Skip to main content

Full text of "The Botanical Text-book, an Introduction to Scientific Botany, Both Structural and Systematic ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Ho.t.d, Google 

Ho.t.d, Google 












■ Ado 




E F. 


& Co., 


lurt ot the 


Ho.t.d, Google 



This compendious treatise is designed to furnish classes 
in our schools and colleges with a suitable text-book of 
Structural and Physiological Botany, as well as private 
students with a convenient introductory manual, adapted 
to the present condition of the science. The favor with 
which the former editions have been received, while it has 
satisfied the author that the plan of the work is well 
adapted. to the end in view, has made him the more desir- 
ous to improve its execution, Eind to render it a better ex- 
ponent of the present state of Physiological Botany. To 
this end the structural and physiological part of the work 
has been again almost entirely rewritten for this Third Edi- 
tion, and much enlarged. The chapter on the Elementary 
Structure of Plants, or Vegetable Anatomy, the sections on 
the Internal Structure of the Stem, on Phyllotaxis and its 
relations to floral structure, and on the Symmetry and 
Morphology of the Flower, may be particularly adverted to, 
as having been altogether recast and greatly extended. 
The want of space and time has prevented a similar exten- 
sion of the systematic part of the work, especially of the 


lllastrations of the Natural Orders. This portion, however 
amplified, could never take the place of a Flora, or System 
of Plants, but is designed merely to give a general idea of 
the distribution of the vegetable kingdom into families, 
&c., with a cursory notice of their structure, distribution, 
properties, and principal useful products. The student 
who desires to become acquainted, as he should, with the 
plants that grow spontaneously around him, will neces- 
sarily use some local Flora, such, for example, as the au- 
thor's Manual of the Bolany of the Northern United Slates. 
For particular illustrations the botanist may advantageous- 
ly consult the Genera of the Plants of the United Slates, 
illustrated by Figures and Analyses from Nature, of which 
two volumes have been published. 

By permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution, the figures No. 20-22,33,37, 105-110, 130- 
133, 135, 136, 159, 160, and 161-164, are copied from 
original sketches made for the Introduction to a Report on 
the Trees of the United Slates, now in preparation by the 
author, for that Institution. 

The changes in this Fourth Edition are comparatively 
small; ■ consisting of corrections and minor alterations, 
especially in the parts which relate to Vegetable Anatomy 
and Physiology, and in the addition of a short chapter on 
the Fecundation of Cryptogamous or Flowerless Plants. 

HiRVARD UsiVBRSirr, Cambeidge, Marcli, 1833. 



INTEODUCTIOK. - Gkweeal Survey of the Science . 




Sect. I. Op Organization in Genekal 

The BlcmentHry Constitution of rianla 

Their Ovganic Constitudon 

Distinctions between Minerals and Organizeil Btinga . 

Individuals Rud Species 


Difltrence between Vegetables and Animala . , , . 

Sect. II. On the Cells asb Cellui-ae Tissue oi' Flastb 

irf General 

Cellular Structnre 

Formation and Devalopment of Cells 

MuMplicadon of Cells 

GemmHtion or Budding of Cells 

Elongating and Bainifying Cells 

Circulation in Tonng Cells 

Permeabilitj and Imbibition (Endosmosis) .... 

Growth of Cell- Membrane inlorstitiiiUy 

Thickening by Deposition 

Markings of the Walls of Cells 

'Free Gelatinous Coils in Cells 



Sect. III. Of the Kinds oe Transfokjeations of Cellu- 
lar Tissue 42 

Parenchyma 43 

ProseHchjma, Woody Tissue 44 

Bast Tissue 46 

Vasenlar Tissue or Vessels 48 

Interlaced Fibrillifbrm Tissue 52 

LaticiferouB Tissue 52 

Intercellular System 54 

Epidermal System 55 

Sect. IV. Of tub Contents of the Tissues , . . ' 56 

Sap 56 

Proper Juices 57 

Starch 57 

Vegetable Jelly 59 

Sugar, Wax, Chlorophyll 60 

Alkaloids 61 

Vegetable Adds 61 

Crystals or i^aphides 62 

Silcs ■■ 63 



The Individual Plant 64 

Plants of a Single Cell 65 

Plants of a Single Row of Cells 68 

Spores, Conjugation 69 

Plants of a Tissae of Cells 70 

Plants with a Distinct Axis and Foliage .... 72 

Thallophyles and Cormophytes 73 

Cellular and Vascular Plants 73 

Cryptogamous or Flowerless Plants 75 

PhEOOgaraous or Flowering Plants 76 

Development of the Plant from the Embryo . . . 77 

Organs of Vegetation ......... 79 


The Primary R«ot 80 

Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials 85 

Secondary Roots 87 

Aerial Roots 87 

Epiphytes . . . . • 89 

Parasites 90 



Sbci. IL Bauifica 
Branches . 

Advenlitious and Accessory Buds 
Propagatian from Buda . 

Sect. III. The Kikds o 

Herbs, Shrubs, and Trees 

Stolons, Runners, Tendrils, Thomi:, fie 

Subterranean Modilicadoiis 

Bhizomaor BootsCock 

Tuber, Corm 

Bulbs and Bulbleis 

Sect. IV. The Internai. Strdctdre of the Stew . 

Sect- V. The Ekogenocs or Dicotyledokocs Stem 

The First Year's Growth 

The Pith and MednHarj Sheath 

The Wood 

The Bark . " 

Tbe Second Year's Growth in Diameter .... 

Annual Increase of the Wood 

Sap-wood and Heart-wood 

Sect. VI- The Endogenous or MoNOOOrrLBDONODS Stem 
Sect. VIL Op the Theoretical Stbuctukk op ihb Stem 

Origin of the Wood 

The Plant a Composite Being 



Sect I Their Arrangement 


V emation or Prrofoliation 

Sei_t n Their Stroctohe a 
Anatomj of the Loaf . 

Development of the Leaf . 




The Forms and Venation of LeavcB 

Compound Leaves 

The Peliole or Leafstalk 


Ascidia, or Pitchers 


Sect. IIL Their Dbath abd Tall j Exhai-.vtiok, etc. 

Duration of Leaves 

Fall of the T^af 

Death of tho Leaf 

Exhalation from tho Leaves 

Rise of the Sap 


Sect. 1. The Geneiial PHveioi,0OY op Vegetation 

Sect. II. The Food and Elementary Composition op 

Sect. IIL Assimilation, oe Vegetable DIgestioh, and 
. its. Results 


Flowering an E.thaustive Process 

Evolution of Heat 

Plants need a Season of lieat 


Indefinite or Indeterminate Inflorescence ..... 
Definite or DeCerminato Inflorescence 


Sect. I. Its Organs, or Component Pahts 

Sect. II. Its Theoretical Structure or General Mob- 

Sect, m. Its SrMMBTRr 

Alternation of the Floral Organs . 
Position as Respects the Axis and Bract . 

Sect. IV. The Various Modifications 
Augmentation of the Floral Cirdos _ 
Chorisis or DedupUcation, 



Conlesoence of Parts 



Suppression or Abortion 

Abnormal SiaWs of the Eeccptade 

Sect. V. The Floral Envelopes 

Their Development 

^ativaiion or PrEeSoration 


The Corolla 

Secv. VI. Tub Stameks 

The Filament and Anther 

The Pollen 

Sect. VII. The Pistil's . ' 

The Placenta 

The Carpel or Carpldium 

The Compound Pistil 

Modes of Placcntatioii 

Gjo^cium of Gjoinospermoua Plaiiis 

Sect. Tin. The Ovule 

Sect. IX. Fertilization 

Action of the Pollen 

Formation of the Embrvo 


Sect. I. Its Structure, Thansfohiiatioks, akd Dehis- 

Sect. II. Its Kinds 


Sect. I. Its Sthucture anu Parts 

The Nucleus and Albumen 

The Embryo 

Sect. n. Gbrjunatiok 



Special Directions 

The Sleep of Plants 



Movements from Irritation 
Automatic Movements 
Tree Movements of Spores 





Hybrids or Cross-breeds 360 

Genera 360 

Orders or Families 361 

Suborders, Tribes, &e. 362 

Classes 362 

Cbaracters 362 


N^US 364 





Signs and AEKBEvrAiiONS 513 

DiEECriONS POE Collecting and Pkeseeving Plants, &c. 514 

INDEX AND Gbnekal Glossart" of Botabioal Terms . 516 





IB N I H 1 "\ g bl I I 

h b k gd f h b c^ ( 11 d pt ) 

d h fmh Ikdh 

b hd drehfdiwlh I 

1 Thpffhpp 11 1 ffddm 

h ! p p i fod 1 fpl la Th bl 

kdhf PP lm!d 

1 IkdmCmpl ly ddBta 

dy y fi yb bmd 

[g — h hkdbl ih 

hm dhp Ijply hgnl yfti 

Id — h 1 bh l!f] ra !kd bel 

ifmhhlydh dh 1 

kdblmidhhl I hh 

1- d hhyh hd d 

2 Tl h p 18 d h h h bl Id 

>b milddfmlhl dp f 

1 y PI m y b d d h 

d d i b g b 1 b h 1 

ly y m y 1 g M k gd 

hi hptsfh — hh 

3 U d 1 firs p m ly 1 

d 1 pi d vid 1 w dy 



the kind of life with which it is endowed, ihe organization through 
which its life IS manifested , — in other words, how the plant lives 
and glows, and fulfils its destined offices This is thi, province of 
Pm&lOLOGICAL BOTANY It comprises a koort ledge, Ist, 
of the int mate structure of the plant, the minute machinery 
through which it& forces operate, — this is the special field of 
Vegetable Abatomi , — and, 2d, of the plant's e\tern-il con- 
formation, the forms and arrangement of the seieral oigans of 
which it IS composed, the laws of symmetry which fix their posi- 
tion, ind the modificitions they respectuely undergo, whether m 
different species, under different conditions, oi in a single indiMd- 
nal during the successive stages of its <\i velopmcnt This branch 
of the science is variously called Organooeafhy (llie study of the 
organs), or MoEPHOLoav (the study of their various modifications 
in form, according to the office they are destined to subserve), or 
Stbtjctitbal Botany ; and nearly corresponds with what is termed ' 
Comparative Aiiatomy in the animal kingdom. Under both these 
aspects, (whether we study their interior strurMre, or their external 
conformation,) the plant is viewed as a piece of machinery, adapt- 
ed to effect certain ends. The study of this apparatus in action, 
endowed with life, and fulfilling the purposes for which it was 
constructed, is the province of Vegetable Physiologt, strictly so 

4, The subjects which Physiological Botany embraces, namely, 
V g H A y Og p! d Pl> ■ I J I f 

p g lly f h si dy f b 11 — 

f mpl f I d J I g h 

f f I fl J 1 h 

pd f 11 hf lllp kg 

d Tl Ij h Id q 1 d Id f 

1 gi ly <^y ( ' g h "^y ^ p^y 

Ifm Ifl pf bflb p f 

h d f p II dp 1 pJ 

ddbhpl dfid h igh khld 

pl d T 



n their relations to one another; 
I which embraces an immense 
ss like each other, and there- 
ito kinds or genera, into orders. 

second great department of the science, namely, SYSTEMATIC 

BOTANY, or the study of plants ii ' " ' " 

as forming a vegetable kingdori 

number of species, more or 1 

fore capable of being grouped 

classes, &c. 

6. Thus arises Classification, or the arrangement of plants in 
systematic order, so as to show their relationships; also Speciai, 
Descriptive Botanv, embracing a scientific account of all known 
plants, designated by proper names, and distinguished by clear 
and exact descriptions. Necessarily connected with these depart- 
ments is Terminoloby or Glossoi.o&y, which relates to the appli- 
cation of distinctive names or terras to the several organs of plants, 
and to their numberless modifications of form, &c. The accom- 
plishment of this object renders necessary a copious vocabulary of 

lechnic 1 t 

are the 
eiy of 



f d' 7 I g 


1 \ P 


g h g d lly b 
by h h h b 

of tbe 
a third \ 
their re 

ered as to th 

leir influence up 

vegetation draws from the s 
takes from and what it rendc 

1 1 
f h g 
pi n d 
lb q 
bl Phy 1 
f d 

f 1 g bl 


1 b 5 

bl gp 1 

g 1 1 h p 

f fi A n 

to the earth 

, considered 

f h 1 

b h ly m h 

C 1 y Ply [ G graf y & 

b 11 rilk gd d 

ion the soil and the air, — as to what 

5oil and what it imparls to it, what it 

:rs to the air we breathe ; and, again, 

mal k n dom con de ed as 

1 d he mu al sub e t e ce of 

r 1 omy of e wo 1 — all 

p ly Ch 7 and pa ly o\ egeta 

d d c o 3 f hem 1 y he 

1 &, The ela ons of plan s 

f o he na nl <t s b n 



over its surface and the laws that regulate it, especially a? con 
nected with the actual distribution of those natural agents which 
chiefly influence vegetation, such as heat, light, water, d.« , (m 
other words, with climate,) give rise to Geobbaphical Botany, a 
subject which connects Botany with Physical Geogiiphy Under 
the same general department naturally falls the consideration of 
the changes which the vegetable kingdom has undergone in times 
anterior to the present state of things, as studied in their fossil le 
mains, {a contribution which Botany offers to Geology,) as well aa 
of those changes which man has effected in the natural distribution 
of plants, and the alterations in their propeities or products which 
have been developed by culture. 

8. Of these three great departments of the science, that of 
Physiological Botany, forming as it does the basis of all the rest, 
first demands the student's attention. 




9. The principal subjects which belong to this department of 
Botany may be considered in the most simple and natural order 
by tracing, as it were, the biography of the vegetable through (he 
successive stages of its existence, — the development of its essen- 
tial organs, root, stem, and foliage, the various forms they assume, 
the offices they severally perform, and their combined action in 
carrying on the processes of vegetable life and growth. Then the 
ultimate development of the plant in flowering and fructification 
may be contemplated, — the structure and office of the flower, of 
the fruit, the seed, and the embryo plant it contains, which, after 
remaining dormant for a time, is at length aroused by the influence 
of common physical agents, (warmth, air, and moisture conjoined,) 
and in germination developes into a plant like the parent; thus 
completing the cycle of vegetable life. A preliminary question, 
however, presents itself. To understand how the plant grows and 
forms its various parts, we must first ascertain what plants are 
made of. 


of the elementary str0cture of plants. 

Sect. L Of Organization in General. 

10 Til E! m nta v Constitution of Plants. In considering the 

n 1 f wl I tables are made, it is not necessary at the 

q [ ularly into their chemical or ultimate com- 

II with the mineral world. 



The chemistry of veg tn y b m d 1 tod 

of hereafter. As th j d 11 1 f h f f om 

the earth and air, pi n p mpl I hich 

these do not supply Th y y talc 1 lost 

every element which h ppldSffi flp tto 

say, however, that, of I J y mpl b og- 

nized by chemists, only foui are essential to vegetation and are 
necessary constituents of the vegetable structure. These are Car- 
bon, Hydrogen, Oaygen, and Nitrogen. Besides these, a few 
earthy bodies -iie regularlj found m plants, in small and varying 
proportions. The most impoitant of them are Sulphur and Phos- 
phorus, which are thought to take an essential part in the forma- 
tion of cerlam \egelable products, Potassium and Sodium, Calcium 
and Magnesium, Sihcon and Aluminum, Iron and Manganese, 
Chlorine, Iodine, ind Bromine None of these elements, how- 
ever, are of universal occuirence, or aro aefual components of any 
vegptable tissue , they occur either among the malerials which are 
deposited on the waHs of the cells oi collected withm ihem 

11 TJieif Organic fonstltulion. Although plants and animals 
have no peculiar elements, though the mateiials from which thpir 
bodies spring, and to whieh they return, are common earth and 
air, yet m them these elements are wiougiit into something 
widt,!y different fiom any form of lifeless mineral mattei Un- 
der the mfluence of the prmnple of hfe, in connection with 
which alone such phenomena are manifested, the thiee or four 
simple constituents effect peculiar combinations, giving rise to a 
few 07 ganizahle elements ('-i7), as thej may be teimed , because of 
them the organized fabric of the vegetable or animal is directly 
bmlt up This fabnc is in a good degiee similar m aO living 
bodies , the solid parts or tis^uea in all assuming the form of thm 
mcmbianes or filaments, arranged so as to suiiound canities, or 
form the walls of tubes, m which the fluids aio contained It is 
called organised slrurture, and the bodies so compo^td ait called 
organized bodies, because such fabric consists of parts cooperat- 
ing witli each other as instruments or organs adapted to certain 
ends, and through which alone the living principle, undtr whose 
influence the structure itseif was budt up, is manifested in phe- 
nomena which the plant and animal exhibit There is m every 
oiginic fabnc a necessary connection between its confoimaliou 
and the actions it is destined to periotra This is equallj true of 


th ru h ! 1 d by h 

m p dfhlg g Ihh fm 11 

pi d Ifhhgh d h Ifpl 

d t h d I Th m 

f d h p f ga 1 1 g 

I g d ppl q II h 

fhlgp h I dp mil g 

h g! h 1 h If d 1 

12DtitinbtwnMiii laidO gauiz d B ng. I 

mralbdbdl oa p b 

d \ I d g m p d d 1 

g d y ec k 1 I 1 h J b 

pkfd ( i l)bp llyd 

b d W 1 p 1 g d 

wl dbd II [ ybfly lb 

1 <nj I d f If — 1 B p 

pitsdm! lypddd! fl f 

Igbdyml hm llylb in 

I If ff| f m p p h m I 

1 It ! p d ffp g b I y 

fmddrel hbyh g fm p 

byh f dyhmlffin 

dpi fhfl d Ij p fhp 

f m 1 1 g By I dev J p pi ta 

d m I d I 1 f 1 d h gh 

f 1 te f h II 

p I f d I 

d y — ! S B h md 

jg wh m li Ighlhf 

k ^ p 1 d 

d d lly I p 1 f Ii p y 

gbta 1 by hdbyfd— blh 

I Id J 1 p 'y '^ ^^ g 

any way if they increase V. all, it is meiely bj juvtaposUion, and 
because fresh matter happens to be deposited on their e-*.ternal 
surface 4 By ihe power of assitmlaUon or the ficulty that 
plants and animals alonp possess of comerting the proper tore gn 
malenals they receive mto their own peculiar substance 5 Con 
opcted with assimilation ■is a part of the function of nutrition, 
whicli cin n no sense be pi dicated of minenls, is the sttile of 



internal activity and unceasing change m living bodies , these 
consiintly undprgomg decomposition and lecomposition, particles 
which ha^e sened their turn being contmually thiown out ot the 
system as new ones ire biouglit in This is tiue both of plants 
and initmU, but more fully of the latter The mineral, on the 
contrary, is m a state of permanent mteinal repose whitever 
changes it undergoes are owjng to the actiOD of some extraneous 
forte, not to iny inherent power This holds true even in respect 
to the chemical combinations which occur m the mineral and m 
the organic kingdoms In the former thpj are stable, in the Ut- 
ter they ire less "^o n pioporl on aa thpy aie the moie undei the 
influence ol the vital pnnciple , as if in the st^te of unstable ei^ui 
librium, a comparatively slight force induces retrogiade changes, 
through which they tend to reassume the permanent mineial slate 
6 Conaequentlj the dujation of living beings la limited They 
are developed, they reach maturity, they support themselies for a 
lime, and then perish by death sooner or latei Minerai bodies 
have no life to lo^e, and coQia n no intr rndl pnnciple of destruc- 
tion Once formed, they exist until destroyed by lome external 
power thej lie passu e under the contiol of physical fuices As 
they were formed iirespective of the existence of a similar body, 
and have no self determining power while they exist, so they have 
no power to determine the pioduction of like bodies in turn The 
organized being perishes, indeed, from mheient causes but not 
until It has produced new individuals I ke itself to take if. jlace 
The faculty ol i eprodurtwn is, therefore, an essential character 
istic of organize! beings 

J8 IndlTlduali*. The ma&s of a mineral body has no necessaiy 
lim ts , a piece of marble or even a crystal of calcareous spar, 
ma> be mechanically divided into an indefinite number of parts, 
each one of which exhibits till the properties of the mass It is 
only figuratively that we speak of a mineral individual Planla 
and animals, on the contrary, exist only as mdtvtduals , that is, 
as beings composed of parts togcthci constituting an independent 
whole, which can be divided only by mutiktion Each may have 
the ficultj of Sblf dtDiston, or of m'ikiag otFshoots, tthich become 
new and complete individuals II is m this facultj, indeed com- 
prebensuely considered, that reproducton consists The indi 
viduahtv IS no less real in those animals of lower gtades, and in 
plants, where successive geneidtioni jf individiaK lemiin mote 



or less united wilh the parent, instead of separating while the off- 
spring is ID the emhryo or infantile slate. 

14. Species. This succession of individuals, each deriving lis 
existence with all its peculiarities from a similar antecedent living 
body, and transmitting it with its peculiarities essentially unchanged 
from generation to generation, gives the idea of species ; a term 
which essentially belongs to organic nature, and whicli is applica- 
ble only by a figure of speech to inorganic things. By species we 
mean, abstractly, the type or original of each sort of plant, or ani- 
mal, thus represented in time by a perennial succession of like indi- 
viduals or, concretelv, the species is the aum of such individuals 

15 Life All these pet-uliantiei of organized, as contrasted 
with inorganic bodies, will be =cen to depend upon this , that the 
former are lumg being's or their products The gieat character- 
istic of plants and animals is life, which these beings enjo\, 
but minerals do not Ot the essential nature of the vitality 
which so controls tlit, matter it becomes connected with, and of 
the nature of the connection between tite Imng pitnciph and llie 
organized shuttme, we are wholly ignorant We know nothing 
of life except by the phenomena it manifests in oiganized struc- 
tures We have adverted only to some of the most unnersal of 
these phenomena, those which are common to eveij kind of orgin- 
iztd being But these aie so essentially diffeient from the m-mi 
festations of any recognized physical lorce, that we are compelled 
to attribute them to a special, '■uperphj sical pimciple As we 
rise in the scale of organized sliuUiirc through the difiertnt grades 
of (he animil cieation, the superadded vital manifestations become 
more and more striking and peculwi But the fundamental char- 
acteristics of living beings, those which ali enjo\ i 
which nectssanly give use to all the peculiaritits -^bove e 
ated (1^), are teducible to two, namely, — 1 the powei ol self- 
stippoit, or aasimtlalion, that of nourishing themselves by involv- 
ing surrounding mineral matter and convening it into their own 
proper substance ; by which individuals increase in bulk, or grow, 
and maintain their life : 2. the power of self-division or repro- 
duction, by which they increase in numbers and perpetuate the 

* A f ingle striking illustration may set both points in a, strong light. The 
larva of the iii;sli-fly possiisses sutli power of assimilation, that il wjU increase 


16 Uffrince bt TIM dA I T d b 

bl d ral 1 11 d fi B 

h 1 f d b pi d I — 

k d 'ra. d 1 11 — 

b did Cdlyh b 

dffilyd hg gif mlBh 

q 1 1 fi 1 k g 

dmhhd df fig pb ""P' y 

f d h baffi b 

E h h y p b bly b bl h 

h p f k 1 d 1 f 

1 I \ fh kdfbgly 

hf Idfftdfil h iplyhdfi 

11 f 1 1 pi li 

1 1 Ph 11 f g b 

dbl bg Ip Ihb Ikd 

p b 1 ni ra! d h I 1 1 

ffi f I 1 PI d Id b 

se() b dbghldlypl 

mralkdmhg 1 ml p f 

d d Tl y 1 g 1 

ingm mlpd b h 

wl 1 f -1 i m 1 1 pi h 

h 1 b d PI h 1 b 

Imld ralyfidh h b 

p h h h y g d 1 1 b 1 

hyd kdly 1 bbp 

wb dlblddl fl fll 

I d I I m 1 d d h 1 d 

p 1 f g I mpre h 1 | f I 

g h d dy prep d f I h 

d ! se 1 I p }) 

* The faculty of locomotion, unci even thai of " making n 
to a deierminate end," cannot be denied to many plants, Doabtless the sensi- 
bility to external impressions, which some plants so strikingly manifest, does 
not amount to perception : on the other hand, tha,t the lowest animals possess 


of plants, moreover, is composed of three elements only ; namely, 
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. The tissue of animals com- 
prises a fourth element, Nitrogen. Plants, as a necessary result of 
assimilating their inorgnnic food, decompose carbonic acid and 
restore its oxygcQ to tlic atmosphere. Animals in respiration con- 
tinually recompose carbonic acid, at the expense of the oxygen of 
the atmosphere and the carbon of plants. These definitions will 
be verified, extended, and illustrated in the progress of this work. 

17, The question recurs. What is the organized fabric or tissue 
of plants, and how is vegetable growth elFected ? The stem, 
leaves, and fruit appear to ordinary inspection to be formed of 
smaller parts, which are themselves capable of division into still 
smaller portions. Of what are these composed ? 

18. Cellular Struclarc. To obtain an answer to this question, we 
examine, by the aid of a microscope, thin slices or sections of any 
of these parts, such, for example, as the young rootlet of a seed- 
ling plant. A magnified view of such a rootlet, as in Fig. 1, pre- 
sents on the cross-section the appeai'ance of a network, the meshes 
of which divide the whole space into more or less regular cavi- 
ties. A part of the transverse slice more highly magnified (Fig. 2) 
shows the structure with greater disbnctness A perpendicular 
slice (Fig. 3) exh bits somewhat s milar me'ibes, showing that the 
cavities do not run lengthwise through the whole root without in- 
terruption. In white\er direction the sections aie made, the cav- 
ities are seen to be equally circumscribed although the outlines 
may vary in shape Hence we avrne at the conclusion, that the 
fabric, or tissue, consists of a multitude of separate cavities, with 

3 not certainlj' made out But iC is tiCLOming; more and more 
apparent, tliat the absolute disCiDLtions between plants and ammnle arc not to 
be drawn from this class of characters Dr Lmdlej a definition that " a plant 
is a celiular body possessing Mtalitv living bj ulisorptian througli its outer 
surface, and secretinij starch!' 's so far good, that it indirectly recognizes the 
Essential function of vegetation, starch Ijeing one of its organic produets ; yet 
it is only one special form under which the nutritive matter created b; tbe 
plant occurs. It is mncli as if animals were characteriied by the feculty of 
secrotmg fat. 




closed partitions ; forming a structure no! unlike a honeycomb. 
This ia also shown by the fact, that the liquid contained in a juicy 
fruil, such as a grape or currant, does not escape when it is cut in 
two. The cavities being called Cells, the tissue thus constructed 
is termed Cbllulah Tissue. When the body is sufficiently trans- 
lucent to be examined under the microscope by transmitted light, 
this structure may usually be discerned without making a sec- 
tion. We may often look directly upon a delicate rootlet (as in 
Fig. 1), or the petal of a flower, or a piece of thin and trans- 
parent sea-weed, and observe the closed cavities, entirely circum- 
scribed by nearly transparent membranous walls. 

19 Does this relluJm tisme consist cf in or u. nally homosiene 
ous mass hlled m some way wi h mnume able cav ties Or s it 
(.omposed f f an aggregation of little bladders or sacs wh eh, by 
then accumulation and mului! cohesion make i p the root or other 
organ? Several c rciimstinces pro\e that the lattei is tie cor 
lect view 1 The partilion between two adjacent ce II -s is often 
seen to he djuble showing that each cavity is bounded bj ita 
own special walls 2 There ^re vacant spices often to be seen 
between contiguous cells, where the walls do not entirely fit to 
gelher These tntercdlular spaces are sometimes so large and 
n imeiois that miny of the ctUs touch each o her ai i few po nis 
onlj as m the lower stratum of the green p ilp of leaves (Fig 7) 


; mag„lf.Bl 


n of a hair f 



Ho.t.d, Google 


■ zrrrrrmoDQ czr 


3 \^ hen a portion of any young and 
tender vegetable ti&sue, such as an As- 
paragus thcot IS boiled, the elementa- 
" 1 separile or m<iy readily be 
) sep'inted by the ad uf fine needles, 
ind examined bj the microscope, 4. In 
pulpv fruits ■ts in the Apple, the walls 
of the ceils which at first cohere to- 
gether spotitineou'ly separate as the 
fruit ripens (Fig 4 5), 
20 The \cgptab(e, then, is constructed of these cells or vesi- 
cles much as a wall is buiU up of bricks \t hen the cells are 
separate oi do not impress each other the\ are generally round- 
ed or spherical By mutual compres'-ion they become polyhedral. 
As in a mass of spheres each one is tuuohed by twelve others, if 
equally impressed in eiery direction, the yielding cells become 
twelve sided , and in a section wliether transverse (as in Fig. 2) 
or longitudinal (^s in Fig 3) the meshes consequently appear six- 
sided. If the organ is growing in one direction more than another, 
the ceils commonly lengthen more or less in that direction, and 
thus become oblong, cylindrical, or tubular when nearly free, or 
prismatic when laterally impressed. If the force of extension, 
compression, or nutrition be greater in one direction than another, 
or unequal on corresponding sides, a corresponding variety of 
form is produced. It is not necessary to detach a cell in order 
to ascertain its shape ; that may usually be inferred from the out- 
lines of their section in two or three directions. Nor have the 
forms precise geometrical regularity ; they merely approach more 
or less closely the figures to which they are likened. 

21. The walls of the cells are transparent, at least in their early 
state, and almost always colorless. In a few cases the membrane 
itself is said to have a tinge of green, and in the stems of Ferns it 
is often brown. The various colors which the parts of the plant 
present, the green of tbe foliage, or the vivid hues of the corolla, 

FIG. 7. A magniaeil Beclion through Ihe thickness of a leaf of [llicium Fbi iiluiiuii], show. 

green piiip, Ihe cells ofwhiuh (placsd venicall)') are welJ eompacleii, bo as lo tea™ only minute 
TscuitiBS at Iheir louoiled enda; but ibey are Ist^ and copious In the resLof tlie leaf, where the 

of the leaf, cnaiposed of perfect]; comtanedthick walled cells. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


do not belong to the tissues themselves, but to the matters of differ- 
ent colors which the cells contain (87). 

22. The cells vary greatly in size, not only in different plants, 
but in different parts of the same plant. The largest are found in 
aquatics, and in such plants as the Gourd, where some of them are 
as much as one thirtieth of an inch in diameter. Their ordinary 
diameter is about j-^g- or -^f^j of an inch. In the common Pink, 
it has been computed that more than 5,000 cells are contained 
in the space of half a cubic line, which is equivalent to almost 
3,000,000 in a cubic inch. 

23. Cells are sometimes drawn out into tubes of a considerable 
length, as in hairs, and the fibres of cotton, which are long and 
attenuated cells. The hairs, or hair-like prolongations from the 
surface of rootlets, arc good examples of the kind. Two short 
ones are seen in Fig. 1. In Fig. 13, 14, they are more fully 

24. Some idea may be formed respecting the rale of their pro- 
duction, by comparing their average size in a given case with the 
known amount of growth. Upon a fine day in the spring, many 
stems shoot up at the rale of three or four inches in twenty-four 
hours. When the Agave or Century-plant blooms in our conser- 
vatories, its flower-stalk often grows at the rate of a foot a day ; it 
is even said to grow with twice that rapidity in the sultry climes to 
which it is indigenous. In such cases, new cells must be formed 
at the rate of several millions a day The rapid growth of Mu'ih- 
rooms hag become proverbial A gigantii- Puffhall has been 
known to glow from an insignificint Mze to thit of a large gourd 
during a Binjle n ght when the cells of which it is entirely com 
posed aie comp ited to havr been develiped at the rate of three 
or four hundied m llion'j per hour But this npid increase in size 
IS ow in^, in great pirt to the expansion of cells already formed 

25 UcTelOpmeilt of (elU The whole potentidlitv of the plant 
exists in the individual cells of which it is made up In them its 
products are ehboiated, md all the Mtil opeiatnns cirued on 
Growth consi-its m their prediction multq licaiion and enlaige 
ment Aknjwl<-dge of the«e procea'^es is thcieloie lequ site in 
almost eierj inquiry that arises in phy-ioli^ i_al botnnj Svs 
tematic botany and zoolog\ more vei ai well as anatomy and 
physiology both animal and legelable h »e advanced to the point 
at which in\ cstigations into the development of oigans are of the 



Utmost consequence. The formation, propagation, and growfli 
of ceils, forming, as they do, tlie groundwork of anatomy and 
physiology, are subjects which for the last few years have tasked 
the powers of the ablest investigaiora. Such, however, are the in- 
trinsic difficulties of these investigations, that the subject is still 
involved in much obscurity, especially in regard to the formation 
of cells ; and great ditierences of opinion prevail upon many other 
essential points. At present, it is hardly possible to separate what 
is known or reasonably well settled from what is conjectural, un- 
proved, or untrue ; nor can the more or less conflicting views of 
the most experienced observers be presented and explained in such 
an elementary treatise as this,* In respect to cellular develop- 
ment in plants, however, now that Schleiden has greatly modified 
his views,+ the highest authorities, namely, Mohl, Schleiden, and 
HSgeli, have arrived at substantially similar conclusions. These, 
in their general outlines, may be here presented, 

36. We must distinguish between the original formation of cells 
and their multiplication. We must also distinguish between the 
young, vitally active cell, and the completed cell, no longer capa- 
ble of multiplication or of having new cells formed within it. 

27. Formalion of Cells. Cells originate within other cells, or at 
least within living tissues.^ They are formed from orgaoizable 

* The best aiithorilies for the stndont to consult upon tlie subject are, — 

1, The menioicB of Mohl in the LiaruEa, the B<Aamsche Zeihmg, fcc^ the most 
important of which are translated in the Anrudes dea Sciences Naturellea, the 
Annals and JWojasne of Nataral Hislani, anil in Taylor's Scientific Memoirs. 

2. Those of Nageli in the ZsilaeMJl Jitr Wissaisch. Bdanik, vbos« principal 
memoir has been translated by Henfrey for the Etiy Society. 3. Sehleideu's 
Principles of Scienl{fic Botany, translated into English by I)r. Lankester, 4. 
Lindley's Introdaction to Botany, 4th edition. 5. Henfrey's Outlines of Stnic- 
turaland Pkgsiclagical Botany; a oompendions work, of which the chaptera 
on elementary sti'uctnre, and all of this author's wiitinga upon the subject, are 
especially excellent 

t Gnindttae der Wissenschqftl. Botanik, ed. 3, reprodnceii in the Appendix 
to the English translation, cited above. 

i The Yeast-plant, developed in fermenting fluids, if that be a trae vegeta- 
tion, is an exception to the rule. According to Schleiden, this is a case of 
" the formation of cells witliout the influence of another cell previously exist- 
ing," The material has of course heen elaborated in former vegetable cells ; 
and, according to Kaisten, the ferment-cells, with which the development 
commences, already exist in the juice of the fruit, and pass thiungh the iilt«r 
into the solution } which makes this a case of cell-multipUcatioa, rallier than 
of ctll-fovmation. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


matter {II, vegetable mucilage, protoplasm, &c.) assimilated in 
previously existing cells, and dissolved in the water which the tis- 
sue of growing parts contains.* This organizable material always 
and necessarily consists of a mixture of two classes of assimilated 
matter, one of which is azotized, the other is not. That is, one is 
compced of thiee elements, carbon, hydrogen, and osygen, and 
exists in the liquid form in the state of vegetable mucilage, dex- 
trine, &ugai, 4,c , 01 collects in a peculiar solid form in the cells,' 
as staioh, 01 finally constitutes the proper and permanent wall of 
the cell, undpr the name of Cellulose. The other is composed of 
nitrogen in addition to these three elements, and exists in growing 
parts m solution, a^ some state of what is called proteine, and is 
known among vegetable products in the forms of diastase, albumen, 
gluten, fibnne, &,c The latter makes no portion of the per- 
manent fabiic, indeed; but it plays an indispensable part in the 
production of cella, and always exists in young and vitally active 
cells, as a mucilaginous hning. A weak solution of iodine causes 
it to turn blown, and detaches it from the proper wall of the cell. 
Accoiding to Mobl app a -s a I 1 an 1 e j per cell-wallj 
which IS forme 1 und flu n e and as e, moulded 

upon it Mil has I ef e g e 1 pp p a e n me of pro- 
toplasm to th s z zed c la s na 

28 From a ]\u 1 o Cy hi ^\ 1 n ne lis are pro- 

duced by oi a nal fo an h 1 a y f pa ent cell, the 
following pioce'^es appear to take place. Portions of " the proto- 
plasm collect into a more or less perfectly spherical body, at length 
sharply defined, the nucleus of the cell {cytohlasl) ; upon this is 
deposited d la^erof protoplasm, which expands as a vesicle, and 
foims the subsequent lining of the cell ; at a very early period the 
whole becomes inclosed by a wall of cellulose, and the cell is com- 
pleted "t This plan, under a more restricted form, was pro- 
pounded, and unhl recently maintained, by Schleiden, as the uni- 
versil modL of cell-development. It is now maintained as one 
pnnLipil mjde only, and in a form essentially agreeing with 

* " Cells can be formed onlj in a fluid wliich contains sugar, dextrine, and 
proteine componods ' — Schhiden, I. c. 

t Schleiden, I c ed 3; frani the Appendix to the English translation, 
" This appears to oocnr especially ia the enibryo-aac and the embryonal vesi- 



Mohl'a view.* The gelatinous nucleus of the cell often remains 
adherent to some pail of the wall, where its vestiges frequently 
appear as a dark spot after the cell is full grown. Otherwise it 
lies free in the cavity, the forming cell-wall being disengaged from 
it on every aide ; and sooner or later it is dissolved or absorbed, 

29. Without an antecedent Nucleus. Some observers do not 
admit that the nucleus plays an esseotial part in cell -formation, or 
that it exists in the first instance. Nor does it have a place in 
Schleiden's account of the formation of free cells in fermenting 
fluids, viz. : t "A globule of nitrogeneous substance originates ; 
in this a cavity is formed, it grows, and the complete cell has a 
delicate coat of cellulose, without our being able to determine 
the epoch of its production."! 

30. Multiplieatioil 0( Cells. It is not by original cell-formation, 
however, but by the multiplication of cells already existing, that 
the fabric of the vegetable is built up. A cell once originated, in 

■ In Botaaische Zsitung, Tol. 2, 1844. Ths abstract of Molil's view is thna 
rendered, in the Appendix, I. e. p. 571, translated from Schleiden's 3d ed. : — 
" In all vitally active cells a. living membi'ane oeeu-rs, consisting of a nitrogene- 
ous layer ; this membrane exists earlier than the cell-wall formed of cellulose, 
and therefore Mohl calls it the 'primordial utricle.' The new cells proba- 
bly g b h lution of the old primordial utrielc, and the forma^on 
f I w e^ ffectcd through a nucleus, which always precedes the 
11 f in 

t S hi d ipp -c to Engl. JVons., I. c. And Nageli, as rendered in an 

ab tbjSll 1 I.e. p. 572. "1. There is a free cell-formation without 
I ta f the lower Algie, and in the formation of the spores of 

L h i F Sometimes a nucleus is eubsequentlj prodaced in the 

tnpl d 11 a P fectly homogeneous globules of mucilage aie formed, 
h 1 1 d these a perfectly homogeneous nacleua, on which a 

p p m mb ai on to be distinguished. A homogeneous layer of mu- 

ll g dp d und the nucleus; this gradually becomes tiiick, espe- 
lly at d th n granalar in the interior ; next it is enveloped by a 

m mb d h II with a parietal nucleus is complete." On the other 

ha d H ffm te h Ids that, in the formation of a nucleus, & spherical drop 
f m I g flmd becomes coated by a membrane, and thus individual [zed, 

with th p fa corpuscle of denser sul>stance (a nucleolus) inside 

h pi 1 f mucilage either being essential or contribucing to the 

p ss H nf y Bo . Gaiette, 1- p. 128. 

I Th to be little real discrepancy between this view and tJiose of 

Gre B M b 1 linger, and Endlicher, which agree in this : that cells 

g es n a mncilaginons matrix, aud at length acquire inde- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


whatever manner, has the power of propagating itself hy division 
into parts, each of which forms a new cell. The modes by which 
cells are thus multiplied, diverse as they appear to be in the vari- 
ous processes of vegetable growth, are evidently reducible to two ; 
and even these, if they are now rightly understood, are only two 
modifications of one and the same process of division, or meris- 
matic multiplication. Taking the most distinct cases for examples, 
we may say that, in the first mode, 

31. The cell is propagated hy the division of its living contents 
into two, four, or sometimes a greater number of free new cells ; 
the wall of the original cell perishing or losing its vitality in the 
process. This can occur only in cells whose walls have not been 
thickened hy internal deposition (39), and while yet lined with the 
vitally active layer of protoplasm • (26,27). This mucilaginous 
lining becomes constricted or infolded around the middle, and the 
fold extends inward until it is divided, with the whole contents, into 
two parts (Fig. 64) ; at the same time, or immediately following 
the division, a wall of cellulose is deposited around each portion. 
The two new cells thus produced may at once divide again in the 
same way, giving rise to four cells in a parent cell (as in Fig. 65) ; 
■or the division may be again and again repeated. The delicate 
wall of the parent cell is either absorbed or obliterated as the 
new ones, it incloses enlarge, or it remains, for a vfhile at least, 
although no longer in a living state. By this method the cells 
.of pollen formed in the anther of all Flowering plants (110), and 

* This layer accordiag to Mohl, is a delicale and soft nienibrane of proto- 
■pa,ni ( m the primordial atride), formod earlier than ihe eellu- 

soon deposited around it. Schleiden liOiS not becD able 
to tis m this matter is organized info a wewLrane, or that it pre- 

txd of cellulose. Bj terming it, without reference to these 

po ts m ag oas lining, or vitallj active layer of protoplasm, inler- 

■po th roper wall of the cell aad its contents (isudeiis, gdatinoas 

aa oc rom whatever they may be called), their views are brought 

n ag m each other. Those of Mr. Thwaitea do not essentially 

it ff ushing: too far, as T should suppose, the inference, " that 

ce ra to a subordinate part of living slructure ; that its func- 

ti re physical character j that its principal' office is to protecC, 

te th matter it conta.in3, and that any vitality it possesses is 

d ri m re ence within it of its cndochrome." Ann, §■ Mag. Nat. 

~ ~ ~ t of the cilia on the surface of (he cell-wall, 

rely shows that this possesses for a time a vitality 

Ho.t.d, Google 


the spores of most Flo^erless plants {101, 109), originate.* It is 
subservient to reproduction, as these examples show, rather than to 
vegetation. On the one hand, it might be ranked as a mode of 
original cell -format! on j on tho other, it passes hy insensible grada- 
tions into the next mode, — where 

S2. The cell is multvplied ly the formation of a partition v>Mch 
divides its camty into (wo ; the original wall remaining In this 
way, a single cell gives rise to a row of connected cells when the 
division takes place in one direction only or a plane or "Jolid mass 
of such cells, when it takes place in two or ore d ect ons ; thus 
producing a tissue. It is in this way tliat ill o d nary egefating 
or growing parts are produced and increased Tl e d vision is 
effected, as before, by the annular constriction and jnfolding of 
the mucilaginous lining of the cell {the primordial utricle of Mohl) ; 
the circular fold meeting at the centre divides the contents into 
two portions, and a layer of permanent cell -membrane, which is 
somewhat later deposited upon each lamella of the fold, forms a 
complete double partition ; thus converting one cell into two, and 

33. Although connected in their origin, such cells may break 

* Some spores are produced by tlie condensation of the whole eonlenls of 
tlie parent cell and tlie acquisition of an investing cell-membrane, without any 
division, as io Conferva glomerata, &c., or of the undiviiJed contents of one end 
of a cell, as in Vaueheria, Fig. 71. 

Th m m vas first shown and most aMy niaintamed 

b M h m increase in growing j-arts It has been 

Uostr d m d d lions by Henfrey, in a papei read belore 

th B h A G ni ge, in 1846; and has recenllr received 

w fi ra M h s vesearchea upon tho development of 

Qnfenx h which Mohl's observaUons upon cell 

d wp pymdH nfrey has given an ahsliael of MiMcher 

lich's paper in Ann. ^ Mag Nat Eist.Vol I new ser, 18*8 p 436 bchlei 
den'e siatement of the rrocess as rendered by Ins English traniKtor (p 5?2), 
is: "This fold of the pr moidial utncle is followed somewhat Iitei by 
a fold of the cell- membrane ittelf, which, finally arnving at the a-iis of the 
eell, blends, and from the nature of its origin foims a complete double sep 
tam." Bnt Mohl, Henfrey, and Mitscheriicli appear Co i^ree that the proper 
waJI of the parent cell is not construted, only iis hmng or primordial ntncle, 
and that "the septum is certainly a new stiucttire, a double layer of membrane 
formed in the fold," yet deposiled, according to Moljl and Henfiey gradu 
ally from the cirenmference lo the centre." " The layers of the pai tilion are 
therefore continuous with the layers of thickening in tlie interior of die lateral 
walls," as Henfrey states. 




nip d g (SI) p !ly h llie 

II gl b 1 d d d fi di- 

d ll pp d ex- 

p 1 1 1 p 11 ere, 

b k p f 1 d with 

P f 

Whl h f 1 


Id U de- 

y d d d h ells 

f m d h wn d p dent 

g f b Tl IS ore 

pp wl h 11 1 d d goes 

m h f 11 1 g een 

C f d p 1 F 8 ep- 

tsp fCf igfid, so 

asp ly }bhfm fh par- 


f d 

34 f mmat n Buddin m ly h 
ll g w 1 f m h f 3 

\ g f 1 f p ru b 

fm p fh f f llhhg 

tsp 1 mwyAllpl d 

diddby -a rsp hpp 

af 1 g f m pi y 1 1 

wddd wbyrarsp 1 

1 f i g o 1 PP 

elg d hmpss h 

myh dfinly Fg9 13hw 

m d fi f 1 p ( dd ) 

n d f g I n f h 

p pi f d f 1 wl 1 d 1 p 

f m nu nf 


FT B su Co lohl 

FIG. 9-12, ThB DjiQulo Infusory plant which devBlopoa in yeaat and fluiiia which are in 
Tiiuus fBnnenlalion. 9. Tha otislnal vesicia or coll, which is forming a aecond byaltindof 
liodding. 10. Tlis same, fanhar aavanecd. 12. Ths plant MlJ developed bj the succeaBi™ 

Ho.t.d, Google 

El ngnbn a d 

This onward growth may. 
tion of partitions at all ; 

fectly contiimous throughout ; as " 

in Botrydium (Fig. 67 - 70), where an originally spherical cell is 
extended and ramified below in the fashion of a root ; in Vauche- 
ria (Fig 71), where a slender tube forks or branches sparingiy ; 
and in Bryopsia (Fig. 73), where numerous branches are very 
regularly produced. In these 
cases, the fully developed plant, 
with all its branches, is only one 
proliferous cell, extended from 
various points by this faculty 
of continuous budding growth. 
The mycelium or spawn of 
" Mushrooms, and the intricate 

threads of Moulds (Fig. 74 - 76) are formed of very attenuated 
branching cells. And in Lichens, cells of the same kind are 
densely interwoven into a filamentous tissue (Fig. 15). 

36. Circulation in young Cells, A kind of circulation or move- 
ment of rotation has been observed in numerous cells, particularly 
in those that form the hairs of many plants, which are well situated 
for observation ; and It probably takes place in most cells at an 
early period, while yet filled with fluid. The string of bead-like 

FIG 13. HaBnifiaJ collula 

FIG. IS. Enlmigled, Rbuae 
Uchen (Cliiilonia raogiferioa), 

le of tha Keindeer 


(T 1 Fg 6) h h 

fygpw fb f Id 

op pi pdb hll dtl 

I d q fh I d g 

M n h gh b ! b I 11 f Ch ra wh 

they may be observed with an ordinary lena ; and in our Vallisne- 
ria, where a moderate magnifying power shows, in the cells of the 
leaves, a continuous rotation round the whole wall of the cell, the 
stream rising on one side and descending on the other. The cur- 
rent is powerful enough to carry along, not only minute granules, 
but small grains of chlorophyll or green coloring matter (87), 
which renders it abundantly visible ; and sometimes, where the 
green granular contents cohere in a mass filling the centre of the 
cell, it throws this whole mass into slow revolution on its axis. In 
these instances, the whole layer of mucilaginous fluid takes part in 
the movement The cause of this motion is wholly unknown, as 
also the office it subserves. We shall have occasion to refer to it 
in another chapter, in conoection with other vegetable movements. 
At present, we may merely remark that it is not like a true circu- 
lation, through vessels, which is characteristic of animals, 

37. Pennealjiltty and Imbiljilioil. The wall of the cells, at least in 
their living or vitally active state, is a perfectly closed sac, desti- 
tute of openings or visible pores (although perforations som.etimes 
appear in old or effete cells, as in those of Peat-Moss) ; but, like 
all organic membranes, it is permeable to fluids. Tbe cell con- 
stantly contains a fluid thicker than water, and therefore tends to 
imbibe water by endosmosis,* as well as to yield by exosmo^is * a 

• Endoamosis and eKOsmosis are names given by Dutrochet (who first illna- 
trated them in liquids) to a physical process of permeation and interchange 
which takes piace in fluids, according lo the following law, bricflj stated. 
When two liquids of unoc[nal density are separated by a permeable mem- 
brane, the lighter liquid or the weaker solution will flow into the denser or 


SUE. 35 

portion of its liquid conteals to a contiguous cell, which may he 
charged with conteofs of greater density than its own. From fhe 
nature of the process of assimilation and other operations carried 
on in the interior of cells, they must always contain a denser fluid 
than the water in which aquatic plants live, or whicii is presented 
to the roots or other parts of the surface of terrestrial plants. This, 
with the gaseous and other matters it holds in solution, the vegeta- 
ble must constantly tend to imbibe by endosmosis. In virtue of 
the same law, as will hereafter he explained, not only is the crude 
food imbibed by the roots, but transferred from cell to cell to tho 
place where assimilation is principally effected or growth is going 
on. In addition to the simpler process, animals, even of the 
lowest grades, have a proper circulation through vessels. There 
is no such circulation in plants. 

38. GtofflU o( Cell-Membtane interstilially. By appropriating the 
- assimilated matter it contains or imhihes, the young cell increases 
rapidly in size ; its wall is extended equally on every side (unless 
something interferes with its expansion in particular directions), so 
that a larger space is surrounded. Meanwhile, instead of becom- 

stronger, with a. force propor^oned to the difference in deTisit)> {ejidasmosis); 
but BE (he same time, a smaller portion of the denser liquid wiil flow out into 
the weaker {exosisosis). Thus, if the lower end of an open tube, closed with a 
thin membrane, such as a piece of moistened bladder, bo introduced into a 
TOHsel of pure water, and a Eolntion of sugar in water he poured into the luhe, 
the water from the vessel w " " - - - - ^ pa^g j^fg [j,g (g],g^ g^ ^^^^ 
the column of liquid it cout height to an extent propor- 

tionate to the strength of tl 5 same time, the water in the 

vessel will become slightly i a small quantity of syrup has 

passed through the pores i to the water withoni, while a 

much larger portion of wat ube. The water will continue 

to enter the tube, and a ema a leave it, until the solution is 

reduced to the same strength aa me nqum wiLiioUt. If a solution of gum, salt, 
or any other sabstance, be employed instead of sugar, the same lesull will 
take place. If the same solution, be employed both iu the vessel ^nd the tube, 
no transftrence or ohange will be observed. But if either be rendered strong- 
er than the other, a circtdation will be established, and tho stronger solution 
will increase in quanljty until the two attain the same density. If two differ- 
ent solutions be employed, as, for instance, sugar or gum within the tube, and 
potash or soda without, a circulation will in like manner take place, iho pre- 
ponderance being towards the denser fluid, and in a degi'Ce exactly propor- 
tionate to the diffference in density. Insi«ad of animal membrane, any vegeta- 
ble matter with fine pores, such as a thin piece of wood, or even a porous 
mineral substance, may be substituted with the same result. 



ing thinner as it expands, it grows thicker ; although the i 
of surface at this time is much greater than that of thickness. 
Therefore it not merely enlarges, but grows. That is, it incorpo- 
rates new assimilated matter which penetrates the membrane and 
dpd wl Igd hgh 

Id b e» Uj 1 th 1 g g 11 II 11 

h d mp! b f Aft g f h m 

p p dly 1 fi h II as nl g d w II 

J (31) 

g by D p lio I 


I h th y g 

II b by d p f Tl f h 

dmldm hi yh b 

f d y p Id (81) A g 

{db! dhfi fll Igfp pl^m) 

It solidthea on the surrounding cpll-wall, which is thus strength- 
ened by a new layei of cellulose, or by a succession of such layers. 
Every degree of this secondary deposition occurs, from a slight 
increase m the thickness of the membrane to the filling up of the 
gieatei part of the cavity of the cell The older wood-cells of any 
hard wood fumiih good illustialions of such solidification. Indeed, 
the difference between sap-wood and htart wood of trees is princi- 
pally owing to the increase of this secondary deposit, which con- 
verts the former into the latter , as may be seen by comparing, 
under the microscope, the tissue of the older with that of the newest 
rings of wood, taken from the same tiee In an ensuing chapter 
(on the internal structure of the stem), ibis is shown in a piece of 
oak wood. Fig. 18 represents a highly magnified cross-section of 
some wood-cells from the bark of a Birch, with their calibre almost 
obliterated in this way. It is by the same process that the tissue 
of the stone of the peach, cherry, and other stone-fruits acquires its 
extreme hardness. Indurated cells of the same kind are met with 
even in the pulp of some fruits, as in the gritty grains, which every 
one has noticed, scattered through the flesh of many pears, espe- 



ciaily of the poorer sorts, A section of a few cells of the kind is 

represented in Fig 16 with their 

cavity much reduced and rendeied 

very i regular in outline by such in 

crustatioD S m lar cells are readily ' 

seen, with a moderate nmgn fying 

power to form a [.art of th tis&ue '" ' 

even of s ch juicj fruits as the crinbcrrv ind the blueherrj 

(F,g 17) 

40 This deposited matter can raiely crnsist of pure cellulose 
but way include all the vanous raitters capable of sohdificition of 
whatever nituro, which are mtrod iced mto the cells from without 
or are elaborated there As foi example m neral matters small 
quantities of which must needs be d siolved m the wati,r which 
the plaot mbihea by its roots, and be deposited in the cells of 
the wo A through whch it parses and especially in those of the 
leaves where it is concentrated by evaporition (311- 313) also 
colorng matters, such as give the different tints to hea t wood ind 
othei special solidified products formed in the celK thcm'^elves 
The cells fill up, therefore partly by oiganic deposition and partly 
by incrustation 

41 Even when purified as much as possible fiom all admix 
ture of foreign mifeiials the secondary depost is fjund to difler 
a little from cellilose, or ong nal cell membrine in chemical 
compositicn It contains a so newhat larger propoitrn of caibon 
and hydrogen and is therefore iicher in combustible matter 
Forming as it does the principal part of the weiglt of wood (hg 
mtm), t has received the name of LiGNiNii (also that of Schro 
gen) but It IS p obably only cell ilose a little modified or altered 
This d ffeience in chemical composition howevei shows why the 
hardwoods such as hickory and oak wood which abo nd n this 
lign fied depns t should bp moie valuable foi fuel weight for 
weight than the soft wood'? wl ch hive little of it (such as basa 
wood, &c ) , at least, when the latter are not chaiged with lesinous 

43. The secondary deposit of\en forms fin even and continuous 
increase in the thickness of the walls (as is shown in the White 
Oak, in the section on the Internal Structure of the Stem) : but it is 



not unfrequently distingui'^hable when higlilj magnitied into more 
3 shown m Fig 18 from the 
innei baric of the Birch and 

or less defined concentric !aye 

in Fig 19 in some cells of 
I loper wood Whether the 
thickening deposit is distin 
guishable into lajers oi not, 
it IS more commonly inter 
luptfd at certam points and 
m a definiie way so as to 
give the diminished cavity 
very irregular outlines is 
we see in Fig 16 and Fig 
17. Thia occurs in 'wood-cells aa well as in ordinary rounded 
cells, and is partly shown in Fig. 19, The earliest layers of thick- 
ening fail to be deposited at certain points, consequently leaving 
thinner spots ; the succeeding layers are exactly applied to the 
next preceding, and leave precisely the same intervals : conse- 
quently, these unthickened spots become grooves or canals running 
from the cavity of the cell to the original wall, or in that direction. 
And it is noticeable that the pits or canals of contiguous cells usu- 
ally correspond : an obvious effect or use of this adaptation is to 
maintain a lateral communication between contiguous cells of the 
kind, notwithstanding the thickening of their 

id their nature 
Plane-tree, or Button- 
demonstrates the true 

which we have seen shows these late 
more clearly than the wood of the Am 
wood (Fig. 23), which^ at the samt 
character of one large class of the 

43. Markings of the Walls of Cells. These, whether in the form of 
bands, spiral lines, dots, or apparent pores, all arise from the un- 
equal distribution of the secondary deposit. They are portions of 
the walls which are either thinner or thicker than the rest. These 
markings display the greatest variety of forms, many of them of 
surpassing elegance. The principal kinds occuf with perfect uni- 
formity in each species or family, and in definite parts of the 
plant ; so that, in a multitude of cases, a given species or genus 

FIQ, IS. Hlshlf magnlSed croas-Heclion ut a bit of Ilia old liber of ihe liark of [ha Birch ; 

PIG. 19. Highlj magolfleil wood-cellH (SBSii in tiaiisrerse end lonsiLudlnal SBCtlgd), Imn 
the root ofthe Date Palm; ahowing llio inlemal dejoalt tn layeta, and aoroe oannecUng canals 
orpilB. {FramJussioQ.allacMirbsl.) 



mav lie as eortamly identified by the minute sculpture of lis ceils 
alone as by inoie conspicuous external characters They are 
pieserved even when the tissue is fcssilized and the externil form, 
with e^ery outwaid appearance of organization is obliterated 
Through thin slices and other contrivances the hidden structure 
js revealed under the microscope and thus the true nature of our 
earth's eirliest vegetation may be often satisfactorily made out * 
The simplest cases of these markings are Ihise of 

44 Dots or Pib, often 
taken for pores such 

as those on the 

the pilh ol Eldei (Pig 
S5) and upon those 
that are called dotud 
ducts as m Fig 39 
and Fig SI I All 
markings of this kind 
aie ihia <!pots which, 
for some reason, have 
not paitaken in the gen- 
eral thickening of the wall, 
been explained by supposing that a 
slight enlargement of the original 
wall takes place, which stretches the 
nascent lining, so as to break or fray 
it into slits or holes here and there. 
But their remarkable regularity, and 
the uniformity with which each suc- 
cessive layer is moulded on the pre- 
ceding, with exactly corresponding 
interruptions (42), forbid our adopt- 

' In this way, and by talting advantage of the feet, that the secondary 


poelta in the cells 

consist in 

part of minei'al matte 

r, which is lel^ behind in 


FIG. 20. HsgnlSed cross-sect 

on of a snmll portion of 

l«,art-»0Dfl of 

the Plaofrtre 

B or 

The dolled 

woody tissue; tho lower 

cells 10 ivhic 


kltersara appended a 


irregularly thic 

oth™ are mtHlly en 

Ire, showing tbe dots: In thocmss-s* 

ary deposit i« 


of Iha dou tu form canals 


inicaOon. 6 


led daat : the middl 


iigiludinal section boWlq 

eiyjolntrf, e 

Medullary re 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ing this mechanical explanation. Although they are not prima- 
rily pores or real perforations of the wall, aa has been thought hy 
some, yet they often become so with age, by the bvealting away 
of the tiiin primary membrane, after the cell has lost its vitality. 
The subjoined dissections of the wood of the American Plane-tree, 
already referred to, clearly show the true nature of these dots, 
which here abound on the proper wood-cells as well as the larger 
ducts. Except in their lesser size and greater depth, arising from 
the more extensive thickening of the tubes, they do not essentially 
differ from the well-known 

45. DiseS, or large circular dots, which mark nearly all the 
wood-cells of the Pine Family (Fig. 23, 24). These are thinner 
spaces, which consequently appear 
of the tube (except h 
by transmitted light. Th 

^ ® 









ppear mo 
1 dw h 

re transparent 
HI f ) 

than the 

w d 

^ f 
1 1 






1 P 



1 1 1. 


d ry d p 



d 4 ) 



f h ood 11 

f h 


Tl d ti 

d 1! 



e of the tiunk 

the Plane-tree, ■ 

that look towards the centie and the (. 
Although of universal occurrence in the Pine Family and the relat- 
ed order Cycadacese, these discs are not restricted to them, as was 
once supposed. Mr. Brown Jong since showed that the wood of 
the Winter's- bark tree was similariy marked; and our Fig. 33 
represents them as they appear in the Star- Anise of Florida, which 
belongs to the same natural group of plants. They are said to be 



!s " ; probably under forms scarcely if 
at all distinct from ordinary dotted wood-cells. 

46. Bands, Bings, or Spiral Markings. These are, in most cases at 
least, definite portions of the wall more thickened than the rest ; 
as is shown by the spiral vessel, where the secondary for nat on is 
restricted to a delicate thread, capable of bei g uawo nd (60) ; 
and particularly by the thick plate which winds arou d the cells 
of certain Cacti, like a spiral staircase (Fig. 29) Mi k ngs of this 
kind (which are rarely thick and projecting as n tl e last exam- 
ple) occur as rings (Fig. 43), or fragments of rmgs (Fig. 44), but 
more frequently as spiral threads or bands (Fig. 26), sometimes as 
branching threads (Fig. 27) ; all of which, however, exhibit a spiral 
tendency. The elongated cells which form the hairs on the seeds 
of many Acanlhaceous plants exhibit these markings in great va- 
riety. Two such cells from the same seed, one with a series of 
rings, the other with a continuous spiral thread, are represented 
in Fig. 31. Sometimes a band of fibres appears to ascend in 
the earn© direction : occasionally two spiral threads seem to 
wiad in opposite directions ; and sometimes branching threads in- 
osculate and form a kind of network on the membrane, as in Fig. 

2fl OftPn the rngs oi tuins of the spiral thiead are neail> i 
contact (Fig. 45) ; while as frequently they are sepaiated m le ( 

TIG. 25. Csll of IhB pith Df Elder, nlarkefl with ohlong dola. 
FIG. 26. Celia nf the loaf of SphB^num, oi Poat Moss, msrkod wilh a epitaL fibre. 
FIG. iff-30. Spitallji banded oeUa from apeelea of Caclus, after Sclileiden. 
FI6. 31, He)» riom the eeed.coat ofRuetlla slrepene; one with a splrd bBad, the ol) 
»lih a Bel of rings detelopedon ihe inner eurfece of the tuba, 

of ihe cdla beiTig soon obi ilera-tfd, the flbrous bands wilh whiciitliey were marked retnalTi. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


less ; as if the cell- membrane had extended after the thread was 
deposited, which is probably the case. 

47, The delicate walls of some such cells arc torn or obliterated 
at maturity, while the firmer bands or fibrous markings remain in 
(he form of separate threads ; as in the tissue that lines the walls 
of the anther (Fig. 32). In a similar manner the spirally marked 
tubes that are mingled with the seeds of the Hepatic Mosses are 
converted into elastic spiral threads (Fig. 85). So, also, the del- 
icate cells or hairs that invest the coat of some seeds, which con- 
tain a spirally -coiled thread, give way when moistened, or are 
torn asunder by the force with which the thread uncoils. 

48. Free Gelatinous Coils in Cells. In many cases, however, the 
spiral deposit in the cells which form the hairs on the surface of 
seeds, and of some seed-like fruits, remains of a gelatinous con- 
sistence, and lies loose in the cell. When moistened, water is 
absorbed by endosmosis, the gelatinous contents swell, burst the 
cell- membrane (at the same time frequently forcing it away from 
its attachment), and gush out in the form of uncoiling mucilagi- 
nous threads. Examples of the kind are furnished by the seeds of 
Collomia and Gilia ; and very striking ones by hairs or papillse on 
the seed-like fruits of numerous species of Senecio and the allied 
genera. Those of Crocidium project a thick, mucilaginous twisted 
hand, in place of a thread. This structure is known to be com- 
mon on the surface of seeds and seed-like fruits ; one purpose 
which it subserves will be pointed out in a future chapter. 

49. Similar in their formation, probably, are the loose, spirally- 
coiled bodies, which are found in the antheridia of Mosses and 
Liverworts, m seedling Ferns, &c. ; which, on account of their 
exhibiting a vermicular motion in water when first extricated from 
the cell, were denominated Phyloxoa by Grisebach. The functions 
which these bodies are supposed to perform, in reproduction, will 
be explained hereafter. 

Sect. III. Of the Kinds oe Tkansformations of Cellular 
Tissue ; viz. Woody Tissue, Ducts, etc. 

50, The statements of the preceding section apply in general 
to the cells of which all plants are composed, irrespective of the 
manifold forms they may assume, and of some peculiar transfor- 

3 they may undergo. Some of these should now be speci- 


fied ; as they give rise to kinds of tissue so unlike the ordinary 
cellular, in outward appearance at least, that they have always 
been distinguished by special names. We allude particularly to 
what is called Woody Tissue or Woody Fibre, and Vascular Tissue 
or Vessels, of vffrious forms. These have been considered as 
essentially different kinds of tissue, of independent origin. But it 
is now known that they are modifications of one common type, the 
cell, and are produced in the same mode as ordinary cells ; so ali 
the statements of the foregoing section, in respect to the forma- 
tion, multiplication, and growth of cells, are equally applicable to 
these also. Some kinds differ from ordinary cells in shape alone ; 
others result from their combination or confluence. This is shown 
in two ways ; first, by noting he e n d a e grada n wh h 
may be found between every p rt 1 s ad nd by 

watching their development adti nghmdelyfml 
earliest condition, as ordinary II o 1 e pe ul a f ms ley 
soon assume. The first of tlie k nd n a d b I w s j p al 

cellular tissue ; the second, throu h a 1 gl a e n he de elop 
d I p If m 

51 P hym h bta mppd dry 

k & I h 


b I g 

p l3h d 

1 11 ( F 

f JW 

S 1 gb 


d P Ip f 

)|1 d b h T 

1 ( 

; y) f m d f 

yd lly 

ly dl g p 

ddff mdby&hld 

hy 1 

m h^; hhl ddhdl 

I g d p m h ddlg 

d th ; b 1 11 h fl 

kdfhhlldlm/ til 



courses of bricks in a wall, is seen in the silver-grain of wood 
(Fig. 20, ,). 

