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I. A GLANCE AT ITS HISTORY.
BOSTON was originally "by the Indians called Shawmutt,"
but the colonists of 1630, wandering southward from their land-
ing-place at Salem, named it Trimountaine. Charlestown, which
was occupied by them in July, 1630, was speedily abandoned because
there was found no good spring of water, and the peninsula close
by having been bought 6f its sole inhabitant, the settlement was
transferred thither on the 7tli of September, 0. S. (17tli N. S.).
On the same day the court held at Charlestown ordered that Trimountaine be called
Boston. This name was given to it in memory of Boston in Old England, from
which many of the colonists had emigrated, and which was the former home of
Mr. Isaac Johnson, next to Governor Winthrop the most important man among
the band of emigrants. The name of Trimountaine, which has been transformed
into Tremont, was peculiarly appropriate. As seen from Charlestown, the peninsula
seemed to consist of three high hills,
afterwards named Copp's, Beacon, and — =^ ~^ ^^
Fort. And the highest of the three was — =f^
itself a trimountain, having three sharp ^
little peaks. It seems to be agreed that
this peculiarity of Beacon Hill was what
gave to the place its ancient name.
The first settler in Boston was Mr.
William Blaxton, or Blackstone, who
had lived here several years when the
Massachusetts Colony Avas formed. Soon
after selling the land to the new company
of immigrants, he withdrew to the place
which now bears his name, the town of Blackstone, on the border of Rhode Island.
MR. BLACKSTONE S HOUSE.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, by James R. Osgood & Co., in the
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
Boston was selected as the centre and metropolis of the Massachusetts Colony.
The nucleus of the Colony was large, and the several towns lying along the coast
were, considering the circumstances, rapidly settled. During the year 1630 as many
as fifteen hundred persons came from England. In ten years not less than tAven-
ty thousand had
over. The records
show that in 1639
there was a mus-
ter in Boston of
the militia of the
Colony to the num-
ber of a thousand
able - bodied and
It is impossible to
the population of
Boston at any time
during the first
century after its
was made ; but
there is authority
for the statement
that in 1674 there
were about fifteen
in the town, and
the population of
New England was
then reckoned at
one hundred and
The early histo-
ry of Boston has
been an almost in-
for the researches
of local antiqua-
ries. Considering that almost three quarters of a century elapsed before the first
newspaper was printed, the materials for making a complete account of the events
that occurred, and for forming a connect estimate of the habits and mode of life
of the people, are remarkably abundant. The records have been searched to good
purpose. Still it is to visitors that we are indebted for some of the most quaint
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 3
and interesting pictures of early !N'ew England life. An English traveller, named
Edward Ward, published in London in 1699 an account of his trip to New
England, in which he describes the customs of Bostonians in a lively manner, and
jjerhaps with a degi'ee of truthfulness, though some parts of the story are evidently
exaggerated Mr. Ward thought it a great hardship that "Kissing a Woman in
Public, tho' offer'd as a Courteous Salutation," should be visited Avith the heavy
punishment of whipping for both the offenders. There were even then "stately
Edifices, some of which have cost the owners two or three Thousand Pounds sterling,"
and this fact Mr. Ward rather illogically conceived to prove the truth of two old
adages, "That a Fool and his Money is soon parted ; and, Set a Beggar on Horseback
he '11 ride to the Devil ; for the Fathers of these Men were Tinkers and Peddlers." He
seemed to have a very low opinion of the religious and moral character of the people.
;Mr. Daniel Neal, who wrote a book a few years later, found "the conversation in this
town as polite as in most of the cities and towns in England," and he describes the
houses, furniture, tables, and dress as being quite as splendid and showy as those of
the most considerable tradesmen in London.
But while we find such abundant means of ji^dging the people of Boston, hardly a
vestige of the town as it appeared to the earliest settlers remains. We have, it is
true, in a good state of preservation still, the three most ancient burial-grounds of
the towTi ; half a dozen very old trees remain ; about as many buildings. Some of the
narrow and crooked streets at the North End have retained their early devious course,
but generally appear upon the map under changed names. Nothing else of Boston
in its first century is preserved. The face of the country has been completely trans-
formed. The hills have been cut down, and the flats surrounding the peninsula have
been filled so that it is a peninsula no longer. Place side by side a map of Boston
as it appeared in 1722, and the latest map, and any resemblance between them can
hardly be traced. The old water line has disappeared completely. On the east, the
west, and the south, nearly a thousand acres once covered by the tide have been re-
claimed, and are now covered with streets, dwellings, and warehouses.
It would be interesting to dwell upon the early history of Boston, and to discover
indications of the gradual formation of the New England character, but all this
curious study must be left to the historian. A few facts and dates only can find a
place here. Boston was from the first a commercial town. Less than a year had
elapsed since the settlement of the town when the first vessel built in the colony was
launched. We may infer something in regard to the activity of the foreign and
coasting trade from the statement of Mr. Neal, before referred to, that "the masts
of ships here, and at proper seasons of the year, make a kind of Avood of trees like
that we see upon the river of Thames about JFajjping and LimeJiousc" ; and the same
author says that twenty-four thousand tons of shipping were at that time, 1719,
cleared annually from the port of Boston. It was not until four years after the
settlement of the town that a shop was erected separate from the dwelling of the
proprietor. In these early days the merchants of Boston met with many reverses,
and wealth was acquired but slowly in New England generally. Nevertheless, the
toAVTi was on the Avhole prosperous. In 1741 there were forty vessels upon the stocks
at one time in Boston, showing that a quick demand for shipping existed at that
period. At the close of the seventeenth century, Boston was ^jrobably the largest
FIRST CFILKCH IN BOSTON
and wealthiest town in America, and it has ever since retained its rank among the
very first towns on the continent.
The colonists brought their minister with them, — the Rev. John Wilson, who
vas ordained pastor of the church in Charlestown, and afterwards of the church in
= Boston. But the meeting-house was not
built until 1632. This building was
very small and very plain, within and
without. It is believed to have stood
nearly on the spot where Brazer's Build-
ing now stands, near the Old State
House, in State Street. In 1640 the
same society occupied a new, much larger
and finer building, which stood on the
site now occupied by Joy's Building on
Washington Street. This second edifice
stood seventy -one years, and was destroyed by fire in 1711. The *' First
Church " removed a few years ago from Chauncy Street to its present very elegant
church building on Berkeley Street. Several other churches were established very
soon after the "First," and there are now in existence as many as nine church
organizations dating back to the first hundred years after the i)lace was settled. The
fathers of the town were sternly religious,
outwardly at all events. The evidences are
abundant that they were also zealous for
education. The influence of Harvard Col-
lege, in Cambridge, was strong upon Bos-
ton from the first ; but a public school had
been voted by the town in 1635, three years
before Harvard was founded. We have seen
the testimony of an Englishman as to the
polished manners, intelligence, and educa-
tion of the inhabitants of Boston, and this
evidence is confirmed by our OAvn records
and by the long line of eminent clergy-
men, writers, and orators born in the town.
It was here that the first newspaper-^
ever published on the American continent,
the "Boston News Letter," ajipeared on
the 24th of April, 1704. Two years later
BIRTHPLACE OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.
the first great New England journalist, and afterwards a philosopher, statesman,
and diplomatist, was born in a little house that stood near the head of Milk Street,
and that is still remembered by some of the oldest citizens of Boston. It was
destroyed by fire at the close of the year 1811, after having stood almost a hundred
and twenty years.
The history of the thirty years preceding the Revolution is full of incidents show-
ing the independent spirit of the inhabitants of Boston, their determination not to
submit to the unwarrantable interference of the British government in their affairs,
and particularly to the unjust taxation imposed upon tlie Colonies, and their willing-
ness to incur any risks rather than yield to oppression. As early as 1747 there was
a great riot in Boston, caused by the aggression of British naval officers. Commodore
Knowles, being short of men, had impressed sailors in the streets of Boston. The
people made reprisals by seizing some British officers, and holding them as hostages for
the return of their fellow-citizens. The excitement was very great, but the affair ter-
minated by the release of the impressed men and the naval officers, the first victory
registered to the account of the resisting colonists. Twenty years later the town was
greatly agitated over the Stamp Act ; and hardly had the excitement died away when,
on March 5, 1770, the famous Boston Massacre took place. The story is familiar
to every school-boy. The affair originated without any special grievance on either
side, but the whole population took the part of the mob against the soldiers, showing
what a deep-seated feeling of hostility existed even then. The scene of tliis massacre
was the square in King Street, now State Street, below the Old State House. The
well-known woodcut of the scene shows the r
State House in the background, but in a
form quite different from the present. This
building was erected in 1748, on the site
occupied by the Town House destroyed by
fire the year previous. It has long been
given up to business purposes, the interior
has been completely remodelled, and the
edifice surmounted by a roof that has wholly
destroyed the quaint effect of the original
architecture. It was in its day, we are
assured by history, "an elegant building."
The accompanying picture shows the Old
State House in its ancient form. How it
appears to-day may be seen from the view on another page. The funeral of the
victims of the massacre was attended by an immense concourse of people from
all parts of New England, and the impression made by the conflict upon the
patriotic men of that day did not die out until the war of the Revolution had
begun. The day was celebrated for several years as a memorable anniversary.
The newspapers of the day did their full share towards keeping up the excite-
ment. The "Massachusetts Spy," which began publication in Boston in 1770, was
one of the most earnest of the patriotic press, and two or three years before the be-
ginning of the war had, at the head of its colunms, an invocation to Liberty, with a
coarse woodcut of a serpent cut into nine parts, attacked by a dragon. The several
parts of the serpent were marked "IST. E." for New England, "N. Y.," "N. J.,"
and so on, and above this cut was the motto "Join, or Die."
The destruction of the tea in Boston Harbor was another evidence of the spirit of
the people. The ships having "the detested tea" on board arrived the last of
November and the first of December, 1773. Having kept watch over the ships to
prevent the landing of any of the tea until the 16th of December, and having
failed to compel the consignees to send the cargoes back to England, the people were
holding a meeting on the subject on the afternoon of Ihe 16th, when a formal refusal
THE OLD STATE-HOUSE.
by the Governor of a permit for the vessels to pass the castle without a regular cus-
tom-house clearance was received. The meeting broke up, and the whole assembly
followed a party of thirty persons disguised as Indians to Griffin's (now Liverpool)
Wharf, where the chests were broken open and their contents emptied into the dock.
The secret of the participators in this aifair has been well kept, and it is doubtful
if any additional light will ever be thrown upon it. It has been claimed, though on
very doubtful authority, that the plot was concocted in the quaint old building
that stood until a few years since on the corner of Dock Sij^uare and North (formerly
Ann) Street. This
^^-^ "^^-i^^^~S==:--^ -- - - - building was con-
structed of rough-
cast in the year
_^-:/ 1680, after the
great tire of 1679 ;
and was until
1860, when it was
taken down, one
of the most curi-
ous specimens of
Boston. A cut of
this old building
is given, without
any voucher of the
tradition that as-
signs to a certain
room in it the ori-
gin of a bold act
that led to such
The people of the town took as prominent a part in the war when it broke out as
they had taken in the preceding events. They suffered in their commerce and in
their property by the enforcement of the Boston Port Act, and by the occupation of
the town by British soldiers. Their churches and burial-grounds were desecrated by
the English troops, and annoyances without number were put upon them, but they
remained steadfast through all. General Washington took command of the Ameri-
can army July 2, 1775, in Cambridge, but for many months there was no favorable
opportunity for making an attack on Boston. During the winter that followed, the
people of Boston endured many hardships, but their deliverance was near at hand.
By a skilful piece of strategy Washington took possession of Dorchester Heights on
the night of the 4th of March, 1776, where earthworks were immediately thrown up,
and in the morning the British found their enemy snugly ensconced in a strong
position both for offence and defence. A fortunate storm prevented the execution of
General Howe's plan of dislodging the Americans ; and by the 17th of March his
situation in Boston had become so critical that an instant evacuation of the town
OLD HOUSE IN DOCK SQUARE.
BOSTON- ILLUSTRATED. 7
was imperatively necessary. Before noon of that day the whole British fleet was
under sail, and General Washington was marching triumphantly into the town. Our
sketch shows the heights of Dorchester as they appear to-day ; yet it is easy to see .
from it how completely the position commands the harbor. No attempt was made
VIEW OF DORCHESTER HEIGHTS.
by the British to repossess the town. At the close of the war Boston was, if not the
first town in the country in point of population, the most influential, and it entered
immediately upon a course of prosperity that has continued with very few interrup-
tions to the present time.
The first and most serious of these interruptions was that which began with the
embargo at the close of the year 1807, and which lasted until the peace of 1815.
Massachusetts owned, at the beginning of that disastrous term of seven years, one
third of the shipping of the United States. The embargo was a most serious blow
to her interests. She did not believe in the constitutionality of the act, nor in its
wisdom. She believed that the real motives which were assigned for its passage
were not those alleged by the President and the majority in Congress, and this view
was confirmed by subsequent events. The war that followed she judged to be a
mistake, and her discontent was aggravated by the usurpations of the general gov-
ernment. Nevertheless, in response to the call for troops she sent more men than any
other State, and New England furnished more than all the slave States that were so
eager in support of the administration. In all the proceedings of those eventful
years Boston men were leaders. Holding views that were unpopular, and that many
deemed unpatriotic, they held them with pluck and persistence to the end.
Again, in the war of the Rebellion, having been one of the foremost communi-
ties in the opposition to slavery, Boston Avas again a leader, this time on the popular
8 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
side. In this war, in which she only took part by furnishing men and means to
carry it on at a distance, and in supporting it by the cheering and patriotic words
of those who remained at home, lier history is that of Massachusetts. During the
four years of conflict the cit}' and State responded promptly to every call of every
nature from the general government, and furnished trooj)s for every department of
the army, and money in abundance to carry on the Avar and to relieve suffering in
the field. Boston alone sent into the army and navy no less than 26,119 men, of
whom 685 were commissioned officers.
Boston retained its town government until 1822. The subject of changing to thi
forms of an incorporated city was much discussed as early as 1784, but a vote of the
town in favor of the change was not carried until January, 1822, when the citizens
declared, by a majority of about six thousand five hundred out of about fifteen thou-
sand votes, their preference for a city government. The Legislature passed an act
incorporating the city in February of the same year, and on the 4th of March the
charter was formally accepted. The city government, consisting of a mayor, Mr.
John Phillips, as chief executive officer, and a city council composed of boards of
eight aldermen and forty-eight common councilmen, was organized on May 1.
During the last half-century the commercial importance of Boston has experi-
enced a reasonably steady and constant development, though the great fire of the 9th
and 10th of November, 1872, is likely to prove something of a check upon her pros-
perity. The industries of New I^ngland have in that time grown to immense pro-
portions, and Boston is the natural market and distributing-point for the most of
them. The increase of population and the still more rapid aggivgation of wealth tell
the story far more effectively than words can do it. In 1790 the population of the
town was but eighteen thousand and thirty-three. The combined population of the
three towns of Boston, Eoxbury, and Dorchester, at intervals of ten years, is given
in the following table : —
The valuation of real and personal property in the last forty years shows a still
more marvellous increase. The official returns at intervals of five years show : —
In 1840 the average amount of property owned by each inhabitant of Boston was
less than nine hundred dollars, but in 1870 it had increased to an average of more
than twenty-three hundred dollars. And the value of all the property in Boston is
more than seven times as great as it was thirty-five years ago.
The gi'owth of Boston has, notA\-ithstanding these very creditable figures, been
very seriously retarded by the lack of room for expansion. Until the era of rail-
roads it was impracticable for gentlemen doing business in Boston to live far from
jQ BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
its coi-porate li.uits. Accordingly it was necessary to " "^f" /""'i " '^J' f "/"« 'J;j
flats as soon as the dimensions ot the peninsula began to be too contracted for the
population, and business gathered upon it. Some very old maps show how early
this enlargement was commenced ; and hardly any two of these anerent hart
a»ree During the present century very great progress has been made. AH the
otd ponds, co'^cs, aid crcehs have been filled in, and on the -^ and south-
west the connection with the mainland has been so widened hat rt is now
as broad as the broadest part of the original peninsula ; and the work no
vet finished. In other respects the improvements have been immense^ All the
h lis l"ve been cut down, and one of them has been ^t'-^.^ ---f . . f^^^'^^'
which were formerly so narrow and crooked as to give point to the joke that they
:' layout upon the paths made by the cows in going to pasture, have been
Zidened. straighLied, and graded. Whole districts covered with ^uUd-gs of ta^
and stone have been raised, with the structures upon *-»• ™-)^ f^ . 1"^^^^^
has extended its authority over the island, once known as Noddle s Island, now East
Boston wlLh was almost uninhabited and unimproved until its pure nise on specu-
lation n 1830 ; over South Boston, once Dorchester Neck, annexed to Boston in
C "id finally, by legislative acts and the consent of tlie ««-- over the —
municipalities of Roxbury and Dorchester. The origmal limits of Boston comprised
but Ttandred and ninety acres. By filling in flats eight hundred and eighty
acres havcTen added. By the absorption of South and East Boston and by fiU.ng
rflats:™::ding these Ltricts seventeen hundred aci^smor^werea^^^^^^^^^
Koxburv contributed twenty-one hundred acres, and Dorchester foity-elght hundiea.
?:fent r;'::™* a^a of the city is therefore ten thousand one ^^^^^^^f^^^l
acres, - nearly fifteen times as great as the original area Meanwhile the "unl^ o^
railroads radiating from Boston and reaching to -l»'f ^;";y ""-^S^" *'" *,f^
m es have rendered it possible for business men to make their homes far away f.om
«;ir'crnting.rooms. By this means scores of suburban ^^^'^^^^^JZ^
tent and beauty by those sunounding any other gi-eat city f ^cj^' J' ^^^ ^'^ "
built up, and the value of property in all the eastern part of M'^^; >'^^^'%';™
very lately enhanced. These towns are most intimately conneced..th Bo on
bulness and social relations, and ift a sense f"™ » 1-' "f "^'^ ^, ;,,* h
theory that has led to the annexation of Eoxbury -'\ torches e, «, and w toh
will undoubtedly lead at no distant day to the absorption of °'^ -"^ ^ ^f^ X.
ing cities and towns, in some ot which we shall 6"^ Places and ob ect. o be lU us
trated and described. The relation of these towns to Boston .. shown m the plan
on the preceding page.
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED, \l
■^^^ LIBRAE ... ,
iS;^p01L-=i II. THE NORTH END.
HE extension of the limits of Boston and the movement of business and
jiop Illation to the southward have materially changed the meaning at-
tached to the term North End. In the earliest days of the town, the Mill
Creek separated a part of the town from the mainland, and all to the north
of it was properly called the North End. For our present purpose we include in that
division of the city all the territory north of State, Court, and Cambridge Streets.
This district is, perhaps, the richest in historical associations of any part of Boston.
It was once the most important part of the town, containing not only the largest
warehouses and the public buildings, but the most aristocratic (quarter for dwelling-
houses. But this was a long time ago. A large part of the North End proper has been
abandoned by all residents except the poorest and most vicious classes. Among the
important streets may be mentioned Commercial, with its solidly built warehouses,
and its great establishments for the sale of grain, ship-chandlery, fish, and other
articles ; Cornhill, once the head-quarters of the book-trade, and still devoted
largely to the same business ; the streets radiating from Dock Square, crowded with
stores for the sale of cutlery and hardware, meats, wines, gi'oceries, fruit, tin, copper
and iron-ware, and other articles of household use ; and Hanover, lately widened,
and now as fomierly a great market for cheap goods of all descriptions. Elsewhere
in this district are factories for the production of a variety of articles, from a match
to a tombstone, from a set of furniture to a church bell.
There are but a few relics remaining of the North End of the olden time. The
streets have been straightened and widened, and go under different names from those
first given them, and most of the ancient buildings have fallen to decay and been re-
moved. Among such as are still left to us, the most conspicuous and the most famous
is old Faneuil Hall, the "Cradle of Liberty." This building was a gift to the town by
Mr. Peter Faneuil. For more than twenty j^ears before its erection the need of a pub-
lic market had been felt, but the town would never vote to build one. In 1740 JNIr.
Faneuil offered to build a market at his own expense, and give it to the town, if a
vote should be passed to accept it, and keep it open under suitable regulations.
This noble offer was accepted by the town, after a hot discussion, by a narrow major-
ity of seven. The building was erected in 1742 ; and only five years later the oppo-
sition to the market-house system was so powerful that a vote was carried to close the
market. From that time until 1761 the question whether the market should be oi)en
or not was a fruitful source of discord in local politics, each party to the contest scor-
ing several victories. In the last-named year Faneuil Hall was destroyed by fire.
This seems to have turned the current of popular opinion in favor of the market, for
the town immediately voted to rebuild it. In 1805 it was enlarged to its present size.
From the time the Hall was first built until the adoption of the city charter hi 1822,
all town meetings were held within its walls. In the stirring events that preceded
the Revolution it was put to frequent use. The spirited speeches and resolutions ut-
FANEUIL HALL AND OL'INCY ^L■^RK;ET.
tered and adopted within it were a most potent agency in exciting the patriotism of
all the North American colonists. In every succeeding great crisis in our country's
history, thousands of citizens have assembled beneath this roof to listen to the patri-
otic eloquence of their leaders and counsellors. The great Hall is peculiarly lifted
for popular assemblies. It is seventy-six feet square and twenty-eight feet high, and
possesses admiiable acoustic properties. The floor is left entirely destitute of seats,
by which means the capacity of the hall, if not the comfort of audiences, is greatly
increased. Numeroiis large and valuable portraits adorn the walls, — an original full-
length painting of Washington, by Stuart ; another of the donor of the building,
Peter Faneuil, by Colonel Henry Sargent ; Healy's great picture of Webster replying
to Hayne ; excellent portraits of Samuel Adams and the second President Adams ; of
General Warren and Commodore Preble ; of Edward Everett, Abraham Lincoln, and
John A. Andrew ; and of several others prominent in the history of Massachusetts
and the Union. The Hall is never let for money, but it is at the disposal of the peo-
jjle whenever a sufficient number of persons, complying with certain regulations, ask
to have it opened. The city charter of Boston, which makes but a very few restric-
tions upon the right of the city government to govern the city in all local affairs,
contains a wise provision forbidding the sale or lease of this Hall.
The new Faneuil Hall Market, popularly known as Quincy Market, originated in a
recommendation by Mayor Quincy in 1823. The corner-stone was laid in April, 1825,
and the structure was completed in 1827. The building is five hundred and thirty-
five feet long and fifty feet wide, and is two stories in height. This great mai-ket-
house was built at a cost of $ 150,000, upon made land ; and so economically were its
affairs managed that the improvement, including the opening of six new streets and
the enlargement of a seventh, was accomplished without the levying of any tax, and
without any increase of the city's debt.
Quite at the other extreme of our North End district is situated the only other
building of a public nature within it to be noticed here, — the Massachusetts General
Hospital, — a structure of imposing appearance and devoted to most beneficent uses.
This institution had its origin in a bequest of $5,000 made in 1799, but it was not
until 1811 that
the Hospital ^^^^^ Jt^ -^- _ - - -
ed. The State
with a f e e -
simple in the
for a term of
Massachusetts "^"^ Massachusetts general hospital.
Hospital Life Insurance Company was required by its charter to pay one third of
its net profits to the Hospital. Large sums of money were raised by private sub-
scription both before the institution had begun operations and every year since.
On the 1st of January, 1873, the general fund of the Hospital amounted to
$908,617 ; the total of restricted funds at the same date being ^ 803, 242. 73. The
aggregate of funds not invested in real estate was | 895,505.22. During the pre-
ceding year the income of the corporation was $221,750.30, and the expenses
amounted to $223,027.90. These figures are for the Hospital proper, and for the
McLean Asylum for the Insane at Somerville, which is a branch of the institution.
The handsome gi-anite building west of Blossom Street was erected in 1818, and
enlarged by the addition of two extensive wings in 1846. The stone of the original
building was hammered and fitted by the convicts at the State Prison. The system
on which this noble institution is managed is admirable, in that it is so designed as
to combine the principles of gratuitous treatment and the payment of their expenses
by those who are able to do so. The hospital turns none away who come within the
scope of its operations, while it has room to receive them, however poor they may be.
It has been greatly aided in its work by the generous contributions and bequests of
wealthy people. The fund permanently invested to furnisk free beds amounts to
more than $400,000, and the annual contributions for free beds during the year
1871 supported one hundred of them at $100 each. To those who are able to pay
for their board and for medical treatment the charges are in all cases moderate, never
exceeding the actual expense. During the last year more than seventeen hundred pa-
tients were treated for a longer or a shorter time, of whom more than three fourths were
treated free. This number, however, represents only such as were admitted into the
hospital ; nearly twelve thousand out-patients also received advice, medicine, or sur-
gical or dental treatment. It will show more clearly how great good is done precisely
where it is most needed, if we say that out of 1019 male patients admitted to the
wards during the year, 763 were classed as mechanics, laborers, seamen, teamsters,
and servants ; while of 528 female patients, 319 were classed as domestics, seamstresses,
and operatives. Statistics sometimes tell a story of good work well done more graph-
ically than pages of eloquent i)raise, and this is true of this noble institution.
Four of the eight railroads terminating in Boston have their stations in
this part of the city, — three of them within a stone's throw of each other, on.
Causeway Street. Our view represents the stations of the Eastern ar.d Fitchburg
Railroads, with a section of the new Lowell station in the foreground. The
former is an unpretentious building of brick, erected in 1863, after the destruc-
tion by fire of
the former sta-
tion, and is
small and inad-
equate to do the
ness which the
Eastern road has
built up. Meas-
ures are now in
pro(;ress to sub-
stitute a new
and larger sta-
tion. The East-
with the Maine
road, now runs
its cars through
to Bangor, Me.,
EASTERN AND FITCHBURG RAILROAD STATIONS. with the Tail-
road to St. John, New Brunswick. In addition to the extensive through travel thus
secured, it performs an exceedingly large amount of local business for the cities and
towns along the coast to Portsmouth. In 1847 the total number of passengers car-
ried on this line Avas but 651,408. The number carried during the year ending Sep-
tember 30, 1871, was 4,610,277.
The station of the Fitchburg Railroad is represented at the extreme right hand
of our sketch. It was built in 1847, the terminus of the road having previously
been in Charlestown. In a great hall in the upper part of this structure, two grand
concerts were given by Jenny Lind in October, 1850, to audiences numbering
on each occasion more than four thousand people. The agents of Mr. Barnum,
who was at that time paying her |1,000 for each concert, sold, for the second con-
cert tickets to a thousand more people than could be accommodated. The manager
was' accordingly obliged to refund the money the next day, to his own chagi-in
and to the infinite disgust of those who had failed to hear the great Swedish
singer. Even with the disappointed thousand excluded, the haU was so densely
packed that very many ladies fainted, and there was at times serious danger of a
panic. The newspapers of the day remarked with admiration upon the magical
effect'of Jenny Lind's voice in calming and restoring to order the crowded multitude.
The Fitchburg Railroad passes through several important suburban towns, and trans-
acts an extensive local and through business. Upon the completion of the Hoosac
Tunnel, by which time the entire line to Troy, N. Y., will probably be consolidated,
it is expected that the Fitchburg road will become a very important route for pas-
sengers and freight from the West.
Our sketch of the Lowell Railroad Station is of the station that is to be, and
that is now nearly finished. When completed it will be inferior in size to very
few railroad stations in
the country, and sec-
ond to none in ele-
gance and the provis-
ions made for the com-
fort of travellers. It
is seven hundred feet
long, and has a front of
two hundred and five
feet on Causeway Street ;
the material is face brick
with trimmings of Nova
Scotia freestone. The
engraving shows the el-
egance of the building ;
but it cannot display
the great arch of the
train -house, which has
a clear span of one hun-
dred and tAventy feet
without any central sup- ^^^-^^^ ^^^ -^^^^ ^^'^"°^" ^™°^- ^ . ^ ^
port. This train-house is already in use, and the entire structure will be finished
during the fall of 1873. The Lowell Railroad, by its connection with routes to.
Montreal and the West, has secured a very large through business, in addition to its.
gi-eat and increasing local traffic.
The Boston and Maine Railroad, alone of all the lines entering the city on the north,
side, enjoys the privilege of penetrating within the outer street. Its station is m
Haymarket Square, and the open space in front of it gives prominence to the
structure. The station has within two or three years been greatly enlarged and im-
proved, so that it is now, internally, one of the lightest andl pleasantest edifices of the
kind in the
city. The Maine
road has a very-
large local bu-
the towns of
the cities of
extension of the
from South Ber-
wick to Port-
land has been
built, and was
opened for pas-
HAYMARKET SQUARE. 1
^ senger and
business in March, 1873.
old North Buryiug-ground, on Copp's Hill, was the second established in the
Its original limits, when fiist used for inteiments in 1660, A\cie much smaller
copp's hill burying-ground.
than now, and the enclosure did not reach its present size until about forty years ago.
