide interest and perma- 
nent value as a book of reference. To an Englishman no city in the 
world possesses the attractions of London, and in spite of t?ie innu- 
merable histories, good, bad, and indifferent, there are still vast 
quantities of important facts which only need gathering together and 
digesting to throw many side-lights on the history of this the most 
extensive city which the world has ever seen. Mr. PhiUimore has 
commenced to do this useful work, and we hope he will be encour- 
aged to continue it. 

;;; >}{ ;;< -k- 

The late Mr. William Blades's " Books in Chains " is a very wel- 
come addition to Mr. Elliot Stock's Book-Lover's Library, and Mr. 
Wheatley's introduction is an excellent resume of the lamented 
author's life-work by one who knew him well. The subject from 
which the book derives its title occupies two chapters, dealing 
respectively with chained books at Wimborne Minster (see Book- 
worm, vol. ii., p. 153), and in England and Abroad. The other 
essays which go to make up the book have appeared in various 
quarters, the most important of them, " De Ortu Typographiae," 
having first seen light in The Bookworm during 1888. Mr. Blades 
has not by any means exhausted the subject of books in chains so 
far as regards foreign examples, there still being several of the 
highest interest and importance in various parts of the continent. 
We trust that at some not far distant period the custodians of these 
chained books will publish articles descriptive of them; and the 
interest would be rendered still greater if collectors would publish 
accounts of books in their possession which still carry marks of 
having at one time been in chains. These occur occasionally in the 
auction room, and a couple of examples were recorded in The Book- 
worm, vol. iv., p. 339. 

■sc^ t- >|: H- 

Mr. George H. Ellwanger's " Story of My House," which Messrs. 




4 OUR NOTE-BOOK. 

George Bell & Sons have issued in this country, is almost too 
a book to handle. It is as pretty to look at as it is charming to 
read, and that is saying a good deal. Mr. Ellwanger deals with a 
variety of topics, on every one of which he is equally at home and 
entertaining. We prefer, however, the chapters dealing with the 
" Magicians of the Shelves," on " Authors and Readers," and on 
" My Indoor Garden," in each of which the author is particularly 
happy. Mr. Ellwanger writes with equal taste and fluency on nature, 
art, and literature, the one adding to rather than (as is sometimes 
the case) detracting from his appreciation of the other. " The Story 
of My House " is not a book to be picked up and read through with 
the dreary industry of the subscriber to a circulating library. It is 
essentially a book for which one must feel in the humour to appre- 
ciate properly, and under such conditions it is not likely to be 
dropped quickly. It only wants to be known to be appreciated on 
this side of the water, its popularity in America having been quite 
phenomenal. We may mention that the quaint and appropriate 
headings and tail-pieces have been specially designed by Mr. Alan 
Wright, and that it contains, as frontispiece, a view of the author in 

his study. 

-:« * * >:-> 

We have already called attention to Mr. Quaritch's admirable 
*' Dictionary of English Book-Collectors," of which the second and 
third parts have appeared. The collectors dealt with in these two 
parts are Mary Queen of Scots, Charles Spencer Third Earl of 
Sunderland, Sir James Thorold, Colonel T. Stanley, James and 
Thomas Edwards, John Rennie, Henry Perkins, Henry Huth, 
Thomas Allen, John Home Tooke, B. H. Malkin, George John 
Earl Spencer, and Mrs. John Rylands. The illustrations to the two 
parts include a facsimile of the cover of a copy of Paradin's " Chro- 
nique de Savoye " (Lyon, 1552), bound for Mary Queen of Scots, 
and now in the possession of Lord Rosebery ; a steel engraved por- 
trait of Henry Huth ; a portrait of Earl Spencer ; and facsimiles of 
the first and last pages of the Mentz Psalter of 1459, J^ow in the 
possession of Mr. Quaritch. With one exception, all the notices 
are written by Mr. Michael Kerney, than whom there is no greater 
living authority on book matters, not even excepting Mr. Quaritch 
himself. The Huth article is written in part by Mr. F. S. Ellis and 
by Mr. Alfred H. Huth, the son and present owner of the magnificent 
library which is said to have cost his father about ^120,000, and of 
which an account appeared in The Bookworm, vol. iii. pp. 225, 327. 




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Small Books. 




HE French equivalent to our own JVofes and Queries^ 
V Intermediaire des Chercheurs et des Curieux, recently pub- 
lished the following note on a subject to which we have 
made frequent reference in The Bookworm : — 

The smallest work I know of is a tiny child's prayer-book printed 
in Paris, without date, by Firmin-Didot. It is 27 millimetres in 
height, and 25 wide, including margin. Is any other book known of 
smaller than this ? 

In one of the following issues several readers gave an enumeration 
of books still smaller. We give the answers of M. de la Coussiere. 

The following is a description of a book still more microscopic 
than that alluded to in the question. " The Little Fabulist." Paris : 
Firmin-Didot, 56, Rue Jacob. No date; 87 pages; wood engrav- 
ings. The two copies I know have the back and guards covered 
with satin, and the flat sides are ivory. One of them measures 23 
millimetres by 19; the other, less cut in the binding, 25 millimetres 
by 20. 

"The Joujou Amusant": New Almanack for the Year 1803. 
Paris : Marcilly, Rue Julien-le-Pauvre. 64 pages ; engravings, 
calendar, and songs ; 29 millimetres by 20. 

" Little Child's Prayer-Book." Paris. Printing Works of Ad. B. 
Laine, 19, Rue des Saints-Peres. 92 pages, copper-coloured metal 
binding and clasp ; 26 millimetres by 20. 

" The Necessaire d^un homme de bien" Paris. Jaunet, late Joubert ; 
64 pages, 21 millimetres by 17. — This book was printed before 1790, 
as the last page contains a notice to lords of the court. 



SMALL BOOKS. 






The measure I employed being rather defective, the measurements' 
given may be accepted as correct within a millimetre. 

Subsequently, M. de la Coussiere added to the preceding remarks 
the following note : — 

" When I answered the question I had not looked in one of my 
glass cases, where I have two books, one of which is smaller than 
any of those already mentioned, being only 19 millimetres by 14. It 
is entitled the 'Alarm Almanack for 1781.' Paris : Boulanger, Rue 
du Petit-Pont : Le Mercier (sic\ 64 pages. There are some engrav- 
ings and quatrains for singing regarding it. The book has guards of 
silk, and is encased in a beautiful little gilt trinket, 2 1 millimetres by 
18, embellished by pretty ornaments of Louis XVI. 

"I have also a small child's prayer-book, no date, printed by 
Firmin-Didot, containing five engravings, and measuring 25 milli- 
metres by 17. It has ninety-eight pages, although there are only 
ninety-two numbered, and it is bound, velvet back and ivory sides. 
These little books were given to us, when children, in Easter eggs." 

Most of these little books are not printed typographically, but in 
copper-plate drawn on hollow engraved plates, like those used for 
visiting cards. There are some, however, of similar form in print. 
We may mention, in particular, " The Christian's Exercise," printed 
at Paris, in 1757, with no less than 192 pages. The copy in M. 
Coussiere's possession measures, with its original binding, 35 milli- 
metres in length, 20 in width, and not more than 10 in thickness. 
There is also " The Little Fabulist," no date, Paris. This Httle book 
is about the size of the preceding, containing engravings on wood, 
and is printed typographically. 

A large number of microscopic books are Missals, Prayer-books ; 
they are often in leather cases or metal, and then sometimes form 
trinkets. There are some noted collectors of these little books. M. 
Salomon, a well-known Parisian amateur, for instance, has about 200 
specimens. Are the curious books we have just enumerated actually 
the smallest made ? We should not like to say so. A Parisian book- 
seller assured us recently that a book passed through his hands which 
was smaller than any of them. Perhaps some of our readers may be 
able to answer a question of interest to bibhophihsts and virtuosos — 
Which is, really, the smallest book in the world ? 




London Booksellers. 

MR. EUGENE FIELD'S experience of the London bookshops 
has not been a happy one, if we may judge by the following 
which appears in Geyer^s Stationer :■ — Nearly every book-dealer in 
London is a publisher. Consequently, if you seek a particular book, 
it is hard to procure it at once unless you know the name and loca- 
tion of the publishing house. There are certain dealers — notably 
Hatchard, in Piccadilly — who will get any book there is in print and 
can be got ; but they require time. Go into any shop and ask for 
an item, and the chances are nine to one that the answer will be, 
" No, we haven't it, but we can get it for you." In every little nine- 
by-four shop you hear talk about "our factory." "We shall have 
to send down to our factory " for this article or that. This sort of 
thing makes even strong men very weary. After inquiring in vain 
at half a dozen shops for a copy of James Whitcomb Riley's poems, 
I made the long journey to Paternoster Row, and applied for the 
book at Longmans', the publisher. I was referred to a dealer in St. 
Paul's Churchyard. Thither I proceeded. They were all out of the 
book, but could get me one. " How soon can you get it ? " I asked. 
" In a week or ten days," they said. " Where do you have to go for 
it ? " I asked. " To the publishers," they answered. *' My friends," 
said I, " I have travelled four miles for that book, and I am going to 
camp here till I get it. The publishers are only one minute's walk 
from here — now fetch me that book ! " Very few of the second- 
hand book shopkeepers know what they have in stock. You ask 
them for a certain book, and they shake their heads, when the 
chances are that several copies of the book you want are con- 



8 LONDON BOOKSELLERS. 

spicuously displayed upon their shelves. Their so-called catalogues 
are not worth much, because they include, in most cases, only the 
high-priced books. The real curiosities are to be found, not in the 
catalogues, but upon the top and bottom shelves of the dusty 
stalls. 

[We quote the above more as a curiosity than anything else. Its 
absurdities are too numerous and too obvious to be worthy of 
categorical replies, and Mr. Field's unhappy and quite needless 
troubles will afford amusing reading to those who know the real facts 
of the case. — Ed. Bookworm.] 




Real Bookworms . 

TWO fine specimens of the genuine bookworm were discovere 
recently by Mr. Benjamin, of New York, embedded in a 
precious copy of "Seneca," dated London, 1675, and belonging to 
John Carey in 1782, One small white worm had entered at the 
lower right-hand corner, the conical cocoon from which it had 
emerged still adhering to the leaves of the book without. With its 
fellow, which was working towards it from the back of the book, no- 
cocoon was found. The former, three-eighths of an inch long and 
one-eighth of an inch in diameter, was unwittingly killed by the 
disturbance of its shell, but the remaining member of the family is 
still alive and healthy. This book-destroyer is now exceedingly rare ;. 
so much so that when Mr. Bernard Quaritch found one five years 
ago, in one of his treasured volumes, he celebrated the discovery by- 
giving a dinner to a large party of his principal clients. 




The Friendship of Books. 




ROBABLY no cultivated person can be more eloquent than 
when talking about books ; and as the subject is one at all 
times pleasant to read about as well as to listen to, we have 
pleasure in reproducing the gist of two lectures delivered during 
October. The first was delivered by Sir John Lubbock to the 
students of the Morley Memorial College, Waterloo Road, London. 
Beginning with a reference to the praise bestowed on books more 
than four hundred years ago by Richard De Bury, Bishop of 
Durham, Sir John said : — Consider how much better off we are 
now than he was then. You may buy for the price of a pot of beer 
or one or two pipes as much as you could read in a month. Again, 
while our books are small and handy, theirs were ponderous, im- 
mense — very inconvenient either to hold or to read. Even our 
deepest books are, in a sense, light. But, what is far more im- 
portant, we have not only all the most interesting books which De 
Bury could command, but many more also. Even of ancient 
literature m.uch has been discovered. Again, in his day, one might 
almost say that the novel was unknown. In poetry he lived before 
Shakespeare or Milton. In science, chemistry and geology have 
been created, and, indeed, the progress of discovery has made all 
the rest — natural history, astronomy, geography, and others — far 
more interesting. I have already mentioned novels, and I think 
those who cry down public libraries because many novels are read 
in them make a great mistake. I believe we have, most of us, to 
confess the truth, learned more English history from Shakespeare 
and Scott than from Stubbs or Green. Moreover, good novels 
teach us, what is very important, a knowledge of human knowledge. 
Books are peculiarly necessary to the working men in our towns. 
Their life is one of much monotony. We look down upon less 
civilised races, but yet the savage has a far more varied existence. 
He must watch the habits of the game which he hunts, their migra- 
tions and feeding grounds. He must know where and how to fish. 
Every month brings him some change of occupation and of food. 

2 




lo THE FRIENDSHIP OF BOOKS. 

He must prepare his weapons and build his own house. Even the 
lighting of a fire, so easy now, is to him a matter of labour and 
knack. The agricultural labourer turns his hand to many things. 
He ploughs and sows, and mows and reaps. He plants at one 
season, and uses the bill-hook and the axe at another. He looks 
after the sheep, and pigs, and cows. To hold the plough, to lay a 
fence, or tie up a sheaf is by no means so easy as it looks. It is 
said of Wordsworth that a stranger having on one occasion asked to 
see his study, the maid said, "This is master's room, but he studies 
in the fields," The agricultural labourer learns a great deal in the 
fields. He knows much more than we give him credit for, only it 
is field learning, not book learning — and none the worse for that. 
But the man who works in a shop or manufactory has a much more 
monotonous existence. He is confined, perhaps, to one process, or 
even one part of a process, from year's end to year's end. He 
acquires, no doubt, a skill little short of the miraculous, but, on the 
other hand, very narrow. If he is not himself to become a mere 
animated machine he must generally obtain, and in some cases he 
can only obtain, the necessary variety and interest from the use of 
books. 

And if reading is an advantage anywhere, it is especially and 
peculiarly so in London. Our climate does not permit us to sit 
out in the open air so often as in southern countries, our river is 
not so pure, our air not so clear as in the country or smaller towns. 
Nor can you escape to the woods and fields so easily as the people 
of villages and smaller cities. Books, however, will transport you to 
the green fields and downs, the woods and rivers, mountains and 
seashores. They will even take you abroad, and bring before you 
other countries — the sunny shores of the Mediterranean, the lakes 
and mountains of Switzerland, the beautiful islands of the Pacific ; 
you may travel all over the world, without suffering from the heat of 
the tropics or the cold of the poles ; you may visit Rome and Greece, 
and the wonderful cities of Egypt. Nowhere, again, is it possible to 
read with more profit than in London, because in the British Museum 
— the most magnificent museum in the world — in our picture galleries 
and elsewhere, you have specimens and monuments and pictures 
which do much to illustrate the books. We hear much now about 
the creation of a great university for London. But after all, as 
Carlyle well said, you have a university where you have a library. 
I have been subjected to some good-humoured ridicule for having 
said that I beheved the time would come when working men would 
be the great readers. But I adhere to the opinion. You have 




THE FRIENDSHIP OF BOOKS, ii 

shorter hours than doctors, or lawyers, or merchants, and when you 
have done your day's work you have had plenty of exercise, while 
we have still ours to get. 

To whom do we owe our national progress ? Partly, no doubt, 
to wise sovereigns and statesmen, partly to our brave army and navy, 
partly to gallant explorers who paved the way to our Colonial 
Empire, partly to students and philosophers. But while we re- 
member with gratitude all they have accomplished, we must not 
forget that the British workman, besides all he has done with his 
strong right arm, has used his brains also to great advantage. Watt 
was a mechanical engineer ; Henry Cort, whose improvements in 
manufactures are said to have added more to the wealth of England 
than the whole value of the National Debt, was the son of a brick- 
maker ; Huntsman, the inventor of cast steel, was a poor watch- 
maker ; Crompton was a weaver ; Wedgewood was a potter ; Brind- 
ley, Telford, Mushat, and Neilson were working men; George 
Stephenson began life as a cowboy at twopence a day, and could 
not read till he was eighteen ; Dalton was the son of a poor weaver, 
Faraday of a blacksmith, Newcomen of a blacksmith \ Arkwright 
began life as a barber. Sir Humphrey Davy was an apothecary's 
apprentice, and Bolton, "the father of Birmingham," was a button 
maker. We ought to be as proud of them as of any of our generals 
or statesmen. Those who love reading are, to a great extent, inde- 
pendent of the caprices or tyranny of their fellow-men. Indeed, 
there is hardly any trouble which an hour's reading will not diminish. 
A library, indeed, is not only the best university ; it is a true fairy- 
land, a Paradise upon earth, a Garden of Eden without its one 
drawback, for all is free to us, especially the fruit of the tree of 
knowledge for which we are told that our first mother abandoned 
all the pleasures of Paradise. 

The second lecture was delivered by the Rev. S. A. Barnett at 
the opening of the Whitechapel Free Library, and was very happily 
described by Lord Roseberry as an " exquisite little speech." The 
subject was " Books and their Uses." 

The uses of books, Mr. Barnett said, were innumerable, but their 
chief use was to be our friends. All of us put friendship at the top 
of our possessions, and valued above all things a good friend. East 
London suffered most of all from the loss of the friendship of West 
London, and no amount of gifts, no kind words, no number of 
missions and no laws, were they for relief or coercion, could ever 
make up for that loss of friendship. The chief use of books was to 




12 THE FRIENDSHIP OF BOOKS. 

be our friends, and books made very often the turning-point in "a" 
man's life. For himself he remembered how reading Seeley's 
"Ecce Homo " gave him a new foothold for faith, and how Maine's 
" Ancient Law " made his life travel back to the very beginnings of 
things, and how Browning's poems gave him a ladder on which to 
step from the common things of earth to the glories of heaven. 
They were friends which inspired and rebuked and never wearied, 
which never sulked and never had any moods ; they were friends 
which gave and took, and there must be reciprocity in true friend- 
ship. They gave to the readers what their readers needed with an 
exquisite sympathy, but they also took something from the reader. 
Books were faithful — they spoke alike to rich and poor, in sickness 
and in health — they were the comforters of many sick beds, and it 
was a striking fact that Tennyson, a man with many friends, asked 
on his death-bed for a book, and that his last words were, " I have 
opened the book." The best books, like the best people, needed 
to be introduced — their exterior was not always attractive. There 
were books which needed no introduction — pleasing books which 
made good company for the idle hour ; but those books which stood 
by a man in his hours of trouble and helped him in times of diffi- 
culty, in sorrow, and death, were friends who very often needed an 
introduction. Now, introducers were not very common in East 
London — those people who, knowing the life within the books, were 
able to introduce them to people who had no knowledge of the 
books. Happily they were becoming more common, and people 
were beginning to recognise the fact that they in East London 
needed some other knowledge than how to increase their earnings. 
All labour had its best comfort in enabling great men to live. The 
Greeks and Jews stood high above other nations, not because they 
achieved great conquests, but because they left us great lives on 
which we could feed our character. No accumulation of wealth, no 
aggrandisement of empire would enable the English nation to bear 
great men. They wanted more men who would come amid them 
who, knowing something of the books themselves, would introduce 
them to readers. There were 10,000 books in that library. Among 
them it was certain there were friends to suit all characters, and all 
men, and all times. Light books — novels and tales — books to be 
men's companions, and to take them from their surroundings — these 
books had their value, and a very great value, in their neighbour- 
hood. But it was the solid books, the philosophies, the histories, 
the poetry — it was these that could help them in their trouble, and 
it was these that he urged his friends in Whitechapel to seek. 




Biblioincineration. 

[Among a very varied collection of " Bibliopoliana,'' we pos- 
sess a broadside with the somewhat startling title of " Biblio- 
conflagratio." It is, of course, American, for only an American 
genius could invent such a title, to begin with. The following 
is the leading article, so to speak, of the broadside, and was 
indited from the "Temporary Sanctum" about three years ago. Its 
chief fault is its length, but we prefer to give it in toto to a garbled 
condensation, inasmuch as Mr. Ruggles is only at his best when at 
at his worst, or, in other words, when he can scorn any fear of the 
editorial blue-pencil. — Ed. Bookworm.] 




RIENDS AND PATRONS : 

Instead of reclining "among the roses of relaxation " as 
we had purposed briefly doing, we must still remain at the 
front, and again mount the editorial tripod for the purpose of inditing 
our first 5-(?wz-annual message. As sooner or later befalls the lot of 
most business men, and especially those of this historic town, we too 
have undergone the ordeal of fire, have passed through the crucible 
of conflagration. On the night of February 20, our Bookery, Knick- 
nackatory and Sanctum Sanctorum were entirely consumed, thus 
sweeping away in a few brief moments the vast literary accumulations 
of a busy lifetime. Our tons of book stock, and valuable private 
library of choice new and " O. P." works on peculiar subjects and 
ordinary topics treated in an uncommon manner (dating from 1473), 
the most of which were extra matterated and enriched with clippings 
akin to the subjects treated gummed to the covers and fly leaves, and 
favourite passages carefully marked ; of prized bibliographical works 
and finding lists containing the titles, authors, publishers, sizes, 
prices and date of publication of nearly every book issued in America 



14 



BIBLIOINCINERA TION. 



I 



since the discovery of the Continent, of costly extra illustrated 
volumes, Confederate States imprints, " Juniana," " Baconiana," 
"Facetia," etc.; our cords of periodicals, embracing original issues 
back to 1 714, and mzny facsi7iiiles of others more ancient, including 
a fine selection of papers with singular titles ; our profusion of 
fascinating pictures and statuary, hundreds of photographic and 
stereoscopic views gathered by years of travel, thousands of portraits 
of celebrities and pictures for purposes of illustration, our aggrega- 
tion of numismatic treasures, (some ante-dating the Christian era), 
numerous acquisitions in philately, glittering specimens of the 
mineral kingdom, our wonderful accumulation of autograph letters, 
documents and signatures, our avalanche of quaint bric-a-brac and 
souvenirs of eccentricity, our omnium gatherum scrap books of 
psychological oddities, local history archives, and our own twenty- 
three years' literary contributions, our common-place books filled 
with uncountable intellectual notes, our oceans of newspaper clip- 
pings and gleanings of a third of a century, and unedited material 
filed away for use in the near future, our miles of correspondence 
with names and addresses of myriads of bibliophiles, biblioworms, 
and warm personal friends, our electrotypes, printed advertising 
matter, circulars and stationery, our worlds of old book catalogues in 
various languages, all our account books, invoices, and office records 
generally, together with furniture, clothing, trunks, satchels and 
packing cases, while last in enumeration, but first of all in senti- 
mental value, the original Webster's Elementary Spelling Book, in 
which we conned our letters, with our other old text books of school- 
boy days, and several generations of family heirlooms that are hope- 
lessly unduplicatable, have all been reduced to ashes by the chemical 
action of the devouring element. 

The old mansion and landmark that has withstood the vicissitudes 
of wind and storm, the lightning's threatening flash, and human 
carelessness for over half a century, at last has been forced to sur- 
render to the insinuating fury of the remorseless fire fiend, and is now 
but a mass of smouldering ruins. Originally constructed for and 
occupied as a caravansary, it has for lo these many years, in its lower 
regions served for families therein to dwell, while six of the upper 
apartments have been occupied by our constantly accumulating 
stock and steadily increasing business. The chimney " burned out " 
and ignited the building, and soon the great depository of the wis- 
dom of the ages went down in the maelstrom of destruction. Charred 
fragments of books were wafted on the wings of the winds for miles 
around. 



BIBLIOINCINERATION. 15 

The families barely escaped with their lives, one heroic woman 
working barefooted in the snow and cold with the thermometer 
marking zero, and her Hmbs congealing. 

Our patient pets, however, exhibited the composure of unmurmur- 
ing stoics ; the ebony blackbird looked on undismayed, the usually 
timid partridge ne'er moved a muscle, the modest meadow lark 
showed no embarrassment, the shy prairie dog uttered not a single 
bark, nor did the duck quack, or the new-born chicken even peep, 
the " guinea pig " calmly submitted to the roasting process without so 
much as a grunt or squeal, while the great horned owl, our " god of 
wisdom," looked on undismayed as the terrible incineration was 
swiftly progressing, and all endured the great transition so calmly 
as to cast no reflections whatever on the clever specimens of the 
deft taxidermist's skill that they were. How like unto the para- 
lysis of death in the human is the great equalizer cremation, and our 
worshipped curios and sainted volumes, whether arrayed in cloth or 
leather garments, in plain paper or sumptuous morocco apparel, 
have all been reduced to a common level and met a uniform fate. 

He who pilfers our wallet gets trash, but cruel fate that robs us ot 
our mind's gods and jewels that had been gathered by years of toil 
and hardships, of feverish brain tension and physical perspiration, 
commits to us the unpardonable sin indeed ! 

It is a calamity that we long have feared and have seen in both 
dreams by night and daytime reveries, and as we had frequently fore- 
told, nothing would be saved in case of our absence. It is not the 
regular stock in trade, that will take several months to have re-manu- 
factured, that we so much regret as the sacrificing of curio accumula- 
tions. But bad as the calamity is it might have been much worse. 
We feel very thankful that no lives were lost and no one even 
seriously hurt. 

The pecuniary loss is upwards of $5,000, upon which we have an 
insurance of $3,000. Had the fire occurred earherin the season the 
loss would have been much heavier, considerable quantities of stock 
having been shipped out during the winter. The sentimental loss 
and consequential damages are simply incomputable. 

The ruins have been thoroughly dug over and proved to be a 
miniature gold mine, as considerable quantities of old and new coins, 
in various stages of preservation, have been unearthed. 

Having a large amount of unfinished business in the west, (where 
we were fortunate in getting goods shipped in advance of the confla- 
gration), we concluded reluctantly to remain and complete before 
returning to the scene of devastation. But oh, what a month of sus- 




1 6 BIBLIOINCINERATION. 

pense and anxiety it has been to us ! What with telegrams awaiting 
in town after town, constant reminders from customers about local 
fires, the burning prairies, etc., we have veritably been fire-haunted, 
and experienced a sublunary inferno. We are now, however, taking 
the matter philosophically, and feel that we but assumed unnecessary 
risks and have reaped the usual outcome ; for have we not in life 
a surfeit of unavoidable chances to incur without burdening ourselves 
with others that can be evaded. We had long contemplated the 
erection of a brick building, a removal " from the old house into " a 
new, and was just reaching our hope's fruition, and well thought our 
plans, when trusting against fate for a few months longer, the devour- 
ing demon, whose coming can never be definitely prognosticated, 
appeared upon the scene with the usual result. But away with 
useless regrets and manfully survey the future ! So we are now 
giving our thoughts to perfecting safer arrangements. 

Do we purpose phcenixising f Most assuredly the answer must be 
in the affirmative, for are we not " in for life " and *' wedded to our 
idols until death do us part?" Moreover, with orders and letters of 
cheer and sympathy rolling in by every mail, how could we retire, 
even did we so desire? " 

We shall at least for a while longer remain in this unique anti- 
quarian town, and have consequently established new headquarters at 
the corner of Chicago and Matteson streets, and shall at once begin 
new acquisitions, and as far as practicable duplicate the old curiosity 
shop as speedily as cash and the " gift of continuance " will accom- 
pHsh the splendid desideratum. We intend to make it a great 
educational institution for the rising generation and a philosophical 
Mecca to which enthusiastic bibliophiles can sojourn with both 
pleasure and profit. Like Barnum's show, everything will be new, 
fresh, and sparkling, but we fear on the contrary that as Carlisle 
remarked of his History of the French Revolution, (the manuscript 
of which was burned and afterwards re-written from memory), " it's 
pretty good, but ah ! ah ! it is not Uke the old one ! " 

So you see, friends, we are not crushed, nor even despondent ; 
our plans have only been disarranged, causing much temporary in- 
convenience and some delay, but not frustrated nor abandoned. 
Having for years possessed all assets, no liabilities, the loss will not 
affect our financial standing, and we shall continue to purchase and 
sell goods for cash as heretofore, and proceed on our mission of 
diffusing intelligence, handling the most precious goods on earth, the 
ink-preserved brain-drops of the "Knights of the Pen, the Monarchs 
of the mind ! " until comes the time to close the volume of Existence 



BIBLIOINCINERATION. 17 

when the future scribe can truthfully write upon the final stage, *' He 
fought the great battle of Life, he kept the moral faith, fire could not 
conquer him, the idiotic mouthings of blatherskiting empty heads 
could not swerve him from his purpose, and he never got off from 
his hobby until the grim monster did them separate." Thus with a 
goodly amount of insurance, a comfortable bank account, valuable 
real estate and outside resources, we purpose keeping step to the 
music of progress, and ever retaining as our watch-word, Biblio- 
polenildesperandu7n ! 

Yours for the Conflict, 

J. Francis Ruggles. 



Franklin's Favourite Books . 

THE following is a Hst of "favourite" books drawn up by 
Benjamin Frankhn in the year 1722, published in the New 
York Courant^ reprinted in the New York Critic of August 20: — 
Pliny's "Natural History," Aristotle's "Politicks," "Roman His- 
tory," " Athenian Oracle," " Sum of Christian Theology," Cotton 
Mather's " History of New England," Oldmixon's " History of 
American Colonies," Burnet's " History of the Reformation," 
Virgil, Milton, "The Guardian," "Art of Thinking," "The 
Reader," Cowley's Works, "The Ladies' Pacquett Broken Open," 
" History of the Affairs of Europe," " The Tale of a Tub," Josephus' 
"Ant.," ''History of France," Herr. Moll's Geography, "British 
Apollo," Heylin's "Cosmography," " Sandy's Travels," Du Bartas, 
"Theory of the Earth," " Hudibras," "The Spectator," "The 
Turkish Spy," "Art of Speaking," "The Lover," Oldham's Works, 
" The Ladies' Calling," Shakespeare's Works, St. Augustine's Works. 



jg ^^K MISCELLANEA. 

Lord Tennyson's Masters . 

ABOUT three years ago a statement appeared in a weekly 
journal, Wit and Wisdo77i^ to the effect that " Lord Tennyson 
said that he attributed his command of metrical language to his 
acquaintance with Horace." This statement was challenged by a 
correspondent, whose letter was forwarded to the Poet Laureate, for 
the accompanying facsimile of whose reply we are indebted to the 
above-mentioned periodical : — 






u ^< 



t^/^/t^ 






II 



i^i^^ 



The Works of Sir William Jones. 



A PROTEST. 




N the issue of The Bookworm for September last an article, 
descriptive of some of the treasures in the Althorp Library, 
is reproduced from The Times, in which occurs the follow- 
ing passage (p. 318):— 

"And these seven gorgeous folios in crimson and gold? Is it 
Homer, Dante, or Shakespeare, or even Buffon, that has been 
thought worthy of such honour ? No ; these volumes are the 
works of Sir William Jones. He was almost a great man once ; 
he helped to found a Sanskrit scholarship, and he wrote one 
solemn little poem which is printed in most of the anthologies; 
but his works, it is to be feared, have long since become mere 
furniture, and not even in this splendid form will they tempt the 
Manchester reader. But perhaps the Althorp Library is not richer 
in dead reputations than any other collection of its size." ^ 

Such an unjust — even ignorant and flippant — estimate of the 
writings of one of the most distinguished Englishmen of his day, 
or indeed of any period, might be allowed to pass with the contempt 
which it so well deserves, had it been confined to the ephemeral 
columns of a newspaper which seems likely soon to degenerate (if 
the catastrophe have not already taken place) from the whilom 
"Thunderer" to a mere "ancient dodderer," as Sir Richard Burton 

^ The works of Jones are not in " seven folios," but in six vols. 4°, published in 
1799, and there is another edition in 13 vols. 8°, published in 1807. Two ad- 
ditional vols. 4° were issued in 1801. 



2^^ THE WORKS OF SIR WILLIAM JONES. 



I 



once styled another celebrated public print. But when it is placed 
on permanent record, so to speak, in the pages of The Bookworm, 
the case is very different, and I feel it necessary to enter my indig- 
nant protest against these misleading remarks. 

The writer of The Times article shows one thing very conclusively 
— that a man may know a great deal about the several editions of 
certain books, and little or nothing of their contents — like the book- 
collector in the " Ship of Fools," 

"What they mean, does he not understand." 

Before speaking of the works of Jones as "mere furniture," and of 
his "dead reputation," he had penned another choice passage, in 
reference to the Caxtons in the Althorp collection, which, accord- 
ing to him, are good for nothing but to be looked at and devoutly 
handled; "a modern reader," he sagaciously opines, "would hesitate 
long before fairly sitting down to read ' The Four Sons of Aymon.' " 
If by "modern reader" he means the fatuous devourer of current 
frothy fiction, this may be true enough ; but does he not know that 
the romance he mentions is considered by students of mediaeval 
European literature as a very important composition, and, moreover, 
that it forms one of the excellent publications of the Early English 
Text Society, ably edited and annotated by an eminent living English 
scholar ? ^ 

If Sir William Jones was not a great man, in the strictest sense of 
the term, it was probably only because he diffused his vast erudition 
over many different subjects, instead of concentrating his extraordinary 
abilities on a single important department of research and study. It 
was not a " Sanskrit scholarship," however, that Jones founded, but 
the Asiatic Society, through which the priceless riches of the litera- 
tures of Eastern countries began to be known to some extent in 
England, and which largely encouraged the study of Oriental lan- 
guages throughout Europe. 

^ Henry Stephens, in his " Introduction" to his " Apology for Herodotus " (a 
separate work from the ** Apology," be it known to whom it may concern), relates 
a droll noodle story which shows the widespread popularity of this romance : A 
youth went before the bishop as a candidate for holy orders, and his lordship, to 
test his intellect, asked him, " Who was the father of the Four Sons of Aymon?" 
Being unable to answer, he was dismissed, and returning home told his father of 
the bishop's puzzling question. '* Thou fool," says the enraged parent, " canst 
thou not tell that ? See — there is great John the Smith ; he hath four sons. 
Prithee, who is their father?" Quoth the youth, "I understand it now," and 
next day he again went before the bishop, and when once more asked who was 
the father of the Four Sons of Aymon, promptly answered, " Great John the 
Smith." 



THE WORKS OF SIR WILLIAM JONES. 21 

Sir William Jones wrote many things much more important, in- 
teresting, and valuable than " one solemn little poem which is 
printed in most of the anthologies " (save the mark !). I suppose 
the writer refers to the well-known lines, found among Jones' papers 
after his death, in which certain hours of each day are set apart for 
different purposes, and " all for Heaven." It is true that Jones was 
no poet, and indeed he published very little "original" verse; but 
his metrical paraphrases of poetical pieces, from the Sanskrit, Arabic, 
Persian, and other Asiatic languages, are exceedingly graceful ; each 
of them " dwells, hke bells, upon the ear." ^ 

The writings of Sir William Jones, notwithstanding the immense 
progress that has been made within our own time in those rich and 
varied fields where he first broke ground more than a hundred years 
syne, are still, many of them, of value to earnest seekers after know- 
ledge, and form very useful stepping-stones to more extended studies 
in Oriental literature. 

Jones was, I believe, the first European to discover the existence 
of a Sanskrit dramatic literature, dating long before the commence- 
ment of our era, and to publish a complete English translation of one 
of the oldest extant Hindu dramas — that of " Sakuntala," by Kali- 
dasa, fondly styled by his Western admirers "the Shakespeare of 
India." ^ 

He was also the first to introduce into Europe, through an English 
rendering, the " Hitopadesa " of Vishnusarman, a Sanskrit version of 
the celebrated collection of apologues and tales commonly known as 
the Fables of Pilpay, or Bidpai — a work which, in various forms, but 
with the same fundamental outline, has probably been rendered into 
more languages than any other book in the world, with exception of 
the Bible, and which contains prototypes of several of the so-called 
.^sopian fables and other European popular fictions. 

He also published the famous Muallakdt, the Seven Arabic Prize 
Poems, which were suspended on the Temple at Mecca, before the 

^ A fine example of Jones' charming versification is the " Persian Song of 
Hafiz," an elegant paraphrase of one of the ghazels of " the Anacreon of Persia," 
one line of which, " orient pearls at random strung," is among our most *' familiar 
quotations." His " Ode to Spring," from the Turkish poet Mesihi, is another 
delightful piece, but this will be found more closely rendered by Mr. E. J. W. 
Gibb, in his ** Ottoman Poems" (Triibner, 1883), with the peculiar rhythm and 
rhyme movement of the original nmrebba cleverly reproduced. 

* It seems the text used by Jones was not quite accurate in some places. This 
fine drama has been elegantly rendered- into English prose and verse, as in the 
original, by Sir Monier Williams, and printed in splendid style by Messrs. Stephen 
Austin and Sons, Hertford. 



H 



22 



THE WORKS OF SIR WILLIAM JONES, 



advent of Muhammed, transliterated into Roman characters, with a 
prose English translation. Was it no great thing to introduce to 
mere English readers the spirited strains of the renowned Bedouin 
poet-hero Antar — the Bayard of the Arabian desert, which was the 
cradle-land of European chivalry ? ^ 

His eleven annual discourses before the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, 
on the Philosophy of the Hindus, on the Arabs, the Persians, the 
Tartars, the Chinese, &c., afford much interesting information. His 
" Poeseos Asiaticse Commentariorum Libri Sex," and so forth, and 
his " Traite sur la Poesie Orientale " are excellent pieces of work, 
and it is not easy to understand why they have not been done into 
English for the special benefit of "unlearned " readers. But it would 
be tedious to enumerate all the important writings of the pioneer of 
English orientalism, for which he found time amidst his onerous 
judicial duties and during a too brief lifetime. 

Many eminent scholars, and others who have in humbler ways at- 
tempted to popularise Oriental literature in this country, have grate- 
fully acknowledged their indebtedness to the writings of Jones. The 
late Sir James Redhouse in his letters to me always referred to Jones 
in terms of the highest respect and admiration. My venerable, 
amiable, and learned friend Mr. Samuel Robinson, who died at 
Wilmslow, in December, 1885, at the great age of 91, his fine 
intellect unimpaired and his warm heart filled with benevolence to 
the last, has recorded, in the preface to his "Persian Poetry for 
EngUsh Readers" — printed in 1883, for private circulation, but ac- 
cessible at the principal public libraries — that through the perusal of 
Jones' commentaries on Asiatic poetry he was " bitten with a taste 
for Oriental literature," and induced to acquire a knowledge of the 
Persian language. I was Mr. Robinson's happy guest a few days 
before his death, and found him as fond as ever of Firdausi, Hafiz, 
Nizami, Jami, and other famous poets of Iran. I trust it may not 
be considered as " bad form " for me to add that it was Jones' trans- 
lation of the " Hitopadesa " that gave my mind its bent for the study 
of comparative folk-lore. 

W. A. Clouston. 

^ The Seven Arabic Prize Poems are reproduced in my privately-printed 
"Arabian Poetry for English Readers," 1881, vi^hich may be consulted at most of 
the great public libraries. It also contains an epitome of the " Romance of 
Antar." 



d 



A^^^] 


^ 


f^)^^^ 


^^ 


^^^ 


^^^^^B^ 


^^r 


^^m 


^ 

S 


/0i^^^M 


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3 




^ 


^^m 



The " Poeticon Astronomicon. 




MONG what may be termed the minor incunabula^ few 
possess so many points of interest as the " Poeticon Astro- 
nomicon " of Caius JuHus Hyginus. Tiie first edition, which 
is extremely rare, and of which we beUeve there is no copy in this 
country, was printed at Ferrara in 1475. ^^ consists of 66 foHos or 
leaves — of which the first is quite blank, whilst the second commences 
thus : •* Hyginus M. Fabio. Salutem, F." There are 27 lines to the 
page, and at the back of the last leaf comes the following : 

" Sidera cum causis celo translata sub alto, 

Scire cupit quisquis perlegat iginium ; 
Hunc Augustinus Bernardi impressit alumnus 

Dum pius Alcides regna secunda tenet : 
Roma suos spectet : Venetumg potentia libros 
Hos Augustini nobile vincit opus. 

M.CCCC.LXXIIIII." 

The second addition appeared at Venice in 1482, and had neither 
title-page, pagination nor catchwords. There are 57 lines to the page, 
each of which is made up of 31 lines. The printer's name occurs 
in some verses preceding the colophon of which two lines run : 

** Hoc Augustensis ratdolt germanus Erhardus 
Dis positis signis indig pressit opus." 

It was edited by J. Sentinus and J. L. Santritter, and the chief 
interest about it turns upon the excellently designed if unskilfully 
engraved woodcuts which make the book of exceptional interest in 
the early history of wood engraving. In the same year and place 
Ratdolt printed the first edition of Euclid's " Elementa Geometriae," 
the first book to appear with woodcut diagrams. Three years later 



24 



THE " POETICON ASTRONOMICONr 





Eo fpcctas ad occalom fupra corpus by dr^ a capi / 
te qua cancer infta^.u(cp ad media parte eius con / 
ftimfmcdius fftiuo circulo diuiditiir:ut fub ipfo 
orbc jHiorcs pedes babeat collocates. Occidens 

a capite Arexories^Hic babet in capite ftellas tres 

In ceniidb'duas»In pectore imam. Inteifcapilio tres Jn media 
Cauda una. In extrema altera magna. Sub pectore duas.In pe/ 
de priore una clara.In uentre clari unam. Et itifra alteram ma/ 
gnam unam.In lumbis unam. In pofterioregenu unam. In pe/ 
de pofteriore daram imam.Et ita eft omnino numerus ftellaril 
decern fl^nouem. 




THE " POETICON ASTRONOMICONr 25 

another edition of the " Poeticon " was called for, and in which the 
same illustrations were used, whilst the text was practically unaltered, 
except so far as regards the typography, the Gothic character 
of the earlier edition giving place to Roman type. The British 
Museum possesses a copy of both these editions. It appeared 
again in 1488 (p Thomem de blavis de Alexandia) and again in 
15 1 2. During the year 1517 two impressions were struck off at 
different places, one in Paris by Pasquier Lambert, and the other in 
Venice " per M. Sessam and P. de Raramis." All these were in 
quarto, the first and only folio edition having been printed at 
Cologne in 1539, by J. Soteris. 

Great as was the English taste for astrological works, it is strange 
that there should be not the slightest trace of the " Poeticon Astrono- 
micon " ever having been translated into our language. Its interest is 
now purely antiquarian, but we are glad to have the opportunity of 
reproducing, through the kindness of Mr. Tregaskis, bookseller, of 
Caxton Head, High Holborn, one of the most characteristic illustra- 
tions. Mr. Tregaskis's copy is the 1485 edition, and is in extremely 
fine state, with ample margins and spotless leaves. 



Some Odd Books. 

MRS. H. E. TABOR writes : — " Looking over some back num- 
bers of The Bookworm, I came across an article in the May 
number (vol. v., p. 173) with the heading 'Some Odd Books,' and re- 
lating to the curiously original collection of books, being really a 
botanical collection, at Warsenstein in Germany. It particularly 
interested me, having this autumn made a tour in Germany, Austria, 
and Bohemia, and having visited the fine Strahower Library in Prague, 
the largest in Bohemia, in the Monastery of the Premonstratensians. 
Amongst the many treasures which were shown us by one of the 
order, whose courtesy made it one of our most agreeable visits, was 
a Botanical Bibliographical collection (to which he called our atten- 
tion), exactly corresponding to the one mentioned in the number 
already referred to." 

4 



MISCELLANEA. 



First Editions of Tennyson. 

THE first sale by public auction of the earliest editions of Tenny- 
son's works, after the poet's death, took place recently at 
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's rooms, in Leicester Square. The 
sums realised in each case indicate a decided upward tendency, 
whilst the competition for the possession of two or three of his earliest 
works is as keen as the demand for the later issues is flacid. The 
explanation is obviously found in the fact that of recent years — indeed 
for more than a quarter of a century — each of the familiar volumes 
has been issued in extremely large numbers, and that in every instance 
within the period indicated the market is stocked with sufficient first 
editions to satisfy collectors for many generations to come. With 
" Poems by Two Brothers " and a few others it was very different, 
and whatever changes may occur in the fashion of book-collecting, 
they are not likely to affect the commercial value of the first-fruits of 
the dead Laureate. In regard to the now historic little volume which 
first saw light at Louth in 1827 — "Poems by Two Brothers" — the 
copy which came under the hammer yesterday was bought by Mr. 
Bumpus for ;^3o, and this figure represents up to the present the 
high-water mark of its value, being £^2 in excess of the highest figure 
paid hitherto. 

The copy of the ''Poems, chiefly Lyrical" (1830), which was the 
unaided work of Alfred Tennyson, was an exceptionally pretty one, 
being bound in green morocco extra, double with water-silk linings, 
and having gilt edges. This went for jT^^ los. The next edition of 
this book, which Moxon published in 1833, contained three sonnets 
and two other pieces which were afterwards suppressed, a fact which 
alone gives it an extraneous value, and a copy of this was knocked 
down foTCj^'j. The first collective edition of Tennyson's "Poems" 
1842, in two volumes, in cloth and uncut, with the author's autograph 
attached, sold for ;^io 5s. ; whilst a first edition, in similar condition, 
of " In Memoriam," went for ;^5. 



The Devil's Library. 




jN old-time catalogue, in a New York library, of ** the most 
valuable books relating to the Devil, his origin, greatness, 
and influence," contains the titles of over five hundred 
volumes, and does not presume to be complete. It is introduced 
by the motto, " Fools deride — Philosophers investigate," and by four 
motto verses, including the fine epigram by Defoe : 

'* Bad as he is, the Devil may be abused, 
Be falsely charged and causelessly accused, 
When men, unwilling to be blamed alone, 
Shift off those crimes on him which are their own." 

A series of introductory illustrations show the Devil as he has been 
variously delineated by various races. The Egyptian Devil seems 
to have been a cross between a dog and a hog, walking on his hind 
legs with the assistance of a staff. The Assyrian has a lion's body 
with wings, a scaly neck, and a dragon's head with horns. The 
Cingalese Satan has two heads with tusks, four arms, sits on a colt, 
and has venomous snakes climbing all over him ! The French is the 
first of the old devils to exhibit the combined traits so familiar to us 
now. He has horns, the ears of an ass, a goat's tail, and rooster's 
claws, but his body and head are human, with bat's wings growing 
from the shoulders. This enemy of man is shown in the cut to be 
grinning in a most malignant and diabolical manner, and scattering 
gold around to tempt his victims within the clutches of his claws. 

But Beelzebub has been represented in other and far more polite 
forms. There is a print from the illustrations of Goethe's " Faust," 
which shows him as a courtly gentleman, elegant in dress and 



28 



THE DEVILS LIBRARY. 



polished in manners. It seems as if mankind, as it advanced in 
refinement, improved its great foe as it has improved, or at least 
refined, the vices with which it pays him tribute. Thus, in the 
thirteenth century, the English devil was a horrible monster, with 
the distorted body of a man, the horned head of a bull, a docked 
tail like a hackney horse, only three fingers and toes on each 
extremity, spikes at its knees, and shins like the spurs of a game- 
cock. 

By Thomas Landseer's time, however, the artist had elevated him 
to a quite genteel sort of person, with a sardonic leer, but good 
clothes and an unblemished anatomy. Landseer — the brother of 
Sir Edwin, it should be stated — once made ten etchings, called 
" The Devil's Walk," which are very rare and valuable. The most 
industrious and extensive of all artistic glorifiers of his satanic 
majesty, however, has been George Cruikshank. That ingenious 
draughtsman has pictured him in every conceivable form, as long as 
it was hateful, for he has always been too conscientious to paint the 
Devil as an attractive being. "The True Legend of St. Dunstan 
and the Devil " is one of Cruikshank's most humorous works, and 
his *' Gentleman in Black " is almost inimitable, as far as the unique 
grotesqueness of the plates is concerned. 

The catalogue contains a choice assortment of proverbs applying 
to the ruler of the infernal regions. All are quaint, and some are 
very curious indeed. Thus one tells us, " The Devil is good when 
he is pleased," another that "Satan is all Christianity," and another 
still that "The Devil is ever God's ape." "'Tis a sin to belie the 
Devil," " An idle brain is the Devil's workshop," " Idle men are the 
Devil's playfellows," " What is gotten over the Devil's back is spent 
under his belly," "It's an ill battle when the Devil carries the 
colours," " He must have a long spoon that must eat with the 
Devil," "Where God builds a church, there the Devil builds a 
chapel," and " Hell and chancery are always open," are some odd 
sayings. Odder still are, " The Devil's meal is half bran," "Seldom 
lies the Devil dead in a ditch," and " Hell is useless to the sages, 
but necessary to the blind populace," which latter is a very true and 
philosophic statement indeed. 

These are only a few of their kind. " Hell's prince, sly parent of 
revolt and lies," is one of many names applied to him. "Fear made 
the devils, and weak hope the gods," and " The Devil tempts all, 
but the idle tempt the Devil," are among the statements laid down 
in these wise saws. One tells us, " Resist the Devil and he will flee 
from you;" and another, "He that takes the Devil into his boat 



i 



THE DEVILS LIBRARY. 29 

must carry him over the sound." It is unpleasant to reflect that 
" Hell is wherever heaven is not," but the proverb says it is, and of 
course it must be so. A verse by an old English writer tells us 

" The Devil 

Is civil 
And mighty polite, 

For he knows 

That it pays, 
And he judges men right ; 

So beware 

And take care 
Or your hair he will singe ; 

And moil you 

And soil you. 
And cause you to twinge." 

Better poetry, though no better sense, is the following, by Hone : 

" Good people all, who deal with the Devil, 

Be warned now by what I say, v 

His credit's long and his tongue is civil, 
But you'll have the Devil to/aj." 

" The Devil's Memorandum Book " was published in London in 
1832. It had eighty illustrations, mostly caricature portraits of 
public characters. 

[The reader who desires a fuller acquaintance with the extremely 
curious subject dealt with in the foregoing article, is referred to 
Bookworm, vol. vi., where Mr. J. Herbert Slater devotes three 
interesting papers to "A Bibliograph of the Devil." — Ed. Bookworm.] 



Of my Books. 



Around the narrow circuit of the room 

Breast-high the books I love range file on file ; 
And when, day-weary, I would rest awhile, 

As once again slow falls the gathering gloom 
Upon the world, I love to pass my hand 
Along their serried ranks, and silent stand 
In breathless heark'ning to their silent speech. 
With rev'rent hand I touch the back of each 
Of these my books. How much of their dead selves — 

The hand that held the pen, the brain that wrought 

The subtle fancies on these pages caught — 
Have men immortal left upon my shelves I 

And then sometimes a sudden chill doth strike 

My heart with very horror, and I shrink 

Away from their dull touch, shudd'ring to think 
How much of human life that, vampire-like, 
These books have sucked beneath their leathern wings, 

How brains have broken and frail bodies bent 
To feed with human blood these bloodless things. 

In this thin book of poesy is pent 
A beautiful young life ; — imperial Rome 

Holds what was mortal of it. Then I see, 

All withered at the top, a noble tree 
Here in the scathing scorn of this dark tome. 
By this long line of books that mutely stands 

A master-mind was wrecked, so that in years 

He sat a poor old man in doting tears. 
Because his dogs in pity licked his hands. 

But then again there comes a rushing thought. 

And to my living books my arms I raise 

In loving fellowship of life and breath. 
And, like poor Southey when his brain was naught 

Save a pale glimmering light of other days, 

I touch them tenderly. My spirit saith : 

*' Who gave their lives for these can know no death. 
For I have walked with them in mortal guise 

Through woodland ways and swarming city streets ; 
Yea, have I met the gaze of Shelley's eyes. 

And in ' Hyperion ' kissed the lips of Keats." 

Charles Washington Coleman. 



^^^ 


^s 




^^S 


^^^^^^ 


^^^ 




s>^^^^^ 




Tennysoniana. 

A BOOK WITH A STRANGE HISTORY. 

N interesting incident has been communicated to the 
Brighton Herald by Mr. W. J. Smith, the well-known 
bookseller of Brighton. Some years ago, in the ordinary 
course of his business, he came into possession of a copy of 
" Remains in Verse and Prose of Arthur Henry Hallam," the 
subject of the Laureate's " In Memoriam." It had had a romantic 
history, which was thus set forth in Mr. Smith's catalogue, the 
" Brighton Book Circular," for 1874 : — 

" The interest of this book is largely increased from its being the 
presentation copy to 'Alfred Tennyson with the Editor's most 
affectionate Regards.' It was found among the effects of a poor 
French teacher, who died from starvation at Worthing, a few months 
since. She was missed by her neighbours for a few days, and as a 
signal of distress she hung a white handkerchief from her window, 
and when visited was found in a complete state of exhaustion — she 
died in a few hours. The book will be sold if a good sum is offered, 
not otherwise." 

Before placing the volume in his catalogue Mr. Smith wrote to Mr. 
Tennyson (as he then was), telling him that the book was in his 
possession, but no notice was taken of the letter. Later on, how- 
ever, he received the following letter : — 

^^ Dece?nder 1^, 1875. 

"Sir, — I observe that in the catalogue of your books, which I believe 
you were good enough to send me, there is one (No. 492) belonging 
to me, 'The Remains of Arthur Hallam.' 

"Many years ago it was lent by my sister to a music-mistress. 



32 



TENNYSONIANA. 



I 



She was often requested to return it. Since that time having lost 
sight of the lady, I had despaired of ever again getting back my 
book, until I saw it advertised in your catalogue the other day. On 
receiving this I wrote at once to a friend of mine at Brighton asking 
her to call upon you, and explain the circumstances under which the 
book was lost, but she had already left the place. Of course I shall 
be very glad to pay any expenses that you may have incurred withj 
regard to this book, and shall be very much obliged to you if youj 
will forward it to me here. — I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

*' A. Tennyson." 

"The friend of mine" thus referred to was Miss Thackeray, who, 
as a matter of fact, called on Mr. Smith, who explained the circum- 
stances to her. Several other letters followed, and the upshot of 
the correspondence was that the Laureate once again found himself 
in possession of a volume to which so curious and special interest 
was attached. 




A Musical Celebrity. 



MR. W. H. JAMES WE ALE, keeper of the National Art Library, 
South Kensington, writes : — " In the October number of 
The Bookworm (vol. v., p. 345) is an article headed 'A Musical 
Celebrity of the Eleventh Century.' Will you allow me to point out 
that the identity of Guy d'Arezzo with Guy de Saint Maur des Fosses 
was proved by a learned Benedictine, Dom Germain Morin of the 
abbey of Maredsous, in an article published more than four years ago 
in the Revue de VArt Chretien (New Series, vol. vi., pp. 333-338)? 
From that source ' A Super ' has evidently derived his information, 
but not his spelling, e.g. (Earius for Oacrius." 




An Almanac of Three Centuries Ago. 




T is not so many years since the Worshipful Company of 
Stationers, London, issued, with all the factitious importance 
of their official imprimatur, almanacs containing forecasts 
of the weather and prophecies of future events, those under the 
auspices of that eminent and most ancient humbug, Francis Moore, 
physician, being the most generally known. In a letter dated 
November 14, 1868, a prominent member of the bookselling trade 
addressed a formal protest to the Company, petitioning them " to 
discontinue such pernicious nonsense as ' Vox Stellarum,' Hiero- 
glyphics, and other antiquated rubbish." A published copy of this 
letter bears the endorsement, " They made no reply." But, whether 
influenced by the aforesaid impeachment, or from the gradual 
change of public opinion, soon after the above date Moore's 
Almanac, and its fellows, appeared shorn of their prophetic readings 
to the satisfaction of most people, but the great annoyance of 
a minority who to this day bewail the loss of the old prognostications. 
Even amongst educated people at the present time, in face of the 
craze for spiritualism and the occult sciences that finds favour in 
very cultured circles, it would seem premature to think that the 
disappearance of the old prophetic calendars is a decided proof 
of the advance of common sense. For if the modern almanacs for 
" the classes " no longer pose as emanations from inspired sybils, 
yet, in England at least, Zadkiel, Raphael, and other collateral des- 
cendants of the once omnipotent Francis Moore, sell their thousands 
of copies annually. These are full of pictorial hieroglyphics in- 
geniously vague in their message, accompanied by wordy sentences 
presaging as loosely as possible the calamities and troubles of the 
future. Consequently, in the turgid confusion of their ambiguous 

5 



34 AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 

phrases, which may be interpreted by the light of after events to 
have denoted the conflagration of a city — or a cowshed, the death 
of an emperor — or his most distantly removed cousin, it is not to be 
wondered if the oracle now and again makes a palpable hit. In 
such a case, the one fulfilled forecast not only augments the 
credulity of those who before believed in the soothsayers, but wins 
a new army of converts willing to ignore the nine hundred and 
ninety-nine failures for the sake of the single success. 

It is noticeable that " Prophesy to us smooth things ! " is evidently 
not the cry of those to whom these almanacs look for support. If it 
were so, doubtless their shrewd projectors, who turn an honest 
penny by giving superstitious folk the nutriment they crave, would be 
quite ready to discover all sorts of pleasing surprises looming in the 
future. As it is, beyond a very vague reservation — that notwith- 
standing the untoward influence of certain planets, death and 
disaster may after all be avoided ; or, that in spite of seeing only 
red ruin ahead, yet if the stars ultimately escape this, that, or the 
other, peace and plenty may after all be our portion — they all unite 
in foretelHng every form of ill, from mild epidemics to disasters that 
paralyse a continent. There is undoubted wisdom in this gloomy 
warning ; if having foretold good it arrived not, those defrauded of 
the promised joy might reasonably grumble; but if, although evil 
were foretold, good came in its place, the recipient would forgive 
and forget the doubtful augury. Human nature at all ages loves 
to terrify itself with vague presentiments of evil. From the child 
who conjures up bogeys in the back garden, and demons in dark 
corners, to the older fanatic who reads doom (in big letters) in 
every political incident, or the brave patriots who constantly fore- 
cast defeat by land or sea, there is a distinct pleasure of a morbid 
sort to be found in contemplation of imaginary disasters close at 
hand. By a curious fatality, those who have least occasion to add to 
the sum of their miseries appear to be the very class most eager to 
detect dark days ahead. The poorly-paid artisan, or the half-starved 
widow, who might be satisfied with the present woe without anticipa- 
ting worse, are the types of the readers and supporters of these 
nineteenth-century Cassandras. 

But, in spite of the coincidence that has been, now and again, on 
the side of the almanac-makers, from Murphy's often-quoted stroke 
of luck, to Zadkiel's happy divination in recent times of a dissolution 
of parliament, which most unexpectedly occurred on the day he had 
named, those who continue to doubt these seers are in no way dis- 
comfited. The laws of statistics, which show a regularly recurrent 




AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 35 

proportion of accidents in the streets, and a curiously equal supply 
of events that appear to be governed by pure chance, might 
reasonably be brought forward to support a theory that a certain pro- 
portion of the guesses at truth made by these modern prophets 
would be found to be lucky ones. The wonder is rather that with 
such a scope, and the event couched always in such misty terms, 
that a far greater number of really startling coincidences do not 
occur. Nor should we too-hastily condemn the unlettered for their 
wish to raise a corner of the veil and peep through such very faulty 
horoscopes into the dim future. The man of letters who attempts to 
apportion the exact share of future immortality to his contemporaries, 
although he couch his predictions in sonorous Enghsh, and brings 
formidable evidence to support his forecast, is hardly more scientific 
in his process of reasoning than those humble chronologists who 
would fain map out the eccentric career of an English summer, or an 
English parliamentary session, a year in advance. 

The so-called " weather-forecasts " issued by the Meteorological 
Department day by day have little but the bare name in common 
with their predecessors. They merely look a few hours ahead, and 
from ascertained records of former seasons choose the most likely 
sequence of weather in view of its behaviour on parallel occasions in 
the past. In fact their knowledge is but a larger and more widely 
extended use of that knowledge gained from out-of-doors life and study 
of the atmosphere, which we term weatherwise. When in a summer 
shower a crowd waits under a friendly shelter, some one more 
knowing than his fellows in the signs of the sky confidently predicts 
it will soon clear up (or the reverse), and is more often than not 
exactly correct in his judgment. So the officials who have charge of 
the Meteorological Department, having by inter-telegraphic com- 
munication a vast portion of the sky brought, as it were, under their 
notice, are able to predict with some certainty the general tendency 
of the next few hours, and sometimes to hazard a tolerably precise 
statement of the conduct of the weather for the next few days ahead. 

But the old "astrologers," as they loved to style themselves, 
although the weather was as often in their mouths as in those of the 
other old women of their time, were fond of casting larger issues, 
and posed not only as seers, but as ambassadors of destiny, able not 
merely to mark the coming of the storm, but, if not to divert its 
course, at least to supply timely hints, whereby those menaced could 
escape the predicted woes. 

Before me, as I write, is one of these old books, not precisely an 
almanac, as we now define them, nor entirely an astrological treatise, 



AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 



but both in part, and a popular medicinal handbook, compendium 
of history, and many other things besides. The well-thumbed state 
of its pages show clearly how many have consulted "The Book of 
knowledge — both Necessary and Useful for the Benefit of all People," 
as its modest title runs. Its title page is gone, but from internal 
evidence it would be easy to refer it to the later part of the seven- 
teenth century, if it were not so well known that such analysis is 
needless. 

It strikes the key-note boldly and firmly in its opening paragraph. 
No wavering, indecision, or purposely involved phraseology confuses 
its statements. With all the artificial importance of black letter, 
strengthened by the employment of ordinary Roman type by way of 
emphasis for certain words, it says, "If the nativity of our Lord 
come on Sunday, winter shall be good, the spring windy, sweet, 
and hot," and so on through eight lines of detail. Its unswerving 
asservation of what will be if the nativity of our Lord fall on 
Monday — come on Tuesday — and so on for the remaining days of 
the week, is equally dogmatic. Now concerned with seasons, and 
now with individuals, some of its axioms may be quoted. It says : 
If Christmas Day happen on a Wednesday, '* theft done by a child 
shall be proved " ; "good wit easily found." If the calendar speaketh 
truly here, how long must have passed since Christmas fell on 
Wednesday. At times it lapses into oracular sentences of gloomy 
import, "kings and princes in hazard," for example. 

The division entitled, " Of the birth of children in the days of the 
week," is like most great works of art, at once broad and precise, 
touching things great and small with equal audacity. If a child be 
born on a Sunday it promises " He shall be great and shining," 
whether bodily or mentally is not hinted. If on a Monday " He 
shall prosper, if he begin a work on that day " (Can this be a sly 
stroke dealt at ancient devotees of Saint Monday?). If on a 
Tuesday " He shall be courteous and perish with iron, and hardly 
come to the last age ; and to begin all things is good " — an inconse- 
quent conclusion to an otherwise impressive sentence, that suggests 
the Duchess's logical reflections imparted to Alice in Wonderland. 
The lucky scholar born on a Wednesday " shall lightly learn words." 
If on Thursday" he shall be stable and worshipful." If on a Friday, 
oddly enough, in view of popular superstition, so generally marking 
out that day as unlucky, it says, " He shall be of long life and 
letcherous; and to begin all things is good" — a still more curiously 
inverted sequence of effect and cause. On Saturday the oracle is 
cautious : " He shall seldom be profitable, but if the course of the 



AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 37 

moon bring it hitherto" — a saw that recalls a remark of one of 
Mr. Gilbert's characters in Princess Toto, " That your words are 
wise I feel sure, for I cannot make head or tail of them." 

The next chapter is devoted to somewhat similar subjects : " Of 
the nature and disposition of the moon in the birth of children." 
Each of the thirty days he aims to foreshadow are considered by 
this would-be inspired prophet, in paragraphs of some length, some- 
times important and swelling into fateful phases, more often, it must 
be confessed, as prosy, as though he were a penny-a-liner of to-day. 
But among the haystack of his musty maxims there are needles of 
'wit, although one doubts that he who hid them guessed of their pointed 
presence. The initial facts, necessarily, stated in the titles to each of 
the days of the month, are a sore trial to a cynically-disposed reader. 
The compiler has fibbed more ingenuously than ingeniously. When 
you read that "on the first day of the moon Adam was born," there 
is a certain feeling of fitness, and you pass that statement without 
suspicion — for who shall say he was not? — but when you find Eve was 
born on the 2nd, you begin to doubt, remembering that, if so, and 
the new world began with a new moon, it was rather unkind to 
the happy pair, who, like other young things, might have been nervous 
in the dark. Yet the strain is not too great, although Cain's birth- 
day on the 3rd, and Abel's on the 4th, awaken suspicions that no 
after-reading dispels ; not even the cautious utterance that the 5th 
"do begin nothing certain," artistically as the confession of ignorance 
is put in, by way of being a foil to the knowledge displayed concerning 
the first four days. But this is not the worst slip of the compiler of 
this early birthday book of " men of their time." You find, with 
fine decorative instinct, he has grouped sets of people together ; for 
instance, the 9th, Lamech; the loth, Noah; the nth, Shem ; the 
1 2th, Cannan, son of Cham (where is Japhet?); yet on the i6th, 
mirabile dicUi^ we meet with Pythagoras, a curious intruder into bib- 
lical company. On the 21st, Saul; Joseph, on the 22nd; Benjamin, 
for the 23rd ; Gohah (?), on the 24th ; Samuel, on the 30th. The 
happy-go-lucky choice of celebrities, the odd interruption of Pytha- 
goras, and the orderly arrangement of the others, is extremely funny 
in its effect upon a modern reader. It has been happily said that 
the " credulity of ignorant belief has given place to the incredulity 
of ignorant unbelief;" yet a volume like this tries the most wiUing 
faith. 

But after all such fun is apt to become wearisome, yet from the 
many pages of this chapter a few extracts plead for quotation. The 
advice for the 2nd day — "To enterprise anything is profitable; as to 



n 



SS AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 

buy and sell, and fly into a ship to make away ; and to sow seeds "- 
is a beautiful lesson, especially valuable to those in training to become 
absconding cashiers, the seeds evidently referring to their future 
pastoral home, safely settled beyond extraditional limits. The 
homily for the 3rd day holds out direct encouragement to sluggards, 
"for to all born on the 3rd day of the moon" it says, "Abstain 
from doing of anything, except thou wouldst not have it prosper." 
The dark meaning of the final clause is beyond conjecture, for who 
wants, or ever did want, to undertake a fore-ascertained failure. Yet 
if the whole be true, we understand why the indolence of so many of 
our friends has puzzled us — they were evidently born on the 3rd of 
the month. For the 5th day, both the heading and subsequent 
amplification in the text agree that " to take the Sacrament is 
dangerous." On the 6th, " to send children to school is good, and 
use hunting," which suggests that it is not wise to join in pursuit of 
the wily fox or harmless hare, during the holidays of the children. 
On the 7th we are informed, as if it were a rare feature of that day 
only, " that to take all nourishment is good," which seems, to put it 
mildly, to be limiting excellent advice most unnecessarily. On the 
8th day we are told, " Whatever thou wilt do is good, to buy 
manciples and beasts." Manciple being usually understood to be 
the purchaser at an auction, we are in doubt whether this is an 
indirect support of slavery, or is simply rather mixed prosody. By 
the 15th day, and long before it is clear that the prophet has 
forgotten his stated purpose to divine the future of children, and is 
harking back to the style of his previous chapter, for he says, *' Do 
no work, it is a grievous day'' — which is hardly in accordance with 
his self-imposed limit. On the 28th he wildly remarks en passant^ 
"War may begin and tabernacles fixed in the desert." The first 
half of his prophecy is true enough, of course. On any day " War 
may begin," and to flippantly rejoin, "It may not!" is merely 
quibbling unworthily with the fateful presage ; but what in heaven 
or earth does his context signify ? 

Naturally we discover throughout his thirty days' lucubrations the 
significance of dreams and their interpretations continually reiterated. 
But the really poetic wording of his trial flight in this direction on 
the first day, " What thou seest in thy sleep, shall turn into joy," soon 
yields place to the most prosaic and curt form of "dreams come true," 
or the reverse, whichever his mood may be for the time. Blood-letting 
is also a subject of his diurnal monition, buying cattle, taking journeys, 
and wives, being equally often considered. This social and domestic 
gossip is exactly the material we should expect to find demanded 



AN ALMANAC OF THREE CENTURIES AGO. 39 

from such a book, and the significance of natural phenomena is 
also evidently in accordance with the need of his readers. Thus, 
" What thunder signifies in every month of the year " is the subject of 
his Fifth Chapter. But after giving such frequent place to the same 
subjects in the days of the week, and the days of the month, it is 
rather surprising to find Chapter VI. devoted to " Good days for 
Bleeding." His lengthy Seventh Chapter — " To know how a man 
shall keep himself in health," is enunciated in biblical cadences, 
no doubt adding greatly the effect of dignity and importance 
of statement to its hearers. Then follow many pages on the cut- 
and-dried stock in trade of books of this type. The signs of the 
Zodiac, and their supposed influence on mankind, and other brain- 
numbing and mystifying topics. Chapter XII. is extremely curious, 
but not quotable ; for its frank insistency of outspoken detail 
coQcerning certain homely medical advice could not be made 
public to-day so easily as in the time it was written. In the chapter 
on " Phlebotomy " some novel facts are given. *' In the neck are the 
veins called Originals " reads like an excerpt from Mark Twain's 
" English as She is Taught." 

"The Rutter of the Distances of Harbours and Havens and most 
parts of the World" is the title of Chapter XXVI., which is accom- 
panied with a most extraordinary map, wherein is no continent or 
island known to us to-day. The next section "Of the Axle-tree and 
Poles,'' has naught to do with chariots or coaches, but refers to the 
geographical poles. '' Of the twelve winds " is the penultimate sec- 
tion, and very long it is, crammed full of outlandish names, real and 
imaginary, that were no doubt once each as the "blessed word 
Mesopotamia " to their readers. 

Finally, " Strange Wonders Worthy of Note " begins, " as the 

worthy Cosmographer Pomponeus Mela reports." But remembering 

that even Herodotus palls after a time, and that the worthy scribe 

herein held responsible for so many strange facts is no Herodotus in 

the charm of his unveracious statements, although he comes very 

near his ideal of veracity, it were best to bid him return to rest in the 

lumber-room of the past. 

Gleeson White. 




40 MISCELLANEA. 

Printing in Finland. 

FINLAND has just been celebrating the 250th anniversary 
of the establishment of printing in that country. The first 
book printed for Finnish use was the "Missale Aboense," a mass 
book for the Abo Church, in 1488. This order was executed by a 
printing establishment owned by one Bartholomeus Ghoten, of 
Liibeck. The first book printed in the Finnish tongue was an 
alphabetic lesson book, pubhshed in 1542, and the first printing 
establishment was set up in Abo in 1642, by a Swede, Peter Wald. 
The first newspaper was published in Abo, on January 15, 1771. 
Five years earlier, in 1766, a decree was issued, whereby the system 
of a free press was established, and although the Finnish press has, 
since it came under Russian control, had great difficulties and 
degrading officialism to deal with, it has kept its free spirit as much 
as circumstances will allow, and speaks plainly whenever it can. 
There is now not a town without its newspaper; and most towns in 
Finland have papers in Swedish and Finnish. 




A " Criminal's Dictionary/' 

HALF a century ago an interesting volume was published at 
the head-quarters of the Berlin criminal police. It was called 
the '' Criminal's Dictionary," and contained all the slang expressions 
used among the criminal classes at Berlin. It appears that in the 
course of fifty years the vocabulary of the burglar and assassin has 
received considerable additions, and Count Piickler, the head of 
the criminal police department, has just decided to have a new 
edition issued of this interesting work, one of his reasons being that 
" there is a very great demand for the book from all parts of the 
country." A work, which is practically identical with the foregoing, 
has long enjoyed a wide popularity, the " Slang Dictionary," originally 
published, and we believe chiefly compiled by, the late John Camden 
Hotten, the well-known publisher. 




Our Note Book. 




HE most important of recent incidents in the literary world 
is undoubtedly the exposure of the wholesale forgeries of 
letters and manuscripts purporting to be the work, princi- 
pally of Burns and Scott, but incidentally also of other eminent 
authors. As this manufactory has had Edinburgh for its head- 
quarters, and a no less e machina deus than a native of the modern 
Athens, it is only consistent that the task of exposure should have 
become the proper work of the Edinburgh people. This has been 
done, and through the energies of Mr. Reach, editor of the Edin- 
burgh Evening Dispatch — the evening offshoot of the Scotsman — the 
task has been performed with a thoroughness and an exhaustiveness 
which, while leaving nothing to be desired, places all former literary 
forgeries in the background. Up to the middle of December the 
extent of this systematic trade had been shown to be extraordinarily 
wide, the greatest sufferers being American collectors, who possess, 
perhaps to a chronic degree, the peculiar temperament or weakness 
which is the forger's great opportunity. But the number of English 
and Scotch collectors who have been completely taken in is also 
large — how large probably will never be quite known, as an auto- 
graph collector only resembles other human beings in disliking 
publicity as the victim of a fraud. The majority, therefore, will be 
willing to swallow the bitter pill in silence, and to quietly remove 
all traces of their want of judgment. The remarkable thing in 
connection with these forgeries is that they should have existed for 
so long a period, considering that from the very first their authenticity 
has been repudiated in unqualified terms by every London expert. 
The British Museum authorities, who, since the notorious Piggot 
business, can scarcely be expected to give an opinion on the subject 
of forged manuscripts, tacitly expressed their judgment when, some 
time ago, they refused to purchase a single item from batches sub- 
mitted to them. The self-satisfaction, to which Rochefoucauld refers 

6 




42 OUR NOTE-BOOK. 

in one of his most brilliant phrases, which a man feels at a neigh- 
bour's disaster makes the whole story of these forgeries very ex- 
hilarating reading to those who have not been taken in — and perhaps 
equally so to those whose enthusiasm has outrun their discretion, 
but from a very different standpoint. 

V H* H' '!« 

Mr. xA.ndrew W. Tuer, who apparently divides his energy between 
printing, publishing, writing books on art, and "plunging" in the 
matter of " missing word " competitions, has found time to issue a 
book on a subject concerning which he candidly admits knowing 
"nothing at all." This is probably the first time that our versatile 
confrere has ever admitted ignorance on any subject under the sun, 
and this fact alone is sufficient to give the book an individuality all 
its own. But " The Book of Delightful and Strange Designs, Being 
One Hundred Facsimile Illustrations of the Art of the Japanese 
Stencil-cutter" (Leadenhall Press, E.G.), does not need any extra- 
neous help to its appreciation by the lover of the beautiful. That 




*' provokingly incorruptible and absolutely necessary person, the 
gentle reader," to whom Mr. Tuer dedicates this book, must be 
indeed a "capricious and never-to-be-understood" person if he 
fails to appreciate this astonishing array of quaint designs, scarcely 
two of which have the remotest similarity with one another. It is 
comforting to know that these stencil plates are really from Japan, 
and are not " manufactured in Germany " — the home of so many 
" souvenirs from Japan " and from so many other places. Mr. Tuer has 
kindly permitted us to reproduce one of the smaller examples, which 
gives a very good idea of the intricacy of the workmanship ; but the 
effect is best when the design is printed on a black background, as is 
seen in the book itself. Mr. Tuer supplies an extremely readable 




OUR NOTE-BOOK. 43 

and entertaining introduction, which, to give the book the univer- 
sahty it deserves to enjoy, is printed in three languages, English, 
German, and French. As the issue is limited in number, we should 
advise those of our readers who enjoy "the good things and the 
pretty things of this life " to secure a copy without delay. 

•¥ :;? :;: =;< 

While on the subject of art we may call attention to the subject of 
Christmas and New Year's Cards, whicli are now brought to such a 
high pitch of beauty. In these matters there can be no question 
that Messrs. Raphael Tuck and Sons take the lead, whether on the 
score of variety or on that of artistic excellence. To any one who has 
seen their vast stock it will appear doubtful as to whether any future 
novelties are possible, but ingenuity is the child as necessity is the 
mother of invention, and it would be very rash to prophecy in this 
matter. So far as the present season's designs, however, are concerned, 
it can only be said that their originality is quite equalled by the refine- 
ment of design, and the perfection which has been observed in the 
printing. In a word, they are genuine fine art productions, and as 
such they are perhaps best left to speak for themselves in their own 
way. 

4( n^ 'r >K 

A contemporary has been asking. Whence comes the collector's 
love for the first edition of an illustrated book, and why is it that 
the pictures are invariably more artistically rendered ? It is because 
the proofs of the engravings pass under the illustrator's hand, and are 
subjected to his corrections. If the reader can get a proof of one of 
the Turner's Tours, it will be found to be almost a network of cor- 
rections and of suggestions. Some of the woodcuts of Birket 
Foster's pictures tell the same tale ; so do Randolph Caldecott's 
and those of Mr. Edward Whymper. But more than this, blocks 
of illustrations are even more susceptible to wear and tear than type, 
and it follows as a matter of course that each succeeding impression 
is in some respects not so good as that which preceded it. 

* ^: * :{: 

It is as a bibliographical curiosity that we call attention to " Old 
Mother Hubbard's Fairy Tale Book," which Messrs. D. Bryce and 
Sons, of Glasgow, have sent us. It measures 3^x2^ inches, and 
contains eight of the most popular fairy tales, in a size which children 
can carry in their pockets or put in their doll's house. The tiny 
coloured illustrations are extremely quaint. When little books be- 
come popular with collectors, doubtless this example will sell for 
much more than its published price. 



44 ^^^^^ MISCELLANEA, 

The Book Thief Again. 

MR. C. TRICE MARTIN'S new "Record Interpreter" was 
so highly appreciated in the search-room at the Pubhc 
Record Office and the Reading-room of the British Museum, that 
the copy at each institution was stolen from the shelves within 
twenty-four hours of its being placed there. We should dearly like 
(writes a correspondent) to hang one or two of these book thieves as 
an example to their sneaking brethren. 




Mary Stuart's Copy of " Ronsard." 

PIERRE LOUYS, one of the most charming of the young poets 
of France, communicates to Mr. R. H. Sherard the news of a 
literary discovery of some interest which he has just made at 
one of the public libraries here. At this library he came across 
a copy of Ronsard's "Hymnes," which he says he has every 
reason to believe is the identical copy which consoled poor Mary 
Stuart in her captivity. It may be remembered that when the 
luckless Queen of Scots was asked whether she wished for a Bible 
to read in prison, she replied that her volume of Ronsard sufficed 
her. The volume in question, which, according to the catalogue 
of the library, was purchased in England, bears on the fly-leaf, in 
female penmanship, the inscription *' Per far' il mio cattivo tempo 
piu suave." There is also other contributory evidence as to the 
origin of this book. 



A Sultan's Library. 

THE library of the Sultan of Turkey contains between two and 
three thousand volumes, all written, bound in leather. At the 
time of the Renaissance, all eyes in Europe watched this collection, 
because it was thought there were amongst them the books of the 
Byzantine emperors, and many unknown and unpublished works of 
the classic Greek and Roman authors, but no one was ever allowed 
in that library, even Ludwig XIV. being refused entrance. Now it 
is generally believed that there is no genuinely classical manuscript 
in the collection, but no one can be certain, for no profane eye has 
been allowed a glance inside the mysterious volumes. 



Unpublished Letters of Byron. 




The 



E give below the gist of three unpublished letters of Lord 
Byron, which appeared in the market on November 30, 
1892. 

first, consisting of four quarto pages, is addressed to 



Hodgson and dated November 3, 1808 : — 

"... Hobhouse and your humble are still here. Hobhouse 
hunts, &c. and I do nothing, we dined the other day with a neigh- 
bouring Esquire (not Collet of Staines) and regretted your absence, 
as the Banquet of Staines was scarcely to be compared to our last 
* Feast of Reason.' You know laughing is the sign of a rational 
animal, so says Dr. Smollett ; I think so too, but unluckily my spirits 
don't always keep pace to my opinions. I had not so much scope 
for risibility the other day as I could have wished, for I was seated 
near a woman, to whom when a boy I was as much attached as boys 
generally are, and more than a man should be. I knew this before 
I went, and was determined to be valiant, and converse with sang 
froid, but instead I forgot my valour and my nonchalance^ and never 
opened my lips even to laugh, far less to speak, & the lady was 
almost as absurd as myself, which made both the object of more 
observation, than if we had conducted ourselves with easy indiffer- 
ence. You will think all this great nonsense, if you had seen it you 
would have thought it still more ridiculous. What fools we are ! 
We cry for a plaything, which like children we are never satisfied till 
we break it open, though, like them, we cannot get rid of it, by put- 
ting it in the fire. I have tried for GifforSs epistle to Pitidar and the 
Bookseller says the copies were cut up for waste paper, if you can pr(h 
cure me a copy, I shall be much obliged" 



46 



UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF BYRON. 



\ 



The second is addressed to Sir James Wedderburn, and is dated 
February lo, 1823. It consists of three octavo pages : — 

** The bankers have answered that as yr own Banker had declined 
— ^and also another (Quastana by name) it could hardly be expected 
that they should run the risk for a Stranger not recommended by 
their Correspondents. I shall however send down again to them — 
enclosing your book which proves the sums paid or received by you 
in 1823 — through Hammersley, and so far indicates yr correspon- 
dence with that House. I have added whatever I could say on the 
occasion but I regret that I cannot myself either endorse bills, nor 
cash them, nor advance the amount after the heavy expenses of last 
year in England — and the many claims of different kinds which I 
have had to satisfy, and some (I am sorry to say) to refuse. I assure 
you that at this very fjtojtiejtt — / have Jive different letters before me — 
all requiring money — by the last two days' posts — on one pretext or 
another — and they are but Jive of fifty of the same kind (my own 
interference therefore is out of the question). I have no doubt that 
the bill is a good bill, but I really have not the amount to spare even 
for a week, and I have already become responsible for two hundred 
and fifty drawn on England by Mr. besides having 

to fee lawyers for his Council in his coming on Cause, in London. 
Within the last January I have to pay upwards of one thousand 
pounds in London, the greater part of a lawyer's bill. You may 
imagine then, how far I am in a situation to turn banker." 

The third is addressed from Genoa, March 17, 1823, to John 
Hunt, the brother of Leigh Hunt, and consists of four quarto 
pages : — 

"Your brother will have forwarded by the post a corrected proof 
of * the Blues ' for some ensuing number of the Journal — but I 
should think that ye Pulchi translation had better be preferred for 
the immediate number, as 'the Blues' will only tend further to indis- 
pose a portion of your readers. I still retain my opinion that my 
connection with the work will tend to anything but its success. Such 
I thought from the first, when I suggested that it would have been 
better to have made a kind of literary appendix to the Examiner, the 
other expedient was hazardous and has failed hitherto accordingly, 
and it appears that the two pieces of my contribution have precipi- 
tated that failure more than any other. It was a pity to print such 
a quantity, especially as you might have been aware of my general 
unpopularity, and the universal run of the period against my produc- 



UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF BYRON. 47 

tions, since the publication of Mr. Murray's last volume. My talent 
(if I have any) does not lie in the kind of composition which is most 
acceptable to periodical readers, by this time you are probably con- 
vinced of this fact. The Journal if continued (as I see no reason 
why it should not be) will find much more efficacious assistance in 
the present and other contributors than in myself. Perhaps also you 
should for the present reduce the number printed to two thousand, 
and raise it gradually if necessary. It is not so much against you as 
against me that the hatred is directed, and I confess I would rather 
withstand it alo7ie, and grapple with it as I may. Mr. Murray, partly 
from pique — for he is a mortal, mortal as his publications — though a 
bookseller, has done more harm than you are fully aware of, or I 
either — and you will perceive this probably as my first separate pub- 
lication, no less than in those connected with 'The Liberal.' He 
has the Clergy and the Government and the Public with him. I do 
not much embarrass myself about them while alone^ but I do not wish 
to drag others down also. I take this to be the fact, for I do not 
recollect that so much odium was directed against your family and 
friends, till your brother, unfortunately for himself, came in literary 
contact with myself. I will not, however quit * The Liberal,' without 
mature consideration, though I feel persuaded that it would be for 
your advantage that I should do so. Time and truth may probably 
do away with this hostility, or at least its effects, but in the interim 
you are the sufferer. Every publication of mine has latterly failed. 
I am not discouraged by this, because writing and composition are 
habits of my mind, with which success or publication are objects of 
remoter references, not causes but effects, like those of any other pur- 
suit. I have had enough both of praise and abuse to deprive them 
of their novelty, but I continue to compose, for the same reason that 
I ride or read, or bathe, or travel — it is a habit. 

" I want sadly ' Peveril of the Peak,' which has not yet arrived 
here, and I will thank you much for a copy ; I shall direct Mr. 
Kinnaird to reimburse you for the price. It will be useless to for- 
ward 'The Liberal,' the insertion of which will only prevent the 
arrival of any other books in the same parcel. That work is strictly 
prohibited, and the packet which came by sea was extracted with the 
greatest difficulty. Never send by sea^ it is a loss of four months : 
by la7id a fortnight is sufficient." 

It is understood that these three letters were not sold, owing to the 
reserve price not having been reached. 

A fourth letter, hitherto unpublished, of Lord Byron's, has been 



48 UNPUBLISHED LETTERS OF BYRON. 

found in the office of the Celestial Empire^ of Shanghai. It is 
addressed to Monsieur Gahgnani, i8 Rue Vivienne, Paris, and runs 
as follows : — 

% " Sir, — In various numbers of your journal I have seen mentioned 
a work entitled * The Vampire,' with the addition of my name as that 
of the author. I am not the author, and never heard of the work in 
question until now. In a more recent paper I perceive a formal 
annunciation of * The Vampire,' with the addition of an account of 
my 'residence in the Island of Mitylene,' an island which I have 
occasionally sailed by in the course of travelling some years ago 
through the Levant — and where I should have no objection to reside 
— ^but where I have never yet resided. Neither of these perform- 
ances are mine, and I presume that it is neither unjust nor ungracious 
to request that you will favour me by contradicting the advertise- 
ment to which I allude. If the book is clever it would be base to 
deprive the real writer — whoever he may be — of his honours \ and if 
stupid, I desire the responsibility of nobody's dulness but my own. 
You will excuse the trouble I give you — the imputation is of no great 
importance — and as long as it was confined to surmises and reports 
I should have received it as I have received many others — in silence. 
But the formality of a public advertisement of a book I never wrote, 
and a residence where I never resided, is a little too much — particu- 
larly as I have no notion of the contents of the one nor the incidents 
of the other. I have, besides, a personal dislike to ' Vampires,' and 
the little acquaintance I have had with them would by no means 
induce me to divulge their secrets. You did me a much less injury 
by your paragraphs about * my devotion ' and * abandonment of 
society for the sake of religion ' — which appeared in your Messe?2ger 
during last Lent — all of which are not founded on fact ; but you see 
I do not contradict them, because they are merely personal — whereas 
the others in some degree concern the reader. You will oblige me 
by complying with my request of contradiction. I assure you that I 
know nothing of the work or works in question, and have the honour 
to be — (as the correspondents of the magazines say) — ' Your constant 
reader ' and very obedient, humble servant, 

" Byron. 
"To the Editor of Galig7iatiVs Messenger^ &c." 




A New York Book Sale Fifty Years Ago. 




HE New York Herald of January 28, 1841, contains the 
following spirited account of a book sale, which it entitles 
M orals of Fashionable Literature " : — 

" New York is one of the strangest of strange places in every 
respect, but in no one more so than as regards sales at auction, and 
particularly book auctions. The Yorkers are great at bargaining, 
and crazy for bargains. They never read Dr. Johnson's definition 
of a bargain, or, if they have, they take no heed to it. The old 
cynic said that a bargain is an article worth ten shillings bought for 
nine, which we never want, keep seven years and never find use for 
— in preference to buying an article worth five which we cannot 
well do without, for the sum asked for it by an honest tradesman. 

" Among the many sales of rare and extraordinary articles that 
have lately taken place, the one which has excited the greatest 
attention among the literati, millionaires, bibliomanists, and fashion- 
able would-be wits and can't-be gentlemen, was the sale of old books 
at Royal Gurley's last week. Here were collected about one thou- 
sand eight hundred volumes, which were sold in three evenings, and 
the total proceeds of the sales amounted to $1,765, or very nearly an 
average of $1 per volume. The book which brought the highest 
price was ' Freheri Theatrum,' which was sold for $26 to Mr. Rems- 
den, a fashionable millionaire, and the lowest priced book was the 
' Whole Body of Divinity ; or, Christian's Sure Guide to Heaven,' 
which was bought for i o cents by an Infidel ; while the ' Amours of 
Cupid and Pysche,' and * Lives and Surprising Amours of the Em- 
presses of the Twelve Caesars,' and similar books, brought from $2 
to $3 for every small i2mo volume, old, dirty and torn; and the 
poetical works of C. Colton, a small i2mo book of a similar charac- 
ter, brought $3.25. 