52, Prosenchyma is the general name to designate Usaues formed 
of elongated pells, with pointed or conical extremities ; their nar- 
rowed ends overlapping and thus filling up the intervening spaces 
which must otherwise exist. Every gradation may be traced be- 
tween this and incomplete parenchyma. As to length, such cells 
vary from fusiform, or spindle-shaped, only three or four times 
longer than broad, to tubular, and to tubes so long and narrow that 
they are commonly called fibres. As to their extremities, they 
are often so blunt, and applied to each other with such moderate 
obliquity, that they are more properly said to he placed end to end 
than side by side ; while, again, precisely similar cells, sometimes 
even in the same bundle, exhib t flatte ed ends re t g d rectly one 
over the other.* Nor can we draw any fixed 1 ne of d s o on 
from the thickness of the walH Indeed o one can d 1 ge tly 
examine the tissues of two or d ree of t! e co n onest pla Ls tl 
out perceiving that there is no essen a! d ftere ce bet een cellu 
lar and 

53. Woody tmm. {Pleurenchyma of Meyer and Lindley. Woody 
Fibre of the older authors.) Wood, which makes up so large a 
part of trees and shrubs, and a distinguishable portion in all Phse- 
nogamous (110) herbaceous plants, is wanting in Mosses and plants 
of still lower grades, such as Lichens, Sea-weeds, and Fungi, 
That is, in the latter there is no formation corresponding to the 
wood of higher plants, although many of them exhibit, at least in 
certain parts, prosenchymatous cells, and others drawn out into 
tubes or hollow fibres of greater length and tenuity than are those 
of ordinary wood ; such, for instance, as the interlaced fibrous fis- 
BLte of Lichens (Fig. 15). Nor, on the other hand, does the proper 
woody system of trees (except in the Pine Family) consist entirely 
of that form which has received the special name of woody tissue, 
but three or four other sorts are variously intermingled with it. 
Indeed, there are some trees whose wood is almost entirely com- 
posed of true parenchyma, or of large dotted (6B) cells; while 
in stone-fruits, and many like cases, common parenchymatous 

* The forming woody tissue, as seen in a germinating p!ant or young root- 
let, .eonsiata of prismatic colls, with square ends ; as theso lengthen, their ends 
push by each other, and so become oblique and wedged together, or conyerted 
into prosenchyma. 



cells acquire by incrustation a HgDCOUS consistence and even 
greater density than wood (39). Nevertheless, the principal 
and characteristic component of wood in general is ihick-walled 
.prosenchyma. So that this takes the name of woody tissue even 
in the hark, leaves, &c. Fig. 21 represents some pleurenchyma 
along with the other usual elements of the wood, and shows the 
manner in wiiich these woody tubes are spliced together, as it 
were, by their overlapping, pointed ends. Their diameter, in this 
instance, is about ^oVc *''' ^"^ inch. Those of our Linden or 
Baas-wood (a few of which are shown in Fig. 36, 37) are rather 
larger, hut not more than -^-^^ of an inch in diameter.* Their 
size varies in different plants almost as much as ordinary cells 
do, but they are usually much smaller than parenchyma, espe- 
cially in herbaceous plants. Perhaps the largest are found in 
the Pine Family, where they are of a peculiar sort, and are often 
as much as -j^u- or ^^ of an inch in diameter. The density or 
closeness of grain in wood, however, does not depend so much 
on the fineness of the wood-cells as upon the intermixture of other 
kinds of tissue, and the thickness of their walls. This is much 
greater in proportion to their diameter than in ordinary parenchy- 
ma, and, with their slenderness and their very compact arrange- 
ment into threads or masses which run lengthwise through the 
stem, conspires to give the toughness and strength which charac- 
terize those parts in which this tissue abounds. A transverse sec- 
tion under the microscope shows that woody tissue is composed 
of lengthened cells, that is, of hollow tubes and not of solid fibres 
(Fig. 20, 36, &c.). But as their walls thicken by the secondary 
or dp wl h h y p ci ally liable (39-41), 

thlbd h d d dm times becomes nearly 

obi d Th h k g liy evenly in woody tis- 

su 1 d P ! 1 Idom seen in it; but 

sn 11 d p fh f 1 h has already been ex* 

pi \ (-44) n ni Th re well shown in the 

wood of the Plane-tree (Fig. 20 - S2), Of similar character, only 
more conspicuously marked, is the 

54. Disc-bearing Woody Tissvs {Glandular Woody Tissue of 
Lindley), which forms the wood in the Pine Family. The nature 

* Lindley stales that the woody tubes of the Linden are as moch aa ^ 
of an inch in diamcturi bat I find none of any thing like this sizu. 



of the disc's or th ii spots his just been explained (45) On ac 
count of their mark ngs ind unuiually large s ze, and because in 
the Pine Family they make up the wood without any admixture 
of ducts, these pec iliar wood cells 
have h en thought to bo rather a 
form of vascuhi tissue But in the 
Stii Ani^o the sime k!hd of ma.k 
mgs is found on undoubtedly genu 
ine woody tissue (Fig 33) In the 
Yew, on the other hand, where the 
discs are few, delicate spiral mark- 
ings appear (Fig. 34), showing a 
perfect tr<insition between the prop- 

dy d h as 1 
as ly p g 1 fig 

hi p 11 m k 1 d 

f B d Fg 6 

T f 1 Lb Tl S 

1 d f 1 

p bl f h d f h m 

f big ry 

b f d fl 11 11 

B I T 

pi I i ru b 

P p ily pi re 1 
h k d d d Ily 

f 1 

d ts If Tl 

p b bly 
1 hfl 

bity h h 

1 b k 
\ i If 
( 1 1 

FIG. as. Magniflsd woody lifflus of Illi F d 

largedols, lilis Ibedisciontbe wwd-cellao h P F tri 
FiO. 31. Ms^niSed wood; tiasne tciia Am ci> 



thickness and toughness which characterize the Uber-cclls. Fig. 
35 represeots one of the bast-celis of our Bas3-wood as sa 
or Linden, with a portion of another j while Fig. 36, 
37, represent a few of the cells of the wood from 
hm dqUygfidh 1 

gredfl llglfhfib hpd 

11 B f i h 11 f h 1 h 



the bark. 

h ba, 

d h ' 1 h 1 

Th 7 f re 1 1 

weed Family, and in the Dogbane, or Indian Hemp, 
the tough bark of which accordingly furnishes the ab 
origines a sort of ready-made cordage In these fam- 
ilies they are said by Schleidon frequently to exhibit 
7 d 1 t p 1 fib crowing each other In 
p 1 1 y b mes entirely obliterated , 

lit th th V woUen and vtsicular, and 

ta t m Iky J So that they are the 

m Ik 1 tl pi t at lea^t in part The 

b w th t! d lets, that foim the fibrous 

f k f 1 g g to them the requisite 

h fly f th sam k d f woody tiasue as those of 

e nood. All magnified to the same degree as Fl^. 3S. 

la from Ihc bark of Iho Lealher-ivood (Dirca paluelria), highly 



: through the stem, root, or 
3S, and there its ramifica- 

56. The woody tissue runs lengthwis 
other organ (exLPpt in reticulated leai 
tions all spread m one pkne) for this 
ignated as Long%tud%nat Tisaiie, the Vertical or Longitudinal St/s- 
iem of the stem, &c It shares this name, however, with some 
other forms of tissue which accomptny it, particularly in the wood. 
These all agree m exhihitLng markings of some kind on their 
walis, and in being larger than woody tissue : they are all more or 
less tubular oi conspiie to form tubes of considerable length, and 
hence they ha\e all been combined, in a general way, under the 

57. Vascnlar Tissue or Vessels Thi9 is an unfortunate name, how- 
ever, and apt to mislead, like moat of those in botany that are 
based on loose analogies with the an mal kingdom. To avoid the 
erroneous impiessions that ire so pievalent, it should be remem- 
bered that the^e so called een'tels are mere modifications of cellular 
tissue, and are wholly unlike the veins and arteries of animals. It 
is much better to cill them ducts, a name appropriate to their 
nature and office, and leading to no false inferences. Their true 
nature is most readily shown in the largest and most conspicuous 
form, which often exhibits unequnocal indications of its cellular 

58. Dotted Dnets, called -iKo Pitted or Vasiform Tissue, Bothren- 
chyma, &c. (Fig 39, 40) They have likewise been termed Po- 
rous Celh 01 Po} ous Vessels ; but the round or 
oblong dots that characterize them are thin 
places where the wall has not been thickened 
by an internal incrusting deposit, as has al- 
ready been explained (44), and not perfora- 
tions, except in old cells where the primary 
membrane is obliterated at these points. Some- 
times they are continuous tubes of considerable 
length (Fig. 40) ; but commonly, the circular 
lines which they exhibit at short intervals (as in 

™ ^ Fig. 39), and the imperfect transverse partition 

which is often found at these points, plainly indicate their compo- 
sition ; showing that they are made up of a row of cells, with the 
intervening partitions more or less obliterated. In Fig. 21, some 



of these ducts, shown in place among the woody tissue, are seen 
to have oblique partitions of the same kind. An examination in 
the forming state confiima this view ; and, in the young stems of 
herbaceous plants, they may often be separated artificially into 
their pnmitne elements These jointed ducts are occasionally 
branched, giving further proof that fhey are aggregations of con- 
fliont cells Dotted ducta are usually met wilh in, the wood alone, 
where they commonly abound. Being of greater calibre than any 
othei celii or vessels found there, Ihey form the pores so conspic- 
uous to the naked eye n le s tion of many kinds of wood, 
such as of Oak, Che tnu ani M h gany, as well as the lines or 
channels seen on the 1 ng d 1 tion. Their size, compared 
with that of the wood 11 n 1 d of the Plane-tree, is shown 

both in longitudinal and n tion, in Fig. 20, 21. 

59 fetieuiated, Banded, and ScBiaiiform Bnets are the modifications 
of what IS moie sti ctly called vasculii tissue {Trachenchynta of 
Moiron and Lindlev) which most resemble dotted diets, and 
which usually take their place, or occur with them m the stems 
of herbaceous and sm'»ll wordy plants There is no essential 
diffeience between them indeed they are often distinguishable 

FIG. «. A ponl™ of a duct Jfom llie l&irBlallt of Celery ; I 
middle reiicnlaUi, and Ibe Ihroad at Ihe upper pan broken up Into eliort pieces. 

FlG.iS. Aainple upltalvfflsol, torn acrom, wilh thollireaduncoiling. .4aTwof 
nis joined al their poialed extremilies. 

FIG. 17. A compound spiral voaael, partly uacoiled, from Ihe BananB. 



only by the form of the markings ; and these vary so greatly in 
the same tissue, and even in the very same duct (Fig. 44), that it 
would be an endless and useless task to describe all their varieties! 
A continuous dotted duct with oblong spots is nearly the same as 
the large ducts with rather larger markings, disposed so as to form 
a series of regular bands, which abound in Ferns {Fig. 42). When 
the markings are a little longer, and the walls are rendered pris- 
matic by mutual pressure (as in parenchyma) we have the ScaJa- 
Hform Ducts of Ferns (Fig. 41), so named because the lines (or 
slits as they become in old tissue) form transverse bars resembling 
the rounds of a ladder. In many cases, it is uncertain whether the 
lines or narrow bands are spots thinner than the rest of the wall, 
as they certainly are in dotted ducts, and probably in, the scalar!- 
form vessels ; or whether they are places where the secondary 
deposit is thickened. Probably there are Reliculated Ducts (those 
where the lines branch and run together here and there, forming a 
network) of both sorts ; — certainly of the latter ; for we occasion- 
ally meet with such markings (as in the middle of Fig. 44) on a 
pa t f tl e wall of true 

60 Annular and Spiral Dnets ( Tracheis). The nature of their 
ma k pS 8 xpl ned in Paragr. 46. They are elongated cells 
(o due fo med by the confluence of several cells), with their 
del CI e e b a ous walls strengthened by the deposition of fibres 
w b Some Ties the fibre is deposited in unbroken rings (as in 
the middle of Fig. 43, and in Fig. 48, d), which forms the Annular 
Duet. More commonly it is deposited as a continuous spiral coil, 
producing tlie Spiral Duct or ^iral Vessel (Fig. 45-47) ; which 
is taken as the typical or pattern form of vascular tissue, because 
of its universal occurrence in Flowering Plants, and because of the 
general tendency of such definite secondary deposits to assume a 
spiral form. That these markings are thickened, and not thinner 
lines, is well shoivn in those remarkable cells from Cacti, already 
described (Fig. 29, 30), in which the fibre thickens into a band, with 
its edge, as it were, applied to the wall : also in those cells which 
have a loose spiral fibre generated within (48). Moreover, in 
what is called the true ^iral Vessel (Fig, 45-47), the fibre is so 
strong and tough, in comparison with the delicate cell-wall on 
which it is deposited, that it may be torn out and uncoiled when 
the vessel is pulled asunder, the membrane being destroyed in the 
operation. This is seen by breaking almost any young shoot or 



leafstalk, or the leaf of an Amaryllis, and gently separating the 
broken ends ; when the uncoiled threads appear to the naked eye 
like a fine -cobweb. In stems furnished with pith, the spiml ves- 
sels usually occupy a circle immediately around it. They occur 
also in the veina of the leaves, and in ail parts which are modifi- 
cations of leaves. More commonly the spire is formed of a single 
fb ■ F"g 45 46 't ly ' t f tw fib b t t 

If d rabl b f b d Fs 

47 S hC 

fi ly 

nyb ra 



1 d 


d d 

f b 1 f fib 


points, so as to leave interstices in the form of bars, &e. 

61. These ducts or vessels usually have tapering extremities 
(Fig. 45-47), as in prosenchyma. Like prosenchyma, they vary 
greatly in length ; some of them are barely oblong or cylindrical, 
and are manifestly only simple cells, of the same character as the ■ 
fibrous-walled cells formerly mentioned (46, Fig. 26, 29), which no 
one would think of callmg vcsels Others, 
though still nothmg b it smgle cells are more 
proloi gcd B it those which form tubes of 
m ch greater length usually consist (as their 
develcpment ^howt) like dotted ducts of a 
row of cells foiiiipd by multiphcat on (32-34 
and therefore pioduced trom one cell), with the 
intervening walls obhteiated so as to g\e a 
contmuous calibre This oiigin is well sho«n 
in some ot the sp ra! d ict& in Fig 48 {a, I r), 
which are conspic lously jointed or composed 
of a series of cells directly confluent by then 

lucls ftom Ihs alsm of Pol/ggn 
Ih ths fibre closely colled ; i 

and [he fibre of the luose i 


abp m Enhp d lapping ends of two 

d f q n y a a maturity, by the ob- 

1 ra f h m b n b n h I of the fibre. The 

f } p fib n!> lose, as In Fig. 48, a; 

bily f prad lly ftJhdhd 

b ddbhl fh Ilfhpid 

hdb fmil-g48 1lls Idf, fth 

dfi fly b dj 

6 I t la d F bnU f in Tia Tfa q d f m 

d II 1 d as hy f i 1 

J f I 11 d 1 f pi I h m 
hj f 

1 1 




fi rolik 


&1 J 


1 !ly 

k p 
, M d 


f nd d 

wheie the c 1 

chem (Fig 15) wh d d m 1 fi 

63 lalittl roil T ssu ( T I f h L M Iky J 

Cvnenchyma f M d L odl ) Th h ly 

kind of vege bl f mb g 

of lone and gill 
definite pos w 1 ] 
such extrem n y ( 1 

pas g ly g n 

d wh n y g of 

m b gl h h 

nh d dh f n 

1 ) a d p y ha 

y h dly b n 

dp f Im p 

p by p Imp 

h wl g d w h h 

Ik h p 1 

wl 1 1 fti 

aides are thkdbhdp f ^ 

peculiarity i 1 h I 

network by h n f h b h 

F[G. is. Veasela m 

older and lajgerressele from the oama plan; all highly magnlfiid. 


II p b bij i d f h f y bl 

! f IBthbld pdfm 

]g kdm dd II b Tly 

mlyfkd&clh dh bbbg 

m ly 1 g b f 1 Th 1 

hhhyf pse( hppi fFg50) 

widmp hly fdbyh fl f 

yl d 1 11 I pp g 1 m p b bl h 










1 f 





1 d 




1 dff 

f h 


h h 1 fl d h 5 
1 wh hi 

1 d b d ] f 
E p h 

f p p II h d 


I d l\ I y h mpl 

g bl 11 m ly h pn f 1 ly d 

the fully developed plant consists of parenchyma alon But !n all 
plants of the higher grades, some of them eirlj assume the forms, 
or undergo the transformations by wh ch the^ gne use to woody 
tissue, ducts, or vessels. All these vii ous soils of modified cells 
lie vertically in, or conspire to form bundles or coids that run 
lengthwise through, the stem or othei oigan they occur m so that 
they maybe collectively called the Vertital System or Longitudinal 
r%s(em (56). They accompany each other, and together make up 
the woody parts, as in the wood proper, in tlie liber or inner bark, 
and in the fibrous framework of the loaves. Although the various 
kinds run into each other through every manner of intermediate 
toTTOa (as in the wood of the Yew, for instance^ 54), the whole, 
taken together, compose tissues which are almost always manifest- 
iy diiferent from the parenchyma in which they arc imbedded. It 



ia convenient, therefore, to give to these the collective name of 
Fihro-vascular Tissues, or the Fibeo-vascular System, aa distin- 

guished from the Hori"on 
S f 1 pi 

65 I t re II lai S tern 

' Paheschymatous ( 

pp d (63) d 

d tal 

d fi 

the iBTERCELLtTLAH SpACES Or PASSAGES, left when the angles m 
parenchyma do not accurately fit throughout. Such are the 
larger and irregular winding passages in the looser tissues called 
hym (51) as in the I wer stratum of (he leaf (Fig 7) or 
I fmlbhlbd b Ighpfh II m 

b b 1 


b d 


d f 

f q 

f h 

iby h 


y r p 


constructed upon a uniform plan in each species, and are evidently 
essential to its existence, such plants requiring a full supply of air 
in their interior. Other air-spaces or empty intervals, apparently 
less essential to the life of the plant, arise from the destruction of 
a part of the parenchyma, either by absorption or by distention, 
fiom the more rapid enlargement ot the o iter part In this way, 
the stem or the p th of manj plants becomes hollow 

t)6 KfUptacles of Special Secretions These arise fnm the e\ 
udation of the pioper juices of the cells mto the intercelluhi pas- 
sages, whch aie distetdel by the aecumulalion or from the 
obliter-itioa of contiguous colls, so as to form cavities of con'sidera- 
ble size Such are the turpentine canals of the Pines, &,c the 
oil cells of the fru t of the UmbplIiferT and in the rini of the 
orange and lemon the htex. cai tls n bumach &,c 



67. IntflCnal Glands, such as those which form the translucent 
dols in the leaves of the Orange and -Myrtle, are compact little 
clusters of cells filled with essential oil. 

68. Epideimal System. In most plants, except of the lowest 
grades, the superficial layer or layers of cells are different from 
those they envelope. Also certain appendages grow from the 
surface, which may be briefly noticed here. 

69. The Epidermis, or skin of the plant, is formed of one or more 
layers of empty cells, with thick walls, cohering so as to form a 
firm and close membrane, which may be torn off" from the subja- 
cent tissue, It covers all parts of the plant that are' directly ex- 

■-posed to the air, excegj the stjgma, Its structure and office will 
he more particularly described, (and the nature of what has been 
specially termed the Cuticle explained,) in the chapter on the 

70. Stomates (Stomata), or Breathing-pores, are orifices connect- 
ed with a peculiar structure in the epidermis of leaves and other 
green parts ; their structure and office will likewise he described 
in the chapter on the Leaves, to, which organ they more particu- 
larly belong, 

71. Hairs are exterior .prolongations of cells of the epidermis, 
coDsisting either of single elongated cells, or of several cells placed 
end to end, or of various combinations of such cells. They are 
simple or branched, single or clustered (stellate, &c,), and exhibit 
the greatest variety of forms. They are called Glandular ^Hairs, 
or Stalked Glands, when the upper cell or cluster of cells elabo- 
rates peculiar {usually odorous) products, such as the fragrant 
volatile oil of the Sweet Brier. 

72. Glands. This name is applied to any secreting apparatus, 
and also to superficial appendages of diverse kinds. 

73. Bristles {Setm) are rigid-, thick-walled hairs, usually of a sin- 
gle cell. But the name is likewise given to any setiform body, of 
whatever nature. 

74. Priefeles are larger and indurated, sharp-pointed processes of 
the epidermis or bark ; such as those of the Kose and Blackberry. 

75. Stings, or Stinging Hairs, such as those of the Nettle, gener- 
ally consist of a rigid and pointed cell, terminating in an expanded, 
globular base, which secretes an irritating fluid. 

76. Scittf, or Lepidote, Scale-like Hairs, are flattened, star-like 
clusters of cells, united more or less into a flat scale, which is fixed 



by its centre to the epidermis. They are well shown in the Ole- 
Ester, Shepherdia, and most silvery loaves like theirs. Our spe- 
cies of Vesicaria exhibit beautiful gradations between these and 
stellate lialrs. 

Sect. IV. Of the Contents of the Tissues. 

77. These comprise all the products of plants, and the materials 
they take in from which these products are elaborated. To treat 
of them fully would anticipate the topics which belong to the 
chapter on 'Nutrition. Some of the contents of cells, however, 
have already been mentioned, in the account of their production 
and growth (27 - 39) : others require a brief notice here, espe- 
cially two solid products which are of nearly universal occurrence 
and great importance m the vegetable economy, namely. Chloro- 
phyll and Starch ; and a third, which, however constant, may be 
regarded as a kind of accidental deposit, namely, Raphides or 

78. The same cells contain liquids, solids, and air, at different 
ages. Growing and vitally active cells are filled with liquid (at 
least while vital operations are carried on), namely, with water 
charged more or less with nutritive assimilated matters, the pre- 
pared materials of growth (11,27). Any gaseous matter they 
may contain at this period is, for the most part, held in solution. 
Completed cells may still be filled with liquid, or with air, or with 
solid matter only. The liquid contents of the vegetable tissues, of 
whatever nature or complexity, are often spoken of under the 
common name of 

79. Sapi In employing this name we must distinguish, first, 
Ceude Sap ; the liquid which is imbibed by the roots and carried 
upwards through the stem. This is water, impregnated with cer- 
tain gaseous matters derived from the air, and wiih a minute por- 
tion of earthj matter diisohed fiom the soil It is therefore inor- 
ganic (13). But as it enters the loots and traverses the cells 
in its ascent it mingles ind necessarily becomes impregnated 
with the liquid oi soluble asiimilated matters which these contam 
(37). On reaching the leases, the inorgin c material', ire trans- 
formed, under the infiuenco of light, into org^nizable or aHsimdat- 
ed matter; and the hquid, thus chaigcd with the re-idy prepired 
materials of growth, is now Elaborated Sap. The two classes of 



nutrit ve mattpr thus produced ind which ill forming ind vitalJy 
act ve cells necessanly conta ] namely the ternary (of wh ch su 
gai -iod deitime aie representat \e«) and the quaternary (pjo 
(erne, protoplasm &c ) have aheady been mentioned (27) 

80 Proper Juices CaonMonc, Esseuba! Oils Turpentines &i Of 
the peculiar products of plants whicl occur under an inhmte va 
riety of forma in difierent species it " only needful to saj here, 
that they doubtless arise from one oi the otl er of the two classes 
of assin lated matter i ist ment oned by chemical transformations 
which thiow them out of the ranks of nuti tive bod es They seem 
lo be turned to no account in vegetable growth they undergo 
changes on expsiure to tie an by whcb tley become resms 
gums wax &^c they incline to e\t a\asate into inteicellulai spa 
ces or into cavities of dead or effete tissues or to be directly e\ 
creted from the su face So that we may ief,ard them ill per 
haps as of the nituie of excietions even wheie t! y aio ^toied 
up in the intet or of the jlant For we must lenen-bci that the 
vegetable ha? no orirans oi apparatus for elim nat ng and casting 
out excreted matters except to a very limited extent by a lew su 
perficial glands which are fcund in some plants and m some 
organs only Caoutchouc exists in the form of mmute globules dif 
fused as an emulsion in the milky j iice of plants most abundantly 
in Urticaceffi Euphorbiace'B and Apocjnaces Gutta peicka is 
a similai product of the milky juice of a Sapotaceous f lant 

81 StflTCll {Fmma Fecula) is one of the most important and 
universal of the contents of cells m wh ch it is often accumulated 
in g eat q antily so as to fill them completely (Fig 5^) as in 
farinaceous roots 
seeds &.C It oc 
curs in the pa 
renchyma of al 
most e^ery part ' 
of the plant ex 
cepting the epi " ** 

deimis but while chlorophyll is nearly restncfed to the superfi 
cial parts, directly exposed to the light, starch is most ahundint 

FIG. 61. Two cells of a potato, with some conlained aUroh-gralnB, highly magniEea; one 
PIG. !&. A minute porUou of Indian meal, sUDngl; magnlGed; Ihs ulla ateolutelf flUed 



b p 1 d f h I h 

lb phf dd&h 

d J Ily h 1 

m b mgplyhllbm Ip 

f h m 1 dff 

1 f i f h 1 I g 

drabl II yrrf hlhl 

1 g fid A d h 

1 1 k if 1 1 I 1 d 

fmlm fgl mg P Ihblk 

wldb mh dfi rmdfhf 

dcadblp ml bylh hfT my 

I Ijbe g<' mlj^jhd dkp 

wh h ml d f I gra d I f 

f 1 





d T 



f d mddmgfjgp f 

f m ^0 to 500 d (^ g 5 ) Th h m 1 mpos 

f y m 1 f l[ I (27) d h 

gi Id 1 gh b h I f m 

g 1 Th in 1 f d ra k h 

I hlldlfdft dylh 

dj d gll Thd(hiaa 

h b 11 d) 1 1 p f 1 I 

dp IS 
lb gh 


1 p b bly f d 

1 gl h b 1 hi 

h 11 11 h b b d p 

salyh kpl hh d Ohhi 

h I d h hg f d 1 

bl b I fi I J f p pi n 

lib fralh Iproly Idp 

f 1 y I f y 1 d m (d &, ] 

llylkb h 1 dydph 

h k I II m b (39) Th b f 

blly g th fllfmdd If 




toblast in the manner propoundeJ by Schle den otil^ that thu 
deposit in the case of starch is eiogtn us bj layei ovei 1 je pon 
a solid nucleus ; while in the cell it i^ endogenous or by laypi 
within layer, lining the walls In both ihe '■olid hed matter s in 
soluble in cold water ; b it in starch it di'jsoh es (ot niher s * ells 
up into a jelly) and is diffused in boil ng water The deposit on 
the walls of the cell is of viiicus degtees ot density ani some 
times exhibits the chemical peculiiniy of stai^h Though usually 
permanent, probably it ib sometimes redis-Johed to be appropii 
ated elsewhere. Biit starch is a tempoiary formation foi future 
use ; in which respect if may be compaied with the fat of an mals 
When required for nutrit on the g am=i arc re tored to a liquid 
slate in the plant, at the natural tem[eiatoie that is they ire re 
converted into Dextrine — a mo liln-atioo ot the same substance 
which is soluble in cold water — and this passes m part at least 
into Sugar, which is still more soluble and thus a sjrup is 
formed, which the sap ddutes ani conveys to the alja(,ent parts 
wherever the process of growth is gf ing on Phj siolo^iujUy con 
sidered, therefore, starch is unappropuate i cellulose store 1 up in 
a particular form, as the ready piepired miteiril of new tissues 
while dextrine and sugar aie foims m which the some unazotized 
assimilated matters are p epared for the immediate purj oses of 
nutrition. The part which these ■substances pK^ in the legelable 
economy will be more fully e\pU oed el&t,where 

83. A distinguishing character of starch is that it ib turned blue 
or deep violet by iodine, even in the most dil te solution Staich 
grains are usually simple and sepante but occisicniHy two or 
more young grains join, and are enwrapped by new layers into 
one. In some plants the grains regularly cohere in united clus- 
ters. Compound grains of the kind are seen in West Indian Ar- 
row-root, the corms of Coichicum, Arum,* &c. The starch-grains 
are nearly uniform in the same plant or organ, and of very differ- 
ent appearance in different plants : so that the smallest quantity of 
starch from the potato, wheat, rice, maize, &c. may at once be 
distinguished under the microscope. 

83. Tfgftable Jelly (Bassorin, Salep, Pectine, VegetaMe Mucilage 

' The roolaiocks of Brasenia and Njmpliiea exliibit oblong or cUib-sbaped 
comijuund itai di-grains of gl^2ilt size, very much like Ihoso fiom Arum, rep- 
resented bj Sebleiden, on page 17, Engl tcanskiion. 



in pari) has the chemical composition aad nearly the properties of 
starch after it has been diffused in hot water. It is not only one 
of the contents of cells, as in the tubers of Orchises, in many 
fruits, &c., and largely in those of Algfe, but it also forms ia great 
part the cell-wall of Algffi, as in the Carragheen Moss (Chondrus 
crispus), from which vegetable jelly is obtained for culinary pur- 
poses. When dry, it is horny or cartilaginous ; when moist, it 
swells up, becomes gelatinous, and is capable of being diffused per- 
fectly through cold water, It passes by various modifications, on 
the one hand into cellulose, and on the other into starch and dex- 
trine. We have it as an excretion in Gum Tragacanth. True gums, 
such as Gum Arabic, &,c., are altered states of the same substance, 
or of dextrine, and are likewise formed only as excretions. 

84. Sngar (of which there are two distinct kinds. Cane, and Grape 
Sugar) is the most soluble of the many forms of ternary organiza- 
ble matter, as already staled. Though sometimes crystallized as 
an excretion in the nectaries of tlowers, yet in the plant it exists 
only in solution. It abounds in growing parts, in many stems just 
before flowering, as those of the Sugar-cane, Maize, Maple, &c. 
and in pulpy fruits. 

85. Fixed Oils belong to the class of ternary assimilated products, 
but they contain little or no oxygen. The fatty oils take the place 
of starch (from which they are probably formed) in the seeds of 
many plants (as in flax-seed, walnuts, &c.), and of sugar in some 
fruits, such as the olive. They also exist in the herbage, and in 
some smaller proportion in the cells, perhaps, of almost all plants, 

86. Wax is a product of nearly the same nature as the fixed oils 
(only it is solid at the ordinary temperature), which is extensively 
found in plants as an excretion, particularly on the surface of 
leaves and fruits, forming the bloom or glaucous surface which 
repels water, and so prevents such surfaces from being wetted. It 
forms a thick coating on some fruits, as the bayberry. Aa bees 
convert sugar into wax, and as the sugar-cane yields a kind of 
wax which " sometimes passes into sugar," we may infer that wax 
in the vegetable is formed of sugar or its kindred products. Wax 
also exists as one of the contents of cells, of leaves especially ; 
where a substance allied to it in composition abounds, namely, 

87. ChlOFOphyll, the substance which gives the universal green 
color to the leaves and herbage. It is formed principally in parts 
ejiposed to the light, such as the green bark, and especially the 



leaves ; not, however, in the external layer of cells, or epidermis 
(69), but in the parenchyma, especially in the superficial strata. 
It consists of minute soft granules, of no particular form, either 
separate or in clusters, forming grains of considerable size, which 
lie free in the cells (Fig. 53, 180), or loosely adhere to tlieir sides. 
In some Confervse they collect in the form of spiral Imes or bands 
(as in Fig, 81, the lower part). They often adhere to the surface 
of starch -gi-ains. Indeed, Mr. Henfrey plausibly considers chloro- 
phyll to arise from altered starch (with the evolution of oxygen) ; 
which is the more likely, as it is said to appear in the cells later 
than starch,* It belongs to the class of waxy bodies ; and is 
soluble in alcohol or ether, but not in water. Chlomphyll under- 
goes certain chaages, in autumn foliage especially, by which it 
turns to red or yellow. Chromule is a name applied to coloring 
matters not green, and mostly in a liquid form, as in the cells of 
petals, giving to them their peculiar tints. These coloring matters 
are probably a mixture of very various products. 

88. Alkaloids (such aa Morphine, Strychnine, and Quinine) are 
quaternary products of plants, principally formed in the cells or 
interspaces of the bark. Unlike the proleine compounds (27, 79, 
gluten, iibrine, &.c,), tliey appear to bear no part in vegetation, 
but to be completed results of vegetation, and of excretory nature. 
Ill these substances reside the most energetic properties of the 
vegetable, considered as to its action on the animal economy, the 
most powerful medicines, and the most virulent poisons. That 
they are of the nature of excretions may be inferred from tlie 
fact, that a plant may be poisoned by its own products. 

89. Tannin or Tannic Acid, which most abounds in older bark, is 
probably a product of the oxidation or commencing decomposition 
of the tissues. So, also, Humus, Humic Acid, Vlmine, Tllmic Acid, 
and the numerous related substances distinguished by the chemists, 
are products of further decomposition of vegetable tissue, and not 
products of vegetation. 

* In that case, the nitrogen obtained in Mulder's incomplefo analysis (irhich 
gave C'^ H", N", 0", wiih some nitrogeneona matter not determined) most 
belong to the mucous matter, or protoplasm, which invests the green granules. 

According to M. Verdeil (in Qtniptfs Mendiis,'Di!c. 22, 1851), the green grains 
consistof a mixture of a colorless, fatty matter, and a coloring matter analogous 
to the red coloring matter of the blood in composition, and like it contaiaing a 
considerable proportion of iron I 

Ho.t.d, Google 


90. VegelaWe Aeids. Tartaric, Citric, and Malic acids are llie 
principal kinds, which occur in leaves and those succulent stems 
which have a sour juice, and in all acidulated fruits. They are 
ternary products, with an excess of oxygen. Oxalic Acid, which 
is an almost universal vegetable product, is a binary body, differ- 
ing from carbonic acid in ultimate composition only in having a 
small proportion more of oxygen. {Hydrocyanic or Prussic Acid 
is oae of the special products peculiar to certain plants, and of 
very diiferent composition, containing a large proportion of nitro- 
gen.) These vegetable acids do not appear to play any leading 
part in vegetation. They seldom exist in a free stale, but are 
combined with the alkaloids, and with the inorganic or earthy al- 
kalies (Potash, Soda, Lime, and Magnesia) which are introduced 
into plants from the soil with the water imbibed by the roots. 
The more soluble salts thus produced are found dissolved in 
plants ; the more insoluble are frequently deposited in the cells in 
the form of 

91. Crystals or Eaphides. These exist in more or less abundance 
in almost every plant, especially in the cells of the bark and leaves, 
as well as in the wood and pith of herbaceous plants. Far ihe 
most common, and the principal kind formed with a vegetable 
acid, are those of oxalate of lime. In an old stem of the Old-man 
Cactus ( Cereus senilis], the enormous quantity of 80 per cent, of 
the solid matter left after the water was driven off was found to 
consist of these crystals. In the tliin inner layers of the bark of 
the Locust, for example, each cell contains a single crystal, as is 
seen in Fig. 57. And I'rofessor Bailey, who has devoted particu- 
lar attention to this subject, computed that, in a square inch of a 
piece of Locust-bark, no thicker than ordinary writing-paper, there 
are more than a million and a half of these crystals. There is 
frequently a group of separate crystals in the same cell ; or a con- 
glomerate cluster, as in Fig. 58. In the leaves of the Fig, and 
many other Urticaceous plants, a globular crystalline mass is sus- 
pended in the cell by a kind of stalk. Oxalate of lime crystal- 
lizes in octahedra {as in Fig. 56, the crystal in the lower right- 
hand cell), and in right-angled four-sided prisms (as in Fig. 59, 
60), with variously modified terminations. The crystals are fre- 
quently acicular, or needle-shaped, either scattered or packed in 
bundles of from tweniy to some hundreds (as in Fig. 53-55). It 
is to this form that the name of Rapkides (which is the Greek 



word for needles) was origiDally applied, and to which it properly 
belongs; although it has been indiscriminately extended to all 
kinds of crystals which occur in the cells of plants. In the com- 
mon Arum or Indian Turnip, as well as in tlie Calk jElhiopica and 
other plants of that family, the crystal -bearing cells (Fig. 54) may 
readily be detached from the rest of the tissue ; and when mois- 
tened and distended by endosmosis, they forcibly discharge their 
contents, in a curious manner, from an orifice at each end, as is 
shown in Fig. 55. These acicular crystals are generally thought 

to consist of oxalate of lime ; according to Quekctt, they are phos- 
phate of lime. Of other crystals composed of inorganic acids and 
an earthy base, the more usual are rhombic crystals of carbonate 
of lime, found in Cacti ; and tabular, often twin crystals of sul- 
phate of lime, which are " found in the Musacese and many Scita- 
mineie." Such are wholly formed of inorganic materials, derived 
from the soil. 
, 9a, Siiei, likewise derived from the soil, very generally occurs 

Fro. 63. Raphides, ot acicular crjslals, from the slalk of tha Rhijliarbi three of the telle 
conuUa chlorophyll, aad (wo of Ihem rs-phide?. 
FIG. 54. HaphUea of an Aram, conlslned in a lanfc cell ; ami 55, Ihe same, datsclied from 

FIG. m. Crystals flMmlheOalon; one of Ihem a hemitrope. 
FIG. er. Cryslala of the loner iiark of [he Locust, 
FIG, 58. A filoiBerale maea of cryslala from Ilia ft 

kinflly Bupplied by Ft 

of H 




64 1 

as a part of the deposit or incrustation on the walls of cells ; • but 
it is not found in the form of crystals in their interior. In the Dla- 
tomacete nearly the whole cell-wall is composed of this indestruc- 
tihie material ; consequently, the remains of these ntiinute organ- 
jams accumulate at the bottom of the water in which they live, so 
as to form immense strata ill many places. 



93. The Ind ndual Plant The or^in c ele Tie <. or c Is i 
their various forms vh ch have been trea ed of n he p e ed g 
chapter, make p tl o d v d al j Knt Look g no v up pla ts 
as individual be ogs we observe 1 at h y ] esp t t e s yes u 
der the greatest va ety of f s somi* of I e ire o( tl e tmost 
simplicity, aud many of the^e are so i te that they a e d d 
ually undistingu hable or inv a ble to the naked e}c and only be 
come conspicuous by tl e r aggrega o n great n bere thera 
are highly complex n s r c u e and a ta to a vast s ze ^uch as 
gigantic trees some of whch haie flo r shed for a lousand 
years or more AH the large egetables are formed of a coun 
less number of ce! a vl ch a they c ease arrange tl e i Ives 
so aa to shape the fab c nto defin te ] a ch as s e in eaves 

and roots, each hav ng 1 st ct off oa to fulf 1 1 1 all are s h 
servient to tl e u r t on and pe 1 ct on of e nd v dudi hole 
These parts are ca cd the Orga s of t e pla t o o e tec! n 
cally, the Compound Organs, since it is the cells of which they are 
compoaed that are the real iaatruments, and carry on the opera- 
tiona of the vegetable economy. Theae organs are most distinct, 
and at the same time most diversified, in the higheat grade of 
plants ; in the lower, they arc successively less and less evolved, 
until all such distinction of parts vanishes, and the plant is reduced 
to a rounded or flattened mass of cells, to a row of cells strung end 

* This maybe stiown by carefully bam in g off the organized matter of the 
liEsae, and exn.minliig the undisturbed ashes by the microsuope {31i, 312). 

Ho.t.d, Google 






to end, or even to a single cell 
plants, and the higher acquire 1 
will hereafter be shown) froi 
most natural order for cxhibi 5 
lion is to commence with the 1 
namely with 

94. PlimtS of a Single Cell. There are several kinds of such 
plants among the Algse (Sea-weeds, &c-), which rank as the low- 
est order of the vegetable kingdom. They are especially interest- 
ing here, because they furnish the readiest illustrations of the va- 
rious methods of cell-formation which have been described in the 
preceding chapter (26-35). For in them vegetation is reduced 
to it m n p ant and the cell are here identical. 

L n n vegetable without organs, imbibing 

nd (3 ) hrough its permeable walls, aasimi- 

d n n and converting the organizable prod- 

h a of its own enlargement or growth, 

ch constitute its progeny Thus we 
« essential m vegetation, even on the 
m mb bttion of inorganic materials, their 

h pp a n to the giowth of the individual, or 
id the foimation of new indinduah, or reproduction 


itsfo 1 
htmg h 


nutrition, a 

a while thus organically simple, the pHnt is not lestricted 
i pattern On the contrary, diflcrent <!pecies, 


to their progeny in all the 
when describing the fjin- 
simplest case is that of 

95 1st, Plant), of a Single Globular 
Cell , that IS, of a cell which ^rows equal- 
ly m e\crv diie'-tion, and thLrefore is 
neither elongated nor branched Of this, 
the microscopic pknt known as giMng 
rise to iht, phenomenon of red smoip (but 
which also occuis on damp earth, iL.c ) 
fuinishes a good illustiation. Each indi 

Al and g 
lus ways that have been mentioned 
id the development ot cells The 


vidual is a single cell {F*g 61) wh'i,li q i 
and pioduces (by otigmal cell formiton i 
abl'* numbei of minute fiee cells n its 
mother cell now decays , and the new ge 
large n 

ckly attains its growth, 
, 13 thought) a consider 
interior The mature 
ler it on it contained en 
lir cells 01 plants which give n?p to their pr geny 
1 then luin Some otl ei gluhular one celled plants 
(like Chioococcus Fig 63) aie very similai except ll it they 
proptgate by d virion of the while contents and finely lilustrate 
that general process of Iree cell m illipl cation (37) The layer 
of protopK m which lines the cell wall foims a constriction m the 
middle, and soon sepirates the whole inclosed contents into two 
parts , a layer of cellulose is at the sa lie time deposited on the 
surfhce, ■vad thus two new cells aie p odi ced (F g 64) which 
usually subdivide each into tw o (Fij; 65) Four new cells 
are thus formed with n a mother cell , 'ind the lattet is destroyed 
in the process all its living contents 1 iving bpen emplojed in the 
formation of the piogeoy, and its effete w ill is obliterated by soft, 
ening or decay, oi by the enlargement cf the contained cells 
Thus the simplest vegetation goes on, from genention to genera 
tioQ The softened remains or products of the older cells often 
ace imuhte and foim a gelatinous sti,itum or nidus in which the 
succeeimg gcneiations are dc\ eloped and ft am wh eh the\ doubt 
less derne a part of then sustenance — juat as a tufieii Moss la 
nourished in part fiom the underlying bed of vegetable mould 
which IB formed of the deciyed remains of ib earlier growth 
One stpp m adiince brings us to 

96 ^d Plant" of a Single Elongated Cell that is, of a cell 

which grows o 


the individuals, but which rapidly 

but without biinch ng fo ich 
plants answer to cells of 
pioset chyma, or to vessels 
(52, 57) Foi an example 
we may take any species 
of Oscilhiia (Fig 66) , a 
foim of aqiatic *tp;ptaton 
of microscopic m nuteness, 
considered as to the size of 

lultiply in such inconceivable 

numbers, that, at certain si 

FIG. 66. Twomdivldualsof Osdll 

as, they sometimes color the 




of whole lakes of a green hue, as suddenly as broad tracts of 
alpine or arctic snow are reddened by the Protococcus.* 

97. 3d, Plants of an Elongated and Branching Cell. Some 
elongated ceils in vegetable tissue fork as they elongate, and be- 
come bi"anched ; as seen in Fig. 15. Several plants consist of 
individual cells of this kind ; as, for example, the species of Vau- 
clieria, which form one kind of the dolieafe and flossy green 
threads which abound in fresh waters, and are known in some 
places by the name of Brook-silk. These, under the magnifying- 
glass, are seen to be single cells, of unbroken calibre, furnished 
with branches here and there (Fig. 71), The branches are pro- 
trusions, or new growing points, which shoot forth, and have the 
powei of CO 1 n lous growth from the apex. In Bryopsis {Fig. 73), 

a beautiful small Soa-weed, the branches are much more numerous 
and regular: they are often constricted where they join the main 
stem, if we may so call it, hut the cavity continues from stem to 

* If (he transverse markings of Oscillaria arise from imperfect partitionE, 
then the plant can'esponds to the duct (5S), 

Ho.t.d, Google 


branch ; or, in other words, (he wliole plant consists of a single 
vegetating cell. 

98. While in these cases the ramifications of the cell imitate, or 
as it were foreshadow, the stem and branches of higher organized 
plants, we have in Botrydium (Fig. 70) a ceil whose ramifications 
resemhle and perform the functions of a root. This is a terres- 
trial Alga, with a rounded body composed of an enlarged cell, 
which elongates and ramifies downwards, the slender branches 
penetrating the loose, damp soil on which the plant grows, exactly 
in the manner of a subdivided root. Meanwhile, a crop of rudi- 
mentary new cells is produced, by original free cell -formation 
(28), in the liquid which fills the body of the mother-cell : these, 
escaping when that decays or bursts, grow into similar plants, in 
the manner shown by Fig. 67— 69. 

99. The new cells by which Vaucheria is propagated are pro- 
duced in a different way; as is shown in V. clavata (Fig. 71, 72). 
The apex of a branch enlarges ; its green contents thicken, sep- 
arate from those below, and a membrane of cellulose is formed 
around it, just as it forms around the contents of the whole cell in 
the microscopic Chroococcus (Fig. 63), but no further division takes 
place ; the wall of the mother-cell bursts open, and the new-bom 
cell escapes into the water. When it grows, it elongates a little 
from one end, and by this fastens itself to any soUd body it rests 
on, and then grows from the opposite end into a prolonged tube, 
with occasional branches, like its parent In this way, a plant 
composed of a single eel! imitates not obscurely the downward and 
upward growth (the root and stem) of the more perfect plants. In 
the foregoing cases we noticed that the production of new cells in- 
sured the death of the parent ; the whole living contents being ap- 
propriated to the new formation. In this case, the progeny origi- 
nates from the living contents of a part of the cell only, and the 
walls of that portion alone perish. 

100. Plants of ft Single Row 0( Cells, To these there is but a sin- 
gle step from plants formed of a single cell (whether branching or 
unhranched) which has the power of continuous growth from the 
apex ; and that step consists in the formation of transverse parti- 
tions. The manner in which these are produced has been already 
described (Fig. 8), as observed in a species of Conferva. Most 
of these simple, thread-like Algte are composed of a single row of 
cells, produced in this way. The three kinds of Moulds or Mil- 



dew FuDgi here represented (Fig- 74-76) consist, s 
creeping part at the base (which spreads 

like those of a C 
mould (Fig 74) by 
and very 
have a different 

dently formed by h p 
serve as seeds t p d 
101. Spores. Wh 1 
ply, they increa h 
ble. When the p 
plant. Any cell 
sooner, boweve 
as to consist ev f gl 

begins to appea b II 

for reproduciion B h j p l 
like, vegetating 11 w! h f 
75, for exampl g vt h h 
swl I 

1 the 
idely through the 
substance ihcy live 
on) of long, thread- 
like, and usual, 
ly branching cells 
(much like those 
of Fig. 15), for the 
most part destitute 
of partitions; while 
the upright portions 
are composed of a 
f 1- 11 

d 1 B d 

I F 
fbn 1 


ly p 


1 bl 


1 h h 

1 g a 
1 11 f a n w 
d d 1 N 
gh pi 


d h 
h 1 d 
M Id n Fg 

wl 1 1 
ti f h 

hi h 
by I 

first appear to d f h 

of plants multiply by ff h ts 

second are anal h p 1 

such higher plants Th Up 1 d f 

ever they may ongmate, aie accordingly distmguislied by a special 

name, that of Spores or Sforules. We have to rise still higher 

in the scale, however, before a well-marked distinction can be 

. The Bread.moiilJ (Muti 

nolher Mould (Pcnicilluir 




I cells for repiodm 

I and cells foi 

drawn in all ciscs 


J02 Cunjuntion At tins itigp of vegetaton howrvPr, ind 
even in a ki gf ti ib^ of plants composed of single and -Jimple celts, 
a piocess of ^rcit physiological im- 
pcitance is firat ob'.ervedj — the evi 
dent equivalent of bsexiality in the 
higher orders — bj whn,h tl e repro 
ductue cells or a;yorfs aie still f irther 
specialized and potentiated They 
are formed by conjusatton that is, 
by the minuhng of tho contents of 
two cells, btth of whch take part 
in the fornition of the r 'Julting 
spore Fig 77 
- 80 exhibit this 
conjugation m a 

minute sihc ous coated, one celled plant, of 

the family Desmidiaceo? , where the iei,ent 

discovery of this pioceas, by Mr Ralfi, has 

confiimed the vegetable chaiacter of these 

ambiguou's mcioacopic bodies bejond all 

doubt Also Figure 81 shows the conjuga- 
tion of two individuals of Zjgnema (Sp lo 

gyra), a common plant of oui poola, com 

posed of single tows of cells, nearly all of 

which in the figure, are represented as tak 

mg part n the con|ugation 
103 Plunti of a Tissue of CeOs eomliined in 

one Plane The next step in complfxity is 

seen in those Alge which consist of a few 

jointed tubes literally cohering with each 

other , or of numerous cells united in a single 

plane, as m the little Sea-weed, Fig. 8^. 

FIH. 77. 



iodiyidiBl oraoaWtiu 

m acutiim, 

Kfter Haifa. IS 
Ihe Mher, and 




more mas^llBal, 1 




Fia 81. 



vle« of 




as by 



from different 









alia ate absorbad 


Ho.t.d, Google 

This gi^ 

dose or leEif-like forms. The name of 

Frond is applied 

jnVffiRQy Oh gol to such expanded 

'y'^oOO''o'6°! bodies, which are 

JOOMi bine the appear. 

^^InOkoS^^ ance and the of- 
fice of both. 

ly the simplest foims, however, consist of a single layer of ceils. 
Most frondose Sea weeds, as well as Lichens, Liverworts, Ac. 
are made up of several such layers. This is not the place to 
lUusliate the almost endless diversity of forms under which the 
frond, or, as it is called in Lichens and Fungi, the TAaZ/ws, appears 
m these Sower grades of plants ; nor to notice their particular 
modes of propagation ; except to say, in general, that the spores are 
still nothing but specialized cells, developed in some one of the 
ways already explained. But we now begin to meet with special 
organs or peculiar apparatus in which the reproductive cells are 
formed, instead of occurring indifferently in any part. 

104 Plank of a Ttwue of Cells combined iiilo a sol d Aiis, or with 

cells have Ihick 


in IhB middle at 


FIG, S4, Fra 


a portion 



« spirally 


ella ffoii 



e!iiiU from 



FIG. es. lu 



yeUH, lesa 






Stem and branches. Stem-like solid forms occur, perhaps as abun- 
dantly as the Jeaf-liie or frondose, in the higher representatives of 
the lowest orders of plants, in Atgs, Fungi, and Lichens; and oc- 
casionally the two arc somewhat vaguely presented in the same 
individual. Thus, many of the larger Sea-weeds display a leaf- 
like frond on the summit of a solid stalk ; this stem, however, has 
once formed a part of the leaf. But ia the Liverwort Family the 
distinction is first clearly exhibited, and in the true Mosses the 
higher type of vegetation is fully realized, namely in 

]05. Plants witU a Distinct Axis and Foliage ; that is, with a stem 
which shoots upward from the soil, or whatever it is fixed to, or 
creeps on its surface ; which grows onward from its apex, and 
is symmetrically clothed with distinct 
leaves as it advances. All these lower 
vegetables which have now been men- 
tioned, of whatever form, imbibe their 
food through any or every part of their 
surface, at least of the freshly formed 
parts, Their roots, when they have 
any, are usually intended to fix the 
plant to the rock or soil, and not to 
draw nourisliment from It. The strong 
roots of the Oar-tceed, DevWs Apron 
(Laminaria), and some other large 
Sea-weeds of our coast, are merely 
holdfasts, or cords expanding into a 
disc-like surface at their extremity, 
which by their adhesion bind these 
large marine vegetables so firmly to 
the rock that the force of the waves 
can seldom carry them away. Mosses 
also take in their nourishment through 
their whole expanded surface, princi- 
pally therefore by their leaves: but 
the stems also shoot forth from time 
to time delicate rootlets, composed of slender cells or tubes, which 
grow in a downward direction and doubtless perform their part in 

FIQ, ST. An irallTldual of a Mosa (Phyacomittiuro pjrirorme), enlarged m aboijl 12 times 
(escept the midrib) of a single laysr of cells. 


S ( or ) 

and are commonly elevated, before maturity, on a naked and 
slender sfalk. The reproductive apparatus no longer forms a part 
of the general tissue, nor is imbedded in it, but special and alto- 
gether distinct organs are assigned to this ofSce. 

106. Thallnphyles and Comophyles. It is convenient to mention 
here, that these plants of the lower grades, Alga3, Fungi, and 
Lichens, which exhibit no proper distinction of stem and foliage, 
are by some botanists collectively called Thallophttes, that is, 
plants formed of a thallus (103), or bed, as the compound word 
imports. And the name is appropriate for the greater part of these 
rootless, stomless, and leafless forms of vegetation, which compose 
flat crusts or plates, like the common IJchens on rocks, wails, and 
bark ■ or spreading Mushrooms ■ or the broad, membranous Sea- 

we d D 

d L : and even the plants of sin- 

gl*- g 

aa m p ra 

lore commonly aggregated so 
b d f interfaced threads, more or 

less p d h 

h ral names are seldom charac- 

ter m 

y ra It to comprise. The contra- 

dis h m 
P!« } g 

upw d h y 
wjhd g 
C ila and Va 

EM H TES (meaning stem-growing 
h h mfl of vegetation, from Mosses 
d p proper stem, usually adorned 

nla Plai While the Mosses emulate 

on and externai appearance, 

he simplicity of their internal 

p sed of cellular tissue strictly 

p renchyma (51), at least they 




and all oihef Cellular planfs a 

have no vessels or ducts * (57) and form no wood. Tliey, with all 
the plants below them, were therefore denominated Cellolar 
Plants by De Candolle. TSiose above, inasmuch as vascular and 
woody tissues enter into their composition, when they are herbs as 
well as when they form shrubs or trees, he distinguished by t!io 
general name of Vasculak Plants. 

108. The strength which these tissues impart — owing to their 
toughness and the close bundles or masses they form running 
lengthwise through the stem (53, 56) — enables these vascular 
and woody plants to attain a great size and height; while Mosses 
■e of humble size, except when they 
float in water, in which a few of 
the coarser Sea-weeds do indeed 
attain a prodigious length and bulk. 
The lowest forms of Vascular 
plants, such as the Club-Mosses 
(Fig. 89), are of humble size, aa 
the name indicates, although the 
stems are often of a woody tex- 
ture. Most Ferns, or Brakes, are 
also herbaceous, or their persist- 
ent and more or less woody stems 
remim undeiground, in the form 
of lootstocks, or creep on its sur- 
face (as m Fig. 95). A few of 
them, haiiever, in the warmer 
parts of the w orld, rise into trunks, 
and form palm-like trees (Fig. 94), 
of graceful port, and sometimes of 
great altitude. Thus far, the roots 
^ are still of a secondary character ; 

:, they spring from the stem, wherever it is in contact with or 
covered by the soil. From the mode of development it will here- 
after appear that Ferns and Club-Mosses, like true Mosses, can 

that is 

^ The spirally marked tubes which urc found ii 
viorls (Fig. 85, a) offer nn exception. 

Fro. 89. LjcopmliHiiiCarolioianuni,ofllieiia.luralBi!Q. 1 
AlicaliDn, wUh tbe apoTe-caae in ils axil, and Bpores falling i 
n^oified. 93, Tile same aeparaMd. IS. A buiai spoii-cisa 

Ho.t.d, Google 


have no primary roof- The axis, therefore, grows from the ape.v 
only, and it has no provision for increase in diameter as it in- 
creases in age. They have accordingly received the name of 
AcHOGENS or AcHOGEKOUS Plants, — terms of Greek derivation, 
signifying that they grow from the apex alone. As to their fructi- 
fication, all these families helong to the great lower series of 

109. Crj'ptogamOUS or Ploweriess PlanlS. Such are all plants 
which are reproduced by spores in place of seeds. Spores, as has 
been already shown, are single specialized cells, which originate 
in some one of the ordinary modes of cell- production, and with- 
out the agency of proper flowers. Cryptogamous and Plowerless 

) therefore equivalent (erms ; the former denoting, metaphor 

and Feins 
those of I 

callv thil thp flowers 
obsL.u E * The 
mide b'v ClubMcs'^fs anl 
Ferns m tl c r orpins of veg 
etation is not attended bj any 
coirespoi dmg complex, ly m 
ll eir mode of re[.roducton 
The spores if Club Mos'it.s 
re as simple as 
! Mossei them 
selves and the apparatus con 
cerned is scarcely more eiab 
orate. Even the tall Tree 
Ferns spring from spores of 
(he same simple character, 
and of size so small that ihey 
are separately invisible to the 
naked eye. It is worthy of 
note, however, that their sim- 
ple spore-cases are borne on 
the leaves, either on leaves in 
their natural state as organs c 

origins of rep rod uc 

! concealed o 


" Most Crjplogamous plants, however, are now known to bave organs atiala- 
goui to those of the tlower, ac least in funetion. These wil 
another place. 



^es3 altered to subserve the special purpose. For in lik< 
OQ leaves more or less altered or specialized, the seeds are mani- 
festly borne in the simplest form of 

110. PhEenogam(ras*or Flowering Plants. In these we reach at 

length the perfected type, the highest grade of vegetation. They 
are tlie only flower-bearing plants, as their name indicates. Their 
reproduction is effected through au apparatus essentially different 
from that of Cryptogamous plants, namelv, by Stamens and Pistils 
(the essential organs of the floveer) , the stamen producing Pollen, 
or free fertilizmg celh , the pistd producmg bodies to be fertilized, 
called OuwZes, and v^hich after feitilization become Seeds. While 
Cryptogamous plants are propigated fiom spores, or specialized 
cells, which in gprmmation multiply into other cells, and at length 
form a young plant, PhEenogamous plant? are propagated from 
seeds, which ire more complex bodies, e^ientially characterized 
by having alieadv formed within them, before ihey separate from 
the mother plaat, an Embryo, that is an organized plantlet, which 
k only further developed in germination. 

in. In the lowest grade of PhEenogamoos plants (viz. in the 
Cycadaces, and in the ConiferEe or Pine Family), the flowers are 
of such extreme simplicity that they consist, some of a stamen 
only, others of one or more naked ovules borne on the margins of 
an evident leaf, as in Cyoas, or on the base or inside of an altered, 
scale-like leaf, as in the Pine Family, In the former, the ovules 
answer to the spore-cases of Ferns; in the latter, to the spore- 
cases of Club-Mosses ; thus confirming an analogy which is indi- 
cated by general aspect between two of the higher families of 
Cryptogamous, and the lowest two of Phajnogamous plants. These 
are Gymnospermous (tliat is, naked-seeded) PhEcnogamous plants. 
In all the rest, the ovules are perfectly inclosed in the pistil, which 
forms a pod or closed covering of some sort for the seeds ; they 
are accordingly distinguished by the name of Angiospermoiis (that 
is, covered-seeded) Phcenogamous plants. Their flowers in the 
simplest cases consist, one sort of a stamen only, the other of a. 
pistil only. But as we rise in the scale, these organs tend to multi- 
ply ; to be combined so as to have both kinds in the same flower ; 

* Sometimes written PItanerogaiaous. Both terms are made from the suma 
Greek words, and signify, by a metuphorical expression, the counterpart of 
Crjptogamons ; that is, that the essential organs of the flower are manifest or 


PH-asNOGAMons or flowehi 


to be protected or adorned witb a circle of peculiar leaves (the 
Calyx), or with two such circles (Calyx and Corolla), of which 
the inner is commonly nnore delicate in texture and of brighter 
color. This, the completed flower, exhibits the Organs of Re- 
PKODUCTioN in their most perfect form. 

112. The Organs of Vegetation also exhibit their most perfect 
development in PhEenogamous plants. The three kinds, root, stem, 
and leaves, are almost always well defined. In a few exceptional 
cases, however, we have froudose forms ; as in the Duck-weed 
(Fig. 96), where stem and leaf are fused together into a green flat 
body which floats on the water, emitting roofs from the> lower sur- 
face and exposing the upper like a leaf to the light. So, true 
leaves seldom appear in the Cactus Family, where the green 
bark of the whole surface takes their place, although the points 
from which they should arise are distinctly indicated ; nor are they 
developed at all in the Dodder (135, Fig 132), and some other 
parasitic Flowering plants. In all Cryptogamotis plants furnished 
with a distinct axis, or stem, and leaves, this wliole 
structure has to be formed after genninaticn (110 
in a manner to be hereafter shown); aii «len 
formed, the axis grows from its apex only ( 108) so 
that there is no primary root. Ph^nogamo is plant , 
on the contrary, are developed directly from an 
embryo plantlet, namely, from nn axis with its 
appendages, which already exists in the seed and 
which grows both ways in germination ; f om one 
end to produce the stem, and from the otl ei to 
form the root, thus exhibiting a regular oppiMticn 
of growth from the first. To understand ih s and 
to obtain the clearest conception of the plant as a 
whole and of its mode of growth, wo should at the c 
lively consider the 

113. BeTelopment ol tlic Emljryo. The PhcenogamoL 
in the early stage at which we begin its biography, is an Embryo 
(Fig. 100) contained in the seed (Fig. 99). The form of this initial 
plantlet varies greatly in difierent species. It is often an oblong 
or cylindrical body, simple at one extremity, and nicked or lobed 
at the other, as in the case we have chosen for illustration. The 
undivided or stem part is called the Radicle ; it is the rudimentary 

s plant, then, 



axis, the initial stem. The two lohes into which the upper end is 
split are the Cotyledons or the undeveloped first pair of leaves, 
olleii nimed the Seed leaies Theie are often so large as to make 
up nearly the wl ole bulk of tl e &eed as n the pea and bean, or 
tl e A] pie and Almond (Fig. 97), where the 
rod cle IS \ery sh rt in proportion ; and on 
sepiratins oi tak n^, off one of them the mi- 
rud inents of one or more additional 
I m<t> often be detected wilhin (Fig. 
The emb \o, therefore, consists of 
a si art ax i ir stem crowned with two or 
m re undei eloped leaves, or, in other words, 
witl a Bud In germ nat n the a\is oi radicle elongates through- 
o it so -is usuilly to elei ate the bii Jding apex above the surface of 
the soil and jts cotyledons expand m the air into the first pair of 
leives and it the sane t me from the opposite extremity is 
formed the root whicl grows in a downw ii \ direction, so as to pen- 
etrate more aod more into the sol The two extremities of the 
embrj o aie therefore d fferently lifected by the same external in- 

fluences, by light especially, and exhibit exactly opposite tenden- 
cies. The budding end invariably rises upwards, as if it sought 

9a The same, wilh oqb col;]e(kin luken off, la shovp 

FIO, 99. A iDngitudlnal sscUon of e ased, stiowinf; It 
lalns. 100. Tlie emlnyo laken from the seed, anil fis ruil 
separaled. 101. The same in germinatlan, 
leares. 102 - IM. The seedling plant more 
should have been drann more elODgUed.) 

Ho.t.d, Google 


the light and air ; the root-end turns constantly from the light, and 
buries itself in the dark and moist soil. These tendencies are ab- 
solute and irreversible. If obstacles intervene, the root will take as 
nearly i downward and the stem as nearly an upward direction, as 
p T y n be first manifestation of an inherent prop- 

ty b h only incidental raodiiications, through- 

g h the plant, although, like instinct in the 
h g est at the commencement : and it insures 

p f p nt shall be developed in the medium in 
h h d d and act, — the root in the earth, and the 

n d h air. The axis, therefore, especially in 

p h h ^ d , possesses a kind of polarity ; it is com- 

pdft tprtytm 1 D l' A ' 

00 d A d gA mTip f ba 

f 1 d h k n B h d 

bhbhbhes I fh f 

lllp dyl Tlbhfl 

] Ofai 

ti ti rh 

se h S R 

L 1 

p 1 ta 

ly h d ] p h 

Of h m g 


lly f 1 

U 1 q 


d h If 

d g h I d d 1 M 

1 1 

f h pi 

hb ly 1 f 

1 p rt 

d m 1 

if Th 1 

f p p ly 

d h F 

f pi 1 



bbh dfdfh 

pi f h 

1 h d 

d 1 gh h 1 


1 m d Id 

1 y f 1 Ul 

h J h 

h h 

ml d IS d 1 


b p d d 

h f m f 1 

b h 

d 1 

TI h pi h 

f 1 

I pi 

dm f g h 

d ts 1 


b 1 d lyb h f 1 


f d f p ra m 

11 S 1 h 1 h m d f 

development, and bears Flowers, or Organs of EiiPKOiiucTio:^. 
But even in these, the philosophical botanist recognizes the stem 
and leaves, under peculiar forms, adapted to special purposes. 
And the object or consummation of the flower is the production 


f 1 1 d 1 I dip p 

p h I I 

16 H b fl> d 1 pi d I f n« ti 

f ? pi I h 1 h h h lb 

If d f pi w J f II p 

leave the Ciyptogamous. or FlowerlLSS plants entirely out of mcw 
(reverting to them only to explain separately their principal pecu- 
liarities at the close), and explain the phenomena, first of vegeta- 
tion, and then of reproduction, as manifested in the higher series 
of PhEenogamous or Flowering plants. The simpler kinds of the 
lower series doubtless afford peculiar facilities for investigating 
questions of anatomical structure, and for ascertaining what is 
really essential to vegetation. But the general scheme of the 
vegetable kingdom, and the unity of plan which runs through the 
manifold diversities it displays, enabling us to refer an almost infi- 
nite variety of details to a few general laws, must be studied in 
the higher series of Phsenogamous plants, which exhibit, in mani- 
fold variety of form, the completed type of vegetation. 



117. The Organs of Vegetation (114) in Pha:nogamous plants, 
namely, the root, stem, and leaves, are to be considered in succes- 
sion ; and it is on some accounts most convenient to begin with 
the root, charged as it is with the eariiest office in the nutrition of 
the vegetable, that of absorbing its food. According to our view 
of the matter, however (113), its formation does not precede, but 
follows, that of the stem. 

118. The Primary Root, as already defined (112-114), is the de- 
scending axis, or that portion of the trunk which, avoiding the 
light, grows downwards, fixing the plant to the soil, and absorbing 
nourishment from it. The examination of any ordinary erabiyo 
during germination, such as that of the Sugar Maple (Fig. 105- 
107), will give a good idea of the formation and entire peculiar- 



ilics of the root, its radicle (a), or preexisting Eixis, first of all 
grows in such a way as lo elork- 
gale throughout its whole ex- 
tent (thus showing that it is not 
itself root, but the first joint of 
stem) ; this lengthening, while 
(id down- 
ieper into 


thrusts the 
wards (113) a little d 

I the im 

.t the same time rais. 
cotyledons (h) to the surface, and at 
length elevates them above it, where 
they expand in the light and air, and 
begin to perform the office of leaves 
(Fig. 107). Contemporaneous with 
this elongation of the radicle, a new 
and different growth takes place 
from its lower extremity in a down- 
ward direction, whicj) forms the 
KoOT (Fig. 107, r). The root it, 
therefore a new formation from the 
roof-end of the radicle. It begins 
by the production of a quantity of 
new celts (by division) at the es.- 
treraity of the radicle ; not on its 
surface, however, hut beneath its thin 
epidermis and the superficial cells. 
The multiplication of cells at this 
point proceeds from below onwards ; 
those behind quickly expanding to 
their full size, and then remaining 
unaltered, while those next the apex "^ 

continue to multiply by division. In this way the root grows t 
ward by continual additions of new material to its advancing « 

FIS, 105, An embryoofSiigir Mipla, ju« unfuldinsingermlnaliod. 106. Same, a 11 

ire growth, IhtouJ 






of Sugar 

MapLfl, atill mo 



em, baai 

nfiildrf cotylalo 




of leav 

63 ; wUlleftom 

The low 

of Ihesa 

magnlfled: a, 

the ma 


el la b 


is prill 

ipall; taking p 






A by the 

Ho.t.d, Google 


tremify ; lengthening from the lower end entirely or chiefly, so 
that Ihia part of a growing root always consists of the most newly 
formed and vitally active tissue. 

119. The new cells, however, do not occupy the very point, as 

is commonly, but 
by an obtusely conical 
ficial tissue of the end f 
multiplication that c m 
(Fig. 108). As the 
iah, they are replaced b 
point of the root cons 
denser tissue than tha b I 
the root is capped in h 
spongioles or spongel f 
are there no such sp I 
absorption evidently dot 
tent, through the olde 

120. Aa Co absorp ; 

germinating plantlet, f 
magnifying power, sh 
bathes them, by endosm 

f Id 


pp d ' 

f the 


pi ly 

(1 by the cell- 
dy mentioned 

f older and 

y branch of 

1 he so-called 

Not only 

p ken of, but 

f he rot 

t of a 


b b 1 moisture that 
gh h 11 ntly formed 

id especially by the hair-like prolongations of the exterior 
layer of cells, ov fibrils, aa they 
may be termed, which are copi- 
ously home by all young roots 
(Fig. 108). Fig. 109, 110, show 
some of theae root-haira, and the 
tissue that beara them, more mag. 
nified. These capillary tubes, of 
great tenuity and with extremely 
delicate walls, immensely increase 
the surface which the motlet ex- 
poses, ajid play a more important 
part in absorption than is gener- 
ally supposed; for they appear 
"" to have attracted little attention, 
when the growing season is over, or when the 

' It is a similar tissue that exfoliates from the 

Lemna, Tig. 

le that exfoliates from the point of some aquatic (as in 
many aerial roots (as in Pandanus), in the form of n 

Ho.t.d, Google 

root gets a little older ; at the same time, the external layer of 
cells that bears them, at first un distinguishable from the parenchy- 
ma beneath, except perhaps in the size of the cells, hardens and 
thickens into a sort of epidermis, or firmer skin; so as to arrest or 
greatly restrain the imbibition. This epidermis (69) of the root 
consists of less compressed cells than in parts exposed to the light, 
and is destitute of stomates or breathing- pores {70), 

121. The growth of the root and lis branches keeps pace with 
the development of the stem. As the latter shoots upward and 
expands its leaves, from which water is copiously exhaled during 
vigorous vegetation, the former grow onward and continually renew 
tlie lender, hygrometric tissue through which the absorption, re- 
quired to restore what is lost by evaporation or consumed in growth, 
is principally effected. Hence the danger of disturbing the active 
roots during the season of growth. In early summer, when the sap 
is rapidly consumed by the fresh leaves, the rootlets are also in rap- 
id action. The growth of the branches and roots being simultane- 
ous, while new branchlets and leavee are developing, the rootlets 
fire extending at a corresponding rate, and their tender absorbing 
points are most frequently renewed. They cannot now be re- 
moved from the soil without destroying them, al the very time 
when their action is essential to restore the liquid which is exhaled 
from the leaves. But towards the close of summer, as the leaves 
grow languid and the growth of the season is attained, the rootlets 
also cease to grow, the loose tissue of their extremities, not being 
renewed, gradually solidifies, and absorption at lengtli ceases. 
This indicates the proper period for transplanting, namely, in the 
autumn after vegetation is suspended, or in early spring before it 

122. This elongation of roots by their advancing points alone is 
admirably adapted to the conditions in which they are placed. 
Growing as they do in a medium of such unequal resistance as the 
soil, if roots increased like growing stems, by the elongation of the 
whole body, they would be thrown, whenever the elongating force 
was insufficient to overcome the resistance, into knotted or con- 
torted shapes, very ill adapted for the free transmission of fluid. 
But, lengthening only at their farthest extremity, they insinuate 
themselves with great facility into the crevices or yielding parts of 
the soil, and afterwards by their expansion in diameter enlarge the 
cavity ; or, when arrested by insuperable obstacles, their advan- 



cing points follow the surface of the opposing body uotil they reach 
a softer medium. In this manner, loo, they readily extend from 
place to place, as the nourishment in their immediate vicinity is 
consumed. Hence, also, may be derived a simple explanation of 
the fact, that roots extend most rapidly and widely in the direction 
of the mast favorable soil, without supposing any prescience on the 
part of the vegetable, as some have imagined. 

123. The advancing extremity of the root consists of parenchy- 
ma alone ; but bundles of vessels and woody tissue appear in the 
forming root, soon after their appearance in the primordial stem 
above : these form a central woody or fibrous portion, which con- 
tinues to descend (by the transformation of a portion of the nas- 
cent tissue) as the growing apex advances; sometimes, although 
not usually, inclosing a distinct pith, as the wood of the stem does. 
The surrounding parenchymatous portion becomes the bark of the 
root. Increase in diameter takes place in the same way as in the 
stem. (Chap. IV. Sect. IV., V,) 

124. We have taken the raot of (he seedling as an example and 
epitome of that of the whole herb or tree ; as we rightly may ; for 
in its whole development the root produces no other parts ; it 
bears nothing hut naked branches, which spring from different 
portions of the surface of the main root, nearly as this sprung from 
the radicle, and exactly imitate its growth. They and their rami- 
fications are mere repetitions of the original descending axis, serv- 
ing to multiply the amount of absorbing surface. The branches of 
the root, moreover, shoot forth without apparent order ; or at least 
in no order like that of the branches of the stem, which have a 
symmetrical arrangement, dependent, as we shall see, upon the 
arrangement of the leaves. 

125. To the general statement that roots give birth to no other 
orga)« there s h abnormal but by o meai^ n s al except on 
thit of p odu J, b ds and therefo e send ng up leafy brioches 
Althoug] ot natu ally 1 si ed 1 b Is 1 1 e the s em yet 
under ce ta c re s ances the roo s of n an tree=i and si ub" 
and of some he ! s hi e the po ve of p odu ng ti e n ab la tlj 
Thus whe the t nk ot i yo g Aj j le ee or Poj lar s c t off 
near he ground w! le tie oo s are go o s i 1 1 11 of sap 
those I ch sp ead just benea 1 he b tace p oduce b Is and 
g e r o o a m 1 t de oi vo eg loos The t& f tl e M 
cl a o ( "e O i,e la uill g e to i a J nci es 



Such buds are said to be irregular, or adventitious. This power, how- 
ever, roots share with every part of the vegetable that abounds with 
parenchyma : even leaves are knowa to produce adventitious buds. 

