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Full text of "Boston, one hundred years a city : a collection of views made from rare prints and old photographs showing the changes which have occurred in Boston during the one hundred years of its existence as a city, 1822-1922"

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From a print 



In the- 



Street Trust Company 



WASHINGTON' STREET AT THE HEAD OF STATE STREET ABOUT 1835 

Showing the end of the Old State House when it was used as a post-office. 

The building on the right is the site of the proposed new main office 

of the State Street Trust Company. 



BOSTON 

ONE HUNDRED YEARS 

A CITY y 



^ colleEiion of vie-ws made from 

Rare Prints and Old Photographs 

showing the changes which have 

occurred in Boston during 

the One Hundred Years 

of its existence as 

^ City 



^1822 - 1922 ^ 




T'reseiited by the 

State Street Trust Company 

In commemoration of the 

One Hundredth Anniversary of the 

Incorporation as a City of 'Boston 

Massachusetts 



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Copyright, 1922, 








BY the 


\1PANY ^ 




State 


Street Trust Co 





^Edited, arranged and pritiud by^direclion of 

y Walton Advertising y Printing Co. "^ 

Boston, Mass. 



APR -3 m2 
0)CI.A6o9446 ^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Washington Street at the head of State Street about 1835 ii 

The United States Agricultural Society Exhibition in 1855 . vii 

Exterior of Faneuil Hall about 1826 ix 

Charles River embankment before construction of Esplanade xi 
The silver casket which contains the original charter of the 

City of Boston xii 

Plan of Boston 1822 2 

Plan of Boston 1922 3 

High Street in 1822 4 

The old City Hall of Boston 5 

Old Norfolk House in Eliot Square, Roxbury, about 1828 . 6 

The residence of Samuel Whitwell on Winthrop Place ... 7 

View of Boston and the South Boston Bridge 8 

The Bradlee-Doggett House 9 

Temple Place, looking toward the Common lo 

Braman's Baths on Chestnut Street 11 

The old Bromfield House in 1858 12 

A bird's-eye view of Boston and its surroundings in 1850 . 13 
View of the Back Bay, Charles Street and the Common in 

1823 14 

The old Sheafe House 14 

Scollay Square, looking toward Pemberton Square .... 15 

Cathedral of the Holy Cross 16 

Tremont Street, showing Winter Street and the Masonic 

Temple 17 

Tremont Street in 1843 18 

North side of Court Street 19 

The State House, as it appeared in 1835 20 

The original location of S. S. Pierce Company 21 

Site of the old Hotel Dartmouth 22 

Bunker Hill Monument, Charlestown 23 

View of Summer Street 23 

Chauncy Hall School and First Church, as they appeared in 

1828 24 

The Samuel N. Brown House 25 

North side of State Street from Washington Street .... 25 

Pemberton Square about i860 26 



PAGE 

State Street, showing the ■Merchants Exchange as it appeared 

in i860 27 

National Horse & Carriage Mart on Portland Street ... 28 

Commonwealth Avenue at the corner of Dartmouth Street 28 

View of Boston Harbor from East Boston about i860 ... 29 
Summer Street, showing the South Boston horse railway 

depot at Church Green 30 

Park Street from Tremont Street 30 

V'iew of the Back Bay about 1857 before the process of filling 

in was started 31 

View of Boston and Charlestown 32 

Looking down Congress Street 33 

The old Hotel Boylston at the corner of Tremont and Boyls- 

ton Streets 34 

A view of the Public Garden and Boston Common about 1870 35 

Quincy Hall Market about 1830 36 

The old Boston Public Library on Boylston Street 37 

View of Boston and East Boston about 1859 38 

Park Square in 1870 39 

Washington Square, Fort Hill about 1870 40 

South Boston with Boston in the distance 41 

How the Back Bay looked in 1872 42 

Trinity Church in Copley Square about 1877 43 

The Custom House of Boston 43 

The Franklin Hotel in 1829 44 

The second Exchange Coffee House 45 

Post Office Square in 1878 46 

The Blake-Shaw Houses in Bowdoin Square 46 

Haymarket Square 47 

The old Hancock House 48 

Boylston Street 49 



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From a print In the collection of the State Street Trust Company 

THE UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

View of the grounds and structures at its third exhibition in Boston in 1855. 



FOREWORD 

jLS with the individual, so with the community, a birthday is 
/ % an interesting occasion. The State Street Trust Company, 
A m. in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary of 
the incorporation of Boston as a city, issues as its annual brochure 
a series of views showing some of the many changes which have 
taken place in the city during the past century. 