** Among the purchasers at this curious sale was the agent of the 
New York Lyceum, Mr. Embury, the Cashier at Brooklyn, W. Cole- 

7 




50 A NEW YORK BOOK SALE FIFTY YEARS AGO. 



man, the Bookseller, General Whitcomb of the Land Office, Wash- 
ington, John Forsyth, Secretary of State, Mr. Langtree (who, it is 
said, bought for Martin Van BuFen, and who bid high for a work 
called * The Labours of Hercules, or, the Augean Stable Cleansed '), 
Mr. Rosencrantz, and Mr. O'Herne, merchants, a young millionaire 
named Remsden, the heir to the late Peter Remsden's wealth. Town, 
the architect, and old book and painted pannelomanist, Amos Ken- 
dall, Dr. Sawyer, the great preacher against a place of eternal tor- 
ment, young Mr. Cram, the distiller, the celebrated curiosity collec- 
tor, Billy Hilton, Major Douglas, the Engineer, Capt. Hastings, one 
of the engineers of the Croton Water Works, Loring D. Chapin, late 
member of Assembly, Kerrigan, the celebrated collector of travels, 
Maccabe, the collector of curious works on divinity, &c., &c. 

" The struggle for some of the books was tremendous, and the vast 
disparity between the prices brought by various books of the same 
size, age, and relative cost of publishing occasioned general com- 
ment. 

"The competition for several of the books elicited some curious 
scenes ; for many of the scarce books there were several claimants, 
and they had to be put up again and sold much higher. Gurley 
being proverbial for his integrity and straightforward business-like 
conduct, many persons left orders with him to buy books at any 
price, which they would never have done to his shaving predecessor, 
Gowan, who was noted for his queer tricks in knocking down books 
to Bunkum — a practice now exploded in the Long Room. The 
young millionaire, Remsden, ordered the * Chevalier de Faublas ' at 
any price ; and some scamp, who had more indecent curiosity than 
honesty, clapped the four volumes under his cloak and walked off 
with them. As there is but this one English copy of this work in 
the country, and as the thief has, no doubt, shown it to some one, 
he can easily be detected. 

" There never was a finer opportunity to study human nature ; 
violent professors of religion buying very queer books ; and persons 
not suspected of an over-stock of brains buying mathematical works. 
About a dozen books were stolen. Some brought prices double and 
treble those marked in the catalogues of the London booksellers, 
Bartlett and Welford, Appleton's, or any of the depositories of old 
books. Most of them sold higher than their first cost price, and 
even much of the divinity sold so well that it is believed the public 
taste has been turned from the drama to be buried in old books. 
Perhaps, after all, this is only the forerunner of some violent earth- 
quake in the morals of literature." 




The MS. of " Poems by Two Brothers." 




HE original autograph manuscript of the epoch-making 
" Poems by Two Brothers," Alfred and Charles Tennyson, 
comes into the market at Sotheby's on the Friday before 
Christmas Day, and some time after these lines have gone to press. 
This manuscript is entirely in the handwriting of the two Tennysons, 
but principally in that of the late Laureate. It consists of eighty- 
eight leaves, exclusive of the covers of the volume, on which are 
written part of the poems and other matter; also, apart from the 
volume, the title, advertisement, errata, and the introductory poem, 
" 'Tis Sweet to Tread from Stage to Stage." On the reverse of the 
title is an autograph letter to the publishers, Messrs. J. and J. Jack- 
son, referring to the omission of a poem from the portion of the 
volume in type. " The contents," or order of printing, is on a 
separate sheet, in the body of a most interesting letter in the hand- 
writing of Alfred Tennyson, respecting the copyright and other 
matters relative to the forthcoming volum.e. With this manuscript 
is included the original receipt given to the Jacksons for ^20, the 
amount agreed upon for the copyright of the volume entitled, 
" Poems of Two Brothers," and signed by the joint authors. On 
the reverse of the leaf with the "Errata" is an interesting note, 
signed " C. and A.T.," referring to the publication of their signa- 
tures. Three of the autograph poems do not appear in the published 
work. As if all this were insufficient to render the lot all-embracing, 
accompanying these exceedingly important and valuable manuscripts 
is the publisher's reserved copy of the "Poems by Two Brothers." 
The British Museum is the proper place for this splendid lot, and 
we trust that it may be secured for the national collection. It may 
be added, in conclusion, that the existence of this manuscript has 
only been known to a very few people, and that it has been in the 
possession of the original proprietors until the other day, when the 
executors of the last of the Messrs. Jackson — whose death occurred 
a few months ago — handed it to Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson, and 
Hodge. The result will be announced in our next issue. 



52 



MISCELLANEA. 



Early Christian Manuscripts. 

PROFESSOR HARNACK, who (says the Standard's Berlin 
correspondent) is very prominent just now, owing to his essay 
on the Apostolic Creed, and to the resulting controversy, has made 
what he regards as an important discovery. In a grave in Upper 
Egypt, apparently of the twelfth century, some French savants lately 
found certain old codices, which they published without, apparently, 
appreciating their full importance. In these codices Professor 
Harnack asserts that he has recognised literary monuments of the 
oldest Christianity, which enjoyed the reputation of full or partial 
authenticity in Christian communities at the time when the canon 
of the New Testament was being formed, but were afterwards rejected 
and lost. They are three in number. One of them bears the title 
" The Revelation of Peter." It is a prophetic book, resembling the 
Apocalypse of St. John, and was quoted as a sacred ''scripture" by 
the great Christian teacher, Clement of Alexandria, in the second 
century after Christ. It is supposed to have been written by the 
Apostle Peter. Another is " The Gospel of Peter," a narrative of 
the life of Christ, similar to those of the four Gospels. It was in use 
in the second century, especially in the Syrian communities, and was 
at first admitted by the ecclesiastical authorities, but afterwards 
stigmatised as gnostic. It, too, is supposed to have been written by 
St. Peter. The third codex contains considerable fragments of the 
Book of Enoch, a prophetic book, which was of high authority 
among the early Christians, but the origin^of which is not cleared up. 
The ascription to the Old Testament patriarch, " who walked with 
God," is, of course, a mere literary fiction. Professor Harnack 
intends to publish a full report of this important discovery in the 
January num.ber of the Preussische Jahrbitcher^ edited by Professor 
Hans Delbriick. 



Book Borrowers. 




N The Bookworm ii, p. 37, we published a number of 
versified warnings as to the present or future doom of the 
bookborrower. These warnings are usually characterised 
more for the force of their threats than for the inspiration of their 
lines. We give below a few additional examples. 

An old Harleian MS. contains a warning which, in those days, 
would not be disregarded, and of which the following is a transla- 
tion': — 

"The booke of St. Mary and St. Nicholas of Arranstein, the 
which if anyone shall purloin it, may he die the death, may he be 
cooked upon a gridiron, may falling sickness and fevers attack him, 
and may he be broken Upon the wheel and hung." Books were 
valuable, and possessed by few save the priests and the very wealthy; 
hence the dread anathema. 

The following lines are commonly in one form and another : — 

*' Steal not this book, my worthy friend, 
For fear the gallows will be your end ; 
Up the ladder, and down the rope, 
There you'll hang until you choke ; 
Then I'll come along and say — 
' Where's that book you stole away ? ' " 

In a volume of sermons, from the pen of a divine who has long 
since gone to rest, some irreverent reader had written the following, 
which, if not quite a propos^ may be here quoted : — 

** If there should be another flood, 
For refuge hither fly ; , 

Though all the world should be submerged, 
■ This book would still be dry." 

In one or two cases scripture texts have supplied the required 
warning against the crime of peculation, or the less heinous sin of 
omitting to return a borrowed volume. 





54 BOOK BORRO WERS, 

The author of the following evidently had no very high opinion 
of book-borrowers generally : — 

" My master never lends me, 
So if I'm found elsewhere, 
A thief is my possessor ; 
Therefore, ye knaves, beware ! " 

About the middle of the last century, an eccentric physician, who 
possessed a good library, had on the inside cover of all his books a 

label bearing the words, "Stolen from the library of Dr. , 

." These notices are on all fours with a practice observed in 

certain hospitals where the medicine bottles for indoor patients have 

the words, "Stolen from Hospital" engraved on them in large 

letters. 

Sometimes verses very much to the point are found, ns for ex- 
ample : — 

" Small is the wren, black is the rook, 
Great is the sinner who steals this book." 

Book-lovers who have evidently suffered from lending their precious 
volumes, often burst into verse, of which the following example is 
only one of many that might be quoted : — 

' ' If you borrow me, I pray, 
Treat me as a friend ; 
Keep me by your own fireside. 
And to no others lend. 

Guard my leaves, and keep them clean, 

Do not turn them down ; 
"With no pencil marks deface, 

Nor with thumb-marks brown." 

Probably the verse following derived its inspiration from the well- 
known motto, "x\nyone may borrow a book, but a gentleman 
returns " : — 

' ' Kind friends to whom my master lends 
His choicest books, 
"When they are read, return at once, 

And save black looks. 
Fools many borrow them, but 'tis 
The gentleman returns." 

One motto which might, with advantage, be used in public library 
books, and may be commended to all borrowers, both from public 
and private collections : — 

" Whenever you borrow me, 
I hope you'll keep me clean ; 
For I am not a linen rag 
That can be washed ajrain." 






The Kelmscott Press. 




MONG the many private presses which have at various 
times been estabUshed in this country, the most important 
is unquestionably that of Mr. William Morris, the well- 
known poet. An evening contemporary writes as follows in reference 
to a ** private view" of an advance copy of his reprint of Caxton's 
" Recueil of the Historyes of Troye." On looking through it, Dr. 
Furnivall said enthusiastically, " It's the most beautiful book I ever 
saw ; it's the most beautiful book ever printed ! " Mr. F. S. Ellis, 
through whose hands every book treasure in England for the last 
forty years has passed, cordially agreed in this opinion, and so did Mr. 
Emery Walker, the art editor of the English Illustrated Magazine^ 
and Mr. Theodore Watts, the friend of poets and artists, and poet 
himself. This delightful " Recueil " volume is in quarto, in a brand- 
new pica type designed by Mr. WilHam Morris, with some of the 
beautiful borders used by him in his handsome " Golden Legend," 
with admirably designed capitals and " weepers " or side ornaments, 
all of Mr. Morris's design and drawing, and with a very fine, bold 
title. The volume is, indeed, a credit to English craftsmanship, and 
assuredly stands at the head of all specimens of typography hitherto 
produced. Mr. Tunstall has the sale of the work. Mr. William 
Morris has just finished a reprint of Caxton's " Book of Chivalry " 
in the new type he has designed for his grand folio " Chaucer," for 
which Mr. Burne Jones is making fifty large drawings on wood, and 
the text of which Mr. F. S. Ellis is preparing from the parallel text 
issued by the Chaucer Society. The " Book of Chivalry " is in small 
pica type, somewhat of the character of the " Recueil " fount, and 



56 



THE KELMSCOTT PRESS. 




is an extremely pretty little book. It waits for an introduction by 
Mr. F. S. Ellis. 

Mr. Morris has at press Caxton's "Godfrey of BuUoyn ; or, the 
Conquest of Jerusalem." This will be followed by Lord Berners's 
" Huon of Bordeaux," and possibly his " Golden Book" of Marcus 
Aurelius. Caxton's " Historye of Reynard the Foxe " is nearly 
ready. Wynkyn de Werde's *' Vitas Retrum " is in course of trans- 
cription. And when the grand "Chaucer" is done — it will be a 
magnificent book — the probability is that Mr. William Morris will 
venture on Lord Berners's *' Froissart," a great favourite of his. Not- 
withstanding the high prices at which the productions of Mr. Morris's 
Kelmscott Press are published, buyers are not likely to suffer from 
purchasing them. " The Golden Legend," issued a few weeks ago at 
five guineas, is now obtainable only at ten or twelve guineas. All 
Mr. Morris's own poems on sale by Reeves and Turner are now 
worth double their published price. A new era has dawned in 
English printing. Shakespeare's poems are soon to go to press in a 
handsome quarto at the Kelmscott Press, and we hope that a volume 
of Tennyson will not be long in following it. Mr. Morris will, of 
course, gradually issue all his own works in his new superb style. 



Dickens*s ^'Little Nell." 



• 

ss Mamie ■ 



WHO was the original of Dickens's Little Nell ? Miss 
Dickens, in an article on " My Father as I Recall Him," in 
an American contemporary, says she has no doubt that it was Mary 
Hogarth, a sister of his wife. Mary Hogarth, who died young, was 
of a charming and lovable disposition, and was personally very 
beautiful. She was, in short, Dickens's ideal of what a young girl 
should be. She was buried at Kensal Green, and her grave bears the 
following inscription written by the novelist: — "Young, beautiful and 
good, God in His mercy numbered her among His angels at the 
early age of seventeen." 





The Bibliographical Society. 




R. W. A. COPINGER, F.S.A., the first president of the 
Bibhographical Society, delivered the inaugural address on 
November 21st, at the meeting-room in Hanover Square, 
London. He congratulated the members on the fact that they were 
now over 160 strong, and among them were the best-known and 
most scientific bibliographers of this country. There could be no 
doubt that bibliography was now in process of development, and 
was fast becoming an exact science. It must be recognised as some- 
thing very different from mere cataloguing. It had become a 
necessity to the author, the scholar, the librarian, and the collector. 
No library worthy of the name should be without its twofold cata- 
logue — the one raiso7i7ie^ or bibliographical, and the other its index, 
the latter being so constructed as to be for all practical purposes an 
ordinary reference catalogue. In proportion to the advancement of 
civilisation and the diffusion of literature ought to be the references 
to and accounts of the thousands of works which have been the pro- 
duct of the past, and we need not be surprised if the particular need 
of the present day was an exact knowledge of those repositories which 
had enlightened and benefited mankind. Bibliography dealt with a 
vast variety of subjects, and the Society should, while maintaining 
the highest standard with accuracy in detail, be essentially broad in 
its scope. In other words, every work taken in hand, or over which 
the mantle of the Society might be cast, should be in the highest 
degree of merit — such, in fact, as bibliographers and others might 
depend upon as being as nearly perfect as learning and industry 
could render it : and yet the breadth of subjects covered should be 

8 




58 THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 

sufficient to permit the introduction of matters of interest to engage 
the attention of others than speciah'sts. One of the most important 
matters for the consideration of the Society would be a general cata- 
logue of English literature. The catalogue of the British Museum 
was now nearly completed. Half the labour of the compiling of a 
general catalogue was thus probably saved, and a basis in existence 
on which the complete catalogue might be reared. It would be 
matter for consideration whether the general catalogue should be on 
the same lines as the Museum catalogue, and also whether a system 
of registration of all new books should not be arranged as from the 
date to which the general catalogue was to be compiled, and whether 
this should not be the very first step to take. The want experienced 
was a catalogue of the literature of the nation, with an indication of 
its precise nature and where it could be found. All the larger public 
libraries must be put under contribution, and means should be taken 
for obtaining a list of the special collections of books in the United 
Kingdom, the owners being invited to contribute lists towards the 
preparation of the general catalogue. Another subject which would 
require serious attention by the Society was early printed books. 
This it was proposed to have considered by a special committee. 
What was really wanted was something more than a mere supple- 
ment, or even a new edition, of Hain's "Reportorium," which no 
doubt was the best we had on fifteenth century books, but there were 
three main objections to it — (i) the order and arrangement; (2) the 
information from a typographical aspect was not up to date; and (3) 
there must be at least some five or six thousand volumes issued be- 
fore 1500 not noticed by the author. The first step would seem to 
be the identification of the printers of the various books bearing no 
printer's name and not identified by Hain. Both Bradshaw and 
Blades had shown how much aid might be obtained in settling the 
dates of early printed books by noticing the habits of the printers 
and their gradual improvement in working ; indeed where we had no 
date on the face of the book the unconscious evidence afforded by 
the method of working was of the greatest value. If that Society 
should be instrumental in obtaining recruits for this work — those 
who would make a study of some particular press, specifying the 
variations of the type, and identifying the works issued from that 
press, coupled with an exhaustive list of the works issued therefrom 
— the Society would have set on foot a much-needed work. The 
result of these studies should be published by the Society. Having 
indicated in some detail the lines on which he would proceed with 
this work, the President, in conclusion, reminded the members that 



II 



THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 59 

the objects of the Society were broad and the field of labour great. 
Success depended mainly on united effort. The formation of the 
Society should mark an epoch in the literature of the country. He 
urged them to labour steadily until bibliography was established as 
an exact science and occupied that proper position in the realm of 
literature from which it had been so long by ignorance excluded. 



Censorship in Russia. 

MSKABICHEWSKY, the literary critic of the Novostt, has 
• just published a curious volume on the history of the 
Censorship in Russia. He shows how the Czar Nicolas saved some 
of the works of Joukowsky, Puskine, and Gogol from the severities 
of the Censorship. Karamzine's "History of Russia" likewise owed 
its life to Nicholas. The censors, it appears, are generally well- 
informed, cultured, and eminently sociable men, who receive a good 
salary for the pleasure of forming a library gratuitously of the books 
they approve, and, above all, of the books they forbid others to read. 
They are often very leisurely in their reading of the works whose fate 
they have to decide, whereat authors, publishers, and booksellers 
fret and fume, to say nothing of the public who have to await the 
good pleasure of these keepers of the Hterary conscience. When the 
souvenirs of Tourgdnieif appeared in French, the censors made a 
descent on the booksellers, and excised the two pages in which that 
author condemned the censure and declared that he would not return 
to Russia until it was abolished. One of them said, " I am quite of 
the opinion of Tourg^nieff, but I am a censor above all." And he 
mercilessly wielded his scissors. 



6o 



MISCELLANEA. 



A Fourteenth Century Library. 

THE following is a list of books which belonged to Bishop John 
Trevaur in 1357 : — 

I Biblia in asseribus cum nigro corio prec. 40^. 

I liber prec. 265-. Zd. cui incipit " Abbas " in asseribus cum albo 
corio. 

I liber voc. Psalterium glossatum in asseribus cum albo corio 
prec. 1 3 J. 4^. 

I liber voc. Ronafil. [Rationale] Divinor. Officior., pr. 20s. in 
asseribus cum albo corio. 

I parvus liber sermonum qui incipit "si vis ad vitam ingredi " in 
asseribus cum rub. corio pr. 40^. 

I liber Semmentor (?) in asseribus cum viridi corio pr. i3i-. 4^. 

I lib. voc. Legenda Sanctorum in asseribus cum rubeo corio 
pr. 26.9. 

Calumpniat. per fratres de Ragh . . . biblia in asseribus cum 
albo corio in magno volumine pr. dos. 

I parvus libellus in asseribus rubeis de officio episcopi, pr. 2s. 

I canucoi (?) de subpr. et vigil, in asseribus sine corio pr. 45-. 

I liber voc. Comeiccu super viij libros Physicorum in asseribus 
sine corio pr. 6i-. Zd. 

I liber voc. diversa originalia Anselmi et Damaceni in asseribus 
cum viridi corio pr. 135-. 4^. 

I liber voc. Catholicon pr. 66j. Zd. 

I liber voc. Concordanc. in asseribus cum albo corio pr. (i(is. %d. 

I liber histor. in asseribus cum corio rubeo Abbas de Basingwerk 
vendicat. 

I parvus lib. de officio eru (?) in asseribus cum albo corio pr. \s. 

I liber qui voc. E . . . er dulua (?) asseribus cum viridi corio 
pr. IS. 

I p. decretorum vetus in asseribus de viridi corio et i p. i decretal. 
nov. in asseribus cum . . . 



Archbishop Williams. 




S library work so closely affects bookworms in general, a 
short account of the efforts of an untiring founder may be 
interesting to readers of The Bookworm. The man I 
refer to was an English Prelate, Archbishop Williams, who lived at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

His first effort was at Westminster, where he made a very good 
library for the benefit of the college in " a great room on the east 
side of the cloysters," and to the extent of over ;£'5oo furnished it 
with " desks, chains, and other necessaries." Not content with what 
he had done already, he gave a further testimony of his benevolence 
by placing his choicest manuscripts and parchments in the library. 

Another design of his was the building and establishing of a library 
at Lincoln, but although it was begun with good prospects, he never 
realised his wishes. 

Such was the progress at first made, that the books were purchased, 
the timber bought and worked, and other necessaries ready, but 
" the founder's troubles coming thick now upon him," the proceed- 
ings were stopped. The doom of this attempt seems to have been 
fairly sealed now, for not only did the books soon disappear, but the 
timber which was to have been used for the building was used by 
the soldiers during the civil war for fortifications. 

His other great work was at his old college, St. John's, Cambridge. 
It appears that they had a library which was much too small ; this 
fact seems to have been recognised, for I find that they were "casting 
about by what means they might procure a new library." Such was 
the known munificence of Dr. Williams (who was at that time Bishop 



62 



ARCHBISHOP WILLIAMS. 




of Lincoln and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal), that the society- 
thought that they could not ask a more likely person than him to 
carry on to completion such an expensive work. Dr. Williams, on 
being asked, consented, and entered into the work with a will, and 
during the years 1623 and 1624 gave supplies of money to the 
extent of ;^2,oii 13s. 4d. The total cost of the building was 
;^2,99i los. lod, the difference being made up by Sir Ralph Hace, 
of Stow-Bardolf, Norfolk, as to ;£"i92 for the foundation of the 
building; the balance, amounting to £,1^1 6s. 6d., "besides the daily 
allowance of bread and beer to the workmen," being borne by the 
college itself. It will be seen that a good two-thirds of the cost fell 
on Bishop WiUiams, so that he is generally said to be the founder of 
the building. 

Now, as to the furnishing this new building with books, Dr. 
Williams shows his extraordinary generosity and zeal in the cause 
of library-making. At first he made over his own collection of books 
to the librar}^ but afterwards countermanded the gift, and made an 
indenture by which he bound himself to the annual payment for ten 
years of ;^ioo, so that the society should be able to buy books for 
the library, and as security for such payment he again made over his 
own books, and furnished the college with a catalogue thereof, to 
be kept amongst the records of the college. The Bishop having 
sundry troubles at this time, no part of the ;^i,ooo was ever paid, 
and foreseeing his inability to ever do so, ordered his library to be 
delivered to the college in satisfaction. His library suffered much 
from then to the time of his death, being seized by Parliament and 
shifted from place to place, but eventually the " Mangled Library " 
was consigned to the college for good, on the death of this worker 
in the cause of hbrary-establishing. 

Victor J. Moulder. 



The Preservation of Autographs. 




fHE proposal to form a society, to be called "The Society 
of Archivists and Autograph Collectors," is one that 
deserves the attention of authors. Perhaps by the time 



these lines meet the eye of the reader, the new society may have 
been already happily inaugurated, and, if so, literature will be pro- 
vided with one more handmaid very usefully devoted to her service. 
It is true that a great number of learned, antiquarian, and literary 
societies already exist, so many, indeed, that there is occasion to fear 
that they may sometimes rather divide than concentrate the energies 
of their supporters. None, however, has exactly the same aims as 
those which the new society proposes to itself, and those aims are 
most undeniably useful. Commencing from the banding together 
" for mutual benefit " of collectors of autographs, whether those who 
are very seriously engaged in that valuable pursuit, or those who 
have taken it up more lightly, as a tasteful hobby or occasional 
pastime, the Society of Archivists proposes also to attempt some- 
thing towards educating the public into regarding " old papers " with 
more of the reverence due to them, to exchange views as to the col- 
lection and preservation of manuscripts, and to compile a reference 
catalogue, as complete as possible, of the many valuable MSS. 
scattered about the country in private and other collections. The 
last mentioned undertaking would be gigantic, but the society's pro- 
gramme is certainly an admirable one, and one that should command 
the sympathies of all authors and literary men. 

For the whole world of letters has no greater or more terrible foe 
than this ignorance of the respect due to " old papers," which the 
new society arms itself to fight. This ignorance, public and private, 
has robbed us of what we can neither replace nor afford to lose, and 



64 THE PRESER VA TION OF A UTOGRAPHS. 



I 



is robbing us still. Ever since man first discovered a device for 
scratching a record of his thoughts on a stone, to the present hour, 
parallel with all the labours of the student, the scholar, the historian, 
and the poet, of every one who has ever written anything, has 
marched unspeakable ignorance, more ready than wanton malice to 
destroy anything set forth in letters, from the grandest flights of 
poetic genius to the humblest '■^ Hie jacet " that records the shedding 
of a tear. 

Indeed, it would hardly be an exaggeration to say that ignorance 
has had things all its own way. If aught has survived of the labours 
of authors for thousands of years, that has been due rather to blessed 
chance than to any momentary abstention on the part of ignorance 
from its passion to destroy. Neglect has sometimes proved more 
safe than care, and idle time, a faithful custodian of treasures, man 
had cast aside. 

[The proposal to form a Society of Archivists and Autograph 
Collectors could not be promulgated at a more opportune moment 
than the present, when, as will be seen from the first paragraph in 
" Our Note Book," collectors are just now waking up to the fact 
that the market has been inundated with forgeries. We wish the 
Society every success. — Ed., Bookworm.] 




Plowden's '' Treatise." 

AVERY curious and interesting unpublished autograph manu- 
script has been sold at Sotheby's. It was written in or abouti 
the year 1580, by Plowden, a very prominent Roman Catholic 
politician and compiler of Law Reports (in French) of the period. 
The manuscript in question is a "Treatise," in which the author 
proves that if Queen Elizabeth (" whome God blesse with longe life 
and many children ") should die without issue, there is no law which 
prevents the Queen of Scotland from receiving the crown of England. 
The fact that it was never printed can only be attributed to the ex- 
treme probability that the author could find no printer sufficiently 
careless of his personal comforts to run the risk of imprisonment. 
The lot realised ;£8, which was extremely cheap. 



Our Note Book. 




N a decade hence, when the literature of the year 1892 i» 
weighed up, as it were, by the historian, the book upon 
which the greatest amount of unquahfied praise is bestowed 
will, we have no doubt, be the Rev. Stopford A. Brooke's " History 
of Early English Literature," which Messrs. Macmillan and Co. pub- 
lished in December last. The two volumes bring the subject from 
its beginnings up to the accession of King Alfred, and from the 
thoroughness of his knowledge we trust that Mr. Brooke will 
continue to publish the result of his studies up to at least the 
time of Chaucer. To the bibliographer the interest of Mr. Stop- 
ford Brooke's important contribution to the handbooks of to-day 
will to a great extent lie in the sources of his information. From 
the very nature of the conditions of life in this country eight 
hundred or a thousand years ago, these sources are few. But Mr. 
Stopford Brooke has made the most of his opportunities, qualifying 
himself at the outstart by mastering the Anglo-Saxon language. One 
of the most important sources of this History is " The Exeter Book," 
which formed part of the library which Leofric, the first Bishop of 
Exeter, collected and left to his cathedral church. He catalogued 
it himself, under a designation which may be translated " A mickle 
Enghsh book on all kinds of things, wrought in verse." It is still 
kept in Exeter Cathedral, and has been there since the first bishop 
died in 107 1. Mr. Brooke describes it as a varied anthology, and as 
containing poems which range from the eighth to the tenth or eleventh 
century. One or two may belong to the seventh century, and some 
others may even be of greater antiquity. It will be interesting to quote 
the titles of some of these poems, and among others occur "The 
Christ," ''The Phoenix," " The Wanderers," "Gifts of Men," "The 

9 



66 



OUR NOTE-BOOK, 



^f^W 



Seafarer," "The Fates of Men," "Gnomic Verses," " The Panther, the 
Whale, and Partridge," "The Soul to its Body," "The Message of a 
Lover," and " The Descent into Hell." 



Another of Mr. Stopford Brooke's sources, " The Vercelli Book," 
was discovered in the Capitular Library at Vercelli, in Upper Italy, 
in 1832. Its presence there is an entire mystery; but Wiilker con- 
jectures that a hospice existed in that town for Anglo-Saxon pilgrims 
who went on pilgrimage to Rome, and who crossed by the Mont 
Cenis or the Great or Little St. Bernard Passes, and that this manu- 
script may have been left there by some English voyager. It consists 
principally of Anglo-Saxon homilies, but interspersed are six poems, 
in the handwriting of the eleventh century. Among these are " The 
Fates of the Apostles " and " The Address of the Soul to the Body." 
The manuscript of Beowulf in the British Museum, and the Junian 
manuscript of the Caedmonian poems in the Bodleian, have also 
been consulted. With one of the poems which occur in " The 
Exeter Book," " Widsith " — which means " Far-Traveller "— Mr. 
Stopford Brooke starts his History ; and a careful examination of 
this poem amply proves its antiquity, for much of the verse which it 
contains was undoubtedly made in the Old Angle land over the seas. 
It is the personal habits, adventures, and impressions of a wandering 
minstrel. Mr. Brooke then gives us several exhaustive and interesting 
chapters dealing with " Beowulf," its mythical and other elements; 
the Conquest and literature, armour and war in poetry, Christianity 
and literature and monasticism and literature, and various other attri- 
butes of Enghsh life up to the year 800. The second volume 
discusses, after a general view of the rise of literature, and literature 
in Northumbria, Caedmon, Cynewulf and his signed poems, as well 
as a number of unsigned poems either by this writer or by men of 
his school, concluding with perhaps the most interesting chapter 
of the book — that which deals with the school of York. It would be 
impossible to overpraise this " History of Early English Literature," 
which differs from so many works of the same genre in being as 
delightful to read as it is reliable as a book of reference. No library, 
public or otherwise, should be without it, and we can strongly com- 
mend it to the attention of Home Reading Societies generally. 



An exceedingly well-written and entertaining book is Mr. Gilbert 
R. Redgrave's "History of Water-Colour Painting in England," 




THE^MONK, BY W. H. HUNT. 



68 



OUR NOTE-BOOK, 




which Messrs, Sampson Low, Marston, and Co. have just added to 
their series of Art Text-Books. It adequately fills a long-felt want, 
and it may be questioned whether any other writer on art matters 
could have turned out so good a book as the one before us, for it is 
readable, reliable, and sufficiently comprehensive. There are 33 
plates from pictures by the more eminent of English artists in water- 
colours, each being a representative example, the whole being, it is 
true, for the most part either at South Kensington or in the British 
Museum — a fact which is but poor consolation to those who live 
away from the metropolis. Of one of these we are enabled, through 
the courtesy of the publishers, to give an example which will have a 
peculiar attraction to the readers of the Bookworm — William Henry 
Hunt's painting of "The Monk." In his Introduction, Mr. Red- 
grave gives a full description of the various methods of water- 
colour painting, which will have the effect of disabusing the lay mind 
of many erroneous ideas. An entire chapter is devoted to Turner ; 
and the founders of the various societies of water-colour painters are 
fully dealt with, both in reference to their official as well as to their 
private work. The last of the 1 7 chapters deals with the materials 
used by water-colour artists, with the subject of the permanence of 
water-colour drawings, the reports from a committee of experts, and 
the stabihty of single colours and mixed colours. 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. F. B. F. Campbell, an assistant in the British Museum 
Library, has reprinted in pamphlet form two papers which he has, 
on different occasions, read at meetings of the Library Association 
of the United Kingdom. The earher of these is entitled " An 
Introduction to the Theory of a State-Paper Catalogue," and the 
second is " A Plea for Annual Lists of State-Papers and Annual 
Reviews of State-Papers, as being essential preliminaries to State- 
Paper Catalogues." It is almost superfluous for us to say that we 
are in entire accord with Mr. Campbell's strongly reasoned argu- 
ments, for the State-Papers of this country are simply heart-breaking 
in their almost completely unworkable character. To obtain a single 
fact one has often to consult a score or two bulky volumes of 
reports on subjects entirely foreign to the one desired. This serious 
loss of time would be obviated if the Reports were bound up 
according to the subjects ; but the existing system of binding the 
Reports up according to the years in which they are issued would be 
much less objectionable if there existed a thoroughly good index or 
Catalogue Raisonne to every ten years' publication. The State- 
Papers, under these conditions, would be readily accessible, and 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 



69 



the vast expense which is every year expended on these official 
Reports would be money well spent, and the results as accessible to 
the general public as to the student. There is nothing but sound, 
practical common sense in Mr. Campbell's proposals, and if the 
Library Association can assist in bringing this matter to a successful 
issue it will have succeeded in effecting a most important Revolution. 



Small books are the order of the 
day ; and, barring the small type, 
they have much to commend them. 
The latest effort in this direction 
comes from the Queen's Printers, 
Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, of 
Great New Street, E.G., whose "dia- 
mond 48mo" Bible is a triumph. 
The thinness of the paper is only 
less marvellous than its extreme 
toughness ; and when it is stated 
that this complete Bible of 1535 
pages can be almost stowed away 
in a waistcoat pocket, its extreme 
portability will be at once evident. 
The type, if small, is beautifully 
clear; and we have no doubt that 
the enterprise of the printers will 
be rewarded by a big sale. We 
give a facsimile of one of the pages. 



GALATIAN8, 4. 



22 But tlie icripture bath 
concluded all under sin^ that 
the promise b; t'aitb of Jesus 
Christ might be giveu to them 
that believe. 

23 But before faith came, we 
were kept under the law, shut 
up unto the faith which should 
afterwards be revealed. 

24 Wherefore the law was our 
schoolmaster to bring h» un- 
to Christ, tliat we might be 
justified by faith. 

25 But after that faith is 
come, we are no longer under 
a schoolmaster. 

26 For ye are all the chil- 
dren of God by faith in Christ 
Jesus. 

27 For as many of you as 
haTe been baptised into Christ 
have nut on Christ. 

28 Tnere is neither Jew nor 
Greek, there is neither bond 
nor free, tliere is neither male 
nor female : for ye are all one 
in Christ Jesus. 

29 And if ye bt Christ's, then 
are ye Abraham's seed, and 
heirs according to the promise. 

CHAPTER 4. 

NOW I say, rh.ai the heir, 
as long as he is a child, 
difiereth nothing from a ser- 
vant, though he be lord of all ; 

2 But is under tutors and 
governors until the time ap- 
pointed of the father. 

3 Kven so we, when we were 
children, were in bondage un- 
der the elements of the wnrld: 

4 Hut when the fulness of 
the time was come, God sent 
forth his Son, made of a wo- 
man, made under the law, 

5 To redeem them that were 
under the law, that we might 
receive the adoption of sons. 

6 And because ye are sons, 
God hath sent forth the Spirit 
of his Son into your hearts, 
crying, Abba, Father. 

7 Wherefore thou art no more 



a servant, but a ion ; and if 
a son, then au heir of God 
through Christ. 

8 Uowbeit then, when ye 
knew not God, ye did service 
unto them which by nature 
are no gods. 

9 But now, after that ye 
have known God, or rather 
are known of God, how turn 
ye again to the weak and beg- 

Sarly elements, whereunto ye 
esire again to be in bondage? 

10 Ye observe days, and 
mouths, and times, and years. 

11 I am afraid of you, lest I 
have bestowed upon you la- 
bour in vain. 

12 Brethren, I beteech you, 
be as I am; for I am a* ye 
are: ye have not injured me 
at all. 

13 Ye know how through In- 
firmity of the llesh I preached 
the gospel unto you at the first. 

14 And my temptation which 
was in my flesh ye despised 
not, nor rejected ; but receiv- 
ed me as an angel of God, 
tven as Christ Jesus. 

15 Where is then the bless- 
edness ye spake of? for I bear 
you record, that, if it hoi 
been possible, ye would have 
plucked out your own eyei. 
and have given them to me. 

16 Am 1 therefore become 
your enemy, because I tell 
you the truth ' 

17 Tliey zealously affect you, 
but not well ; yea, they would 
exclude you, that ye might 
affect them. 

18 But it t« good to be zeal- 
ously affected always in a good 
thing, and not only when I 
am present with you. 

19 My little children, of whom 
T travail in birth again until 
Christ be formed in you, 

20 I desire to be present with 
you now, and to change tny 
voice; for I stand in doubt 
of you. 



The sale of the original manuscript of " Poems by Two Brothers," 
to which full reference was made in the last issue, attracted, as was 
expected, a large number of people to Messrs. Sotheby's Rooms, in 
Wellington Street, Strand, on December 23rd. On the lot coming 
up for sale, and a question of literary proprietorship having been 
raised, the auctioneer said he only sold the copyright of the pub- 
lished poems, as the representatives of the late Lord Tennyson 
claimed rights in the three unpublished pieces. That difficulty 
having been settled, the lot was put in at a reserve of ;jf 100 — a 
needless caution, because in a few moments the bids reached ;£'4oo, 
and finally the lot was knocked down to Messrs. Macmillan and 
Bowes, the well-known booksellers of Cambridge, for ;£^48o. 



70 



OUR NOTE'BOOK. 



The Paris Figaro devotes a monthly supplement to questions and 
answers, and the idea has distinctly " caught on»" In reply to the 
demand, "Quelles sont les cent ceuvres d'art les plus belles du 
monde ? " the following manuscripts and books are included in the 
list : The " Book of Hours " of the Due de Berri, with miniatures of 
the fourteenth century, and now in the possession of the Due 
d'Aumale at Chantilly, is the most beautiful manuscript known. At 
the same chateau, also, are found the marvellous series of forty 
miniatures which Jean Fouquet executed for Etienne Chevallier ; 
and the " folles entreprises du pobte Gringore," printed on vellum, 
in Gothic characters, ornamented with twenty-two miniatures of great 
beauty, and bound in morocco with the arms and the device of 
Diana of Poitiers. At the Biblioth^que Nationale there are the 
" Heures d'Anne de Bretagne," with fifty-one whole-page paintings 
done in 1507 by Jehan Bourdichon ; the two Bibles of Charles le 
Chauve, which are considered as one of the most beautiful 
monuments of art of the Carlovingian period : the first of which, 
executed for Charlemagne under the direction of Alcuin, came from 
St. Martin-de-Tours, and the second, with the arms of Henri IV., was 
written for Charles le Chauve, and at one time belonged to the 
Abbey of St. Denis ; the unique copy of the Pentateuch of the fifth 
century, formerly the property of Libri — *' de funeste m^moire ; " 
and the " Livre d'Heures " of Grimani, at the Palace of the Doge of 
Venice. Among the printed books in the National Library at Paris, 
the three most notable are the Mazarine Bible ; an edition of 
St. Gerome with the binding signed and dated 1469 — the earliest 
known instance of the kind — by Jean Richenbash, at Geislingen, 
near Stuttgart ; and the Ptolemy with the sixteenth century mosaic 
binding executed for Diana of Poitiers. 



Book Collecting in America. 




]HE book connoisseur is rarely in an explanatory mood ; he 
has grown so familiar with his theme that he cannot under- 
stand why the great mass of book readers know but little of 
the range and possibilities of book collecting and embellishment. 
He does not readily diffuse his knowledge in an appreciable way, 
stripped of the technical verbiage of his avocation, and he cannot 
make himself believe that the madding crowd outside his special 
domain summarise book collecting as simply the getting together of 
a library of works of more or less value. 

And yet it is a fact that this is the epitome, the popular mind, 
the veriest sum and substance of all there is of the entire field of 
literature in this phase of its preservation. Moreover, among many 
persons of more than ordinary intelligence in other fields, but httle 
is known of the ramifications of the book collector. And yet, in 
truth, there are not two book collectors who collect just alike. There 
is a tendency, to be sure, when one connoisseur discovers some 
new way of manipulating or collecting books, for others to follow in 
his wake. But this is not to be commended. The man that strikes 
out for himself comes nearest the ideal of the true bibliophile. 

There are amateurs that gather works of Americana exclusively 
or as an important part of a great collection ; others will collect rare 
books of early English literature ; others still will make a specialty 
of choice works of poetry and the drama. There is, indeed, just now 
a strong feeling among collectors of dramatic works for books dating 
from 1550 to the end of the seventeenth century. 

Nell Gwynne flourished about 1660, and the records of her career 




72 BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 

are eagerly sought. The demand takes every now and then a tangent 
into special fields, and at present there seems to be a rage for the 
annals of stage folk. 

Undoubtedly the finest private library in this country is that of 
Robert Hoe. It embraces missals, manuscripts, and rare books of 
every kind. Mr. Hoe is omnivorous. He collects everything that 
is fine. Every branch is invaded by him. His collection of manu- 
scripts is the most complete in America. There are a half-dozen 
Groliers of great value on his shelves, and he now possesses the 
Pembroke Missal, for which he must have paid a comparatively 
fabulous price, placed by experts at such a figure as $10,000. 

Will Loring Andrews prides himself upon having the finest collec- 
tion of Roger Paine bindings. His especial fad, however, and a 
unique one it is, is the getting of a great deal of value into a small 
compass. This collector may like a book ; it may be a rare book, 
but if it is large he will not buy. He would willingly pay so great a 
sum as $1,200 for a book that was rare enough and small enough. 
The rarest things in dimensions above the average would not tempt 
him. But if the object were small, no figure representing its value 
would be too high to debar him from purchase. He is what is tech- 
nically known among bibliophiles as a cabinet collector. 

George B. De Forest collects foreign books in which he finds 
continued incitement for additions of a similar nature to his library. 
Peter Marie prefers works in the French tongue relating more par- 
ticularly to romance and poetry. 

Augustin Daly is one of the most liberal purchasers of books 
bearing upon the drama. " The Life of Peg Woffington," written by 
himself from the most carefully acquired data, was limited to an 
edition of 115 copies, printed on wide-margined paper. His own 
special copy he has had illustrated in aquarelles, the margins being, 
beautifully treated in colours, while portraiture has been inlaid from 
time to time. Already Mr. Daly has expended over two thousand 
dollars upon the embellishment of this book, and further additions 
will be made whenever feasible. Grivaz, the Swiss-French king of 
Aquarellists, is now in this country doing Daly's book decoration. 

There is called to mind one of the most enthusiastically followed 
fads in book collecting. It is the idea of pasting and elaborating. In 
this way rare old books may be enriched until they become almost 
priceless in their enhanced value. 

The literary aspirations of William Waldorf Astor found their first 
vent during the period of his residence in Italy as American Minister^ 
It took the form of an historical novel, and copies were put on sale* 




BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 73 

Mr. Astor had reserved for himself, however, one especially printed 
wide marginal copy, and this he has had decorated in the most lavish 
manner. 

A water-colour picture from the brush of some prominent American 
artist is inserted below each chapter of the book, depicting a scene 
described in it, for which the honorarium was $500. The book is 
being continually added to with new decorative ideas, and is rapidly 
becoming, so far as expenditure and expert development is concerned, 
one of the most remarkable books in the world. The margins are 
treated with sketches and border designs of the most beautiful 
character. 

Some of the favourite books of collectors were illustrated in illu- 
minated decorations apparently raised and embossed upon the margin 
of the pages, which in the text are in initial letters worked in the 
most beautiful and apt conceptions. There is also a special penchant 
for sketches and marginal treatments in pen and ink. 

The most popular form of book illustrating at present is with prints. 
The portraits and localities mentioned in the book are eagerly sought 
out and added between those pages in most appropriate placement. 
In the pursuit of this cult it is not unusual to break up an old book to 
get tlie portraits or pictures out of it. The broken book, though it 
may have been valuable, is now imperfect, but the book formed is 
greatly enriched by the addition, and without doubt the prints are 
best pleased in their new position. 

Most interesting is this phase of bibliography, and keen indeed are 
the enthusiasts upon the trail of an old print that will yield a unique 
value to some cherished book. So much a distinct part of the 
treatment of old books has this interpolating process become, that 
Chalcographimania in the vocabulary of book-lore stands acceptedly 
for the art of print collecting. 

The insertion of prints, if properly done, is an art — and a delicate 
art at that — of itself. When the prints have been pasted on upon 
the middle of the sheet, there is naturally a slighter thickness. This, 
when a number are inserted, would cause the book to bulge in the 
centre, and thus be imperfect. To obviate this, the process of 
inlaying has been brought down to almost a fine-art significance. It 
consists in scraping the print thinner at the back with the sharpest of 
tools in the most skilful hands, and shaving its dimensions also upon 
the sheet, so that it will set in exactly even all over the surface. So 
successfully is this done nowadays that, after the print has been 
pasted in and ironed down, by passing the hand over the surface the 
jointure cannot be felt. 

10 




74 BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 

The restoration of prints is even a more difficult matter. There 
are two men living in Brooklyn that are pre-eminent as inlayers. 
One is an Englishman and the other a Hanoverian. They work 
in secret, and the tools they use are only known to themselves. 
They have no apprentices or aids, and when they pass away it is not 
known who will fill their places. 

A collector that naturally has a fancy for well-illustrated books is 
Samuel P. Avery. If a book is badly printed, he will not have it at 
any price. It is readily understood that Mr. Avery's congeniality 
with pictorial art would lead him into like paths in his book 
collecting. It takes form aptly in special bindings. He has the 
most extravagant wardrobe in the city upon his library. To the 
novice, therefore, his collection represents superlative value. The 
arrangement of colours is most harmonious and pleasing to contem- 
plate. 

There is another important pictorial phase of rare old books besides 
that of inlaying of portraits and scenes — the decoration of margins 
and the harmony in bindings. It is the regard that artists have for 
books — more particularly those that have luminous bindings — and 
the utilisation they are given in the enhancement of composition of 
many a canvas that has been painted. 

The book indeed is as much an artistic property to the painter as 
the wig is to the paid player of the stage. He has continual use for 
it. In portraits he secures a thoughtful expression from the subject 
by its utilisation. It gives a lightsome touch of colour to an interior 
where such is needful. In exclusively still-life pictures the book has 
been dealt with in art at its most important decorating phase. W. M. 
Harnett, who paints with such marvellous conciseness and absolute 
perspective fidelity still-life pictures, utilises a book or books as a 
leading or at least an important feature in almost every composition 
he undertakes. In his " Music and Literature " there is a vellum 
book that is painted perfectly, and other books in leather and cloth, 
these being really the dominant objects, although the pen and ink- 
stand, the music, the ivory and ebony of the flute and the silver 
candlestick, are treated with equal artistic exactness. 

That is a fine group of rare old books that the painter has subtitled 
facetiously, " Job Lot, cheap." Some of them are very valuable works 
that have been loaned for this purpose, and the different colours of 
the binding are brought out with fine pictorial effect in the painting. 
One of Harnett's most important works is his "Old Friends," which 
in its details is most happily balanced. The torn vellum cover of 
the book is original in conception, and the grouping of the other 



BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 75 

books artistic, and grouped in a manner calculated to tax the 
painter's skill to the utmost. The pipe, flute, loving-cup, and bronze 
object are wonderfully exact. 

But a meagre idea, however, of the truth and delightful colour- 
scheme can be had of these paintings, elucidating books, as they do, 
at their highest pictorial aspect in a reproductive drawing ; but they 
give an interesting semblance of notable pictures in which books 
are prominently employed. 

So far as the material for binding is concerned, the French have 
the advantage, for they get the first choice of skins. The English 
are next in line for the opportunity of selection, and American book- 
binders must be content with what is left. 

Roger Paine was the first man to put his name on his bindings, 
and was a pioneer in assisting the artistic clothing of books. His 
bills that have been preserved are curiously itemised. Some of them 
read after this fashion : " I put into this book silk thread to the 
value of 4s. 6d., and I honestly believe that the time spent in sewing 
should be placed at los. 6d." 

Grolier, who is popularly misunderstood as being a bookbinder, 
was not an artisan that constructed bindings, but an amateur that 
suggested designs. He was practically the first patron of book- 
binders. The Groliers are generally Venetian bindings in morocco 
and stamped with gold tools, each figure being embedded separately. 
There is no likeness of Groher in existence, but from description 
and what can be learned of the man an etching has been prepared 
under the direction of the Grolier Club of this city, showing its 
patron saint in the house of his friend, the binder Aldus, furthering 
some new design. 

The Grolier binding that is here reproduced bears the mark of the 
original possessor, that for its suggestion of unselfishness has had 
much to do with the commemoration of his name by advanced book 
collectors. Upon the upper edge appears the line Grolier et Ami- 
coru7n^ Grolier and his friends. 

Another example of forethought and regard for others in the 
gathering of books is instanced by Richard Heber, who was wont to 
secure the three first copies of the rare books he bought — one to 
keep, one to read and one to lend. 

A rare old binding, the lustre of material nor the beauty of its 
conception the centuries may not dim, is the morocco book with 
gilt tooling executed for the joint hbrary of Henry 11. and Diane de 
Poitiers. In the design the interlaced crescents of Diane and the 
crown of Henry II. are plainly discernible. 



76 



BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 




The Gutenberg Bible of the recent Ives sale had the original 
binding, consisting of thick oak boards covered with stamped calf, 
ornamented with brass corners and centre pieces, with bosses affixed 
to protect the book from the table and keep the binding from 
wear. The colour is brown and the material, the usual binding of 
that period, was calf or hogskin. The date is 1455. 

The old prints of the printers are among the rarities of to-day and 
eagerly sought after by collectors. There is a portrait of Gutenberg, 
from an authentic print, showing the great German printer, matrix 
in hand. 

Laurenz Jans Koster is claimed by the Dutch to antedate Guten- 
berg as the first printer. The claim has never been fully substan- 
tiated, but there is certainly ground for argument, and the Dutch 
evidently believe in their theory, for they have erected a monument 
to his memory in Haarlem. 

William Caxton was the first English printer, and his portrait is 
reproduced, with his famous mark attached. The first printed book 
by Caxton was begun in 1465 and took two years to finish. The 
first book printed by Caxton with a date was in 1474. Its title was 
"The Game and Playe of Chesse." The Caxton printings have 
been adequately estimated in value at $10 per page. If the book is 
of 600 pages the value is $6,000, and a single page will bring the 
same ratio. For its printing, as the work of the first English 
printer, and for its marvellous and true execution, the type being fine 
and the matrices perfect, it is a work of remarkable interest and 
value. 

The facilities are greater nov/adays, but no appreciable strides 
have been made since Caxton's time in excellence of printing. The 
De Vinne " Richard De Bury Philobiblom " is a work of to-day, 
however, prepared especially for the Grolier Club that should be the 
pride of our book lovers. It is done in the reddest and blackest of 
inks, and will easily stand comparison with any book of any period. 

While book collecting is carried to a greater degree in detail in 
this country, it is more general in England. There the library in a 
family mansion means that there is an aggregation of favourite 
authors, at all events. But here the designation is more than often 
a pseudonym. I have frequently been invited into the " library " of 
a man of means to find the appellation an empty phrase, as the 
apartment does not reveal a book in sight. 

It would be impossible to mention more than a few of the impor- 
tant collectors in the various fields, and a mere reference to the rare 
books may only be made to illustrate the fads and fancies of biblio- 



BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 77 

maniacs. The late John Carter Brown was, and his son Nicholas 
Brown, following his lead, is, a collector of Americana, and the 
collection of Brayton Ives was strong in this respect. The late Earl 
of Crawford had a very complete collection of Americana. 

The first letter of Columbus, consisting of four leaves, is worth 
more than a thousand times its weight in gold. The Mazarin Bible 
by Gutenberg in the Lenox library, although the binding is not 
contemporaneous, is valued at $20,000. 

The Gutenberg Bible in the Ives sale, now in the possession of 
James W. Ellsworth, of Chicago — an excellent reproduction of its 
cover being subjoined — is a valuable book, and illustrates how the 
master printers of long ago did work that has not been excelled in 
the present time. 

It may not be generally known that Ward McAllister is not only 
an author but a book fancier in the best sense of the term. He re- 
joices to be among rare books, relishing embellished work and fine 
bindings. In furtherance of this penchant he has had a copy of 
" Society Just as I Found It " bound in costly form, with wide- 
margined leaves, upon which he has caused illustrations of the 
dishes mentioned and the costumes worn and other apt decoration 
to be placed upon the pages of the subject matter. He is adding 
constantly to its decorations, and this special work is rapidly attaining 
a unique value. 

The library in the residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt is no mis- 
nomer. It is finished in light oak and terra-cotta relief. It is due, 
it is said, to Mrs. Vanderbilt that here is gathered the most complete 
library in this wealthy family. The Vanderbilts have travelled the 
world over, and many of the valuable books have been secured 
abroad. The library is arranged in suites — each suite being filled 
with books treating of some special subject. The shelves are lined 
with hangings, and cut-glass sliding doors give access to the hand- 
somely bound volumes. 

The Belmont library is another apartment that realises its title in 
the full meaning of the word. There was originally furnishings in 
exclusively blue and gold bindings, but other fine bindings were 
added and gave pungency to the colour scheme. What is more to 
the credit of the collector here is that the books are readily acces- 
sible and show evidence of having been read and frequently handled. 
Mrs. Paran Stevens has gathered a notable collection of rare and 
standard works. 

There are discouragements in book collecting more than in any 
other branch of research. Men that have gone into certain phases 



78 



BOOK COLLECTING IN AMERICA. 




have stopped because it was impossible to secure prints or editions 
that were essential to the perfection of their idea. But the faint- 
hearted should not enter upon this field. It is full of disappoint- 
ments, and when they fall by the wayside the example is a warning to 
others that might have attempted and had the stamina to continue 
and succeed. 

New discoveries are constantly being brought to light by the 
careful scrutiny of old books and manuscripts. James Carson 
Brevoort quite accidentally came across a reference in an old book 
of the fifteenth century relating to the discovery of the Bermudas 
by one of the lieutenants of Columbus at that time who went ashore 
and left some pigs on the islands. Years after, when the islands 
were rediscovered, the animals having been prolific, were so highly 
regarded by the population that they incorporated the pig as part of 
the Bermuda coat-of-arms. 

And so as much for future generations as for the present will book 
collecting be identified with the higher civilisation and intelligence 
of the people as a direct means of enlightenment and a factor of in- 
struction upon the history of these times. The men who collect 
books to-day may not appreciate how well they are building for 
posterity, but it is reasonable to believe that our bibliomaniacs will be 
in centuries to come venerated for their acquisitions as are those of 
the past. 





Fifteenth Century Block-Books. 




N connection with the above subject, to which reference is 
made on pp. 159 and 160 of the last volume of The 
Bookworm, our readers will be glad to read the following 
extract from Mr.. W. J. Linton's "Masters of Wood-Engraving": — 
" Biblia Pauper urn, ^' — Very excellently engraved is the best copy 
(that in the Print Room) at the British Museum of the " Biblia 
Pauperum." The subject matter affirms its purpose. It is a series 
of skeleton sermons in cramped or abbreviated Latin, a store of texts 
and sermon-suggesting pictures, scenes illustrative of the Bible 
history, and embellished with "portraits" of the patriarchs and 
prophets — David and Isaiah being allowed to stand for many. 

This book, Netherlandish work, according to Passavant, is a small 
folio of forty leaves, printed in distemper or water-colour, and, as the 
Apocalypse and Song of Songs, on one side only — a necessary course 
with no means of registering to make the second impression exactly 
back the first. On each page are four portraits, two at the top and 
two at the bottom, above and below a central picture taken from the 
New Testament. On either side of this picture is another, out of 
the Old Testament, elucidating or in some way related to the 
teaching of the New : for instance, at page 10 we have in the middle 
Christ tempted, the Devil bidding him make bread of stones, and at 
the sides the Temptation in Paradise and Esau selling his birth- 
right. The principal portions of the text, probably to be enlarged 
and expounded at the preacher's discretion, are at the top of the 
page on each side of the upper portraits. Below each side-picture 
is a Leonine or rhyming Latin verse, and a third verse is at the foot 
of the page ; while Scripture texts and moral sentences, having regard 



8o 



FIFTEENTH CENTURY BLOCK-BOOKS. 




to the three pictorial compartments, appear on scrolls proceeding 
from under each of the four portraits. 

'•'• Ars Moriendi" — The Museum copy is, I believe, the only 
perfect copy known. It was bought at the sale of the Weigel collec- 
tion, at Leipsic, in 1872, for ;^i,o72 los. The excellence of the 
engraving suggests, Mr. Bullen thinks, that it is of later date than 
the block-books we have been considering. " The manufacture of 
block-books," he remarks, " begun in Holland and afterward prac- 
tised in Belgium, appears to have travelled, about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, into Germany and fixed itself at Cologne, where 
this edition was in all probability executed. Herr Weigel's copy 
[this in our Museum] was acquired by him, he informs us, from a 
private person in that city." The designs, Mr. Bullen adds, are 
" of the Lower Rhenish School of Art, practised at Cologne up to 
about the second quarter of the fifteenth century, when, according 
to Weigel, the native German art is shown to have been influenced 
by the school of Roger Van der Weyde." 

The subject of the " Ars Moriendi " is of the five Temptations of 
a man during a mortal sickness — Abandonment of Faith, Despair, 
Impatience, Vain-Glory, and Avarice : the Devil, by agency of his 
demons, at his work in five designs ; in five alternate confronted by 
the man's Good Angel. The eleventh picture is of the sick man's 
death. 

" Canticum Canticorum." — This book deserves more notice, though 
it is but a small folio, of only sixteen leaves, printed on one side, the 
ink used seeming of very poor consistency, as it varies in an un- 
coloured copy in the British Museum from j^ale brown to almost 
black. Each page, or folio, contains two distinct pictures of equal 
size, filling the upper and lower halves of the page : figure-subjects 
with scrolls above or between the figures. Some brief account of 
the whole series may be worth giving, if only for the sake of the 
curiously quaint and daring adaptation of Solomon's Love-Song, as 
prefiguring Christ's love for His Church, The title, " Providentia 
Virginis Marise, prefixed to the first cut in a copy belonging to the 
city of Haarlem, accepted by Heinecken and repeated everywhere 
without thought, is a misnomer. The queenly Bride can be con- 
sidered as typifying the Church ; but the story surely is not that of 
the Mother of Jesus. The book is indeed nothing else but the Song 
of Solomon in pictures : Christ instead of Solomon as the Bride- 
groom. 

^^ Speculum Humance. Saivattonis" — The first press-printed book 
really important for its wood-engraving is the " Speculum Humanae 



FIFTEENTH CENTUR Y BLOCK-BOOKS. 8i 

Salvationis" (or Mirror of Human Salvation), a small folio with 
neither date nor printer's name. It has been placed wrongly among 
block-books, since three of the four known editions (which we may 
call primary, to keep them clear from later issues) and part of the 
fourth have been printed from movable types. Of these four 
editions two are in Latin and two are in Dutch. In the Latin copies 
the book consists of sixty-three leaves, five of an introduction (the 
Dutch sixty-two, the introduction taking only four) and fifty-eight of 
wood-cuts and text, the cuts to the width of the page, occupying its 
upper half, two subjects in each framed in architectural borders, and 
the text of Latin verse in two columns beneath. The purport of the 
book is apparent in the first lines under the first subject — Casus 
Luciferi (Lucifer's fall from heaven). I may freely English them 
thus — 

" The Mirror of Man's Salvation maketh plain 
His fall and how he may return again." 



A Bibliography of Card Games. 

MR. N. T. HORR, a collector of books treating of the history 
of playing cards and card games, found the pursuit of his 
hobby difficult by reason of the entire lack of a printed bibliography 
of these subjects. The result is the preparation of this list, contain- 
ing over 1,300 titles of works treating of card games or throwing 
historical light on the use of playing cards. The compiler beheves 
his lists of Hoyle's, Seymour's, Cotton's, &c., to be complete, having 
had the privilege of using the manuscript list of Mr. John G. White, 
of Cleveland, O., whose collection of treatises on games, including 
chess, is nowhere surpassed, and the lists of many private collectors 
and publishers of card books. The bibliography is especially com- 
plete in English and American card books, but it also includes many 
hundred French and German publications, besides the leading works 
in Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Spanish, and other 
languages. It contains, among others, 785 Whist titles, 33 Pole 
titles, 78 Hoyles, 38 Dicks, 46 Hombre books, 53 Academie des 
jeux. 

II 



82 



MISCELLANEA, 



Libraries for Manchester. 




MR. QUARITCH (according to a coirespondent of the Echo) 
takes a somewhat different view of the Spencer Library to 
what has already been expressed. He maintains that the library has 
been much over-praised, and that three-quarters of a million sterling 
will be requisite to render it harmonious in its new abode. He 
laments that it contains no valuable manuscripts, which to students 
are so invaluable, and he emphasises the fact that the collection is 
rich only in books from the years 1 450-1 600. The books which 
come after 1600 possess little real value; of course, prior to 1450 
there were no printed books, but still there might have been manu- 
scripts. To people in general, he is of opinion that the library will 
be but a nine days' wonder, whilst to students it will not be half so 
useful as the historical collection of the late Mr. Freeman, which 
is also to be housed in Manchester. Mr. Freeman's library is valued 
at ;£^5oo, and that of Lord Spencer at a quarter of a million sterling. 
In order to help round off the library, Mr. Quaritch thinks such 
manuscripts as the Townley Mysteries, Chaucer, and Gower MSS., 
the Huntingfield Salter, an illustrated Hogarth, with a great variety 
of original drawings, and so forth, should be added, to render the 
library of real value to the student, as well as instructive and useful 
to the general public. Then a reserve fund must be forthcoming of 
;£"i 20,000 for the permanent preservation of the books and the 
building in which they are housed. When this is done, Mr. 
Quaritch thinks it will indeed be a worthy memorial of the late Mr. 
John Rylands. 



The " Kilmarnock " Burns. 




THE gradual rise in the price given for copies of the Kilmarnock 
edition of Burns's poems, which consisted of only 612 copies, 
is shown by the following notes of sales: — In Edinburgh, 1858, 
£,1 I OS. was given for a copy; Glasgow, 1859, ;^8; Edinburgh, 
1S69, ;^io and;£"i4; Glasgow, 1871, £\1 ; Edinburgh, 1874, 
;^i9; London, 1876, ;^33 ; London, i88i,;^49; 1882, ;^67 and 
;^73; i888,;^86and;^iii; 1890, ;£72, ;£'ioo, ;^io7, and^i2o. 
In 1832 a copy was sold in Lincoln's Inn Fields for is. 6d. ! 



A Prayer-Book of Edward VI. for Household Use. 




^RITING to the Academy from Blechingley Rectory, Mr. 
W. C. Bishop, jun., says : — 

I have noticed a copy of the first Prayer-book of King 
Edward VI. in the old library now kept in the vestry of the parish 
church, Reigate, of an edition which I have never before seen, and 
which may possess some interest for your readers. It is not an 
ordinary edition of the Prayer-book at all, but a special form of it 
adapted for private and household use, designed for binding up with 
a Bible, and containing little more than those parts actually needed 
for the private recitation of Mattins, Evensong, and Litany. 

The volume containing it is a quarto, printed in two columns, 
which now begins with "A Table of the Principal matters conteyned 
in the Byble, in which the Readers maye fynde and practise many 
commune places " (two sheets, last leaf blank). Then follows the 
Prayer-book (three sheets, A. B. C. fols. 1-12). There appears 
never to have been any title page, table of Psalms, or Calendar ; but 
folio I begins with " The Order of Common Prayer, for Mattins and 
Evensonge thorowe oute the whole yere. ^ Here after foloweth a 
general rule for the seruice of the whole yeare, wherein everye man 
may knowe as wel the proper service appoynted for the princypall 
feastes of the yeare, as also all Sondayes and other dayes of the 
yeare ; as it is appoynted by the Table and Kalender ordayned for 
the same. An order for Matyns daylye through the yeare, to 
begynne with the Lordes prayer called the Fater nosier^ as 
foloweth." 

Then follows the Mattins (beginning with the Lord's Prayer), as 
in the ordinary editions, but the rubric is altered, as will be described 
presently. Mattins is followed by Evensong and Athanasian Creed. 



34 



A PRAYER-BOOK OF EDWARD VI, 




Then comes the Proper of the Season and of the Saints, without 
heading, except " H The fyrste Sonday in Aduente," but having the 
Epistles and Gospels omitted and also the Introits, although the 
titles of the Introits are given, e.g., " Beatus vir Psalm i." At the 
end of this part, without any space left in the printing, follows this 
rubric (from the Communion Service), "Then shall folowe the 
collecte of the daye, with one of these ii. collectes folowynge for the 
kynge" ; and then the two collects are given in full. Then follows 
" A generall confession to be made before we recey ve the holy Com- 
munion. Almyghtye God, father of, &c. A prayer to be sayde 
before the receyuung of the holye communion. We do not 
presume, &c. A thankesgeuyng unto God after the recyuynge 
of the hoyle Communion. Almyghtye and everlyvynge God, &c. 
U The Letany and Suffrages. O God the Father, &c. IT Im- 
printed at London by Nycholas Hyll for Abraham Veale, 
dwelling in Pauls churche yarde at the sygne of the Lambe.' 
Then follows the Bible, with a fresh registration (no title). 
There is a title before the Psalms — " The thyrd part of the 
Byble contaynynge these bookes : the Psalter, the Proverbs, 
Ecclesiastes, Cantica Canticorum, the Prophets, Esay, &c."; and 
at the end " A Table to fynde the Epistle and Gospel usually read 
in the Church." 

That this edition of the Prayer-book was intended for private and 
household use is shown not only by the omission of the Communion 
Service and occasional offices, but by the rubrics, which are syste- 
matically altered throughout to suit the circumstances of lay people 
who wished to say the daily services at home. All mention of the 
priest or clerks is omitted, as may be seen in the opening rubrics 
which I give above; for example, instead of "Priest" and 
" Aunswere," this edition uniformly reads " Versicle " and "Aun- 
swere." The directions that the minister shall read the lessons 
with a loud voice, that he shall turn himself so as he may best be 
heard, and that the lessons shall be sung in a plain tune — all these 
are omitted. 

The Psalter was, of course, to be found in the Bible ; but it is 
curious that there should be no Table of Psalms nor Calendar with 
the lessons, especially as some such " general rule " is alluded to at 
the beginning of the book. 

In conclusion, I must ask pardon for any mistakes which may be 
found in this description, as I had but a short time at my disposal in 
which to examine the book and to make notes, and am anything but 
a practised bibliographer. 




Books I Have Rambled With. 




HEN I go away from my bookshelves of a night, if it is only 
to go through the streets, or to watch a sunset down beyond 
the trees, I usually put a book in my pocket with the pre- 
text that I might be detained somewhere, and might have a half-hour 
to while away with it ; but with the real motive of carrying a token 
of that nook where so much pleasure lies into those out-of-door 
places where other and different entertainment awaits me. I have 
gone so far, to tell truth, that I buy books adapted to the size of my 
well-bagged pockets. 

There are two or three books so obtained and so treated in the 
past years which have come to have a value far above that of their 
contents, precious as that is. There is a battered and misshapen 
" Golden Treasury," which has been the companion of many a good 
fellow in overland rambling, and has borne away upon its surface 
and the browned edges of its leaves a whole diary of knobs and dis- 
colourations. What poem within the covers could do more than 
this towards peopling " that inward eye, which is the bliss of soli- 
tude," with visionary images ? There is a rough sketch on its 
first blank leaf which talks pleasantly to me of a walk begun before 
dawn in the early spring. The ''subject" is a tall figure in very 
loose dress, wearing a Tarn o'Shanter hat, and drawing, with atten- 
tive face pointing up a hilly road. He is sketching — I remember, 
with this talisman before me — a little toll-house so thickly em- 
bowered in vines that its brick chimney and an angle or two of its 
frame structure alone escaped the amiable embrace of the leaves. 
How fresh and green it looked in the early sunlight ! Afterwards 



86 



BOOKS I HA VE RAMBLED WITH. 




we lay at full length in the midst of the rain-washed turnpike — un- 
sullied by a single wheel on that quiet Sunday morning — and gazed 
upwards through the depths of foliage, thoughtful and tired with night 
travel. But each stain or pencilled line has its endeared association, 
and there are a hundred unnumbered leaves not in the contents of 
my " Golden Treasury." 

There is another book which I must take down from its shelf and 
read the cover of to you. It is a copy of "White of Selborne," 
which has not been so much out-of-doors as the " Golden Treasury," 
but which yet has " places of nestling green " scattered all over its 
blue boards. Gilbert White, with his wise remarks on the habits 
of bats, his controversy over the flight of swallows, and his careful 
observations on the weather — his love, in short, of the *' great round- 
about " — could he have had more pleasant profit out of his rambles 
by Wolmer Pond ? His delightful record of wholesome days spent 
in companionship with birds — wandered away in the leafy closes of 
Enghsh woods ; devoted to insect and beast with kindly curiosity — 
his " Natural History of Selborne " has few charms between its 
covers finer than those which hover about the surfaces of my well- 
worn copy. 

A tiny specimen of "The Complete Angler" has also had its 
experiences in my company. It is a compact little volume, like 
good Isaac Walton himself, in its lustiness and ability to enjoy itself 
by streamsides. Its very diminutiveness is of course a friendly 
characteristic to me. But, withal, it has a good clear face of type 
which looks into your eyes in so honest, irresistible a way that you 
are bound to take it with you if sport be on foot with some " brother 
of the angle." It is like a companionable httle pug or Skye terrier 
which has an instinct that some jaunt is contemplated, and dances 
into your lap, with appealing eyes and placative nestling nose, eager 
for the road. To leave such a booklet behind would be to leave a 
shade of blue out of the sky, a tint of emerald out of the leaves. 
To take it along is to take " a procurer of contentedness " — a skein 
of attachment to that gasHt corner where it rests contemplative of 
indoor happiness, or is sometimes taken down to bring green boughs 
and running streams across the snow of winter. 

How it has made after-dinner tranquillity for us in remote inns ! 
There is a whole day's pleasure in that broken corner ; a morning's 
scene of dripping leaves and damp brown roads lies there in the long 
scratch on the back. And here — from dalliance with the luncheon 
cheese — is a ring of stain which holds a picture of a noisy dam and 
the canal locks in its circumference. Could any mere diary of the 



II 



BOOKS I HA VE RAMBLED WITH, 87 

" yesterday went a-fishing " character ever recall to me those great 
stone barriers with the yellow houses atop ; the tumbling waters with 
their consequent row of fishermen above and the slanted lines tugging 
with the foam reaching below ; the blatant din of the onward canal 
boat ; or the pretty nymph in blue boating dress who watched so 
attentively the operation of "locking " that my own attractive tresses 
were unavailing ? No ; such pictures are the possession of the backs 
of books — they like the air and light, and will not submit to be 
pencilled on inner pages in company with the weather. 

Harrison S. Morris. 



The Buckley Library. 

THE most important book sale of the present season will, so far 
as can now be seen, be that of the library of the late Rev. W. 
E. Buckley, rector of Middleton Cheney, Banbury. It will occupy 
about thirty days, and will commence next month at Messrs. Sotheby's. 
In the matter of books printed at or relating to Oxford there is 
believed to be no private library in existence at all comparable with 
it, whilst many of the items are of great rarity and are absent from 
the public collections where one would expect to find them. In 
large-paper editions of the classics this library is also singularly 
rich, whilst the late owner's wide learning is amply testified by the 
fact that his books include representative examples in nearly all 
languages. The late Mr. Buckley was a genuine book-lover, and 
began acquiring when a lad at Eton. 



88 



MISCELLANEA. 
Books of Lace Patterns. 




OF the numerous sections into which the subject-matter of books 
might be divided, few are more curious or more beautiful 
than those of lace patterns. The best examples, which appeared, 
during the sixteenth century, are also among the rarest of biblio- 
graphical treasures, and a mere handful of these are worth a small 
fortune. It is only within the last few years that they have become 
objects of keen competition among collectors, and many of them 
have been reproduced in facsimile. Even in this counterfeit state 
these little brochures sell in the auction-room for from jQ\ to^^*! los. 
each. Among thirteen of the original editions which came up for 
sale in December last at Sotheby's, at least four were of excessive 
rarity, two of them being quite unknown to Brunet ; and of another, 
only two examples appear to be known, of which one was in the 
library of Baron James de Rothschild. The best of the examples 
bear the imprint of Venice, and range in date between the second 
and third quarters of the sixteenth century. The most notable of 
the two examples with French titles, Vinciolo's " Singuliers et 
Nouveaux Pourtraicts pour toutes sortes d'Ouvrages de Lingerie," 
was issued at Turin in 1589, and in addition to its 112 patterns of 
lace, contains woodcut portraits of Henri III. and Queen Louise de 
Lorraine. A second edition of this book, with the same portraits,^ 
was issued in Paris nine years later. Perhaps the most beautiful of 
the Italian examples is Cesare Vecellio's " Corona delle nobili et 
Virtuose Donne," the four parts of which appeared at Venice 1591-92, 
and is especially valuable on account of the woodcut of women at 
work. This book has 109 exquisite designs for lace, and the last 
copy sold realised i,26of. It is impossible to imagine a more 
beautiful Christmas present for a lady than one of these books, but 
unfortunately their rarity and expensiveness place them quite beyond 
the reach of ordinary bookbuyers, for the fifteen examples (among 
which were two reprints) fetched a lump sum of ;^i65, and were all 
knocked down to one private buyer. 




An Antiquary of the Last Century.— I. 

[The exceedingly interesting letters which follow are copied from 
the originals in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, and were written by 
the well-known literary antiquary, Thomas Hearne, who was born in 
1678 and died in 1735. They reflect in a very plain and straight- 
forward manner the vicissitudes of an industrious man of letters in 
the early part of the last century. Not a little of their piquancy lie 
in the quaintness of the diction, which it has not been thought 
necessary to alter. As a chapter in the History of English Book- 
making, they are, we think, quite with ut a rival. — Ed.] 

I. To Dr. Richard Mead^ January 20, 17 14-15. 

" Yesterday the University did me the honour of chosing me 
architypographus and superior beadle of the civil law. My com- 
petitor, Mr. Terry, had 78 votes, and myself 179. I return you my 
hearty thanks for the great concern you showed for me on this 
account. I should have desired some letters from you in my behalf 
had I known time enough of the day of election. I am, with my 
best respects to your excellent brother, &c." 

2. To T. jRawlmso?t, March 14, 17 15-16. 

"... The vice-ch. and several others have not used me very 
worthily. The vice-chancellor at the meeting in the library 
threatened twice, in a great passion, to send me to the castle. He 
and some others were angry at the words in the preface to Rowse,^ 

^ Joannis Rossi Antiquarii Warwicensis Hist. Reg. Anglice. 

12 



90 AN ANTIQ UAR Y OF THE LAST CENTUR Y, 

p. xii. about Orator Sarisb., as also those in p. ix. about St. Mildred's 
Ch. and those in p. xx. about Bp. Fleetwood (who hath been very 
generous to me) and those in p. xxi. about the architypographus. 
They are withal angry at my note in p. 222, and at some other 
things. These men will not let me be either grateful, or in a modest 
manner to express my sentiments." 

3. To the Satney March 27, 17 16. 

" Just now I received your note-books, M. and CC. I had before 
delivered to Mr. Clements L. I find in them the five shillings, viz. 
four shiUings for Mr. Midleton's subscription, and one shilling that 
was omitted. I haye only ninety-eight subscribers as yet. There 
are very few in Oxford. I print 192 copies. The book goes on 
apace, ^ for though I am forced to skulk and to hide myself in the 
country (whither I am now going all day), yet I come home in the 
evening, on purpose to correct the press. I shall think of tran- 
scribing Aluredus in a little time. I hope to have other MSS. of our 
history either from yourself or others. Then I shall not give occa- 
sion to our illiterate Heads of hindering me from transcribing out of 
Bodley. I thought it had been a great piece of service both to the 
library and to learning to have MSS. published that are worth seeing 
the light. But the truth of it is, whereas they do nothing this way 
themselves they think it a great reproach (as without doubt it is) to 
themselves, that others should do anything in that way. We want 
Archbishop Laud, &c. I am mightily pleased with your notes. 
Nor do I think that the accounts of your maps and prints are use- 
less. I can make great use of them, and so may others." 



4. To the Same, 3fay 26, 17 16. 

"... Since that Mr. Murray hath delivered me your letter of the 
19th inst., I have put you down for twelve 1. and six sm. of Alure- 
dus, though if the large should not hold out I must request some 
friends to be contented with small. 

" Aluredus, as I have told you already, will be an excellent book. 
It will be much for your honour, and add to the reputation you have 
deservedly established already. I shall have another opportunity of 
expressing my gratitude to you in my preface. 

" I am much obliged to Mr. Peters for his present of excellent 
tobacco. I met with it upon my return from the ruins of Godstowe, 

^ " Livius Foro-Juliensis." 




AN ANTIQUARY OF THE LAST CENTURY. 91 

where I often refresh myself, and think upon yourself and the 
excellent Dr. Mead and his brother, and other friends." 

5. To the Same^ April i, 171 7. 

"... 'Twas with very great satisfaction that I read over your last 
letter, with which I received some books that you lent me. Your 
opinion is excellent. I have returned my answer that I cannot think 
of a journey at present, Camden being in the press, and my presence 
absolutely necessary here. Indeed, the proposal was so couched, as 
that I might return when I pleased if I should not like. But there 
is no doubt but such a return would disoblige. Besides, perhaps 
upon my absence, my chamber might be seized upon, or at least 
rifled. I will not rely upon uncertainties. But then there is one 
thing which I must provide against here, and that is the security of 
my papers in case of mortality. I must think of some proper per^ 
son to leave them to in that case. I know of no one more proper 
than yourself. You can give me some advice in this momentous 
affair. I have a great number of things that I would have carefully 
transmitted to posterity, by some person of true integrity; and 
unless I make provision, if I should die they may be seized upon 
and embezzled. You see I disclose my heart to you, and you will 
make a right use of it. 

" I do not send you my list now because there is so little addition 
the last month." 

6. To the Same, April 16, 171 7. 

' ' I heartily thank you for your good advice about my papers. But 
what place to pitch upon I cannot tell. Nor indeed can I be from 
them, my own remarks (made for many years) being of daily use to 
me. I do not design to leave my chamber here, it being my best 
refuge at present. Some time ago I was warned by two or three 
particular friends to take care of my collections. For (said they) it 
hath been rumoured that the V. Chancellor (Dr. Baron) hath a design 
to search your room. It was a good caution. And what reason I 
have not to trust the V. Chanc. may appear from former practices. 
His honesty is manifest from the order before Mr. Dod's weak, dull 
sermon. I am very glad you will be here in the approaching holy- 
days. I shall stay at home on purpose to wait upon you. Now the 
weather begins to grow better I shall think of walking out sometimes. 
I have a mind to walk to Creekdale. There is a constant tradition 
that our University was first settled there, and many chronicles con- 




92 AN ANTIQUARY OF THE LAST CENTURY. 

firm the tradition. I hear of a passage to the same purpose in Mr. 
Thin's account of the Archbishops of Canterbury. The said account 
is printed in the castrated sheets of HoUingshede, I shall consider 
the matter further hereafter. I defer what I have further to say till 
our meeting. I long till the time comes, and am, &c." 



7. To the Same, April 21, 17 18. 



" 'Tis now a pretty while since I writ to you. I find, by some 
intelligence, that I am still in great danger of being sent to the castle 
the 2d of May next, unless further application be made to prevent it. 
But I know not what method to take. I have writ to our great 
friend Dr. Mead, to let him know the danger. I suppose you have 
some interest with your President, Dr. De Laune. It may be if a 
letter were written by some friend to him it might be of service. Sir 
Thomas Sebright has writ to the V. Chancellor about Neubrigensis. 
Mr. Hunt of Balliol delivered the letter. But the V. Chancellor 
answered I should do nothing till I had made satisfaction. I do not 
find that they can produce any precedents to justify the methods of 
proceeding against me. I am sure 'tis unreasonable, in a criminal 
case, to insist upon answering on oath to interrogatories, nor can I 
think that they would have put it in practice themselves. It is 
withal contrary to the method mentioned in the articles exhibited 
against me, where an answer in writing is demanded. Besides, if I 
am not mistaken, they have extended their power too far in pretend- 
ing to prosecute me, without so much as pretending that any 
particular person is injured, and without considering that I have 
not been a member of any college or hall for these two years. 
Ant. a Wood's case was difi"erent from mine. An action of defama- 
tion was brought against him by a particular person that pretended 
injury, though after all he had very hard measure." 




" I was not sent to the castle as I expected last Friday. For the 
matter about answering on oath to interrogatories was quite dropt. 
The V. Chancellor sat himself. This point gained is very material. 
Yet those who were for putting the oath are pleased now to say they 
never designed any such thing. Thus they act backwards and for- 
wards. I thought the whole aifair would have been now ended, 
especially since I was willing that sentence should be given without 
further trouble, the V. Chancellor being both prosecutor and judge. 
But this was denied, and I was ordered to bring in an answer next 
Friday. I had an answer then by me. But 'twas rejected because 



AN ANTIQUARY OF THE LAST CENTURY. 93 

not written upon stampt paper, which should have been done had I 
expected that they would have insisted upon an answer in writing. 
The answer is negative, and so I have deHvered it to my proctor. I 
deny the things charged upon me in the articles, which are a down- 
right libel. I leave it to them to prove that I writ what is charged 
there. I take this method, because I was so advised formerly, being 
assured that if I owned anything I must look for the worst, there 
being no favour to be expected. I had in my pocket a declaration 
and submission, which I desired of the V. Chancellor that I might 
read. But this was also denied. The V. Chancellor said nothing 
would do but to confess all to be true charged upon me in the 
articles. But this must never be expected, the whole, as I said 
before, being a libel, and therefore false. The declaration and sub- 
mission I had in my pocket is as follows : 

" ' The Declaration and submission of Thomas Hearne^ M.A. 

" ' I Thomas Hearne, M.A., do hereby declare, that out of a prin- 
ciple of doing service to the learned world, and honour to my 
country, I have published several books ; that I have had antiquity 
and truth (which I am very sorry any one is displeased at) in my 
view, and a particular regard to those remarkable words of TuUy, 
" Ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat," in all my 
writings ; that I never designed to defame, slur, or any otherwise 
abuse (as some have insinuated) either the University of Oxford (to 
which I am eternally obliged, and which I believe to be in a very 
flourishing condition) or its founders and benefactors, or any par- 
ticular member of it; that I am ready to correct whatever shall 
appear to me to be wrong in the things which I have either written 
or published : and that I submit myself to the censure of impartial 
and judicious readers. 

'''May 2d, 1718.' 

" I have written to Dr. Mead to know his opinion whether I may 
now send Neubrigensis to London to be printed. I expect no ease 
here. Mahce will still work. I heartily thank you for the provision 
you are making for me either in London or ten miles from it. I 
believe it will be more agreeable to my health to be out of the city, 
and therefore I should rather fix upon the place ten miles from it. 
I suppose sheets from the press may easily be sent thither. This 
matter must be managed very privately, and I must be assured of all 
security when I coii.e thither before I venture, for I saw a letter 



94 AN ANTIQUAR V OF THE LAST CENTURY. 



lately, in which it was said that if I presumed to leave Oxford, both my 
open enemies and pretended friends would be exasperated to that 
degree, that they would do me all mischief that possibly they could. 
''May 4th, 1718. 

" I am apprehensive that whether they can prove it or not they 
will take it for granted that I wish the things charged in the articles, 
and that then they will insist upon another answer, and upon my 
refusing to give it (for to what purpose should I give answer upon 
answer, when they are both accusers and judges ?) they will send me 
to the castle for contumacy." 




8. To the Same^ January 15, 1719-20. 

"All things came safe, and I thank you. I have sent you dis- 
tinct receipts for the money. I took \s. 6d. of the over-plus, so now 
there is only sixpence on that account standing. I designed to have 
sent you a box, of the books you sent me, on last Tuesday ; but 
walking out of town I returned too late to deliver it, so it must lay 
till next week, when Sprott will also come to you. 'Tis kind of my 
Lord Pembroke. But what means the other Lord you mention? 
You certainly returned him a very good answer. Can I make use of 
better MSS. than I can come at ? Why did he not tell the names of 
the better MSS. he would have me print, and if he had done so, why 
does not he and others let me have them? Do they think to be 
looked upon as encouragers and great patrons of learning, for stifling 
their MSS. if they have them ? Or do they think that scholars must 
cringe, and beg, and use all the pitiful, paltry, mean tricks to get 
the loan of them, as they will to keep places and to acquire wealth ? 
I cannot do this. I will make use of the MSS. and books that come 
in an easy fair way (for I will not, while I am serving the public, 
sneak), and if they will publish better, in God's name let them do it." 

9. To Mr. Frewin,^ October i, 1723. 

**I received the box and the broken books in it, and I thank you. 
I shall observe the secret you enjoin, with respect to the sheets of 
your catalogue. But I am surprised to find you soothing one, that 
honest men have reason to abhor. Mentioning the Parochial Anti- 
quities, you say, O si sic omnia. The title had been enough, without 
saying a word more. Methinks you should print the leaf over again, 
and leave out the compliment. However, whatever you do, I shall 

^ A bookseller in London. 




AN ANTIQ UAR V OF THE LAST CENTUR V. 95 

beg leave, upon occasion of your soothing words (for which, I sup- 
pose, you imagine the book will bring the more money) to send you 
a memorandum, viz. 

" AVhen the author first began this book, he proposed about four 
or five sheets, and, under pretence that it should be a small book, he 
prevailed with the University to print it. But when the University 
found that it swelled to a great thing, they would go on no farther. 
So that only one vol. came out, whereas, had the author went on in 
the method he took of publishing all the farrago he met with, it 
would have made a vast deal more, especially considering that mate- 
rials increased the lower he came. When it came out it was a drug, 
and sold for waste paper, and was looked upon as such by excellent 
judges. One of the best scholars and judges of books I ever knew 
(Dr. Aldrich, late Dean of Ch. Church), threw it among his offal 
books, as waste paper, and there I saw it unbound, lying upon the 
floor, after his death. It is one of the most inaccurate things I have 
seen. Some years ago, when I examined a place, printed in it, with 
the MS. he had taken it from, I found it all wrong, and several 
strange faults in every line. His derivation of Amersden from 
Ambrosden is absurd. It was so called from the marshiness of the 
place, not from Ambrosius. As ridiculous is it to derive Bicester 
from Birinus. It was called from its situation upon the river Breurn 
or Bourn. The true writing, therefore, is Bruerncester or Bourn- 
cester. The book was all transcribed, and the several papers 
digested and methodised for the press, by Mr. James Gibson, Minis- 
ter of Wootton Underwood, near Brill, in Bucks, who speaks with 
the greatest indignation against K., says that he never rewarded him 
for his great pains, that he set up for an Antiquary merely to get a 
httle money and to carry a cause at Amersden. Indeed this I know 
full well, that the best of all the stock of his antiquities is nothing but 
the gleanings of Dr. Hutton's papers. So much with respect to your 
O si sic omnia, which certainly you would not have said, had you 
considered what hath been told to you by, &c." 

To the Same, Deceinber 13, 1723. 

" 'Tis some time ago since I received the second part of your cata- 
logue, with the box and things in it, for all which I thank you. You 
say the book I spoke of will still be looked upon as goodness. I do 
not doubt so. So too will his other things, especially if honest men 
begin once to extol them. Such characters will make those vile 
writers proud. You know his letters about honest Bishop Merkes. 



96 AN ANTIQ UAR Y OF THE LAST CENTUR V. 



n 



Why don't you say, O si sic Omnia ! of them too ? Since he is 
known to be such a writer, things should be well weighed before he 
be praised. I should have told you before that the index was drawn 
up by one of Corpus Christi, viz. his brother Basil Kennett, who was 
a modest, humble, learned man, so that one would think they had 
been begot by two different men ; and that the glossary was in a good 
measure taken from some MSS. notes in the copy of Skinner's 
Etymologicon, that belonged to Dr. Mill. The text of Robert of 
Glou. is all printed, and the appendix is now doing. I like your way 
of putting little notes in your printed catalogues, nor do I at all dis- 
prove the titles being at large, provided it be of advantage to the 
honest collector of those books, whom I wish I could see once 



more. 