126. The root has been illustrated from the highest class of 
Phanogamoua plants; in which the original root, or downward 
prolongation of the axis, continues to grow, at least for a consider- 
able time, and becomes a tap-root, or main trunk, from which 
branches of larger or smaller size emanate. Often, however, thia 
main root early perishes or ceases to grow, and the branches take 
its place. In some plants of the highest class (in the Gourd Fam- 
ily, for example), and in nearly the whole great class to which 
Grasses, Lilies, and Palms belong, there is no one main trunk or 
primary root from which the rest proceed ; but several roots spring 
forth almost simultaneously from the radicle in germination, and 
form a cluster of fibres, of nearly ec[ua! size (Fig. 111). Such 
plants scarcely exhibit that distinct opposition of growth in the 
first instance, already mentioned as one characteristic of Phasnoga- 
mous vegetation. Most Pheenoganious plants likewise shoot forth 
secondary roots from the stem itself, the only kind produced by 
Cryptogamous plants. To these we must revert, after having con- 
sidered some diversities connected with the duration and form of 
roots, and an important subsidiary purpose which they often sub- 

127, Animal Boots are those of a plant which springs from the 
seed, flowers, and dies the same year or season. Such plants 
always havejffirons roots, composed of numerous slender branches, 
fibres, or rootlets, proceeding laterally from the main or tap-root, 
which is very little enlarged, as in Mustard, &c. ; or else the whole 
root divides at once into such fibrous branches, as in Bariey (Fig. 
Ill) and all annual Grasses. These multiplied rootlats are well 
adapted for ab'iorption from the soil, but foi that alone The food 
winch the lOOts of such a plant ibsorb-j, after bemg digested and 
elaboraltd in its leases, is all expended m the production of new 
leafy branches, and at length of floweis The floiieimg process 
and the mituting of the fruit e\hau9t the vegetable gieally (in a 
mannpr hereafter to be explained), consuming all the nourishing 
niateiidl w hich it cootami, or stonng it up in the fiuil or seed for 
Its offspiing , and hiving no stock accumulated in the root or else- 
where to sustain this draught, the plant perishes at the close of the 
season, or whenever it has fully gone to seed. 


128. Bifnaial Roots are those of plants whicli do not blossom 
unlit tlie second season, after whioti tliey perisli litte annuals. In 
tliese tlie root serves as a reservoir of nourishing, assimilated mat- 
ter (27, 79) ; its cells therefore Income gorged with starcli (81), 
vegetable jelly (83) au^ir (SI) Sji bucb thickened roots are 
<:aid to he feuhi/ -ind lecene difteieiit nimes according to the 
simpf s they assui le "W b^n the accumilation taltes place in the 
mam tmnlc or tap root it becomes conical as in the Carrot, Fig. 
112 when it f»pers regularly from the base or crown lo the apex ; 
it 19 fusiform or spindle shaped when it tapers 
downwards as in the Radish F g 1 13 or i 
shaped when much swollen at the ba&e so as 
than long If some of the branches o 
of the main axis, the root i> 

as in Fig. 1 14 ; or tuherifer 
form of rounded knobs, as 
knobs are branelied, as in 
founded with tubers, such a; 
Most of these are biennial. 



lapiform or turnip- 
to Ijecome broader 
■e thickened, instead 
id to be fasciculated or clustered, 
ous or luherous, when they assume the 
in Fig. 115; or palmate, when tlie 
Fig. 116. These must not be con- 
i potatoes, which are forms of stems. 
Such plants (of which the Radish, 

pies) neither flower the first season, nor even expend in the pro- 
duction of stems and branches much of the nourishment they gen- 
crate ; but, forming a large tuft of leaves at the very surface of 
the ground, ihey accumulate in the root nearly the whole suin- 

FIG. 11!-1I6. Difeeni kiiula of ™i3. 



mer's supply of nourishment. When vegetation is resumed, the 
following spring, they make a strong and rapid growth, shooiing 
forth a large stem, and Ijearing flowers, fruit, and seed, almost 
wholly at the expense of the accumulation of the previous year ; 
this store is soon consumed, therefore ; and the plant, meanwhile 
neglecting to form new roots, perishes from exhaustion. 

129. Fennuial Boots. A third class of herbs, and all woody 
plants, do not so absolutely depend upon the slock of the previous 
season, but annually produce new roots and form new accumula- 
tions ; sometimes in separate portions of the root, as in the Dahlia 
or the Orchis (Fig. 115), where, while one or more of such reser- 
voirs is exhausted each year, others are providently formed for 
the next year's sustenance ; and so on from year to year ; a por- 
tion annually perishing, but the individual plant surviving indefi- 
nitely. More commonly, the whole body and main branches of 
the root are somewhat thickened ; or portions of the stem may 
subserve this purpose, as in all tuberous herbs; or the nourishing 
matter may he widely distributed through the trunk, as in shrubs 
and trees. These are some of the modifications in this respect of 
perennial plants, which survive, or at least their roots, and blossom 
from year to year indefinitely, 

130, Secondary Roots. (Also called Adventitious Roots.) Thus 
far, the primitive root, that which originated from the base of the 
embryo in germination, with its ramifications, has alone been con- 
sidered. But roots habitually spring from any part of a growing 
stem that lies on the ground, or is buried beneath its surface, so as 

o provide the moisture and darkness thev require ; for s 

obey the ordinary tende 

f 1 


a d ng the light, and 

seeking lo bury themsel 


s 1 

M eeping planti 


duce them at every joi a 

d m 

OS b 

■a h when bent 1 

o the 

ground and covered w h ea 



ke o . So, often 

, will 

separate pieces of youn s 


f d 

a e b taken ; as 


plants are propagated by 



n only do not 


root, except when in co tac 

w h 


nd To this, however. 

there are various excep o 




131. Aerial Roots. Some wiodj 


. climh by such roo 

tiets ; 

as the Ivy, our own Poison 



Toxicodendron), ar 

id the 

Bignonla or Trumpet-Creepe 

r, which in 

this way reach the 


mit of high trees. Such plan 


rive their nourishment fron 

1 their 

ordinary roots imbedded in the soil; their copio 


merely serving for mechanical support, 
true aerial roots, which, emitted from the 
descend to the ground and eslahlish theinsel' 
may be observed, od a small scale, in the s 

Other plants produce 

; stem in the open air, 

the soil. This 

s of Indi 

where the lower joints often produce roots which grow to (he 
length of several inches before they reach the soil. More striking 
cases of tlie kind abound in those tropical regions where the sultry 
air, saturated with moisture for a large part of the year, favors the 
utmost luxuriance of vegetation. The Pandanus or Screw-Pine (a 
Palm-like tree, often cultivated in our conservatories) atfords a 
well-known instance. The strong roots, emitted in the open air 
from the lower part of the trunk, soon reach the soil, as is shown 
in Fig. 117, giving 
the tree the appear- 
ance of having been 
|)-irtiftllv raised out 
of the ground. The 
famous Banyan- tree 
(Fig 119) affords a 
m g 

tn H 

the gro\ind, where 
they mcrease in di- 
ampler ind form numerous accessory trunks suiroitnding the 
origmil boll and suppoiting the ■Hide spiead cinopy of branches 
and foliage Very similar is the economy of the Mingrove {Fig. 
118), which inhabits muddy sea-shores thioughout the tropics, and 
even occurs sparingly on the coast of Florida and Louisiana. Its 
aerial roots spring both from the main ti-uok, as in the Pandanus, 

FIG. 117. TheFandanuB, QtScrenPiiiei ivitli, US, aHansrove.lree (Rhiznphora Mansb), 



and from fhe branchlets, 
dency to shoot in the uir it 

Mor(,mei this ten- 
, cmbnn, whidi be- 


gins to germinate while the pod is yet attaclicd to the parent 
branch ; the radicle, or root-end of the embryo, elongating into a 
slender thread, which may even reach the ground, from the height of 
many yards, before the pod is detached. In this manner the Man- 
grove forms those impenetrabie maritime thickets which abound 
on low, muddy shores, within the tropics. 

132. Epiphytes, or Air-plants, exhibit a further peculiarity. Their 
roots not only strike in the free air, but throughout their life have 
no connection with the soil. They generally grow upon the trunks 
and branches of trees ; their roots merely adhering to the bark to 
fix the plant in its position, or else hanging loose in the air, from 
■which such plants draw all their nourishment. Of this kind are a 
large portion of the gorgeous Orchidaceous plants of very warm 
and humid climes, which are so much prized in hot-houses, and 
which, in their flowers as well as their general aspect, exhibit such 
fantastic and infinitely varied forms. Some of the flowers resem- 
ble butterflies, or strange insects, in shape as well as in gaudy col- 
oring ; such, for ex imple, as the Oncidium P^pdio (Fig 120), 
which we have selected for one of our iliusfrationi To another 
family of Epiphytic plants belongs the Tilhndsia or Long Moss, 
which, pendent in long and ^lay tinjjled clusters oi festoons from 
the branches of the Lue Oik or Long leaded Pme gm-s such a 

FIG. liy TlM BfiTiyan-lree, or Indian FI5 (Ficus Iralicn). 



peculiar and sombre aspect to the forests of the warmer portions 
of our Southern States. They are called Air-plants, in allusion to 

the source of their Dourishment ; and Epiphytes, from their grow- 
ing upon other plants, and in contradistinction to 

133. ParasiteSf that not only grow upon other vegetables, but live 
at their expense ; which Epiphytes do not. Parasitic plants may 
be divided into two sorts, viz. : — 1st, tliose that have green foli- 
age, and 2d, those that are destitute of green foliage. They may 
vary also in the degree of parasitism ; the greater number being 
absolutely dependent upon the foster plant for nourishment, while 
a few, such as the Cursed Fig (Clusia rosea) of tropical America, 
often take root in the soil, and thence derive a part, or sometimes 
the whole, of iheir support. This occurs only in 

134, Green Parasites, or those furnislied with green foliage, or 
proper digestive organs of their own. These strike their roofs 
through the bark and directly into the new wood of the foster 

FIG. ISO. Ontldlum Fapilio, and, lai, Cmnpireltia toaea; two opipliyloa of Ife Orclils 


i close a junction, ap- 
latural branch. Some 
y, however, display no 
n brown hue. On the 


e they can draw little except the ascending, mostly 
crude sap (79), which they have to assimilate in their own green 
leaves. The Mistletoe is the most familiar example of this class. 
It is always completely parasitic, being at no period connected 
with the earth ; but the seed germinates upon the trunk or branch 
of the tree where it happens to fall, and its nascent root, or rather 
the woody mass that it pvoduces in place of the root, penetrates 
the bark of the foster stem, and forms b 
parently, with its young wood as that of a 
species of Mistletoe, or of the same fami 
proper green foliage, but are of a yellow 
other hand, imperfect root-parasites with green foliage have re- 
cently been detected in more than one tribe of plants ; * thus ex- 
hibiting intermediate states between the Green and the 

135. Pale or Colored Parasites, that is, of other colors than 
green; such as Beech-drops, Orobanche, &c Th^se stuke their 
roots, or sucker- shaped discs, into the 
bark, mostly that of the root, of 
other plants, and thence draw their 
food from the sap already elaborat- 
ed (79). They have accordingly 
no occasion for digestive organs of 
their own, and are in fact always 
destitute of green foliage. In some 
eases of the kind, as in the Dodder 
(Fig. 122 - 124), lie seeds germinate 
in the earth, from which the primi- 
live root derives its nourishment in ' 
the ordinary manner ; but when the 
slender twining stem reaches the 
surrounding herbage, it gives out 
aerial roots, which attach themselves 
firmly to the surface of the support- 
ing pkat, penetrate its epidermis, and feed upon its juices ; i 

' In EngUviid a Tiiesium ivns discovutf 

FIG. laa, Tbe common Dodder of Iho Northerr 
Btra, paraHilicuponlheslelii afsa hsdi: lbs uncalli 
of Ha citnchnient, 133, The coilad smln'/o lakaii froi 
Sitae in germlnaiion ; tbs lower end elongating Ini 

Ho.t.d, Google 


the original root and base of the stem persh an! the plant has no 
longer any connection with the soil. Th 9 sitoal ng ts o sh 
ment ready prepared, it requires no proper d gestie o gans of t 
own, and, consequently, does not produce lea es Tl & eco o y 
13 aaitweie foieshjdowed in the embryo of the Dodder, which 
IS a slenler thread spir^ll\ eoiled m the seed (Fig. 123, 124), and 
wh\ch pre ent? no ictige of cotyledons or seed-leaves. A spe- 
cii.'^ of Do Her infest and grt-atlj injures flax in Europe, and 
sometimes nrnkes its appear-ince in our own flax-fields, having 
been intioduced with the impoited seed. Some species make 
great ha\oc in the clover htld of the Old Woild 

13b Such pansites do nit h-\e upon ill pKnts mdis iimimtely, 
but only upon those whose ehhotate juices fuinish a piopitious 
nouiisliment Some of them iie jestricted or neaih "« to t par- 
ticuhr species others shaw little prefeiem-e 01 aie found mdif- 
ferentK tinon several species of different fnniilips Then seeds, 
in somt, cases it ig said will germimte onl\ wh n in conl 1 t with 

Ih & o r t of the s| e po 1 c tl <= i e d t e 1 lo 

live Haung no seed r foliige such plants may be reduced to a 

parasilically, by suckers, to the roots of adjacent herbs. (It would be interest- 
ing to know if this is the ease iiith our Comandra) Then Dec^sne, recol- 
lecting that Rhinanthaceons plants generally, all of winch blacken more or less 
in drjing, were known to be tincnltii able and hai e the reputation, in i'ra.nce 
and elsewhere, of being injnnous to ccioal and other plants in their rieinily, 
was led to the discoieiy that plant" of Bhinanthus, Melampyrum, and of the 
allied genera, attach themselves by nnmeious suckers on then roots to the 
roots of Grasses ohrubby plants and even of trees, among which they grow. 
Our handsome species of Geraidia arc equilly unculuiablc, doubtless on ac- 
count of this paiual parasitism 

FIQ. 125. Raflteaia Arnoldl ai eKpanled Bowr ailituJ il > Uj pirasilic on llie item 



stalk wilii a single flower or cluster of flowers, as io tlie different 
kinds of Beech-drops,* the Cytinus, which is parasitic on the Cistua 
of the Souih'of Europe, &.c. They may even be reduced to a 
single flower directly parasitic on the bark of the fosier plant, 
without the intervention of any manifest stem. A truly wonderful 
instance of this kind is furnished by that vegetable Titan, the Raf- 
flesia Arnold! of Sumatra (Fig. 125), The flower which was first 
discovered grew upon the stem of a kind of grape-vine ; it meas- 
ured nine feet in circumference, and weighed fifteen pounds ! Its 
color is light orange, mottled with yellowish- white. 

137. Among Cryptogamous plants, numerous Fungi arc para- 
sitic upon living, especially upon languishing vegetables ; others 
infest living animals ; the rest feed on dead or decaying vegeta- 
ble or animal matters : all are destitute of chlorophyll (87), or any 
thing like green foliage. It is not improbable that our Monotropa, 
or Indian Pipe, a pallid and fungus-like Phfenogamous plant, draws 
its nourishment, at least in great part, from the decaying leaves 
among which it grows. 



Sect. I. Its General Characteristics and Mode of Growth. 

138. Besiees the direction of its growth, the descending axis or 
root we have found to be characterized by producing nothing ex- 
cept naked branches or subdivisions, and these in no definite order ; 
by their continued extension through new formation at the extrem- 
ity only, and in an uninterrupted manner, so as to give rise to no 
joints or nodes, and consequently to bear no leaves (141); by the 
absence of stomates in its epidermis (which, however, is the case 
in ail parts developed under ground); and commonly by having 
no pith in the centre, or only a minute pith at the base, where it 
joins the stem. The latter organ differs in nearly all these par- 

■ Sea family Orobaiicliacfo!, in (lie seconil part of this work. 



139. The SlBUI is the ascending axis, or that portion of the (runk 
which in the embryo grows in an opposite direction from the root, 
seeking the hght, and exposing itself as much as possible to the 
air. All Phtenogamous plants (110) possess stems. In those 
which are said to be acaulesceat, or slemless, it is either very short, 
or concealed beneath the ground. Although the stem always lakes 
an ascending direction at the commencement of its growth, it does 
n f mlj b all I e surface of 

he d b b 1 d g [ bra ches, flower- 

Jk 1 h a Th m II erefore, (hat 

allh b -a nptinfaplnbl 1 oot, is by no 

140 Th g b h n h b self directly 
pe f If hip 11 of the veg- 

bl hi 1 _ b 1 b 1 1 1 i he earth ; its 

newly fotmed extremities or fre^h roollets with the capilKiy fibrils 
thej beai, imbibe nourishment from it But the aeiial functions 
of vegetation lie chiefly cnrned on, not •^o much by the stem it 
self as by ■x dntinct set of organs which it btais, namely, the 
leaves Hence, the pioduction of leases is one of tl c chaiacter 
istics of the stem These are pioduccd only at certam definite 
and symmetricallv ariangcd prints called 

141 ^oith, literally Uiots, so named bcciii e the ti^rf^uei lie here 
condensed, interlaced oi inteirupted moie or le'js as is cons] icu 
ously seen in the Bambo in i stalk of Ininn Lorn or ol any 
other Gia'Js Here each node forms a complete nlu-itrd iing, 
beciusvp the leif arises fioni the whole c icumler ni-e of tleacm 
at that plice When the bise of thi> leaf or leafMalk occupies 
only 1 part of the circumf(,ipnce the node= aie not so distinctly 
maiked except by the leaves they beai oi bj the scats left by 
their fall (Fig. 127, 130). When distinct they are often called 
joints, and sometimes, indeed, the stem is actaaWy jointed, or artic' 
ulated, at these points ; but commonly there is no tendency to 
separate there. Each node bears either a single leaf, or two 
placed on opposite sides of the stem (Fig. 104), or three or more, 
placed in a ring (in botanical language, a wlwrl or verticil) around 
(he stem. The naked portions or spaces that intervene between 
the nodes are termed 

142. iQteniOlles. The undeveloped stem is, in fact, made up of 
a certain number of these leaf-bearing points, separated by short 



intervals ; and its growth consists, primarily, in the elongatioa of 
these internodes (much after the mode in which the joints of a 
pocket-telescope are drawn otil, one after the other), so as to sep- 
arate the nodes to a greater or less distance from each other, and 
allow the leaves to expand. 

143. This brings to view the leading peculiarity of the stem, 
nameiy, that it is formed of a succession of similar parts, developed 
one upon the summit of another, each with its own independent 
growth : each developing jnternode, moreover, lengthens through- 
out its whole body, unlike the root, which elongates continuously 
from its extremity alone. The nodes or the leaves they bear are 
first formed, in close contiguity with the preceding; then the 
internodes appear, and by their elongation separate them, and so 
carry upsvard the stem. To have a good idea of this, we have 
only to observe the gradual evolution of a germinating plant, where 
each internode developes nearly to its full length, and expands the 
leaf or pair of leaves it bears, before the elongation of the 
cecding one commences. The radicle, or internode which pre- 
exists in the embryo (118), elongates, and raises the seed-leaves 
into the air (Fig. 107); ihey expand and elaborate the 
for the next joint, the leaves of which in turn prepare the 
for the third (Fig. 102 - 104), and so on. The internode length- 
ens principally by the elongation of its already formed 
ticularly in its lower part, which continues to grow after the upper 
portion has finished. 

144. Bllds. The apex of the stem, accordingly, at least of every 
stem capable of further terminal growth, is always crowned with 
aa undeveloped portion, the rudiments of parts similar to those 
already unfolded, that is, with a Bud (113). The embryo itself 
may be rightly viewed as the fundamental bud borne on the apex 
of the radicle or original internode, from which the whole plant is 
developed ; just as an ordinary bud of a tree or shrub developes 
to form a year's growth. Except that, in the latter case, the differ- 
ent steps follow each other more closely ; for the bud usually 
has a considerable number of parts ready formed in miniatui-e be- 
fore it begins to grow, and has a full store of assimilated sap accu- 
mulated in the parent stem to feed upon. Such buds, which 
appear at the apes of a stem when it has completed its growth for 
the season, often exiiibit the whole plan and amount of the next 
year's growth ; the nodes, and even the leaves they bear, being 


alreudy formed, and only requiring ihe elongation of the in 
nodes for their full expansion. The structure is shown in tlie 
nexed diagram (Fig. 126), which represents the vertical sectioi 
i bud (like that which 


the stem in Fig. 137), as it ap- 
pears in early spring. As the 
bud is supplied by the stem on 
which it rests with nourishment 
sufficient for its whole develop- 
ment, it elongates rapidly ; and 
although the growth commences 
with the lowest ioternode, and 


1 the s 

the seedling, yet the second, 
third, and fourth internodes, 
&c., have begun to lengthen 
long before the first has attained 
its full growth ; as is attempted 
to be shown by the diagram, 
Fig. 128. The stem thus con- 
tinned from a terminal bud is, 
if it survive, again terminated 
with a similar bud at the close 
of the season, which in its development repeats the same process. 
145. These yearly growths, in trees with well-formed Scaly 
Buds, such 38 the Magnolia (Fig. 130), the Horsechesnut {Fig. 
127), &.C., are plainly marked by the assemblage of sears or 
rings on the bark (o), which mark the places where the bud-scales 
were attached. The reason why these, and the leaf-scars, are 
obliterated after a few years, will appear when the increase of the 
stem in diameter is considered. The bud-scales themselves, which 
80 closely overlie each other and protect the tender parts within 
against injury from moisture and sudden changes of temperature 
during the dormant state,* are only a special modification of 

" The more offcctually to ward off moisture, they aro commonly covered 
with a wasy, rosinons, or balsamic exudation (bs in ihc Poplar espceiallj). 



1 a es developed in this shape at a 
t e wl e 1 the inlernodes have ceased 
t elongi e ; so that the space between 
e-i h g in the figure just referred to 
ep e en s an undeveloped intemode. 
S las em displays alternately two 
o les cf growth. First, the intemodes 
elo ga e and interspace a succession 
tf kdves making the proper vegetation 
of he season. Then a series of leaves 
f as bud-scales, with intemodes in- 
capible of extension, and within them 
the ud ■nenis of the next year's vege- 
tat ire prepared, to be developed as 
before after a season of repose. As 
gt t be expected, therefore, such 
•ica}!/ (o perulate) Inids belong to trees 
and &hrubs of countries which have a 
w nter and are not met with, at least 
so d St cdy, in those of the tropics; 
wheie as there is no danger of injuiy 
fon coll, the first parts that appear 
in the bui are ordinary leaves. On the 
o he ha d, many trees and shrubs of 
cold ciimates bear naked huds, as the 
Locust, Honey Locust, Ailanthus, &c., 
or buds with little scaly covering, as in 
the Kentucky Coifee-tree, the Papaw, 
&c. But in these cases the bud scarcely 
pvojecls so as to be visible externally 
until it begins to develope in the spring. 
Ill Viburnum, some species, such as V. 

impervious to rain, but vfliich is melied by ihe heat of llie sun when it Etimu- 
lates tlie bud into gi'owth. To guai'd on;ainst sudden changes of temperature, 
they are often linod, or the rudimenlavy leaves withia are invested, wilh non- 
condnciing down or wool. 

FTQ. 131. Branch of Magnolia Umbrella, oflhs natural aise, crowned wlih the termini bud; 
and ^filow ashrbit 

131. i 

dElached scali 



Opulus, &c., have proper scaly buds, ivhile in V. lantanoides, V. 
nudum, &c., they are entirely naked. 

146. The bud, it is evident, is nothing more tlian the firal stage 
in the development of a stem (or branch), the axis still so short 
that the scales without and the rudimentary leaves within cover or 
overlap one another. The various ways in which these parts are 
packed in tVie bud will be considered under another head (Verna- 
tion, 257). That the scales of the bud are of the same general 
nature as leaves is evident, not only from their position, but from 
their gradual transition into ordinary leaves in many cases. This 
is well seen in the expanding buds of the Lilac, Hickory, Horse- 
chestnut, and especially of the Buckeye. The scales i-epresent, 
sometimes the blade of the leaf, as in the Lilac ; but move com- 
monly the dilated base of the leafstalk, as is evident in the Bal- 
sam, Poplar, Butternut, and Hickory; or their stipules (259), 
either combined with this base, as in the Magnolia (Fig. 131), or 
alone, as in the Tulip-tree. Scales passing into ordinary leaves 
are abundantly obvious on the turions, or subterranean budding 
shoots, of numerous perennial herbs. 

147. By the development of the preexisting bud in the embryo, 
the original stem is produced ; and it may be continued from year 
to year by the continued evolution of a terminal bud. Growing in 
this way only, the stem would of coui-se remain simple or un- 
branched ; as is the case with many during the first year, and with 
olhera, such as most Palms (Fig. 166) and Reeds, throughout their 
whole existence. But more commonly branches appear, even 
during the first year's growth. 

Sect. II. Eamificatiox. 

148. BrnndlCS spring from lateral or tmllary hitds. These ore 
new undeveloped axes or growing points, which habitually appear, 
or at least may appear, one (or occasionaliy two or three) in the 
axil of each leaf, that is, in the upper angle which the leaf forms 
with the stem. (See Fig. 127, c, where the point at which the 
fallen leaves were attached is marked by the broad scar, b, just be- 
low the bud.) The axillary bud is at first a little cellular nucleus 
on the surface of the wood, at the end of one of the cellular lines 
that form tlie silver-grain (196), and underneath the bark, through 
which it pushes as it grows, and shapes itself into a rudimentary 



axis, covered with ihe little appendages which become scales or 
leaves. When these buds grow, they give rise to BftANCUEs; 
which are repetitions, as it were, of the main stem, growing just 
as that did from the seed ; excepting rnereiy, thai, while that was 
implanted in the grouod, these proceed from the parent stem. 
The branches thus produced are in turn provided whh similar 
buds in the axiis of their leaves, which have the same relation to 
the primary branch that it has to the main stem, and are capable 
of developing into branches of a third order, and so on indefinite- 
ly, producing the whole ramification of the plant. The whole ia 
merely a series of repetitions, from new starting-points, of what 
took place in the evolution of the first axis, preesislent in the seed. 
In the seed, therefore, or rather m the embryo it contains, we have 
the expression, Id a condensed foim, of the whole being of the 
plant. The latest ramifications, or twigs, are termed Brabchlets. 

149. The arrangement of axillary buds depends upon that of 
the leaves. When the leaics are opposite {that is, two on each 
node, placed on oppo=!ile sidta of the stem), the buds in their axils 
are consequently opposite ; as in the Maple, Horsecheslnut (Fig, 
127), Lilac (Fig. 129), &c. When the leaves are alternate, or one 
upon each node, as in the Apple, Poplar, Oak, Magnolia (Fig. 
130), SLf , the buds implicitly follow the same anangemenl 
BranLhes, theitfore, being deieloped buds, their arrangement is 
not left to chance, but la predetermined, symmetrical, and gov- 
erned by fixed laws When the leaves are alternate, the branches 
will be alternate when the leases aie opposite, and tJie buds de- 
velope legularJi), tbu branches will be opposite In othei words, 
if a bud in the axil uf each leal is dp\(,lopfd into a branch, the 
relative situ ilion of the blanches wiil be the stimc as that oi the 

150 But ihe regular symmetry of the ramification is often ac- 
cidentallj interfered with by \arious causes, especially by the non- 
deeelopmettt of a pait of the htdf, As the original embryo plant 
remains for a time latent in the seed, giowing only when a con- 
junction of favorable ciicumitances calls its life into action, so also 
many of the buds of a shrub or tree may lemain latent foi an in- 
definite time, w ithout losing their power of growth In oui trees, 
most of the lateral buds generally remain dormant for the first 
season thev appear in tlie axili, of the leavei early in summer, 
but di. not s;iow into branchLs until the fulluwmg spiing , and 


100 THE STEM. 

even then only a part of them usually grow. Sot 

development or suppression occurs without appreciable order ; but 

t f II 1 f m I h r Th 

I h I pp h II h b J th 

pfbnhmlyl Id h If 

h 1 f b Id 1 pp h II h g h m 

S 1 lb d 1 b h h 

I ral lly I 1 H I m 

m h I I ly pp d d h I I 

gwhl m llybmfkd hpp h 

LI (F 19) 

11 Ti dlpdhdd Iplb 

d bt. II d h ! 1 k d 

Wl h Ibd d jdmfhlralh 

Id I mdm dip h d dbyh 

bl f I hhlfm Idhmp 

I d I h I I d th d 

f 1 dfl db hh be Iclldbyl 

If h J rv Tl b d y I 

f lb d h d Ti k f 

1 f I y b m f h h 

flpdyf I llh dth 

f dbklh bh pllyhh 

p U I d I d ^ b 1 ] d 

15 Ad nUl B d B m y lb h h b 

7 g f I d S ; Ik h p 

d db> 1 I re (1 5} S 1 b d 

II dlypdd d h Id 

h sap I b rv p II d W II d L 

bdPpI Idd ral bd k 

f I f f I By 

ph II hid m f h 1 tn la 

dhdpd hfm If 

f pi hhlpp hjAl 

b d h p I m II f I I d 

k d p d d 1 p I h f I 

f fl d 1 dfhl fllg 

(m d 11 y 191 196) Tl j p llj 1 bl ^ g 

f th II 1 If h 

be h ddbkhl k dl ff 



Thus the predestined symmetry of the branches is ohscured or 
interfered with in two distinct ways ; first, by the failure of a part 
of the regular buds to develope ; and secondly, by the irregular or 
casual development of buds from other parts than the axils of the 
leaves: to which we may add, that great numbers of branches 
perish and fall away after they have begun to grow, or have at- 
tained considerable size. There is still another source of irregu- 
larity, namely, in the production of 

153. Accessory Bnds. These are, as it were, muhipUcaiions of 
the regular axillary bud, giving rise to two, three, or more, instead 
of one ; in some cases situated one above another, in others side 
by side. In the latter case, which oc- 
curs occasionally in the Hawthorn, in cer- 
tain Willows, in the Maples (Fig. 132), 
6[c., the axillary bud seems to divide 
into three, or itself give rise to a lateral 
bud on each side, as soon as or before 
it penetrates the bark. On some shoots 
of the Tartarean Honeysuckle as many 
at, half a dozen buds are developed m 
dependeotly m each a\il, one above 
another, the lowii bfing siiccessiv nly 
the strongei and earlier produced, and 
the one immediately in the avd, tlieie 
fore gious in pi fcieicf , but ivjien 
two oi more glow, superposed acces 
sory bnnches result It is much the 
■jame in Aii^toluchia Sipho, except thit 
the uppermost bud is there stionge^t 
So It IS in the Butternut (Fig 133), 
wheie the true ixUlary bud is minute 
and usuilly remains latent, while the 
acce«soiy ones are cou'iiderably remote, 
and the uppermost, whieh is much the '^' '^ 
strongest, is tar out of the a\il , usually this alone develope; 
gives rise to an eilra aiillary branch 

154. The stems of those Crjptogamous plants that post 

bulla, ptacfHl dii 

Ho.t.d, Google 

102 THE STEM. 

proper trunk (the Horsetails or Scouring Rushes escepied) do not 
branch, by the development of axillary or any kind of lateral buds 
implanted on its surface ; but they often fork at the apex, by the 
diviMon of the termmil bud Their rimLfic iticn I ke iheir whole 
growth IS merely acro^enous or from the npe\ ( 10*^) 

155 E\riirrent and llehqnescfnt Stems Sometimes the pumiry 

axis IS prolonged without interruption, bv the crntmued evolution 
of the terminal bud, even through the whole hfe of a tree (unless 
accidentally destroyed) forming an undividr'd m'nn trunk from 
which hteral branches proceed as in most Fir trees buch a 
trunk 1^1 said lo be evcvmat In other cases tl e mam item is ar 
rested sooner or later, either by flowering b\ the failuie of the 
termmil bud, or the more vigorous development of ■^ome of the 
lateral bud'^ and thus thp trunk is lost in the brinchf ^ or is dch 
quescent, ■\~, m most of our deciduoua leaved tiees The fir&t nat 
uralJv gues use to conical or sp re shaped trees the second to 
rounded or spreading forns As stems extend upwaid and eiolve 
new blanches those near the base being overshadowed, are apt 
to p h d s the trunk be:, mes naked below This is 
we h current trunks of birs an! Pines which when 

gr em to hive been branchless for a gieat hf i„ht 

Bu Is he centre of the trunk are the bases of branches, 

wh h g ince perished, and have been covered with a 

gr m nual layers of wood, forming the dear-stuff of 

the k 

5b D B d Indefinite Annual Groiith of Branches. In the lar- 
ge b r tJees and shrubs, especially those with scaly 
bud h wh ear's growth is either already laid down rudi- 
m h b d ( 144), or else is early formed ; and the de- 
ve pm mpleted long before the end of summer, and 
cr d a gorous terminal bud (as in the Horsechestnut, 
Fig 7 1 gn a, Fig. 130, &c.), or with the uppermost axil- 
Jar h L ac (Fig. 129). Such definite shoots do not He 
do n Uowing winter, but grow on directly, the next 
sp gf m h minai or some of the upper axillary buds, which 
are generally moie vigorous than those lower down. In others, on 
ihe contrary, the branches grow onward indefinitely through the 
whole summer, or until arrested by the cold of autumn : Ihey ma- 
lure no terminal or upper axillary buds ; or at least the lower and 
older axillary buds are more vigorous, and alone dcvclopc into 



branches tbe next spring ; (he later-formed upper portion most 
commonly perishing from the apex downward for a certain length 
in the winter. The Rose and Raspberry, and among trees the Su- 
mac and Honey Locust, are good illustrations of this sort; which, 
however, runs into the other mode through various gradations. 
Perennial herbs grow after the latter mode, their stems dying 
down to or beneath the surface of the ground, where the persistent 
base is charged with vigorous buds, well protected by the gi-ouod, 
for the next year's vegetation. 

157. Propa?ation ftum Ends. Buds, being, as U were, new indi- 
viduals springing from the original stem, may be removed and 
attached to other parts of the parent trunk, or to that of another 
individual of the same, or even of a different, but nearly related 
species, where they will grow equally well. This is directly ac- 
complished in the operation of budding. In ingrafting, the bud is 
tra f rr d al ''th portion of tte shoot on wUch it grew 

M h d f h b 1 m d 

n 1 m d mil d f d ly 

hrohhp kTh d hppg f 

pi nts by H Tl gr mp la f h 1 1 ral 

opra retbhfly 1 II k f Ibdppa 

fra d dual p 1 (668) 1 ! m 

monly lost in raising plants from the seed. 

Sect. IIL The Kinds of Stem and Bhakches. 

158. On the size and duration of the stem the oldest and most 
obvious division of plants is founded, namely, into Herbs, Shrubs, 
aad Trees. 

159. Herbs are plants in which the stem does not become woody 
and persistent, but dies annually or after flowering, down to the 
ground at least. The difference between annual, biennial, and 
perennial herbs has already been pointed out (127- 130). The 
same species is so often either annual or biennial, according to cir- 
cumstances or the mode of management, that it is convenient to 
have a common name for plants that flower and fruit but once, at 
whatever period, and then perish ; such De CandoUe accordingly 
designated as Monocarpic plants ; while to perennials, whether 


lb.,. Tfies are woody plants with sinje trunks, which attain at 
least five limes the human stature. 

163. A Calm is a name applied to the peculiar jointed stem of 
Grasses and Sedges, whether herbaceous, as in most Grasses, or 
woody or arborescent, as in the Bamboo. 

164. A Candex is a name usually applied to a Palm-stem {Fig. 
166), to thai of a Tree Fern (Fig. 94), and to any persistent, 
erect, or ascending, root-like forms of main stems. It is some- 
times nearly synonymous with the rhizoma (174). 

165. Those stems which are too weak to stand upright, hut re- 
cline on the ground, rising, however, towards the extremity, are 
said to be decwmhent .' if they rise obliquely from near the base, 
they are said to be ascending. When they trail flat on the ground, 
they &IB procumhent, prostrate, ot running ; and when such stems 
strike root from their lower surface, as they are apt to do, they are 
said to be creeping, or repent. 

166. They are called Climbers, when they cling to neighboring 
objects for support ; whether by tendrils, as the Vine and Passion- 
flower, by their leafstalks, as the Virgin's Bower (Clematis), or 
by aerial rootlets, as the Poison Oak (Rlius) ; and Twiners, or 
twining plants, when they rise, like the Convolvulus, by coiling 
spirally around stems or other bodies within their reach. Other 
modifications of the stem or branches have received particular 
names, some of which merit notice from having undoubtedly sug- 
gested several important operations in horticulture. 

167. A Stolon is a form of branch which curves or falls down to 
the ground, where, favored by shade and moisture, it strikes root, 
and then forms an ascending stem, which is thus capable of draw- 



ing its nourishment dii-ectly from the soil. Tlie portion wliich 
connects it witli the parent stem at length perishing, the new indi- 
vidual acquires an entirely separate existence. The Currant, 
Gooseberry, &c,, multiply in this way, and doubtless suggested to 
the gardener the operation of layering ; in which he not only takes 
advantage of and accelerates the attempts of nature, but incites 
their production in species which do not ordinarily multiply in this 
manner. Plants which spread or multiply by this natural layering 
are said to be stoloniferous. 

168. A Sucker is a branch of subterranean origin, which, after 
running horizontally and emitting roots in its course, at length, 
following its natural tendency, rises out of the ground and forms 
an erect stem, which soon becomes an independent plant. The 
Rose, the Uaspberry, and the Mint afford familiar illustrations, 
as well as many other species which shoot up stems " from the 
root," as is generally thought, but really from subterranean 

branches. Cutting off the c 
gardener propagates such plants hy 
division. Plants which produce 
suckers are said to be surcuhse. 

169. A Runner, of which the 
Strawberry furnishes the most fa- 
miliar example, is a prostrate, slen- 
der branch, sent off from the base 
of the parent stem, which strikes 
root at its apex, and produces a 
tuft of leaves; thus giving rise to 
an independent plant capable of ex- 
tending itself in the same manner. 
Branches of this sort are termed 

170. An Offset is a similar, but 
short, prostrate branch, with a tuft 
of leaves at the end, which, resting 
on the ground, there takes root, and 
at length becomes independent ; as 
in the Houseleek. 

171. A Teililrii is commonly a 

with the 

;inal r 

3t, the 


106 THE STEM. 

ble of coiling spirally, by which climbing plants attach thee 
to surrounding bodies ; as in the Grape-vine (Fig. 134). Bitl some- 
times tendrils belong to the leaves, as in the Pea ; when they are 
slender prolongations of the leafstalk Stems or stalks which 
bear tendnls are cit those or cir t hiferous 

172 A Spine or Thorn i^ ^n imperfpi,tl} developed, indurated, 
leafless branch of a woody plant, attenuated to a point. Their 
mture is manifest in the Hawthorn (Fig 136), not only by their 
position in the axil of a leaf but often b^ their bearing imperfect 
135 leaves themselves. In the 
Sloe, Pear, &c., many of the 
feebler branches become spi- 
nose or spinesceni at the apex, 
tapering off gradually into a 
rigid, leafless point. These 
are less liable to appear on 
the cultivated tree, when duly 
cared for, such branches be- 
ing thrown into more vigor- 
ous growth. In the Haw- 
thorn, the spines spring from 
this peculiar growth of the 
main axillary bud, but it bears 
an accessory bud (153) on 
each side, one or the other 
of which grows into an ordi- 
nary branch. In the Honey 
Locust, it is the uppermost of 
several accessory buds, placed 
far above the axil, that de- 
■velopes into the thorn (Fig. 
™ 135). In this tree the spine 

itself branches, and sometimes becomes extremely compound. 
Sometimes the stipules of the leaves devolope into spines, as in the 
Prickly Ash. 
173. Tie Subterranean Moditlcatioiis of the Stem are scarcely less 

y Locu3l (Gledilsohin), an indumteJ l>rancli dcvcl. 



numerous and diverse than the aerial ; but ihey may ail be reduced 
to a few principal types. They are perfectly distinguishable from 
roots by producing regular buds ; or by being marked with scars, 
which indicate the former insflrtion of leaves, or furnished with 
scales, which are the rudiments or vestiges of leaves. Al! the 
smly roots of the older botanists are therefore forms of the stem or 
branches, with which they accord in every essential respect ; they 
grow, also, io the opposite direclioa from roots. So, likewise, what 
were called (as they are still popularly considered) creeping roots 
are really subterranean branches ; such as those of the Mint, and 
of most Sedges and Grasses. Some of these, such as the Carex 
arenaria (Fig. 137) of Europe, render important service in binding 

the shifting sands of the sea-shore. Others, like the Couch-C 
are often very troublesome to the agriculturist, who finds il next to 
impossible to destroy them by the ordinary operations of husbandly ; 
for, being furnished with buds and roots at every node, which are 
extremely tenacious of life, when torn in pieces by the plough, 
each fragment is only placed in the more favorable condition for 
becoming an independent plant. The Nut-Grass {Cypcrus Hydra), 
an equally troublesome pest Co the planters of Carolina and Geor- 
gia, is similarly constituted ; and besides, the interminable subter- 
ranean branches bear tubers, < 


their course, which have still greater powers of vitality, as tliey 
contain a copious store of food for the development of the buds 
they bear. The name of 

174. Bllizoma or Roolstock is applied in a general \vay to all 
these perennial, horizontally elongated, and more or loss subterra- 
nean root-like forms of the stem ; and more particularly to those 
which are thickened by the accumulation of nutritive matter in 
their tissue (chiefly in the form of starch, 81), such as tbe so- 
called roots of Ginger, of the Iris or Flower-de-luce, of the Cala- 
mus or Sweet Flag, and of the Blood-root. They grow after the 
manner of ordinary stems, advancing from year to year by the an- 
nual development of a bud at the apex, and emitting roots from the 
under side of the whole surface ; thus established, the most ancient 
portions die and decay, as corresponding additions are made to the 
opposite growing extremity. Each year's growth is marked in the 
rootstock of the Iris, &.C., by a set of annular leaf-scars, left by the 
decay of the foliage of that year. In the Solomon's Seal and the 
Diphylleia (Fig. 138) it is more indelibly recorded by the series of 
broad and rounded scars on the upper surface, not unlike the im- 
pression of a seal (whence the popular name of Solomon's Seal), 
which is left by the separation in autumn of the herbaceous stalk 
of the season. The rootstock of Diphylleia is merely a string of 
such thickened and extremely abbreviated axes, formed by the 
annual development of a bud which, without elongation, sends up 
at once the single herbaceous stalk that bears the foliage and flow- 
ers. In our common Dentaria or Toothwort, and in Hydropbyllum, 
the base of this annual stalk or of the leafstalks partakes in the 
thickening and persists as a part of the rhizoma, in the form of 
fleshy scales or tooth-shaped processes. In other scaly rootstocks, 
these persistent bases of the leaves are thin, and more like bud- 
scales, and slowly decay after a year or two. All such markings 
are vestiges of leaves, &c., and indicate the nodes: they show 
that the body that bears them belongs to tbe stem ; not to the root, 
which is wholly leafless. Rootstocks branch, like other stems, by 
the development of lateral buds from the axils of their scales or 
leaves. Thiclsened rootstocks serve as a reservoir of nourisliing 
matter, for the maintenance of the annual growth, in the same 
manner as thickened roots (128). When such subterranean stems 
are thickened interruptedly, they produce 

175, A Tuber. This is usually formed by the enlargement of 




the apex, or growing bud, of a subterranean branch, the elongation 
of which is arrested, and the whoie excessively thickened, by the 
deposition of starch, &c. in its tissue. This accumuiation serves 
for the nourishment of the buds (eyes) which it involves, when 
they develope the following year. The common Potato offers the 
most familiar example ; and it is very evident on inspection of the 
growing plant, that the tubers belong to branches, and not to the 
roots. The nature of the Potato is also well shown by an acci- 
dental case (Fig. 140), in which some of the buds or branches 
above ground showed a strong tendency to develope in tlie form of 
tubers. By heaping the soil around the stems, tlie number of tu- 
beriferous branches is increased. The Jerusalem Artichoke affords 
a good illustration of the tuber (Fig. 139). A tuber of a rounded 
form, and with few buds, is nearly the same as 

176. A Com (Cormus), or SoUd Bulb. This Is a fleshy sub- 
terranean stem, of a round or oval figure and a uniform, com- 
pact texture ; as in the Arum tripbyltum or Indian Turnip (Fig. 
144), the ColchicLim, the Crocus (Fig. 148), the Cyclamen,* &;c. 

" The broad and flattened corm of Cyclt 
the first inteviiode of llie Btcm, tliat wliich 
cotjledoni or seed-leavea. In many plor 
ately above the cotjledons, enlav^es with 

FIG. 139. 


3 from the dilatation of 

tJie embryo below ihe 

internode, or that immedi- 

.. This occnrs in Ihe Tnc- 


110 THE STEM, 

It may be compared to the globulnr stem of a Melon-Cactus, like 
which it lias no power of elongation ; or It may be viewed as a 
tuber or rhizoma reduced to the greatest simplicity, developing one 
or more buds from its summit, and emitting roots from ils base. 
Corms are often termed solid bulhs ; and, indeed, they are only a 
kind of bulb with the axis more enlarged, and the investing scales 
either wholly wanting, as in the Indian Turnip {Fig. 144), or very 
few, forming a thin coating, as ia the Colchicum and Crocus. 

177, A Bulb is a permaneQily abbreviated stem, mostly shorter 
than broad, and clothed with scales, which are imperfect and altered 
leaves, or the thickened and persistent bases of ordinary leaves. 
Or, in other words, it is a scaly and usually subterranean bud, with 
thickened scales, and a depressed axis which never elongates. Its 
centre or apex developes above the herbaceous stalk, foliage, and 
flowers of the season, and beneath it emUs root*. In the bulb, (he 
thickening by the deposition of nutritive matter stored for future 
use takes place in the leaves or scales it bears, instead of the stem 
itself, as in the preceding forms. The scales are sometimes sepa- 
rate, thick, and in several distinct rows, as in the scaly bulb of the 
Lily (Fig. 141) ; sometimes broad and encircling each other in 
concentric layers, as in the tuntcaled bulh of the Onion (Fig. 145). 

nip, Kadiah, Beet, Sec; where the root ihas produced, or .it least the upper pari 
of it, presents the structure of the stem. 
FIG. 141. Theacaly liulb of a Lily. 142. A venical afcllon of Iha mate, forming tbe ai> 




17S Bultilets arc '.mall icrni bulbs, oT buds with fleshy scales, 
which arise in the i\il& of the leaves of several plants, such as the 
common Lilmm bulbilerum of the gardens (Fig. 143), and at 
length separate spontaneously, falling to the ground, where they 
strike root, and grow as mdt,pendent plants. In the Onion, and 
other species of Allium, the fiower-buds frequently change to 
bulblets Thpy plainly show the identity of bulbs with buds. 

179. The regular plan of increase and ramification already de- 
scribed prevails in these extraordinary, no less than in the ordi- 
nary, forms of the stem. They grow and branch, or multiply, by 
the development of terminal and axillary buds. This is perfectly 
evident in t!ie rhizoma and tuber, and is equally the case in the 
corm and bulb. The stem of the bulb is usually reduced to a mere 
plateau (Fig. 146, a), which produces roots from its lower surface, 
and leaves (the exterior of which are reduced to scales) from the 
upper surface. Besides the terminal bud (c), which usually forms 
the flower-stem, lateral buds (J) may be produced in the axils of 
the leaves or scales. One or more of these may develope as flow- 
ering stems the next season, and thus the same bulb survive and 
blossom from year to year (aa is the case with the Tulip, Hya- 

F1G. 14S. SecLlon of a lunicaici! bulb of the Onion. 

FIG. 1-16. LoogltiuliiiKl aaoUon of tho bulb of Iha Tulip, showing iis ateia <a) iiul IjiiJa 


112 THE STEM. 

c ! &uC ) ; or these axillary buds may themselves become bulbs, 
feed ng o the parent bulb, which in (his way is often consumed by 
s o offspring, as in the Garlic (Fig. 147) ; or, finally sepamt- 
ng f o tl e living parent, just as the bulblets of the Tiger Lily 
fall from the stem, they may form eo many independent individ- 
uals. So the old corm of the Crocus (Fig. 148) produces one or 
two new ones (o) near the apes, and gradually dies as they deveU 
ope. That of the Colchicura produces a new bud near the base of 
the old, upon which it feeds, and is in turn destroyed by its own 
progeny the next year ; so that we observe (Fig. 149), a, the shriv- 
elled corm of the year preceding ; 6, that of the present season (a 
vertical section) ; and c, the nascent bud for the ensuing season. 

180. Many of the forms which the stem assumes when above 
ground differ as much from the ordinary appearance as do any of 
these subterranean kinds; as, for example, the globular Melon- 
Cactus, the columnar Cercus, and the jointed Opuntia or Prickly 

Sect IV The Iktehnal 


E Stem is General. 

181 H 11 


1 forms and appear- 

111 hb 
y wb 

d tsm 1 
d d 

f increase in length, 
i-nal structure, and 

m d f d 

1S3 T! mb 


the various forms of 

1 y k 1 
II III) Ij d 

1 d b d 
11 dy b 

bed (Chap. I., Sect, 
e, and vessels. At 

fi d d IS ts 

mil h 

h f d q h 
1 gh pi d d 

n f mp d f d 

b f ly 

d J h 
P P f h 
Ti M 
y 11 1 

■na (51), which pos- 

dy d 
11 II I 
1 1 h 

f L db 1 11 

h 1 I d 

h 1 bl f 

1 b il b n 
h gl A d gly 
m ,1 

1 p d dy gl d 

ff d 1 q g! 

f h d p 

p bl f 

d p p 

h 1 ss 

d h 
If m 1 

g y 1 bl 

f 11 1 Plffi 

1 1 d 

\ d 

d f 1 

ly m \ 

Ho.t.d, Google 


eeous (159) ; if it predominates and continues to accumulate from 
year to year, the proper woody trunk of a shrub or tree is formed. 
Tliat the woody and vascular tissues arise from cells, which from 
an early period take a peculiar development, has already been 
>:hown {52-61} 

183 The cellular part of the stem grows with oqua! readiness, 
in whatever direction the forces of \egetation act It grows verti- 
cally, to mcrta'je the stem in length, and hoi zontallj to increase 
its diameter Into ihia the elongated cells ihat form the woody 
tissue and ducts are introduced vertically, they run lengthwise 
through the silem and bram-hes Hence the htiei has been called 
the longitudinal, vertical, or ptrpendtcula) system {56, 64} ; and 
the cellular part, the hoi i ontal system of the stem Or the stem 
mav be compared to a web of cloth , the cciluhr '^jsicm forming 
the iMof, and the wcod^, the icarp 

184 rhu diversities in the internal structure of the stem are 
principally owing to tlic different modes m which the woody or 
vertical sjstem la imbedded in the cellular These diversities arc 
reduciblt, to tv^o genenl plans , upon one or the other of which 
the 'items of all Flovieiing Plants aie conatructed Isot only is the 
dilitrrnce n atructure quite strikmg especnllv in all stems more 
than a ^ear old, but it is manifested in the nholc vegetation of the 
two kinds of plants, and mdicates the diiision of Ph-cnogamous 
plants into two j^rtat classes, recogmzible by i,very eye; which, 
in their ful[\ developed forms maj bo rpprLsented, one by the 
Ojk and the otlici tioca oi our climUe, the otlier by the Palm 
(B g 166) 

IHo riie differtnct, between the two, as to the structure of their 
stems, is briefly and simply this. In the first, the woody system is 
deposited in annual concentric layers between a central pith and 
an exterior hark ; so that a cross-section presents a series of rings 
or circles of wood, surrounding each other and a distinct pith, and 
all surrounded by a separable bark. This is the plan, not only of 
the Oak, but of all the trees and shrubs of tlie colder climates. 
In the second, the woody system is not disposed in layers, but con- 
sists of separate bundles or threads of woody fibre, &.C., running 
through the cellular system without apparent order ; and present- 
ing on the cross-section a view of the divided ends of these threads 
in tlie form of dots, diffused through the whole ; hut with no dis- 
tinct pith, and no bark which is at any time readily separable^ 


■Exous Struct lie 
re called Exo e 
llie term Siterally 

114 THE STEM. 

fro n the wood Tlie appeaiance of s ich 
astern both on the longitudinal and ll o 
cro s w.ctioii IS shown in Fig 150 it m ly 
also bo o\am ned m the Cane or Rattan 
the Bambro, and in the annual slalk of 
Indian Com oi of Asparagus That of 
ord naiv wood of the first sort is too famil 
lar to need a pictoiial lUuotmfion 

18() Esoscnous ^tnittan* The stem in the lir^t case 
m dnmeter by the annual formxtion of a new layci of wo 
IS deposited between the pieccduig layer and the bark 
woids, the nooii increases bj ann lal additions to it: 
Henco, such stems are aid to have 
and the plants nhoae stems gtow in i 
■floua Pla-vts or biiefly ElO(,E^s , t 
B gnifies, outside>, 

187 LlldogenoUS StrUCtPrC In the second caae the new w oily 
matter is intermingled with the old or dej edited tow >ids the c(,n 
tre, which becomes more and moie occupied with the woody 
threads as the stem grows older and luciciae in diametti so ftr 
as It Itpends on l!ie foimation of new wool, genci lilv tjl cs 
place b) the j^iadual distention of the whole the new woo 1 push 
m^ the old outwai 1& Accoidmgly these stems aic sad Ij cv 
hibit the Endogenous structure oi g owih and such 1 1 in & arc 
called Endogenous Plants, or Endogens ; literally, inside- 

188, The two great classes of Phronogamoiis plants, indicated 
by this ditference in the stem, are distinguishable even in the em- 
bryo state, by differences quite as marked as those which pi'evuil 
in their whole port and aspect. The embryo of all plants that 
have endogenous stems bears only a single colylodoii, and there- 
fore sends up but one seed-leaf in germination ; hence, Endogens 
are also called MoaocoTYLEDONOus Plants. The embryo of 
plants whli exogenous steins bears a pair of cotyledons and un- 
folds a pair of seed-loaves in germination (Fig. 105-107); hence, 
Esogens are likewise called Dicotvledosous Plants. 



Sect, V. The Exogenous ok Dicotyledonous Stem. 

189. Since flie Exogenous class is by far the larger in every 
pari of the world, and embraces all the trees and shrubs with 
which we are familiar in the cooler climates, the structure of tliU 
kind of stem demands the earlier and more detailed notice. To 
oblain a true and clear idea of its internal structure, we should 
commence at its origin and follow the course of development. 

190. In the embryo state, or at least at some period antecedent 
to germination, the rudimentary stem is entirety composed of pa- 
renchyma. But as soon as it begins to grow, while the cotyledons 
only are developing {as in Fig. 106, 107), some of the cells begin 
to lengthen into tubes to be marked with transverse bars or spiral 
lines, and thus giv d J {57 60) ! 
grouped as they form 11 d d fi f I dl 
or threads, say foui q d I fi n 1 
Sugaf Maple : othe 1 d II f 1 lb \ \ 

of markings, soon pj d 1 re d f Id 

forming the earlies dj A 1 rud f 1 

internode and its le pp f d I d f 

iscular tissue app th m b 1 1 p I m b 

■een the earliest d 1 d d h f 

woody tissue. At ly g h f 1 d I p m 

in to be trove d bj 1 b 1 f dy h 

vessels imbedd d a d I as 1 j dig 

agethcr so as m k p dy h ! h 

cross -sect ion, a ring 1 1 ! [ f 1 I hyma 

ithin it, and itself I d by 1 1 p 1 Tl 

a circle or layer of ooJ f III h j m 

bedded in the origi I h !1 1 j d d 

nto two parts ; namely, a central portion, which forms the pith, 
and an exterior zone, which belongs to the bark. T!ie whole is of 
course invested by the skin or epidermis, which covers the entire 
surface of the plant. The way in which the layer of wood thug 
originates is somewhat rudely iliustratcd by the annexed diagrams 
(Fig. 151-153). The several woody masses, especially in trees 
and shrubs, are separated from each other by lines or bands of the 
original cellular tissue, which pass from the pith to the bark, and 
which necessarily become narrower and more numerous as the 
woody bundles or wedges increase in size and number. These 


116 THE 

191. Medullary Rays, which f 
cross- section of most exogeno 
cially that of the Oak, Plane, & 
cellular system of that part of tl 
of the woody wedges, or plate 
communication between the pit! 

ly 1 








h Iff 

P rt 

19^ The Firsl Tsar % Growth f 
consists of itiRi, princ pal par 
portion or Pith 2d, a zone of Tt 

larpolon or Bark Fiff 154 p ts n fa dy 

exogenous stem a j ear old of h 
a portion of the same nTin:nifi d 
be d>5tingui=he1 both jn iho 1 
and Fig 156 is a much more 
same reaching from the birk t h 

193 Thf Pitll (Fig 155 ]d6 ) 
lar tissue, or parenchyma (51) 1 
nourishing juices ol the plant Th 
ing the older pith drv and light, or m 
no fi rther usf to the phnt Many s 

ainet r d iring their early growth, that they become hollow, the 
pith b ing torn awa\ by the distention, its remains forming a mere 
lining to the cav itv as in Grasses and other herbs ; or else it is sep- 
arated mto horizontal plates, as in the Poke (Phytolacca) and the 
Walnut Immediately sunounding the pith, and the very earliest 


mpt} C(,il&, which a 
;xpand so rapidly i 




part of the longitudinal system to appear, is what is called by the 
superfluous name of 

194. Tlie lUeilullary Sllfalll. This consists merely of the earliest 
formed vessels, already spoken of ( 190), and which of course stand 
in a circle immediately surrounding the pith ; but they are seldom, 
if ever, so numerous as to form a closed layer, or sheath for the pith. 
More commonly they appear as a few bundles, one at the inner 
border of each of the larger and earlier woody wedges. They 
are mostly ol the kind named spiral vessels (60), and it is remark- 
able that lh\s IS the 

only part of an 
exogenous 'item in 
winch spiral ves- 
sels ord manly oc- 
cur They may be 
delected by bieak- 
mg a wood J tivig 
m two, after divid- 
ing the haik and 
most of the wood 
by a circular incis- 
ion, and then pull- 
ing the ends gen- 
tly asunder, when 
their spirally coiled 
fibres arc readi- 
ly drawn out as 
gossamer threads. 
They are shown in 
place in the ver- 
tical section, Fig. ' 
156, 6. '''' 

195. Tk Wood (Fig. 156, f) consists of proper woody I 


118 TI!E STEM. 

am ng wli li the laac ilir « moie oi It-ss co[ o isly n ngled, prin- 
cipalh in tiie form of dotted ducts (d) or occasionally some spiral 
or annulir duels (e) &^ The dotted ducts are of -so consider- 
able cnhbre that they ire consp ciious to il o naked eye in many 

p lhe\ a 

n the Chestnut and Oak. In 

a)l^ equablj scattered through 

o small tl il tl ej are not dis- 

ordmtr^ kinds of wood especiil!y w 
the inner portion of each la\er 
the Maple Plane &^c thej are 
the am id li\er and are of a s 
Imgu bluble bj the nakei eje 

196 The \crlicil sect on in Tg 1j6 pi'iaps d rr ctly through 
the m ddle of one of the woolj plite^ that collectively compose 
the la)er and therefore the medulhij rays do not appear. But 
in the much more : ]agnifii,d Fif, 157 the section is made so as to 
showtheairfa t, of one of tliese pKles an J one of the Medullary 
Rats passmg ho zontally across it connecting the pith (p) with 
theTitrk (J) These medillary ray^ form the sthet grain, (as it 
IS teimed ) which is so conspicuous m !lie Maple, W hite Oak, Red 
Oak &c , and which giies the glimmerin^ lustre to many kinds of 
wood when cut n th & particuKr direction But a section made as 
a tangent to the c rcumfcrence and therefore perpendicular to the 
medullary n)s brings the r ends tu mow as in Fig 158 ; much 

as they appear when seen on the surface of a piece of wood from 
which the bark ia stripped. They are evidently composed of con- 
densed parenchyma merely, and their origin has already been ex- 
plained (191)- They represent the horizontal system of the wood, 

FIG. 157. Vei 
Bed fiul a seclii 

nch of the Maple, . 

in aeldoiD be iiiaJe a 

Ho.t.d, Google 


or the leoof, into which the vertical woody fihre, &c., or Kiirp, is 
interwoven. The inspection of a piece of oak or maple wood at 
once shows the pertinency of this illustration. 

197. The Bark, in a stem of a jeai old, must next be more atten- 
tively considered. At first it consisted of simple cellular tissue, or 
parenchyma, undistinguishahle from that of the pith, except that 
it assumed a green color when e'^posed to the light, from the pro- 
duction of cJiIorophi/Jl (87) in its supeihcial cells But during the 
formation of the proper wood, an amingous fornntion iccurs m 
the bark. The inner portion, next the wood, his wocdj ti'-sue 
formed in it, and becomes 

198. The liber, or Filrous Innci Bail (Fig 156,/) These 
fibre-like cells, which give to the inner bark of those plants that 
largely contain them its principal strength and toughness, are of 
the kind already described under the name of last-cells or bast- 
tissue (55). They are remarkable for their length, flexibility, and 
the great thickness of their walls. They are deposited as detached 
bundles, or in bands separated by extensions of the medullary 
rays, one accordingly corresponding to each of the woody plates 
or wedges, or sometimes (as in Negundo, Fig. 159, 160) they are 
confluent into an unbroken circle round the whole circumference. 
The liber has received the technical name of Ekdofhueum (liter- 
ally inner bark). The exterior part of the bark, in which no 
woody tissue occurs, is early distinguishable, in most stems, into 
two paita, an inner and an outer. The former is 

199. The Cellular Enulope, or Green Layer (Fig. 156, g), also 
called, fiom its intermediate position, the Mesophkeuji. This is 
composed of loose parenchyma, with thin walls, much like the 
green pulp of leaves (which last is, indeed, an outlying pan of the 
same system), and containing an equal abundance of chlorophyll. 
It is the only part of the bark that retains a green color. In 
woodi sltms this is covered with 

aoo. The Corky Envelope, or Epiphl(etjm (Fig. 156, 5), which 
gives to the twigs of trees and shrubs the hue peculiar lo each spe- 
cies, generally some shade of ash-color or brown, or occasionally 
of much more vivid tints. It is rarely colored green, as in Negun- 
do, where ihe inner cells contain chlorophyll. It is this tissue, 
which, taking an unusual development, forms the eork of the Cork- 
Oak, and liiose corky expansions of the bark wliich are so con- 
spicuous on the briinches of the Sweet Gum (Liquidambar), of 


120 THE STEM. 

some of our Elms (Ulmus alata and racemosa), &c. It also forms 
the paper-1 ke t,\foliatmg layers of Birch birk It is compjsed of 
laterally flatteicd parencViymatoua cells mic\i Ike iho^e of the 
Epidermis (Fig 156 i) which diiectly overlies it, and forms the 
skin or external surface of the stem 

201. To rccapitilatc the elements which compose the fibnc of 
an exogenous stem of i >ear old espefially in a woody plant and 
at the same t me to e^h bit them in an accuialely drann more 
magnified view we ha\e procee lin^ from the t,!,niie towards the 
circumference, — 

I. In the Wood : 

1. The Pith, belonging to the cellular system {Fig. 159, 160, p). 

bark ; W, lbs wood ; and C, Ihe camliium-lajor, as found in Feliru 

ruDS inlo the pith ; dd, flotted duets : rf, the Inner part oflhscauibToni-lajc 
new layer of wood. In Ihia tr«, we find a thick layer of parancbyiiia (/) in 

lid; B, ths 



2. The Medullary Sheath, ms, ) which belong to tlie woody or 

3. The Lnijer of Wood, W, w, J longitudinal system. 

4. The Medullar!/ Rai/s, mr, a part of the cellular system. 

II. In the Bark : 

5. The LiJier, J ; its bast-lissuti, b, Iielongs to the woody system. 

6. The Older Bark, belonging wholly to the cellular system, 

and composed of two parts ; namely, 1st, the Green or Cel- 
lular Eneelope, ge, and 2d, the Corky Envelope, ce. 

7. The Epidermis, e, or skin, wliich invests the whole, 

202. An herbaceous stem does not essentially differ from a 
woody one of this age, escept that the wood forms a less dense 
and thinner zone ; and the whole perishes, at least down Co the 
ground, at the close of the season. But a shrubby or arborescent 
stem makes provision for an addition to its fabric the second year, 
— which may now be considered. 

203. Cambium-layer. The wedges which constitute the woody 
layer usually increase in thickness throughout the season, by the 
continued developmentofprosenchymatous cells on their outer face, 
and the medullary rays extend equally by the multiplication of pa- 
renchymatous cells : so that there is always a siraium of delicate 
forming and growing cells interposed between the wood and the 
bark. This is called the Cambium-layer (Fig. 159, 160, C). It 
survives the winter in all exogenous stems capable of more than 
one year's growth, remaining latent during the suspension of vege- 
tation, and resuming its activity in the spring, to give rise to 

204. The SeeoDd Year's Growth in Diameter. In spring, when vege- 
lation vigorously recommences, and the buds are developing the 
onward growth of the season, a portion of the sap, charged with 
mucilage {dextrine, protoplasm, &c.), is at the same time attracted 
into the cambium-layer, as into every part where groivih is going 
on; and the bark, before adherent, is now reidily lepimble from 
the wood. To this mucilagmous orgT-nizable mnitcr th*" nime ol 
Cambium was long ago applied and hence the fi-rming stratum is 
termed the cambium-layer but the lattei is onlj an inc p ent new 
woody layer; and the cambium is nothing moie than ordinary 
sap, charged with dissolved asaim Kled matters accumulated it 
the part of the woody stem nheie further giowtb alone takes 
place, and serving as the mitfrials for such growth It is quite 
wrong to suppose that there is a real interruption between the 
wood and the bark at this, or any other period, leaving a space 



122 THE STEM. 

filled wuli e\tn; n=:^t^id sip A ser i"? of delicate slices will at any 
time show that the biik and ihe «oid ire always OTganicallj con 
necled, bj i verj delicate tissue of iitally active, young cells, just 
111 the state in ivhich they muhipiy by division (26, 3^) It is 
when this pioccb of growth is most rapidly going on, in spring oi 
earl\ summer, ind the whole cimbium lajer is gorged by the 
flow of sip, that the bark is so eas Ij scparaJile but the separa 
tion IS effected bj the rcndinir of i delicite new tiiisue The inner 
poition of this cambium hjei is forming wood tlip outer is form 
ing bilk The cells of the first multiply vcrticalh by division, 
and then elongito into prusLochymi or wood\ tissue, i part of 
them being at the sanio tune commonly tnnsformed into ducts , 
thus producing i second lajer of wood on the suifacc of the liist 
and continuous with the primary lajer ui the prolongation of the 
stem and in the blanches mide thi, same season The etteiior 
part of the cambium la\er contributes in much the s^me wa\ to 
the thickness ot the liber nhn h therefore grows imerseU, or by 
, to lis inner f\ce But the birk exhibits such ^reat di 
II growth and itract ire tint t cinnot well be fLirthor con- 
sidered along with the wood 

205. Aniinal Ifltrcnse of tin Wood Each successive year a new 
layer is added to the wood in the same manner ; each layer being, 
like the first, in torsi etc d by the extended medullary rays. A 
cross-section of such a stem thciefore, exhibits the wood disposed 
in concentric rings between tlie bark and the pith ; the oldest lying 
next the latter, or in the centre and the youngest occupying the 
circumference. Each layer being the product of a single year's 
growth, the age of an exogenous tree max in general, be corrcctlj' 
ascertained by counting the rings in a cross section of the trunk. 
It is obvious, moreover tliit the growing parts of an exogenous 
tree or shrub (and the sime applies to the herb) are, — 1. The 
apex of the stem and branches by buds which continue the plant 
upwards and develope ihf foliifjo 2 The lower extremity of the 
roots, by which these aic advanced fioin ^ear to year. 3. The 
cambium -layer, which T.nnuilh pioduccs a sti-atum of fresh tissue 
under the bark, between the buds and the rootlets, over the whole 
extent of the plant ; its ordimrj growth giving rise to new annual 
layers of wood and inner biik while certain cells, taking a spe- 
cial development, form buds and consequently branches m the 
axils of the leaves, or, adventitiously (152), fiom other placf-, or 



else, under favoring circumstances, secondary or advc 
roots (130). Lateral buds and roots, although they originate in 
the cambium -layer, have to grow and break through the bark be- 
fore they appear externally.* 

306. The limits of each year's growth in diameter in exogenous 
wood are apparent in the cross-section in the form of concentric 
layers, from two causes, cither separate or combined ; viz., the 
greater abundance of ducts in the earlier part of each annual in- 
crement, and the smaller size of tlie woody fibres in the latest 
growth of the season, which is destitute of ducts, and forma a finer- 
grained border to the ring. This is well shown m the cross-section 
of bass-wood, where tlie duels compose the greater part of the 
wood at the inner edge of each lajer, and ser\ gradually dimmish 
b dh dghh kdtyl 

f 1 rallj 1 d d 11 — p b bl p 

fh blyl kflghT! 

bdl mkllyrs hp dh 

1 d 1 ss I p -sed d h d 

as h r h S M pi h h d h q bly 

d bdh lb llbdhflly I kd 
h wdllyrs m kly kdbyh 

ml fllhlgddd h f m d 

b d h p f h I y h 

k i J kg 




d Idp f 



07 Th 11 



1 Ik 1 


P 1 

dp d f 

p f h 

U f 11 

d b; 

g P I 

P 1 



fi d b 1 



mid 1 p 



1 dry d 1 h 


1 1 


p fC hblj f dby 

corresponding with the age of the trunk, as iii the Cjeas. 