Like most of the remaining relics of the early times, this burial-ground bears traces
of the Revolutionary contest. The British soldiers occupied it as a military station,
and used to amuse themselves by firing bullets at the gravestones. The marks made
in this sacrilegious sport may still be discovered by careful examination of the stones.
One of these most defaced is that above the grave of Captain Daniel Malcom, which
bears an inscription speaking of him as "a true son of Liberty a Friend to
THE PUBLICK AN EnEMY TO OPPRESSION AND ONE OF THE FOREMOST IN OPPOS-
ING THE Revenue Acts on America."
This refers to a bold act of Captain Malcom, in landing a valuable cargo of wines, in
1768, without paying the duty upon it. This was done in the night under the guard
of bands of men armed with clubs. It would be called smuggling at the present
day, but when committed it was deemed a laudable and patriotic act, because the
tax was regarded as unjust, oppressive, and illegal. The most noted persons whose
bodies repose Avithin this enclosure were undoubtedly the three Reverend Doctors
Mather, — Increase, Cotton, and Samuel ; but there are many curious and interest-
ing inscriptions to read, which would well repay a visit. The burying-ground is
even now a favorite place of resort in the warmer months, and the gates stand hos-
pitably open to callers, though they have long been closed against the admission of
new inhabitants. It is to the credit of the city, that, when it became necessary in
the improvement of that section of the city to cut down the hill to some extent,
ground w^as left
protected by a
Two of the
leading hotels of
Boston are in
this district of
the city. The
on Hanover St.,
is the largest
public house in
and one of the
best. Its exter-
has been very
by the recent
widening of Han-
over Street. It
covers the sites
of four former
hotels, — Earle's,
tlie Merchcants*, the Hanover, and the old American Houses. It was rebuilt in
1851, and numerous additions have been made since. The interior has also been
completely remodelled within a few years, and many of the rooms are exceedingly
eh^gant, while the furniture of the house is throughout handsome and substantial.
A splendid passenger elevator was added to the house when it was refitted, and as
the furnishing of the rooms is uniform on all the floors, the highest rooms are as
desirable as those on the second story. The grand dining-room is an immense hall,
capable of seating at one time more than three hundred people ; when lighted at
night it is one of the most brilliant halls in Boston, having at either end mammoth
mirrors reaching from the floor to the ceiling. The American has long been a
favorite resort for strangers in the city on business, and it is practically the head-
(puirters of the shoe and leather trade. It has been under one management for
The Eevere House is not strictly within the limits of the district we have drawn,
but it is separated from that district only by the width of a single street. It is a
building of fine ap-
pearance, as will be
seen from our sketch.
It was erected by
( 'haritable Mechanic
Association, and was
for a long time under
the management of
the veteran Paran
Stevens. It was, of
c u r s e, n a m e d in
memory of Paul Re-
vere, the patriotic
mechanic of Boston
before and during the
Kevolution, and the
first president of the
Revere Avas a com-
panion and fellow-
worker with Samuel
Adams, James Otis, Joseph Warren, and others of the leaders of opinion in the days
of Standi and Tea Acts. He helped the cause in various ways, — by engraving
with friendly but unskilful hand the portraits of Adams and others ; by casting
church bells to be rung and cannon to be fired ; by printing paper money, which
was, however, neither a valuable currency nor a commendable work of art ; bywords
and deeds of patriotism that entitle him to grateful remembrance by all Americans.
The versatile colonel appears in the first Directory of Boston, for 1789, as a gold-
smith doing business at No. 50 Cornhill, — now Washington Street. The hotel
which bears his name has entertained more distinguished men than any other in
Boston. The Prince of Wales occupied apartments in the Revere on his visit to
the city twelve years ago. President Grant has been a guest of the house, and in
the winter of 1871 it was the head-quarters of the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia.
The Revere is situated in Bowdoin Square.
During the past two years one of the old landmarks of the north part of the city has
been in process of demolition. The church in Brattle Square was long known as the
Manifesto Church, the original members having put; forth in 1699, just before their
church was dedicated, a document declaring their aims and purposes. While
themselves adopting _^
the belief which was
then universal among
churches of the time,
they conceded the
right of difference of
belief among the
churches were to
those ruled by ec-
riors, or by con-
vocations, the indi-
vidual member of the
was to be to the mem-
bers of other Con-
es, and the distinc-
tion between church
and congregation was
ing a difficulty in
getting ordained in ^^attu^ square church.
Boston, their first minister was ordained in London. The modest church edifice built
in 1699 was taken down in 1772, and the building just demolished, erected on the same
spot, was dedicated on the 25th of July, 1773. During the Revolution the pastor, who
was a patriot, was obliged to leave Boston, services were suspended, and the British
soldiery used the building as a barrack, A cannon-ball from a battery in Cam-
bridge or from a ship of war in Charles River struck the church ; and this me-
mento of the glorious contest was afterwards built into the external wall of the
church, above the porch. Among the long line of eminent clergymen who have
been pastors of this church, may be mentioned the late Edward Everett, who is so
much better known as a statesman than as a minister that the fact of his having
been a clergyman is frequently forgotten. The old church was sold in 1871, and the
BOS TON ILL US TEA TED.
last service was held in it July 30 of that year, a memorial sermon being preached
on that occasion by the pastor, the Eev. Dr. S. K. Lothrop. The ancient pulpit, the
old bell, the organ, the historic cannon-ball, and some other mementoes, were re-
served at the sale. The society is now erecting a large and elegant structure at the
corner of Commonwealth Avenue and Clarendon Street.
The oldest church in the city is Christ Church, Episcopal, on Salem Street. The
Episcopalian denomination was for a long time of slow growth in Boston ; but in
1723, notwithstanding the
enlargement of King's Chap-
el, then a soci( ty of the
Church of England, in 1710
the number of Church peo-
ple was so laige that it Avas
necessary to found a new so-
ciety. The corner-stone was
laid in April, 1723, and the
church was dedicated in De-
cember of the same year.
This is the first and only
building ever occupied by the
society. During the Revo-
lution, the rector of Christ
Church, the Eev. Mather
Byles, Jr., left the town on
account of his sympathy with
the royal cause. The steeple
of this church is a very prom-
inent landmark, and is one
of the most noticeable fea-
tures in approaching the
city from the harbor. It is,
however, but a copy, as ac-
curate as could be made, of
the original steeple, which
was blown down in the great gale of October, 1804. The toAver contains a fine chime
of eight bells, upon which have been rung joyful and mournful peals for more than
a century and a quarter.
Only one of the great daily newspapers of the city is published within the North
End district, — the Daily Advertiser. The Advertiser is the oldest daily paper in
Boston, having nearly reached the sixtieth year of continuous publication. It is a
little curious that the site noAV occupied by the Advertiser as a permanent home,
after a protracted period of migration, is that from which James Franklin issued the
first number of the New England Courant, in 1721. The same spot was again occu-
pied by a printing-office in 1776, by the Independent Chronicle, which was suspended
during the Revolution. The Advertiser has succeeded to the rights of the Chronicle,
and therefore considers that when it took possession of its present building, in 1867,
CHRIST CHURCH, SALEM STREET.
— a building, by the way, admirably suited to its ])ui-pose, — it merely returned to its
first home. The first number of the Daily Advertiser ever published thus announced
the character of the paper: " The predominant feature of the Daily Advertiser will
be commercial, — yet it ■will be by no means destitute of a political character." This
promise it has kept
strictly. At times
it has fallen behind
some of its contem-
poraries in enter-
prise, but within the
last eight or ten
years it has resumed
once more its old
place among the
foremost journals of
At the head of
in a most conspicu-
ous position, stands
the great printing
Rand, Avery, & Co.
The oflice was estab-
lished many years
ago, and was very
small at first, but
has gradually gi'own
to its present im-
The building in
which this firm is
located stands six
stories high on Corn-
liill and Washington
Street, seven stories high on Brattle Street, and is over one hundred and fifty feet
long. In this building every part of the art of book-making is performed, — type-
setting, stereot3qiing, presswork, and binding. More than two hundred persons
are constantly employed, and nearly as many more are in one way or another de-
pendent upon the vast business transacted here, — the establishment being one of
the largest printing-offices in the country. The processes of book-making are very
interesting under any circumstances, and they are doubly so when they are trans-
acted on a large scale, with all the appliances of modern machinery.
At this point Washington Street makes a curious short curve to the right, and
terminates in Dock Square. It has long been suggested to continue Washington
Street through to the northern part of the city, giving a more direct as well as a
wider avenue to the railroad stations and to Cliarlestown than at present exists.
This plan has now been adopted by the city government. The extension of Wash-
ington Street will pass directly over the site of the fine building represented in the
accompanying view, and the occupants, who were seriously damaged by a fire that
took place only a few days after the great fire of November 9, 1872, will remove to
the elegant new building now in process of erection on the corner of Federal and
Franl-clin Streets, a view of which is given in our frontispiece.
VIEW AT THE HEAD OF WASHINGTON STREET.
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 23
III. THE WEST END.
T was, perhaps, fortunate for the people of Boston that the original penin-
sula was so uneven of surface. The physical geography of the town
determined the laws of its growth and development. It was inevitable
that the business of Boston in its early days, being chiefly commercial,
should cluster near the wharves. It was natural that the high hills should be
chosen for residences. When, in the progress of the town, the merchants burst
through the ancient limits of trade, they insensibly followed the line of level ground,
and left the hills covered with dwelling-houses. It was not until Fort Hill had
been wholly surrounded by mercantile houses that the people residing upon that
once beautiful eminence reluctantly retired. It is only within a few years that the
quieter branches of business — agencies, architects' and lawyers' offices — have
begun to mount Beacon Hill, and the progress is so slow that there seems but little
prospect that a business movement in that direction will meet with much success.
From the difficulty that business almost always experiences in ascending a hill has
resulted the preservation of a very large section of the city in the immediate
aeighborhood of business, which is still, and is likely to remain, a desirable place
for residences. This section is generally called the West End, — a term which is,
like the Xorth End, very difficult to be defined. We have already included in the
latter division a part of what is usually termed the West End, and we must now,
for convenience' sake, embrace within the limits of the West End a part of the
South End. Our division includes all that part of the city south and Avest of
Cambridge, Court, and Tremont Streets, to the line of the Boston and Albany
Railroad, following the line of that railroad to Brookline. These boundaries take in
the whole of Beacon Hill, the Common and Public Garden, and most of the Back
Bay new land.
It has already been said that Beacon Hill, the highest in Boston, has been shorn
of its original proportions. It is to-day neither very steep nor very Iiigh, nor is it
easy to convey any intelligible idea of its original character by giving the altitude
of its highest point above the level of the sea. Those who are familiar with the
neighborhood will understand the extent of the changes, however, when it is said
that the three peaks of "Trea Mount" were where Pemberton Scpiare, the Reservoir,
and Louisburg Square now are. The hill was cut down in the early years of the
present century, and Mount Vernon Street was laid out at that time ; but it was
not until 1835 that the hill where Pemberton Square now is was removed, and. that
square laid out. Beacon Hill obtained its name from the fact that, for almost a
century and a half from the settlement of the town, a tall pole stood upon its
summit, surmounted by a skillet filled with tar, to be fired in case it was desired to
give an alarm to the surrounding towns. After the Revolution a monument took
its place, which stood until 1811, and was then taken down to make room for
24 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
Tli'e iiigliesi; jtoint of the hill in its present shape is occupied by the Massachusetts
State House, an illustration of which is given on the cover of this book. So prom-
inent is its position that it is impossible to make a comprehensive sketch of the
city that does not exhibit the dome of the State House as the central point of the
background. The land on which it stands was formerly Governor Hancock's cow-
pasture, and was bought of his heirs by the town and given to the State. The
corner-stone was laid by the Freemasons, Paul Revere grand master, in 1793, Gov-
ernor Samuel Adams being present and making an address on the occasion. It
was first occupied by the Legislature in January, 1798. In 1852 it was enlarged
at the rear by an extension northerly to Mount Vernon Street, an improvement
which cost considerably more than the entire first cost of the building. In 1866
and 1867 it was very extensively remodelled inside.
There are a great many points of interest about the State House. The statues of
Webster and JMann, on either side of the approach to the building, will attract
notice, if not always admiration. Within the Doric Hall, or rotunda, houis may
be spent by the stranger in examining the objects that deserve attention. Here is
the fine statue of Washington, by Chantrey ; here are arranged in an attractive
manner, behind glass protectors, the battle-flags borne by Massachusetts soldiers in
the war against Rebellion ; here are copies of the tombstones of the Washington
family in Brington Parish, England, presented to Senator Sumner by an English
nobleman, and by the former to the State ; here is the admirable statue of Governor
Andrew ; here are the busts of the patriot hero Samuel Adams, of the martyred Presi-
dent Lincoln, and of Senator Sumner ; near by are the tablets taken from the
monument just mentioned which was erected on Beacon Hill after the Revolution to
commemorate that contest. Ascending into the Hall of Representatives, we find
suspended from the ceiling the ancient codfish, emblem of the direction taken by
Massachusetts industry in the early times. In the Senate Chamber there are also
relics of the olden time and portraits of distinguished men. From the cupola,
which is always open when the General Court is not in session, is to be obtained one
of the finest views of Boston and the neighboring country, A register of the
visitors to the cui)ola is kept in a book prepared for the jHirpose. During the last
season, between the 6th of June and the 22d of December, no less than 42,990
persons ascended the long flights of stairs to obtain this view of Boston and its
suburbs, an average of three hundred a day.
The statue of Governor Andrew in Doric Hall is one of the most excellent of our
portrait statues. It represents the great war governor as he appeared before care
had ploughed its lines in his face. This statue was first unveiled to public view
when it was presented to the State on the 14th of February, 1871. Its history is
as follows : In January, 1865, a meeting was held in Faneuil Hall, at which it was
voted to raise a fund for the erection of a statue to the late Edward Everett. The
response was much more liberal than was necessary for the original 2)urpose, and
after the statue on the Public Garden, to be mentioned hereafter, was finished, a
large surjdus remained. The portrait of Everett now in Faneuil Hall was procured
and paid for, a considerable sum was voted in aid of the equestrian statue of Wash-
ington, and of the balance, ten thousand dollars were appropriated for a statue of
Andrew, which the State subsequently passed a formal vote to accept. The artist
was Thomas Ball, a native of Charlestovvn, but now resident in Florence, The
marble is of beautiful texture and whiteness, and the statue is approved both for its
admirable likeness of the eminent
original and for its artistic merits.
There is nothing in Boston of
which Bostonians are more truly
proud than of the Common. Other
cities have larger and more preten-
tious public grounds ; none of them
can boast a park of greater natural
beauty, or better suited to the pur-
poses to which it is put. There are
no magnificent drives, for teams are
not admitted within the sacred pre-
cincts. Everything is of the plain-
est and homeliest character. A part
of the Common is left to itself, and
is as barren as the feet of ten thou-
sand youthful ball-players can make
it. There is the Frog Pond, with its
fountain, where the boys may sail
their miniature ships at their own
sweet wull. There is the deer park,
a delightful and popular resort for
the youngest of the visitors to this
noble public space. All the malls
and paths are shaded by fine old trees,
whicli have their names somewhat - — ^sz
pedantically labelled upon them, giv-
ing an admirable opportunity for the
study of what we may call gi-and
botany. On bright spring days the Common is resorted to by thousands of boys,
who find here ample room to give vent to their surplus spirit and animation, free
from all undue restraint. On summer evenings the throng of promenaders is very
great, and of itself testifies to the value placed by all classes upon this opportunity
to get a breath of fresh air in the heart of the city.
The history of the Common has been written several times, but there are never-
theless curiously erroneous notions prevalent in regard to the manner in which it
became jmblic ground, and the power of the city over it. The territory of Boston
was purchased from Mr. Blaxton by the corporation of colonists wlio settled it. The
land was then divided among tlie several inhabitants by the officers of the town. A
part of it was set off as a training-field and as common ground, subject originally to
further division in case such a coarse should be thought advisable. In 1640 a vote
was passed by the town, in consequence of a movement on the part of certain citi-
zens that was discovered and thwarted none too soon, that, with the exception of
'-3 or 4 lotts to make vp y" streete from bro Hobte Walkers to y" Eound Marsh," no
THE ANDREW STATUE.
BOS TOX ILL US TEA TED.
more land should be granted out of the Common. It is solely by the power of this
^ote and ^^^^e j^aloi'sy of t^^e ci^^^iz^ns sustaii|n*ng it that thp rnmnion was kept sacred
to the uses of the
people as a whole
iiom 1640 until the
adoption of the city
charter, when, by
the desire of the citi-
zens, and by the con-
sent of the Legisla-
ture, the right to
ilienate any portion
of the Common was
fi om the city gov-
The earliest use to
A\hich the Common
A\ IS put was that of
a pasture and a train-
ing-held on muster
d lys. The occupa-
tion of the Common
as a grazing - field
continued until the
year 1830, but it was
by no means wholly given up to that use. As early as 1675 an English traveller, Mr.
John Josselyn, published in London an "Account of Two Voyages," in which occurs
the following notice of Boston Common : "On the south there is a small but pleas-
ant Common, where the Gallants a little before sunset walk with their Marmalet-
Madams, as we do in Moorfields, etc., till the nine a clock Bell rings them home to
their respective habitations, when presently the Constables walk their rounds to see
good orders kept, and to take up loose people." Previous and long subsequent to
this the Common was also the usual place for executions. Four persons at least were
hanged for witchcraft between 1656 and 1660. Murderers, pirates, deserters, and
others were put to death under the forms of law upon the Common, until, in 1812, a
memorial signed by a great number of citizens induced the selectmen to order that
no part of the Common should be gi'anted for such a purpose. Those who have
studied the history of Boston most closely are of opinion that on more than one
occasion a branch of the great Elm was used as the gallows. And near that famous
tree was the scene of a lamentable duel, in 1728, that resulted in the death of a very
promising young man. The level ground east of Charles Street has been used from
the very earliest times as a parade-ground. Here take place the annual parade and
drum-head election of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, the oldest
military organization in the country, and here the Governor delivers to the newly
elected officers their commissions for the year.
but scne things cannot be passed over. Tlie Old Urn i»
™ . • 1 V i,„, „f tbp Common was quite different from the present. On
The ong.nal boundary of the Common a ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ _^^^^^
the west it was bounded by '^f ^''J^^" :^ ,„ i,reg„kr line to West Street ;
byBeaeon Street to T— St «t t ence by g^^^ ^.^^ ^^ ^^^
Titr^ed th'e granar,^ the almshorrse. the •^'^^^^^^^^'^^^Z^
'1 ntnt" rrii cXes;^— of that Let, the land oeou-
St^^r L!*ins above ^-fX'i:^^^:^!:^^ ^r^
sation h-l'«"--Vrvl":nstets' tL W for the bnrying-ground was
between Tremont and B°y f"St-^'- ^^^^ ;^ ,,„,, ,it,,t,a the deer park in
bought by the town ^ J/;J; ""^^ „ off when Charles Street was laid out,
^?;,s:"J;:irri;"S" -. .. .-. <. .. — ....
and about the Common
perhaps the chief ob-
ject of interest still,
though its symmetri-
cal beauty is gone.
This great tree is cer-
tainly the oldest ":
known tree in New-
England. It was large
enough to find a place
on the map engraved
in 1722, and on the
great branch broken
otf by the gale of 1860
could be easily count-
ed nearly two hundred
rings, carrying the age
of that branch back
to 1670. It is sur-
mised that the sup-
posed witch, Ann
Hibbens, was hanged
upon it in 1656, and
if so, it could have ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^„„„^^
hardly been less than ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ,^^^^ ^f ^,
twenty-six years old, which wouia ^^^^ ^^^^^^ .^
"% •^'^" rdtSste^r t^rrthet ;:™er plfees at great cost and
rlfSlht afterthth they were secured by iron bands and bars. The great
gale of June, 1860, tore off the largest limb and otherwise mutilated it, and again
it was restored as far as was possible, and the cavity was filled up and covered.
In September, 1869, the high wind that tore the roof from the first Coliseum
and blew down the spires of so many churches in Boston and vicinity, made havoc
with the remaining limbs, taking off one great branch that was forty-two inches
in circumference. The iron fence around the tree was put up in 1854.
The Frog Pond was, probably, in the early days of Boston, just what its name
indicates, — a low, marshy spot, filled with stagnant water, and the abode of the
tuneful batracliian. The enterprise of the early inhabitants is credited with having
transformed it into a real artificial pond. This pond was the scene of the formal
introduction of the water of Cochituate Lake into Boston, on the 25th of October,
1848. A great procession was organized on that day, under the direction of the city
government, which marched through the principal streets to the Common, where,
after a hymn sung by the Handel and Haydn Society, a prayer, an ode written by
James Kussell Lowell and sung by the school-children, addresses by the Hon.
Nathan Hale and by Mayor Quiucy, the water was let on through the gate of the
fountain, amid the shouts of the peoi)le, the roar of cannon, the hiss of rockets, and
the ringing of bells.
The burying-ground on Boylston Street, formerly known as the South, and later
as the Central Burying-ground, is the least interesting of the old cemeteries of Bos-
ton. It was opened in 1756, but the oldest stone, with the exception of one which
was removed from some other ground, or which perpetuates a manifest error, is
dated 1761. The best-known name upon any stone in the graveyard is that of
Monsieur Julien, the inventor of the famous soup that bears his name, and the
most noted restaurateur of Boston in the last century.
One of the most conspicuous objects on the Common is the Brewer fountain, the
gift to the city of Gardner Brewer, Esq., which began to play for the first time on
June 3, 1868. It is a copy,
-^ in bronze, of a fountain de-
signed by the French artist
Lienard, executed for the
Paris World's Fair of 1855,
where it was awarded a gold
medal. The great figures at
the base represent Neptune
and Amphitrite, Acis and Ga-
latea. The fountain was cast
in Paris, and was procured,
brought to this country, and
set up at the sole expense of
the public - spirited donor.
Copies in iron have been made
for the cities of Lyons and
THE BKEvvER FOUNTAIN. Bordcaux ; aud au cxact copy,
in bronze, of the fountain on the Common was made for Said Pacha, the late Vice-
roy of Egypt.
BOSTON ILL US TEA TED.
Upon the old Flagstaff Hill, close by the Frog Pond and the Old Elm, will stand
the Soldiers' JMonument, the corner-stone of which was laid with appropriate
ceremonies September 18, 1871. Upon a granite platform will rest the plinth,
in the form of a Greek cross, with four panels in which will be inserted bas-reliefs
representing the Sanitary Commission, the Navy, the Departure for the War, and
the Return. At each of the four corners Avill be a statue of heroic size, representing
Peace, History, the Army, and the Navy. The die upon the plinth will also be
richly sculptured, and upon it, surrounding the shaft in alto-relievo, will be four
allegorical figures, representing the North, South, East, and West. The shaft is to
be a Eoman Doric coluum, the whole to be surmounted by a colossal statue of
America, resting on a hemisphere, guarded by four figures of the American eagle,
with outspread wings. "America " will hold in her left hand the national standard,
and in her right she will support a sheathed sword and Avreaths for the victors. The
extreme height of the monument will be ninety feet, and it Avill not be comideted
for a year or more. The artist is Mr. Martin ]\Iillmore, of Boston.
There are very few spots on the Common with which some Bostonian has not a
pleasant association. Almost every citizen and visitor has rejoiced in the grateful
shade of the Tre-
mont Street ^Mall,
or the arching elms
of the Beacon Street
Mall, on a hot sum-
mer's day. Few
v.'ould care to tramp
upon the burning
bricks of the side-
walks when there is
so pleasant a path
close at hand. But
the associations are
by no means con-
fined to the mere ex-
perience of comfort
beneath the shadow
of these wide-spread-
ing trees. How
" gallants " have
walked these malls
with their "marma-
ing sweet converse
the while ! The inimitable Dr. Holmes has laid the scene of one of the pleasantest
courtships in literature at the head of one of the malls branching from the one
which our view represents. The " autocrat of the breakfast-table " had engaged
passage for Liverpool, that lie might escape forever from the sight of the fascinating
;acon street mall.
schoolmistress if she turned a deaf ear to his petition. Having thus provided a way
of escape, he planned to take a walk with her.
"It was on the Common that we were walking. The mall, or boulevard of our
Common, you know, has various branches leading from it in different directions.
One of these runs down from opposite Joy Street, southward across the length of
the whole Common to Boylston Street, We called it the long path, and were fond
" I felt very weak, indeed, (though of a tolerably robust habit,) as Ave came oppo-
site the head of this patli on that morning. I think I tried to speak twice without
making myself distinctly audible. At last I got out the question, ' Will you take the
long path with me ? ' 'Certainly,' said the schoolmistress, 'with much pleasure.'
'Think,' I said, 'before you answer; if you take the long path with me now, I
shall interpret it that we are to part no more ! ' The schoolmistress stepped back
with a sudden movement, as if an arrow had struck her.
" One of the long granite blocks used as seats was hard by, the one you may
still see close by the Ginko tree. * Pray, sit down,' I said. ' No, no,' she answered,
softly, ' I will walk the long path with you.' "
The history of the Public Garden is shorter and less interesting than that of the
Common. Before the improvement of this part of the city was begun, a large part
THE PUBLIC GARDEN, FROM AKLIXGTOX STREET.
of what is now the Public Garden was covered by the tides, and the rest was known
as "the marsh at the foot of the Common." In 1794, the ropcAvalks having been
burned, the town voted to grant these flats for the erection of new rope walks . It
was not until many years later that the folly of this act was seen, — indeed, not
until after the construction of the iMill-dam, now the extension of Beacon Street, to
BOSTON ILL I ^STRA TED.
Brookline. When the tide had ceased to flow freely over the flats, and the marsh
so rashly granted be-
came dry land, the
holders of this prop-
erty, having once
more lost their rope-
walks by fire, in 1819,
began to realize its
vahie, and proposed
to sell it for business
and dwelling pur-
poses. Charles Street
had been laid out
in 1803, and this
increased the value
of buikling-lots on
the tract, if it could
be sold. The pro-
posed action was,
however, resisted, and
finally, in 1824, the
city paid upwards of
fifty tliousand dol- the pond, public garden.
lars to regain what the town had in a fit of generosity given away. But for a long
time after this very
little was done to or-
nament and improve
the Public Garden.
The vexatious delays
in settling the terms
on which the Back
Bay was to be filled
are hardly forgotten
yet ; and not more
than half a dozen
years ago some of the
principal walks in the
enclosure were still
in the worst conceiv-
There was,until 1859,
Avhen an act of the
Legislature and a
vote of the city set-
tled the question
finally, a small but ^he "bridge, public garden.
earnest partj^ in favor of disposing of the entire tract for building purposes, — just as
there is now a persistent class of persons who desire the improvement of several streets
at the expense of the Common. All these unwise plans failed, and the Public Garden
became the inalienable property of the city. In the last thirteen years very much
has been done to make the Public Garden attractive, and although it has not the
diversified surface and shaded walks of the older enclosure, it has already become a
favorite resort for young and old.
The area of this park is about twenty-one and a quarter acres. It is not exactly
rectangular in shape, as it seems to be, the Boylston Street side being longer tlian
the Beacon Street, and the Charles Street longer than the Arlington Street side.
The pond in the centre is laboriously irregular in shape, and is wholly artificial. It
contains rather less than four acres, and Avas constructed in 1859, almost imme-
diately after the act of the Legislature relating to the Public Garden had been
accepted. The central walk, from Charles to Arlington Streets, crosses this pond
by an iron bridge resting on granite piers, erected in 1867. The appearance
of unnecessary solidity and strength which this bridge j)resents gave point to
numerous jokes in the newspapers of the day. The bridge is certainly strong
enough to support an army on the march, and perhaps it looks much more substantial
than it really is ; but aside from the rather ponderous appearance of the piers, there
is very little opportunity for unfavorable criticism of the structure.
There are several interesting works of art in the Public Garden. The one first
placed there was a small but very beautiful statue of Venus rising from the Sea, which
stands near the Ai'lington Street entrance, oppo-
site Commonwealth Avenue. The fountain con-
nected with this statue is so arranged as to throw,
A\hen it is playing, a fine spray all about the fig-
ure of Venus, producing a remarkably beautiful
effect. Further on towards Beacon Street stands
the monument to the discovery and to the discov-
r, erer, whoever he may be, of anesthetics, presented
by Thomas Lee, Esq., and dedicated in June, 1868.