{To be concluded.^ 



Our Note Book. 



PLAISANTE, 

ET lOYEVSE 

hiftoyre du grand 

Gcant Gargantua. 

Piochsincmentreueue & de beaucoup 
augmcncic par I'Auheut mc(mc. 




A Valence, 

Ch6 Claude La YiU'e. 

1547 

edition, however, the copious, racy vocabulary 

13 



In the fourth volume 
of The Bookworm 
(p. 152), we gave a 
brief account of the 
first English translator 
of Rabelais. We are 
glad now to have the 
opportunity of calling 
attention to a new 
edition of this Anglo- 
French classic, issued 
by Messrs. Lawrence 
& Bullen, who have 
kindly allowed us to 
reproduce a facsimile 
of the title-page of 
thehttle i6mo edition 
printed at Valence in 
1547, in two volumes. 
This impression in- 
cluded the first three 
books, and a part of 
the fourth, and, al- 
though an extremely 
poor specimen of typo- 
graphy, is very rare. 
As regards the English 
of Urquhart, and the 




98 OUR NOTE-BOOK. 

gusto and swing of the rollicking narrative, will for all time render 
it a prime favourite with all liberal-minded readers. Messrs. 
Lawrence & Bullen have certainly dealt handsomely with both 
Rabelais and Sir Thomas Urquhart. They invited a distinguished 
French artist, M. L. Chalon, to paint a series of oil pictures, which 
have been reproduced by Dujardin, the originals having attracted 
a good deal of attention when exhibited at the Cercle Artistique, 
Paris, a few months ago. In addition to this the publishers have 
given facsimilies of the title-pages of a number of the earlier French 
editions, a phase which adds greatly to the value and interest of the 
book. Prefixed to the translation is an essay on Rabelais by M. 
Anatole de Montaiglon, whose knowledge of early French literature 
is of European repute. 

» ;': A ;'; :>£ 

We have received several communications in connection with the 
article "Unpublished Letters of Lord Byron," published in our issue 
of January, but more particularly in reference to the letter addressed 
to M. Galignani. This letter was published some years ago, a fact to 
which several correspondents have called our attention. Mr. John 
HalU of The Grange, Hale, Altrincham, possessed what was be- 
lieved to be the original of this letter, but on the appearance of our 
article Mr. Hall submitted it to an expert at the British Museum, 
who at once pronounced it to be a forgery. It would be interesting 
to know the exact source of this forgery, which Mr. Hall has had in 
his possession for many years. Had it been a recent acquisition, 
there would be no hesitation in attributing it to the Edinburgh firm 
of autograph letter manufacturers, to which reference has already 
been made in these columns. 

♦ * * * 

Mr. Falconer Madan's paper, read at a recent meeting of the 
Bibliographical Society, on " Method in Bibliography," was both 
lucid and practical. In its printed form it ought to have a wide cir- 
culation, and be productive of a considerable amount of good. 
After laying down the principle that a perfect bibliography should 
not only give a technical description of a book, but also endeavour 
to appreciate it, he pointed out that one difficulty in the way of 
attaining this ideal was avoidable, namely difference of method. If 
certain disturbing tendencies, such as lead to inaccurate and in- 
complete descriptions, superfluity of information, artificiality in the 
use of symbols and want of balance and proportion in the result — 
which he illustrated by examples — were recognised as erroneous and 
avoided, there might be tolerable agreement as to the residuum of 




\ 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 99 

right method. The paper went on to suggest with details a normal 
plan for bibliographical description, which might be identical in 
framework for all cases, but parts of which could be omitted under 
varying circumstances, and concluded with a proposal that a com- 
mittee of the society should prepare for issue an authorised scheme 
for the use of intending bibliographers. 



We congratulate our friend Mr. Robert Steele on his extremely 
clever epitome of one of the most interesting, as it is also one of the 
most important, of mediaeval books — the Encyclopedia of Bartho- 
lomew Anglicanus, " De Proprietatibus Rerum," or the Properties 
of Things. In many respects, this book is without a compeer, coming 
as it does between the New world and the Old, the Classic and 
the Modern. As Mr. William Morris, the poet, who contributes a 
graceful and all-too-brief preface, so clearly points out, the reader 
will have to disabuse his mind of very many preconceived ideas 
respecting the Middle Ages before he can fully appreciate this 
epitome. So far from being either ignorant or without able teachers, 
our forefathers of six centuries ago were amply supplied in this respect, 
the teachers in fact, of whom Bartholomew the English Franciscan was 
the most distinguished example, possessing an industry and a diligence 
at times truly appalling. The work of Bartholomew is a case in 
point, for even the second and considerably reduced edition in 
English, 1535 (the first edition in English was printed by Wynkynde 
Worde in 1495, noteworthy as being the first book printed on paper 
of English manufacture), consists of nearly 700 pages folio, and, taken 
in its entirety, is in more senses than one a heavy book. Mr. Steele 
is doubtless correct in assigning its composition to a period not 
later than 1267, a fact which at once suggests the probability that 
Roger Bacon derived much of his learning from it. The first 
printed edition of the book in its Latin form appeared at Cologne 
in 1470, the printer being Ulrich Zell, and from that date to the 
end of the sixteenth century over twenty editions, in Latin, French, 
Spanish, Dutch, and English, appeared. It was first translated into 
French in 1372, by Fr. Jehan Corbichon, for Charles V. of France ; ' 
and into English in 1397, by John of Trevisa, for Sir Thomas 
Berkeley, and this translation is the basis of the editions published 
in London in 1495, i535> ^^id 1582. We have only to add that 
Mr. Steele's epitome is very neatly printed, and is published by Mr. 
Elliot Stock. 



100 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 




At their worst second-hand booksellers' catalogues are interesting, 
and at their best they are fascinating — to the booklover, at all events. 
An example of the latter class has just been received in the form of 
a little volume of 340 pages from Messrs. Pickering and Chatto, of 
the Haymarket, London. Nearly 3,000 old and rare books are 
herein described, sometimes with a fulness which becomes little 
less than an essay on the particular book catalogued. Opinions may, 
of course, differ on the subject, but we believe that a descriptive 
note, properly done, goes a very long way towards selling a book 
which often fails to find a buyer at a much smaller figure when 
catalogued in the ordinary way. There are very many exceedingly 
interesting books in this catalogue of Messrs. Pickering and Chatto, 
and as a guide to the current market value of first editions generally 
it will be found exceedingly useful ; and the notes, if they sometimes 
exceed the sober tone of the scientific bibliographer, are generally 
accurate and always readable. 



^^mm^ 



i 




Letters of Mrs. Browning. 




N exceedingly interesting and important series of letters of 
Miss Elizabeth Barrett, who subsequently became wife of 
Robert Browning, came under the hammer at Messrs. 
Puttick Simpson's sale recently. They were all written between 
1842 and 1845, to Mr. Cornelius Mathews, of New York. The 
first is a charming epistle, dated November 3, 1842, in which the 
writer says : " It is delightful and encouraging to me to think that 
there, among the cataracts and mountains which I never shall see, 
there in * dreamland,' sound the voices of friends, and it shall be a 
constant effort with me to deserve presents in some better measure, 
the kindness for which I never can be more grateful than now." 
The second, written on the 25th of the same month, mentions Miss 
Metford, Charles Dickens, and others, and concludes, " It is better, 
however, to want criticism than to want poetry, and poetry is rising 
with us, be sure. And I would solicit your reverence for our Tenny- 
son and our Browning (who though he speaks obscured yet delivers 
oracles), and also dramatic sketches and tragedies of Mr. Home. 
Mr. Tennyson is a great poet, notwithstanding that very scornful 
word which I was very sorry to see in the North American Revieiv.^' 
The next letter was written in February of the following year, and 
deals chiefly with critics and criticism, and in the course of which 
she says, " I admire ' Boz ' with everybody who can read, think, and 
feel, and I do not doubt that he was, as you say, ' honest ' — />., 
true-hearted — in those Notes for General Circulation. Still he 
knows mankind in the mass too well to be quite justified, I fancy, 
in passing such a set of judgments, authorised by such a set of 
evidences, formed upon such a set of opportunities upon the special 




102 LETTERS OF MRS. BROWNING. 

humanity of a nation, and even the nascent Pecksniffs and Pinches 
have not quite restored my good humour to him." In the next 
letter, March 14, 1843, she asks, "Why do not men remember that 
every mind must be original if it deUvers frankly its individual 
impressions ? " and in a letter of the 28th of the following month she 
has an exceedingly curious reference to " Mr. Browning's ' Blot on 
the 'Scutcheon,' which would make one poet furious, the *infelix 
Talfourd,' and another a little melancholy, namely, Mr. Browning 
himself." In a letter, dated October i, 1844, she expresses annoyance 
at being called a follower of Tennyson, her " habit of using com- 
pound words, noun substantives, which I used to do before I knew 
a page of Tennyson. The custom is so far from being peculiar to 
Tennyson, that Shelley and Keats and Leigh Hunt are all redolent 
of it." One of the longest, and certainly the most interesting, is 
the last of the series, and is dated December 5, 1845 : " You amuse 
me when you say that Mr. Poe has dedicated a book to me and 
abused me in the preface. That I should not think human justice 
— if it were not American. ... I understand Mr. Browning has just 
published another volume of ' Bells and Pomegranates,' in which his 
great original faculty throws out new colours and expands in new 
combinations. A great poet he is — a greater poet he will be — for to 
work and to live are one with him. . . . Walter Savage Landor has 
lately addressed the following verses to him : — 

"*TO ROBERT BROWNING. 

' ' ' There is delight in singing though none hear 
Beside the singer, and there is delight 
In praising, though the praiser sit alone 
And see the praised far off him, far above.'" 
&c., &c. 

The letter concludes — 

" Mr. Tennyson has a pension, you see, but for the rest, is said 
rather to smoke than to make poems. . . . Dickens is about to cast 
himself headlong into the doubtful undertaking of the new daily 
paper The Daily NewsP 

The fourteen letters realised a total of ^6i 4s. n^Hj 




Human Skin as a Binding. 

D 




HE late M. Camille Flammarion was the possessor of 
a very interesting specimen of reliure humaine. Some 
years ago the eminent astronomer, turning his eyes for a 
moment from the contemplation of celestial to terrestrial objects, was 
struck with admiration of the white and gleaming shoulders of a 
countess whom he met in society. A long period elapsed, and he 
had quite forgotten this little incident, when he received one day a 
parcel, accompanied by a note explaining its contents. The lovely 
countess was dead, and had bequeathed to him the skin that once 
covered the back on which he had gazed with so much pleasure, 
desiring him to bind therein the work in which he speaks so 
eloquently of the glimmering world of stars. M. Flammarion did 
not hesitate to carry out the last wishes of his departed friend, and 
the integument of the countess now clothes a copy of his well-known 
volume, " Ciel et Terre." Referring to the strange feeling he expe- 
rienced on first touching the skin of the dead woman, Flammarion 
expressed it as his firm conviction that there is a kind of electricity 
of which science knows nothing as yet. Other instances of this 
gruesome application of the human cuticle are not far to seek, but 
history probably does not record another instance in which a charm- 
ing woman voluntarily supplies the material. In the library of the 
Prince of Wales at Marlborough House there are said to be two 
volumes bound in leather, which was prepared from the skin of Mary 
Patman, a Yorkshire witch, hanged for murder early in the century. It 
is rumoured that a London bookseller, having on order a fantastic bind- 
ing in this style for Holbein's " Dance of Death," despatched a com- 
missioner to Paris, with a view of securing the skin of one of the 



I04 HUMAN SKIN AS A BINDING. 

petroleuses shot during the bloody week of the Commune. The agent 
himself only escaped by the skin of his own teeth from sharing the fate 
of the object of his search. By far the most famous specimen, how- 
ever, is "The Constitution of 1793," which has provoked impassioned 
discussion, because the leather in which it is encased was believed 
to have been prepared at a tannery for human skin established under 
the Reign of Terror at Meudon. According to popular tradition, 
Robespierre, Collot d'Herbois, Billaud-Varennes, and Barrere had 
the bodies of their victims transported thither, in order that the skin 
might be dressed and cut up into breeches for the sans-culottes. The 
Comte d'Artois was believed to have revived this ingenious notion. 
This preposterous legend has been utterly exploded by subsequent 
investigations, which prove that there never existed at Meudon any 
establishments save those which still flourish there — namely, the 
Schools of Military Experiment and of Ballooning. But it died 
hard. 

[A reference to this somewhat gruesome subject occurs in Th 
Bookworm, vol. iv. p. 148.] 





A Curious Gift, 

THE Fraternity of Collectors sometimes follow strange aims. 
One of them has presented his collection to the library of the 
Institute de France at Paris, that is, to the French Academy, which 
may consider it as a monument erected to human weakness. It 
consists of cuttings from letters, books, papers, and the like, which 
have been written or printed by members of that learned body, all of 
which contain faults of writing, language, or style, committed in their 
own French language by the members of the Academy. As one of 
the most curious may be considered the lapsus of the Duke d'Audif- 
fret-Pasquier, who, in his letter of application concerning the member- 
ship of the Academy, spelled the French word "academie" with 
double c, that is " accademie." 



French and English Bookplates. 



The public taste is said to grow upon what 
it feeds, and this has been proved in 
nothing so much as in the passion for 
bookplates. A few years ago the book- 
plate collector was regarded as only a 
stamp collector of a larger growth. The 
hobby, however, has made wonderful strides 
within the past four or five years, owing, 
doubtless, in a great measure, to the Ex- 
Libris Society, which at once placed the 
subject on a scientific basis, and gave it an 
impetus which surprised no one more than 
the "promoters." It may be safely said 
that neither of the two charming books 
which Messrs. George Bell and Sons have 
just published would have been issued but 
for the existence of the Ex-Libris Society, 
and as a matter of fact each book is written by leading lights of the 
" incorporation," Mr. Walter Hamilton, the author of " A Handbook 
to French Book-Plates," being the honorary treasurer. 

The more important of the two volumes, so far as the majority of 
collectors in this country are concerned, is Mr. Egerton Castle's 
" English Bookplates." The author's aim has been to supply a 
general account of many interesting facts in connection with 
examples produced in this country. In this Mr. Castle has un- 
doubtedly succeeded, for his book is at once popular and definite, 
and as comprehensive as it could possibly have been made within a 

14 




BOOKPLATE OF EDWARD 

FITZGERALD. 

BY W. M. THACKERAY. 



io6 FRENCH AND ENGLISH BOOKPLATES, 
limited compass. The scope of the work may be gathered from t 



^^ 




BOOKPLATE OF JOHN ANDERSON, JUNR. BY THOMAS BEWICK. CIRCA 180O. 

following synopsis of its contents : — Consideration of the bookplate 

qua bookplate ; the inte- 
rest and use of its study; 
various causes which 
brought it into existence in 
the earliest days of the 
printed book, and have pro- 
moted its use at all times 
since ; the literature of 
bookplates ; early history 
of their use on the Conti- 
nent, before their general 
adoption by English book 
owners ; external causes 
which have influenced the 
fashion in heraldic and 
artistic compositions of 
bookplates at various times; 
specification of "styles " and 
" classes ; " classification, 
chronological and artistic^ 
and determination of the 
Iff '7/'A/x>u//l main characteristics which 

A jfCA : (y may be taken as criteria to 

BOOKPLATE OF THE LATE LORD TENNYSON, determine datcs ; modern 

bookplates classified and exemplified by specimens designed for 




FRENCH AND ENGLISH BOOKPLATES. 



107 



men of note, and by well-known artists, and consideration of the 
spirit of a modern bookplate ; the suitability of different classes of 
plates to different sorts and conditions of men. To make the little 
handbook still more complete «,„^^. 



and valuable to the beginner, 

there are full hints as to col- 
lecting, and a complete biblio- 
graphy on the subject. Among 

the 120 typical examples, we 

have those of Sir Thomas Tre- 

sham, one of the earliest personal ^^^ 

bookplates of Mr. Gladstone, 

Lord Salisbury, the late Lord 

Tennyson, Mr. Henry Irving; 

and in proof of the fact that 

some of four most eminent 

artists have not considered the 

bookplate too trivial a thing for 

their talents, we have examples J' 

from the designs of Sir John 

Millais, R.A., H. Stacey Marks, 

R.A.., Randolph Caldecott, E. 

A. Abbey, Alfred Parsons, S. 

Solomon, not to mention many others. Through the courtesy of 

the publishers we are enabled to reproduce three extremely different 

examples, the earliest being a 
charming little landscape by 
Thomas Bewick, in which the 
owner's name is inscribed on 
a rock; the second was de- 
signed by W. M. Thackeray 
for his friend Edward Fitzgerald, 
the distinguished translator of 
Omar Khaiyam, and the third 
is that of the late Lord Tenny- 
son. 

In his "Handbook to French 
Bookplates " our friend Mr. 
Walter Hamilton, an article 
from whose pen, " A Hunt for 
BOOKPLATE OF VICTOR HUGO. Bookplatcs in Paris," appeared 

in the last volume of The Bookworm, supplies full information 




BOOKPLATE OF LEON GAMBETTA. 





io8 FRENCH AND ENGLISH BOOKPLATES. 



concerning the history of their origin and use in France. His work 
is at the same time sufficiently popular in its descriptions to form 
a handybook of reference to the book-lover who merely takes a 
desultory interest in the subject. Not only (writes Mr. Hamilton) 
have the principle works on French Ex-Libris by Poulet-Malassis, 
Henri Bouchot, Octave Uzanne, and Pere Ingold remained hitherto 
untranslated, but they are mostly out of print and difficult to obtain. 
So that in embodying all accessible facts in a concise and orderly 
way in one volume, his book claims to be the first devoted solely 
to French bookplates ever published in English. Whilst heraldic and 
technical descriptions have been avoided as far as possible, sufficient 

space has been devoted to the 
consideration and enumeration 
of the main differences between 
the systems of the two countries 
to enable a collector of French 
bookplates to understand the 
meaning of certain characteristics 
not found in English armorial 




AVE * VZA 



\bz?- 



BOOKPLATE OF OCTAVE UZANNE. 



bearings. The early history of 
the subject in France takes a 
much more definite and wide- 
spreading interest than it does 
in this country, as will at once 
be seen from the chapter dealing 
with the examples dated between 
1574-1650 and 1650-1700 re- 
spectively. There are also 
chapters dealing with the Book-Plate under the First Republic and 
the First Empire, on those of the Frontier Provinces, on those of 
Ecclesiastics, on " Canting Arms and Punning Plates," and on those 
of famous modern men. From the last section we reproduce three 
examples, each of which is interesting for both the originality of the 
design and the eminence of the owners. There are about 100 
illustrations in Mr. Hamilton's book, including reproductions of 
some of the rarest and finest old examples. It may be mentioned, 
as showing the wide-spread interest at present taken in bookplates^ 
that the first editions of these two books were exhausted within a 
few weeks of their pubHcation, and that they are now being sold at 
a premium. 




Women's Books for Chicago. 




HE exhibit of books to be sent to the Chicago Exhibition 
can only have the effect of heightening one's opinion of 
that indomitable sex. The sight of six hundred books 
written by women in spite of every disadvantage — in spite of mascu- 
line discouragement and derision, of defective education, of an 
uncertain temper, of the importunate claims of the kitchen, the 
nursery, and the millinery — opens out endless vistas of what she 
might achieve in this direction, if economically managed. But to 
confess to an enlarged appreciation is not to be able to explain why 
all these books are to be sent over to Chicago. In many cases the 
Americans have seen them before, at a very much lower price. To 
exhibit to them in a superior binding the books they have pirated 
may be a gentle feminine reproach, but it will be quite lost on the 
American publisher. Apart from the doubt why the books are sent, 
the collection is well enough. It is comprehensive, too. You may 
pass from the lady who went through England on a side-saddle in 
the days of Queen Mary II. to the girl who went up the Karpathians 
on the other sort in our own. You may glide down an uninterrupted 
stream of purling fiction, from "The Mysteries of Udolpho " down 
to those of Mrs. Humphry Ward. You may even see some of this 
lady's own MS. ; also autotype reproductions of MSS. in the hands 
of Fanny Burney, Charlotte Bronte, and Marian Evans. There is 
also the first edition of the poems of Charlotte and her two sisters. 
A brand new copy of the first book ever written in English by an 
Indian woman appears to deal with the history of a native Christian, 
giving rich promise of a new crop of missionary tracts against the 
time when Europe shall be played out. But the most interesting are 




no WOMEN'S BOOKS FOR CHICAGO. 

certainly the older books. Here you see the first steps of woman in 
literature, though to do her justice they are firm and confident 
enough. "The Whole Duty of Man " is complacently attributed to 
Lady Packington, Sterne, Bancroft, Frewen, Chapel, and the other 
right reverend claimants being set aside ; it is, perhaps, significant 
that no one has yet ventured to assert that any but a divine or a 
woman could write so positive a book. Why are the women of 
England sending the women of America " A Discourse of Auxiliary 
Beauty; or, Artificiall Handsomenesse ? " Is this a feline amenity ? 
Finally, we may notice the oldest book of all on " Hunting, Hawking, 
and Cote Armour," attributed to Dame Juliana Berners. 




The Books of To-day. 

EXPERTS are predicting that the books of to-day will fall to 
pieces before the middle of the next century. The paper in 
the books that have survived two or three centuries was made by 
hand of honest rags and without the use of strong chemicals, while 
the ink was made of nut-galls. To-day much of the paper for books 
is made, at least in part, of wood pulp treated with powerful acids, 
while the ink is a compound of various substances naturally at war 
with the fiimsy paper upon which it is laid. The printing of two 
centuries ago has improved with age; that of to-day, it is feared, 
will, within fifty years, have eaten its way through the pages upon 
which it is impressed. 



A Nurse's Library. 




ISS LINA MOLLETT gave, in a recent number of 
Nursmg Record^ some advice as to the kind of books most 
necessary in the library for hospital nurses. "A nurse's 
library should not," she says, "be too exclusively professional and 
scientific. It should not, of course, be wanting in good reference- 
books, which, by preference, should be modern — in touch with the 
times. Standard works of fiction will never be out of fashion. The 
immortal ' Pickwick ' and * Ivanhoe ' can be purchased for less than 
a shilling at the stores (I think y^d. is now the net price for each). 
Theological works should be books of religious literature — literature, 
not ' word-smoke.' They should be first-rate in every sense, and 
not controversial. Poetry should be introduced but sparsely, and 
then only of the best. Interest in our old writers is more fashionable 
just now than it was some years ago, when fourpenny Chancers, 
shilling Spensers, ninepenny Miltons were unknown, and the host 
of other songsters, whose poems we purchase for pence to-day, were 
rare and costly. Works on botany, astronomy, zoology, and allied 
subjects should always be of a popular nature, as not one woman in 
a hundred among nurses has sufficient leisure, or a sufficiently 
mathematical mind to grapple with the subject from its purely 
scientific point of view. Popular works on light geology, botany, 
&c., are sure to find readers, and many of our cleverest scientists 
feign to give us information in a palatable form. Popularity need 
by no means be synonymous with frivolity. With regard to essays, 
the rule applied to poetry will answer for them : Quality rather than 
quantity. The theological, novel-reading, poetical, scientific, social- 



112 



A NURSE'S LIBRARY. 




economical, and matter-of-fact nurse are types that exist, and their 
special tastes should be considered where their recreation is con- 
cerned. Something for everybody, and that something the best of 
its kind, is what the organiser should keep in mind. Then the 
woman who is a devotee of Browning, and delights in the 'Ring 
and the Book,' will not be expected to satisfy herself with a volume 
of Tit-Bits or ' Queechy.' The admirers of Donovan and Zoroaster 
will have their tastes considered, and the 'all-round' readers who 
devour everything will be satisfied with the provision made." 



An Old Bookseller's Soliloquy. 



us adver- ■ 



THE City News of November 26th contained a curious 
tisement of an old Manchester bookseller. Here follow some 
lines inscribed to another old Manchester bookseller, Mr. William 
Ford, on parting with his library and collection : — 

To sell, or not to sell, that is the question — 

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer 

The stings and arrows of outrageous dunnings, 

Or to take pen against this sea of volumes, 

And by exposing, sell them ? To sell — to part, — 

No more ? And by that sale to say we end 

The heart-ache and a thousand natural shocks 

Poverty's heir to — 'tis a consummation 

Devoutly to be wish'd. To mark, to sell ; 

To sell — perchance to trust ; aye, there's the rub ; 

For in that sale of sales, what debts may come, 

When I have shuffled off this dirty pile, 

Must give me pause ; there's the respect 

That makes my catalogue have such slow birth. 

For who would bear the whips and scorn of time, 

Bookbinder's wrongs, the proud man's contumely, 

The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay. 

The insolence of agents, and the spurns 

That country biblios twice a year must take. 

When he himself might his quietus make 

With a grey goose quill ? Who would folios bear 

And groan and sweat under a heavy stock. 

But that the dread of something when 'tis sold — 

That vile insatiate credit from whose grasp 

No volume e'er returns — puzzles the will 

And rather makes one keep those books I have, 

Than wait for others that I know not of. 

Fred Leary, 



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Richard Franck, Philanthropus. 

VEN the most enthusiastic angler has to admit that the 
bibliography of his favourite pursuit contains a number of 
exceedingly dull books. Dexterity in successfully landing 
a fine salmon does not at all times coincide with the possession of 
literary skill in committing experiences to paper, and even the verbal 
eloquence of an enthusiast often becomes flat and tedious when 
"put into a book." This is particularly the case with a work written 
by one of Izaak Walton's most devoted followers. The full title of 
this book is as follows : — 

" Northern Memoirs, calculated for the meridian of Scotland : 
wherein most or all of the cities, citadels, seaports, castles, forts, 
fortresses, rivers, and rivulets are compendiously described. Together 
with choice collections of various discoveries, remarkable observa- 
tions, theological notions, political axioms, national intrigues, polemick 
inferences, contemplations, speculations, and several curious and 
industrious inspections, lineally drawn from antiquaries, and other 
noted and intelligent persons of honour and eminency. To which 
is added, The Contemplative and Practical Angler, by way of diver- 
sion. With a narrative of the dextrous and mysterious art, experi- 
mented in England, and perfected in more remote and solitary parts 
of Scotland. By way of Dialogue. Writ in the year 1658, but not 
till now made public, by Richard Franck, Philanthropus. Plures 
necat Gula quam Gladius." 

It was " printed for the author " in 1694, and sold by a well-known 
bookseller, Henry Mortlock, whose shop was at the sign of the Phcenix, 
St. Paul's Churchyard ; and it is not, perhaps, a matter for much 
surprise that the first edition was likewise the last — until, in fact, the 

15 




114 RICHARD FRANCE, PHILANTHROPUS, 



modern reprint in 182 1 under the editorship of Sir Walter Scott. 
Of the author, very httle is known. He appears to have been born 
about the year 1624, and it is quite certain that he acted as a captain 
in the service of Cromwell during the Civil War. He may have 
distinguished himself in this great struggle between the nation and 
one of the most cowardly kings that ever held a sceptre, but history 
on this point is silent. The captain was of a temperament little 
suited to the stern and exacting discipline of the battlefield. After 
the war, Franck appears to have had plenty of time on his hands, 
and in 1656 he started on an angling tour through Scotland, return- 
ing in the following year. The mania for rambling again seized him 
in 1690 — in his sixty-fourth year — when he crossed over to America. 
How long he remained in the colony is not known, but by 1694 he 
had returned and was living in the Barbican, at that time a fashion- 
able locality. 

In the meantime he had written the *' Northern Memoirs," but 
seventeen years elapsed between the period of writing and the time 
of arranging the MS. for the press, and another nine years before 
the book made its bow to the public. It is in the form of a dialogue 
between Theophanes, Agrippa (a servant), Aquila (a friend), and the 
author, under the fanciful designation of Arnoldus. There are 
xxxix, 304 pages octavo, the preliminary matter being made up in 
the following manner : there are four dedications, the first to ** J. 
W., Merchant of London ; " the second to the " virtuosos of the 
Rod in the British Metropolis, the famous city of London ; " the 
third to the " Academicks in Cambridge, the place of my nativity ; " 
and the fourth to the " gentlemen piscatorians inhabiting in or near 
the sweet situations of Nottingham, North of Trent" — sufficiently 
comprehensive, in all conscience, to have ensured the whole of a 
large edition being quickly exhausted, if every person included in 
the foregoing categories did his duty by purchasing at least one 
example. Then follow three prefaces before the text of the book is 
reached. 

It would be out of place here to attempt the almost impossible 
task of furnishing our readers with a complete or even brief synopsis 
of this extremely rambling and incoherent book. Our author pledged 
himself up to the extent of the title-page, and those who have 
read his book through will have a somewhat mournful duty to per- 
form in admitting that Captain Franks carried out this pledge to the 
letter. We agree with Sir Walter Scott, in his introduction to the 
reprint already referred to, that Franck's contests with salmon are 
painted to the life, and his directions to the angler are generally 




RICHARD FRANCE, PHILANTHROPUS. 115 

given with great judgment. Walton's practice was entirely confined 
to bait-fishing, and even Cotton, his disciple and follower, though 
accustomed to fish trout in the Dove with artificial fly, would have 
been puzzled by a fish of 2olbs. in weight. For the benefit of those 
of our readers to whom the original is inaccessible — it does not 
often occur in the market, and when it does it sells for about eight 
guineas — we quote a characteristic extract. 

The travellers rest for a night at Berwick on Tweed, and "bid a 
farewell to Scotland." Theophilus declares his opinion that "rest 
and refreshment are the relatives to travellers," and that without them, 
the day's journey had broke his heart. Our author continues : — 

" Then to cement it again, what if I proceed to instruct you on 
all those eminent rivers and rivulets, in our passage southward, till 
we arrive at the beautiful streams of triumphant Trent ; the amorous 
fields, and England's Elisium, the forest of Sherwood ; whose shady 
trees, as a pavilion, shelter and solace the contemplative angler : 
there it is that Philomel melts the air in delightful groves ; there the 
hills will shelter us and the rocks surround us, and the shady woods 
relieve and retrieve us, whilst Nottingham, that nonsuch, doth sweeten 
our ears with delicious concerts, and our eyes with variety of buildings, 
that stand in a serene and wholesome air. But their cellarage, beyond 
compare, is the best in England, and most commodious, and the 
whole town situated on a whole rock ; where the streets are adorned 
with beautiful houses, the florid fields filled with aromas ; and the 
exuberant meadows enriched with fragrant perfumes, that will ravish 
the angler, if when to trace and examine the gliding silver streams of 
famous Trent." 

An Angler. 



ii6 



MISCELLANEA. 



The Book of the Future. 



MR. HENRY BLACKBURN, lecturing at the London Insti- 
tution, Finsbury Circus, said English people were not an 
artistic nation, and instead of getting better they appeared to be 
rapidly getting worse. The author of the present day was losing 
the sincerity and the individuality which ought to characterise him. 
Clothed in a degrading, characterless costume, which took all appear- 
ance of manliness and suppleness from his figure, living in houses 
and in cities in which nearly everything ornate or beautiful had been 
stolen, borrowed, or copied from another country or period, the man 
of letters was found engaged in the production of books in which, as 
far as the mechanical parts were concerned, nearly everything was a 
sham. The nineteenth-century author's love for the literature of the 
past had led him to imitate not only the style, but the outward 
aspect, of old books. He produced in his book a series of frauds : 
the engravings, the so-called "hand-made" paper with its rough 
edge, the vellum binding, and the gold illuminations on the cover 
were all frauds. He very strongly deprecated the use of the type- 
writer by authors. Should they rather not reform their own hand- 
writing, once for all ? They should first study a system of shorthand 
for rapid notes, and then learn to write with Gothic taste and expres- 
sion. The poet or the scholar who gave a book to the world should 
free himself as much as possible from mechanical trammels, and 
boldly set to work to present himself in appropriate guise. What 
they should aim at in the book of the future was the artistic effect 
and balance of the page ; and the harmony of writing and ornament 
should be one of the principal charms. There was very little 
harmony of style in the modern book, many artists and illustrators 
of books showing that they did not care for the '* look " of a printed 
page. They must unlearn much that had been taught them, and, 
taking the best models of the past and the lawyer's engrossing hand 
of the present, create a letter and a style which should belong to the 
present age. 




An Eighteenth-Century Chap-Book. 




HE LAIRD O' COUL'S GHOST " was one of the most 
popular chap-books in Scotland and the north of England 
during the last century. Like many others of the most 
popular of these stories, which were the delight of the poor and the 
profit of the hawker, it has been nearly worn out of existence, and it 
is now very difficult to get a copy even at a handsome price. No 
doubt its popularity has been largely owing to its supernatural cha- 
racter, and the eagerness with which the uneducated devoured such 
works and the full credence which was given to them. 

This reprint, which is issued by Mr. EHiot Stock, has been made 
from the original MS., which is in the hands of Dr. Gordon, of St. 
Andrew's, Glasgow. This MS. was found among the papers of 
collector Hamilton, of Dalzell, when he died in the summer of 1788, 
aged 91 years; he was thus 25 years old when this story was written, 
which was in 1722. In 1733 Lady Anne Spencer, Duchess of 
Hamilton, came to Hamilton Palace, and the collector gave to Her 
Grace this story to read. The duke, to play a practical joke on the 
collector, caused one of his servants to whisper to him while at 
supper that there was a gentleman calling, who desired to see him 
immediately. Being asked who he was, the valet answered, "The 
Laird o' Coul." The guests were all rarified at the collector's embar- 
rassment, who sat still and allowed the " gentleman " to await in the 
hall ! 

"The Laird o' Coul's Ghost" first appeared in type in 1750, and 
was eagerly bought by all and sundry from the "Flying Stationers " 
who hawked it about the country. Mrs. Ogilvie delivered it to 
Watkins, the king's printer, and it was published from Newcastle. 






ii8 AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CHAP-BOOK. 

In 1788 a fanatical character, Mrs. Elizabeth Steuart, of Coltness, 
termed "Aunt Betty," became a convert to the halcyon notions of 
Emmanuel Swedenborg, founder of " the New Jerusalem Sect." 
This personage was related to Henry Erskine, Lord Advocate for 
Scotland, and was enraptured with the penny chap-book ; so much 
so, that she embodied it in her '* Remarks and Illustrations of the 
World of Spirits," which she strictly enjoined her nephew to print 
after her decease. Not a copy of this brochure of 206 pages is in 
any of our university libraries, and a few weeks ago jQz 3S- were paid 
for a soiled copy. "Aunt Betty" does not miss to note one point 
in " The Laird o' Coul's Ghost " that may insinuate her imaginations 
about angels and the unseen; while she adverts to the ghosts of 
Lord Clarendon, Sir George Villiars, the father of the Duke of 
Buckingham, and to the dialogue of Dives and Lazarus, in that 
remarkable parable. She ferreted out from Mrs. Henrietta Hog, 
Edinburgh, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Ogilvie, Innerwick, that the 
sequel was undoubtedly the genuine copy in her father's handwriting. 
No declaration has been given how the MS. came into collector 
Hamilton's possession. Mr. Ogilvie died soon after the conference. 







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An Antiquary of the Last Century. — II. 

10. To T. Rawlinson, [Without date.] 

" I return your note books B.P. and C.C.C. with many thanks. 

** You desire something about the proceedings against me. I will 
only mention what hath been done about the library. 

" On Friday, March 2d last, the visitors of the library met, being 
called together by Dr. Hudson, who had declared almost a year 
before that I should be turned out of both my places, and at the same 
time spoke in very indecent language. This meeting was wholly 
without me. There were only five of the eight (for eight is the 
whole number) there, viz. Dr. Baron, Vice-Chanc, Dr. Clavering, 
Reg. Prof, of Hebr., Dr. Terry, Reg. Prof, of Gr., Dr. Bouchier, 
Reg. Prof, of Law, and Mr. Dod, the junior Proctor. They met in 
the study of the Library Gallery, which study belongs to the under- 
librarian, though Dr. Hudson had hindered me the use of it for 
some time. I was writing out the old monuments upon the wall 
opposite to the study. After some time they sent for me, and the 
Vice-Chancellor told me that I had printed Rowse without leave, 
and Dr. Bouchier said that the MSS. of the library ought not to be 
transcribed. I said I had done nothing against statute. The Vice- 
Chancellor said I had reflected in my preface to Rowse, in page ix. 
(though this objection was not mentioned when I was before him a 
day or two before, when the objections were started at a meeting of 
the delegates of the press) upon the University's not keeping up tlie 
exercise. If it be a reflexion, I am sure it is too true. After several 
warm words from the V. Ch., though I behaved myself very coolly, 
he told me Dr. Hudson had complained that I had not done the 



1 20 AN ANTIQ UAR Y OF THE LAST CENTUR V. 

duty for some time of hypo-bibliothecarius, and that, therefore, 
another must be put in, and that they would make an order for it 
I gave him my reasons why I did not act, viz., first because I was 
excluded by Dr. Hudson (though I neither had resigned nor intended 
It), new keys, different from mine, being made by him. 2dly. Because 
I had not taken the oaths, and so could not act unless I would hazard 
the danger of forfeiting five hundred pounds, and of incurring other 
penalties. I desired them to express these reasons in their order, if 
they thought fit to make any. But this the Vice-Chanc. denied, and 
said that they would only insist upon my neglect of duty. I was 
desired to withdraw, and after a long hour (all which time I spent 
opposite to the study writing out the old monuments) I was called in 
again. The V.-Ch. told me they had allowed me time till Lady- 
Day, and that they had made an order that if after that time there was 
any complaint of neglect. Dr. Hudson should be at liberty of putting 
in a proper person into my room. I told them that I could not act 
for the reasons before-mentioned, and I desired to have a copy of 
the order. This was also denied. But at last the Vice-Chanc. 
showed it at a distance. ^ Fray^ said I ^ Mr. V. Ch., let me have it 
in my hands. I am short-sighted^ and I cannot see at a distance.^ 
This he denied. * Then,' said I, ' / will use my glass ; ' which, 
when I spoke of, he vouchsafed to let me have it in my hands, and 
I read it aloud just as it was writ (by Dr. Hudson, who was employed 
to pen it), there being false spellings in it, particularly agread, for 
agreed. Towards the bottom there was upder library keeper^ and so I 
read it, at which the Vice-Chanc. was in a passion, and took the book 
out of my hands. They were all amazed at this word tipder^ because 
that may be understood of the upper as well as the under library 
keeper. I desired the book again to make an end of my reading. 
At last it was delivered me, and then I read out aloud as before, and 
pronounced it as written upder library keeper^ at which the V. Ch. was 
in a passion again, and said among other things, ' Sir, I will send you 
to the castle for all you are a Master of arts. We do not come hither 
to be drolled at.'' I omit several merry particulars. I was dismissed 
at last, and they broke up and went away. They all set their hands 
to Hudson's ill-spelt record, of which, before I went I desired a copy, 
alleging that my memory was bad, and that I could not otherwise 
observe it. But this was absolutely denied. 

" Lady Day being come, Dr. Hudson, without any regard to the 
order (by virtue of which I should have had another admonition, as 
I remember), put Mr. Fletcher of Queen's (A.M. and Chaplain of 
that college) into my place. I have resigned nothing, but must 



^L 



AN ANTIQ UAR V OF THE LAST CENTUR Y. 121 

submit to everything without any stir in the aflfair. By the bye, Dr. 
Hudson being marriedj is not a statutable librarian, marriage is 
express against statute, and though Sir Thomas Bodley with great 
unwillingness gave way to Dr. James's marriage, yet he declared it 
should be no precedent for the future." 

II. To Dr. R, Rawlinson^ Nove7nber 27, 1727. 

"I received both your letters, viz. that of the 2 2d and that 
of the 25th inst., and thank you for your designed present. I 
wanted much to hear from yourself how matters went in your 
auctions, and was glad at last to have one, though I am very sorry to 
find you ;,have such bad usage, when you act so very honourably. 
But I am too sensible, that booksellers and others are in a combina- 
tion against you. Booksellers have the least pretence of any to act 
so. Your brother (whom I shall always call my friend) did them 
unspeakable kindnesses. By his generous way of bidding, and by 
his constant buying, he raised the value of books incredibly, and 
there is hardly such another left. The booksellers (who got so much 
by him) owe him a statue, the least they can do. But instead of 
that, they neither speak well of him, nor do you (as I verily believe) 
common justice. You have my letter to your brother, in which 
matters between him and me were justly stated to his great satisfaction. 
I know not what he did with the books of mine he was concerned for. 
I fear, however, that some gentlemen, that subscribed for them to 
him, had not their books. But that was not my fault. I sent them 
all up to him, and I am fully satisfied (had he lived) he would have 
paid the arrears and have let all persons (if he did not do so) have 
their copies. I do not at all doubt but you will act with the friend- 
ship that hath always passed between as, and I return you my thanks 
for your design of keeping up the prices of my books, in order to 
which I send you the several prices (which you desire) of what I 
have published since Leland's Itin. I printed but a small number 
of any of them, but I see no occasion to specify what the particular 
numbers were. This is sometimes done in the books themselves, 
though not in all. I would fain have those bawked that expect 
great bargains from the falsely supposed great numbers. As I have 
hitherto printed but a few, so I shall continue the same method, 
having no manner of reason to brag of encouragement. 'Tis love to 
our history and antiquities, not prospect of gain, of which I meet 
with so very little, that makes me go on. But I had rather acquiesce 
and be content, than complain. Reward is to be expected in a 

16 




1 2 2 AN ANTIQ UAR V OF THE LAST CENTUR Y. 



better place. What you say of nonsensical and whimsical books 
bringing the best prices, is one plain sign (among many) of the great 
decay of learning. 'Twas otherwise some years ago, when trifles 
were looked upon as a disgrace to good catalogues." 



Dodwell de Parma, ( Large paper 

8vo. 1 713. ( Small 
Leland's Coll. ( Large paper 

9 vols. ( Small 

Acta Ap. 1715 

Rossi Hist. ( Large paper . . . 

1 7 16. ( Small 

T. Livius Foro Jul. ( Large paper 

1716. (Small... 

Aluredus Bev. ( Large paper 

1716. (Small 
Roperi Vita Thom. Mori. ( Large paper 

17 16. I Small 

Camdeni Eliz. i Large paper 

1 71 7. (Small 

Gul. Neubrig. j Large paper 

1 7 19. \ Small 

Sprotti Chron. ( Large paper 

1719. I Small 

Curious Discourses i Large papei 

2 vols. 1720. (Small... 
Textus Roff. i Large paper ... 

1720. (Small 

Rob. of Avesbury i Large paper 

1720. (Small ... 

Fordun. ( Large paper... 

5 vols. 1722. ( Small 

Antiq. of Glast. ( Large paper . 

1722. (Small 

Hemingi Chart. ( Large paper . 

2 vols. 1723. (Small 
Rob. Glouc. j Large paper ... 

2 vols. 1724. (Small 

Peter Langtoft i Large paper 

2 vols. 1724. (Small 

Letter of Antiq. between Windsor and 
Oxford, 1725 



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AN ANTIQ UAR Y OF THE LAST CENTUR Y. 123 

John of Glast. ( Large paper 02 02 00 

2 vols. 1726. (Small 01 01 00 

Adam de Domerham ( Large paper ... ,.. 02 02 00 

2 vols. 1727. (Small 01 01 00 

[Hearne printed very few copies of any of his works, seldom more 
than were subscribed for. Of Leland's Collectanea, there were 
printed only 156. Of the Acta Apostolorum, 120. Of Rossi. Hist, 
only 60. Of Aluredus Beverlacenis 148 \ and of Roper's Life of Sir 
Thomas More, 148.] 

12. To Mr, Ballard. 

"... Mr. Wood never wanted industry ; but then his judgment 
was nothing equal to his dihgence. Nor indeed had he any stock of 
true learning, which is the reason that his antiquities were translated 
into Latin by other hands, he being not capable of doing it himself. 
Yet after all, both his works are very useful and curious, and will 
always be esteemed as such by such as esteem our history and 
antiquities, and have any just honour for the University of Oxford, 
which Mr. Wood endeavoured to promote so much, and 'tis pity that 
he received no better reward at last than expulsion." 

13. To T Rawlinson^ December 20, 17 17. 

" I received the parcel of books very safe, for which I thank you. 
I will take occasion them over. I hope I shall find many things in 
them that may be of use in my designs. As to your query at 
Num. 33, oi Rustica Descriptio Visitationis fanaiicoe Oxon, Mr. Collier 
(commonly called honest Will. Collier) was strangely tortured in 
New College, where he was imprisoned and condemned to be 
hanged, but freed after he was up the ladder. So ^des nan unquam 
senescentes^ is exactly New-House^ or as we call it, New-College^ which 
indeed is the true way of writing it, and not Neot-College, as some 
would have it, as if it were called from St. Neot, which is a ridiculous 
supposition. They may as well say Newburgh and Newbury were 
denominated from the same saint. The foresaid Will. Collier, who 
was a right cavalier, (and therefore made yeoman beadle, Dr. Peter 
Mew, and others, having a true value for his loyalty, which made 
Dr. Peter Mew always use him as a familiar, as well before as after 
he was bishop ; I say this Will. Collier) being a hard drinker, had a 
room at the tavern which was always called Will. Collier's room, and 
often old Collier's room, which nobody whatsoever was to use, but 
himself and such as came to him. Here he constantly sat when the 



124 AN ANTIQUARY OF THE LAST CENTURY. 




business of the University was over, unless he was obUged to go 
some other place, and would drink and be very merry. And 'twas 
the same thing whether he had company or not, hither he would 
come, and take possession of the room, and sit and enjoy himself. 
There are many stories going about this honest old cavalier, several 
of which I have often heard from Frank Harding, who died of the 
stranguary about a year since, whose father was particularly ac- 
quainted with Will, and a suffering cavalier with him. 

" I thought upon the first sight of your parcel that it had been the 
cuts, but my expectation was soon deceived upon opening it. I 
find by your letters that they will come as soon done. So I acquiesce. 
Seventy-two pages of Neubrigensis are printed." 

[The Rustica Academics Oxomensis nuper reformatce DescriptiOy 
alluded to in the above letter, was written by John Allibond, who 
was born in Buckinghamshire, and educated at Magdalen College; 
of the school belonging to which he was for some time master, and 
afterwards became rector of Bradwell, in Gloucestershire, where he 
died in 1658.] 

14. To T Rawlins^ May 12, 171 7. 

*'I had not written to you to-day, were it not to acquaint you that 
yesterday died Mr. James Badger, school-master of New-College, 
who hath left behind him a good collection of printed books. I 
know not as yet how they will be disposed of. But if they should 
be sold, I perceive already that several curious men (that have 
money) will be puttting in for them. 

*' . . . In Finchley Church you take notice of a brass plate on the 
wall containing the will of Thomas Sanney. But you give us but 
half the will. It is very remarkable to have a will published in this 
manner. I wish I had it entire. I do not know but I may have 
occasion to make public mention of it in some discourse or other. 
In the meantime I wish you would endeavour to get the remaining 
part of it. I find it is difficult to be made out by what you say. 
But sure somebody or other that goes that way will be able to read it. 

*' . . . I have had some thoughts of having a title-page engraved 
for Cambden's Eliz. as I did for Roper. I would have it done in 
my chamber for fear it should be made public by the engraver. 
Burghers did that for Roper in my own chamber, and by that means 
no copies could be disposed of but what came from me. But 
Burghers now refuses to do anything in my own chamber, but says 
he must have it home. It may be some head of a house or other 
hath advised him. But indeed I cannot trust this Dutchman with 




AN ANTIQUARY OF THE LAST CENTURY. 125 

anything in his own lodging, he having formerly played me a trick. 
Perhaps, after all, a plain title-page, printed at the common press, 
may be better. I do not design any dedication or inscription, but 
will only write a preface." 

15. To T. RawlmsoHy March 19, 17 18-19. 

"... I find in one of the books of your iid cargo mention of 
Medley. I was well pleased with it. It was in old time a most 
famous place. The nuns of Godstowe (to whom it belonged) used 
to solace themselves there. It belonged to the Wighthams. The 
nuns, at the same time that they came hither, used likewise to divert 
themselves at Binsey, and to discourse much about St. Frideswide. 
'Tis probable that I may have some remarks upon this subject in 
Neubrigensis. Your little old thing called Pierce, the Plowman's 
Crede, is excellent. We learn many things from it relating to the 
monastic buildings and customs, particularly about their fine paintings 
I think the author had a particular regard to the Carmelite of White 
Friers, at Oxford, the building of which place were very curious, 
especially on account of the royal palace there, called the Beaumonts. 
Indeed, there are none of the books you sent but I pick something 
of history out of them ; and this I do sometimes at Haddington, 
sometimes at Ifley, sometimes at Blind Pinnocks,^ sometimes at 
Antiquity-Hall,^ and sometimes in other places ; at all which times 
I remember Dr. Richard Mead, yourself, and other friends. This 
is no small comfort of my life, after the ill-treatment I have met 
with from an ungrateful, wicked people. I wish you could be some- 
times with me. We should have good, useful, diversion in going and 
rambhng about together, and in descanting upon the several remarks 
we should make. For the truth is, I find something almost every 
time at the places I go to that I had not remarked before ; and to 
be sure you would do the same. I long to be turning over the 
antiquities of Berkshire, when I can have the opportunity. I am 
thinking of going into that county at Easter, when I shall have a 
respite, you know, for three or four days." 

16. Account of Hearne's deaths in a letter from Mr, Brotne to 

Mr. Rawlins. 

'" T. H [earne] had his death stroke the day I left Oxford. I 

Blind Pinnock kept an ale-house in Cumner parish. 

Antiquity Hall was an ale-house near Rewley. It had the sign of Whitting- 
ton and his Cat. It was more anciently known by the name of the Hole in 
the Wall. 



126 AN ANTIQUAR Y OF THE LAST CENTURY. 

visited him in his illness, and sent often to him what I thought might 
be agreeable to one in his condition, and he could not conveniently 
have at Edmund Hall. I never entered into any discourse with him 
about his temporal affairs, or making his will ; which I thought he was 
so considerate a man as to settle before his decline. I was in hopes 
that he had saved out of the kindness of his benefactors, and the 
profit of his printing, some little matter ; but was surprised to hear 
of the great sum found on his decease. I am glad to hear that his 
MS. collections are fallen into the hands of a prudent gentleman : 
for though I doubt not but that among them there are many useful 
memoirs and historical notes ; yet you know this friend of ours had 
some peculiarities \ all of which would not be perhaps for his credit 
to be made public. I am truly concerned for the loss his friends and 
the public have in the death of so industrious a man and faithful 
editor. I am glad he has ordered some of his curiosities for the 
place he once loved, the Bodleian Library. I would willingly have 
offered him the best of my assistance as a minister during his decline ; 
but knowing his way of thinking, thought 1 should not be accepted. 
However, I was sorry to hear he declined the prayers of also a non- 
juring clergyman ; and by allowing a popish priest to be with him 
alone for two hours, 3 or 4 days before he died, has given occasion 
to talk. My old friend Ant. Wood, how much soever some counted 
him a papist, had the prayers of our church read to him by me and 
another clergyman twice a day ; and received the sacrament on his 
death-bed with seemingly great devotion.' — Thus the Bishop. This, 
dear Sir, I have thought fit to communicate to one from whom I 
apprehend no ill use of it to the Bishop and others. It may seem 
perhaps extraordinary that our friend should refuse N. I. clergy \ but 
I am well satisfied he had objections against that clergyman for some 
compliances, and I really believe he adhered to the last to the strict 
Cyprianic principles. The many favourable expressions as to the 
Church of England, its bishops, &c. incline me to judge thus chari- 
tably of him. The emissaries of the Church of Rome are very busy, 
when our senses and faculties decline ; and it was Sir Roger 
L'Estrange's desire (after his daughter had been seduced into that 
communion) that all those gent, should be kept from his dying bed; 
he being no stranger to their compassing sea and land to gain 
proselytes." 



Another Link with Dickens Gone. 




HE Manchester Guardian reports the death, at Tichfield, 
Hampshire, in his eighty-second year, of Mr. Henry Bur- 
nett, formerly a well-known tenor singer and teacher of 
music in Manchester, and the husband of Fanny Dickens, eldest 
sister to the novelist. Mr. Burnett was born in the same year as his 
wife (1810) at Brighton, but spent most of his childhood at Gosport. 
He was subsequently taken in hand by Sir George Smart, then 
organist of the Chapels Royal, "who," we are told, "took great 
dehght in his young pupil's precocious powers of voice." " He be- 
came," it is added, " noticed in musical parties in Brighton as a dis- 
tinguished young singer, and at about ten years of age he was intro- 
duced to the Pavilion, and he remembered well standing on a table 
in the drawing-room at the Pavilion to sing a solo before the Court, 
and seeing George IV., who was suffering with gout, wheeled into 
the room." About 1822 he was, on the recommendation of Sir 
George Smart, elected a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, his 
future wife, Fanny Dickens, being elected a pupil of the Academy 
about the same time. On leaving the Academy he was engaged as 
a principal tenor at Drury Lane and Covent Garden, where he met 
with great success. Before he settled in Manchester Mr. Burnett 
appeared occasionally in opera at the old Theatre Royal in Fountain 
Street, and met with a capital reception. In the meantime, he had 
married Dickens's sister and settled in London. During the last 
year of his theatrical life he was engaged as principal tenor at the 
Theatre Royal, Bath. About 1840 Burnett and his wife, acting 
under the advice of John Hullah, settled in Manchester, where they 
soon established a high reputation both as teachers of music and as 



128 ANOTHER LINK WITH DICKENS GONE, 




vocalists. Burnett had a clear and beautiful tenor voice — certainly 
not very powerful, but highly cultivated and telling — and he was 
engaged as leading tenor at most of the principal local concerts ot 
that time. His wife seldom, if ever, appeared in public, confining 
herself — so long as her delicate health permitted even this — to teach- 
ing. Soon after they came to Manchester Burnett and his wife 
became members of the Rev. James Griffin's congregation at 
Rusholme Road Independent Chapel, and for some time, during the 
absence of the regular choir, conducted the musical part of the ser- 
vice at the chapel. As nearly as we can remember, Burnett left 
Manchester about 1859 or i860. Some ten or eleven years before 
this he had lost his wife, and Dickens had lost his favourite sister. 
The novelist gives John Forster a touching account of his sister's 
death under the date of July 5, 1848, commencing : "A change took 
place in poor Fanny about the middle of the day yesterday, which 
took me out there last night." She had then left Manchester for 
London to consult Sir James Clark. " Burnett," says Dickens, " had 
always been very good to her." In this last interview she alluded to 
her "little deformed child." "After not many weeks," Forster adds 
to Dickens's letter, "she died, and the little child who was her last 
anxiety did not long survive her." The " little child," Harry Bur- 
nett, son of the late vocalist was, as Dickens told his sister, the 
original of little Paul Dombey, and was born during the residence 
of his father and mother in Upper Brook Street, Chorlton-on-Med- 
lock. 




The Retort Courteous. 

A CELEBRATED author happened, when buying books oT a 
second-hand dealer, to find one of his own works of travel, 
which he had presented to a fellow author. He had written a 
particular dedication on the fly-leaf. He bought the volume, which 
was still uncut, had it bound in a most beautiful and expensive 
style, with initials stamped in gold on the cover, and sent it back to 
his colleague, with the following note on the fly-leaf : — " P.S. — You 
will keep this for the sake of the binding." 




Our Note-Book. 




HE acquisitiveness of Bibliophiles " is a matter which has 
been disturbing the soul of a transatlantic journalist. He 
is of opinion that ever since man was created his acqui- 
sitiveness has caused him to be filled with an ambition to possess 
more than his share of some classes of the world's goods. The ave- 
rage man enjoys the thought that he possesses something that cannot 
be duplicated ; it may be intrinsically worthless, but if no one has 
anything just like it he attaches great value to it. Heber, the famous 
bibhomaniac, was one of the sort of collectors who gathered up things 
merely for the sake of collecting. He spent his fortune and life in 
collecting books which, when he had secured them, lay untouched 
and uncared for in the houses he rented in his own country and 
abroad to store them in. He had over 117,000 books in London 
alone, while no one knew how many houses full he had abroad. He 
used to defend his extravagance in buying up duplicate copies of the 
same work upon the ground that no man could do comfortably with- 
out three copies of the same work — one to be kept at his country 
house as a show copy, one for the service of borrowing friends, and 
one for his own especial use. And yet, with all his professed love 
for his library, the great bibliomaniac quite forgot to say a word 
about it in his will. It is of course easy enough to quote a few 
isolated examples, which are also exceptions, in support of any 
theory ; but Heber was much more of a bibliomaniac than a biblio- 
phile, and the former's passion for acquiring books is one that knows 
no limitations and stops at no excesses. The desire of possessing 
books which are rare is a perfectly legitimate one, defensible on many 
grounds which will be obvious to any person with a fair share of 

17 




130 OUR NOTE-BOOK. 

common sense. The acquisitiveness of bibliophiles is a fact of which 
we are proud, for it is directly to this element that we owe the pre- 
servation of so many links in the chain of human history. 



We had nothing but praise for the first volume of the illustrated 
edition of the late J. R. Green's " Short History of the English 
People," which Messrs. Macmillan have had the enterprise to pub- 
blish. The appearance of a second volume only serves to confirm 
the high opinion which its predecessor compelled. In a word, it is 
at once the most beautiful and useful book issued for many a long 
month ; and the more critically it is examined the more it seems to 
defy criticism. The pictures selected to accompany the text are 
peculiarly appropriate, and are selected with quite as much care, and 
used with as much discretion, as the late lamented author exercised 
in his selection and arrangement of facts. It unfortunately too fre- 
quently happens that the illustrations of a book are carelessly selected 
more as mere embellishments than as germane to the subject under 
treatment. This at once renders the book an incongruous absurdity. 
This is a charge which certainly cannot be urged against the illus- 
trated edition of Green's " History." Not only are the illustrations 
selected with great care and discrimination from very many out-of-the- 
way sources, but their value is greatly enhanced by a series of exhaus- 
tive Notes which give every possibly interesting fact about them. 
The reproductions from the Harleian and Bodleian treasures are of 
the greatest interest and appropriateness, for in this, as in every other 
case, even a poor picture impresses an idea on the mind much more 
indelibly than the fullest textual description. The coloured illustra- 
tions in fac-simile by contemporary artists are peculiarly interesting 
from artistic and decorative points of view, for some of them possess 
a vividness and a reality which one is not accustomed to associate 
with the origins of English history. Altogether, the illustrated 
edition of Green's " Short History " is a distinct acquisition to 

English literature. 

* * * :;j 

In another part of this issue of The Bookworm we give Mr. 
Arbuthnot's admirable sketch of the life and works of the late E. 
Rehatsek, whose labours in Oriental literature will need no elaborate 
commendation from us. We are glad, however, to call attention to 
the publication of Rehatsek's translation from the original Persian of 
Mirkhond's " Life of Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah," which has 
just been issued under the patronage of the Royal Asiatic Society, 




OUR NOTE-BOOK. 131 

edited by Mr. Arbuthnot. The translation is in two neatly printed 
volumes, and this noteworthy "■ Life " appears now for the first time 
in a European dress. Its importance cannot be over-estimated, deal- 
ing as it does with one of the most remarkable men that has ever 
lived, and of whose career, curiously enough, we have the completest 
details from the cradle to the grave. He was born in a.d. 810, and 
died 870, and during the sixty years of his life he effected a revolu- 
tion and reformations which can only be fully appreciated by those 
conversant with Oriental history and customs. The general idea 
in this country, taught in schools and confirmed in after life by a 
careful disregard for truth on the part of the majority of our his- 
torians, concerning Mahomet is that he was the incarnation of all 
that was wicked. A careful inquiry into the real facts of the case 
will prove this to be absolutely without foundation. Mahomet was 
a drastic reformer ; and however unprofitable it is to discuss " the 
might have beens " of history, there can be no question about the 
lasting benefits which the great monotheist conferred upon the Arabs. 
This " Life of Muhammad " is not altogether an " easy " book to 
read, but it is a very valuable one to possess ; and we therefore com- 
mend it to all whom it may in any way concern. 



We are glad to call the attention of our readers to a work of the 
first interest and importance. It is the " Monumenta Germanise et 
Italiae Typographica," which Herr Otto Harrassowitz, the well-known 
publisher of Leipzig, is issuing in parts, and under the direction 
of Herr K. Burger, Gustos des Bushgewerbe-Museums, at Leipzig. 
The " Monumenta " consists of a series of facsimile reproductions, 
in folio size, of pages from the most important German and Italian 
Incunabula, to be completed in twelve parts, each of which is to 
consist of twenty-five folios, the price being twenty marks per part. 
So far as we are able to judge, the facsimiles are highly successful ; 
and as a contribution to the comprehensive history of printing which 
has yet to be written, this series of facsimiles is the most important 
that has been made for many years. We can see at a glance the 
exact character of the type used by the printers of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The variety of type used even at this early period by one man 
is occasionally surprising \ for example, we get on one page no less 
than sixteen varieties used by Erhard Ratdolt in or about i486, and 
several of these are very beautiful. The page, with an illustration, 
from the edition of Dante, printed at Florence in 1 481, by Nicolaus 
Laurentii, is exceptionally interesting, and so is the page, also with 




132 OUR NOTE-BOOK. 

an illustration, of the German Bible printed by Koberger at Niln? 
berg, in 1483; the page from Schedel's *'Buch der Croniken," of 
the same printer, dated 1493, is simply a marvellous piece of work. 
It is to be hoped that copies of this " Monumenta '' will be secured 
by all our public libraries, as it is a magnificent one, and quite 
unlike anything previously attempted. Herr Harrassowitz would 
doubtless be pleased to forward a prospectus to any one interested 
in the subject. 

if. ^i ;I; ;;; 

One of the prettiest books which we have seen for a long time 
reaches us from M. E. Dentu, of 3, Place de Valois, Paris, whose 
" Nelumbo " series of booklets is so well known both in this country 
and in France. The new phase of this series is Le Bambou^ an 
illustrated monthly periodical with about one hundred pages of text 
and about sixty illustrations, specially designed. The object, accord- 
ing to the "advertisement," is to infuse the same amount of energy 
into art as has served to revolutionise every phase of modern life. 
No expense is to be spared to give Le Bambou all the advantages of 
the best writers and artists, and, judging from the first number, we 
should say that the venture is likely to prove in every way success- 
ful. It is, of course, beautiful, and the illustrations are very clever 
and very fin de siccle. The numbers are issued at 2 francs 50 cents. 

An interesting anniversary was celebrated at the Guildhall, London, 
recently, under the presidency of Sir John Monckton, the occasion 
being the eighty-ninth anniversary of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. The chairman reminded his hearers that every day there 
were issued by the Society no fewer than 13,000 copies of the Scrip- 
tures, and bibles had been published in 304 languages. The grand 
total, therefore, of nearly four million bibles were issued in the 
course of the year. It was also an interesting fact to know in 
connection with the spreading of the Gospel that it was 500 years 
ago that very month that the Act of Parliament was passed which 
permitted people to read the Scriptures. Sir John Monckton then 
invited Miss Lewis to perform the operation of cutting a monster 
birthday cake, which was placed upon a table on the platform, and 
a piece of which was given to each child as a souvenir of the in- 
teresting occasion on leaving Guildhall. 

During his recent visit to Mr. Gladstone, says the Christiaii World, 
Professor Max Miiller found the Premier interested in making a 
collection of prayer-books, all more or less modifications of the 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 135 

Church of England Prayer-Book. The Professor told his host of 
the one compiled by the Rev. John Hunter, of Glasgow, and 
promised to secure him a copy, along with a copy of Mr. Hunter's 
hymn-book. Copies of both books have since been forwarded to 
Mr. Gladstone. 

^' y SjC ty. 

The facsimile reprint of the " Leyes y ordenancas nueuamete hechas 
por su Magestad pa la gouernacion de las Indias y buen tratamienta 
y conseruacion de los Indios," &c., together with a literal translation 
into English under the title of *' The New Laws of the Indies," which 
appeared a week or two ago, deserves a reference, if only from the 
fact that it has been nearly twenty years in the press ! It has been 
printed for private circulation at the Chiswick Press, and is one of 
the several speculations of the late Henry Stevens, of Vermont, who 
prefixes to it an historical introduction. The volume is in small 
folio size, and the facsimile is made from the unique copy on vellum 
in the Grenville Library at the British Museum of the original 
Spanish edition of the Laws, dated Alcala de Henares, July 8th, 
1543. This is the first reprint of the first translation into English of 
a book of singular importance to all students and collectors of works 
on American history. The entire impression consists of only thirteen 
copies on the finest writing vellum, and seventy-five on the finest 
hand-made paper. As it is illustrated, not only with numerous 
ornamental blocks of Indians, but with portraits of Columbus, its 
appearance just now is very opportune. It is, however, a somewhat 
costly book, inasmuch as ten guineas is deipanded for the ordinary 
copies, and twenty-five guineas for the vellum examples. 

We are somewhat late in reviewing Mr. William Andrews's 
" Bygone England," which Messrs. Hutchinson and Co. issued some 
months ago ; but its varied interest is none the less welcome and 
worthy of notice. The author describes his book as consisting of 
social studies of the historic byways and highways of this country, 
and very appropriately dedicates it to Mr. George Augustus Sala. 
Of the twenty-seven chapters, that which will most interest our 
readers deals with the " Horn-Book." Mr. Andrews does not tell 
us much that is new on this fairly-worn topic, but he puts all the 
available knowledge concerning it into an attractive form. As 
instancing the rarity of examples at the present day, he alludes to 
the fact that *' about thirty years since a Horn-Book was put up at 
Southgate's Auction-rooms, London, and actually realised nearly 
twenty pounds." We presume Mr. Andrews means Sotheby's rooms^ 




134 OUR NOTE-BOOR. 

The text of this chapter is illustrated with a carefully-excuted engrav- 
ing of a fine example found in pulling down an old farmhouse at 
Middleton, Derbyshire. On the back of this specimen was a picture 
of Charles I. in armour, mounted on a horse, thus affording a proof 
of the period to which it belonged. The " Horn-Book " was usually 
sold at a penny or twopence each. Mr. Andrew W. Tuer, of the 
Leadenhall Press, is, we understand, preparing a work on this subject, 
and its appearance will be hailed with interest. To return, however, 
to Mr. Andrews's *' Bygone England," which is admirably printed, we 
can recommend it as a highly entertaining book ; and, dealing as it 
does with so many subjects of such varied interest, we do not envy 
the person who can take it up without finding something that will 
attract him. 

* :;-. * * 

A book of special interest was sold the other day at Sotheby's. It 
is Euclid's "Elements of Geometric," translated by H. Billingsley, 
and pubhshed by John Daye in 1570. It is bound in old calf, and 
has at each corner roses crowned stamped in gold, whilst down the 
back there are the lion, rose, and portcullis, the three being distinc- 
tive of the Tudors. It would seem that this volume was bound in 
England for Henry Prince of Wales, the eldest son of James I., after 
his father's accession. The British Museum contains several books 
which formed a part of the library of this Prince, but examples rarely 
occur for sale. The copy of Euclid occurred among the books of 
the late Rev. W. E. Buckley, and realised ;^7 los. — a very small 
amount considering the historic interest of the item. 

:]; * ::s ;:< 

" The Gentleman's Magazine Library," which is edited by Mr. G. 
L. Gomme, and published by Mr. Elliot Stock, is making excellent 
progress, and when this classified collection of the chief contents of 
our most venerable periodical (i 731-1868) is complete, there will 
no longer be any necessity to lumber our shelves with about 200 
volumes which contain a great amount of rubbish. In addition to 
this, a complete set of the Gentkman^s Magazine is a somewhat 
costly luxury, to say nothing of the valuable space which it requires. 
The " Gentleman's Magazine Library " gives us the fullest excerpts of 
all that we need, and as the contents of these volumes are classified, 
we have the contributions which cover a period of 137 years on a 
particular subject focussed into one volume. The latest issue of Mr. 
Gomme's condensing deals with the topography of Derbyshire and 
Devonshire, and the volume will be found to contain a fine mass of 
quaint and curious lore. 




Books that can be Inwardly Digested 




N alleged humorist, hailing, it is almost needless to say, 
from America, and rejoicing in the nom de plume of " Bill 
Nye," has just delivered himself of the following "funny" 
paragraph, which seems to deserve something more than the oblivion 
to which it apparently was predestined : — 

" Being on the eve, as I may say, of pubHshing a book, I hail 
with ill-concealed joy the announcement that a company has been- 
recently formed with a capital of 100,000 dollars and located in 
Newark, N.J., the manufacture of 'membranoid' for bookbindings. 
This is a new style of ornamental leather made from tripe. I get all 
my information regarding the matter from the Butchers' Advocate, 
the acknowledged journalistic authority on meaty matters. The 
inventor claims that membranoid will prove more serviceable, and 
at the same time please the bookworm better, than any other style of 
bookbinding. It is also susceptible of more artistic and gastric 
possibilities than any other substance. The time is coming when 
the author, instead of trying to subsist on a paltry royalty, will be 
permitted to carry a vinegar flask in his hip-pocket and board at the 
bindery. The unsuccessful lawyer and graduate at Harvard will not 
get as thin as I did while practising law and Banting, conveyancing 
and starvation, for he can put a little Halford sauce on his library 
and feel pretty well afterwards. How much happier I would have 
been while practising law surreptitiously if I could have put some 
mustard on a New York decision, or given myself up to a Simmons 
Digest. Law is a rule of action prescribing what is right and pro- 
hibiting what is wrong, according to my friend Mr. Blackstone, who 
got the idea from Justinian ; but too often the student and the 



136 BOOKS THAT CAN BE INWARDLY DIGESTED, 



solicitor find it poor grazing, and the common law especially short 
commons. (This is a joke which I used with good effect at the Inns 
of Court, in London, where I put up while in England.) But now, 
with our books bound in membranoid, the bookworm and the bott 
become synonymous, and the day is not far distant when a hymn- 
book or two during Lent may prolong one's life. The ' Read and 
Return ' volumes on the train will then have to be chained to the 
seat, and eminent but unprosperous authors can subsist for a time 
on the autograph albums sent to them, using the return stamps for 
Chili sauce. In addition to the use of tripe as a book-binding, it 
will be used and utilised in the manufacture of slippers for the 
pastor, and the time is coming when the Christmas-tree will yield 
to the hungry and weary one, not a promise to the eye to be broken 
to the heart, but no doubt as many slippers as at present, yet each 
one capable of making a man a meal. In the onward march of 
membranoid I am told also that the company will not confine itself 
entirely to tripe, but will roam about scientifically among the other 
organs, and in the matter of literature will seek, especially in the 
binding of medical works, to use the membrane of the organ on 
which the work treats, as, for instance, a meningeal binding for 
works on the brain and spine, a pleural binding for a treatise on the 
diseases of the chest and lungs, and so on as to diseases of the bones, 
peritonitis, and other interesting complaints." 



The Book-Plate Society. ^ 




iT will be in the remembrance of some present that the 
idea of starting a society had its origin in the early part of 
1 89 1. A few of us, mostly energetic and enthusiastic 
collectors of what Mr. Edmund Gosse, in his "Gossip in a Library," 
tersely calls "the outward and visible marks of the citizenship of 
the book-lover," known as Ex Libris or book-plates, often met 
together, talked the matter over, and endeavoured to evolve some 
scheme whereby those who were interested could, by united action,, 
not only form an association, but establish at the same time a 
journal devoted to the subject. Three things were needful — suffi- 
cient financial support; an editor; and, lastly, volunteers who 
would be willing to give their services as well as written contribu- 
tions, in order that the said editor might have the wherewithal to- 
fulfil his functions. To whom would such a society appeal ? This 
was a question it was important should be well weighed, and 
answered satisfactorily. 

The Honble. J. Leicester Warren (now Lord de Tabley) wrote in 
1880 his famous text-book on the subject, entitled "A Guide to the 
Study of Book-plates." In this able work the author garnered 
together all the information he could collect, both in regard to 
English and foreign Ex Libris. It will not, I think, be questioned 
that Lord de Tabley's work kindled an interest in the study of book- 
plates, which had slumbered since the Rev. Daniel Parsons had 
written on it in 1837. But even in 1880 few knew anything of the 

* An address delivered at the second annual meeting of the Ex Libris Society, 
February 24, 1893. 

18 




138 THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY, 

subject. The book acted its part in the education of the world : it 
appealed to the antiquary, the heraldic student, and the art connois- 
seur; it encouraged men and women to learn more concerning a 
subject which fascinated them the more they knew of it, and which, 
in short, possessed those especial features which serve to absorb the 
cultivated mind. 

To this circle, then, would our society appeal, and in it would be 
embraced the whole of the English-speaking race, and the intelli- 
gence of France, Germany, Sweden, and other Continental countries. 
Could, then, a society be established that would revive a taste which 
had so many attractions? In view of bringing the question to a 
practical issue, a meeting of those most interested in it was con- 
vened for February 13, 1891. There was a consensus of opinion 
in favour of the project, which resulted in a more general meeting 
being summoned by the pioneers of the enterprise for May 15, 1891. 
At this meeting the scheme took a practical form, and an association 
having for its name " The Ex Libris Society " was established ; my 
friend Mr. John Leighton, F.S.A., being chosen as Chairman ; my 
brother "Odd Volume" Walter Hamilton, Treasurer; and Mr. 
W. H. K. Wright, the proprietor and editor of the Western Anti- 
quary, Editor; with several gentlemen, more or less known in 
connection with the subject, as Council. 

Few will suppose that the carrying out of a scheme of the kind 
indicated would be other than fraught with some anxiety on the part 
of the promoters. No one likes to be associated with failure, and 
possibly this feeHng led to some of the most eminent collectors 
holding aloof, either from the idea that the little venture would soon 
be wrecked, or that they thought a society was unnecessary. We 
resolved, however, to *' gang forward," while at the same time we 
intended to "gang warily," keeping ever before us the famous 
Onslow motto, ^^ Festina lente" In July, 1891, appeared No. i of 
t\\Q Journal. 

It is just twelve months ago (February i6th) since my predecessor 
in the chair, Mr. Leighton, addressed you. At that time he pointed 
out what he considered to be the end and aim of the Society. We 
were then, I may say, in our infancy, and it was necessary for him 
to urge you onward and inspire you with hope. At the time he 
spoke our members numbered barely 230 ; to-day, I am glad to tell 
you, we muster nearly 300, and our finances are in a sound and 
healthy condition. It must be obvious to you that this success has 
been largely due to our able editor, Mr. Wright, his Heraldic 
^Coadjutor, Mr. A. Jewers, and Mr. Walter Hamilton. 




THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY, 139. 

A glance at the two volumes now issued will show that an im- 
partial endeavour has been made to give the Journal a cosmopolitan, 
character, that it might interest alike the heraldic student and the 
art connoisseur. Communications to its pages have been made by 
some of the oldest collectors : Mr. Arthur Vicars, recently appointed 
as Ulster King of Arms, has treated of Literary, Book-pile, and 
Library Interior plates, and while Mr. Robert Day has told us all 
about the book-plate engravers of his native city of Cork, Mr. J. Orr 
has made us acquainted with those of Scotland. Our Treasurer has 
ranged from humorous heraldry and Isaac Walton on to modern 
dated plates, and has been supplemented as to the latter by Mr. 
J. Carlton Stitt. Then Mr. William Bolton has discoursed on 
"Anachronisms in Book-plates," and in a second paper has ventured 
on to the debated ground relative to the removal of Ex Libris from 
books. Mr. Fincham has worked at his Bibliography, and Mr. 
Garraway Rice has brought his genealogical and heraldic knowledge 
to our assistance ; while, last but not least, Mr. Leighton has given 
the Society most valuable aid with his pen and pencil. 

Some observations of my own on the heraldic book-plates of Sir 
Francis Fust called forth an interesting communication from Mr. 
Henry Jenner, who was able to rectify some errors concerning the 
history of this family which had been made by Wotton and the- 
Burkes in their works on the Baronetage. Again, a living de- 
scendant of Robert Dinwiddie (Miss Dinwiddie) was good enough, 
on seeing the book-plate of this distinguished gentleman reproduced 
in our Journal^ to give us some hitherto unpublished matter con- 
cerning him, and also to vindicate his character from certain asper- 
sions which had passed into history concerning his want of popularity,, 
as was affirmed, during his governorship of Virginia, 175 1-8. These 
are pleasing facts to note, as showing our Journal is doing good 
practical work. 

It is the part of the antiquary to defy old Father Time, who is 
ever walking noiselessly onward, crushing beneath his herculean 
feet the records of the past ; it is his duty to wrest from the old 
Destroyer all the spoil he can, and to fix what has been. The Ex 
Libris Journal has its mission to fulfil in being the medium of that 
record ; true, we are not wholly concerned with the past, but I 
venture to think we are more concerned with it than the present : 
our distinguished member Mr. Charles WiUiam Sherbon is still with 
us, and we hope this " Little Master " may live long to charm us 
with his dainty handicraft on the copper plate ; but he who signed 
" Will Marshall sculpsit " and engraved the anonymous Lytteltoiv 



f40 



THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY. 




bookplate figures in the infinite gallery of the past. " Tempora 
mutantur et nos muiamur in Hits" How great the gulf between 
Marshall and Sherborn ! 

Here let me point out to the bookplate collector how essential it 
is for the better appreciation of the study that he should have some 
knowledge of heraldry, if he would be more than a gatherer-up of 
odd prints. A mere sense of acquisitiveness is apt to make us 
forget how vast is the interest that clings around our favourite study, 
opening out as it does unlimited channels for inquiry and research. 
Perhaps a few remarks on heraldry and its origin may not be out of 
place. 

It may be new to some of you to be told that Adam bore arms, 
yet an old writer, Sylvanus Morgan (1661), in his "Sphere of 
Gentry " seriously assigns coat armour to our worthy progenitor. 
According to this writer, he bore a shield gules, with the arms of 
his wife (a shield argent) as an escutcheon of pretence, she being an 
heiress. Abel, he also tells us, quartered the arms of his father and 
mother "ensigned with a crosier to show he was a shepheard." 
Again, another old authority, Gerard Leigh, tells us that the arms 
of Alexander the Great were, " Gules^ a golden Lyon sitting on a 
chayer and holding a battayle axe of silver " ; while other personages 
in sacred and profane history have like bearings imputed to them. 
History, however, does not tell us whether there was an Earl 
Marshal or College of Arms at that time to protect them. 

Certain it is that from the earliest times it has been the custom 
for individuals to adopt some peculiar device or symbol whereby 
they could be the better known, and that this in course of time 
developed into what is now understood as heraldry. The dawn of the 
science — the period when it became general — may justly be ascribed 
to the days of chivalry and romance known as those of the 
Crusaders, although it is admitted that coat armour did not become 
hereditary until the beginning of the thirteenth century. On this 
Planch^ says, in that most delightful of books, " The Pursuivant of 
Arms " : " Although not a believer to the same extent as many, in 
the round assertion, unsupported by any contetnporary authority as yet 
discovered^ that heraldry owes its origin to the Crusades, I by no 
means dispute the influence of those expeditions upon the dawn of 
it." "With the decline of chivalry," says the same writer, "com- 
menced the corruption of heraldry," which was accelerated by the 
pedantic nonsense of the early writers I have above alluded to. 
Whatever may have given rise to it as a system, few will deny that, 
.as now developed, it is anything but a science for " fools with long 



THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY. 141 

memories," as has been sneeringly affirmed; but one, as Lower 
-most abundantly proves, " both lordly poetical and moreover practi- 
cally useful." 

Mr. John Cussans, in his " Handbook of Heraldry," says : " If 
the study and practice of heraldry served but to gratify the vanity of 
a few, and to excite the envy of many, then indeed would its teach- 
ings be useless, nay, worse than useless — absolutely pernicious. But 
happily this charming science has higher and nobler purposes to 
serve, its scope and influence are far more extended. Many are the 
incidents, but faintly written on the pages of History, which would 
have remained for ever dark and illegible but for the light flashed 
upon them by the torch of Heraldry. A Shield of Arms, a Badge, 
•or a Rebus depicted on a glass window, painted on a wall, carved on 
a corbel or monument, will frequently indicate with unerring preci- 
sion the date to which such relics are to be ascribed and whose 
memory they are intended to perpetuate, when all verbal distinctions 
are wanting ; and the identity of many an old portrait rests on no 
other authority than that of a coat-of-arms painted at the side." ^ 

On this point Bignold,^ who filled the office of Garter King of 
Arms, wrote : " Heraldry has been known to further the ends of 
justice. I know three families who have acquired estates by virtue 
of preserving the arms and escutcheons of their ancestors." 

In our second volume (page 133) an excellent article on the 
"Taxation of Armorial Bearings" appeared; in it our Heraldic 
Editor made some excellent suggestions, well worthy, I venture to 
think, of the consideration of the authorities at Herald's College. 
Mr. Jewers desires to see the science on which he is so eminent an 
authority placed on a more solid basis than that on which it now 
stands. He has no sympathy with those of whom an old writer has 
said : — 

" Who weare theire Grandsires' signet on their thumb 
Yet aske them, whence their crest is, they are mum.'''' 

He knows that what old Henry Peacham wrote in 1622 (in his 
" Compleate Gentleman ") is as true now as then : " Coates some- 
times are by stealth purchased, shufiled into records and monuments 
by painters, glasiers, carvers, and such " ; and no doubt desires to 
see the day when, in the words of the same writer, he could say : 
" But I trust so good an order hath been lately established by the 
Right Honourable the late Commissioners for the office of the Earl 

' "Handbook of Heraldry," &c. By John Cussans. London, 1869. 
= " Observations on Parochial Registers." 





142 THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY, 

Marshalship and careful respect of the Heralds with us that all hope 
of sinister dealing in that kind is quite cut off from such mercenary 
abusers of nobilitie." 

It is impossible to revert to the old days of chivalry and romance,, 
or to peruse once again Scott's " Ivanhoe " without being impressed 
with the daring pluck and heroism of those times : — 

'* The knights are dust 
And their good swords are rust, 
Their souls are with the saints, we trust.** 

In the eighth chapter of this novel the author draws a living picture 
of the famous tournament, when Ivanhoe, mounted on a black 
horse, passed through the hsts — the device on his shield being a 
young oak-tree pulled up by the roots, with the words " Desdichado^^ 
or Disinherited — and " struck with the sharp end of his spear the 
shield of Brian de Bois-Guilbert." By the rules of the tournament 
this meant that he defied his adversary to mortal combat. 

About the end of last century or the beginning of the present one 
a style of Ex Libris came into vogue which it will be interesting here 
to note. It was the custom in the old days of jousts and tourna- 
ments for a knight to challenge his adversary by causing his shield 
to be suspended to a tree — a fair pine-tree, or, as it was then called, 
Parbre d'or ; by this he placed his clerk, or supporter, who noted 
the name of any assailant who signified his acceptance of the chal- 
lenge by touching the shield with the point of his lance. The design^ 
I allude to had its rise from this early custom. On the bookplate 
was depicted a landscape; in the foreground was a tree on which 
the shield was suspended, and on it were blazoned the armorial 
bearings of the owner. By this action he thus challenged any man 
to dispute his right to bear the arms there shown. 

It is the habit among the ignorant to sneer at the bearing of arms, 
and pride of ancestry has been ridiculed ; yet I venture to affirm 
that where there is true right to bear arms, and a long line of 
ancestors who have borne them, he is unworthy the name of gentle- 
man who would not, figuratively speaking, suspend his shield to his 
arbre d^or, and hand them down unsullied to posterity. "It is," 
said Lord Bacon, "a reverend thing to see an ancient castle or 
building not in decay ; or to see a fair timber tree sound and- 
perfect : how much more to behold an ancient noble family which 
hath stood against the waves and weathers of time." 

The mention above of the Lyttelton bookplate suggests to my 
mind how invaluable the knowledge of heraldry is to the lover o£ 



THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY, 143 

bookplates ; it is essential, in fact, if he would be anything more 
■than a mere collector, with little or no knowledge of the why and 
the wherefore of his collecting. As well might a man collect chairs 
as bookplates ; at every turn in the cult, knowledge is necessary 
before one can develop a true interest in it. To illustrate my 
meaning : it was my good fortune once to pick up on a bookstall a 
book for twopence ; in it was a bookplate ; the surname attached 
was an historic one, and a slight knowledge of heraldry enabled me 
to pronounce it that of George, grandfather of the late Lord Tenny- 
son. Again, I once purchased in a similar way a fine Jacobean 
plate, with no name attached. Papworth's "Ordinary of British 
Armouries " and Burke's " Encyclopaedia of Heraldry " enabled me 
to prove it was the Ex Libris of Matthew Hutton, D.D., of Marske, 
■county of York, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard 
Burgoyne. These examples could be multiplied to any extent. At 
vpage 77 of our first volume Mr. Garraway Rice called attention to a 
bookplate of "James Riddell" in his possession, dated 1639 — a 
date apparently much too early for the style; here, genealogical 
research enabled him to prove that the date referred to the year the 
said James Riddell married Elizabeth Foulis, whose arms he im- 
paled, the true date of the plate being somewhere between 1639 and 
1674, when the said James Riddell died. 

The eminent Norfolk antiquary, Mr. Walter Rye, when calendaring 
the Isham Letters at Lamport Hall, came upon a curious document 
in the form of a letter from David Loggan,^ an engraver of some 
eminence at the time, and author of several works, to Sir Thomas 
Isham, dated January 8, 1675. As it is not very well known, and 
has special reference to a bookplate of the worthy baronet, I cannot 
refrain from giving the extract from the letter furnished by Mr. Rye 
to the editor of the Antiquary in 1883. Before doing so, however, 
it may be well to mention that I have in possession two Isham Ex 
Libris — the one is anonymous, but as it bears the Bloody Hand of 
Ulster it follows that the owner was a baronet; the other is that 
of " lust Isham of Lamport North" shr Esq'," and is in the style 
known as Jacobean. Sir Thomas died without issue in 1681 ; in 
all probability my anonymous plate was his, i.e., the one referred to 
by Loggan. He was succeeded in the title by his brother Justinian ; 
my other bookplate is therefore that of this gentleman before he 
came into the baronetcy. 

The document runs as follows : — 

* Loggan died in London about 1700. His most famous works were " Oxonia 
Jllustrata," 1675, and " Cantabrigia lUustrata." 




144 THE BOOK-PLATE SOCIETY. 

"Jan. 8, 1675. 
"Sr. 

" I send yow hier a Print of your cote of arms. I have Printet 200 wicb 

I will send with the plate by the next return and beg the favor of your keind ex- 

ceptans of it, as a small Niewe Yaers gieft or a acknowledgment in part for all 

your favours, if any thing in it be amiss I shall be glad to mind it. I have taken 

the Heralds painters derection in it, it is werry much used a mongst persons of 

Quality to past ther Cotes of Armes before ther Bookes in stade of Wreithing ther 

names." 

Before I conclude I cannot help congratulating our sister Society 
in Berlin on the advance it has made during the short time it has 
been in existence. Under the presidency of Herr Warnecke, whose 
great work on Ex Libris is so well known and appreciated, it cannot 
do otherwise than prosper. As one of the few Englishmen to be 
found among its members, I desire here to express my unqualified 
admiration at the way the parts of the journal issued from time ta 
time have been edited and illustrated. 

Alas, it is not in my power to say anything of the Ex Libris 
Society of Paris, for no such society yet exists. A visit, however, 
made to the Bibliotheque Nationale in September last, when I had 
the pleasure of examining the collection of Ex Libris gathered 
there, justifies me in hoping that France, so rich in its Ex Libris 
treasures, may ere long have a society of its own with similar objects 
to those of London and Berlin. It is gratifying to hear from Sweden 
that M. Carlander, who has already produced a grand work on 
Swedish bookplates, has another volume in store for us. 