• That peculiar state of the wood of the Sugar Maple, called Bird's-eye 
Maple, is apparently caused by numberless rndimentary adventitioas buds, 
which, failing lo grow, have become involved in ihe woody layers. 


124 THE STKM. 

208, In many woody climbing or twining stems, such as those 

of Clematis, Aristolochia Sipho, and Menispermum Canadense, the 

annual layers are obscurely, if at all, marked, while the medullary 

nys are unusually broad, and the wood therefore forma a series of 

p bl dg disposed in a circle around the pith. In the 

f f Trumpet-creepers (the Bignonia caprcolata) 

h 1 g f er the first four or five, are interrupted in four 

pi d h many broad plates of cellular tissue, belonging 

p p ly h b k, are interposed, passing at right angles to 

I h ml circumference towards the centre, so that the 

rs n f the wood nearly resembles a Maltese cross. 

B h 11 ceptional cases, which scarcely require notice 

in a general view 

209 The wood of the Pme, "iew. Cypress, and the wholp lube 
ofwhit arc called Coiitfe>a,or cone bearing trfps,is chiricter 
izcd bv its untformit\ of structure, bLing formed of a peculiar 
woody tissue with little or no intermivtuie of true ducts, and by 
hiving the walls of theae woody tubes marked with large circulir 
discs, as in Fig 23 (45, 54) 

210 Sap wood and Heart wood. In the germinating planliet and 
in the developing bud, the aap ascends ihiough the whole tissue, of 
whatever sort, at hrst through the parenchymi, for there is then 
no other tissue , and the transmission is continued through it, espe- 
ciallj through its central portion, or the pith, in the growing ape\ 
of the sttm througbiut B it in the oldei parts below, the puh is 
soon drained of sa]i by the demand abov e, and becomes filled w ith 
air in its place thenceforth it bears no part in the plant's nourish- 
ment As soon as wood cells and ducts are formed, thej take an 
active part in the conveyance of sap , foi which then tubular md 
capillarj character is especiallv adapted But the ducts m older 
parts, e\Lept when gorged with sap, contain an alone, and the 
sap now continues to rise only or chieflj through the stem, jear 
after jear, to the places wheie growth is going on, through the 
proper woody tissue of the wood In this tran'^missirn tin new 
and fiesh tissues are the most active The walls of the ctlh that 
compose them soon begin lo thicken bv internal deposition in\ by 
incrjstation with mineial matters introduced viilh the sap (39, 40, 
5t) , and by the formation of new annual la^ers outside of them, 
then predecessors are each year remi-ved a stop farther from (he 
je^i n of giowth , oi rather the grovMii;; stiatum, which connects 



the fresh rootlets, that imbibe, with ihe foliage, thai elaborates, the 
sap, is each year removed farther from them. The latter, there- 
fore, afier a few years, cease to convey sap, as they have long 
before ceased to take part in any vital operations. This older, 
more solidified, and harder wood, which occupies the centre of the 
trunk and is the part principally valuable for timber, &c., is called 
Heart-wood or Duramen- while the newer layers of 'softer 
more o b dw apbhgd 

sap, ree S w A m T 

name w phy g n a u h 

or pale color. In all trees which have the distinction between the 
sap-wood and heart-wood well marked, the latter acquires a decp- 

FiG. ifil. MagniSed crosa-seoliott of a ponion of woodf tiaaue of While 
[6a A loiigilodinai 83 weU as crosa sectLon of the »a4iie, a little higher niagr 
thtaa at one of tbe amaller meJullary rays. 

FIG. 163. Magnified crosa-eection of imody Usnie rrom Ihe same sum, t; 
otli=atl-wmd,aiyearaold: *, duels: o, portion of one of the niiiiinermedi 
Combined cross and lDiiai'i"li"al section of the same: a, llsatie of a liieJiiliaj-v 



126 THE STF.jr. 

er color, and that peculiar to the species, such as the dark brown 
of the Bhick Wahuit, (he blacker color of the Ebony, (he purplisli- 
red of Hed Cedar, and the bright yellow of the Barberry. These 
colors are owing to special vegetable products mi\cd with the in- 
crusting matters ; but sometimes the hue appears to be rather an 
alteration of the lignine with age. In the Red Cedar, the deep 
color belongs chiefly to the medullary rays. To show that the 
older wood-cells are more solidified than the new, the annexed 
figures are given from corresponding parts of the same trunk of 
While Oak ; Fig. 161, 162, from sap-wood a year old ; Fig. 163, 
164, from a layer of heart-wood twenty-four years old. The walla 
in both are greatly thickened with lignine; but in the latter the 
calibre of a hige pail of the cells is almost obliterated. In many 
of the softer woods, there is little solidification in this way, and 
scarcely an\ change in color of the heart-wood, except from in- 
cipient decay as in the \^ hite Pine, Poplar, Tulip-lroe, &c. 

Sit. Each layer of wood, once formed, remains unaltered in 
dimensions and poaitioo, and unchangeable e.xcejit from internal 
deposition and from dec^\ The heart-wood is no longer in any 
sense a Vn ing part of the tree ; it may perish, as it frequently 
docs, without afif cting the life of the tree. 

212. Tllf Burk \-^ much more various in structure and gi-owth 
than the wood it la also subject to grave alterations with advan- 
cing age, on account of its external position, to distention from the 
constantly incieasing di imeter of the stem within, and to abrasion 
and decay fiom the mflu nee of the elements without. It is never 
entire, therefore, on the tiunks of largo trees ; but the dead exte- 
rior parts, no longer dis en iing with ilie enlarging wood, are grad- 
ually fissured and toin ind crack off in layers, or fall away by 
slow decay So that the bark of old trunks bears but a small 
proportion in thickncas to the wood, even when it makes an equal 
annual growth 

213. The three const tuent strata {197-200), for the most pari 
readily dislingiiishable in the bark of young shoots, grow inde- 
pendently ; each by the addition of new cells to its inner face, 
so long as it grows at all. Tlie green layer does not increase at 
all after the first year or two ; the thickening of the opaque corky 
layer soon excludes it from the light; and it gradually perishes, 
never to bo renewed again. The corky layer commonly increases 
for a few years only, by the formiAtiun of new tirbular cells ; occa- 


THE BASK. 127 

sionaliy il takes a remarkable development, the celb swell out into 
polyhedral shapes, and multiply with unusual rapidity and in great 
quantities, forming the substance called Cork, as in the Cork-Oak. 
A similar growth occurs on the bark of several species of Elm, of 
our Liquidarabar or Sweet-Gum, 
&c., producing corky plates on ■ 
branches. In the Birch, thin ' 
annual layers, of very durable ' 
nature, are formed for a great i 
number of years : each layer of 
tabular, firmly coherent cells 
(Fig. 165, a) alternates with a 
thinner stratum of delicate, some- 
what cubical and less compact 
cells (b), which separate into a iss 

fine powder when disturbed, and allow the thin, paper-like plates 
to exfoliate. 

214. The liber, or inner bark ( 198), continues to grow through- 
out the life of Ihe tree, by an annual addition from the cambium- 
layer applied to its inner surface. Sometimes the growth is plain- 
ly distinguishable into layers, corresponding with the annual layers 
of the wood : often, there is scarcely any trace of such layers to 
be discerned. The liber of the Bass-wood or Linden, and of 
other trees and shrubs with an evidently fibrous bark, consists of 
alternate strata of basl-cells* (or of parenchyma abounding with 
bundles of bast-cells) and of parenchyma alone. In the Sugar 
Maple, only a small proportion of bast-cells are formed after the 
first year. In Negundo (here is a fine deposit of bast-cells the 
first year (Fig. 159, well distinguished by their opaline appearance 
in tlie magnified cross-section), but they are not again repeated, 
and the liber ever after consists of parenchyma alone, or with 
some thin and short prosenchymatous cells intermixed. The brit- 
tle liber of the Beech is nearly destitute of bast-cells. So is that 

■■ The aamo, liber, is applied, even by the same author, sometimea to ihe 
whole ioner bark, of whatever straeture, sometimes to its bast-eells alone. It 
is applied in this work to the inner bark wliich grows year after year from the 
cambiam-lajer, (that is, to all within the green layer,) whether it continues to 
produce bast-eells or not. 

FIO. 1G;, Trmanr^ aecti in of a minute ponion of Birch-lark, the corkj Injf r, higiay 


128 THE STEM, 

of the Birch ; but it abounds with clusters of solidified cells, which 
take their place and esaclly imitate oidinary hasl-cells on the cross- 
section (Fig, 18) ; but a longitudinal section exhibits the same ap- 
pearance, showing that they are globular in shape. lo the first 
year's growth of the stem of Menispermum Canadense, there is 
a broad arc of bast-cells immediately before each wedge of wood ; 
in a stem of two or three years this is carried away from the wood 
by the development of purely cellular bark from the interposed 
cambium-layer; it is finally thrown off at the surface, and no more 
is ever formed. A singular anomaly occurs in a species of Coccu- 
lus, where Decaisne has shown that the bast-cells remain connected 
with ihe face of the wood, and are covered by its second layer, so 
as eventually to be found in the interior of the wood. Laticifer- 
ous vessels or canals (63) abound in the newer parts of the liber, 

215. Sometimes thin plates of delicate cells, like those of cork, 
are formed in the liber alternately with its proper tissue ; these 
early give way in the external layers, so thai the outer part of the 
liber, as it grows older, scales otF in plates year after year ; as is 
strikingly the case in the Buttonwood or Plane-tree, in the Shell- 
bark Hickory, in the Larch, Pine, &>c. Even the liber of only 
one or two years old is thus annually detached in membranous 
layers or fibrous shreds from the stems of the Currant and Honey- 
suckle, the Spircea opulifolia or Nine-Bark, and most strikingly in 
(he Grape-vine. In the latter cases, the green and the corky lay- 
ers are thrown off the first or second year ; in other cases, they 
disappear at a later period. 

216. Obviously the recent liber and the newer layers of wood, 
with the interposed cambium -layer, are alone concerned in the 
life and growth of the tree. The old bark is constantly decaying 
or falling away from the surface, without any injury to the tree ; 
while the heart-wood may equally decay within without harm, ex- 
cept by mechanically impairing the strength of the trunk. 

217. The crude sap rises fo the leaves principally through the 
newer wood (210). The elaborated sap (79) is returned into tlie 
newest bark, thence sent to the cambium-layer, and horizontally dif- 
fused through the medullary rays (which may be viewed as inward 
extensions of the bark) into the sap-wood and all other living parts. 

218. The proper juices and peculiar products of plants (80) are 
accordingly elaborated in the foliage and the bark, especially in 
the latter. In the bark, therefore, medicinal and other principles 



are usually to be sought, rather than in the wood. Nevertheless, 
as the wood is kept in connection with the bark through the medul- 
lary rays, many products which probably originate in ihe former 
are found io the wood, 

219. Exogenous plants almost always develope axillary buds, 
and produce branches : hence their stems and branches gradually 
taper upwards, or are conical. 

Sect. VI. The Endogenous ok Mokocotyledomops Sieji. 

220. A cursory notice must now be taken of (he stem of Endo- 
gens {Inside-grow- 
ers), a great class 
of plants, which, al- 
though they have 
many humble rtpre 
senlativcs m north 
ern dimes, yet on- 
ly attain their fuH 
characteristic devel- 
opment, and display 
their noble arbores- 
cent forms, under a 
tropical aun. Yet 
Palms — the type of 
the class — do ex 
tend as fir or 1 
this cou It V as 
coast of North C 
Una (the tatur<il 
it of the Pdl n 
Fig. 166) 
while in E ,^ 
rope the Date 
and Ihe Cha 

found the r 
way to ll e 

r parts of th'' Eu opean si o e of the Med 


130 THE STEM. 

manner of their growth gives them a striking appearance ; their 
trunks being unbranched cylindrical columns, rising majeslical!y to 
the height of from thirty to one hundred and tifly feet, and crowned 
at tlie summit with an ample plume of peculiar foliage. Their 
internal structure is equally d fferent fiom thtt of ordinary wood. 

221, The stem of an Endogen, as alreadj remarked (185), 
offers no manifest distinction into birk, pitb, and wood ; and the 
latter is not composed of concentnc ring's or la^er^, nor traversed 
by medullary rajs But it consists of bundles of noody and vas- 
cular tissue, in the form ot thick fibies or thrends, «hich are im- 

b dd 
) 1 

h ba f 
bj 1 rs 
b d h 

w ody fibre 



1 1 


Th fib 
f m 
> d h 
E h b c 

d f h 
d b 

1 p d 

1 p ij 


consequently interwoven 

\y descending fibres to the false baik, 
that the latter cannot, as in Exogens, be 
separated from the wood beneath. The 
manner in which tlie woody threads are 
is shown in Fig. 167. The Palm-like 


dy b dl h h 

dh d 

d h 


d f 

d h 


In this way, and by the 
iiich the fibro- vascular 
ia diameter as long as 
e instances, as in the 
Dragon-trees, the rind 

and most compact at the circumference, 
general growth of the cellular tissue in \ 
bundles are imbedded, the stem i 
the rmd is capable of distenlio 
arborescent Yuccas and the Dra 
remams soft and capable of unlimited expansion ; and the woody 
bundles descend after having reached the circumference, and thus 
tlie older stems continue to increase in diameter, much after the 
manner of an Exogen ; but in the Palms, and in most woody En- 
dogona, it soon indurates, and the stem consequently increases no 
further m diameter. The wood of the lower part of such stem ia 
more compact than tho upper, being more filled with woody bur 


II f 

*fi d bj ■ 


f 1 


mp hi d h I 


1 h h k d p bj h 


h if 

h E ( 

i'>2 ? \m g 11 grow f m h b 1 1 d 

plflbdbd jdhfl lb 

ter at tlic summit of the trunk ; which consequently forms a simple 
cylindrical column. But in some instances two or more buds de- 
velope, and the stem branches, as in the Doum-Palm of Upper 
Egypt, and in the Pandamis, or Screw-Pine (Fig. 117), which 
belongs to a family closely allied to Palms: in such cases the 
branches are cylindrical. But when lateral buds are freely devel. 
oped (as in the Asparagus), or the leaves are scattered along the 
stem or bcanehes (as in the Bamboo, Maize, ■fee), these taper up- 
wards, just as in Exogens. 

223. Grasses have endogenous stems, mostly of annuttl dura- 


tion, and which early Ijecome hollow in ihe manner already indi- 
cated (193). In' several of ihcm, such as the Maize and Sugar- 
Cane, the stem remains solid ; and these furnish good examples gf 
ordinary endogenous structure. 

Sect. VII. Of the Theoretical STRgcTCBE of the Stem, etc. 

224. Origin of the Wood, kt. We have seen that the planflet 
which has as yet developed only one inlernode and one leaf (168), 
or one pair of leaves in germination ( 1 18), is complete in its parts, 
being provided with all the organs of vegetation, namely, with root, 
stem, and foliage. By this lime its layer of wood is also manifest 
(a few vessels being first developed in four or more clusters, 
around which, principally on the outer side, woody tissue at once 
begins to appear) ; and the bark a little later exhibits traces of the 
elements of its three layers. This nascent wood begins to form 
early in germination. In a large and highly developed embryo it 
exists before germination. The conversion of young cells of pa^ 
renchyma into vessels and wood-cells either commences in the 
radicle or stem-parl and extends upwards into the cotyledons, when 
the latter arc proportionally little developed ; or, when they are 
large in proportion {as in the Almond, Fig. 97), it commences in 
the cotyledons and grows downwards inlo the radicle. The wood 
of the rudimentary stem and that of the leaf or leaves it bears are 
therefore in connection, are parts of the same system. As the 
root is produced from the lower end of the radicle (Fig. 107), its 
forming woody tissue extends downwards into it (the primary ves- 

11 mljllfisd df]l 

sel ) 1 hi bj 11 1 IT 

Ifpfl fl d dbyl b 

pp hh Ibfhh Id 

woody g h y d h h 1 

Iffra d f kmkhdj 

n h d If 1 gl d h 

dy J 


I, except that the wood forms in separate bundles 

f I h p Tl 

fid C h h J 

yl d I, P I (F„ 


Consequently the aggregale diameter of the biunches is (caleris 
paribus) equal to thit of the trunk irom which thej inse as is 
beautifully illusirated by the excurrent stem of Pines in J Firs, 
(carried directly upward-, by ihf cent nued growth of the leadiog 
shoot, 155,) the diameter of which regularly dimin shes as the 
lateral branchea aie given off Consequentlj the incrcast, jf the 
trunk in diameter directlj coriesponds with the number and vigor 
of the branches The grpater the development of M^irous bi inch- 
es on a particular ■iide of a tree, the m jre wood is formed an i the 
greater the thickness of the annual layers on that side of tiie trunk- 
(3 ) In a seedling, the wood appears just in proportion as the 
leaves are developed. (4.) If a young branch be cut olfjust below 
a node (141), so as to leave an internode without leaves or bud, no 
increase in diameter will take place down to the first leaf below. 
But if a bud be inserted into or ingrafted upon tliis naked inter- 
node, as the bud deveiopes, increase in diameter, with the forma- 
tion of new wood, recommences. 

226. These facts conspire to show, not only the general depend- 


134 THE STEM. 

ence of the wood on the leaves for its formation, but also that its 
formation proceeds JroHi above downwards.* The following are 
some of the considerations that may he adduced in confirmation of 
this view : — (1.) When a ligature is closely bound around a grow 
ing exogenous stem, the part above the 1 II 1 b 1 

does not. Evei-y one may have observed hi h w 

ing stems thus accidentally produce upon dy k 

On examination, the woody fibres are f d h d h 

upper margin of the ligature, and throv 1 d 1 d 

forms ; or, where the ligature is spiral h d d b f 1 

low the course of the obstruction. (2.)\M 11 h 

nous stem, by removing a ring of bark pi ! p 

the surface of the wood, the part abov h 1 h 

same manner ; that below does not, exc p y h 1 f 

cellular tissue, until the incision is healed (3)1 fid 

scendiog wood of the scion may sometin b d d 

from the stock. (4.) In many cases the fib f d f d 

to curve abruptly round a projection, grad 1 y ^ p 

pendicular direction below. Sometimes they Cake a very smuous 
course, when there is no obstruction or evident cause of disturb- 
ance ; the fibres of adjacent layei-s even crossing each other at 
right angles, showing an entire independence of the antecedent 
layer in their growth. (5.) The wood of the roots is manifestly 
formed in a descending direction. But it is continuous with that 
of the stem ; and its first layer, the extension of the wood of the 
radicle into the primary root, agrees in composition with the wood 
of the succeeding layers in the stem, having no spiral vessels, but 
only ducts. 

227. We have seen (148) that lateral buds develope into branch- 
es, just as the original embryo developed into the primary stem. 
Now the original embryo, or primary bud (144), not only grew 
upwards to form the stem, but downwards to form the root. Buds 
grow upwards inlo branches; have they aught corresponding to 
the downward growth which in the original stem is represented by 
the roots i The answer is furnished by those buds which may 

* Tliere is an article by James Warren, in the first volume of the Memoirs 
of die American Academy of Arls and Sciencea, published in 1785, ingeniona- 
Ij maintaining the downward growtli of the wood, apparently from original 
otiaervations altogether. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

row dpdiyfhpre hf 

h b lb! f h T L I (F 143) h 1 

II b d b fi hj I dill h y f 11 

p f 1 p d I f h m 

h 1 1 

b d 

Ti d f 1 d by b 


b d b h 

lly h 1 p b 

h 1 1 

g d ra 

f ! 1 1 f m f 

( ! h 

1 b d 

h Up f 1 tn) 1 

1 } 1 


lb d d I d pi 


b b d d 

by mbdm dif p 


"1 J 

Id h d b h h d 


b h 

p k d d f 

1 b 

f 1 

J ll dy f h k 


m b d 

b k 1 ly 1 b d Th bl 


h g 1 

d 1 hn b b h f 

h Id 

g d h h 

A b d w i h f h 


m g 

b d 1g h f h 1 

lb d 

1 1 

1 h I 


h d b 

h d 1 1 1 oots I 1 y 

g(167) 1 d 

11 k 1 tsk dih md 

h 1 d th 1 I Th d 

pi h h d ll g 'Jj g h d ly 1 

cision in the cellular callus that forms there, is forced, as it were, 
to strike at once into the soil, instead of pursuing the longer course 
through the main trunk to the same ultimate destination. This is 
the very economy of shrubs and trees which naturally raulliply by 
suckers and stolons ; from which the singular Banyan (Fig. 119), 
that in lime spreads into a grove, 

" High over-arched, with echoing walks belwecn," 

in no wise dilTers, except that the roots strike and the whole pro- 
cess goes on high in the open air. In ibis case, portions of the 
new wood merely take another and nearer course to the ground in 
the form of aerial roots, which in time produce additional trunks, 
instead of continuing their adhesion to the branches, and contribut- 
ing to the increase in diameter of the main trunk. The addLtional 
trunks thus produced, and which eventually, by separation and the 
decay of the original trunk, may form the stems of iTntcpeiident 


trees, exactly represcnl ihe outer ind newer layers of an ordinary 
tree, the mam stem repreient ng the old and decaying centre. 
Further and \erv sinking illastralona are furnished by those cu- 
nous stems of Uarbacenta, KmgLa and some Lycopodia, in which 
iiumeious aerial roots msltad tf striking off free from the exterior, 
descend under (he btrk ot rind nhere they are closely pressed 
together ind form, as i! wete coarse threads of wood; but on 
reaching the ground they ass ime tie ifpearance and functions of 
real roots L»erv trans tion s found between this arrangement 
and that m which thcj art united and blended with one another in 
a conlin lous ligneo is t ssue 

2iS Neverihele'is it is carr} ing such conclusions much too far 
lo assert w th Thouars and Gaudichaul that wood is the roots 
ol buds ot of leaves and to insist that each branchlet or branch 
contributes a d st ng iishable or definite portion lo the trunk below, 
which is pre longed into a particular toot or set of roots. In Palms, 
indeed accord ng to the hij,li authority of Martius, there are no 
other tl reads of wood in the trunk thin those which have proceed- 
ed Irom the bases of the leaves But in exogenous stems, — of 
which most is known, — although the j nneipa! growth commences 
and pror'eeds in the manner abo^e dc cribed (824), yet it undoubt- 
ediv gJC's OR from year to year bj the continual multiplication and 
growth of cells (32 203-205) o\er the whole extent of the cam- 
biu n layer nearly s multaneouslj , irrespecl le, at least in the trunk 
and roots, of any direct connection with buds or leaves above. 
The formation of wood is resumed each spring where it was inter- 
rupted the previous autumn. This is shown in the case of slumps 
which have been kept alive for several years, in consequence of the 
natural ingrafting of some of their roots with the roots of adjacent 
trees of the same species, and which have continued to form annual 
layers, ahhough very thin ones, while they survived, notwulisland- 
ing they bore no leafy shoots, or scarcely any.* The cambium- 

* The ascertained fact, that the fihro-yascular tissue of seeondary roots orig- 
inates independently in the parenchyma, adjacent to, bnt not at first in contact 
with the wood of thf stem is dpcisivo ngainsc the Thouarsian hypothesis. So 
also IS the case of a tree of Njasa fonnd bj M Trccul, in Lonisiana, wliJch 
continued to live after the trunk « as e'ttinsnelv stripped of its liarl; for its 
whole tir onifcrence not onh formmg its innual layer (although a very 
tl m onp) I eloiv the s rdlcd portion but actualh forming new wood in spots 
on the denuded sn fai.o 

Ho.t.d, Google 


:, howeier it maj ha\e originated in the first instance, blends 
L stratum, which possesses an inherent power of 
reproducing itself, while it is nouri'-lied by the 
which j9 generally supplied by the foliage above. 
It IS welt known that the ascending sap i? laterally diffused with 
great readiness through the whole circuoiferente of the sap wood; 
if this be destroj ed on one side of the Irce, the sap that ascends on 
the other is equally supplied to all the branches throughout. The 
branches of each year's growth are, therefore, kept in fresh com- 
munication, by means of the newer layers of wood, with the fresh 
rootlets, which are alone active in absorbing the crude food of the 
plant from the soil. The fluid they absorb is thus conveyed direct- 
ly to the branches of the season, which alone develope leaves to 
digest it. And the food they receive, having been elaborated and 
converted into organic nourishing matter, la partly expended in the 
upward growth of new branches, and partly in the downward for- 
mation of a new layer of wood, reaching from the highest leaves 
to the remotest rootlets. These two essential organs, namely, the 
rootlets which absorb, and the leaves which digest, the plant's 
nourishment, are, therefore, annually renewed; and, whatever 
their distance or the age of the tree, are maintained in fresh com- 
munication through the new annual layers. As the exogenous 
tree, therefore, annually renews its buds and leaves, its wood, bark, 
and roots, — every tiling, indeed, that is concerned in its life and 
growth, — there seems to be no reason, no necessary cause inhe- 
rent in the tree itself, why it should not live indefinitely. Accord- 
ingly, some trees are known to have lived for a thousand years or 
more ; and others are now living which are with high probabil- 
ity thought to be above two thousand years old.* This longevity, 
however, will not appear surprising when we remember that 

229. The Plant is a Composite Being, or community, lasting, in 
the case of a tree especially, through an indefinite and often im- 
mense number of generations. These are successively produced, 
enjoy their term of existence, and perish in their turn. Life passes 

* The subject of the longevity of trees has been sbly diseusseil by De Can- 
dolle, ia the BiUiolhti/ue Universdie of Geneva, for May, 1831, and in the 
second volume of his Phi/stnlogie Vegetale .■ also, more recently, bv Professor 
Alphonse De Candolle. In this connCry, an article on the subject has appeared 
in the North Americaii Bevieu:. for July, 1844. 


Hosted .yGOOgle 

onwiird continualiy from the older to ihe newer parts, and death 
follows, with equal step, at a narrow interval ; no portion of the 
tree is now living that was alive a few years ago ; the leaves die 

annually and are cast oW, while the internode 

s or joints of i 

bo 1 d I 


d d p 

nd 1 od f d 


w d 1 q llylf 1 S3 

P h 

d d 

bak 1 b 1 d h n 

m h 

fFf h 

I h h bl d d 

ss i 

1 I 

E P f b 

h h I f h h hest 

p n f n I p ent, 

1 d h d d 1 q Ij 

y I I bran h g 

Tip da I f h I grad wh 

1 h ap bl f I g d p d I d 
ragp ly re lljdlpd 

blended in a general bod) , and noui i^h . i m jre or !esi 
Thus the coral structure is buih up by the combined labors of a 
vast number of individuals, — by the successive labors of a great 
number of generations. The surface or the recent shoots alone 
are alive ; and here life is superficial, all underneath consisting of 
the dead remains of former generations. The arborescent species 
are not only lifeless along the central axis, but are dead through- 
out towards the bottom ; as, in a genealogical tree, only the later 
ramifications are among the living. It is the same with the tree, 
e.tcept that, as the plant imbibes its nourishment principally from 
the soil through its roots, it makes a downward growth aNo, and, 
by constant renewal of fresh tissues (216, 228), maintains the com- 
munication between the two growing extremities, the buds and the 
rootlets. We have seen that branches grow from the pircnl atem 
just as this grew from the embryo, only that they are implanted on 
the main trunk instead of the ground ; still they are capable of 
living as independent individuals, and often do in various ways (as 
by bulbs, tubers, layers, stolons, offsets, &c.) spontaneously ac- 
quire a separate existence. The branches, therefore, or the buds, 
which are the branches in an earlier stage, are real individuals, 
which conspire to make up the composite tree. The contrary 
view would lead to the absurdity of an individual consisting of sev- 


eral genera and species; since the Apple, Pear, Mountain Ash, 
Quince, Medlar, and Hawthorne may all, by ingrafting, be com- 
bined in a aiugle tree. It would also oblige us to consider as a 
single individual a!l ihe plants which have arisen from the mechan- 
ical subdivision of an original stem, — for example, perhaps all the 
Lombardy Poplars in this country, or even a large part of the Po- 
tatoes of Europe and America. ' While united, however, all the 
branches are to some extent subordinate to the general whole ; 
90 that the term individual plant is justly applied to the aggregate 
stem and branches while they remain united, but no longer, 

2 P T P mous plant must be 

( > 



seed, as the embryo, or initial piantlet 
(Fig. 105) ; the downward growth from its 
lower extremity forms the root (Fig. 107), 
while from above it gives birth to all the 
rest, in lineal succession. A name being 
needful by which to designate this potential 
plant, the repetition of which makes up 
the perfect vegetable, thai of Phyton 
(from the Greek ^uriSi', a plant) has been 
adopted for the purpose. 

231. Tlie dicotyledonous embryo (Fig. 
100, 105) is a double orga.n,or consists of 
two simple phytons, with their stem por- 
tions united side by side to form the radi- 
cle, but each with its own leaf or cotyle- 
don. The monocotyledonous embryo is 
equivalent to half the dicotyledonous, and 



therefore exhibits the simplest case. It developes one primary 
phytoo in germination (Fig. 168, a), this a second (J), this a third 
(c), and so on ; each like the preceding, only successively larger 
and more vigorous as the plant, thus multiplies its organs; except 
that the primary one alone grows downwards into a root in the 
first instance. But the others mingle their woody tissues with 
those of the older phytons bencalh, and thus draw up their portioti 
of the liquid whlcli the primary root imbibes. They may likewise 
send forth secondary roots of their own, to 
establish a direct communication with the soil ^ 

(as in Fig. 168, b). This they commonly do 
when in contact with the soil (130), and not 
rarely when raised to some distance above it 
(131) ; or they may be made to strike root 
and live independently, when taken otf as cut- 
tings (227). When the dicotyledonous em- 
bryo goes on fo devolopc double phytons, like 
itself, each node bears a pair of leaves (as in 
Fig. 101-104), or, in botanical description, 
the leaves are said to be opposite ; as they are 
in the Maple, in the Mint Family, &c. But 
; become dls- 
r second, each "' 

J that the leaves become aJternaie, 
iotyledonous embryo, except that they 

quite as frequently the phyto 
joined or simple after the first o 
bearing a single leaf only ; 
just as in those from the n 

e there alternate from the very first. This occurs in the Apple, 
Cherry (Fig, 169), and numberiess other instances. 

23^. '^he same analysis applies to axillary buds and branches. 
In most of our trees and shrubs these buds acquire considerable 
complexity befure they begin to unfold (144), and then groiv 
almost simultaneously : but in some of them, as in most annual 
herbs, the axillary phytons' begin to develope one by one. 

FIG. 169. GannloallonoftheCbetrj; iha iflavasaiwcoaiB after Ihe fii-sLtmt, or cotykdoni. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Sect. I. Their AiiKAKGEMEnT. ^Piiyllot^ixjs, etc.) 

233. The fundamental organs of Ihe vegetable, nimeiy, the 
root, stem, and leaves, are so intim^ielv a«'!oci ited and mutually 
dependent, that (he "structure ind office of nn one of them can be 
separalelj treated of The stem in particular, cannot bi under 
stood apart from the le t%cs It has acco d ngh been nfces^ry to 
anticipate scleral of the leading points of the present chapter. As 
to the general office of lea\es in the vegetable economy, it has 
been assumed that the leaf is an apparatus in which, under the 
agency of sunlight, the sap is digested, and converted into the 
proper nouiishment of the plant (79, 114). As to their situation 
upon the stf m, it has bten stated that they invariably arise from 
the nodes (141), just below the pcint where buds appear (148). 
So that wherever a bud or branch is found, a leaf exists, or has 
e\ialed either in a perfect or rudimentaiy state, just beneath it; 
and bud*, (and ihertfori branches), on the other hand, are or may 
be developed in the isils of all leaves, and do not normally exist 
in an^ other situation And finallj, the relation of leaves to the 
wood and the general structure of the stem has just been noticed 
(224-231) From its natural connection with that topic, it will 
be mcsi cDuvenient first to consider their arrangement on the stem. 
This subject, which has of late been elaborately investigated, has 
received the name of 

234. PhyllolaxlS (from two Greek words, signifying &a/-arrange- 
ment). We can here only briefly illustrate the general laws which 
appear to regulate the arrangement of leaves on the stem, as man- 
ifested in the several modes which are of ordinary occurrence. 

235. The point of attachment of a leaf (or other organ) with thci 
stem is termed its insertion. 

236. In botanical descriptions, leaves are said to be aJlernaie 
(149), when there is only one to each node or phyton, as in Fig. 
168, in which case the successive leaves are thrown alternately to 
different sides of the stem ; they are said to be opposite when each 
node bears a pair of leaves {M9, 231), in which case the two 


directions (Fig, 107, 104) : 
when there are three or mor 
upoo each node in which c 
verge fiom each other as mi 
uted oiound the whole circui 
three is the simplest as well 

,nly suf. 

ictly ap. 


leaves always diverge from each other as widely as possible, that 
is, they stand on opposite sides of the stem and point in opposite 
r ihey are rerticiUate or lehorhd, 
leaves in a circle (verticil or mhorl) 
e the several leaves of the circle di- 
h ns possible, or are equably distrib- 
erence of the axis. Tlie first of the 
* the commonest method, occurring 
as it doea in ilmost every Monocotyledonous plant (where it is 
plainly the normil mode, Fig, 168), and in the larger number of 
Dicot\ ledonouH plants likewise, after the first or second nodes. Jl 
should therefore be first examined. 

237 Altftnate LeiUS. This general term, which comm 
[ fices in descriptive botany, obvii 

prises a variety of modes. Th< 
the case to which the name is 
plicable, namely, ii'here the leaves 
alternately disposed on exactly opposite 
sides of the stem (as in Fig. 168); the 
second leaf being thrown to the side far- 
thest from the first, while the third is 
equaUy removed from tlie direction of the 
second, and is consequently placed directly 
over the first, the fourth stands over the 
second, and so on throughout. Such leaves 
are accordingly distichous or two-ranked. 
They form two vertical rows : on oiie side 
is the series 1, 3, 5, 7, itc. ; on the op- 
posite, the series 2, 4, 6, 8, and so on. 
This mode occurs in all Grasses, in many 
other Monocotyledonous plants, and among 
the Dicotyledonous in the Linden. A sec- 
ond variety of alternate leaves is 

238. The tristiehous or lliree-ranked,a.x- 
rangement, which is seen in Sedges (Fig. 
'^1 170) and some other Monocotyledonous 

plants. Taking any leaf we please to begin with, and numbering 

with Ihe stiealhins 

, of n Sfilje-Gr.iss (Caro 



it 1, we pass raunJ one liijrd of the circumference of tlie stem as 
we ascend to leaf No. 3; another third of the circumference 
brings us to No. 3 ; another brings us round to a line with No. 
1, exactly over which No. 4 is placed. No. 5 is in like manner 
over No. 2, and so on. They stand, therefore, in three vertical 
rows, one of which contains the numbers 1, 4, 7, 10 ; another, 2, 
5, 8, 11 ; the third, 3, 6, 9, 12, and so on. If we draw a line 
from the insertion of one leaf to that of the next, and so on to the 
third, fourth, and the rest in succession, it will be perceived that it 
winds around the stem spirally as it ascends. In the distichous 
mode (237), the second leaf is separated from the preceding by half 
the circumference of the stem ; and, having completed one turn 
round the stem, the third begins a second turn. In the tristichous, 
each leaf is separated from the preceding and succeeding by one 
third of the circumference, there are three leaves "^ 

in one turn, or cycle, and the fourth commences 
a second cycle, which goes on in the same way. 
That is, the angular divergence, or size of tlie 
arc interposed between the insertion of two suc- 
cessive leaves, in the first is ^, in the second }, 
of the circle. These fractions severally repre- 
sent, not only the angle of divergence, but the 
whole plan in these two modes ; the numerator 
denoting the number of times the spiral lino 
winds round the stem before it brings a leaf di- 
rectly over the one it began with ; while the de- 
nominator expresses the number of leaves that 
are laid down in this course, or which form each 
cycle. The two-ranked mode (^) is evidently 
the siiuplest possible case. The three-ranked , 
(^) is the next, and the one in which the spiral '\ 
character of the arrangement begins to be evi- 
dent. It is further illustrated in the nest, namely, 

239. The pentastichous, quincuncial, or /te- us 

ranked arrangement (Fig. 172). This is much the most c 

l8Apple-lr«; Bapi- 
OQ the oppDslle g^ile 

Ho.t.d, Google 

as 1 a 1 dD jld p Tl Apple, Cher- 

ydPpltidd p f H here are five 

1 n ! y 1 m p th before we 

fid pi d lly h fi T ! this, the as- 

d 1 1 I has 1 I d he stem, and 

n 1 fi I q blj d b d vols of | of 

th f Tl f n t d n ly p esses the an- 

g 1 d f h 1 I nu tor indicates 

th n be f m d n mpl h 1 and the de- 

n t b f I o I > 1 the number 

of 1 k f 1 h If shorten the 

ax h b d m k h I pi we have the 

p dpd nhd mF ^hl leaves being 

f h 

240 Th Irakd g hn n rder, is like- 

w olfndhHlhC Uistemon of 

ou CO o es the Aconite, the tuft of leaves at the base of the 

CO o Pla a &c. In this case the ninth leaf is placed over 
the t rs 1 e n h over the second, and so on ; and the spiral line 
makes he ns n laying down the cycle of eight leaves, each 
sepa d f o I e preceding by an ai-c, or angular divergence of 
f of 1 e nfe ance. 

241. All these modes, or nearly all of them, were pointed out 
by Bonnet aa long ago as the middle of the last century ; but they 
have recently been extended and generalized, and the mutual re- 
lations of the various methods brought to Hghl, by sagacious recent 
researches, principally those of Schimper and Braun. If we write 
down in order the series of fractions which represent the simpler 
forms of ^hyllotaxis already noticed, as determined by observation, 
viz. ^, ^, |, I, we can hardly fail to perceive the relation that they 
bear to each other. For tlie numerator of each is composed of the 
sum of the numerators of the two preceding fractions, and the de- 
nominator of the sum of the two preceding denominators. (Also 
the numerator of each fraction is the denominator of the next but 
one preceding.) We may carry out the series by applying this 
simple law,. when we obtain the further terms, ■^, j^y, ^f , |^, &c. 
Now these numbers are those which are actually verified by obser- 
vation, and, with some abnormal exceptions, this series comprises 
all the cases that occur. These higher forms are the most common 
where the leaves are crowded on the stem, as in the rosettes of the 


HoHSeleek (Fig. 174), and the scales of Pine-cones (fc 
rangemenl extends to all parts that are modi- 
fications of leaves), or where they are numer- 
ous and small in proportion to the circiimf 
of the stem, as the leaves of Firs, &.c. I f 
when the jnternodes are long and the base f h 
leaves large in proportion to the size of th 
it is difficult, and often impossihle, to tell ^ h h 
the 8th, 13th, or 21st leaf stands exactly 
the first. When, on the other hand, th 
nodes are very short, so that the leave 
nearly so, we may readily perceive wha 1 
but it is (heti difficult to follow the succp 
leaves. When this cannot be directly d 1 

may be deduced by simple processes. 

242. Sometimes we can readily cou 1 
ranks, which gives the denominator of th f 
if there are eight, we refer the case to 1 
regular series; if there are thirteen, to h t* 


d d 

243. Commonly, however, when the 1 
vertical ranks are by no means so manif 
of obliijue series, or secondary spirals, \ h h 
wind round the axis in opposite direct' 1 H Ik 

(Fig. 174 ; where the numbers 1, 6, 11 b 1 g p 1 w d 

to the left, 1, 9, 17 to another, which wi 1 tl gh d 3 6 
9, 12 to still another, that winds in the d ) h y 

t II m b P (F g 1 5 176) Tb bl q 

p I 1 7 1 1 tb it 1 d ^ 

m fp t h q I 1 1 mt 

f th d f 1 1 mb d t Ij h 

b II ly d tl I p g th 

bl q k d 1 b It tb th t 

plbhgtlm 11 be hypj h 

t I pi 
344 T k f p! lb q 1 ( ) ra m t 

h handlg tl dpiwt 

pi f PI tl mb 1 2 3 4 5 6 d 



SO on ; the vertical ranks thus formed, beginning with the lowest 
(which we place in the mitldle column that it 
may correspond with the Larch-cone, I 
175, where the lowest scale, 1, is turned 
rectly towards the observer), are necessarily 
the numbers 1, 6, 11 ; 4, 9, 14 ; 2, 7, 12 ; 5, 
10, 15; and 3, 8, 13. But two parallel ob- 
lique ranks are equally apparent, ascending to 
the left ; viz. 1,3,5, which, if we coil the diagram round a cylinder, 
will be continued into 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 ; and also 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 
which runs into 19, 14, and so on, if the axis be further prolonged. 
Here the circumference is occupied by two secondary left-hand 
series, and we notice that the common difference in the sequence 
of numbers is two : that is, the number of the parallel secondary 
spirals is the same as the common difference of the numbers on 
the leaves that compose them. Again, there are other parallel sec- 
ondary spiral ranks, three in number, which ascend to the right ; 
viz. 1, 4,7, continued into 10, 13; 3, 6, 9, 12, continued into 
15; and 5, 8, 11, 14, &c. ; where again the common difference, 
3, accords with the number of such ranks. This fixed i-olation 
enables us to lay down iho proper numbers on the leaves, when 
too crowded for directly following their succession, and thus to 
ascertain the order of the primary spiral series by noticing what 
numbers come to be superposed in the vertical ranks. We take, 
for example, the veiy simple cone of the small-fruited American 
Larch (Fig. 175), which usually completes only two cycles; for 
we see that the lowest, one intermediate, and the highest scale, on 
the side towards the observer, stand in a vertical row. Marking this 
lowest scale 1, and counting the parallel secondary spirals that wind 
to the left, we find that two occupy the whole circumference. 
From ], we number on the scales of that spiral 3, 5, 7, and so on, 
adding the common difference, 2, at each step. Again, counting 
from the base the right-hand secondary spirals, we find three of 
them, and therefore proceed to number the lowest one by adding 
this common difference, viz. 1, 4, 7, 10; then, passing to the 
next, on which the number 3 has already been fixed, we carry 
on that sequence, 6, 9, &c. ; and on the third, where No. 5 is al- 
ready fised, we continue the numbering, 8, ) 1, &c. This gives us. 

Fro, 17S, A cnne of the araall-frahoil American Larch (Lirix niicrocarpa), wixh the scales 



I k o vh ch No 1 belo gs t! 


q ence 1 T 1 1 

sh V g ll a tl e ar a ^e e s of 1 e | nc ot al ( ) o de II 
s fur her no ceablp tl at the s aller nu ber of parallel seco dary 
sp rtli 2 ag ee^ v h the nu nerato of tl e frac on tl s 1 e f 
ar a ^p e t and t! at th a n b^r adde 1 to tl at of tl e parallel 
secondary Bp rils wh ch w nd n the oppos e d ec o v z J 
g ves I e deno nator of 1 e fract on Tl s holds good thro gl 
o t so tl at el ave only to co t the mber of parallel second 
ary sp ais n the t vo d recuons and assu e ll e e nailer d nber 

T -IcdPo 

o I 1 

Ver Kal P oja. on of U ^ 

md the sum of this and the larger number as the 

which Iha numbera are Lud dann, and Ihe leading 
a wiih Ihe common difference 8 are marked by dol- 
le fira Iliat wind in [he oppusjte direclian are also 
immon diiRtenee 3, in oiie direciion, aad Ubi witn 
rj maiiirest on the cone. 



le om ao of he f a on 1 h expresses the antiula d cr 
gonce sought Fo th s ve uat take ho veve tl o or Ip of sec 
o dary sp rah nea es the ver cal rank n ei 1 d rp t on when 
there are n ore th-ia wo as tl ere a e i all the t> cceed ng cases 
345 A s m la d atrran of I e f arramre e t ntrod ices a set 
of secondary sj rals n ad i i on to the t o forego ng ascending 
n a earer appr ach to a ert cal I e ind vial ^her common 
d Here e v z 5 There a e a o d gly five of I s sort, vi7. 
ti ose nd cated i the dag an by the sp es 1 6 11 16; 4,9, 
14 19 24 2 7 12 17 22 5 10 U ""o 25 i d 3 8, 13, 18, 
23. The highest obvious spiral in the oppo.ite direction, viz. that 
of which the series 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 is a specimen, has the common 
difference 3, and gives the numerator, and 3-|-5 the denominator, 
of the fraction %. The next case, -/g-, which is exemplified in the 
rosetles of the Houseleek (Fig. 174) and in the cone of the White 
Pine (Fig. 176), introduces a fourth set of secondary spirals, eight 
in number, with the common difiorence eight, viz. that of which 
the series 1, 9, 17, 25 is a representative. The set that answers 
to this in the opposite direction, viz. 1, 6, 11, 16, 31, 26, with the 
common difference 5, gives the numerator, and 5 -|- 8 the denomi- 
nator, of the fraction -f^. We may here compare the diagram 
with an actual example (Fig. 176) : a part of the numbers are of 
course out of sight on the other side of the cone. The same laws 
equally apply to the still higher modes. 

246. The order is uniform in the same species, but often vari- 
ous in allied species. Thus, it is only f in our common American 
Larch ; in the European species, ^f. The White Pine is ^\, as is 
also the Black Spruce ; but other Pinea with thicker cones exhibit 
in different species the fractions ^j-, ^J, and |^. Sometimes the 
primitive spiral ascends from left to right, sometimes from right to 
left. One direction or the other generally prevails in each species, 
yet both directions are not unfrequently met with even in the same 

2 B m he 



opposite direction, it is said to be heterodromous (or of unlike 

348, The cases represented by the fractions J, ^, and § are the 
most stable and certain, as well as the easiest to observe. In the 
higher forms, the exact order of superposition ofYen becomes un- 
certain, owing to a slight torsion of the axis, or to the difficulty of 
obaervin<T whether the 9th 14lh, 91st, 35tli, or 56th leaf is di- 
ly h fi a ! le to the one side or the other of the 

rt 1 1 I d d f w express the angle of divergence in 

d g d n p eive that the difference is so small a 

I rt f 1 n f hat a very slight change will substitute 

d f n h Th divergence in ^ = 138° 24'. In all 
b d IS 37 1 1 a variable number of minutes, which 
pp 1 d to 30'. Hence M. Bravais considers 

11 1 ml f one typical arrangement, namely, 

hi f d 137° 30' 38", which is irrational to 

h nf h capable of dividing it an exact num- 

b f m d ly never bringing any ieaf precisely in 

a right hne over any preceding leaf, but placing the leaves of what 
we take for veiticil ranks ilternately on both sides of this line and 
very near it, approaching it more and more, without ever exictly 
reaching it. These forma of arrangement he theieforo distin 
guishes as curviserial, because the leaves are thus disposed on an 
infinite curve, and are nevei brought into e\dctly straight ranks 
The others are corre'?pondinglv termed i tcttsti lal because, as the 
divergence is an integrai part of the ciri-um fere nee, the leaves are 
necessarily brought into rectd neal ranks for the whole length of 
the stem. OiganiG terms and anangements, it may he observed, 
always have a degiee of plailicity and power of adaptation, even 
in their numei cil relations, which appioximale, but aie never en 
tirely restricted to mathematical exactness 

249. A different ser es of spnals sometimes occurs m alternate 
leaves, viz. ^, -^, |, tV , and still others have been met with, 
but tiiese are all rare or exceptional cases, and do not requue to 
be noticed here. 

250. Opposite leaves (236). The arrangement of opposite leaves 
usually follows very simple laws. Almost without exception, the 
second pair is placed over the intervals of the first, the third over 
the intervals of the second, and so on. Moi-e commonly, as in 
plants of the Labiate or Mint Family, the successive pairs cross 


i, only that 


each othei exactly at right angles, so that tSie third pair stands di- 
rectly over the first, the fourth over the aecood, &c , forming four 
equidistant vertical lanks foi the whole length of the stem In 
this case the leaves are 9aid to be dumsate In other caseh, as m 
the Pink Family, it mav often be obspried that the 
pairs deviate a little fiom this line, so that we have to pass 
pairs before we find one exactly superposed over the pan \ 
wi h Tl nd ca e^ a spiral arrangement, which falls ml 
one of ! e modes alieady illusliated in alternate leases 
he e ea 1 node bears a pair of leaves, 

"51 y t Hale or Whorltd Leaves (236) follow the same modes of 
arran enen as opposite leaves. Sometimes they rfeoisso/e, or the 
leaves of one whorl correspond to the intervals of that underneuib, 
making twice as many vertical ranks as there are leaves in the 
whorl; sometimes they wind spirally, so that each leaf of the 
wborl belongs to as many parallel spirals, analogous to the second- 
ary spirals in the case of alternate leaves. 

252. The opposition or alternation of the leaves is generally con- 
stant in the same species, and often through the same family ; yet 
the transition from opposite to alternate leaves upon the same stem 
n the common Myrtle, and the Snap- 
ing their cotyledons or embryo leaves 
vith thai mode ; many retain it 
to alternation, either directly in the 
er period (231). In Endogens, on the 
i necessarily alternate (188), and it is 
whorled leaves. 

la not very rare : it is seei 

dragon. All Exogens, hi 

opposite, necessarily 

throughout ; others change 

primordial leaves, or at a lat 

contrary, the firet leaves an 

very seldom that they afterwards exhibit opposite o 

253. Only one leaf arises from the same organic point, 
are called fascicled or tufted leaves are merely those of ai 
branch, which is so short that the bases of the leaves s 
contact. This is plainly seen in 
the Barben7, where, the primary 
leaves hardening into a kind of 
thorn, the bud in its axil developes 
into a branch, with very slight elon- 
gation of the internodes. Of the 
same nature are the fascicled leaves 
of the Pine, and, more evidently, '" 

of the Larch (Fig. 177), where the whole foliage of such branches 



is developed without any elongation of the' axis. Some of these 
elongate and grow on through the summer, producing the growth 
of the season, on which the leaves are dislrihuled so as to show 
their natural, alternate arrangement. 

254. As regards their position on the stem, leaves are said to ie 
radical, when they are inserted (235) into the stem at or below the 
surface of the gronnd, so as apparently to giow fiom the root, as 
those of the Plantain, Primrose, and ot tht acaulescent (139) Vio- 
lets : those that arise along the mam stem are termed cav/tne ; 
those of the branches, ramen? , and those which stand upon or at 
the base of flower- bra ncKes aie called fioral , the latter, however, 
are generally termed^^raffs 

255. With respect to succession, those leaves which manifestly 
exist in the embryo are called sermnal , the fii-^t oi ongmal pair 
receiving the name of Cotyledons (113), and uaually difi^nng wide. 
!y in appearance from the ordinia y leaves which succeed them. 
The earliest ordinaiy lea\es, termed prvmordial, as well -^s the 
cotyledons, usually perish soon after others are developed to sup- 
ply their place. 

256. As pertaining to the arrangement of leaves, we should here 
notice the modes in which they are disposed before expansion in 
the bud ; nameJy, their 

257. Ternation er PriefolialJDQ. The latter is the most character- 
istic name, but the former, given by Linnseus (literally denoting 
their spring stale), is the moie ancitnt and u'juhI Two things are 
included under this head ; — (Kt the mode in which each leaf 
sidered separately is disposed , 2d, the arrangement of the sei 
leaves of the same bud in respect to each other 1 This last is 
dently connected with phylloIa\is or their position and orde 
succession on the stem. As to the firet, leaves aie for the 
part either bent or folded, oi rolled up m vernation Thus, the 
upper half may be bent on the lower, so that the aptt of the leaf 
is brought down towards thf base, as m the Tulip tiee, when the 
leaves are infiexed ot recUnate in vernation ; or the leaf may be 
folded along its midrib or asis, so that the right half and the left 
half are applied together, as in the Oak and the Magnolia, when 
the leaves are conduplicate ; or each leaf may be folded up a cer- 
tain number of times like a fan, as in the Maple, Currant, and Vine, 
when they are said .to be plicate or plaited. The leaf may be 
rolled either parallel with its axis, or on its asis. In the latter case 


it is spirally rolled up from Ihe apex towards Ihe base, like a cro- 
sier, or circinnate, as in true Ferns {see the young leaves in Fig. 
94), and among PliEenogamous plants in the Drosera or Sundew. 
Of the former there are three ways ; viz. the whole leaf may be 
laterally rolled up from one edge iato a coil, with the other edge 
exterior, when the leaves are said to be convolute, as in the Apri- 
cot and Cherry ; or both edges may be equally rolled towards the 
midrib ; either inwards, when they are involute, as in the Violet 
and the Water-Lily ; or else outwards, when they are revolutc, as 
in the Rosemary and Azalea. 

S58. Considered relatively to each other, leaves arc valvule in 
vernation when corresponding ones touch each other by their 
edges only, without overlapping : they are imbricated when the 
outer successively overlap the inner, by their edges at least, in 
which case the order of overlapping exhibits the phyllotaxis, or or- 
der of succession and position. In these cases the leaves are plane 
or convex, at least not much bent or rolled. When leaves with 
their margins involute are applied together in a circle without over- 
lapping, the vernation is indwplicate. When in conduplicate leaves 
the outer successively embrace or sit astride of those next within, 
the vernation is equitant, as the leaves of the Iris at their base : 
or, when each receives in its fold the half of a corresponding leaf 
folded in the same manner, the vernation is half-equitanl or ob- 
volute. These terms equally apply to leaves in their full-grown 
condition, whenever they are then folded or placed so as to overlie 
or embrace one another. They likewise apply to tiie parts in the 
flower-hud, under the name of ssstivation or prajfloration. 

Sect. I!. Their Stritctuhe and Conformation. 

259. Anatomy of tiie Leaf. The complete leaf consists of the 
Blade {Lamina or Limb), with its Petiole or Leafstalk, and 
at its base a pair of Stipules. Of these the latter are frequently 
absent altogether, or else they fall iw^y as the leaf expands : the 
petiole is very often wanting, whe the leif s sessile, or has its 
blade resting immediately on the ste tl at bears it. Sometimes, 
moreover, there is no proper blade or e\pa ded portion, but the 
whole organ is cylindrical or stall lie It s the general charac- 
teristic of the leaf, however, thil t SI expanded body. Indeed, 
it may be viewed as a contrivance for increasmg the green surface 



of a plant, so as to expose fo the light and air tho greatest practi- 
cable amount of parenchyma coataining the green matter of' 
tatioQ [chlorophyll, 87), upon which the light exerts its peculis 
tion. In a general, mechanical way, it may be said leaves are 
nite protrusions of the green layer of the bark, expanded horizon- 
tally into thin lamina, and stiffened by tough, woody fibres (con- 
nected both with the liber, or inner bark, and the wood), which form 
its framework, ribs, or ©ems. Like the stem, therefore, the leaf 
is made up of two distinct parts, the cellular and the woody. The 
cellular portion is the green pulp or parenchyma ; the woody, is 
the skeleton or framework which ramifies among and strengthens 
the former. 

260. The woody or fibrous portion fulfils the same purposes in 
the leaf as in the stem, not only giving firmness and support to the 
delicate cellular apparatus, but also serving for the conveyance and 
distribution of the sap- The subdivision of tbese rihs, or veins, of 
the leaf, as ihey are not inappropriately called, continues beyond 
the limits of unassisted vision, until the bundles or threads of woody 
tissue are reduced to nearly separate fibres, ramified throughout the 

' green pulp, so as to convey to every portion tlie sap it consumes. 

261. The cellular portion, or parenchyma, of the leaf is not a 
structureless, pulpy mass, such as it appears to the naked eye. 
The chlorophyll (87), to which the green color is entirely owing, 
and which consists of innumerable rounded globules, is all inclosed 
in cells of lax parenchyma (51) ; and these ceils are not heaped 
promiscuously, but exhibit a regular arrangement; upon a plan, 
too, which varies in different parts of the leaf, according to the dif- 
ferent conditions in which it is placed. 

262. Leaves are almost always expanded horizontally, so as to 
present one surface to the ground and the other to the sky ; and 
the parenchymi forms two "eneral strita one belonTinT to the 

h w T 

m dft h h T 



to the surface) of a leaf of the Sfar-Anise of Florida 

upper stiatum of parenchym 

perpendicular celis. Also in 

Fig. 178 {after Brongniart), 

which represents a similar view 

of a thin slice of a leaf of tlie 

Garden Balaam. Fig. 179 

represents a similar section 

through the thickness of a leaf 

of the White Lily ; where the 

upper stratum is composed of 

only one compact layer of ver 

fical cells. The parenchyma is alone lepreaenteH the woody por 

lion, or veins, being left out. The stiucture shows why the uppet 

surface of leaves is of a deepei green than the lower 

263. The object which thii irringement subserves will appear 
evident, when we consider that the =paces between the cells, filled 
with air, communicate freely with each other throughout the leaf, 
and also with the external air [by meins of holes m the epidecmAs 
presently to be described); -itid when we consider the powerful 
action of the sun to promote evaporation, especially m dry an, and 
that the thin walls of the cells, like all vegetable membrane, allow 
of the free escape of the contained moisture by transudation. The 
compactness of the cells of that stratum which is presented immedi- 
ately to the sun, and their vertical elongation, so that each shall 
expose the least possible surface, obviously serve to protect the 
loose parenchyma beneath from the too powerful action of direct 
sunshine. This provision is the more complete in the case of 
plants indigenous to arid regions, where the soil is usually so 
parched during the dry season, that, for a long period, it affords 
only the scantiest supply of moisture to the roots. Compare, in 
■ this respect, the leaf of the Lily (Fig. 179), where the upper stra- 
tum contains but a single layer of barely oblong cells, whh that of 
the Oleander (which is obliged to stand a season of drought), the 
upper stratum of which consists of two layers of long and narrow 
vertical cells as closely compacted aa possible (Fig. 184). So 
different is the organization of the two strata, that a leaf soon per- 
ishes if reversed so as to expose the lower surface to direct sunshine. 



964. A further and more effectual provision for restraining the 
perspiration of leaves within duo limits is found in the epidermis, 
or skin, that invests the leaf, as it does the whole surface of the veg- 
etable, and which is so readily detached From the succulent leaves 
of such, plants aa the Stone-crop and the Live-for-ever (Sedum) 
of the gardens. The Epidermis (69) is composed of small cells 
belonging to the oufermoat layer of cellular tissue, with the pretty 
thick-sided walls very strongly coherent, so as to form a firm mem- 
brane. Its cells usually contain no chlorophyll. In ordinary 
herbs that allow of ready evaporation, this membrane is made up 
of a single layer of cells ; as in the Lily, Fig. 179, and the Balsam, 
Fig. 178. It is composed of two layers in cases where one might 
prove insufficient ; and in the Oleander, besides the provision al- 
ready dese bcl tie eplerns cons s s of three layers of very 

thick-sided cells (F g 184) It s c^e e ally tl ck o 1 a 1 and 
impermeable n tl e firm le ea of tl e P t ospo urn Li s niis, 
&c., which will thrive, for this very reison, where other plants are 
liable to perish, in the dry atmospheie of our rooms in wintei 

FIG, 179. Magniflsdaeeiloo through tliethicliDesa of the leaf of Iha Wliits Lily, showing 
the patenchyma, »nd the epidermlaof bothaurfecea; Ihe lowar [ioreefl urilh stomaia. (Aftar 
Bronsniatt.) 160, Two of Ihe cella of Ihe upper atraWm of parenchima, dalaehed and moto 
msBnifirf, ahowing the conlalned grains of chlorophyll, 

FIG. 181, MasnifiodriewoflhelO.OOOthpattofaaquarelnchofthoepldemilaoftha lower 
sorfeeaof IhaWhiULllj, beale. These areunuaually 
large in She Lily. One Is aliownmote magniaed In Fig. 182: and widely open In Fig. 1S3. 

FIQ, iSt Magnified perpendicular section through tlie Ihickneasoftheepldermleand upper 
stratum of parenchyma in the leaf of Ihe Oleander {after Brongniart) ; ahowing the opldetmis 
of three layers of thick-aided cell^, and the upper parenchyma of very compact terlical cells. 


156 THE E 

265. In such firm leaves, e p a 
cells are soon thickened by onda y d 
on the superficial aide. Th s 
Aloe, and in other fleshy p a la l 

impunity ; in Fig. 185, it is own a 
where the green layer of th wh s 
the leaves. Sometimes an e a 

posit in the epidermis, or a secretion from it, may be detached 
in the form of a continuous, apparently structureless membrane, 
which Brongniart and succeeding arutbors have called the Cuticle. 
That it may shed water readily, the surface of leaves is commonly 
protected by a very thin varnish of wax, or else with a bloom of the 
same substance in the form of a whitish powder, which easily rubs 
s familiarly seen in a cabbage-leaf. 

f le epidermal 

(S9), especially 
dermis of the 

drought with 

nd of a Cactus, 

e purpose of 
iperficial de- 

266. A thickening deposit sometimes takes place in the cells of 
parenchyma immediately underneath the epidermis, especially in 
the Cactus Family, where the once thin and delicate walls of the 
cells become excessively and irregularly thickened, so as doubtless 
greatly to obstruct or arrest all exhalation through the rind. Some- 
thing like this choking of the cells must commonly occur with age 
in most leaves, particularly those that live for more than one season. 

267. But the multiplication of these safeguards against exhala- 
tion might be liable to defeat the very objects for which leaves are 
principally destined. 'Gvaporation from the parenchyma of the 
leaves is essential to the plant, as it is the only method by which 

ively dilute food can be concentrated. Some arrange- 

. Magnified si 

la almaya Irregular, 

leaving i 

:anals or paasages which nearl; 


8 (91). 


: apscies 

of Cactna, posaing Ihtoujh on 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ment is requisite that shall all f ffi 11 f 

leaves while the plant is fre ly pp d w 1 m by h 

but restrain it when the supp! d fi I II 

greatest demand is made up ll I h ry p d h 

the supply through the roo m 1 k ly f 1 f h 

mer's sun, which acts so p w f Oy 11 h i 

time parches the soil upon 1111 ( h 11 1 

depend for the moisture th 1 I S 1 ! d m 

are promptly answered, all w 11 Tl h f 

the sun's rays, the greater h p d wh h h g bl 
chinery is driven. But whenever the supply a he oo fa !s 
foliage begins to flag and droop, as is so ofte see u de a s 1 
meridian sun ; and if the exhaustion proceeds beyond a ce i 
point, the leaves inevitably S 

therefore needed, analogou 
self-acting valve, which sh <ru 

the supply. Such an office (i 

268. The Stomata, Stomat B g ( 0) T 

the orifices which bear t m 

place, in all ordinary cas 
firm enough to prevent mu h 

dation. The stomata (Fig. 181 183, 187) aie situated so as 
open directly into the hollow chambers, 
or air-cavities, which pervade the pa- 
renchyma (Fig. 179, 186), especially 
the lower stratum j so as to affisrd free 
communication between the external air 
and the whole interior of the leaf. The 
perforation of the epidermis is between 
two (or rarely four) small and delicate 
cells, which, unlike the rest of the epi- la? 

dermis, usually contain some chloro- 
phyll, and in other respects resemble the parenchyma beneath. 
Their exact mechanism is not very well made out ; but it appears 
that, when moist, these hygroraetric cells become turgid, and in 
elongating diverge or curve outwardly in their middle, where they 
do not cohere, so as to open a free communication between the 
outer air and the interior of the leaf. When dry, they incline to 


mpl ly Th 


li pby h 


d d d 1 

y ap 


b g s b 


d b th drj 


d f ap 


h pi 


PFly f I 

1 1 

wl Uy p I lly b 1 

h d h 1 OS texture of the lower parenchyma, re- 

q h h f 1 uld be shielded from the sun's too direct 

d d ow why leaves soon perish when arlifi- 

lly d d p nted from resuming (as o 1 e se they 

p ta iy 11) h atural position. Tl s general r ange 

m ly m d 1 however, under pec 1 ar c r unsa ces 

Tl la ly distributed on the vo s d a of hose 

1 f 1 hich grow in an erect pos on o pre 

1 g , d of their surfaces, to 1 e eartl and sky 

(294), and have the parenchyma of both sides s m la ly cons t ed 
sustaining consequently the same relations to 1 ght In the Wa er 
Lilies (NymphEca, Nuphar), and other leaves wl ch float upon the 
water, the stomata all belong to the upper si rface and all leave? 
growing under wafer, where there can be no evapo a o are des 
titute, not only of stomata, but usually of a dis nc ep de also 

270, The cumber of the stomata varies in d fie e t leaves from 
800 to about 170,000 on the square inch of s rface I 1 e Apple 
there are said to be about 24,000 to the square mch (which la un 
der the average number, as given in a table of 36 species by Lind- 
ley) ; so that each leaf of that tree would present about 100,000 of 
these orifices. From their great numbers, they are doubtless fully 
adequate to the offlce that is attributed to them, notwithslanding 
their minute size, Their size varies so greatly in different plants, 
that no safe inference can be drawn of the comparative amount of 



H" m the mere number of their sto- 

not all restricted to the lower sur- 

g uslly occupy this position. Thus, 

A m D s said to have 8,000 slomata to a 

e, and twice that number in the 

m T leaf of the Coltsfoot has 12,000 

ower epidermis, and only 1,200 

T e Lily 60,000 to the square inch 

ps 3,000 on the upper. 

A ts ace of the developing leaf where 

one of the epidermal cells early 

ith the rest, but divides into two 

( m m ed, 32), forming the two guardian 

stituent portions of their common 

g iterspace or orifice between. In 

m des again, when the slomata are 

2 2 8 fl nts, such as those of the Cactus 

m m ums. Aloes, &c,, are remarkable 

m ibe with great tenacity, rather in 
the epidermis, or from the deposit 
uperficial cells of the parenchyma 
( ) m stomata. The latter are usually 

m ain closed, or to open less than in 

ts and growing parts. Hence the 

g with fluid, which is retained with 

g g the hot season. They are evi- 

g severe droughts ; and are accord- 
sunburnt places, such as the arid 
A — home of the Stapelias, Aloes, suc- 

culent Euphorbias, &,c., — or the holiest and driest parts of our 
own continent, to which the whole Cactus Family is indigenous, 
Or, when such plants inhabit the cooler temperate regions, like 
the Sedums and the common Houseleek, &c,, they are commonly 
found in the most arid situations, on naked rocks, old walls, or 
sandy plains, exposed to the fiercest rays of the noonday sun, and 

* The thickened epidermis of the fleshy leaves of the Sea-Sandwort ("Hon- 
keiiya) is provided with an abundance of large stomata, on the npper as well 
e£ the lower face. But this plant, though very fleshy, grows ii 
where its roots are always supplied with moisture. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

thriving under conditions which would insure 

the speedy destruc- 

tion f d ry pi Th 

d 1 

Ih 1 k 

thei pp 1 p 

h h fl d 

h y 1 

lated dp 1 h y 1 

d 1 1 

p d h 1 1 

or n m Id d b h 

1 h 


and my f 11 pi h 


1 ydy 1 

our h d w wh 

d ry h 1 

d pi ts b m 

unh Ihy p h 

273 ^ m hi 

f I pi 

m lyb m 

ohe 1 I Ik 1 

f 1 I pi 

d h 

of M mb h &. 

m h 

red d 

ang 1 p p 

P f b 

f d d h 

unu li d p d g b 

i f \ 

1 1 f Ifil h 

offi h S p 1 dm 


27 Th De 1 pffl nl f I 

p d f 

h ( 1 h 

fii« pp rs h f m f 

1 1 

J p 11 ) d 1 

bas h 1 1 1 df m h 

Th p p h d 

forw d by h f d 

h f h 

p be h f 

the bl d 1 h p d f h 


p 1 f 1 

to b b g b bl 

d h g 

Ik f 

itsg bq fm pp 

its 1 I h f y h p f 1 I f Th 

she h b ( M 1 d ) h p 1 

(304 p \)yh\ D Id) 

tinu h h 1 1 d d d d f m b 

thef dig fhpl prahm 

The stipules, remaming next the asis oi source of nourishment, un 
dergo a rapil development e^ilj in the bud so th-it it a cerlam 
stage thej are often larger thin the body of the leaf and they ac 
cordmgly fo m m such cases the teguments of the b id Divided 
01 jobed and compound leaves ire «imple at the commencement, 
but the lobes ire very eaily developed they grow a respect to 
the axie of the leaf neiily as that grew from the aMs of the phnt, 
and in the compound leaf at leoglii isolate themselves and aie 
often raiaed on footstalks of their own Commonlj the upper 
lobes or leaflets ire first formed and then the lower but m those 
of the Walnut and Adanthus and olhei laige compound leaves, 
new leaflets continue to be pioduced from the ipex even after the 
lowermost are nearly full gtown In the eaihest stage leaves con 



sist of parenchyma alone ; the fibro-vascular tissue which makes 
the ribs, veins, or framework appears later. No good researches 
have yet been made lato the mode and order of its production. 
27 Th P in fka Im fi 1 Th 

ffd fldfh kf 

p Tl p p 1 mod fi h f 

] fi d ly d fi d d rabod d y f 

1 !i h q Uy ppl bl 1 p f h pi d 

hhas dpblhy bni 

Th m ly d 1 1 m 1 I 1 

d lly 1 d f 1 f y f h sc and h 

mlpldhls a.-g miy briy 

hb gdblfd bl fl 

hp 1 thjlsTlbryral 

hhf ly lyklh yfh d w 

d d by D C d U 1 d y bis d 

p fi p in pi d f y pp! Th f d 

m I 1 f h pi I 1 Im fi h 

fm fl mybedddf dff 

d d d h 1 1 dy k 1 f f 

h 1 r p d fi i 1 p hj Up 

p f k I d 1 lea 

d ddfi mmp mfh 1 

f! Illdbkp mdl 1 b 

mplyf Igtlmpld bl 

p fh If fhlfb has 

f 1 ! d p d p d f 1 

] d f k fl F p 1 d 

Ipd I f filf ffidf If 

kh Tl 1 I f Id 

1 h p f 1 Tl d b f h 

fib f k 1 h bl d d 

6 1 tl Tl d J I gh i 1 

ppld Elh fpidd 

1 y Id ! h ! 

p rain 1 h h 1 p d ly b pi 

ra rs ( Fg 01) h p I d 

h bl 1 f f m p p 1 

lldffbl b dl 11 bl 

1 I (, ) <1 f k d 




of network ; as in Fig. 191, 199. The fornaer are termed parallel- 
veined, or commonly nerved leaves ; the veins in this case having 
been called nerves by the older botanists, — a name which it is 
found convenient to retain, although of course they are in no re- 
spect analogous to the nerves of animals. The latter are termed 
reticulated or netted-veitied leaves. 