In the centre of the Beacon Street side stands the
statue in bronze of the late Edward Everett. The
funds for this statue were raised by a public sub-
scription, in 1865. The remarkable success of this
subscription has already been referred to. This
statue was modelled in Pvome by Story, in 1866,
( ast in Munich, and presented to the city in No-
A ember, 1867. The orator stands with his head
thrown back, ami with his right arm extended
in the act of making a favorite and ^-aceful ges-
But the most conspicuous of all the works of art in the Public Gaiden is Ball's
great equestrian statue of Washington, which is justly regarded by many as one of
the finest, as it is one of the largest, pieces of the kind in America. The movement
which resulted in the erection of this monument was begun in the spring of 1859.
THE EVERETT STATUE.
The earliest contribution to the fund was the proceeds of an oration delivered by the
Hon Robert C. Winthrop in the Music Hall less than a month after the committee
was organized. A gi'eat fair held in the same place in November of the same year,
and an'' appropriation of ten thousand dollars from the city, supplied the greater
part of the needful funds, supplemented in 1868 by a contribution of five thousand
dollars of the surplus remaining after the erection of the statue of Everett just
mentioned. The contract for the
statue was made with Thomas
Ball in December, 1859, and
the model was completed in a
little more than four years.
The war was then waging, and
the foundries were all engaged
upon work for the government.
It was not until 1867 that a
contract was made for the cast-
ing with the Ames Manufac-
turing Company, of Chicopee.
The statue was unveiled on the
3d of July, 1869. It is a mat-
ter of no little local pride that
all the artists and artisans em-
ployed in its production were
furnished by Massachusetts,
without any help from abroad.
The statue represents Wash-
ington at a different period of
his life from that usually se-
lected by artists, and is all the
-' . ' . . , THE WASHINGTON STATUE.
more effective and ongmal on
that account. The outline is gi-aceful, and perfectly natural from every point of view,
and the work reveals new beauties the more it is examined. It was cast in fourteen
pieces, but the joints are invisible. The extreme height of the pedestal and stntnp
is thirty-eight feet, the statue itself being twenty-two feet high. The fouiul.v
which rests upon piles, is of solid masonry, eleven feet deep. The lamented
ernor Andrew was one of the original committee which undertook the direction
this work, but he died before its completion.
Close by one of the busiest spots in Boston is one of those ancient landmarks
which the good sense and the good taste of its citizens have thus far preserved. It
has been remarked that the irregular piece of territory bounded by Beacon, Tremont,
and Park Streets was originally a part of the Common. In 1660 it became neces-
sary to appropriate new space to resting-places for the dead, and the thrifty habits
of our forefathers would not suffer them to buy land for the purpose when they were
already in possession of a gi-eat tract lying in common. Accordingly, in the year
before mentioned, the graveyard now known as the Old Granary Burying-ground
was established. Two years afterwards, other portions of the territory now lost to
the Common were appropriated for sites for the bridewell, house of correction,
almshouse, and public granary. The last-named building, which stood at first near
the head of Park Street, and afterwards on the present site of the meeting-house,
gave to the burying-ground the name by which it is so commonly designated. This
is, without exception, the most interesting of the old Boston graveyards. Within
this little enclosure lie the remains of some of the most eminent men in the history
of Massach u setts and
the country. The
list includes no less
than nine Governors
of the Colony and
State ; two of the
signers of the Dec-
laration of Indepen-
dence ; Paul Revere,
the patriotic me-
chanic ; Peter Fan-
euil, the donor of
the market - house
and hall that bear
his name ; Judge
Samuel Sewall ; six
famous doctors of
divinity ; the first
mayor of Boston ;
and a great many
others of Avhom ev-
ery student of Amer-
ican history has read.
ENTRANCE TO THE GRANARY BURYING-GROUND. UlJOU tllC frOnt of
one of the tombs, on the side next to Park Street Church, is a small white marble
slab with the inscription, "No. 16. Tomb of Hancock," which is all that marks
the resting-place of the famous first signer of the Declaration of Independence,
and the first Governor of Massachusetts under the Constitution. In another part
of the yard is the grave of the great Revolutionary patriot and Governor of the
Commonwealth, Samuel Adams. Near the Tremont House corner of the burying-
ground are the graves of the victims of the Boston Massacre of 1770. The most
conspicuous monument is that erected in 1827 over the grave where repose the
parents of Benjamin Franklin ; it contains the epitaph composed by the gi'eat
man, who, **in filial regard to their memory, placed this stone." Even the briefest
reference to the notable persons who lie buried here would extend this sketch unduly.
The row of once stately and beautiful, but now mutilated, elms, outside this
burying-ground, has also a history. They were imported from England, and after
having been for a time in a nursery at Milton, were set out here by Captain
Adino Paddock, from whom the mall now takes its name, in or about 1762. Pad-
dock was a loyalist, and a leader of the party in Boston. He left town with the
British troops in 1776, removed to Halifax, and thence went to England ; but npon
,Wing a government appointment in the Island of Jersey, he removed tlnther and
h'ed th^re until his death, in 1807. He was a carriage-builder, and his shop stood
opposite the row of trees which he planted and cared for. The elms were carefully
protected during the occupation of the town by the British. Until witlun a few years
h r Xht to cfst a grateful shade upon the throng of pedestrians constantly passing
and replssinc. on Tremont Street has been respected. But three of them have already
;! iSd to false ideas of utility, and on two occasions only the sti^nges re-
monstrances of the press and of private citizens have been able to Pr-erve them rom
the -march of improvement." Some large limbs have been broken off by high
winds, others have been amputated in the most uncalled-for manner; so that in
winte; the trees are anything but an ornament, though m summer the graceful and
abundant foliage conceals the mutilation to which they have been ^^bje^ted.
The large o^en spaces in this part of the city have made it a desirable section fo
residences! It is but lately that business has driven almost a 1 the inhabitants of
houses on the easterly side of Tremont Street to remove elsewhere m Boston. Ihe
other streets that bound the public grounds have not been mvaded. Boylston,
Arlington, Park, and Beacon Streets are
still among the favorite streets in the
city for dwelling-houses. The last-named
street is, perhaps, the greatest favorite of
all, especially upon the hill opposite the
Common, and upon the water side below
Charles Street. Near the top of the hill,
on this street, stood, until a few years
ago, the Hancock mansion, one of the
nmst famous of the old buildings of Bos-
ton that have been compelled to make
way for modern improvements. This
house was in itself and in its surround-
ings, one of the most elegant mansions in
the city, though the style of architecture
had wholly gone out of fashion long be-
fore it was taken down. It was built
by Thomas Hancock in 17-37, and Avas ... . w „
Both uncle and nephew were exceedingly hospitable, and were accustomed to^ en-
tertain the Governor and Council and other distinguished guests annually on Ar-
tillery Election Day" ; and it is said that every Governor of Massachusetts under the
Constitution, until the demolition, was entertained once at least within this^mansion.
The house was taken down in 1863, and on the site now stand two of the finest tree-
stone-front houses in the city. _ . „
Not far away, on the corner of Beacon and Park Streets, is the spacious n^ans on of
the late George Ticknor. This house was erected many years ago, and was at first
desi<.ned to be very much larger than it was subsequently when occupied. The
ojriolner erected the corner house and the two adjoining <^vellmg-W^^^^^^^
Be:con Street as a single residence, but the plan was afterwards changed, and what
THE OLD HANCOCK HOUSE.
inherited by Governor John Hancock.
was originally intended for one dwelling-liouse became three, all of ample size. Mr.
Ticknor bought the corner house of the late Harrison Gray Otis, and began to reside
there about the year 1830 ; and it was his Boston home until his death in 1870.
On the slope of the hill, nearly opposite the foot of the Common, stands the
dwelling-house occupied by Mr. Ticknor's friend, the historian Prescott, during
the last fourteen,
years of his life.
It is unpreten-
tious in archi-
tecture, but it
was fitted with-
in in a style of
1^ great elegance,
' ranged specially
jtj with reference
lii to Mr. Pres-
d cott's infirmity
' of blindness.
- In it the great -
f er part of the
work upon his
fumou s histo-
ries of the vari-
done. To this
house he re-
moved, in 1845,
MK. PRESCOTT S RESIDKNCE, BEACON STREET.
from his former home in Bedford Street, and in it he died in 1859.
Our space does not admit of a full account of the filling in of the Back Bay lauds,
— that great improvement by which hundreds of acres have been added to the
territo]-ial extent of Boston and millijns of dollars put into the State treasury.
A few facts and dates only can be given. Private enterprise had already suggested
this great improvement when the State first asserted its right to a part of the flats
in 1852. The owners of land fronting on the water had claimed and exercised
the right to fill in to low-water mark. In this way the Neck, south of Dover
Street, had been very greatly widened. Commissioners were appointed in 1852 to
adjust and decide all questions relating to the rights of claimants of flats, and to
devise a plan of improvement. Progi-ess was necessarily slow where so many inter-
ests were involved, but at last all disputes were settled, and the filling was begun in
good earnest. No appropriation has ever been made for work to be done on the
Commonwealth's flats ; the bills have been more than paid from the very start by
the sales of land. By the last report of the commissioners it appears that, up to
the first of Januaiy of the present year (1872), the proceeds of sales have reached
the sum of §3,591,514.82, and the total expenses have been $1,547,220.40, leaving
more than two million dollars net profit to the Commonwealth. About half a mil-
lion feet of land still remain unsold, and it is expected that a million and a half of
dollars clear profit will be realized from it. This is altogether independent of the
land filled by the Boston Water Power Company, and by other corporations and
individual owners. It was originally intended that there should be in the district
filled by the State a sheet of water, to be called Silver Lake, but the idea was sub-
sequently abandoned. A very wide avenue was, however, laid out through it, to be
in the nature of a park, and the plan is in process of being carried out. When
completed. Commonwealth Avenue will be a mile and a half in length, with a width
of two hundred and forty feet between the houses on each side. Through the centre
runs a long park in which rows of trees have been planted, and these will, in time,
make this avenue one of the most beautiful parks in the country. There are wide
driveways on either side ; and the terms of sale compel the maintenance of an open
space between each house and the ample sidewalks. In the centre of the park, near
Arlington Street, stands the granite statue of Alexander Hamilton, presented to
the city in 1865 by Thomas Lee, Esq., who subsequently erected, at his own ex-
pense, the "Ether Monument" in the Public Garden, before mentioned. Beacon
Street has been extended to the Brookline boundary, and a very large part of the
laud filled and sold by the Commonwealth, between Beacon and Bo)'lston Streets,
has been built upon. The nomenclature of the streets in this territory is ingenious,
and far preferable to the lettering and numbering adopted in other cities. To the
north of Commonwealth Avenue is ]\Iarlborough Street, and to the south Newbury
Street, which names were formerly applied to parts of Washington Street, before it
was consolidated. The streets running north and south are named alphabetically,
alternating three syllables and two, — Arlington, Berkeley, Clarendon, Dartmouth,
and so on.
Within the limits of the West End district are many of the finest churches in
the city proper, and the movement of the religious societies westward and south-
ward is exhibiting no signs of cessation. Some of the oldest societies in town
are preparing to emigrate to the new lands of the Back Bay, as, for instance, the
Old South and the Brattle Street Churches. Only a few of the churches in this
part of the city, some of them very elegant and costly, can be mentioned here.
"The First Church in Boston," Unitarian, claims the first attention, though the
building is one of the most
T_ '^ recent. Allusion has been
made already to the first and
second houses of this society,
in State and Washington
Streets. The site of Joy's
Building, near State Street,
was used by the Society from
1639 until 1807, when it re-
moved to Chauncy Street, and
thence in December, 1868, to
the new edifice on the corner
of ]\Iarlborough and Berkeley
Streets. This cliurch was
built at a cost of two liun-
dred and seventy-five thou-
sand dollars, and is one of the
most beautiful specimens of
architecture in Boston. Es-
pecially fine are the cariiage-
porch and the vestibule on
the Berkeley Street front.
The windows are all of colored
glass, and were executed in
England. The organ, which is one of the best in the city, was manufactured in
Germany by the builders of the Music Hall organ. In every part of the building,
within and without, are evidences of excellent taste and judgment, such as can
seldom be seen in the churches of this country. The church can seat nearly one
On the corner of Boylston and Arlington Streets stands the first church erected
on the Back Bay lands of the Commonwealth. This society, like that of the First
Church, is attached to the Unitarian denomination. It is, however, the successor
of the first Presbyterian church gathered in Boston. It Avas established in 1727,
and its first place of worship was a barn, somewhat transformed to adapt it to its
new use, at the corner of Berry Street and Long Lane, now Channing and Federal
Streets. The second house, on the same site, was erected in 1744, and within it met
the Convention that ratified the Constitution of the United States on the part of
Massachusetts, in 1788. It was from this circumstance that Federal Street received
its name. In 1786 the Church had become small in numbers, and by a formal vote
it renounced the Presbyterian form and adopted the Congregational system. Having
occupied for fifty years the third house on the original site, erected in 1809, the
society was compelled, by the invasion of business and the removals of its people.
FIRST CHURCH, BERKELEY STREET.
The most noted of this
to build the house in which it now worships. During the nearly one hundred and
fifty years since the foundation of this society, it has had but six pastors, though there
was one interval of ten years when it had no regular pastor,
brief list was the
Rev. Dr. Chan-
ning, who was
pastor from 1803
until his death in
1842. The Rev.
Ezra S. Gannett
and installed as
in 1824, and re-
league and sole
pastor until his
melan ch oly
death in August,
1871, in the ter-
rible accident at
Revere. The va-
cancy has late-
ly been filled by
the choice of the
Rev. Mr. Ware,
lately of Bal-
. ARLINGTON STREET CHURCH.
church on Ar- .
lington Street is built of freestone, and is a fine structure, though less ornate m its
architecture than many others. Its tower contains an excellent chime of bells.
The early settlers of New England were not quite so tolerant towards other creeds
than their own as they wished others to be to theirs. This is illustrated by their
treatment of the Baptists. The doctrine of that denomination was pronounced
"abominable," and those who held it were subject to annoyances without number. In
1665 a church was formed in Charlestown in conformity with the permission of the
Kind's commissioners to all people to worship God as they chose. But as soon as the
representatives of the crown were gone the court summoned the members to answer
for not attending church. When they pleaded in defence their own " meeting," the
court regarded it as an additional aggravation, and fined all the culprits. They re-
fused to pay and were sent to jail, where they remained three years. When at last
they petitioned to be released, the former judgment was confirmed, and they were sent
back to prison. The persecution continued, and generally with considerable activity,
until 1680. Two years before that time the Baptists erected their first meetmg-house,
and having a well-grounded fear that if their purpose was discovered it would be
thwarted, they did not allow it to be known until the building was completed for what
BOSTON ILL US TEA TED.
object it was intended. Even after it had been occupied the society found the door
nailed up one Sunday morning by the marshal, by the order of the court. However,
to-day the Baptist denomination may
truly claim to be occupying a build-
ing whose spire reaches farther to-
wards heaven tlian that of anj^ other
church in the city. There have been
fourteen pastors of this church in a
little more than two hundred years.
The pastorate of the Eev. Dr. Neale,
who is yet officiating, has extended
over a period of thirty-six years, and
is the longest but one on the list of
Boston clergymen. The building on
Somerset Street was erected in 1858.
It is of brick covered with mastic ; the
^]nre is two hundred feet high, and the
cliurch itself stands on higher ground
tlian any other in Boston,
Between the Common and the Gran-
ary Burying-ground stands one of the
leading churches of the Trinitarian
Congregational denomination. The
congregation of Park Street Church
was gathered in 1809. It took at once,
and has ever since maintained, a prom-
inent position among the churches of
:'• ;' the city. Its pastors have been able
and i^opular preachers, and few church-
es in Boston or elsewhere are so uni-
SOMERSET STREET, WITH CHURCH. /• i i i -i.! ] ij.
' formly crowded with eager and atten-
tive listeners. The present pastor, the Rev. W. H. H. Murray, who was installed
in 1868, is widely known, not only as a brilliant preacher, but as the author of several
volumes of sermons and an excellent, though enthusiastic, hand-book on the Adiron-
dack Mountains, and as a popular lecturer. Under his ministrations the point of the
old designation of Park Street Church — Brimstone Corner — has been wholly lost.
The history of the society known as the Central Church is brief. The congregation
was gathered in 1835 to worship in the Odeon, under the name of the Franklin
Church. In May, 1841, the corner-stone of a new church Avas laid on Winter Street,
and the edifice having been completed, was dedicated on the last day of the same
year, the society having a week previously assumed its present name. The transfor-
mation of Winter Street into a great centre of retail trade compelled the abandon-
ment of the church on this site, and in the fall of 1867 the present elegant house,
which had been several years in building, was dedicated. It is built of Roxbury
stone with sandstone trimmings, and cost, including the land, upwards of three hun-
dred and twenty-five thousand dollars, A heavy debt, which for some time oppressed
the society in con-
sequence of this
ture, has, within a
year or two, been
paid in full. The
great gale of Septem-
ber, 1S69, blew over
one of the pinnacles
of the spire, which
is the tallest in the
city, upon the main
building, and caused
which required sev-
eral months to re-
pair. The interitn-
of this church, not-
withstanding an ex-
cess of color, is re-
The Public Libra-
ry of Boston is one
of the most beneficent insti-
tutions that has been con-
ceived by its public-spirited
and liberal citizens. The im-
mense library, which has been
collected in the short space
of twenty years, is valuable
not only from the variety, ex-
cellence, and number of vol-
umes it contains, but from
its accessibility. It is abso-
lutely open to all, and no
assessment, direct or indirect,
is levied upon those who
make use of its privileges.
It is conducted, too, on the
most liberal principles. If a
purchasable book not in the
library is asked for, it is or-
dered at once ; and the in-
quirer for it is notified when
it is received. Although the
idea of a free public library
had been entertained much
earlier, it was not until 1852
PARK STREET CHURCH.
CENTRAL CHURCH, BERKELEY STREET.
that this institution was actually established. Very soon after the board of trustees
was organized, Joshua Bates, Esq., a native of ^lassachusetts, but at that time a mer-
chant of London, gave to the city the sum of lifty thousand dollars, the income of
which he desired should be expended in the purchase of books. The upper hall of the
library building has been named Bates Hall in compliment to him. Generous dona-
tions and bequests by many wealthy and large-hearted men and women have swelled
the permanent fund
of the Public Library
to one hundred thou-
sand dollars. The
number of books add-
ed during the year
ending May, 1873,
was 15,543, and of
pamphlets, 11,770, —
making a total at the
date of the last Re-
port of 208, 501 books,
and 112,153 pam-
phlets. The circula-
tion during the previ-
ous year amounted to
4(37,755 separate is-
sues. The Boston
Public Library is thus
the first in the coun-
try in the number of
issues, although it is
exceeded in the num-
ber of volumes by the
Library of Congress. The library, which has been in its present quarters only a little
more than fifteen years, has nearly outgrown the capacity of the building, and various
devices have to be resorted to in order to accommodate the large number of new vol-
umes added annually. In 1871 the library of Spanish and Portuguese books and
manuscripts belonging to the late George Ticknor, Esq., were added to the library,
in accordance with his will. This alone added more than 4,000 volumes and manu-
scripts to the library, and to provide for future accessions the interior was remodelled
largely, the result being to increase the capacity of the hall from 200,000 to 350,000
volumes. The need of this change was shown sooner, perhaps, than the projectors
of it anticipated ; for, in addition to the books already added during the year, the
famous Barton Library of New York, numbering many thousand volumes, one of the
finest private libraries in the country, and especially rich in Shakespearian literature,
has been purchased and transferred to Bates Hall. Alterations are also contemplated
to increase the capacity of the Lower Hall (popular department), which is becom-
ing crowded. Branches of the Boston Public Library have been opened already
in East and South Boston, Avhich have been greatly resorted to by the residents of
BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.
these parts of the city. A buikling has also been erected in Roxbury for still another
branch, which will be opened about the time these pages are going through the press.
The building of the Boston Athenseum, situated on Beacon Street, not far from
the head of Park Street, is an elegant structure, built of freestone, in the later
Italian style of architecture. The corner-stone was laid in April, 1847, and the
building, which cost nearly |200,000, was occupied in 1849. Within it is a library,
and an art gal-
lery. The sci-
of the Ameri-
of Arts and Sci-
ences, of which
B e n j a m i n
once a member,
is also kept in
room of the
had its origin
in a magazine
which was first
published in 1803. Soon after, an association of men zealous for literature was
organized, and took the name of the Anthology Club. A public library and read-
ing-room established by this club was the nucleus of the Boston Athenteum,
which was incorporated by the Legislature under that name in 1807. The first
library room was in Congress Street, but the quarters having become too contracted,
Mr. James Perkins, in 1821, conveyed to the Athenpeum his own mansion in Pearl
Street, — an exceedingly valuable gift, — and the society, having removed thither,
remained there until the completion of the new building in Beacon Street. The
Athenreum is not a public institution. The right to use the library is confined to the
holders (and their families) of about one thousand shares, of whom only about six
hundred pay the annual assessment that entitles them to take books from the library.
The management is, however, very liberal towards strangers, and the attendants are
unremitting in their attentions to visitors. There is an absence of "red tape" in
the general direction of the library that not only makes it one of the most delightful
literary homes to be found anywhere, but proves that nothing is lost by trusting to
the good taste and sense of propriety of those Avho resort thither. The gallery of
art contains a fine collection of paintings, many of them by famous artists, to which
the general public is admitted on the payment of a small fee. It is expected that
this collection will be transferred to the projected museum of art, when it has been
more fully organized, and thereafter the whole building will be given up to the
library and reading-room. The funds of the Athenaeum, of which the income is
applicable to the uses of the institution, now amount to more than a quarter of a
million dollars, beside the real estate and the library, paintings, and statuary, which
are valued at upwards of $400,000. Last year there were added to the library
upwards of 3,000 volumes at a cost of nearly $7,500, in which, however, was
included the expense of periodicals subscribed for, binding, etc.
On the lot bounded by Berkeley, Newbury, Clarendon, and Boylston Streets stand
two more of the semi-public institutions of Boston, and both connected with the
__ _r -_~ _ r^ . ^j^^-^ -^- '- practical educa-
^-^-^^^^^^^m^^^-^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^-^' - -^-^^ tion of the peo-
-_:^S^W7 s: i= P^^- Nearest to
:-'-^^^^^^ ;js ^ v^^^ss., """'"r.^ Berkeley Street
on the right of
our Adew is the
Iniilding of the
of Natural His-
ed in 1831. The
early days of the
a period of con-
from lack of the
But the munifi-
SOCIETV OF NATURAL HISTORY AND INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. CeUCC of SCVCral
citizens, — one of whom, Dr. William J. Walker, gave, during his life and in his will,
sums amounting in the aggregate to nearly two hundred thousand dollars, — and the
grant of the land on which the building stands, by the State, in 1861, have raised
it from its poverty, and given it a position of great usefulness and a reasonable degree
of prosperity. The cabinet of this society, which is exceedingly rich in very many
branches of natural history, is open to the public for several hours on every Wed-
nesday and Saturday, and this opportunity is made use of by great numbers of citi-
zens and strangers. There is also a fine library connected with the institution, and
during the season interesting courses of lectures are delivered.
The Institute of Technology was founded in 1861 for the purpose of giving in-
stmction in applied science and the industrial arts. The published plan of the
institution declares it to be "devoted to the practical arts and sciences," with a
triple organization as a society of arts, a museum or conservatory of arts, and a
school of industrial science and art. The land for the purpose was given by the
State, and the Institute receives one third of the grant made by Congress to the
State for the purpose of establishing a college of agriculture and the mechanic arts.
The museum already collected includes photographs, prints, drawings, and casts, to
illustrate architecture ; models of various kinds to give practical instruction in
geometry, mechanics, and building ; machinery of many patterns to illustrate me-
chanical movements ; models of mining machinery, and a great variety of other useful
articles. The school pro\ddes seven courses of study, — in mechanical engineering,
civil and topographical engineering, chemistry, geology and mining engineering,
building and architecture, science and literature, and natural history. By the last
published catalogue, there were 356 students from seventeen States of the Union
and five foreign countries. Degrees and diplomas are conferred on the graduates,
according to the course or courses of study pursued. The institution is doing a
work of great usefulness. The building is an elegant structure of pressed brick
with freestone trimmings. It is one hundred and fifty feet long, one hundred feet
Avide, and eighty-five feet high. The basement floor is devoted to chemistry and its
applications ; the first floor contains the officers' rooms, several lecture-rooms, labora-
tories and museums ; in the second story are five lecture-rooms and a great hall,
ninety-five by sixty-five feet ; and above are other lecture-rooms, museums, studies
for the professors,
and another large
hall. It is intend-
ed to erect another
building for the mu-
seum of the Institute.
The Union Club
of Boston was found-
ed in the year 1863,
for "the encourage-
ment and dissemina-
tion of patriotic sen-
timent and opinion,"
and the condition
of membership was
to the Constitution
and the Union of the
United States, and
of the Federal Gov-
ernment in efforts
for the suppression
of the Rebellion." Its view of park street.
organization is continued to promote social intercourse, and to afford the conven-
iences of a club-house. A spacious private mansion, formerly the residence of the
late Abbott Lawrence, on Park Street, was remodelled internallv to fit it for the
latter use. The membership, which is limited to six hundred, includes many of the
best and wealthiest citizens of Boston. It has at present no political character, how-
ever, and the condition of membership quoted above has been removed. Our sketch
gives a view of Park Street, with the residence of the late George Ticknor and the
Union Club House in the foreground.
The Somerset Club was organized in the j'ear 1852, having grown out of another
organization known as the Tremont Club, and is now, as it has always been since it
^- _ took its present name,
a club for purely social
purposes. The member-
ship has heretofore been
limited to two hundred
and lift}', but has lately
been increased to four
hundred and fifty, and
Avill soon reach the lim-
it, recently fixed, of six
hundred. The Somer-
set Club occupied until
the year 1872 the ele-
gant mansion at the cor-
ner of Somerset and Bea-
con Streets ; but a year
or two ago it purchased
the magnificent granite
front mansion on Beacon
Street, represented in the
This house was built by
the late David Sears,
Esq., for a private resi-
dence. The club found
it necessary to make lit-
BEAcoN STREET. — THE SOMERSET CLUB. tie altcratiou iw. thc ar-
rangemont of the rooms, but it has thoroughly refitted and furnished them, and
added other buildings.
The Charles Eiver basin, enclosed between Beacon and Charles Streets and the
bridge to Cambridge, has long been a favorite course for boat-racing. Upon it are
held the regattas provided by the city for the entertainment of the people on the
Fourth of July, and private regattas at other times. At the head of the course is
situated the Union Boat-Club House, an attractive structure, in the Swiss style of
architecture, having a water frontage of eighty-two feet and commanding a fine view
of the river. The gj^mnasium, club committee, dressing and bathing rooms, are
especially adapted to comfort and convenience, and superior boating accommodations
are provided for the members. The club was organized May 26, 1851, and, Avith per-
haps one exception, is the oldest boating organization in the country. The present
Ijuilding was completed July 3, 1870. The Union had the honor of introducing on
the Charles the style of rowing without a coxswain, and in September, 1853, rowed
a race at Hull in which, for the first time in the United States, the boat was steered
over the course by the bow oar. They were also instrumental in getting up the first
wherry race on the river, July 4, 1854, won by the then coxswain of the club. In
1857, the Unions were at the height of their glory, and in June of that year won from
the *' Harvards " the celebrated Beacon cup, the most beautiful prize ever off"ered in
Massachusetts for such a race. Champion cups, colors, oars, and medals, are among
of the mem-
date the su-
was held by
of the new
club has raj)-
in numbei s,
and now lias
road has for
many years occupied for station purposes the building which is represented by our
sketch. It has answered reasonably well the necessities of the road, but it had
already begun to be too small to accommodate the growing business, when the com-
pany was compelled by other circumstances to take action looking to the erection of
a new station. The fine thoroughfare known as Columbus Avenue was projected to
inn directly over the land occupied by this station and to terminate in Park Square.