Now that the Society is a^w// accompli^ we can look back on our 
past working with gratification, and on our future with hope. 

James Roberts Brown. 




A Book of Mutual Admiration. 

** T IBER SCRIPTORUM," or book of the Authors' Club, of 

J y New York city, is at last ready for distribution. Only 251 

copies of this curious hodge-podge of mutual admiration were printed,, 
at $100 each, on extra hand-made paper. Every article of the 
ninety-seven was signed by its contributor in each copy of the work. 
The original manuscripts are now being inlaid for binding in two 
large volumes, which will be sold to the highest bidder. 




On the Ingoldsby Legends. 




DOUBT whether the Ingoldsby Legends have ever been 
much considered as a whole, that is in the framework and 
setting which their author gave them of the Ingoldsby 
family and the old manor-house of Tappington Everard. These 
notices are so short compared to the main body of the work, and so 
much overweighted by its humorous character, that they have been 
almost altogether disregarded; and the nature of more than one 
edition of the work has assisted in this by omitting them, or much 
of them ; unfortunately this must be said more especially of the 
" Red Library " edition published a few years ago, which has re- 
printed the poetical matter and nothing else whatever. Copyright I 
suppose was at the bottom of this ; but copyright need not, and 
should not, have prevented the pubhshers from stating on their title 
that their work was incomplete. 

It was once said (" Cambridge Essays," 1855, p. 149) that " in so 
far as it is an account of Sir Roger de Coverley and the Club, the 
' Spectator' is one of the best novels in the language." Perhaps it 
may be amusing to consider the Ingoldsby Legends for a few minutes 
in the same light. 

The two introductory letters, then, from Thomas Ingoldsby, of 
Tappington Everard, to Richard Bentley, Esq., give us a very good 
rough idea of the Kentish family and its surroundings (note the 
author's giving his own name to Barham Downs) ; and the ludicrous 
story of the trousers-burying, and of the picnic so dear to old- 
fashioned and indeed to many modern novelists, introduces us to 
the domestic life of the old Squire, his children, Tom, Caroline, and 

19 




146 ON THE INGOLDSB Y LEGENDS. 

Fanny, his nephew Lieutenant Seaforth, and the friendly visitors^ 
the family. In true novel-fashion the story ends with the marriage 
of Charles and Caroline ; in true novel-fashion, again, we leap over 
some years and are introduced to Neddy and Mary Anne their off- 
spring ; and the next two stories, " The Hand of Glory " and " Look 
at the Clock," are told in the nursery to these children. 

Then we have a httle antiquarianism in "Grey Dolphin," the 
legend of a maternal ancestor ; " The Ghost," some early remem- 
brances of the Squire himself; and the monody on one of his canine 
friends, punningly called "The Cynotaph," to which is attached as 
a note the well-known parody on "The Burial of Sir John Moore." 
Mrs. Botherby the housekeeper next gives us her story of '* The 
Leech of Folkestone," and then we go again to the old Squire with 
his narratives of " Hamilton Tighe " and "The Witches' Frolic," a 
♦May of grammarye," which he relates to his little grandson, Ned 
Seaforth. 

Now comes what demands a paragraph to itself as the one item 
in the whole work which has nothing comic or ludicrous in it, the 
"Singular Passage in the Life of Henry Harris, D.D." ; this stands 
quite on a different footing from the rest of the book, and is one of 
the best stories of supernaturalism which I know. It is a curious 
thing that when a novelist or other writer departs exceptionally from 
his usual manner he produces either a conspicuous success or a 
more or less complete failure. Dickens may stand for an example 
of the first case with the "Tale of Two Cities," beyond comparison 
superior to anything he ever wrote ; there are not many finer things 
in fiction than the self-sacrifice of Sydney Carton. No less a man 
than Sir Walter Scott will give an example of the second with his 
one story of contemporary hfe;' "St. Ronan's Well," though it has 
sometimes been underrated, stands certainly very low among the 
Waverley Novels, for "Count Robert of Paris" and *' Castle Dan- 
gerous," considering the circumstances of their writing, cannot of 
course be argued from. 

The "Singular Passage" is related by Dr. Harris's executor, the 
Rev. Jasper Ingoldsby, who may perhaps be considered as the 
Squire's brother ; and then we turn from the Anglican priest to the 
Roman in Father John Ingoldsby, who presents us with five so- 
called Legends of the Saints, "The Jackdaw of Rheims " and the 
" Lays of Saints Dunstan, Gengulphus, Odille, and Nicholas." 

* The "Antiquary," though not very far removed from Scott's time, can hardly 
be called contemporary ; but if any one so names it I have only to take it for my 
affirmative example. 




ON THE INGOLDSBY LEGENDS. 147 

" The Lady Rohesia " is another story of ancestral antiquarianism, 
and then Lieutenant Seaforth gives his version of a " Tragedy " (of 
Dumas), and the Irish valet his " Account of the Coronation." 
After this we go somewhat further afield, to productions of the 
visitors, " The Monstre Balloon," by Mr. Simpkinson, " The Execu- 
tion," by Mr. Sucklethumbkin ; and after another dramatic carica- 
ture (of a play by the late Lord Lytton), seemingly by Mr. Ingoldsby 
junior, Mr. Peters, the third visitor, winds up the First Series with 
" The Bagman's Dog." 

The Second Series appears to come more distinctly from Mr. 
Ingoldsby junior, who tells us in his introductory letter of the acci- 
dental shooting of " one of the Governor's pointers " ; also we have 
a slight glimpse of some inclosure work on the Ingoldsby manors, 
and of a royal visit which might have happened but did not. The 
sources of the stories are widened by the introduction of the 
travelled knight. Sir Peregrine Ingoldsby ; and though the first, 
" The Black Mousquetaire," comes from the French lady's-maid, 
Madame Pauline Maguire, the three next, "Sir Rupert the Fearless," 
"The Merchant of Venice," and "The Auto-da-Fe," are derived 
from this knight's travels in Germany, Italy, and Spain respectively. 
" The Ingoldsby Penance " is a piece of crusading antiquity, and 
then we are treated to a little mock sentiment from Mr. Thomas 
Ingoldsby about Netley Abbey, and from Lieutenant Seaforth about 
that of Westminster. Afterwards appear two more relatives, Uncle 
John and Aunt Fanny, and Mr. Thomas reverses the usual order 
of things by telling the former the story of "Nell Cook," then gives 
some "Nursery Reminiscences" connected with him, and "The 
Legend of a Shirt " which Aunt Fanny made. Mr. Simpkinson 
relates first his personal "Misadventures at Margate," and secondly 
the story of " The Smuggler's Leap," and the young Seaforths are 
edified with " Bloudie Jacke " from Mrs. Botherby, and " The 
Babes in the Wood " from Mrs. Botherby's niece. By the bye, these 
children have changed their names ; they used to be Ned and Mary 
Anne, and now are Charles and Jenny. " The Dead Drummer " is 
the well-known story told by Sir Walter Scott (whose name is given 
as a reference) in his " Demonology and Witchcraft," and after it 
comes Mr. Sucklethumbkin's "Row in an Omnibus (Box)." 
Father John relates three more ecclesiastical tales, "The Lay of 
St. Cuthbert," "St. Aloys," and "The Old Woman," and the Second 
Series is closed with " Raising the Devil " and " St. Medard," whose 
source is undefined. 

The Third Series was published posthumously under the editor- 




148 ON THE INGOLDSBY LEGENDS. 

ship of the author's son (who many years afterwards brought out 
also "The Ingoldsby Lyrics "). We lose sight, as indeed we had 
already begun to do, of the Ingoldsby family as narrators of the 
stories, and it is therefore needless to particularise them. Still, 
however, we are introduced to more members, as to Uncle Roger 
and Maud in "The Wedding Day," Edith in "The Blasphemer's 
Warning," Sir Thomas in " The Knight and the Lady," and the 
Rev. Joel Ingoldsby, a gaol -chaplain, in "Jerry Jarvis's Wig." 

Of the literary origin of the stories I do not mean to speak at any 
length, and indeed I do not know enough to do so properly ; the 
origin of some has already been shortly mentioned, of others it is well 
known, and perhaps most have some besides the author's own ideas ; 
" Grey Dolphin " certainly has, though I cannot now remember in 
what book I have read the story. But of the mottoes, so admirably 
written in mediaeval Latin, ^ it may be said there can be little doubt 
most or all of them are like Scott's " Old Plays " ; and though a 
question of the kind was once asked in Notes and Queries, it would 
be pretty well useless to hunt Ralph de Diceto and other authors for 
them. 

So far for the work called the "Ingoldsby Legends" considered 
on its own ground ; but I cannot close this paper without a few 
words in a more serious vein. Mr. Barham's writing has many 
merits ; I am one of the last persons to deny it, or to deny the many 
hours of amusement in pain and trouble and suffering which must 
have been given by this book ; yet he has the great and serious 
fault which so many humourists have had, that of letting his humour 
run away with him.^ He has often gone very much too far in giving 
a ludicrous turn to serious matters, and he has much to answer for 
in setting the fashion to others. The Saints of the Church are 
no subject for the joking of Father John's Lays, and I doubt 
whether, unless these had preceded, Thackeray would have written 

* Some of the best burlesque of this kind is in Hookham Frere's "Whistle- 
craft":— 

" Hora secunda centum tres gigantes 

Venerunt ante januam ululantes ; " 
which may be thus rendered with a Drydenesque Alexandrine : — 

" Three hundred giants at the second hour 
Before the gate arrived, howling with all their power.' 

- While correcting this proof, the words of a wise modern writer, " Peter 
Lombard " of the Church Times, comes under my eye : " the disagreeable though 
no doubt clever Ingoldsby Legends." Of course this is a mere obiter dichwi, and 
the word "disagreeable" is probably not very accurately used ; but it will serve 
to show that I am not alone in my opinion. 





ON THE INGOLDSB V LEGENDS. 149 

"The Legend of St. Sophia of Kioff "; I almost think that other- 
wise even the flippancy of some parts of a recent series of Lives of 
the Saints might have been less.^ An even worse thing, verging 
indeed on blasphemy, is the allusion to St. Peter and the gates of 
Paradise in "The Lady Rohesia." And it was scarcely well to 
make fun of the miserable work of the Inquisition with such lines 

as — 

" The last fire's exhausted and spent like a rocket, 
The last wretched Hebrew's burnt down in his socket." 

It is true that here and there Mr. Barham has introduced a few lines 
of appropriate feeling on such subjects ; but they are too rare, they 
are (as I said of the Ingoldsby family) thoroughly overweighted, and 
even when all possible importance is given to them I fear they can 
hardly be said to traverse my words. 

* The series of Lives projected and partly published by Cardinal Newman 
before he left the English Church is very often too prolix, but it is written in a 
much better tone and spirit than that of which I here speak. 

C. F. S. Warren, M.A. 




I50 MISCELLANEA. 

The Columbus Letter. 

THE most interesting and valuable literary item that has occurred 
in the open market for many months came under the hammer 
on February 28th at Sotheby's. It is a copy of the thirtythree-hne 
edition of Columbus's letter in Latin to Gabriel Sanchez, and which, 
although without place, date, or printer's name, is generally supposed 
to have been printed at Rome in 1493 by Stephan Plank. It is a 
small quarto, consisting of four unpaged leaves, and printed through- 
out in Gothic letter. It has never been settled which of the two 
editions of this letter (the other differing only in having thirty-four 
lines to the page), each having the same date, is really the first ; but 
Mr. R. H. Major, of the British Museum, has devoted special atten- 
tion to the matter, and the weight of his experience is in favour of 
the thirty-three-line edition; and this able bibliographer's analysis 
(in the preface to the " Select Letters of Columbus ") of the minutiae 
of the first four Latin editions of Columbus's letter may be considered 
to have disposed of all the questions in connection with them. There 
are only four or five copies known of this editio pri7iceps^ and it is 
almost needless to say that when it does occur in the market it com- 
mands a very fancy price. In 1884 a copy fetched 7,500 francs at 
a sale in Paris, and since then a copy in Germany realised over 
;£35o. The example which has just been sold, and which realised 
iCZ'^S'i occurred among the books of the late Rev. W. E. Buckley, 
who is said to have given less than;^5 for it originally. 



" Class " Lists of the British Museum Books. 



p ^^ R. RICHARD GARNETT, the keeper of the printed 
! ^S« books at the British Museum, made an exceedingly in- 
a^gEJl teresting and important announcement at the February 
meeting of the Bibliographical Society. At the conclusion of a 
paper on " Incunabula," by Mr. Aldrich (of the British Museum), 
Dr. Garnett stated that, in three or four years' time, when the 
printing of the general catalogue was finished, the trustees con- 
templated issuing a large number of "class" catalogues. One of 
these would comprise the Museum's rich collection of "incunabula," 
or books printed before the beginning of the sixteenth century. 
These class catalogues could not be commenced until the general 
catalogue was out of the way ; and then the question would arise as 
to whether the trustees would be justified in printing and publishing 
these class catalogues. In any case the entries in the general cata- 
logue will be divided up into special sections, and the classified lists 
would be available to the students who frequent the British Museum. 
This announcement came on the members of the Bibliographical 
Society, as it will on the literary public, as a most pleasant surprise. 
For many years, ever since in fact its existence, the great drawback 
to the innumerable treasures of the Museum has been the want of 
classified lists of its contents. Given the name of any particular 
author, it is the simplest matter possible to get at the books written 
by him. Many thousands of very important books possess no 
indication of their authorship, and in connection with some of these 
the Museum's method of cataloguing has often appeared arbitrary 
and unsystematic. These proposed classified catalogues, even if 
confined to the precincts of the Museum, will be inconceivably 
helpful ; but we hope that the trustees will be encouraged to print 
them for the benefit of all. Their " Catalogue of Books Printed in 
England" up to the year 1640 is an admirable piece of work, and 
singularly accurate, considering the variety of subjects with which 
it deals. 



152 



MISCELLANEA, 



The Book-Hunter.^ 

A CUP of coffee, eggs, and rolls 

Sustain him on his morning strolls ; 

Unconscious of the passers-by 

He trudges on with downcast eye ; 

He wears a queer old hat and coat, 

Suggestive of a style remote. 

His manner is pieoccupied — 

A shambling gait, from side to side. 

For him the sleek, bright -windowed shop 

Is all in vain — he does not stop. 

His thoughts are fixed on dusty shelves 

Where musty volumes hide themselves — 

Rare prints of poetry and prose, 

And quaintly lettered folios — 

Perchance a parchment manuscript, 

In some forgotten corner slipped, 

Or monk-illumined missal bound 

In vellum with brass clasps around. 

These are the pictured things that throng 

His mind the while he walks along. 

A dingy street, a cellar dim. 

With book-lined walls, suffices him. 

The dust is white upon his sleeves ; 

He turns the yellow, dog-eared leaves 

With just the same religious look 

That priests give to the Holy Book. 

He does not heed the stifling air 

If so he find a treasure there. 

He knows rare books, like precious wines, 

Are hidden where the sun ne'er shines ; 

For him delicious flavours dwell 

In books as in old Muscatel. 

He finds in features of the type 

A clue to prove the grape was ripe, 

And when he leaves this dismal place, 

Behold, a smile lights up his face. 

Upon his cheeks a genial glow — 

Within his hand Boccaccio, 

A first edition, worn with age, 

*• Firenze" on the title-page. 



From Frank Dempster Sherman's *' Madrigals and Catches." 




A Modern Bookworm. 




SHORT notice of Mr. Edward Rehatsek, a most indus- 
trious and intelligent Orientalist, appeared in the obituary 
notices of t\iQ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 
Britain and Ireland of January, 1892. But as my deceased friend 
had devoted the whole of his life to the cultivation and propagation 
of Oriental knowledge and Oriental literature, it was considered 
desirable to place on record a more detailed account of his varied 
labours in this particular field of thought and culture. 

Of Mr. Rehatsek's early life very little is known. It is said that 
his father was a Forest Inspector on the estate of Princess Odescalchi, 
in Hungary, and that he was born on one of the estates at Illack on 
the 3rd of July, 181 9. He was educated at Buda-Pesth, studied 
at the University there, and took the degree of Master of Civil 
Engineering. Leaving Hungary at the end of 1842, he spent a 
few months in Paris, then four years in the United States of 
America, and in 1847 sailed to India from New Orleans via Liver- 
pool and the Cape of Good Hope. Arriving in Bombay on the 5th 
of December, 1847, he settled down in India, and remained in that 
country for the rest of his life, dying in Bombay on Friday, the nth 
of December, 1891, aged 72. 

I have some idea that on Mr. Rehatsek's first arrival he was 
employed in the Public Works Department, in which, however, he 
did not remain long. He then continued his study of Oriental 
languages and literature, and sometimes accompanied Dr. Bhau Daji, 
the well-known Bombay scholar and antiquary, in his travels of 

20 




154 A MODERN BOOKWORM. 

research over various parts of India. Later on, being a competent 
mathematician and a distinguished Latin scholar, he was employed 
as Professor of Mathematics and of Latin in the Wilson College, 
Bombay, which office he held till 1871. 

Being acquainted with some twelve languages, he also taught 
private pupils, and gave lessons in Latin, Persian, Arabic, and 
French. He further translated a number of Persian and Arabic 
works, read many papers before learned societies, and wrote many 
articles for Indian reviews and journals generally, the details of 
which will be given presently. 

For twelve years up to 1881 Mr. Rehatsek was Examiner at the 
Bombay University in Latin, Persian, and Arabic, and for one year 
in French also ; but such was his independence that he gave up 
these duties as soon as the apphcation system was introduced. In 
1873 he was made a Fellow of the said University, and was twice 
the Wilson Philological Lecturer there on the Hebrew and Semitic 
languages. In 1874 he was elected an honorary member of the 
Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in recognition of his 
Oriental learning, and also became an honorary member of some 
European and American societies interested in Oriental research. 
All these honours were unsought for, and, as a general rule, it may 
be said that he never asked for anything during his whole career. 

Mr. Rehatsek was unmarried, and a man of regular habits, living 
the life of an ascetic and recluse. He was his own master and his 
own servant, for servant he kept none, thereby showing the truth of 
the Sanskrit saying, " Ascetics are their own servants." He ab- 
stained from wine and spirits altogether, and tried also to do without 
animal food, but he found, as he told me himself, that this weakened 
him so much that he was obliged to revert to it, though he took it 
very sparingly. His usual food consisted of bread, milk, tea, coffee, 
rice, and plantains. At the door of his house there was a box into 
which the baker put a loaf of bread every morning, and the milkman 
filled with milk a jug that was placed there. His other necessities 
he purchased himself in the bazaar, and he prepared all his own 
food, using a spirit lamp to boil the water for his tea and coffee, 
as he told me that it was more economical than a fire. Doing without 
servants, he said, was a great source of peace, comfort, and repose, 
and he certainly adopted Schopenhauer's ideas that the two great 
principles in life were to live, if possible, without pain and without 
ennui. 

The only real property that Mr. Rehatsek possessed was a small 
house situated in Khetwady, Bombay, and which he had purchased. 



A MODERN BOOKWORM. 155 

His furniture was of the poorest kind, and so very scanty that one 
wondered how it was sufificient for his wants. His library consisted 
of Arabic, Persian, English, German, Latin, and French works, and 
with these he worked all day, going out every morning and evening 
for a walk, and latterly I believe on a tricycle, to the sea-side. His 
manuscripts and translations were all written in a very small, but 
very legible, hand, and he had several cases full of them. 

Most of the above has been taken from an obituary notice of 
Mr. Rehatsek which appeared (13th of December, 1891) in Native 
Opinion^ an Anglo-vernacular bi-weekly journal published in Bombay, 
and to which the deceased had been a constant contributor since 
187 1. So devoted was he to his work, that on Wednesday, the 9th 
of December, while on his death-bed, he had prepared his usual 
article. When the editor of the paper called upon him, the poor 
old man, too feeble to speak, pointed to his desk, where lay, just 
completed, the last contribution that came from his pen. 

From his latest letters to me it was evident that his health was 
failing, and that he had not been well for some time. In his last 
illness he was attended by Dr. Kunte, Dr. Deshmookh, and Dr. 
John De Cunha. It culminated in cystitis, and he died on Friday 
morning, the nth of December, 1891, at about 6.30 a.m., attended 
upon by his friends, all of whom were either natives of India or 
Portuguese. Having expressed an earnest desire to be cremated 
according to the Hindu fashion, the ceremony was performed the 
same evening. His body, covered with garlands of flowers, and 
accompanied by his friends, was carried to the sea-shore, and, placed 
there on the usual pile of wood, was soon converted into ashes. It 
is said that this was the first European ever cremated in Bombay, or 
perhaps, indeed, in India. 

Though Mr. Rehatsek had reduced the necessaries of life to a 
minimum, it was from his habits and tastes that he did so, and 
not from actual necessity. The Duke of WelHngton used to say 
that habit was not only second nature, but ten times nature; well, 
Mr. Rehatsek was so accustomed to his style of living that he pre- 
ferred it to any other, and it grew upon him, like every so-called 
virtue, or so-called vice, grows upon other people. Anyhow he 
seems to have saved some thirty thousand rupees, which he left for 
the education of the poor boys in the primary schools of Bombay, 
without any distinction of caste, colour, or creed. The interest of 
this sum (the principal being invested in Government securities) is 
to be awarded in money prizes to the most deserving pupils of these 
schools. His house is either to be sold and the proceeds added to 



156 A MODERN BOOKWORM. 

the above fund, or to be lent for scholastic purposes free of charge, 
as his executors may decide. His books, manuscripts, and transla- 
tions he bequeathed to the Native General Library, Bombay. A 
complete list of Rehatsek's contributions to various periodicals and 
translations appears in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
May, 1892, pp. 584-595. 

F. F. Arbuthnot. 




Autograph Copies. 

LADIES who write books, and " for reasons," publish privately, 
should beware of presenting autograph copies to friends. You 
never know whither such copies may wander. In 1876 a volume of 
rather trashy, but manifestly spiteful verse, was published under the 
title of " A Friar's Scourge." The other day a copy of this precious 
work was picked up at a bookstall with some other specimens of 
decayed literature. Upon the title-page there was written *' With 
the authoress's compliments," and the name of the lady. Under- 
neath, " Private and confidential ! " 





Travelling Library of Sir Julius Caesar. 




HE beautiful and interesting collection of books which 
formed the travelling library of Sir Julius Caesar, Master 
of the Rolls in the reign of James I., consists of forty-four 
volumes, the largest of which measures 4f inches by 2^ inches, and 
the smallest 2f inches by two inches. The case in which they are 
contained is sixteen inches long, eleven inches wide, and rather more 
than three inches deep. It is made of oak and is shaped to resemble 
a folio volume, the sides and back being covered with a light olive 
morocco, elegantly tooled ; and the portion representing the edges 
painted green, with the word Bibliotheca written across it in gold 
letters. The case was formerly tied with ribands, but these have 
disappeared. 

The interior contains three sets of books; the first and second 
sets standing upon two shelves, the third set being placed upon the 
bottom of the case. All the volumes are bound in beautiful white 
vellum. The theological and philosophical works occupy the first 
«helf, and have an angel bearing a scroll with the legend " Gloria 
Deo " stamped on the sides of the covers, and a small floral ornament 
on the backs. They are also distinguished by the blue ribands with 
which the volumes are tied. The historical works are placed on the 
second shelf, and have a crowned lion rampant impressed upon the 
sides, with a flaming heart on the backs. The ribands of this set 
are red. The third row consists of the poetical works, the sides 
being decorated with two olive branches, and the backs, with a few 
exceptions, with a star. These volumes are tied with green ribands. 
The books are principally from the presses of Raphelengius, at 
X-eyden, and Thomas Porteau, at Saumur, and were all printed 



158 TRA YELLING LIBRAE V OF SIR JULIUS CjESAR^ 

between the years 1591 and 16 19. The inside of the lid of the 
case is very handsomely illuminated, and bears the arms of the 
owner and those of two of his wives. It has also a list of the volumes 
written in gold. This beautiful library was purchased by the British 
Museum in 1842. 

Sir Julius Caesar was the son of Cesare Adelmare, a native of 
Treviso, a city distant about twelve miles from Venice. This 
Cesare, who was a doctor of medicine in the University of Padua,. 
went to England about 1550 and settled in London, where he 
speedily acquired a large practice as a medical man and was even- 
tually appointed physician to Queen Mary, and afterwards to her 
successor. Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was held in high estima- 
tion. He died in 1569, and was interred in the Church of St. 
Helen, Bishopgate Street. His eldest son, who has born in 1558, 
received at his baptism the names of Julius Caisar, the latter of 
which he afterwards used as a surname, abandoning that of Adelmare. 
He was educated at the University of Oxford, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1575 and became M.A. in 1578. He remained at the 
university until the end of the following year, when he went to Paris,, 
where he was admitted a doctor of both laws (civil and canon) in 
1 58 1, and in 1584 he took the degree of doctor of laws at Oxford. 
He had already been admitted a bencher of the Inner Temple, and 
in October, 1581, he received his first public appointment, which he 
informs us was that of " Justice of the peace in all cases of piracy 
and such like throughout the land." In 1583 Caesar was nominated 
** Councellor to the City of London," and a little later he became a 
Master in Chancery and also succeeded Dr. Lewes as judge of the 
Admiralty Court. This last post appears to have been the reverse 
of valuable, for we find him in 1589 complaining that during seven 
years' service he had not received " fee, pension, or recompense to 
the value of one penny." He also declared that during that time he 
had expended ^4,000 out of his own purse in relieving the wants of 
poor suitors in his court — a very characteristic instance of the gene- 
rosity of this good and charitable man. In 1591 the queen bestowed 
on him the office of Master of Requests, and in 1596 he obtained 
the Mastership of St. Catherine's Hospital by means of a bribe of 
^£'500 to the Scottish ambassador in England, Archibald Douglas, 
who used his interest with the queen to procure Caesar this 
appointment. 

In September, 1598, EHzabeth honoured him with a visit at his 
residence at Mitcham, in Surrey, passing the night of the 12th there, 
and dining with him on the following day ; and he tells us that the 




I 



TRA YELLING LIBRAE V OF SIR JULIUS C^SAR. 159 

entertainment of her Majesty, together with the presents which he 
offered to her, cost him ;£7oo. These presents consisted of "a 
gown of cloth of silver, richly embroidered ; a black network mantle, 
with pure gold ; a taifeta hat, white, with several flowers and a jewel 
of gold set therein with rubies and diamonds." The queen always 
expected costly gifts on these occasions, and it is therefore not 
surprising that her courtiers regarded her visits with somewhat mixed 
feelings. 

On the accession of James I. to the crown Caesar was knighted, 
and in 1606 he succeeded Sir George Hume as Chancellor of the 
Exchequer and was sworn of the Privy Council. In 16 14 he be- 
came Master of the Rolls. He lived until 1636, dying on April 18 
in that year, aged seventy-nine, and was buried in the Church of St. 
Helen, where his monument, with a curious device (a deed poll, 
with the cord attaching the seal severed) and inscription designed 
and composed by himself, is still to be seen. 

Sir Julius Caesar was married three times, his third wife being a 
niece of Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, who was present at the 
wedding and gave the bride away. He was also one of the super- 
visors of the will of Bacon, who, it is stated, wrote many of his 
works in Caesar's house and died in his arms. Sir Julius Caesar 
appears to have been a most just and honourable man, and Fuller, 
in his " State Worthies," says " that he was a person of such pro- 
digious bounty to all of worth or want that he might seem to be 
almoner general of the nation." He was the author of several 
works and left a considerable collection of books, which at his death 
was divided between his sons. 



i6o 



MISCELLANEA, 



Book-Borrowers. 




IN the present day, when books are so cheap, says Mr. Ashby^ 
Sterry in the Graphic^ that abominable pest, the book-borrower, 
ought not to exist at all. Still, vacant places on our bookshelves,, 
missing second volumes, and torn tomes show us that this nuisance 
has not yet been altogether stamped out of existence. A cunning 
bibhophile once hit on a clever plan, which, if it did not altogether 
eradicate the evil, most assuredly, in a degree, moderated its viru- 
lence. In all his books he had the price written in plain figures. 
When any one asked him for the loan of a book he invariably 
replied, "Yes, with pleasure," and, looking in the volume, further 
added, "I see the price of this work is £^2 17s. 6d. — or whatever 
the value might be — you may take it at this figure, which will, of 
course, be refunded when the volume is returned." If a person 
really wished to read the volume, of course he would be glad to 
leave this deposit; but if he only wanted it to save himself the 
trouble of going to a library, the chances were that he would decline 
to take it under these conditions. The result of this excellent notion 
was that this clever old book-lover was seldom asked to lend his 
volumes, and that his capital library remained in a complete and 
uninjured condition. This plan, I am inclined to think, might be 
generally adopted with considerable advantage. 



The Physiology of the Quays of Paris. 




UR esteemed and versatile friend, M. Octave Uzanne, has 
added an undoubted classic to the literature of book- 
collecting in his charming " Physiologic des Quais de Paris, 
du Pont Royal au Pont Sully," which the Maison Quantin has 
recently published, and for which M. Emile Mas has supplied over 
one hundred very appropriate illustrations. This book was announced 
to appear in the spring of 1887, but a series of circumstances, for 
which neither the author nor the publisher is altogether responsible, 
has prevented its earlier appearance. The probability is that the 
book is none the worse for this delay, but very considerably improved. 
However, it is at length issued, and a very superficial glance through 
it is sufficient to prove its originality and interest, and its curiosity as 
an item in the curiosities of literature. It is divided into ten chapters, 
which deal, inter alia, with the history of the Quais of Paris and the 
part which generation after generation of bookstall-keepers have 
played in the making of that history. Side-issues, such as book- 
thieves, some of the various curiosities which have been at different 
times unearihed in the " boites a quatre sols," and so forth. 

The book-quays are an undoubted feature among the innumerable 
attractions of Paris, and, what is more, a feature peculiarly its own. 
For more than six hundred years Paris has been one of the great 
centres of rare books ; and if it is no longer the chief mart of literary 
wares, it is, at all events, second only to London, to which, from a 
purely " bookstalling " point of view, it is vastly superior. Writing 
more than six hundred years ago, one of our earliest and most dis- 
tinguished of English book collectors — the Homer, in fact, of the 
calling — Richard de Bury, exclaimed, '* O blessed God of gods in 

21 



i62 THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE QUAYS OF PARIS. 




THE CLERICAL BOOKWORM. 



Zion ! what a flood of pleasure rejoiced our hearts as we visited 

Paris, the Paradise of the world," wherein the author of "Philobiblon" 

discovered " delightful libraries in cells redolent of aromatics," revelled 

in ** flourishing greenhouses of all 
sorts of volumes," and where he 
" scattered money with a light 
heart, and redeemed inestimable 
books with dirt and dust," inclu- 
ding " crazy quartos and tottering 
folios," precious, however, in his 
sight and in his affections. 

Many events have conspired to 
put a vastly different complexion 
on the book-haunts of Paris since 
this enthusiastic ecclesiastic wrote, 
but the gay city, in spite of the 
frivolity which, with it, has become 
an exact science, Paris is still the 
bookman's paradise. The whole- 
sale Haussmannising which it has 

undergone has destroyed many associations and haunts that could 

not well be spared, but it has left intact one of its most charming 

features — the innumerable neatly-arranged boxes of books which 

tempt the pedestrian to loiter 

between the Pont Royal and 

the Pont Sully. This feature, 

for obvious reasons, did not 

exist in the time of the good 

Richard de Bury, but it has an 

almost unbroken history of-- 

nearly three centuries. The 

bouquinistes of this locality are 

more numerous to-day than 

ever they were, and if the vastly 

increased body of the bouquiii- 

eur has reduced the chance of 

picking up a rarity of the first 

water to a minimum, the col- 
lector, whatever may be his 

special craze, rarely comes 

empty away. To the Englishman, these book-quays, if they may be 

so termed, have an especial fascination. He may here indulge his 




%Hf^ 



THE LADY BOOK COLLECTOR. 




I 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE QUA YS OF PARIS. 163 



passion to the top of his bent, for he no longer fears the thinly- 
disguised sneers at his weakness for books of his better-half at home, 
who will welcome the additions to her husband's collection as a 
complete proof that he has not spent all his time and money in 
gallivanting about after more worldly pleasures. 

Although some of the most distinguished French authors have 
written concerning the book-quays, no one has done the subject full 
justice. In 1857 M. Fontaine de Resbecq published 
an account of his " Voyages litt^raires sur le Quais de 
Paris," but he wrote with an elephantine ponderosity 
which would make even a German professor of philo- 
sophy shiver. Now the subject has been appropriated 
by M. Octave Uzanne, whose 
charming books are as well 
known in this country as in 
France. In temperament, in 
taste, and, what is of almost 
equal importance, by reason 
of his residence on the Quai 
Voltaire, M. Uzanne is un- 
questionably the one man 
most fitted to undertake the 
task. From his own rooms, 
a bric-a-brac museum in 
miniature, our author has an 
uninterrupted view of the 
book-quays, and there is, 
consequently, no mood or 
condition of the locality that 
escapes him. His "Physi- 
ologic des Quais de Paris," 
announced six years ago, and 
actually pubhshed within the 
last few days, may be re- 
garded as a complete vade 

mecum of the entire subject, adorned as it is with about one hundred 
illustrations by Emile Mas. 

Although the Parisian book-hunter may be roughly divided into 
three sections — the habitu^, the irregular, and the occasional — the 
physiognomy of the entire class is as varied as the books themselves. 
Sometimes it is a case of a poor young student who confines his 
grubbings to the boxes " h. deux sous ; " at others it is the husband 




THE BOOK THIEF 

{in flagrante delicto). 



i64 THE PHYSIOLOG Y OF THE QUA YS OF PARIS. 

of an economical turn who purchases, at greatly reduced prices, the 
newest novels in their pristine condition ; or the sentimental working 
girl, whom Boileau has described as the "grand liseurs de romans." 
For each of these classes there is abundance. The more exacting 
collector of first editions, of editions "de luxe," of rare impressions, 
of books with the charming illustrations of Cochin, Marillier, Moreau 

_:z:::^;^ le jeune, and Le Barbier, does not 

find such an embarrassing choice, 
and too often he will be compelled 
to echo M. Guigard's words, 
"C'est desesperant ! " To-day 
the bouquiniste has the misfortune 
to be too well up in the value ol 
rareties that come into his posses- 
sion, and for which he demands 
payment at shop prices. M, 
Uzanne, however, insists, and 
from our own personal knowledge 
we can corroborate his theory, 
that it is still possible to pick up 
rare and precious volumes along 







THE HABITUE. 



the Quais, particularly if the collector is not above diving among the 
plebeian companions of the boxes "a quatre sous." It is only a 
Gladstone — one man in a century, and quite enough too — to whom 
all is fish that comes to his net, and one's speciality must be indeed 
circumscribed if one cannot, in a miscellaneous and haphazard arraj 
X)f 10,000 volumes, pick up something apropos. 




THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE QUAYS OE PARIS, 165 

The Parisian bouquiniste dislikes no class of his clients so much as 
the gentler sex. The few who do condescend to examine his wares 
do not know what they want, and reproach him for not having it in 
stock ! The woman " d'un certain age " is the most truculent of the 
genus, and sometimes she swoops down upon the humble bookseller 
in all the glory of her carriage and footman, to demand, peradventure, 




A BUSY DAY. 



the last number but one of the Journal des Danoiselles^ which, of 
course, he hasn't in stock. She is majestic, is that woman of an un- 
certain age, and she meets with but little ceremony from the book- 
seller. The "blue stocking" does not "come'' the majestic, and 




BOOK THIEVES (UNDETECTED). 

her patronage perhaps, because she is poor, is confined to reading as 
much as possible within a short space. The bouquiniste extends his 
aversion to yet another robed creature, and this time it is not a 
woman but a priest. This class of book-hunter is as unreasonable 
and as unreasoning as the petticoated element, for when, as is often 
the case, he ** spots " a rude little volume, he either denounces the 




1 66 THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE QUAYS OF PARIS, 

luckless owner for selling such meretricious literature, or he en- 
deavours to possess it, badgering the said owner by beating him down 
into accepting (or rejecting) an absurdly low price. The priest 
rarely purchases religious books, and as a matter of fact, such things 
rarely occur for sale on the quais, for they are " veritablement damner 
les marchands." Yet another pet aversion of the long-suffering 
bibliopole is the elegant gentleman, than whom no one is meaner in 
driving a bargain. 

Of his many trials and temper- 
provoking customers, the book-thiet 
is the most trying and artful. 
„„ Women with ** all-over" cloaks or 
\^^^^\ large muffs, and men with capacious 
MM=sn4i> pockets, are the chief delinquents. 
Their most happy circumstances 
are when the bookseller is engaged 
with a customer, with a confrere 
who wants some change, or when 
he is lighting his pipe ; but most of 
all when, in summer, he is taking a 
hasty "forty winks." These are 
the book-thief's most happy occa- 
sions, and he does not fail to make 
ample use of them. Occasionally, 
however, he does it under the very nose of the bookseller, and trusts 
to his fleetness of foot to get clear away. In many respects book- 
hunting in Paris has a strong family likeness to that which obtains in 
London, so far as regards the bookseller and the book-buyer, but the 
conditions under which this amiable weakness is carried on are 
totally different. In Paris the book-hunter needs frequent only the 
most pleasant parts of the city ; in London he has to grope about in 
the mud and slush of the back streets. 




CASUAL BUYERS. 



i^-'^9&. 



The Body of John Baskerville, Printer. 




VERY ONE has heard of John Baskerville, the Birmingham 
printer and type-founder, and the beautiful books which 
came from his press. Now, for years Birmingham anti- 
quarians have wrangled over his probable burial place. Till 1821 
his body remained in the building which he had himself built for the 
purpose. Then a canal had to be cut right across the property, and 
the body was for a long time stowed away in a warehouse. Finally it 
was supposed that Baskerville had found a resting place in the Christ 
Church catacombs. Recently several leading citzens, including the 
Mayor and Mr. Sam Timmins, the Shakespearean scholar, proceeded 
to the catacombs to "mak* siccar." When the company had 
assembled within the gloomy chamber, a couple of workmen, by 
the light of some oil lamps which only served to make the scene 
more uncanny, at once commenced to chip out the concrete and 
brickwork with which the aperture had been sealed. When the 
coffin was found, it was seen that the lettering was in actual printer's 
types, soldered on to the lead — "John Baskerville." 

But even this evidence was not sufRcent; there was no proof of 
identification unless the cofifin contained a body. The Medical 
Officer of Health and the City Coroner were of opinion that there 
would be no danger to health in opening the coffin, and the vicar 
accordingly gave the word for its removal to open air, where the lead 
casing was opened, revealing inside a wooden shell in fairly good 
state of preservation. On raising the lid a ghastly sight met the 
view. There, in the bright spring sunshine, after a lapse of 120 
years, lay the skeleton of the great printer. Upon the question of 
identity there could be no doubt. Mr. Sam Timmins at once 



1 68 THE BODY OF JOHN BASKERVILLE, PRINTER, 

declared the moment he saw the body that it was Baskerville. He 
could recognise it from the sketches which had been made when it 
was first opened at the time the canal was being cut in 1822. A 
still more striking confirmation was, however, forthcoming when 
several of the medical gentlemen present made a closer examination 
of the remains. 

There, lying in the middle oi' the cofiin, was an ordinary glazier's 
putty knife, the presence of which can be easily accounted for when 
it is remembered that the body lay open in the coffin in Mr. 
Marston's glaziery warehouse for a long time. The size of the 
skeleton, too, was in strict conformity with the known personal 
appearance of the great printer. Baskerville was a small man, and the 
body in the coffin measured 5ft. 4in. ; the skull — which was the only 
portion in a good state of preservation — showed that of a small, well- 
formed head, with traces still adhering of heavy, well-arched eyebrows. 
The teeth were in a wonderfully fine state of preservation, and it was 
remarked that the molars in the bottom jaw were absolutely with- 
out flaw. The chest bones had been broken, and in the opinion of 
the medical men the fracture was an artificial one, made for the 
purposes of embalmment. All the experts present declared them- 
selves to be absolutely satisfied as to the identification, and the lid 
of the coffin was replaced and the lead re-soldered preparatory to its 
being returned to its receptacle in the catacombs. A photograph 
was taken of the coffin. Somebody suggested that a photograph of 
the very gruesome remains should be taken, as well as of the coffin ; 
but the vicar declined to permit this. The photograph would have 
been of no value whatever as a picture of the famous man's features, 
and would only have served to gratify a prurient and vulgar curiosity. 
When the examination had been concluded the boards were replaced, 
and the lead case was spidered up and replaced in its vault, where it 
was walled in as it had been found. 





Autographs of Literary Men. 

HE sale of autograph letters and documents at Sotheby's 
last month included many items of the first importance, 
chiefly from the collection of Mr. T. G. Arthur, of 
Glasgow. Two letters from William Blake, the celebrated artist, to 
George Cumberland fetched ;£5 and;^5 5s.; two pages folio of MS. 
verses by Robert Burns, " On reading in a newspaper the death of 
John M'Leod, Esq., brother to Miss Isabella M'Leod, a particular 
friend of the author's," and including the following unpublished 

verse : 

" Were it in the poet's power, 

Strong as he shares the grief 
That pierces Isabella's heart, 

To give that heart relief," 

;£io. Of four autograph letters of Burns, the highest figure was paid 
for a fine specimen addressed to Cunningham, March, 1794, and 
containing the song," Wilt thou be my dearie?" ;£2'j ; the next 
highest in value being the eleventh letter from " Sylvander to Clor- 
inda," ;j^i4; an autograph letter from Byron to Mr. Bowring, dated 
October, 1823, on the subject of Greece, j£S 8s.; a letter from 
Charles II. of England to the Duke of Newcastle, thanking him for 
well organising the militia, ;£'ii ; a letter from George Eliot to Mrs. 
Trollope, from Naples, ^£4 17 s. 6d. ; four letters from Emerson to 
Thomas Carlyle realised a total of ;£'i2 15s.; the MS. of ''The 
Captives," an oratorio by Oliver Goldsmith, eighteen pages quarto, 
;£'4o; a MS. of a Prayer by Dr. Samuel Johnson, written about 
three months before his death, ;£"8; a letter from John Keats 
to Fanny Brawne, July, 18 19, £26; eight autograph letters from 

22 



170 



A UTO GRAPHS OF LITERAR V MEN. 




Charles Lamb to Thomas Manning, from February, 1801, 
last letter to Manning, May, 1834, £,^^\ the MS. of an article by 
Charles Lamb, " On the Secondary Novels of Defoe," three pages 
folio, ;^io; an autograph letter from William Penn, the founder of 
Pennsylvania, August, 1685, to Phineas Pemberton, ;^i5 15s.; one 
from Edgar Allan Poe to Mr. Lewis, ;^5 5s. ; a series of sixteen 
autograph letters from Mr. Ruskin to M. Ernest Chesneau, ranging 
from September, 1882, to June, 1883, full of feeling, reminiscences, 
and criticism, ;^i7 ; the MS. of forty-seven sonnets, and of the title- 
page of Rossetti's "House of Life," £,2^\ a MS. of "A Proposal 
for Putting Reform to the Vote throughout the Kingdom," by the 
Hermit of Marlow — i.e.^ Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1817, ;£'i35, and a 
letter from Shelley to Thomas Peacock, dated Leghorn, September, 
1819, ;^i9; MS. of "A Word for the Navy," by A. C. Swinburne, 
£,\2\ MS. of Lord Tennyson's "Mungo the American," written in 
1823, and given by the poet to Miss Jane Yonge, and by her sisters 
to Mr. R. Roberts, of Boston, ;^3o ; MS. of Thackeray's Lecture on 
Swift, thirty pages octavo, ^19; of Thackeray's two ballads of 
"John Hayes" and "Catherine Hayes," £^\\ iis. 



^m^mm^ 



Some Recent Book Finds. 



BY A BOOKSTALLER. 




T is a deplorable fact (according to a writer in The Daily 
Chronicle — a journal which has achieved a great success 
for its high literary tone), that bookstall-keepers are waking 
up to the unwisdom of selling their wares according to weight 
or to outward appearance. The chances of a book-hunter pick- 
ing up a bargain occasionally are reduced to a minimum ; and 
shivering over a series of barrows on a bitterly cold day without any 
adequate return is liable to make the most astute collector think 
profanity, even if he throttles the strong desire to give it picturesque 
expression. Nevertheless, taking one's own experience as a criterion, 
the past few months have not been without their "finds," leaving 
out all mention of purchases which are made on the off-chance of 
being rarities, but which on closer examination at home turn out to 
be worthless. To this class of " finds," of course, no self-respecting 
book-hunter refers, not even to his dearest friend, and least of all to 
his wife, for wisdom cometh of experience, and to be called a fool 
by the Philistine is not pleasant. 

Leigh Hunt once declared that no one had ever found anything 
worth having in a box of " sixpenny " (or was it fourpenny ?) books ; 
but a man who would describe his Sovereign as "a fat Adonis of 
fifty " would say anything, and Leigh Hunt's strongly-marked anti- 
pathy to anything in the shape of energy leads one to suspect that 
he had never rummaged in a box of second-hand books. Besides, 
like most other second-rate poets, Leigh Hunt was not too nicely 
scrupulous in what he said, and every bookstaller worth his salt 




172 SOME RECENT BOOK FINDS, 

could write a whole volume to prove the fallacy of Hunt's dogma- 
tism. Even to-day, when the number of bookstallers is so much 
greater than it was half a century ago, and when the coster bookstall- 
keeper has acquired a highly regrettable keeness for a rarity, with a 
due appreciation of its proper commercial value, there are still bar- 
gains to be picked up. 

Collecting together my own " finds " of the past few months, the 
result, if not a big pile of black-letter books and rare first editions, is 
on the whole distinctly satisfactory, apart from the incommunicable 
pleasure of the hunt, and the delight which every genuine trouvaille 
gives, taking one as it does, for the time being, far away from the 
worries and anxieties of everyday life. Here, for example, is a copy 
— only a second edition, it is true — of Eugbne Sue's " Le Marquis 
de Letoriere," pubHshed in Paris in 1840, and picked up in White- 
chapel for the price of a pint of mystic " fourpenny." Its interest 
lies in the fact that it is the identical copy presented by the author 
to Catherine Warner, nee Shipley, and it contains an inscription to 
that effect on the title-page, and also an autograph letter, signed in 
the minute but extremely neat handwriting of Sue. This letter 
relates to a translation of some articles by the author of " Le Juif 
Errant," who, in giving the required permission, courteously adds 
that in their new form they would have a charm and a " ddlicatesse " 
which are absent from the original. Sue makes no allusion to the 
" medal " which he had just then received from certain members of 
the French Navy for the " history which he had not written," to wit, 
his extraordinarily inaccurate " Memoirs of the French Navy." 

Another French book of peculiar interest to Englishmen, rescued 
in High Holborn from a pile of rubbishy volumes at ** one penny 
each," is also among the finds of the past few weeks. It is entitled, 
" Procedure des Trois Anglais, et autres, accuses d'avoir favoris^ 
I'evasion de M. de Lavalette, leur caractere, leur discours et leurs 
opinions." It was published in Paris, " chez Tiger, Imprimeur- 
Libraire, rue du Petit Pont, No. 10, au Pillier Litteraire," without 
date, but evidently in the spring of 1 816. This little volume, which is 
not in the British Museum, and is not mentioned by any bibliographer, 
deals with one of the most interesting episodes in the annals of France 
during the first quarter of the present century. It may be remem- 
bered by students of the period that under the Second Restoration, 
in July, 1 81 5, Marie, Comte de Lavalette, a prime favourite of 
Napoleon, was not only deprived of all his offices, but was condemned 
to death as an accomplice in Bonaparte's treason against the royal 
authority, and the execution fixed for Dec. 21. On the evening of 



SOME RECENT BOOK FINDS. 173 

the 20th his wife, daughter, twelve years of age, and the latter*s 
governess presented themselves at the prison, and were admitted. 
A short time after the two latter reappeared, supporting apparently 
Madame Lavalette in great distress. The party could not have gone 
far when it was discovered that Lavalette had effected an escape 
through changing his apparel with his wife. The alarm was given, 
and the carriage which brought the visitors was overtaken, but 
Lavalette himself was not to be found. Three Englishmen, General 
Sir R. Wilson, and Messrs. Hutchinson and Bruce, were apprehended 
as accomplices. This little book contains a verbatim report of the 
trial at the Court d'Assise, by which the three Englishmen were 
condemned to three months' imprisonment, and mulcted in the 
cost of the prosecution. To a novelist in search of an intricate and 
fascinating plot, here it is cut and dried ! 

The next recent " find " worthy of notice, also absent from the 
British Museum, is of historic as well as general interest. Its title 
is " Faction Display'd, a Poem. Answered Paragraph by Para- 
graph," and published anonymously in 1704. The original "Faction 
Display'd" is well known to students of literary byways, chiefly from 
the fact that it contains three lines of Dryden's : — 

" With leering looks, bull-faced, and freckled fair, 
With two left legs, and Judas-coloured hair, 
With frowzy pores that taint the ambient air," — 

lines which were, with a fine delicacy, addressed to Jacob Tonson, 
the bookseller whom the poet tried to overreach in money-matters 
— the old quarrel between bookseller and book-maker! This 
wretchedly-printed quarto pamphlet differs from the several examples 
in the British Museum and elsewhere in the " answered paragraph 
by paragraph " portion, and the general tenor of these retorts is ex- 
tremely outspoken, and at times picturesque. Here is a portion of 
the paragraph which follows a long "poetical" passage relative to 
the aforesaid Tonson : — " What the devil has poor Jacob Tonson 
done to you, that he must be drawn in by the head and shoulders ? 
Oh! now I smoke it, Jacob's the poor keeper to the Kit Kat Club, 
and some of your works have accompanied the renown'd Tom 
Durfey's in being ushered into that assembly under the bottom of 
mutton-pies and tarts." This rar e volume was, like the preceding, 
picked up in Holborn, where it was exposed for sale by a bookseller 
who flatters himself that he knows a thing or two. 

At another Holborn bookshop, within a few yards of the place 
where "Faction Display'd" found a temporary home, I secured 




174 SOME RECENT BOOK FINDS. 

a beautiful little copy of the first edition of Oliver Goldsmith's 
"Beauties of English Poesy" (1767), in two volumes. This cost 
8d., and the other day a copy fetched at auction £2. The highly 
diverting criticisms with which Goldsmith prefaces each poem have 
a curious interest for all lovers of the author of "The Vicar of 
Wakefield." Yet another Holborn find, "Letters from the Living 
to the Dead," published anonymously in 1703, has an interest 
beyond its rarity. It is dedicated to James Buller, Esq., Knight 
of the Shire for the County of Cornwall, very probably without Mr. 
BuUer's permission, for some of the letters, if admirable specimens 
of the early eighteenth century epistles, are not quite suitable reading 
for Sunday-school girls. One or two of the letters have a distinct 
literary interest, such as that of "Abridgement, a Bookseller, to 
Original, an Author." 

A " find " of a distinct literary interest is M. Fougeret de 
Monbron's spirited " Travestie " of Voltaire's " La Henriade," the 
author of which, by the way, found it necessary to scuttle out of 
Paris at a moment's notice, owing chiefly to his entire forgetfulness 
of the fact that "want of decency is want of sense." A former 
owner was generous enough to have this copy indestructibly bound 
in vellum. Among early collections of English verse one of the 
rarest and most interesting is " The Hive," first issued in 1724, and 
of which the present writer recently picked up a first edition for a 
very small sum. 

The chief prize in the way of first editions, however, is Beckford's 
" Vathek," rescued from the plebeian associations of a fourpenny 
box. This volume, shortly after its purchase, was offered to one 
bookseller in exchange for a book priced in his catalogue at i6s. 
The offer was refused, whereas another dealer jumped at the chance 
of obtaining the " Vathek " in exchange for a book which he priced 
at ;^i 13s. A complete set of Ruskin's " Modern Painters " — not 
first editions, it is true — were bagged in the New-cut at 8d. per 
volume ; but the present writer cannot boast of having accomplished 
this stroke of luck himself — it was another book-hunter. 

It is not often that an illustrated book of value is picked up for a 
trifle, but the writer met with one instance worth recording. He 
purchased for a couple of shillings a spotless copy of " The Poets of 
America," edited by J. Keese, and published in New York in 1840. 
The exceedingly graceful illustrations are finely printed in colours, 
and were the work of J. G. Chapman, a member of the Sketch Club, 
and one of the founders of the Century, It may be doubted whether 
a more charming book has ever appeared in America. 



■ 



SOME RECENT BOOK FINDS. 175 

Such are a few of the " general " finds of the past few months. 
The list would be very materially augmented by the addition of 
books of interest to specialists ; for whatever may be a man's par- 
ticular hobby he is bound, in the course of a few months, to make 
some additions of a rare or out-of-the-way character. 



The Costliest Book in America. 

THE most expensive illlustrated book yet made is said to be a 
Bible now owned by Theodore Irwin, of Oswego, N.Y. It is 
valued at ^10,000, for Mr. Irwin paid that sum for the work. The 
original was in seven volumes, i6mo, and by the addition of drawings 
and engravings it was enlarged to sixty volumes, each 1 6in. x 24in., 
which occupy seventeen feet of space on the shelves. This remark- 
able book contains 3,000 pen and pencil drawings, etchings, 
engravings, lithographs, oil and water-colour paintings, and mezzo- 
tints. Among the illustrations are parts of the " Great Bible of 
Cranmer," printed in 1533; parts of "The Bishop Bible," printed 
in 1568 ; of the Nuremberg Bible, the first illustrated Bible published, 
printed in 1476, and of " Luther's Version," and the " Breeches 
Bible." The extender has brought together the best and rarest 
efforts at illustrating the text of the Bible, and also the art of 
modern painters and engravers, making it the most complete and 
valuable copy of the Bible in existence. 



176 



MISCELLANEA. 
The Bibliomaniac's Prayer. 

Keep me, I pray, in wisdom's way, 

That I may truth eternal seek ; 
I need protecting care to-day, 

My purse is light, my flesh is weak. 
So banish from my erring heart 

All baleful appetites and hints 
Of Satan's fascinating art — 

Of first editions and of prints. 
Direct me in some godly walk 

Which leads away from bookish strife, 
That I with pious deed and talk 

May extra illustrate my life. 

But if, O Lord, it pleaseth Thee 

To keep me in temptation's way, 
I humbly ask that I may be 

Most notably beset to-day. 
Let my temptation be a book 

Which I shall purchase, hold and keep. 
Whereon when other men shall look. 

They'll wail to know I got it cheap. 
Oh, let it such a volume be 

As in rare copperplates abounds ! 
Large paper, clean and fair to see. 

Uncut, unique — unknown to Lowndes. 



Eugene Field. 




Adam Smith's Library. 

THE Economic Club is preparing a catalogue of the library ol 
Adam Smith. Its efforts — aided chiefly by the activity of twc 
of its members, Mr. Bonar and Prof. Cunningham — have alreadj 
attained considerable success. In order that the list may be as com- 
plete as possible, collectors and others who may possess volumes 
with Adam Smith's bookplate, autograph, or other evidence of his 
ownership, are invited to communicate with Mr. James Bonar, 
Windmill Hill, Hampstead. 






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Extra Illustrating in New York. 

THE costly and laborious but fascinating process known as 
" extra illustrating " has lately become so popular among 
book-lovers, especially in New York, that many persons have been 
induced to engage for profit in what was originally hardly more than 
an expensive pastime. Extra illustrating requires both money and 
patience, but the extended books are in such demand that they 
usually, though not always, sell for much more than the cost of their 
production. 

Even the term is hardly familiar yet, except with those people who 
live among books and make companions of them. Extra illustrating 
or inlaying, or interleaving, as the art is indifferently called, is the 
process of enlarging a book by the addition of prints or drawings 
illustrating its subject. This does not mean that the pictures are to 
be pasted into the original volume. A single small book is often 
extended into thirty or forty volumes, each volume a dozen times 
as large as the original. The most expensive extra illustrated book 
yet made in this country is a Bible that Theodore Irwin of Oswego 
paid $10,000 for. The original was in seven volumes i6mo, and 
by the addition of drawings and engravings it was enlarged to sixty 
volumes, each 16 x 24 inches, which occupy seventeen feet of space 
on the shelves. This remarkable book was illustrated by J. Gibbs, 
and contains 3,000 pen and pencil drawings, etchings, engravings, 
lithographs, oil and water colour paintings and mezzotints. Among 
the illustrations are parts of the " Great Bible of Cranmer," a black 
letter folio printed in 1553 ; parts of "The Bishops' Bible," printed 
in 1568, and of the "Nuremburg Bible," the first illustrated Bible 

23 



178 EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. 



1 



published, printed in 1476, and of " Luther's Version," and the 
" Breeches Bible." 

One of the most enthusiastic extra illustrators in New York is 
Augustin Daly, the theatrical manager. He has a library of such 
works. His great Bible has recently been made the subject of 
numerous newspaper paragraphs, but the Bible is only one of a large 
collection of extended books. Old book-buyers in the city re- 
member the sale of Mr. Daly's library about fifteen years ago, when 
many of these extended works were sold ; but [since that time he 
has made a new collection, which he is constantly enlarging. The 
Bible was originally a Douay in one folio volume, but it has been 
extended to forty-two volumes, with 2,000 prints and drawings. 

One of Mr. Daly's favourite works is a *' London, Old and New," 
published in six volumes, but extended now to forty-two volumes by 
the insertion of rare maps and views of the English metropolis. He 
has also a ** History of the New York Stage," published in two 
volumes, quarto, and extended to thirty-three volumes ; " Genesta's 
History of the English Stage," published in ten and extended to 
fifty volumes ; " Mrs. Lamb's History of New York City,'' extended 
to twenty volumes'; " History of the Battles of the Rebellion," 
published in four volumes and extended to twenty-four, with rare 
autographs, maps and portraits ; " Life and Letters of Samuels," 
extended to eighteen volumes ; " Life of Kean," extended to seven- 
teen volumes ; a " Life of Sheridan," extended to ten volumes ; 
and lives of Forest, Wallack, Booth and Mrs. Siddons, all greatly 
enlarged. These are only a few named at random from Mr. Daly's 
collection. Some of them he prepared himself, and others he 
bought ready made. 

The cost of extending a book is always considerable, but it is 
greater or smaller according to the methods employed. The 
enthusiastic young extender with unlimited means often pays 
thousands of dollars for what the cautious and experienced old hand 
secures for a few hundreds. The Bible is a favourite book for this 
work, not because the extenders are unusually religious, but because 
of the boundless opportunities it offers in its variety of subjects. 
The works of Thackeray, Scott, Dickens and Shakespeare are often 
chosen, because they have been published in so many different 
editions and with so many different illustrations that they are com- 
paratively eas}'. The more a book is in demand, the oftener it has 
been published and illustrated, the better field it offers to the 
extender. Al new work of fiction, however striking, is never 
attempted. 




EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. 179 

The extender must at least have money ; if he have both money 
and brains so much the better. His first step is to choose a subject, 
and he is often guided in this by the material on hand. He may 
have in his cabinets a number of prints illustrating biblical subjects, 
or some standard novel or biography, and these make a nucleus 
around which more pictures may be gathered. He buys then a 
copy of the work to be extended, and takes care to select a good 
edition, printed with clear type upon good paper. The style of 
binding is of no consequence, for the binding is immediately cut oft 
and thrown away. The book is ** opened up " so that all the pages 
are loose, and if there are any illustrations on heavy paper they are 
separated from the print and laid away in what is to be the " print 
drawer." Here is the backbone of the new work ; but at this stage 
no effort is made to construct one of the new volumes. A beginner 
at the business may make his volumes as he goes along, but it is 
only because he knows no better : the old hand waits patiently until 
he has all his material collected, for experience has taught him that 
he may any day come upon a print that is larger than the volume 
he has made, and a print folded over is unworkmanlike. When 
some choice pictures are found that are altogether too large for any- 
book of reasonable size, the photo-engraver is sometimes called 
upon to make reduced copies. 

All is ready now for the pictures, and they must be secured. 
This part of the work can be done only in the large cities — New 
York, London, Paris, Vienna, and so on. Other large cities are 
searched occasionally, for, although they do not produce pictures, 
copies of engravings sometimes drift into their shops. If the ex- 
tender is an enthusiast and lives in this city he searches the New 
York print shops himself. There are about a score of shops here 
where good results may be expected, and at least fifty more where a 
good picture may accidentally be found. None of these places may 
be neglected. The print sellers understand the business of ex- 
tending, and they know what the customer desires. It is necessary 
only to say to one of them : " I am illustrating * David Copperfield,' 
and want some engravings." He has his own collections ready and 
brings them out at once. He produces not only pictures to illustrate 
" David Copperfield," but everything that he has that pertains to 
Dickens— portraits, views of the Gadshill House, Dickens in stage 
costume, Dickens on the platform, Dickens in every possible 
style. 

Some of the prints may be valued at 50 cents, others at $50. 
The extender must be able to distinguish between them. When 




i8o EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. 



he is very verdant and shows his verdancy, he is hkely to find a 
remarkable rise in the price of engravings. He goes out with 
a small flat package under his arm and a void in his purse. If 
he is really in earnest and has plenty of money, he leaves an order 
for everything the dealer can find concerning " David Copperfield ; '** 
bnt this order he afterwards countermands, for he finds that he is 
duplicating too many pictures. After a few such visits the dealer 
knows him and announces at once, * Nothing new in ' Copperfield *" 
to-day," or perhaps, " I have something capital for you." 

This is only one print shop in one city, and all the others must 
be treated in the same way. No little basement shop so obscure 
but it may contain a prize. In course of time they all know 
that Mr. Smith is illustrating " David Copperfield," and Copperfield 
prints are carefully laid aside, for they are pretty sure to sell. Unless 
Mr. Smith is shrewd and wary, Copperfield prints are likely to rise in 
price. Meanwhile the book stores and stalls must receive equal 
attention. Every illustrated edition of Copperfield must be bought 
and the illustrations be removed* While the extender is doing his 
own work in New York, his friends or agents must be busy in the 
other cities. They must be kept informed of what is bought here to 
avoid duplicating. Word comes of a beautiful picture of Steerforth 
in an art work just published in ten volumes in London, which can- 
not be had without buying the whole set for ;£2o. Then to buy or 
not to buy becomes a heart-breaking question. 

With these agents at work in Europe and money pouring out 
freely at home, extending a book has an expensive look ; but these 
things are nothing to what the process may be made. Often the 
desired pictures are not to be had in any city at any price. Then 
the extender falls bank upon the artist and has pictures made ta 
order. It is only very enthusiastic and very wealthy beginners who da 
this. These drawings cost at least $50 each, and if they are engraved 
upon wood that costs fully $100 more, and after all they are not as 
satisfactory as the cheap pictures unearthed unexpectedly in the 
print shops, for in the latter the finder feels a proprietary interest 
that he can never have in a drawing made to order. There are, 
perhaps, paintings that can be photographed and reduced to the 
proper size, and such things cost money. 

No man can expect to make a satisfying collection of prints on 
any subject in less than two or three years, and even that is very 
short notice. The work can never be said to be finished, though a 
lifetime be devoted to it ; there are always more to be had ; and the 
gem of the collection, the one illustration without which the work 




I 



EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. i8i 

would be a mockery, is often found at the last minute — sometimes, 
indeed, after the volume has been bound. All the time the print 
drawer has been filling up. There are, perhaps, a number of original 
drawings, for some extenders prefer to bind in the originals rather 
than have them engraved or photographed. There is no telling 
how much money may have been spent upon that drawerful of 
pictures. But at length it is determined that enough have been 
gathered and that the new work shall become a fact. 

An extender who spends as much money in collecting his pictures 
as has been here described is not likely to spend months in pasting 
them upon sheets. He must arrange them to his own satisfaction, 
but after the arrangement they are sent to the binder, who is not 
dismayed at the number of loose sheets. He is accustomed 
to such work, and he will bring out the new volumes with all 
their parts so neatly joined that they will seem to have been made 
together. He will use the best of paper, and put on the hand- 
somest embossed leather comers, and his bill will add materially to 
the cost of the work. 

It is not to be supposed that such expensive volumes are made 
up like scrapbooks, with the letterpress and pictures pasted upon 
sheets. That would be an inglorious ending for such a work of love 
and expense. A favourite way is to " insert " the pictures and 
pages of print. This process is a little unhandy to describe, but a 
photograph in an album nearly illustrates the method. The size 
of the pages having been determined upon (and the size of the 
engravings largely governs this) a page of print is " inserted " into 
the middle of one of the new pages, like a photograph going into its 
mat. The illustrations are treated in the same way ; and when the 
work is skilfully done the book looks as though it had come from 
the printer's in its new form. 

When an extended work is made for sale and profit these expensive 
methods of course are not used, except perhaps in the binding. There 
are no agents in London or Paris, no special drawings made, no 
photographs of celebrated paintings. Yet the cheaply extended 
book is often quite the equal of the expensive one. Patience here 
takes the place of lavish expenditure. " All things to him who 
waits " must have been written expressly with reference to collectors 
of prints. What can be had at once in Paris will very likely be 
found in some neglected drawer in New York in a few years. 
What is offered for $50 to-day may perhaps be bought at an auction 
for 20 cents in 1905. Every print dealer in New York is in some 
sense an agent in Europe if one has patience, for European prints 




1 82 EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. 



come to him by special order or by accident, and in the course of 
years he can supply everything needed. 

The extender who goes into the work for the love of it never thinks 
of letting the binder make up his own pages. He does that himself, 
generally with far less skill, but always with a pleasure that pays him 
for his labour and outlay. The new book becomes his companion, 
and he would sooner sell his family silver than part with it. He 
shows it proudly to his friends, and tells the history of every picture 
between its covers. Some of the pictures often have strange 
histories. 

Extended works are not always run up to forty or sixty volumes. 
One of them in this city is a life of Blake, the artist, in two volumes, 
extended from i6mo. The original was written by Alexander 
Gillchrist and pubHshed by Macmillan, and 175 illustrations have 
been added, some of them in the preface. Another is " A Descrip- 
tion of London, Old and New," by Walter Thornbury and Edward 
Walford. This is distinct from Mr. Daly's work of the same charac- 
ter. It was published in two i2mo volumes, and has been extended 
to fifteen volumes folio. It has been enlarged by 1,200 illustrations, 
mounted on elephant foHo paper, is bound in half morocco with 
cloth sides, and cost about $1,500 to manufacture. It contains 
plates by Hogarth and caricatures by Gilroy and Cruikshank. 
There is hardly any part of the English metropolis, ancient or 
modern, of which there is not some illustration. 

One of the most interesting, and perhaps the most instructive, of 
the extended works in this country is entitled : " Typographical 
Miscellanies." This book is in thirty-seven volumes, folio, mounted 
on heavy drawing-paper, and is bound in crimson morocco, with 
gilt tops. It contains more than 2,000 engravings on copper, steel, 
and wood ; fragments of old black letter and Gothic type books ; 
1,300 printers' devices, nearly all of the latter bearing the printer's 
mark or some other engraved design ; 350 facsimiles of printer's 
devices, and fifty autograph letters, the whole illustrating the history 
of printing, engraving, typefounding and ink and paper making 
from the infancy of those arts. This book was at one time part of 
the library of Richard M. Hoe, and it illustrates not only the history 
of printing, but also the fact that book extending is not always 
profitable, for although it cost more than $3,030, it is offered for 
sale for $950. 

Perhaps no book ever offered a greater field for the work of the 
extender than Spooner's " Biographical History of the Fine Arts ; 
or, Memoirs of the Lives and Works of Eminent Painters, Engravers, 




EXTRA ILLUSTRATING IN NEW YORK. 183 

Sculptors and Architects, from the earliest Ages to the Present 
Time." This was published in two volumes, and has been ex- 
tended to six large quartos by the insertion of more than 1,000 
engraved portraits, landscapes and etchings. A hint at the expense 
of book extending is given in the catalogue in which this work is 
described. "The cost of the preparation of such a work," it says, 
" can be properly estimated only by those who have made similai 
attempts at illustrations." 



Tennyson's " Poems by Two Brothers.'* 

IN reference to the MSS. of Tennyson's "Poems by Two Brothers," 
to which allusions were made in The Bookworm, pp. 57 and 
69, it will be of interest to our readers to learn that it has been pur- 
chased for the United States, at a large advance of price. Mean- 
while, Messrs. Macmillan have arranged to issue a reprint of the 
original edition (1827), together with the addition of four poems 
from the MS. never before printed, and also the prize poem on 
"Timbuctoo." So far as possible, the poems have been assigned to 
their respective authors. 



i84 



MISCELLANEA. 



Books and Bindings. 




THE bindings of books in galleries perish from heat, and the 
higher the books are above the floor the more active is this 
destructive agency. Leather is an animal tissue, and will not, like 
linen, cotton, paper, and other vegetable substances, sustain without 
injury a higher temperature than we find agreeable to live in. Books 
cannot live where men cannot live. They are more nearly allied 
to us as congeners than we are wont to suppose. In excessive heat 
the leather of bindings slowly consumes and its life departs. The 
sulphurous residuum of gas combustion is also said to be injurious to 
bindings. Books should, therefore, be shelved in the coolest part 
of the room, and where the air is never likely to be overheated, 
which is near the floor, where we ourselves live and move. In the 
private libraries of our residences a mistake is often made in carrying 
the shelving of our book-cases so high that they enter the upper and 
overheated stratum of air. If any one be sceptical on this point, let 
him test, by means of a step-ladder, the condition of the air near the 
ceiling of his common sitting-room on a winter evening, when the 
gas is burning freely. The heat is simply insufferable. 









Microscopic Penmanship. 

HE subject of microscopic workmanship readily divides 
itself into two classes, penmanship and mechanical con- 
struction. History has handed down to us many examples 
of that extraordinary form of caligraphic mania, of which the chief 
symptom is a desire to compress the greatest number of words within 
the smallest possible space. 

Pliny the Younger declares (in Opera vii. 21) that Cicero once 
saw the " Iliad " written so small that it could be enclosed in a 
walnut-shell. This affirmation was regarded as improbable until the 
seventeenth century, when Huet, Bishop of Avranches, France, an 
excellent Greek scholar, proved that it could be accomplished. He 
demonstrated, entirely to the satisfaction of the doubters, that a 
piece of flexible vellum, 27 centimetres in length and 21 in breadth, 
could be packed into the shell of a large walnut. For the entire 
" Iliad " to be written upon this sheet, the poem must be contained 
in 250 lines of 30 verses each ! One side would then contain 7,500 
verses, and the reverse as many, making 15,000 in all, a sufficient 
number. 

The Gospel of St. John and the Acts of the Apostles were written 
within the circumference of a farthing in the sixth century by an 
Italian monk. 

Dr. Heylin, in his ** Life of King Charles," records that during 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth " there was one who wrote the Ten 
Commandments, the Creed, the Pater Noster, the Queen's name, 
and the prayer of our Lord, within the compass of a penny ; and 
gave her Majesty a pair of spectacles of such an artificial making that 
by the help thereof she did plainly and distinctly discern every 

24 



i86 



MICROSCOPIC PENMANSHIP. 



I 



letter.'' A somewhat similar feat was that " rare piece of work 
brought to pass by Peter Bales, an Englishman, who also exhibited 
before her Majesty the entire Bible written in a book containing as 
many leaves as a full-sized edition, but fitting into a walnut." 

In St. John's College, Oxford, is preserved a portrait of Charles" 
I., in which the engraver's lines, as they seem to be, are really micro- 
scopic writing, the face alone containing all the Book of Psalms, with 
the Creeds and several forms of prayer. 

The learned Porson is known to have indulged in this species of 
*' curious idleness " occasionally, and perhaps the Greek verses from 
the " Medea " of Euripides, with Johnson's translation of the same 
for Burney's " History of Music," were executed by him. Though 
consisting of 220 words, they are comprised in a circle half an inch 
in diameter, with a small space in the centre left blank. 

About forty years ago a specimen of microscopic penmanship was 
■exhibited in America. It consisted of the following inscription, 
written upon glass, within a circle the 625th part of an inch in dia- 
meter: "Lowell and Senter, Watchmakers, 64, Exchange-st., Port- 
land. Written by Fermat, at Paris, 1852.'' The circle within which 
this was inscribed was much smaller than the head of an ordinary 
pin, and if a needle was placed between the lens of a microscope and 
the writing the latter was completely concealed. 

At the Dusseldorf Exhibition a few years ago a gentleman showed 
a postal card upon which the whole of the first three books of the 
" Odyssey " were written, and the remaining space was filled with a 
transcript of a long debate which had taken place in the German 
Parliament a short time before, the whole card containing 33,000 
words. 

In the spring of 1882 a Hungarian Jew sent to a Vienna paper a 
grain of wheat on which he had written 309 words taken from Sissot's 
book on Vienna. 

Layard, in his " History of Nineveh," mentions that the national 
records of the Assyrian empire were written upon bricks in charac- 
ters so minute as to be scarcely legible without the aid of the micro- 
scope, and that, in fact, a variety of this instrument was found among 
the excavations. 

So much for dainty penmanship. That minute mechanical con- 
struction can lay claim also to considerable antiquity is evidenced by 
the works of Pliny and Adrian, who relate that Myrmecides con- 
structed out of ivory a ship with all her appurtenances, and a chariot 
with four wheels and four horses, both of so small dimensions that a 
bee could hide either of them with its wings. 




MICROSCOPIC PENMANSHIP. 187 

Though this tale appears somewhat exaggerated, some credence 
should certainly be given it, for in the reign of Queen Elizabeth we 
have well authenticated proof of the existence of a still more won- 
derful work. In 1578 Mark Scaliot, a London locksmith, manufac- 
tured a lock consisting of eleven different pieces of steel, iron, and 
brass which, together with the key belonging to it, weighed only one 
grain. The same artist also constructed a chain of gold, containing 
forty-three links, which he fastened to the lock and key, and upon 
these being attached to the neck of a flea, the insect was able to draw 
them with ease. 

Hadianus Junius saw at Mechlin, in Brabant, a cherrystone carved 
in the form of a basket, in which were fourteen pairs of dice, the 
spots on the latter being visible to the naked eye. A cherrystone 
was shown at Florence for many years, carved by the Italian sculptor, 
Rossi, and containing a glory of sixty saints. 

But a still more marvellous curiosity was a set of 1,600 ivory 
dishes, which were said to have been purchased by one Shad, of 
Mitelbrach, from the maker, Oswald Northingerus, and exhibited 
before Pope Paul V. These dainty turnings, though perfect in every 
respect, were scarcely visible to the naked eye, and could be easily 
enclosed in a casket the size of a peppercorn. A Jesuit father, Ferra- 
rius, made twenty-five wooden cannon, capable of being packed away 
in the same space. 

In 1764, on the birthday of King George III., a watchmaker of 
London named Arnold presented himself before the king to exhibit 
a curious repeating- watch of his manufacture. His Majesty, as well 
as the nobles of the Court, greatly admired his minute workmanship, 
" and extraordinary it must indeed be considered," says the chroni- 
cler, "when it is known that this repeating watch was in diameter 
somewhat less than a silver twopence, that it contained 120 distinct 
parts, and that altogether it weighed less than six pennyweights ! " 

Not very long ago a London newspaper announced that a jeweller 
of Turin had made a tug-boat formed of a single pearl. The sail is 
of beaten gold, studded with diamonds, and the binnacle light at the 
prow is a perfect ruby. An emerald serves as its rudder, and the 
stand upon which it is mounted is a slab of whitest ivory. The 
entire weight of this marvellous specimen of the jeweller's craft is 
less than half an ounce, but the maker values it at ;3^ 1,000. 




1 88 MISCELLANEA, 



" Books about Books." 

THIS series, of which two volumes have appeared, has been 
arranged and edited by Mr. Alfred Pollard, author of ** The 
History of the Titlepage," and it is intended to^give in a convenient 
form information on all the chief points which invest old books in the 
eyes of their lovers and collectors with an interest unattainable by 
modern reprints. The famous men and women through whose 
libraries books have passed ; the marks of possession which their 
owners have affixed to them ; the fair writing and illumination of 
the books which have come down to us from the days of manu- 
scripts ; the place which an old book occupies in the history of 
printing ; the printed initial letters, pictorial borders, and woodcuts 
by which the work of the illuminators was succeeded ; the binding 
bestowed upon books by their publisher or private owner — these 
form the subjects of the successive volumes of the series, and as 
each volume has been entrusted to a writer who has made a special 
study of his subject, the series in its entirety will present book lovers 
with all the hnks of a complete chain of information. The price of 
each volume, which consists of about 200 pages of letterpress and 
from ten to thirty illustrations, is fixed at six shillings net. We hope 
to notice the first volume, whicli deals with " The Great Book- 
Collectors," and is written by Charles I. Elton and Mary Augusta 
Elton, in our next issue. 





Discovery of a Syriac Text or the Gospels. 




WO lady Orientalists, Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, during a 
visit to the convent at Mount Sinai, have made a discovery 
of no small theological interest, particulars of which are 
given in the Daily News. They came upon a dirty palimpsest 
manuscript, the sheets of which were sticking together. By the aid 
of steam from the ladies' tea-kettle the leaves were separated, and 
the whole text — nearly four hundred pages — was photographed. The 
MS. turns out to be a Syriac text of the four Gospels, only frag- 
ments of which have been hitherto known. It is " closely related to 
the one known to theologians as Cureton's 'Remains of a very 
ancient Rescension of the Four Gospels in Syriac,' and among all 
preserved testimonies contains the oldest authenticated texts of the 
Gospels," and occupied Professor I. B. Harris, of Cambridge, forty 
■days, even with the help of Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, in the 
deciphering of its palimpsest leaves. The recent discovery in Egypt 
of a fragment of the Gospel and the Apocalypse of St. Peter, and of 
a valuable Aristotle manuscript — concerning which quite a " litera- 
ture " has come into existence — taken with a recent announcement 
that "the site and foundations of a temple mentioned by Homer, 
burnt down 423 b.c.," have just been laid bare, makes one quite 
hopeful that even the twentieth century may not be entirely denied 
the satisfaction which attends valuable " finds " of this character. 

In connection with this "find," it may be interesting to recall the 
•circumstances under which the famous Sinaitic manuscript (Codex 
Aleph) was discovered. In 1844 (says Canon Talbot, in an interest- 
ing little book, just published by Isbister and Co., under the title of 
■*' Our Bible ") Dr. Tischendorf was travelling in the East, on the 



1 90 



SYRIA C TEXT OF THE GOSPELS. 



I 



look out for rare and precious manuscripts. He came to the convenJ^^Bj 
of St. Catherine, at the foot of Mount Sinai. Here, at the foot of 
that mountain so intimately connected with the Old Testament, he 
was to find the most complete copy of the New Testament. The 
convent was inhabited by monks belonging to the Greek Church. 
Tischendorf noticed in the convent hall a basket of parchments, and 
he was told that two heaps of similar old manuscripts had already 
fed the fire. Looking into the basket the German scholar discovered 
several sheets of a copy of the Septuagint of an extremely ancient 
character. He was allowed to take forty sheets, but when he un- 
warily expressed his delight, and pressed for more material of the 
same kind, he aroused the envious suspicions of the monks, and met 
with a stubborn refusal. Tischendorf then came home, and for 
fifteen long years the German scholar tried to put himself into a 
position from which he could successfully assail the selfish cupidity 
of the monks of Mount Sinai. 

At length, in 1859, having obtained the patronage of the Czar 
Alexander, he revisited the monastery, but in spite of his imperial order 
from the temporal head of the Greek Church, the monks remained 
unmoved. It was the evening before his departure, and he walked 
with the steward of the convent in the grounds. The monk called 
him into his cell to partake of some refreshment. When the two were 
together and the door was closed — " I too," said the steward, " have 
read a copy of that Septuagint." With these words he took down a 
bundle wrapped in red cloth and laid it upon the table. When the 
parcel was uncovered, lo ! and behold, there were other parts of the 
Old Testament in the Greek translation, some of the Apocryphal 
books, and the whole New Testament. This time the doctor con- 
cealed his delight, although in his bedroom he gave way to transports 
of joy. At last by the Czar's influence, the fourth century MS. was 
brought to the Imperial Library in St. Petersburg, and now facsimiles. 
of it can be seen in all the chief libraries of Egypt. 





Anonymous Authors. 



OOK-LOVE is a home feeling — a sweet bond of family 
union — and a never-failing source of domestic enjoyment. 
Kit^^ It sheds a charm over the quiet fireside, unlocks the hidden 
sympathies of human hearts, beguiles the weary hours of sickness or 
solitude, and unites kindred spirits in a sweet companionship of sen- 
timent and idea. It sheds a gentle and humanising influence over 
its votaries, and woos even sorrow itself into a temporary forgetful- 
ness. 

Book-love is a good angel that keeps watch by the poor man's 
hearth, and hallows it, saving him from the temptations that lurk 
beyond its charmed circle; giving him new thoughts and noble 
aspirations, and lifting him, as it were, from the mere mechanical 
drudgery of his everyday occupation. The wife blesses it, as she sits 
smiling and sewing, alternately listening to her husband's voice or 
hushing the child upon her knee. She blesses it for keeping him 
near her, and making him cheerful, and manly, and kind-hearted ; 
albeit, understanding little of what he reads, and reverencing it for 
that reason all the more in him. 

Book-love is a physician, and has many a healing balm to relieve, 
even where it cannot cure, the weary sickness of mind and body — 
many a powerful opiate to soothe us into a sweet and temporary 
forgetfulness. In case of lingering convalescence its aid is invalu- 
able. 

We have known book-love to be independent of the author, 
and lurk in a few charmed words traced upon the title-page by a 
once familiar hand — words of affectionate remembrance, rendered, it 
may be, by change and bereavement, inexpressibly dear ? Flowers 



192 ANONYMO US A UTHORS. 



•1 



in books are a sweet sign, and there is a moral in their very wither- 
ing. Pencil-marks in books frequently recall scenes and sentiment 
and epochs in young lives that never come again. The faint lines 
portray passages that struck us years ago with their mournful beauty, 
and have since passed into a prophecy. Thoughts and dreams that 
seem like a mockery now are thus shadowed out. But memory's 
leaves are not all blanks, or tear-stained, but interwoven, thank God t 
with many a bright page. Pencil-marks in books have sweet, as well 
as sad, recollections connected with them. 

We point them out to one another, and call to mind particular 
periods in our past lives. They also serve to register the change that 
has gradually and imperceptibly stolen over our own thoughts and 
feelings. 

There are some books which forcibly recall calm and tranquil 
scenes of bygone happiness. We hear again the gentle tones of a 
once familiar voice long since hushed. We can remember the very- 
passage where the reader paused awhile to play the critic, or where 
that eloquent voice suddenly faltered, and we all laughed to find 
ourselves weeping, and were sorry when the tale or poem came to 
an end. Books read for the first time at some particular place or 
period of our existence may become hallowed for evermore, or we 
love them because others loved them also in bygone days. 

Books written by those with whom it has been our happy privilege 
to live in close companionship and sweet interchanges of sentiment 
and idea are exceedingly precious. In reading them we converse, 
as it were, with the author in his prettiest mood, recognise the rare 
eloquence to which we have often sat and listened spellbound, and 
feel proud to find our affectionate and reverential homage confirmed 
by the unanimous plaudits of the world. The golden key, before- 
mentioned, has been given into our keeping, and we unlock at will 
the sacred and hidden recesses of genius and association. 



Marat in England. 




N the many-sided life of Jean Paul Marat, there is no phase 
which has a deeper interest to Englishmen than his career in 
this country. A man who is at once a surgeon, a writer 
on science and of romance, a journalist, a linguist, a politician, an 
orator, a demagogue, and a martyr — and Marat was all these — is not 
one to be classed in a general way with ordinary people. There 
are theoretically two Marats, the one being held up to the loathing 
of posterity as a monster with all the devilish attributes that can be 
raked up from between the covers of a dictionary of adjectives ; the 
other calling forth all the good things which is possible for one 
writer to say of another — indeed, the poet cf the Great French Revo- 
lution, Camille Desmoulins, has even described the subject of this 
article as " le divin." The curious fact is that every writer, whether 
biographer or historian, has gone to the extreme course of either 
praising Marat in unqualified terms or has denounced him with 
equal vigour, not to say picturesqueness. The personality of a man 
who could call forth such irreconcilably different conclusions is above 
all a person whose character and deeds require study and examina- 
tion. For the present, however, we must confine ourselves to Marat's 
career in this country, basing our facts on an exceptionally exhaustive 
essay, in French, written by Mr. H. S. Ashbee. 

To separate for a moment the man from his acts, Marat, like so 
many other men of even stronger character, was at all times influenced 
by his heart rather than by his head. By nature studious, laborious, 
full of ideas, but deficient in the genius which is necessary to reduce 
these abstract qualities into a concrete form, vain and consumed with 
a restless craving after glory, or, what is worse, notoriety, Marat 

25 



194 



MARAT IN ENGLAND. 






would be now reposing in that obscurity which so completely 
envelopes so much of human littleness, if certain great events had 
not sprung into existence which resulted in the shaping and deter- 
mining of his career. Revolutionary ideas prevailed in this country 
during his sojourn here with a force and a general sympathy which 
caused the governing classes of the time very serious anxiety. The 
affair in which Wilkes played the leading part was still fresh, the 
American colonies were on the point of striking out for their total 
independence, and these events, with the great movement in France, 
were causing a widespread and profound sensation. No one knew 
where the next outbreak to swell the volume of revolutionary force 
would occur. When Marat returned to France the Great Revolution 
was at its height, and he threw himself into the movement with a 
vigour and an ability which very quickly placed him in the front of 
this unparalleled struggle between autocrat and democrat. With 
what result it will be unnecessary to dwell upon here. 

Unfortunately, as in so many other instances, Marat's period of 
eminence was so sudden and so brief that no one thought of inquiring 
into his previous records until the lapse of time all but blotted these 
out of existence. He lived in England for ten years, and he must 
have done a greater amount of work than has yet been discovered. 
Tradition thus sums up his career here : — He was for a short time 
engaged as an assistant master at the Warrington Academy ; he next 
turns up at Oxford, where he committed a theft at the Ashmolean 
Museum, and fled to Ireland, but was arrested at Dublin, escorted 
back to Oxford, and there, under the name of Le Maitre, condemned 
to the galleys at Woolwich. He was here discovered by one of his old 
Warrington scholars. He next turns up as a bookseller at Bristol, 
but, failing in this avocation, he was imprisoned in the city gaol ; his 
liberation, however, was effected by the local society for the relief of 
debtors imprisoned for small sums. The Monthly Repository for 
1813 states that one of the members of this Society, who saw him in 
prison at Bristol, saw him at a later date — in 1792 — taking an active 
part in the Assemblee Nationale at Paris. He next turns up in 
Edinburgh, where he lived for some time, " cnseigna la broderie au 
tambour," under the name of John White. After here contracting 
debts to a large amount, he suddenly left, but was again appre- 
hended, this time at Newcastle, where he was detained in prison for 
several months. After obtaining his freedom he remained in New- 
castle for nine months, and left the country for good at the beginning 
of the year 1787. It seems, however, that he revisited England 
three years later. Whatever credence may be placed in the foregoing 




MARAT IN ENGLAND. 195 

statements, and several of them are open to very great doubt, it is 
certain that he was practising as a doctor in Church Street, Soho, 
London, which, then as now, was the French quarter of the metro- 
tropolis ; and that the University of St. Andrews conferred upon him 
the degree of M.D. in 1775. There is absolutely no authentic 
records in the archives of Bristol, either printed or in MS., which 
prove that he either lived there or that he was sequestered among the 
debtors in that city. 