77 Parallel-veined or nerved leaves are characteristic of En- 
d g n plants ; while reticulated leaves are almost universal in 
E plants. We are thus furnished with a very ohvious, al- 

h gh by means absolute, distinction between these two great 
la f p] Its, independently of the structure of their stonas (185). 

378. In reticulated leaves, the coarse primary veins (one or 
more in number), which proceed immediately from the apex of 
the petiole, arc called rihs ; the branches are termed ueiws, and 
their subordinate ramifications, veinlets. Very frequently, a single 
strong rib (called the midrib), forming a continuation of the petiole, 
runs directly through the middle of the blade to the apex (Fig- 196, 
197, &c.), and from it the lateral veins all diverge. Such leaves 
are termed feather-veined or pinnately veined ; and are subject to 
various modifications, according to the arrangement of the veins 
and veinlets ; the primary veins sometimes passing straight from 



the midrib to the margiD, as in the Beech and Chestnut (Fig. 196) ; 
while in other cages they are divided into veinleta long before they 
reach the margin. When the midrib gives off a very strong pri- 
mary vein or branch on each side above the base, the leaf is said 
to he friph-ribbed, or often tripU-nerved, as in the common Sun- 
flower (Fig. 199) ; if two such ribs proceed from each side of the 
midrib, it is said to be quintuple-ribbed, or quintupli-nerved. 

279. Not utifrequently the vessels of a reticulated leaf divide at 
the apex of the petiole into three or more portions or ribs of nearly 
equal size, which are usually divergent, each giving off veins and 
veinlcts, hke the single rib of a feather- veined leaf. Such leaves 
are termed radiated-veined, or paTmately veined ; and, as to the 
number of the ribs, are called three-ribbed, five-ribbed, seven- 
ribbed, &c. (Fig. 191, 203, 209). Examples of this form are fur- 
nished by the Maple, the Gooseberry, tlie Mallow Family, &c. 
Occasionally the ribs of a radiated-veined leaf converge and run to 
the apex of the blade, as in Ehexia and other plants of the same 
family, thus resembling a parallel- veined or nerved leaf ; from 
which, however, it is distinguished by the intermediate netted veins. 
But when the ribs are not very strong, such leaves are frequently 
said to be nerved, although they branch before reaching the apex. 

280. According to the theory of De Candolle (375), the shape 
which leaves assume may be considered to depend upon the dis- 
tribution of the veins, and the quantity of parenchyma ; the gen- 
era! outline being determined by the division and direction of the 
veins ; and the form of the margin, (whether even and continuous, 
or interrupted by void spaces or indentations,) by the greater or 
less abundance of the parenchyma in which the veins are distrib- 
uted. This view is readily intelligible upon the supposition that a 
leaf is an expansion of soft parenchyma, in which the firmer veins 
are variously ramified. Thus, if the principal veins of a feather- 
veined leaf are not greatly prolonged, and are somewhat equal in 
length, the blade will have a more or less elongated form. If the 
veins are very short in proportion to the midrib, and equal in length, 
the leaf will be linear (as in Fig. 198) ; if longer in propoilion, 
but still equal, the leaf will assume an oblong form (Fig. 200), 
which a slight rounding of the sides converts into an oval or ellip- 
tical outline. If the veins next the base are longest, and espe- 
cially if they curve forward towards their extremities, the leaf 
assumes a lanceolate (Fig. 197), ovate (Fig. 199), or some inter- 



mediate form. On the other hand, if the veins are more developed 
beyond the middle of the blade, the leaf becomes ohovate (Fig. 
189), or cuneiform (Fig. 192). In radiated or palmately veined 
leaves (Fig. 202 — 204), where the primary ribs are divergent, an 
orbicular or roundish outliae is most common, and indeed is uni- 
versal when the ribs are of equal strength. Some of the ribs or 
their ramifications being directed backwards, a recess, or sirfus, as 
it is termed, is produced at the base of the leaf, which, taken in 
connection with the general form, gives rise to such terms as cor- 
date or heart-shaped (Fig. 191), reniform or kidney-shaped (Fig. 
202), &c,, when the posterior portions are rounded ; and those of 

sagittate or arrow-headed (Fig. 208), and hastate or halberd-shaped 
(Fig. 206), when they are produced into angles or lobes. The 
margins of the sinus are sometimes brought into contact, when 
they are frequently united ; for whenever soft cellular parts are in 
close contact at an early period of their development, they are 
very apt to cohere and grow together. !n this case the leaf be- 
comes peltate or shield-shaped (Fig. 204) ; the blade being at- 
tached to the petiole, not by its apparent base, but by some part of 
the lower surface. Two or three common species of Hydrocotyle 
plainly exhibit the transition from common radiated leaves into the 
peltate form. Thus, the leaf of H. Americana ( Fig. 203) is round- 
isb -reniform, with an open sinus at the base ; while in H. inter- 
na. 203-210. Forma of simple, ehieiij radialed-teined leatea. 


c. 165 

rupta and H. umbelkla (Fig. 204), the margins have grown to- 
gether so as to obliterate the sinus, and an orbicular peltate leaf is 
produced. In nerved leaves, when the nerves run parallel from 
the base to the apex, as in Grasses (Fig. 195), the leaf is necessa- 
rily linear, or nearly so ; but when they are more divergent in the 
middle, or towards the base, the leaf becomes oblong, oval, or 
ovate, &c. (Fig, 201). In one class of nerved or parallel- veined 
leaves, the simple veins or nerves arise from a prolongation of the 
petiole in the form of a thickened midrib, instead of the base of 
the blade, constituting the curvinerved leaves of De Candolle. 
This structure is almost universal in the Ginger tribe, the Arrow- 
root tribe, in the Banana, and other tropical plants ; and our com- 
mon Pontedena, or Pickerel wetd (Fig 194), affords -in illu-,tra 
tion of It, m which the cenes aie curved bifkwards at the base, 
so as to produce a cordate outlme 

SiSl As to the margm and particuKi outlme of leaves, they ex 
hibit eveiv gridation between the case whpre the blade la entite, 
that IS w ith the margm perfectly confmunus an\ fvcn (ei& m Fig 
301) and those where it is elett or divided mto separate port ons 
The convenient hypothesis of De Caiidolle connects these foims 
with the abundaoce or scioliness of the parenchyma, compaied 
with the divergence -ind the extent of the nb^ or vem^ , on the 
supposition that, where the former is insufticient completely to fill 
up the framework, lohes, mctsions, or fotlitnga are necessirily 
prod lce^ extending from the margin towards the centie Thus, 
in the white and the yellow sppcies of Water Ranunculus, there 
appeals to be barely suffii'ient parenchyma to foim a thin coveimg 
for each vein and its branches (Fig 207, the lowest leaf) such 
leaves are said to be fihfoi mJy dissected that s cwi into threads , 
the nomenclatuie in all these cases being founded on the conven 
lent, but incoirect suppoaitnn, that a leaf oiigindlly entiie is cut 
mto teeth, lobes divis ons, &c If, while the fraraewoik remains 
the same as in the last instance, the paienchyma be moie abun 
danlly developed, as in fai,t happens n the upper leives of the 
same species when thej grow out of water, and is show n m the 
same figure, they are merely dpft or loifd If these lohei, glow 
together nearly to the extremity of the pi ncipal veins the leaf is 
oaly toothed, strrated, or oenaied, and if the small leraaming 
notches were filled w th parenchyma the leaf would be entire 
The study of the development of leaves, however, proves that the 


parenchyma glows and shapes the outlines of the organ m ita own 
way, irreapectne of the fiamework, which is, m fict, adapted to 
the paienchj ma ra,ther th in the parenchj m i to it The principal 
terms which designate the mode and di gree of division m simple 
leaves may now be briefly etplained, without further lefeieace to 
this oi any other theory 

2S2 A leaf is said to he serrate, when the maroio is beset with 
sharp teeth which point forwards towards the p (F 196) 
dentate, or toothed, when the sharp salient teeth d d 

towards the apex of the leaf (Fig. 200) ; and I h 

teeth aie lounded (Fig. 203, 204). A slightly d 

margin is said to herepand ; a strongly uneven 1 1 

nale rounded concavities and convexities, is term d { ^" 

the Oak). When the leaf is irregularly and sh ply d p 
the Umina, it is said to be incised ; when the po m 

are more definite, it is said to be lobed ; and the te I b I 

three-lobed,f,ve-lobed, fcc, express the number f gm ts 

If the incisions extend about to the middle of th bl d m 

what deeper, the leaf ia said to be cleft; and th If 

three-cleft, &c. (or in the Latin form, bifid, irifid & ) d g 
the number of the segments : or when the latter m 

indefinite, the leaf is termed many-cleft, or mttl Jid If 1 g 
ments extend nearly, but not quite, to the base f h bl d h 

midrib, the leaf is said to be jiflj-ted (Fig. 209): fly h h 
midrib or the base, so as to interrupt the paren ym I I f 
said to be divided; the number of partitions 
d(,Mgn^ted, as before, by tlie terms two-, ihr f j d 
two-, three-, fve-divided, fcc. 

283 As the mode of division always coincide w 1 I g 

meot of the primary veins, the lobes or incisions f h d 

are differently arranged from those of radiated o p Im ly d 

leaves : in the latter, the principal incisions are 11 d d 1 

base of the leaf; in the former, towards the mid b Th od 

fications are accurately described by terms indicative of the vena- 
tion, combined with those that express the degree of division. 
Thus, a feather-veined (in the Latin form, a pinnalely veined) leaf 
is said to be ^innately cleft or pinnaiifd, when the sinuses reach 
halfway to the midrib ; pinnately parted, when they extend al- 
most to the midrib ; and pinnately divided, when they reach the 
midrib, dividing the parenchyma into separate portions. A few 



d Id &u (F 








th d 


t d 




subordinate modifications are indicated by special terms; thus, a 
pinnatifid or pinnately parted leaf, with regular, very close and 
narrow divisions, like the teeth of a comb, is said to be pectinate ; 
a feather- veined leaf, more or less pinnatifid, but with the lobes 
decreasing in size towards the base, is termed lyrate, or lyre- 
shaped {Fig. 212} ; aod a lyrate leaf with sharp lobes pointing 
towards the base, as in the Dandelion (Fig. 213), is called runci- 
nate. A palmately veined leaf i Ik ma adtbp? 

matily cleft, ■palmately parted, p 1 
209), according to the degree of d 
originally employed to designate a 
into about five spreading lobes, b 
hand with the fingers spreading ; a i 
palmately lobed leaf, without refp 
A palmate leaf with the lateral lb If t t 
segments, is said to be pedate (Fig. *05), fiom a fancied resem- 
blance to a bird's foot.. By designating the number of the lobes in 
connection with the terms whicb indicate their extent and their 
disposition, botanists are enabled to describe all these modifications 
with great brevity and precision. Thus, a palmately Jive-parted 
leaf is one of the radiated -veined kind, which is divided almost to 
the base into five segments : a pinnately Jive-paried leaf is one of 
the feather- veined kind cut into five lobes (two on each side, and 
one terminal), with the sinuses extending almost to the midrib: 
and the same plan is followed in describing cleft, tobed, or divided 

284. The segments of a lobed or divided leaf may be again di- 
vided, lobed, or cleft, upon the same principle as the leaf itself, 
and the same terms are employed in describing them. Some- 
times both the primary, secondary, and even tertiary divisions are 
defined by a single word or phrase; as lipinndtifid (Fig. 214), 
tripinnatifid, hipinnately parted, tripinnately parted, twice pal- 
mately parted, &c. 

28^. Parallel- veined or nei'ved leaves may be expected to pre- 
sent entire margins, and this in fact almost universally occurs when 
the nerves are convergent (Fig. 201). Such leaves are often 
lobed or cleft when the principal nerves diverge greatly, as in the 
Dragon Arum ; but the lobes themselves are entire. So, also, 
ribbed leaves are mostly entire, wheil the ribs converge to the 
apex : and leaves which exhibit a well-marked marginal vein (the 



falsely riihed leaves of Lindley), into which the lateral veiolets 
are confluent {as in all Myrtaceous plants), are also entire. 

286. There are a few terms employed in describing the apex of 
a leaf, which may be here enumerated. When a leaf terminates 
in an acute angle, it is said to be acute (Fig. 199, 208) : when the 
apex is an obtuse angle, or rounded, it is termed obtuse (Fig. 194, 
198) ; an obtuse leaf, with the apex slightly indented or depre'ised 
in the middle, is said to be retvie, or, if more strangly notthed, 
emarginate {Fig 188) an obovate leaf with a wider and more 
conspicuous notch it the ape\ is termed ahco?dale (Fig 190), 
being a cordate or heart shaped leaf inverted W hen the apex is, 
as it were, cut off by a straight transverse line, the leaf is said to 
be truncate when abruptly termmated by a small projecting 
point, it is muironafe (Fig 18b 189) and \ihen an acute leaf has 
a narrowed and prolonged ape^, or lapeis to i point, it is aeumi 
nate, or pointed, &3 in Fig 191 

387. Al! these teims are equally applicable to expanded sur- 
faces of every kind, such as petals aepals &c and those terms 
which are used to describe the modificitions of sohd bodies, such 
as sterna and stalks, are equallj applicable to leaves when they 
affect similar shapes, is they sometimes do 

288 The whole account, thus far, relates to Simple Leaves, 
namely, to those which hai'" a blade of one piece, however cleft 
or lobed, oi, if divided, wheie the separate portions are neither 
raised on stalklets of their own, nor articulated (by a joint) with 
the main petiole, so that the pieces are at length detached from it. 
The distinction, however, cannot he very strictly maintained; there 
are so many transitions betw n mpl d 

289. Compoiind Leaves (Fig 211 15 31). These have the 
blade divided into entirely pa p or, rather, they con- 

sist of a number of blades, b n mmon petiole, usually 

supported on stalklets of the w b t which and the main 

petiole an articulation or jo t f d re or less distinctly. 
These separate blades are called Leaflets : they present all the 
diversities of form, outline, or division, which simple leaves ex- 
hibit ; and the same terms are employed in characterizing them. 
Having the same nature and origin as the lobes or segments of 
simple leaves, they are arranged in the same ways on the common 
petiole. Compound leaves accordingly occur under two general 
forms, the pinnate, and the palmate, otherwise called digitate. 



The pinnate form is produced when a leaf of the pinnately veined 
sort becomes compound ; that is, the leaflets arc situated along the 
sides of the common petiole. There are several modifications of 
the pinnate leaf. It is abruptly pinnate, when the leaflets are 
even in number, and none is borne on the very' apex of the petiole 
or its branches, aS in Cassia; and also in the Vetch tribe, vi'here, 
however, the apex of the petiole is generally prolonged into a ten- 
dril (Fig. 216). It is impari-pinnate, or pinnate wifh an odd leaf- 

let, when the petiole is terminated with a leaflet (Fig. 215, 220). 
There are some subordinate modifications ; such as lyrafely pin- 
nate, when the blade of a lyrate leaf (Fig. 212) is completely di- 
vided, as in Fig. 220 ; and interruptedly pinnati, when some mi- 
nute leaflets are irregularly intermixed with larger ones, as is also 
shown to some extent in the figure last cited. The number of 
leaflets varies from a great number to very few. When reduced 
to a small number, such a leaf is said to be pinnately seven-, five--, 
or iri-foliolate, as the case may be. A pinnate leaf of three or 
five leaflets is often called temate or quinate ; which terms, how- 
ever, are equally applied to a palmately compound leaf, and also, 
and more appropriately, to the case of three or five simple leaves 

FIG. 21 1 - 321. Compound and loliad leaves. 



growing on the same node. A pinnatdy trtfoliolale leaf (Fig. 
221) is readily distinguished by having the two lateral leaflets 
attached to the petiole at some distance below its apex, and by the 
joint ■which is observable at some point between their insertion and 
the lamina of the terminal leaflet. Such a leaf may even be re- 
duced to the paradoxical case of a single leaflet ; as in the Orange 
(Fig. 218), and frequently in one variety of Ehynchosia tomen- 
tosa ; which is distinguished from a really simple leaf by the joint 
at the junction of the partial with the general petiole. 

290. The palmate or digitate form is produced when a leaf of 
the palmately veined sort becomes compound ; in which case the 
leaflets are necessarily all attached to the apex of the common 
petiole, as in the Horsechestnut and Buckeye {Fig. 211). Such 
leaves of three, five, or any definite number of leaflets are termed 
palmately (or dtgitately) trtfoliolate, five-foUolate, &c. A leaf of 
two leaflets, which rarely occurs, is unijugate (one-paired) or hi- 
nate. By this nomenclature, the distinction between pinnately and 
palmately compound leaves is readily kept up. 

291. The stalk of a leaflet is called & partial petiole (petioluJa) ; 
and the leaflet thus supported is petiolulate. 

292. The partial petioles may bear a set of leaflets instead of a 
single one, wlien the leaf becomes doubly or twice compound. 
Thus a pinnate leaf again compounded in the same way becomes 
bipinnate, or if still a third time divided it is tripinnate, &ic. In 
these cases the main divisions or branches of the common petiole 
are called pinnis. So a irifoliolate leaf twice compound becomes 
bitemate ; or thrice, triternate, &c. When the primary division is 
digitate, the secondary division ia often pinnate, thus combining the 
two modes in the same leaf. A leaf irregularly or indeterminately 
several times compounded, in whatever mode, is decompound. 

393. The blade of a leaf is almost always symmetrical, that is, 
the portions on each side of the midrib or axis are similar ; but oc- 
casionally one side ia more developed than the other, when the leaf 
is oblique, as is strikingly the case in the species of Begonia (Fig. 

294. The blade is also commonly horizontal, presenting one sur- 

fa f h ky d th th to the earth ; in which case the two 

f d ff" t t re (262) as well as in appearance, each 

b fitt d f t p 1 ofiices : if artificially reversed, they 

p t ly th atural positioa, or sbon perish if pre- 



vented fiom doing no But in erect and vertical leaves, the two 
surfacfs ire equally exposed lo the light, and are similar in struc 
ture and appeaiance In such erect leaves as those of Iris, it is 
whit concsponds to the lower surface of ordinary leaves that is 
presented to the air , for the leaf is folded together lengthwise and 
consolidated while m the nascent state, so that the true upper surface 
IS concealed m the interior, except near the base, where they over- 
ride each other in the eqvAtani manner (258). True vertical leaves, 
which present their edges instead of their surfaces to the earth and 
sky, generally assume this position by a twisting of the base or of 
the petiole ; as is strikingly seen in a large number of New Hol- 
land trees of the Myrtle Family, now common in greenhouses. 

295. Leaves assume extraordinary appearances when they be- 
come succulent, as in the different species of Mesembryanthemum 
(Ice-plant), &c., and no less so when, on the contrary, producing 
little or no green parenchyma, they beCome scale-like, as in Beech- 
drops, Monotropa, and other parasitic plants ; where they do not 
perform the ordinary office of leaves. Not 
.unlike these are the altered or degenerate 
leaves that form the integumente of scaly buds 
( 146). The primary leaves on every shoot of 
the Pine are merely thin and dry scales ; from 
the axils of which the ordinary foliage is devel- 
oped in fascicles of needle-shaped leaves (253). 

296. Leaves which grow under water are 
often nearly or quite destitute of parenchyma ; 
as in Kanunculus Purshii (Fig. 207), and Ea- 
nunculus aquatilis, Bidens Beckii, Myriophyl- 
lum, &c. A very remarkable instance of the 
kind occurs In OuvJrandra feneslralis, a South 
African aquatic plant, with nerved leaves, 
which exhibit a complete framework or skel- 
eton, while the parenchyma is entirely want- 
ing. In the Barberry some of the summer 
leaves harden as they grow into compound or 
branching spines {Fig. 222). 

297. When the blade of the leaf is wanting, ^a 

its ofiice is sometimes performed by the petiole, or by the stipules. 

FIG. MS. A summer ahoot of the Earbeiry, flhowliig a lower laaf In the iiomiel slate ; Ibe 



398. The Petiole, or Leafstalk, is usually either round, or half- 
cylindrical and channelled on the upper side. But in the Aspen, 
it is strongly flattened at right angles with the blade, so that the 
slightest breath of air puts the leaves in motion. It is not unfre- 
quently furnished with a leaf-like border, or wing ; which, io the 
Sweet Pea of the gardens, extends downward along the stem, on 
which the leaves are then said to be decurrmt ; or the stalk or 
stenfl thus bordered is said to be alote or winged. In many Um- 
belliferous plants, the base of the petiole is dilated into a btraad and 
membranaceous inflated sheath ; and in a great number of Endoge- 
nous plants, especially in Grasses, the petiole consists of a s/iealh, 
embracing the stetn, which in the true Grasses is furnished at the 
summit with a membranous appendage, in some sort equivalent to 
the stipules, called the ligule (Fig. 195). In the proper Pea tribe, 
the apex of the petiole is often changed into a tendril (Fig. 216) ; 
and in one plant of that tribe (Lathyrus Aphaca), the whole petiole 
becomes a tendril, the office of the leaf being fulfilled by a pair of 
large stipules. Sometimes, as in one section of Astragalus, the 
petioles harden into spines after the leaflets fall oif. 

299. The woody and vascular tissue runs lengthwise through 
the petiole, in the form usually of a definite number of parallel 
threads, to be ramified in the blade. Tbe ends of these threads are 
apparent on the base of e ea k w en fa s o f a d on he 
scar left on the stem, as so a y o ud do s (F ^ 130 l"? b) of 
a uniform number and a a ge e e ch pec es Some mes 

they are so close aa to be o fiu n n o a con ous e b nd e 

300 Phyllodia (Fig " 6 227) Oc a ona y woo y sys 

tem spieads and the who peo la noakndofbae 
traversed by r bs mos y of e p -a e e d k nd In hese 
cases the propei blade of h eaf o men y abo e o d ap 
pears, this substitutt, called a Phyllodiuji (meaning a leaf like 
body), taking its place. These phyllodia constitute the whole foli- 
age of the numerous Australian Acacias. Hero they are at once 
distinguished from leaves with a true blade by being entire and 
para ) lei -vei fled ; while their proper leaves, as the primorthal ones 
uniformly appear in germination, and also later ones in casual in- 
stances, are compound and netted -veined. They are also recog- 
nized by their uniformly vertical position, presenting their margins 
instead of thoir surfaces to the earth and sky ; and they sometimes 
bear a true compound lamina at the apex, as in Fig. 227. These 



Acacias, with the Myrtaceous trees that have leaves with a proper 

blade which becomes vertical by 
half of the forests of New 
Holland, and give to them a 
prevailing and very peculiar 
feature, and an unusual dis- 
tribution of light and shade; 
the cause of which was de- 
tected by the scrutinizing 
glance of Eobert Brown. 

301. In the DionEea, or 
Venus' s Fly-catcher {Fig. 
228), the proper lamina, or 
blade of* the leaf, is the ter- 
minal portion, fringed with 
stiff bristles, which closes 
suddenly and with consider- 
able force when the upper 
surface is touched. This is 
borne on a dilated, foliaceous 
body, which may be held 
to represent the petiole ; but 
it is horizontally expanded 



and netted -veined. Still more singular modifications of the leaf 
are met with in tiie form of 

302. Ascidia, or Pitchers (Fig. 223-225). These occur ia sev- 
eral plants of widely different families. If we conceive the mar- 
gins of the dilated petiole of Dionsea to curve inwards until they 
meet, and cohere with each other, there would result a leaf not 
unlike that of Sarracenia purpurea, the common Pitcher-plant or 
Sidesaddle Flower of the Northern United States (Fig, 224), in 
which, accordingly, the tuhe or pitcher may he considered as the 
petiole, and the hood at the summit as the lamina. This view la 
confirmed by a new Pitciiei plant of the same family {Hehampho- 
ra, Fig 223), recently discoveied by Mi Schombur^k m the 
raounturas of British Gunna, md dc^ciibed by Mr Bentham , in 
which the margins of the dilated petiole are not alwajs united 
quite to the summit, ind the lamina is repiesented by a small 
concave terminal appendage In the curious Nepenthes (Fig, 
3^5), the petiole is fiist dihted into a kind of iimina, then con- 
tracted into a tendnl, ind finilly dilated into a pitchei, containing 
fluid secreted by the plant itself, the orifice being accurately 
closed by a lid, which is from analogy supposed to represent the 
real blade of the leaf 

303 The cohesion of the edges of a leaf with each other, or 

with neighb< 

igans, is by no meins mfiequent, ^ince all 
parts or oigans of a plant which aie contigu- 
ous at the time of their development are liable 
to become ingrafted or lo cohere together. 
Tills is illustrated by the formation of peltate 
leaves (Fig. 203, 204), and lil(ewise,by what 
are tevmed perfoliate leaves ; whether formed 
by the union of the bases of a pair of opposite 
sessile leaves {cotmaie-perfoliaie), as in Sil- 
phium perfoljatum, Triosteum perfolialum, 
the upper pairs of the Honeysuckle, &.c. ; or 
consisting of a single clasping leaf, the pos- 
terior lobes of which encompass the stem and 
cohere on the opposite side, as is seen in 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, Uvularia perfoliata, 
and Baptisia perfoliata (Fig.-229). 

Fia 329. Perfoliali 



304. iStipilIes (259) are lateral appendages of leaves, usually in 
the form of small foliaceous bodies, situated on each side of the 
base of the petiole (Fig. S15, &c.). They are not found at all in 
a great number of plants ; but their presence or absenee is usually 
uniform throughout each natural order. They commonly have the 
texture, color, and venation of leaves, and are subject to similar' 
modifications. Like leaves, they are sometimes membranaceous 
or scale-like, and sometimes transformeiJ into spines, &c. ; and they 
have also a strong tendency to cohere with each other, or with the 
, base of the pe 1 Th h CI th S b d 1 

Rose (Fiff. 215) p 1 dh 

petiole ; in the PI 1 


here by their m g 


stipule opposite h 1 f I 


fortning a shea h d 1 

called intrafol p 1 


lygonum (see d P lyg 

a.) hy] 

When opposite 1 1 

p 1 wl 

they usually o py ih 

b w 

and are termed p I 

Th i 

each side) being thus placed 

in contact, 

f PF lyb gl p 

f pi 

f 1 h 

305 Wh 1 f 

1 d I 

b J I h d 

f h 

h d f h b 

f h 

Flo and h M g 1 (Fg 130 13 ) 

with small stipules (sttpelles) of their own 
221) ; when they are said to be stipellate. 

m I d d 
1 the Bean {tjg. 

Sect. III. The Death and Fall of the Leaves ; Exhala- 

307. While the axis, or portion of each phyton that belongs to 
the stem, is permanent during the life of the individual plant, the 
leaf lasts only for a limited period, and is thrown oif, or perishes 
and decays, after having fulfilled its temporary office. 

308. Dui'atioil of Leaves. In view of their duration, leaves are 



called fugacious, when they fall off soon after their first appear- 
ance , deciduous, when they last only for a single =ea?on ; and 
perisfe/il, when they remain thiough the cold season, or other 
interval during which ^egetatlon is interrupted, and until after the 
appeal aoee of new leaves, so that the <!tem is never leifiess ; as 
in Eitrgreens 

309. Leaves last for a single year only in many Evet^reena, as 
well as in deciduous-leaved. plants ; the old leaves faliihg soon 
after those of the ensuing, season are expanded, or, if they remain 
longer, ceasing to bear any active part in the economy of the veg- 
etable, and soon losing their vitality altogether. \n Pines and 
Firs, however, as in many other evergreen trees and shrubs, al- 
though there is an annual fall of leaves while the growth of the 
season is taking place, yet these were the produce of some season 
earlier than the last ; and the branches are continually clothed 
with the fol age of f m w o fi e, or even eight or ten, succes- 
sive years. On I e o 1 e 1 nd s seldom tliat all the leaves of 
an herb endu e o ^1 1 whole <r vawing season, but the earlier 
foliage nea 1 ba o of 1 e s em perishes and falls, while fresh 
leaves are 1 appeann^ a lea mit. In our deciduous trees 
and shrubs, 1 o e\ , he lea s of the season are mostly devel- 
oped within a short period, and they all perish nearly at the same 
lime. They are not destroyed by frost, as is commonly supposed ; 
for they begin to languish, and often assume their autumnal tints 
{as happens with the Red Maple especially), or even fall, before 
the earlier frosts ; and when vernal, vegetation is destroyed by 
frost, the leaves blacken and wither, but do not fall off entire, as 
in autumn. Some 'leaves are cast off, indeed, while their tissues, 
at least at the base of the petiole, have by no means lost their vi- 
tality. Death is often rather a consequence than the cause of the 
fall. Others die and decay on the stem without falling, as in Palms 
and most Endogens ; or else the dead leaves may bang on the 
branches through the winter, as in the Beech Emd some kinds of 
Oak, to fall when the new buds expand, the following spring. We 
must therefore distinguish between the death and the fall of the leaf. 

310. The Fall OE the leaf is owing to an organic separation, through 
an articulation, or joint, which forms between the base of the 
petiole and the surface of the stem on which it rests. The 
formation of the articulation is a vital process, a kind of disintegra- 
tion of a transverse layer of cells, which cuts off the petiole by a 




regular line, in a perfectly uniform manner in each species, leav- 
ing a clean scar (Fig. 127, 130) at the insertion. The solution of 
continuity begins in the epidermis, where a faint line marks the 
position of the future joint while the leaf is still youog and vigor- 
I 1 1 fd m h 11 k d lly 



\ dj b dl 


1 m 11 b gh d p 1 

suicidal membei to itsgia^e. Such 
leaf W e have fouad that it is not a 
ing simply from the vicissitudes of 
regular and vital process, which cot 
of the Oigin ind is completed only when that la 
3 cannot help adnnnng the wonderful pii 


gl f h 

11 d d h 

the history of the iall of the 

accidental occurrence, ana 

;ure and the like, but a 

with the first formal ion 

;er useful , 

that heals 

the Bound even before it is absolutely made, and afFoids a covei*- 
mg from atmospheric changes before the pirt can be subjected to 
them * Leives fall by in artieuHtion in most Exogenous plants, 
wheie the insertion us lally occupies only a moderate part of the 
circumfeipnce of the stem and espec ailv in tho=e w ih woody 
stems which continue to increase in diameter When they aie 
not cast oft m autumn, therefore, the disruption ineiitibij takes 
place the next spring, or whenever the c rcumfcr(,nce further en 
largea But m most Endogenous plants, where the lea\es are 
acafcply if at all, articulated with the stem wh ch increa'.es little 
in diameter subsequently to its eaily growth they are not thrown 
off", but simply wither and decay , iheir dead bas<,s or petioles 
being ofipn persistent for i long time 

311 Tlie Death of the Leaf, howeVer, in these ind other cases is 

' Dr, Iniaan, in Hentrej's Buianicol Gazette, 1. p. 61. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


still to be explained. Why have leaves such a temporary exist- 
ence ? Why in ordinary cases do they last only for a single year, 
or a single summer ? The answer to this question is to be found 
in the anatomical structure of the leaf, and the nature and amount 
of the fluid which it receives and exhales. The water continually 
absorbed by the roots dissolves, as it percolates the soil, a small 
portion of earthy matter. In limestone districts especially, it takes 
up a sensible quantity of carbonate and sulphate of lime, and be- 
comes hard. It likewise dissolves a smaller proportion of silex, 
magnesia, potash, &c. A part of this mineral matter is at once 
deposited in the woody tissue of the stem (210) ; but a larger por- 
tion is carried into the leaves (40, 92), where, as the water is ex- 
haled or distilled perfectly pure, all this earthy substance must be 
left behind to incrust the delicate cells of the parenchyma, much as 
the vessels in which water is boiled for culinary purposes are in time 
incrusted with an earthy deposit. This earthy incrustation, in con- 
nection with the deposition of organic solidified matter (39), grad- 
ually chokes the tissue of the leaf, obstructs the exhal«lion, and 
finally unfits it for the performance of its offices. Hence the fresh 
leaves most actively fulfil their functions in spring and early sum- 
mer ; but languish towards autumn, and ere- long inevitably perish. 
Hence, although the roots arid branches may be permanent, the 
necessity that the leaves should be annually renewed. But the 
former are, in fact, annually renewed likewise ; and life abandons 
the annual layers of wood and bark almost as soon as it does the 
leaves they supply (216, 217, 228), and for similar reasons ; al- 
though their situation is such that they become part of a perma- 
nent structure, and serve to convey the sap even when no longer 
endowed with vitality, 

312. The general correctness of this view may be tested by di- 
rect microscopical observation. In Fig. 185, 186, some superficial 
parenchyma thus obstructed by long use is represented ; and sim- 
ilar illustrations may be obtained from ordinary leaves. That this 
deposit consists in great part of earthy matter is shown by care- 
fully burning away the organic materials of an autumnal leaf over 
a lamp, and exajnining the ashes by the microscope ; which will be 
found very perfectly to exhibit the form of the cells. The ashes 
which remain when a leaf or Other vegetable substance is burned 
in the open air represent the earthy n^aterials which it has accu- 
mulated. A vernal leaf leaves only the minutest quantity of ash- 



es ; an autumnal leaf yields a very large proportion, — from ten to 
thirty times as much aa the wood of the same species ; although 
the leaves conlaio the deposit of a single season only, while the 
heart-wood is loaded with the accumulations of successive years.* 

313. Sxhalation from the leaves. The quantity of water exhaled 
from the leaves during active vegetation is very great. In one of 
the well-known experiments of Hales, a Sunflower three and a 
half feet high, with a surface of 5,616 square inches exposed to 
the air, was found to perspire at the rate of twenty to thirty ounces 
avoirdupois every twelve hours, or seventeen tinaes more than a 
man. A Vine, with twelve square feet of foliage, exhaled at the 
rate of five or six ounces a day ; and a seedling Apple-tree, with 
eleven square feet of foliage, lost nine ounces a day. The amount 
varies with the degree of warmth and dryness of the air, and of ex- 
posure to light; and is also very different in different species, some 
exhaling more copiously even than the Sunflower, But when we 
consider the vast perspiring surface presented hy a large tree in full 
leaf, it is evident that the quantity of watery vapor it exhales must 
be' immense. This exhalation is dependent on the capacity of the 
air for moisture at the time, and upon the presence of the sun ; 
often it is scarcely perceptible during the night. The Sunflower, 
in the experiment of Hales, lost only three ounces in a warm, dry 
night, and underwent no diminution during a dewy night. 

314. Rise of tlie Sap, Now this exhalation by the leaves requires 
a corresponding absorption by the roots. The one is the measure 
of the other. If the leaves exhale more in a given time than the 
roots can restore by absorption from the soil, the foliage droops ; 
as we see in a hot and dry summer afternoon, when the drain by 
exhalation is very great, while a furtljer supply of moisture can 
hardly be extorted from the parched soil ; — as we observe also in 
a leafy plant newly transplanted, where the mjured rootlets are not 
immediately in a fit condition for absorption. Ordinarily, how- 
ever, exhalation by the leaves and absorption by the roots are in 

* The dried leavus of tiie Elm contiun more thao eleien per cent, of ashee, 
whQe the wood contains less than two pft te?it. , those of the Willow, mora 
than e^ht per Mnt., while the wood lias only 0.45 ; those of the Beech, 6.69, 
die wood only 0.36 ; those of the (EuropeanJ Oak, 4.05, the wood only 0.21 ; 
those of the Pitch -Pine, 315, the wood only 25 per cen!. Heoce the decaying 
foliage in our forests restores to the soil a lai'ge proportion of the inorganic 
matter which Hie trees from year to year take from it. 



direct ratio to each other, and the loss sustained by tlie leaves is 
immediately restored (by endosmosis, 37) through the ascent of 
the sap from the branches, the latter being constantly supplied by 
the stem ; so that, during active vegetation, the sap ascends from 
the remotest rootlets to the highest leaves, with a rapidity corre- 
sponding to the amount of exhalation The action of the leaves is 
therefor 1 p p I h I ft f 1 P 

This is be f lly 11 d 1 f 1 d fi re f 

leafing f I f 1 k p 1 1 m d h 

graft wh 1! re 1 g h mp h h h p 

is put in m d 11 g h 1 b f 1 1 k 

Also by d g h b h f 

during w h h Jpdhph k 

without bl m 1 1 d d 

315., D g 1 m ta I h saj d 

or exhal d !m f ^ p' ^ ^^^ 

accumul k pi b m h h I p 

ish, the rootlets, buried m the soil beyond the influence of the cold, 
which checks all vegetation above ground, continue for a time 
slowly to absorb the fluid presented to them. Thus the trunks of 
many trees are at this season gorged with sap, which will flow 
from incisions made into the wood. This sap undergoes a gradual 
change during the winter, and deposits its solid matter in the tubes 
and cells of the wood. The absorption recommences in the 
spring, before new leaves are expanded to consume the fluid ; the 
soluble matters in the tissue of the stem are vedissolved, and the 
trunk is consequently again gorged with sap, which will flow, or 
Meed, when wounded. But when the leaves resume their func- 
tions, or when flowers are developed before the leaves appear, as 
in many forest-frees, this stock of rich sap is rapidly consumed, 
and the sap will no longer flow from an incision. It is not, there- 
fore, at the period when the trunk is most gorged with sap, in 
spring and autumn, hut when least so, during summer, that the 
sap is probably most rapidly ascending. 





Sect. I, The General Physiology of Vegetation. 

516 The Organs of "\ cgention oi Nutritun (thjae by iihich 
plints. glow ind form fheii vinou"! pioduUs) h^vini^ now been 
consideied both 'scpantely ind to some e^ttent in their comb ned 
action Via aie piepited to taku a compiehens ve suivey of the 
general phtnomcni and i esult'^ of vegetation , lo inquire into the 
elementary composition of plinl<!, the natuie of the food by which 
they are nourished, the sources from which this food li deiived, 
and the transformations it undergoe'' in their sv&iem, chiefly m the 
leaves It is in vegetable digestion, or, to use a better f^rm, in 
asstmi(o(K»i,th'it the essential nature of vegetation is to be sought 
smce it IS in this process alone that mineral, unorganiEed matter is 
converted into the tLssue of pHnts and othei fornix of oi^inized 
matter (12, 15, 16) From this point of view, therefDie, the re 
ciprocil relations and influences of the mineitl, vegeliblp and 
animal 1 ngdoms may bo most advantigeouslv contemplated, and 
the office of plants in the general economy of the v. orld best undei 
stood. This portion of general physiology is intimately connected 
with chemistry, and ^ome knowledge of that science is requisite for 
the due compiehension of the subject, especially in relation to its 
exceedingly important application^ to agiiculture and hoiiiculture 
We are here restricted to the bare statempnt of the leading facts 
which aie thought to be established, and the more important de- 
ductions 'rthich may bo drawn from them , omitting, for the moat 
part, to adduce the evidence by which these general propositions 

317 Although the oigana of vegetation have been considered 
anatomically and moiphologicallj, or m view of their stiucture 
and development, still the leading points of then physiology, or 
connetted action in the maintenance of the kfe and growth of the 
plant, have from time to time been explained oi assumed. 

318 The functions of nutntion, which, in the higher animah, 
comprise a laiietv of distinct processes, aie leduced lo the gieatest 




degree of simplicity in vegetables. Imhihilion, assimilation, 
growth, and perhaps secretion, appareotly include the. whole. 

319. Plants absorb their food, entirely in a liquid or gaseous 
form, by imbibition, according to the law of endosmosis (37), 
through the walls of the cells that form the surface, ptincipally 
those of tho newest roots and their fibrils (120). The fluid ab- 
sorbed by tbe roots, mingled in the cells with some previously as- 
similated matter they contain in solution (27, 79), is diffused by 
exosraosis and endosmosis from cell to cell, aided by the capillary 
action of the fibro-vascular tissue of the wood, through the newer 
parts of which the sap principally rises in stems of some age (210, 
217) ; and is attracted into the leaves (or to other parts of the sur- 
face of the plant exposed to the air and light) by the exhalation 
which takes place from them (314), and the consequent inspissa- 
tion of the sap. Here, exposed to the light of the sun, the crude 
sap is assimilated, or converted into organizable matter (79), with 
the evolution of osygen gas into the air ; and, thus prepared to form 
vegetable tissue or any organic product, the elaborated fluid is at- 
tracted into growing parts by endosmosis, in consequence of its con- 
sumption and condensation there, or is diffused through the newer 
tissues. The fluids are transferred from place to place by permea- 
tion and diffusion, according to a simple physical law. There is 
no movement in plants of the nature of the circulation in animals 
(37). Even in the so-called vessels of the latex there is merely a 
mechanical flow from the turgid tubes towards the place where the 
liquid is escaping when wounded, or from a part placed under in- 
creased pressure (63). The only circulation, or directly vital 
movement of fluid, in vegetable tissue, is that of rotation, or the sys- 
tem of currents in or next the layer of protoplasm in young and 
active cells (36) : this movement is confined to tho individual coll, 
and can have no influence in the transference of the sap from cell 
to cell, Respiration is likewise a function of animals alone. 
What is so called in vegetables is connected with assimilation, 
and is of entirely difierent physiological significance, as will pres- 
ently be shown. None of the secretions of plants appear, like 
many of those of animals, to play any part, at least any essential 
part, in nutrition. Many, if riot all of them, are purely chemical 
transformations of the general assimilated products of plants, — 
are excretions rather than secretions (80). 

320. The appropriation ofassimilated matter in vegetable growth. 



and the production and multiplication of cells, which make up the 
fabric of the plant, have already been treated of (25-39). We 
have now only to consider what the food of plants is, whence it is 
derived, and how it is elaborated. 

Sect, H. The Food and the Elementary Composition of 

331, The Faod and the elementary composition of plants stand 
in a necessary relation to each other. Since it is not to be sup- 
posed tbat plants possess the power of creating any simple element, 
whatever they cou'iist of must have been derived from . without. 
Their lompoAition indicates then food, and vice versa. If we have 
learned the chemical composition of a vegetable, and also what it 
gives back to the soil and the air, we know consequently what it 
must ha^e derived ftom without, that is, iis food. Or, if we have 
ascertamed what the plant takes from the soil and air, and what it 
returns to them, we ha\ e learned its chemical composition, namely, 
the diffeience between these two. And when we compare the na- 
ture and condition of the materials which the plant takes from the 
^il and the air with what it gives back to them, we may form a 
correct notion of the influence of vegetation upon the mineral king- 
dom. By considering the materials of which plants are composed, 
we may learn what their food must necessarily contain. 

322. Tlie Gonstituenls of Plants are of two kinds ; the earthy or in- 
organic, and the organic, it has been staled {40, 91) that various 
earthy matters, di^olved by the water which the roots absorb, are 
drawn into the plant, and at length deposited in the wood, leaves, 
&c. These form the ashes which are left on burning a leaf or a 
piece of wood. Although these mineral matters are often turned 
to account by. the plant, and some of them are necessary in the 
formation of certain products, (as the siles which gives needful 
firmness to the stalk of Wheat, and the phosphates which are 
found in the grain,) yet none of them are essential to simple vege- 
tation, which may, and sometimes does, proceed without them. 
These materials, the presence of which is in some sort accidental, 
though in certain cases essential, are distinguished as the earthy, 
or mineral, or inorganic constituents of plants. This class may 
be left entirely out of view for the present. But the analysis of 
any newly formed vegetable tissue, or of any part of the plant. 



such as a piece of wood, after the incrusting mineral matter has 
faoea chemically removed, invariably yields hut three or four ele- 
ments. These, which are indispensable to vegetation, and make 
up at least from eighty-eight to ninety-nine per cent, of every veg- 
etable substance, are termed the universal, organic constituents of 
plants. They are Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (10) 
The proper vegelahle structure, that is, the tissue itself, uniformly 
consists of only three of these elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, 
and oxygen. These are absolutely essential and universal ; while 
the fourth, nitrogen, is an essential constituent of the protoplasm, 
which plays so important a part in the formation of the cells (37), 
and of certain vegetable products. 

323. The (ll^anic ConsStuenU. These four elements must bo fur- 
nished by the food upon which the vegetable lives ; — they must 
be drawn from the soil and the air; in some cases, doubtless, from 
the latter source, as in Epiphytes, or Air-plants (132), but gener- 
ally and principally by absorption through the roots. The plant's 
nourishment is wholly received either in the gaseous or the liquid 
form; for the leaves can imbibe air or vapor only (262-268), 
while the tissue of the rootlets is especially adapted to absorb 
liquids, and is incapable of taking in solid matter, however mi- 
nutely divided (Fig. 108-110). 

324. In whatever mode imbibed, evidently the main vehicle of 
the plant's nourishment is water, which as a liquid bathes its roots, 
and in the state of vapor continually surrounds its leaves. ' We 
have seen how copiously water is taken up by the growing plant, 
and have formed some general idea of its amount by the quantity 
that is exhaled unconsumed by the leaves (313). But pure water, 
although indispensable, is insuiEcient for the nourishment of plants. 
It consists of oxygen and hydrogen ; and therefore may furnish, 
and doubtless does principally furnish, these two essential elements 
of the vegetable structure. But it cannot supply what it does not 
itself contain, namely, the darbon and nitrogen which tho plant 
also requires. 

325. Yet the question arises, ivhether the water which the plant 
actually imbibes contains in fact a quantity of these remaining 
elements. Though pure water cannot, may not rain-water supply 
the needful carbon and nitrogen ? It is evident that, if the water 
which in such large quantities rises through the plant and is ex- 
haled from its leaves, contain even a very minute quantity of these 



gq to h 





3 7 

Ih p! 


ingredients, in such a form that ihey may be detained when tlie 
superfluous water is exhaled, this might furnish the whole oiganic 
food of the vegetable, since the plant may condense and acrumu- 
1 h b d logen, just as the extremely minute quantity 

f hy h h the water conlama ii in time laigcly ac- 

m 1 d hi 9 and wood 

3 6 A 1 he nitrogen, nearly seventy-nine ^er cent, of 

h ra ph fa of this gas in an uncombined or free state, 

1 ly m ! d with oxygen. And, being soluble to some 

ry rain-drop that falls through the air absorbs 
nd a minute quantity of it, which is therefore 
d into the plant with the water which the roots 
s for the free nitrogen which is always pros- 

1 receives, probably, a larger portion of its 

g h f of ammonia (or hartshorn), a compound of 

1 y J d g D, which is always produced when ally ani- 

! d Im y egelable suhstance decays, and which, being 

ry 1 1 ontinually rise into the air from these and 

h B d s, it appears to bo formed in the atmosphere, 

h gh 1 I on in thunderstorms (in the form of nitrate of 

) Tt reme sol b 1 ty of a nn o a and U s on 

p d p ts cumula o u he a no pl e e f o h cl 

g d I b b d hy aq eo s po nd b ough do o 1 e 

d by Th he oo s ac ual y abso h may be fe d 

h f f la plan g ow mo lu u an ly 1 en he 

1 rP^ "^ h ub anco wl cl y Id ucl an n on a such 

m I m and ha a o a may be d ec ed n 1 e 

f Ira Up an Eai wa 1 e efo e con a 1 e 

third element of ge a o ely n trogen bo 1 n a sepa ate 

form and in iha of a mon a 

32S. The sou ce of 1 e ema ng onsti en ca boa s 11 o 
be sought. ' Of this element plants must requue a copious supply, 
since it forms much the largest portion of their bulk. If the carbon 
of a leaf or of a piece of wood be obtained sepai'ate from the other 
organic elements, — which may be done by charring, that is, by 
heating it out of contact with the air, so as to drive off the oxygen, 
hydrogen, and carbon, — although a small pait of the carbon is 
necessarily lost in the operation, yet what remain', peifectly pre- 
serves the shape of the original body, even to that of its most 


p by Ifhgilm ICb If 

Id 1 ly 1 bi d h f p bl f 

p y h pi Tl h f f h ly fl d raj d 

f hi Hyp d h pi h f 

b dghh fb \ \ Tl 

gas makes up on the average one two-thoiisandlh of the bulk of the 
atmosphere ; from which it may be directly absorbed by the leaves. 
But, being freely soluble in water up to a certain point, it must 
also be carried down by the rain and imbibed by the roots. The 
carbonic acid of the atmosphere is therefore the great source of 
carbon for vegetation. 

329. It appears, then, that the atmosphere — considermg water 
in the state of vapor to form a component part of it — contains all 
the essentia! materials for the growth of vegetables, and in the form 
best adapted to their use, namely, in the fluid state. It furnishes 
water, which is not only food itself, inasmuch as it supplies oxygen 
and hydrogen, but is likewise the vehicle of the others, conveying 
ed from the iir nimely, the lequisitc 
faratelyoi m the form of immonn, 
f carbonic and 

menta, the whole jiJo^e» fo<.d of plants, 
s directly from the an, in the state of 
1 St plants actually tike m a portion of 
their food in this way, at least when other supplj is arrested 
Drooping foliage may be revived by sprmklmg with witei, or 
by exposure to a moist atmosphere. A vigorous branch of the 
common Live-for-ever {Sedum Telephum), or of many such 
plants, it is well kaown, will live and giow for a whole season 
when pinned to a dry, bare wall ; and the Epiphj tes, or \ii plints 
(132), as they are aptly called, must derive their whole sustenance 
immediately from the air ; for they have no connection with the 

331. But the peculiar oiEce of leaves is something diflereut fiom 
that of absorbing nourishment. As a comprehensive itatemcnt, 
leaving extraordinary cases out of view, it may be said that plants, 
although they derive their food from the in, leccive it chiefly 
through their roots. The aqueous vapor, condensed into jam or 
dew, and bringing with it to the ground a portion of carbonic acid. 

to tl ts 

1 { las 

suppl f 
and f b 

g 1 
h f 

'330 Tl 

may I b 
gas or V p 1. 

D ubl 

Ho.t.d, Google 



and of nitrogen or ammonia, &.C., supplies the appropriate food of 
the plant to the rootlets. Imbibed by these, it is conveyed through 
the stem and into .the leaves, where the now superfluous water is 
restored to the atmosphere by exhalation,* while the residue is con- 
verted info the proper nourishment and substance of ttie vegetable. 

332. Tiie atmosphere is therefore the great storehouse from 
which vegetables derive their nourishm.pnt ; and it might be clearly 
shown that all the constituents of plants, excepting the small earthy 
porfioo that many can do without, iiave at some period formed a 
part of the atmosphere. The vegetable kingdom represents an 
amount of matter, which the force of organization has withdrawn 
from the air, and confined for a time to the surface. 

333. Does it therefore follow, that the soil merely serves as a 
foothold to plants, and that all vegetables obtain their whole nour- 
ishment directly from the atmosphere .' This must have been the 
case with the first plants that grew, when no vegetable or animal 
matter existed in the soil ; and no less so with the first vegetation 
thai covers small volcanic islands raised in our own times from the 
sea, or the Surface of lava thrown from ordinary volcanoes. No 
vegetable matter is brought to these perfectly sterile mineral soils, 
except the minute portion contained in the seeds wafted thither by 
winds or waves. And yet in time a vast quantity is produced, 
which is represented not only by the existing vegetation, hut by 
the mould that the decay of previous generations has imparted to 
the soil. We arrive at the same result by the simple experiment 
of causing a seed of known weight to germinate on powdered 
flints, watered by rain-water atone. When the young plant has 

" The water exlialed may be again absorbed by the roots, laden with a new 
finpplj of the other elements from the ftlr, again exhaled, ^and so on; as is 
beautifully iilustjated by the cultivation of plants in closed Word cases, where 
plants are seen to flourish for a long time with a very limited supply of water, 
every particle of which (except the small portion actually coTinvmed by the 
plants) must pass repeatedly through this circulation. This vegetable micro- 
cosm well exhibits Ihe actual relations of water, &i;. to vegetation on a large 
scale in natave ; where the water is alternately and repeatedly raised by 
evaporation and recondensed to snch extent that what actually falls in rain is 
estimated to be reSvaporated and rained down (on an average throughout the 
world) ten or fifteen times in the course of a year. In this way the atmos- 
phere is repeatedly washed by the rain ; and those vapors washed oat which 
else by their accumulation would prove injnrions tu men and animals, and con- 
veyed 10 the roots of plants, which they are especially adapted to nourish. 



d h f II development of which it is capable under these 

ill be found to weigh {after due allowance for 

hi y 1 e taken up) perhaps fifty or one hundred times 

h 1 ginal seed. There can he no question as to the 

f h f^ able matter io all tliese cases, Tha requisite 

ma I Jib air. Plants possess the peculiar faculty of 

d h f the air. The air ittust have furnished the whole. 

Tl 1 amply confirmed by a great variety of familiar 

f 1 ih accumulation of vegetable matter in peat-bogs, 

d f m Id neglected fields, in old forests, and generally 

wh n is undisturbed. Since this rich mould, instead 

f d m g ularly increases with the age of the forest and 

h 1 f egetation, the trees must have drawn from the 

a 1 h aat amount of carbon, &c- that is stored up in 

h I b n additional quantity which is imparted to the 

I h I fall of leaves, fcc. 

334 S II by o means follows, that each plant draws all its 

nourishment directly from the air This unquestionably happens 

f I d A p d 

h h h I lb k k d 

wll p dB p Ilybmkdh 

ly b f pi II 1 d 1 

d ih f h g tab] f 1 f J 

fm hhl ml 11 hi d m 

y I 1 f pi II h 

p f h L h M F 1 

b f Fl p! d lly f I f ^ 

bl m Md 1 1 i d 

d 1 g ra 1 m ly p h 

h bcgppdplyp 1 hyd f ! 

d p ly ] th 1 ml f g bl 

m Id T 1 g y I 1 t f h 

pi IS h dra 1 g ly p g bl m I Id 

f lly p by d dl & d h 

d h h hi ly II h ookf b 

ilhdwfl I lyh I b 

d II d 1 pi 1 h h II m p 

p 1 I gh pi f m d mp m 11 

Ih ibhbid s difh 




f m 

I d b d ly f 

ly h f h 1 

11yd If 1 

1 y pi 

f m h A 

ry g ly dfi 

h 1 g bl 



c world. 


hat what 




p, is im- 
up plied. 



d under 


b crop is 


hat it has 



he air; 

h f 

ei- finds 


e to the 





d. Ac- 




; which, slowly 

I h b Id 

namely, into water, carbonic at 

absorbed by the water that percolates the 9od, are imbibed by the 
roots. Others suppose that a portion of the food which plants de- 
rive from decaying vegetable matter may consist of soluble, still 
organic compounds. The econoraj of the greenless parasitic 
plants (135) is adduced in confiiniation of this view; but these are 
nourished by the foster plint just as 11= own flowers are nourished. 
Decisive evidence to the point is furnished by Fungi, the greater 
part of which live upon decaying organic raattei, and have not the 
power of forming organizable pioducts from inorganic materials ; 
and there is reason to think, that it least onp PhEenogamous plant 
(our Monotropa, 137, Fig. 812) lives in much the same way. 

336. Tho Earthy Constituents. The mineral substances which form 
the inorganic constituents of plants (323) are furnished by the soil, 
and are primarily derived from the slow disintegration and decom- 
position of the rocks and earths that compose it.* These are dis- 
solved, for the most part, in very minute proportions, in the water 
which percolates the soil (aided, as to the more insoluble earthy 
salts, by the carbonic acid which this water contains), and with this,' 

* Aceording to Liebig, tJie quantity of potash contained In a layer of soil 
formed by the disiotegralion of 40,000 square feet of the following rocks, &*., 



water are taten up by ^he roots. However minute their proportion 
in the water which the roots imbibe, the plant coacentratea and, 
accumuiates them, as it does its most dilute inorganic food, by the 
constant exhalation " f the v 


h gb 

337 Th 

r frrm the leaves until they amount 
g f h 
d (3 1) 1 

1 h bn 1 ( 10) H 

b Ui 
1 pp 


to the depth of twenty inches, ib as follows. This quantity of Fulspar (a 
large component of granite, &c.) contains . . 1,152,0D0 lbs. 

Clinkstone, .... from 200,000 to 400,000 " 

Basalt, ...,,." 47,500 " 75,000 " 

Clay-slate, " 100,000 " 200,000 " 

Loam, " 87jOOO " 300,000 " 

The silex yielded to the soil by the gradual decomposition of granite and 
other roeks ie in the form of a silicate of potash or other oltali which though 
insoluble in pure water, is slowly acted upon nnd dissolved by the united action 
of water and carbonic a.cid, or morelaigely by water impregnated mth carbon 
ate of potiish, which is abundantly liberated dunng the natural decomposition 
of these rocks. 

" The subjoined results, selected from Bonssingault exhibit m a talular 
form the relative quantities of oi^an o and morgan c constituents in several 
kinds of herbage, compared, in several cases with the root or giain The 
water was previously driven off by desmation 



i' 1 






43.721 45.S( 






6.00, 5.0( 






44,88; 35.5: 












3.90 11.33 











Ho.t.d, Google 

H R H N 19 

rally pre d 1 m 1 b n h 1 

a p p n y I p 1 11 I 

bltyfh lb hi hhhdh 

m p dfi 11 d lly mla 

ta al 1 b ja 1 p g u 

d 1 m m I ly 

1 pp Cbhw fbdf 

h Ifqln gaflm daf 

i h T! b f pp h a rt p f 

1 p 1 m 1 m 1 N aid 

b nl bljbbp lid yhtn 

Tl b^pdtfcl p la 

b 1 Ipl f pp h h d 

1 d h d ly bb d ly 

py tl Fmldk bblld 

Id Iflppdyl p dl 

n ly m 1 1 g j ( 1 1 f 1 ) 

Idh dlblm dffnljdh 

am pp thhybbl by did 

308 I 1 a&b nly h 1 wb h 1 f b 

b b pb ph Ipl d h 1 !1 ra a h 

ta hhby d hpl IfAg p fl 

bas bdvibg df llpjnd 

m ] g ly li 1 I (qo 91) I mp d a by 

by ! p b p 1 lly 

d b 

S39 I 1 p bl b pi I Id fi 1 1 1 

1ml y g h 1 f d 

1[ w bid d dly p wU 

ly fl b p I 1 'ftly pi wb h 

takpm l&c dbbd 

t] tyf p by wdlbgw 

1 fly d dw d f II 1 f p f d th 

d n I fl b I 1 b d n 

(1 b ga Mq yl fn ff 

aah f 1 ) wl y b V Ik 1 m 

pla \ I g f 1 p I wl 1 1 p 

a dwlP dF 1 b fwbb la j 

I 1 lit 1 U ! b n a d I 11 

! B 1 M pi El S. b 1 g b p 1 ly 

f 1 df I I d 



340 Where vegetation is iiadislurbed by man, all these n 

n q !y I bl f I g w h m h h the 

hfmdfmh B I hpod. 

d nd 1 h I h h 1 been 

slowly yielded by the soil. "A medium ciop of Wheat takes 
from one acre of ground about 12 pounds, a crop of Beans about 
-20 pounds, and a crop of Bpets about II pounds, of phosphoric 
acid, besides a very large quantity of potash and soda [t is bbvi 
ous that such a process tends continually to exl a ble 1 d of 

the mineral substances useful to vegetation wb h n a o d 

that a time must come, when, without supplies of su 1 ne-al 
mattere, the land would become unproductive f on he ab rac 

tion In the neighborhood of large and p p lo for 

instance, where the interest of the farmer and market-gardener is to 
send the largest possible quantity of produce to market, consuming 
the least possible quantity on the spot, the want -of saline principles 
in the soil would very soon be felt, were it not that for every wag- 
on-load of greens and carrots, fruit and potatoes, corn and straw, 
that finds its way into the city, a wagon-load of dung, containing 
each and every one of these principles locked up in the several 
crops, is returned to the lanS, and proves enough, and often more 
than enough, to replace all that has been carried away from it." * 
The loss must either be made up by such equivalent return, or the 
land must lie fallow fiom iime to time until these soluble substan- 
ces are restored by fuither disinlegrition of the materials of the 
soil; or meanwhile the more exhausting ciops maybe alternated 
with thMe that lake least from the soil and most from the air; or 

* BojissingSLult, Ecommie Bmale ; from, the Engl. Trans., p. 493. Further: 
— " It may be inferred that, in the most frequent cose, ntimely, that of arable 
lands not sufBcientlj rich to do without manure, there can be no con^nuous 
[independent] cnltivation without annexation of meadow ; in oilier words, one 
part of the fami must yield crops without consuming manure, so lliat this may 
replace tho alkaline and earthy salts which are constantly witlidrawn by sue- ■ 
coasive harvests from another part. Lands enriched by rivers alone permit of a 
total and continued export of their produce without exhaustion. Such are the 
fields ferliliied by the innndations of the Nile ; and it is difficult to form an 
idea of the prodigious quantises of phosphoric acid, magnesia, and potasli, 
nhicb, in a succession of ages, have parsed out of Egypt with her in 
portsofcorn." — p. 503. 



with one which, hke clover, aUhough it takes up 77 pounds of al- 
kali per acre, may he consumed on the field, so as to restore most 
of this alkali in the manure for the succeeding crop. 

841. It has been asserted that the advantage of preceding a 
wheat crop hy one of Leguminous plants (such as Peas, Clover, 
Lucerne, &.c.), or of roots or tuhers, is owing to the fact, that these 
leave the phosphates, &c. nearly untouched for the wheat which is 
to follow, and which largely abstracts them. The results of Bous- 
aingault's experiments and analyses sliow that these products aie 
far from having the deficiency of phosphates which was alleged 
" For example, beans and haricots take 20 and 13 7 pounds of 
phosphoric acid fiom every acie of land ; potatoes and beet-root 
take 11 and 12.8 pounds of that acid, esactlv whattt. found jn a 
crop of wheat. Tiefoil is equally iich in phosphates with the 
sheaves of corn that have gone before it " * His further re 
searches seem to show that these ciops exhaust the sod les<! than 
the cereal grains, la part at least, on account of the large quantity 
of organic matter, rich in nitrogen, which they leave to be incor- 
porated with the sod The theory of rotation m ciops, founded by 
De Caadolle on the assumption that excietions from the roots of a 
plant accumulated in the sod until in lime they became injmioos 
to that crop, but furnished appropnate food for a different species, 
is entirely abandoned as an explanation , and even the fact that 

^_„lt,Z.c,p 497 — SubjoiJieii is ■» tah 

.he percentage of Mineral Stibstaaces iaken up film 
grown at BeiAelbTonn. 

i, from the 'j; 
th^ soil bj , 




























































47 < 












































1 1 













Horse beans, 












Ho.t.d, Google 


such excretiooa are formed, at least to any considerable extent, ia 
not made out. That they could accumulate and remain in the soil 
without undergoing decomposition is apparently impossible. 

Sect. III. Assimilation, oe Vegetable Disestion, and its 

34 A\ 1 ! d 1 

I I 1 

If 1 f 

pi h h 1 b 

b d b 


d g (p ly 1 f m 

f m 

f h 

p d ) f m 1 d Id 

h f h 

f f 

g h 1 h 

h 1 \ 

p bl 

(3 1 as l}q 

y f i 

a43 Th fl d b b d y 


d p d 

hr g\ 1 h 

( 9) 

^ S P P 

f m 

1 1 d 

1 fly hy d 1 g h 1 bl 


m 1 

th b h M |1 

i« d 

d r 

bl p p dfF I 

Tl 1 1 


1 dy 1 b d f d d y 

1 f b 

d I m 

jl y d g b IB 
ra 1 d 

) d p 

If y 

p bl f 

f m p f 1 1 g 


w> g 

d 1 p 


3 4 A. mil t { 5) 

1 f m 

igy !> 

If y m d r &Z D 


d g h p h g 1 
1 h g p f h 
p f bl d wl 

d p 
il 1 h 

d ! 
1 » 

P <! 

' P 
1 1 h f 

h d h h fl 1 

k B 

b ff d 

U d h fl f 1 1 h 

1 fb If 


d U h 11 g 

f pi 1 

h b 

h 1 1 1 1 1 


f I 

fi d 1 p d Wh pi 



Igh 1 p 1 1 

11 h 

g ■» 

IS f d h Igh 



p d 1 C 1 y 

bl 1 d b 

g 1 I 

d m & 1 1 

™ir 1 1 


p p th m 

f 1 p ( 


dp f ss 1 b 

1 p d 


Ho.t.d, Google 

pense of alreaJ mid B 11 p f pi 

such as Ihe cell 1 bkrahb pthp 

the same mann 1 pply g 1 p! pi ts 

which produce f 1 h C iS. U d h 

influence of lig! 1 p 1 m y p bl d 

lion is accomp! hdmlyh fl dp 

by the evapora hi f V p fl 1 

mechanism and q f h h 1 I dy b 

considered (367 313} 

345. We ha ly d hfb gyflVim 
the process of g bl d g If m ly h 
leaf upon the d p H p! h p 
fectly unparall Id 1 h h l!y h 

lion, and upon 1 1 11 g d 1 ly d p d 

(1,16). Thes — 1 TA ; d d p f 

more of the sub h j ml h co S S ^ 

ike liberation f ^ yg h d f h 

air. Theche 1 y f m 

its compounds, b ly With h d f p fig f 

heat equal to ih { \h 2d TI nsf f his 

mineral food, this vnorgamc mto organic matter, — the organned 
substance of living plants, atid consequently of animals. These 
Iwo operations, although separately stated to convey a clearer idea 
of the results, are in fact but different aspects of one great process. 
We coQtempiate the first, when we consider what the plant gives 
back to the air; — the second, when we inquire what it retains as 
the materials of its own growth. The concentrated sap is decom- 
posed ; the portion which is not required io the growth of the plant 
is returned to the air ; and the remaining elements are at the same 
time rearranged, so as to form peculiar organic products. 

346. The principal materia! given back to the air, in this pro- 
cess, is oxygen gas,* that element of our atmosphere which alone 

* A small proportion of nitrogen gas is liliowise almost constantly exhaled 
from the leaves ; but this appears to come from the nitrogen which the water 
irafaibcd by the roots had abaorhed from tJie air (326), and which passes off 
unaltered from the loares when this water is evaporated, or from the tdc which 
the rootlets directly absorb to some extent. In the course of vegetation, no 
more nitrogen is given ont than, what is thus taken in, and probably not so 
moeh. So that the exhalation of nitrogen may bqjeft out of the genera) view 
of the changes which are brought about in vegetation. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


renders it fit for the breathing and life of animals. That the foli- 
age of plants in sunshine is continually yielding oxygen gas to the 
surrounding aii has been familiarly known since the days of Inj 
houss and Priestley, and may at any moment be verified by : 
pie experimenf. The readiest way is, to expose a few freshly 
gathered leaves to the sunshine in a glass vessel filled with water, 
and to collect the air-bubbles which presently arise while the lighl 
falls upon ihcm, hut which cease to appear when placed in shad- 
ow. This air, when examined, proves to be free oxygen gas 
nature, diffused daylight produces this result ; but in our rude ex- 
periments, direct sunshine is generally necessary. What is the 
source of this oxygen gas, which is given up to the air just in pro- 
portion to the vigor of a^imilation in the leafy plant, or, in other 
words, to the consumption of crude sap .' 

347. To take for illustration the case which exhibits the general 
result (and whether this is actually attained at one operation, or 
not, does not affect the view), and enables us directly to contrast 
the materials with the principal product of vegetation, we will sup- 
pose the plant is assimilating its food immediately into Cellulose, or 
the substance of which its tissue consists (27). This matter, when 
in a pure state, and free from incrusting materials, has a per- 
fectly uniform composition in all plants. It is composed of carbon, 
hydrogen, and oxygen, of which the latter two exist in the same 
proportions as in water.* It may therefore be said to consist of 
carbon and the elements of water. These materials are necessa- 
rily furnished by the plant s food. But the universal food of the 
plant, that which is only and absolutely essential to bare vegeta- 
tion (324, 329) H caibon l acid and water, if this be deco 
posed in vegetat on -mi the carbonic acid give up its oxygi 
there remam ca bun and water, or rather the elements of wat 
— the very c mpos tion of cellulose or vegetable tissue. Doubt- 
less, then, the oxygen which is rendered to the air in vegetation 
comes from the caibonic acid which, as we have seen (338), the 
plant took from the air. 

348. This view may be confirmed by direct experiment. We 
have seen that many plants must, and all mat/, imbibe the whole or 
a part of their food directly from the air into their leaves (132, 

* Cellulose is chemically composed of 13 equivalenis of Carbon, 10 of Ily- 
drogen, and 10 of Oxygen, viz. C"*, E'", O'". 







b bv 






1, 1 


1 »■ 


330). All leafy plants doubtless oblaia a part of their carbonic 
acid in this way. It is accordingly found, that when a current of 
carbonic acid is made alowly to traverse a glass globe containing 
a leafy plant exposed to the full sunshine, the carbonic acid disap- 
pears, and an equal bulk of oxygen gas supplies its place. Now, 
since carbonic acid gas contains just its own bulk of oxygen, it is 
evident that what has thus been decomposed in the leaves has re- 
turned al! its oxygen to the air. Plants take carbonic acid from 
the atmosphere, therefore (direclly or iadirectly) ; they retain its 
carbon ; they give back its oxygen.* 

349. But cellulose, being the final, insoluble product of vegeta- 
tion appropriated as tissue, cannot itself be formed in the first in- 
stance. The materials from which it is deposited, and which we 
actually find in the elabtyated sap, are D 
cilage (81, 83), sugar (84), &c. The fi 
directly produced in assimilation. lis ch m 
same as that of pure cellulose : it con 
three elements, but of the same elements 

portion. Dextrine, vegetable mucilage, &.C., a e th p m ry, a yet 
unappropriated materials of vegetable tissue, or unsolidified cellu- 
lose, and their production from the crude sap is attended with the 
evolution of the oxygen which was contained in the carbonic acid 
of tlie plant's food, as already stated. t Nor is the result in any 

* At least, (lie result is os if the oxygen exhaled were all thns detached 
from the carbou of the citrbonic aaH. Just this nmount is liberated, and the 
beta obviously point Co the carbonic acid as its real eoarce. But on Che other 
hand, it appears unlikely that a substance which holds oxygen with such 
strong affinity as carbon should yield (he whole of it under these circumstan- 
ces : and water is certainly decomposed, with the OToIutJon of oxygen, in the 
formation of a class of vegetable products soon to be mentioned ; besides, Ed- 
wards tttid Colin have shown that water is directly decomposed during germi- 
nation. Still, as no one supposes that the residue after the liberation of oxy- 
gen is carhon and water, bat only the three elements in the proportions which 
would constitute them, it amounts to nearly the same thing whether we say 
that tfie oijvfen of the carbonic acid, or on amount of oxggen eguivaletii (o thai 
of the airbonic acid, derived partly from it and partly from the itater, is liber- 
ated in sueh eases. That Schleiden should assert that the oxygen liberated 
comes from the decomposition of water alone, shows gross carelessness, or an 
ignorance of arithmetic as well as chemistry, whkh is the less excusable in one 
who, in a sdentific treatise, habitually applies opprobrious epithets to a great 
pare of bis feJIow-lahorers. 

t The result is just tlie same, if, with Henfrey, we suppose that the mat- 


respect alte d 1 S 
product of 1 
immediate!} pp p d 
grains, and h mp 
mulated as 1 dy p j 
So, also, wh I I f 

of Elecamp 
of the Jen 

(I 1 H 

[ A 1 k 

substance i 
lulose, whi h 

1 ly 

same ^urp 
andchemic I 

N h 

that is, they 

f h 

of one and ! 

dphy 1 

(dissolving f 
similation i 

ly Id 
! f ! 

solidified sta 

and 11 1 

II Id -ect 

1 d f b ing 

1 d fi d ih ch- 

ly 1 bl f m cu- 

11 d 


Idfi d 



and cel- 

d h 




mb d 

P P 




m 1 







I of 

fi hy 

( 28), 

nent insoluH d Ad 

growth are PI d f h n 

especially f 1 se d g 

rootstocka (17 ) b rs (175) .S„ h 1 1 dis- 

solved in th sap be p ly d d ne, 

&c.,and attracted in this liquid state into the giowin^, paits, where 
it is transformed into cellulose, and becomes a portion of the per- 
manent vegetable fabric. 