Before the town became a city, a form of government was 
submitted to the people of Boston together with an inquiry as to 
whether the name "the Town of Boston" should be changed to 
"the City of Boston." Two thousand, seven hundred and twenty- 
seven voted in the affirmative and 2,087 in the negative, so that a 
small matter of 640 votes decided that Boston should become a 
city, and on February 23, 1822, the Governor approved the 
act establishing "the City of Boston." The new charter was 
drafted by Lemuel Shaw, later Justice of the Supreme Court, and 
in it the principal head was named "Mayor," the "Board of Alder- 
men" was fixed at eight members, and a "Common Council" 
of forty-eight persons was created, four from each of the twelve 
wards into which the city was divided. 

It was not, however, until March 4, 1822, that the charter incor- 
porating the city was accepted by the town, the vote then being 
2,797 iri favor and 1,881 against, a majority of 916, showing a 
slight increase in the number of those who favored the change. 
Accordingly a city government was organized, and on May I, 
1822, John Phillips was chosen mayor. The term of office was 
one year until the statute of 1895 made it two years. The two-year 
term began with the election of Josiah Quincy in 1896, but in 
1909, in accordance with the statute then passed, a four-year 



term of office was established. It is interesting, however, to note 
in detail the steps which made Boston a city. 

For many years after the beginning of the settlement, the form 
of government was that of the old-fashioned town meeting, in 
which each freeman had a voice and in which town affairs were 
regulated by the whole body of freemen represented at the meet- 
ing. Finally town affairs became so unwieldy that certain persons 
were delegated to conduct them. At first these were chosen for 
six months, then for a year, and finally they came to be called the 
Board of Selectmen. 

The town grew rapidly. Its activities became larger than even 
the Selectmen could regulate. Accordingly officials were chosen 
to look after special departments of public service, such as con- 
stables, surveyors of highway, clerks of market, sealers of leather, 
packers of fish and meat, and hog reeves. Even with these changes 
the town form of government had become unwieldy by 1708, 
and attempts were made to incorporate the town, but these 
failed. In 1784 a number of influential citizens petitioned for 
the appointment of a committee, which in due course reported 
two plans for the better government for Boston. One made the 
body politic consist of a Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council; 
the other suggested a President and Board of Selectmen; but the 
residents were not ready for the adoption of either plan, and it 
was decided, when put up to the voters, inexpedient to make the 
alterations suggested. Again in 1 791 and 1804 futile efforts 
were made to secure the consent of the voters that Boston might 
become a city. When, however, the time had arrived for this 
important step, it was discovered that no provision existed in 
the State Constitution which gave authority to the General Court 
to erect a city government, and this necessarily led to a move- 
ment which on April 9, 1821, culminated in the passage of such 
an amendment to the constitution. 

In 1820 the population of Boston was 43,298, and the town 
meeting had become a farce. It was attended by less than fifty 
voters, save when questions of great interest came up, and was 
quite dominated by the public officials who always turned out. 
Yet every step in the direction of a change of government was 
opposed by a conservative element, one of the most strenuous 
objectors being Josiah Quincy, who afterwards became the second 
mayor of the city. 

Matters came to such a pass that a special meeting was called 
in Faneuil Hall in January, 1822, and a committee reported in 



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/?i /Ac collection of the Stale Street Trust Compan 



EXTERIOR OF FANEUIL HALL ABOUT 1826 

It was here that the people of Boston voted to change the name "the Town 

of Boston" to "the City of Boston" and later accepted the charter 

incorporating the City, March 4, 1822. 



favor of a chief executive to be called the Intendant. He was to 
be elected by the Selectmen. An executive board of seven persons 
called Selectmen was to be elected by the inhabitants on a general 
ticket, and a body with mixed legislative and executive powers, 
called the Board of Assistants, was to be composed of four persons 
chosen from each of the twelve wards. The report was amended 
by changing the name "Intendant," taken from the French, to 
the name "Mayor," "Selectmen" to "Aldermen," and "Board 
of Assistants" to "Common Council." It was upon the adoption 
of this report that the people of Boston finally passed favorably. 