The question of stealing at the Oxford Museum is of much greater 
importance. In the " Book of the Crown Court for the Oxford 
Assizes," we have the following entry, which we give verb, et lit. : — 
"At Oxford, on Wednesday, 5th March, 1777, 17 th year of George 
III., before Sir James Eyre, Knight, one of the Barons of the Court 
of our Lord the King of his Exchequer, and Sir Richard Perryn, 
Knight, one of the Barons of the Court of our Lord King and his 
Exchequer, and others, their fellows, justices, etc., to deliver the 
gaol of the said county of the prisoners therein being. — John Wey- 
land, Esq., SheriiT. 

"Indicted Summer Assizes, 16 George III., po. se. — Guilty, 
prayer, etc. — John Peter Le Maitre, alias Maire, alias Mara. — For 
feloniously stealing one gold medal of the value of jQ^a^ one other 
gold medal value £g 8s., one other gold medal value £6, one other 
gold medal value £4. 13s., one other gold medal value £2 7s. 6d., 
one other gold medal value ;^6, one other gold medal value ;£i4 
14s., one other gold medal value ;£^2 2, one other gold medal value 
;£i^ 13s., one other gold medal value los. 6d., one other gold medal 
value ;£2 7s. 9d., one other gold medal value £2 12s. 6d., one 
other gold medal value los. 6d., one other gold medal value i8s., 
one other gold medal value ;^i, one silver medal value 5s., and a 
five guinea piece of Queen Ann's gold coin of the year 17 13, value 
£s 5s., one gold chain value ;^26 12s., one other gold chain value 
jQ^2, and the goods of the chancellor, masters, and scholars of the 
University of Oxford, on 3rd February i6th George III., at the 
parish of Saint Michael in the City of Oxford. Convicted of grand 
larceny, and ordered to be kept to hard labour in the raising sand, 
soil, and gravel from, and cleansing the river Thames or any other 
service for the benefit of the navigation of the said river under the 
management and direction of the overseer for that purpose — ap- 
pointed, or to be appointed, for the term of five years.'' 

The Christian names of Marat were Jean-Paul, those of Le Maitre 
John Peter ; but there one of the primary resemblances ceases. The 
alias "Mara" is the strongest and indeed only proof that Marat 



196 



MARAT IN ENGLAND. 






commilted these thefts, and it is a curious fact worth mention- 
ing that at an early period of his career the victim of Charlotte 
Corday sometimes omitted the last letter in his surname. Even then 
the conclusion at which so many writers have arrived, that Marat 
was the thief, is not settled or proven. There is, however, another 
side to this question. AVe have no means of knowing Marat's exact 
position in regard to finances during his sojourn in this country. 
He must have had some private means, or during a period of his 
residence here his medical practice must have been a lucrative one. 
The books which he published in England were such which no pub- 
lisher would be at all likely to undertake without having a sub- 
stantial guarantee. When he returned to France he started a 
revolutionary journal, and he repudiated the charges which had been 
urged against him there that he had offered to sell his freedom of 
speech. On the other hand, at the time of his death he was without 
a sou. Writing in 1790, he declares: *' J' approche de la cinquan- 
taine; or, depuis I'age de seize ans, je suis maitre absolu de ma 
conduite. J'ai vecu deux annees a Bordeaux, dix ^ Londres, une k 
Dublin, une k La Haye, a Utrecht, a Amsterdam, dix-neuf a Paris, 
et j'ai parcouru la moitie de I'Europe. Qu'on compulse les registres 
de police de ces divers pays,y(? defie quon y trouve mo7i nom pour un 
seulfait illicite ! Qu'on aille aux informations, je defi(^ que personne 
sous le ciel puisse me reprocher une action d^shonnete ! '' 

The book of most importance and general interest which Marat 
wrote in English is "The Chains of Slavery, a work wherein the 
clandestine and villainous attempts of Princes to Ruin Liberty are 
pointed out, and the Dreadful Scenes of Despotism Disclosed. To 
which is prefixed. An Address to the Electors of Great Britain, in 
order to draw their timely Attention to the Choice of proper Repre- 
sentatives to the next Parhament." This publication, which consisted 
of xii, 259 pages, was "Sold by J. Almon opposite Burlington 
House, in Piccadilly ; T. Payne, at the Mews Gate \ and Richardson 
and Urquhart, near the Royal Exchange," 1774. This book, the 
advertising of which was rigorously boycotted by the publishers of 
English papers, has now become excessively rare, one of the few 
copies known being in the British Museum. The Address does not 
mince matters, as will be seen from the following extract : — " As long 
as virtue reigns in the great council of the nation, the prerogative of 
the crown, and the rights of the subjects are so tempered that they 
mutually support and restrain each other ; but when honour and 
virtue are wanting in the senate, the balance is destroyed : the 
parliament, the strength and glory of Britain, becomes a profligate 



MARA T IN ENGLAND. 197 

faction, which, partaking of the minister's bounty, and, seeking to 
share with him the spoils of their counting, joins those at the helm 
in their criminal designs, and supports their destructive measures, — 
a band of disguised traitors, who, under the name of guardians, 
traffic away the national interests, and the rights of a freeborn 
people. The Prince becomes absolute, and the people slaves." His 
advice on the subject of the choice of members is equally strongly 
worded: — "Reject," he says, "all who attempt to buy your votes, 
all who have any place at court, all who earnestly mendicate your 
voice, men of pompous titles, the insolent, opulent, young men." 
Select "men distinguished by their ability, integrity, and love for 
their country." The Address concludes with this bit of sentiment- 
ality : — " With virtue and courage a people may ever maintain their 
liberty ; but when once this inestimable treasure is lost, it is almost 
impossible to recover it ; and it is very near being so when electors 
set a price on their votes." Much more might be quoted from the 
Address, as well as from the book which it prefaces, but space does 
not permit. 

The first book which Marat published in England is " An Essay 
on the Human Soul," 1772, consisting of 115 pages; this same book 
appeared in the following year, under the title of " A Philosophical 
Essay on Man. Being an attempt to investigate the Principles and 
Laws of Reciprocal Influence of the Soul on the Body," and enlarged 
to 270 pages. Another publication, dated from Church Street, Soho, 
is dated January, 1776, and has for title, "An Enquiry into the 
Nature, Cause, and Cure of a Singular Disease of the Eyes, hitherto 
unknown and yet common, produced by the aid of certain Mer- 
curial Preparations by J. P. Marat, M.D. London." It was priced 
at one shilling. At the first page is found a curious address to the 
Royal Society, which, the author declares, " is not a Dedication : 
such a matter of form I have ever thought beneath the Dignity of 
Philosophy." With the exception of the last-named, and a medical 
essay, the title of which we need not here quote, Marat translated 
his English books into his native language. 

This fact leads us up to the consideration of a very interesting 
point. It is almost impossible to believe that a Frenchman who had 
resided in England for such a comparatively brief period as Marat 
had done when he published the first of his English works, could 
write with such vigour and clearness. M. Chevremont declares most 
positively that, in the case of "The Chains of Slavery," the manu- 
script was first written in French and then translated into English by 
the author. Our own historian, H. T. Buckle, regarded Marat as 



198 



TAR AT IN ENGLAND. 



being " profoundly versed in our language." M. Bougeart also states 
that Marat knew, besides French, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, 
German, and Dutch. In spite of these authorities, we are still 
unable to quite accept the theory that Marat's English books were 
entirely his own unaided composition. 

Apart from the painstaking attention which Mr. Ashbee has devoted 
to the interesting and important subject of Marat's sojourn in this 
country, there are still very many points which require clearing up. 
Perhaps as time goes on new discoveries may bring fresh material to 
light. It would be well if the many calumnies which tradition has 
handed down to us could be disposed of once for all by positive 
rather than negative proofs. In the case of a man like Marat, his 
very sudden eminence, and the fact that he resided in the United 
Kingdom, would be quite sufficient to call into existence a whole 
crowd of anecdotes, which would have been applied to any other 
person in a similar position, with an equal prima facie authenticity. 
Injustice of a very gross and wilful character has surrounded the 
name and career of Marat for nearly a century ; but now that we 
are sufficiently removed by time from events in which contemporaries 
may be pardoned for taking extremist views, there is every prospect 
of Marat taking his place among the great men who have guided, for 
a time, the destiny of the modern world. 

W. Roberts. 



MISCELLANEA, 199 

The " Odes " of Anacreon. 

THE Odes of Anacreon were first presented to the world 
in 1554 by that illustrious scholar, Henri Estienne. Their 
appearance excited lively interest. Ronsard greeted the long-lost 
poet with rapturous applause. Remy Belleau, in 1578, published 
a complete French translation of the Odes. Robert Greene was 
the first Englishman who tried his hand at translation ; and he was 
followed by "A. W.," an anonymous contributor to Davison's 
"Poetical Rhapsody," 1602. Herrick frequently paraphrases and 
imitates Anacreon, and Cowley's Anacreontic poems are among 
his happiest productions. A complete EngHsh translation by an 
amiable scholar, Thomas Stanley, the editor of ^schylus, appeared 
in 1 65 1. This translation, which is far superior to Thomas Moore's, 
has been chosen to accompany the text of the new edition of 
Messrs. Lawrence & BuUen, in which appears eleven beautiful 
drawings by Mr. J. R. Weguehn. In an appendix at the end of 
the volume the editor, Mr. A. H. Bullen, has brought together a 
collection of renderings by various hands. Anacreon's Odes are 
spurious; they are not the poems of the genuine Anacreon, but 
productions of a later age. Nevertheless, they are very attractive, 
and their influence in the past has been considerable. The real 
Anacreon is known to us only by fragments preserved in the pages 
of Athenaeus and others. These fragments are appended to the 
Odes in the above-mentioned edition. 



Napoleon's " Housekeeping Book." 

IN looking over the stock-in-trade of a dealer in antiquities, a 
well-known French collector, M. Paul Dublin, has found the 
" housekeeping book " of Pierron, the butler to Napoleon I. during 
the deposed monarch's exile at St. Helena. The entries, which date 
from January, 18 18, to May 5, 182 1, the day of Napoleon's death, 
are full of interesting details relative to the daily expenditure for 
food, fuel, and drugs incurred by the Emperor's household. The 
lucky finder of this interesting historical document is about to 
publish it verbatim, with copious explanatory notes. 



200 MISCELLANEA. 

A Novelty in Human Documents. 

THOSE who have read Rider Haggard's story of " Mr. Meeson's 
Will " doubtless remember that in that tale a will was tattooed 
on the back of a young lady. A somewhat similar incident has lately 
taken place in Mexico. A miser named Moneche died not long 
ago, who was found to have tatooed his last wishes on his chest with 
some red pigment instead of using pen and ink. The relatives were 
naturally very reluctant to bury this " human document," and it was 
not until the Court had decreed that the will should be copied in 
the presence of witnesses that they would consent to do so. This 
transcript was afterwards pronounced genuine by the Court. 




Fraunce's *' Lawiers Logike," 1588. 



A FINE large copy, with the rare folding leaf, of this book, which 
claims to exemplify " the precepts of Logike by the practice of 
the Common Lawe," recently came under the hammer, realising five 
guineas. It is believed by Shakespearian Critics that it was from 
this volume that Shakespeare acquired much of his legal knowledge. 
The following passage is a fair specimen of its style : — " The like 
absurditye would it be for a man of our age to affectate such words 
as were quite worn out at heels and elbowes long before the nativitie 
of Geffray Chaucer. The seconde is, when doubtful and am- 
biguous words bee used, as that 

' All the maydes in Camberwell ^^^^Ih 

May dance in an egg-shell.' ^^^"^ 

Of a little village of London, where Camberwell may be taken for 
the well in the towne, or the towne itself. So the Mayre of Erith 
is the best Mayre next to the Mayre* of London, where the towne, 
God knows, is a pore thing, and theJMayre thereof a seely fellow, 
yet it is the very next to London because there is none between." 
Further on the author gives a translation of VirgiFs second Eclogue 
in British hexameters, and then proceeds to give a logical analysis 
of it. 




The Library of James VI. of Scotland. 

E take the liberty of extracting the following very im- 
portant and interesting article from a recent issue of the 
31 AthencBum: — 

Buried by some accident among the printed books, a manu- 
script of singular interest has lain unnoticed in the British Museum 
ever since the Royal Library was transferred thither in 1759. 
Thanks to Mr. Garnett it has now been disinterred, and its publica- 
tion may soon be looked for ; meanwhile a brief account of it in the 
Athencetim will serve in some degree to atone for past neglect. 

The volume in question is a small quarto of twenty-three paper 
leaves, bound in limp vellum. Worn, soiled, and dog's-eared, it has 
nothing about it at first sight that is attractive. On the covers, how- 
ever, is impressed a small crown between the initials I.R., and the 
contents fully confirm this indication of ownership, forming a rough 
catalogue of a portion, at least, of the royal library of Scotland 
between 1573 and 1583, and more particularly of the additions made 
to it by gift or purchase in the early years of James VI. In 1573 the 
future British Solomon was a precocious child of seven, and most of 
the books so acquired were evidently intended to assist in his educa- 
tion. Apart therefore from other elements of interest, their enumera- 
tion throws curious light on the nature and range of his studies, and 
if he digested the half of them, his reputation for learning was 
solidly grounded. 

In two places James himself has unmistakably left his mark. On 
f. 3, in a stiff boyish hand, he has written, " Si quid honestum per 
laborem egeris, labor abit, honestum manet; si quid turpe per 
voluptatem egeris, voluptas abit, turpe manet." This salutary maxim 

26 



202 THE LIBRARY OF JAMES VL OF SCOTLAND, 

is copied twice, and partially a third time, ''Jacobus R" being, more- 
over, appended. At the end is a still more elementary exercise, 
consisting of the letters of the alphabet, large and small, with the 
trilingual signature, " Jacobus R. Scotorum, Jaques Roy d'escosse, 
James R." No doubt it was merely by accident, as lying handy at 
the moment, that the book was thus utilised, and except in one 
other instance, which will be noticed below, it exhibits no more of 
his own penmanship. 

. The bibliographical entries extend from f. 4 onwards, the various 
divisions, however, not being in strict chronological order. They 
are mostly in the hand of Peter Young, who, jointly with the better- 
known George Buchanan, was appointed preceptor to James in 1569. 
He was a pupil of Beza and a good scholar, and he probably did 
more of the actual work of teaching than his much older colleague ; 
moreover, as we learn from Sir James Melville, he "was gentiller, 
and was laith till offend the king at any tym, and used himself 
wairly, as a man that had mynd of his awen weill, be keping of his 
Maiesties favour" ('Memoirs,' ed. 1827, p. 262). In a notice of 
him by Dr. Tho. Smith ('Vitse Quorundam.-.Virorum,' 1707, p. 23) 
is a paper in which he set down his pupil's daily routine of study, 
but the precise period to which it refers is uncertain. At this time 
he seems to have acted also as royal librarian — a post which, after 
James had exchanged Edinburgh for London, and he himself had 
been knighted and pensioned, was long held (i6o9-i647)by Patrick 
Young, his son. The entries begin with six lists of books, respec- 
tively headed by the names of the printers Wechel, Robert Estienne, 
Colines, Tiletanus, Oporinus, and Froschover. These books, many 
of which are priced, are of all sorts, and in number about 250; but, 
although the selection is an interesting one, it is doubtful whether 
any of them ever belonged to the royal library. From Young's note 
at the end it merely appears that he copied the titles from catalogues 
lent to him by the famous Andrew Melville, who no doubt brought 
them with him when he returned to Scotland from Geneva in 1574. 
The next batch of books entered (f. 10) I give just as it stands : — 



Liures de la Royne que ie receuz du passementier par le com- 
mandement de mons' le regent 1573, 1° Julii. 
II pecorone en Italien. 

Pinax Iconum antiquorum. _^^ 

Caesaris Imagines 4°. 
Bucolica Vergilii 8°. 
Ane orison in latin and frenche handvret. 




THE LIBRARY OF JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND, 203 

Ye Kingis entre at Rowen. 

La Diana de Jorge de Montemayor en espaignol. 

Propaladia en espaignol. 

Dante en Italien. 

P. YOWNG. 

This is followed by a " Catalogue of bukes gottin fra my lord of 
St. Jhone, 1573, October 28, be my lords grace, and delyuerit to the 
king for the maist part apon the 16 of Nouember 1578." They in- 
clude * 2 bukes of y*' eneide of Virgil in frenche. Canones et decreta 
concilii Tridentini. Sum bukes of the Repub. of Plato in frenche. 
The first bulk of Dom Flores [in] Spanish. Diet, latin and Spanish,' 
with Petrarch, Ronsard, ' Amadis of Gaul,' ' Flores and Blancheflour,' 
&c. ; while, still on the same page, among " Bukis gottin be me fra 
My lord Regentis grace at sundry tymis," are " Zonaras in frenche. 
Froissart in 2 volumis. Thunion of y® housse of Lancaster and 
York. Herodotus in frenche. The Scottis Chronicle wrettin with 
hand," and others. All these books, as appears later, formed part 
of the library of Queen Mary. On f. 10 b is a still more interesting 
list of fifty " Bulks brocht furth of Sterling to Halyrud house vpon 
the xi of Nouember, 1583." It begins with " Hectoris Boethii Hist. 
Scotorum, fol. Paris," and includes Homer (in Greek and Latin), 
Lucian, and Demosthenes ; Caesar, Virgil, Ovid, * Terentii Flores,' 
and ' Martialis Castratus ' ; Beza's Greek Grammar, ' Enchiridion 
Graecse Linguae,' 'Rudimenta Grammaticse Latinae,' and 'The 
frenche tongue teacher ' ; Buchanan * De Jure Regni,' Simler ' De 
Repub. Heluetiorum,' * Epistre d'Osorius k la Royne d'angleterre,' 
* The hurt of seditioun,' and * The true religion and poperie.' After 
this (f. lib) come a number of books headed "Empti," with others 
presented by various persons. I can only mention "The history of 
Ingland, Scotland, and Ireland, in twa faire volumes," and Sir J. 
Cheke ' De pronuntiatione Graecae linguae,' both " bocht fra Mr. 
Jhone Provand " ; " Plutarque en deux volumes," given by the 
Bishop of Brechin; *Jus Civile,' in eleven vols, by "My Lord of 
Dumfermling " ; Eusebius and Calvin's Epistles, by the Bishop of 
Caithness ; "Rod. Gualtheri Homiliae in Galatas, fol, ex dono ipsius 
auctoris"; and 'Institution du prince de Budee,' by "my Lady 
Atholl." As might be expected, this last work, with others on the 
same subject, was a favourite gift-book. From the Bishop of Caith- 
ness, who was Robert Stewart, the king's great-uncle. Young also 
received (f. 12 b) on December 4th (1577?) "the buikes that 
fallowit, quilk Arthur Wode delyuerit him as being of the Quenis 



204 THE LIBRARY OF JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND. 



I 



bukes borrowit be his brother Mr. Jhone." The latter, John Wood 
of TilHedavy, had been secretary to the Regent Murray, and the 
eighteen volumes thus recovered formed part of a very much larger 
number which were handed over to him on November 15th, 1569, 
as appears from the list attested by his signature printed in " Inven- 
taires de la Royne Descosse " (Bannatyne Club, 1863), PP- i79~83. 
Among them are " le premier vol. de Froissard, foL, beau," Lucian, 
Herodotus, Athenaeus, Ptolemy, Chrysostom, " Mercurii Trismegisti 
Poemander," the " Hist, de Godefroy de Bouillon," and "Chronique 
de Sauoye." 

Without dwelling on any intervening matter, I must now pass on 
to the general "Index Librorum Regis," which occupies ff. 15-18. 
This catalogue comprises some two hundred articles, and not only 
gives the title, but in nearly all cases states whether the book was 
bought, presented (and if so, by whom), or came from the library of 
Queen Mary, with a further note if it was subsequently given away 
by the king. At the head stand eight Bibles, six of which were 
presented, including "Biblia Lat. Tiguri excusa, fol.," by Alex. 
Syme; "Bibl. Gallica Magna Lugduni exc, fol.," by the Earl of 
Argyll (both in 1574); and " Bibl. Britannica Magna, fol.," by 
" Qusestor " Richesone. Of five New Testaments only one is in 
English. This was a donation from Capt. Cocburn, whose name 
frequently recurs, and was handed on by the king to Lord Aubigny. 
Another, also noted as given away, is entitled " Nouueau Test, auec 
les pseaumes en escossois i6°." The Psalms supply ten entries, the 
first being " Psalmi Lat. carmine a Dom. Buchanano express!, i6°," 
while among the others are found " Psalmes in English, 32°, donnez 
par la nourrice," and " Psalter in metre and prose, i6°," a gift from 
the Abbot of Glenluce and " donne par sa majesty a Elizabeth Gib." 
On February 4th, 1577-8, Elizabeth Gib became Peter Young's 
wife ; and it may be inferred, therefore, that the catalogue was drawn 
up not later than 1577, and consequently before James was twelve 
years old. This is the more probable as it does not contain any of 
the Queen Mary's books which were delivered by the Regent Morton 
to the king on March 26th, 1578, as comprised in an inventory 
printed in the Bannatyne Club volume already mentioned, p. cxliii. 
Among donors the Bishop of Caithness is conspicuous, and, classics 
excepted, his gifts are a fair sample of the rest. Besides two 
Psalters, he is credited with " The Dial of Princes. L'Institution 
du Prince de Bude. L'Institution de Mr. Calvin en francoys. 
Apophthegmata Erasmi. Erotemata dialectica Melanchthon. Em- 
blemata Alciati. Prieres et oraisons Chrestiennes. The perfecte 



THE LIBRARY OF JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND. 205 

pathwaye to salvacion. Heures de recreation de Guicciardini." The 

Chancellor Lord Glamis was another who concerned himself with 

the young king's education, giving him Seneca, Paulus Jovius, a 

Latin- French dictionary, Guicciardini's History, and "Foxi Morzilli 

de regni regisque Institutione." Elsewhere (f. 14) it appears that he 

tried to interest him in military science, tempting him with " L'art 

militaire de Rocque " and the same author's " Les Ruzes de la 

guerre." More to James's taste, no doubt, were two volumes given 

him by Argyll, viz., " La Venerie de Jaq. du Fouilloux " and " La 

Fauconnerie de pluseurs autheurs." Argyll appealed to another side 

of his character, though it could hardly have declared itself so early, 

with " A Defense of the Apologie be Mr. Jwell " and " A confutation 

be Alex' Nowel," which were his new year's gifts in 1576-7 (f. 13). 

Buchanan's choice of books is best seen, perhaps, in the purchases, 

which I have no room here to discuss. As presents his pupil had 

from him " Institution of a prince par Synesius en francoys. La 

sphere du monde de Piccolhuomini. La nature des poissons par 

Belon. Senecae Tragoediae." Out of the many lady donors I must 

name only two. To Lady Mar, wife of his guardian, James was 

indebted for "Annales de France, avec Philippe de Commines," 

and to Lady Lennox, his grandmother, for "Jo. Ferrarius of the 

orderying of a commounveale. Histoire de nostre temps. Propos 

Memorables. Riccius de imitatione. The history of Justinus in 

English," and several more. From his mother he had no books 

directly by way of gift, nor does Queen Elizabeth's name anywhere 

occur. Her ambassador, however, the accomplished Henry Killi- 

grew, appropriately gave " The Courtiour, in English " (the original, 

Castiglione's " Cortegiano," was presented by Glamis), together with 

Thevet's '' Singularitez de la France Antartiques " ; and among other 

English books it is satisfactory to observe Roger Ascham's "Toxo- 

philus " and " Scholemaistre " and Sir T. Elyot's " Governour." As 

for books printed in Scotland, there are probably not half a dozen 

altogether. 

But even with James it was not all work and no play. On f. 18 b 
are entries of other gifts than books. Even these, indeed, include 
such aids to learning as " ane pen and ink-horne of syluer " and 
" ane fueillee of syluer to vret apon " ; but among them are also 
enumerated three " boawis " and five dozen "arrowis," with other 
archery gear, and more noteworthy still, " 2 golf cloubbis," which 
last were the gift of the Laird of Rossyth. Finally, two precious, as 
it seems, to be described by any hand but the boy's own, we read of 
"A tre with brenches and leiues of wyre cled with silk of all hewes, 
beiring clowis and nutmewgis." * 



I 



206 THE LIBRARY OF JAMES VI. OF SCOTLAND. 

Though I have already exceeded reasonable limits, a few wora^^B 
must be added about the scribblings, often scarcely decipherable, on | 
the covers and fly-leaves. Many are mere commonplaces, classical 
quotations and such like, but others are what Young calls *' Apoph- 
thegmata Regis," consisting of remarks made by James in the course 
of his studies, and jotted down by his tutor as worthy of record. To 
say the truth, they are not very brilliant, but I give two or three 
specimens. " They gar me speik Latin or I could speik Scottis " 
was a complaint which, on the evidence of this book alone, was not 
unwarranted. There is some spirit, too, in the following : " Cuidam 
dicenti * 56 suld neuer be angrie.' ' Than,' sayis he, ' I suld not 
waire y* lyoun in my armes, bot rather a scheip.' " If he really trans- 
lated a(p' ol as " all fou," he must have been poking fun at his 

pedagogues ! 

George F. Warner. 



A 



MISCELLANEA. 207 

Victor Hugo's MSS. 

MAUGUSTE VACQUERIE and M. Paul Meurice are hard 
• at work with the 400,000 leaves of written matter left by 
Victor Hugo, and not unfittingly called by the poet " L'Ocean." The 
work was done during the period of exile at Guernsey, and does 
not include the papers already published in England. Victor Hugo 
seems to have been almost miraculously prolific between 1852 and 
1870. He frequently wrote or revised a whole piece in one day, 
beginning at five o'clock in the morning and working on till lunch. 
He then took a walk in the country, and composed verse aloud. In 
the evening he read to his friends. M. Auguste Vacquerie hopes to 
publish another immense parcel of MSS. These are fugitive papers 
on every possible subject, written offhand by the poet, and thrown 
carelessly upon the floor. Some of these were found after his death, 
labelled " Tas de Pierres." 



Disposing of an Edition. 

THOREAU was once able to boast that he had on his shelves 
a library of several hundred volumes, the greatest part of 
which he had written himself. His publishers could not dispose 
of the first edition of his first book, and thinking it useless to keep 
the volumes longer, had sent them to the author. Another equally 
famous American author had better luck in disposing of his first 
literary venture, though he found the public no more eager in their 
welcome of his genius than they were for Thoreau's work. James 
Russell Lowell brought out his first volume of poems at his own 
risk — a modest edition of five hundred copies. Small as the edition 
was, however, it was not small enough, and the young poet seemed 
in danger of heavy loss; but fate was kinder than the so-called 
" reading public." His publisher's warehouse took fire, the books 
were burned, and they were fully insured ! Not only had the poet 
lost nothing, but he could boast with truth that the first edition of 
his book was exhausted. He had sold it to the insurance company. 



208 



MISCELLANEA. 



Bookshops in Russia. 



PERHAPS the chief indication of the enlightenment of a people 
is to be found in the number and quahty of the bookshops 
existing in its towns. In Russia these are painfully few, and there 
are districts where the traveller may pass through a population of a 
hundred thousand souls without catching sight of aught in the shape 
of a publication except the old Slavonic Bible in the churches, or 
the coarsely-bound return-book of some red-tape functionary. Of 
course, it is absurd to expect to see books in the hands of men who 
only the other day were serfs, but in the leading provincial towns 
one does look for a certain amount of culture. Yet what shall be 
said of a town like Volsk, in Saratuff, where to 33,000 people there 
is only one shop where books are sold ? Even St. Petersburg itself 
is not so very well off in this respect, having only fifty booksellers, or 
one to every 14,000 persons. 

In Moscow matters are worse, for the proportion there is one to 
every 18,000 people. From these two cities, however, proceed the 
publications which feed the rest of the Empire, and the stocks on 
sale are therefore larger than is commonly the case in a provincial 
town, where a display of two or three thousand volumes greatly 
exceeds the average. Warsaw has one vendor of books to every 
16,000 people; Odessa one to every 10,000; but as half of these 
are in a decayed condition, the Black Sea port is very little better 
off than the Polish capital. At Dunaburg, which, by the bye, con- 
tains a good many Germans, there is only one bookshop to 29,000 
people ; at Kazan, with its numerous Tartar inhabitants, there are 
eight to 94,000 people; at Valadikavkaz, one to 15,000; at Revel, 
two to 31,000 ; and at Brest-Litovsk, one to 18,000. Cronstadt, in 
spite of its large garrison of educated officers and Finnish sailors, 
has but two shops to 48,000 people; Abo, in Finland, one to 
20,000 ; and Omsk, the exile centre of Siberia, and the site of the 
future university, one to 27,000. Finally, Tashkant is the worst of 
all, having only a single bookshop to 76,000 people, and that a bad 
one. 

Taking provincial Russia all round, the proportion of booksellers 
to the town population may be roughly calculated at one to every 
20,000 people, and none may be expected to be found in towns 
having less than 10,000 inhabitants. 




"Reynard the Fox." 




N describing the recent additions to the Mitchell Library 
of Glasgow, a correspondent deals at some length and 
with considerable knowledge of seventy-eight items treat- 
ing of the exceedingly prolific subject of " Reynard the Fox." 
These comprise German, Old Saxon, Danish, Swedish, Dutch, and 
English texts, in verse and prose, some of them quaintly and not a 
few of them elegantly illustrated. Among the Dutch editions is 
" Reintje de Vos van Hendrik, van Alkmaar, 1498," edited by 
Jacobus Scheltema, Haarlem, 1826, and there is another, with 
splendid plates, after designs by H. Leutemann, Utrecht, 1865. Of 
Danish texts, one merits special notice, namely, Herman Weigere's 
" Speculum vitseaulicae eller dem fordanskede Reynike Foss," &c., 
printed at Copenhagen, 1747, with pictures. There is a Latin prose 
and verse text, with cuts by Virgil Solus, " Opus Poeticum de 
admirabili fallacia et astutia vulpeculae Reinikes libros quatuor," 
Frankfurt, 1567, in excellent preservation, and another edition of the 
same, printed in 1579, with different cuts. German versions are 
numerous and interesting, and include several editions of Goethe's 
masterly rendering of the renowned romance, with charming illustra- 
tions, over which one might linger for hours together. Of English 
versions there is honest David Vedder's modern rendering of 
Caxton's famous text of the History of Reynard the Fox, made from 
Gheraert de Leeu's Dutch version, first printed in 1470. (Caxton's 
text, with a learned introduction by W. J. Thorns, forms vol. xii, of 
the Percy Society's publications, a complete set of which is in the 
Mitchell Library.) "The Pleasant History of Reynard the Fox, 
told by the Pictures of Albert Van Everdingen," edited by Felix 

27 



210 



''REYNARD THE FOXr 




Summerly, London, 1843 — a fine volume, now become rather scarce. 
" The Most Delectable History of Reynard the Fox, and of his Son, 
Reynardine, a Revised Version of an old Romance," in prose, small 
octavo, London, 1844. "Reynard the Fox, A Poem in Twelve 
Cantos, translated from the German by E. W. Holloway, with 37 
engravings on steel after designs by H. Leutemann," London 
(? 1852); a most charming book. "The Pleasant History of 
Reynard the Fox ; translated by the late Thomas Roscoe," with 
100 designs by Elwes and Jellicoe, small quarto, in prose; London, 
1873. A perfect livre de luxe^ published by Messrs. Swan, Sonnen- 
schein & Co. in i88<j., "Reynard the Fox: An Old Story New 
Told," with many beautiful pictures. Only another English version 
calls for mention here — namely, a translation of Goethe's " Reinecke 
Fuchs," with an introduction by Alexander Rogers, published by 
Messrs. George Bell and Sons, 1888. Herder recommended to 
Goethe the story of " Reynard the Fox " — the story of honesty 
opposed by craft and cunning — as "an old German epic, as fine in 
its way as the ' Iliad' itself." J. W. Laurenberg sang its praises in 
the Low German dialect to this effect : — 



*' For worldly wisdom never book could claim 
From fitting readers higher praise or fame 
Than the Fox Reynard — a plain book, where clear, 
And in a mirror, doth sound sense appear ; 
For in its rhymes a wit which all must prize, 
Like a rich treasure, half concealed lies." 




Among folk's-books "Reynard the Fox" has for more than five 
centuries had a popularity equalled only by the " Seven Wise 
Masters of Rome" and "Friar Rush." "In that rude old 
apologue," says Thomas Carlyle eloquently, " we have still a mirror, 
though now tarnished and time-worn, of true magic reality; and can 
discover there in the cunning reflex some image both of our destiny 
and of our duty, for now, as then, * Prudence is the only virtue sure 
of its reward,' and Cunning triumphs where Honesty is worsted, and 
now, as then, it is the wise man's part to know this and cheerfully 
look for it, and cheerfully defy it." 

Apart from the charm which the old story of Reynard the Fox 
possesses for readers of " all ranks and ages," it would be difficult to 
exaggerate its value to students of the genealogy of popular fictions. 
In the 30th chapter of Caxton's text, for example, we have a very 
interesting variant of the story of the Ungrateful Serpent that would 
have killed its deliverer, which is known in various forms in India, 



''REYNARD THE FOXr 2ii 

Burma, and Ceylon, with a tiger or an alligator in place of the 
serpent, and perhaps made its first appearance in Europe in the 
** Disciplina Clericalis" of Peter Alfonsus, a Spanish Jew of the 
1 2th century. In the 32nd chapter we have Reynard's account of 
the magical jewels which he alleges were stolen from him, one of 
which was " a ryng of fyne golde," in which was set a stone of rare 
virtue : " Whoso had in his eyen only smarte or sorenes, or in his 
body ony swellynge or heed ache, or ony sykenes without forth, yf 
he stryked this stone on the place wher the greyf is, he had anon be 
hole," and so forth. Another of his stolen treasures was a magic 
mirror, similar to that presented by King Crompart to the fair 
princess Claremonde, as we read in the old French romance of 
Cleomades, which was derived from a Morisco-Spanish source, and 
is near akin to the Arabian tale of the Ebony Horse. 



2X2 



MISCELLANEA, 



An Old Playing Card. 

THE Leipzig City Library has just acquired a playing card 
printed in Leipzig in 1557, which was discovered in Cologne. 
It is well known that many boards for books were made of sheets of 
paper pasted one on another, and this card must have been used by 
a binder in the year 1590 in making the boards of the folio volume 
in which it was found. 




An Island Library. 

THE whole library of one of the Scilly Isles consisted at one 
time of the Bible and the history of Dr. Faustus. The island 
was populous, and the western peasants being generally able to read, 
the conjuror's story had been handed from house to house, until^ 
from perpetual thumbing, little of his enchantments or his cata- 
strophe was left legible. On this alarming conjecture, a meeting 
was called of the principal inhabitants, and it was resolved to send 
to Cornwall for a supply of books. Long and earnest discussions 
followed to ascertain what these books should be, and the result 
was that an order was sent to an eminent bookseller for another 
Dr. Faustus. 




A Bookseller's Advertisement. 



ON March 20, 1785, Josef Wolf, a bookseller of Augsburg, 
issued the following advertisement: — *'To the reverend 
clergy, especially curates and seminarists. To be sold, certain 
books of sermons, for which six months' credit will be given for 
half the price, and the other half taken in masses." How much 
trade this enterprising bookseller did in this way is not known. 



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Our Note-Book. 




HE latest addition to the ever-popular Book-Lover's Library 
series of Mr. Elliot Stock, namely, " Literary Blunders : a 
Chapter in the History of Human Error," by Henry B. 
Wheatley, F.S.A., is not by any means the best of the series, but it 
is a very entertaining volume. Literary men are not, as a rule, more 
profusely thankful to the Candid Critic for the pointing out of his 
errors of commission or omission than any other class of erring 
mankind. But so long as there are literary men and people with 
what are somewhat indefinitely described as literary tastes, so long, 
we suppose, will there be literary blunders to chronicle. There is 
one advantage of which literary men are never slow to avail 
themselves — they can always shift the responsibility of their pub- 
lished errors on the back of one who cannot retort — for both 
the intelligent compositor and the infallible printer's-reader has 
his own ideas in the matters of orthography, punctuation, and 
so forth, to say nothing of an occasional consuming desire to touch 
up an author's "copy." It must be admitted that the said 
" copy " very often stands in need of a good deal of polishing, for 
the average literary man is too superior a person to bother himself 
with details. We are under the impression that the printer and his 
ever-present bete noir the " reader " could, between them, compile a 
screamingly-funny book on "Authors' Blunders," and we commend 
the idea to the enterprising publisher of the series in which Mr. 
Wheatley's book appears, on the understanding, of course, that 
*' present company is excepted." Every reader (points out Mr. 
Wheatley) of " The Caxtons " will remember the description, in 
that charming novel, of the gradual growth of Augustine Caxton's 
great work, " The History of Human Error," and how, in fact, the 



214 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 




existence of that work forms the pivot round which the incidents turn. 
It was modestly expected to extend to five quarto volumes, but only 
the first seven sheets were printed by Uncle Jack's Anti-Publishers* 
Society, with sundry unfinished plates depicting the various develop- 
ments of the human skull (that temple of Human Error), and the 
remainder has not been heard of since. Mr. Wheatley claims that 
his little book forms a chapter in this great work, which, doubtless, 
will appear one day in a complete form. The subject, however, is 
essentially best appreciated in instalments issued at fairly long 
intervals. The complete work must be too awful to contemplate. 
Mr. Wheatley's book deals consecutively with blunders in general, 
with the blunders of authors and of translators, with bibliographical 
blunders, with lists of errata, with misprints, with schoolboys' 
blunders, and with foreigners' English. We do not propose to 
enter more fully into a discussion of Mr. Wheatley's little book ; but 
as a striking illustration of the perils to which the correctors of a 
mistake are open, we will quote an amusing letter from Mr. J. S. 
Wood, the editor of the Gentlewoman : — ** One of Mr. Wareham St. 
Ledger's charming poetry books was under review, and the reviewer, 
adapting the lines from Tennyson's ' Brook,' said that the reader 
would find in this little volume — 



* Here and there a lusty Pun, 
And here and there a joke.' 

When it appeared in print it read — 

• Here and there a rusty Pun.' 




A polite intimation that the author was not flattered — for his puns 
were quite up to date — led me to instruct the reviewers to make 
' rusty ' ' lusty ' in the following week's paper. In the apologetic 
line, conveying the correction, it positively appeared as — 

* Here and there a musty pun.' 

What the genial author said when he saw the correction corrected 
never reached my ears. I expect it would have scarcely appeased 
him to be told that the reviewer's * copy ' was certainly one degree 
at least harder to read than that of the late Dean Stanley." 



Writing to Bodoni on October 14, 1784, Benjamin Franklin said: 
*' I have had the very great pleasure of receiving and perusing your 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 215 

excellent * Essai des charactbres de I'lmprimerie," &c., and we 
are reminded of this incident by the receipt from Mr. Martinus 
Nijhoff, of the Hague, Holland, of a "Catalogue Chronologique 
d'Editions Bodoniensis," and a glance through this admirable con- 
tribution to the bibliography of one of the most eminent printers of 
the last century will prove at once that such a complete series of 
Bodoni's most carefully printed books has perhaps never before 
occurred for sale at one time. The collection starts off with Abate 
Frugoni's " I vot^. canto per la felic. restituita d. S. E. il Signor Don 
G. Du-Tillot Marchese de Felino, primo ministro," &c., the first 
work printed at the Imprimerie Royale at Parma under the direction 
of Bodini, 1768. Nearly two hundred different works are fully 
described in this catalogue, from the year just named down to 1829; 
and among them we notice a copy of the Homer of 1808, in three 
volumes folio, a sumptuous publication, without question the most 
beautiful that ever left the Bodini press. For this very handsome 
book only 125 florins, or in English money ;!^ii, are asked. Those 
at all interested in the literature of printing should secure a copy of 
M. Nijhoff's excellent list. 

j'j jf ;!{ ;V 

In connection with this subject of book-catalogues, we are glad 
to have an opportunity of saying a word or two in praise of some 
very first-class examples which we have lately received from the 
well-known continental bookseller, Herr Karl W. Hiersemann, of 
Konigsstrasse, Leipzig, Germany. The batch now before us deal 
respectively with the fine arts, with European picture galleries, with 
the industrial arts, with archaeology, and with Americana. These lists 
are much more than trade circulars, and are compiled and arranged 
in sections with evident great care and extensive knowledge. Each 
enumerates from one to two thousand books, and when it is re- 
membered that Herr Hiersemann has only been in business eight 
years, the fact that he should have, in so short a period, accumu- 
lated such a large and select stock of books, is certainly a striking 
testimony to his book-knowledge and business capacity. These 
catalogues are well worthy of preservation for reference purposes, 
and as such will be found most helpful to bookbuyers as well as 
booksellers. 



2l6 



MISCELLANEA, 



Printers* Marks. 

A BOOK upon a subject which is entirely new ought to come as 
a relief after so many superfluous books on threadbare topics. 
The subject of " Printers' Marks," which forms the text of the new 
book to which we refer, may not strike the reader as one to make 
a fuss about, but that is because the number of people who have 
studied it may be counted on the fingers of one hand. As a matter 
of fact, it will be found to possess a many-sided interest — historical, 
pictorial, and decorative. Many of the marks used by the old 
printers to decorate either the title-page or the colophon at the end 
of a book are not only works of art, but works by such artists as 
Rubens in Holland, Picart in France, Holbein in Germany, and 
J. Pine (whose edition of " Horace " is, perhaps, the most perfect 
English printed book of the last century) in this country. This new 
book on a new subject is written by Mr. W. Roberts, whose '* Earlier 
History of English Bookselling " was favourably received four years 
ago. Messrs. George Bell and Sons are to be the publishers. There 
will be nearly two hundred illustrations. 




The John Rylands Library, 

MRS. RYLANDS has appointed Mr. Edward Gordon Dufif to 
the office of librarian of the "John Rylands Library" in 
Manchester. Mr. Duff is well known as a bibliographer of the front 
rank, especially in reference to early printed books. On the last- 
named subject he is about to issue one of the " Books about Books " 
series (the first volume in which is noticed on the opposite page), 
being an account of the invention of printing, and of its history in 
the chief countries of Europe during the fifteenth and early part of 
the sixteenth century, with special reference to the early presses of 
England and Scotland. 




The Great Book-Collectors. 




E have already referred to the series of " Books about Books " 
which Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench and Co. announced 
some time ago under the general editorship of Mr. A. W. 
Pollard, of the British Museum. If the succeeding volumes are as 
good as the first — "The Great Book-Collectors," by Charles and 
Mary Elton — the series will be a valuable addition to the very small 
number of English books which have the double merit of being 
bibliographical and readable. From the area which " The Great 
Book-Collectors " covers, it is obvious that no one book, nor indeed 
no dozen books, could deal with the subject at all exhaustively; 
but to exhaust a subject is generally equivalent to draining it of all 
its dry-as-dust dregs which would neutralise its more interesting 
phases. A book-collector, in which category the present writer 
humbly claims to be reckoned, is perhaps too prone to regard 
everything touching on his special hobby as of paramount im- 
portance, and is apt to run away with the notion that it ought 
to be also so regarded by the general public. That this is not 
so has been repeatedly proven by the number of " bookish " books 
which have hitherto failed to find people to purchase them when 
published, to say nothing of the many which have gone a-begging 
in a hopeless pursuit after a publisher. 

There is nothing objectionably ** shoppy " about Mr. and Mrs. 
Elton's treatise on "The Great Book-Collectors," which deals with 
a very vast subject in a skilful and comprehensive manner. The 
classical period — concerning which a whole volume alone might be 
written — is discussed in a dozen pages, with a brevity which is 

28 



2l8 



THE GREAT BOOK-COLLECTORS. 



I 



sufficiently full as a necessary introduction to the chapters which 
follow. The reader is then taken by easy stages from the earliest 
period in what may be conveniently termed modern history down to 
the end of the last century. This period embraces a span of 
eleven hundred years, and naturally the changes in book-fashions 
which have from time to time swayed the acquisitiveness of the 
collector have been many. To the lay mind it will come as a good 
deal of a surprise to learn that in Ireland book-collecting was 
greatly in vogue long before it was in this country. Very many of 
the incidents which relate to the love of books in the " distressful 
country" are somewhat legendary, and of highly questionable 
authenticity; but there can be no doubt of the general facts. 
Palladius came with twelve men to preach to the Gael, and we 
are told that he *' left his books " at Cellfine. The legendary 
St. Patrick is made to pass into Ulster, and he finds a king who 
burns himself and his home *'that he may not beheve in Patrick." 
The saint proceeds to Tara with eight men and a little page 
carrying the book-wallet; "it was like eight deer with one fawn 
following and a white bird on its shoulder." The king and his chief 
Druid proposed a trial by ordeal. The king said, " Put your books 
into the water." " I am ready for that," said Patrick. But the 
Druid said, " A god of water this man adores, and I will not take 
part in the ordeal." The king said, ** Put your books into the 
fire." "I am ready for that," said Patrick. ** A god of fire once 
in two years this man adores, and I will not do that," said the 
Druid. 

From Ireland book-collecting passed over into Northumbria, but 
it was still in the hands of the Irish monks. Theodore of Tarsus, 
who was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 669, 
brought with him a large quantity of books for use in his new Greek 
school; these were bequeathed by him to the cathedral library, 
where they remained for centuries. The first English collector of 
any note was Benedict Biscop, who at the latter part of the seventh 
century was scouring the Continent for books, and who quickly 
amassed a " most noble and copious store." By the twelfth century 
England was " the paradise of scholars," possessing such a ** supply 
of readers and writers " as could not be found elsewhere except in 
the University of Paris. Of all the ecclesiastical orders the Bene- 
dictines were the most generous and enthusiastic patrons of 
literature, and "delighted in their communion with books." The 
earliest Englishman to write in praise of books was Richard de 
Bury or Aungerville, the son of Sir Richard Aungerville, a 



THE GREAT BOOK-COLLECTORS. 219 

knight of Sussex. He was born at Bury St. Edmunds in the 
year 1287, receiving his education at Oxford; he afterwards 
took a prominent part in the civil troubles, taking the side 
of Queen Isabel and Edward of Windsor against the Edward II. 
He was the friend of Petrarch, and the poet has himself described 
his meeting with the Englishman travelling in such splendid fashion 
to lay before his Holiness his master's claim upon France. Richard 
was consecrated Bishop of Durham in 1333, and was successively 
High Treasurer and Lord Chancellor. He visited France on several 
occasions, and his love of books called into existence the 
"Philobiblon," which has even up to the present day held its 
own throughout Europe as the greatest prose poem in praise of 
books ever written. Following the chapter in which Richard largely 
figures we have one on book-collecting in Italy during the age of 
Petrarch, and then one in relation to books and libraries at Oxford, 
Duke Humphrey's books, and the library of the Valois. The 
period of the renaissance in Italy, and the collectors of books in 
various Italian cities, and the books of Corvinus are dealt with in a 
very fascinating manner. Then come Germany, Flanders, Bur- 
gundy, and once more England. The early bookmen of France, 
the foundation of the old Royal Library of Fairfax, Cotton, Harley, 
and the University of Cambridge, of Bodley, Digby, Laud, Selden, 
and Ashmole, to each of which a long chapter might have been 
devoted if the limits of Mr. and Mrs. Elton's book had permitted, 
are dealt with in the order in which we have indicated. The later 
book-collectors of France, Italy, and Spain — De Thou, Pinelli, 
Peiresc — and of the collectors ranging from Naud^ to Renouard, 
have each a more or less extensive notice. The last chapter of all, 
dealing with the later English collectors, is not entirely satisfactory, 
and the omissions are very numerous. But the period which this 
chapter covers, and the space in which it is disposed of, render 
impossible anything more than a superficial glance at what might 
very easily be elaborated into a large volume. 

The book, on the whole, is a highly satisfactory piece of work, and 
it is one which we can commend to all classes of bookish readers. 
Illustrations are a very subsidiary feature, but the ten examples 
given will be welcomed because they are uncommon. We have 
portraits of Peiresc, of the Duke of Bedford (from the Book of 
Hours commonly known as the "Bedford Missal"), of Maglia- 
becchi, of Sir Robert Cotton, of Sir Thomas Bodley, and of 
De Thou. 



220 



MISCELLANEA. 



Oriental Translation Fund. 




HE next volume of this exceedingly valuable series will con- 
sist of the third volume of Part II. of the '* Life of Muham- 
mad the Apostle " (to the previous portion of which 
reference has already been made in The Bookworm). It will con- 
tain the lives of Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, and Ali, the immediate 
successors of Muhammad. The following translations are in prepa- 
ration : — 

(i) By Dr. Steingass. The last twenty-four Mukamat or assem- 
blies of Al-Hariri of Basra. The first twenty-six of these have been 
already translated into English, and published in 1867, by the late 
Mr. Thomas Chenery, a former editor of The Times^ who describes 
their author as follows : " This eminent man of letters has been 
rewarded with a fame such as few have ever obtained. For more 
than seven centuries his work has been esteemed as, next to the 
Koran, the chief treasure of the Arabic tongue. Contemporaries 
and posterity have vied in their praises of him. His * Assemblies ' 
have been commented with infinite learning and labour in Anda- 
lusia, and on the banks of the Oxus. His poetry has been sung at 
the feasts of the great, and by the camel-drivers in the desert. To 
appreciate his marvellous eloquence, to fathom his profound learn- 
ing, to understand his varied and endless allusions, have always been 
the highest object of the literary, not only among the Arabic-speak- 
ing people, but wherever the Arabic language has been scientifically 
studied." (2) By Prof. Cowell and Mr. Thomas, Fellow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. The Sri Harsha Charita, or the history of 
King Harsha by Banabhatta. This work contains an account of the 
dynasty founded by Pushyabhuti at Thanesar, and particularly the 
beginning of the career of the second Maharajadhiraja of this family 
called Sri Harsha, or Harshavardhana, who conquered and held the 
whole of Northern, Central, and Western India from 606-648 a.d. 
The author of the work, which is full of the most interesting his- 
torical and literary details regarding the period, was the protege and 
Court poet of Sri Harsha. (3) By the late Mr. E. Rehatsek. The 
Nigaristan or Picture Gallery, a work written in imitation of Sa'di's 
Gulistan or Rose Garden, and considered by many to be superior 
to it, by Mu'in-uddin Jawini, about a.d. 1334-35. 




Sale of Rare Books. 




HE choice and valuable library of the late Mr. Fountaine 
Walker, of Ness Castle, Inverness, has recently been sold 
at Messrs. Sotheby's. The most notable books were the 
following : R. Allott, ** England's Parnassus," 1600, a very rare 
volume, containing extracts from all the most noted poets of the day, 
including no less than seventy-nine from Shakespeare, j^iy 5s. 
(Quaritch) ; a copy of the only entire Xylographic Block Book, 
printed in Italy (circa 15 10), and excessively rare, ornamented with 
121 woodcuts from designs by Durer, Bellino, and Mantegna, ^£^4 
(B. F. Stevens); E. Cocker, " Arithmetick," first edition, 1678, 
extremely rare, and although most persons have heard the expression 
" according to Cocker," very few have seen the work, ^15 (Quaritch) ; 
"Breviarium Romanum," in German, Venice, 15 18, one of the rarest 
books in existence, having been printed at the expense of the Count 
and Countess of Frangipan, whilst confined as prisoners of war in 
the gaol called Donesel (Torcello, near Venice), and disposed 
entirely of by them as presents, ^£17 5s. (Quaritch); Burton's 
" Anatomy of Melancholy," first edition, extremely rare, Oxford, 
1621, ;£"io los. (Sotheran); J. P. F. Bergomensis, *'De Plurimis 
Claris Sceletisque," &c., 1497, with many beautiful plates, including 
the portrait of Popefjoan, which is usually expunged, ^£19 los. 
(Merli); a fine copy of James I.'s "Booke of Commun Prayer," 
^605, ^10 15s. ; an extra-illustrated copy of Granger's " Biographical 
History of England," 1824, enlarged from three to eleven volumes, 
;^5o (Denham) ; John Milton, " Poems, both English and Latin,'* 
1645, first collective edition, with the rare portrait by Marshall, ;^20 



222 



SALE OF RARE BOOKS. 



w 



5s. (Ellis); Myles Coverdale's *^New Testament," Paris, 1538, 
extremely rare, the impression having been seized and destroyed by 
the Inquisition, ;^i3 15s. (Leighton); Tyndall's " Newe Testa- 
ment," 1549, slightly defective, ;^2o (Sotheran); a copy of the ex- 
cessively rare first edition of James I.'s ''Poeticall Exercises at 
Vacant Houres," 1591, with the sonnet at end (often wanting), ^£^30 
5s. (Quaritch) ; Punchy 1841-1891 inclusive, loi volumes in fifty, 
jQi6 (Sotheran) ; Shakespeare, "Chronicle History of Henry the 
Fifth, with his Battell fought at Agin Court in France," 1608, a fine 
copy of the quarto edition, £^0 (Quaritch); Edmund Spenser's 
" Complaints, containing sundrie small Poemes of the World's 
Vanitie," 1591, first edition, ;£'22 los. (B. F. Stevens) ; and " Colin 
Clout's Come Home Again," 1595, also the extremely rare first 
edition, £1^ (the same); "Virgilis XHI. Bukes of Eneados," 
translated into Scottish metre by Gawin Douglas, 1553, £2^^ los. 
(Hopkins); a fine copy of the second folio Shakespeare, 1632, in 
red morocco extra, ;^29 los. (Sotheran) ; and a set of original edi- 
tions, five volumes, of H. Shaw's illuminated works, 1833-51, ;^3o 
JOS. (Hopkins). 



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An Unique Binding. 

R. H. S. Richardson describes in The British Bookmaker 
a remarkable, and most probably unique, binding in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. It is referred to by Mr. W. 
Salt Brassington in the Introductory Chapter to his recently pub- 
lished work on the " Historic Bindings in the Bodleian Library," but 
is not included in his illustrations. 

The book is a small quarto, 8^ x 6^-in., and contains an illu- 
minated manuscript on vellum, with a curious miniature portrait of 
Queen Elizabeth, and entitled, "Hymn a tres haute, tres puissante, 
tres vertuose, et tres magnanime Princesse Elizabeth, Reine d'Angle- 
terre, France, et Irland, et pr^sente a sa Majestic par Georges de la 
Motthe, gentilhomme Frangoys, 1586." 

This Georges de la Motthe was a French refugee, then residing in 
England, and this binding was probably executed by one of his 
compatriots, as many Huguenots were settled in England at that 
period. [See a paper on " Bookbinding in England," contributed 
by Mr. W. Salt Brassington to the catalogue of bindings exhibited at 
Nottingham in 1891.] 

The cover is of brown leather, inlaid with various coloured 
moroccos. In the centre is a device in translucent enamel covered 
with a crystal, and having around it, on the obverse side, the motto 
— " Hie arcana deae procul O procul este profani," ^ while on the 
reverse cover the motto is — "Haec sola evolvet mortali vulnera 
mortis." ^ At the four corners of the inner panel is the letter ^, 

* " Here are secrets of a goddess ! Aloof ! O profane ones ! Stand aloof ! " 
Among the Romans it was customary, before the performance of any sacred rite; 
to warn off the uninitiated or profane.— See Dryden's Virgil " /Enid," book vi., 
p. 368. 

" " This alone will take away from a mortal the wounds of death." 



224 



AN UNIQUE BINDING, 






standing as I suppose for *' souvereyne." At the top and bottom 
corners are the crowned " lion passant " and " Tudor rose/' In the 
centre of the upper part is a shield bearing the royal arms, temp. 
Elizabeth — viz., quarterly, ist and 4th France, 2nd and 3rd England, 
surmounted with the crown; while in the centre of the bottom border 
is the letter A, also crowned, for " Angleterre." In the upper part, 
on either side of the royal arms, are the letters E and R (Elizabethae 
Regina), and on the sides of these latter are Greek symbols (as I 
take them) for '* Alpha" and Omega." The reversed letters G and 
M, at the foot, are evidently intended for the initials of the author's 
name — Georges de la Motthe. 

The meaning of the monograms on the sides of the cover, which 
appear to include the Greek "kappa," "lambda," and "phi," is a 
complete enigma to me, and which I hope some of your readers 
may be able to solve. 



Our Note-Book. 




OR all ordinary purposes, the handsome reprints of the first 
editions of Charles Dickens's works which Messrs. Mac- 
millan & Co. are now issuing, are the most handy, and for 
library purposes and for presentation purposes they are certainly 
far ahead of any other edition with which we are acquainted ; as, in 
addition to the important merit of cheapness (each volume is pub- 
lished at three shillings and sixpence), all the original illustrations 
are carefully reproduced. The first in the series is the perennially 
interesting "Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club," which con- 
tains, in addition to the illustrations, a capital introduction, bio- 
graphical and bibliographical, by Charles Dickens the younger. 
This introduction does not contain anything that is unknown to the 
collector of first editions of Charles Dickens, but many of the facts 
will be fresh to the general reader. The connection between the 
author and the artists who illustrated "Pickwick" is clearly and 
succinctly told, and the very absurd claim of the Seymour family to 
a portion of the honour of having originated Pickwick is satisfactorily 
disposed of, let us hope for all time. It will interest those who can- 
not afford the original edition to have reproduced the three illus- 
trations of R. W. Buss, who was first engaged to fill the vacancy 
caused by the untimely death of Seymour. It must be admitted 
that these illustrations are very poor stuff as compared with either 
those of Seymour or the extremely happy ones of " Phiz " (Hablot 
K. Browne). Out of the guerilla host of other artists who produced 
sets of illustrations for various publishers, Mr. Charles Dickens the 
younger reproduces the tea-party at the ** Spaniards " by Crowquill, 

29 



226 



OUR NOTE-BOOK, 



I 



and Mr. Pickwick after his ice accident from a series published by 
Sharp : each example has the merit of oddity, and beyond this very 
little can be said in their favour. The designs of Phiz are far and 
away the best that have ever been attempted, being thoroughly in 
keeping not only with the impression which the author wished to 
convey, but with what the majority of readers would create in their 
own minds without the extraneous aid of the artist. We reproduce 
the exquisitely humorous picture of the famous quarrel between the 




THE RIVAL EDITORS 



rival editors, which has a literary interest not altogether without 
parallels in modern times. So far as regards his future, we have no 
fear that Mr. Pickwick will decline in popularity "/or many genera- 
tions. Even when it ceases to interest as a story, it will still have an 
imperishable value as the truest and most vivid picture ever written 
of men and things of half a century ago. 




OUR NOTE-BOOK. 227 

In The Bookworm, vol. iv. p. 162, we acknowledged the receipt 
of the first part of Messrs. Macmillan & Bowes's exceedingly useful 
"Catalogue of Books Printed at or Relating to the University, 
Town, or County of Cambridge " ; and the second part of this most 
useful Catalogue only serves to confirm the high opinion expressed 
of the first. The present part includes books which come within 
the foregoing category issued from 1701 to 1800, and naturally the 
entries are more numerous than those which come between the 
dates 1521-1700. The first part enumerated 347 items, whilst 
the second gives a full bibliographical account of 106 1. As a rule, 
the entries have less interest as the books become more modern in 
date. One distinct merit of this Catalogue is the information con- 
tained in the notes, for the authors of very many of the books named 
have quite faded into obscurity, from which not even the " Dictionary 
of National Biography " has condescended to rescue them ; the few 
details, therefore, which Messrs. Macmillan & Bowes have given 
will be found very interesting and useful. 

* 5ie * * 

Dealers in bogus works of antiquity have been doing a rushing 
business of late. Recently the Louvre came near being swindled 
by a smart young man who brought in a magnificent bronze 
statuette, a specimen of Venetian art of the fifteenth century. The 
patriotic young gentleman declared that he would let the Louvre 
have it at a sacrifice because he would rather see it there than any- 
where else. Nevertheless, if it was not purchased in twenty-four 
hours, he would reluctantly be obliged to sell the statuette to a 
foreign establishment. So he modestly fixed the price. Everybody 
appeared to be delighted with the beautiful work, but the director 
of the fine arts, M. Roujon, was absent, and the money could not 
be paid to the patriot until he returned. An examination proved 
that this magnificent ancient piece was just six weeks old. 

Mr. Robert C. Hope's comprehensive treatise on " The Legendary 
Lore of the Holy Wells of England " (EUiot Stock) has an anti- 
quarian rather than a bibliographical interest, but of the inseparable- 
ness of the two subjects it in many instances gives rather striking 
proofs. " Well-Worship," as Mr. Hope briefly describes the subject 
of his volume (and in which generic term is included that of rivers, 
lakes, fountains, and springs), is of great antiquity, and is the primary 
source of innumerable legends, sacred and pagan. In the former, 
for example, we have the accounts of the Deluge, the miraculous 
passages of the Red Sea and of Jordan, and the pools of Bethesda 



228 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 






and of Siloah. Those of a purely pagan source are the growth of a 
primitive belief in what has been termed Naturalism. Mr. Hope tells 
us that the Indians, Egyptians, Persians, and Greeks all worshipped 
deities of fountains and streams — we know from Herodotus that the 
ancient German addressed his prayers to the Rhine ; the Alamanns 
and Franks worshipped rivers and fountains, prayed on the river's 
banks, and at the fountain's edge they lighted candles and laid down 
sacrificial gifts. Siudents of Homer will remember the many 
instances in which rivers directly and indirectly manifest their impor- 
tance throughout the two great epics. An infinite number of other 
phases might be cited to prove the theory to which we have alluded 
as to the literary interest of this subject, but for these we must refer 
to Mr. Hope's exhaustive book, which is extensively illustrated. 

* * * * 
So far as readers of The Bookworm are concerned, the chapter in 
"Practical Designing," which Mr. Gleeson White has edited for 
Messrs. Geo. Bell & Sons, is the editor's own section, entitled 
" Drawing for Reproduction." Mr. White, as every one knows, is 
the editor of the new art journal, The Studio^ which has proved such 
a distinct literary and artistic success. He is also a book collector, 
and rejoices in the extravagance of possessing and using almost a 
score different bookplates. In his serious moments Mr. Gleeson 
White is a draughtsman of very great skill and artistic taste, and 
several book-covers particularly, which owe their origin to his in- 
ventive skill — and the cover of the book under notice is a very 
excellent example of his work — are worthy of the highest praise. 
For these and many other reasons, into which we have not space to 
enter, he may be taken as an exceptionally safe guide in the subject 
of drawing for reproduction. To young artists especially his remarks 
appeal very strongly, and by the careful study of which they will find 
their attempts to gain the attention of publishers generally much 
more frequently rewarded with success than may have hitherto been 
the case. " Practical Designing " deals also with such varied topics 
as carpet designing, woven fabrics, pottery, tiles, metal work, stained 
glass, printed fabrics, bookbinding, wall-papers, &c., and as each is 
dealt with by a specialist, and is illustrated, the book is one of 
reference as well as one to read. 



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Cruikshankiana. 




S a guide to buyers, as well as to those who wish to sell, we 
give a long and interesting list of various works illustrated 
by George Cruikshank which came under the hammer at 
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's on May 31st last, with the figures at 
which each lot was knocked down. As the dates and descriptions 
are all taken verd. et lit. from the auctioneers' catalogue, we do not 
guarantee the authenticity of either the one or the other. 

Looking-Glass for the Ladies, first edition, folding front, by G. 
Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, scarce, 181 2, ;^3. 

The Enghshman's Mentor, Picture of the Palais Royal, folding 
front, by G. Cruikshank, first edition, boards, uncut, 1819, jQi 13s. 

The following collection of pamphlets, all illustrated by Cruik- 
shank, and uncut : — Hone's Pamphlets, etc. : The Real Constitu- 
tional House that Jack Built ; The Loyalist's House that Jack Built ; 
Political House that Jack Built ; The Kettle abusing the Pot ; The 
Palace of John Bull ; The Queen that Jack Found ; The Queen's 
Matrimonial Ladder ; The Green Bag ; " Non mi Ricordo " ; New 
Pilgrim's Progress; Political Lecture on Heads, first and second 
edition ; Political *' Apple-Pie " ; Jack and the Queen Killers ; The 
Queen in the Moon ; Royal Letter-Bag ; Queen's Budget Opened ; 
Loyal Man in the Moon ; The Man in the Moon ; A Peep at the 
P.V. . . . N,; The Cock of Cotton Walk; Despair, a Vision; 
Examination Extraordinaire of the Vice of R — y of B— d— y, 
Boro. ! ; The Queen and Magna Charta ; The Political Showman ; 
Reform; The Total Echpse; The Dorchester Guide ; Kouli Kahn ; 
Acts of the Adonis the Great ; Miraculous Host (title defective) ; 
The Men in the Moon ; Political Alphabet ; Political Queen that 



23© 



CR UIKSHANKIANA, 




Jack Loves ; Life of Billy Cobb and Death of Tommy Pain ; Doll 
Tear-Sheet ; Slice of Bread and Butter ; The " Greatest Happiness " 
Principle ; System of General Education ; Pro and Con, nos. 4 and 
5, 1819-73, ;^4. (Some of these pamphlets are very scarce, and as 
a whole it is seldom found.) 

The following works of W. Hone : — Ancient Mysteries described, 
first edition, plates, including ** The Giants in Guildhall " in colours 
by G. Cruikshank, original boards uncut, 1823, 8s. Every-Day 
Book, complete in parts with all the wrappers (except 3 and one 
back wrapper), numerous illustrations by G. Cruikshank, 1826-7, 
19s. Every-Day Book, 2 vols, first edition, numerous engravings 
by Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1826-7, 5^' Table-Talk, 2 vols, first edition, 
numerous illustrations by G. Cruikshank, boards, uncut, 1827, 19s. 
Pamphlets and Parodies on Political Subjects, numerous engravings 
by Cruikshank, bds. uncut, 1830, 5s. 

Life in London, 9 coloured plates from, by J. R. and G« 
Cruikshank, uncut, 1820, etc., los. 

Points of Humour, both parts, first edition, numerous plates by 
G. Cruikshank, boards, uncut, royal 8vo, 1823-4, j[^2> 3S' 

The Spirit of Public Journals, the three series complete, 3 vols., 
portraits and illustrations by G. Cruikshank, first edition, original 
boards, uncut, 1823-5, 7s« 

Italian Tales, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, cf. gt, 1824, 

Wight (J.), Mornings at Bow Street, plates by G. Cruikshank, first 
edition, hf. mor. m» e., 1824, 19s. 

Wight (J.), Mornings at Bow Street, plates by G. Cruikshank, 
original boards, uncut, 1825, 6s. 

Wight (J.), More Mornings at Bow Street, first edition, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, original boards, uncut, scarce, 1827, £,2 i8s. 

Der Freischiitz Travestie, by Septimus \ Globus, 1 2 etchings by 
G. Cruikshank, first edition, calf extra, 1824, los. 

Specimens of German Romance, 3 vols., frontispieces by G. 
Cruikshank, first edition, cloth, 1826, 7s. 

Universal Songster, 3 vols., ports, and numerous engravings by 
G. Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1826-8, 9s. 

John's Harcourt's Original Jests, first edition, front, by G. Cruik- 
shank, original wrappers, scarce, 1827, 6s. 

[Paris (J. A.)] Philosophy in Sport Made Science in Earnest, 
3 vols., first edition, woodcuts by G. Cruikshank, bds. uncut, 1827, 6s. 

[Collier (J. P.)] Punch and Judy, first edition, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, cloth, 1828, los. 




CRUIKSHANKIANA, 231 

[Collier (J. P.)] Punch and Judy, second edition, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, 1828, iis. 

Bell's Life in London, and Sporting Chronicle, illustrations by 
G. Cruikshank, 1829, 3s. 

Akerman (J. Y.), Tales of Other Days, first edition, plates -^by G. 
Cruikshank, boards, uncut, 1830, £,\ 2s. 

O'Hara (K.), Tom Thumb, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, 
wrappers, 1830, 2s. 

[Clarke (W.)] Three Courses and a Dessert, second edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. uncut, 1830, 8s. 

Katzleben (de), The Cat's Tail, first edition, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, wrappers, 1831, 9s, 

Katzleben (de), The Cat's Tail, first edition, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, wrappers, 1831, i6s. 

Ferdinand Frank, illustrations by G. Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, 
1831, 17s. 

Defoe (D.), Robinson Crusoe, 2 vols., numerous engravings by 
G. Cruikshank, first edition, hf, mor. g. e., J. Major, 1831, 17s. 

Roscoe's Novelists' Library : Don Quixote, 3 vols. ; Robinson 
Crusoe, 2 vols. ; Gil Bias, 2 vols. ; Tristram Shandy, 2 vols. ;, 
Vicar of Wakefield and Sir Launcelot Graves, in i vol. ; Amelia, 
2 vols. ; Tom Jones, 2 vols. ; Joseph Andrews ; Peregrine Pickle, 
2 vols. ; Humphrey CHnker; and Roderick Random, together 19 
vols., the whole series complete, numerous plates by G. Cruikshank, 
original white cloth, uncut, 1831, ^15. 

Anstey (C), The New Bath Guide, plates by G. Cruikshank, first 
edition, cloth, uncut, 1830, ;£i 2s. 

Anstey (C), The New Bath Guide, plates by G. Cruikshank, 
cloth, uncut, 1832, 7s. 

Shepherd (E.), Altrive Tales, vol. i, port, and plate by G. Cruik* 
shank, first edition, cloth, uncut, 1832, 3s. 6d. 

The Diverting History of John Gilpin, first edition, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, original wrappers, scarce, 1832, 3s. 6d. 

[Wight (J.)] Sunday in London, first edition, plates by G. Cruik-- 
shank, hf. mor. t. e. g., 1833, 17s. 

Sunday in London, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, original 
boards, uncut, 1833, £^\, 

The Stadium, or, British National Arena for Manly and Defensive 
Exercises, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, 1834, i6s. 

Bruce (C), Mirth and Morality, first edition, illustrations by 
G. Cruikshank, cloth, 1834, iis. 

Cruikshank's Comic Almanacks from the commencement in 1835 



232 



CR UIKSHANKIANA, 




to 1853, complete set, first edition, coloured frontispieces and 
numerous plates by Geo. Cruikshank, original state with all the 
wrappers and covers >s issued, scarce, 1835-53, ;£i5 los. 

Cruikshank's Comic Almanacks for 1835, 1836, 1840, 1841, 
1843, 1845 (2 copies), 1846, 1848, 18 5 1 and 1852, first edition, 
coloured front, and numerous plates by G. Cruikshank, original 
wrappers, 1835-52, £z, 

Cruikshank's Comic Almanacks for 1835 to 1839 inclusive, in 
I vol., first edition, numerous plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. of., 

Helps and Hints How to Protect Life and Property, plates and 
woodcuts by G.]Cruikshanks, cloth, uncut, 1835, us. 

[Barker (M. H.)] Tough Yarns, first edition, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, original cloth, uncut, 1835,;^!. 

Auldjo (J.), Journal of a Visit to Constantinople, first edition, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. t. e. g., 1835, 3s. 

Burford Cottage, first edition, front, and vignettes by G. Cruik- 
shank, cloth, uncut, 1835 ; Another copy, boards, uncut, 1835, S^* 

[White (J.)] Adventures of Sir Frizzle Pumpkin, first edition, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, boards, uncut, 1836, £^\ 12s. 

[Barker (M. H.)] Land and Sea Tales, 2 vols., first edition, plates 
and vignettes by G. Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, 1836, 17s. 

London and Westminster Review^ containing the article on 
" Modern Wood Engravings," with illustrations by G. Cruikshank, 
etc., wrappers, uncut, 1837, £^\ 8s. 

Inglis (H. D.), Rambles in the Footsteps of Don Quixote^ first 
■edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. t. e. g., 1837, 8s. 

Glascock (Capt.), Land Sharks and Sea Gulls, 3 vols., first edition, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, uncut, 1838, i6s. 

Glascock (Capt.), Land Sharks and Sea Gulls, 3 vols., first edition, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. m. e., 1838, 6s. 

Scoffern (J.), Chemistry no Mystery, first edition, front, and 
vignettes by G. Cruikshank, original cloth, 1832 ; Another copy, 
hf. cf., 1839, IS. 6d. 

[Defoe (D.)] Journal of the Plague Year in 1665, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, first edition, original cloth, uncut, 1839, 3s. 6d. 

Irving (W.), History of New York, plates by G. Cruikshank, first 
edition, original cloth, uncut, 1839; Salmagundi, illustrations by G. 
Cruikshank, first edition, original cloth, uncut, 1839, 6s. 

London and Westminster Review^ containing the original edition 
of the Essay on the Genius of George Cruikshank, numerous plates 
by G. Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1839, ;^t 8s. 




CRUIKSHANKIANA, 233 

Dibdin (T.), Songs, Naval and National, first edition, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, 1841, 11 s. 

Cockton (H.), Stanley Thorn, first edition, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, hf. cf. m. e., 1 84 1, 15s. 

Jerrold (D.), Cakes and Ale, 2 vols., first edition, fronts, and 
vignettes by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. m. e., 1842, 7s. 

O'Neill (J.), The Drunkard, first edition, port, and plates by 
G. Cruikshank, original cloth, scarce, 1842, jQ2i' 

George Cruikshank's Omnibus, first edition, numerous plates by 
G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. t. e. g. uncut, 1842, p^i i6s. 

George Cruikshank's Omnibus, first edition, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, hf. cf., 1842, IIS. 

Discovery concerning Ghosts, illustrations by G. Cruikshank, 
1864; Modern Chivalry, plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1843, 4S- 

Elliston, Memoirs, first series, first edition, illustrated by G. 
Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1844, 9s. 

The Lady and the Saints, first edition, engravings by R. Cruik- 
shank, uncut, 1839 ; Maginn (W.), John Manesty, vol. i, first 
edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. cf., 1844, 4s. 

Maxwell (W. H.), History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798, port, 
and plates by G. Cruikshank, first edition, cloth, uncut, 1845, 
;£^4 4s ; the same in half morocco, £^\ 14s. 

Maxwell (W. H.), History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798, portraits 
and plates by G. Cruikshank, hf. mor. g. e., 1854, 9s. 

George Cruikshank's Table-Book, in the original parts, with all 
the wrappers, plates by G. Cruikshank, scarce, 1845, £>9' 

George Cruikshank's Table-Book, first edition, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, cloth, 1845, iis. 

George Cruikshank's Table-Book, first edition, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, 1845, £i^ '^s. 

A'Beckett (G. A.), The Comic Blackstone, first edition, illustra- 
tions by G. Cruikshank, original cloth, uncut, 1846, 7s. 

The Yule Log, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, original 
cloth, g. e., 1847,^1. 

Byron (Lord), Don Juan, Cantos 1 to 5, medal portrait on title 
and coloured plates by J. R. Cruikshank, first edition, tree marbled 
calf extra, scarce, London, Smeeton, jT^i is. 

The Log Book, illustrations by G. Cruikshank, first edition, 
original boards, Lond., n. d., 15s. 

Landscape Historical Illustrations of Scotland and the Waverley 
Novels, complete in the original parts, port, and numerous plates 
by Turner, and G. Cruikshank, scarce, imp. 8vo. Fisher, n, d.,;£'2 i8s. 

30 



^34 



CR UIKSHANKIANA. 




Landscape Historical Illustrations of Scotland and the Waverley 
Novels, 2 vols, port., and numerous plates by Turner and Cruikshank, 
hf. mor. g. e., imp. 8vo, Fisher, n. d., £^\ i6s. 

Illustrations of the Works of Lord Byron from designs by Cruik- 
shank, first edition, wrappers, Lond., J. Robins, n. d., 14s. 

Cruikshank's Fairy Library : Hop-o'-my Thumb ; Cinderella ; and 
Jack and the Bean Stalk, 3 series of plates complete (no text), first 
edition, fine impressions, scarce, 7s. 

Cruikshank's Comic Album, 3 vols., ist edition, numerous 
engravings by R. Cruikshank, original cl. g. e., Lond., n. d., 

£^ 13s. 

Sports and Pastimes in Town and Country, illustrations by R. 
Cruikshank, mor. 185 1 ; Mayhew (Brothers), The Good Genius, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, cl., Bogue, n. d., 6s. 

A Pop-Gun fired off by George Cruikshank in Defence of the 
British Volunteers of 1803, illustrations by G. Cruikshank, first 
-edition, wrappers, London, n. d., 7s. 

A Pop-Gun fired off by George Cruikshank in Defence of the 
British Volunteers of 1803 against the Attack by General W. Napier, 
first edition, woodcuts by G. Cruikshank, presentation copy : " To 
Sir Charles B. Phipps, with respectful compliments and regards of 
G. Cruikshank " on title, hf. mor. t. e. g. wrappers preserved, Lond., 
n. d., £\ IS. 

Mayhew (Brothers), The Magic of Kindness, first edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, cloth, uncut, Lond., n. d., 4s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), The Magic of Kindness, first edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, original cl. g. e., Lond., n. d., 5s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), The Magic of Kindness, first edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, original cl. g. e., Lond., n. d., 4s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), Greatest Plague of Life, first edition, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, original cl. uncut, Bogue, n. d., 9s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), The Greatest Plague of Life, parts i and 6, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, wrappers, uncut, Bogue, n. d., i6s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), Greatest Plague of Life, first edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, cl., Bogue, n, d., 7s. 

Mayhew (Brothers), The Greatest Plague of Life, first edition, 
plates by G. Cruikshank, half calf, Bogue, n. d., iis. 

Mayhew (Brothers), Whom to Marry and How to Get Married, 
first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, half calf, Bogue, n. d., 14s. 

[Dalton] Gentleman in Black, and Tales of Other Days, plates by 
G. Cruikshank, &c., purple morocco extra, gilt gauffred edges, Lond., 
n. d., 6s. 



CRUIKSHANKIANA, 235 

Gardiner (W.), The Shepherd's Boy of Snowdon Hill, first edition, 
front, by G. Cruikshank, scarce, London, n. d., 5s. 

O'Neill (J.), Blessings of Temperance Illustrated in the Life and 
Reformation of the Drunkard, port, and plates by G. Cruikshank, 
wrappers, 1849, 2s. 

Basile (G.), The Pentamerone, presentation copy with autograph 
letter from Taylor, the translator of the book inserted, plates by G. 
Cruikshank, original cl. uncut, 1850, iis. 

Basile (G.), The Pentamerone, plates by G. Cruikshank, half 
morocco, t. e. g. uncut, 1850, los. 

Dibdin (T.), Sea Songs, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, 
cloth, uncut, 1850, 7s. 

Cruikshank and Mayhew. Adventures of Mr. and Mrs. Sandboys 
and Family, plates by G. Cruikshank, cl. uncut, 185 1, 12s. 

Cruikshank and Mayhew. Adventures of Mr. and Mrs. Sandboys 
and Family, first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, cl., 185 1, 15s. 

Barhanj (R. H.), Ingoldsby Legends, the three series, completef 
3 vols., port, and numerous plates by G. Cruikshank and Leech, half 
morocco, t. e. g. (with backs bound up), 1852, £^2 los. 

The following undated works of Mrs. Gore : — The Snow Storm, 
first edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, original cloth, g. e., 5s. The 
Snow Storm, a Christmas Story, first edition, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, original cloth, g. e., 5s. New Year's Day, first edition, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, original cloth, g. e., 8s. New Year's Day, first 
edition, plates by G. Cruikshank, original cl. g. e., 6s. The Lost 
Son, a Winter's Tale, first edition, front, by G. Cruikshank, original 
cl. g. e., 3s. 

George Cruikshank's Magazine, nos. i and 2, all published, plates 
by G. Cruikshank, scarce, 1854, jQ\ iis. 

Fielding (H.), Works, port, and numerous plates by G. Cruikshank, 
original cl. uncut, 1856, 8s. 

Brough (R. B.), Life of Sir John Falstaff, complete, in the original 
parts, with all the wrappers, plates by G. Cruikshank, 1857-8. 
Presentation copy : " Richard EUison, Esq., with the regards of 
Geo. Cruikshank," in Cruikshank's handwriting, on parts i, 2, 3, 4, 
5, and 7 repeated, fine and genuine copy ; very scarce, £,\\ 15s- 

Stenelaus and Amylda, first edition, engravings by G. Cruikshank, 
original wrappers, 1858, 3s. 

Blakey (R.), Old Faces and New Masks, first edition, front, and 
vignette title by G. Cruikshank, original cloth, uncut, 1859, 5s. 

Blakey (R.), Old Faces in New Masks, first edition, front, and 
vignette title by G. Cruikshank, hf. cf. uncut, 1859, 3s. 



236 



CR UIKSHANKIANA, 



Fullom (S. W.), The Exile's Daughter, first edition, front, by G. 
Cruikshank, original cloth, uncut, scarce, i860, iis. 

Chamisso (A. v.), Peter Schlemihl, plates by G. Cruikshank, cloth, 
1861, 3s. 

The Bee and the Wasp, plates by G. Cruikshank, presentation 
copy from the publishers, original vellum covers, uncut, 1861, 2s. 6d. 

Sergeant Bell and his Raree Show, illustrated by Cruikshank, 
etc., cloth, 1839; Catalogue of a Selection from the Works of 
George Cruikshank, 1863, £,7. los. 

Catalogue of a Selection from the Works of George Cruikshank 
from 1799 to 1863, now exhibiting at Exeter Hall, 1863; and 
Smollett's Miscellaneous Works, port, and numerous plates by 
George Cruikshank, original cloth, uncut, 1866, 8s. 

Halliday (A.), Savage-Club Papers, both series, 2 vols., numerous 
illustrations by G. Cruikshank, etc., first edition, original cloth, 
uncut, 1867-8, IIS. 

Scott (Sir W.), Demonology and Witchcraft, plates by G. Cruik- 
shank, cloth, 1868, 4s. 

An Original Water Colour Drawing, " designed by George Cruik- 
shank to represent his highly esteemed and worthy friend the late 
Thomas Ingoldsby, surrounded by some of the characters, good, 
bad, and indifferent, which he has so graphically portrayed in his 
celebrated Legends," forming the frontispiece to the new edition of 
Ingoldsby Legends published by Bentley in 1870, mounted, framed, 
and glazed. Accompanying it is the proof etching of the same with 
the inscription in his handwriting : " To Crawford J. Pocock, Esq., 
with the best regards of Geo. Cruikshank," and the autograph Letter 
of George Cruikshank to Crawford J. Pocock, Esq., to whom he 
presented the drawing, dated January 12th, 1870, 263, Hampstead 
Road, N.W., and in which occurs the following passage : *' Dear 
Friend, At last I send you a Water Color Drawing by me — the 
frontispiece to the new edition of * The Ingoldsby Legends.' A 
* Collector ' wished very much (underlined) to have this drawing, but 
I told him it was promised to you, and no one else should have it, 
etc." In the drawing itself Cruikshank was at his best, so that it 
might fearlessly be pronounced a masterpiece of art, ;^3o. 

Original Pencil Sketch of the portrait of "Arthur O'Leary " signed 
" Geo. Cruikshank," and which figures as the frontispiece to the 
first octavo edition of Charles Lever's novel of that name, mounted, 

£1 I OS. 

Original design of a Ticket of Her Majesty's Theatre, artistically 
executed, dated 1846 and probably never published, mounted, 

;£l IIS. 



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The Punch of the Commonwealth. 




r is not a little remarkable that we should be indebted to 
the psalm-singing days of the Commonwealth for the first 
English periodical devoted to fun and satire. On the 8th 
of April, 1652, under the very nose of his Highness the Protector, 
was published the first number of 

" Mercurius Democritus, or a true and Perfect Nocturnall, com- 
municating many strange Wonders, out of the World in the Moon, 
the Antipodes, Muggy-land, Tenebris, Fairy-land, Green-land, and 
other adjacent countries. Published for the Right Understanding 
of all the Mad-merry People of Great Bedlam." 

The size is the usual small 4to of the journals of the period, and 
its matter consists of sarcastic comments upon passing events, to- 
gether with a plentiful sprinkling of fictitious intelligence, narrated 
with a deal of broad humour, but the wit, if wit it can be called, is 
of so gross a nature, that I fear your lively contemporary would 
scarcely feel complimented by the assimilation conveyed in the 
heading. Here and there, however, I can pick out a paragraph 
which will give the readers of to-day an idea of the literary ware 
which amused their ancestors of the Commonwealth. 

Blake and Van Tromp are blazing away in the Channel, and the 
hits at the Dutch are consequently numerous, and appear to " take." 

" There is a fresh-water sea-man lately come sick home from the 
navy, saith that the Dutch Fleet lies so heavy on many of the sea- 
men's stomachs since the last engagement, that their breaths smell 
of nothing ever since but pickled herrings." 

And again a short time after — 

" The Dutch have lately devised a stratagem to keep their har 



"238 THE PUNCH OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 



bours from freezing, by placing in every haven a fire ship that's so 
hot that it thawes the ice faster than it freezeth/' 

Lilly also is fair game. 

**Will. Lilly hath put in Bayle, and hath his liberty on condition 
that he will make the aspect of Mars and Saturn to be more milde, 
and for his penance to take the Carter's Whip and jerk the Beares 
three times round about the pole, and after this to be put again into 
his primer and to learn to forsake the devil and all his works." 

The unfortunate star-gazer appears to have excited the wrath of 
Mercurius in no small degree — scarce a number in which he is not 
roughly handled. 

Here is another — 

" Mr. Lilly hath been missing certain days ; some think he hath 
made away himself; others affirm that he is metamorphosed into an 
owle, that sings by daylight and writes all night in a hollow tree ; 
others say he was overtook by an old lame shepherd in the Zodiac, 
mounted on the Dragon tail," etc. 

The polemical spirit of the times is lashed with a free hand, but 
the extreme coarseness of the satire renders it unfit for your columns. 
In one number it is recorded that 

"To-morrow is a great dispute at the Bare-garden between a 
Presbyterian Chamber-maid, who hath challenged an Independent 
Fish-woman, to dispute with her about the point of Predestination." 

A discussion which probably came off at a time mentioned further 
on, "when 3 tydes flow'd in the New River, and a quire of 
Mermaids heard to sing wonderfully sweetly by Jack Adams of 
Clerkenwell." 

The lover of folk-lore and popular customs will meet with much 
interesting matter in these colums, where the manners of the period 
are more faithfully and vividly depicted than in any other with 
which I am acquainted, always excepting the daguerreotypes of " the 
curious Mr. Pepys." From the following it would appear that the 
rites of St. Valentine were not formerly confined to pen and paper. 

•* A young gentlewoman, casting her apron over her face, because 
she should see nobody till she came to her sweetheart's bedside, on 
Valentine's morning, was met withal in the street by another spark, 
who claiming her for his Valentine, and offering to salute her, she 
denied to uncover her lips, whereupon he kissed her apron, which 
another seeing him, and laughing at him, he told him h e was but a 
fool to laugh at him, for the gentlewoman's lips tasted sweetest when 
strained through her apron ! " (No. 85.) 

The editor appears to have been a madcap Royalist, always in hot 



THE PUNCH OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 239 

water on account of his vile personalities. The publication was very 
irregular, and the tavern-haunters were often left some weeks without 
their favourite. At such times, we gather from the insinuations of 
rival journals that Democritus was in durance. One fine day, how- 
ever, he yielded up the ghost in earnest, and not long after there 
came forth a little pamphlet, now of the most excessive rarity, en- 
titled, " A Hue and Cry after Mercurius Democritus. — O yes, O yes, 
O yes ! If any man, woman, or child, in city or country, can tell 
any tale or tidings of a laughing, merry conceited fellow called 
Mercurius Democritus, who hath been lost about ten weeks, and can 
by no m^ans be found or heard of, let them bring word to the crier 
or bearer hereof, and they shall be well rewarded for their pains." 

After giving a humorous description of a poor author of that era 
— which, by the way, presents a sad similarity to that of one of the 
present — the writer winds up with a pathetic "sonnet," relating his 
quest after his friend, whom he purports to have found where few of 
your readers would care to follow him. 