350. Assimilated matter alao occurs in the sap under the still 
more soluble form of Sugar (84). If we suppose this to be a di- 
rect product of the assimilation of carbonic acid and water, the 
amount of oxygen gas exhaled will be just the same as before. 
For sugar has the same elementary composition as dextrine, sfarch, 
and cellulose, with the addition of one equivalent of water in the case 
of cane-sugar, and of three more in that of grape-sugar.* If, as is 
more probable, sugar is a subsequent transformation of dextrine, 
then the latter has only to appropriate some water. In the forma- 

ters acted upon in assimilation are at first aa much deoxidized as in chloro. 
phyll, siuca these general products of vegetation hare immediately to absorb 
oxygen enough to bring ihem lo the form of dextrine, starch, eellalose, &c. 
• The fonnnla for eane-sogar is C", H", 0" ; for grape-sugar, C", H", 0". 



tion of all these products, therefore, the same quantity of carbonic 
^cid is consumed, and all its oxygen restored to the air.* It is 
more and more evident, therefore, that, hy just so much as plants 
grow, they take carbonic acid from the air, they retain its carbon, 
and rotum its oxygen. 

351. In the production of that modification of cellulose called 
Lignine (41), which forms a secondary deposit thickening the walls 
of the cells, and which abounds in wood, if this be realty a simple 
product, and not a mixture, not only must a larger amount of car- 
bonic acid be decomposed, but a small portion of water also, with 
the liberation of its oxygen. For the composition attributed to it 
shows that it contains less oxygen than would suffice to convert its 
hydrogeo into water.t This excess of hydrogen, and the still 
larger excess of carbon, renders those woods that abound with in- 
crusting deposit, other things being equal, more valuable as fuel 
than those of which the issue io great part consists of proper cellu- 
lose, as has already been stated, 

352. The whole class of fatty^ substances, including the Oils, 
Wax, Chlorophyll (85-87), and most of the products of their alter- 

* Since all ^ese nealml ternary substances are idenliciil, or nearly so, in ele- 
mentary composition, and since, with the same amount of carbon, derived from 
the dewmposition of carbonic acid, ttie plant can form them aU, notwithstand- 
ing the great diiference in their external characters, it will DO longer appear so 
surprising that they should be bo readily convertible into each other in the liv- 
ing plant, and even in the hands of the chemist. But the chemistry of organic 
nature exceeds the resources of science, and constantly produces tracsforma- 
tions which the chemist in his laboratory is unable to effect. The latter can 
change starch into dextrine, and dextrine int« sugar ; but he cannot reforse the 
process, and convert sagar inl« dextiine, or doxirine into starch. In tlie plant, 
however, ail these various transformations arc continuall; taking place. Thus, 
the starch deposited in the seed of the Sugar-cane, as in all other Grasses, is 
clianged into sagar in gcrminadon; and the sugar which fills the tissue of the 
stem at the time of flowering is rapidly carried into the flowers, where a portion 
is transformed into stai'ch and again dopoBited in the newly-formed seeds. 
And although the chemist is unable Co transform starch, sugar, &c. into cellu- 
lose, yet he readily efFecls the opposite change, by reconverting woody fibre, 
&c. (under the influence of sulphuric acid) into dextrine and sugar. The 
plant does the same thing in the ripening of fruits, during which a portion of 
tissue is ollen transformed into sugar. Starch-grains and cellulose never can 
be formed artifiraally, because they are not merely organizable matter, but have 
an oi^anic structure, or are the result of growth. 

t According to Payen, lignine, separated as much as possible from cellulose, 
consists of Carbon 53,8, Hydrogen 6,0, and Oxygen 40,2 per cent,, = 0^', H", 



ation, contain, a few of them no oxygeo at all (such as caoutcliouc 
aod some o I ) d II f 1 1 yg 1 q 

vert their hyd g I I dre f m h 

fore, not only II I f h bo d I b g 

out, but als I bigg I If f d by 

further deoi d f I 71'^ hi pi j II f m 

starch (87) d f m (86) I d 

as respects hib fygabby p 

instead of Th B d bl d hi 

products, b f m h I dp 1 d f 

the essential 1 B I m hi dfmhblcf 
plants, are tu 1 1 f h 11 

or pine-resm, in tbe od of turpentine. 

353. An opposite class, the Vegetable Adds (90), contain more 
oxygen than is necessary for the conversion of their hydrogen into 
water, but less than the amount which exists in carbonic acid and 
water. Indeed, (he most general vegetable acid, the oxalic (which 
is formed artiftcially by the action of nitric acid on starch), hag no 
hydrogen, except in the atom of water that is connected with it. 
These acids are sometimes formed in the leaves, as in the Sorrel, 
the Grape-vine, &c., but usually in the fruit. If produced directly 
from the sap, as is probably the case in acid leaves, only a part of 
the oxygen in the carbonic acid which contributes to the r foima 
tion would be exhaled. But if they are formed from sugar, or any 
other of the general products of the proper juice the absorption of 
a portion of oxygen from the air would be required foi the tonver 
aion ; and this absorption takes place [at least in some casei) w hen 
fruits acquire their acidity. Even their formation by the plant 
therefore, is attended by the liberation of oxygen gas, though less 
in quantity than in ordinary vegetation. 

354. There is still another class of vegetable pioducts of uni 
versal occurrence, and, although comparatively small in quantity, 
of as high importance as those which coDstitute the peimanent 
fabric of the plant; nafnely, the neutral quaternary or^amt com 
pounds, of which nitrogen is a constituent (79) These are mutu 
ally convertible bodies, related to each other as devtr ne and sugar 
to starch and cellulose, and playing the same part in the animal 
economy that the neutral ternary products do m the legetible 
To the basis or type of these azoiized products Mulder has given 
the name of Sj^Qieiue (27) ; hence ihey are sometimes collectively 



called proteine compouods. In their production from tlie crude 
sap, the ammonia, or other azotized matter it contains, plays an 
essential part ; and oxygen gas ia restored to the air from the de- 
composition of all the carbonic acid concerned and a part of the 

355. In living cells the proteine exists as azotized mucilage, and 
forms the protoplasm or vitally active lining which may he said to 
give origm to the vegetable structure, since the cellulose is depos- 
ited under its influence to form the permanent walls or fabric of 
the celh, as has aheady been explained (27-32), When the 
cells ha\e completed their growth and transformation, the proto- 
plasm abandons them, being constantly attracted onwards into 

forming and growing pai 


d 1 p 

m nt. For 

this azotized matter has h 

k b! 

p 1 y 

f nducing 

chemical changes in oth 

P d 

p iij 

h neutral 

ternary bodies, causing 

k I b 

f m d 

other, or 

even the decomposition f 

P 1 

I I 

cid, and 

finally into carbonic ac d 

d { 


itself remaining the wbil 

ly I 


356. The constant attra 

f h p 

pi f 

he corn- 

pleted into the forming p 

f I pi 

pi h 

is, that 

so small a percentage f 

d m 

I Id b 

pable of 

playing such an all-impo 

P 1 

g bl 

my. It 

does- its work with little I 

f m I 

d 1 

of it is 

fixed in the tissues. At I 

h I 1 h 

Id parts is 

capable of being vrashed 
of the fabric. It explain 

h g I 
ly h h 

f m 

gral part 

d f 


the most solidified kind y 

Id b Ij 

n f 

n, while 

the sap-wood yields an app 

! m 

d 1 

b m -layer 

• Tlie chemical ohangca have been tabulated thu 

The matevialB : 

From which ate formed the product : 

C. H. N. 



H. N. 0. 

74 of Water, 7* 

74 1 of Proteine, 4S 

36 6 H 

94 of Carbonic acid, 94 

188 4 of Cellulose, 48 

40 40 

2 of Carbonate of 

212 of Oxygen lib- 

4 eratet 



96 76 6 266 96 76 6 266 

lo ho conceded, that proteine, as well as all its transformations 
IS also, as essential constituents, a minute i^uantity of sulphur 
one or hoth (lOJ, 



and al! parts of recent formation, such as the buds, young shoots, 
aod rootlets, always contain several hundredths of it. This gives 
the reason, also, why sap-wood is so liable to decay (induced by 
the proteine), and the more likely in proportion to its newness and 
the quantity of sap it contains, while the perfectly lignified heart- 
wood is so durable. Following this course, we find that the azo- 
tized matter rapidly diminishes in tJie stem and herbage during 
flowering, while it accumulates in the forming fruit, and is finally 
condensed in the seeds (which have a larger percentage than any 
other organ), ready to subserve the same oflice in the development 
of the embryo plant it contains." 

357. When wheat-flour, kneaded info dough, is subjected to the 
prolonged action of water, the starch is washed away, and a tena- 
cious, elastic residue, the Gluten of the fiour, which gives it the 
capability of being raised, contains nearly all the proteine com- 
pounds of the seed, mixed with some fatty matters (which may be 
removed by alcohol and ether) and with a little cellulose. The 
azolized products constitute from eight to thirty per cent, of the 
weight of wheat-flour ; the proportion varying greatly under differ- 
ent circumstances, but always largest when the soil is best supplied 
with manures that abound in nitrogen. The gluten is not itself a 
simple quatenary principle ; but is a mixture of four nearly isom- 
eric bodies of this sort, distinguished by chemists under the names 
Fihrine (identical in nature with that which forms the muscles of 
animals), Alhumert (of the same nature as animal albumen). Ca- 
serne (identical with the curd of milk), and Glutine. In beans and 
all kinds of pulse, or seeds of Leguminous plants, the large pro- 
portion of azotized matter principally occurs in the form of Legu- 
mine, a form nearly intermediate in character between albumen 
and caseine. 

358. Having now noticed aU the principal products of assimila- 
tion in plants, at least those concerned in nutrition, as compared 
with the inorganic materials from which they must needs be 
formed, we may the more clearly perceive, that the principal re- 
sult of vegetation, as concerns the atmosphere, from which plants 
draw their food, consists in the withdrawal of water, of a little am- 

* The cotyledons of peas and beans, aecordiog to Mr. Eigg, contain fiom 
100 to UOparls, and the plumulo about 200 parts, of nitrogen, to 1,000 parts of 



monia, and of a large proportion of carbonic acid, with the restora- 
tion of oxygen. The latter is a constant effect of vegetation and the 
measure of its amount. As respects the tissue of the plant, which 
makes up almost the whole bulk of a free or other vegetable fabric, 
the sole consequences of its formation upon the air are the with- 
drawal of a small quantity of water, and of a large amount of car- 
bonic acid gas, and the restoration of the oxygen of the latter. In 
the formation of the azotized products, a portion of ammonia or of 
some equivalent compound of nitrogen is also withdrawn. It is 
true, indeed, that leaves decompose carbonic acid only in daylight ; 
and that they sometimes impart a quantity of carbonic acid to the 
Mr in the night, especially when vegetation languishes, or even take 
from it a little oxygen. But this does not affect the general result, 
nor require any qualification of the genera! statement. The work 
simply ceases when light is withdrawn. The plant is then merely 
in a passive state. Yet, whenever exhalation from the leaves slowly 
(1 darkness, the carbonic acid which the water holds ne- 
ies off with it, during the interruption to vegetatibn, into 
the atmosphere from which the plant took it. So much of the crude 
sap, or raw material, merely runs to waste. Furthermore, it must 
be remembered, that the decomposition of carbonic acid in vegeta- 
tion is in direct opposition to ordinary chemical affinity ; or, in other 
words, that all organized matter is in a state corresponding to that 
of unstable equilibrium. Consequently, when light is withdrawn, 
ordinary chemical forces may perhaps to some extent resume their 
away, the oxygen of the air combine with some of the newly de- 
posited carbon to reproduce a little carbonic acid, and thus demol- 
ish a portion of the rising vegetable structure which the setting sun 
left, as it were in an unfinished or unstable slate. This is what 
actually takes place in a dead plant at all times, and whenever an 
herb is kept in prolonged darkness ; chemical forces, exerting their 
power uncontrolled, demolish the whole vegetable fabric, beginning 
with the chlorophyll (as we observe in blanching Celery), and at 
length resolve it into the carbonic acid and water from which it 
was formed. But this must all be placed to the account of decom- 
posing, r\a'i 0? growing vegetation ; and even if it were a universal 
phenomenon, which is by no means the case,* would not affect the 

* In repeating the old experiments upon this subject w[th dne precautions, 
and with improved means of research, it is found that manj oi-dinary plants, 


gl h& h as pi lydra 

p b d d g E ^ ' 
w d p fy h 

359 E J I d f b pi h i 

d yplfb dg ml 

ph d pi d h p f y gH py 

uig 1 b Ik r f g 1 I f i> 

f 1 fl f pi b 1 

hf lllphity b 11 

h d h f d 1 b f 1 Id d dd 

h It h 11 g bl m 11 

d hf 11 1 Iklp h dp f 

I(hpd fl g fbg g) dfilly 

11 !p hhl Ikgdm— d 

h 11 h b f I 1 gh h g 

1 1 1 g has bd f h ph By 

di m rd 

A ros F be 

mnBt he recoUecKd, Ihe plant or the shoot grows, not bj assimilation, but by 
consuming and appropriating a store of nourishraont which was assimilated by 
the parent. The evolution of carbonic acid by plants, therefore, whicb has so 
long been taken for granted, and misioterpretfid, has no existence as a general 
phenomenon. And it is by a felse analogy that Ibis loss which plants sustain 
in the niglit bas been dignified with the name of negelalle respiration, and veg- 
etables said to vitiate the atmosphere, just like animals, by their respiration 
while Ihey purify it by their digestion K, indeed, this were a constant function, 
in any way contributing to maintain the life and health of the plant, it might 
ba properly enough compared witb the respiration of animals, which is itself a 
decomposing operation. But this is not (he case. And herein is a character- 
istic difference between vegetables and animals : the tissues of the latter con- 
tinne to live and act through (he lifetime of the animal, and therefore reqnire 
constant interstitial renewal by nutrition, new particles replacing the old, which 
ate remOTCd and restored U> the mineral world by respiration : wMIe in plants 
there is no such renewal, but the fabric, once completed, remains unchanged, 
ceases to he nourished, and consequently soon loses its vitality; while new 
parts are continually formed farther on lo lake their places, to be in turn 
abandoned. Plants, therefore, having no decomposition and recomposition of 
any completed febrio, cannot have the function of respiration. 



multiplying this vast amount of carbon by sixteen, and dividing it 
by six, wo obtain an expression of tbe number of pounds of oxy- 
gen gas tbat have in this process been supplied to the atmosphere. 
360. Rightly to understand the object and consequences of this 
immense operation, which has been going on ever since vegetation 
began, it should be noted, that, so far as we know, vegetation is 
the only operation in nature which gives to the air free oxygen gas, 
that indispensable requisite to animal life. There is no other pro- 
vision for maintaining the supply. The prevailing chemical ten- 
dencies, on the contrary, take oxygen from the air. Few of the 
materials of the earth's crust are saturated with it ; some of them 
still absorb a portion from the air in the changes they undergo ; 
and none of them give it back in the free a ate n wh ch they took 
it, — in a stale to support animal life, — ly i y knovi natural 
process, at least upon any considerable s ale An als all c n 
sums oxygen at every moment of their life g v ng to 1 e a r car 
bonic acid in its room ; and when dead, th r d ca; g bo I es con 
sume a farther portion. Decomposing vegetable matter produces 
the same result. Its carbon, taking oxygen from the air, is likewise 
restored in the form of carbonic acid. Combustion, as in burning 
our fuel, amounts to precisely the same thing ; it is merely rapid 
decay. The carbon which the trees of the forest have been for 
centuries gathering from the air, their prostrate decaying trunks 
may almost as slowly restore to the air, in the original form 
of carbonic acid. But if set on firo, the same result may be accom- 
plished in a day. All these causes conspire to rob the air of its 
life-sustaining oxygen. The original supply is indeed so vast, that, 
were there no natural compensation, centuries upon centuries 
would elapse before the amount of oxygen could be so much re- 
duced, or that of carbonic acid increased is to affpct the existence 
of the present -aces of an ma!*! B it s cl ape od would eventu 
ally arrive, were (1 ere o natural prov n for tl e leco i pos t on 
of the carbonic ac d co stantly pou ed to the a r f on tl ese va 
rious sources, a d for tl e restorat o of ts ox ge We hive 
seen that vegetat on acco npl shes th s very es It The needful 
compensation is therefore found m the vegetable kingdom. While 
animals consume the oxygen of the air, and give back carbonic 
acid which is injurious to their life, this carbonic acid is the prin- 
cipal element of the food of vegetables, is consumed and decom- 
posed by them, and its oxygen restored for the use of animals. 



Hence the perfect adaptation of the two great kingdoms of living 
beings to each other; — each removing from the atmosphere what 
would be noxious to the other ; — each yielding to the atmosphere 
what is essential to the continued existence of the other.* 

361. The relations of simple vegetation, under this aspect, to 
the mineral kingdom on the one hand and the animal kingdom on 
the other, are simply set forth in the first part of the diagram 
placed at the close of this chapter, 

362. But, besides this remotely essential, office in purifying the 
air, the vegetable kingdom renders to the animal another service 
so immediate, that its failure for a single year would nearly depop- 
ulate the earth ; namely, in providing the necessary food for the 
wlfoie animal kingdom. It is under this view that the grand office 
of vegetation in the genera! economy of the world is to be contem- 
plated. Plants are the sole producers of nourishment. They alone 
transform mineral, chiefly atmospheric materials, they condense air, 
into organized matter. While they thus produce upon a vast scale, 
they consume or destroy comparatively little ; and this never in 
proper vegetation, but in some special processes hereafter to he con- 
sidered ^370). Often when they appear to consume their own prod- 
ucts, they only transform and transfer them (128, 174), as when 
the starch of the Potato is converted into new shoots and foliage. 

363. Animals consume what vegetables produce. They them- 
selves produce nothing directly, from the mineral world. Tlie 
herhivoroua animals take from vegetables the organized matter 
which they have produced; — a part of it they consume, and in 
respiration restore the materials to the atmosphere from which 
plants derived them, in the very form in which they were taken, 
namely, as carbonic acid and water. The portion they accumulate 
in their tissues constitutes the food of carnivorous animals; who 
consume and return to the air the greater part during life, and the 

* It is plain, however, that, while the Jiniinal Mcgilom is entirely d p nd 
ent on the vegetable, as no function of animals restores to the atmo pi h 
oxygen they consume, jet the latter is, in. a good degree at least, ind p d n 
of the former, and might hare existed alone. The decaying race f plants 
giving back Iheir carbon to the air and to the soil (333) would fum h f od f 
their successors. And since all the carbonic acid which animals rendei to the 
air in respiration they have derived from their vegetable food, it wonld in 
time have found its way hack to the air, for the use of new generations of 
plants, without tlie intervention of animals. At raoat, they merely expedite 



remainder in decay after death, Tlie atmosphere, therefore, out 
of which plants create nourishment, and to which aoimala as they 
consume return it, forms the necessary link betweea the animal 
and vegetable kingdoms, and completes the great cycle of organic 
existence. Organized matter passes through various stages in veg- 
etables, through others in the herbivorous animals, and undergoes 
its final transformations in the carnivorous animals. Portions are 
consumed at every stage, and restored to the mineral kingdom, to 
which the whole, having accomplished its revolution, finally returns. 

364, Plants not only furnish all the materials of the animal fab- 
ric, but furnish each principal constituent ready formed, so that the 
animal has only to appropriate it. The food of animals is of two 
kinds ; — 1. that which serves to support respiration and maintain 
the animal heat ; 2. that which is capable of forming a portion of 
the animal fabric, of its flesh and bones. The ternary vegetable 
products furnish the first, in the form of sugar, vegetable jelly, 
starch, oil, &c., and even cellulose; substances which, containing 
no nitrogen, cannot form a part of the animal frame, but, conveyed 
into the blood, are decomposed in respiration, the carbon and the 
excess of hydrogen combining with the oxygen of tbe air, to which 
they are restored in the form of carbonic acid emd water. Any 
portion not required by the immediate demands of respiration is 
stored in the tissues in the form of fat, {which the animal may 
either accumulate directly from the oily and waxy mattera io its 
vegetable food, or produce by an alteration of the starch and su- 
gar,) as a provision for future use ; any deficiency subjects the tis- 
sues themselves, or the proper supporting food, to immediate de- 

Tip n n respiration. The quaternary or azolized products 
f m 1 1 p per materials of the animal frame, the fibrine, ca- 
Ib &c.' being directly appropriated from the vegeta- 

bl f d 1 blood, muscles, &c.; while a slight transformation 
f 1 g origin to gelatine, of which the sinews, cartilages, 
nd h an part of the bones, consist. The earthy portion of 
h b h ron in the blood, and all the saline ingredients of 

h 1 b dy (with the exception of common salt, which is 

m tak n directly from the mineral kingdom), arc drawn 

f n h rtl y constituents (336) of the plants upon which the 
an m 1 f d The animal merely appropriates and accumulates 
h Id ganizable materials, changing them, it may be, little 
by 1 1 1 destroys tlicm, but rendering them all back (those 



of the first class through the lungs, of the second through the kid- 
neys) finally to the earth and air, from which, and in the condition 
in which, the vegetable took them. 

365. The relations of vegetation to the mineral and animal king- 
doms, as especially concerns the elaboration of the constituents of 
the animal body, are shown in the second pari of the subjoined 

s I 

« 5 

I I 

5 i 

Ho.t.d, Google 




366. Plants have thus far heen considered only as 
their Oiganh of Vegetation, — those which essentially constitute 
the vegetable bemg, bj which it grows, denvmg its support ftom 
the surrouDdmg air and soil, ind converting these inorganic ma- 
terials into Its own organized substance As e\erj additional 
supply of nounshnient furniihea materials foi the development of 
new branches, routs, and lei ves, thus multiplj ing both those or- 
gans which leceive food ind those which assimilate it, it would 
seem that, apart from accidents, the inciease and extension of 
plants would be limited onlj bj the failure of an adequate supply 
of nourishment After a i^ertain period, however, varying in dif- 
ferent species, but neatly constant m each, a change eu'iues, which 
controls this otherwise indtfinite extent of the branches, and is at- 
tended with very important results. A portion of the buds, instead 
of elongating into branches, are developed in tlie form of Ftow- 
EES ; and the nourishment which would otherwise contribute to the 
general increase of the plant, is partially or wholly expended in 
their production, and in the maturation of the fruit and seeds 
(110). So far as we know, the sole office of the flower and fruit 
in the vegetable economy is the production of seed. Hence they 
are termed Organs of Refkoduction (115). 

367. Flowering aD ExhausliTe Process. Plants begin to bear flow- 
ers at a nearly determinate period for each species ; which is de- 
pendent partly upon constitutional causes that we are unable to 
account for, and partly upon the requisite supply of nutritive mat- 
ter in their system. For, since the flower and fruit draw largely 
upon the powers and nourishment of the plant, while they yield 
nothing in return, fructification is an e'xhaustive process, and a due 
accumulation of food is requisite to sustain it.* Annuals flower 

■ When the branoh of a fruit-ti'ee, which ia slorile or does not perfect its 
blossoms, is rijyed or girdkd (bj the remoTnl of a narrow ring of bark), the 
elaborated juices, being orreeCed in their downward course, are accamulBted 
in the branch, which is thus enableii to produce fruit abundantly ; while the 
shoots that appear below the ring, being fed cbioflj bj the crudo ascending sap, 



ew weeks or months after tliey spring from the seed, when 
bey have httle nourishment stored tip in their tissue ; and their 

are destroyed in the process (137) : biennials flower after a 
longer period, rapidly exhausting the nourishment accumulated in 
he root during the previous season, and then perishing (138) ; 
while shrubs and trees do not commence flowering until they are 
sufficiently established to endure it. The exhaustion consequent 
upon flowering, however, Is often exhibited in fruit-trees, which, 
after producing an excessive crop (especially of late fruits, such as 
apples), sometimes fail to bear the succeeding year. When the 
crop of one year is destroyed, the nourishment which it would have 
consumed accumulates, and the tree may bear more abundantly 
the following season, and so on alternately from year to yeaj. 

368. The actual consumption of nourishment in flowering may 
be shown in a variety of ways ; as by the rapid disappearance of 
the farinaceous or saccharine store in the roots of the Carrot, Beet, 
&c, , when thoy begin to flower, leaving them light, dry, and empty j 
and from the rapid diminution of the sugar in the stalk of the Sugar- 
cane (as also in thit of Maize) at the samp period The <!talks are 
hre fk g b hfl pd 

ihyh ahg mnf binm 

369 T seq f his h p 1 d f 

h Ir dybe 


dto Tl 

h f 1 y w th wl 


I yb 

h If p 1 d 

d fii 

Ij byp 

1 pi d f 1 m J b ra 

byd y hfl h t& 

y b d f y J 

kind fp Ipl Ti ff 

y f h d 1 1 IS k gly 

trees and shrubs that bear lai^e or fleshy fruit are prodaced from lateral bads, 
resting directly upon the wood of the presiona year, in which a qnantity of nu- 
tritive matter is deposited. So, also, a seedling shoot, which would not flower 
for several years if loft to itself, blossoms the next season when inserted Be a 
graft into an older trunk, from whose accumulated slock it draws. 



by the Agave, or Centurj plant, — so called b(,ciuse t flow eia in 
our co^sen'a^^ries only afler the lapse of a hundred, or at least a. 
great number of years , although, m its native sultry clime, it 
generally flowers when five or sis yeirs old But whenever this 
occurs, the sweet juice with which it is filled at the time (which 
by fermentation forms pulque the inebnating dunk of the Mexi 
cans) is consumed at a rate answering to the astonishing rapidity 
with which its huge flower italk shoots furfh (24) and the whole 
plant inevitably perishes when the seeds have ripened So, also, 
the Corypha, or Talipot tree, a magnificent Oriental Palm, which 
lives to a great age and attain'! an imposing altitude {beaimg a 
crown of leaves, each blade of which is often thirty, feet m circum- 
ference), flowers only once ; hut it then hears an enormous num- 
ber of blossoms, succeeded hy a crop of nuts suficieat to supply 
a large district with seed ; while the tree immediately perishes 
from the exhaustion consequent upon this over-production. 

370. Flowering and fruiting, then, draw largely upon the plant's 
resources, while they give back nothing in return. Iii these opera- 
tions, as also in germination, vegetables act as true consumers (like 
animals, 363), decomposing their own products, and giving back 
carbonic acid and water to the air, instead of takihg these materials 
from the air. It is in flowering that they actually consume most. 
la fruiting, although the plant is robbed of a large quantity of nour- 
ish ne h's 's mostly accumulated in the frilit and seed, in a con- 
cen ated form, for the future consumption, not of the parent plant, 
but of he new individual inclosed in the seed. As we may treat 
of 1 e h er elsewhere, we have here to contemplate only the rea! 
and med a o consumption of nourishment by the flower. 

371 This s shown by the action of flowers upon the air, so dif- 
ferent from that of leaves. While the foliage withdraws carbonic 
acid from the air, and restores oxygen (346, 358), flowers take a 
small portion of oxygen from the air, and give back carbonic acid. 
While leaves, therefore, purify the air we breathe, flowers contami- 
nate it ; though, of course, only to a degree which is relatively and 
absolutely insigniflcant, 

372. Evolution of Heat. When carbon is consumed as fuel, and 
by the oxygen of the air converted into carbonic acid, an amount 
of heat is evolved, direcfly proportiooate to the quantity of carbon 
consumed, or of carbonic acid produced. Precisely the same 
amount is more slowly generated during the gradual decomposition 



of the same quantity of vegelabie matter by decay, — a heat which 
is employed by the gardener when he makes hot-beds of tan, de- 
caying leaves, and manure,-^ or by the breathing of animals, 
where it maintains their elevated temperature (364). The con- 
sumption of a given amount of carbon and hydrogen, under what- 
ever form, an(i whether slowly or rapidly, generates in all cases 
the very same amount of heat. Now, since flowers consume car- 
bon and produce carbonic acid, acting in this respect like animals, 
they ought to evolve heat in proportion to that consumption. This, 
in fact, they do, The evolution of heat in blossoming was first ob- 
served by Lamarck, about seventy years ago, in the European 
Arum, which, just as the flowers open, " grows hot," as Lamarck 
stated, " as if it were about to burn." It was afterwards shown by 
Saussure in a number of flowers, such as those of the Bignonia, 
Grourd, and Tuberose, and the heat was shown to be in direct pro- 
portion to the consumption of the oxygen of the air, or, in other 
words, of the carbon of the plant. The increase of temperature, 
in these cases, was measured by common instruments. But now 
that fhermo- electric apparatus affords the means of measuring va- 
riations inappreciable by the most delicate thermometer, the heat 
generated by an 'ordinary cluster of blossoms may bo detected. 
The phenomenon is most striking in the case of some large tropi- 
cal Aroideous plants, where an immense number of blossoms are 
crowded together and mufiled by a kind of hood, or spathe (390), 
which confines and reverberates the heat. In some of these, the 
temperature rises at times to twenty or evea fifty degrees (Fahren- 
heit) above that of the surrounding air.* 

373. The source of the heat in flowering is therefore evident. 
As to its object, we cannot say whether its production is the imme- 
diate end in view, and the plant burns some of its carbon merely 

* This iticreaae of temperature occurs daily from the time tlie flowers open 
unUI they fade, but is most Blrikiog during the stiedcling of the pollen. At 
n'ght the temperature falls nearly to that of the surrounding air ■ hut in the 
course of the mom ng the heat omes on as t were, 1 ke a / aToxysv of fever, 
atta n |, tl e ma\ mum day after iay very nearly at the same 1 our ot the 
afternoon and gradually decl n ng towards evenmg In ord niry cases the 
heat ol flowering s ab orb d by the aponz Ijon of the sap and ha exhala- 
doQ of o\ygen by the foliage {be des a large amount s absorbed f om ihe 
solar rad at on and rendered latent n the pro e s of ass m lation) so that the 
actual temperature of a leafy plant in summer is lower Iban that of the atmos- 



as fuel, or whether Ihe evolution of heat and the formation of car- 
bonic acid are incidental consequences of certain necessary trans- 
formations. We have remarked that the principal consumption 
takes place in the flower ; and that a store is laid up in the fruit 
and seed. But much even of this is consumed, with the evolution 
of heat, when the seed germinates. By a not very violent met- 
aphor it may be said, therefore, that in the Century-plant (369), 
which, after living a hundred yeara, consumes itself in producing 
and giving life to its offspring, who literally rise from its ashes, we 
have the realization of the fabled Phceiiix ! 

374. PloDls need a Seasott of Best There is another condition, 
which, if not essential to the production of flowers, exerts an im- 
portant influence. When plants are in continual and luxuriant 
growth, rapidly pushing forth ieafy branches, they are not apt to 
produce floWer-buds. Our fruit-trees, in very moist seasons, or 
when cultivated in too rich a soil, often grow luxuriantly, but do 
not flower. The same thing is observed when our Northern fruit- 
trees are transported into tropical climates. On the other hand, 
whatever checks this continuous growth, without affecting the 
health of the individual, causes blossoms to appear earlier and 
more abundantly than they otherwise would. It is for this reason 
that transplanted fruit-frees incline to flower the first season after 
their removal, though they may not blossom again for several 
years. A season of comparative rest is essential to the trahsfor- 
mation by which flowers are form,ed. It is in autumn, or at least 
after the vigorous vegetation of the season is over, that our trees 
and shrubs, and most perennial herbs, produce the flower-buds of 
the ensuing year. 

375. The requisite annual season of repose, which in temperate 
climes is attained by the lowering of the temperature in autumn 
and winter, is scarcely less marked in many tropical countries, 
where winter is unknown. But the result is brought about, in the 
latter case, not by cold, but by excessive heat and dryness. The 
Cape of Good Hope, the Canary Islands, and the southern part 
of California, may be taken as illustrations. In the Canaries, the, 
growing season is from November to March, — the winter of the 
northern hemisphere, — their winter also, as it is the coolest sea- 
son, the mean temperature being 66" Fahr. But the rains fall reg- 
ularly and vegetation is active ; while in summer, from April to 
October, it very seldom rains, and the mean temperature Is as high 



as 73°. During this dry season, when the scorching sun reduces 
the soil nearly to the dryness acid consistence of brick, ordinary 
vegetation almost completely disappears ; and the Fig-Marigolds, 
Euphorbias, and other succulent plants, which, fitted to this condi- 
tion of things, alone remain green, not unaptly represent the Fin 
and other evergreens of high northern latitudes. The dry heat 
there brings about the same state of vegetable repose as cold with 
ua. The roots and bulbs then lie dormant the sun-burnt 
crust, just as they do in our frozen soil. When the rainy season 
sets in, and the crust is softened by moisture, they are excited into 
growth under a diminished temperature, just as with us by heat ; 
and the ready-formed flower-buds are suddenly developed, cloth- 
ing at once the arid waste with a profusion of blossoms. The 
vegetation of such regions consists mainly of succulents, which are 
able to live through the drought and exposure ; of bulbous plants, 
which run through their course before the drought becomes severe, 
then lose their foliage, while the bud remains quiescent, safely 
protected under ground until the rainy season returns ; and of an- 
nuals, which make tfeir whole growth in a few weeks, and ripen 
their seeds, in which state the species securely passes tJie arid sea- 
son. A season of interruption to growth, produced either by cold 
or dryness, occurs, in a more or less marked degree, through every 
part of the world. 

376. These considerations explain the process of forcing plants, 
and other operations of horticulture", by which we are enabled 
to obtain in winter the flowers and fruits of summer. The gar- 
dener accomplishes these results principally by skilful alterations 
of the natural period of repose. He gives the plant an artificial 
period of rest by dryness at the season when he cannot command 
cold, and then, by the influence of heat, light, and moisture, which 
he can always command, causes it to grow at a season when it 
would have been quiescent. Thus he retards or advances, at will, 
the periods of flowering and of rest, or in time completely in- 
verts them. 





377. IllfloresceilM is the term used to designate the arrangement 
of flowers upon the stem or branch. The flqwer, like the branch, 
is evolved from a bud. Flower-buds and leaf-buds are often so 
similar in appearance, that it is difficult to distinguish one from the 
other before their expansion. The most conspicuous parts of the 
flower are so obviously analogous to the leaves of a branch, that 
they are called in common language the leaves of the flower. 
Such a flower as the double Camellia appears as if composed of a 
rosette of white or colored leaves, resembling, except in their color 
and great delicacy, the clusters of leaves which crown the offsets 
of such plants as the Houaelcek {Fig. 174), &c. We may there- 
fore naturally consider a flower-bud as analogous to a leaf-bud ; 
and a flower, consequently, as analogous to a short, leafy branch. 

378. This analogy is confirmed by the position which flowers 
occupy. Whatever views may be entertained respecting the na- 
ture of flowers, it is certain that they appear at the same situations 
as ordinary buds, and at no other. They have the same relation 
to the stem or flower-stalk which bears them, that leaf-buds have 
to the stem or branch from which they arise ; that is, they occupy 
the extremity of the stem or branch, and the axil of the leaves 
{144, 148). Consequently, the arrangement of the buds governs 
the whole arrangement of the blossoms, as well as that of the 
branches. The flower-stalk is merely the last term of ramifica- 
tion. The almost endless variety of modes in which flowers are 
clustered upon the stem, many of them exhibiting the most grace- 
ful of natural forms, all implicitly follow the general law which 
has controlled the whole development of the vegetable from the 
beginning. We have, throughout, merely buds terminating the 
stem and branches, and buds from the axil of the leaves. 

379. The simplest kind of inflorescence is, of course, that of a 
sotoary flower, — a single flower-stalk bearing a single flower; as 
in Fig. 249 and Fig. 229. The naked stalk which supports the 
flower is termed the Eedt;ncl e. If the flower is not raised on a 
proper stalk, it is said to be sessile. 



380. In both of the examples juat adduced, the flower is soli- 
tary ; but there is a difFerenee in one respect. In Fig. 249, the 
flower terminates the stem ; it stands ia the place of a terminal 
bud. In Fig. 229, it arises from the axil of a leaf, or represents 
an axillary bud. These two cases, in fact, exhibit the two types 
(reduced to the greatest simplicity), to the one or the other .of 
which all the forms of inflorescence belong. 

381. We may begin with the second of these plans ; in which 
the flowers all spring from axiHacy buds ; while the terminal bud, 
developing as an ordinary branch, continues the stem or axis in- 
definitely. For the stem in such case may continue to elongate, 
and produce a flower in tho axil of every leaf, until its powers are 
exhausted (Fig. S30). This gives rise, therefore, to what is called 

382. Indefinite or Indeterminate Infloresiienee. The primary axis is 
here never terminated by a flower ; but the secondary axes (from 
axillary buds) are thus terminated. Before we enumerate the va- 
rious forms of inflorescence of this class, a few terms must be de- 
fined which necessarily come into use in distinguishing the parts of 
a flower- cluster. The primary axis, or general stalk which bears 
the whole cluster of flowers, retains the name of Eeduncle (379), 
while the secondary axes, which form the partial flower-stalks and 
support each a single blossom, now receive the name of Pedicels. 
These, being axillary branches, must of course be subtended each 
by a leaf, or else will show the scar left by its fall. The leaves of 
an inflorescence, however, are usually reduced in size, or changed 
in appearance, so as to be quite unlike the ordinary leaves of the 
plant : they are called sometimes fioral leaves, or more commonly 
BsACis. The bracts are of^en reduced to a minute size, so as to 
escape ordinary notice : they very frequently fall off^ when the 
flower-bud in their axil expands, or even still earlier ; and some- 
times, as in the greater part of the Mustard Family, they altogether 
fail to appear. The portion of the general stalk along which 
flowers are borne is called the axis of the injloreseence, and some- 
times, especially when covered with sessile flowers, the Rhachis 
(from its resemblance or analogy to the backbone). 

383. The various forms of indefinite inflorescence which in de- 
scriptive botany are distinguished by special names, as might be 
expected, run into one another through endless intermediate gra- 
dations. In nature they are not so absolutely fixed as in our writ- 
ten definitions ; and whether this or that name should be used in a 



particular case is often a matter of fancy. The subjoined a 
of the principal kinds will at the same time bring to v" 
nection between them 

384. A Rac-fmf is formed when the primary axis 
lengthen, and the flowers, singly produced from ,the axil of each 
bract, are supported on pedicels of their own, as in Fig. 230. 
The' flo«eis and fruit of the Currant, Barberry, and wild Black 
Cherry (Fig. 236) furnish most familiar examples. The lowest 
flowers of a raceme, being evidently the oldest, are the first to ex- 
pand, and the others follow in regular succession, from the base to 
the summit. Indeed, the lower flowers often produce, or (as in 
the Snowberry, Symphoricarpus racemosus) even ripen, their 
fruit, before the summit has ceased to grow and develope new 

385. A Corymb (Fig. 231, 239) is the same is % raceme, except 
that the iower pedicels are elongated, so as to form a level-topped 
or slightly conAx bunch of flowers ; as in the Hawthorn, &c. 

386. An Umbel (Fig. 232) differs from a corymb oiily in having 
all the pedicels arising from the same apparent point ; the general 
peduncle, in this case, bearing several flowers without any percep- 
tible elongation of the intemodes of the axis of inflorescence. The 
Primrose and the Milkweed afford familiar examples of the simple 

387. A corymb being evidently the same as a raceme with a 
short main axis, and an umbel the same as a corymb with a still 
shorter axis, it is evident that the outer flowers of a'n umbel or 
corymb correspond to the lowermost in the raceme, and that these 
will first expand, the blossoming proceeding regularly from the 
base to. the apex, or {which is the same thing from the) circumfer- 

FIG. 230-332 Diag 





3 to the centre. This mode of development uniformly takes 
place when, the flowers arise from axillary buds ; on 
which account the indefinite mode of inflorescence is 
also called the centripetal. 

388. In all the foregoing cases, the flowers are raised 
on stalks, or pedicels. When these are wanting, or 
very short, the spike or the head is produced, 

389. A Spike is the same as the raceme, except that 
the flowers are sessile, or destitute of any apparent 
pedicels ; as in the Plantain (Fig. 233). It is an inde- 
termmate or centripetal inflorescence, with the pri- 
mary axis elongated, and the secondary axes not at all 
elongated, but terminated at their very origin by a 
flower. Two varieties of the spike have received in- 
dependent names, viz, the Spadix and the Ament. 

390. A Spadil is a fleshy spike enveloped by a large 
bract or modified leaf, called a Spathe, as in Calla pa- 

s (Fig. 234), the cultivated Calla ^ihiopica, Arum triphyllum, 
dian Turnip (Fig. 235), and the Skunk Cabbage (st 

391. An Amenf, or Catkin, is merely that kind of spike witli scaly 

FIO. 233. Voung spiks of Plamago major. 



bracts borne by the Birch, Poplar, Willow, and, as to one of the 
two sorts of flowers, by the Oik, Walnut, and Hickory, which are 
accordingly called amentaceous trees. Catkins usually fall off in 
one piece, after floweung or fiuiting, especially the sterile cat- 

392. The Head, or CapitBlum i« a globular cluster of sessile flow- 
ers, like that of tlie Button Bush, the balls of the Buttonwdod or 
Plane-tree, &c. It is a many flowered centripetal inflorescence, 
in which neither the pnmary axis nor the secondary axes are at all 
lengthened. We may conceive it to originate, either from the 
non-development of the pedicels of an umbel (Fig. 232), or the 
non- elongation of the axis of a spike. In other words, the head 
differs from a spike only in its shortness. So what is at first a 
head frequently elongates into a spike as it grows older; as in 
many species of Clover, &c. In all these forms, the blossoms ne- 
cessarily expand from the base to the apex, or from the circum- 
ference to l]ie centre (387). 

393. The, base both of the head and the umbel is frequently 
furnished with a number of imper- 
fect leaves or bracts, crowded to- 
gether, or forming a whorl {236, 
Fig. 232), termed an IwroLtrcEB. 
The involucre assumes a great va- 
riety of forms ; sometimes resem- 
bling a calyx ; and sometimes (as 
in Cornus Florida, or the common 
Dogwood, and C. Canadensis, Fig. 
240) becoming petal-like, and 
much more showy than the blos- 
som itself. It is, however, distin- 
guished from the calyx or corolla 
by including a number of (lowers. 
Sometimes, however, as in 
Mallow Family and Hibiscus, the ; 
involucre forms a kind of outer 
calyx to each flower. 

394. The axis, or rhacbis (382), of a head is called the Recep- 
TACLE. Frequently, instead of being globular or somewhat pro- 

bead, enlarged. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


longed, it is flat or depressed, euid dilated horizontally, so as to 
allow a large number of flowers to stand on its level or merely 
convex surface ; as in the Sunflower, and in similar plants. What 
were called compound fiowers by the older botanists, such as the 
Sunflower, Aster, Marigold, &c;, are heads of this kind, containing 
a smaller or larger number of flowers, crowded together on the 
receptacle (or dilated branch), and surrounded by an involucre. 
Not unfrequently the separate flowers are also subtended hy bracts j 
as in the Sunflower, Kudbeckia, Coreopsis, &c., when these re- 
ceive the name of Pale^, or Chaff. (See Ord. CompositEe.) 

395. The Fig presents a case of very singular inflorcsceoce 
(Fig, 24J, S42), where the flowers apparently occupy the inside 
instead of the outside of the axis, being inclosed within the fleshy 
receptacle, which is hollow and nearly closed at the top. The mag- 
nified slice (Fig. 243) shows that the inner surface is lined, not 
with mere seeds, as is commonly supposed, but with a multitude 
of small blossoms. T\\.&Jlg is therefore something like a mulberry 
(Fig. 244), or a pine-apple, turned inside out. 

396, In all the cases yet mentioned, the flower-clusters are sim- 
ple ; the ramification cot passing beyond the first step ; the lateral 



buds being at once terminated by a single flower. But the lateral 
flower-stalks may themselves branch, just as ordinary branches 
give rise to branchlets ; when the inflorescence becomes compound. 
The modifications produced by a second branching of the inflores 
cence are readily understood. If the branches of a raceme are 
prolonged, and bear other flowers on pedicels similarly arranged, a 
coiKpound raceme is produced ; or if the flowers are sessile, a com- 
pound spike is formed. A corymb, the branches of which are 
similarly divided, forms a com- 
pound corymb ; and an umbel, 
where the branches (often called 
rays) bear smaller umbels at their 
apex, is termed a compound um- 
hel; examples of which occur 
in almost all the species of the 
Family TJmbelliferEe, which ia 
so named because all its plants 
bear umbels. For these sec- 
ondary umbels, a good English "' "'^ 
name has been employed by Dr. Darlington, that of Uhbellets. 
Their involucre, when they have"any, is distinguished from that of 
the principal umbel by the name of Involpcel. 

397. It is often necessary to distinguish between the bracts on 
the branches of the inflorescence, and those at the base of the pri- 
mary branches ; in which case the former arc termed Bracteoles, 
or Beactlets ; but there is no real limit, either between bracflets 
and true bracts, or between bracts and true leaves. 

398. When the inflorescence is compound, it is readily seen that 
two or more modes of inflorescence may be combined ; the first 
ramification following one plan, and the subdivision another. The 
combination is usually expressed by a descriptive phrase, as 
" spikes racemose, or raeemed," " heads corymbose," &c. The 
combination of the raceme and the corymb or the cyme gives rise 
to a form of inflorescence which has a technical name, viz. ; — 

399. The Paniele. This is formed when the secondary axes of a 
raceme branch in a corymbose manner, as in numerous Grasses 
{Fig. 238), or those of a corymb divide in the manner of a ra- 
ceme. And the name is loosely applied to almost any open and 

. Compound umbel (In I 

I of Oatunrhiia li)ngi3t;lie : 

Ho.t.d, Google 


more or less elongated inflorescence which is irregularly branched 
twice, thrice, or a greater number of times, 

400. A Thyrsus is merely a compact panicle of a pyramidal, oval, 
or oblong outline ; such as the cluster of flowers of the Lilac and 
Hoiseche&tnut a bunch of grapes, &c. 

401 DLfinite or Determinate Influrcscence. In this class, the flow- 
ers all represent leiminal buds (380). The primary axis is direct- 
ly termmited fay i single flower-bud, as in Fig. 249, and its growth 
is of course arretted, as it is now incapable of any further elonga- 
tion. In this way we have a solitary terminal flower. Further 
growth can take place only by the development of secondary axes 
from axillary buds. These may develope at once as peduncles, or 
as leafy branches ; but they are in either case arrested, after more 
or less elongation, by a flower-bud, just as the primary axis was 
(Fig. 250). If further development ensues, it is by the production 
of branches of the third order, from the axils of leaves or bracts on 
the branches of the second order (Fig. 251) ; and so on. Hence 
this mode of inflorescence is said to be definite or determinate, in 
contradistinction to the indeterminate mode, already treated of 
(382, &.C.), where the primary or leading axes elongate indefi- 
nijely, or merely cease to grow from the failure of nourishment, or 
some other extrinsic cause. The mc«t common and most regular 
cases of determinate inflorescence occur in opposite -leaved plants, 
for obvious reasons ; and such are accordingly chosen for the sub- 
joined illustrations. But the Rose, Potentilla, and Buttercup fur- 
nish familiar examples of the kind in alternate-leaved plants. 

402. The determinate mode of inflorescence assumes forms 
which closely imitate the various forms of the indeterminate kind, 
r described, with which they have been confounded, and 



on this account have failed to receive distinctive names. When, 
for example, all the secondary axes connected with the inflores- 
cence are arrested by terminal flowers without any 
onward growth except what forms their footstalks or 
pedicels, and these are nearly equal in length, a ra- 
ceme-like inflorescence is produced, as in Fig. 252. 
When the flowers are developed in this way, with 
scarcely any pedicels, the spike i^ imitated. These 
are essentially distinguished from the true raceme and 
spike, however, by the reverse order of development 
of the blossoms ; the terminal and then the upper ones 
opening earliest, and the others expanding in succes- 
sion from above downwards ; while the blossoming of 
the raceme proceeds from below upwards. Or when 
by the elongation of the lower secondary axes, a cor 
ymb is imitated, the flowers are found to expand ii 
succession from the centre towards the circumference of the flat- 
topped cluster, while the contrary occurs in the corymb. That is, 
while the order in indeterminate inflorescence is centripetal (387), 
that of the determinate mode is centrifugal. When the determi- 
nate inflorescence assumes the corymbose form, which it more 
commonly does, it has a distinctive name, viz. : — 

403. Tlie Cyme. This is a flat-topped, rounded or expanded in- 
florescence, whether simple or compound, of the determinate class ; 
of which those of the Laurustinus, Elder, Dogwood, and Hydran- 
gea are fully developed and characteristio examples. More com- 
monly it is from the upper axils alone that the flower-bearing 
branches successively proceed, as indicated in Fig. 249-251. In 
more compound and compact cymes (Fig. 237), such as those of 
the Laurustinus, Dogwood, &c., the leaves or bracts are usually 
minute, rudimentary, or abortive, and all the numerous flower-buds 
of the cluster are fully formed before any of them expand ; and 
the blossoming then runs through the whole cluster in a short time, 
commencing in the centre of the cyme, and then in the centre of 
each of its branches, or Cymitles, and thence proceeding centrifu- 
gally. But in the Chickweeds (Fig. 253), in Hypericum, and 
many such like plants, the successive production of the branches 
and the evolution of the flowers, beginning with that which ar- 
rests the growth of the primary axis, go on gi-adually through the 



wbole summer, until the powers of the plant are exhausted, or 
until all the branchlets or peduncles are reduced to single inter- 
nodes, or pedicels without any leaves, bracts, or bractlets, when no 
further development can take place. Such cases enable us to 
study the determinate inflorescence to advantage, and to follow the 
B steps of the ramification by direct observation. 

404, The Poscicle is a densely crowded cyme, with the flowers 
almost sessile, or oa short peduncles of nearly equal length ; as in 
the Sweet William. 

405, A GlomerulB is a cyme condensed into a head or short spike. 
It is to the cyme what the capitulum is to the corymb or umbel. 

406, There are several abnormal modifications of inflorescence, 
especially of the determinate or centrifugal kind, arising from ir- 
regular development, or the suppression of parts, such as the non- 
appearance sometimes of the central flower, or often of one of the 
lateral branches at each division ; as in the ultimate ramifications 
of Fig. 253, where one of the lateral pedicels is wanting. When 
this deviation is completely carried out, that is, when one of the 
side branches regularly fails to appear, the cyme is apparently 
converted into a kind of one-sided raceme, and the flowers seem 
to expand from below upwards, or centripetal ly. The diagram, 
Fig. 254, when compared with Fig. 253, explains this anomaly. 
The place of the axillary branch which fails to develope at each 
ramification is indicated by the dotted lines. Cases like tl s occ r 
in several Hypericums, and in some other opposite-lea ed plants 
An analogous case occurs in many alternate-leaved pla ts where 
the stem, being terminated by a flower, is continued by a branch 
from the axil of the uppermost leaf or bract : this, beai ng a flow 

FIG. 253. ThB open, progreMiiel? dsTclopcd cjme of Arenails sliriola. 



er, is similarly prolonged by a secondary branch, that by a third, 
and so oa ; as is shown in the 
diagram, Fig, 355. Such 
forms of inflorescence, which 
we may observe in Drosera, 
and in most Sedums and Bo- 
ragiaacete, imitate the raceme 
so nearly, that they have com- 
monly been considered as of 
that kind. They are distin- 
guishable, however, by the 
position of the Howers opposite 
the leaf or bract, or at least 
out of its axil ; while in the raceme, and in every modification of 
centripetal inflorescence, the flowers necessarily spring from the 
axils of the bracts. But if the bracts disappear, as they commonly 
do in the Forget-me-not, &x., the true nature of the inflorescence 
is not readily made out. The undeveloped summit is usually 
coiled in a spiral or cireinate (257) manner, gradually unrolling 
as the fiowers grow and expand, and becoming straight in fruit. 
On account of this coiled arrangement, such cymes or false ra- 
cemes are said to be helicoid, or scorpioid. 

407. The cyme, raceme, head, &c., as well as the one-flowered 
peduncle, may be produced, either at the extremity of the stem or 
leafy branch {terminal), or in. the axil of the leaves {aatillary). 
The case of a peduncle opposite a leaf, ^ in the Poke (see Ord. 
Phytolaccaceie), the Grape-vine, &,c., is just that illustrated in Fig. 
255, except that in these cases the peduncles bear a cluster of fiow- 
ers instead of a single one. The tendrils of the vine (Fig. 134) 
occupy the same position, and are of the same nature, so that they 
are not incorrectly said to be sterile and modified peduncles. In 
a growing Grape-vine, it is evident that the uppermost tendril 
really terminates the stem ; and that the latter is continued by the 
growth of the axillary bud, situated between the petiole and the 
peduncle ; the branch thus formed, assuming the same direction 
as the main stem, and appearing to be its prolongation, throws the 
peduncle or tendril to the side opposite the leaf. 

408. The extracapillary peduncles of most species of Solanum 
are to be similarly explained. They are really terminal pedun- 

FIG. 2M, 266. Plan of Iwo mocIifioalionB of hcLicold cjines ol falee racemea. 



cles, which have hocome lateral by the evolution of a hranch from 
an axil below, which takes the direction of the main, stem, so as 
to form an apparent continuation of it. This has been explained 
on the supposition of the cohesion of the baso of an axillary pe- 
duncle with the stem ; which could well apply only to those cases 
where the peduncle is in the same vertical line as the leaf beneath. 
Such peduncles may sometimes come from extra-axillary acces- 
sory buds, such as those shown in Fig. 133. 

409. In the Linden (see Ord. Tiliaceie) the peduncle appears to 
spring from the middle of a peculiar foliaceous bract. But this is 
rather a bractlet, inserted on the middle of the peduncle, and de- 
current down to its base, just as many leaves are decurreiit on the 
stem (298) m Thistles, &c. 

410. A peduncle which arises from the stem at or beneath the 
surface of the ground, as in the Primrose, the Daisy, the so-called 
stemless Violets, &c., is called a radical peduncle, or a Scape. 

411. A combination of the two classes of inflorescence is not 
unusual, the general axis developing in one way, but the separate 
clusters of flowers in the other. Thus the heads of all the Com- 
positje (such as Thistles, Asters, &c.) are centripetal, the flowers 
expanding regularly from the margin or circumference to the cen- 
tre ; while the branches that bear the heads are developed in the 
centrifugal mode, the central heads first coming into flower. 

412. This is exactly reversed in all LabiatEe (plants of the Mmt 
tribe) ; where the stem grows on indefinitely in the centripetal 
mode, beating axillary clusters of flowers in the form of a general 
raceme or spike, which blossoms from below upwards ; while the 
flowers of each cluster form a cyme, and expand in the centrifugal 
manner. These cymes, or cymules, of Labiatte are usually close 
and compact, and being situated one in each axil of the opposite 
leaves, the two together frequently form a cluster which surrounds 
the stem, like a whorl or verticil (as in the Catnip and Horehound) : 
hence such flowers are often said to be whorled or verticillate, 
which is not really the case, as they evidently all spring from the 
axils of the two leaves. The apparent verticil of this kind is some- 
tjmes termed a Veeticill aster. 

413. True whorled flowers occur only in some plants with 
whorled leaves, as in Hippuris and the Water Milfoil. 




Sect. I. Its Organs, oe Component Parts. 

414. Having glanced at the circa instances which attend and 
conti'ol the production of flowers, and considered the laws which 
govern their arrangement, we have next to inquire what the flower 
is composed of. 

415. The How (110, 111) 

ppl d 

an endless variety of forms 


i !j dfi 

1 1 
1 hi 





g f h fl b h 

other of these disappear from a pai ticuhir flow - 
er, and both are absent from full double Roaes, 
Camellias, &c., in which we have only a regu 
lar rosette of delicate leaves. This, however, ' 
ia an unnatural state, the consequence of pio 
traded cultivation. 

416. A complete fiower consists of the essen- 
tial organs of reproduction (viz. stamens and 
pistils, 110), aurrounded by two sets of leaves 
or envelopes which protect them (Fig 256 ) 
The latte a e o ou wo lou.ei ban 
the forme wl 1 n he bud hey nclose 

417. The lloral En Hopes 1 en a e of o 
sorts, aid occ pv wo c les o e abo e o .^^ 
within tl e o 1 e Tl o e of he lo ve c cle 

the exterior envelope iii the flower-bud, form the pApx : they com- 


I of hs cTosa-section in the bud, 

Ho.t.d, Google 

monly exhibit the greon color and havo much the appearance of 
oriiinary leaves. Those of the inner cir- 
cle, which are commonly of a more deli- 
cate texture and brighter color, and form 
the most showy part of the blossom, 
compose the Qoeolla. The several 
parts or leaves of the corolla are called 
Petals ; and the leaves of the calyx 
take the corresponding name of ^p^lb. 
One of the five sepals of the flower rep- 
resented in Fig 256 IS separately shown in Fig. 258 ; and one of 
the petals in Fig 259 The calyx and corolla taken together, or 
the whole floral envelopes, whatever they may consist of, are 
soraetmips called the Fehunth [PeriantMum or Perigonmm). 

41'* Tiie Essential Orcans of the flower are likewise of two kinds, 
and occupj two cucles or rows, one within the other. The first of 
these, those nest within the petals, are the Stamens (Fig. 260). 
A stamen consists of a column or stalk, called the FiLi,MEKT {Fig. 
262, «), which bears on its summit a rounded 
body, or case, termed the Aether (i), filled 
with a pnwdery sub'.tanco called PoJiLEN, which 
it discharges through one or more slits oi open- 
ings. The older botanists had no geneial teim 
for the stamens taken collectively, analogous to 
that of corolla for the entire whoil of petals, 
and of calyx for the whorl of sepals A name 
has, however, recently been pioposed foi the 
sfatninatc system of a flowei, which it is occai-ionallj c 
use ; that of ,4s5Bffi(^iuM 

419. The remaining, or seed bearing oigani, which occupy the 
centre or summit ot the flower, to whose protection and per- 
fection all the other parts of the flower are in some way subser- 
vient, are termed the Pis,tils. To them colleclively the name of 
GLrMjacnm has been applied. One of them is sepaiately shown in 
Fig. 261. This is seen more magnified and cut across in Fig. 
363 ; and a diflerent one, longitudinally divided, so as to exhibit 
the whole length of its cavity, or cell, is lepicsented in Fig. 264, 

sepal;, 2;9,apotal; a 



430. A pistil is distinguished into three parts ; namely, the 
Osy^RV (Fig. 264, a), the 
' hollow portion at the base 
which contains the Ovdles, 
or hodies destined to be- 
come seeds ; the Style (6), 
" or columnar prolongation 
of the apes of the ova- 
ry; and the Stigma (c), a 
554 portion of the surface of 

the style denuded of epi- 
dermis ; sometimes a mere point or a small knob 
at the apex of the style but often forming a sin- 
gle or do hie 1 e runn g down a part of its in- 
ner face and asi n ug i great diversity of ap- 
pearance 5 ffe e p!aat« 

421. All the or^a s of the flower are situated 
on, or g o V o t of t! e ape\ of the flov^er stalk, 
into which they are said, in bot^mcil language, 
to be inserted, and which is called the Torus, or ^^eptagle 
This is the axis of the flower, to whn,h the floral oig^ns aie at 
tached (just as leases ire to the stem) • the cilyx it it=i ^ery hise 
the petah just w ithm or above the calj x the stamens just witliin 
the petils and the pistils withm oi ibove fl e stamens 

422 Such IS the stiucturo of i complete and legular llowet 
which we take as the ijpe, or «tindard of comparison The caly\ 
anl corslla aie teimed jnotettin^ organs In the b d they en 
^elope the othei puts tie cdljt somet raes forms i covennff 
even fo the fiut and whun it etains its leaf like tcxtuie and 
coloi, It issmiilales the sip of the plant with the evolition of 
o\ygen gas m the same mannei as do true lenes the corolla 
elaborates honey or other seetetions for the nouiishment as is 
supposed of the stamens and pistiN Neither the cal^\ noi co 
roUa IS essent al to i flower one or both be ng not mf equenth 
wanting The stamens and pistih are howeiei essential organs 

F[G. 363, 


lisiii of a 


liko that 


Fig. S6i, 



; ms 

i?nified, and 


. acn 


Ihrough tbe 





. papulose 









nerfice: tl 

the Btlgnia 

FIG. 264. 


nlcal aftcti 

on of a 



ng tha Ir 

or of 


oyary, a, to 



Ho.t.d, Google 


since both are necessary to the production of seed. But even 
these are not always both present in the very same flower; as will 
he seen when we come to notice the diverse forms which the hlos- 
5, and to compare them with our pattern flower. 

Sect. II. The Tiieoeetical Strttctuee ok General Moh- 


423. To obtain at the outset a correct idea of the flower, it is 
needful here to consider the relation which Its organs sustain to 
the organs of vegetatioa. Taking the blossom as a whole, we 
have recognised, in the chapter on Inflorescence (377), the iden- 
tity of flower-buds and leaf-buds as to situation, &.c. ^Jo^ers, 
consequently, are at least analogous to branches, and the.leaves 
of the flower to ordinary leaves. 

424. But the question which now arises is, whether the leaves 
of the stem and the leaves and the more peculiar organs of the 
flower are not homnhgous parts, that is, parts of the same funda- 
mental nature, although developed in different shapes that they 
may subserve different offices in the vegetable economy ; — just as 
the arm of man, the fore-leg of quadrupeds, the wing-like fore-ieg 
of the bat, the true wing of birds, and even the pectoral fin of 
fishes, all represent one and the same organ, although developed' 
under widely different forms and subservient to more or less dif- 
ferent ends. The plant continues for a considerable time to pro- 
duce buds which develope into bmnches. At length it produces 
buds which expand into blossoms. Is there an entirely new sys- 
tem ictroduced when flowers appear ? Arc the blossoms formed 
upon such a diiierent plan, that the genei'al laws of vegetation, 
which have sufficed for the interpretation of all the phenomena up 
to the inflorescence, are to afford no further clew ? Or, on the 
contrary, now that peculiar results are to be attained, are the sim- 
ple and plastic organs of vegetation — the stem and leaves — de- 
veloped in new and peculiar forms for the accomplishment of these 
new ends ? The latter, doubtiess, is the correct view. The plant 
does not produce essentially new kinds of organs to fulfil the new 
conditions, but adopts and adapts the old. Notwithstanding these 
new conditions and the successively increasing difference in ap- 
pearance, the fundamental laws of vegetation may be traced from 
the leafy branch into and through the flower. 



425. In vegetation no new organs are introduced to fulfil any 
particular condition, but the common elements, the lopt, stem, and 
leaves, are developed in peculiar and fitting forms to subserve 
each special purpose. Thus, tiie same organ which constitutes 
the stem of an herb, or the tiunk of a tree, we recognize in the 
trailing vine, or th'' twiner, spirally climbing other stems, in the 
straw of Wheat and olhei Grasses, in the columnar trunk of the 
Palm, in the flattened and )ointed Opuntia, or Prickly Pear, and in 
the rounded, lump like body oi the Melon-Cactus. So, also, 
branches harden into spines in the Thorn, or, by an opposite 
change, become flcMble and attenuated tendrils in the Vine, and 
runners in the Stiawberiy , or, when de\eloped under ground, 
they assume the aspect of cieeping roots, and sometimes form 
thickened rootstalks, as in tlie Cihmus or tubers, as in the Po- 
tato. But the type is readily seen through these disguises. They 
are all mere modifications of tl e stem The leaves, as we have 
already seen, appeal undei a «lill gieatei variety of forms, some 
of them as widely il fferent fiom th(J common type of foliage as 
can be imagined ; such, for e\amf le, as the thickened and obese 
leaves of the Mesembijanthomums , the intense scarlet or crimson 
floral leaves of the Ei;,hroma oi Painted Cup, of the Poinsetia 
of our conservatories, and of seveial Mexican Sages ; the tendrils 
of the Pea tribe ; the pitcheis of Sarracenia (Fig. 323), and also 
those of Nepenthes (Fig 225), ishich are leaf, tendril, and pitcher 
combined. The leaves also appear under very difierect aspects 
in the same individual plant, according to the purposes they 
are intended to subseive The fiist pair of leaves, or cotyle- 
dons, when gorged with nutntue matter foi the supply of the ear- 
liest wants of the embiyo plant, as in the Bean and Almond (Fig. 
97), would seem to be peculiar organs But when they have dis- 
charged this special office in gei-mination, by yielding to the young 
plant the store of nouii&hment with which they are laden, they 
throw off their disguise, and assume, «ith more or less distinct- 
ness, the color and appeirance of ordinary foliage ; while in other 
cases, as in the Convolvulus, &.c , they aie green and foliaceous 
from the first. As the stem elongates, the successive leaves vary 
in foimoi s'ze, ai, oiding to the vir>ing (igor of vegetation. In 
our tiees, we tiace the last leases of tho season into bud-scales; 
and in the letuming spimg we may often observe the i 
scales of the e\pind ng Icif buds to re*: m^, the first perhaps 



perfectly but the ensuing ones successfully, the appearance and 
the o d a offi e of leaves (146). 

4P6 The a ilog es of vegetation would therefore suggest, that, 
in flowe ng 1 e leaves, no longer developing as mere foliage, are 
now w o gl t o ew forms, to subsei-ve peculiar purposes. In 
the cl a; er on I flo -esconce, we have already showQ that the ar- 
rangement and situation of flowers upon the stem conform to this 
idea. In this respect, flowers are absolutely like branches. The 
aspect of the floral envelopes favors the same view. We discern 
the typical clement, the leaf, in the calyx ; and again, more deli- 
cate and refined, in the petals. In numberless instances, we ob- 
serve a regular transition from ordinaiy leaves into sepals, and 
from sepals into petals. And, while tlie petals are occasionally 

green and herbaceous, the undoubted foliage sometimes 

FIG. 26S, Open flower, wUh a, flower-bud and , leaf 
odorala) ; the inner pelals paaaing Inlo stamens. 266. A Howe 
pifltil cut away excepL one of Ibe pelaluid stamens, ons jnlermedjate, and 


I of an 


d 1 

d I b h 


( ) Tl 

f 1 





pi p 1 

pl fi d m 1 

h re ) 


« 1 1 

Mg 1 

d p 11 1 


W Lly 

S A 

f 1 S 1 

d b G ly 

1 Allp 

h hp 


se f fl 

ly Ik 



1 p b 1 

b 11 dp 


dl 1 m 

d d db 

pi d b 


P I 

f b ly 

1 dif 


pf 1 d hb d f r 1 

m tl h f 1 f 1 1 

the floral e 1 p , 1 h man f ly bl b k 1 

The White Water-Lily (Fig, 265) exhibits this latter transition, as 
evidently as that of sepals into petals. Here the petals occupy 
several whorls, and, while the exterior are nearly undistingiilshable 
from the calyx, the inner are reduced into organs which are neither 
well-formed petals nor stamens, but intermediate between the two. 
They are merely petals of a smaller size, with their summits con- 
tracted and transformed into imperfect anthers, containing a few 
graias of pollen : those of the series next within are more reduced 
in size, and bear perfect anthersat the apex; and a still further 
reduction of the lower part of the petal completes the transition 
into stamens of ordinary appearance. 

i; 427. Transitions, or intermediate stales, between petals and sta- 
mens occur in numerous cases. These two are not only adjacent 
organs, but thoy appear to have very intimate relations, to which 
we may allude ia another place. But similar transitions between 
such specialized, and as it were antagonistic, organs as the stamens 
and the pistils would not he expected normally to occur ; nor is 
there any such regular instance linown. Yet they are not unfre- 
quently met with in monstrous blossoms, as occasionally in the 
Oriental Poppy in gardens, in the Houscleek, and in certain Wil- 
lows.* These are monsters it is true ; but the study of monstrosi- 
ties often throws much light upon the regular structure. 