A comparison of the Boston of 1822 with that of the present 
may be made by means of the statistics which exist in the statis- 
tician's office of the city. While those of 1822 are quite meager 
as compared with those of today, nevertheless one may, by a com- 
parison, gain some interesting facts as to the changes and expan- 
sions that have taken place in the city. The area of the city in 
1822 was 4.7 square miles. In 1922 it covers 47.81 square miles, 
of which 43.55 are land area. Its population has multiplied sixteen 
times in a hundred years. The approximate population of the city 



in 1822 was 46,226, while the United States census, which some 
claim underestimated the actual figures, gives the population in 
1920 as 748,060. When Boston became a city it had 7,705 homes 
and in 1922 it has 164,785. The debt which the city carried over 
from the town government was $100,000, being the cost of a jail 
and court-house on Leverett Street. In 1922, the net city debt 
's ^79»379?925, or $99.10 approximate net debt per capita. 

The cost of running the city in 1822 was $249,000. For the 
fiscal year of 1920-21 the expenses, ordinary and extraordinary, 
were $57,477,910. The following figures show the valuation of 
property at the two periods. In 1822, the total valuation was 
$42,140,200 divided as follows — $23,364,400 real estate and 
$18,775,800 personal. The rate of taxation was $7.30 per thousand, 
and 8,800 persons were then taxable. This included every male 
over sixteen years old. In 1920 the valuation of property in the 
city was $1,572,458,780 divided into real estate $1,396,073,300 
and personal estate $176,385,480, the rate of taxation being 
$24.10 per thousand, and 195,795 individuals appear as taxable. 

On its school department the city spent in the fiscal year of 
1820-21 a total of $45,045. In 1920-21 the amount expended for 
education was a total of $10,808,753. I'^ 1822 there were 29 
elementary schools containing 3,827 pupils. The English High 
School for boys started in 1821 with George B. Emerson, a 
Harvard graduate, as headmaster, and had 6 teachers and 207 
pupils. In 1921 there were 279 public schools, 3,422 teachers, and 
126,507 pupils. In addition, there were 13,631 students in the 
evening schools. Private schools of Boston, whose pupils come 
not alone from Boston, but from the outlying districts, have a 
registration of 32,132 between the ages of 5 and 16. 

In 1822 the only theatre in Boston was the Boston Theatre on 
Federal and Franklin Streets, which had been remodeled in 
1798 and was considered one of the best in the country. The 
performance began at six o'clock in the winter and half-past six 
in the spring. Today there are 40 theatres in Boston, 36 motion- 
picture houses, 80 halls which seat four hundred or more, and 
62 halls seating less than four hundred. 

There was no organized fire department in 1822. In 1922 Boston 
has a highly organized fire force comprising 1,170 men, with 62 
fire stations and 1,205 alarm boxes. In 1822 the men who worked 
the engines received a small compensation and were exempt from 
militia duty. In 1920 the cost of the fire department was 
$3,223,133 including pensions. 



The "Constables" who kept the Bostonians of 1822 in order are 
now replaced by 1,846 policemen. In the city today there are 
135 hotels, 33 incorporated hospitals, and 3,077 manufacturing 
plants. The largest number of establishments in any one industry 
is in the book and job printing business — 311 individual enter- 
prises. The confectionery and ice-cream trades employ the 
largest number of workers. 

It is fitting that we should here acknowledge our indebtedness 
to the following who have assisted in the preparation of this 
brochure by permitting us to use photographs and prints: the 
directors of the Boston Real Estate Exchange, the members of 
the House Committee of the Exchange Club, the Bostonian 
Society, the officers of the New England Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, J. Sumner Draper and Mark Temple Dowling, Claude 
Fisher, Herman Parker of Macullar Parker Company, and Henry 
Penn of Penn the Florist. We desire especially to mention the 
cordial co-operation given to us by Walter K. Watkins, Charles 
F. Read and William B. Clarke of the Bostonian Society. 

Thanks are also due to the Hon. Andrew J. Peters, Ex-Mayor 
of Boston, to the late Dr. Edward M. Hartwell, City Statistician, 
and Horace R. Keay and William T. Seeger of his office, Irwin 
C. Cromack, assistant chief City Engineer, and James Donovan, 
City Clerk, for their help in preparing this brochure. 




CHARLES RIVER EMBANKMENT BEFORE CONSTRUCTION 
OF ESPLANADE 




From a photograph 



Kindness of the City of Boston 



THE SILVER CASKET WHICH CONTAINS THE ORIGINAL 
CHARTER OF THE CITY OF BOSTON 

The engraving shows the names of the mayors who were elected under 
this charter and served the city from 1822 to 1854. 



VIEWS OF BOSTON 




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Courtesy of The Heliotype Company of Boston 



PLAN OF BOSTON 192: 



The section enclosed and marked No. i shows the size of Boston in 1822, which is 

shown in detail on the opposite page. Boston in 1822 was bounded roughly 

on the west by Charles Street and the South Boston Bridge. 