" To Wood Street Counter then I came, 
Where in a darksome cell 
I called Democritus by name, 
Who cry'd out I'm in hell. 
On Cerberus I then did fly, 
For to redeem my friend, 
And then I ceaz'd my hue and cry 
And so I made 

An End." 

C. N. 



wmmm 



240 



MISCELLANEA, 



Irish Bookplates. 

A COLLECTION of early Irish bookplates, made about the 
middle of the eighteenth century, has been found among the 
manuscripts of the late Sir Bernard Burke, Ulster. Mr. H. Farnham 
Burke, Somerset Herald, to whom the collection now belongs, has 
sanctioned the publication of some of the more important plates, and 
will contribute some explanatory notes. The selections, &c., will be 
made with the assistance of Dr. Howard, Maltravers Herald Extra- 
ordinary. The work will be printed on large quarto sized paper, 
and will be issued to subscribers only. The number of copies will 
be strictly limited to 150. The subscription has been fixed at 
fifteen shillings. 



The Bookworm. 



The whole day long I sit and read 
Of days when men were men indeed 

And women knightlier far ; 
I fight with Joan of Arc ; I fall 
With Talbot ; from my castle-wall 

I watch the guiding star. . . . 

But when at last the twilight falls 
And hangs about the book -lined walls 

And creeps across the page, 
Then the enchantment goes, and I 
Close up my volumes with a sigh 

To greet a narrower age. 

Home through the pearly dusk I go, 
And watch the London lamplight glow 

Far off in wavering lines : 
A pale grey world with primrose gleams, 
And in the west a cloud that seems 

My distant Appenines. 

O Life ! so full of truths to teach, 
Of secrets I shall never reach, 
O world of here and now ; 
Forgive, forgive me, if a voice, 
A ghost, a memory be my choice, 
And more to me than thou ! 

From " Retrospect and other Poems y"* by Mary F. 
Robinson [Mdme. James Darmesteter), 



1 



The History of the Oxford Bible "Helps.' 




HE publication of a new and thoroughly revised edition of 
the " Oxford " Bible marks an epoch in the history of the 
most famous of all books, inasmuch as the " Helps " to its 
proper understanding have been subjected to a thorough elaboration 
and revision at the hands of the most eminent scholars of the day. 
Eriefly, its history is summed up in the following particulars : — Early 
in the eighteenth century, Dr. Richard Cumberland (Bishop of Peter- 
borough from i69itoi7i8) compiled a series of " Tables of Scripture 
Measures, Weights, and Coins, &c." which, together with an Index 
to the Holy Scriptures, was appended to many issues of the Oxford 
Bible. Some twenty years ago, it seemed to the authorities of the 
Clarendon Press that the time had come when these, useful as they 
were, should be systematically supplemented and revised. A desire 
had long been expressed, more especially among Bible students in 
the United States of America, for a comprehensive work, which 
should embody — so far as might be found practicable within the 
compass of a single not unwieldy volume — the chief facts, ascer- 
tained beyond reasonable dispute, relating to the Bible and its 
various books, their authors and characteristics, to the history of 
the long tract of time with which they deal, to the physical aspects 
of the Holy Land, its fauna, flora, and topography. It was clear 
that such a work should likewise include in a tabular form for 
purposes of reference the vast mass of information which would 
most conveniently be cast into this shape ; and that no matter 
should be admitted which could fairly be regarded as controversial, 
in order that those who mastered it might have at all events nothing 
to unlearn. For the original compilation of their *' Helps to the 

31 



242 HISTORY OF THE OXFORD BIBLE ''HELPS: 

Study of the Bible," the authorities of the Oxford University Press 
secured the services of the late Rev. James Ridgway, B.D., Hon. 



I 



' "Tncf cu^e-roYCntcu 
-r o Y € I c c y kj^^'c a€ /k n 

4-ifcrcMioyHretpcN 

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Tujhl n *^Tf I a? N TH c I oyjiK 



I 



CODEX VATICANUS (i Esdras ii. 1-8)- 
(Rome, Vatican Library.) 



-Fourth century. 



1 



The Bible in Greek, written in uncial letters probably in the fourth century. The text is 
arranged in three columns to a page, except in the poetical books of the Old Testament, 
which are written in double columns. Apparently in the tenth century, the writing was 
carefully, but quite unnecessarily, retraced in darker ink, only such words and letters 
being left untouched as appeared to the writer to be superfluous in a correct text. The 
same hand added the breathings and accents. The MS. was already in the Vatican Library 
in Rome in the fifteenth century, but nothing is known of its previous history. 



Canon of Christ Church, whose extensive personal knowledge of the 
Holy Land and of the East, together with his long experience in the 



HISTORY OF THE OXFORD BIBLE ''HELPS:* 243 



teaching of theology to students of all ages, gave him exceptional 
qualifications for the task. The first edition was published in 1876, 



D0CU5IENT ON PAPYRUS, FROM EGYPT, in the form of a 

roll bound round with strips of papyrus and sealed with 

two clay seals ; of the Graeco-Roman period. 

(British Museum.) 



and a second edition, revised and greatly enlarged, appeared a year 
or two later. The striking success of the book showed that it 



244 HISTORY OF THE OXFORD BIBLE '' HELPSP 

provided for a want which had been widely felt, and by October, 
1888 over one million copies had been issued. Once more, in 1884, 
the entire book was subjected to a careful revision. 

On the completion of the Revised Version of the Bible by the 
publication of that of the Old Testament in 1885, it was speedily 
recognised that the time had come for a yet more systematic and 
thorough attempt to render the " Helps " a complete and accurate 
guide to the study of the Scriptures. Public attention had been 
called to the text of the Bible to an extent before unknown ; and 
many questions of textual criticism and of interpretation had been 
practically settled once for all. Again, the remarkable progress of 
Archaeology had necessitated, as in the case of classical authors, 
a re-investigation and consequent modification of many existing 
theories as to the history of the Jews and of the various races with 
which they were associated. The work of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund had caused a revolution in long-established views as to the 
topography of the Holy Land. Egypt, Assyria, Asia Minor, had 
yielded up many secrets that had been hidden for ages. Linguistic 
science had made notable advances. In fact, there was scarcely 
a single book of the Bible on which fresh light had not been thrown 
by recent investigations and discoveries. It was accordingly re- 
solved that every section of the Oxford *' Helps " should be subjected 
to a searching examination, and should as far as possible be brought 
up to the existing standard of knowledge. The results may now be 
seen in a variety of beautiful editions issued by the University Press, 
Oxford. 

This, of course, is not the place to attempt anything like a 
criticism of the many sections into which these " Helps " are divided. 
We may, however, point out that the illustrations form a distinctive 
feature of the present edition. They have been selected and 
described by E. Maunde Thompson, D.C.L., LL.D., Principal 
Librarian of the British Museum; A. S. Murray, LL.D., F.S.A. 
Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum ; and 
E. A. WaUis Budge, Litt.D., F.S.A., Acting Assistant-Keeper of 
Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. They consist 
of facsimiles from the most ancient and authoritative manuscript 
versions of the Bible in Greek (Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, and 
Sinaiticus), Latin, Hebrew, Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, and Coptic. 
A table of alphabets, showing the development of the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin alphabets from the Egyptian hieratic, has been 
included. Egyptian and Assyrian, Babylonian and Phoenician 
monuments, which refer directly to important historical events 




HISTOR V OF THE OXFORD BIBLE « HELPSr 245 

recorded in the Bible, such as the wars of Mesha, king of Moab, 
with the Israehtes ; the capture of Jerusalem by Sennacherib ; the 
payment of tribute to Shalmaneser II. by Jehu; the capture of 
Babylon by Cyrus ; the capture of Ashdod by Sargon, king of 
Assyria — are also represented. Assyrian ceremonies, scenes of war 
and the chase, &c., are fully illustrated from the unrivalled collection 
of bas-reliefs from the palaces of Assur-nasir-pal, Shalmaneser II., 
Tiglath-pileser III., Sennacherib, and Assur-bani-pal, now preserved 
in the British Museum. Accurate copies are given of stelae, papyri, 
tablets, and other antiquities which refer to the religion and manners 
and customs of the nations with whom the Jews came into contact. 
Through the courtesy of Mr. Henry Frowde we are enabled to repro- 
duce two examples which we think will be of special interest to our 
readers, one being the renowned Codex Vaticanus, and the other 
a document on papyrus from Egypt. 



The Ruskin Bibliography. 

THE publication of the colossal Bibliography of Mr. Ruskin, 
which has been in progress for the last year or two, has just 
been completed by the issue to subscribers of the two last parts. 
When originally planned, the book was to consist of eight parts ; it 
has grown under the compiler's hands to eighteen. No less than 
1,154 items have been catalogued; and when it is said that a copy 
of every item has been personally examined, some idea will be gained 
of the labour which devolved upon the compilers, Messrs. T. J. Wise 
and J. P. Smart. They now announce to the subscribers a supple- 
ment in the shape of "Illustrations to the Bibliography." The 
projected illustrations will consist of cuts representing the scarcer of 
the first and other interesting editions of Mr. Ruskin's books; 
reproductions of the designs upon the bindings of "The Seven 
Lamps of Architecture," and other works; and facsimiles of Mr. 
Ruskin's manuscripts. 



246 



MISCELLANEA. 



Queen Elizabeth's Prayer-book. 

THIS book, bound in gold and enamelled, said to be the 
workmanship of George Heriot, came up for sale at Christie's 
on June 13 among the objects of art formed by the late George Field. 
It is an interesting specimen of an historical goldsmith's skill, and 
contains a collection of prayers and meditations composed expressly 
for the Queen's use by the Lady Elizabeth Tirwit, her governess ; 
she was a Falconbridge, and her arms, a lion with two tails, are 
printed inside. The prayers were printed in 1574 by A. Barker, 
whose device is seen on several leaves : a man stripping the bark 
from a tree, and the couplet — 

** A Barker if you will, 
In name but not in skill." 

This book was worn by the Queen suspended by a chain from her 
girdle through the two rings which are at the top. The cover is of 
gold, ornamented with coloured enamel figures in full relief. In 
front is represented the raising of the Serpent in the Wilderness, an 
emaciated figure in the foreground, and three others, one in the 
attitude of prayer ; on a border round it is written : — 

" + MAKE THE A FYRIE SERPENT AN SETITVP FORA SYGNE THATAS 
MANY ASARE BYITE MAYALOKE VPONIT AN LYVE." 

On the back is represented the Judgment of Solomon : — 

" + THEN THE KING ANSVERED AN SAYD SYVE HER THE LYVYNG 
CHILD AN SLAYETNOT FOR SHELS THE MOTHER THEREOF " 

The edges and back of the cover are decorated with black enamels. 
George Heriot was the favourite goldsmith and banker of James I. 
of England, and the founder of that noble institution, "George 
Heriot's Hospital," at Edinburgh. 

This article was formerly in the Duke of Sussex's collection, and 
was exhibited at the Tudor Exhibition. It was purchased for 1,220 
guineas. 



Sale of Caxton's and Early MSS. 




HE portion of the Bateman Library dispersed at Sotheby's 
last month, included a number of books and MSS. of the 
very first interest and rarity. The MSS. were of the greater 
importance, realising extremely good pieces considering that the 
majority were in anything but first-class condition. The highest 
price was paid for the " Epistolae et Opuscula " of Cyprian, a Mero- 
vingian manuscript of the eighth century on vellum, with several 
leaves at the commencement damaged, ^270; next in price to this 
came the "Expositio Digesta Psalmorum " of Cassiodori, a MS. of 
the twelfth century on vellum, with ornamental initials, transcribed 
by a Spanish scribe (i8^in. by i3|-in.), in oak boards, with brass 
bosses, ;^2oo; "Sancti Columbani, vita scripta ab Jona Hiberno," 
a twelfth century MS. on vellum, with leather joints, j£4i ; a "Canta 
Ecclesiastica " of the tenth century on vellum, with music, with the 
old sides stamped with the crowned Tudor rose preserved, ^£6$. 
" Evangelia iv., Latine, cum Canone S. Eusebii," loth century, with 
headings to St. Matthew and Mark in letters of gold, ^£^135 ; the 
same, of the nth or 12th century, and belonging at one time 
apparently to the Church of St. Mary-in-Walbeke as on several of 
its leaves are written " consuetudines and ecclesiae," and lists of its 
acres, &c., as well as various memoranda, dated 1360 and 1388, 
j£g$ ; a splendid MS. of a series of heroic poems on the ancient 
history of Persia, in Persian, by Firdusi Shah-Nameh, of the seven- 
teenth century, and decorated with seventy-three full-page beautiful 
paintings in gold and colours by a native artist, ^£^40. " Gregorii 
Magni Moralia in Job," of the ninth century, but damaged at the 
beginning and imperfect at the end, £160; a beautiful Book of 



2 48 SALE OF CAXTON'S AND EARLY MSS, 



1 



Hours of the fifteenth or sixteenth century (3^in. by 2|^in.), orna- 
mented with forty-eight exquisite borders, composed of birds, flowers, 
insects, &c., and with forty-three superb miniatures, ;£'ioo ; 
Henry VIII.'s copy of the Book of Hours, " in usum angliae," by 
an English scribe of the fourteenth century, ornamented with eleven 
borders and four small miniatures of figures of the instruments of 
Christ's torture, illuminated in gold and colours, bound by J. Payne, 
impressed with arms of Henry VIII. and Tudor Rose (Harper), 
^£'95. This unique item contains the following inscription : — " Of 
your devoute charite praye for the goode state of Maystrys Elyza- 
bethe Home, of Saresden, wydow, the which dyd gyffe this boke to 
the paryshe churche of Saresden aforesaid, in the yere of Our Lorde 
God 1 541." This MS. is the one mentioned by Warton in his 
" History of Kiddington " at Kiddington House as " a fine MS. 
missal on vellum, with elegant pictures and illuminations." A Sarum 
Book of Hours, by an English Scribe, fourteenth century, finely 
illuminated in gold and colours, ;^49 ; a fifteenth-century Horae, 
by a Flemish Scribe, finely illuminated in gold and colours, v/ith 
six large and eighteen small miniatures, ;£66 ; a collection ot 
eighty exquisitely beautiful miniatures and borders, illuminated 
in gold and colours, neatly mounted on cardboard, ;£i6i. Among 
the Caxtons and other early printed books we may mention 
Ranulph Higden's " Polycronycon," translated by John de Trevisa, 
and printed by Caxton in 1482 (incomplete, wanting Proheme and 
five other leaves), ;^i22; Caxton's "Doctrinal of Sapyence," 1489, 
with six leaves supplied in manuscript, £^^Z — a few years ago this 
same copy was knocked down for ;^83 3 " Cory dale," translated by 
Lord Rivers, a fragment of this extremely rare work — thirty-four of 
the seventy-six leaves— printed by Caxton 1480, ;^i8. "Croniclis 
of Englonde," issued by the unknown printer of St. Albans, 1483, 
with several leaves facsimiled— -no perfect copy is believed to be 
known, whilst it is excessively rare even imperfect — fy^\ the 
' ' Byrthe and Comynge of Antechryst/ printed by Caxton's suc- 
cessor, Wynkyn de Worde, about 1495 — this copy is believed to be 
the only one in existence — ;£25. 



I 




" Hatchards." 
[from "the daily chronicle."] 




ATC HARD'S book shop in Piccadilly is one of the many 
historic houses in this very historic thoroughfare. Nearly 
a hundred years ago it was a kind of bookish free-and-easy, 
where men of letters met for books, gossip, and news. To-day 
Hatchard's is more bookish than ever, but one of the most fashion- 
able of West End bookshops. Clearly Hatchard — even the imper- 
sonal Hatchard — could give some interesting reminiscences about 
his early associations. Clearly also Hatchard could tell what kind 
of place our dazzling West End makes in regard to literature. 

Bent on his double-barrelled interview (says a Chronicle inter- 
viewer), I betook me the other day to this famous book shop. 
Hatchard is now Mr Arthur Humphreys, and his partner Mr. Edwin 
Shepherd, but the original John Hatchard — urbane old man, as the 
chronicles tell us he was — could not have received me more kindly. 
Indeed, Mr. Humphreys, who elected to face the interview, buckled 
down to my questions with a geniality which in similar circumstances 
I could not for a minute hope to attain. Besides being a bookseller 
he is a student and lover of books, and he has written one or two. 
Incidentally he told me he is at present writing a work on Hatchard's 
from the historical point of view. Easily and naturally, therefore, 
we slipped into this branch of our talk first. 

**When," I asked, "and under what circumstances was Hat- 
chard's founded ? " 

"The business," said Mr. Humphreys, "was founded in the year 
1797 by John Hatchard, who had formerly been in the employ of 
that very famous bookseller. Honest Tom Payne. This was a great 

32 



250 



HATCHARDS, 



I 



man in his day, and his shop, where the National Gallery now 
stands, was a favorite resort of authors. There, I suppose, Hatchard 
became acquainted with many of the writers of the day, and when 
he set up business on his own account they made his place a centre. 
Hatchard, who seems to have been a shrewd, able man in his way, 
was of course anxious to have the big men look in on him. For 
instance, I have a letter which he wrote to Dr. Burney, the historian 
of music, asking for his custom. He got the custom, and further, 
Burney promised to recommend him to his friend Richard Porson." 

" It was in this way, then, that the beginnings of the business were 
laid ? " 

" Yes, but the real foundation of the business was the publication 
of a pamphlet, entitled "Reform or Ruin." Its author was John 
Bowdler, the father of that Thomas who afterwards distinguished 
himself by ' bowdlerising ' Shakespeare. I suppose there was con- 
siderable ground for the pamphlet, which was a bitter, savage and 
powerful attack on current scandals at Court. It was the boldness 
and the daring of the pamphlet that amazed people, and gave it 
quite a remarkable vogue. Edition after edition was published, and 
I have myself two copies of different editions." 

" Nobody, neither Bowdler nor Hatchard, got * put away ' for it ? " 

** No ; John Hatchard went on publishing and selling .religious 
books, for really that was practically the backbone of the trade. 
Indeed, up to ten years ago Hatchard's was still essentially a 
religious bookseller's. I need hardly tell you that now we are book- 
sellers in the broadest sense of the word. We sell books of every 
sort and kind, and we think we can enlighten people upon almost 
any book they may be looking for. My notion of a bookseller — 
bookseller distinct from a mere seller of books — is that he should 
be a kind of walking catalogue of literature. But that's a digression, 
and I know you want me to tell you some of the prominent people 
who made Hatchard's a resort at the end of the last and the beginning 
of the present century." 

** No doubt in your book you'll have a good deal to say on that 
point ? " 

" Oh, yes. Burke and Canning came here, and so did Crache- 
rode, the great book-collector, whose name may not be so familiar to 
you. Cracherode was a very noted personality, however, and there 
is a room at the British Museum called the Cracherode Room, for 
the reason that he bequeathed them part of his collection — I think 
his classics. William Wilberforce, the opponent of slavery, had his 
letters addressed here ; and here Crabbe, the poet, and Scott met. 



''HATCHARDSr 251 

You'll find it set forth in Lockhart's life of Scott that the author 
of * Ivanhoe ' and Crabbe foregathered in Hatchard's back room. 
Byron's sister was a visitor to the shop, and I should say to a cer- 
tainty Byron himself, although there's no absolute record showing 
it. Samuel Rogers was another of the literary set who gave old 
Hatchard the advantage of their custom and frequent presence. In 
later days, too, Mr. Gladstone, then quite a young man, used 
to have a considerable connection with Hatchard's by way of his 
parnphlets." 

" So Mr. Gladstone is a link which connects the Hatchard of the 
older school with the Hatchard of to-day? " 

" If you like. I'm afraid there is a very great difference between 
the old Hatchard and the young one. The change is well illustrated 
by the fact that the busiest time of our day is the afternoon, when 
our streets and thoroughfares are brightest with fashion. No 
authors' free and easies in the back room — not here or at any other 
bookseller's; instead the busy sale of books, most of them to be 
read somewhere in the West End." 

" This brings us fairly to the second branch of my subject — the 
West End in relation to literature. Do the upper ten buy very 
largely of books ? " 

"They do, as you might yourself see by looking in on us any 
afternoon you're passing. I should say that the bulk of our buyers 
are ladies, or rather, that ladies buy more than men. In a recent 
article in the Fortnightly, Mr. Andrew Lang sai'd he did not know 
any lady of distinction who could tell the difference between wide 
margins and narrow, who, in a word, knew about a book as a book. 
Speaking from my own experience, I entirely disagree with him. I 
believe there is an increasing number of ladies who take a deep in- 
terest in beautiful paper, fine bindings, and so on. In other words, 
I see signs, which lead me to think that in the not very far distant 
future the collection of valuable books will not remain a hobby for 
men only. Book collectors are arising, sir, among the fair sex, and 
from a trade point of view I'm bound to day the development is an 
excellent one." 

" To what do you attribute this advance of bookishness among 
women ? " 

" My own notion is that to some extent it is a result of the 
American woman in English society. I know of one American 
lady myself who is greatly devoted to books, and there are many 
others living here of whom the same might be said. The fair 
American is leading her English sister — anyhow, that explanation 



252 



HATCHARDS. 



seems a reasonable one, I take it as generally accepted that the 
average American woman of education is more bookish — cares more 
for books as books — than the average educated English woman, 
although she does not, it may be, read more." 

" I imagine you have another type of bookish woman, the 
woman who reads serious literature — philosophy for example ? " 

"What I call ladies' philosophy is with us a distinct feature, and 
who, you ask, are ladies' philosophers? Schopenhauer, generally 
in the English translation, Plato, Marcus. Aurelius, Epictetus, and 
Ernest Renan. Since Renan lectured at the Royal Institution 
on Marcus Aurelius there has been quite a new interest in that 
author. This revival was in a measure traceable to the well-known 
essay of Matthew Arnold. Americans buy ' Herbert Spencer' 
largely : English readers to a much less extent. In a measure 
I should also include Ruskin in my group of ladies' philosophers." 

" Taking your readers generally, men as well as women, are there 
at present any marked tendencies towards special subjects or periods 
in literature ?" 

" Two illustrations in answer to your question occur to me, one 
the penchant iov eighteenth- century literature, the other the interest 
in works on gardening and horticulture generally. Several influences 
are responsible for the devotion to subjects and themes of the 
eighteenth century. Lecky's ' History of the Eighteenth Century ' 
has been one influence, Austin Dobson's writings another, Reginald 
Brett's a third. Then the reprints of Dorothy Osborne's Letters and 
the Chesterfield Letters have caused a wide demand, and there is 
an undying interest in Horace Walpole. The interest in garden 
literature appertains most markedly to women, and perhaps it may 
be referred back to the publication of a little book by * E. V. B.' 
(Mrs. Boyle) on * Days and Hours in a Garden,' an account of the 
authoress's own garden near Burnham Beeches. I suspect that the 
interest in horticulture on the part of most ladies is a purely literary 
one. That is to say, they don't themselves garden exactly, but they 
like to read about gardens. " 

" I take it you have yet to tell me what it is essentially the upper 
ten, the West End, read ? " 

** Yes ; we have more or less been wandering through West End 
literary byways. The great literary highway in the West End is 
fiction — fiction dashed with adventure and biography. Undoubtedly, 
novels are the literary pabulum of the mass of the people in the 
West End. Women seem never to tire of ghost stories and detec- 
tive stories ; they like mystery, a substantial splash of sensation, 



« HA TCHARDSr 253 

in their reading. Conan Doyle's * Adventures of Sherlock Holmes ' 
are regarded as the very best in the way of detective stories. 
Military men, and men who have travelled, as all well-to-do people 
have more or less, like stories of adventure — anyhow, stirring stories. 
Sporting novels too, as, for example, those of Whyte Melville, or 
*Handley Cross,' and 'Sponge's Sporting Tour,' by Surtees, go 
very well." 

" How do my lady and his lordship prefer their fiction — in one, 
two, or three volumes ? in cloth or in paper ? " 

" It is only substantial novels, like Hardy's * Tess,' Mrs. Humphrey 
Ward's ' David Grieve,' or Mallock's * Human Document,' that sell 
to any extent in three-volume form. Even for such novels the 
three-volume edition, which is not suited to the bookseller, is, I 
think, doomed to go out by and by. And if the three-volumer goes, 
the two-volumer, which is merely an offshoot, is also doomed. We 
shall therefore get to the single volume, the form in which the great 
body of fiction already passes over the counter. You have seen the 
Pseudonym Library, neatly bound, handy things in yellow paper 
covers ? Well, there is a distinct appreciation of fiction in that form, 
for the simple reason that it is so handy. If a lady takes a novel 
with her in her carriage, she prefers it light, daintily manageable, a 
volume which gives no sort of trouble." 

" Who of our novelists are most popular in the West End ? " 

" Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, W. E. Norris, W. H. Mallock, 
Marion Crawford, Rhoda Broughton, Marie Corelli — perhaps these 
are the first favourites of fashion. If a new story by Kipling were to 
be published to-morrow we should expect to sell more copies of it 
than of any other writer. I think Mallock is popular because he 
interprets present-day tendencies better than anybody else, Norris be- 
cause he understands English country life, and Hardy because of his 
grip of characterisation and his realism. Marion Crawford's points 
of attraction are his good English, and the variety of his fiction, 
Marie Corelli's her mystery and weirdness, while Rhoda Broughton's 
attractiveness is, I suppose, the buoyancy and fun which run through 
her stories." 

"Neither Meredith nor Stevenson are in your list; surely they 
sell largely where people are all at least well-educated ? " 

" True, they sell ; but they have not by a long way the popular 
sale of those I have mentioned. Barrie has quite as good a sale as 
Stevenson. Rider Haggard's * She ' and ' Beatrice ' did very well, 
and Conan Doyle's stories, as I have already said, are greatly in 
favour." 



254 



JIATCHARDS: 



" I should be glad of some estimate of the popular poets and 
general writers." 

*' Women are perhaps the greater readers of poetry, and of the 
younger poets William Watson, Henley, Le Gallienne, and Norman 
Gale all sell. So, of course, do the older poets — Alfred Austin, for 
example, William Morris, who is always rising, and Swinburne, for 
whom there is a steady, a classical sale. No, I cannot say there is 
much of a demand for Robert Buchanan's verse. Once and only 
once do I remember a real rush for him. That was when Mr. 
Lecky, in a speech at an Academy dinner, praised the ' City of 
Dream ' very highly. In miscellaneous literature, the names of 
Andrew Lang, especially for his essays, and of John Addington 
Symonds, occur to me as being often on the lips of customers." 

" You have not mentioned the attitude of society towards really 
great writers." 

"I assumed a certain sale — largely for gifts — of Shakespeare, 
Milton, and the older classics. Both of Tennyson and Browning 
there is an extensive demand. It reached a high-water mark in the 
periods immediately following their deaths. Let any poet or author 
become at any time unusually prominent in the public view, and 
immediately he has an accenuated sale. I could mention one poet, 
not selling particularly well as a rule, who had a distinct popularity 
on the assumption that he was to be Poet Laureate." 

" I have asked you much, and I have still one other point, 
but only one. What are the powers which make for the sale or the 
non-sale of a book ? " 

" In my opinion dinner-table talk on books has more to do with 
the sale of books than anything else. A word at a dinner-table from 
men like Mr. George W. Smalley or Sir Henry Calcraft in praise 
of a book, will move the mysterious waters which ensure a large sale. 
Even more so, recognition by Mr. Gladstone does a book a world of 
good. Not long ago the Grand Old Man, while at a country house, 
praised a biographical dictionary. Next day we sold a copy of the 
work to a member of the party at the country house." 

** Get a book talked about, then, and it will sell : that is a first 
principle ? " 

*' I certainly think it so. And after that influence come the 
reviews." 

" I'm afraid I haven't been able to tell you much of interest," Mr, 
Humphreys added, as I was leaving. I dissented entirely. 




Early American Imprints. 




NE of the most remarkable typographic exhibits on record 
was that made at the Grolier Club House in New York in 
April. It consisted of relics of colonial American pamph- 
let and book printing which have been preserved in private hands 
or society libraries. Distinctively prominent were works from the 
press of William Bradford, at Philadelphia from 1685 to 1693, and 
in New York from 1693 to 1743. First of these is the Kalen- 
darium Pennsilvaniense, an almanac for the year 1686. The first 
New York work is " New England's Spirit of Persecution trans- 
mitted to Pennsylvania and the pretended Quaker found persecuting 
the true Christian — Quaker in the Tryal of Peter Ross, George 
Keith, Thomas Budd, and William Bradford. Printed in the year 
1693." 

Then there were shown other works either printed by or relating 
to John Peter Zenger, from 1725 to 1740; imprints of James Parker, 
the most skilful printer of his epoch, from 1743 to 1746; of Henry 
De Foreest, from 1744 to 1754; of John Zenger, jun., in 1746; 
Catharine Zenger, in 1747; Hugh Gaine, from 1754 to 1774: 
Parker and Weyman, in 1753 and 1754; William Weyman, in 1761 
and 1762; John Holt, from 1763 to 1773^ James Parker and Co., 
Garrat Noel, Samuel Brown, and others, up to the time of the 
Revolution. 

Besides these valued books there were several rare examples from 
the Pennsylvania presses of Reinier Jansen, Andrew Bradford, 
Samuel Keimer, and others, twenty-four imprints of the Franklin 
Press, including one or two copies known to be extant of " Poor 
Richard," 1733, and two uncut copies of the " Cato Major," one 
bound by Lortic and the other in its original covers. Also at the 




256 EARL V AMERICAN IMPRINTS. 

Grolier exhibition was displayed a treasured copy of the first book 
printed at Perth Amboy, NJ., dated 1723; the first "Compendium 
of Surveying " printed in America, issued by' Isaac CoUins at Bur- 
lington, N.J., in 1771; the first book issued in what is now the 
State of Delaware, printed at Wilmington in 1763 ; the first English 
book printed in America, the Bay Psalm Book, at Cambridge in 
1640, the earliest book printed in Virginia known to be extant. "A 
Collection of all the Acts of Assembly," Williamsburg, 1733; the 
earliest South Carolina imprint yet in existence, " The Laws of the 
Province," Charles Town, 1736. 

To newspaper readers and newspaper makers, most attractive of 
all were No. 18 of the New York Gazette^ the earliest issue known 
to be preserved of the first public journal in New York ; No. 7 of 
Zenger's Weekly Mercury^ the first of the numbers condemned to be 
burned by the sheriff, and the first issue of Franklin's Pennsylvania 
Gazette. It was, in every feature, a notable object lesson of com- 
parison and suggestion. 




Myles Standish, His Booke. 

IN the 400,000 volumes in the old bookstore of the late T. O. H. 
P. Burnham, of Boston, Mass., there is one which will interest 
collectors greatly. This volume, for which the owners ask the 
modest price of ^2,500, was published in London in 162 1, and 
bears for its title, " The Passions of the Minde in Generall ; in sixe 
bookes, corrected, enlarged, and with sundry new discourses aug- 
mented. By Thomas Wright." It is not the book itself, however, 
but its former ownership that gives it highest value ; for once upon a 
time this work belonged to the valiant Capt. Miles Standish, forming 
one of the very few works which his library contained. So far as is 
known, this is the only book from that library now in existence. 
On the inside is written in bold letters, " Myles Standish, his 
booke, 1626." 




Letters from America, 1777. 




HE following letters were written by my great-grandfather, 
James Warren : there must have been more, but these are 
il the only two left. James Warren was a wine-merchant in 
London, and becoming acquainted, about 1775, with Benjamin 
Franklin, was induced to sell his business and attempt to establish 
himself in America. He succeeded in setting up a brewery in 
Philadelphia, which prospered well, and he was probably on the way 
to riches, when the breaking out of war ruined him. When Lord 
Cornwallis and the British army occupied Philadelphia, he volun- 
teered his services, and was of much use in the way of guidance and 
so forth, thus becoming so unpopular that he was obliged to follow 
the army when they evacuated the town. His partner, also an 
Enghshman, took the Republican side, and, remaining behind^ 
possessed himself of the business. James Warren at last reached 
England, I imagine not very far from destitute; and after a time 
endeavoured to obtain from the English Government some recogni- 
tion of his services, and compensation for his losses. In this, though 
backed by the following testimonial from Lord Cornwallis, he had 
of course no success : — 



Albemarle Street, March 2nd^ 1782. 
I perfectly recollect that Mr. James Warren rendered many 
material services to his Majesty's Army in Pennsylvania. He com- 
municated to me the first account of the Channel by which the 
Vigilant went up to the attack of Mud Island. He spared his 
principal Clerk at a time that he must have been in great want of 

33 



258 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777 






his services, to assist the Army in discovering such Stores and 

Articles as might be useful ; and if I had not advised him against it, 

he would have engaged in an attempt which would probably have 

cost him his hfe. 

I shall be happy to find that this testimonial of Mr. Warren's zeal 

to serve his country may contribute to his indemnification for his 

severe losses. 

CORNWALLIS (L. S.). 

James Warren's American partner remitted him some sums of 
money at intervals ; but after my great-grandfather's death in 1788, 
aged only 52 (of phthisis, probably caused by his exposure with the 
army), his sons, who were then boys of eighteen and sixteen, could 
never obtain even a statement of accounts ; and ultimately the 
matter was abandoned. But as late as 1847 it appears that the site 
of the Philadelphia brewery changed hands, and the American 
lawyers, finding this ancient claim upon it, thought it prudent to 
have it formally released. They accordingly looked up James 
Warren's descendants, and caused them to execute such a release. 
I am sure I don't know why, but these lawyers chose to have the 
release witnessed by the "head of a corporation," and my father 
accordingly got the Vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge 
(the late Bishop Philpot of Worcester) to sign and seal for him. 
The seal, being very big, satisfied the lawyers. 

Such was my one chance of American citizenship. 

C. F. S. Warren, M.A. 



Letter I. 



New York, 2Zth June, i777- 
My dear Sister, — As I have written home by every opportunity, 
you will have heard of my safe arrival. The Packet was to have 
sailed the second day after I got here, and by her I wrote to most 
of my friends. She was afterwards detained by the Admiral seven 
or eight days, or you would have heard from me almost as soon as 
it was possible — at least, in all probability as soon as in general it 
happens under the like circumstances. Convoys are sometimes 
very tedious ; the Gentleman I am with was five months from the 
time of his leaving Portsmouth. The circumstance I lamented as 
very unfortunate (the reaching Portsmouth too late to come out in 
the Isis), for although she sailed ten days before the Somerset^ yet 
she did not arrive till near a fortnight after us. This would have 



I 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 259 

lost me the opportunity of seeing Sir William Howe, who took the 
field a few days after I got here, and I should have lost the oppor- 
tunity of being known to General Grey, who was likewise a passen- 
ger in the same ship. I was so fortunate as to succeed with this 
Gentleman (by those little attentions your favourite author so 
strongly recommends), and interested him so much in my affairs 
that he repeatedly promised to serve me to the utmost of his power, 
took down the particulars of all my property, and assured me that 
in case he was with the Army when Philadelphia fell into the hands 
of his Majesty's forces, he would place guards upon my part of the 
premises, to prevent plunder or their being set on fire. 

My letter to Mr. Jackson I directed to Red Lion Square, that for 
my mother to Brook Street. I hope they were forwarded. By a 
packet which arrived yesterday morning I received my home letters, 
which I need not add gave me great pleasure. You must go far 
distant from home to have an idea of the sensations felt on those 
occasions. I am absolutely crying at this instant only from thinking 
of it. Your letter, and my Mother's account of your restoration to 
health, gave me inexpressible pleasure. I am likewise made very 
happy by hearing that Mrs. Warren is easy, and endeavours to make 
herself comfortable. The joy I felt from these pleasing accounts 
would have been compleated if I had at the same time heard that 
my sister Warren and brother Matthew had been as well as I wish 
them. Hope, that friendly comforter, leads me to expect that the 
next accounts will be more favourable. I do not think my travels 
can afford half the entertainment Mr. Jackson's will — indeed, a 
feeling heart must here meet with a perpetual source of inquietude, 
from the various scenes of distress that are continually presenting 
themselves. And this unnatural rebellion is likely to continue 
longer than we in England had any idea of, so that I can see no 
end to the Misery of tliese unhappily divided People. I wish the 
King could give employments on the Continent to those of the 
minority who have been the most violent abettors of the Americans, 
that they might see to what a state of wretchedness they have so 
largely contributed to reduce the Colonies, and be a little better 
acquainted with the People for whom they would have sacrificed the 
honour and prosperity of the British Nation. I would answer for 
their soon becoming loyal subjects ; but alas ! conviction in them, 
as in many here, would come too late to avert the dire eflfects of 
civil discord. The King's Commissioners have, from motives of 
humanity, endeavoured to spare the effusion of Blood ; this lenity 
has increased the evil, which is become desperate, and can only be 



26o 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 



I 



eradicated by the most dreadful of all remedies, slaughter and 
desolation. 

The Political Pot has boiled so long that the scum rises fast to 
the top. Men of desperate fortunes, and the designing knaves who 
had no fortunes at all, have possessed themselves of wealth and 
power, which they will risque everything to retain. 

This was once a Glorious Country, and the People possessed 
everything that can make life desirable. Thankless beings, to have 
so wantonly brought on themselves and Posterity such a sad 
reverse. By what remains of the City of New York, its former 
grandeur may be guessed at. It is astonishing what a space of 
ground is in ruins; most delightfully situated, which they say 
(and the sad remains of many prove it to have been so) 
contained a range of the finest Houses in the Town. By this calamity 
(perpetrated by wretches employed for that purpose, some of whom 
being caught in the fact were thrown into the flames they had so 
diabolically caused) great numbers were ruined. But this, though 
great in itself, is as nothing when compared to the desolation 
brought on a vast extent of country, which must be in a manner 
depopulated if this unhappy contest is not soon put an end to, and 
that there is no prospect of at present. Our Army is in good health 
and high spirits. They shew an uncommon ardour, and are ready 
upon any occasion to encounter danger or difficulty. Yesterday in 
the forenoon we were all made very happy by great News from the 
Army, which was so circumstantially and positively related that it 
was almost universally believed. The substance of the account was 
that Sir William Howe had defeated the whole Rebel Army and 
taken Mr. Washington prisoner. In the midst of the rejoicing on 
account of so happy an event one of the General's Aid- de-camps 
came to Town and undeceived us. The total defeat has sunk into 
a slight skirmish, in which the King's troops killed about three hun- 
dred and took seventy or eighty prisoners. The truth of the matter 
was that the General having resolved if possible to entice or force the 
Rebels to an engagement, but finding them very strongly Posted, 
and not to be dislodged without great loss, he retired, by which the 
Provincials were so much elated that they returned to attack the 
Rear of the British Army, who repulsed them with the above loss, 
and which would have been much greater if the Hessians had not 
marched two Hours later than they were ordered. The Prisoners 
were brought in this morning, but I was so busily employed in 
writing to you that I could not go to look at them. If Sir William 
Howe could have got fairly at them I do not doubt that they would 



I 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 261 

have been in the situation the lying report of yesterday placed 
them. 

The Rebel ruling powers govern with a most despotick sway, and 
the Military, acting under the authority of these petty Tyrants, 
exercise great cruelty even on their Countrymen and neighbours, if 
they are but suspected of being friendly to Government. A Gentleman 
with whom I was acquainted in England, who was one of the Repre- 
sentatives for this Province, and at the beginning of these distur- 
bances made a very spirited speech in the Assembly, in which he 
foretold all the calamities that have since been brought upon the 
Colonies, and escaped the fury of the People with great difficulty by 
getting on board one of the King's Ships. He left in a retired situa- 
tion a Wife and seven Children of whom he is doatingly fond. She 
is a most extraordinary character, I think the most so I ever met 
with. Young and handsome, with an excellent understanding, and 
quite a heroine. Soon after her Husband's escape, a guard of sixty 
Men were ordered to surround the house. As they were to be long 
continued, the Officers desired Lodgings might be provided for them 
in the House, and signified their pleasure that a proper Table should 
be constantly kept. She came to the door and told them that there 
was an out House, where they might accommodate themselves as 
well as they could, but not having been used to such company (the 
Captain having been a Journeyman Tanner), she insisted upon their 
never attempting to come into the House. Some of the common 
Men thinking their Officers were not respectfully treated, presented 
their Pieces, and one of them attempting to force his way in, she 
took hold of him by the shoulders, and pushed him fairly out neck 
and heels. Upon which they were struck with such an awe and 
respect for her that they made no further attempt. By some well- 
timed kindnesses to the Men, she soon obtained a much greater 
influence over them ^ than their Officers, whose orders they often 
refused to obey till they had consulted the Lady. At length she 
persuaded thirty of the number to return to their home, which gave 
such offence to the Congress, that a fresh Party were ordered to 
destroy everything, and to imprison her person ; of this she had 
notice just time enough to escape with her Children and a very few 
things. Fortunately she was situated near the River. General 
Howe had just Landed on the opposite shore, and Mr. Wilkins, who 
came from England the day before, was with the Army, and ready to 
receive them. So unexpected a pleasure made her forget all the 
past. This extraordinary couple are on Long Island, about ten 
miles from hence. I lately passed a few days with them very agree- 



^262 ^^LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 



I 



ably \ she appeared happy and in good spirits, though just ready to 
take to her Bed, and although with so large a Family, their property 
has been for the most part cruelly destroyed, and they have no 
chance, at least for a long time, of bemg able to return to his Estate. 
Desire Mrs. W. to shew you a letter I received from him yesterday, 
and which I have enclosed to her. I have troubled you with this 
account as a specimen of the treatment of the King's Loyal subjects 
in these parts have been exposed to. Our Countryman General 
Lee (?) has committed numberless acts of cruelty, which he will 
probably make some atonement for by the forfeiture of his worthless 
Life. After saying so much you will be surprised to hear that I 
have lately become acquainted with that renowned Champion of 
American liberty. He is now a prisoner on board His Majesty's 
Ship Cefiturion ; as I know Captain Braithwaite, and had a strong 
desire to see a person of whom I had heard so much, I readily 
accepted an invitation to dine on Board. Mr. Lee soon gave me an 
opportunity of entering into conversation with him, by asking me if 
it was not very hot in New York. I told him that / was more 
sensible of it from having lately left a moderate Climate. This, as I 
intended it should, led to other questions ; hearing I had lived at 
Ipswich, he inquired after several Families, and particularly Sir 
Robert Harland's ; Miss Maryan, as his great favourite, and her 
melodious voice, was powerful enough to charm the savage heart of 
General Lee. We had a great deal of conversation upon the present 
unhappy dispute. He appeared to lament that the differences had 
not been accommodated when Lord Howe first came out, and said 
that, had his Lordship arrived before their declaration of indepen- 
dency, everything would have been easily settled ; as it was at last 
prevented by some trifling circumstances. He told me likewise that 
the defeat of the body of Hessians some months ago had a second 
time prevented it, as they were then so dispirited that nothing was 
so much thought of as making their peace ; but the success they met 
with on that occasion he thought would prove a great misfortune to 
them, by protracting a reconciliation. He shewed me a plan of 
accommodation which I think must have been agreeable to both 
parties, as it admitted all the claims of Great Britain and at the 
same time provided a security for American liberty : this plan 'tis said 
was communicated to Mr. Washington, who thought proper to sup- 
press it. There is nothing of dignity in Mr. Lee's appearance or 
manner : I have seen him twice ; the first time he had on a shabby 
old waistcoat, and the second time was in his apartment without his 
coat, in an old ragged Shirt. This I am told is from a dislike he has 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 263 

to the parting with his Money. He is sensible and clever, appears 
-easy, and conversed the whole time I stayed, which was full hours. 
In my second visit something passed that led to my admiring the 

Ship, on which he said, " D n them, I cannot bear the sight of a 

Man-of-War." When you meet Mr. R. Trotman, let him know that 
I have just seen Mr. Cook, who inquired after and desires to be 
remembered to them. He came here yesterday on leave of absence 
for a few days. Let Mr. Trotman know likewise that although Mr. 
•Cook has been so long near his children yet he has not once been 
able to see them : add my compliments to the Family. I yesterday 
sealed a letter to Mr. Kirby, in which I told him the great News, and 
which everybody at that time believed to be true. I wish you would 
write a note the first time you send to Ipswich, to inform him that 
it turned out to be a trifling matter, otherwise it may be circulated 
as coming from me, which not being true I should be very sorry for. 
After this specimen you will not be surprised when I tell that I have 
been a good deal of my time employed in writing letters to England 
since my arrival ; I despatched twenty at one time and almost as 
many since. I should not have concluded without telling you 
a good deal about myself and a scheme I have formed, but I 
recollect that Mrs. Warren can inform you, and I think I must 
have sufficiently tired you already. When you write to Ripple 
send this letter to Mary Warren, and tell her I wish she would 
suppose it written to herself, and that it may bribe her 
to write often, particularly as her Father has quite neglected me. 
Tell my Mother, with my Duty, that I thank her for the Letter she 
favoured me with, and hope she will consider my writing to you as 
though I had immediately addressed myself to her. Before I con- 
clude I must relate a little anecdote of a Major in the Rebel Service 
lately taken, who, having been wounded, the English officer to whom 
he surrendered ordered him to be taken great care of, and afterwards 
talking one day to him expressed his surprise that appearing to be 
an honest, good sort of man, he should have been prevailed on to 
engage in so bad a cause. "You are right, Sir; it is a very foolish 
business. Sir, I am by Trade a Butcher, was well to pass in the 
World, and lived very comfortably, and I promise you if ever I get 
back to my Wife and Family nothing shall prevail on me to go 
a-Majoring again. I would not have you suppose from what Mrs. 
W. will communicate that I have any thoughts of continuing longer 
in America than I find is necessary. The scheme I have planned 
will, I flatter myself, soon .enable me to recover part of my losses, 
with which I believe I shall retire to some remote Farm in Wales, 
and give up all thoughts of transmitting wealth to my Posterity." 



264 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 



L 




How frequently do short-sighted Mortals discover by their own 
painful experience that it may be wretchedness to lose what it was 
not happiness to Possess. You will make my civilities to those who 
may inquire after me. 

I am, my Dear Sister, Most affectionately yours, J. W. 

My love to Mr. Jackson, and tell him I hope to hear from him. 
My kind love to Matthew, and best wishes for the recovery of his 
health. Don't forget love to the young ones. I am afraid this 
letter will cost you more than 'tis worth : I will endeavour to get it 
franked to London. 



Letter IL 



My Dear Brother, — As I have written to you by almost every 
opportunity that has come to my knowledge, and am now in expecta- 
tion of another, I am preparing for it, though it will not be in my 
power to write so fully as I could wish. I left New York the 1 9th 
of July [1777] with the greatest part of the British Army and a 
considerable part of the Fleet, which, with Transports, &c., made 
up about 300 Sail. The general opinion was that our destination 
was immediately to Philadelphia, but the Admiral, when off the 
mouth of the Delaware, received some intelligence by one of the 
ships stationed there that occasioned his steering for Chesapeake 
Bay. In this attempt we were very unfortunate, having contrary 
winds for a month, by which the Horses suffered accordingly, and 
great numbers were lost. On the 25th and 26th of August the 
Troops debarked in high health and spirits. This passage is usually 
done in less than a week. The Bay of Chesapeake is beautiful 
beyond anything I ever saw: the Fleet sailed up more than 250 
miles through Virginia and Maryland, a great part of which bears a 
strong resemblance to England, and some of it in high cultivation. 
If I had been otherwise circumstanced I should have thought this a 
most delightful excursion — indeed nothing could be more noble than 
to see such a Fleet sailing majestically up so fine a piece of Water. 
As we were not expected there was no sort of opposition — indeed we 
sailed through parts in which no Vessel of any size had ever gone 
before, and in which the Americans thought no Ship of bulk could 
float. The two first days after the Troops landed, and before any 
sort of covering could be sent on shore, it rained day and night 
almost without ceasing : thus circumstanced, and in a low, Marshy 
ground, there was great reason to apprehend the Troops would 
suffered^ greatly : indeed, the Provisioner [?] expected that half 




LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 265 

Army must have fallen by sickness : the event, however, was the 
reverse : the Troops have continued healthy in an astonishing degree 
ever since we left New York, notwithstanding they were so long at 
Sea, very much crowded in the Transports, and have since our land- 
ing been exposed to all weathers with little or no covering, for the 
weak state of the H. L. [?] made it necessary to send all the Soldiers' 
Tents round by Sea. At the head of Elk, 10 miles from the first 
landing, part of the Army Marched and took Possession of a small 
Town, in which was found a large quantity of Stores, and among the 
others as much Porter as would have sold for about five Hundred 
Pounds : this Mr. H[are : J. W.'s partner] had sent to be conveyed 
to a Gentleman in a neighbouring Province : it only waited for his 
Boats. The Beer was, from being found with rebel stores, deemed 
a lawful Prize, and accordingly distributed to the Soldiers, and I had 
no other Satisfaction than the hearing that it was very good. From 
this place the General marched in search of Mr. W[ashington]'s 
army, and on the very day we moved had a brush with a small body 
of the Rebels, in which they lost 50 or 60 Men. After this the 
British Forces passed unmolested through a considerable tract of 
country, the Provincials retreating till we came without about 4 
miles of Philadelphia, where we found their whole Army advan- 
tageously posted. The Troops had marched sixteen Miles, heavily 
laden with their Baggage, and were much fatigued with the heat of 
the weather, notwithstanding which Sir William Howe resolved to 
give battle : the event was more favourable than could have been 
expected, for notwithstanding these disadvantageous circumstances, 
so great was the ardour and spirit of my brave countrymen that they 
obtained with an inconsiderable loss a compleat victory : the Enemy 
were intirely routed with great loss, and had not the close of day 
favoured their precipitate retreat, a considerable part of their Army 
must have been cut to pieces. After this Mr. Washington dispatched 
1500 men to harass the rear and endeavour to cut off the Baggage, 
but the General, having received intelligence of this movement, sent 
out a party in the dead of night, who, without firing a Gun, killed and 
took 500 and dispersed the rest, after which the General marched 
on to this City [Philadelphia] , of which part of the Army took quiet 
possession the 25 th of [September] last month. Since our arrival 
Mr. Washington with his made a furious attack upon part of 
the British forces, and it is supposed intended to have brought on 
a general engagement, but they were driven back with great loss. 
In the course of our long March, which took up a Month, I often 
experienced distress of various kinds. I had but twice the oppor- 

34 



266 



LETTERS FROM AMERICA, 1777. 



I 



tunity of going into a Bed, sometimes sleeping in the open Air, and 
thought myself well off if in a tent with a little straw to keep me 
from the damp of the ground. I have frequently been distressed 
for a morsel of Bread; however, with all these difficulties I have 
been perfectly well, and often highly entertained. I find I can 
stand fire very w^ell \ however, I have taken care not unnecessarily 
to run into danger. I found my affairs here in an uncomfortable 
situation. I had money independent of what was engaged in the 
Brewery to the amount of ;£^2,5oo, which my Attorney without my 
knowledge or consent thought proper to lend to the Congress, and 
which is totally lost, Mr. H. having refused to purchase the premises 
we occupy, which this money would more than have paid for, and 
the lease of which expired at that very time. . . . 

[This letter appears never to have been finished.] 



The Book Thief Again. 

A NOVELTY in the way of window bills has been seen in 
Edinburgh recently, the superintendent of police seeking by 
this means to enlist the aid of the public in capturing the purloiner 
of a first edition of *' Sketches by Boz." The thief evidently knew 
what he was about, and it may be doubted if the public are likely to 
have the chance of helping to trap him. The value of the three- 
volume original " Boz " is now something like ;£"i5, and the octavo 
edition in parts as issued, with all the wrappers, would certainly 
bring at auction ;^2o, and if properly heralded might find a pur- 
chaser at half as much again. These things are not known to all, 
and a man who smuggles away a first edition of Dickens in his 
pocket may be presumed to have other than personal use for the 
rarity. 




Early English Printing. 




*aESSRS. KEGAN PAUL & Co. announce that they are 
preparing for publication in September, a portfolio of 
facsimiles illustrating the history of printing in England in 



the fifteenth century, which will be edited by Mr. E. Gordon Duff, 
author of the volume on " Early Printed Books " in their series of 
" Books about Books." 

Such a series of facsimiles has been edited for the Low Countries 
by M. Holtrop, and for France by M. Thierry-Poux, and the chief 
issues of the presses of Germany and Italy are now being illustrated 
in a work in course of publication by Dr. Konrad Burger. In 
England no attempt has yet been made to do justice to the work of 
any printer except Caxton, and the productions of the presses at 
Oxford and St. Albans, and the early books printed by Lettou and 
Machlinia, by Wynkyn de Worde, Pynson, and Julian Notary, have 
been almost wholly neglected. Thus, quite one-half of Mr. Duffs 
book will cover ground which may almost be described as new, and 
even for the more familiar books of Caxton, the superiority of the 
collotype process in use at the Clarendon Press over the older 
methods of reproduction will make this series of facsimiles indis- 
pensable to every student of English printing in the fifteenth century. 
The portfolio will contain about forty plates, giving in all over sixty 
facsimiles the exact size of the originals, and in every case con- 
sisting of an entire page. In these sixty facsimiles a specimen will 
be shown of every type used in England before 1500 which has yet 
been discovered, and reproductions will also be given of all the 
printers' devices. 

An introduction of about forty pages (large folio) will be prefixed, 



268 



EARL Y ENGLISH PRINTING. 




containing an account of the various types and tracing, as far as 
possible, their origin, and the period during which they were used. 
There will also be short notices of the printers, giving facts necessary 
for understanding the development of their work. In order to 
enable the plates to be more readily used for comparison and refer- 
ence they will be issued loose, in a portfolio. The size of each 
plate will be 15 inches by 11 inches. Only 300 copies will be 
printed for sale. The price of the portfolio to subscribers before 
publication will be 25s. net. Any copies not subscribed for before 
publication will be offered to the public in the ordinary way through 
the booksellers at two guineas per copy. 




Books on Printing. 



AN exceptionally fine collection of books and pamphlets, which 
are both technically and historically illustrative of the printing 
industry, has come by purchase into the custody of William Evarts 
Benjamin, of New York city. More than twenty years were spent 
by George Edward Sears in perfecting this monographic library. He 
is a son of the founder of the prominent establishment of Sears & 
Cole. Mr. Benjamin is reported to have paid $25,000 for these 
volumes, mostly rare and unique, which he proposes to arrange in 
chronological order for exhibition about October ist of the present 
year. Embraced in this remarkable collection are missals, books of 
hours, manuscripts with miniatures, fifteenth-century books and wood- 
cuts, a complete Caxton, examples of celebrated typographers of 
four centuries, bindings of the great Itahan, French, German, 
English, and American toolers, and innumerable text-books. It was 
the rule of Mr. Sears to keep his curious and instructive literary 
gleanings in one large apartment of a well-ventilated mansion, with- 
out any gas-light or artificial heat. 





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My Upper Shelves. 

Close at my feet in stolid rows they sit. 

The grave great tomes that furnish forth my wit ; 

Like reverend oaks they are of Academe, 

Within whose shade broods silence, staid of mien. 

I honour them and hearken to their lore, 

And with a formal fondness view them o'er ; 

As ever with the wise they have the floor ! 

But high on top, all other books above, 
The precious pocket volumes that I love 
Foregather, in a Friend's Society 
Whose silences are pregnant unto me. 
The poets be there, companions tried and true 
On many a walk, for many a fireside brew ; 
The golden lays of Greece, the grace urbane 
Of Roman Horace ; or some later strain 
From lyre Elizabethan, passion-strong ; 
From minnesinger or from master-song ; 
And down the tuneful choir of nearer days, 
The chants of Hugo, or the soulful praise 
Of Wadsworth tranced among his native fells ; 
The Orphic art of Emerson ; the wail 
Of Heine, ever slave to Beauty's spells ; 
The voice of Tennyson in many amusing tale, 
These and their fellows poise above my head. 
And at their beck imperious I am led 
Through all delights of living and of dead. 

Less weighty, say you ? All aerial things 

That float on fancy or that fly on wings 

Are small of bulk, and hence soar heaven-high ; 



270 



MY UPPER SHELVES, 



They have all manner of wild, sweet escapes 

From bonds of earth, and so they do not die 

As die these grosser, more imprisoned shapes. 

My upper shelves uphold a mystic crowd, 

Whose lightest word, though scarcely breathed aloud, 

Will all outweigh a million folios 

That groan with wisdom and with scholar-woes, 

So long as love is love and blooms a sole red rose ! 

— Richard Burton, in Harper's Magazine. 



H 




First Editions. 



INTS to Collectors of Original Editions of the Works of 
Modern Authors," by J. H. Slater, editor of Book Prices 
Current^ is the title of a new book announced for early publication 
by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co. This work does not pretend 
to be a scientific bibliography. In dealing with the writings of 
Robert Browning, Mrs. Browning, William M. Thackeray, Charles 
Dickens, W. Harrison Ainsworth, Coventry Patmore, Richard 
Jefferies, R. Louis Stevenson, George Meredith, Andrew Lang, A. C. 
Swinburne, Leigh Hunt, Douglas Jerrold, Gilbert a Becket, R. S. 
Surtees, George Augustus Sala, &c., it regards only such books as, 
by reason of their scarcity, are now in demand at enhanced prices 
by the present-day collector ; these are fully described and appraised 
with special reference to the protection of the collector from spurious 
editions and imperfect copies. 




Izaak Walton's Tercentenary. 



THE angling clubs of the country celebrated the tercentenary 
of the birth of Izaak Walton in August last. This worthy 
example was to some extent followed by metropolitan clubs, for 
Walton gained while fishing in London waters the experience which 
enabled him to write the pleasant book that immortalised him. 
Izaak made the art of luring the finny denizens of the brook his 
favourite recreation, and the stream he most frequented for this 
purpose was the river Lea. The first edition of his work, "The 
Compleat Angler, or the Contemplative Man's Recreation, being a 
Discourse of Fish and Fishing not unworthy the perusal of most 
Anglers," was published in St. Dunstan's Churchyard, Fleet Street, 
in 1653. A native of Stafford, Walton came early to London, and 
is first heard of as keeping a small shop in the upper story of 
Gresham's Royal "Burse," or Exchange, in Cornhill. In 1624, 
according to Sir John Hawkins, Walton carried on business as a 
linendraper "on the north side of Fleet Street, in a house two doors 
west of the end of Chancery Lane, and abutting on a messuage 
known by the sign of the Harrow." About that period he married 
his first wife, a descendant of Archbishop Cranmer. His second 
spouse was a sister of the Bishop of Bath and Wells. He then 
removed up Chancery Lane, where he was described as a sempster 
or milliner. Before his death at Winchester, in 1683, Walton resided 
for some time with Charles Cotton, the author of the treatise on fly- 
fishing in the " Compleat Angler," who had built a fishing house on 
the banks of the Dove. 



272 



MISCELLANEA, 



The Literary Censor Again. 

IN a recent number of Free Russia a quaint little story is told. 
Some weeks ago, it seems, a St. Petersburg magazine published 
an article on Ibsen. It was simply a piece of literary criticism — not 
a word did it contain against the Throne, the Church, or law and 
order ; for its author is counted one of the wise in his generation. 
None the less, when his article appeared, the author was promptly 
summoned before the censor. •* I do not approve of your article," 
said this dignitary, " and must ask you never to write in that style 
again." " But why ? " protested the writer \ " there is nothing in 
my article contrary to law." " No," said the censor, " but your 
interpretation of Ibsen is quite different from mine. This means 
that one of us is a fool — either I or you — and I will not stand that." 



Books. 

Cloth, leather, paper, ink, and gold 

Harbour treasures manifold. 
* « * 

All the wisdom of mankind, 

All its laughter and its tears, 
Hawk-eyed hopes, and fears blind. 

All that is, or that appears : 
Love and Loss, and Youth and Age. 

Time — the jest and test of God — 
Linger on the mystic page — 

Lurk, like seed within the pod ; 
Seed which, planted every day, 

Still remains to plant anew — 
Gives, but cannot give away — 

Nourishes, yet stays with you ! 



What bonds such boundless wealth can hold ! 
Cloth, leather, paper, ink, and gold ! 

Julian Hawthorne. 




Old Books in America. 




[from a YANKEE POINT OF VIEW.] 

NEW YORK journalist recently dropped into one of the 
very few shops in that city devoted exclusively to the sale 
^ of rare and valuable books a few weeks ago, and said to the 
proprietor : 

" Where in town will I find those old book stalls that I read about 
in the papers, where collectors of first editions and other bookish 
treasures go to look for prizes ? " 

" There aren't any," said the book dealer. 

*' What, no old nooks piled up with all sorts of musty volumes and 
presided over by fossils with grey beards who innocently sell the 
scholar for 50 cents relics in vellum worth a couple of hundred 
dollars?" 

" Not a nook," replied the book man. " If you want to buy any 
valuable books you will find a few places like mine in town, where 
you can choose from a collection of rare and valuable books what- 
ever you like, and pay for them sums which will represent every 
cent of their value : or else you can watch the newspapers for 
advertisements of the sale of collectors' libraries, and go to the auction 
and bid for what you want against the dealers and other sharps, who 
will be on hand armed with very accurate knowledge as to the exact 
value of the books to be put on sale. But if you insist on picking 
up bargains, you will save time by getting on a ferryboat and looking 
in some other town, for you won't find them here." 

" But the picturesque old book stands and cellars, where rheumatic 

35 



274 



OLD BOOKS IN AMERICA. 



I 



old scholars, who conceal wonderfully sharp eyes behind gold-rimmed 
spectacles, prowl around in assumed innocence " 

" Don't exist," put in the book man, sharply. " I know there is a 
mouldy old story to that effect, which bobs up its hoary head about 
once a year, but I assure you the story is a pure invention. The 
rare book trade of this town is completely organised and is under 
the control of a few men, who combine a good deal of learning with 
a very accurate idea of how to squeeze every possible cent out of 
their business. No New Yorker who hasn't got a strapping bank 
account can ' collect ' in this town. The story, of course, originated 
in London, where there are plenty of the sort of old nooks you are 
asking about. The old book trade flourishes over there after the 
musty fashion you speak of, and rheumatic old gentlemen, if they 
dissemble with sufficient skill, can occasionally run across a prize 
and obtain it for a few pence. There are romantic old cellars in 
Paris, too, stored with dusty volumes, from among which one of 
value can now and then be unearthed. But there is no such thing 
in New York. I have visited the old book stands of London and 
Paris, by the way, and once in a while I have made a profitable 
purchase. I have explored the old stores in the narrow alleys of 
Paris, and turned over thousands of odd volumes looking for one of 
real value. Once in a while I have found it. In those cities you 
see the venerable collectors with bent frames, absorbed faces, and 
eager penetrating eyes, turning the leaves of moth-eaten volumes. 
The story is true enough for London and Paris, but it doesn't apply 
here, in spite of constant efforts to make it appear so." 

"But there are old stands in the city, and plenty of them," 
persisted the visitor, " for I have seen them." 

"Oh, yes, lots of old book stands," said the dealer, "but if you 
ever stopped to examine the books for sale there you would soon 
become disgusted with your theory. If you want to hear some 
reasons why no valuable books can be picked up on these stands I 
can tell you plenty of them. There are very few old books in the 
country of any value that are not already in collections, either private 
or public, or on the shelves of book dealers who appreciate their value, 
and are holding them for a prize. That is easily accounted for. In 
the first place our country is young, and we have printed very few books, 
comparatively speaking, that have become valuable. There are a few 
first editions that are worth money, as the Federalist, for instance, which 
will bring ^i,ooo any day. But there is reason to believe that these 
volumes are all in the hands of collectors, or in museums here and 
abroad. In the second place, we have few old families to hand books 



OLD BOOKS IN AMERICA. 275 

down from generation to generation, as in England and France. We 
were not a reading people when these volumes, now of value, were 
prmted, but a working, and fighting, and struggling people. Books 
circulated freely, and quickly came into the hands of collectors, for 
we had book collectors almost as soon as we had books. Collecting 
is a trait inborn in humanity. In the third place, English gentle- 
men of large estates and a fancy for collecting began to gather up 
further treasures here at an early period, and the great Napoleon, 
under the inspiration of his many-sided genius, sent agents to this 
country with loads of money in their pockets to buy up for the 
French Government collections all the books in the country which 
they could lay their hands upon which were likely to become valu- 
able. To-day the finest collection of Americana in the world is 
owned by the French Government. The next finest is in London, 
and many French and English families have superb collections of 
the valuable books of America. Thus it is that there are practically 
no valuable books, from the days of Franklin to the present time, 
stowed away in old garrets or in the possession of people ignorant of 
their value, which are at all likely to fall into the hands of book 
peddlers and dealers in miscellaneous books on the corners. And 
what is more, I do not believe that there are Americana to the value 
of v^2 5,000 on the shelves of all the dealers combined from Maine 
to Texas. Most of the valuable books are in foreign hands. Prac- 
tically, the rest of them are in the hands of private collectors here. 

" But further, if a stray volume of value should find its way by 
any chance into the possession of the secondhand book dealers of 
this city, you need not flatter yourself that you can pick it up at a 
bargain. This city is not built right to contain ' nooks.' It is long 
and slender, and its streets are too broad and regular. It would be 
impossible to find a spot so far removed from the highways of life 
and business as to fossilize even a profoundly ignorant man. The 
longer he stayed in the business the more ' fly ' he would get. Don't 
suppose you are going to fool the secondhand book man on the 
corner very much. These fellows know very well that small prizes 
drift around at times, and they don't take any chances. If a book 
is particularly old or in any way difl'erent from the ordinary trash 
that constitutes the bulk of their stock, they either slap some 
ridiculously high price upon it just to feel safe, or else take it round 
to the trade and find out about it. Oh, you needn't expect to pick 
up any bargains, young man." 

" Well," said the visitor, " if what you say is so, how do you dealers 
get the books to keep trade afloat ? " 



76 



OLD BOOKS IN AMERICA. 






"Through the auction sales of collections generally. Take the 
Barlow sale, for instance. Every dealer in rare and valuable books 
visited that, you may be sure. Of course, we had to pay a pretty 
fair price, but, as a rule, each of us got about what he wanted at a 
rate to warrant a fair profit when resold. There were a great many 
private purchasers there, too, who had to take their chances with the 
trade. Occasionally a collector, or the heirs of a collector, offer one 
of the dealers an entire collection at a fixed price. That is another 
source of supply. Then, on our visits to London and Paris, we pick 
up stray volumes of Americana of some value and fetch them back 
to their native shores. But the term Americana, you know, is not 
confined to works printed in America. Works printed abroad about 
America also come under that head. These go back to colonial 
times, even before, and comprise some of the most valuable works. 
We pick them up in London and Paris, both on the stalls and at 
auction sales, and bring them over. But you know the business in 
rare and valuable books isn't confined to Americana. We deal in 
the gems of all countries and literatures, but it's just as hard to pick 
up foreign prizes at the secondhand book stores as it is to get hold 
of valuable American prints. 

" There is still another reason why you will have bad luck at the 
stands. There are in this city about half a dozen old fellows who 
deal in rare books in a very small way. They have neither capital 
nor shops. They are free lances. In the trade they are called 
' feeders.' They are pretty good judges of what constitutes a valuable 
book. Their business is to mouse around wherever it is at all likely 
that a book of any worth can be got at, buy it, and then show it 
among individual collectors and regular dealers. They attend all 
the auction sales and watch like cats. If they see something rare 
going cheap, they will put in a bid at the last minute and follow it up 
as far as their judgment warrants. If they get it, then they peddle 
it around. They are rough on the individual collectors at auction 
sales, I tell you, for they make them pay high for many a coveted 
prize that otherwise would have been obtained at a low rate. Well, 
these ' feeders,' during the intervals between book auctions and private 
sales, manage to keep a pretty sharp eye on such of the secondhand 
shops as are at all likely to get hold of anything out of the common 
order. Once in a while they do strike something that may be worth 
.^5 or .^lo. They either manage to buy it in at a price which will 
leave a margin, or else they put the book man on his guard. In 
either event they make it rough hoeing for the individual who thinks 
he may pick up a bargain by hanging around old book stalls." 



I 




OLD BOOKS IN AMERICA. 277 

The dealer chewed on a toothpick for a few minutes, while he 
allowed his eyes to rest lovingly on a small set of volumes which 
he had bought of a private collector that morning for ^150. Then 
he said : 

" You asked me about the conditions governing the trade in rare 
and valuable books in this town, and I have dealt with a favourite 
and poetic belief held by many thousands of people in an iconoclastic, 
perhaps a rather brutal way. But I have given you facts. Now I 
will throw a sop to sentiment. There is more or less collecting at the 
secondhand shops, attended by many picturesque incidents when 
viewed through an artist's eye. The collectors are not collectors of 
rare and valuable books, as that term is used. They are not search- 
ing for covers, or manuscripts, or curiosities, or Americana, or first 
editions, or indeed for any books of literary value or of recognised 
worth. They are special collectors, monomaniacs, mild cranks. 
They are mighty picturesque in their way, particularly when haggling 
nervously over the price of some old book that a dealer in rare books 
wouldn't look at a second time, which the secondhand book man 
would almost give away if he hadn't been keen enough to perceive 
that he could sell to the anxious old fellow before him at a big price 
if he worked his cards right. Many of these men are retired college 
professors who have dealt in special branches all their lives, and in 
their old age are riding them for hobbies. They are all specialists 
of one sort or another. One is a mathematician, and in his old 
age is buying up all the old books on mathematics he can find. 
Another is after botanical books, and another has a taste for works 
on the occult sciences. Here is a man who has gone crazy on 
Chaucer. He cannot buy the valuable editions of the poet, but 
he has an ambition to own every other edition. Here is another 
fellow who dotes on Walt Whitman, and spends most of his life 
hunting up editions of his works. There is no end to the collectors 
of specialties, more or less worthless, and no end to the specialties 
collected. Many a scholarly man has gathered up through his life a 
fairly complete collection of his specialty, and now is after two or 
three particular volumes. He will often spend years in looking for 
these volumes, and his face is familiar at every secondhand book 
stall in the city. Once in a while he finds his prize. Then his 
hand shakes, his eyes brighten, and his voice trembles with excite- 
ment, while the unscrupulous vendor sizes up his eagerness and his 
general appearance, and names the biggest price he thinks he can 
secure. 

" These old men drop off by degrees, generally with the ambition 



278 



OLD BOOKS IN AMERICA. 



I 



of their later years unsatisfied. Then the heirs sell his books back 
to the dealer for a few cents each, and they are piled among the 
other trash on the shelves till another old man with a similar hobby 
turns up. But that's about the only sort of collecting done at the 
alleged ' old nooks ' of New York." 




Books in Rio de la Plata. 



MR. HIERSEMANN, of Leipzig, announces J. F. Medina's 
" Historia y Bibliografia de la Imprenta a el Antigus 
Vireinado de Rio de la Plata," a large folio, with 613 pages of letter- 
press with about 200 plates and woodcuts in the text. 

This luxuriously printed work of high importance for the history 
of Typography in America, treating, as it does, of the art of printing 
in the ancient Vireinado del Rio de la Plata since its introduction 
into Paraguay by the Jesuits in 1701, and into Cordoba in 1766, up 
to the last productions of the English presses in Montevideo from 
1806 to 1807, and in Buenos Ayres 18 10. The volume is profusely 
illustrated with reproductions (in heliotype) of engravings in copper 
and on wood, of autographs, title-pages, and full pages of the books 
described as specimens of types. By rendering detailed account of 
the ornamental part of the reproduced works the book may claim to 
form a " History of the South American Graphic Arts," and by repro- 
ducing a great number of facsimiles of contemporaneous portraits 
and autographs of eminent persons and historical documents to be 
an important source for the general history of South America. The 
volume forms the second part of a work planned in great style : 
•' Historia y Bibliographia de la Imprenta en la America Espahola," 
the first part of which (treating on Chile) was issued at Santiago in 
1 89 1, and may now be had at about ^^3. The publication of a 
third part dealing with Lima during the years 1 584-1810 is 
announced by the author. The present volume bears also the title : 
" Anales del Museo de la Plata, vol. IIL" 



■- 



A Small Book. 




VOLUME that may fairly claim to be the smallest book in 
the world is in the possession of a New York collector. 
Mr. Bait, the discoverer of Mr. Benjamin's bookworm, says 
that in his forty years' experience with rare and curious volumes he 
has never seen or heard of another book so small as this one. 
Other experts say the same. Its title is as follows, and, by the way, 
needs to be read with a magnifying glass : 

"The English Bijou Almanack for 1837. Poetically illustrated 
by L. E. L. London : Schloss, 42 Great Russell Street." 

The little book measures just three-quarters of an inch in height, 
is half an inch wide and one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The 
** L. E. L." was Miss Letitia Elizabeth Landon, a writer of pretty 
verses once extensively read but now almost forgotten. Her sad 
marriage and subsequent death are familiar to the student of 
Victorian literature. Several of her poems were printed in the 
Bijou for the first time, and were not reprinted in her collected 
works. These gave this tiny almanac added dignity — if anything so 
small can be called dignity — as a first edition. 

The almanac was issued as a souvenir of Queen Victoria's acces- 
sion to the throne of Great Britain, and is dedicated to Her Most 
Gracious Majesty, "by permission," of course. It would be an 
awful crime in England to dedicate a book to the sovereign without 
orders. 

Turning to the contents of the volume it is surprising how much 
information is packed in so small a compass. In all thirty-seven 
leaves are included. One page is devoted to the dedication, another 
to the title, and the balance to the almanac proper, several pages of 
music, some portraits, including one of James Fenimore Cooper, 
and the aforesaid " Poetical Illustrations." 



A SMALL BOOK. 



I 




The whole volume is a beautiful example of miniature engraving, 
while the music and the portraits are really wonderful. As Miss 
Landon says in the " address : " 



*' We dream no more that fairies dwell 
In the white lily's fragrant cell ; 
And yet our little book seems planned 
By elfin touch in elfin land, 
And sent by Oberon, I ween, 
An offering to our English Queen. " 



The almanac contains the usual information as to sunset and 
sunrise, the tides, church festivals and saints' days, beside noting 
remarkable historical occurrences. 

It seems rather poor taste to have reminded the young queen that 
on Monday, January 30, King Charles I. was beheaded, and super- 
fluous information to her that on the next day " Hilary term ends." 
The queen's birthday, May 24, is chronicled as follows : 

"May 24, Princess Victoria, of age to reign 1837." 

After the almanac comes a list of the birthdays of the royal 
family, a list of European sovereigns, and portraits, including, besides 
the one of Cooper already mentioned, Mary Somerville, Coleridge,. 
Von Haumer, Goethe and Mme, Malibran. 

Other pages are filled with lists of the places of amusement and 
theatres in London, scientific institutions, &c. Of Cooper, Miss 
Landon says : 

" He was the first who ever told 

The history of those warriors bold — 
The dark, stern race, whose fated age 
Has little left besides his page. 
And he has told how death and toil 
Were round the settlers on the soil, 
Who left their native vales to be 
Free, as they even now are free. 
Now, in the great and glorious hour, 
That yet awaits Columbia's power, 
When, save his line, the past is dim — 
Now she will read her youth in him." 

The binding deserves a word. It is of morocco, and quite prettily 
tooled, with an elaborate gold pattern. The lettering is along the 
back, while the edges are gilt. The present copy, which is said 
to be unique, has been carefully preserved in a satin-lined case 
especially made for it, and is in very fine condition. It is valued at 
$50, says its owner. 





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Embroidery on Book Covers. 

HE art of embroidery is probably the oldest of all the arts, 
and its existence during the earliest ages has been frequently 
attested by the discovered remains of the most primitive 
races, as well as of the more cultured peoples, such as the Assyrians, 
Egyptians, and Chinese. The Greeks and Romans practised it very 
extensively, and the early Christians considered it one of the most 
useful and refining of women's pursuits. The Emperor Theodosius 
I. framed laws concerning the importation of silk for embroidery into 
the Byzantine Empire, and laid down regulations for the employment 
of labour in the gyncecea^ or public weaving and embroidery rooms 
connected with the women's apartments in great houses. During 
the Middle Ages embroidery was carefully exercised as a fine art, and 
regularly taught in almost all conventual establishments ; indeed, it 
is to the Church that the credit must be given for keeping the art 
alive up till the end of the twelfth century, when it was almost wholly 
in the hands of cloistered women. England, especially from very 
early times, was celebrated for the fineness of her embroideries, and 
Rome frequently had recourse to this country for the choicest eccle- 
siastical vestments, which she could not procure of such a splendid 
character elsewhere. 

When the art was first applied to book covers is not known, but 
the oldest known specimen of embroidered work is English — a Latin 
Psalter worked in chain stitch, which belonged to Anne de Felbrigge, 
a nun in the convent of Brusyard, Suff'olk, in the early part of the 
fifteenth century. This curious old piece of pictured work lies in the 
British Museum, let into a leather cover for preservation. The next 
earliest is the cover of " Fichetus Rhetoricorum," printed in Paris, 
147 1, which bears the coat of arms of Felice Peretti, Cardinal de 

36 




282 EMBROIDER Y ON BOOK CO VERS. 



Montalte, afterwards Pope Sixtus V. A magnificent English em- 
broidered binding is that of a folio Bible, 1607, from the collection 
of the late E. H. Lawrence, Esq., depicting the temptation and fall 
of Eve in the Garden of Eden, the work being filled in with birds 
and animals, among which is the unicorn ; the design is called "A 
Dreame." One of the finest patterned embroideries on books is that 
on the plum-coloured velvet cover of " Opera Fransisci " (Bacon's- 
works), 1623, which has a fine border, corners, and centrepiece,, 
worked in *' couchings " of cord and " purl." 

With such specimens of ornamental, pictorial, and heraldic work,, 
the suitability of embroidery for book ornamentation is apparent, and 
it only needs a proper consideration of the best materials to enable 
any lady ordinarily skilled with the needle to produce for herself 
some choice and dainty book cover, or loose case, for the reception 
of a cherished book. The great difficulty nowadays is to get any 
material which can compare with the stuffs used in bygone times, at 
once stout, firm, soft, and pure, free from the artificial muck that is 
commonly used for dressing. Velvet, silk, and linen are the best 
materials for the ground, and perhaps nothing is at once so suitable 
and so rich in appearance as velvet. Where it came from at first is 
not known, but the earliest known in England came from the south 
of Spain, though it was little employed here until towards the end of 
the thirteenth century. Hand-woven linen is next best, especially 
where the surface is to be covered over with silk work, and a very 
good quality is that woven at Langdale, though commonly a coarser 
kind, more loosely woven, was used, with a semi-bleached, creamy 
tint. Silk should be quite free from any artificial stiffness, and that 
of the hand-loom is always to be preferred to the machine-made 
article ; even a piece of a good old dress will work up better than 
most new material. Satin looks well, but it is very difficult to work 
without puckering. 

For threads, silk should be used — a pure floss silk, which, though 
more difficult to handle than twisted silk, gives better results than 
other kinds ; but beware of the more delicate shades of modern, 
make, that look very beautiful when new, but which will not stand 
exposure to the light ; the fewer the tints of intermediate hues the 
better, as only the stronger colours are enduring. Gold and silver 
thread is also used, but silver tarnishes very rapidly, and should be 
left out of consideration. The gold thread, called " passing," used 
also for " purl," a material imported first from Italy in the sixteenth 
century, consists of a gilt, or sometimes silver gilt thread wound 
round silk or flax, and can be bought ready drawn. Sometimes- 



EMBROIDERY ON BOOK COVERS. 283 

Japanese gold paper is twisted in the same way, but this does not 
last, and even the silver gilt tarnishes unless specially lacquered. 
The best plan is to use gold " passing." Another form of gold, 
known as "plate," is that of thin strips of metal, which is either 
stitched down on to the ground by tlireads of silk of the same colour, 
or of other colours, arranged in zigzag or waved patterns, forming a 
sort of diaper device, this is called "laid work"; or the "plate" may 
be stitched through the material used for the ground, but this is only 
successfully done on an open texture such as linen or canvas. Some- 
times tiny rings of gold are sewn on, or spangles, supposed to be of 
Saracenic origin. 

For book covers it is generally advisable to embroider in frames, 
as a more equal tension of stitch and squareness of design can be 
secured than when the work is held loosely in the hand : no small 
consideration when we consider the close inspection to which it is 
subjected, and the necessity for its corresponding with the outlines 
of the boards. Very few stitches other than those in ordinary use 
are required, the most effective being the " orphreys," or raised 
stitches, such as "chain," "cross," and "tent," which give a broken 
looking surface called "cushion work." The flat stitches, that is, 
those that pass or overlap one another, and are used for flat surfaces 
of even colour, are called "feather work," and include the "satin," 
" stem," and " twist " stitches, which need no counting, and the 
"crewel," or long and short stitch, which is especially good for 
graduated tints. Relief embroidery is secured by stitching over cords, 
or pads of stuff or cotton wool, with " purl," or by " couching," in 
which cords are laid side by side, and either silks or " plate " 
fastened down upon them with silks of various colours. A special 
style sometimes found in Persian embroidery is obtained by the 
withdrawal of threads and button-hole stitching, which gives a very 
<lelicate and beautiful effect, and beside these there is the " tapestry " 
stitch for covering up all the ground so that no part appears. 

A general knowledge of the art of embroidery is common enough 
to enable any one to commence the work ; what is more needed is 
the ability to design. The copying of floral forms is all that ladies 
usually attempt, and most of the older embroideries have been either 
pictorial or armorial. If we could only get designs, new and fresh 
arrangements of beautiful and harmonious forms with a relationship 
to each other, embroidery on bookwork would not be a thing of the 
past. Some few are doing this, but it is an occupation deserving of 
pursuit by many more whose time is occupied with far less delightful 
fads, which afford none of the satisfaction of creative effort. 



284 



EMBROIDERY ON BOOK COVERS. 



I 



[In connection with the exceedingly interesting facts dealt with 
in the foregoing article, the British Bookmaker, from which it is 
taken, gives four illustrations of characteristic examples, Old Spanish^ 
Turkish, Indian, and Persian. — Ed.] 



Umbrella Literature. 

SUCH a prosaic article as the useful '' gamp " is not without its 
literary devotees, as is seen from the accompanying paragraph, 
which occurs in a recently published catalogue of a London book- 
seller : — 

" Umbrellas. — A large and varied collection of plates, illustrated 
cuttings, caricatures, coloured drawings, with letterpress, of and con- 
cerning Jonas Hanway's boon to his fellow-countrymen — the Um- 
brella. These are all mounted on about 400 sheets, and form a 
unique assortment. The part played by this useful protector in the 
East (its home), is shown in some effective Abyssinian, Egyptian, and 
Japanese plates and cuttings. India reveals its employment in the 
ceremonies connected with the Order of the Star of India, and in 
the Durbars, while in the West it is invested with humour by the 
good-natured caricaturists of our comic journals, by the inimitable 
Cruikshank, and by the too short-lived Seymour. Alfred Crowquill 
is represented by a series of comic sketches of ' The Tournament,' 
and ' Phiz,' Tom Hood, Leech, Proctor, and others, make up a 
worthy gallery of mirth -provoking artists. There are some old 
PoHtical Cartoons of interest, plates of the curious effect of squalls 
and storms in disarranging ladies' attire, as well as some amusing 
foreign sketches of the vagaries of the Umbrella in different hands. 
Infinite pains has been taken to bring together a collection of amuse- 
ment and geographical interest, &c., which is mounted with neatness 
and care." 

For this comprehensive collection the small sum of thirty shillings 
is asked. 



■ 



Modern Authors and Book-buyers. 




PEAKING in response to the toast of "The Printers of 
New York," at the banquet of the printing and allied 
trades held to celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of 
the introduction of printing into New York by William Bradford, 
Mr. Theodore de Vinne said : " You are all aware of the fact that 
nearly all of the great improvements that have been made in printing, 
have been made within the memory of men now living. They have 
come from every part of the United States, from England, from 
Europe, and from every place where printing has been done. We 
are all inheritors, we are all adapters, of nearly everything that is 
useful in printing. I do not wish to speak so much about the in- 
ventions as I do about the condition of the printing business as it 
now exists in New York. I shall not undertake to say how many 
newspapers are published or how many volumes are published every 
day, but I think it is proper at this time to raise this question. The 
inventor and the printer have done a great deal for the reading 
public. What are the reading public and the reader at large doing 
for the printer ? We have magnificent machinery, we have every- 
thing that is necessary for the promotion of sound literature. We 
are called upon to exercise the very best of our skill and industry to 
get out good books quickly and cheaply. What is the writer doing 
for us ? Is he making his copy any better ? Do you get any clearer 
manuscript than you used to ? So far as handwriting is concerned, 
I should say no. What we get through the typewriter is better. 
The copy which the author furnishes has not kept pace with the 
improvement in machinery. Yet at the same time the printer is 
asked to do his work better and quicker than before. We are asked 
to make bricks without the proper straw. Too much is expected of 



286 MODERN AUTHORS AND BOOK-BUYERS. 



I 



printers in regard to this matter. I have been in the printing office 
for nearly fifty years, and during that time I have had occasion to 
handle the copy from a great many authors and from all ranks and 
conditions of men, and I find that the compositor and the proof 
reader are expected to do more work. 

"There was a time when the printer was merely expected to follow 
copy. Now, I have no hesitation in saying that if every compositor 
were to follow his copy strictly, and every proof reader were to 
imitate his example and neglect to correct errors ; if books were 
printed as they are written, there would go up a howl of indignation 
on the part of the authors as when the first-born of Egypt were 
slaughtered. I say that too much is expected of the proof reader. 
He is expected to take the babe of the author and put it in a suitable 
dress for the public. The author should do it. Now and then you 
get an idea of how badly copy is prepared when out of revenge some 
newspaper editor prints it as the author sends it in. The reader, 
when he reads that copy, printed as it is written, with a misuse of 
italics, a violation of the rules of composition, lack of punctuation, 
&c., is astonished that a man of education can be so careless. Of 
all the manuscript that comes to us not five per cent, is reasonably 
correct for the press. The author expects that more than nine- 
tenths of the work shall be done by the proof reader, and I wish 
to ask, on behalf of the proof reader, a little more attention to 
the preparation of manuscript. The people who furnish the 
manuscript are not doing their share. I think it is an imposition 
that the author should send in his copy in such a condition that 
the proof reader should do more than correct the errors of the 
compositor. 

"What is the reader doing for us ? Printing has been invented 
for 400 years, and yet I am sorry to say that the persons who know 
a good book from a bad one are not very many. I think there is a 
limit to the book-buyers who, if a man was asking $1 or 50 cents 
more for a well-printed, well-bound book, would give it. They want 
printing good, but they want it cheap. That seems to be the logic 
of most of the people, as all publishers have found out. I may say, 
too, that the wealthy persons whose business it should be to have a 
good collection of books do not have that appreciation of books 
that they ought to have. There are houses in this city, and in all 
cities, in which, when you enter at the door, you are struck by their 
magnificence. You see luxurious furnishings ; you see hangings, 
Oriental rugs, collections of everything that is magnificent and costly, 
except books. You go to the bookcase, and what do you see ? 



MODERN AUTHORS AND BOOK-BUYERS. 287 

Probably a collection of Dickens, Thackeray, or Scott, bound in a 
skiyer leather and made hideous by gilt and Dutch metal. The 
buyer probably got them for 85 cents a volume down on Sixth 
Avenue, and wants you to at least praise him for good taste in 
preferring what he calls a full-bound book instead of taking one in 
cloth." 



"The Best Books." 