It was impossible to continue the street northerly bej^ond Berkeley Street until it was
settled that it was to be opened through. The negotiations between the railroad
company and the city were protracted, but they came at last to a happy issue, and
it was decided in the latter part of 1871 that the old station should be removed,
UNION BOAT-CLl'B, CHARLES KU'ER.
and Columbus Avenue extended through to the si^uare. The city paid the large
sum of $436,000 for the property necessary to carry out this project. The new sta-
tion, which is already occupied, stands upon land to the northwest of the former
site. It will be about eight hundred feet in length. The head-house will be in the
Gothic style of architecture, of brick, trimmed with two shades of sandstone. The
track-house has a span of one hundred and twenty-tive feet, and is about seven
^7--^. - -.--- ^. . - , ^ ^ _ hundred feet
;^^^^- ^^L^^^L4- i^ length. It
— -^-1?^^ is?5?eft;=5Si - -=- •will cover live
tracks. The de-
sign of this new
station is ad-
ed, at an esti-
mated cost of
will be in every
way suited to
meet the great
PKOViniCN'Cr. F^MLKOAU SI AlluN. lu tluS StatlOU
will be flower, cigar, theatre-ticket, and periodical stands, waiting and dressing rooms
of ample size, a refreshment-room, a barber' s-shop, and a billiard-room. Tlie
Providence Eailroad has an excellent local business, serving a great number of the
towns in Norfolk and Bristol Counties by its main line and branches ; and it also
forms part of the popular Shore (all rail) and Stonington (rail and steamboat)
lines to New York. Alone of all the Boston railroads it did not increase either
local or through charges during or after the war, and though this policy in-
volved a temporary loss, it has more than justified the far-sighted wisdom that dic-
In the immediate vicinity of the Providence station is the tract known as the
Church Street district, where one of the most beneficial enterprises the city has ever
undertaken has been carried out witliin a few years. The district was low, marshy,
and unhealthy, but it was covered with permanent buildings. The city undertook
to raise the whole district, and this it did at an expense of about a million dollars.
In the course of this operation nearly three hundred brick buildings were raised,
some of them fourteen feet, and the whole territory was filled in to a uniform height.
A similar process has been going on for some time in the "Suff"olk Street district,"
and is now nearly completed.
On the corner of Beacon and Tremont Streets stands the Tremont House, a hotel
that has for a long time enjoyed a deserved reputation for the excellence of its ac-
commodations and its cuisine. This house received President Johnson as a guest
when he visited Boston on the occasion of the dodication of the ]\Iasonic Temple in
June, 1867. Its front
is imposing, though
plain and devoid of
of the leading hotels
of Boston are in close
proximity to the centre
of business, and this is
especially true of the
Tremont. Like them,
it has lately been un-
dergoing extensive im-
provements which have
made it more than ever
worthy of the excellent
reputation it bears.
The Tremont House
was originally built by
a company of gentle-
men ; but it was, in
1859, purchased for the
Sears estate, of which
it now forms a part.
The Tremont and Re- tremont house.
vere Houses are both under the same efficient management.
IV. THE CENTRAL DISTEICT.
E come now to a district smaller than either of those that have been
described, but one that is much more compact in form, and that was,
until the great fire of November, 1872, more crowded with buildings.
" It has already been remarked that the physical characteristics of Boston
determined the limits within which mercantile business could have free and natural
expansion. The singular and unexplained movements of business, which, never-
theless, have their almost invariable rules, have given the North End up for the
most part to retail establishments. In the immediate neighborhood of the wharves
some branches of wholesale trade still flourish ; and in the neighborhood of Faneuil
Hall there are large establishments for the supply of household stores and furnishing
goods of various descriptions ; and there are very few districts in the city which have
not retail supply stores of all kinds in their immediate neighborhood. But in general
it may be said that the district bounded by State, Court, Tremont, Boylston, and
Essex Streets is the business section of the city, and this remark holds true notwith-
standing a large part of it has been desolated by fire and is still vacant, though rebuild-
VIEW OF FRANKLIN STREET AS IT WAS BEFORE THE FIRE.
iiig is rapidly going on. State Street is the head-quarters of bankers and brokers, —
the money-centre of the city. Pearl Street was until 1872 the greatest boot and shoe
market in the world ; and it is curious that, excepting one or two establishments in-
timately connected with the business, all the buildings on the street were occupied by
merchants in this special line of trade. On Franklin, Chauncy, Summer, and other
neighboring streets, were the great establishments that make Boston the leading mar-
ket of the country for American dry-goods. Boston also stands first among American
cities in its receipts and sales of wool, and the dealers in this staple were clustered
within the district we have circumscribed. The wholesale merchants in iron, groceries,
clothing, paper, in fancy goods and stationery, in books and pictures, in music and
musical instruments, in jewelry, in tea, coffee, spices, tobacco, wines and liquors, — in
fact, in all the articles that are necessities or luxuries of our modern civilized life, —
have still their places of business within it. The retail trade, too, is domiciled here,
convenient of access to dwellers in the city and shoppers from the suburbs. The army
of lawyers is within the district, or just upon its borders. The great transportation
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 53
companies have their offices here, supplemented by the express companies that per-
form the same business upon a more limited, and yet, in another sense, upon a more
extended scale. Most of the daily papers are congregated in the immediate vicinity
of their advertising patrons. And finally, the people come to this part of the city, not
only to obtain the every- day articles of use, but to listen to lectures, to applaud at
musical concerts, to weep and smile over dramatic representations. By day and by
night it is thronged, not by the inhabitants of the district, — for very few residents
have been able to withstand the onset of business, — but by the dwellers in other
cities and towns and in other parts of Boston.
Much that is interesting in Boston's history has occurred in this part of the city,
but very few of the buildings that are reminders of events long past remain. Even
Fort Hill, one of the historical three, has been wholly removed, and the broad plain
where it once stood is now available for building purposes. The earth thus removed
was used in carrying forward two other gi^eat improvements, — the one to enlarge
the facilities for rapid and economical transaction of business, the other to convert a
low, swampy, and unhealthy neighborhood into a dry and well-drained district, —
the grading of the marginal Atlantic Avenue and the raising of the Suffolk Street
district. Some of the old landmarks yet remain, and, it is to be hoped, will long
be permitted to remain as links between the present and the past.
Before i)roceeding to describe the part of the district which remains covered with
buildings, it will be well to give a brief account of the great fire that so changed its
aspect, and in twenty hours made sixty-five acres of land, that had contained the
most substantial structures in Boston, a desolate waste of trembling walls, tottering
chimneys, and the ashes of millions of dollars' worth of merchandise.
The great fire broke out early in the evening of Saturday, November 9, 1872, in
a large granite building at the corner of Summer and Kingston Streets. The even-
ing was clear and calm, and there was but one circumstance to indicate that the
work of extinguishing the fire might be more difficult than usual. The singular dis-
ease known as the epizootic had but recently attacked almost all the horses in the
city, disabling them from work. A few of the animals had partially recovered, in-
cluding some of those belonging to the fire department. "Whether the lack of horses
fit for work did or did not cause a delay in the arrival of the engines has ever since
been a disputed point, although the records of the fire department seem to indicate
that the arrivals were as prompt as usual. It seems certain from the evidence
brought before the commissioners appointed by the city government, that there was
a long delay in giving an alarm, and the fire had gained great headway before the
first engine amved on the spot.
It was at once seen that vigorous Avork would be needed, and one alarm rapidly
succeeded another until the entire department, even from the most remote parts of
the city, had been summoned to the spot. The fire ran rapidly througli the building
in which it originated, leajiing up the "elevator" and seizing upon the large amount
of combustible material with which the upper stories were filled. It quickly crossed
both Kingston and Summer Streets, and fastened upon three buildings at once.
The force that had arrived was altogether insufficient to cope with the enemy,
and even if there had been a still larger number of fire-engines there was now
a new difficulty. The water-pipes had been laid in tlie streets of this district
THE SPOT WHERE THE FIRE BE(JAN.
when it was a part of the district covered by dwelling-houses. They were too small
to carry rapidly the enormous quantities of water that were now required. The
hydrants, too, were old-fashioned, and not adapted to the purpose. Difficulties were
multiplying rapidly, and all this time the fire was spreading more and more beyond
the control of the firemen.
The flames, having crossed Kingston and Summer Streets, spread in all directions.
They crept slowly up Summer Street on both sides towards Washington Street, more
rapidly down the street towards the wharves, southward towards the Albany Eailroad
Station, and northward into the very heart of the wholesale business houses. The
progress in the last-named direction was most rapid of all, chiefly because there was
no point where the firemen could make a stand against the fire. The streets were
narrow, and the buildings were very high and closely packed together.
In an hour or two the fire was absolutely beyond the control of any force of fire-
pien that could have been mustered to fight it. Despatches had been hurriedly sent
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED, 55
to all the suburban cities and towns, and reinforcements were constantly coming.
The borrowed engines were stationed wherever there seemed to be a chance of doing
anything to check the flames, but at most all that could be done was to delay their
irresistible advance. The circle was constantly widening, and the fire was steadily
increasing in fury. The most strenuous exertions were made to prevent it from
marching up Summer Street to Trinity Church. If the fire had been confined to
one line of approach, this might have been done ; but it Avorked its way round to the
rear of Trinity and leaped across Otis and Hawley Streets, reaching Washington
Street farther up. At midnight the fire was practically checked on the south side
by hard work and skilful use of the hose, but by that time the whole south side of
Summer Street below Chauncy to the water, including .the Hartford and Erie Railroad
Station, had been destroyed. In no other direction was there the least check upon
Those who closely observed the phenomena of this catastrophe remarked that the
wonderful rapidity with which it spread seemed in no case to be caused by the
direct contact with flame. A stream of burning cinders and brands passed for hours
over Congress Street, covering the roofs and the street so that it was difficult to walk
through the street ; and yet not a building took fire. But the intense heat from the
burning buildings, converted into so many furnaces " heated seven times hotter,"
passed through thick Avails, and caused other buildings to burst into flame all at
once, from roof to basement. This was particularly noticeable when the fire crossed
a street. A whole block of houses on one side would be burning furiously when not
a spark of flame could be seen on the other side. All at once the fire would burst
out almost simultaneously along the whole line, and in less time than it takes to
write it the roofs would be falling in and the walls tumbling with a loud crash.
The path of the fire, when once it had been checked on the south, was fan-shaped.
It spread to the left towards Washington Street, to the right towards the wharves.
It seized upon and devoured the magnificent dry-goods and clothing warehouses of
Winthrop Square and Franklin Street. It advanced with resistless force upon the
great wool-houses of Congress Street, the boot and shoe warehouses on Pearl
Street, and the leather- stores of High Street. It Avas evident that the point Avhich
could be held Avith the best prospect of success Avas Washington Street. To that
point it must come. Beyond that point it must not be permitted to go. The loss
otherAvise Avould be frightful. It Avas a noble sight, the line of firemen AA'ith their
engines on that street, alternately flooding the buildings on the Avest side and striv-
ing to diminish the heat from the burning stores on the east side by copious streams
of AA'ater. The Avails fell into the street, the AvindoAvs on the other side of the street
Avere cracked by heat, the firemen Avere driven back here and there, but the line Avas
held, and the great district Avest of Washington Street AA'as saved.
The next task Avas to naiTow the path of the fire. The point selected Avas Milk
Street at the Old South Church. Here, too, a gallant stand Avas made, and the
north line of Milk Street Avas saved as far doAA^n as beloAV the ncAV Post-Office. Else-
where every effort had been utterly AA'ithout aA^ail. The firemen Avere driven succes-
sively from point to point before the flames. Many citizens Avaited on the chief
engineer, and urged him to try the remedy of gunpoAvder. The chief refused for
a long time, but yielded at last, and the expedient Avas tried in several places ; it
utterly failed, hoAvever, to accomplish any good purpose.
56 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
At about three o'clock in the morning was the grandest scene of the fire. The
flames had crossed Congi-ess Street and had reached the westerly side of Pearl Street
along the whole line. Most of the boot and shoe dealers on the easterly side had
ample time to remove large parts of their stocks to the vacant space left after the
removal of Fort Hill, and on that space were collected thousands of men, women,
and children. Here one could see a little boy put to bed in the open air with a shoe-
box for a bedstead, lying on a heap of coats and trousers, sheltered by an open um-
brella from the cold wind that blew towards the fire from all sides, as well as from the
heat of the fire itself. Near by could be seen men and women sneaking away with
cases of stolen shoes, perhaps of a pattern and size that could do them not the least
good. . Others stood watching their rescued goods or directing the removal, while the
greater part were gazing upon the magnificent sight before them.
The flames seized almost simultaneously upon every store on the eastern side of
Pearl Street, and in a very few minutes they were all a mass of roaring, dazzling
fire. This was almost the only unobstructed view of any large section of the fire
that could be obtained during the night. At a distance of several hundred feet the
heat was so intense that the burning buildings could be faced only with great diffi-
culty. The inmiensely deep and high warehouses were converted into so many fur-
naces. The walls grew red-hot, and bricks and granite melted. The floor timbers
at last began to fall, and, striking against the walls, threw them down. Lofty walls
of brick breaking near the foundations fell vertically, crumbling into a confused
mass. A quarter of an hour was sufficient to convert what was a row of solid, ele-
gant stnictures, filled with valuable merchandise, into a bewildering heap of smoking
The Fort Hill District, which had been left almost entirely vacant after the removal
of the hill itself, proved the salvation of the northern part of the city. Near the
wharves there was a narrow strip of buildings where it Avas comparatively easy to
stop the progi-ess of the fire. The path of the flames was now narrowed down to
the space between the corner of High and Oliver Streets and the new Post-Office.
The firemen were really beginning to succeed, not only in circumscribing the limits
of the burning district, but in delaying the progress of the enemy. It nevertheless
proceeded farther northward, crossing Milk, Water, and Lindall Streets, finally
coming to an end in the rear of the old Merchants' Exchange, then used as a post-
office, late in the afternoon of Sunday, the 10th of November.
The mayor, referring to the great calamity in his annual address, delivered in
December, gives the following statistics and makes the following observations on the
event : —
"Considering the small extent of territory covered, — about sixty-five acres,—
and the short time that the fire had been burning, the amount of property destroyed
Avas unparalleled. The whole number of buildings destroyed (exclusive of those
slightly damaged) was 776, of Avhich 709 were of brick and stone, and 67 of wood.
The assessors' valuation of these buildings amounts to $13,591,300, and it is esti-
mated that to replace them would cost at least $18,000,000. The value of personal
property destroyed was about $60,000,000. The number of estates within the dis-
trict covered by the fire was about 550. The loss of life was comparatively small,
owing to the fact that but few dwelling-houses Avere burned, and that those em-
THE POST-OFFICE AS A BARRIER TO THE FIRE.
ployed in mercantile or manufacturing pursuits in the buildings wliicli were destroyed
had retired before the fire broke out. Only fourteen persons are known to have lost
their lives ; and of this number seven Avere firemen.
" The gallant manner in which the members of the fire department of this city, and
the members of organizations from other cities and towns, performed the heroic ser-
vices required of them is worthy of the highest commendation. The universal
expressions of sympathy and gratitude, and the generous contributions for the
relief of those who were injured, are the best evidence of the estimation in Avhich
their services are held. The arduous duties performed by the members of the police
department, and by the military organizations, in preserving order and protecting
property, during and after the fire, entitles them to the public gratitude. And in
this connection I cannot forbear mentioning the valuable and disinterested services
of those gentlemen who came to the aid and support of the municipal authorities on
the night of the fire. While the flames were still spreading, they instituted meas-
58 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
ures of relief and restoration which prevented distress and preserved the credit of
The references made by Mayor Pierce need some explanation. While the flames
were still baffling the firemen there were large meetings of influential citizens to
organize measures for the relief of suff'ering. There w^re but a very few dwelling-
houses destroyed by the fire, but it was apprehended that there might be much dis-
tress nevertheless. The great clothing-houses, employing a small army of sewing
women, were all destroyed, and it was feared that there would be much suff'ering
among those thrown out of work before the winter was over. Many clerks, male
and female, must necessarily remain unemployed for a longer or a shorter time.
Some mechanics had lost all their tools. A host of small tradesmen had been
greatly embarrassed in their business. It was not easy to estimate the amount that
would be needed to relieve the distress, and a committee was at once organized to
solicit, receive, and disburse funds to be given in aid of the work of charity. A dis-
cussion quickly arose, which was attended with perhaps unnecessary acrimony, on
the question whether aid should be asked or accepted from other cities. Despatches
announcing that money and any necessary articles would be sent if they would be
accepted were constantly received, Chicago, which had suffered more than Boston by
a similar calamity only a year before, conspicuously leading all other cities in gen-
erous off'ers of contributions. The discussion referred to had the effect to discourage
subscriptions outside of Boston. It subsequently appeared that no such contribu-
tions w'ould be required, and the amounts accepted in the early days of uncertainty
as to the wisdom of taking them were returned with grateful acknowledgments to
the donors. The total amount received in money by the committee of relief was
$341,913.68, of which ;$19,198 was returned as above stated. The work of relief was
not so extensively organized as was that of Chicago after tlie great fire of 1871,
because it was not necessary. All that was required was done, and the distress in
Boston during the winter of 1872-73 was less than during any preceding '\,inter
for many years.
The lawless were not slow to take advantage of the opportunities for plunder
afforded by the fire. The disorder was so great, and the district to be watched was
so extensive, that the police were almost powerless to put a stop to depredations.
There has never been an estimate of the property lost by its owners from this cause,
and any accurate estimate is quite out of the question. But it was seen, as early
as Sunday morning, — the police having abandoned the practice of arresting thieves
because the stations were filled so rapidly with this class of law-breakers, — that
society was in a dangerous state, and that vigorous measures must be adopted. No
time was lost in calling out a brigade of the militia for active duty. A cordon of
sentinels was stretched entirely around the burnt district, and companies were sta-
tioned in various parts of the city to be ready for any emergency. The Old South
Church, once used as a riding-school for the British cavalry, became a barrack of
Massachusetts militia. One company was kept under arms in the yard of the City
Hall, and guards patrolled exposed points all night in lieu of the regular guardians
of the peace. For several days Boston was under true military government, so far
as the police arrangements were concerned, and in that time the public mind had
time to calm down and to recover its usual self-control. The praise bestowed on
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 59
the militia was well deserved. A very difficult task was assigned to it, and it was
discharged with much less cause of complaint than might have been feared. The
air seemed to be peculiarly favorable to the destructiveness of fire. The alarms
for two or three weeks after that terrible Saturday and Sunday were more frequent
than for a long time before, and the destruction wrought would have excited much
anxiety if it had taken place before the great fire. The people were in a very ner-
vous and excitable condition, and any departure from the course of wisdom, by the
military organizations, might have led to calamities even worse than the fire.
At the request of the City Council, Governor Washburn called the Legislature
in extra session to pass some acts deemed necessary for the temporary or perma-
nent relief of the city. There were several projects for improving the topography
of the burnt district by straightening, widening, and extending old streets, and lay-
ing out new ones. The Boston fire-insurance companies were nearly all crushed by
the immense load thrown upon them, and with a few exceptions all the companies
of the State were also bankrupt. It was thought to be wise to give them an oppor-
tunity to reorganize, if they chose, under new charters. Again, it was urged that
the city in its corporate capacity might greatly assist in rebuilding by issuing its
bonds on mortgages of property in the burnt district, and the Legislature was asked
to sanction the giving of aid in this way. The Legislature met, and after a session
of several weeks adjourned, having passed a general Lisurance Corporation Law, under
which some corporations have been formed, and an act to authorize the issue of re-
building bonds. The management and rearrangement of streets, it was thought after
further consideration, was sufficiently in the power of the city authorities already.
A Building Law was also passed, to prevent the erection of structures that would,
like those destroyed by the great fire, prove only so many furnaces and as so much
kindling-wood to hasten the development of great conflagrations. But there were
many interests to be consulted, and much opposition to a really effective enactment.
Consequently the result of much discussion and numerous amendments was an act
which was wholly .satisfactory to nobody ; and the new Legislature, in its regular ses-
sion, found it necessary to remodel the law extensively. The Supreme Court of the
State has since pronounced the loan act unconstitutional, and though some of the
minor acts of the extra session have stood the test, there is a general feeling that it
would have been quite as well for Boston if it had never been held. Efforts were
made in Congress to obtain some measure of relief for the merchants, and for those
intending to build ; but nothing was done, and those who waited in the hope of
favorable legislation were giievously disappointed.
We have now finished our general review of the fire and its consequences. There
remain, however, some things yet to be said, but these can best be said in connec-
tion with the diff"erent buildings and districts, which are now to be described.
Although this is pre-eminently the business section of the city, it contains several
public and serai-public buildings which perhaps deserve the first attention. And the
list should properly be headed by the magnificent City Hall, which is one of the
most imposing and perfect specimens of architecture in the city. It has been said
already that Faneuil Hall was occupied for town purposes from the time of its erec-
tion until after the constitution of the city government. It was in 1830 that the city
offices were removed to the Old State House, which had been remodelled for the pur-
pose. But only a few years elapsed before it became absolutely necessary to remove
thence. Successive city governments having refused to sanction the erection of a
suitable City Hall, as recommended by nearly every mayor, the old Court House,
which stood on a part of the site of the present City Hall, was converted into a
city building in 1840, and all the offices of the city were removed thither. This
was, however, but a temporary expedient, and the old difficulties began to arise
again, with increased vexation to the crowded officers and the unfortunate public.
In 1850 the ques-
tion of making
additions to the
old City Hall or
of erecting a new
one reappeared in
the city council ;
and the records
show that from
that time hardly a
year passed with-
out a recommen-
dation of decided
action by the may-
or, and an abortive
attempt in the city
council to pass an
order for carrying
tion into effect,
until a beginning
was finally made
by the passage of
the necessary or-
ders in 1862. The
„ 1 1 f 1 . sum originally
asked for and appropriated was $160,000. The committee which reported the plan
expressed the belief -that the building as proposed can be erected of suitable mate-
rials, for this sum, "if contracted for during the present year." The value of
estimates is shown by the fact, that the building actually cost, before it was occu-
pied, more than half a million dollars, of which less than seventy-five thousand dol-
larsMvere paid for' work not included in the original estimate. However, the people
01 l^oston long ago ceased to complain of the unexpectedly large addition to what
they had been at first asked to invest in a city building.
The corner-stone was laid on the 22d of December, 1862, - the anniversary of the
landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. The building was completed and dedicated on
the 18th of September, 1865. The tablet in the wall back of the first landing per-
petuates in beautifully worked marble the statement that the dedication took place
on the 1/th of September. That day would have been highly appropriate for the
ceremony, being tlie two hundred and tliirty-fiftli anniversary of the settlement of
Boston, had it not fallen on Sunday. The ceremony was accordingly postponed
until the following day.
The style in which this building has been erected is the Italian Renaissance, with
modifications and elaborations suggested by modern French architects. The mate-
rial of the exterior is the finest Concord granite. The interior is equally as per-
fect in its arrangement as is the exterior in its beauty and richness. The Louirre
dome, which is surmounted by an Ameiican eagle and a flagstaff, is occupied within
by some of the most important offices of the city. Here is the central point of the fire-
alarm telegi'aphs. An alarm from the most distant part of the city is communicated
instantaneously to the watchful operator, who is on duty day and night ; and almost
before the nervous hand of him who gave the alarm has done its work, the bells in
all parts of the city are tolling out the number of the district in v/hich a fire has
and the engines -^^^^^ _
summoned to ex- "1^-::=^^^^
tingiush it are pro-
ceeding at full
speed toward it.
All the officers of
the city have com-
modious and com-
within the build-
ing ; and although
the city council
had an eye from
the first to the pos-
sibility that the
building would b^
and by need to l-
enlarged to accom-
modate the city
Boston should have
grown m impor-
tance and Avealth
there has been as yet little inconvenience or crowding, even since the absorption
of Roxburv and Dorchester.
In the lawn in front of the City Hall stands the bronze statue of Benjamin
Franklin, which was formally inaugurated, with much pomp and ceremony, on the
17th of September, 1856. It originated in a suggestion made by the Hon. Robert
C. Winthrop, in an address before, the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Asso-
ciation in 1852. The association took up the matter with enthusiasm, and was
joined l)y a large number of citizens. A public subscription to the amount of nearly
62 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
f 20, 000 furnislied the means. The artist was Mr. R. S. Greenough, who was born
ahnost within sight of the Boston State House, and all the work from beginning to
end was done in the State. The statue is eight feet in height, and stands upon a
pedestal of verd antique marble, resting on a base of Quincy granite. In the die
are four sunken panels, in which are placed bronze medallions, each representing an
important event in the life of the great Bostonian to Avhose memory the statue was
The Custom House, on State Street, was begun in 1837, two years after it had
been authorized by Congress, and was twelve years in building. It is in the form of
a Greek cross, and the exterior is in the pure Doric style of architecture. The
walls, columns, and even the entire roof, are of granite. The massive columns,
which entirel}^ surround the building, are thirty-two in number. Each of them is
five feet two inches in diameter and thirty-two feet high, and weighs about forty-two
tons. The building rests upon about three thousand piles. It is supposed to be
entirely fireproof, and it is so undoubtedly from without. It cost upwards of a
million dollars, including the site and the foundations. President Jackson signed
the resolution authorizing its erection ; but President Polk's term had been nearly
completed when the new Custom House was first opened. It has already become
somewhat dingy within, and is attractive only after the spring and fall cleaning and
On the 16th of October, 1871, was laid the corner-stone of what will be, when
cpmi^leted, the finest public building in New England. Our sketch shows what
the new Post-Office is designed to be. It has a front of over two hundred feet on
Devonshire Street, occupying the whole square between Milk and Water Streets.
The following description of the architect's design was printed in the newspapers, on
the occasion of the laying of the corner-stone : "A noble basement or street story of
twenty-eight feet in height, formed by a composition of pilasters and columns resting
on heavy plinths or pedestals of the sidewalk level, and crowned with an entablature,
carries two stories above it, both of which are enriched by ornate windows, and dress-
ings admirably in keeping with the best examples of the style selected. The princi-
pal entablature of the exterior walls will be singularly effective in detail, upon which
will be seated one of the most conspicuous roofs yet introduced in any structure,
public or private, erected in this country. In the several faces of the street sides of
this roof are to be placed highly burnished dormer windows, intended to be con-
structed of stone or iron, above which the top of the roof will be finished with
cornice and facia, forming the seating of the bronze grille, intended to enclose the
entire upper section or flat of the roof. In idealizing the roof of the structure, the
architect has introduced several exceedingly novel and expressive features of finish,
avoiding, it is believed, the sameness of expression which too often characterizes the
* Louvre ' and ' Mansard ' roofs. The Devonshire Street fa9ade will be subdivided
into five compartments by a 'central projection' flanked by two 'curtains,'
finishing at the corners of "Water and Milk with 'pavilions.' The 'central
projection ' and the two pavilions will be respectively subdivided in their height by
orders of pilasters, columns, entablatures, and bahistrades, and the curtain finish is
to be dependent for its effect upon the window dressing and attached entablatures
and balustrades, excepting in the first or street story, where the order of the first or
THE NEW POST-OFFICE.
street story Wore refemd to is to be carried uniformly thronglr the entire length of
he three street faeades. The principal central entrance rn the Devonshire Meet
fXde — latlwithahroid staircase, located in a nol,le hall commnnrcatrng
Sec ly w h the second, third, and fourth stories. The rema.mng entrances of
l^r side of the building give access to the Post-Offlce corridor, twelve feet m he g t,
:^r::irti:\he strong Wo .^^^^^^^^ ^^^^:^::jrzi z
z::^f '-:iSz::;:^r;tt-irr::rt: s^^
frihtl Denshire Street front aforesaid. Two groups of statuary are designed m
h central Fojection of the Devonshire Street side, -one of them « cro™ h
^r „c pal enLice, and the other group to surmount the fine stone a*- jh <J
covers'the central projection, and faces the more eleva ed P°*«" f * / f ,„"\°
that side of the structure. The central group of statuary, on the attic, is to De
flanked hy sculptured eagles, respectively located over the two outer comers of the
""men the " corner-stone " ^va. laid, the edifice had already been nearly finished to
thr^po the treet story ; but the occasion was a favorable one for a st-t parad
and the presence of the President of the United States and several members of h
clbin t added to the interest of the ceremonies. At the time of the great fire this
64 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
made it a bulwark against the flames. There was but little woodwork exposed, and
with some exertion the lire was prevented from obtaining ingress into the build-
ing. But the Milk Street fagade was greatly injured by the intense heat. The
graceful columns and the massive blocks of granite forming the side of the building
were cracked and split, so that a partial i-econstruction of that face has bec'ome ne-
cessary. The fire caused still further change in the plans. It was originally in-
tended to cover a much larger site with this magnificent structure than was after-
wards deemed sufficient. The difficulty of procuring the land at all, and the high
price asked for it, combined to lead to the decision to cover only one half of the
s([uare bounded by Congress, Milk, Devonshire, and Water Streets. The fire cleared
away the buildings on that part of the square not occupied by the Post-Office, and
caused a return to the original idea. Congress was asked to make an additional
appropriation of three quarters of a million dollars to buy the remaining land and
extend the building over it. Consent was readily given on condition that the streets
surrounding the Post-Office should be widened so as to give additional protection
against fire, and improve the architectural appearance of the edifice. To this con-
dition there was verj'^ serious opposition on the part of those whose estates would
have their value impaired by the widenings^ and by some others who thought the
taxes already sufiiciently heavy without burdening the city with a new load of in-
debtedness on account of expensive street improvements. But in spite of all oppo-
sition the requisite legislation has been passed, and the ;ippropriation to enlarge the
building has therefore been secured.