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From a photograph 



Kindness of Messrs. Draper &■ Doicting 



THE OLD CITY HALL OF BOSTON ON SCHOOL STREET 

Before the erection of the present building it was here that the city officials, 

under the charter of 1822, first had their offices. To the left of the 
picture can be seen the former Registry of Deeds and to the right, the 

Niles Building. 




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From a photograph Kindness of the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

THE RESIDENCE OF SAMUEL WHITWELL 

Built by him in 1822, on Winthrop Place, now Winthrop Square. 




From a photograph 



THE BRADLEE-DOGGETT HOUSE 



Club 



Formerly on the corner of Tremont and Hollis Streets, where some of the Boston 

Tea Party assembled. On the left of the picture can be seen the Hollis 

Street Church, later altered as the Hollis Street Theatre. 




From a photograph Kindness of the /,.v./(i;;ii:i' Club 

TEMPLE PLACE 

Looking toward Tremont Street and the Common. 




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from a lithograph Kindness of Messrs. Draper &" Dowling 

BRAMAN'S BATHS ON CHESTNUT STREET 




From a photograph Kindness 0/ the Exchange Club 

THE OLD BROMFIELD HOUSE ON BROMFIELD STREET IN 1858 

With the Bromfield Street Methodist Church on the extreme right. The 

archway shown in the center of the picture, still in existence, was then 

the entrance to the stable in the rear of the hotel. 




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From a drawing Kindness oj the Bostonian Society 

VIEW OF THE BACK BAY, CHARLES STREET AND THE COMMON IN 1823 

The building shown is the gun house of the Sea Fencibles, an independent 

company of maritime men. Sketch from the balcony of 

61 Beacon Street. 




From a photograph Kindness oj the Exchange Club 

THE OLD SHEAFE HOUSE 

On the corner of Columbia and Essex Streets, which was Earl Percy's head- 
quarters during the siege of Boston. 



14 




From a photograph Kindness of the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

SCOLLAY SQUARE 

Looking toward Pemberton Square. On the left is the site of the Suffolk 

Savings Bank and on the right, the Scollay Building. The dwellings 

seen in the background are now on the site of the present Court House. 



IS 




IRANKUX Sr. IU)ST()\. 



DtDICiTtD SEPT.?9:" 1803. 



From a print Kindntss of Messrs. Draper &• Dozvling 

CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS 
On Franklin Street near the corner of Devonshire Street. 



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Kindness of the Bostonian Society 



TREMONT STREET IN 1843 

Showing on the left the old Tremont House, and on the right, Tremont Theatre, 

later Tremont Temple, since burned and rebuilt. King's Chapel and 

burial-ground are seen beyond. 



18 




From a photograph Kindness of the Exchange Club 

NORTH SIDE OF COURT STREET 

The present site of the Ames Building on the corner of Washington Street. 



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From a photograph Kindness oj the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

THE ORIGINAL LOCATION OF S. S. PIERCE COMPANY 

On Court Street. Showing Tremont Street on the right. George Washington 
lodged in this building in 1789. 



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BUNKER HILL MONUMENT, CHARLESTOWN 

The earliest view, showing the restricted style of residences. 




From a print Kindness of the Bostonian Society 

VIEW OF SUMMER STREET 

Showing the Meeting-house of the New South Society, designed by Bulfinch, 
on Church Green at the junction of Bedford and Summer Streets. 



23 




From a photograph 



Kuulne<i III the Boston Real Estate Exchan 



THE SAMUEL N. BROWN HOUSE 

On Dartmouth Street at the corner of Blagden Street, the site of the Boston 

Public Library in Copley Square. On the right is the unfinished tower 

of the New Old South Church on Bovlston Street. 




Frotn a painting Kindness of the Boslonian Society 

NORTH SIDE OF STATE STREET FROM WASHINGTON STREET 

As it appeared in 1825. On the left is the site of the first shop in Boston and 

of the present Devonshire Building and on the right is the Old State House. 



25 




From a photograph 



Kindness oj J. Murray Forbes 



PEMBERTON SQUARE ABOUT i860 

On the left is the present site of the Suffolk County Court House, in the center 
background, Police Headquarters, and on the right. Barristers Hall, and 
the extreme right, the Pemberton Building. 