THE Revue Bleue has received 764 replies to a request for a list 
of the twenty-five best authors. The highest numbers are as 
follows : — 



1 Victor Hugo ... 616 

2 Moliere 563 

3 Shakespeare ... 476 

4 Racine 475 

5 La Fontaine 426 

6 Musset 426 

7 Corneille 400 

8 Goethe 393 

9 Voltaire 388 



10 Pascal 373 

11 Lamartine 352 

12 Homer 346 

13 The Bible 331 

1 4 Montaigne 300 

15 Cervantes 288 

16 Michelet 282 

17 Balzac 256 



18 Dante 246 

19 Renan 246 

20 La Bruyere ... 245 

21 Flaubert 240 

22 Bossuet 239 

23 Rabelais 237 

24 A. Daudet 214 

25 Virgil 207 



M. Zola received 194 votes, and after him came Rousseau, Taine> 
Thomas a Kempis, and so forth. 



The Hessian Bookbindings. 

AMONG the new books announced from Germany, we may men- 
tion " Bookbinding from the Hessian Pictorial Exhibition," 
illustrating the art of binding from the fifteenth to the eighteenth cen- 
turies. The text is by Dr. L. Bickell. The reproductions consist 
of 53 heliotype prints on 42 plates, and 16 pages of descriptive 
letterpress on Dutch hand-made paper. The plates, in large folio 
size, are mounted on stout tinted cardboard, the framing printed in 
black and red. Only one hundred numbered copies will be issued. 
A new edition will not appear, the plates having been destroyed 
and the type distributed. The subscription price is £^2> 15s. 



288 MISCELLANEA. 

A Hint to Bookbinders. 

NEVER cut a book down if it may be avoided ; rather leave a 
leaf untouched as a proof of your care in that direction. 
Some binders keep the shavings of valuable works in case of being 
charged with cropping. It is unfortunate that cropping has become 
so common that binders are compelled to take so much trouble, but 
where a leaf or two can be spared, that may be obviated. If the 
knife dips, or runs up, watchfulness will soon discover it, and it may 
be remedied by padding between the upper part of the knife and the 
plough at the outer side of the cheek for a dip, or the inner side of 
the cheek for a run up ; but a very little padding makes a great 
difference in a cut through. 



Mr. Gladstone as a Book Buyer. 

MR. GLADSTONE evidently does not allow his State duties 
to deprive him of the luxury of studying second-hand book 
catalogues. Recently Mr. J. Pollard, bookseller, Truro, received 
one of his catalogues from the Prime Minister, on the cover of which 
the right hon. gentleman had himself written the following note : — 
" Please forward the marked lots, if subject to lo per cent, discount 
for cash, to Hawarden Castle, Chester; the account to lo. Downing 
Street, London. — Your obedient servant, W. E. Gladstone." April 
nth, 1893." Eighteen books were marked, including the following, 
having reference to Cornwall : — Edmonds' " The Land's End Dis- 
trict, its Antiquities, Natural History, Scenery," &c. ; the Rev. W. S. 
Lach-Szyrma's " History of Penzance, St. Michael's Mount, St. Ives 
and Land's End District " ; " Memoir of Henry Martyn," by Jno. 
Sargent, jun. ; " The Anglo-Saxon Episcopate of Cornwall," by 
Pedler ; Polwhele's " Traditions and Recollections " ; Blight's 
^' Cornish Crosses " ; Jago's " Glossary of the Cornish Dialect " ; 
Jago's " Cornish Dictionary " ; and a " Cornish Romance," by I. H. 
Pearce. 




I 



Our Note-Book. 




HE literature of Shorthand possesses many curious and 
interesting items, some few of which escaped even the many 
years' gleaning which the late Dr. Westby-Gibson devoted 
to the compilation of his " Bibliography." As is very well known, the 
most popular and the most suitable medium by which the young phono- 
grapher endeavours to " get up " speed is the Sunday sermon. This 
medium, however, is not so modern a one as is generally supposed. 
A copy of what may be regarded as the first reported sermon has 
lately come into the hands of the present writer, and dates as far 
back as the year 1700. It is entitled "David's Entertainment, 
or the Word of God set forth in a sermon lately preached at 
Dudly, in Worcestershire." It " is (without alteration of a word) 
as taken in characters from the Pulpit by a Young Maiden." 
The text is taken from Psalm cxix. 11, "Thy Word have I hid in 
my Heart, that I might not sin against thee." Unfortunately we 
have no means of discovering either the identity of the "Young 
Maiden," or the preacher, or of the nature of the " characters" 
which the reporter used. On the title-page the preacher makes 
the following statement, which we commend to the attention of 
the students of the period : — " I having newly published three 
sermons preach'd in Scotland, taken in characters by this same 
maiden, when about thirteen years of age, and two lately preach'd 
at Dudly, had no thoughts of printing this ; but seeing so little 
profiting by the Word, not only in the country, but even here in 
London, where we so very frequently hear the Word so powerfully 
preach'd : yea, seeing sin so abound in country and city, I am even 

37 



290 



OUR NOTE-BOOK, 



I 



constrained in my mind, to print this plain country discourse, that 
shows you the cause of all the abounding wickedness when the Gospel 

is preach'd." 

* * * * 

" A Key to the Family Deed Chest " is a phrase at which a good 
many members of old country families will prick up their ears, as 
the saying is. Unfortunately, these old family chests rarely contain 
anything of a realisable value, for old documents are not often 
synonymous with cash properties. They possess, however, some- 
times a very considerable literary and antiquarian value far beyond the 
family in whose possession they may have remained undisturbed for 
centuries. The chief difficulty in connection with these documents is 
the easiest and most effective means of deciphering their import. The 
proper understanding of ancient deeds is only acquired after a long, 
patient and painstaking study, as every one who has consulted some 
of the vast materials in the Record Office, or elsewhere. To simplify 
matters, Mr E. E. Thoyts has compiled a capital book entitled 
" How to Decipher and Study Old Documents " (Elliot Stock), to 
which Mr. C. Trice Martin, of the Public Record Office, has con- 
tributed an interesting Preface — the book, therefore, may be regarded 
at once as having the stamp of authority. A careful examination of 
the book itself will only serve to justify this conclusion, and we may 
at once state that it will prove a useful handbook for those who are 
interested in Family History, Genealogy, Local History, and other 
antiquarian subjects, and that many who have hitherto been 
restrained from such investigations by the apparent difficulty of the 
work, will find in its pages the necessary stimulus and guidance. 



As the author points out, some of the difficulties which beset any 
one who studies such documents for the first time, unless he be an 
expert, are the deciphering of the ancient and unfamiliar style of 
writing ; the peculiar abbreviations and signs which were used by 
our forefathers ; the quaint phrases and expressions and obsolete 
words constantly occurring ; the arbitrary and old-fashioned spelling ; 
the use of letters now out of date ; the old forms of foreign lan- 
guages ; customs no longer existing, and other stumbling-blocks 
which to the uninitiated are always vexatious, and often cause the 
would-be student to give up the quest at the threshold of his investi- 
gation. It is to enable the more or less experienced student to 
meet and cope with these and similar difficulties that this work has 
been compiled, by one who has had considerable experience in re- 
search. The comprehensive character of the book will be best under- 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 291 

stood from the following list of its contents : — Hints to the Beginner ; 
Character by Handwriting ; Saxon, Norman-French and Law Latin ; 
Old Deeds ; Law Technicalities ; Manor and Court Rolls ; Monastic 
Charters ; Parish Registers ; Parish Officers and their Account 
Books; Books on Paleography; Old Letters; Abbreviations, &c. 



The fourth part of Mr. Quaritch's " Contribution towards a 
Dictionary of English Book-collectors, as also of some Foreign 
Collectors whose libraries were incorporated in English collections, 
or whose books are chiefly met with in England," deals with eleven 
more or less eminent bookworms, the most notable of all being 
William Beckford, of whom Mr. Quaritch reproduces the portrait 
engraved by J. Singleton from the European Magazine, 1797. Several 
of the entries which occur in this part relate to men of whom very 
little is known in their capacity of book collectors, and whose inclusion 
therefore in this Dictionary is all the more welcome. Facts concerning 
the more eminent collectors are accessible enough to students, so that 
the real value of this publication is best tested by the character of 
the articles relative to minor men. So far, the editor of Mr. 
Quaritch's *' Dictionary," and his assistants, have found themselves 
thoroughly competent to deal with each side of a list which is 
almost inexhaustible, both on account of its length and of its various 
ramifications. So far, some of the information is, through force of 
circumstances, very inadequate. Of Sir Peter Lely, for example, only 
one volume is chronicled as having been at one time in his posses- 
sion — the familiar account of the Voyages and Travells of the Ambas- 
sadors sent by the Duke of Holstein to Russia and Persia, written 
originally by Adam Olearius, secretary to the Legation, and of 
which a translation from the German was published in London 
in 1669. This volume, now in the possession of the writer of 
the notice, Mr. Frederick Clarke, bears the painter's well-known 
autograph on the title-page, and shows that he had a liking for 
literature outside his own technical work. The volume is also 
interesting because Lely apparently preferred the translation to 
the original German of his fellow countryman. Mr. Clarke asks, 
" What other books have found their way from his library into other 
collections ? " and it would be of very great interest if an adequate 
reply could be obtained. Of another collector, who is almost ex- 
clusively known as a Scottish Physician and Botanist, Sir Andrew 
Balfour, 1630-94, Mr. Clarke supplies a few particulars, among which 
is the fact that the Brussels (Brucelas) edition of Cervantes' " Don 



OUR NOTE-BOOK, 293 

Quixote," 1 61 7, in two small octavo volumes, sold in Edinburgh 
in 1695 for eighteenpence — a transaction which we commend to the 
attention of Mr. Ashbee, the latest and most thorough of Cervantes' 
bibliographers in this country. 

* * * * 

One of the rarest and most important books on Costume is Jac. 
Kobel's "Wapen des heyligen Romischen Reichs Teutscher 
nation. Der Churfiirsten, Fiirsten, Grauen, Freihen, Rittern," 
printed in folio by Cyriacus Jacob, at Frankfort-on-the- Maine, in 1545. 
The first edition of this splendid volume contains one hundred and 
forty-four large woodcuts of flag- bearers whose flags bear, with the 
exception of the twenty-four last examples, the coat of arms of each 
state in Germany. These figures are admirably drawn, with the 
bearers in different attitudes. Sotzmann observed that in these 
figures we have a past master at his very best in this phase of art, 
and the writer even goes so far as to compare these illustrations with 
those of Holbein. Nearly all the plates are signed with the initials 
*• J. K. " ; the text being, as will be seen from the title quoted above 
in Low German (plattdeutsch). Through the courtesy of Herr 
Albert Cohn, the well-known bookseller, of 53, Mohrenstrasse, 
Berlin, we are enabled to reproduce one of the most characteristic 
€xampies on the opposite page. 

3fC jfT ^ 2fC 

We have, on two previous occasions, spoken favourably of Mr. 
Bertram Dobell's " Catalogue of a Collection of Privately Printed 
Books " (54, Charing Cross Road, W.C.), and the publication of 
the third part gives us the pleasure of another opportunity of com- 
mending this admirable list to the attention of our readers. The 
present part includes items from N to W, and in interest it covers nearly 
every conceivable phase of literature. Mr. Dobell's long annotations 
and pertinent extracts give the book a very fascinating character to 
the general reader as well as to a " bookish " man. One of the very 
quaintest articles is " A Righte Goodlie Lyttle Booke of Frisket 
Fancies, set forth for Bibliomaniacs ! written and printed by 
Edward Rofle at his Birth-place, 58 Ossulston Street, Somer's Town, 
1 86 1 " and of which only a dozen copies (small quarto, pp. viii. and 
30) were printed, for one of which J[^\ 8s. are asked. Bookish also 
is the entry of Mr. H. N. Pym's " A Tour round my Bookshelves," 
which was privately printed a couple of years ago, and which we 
consider the author ill-advised in not publishing, as the essays are 
charmingly written, and possess all the best features of an author 



294 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 



writing on a subject with which he is thoroughly in love. Mr. Pym 
has a large number of presentation copies of several eminent 
modern authors, and a few facts about these and others of his 
treasures would be very generally appreciated. 



A Japanese Bibliography. 

THE honorary assistant librarian of the Japan Society, Mr. F. 
von Wenckstern, is engaged in the compilation of a Japanese 
bibliography, extending over the period 1 859-1 893, and intended as 
a continuation of the work of M. L^on Page's " Bibliographic 
Japonaise," which ranged from the fifteen century to the first year 
of the period to be covered by Mr. Wenckstern. The bibliography 
in preparation will include only works in languages other than 
Japanese, not refusing, however, to record the works of Japanese 
authors in European languages on subjects not relating to Japan. 
The work will be as comprehensive as the possibilities of literary 
production and the magnitude and variety of the subject, and — 
following the example set in Prince Ibrahim Hilmy's " Literature of 
Egypt and the Soudan " — it will catalogue not only books and 
pamphlets, but papers in the '' Transactions " of societies, as well as 
articles in magazines, reviews, and other periodicals. 




K_ 



v^^^^^^^^^^^h. 


4p^^j||/i(Mr^^9^» ^sn^ 


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^^3 




^.&JW^^^^4 


mwm 


^^^^^ 



A MSS. Chaucer. 




SPLENDID and unique manuscript of poems by Chaucer, 
Lydgate, Lord Suffolk, and others, written between the 
years 1440 and 1450, on paper, came under the hammer 
at Sotheby's in June last. It is in very fine preservation ; and it is 
quite unnecessary to dilate on the value and importance of this fine 
MS., which is so well known to students of early English literature. 
It contains notes in the autograph of John Stow the antiquary, and 
has been in the possession of Dr. Askew, Dr. Wright, Gough, 
Wodhull, W. Browne, J. Taylor, Heber, and has been used by 
Warton, Ritson, and others. It is in calf gilt, folio ; its contents 
being : — 

I. Lydgate's Fable of the two Merchants. 
II. Chaucer's Expostulation with his Purse. 

III. Chaucer's Ballade to his Mistress. 

IV. The Question of Halsam. 

V. French Roundells by the Earl of Suffolk, when 

prisoner in France. 
VI. Lydgate's Order and Number of Fooles. 
VII. Lydgate's Propertyes of Horse, Sheep and Goose, 
all three convented before the Lion and Eagle 
AS Judges. 
VIII. Chaucer's Assemble des Dames, a Moral Tale. 

IX. Chaucer's complaint of Pyttye. 

X. Lydgate Translation of the Psalm " Benedic anima 

mea Domino." 



296 



A MSS. CHAUCER. 




XI. Another Poem of Lydgate on the Psalms, translated 

AT the instance OF THE BiSHOP OF ExETER. 

XII. Hymn upon Christ's being the true Stone upon the 
Cross, by Richardoune. 

XIII. An Hymn on Christ's Passion. 

XIV. An Ave Maria. 

XV. Chronicle of the Kings from the Conquest to 

Edward IV., inclusive^ in verse. 
XVI. Precepts Phisicall. 
XVII. Lydgate's complaint to the Duke of Gloucester for 

THE WANT OF MONEY. 

XVIII. The Duke of Gloucester, his Epitaph. 
XIX. Of Devotion and Christ's Passion, with Prayers in 
verse. 
XX An Advice like the Proverb. 
XXI. Deus Naturae. 
XXII. Craft of Love. 

XXIII. Lydgate on Worldly Honour. 

XXIV. On Wine, Milk, Oil, &c. 
XXV. On Man. 

XXVI. Aristotle de Regimine Principum. 

It was purchased by Mr. Quaritch for ;£"ioo. 



^ 




The Management of Books. ^ 




jERTAIN friends who are forming a library for a gardeners* 
society have asked for advice on a few points that appear 
to me of general interest, and therefore may with pro- 
priety be treated in a somewhat general manner. 

The management of books must be determined in great part by 
the views held in respect of their place and their uses. I sympathise 
fully with the beautiful bindings and the glass cases, for they imply 
religious veneration for the noblest monuments of intelligence and 
sentiment, for books approach nearest to immortality of any of the 
works of man. Temples fall and mingle with the dust ; cities 
are destroyed by war or perish by decay, and their very sites are 
ploughed over to obliterate the last traces of their remembrance ; 
sculptures, pictures, pyramids, are more surely touched by the 
corrosions of time than are books. The "Iliad," composed, say 
about 1,200 B.C., or three thousand years ago, comes to us with a 
certain assumed completeness and integrity that separates it in that 
particular respect from every work of man of anything like equal 
antiquity. A dead Egyptian has a better prospect of interesting us 
by direct evidence of his former existence than the work that secured 
him renown in his lifetime, for his work has perished, but the mortal 
part of the man has a place in a museum, and if he wrote a book 
we are more likely to find it than we should find a temple, supposing 
he had built one. Glass cases kept closely sealed with suitable locks 
to protect books that are not to be handled daily have my respect ; 

^ [This article was written by the late Shirley Hibberd, who, besides being an 
ardent horticulturalist, was also a genuine bookworm. The article is from a more 
or less specialist's point of view, but the rules here laid down admit of a very 
general application.] 

38 



298 



THE MANAGEMENT OF BOOKS. 






but I never possessed one, and have no desire that way. I can only- 
look on books as things to be used often and to be literally in all 
their outsides, insides, purposes, relations, spirit, and visible text, 
" familiar in men's mouths as household words." But I blunder in 
my hurry, for I keep some books for convenience and because of 
their beauty under lock and key, and so you see I can have no 
quarrel with people who lock up all their books. But a library is for 
use much more than for ornament, and glass cases are prohibitory of 
the proper enjoyment of books. They make it difficult to get at 
them. They are like the freezing reserve of some human beings to 
whom no one can speak, although there is no actual prohibition, and 
it might sometimes be difficult to say why when we encounter their 
looks we feel instantly frozen and tongue-tied. Therefore I vote 
against glass cases and bolts and bars in a general way. When there 
are reasons for their adoption they must be adopted, but the true 
theory of a library is to have the books on open shelves in the most 
perfect accessibility. 

My book cases or presses — call them what you please — are fifteen 
in number, all of the plainest kind, a certain few being not only re- 
spectable and handsome but beautiful and attractive, and yet with no 
actual adornment. The simplest and cheapest I call " stacks "; they 
consist of shelves with a skirting at the base to remove the lowest 
shelf to a reasonable height from the floor. In the carpentry of a 
stack certain principles may be observed with advantage if space is 
to be economised to the utmost — as with me it must be, because 
the books threaten to push me out of the house. 

We begin with a skirting twelve inches deep. Thence upward, in 
the stack now before me, there are eight shelves of books, the top- 
most row being 98 inches from the floor. It is a handsome stack, 
covering one wall of a room, and nowhere projects forward in the 
slightest degree more than the width of the books requires, the 
depths of the shelves decreasing upwards. In every case the space 
is just sufficient for the book to slide in and out, for to waste 
so much as one inch in the entire stack would be against my principle. 
It will be understood, therefore, that the shelves were made for the 
books, and not the books for the shelves; in fact the carpenter 
worked to an exact measure and cut his uprights to suit the narrow- 
ing upwards of the shelves in this way, the corners being rounded in 
a workmanlike manner. 

I will give the measurements of the several spaces, and name one 
book in each case for an example. Lower shelf, resting on the 
skirting, say, No. i accommodating " Gardeners' Magazine " and 




THE MANAGEMENT OF BOOKS, 299 

other books of the same size, 14 inches ; No. 2 accommodates 
■*' Encyclopaedia Metropolitana," 12 inches; No. 3, "Knight's Pic- 
torial History of England," 1 1 inches ; No. 4, " Flore des Serres," 
10 inches. No. 5 is what may be termed regular octavo size, 9 
inches. No. 6, " Loudon's Gardeners' Magazine," also octavo size, 
9 inches. No. 7 and No. 8 may be called twelve-mo size; the space 
is 6| inches, and the books comprise mostly the " long sets " of 
Chaucer, Scott, Byron, Moore, &c. ; my Scott being in 100 volumes, 
and comprising all that he has written, with Lockhart's Life. The 
length of the stack is 10 feet, to fit the space allotted it, and it is in 
three divisions of 40 inches each. 

The space between uprights, say 40 inches, is, in my opinion, the 
maximum allowable, and the stuff should be one-inch deal, or any 
more costly wood you may have a mind for. When shelves exceed 
40 inches the stuff should be stouter than one inch, or in time the 
shelves will certainly " sag," as I know from experience. And this 
measure happens to be convenient in other ways. For example, one 
run of forty inches takes a complete set of "Penny Cyclopaedia," 
ditto of " Flore des Serres," which, being discontinued, will require 
no more room; and the Gardeners' Magazine^ as it now stands in 
the run from 1865 to 1888, fills in bound volumes exactly forty 
inches. 

Having a greater love for books than carpentry, I prefer good deal 
and clean work for my book-shelves, and a brown oak-stain and a 
coat of varnish give it a respectable finish. It would surprise some 
people to observe how thoroughly beautiful are some of my presses 
that are of deal only stained and varnished. Paint is detestable ; 
good carpentry and varnish bring out natural markings in the wood 
that make the grainer's work contemptible. 

From stacks I pass to cases, of which I have three made to fit 
recesses; they are in good Spanish mahogany, with some pretensions 
in the furnishing way, but are plain enough, for the books make them 
beautiful, and mere ornament would render them mawkish. These 
cases are on a principle that I can recommend for general adoption. 
Take a plain parlour chiffonier ; mount on it a stack to fit, with a 
neat cornice and leather fillets to protect the tops of the books from 
dust, and you have one of my model cases. In the lock-up I keep 
books, pictures, papers, all sorts of things that must be in order 
under cover. The books in these mahogany cases are a nice lot, in 
handsome bindings, and they are such as would be termed "read- 
able " books, adapted for enjoyment at the fireside. 

The things I call presses are of the same make as these cases. 




300 THE MANAGEMENT OF BOOKS. 

but larger, and more seriously occupied, and contain many grim old 
books that one does not want at one's elbow. I shall briefly describe 
two of these. They are of deal, nicely finished, stained, and var- 
nished, and I will venture to say that though of small cost, they are 
good enough for a library of greater pretensions than mine ; they are 
in their way beautiful. One of these fits a wall in a room where 
serious work is commonly in progress, and it accommodates big 
folios, heavy quartos and upwards, a large proportion of the books 
being works of reference. The base is a closet with sliding doors, 
and herein we stack our serial publications until they are ready for 
the binder. At each end is a kind of tower or watch box ; in other 
words, a closet the full height of the affair, and within are shelves for 
newspapers, periodicals, and the like, for these are untidy things when 
visible, and keep better when put into their proper places at once and 
excluded from view. Our tables are never lumbered with heaps of 
papers, for they are regularly disposed of and put out of sight in the 
most perfect order possible. 

The other press is of similar construction, but has no watch boxes, 
for they would be of no use in the office library where the old books, 
and certain collections illustrative of special subjects, are housed 
apart from all the traffic of daily life in a sort of hermitage of their 
own. The capacious closets that form the basement of this press is 
occupied with large illustrated books, and other cumbrous things that 
must be kept under cover. But we have no sliding doors here, but 
doors on hinges, fitting well to exclude dust, and kept under lock 
and key. 

Sliding doors are not adapted for choice purposes; but they are 
useful where there is not room for opening large doors near the 
ground line, and where a little dust will do no harm. For valuable 
books and papers they are quite unsuitable. 

Tall stacks are inconvenient, because you must use steps or mount 
a chair to reach the upper shelves. I am compelled to run up high 
through lack of space for fair accommodation ; but if I had space 
enough I would never have any book-shelves taller than a man of 
average stature could reach without stretching. 

A strict classification of books I have been for years attempting to 
accomplish, and have got near to it, but perfection in this way is 
absolutely impossible: So far as it can be done, we have our books 
in classes, thus : i. General literature, including poetry, history,, 
fiction, and miscellanies that are the more generally sought in 
a good library. 2. Botany and horticulture. 3. Geography, 
geology, and travels. 4. Dictionaries and concordances. 5.- 




I 



THE MANAGEMENT OF BOOKS. 301 

Shakespeare and his illustrators : there are twenty-five editions of 
the poet, occupying considerable space, with all the more important 
commentaries, thus necessitating a special department. 6. King 
Arthur, Roman Britain, ancient French romances, Gaelic history, 
and kindred subjects. We have some other classes, that are 
not worth mentioning, although to me they are of considerable 
importance. 

A waste stack apart from the library is appropriated to books for 
which places have not been found. As this fills up, new stacks are 
provided, and the books have permanent places ; these are fixed by 
the catalogue, and whether the place be good or bad we consider it 
bad practice to alter it, for the moment you move one book you 
must move another, and there is no end to the work if alterations 
are attempted on a small scale. Have a good system to begin with, 
and adhere to it as closely as you can. 

Our catalogue is in two parts. In part one the books are entered 
as we find them in the stacks, and every book has pencilled on the 
inside of the corner its number and its place. Thus stack A has 

Si 

five shelves, and the first book at the top is marked A — , and is so 
entered in the catalogue. This document contains numbers, names, 
dates, sizes, and estimated values. In the second part, the whole of 
the books are arranged alphabetically, the names of the authors 
giving the order in most cases, but certain leading subjects are 
placed under general headings for the purpose of showing, in one 
block, all the books we have on that subject. Bookworm. 



302 



MISCELLANEA, 



Author and Bookseller. 





N 1803, Mrs. O. S. Mackie published an entirely new 
translation of Madame de Sevigne's "Letters" to her 
daughter, in 3 volumes duodecimo. As was not unusual, 
the author and the bookseller very quickly got at loggerheads with 
one another. Through the courtesy of Mr. Cooper, bookseller, of 
Hyde Street, New Oxford Street, London, we are enabled to give two 
quotations from letters which Mrs. Mackie addressed to Mr. J. S. 
Pratt, in which her differences with her publisher are alluded to in 
rather strong terms. The first letter is dated from Bighton, near 
Alresford, Hampshire, July, 1803, in the course of which she says : — 
*' It has been truly said, that those who neglect their own affairs 
cannot expect that others will think of them ; this tempts me to 
trouble you once more concerning my unfortunate Book which is 
sinking fast into oblivion for want of an active friend and an honest 
bookseller — that Cawthorne has found means to make money of my 
translation I have no doubt, but the manner is an enigma far beyond 
my comprehension. I am assured that if you would exert your in- 
fluence with Mr. Phillips, and get work mentioned favourably in the 
supplement to his Monthly Magazine^ it would be of infinite service, 
but it must be done immediately, as it appears on the 20th of this 
month — it seems it comes out every six months — make an effort for 
me, my dear sir, and don't put me on a par with poor Bibs, although 
I have a wooden leg as well as him — that is, I cannot take a step to 
help myself. ... I am going to write a book against you and every- 
body that forgets me and leaves me to die of vexation and dis- 
appointment, because I met with the most worthless Bookseller in 
England, nay in Europe, nay in Asia, nay in America." From the 
second letter, dated March 10, 1804, we extract the following 
sentence : — " I am quite convinced that you would willingly do 
good to my [edition of] Sevigne — but I much fear that Cawthorne 
has done too much mischief ever to be repaired. The work is 
completely ruined for seven years at the least — after that time 
perhaps it may fall into better hands." 








W 


frin^iarV^ 


^ 


1 






1 


^^^i 




^^k 



Books for Social Reformers. 




HE Fabian Society has issued a second and revised edition 
of their exceedingly useful little pamphlet, " What to Read," 
to which we made reference when the first edition was pub- 
lished about two years ago. 

The list has been compiled for the use of members of the 
Fabian Society and other students of social questions. It makes no 
pretension to completeness. No work has been included which 
cannot be obtained in EngHsh, and few that do not deal almost 
exclusively with English problems. It has been impossible to find 
space even for representative specimens of those local records and 
reports which must be the chief sources of any thorough and original 
study of social history. With few exceptions periodical publications 
have been excluded ; nor have individual articles in magazines been 
mentioned, although much of the best results of modern controversy 
and inquiry is only to be read in that form. Different standards 
have been adopted in the selection of books for different parts of the 
list. For instance, only a few of the best books on early and 
mediaeval social history are given ; while, on the other hand, an 
attempt has been made to include every book of any importance 
which has been issued as part of the Socialist propaganda during the 
last seven or eight years. The Hst, even as it stands, is so long that 
a few years ago it would have been useful only to rich men or pro- 
fessional students ; but the great development of public Hbraries has 
made it possible for a large number of readers to obtain access to 
the best works on any subject ; and it is probable that more now 
suffer from want of information as to which are the best books 



304 



BOOKS FOR SOCIAL REFORMERS. 



i 



than from inability to obtain them. As yet, however, few pubhc 
libraries are sufficiently well equipped to contain all the books here 
mentioned ; and all who desire to promote serious inquiry into 
social subjects are strongly urged to cause any libraries over which 
they may have influence to obtain as many of them as possible. 

For modern books, much the best and handiest general subject 
catalogue is W. S. Sonnenschein's *' Best Books " (Sonnenschein ; 
1891. 31/6 net). For obscure and "out of print" books, tracts, 
&c., the subject catalogue of the Boston Athenaeum, 1882, 25 dols., 
is useful. Watts' "Bibliotheca Britannica,"^?./., gives English books 
published before 1824, under subjects and under authors. Many 
articles in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" have short but well- 
■chosen bibliographies appended to them ; the " Dictionary of Na- 
tional Biography " will also be found useful. Every paper printed 
in any important magazine, from the beginning of the century to 
1882, will be found catalogued under its subject, in Poole's "Index 
to Periodical Literature " (Kegan Paul ; 1883. 76/-)- The Supple- 
ment (Kegan Paul ; 1886. Z^l-) covers the years 1882-87. Since 
then the work has been carried on by the American Library Associa- 
tion (W. L. Fletcher, editor), and appears annually (Kegan Paul ; 
36/- per annum). The method of reference, which is rather compli- 
cated, is explained in the introduction. The " Index and Guide to 
Periodicals," published annually, gives in each issue a complete 
index to contents of periodicals of the previous year, and an ex- 
haustive list of the magazines and reviews of the world, including 
names of editors, addresses and prices. Vol. i. (2/-), 1890, vol. ii. 
(5/-), 1891, and Vol. iii. in the Press, 1893, Review of Reviews^ 
Office, Mowbray House, Temple. The only subject catalogue of 
Newspaper Articles is Palmer's "Index to the Times'' (Palmer's 
Private Press, Shepperton-on-Thames ; 50 vols.). 

As "What to Read" only costs threepence it ought to have a 
very wide circulation, even among those who have very little 
sympathy with the principles of the Fabian Society. 



Tricks of the Eighteenth Century Publishers. 




HE above subject is one that takes us back to centuries 
before the introduction of printing. It is, in fact, almost as 
ancient as the History of Trickery itself. Authors there 
were long before the existence of publishing, even in the most rudi- 
mentary sense of the term ; but the moment a middleman appeared 
on the scene, knavery of the most pronounced character became 
rampant. There is no break in this long wail of complaint, in 
which the author has been the accuser and the publisher the 
accused. Whether we dip into the hieroglyphics of the ancient 
Egyptians, whose libraries were so famous and so extensive 
thousands of years ago, whether we inquire into the history of the 
manuscript literature of Greece in her glory, or of Rome in its 
grandeur, the same trickery is found, differing only in degrees of 
ingenuity. 

It is, however, unnecessary to seek illustrations — of which there 
are plenty — from among the ancients in proof of the tricks of the 
early publishers. The literary history of our own country affords 
sufficient examples to fill a large volume. 

Beginning, therefore, with the Genesis of modern history — the 
great Reformation — when men kicked aside the traditions of ar> 
ancient religion, and utilised what was then regarded as the 
fearful power of a comparatively unrestricted freedom of the press, 
we find ample material for the great and everlasting battle between 
the publisher, on the one hand, and the author or public, as the case 
may be, on the other. In spite of decrees, injunctions, threats, and 
penalties of all sorts and kinds, publishers issued books, sometimes 

39 



3o6 TRICKS OF THE \ZTH CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 

escaping the vigilance, but more often suffering, either in body or 
pocket, and generally in both, for their temerity. When printing 
became a power which defied all the curses of the church, and 
evaded all the laws of the realm, men began to employ this new 
engine of force and effect, and the more rigorous the laws the more 
numerous became the methods of spreading books, and, as the 
appetite grows upon what it feeds, so the taste for them increased 
with a rapidity unknown to every other phase of universal history. 
If laws and regulations could have crushed any movement, they 
would have utterly snuffed printing out of existence. When, how- 
ever, the authorities saw that they could not crush out this new 
power, they sought by means, fair and foul, to circumscribe its 
results by licensing certain men for the selling of certain specified 
classes of books. But, alas for them, their repeated attempts were 
pronounced failures. They forgot that they had to deal with 
"publishers"! Early in the reign of Elizabeth, when these 
arbitrary rights were sought to be imposed, we find a hero in the 
person of one Roger Warde, to whom the lovers of free speech and 
z. free press ought to raise a most glorious monument. He "printeth 
what he lysteth " was the report of the Stationers' Company, and no 
further comment is needed to show how absolutely futile were their 
remonstrances. We read in the memorandum describing the utter 
defeat of the officials the following strange allegation : — " Coming to 
the house of one Roger Warde, a man who of late hathe shewed 
himselfe very contemptuous againste her Majesty's high prerogative, 
and offering to come into his pryntinge house to take notice of what 
he did, the saide Roger Warde faininge himselfe to be absente, hys 
wife and servants keepeth the dore shutt against them, and saide that 
none shulde come there to search." Brave Mrs. Warde ! John 
Wolfe was another refractory publisher, who got into trouble at the 
same time as Roger Warde. When he was being " admonished that 
he being but one so meane a man should not presume to contrarie 
her Highnesses governmante," rudely retorted, " Tush, Luther was 
but one man, and reformed all the world for religion, and I am 
that one man that must and will reform the Government in this 
trade." But John was too boastful, and does not appear to have 
had so valiant a wife as Roger Warde, for he was put into prison. 

In the sixteenth century, as in the nineteenth, there were many 
publishers who traded in certain objectionable phases of literary 
ware. We learn, for example, that the ballad of " A yonge man 
that went a wooying " was cancelled out of the Stationers' 
Company's book "for the undecentness of it in diverse verses." 




TRICKS OF THE \%TH CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 307 

Others committed offences by keeping their shops and selling books 
on St. Luke's Day, and also on Sundays. 

But no phase of old publishing tricks is so fruitful in examples as 
that which deals with surreptitious editions. In the sixteenth century 
it was very generally considered an ungentlemanly thing to be an 
author; and it must in truth be admitted that the usual run of 
authors at that time was anything but desirable or reputable. The 
preservation of many a highly prized literary treasure of the sixteenth 
century would have been lost for ever but for the trickery of the 
publishers of the period. It was with no desire to oblige either the 
then reading public or to confer favours on posterity that they used 
every artifice to beg, borrow, or steal the manuscripts of eminent 
men, and to print them in the face of the strongly worded remon- 
strance of the authors themselves. For these were days when a man 
had no copy or other right in any literary work when it had once left 
his hands. How the times have changed, and how many of us would 
be glad if publishers would only steal a few of our unused manuscripts 
and embryo books which have gone a-begging ! One of the most 
curious examples of this surreptitious publishing and wholesale 
stealing occurs in "England's Helicon" (1600), which is a collec- 
tion of poems by different writers, issued by John Flasket, who, in 
his preface, refers deprecatingly to the common practice of the trade 
of making free with each other's property ; but Flasket himself had 
stolen right and left to make up his book, and he raised a perfect 
hornet's nest about his ears. Many authors issued authentic edi- 
tions only because some knavish bookseller had inflicted a garbled 
one on the public, and had added insult to inquiry by masquerading 
as editor in the worst possible sense of the word. In the case of 
Barnabe Googe (1563), the author was only induced to publish his 
"Eglogs" because the printer possessed the "copy," and having 
bought the paper, he would be at a great loss if the printing was 
not proceeded with. 

So far as paying an author was concerned, the publisher was 
careful to avoid doing anything of the sort. Was not the glory of 
appearing in print sufficient payment ? Occasionally, when, during 
the latter years of the sixteenth century, authorship became a pro- 
fession, the hack would get a few shillings for a brilliant controversial 
essay ; but the publisher invariably stuck to the profits. Shakespeare 
never received a farthing from the publishers for his plays, whilst 
they, on the other hand, must have reaped many a golden harvest. 
Not only this, but they printed his immortal works unknown to him, 
after having in various ways got hold of the copy, usually an acting 




3o8 TRICKS OF THE iZTB CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 



manuscript. Most people are acquainted with the legend in which 
it is related that one of the London publishers sent an agreeable 
young man down to Stratford-on-Avon to make love to Shakespeare's 
daughter Eudith, in order to secure a copy of a play upon which 
the dramatist was then known to be engaged. Mr. William Black 
has utilised this story in one of his delightful novels. That quaint, 
but powerfully written pamphlet, by Thomas Nash, " Pierce 
Penilesse : his Supplication to the Devil," 1592, was one of the 
many literary publications which crept into print unknown to the 
author, the publisher, Richard Jones, acting as literary godfather, 
furnishing an introductory note, which Nash repudiated in no 
measured terms in a later edition. This same Jones performed 
a similar office for Marlowe's " Tamburlaine the Great" (1^92), 
and as regards the latter, he says, " I have purposely omitted and 
left out some fond and frivolous gestures, digressing, and, in my 
poor opinion, far unmeet for the matter which I thought might seem 
more tedious unto the wise than anyway else to be regarded," and so 
forth. A few years later, John Davies, of Hereford, relieved his 
mind by censuring publishers in "The Scourge of Folly," in which 
is a sonnet beginning : — 



' At Stacioners shops are lyes oft vendible, 
Because such shops oft lye for gains untrue," Sac. 



Few men suffered, or fancied they suffered, so much from the 
publisher of his time as Michael Drayton. Writing to Drummond, 
of Hawthornden, he complains of them as "a company of base 
knaves whom I scorn and kick at," because forsooth, they would 
not publish the second part of his elephantine " Poly-Olbion." 
Three years later, however, he managed to get it printed, but it 
contained an exhilarating preface headed " To any that will read it." 
After complaining that because the first part did not go as well as 
certain " beastly and abominable trash," the publishers " despight- 
fully left out the epistle to the readers, and so have cousened the 
buyers with imperfecte books." " Where are thou Michael ? " was 
the cheery inquiry of the John Davies previously mentioned, and 
poor Michael Drayton might well have answered that he was in the 
toils of the publishers. Nearly half a century before this, William 
Turner, whose " New Herbal " may be regarded as the first book on 
English botany, complained of the publisher or printer (which at that 
time was pretty much the same thing) for not only suppressing the 
author's name and preface, but with furnishing his own introduction, 




TRICKS OF THE yZTH CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 309 

and publishing the book as if it were the production of his own 
brain ! 

Perhaps no phase of the publishing business was so popular with 
the old publishers as that of " faking " up a title-page. The nomina- 
tion, as they termed it, was the rock upon which the good feeling 
between publishers and authors became wrecked. An early seven- 
teenth century book, by Thomas Decker, entitled " The Strange 
Horse-Race," contains the following observation: — "The titles of 
books are like painted chimnies in great country houses, they make 
a show afar off, and catch travellers' eyes ; but coming near them, 
neither cast they smoke, nor hath the house the heart to make you 
drink"; and seventy years later, in 1682, John Houghton, when 
starting his "Collection for the Improvement of Husbandry and 
Trade," cautions the booksellers and publishers to send him no new 
titles to old books, for they " will be rejected." Proof both internal 
and external may be adduced without end. What author, for example, 
even among the Grub Street fraternity of that period, would allow 
his book to go forth into the world with such a title as that which 
we recognise as a work of Yates', and published in 1583? The title 
is: — "The Castle of Courtesie, whereunto is adjoyned the Hold of 
Humilitie, with the Chariot of Chastitie thereunto annexed." "The 
Droome of Doome's Day " (1576) is obviously also the work of a 
publisher, and so in all likelihood is Breton's "Flourish upon Fancy." 
As a general rule, the title gave not the slightest indication as to the 
nature of the contents of a book to which it was affixed, and "apt 
alliterations artful aid " in this " nomination " was a favourite course 
with the publishers of the sixteenth century. Coming down to the 
last century, we find a bewildering supply of publishers' tricks. The 
most common one took the form, or name, of "Miscellanies," and 
this was a method of getting rid of a stock of unsold pamphlets, 
essays, or poems, by sandwiching them between the pirated work of 
an eminent writer, the padding matter being indicated on the title- 
page as " somewhat besides." All the publishers did this sort of 
thing, but none with so much impudence as Edmund Curll, who, by 
the way, proved more than a match with Pope. With the exception 
of a few dozen pages in the beginning of the book, Curll's " Miscel- 
lanies " show remarkable differences in different copies ; that is to 
say, if the stock of one " padding " pamphlet failed, another had to 
supply its place. So that there are many variations in the contents 
of " Miscellanies " issued at the same time, and bearing the same 
title-page. " Miscellenies " by Mr. Pope or Dr. Swift would be sure 
to sell. Sir Walter Scott's edition of " Swift's Works " contains many 



3IO TRICKS OF THE iZTH CENTURY PUBLISHERS, 




things which Swift did not and could not have written. The fact of 
a piece of verse being rightly or wrongly attributed to an eminent 
person was quite sufficient for the publishers to print it as genuine, 
and it possessed an additional attraction if it were scandalous or 
indecent. 

Dr. Johnson expressed a very favourable opinion concerning 
booksellers, whom he described as the true patrons of literature. 
But Drayton, on the other hand, was, if his own words have any 
literalness, a positive martyr to their trickery. More than a hundred 
years after the wicked had ceased to trouble poor Drayton, and 
when his weary soul was at rest, the Gentleman's Magazine (vol. ix. 
p. iii.) contained, in " An Appeal to the Public," a passage which 
tells its own story : " Nothing is more criminal in the opinion of 
many of them (/.^., publishers) than for an author to enjoy more 
advantage from his own works than they are disposed to allow him." 
In the seventh volume (p. 239) of the same venerable periodical 
there will be found a translation of a highly interesting letter from a 
French publisher to a journalist, in which the former soundly rates 
the latter on the incompetent way in which he has earned the " ten 
pistoles" that he may at any time receive. "You are," says the 
publisher, '* too sparing in encomiums on my books, and do not 
sufficiently run down those of my brother booksellers." Truly this 
gentleman's brotherly spirit was exceeding great, but this complaint 
is nothing to what he says a little further on in the same communi- 
cation : " You are likewise to play the devil with every book printed 

for N and P , booksellers, they being God's and the State's 

enemies, and, what is more, they are also mine." Was ever a desire 
put in so naive a manner ? 

The Grub Street Journal oi December 7th and 14th, 1732, contains 
an interesting and amusing article on " Tricks of Booksellers." 
After referring to the title of a book as being important, the writer 
proceeds : " The chief rule in buying books is the author's name, 
which is now no rule at all, since the booksellers have usurped the 
making of names as well as titles." The writer contends that "for 
the English booksellers there is no species of legerdemain which 
certain among them do not practise daily, especially that of assuming 
the name of some celebrated author (or the title of some emi?ient 
work) either in its proper form, or with some minute variation, as 
Feilding for Fielding, Colbatsh for Colbatch, Chamberlen for Cham- 
berlayne, Joseph for John Gay, which last article has put some pounds 
into C I's pocket by selling some of his worst poems." 

The connection between Dryden and Tonson was not without its 



TRICKS OF THE \ZTH CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 311 

tricks on both sides. The latter wrote once complaining that the 
poet sold to a rival publisher 1,518 hnes of verse for forty guineas, 
whilst for ten guineas more he had only received 1,146 lines. The 
objections were most delicately put. Old Jacob was a strong Whig, 
and a great admirer of William the Third, to whom he wished to 
dedicate Dryden's "Virgil," but the poet's Toryism was too deep- 
rooted for this. Tonson, bent on having his way to some extent, 
quietly ordered that the nose in all the pictures of ^neas be drawn 
with Dutch William's hooked proboscis, a fact which gave rise to the 
following : 

*' Old Jacob, by deep judgments swayed, 

To please the wise beholders, 
Has placed old Nassau's hook-nosed head 

On young Eneas' shoulders." 

There is an exceedingly interesting letter of Pope's addressed to 
the Earl of Burlington some time in 17 16, and it teems with a 
relation of bookselling tricks. But fortunately there is every reason 
to believe that this letter had no foundation in fact, although it may 
substantially represent no very uncommon occurrence at that period. 
On a journey to Oxford in company with Pope, Lintot is represented 
as having exclaimed, with reference to translators, " Sir, they are the 
saddest pack of rogues in the world ; in a hungry fit they'll swear 
they understand all the languages in the universe," and that he pays 
them at the rate of ten shillings per sheet for translations, which are 
corrected and revised by some other individual. The worthy Bernard 
had an amusing way of dealing with critics. The rich ones he 
silenced for a sheet apiece of the blotted MS., which they pretended 
was submitted to their correction, whilst small authors dedicated 
their works to them. On one occasion (according to Pope) a lean 
man that looked like a very good scholar entered Lintot's shop and 
took up the newly-issued translation of Homer, at every line of which 
he raised an objection. When in the midst of finding fault, Mrs. 
Lintot called out that dinner was ready. " * Sir, will you eat a piece 
of beef with me ? ' ' Mr. Lintot,' said he, ' I am sorry you should be 
at the expense of this great book. I am really concerned on your 
account.' ' Sir, I am much obliged to you. If you can dine on a 

piece of beef, together with a slice of pudding, .' ' Mr. Lintot, 

I do not say but what Mr. Pope, if he would condescend to advise 

with men of learning, .' 'Sir, the pudding is upon the table, if 

you will please to go in.' My critic complies, he comes to taste of 
your poetry, and tells me in the same breath that the book is com- 
mendable and the pudding excellent." 



312 TRICKS OF THE i2>TH CENTURY PUBLISHERS. 

But for trickery, of whatever nature it may be, Edmund Curll 
certainly outdistanced any of the fraternity. Possessed of a fiendish 
propensity for getting into hot water, to be making somebody un- 
comfortable seems to have been one of the principal reasons of his 
existence. His most famous quarrel was with Pope, and it is not 
the most edifying chapter in the history of English hterature. Curll 
may be exonerated from his share in the publication of Pope's letters, 
as it is now generally considered that the poet's part in the transac- 
tion was neither honest nor honourable. And after the action was 
brought before the House of Lords, and at once dismissed, the irre- 
pressible Curll declared that Pope might beat him at a rhyme, but 
he was his opponent's master at prose. It has already been intimated 
that Curll published the sermons of the principal divines. In a 
sudden fit of piety or otherwise he sent a copy of Rochester's 
" Poems," not by any means the most decent book published, to 
Dr. Robinson, Bishop of London, with a polite request to revise the 
same. This little dodge was hardly good enough, and his lordship 
returned the volume with this message : " I am told that Mr. Curll 
is a shrewd man, and should I revise the book you have brought 
me, he would publish it as approved by me." W. R. 



^^^mm 



Printers' Marks. 




HE Printer's Mark appears to be at length in a fair way oi 
receiving the attention to which its general and manifold in- 
terest and importance entitles it. The extraordinary thing is 
that it should have, for so long a period, been neglected. Before 
the present year has run its course at least two books will have 
appeared on the subject— one of which is general and the other 
-special. Although confined to a comparatively narrow area, the 
"Elsassische Biichermarken bis anfang les i8 Jahrhunderts," of Herr 
Paul Heitz and Dr. Karl August Barack (Strassburg, J. H. Ed. Heitz) 
is of exceedingly varied interest, whilst its careful get-up and the 
•.fidelity of its reproductions distinguish it at once as a work of per- 
manent value. The compilers have for the first time brought 
together a collection of the marks of the Alsatian printers and 
booksellers, which are reproduced in the same size as the originals, 
and accompanied by the names of the books in which they were 
used. These marks are not only of importance to the student of 
the history of the art of printing and wood-engraving, but also of 
art in its widest sense. Frequently they are true works of art by 
acknowledged masters. The arrangement is chronological according 
to towns, and most of the marks are reproduced with all their variants, 
when there are any. The seventy-six plates which comprise this 
book include several hundred marks, some of which exhibit an 
astonishing variety of ideas. These vary indeed from a cabbage 
with the letters M. S. used by Martin Schott, who printed several 
books at Strassburg at the end of the fifteenth century, to a pair of 
interlaced serpents surmounted by a dove of Kopfel, of the first 
quarter of the following century; from the personification of the 

40 



314 



PRINTERS' MARKS. 



I 



horn of plenty of Ulricher von Andlau to the device of Apiarius,. 
which is a punning one on his name — the discovery by an inquisitive 
bear of a bees' nest in a hollow trunk of a tree, and the uncomfort- 
able time for the bear which followed, being capitally delineated. 
The subject of Adam and Eve at the tree of forbidden fruit was also 
a popular one, and we find it on some of the books which bore the 
imprint of Johann Albrecht ; the griffin, too, was not uncommon, 
for the reason, we presume, that it is emblematical of watchfulness, 
courage, perseverance, and rapidity of execution. In the score ot 
numbers, variety, and decorative beauty and vigour, it may be 
doubted if any firm of printers in Germany or elsewhere can offer 
a rival to the series employed at one time or another by Lazarus 
Zetner and his successors, who were printing books at Strassburg for 
over a century, from about 1585 onwards, and whose marks number 
nearly forty, all more or less different ; they nearly always used the 
motto " Scientia immutabilis " engraved on a pedestal which sup- 
ported a helmeted head of Pallas Athene. This handsome volume is 
the first of a series, and if the succeeding monographs are compiled 
with the same amount of care and thoroughness they will meet with 
all the success which they deserve. 

As the second volume to which we have referred is by the editor 
of the Bookworm, it must suffice to quote a paragraph or two from 
the prospectus : — The present handbook has been written with a 
view to supplying a readable but accurate account of this neglected 
chapter in the history of art and bibliography, and appeals with equal 
force to the student of either subject. Only one book, Berjeau's 
" Early Dutch, German, and English Printers' Marks," has appeared 
in this country, and this, besides being out of print and expensive, is 
destitute of descriptive letterpress. The principle upon which the 
illustrations [of which there are over 250] have been selected for this 
" Handbook " is of a threefold character : first, the importance of 
the printer; secondly, the artistic value or interest of the Mark 
itself; and, thirdly, the geographical importance of the city or town, 
in which the mark first appeared. The Handbook is divided into 
eight chapters, arranged in the following sequence : — Introduction 
{i,e, significations, style, &c.). Some General Aspects of the Printer's 
Mark, and chapters dealing respectively with English, French, 
German and Swiss, Dutch and Flemish, Italian and Spanish Marks,, 
whilst the last chapter deals with the modern examples. 

It may further be mentioned that the volume is being printed at 
the Chiswick Press, that the publishers are Messrs. George Bell and 
Sons, and that it will appear at the end of the present month. 



John Lilburne as a Pamphleteer. 




iTikl^T is only of late years that John Lilburne has had any 
attention at all bestowed upon him, since the publication 
of the Biographia Anglicana. Five years ago Mr. Edward 
Peacock gave a fairly good bibliography of his writings in the 
■columns of Notes and Queries^ announcing that he had now foregone 
his old intention of writing Lilburne's life, a painstaking but in- 
evitably incomplete account of which has appeared in a recent volume 
of the " Dictionary of National Biography." Elsewhere I have been 
endeavouring to make clear his position, and one of these days hope 
to publish a study, as adequate as I can make it, of the great move- 
ment in which he spent his life. Suffice it to say of his life, as now, 
that it extended from 1615, when he was born at Greenwich, to 
August 15, 1657, when he died at Eltham ; that from 1638 onward 
he spent most of his days in one prison or another, and was but out 
on bail when they ended. 

Of his career as a soldier, or his place as a political reformer, 
this is not the place wherein to speak. Here we are but concerned 
with him as the author and cause of printed paper ; and truly he has 
justified notice under that head, for he himself almost rounded a 
century of pamphlets, ranging from 4 pages to 40, giving also rise to 
twice as many more. Even in the Fleet, loaded down with chains, 
or in the Tower with a sentinel at the door of his cell and his 
friends kept at more than arm's length, he would manage to write 
and smuggle out the copy for a pamphlet to be printed^in Holland, 
or on a secret press in London, and when deprived of pen and ink 
would write them in his own blood. Hardly was he out of prison 



3i6 JOHN LILBURNE AS A PAMPHLETEER, 



t 



when a new pamphlet would put him in again, and then the stream* 
of petitions and pamphlets by, for and against, would go on with 
ever-enhancing speed. Twice was he tried for his writings ; each 
time to be acquitted by the jury despite extreme pressure for a con- 
viction, and each time to be imprisoned by Cromwell despite his 
acquittal. 

His first trial and punishment, however, that which led to his- 
commencing pamphleteer, was for having to do with the printing of 
another man's books. This took place in 1638, when he was accused 
of having printed or caused to be printed at Rotterdam, or some- 
where else in Holland, Dr. Bastwick's "Answer" and " Litany" and 
other books, for which the author had been already pilloried. It 
was also laid to him that he had a chamber in the house of a Mr. 
John Foote at Delft, where contraband books were stored for trans- 
mittal to England. Ten or twelve thousand of them had been 
printed, it was said, at a cost of about ;£8o. Lilburne denied all 
knowledge of the particulars charged against him, but would go no 
further, nor take the Star-chamber oath. Remaining contumacious, 
he was whipt from Fleet Bridge to Westminster and imprisoned in the 
Fleet. Here he wrote and hence he issued " The Christian Man's 
Triall," and " AWorke of the Beast," in which he described his appre- 
hension, trial, and punishment, following them up with " The Poore 
Man's Cry," an appeal to mercy and justice. These three were 
printed at Amsterdam and smuggled into this country. Lilburne 
records that " Canterbury's catchpoles " seized at the Custom-house 
almost two thousand of them as they came from Amsterdam ; " but 
when I was informed that they had cozened him of the greatest part 
of them, and sent them to Scotland for filthy lucre's sake, at whose 
parliament they were sold as public as Martin Parker's (the Bishop's 
champion ballad-maker) ballads are sold here at London, it made 
me to laugh at my loss." That they were sold in Scotland consoles 
not me for the fact that a copy of the first edition of " The Christian 
Man's Triall" would seem never to have crossed the border; I know 
of none existing in any traceable place, it being only to be seen in 
the second edition, printed in London, 1641. 

During the latter part of his imprisonment, and throughout his 
service in the army, Lilburne was silent, so far as the press was con- 
cerned. But in 1645 he threw up his commission, and quickly fell 
athwart the hawse of those for whom he had suffered. Presbyterians 
and Independents were drawing asunder, and he was an Independent 
of the extremest. Prynne and he came to pen-cuffs, for Prynne was 
more than equally hot as a Presbyterian. The Commons were on 



TOHN LILBURNE AS A PAMPHLETEER. 317 

Prynne's side and Lilburne was again thrown within four walls. From 
this time till his death he was mostly under arrest ; for before the 
Commons had done with him he was in the clutches of the Lords, 
and by when the Lords had let him go, he was in the clutches of 
Cromwell, whom he bitterly attacked for his treachery and double- 
dealing. "The Commoner's Complaint," *'The Freeman's Free- 
dom Vindicated," "An Alarum to the House of Lords," "The 
Resolved Man's Resolution," "The Just Man's Justification," and 
many others followed one another in swift succession. 

Of the later series, those written when the so-called Common- 
wealth was coming, or had recently come to birth, " Foundations of 
Freedom " and " England's New Chaines Discovered," and " The 
Legall Fundamental! Liberties of the People of England Revised, 
Asserted and Vindicated," are the most notable. On these three 
alone Lilburne might rest a valid claim to respect as a great con- 
stitutional lawyer. Indeed, every written constitution drawn up 
since his day does in some part derive from the first-named. 

Of all the writers of his time, Lilburne ranks among the most 
prolific, as well as among the most profound. He has none of the 
majesty of Milton, but then there attaches to him not even the small 
taint of mercenary partizanship which indubitably clings to his great 
contemporary. He is in earnest, in deadly, breathless earnest, all the 
time ; fights with feet and hands, and strikes to kill, though never a 
foul blow. His pen has but replaced his sword, and is equally a 
weapon, neither a solace nor a plaything. He possesses all Prynne's 
vigour and variety of invective, without Prynne's ingrained vulgarity 
and crude narrowness of bigotry. His vast and varied knowledge of 
the law and constitution cannot be paralleled by contemporary jurists 
nor approached by contemporary laymen. And he stands high above 
Milton, Prynne, or any other that can be named, in his deep appre- 
ciation and statesmanlike handling of the problems of his time: some 
of them, it may be hinted, being the problems of our time too. In 
likewise does he surpass all in the stiffness with which he stands to 
his principles at all hazards, bating no jot nor tittle for fear or favour 
of any man or set of men, facing all in turn fearlessly whom he held 
in the wrong. 

I have said nothing of the peculiarities of Lilburne's pamphlets : 
they have none. Saving for the matter and the style they are exactly 
as all others of the time, poorly printed on bad paper, quartos, and 
with over-crowded title-pages. But the matter and style, as I have 
said already, mark him out unique among all those who were active 
in that strenuous time. It is not wholly, I think, mere unreasoning 



3i8 JOHN LILBURNE AS A PAMPHLETEER, 



I 



enthusiasm for a loved hero that leads me to bracket him with 
Defoe as a typical Englishman. That Defoe, in the foul and sordid 
atmosphere of the eighteenth century, could not rise to Lilburne's 
height, that Lilburne in the tension of the period during which all 
things English were in the melting-pot could not equal the coolness 
and self-possession natural to the dull "Augustan age," may go alike 
without saying. But in so far that each held England first over all, 
that each wrote always to a tangible end, never straying into the 
primrose path of " pure literature," that each took for his material 
and used with striking effect the ordinary colloquial English tongue, 
never straining after " style," never sinking into the classical or the 
academic, they may be classed together, and commended to the 
appreciation of all Englishmen. 

H. Halliday Sparling. 




The *' Tudor " Translations. 



THE new volume of the Tudor Translations will be "The 
Ethiopian History of Hehodorus, Englished by Thomas 
Underdowne, 1587." Mr. Charles Whibley writes the introduction, 
and Mr. Nutt is the publisher. Florio's Mortaigne has already been 
issued in three volumes, besides the present work, the " Golden Asse" 
of Apuleius, in William Adlington's translation of 1566, is in the 
press. " If due encouragement be given," says the publisher, " the 
Plutarch so precious to Shakespeare " will be reproduced. He adds, 
of the whole series of " Tudor Translations " : — The translations 
made in what it is convenient to call the Age of Elizabeth are scarce 
less remarkable in their way than the poems and the plays in theirs. 
It was the Golden Age of English, and the Translator, working with 
as free a hand and as fresh an interest in his material as his brethren 
of the theatre themselves, achieved not seldom results which to this 
day are monuments of diction and style. But these have fallen out 
of sight, and are forgotten. They are inaccessible to the general 
reader, or the form in which they were presented is one that makes 
diHgence hard and delight in them impossible. 



Some Reflections on Autograph Collecting. 




T is hard to estimate the influence of a collection of auto- 
graphs on the taste and character of the owner, and just as 
one's scrap-book is an index of one's preferences and 
idiosyncracies, so to a large extent is the line of collecting guided by 
the special personality of the collector — with this difference, that the 
very collection, its growth, and the care of it, engenders or fosters, 
or both, an historical, literary, musical or other taste which goes far 
in making up the breadth of his education. 

Outside of the pleasure and profit as indicated, my own collections 
have been among other items the means of bringing me into close 
relation with very many delightful and cultivated people, whose 
acquaintance, in consequence of the common taste, has been easily 
formed and the friendship quickly cemented, and I do not remember 
ever to have made any but worthy and desirable friends in this way. 

Then, too, choice books have been gradually accumulated about 
my cases, illustrative of and in sympathy with the holographic pages, 
and bringing their authors still more into communion with the 
interested spectator, and the impression that one is surrounded 
by friends and sympathising minds is greatly enhanced. Take for 
instance the first book that comes to hand, and which perhaps is 
a little out of the ordinary line of preferences of autographiles. It 
is labelled "Hymnology," and on opening, we find it filled with 
many of the hymns used the world over, and which have done so 
much towards bringing all religions and sects into closer sympathy 
and harmony. They are in the chirography of their authors, and 
bear the signatures of those to whom we are so much indebted for 
helpful and uplifting thoughts. Here is the poem, " Lead, Kindly 



3^o REFLECTIONS ON AUTOGRAPH COLLECTING. 

Light," in the neat penmanship of Cardinal Newman, together with 
a printed clipping telling of the circumstances of its production, and 
a couple of portraits of the kindly face of the talented author. Next 
-we turn to that missionary hymn sung the wide world round, " The 
Morning Light is Breaking," from the same pen that gave us " My 
Country, 'Tis of Thee." Following it is the hymn, " My Faith 
Looks up to Thee," with the signature of Dr. Ray Palmer, together 
with a little memorandum of its first being handed to his friend 
Dr. Lowell Mason, and carried in a pocket-book for a long time 
before being given to the world. Delightful reminiscences of the 
singing of finely blended male quartets come to mind as we see 
"There is a Green Hill Far Away" spread out over the name of 
Mrs. Alexander, though not the " Mrs. Alexander " of current litera- 
ture. 

Here is the hymn of resignation dating back to the 17th century 
but translated in the 19th in the familiar words " My Jesus, as Thou 
Wilt," and the Good Bye so extensively used these days "God Be 
with You Till We Meet Again." 

Then we find a MS. which recalls the horrors of the Ashtabula 
accident and the fortitude of the quiet, lovable character of the 
Evangelist P. P. Bliss, for it is the original words of one of his songs, 
made so familiar to singers of our generation by use in the Gospel 
services and Sunday-schools. 

This is a sample volume picked up at random, but who can make 
•such documents and the thoughts and aspirations suggested by and 
growing out of a familiarity with them, their friends, and not be 
helped and bettered? 

Fred. M. Steele. 



^m^^m^ 



The First Book Catalogue. 




jHE first digested list of publications in the English lan- 
guage was compiled by Andrew Maunsell, a bookseller of 
ability and eminence, who lived in Lothbury, London, towards 
the close of the sixteenth century. Hearne calls this catalogue " a 
very scarce, and yet a very useful book " ; and it is curious on many 
accounts, particularly as it affords the titles of many works, and 
records the names of various authors, long since lost or forgotten. 
The work is dedicated " To the Queene's most sacred Maiestie " ; 
to " The Reverend Divines, and Louers of Diuine Bookes " ; and to 
"The Worshipfull the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Com- 
panie of Stationers, and to all other Printers and Bookesellers in 
generall." The following is the title : "The first Part of the Cata- 
logue of English Printed Bookes : which concerneth such matters of 
Diuinitie as have bin either written in our owne tongue, or translated 
out of anie other language : and haue bin published to the glory of 
God, and edification of the Church of Christ in England. Gathered 
into Alphabet, and such method as it is, by Andrew Maunsell, book- 
seller. Unu7iiquodque propter quid. London : printed by John 
Windet, for Andrew Maunsell, dwelling in Lothburie, 1595." Folio, 
pp. 123 ; dedication, pp. 6 ; with the device of a pelican and its off- 
spring rising from the flames, round which is this legend: ^^ Pro 
Lege Rege et Grege : Love kepyth the Lawe, obeyeth the kynge, 
and is good to the Commonwelthe." 

The following extract from the " Dedication to the Printers and 
Booksellers " will not only furnish an insight into the plan of publi- 
cation, but is also applicable to the compilation of catalogues in 

41 



322 



THE FIRST BOOK CATALOGUE. 






general. " seeing (also) many singular bookes, not only of 

diuinitie, but of other excellent arts, after the first impression, so 
spent and gone, that they lie euen as it were buried in some few 
studies ; — I haue thought good in my poor estate to vndertake this 
most tiresome businesse, hoping the Lord will send a blessing vpon 
my labours taken in my vocation ; thinking it as necessarie for the 
bookeseller (considering the number and nature of them) to haue a 
catalogue of our English bookes, as the apothecarie his Dispensa- 
torium, or the schoolemaster his Dictionarie. By means of which 
my poore trauails, I shall draw to your memories bookes that you 
could not remember ; and shew to the learned such bookes as they 
would not thinke were in our own tongue ; which I haue not 
sleighted vp the next way, but haue to my great paines drawn the 
writers of any special argument together, not following the order of 
the learned men that haue written Latin catalogues, Gesner, Simler, 
and our countriman, John Bale. They make their alphabet by the 
christian name, I by the sirname : they mingle diuinitie, law, 
phisicke, &c., together ; I set diuinitie by itselfe : they set downe 
printed and not printed, I onely printed. Concerning the bookes 
which are without authors' names, called Anonymi, I haue placed 
them either vpon the titles they bee entituled by, or else vpon the 
matter they entreate of, and sometimes vpon both, for the easier 
finding of them. Concerning the bookes that be translated, I haue 
observed, (if the translator doe set his name) the author, the matter, 
the translator, the printer (or for whome it is printed), the yeere, 
and the volume. For example, Lambert Danaeus, his treatise of 
Antichrist, translated by John Swan, printed for John Potter and 
Thomas Gubbin, 1589, in 4. The author's sirname, which is 
DancBus ; the matter of the booke, which is Antichrist ; the trans- 
lator's sirname, which is Swan ; are, or should be, in Italica letters, 
and none other, because they are the alphabetical names obserued 
in this booke : turn to which of these three names you will, and 

they will direct you to the booke. 1 shall£not neede to make 

the like examples — they are plaine inough by one example. 

"A. Maunsell." 
In the same year in which this catalogue was printed, Maunsell 
published a second part, " which concerneth the sciences mathe- 
maticall, as arithmetick, geometrie, astronomie, astrologie, musick, 
the art of warre and navigation ; and also of physicks and surgerie." 
To this part, as to the first, he has prefixed three dedications. The 
first was to the memorable Earl of Essex, whose arms, beautifully 
cut in wood, ornament the back of the title. He [is styled, as he 



THE FIRST BOOK CATALOGUE. 323 

truly was, " a most honourable patrone of learned men and theyr 
works." The second dedication is to "The Professors of the 
Sciences Mathematical!, and of Physicke and Surgery"; and the 
third is, as before, to the " Companie of Stationers, Printers," &c. 
In this last dedication he says : " Hauing shewed you in my former 
part of the use of my tables, I will onely in thys shew you and the 
curteous readers that I haue set the writers of arithmetick, musick, 
navigation, and warre together, vsing the playnest way I could 
deuise. Now it resteth, that I should proceede to the thirde and 
last part, which is of humanity, wherein I shall haue occasion to 
shew, what we haue in our owne tongue, of gramer, logick, rethoricke, 
lawe, historie, poetrie, policie, etc. which will, for the most part, 
conceiue matters of delight and pleasure, wherein I haue already 
laboured as in the rest ; but finding it so troublesome to get sight 
of bookes, and so tedious to digest into any good methode, I haue 
thought good first to publish the two more necessarie parts, which, 
if I perceave to be well liked of, will whet me on to proceed in the 
rest (as God shall make me able) with better courage." Although 
we can scarcely doubt that Maunsell's Catalogue was "well liked 
of," yet it seems that he did not meet with sufficient encouragement ; 
for certain it is that the third part, which would doubtless have been 
the most interesting, never made its appearance. 

An interesting copy of this important Catalogue came up for sale 
at Sotheby's in July last : it is interleaved with manuscript additions 
in an old-hand, and the autograph of *' Tho. Leigh " on the title. It 
is in the original vellum binding, and was sold for ^£'5 2s. 6d. — a 
fact which alone is a sufficient indication of its bibliographical inte- 
rest and importance. 



"^^m^ 



324 



MISCELLANEA. 



'^The Best Books." — Lord Coleridge's List. 

LORD COLERIDGE, as President of the Shipley Salt Schools, 
recently delivered an address on Education, which was inte- 
resting for its contribution to the famous "Best Books" controversy. 
Lord Coleridge counselled his hearers to cultivate the memory. A 
good memory was one of the most valuable possessions a man could 
have in any occupation of life. One of the best methods of 
strengthening it was by learning by heart passages they admired, 
both in verse and prose. The safest rule was to learn that which 
pleased their taste. His lordship, leaving aside Latin and Greek 
authors, then gave a list, which may be tabulated as follows : — 



Poetry. 

Shakespeare. 

Milton. 

Wordsworth (daily). 

Gray. 

Shelley. 

Keats. 

Scott. 

Ben Jonson. 

Massinger. 

Pope. 

Dryden. 

Young. 



Prose. 

Lord Bolingbroke. 

Lord Erskine. 

Burke. 

Bacon. 

Bishop Hooker. 

Jeremy Taylor. 

Sir Thomas Browne. 

Cardinal Newman. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

Southey. 




Coleridge, said the Lord Chief Justice, he of course omitted ; and 
Tennyson he omitted, because any estimate which placed him below 
Shakespeare was the mark of a Philistine. Browning he had not 
been so fortunate as always to understand. The list was short, but 
was sufficient to occupy a very long time to master thoroughly. He 
could not too earnestly recommend their acquainting themselves with 
good books \ in sickness, misfortune, or sorrow, in sleepless nights 
and painful days, they would find their recollection of wholesome 
literature a constant solace and refreshment. 



A First Lesson in Book-keeping. — Never lend one. — Punch. 




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Marshal Junot's Library. 




HE splendid library of Junot, Duke of Abrantes, was sold 
by auction in London in June, 1816. It principally con- 
sisted of works published by Didot, and printed by him and 
Bodini of Parma upon vellum, manufactured expressly for the marshal 
at a very great expense. The following were a few of the articles 
sold, with their prices : — " CEuvres de Crebillon," 4 vols., best 
edition. Printed by Didot, upon vellum, with plates, by Peyton; 
proofs before the letters ; proofs with only the artist's names ; 
etchings; and a fourth set of the plates, in colours. Paris, 1797. 
Sold for ;£"26 5s. "Oratio Dominica," in 155 linguas versa et 
Exoticis Characteribus plerumque expressa ; red morocco. Parma, 
1806. Sold for ;£^i4. *' Homeri Ilias," Graec^, 3 vols. A magnifi- 
cent book. Parma, 1808. When Buonaparte assumed the iron 
crown of Italy, Bodoni undertook this edition of the Iliad, avowing 
that he meant to present the Emperor with the most perfect specimen 
of the art of printing which could be produced. Sold for j^ig 19s. 
" Horatii Opera." Printed in vellum, by Didot, with the exquisitely 
beautiful original drawings, by Peicier, inserted ; also a set of proof 
plates. Paris, 1799. This and the two following articles may be 
considered as chefs-d'cBuvre ; they exhibit the perfection of the art of 
printing upon vellum. The exquisite beauty of the vellum and the 
skill of the printer cannot be surpassed. Two copies only were 
printed upon vellum, and Didot states that he picked the sheets of 
this from both. Sold for ;!£"i40. "Fables de la Fontaine," 2 vols. 
Printed upon vellum, by Didot. A most splendid and magnificent 
book. Paris, 1802. Of this edition only two copies were printed 



326 



MARSHAL JUNOT'S LIBRARY, 




upon vellum. Didot states, at the commencement of the volume, 
that he picked every sheet from both copies. The beauty of the 
vellum leaves nothing to be desired by the most fastidious eye ; and 
to render this copy more interesting the admirable original drawings 
of Percier are inserted, and a set of proof plates. Sold for ;£"i7o. 
" Longus," Grasce. A most splendid and magnificent copy, upon 
vellum. Paris, 1802. This splendid volume is unique. Didot 
states that he took it off upon vellum expressly for the Duke of 
Abrantes. The original drawings by Prudhon and a set of proof 
plates are inserted. Sold for £,12, los. 

In this sale it was expected there would have been the celebrated 
Bible which Junot carried off from Portugal, but it was not trans- 
mitted with the rest of the library. The Government of Portugal was 
so anxious to redeem this great curiosity that they offered the mar- 
shal's widow eighty thousand livres for it \ but the duchess refused 
it, saying, that from the reverence and respect in which she held the 
memory of her husband, she could not part with it for less than 
150,000 livres ! 



Books. 




THERE are three capital mistakes in regard to books : — 
I. Some persons, through their own indolence, and others 
from a sincere belief of the vanity of human science, read no book 
but the Bible. But these good men do not consider that, on the 
same principle, they ought not to preach sermons, for sermons are 
libri ora^ vivaque voce pronunciati. 

2. Some collect great quantities of books for show, and not for 
service. Of such as these Lewis XL of France aptly observed that 
" They resembled hunchbacked people, who carried a great burden 
which they never saw." This is a vain parade, even unworthy of 
reproof. If an illiterate man thinks by this art to cover his ignorance 
he mistakes, for while he appears to affect modesty he dances naked 
in a net to hide his shame. 

3. Then there are others who purchase large libraries with a sincere 
design of reading all the books ; a very large library, however, is but 
a learned luxury. 




Bibles at the British Museum. 

THE first part of the new general catalogue of the British 
Museum treats of the Bible. Altogether the Museum has 
2,700 editions of the Bible in different languages. The oldest of 
the Polyglot series belongs to the years 1514-23, in Hebrew, Greek, 
and Latin. After that there is the Antwerp edition of 1569-73. 
Of written Latin editions the Museum is in possession of forty-five. 
The oldest printed Bible is that by Gutenberg, known as the first 
printed book. Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English printed Bibles 
occupy ninety pages of the catalogue. Besides these the Museum 
owns editions in eighty-three languages, among which are several in 
barbaric tongues. The first German Bible was brought out in 1466 
by John Mentelin, of Strassburg. In the time of Luther twenty- 
two German editions of the Bible were published. The first 
French edition appeared in 1510; the first in Italian in 1471 ; 
the first Spanish was published in Basle, in 1569; and the 
first old Sclavonic in 1580; the first complete Russian Bible 
was not published till 1876, and then in London. One of the 
most rare editions is the Malagasi Bible of 1830-35, printed 
in Madagascar ; shortly after that date a persecution of the Chris- 
tians broke out, and the Bibles were divided amongst them in 
small parts, so that they might be more easily concealed ; a com- 
plete Malagasi edition is therefore very rare. The one in the 
British Museum cost twenty oxen. The first American Bible is in 
the language of the Massachusetts Indians ; it was printed in 
1661-63, and is very rare. 



328 



MISCELLANEA. 




Earliest English Medical Work. 

HE earliest Medical work written in English is supposed by 
Fuller to have been Andrew Borde's " Breviarie of Health," 
which was published in 1547. It must yield, however, in 
its pretensions to antiquity, to a much older work, the " Breviary of 
Practice," by Bartholomew Glanville, a manuscript of which is pre- 
served in the Harleian collection. The one title, indeed, appears to 
have been an imitation of the other. The " Breviarie of Health '* 
has a prologue addressed to physicians, which begins thus : " Egre- 
gious doctors, and masters of the eximious and arcane science of 
physick, of your urbanity exasperate not yourselves against me for 
making this little volume." 

Andrew does not confine his attention to diseases of the body, but 
treats also of those of the mind ; as in the following instance, which 
may serve for a specimen of his manner : " The 1 74 Chapiter doth 
shewe of an infirmitie ?iamed Hereos. Hereos is the Greke worde. 
In Latin it is named Amor. In English it is named Love-sick, and 
women may haue this fickleness as well as men. Young persons be 
much troubled with this impediment." After stating " the cause of 
this infirmitie," he prescribes the following remedy : " First I do 
advertize every person not to set to the hart what another doth set 
to the hele ; let no man set his love so far, but that he may with- 
draw it betime ; and muse not, but use mirth and mery company, 
and be wyse, and not foolish." Andrew Borde called himself in 
Latin, Andreas Perforatus. This translation of a proper name was 
according to the fashion of the time ; and, in the instance before us, 
appears to include a pun : perforatus^ bored or pierced. 



A Woman on Books. 




ARK PATTISON said that nobody who respected himself 
could have less than i,ooo volumes. That reduces the 
self-respecting men of the world to a very small number, 
and of this a very large fraction is composed of publishers and book- 
sellers, who in every day's paper make known their desire to be rid 
of, with the greatest despatch possible, the i,ooo, or thereabouts, 
.volumes they have. 
A thousand volumes ! 
Why, Chaucer's clerk of Oxenford was satisfied with having at — 

" His beedes bed 
A twenty bokes." 

Does any dare deny that the gentle clerk had a claim to self- 
respect ? 

I who write these words on books possess loo, not the best loo, 
;but loo, good, bad, and indifferent, and I never look at them in rows 
upon my shelves but the heart in me is lifted up. 

Why? 

For this reason, shade of Mark Pattison, I have read ninety-and- 
[tiine of them through, from cover to cover. The hundredth I have 
only just got, and it I shall have read through, from cover to cover, 
in a month. And then I shall get my hundred-and-first. I find that 
I take a month to read a book, and think about it ; and find out what 
^others think about it ; and then compare their views with mine ; 
ind summarise the book's contents ; and make a list of the good 
[things in it. A book a month ; that is my quickest rate of reading, 

42 



330 



A WOMAN ON BOOKS. 






and I shall be over loo years old before my thousandth book is 
on the shelf, and I have Mark Pattison's leave to respect myself. 

"Not so," somebody says, reading over my shoulder. '*He does 
not mean the i,ooo books to be read.^^ I will not insult his memory 
by believing that. Perhaps he himself read very quickly. It is 
wonderful the amount of literature some people can get through in 
next to no time. Hearken to Mr. John Morley, speaking, no doubt, 
from a knowledge of himself, and addressing you and me — 

"In half an hour I fancy you can read 15 or 20 pages of 
Burke." 

Can you ? I cannot. I fancy very few can, especially very few 
"wise students," reading as he bids them read, with a pen or a 
pencil in hand. I open a page of Burke at random : — 

" Lord Chatham is a great and celebrated name, a name that 
keeps the name of this country respectable in every other on the 
globe. It may be truly called Lamm et venerabile nomen Gentibus,. 
et multuin nostras quod proderat urbi. 

"The venerable age of this great man, his merited rank, his 
superior eloquence, his splendid qualities, his eminent services, the 
vast space he fills in the eye of mankind, and, more than all the rest, 
his fall from power, which, like death, canonises and sanctifies a 
great character, will not suffer me to censure any part of his conduct. 
I am afraid to flatter him ; I am sure I am not disposed to blame 
him. Let those who have betrayed him by their adulation insult him 
with their malevolence. But what I do not presume to censure I 
may have leave to lament." 

That is one paragraph. 

It takes me precisely two minutes to read that paragraph once 
quickly through, and then I have to think my thoughts about it. 

" Lord Chatham is a great and celebrated name " — why is the 
title here not omitted ? Is there not some snobbishness in its being 
prefixed to the great and celebrated name? That is my first 
thought ; then comes my second thought. By " name," perhaps, is 
meant by Burke what Shakespeare so often meant by " name " — 
person. There is no snobbishness then. But I cannot proceed to the 
next paragraph, nay, even to the next sentence, yet. There is another 
feature in this one that sets me thinking. In 14 words the noun 
" name '' occurs thrice — tautological rather. Stop ! Burke was an 
orator. The effect of the iteration in speech would be magnificent^ 
I picture him speaking the sentence, and then my heart swells to 
remember that he was an Irishman, and then I hold a mental 
review of great Irishmen ! 




I 



A WOMAN ON BOOKS. 331 

Then comes the Latin quotation. What does it mean ? Whence 
is it taken ? I copy it down, and resolve to make a search for it. 

This brings me to the sentence with the wonderful string of 
subjects. I read that sentence first to myself, and then I read it 
aloud to the walls, and then, because it sounds so superb, read it 
aloud, and because the patient walls raise no objection, I read it 
aloud, more loudly, once more. And then I think a long thought 
about that bit, "the fall from power." Is it not generous and 
beautiful ? I resolve to commitit to memory. Then I go on : — 

" I am afraid to flatter him ; I am sure I am not disposed to 
blame him. . . ." 

Why those words " I am sure ? " They spoil the balance of the 
sentence. In my conceit I dare to censure here. 

And then at last I proceed to paragraph two. But, oh, Mr. 
Morley ! I have been precisely 33 minutes reading paragraph one. 

" I read so slowly," you say, indignantly. I do (an Irishwoman's 
answer), but then (this is a good thing, is it not ?) I never forget 
what I read. To swallow 15 pages of pure literature without thinning 
it with the water of one's thought must simply intoxicate. Books do 
intoxicate. They are like beech-mast, the fruit of the beech, which, 
when taken in great quantities, produces light-headedness like wine. 
Nay, they are beech-mast, nothing else ; the very word " book " 
has " beech " wrapped up in it. I don't understand people who are 
able to say, "This is my favourite book." My favourite book 
changes daily. One day I decide that I love the Bible most ; and 
the next day I make up my mind that I love Shakespeare more ; 
and the next day I put Robert Burns at tip-top of all my loves ; and 
the next day I resolve that Chaucer far excels Robert Burns ; the 
next day I enthrone Lytton ; and him I depose the day after to make 
room for my new king, Spenser. To-day I have been reading 
"Hyperion" and my soul is full of love for Keats; to-morrow I 
mean to read *' Adonais," and the odds are that Keats will be taken 
from off his pedestal and Shelly perched there in his place. Think 
of there being only one book which could make lie-a-bed Dr. 
Johnson get up two hours earlier than he wished to rise. I get up 
every morning three hours earlier than I wish to rise, simply to creep 
into my study and sit among the dear books, taking up any of them 
— the first that comes — to read it. 

A "general reader." Well, yes. Only I don't like that phrase. 
The word " general " is used with the precise meaning which it here 
has only, as attribute to two nouns — reader and servant^ and, indeed, 
a general reader and a general servant have — generally — much in 



332 



A WOMAN ON BOOKS. 




common. Both get through a good deal of work, and botl 
generally — in very different style. 

What do you think is the next best thing to reading a book ? I 
think it is writing one. It is so pleasant to think you are doing 
what Shakespeare did, that your thoughts, like his thoughts, are sO' 
precious that you feel, like him, they merit being put to paper (in 
common logic every writer, even a modest critic, must admit that it 
is this conviction that first made him take pen in hand), and pleasant 
it is to picture a publisher's accepting your work "with thanks," 
though, I believe, indeed, that modifying clause in publishers' dic- 
tion commonly only follows the word " declined," and finally, and 
more than all : — 



*' 'Tis pleasure sure to see one's name in print ; 
A book's a book, although there's nothing in't." 

" Nothing in't." Why, surely Byron knew that there never yet 
was a book ** in print " but there was something in't. Take only 
the case of the book which Moore gave the world. Folks are saying 
all over England to-day that " There's nothing in Moore." Now 
there's this in Moore : 



" There's nothing half so sweet in life 
As love's young dream." 



I 



Find me anything half so sweet as that in your favourite poet. It 
is only the first thing in Moore that comes to my mind ; there are 
many things more in him. 

Cowper has said that authorship is "awhim." The definition is 
whimsical, and more one cannot say of it. The same writer has the 
phrase — " a serious affair — a volume." Mark Pattison would have 
done well to lay that phrase to heart. 

What ideas have you on authors? I speak now to the "general 
reader," not to the critic, nor to the person personally acquainted 
with authors. Before I myself became an author and met Mr. 
Walter Besant — and he was the first writer I ever beheld (except as 
a frontispiece) — I thought of all authors as being " wizards that peep 
and that mutter." I know at present one author of whom the old 
girlhood's notion holds good. He is a poet and is a wizard that 
peeps and that mutters. Sometimes he laughs, and sometimes he 
cries, and sometimes he gasps, and sometimes he grunts, when at 
authorship. When you first pass his study you wonder how many- 
are in it. You might sometimes imagine that he was entertaining. 



A WOMAN ON BOOKS, 333 

quite a number of people, and that these people had brought with 
them their children, and dogs, and cats, and canary birds. 

The poet is employed tete-a-tete with his Muse. Their plan is, in 
working together, to imitate all the things that they describe, just as 
Shakespeare in writing a certain notable poem imitated at first the 
infant mewling and puking in his nurse's arms, and then the whining 
schoolboy — and then the lover — then a soldier — and then the justice. 
I know exactly how Shakespeare wrote that poem from watching, 
listening to my friend, the poet, wizard-like peeping and muttering. 

What accident annoys you most in connection with the book ? 
Not the cover torn, or a dog's ear, or a blot, or spot, or foolish under- 
lining, or comment upon margin, not these, I hope. More aggra- 
vating than any of these, or all of these combined, it is to come upon 
a leaf torn out. The wife of Bath owed her deafness to a box on 
the ears which her fifth husband gave her for tearing a leaf out of 
one of his books. Well, a husband (even a fifth husband) has no 
right whatever to box his wife's ears ; but if there could be a circum- 
stance more extenuating than any other in connection with the act, 
it seems to me to be the one connected with the box on the ear 
which her fifth husband gave the wife of Bath. The world seems to 
stand still when one opens a book at a page torn out. One feels 
morally certain that the pith and marrow of the whole work was con- 
tained there, and that the 300 and odd pages which may be left are 
only so much worthless paper which wrapt that priceless leaf about. 
Merely writing on the subject is fraught with pain, and I feel I grow 
"intense." 

You notice, of course, the number of Httle books which are now to 
be seen about. A lady wrote last year in a society paper in London : 
" It is the fashion at present to have a great number of little lamps, 
each adapted to give as little light as possible." It seems as if this 
" fashion " had taken a special hold on publishers, who supply us 
indeed with a great number of little lamps (a wise writer long ago 
said that a book was a lamp), each adapted to give as little light as 
possible. Addison, it is true, wrote years ago that were all books re- 
duced to their quintessence there would be scarce any such thing in 
nature as a folio ; but would he, one asks oneself, be pleased to see 
all books, as to-day all books may be seen, " reduced to their quint- 
essence " } As matters stand it is really quite refreshing to come 
across a folio. What with the booklets which in place of books are 
supplied to it, our reading public threatens to become a race of 
polished Florios, of whom their sons will be able to say, what Hannah 
More said of their prototype : — 



334 ^ WOMAN ON BOOKS. VH 

" Some phrase that with the public took ^| 

Was all he read of any book." fli 

Verily, the providers of quintessential literature give us little more of 
our great writers than some phrase — mayhap some phrases — that 
with the public took. 

A word about French fiction. Is it so wholly vile as people say ? 
I do not think it is. There is a widespread notion among English 
folk that a French bookshop is a place that harbours only what is 
bad, is an unholy of unholies. The simple truth is this — there is 
more pure and good in the French language than any English 
reader will have ever time to exhaust. Unfortunately, the French 
books which are absolutely unsullied by gross thought do not meet 
with readers here. Of the English men or women who have read 
Daudet's " Sapho," and declaimed against it as spotted and unchaste, 
it is no exaggeration to say that scarce one has read his chaste and 
spotless " Contes Chorses." French books that do not now and 
again surprise and shock us, like French people that do not now and 
again surprise and shock us, we of this country regard as " formal 
dulness." 

What sort of books do you like best to read? I think you 
answer — Biographies. When a biographer knows his duty and does 
it, no writer, indeed, is more delightful. But what is his duty ? I 
take it to be this — to tell the acts of a king, and all that he did, and 
all his might. Only kings are fit subjects for biography, and it is not 
the duty of any one to tell all that they left undone and all their 
weakness. No, that is disloyal ; that is lize majeste. Some years 
ago I took up the life of a king, written by one to whom had been 
given the king's friendship. I read on, on, through pages and 
■chapters, with heart and head burning ; read till my eyes were blind 
with anger and tears. 

Why was it written ? 

Page after page of the shameful book only told how the king had 
been a sorry mortal, lovely and pleasant, with harp in hand (for 
the king was a poet) ; else in all his acts, and in all that he did, 
unlovely and unpleasant. 

I have not read a biography since, and have no wish to read ever 
again a biography. 

What sort of books do great men read ? Some of them tell us, 
and we are filled with surprise by what we learn. In an article on 
natural rights and political rights, written by Professor Huxley, and 
published in the Nineteenth Cefitury for February, 1890, several 
allusions are made to poems and books ; so to Dr. Watts' immortal 




A WOMAN ON BOOKS. 335 

quatrain, " Let dogs delight " (it is praised by the great professor as 
containing sound, moral philosophy " in a nutshell "), to " Robinson 
Crusoe," to the " Vicar of Wakefield," to " Henry V.," to " Alice in 
Wonderland." These then, are some of the works that Professor 
Huxley has read, that have helped to mould his thought, and that 
come to his mind when he takes his pen in hand to write on 
natural rights and political rights. Who would have dreamed it ? 