• Thus two Applo-ti'ees in Ashbumham, Massachusetts, annually produce 


234 T 

428. The regular transformation, or metamorphosis {if we may 
use that somewhat ambiguous term), takes an upward course, from 
leaves into sepals, from sepals into petals, and from the latter into 
stamens, or even into pistils. We trace the typical leaf forward 
into the floral envelopes, and thence into the essential organs of the 
blossom. Now if these organs be, as it were, leaves developed in 
peculiar states, under the controlling agency of a power which has 
overborne the ordinary forces of vegetation, they must always have 
a tendency to dovelope in their primitive form, when the causes 
that govern the production of blossoms are interfered with during 
their formation, They may then reverse the sjiel!, and revert into 
some organ below them in the series, as from stamens into petals, 
or pass at once into the state of ordinary leaves. That is, organs 
which from their position should be stamens or pistils may develope 
as petals or floral leaves, or in the form of ordinary leaves. Such 
cases of retrograde meiajoprphosisjrequentiy occur in cultivated 
flowers, and occasionally in some spontaneous plants. 

429. Thus we meet with the actual reconeersioti of what should 
jjj 2,1, he a pistil into a leaf very frequently in the 

double garden Cherry, either completely 
(Fig. 369), or else iocompletely, so that the 
resulting organ (as in Fig. 370) is something 
intermediate between the two. The change 
of what should he stamens into petals is of 
common occurrence in what are called double 
and semi-doubh flowers of the gardens ; aa 
in Roses, Camellias, Carnations, &,c. When 
such flowers have many stamens, these disap- 
pear as the supernumerary petals increase in 
number ; and the various bodies that may be 
often observed, intermediate between perfect 
stamens (if any remain) and the outer row of petals, — from im- 
perfect petals with a small lamina tapering into a slender stalk, to 

flowers in which the petals are replaced by five small foliaceons bodies, IJbe the 
sepal?, and in place of stamens there are ten separate and accessory pis^ls, in- 
sorted oa the throat of the calyx. For an account of this case, and for a good 
suite of specimens, I am indebKd to Dr. E. Leigh, of Townsend, Mass. 
FIQ, 269, A small leaf In place of a pistil from lln centre of a flower of the double Cberr/. 



those which bear a small distorted lamina on one side and a half- 
formed anther on the other, — plainly reveal the nature of the 
transforniation that has taken place. The garden Columbine often 
affords beautiful illustrations of this kind. Carried a step farther, 
the pistils likewise disappear, to be replaced by a rosette of petals, 
as in double Buttercups. This increase in the number of the 
petals of double flowers is not altogether at the expense of the sta- 
mens and pistils. In such cases the petals themselves are prone to 
double, or to multiply in number. 

430. In full double Buttercups we may often notice a tendency 
of iho rosette of petals to 

turn green, or to retro- 
grade still farther into foli- 
aceous organs. And there 
is a monstrous state of the 
Strawberry blossom, well 
known in Europe, in which 
all the floral organs re- 
vert into green sepals, or 
imperfect leaves. The 
annexed illustration (Fig, 
272) exhibits a similar ret- 
rograde metamorphosis in 
a flower of the White 
Clover, where the calyx, 
pistil, &c. are still recog- 
nizable, although partially 
transformed into leaves. 

"We may observe that the ovary, which has opened down one side, 
bears on each edge a number of small and imperfect leaves ; much 
as the ordinary leaves, or rather leaflets, of Bryophyllum are apt 
to develope rudimentary tufts of leaves, or buds, on their margins 
(Fig, 271), which soon grow into little plantlets. This reversion 
of a whole blossom into foliaceous parts has been termed chlorosis, 
from the green color thus assumed. 

431. Somewhat different is the retrograde metamorphosis which 
is occasionally seen in tJie production of a leafy branch from the 
centre of a flower, or of one flower out of the centre of anotlier (as 
rose-buds out of roses). Here the receptacle, or axis of the 


L'dinary growth, or vegetation, of the branch, 
s more commonly 

s the o 

takes place after the 
formation of the flo- 
ral envelopes and sta- 
mens, but before the 
pi=tila appear; as in 
Fig. 373. Tho ap- 
pearance of a leafy 
branch from the sum- 
mit of a peai (as m 
Fiff 274) IS similaily 
e\plame1 So like 
wise m very wet and 

of he flo^e buds of the Pear and Apple are 
Oi-cas onallj fo ced mto ^ct \e \egetit \e growth, 
so as conpletely to break ip tie flower and 
change it mto 1 1 oi in a j leafy branci 
* 432 In such cases the teiminal bid goes on 

to g DW — ccntiary to the nor iial condition, m which the flower 
airests all f r her develo] ment of tl e ax s, that bears it An anal- 
ogous mun&t ositj sonft mes olc irs n wl ch axilhry b ds (148) 
arc de^ eloped n the flowur lis orn-ans thus exhibit a disting iish- 
ing cliaracteiistic of leaves, \iz. the production of buds m their 
axils ; which develope either as branches 
or as new axes at once terminated by 
blossoms. Flowers have thus been met 
with in the axils of the petals, as in Fig. 
275, and sometimes even in those of the 
stamens or pistils. Monstrosities of this 
sort are common in the Rose. Of the 
same kind are most of those cases in 
which one or more fruits, such as ap- "'"' 

pies or pears, grow out of another fruit. We have mot with flowers 

FIO. tffS, Retrograde melamorphosls of a flower of Ihc Fraslnella of [he gardens, from 
Liiidley'a Thsory of HorUcuIlurs ; an hilemmle ebogalsd jual above the aiameiis, and beating 

FIG. W4. A monaltous paar, prolonged into a leafy firanch, from Bonnel. 

FIG, ars. Aflnwetof iheFalse Bitiaraweel (Celsaiiija scandena), producing other flowers 
In the axila of the petals, from Tnrpin, 



of Clarkia elegaag which bore an imperfect blossom in the axil of 
each petal. 

433. jThe irresistible conclusion from all such evidence is, that 
the flower is one of the forms — the ultimate form — under which 
branches appear ; that the Isaj^ of the ^em,^the leaves or pgkils 
of the flower, and. even the atamens and pistils, are all forms of a 
common type, only dififering in their special development. And it 
may be added, that in aii early stage of development they all ap- 
pear ftlike.'^ That which, under the ordinary laws of vegetation, 
would have developed as a leafy branch, does, in a special case 
and according to some regular law, finally develope as a fiowcr ; 
its several organs appearing under forms, some of them slightly, 
and others extremely, different in aspect and in oiEce from the fo- 
liage, I* But they all have a common nature and a common origin, 
or, in dther words, are homologous parts (424).\ 

434. Now, as we have no general name to comprehend all 
those organs which, as leaves, bud-scales, bracts, sepals, petals, 
stamens, &c., successively spring from the ascending axi^ or stem, 
having ascertained their essential identitv, we naturally and in- 
deed neoessaiilv lake some one of them as the tjpe and Mew the 
others as modifications or metamorphoses oi it The leaf a the 
form which earliest appears and is the moat geneni of all the or 
gan=i of the vegetable it is the form which is ind spenaable to 
vegetation m its perfect development in which it plajs as we 
have aeen, the most important part it i^ the form mto wh ch all 
the flora! oigans may sometimes be traced back by numeious gia 
dations and to wh ch they are liable to revert when fliwenng n 
disturbed ind the piopei \egetatne forces again prevad Hence 
the leaf may be p opeilj assnnel as tLe type oi pattern, to which 
ail the othe s are to be leferied ) When therefore, the fl ral or 
gans are called modijied or metamorphosed leaves (terms which we 
have avoided almost entirely, as liable to convey an erroneous im- 
pression), it is not to be supposed that a petal has ever actually 
been a green leaf, and has subsequently assumed a more delicate 
texture and hue, or that stamens and pistils have previously existed 
in the state of foliage ; but only that what is fundamentally one 
and the same organ developes, in the progressive evolution of the 
plant, under each or any of these various form^ When ll»e indi- 
vidual organ has once fairly begun to develope, its destiny is fixed, 

435. The theory of vegetable morphology may be expressed in 
other, and more hypothetical or transcendental forms. We have 



preferred to enunciate it in the simplest and most general terms. 
, But, under whatever particular formula expressed, its adoption has 
not only greatly simplified, but has thrown a flood of light over the 
whole of Structural Botany, and has consequently placed the 
whole logic of Systematic Botany upon a new and philosophical 
basis. Our restricted limits will not allow us to trace its historical 
development. Suffice it to say, that the idea of the essential iden- 
tity of the floral organs and the leaves was distinctly propounded 
by LinniBus,* about the middle of the la^t century. It was newly 
taught by Caspar Frederic WolfF, about twenty years later, and 
again, after the lapse of nearly twenty yeara more, by the celebrat- 
ed Goethe, who was eolifely ignorant, as apparently were his scien- 
tific contemporaries, of what Linnteus and Woltf had written on the 

bj G 1 d ally fi as 

plljfg Ikd 1 fi htsfLee 

lib Id fh fhdyd 1 

wl b Ij 1 g I f 

f 11 d I 1 w w 1 1 h 1 

Ig f 1 w f G tl d W Ifl D d 11 h 

fi dlpf Ipd dglp fw 

hdf mylfl ''ll pfhe 

blossom IS legular and symmetncal but that this symmotrj is 
more or less modified or disgi =ied bj seco da y fl e ces g ng 
rise to various deviations, such as 1 ose 1 ch ve a e soo o con- 
sider. The reason of the preva 1 ng sj met cal ar angen e it of 
parts in the blossom has only re e ly been made appa ent n the 
investigation of the laws of p jUotaxs (234) fron whch tap- 
pears that -the general arrange e of 1 e eave po tl s is 
carried out into the flower. 

Sect, III. The Simmetk of the Fl ^er 

436. A Sjinilietl'iCfll Flower is onf h el has an eq al tiu b r of 
parts in each circle or whorl f o ^an is for e\a pie T g, 
256, where there are five sepab five pe als fi e s a e s a d five 

' "Prindpium ,^uni et faliorua dem est. Prui um genraanm et 
folioi'nm idem est. Gemma constat f 1 oru nd enlj P n a ex 

connatis foliorum rudimeatia," etc. I a B a r 30 


{ 1 



1 1 J metrical, altliough less simple, when there 

1 f the same kind of organ ; as in Sedum, 

t t of stamens, five in , 

i b y I ere there are two or I 

pal tw f petals, and two of Ji ^ 

h t, iStc. A complete d (J / 

dy d ti 1, 416) is one that (Z 

t f fi ai envelopes, calyx j...^ 

d b th ential organs, viz. 

437 Tl pi t P sible complete and 

t I fl Id be one vifith the ca- 

lyxofas b1 P '> oUa of a single petal, 

a single stamen, and a single pistil ; such as is 
represented in the annexed diagram, in con- 
nection with the two-ranked arrangement of 
the leaves (Fig. 276). Each constituent of the 
blossom represents a phyton, with its stem part 
reduced to a minimum, and its leaf part devel- 
oped in a peculiar way, according to the rank 
it sustains and the office it is to fulfil. That 
there are short intemodes between consecutive 
organs in the flower is usually apparent on mi- 
nute inspection of its axis, or receptacle ; and 
some of them are conspicuously prolonged In 
certain cases. But they are commonly unde- 
veloped, like the axis of a leaf-bud, so that 
the organs are brought into juxtaposition on 
a short, mostly conical receptacle, and the 
higher or later-formed parts are interior or in- 
closed by the lower. 

438. Perhaps tlio exact case of a flower at 
once so complete and so simple is not to be met 
with. For, when the stamens and pistils are "^ 

thus reduced to the minimum number, the floral envelopes, one or 
both, commonly disappear, as in the Mare's-tail (Fig. 703). Nor 
is the production of seed often left to depend upon a single oi'gan ; 

FIG. 276, Dls^ram of a plant, with a disli 

Implsst kind, oonslsiing of, a, a sepal; . 


h h 1 p ^ organs, are gener- 

fl g y dimmish the chances 

id 1 wh 1 f each kind of organ, 

11 1 g and apparently in- 
I f 1 fl 1 gans usually occur in 
fi 1 1 mbcr commonly pre- 

1 p f h fi (except when inter- 

of the disturbing causes hereafter mentioned), 
which therefore displays 
a symmetrical arrange- d \Ay? 
ment, or a manifest ten- J^^ 
dency towards it.* 
439. Having t 
noticed the symmetrical 
jemetit of the foli- ■ 
(334-252), andre- ^ 
■ked the transition of ordinary 
leavesinto those of the blossom (426), we nat- 
urally seek to bring the two under the same 
general laws, and look upon each floral whorl as 
answering cither to a cycle of alternate leaves 
with their respective intemodes undeveloped 
(237-239), or to a pair or verticil of opposite or 
verticiUate leaves (250, 251 ). Thus, the simplest 
combination, where the organs are dimerous, or 
in twos, may be compared with the alternate two- 
ranked airangement (237), the calyx, the corolla, 
stamens, &c., each consisting of one cycle of two 
elements ; or else with the case of opposite leaves 

* Terms expressne of ihe number of parts which compose each ivhorl o 
kind of organ are formed of Ihe Greek numerals combined witli fie'pot, a pan 
Thus a Sower with only one organ of each kind, as in the diagram, Eig. 276 
is monomeroiis; a flower or a whorl of two organs is dimerous (Fig. 298) ; o 
three (aa in Fig. 277), irimennis ; of four, teironierous (Fig. 280) i of five fas ii 
Fig. 2Si), pentamerout ; of six, hexameraus; often, decammms, &c. 

FIQ. a 

d, pialllB, 
Ideal plan of a plant, with tl 

er CTillaa raaai 

d, a pUtil, aUo ^howQ, 6 

i of each, naoieL?, a, a 

Ho.t.d, Google 

altermatio:m of the floral okgans. 241 

(250), when each set would answer to a pair of leaves. So, likewise, 
the organs of a trimerous flower (viz. one with its parts in threes, as 
in Fig. 277} may be takeo, each set as a cycle of alternate leaves 
of the tristichoua mode (171), with the axis depressed, which would 
throw the parts into successive whorls of threes, or as a proper ver- 
ticil of three leaves ; while those oi a. pentamerous or quinary flower 
(with the parts in fives, as ia Fig. 278) would answer to the cycles 
of the I arrangement (239) of alternate leaves, or to proper five- 
leaved verticils. So the whorls of a tetramerous flower are to be 
compared with the case of decussating opposite leaves (250) com- 
bined two by two, or directly with quaternary verticillate leaves ; 
either of which would give sets of parts in fours. 

440. The Altetnalion of flie Flwal Organs. We learn from obser- 
vation that the parts of the successive circles of the flower almost 
universally alternate with each other. The five petals of the flower 
represented in Fig. 256, for example, are not opposed to the five 
sepals, that is, situated directly above or before them, but alternate 
with, or stand over the intervals between them ; the five stamens 
in like manner alternate with the petals, and the five pistils with 
the stamens, as is shown in the diagram. Fig. 257. The same is 
the case in the trimerous flower. Fig. 277 ; and in fact this is the 
regular rule, the few exceptions to which have to be separately 
accounted for. 

441. This alternation comports with the more usual phyllotaxis 
in opposite and verticillate leaves, where the successive pairs de- 
cussate, or cross each other at right angles (250), or the leaves of 
one verticil severally correspond to the intervals of that underneath, 
making twice as many vertical ranks as there are parts in the 
whorl (251). The alternation of the floral organs is therefore 
most readily explained on the assumption that the several circles 
are true decussating verticils ; when it only remains to discover 
the real connection between the opposite -leaved or verticillate and 
the spiral phyllotaxis, and to obtain some expression which will 
harmonize the two modes; both of which are often met with on 
the same axis. But the inspection of a flower-bud with the parts 
imbricated in jestivatton (492) shows that the several members 
of the same set do not originate exactly in the same plane. The 
five petals, for example, in the cross-section of the pentamerous 
blossom shown in Fig. 257 (and the same arrangement is still 
more frequently seen in the calyx), are so situated, that two are 




exterior in the bud, and therefore inserted lower on the axis than 
the rest, the third is intermediate, and two others are entirely- 
interior, or inserted higher than the rest. In fact, they exactly 
correspond with a cycle of the quincuncial, or five-ranked, spiral 
arrangement, projected on an extremely abbreviated axis, or on a 
horizontal plane, as is at once seen by comparison with Fig. 173, 
173. Also when the parts are in fours, two are almost always ex- 
terior in the hud, and two interior. Moreover, whenever the floral 
envelopes, or the stamens or pistils, are more numerous, so as to 
occupy, several rows, the spiral disposition is the more manifest. 
It is most natural, accordingly, to assume that the calyx, corolla, 
stamens, &c. of a pentamerous flower are each a 
depressed spiral or cycle of the f mode of phyllo- 
■^_ \*^ taxis (239), and those of the trimerous flower are 
^ f^' 1' similar spirals of the J mode (238). But then the 
parts of the successive cycles should be superposed, 
or placed directly before each other on the de- 
2's pressed axis (Fig. 171) ; whereas, on the contrary, 

they almost always alternate with each other in the flower, as 
in the annexed diagi-am (Fig. 279). 

442. To reconcile this alternation with the laws of phyllotaxis 
in. alternate leaves. Prof. Adrien de Jussieu has advanced an in- 
genious hypothesis. He assumes the ^^ spiral arrangement (241) 
as the basis of the floral structure both of the trimerous and penta- 
merous flower, (at least when the envelopes are imbricated in the 
bud,) this being the one that brings the successive parts most 
nearly into alternation, either in threes or in fives ; as will readily 
be observed on inipection of the tabular projection of that mode, 
given on pa e 147 T! e difference between the position of parts 
in regular al e n on he I er in threes or fives, and that assigned 
by an accu a e sp al p o ection of the -^ mode, is very slight as 
respects mo of he o s and in none does the deviation exceed 
one thirteen 1 of he c en ference; — a quantity which becomes 
neariy insignificant on an axis so small as that of most fiowei-s, es- 
pecially towards its narrowed apex. Moreover, if the interior or- 
gans of a regular and symmetrical flower were thus to originate in 
the bud nearly in alternation with those that precede them, they 
would almost necessarily be pushed a little, as they develope, into 

FIG. 279. Oraa»scclion of tbe Bower \mi of tliB IrimelTJUS Tlltea, Fig. ST?, 10 shnw the al- 



the positioQ of least pressure and thus fall into these intervals with 

11 1 h 11 f 1 F 1 1 

gbl ddh hpl yd p 

fdpta m hp ssd 

m h Ily d 1 ff f 1 p h 

bll h Uptam 1 fh ml 

p b b d Im 1 fl M 

11 1 f 
1 h h 

g hm 

fpl 11 f m-; 
ti) 1 k 
d p 
m 1 h p p 

ly ta d 
f h fl 1 1 

d 1 1 f 1 
ly , p d I 
d f 
m Uy 

pp m d b 
443 W] 1 

f p h h 

d iy d 
h f pp 

1 [ d 1 ml 
d d g 
1 "^^h 1 

1,1 (94) by 
1 — f d f 
mb 1 1 

b d (49 ) h 
> Ih 

h y p 1 d 
hi f 1 

p fp Is 
f d 1 

1 1 J 

pi d 

g my 

1 gg<* 1 
oa fid 
1, 1 p f p 
f p bb 1 

1 J H 
d db) 1 
h 1 h 
d h 

f d mf m Ip 

4 4 P t ( th Fl ffj t fi Is 1 II rt E I 

All II fl d b I f d 1 

hbhsalgb b dh ffl 

TI fi d p bl d I 1 

p fhp flflll hp Thp 

fifl bll hlfbf I I 

d b / (I ) I I 1 

diametrically opposite or next the axis is posterior, or superior 
(upper).* It is important to notice the relative position of parts in 
this respect. This is shown in a proper diagram by dmwing a 
section of the bract in its true position under the section of the 
flower-bud, as in Fig. 2S2 : that of the axis is necessarily diamet- 

* As if these were Dot terms enongli, some^mes the organ, or side of the 
flower, which looka towards the bract, is likewise called exterior, and the organ 
or side next the asis, interior ; but these terms should lie kept to designate the 
relative position of tliu members of the floral circles in iestivation (490). 

Ho.t.d, Google 


r callj o] posite, and its section Is sometimes indicated by a dot or 
small c cle. In aa axillary tetramerous flower, one of the sepals 
V II b a terior, one posterior, and two lateral, or right and left ; 
a n the annexed diagram of a Cruciferous blossom (Fig, 280 ) ; 

while the petals, alternating with the sepals, occupy intermediate 
positions, or consist of an anterior and a posterior pair ; while the 
stamens, again, correspond to the sepals in position. A peotame- 
rous axillary flower, having an odd number of parts, will have 
either one sepal superior or posterior and two inferior or anterior 
(as in Ehus, Fig. 281), or else, vice versa, with one inferior and 
two superior, as in Papilionaceous flowers (Fig. 282) : in both cases 
the two remaining sepals are lateral. The petals will consequently 
stand one superior, two inferior, and two lateral, in the last-named 
case (Fig, 282), and one inferior, two superior, and two lateral in 
the former (Fig. 281). In terminal flowers (401), the position of 
parts in respect to the uppermost leaves or bracts should be noted. 

Sect. IV. The V,ieious Modifications of the Flowek. 

445. The complete and symmetrical flowers, with all their or- 
gans in the most normal state, that have now been considered, will 
serve as the type or pattero, with which we may compare the 
almost numberless variety of forms which blossoms exhibit, and 
note the character of the differences observed. We proceed upon 
the supposition, that all flowers are formed upon one comprehen- 
sive plan, — a plan essentially consonant with that of the stem or 

PIG. ^0. DlBgramoraCruclfecDusBowiircEryijlmuin); a, thgaxiaoflnRunieceiicB. (The 
bract is abortive in (his, oa ia mdet plants of tbis fsmily.l 

FIQ. 231. Diagram of a fiower of a Rhus, wilh Ihe Bxis, a, und the bract, 6, In allow tbs 

FIQ. SS2. Diagram of a aomr o( Ihs Pulse tribs, with a, the axis, and i, Ihe bract. 



branch, of whicli we have shown the flower lo be a modified con- 
tinuation, — so that in the flower we are to expect no organs other 
than those that, whatever their form and office, answer either to 
the ixia or to the leaves or in other words to phytons (230) ■ so 

I ply 


h I 1 

f I 



, fp 

pl h 
1 (416) 

the structure and symmetry k d 

the disenchanting spear of 1 1 1 [[ 

the real character of the m d d 


446. Our pattern flower f f 
kind of floral organ, and f q 1 
sively alternating with one 1 I 

calyx and corolla, as well a n ' P ' (416) ym le 

cal, having an equal numbe f p ! 1 I (436) I 

in having the difFereot members of each circle all alike in size and 
shape ; it has but one circle of the same kind of organs ; and 
moreover, all the parts are distinct or unconnected, so as to exhibit 
their separate origin from the axis or receptacle of the flower. Our 
type may be presented under either of the four numerical forms 
which have been illustrated. That is, its circles may consist of 
parts in twos (when it is Unary or dimerous), threes {ternary or 
trimerous), fours {quaternary or ietramerous), or flves {quinary 
or pentamerous). The first of these is the least common; the 
trimerous and the pentamerous far the most so. The last is re- 
stricted to Dicotyledonous plants, where five is the prevailing num- 
ber; while the trimerous flower largely prevails in Moaocotyledo- 
nous plants, although by no means ID yd 

class, from which Fig. 277 is taken 

447. The principal deviations from 1 p f fly 1 P 
tern flower may be classified as follow Tl j h f — 

1st. The production of one or n dd i If 

or more of the floral organs (regul m k p! g te 

tation) : 



9d. The production of a pair or a cluster of organs where tbere 
should normally be but one, that ia, the multiplication of an organ 
by division (ahnormal muUipUcation, also termed dcduplication or 
ckorisis) : 

3d. The union of the members of the same circle {coalescence) : 

4th. The union of adjacent parts of different circles {adnation) '. 

5th. The unequal growth or unequal union of different parts of 
the same circle {irregularity) : or, 

6th. The won -production or abortion of some parts of a circle, 
or of one or more complete circles (stpppression or abortion). 

7th. To Which may be added, the abnormal development of the 
receptacle or axis of the flower. 

448. Some of these deviations obscure the symmetrical structure 
of the flower ; others merely render il iri'egular, or disguise the 
real origin of the number of parts. These deviations, moreover, 
are seldom single ; but two, three, or more of them frequently co- 
exist, so as to realize almost every conceivable variation. 

449. Several of these kinds of deviation may often be observed 
even in the same natural family of plants, where it cannot be 
doubted thai the blossoms are constructed on the same general plan 
in all the species. Even in the family Crassulacefe, for example, 

where the flowers are remarkably symmetrical, 
'^3 and from which our pattern flowers. Fig. 256 

and 277, are derived, a considerable number of 
these diversities are to be met with. In Cras- 
sula, we have the completely symmetrical and 
simple pentamerous flower (Fig. 283, 284), 
viz, with a calyx of five sepals, a corolla of 
five petals alternate with the former, an andrce- 
cium (418) of five stamens alternating with the 
petals, and a gynsecium (419) of five pistils, 
which are alternate with the stamens ; and all 
the parts are regular and symmetrical, and also 
distinct and free from each other ; except that 
the sepals are somewhat united at the base, and 
the petals and stamens slightly connected with 
the inside of the calyx, instead of manifestly 
arising from the receptacle or axis, just beneath the pistils. Five 
is the prevailing or normal number in this family. 

KIG. S33, PlowerofaCtassula. 234. Ctoas-sectimi of lliB 




in the related genus Tilliea, most of the species, hke ours of the 
United States, have their parts in fours, but are othei-wise similar, 
and one common EiiropeaD species has its parts in threes (Fig, 
277) ; that is, one or two members are left out of each circle, 
which of coui-se does not interfere with the symmetry of the blos- 
som, So in the more conspicuous genus Sedum (the Stonecrop, 
Live-for-ever, Orpine, &c.) some species are 5-merous, others 
4-meroHs, and several, like our S. ternatum, have the first blossom 
5-meTOUs, hut all the rest on the same plant 4-merous. Bui Sedum 
also illustrates the case of regular augmentation (447, 1st) in its 
andrcecium, which consists of twice as many stamens as there are 
members in the other parts ; that is, an additional circle of st 
is itjtroduced (Fig.- 285, 286), the 
members of which may be distin- 
guished by being shorter or a little 
later than those of the primary circle, 
and also more definitely by their al- 
ternation with the primary, which 
brings them directly opposite the pet- 
als. A third genus (Rochea) exhibits 
the same 5-merous and normal flower 
as Crassula, except that the contigu- 
ous edges of the petals slightly cohere 
about half their length, although a 
litde force sufiices to separate them : 
in another (Grammanlhes, Fig. 287), ^e 

the petals are firmly united into a 

tube for more than half their length, and so are the sepals likewise ; 
presenting, therefore, the third of the deviations above enumer- 
ated (447). Next, the allied genus Cotyledon (Fig. 2SS) exhibits 
in the same flower both this last case of the coalescence of similar 



I Idc 
f 1 b 

i tsl 
f m 

1 J ii 
! d p 

d d pi J d 

! le of stamens, aa 

f deviations, in the 

) f the corolla, out 

F g 289, where the 
1 1 hough ordinarily 

f ly distinct in all 

h five ovaries (Fig. 



290) are united below into a solid body, while their summits, aa 
veil IS I p styles, are separate. The same plant also furnishes an 
exa nple of the non- prod notion (or suppression) of one whorl of 
orga s 1 a of the petals ; which, although said to exist in some 
spec en are ordinarily wanting altogether. Another instance of 
crease the number of parts occurs in the Houseleek (Semper- 
vivum), in which the sepals, petals, and pistils vaiy in different 
species from six to twenty, and the stamens from twelve to forty. 

450. Some illustrations of the j nr ] -il dnersities of the flower, 
as classified above (447), maj be dtv, n at iindom from different 
families of plants ; and most of the technical terms necessarily 
employed in describing these modifications may be introduced, and 
concisely defined, as we proceed The m iltiplication of parts is 
usually in consequence of the 

451. Augmeiilation of the Floral Circles An increased number of 

circles or parts of all the floral organs occ irs in the Magnolia 
Family ; where tlie flora! envelopes occ py hree or four rows, of 
three leaves in each, to be div ded be een the caljx and corolla, 
while the stamens and pistils a e ve y n nero s and compactly 
arranged on the elongated rece; -icle Tl e Cus ard Apple Fami- 
ly, which is much like the las Is 1 o t o c cl s the corolla, 
three petals in each, a great nc ease he n ber of stamens, 
and, in our Papaw (Fig, 493) so e nes o ly one c -cle of pis- 
tils, viz. 3, sometimes twice, th ce or as n any as fi e times that 



number. The Water-L Ij I k 

(Fig. 265), the floral e 1 p 

dim , 


■pying a great number of 

d 1 p 1 11 

ous ; although their nut b 

1 d by b 


hereafter explained. Wh 1 

, 1 p I 1 

P f 

the flower are loo num 

b dlj 1 

more thaa twelve, espec Uy wl 

1 n b 

commonly is in such Ct h 

d b d/ 


flower with numeroua s 

1 iply 

452 When ch n ul pi 

f 1 a rf 1 

p f ly 

regula he unbe of h ga d 

Ipl f 

h h ch fo m 1 e b f 1 

fl w b h Id 

1 ly 

be lee n 1 hen 1 e ml 

1 g 1 


Butte c p fo e ample 

1 1 y 

b 1 

vho Is of any o gati es d 1 

f I b 


cles s Uy a\ pe o 

P 1 

ii ly 

see he c ne of a M g 1 

f T 1 p » Tb 

d 11 g 

eb Qg of anj or all 1 fl 

I 1 d 

f 1 

the symmetry of the flo b 

J b ( 1 

and pistils especially), bj 1 

d g f 

1 t 

five members, for exampl 

1 pp r. Id 


two trimerous circles in h 

p, nlk f 

Tl 1 

ter case occurs in most E d g 


453. The production f M 

Ifl 1 1 m y 


most cases of increase f 1 

1 mb f g 


for all of them ; unless h h 

1 1 flyp b 1 


intrinsic probability, and 

PI d by J 1 


dj'awn from the organs f 

h 1 1 

give the rule in all ques 

I g b m -pi 1 .rT 


the position, of the flor 1 

I lib 

d d 

that certain parts of the bl m 

ml pi 

d by ; 

production of a pair oi g 

/ It It CVpTJ 

; pi 

of one ■ namely by what has been termed 

454 CI D dupl at n Th dil bl me f D 

wh h h b \ dd d pi to \ lly m / 

hglhjphb hhg q / 

dp 1 1 1 g 1 

W mpl J 1 d I J 1 h 

fill ml pi fh hfp h 


250 1 

which at best can well apply only to so e spec al cases The 
word chorisis {x^ipuris, tho act or state of epa ~it on o 1 [ 1 ca 
tion), also proposed by Dunal, does not n ol e any s cl ass mp 
tion, and is accordingly to be preferred By eg lar "o It pi ca 
tion, therefore, we mean the augmentatio of tl e number of organs 
through the development of additional c teles wl ch does not 
alter the symmetry of tho flower. By cho s s we deno e he p o 
duction of two or more organs in the place of one, through the 
multiplication of the leaf part of an iodividual phyton ; — a case 
which may be compared with the multiplication of cells by division 
(30), and more directly with the division of the blade of a leaf 
into a number of separate blades or leaflets. Chorisis may take 
place in two ditFerent ways, which are perhaps to be differently 
explained : in one case, the increased parts stand side by side ; in 
the other, they are situated one before the other. Both cases must 
evidently disturb or disguise the normal symmetry of the flower. 
455. Of the first case, which may be termed collateral chorisis, 
we have a good example in the tetradynamous 
stamens (519) of the whole natural family Cru- 
cifeite. Here, in a flower with symmetrical te- 
tramerous calyx and corolla, we have six stamens ; 
of which the two lateral or shorter ones are al- 
ternate with the adjacent petals, as they normally 
should be, while the four are in two pairs, one 
pair before each remaining interval of the pet- 
als ; as is shown in the anoexed diagram (Fig. 
292). That is, on the anterior and on the poste- 
rior side of the flower we have two stamens 
where there normally should be but a single one, 
and where, indeed, there is but one in some spe- 
cies of Cruciferffi. Now it occasionally happens 
that the doubling of this stamen is, as it were, ar- 
rested before completion, so that in place of two 
stamens we see a forked filament bearing a pair of 
anthers ; as is usually the case in several species 
of Stroplanthus (Fig. 293}. Here the two sta- 
s which stand in the place of one may be compared with a 

Diagram of a (lelradynamo 

& locked DC ^uble an 

Ho.t.d, Google 


sessile compound leaf of two leaflets, 
riacese, each phytou of 
the andrceciuni is ire- 
hied in the same man- 
ner. The circles of 
the flower in that order 
are in twos through- 

In the relaled order Fur 

There is, first, a pair 
of small scale-like se- 
pals ; alternate with 
these a pair of petals 
which, ill Dicentra, 
fee. (Fig. 394-296), 

below : alternate s 
witViin these there is a 
second pair of petals 
{Fig. 297): alternate 
with these are two 
clusters of three more 
or less united slaniens, ^ *" 

which plably stand in the place of two single stamens. The ar- 
rangement of parts is shown in the annexed diagram (Fig- 298) ; 
where the lowest line indicates the subtending bract, and therefore 
the anterior side of the blossom ; the two short lines in the same plane 
represent the sepals ; the two next within, 
the lateral and exterior petals ; those al- 
ternate and within these, the inner circle 
of petals ; and alternate with these are the 
N^^^t;^^^ 1 1 anthers of the two stamen-clusters. The 

centre is occupied by a section of the pis- 
til, which, as will hereafter be shown, con- 
sists of two united. The three stamens 
e lightly connected in Dicentra (Fig. 296) ; but in Corydalis and 

is (IhB luwar psrt of tlia I 


SM. Kc 



1 Sower; : 







lens 1> 


no three, 

I); chDi 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Adlumia there is only one strap-shaped filament on each side, 
which is three-forked at the tip, each fork bearing an anther. One 
of these trebled stamens is shown in Fig. 299. 

456. We have a similar case in some Hypericums and in Elo- 
dea (Fig, 300), except that in these, while the floral envelopes are 
5-merous, the circles within them are 
commonly 3-merous. The three 
members of the andrcecium are 
normally placed, alternating with the 
three members of the gynsecium with- 
in, and without with three glands, 
which probably replace an exterior 
circle of stamens ; but each member 
as it developed has divided above in- 
s (Fig. 301) ; each anther of which may be viewed 
a leaflet of a trifoliolate leaf (289). In the 
same way are the false filaments placed between the petals and the 
real stamens of Parnassia, partly divided into three in our P. Ca- 
roliniana (Fig. 305), or into from 9 to 15 shorter glandular lobes in 
P, palustris. So each cluster of numerous stamens of the polyan- 
drous species of Hypericum (Fig. 553) doubtle; 

i homologous w 

repeated choris 


of a single phyti 


md is therefore analogoi. 

h pi 

d byD h 

f 1 b d d d d 
lly mpt tely d 

ply 1 b d 

I y 
PP pi 

d f mpl 



Iso n he Dod 


fore the other ; — an arrangement which is not known to occur in 
the leaflets of any compound leaf. 

458. Some examples of this vertical or transverse chorists may 
be adduced hefore we essay to explain them. A 

common case is that of the crown, or small and 

mostly Iwo-lobed appendage on the inside of the 

blade of the petals of Sileue {Fig. 302) and of 

many other Caryophyllaceoug plants. This is 

more like a case of real dSdoubhment or unUning, 

a paitial separation of an inner lamella from the 

outer, and perhaps may be eo viewed. The sta- 
mens sometimes bear a similar and more striking 

appendage, as in Larreo, for example (Fig. 303), 

and most other plants of the Guaia um Fam ly 

der {Fig. 930). Let it be o ed ha lee cas he 

appendage occupies the ne sdeoflep lo sa 
, and that it is of lobed Aoa n before 

each petal of Parnaasia (F g 305) alio h 1 h ly f 
at all united with it, is fo nd a body hi P p I s 
trig is somewhat petal-like h a co le ble n be 
of lobes, and in P. Carol n ana s d ded al o o 1 e 
into three lobes, which look much like abortive 
The tnie stamiriea! circle, however, occupies its proper 

place within these ambigu- 
ous bodies, alternate with 

the petals. We cannot 

doubt that the former are 

of the same nature as the 

scale of the stamens in 

Larrea, and the crown of 

the petals of Silene. 

459. It may also be no- 
ticed, that, while in collat- 
eral chorisis the increased 
parts are usually all of the 
leaflets of a compound leaf, in what is called transverse choriais 

nature, like so many similar 

FIG. 3M. Diagram Cc 

with the appendage that i 

Ho.t.d, Google 


there is seldom if ever such a division oi lamificatioii into homo- 
geneous parts, but the oiiginal organ remain's, as it ■ueiP, intact 
and unmodified, while it beaia an appendage of some different 
appearance or function on its innei face, oi at its base on that side 
Thus the stamens of Lariea, &.<• bear a •wale-hke appendage, 
the petals of Sapindus, Caidiospermum, &c , a petaloid scale quite 
unlike the original petal , the petals of Pamaisia, a clu'JtPr of bod- 
ies resembling sterile filaments united below In a slill greater 
number of instances, tht accession to the petal conoists of a leal 
stamen placed before it, and often moie or 
"TI^^ less united with its base, as m the whole 

Buckthorn Family (Fig 315), and m the 
Byttnenaceje , or of a clustei of stamens, 
IS m the Mallow Family, and indiilinctly m 
_ _ _ most European Lindens , oi of such a cluster 

V;^^i;;3::> with a petal-like ecale in the midst, as in the 

American Lindens (Fig. 622, 623, 306). In 
the first namtd cases, the accessory organ developes entire and 
simple , in the latter, it is multiplied by collateral chorisis.* 

460 A most ablc^ writer in a recent number of the Journal of 
Botany, (with whom we entirely accord as to the nature of collat- 
eral chorisis,) " being totally at a loss to find any thing analogous in 
the ordinaiy stem-leaves " to this transverse or vertical multiplica- 
tion of parts, inclines to consider such appendages as those of the 
petals of Silene, Sapindus, Ranunculus, &.c,, as deformed glands, 
and the stamens thus situated, whether singly or in clusters, as de- 
velopments of new parts in the axil of the petals, &,c.t It appeal's 
;, however, that the leaves do furnish the proper analogue of 
) appendages (especially those of Fig, 302, 303, 305, and the 

* ForiltuEti'alions, and more deEailcd explanation of these points, the stu- 
dent ia referred to the figures and test of The Genera of the United Stales Flora 
lUustmted, especially to Vol. 2. The opposition of the exterior circle of sta- 
mens Co the petals ia Geranium, &c., we explain in a different wbj (47T). 

t Namely, in Hooker's Journai of Botany and Keie Garden MisceUani/, Dec., 
1849, p. 360. — The morpholt^y of tme glands is still obscure, notwithstanding 
the interesting light that is thrown npon them in the article heve refeiTod to ; 
and stipules often tend to assume the glandular character, or are reduced to 
glands, as in JJiniim. 

FIG. 308. Dingrmi (ofo^s-ai^r.lioul nf Ihc unupencd floivcr of the American Linden, to sliow 



petaloid scales of Sapindaceee) in the ligule of Grasses (298), and 
the stipules (304). The former occupies exactly the same posi- 
tion. The latter form an essential part of the leaf (259), and usu- 
ally deveiope in a plane parallel with that of the blade, but betweea 
it and the axis, p t c la Iv I en they are of considerable size, 
and serve as tegum ts of the bid, as, for example, in Magnolia 
(Fig. 130) and L ode do Tl o combined intrapetiolar stipules 
of Melianthus, &c f n 1 a c e in point, to be compared with 
the two-lobed inte n I seal ot he stamens in Larrea, the two- ■ 
cleft adnate appendage of the petals in CaryophylleEe, Sapindus, 
&c. ; and instances of clefY or appendaged stipules may readily be 
adduced to show that such bodies are as prone to multiplication by 
division as. other foliar parts. The supposition of a true axillary 
origin of the organs in question, therefore, appears to be gratuitous, 
and it would certainly introduce needless complexity into the theory 
of the structure of the flower. Still, as the axillary branch must 

begin with a single phyton, 
restricted to one phyton {ai 
hm fre) h 
m 1 pi 11 d 1 

its development may i 
5 in the pistillary leaf 

■ 1 ■ 
! yd by 

n the flower be 

' in the axil of a 

rgan, which, if 

llateral chorisis. 

A d d d h 

b ! 

nsverse division 

f p!y d 1 

ly 1 P 

11 p d f 
d n i d 1 pm 

second phyton 
of that which 

b d h 11 
d g! h I^ 1 1 
gh b pi y d b h f 
p] f g h 
fll d 

■ssg I d r 
h II 1 d h 

At present, ac 
may properly 
vertical multi- 

1 h 

py the place of 

d 1 h p 1 m 
h 1 pi d 1 
g h 1 1 d 1 r 

dflf d 
y h g ! gm 
m f dd 

natmg between 
nation of floral 
cles Nor is a 

p 1 m 1 1 

1 J 
b 1 k d f / 

tic botany, be- 
w, piocesses or 

m d f d 11 
1 fl g 

1 fl 

1 otgans and to 

' We are aware that Dr, Lindley Bnmmarily rejecia the whole docliine of 
choriais, or any evolution of two oc mote bodies in the normal place of one, 
however explained ; and for llireo reasons, whidi may be cited from Intivd. 
tu Boianij, I. p, 333, with a word of comment. " 1. There is no instance of 



461 Tllf Coalescence oi union of the paris of tlie same whorl or 
set of organ-i is so fiequeut, that few cases are to be found in which 
it does not oc(,ur, to a gieater or leas extent, in some portion of the 
flower When the sepals are thus united into a cup or tube, the 
calv^. 1' said to be monosepalous, or, more correctly, gamosepalous : 
when the petals are united, the corolla is said to be monopetalmcs, or 
gamopelaJous ; the latter being the appropriate term, as it denotes 
that the petals are combined ; but the former is in common use, al- 
though strictly incorrect, as it implies that the corolla consists of a 
single petal. The inappropriate names, in these cases, were given 
long befoie the structure was rightly understood. So, also, such a 
c-ilvx or corolla is said to be entire, when the sepals or petals are 
united to thf'ir very summits ■ as the corolla of Convolvulus (Pier 

unl n ng [ ead ho s nbt Du 1 as q ote 1 by L diej p opo s o sub 
»% tn e] vh h n ay not be as well esplai ed bj the tl eory ot al e na on — 
Hot to n en on her nstance ho v s the end bp m of Fumanarese to be 
explaned npon the theo y of ilte na on'! if hy the HpotheB a atiU rep-o 
duoed n the ^eqeable Knglnm p 436 we n [u e "What unalogy var 
rants the snppos ion that a Etamen o n leaf n aj spl t nto ha ves and the 
halves nu to each w th a d fferent Alan ent which 1 as an angular d stance of 
90 degrees ''— 2 It s h ghly mprobable and neons stent wi h tl e i raphe (y 
of vegetable structure, that in the same flower the mulliphcation of organs 
should arise from two wholly different causes, viz. alteration at one time, 
and unlining at another. 3. As it is known that in some flowers nheie the 
law of alternation usually obtains, the organs are occasionally placed opposite 
each other, it is necessary for the supporters of the unlining tlieory U> as- 
sume that in such a flower a part of the organs must be altemate and a part 
nnlined, or at one time be all altemate and at another time be ail unlined, 
which is enfiraly opposed to probability and sound philosophy. See the Ca- 
mellias figured in the Elements of Botany, p. 76, fig. 156, 157, 158." — In 
double Camellias the numerous petals of the rosette are in some eases spirally 
altemateyin others placed opposite each other in five or more ranks. Now, 
when in the very same species two stich different modes of arrangement oeenr, 
is it not a prion more probable that the tivo arrangements result from different 
causes a;nd ara governed by essentially different laws? — "4. The examina- 
tion of the gradual development of flowers, the only irrefi'agable proof of the 
real nature of final structure, does not in any degree show that the supposed 
process of unlining has a real existence." Compare with this the well-stated 
abstract of Duchatre's memoir on the Morphology and Organogeny of Mai- 
vaceie, which is given in the same work (Tol. 2, p. 70, et sey.), and which as- 
serts that the stamens of the Malvaeeous flower appear and multiply in a man- 
ner wholly conformable to the doctrine of ehorisis, as hero mtuntaincd, and 
hardly explicable upon any other theory. See, also, several diagrams of the 
lestivation of flowers of Malpighiaccic, where tlie petals extend wiihin the outur 




921), which thus appears to be one simple organ ; or to be toothed, 
lohed, deft, or parted, according to the degree in which the union 
is incomplete ; this language being employed just as in the case of 
the division of leaves (281). When the sepals are not united, the 
calyx is siud to bo polysepalous ; and when the petals are distiact, 
the corolla is said to be polypetalous ; that is, composed of several 
petals. Examples of this union of the parts of the same circle 
have already been shown, as respects the calyx and corolla (Fig. 
287), and in the account of what is called the monopetalous divis- 
ion of the exogenous natural orders further illustrations are given, 
exhibiting this union in very different degrees. 

462. The union of the stamens occurs in various ways. Some- 
times the filaments are combined, whjle the anthers are distinct. 
When thus united by their filaments into one set, they are said 
to be monadelpJious ; as in the Lupine, &.c. (Fig. 307). When 
united by their fila 
meals mto two sets 
they are diadelpHotts 
(Fig 308) asm most 
plants, of the Pea tribe 
(LecummosEe) where 
nine stamens form 
one set and the tenth 
IS solitary and in 
Dicentra (Fig 296 ™ 

299) where tho six stamens b 
A\ hen united or arranged in thr 
be ?j tadelphom as in the common St John's ' 
if in seve al polyadelphous as in olhei Hyp 
In some of these instances indeed the st n 
ha\e a common or g n as we "suppose (456) 
aieemplojed in botamcil description unde 
views In other cases t\ e fihments aie d 
and tl e antheis \ nited into a nng as in the vast order Compos 
Vb or class '^yngenesia of the L nn'Ean -irtificial system ; when 
the stamens are said to be syngenestous (Fig. 309, 310). Again, 
in Lobelii not only aie the anthers syngenesious, but the filaments 

e eqmlly combined in two sets, 
e sets or parcels, they are said to 
■t {Yio 553 ) ■ or 

It tl 



FIG 307 Monadeplmi 
papl neoeoua flower Lo 
FIG 308 Sj^ieixaaai 

30a r adelphous stamens (9 and I) 
1 Fg 582 
sConipasiJi. 310. The cuheof antli 

Ho.t.d, Google 

tube for tlie greater part of their length 
(Fig. 786). The same thing is seen 
in the Gourd tribe, where the anthers 
are sometimes long and sinuous or re- 
marliably contorted, as well as cohe- 
rent into a mass (Fig. 311-313). 

463. The union of the pistils is still 
more common than that of the stamens. 
It occurs in every degree, from the par- 
tial combination of the ovaries, as in 
Penthorum (Fig. 290), &c., to their 
complete union while the styles remain 
distinct, as in the St. John's-wort (Fig. 
554), to the partial union of the latter, 
as in the Mallow, or to the perfect union 

gl b dy ( 
t h 11 

C I 
mb d n 


h d Tl 

d D gb 


92 ) 

pound pistil, \ 

i congtiutil , the mcmbeis of a gamosepalous calyx, a 
is corolla, a monadelphous circle of stamens, or a com- 
e connite, and showed their union from tlie earliest 
The language we use has reference to our idea of these 
parts, as answering each to a single leaf. We might more cor- 
rectly say that the several leaves of the same circle have failed to 
isolate themselves as they grew. The same remark applies to the 
case of 

465. Adnation, or the union of diiTerent circles of floral organs 
with one another. This may take, place in various degrees. It 
presents the appearance of one circle or set of parts growing out 

FIG, 311. (Jilumo 

, of Iha Gourd: ■ 



of another, as the corolla out of the calyx, the stamens out of the 
corolla, or ail of them out of the pistil ; and therefore disguises the 
real origin of the floral organs from the receptacle or axis, in suc- 
cessive series, one within or above the other (42). In fhe nu- 
merous cases where the real origin, or insertion, of the floral 
organs is not obscured by these cohesions, but where they are in 
appearance as well as in theory inserted on the receptacle, the 
calyx, corolla, and stamens are said to be ki/pogynous, that is, in- 
serted below the pistils ; as in the Buttercup, the Magnolia, in Cru- 
ciferous flowers (Fig. 297), &c. The floral organs in such cases 
are also said to he free; which is the term opposed to the adhesion 
of one organ to another, as that of distinct is to the cohesion of 
the parts of the same whorl or set of organs. Thus, the stamens 
are said to be distinct, when not united with each other, and to be 
Jvee, when they contract no adhesion to the petals, sepals, or pis- 
tils ; and the same language is equally applied to all the floral 
organs. The word connate (born united) is applied either to the 
congenita! union of homogeneous parts (as when we say that the 
two leaves of the upper pairs of the Honeysuckle are connate, the 
sepals or stamens are connate into a tube, or the pistils into a com- 
pound pistil), or to the coalescence of heterogeneous parts (as that 
of the petals with the calyx, or of both with the pistil). But the 
word adnate belongs to the latter case only. 

466. When heterogeneous parts are adnate, that is, congenilally 
adherent to each other, some additional technical terms are ren- 
dered necessary. Thus two words are used as counterparts of 
hypogynaus (under the pistil), and accord with different degrees 
of adnation, viz. perigynous and epigynous. The petals and sta- 
mens, which almost always accompany each other, are said to 
be perigynous (literally placed 
around the pistil) when lliey ad- 
here to the base of the calyx, or 
in botanical language are inserted 
on it, either directly, or perhaps 
more commonly by means of a 

base, from the upper surface or edge of which they grov 

FI6. 314. A lloner of Rliamnus alnifoUiia, showing the perigjnoua Sisa, into Ih( 


the Cherry, the Buckthorn (Fig. 314, 315), &,c. The same term 
is often applied to the calyx when it is adnate to the base of the 
ovary, in which case it necessarily carries the petals and stamens 
with it. Very frequently the calyx invests and coheres with the 
whole surface of the maiy, so that all the pirts of the flowei seem 
to giow out of Its summit, as m the HonejoticUe, the Dogivood, 
(Fig 210, n), the Valerian, &,c The organs which thus appar- 
enllj aiise fiom the top of the ovarj aie said to be epigynous 
(literallj on the pistil) , a cise of which is 
shoHn in Fig 316 The earlier bolatiists 
called the floiver, or C3iy\, in such caies, 
superior, and the ovarj and fruit inferior , 
and when no such comhinition occurs, the 
flower, or caljx, &c was said to be infe- 
rior, and the o\ary superior But these 
terms aie nearly, and should be altogether, 
^" superseded by the equivalent and moie ap- 

propriate expiessions of calj/x adherent in the one case, and calyx 
free in the other, or that of ovary colitient uitli the calyi, and 
ovary free from, the calyx, which is the same thing m other words 

467. The various parts of the flowei, thus consolidated, may 
separate into their integral elements at the point whcie they be- 
come free from the ovary, as in Cornus (Fig 240) , or else re- 
main variously combined ; the calyx beini; fiequetitly prolonged 
into a tube with which the petals and stamens cohere, as in the 
Evening Primrose (Ord. Onagracese), nheie the united sepals 
form a Song and slender tube, bearing the petals and stamens on 
its summit. In most cases, where the corolla i^ gamrpFtalous, the 
stamens continue their adhesion to it; whik in the Orchis Family 
thoy are free from the corolla, hut adherent to the pistil, or gynan- 

468. Imgnlarity, ^om unequal deodopment or unequal unton 
The Pea tribe affords a familiar illustration of it i cgvlar flowers 
arising from the unequal size and dissimdar form uf the floral en- 
velopes ; especially of the corolla, which, from a fancied lesem- 
blance to a butterfly in the flower of the Pea, &uC , has been called 

The petals of such a corolla are distinguished by 



separate names ; the upper one, which is usually moat conspicu- 
ous, being termed the vexiUitm, standard, or banner (Fig. 318, a) ; 
the two lateral {h) are called icing's {ala), and the two lower (c), 
which are usually somewhat united along their anterior edges, and 

more or less boat-shaped (Fig. 319}, together form the keel {cari- 
na). The sepals, which are coalescent below into a cup, are also 
of unequal size or somewhat uneguaHy united. But here are all 
.the parts of a symmetrical pentamerous calyx and corolla, only 
they are irregular on account of their unequal size, shape, or un- 
ion. There is a tendency to become regular, however, in some 
flowers of the same tribe ; this is slightly observable in Baptisla 
(Fig. 331), but is more manifest io Cercis (the Ked-bud or Judas- 
tree), and most of all in Cassia ; where the five petals are separate, 
spreading, and almost alike in size and form. The irregularity of 
papilionaceous (lowers likewise affects the stamens, which, although 
of symmetrical number, viz. ten, or two circles, are in most cases 
unequally diadelphous (463), nine of ihem being united by the cohe- 
sion of their filaments for the greater part of their length, while the 

FtG, 317, AflowaringliraBclmf Lalhj™ 

18, The corella displayed :o,ths 

he iwo peub 



Ho.t.d, Google 

tenth (the posterior) si 


len is distinct or nearly so {Fig, 320). But 
in Amorpha (Fig. 323, 
324), which belongs to the 
same family, an approach 
to reguhiity is seen in this 
respect the ten stamens 
being united barely at their 
hdst , and there is a com- 
plete return to regularity 
in those of Baptisia (Fig. 
322) which are ppifectly 
distinct oi sepaiate An 
example of a d iferent 
'.oit of nr«gulai blossom 
IB afforded by the Fumi 
torj tam Ij ll e structure 
of which has already been explained, e&pecially as to the stamens 
(455, Fig. 296). The floral envelopes of D centra aie m one Mew 
regular, inasmuch as the two members of each cncle are alike 
hut the exterior pair of petals is very unl ke the interior pan , and 
in Corydalis and Fumaria itself one of the exter or petals is unl ke 
the other, rendering the blossom more conspicuously and truly 
irregular. Here the irregularity ia combined with moie or less 
cohesion of the petals ; although this union, like that of the two 
keel-petals of a papilionaceous flower, is not congenital but occurs 
subsequently to the development of tiie organs 

469. There are many other forms of iriegulii poljpetiku^ 
blossoms, which we cannot here separately e\pla n such as th^t of 
Polygala, and that of the Larkspur and Monkshood both of which 
are farther complicated hy tho suppro&s on of some oigans, as well 
as by the ' e^, 1 development of others 

4 A no g gamopetalous flowers the most common case of 
T o la ty h of what are called bilahtale (or two hpped) co 
roUas 1 h j e ail in the" Mint Family, and to some extent m 
sevo 1 la ed f ilies. Here the irregularity of form does not 
a e f o he s pt ression of some of the petals, as might at first 

FIG. 321. PapUlooacoous iIowGr of Baptiala, aau. The e 
FIG, K3. Flowor of Amorpha, 324, Tha sama, wilh Iho i 



sight be supposed, but from their unequal union : the upper lip 
being formed by the more extensive cohesion of the two upper 
petals with each other than with the lateral ones ; which in like 
manner unite with the lower petal to form the lower lip {Fig. 
367). But, in some such cases, the two upper petals do not 
cohere with each other as far as they do with the lateral ones, 
and, being smaller in size, the corolla has the appearance of 
wanting the upper lip, and shows a deep cleft in its place ; as in 
Teucrium Canadense (Fig. 881). The flowers of Lobelia (Fig. 
785) exhibit a striking instance of a similar kind ; the- two upper 
petals being united with the lateral {which are still further com- 
bined with the lower, to form the lower lip), but wholly uncon- 
nected with each other ; so that the corolla appears to be split 
down to the base on the upper side. The ligulate or strap-shaped 
corollas of ComposilEe are evidently foiTned in the same way, as 
if by the splitting down of a tubular corolla on one side. In the 
bilabiate corolla of ^most Honeysuckles, the upper lip consists of 
four united petals ; the lower of only one {Fig. 743). 

471. Suppression or Abortion. A complete flower, as already re- 
marked (416), comprises four whorls or sets of organs ; namely, 
calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistils ; when any of these are want- 
ing, the flower is said to be incomplete. Deviations resulting from 
the non-prod uclion of one or more of the whorls are not uncom- 
mon, and may affect any of the floral organs. The calyx, how- 
ever, is never wanting when the corolla is present, or rather, when 
the floral envelopes consist of only one whorl of leaves, they are 
called calyx, whatever be their appearance, texture, or color. For 
since the calyx is frequently delicate and petal-like (in botanical 
language pe(flfo*(i or colored), and the corolla sometimes greenish 
or leaf-like, the only real difference between the two is, that the 
calyx represents the outer, and the corolla the inner series ; and 
even this distinction becomes more or less arbitraiy when either, 
or both, of these organs consist of more than one circle. The ap- 
parent obliteration of the calyx in some cases is owing to the en- 
tire cohesion of the tube with the ovary, and the reduction of the 
free portion, or limb, to an obscure ring or border, either slightly 
toothed or entire, as in Aralia (Fig. 316), Fedia (Fig. 764), &c. 
In ComposilK, the partially obliterated limb of the calyx, when 
present at all, consists of scales, bristles, or a ring of slender hairs 
(as in the Thistle), and receives the name oi pappus. 



472. The petals, however, are frequently absent ; when the 
lower is said to he apetalous, as in the Anemone (Fig. 325), Clem- 
atis, Cahha, &c., in the Crowfoot 
Family, other genera of which are 
furnished with both calyx and corol- 
la ; as in some species of Buckthorn, 
while others bear petals; as in our 
Noithem Prii-kly Ash* (Fig 641, 
642), while the petals are present m 
the ■>outhem apecies They aie 
constantly wantmg m a large num 
ber of families of Exogenous planf-, 
which on thi^ account form the di- 
vision Apelalm When the calyx is piesent while the corolla is 
wanting, the flower is said to be monochlamyUous, that is with a 
perianth (417) or flora! envelope of oiih one kind , as in the cases 
above mentioned But sometimes both the calvx ind the eoiolla 
are eiilirelj vsanting is in the Lizard's tad (Fig 1021), when the 
flowers, being destitute of floral ens eloper, are termed achlamyde- 
ous. The essential organs (41S) aie nevertheless piesent m these 
cases, so that the flowei is perfect {or hseiual), aithotigh iti 

473. A still further reduction, however, occur'! in minj plants, 
where even these essential organs aie not both pie'ient la the same 
flower, but the stamens disappe'u in some flowers, and the pistils 
in others. Such flowers are said to be dichnovs, imisenual, or 
s^araled ; that which heirs stamens only is termed -itenle or 
staminate, and that provided with pistik oa\\, feii lie, oi pis 
tillate. This separation of the essential oigans is very fie 
quently met with wheie one oi both of the floral envelopes aie 
present, as in Menispeimum (Fig 495, 497) and Piickly Ash 
(Fig. 641, 642) , but when theie aie absent it piesenls instances 
of the greatest possible leduction of w hich the flower is auscepti 

• In our Northern Zantlioxylui 


odilamj-acouB perianth which is 

present may, however, be justly held to be the corolla, and not tlia calyx, be- 
cause the fivB stamens altemate with it, just as they do with the undonbwcl 
petals of Z. Carolinianum : in this case, therefore, we may say that (he calyx, 
and. not the corolla, is Buppreased. Se« Ge«. Jllastr , 2, p. 148, tab. 156. 



b!e.* An example of the kind is furnished by Ceratiola (Fig. 
1036- 1039), the sterile flowers of which consist merely of a couple 
of stamens situated in the axil of a bract; and the fertile, of 
a pistil surrounded 
by similar bracts. 
In the Willow (Fig. 
326 - 329), which 
presents a more fi 
mdiar illustration, 
the steiile flowers 
lilew i&e consist of 
two 01 thiee stamens 
in the axilof biacis, 
which fuim a catkin 
(391) , and the fer- 
tile, of solitary pis- 
tils also subtended 
by bract?, and dis 
posed Jikewise in a 
catkin Thit is, the 
floweis lie not only 

wholH destitute of floral envelopes (u le s a little glandular scale 
on the uppor 9ide should bi a rul nen ary peiianth of a single 
piece), but in one set of blosst n? ! e ? imens are also suppressed, 
and in another, the pistils. Tl e | s 11a e flowers are reduced to a 
single pistil. The slamensiaymn nbe n different species, 
from two to five. If there jvere only o e of tl e latter, an instance 
would be afforded of flowere reduced, not merely to one kind of 
organ, but to a single organ. Now there Is one species of Willow, 
which appears to have a solitary stamen in its staminate flowers. 

* Except, perhaps, in what are called nmlral ftoivers, audi as those which 
occupy the margin of the cjmes of Beveral Viburnums and Hydrangeas, or 
even the wliole cluster in monstrous states, as in the Snowball or Guelder Rose 
of the gardens (Vibornum Opnlns), and the cnltirated Hydrangea, which con- 
sist of floral envelopes only, with sometimes mere rudiments of stamens or pis- 
tils. Of the same tind are the nettral florets of Compositie, such as the mar- 
ginal flowers, or rajs, of the Sunflower, 

FIG. 336. Adlkin ofslaminata liowe 


5 therefore been named Salix monanilra. But on inspec- 
tion this seemingly single stamen is found to consist 
of two united quite to the top {Fig. 330), Here, as in 
many other cases, the normal condition of the flower is 

h d g 
Th b! 

h It d by tie 

d by h 1 

f h B 1 

p -ess' on of some o •<• 
e f 1 e h 

! bra f h f 

4 4 "^M 
id f hi 

nlP pi 


1yd ff 

d id- 

ts h nb h k n 

I 11! plants ; as in Indian Com, the 

rt 1 H k ry, &c. ; and they are called 

d ff ndividuals ; as in the Willow 

h P 1 !y Ash, the Hemp, Hop, &.c. 

f h fl wers are staminate only, and 

> perfect, the different kinds oc- 

d ff rent individuals ; as in most 

f M pi &e. : plants wiih such flowera 


d f m d 


11 such cases merely c 

h Uy left out. It is the non-pro- 

fra IS which forms a component 

I , and which is realized in the 

h on, which is often used with 

properly applied to those cases 

iperfect (where a sterile fila- 

p tion of a stamen), or where a 

f non. developed organ. 

of a whole circle of organs in 

k 1 pi f 

476. The suppression or abortii 
a symmetrical flower does not destroy its symmetry, if we count 
the absent members. Thus a monochlamydeous flower, with a 
single full circle of stamens, usually has the latter placed opposite 
the leaves of the perianth, that is, of the calyx, the corolla or in- 
tervening circle, with the members of which it normally alternates, 
having failed to appear; as in Comandra (Fig. 1004), Chenopo- 

FIO. 330. A amniloale flower ofSttllnpurpui-ea (lit nninatulra),wilii the sUmeiiacoalesceat 



" dium, auA tlie Elm (whenever its blossoms have only one set of 
stamens. Fig. 338). 

477. But when, with the abortion of the primary circle, say of 
the stamens, we have an augmentation of one or more additional 
circles of the same kind of orgaii, the law of alternation appears to 
be violated ; the stamens that are present, or tlie outer circle of 
them, standing opposite the petals, instead of alternate with them. 
It is customary to assume this explanation for all cases of the op- 
position of the stamens to the petals, whether in the Primrose Fam- 
ily, in Claytonia, m the Vme (Fig 334) and Buckthorn (Fig, 314), 
or in Byttneuacete, &.c but confide rations which have already 
been adduced indicate a different explanation for many of them 
(459) It cin no longei be deemed sufhcieiit to assume the obiit 
eration of a iioimil floral ciicle, and the pioduction of anothei 
one, when no tiaces of the formei aip to be detected and no clear 
analogy shown with some atrictlj p-iiallel instance But we may 
confidently apply this view when we find traces of the obliterated 
or aboitive oigans, as in the Geranium Family, foi e\'imple 
The pentameious flowei of Geranium (Fig 633) e\hibits ten 
stamens in two lows, distinguished by their ditierent length, the 
five of the e\terior circle being shortei thdn the others One set 
of these stamens alternates with the petals, the othei is opposed to 
them, which would appear to confoim to the law of alternation 
But, on closer e\ammdtion, we see that it h the i«»H cncle of 
stamens that alternates with the petals , those of the outti cncle 
stand directly before them This is a not uncommon case in 
dipioitemonous flowers (viz in those which have twice as many 
stamens as theie are pelils or sepals) In this instance the 
explanation of the anomaly is fuinished by 
the five little bodies, called bv the ^ague and 
comenient name of glandi, 11 a d n 
the leceptacle between the peal nd h a 
mens, and regulatly alternate w h le f 
mer. They accordingly occupy 1 e p 

sifion of the original stamineal le wl e 
fore, as situation is the safest „uide in deter ^' 

mining the nature of organs, we may regard them as the abortive 

llnj the 


rudiments of the five proper stamens, which here remain unde- 
veloped. In the annexed diagram (Fig. 331) tliese are accord- 
ingly laid down in tho third circle, as five small oval spots, slightly 
shaded. The actual stamens consequently belong to two aug- 
mented circles, those of the exterior and shorter set of which (rep- 
resented by the larger, unshaded figures), normally alternating 
with the glands, are of course opposed to the petals, and those of 
the inner and larger set, normally alternating with the preceding, 
necessarily alternate with the petals. This view is further eluci- 
dated by tho closely allied genus Erodium, where all the parts are 
just the same, except that the five exterior actual stamens are 
shorter still, and are destitute of anthers ; that is, the disposition to 
suppression which has caused the obliteration of the primaiy circle 
of stamens, and somewhat reduced the second in Geranium, has in 
Erodium rendered the latter abortive also, leaving those of the 
third row alone to fulfil their proper ofiice. It is just the same in 
the Flax Family, except that the 
glands which answer to the primary 
suppressed stamens are still less cod- 
spiciAous, and tho«e of the ne\t circle 
are reduced to \ery small aboili\e 
filaments, or to min ite teeth m the 
ring formed by the union of all the 
filaments into a cup at the base, leaving five perfeut stamens, which, 
though they alternate with the petals indeed, belong to a thu-d cir- 
cle (Fig. 332, 333). In a few species of Flax, the second circle 
of stamens is perfectly obliterated, so that no vestige is to be seen, 
478. The case is difierent in the Buckthorn Family and in 
Byttneriacese, where we cannot but consider the stamens which 
alone appear, and stand singly before the petals (with which they 
aefqnl oncd ie base) s b longing to the corol- 
ne 1 (4')'*) He e e sy e cal al ernation is interfered 
1 fi s by I s and hen ha j oce s having given an 
fa o nal se of s a e s by 1 e o al suppression of the real 
stam nea! c cle as n he Bu k ho Fanly &,c., or their abor- 
tio alelconosele dne a many ByttneriaccEe ; 
wl !e n o 1 e he genu ne c cle of s ame s appears as an inner 

FG33"F Lp 33lBni p Isseparalat: Ihs^laods are 



incline to explaia the opjiosition 

series. In the same way wi 
of the stamens to the petals 
Grape-vine also (Fig. 334- 336) ; in- 
asniuch aa the five glands (represent- 
ed by the small shaded figures in the 
diagram, Fig, 336) which alternate 
with the petals clearly belong to a 
circle within the actual stamens, while 
there are no vestiges outside of them. 
The glands, tiierefore, would seem 
to represent the proper stamineal 
circle, in an undeveloped state, re- 
duced to these rudiments or to a 

479. The stamens of the Barberry 
(Fig. 505) are in appearance only, 
but not really, opposed to the petals, nd h 
Here the appearance is caused, not by h 
symmetrical augmentation of the fl 1 
stamens. The calyx consists of two al 
three in each ; the corolla of two cii 1 f 
the three exterior petals alternating a I 
circle of sepals, and the three in 
these. But when the flower opens, th p 

ently as one whorl, are necessarily opp d 
the six stamens in two circles, wh h 
into one whorl, are equally opposed h 
but they really li e oate n circles of 1 
cussating ve iJ of threes necessa ly f I inks 

{251, 441) It s lust tie same in I L ly C d most 

Monocotyledonous plants where the perianth is composed of six 
leaves in t o c rcles and the andriscium of tix stamens m two 
circles, gi\ g ■! reg la alternation in threes , although, taken as 
two 6-merous circles, wc have a stamen befuie each leaf of the 

460. The symmetry of the flower is more frequently and seri- 
ously obscured by the suppression of a part of the membeis of the 




by the 

1 p 


f the 


1 f 






ul 1 

g with 






1 and 




d six; 



d de- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


same circle, than from any other kind of deviation. The tendency 
to such obliteration increases as we advance towards the centre of 
the blossom, owing, doubtless, to Ihe greater pressure exerted on the 
central parts of the bud, and the progressively diminished space 
the organs have to occupy on the conical receptacle. So, while 
the corolla, when present at all, almost always consists of as many 
leaves as the calyx, the members of the stamineal circle or circles 
are frequently fewer in number {although from then foira they oc- 
cupy much less room than the petals), and the pi-itils are still mote 
commonly fewer, excepting where the axis is piolonged for the 
reception of numerous spiral cycles. Thus, the pistils, nhich pre- 
sent their typical number in Sedum, and all Crassulaceous plants 
(Fig. 256, 277, 283-290), are reduced to two, or larelythjee, 
in the allied Saxifragaceoua Family, while the other floral circles 
are in fives. So, in Aralia (the Wild SarsapaiilJa and Spikenaid), 
the flowers are penlamerous throughout, although the ovaries of 
the five pistils are united into one (Fig. 316) ; but in Panax, our 
other genus of the same family, they are I'educed to three in the 
Ground-nut, and to two in the Ginseng, as also in all Umbelliferous 
plants. Although the pistils are indefinitely augmented in the 
Rose, Strawberry, and the greater part of Rosaceous plants, or of 
the normal iiumber five in Spirsea, yet there are only two in Agri- 
monia, one or rarely two in Saoguisorba, and imiformly one in the 
Plum and Cherry, although the flowers of the whole order are 
formed on the pentamerous or sometimes the tetramerous plan, 
with a strong tendency to augmentation of all the organs. And 
the Pulse Family has, almost without exception, five members in its 
floral envelopes, and ten, or two circles, in its stamens, but only a 
single pistil (Fig. 282). A flower, it may here be added, is isom- 
erous (that is, of equal members) when it presents the same 
number in all its floral circles, — a term therefore equivalent with 
symmetrical, — and anisomerous when the number of parts is dif- 
ferent in some of the circles. 