The Boston Post-Office has been a migratory institution for a long time. During
the siege of Boston it Avas removed to Cambridge, but was brought back again after
the evacuation of the town by the British. In the last ninety-six years it has been
removed at least ten times. For the eleven years immediately preceding the fire it was
in the Merchants' Exchange Building in State Steet, that being its third occupation
of those quarters. As has already been said, the fire came to an end in the rear of
the IMerchants' Exchange Building, but the Post-Office had been removed, to the last
transient newspaper, before the fire reached the building. Faneuil Hall was quickly
transformed into a Post-Office, and the delivery of mails was begun on Monday
morning, the day after the removal. There was a controversy as to the possibility
of repairing the former quarters so that they might be safely occupied again, which
ended in a decision that the Merchants' Exchange should not be again used as a
Post-Office ; and the upshot of the matter was that, after a few weeks of crowding
and inconvenience, and unsatisfactory mail-service, the Post-Office was removed to
the Old South Church. Some explanation of the final contest over the occupation
of that famous edifice may be found in another place.
The government has never owned the building in which the Boston Post-Office
has been located. In the magnificent structure now building, the upper stories will
be occupied by the sub-treasury, which at present has its quarters in the Custom-
House, having been, like the Post-Office, ejected from the Merchants' Exchange
Building. The new Post-Office has already been in process of erection more than
three years, and no period has yet been fixed for its completion and occupation. The
entire cost to the government will probably reach three million dollars.
The County Court House in Court Square was erected in 1833, and is a substan-
tial but plain and gloomy-looking building. There has been for some time past a
movement in favor
of a new court-house.
Thus far there has
been no agreement
as to a suitable site,
and no decisive step
has been taken for a
removal from the
building and noisy
United States Courts
occupy the building
at the corner of Tem-
jile Place and Tre-
mont Street, — a
structure of very fine
appearance and well
suited to its present
use. This building
was erected in 1830
by the Freemasons
of Massachusetts as
a Masonic tenrnle ^"^^ haul's church and the united states court-house.
but it was subsequently used as warerooms for Chickering's pianos, and finally it was
purchased by the United States government and fitted up as a court-house. Its
architecture is quite unique. The walls are of Quincy gi-anite cut into triangular
blocks. The eff'ect is not unpleasant, but it is surprising that the Masons of all
others should have departed from their established rule of " square work." With its
two massive towers, its long arched windows,- and its sombre general aspect, the
suggestion of the building is rather that of a church than of a court-house.
Our view also includes a sketch of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, adjoining the
Court-House. The society worshipping in this church was formed in 1819, and the
corner-stone was laid on the 4th of September of that year. The edifice was com-
pleted, and consecrated by the bishops of Massachusetts and Connecticut on the 30tli
of June, 1820. It has since been extensively remodelled in the interior. The walls
of this church are of a fine gray granite, but the Ionic columns in front are of Poto-
mac sandstone laid in courses. The rector of this church is the Rev. Mr. Walden,
who began his labors in St. Paul's during the spring of 1873.
Two of the oldest church-buildings in the city are left within the limits of
the Central District, surrounded by business structures, and one of them already
given up to business purposes. The Old South Society was the third Congregational
Society in Boston, and was organized in 1669, in consequence of a curious theological
quarrel in the First Church. The first church building of this society, erected in
1669, stood for sixty years. It was of cedar, and it had a steeple and galleries,
with the pulpit on the north side. It was taken down in 1729, when the present
building was erected on the same spot,
and religious services were held in it*
for the first time on the 26th of April,
1730 (0. S.). This meeting-house is
perhaps the most noted church edifice
in the United States. It is internally
very quaint and interesting. Its sound-
ing-board over the pulpit, its high,
square box-pews, its double tier of gal-
leries, in fact its whole appearance, at-
tract the visitor's attention, and lead him
to inquire into its history if he does not
already know it. But a tablet high
above the entrance on the "Washington
Street side of the tower gives concisely
the main facts. The Old South is fre-
quently mentioned on the pages devoted
to the history of Boston before and dur-
ing the Revolution. When the meetings
of citizens became too large to be accom-
modated in Faneuil Hall, then much
smaller than now, they adjourned to
this church. Here Joseph Warren stood
and delivered his fearless oration, on the
anniversary of the massacre of March 5,
1770, in defiance of the threats of those
in authority, and in the presence of a marshalled soldiery. Here were held the
series of meetings that culminated in the destruction of the detested tea, on
which the determined colonists Avould pay no tax. In 1775, the British soldiers,
eager to insult those by whom they were so cordially hated, but whom they
held so completely in their power, occupied this meeting-house as a riding-
school, and place for cavalry drill. They established a grog-shop in the lower
gallery, which they partially preserved for spectators of their sport. The rest of
the galleries were torn down, and the whole interior was stripped of its woodwork.
The floor they covered with about two feet of dirt. At this time the church was
without a pastor, and no new pastor was ordained until 1779. In 1782 the building
was thoroughly repaired and put in very much its late condition. The first Elec-
tion sermon was delivered in the Old South Church in 1712, and the ancient custom
was regularly observed up to, and including, the year 1872. As soon as the two
branches of the Legislature had met and organized, the Governor was notified that
the General Court "is ready to attend Divine service," the procession was formed,
and the State government marched to this historic building to hear a sermon by a
preacher designated by the preceding Legislature. But the last Election sermon has
been preached in the Old South Church. Having defied the fire, it has succumbed
OLD SOUTH CHURCH BEFORE THE FIRE.
to business, and henceforth Divine service will be attended by the State Government
in the Hall of Representatives.
Soon after the fire the idea of using the Old South for a post-office was brought
forward. It met with great acceptance and great opposition. On the one hand, the
pew-holders were known to be favorable to a proposition to dispose of their church
property by lease or sale, and the j)ostmaster had been authorized to make a very
liberal offer of rent for it. They had long before purchased a site for a new church
edifice on the Back Bay, and the disposal of the property on "Washington Street
would enable them to go forward and build. There seemed to be very few vacant or
obtainable places suitable as head-quarters for the mail service. Faneuil Hall was
inaccessible and inconvenient. The Old South was admirably situated and suffi-
ciently large. The objections were almost wholly sentimental, but they were strenu-
ously urged. The church was an historic edifice, actually in the hands of a few
pew-holders, but regarded with a loving reverence by men and women of all re-
ligious views throughout the entire country. It was urged that it was unnecessary
to "desecrate" the sacred building with business, as the former quarters of the Post-
Office might be readily repaired. The controversy was heated. It was waged at
every point. Long debates were held by the pew-holders, a minority protesting
against the manner in which the resolution to lease had been carried. An applica-
tion to the Legislature was necessary, as the society could not devote the meeting-
house to other than religious purposes without a special act : accordingly the contest
was transferred _ _ _ _
to that arena , -3^ ~^— ~ ^^^Kzz^^ j^T^TSfT"
able counsel __,^^^"
were employed """"^ ~
by both sides to
present the ar
the committee ,
and when a re-
port had been
made in favor
lease upon the
bill was fought
in both branch-
es of the Leg
measure was fi-
nally carried ,
the inside of
the church was
remodelled, and '^"''''^ ''"^
the mails were transferred to the building in which so many historical scenes had
58 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
been enacted, and wMch had so often rung with the words of patriotic and religious
King's Chapel, too, standing at the corner of School and Tremont Streets, has its
history, hardly less interesting than that of the Old South. It is, as is well known,
the successor of the first Episcopalian church in Boston. There were a few of the
early settlers in the town who belonged to the Church of England. Very timidly
did they ask in 1646 for liberty to establish their form of worship here "till^ incon-
veniences hereby be found prejudicial to the churches and Colony." Very decidedly
were they rebuffed, and no more was heard of the matter for many years. The Church
of England service was, however, introduced by the chaplain to the commissioners
from Charles II. in 1665, and from that time there was little hindrance to their forms.
Nevertheless, it was not until twelve years after this that a church was actually
formed, and not until 1686 that steps were taken to erect a buihiing to accom-
modate it. Governor Andros in that year greatly offended the consciences of
the Old South people by determining to occupy the Old South for an Episcopal
church, and by compelling them to yield to him in this matter, though very much
against their will. However, about that time, the church Avas built on a part of the
lot where stands the present building. It is not possible to ascertain how the land
was procured for the purpose ; and some have believed that Andros appropriated it
in the exercise of the supreme power over the soU which he claimed by virtue of the
delegated authority of the King. However, the church was built there, and by the
middle of July, 1689, it was occupied. In 1710 the building was enlarged, but by
the middle of the century it had fallen to decay, and it Avas voted to rebuild with
stone. The present building was first used for Divine service August 21, 1754.
During the British occupation of the town it was left unharmed. Not only was
this the first Episcopal church in Boston, it was also the first Unitarian church.
"While the Old South Meeting-house was undergoing repairs of the injuries sustained
in its occupation as a military riding-school, the society of King's Chapel gave to
the former society the free use of the Stone Church. When the Old South people
returned to their OAvn house, the proprietors of King's Chapel voted to return to
their old form of worship, with extensive alterations in the liturgy, adapting the
Church of England service to the Unitarian doctrine.
Adjoining this ancient church is the first burial-ground established in Boston.
It is not exactly known when it was first devoted to the burial of the dead. There
is some dispute over the question Avhether Mr. Isaac Johnson, one of the most
prominent of the colonists, and also one of the first to pass away, was or was not
buried here. It is, however, certain that this was the only graveyard in Boston
for the first thirty years after the settlement. The visitor to this yard will be apt
to notice the very singular arrangement of gi-avestones alongside the paths. They
were taken from their original positions years ago, by a city officer, who was certainly
gifted with originality, and reset, without the slightest reference to their former
uses or positions, as edgestones or fences to the paths. Notwithstanding this not
very praiseworthy improvement, which leads one to wonder how much further it was
carried, there are still many very old gravestones in this yard. Three, at least, date
back to the year 1658. One of these stones has a history. At some time after the
interment of the good deacon it commemorated, the stone was removed and lost ;
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 69
but it was discovered in 1830 near tlie Old State House, several feet below the
surface of State Street. It is of gi'een stone, and bears this inscription : —
HERE : LYETH
THE : BODY : OF : Mr
WILLIAM : PADDY : AGED
58 YEARS : DEPARTED
THIS : LIFE : AUGUST : THE 
On the reverse is this singular stanza of poetry : —
HEAR . SLEAPS . THAT
BLESED . ONE . WHOES . LIEF
GOD . HELP . VS . ALL . TO . LIVE
THAT . SO . WHEN . TIEM . SHALL . BE
THAT . WE . THIS . WORLD , MUST . LIUE
WE . EVER . MAY . BE . HAPPY
WITH . BLESSED . WILLIAM PADDY.
A gi'eat many distinguished men of the early time were buried in this enclosure,
and several of the tombs and headstones still bear the ancient inscriptions. The
tomb of the Winthrops contains the ashes of Governor John Winthrop, and of his
son and gi-andson, who were governors of Connecticut. All three, however, died
in Boston, and were buried in the same tomb. Not far away is a horizontal tablet,
from the inscription on which we learn that "here lyes intombed thebodyes" of
four "famous reverend and learned pastors of the first church of Christ in Boston,"
namely, John Cotton, John Davenport, John Oxenbridge, and Thomas Bridge, In
this abode of the dead are also the graves and the remains of many of the most famous
men of the early days of Boston, — the Sheafes, the Brattles, and the Savages, among
others. The next to the oldest stone remaining in the yard is that of ^Mr. Jacob
Sheafe, one of the richest merchants of his time, who died in 1658. This burying-
ground has not been used for interments for a very long time. It is occasionally
opened to visitors, and well repays a visit, though all the inscriptions on all the tomlis
and stones were long ago copied and published.
One other church edifice, which stood for months after the fire one of the most
picturesque relics of the great conflagration, but of which hardly a vestige now
remains, should be mentioned in this connection. Our sketch represents Trinity
Church as it appeared in ruins. Trinity parish is an offshoot from the King's
Chapel congregation. In 1728 that church had become so crowded that it was pro-
posed to erect a new Episcopal church for the southern part of the town. It was not,
however, until 1734, that the corner-stone of Trinity was laid at the corner of Hawley
and Summer Streets. In 1735 the building was opened for worship, and some
years later the Rev. Addington Davenport became its first rector. The original
edifice was of wood, with neither tower nor external ornament. It was a plain,
barn-like structure, with a gambrel roof, and standing gable-end to Summer Street.
Inside, however, it was the most elegant church of the day in Boston. General
Washington attended service in the old Trinity Church when he was in Boston in
1789. This church very early became one of the most famous Episcopal churches
in Massachusetts. Its rectors were men of remarkable eloquence, and perhaps there
have been more bishops appointed from the list of its ministers and assistant minis-
ters than from any other church in the country. In 1828 the old wooden structure
was taken down, and the late handsome granite structure erected on its site. Until
within a few years the congregation had been well accommodated in and entirely
satisfied with its church building. But the growth of business all about it, driving the
worshippers to the South and West Ends, made Trinity inaccessible to very many
of the old congregation. Just as the church was beginning to languish from this
cause, the Rev. Phillips Brooks became its rector, and the condition of affairs was
quickly changed. Previously members of the congregation who found themselves
inconvenienced by the distance to church quietly dropped away and went somewhere
else. This was not now to be thought of. The pews were all taken and all filled,
and there arose a clamor for a removal to a more eligible situation. All the prelim-
inary steps had been taken, and, had the fire not occurred, the building whose ruins
may be seen in our sketch would have been occupied only until a new church could
be erected on the new lands below the Public Garden.
Tremont Temple is one of the - ^-^-^
best kno^\^l halls in the city for "%^^^ -^^^^=~-
public assemblies of all kinds.
It stands on Tremont Street,
directly opposite the Tremont
House, on the site of the old
Tremont Theatre. It covers more
than 1 2, 000 square feet of ground.
The front of Tremont Temple is
covered with mastic, and is sev-
enty-five feet high. Within is
the great audience-room, one
hundred and twenty-four feet
long, seventy-two feet wide, and
fifty feet hi^h, with its deep,
encircling galleries. It was in
this hall that Mr. Charles Dick-
ens gave his readings in Boston
on his last visit to America, and
it was selected on account of its
great capacity and admirable
acoustic properties. The hall is
very plain indeed. Even the
organ, which often adds so much tremont temple
to the appearance of halls and churches, is merely hidden behind a screen, and is
without a case. The Temple is occupied on Sundays by the Tremont Street Bap-
tist Church for its services. The Young Men's Christian Association has its quarters
in this building, and there is, beneath the Temple proper, a smaller temple, — the
Meionaou. From the cupola of the building, which is, however, not very accessible,
a fine view of Boston and the surrounding country is to be had.
Standing on Tremont Street, at the head of Hamilton Place, and looking down
the place, one may see a plain and lofty brick wall without ornament or architec-
tural pretensions of any sort. The building is the Boston ]\lusic Hall, one of the
noblest public halls in the world, and the pride of every music-lover of Boston.
This hall was built by private enterprise, and first opened to the j)ublic in 1852, It
^ has ever since been
of musical enter-
tainmeut in the
city. It would re-
quire more space
than can be devot-
ed to the subject
to give even a list
of the great singers
whose voices have
been heard within
its walls, of the fa-
mous lecturers who
their views here,
and of the numer-
ous fairs for chaii-
table purposes that
have been held in
it. But it is safe
to say that in no
other single hall in
the country have
so many and so
of music been performed, and that no other hall has furnished a platform for so many
distinguished orators during the past twenty years. The acoustic properties of the
hall are perfect. Indeed, it is, as Dr. Holmes has well said, " a kind of jmssive nuisical
instrument, or at least a sounding-board constructed on theoretical principles." It is
one hundred and thirty feet in length, seventy-eight in breadth, and sixty-five in
height. The height is half of the length, and the breadtli is six-tenths of the length,
the unit being thirteen feet. No one who has been inside the hall needs to be told of its
architectural beauty, its spaciousness, its entire suitability to the purpose for which it
was designed. The brilliant light shed down from the hundreds of gas-jets encircling
the wall far above the upper balcony is something to be remembered. The fine statue
of Apollo, the admirable casts presented by Miss Cliarlotte Cushman and placed in the
walls, and above all the magnificent statue of Beethoven, by Crawford, standing in
THE ORGAN IN MUSIC HALL.
BOSTON ILL USTRA TED.
front of tlie organ, deserve the attention of every visitor to the hall. But all these
•works of art are speedily forgotten in the presence of the glorious instrument that is
the chief ornament and attraction of the Music Hall. The organ was contracted for
in 1856, with Herr E. Fr. Walcker of Ludwigsburg, Wurtemberg, and was set up and
formally inaugurated on the 2d of November, 1863, in the presence of an immense
and delighted audience. Hundreds of thousands of people have since listened to its
grand and beautiful tones. The organ contains iive thousand four hundred and
seventy-four pipes, of which no less than six hundred and ninety are in the jiedal
organ ; and it has eighty-four complete registers. Its architecture is exceedingly
rich and appropriate, and a close inspection is necessary to reveal the beauties of
which only the general effect can be here reproduced. Only those who have been
inside the great instrument know how complete and thorough was the work. Even
the brass pipes that imitate the trumpet are shaj)ed like the orchestral trumpet, and
are of polished brass ; and the series of flutes are of choice wood, turned and var-
nished, fashioned like actual flutes, and fitted with embouchures of brass. It is in
all its parts the most perfect, as it is on the whole the largest, organ in the country.
The whole cost of the organ and its case was upwards of ^ 60,000,
The Boston Museum, near the head of Tremont Street, is one of the oldest of the
places of amusement in Boston. In 1841, Mr. Moses Kimball and associates opened
the " Boston Muse-
um and Gallery of
Fine Arts," in a
building erected for
the purpose at the
corner of Tremont
and Bromfield Sts.
In connection with
the museum, it had
a fine music-hall,
capable of seating
twelve hundred peo-
ple, where the dra-
ma very soon found
a home. The suc-
cess of the venture
was so great that
the present build-
ing was erected in
1846, and the first
given in it on the
2d of November in
that year. The mu-
seum proper is very large and interesting. It occupies numerous alcoves in the large
hall on Tremont Street, the hall being furnished with several capacious galleries,
which are all filled with curiosities and works of art. The theatre is large and well
ventilated, comfortably furnished and finely decorated. It is managed witli liberal
shrewdness. The *' star " system is wholly discarded, and the dramas are represented
by an excellent stock company. The veteran William Warren, who became con-
nected with this theatre the second season, and has been a member of the company
every year but one since, is a host in himself. Several other actors and actresses
have been at the Museum so long that they would hardly be at home on any other
stage. This theatre is a very great favorite with all classes of patrons of the drama.
It used to be called the "Orthodox theatre" on account of the distinction made
by some good people who objected to dramatic entertainment in general, but saw
no harm in attending the representation of plays at tlie I\Iuseum. The Museum is
now under the administration of Mr. R. M. Field, who has occupied the position
of manager for nearly ten years.
The Boston Theatre is situated on the west side of Washington Street, between
Avery and West Streets. It is the largest regular place of amusement in New Eng-
land, and is in
many respects one
of the finest. The
play was most lim-
ited, and no hint
whatever is given
of the lofty and
um by the external
appearance of the
theatre is owned
by a stock compa-
ny, but is managed
by private enter-
prise. Itwas erect-
ed in 1854, and was
I opened on the 11th
of September of
that year, under
the management of
]\Ir. Thomas Bar-
ry. There is a
connected with this theatre, but there is almost always a "star " performer to attract
the multitude, — and a very large multitude can be accommodated within it.
This is the house usually engaged for the representation of Italian, German, and
English Opera. Most of the great American actors, and many distinguished
foreign actors and actresses, have appeared upon this stage. Jeff"erson and Owens,
Booth and Forrest, Fechter and Sothern, Ristori and Janauschek, and a host of
others whose names are famous in the annals of the stage, have here delighted the
Boston public within the last five years alone ; while of opera-singers may be men-
tioned Nilsson, and Parepa Rosa, and Kellogg, and Phillipps. The Boston Theatre
is now under the management of Mr, J. B. Booth.
The Globe Theatre is the newest and one of the most attractive of the theatres of
Boston. It was built in 1867 by Messrs. Arthur Cheney and Dexter H. Follett, and
opened in October of that year as Selwyn's Theatre, Mr. John H. Selwyn being
the manager. After .
three years of suc-
Mr. Selwjn retired,
and was succeeded
by Mr. Charles Feeb-
ler, who had, a fe^^
months before, car-
ried Boston bystoim
by his acting at the
Boston Theatre. Mi
al experience in Bos-
ton was brief, and
he, in turn, gave way
to Mr. W. R. Floyd,
who is now the man-
ager. Mr. Chene}
meanwhile had be-
come the sole ownei
of the theatre. The
name of the house
was changed to the
Globe on the retiie-
ment of ^Mr. Selwyn
The decoration of
the auditorium is le-
markablv tasteful ^"^ globe theatre before the fire of may 30, 1873.
and brilliant. Although very rich colors are employed, the harmony and comple-
mentary appropriateness of each to the other are so perfect that there is no approach
to gaudiness. The stage appointments have always been unexceptionable under the
several managements ; so that while one is listening to the words of the play, the eye,
as well as the ear, is gratified. Mr. Charles Mathews, Mr. John E. Owens, Miss Char-
lotte Cushman, and Miss Carlotta LeClercq may be mentioned among others who
have played star engagements during the last two years. *
Freemasonry has long been in a very flourishing condition in Boston, and, indeed,
* Wliile these sheets are passing through the press (May 30), a disastrous fire, originating in Haley,
Morse, & Co.'s furniture-rooms, communicated to, and completely destroyed, the Globe Theatre and
adjacent buildings, stopping just short of Miller's piano-forte factory.
in Massachusetts. After the po-
litical excitement against the
order, thirty or forty years ago,
had died out, there Avas a re-
action in its favor, and since that
time it has had hardly a check
to its progi-ess. The fine building
now used for the United States
courts was used as the head-quar-
ters of the order until the limits
were outgrown. Subsequently the
several organizations, or a large
number of them, were gathered in
the building adjoining the Win-
throp House, at the corner of Tre-
mont and Boylston Streets. Both
the hotel and the halls were de-
stroyed by fire on tlie night of
April 7, 1864. It was then deter-
mined to build a temple worthy
of the order on the same site.
The corner-stone was laid with im-
posing ceremonies on the 1 4th of
October of the same year, and the temple, having been wholly completed, was dedicated
on the Freemasons' anniversary,
^ St. John's Day, June 22, 1867.
On the latter occasion President
Johnson was present, having
accepted an invitation to par-
ticipate in the ceremonies,
which drew together delega-
tions of brethren of the order
I from all parts of Massachusetts
and New England. The build-
ing is of very fine granite, and
has a front of eighty-five fecit
on Tremont Street. Its height
is ninety feet, though one of
the octagonal towers rises to
the height of one hundred and
twenty-one feet. It has seven
stories above the basement, of
which only the street floor is
occupied for other than mason-
ic purposes. There are three
large halls for meetings on the
second, fourth, and sixth floors,
finished respectively in the Corinthian, Egyptian, and Gothic styles. On the in-
termediate floors are anterooms, smaU halls, and offices ; while m the seventh story
are three large banqneting-haUs. Both in its external appearance and m its internal
arrangements this temple is a credit to the order and an ornament to the city.
AVithui the limits of the district we have described are, as we have said, most of
the daily newspapers and most of the weeklies. The Boston Post occupies at present
the greater part of the buHding at the comer of Water and Devonshire streets, oppo-
site the new Post-Office. The first number of the Post was issued on the 9th of No-
vember, 1831, by Charles G. Greene. In that first number the editor promised to
exclude from its columns everything of a vindictive or bitter character," and although
he announced his intention to discuss public questions freely and fearlessly, he agreed
to do so "in a manner that, if it failed to convince, should not off-end. The prom-
ise has been faithfully kept. The Post has frequently maintained the unpopular side
in political controversies, but it has always done so in such a manner as to make
almost as manv friends among tho.e it opposed as among persons of its own political
faith. It has also al^^a3s maintiincd a leputation foi Inelmess and cheeiful humor
that has been well
deserved. The Post
was first published
in its present com-
on the morning of
March 29, 1869.
The projected street
the site of the build-
ing to such extensive
curtailment that it
will be no longer
available for its pres-
ent use. The pro-
prietors of the Post
have therefore pur-
chased the lot on
Milk Street adjoin-
ing the new Tran-
script office, already
noticed as the spot
where Franklin was
born, and will erect
another office, in
which they hope to
remainundisturbed. view in Washington street globe ofkk:e
The onlv other strictly morning paper to be noticed is the Globe, the first number of
which was issued from its present office March 4, 1872. It is printed in quarto form,
and is always exceedingly creditable typograpliically. The Globe is professedly in-
dependent in politics, tboiigh it gave the Republican candidates in the last campaign
a support hardly differing from partisanship. It is already favorably known by the
excellence of its literary criticism,, and its business success is most encouraging.
The Transcript was the pioneer of the evening press in Boston, and is, next to the
Advertiser, the oldest daily newspaper in the city. It was first published in July,
1830, and the senior
partner of the orig-
inal linn is still the
head of the house.
The experunent was
for some timp one
of doubtful success,
but now no paper
in Boston is more
During the entire
period of its publi-
cation it has had but
of whom the present
editor is now in the
twenty-first year of
his service. The
Transcript has al-
ways been a pleas-
ant, chatty, tea-
table paper, full of
fresh news, literary
gossip, and choice
extracts from what-
ever in any branch
J of literature is new
WASHINGTON STREET : TRANSCRIPT OFFICE BEFORE THE FIRE. aud entertaining.
A year ago it was supposed to be permanently established in a fine four-story granite
structure, with a double mansard roof. It was, however, very unfortunate in the fire.
The basement was supposed to be fire-proof, and when the flames ap])roached the build-
ing, all the material of the office was removed to this basement, which was then se-
curely closed. But an attempt was made to stop the flames at the corner of Milk Street
by blowing up the low building at the left of the Transcript office. The powder did
not prove of much use in stopping the fire, but it did burst in the basement-wall of
the Transcript building, and irretrievably ruin the valuable presses and material stored
there. After this mishap the Transcript was domiciled for a few months with the
Globe, and is now located in an office on Court Avenue. The widening of Washing-
ton Street compelled the proprietors to extend their estate by purchasing the corner-
lot adjoining, which is shown in our sketch, and on this conspicuous site they will
immediately erect a fine new office.
The Evening Traveller occupies a building at the comer of State and Congress
Streets, — quarters in which it has been established since 1854. The Daily Traveller
was first issued on the 1st of April, 1845, as a two-cent evening paper, — the first in
Boston to adopt a price so low. The weekly American Traveller had then been
issued more than twenty years, having been first published in January, 1825. In its
day the American Traveller w^as the great paper for stage-coaches and steamboats.
When the daily was founded, it adopted a course quite different from that of any
other paper in Boston. It aimed to be a moral and religious organ as well as a
medium of news. The old traditions are still retained to some extent in the Travel-
ler, but it long ago adopted the purveyance of news as its leading object. In this
particular its reputation is firmly established, the new^s department, under a liberal
management, being always fresh and well arranged. The arrangement of the Travel-
ler office is similar to that of the other offices that have been mentioned, with one
or two exceptions. The great value of space in State Street has led the Traveller to
share its counting-
room with others.
One corner of the
room is occupied by
a telegraph - office,
and in the two cor-
ners on State Street
are located, in rath-
er narrow quarters,
es ; and above, on
the third and fourth
floors are to be found
the composition and
editorial rooms. A
view of the Travel-
ler building is given
in the illustration
of State Street.
The Boston Jour-
nal is both a morn-
ing and an evening
paper. The second
and third pages al
ways contain the la
test news, in Avhat
ever edition it is
sought. The Jour-
nal long ago ob-
tained an excellent
reputation as a general newspaper, both for the counting-room and the family circle.
It has a very large sale throughout Massachusetts, Maine, and New Hampshire,
VIEW IN WASHINGTON STREET,
and in consequence of the peculiar character of its constituency has always been
especially strong in its New England intelligence. The Journal was founded in 1833,
appearing for the first time on February 5 of that year as the Evening Mercantile
Journal. On beginning the publication of a morning edition, it took its present
name. The Journal was the first newspaper in Boston to procure a Hoe press. It
now uses two, — one of six cylinders, and the other of eight. The present building
was occupied in September, 1860. Its arrangement is siniilar to that of other
papers already described.