Elsa D'Esterre Keeling. 



Curiosities of Cataloguing. 

AS curious an instance of wrong classification as we have ever 
seen is to be found in Part I. of the catalogue of the famous 
Borghese Library. There, under the general heading of "Sciences," 
and following the names of *• Thackeray Smith Becket " (printed as 
though they belonged to one person), appears the Comic Almanack^ 
from 1 844-1 853. Cruikshank's illustrations are mentioned, and so 
also are the " Merry Tales, Humorous Poetry, Quips, and Oddities," 
which this singular example of scientific learning is well remembered 
to contain. 



336 



MISCELLANEA, 



A Specimen of Bookbinding. 

AVERY remarkable specimen of bookbinding has recently been 
completed by Mr. Revi^re. This consists of a copy of the 
first edition of "The Merry Wives of Windsor," the original thin 
little square octavo of Johnson. The two designs on the covers and 
double are tulips decoratively treated by Mr. Thomas, extremely rich 
in effect, entailing an enormous amount of coloured inlay. The 
chief merit of the work, from the designer's point of view, consists 
in the fact that no special tools seem to have been cut for it, and 
from the binder's that the workmanship is perfect in its exquisite 
finish. 




The Inquisition Again. 



"/^^ONDEMNED by the Holy Office of the Inquisition." It 
V_^ is somewhat of a shock to read these words at the end of 
the nineteenth century. Yet this famous or rather infamous institu- 
tion is in practical existence to-day, as is shown by the fact that the 
Niiieteenth Century has fallen under its ban. Mr. Mivart's three 
articles on " Happiness in Hell," as the editor of the Tablet informs 
us, have been thus condemned, *' and accordingly placed upon the 
Index Expurgatorius." This is probably the most valuable adver- 
tisement Mr. Mivart's ingenious arguments could receive, and we 
shall therefore no doubt see them promptly reissued in volume form. 
It is interesting, however, to notice that the Pope shares the popular 
view that " happiness " and " hell " are contradictory terms. 





M 



Singular Dedications. 




N the dedication of books, one general manner has prevailed 
ever since books were written — namely, to extol with more 
or less extravagance the individuals to whom they are 
inscribed. Every reader is familiar with instances of the fulsome 
extremes to which such adulation has been carried ; let ours be the 
more agreeable task to bring together some of the few cases which 
are either deserving of imitation for the good taste in which they are 
conceived, or amusing for their eccentricity. The happiest, and at 
the same time one of the shortest, dedications which we remember 
to have met with, is that prefixed to the poem of " Madagascar,'' by 
Sir William Davenant, 1648. It is in these words: — "If these 
poems live, may their memories by whom they are cherished^. 
Endymion Porter and H. Jarmyn, live with them." 

Sheppard, in his " Epigrams, Theological, Philosophical, and 
Romantic," 1651, has adopted almost literally the same style of 
inscription: — "If these epigrams survive (maugre the voracitie of 
Time), let the names of Christopher Clapham and James Winter (to 
whom the author dedicateth these his endeavours) live with them." 

Davenant's dedication had many other imitators ; it may be said,, 
indeed, to have given for a time the mode to this class of composition. 
Nothing can be more pleasing than the idea of thus handing down 
to posterity the names of those friends by whom one's labours have 
been "cherished," and but for whose encouragement they might 
perhaps never have seen the light. How different the feeling of the 
author, who, 

" To his most esteemed and beloved Selfe, 
Dat Dedicatque" 

43 



-338 



SINGULAR DEDICATIONS. 




Who but some churlish cynic — some growler at the world — some 
man without a friend to commemorate, could thus proclaim his 
"selfe" idolatry? Such, in fact, in many respects, was Marston, 
whose " Scourge of Villainy " is inscribed in these terms. 

Although Marston was imitated by many, he does not appear to 
have been copied in this particular by any one. The dedication of 
*'A Scourge" seems more properly to belong to those who are 
scourged ; and so we find the " Scourge of Drunkenness," by William 
Hornby inscribed: — "To all the impious and relentless-hearted 
ruffians and roysters under Bacchus' regiment : Cornuapes wisheth 
remorse of conscience and more increase of grace. 



" Come, Drunkenness, untrusse, 
And naked strip thee, 
For without mercy 

I will soundly whip thee," &c. 



-Cornuapes is a name assumed by the author, in allusion to a wood- 
-cut on the title, of a wild man of the ape species, smoking a pipe 
with one hand and holding a scourge in the other. 

Of a similar description is the following dedication of Richard 
Brathwayte's " Strappado for the Divell" — 1619. 

•'The Epistle Dedicatorie 
To all vsurers, broakers, and promoters, Serjeants, catch-poles, and 
regraters, ushers, panders, suburbes traders, cockneies that haue 
manie fathers \ ladies, monkies, parachitoes, marmosites and cate- 
mitoes folks, hightires and rebatoes, false-haires, periwigges, moucha- 
toes ; grave gregorians and shepointers, — send I greeting at 
..adventures, and to all such as be evill, my Strappado for the 
Divell." 




Instead of a whole class of persons being honoured with such 
epistles dedicatory, we sometimes find them addressed to the more 
eminent names in a class, as examples of all that is most wicked or 
ridiculous in it. It is thus that the prevailing character of the heroes 
• of the Commonwealth is portrayed by Denzil Holies in the following 
dedication of one of his political tracts : — " To the unparalleled couple^ 
Mr. Oliver S. John, his majesty's solicitor-general, and Oliver Crom- 
well, the parliament's lieutenant-general, the two grand designers of 
the ruin of three kingdoms. Gentlemen, — As you have been prin- 
cipal in ministering of the matter of this discourse, and giving me the 
leisure of making it, by banishing me from my country and business ; 



SINGULAR DEDICATIONS. 339 

so it is reason I shall particularly address it to you. You shall find 
in it some representation of the grosser lines of your features, — those 
outward enorfnities that make you remarkable, and your picture easy 
to be known, which cannot be expected here so fully to the life as I 
could wish : he only can do that whose eye and hand have been with 
you in secret councils, — who has seen you at your 77ieetings, — your 
sabbaths, where you have lain by your assumed shapes (with which 
you cozened the world), and resumed your own, imparting each ta 
other, and both of you to your fellow -witches, — the bottom of your 
design, the policy of your actings, the turns of your contrivances, — 
all your falsehoods, cozenings, villainies, and cruelties, with your full 
intentions to ruin the three kingdoms. All I will say to you, is, 
what St. Peter said to Simon the Sorcerer — 'Repent, therefore, of 
this your wickedness ; ' and pray to God, if perhaps the thoughts of 
your hearts may be forgiven you : and if you have not grace to pray 
for yourselves (as it may be you have not), I have charity to do it 
for you, but not faith enough to trust you. So, I remain, I thank 
God, not in your power, and as little at your service, 

I" Denzil Holles, 
•'At S. Mere. Eglide, in Normandy, this 14th of Feb. 1647. St. V." 
To Coryat, the traveller, as the prince of a more harmless class,, 
ealers in strange sights and wondrous adventures, the facetious 
John Taylor, the water poet, dedicates his satirical work of "Three 
Weeks', Three Days', and Three Hours' Observations and Travel 
from London to Hamburgh, in Germany," &c. in these terms : " Ta 
the cosmographical, geographical describer, geometrical measurer; 
historiographical, caligraphical relater and writer ; enigmatical, prag- 
matical, dogmatical observer ; surveyor, and eloquent British Grecian 
Latinist, or Latin Grecian orator ; the odcombyan decambulator,, 
perambulator, ambler, trotter, or untyred traveller, Sir Thomas 
Coryat, knight of Troy, and one of the dearest darlings to the blind 
goddess Fortune." 

The writer, who has comprehended the greatest number of persons 
by name in one dedication, is the anonymous author of a scarce 
poetical tract, entitled " The Martyrdome of Saint George, of Cappa- 
docia, Titular Patron of England, and the Most noble order of the 
Garter," 1614. It is dedicated "to all the noble, honourable, and 
worthy of Great Brittaine, bearing the name of George ; and to all 
other, the true friends of Christian chivalrie, lovers of Saint George's 
name and vertues." It has been often erroneously stated that 
George was a Christian name of very rare occurrence in this 
country until the accession of the present family to the throne. 



340 



SINGULAR DEDICATIONS. 






Burton mentions George de Charnels, in the time of Edward I. and 
'One of the brothers of Edward IV. was called George, but the name 
at that time was certainly less common than might have been 
•expected, considering that St. George was the titular patron of 
England, that he was the patron also of the order of the garter 
instituted by Edward III., and especially how the Scotch and Irish 
have honoured their patron saints by the numberless Andrews and 
Patricks among them. In history, however, we find many Georges 
previous to the date of this work, as may be seen by consulting any 
of our biographical collections. Although few may have heard of 
George Clifford, earl of Cumberland, or George Abbot, archbishop 
•of Canterbury, yet none are strangers to the names of George 
Buchanan, George Fox, George Monk, duke of Albemarle, or the 
profligate George Villiers, duke of Buckingham. 

The " Battaile of Agincourt," by Michael Drayton, is dedicated — 
■** To you, those noblest of gentlemen of these renowned kingdomes of 
Great Brittaine; who, in these declining times, have yet in your 
brave bosoms the sparks of that sprightly fire of your courageous 
ancestors." Although the "declining times" here spoken of are but 
the first years of the seventeenth century, it would seem that, in the 
opinion of Drayton, as the name George increased, the spirit of 
Agincourt departed from amongst us. Alas ! for the present day, 
which is at least two centuries lower in the scale. 

One thing more certain than this decay of courage, was a great 
increase during these " declining times " (that is, during the reign of 
James I.), of habits of intemperance and debauchery. And hence 
the propriety with which Edward Calver, after dedicating his poem 
of "Passion and Discretion in Youth and Age" (1641), "To the 
right noble and truly vertuous Lady Temperance," subjoins a 
metrical apology for thus seeming "/^ invocate the winde'^ 

Next to dedicating to a shadow, we may class dedicating to 
nothing and nobody. Of this we have a quaint enough example in 
the following lines, which present a specimen of what may be termed 
dedication by inference. 

*' To my dear Friend, Mr. Charles Aleyn. 

" When Fame had sayd, thy poem should come out 
Without a dedication ; some did doubt 
If Fame in that had told the truth, but I, 
Who knew her false, boldly gave Fame the lye, 
For I was certaine, that this booke, by thee, 
Was Dedicated to Eternity. ^"^ 

" Thy true lover, Ed. Prideaux." 



SINGULAR DEDICATIONS. 341 

Nothing perhaps is more generally remarkable of dedications than 
the little insight which they give us into the real characters of the 
writers. In the earlier periods of our literary history, it was so much 
the fashion to play the mountebank on these occasions, that we may 
search in vain for one line of truth in most of the portraits, or 
rather, certificates of character, that we find prefixed by authors to 
their works. Who, nowadays, for example, knows anything of Robert 
Baron, or the Cyprian Academy, of which he was the author ? And 
yet, to read a letter which he has modestly prefixed to that poem, 
addressed to him by his uncle Howell, the well-known writer of 
" The Letters," one would suppose that his fame could not so soon 
have perished. 

"7b Mr. R. Baron, at Paris, 

" Gentle Sir, 

" I received and presently ran over your Cyprian Academy 
with much greediness, and no vulgar delight ; and, sir, I hold myself 
much honoured for the dedication you have been pleased to make 
thereof to me, for it deserved a far higher patronage : truly, I must 
tell you, without any complaint, that I have seldom met with such 
an ingenious mixture of prose and verse, interwoven with such 
varieties of fancy and charming strains of amorous passions, which 
have made all the ladies in the land in love with you. If you begin 
already to court the Muses so handsomely, and have got such footing 
on Parnassus, you may in time be lord of the whole hill and those 
nice girls; because, Apollo, being now grown unwieldy and old, 
may make choice of you, to officiate in his room and preside over 
them. The ' Pocula Castalia,' another work by Robert Baron, has 
prefixed to it some more lines of praise from his uncle ; in which, by 
way of diversity of phrase, he thus puns on the name of him who is 
to be * in time lord of the whole hill and those nice girls.' 

*• You may in time, where now old Phoebus sits, 
Be Lord Chioi Baron of the Court of Wits." 

In modern times plainness and sincerity have come more into 
repute than they were in the days of the '* Lord Chief Baron ; " and 
we do occasionally meet with very lively traits of character substituted 
for the customary adulation. Where, for example, in all Dr. Delany's 
works, has he left us a juster picture of himself than in the following 
dedication of his " Fifteen Sermons upon Social Duties" to the Lady 
Grace, the first Viscountess Carteret and Countess Granville ? 



342 



SINGULAR DEDICATIONS. 




" The author of these discourses pretends not to acquit himself o 
ambition ; he hath perhaps as strong a bias of original guilt that way 
as any mortal ; but the truth is, it was early checked, and entirely 
turned from all hope or prospect of preferment, to the sole view of 
endeavouring to deserve it. In this situation he was found by your 
son, near twenty years ago, in an honourable obscurity ; and drawn 
thence, with some distinction (though without any suit or solicitation 
on his side), a little more into the light — at least, into the hurry of 
the world, where he hath continued to this day — unhonoured, indeed, 
but (I thank God) unreproached, and (what is perhaps matter of 
more vexation than vanity) not unenvied; though he stood in no 
man's way, nor was rival to any mortal, during the whole time, either 
for wealth, preferment, or power. He had been long before this a 
constant preacher ; nor did his natural vehemence allow him to be 
indolent, or uninterested in what he delivered. His condition of 
life, and the circumstances of some particular friends, led him early 
to the consideration of almost all the following subjects; and a 
thousand subsequent occasions drew him frequently into repeated 
re-consideralion of them ; so that what he now presumes to present 
to your ladyship, are very truly the first fruits of his early labour and 
unwearied zeal in the service of religion." 






The Perils of a Book Collector. 




CASE of interest to all collectors of books is reported from 
Paris, and a case, moreover, of a most extraordinary cha- 
J racter. It seems that some twenty-five years ago, one M. 
Begis, who had a Government position in Paris, was also a collector 
of rare books. His specialty was the reign of Louis XVI., the 
Revolution and the Empire. He purchased works through book- 
sellers. In June, 1866 — only imagine the patience of this victim — a 
detective seized a consignment of books in the shop of a Paris dealer. 
The consignment came from Brussels. The dealer, in order to save 
himself from jail, acknowledged that the books were for M. B^gis, 
one of his customers. The French Comstock then invaded M. 
Begis' home, and out of some 10,000 volumes confiscated some 300, 
on the ground that they were of a libertine character. These works 
were not, however, destroyed. They were simply placed in the 
National Library. They were too rare and precious to be sacrificed 
in the interest of public morality. The works seized included a 
number of old pamphlets against Marie- Antoinette, like "La Vie 
Libertine et Scandaleuse," " Les Fureurs de Marie-Antoinette," 
-"La Journee amoureuse ou les derniers plaisirs de Marie-Antoi- 
nette," etc. ; others against the Empire : " La Vie Privde de 
Napoleon," "L'Ogre de Corse," "Zoloe et ses deux acolytes," 
•etc. ; twenty-eight pamphlets against Napoleon III., and a number 
of anti-religious works. The gallant literature consisted of works of 
the last century which are recognised as permissible in private col- 
lections. Most of the books were bound in full morocco, and 
valuable even for that alone. There was also seized from M. B^gis 
.a collection of drawings, prints, lithographs, and the like, which he 



344 



THE PERILS OF A BOOK COLLECTOR. 




had assembled at great cost. The value of the seizure he placed at 
30,000 francs. But, as he was drawing a salary from the Govern- 
ment which was necessary for the support of his family, he dared 
not go into court. So he went on drawing his salary, while his free 
books and prints were sequestered in the secret cabinets of the Im- 
perial Library. He, however, took the precaution to secure a list of 
the seizure, in detail, from the Imperial Procureur. 

In 1882 M. Begis resigned his position under the Government, 
and, being free of fear, demanded the return of his property. He 
was informed that the record of the seizure had been burnt by the 
Communists in 1871. Then he produced his receipt. The Re- 
publican Procureur replied that he was not responsible for the 
seizures of his Imperial predecessor, and M. Begis promptly went 
to law about it. The jury has decided in a general way in his 
favour, and, although the National Library will not return his 
property to him, he may, if he lives long enough, be indemnified 
for the robbery. An expert has been appointed to determine the 
amount of the steal, and when he gets through the victim will have 
a chance to wait until the State appropriates for restitution to him 
the money he has been plundered of, without interest. 



Wrrm^S^ 



Books in Manuscript. 




LTHOUGH Mr. Falconer Madan's volume with the above 
title in Mr. Pollard's capital series of " Books about Books " 
is not the first book on the subject of which it treats, it is 
in many respects the most satisfactory. As it deals with the materials, 
forms, and instruments of writing, with a brief history of ancient 
writing, with scribes and their ways, with the decoration of manu- 
scripts, with the chief styles of illumination ; with the blunders of 
scribes and their correction, with some famous libraries and collectors 
of manuscripts, with celebrated manuscripts, with some famous for- 
geries, and with the treatment and cataloguing of manuscripts, it will 
be at once seen that its scope is an exceedingly comprehensive one. 
Mr. Madan has successfully resisted the temptation to which the 
specialist too often succumbs, for he has produced a book which is 
not too crammed with facts of minor importance. His book is 
eminently readable from beginning to end, and his statements are 
thoroughly reliable. 

The word " manuscript " itself is directly derived from the Latin 
expression, codices manu scripti^ which literally signifies books written 
by hand. In the present superabundance of printed material, of 
hundreds of daily and weekly newspapers, it is difficult to imagine 
the condition of things which existed when every record was a written 
one. Yet such was the case even less than five hundred years ago. 
All the great literary monuments of antiquity, therefore, have come 
down to us through this exceedingly uncertain medium ; and although 
much that we would willingly have had with us to-day has been for 
ever lost, there is no doubt that we still possess by far the most 
valuable portion. Sometimes, as in the case of Tacitus and Catullus, 
these monuments have been preserved to us by the thinnest possible 

44 



346 



BOOKS IN MANUSCRIPT. 




thread of transmission, others have all the advantages of a very large 
body of evidence, such as that which supports the New Testament 
or Virgil. The entire history of the world was in this uncertain 
manner conveyed to succeeding generations up to the middle of the 
fifteenth century, when the introduction of the printing press almost 
immediately sounded the death-knell of the manuscript-historian. It 
is curious to reflect that every book, or, in other words, every MS- 
born, as it were, prior to the year 1440 is unique. Very many, it is 
true, are all but exact copies of one another, but there are variations 
of a more or less extensive nature which render them distinct from 
a technical point of view. Many which are avowed copies differ 
very materially from the direct fountain head, for the scribe of the 
old times had his own particular view of things in general, and rarely 
scrupled to improve upon his ** author." It is these irresponsible 
alterations and amplifications that have given rise to so many of the 
literary quarrels of the past and present. One often wonders upon 
what peg the scholars of the last few centuries would have hung their 
fulminations against one another if there were only one " reading " 
of every classic author. The annals of literature, failing these fruit- 
ful causes, might have been considerably more dignified, but they 
certainly would be very much less diverting. We have, perhaps, 
much to be thankful for in this respect. 

To return, however, to Mr. Madan's book : it is curious to note 
that the earliest efforts of the human race to record its thoughts and 
history were by scratching with some hard instrument on stone; and 
perhaps it is to this source that we have the idea of using stone or 
metal to receive engraving for sepulchral tablets, for official records,, 
such as State decrees and for honorary inscriptions. Up to this 
point, therefore, it will be seen how very little we have advanced in 
the course of two or three thousand years. We have, as examples of 
this very early form of writing, the drawings of prehistoric man on 
the walls of caves, the Ten Commandments, the Nicene Creed cut 
in silver by Pope Leo III.'s order to fix the absolute form decreed 
by the second General Council, the Parian Chronicle, the Rosetta 
Stone, and tombs of all ages. " As material tends to act on style, 
and as curves are harder to grave than straight fines, writing on stone 
tends to discard the one and to encourage the other, we find in such, 
inscriptions a decided preference for angular forms of letters." The 
wood or bark of trees was another material used for writing on at a 
very early period, and it is interesting to note that three of our com- 
mon terms are derived from the custom of cutting or scratching on 
wooden boards or bark, the Latin liber (a book, properly the bark of 



BOOKS IN MANUSCRIPT. 347 

a tree, whence such words as library, libretto), the Latin codex (or 
caudex, a tree stump, then sawn boards, then a book, now narrowed 
to a manuscript book), and perhaps the Teutonic which appears in 
German as Buck and in English as book^ meaning originally a beech 
tree and beechen boards. 

To pass from the materials used in making books to the form in 
which books were made up : in the case of papyrus, the roll-form 
nearly always obtains. '* This long strip was, of course, rolled round 
a stick or two sticks (one at each end) when not in use, very much 
as a wall map is at the present day. With parchment the case has 
been different. Though in classical times in Rome, so far as can be 
judged, the roll-form was still in ordinary use even when parchment 
was the material, and though, in the form of court-rolls, pedigrees, 
and many legal kinds of record, we are still familiar with the appear- 
ance of a roll, the tendency of writers and parchment has been to 
establish and perpetuate the form of book best known at the present 
day, in which pages are turned over by the reader, and not mem- 
branes unrolled." 

The " Illuminated " phase of manuscripts is in many senses the 
most important, as they are commercially the most valuable. Illu- 
minated manuscripts are naturally an elaboration on the bare-written 
volume, which are, from an artistic point of view, anything but beau- 
tiful or pretty. The transition from the severely plain to the splen- 
didly elaborate was a gradual one of several centuries. There are 
no examples of classical illumination left to posterity ; the nearest 
approaches being the Pompeian wall-paintings, and the recently 
discovered mummy cases from Egypt. There are, however, several 
MSS. with paintings clearly based on classical models as known from 
sculpture — notably the two early MSS. of Virgil in the Vatican, and 
the famous " Iliad" in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, all of which 
are not later than the fourth century of our era. Mr. Madan points 
out that the characteristics of these are simplicity and directness in 
aim, with no straining after effect, and few accessories ; plenty of 
colour, but very little shading. It may be said that ornamented 
borders and elaborate initials are quite rare. The mediaeval period 
begins in Ireland in the seventh, and on the Continent in the eighth 
century, where we find ornaments and designs independent of Roman 
style. The best period is from 1250 to 1550 : "the finest examples 
of illumination are to be found in the fifteenth century in France, 
Italy, England, and the Netherlands, though some still prefer the 
costly, magnificent, and florid ornamentation of the first quarter of 
the sixteenth century. The art is, however, generally in decline 



348 



BOOKS IN MANUSCRIPT, 




after about a.d. 1480." As we have only recently dealt with Pro- 
fessor Middleton's elaborate work on " Illuminated Manuscripts," 
we need not enter more fully into a consideration of Mr. Madan's 
book. 

" Books in Manuscript " contains eight full-page illustrations, 
starting with the " Book of Kells " and ending with an example from 
the Bodleian MS. of Csedmon, written about a.d. iooo in a West- 
Saxon hand. It is published by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench 
Triibner, & Co. 



■'^mmi/i 




Paris as a Book Centre. 

N the latter days of the Second Empire there was secretly 
circulated in Paris a remarkably seditious song, supposed 
to emanate from some discontented students inhabiting the 
classic district of the Quartier Latin, which breathed inveterate 
hostility to the Imperial sway and personal hatred of the Emperor 
himself. A metrical translation of this anti-Bonapartist ballad 
appeared in an English newspaper with the title of " The Lion of 
the Latin Quarter " ; but it was remarked at the time that, however 
leonine might be the utterances of the enemy of Caesarism, he had 
not given a correct address, since practically the Quartier Latin 
existed no longer. Baron Haussmann had expropriated the major 
part of the inexpressibly squalid and dilapidated and intensely in- 
teresting old slums. The Prefect of the Seine had cut through a 
labyrinth of narrow and tortuous streets the broad, handsome, 
but somewhat garish Boulevard St. Michel, a thoroughfare nearly 
eighteen hundred yards long, which, starting from the Pont St. 
Michel, extended to the Observatoire. Other improvements in the 
neighbourhood had almost completely obliterated streets full of 
historic memories recalling Voltaire and Rousseau, D'Alembert and 
Diderot, Fontenelle and Beaumarchais, and many more famous 
frequenters of the bygone cafes of this antique region. The Rue 
des Ecoles had been prolonged for a distance of three hundred 
yards ; the Rue Descartes enlarged and continued to the Boulevard 
St. Germain, and considerable alterations and improvements made 
in the Rue St. Jacques and the Rue de I'Ecole de Medecine. 
Otherwise the two most interesting streets of the Quartier Latin 
had been transformed almost beyond recognition. According to a 
Paris correspondent, however, the demolition of the students' district 



350 



PARIS AS A BOOK CENTRE, 




still proceeds apace, and the enlargement of the buildings of the 
Sorbonne will necessitate the total destruction of the Rue Gerson 
and the further expropriation of what remains of the Rue St. 
Jacques. The first-named locality is celebrated as the place where 
Pascal wrote his scathing " Provincial Letters " ; while in the Rue 
St. Jacques Rousseau resided for a time in mean lodgings, and the 
wits and Bohemians of the period used to carouse at the formerly 
noted tavern of the Cochon Fidele. Finally, this correspondent tells 
us of the once-renowned secondhand bookshop kept by La Mere 
Mansut, an eccentric bibliopole, whose house was crammed from 
cellar to basement with literary commodities, but was said to be 
destitute of either doors or windows. 

Madame Mansut, if tradition is to be believed, was in the habit 
of sleeping on a pile of books, and of making her ablutions coram 
publico in the Rue St. Jacques itself. She was likewise endowed 
with that distinctive mnemonic faculty known as the librarian's 
memory. There is the cabman's memory, which enables him 
unerringly to drive a fare to a particular spot if he has ever been 
there before ; there is the actor's memory, which, as a rule, is 
evanescent, and has to be refreshed by rehearsal every time an old 
piece is revived; there is the memory of princes, the principal 
phenomenon of which is the instantaneous recollection of the names 
of persons who have once been presented to them; waiters, club 
servants, and barbers have each and all different and special 
memories; whereas the librarian's memory chiefly consists in an 
exact knowledge of the outsides of books and a faultless remem- 
brance of their places on the shelves of a library. There are in- 
stances on record of librarians who were not only acquainted with 
the titles and location of the contents of their own literary store- 
houses, but who had also acquired through correspondence an 
exhaustive acquaintance with the libraries of other countries. Thus 
a Florentine librarian at the time of the Renaissance, while regretting 
that he did not possess a copy of the " Cosmogony " of the Byzan- 
tine historian Zonaras, remarked that the work in question, bound 
in white vellum, with red edges, was in the library of the Grand 
Signior at Constantinople, in the left-hand corner of the third shelf 
from the ceiling, in the Southern Kiosque, facing the Golden Horn, 
in the Palace of the Old Seraglio. He had probably derived his 
information from some learned Byzantine refugee. The book- 
memory of La Mere Mansut seems to have been nearly as mar- 
vellous as that of the Tuscan librarian. When a customer asked 
for a book she was wont to go straight to the place where it lay in 



PARIS AS A BOOK CENTRE. 351 

the midst of a gigantic pile of other volumes ; and students would 
sometimes make bets that La M^re Mansut would, within a given 
number of minutes, rummage out from the darkest recesses of her 
shop some almost totally forgotten specimen of antique lore, such as 
the " Mare Clausum " of Selden, or the " Teatro Critico " of the 
learned Benedictine, Dom Fejon. La Mere Mansut was only the 
descendant of a long line of male and female vendors of second- 
hand books, as expert in their calling but not quite so eccentric as 
she. The history of secondhand booksellers — and, for the matter 
of that, of bibliopoles at first hand — yet remains to be written ; and 
a most curiously interesting volume would such a work be. We 
should be reminded that Martial's Epigrams were sold, while the 
poet was still living, by a certain Secundus, a freedman of the 
learned Lucencis, whose shop was close to the Temple of Peace 
and the Forum of Nerva ; and that the seventh book of his works, 
on superfine vellum, polished with pumice-stone, and bound in 
purple, was to be purchased for four Roman "nummi," or about 
five shillings sterling. What prodigious bids would be made for the 
satirist's book, were it put up to-morrow at an English auction ! It 
is to be feared, however, that the Goths and the Vandals, the Huns 
and the Visigoths, made short work of many thousands of copies of 
Martial, Horace, Virgil, and Ovid to boot. The poet's regular pub- 
lisher was one Valeranus Polius Quinctus ; and the term pubHsher 
may be applied without fear of falling into an anachronism, since 
the leading Roman booksellers of antiquity employed hundreds of" 
amanuenses, who were generally slaves specially trained as copyists 
of the works of popular authors. France became early a patron of 
literature ; for from the beginning of the Christian era Roman book- 
sellers were accustomed to make large consignments of books to 
Gaul ; and Pliny the younger expresses rather affected astonishment 
that his " little trifles " should be quite popular at Lyons. 

The booksellers of Paris received a charter of incorporation from 
Philip the Hardy so early as 1275; and their guild comprised not 
only dealers in books, but scribes, bookbinders, illuminators, and 
parchment-makers. In succeeding generations all books published 
were subjected to the rigorous censure of the Sorbonne ; but 
shortly after the invention of printing Francis I., terrified at the 
dissemination of independent thought by means of movable types, 
ordained that every bookseller in Paris should forthwith close his 
shop on pain of death. The absurd decree was soon rescinded, 
but until the outbreak of the Revolution the booksellers were sub- 
jected to all kinds of stringent regulations. It was only permissible 



352 



PARIS AS A BOOK CENTRE. 




to sell books in the University Quarter, which included the Rue St. 
Jacques ; but the principal mart for literature was in the Salle des 
Pas Perdus of the Palais de Justice, each bookseller having appor- 
tioned to him as his stall the base of a particular pillar, although his 
next neighbour might be a female dealer in fans and gloves and 
lace. Altogether, it was much safer in the days before the Mere 
Mansut to sell secondhand books than new ones. The restriction 
of the sale of books in the Quartier Latin was gradually relaxed, 
and in process of time bookstalls were established on the Pont Neuf 
and throughout the length of the quays. The Pont Neuf books 
were sold at wonderfully cheap rates ; and the dealers being 
denounced to the Parliament as making the majority of their 
purchases from schoolboys and servants, who had stolen the 
volumes which they sold, were fain to abandon the bridge. The 
publishers and sellers of new books had, however, a much rougher 
time of it. In 1649 ^ bookseller named Vivenet was condemned to 
five years at the galleys for issuing lampoons against Cardinal 
Mazarin ; and in the same year authority swooped down on a whole 
family of printers of " Mazarinades." The eldest son of the house 
was sentenced to be hanged ; his mother to be present at the 
execution, and to be afterwards whipped through the streets of the 
Quarter, while her youngest son was sent to the galleys for life. In 
1694 two publishers, with their clerks, were hanged, and a woman 
imprisoned in the Bastille, for putting forth a pamphlet on the 
marriage of Louis XIV. and Madame de Maintenon ; while through- 
out the eighteenth century the persecution of the Paris booksellers 
was so continuous and so inexorable that many of the principal 
firms betook themselves to Holland, and published their books at 
Amsterdam or at the Hague. The Revolution gave entire freedom 
to the " libraires " ; and, although a futile attempt was made under 
the Restoration to license printing presses, and under the Second 
Empire steps were taken to prosecute the author of " Madame 
Bovary " for an alleged outrage on morality, the dealers in books, 
new and old, in Paris have not ceased to enjoy complete liberty, 
which may have occasionally degenerated into licence. 




Our Note-Book. 




URICH, which at various times figured on the title-pages of 
books as Tigurum, Tigurinus Pagus, Turigum, and Turicum, 
plays no unimportant part in the annals of the great Refor- 
mation of this country ; for there is very good reason for believing 
that the first edition of the English Bible, in foho, 1535, was printed 
in this ancient and historical city. It is, however, not on this 
account that we desire to draw the attention of our readers to this 
place ; but because we have selected as the frontispiece of the pre- 
sent volume an illustration from a Zurich book of extreme rarity and 
interest. It is the " Imperatorum Romanor. omnium orient, et 
Occident, verissimse imagines ex antiquis numismatis quam fidelissime 
delineatse," of Jacobus Strada, printed by A. Gesner at Zurich in 
1559, in folio. It contains an almost prodigal display of ornaments 
which were both designed and engraved on wood by P. Floetner, 
and it is in many respects one of the most delightful of the large 
number of illustrated books in which the sixteenth century was so 
prolific. For the almost " wild " originality of these illustrations, a 
glance at our frontispiece will suffice, and for which we are indebted 
to the courtesy of Herr Ludwig Rosenthal, the eminent Munich 
bookseller, who prices a copy at the very low figure of ;£'5o. 

^',i ili 5i; * 

Speaking of Herr Rosenthal reminds us of the fact that we have 
too long neglected to acknowledge the receipt of this industrious 
bookseller's very handsome catalogue in quarto size of *' Incunabula 
Xylographica et Chalcographica," which we received a few months 
ago. This pubHcation is not to be classed with the majority of other 
trade lists, for it is an important contribution to the history of the 

45 



354 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 




phases of typography indicated by its title above quoted. In pub- 
lishing this work, Herr Rosenthal has suppressed a very natural and 
a very laudable desire to enter into the region of controversy, a fact 
which is to a certain degree regrettable, for it is very evident that the 
compiler could have propounded many theories which would be very 
generally approved, and received with respect if not actually accepted 
without reserve. There are over one hundred illustrations in this 
"Catalogue," and these merit attention not only because of their 
great rarity, but also because of their equally great curiosity, both on 
account of their age and their artistic interest. Several are full-page 
plates. Among the numerous items, we note a specimen of the 
earliest known book-plate, namely, that of Jean Knabensperg, or 
Igler, the chaplain of the Schonstett family. It is a somewhat sensa- 
tional picture of a hedgehog holding a flower in its mouth ; above 
the animal is a banderole or streamer, on which is the inscription, 
*'hanns Igler das dich ein Igel kuss." It is a xylograph executed 
about the year 1450, and is in three colours, green, yellow, and 
brown, and for a single specimen the sum of 600 marks, or ;£3o, is 
asked. The Ex-Libris Society ought to subscribe eji masse and have 
this very covetable specimen, and hang it up in the archives of the 
Society for the general benefit of the members, and not for the 
exclusive benefit of any one particular individual. 

^: :;c * M: 

Mr. H. S. Ashbee has had reprinted from the Annuaire de la Socidte 
des Amis des Livres fifty copies of his paper on " Mela Britannicus " 
in his useful but irregular series entitled *' les Anglais qui ont ecrit 
en Francais." We are pretty safe, we think, in saying that the name 
of Mela Britannicus is quite a dead letter to the majority of our 
readers, for it is only in the byepaths of literature that we come 
across this Romano- Britannic pseudonym which hides the identity 
of Charles Kelsall, who on various other occasions subscribed himself 
"Junius Secundus," " Zachary Craft," and "Laurea Arpinas." The 
one work in French which this versatile individual wrote had for 
its title, "Esquisse de mes Travaux, de mes Voyages, et de mes 
Opinions : dans une Lettre a son Ami Agathomerus," for which 
he selected a motto in the shape of a couplet from Goldsmith's 
"Traveller":— 



*•' Let school-taught Pride dissemble all it can, 
These little things are great to little Men." 



The title was curiously contradictory, and ran as follows : " Londres: 
Francfort - sur - le - Mein : chez les Marchands de Nouveautes. 



• Londi 




OUR NOTE-BOOK. 355 

MDCCCXXX." It consists of 241 pages, and deals, it may be 
mentioned, with the author's incessant pereginations in various parts 
of Europe, and with his opinions on the men and things which came 
under his notice. The book is in a great sense autobiographical, so 
that it has a double value to the bibliographer. In his brochure 
Mr. Ashbee quotes several long and highly entertaining extracts from 
this original work, which has long since become rare, and is certainly 
worth buying when met with. 

* * >;; * 

The Imperial Library at St. Petersburg has recently become 
enriched by the acquisition of the papers of the recently deceased 
M. Kraievski, which had been bequeathed by him to his son-in-law 
M. Bilbassov. This collection contains over 3,000 letters addressed 
to that distinguished journalist by persons of all classes and condi- 
tions, and their publication in entirety would add a great many 
interesting facts to the modern history of Russia. The same library 
has also acquired the precious collection of ancient manuscripts 
which formerly belonged to the academician Brouslaiev. These 
date from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centur}', 50 out of the 98 
items are illustrated, and the entire collection has an artistic as well 
as a literary interest and importance. The collection of Brouslaiev 
has for a long time been well-known among specialists as one of the 
most remarkable of its kind in existence. 

^ n' ^' n^ 

Among the earliest of the Augsburg printers, Anton Sorg (1475-92) 
holds a foremost place, for his works are not only numerous, but 
many of them are of the greatest interest. One of the rarest is 
entitled, *' Von der Kinthait Unsers Her Jhesu Cristi," the colophon 
running thus : " Getruckt Anthonius Sorg Burger tzu Augspurg und 
hatt des geendet an Montog vor Sant Margarethen tag, des jars do 
Ma Zalt von Cristi Geburltausent vier hundert und ein und neunzig 
jare 1491." The title states that it is the Life of Christ, but the 
colophon is more explicit, saying in addition that it is the Life of the 
Virgin and the Legend of the three Kings of Cologne ("auch von 
den leben Marie lieben Mutter mit sampt der legend von den 
heyligen drey Kunigen"). There are 70 very curious woodcuts, 
besides a large number of woodcut initials. Of the former, we give 
two examples on the next page through the courtesy of Mr. Treaskis, 
bookseller, of Holborn. 



OUR NOTE-BOOK. 




The Literature of the Century. 



BY EDMUND GOSSE. 




IJN occasion of the summer meeting of the University Exten- 
sion Society, at Cambridge, in August, Mr. Edmund Gosse 
lectured on the Literary Movement in England during the 
last hundred years. The lecturer expanded the view that since the 
revolt of the romantic system against the classic, in the beginning of 
the hundred years, no radical change had taken place in English 
literature up to the present time. He remarked : — " The first thing 
we need to obtain, if we are trying to analyse the literary movement 
of the century, is a clear sane impression, proportionate in all its 
parts, of what that movement has been. If Cloiigh was part of it — 
why, so is Mr. Kipling ; if the German philosophers influenced one 
end of it, it is quite equally certain that Ibsen and Norwegian drama 
influences the other end. It is very hard to do, but we should at 
least try to see the second just as plainly as the first. What we can- 
not, of course, attain, but what we should endeavour to climb towards, 
is a sort of Pisgah-height from which we can look at the hundred 
years of nineteenth-century literature winding like a river at our feet 
— one part as near, as distinct, as unclouded as another. As I say, 
we cannot quite manage to do this ; but that is the attitude of mind 
desirable. 

" Well, if in measure, and so far as our prejudiced and imperfect 
optics will permit, we do look down upon the literary history of 
England from 1793 to 1893 in this way, what do we see? I think I 
shall perhaps startle you a little if I confess that what I seem to see 
is a vast cascade, a sort of Niagara, at one end, and a remarkably 
calm and unruffled tide proceeding from the fall of this cascade to 



358 



THE LITERATURE OF THE CENTURY. 




our very feet. To my vision, the first thing that strikes the attention 
is precisely this short and violent crisis or cataclysm, followed by a 
long stretch of almost unmodified calm. 

" You will immediately ask me if I am so blind as to see no indi- 
viduals of genius breaking through the surface of the literary move- 
ment during, let us say, the last seventy years ? Am I one of those, 
for instance, who declare that English poetry stopped with Crabbe, 
and that Sir Walter Scott was the last genuine novel-writer ? Most 
certainly that is not my foible. I am no praiser of bygone days at 
the expense of our own, and I think that the middle of the nine- 
teenth century was unusually full of great original names in literature. 
But this is not the point in question. We are speaking of the 
tendency of literary movement, and that is often curiously indepen- 
dent of personal genius. I will remind you of a very striking instance 
of this. If there is in English poetry a name which appears to every 
one of us synonymous with originality, with individuality, with 
genius in all its forms, it is that of Milton. But Milton is positively 
a negligible quantity, if we are considering the literary movement of 
the seventeenth century. He stood aloof from it, he exercised no 
influence over it, it dashed around him and left him behind it like a 
colossal rock — left him protesting against it by every line he wrote ; 
whereas Waller and Cowley, poets of the third class, are more inter- 
esting to us (from this peculiar point of view) than the pure and 
majestic author of * Paradise Lost.' 

" But I must now ask you what is to be the limit of our one 
hundred years — are we going to be very exact, and begin with 1793, 
or are we to take 1800 for our starting-point? The detail is an 
important one ; for, according to my telescope, looking backwards 
from our Pisgah, the great crisis of movement took place during 
those seven years. Will you think me very paradoxical if I say that 
rt seems to me that there was a more complete change made in 
English literature between 1793 and 1800 than between 1800 and 
1893? 

" Let us now think for an instant what that change was. In 1793 
the eighteenth century in literature, the old regime, was still alive ; 
it showed no sign of change, no threatening of decay. Down 
through those seven years there continued to be whole bodies of 
intelligent and attentive persons who remained positively untouched 
by a single new idea. There is a very curious, and in its way a very 
charming, book which used to be a great favourite with our grand- 
fathers — ' The Diary of a Lover of Literature.* That journal was 
begun in 1796, and carried on for many years, by a young man 



THE LITERATURE OF THE CENTURY, 359 

called Thomas Green. The chief interest to us now in that book is 
that it belongs entirely to the old world, the world of Addison and 
Pope and Johnson, and that not a single sign exists in it to show 
that the very clever and erudite author had an idea that the stand- 
ards of literary taste would ever be undermined. And yet, as we 
look back to those years in which he wrote, they seem to us not 
merely undermined but crashing about his ears. The blind forces 
of Romance took the pillars of the eighteenth century in their hands, 
and swayed to and fro, until the whole edifice crumbled in atoms." 

After a rapid survey of the condition of English literature at 
various moments in the course of the century, Mr. Gosse closed his 
discourse as follows : — 

"Let no one persuade us, inspired by antiquarianism on the one 
hand or by a cheap cynicism on the other, to underrate the richness, 
the variety, the splendid fulness and accomplishment of these hun- 
dred years. To have lived through our share of this magnificent 
time is, if our ears and eyes have been open, to have lived broadly 
and loftily. Nowhere else in the history of the world — not under 
Pericles or Augustus, not under Elizabeth or Louis XIV. — was so 
delicate and so various a literary banquet spread before the hunger 
of readers. In several solitary instances, without doubt — so far, at 
least, as we are able to trust our present impressions — a greater alti- 
tude has been reached by writers of bygone times. But nowhere in 
past history do we find so high a general level, nowhere such a per- 
sistency, for generation after generation, in naoving with strenuous 
variety along the same great line of literary tendency. 

" To us all, however, the practical service of such a train of reflec- 
tion as we have sought to follow to-night must be measured by the 
degree in which it adds pleasure and profit to our private reading. I 
am in hopes that a perception of the continuity in nineteenth-century 
authorship, which I have attempted to dwell upon, may add an 
enjoyment to your course of more extended study. To take a book 
and to read it as an isolated production, to absorb what entertain- 
ment and instruction it offers without regard to its relation to other 
books, may be a very delightful thing. But that delight is immensely 
increased, is made part of an organised system or a vertebrate struc- 
ture, when we take the book in connection with what preceded and 
what followed it, as a link, in fact, in the long and beautiful chain of 
* sweetness and light.' 

" I cannot help hoping that a consideration of the unity of purpose 



36( 



THE LITERATURE OF THE CENTURY. 




which marks all the most vital literature of the nineteenth century, 
its deliberate and persistent pursuit of what is genuine, natural, and 
vigorous, and its rejection of mere rhetoric and superficiality, will add 
to your pleasure in reading Coleridge and Browning, Thackeray and 
Stevenson, Charles Lamb and Carlyle. You will enjoy the charac- 
teristic variations of all these authors the more, because you see that, 
essentially, and wherever they are truly successful, they are moving 
along the same line of literary influence. And the interest to us 
must surely be the more vivid, because we know not at what moment 
a complete reorganisation of society may produce another crisis in 
literary history as unexpected, as complete, as that of 1793." 




Mr. Ouarltch's Hat. 



AN American magazine is responsible for the following : " Ber- 
nard Quaritch's antiquated hat is a favourite theme with 
London and other bookmen. A committee of the Grolier Club 
once made a marvellous collection of newspaper clippings about it, 
and a member of the Society des Bibliophiles Contemporains wrote 
a tragedy which was a parody of ^schylus. In this tragedy. Power 
and Force and the god Hephaistos nail the hat on Mr. Quaritch's 
head, like the Titan on the summit of overhanging rocks. Divinities 
of the Strand and Piccadilly, in the guise of Oceanidae, try to console 
the hat ; but, less fortunate than Prometheus, the hat knows it is for 
ever nailed, and not to be rescued by Herakles. However, tout 
passe^ tout casse, tout /asse, as Dumas said, for Mr. Quaritch has 
bought a new hat, and a journal of London announces that the epic 
hat is enshrined in glass in the bibliophile's drawing-room.' 



Casting Pearls, &c. 



leather-^^B 
needless " 



OBJECTIONS having been made to the sending of 
bound Bibles with gilt edges to the South Seas, as a needless 
luxury in the mission field, it is announced that the strong binding 
is necessary on account of the humidity of the climate, and that the 
gilt edges are not so much an ornament as "an armour-plating 
against the attacks of cockroaches and the white ant." 



The Guildhall Library. 




LITTLE book just issued by the Corporation, entitled 
"The Guildhall Library and its Work," by Mr. Charles 
Welch, is full of interesting detail concerning the history 
of this valuable institution, and opens up, according to the City 
FresSj some important questions as to its future. Although the 
Corporation itself is an ancient body — so ancient that we cannot 
tell exactly when it first came into existence — the Guildhall Library 
is a comparatively modern institution. It is true there was founded 
at the Guildhall a library by Richard Whittington and William Bary 
in the early part of the fifteenth century, but the generous bequests 
of these noble founders had long since been dispersed when the 
present library came to be established in the early part of the 
present century. How the original library was dispersed is related 
by John Stow. In the reign of Edward VI. the Duke of Somerset, 
Lord Protector, sent for all the books in the library, promising that 
they should be restored shortly. They were taken away, but never 
returned, and in the time of Stow this "fayre and large Hbrarie" was 
made a storehouse for clothes. In 1550 the Chamberlain was in- 
structed to sell all the desks of the library for the profit of the city. 
It is a sad blot on the city's escutcheon. No attempt appears to 
have been made to recover the stolen property, but it is suggested 
that, as the books and manuscripts must have borne the name and 
superscription of the Guildhall Library, some of them may still be 
found in private or public collections, and that if returned forthwith 
no questions will be asked. 

For nearly three hundred years there \vas no library belonging to 
the Corporation, but at last, in 1824, Mr. Richard Lambert Jones 

46 



362 



THE GUILDHALL LIBRARY. 




got a committee of the Common Council appointed for the purpose 
of re-establishing the library at the Guildhall. A sum of ;^5oo was 
voted for the purpose, and it was agreed that the modest sum of 
;^20o should be expended annually on maintenance. Fortunately, 
at this time old and rare London books were obtainable on much 
easier terms than is now the case, when the market is overrun with 
collectors; and the library was successfully opened in 1828 with 
1,380 works in 1,700 volumes, a catalogue of which was prepared by 
Mr. Edward Tyrrell, the Remembrancer. The collection was in- 
creased the following year to 2,800 volumes, and nearly 2,000 prints 
and drawings. In 1840 the library contained 10,000 volumes, and 
at the end of last year the number of volumes had reached 68,369, 
and there were 38,075 pamphlets. The library has improved not 
only in quantity but in quaUty, and at the present time ^^ 1,000 a 
year, instead of ;£'2oo, is spent on its maintenance. This is not the 
place to enter into details concerning the contents of the library. It 
will suffice to say that they are liberal and comprehensive, books 
and manuscripts on matters relating to London, and the City of 
London in particular, naturally occupying a prominent place, but 
other kinds of works are well represented. Thanks to Mr. Philip 
and Sir David Salomons, aided at a more recent period by Mr. 
Alderman Faudel Phillips, there is a most valuable collection of 
Hebrew works, and an excellent catalogue of Hebrew and Jewish 
literature by the Rev. Albert Lowy. The valuable library belonging 
to the Dutch Church in Austinfriars was presented to the Corpora- 
tion in 1863, and we regret that the Corporation have not been 
equally successful in securing the library of the French Protestant 
Church, lately existing in St. Martin's-le-Grand, this library having 
now been taken out of the City. Amongst the treasures of the 
Guildhall Library are the first Dutch version of the Bible (Delft, 
1477), Bibli Sacra, 1483, contemporary bindings, and Shakespeare's 
autograph to a purchase-deed of a house in Blackfriars, which was 
bought for ;^i45. The library is particularly rich in the history 
and topography of London, British topography, even to villages 
and parishes, publications of literary, scientific, and archaeological 
societies, early London newspapers and directories, genealogical and 
heraldic works, British history and biography, English poetry, 
particularly London editions of sixteenth and seventeenth century 
writers, dictionaries and grammars of various languages, bibliography, 
and books from the presses of early London printers (some fine 
specimens of which were shown at the recent reception of the 
London Congress of the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain), 



THE GUILDHALL LIBRARY. 363 

broadsides and tracts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
modern dictionaries, home and foreign, archxology, architecture, 
and costume, clock and watch-making, and pamphlets on the 
Tractarian movement. The public are largely indebted for the 
present splendid building to Dr. Sedgwick Saunders, who was 
chairman of the Library Committee in 1869, and who induced the 
Common Council to erect a new library and museum at a cost, 
exclusive of fittings, of ;^25,ooo. A full and interesting description 
of the building by its designer, the late Sir Horace Jones, is given 
in the volume before us. 

It is interesting to learn in what manner and to what extent the 
Guildhall Library has been used. Even before the Free Libraries 
Act was passed, the Corporation were in 1853 considering the 
desirability of throwing the library open to the public free of charge, 
and in 1856 readers were admitted by ticket, and members of the 
Corporation were allowed to borrow books for home reading. After 
the opening of the new building the yearly attendance of readers 
rose from 14,316 in 1868 to 173,559 in 1874. This was a remark- 
able increase, but the increase was still more remarkable when the 
library was opened to readers in the evening, and for the whole day 
on Saturdays. This not only entailed a large addition to the staff, 
but the attendance at library, newspaper-room, and museum rose to 
396,720 in 1888. Since then there has been a slight falling off, the 
total in 1892 being 356,343. This, no doubt, is due to the fact that 
numerous other free libraries have since sprung up in different parts 
of the metropolis. One of the reasons of the popularity of the Guild- 
hall Library is doubtless the introduction of the excellent card cata- 
logue by Mr. Welch, which has greatly facilitated the work of 
readers. It is clear from a statistical return presented by the 
Librarian that the majority of those who frequent the Guildhall are 
not novel readers who come for an hour's pleasant dissipation, but 
students bent upon more serious business. Of the books read 
fiction amounts to only 16*56 per cent., while history represents 
7*04 per cent.; theology, 6*6; biography, 5*37; useful arts, 5*28; 
science, 4*58; poetry, 4*49; topography, 4*4; philology, 3*34; 
foreign literature, 3^25 ; genealogy, 3*17; "Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica," 273 ; fine arts, 2*64 ; travels, 2*46 ; philosophy, 2*37; Greek 
and Latin classics, 2*20; music, 2*02; archaeology, i*49; politics, 
1*32; commerce, i'23; drama, i"i4; law, o"6i; and bibliography, 

o*35- 

The interesting question remains : What is to be the future of the 

Guildhall Library? Useful and popular as it is, it cannot be doubted 



3^4 



THE GUILDHALL LIBKARY, 



that it might be made infinitely more useful and infinitely miore 
popular. Even so far back as 1853 the Library Committee warmly 
supported a proposal for the establishment of a free circulating 
library, which they rightly contended would be the means of intro- 
ducing the works of the most approved authors to the homes and 
firesides of the inhabitants of the City, would give an impulse to 
diligent and thoughtful reading, and encourage the pursuit of studies, 
the result of which would extend the boundaries of human know- 
ledge and national civilisation. Unfortunately the proposal to 
establish a free circulating library was rejected by the ratepayers, 
and now, while some of the suburban districts and nearly every 
great foreign capital have provided such an institution, the centre of 
London — the centre of European civilisation — is without this boon. 
Funds have been provided by the Charity Commissioners out of the 
Parochial Charities Fund to establish circulating libraries in the 
parishes of Cripplegate and Bishopsgate, and Mr. Welch thinks a 
halfpenny rate would suffice to provide the rest of the City with free 
circulating libraries, having Guildhall for the centre. Unfortunately 
the ratepayers are already heavily burdened, and they have found 
to their cost that rates originally small have a tendency to grow. 
There are other ways, however, besides an appeal to the ratepayers. 
There are the City Companies who might surely co-operate in a 
work of this kind, and there are millionaires and other wealthy 
individuals who might do worse than imitate the noble generosity 
of men hke Sir Richard Whittington. The City libraries would not 
be confined to inhabitants of the City, but would be open to all 
who are occupied therein, and they are counted by the hundred 
thousand. There is no doubt about the need of a free circulating 
library. The requests for permission to take books home for study, 
says Mr. Welch, are constant, and at times almost painful to refuse. 
If the Corporation could initate a work of this kind, and offer a plot 
of its vacant land for the purpose ; if, moreover, it could secure the 
co-operation of powerful philanthropists and City companies, it would 
be performing a most popular act, and would add enormously to its 
prestige, a point which it cannot afford to overlook in these demo- 
cratic days. 




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The Battle of Bibliography. ^ 

HE last decade of the nineteenth century will witness the 
solution of many great problems which have hitherto been 
looming as dark storms upon the horizon, ready to break, 
we know not when nor where, with consequences which we cannot 
yet foresee. 

If this be so especially in the Political, Religious, and Social 
worlds, the Literary world will not escape without its trials. 

We are slowly awakening to the fact that the flood of Modern 
Bibliography has overtaken us, and we are at length forced to 
confess that we are unable to cope with it. Advancing with 
stealthy line, it has found us unprepared and unorganised, and we 
have fled. 

What, then, will be the result ? Where will flight end ? Must it 
continue ? are the questions which we ask ourselves. 

To any casual observer of matters biliographical there are many 
tendencies which will at once attract attention. In regard to the 
object of this paper, two are especially noteworthy. 

1. The prevalence of the belief that the evils which afflict Modern 
Bibliography are necessary evils for which there is no radical remedy. 

2. The belief that, if solution there be, we must turn for remedy 
to Indexes. 

Now, of course. Indexes contribute a share, and a valuable share, 
towards the solution of our difficulties. But the great radical defect 
of Modern Bibliography is the absence of a systematic Periodical 
Series of Lists of Books on Special Subjects. 

^ Being a summary of the latter portion of a paper entitled *' Bibliography 
Backwards," read before the Library Association. 



366 



THE BATTLE OF BIBLIOGRAPHY. 




The first great national want in Bibliography is to be able to find 
with speed and certainty any book out of the million, on knowing 
the author and title. This want is supplied to perfection by the 
Alphabetical Catalogue. 

The second great want is, without any previous knowledge, to be 
able to find a chronological list of all the books on any given subject 
with absolute certainty, in reference both to time and geographical 
area. 

This want remains to be supplied. 

Whence, then, the remedy? The answer is simple. Pursue a 
course exactly opposite to that of the past. 

In the past, the books of the years have been allowed to disperse, 
before taking due note of them for the purpose of Special Bibliogra- 
phies, at the time when note could best be taken. 

The consequence is that when solitary individuals have bravely 
set themselves to the task of re-collecting the books, they have done 
so only after endless cost of money, time, and labour, and have then 
often only succeeded in bringing a fraction of the books on a subject 
together again to the point from which they originally started (" Bib- 
liography Backwards "), and where they might have been so easily 
retained in the first instance. 

It is not, therefore, a question of after-remedy. We must prevent 
the evil altogether. 

And the solution of the problem is to be found in Periodical 
National Registers of Books. We want a periodical list of all the 
books of the year, which we can afterwards divide into any reason- 
able number of natural divisions and subdivisions at will. 

And how are we to get this list ? 

The most natural way is to avail ourselves of the first registry of 
books which can possibly take place. But alas, this registry does not 
exist, except on a very limited scale, and even then the registers are 
not printed. 

If the reason be inquired, we must point to the existing law. 

The fate of an important branch of modern bibliography depends 
on the difference between the little words may and must. 

According to English law, a man may register his book for copy- 
right. 

In India and the United States a man must register his books. 
Consequently, in the two latter cases registers exist. With us they 
are absent. 

But whether a register exists or not in this country, vre have so 
far progressed that it is generally approved of in principle. It is 



II 



THE BATTLE OF BIBLIOGRAPHY. 367 

generally agreed that a reformed Stationers' Hall under immediate 
Government control is the sine qua non of future copyright reform. 

There is reason to suppose, however, that we are yet far from 
realising the full value of a register bibliographically. 

In India it is arranged on lines unsuited to the highest aims of 
bibliography. 

In America, at once like and unlike our cousins, they have written 
up " Customs " over the door of bibliography — in other words, the 
first contemplated use of the recent scheme of registration in 
America was to supply tariff lists of books for the use of the Customs 
Officials. 

Now the real value of a National Printed Register is that, whereas 
it is necessary from a copyright law and commercial point of view, it 
may also be made available for furthering the welfare of one of the 
most important branches of bibliography. 

Registry kas to be made concerning the ownership of copyright, 
the term of duration, and other details ; and since, under a proper 
system of registration, all books not privately printed^ or at least all 
books to be copyrighted would be registered simultaneously with the 
date of publication, the register entries (being in strict chronological 
order) would form, if printed, the best possible basis for special lists of 
books, provided that the original entries were made in proper fashion. 

In conclusion, then, let me in the briefest manner sketch the 
outline of a National Register, noting the essential conditions. 

All copyright books must be registered on the date of issue from 
the press. 

Each entry in the Register must be a compact one, including all 
the essentials of a bibliographical title. 

Periodicals and Continuations will be kept separate. 

The registering being performed by means of manifold-writing 
books and type-writers, several entries could be made at one time, 
one for a receipt form, another as an office reference form, another 
as a title form, &c., &c. 

Once a quarter the chronologically numbered title-forms would be 
sorted into a reasonable number of broad but well-defined subject 
group bibliographical sections, and sent to the printer. 

If necessary, further details could be added to title-forms after 
distribution of receipt forms, and extra titles could be type-written 
when common to more than one group. 

In regard to internal details, special attention would be paid to 
uniformity of type, continuity of arrangement, and simplicity of 
treatment. 




368 THE BATTLE OF BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Each quarterly section would be issued with a separate title page ; 
would contain titles printed only on one side of the paper ; would be 
on sale as a separate work for a moderate sum. 

Here, then, for the year, and for all future time, provision is made 
for the special bibliography of the greater subject groups, and with 
a minimum of labour and expense, and with absolute certainty of 
details. 

But this is not all. By the mere cutting up and re-arrangement 
of selected entries in spare copies of the quarterly lists, and by the 
shifting of the type before it is broken up, there is easy scope for the 
immediate compilation of any number of s?}ialler biographies of special 
subjects which may be in request. And all this without any delay 
in visiting libraries, in hunting through catalogues, and transcribing 
titles in manuscript. 

In addition also to the above advantages, when once we have our 
Periodical Registers, it would then be possible to promote a further 
elaboration of bibliographical enterprise, by which the thousands of 
books which are at present diverted from the natural stream of lite- 
rature as subordinate " parts," *' papers," and "articles" in "collected 
works," ''learned society journals," and periodicals, &c., would be 
drafted back in due honour as appropriate sections of the Periodical 
Registers. This plan, while not interfering with, but rather aiding,, 
the system of separate and collective Indexes^ would render a large 
portion of the literary world very greatly independent of indexes 
which do not and cannot supply all our needs. 

Furthermore, not the least of the results of the periodical class 
registers would be that a beautiful system of International bibliography 
would arise (certainly amongst the EngHsh-speaking nations), which,, 
while enabling any one country to inform itself concerning the whole 
or any part of the literature of any other country year by year, would 
also enable each country to contribute by International Bibliographical 
Exchange periodical lists of its contributions to the National literature 
of any other country. 

Is not this a matter worth thinking of? 

Frank CampbellT 

[In the published pamphlet on the above subject, Mr. Campbell 
gives a series of exceedingly useful and carefully thought out diagrams, 
which all interested in the classification of books would do well to 
study. The pamphlet may be had, we believe, of the author, who is 
an official in the British Museum Library.] 





Auction Prices of Rare Books. 




HE following is a selection from the last book sale of the past 
season at Messrs. Sotheby's rooms, and will be read with 
interest. All things considered, the prices are remarkably 
good, whilst some of the items are of great rarity. The entire pro- 
ceeds of the four days' sale of 1,452 lots were jCSi'^S^ 4S. — a result 
which may be taken as indicating a very healthy state of the trade 
in second-hand books. 

The sale was made up of various properties, and included a 
portion of the library of Bishop Stortford School (sold by order of 
the Charity Commissioners), in addition to the library of a dignitary 
of the Church. The most important item in the sale — and, perhaps, 
of the past season — consisted of an almost perfect copy of a book 
issued by the Unknown Printer of St. Albans, "The Croniclis of 
FJnglode with the Frute of Timis," black letter, capitals printed in 
red, woodcuts, wants the seven preliminary leaves of Table, "a i " 
(a blank leaf) and "j i," the last leaf is a Httle defective, "J viij " is 
placed after ''Ki," a few leaves are slightly defective and others 
mended, purple morocco antique, sold with all faults, St. Albans 
(1483), ;;£"22o. The Other items included " Catalogus Omnium 
Erasmi," 1523, imperfect, but with the arms of Henry VIH. on one 
side and the Tudor rose on the other, j£$ los. ; an imperfect copy 
of Coverdale's "Bible," Zurich, 1550, ;£'io ; another example of 
the same, Southwarke, 1538, wanting the first two leaves, but other- 
wise a fine copy, ;£25 ; J. Gower, "De Confessione Amantis," 1532, 
large copy, ^23 ; Selden's edition of Michael Drayton's " Poly- 
Olbion," 1622, ;£'io; Higden's " Polycronycon," printed by Wynkin 
de Worde, 1495, the first leaf missing, ;^i5 ; Archbishop Cranmer's 

47 



370 



A UCTION PRICES OF RARE BOOKS. 



copy of the second edition of Erasmus's Greek Testament, with the 
autograph of "Thomas Cantuarien" on title, Basle, 1519, ;£io,; 
the first edition of Euclid's "Geometrise Elementa," 1482 — the first 
book issued with woodcut diagrams — a large copy in the original 
limp vellum, ;£"i7 los. j Hakluyt's "Principal Navigations, Voyages," 
&c., 1590-1600, ;£6 los. ; a first edition of Mathew Arnold's 
"Empedocles on Etna," 1S52, uncut, ;£"3 5s.; Ruskin's "Stones of 
Venice," first edition, three volumes, ^-/^9 ; and Milton's " Paradise 
Lost," 1669, the first edition with the seventh title-page, £^ 5s. ; 
J. B. de Laborde, " Choix de Chansons," 1773, engraved throughout 
with the music and plates by Moreau, Masquelier au Ree, £^()'] \ 
J. Dorat, "Les Baisers," 1770, large paper, with the incorrect pagi- 
nation, and the charming vignettes and culs-de-lampe after Eisen and 
Marillier, ;^i3 5s. ; J. de La Fontaine, " Contes," 1853, on ''papier 
velin a la cuve," only 100 copies printed, and with two extra sets 
of plates, ;^io 15s.; an extra-illustrated copy of T. Campbell's 
" Poetical Works," 1837, with numerous exquisite vignettes, inlaid 
to folio size and extended to two volumes by the insertion of a 
number of rare mezzotint and other portraits, by and after Rowland- 
son, Kneller, Wheatley, &:c., with a long and interesting quarto 
autograph letter of Robert Burns to his friend James Candish, and 
letters of Campbell, J. M. W. Turner, J. P. Kemble, and an auto- 
graph memorandum of Mrs. Siddons, ^^48 ; a collection of ninety- 
five of the rarest caricature and other engravings, by Woodward and 
Rowlandson, most of which are coloured, 1798, &c., ^z^^io los. ; 
H. Aiken, " National Sports of Great Britain," fifty large and beauti- 
fully coloured plates, with descriptions in English and French, 1821, 
£^22i I OS. ; the Caricature Magazine^ a series of upwards of 460 
coloured caricature plates by Woodward, Rowlandson, Bunbury, 
Cruikshank, &c., the engravings are all in good condition, 1821, (S:c., 
;^22 los. ; H. Bunbury, "A Collection of 207 caricature and other 
engravings," in two volumes, many of the plates printed in colours, 
comprising several extremely rare examples, and the whole in the 
finest possible condition, 1789, (S:c., ;^47 ; "Heures presentees a 
Madame la Dauphine," par T. de Hansy, Paris (no date), ;£"2 2 ; a 
series of eighty-four volumes of the Sportmg Magazine, 1 793-1834, 
;zf 66 ; " Breviarium Romanum," Lugduni, 1561, exceedingly rare, 
;£"8 8s.; M. Thevenot, "Receuil de Voyages," 1681 (a very rare 
collection of early voyages down the Mississippi and elsewhere, with 
maps of New Holland, Nova Zembla, plates of insects, &c., 
;2^io los. ; Bewick's "Select Fables," 1820, imperial paper, original 
edition, ;^io; George Washington's copy of "Cicero's Cato Major," 




AUCTION PRICES OF RARE BOOKS. 371 

Philadelphia, 1744, with the celebrated American general's signature 
on the first leaf of the preface, ;£"49 ; the first edition of " The Life 
of Sir John Oldcastle," attributed to Shakespeare, 1600, a fine copy, 
jC^-i^d — this same copy sold for ;^46 in the Gaisford sale two or 
three years ago ; Caxton's '* Recuyell of the Histroyes of Troy," 
printed at the Kelmscott Press, 1892, on vellum, £^2^ ; Fitzgerald's 
" Life of David Garrick," extended from two to four volumes, ^^42 ; 
Allot's " England's Parnassus," 1600, this very rare volume contains 
extracts from almost all the most noted poets of the day, including 
no less than seventy-nine from Shakespeare; and, as Mr. Collier 
remarks, " among other advantages derived from it may be men- 
tioned the manner in which it has enabled us in modern times to 
assign to their true authors several productions of curiosity and 
popularity, ;£"io 15s. J. Milton, "Poems," 1645, first collective 
edition, ;^i9; a copy of the second folio Shakespeare, 1632 (not 
quite perfect), £,20; W. Blake, "Songs of Innocence," 1789, the 
original edition, with two coloured illustrations by Blake added, and 
a portrait by Linnell, ;j^49 los. ; and St. Augustine, " De Vita 
Ciiristiana," printed by Fust and Schoeffer, about 1465, £^20, 



372 



MISCELLANEA. 



Two Books of Reference. 

TWO very useful books of literary reference have just recently 
appeared. The first is a " Bookman Directory of Booksellers, 
Publishers, and Authors," a little volume published at the low price 
of a shiUing. It contains a list of booksellers in London and the 
provinces, a list of publishers, in many cases with interesting 
accounts of the origin and performances of the firms ; and a list of 
authors, and addresses at which letters will find them. The list of 
booksellers will be of use, of course, only to the trade, but all writers 
and readers will be glad to have at hand in so cheap and accessible 
a form the directories of authors and publishers. Dr. Robertson 
Nicoll has abandoned his intention of including a complete directory 
of literary pseudonyms. A number of these are included in the 
directory of authors, but we had hoped that Dr. Nicoll would have 
been able to furnish us with a list similar to those which have been 
published of French and American authors employing pseudonyms. 
It may be, however, that the habit of pseudonymous writing is not 
so common in England as in other countries. The second is issued 
from the Review of Revieivs office, and should command the support 
of every journalist and man of letters. It is the third issue of the 
*' Index and Guide to the Periodicals of the World," which Mr. 
Stead attributes to the " industry and enthusiasm of Miss Hethering- 
ton and her able and zealous assistants." It contains an admirable 
introductory essay by this lady on the indexing of periodicals, an 
apparently complete list of the periodicals of the world, and a mar- 
vellous index of the subjects treated in them all during 1892. Miss 
Hetherington is well known as the compiler of the yearly index to 
the old Pall Mall Gazette. This index is published at 5s., and its 
character as a labour of love entitles it to generous support. Cer- 
tainly no hbrary, newspaper office, or journalist should be without it. 




Limited Editions : A Prose Fancy. 




HY do the heathen so furiously rage against limited editions, 
large-papers, first editions, and the rest ? For there is 
I certainly more to be said for than against them. Broadly 
speaking, all such "fads " are worthy of being encouraged, because 
they, in some measure, maintain the expiring dignity of letters, the 
mystery of books. Day by day the wonderfulness of life is becoming 
lost to us. The sanctities of religion are defiled, the " fairy tales " 
of science are become commonplaces. Christian mysteries are de- 
based in the streets to the sound of drum and trumpet, and the 
sensitive ear of the telephone is but a servile drudge 'twixt specula- 
tive bacon-merchants. And Books ! those miraculous memories of 
high thoughts and golden moods ; those silver shells, tremulous 
with the wonderful secrets of the ocean of life; those love-letters 
that pass from hand to hand of a thousand lovers that never meet ; 
those honeycombs of dreams; those orchards of knowledge; those 
still-beating hearts of the noble dead ; those mysterious signals that 
beckon along the darksome pathways of the past ; voices through 
which the myriad lispings of the earth find perfect speech ; oracles 
through which its mysteries call like voices in moonlit woods; 
prisms of beauty ; urns stored with all the sweets of all the summers 
of time ; immortal nightingales that sing for ever to the rose of life 
— Books, Bibles — ah me ! what have ye become to-day ! 

What, indeed, has become of that mystery of the Printed Word of 
which Carlyle so movingly wrote ? It has gone, it is to be feared, 
with those Memnonian mornings we sleep through with so deter- 
mined snore, those ancient mysteries of night we forget beneath the 
mimic firmament of the music-hall. 

Only in the lamplit closet of the bookman, the fanatic of first and 
fine editions, is it remembered and revered. To him alone of an 



LIMITED EDITIONS: A PROSE FANCY. 



Americanised, " pirated-edition " reading world, the book remains 
the sacred thing it is. Therefore he would not have it degraded by, 
so to say, an indiscriminate breeding, such as has also made the 
children of men cheap and vulgar to each other. We pity the 
desert rose that is born to unappreciative beauty, the unset gem 
that glitters on no woman's hands ; but what of the book that eats 
its heart out in the threepenny box, the remainders that are sold 
ignominiously in job lots by ignorant auctioneers? Have we no 
feeling for them ? 

Over-production, both in men and shirts, is the evil of the day. 
The world has neither enough food, nor enough love, for the young 
that is born into it. We have more mouths than we can fill, and 
more books than we can buy. Well, the publisher and collector of 
limited editions aim, in their small corner, to set a limit to this 
careless procreation. They are literary Malthusians. The ideal 
world would be that in which there would be at least one lover for 
each woman. In the higher life of books the ideal is similar. No 
book should be brought into the world which is not sure of love and 
lodging on some comfortable shelf. If writers and publishers only 
gave a thought to what they were doing when they generate such 
large families of books, careless as the salmon with its million young, 
we would have no such sad workhouses of learning as Booksellers' 
Row, no such melancholy distress-sales of noble authors as re- 
mainer-auctions. A truly good book is beyond price ; and it is far 
easier to under than over sell it. The words of the modern minor 
poet are as rubies, and what if his sets bring a hundred guineas — it 
is more as it should be than that any sacrilegious hand should 
fumble them for threepence. It records that golden age of which 
Mx. Dobson has sung, when — 



"... a book was still a Book, 
Where a wistful man might look, 
Finding something through the whole, 
Beating— like a human soul ; " 



'days when for one small gilded manuscript men would wiUingly 
exchange broad manors, with pasture-lands, chases, and blowing 
woodlands ; days when kings would send anxious embassies across 
the sea, burdened with rich gifts to abbot and prior, if haply gold 
might purchase a single poet's book. 

But, says the scoffer, these limited editions and so forth foster the 
vile passions of competition. Well, and if they do ! Is it not meet 
that men should strive together for such possessions ? We compete 





LIMITED EDITIONS: A PROSE FANCY. 375 

for the allotments of shares in American-meat companies, we outbid 
each other for tickets " to view the Royal procession," we buffet at 
the gate of the football field, and enter into many another of the 
ignoble rivalries of peace; and are not books worth a scrimmage 
for — books that are all those wonderful things so poetically set forth 
in a preceding paragraph ? Lightly earned, lightly spurned, is the 
sense, if not the exact phrasing, of an old proverb. There is no 
telling how we could value many of our possessions if they were 
more arduously come by : our relatives, our husbands and wives, our 
presentation poetry from the unpoetical, our invitation-cards to one- 
man shows in Bond Street, the auto-photographs of great actors, the 
flatteries of the unimportant, the attentions of the embarrassing — 
how might we value all such treasures if they were, so to say, 
restricted to a limited issue, and guaranteed *' not to be reprinted " 
— "plates destroyed and type distributed." 

Indeed, all nature is on the side of limited editions. Make a 
thing cheap, she cries from every spring hedgerow, and no one 
values it. When do we find the hawthorn, with its breath sweet 
as a milch-cow's ; or the wild rose, with its exquisite attar and its 
petals of hollowed pearl ; when do we find these decking the tables 
of the great? or the purple bilberry or the boot-bright blackberry 
in the entremets thereof? Think what that "common dog-rose" 
would bring in a limited addition. And new milk from the cow, or 
water from the well ! Where would champagne be if those intoxi- 
cants were but restricted by expensive license and sold in gilded 
bottles ? What would you not pay for a ticket to see the moon rise 
if nature had not improvidently made it a free entertainment, and 
who could afford to buy a seat at Covent Garden if Sir Augustus 
Harris should suddenly become sole impresario of the nightingale ? 

Yes, " from scarped clift' and quarried stone," Nature cries : 
" Limit the Edition ! Distribute the type ! " Though in her 
capacity as the great publisher she has been all too prodigal of her 
issues, and ruinously guilty of innumerable remainders. In fact, 
it is by her warning rather than her example that we must be guided 
in this matter. Let us not vulgarise our books as she has done her 
stars and flowers. Let us, if need be, make our editions smaller 
and smaller, our prices increasingly " prohibitive," rather than that 
we should forget the wonder and beauty of printed dream and 
thought, and treat our books as somewhat less valuable than wayside 
weeds. 

Richard be Gallienne 

(in Pall Mall Gazdte). 



376 



MISCELLANEA. 



An Artist Bookbinder. 

AT the World's Fair the artist successor of Trautz-Bauzonnet 
will be represented by some of his most beautiful handiwork 
on leather. Even in his imitations of the classic book cover ador- 
ners of old France it cannot be denied that Leon Gruel is a master. 
He has sent to America brilliant specimens of the styles of Le Gas- 
gon, Maioli, and Derome. His speciality is engraved and modelled 
leather in the Gothic patterns. One of the finest examples of Gruel's 
work in this manner covers a prayer-book woven entirely of silk — 
miniatures, black letter characters and all — by an ingenious manu- 
facturer at Lyons. Another specimen is on a copy of the artist 
binder's own " Manuel Historique et Bibliographique de 1' Amateur 
de Reliures." He has neatly introduced in this, among the Gothic 
foliage and flowers of its border, a grue (crane) and a book as his 
marque parlante. Some of the prices of rarities which Gruel has 
bound for the great international exposition of 1893 are worth noting. 
There is a vellum manuscript, *' Livre de Mariage," cased superbly 
in brown levant morocco, with an ivory bas-relief of the Marriage at 
Cana inserted, and clasped in silver gilt, marked at 2,800 francs ; a 
chirographic copy of the " Imitation de Jesus Christ," translated by 
Lamennais, with miniatures by Ledoux and E. Moreau, which will 
cost its purchaser 20,000 francs, if the precious souvenir is destined 
to remain in pactolian America ; and an exact copy of Madame de 
Pompadour's blotter, in citron morocco, with flowers daintily inlaid 
in red and blue. Seven hundred francs will buy the latter. As 
bookbindings do not exclusively command the skill of Leon Gruel, 
other elegant specimens of it, which will be shown and admired at 
Chicago, are a leather-covered casket for jewels, a scissors case after 
a model in the museum at Cluny, and a card case in Renaissance 
style. 



.=» 



INDEX. 



Almanack of Three Centuries Ago, 

An, 33 
America, Book Collecting in, 71 

Letters from, 257 

Old Books in, 273 

American Imprints, Early, 255 
Anacreon, The " Odes" of, 199 
Andrews, W., 133 
Anonymous Authors, 191 
Antiquary of the Last Century, An, 

89, 119 
Arbuthnot, F. F., 156 
Ars Moriendi, 80 
Autograph Collecting, 319 

Copies, 156 

Autographs of Literary Men, 169 

, The Preservation of, 63 

Author and Bookseller, 302 
Authors and Book-buyers, 285 
, Anonymous, 191 

Baldwin's *' Book Lover," i 

Bambou, Le^ 132 

Bartholomew Anglicanus, 99 

Baskerville, J., 167 

Bewick, Bookplate by, 106 

Bible, Eyre and Spottiswoode's, 69 

" Helps," The Oxford, 241 

Society, The, 132 

Bibles at the British Museum, 327 
Biblia Pauperum, 79 
Biblioincineration, 13 



48 



Bibliographical Society, The, 57 
Bibliography, A Japanese, 294 

, Method in, 98 

, The Battle of, 365 

Bibliomaniac's Prayer, The, 176 
Bibliophiles, Acquisitiveness of, 129 
Binding, An Unique, 223 

in Human Skin, 103 

Blades, \V., 3 

Block-Books, Fifteen Century, 79 

Bodoni, 214 

Book- Borrowers, 53, 160 

Book Centre, Paris as a, 349 

Book Collector, The Perils of a, 343 

Book Collectors, Dictionary of, 4, 291 

, The Great, 217 

Book Collecting in America, 71 
Book Covers, Embroidery on, 281 
Book Finds, Some Recent, 171 
Book Hunter, The, 152 
" Book Lover" (The), by Baldwin, l 
Book of Mutual Admiration, A, 144 

the Future, The, 116 

Book Sale in New York, 49 

Book, The Costliest in America, 175 

Book, The Vercelli, 66 

Book Thief, The, 44 

Book Catalogue, The First, 321 

Bookbinder, An Artist, 376 

Bookbinders, A Hint to, 288 

Bookbinding, A Specimen of, 336 

Bookbindings, The Hessian, 287 



37^ 



INDEX. 



Bookbuyer, Mr. Gladstone as a, 288 
Bookbuyers and Authors, 285 
Bookhunting on the Quays of Paris, 

161 
Bookmaking, Materials for a History 

of, 89 
Bookplates, French and English, 105 

, Irish, 240 

Bookplate Society, The, 137 
Bookplate, The Earliest, 354 
Bookworm, A Modern, 153. 

, Real, 8 

, The, 240 

Books, 272, 326 

~, A Woman on, 329 

-, Auction Prices of Rare, 369 

at the British Museum, 151 

and Bindings, 184 

about Books, 188, 217, 267, 345 

, Catalogue of Privately-printed, 

for Social Reformers, 303 

, Franklin's Favourite, 17 

I have Rambled with, 85 

in Manuscript, 345 

in Rio de la Plata, 278 

, Lord Coleridge's Best, 324 

of Lace Patterns, 88 



of Reference, Two, 372 

, Of My, 30 

(Old) in America, 273 

on Printing, 268 

, Sale of, 221 

, Small, 5, 69, 279 

, Some Odd, 25 

, The " Best," 287, 324 

, The Best Hundred, 70 

-, The Friendship of, 9 

, The Management of, 297 

that can be Inwardly Digested, 

135 

, Women's, 109 

" Books in Chains," by W. Blades, 3 
Bookseller's Advertisement, A, 212 
Booksellers, London, 7 

Soliloquy, An Old, 112 

Bookshops in Russia, 208 
Borde's " Breviarie of Health," 328 
Brooke, Rev. Stopford A., 65 
Browning, Letters of, loi 
Buckley Library, The, "i"] 
Burger's " Monumenta," 131 
Burns and Scott Forgeries, 41 





Burns, The " Kilmarnock," 82 

*' Bygone England," 133 

Byron, Unpublished Letters of, 45, 98 

Cambridge, Books Printed at, 227 

Campbell, F. B. F., 68 

Campbell, Frank, 368 

Canticum Canticorum, 80 

Card Games, Bibliography of, 81 

Casting Pearls, &c., 360 

Castle, Egerton, 104 

Cataloguing, Curiosities of, 335 

Catalogue, The First Book, 321 

Cawthome the Bookseller, 302 

Caxtons, Sale of, 247 

Censorship in Russia, 59, 272 

Chap-Book, An Eighteenth Century, 

117 
Chaucer, A MSS., 295 
Clouston, W. A., 22 
Codex Vaticanus, 242 
Coleman, C. W., 30 
Coleridge's (Lord) " Best Books," 
Columbus Letter, The, 150 
Commonwealth, The Punch of the. 
Costume, Kobel's Book on, 293 
"Criminal's Dictionary," A, 40 
Cruikshankiana, 229 

Devil's Library, The, 27 
Dickens, C, 127 

, Macmillan's Edition of, 225 

Dickens's " Little Nell," 56 » 

Dictionary, A Criminal's, 40 ^| 

Dictionary of Book Collectors, 291 
Dobell's Catalogue, 293 
Documents, The Study of Old, 290 
Dedications, Singular, 337 

Edition, Disposing of an, 207 jll 

Editions, First, 270 
Elizabeth's (Queen) Prayer. Book, 241 
Ellwanger's " Story of My House," 3 
Elton, C. and M., 217 
Embroidery on Book Covers, 281 
English Illustrated Magazine., The, 2 
Euclid's " Elements," 134 
Extra-Illustrating in New York, 177 

Fabian Society, The, 303 
Finland, Printing in, 40 
First Editions of Tennyson, 26 
Flammarion, Camille, 103 
Forgeries, The Burns and Scott, 41 




INDEX, 



379 



Franck, R., 113 

Franklin's Favourite Books, 17 

Fraunce's " Lawier's Logike," 200 

Gambetta's Bookplate, 107 
Gentleman's Magazine Library, The, 

134 

Gift, A Curious, 104 
Gladstone as a Bookbuyer, 288 
Gospels, Syriac Text of the, 189 
Gosse, E., 357 

Grangerising in New York, 177 
Green's "Short History," 130 

Hamilton, Walter, 104 

" Hatchards," 249 

Hawthorne, J., 272 

Hearne, T., 89 

Hibberd, Shirley, 297 

Hiersemann's Catalogues, 215 

" Holy Wells," by R. C Hopes, 227 

Horn-Book, The, 134 

Hugo's Bookplate, 107 

Hugo's (Victor) MSS., 207 

Human Documents, 200 

Hyginus' " Poeticon," 23 

Irish Bookplates, 240 

Indies, The "New Laws " of the, 133 

Ingoldsby Legends, On the, 145 

Jacobs' " Indian Fairy Stories," 2 
James VI. of Scotland, Library of, 201 
Japanese Bibliography, A, 294 

Designs, 42 

Jones, Sir W., 19 

Junot's (Marshal) Library, 325 

Keeling, E.D 'Esterre, 335 
Kelmscott Press, The, 55 
Kelsall, C, 354 
Kobel, J., 293 

Lace Patterns, Books of, Z% 
Le Gallienne, R., 374 
Libraries for Manchester, 82 
Library, Adam Smith's, 176 

, A Fourteenth Century, 60 

, A Nurse's, 11 1 

, A Sultan's, 44 

, An Island, 212 

, Marshal Junot's, 325 

of James VI., 20i 



Library of Sir J. Caesar, 157 

, The Buckley, 87 

, The Devil's, 27 

, The John Rylands, 216 

, The Guildhall, 361 

Lilburne as a Pamphleteer, 315 

Limited Editions, 373 

Literature, Stopford Brooke's Early 

English, 65 
Literature of the Century, The, 357 
" Literary Blunders," by WTieatley, 213 
Literary Men, Autographs of, 169 
London and Middlesex Note-Book^ 3 
London Booksellers, 7 

Mackie, Mrs. O. S., 302 

Madan, F., 98, 345 

Manuscripts, Early Christian, 52 

Marat in England, 193 

Maunsell, Andrew, 321 

Medical Work, Earliest English, 328 

" Mela Britannicus," 354 

Microscopic Penmanship, 185 

Mirkhond's " Muhammad," 130 

Morris, Harrison S., 87 

Mother Hubbard's Fairy Tales, 43 

Moulder, Victor, J., 62 

MSS., Sale of, 247 

Musical Celebrity, A, 32 

Myles Standish, His Booke, 256 

Napoleon's Housekeeping Book, 199 
Note-Book, Our, i, 41, 65, 97, 129, 

213, 225, 289, 353 
Nurse's Library, A, in 

Oriental Translation Fund, 220 
Oxford Bible " Helps," 241 

Papyrus from Egypt, 243 
Paris as a Book Centre, 349 
Paris, The Book-Quays of, 161 
Penmanship, Microscopic, 185 
Pickering and Chatto, Catalogue of, 

100 
Playing Card, An Old, 212 
Plowden's " Treatise," 64 
Prayer-Book, Edward VI. 's, 83 

, Queen Elizabeth's, 246 

Printer's Marks, 216, 313 
Printing, Books on, 268 

, Early English, 267 

in Finland, 40 



38o 



INDEX. 



" Poeticon Astronomicon," The, 23 
Publishers, Eighteenth Century, 305 
Punch of the Commonwealth, The, 237 

QUARITCH, B., 4 
Quaritch's, Mr., Hat, 360 

Rabelais, F., 97 

Redgrave, G. R., 66 

Rehatsek, E., 153 

Reynard the Fox, 209 

Roberts, W., 198, 312 

Ronsard, Mary Stuart's Copy of, 44 

Rosenthal, Herr, 353 

Ruskin Bibliography, The, 245 

Russia, Bookshops in, 208 

Censorship in, 59, 272 

Shelves, My Upper, 269 
Sherman, F. D., 152 
Shorthand, A Note on, 289 
" Sketches of Boz," 266 
Small Books, 5, 279 
Smith's (Adam) Library, 176 
Sorg, Anthon, 355 
Sparling, PI. Halliday, 318 
State Papers, 68 
Steele, F. M., 320 

, Robert, 99 

St. Petersburg Library, 355 



Strada's " Imperatorum," 353 
Syriac Text of the Gospels, 189 

Tennyson I ANA, 31 
Tennyson's Bookplate, 106 

Masters, 18 

Poems by Two Brothers, 

51. 69, 183 
Tennyson, First Editions of, 26 
Tricks of the Eighteenth Century Pub- .ii 

lishers, 305 
Tudor Translations, The, 318 
Tuer, A. W., 42 
Turner's Tours, 43 

Umbrella Literature, 284 
Uzanne's Bookplate, 108 

— : " Physiologic des Quais 

Paris," 161 



Walton, Izaak, 113, 271 
Warner, G. F., 206 
Warren, C. F. S., 149. 258 
Water-Colour Painting in England, 66 
Welch, C, 361 

WTieatley's " Literary Blunders," 213 
White, Gleeson, 39, 228. 
Williams, Archbishop, 61 
Women's Books for Chicago, 109 



4 



Zurich, Printing at, 353 



(0 



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