Among the residents of this locality were the following: Dr. George C. 
Shattuck, Mrs. John Mackay, Samuel R. Putnam, Joseph Coolidge, F. B. 
Crowninshield, Robert M. Mason, Nathaniel I. Bowditch, John A. Lowell, 
Peter C. Brooks, Jr., P. S. Shelton, Josiah Bardwell, Mark Healey, R. C. 
Winthrop, and Mrs. Henry Sigourney. 



16 




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From a photograph 



Kindness oj the Exchange Club 



STATE STREET 



Showing the Merchants Exchange as it appeared in i860. These buildings 
are now replaced by the Exchange Building, number 53 State Street. 



27 




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R RWGES. HARNESSES i, 
WednesdaySSatDrdayaMOflc!, 



From a lithograph ki^^-n.r i M, r liraptr L- Dir.vling 

NATIONAL HORSE & CARRIAGE MART ON PORTLAND STREET 

This street has been since 1875 — about the time of this print — the center of 

auction sales of horses, carriages, etc., and the above ilhistration shows 

the form of advertising used in early days. 




From a photograph Kindness of the Boston Real Estale ExJuiin,- 

COMMONWEALTH AVENUE AT THE CORNER OF DARTMOUTH STREET 

Showing the Hotel Vendome before the addition was built. 



28 



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From a print Kindness oj Messrs. Draper b" Douiing 

SUMMER STREET 

Showing the South Boston horse railway depot at Church Green. 




From a painting Kindness of Henry Penn 

PARK STREET FROM TREMONT STREET 

Showing the Common on the left, the State House on Beacon Hill in the 

center, and the Park Street Church and Burying Ground on the right. 

The original is in the possession of Bostonian Society. 



30 




31 




32 




From a photograph Kindness of the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

LOOKING DOWN CONGRESS STREET 

Showing the old Traveller Building at the corner of State Street, now the site 
of the main office of the State Street Trust Company. 



33 




From a photograph 



Kuuhu-^ 



•■, 11' I tn Real Estate Exchange 



THE OLD HOTEL BOYLSTON AT THE CORNER OF TREMONT AND 

BOYLSTON STREETS 

Now the site of the Hotel Touraine. On the right of the picture can be seen 
the Hotel Pelham, now replaced by the Little Building. 



34 





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rrom a photograph Kindness oj the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

THE OLD BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY ON BOYLSTON STREET 

Later used as a zoo for animals and now the site of the Colonial Building. 
The fence in the foreground was used to surround the Deer Park on 

Boston Common. 



37 




From a photograph Kindness of the Boston Real Estate Exchange 

PARK SQUARE IN 1870 

Looking toward the second Boston and Providence Railroad Station from 

Boston Common. 



39 





From photographs Kindness of Macullar Parker Company 

WASHINGTON SQUARE, FORT HILL ABOUT 1870 

Showing (above) Fort Hill before and (below) Fort Hill during the process 

of demolition. The dirt removed was used in filling in Atlantic 

Avenue and the Shawmut Avenue District. 



40 



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From a photograph 



if the Boston Real Estate Exchange 



TRINITY CHURCH IN COPLEY SQUARE ABOUT 1877 

Showing the Hotel Brunswick on the left. The site of the Hotel Westminster 

can be seen on the right. Just beyond the tower on the extreme right of 

Trinity Church is the site of the present new building of the John Hancock 

jVTutual Life Insurance Co. 




From a photograph 



of the Exchange Cltib 



THE CUSTOM HOUSE OF BOSTON 

On lower State Street before its tower was built. On the right can be seen 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce Building, and in the foreground the 
site of the Board of Trade Building. 



43 




From a PendlHon lithograph Kindness of Messrs. Draper df Douling 

THE FRANKLIN HOTEL IN 1829 
West side of Merchants Row between Franklin Hall Square and North Street. 



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From a painting 



Kindness of AVfc England Mutual Liff Insurance Co. 



POST OFFICE SQUARE IN 1878 

Showing the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company building, 
between Pearl and Congress Streets on Milk Street. 




From a lithograph Kindness of the Bostonian Society 

THE BLAKE-SHAW HOUSES IN BOWDOIN SQUARE 
Between Green and Cambridge Streets, built by Samuel Parkman about 1810. 



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Friini a photni^raph 



Kindness oj the Exchange Club 



THE OLD HANCOCK HOUSE 



Formerly the old Hancock Tavern, located on Corn Court offFaneuil Hall 
Square. Up to the time it was torn down in 1902, it was considered the 
oldest tavern in Boston. 




From a photograph 



Kindnen oj the Exchange Club 



BOYLSTON STREET 



Looking toward Tremont Street. The building in the center is the 
Old Public Library. 



49 



c