The Boston Herald is also a morning and evening paper, and enjoys a very great
popularity. It was first issued in 1846 as a one-cent paper, and this price it main-
^ __ ^ ^ tained until the general rise of prices
-_^_^7": - _ during the war. The Herald circulates
a very large number of copies, its daily
issue being exceeded by only one or two
newspapers in the country. It is the
only one of the Boston papers that has
yet adopted the practice of stereotyping
its "forms," and this course it was com-
pelled to adopt by the imi)ossibility of
printing the requisite number of copies
in the time at its disposal. The Herald
is also the only daily of those already
named that publishes a Sunday issue.
In addition to the newspapers men-
tioned there are two other dailies, —
the Times, an evening paper, and the
News, published morning and evening,
and sold for two cents each ; the Times,
like the Herald, publishing a Sunday
issue. There are also many other week-
ly newspapers, weekly, political, relig-
ious, agricultural, pictorial, and literary,
many of them with very large circula-
tion, and conducted with marked abil-
ity. There are no less than five Sun-
day papers, a number that is hardly
exceeded by any city in the country.
And there is probably no other busi-
ness that has experienced a more uninterrupted prosperity for the past ten years, or
that has resulted in more satisfactory returns to the pockets of the investors, than
the business of newspaper publishing in Boston.
The fine hall of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association stands upon
the northwest corner of Bedford and Chauncy Streets. This association, of which
Paul Revere was the first president, had been agitating the question of erecting a
hall for more than half a century before the steps were finally taken that resulted
in the building of this structure. The land Avas bought in December, 1856, for
$31,000. It fronts
ninety-three feet on
Cliauncy Street, and
sixty-five feet on
Bedford Street. The
building was imme-
diately begun upon
a plan designed by
and it was comi)leted
and dedicated in
March, 1860, at a
cost, including land,
of about $320,000.
It is constructed of
dark freestone in a
modification of the
style of architecture.
During the erection
of the City Hall the
building was occu-
pied by the offices
of the city gov-
large hall and
ing rooms on
the second floor
are now used by
Board of Trade
and the Na-
tional Board of
A fine piece of
tural Hall, on
field Street and
Place. It was
erected by the
HORTICULTURAL HALL AND STUDIO BUILDING.
Horticultural Society, and is one of the most perfectly classical buildings in the
city. It is built of fine-grained white granite, beautifully dressed, and the exte-
rior is massive and elegant in proportion. The front is surmounted by a granite
statue of Ceres. The lower floor is occupied for business purposes, and above are
two halls, not very large, yet adapted not only to their original purpose, for the
meetings and exhibitions of the society, but for parlor concerts, lectures, social
gatherings, and fairs. The series of Sunday afternoon lectures delivered in this
building during each winter for several years past have made Horticultural Hall
almost as well known in this country as Exeter Hall is in England, On the oppo-
site corner of Bromfield Street stands the Studio Building. This structure is occu-
pied on the street floor by six large stores, while above is a perfect hive of artists.
This building, indeed, is the head- (Quarters of the artists of Boston, though many of
them are located elsewhere. There are delightful artists' receptions here, to which
the general public is invited. Besides the devotees of art, there are many private
teachers of music and the languages in the Studio Building, and not a few of the
rooms are occupied as bachelors' apartments.
The building occupied by the Mason & Hamlin Cabinet Organ Company for their
warerooms on Tremont Street is a marble structure of great architectural beauty,
which has added not a little to the
— attractiveness of Tremont Street, and
-^ has aided in drawing business down
that avenue below Temple Place. It
was begun in the spring of 1866, and
was completed in the following
spring, at a cost of about $175,000.
The Mason and Hamlin Company is
more extensively engaged in manufac-
turing reed musical instruments than
any other establishment in the world.
It has turned out upwards of sixty
thousand instruments in the eighteen
years since the business was begun,
and the business has increased three-
fold in the last seven years. The
company is now exporting many in-
struments of its manufacture to Eu-
rope. It has two extensive manufacto-
ries, one on Cambridge Street, Bos-
ton, and the other in Cambridge.
At the corner of Washington Street
and Central Court is the elegant build-
ing occupied by Jordan, Marsh, & Co.
VIEW IN TREMONT STREET. 9,8 a retail dry-goods store. It has
a fine front of dark freestone, eighty feet long on Washington Street and five
stories high. The street floor and basement only were at first occupied by the firm.
The second floor was used as a warerooni by Chickering & Sons, the rear being
finished off into a beautiful hall, while the upper floors were let to lodgers.
The whole building is now occupied by the firm, and the wholesale depart-
ment has been removed from Devonshire Street to a new building in the rear.
The two structures cover a surface of from 20,000 to 23,000 square feet, and are
connected by an excavated passage-way. Each building is furnished with a pas-
senger and a freight elevator, all of them operated by a stationary engine in
the passage-way between the two buildings. This collection of bniklings was in
during the great
tire, but fortu-
nately no dam-
age was done
The Old Cor-
by Messrs. A.
Williams & Co.,
is one of the
standing in the
city. The exact
date of its erec-
tion is not
known, but the
preceded it on
the same site
by the great
fire of October,
1711, and in a
a year, the Old
was erected. jordan, marsh, and co.'s building.
The history of this store has been very carefully and completely traced from its first
occupation as an apothecary's shop, by the builder, Mr. Thomas Crease, to its reversion
to the original use in 1817. In 1828 Messrs. Carter and Hendee took it for a book-
store, and to that use it has ever since been devoted. Four years after the date just
mentioned, Messrs. Allen and Ticknor, the lineal ancestors of the present house of
James R. Osgood & Co., took this position, and retained it under the successive man-
agement of William D. Ticknor, Ticknor, Eeed, ^^ Fields, and Ticknor & Fields, until
OT.D CORNER BOOKSTOKH.
1865, when the last-
named firm removed
to the quarters on
Tremont Street now
occupied by their
successors. The Old
Corner Store com-
bines excellence of
situation with a sort
(if rambling pictu-
resqiieness that has
made it a great fa-
vorite with lovers of
books. It stands in
very nearly its origi-
inal form, and is one
of the best and most
of a style of archi-
tecture that has gone
wholly out of vogue.
The present quarters of
the publishing-house of
James R. Osgood & Co.,
successors to Ticknor &
Fields and Fields, Osgood,
& Co., arc in the first of a
row of buihlings that reach
from Hamilton Place to
Winter Street, on Tremont
Street. A generation ago
tliese fine granite-front
structures were among the
most elegant private man-
sions in the city. One by
one they have all been given
up to business. Their size
and arrangement adapted
them admirably for trans-
formation into stores, and
for several years the pub-
lishers found the corner
store quite adequate to their
wants. But they have now
decided to remove once
more, this time into the
BOSTON ILL USTIIA TED.
very heart of the wholesale trade. Our frontispiece gives a view of the building that
is to occupy the corner of Franklin and Federal Streets, and to be occupied by Messrs.
Eand, Avery, & Co. and James R. Osgood k Co. as soon as completed. The printers
and publishers will thus be brought into closer relations. This house issues five period-
icals, — the North American Review, the Atlantic Monthly, Our Young Folks, Every
Saturday, and the Practical Magazine. It retains all the important literary relations
and the valuable copyrights which have been acquired during forty years under
its various names. Among its authors are Longfellow, Whittier, Emerson, Haw-
thorne, Lowell, Holmes, Mrs. Stowe, Tennyson, Dickens, Thackeray, and many
others of the first authors of America and England.
The magnificent marble structure which formerly stood on Washington Street, and
was occupied by Macullar, Williams, & Parker for their great wholesale and retail
clothing manufactory and salesroom was built by the trustees of the Sears estate.
Its fine marble front was very
striking, and its internal arrange-
ments were as perfect as its archi-
tectuVe. At the time of its erec-
tion it was the largest building in
the world wholly devoted to the
business of clothing manufacture.
It fronted forty feet on Washington
Street, and extended back to Haw-
ley Street two hundred and fifty feet.
This building was destroyed in the
fire of November, but its front was
left standing, — to be pulled down
by order of the City Council.
The Sears Building, on the corner
of Court and Washington Streets,
is one of the finest, as it was also
for its size one of the costliest.
The land was bought and the work
of tearing down the old buildings
was begun in June, 1868. The
foundation was laid in July, and
within a year the new building was
occupied. It has a front of fifty-
five feet on Washington Street,
and of one hundred and forty-nine
feet on Court Street. It is built
in the Italian-Gothic style of archi- macullar, williams, and parker's building.
tecture, the external walls being constructed of gray and white marble, the contrast
of which is highly pleasing. The price paid for the land on which this building stands
was $356,000, which was at the rate of about forty-three dollars a square foot, and
the building itself brought the entire cost of the property up to about three quarters
of a million dollars. It is furnished within in a style of great elegance, and is occu-
BOSTON ILL US TEA TED.
pied by two banks, several insurance companies, a score or more of railroad compa-
nies, engineers, treasurers of companies, etc. A steam elevator of the best pattern
conveys passengers from the street-floor to the highest story. This elegant structure
appears on the right of our large view on page 50.
The crookedness of "Washington Street is not in all respects a disadvantage. It
permits many fine buildings to be seen to better advantage than they would be if the
street had been laid out in a straight
line. In passing along the street, one
of the most prominent buildings, and
one of the most recent additions to
the fine architecture of the street, is
the banking-house of the Mercantile
Savings Institution. This is, how-
ever, an old building •\nth a new front,
and otherwise reconstructed. The
new front is of veined marble, rest-
ing on three columns of highly pol-
ished red Quincy granite. The elegant
steps which give access to the basement
and the first story are of pure white
marble. "Within, the apartment of the
bank, which occupies the whole of the
first story, is finished in black Avalnut,
the walls are tastefully frescoed, and
the floors and counters are of marble.
Artemus Ward, in a saying which has
become proverbial, located Harvard
College in the billiard-room of Par-
ker's, on School Street. But it is
not with the Harvard students alone
that the Parker House is a favorite.
Charles Dickens, who had, of course, a
predilection for a hotel on the Euro-
pean plan, gave it the name of being
the best house at which he had been
a guest in America. The proprietors
of the Parker House began in a small
way in another building, and gained
a reputation for providing the best
that the market aflbrded, which they
have never suffered themselves to lose.
Their present quarters are elegant ex-
ternally, and sumptuously furnished
within. The house is patronized very
extensively by persons travelling for pleasure, and is a universal favorite with visitors
as well as citizens. Its prosperity is so great that the proprietors have found it
necessary to make an addition of two stones to their present building, and to pur-
chase an estate on Tremont Street, which has given the hotel a much-needed entrance
from that thronged avenue. This new addition consists of a six-story marble build-
ing of fine architectural appearance.
"We end this chapter as we began it, with a view in State Street. This time
our sketch shows the magnificent row of warehouses at the lower end of State
Street, known as State Street Block, which contains some of the most substan-
tially built and commodious stores in Boston. The former proprietors having
filled in the dock between Long and Central Wharves, and having driven about
eight thousand piles, began to lay the foundations of this structure in December,
1856. The lots were
sold by auction in
June, 1857, one of
the terms of the sale
being that the pur-
chaser should erect
upon the lot bought
a building in accord-
ance with a specified
plan, so as to make
the entire block
uniform. The lots
brought prices ran-
ging from $18.75
down to$5.37|- per
superficial foot. The
building, or rather
the collection of
covers an area 425
feet long on State
and Central Streets,
and is of a uniform
depth of 125 feet.
The walls are laid in rough granite ashlar. The stores have each five stories and
a double attic above the street, and the height of the buildings from the street to
the cro-svn of the roof is about 92 feet. The general appearance of this block
of fifteen stores is of extreme solidity and of complete adaptation to the purpose
for which they were designed. The excellence of construction was proved by fire
but a week after the great conflagration of November, 1872, when one of these
stores, filled with exceedingly combustible material, was wholly destroyed without
doing injury to the stores on either side.
Many other wharves in Boston besides Long "Wharf are covered with solid and
eapacious warehouses, though this State Street Block is the largest and most ele-
gant of all. The visitor in the city will find agreeable occupation for many a
leisure hour in wandering about the wharves, where there is, under the revival of
THE PARKER HOUSE.
commerce in Boston, a perpetual scene of activity. The most important wharves in
Boston proper are those in the immediate vicinity of State Street, — especially Cen-
tral, India, and T Wharves, where most of the large steamers in the coasting trade
arrive, and whence they depart. Atlantic Avenue, which is rapidly becoming an
important channel of communication between the several wharves, passes directly
across the foreground of our view of State Street Block.
The retail trade
of the Central Dis-
trict of Boston is
chiefly transacted in
that section bounded
on the east by Wash-
ington Street, the
greater part of the
and the Avharves be-
ing given up to
The ladies' quarter
has its centre at the
corner of Washing-
ton and Winter Sts.
On any pleasant day
the sidewalks and
stores in the imme-
diate vicinity of
that corner are
crowded with ladies
engaged in the de-
lightful occupation of " shopping," and the streets are lined with their carriages.
The railroads have made it possible for the inhabitants of the cities and towns
of half Massachusetts to make their ordinary purchases in Boston, and the large
proportion of ladies carrying little travelling-bags is an indication of the extent to
which advantage is taken of the possibility.
STATE STREET BLOCK.
V. THE SOUTH END.
HE South End of Boston, as tlie term is now understood, is a district of
residences. It is true tliat Washington Street, throughout its whole
length, is given up almost entirely to retail trade, and that a considerable
^ amount of business is done on other streets. There are too, here and
there, large manufactories that are not to be overlooked. But, generally speaking,
Boylston Street divides the business of the city on the north from the residences on
the south. It is mipossible to predict how long this state of things will continue.
Boston business is rapidly expanding, and the room to do it in must expand likewise.
The current is setting decidedly to the south, and year by year new advances are
made in that direction, by both wholesale and retail trade. It is the firm belief
of many that Cohimbus Avenue will ultimately become a great retail business
.street, but that is looking far into the future. Yet it can have escaped no one's
observation, that the district between Boylston Street and the Albany Railroad is in
the state of transition that invariably precedes the full occupation of a position by
trade. But we must
speak of the existing
lines of division ; and
for our purposes \><i
regard as the South
End, given up to re-)-
idences, all the ter-
ritory bounded on
the north and west
by Essex, Boylston,
and the Boston and
and south by the
old Roxbury line.
The face of the
country in this part
of the city is for the
most part level ; and
indeed a very large
part of the territory
was reclaimed from
the sea. A great
, (-.IT, VIEW IN CHESTER SQUARE.
number oi the horse-
ears run to the "Neck," but the South End is no longer a neck of land. There
are many among us who remember when Tremont Street was but a shell road
across flats. ITow it is a spacious avenue lined with imposing structures, as may
be seen in our large view. Only a few public spaces were reserved in this part of the
city. Franklin and Blackstone Squares are merely open spaces, — of gi'eat value, to be
sure, for breathing purposes, but incapable, both from their small size and from their
flatness, of being made very beautiful. Union Park, Worcester Square, and Chester
Square have been made desirable for residence and for public resort by simple and
inexpensive means. The last-named has long been a favorite street for dwelling-
houses, many of which are very elegant and costly. Through the avenue runs a
park, narrow at the ends, but swelling out in the centre, in which are trees and
flowers, with a fountain and a fish-pond, making the park a deliciously cool and
pleasant spot in midsummer. JSIost of the streets, other than those we have
named, though generally pleasant, are somewhat monotonous in their appearance.
One street, which is not an exception to the rule of monotony, but which is never-
theless a favorite place for residences, is Columbus Avenue. This is one of the
longest straight streets in the city. It is laid out in a direct line from West Chester
Park to Park Square, but has thus far only been completed to Berkeley Street. It
has been paved for the greater part of its length with wood, and this partially
explains its popularity, for it is chosen, on account of its even pavement, as a
drivewaj', by great numbers of public and private carriages, making it always a
lively street, though never a noisy one. Columbus Avenue ends in a pleasant little
square at its junction M-ith AVest Chester Park, and when it shall have been wholly
built up, this will be one of the most delightful spots at the South End.
There are but few public buildings in this section of the city, and we begin by
GIRLS HIGH AND NORMAL bCHOOL.
giving a view of one that should be characteristic of the district, as well as illus-
trative of the admirable school buildings for which Boston is celebrated, the last and
best school-house provided by the city for the education of youth. The Girls' Higlj
and Normal School is built upon a lot fronting 200 feet on West Newton and
Pembroke Streets, and 154 feet in depth. The building itself has a front on each
street of 144 feet, and a depth of 131 feet. The school has a capacity equal to the
accommodation of 1225 j^^ipils. The total cost of the land and the building was
$310,717, of which about $60,000 was paid for the land, and $16,000 for the fur-
nishing. It Avould be impossible within our limits to give even a brief description of
this perfect school-house. It has an abundance of rooms for every department of
the school, for museums, and collections of all kinds of articles necessary to the in-
struction here given. There are no less than sixty-six separate apartments, exclusive
of halls, passages, and corridors. They are all well lighted and cheerful. The
entire building is supplied with hot air, radiated from apparatus located in the
cellar, and is ventilated in the most thorough manner. The large hall in the upper
story has received, through the generosity of a number of ladies and gentlemen, a
large collection of casts of sculpture and statuary. Every room is placed in direct
communication with the master's room by means of electric bells and speaking-
tubes. On the roof is an octagonal structure, which is designed to be used as an
astronomical observatory. In every respect this school-house is suited to the purpose
for which it was designed, and is a credit to the city.
Within a few years
the French "flat''
system of dwellings
has been very exten-
sively adopted in
Boston. There are
now as many as
twenty great "ho-
tels," as they are
called, divided into
suites of apartments
where families may
lodge and "keep
house" all on one
floor. These suites
are of various sizes,
and are variously ar-
ranged, but the prin-
ciple is the same.
There are, too, very
many houses former-
ly used as single re-
sidences, that are
WASHINGTON STREET, WITH CONTINENTAL HOTEL. nOW let OUt tO ten-
ants, wlio take all the rooms on one floor; and again there are "family" liotels,
where the apartments are arranged for the most part in suites, but where there
are no kitchens, thus obliging the guests to take their meals at a restaurant, or at
a table d'hote. But ^_=_^^ _ __= _ -^
we have now to do _ ^ " =-^^ ^ '^'^"^ 21 _
with the French —-=-=- --—=^== ^-
system, pure and
simple, which is il-
lustrated in the im-
mensely long and
nental Hotel, in the
Hotel Berkeley, and
the Hotel Boylston.
In structures of this
class, a family rents
a suite of rooms all
upon one floor.
Each suite has its
own front door, —
opening into a gen-
eral hall, to be sure,
-—with an entry hall, parlor, dining and sleeping rooms, kitchen, etc. It is a house in
itself. The tenant is generally relieved of the necessity of buying fuel, the heat being
supplied by steam from the basement. Except that he uses the same street-door,
the same staircases, and the same hall with his fellow-tenants, he is as isolated from
the rest of the Avorld as lie Avould be in a house of his own. The Hotel Pelham,
on the corner of Boylston and Tremont Streets, was the first hotel of this kind
erected in Boston, but of late the system has become exceedingly popular, and the
demand so far exceeds the supply that proprietors are able to ask and to obtain
large prices for rent. One of the most elegant of this class of dwelling-houses is
the Hotel Boylston, opposite the Hotel Pelham and the Masonic Temple. It has
been but recently erected by the Hon. Charles Francis Adams. Its architecture is
remarkably pleasing and tasteful, and its location gives it a great advantage over
some other fine buildings that must be examined, if at all, from the opposite side
of a narroAV street. The interior has been arranged with great care to fit it for
occupation by families, and its central location, added to its own excellence and
elegance, have already made it a great favorite Avith those who are fortunate enough
to have their domicile beneath its roof.
Some also of the largest hotels of the old-fashioned sort in the city are within the
South End district. "We give a sketch of one, — the St. James. It was built by Mr.
M. M. Ballon, and opened in April, 1868. Standing as it does upon N'ewton Street,
facing Franklin Square, the beauty of its proportions may be seen to the best ad-
vantage. It is elegantly finished and furnished throughout, with all the appliances
of a modern hotel, including a passenger elevator Avorked by steam. The great din-
ing-hall is capable of seating two hundred and fifty people. Some of the rooms in
this house are most sumptuously furnished. During the short time it has been open,
BOSTON ILL USTR A TED.
ST. JAMES HOTEL
Among a great number of churches in this part of the city, only a
few can be mentioned. Most prominent ah-eady, though it is norj'et
completed, is the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, on AVashington and
Maiden Streets. Tlie corner-stone of this church was laid in the
summer of 1867. An army of workmen has since been engaged upon
it at all seasons when building was possible, but it is still far from
completion. The great tower at the southwest corner will be 300 feet
high, and so immensely high are the walls of the church,
and so large is the surface of ground covered by it, that
this height is only in strict proportion to the other dimen-
sions of the structure. Already a small chapel — small,
however, only in
the rest of the . ^^. .^-^ X^^^=^
building — has ^ "^ ^ ^ ^ ~
been finished, and
its gorgeousness of
color and the ele-
gance of the fit-
tings and ornamen-
tation exceed that
of any other church
in New England.
It is promised that
even this shall be
surpassed by the
decoration of the
It is claimed that
CATHEDRAL OF THE HOLY CROSS.
it has had for guests
persons, chief among
whom is President
Grant. Another ho-
tel, and a most ele-
gant one, is the
and Springfield Sts.
The material of the
tronts on each of
these streets is mar-
ble, and the hotel is
finely finished and
when the great auditorium shall have been finished, its numerous and wide en-
trances will permit the exit of a full congi'egation more rapidly and easily than
any other church in Boston. Probably something of the same spirit that led
the Old South Society to insert over its church-door a tablet recording the fact
that it was "desecrated by British soldiers" during the Revolution, and that
led the people of the Brattle Square Church to build the cannon-ball from Bun-
ker Hill into the wall of their edifice, has inspired the Roman Catholics to
construct a part of the wall of this cathedral with brick from the ruins of the
Ursuline Convent in Somerville. That convent was burned in 1834, and the
ruin being at that time a more effective reminder of the popular hostility to
the sect than a new convent would be^ it was never rebuilt. It is somewhat
singular that the Catholics have suffered less in Boston from proscriptive laws
and the activity of religionists opposed to them than the Baptists or the Episcopa-
lians. In 1647 a law was passed prohibiting any ecclesiastic ordained by the
authority of the Pope or See of Rome from coming into the colony, but there is
no evidence that it was ever enforced, or that any one ever suffered in person or
property in Massachusetts by the authority of the government exercised against
the Roman Catholic faith. In 1788 a Catholic chapel was dedicated. It is prob-
able that services had been held in Boston long before, but neither, then, nor
before, nor since, so far as the records show, was any attempt made to suppress
them. Contrasted with their lot, the imprisoned and banished Baptists, the pro-
scribed Episcopalians, and the executed Quakers, had a hard time indeed.
Not very far distant from the Cathedral, on Harrison Avenue, are the Church of
the Immaculate Conception and Boston College (which is under the auspices of the
Catholics), side by side. The church Avas begun in 1857, and dedicated in 1861-
CKURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION AND BOSTON COLLEGE.
It is a solid structure of granite, without tower or spire. Above the entrance on
Harrison Avenue is a statue of the Virgin Mary, with an inscription in Latin,
while above all stands a statue of the Saviour, with outstretched arms. The
interior of this church is very fine. It is finished mainly in white, except at the
altar end, where the ornamentation is exceedingly rich and in very high colors.
The organ is regarded as one of the most brilliant in the city. This church has
always been noted for the excellence of its music. The college was incorporated in
1863, and has been very successful. The number of students is smaller than in
some of the other colleges in the State ; still, it is increasing, and the class of
young men who here receive higher education is one not reached by the Protestant
colleges. The cost of the church and the college buildings was about $350,000.
Among the many Protestant churches in this district of the city, we Speak of but
one, the Methodist Church, on Tremont Street, between Concord and Worcester.
_i:.;i^ This has long been
regarded as one of
the finest church
edifices in Boston,
as it certainly is the
finest belonging to
the Metliodist de-
nomination. It was
one of the first, if
not the very first,
constructed of the
which has now be-
come so very popu-
lar. The plan of the
church, with its
spires of unequal
height at opposite
corners, is unique,
and the effect is ex-
The society worship-
ping here was for-
merly known as the
Meetings were first
held at the corner of Shawmut Avenue and Canton Street in 1848. A brick church
was built the next year on South AVilliam Street, which was occupied until the
present edifice was dedicated, on the 1st of January, 1862. The structure is in the
plain Gothic style, and stands on a lot 202 feet long and 100 feet in depth. The
entire cost of land, buildings, bell, and furniture, was only $68,000. The land
alone is worth much more than that sum to-day, and the church could not be
replaced, if it were destroyed, for the amount originally paid for the entire estate
of the church.
More than twenty years ago the expediency of establishing a City Hospital was
mooted. The physicians of the city urged it very strongly, and the subject was
much discussed in the City Council. But, like many other projects of the kind, this
METHODIST CHURCH, TREMONT STREET.
one was put off from year to year, althoTigh the necessity for such an institution was
all the time growing greater. At last in 1858 the Legislature gave the city the
necessary authority, and in the last days of December, 1860, a lot of land on the
South Bay territory, owned by the city, was appropriated for a City Hospital. The
work was begun in the fall of 1861, the buildings were dedicated on the 24th of ]\ray,
1864, and opened for the reception of patients the following month. The lot of
land on which the Hospital stands contains nearly seven acres, occupying the entire
square bounded by Concord, Albanj', and Springfield Streets, and Hamson Avenue.
A large tract of land east of Albany Street is also occupied for hospital purposes.
PI Li n ■ fflll.li]llLltslli!iIi_;^'ll/M'-^3
The Hospital proper consists of a central building for administration, pay-patients,
and surgical operating-room ; two pavilions connected with the central building by
con-idors ; and another pavilion for separate treatment. The architectural effect, as
will be seen from our sketch, is very fine. The Hospital receives and treats patients
gratuitously, though many pay for their board, thereby securing separate apartments
and additional privileges. During the 5^ear ending with the month of April, 1872,
there were 3054 patients treated within the Hospital, besides 8947 who were under
medical treatment in the department for out-patients. For the support of the in-
mates of the institution during that year the city paid more than $101,000.
The people of the South End have been, until recently, without any general mar-
ket ; but the want has now been supplied. A great market building was erected in
1870 at the comer of Washington and Lenox Streets, and is thus accessible to the
people both of the South End and of Eoxbury. The building is about two hun-
dred and fifty feet in length, and the lot on which it stands is about one hundred
and twenty feet wide. There are nearly one hundred stalls. This is one of the neatest
and best kept markets in the city. Its stalls are clean and bright as well as roomy,
and the general facilities for doing business here by the market-men from the coun-
trj^ by the occupants of the stores, and by the general public, are of the very best.
On one of the most conspicuous sites at the South End, on the comer of Berkeley
and Tremont Streets, stands the now nearly completed Odd Fellows' Hall. It is a
building of elegant design and of imjiosing appearance. The near expiration of the
lease of the halls now occupied by the order compelled the Odd Fellows to seek quar-
-r-.-. .-_ ^^_ ters from which they
^^^^^^^^g^^^^i" could not be driven.
'--^^f^'' ^-__ rt^^ ^^^ ^^^P ^^'^^ decided
"""^ -=--- upon in January,
1870 ; the Odd Fel-
lows' Hall Associa-
tion was incorpo-
rated by the Legisla-
ture at that time in
session, the money
was raised, the site
purchased, and work
was begun immedi-
ately. The comer-
stone was laid in the
summer of 1871, and
the exterior of the
building was completed before the winter set in. 8in(;e then the interior has
been completed, and the hall has been dedicated and occupied. This structure
feet, and is
granite. It is
in height, of
first or street
The second story contains one audience-hall, with convenient anterooms and
side-rooms ; also six offices on Tremont Street, with entrance from Berkeley
ODD FELLOWS BUILDING.
Street The 'third story has three large working-halls, ^vith suitable ante-
Street, ine ^^"-^"-^ closets- also grand lodge office and grand masters
rooms, side-rooms, and closets , aiso guuiu i g Pommittee
private room, mth other appendages; ^'^^ '^'''^^'Z^tt W nine^ur
^^c Tn the fourth Story is one mammoth hall, fifty-four by mnei} lour,
'Zl^Xt f^Mgh i' the clear fro.n floor to ^^^^^^J^Z
and side-rooms; also a bauciuet-hall, twenty-six by one hundred and ten lee ,
rii I2g ooms and elosets. The root story contains the encampment lU
Ind other avaUahle rooms. The grand entrance to all these halls rs from T.emont
'%t Central Clnh is an organization lately formed^ It be^n in ^ Me ^rde
holding almost infom>al meetings at the St. James Hotel, ni 1869. The nccessitj
for a social ^^ -— - -^__
cluh at the
been felt by
a few months
after the ear-
Street ; and
in the new
me:;«. Another -ovaU-ecame necessary and in ISUthe^^^^^^^^
stone residence on the comer ot "^^^^^^^X^^ ^Z^^^^V tMs I>«M-
bnt has since been temporarily dispossessed by a fare. The ^P^^mcnt r
Boston and Albany, is situated on Beach Street, between Albany and Lincoln Streets.
It is a plain structure of brick, and is neither as commodious, as convenient, nor as com-
fortable as the business of the company warrants and demands. The company itself
is aware of this, and has been for some time contemplating the erection of a larger
and better sta-
tion, but as yet
its plans have
not been ma-
station is divi-
nally, so that
trains leave and
arrive at two
— a plan which
from the meet-
ing of opposing
cuiTcnts of passengers. The Albany road exceeds all the other railroads centring
in Boston, not only in length, but in the amount of business done both in passen-
gers and freight. Its supremacy in the latter particular is very marked. The
Eastern Railroad presses close upon its heels in the number of passengers carried,
but the Albany road transports more merchandise than all the other railroads enter-
ing Boston combined. Although others of our railroads have western and southern
connections, the Albany has the greater part of the land travel to New York and
the South, as well as of the travel to Albany and the West. And it is very much
the most important line of transportation of freight, especially of western produc-
tions, to Boston.
The Old Colony and Ne^^-port Railroad serves the entire South Shore of ^Massa-
chusetts and Cape Cod ; and it also forms a link of one of the most popular rail-
road and steamboat lines to New York, knoAvn as the "Fall River Line." The
Old Colony road is about to absorb the Cape Cod Railroad, the Legislature having
given the necessary authority, and both roads having voted in favor of the imion.
The growth of both local and through business on this line during the past few years
has been very great, owing to the rapid increase of population along the line and
the enterprising management of the company's affairs. The latter fact is illus-
trated by the encouragement given to new settlers in suburban villages. A year
or two ago the company offered a free pass for a term of years to every per-
son who would buy and occiipy during that time a house at WoUaston Heights in
the town of Quincy. The result of this experiment has been an immense increase,
in the revenue
of the company
from that sta-
liberality on the
part of other
to equally grat-
building of this
road, at the
corner of Knee-
land and South
within it is one
of the largest
and best struc-
tures of the
kind in the
city. Its wait-
ing-rooms and offices are light and airy, and are madf' as comfortable as the most
comfortless of apartments, railroad waiting-rooms, can be.
The United States Hotel, one of the largest hotels in the city, is directly opposite
the Albany Station ; and being, at the same time, one of the best kept public houses
in Boston, and near the centre of business, it has a deservedly large share of the
patronage of travellers.
OLD COLONY RAILROAD ST/
102 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
VI. NEW BOSTON" AND THE HARBOR.
E have already said that Boston has grown in territorial extent not only
by robbing the sea, but by absorbing other outlying tracts of land and
whole municipalities. The first addition of the latter kind was made in
1637, when Noddle's Island was "layd to Boston," It was of very
little use to the town, however, for it was practically uninhabited until 1833, when a
company of enterprising capitalists bought the entire island and laid it out for im-
provement. Its growth since that time has been very rapid, and it is still capable
of great increase in population, as well as in wealth and business. A part of South
Boston Avas taken from Dorchester in 1804 by the Legislature, much against the will
of the people of that town, and annexed to Boston. Again, in 1855, the General
Court added to the territory of the city by giving to it that part of South Boston
known as Washington Village, However, Boston has now made it all right with
Dorchester by taking to itself all that remained of that ancient town. Eoxbury,
which had a history of its own, and a name which many of the citizens were exceed-
ingly loath to part Avith, became a part of Boston on the 6th of January, 1868. It
was incorporated as a town but a few days after Boston, it was the home of many dis-
tinguished men in the annals of ^lassachusetts and the country, and it took a glori-
ous part in the several struggles in which the Colonies and the Union were engaged.
In the old times, when a narrow neck of land was the only connection between
Boston and Roxbury, there were good reasons why the two should be under separate
governments ; but long ago the two cities had met, and joined each other. It was
not uncommon for buildings to be standing partly in one city and partly in the other.
A man might eat dinner with his wife, he being in Boston, while she, on the
opposite side of the table, was in Roxbury. When at last the long- vexed question
was submitted to the voters of the two cities, it Avas enthusiastically decided by both
in favor of union. Dorchester was incorporated the same day as Boston. It too had
its history, and but for the manifest advantages to both municipalities of a union,
might have retained its separate existence. The act of union, passed by the Legisla-
ture in June, 1869, was accepted by the voters of both places the same month, and
the union was consummated on the 3d of January, 1870. It is with a few among
the many objects of interest in these outlying parts of Boston, and in the harbor,
that we shall have to do in this chapter.
One of the most interesting of the public institutions in the city is the Perkins
Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind, at South Boston. It has been
more than forty years in operation with uninterrupted and most remarkable success.
It was instituted in 1831. In the following year. Dr. Samuel G. Howe undertook
its organization, and began operations with six blind children as the nucleus of a
school. For a year the institution Avas greatly hampered by a lack of funds ; but a
promise of an annual grant by the Legislature, a generous sum raised by a ladies' fair,
and liberal contributions by the people of Boston, speedily settled the financial
BOSTON ILL US TEA TED.
question, and opened a period of prosperity and usefulness wliicli lias continued to
the present time. By the last report of the trustees in September, 1871, it appears
that the whole
number of in-
mates since the
opening of the
Asylum was then
774, and the aver-
age number dur-
years was 153.
The amount of
good done by this
the forty years it
has been in op-
eration is incalcu-
have been accom-
plished in the in-
struction of un-
deprived of sight,
and in some cases,
notably that of
., , ^,, PERKINS INSTITUTION FOR THE BLIND
the absence of the
sense of hearing also has not been an insuperable obstacle to learning. During
its whole existence, this asylum for the blind has been under the direction of
Dr. Howe, and a gi-eat deal of the success of the experiment is to be credited to
his peculiar fitness for the position, and to his devotion to its interests. The
main building, which is shown by our sketch, is situated on high gi-ound on
Mount Washington. Quite recently the plan of the institution has been changed.
The sexes are entirely separated, the ladies and girls having been removed t© four
dwelling-houses built for the purpose. The inmates, of both sexes, are divided into
families, each of which keeps a separate account of its expenses. The Asylum is
partly self-supporting, such of the jjupils as are able to pay maintaining themselves
as at a boarding-school, and all the pupils being taught some useful trade. Several
States, particularly the New England States, pay for the support of a large number
The Boston and Albany Railroad Company has earned the gratitude of the busi-
ness men of Boston by many enterprises, which have both increased its great reve-
nues and added to the commerce of Boston, but by nothing more than by its pur-
chase and extensive use of the Grand Junction Railroad and the Wharf at East Bos-
ton. The railroad forms a connection between the main line of the Boston and
Albany, and the Fitchburg, Lowell, Eastern, and Boston and Maine Railroads, and
BOSTOX ILL USTRA TED.
gives the Albany road a deep-water connection. AVlieat-trains from tlie West are
here emptied of Wn-'w contents by machinery directly into an elevator, from which in
turn vessels may be rapidly
loaded. Ample facilities are
atibrded for loading and nn-
Avhich swell so largely the
tables of exports and imports
of this port. And the facili-
ties for the reception and de-
spatch of immigrants at the
Grand Junction Wharf are
imeipialled by those of any
other city on the continent.
Such as are to continue their
journey by land into other
States are provided with every
comfort, and completely se-
cluded from the sharpers who
are always on the look-out
for an opportunity to swindle
the poor foreigners unused to
the customs and often igno-
rant of the language of the
country, until they are sent
I away in trains over the Grand
5 Junction and the Boston and
D Albany roads without be-
ing compelled even to pass
through the city. The amount
of business transacted at this
Avharf is inmiense. During
the six months ending with
March, 1872, there were
14,558 cars of freight, with
139,187 tons of merchandise
received; and 11,127 cars,
loaded with 114,128 tons of
freight, were forwarded. In
the same time upwards of a
million bushels of grain were
received at the elevator, and
617,826 bushels were shipped
from it for exportation to for-
eign countries. The railroad
and wharves were built iu
1850-51 and on the occasion of their opening a three days' jubilee was held m Bos-
ion, in which many notables, the President of the United States among them, par-
ticipated But the sanguine expectations of the people of Boston were not realized
until long afterwards. The enterprise did not pay. And when the present owners
came into possession of the property in 1868, no train had been run over the road in
fourteen years. Vast improvements have been made since then. The manner of
doino- Lushiess at the wharf, as well as its immense amount, is interesting enough
to repay amply the trouble of a visit. Our sketch shows the extent of the improve-
ments, and gives a good view of the city from East Boston.
Eliot Sciuare, into which Dudley, AVashington, and other streets converge, is a
small park in Boxbury, which possesses several points of interest. Here stands the
old Unitarian meet-
ing - house of the
lirst church in Rox-
Lury, taking rank
in age next after
the lirst church in
Boston. Over this
church the Kev,
Dr. George Putnam
has been settled
for more than forty
years. The dwell-
ing-houses in tliis
square are many of
them old, this part
of Boxbury having ^^^^^ church in roxbury, and the Norfolk house.
been settled long , ^ , • • j. ^
before the over-crowded streets of Boston sent thousands of the citizens to seek
sites for modern villas on the more picturesciue hillsides of this and other suburban
towns. On this scpiare, too, stands the Norfolk House, a line building externally,
and a favorite boarding-hotel. , . . i
One of the most important improvements in the Cochituate water-works was
made in 1869, when the stand-pipe in Boxbury was erected and put m use. By
tlds simple expedient, which has been found to work admirably m pi'actice, the
. "head" of water has been increased over the whole city so greatly that the pure
water is forced to the highest levels occupied by dwelling-houses. The stand-pipe is
ou the "Old Fort" lot in Boxbury, T)etweeii Beech-Glen Avenue and Fort Avenue.
The base of the shaft is 158 feet above tide marsh level. The interior pipe is a
cvlinder of boiler iron, eighty feet long; and around this pipe, but within the exterior,
waU of brick, is a winding staircase leading to a lookout at the top. The total cost
of the structure and the pumping-works connected with it was about $100 000.
It was at first intended to supply high service to only those parts of the city at the
higher levels, but its capacity was found adequate to the supply of the whole city
and the use of the old reservoir on Beacon Hill was therefore abandoned, though it
would doubtless become useful in case of an accident to these works.
Eoxbury always had a good reputation
for remembering its great men. Ameri-
can cities do not nowadays follow the cus-
tom of naming districts or wards after
their famous men, and in some of them
even the streets are mostly called by nvmi-
bers. Paris goes to one extreme, com-
memorating days and historical events by
such names as Rue Dix Decembre, Eue
de la Dette, changed from Boulevard
Haussmann, and so on. New York and
Washington go to the other extreme with
their Avenue A's, and their Four-and-a-
half Streets. Boston has gone but slight-
ly into this unromantic nomenclature, and
Roxbury not at all.
Dudley, Eustis, and
Warren Streets, and
named in memory
of distinguished citi-
zens. General Jo-
seph W^arren has
been especially re-
membered, for besides
the street which
We have still our
bears his name,
there is a steam fire-
engine called after
him, and the dwell-
stands on the spot
where his house
stood, bears a tab-
the fact. The house
stands in a charm-
ing site behind a
row of iine old
In another part
of Eoxbury is the
STAND-PIPE OF COCHITUATE WATER-WORKS.
famous chromo -lithographic
establishment of Prang & Co.
The process of making chro-
mos is one of the most inter-
esting of the arts. The care
with which each stone mu.st
be prepared, every one adding
one color, and only one, to
the picture that is by and
by to appear ; the successive
steps by which apparently
shapeless patches of color
are transformed into excel-
lent and aitistic imitations
of well-known oil paintings,
— these and other facts to be
learned by a visit to such an
establishment are of great
interest. This factory of
Prang's is the most extensive of the kind in the country, and it is to the credit
of Boston that the reputation of the chromos produced here is not inferior to
that of any others. - ^
Many, indeed, pre- _ ^g-_,^^^
fer American litho- _^ ^^^C^^ --
graphs to those ^.^
made in Europe,
and when American
chromos are men-
tioned, it is usually
Prang's that are
Doichester was a
delightful old town
and a charming new
town. It retains its
istics, and some of
the very old houses
are still preserved.
But its picturesque
liills and its fine
old woods have
within the past few
years made it a favorite place for the erection of elegant country residences. On
many of the es- -^,-=;^f ,.?=?>
bates vast sums — ^:.-si:-J^:v^r5^ii^
of money wme
skill of the ai-
chitect and Ihe
art of the land-
scape - gardenei
were invoked to
render these le-
treats as mag-
nificent as pos-
sible. By such
means the scen-
ery of Dorches-
ter has been
ingly rich and
the road passes
through the midst of large and finely kept estates, surrounding handsome dwelling-
houses, to plunge into a wilderness, where the fields are barren and rocky, and the
forests in all their primitive wildness.
Again we come upon a thriving
village, and pass out of it to find
new beauties by the sea-side. We
give two views of Dorchester scen-
ery, the one showing Meeting- House
Hill, which is one of the land-
marks in Dorchester, and the other
Savin Hill, as seen from Dorchester
Point, — the first belonging to the
older part of Dorchester, the latter
comparatively new as a place of resi-
The estate known as Grove Hall,
at the junction of Warren Street and
Blue Hill Avenue, in Dorchester, was
purchased for the Consumptives'
Home a year or two since, and is now
occupied Tjy that and its attendant
institutions. It is a very large and
spacious mansion, and is surrounded
with ample grounds, making the situ-
ation a most pleasant retreat for the
poor, diseased people who come here
for treatment and cure, or for a com-
- fortable home until they are released
from suff"ering by death. The system
on which the Consumptives' Home
is supported is the same as that upon
which the famous orphan asylum of
Miiller is maintained. The founder
was Dr. Charles Cullis, whose atten-
tion was drawn, in 1862, to the lack
of provision in atty existing hospital
for persons sick A\'ith consumption,
and incurable. He began without
any funds, and makes it a practice
to depend upon daily contributions
for the daily wants of the Home.
Dr. Cullis calls this institution "A
Work of Faith," because he has never
solicited any donations, but has
prayed to God for aid in the work ;
and he looks upon the contributions
he receives as direct answers to his
prayers. The receipts from casual donations, from the proceeds of a fair, and from
the estate of the late Miss Nabby Joy, in 1871, exceeded the sum of fifty-five thou-
sand dollars During the year there were one him-
dred and elght^ fi^ e patients cared for at the Home,
the usual numbei being from thirty to fifty. Since
the op( ning of the hospital there have been seven
bundled and fift}-se\en received, of whom only
thiit} thiee ^^ere lemaining at the close of the
year last reported. The
plan of the institution is
^— -^r^ ---=^ to admit all poor persons
~^^ sick with consumption, and
without home or friends
to relieve them, old or
young, black or white, na-
tive or foreign. All are, in
the language of the Report,
"freely received in the
name of the Lord."
Boston harbor is pro-
tected by the natural
breakAvater on which
stands the town of Hull.
consumptives' home, DORCHESTER. Thls Is a vciy siugukr
peninsula, jutting northward from the South Shore, and partially enclosing a very
extensive tract of water. Hull has several points of interest. Nantasket Beach,
on the side of the peninsula towards the sea, is one of the finest on the coast, and
it has therefore become a favorite place of resort in the summer for thousands of
the citizens of Boston. The summer population is largest at the lower or southern
end of the peninsula, while the permanent population is mostly concentrated near
the other extremity. It is the latter part of the town that is represented by our
view. On the high hill, which overlooks the entire entrance to Boston Harbor,
is situated the observatory, from which tbe arrival of vessels, their names, and
the point whence they come are telegi-aphed immediately to the ISIerchants' Ex-
change in the city. Hull is one of the smallest towns in Massachusetts, and there
have been many jokes at its expense on this account. The vote of the town is
almost always one of the first returned at a general election. From this there has
arisen the curious saying, " As goes Hull, so goes the State," — a saying which is very
far from true. Dr. Holmes said in his Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table, that in
this town they read a famous line with a mispronunciation pardonable under the
" All are but parts of one stupendous Hull."
The harbor of Boston is filled Avith islands, most of which have a history that it
would be exceedingly interesting to recount. In the summer season there are numer-
ous steamboats plying between the city and the many places of resort in the harbor
and just outside of it. For almost the smallest of fees one may steam in and out
between the several islands, and en-
joy, on the most sultry of days, a cool
and refreshing breeze, together with
the most delightful and ever- changing
scenery. Among a great many points
of interest only a very few can be here
mentioned, and we confine ourselves
to the lighthouses and some of the
fortifications. The first fort built up-
on Castle Island was constructed in
1634, and since that time the island
has always been fortified. The works
have been rebuilt a gi'eat many times.
Castle William stood on this island
when the Revolutionary war broke
out, and when the British troops were
obliged to evacuate Boston they de-
stroyed the fort and burned it to ashes.
The Provincial forces then took pos-
session of the island, and restored the
fort. In 1798 its name was formally
J changed to Fort Independence, — the
5 President, John Adams, being present
i on the occasion. In 1798 the island
^ was ceded to the United States. From
> 1785 until 1805 this fort was the
place appointed for the confinement
of prisoners sentenced to hard labor,
j^rovision having been made in the
act of cession to the United States
that this privilege should be retained.
The present fort is of quite recent
Directly opposite Fort Indepen-
dence, as one enters or leaves the in-
ner harbor by the main ship-channel,
is the still uncompleted fortification
named Fort Winthrop, on Governor's
Island. The island was granted to
Governor Winthrop in 1632, and was
subse(|uently confirmed to his heirs.
In 1640, the conditions of his owner-
ship having already been once previ-
ously changed, he was granted the
island on condition of paying one
bushel of apples to the Governor and
BOSTON ILL US TEA TED.
one to the General Court in winter, annually. It continued in the sole possession
of the Winthrop family until 1808, when a part of it was sold to the government
for the purpose of erecting a fort, which was named Fort Warren. The name given
to the Avork now in process of erection is Fort Winthrop, in honor of the Governor
of Massachusetts Bay and first owner of the island, while the name of the fonner
fort has been transferred to the fortification further dowii the harbor. "When fully
completed, Fort Winthrop is intended to be a most important defence to the harbor.
Fort Warren is situated on George's Island, near the entrance to the harbor, and
is the most famous of all the defences of the city. George's Island was claimed as
the property of James Pemberton of Hull as early as 1622. His possession of it
having been confirmed, it was bought, sold, and inherited by numerous owners,
until 182.5, when it became the property of the city of Boston. It is now, of course,
jurisdiction of the United States government. The construction of the
present fort was begun in April, 1833,
and was completed in 1850. The ma-
terial is finely hammered Quincy gran-
ite, and the stone faces, as well as those
parts that have been protected with
earth and sodded over, are as neat and
trim as art can make them. The fort
is one of great strength, but it has
never yet been needed to defend the
harbor of Boston. During the Rebel-
lion, it was used as a place of confine-
ment for noted Confederate prisoners,
the most famous of all being the rebel
commissioners to Europe, Mason and
Slidell, who were sent here for confine-
ment after their capture on board the
Trent by Commodore Wilkes.
About two miles from Fort Warren,
nearly due east, and at the entrance
of the harbor, is the Boston Light.
The island on which it stands has been
used as a lighthouse station since
1715, when the General Court of the
frilHI^^ll H^ colony passed the necessary acts. The
land was generously given to the col-
ony by the owners of it, though as
there is soil on only about three quar-
ters of an acre, the rest of the two or
three acres being bare, jagged rock,
the gift entailed no great loss upon
them. In the time of the Revolution,
the lighthouse was the object of much
small warfare, and was several times
destroyed and rebuilt. In 1783 it was
once more restored by the State, being
built this time of stone ; and it is this
lighthouse which still stands at the
mouth of the harbor, though it has
since been enlarged and refitted sev-
eral times. The top of the lighthouse
now stands ninet5''-eight feet above the
level of the sea, and is fitted with a
revolving light Avhich can be seen from
a distance of sixteen nautical miles in
Still nearer to Fort Warren, and on the direct line to Boston Light, is the Spit,
Bug Light. It is a cu-
rious structure. The
lower part is a system
of iron pillars fixed in
the rock, affording no
surface for the waves
to beat against and
destroy. The fixed red
light is about thirty -
five feet above the
level of the sea, and
can be seen at a dis-
tance of about seven
miles in clear weather.
This light was built
. „^ _, 1 . ^ . BUG LIGHT.
m 1856. Its object is
to warn navigators of the dangerous obstacle known as Harding's Ledge, about two
miles out at sea, east of Point Allerton, at the head of Nantasket Beach.
The lighthouse on Long Island was built in 1819. The tower is twenty-two feet
in height, but the light is eighty feet above the level of the sea. The tower is of
iron painted white ; the lantern has nine burners ; the light is fixed, and can be seen
in a clear night about fifteen miles. The object of the light is to assist in the
navigation of the harbor. The government is at present erecting on Long Island
head a strong battery, which has not yet been named. There have been several
attempts to make Long Island a place for summer residences. There has been a
hotel on the island for some years, but it has been popular only intermittently.
There is no good reason why these charming islands should not be so occupied in
preference to some of the more distant points on the coast, where only occasional
LONG ISLAND LIGHT.
cool breezes relicA'e the heat of summer. An admirable suggestion has been made,
that the city purchase Long Island, or some other large island in the harbor, and
convert it into a park, to which visitors might be carried on the payment of a fare
no larger than is demanded for a ride in the horse-cars.
East of Long Island head there is a low, rocky island on which stands a singularly
shaped monument. It consists of a solid structure of stone, twelve feet in height,
and forty feet square. All the stones in this piece of masonry are securely fastened
together with copper. Upon it stands an octagonal pyramid of wood, twenty feet
high, and painted black. It is supposed that this monument was erected in the
earliest years of the present century, though the date is not knoAvn. Its purpose
was to warn vessels of one of the most dangerous shoals in the harbor. This island
is known as Nix's Mate, though for what reason is
not known. There is a tradition, unsupported by
facts, that the mate of a vessel of which one Cap-
tain Nix was master, was executed upon the island
for killing the latter. But it was known as "Nixes
Hand," as long ago as 1636, and this would seem
to dispose of the story. It is, however, true, that
several murderers and pirates have been hanged
nix's mate. upon the island, and one AVilliam Fly was hanged
there in chains in 1726 for the crime of piracy, on which occasion, the Boston
NeAvs Letter informs us, Fly " behaA'ed himself very unbecomingly, even to the
last." It is a part of the tradition above referred to that Nix's mate declared
his innocence, and asserted, as a proof of it, that the island Avoiild be Avashed aAvay.
If any such prophecy Avas ever made, it has certainly been fulfilled. "We know
by the records that it contained in the neighborhood of tAvelve acres in 1636 ;
BOSTON ILLUSTRATED. 115
there is now not more than one acre of shoal, and there is not a vestige of soil
Point Shirley is the southern extremity of the town of Winthrop, but it properly
comes into any notice of Boston harbor. Its chief attraction is Taft's Hotel, noted
for its game dinners. Indeed Point Shirley, ever since it received its present name,
has been synonymous with good cheer. A company of merchants purchased it in
1753, designing to establish a fishery station. They never put the property to its
intended use, but when they were ready to advertise the place, they invited Gover-
nor Shirley to go down to the spot with them. He accepted, the party had a fine
time and a fine dinner, and, by permission of his Excellency, what had before been
known as Pulling Point was dubbed Point Shirley. The name of Pulling Point has
since been transferred to another point of land on the same peninsula.
"We have only glanced at the harbor and a few of the numerous places of interest
in and about it. The merest mention only can be made of some of the other points
that are worthy of being seen, and of being illustrated and described. The islands
in the harbor are many, and of very peculiar shapes, which fact has given some of
them their names, — as, for instance. Spectacle, Half Moon, and Apple Islands.
Few of them are occupied, and many are uninhabitable, but the sail among and
around them is in the summer time a most agi-eeable change from the hot brick walls
and dusty streets of the oity. If Ave extend our view beyond the harbor along the
north shore we shall see Eevere Beach, — one of the finest on the coast, — Lynn,
and Nahant. Both the latter places may easily be visited by steamers. Nahant is
perhaps the chief glory of the north shore. It is a peninsula connected with the
mainland at Lynn by a long narrow neck, upon which is a noble beach. Those who
dwell upon the peninsula regard its comparative inaccessibility as something strongly
in its favor. They have not allowed a hotel to be erected upon it since the destruc-
tion by fire of one that formerly stood in the town. Nahant is a favorite resort for
picnickers, for whom a place has been specially provided which is fantastically called
Maolis Gardens, — Maolis being nothing more than Siloam spelled backwards. For
the rest, Nahant is occupied by wealthy citizens of Boston who have erected for them-
116 BOSTON ILLUSTRATED.
selves in this secluded place elegant summer residences wliere, in the midst of their gar-
dens and groves and lawns, they may live as freely and as quietly as they wish. The
sea- view is magnificent. The 2)eninsula lies near to the entrance of Boston harbor, and
is practically an island at some distance from the coast. All the grandeur of the sea
in a storm, and all the beauty of the sea on a fine day when the horizon is dotted
with the white sails of arriving and departing vessels, the dwellers at Nahant enjoy
at their gi-andest and most beautiful. Beyond Nahant are Egg Rock, a small isi.ind
still farther than Nahant from the coast ; Marblehead Neck and Point, which are
rapidly coming into favor as summer resorts ; Swampscott, already one of the most
fashionable of the coast watering-places ; and Cape Ann, with its succession of beau-
tiful sea-side villages, — Beverly Farms, Manchester, Gloucester, Rockport, and
Pigeon Cove. On the south coast we may find equally interesting and equally beau-
tiful places. At Hingham, among other objects to be noticed, is the oldest church
edifice in the country ; and oft' Cohasset is the famous Minot's Ledge Lighthouse, a
solid stone structure that stands where a former lighthouse was destroyed by a storm
some years ago, on one of the most dangerous and most dreaded rocks upon our
VII. THE SUBUEBS.
other city in the country can "boast such suburbs as Boston has. For ex-
tent and beauty, they are unrivalled. The picturesque hills, separated
m^^lw ^y beautifully winding rivers, make, of themselves, an ever-varied picture
of charming landscaj)e. Art has added greatly to the beauties which
nature has so lavishly scattered. Almost every available site for a fine country resi-
dence has been occupied, and all that wealth could do to improve upon natural
attractions has been done. But this is not all. Large cities and a score of flourish-
ing towns have sprung up, where city and country are pleasantly commingled ; and
everywhere throughout the large district of which Boston is the centre may be seen
the evidences of industry and thrift, excellent roads, neat fences and hedges, thriv-
ing gardens and orchards, comfortable, tastefully built, and well-painted houses.
Nor are these toA\Tis and cities destitute of a history, which, did space permit, should
be told at length. We can merely glance at a few of the more noticeable objects of
interest in some of these surrounding
places, leaving it to each citizen and
visitor to search out the others, with
the assurance that one can hardly go
astray in seeking for them, whatever
be the direction taken.
The first object to be noticed is
the grand monument erected in
Charlestown to commemorate the bat-
tle of Bunker Hill ; but the mon-
ument needs no description. The
event it celebrates and the conse-
quences of that event, the appearance
of this imposing gi-anite shaft, and
the magnificent view of the entire
surrounding country to be obtained
from its observatory, are, or sliould
be, familiar to every citizen of New
England ; and no visitor to Boston
from more distant parts of the coun-
try is likely to return home without
ascending the monument as a good
patriot. The oration delivered by
Daniel Webster at the dedication of
the monument on the anniversary of
the battle of Bunker Hill, the 17th of June, 1843, has been declaimed by every
school-boy. That anniversary is still, and should long remain, a holiday, — a day
BUNKER HILL MONUMENT.
be celebrated in Charlestown and throughout the State and country as long as the
Eepublic, which owes so much
to that memorable contest, shall
No visitor to Charlestown should
leave it until he has visited the
United States Navy Yard, estab-
lished by the government in the
year 1800. The yard has since
been very greatly enlarged, and
extensive and costly buildings
have been erected upon it. The
dry dock, which was begun in
July, 1827, and completed six
years later, is a magnificent and
most substantial work of granite
masonry, 341 feet long, 80 feet
wide, and 30 feet deep, which
§ cost even in those days of low
% prices 1 675,000. The granite
ro])ewalk too, the finest structure
< of the kind in the country, and
- a quarter of a mile in length, will
5 not fail to attract attention. Sev-
£ eral of the largest vessels of our
< old navy Avere built at this yard.
> Of late, while the government has
< been reducing, rather than in-
u creasing, its naval force, the work
^ here has been confined chiefly to
repairs upon old vessels, and the
busy activity of past years is no
The United States Marine Hos-
jntal at Chelsea, which appears on
the right in the background of our
sketch, is a large and handsome
structure upon the crest of a high
hill, near the mouth of the Mystic
River. This institution, as well
as the Naval Hospital, at the
foot of the same hill, was erected
and is maintained by the general
government for the benefit of in-
valid sailors. The situation is
salubrious, and the jirospect from
the Marine Hospital, overlooking as it does the harbor and two or three cities, is
Passing now into Cambridge, we must first notice it as the site of the most fa-
mous, as well as most ancient, university in the country. It was but six years after
the settlement of Boston that the General Court appropriated four hundred pounds
for the establishment of a school or college at Newtown, as Cambridge was then
called. As this sum was equal to a whole year's tax of the entire colony, we may
infer in what estimation the earliest colonists held a liberal education. Two years
after, the institution received the liberal beipiest of eight hundred pounds from
the estate of the Rev. John Harvard, an English clergyman, who died at Charles-
town in 1638. The General Court, in conserpience of this be(|uest, named the
college after its generous benefactor, and changed the name of the town where
C RI H\LL H
old England. The college was thus placed on a firm foundation, and by good
management and the prevalence of liberal ideas, under the fostering care of the
Colony and the State, and the almost lavish generosity of alumni and other friends,
it has assumed and steadily maintained the leading position among the colleges of
the country, its only rival being Yale. The college long ago became a university.
Schools of law, medicine, dentistry, theology, science, mining, and agriculture, have
been established in connection with it, each endowed with its own funds, and each
independent of all the others, except that all are under one general management.
The college yard contains a little more than twenty-two acres, and nearly the whole
available space is already occupied by the numerous buildings required by an institu-
tion of such magnitude. An important change has been made within the past few
years in the government of the university ; the overseers, constituting the second
BOSTON ILL USTUA TED.
and more numerous branch of the university legishiture, were originally the Governor
and Deputy- Governor, Avith all the magistrates, and the ministers of the six adjoin-
ing towns. After numerous changes, which were, however, only changes in the
manner of selecting the clergymen who should constitute this board, the power of
choosing the overseers was, in 1851, vested in the Legislature. All this system has
since been abolished. The graduates of the college have been gi'anted the privilege
of choosing the entire board ; and ever}^ member of it, as now constituted, has been
elected by this constituency. The advantages of thus making those who are most
interested in the good management of the college partially responsible for its govern-
ment were at once apparent, and other colleges have not been slow in practising
upon so satisfactory an experiment. Another change, which has been gi-adually
going on for some years, gives students a much wider range of studies than formerly.
The number of elective studies has very greatly increased, and one is not now,
as formerly, compelled to pursue a fixed and unalterable course, but may choose
the branches he will pursue in accordance with his tastes and his intended business
in hfe. The number of students in all branches of the university, by the latest
catalogue, was 1214. There are nine libraries connected with the university, con-
taining in all about 192,000 volumes, of which 128,000 are in the college library
in Gore Hall, a view of which we give. The university is now under the able presi-
dency of Charles W. Eliot.
Cambridge is noted not only for being the seat of the first college in Amer-
ica, but for having been the first place in the country where a printing-press was
setup. In 1639
a press was
and put in op-
eration in the
house of the
had the sole
charge of it
for many years.
The first thing
printed upon it
was the Free-
man's Oath, fol-
lowed by an
and the Psalms
into meter." A fragment of the last-named work is preserved in the college library,
and copies of it may still be seen in some anti(piarian libraries. Cambridge has at
the present day some of the largest and most completely furnished printing-offices in
America, conspicuous among which is the University Press of Welch, Bigelow, k Co.
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE.
Their office is one of the most celebrated in the country for the quality and
accuracy of its work. Many of the hundreds of thousands of books published
annually in Boston, and not a few of those issued by publishers in New York,
including illustrated books requiring the finest workmanship and the greatest care,
are printed and bound at this establishment.
Not very far from the college grounds stands one of the few famous trees of the
country, — the Washington Elm, — the only survivor of the ancient forest that origi-
W'Zif-^ A '-■- -^-y.-yf- nally covered all this
' '^^^ --:-.c«j«rtr-.».v/ < rfi*?. p^^.^ Q^ Cambridge.
It was under this
tree that General
command of the Con-
tinental army on the
morning of the 3d of
July, 1775. A neat
fence surrounds this
giant of the ancient
forest, and an in-
rates the important
event which was the
most interesting in
its centuries of ex-
At a short dis-
tance from this fa-
mous elm, on the
road to Watertown,
stands the house
Ubcd by the pa-
ti lot general
is his head-
quarters. . It
^\ as previously
V issal, a royal-
ist or Tory, but
w as used by
ington on its
b} the owner ;
and here con-
RESIDEN'CE OF " ^^' invnFRiTow llllUeU tO DC
the head-quarters of the American army, for the greater part of the time, until the
evacuation of Boston by the British in the spring of 1776. The house stands in a
large and beautiful lot of ground, a little distance from the street, in the midst of
tall trees and shrubbery, and though in a style of architecture different from that now
generally employed, it is still an elegant residence in external appearance, while the
rich and costly finish
of the interior has been
preserved by its suc-
cessive owners. The
present possessor and
occupant of this noble
estate is the poet,
Henry AVadswo] th
Longfellow, and suic
ly there is more than
poetic fitness in such
an occupation of a
house around which
cling so many histori-
Mount Auburn Cem-
etery is sitiiated partly
in Cambridge and
partly in Waterto^^n
The land was origi-
nally purchased and improved by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society for an
den. It subsequently _ — _ %i:S^ -^
passed into the hands
of the trustees of
Mount Auburn Cem-
etery, and was con-
secrated in the year
1831. It is noAvone
of the most extensive
cities of the dead
used by the people of
Boston, being in ex-
tent about one hun-
dred and twenty-five
acres. The surface is
fied, giving unusual
opportunities to the
landscape - gardener
to improve the nat- ghapel, mount auburn.
ENTIt^NCF TO MOl NT ^URl RV
ural beauty of tlie scenery. There are several sheets of water, and high hills and
deep vales in abundance. Trees in great variety have been transplanted into this
enclosure, adding greatly to its beauty. Upon the summit of the highest hill,
Mount Auburn proper, a stone tower has been erected, from which a very fine view
of all the surrounding country can be obtained. Many elegant and costly mon-
uments adorn the grounds in every part. Some of these have been erected and the
expense defrayed by public subscription, but many more by the surviving friends of
the thousands who here sleep the last sleep. The granite entrance-gate was designed
from an Egyptian model, and was erected at a cost of about ten thousand dollars.
The very beautiful chapel was built in 1848, at an expense of twenty-five thousand
dollars. It is used for funeral services at the cemetery. There are around the walls,
within, several excellent statues and memorials, one of which, a statue of James
Otis, by Crawford, is particularly to be admired.
The history of the Boston Waterworks is exceedingly interesting. The original
introduction of water is described on page 28. The growth of the city has been
so wonderful that what
was originally calcu-
lated to be a sufficient
supply of water for
half a century was, in
a few years, found to
be inadequate. Again
and again have meas-
ures been taken to
make good the defi-
ciency, but it was
only in 1872 that a
was entered upon,
which, when com-
pleted, will, it is be-
2^^^- lieved, avert for an
'i:3- indefinite period all
fears of a water fam-
ENTRANCE TO THE RESERVOIR GROUNDS. J^^^ QuC Of the WOrks
which foi-med a part of the original system is the Brookline Reservoir. This
was a natural basin, protected on all sides except on the north. A puddled
embankment was constructed on this side, and the interior of the entire basin
protected from washing by a sloping wall, and the reservoir proper was complete.
The reservoir marks the terminus of the brick conduit leading from Lake Cochituate.
From the reservoir to the city the water is conducted by iron mains. There are two
gate-houses, one at either end of the reservoir. The whole surface of water, when
the reservoir is full, covers about twenty-three acres, and its capacity to a point two
feet below the top of the dam is nearly one hundred and twenty million gallons.
The necessity for building a new reservoir, for the purpose of storing the water that
usually ran to waste over the dam at Lake Cochituate duiing and after the spring
GATE HOUSE, CHESTNUT HILL.
ral basin. It is five miles fiom the
Boston City Hall, and one mile fiom
the Brookline Reservoir. It lies in
the towns of Newton and Brook-
line, near Chestnut Hill, from ^^ hich
it derives its name. It is, in fact, a
double reservoir, being divided by a
water-tight dam into two basins of
irregular shape. The surface of wa-
ter in both is about one hundied
and twenty-five acres, and ^\hen
filled to their fullest capacity the
two basins Avill hold neaily eight
hundred million gallons, or a suffi-
cient supply for the entire city for
several weeks. As Ave have said, even
and fall freshets, was urged by
the Water Board in 1863, but
nothingAvas then done about it.
The next year the City Council
began to move in the matter.
In 1865 the Legislature gave the
necessary authority to the city.
Purchases of land Avere imme-
diately made, and the Avork be-
gun. More than tAVo hundred
acres of land, costing about
$120,000, were deeded to the
city before the reservoir Avas
finished. Like the Brookline
Reservoir, it constituted a natu-
THE DRIVE, ON THE MARGIN OF THE SMALL RESERVOIR.
BO ST ox ILLUSTRATED.
this addition to the works has been found inadetjuate, and during the
thority was obtained for the city to
take water from the Sudbury River.
A temporary supply was procured by
connecting the river with Lake Cochit-
uate, and the work of bringing the
water to the reservoirs by independent
mains is now in progress.
The Chestnut Hill Reservoir is not
only a great benefit to the city in its
practical uses, it is also a great pleasure
resort. A magnificent driveway, va-
rying from sixty to eighty feet in
width, surrounds the entire work, and
is one of the greatest attractions of the
suburbs of Boston, It is, in fact, the
most popular drive in the vicinity. In
some parts the road runs along close
to the embankment, separated from it
only by the beautiful gravelled walk
with the sodding on either side.
Elsewhere it leaves the embankment
and rises to a higher level at a little
distance, from which an uninterrupted
view of the entire reservoir can be had.
The scenery in the neighborhood is so
varied that it would of itself make this
region a delightful one for pleasure
driving, without the added attractions
of the charming sheet of water, the
graceful curvatures of the road, and
the neat, trim appearance of the gi-een-
sward that lines it throughout its en-
Before the introduction of water from
Lake Cochituate the city was dependent
upon wells and springs, and upon Ja-
maica Pond, in the town of West Rox-
bury. A company was incorporated
in 1795 to bring water into Boston
from that source, and its powers wei'e
enlarged by subsequent acts. It was
for a long time a bad investment for
the shareholders. Afterwards the com-
pany had a greater degi-ee of prosperity,
and at one time it supplied at least
year 1872 au-
fifteen hundred houses in Boston.
1 ,h. IrlLi
The water was convej^ed through the streets by
four main pipes, consisting of pine
logs. Two of these were of four
inches, and two of three inches bore.
The water thus brouglit into the city
was conveyed nearly as far north as
State Street. In 1840 an iron main,
ten inches in diameter, was laid
through the whole length of Tremont
Street to Bowdoin S([uare. The com-
]iany was ready to increase the supply
very largely, but the prospective
wants of the city were far beyond the
capacity of Jamaica Pond to supply,
and the Lake Cochituate enterprise
not only prevented the aqueduct com-
panj^ from enlarging its oj>erations,
but rendered all its outlay in Boston
useless and valueless. The city, how-
ever, made compensation by purchas-
o ing the franchise and property for the
JJ sum of % 45,000, in 1851. The prop-
D erty, minus the franchise, which the
""^ city of course wished to extinguish,
i was sold in 1856 for $32,000. At this
■^ time the pipes were disconnected at
H the Roxbury line, but those in Boston
s were never taken up. At present the
■"" chief practical use of Jamaica Pond is
to furnish in winter a great quantity
of ice, which is cut and stored in the
large houses on its banks for consump-
tion in the wann weather. It is a
great resort for young and some older
peojile in the winter for skating.
Beautiful residences line its banks,
and the drive around it is one of the
most beautiful of the many which
make the suburbs of Boston so at-
tractive to its own citizens and to
strangers. In summer there is much
pleasure sailing and roAving on the
pond, and in past years there have
been several interesting regattas up-
Forest Hills Cemetery, also in the
BO^'STON ILL UH Til A TED.
ENTRANCE TO FOREST HILLS.
town of West Koxbury, Avas originally established by the city of Roxbuiy, of which
the town at the time formed a part. It was subsequently conveyed to the predeces-
sors of the present
proprietors. It is a
little larger in ter- -^
ritory than Mount
Auburn, but it is
by no means su
crowded as the
older cemetery. It
contains a great
number of interest-
ing memorials of
persons, some of
them eminent in
the history of State
and nation, who
have gone. The
burial-lot of the
Warren family is
on the summit of
The remains of
General Joseph Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill, have been taken from the Old
Granary Burying-ground in Boston, and reinterred in this cemetery. Within two
or three years the finest receiving-tomb in any cemetery in the country has been
built at Forest Hills. The portico is nearly thirty feet square, and is built in the
Gothic style of architecture in Concord granite. Its appearance is massive, without
being cumbersome. Within there are two hundred and eighty-six catacombs, each
for a single coffin, which are closely sealed up after an interment. The entrance
gateway to Forest Hills Cemetery is a very elegant, costly, and imposing structure
of Roxbuiy stone and Caledonia freestone. The inscription upon the face of the
outer gateway is, —
*'l AM THE EESUREECTION AND THE LIFE,"
in golden letters. On the inner face is in similar letters the inscription, —
'* HE THAT KEEPETH THEE WILL NOT SLUMBER."
The grounds of the cemetery, like those of Mount Auburn, are exceedingly
picturesque, the variety of hill and dale, greensward, thickets of trees, pleasant
sheets of Avater, and rocky eminences, making the place an exceedingly attractive
spot to wander and read the story of lives that are spent. And the hand of art
has added much to the natural beauty of the place.
It is by no means to be understood that in our glance at the suburbs Ave have
exhausted the subject. There are a great many other points that should be visited.
The magnificent beach in Revere is of itself a sight Avell Avorth the time spent in
driving thither. A short visit should be made to Lynn, the head-quarters of the
shoe manufacture, and another to the extensive factories of Lowell and Lawrence.
In the church at Quincy are the tombs of the two Presidents Adams. Brookline,
Newton, Belmont, and Arlington are most beautiful towns, and in all the environs
are charming drives through the pleasantest of districts. At AVatertown is the
great United States Arsenal ; the battle-grounds of Concord and Lexington are
within easy reach by railroad ; and, in fact, no route can be taken out of the city
that does not lead to. some point where the stranger will find much that is both
pleasing and interesting.
Cambridge : Elcctrotyped and Printed by Welch, Bigelow, & Co.
INDEX TO TEXT.
Advertiser, Boston Daily, 20.
Albany Railroad Station, 101.
American House, 17.
Ancient and Honorable Artillery, '2b.
Andrew, Statue of John A., 24.
Area of Boston, 10.
Arlington Street ChurcU, 33.
Athenaeum, Boston, 43.
Back Bav Improvement, 36.
Baptist Church, First, 39.
Beacon Hill, 23.
Beethoven, Statue of, 72.
Blaclistone, William, 1.
Blind Asylum, 102.
Board of Trade, 81.
Boat- Club Union, 46.
Boston AthenKum, 43.
Boston and Albany Railroad Station, 101.
Boston CoUege, 95.
Boston, Early History of, 1.
Boston Light, 112.
Boston Museum, 73.
Boston Society of Natural History, 44.
Boston Theatre, 74.
Boston, whv named, 1.
Boylston Hotel, 93.
Brattle Square Church, 19.
Brewer Fountain, 28.
Brookline Reservoir, 124.
Bug Light, 113.
Bunker Hill Monument, 117.
Bury ing-G rounds. See each Ground.
Business Quarter, 51.
Cathedral of the Holy Cross, 94.
Census of Boston, 2, 8.
Central Church, 40.
Changes of Topography, 3.
Charitable Mechanics' Association, 80.
Chester Square, 91.
Chestnut Hill Reservoir, 126.
Christ Church, 20.
Church, Early Buildings, 4.
Churches. See each Church.
City Government inaugurated, 8.
" Hall, 59.
" Hospital, 97.
Club-Houses. See each Club.
Cochituate \yater- Works, 28, 105, 106. 124.
Codfish, 24. ....
Columbus Avenue, 91.
Commerce of Boston 3.
Commercial Street, 11.
Common, History of, 25.
" Boundaries of, 27.
Commonwealth Avenue, 37.
Consumptives' Home, 108.
Continental Hotel, 93.
Copp's Hill Burying-Ground, 16.
Court House, United States, 65.
Custom House, 62.
Daily Advertiser, 20.
Dorchester annexed, 102.
Heights, 6, 7.
East Boston. 10, 103, 104.
Eastern Railroad Station, 14.
Eliot Square, 105.
Everett, Edward, Statue of, 32.
Every Saturday, 85.
Fanueil Hall, History of, 11.
" Market, 12.
First Baptist Church, 39.
" Church, 4, 38.
Fitchburg Railroad Station, 14.
Flats, Reclamation of, 3.
Forest Hills Cemetery, 128, 129.
Fort Hill, 52.
" Independence, 110.
" Warren, 110.
" Winthrop, 111.
Fountain, Brewer, 28.
Franklin, Benjamin, Birthplace of, 4.
French Hotels, 92.
Frog I'ond, 25, 28.
Garden, Public, 30.
Bridge, 31, 32.
" " Pond on, 31,32.
General Hospital, Massachusetts, 13.
Girls' High and Normal Schoo , 92.
Globe, Boston Daily, 77.
'* Theatre, 75.
Gore HalL 121.
Granary Burying-Ground, 33.
Grand Junction Wharves, 103, 104.
Hall, City, 60.
" Horticultural, 81.
" Music, 72.
" Odd Fellows', 97, 98.
Hamilton, Alexander, Statue of, 37.
Hancock House, 35.
Hancock, Tomb of, 34.
Harvard College, 4, 119.
Herald, Dailv, 80,
High Schoof, Girts', 92.
Holy Cross, Cathedral of the, 94.
Horticultural Hall, 81.
Hospital, City, 97.
" Massachusetts General, 13.
Hotels. See each Hotel.
Independence, Fort, 110.
Institute of Technology, 44.
Jamaica Pond, 127. 128.
Jordan. INfarsh, & Co., 82.
Journal, Boston Daily, 79.
Julien, the Restaurateur, 28.
King's Chapel, 68.
" " Burying-Ground, 68.
Knowles, Commodore, Riot, 5.
INDEX TO TEXT.
Land, Back Bay, filled, 36.
Library, Tiiblic, 41.
Lightliuuse, Boston, 112.
" Long Island, 113.
Longfellow, H. W., House ol', 123.
Long Island Light, 113.
Lowell Railroad Station, 15.
Maine Railroad Station, 15.
Malconi, Captain Daniel, 17.
Mall, Paddock's, 34,
Malls on the Common, 29.
Mann, Horace, Statue of, 24.
Marine Hospital, 118.
Market, Faneuil Hall, 12.
" Washington, 97.
Mason & Hamlin Organs, 82.
Masonic Temple, 76.
JVIassachusetts General Hospital, 13.
Massacre, Boston, 5.
Graves of Victims, 34.
Mather, Tomb of, 17.
Mayor, First, 8.
McLean Asylum, 13.
Meeting-House Hill, 108.
Men in the llebellion, 8.
Minot's Ledge, 116.
Monument, Bunker Hill, 117.
" Soldiers', 29.
Mount Auburn Chapel, 123.
" Entrance, 123.
Museum, Boston, 73.
Music Hall, 72.
Natural History, Boston Society of, 44.
Navy Yard, Ctiarlestown, 118.
Neal, Daniel, Account of Boston, 3.
News Letter, Boston, 4.
Nix's Mate 114.
Noddle's Island, 10.
North American Review, 85.
North End, 11.
Odd Fellows' Hall, 97, 98.
Office, Post, New, 56, 62.
Old Colony and Newport Railroad Station, 100, 101.
" Comer Bookstore, 83, 84.
" Elm, 27.
" South Church, 58, 66.
" State House, 5.
Organ in Music Hall, 72.
Osgood, J. R. & Co., 84, 85.
Paddock's Mall, 34.
Paddv, William, Epitaph on, 69.
Park Street Church, 40.
Parker House, 86, 87.
Perkins Institution for the Blind, 102.
Point Shirlev, 115.
Pond in Public Garden, 31. 32.
Population of Boston, 2, 8.
Portraits in Faneuil Hall, 12.
Post, Boston Daily, 77.
" Office, New, 56, 62.
Prang's Building, 106, 107.
Printing Office, Rand, Avery, & Co., 21, 22.
University, 121, 122.
Property owned in Boston, 8.
Providence Railroad Station, 47, 48.
Public Garden, 30.
" Library, 41.
Putnam, Dr. George, Church, 105.
Quincy Market, 12.
Railroads. See each Railroad.
Rand, Avery, & Co., 21, 22.
Rebellion, Boston in the, 7.
Reclamation of Flats, 3.
Reservoir, Brookline, 124.
Chestnut Hill, 126.
Revere, Paul, 18.
" House, 18.
Roxbury amiexcd, 10, 102.
St. James Hotel, 93.
St. I'luil's Church, 65.
Savin lliU, los.
School, GirK' High, 92.
Soldiers' ilonunient, 29.
Somerset Club, 46.
" Street Baptist Church, 40.
South Boston annexed, 10.
Spy, Massachusetts, 5.
Stamp Act, 5.
State House, 24.
" Old, 5.
State Street, 50.
Statues. See each Statue.
Tea, Destruction of, 5.
Technology, Institute of, 44.
Temple, 'ii-emont, 71.
Iheatre, Boston, 74.
" Museum, 73.
Ticknor House, 35.
Town Government, 8.
Transcript, Daily, 78.
Traveller, Dally, 79.
Tremont House, 49.
" Street jMethodist Church, 96.
" Temple, 71.
Union Boat-Club, 46.
" Club, 4.5.
University Press, 121, 122.
Valuation of Boston, 8.
Ward, Edward, Account of Boston,
Warren, Fort, HI.
Washington Elm, 122.
Statue, 32, 33.
Water-Works, Cochituate, 28. 105, 106, 124.
Webster, Daniel, Statue of, 24.
Welch, Bigelow, & Co., 121, 122.
West End, 23.
Wilson, Rev. John, 4.
Winthrop, Fort, 110.
" Tomb, 69.
Witches executed, 26.
ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO BUSINESS ANNOUNCEMENTS.
Below is an index to the Business Announcements made in "Boston Illustrated" by some of the
oldest and most reliable houses, including the leading hotels, newspapers, etc.
ADVERTISER, BOSTON DAILY 19
AMERICAN HOUSE 8
BAKER (WALTER) & CO. (Chocolates) 31
BEAL & HOOPER (Furniture) 6
BOSTON MUSEUM 15
BOSTON THEATRE 16
BROOKLYN LIFE INSURANCE CO 29
CHILSON, GARDNER (Furnaces, Kanges, &c.) 34
COMMERCIAL BULLETIN, BOSTON 23
CUNARD STEAMSHIP LINE 3
DITSON & CO. (Music) 14
GOLDTHWAIT, SNOW, & KNIGHT (Carpets) 2
HALL, H. K. W. (Paper Dealer) 15
HERALD, THE BOSTON 20
HELIOTYPES OF GRAY ENGRAVINGS 33
JORDAN, MARSH, & CO. (Dry Goods) 4
KILBURN, S. S. (Engraver) 18
KNICKERBOCKER LIFE INSURANCE CO 12
MACULLAR, WILLIAMS, & PARKER (Clothiers) 5
MASON & HAMLIN ORGAN CO 17
MERCANTILE SAVINGS INSTITUTION 28
MILLER, HENRY F. (Pianos) 1
NATIONAL WATCH CO 27
NURSERY, THE 18
PALMER, BACHELDERS, & CO. (Jewellers) 7
PARKER HOUSE 9
PRANG (L.) & CO. (Chromos) 26
RAND, AVERY, & CO. (Printers) • 25
REVERE HOUSE 10
RUSSELL & RICHARDSON (Engravers ......*.... 7
SARGENT BROS. & CO. (Dry Goods) 13
TRANSCRIPT, BOSTON DAILY EVENING 21
TRAVELLER, BOSTON DAILY EVENING 22
TRAVEL, FRESH BOOKS OF 32
TREMONT HOUSE 11
WELCH, BIGELOW, & CO. (University Press) 30
WOODS, BENJ. O. (Novelty Printing Press) 24
I. Boston : A Glance at its His-
II. The Nokth End 11
III. The West End 23
IV. The Central District ... 61
V. The South End 89
VI. New Boston and the Harbor 102
VII, The Suburbs 117
LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS.
Mr. Blackstone's House ....
Map of Boston for 1722
First Church in Boston ....
Birthplace of Benjamin Franklin
The Old State House
Old House in Dock Square ....
View of Dorchester Heights
Boston and its Suburbs in 1872
Faneuil Hall and Quincy Market .
The Massachusetts (icneral Hospital .
Eastern and Fitchburg Railroad Stations
Boston and Lowell Railroad Station .
Copp's Hill Burying-Ground ....
Brattle Square Church ....
Christ Church, Salem Street ....
Boston Daily Advertiser ....
View at the head of Washington Street
The Andrew Statue
The Frog Pond
The Old Elm, Boston Common .
The Brewer Fountain
Beacon Street Mall
The Public Garden from Arlington Street .
The Pond, Public Garden ....
The Bridge, Public Garden ....
The Everett Statue
The Washington Statue
Entrance to the Granary Burving-Ground
The Old Hancock House I . . .
Mr. Prescott's Residence, Beacon Street .
First Church, Berkeley Street .
Arlington Street Church
Somerset Street, with Church .
Park Street Church
Central Church, Berkeley Street
Boston Public Library
Boston Athena? um
Society of Natural History and Institute
View of Park Street
Beacon Street. — The Somerset Club .
Union Boat-Clnb, Charles River
Providence Railroad Station ....
View at the head of State Street .
The Rebuilding of Pearl Street .
View of Franklin Street before the Fire
The Spot where the Fire began .
The Post-Offlce as a Burner to the Fire
The New Post-Offlce
St. Paul's Church and the U. S. Court House
Old South Church
The Ruins, with Trinity Church in the Fore
The Organ in Music Hall
Globe Theatre before the Fire of May 30
Boston Post 76
View in Washington Street : Globe Office . .77
Washington Street : Transcript Office before
the Fire ••..-.... 78
View in Washington Street : Journal Office . 79
The Boston Herald 80
Mechanics' Building 81
Horticultural Hall and Studio Building . . 81
View in Tremont Street : Mason <fc Hamlin's . 82
Jordan, Marsh, & Co. 's Building ... 83
Old Corner Bookstore 84
James R. Osgood <k Co.'s Building ... 84
INlacullar, Williams, & Parker's Building . . 85
Mercantile Savings Institution ... 86
The Parker House 87
State Street Block 88
View in Chester Square 89
View of Boston from Tremont Street near
Chester Park 90
Girls' High and NoiTnal School . . . .91
Washington Street, with Continental Hotel . 92
Hotel Boylston 93
St. James Hotel 94
Cathedral of the Holy Cross .... 94
Church of the Immaculate Conception and
Boston College 95
Methodist Church, Tremont Street . . . 96
City Hospital 97
Wasliington Market 98
Odd Fellows' Building 98
Central Club 99
Boston and Albany Railroad . . . .100
Old Colony Railroad Station .... lol
Perkins Institution for the Blind . . .103
Grand Junction Wharves, East Boston . . 104
First Church in Roxbury, and Norfolk House 105
Stand-Pipe of Cochituate Water-Works . 106
Warren House 106
L. Prang & Co.'s Art Publishing House . 107
Meeting-House Hill 107
Savin Hill, from Old Colony Railroad . . 108
Consumptives' Home, Dorchester . . . 109
View of Hull 110
Fort Independence Ill
Fort Warren, Boston Harbor .... 112
Boston Light 113
Bug Light 113
Long Island Light 114
Nix's Mate 114
Point Shirley 115
Bunker Hill Monument 117
The Navy Yard, from East Boston . . .118
Gore Hall, Harvard College 119
View of Harvard College: The Quadrangle . 1'20
The University Press, Cambridge . . . 121
The Washington Elm, Cambridge . . . 122
Residence of H. W. Longfellow .... 122
Entrance to Mount Auburn .... 123
Chapel, Mount Auburn ?23
Entrance to the Chestnut Hill Reservoir . 124
The Drive, showing the large Reservoir . . 125
Gate House, Chestnut Hill .... 126
The Drive on the Margin of the small Reservoir 126
Jamaica Pond, North View .... 127
Jamaica Pond, South Side 128
Entrance to Forest HiUa 129
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