481. As to the stamens, it may be remarked that they are usu- 
ally symmetrical and regular when the floral envelopes are regu- 
lar (although the common Chickweed and the Maple are excep- 
tions to this rule) ; while they strongly tend to become unsymmet- 
rical by abortion or irregular (that is, of unequal size or shape) 
when the calyx and corolla are irregular, or the whole is oblique 
in the bud ; tlie different stamens at the time of their development 



being therefore placed in unlilie condiiions in such cases, so as to 
favor the .growth of some of them, and to arrest or restrain others, 
either by pressure or by the abstraction of nourishment. Compare 
in liiLs respect the more or less irregular corolla of Scrophularia- 
CQ0U3 plants (Fig. 854-861) with their stamens. The Mullein 
(Verbascum) is one of the few genera of that family which has as 
many stamens as there are petals in the composition of its corolla, 
and sepals in its calyx : but even here they are unequal, and the 
posterior ones usually bear imperfect or deformed anthers. In 
other instances, where the five stamens are all present, indeed, the 
posterior one is either changed into a bearded sterile filament, as 
in Pentslemon and Chelone, or reduced to a mere rudiment, as in 
some Snapdragons ; or to a deformed filament adherent to the co- 
rolla, and bearing a scale-like body in place of the anther, as in 
Sf rophularia The four remaining perfect stamens, in these cases, 
11 d neaily throi ghout the order, are unequally developed ; two of 
them being longer than the remaining pair ; as in Chelone, ahove 
c ed m Geiaidia &c. ; the same thing is observed in most plants 

f the related oiders Acanthaceee, Bignoniacete, Orobanchaceie 
(Fig 'iSO) VerbenaceEB (Fig. 863-865), and Lablalffi (Fig. 873- 
484) lo such cTses viz where of four two are long and two are 
shorter the stamens are saii lo be didynamous. Not unfrequent- 
Ij 1 fuither sippjcssion takes place, and the two shorter of these 
stamens either entiielj disappear ; as in the Sage, Monarda, Lyco- 
pua Vnginicus &-c imong LabiatEe, and Gratiola VJrginica, &c. 
among the fecrophulanacfe or else are reduced to mere sterile 
filaments such as those which may commonly be observed in 
C ratnia aurea m the Wild Pennyroyal (Hedeoma), and in many 
other Labiate plants 

482 Ihp jbliteration of one or more members of the corolla 
toUons the same laws The loss of a petal from the circle is a 

lae of iiregularitv frjm unequal growth carried to the greatest 
p ssible extent, or an litest of the development of an organ from 
an earlj pt,i od and we may sometimes trace tlie gradation in re- 
lated phnts from the diminution or dwarfing of certain organs to 
their total s ppiession Thus, the papilionaceous corolla (468) of 
Eiythrma heabacea has ts fi\e petals, but four of them (all except 
the poster oi oi i exillum) are email and inconspicuous : in Amor- 
pha (Fig. 323), these same four disappear altogether, and the po- 
olla is reduced to its vexillum alone. In some 


cases, tho bl 


y be b d loc 1 

ces, from s 


f ly 11 
1 lo g 1 fi 

of the den 1 d 

p »( 

J A. S fl C 

taurea, Stc ) 

m hi g 

th h f b 1 

iiaa flower 1 h 

hp d 

g h h h p pi 

derelopme m 1 
Scabious; h h 

I 1 
1 11 

1 1 1 d f h 
ly I 1 g b 

tteir eiteri 1 b 


1 1 

1 g h h hi 

are dwarfed 

by 1 p 

1 d I h 

cases, how 


1 m b 1 pi 

InonrBacl y f 

pi h 1 

1 fi p 1 oc 

ally pr^sen h y 
species of lb g 
marks tbe pi f 

f Ij 
) b 
1 h I 

1 H rs 1 ( 1 
m 1 p 

p I 1 d PP d 

(Kg. 668) Tl 
out of the t 1 

1 pp 
f h g 

f h m 

483. A d g 

11 1 b 

m fh g f PI 

sion, from lb mpl 

d ym 

11 d d 

dition of tb fi 


d m F 

337 11 1 hb 

^\oJJ'^-y/K' V 

1 g dpi f 

a 0- me rous complete 
flower, symmetrical 
L all its parts, ex- 
cept that the pistils 
reduced from 

^' 3^' ''^' five to two ; as in 

SuUivantia (Fig. 722), Fig. 338 is a diagram of a similar flow- 
er, except that the petals are absent {the place the y should oc- 
cupy is denoted by the five dotted lines) : this corresponds with 
the Elm (when pen land rous), and to Chrysosplenium, which is of 
the same family as SuUivantia, only that there the sepals and sta- 
mens are in fours, — one being left out, perhaps we may say, 
from each circle. Fig. 339 is a ground-plan of the flower of the 
common Claytonia, or Spring Beauty (Ord. PortulacaccEe), the 



omameot of our vernai woods ; — a complete and regular, but re- 
markably unsym metrical blossom, only two of the four circles 
having the same number of members, and one of those (the sta- 
mens) being abnormal in position. There are only two sepals: 
within these are five petals: within and opposite these are five 
stamens; so that the primary stamineal circle is suppressed, and 
those present belong to a second circle ; or, which is more likely, 
as they coheie at the base with the claws of the petals, they may 
arise from a chousi^ of the petals themselves : and in the centre 
there are three pistda with their ovaries combined into one. Fur- 
ther examples will illustrate those graver suppressions which ren- 
der the flowei incomplete, and finally reduce it to a minimum. . 
In the Elm (Fig. 1012), the petals entirely disappear, and the 
pistils are reduced to two, both of which are abortive in a part of 
the flowers, and one always disappears in the fertile flowers dur- 
ing the formation of the fruit The occurrence of numerous cases 
where parts that actually exist in the pistil at the time of flowering 
are obliterated in the fruit, justifies the use of the term suppression 
in the case of parts whicl tl ough req 's'te in the ideal plan, are 
left out in the execution P ckly Ash as already stated 
(472), not only wants o e c cle of flo al envelopes altogether 
(which, however, appears tl e [ ec es of ll e Southern States), 
but, being dicecious (474) the sane s also d sappear in all the 
flowers of ono tree, while 1 e p s h i e all abo vo in those of 
another individual. In le Bite (F g 9"3 974), where the 
plan is Irimerous, the petals a d t vo fie anens are entirely 


wanting; as the annexed diagram (Fig. 340) shows, 
litriche (Fig. 1029-1033), where the plan is teti 



Diagram of 






rea-Mllad pist 






iptiorbia : a, the plallllalo floir 

Ho.t.d, Google 


calyx and the corolla wholly disapear, as well as all the stamens 
but one (Fig- 341) ; and even this stamen is wanting in some of 
the flowers on the same stem, while other flowers consist of a sin- 
gle stamen only. This -brings us to a case like that of Euphorbia 
(Fig. 344-348, illustrated by the diagram. Fig. 343), the greatly 
disguised structui-e of which would he certainly misapprehended, 
without special study. Nearly the furthest possible reduction, 
perhaps, is seen in the Willow (Fig. 326-329), where the stami- 
nate and pistillate flowers are distributed to different individual 
trees, the first reduced usually to a pair of stamens, and the sec- 
ond to a single pistil. The plan is represented in the diagram, 
Fig. 343. 

484. A full illustrative series of almost all the kinds of deviation 


we have mentioned, but especially of simplification tl ro f,l suc- 

FIG, 3«. Flowering branch of Euphoti a CO lita tholobeaaflh nvolu re esemljllns a 
corolla. 34K. Venical aaction of an involucre (aomewhat ciilatgod), ghowing a portiou of ilie 
siamlnale flowata surrounding the pialillals flowef (n), which in fruit is raised on a slender 
pedlceL 346. One of the Blaminate Soivers enlarged, with Its bract, □: b, the pedicel, to which 
the slnglB slanien, c. Is altachsd by a joint; there iKlng no trace of Boral entelopes. 347, 
Croas-seclion of the 3-plsllllate fmlt 343. Verlical section of one of the pistils in fruit (Ihe 
two others having fallen away from the aiii], and of the comained seed; showing Ihs emhrjo 
longihwlse. 319. Aaaed. 



cessive suppressions, might be drawn from plants of the Eup}ior- 
biaceous Family, Among them are complete and perfect flowers, 
incomplete and perfect flowera, and achlamydeous and separated 
flowers, both monceoious and dioecious. Of these, the siaminate 
flowers in some species aro reduced to a single stamen, either ses- 
sile or on a pedicel, in the axil of a bract ; and the pistillate, either 
to one simple pistil, or to a compound pistil formed of two or three 
simple ones combined, A cluster of such axillary achlamydeous 
flowers, each of a single stamen, collected at the base of the pedi- 
cel of a terminal achlamydeous pistillate flower of three coalescent 
pistils, and surrounded by an involucre, — the several leaves of 
which are coalescent below into a kind of cup, — forms the injio- 
rescence of Euphorbia, which, until explained by Mr. Brown, was 
mistaken for a single anomalous blossom {Fig. 344-349). 

485. Abortive or unusually shaped petals were called Nectaries 
by the earlier botanists, whether they secreted honey or had a 
glandular apparatus, or not. This name was applied to the five 
spur-shaped petals of the Columbme (Fig. 480, 481), where the 
floral envelopes are symmetrical and regular, all the petals being 
alike, although of an extraordinary form ; and also to the four 
reduced and deformed petals of the unsymmetricai and irregular 
flower of the Larkspur, where two of the petals are spur-shaped 
and received into the conspicuous spurof the calyi, while the other 
pair are of a diflerent and more normal form. In the 
nearly related Aconite, where three of the five petals are 
obliterated, the two that remain (the nectaries, as they 
have been called) haVe assumed a shape so remarkable 
(Fig. 350), that their real nature could only be recognized 
by the position they occupy. Their appearance is rather 
tiiat of a deformed stamen. A sterile or deformed sta- 
men, destitute of an anther, or a body that occupies the 
normal place of a stamen, or is intermediate in appear- 
ance and situation between a petal and a stamen, is 
sometimes called a SxAMiNorinM (literally a stamen-like 
body). Staminodia occur naturally and uniformly in 
many plants. In cultivated semi-double flowers, such 
transition states are extremely common, as in the Lark- 
spuiis. Columbines, &c. of the gardens. 



486. Abnormal States of the RCMptacIe of the flower remain to be 
mentioned, a-> obscmmg more or less the normal condition, or as 
giviDg a smgulai appeaiance to the blossom. One of the most 
remarkable cases of the enlargement of the receptacle is that of -the 
Nelumbium, where it is dilated into a large top-shaped body, nearly 
inclosing the pistils in separate cavities 
(Fig Sal) Sometimes it is hollowed out 
above, as well as dilated a'; m the E.o'ie, 
wheie the whole receptacle expands mto 
an uin shaped dLsc, mve=ted by the ad 
nate tube ot the cilyx, and beiring the 
petals and stamens on its boilci in1 the 
numetous pistils on the concave suiface 
3 J (Fig 684) It IS much the same m 

Cilycimhu^ (Fiq G30-f95) In Ger'^ 
mum, and many allied plants, the receptacle, which elevates the 
ovaries more or less, is prolonged between them, and coheres 
with their styles (Pig. 635), There is nearly a similar pro- 
loDgatioQ in Euphorbia (Fig. 348), Here there is some develop- 
ment of the axis beyond the proper insertion of the floral organs. 
Usually the floral internodes remain undeveloped or extremely 
short, like those of scaly leaf-buds (Fig. 127). But now and then 
some of them are elongated ; as in the Pink and Silene, where the 
internode between the calyx and the co- 
rolla forms a conspicuous stalk, elevat- 
ing the other parts of the flower in the 
tube of the calyx ; while in many Gen- 
tians (Fig. 947) the internode above 
the circle of stamens is developed, rais- 
ing the pod on a stalk of its own. This 
is a common case in the Caper Family; 
in which the genus Gynandropsis {Fig. 
352) exhibits a remarkable develop- 
ment of the whole receptacle. It is en- 
larged into a flattened disc where it 
bears the petals, and is then prolonged 
into a conspicuous stalk which bears the stamens (or rather, perhaps. 

Fia 351. Thee 



to which the bases of the stamens are adnate), and then into a short- 
er and more slendef stalk for the pistil ; thus separating the four 
circles or sets of organs, like so many whorls of verticil late leaves. 
487. The common name for this kind of stalk, as contradis- 
tinguished from the pedicel or stalk of the flower, la the Stipe ; and 
whatever organ or set of organs is thus elevated is said to be sfipi- 
tate. To particularize the portion of the receptacle which is thus 
developed, the stipe is termed the Anthophore when it appeara just 
above the calyx, and elevates the petals, stamens, and pistils ; the 
Gonopliore, when it supports both the stamens and pistils ; and the 
Gyiiophore, Gynohase, or Carpophore, when it bears the gyntecium 
alone. The stalk which sometimes raises each simple pisti! of the 
gyniecium (as in Coptis or the Goldthread) is called a Tkecaphore. 
This, however, does not belong to the receptacle at all, but is 
homologous witli the leaf-stalk.* 

Sect. V. The Floral Envelopes in Particular. 

488. Although the various organs of the flower have already 
been connectedly considered under most of their relations, there 
yet remain some particular points in respect to each of them which 
require to be separately noticed. It will still be most convenient 
to treat of the calyx and corolla together, on account of their gen- 
eral accordance in most respects, 

489. Tiieip Developmenf, or Organogeny, first requires a brief notice: 
The flower-bud is formed in the same way as the !eaf-bud ; and 
what has been staled as to the formation t>f the leaves of the 
branch (274) equally applies to the leaves, or envelopes, of the 
flower. The sepals are necessarily the earliest to appear, which 
they do in the form of so many celSular tumors or nipples, at first 
distinct, inasmuch as then their tips only are eliminated from the 
axis. Each one may complete its development separately, in the 

' A few t«rm9 which rolato to the combination of fliffcrcnt kinds of flowers 
in the same infloreacenee, or tlicif corresponding separation, ratiy here be de- 
fined. Thus, a head or spilte of flowers is said to be homogamous when all its 
bloBsoms live alike, as in Eiipatorium ; or he/eregammia when it includes two or 
more kinds, as in tha Sunflower and Aster, It is androgpmis when it consials 
of both staminate and pistillate flowers, as the spikes of many Sedges. When 
the two kinds of flowers occupy different heads, whether on tlio same or two 
different individuals, they ai'e helerocepkahus. 



same manner as an ordinary leaf, (only no petiole 
tween the blade and the axis,*) when the sepals remain distinct 
(463) or unconnected. Otherwise, the lower and later- eliminated 
portions of the nascent organs of the circle coalesce as they grow 
into a ring, which, further developed in union, forms the cup or 
tube of the gamojthyllous calyx : or, in some cases, it would appear 
that the sepals may at first grow separately, and afterwards, tliovigh 
only at a very early period, coalesce by the cohesion of their con- 
tiguous parts. The several parts of an irregular calyx are at first 
equal and similar ; the irregularity is established in their subse* 
quent unequal growth. The petals or parts of the corolla originate 
in the same way, a little later than the sepals. Their coalescence 
in the gamopetalous corolla, as far as known, is strictly congenital ; 
the ring which forms its tube appearing nearly as early as the 
slight projections which become its lobes and answer to the sum- 
mils of the component petals. The rudiments of the petals are 
visible earlier than those of the stamens r t but their growth is at 
first retarded, so that the stamens are earlier completed, and their 
anthers surpass them, or often finish their growtli, while the petals 
are still minute scales : at length they make a rapid growth, and 
inclose the organs that belong above or within them. Unlike the 
sepals in this respect, the base of the petal is frequently narrowed 
into a portion which corresponds, more or less evidently, to the 
petiole (the claio), which, like the petiole, does not appear until 
some time after the hlade or expanded part ; the summit hemg al- 
ways the earliest and the base the latest portion foiracd As the 
envelopes of the flower grow and expand, those of each circle 
adapt themselves to each other in various wajs, and acqunc the 
relative positions which they occupy in the ilowei hud. Their ar- 
rangement in this state is termed 

490. Theii Jlstiyation or Prffifloratioii. The latter would be the 
preferable term ; hut the former is in common use ; the word Esti- 
vation (literally the summer state) having been formed for tlie 

* At least die case of a petiolate sepal is very rare. The sepals are rather ia 
be compared lo bracts, which are mostly sessile, than to ordinary leaves. 

t When the stamens, or an exterior set of them, originate by chorisis or de- 
duplication of the petals (459), it appears from the ohaervadons of Duchatre 
that the five protuberances which represent the petals at their first appearance 
divide transversely, or grow douWe, the inner half developing into a stamen or 
a cluster of stamens, tlic outer inW the pels! iBelf. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


purpose by Linntcus ; — for no obvious reagon except that he had 
already applied tho name of Vernation (the spring state) to express 
the analogous manner in which leaves are disposed in the leaf-bud. 
The same terms are employed, aad in nearly the same way, in the 
two cases, but with some peculiarities. As to the disposition of 
each leaf taken by itself, the corresponding terms of vernation 
(257) wholly apply to sestivation ; and there are no forms of any 
consequence to be added, perhaps, except the corrugate or crum- 
pled, where each leaf is in-egularly crumpled or wrinkled, longi- 
tudinally or transversely, one or both, as happens in the petals of 
the Poppy and the Helianthemum, — a case that is not met with in 
the foliage ; the indttplicale, where the edges are folded inwards, 
as those of the sepals of Clematis (Fig. 357), — but this, as com- 
pared with vernation, is only a modilication of the involute ; and 
the reduplicate, where the margins are bent outwards instead of 
inwards, as in the corolla of the Potato, — which is a mero modi- 
fication of the revolute in vernation. 

491. The arrangement in the bud of the sevei-al members of the 
same floral circle in respect to each other is of much importance 
in systematic botany, on account of the nearly constant characters 
that it furnishes, and still more in structural botany, from the aid it 
often affords Jn determining the true relative superposition or suc- 
cession of parts on the axis of the flower, by observing the order in 
which they overlie or envelope each other ; for every enveloping 
part is almost necessarily external to, or of lower insertion than, 
the part enveloped, The various forms of sestivation that have 
been distinguished by botanists may be reduced to three essential 
kinds, namely, the imhricatwe, the contorted or convoltitive, and 
the valvular."' 

492. Imhricative Eestivation, in a general sense, comprises all 
the modes of disposition in which some members of a floral circle 
are exterior to the othere, and therefore overlio or inclose them in 
the bud. This must almost necessarily occur wherever the parts 
are inserted at distinguish ably different heights, and is the natural 
result of a spiral arrangement. The name is most significant 

* We should properly say of the asiwaiiort that it is imbricaiiee, convolative 
valvular, &c., and of the caljx and corolla, or of the sepals, &e., that they are 
imbricate or imhricatedt involute, vatvate, &c. in lestivaljoii ; but such precision 
of language ia seldom attended to. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


when successive leaves are only partially covered by the preced- 
ing, as in Fig. 174 - 176 ; here they manifestly hreak joints, or are 
disposed like tiles or shingles on a roof, as the term imbricated de- 
notes, It is therefore equivalent to the spiral arrangement, which 
word is sometimoa suhstituted for it in estivation; and, on the 
other hand, we properly apply the term imbricated to any contin- 
uous succession of such partly overlying members, as when we 
say of oppressed and crowded leaves that they are imbricated on 
the stem, or thus express the whole arrangement of the scales of 
a bud (Fig. 127), or a bulb {Fig. 141), or of a catkin or cone 
(Fig. 175). The alternation of the petals with the sepals, &x. 
necessarily makes the floral envelopes likewise imbricated in the 
bud, taken as a whole. But in proper testivation, what we have to 
designate is the arrangement of the parts of the same floral circle, 
say the five sepals or the five petals, in respect to each other. 

493. Now where the calyx or the corolla exhibits the character 
of a complete cycle (439) or of a part of a cycle (442) of leaves 
with the internodes undeveloped, that is, where we may perceive 
on close inspection that the several members are inserted on the 
receptacle at unequal heights, this will be manifested in the bud 
by the relative position of these members : the lower or outer must 
overlie or inclose the upper or inner. This is just tlie case in reg- 
ular imbricative sestivaiion ; where, of five sepals, for example (as 
in the diagrams, Fig. 300, 281), two will be wholly exterior in the 
bud, two wholly interior, and one intermediate, namely, covered at 
one edge by one of the exterior, while its other edge overlies that 
of one of the inner sepals'; — which, on comparison with Fig. 172, 
173, will be found to correspond exactly with the | or quincuncial 
arrangement of leaves as presented on a similar ground-plan. 
Leaves No. 1 and No. 2 are external ; No. 3 is internal in respect 
to these, but external in respect to No. 4, which is two fifths of the 
circumference distant, and more manifestly to No. 5, which, being 
separated by an interval of two fifths from the preceding, com- 
pletes the cycle, and is overlapped by No. 3. In this, the normal 
and the most common arrangement in the 5-merous flower, the 
parts are said to be spirally, or (with more definiteness as to the 
numerical kind of spire) quincuncially imbricated in festivalion. 

494. We have here the advantage of being able to number the 
successive sepals, or petals, since the third leaf is not only recog- 
nizable by its intermediate position, but also indicates the direction 
in which the spiral turns, as is shown in Fig. 173. 



495. The same regularly imbricated arrangement in trimerous 
flowers gives one exterior, one iialf interior and half exterior, and 
one interior member in sestivation, after the order 

of 4 cycles, as is shown in the diagram Fig 353, 

both for the calyx aad corolla — vh ch CO pare 

with Fig. 171, recollect ng that the s ccessive [I 'l Q ) 

cycles are superposed in tl e fol a^e wh le the 

floral circles alternate Regular mbrcatoi in 

the 4-merous flower g es two outer a d two nner "* 

members in estivation (as m the calyx of Cruciferous bios 

Fig. 280), on the principle of two decussating pairs of leaves 

(439) ; or it may sometimes be referable lo a modificatioa of some 

alternate spiral arrangement. 

496. The degree of overlapping t 
the parts and the state of the bud ; it n 
less as the bud expands and is ready to open. It is from the full- 
grown flower-bud, just before anihesis (or the opening of the blos- 
som), that our diagrams are usually taken ; in which the parts are 
represented as moderately or slightly overlapping. The same 
overlapping carried to a greater extent will cause the outer leaf to 

the breadth of 
iturally grows less and 

envelope all the rest, and each succeeding one to envelope those 

w h"n a shonn n F'„ 351 f om one cirde 


of pe al of a Ma^nol a ke n an early state 
of he b d He e he n ode ju he same as 


h of Fg 353 To h loue er, has not 

mj ope ly he n appl ed he name of convo- 

lu f om s s n la y o 1 o co oluto verna- 


of he lea es of le b a h (257), simi- 


y ol ed up on 

he ole 
lie de 


ode by d c mes ; further- 

I he nex g e k nd of jes a o 1 en ca ed to a high 

ee of o e lapp n^ p od ces a s newha s la result ; and 

) eo e o second mode lae e be degree, that 

! name of o volu e s mo e co monly appi ed recent sys- 

i cb i 

e ous cases 




and a 
da, a 

f the 

ly le 
g ns 

d lo 

n that 

a he 


n It 


cially in irregular flowers, where tlie overlapping of parts does not 
altogether accord with what roust needs be their order of succes- 
aion on the axis. In the 5-merous calyx and corolla of all truly 
papilionaceous flowers, for example, one edge of the sepal or the 
petal No. 2 is placed under, instead of over, the adjacent edge of 
No. 4, in consequeoce of which three, instead of only one, of the 
leaves have one edge covered and the other external ; as is shown 
in Fig. 283. Since, in the corolla of 1 1 nd f bl he ex- 

terior petal, here the vexillum (468) 1 
braces all the rest (as is seen in he 
corolla. Fig. 359), this modification of 
j^ceived the name of ve^Uary. As a 
in the Violet, it is probably caused by 
takes place during the early growth f 
blossom, which the study of their dei 1 p 

is cot restricted to irregular flowers, ho«eiei, but occurs as a cas- 
ual variation, or perhaps more frequently than the quincuncial, in 
the regular corolla of the Linden (as is shown in Fig. 306), A 
slight obliquity in tho position of the petal No. 2, assumed at an 
early period, would account for the whole anomaly. That this 
suggests the true explanation is almost demonstrated by the vary- 
ing testivation of the corolla of the Linden ; in which the same 
bunch of blossoms often furnishes instances of regular quincuncial 
imbrication, of tho modification here referred to, and of the similar 
disposition of tho fifth petal, throwing one of its edges outwards 
also. If ihe first petal were also to partake of this slight obliquity, 
the imbricative would be completely converted into what is vari- 
ously named 

498. Tho contorted, twisted, or convolutive estivation (Fig. 360, 
the corolla, and 361). In this mode, the leaves of the circle are all, 
at least apparently, inserted at the same height, and all occupy the 
same relative position : one edge of each, being directed obliquely 
inwards, is covered with the adjacent leaf on that side, while the 
other covers the corresponding margin of the contiguous leaf on 
the other side. This is owing to a more or less evident torsion 
or twisting of each member on its axis early in its develop- 
ment; so that the leaves of the fioral ve.rticj], instead of forming 
arcs of a circle, or sides of a polygon having for its centre that of 
the blossom, severally assume an oblique direction, by which one 
edge is carried partly inward and the other outward. This con- 



torted EBstivation- is scarcely ever met with in the calyx, but is very 
common in the coralla. When this obliquity of position ia strong, 
the petals themselves are usually ohlique, or unequal-sided, from 
the Jesser growth of the overlapped side, which is by no means so 
favorably situated in this respect as is the free external portion, — 
a case of partial obliteration or dwarfing from pressure. This ia 
well seen in the petals of most Malvaceous plants, to some extent in 
those of Geranium, Flax, and Wood-Sorrel, and strikingly in those 
of the St. John's-wort, and in the lobes of the corolla of the Peri- 
winkle (Vinca) and of most other Apocynaccous plants. In the 
Pink, however, and in many other instances, the petals aro sym- 
metrical, although strongly convolute in ssstivatioii. When the 
petals are broad, this arrangement is frequently conspicuous iu the 
fully expanded flower, as well as in the bud {as in Fig. 365). The 
convolution in the bud is often so great, that the petals appear as if 
strongly twisted or rolled up together, each being almost complete- 
ly overlapped by the preceding, so that they become convolute 
nearly in the sense in which tiie term is used in vernation ; as in 
the Wallflower (Fig. 360, 361). Although there is some diver- 
sity of usage, the terms convolute and contorted in asstivation are 

now for the most part employed interchangeably, or nearly so. In 

the calyi and tha inner the corolU ) "355. Vairate. 356. Valtate calji ; the corolla indupli- 
cale or noari; oonduplicals. 3S7. Involute, raihec than Induj^icata, sepala of Clematis. 3SS. 
Quincancially iinbricsMd ; Uw final leaf on the upper sWe. 359. Vesillaty imbrlcaled papHlo- 
nsceona corolla. 330. Imbrlcaled calyx of WaMower (two outer and two inner sepals), and 
within tha aliiingly conlorled or coniMlute corolla. 361. Conloned or cnnTolute cerolla, nilh 

Ho.t.d, Google 

Gentimm, lad m minj other cases (a& m Fig, 2S0), we find tlie 
pre( ailingly contorted oi convolute eeslivation affecting casual tmn- 
sitioQS to the itnbiicative mode, corresponding to those already 
mentioned in the foregoing paragraph 

499 The vah ular or oah ale sestivation is that in which the parts 
of a floral leiticil are placed in contact, edge to edge, through- 
out their whole length withoit iny oveilapping {as in Fig. 355, 
and the calyx in Fig 356) Heie the members of the circle are 
strictly 1 ertiuUale, and stand in an exict ciicle, no one being in 
the least degiee lower or extenoi The edges of the sepals or 
petiK in \\i\=. cisie aie generally abiupt, oi as thick as the rest of 
the oigan, as is shown in the calyx of the Lmden (Fig. 306) ; by 
which maik the valvale Eestivation miy commonly be recognized 
in the expanded flower The ^eier^l parts being all developed 
under piec sely similar conditions in this and the foregoing modes 
of EBstiv-ition, these aie naturally and almost without exception 
restijcted to regular flowers alone 

500 By the inflexion of the edges, the strictly valvate festivation 
passes by insensible gradations into the induplicate (490), as in the 
calyx of some species of Clematis ; a mode which is carried to a 
maximum in some species of Lysimachia (Fig. 356), where the 
two edges of the same petal aie brought 'i o contact so as to be 
conduplicate. When the indupl cate a g ns i e olle 1 tl ey 
become involute (Fig. 357) lest vat On tie c nfa y the 
valvate calyx of many Malvaceous plants and the co olid ol the 
Potato blossom have the marg ns p o pct g o t va ds n o sal ent 
ridges, or are reduplicate, in sest at on 

501. The lube of a gamopelalo s corolla occas onallj exh bits 
similar ridges or folds, whethe sal e it (i the bud of so ne 
Campanulas, Fig. 362), or ree ter ng (as n St araon u i) this 
gi\es r\~,e Xo t\ie phcalne, ph ate ot plattel i od heat on of asti- 
vation Wheie the plaits aie folded o nd each otl e n a convo- 
lutive manneijthe testivation s some i es te med s p olutiee, 
or luperiolute, as in the Morning Lilory (Fig. 363). 

503 The spire in imbiicalive estivation, and the order of 
overlapping in the contojted mode, may turn either from left to 
right or from right to Icit , and the direction is often uniform 
ihiough the same genus oi iamily, b it sometimes diverse in difier- 
ent blossonifi on the samo plint In fixing the direction, we sup- 
pose tbf ohscnei to st-ind befoie the flowor-bud. De Candolle, 



indeed, supposes the observer to occupy the centre of the flower, 
which would reverse the direction ; but the former view is gener- 
ally adopted. The direction is frequently reversed in passing from 
the calyx to the corolla, — sometimes with remarkable uniformity ; 
while again the two occur almost indifferently in many cases, 

503. The kind of festivalion, although often the same both in the 
calyx and corolla, as in Parn-issia (Fig 304) and Elodea (Fig 
300), where both are quincuncially imbncaled is as fiequently 
different ; and the difference is often chiracterislic of families or 
genera. Thus, the calyx is silvatc and the coiolla convolute in 
all Malvaceae ; the calyx imbricated and tl e co oUa convolute in 
Hypericum, in the proper Pink tnle &,c '^olitiiy exceptions 
now and then occur in a family Thus the coiolla in Rosace'e la 
imbricated, so far as known, except m Gillenia where it is aoa\o- 
lute. In general it may be said that the sestnation of the coiolla 
is more disposed to vary than that of the calyx. 

504. The Calyx. In treating of the general structure and diver- 
sities of the flower, we have already noticed the principal modifi- 
cations of the calyx and corolla, as well as the terms employed to 
designate them ; which need not be here repeated. 

505. The number of sepals that enter into the composition of a 
calyx is indicated by adjectives formed from, the corresponding 
Greek numerals prefixed to the name ; as dtsepalous for a calyx of 
two sepals ; trisepalous, of three sepals ; tetrasepalous, of four 
pmtasepalous, of five ; hexasepalous, of six sepals ; and so on 
Very commonly, however, the Greek word for leaves, pliylla, is 
used in such composition ; and the calyx is said to be dipkyllous 
triphyllous, tetraphyUous, pentaphyllous, hexaphyllous, &c., ac- 
cording as it is composed of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 leaves or sepa 
spectively. These terms imply that the leaves of the calyx are 
distinct, or nearly so. When they are united into a cup or tube, 
the calyx was by the earlier botanists incoiTectly said to be t 
phyUous (literally one-leaved) ; — a term which we continue tc 
guarding, however, against the erroneous idea which its etymology 
involves, and bearing in mind that the older technical language in 
botany expresses external appearance, rather than the real struc- 
ture, as we now understand it. The correct term, ca/yr gamophyh 
lous, is now coming into general use ; this literally expresses the 
true state of the case, and ia equivalent to the phrase sepals united 
the degree of coalescence being indicated by adding " at the base,' 
" to the middle," or " to the summit," as the case may be. 


506 Stil!, in botanical desciiptions, it is ordinarily more con- 
venient and usual to logaid the calyx as a whole, and to express 
the degiee of union or reparation by the same terms as those 
which designate the dcgiee of dmsion of the blade of a leaf {281 - 
283) as, foi example, Cilj x jlve-tootlied, when the sepals of a 
pentaphyllous calys aie united almost to the top ; Jive-deft, when 
united to about the middle , _^ie-;)arte(i, when they are separate 
almost to the base; axiAjive-lohed, for any degree of division less 
than five-parted, without reference to its particular extent. The 
united portion of a gamophyllous calyx is called its tube ; the dis- 
tinct portions of the sepals are termed the teelh, segments, or lobes, 
according to their length as compared with the tube ; and the ori- 
fice or summit of the tube is named the throat. The calyx is said 
to be entire (281), when the leaves of the calyx ai'e so completely 
confluent that the margin is continuous and even. The terms reg- 
ular and irregular (446, 468) are applied to ihe calyx or corolla 
separately, as well as to the whole flower. The counterpart to 
calyx monophyllous or monosepalous in the current glossology is 
polyphyllous at polysepalous (viz. of many leaves or sepals). This 
is equivalent to the phrase sepals distinct; and does not mean 
that they are unusually numerous, or of more than one circle. 

507. The Corolla has corresponding terms applied to its modifica- 
tions. When its petals are distinct or unconnected, it is said to be 
polypetalous ; when united, at least at the base, monopetalous, or 
more properly gamopetalous, as already explained (461). The 
united portions in the latter case form the tube of the corolla, and 
the distinct parts, the hhes, segments, &c. ; and the orifice is called 
the throat, just as in the calyx. The number of parts that com- 
pose the corolla is designated in the manner already mentioned for 
the calyx; — viz., a corolla of two petals is dipetalotLs ; of three, 
tripetalous ; of four, tetrapetalous ; of five, pentapetaloas ; of six, 
hexapetalous ; of seven, heptapetalom ; of eight, octopetalous ; of 
nine, enneapetalous ; of ten, decapelalous. 

508. Frequently the petals, and rarely the sepals, taper into a 
stalk or narrow base, analogous to the petiole of a leaf, which 
is called the claw (unguis) ; and hence the petal is said to be 
unguiculate {as in Cruciferous flowers, the Finli:, Fig, 302, and 
Gyiiandropsis, Pig. 352, &c.) ; the expanded portion, like that 
of the leaf, being distinguished by the name of the lamina, limb, 
or blade. 



509. Some kinds of polypetalous flowers receive particular 
names, from the form or arrangement of their floral envelopes, 
especially of the corolla. Among the regular forms (295) we 
may mention the rosaceotis flower, like that of the Rose, Apple, 
&c., where the spreading petals have no claws, or very short 
ones; the liliaceous, of which the Lily is the type, where the, 
claws or base of the petals or sepals are erect, and gradually 
spread towards their summits ; the caryopliyllaceovs, as in the 
Pink and Silene, where the five petals have long and narrow 
claws, which are inclosed in the tube of the calyx ; and the cruci- 
ate, or cruciform, which gives name to the Mustard Family {.Fig. 
525), where the four unguiculate petals, diverging equally from 
one another, are necessarily disposed in the form of a cross, as in 
the Mustard, &c. Among the irregular polypetalous flowers, 
which are greatly varied in different families, the papilionaceous 
or hutterfiy-shaped corolla of the Pea tribe has already been de- 
scribed (468). 

510. Several forms of the gamopetalous corolla, or gamophyl- 
lous calyx, have been distinguished by particular names. These 
are likewise divided into the regular, where their parts are equal 
in size, or equally united ; and the irregular, where theiv size or 
degree of union is unequal (468). Among the former are the 
campanulate or bell-shaped, as the corolla of the Harebell (Fig. 
364), which enlarges gradually and regularly from the base to the 

summit ; die infundibuliform, or funnel-shaped, where the tube 
enlarges very gradually below, but expands widely at the summit, 

Flo. 3S1, Carapanulale corolla of Campanula rotundifiilla, Sm. Salver-jbaped corolla of 
Pliloi. 366, Labiate (rlngent) cnrolk of Lamium ; a alOe view. 307. Petaonale corolla of 
Aniitrliliiura, 3CS, Porioiiale comlk of Liiiicia, spiirrei! al the base. 



as in the corolla of Morning. Glory (Fig. 931) and the Tobacco 
(Fig. 935} ; tuhular, where the form is cylindrical throughout ; 
hypocratsriform, or salver-shaped, where the limh spreads at right 
angles with the summit of the more or less elongated tube, as 
in the corolla of Primula and of Phlox (Fig. 365) ; and rotate, or 
wheel-shaped, when a hypocraferifovm corolla has a very short tube, 
as in the Forget-me-not (Fig. 887) and Bittersweet (Fig. 939). 

511. The principal irregular gamopetalous or gamophyjlous 
form that has received a separate appellation is the labiate or bi- 
labiate, which is produced by the unequal union of the sepals or 
petals (470), so as to form an upper and a lower part, or two lips, 
as they are called, from an obvious resemblance lo the open mouth 
of an animal (Fig. 366), This variety is almost universally ex- 
hibited by the corolla of LabiatEe, and very frequently by the calyx 
also, as in the Sage (Ord. LabiatEe) : it likewise occurs in the co- 
rolla of most Honeysuckles (Fig. 742, 743), and in the calyx of 
many papilionaceous flowers. When the upper lip is arched, as 
in the corolla of Lamiura (Fig. 366), it is sometimes called the 
galea, or helmet. When the two lips are thus gaping and the 
throat open, the corolla is said to be ringent. But when the mouth 
is closed by the approximation of the two lips, and especially by 
an elevated portion or protuberance of the lower, called the palate, 
as in the Snapdragon (Fig. 367) and Toadflax (Fig. 368)^ the co- 
rolla is said to be personate, or masked, 

512. In the Snapdragon, the base of the corolla is somewhat 
protuberant, or saccate, on the anterior side (Fig. 367) : in the 
Toadflax (Fig. 368) the protuberance is extended into a hollow 
spur. A projection of this kind is not uncommon, in various 
families of plants. One petal of the Violet is thus spurred or 
calcarate ; so is one of the outer petals in the Fumitory, and each 
of them in Dicentra (Fig. 295), So, also, one of the sepals is 
spurred or strongly sac-shaped in the Jewel.weed (Impatiens), the 
Nasturtium, and the Larkspur ; and all five petals take this shape 
in the Columbine. A monster of the Toadflax is occasionally 
found, in which the four remaining petals, of the five which enter 
Into its composition, afiect the same irregularity, and so bring back 
the flower fo a singular abnormal state of regularity. This was 
called by LinnEeus Feloria ; a name which is now 'Used to desig- 
nate the same sort of monstrosity in different flowei-s. 

513. The petals are sometimes furnished with appendages on 


their inner surface, such as the crown at the summit of the claw in 
Silene (Fig. 302), and the scales similarly situated on the gamo- 
pelalous corolla of Myosotis and Symphytum (Fig. 888, 893). 
The nature of this crown has already been explained (458). Such 
appendages are sometimes thought to represent an adherent row 
of abortive stamens or petals. 

514. The bodies termed nectaries (485) by the old botanists are 
either petals of unusual f 1 !i P f h C 1 mbine ; 

(F . 305) ; 

IS n C n . The 

ly p I which, 

m d b ? ihellum. 

Iv in dif. 

or petals passing into etam n 1 1 f 

flower ; or a deduplicatio f h p I P 

or else abortive and tran f d m ; 

so-called nectary of Orch d pi n m 

being of a different sbap f h h 

515. The duration of 1 fl 1 1 i 
ferent plants. Sometime hyf ff bfl p or even 
before expansion., as the ly 1 P p y d h \\i of the 
Grape-vine (Fig. 334) ; 1 n I y lb d More 
commonly they are dedd f 11 f 1 1; 
fruit forma. When they n n ! 1 f f 
tured, they are persisten 11 ft a h 
especially when it has a 1 H f 1 
occasionaHy accrescent, ok f h gi 1 d 
tion, as in Physalis. Wh I ' P P 
ering state, as the corolla f II 1 f C ^ 1 
said to be marcescent. 

516. Besides serving f p h 
green, assimilate sap, ai d P ^ Ike 
(344, 346). The petals Ik 1 1 ( h 
parts, do not evolve oxyg b b f h 
off carbonic acid ; in othe w d h y d p ss 
ter, — a process which appears to be needful in flowering, and to 
subserve some important end at the time (367-373). The tissue 
of a petal is much the same as that of a leaf, except that it is much 
more delicate, and the fibro-vascular system Is reduced to slender 
bundles of a few spiral vessels, &c,, which form its veins. 

m d or ma- 

1 h calyx, 

e. It is 

f uctifica- 

d or with- 

hey are 

p Is, when 

nd give 

. VI. The Stameks. 

517. The Slamcni, collectively forming the AKDROiciuM (418), 
have been aliLidv considered in respect to their component parts, 



their nature and symmetry, and their principal modifications as to 
relative number and disposition. Their absolute number in the 
flower, it may be remarked, is designated by Greek numerals pre- 
fixed to the word used for stamens, as employed by Linnseus in the 
names of his artificial classes. Thus, a flower with one stamen is 
said to be monandrous ; with two, diandrous ; with three, trian- 
drous ; with four, tetrandrous ; with five, pentandrous ; with six, 
heaiandrous ; with seven, h&ptandrous ; with eight, ociandrous ; 
with nine, enneandrous ; with ten, decandrous; with twelve, 
dodecandrous ; and with a greater or indefinite number, polyan- 
drous. (See the account of the classes of the Linnsean Artificial 
System, Part 11. Chap. II.) 

518. The terms employed to designate their various modifica- 
tions, most of which have already been incidentally noticed, are 
likewise derived from the names of Lianffian artificial classes, with 
the exception of those which relate to their insertion ; such as ky- 
pogpnous, when inserted on the receptacle (466), or, in other 
words, free from all adhesion to neighboring organs ; perigynous, 
when adherent to the tube of the calyx (as in Fig. 315) ; and epi- 
gynous, when adherent also to the ovary, and, as it were, raised 
to its summit (as in Fig. 316}. To these may be added the Lin- 
nrean terra gynandrous, expressive of iheir further cohesion with 
the style, as in the Orchis Family. 

519. As to mutual cohesion, they are monadelphous when united 
by their filaments into one body {as in Fig. 307) ; diadelphous, 
when thus combined in two sets (as in Fig. 308) ; triadelpTious, 
when in three sets, as in Hypericum and Elodea (Fig. 300, 301) ; 
pentaddplwus, when in five sets, as in our Linden ; and polyadel- 
phous, when in several sets, irrespective of the particular number. 
They are syngenesious, when united by their anthers (Fig. 309, 
310). As respects inequality of size, they are didynamous, when 
four stamens constitute two paii-s of unequal length (481) ; and 
tetradynamous, when six stamens only are present, two of which 
are shorter than the others, as in Cruciferous flowers (455) ; a 
case which is sometimes, but less distinctly, seen in the allied Caper 
Family (Fig, 352). Their complete suppression in some flowers 
gives rise to such terms as moncecious, diacious, and polygamous, 
which have already been defined (473). 

520. The, proportion of the stamens to the corolla or other floral 
envelopes is sometimes to be noticed. When they are longer and 



prolruding, they are ssid to be exserted ; when shorter or concealed 
within, they are included ; — terms which apply to other organs as 
well. So of terms which indicate their direction ; as declined, when 
curved towards one side of the blossom, as in the Horsechestnut. 

531. The stamens are mostly too narrow to furnish any charac- 
ters of Eestivation, except as to the manner in which each one is 
separately disposed. In this respect they exhibit several varieties, 
to which the same terms are applied as to the vernation of indi- 
vidual leaves (257). 

522. "When the stamen is, destitute of the filament, or stallc (Fig. 
369, a), the anther (b) is said to be sessile: the 
filament being no more essential to the stamen 
than the claw is to the petal, or the petiole to 

the leaf. When the anther ii 
tive, or wanting, the stamen if 

m perfect, abor- 
lid to be sterile, 

523 Th 

d jl d 

Ny ph (M 

5 4 Tl A fh (F g 369 6) h h 
tarn Uy b ' P 

11 {k 


f h 

p d bj p 


1 1 
f 1 fll 

) pi d 
Ira call d 

a by d 

fll r 

the connectivum answers to the midnb of the leaf, and the lobes, 
or cells, to the blade of the leaf ; the portion each side of the mid- 
rib forming an anther-lobe. The pollen, or powdery substance 
contained in the anther, originates from a peculiar transformation 
of the cellular tissue, or parenchyma of the leaf. 

525. The attachment of the anther to the filament presents three 
principal modes. 1st. When the base of the connective exactly 
corresponds with the apex of the filament and with the axis of the 



anther, fhe latter is termed innate, and rests firmly upon the summit 
of the filament, as in Fig. 370. 2d. 
When the lobes of the anther adhere 
for their whole length to a prolonga- 
tion of the filament, or to a broad 
connective (whichever it be called), 
so as to appear lateral, it is said to 
be adnate ; as in the Magnolia (Fig. 
488). Here the anther must be 
either extrorse or introrse. It is in- 
trorse, or turned inwards, when it 
occupies the inner side of the con- 
nective, and faces the pistils, as in 
Magnolia and the Water-Lily (Fig. 266) ; but when the anther 
looks away from the pistils and towards the petals or sepals, it is 
said to be extrorse, or turned outwards, as in the Iris, in Lirioden- 
dron (Fig. 371), and in Asarum (Fig. 373). 3d. When the anther 
is fixed by a point to the apex of the filament, on which it lightly 
swings, it is said to be versatile ; as in alt Grasses, in the Lily, and 
in the Evening Primrose {Fig, 372), &c. In this case, as in the 
preceding, the anther is said to be introrse, or ineumhent, when it 
is turned towards the pistil, which is the most common form ; and 
etetrorse, when it faces outwards. 

526. The connective is frequently inconspicuous or almost want- 
ing, so that the lobes of fhe anther are directly in contact 

on the apex of the filament ; as in Euphorbia (Fig. 346). f 
It is often produced beyond them into an appendage, as in Jl 
the Magnolia and Liriodendron (Fig. 371), the Papaw (|!| 
(Fig. 493, where it forms a rounded top), and Asarum pf 
(Fig. 373). Appendages or processes from the back of I 1 
the connective are seen in the stamens of the Violet, and I — ' 
of many Ericaceous plants (Fig. 802-804). 

527. Each of the two cells or lobes of the anther is marked 
with a lateral line or furrow, running from top to bottom ; this is 
the suture or line of dehiscence, by which the anther opens at 
maturity, and allows the pollen to fall out (Fig. 369). This line. 

i. 3?0. stamen of Isopjrun 
on, nt Tlillp-lrae, wkh an ad] 

Ho.t.d, Google 

THE AifTHEa. 293 

which answers to the margin of the leaf, is exactly lateral in in- 
nate anthers, aa in Fig. 370 ; but it looks more or less evidently, 
and often directly, inward in introrse, and outward in extrorse an- 
thers (Fig. 371,373). 

528. Various deviations from this normal structure of Ihe anther 
frequently occur ; some of which may be cursorily noticed. The 
opening of the anther, sometimes called its dehiscence, does not 
always take place by a longitudinal fissure for the whole length of 
the cell. Occasionally the suture opens only at tho top, in the 
form of a chink or pore ; as in Pyrola (Fig 807), Rhododendron, 
and other Ericaceous plants, and in the P 
the summit of the lobes is prolonged into a t 
pore or chink at tho apex ; as in the He 
(Fig. 802 - 804). In the Barberry and othe 
(Fig. 507), the Benzoin, &c., nearly the wl ' 
ther-cell separates by a continuous line, for 
which is attached at the top, and turns bad 
this case the anthers are said to open by val 
(Fig 999) and many other plants ol 


S times 

1 1 1 

1 d H 

pi 1 
1 f 

p sbya 

11 berry 

1 family 

r h an- 

g I' 

1 t door. 

J h 

I ge: in 
S safras 

irel Family 

each lobe 

pi rs 
d by tl 





1 b 

1 b 

d 1 

d PP 



y h p 







1 b 

d 1 p 



ly k 












d bj 

M II r m ly 

hip by 



greatly divergent, but are separated by the thickened connective, 
which in thi'? family is often laiger than the cells In the Sage, 
the singular elon^-ated connective sits astiide the apex of tlie fil 
ament, and beais an anther cell at each extremity one of which 
is perfect and contains pollen, while the othei is impeifect oi aboi 
tive. Illustrat ons of these diversities v, ill be found undei the Oi d 
LabiatEe. We ha\e no room to pass in leview even tlie moie 
common of the almost endless variitions w hich the anther exhibits 

530. As to its structure eich lobe of the full grown anthei con 
sists of an epidermil membranp hned nith a delicate fibrous tis 
sue, and sunounding a canity filled with pollen This fibrous 
lining, a pait of which is shown in Fig 32 from die anther of 
Cobffla, is composed of simple oi branching attenuated fhrtads oi 
bands, which formed the th ckening deposit on the walls of large 
parenchyma ous cells ill the membtane between the bin I« be 
coming obi teiated as the antler appioaches maturity the lattei 
alone reman aa a set of dehca e fibie Th =i fib ous hjer grad 
ually diminishes ii thickness ii t app oiches the line of dehis 
cence of the clII and there t is completely uiten ipted These 
very elastic and hygrometric thieada lengthen or contnct in differ 
ent ways, accoiding as the anthei s diy oi moist, which move 
ments, after the pollen has appropriated all the juices of tlie tissue, 
aid in the disruption of the anther along the suture, and then favor 
the egress of the pollen. The walls of many anthers are curved 
outwards, or completely turned inside out, as in Grasses, by the 
unlike hygromotric slate of the external and the internal layers. 

531. Of all the floral organs, the anther shows least likeiless to 
a leaf. Nevertheless, the early development is nearly the same. 
Like the leaf, Iho apex is earliest formed, appearing fii'st as a solid 
protuberance, and tlie anther is completed before the filament, 
which answers to the leaf-stalk, makes its appearance. At first, 
the anther is of a greenish hue, although at maturity the cells 
assume a diff'erent colnr, more commonly yellow. A transverse 
section of the forming anther shows four places in which the trans- 
formation of the parenchyma into pollen commences, which an- 
swer to the centre of the four divisions of the parenchyma of a 
leaf, viz, the two sides of the blade, each distinguished into its 
upper and its lower stratum. So that the anther is primarily and 
typically four-celled ; each lube being divided by a portion of un- 
transformed tissue stretching from the eoniiectlve to the opposite 


d C I (F 496) 

1 b d lly d h 1 be f 

Alb gh I I 

1 re| y h y 

I pi d (489) 

f h 1 f d h 
d by 1 
llj d IP b 

I II d Tl 
ly d d II d I M I 


h p 11 


1 f 

ll b f 

1 Al! 1 


ly |h 1 

I h 

I d 

1 1 Sp 1 


d ) 



C 1 

y d d 1 



d 1 


1 1 

1 dl 

d d d d 




m k bl 1 


that of Zostera (a 

le aquatic plant), ii 

a which the graii 

IS con- 


of long and slender threads 

, which, as 

: they lie side by 

side in 


anther, resemble a skein of silk. Thei 

r surface, althoug 


frequently smooth and t 

iven, is 

banded or 

created in many 


it is 

s reficulafed ir 

1 the 

Passion-flower, and studded with 


points in Convolvulus purpureus (Fig. 417), or short bristles in the 
Mallow Family and the Gourd. The color is usually yellow. 

533. The grains of pollen aro single cells, formed usually in 
fours, by the division of the living contents of mother cells first 
into two, and these again into two parts, which, acquir g a lajer 
of cellulose, become four specialized cells, nearly in tl e ai ner 
already described (31, 95). As the pollen conapletes s g owth 
the walls of the mother cells are usually absorbed or obi e ated 
when the grains lie loose in the cell. But sometimes tl e nclos ng 
cells persist, and collect the pollen-grains into coherent masses of 
various consistence, as in the Milkweed Family (Fig. 422) a d in 
the Orchis Family (Fig. 1098, 1101). Such pollen-n isses are 
sometimes called poUinia. The threads, like cobweb tl al aie 
loosely mixed with the pollen of the Evening Primrose (Fig. 700), 
are vestiges of obliterated mother cells. 

534. Not unfrequently the four grains developed in the same 
cell cohere, more or less firmly, as in most Ericaceous plants ; or 


g m A 11 pi d 

Tl f 1 p 11 f h E P m F 

ly (Fg 419) Id ff 11 

n b f h 1 h n 

bdyfhgranlllh hrsp s 

al Rlyhf bgra pdl 

pi Th y lly d 1 1 11 

h f gl f b I 1 JI F ij 1 d n 

g f rth d g 1 n 1 gl Ij 1 

ra Q hm 

535 Th I 11 n g 1 ts h f 1 h 
11 d h q fi d f 11 I 

flly hbdpts bmk bl I 

a fl lywlhhpp I 

f h 1 Th lie 1 f m 

ra p d 1 1 hghly hi mh lib 

w 1 dly d h p d 1 Id 

b ts d 1 g g Tl d 

fl d h I il 1 1 f IF My d \ 

thhlp fd -n padh bd 

a fjgp fllddd fd 

Id p 1 (/ /M f pi I 

bl fmll fhl fmlf h dl 

h fi th dl f 1 1 1 d h 11 ly 

f h b f I Tl 11 h b h 

mil fll h p 1 hn pddn 

alqdd dd ffi myp Th 

Ig fhmfhQ f hg 

f ! m &, Th p 11 n f q pi — 

h fZ a yd n ly — h ly a gl ( h n 1 

p p ) m nbrao 

536 Wl w 5 b g f p 11 n p mp ly b b w 
by nd m (37) d d d d h h p m 

ha d bl 1 I d If Id m 

b Ihmy hb Idy =! 1 

bl d 1 1 f y h gh 

h k pa t3 f 1 P lly 1 

p p m pjg f bfn 

d b! I 1 wh i b p 1 d h 

nghThbp bd an 



coires tie ie'ii--Utw, ol the inner cont, whicJi burets wilh the ciup- 
tiuii of the contents in d jet ^\ hen tiesh, 1 Mng poUsn idlJs 
upi/i the stigma, however, which is baiely jnoiat, hut not wet, it 
doci not buist, but the innei membrane is slowlj projecttd, often 
Ihiough particulai points, clefts, or vahular openings of tlie outer 
coat, in the form of an ittfnoated tiao=ip-»rent tube (Fig 416- 
418), filled with its fluid contents, i^hich penetrates the naked and 
loose cellular tissue ot the stigma, and buiie& it&elf m the stjle 
{Tig 419) This, howcvei, is not a mechanical protrusion, but a 
tiUL giowth, depending on nutiition imbibed from the stigma and 
atvl It", furthei couiie and the office it subseivea will be con- 
■iiJeic 1 aftti the htiuttui" of the pisiil i~, m de kno^^ n 

Sect. VII. The Pistils. 

537. The Pistils (419) occupy the centre of the flower, and ter 
minate the axis of growth. Their number is designated by Greek 
n Tie als p 'efixed to the name applied to the pistil from the same 
1 ngua^e Thus a flow e ih a a ngle pistil is said to be mono- 
gy ov wti tvo digyno-is w th thvee, trigynous ; with four, 
( ( gy ous V th fi e pentagyno s with six, hexagynous ; with 
seven / eptagy wis v ih e g! t o togynous ; with nine, enneagy- 
o s w th len decagjno- j and so on and when more numerous 
u odefia e tl ey a e te ned poljgjnous. (See the LinniEan 
Orde s 684 ) 

3^^ [ s o tipa at ely seldom that the pistils ara actually 
e^ a o tie peals or se] ils (480) n number; they are some- 
t es more n i eio s and arranged n several rows upon the 
e I r^ed o j olo ged receptacle as i the Magnolia, the Straw- 
be rv &c a 1 1 pe 1 aps more freq ently they are reduced to less 
t an tl e typ cal n nber or to a s ngle one. Yet often what ap- 
pea o be 1 s n«le p st I is not so m reality, but a compound or- 
ga for ed by tl e un o of two tl ree, or a greater number of 
nplei s Is as ss!o n nFg 381-390. 
5S9 A 1 st 1 as already descr bed (420), is composed of three 
parts ; tlie Ovary, or seed-bearing portion ; the Style, or taper- 
ing portion, into which the apex of the ovary is prolonged ; and 
the Stigma, usually situated at the summit of the style, consisting 
of a part, or sometimes a mora point, of the latter, divested of epi- 
dermis, with its moist cellular tissue exposed to the air. The 



ovary, which contains the \oung seeds, oi o\ule=! is of ct ise ft 
necessary part of the pistil the stigmi which reue ves fiom the 
anthers the pollen (536) b\ which the ovules are fertilized is no 
less necessary: but the intervening style is no more easenlial to 
the pistil than the filament is to the stamen, and is tlieiefoie not 
uncommonly wanting. In the httei case, the stigma is sessile 
upon the apex of the ovaij In Taaminiiia it actually occupies 
the side of the ovary for nearly its whole length, and a, separated 
from the line to which the ovules iie attached only by the thick 
ness of the walls; and it la neaily the same in our Schizaadra 
(Fig. 375), another plant of the Mignoha Family The stjie 
sometimes proceeds from the side, oi even fiom the apparent base 
of the ovary ; as in the Strawberry. 

540. When the pistil is reduced to a single one, or when several 
coalesce into one, it will necessarily terminate the axis, and appear 
to be a direct continuation of tt. When tJiere are two pistils in 
the flower, they always stand opposite each other (so that if they 
coalesce it is by their inner faces) ; and are either lateral as re- 
spects the flower, that is, one on the right side and the other on the 
left, ill a plane at right angles to the bract and axis (444), as in the 
Mustard Family, the Gentian Family, and a few others ; or, more 
commonly, anterior and posterior, one before the axis and the 
other before the bract of the axillary flower. When they accord 
in number with the sepals or petals, they are either opposed to or 
alternate with them ; and the two positions in this respect are 
sometimes found in nearly related genera, so as to balfle our at- 
tempts at explaining the cause of the difference. In Pavouia, for 
example, the five pistils are opposite the petals; in Malvaviscua 
and Hibiscus, alternate with them. In Sida, when five, they stand 
opposite the petals ; in Abutilon, opposite the sepals. 

541. To attain a correct morphological view of the simple pistil, 
we must contemplate it as resulting from the transformation of a 
leaf which is folded inwards, and the margins united ; in a manner 
that will bo perfectly evident on comparing Fig. 263 with Fig. 
370. The line formed by the union of the margins of the leaf is 
called the Inner or Vehtral Suture, and always looks towards 
the axis of the flower. This is a true suture, or seam, as the word 
denotes. The opposite line, which answers to the midrib, is some- 
times apparent as a thiclccned line, and is termed the Outek or 
Dorsal Suture. The surface of the pistil necessarily corresponds 



to the lower, and ils lining to the upper, surface of a leaf. The 
stalk of the pistil (487), when it is present, represents tlie petiole ; 
and a prolongation of the apes of the specialized leaf forms the 
style. The stigma occupies some portion of what in the style an- 
swers to the conSuent margins of the transformed leaf (and cer- 
tainly is not a portion of the midrib, as has been thought) ; this is 
evident in Tasmannia, ahove mentioned, where these margins are 
actually stigmatic for almost their whole length, and in Schizandra, 
where the stigmatic surface {known by its papillose cells or other 
surface exposed directlylo the air, without any epidermis) begins 
externally on the ventral edge of the pistil, just ahove 
the point where the ovules are attached within (Fig. ffi 
375), In the Pceony, in Isopyrum (Fig. 374), and a E 
great number of instances, ihe stigma consists of two IM 
crpstpd iidges or parallel lines j inning down the mnei ,». 
fice of the style , ind m a stdl laigi"! uumbei of cases f i|M' 
(is m neaily all Carj ophj Uaceie ind a pait of Maha /^&\ 
CPse), a ccnlmuous stigmitic ^uiface e\tends down this V^}^ 
fice of the style (Fig 3H4) Such uniliteial stigmas ^ij^ 
we accoidingly tale to be the normal foim , and say ^' 
that, while the united raaigins of the typical leaf compoaing the 
Wned inwards tnto the cell of thi, ovary to 
the iimple style tliey are eiposed exterTially to 
Where the stigma is teimin-il, oi occupies only 
the apex ot the style, we suppose 
that these margins aie mfolded m 
the style il&o, and form in its in- 
terior the loose conduclmg tissue 
thiough which a communicition is 
established betwpf'n the tPimina! stig- 
ma ind the inteiior of the ovary. 
The double nature cf the stigma (one 
lamella of which conesponds to each 
e\ident in the two lobes whi^h the 
many simple pi&tils, as in Hydrastis 
(Fig 376) and Act*-i (Fig 377) 

542 The o\ar^ contiins only Oviles oi bodies destined to be- 

\entnl suture f. 
hem tht ooules, 
jtrm the stigma 

mirgin of a leaf) is si 
teiminal stigma exhibits 


300 TH3! TLOWER. 

come seeds after fe -tTzat'on (420) These, in all ordinary cases, 
are borne on the pa t wl ch pp esents the margins of the trans- 
formed leaf, They are n s i e sort analogous to buds, which are 
occasionally developed on tl e margins of leaves (as in the well- 
koown case of Bryophvll F g 271). Since both margins of 
the infolded leaf may bear ov les the latter are normally arranged 
in two i-ows (one for each margin) on the inner or veatral suture ; 
as is seen in Fig. 263, 374, 377. The ovule-hearing portion of 
the ventral suture, which often forms a ridge or crest projecting 
more or less into the cavity of the ovary, is named 

543. The Plaeenta. As it conesponds with the ventral suture, 
and is in fact a part of it, or a cellular growth from it, it is always 
placed next the axis of the floner , as is evidently the case when 
two, three, or more pistils are piesent {Fig. 379-383), Each 
placenta necessarily consists of two parts, one belonging to each 
of the confluent maigins of I d 1 f I 1 
frequently two-lobed, oi of 1 g 1 Use (F 63) 
The ovules vary greatly in mh 1 g m y 
merous and in several rows b d pi I RI 
Apple (Podophyllum) , som m ! oc pj g 
the whole length of the vent 1 as h L k p C 1 m 
bine, ActKa (Fg 377) &^ m d d 
appearance as n he Pei \\ p h II h f I 
however, t be al e a el\ at 1 1 
that is, to ea I irg of I 1 f 
middle, base or s n vl e 1 y 
number, to a ngle pa r {Fig 375) 

544. W! en the p at Is a e distinct o 
to be apoca yo is wl eo ll ey aie united, and form a compound 
pistil, they a e s_/ carjovs We ha^e carefully to distinguish be- 
tween the simple pistil, which repiesents a single member of the 
gynEecium (419), and the compound pisiil, which answers to the 
whole circle coalescent into one body. To subserve this purpose, 
botanists have coinfd the name of 

545. Tile Carpel or Itirpidlllin This name designates an individual 
member of the gynsecial cucle, whether it occur as a separate or 
simple pistil, or as one of the elements of a compound pistil. It is 
in the latter case that the name is principally needful. All degrees 
of union of the carpels may be observed, from the mere cohesion 
of their contiguous inner angles, to the perfect consolidation of the 


f h pi 

1 y 




d d li 





, they ar 

e Slid 

Ho.t.d, Google 



SperguTaria (Fig 
■ styles are uniiec 
s and Apocynunr 

ovaries while the styles remain distinct, as in 1 
397), or of the latter also. Rarely the stigmas oi 
while the ovaries remain distinct, as in Asclepla: 
(Fig. 953). Numerous il- 
lustrations of all the varied S7a s. 
forms are given in the sys- 
tematic part of this volume. 
The annexed diagrams 
represent. Fig. 378, 379, 
three distinct but approxi- 
mated pistils; Fig. 3S0, 
381, three similar pistils 
with only their ovaries co- 
alcscent ; and Fig. 383, 
383, three pistils with tlieir 

styles as well as their ova- ^» asi 

rics united into one. 

546. The Compound Pistil, From these illustrations the 
structure of the compound pistil is readily seen, at least a 
more common and normal case, namely, where the ( 
displays two or more cells, or separate cavities. For it is 
that, if the contiguous parts of a whorl of three or more carpels co- 
here, the resulting compound ovary will have as many cavities, or 
cells, as there are carpels in its composition, and the placentee will 
all be brought together in the axis ; as is shown in Fig. 381, 383, 
in Fig. 291, and in the gynseclum of Fig. 306, as compared with 
Fig. 284, &c. 

547. The partitions, or Dissepiments, which divide the com- 
pound ovary into cells, are evidently composed of the united con- 
tiguous portions of the walls of the carpels. These necessarily 
consist of two layers, one belonging to each carpel ; they are 
always vertical, and are equal in number to the carpels of which 
the compound pistil is constructed. 

548. A single carpel, therefore, has no proper dissepiment. It 
is, however, sometimes divided by spurious partitions, separating 
tlie cavity into separate cells or joints, placed one above another, 

FIQ, SW A whorl of thrao pisllls, the line which paseoa down the inner eida repmsenling 

i to the 
s evident 


sua THl! FLOWER. 

as in some species of Cassia, in Desmodium, &c. (Fig. 440, 441) ; 
or even by a vertical false dissepiment produced by the introflexion 
of the inner or placental suture, as is partially the case in some 
species of Phaca and Osytropis (Fig. 445) ; or by a projection 
from the dorsal suture, as in the Flax (Fig. 630, 631), the Service- 
Berry, and many species of Vaccinium ; or by its introflexion, as 
in Astragalus (Fig. 444). 

549. A compound ovary of two cells, or locidi, is Hhcular ; of 
three, triloeular ; of four, quadrilocular ; of five, quinquelocular ; 
and so on. If of several without reference to the number, it is 
said to be pluHlomlar, or multilocular ; the ^former name being 
used when the cells are comparatively few, the latter when more 
numerous. We may, however, have a 

550. Uiiilocnlar Compound Pistil, where the ovary, although com. 
posed of two or more carpels, is yet one-celled, that is, has a single 
cavity. The cases of the sort are of two principal kinds, namely, 

551. ¥ilh a free Pincenla in tllC Axis, as in the Primrose Fam- 
ily (Fig. 835), and in a large part of the Chickweed and Pink 
Family, as shown in Fig. 384. This is usually explained on the 

supposition that the dissepiments are obliterated or 
torn away by the expansion during the growth of 
the ovary, these alooe being wanting to complete the 
structure of the normal compound ovary already de- 
scribed, as will be seen by comparing the diagram, 
Fig. 387, with Fig. 383. This is demonstrably 
the true explanation in the Chickweed and Pink 
Family ; for the dissepiments, or vestiges of them, 
may be detected at an early stage, and sometimes at 
the base of the full-grown ovary ; while certain plants of the same 
family, of otherwise identical structure, retain the partitions even 
in the ripe pod. Other cases, however, especially where there are 
a few ovules, or even a single one, as in Thrift (Fig. 840), arising 
from the base of the cell, are more properly referred to tho other 
kind of unilocular compound pistil, namely, that 

552. Willi Parietal Flacentation. If we suppose a circle of three 
carpeliary leaves, with their margins turned inwards, yet not so as 
to reach the axis, to cohere merely by their contiguous infiexed 

Fia 394. Vertical BecLion Ihrougb Ihs oompoimd tricarpollar; ovarj of a plaal of Ibe 



portions, a one-celled tricarpelkry ovary would result, with three 
imperfect disaepimenta projecting into the cavity, but not dividing 
it into distioct cells (as in the diagram, Fig. 395). The placentie 
are here borne upon the extremity of the imperfect dissepiments, 
which, if somewhat 
prolonged, would 

meet and unite in f^p <t^'^ ^ Sj^ 

the centre, so as 
preseot the regu 
three- celled str 
ture (as in B 

383). This will be evident on comparing the pod of the Co nn o 
St. John's-wort (Fig. 555), which is comple elv h ee celled w 1 
the placentEe united in the axis, with the ova y of ano 1 er spec es 
(Fig. 388), where the three pla en a oucl he 

3 without cohering, and h he full g o va 
d of the last (Fig. 389), wt ere hey a e d -a v 
asunder by the expansion o( 1 e g o g pod a d 
remain attached only to its walls, borne oq three 
slight introflexions, which stand in the place of dis- 
sepiments. Parnassia affords a similar instance, 
only there are usually four such placentte instead 
of three (Fig. 304, the centre of which represents 

cross-section of the 4-carpellary < 

)vary). These 

t b' t 

tl f q t 

■ which 

1 h 

1 f 1 

} ffi 1 verti- 


1 ^ 


1 by 1 


g mt- 

b 1 d pi 

f pi 

h II Th 

1 1 

d ram. Fig. 

p m Th i phi if xis of 

the compound ovary, the placentee are said to be parietal. Exam- 
ples of the kind with a tricarpellary ovary are furnished by many 

i. SaclioQ of tl aimilBt orary, eKCept that Ihe placen 
m (pIsoBiiUs alficlly parlatal). SST. SecUoa of s ul 
^U, pmduced b; Ihe obliWration of thedissepimsnts 

lOLi Of Iha jnitiire pod of th 

Ho.t.d, Google 

? basilar pin- 


Hypericums, by the Violet Family, the Cistus Family (Fig. 548), 
Drosera (Fig. 390), &c. Also, in an ovary of two carpels, by the 
Caper Family (Fig. 537), the Fumitory Family 
(Fig. 298), the Gooseberry' (Fig. 711), &c. 

553. An ovary with parietal pjacentre is neces 
sarily one-celled ; except it be divided by an anoma- 
lous partition, such as that of Cruciferous plants, &..C. 

554. A compound pistil of this kind may have the 
sutures ovuliferous, or develope placentfe, only at 
some particular part, as at the summit or the base 
of the cell ; and there few or only solitary ovules 
may be developed, as in the Thrift (Fig. 8401, m 
Compositae, itec., which reduces the case to the 
greatest simplicity. The confluence of two or mor 
etal placentfe will account for the free central pKcenlation u 
where no dissepiments are discernible atun earlj peiiod, as m the 
Primrose Family. 

555. It will be seen that parietal placcntsc ate nece«sirdy dou- 
ble, like the placenta of a simple ovary, or of each carpel of a 
compound plurilocular ovary ; but with this difference, that in these 
cases the two portions belong to the two margins of the same car- 
pel ; while in parietal placentse they are formed from the coales- 
cent margins of two adjacent carpels. This will readily appear on 
comparing the diagrams, Fig. 379, 381, with Fig. 385, 386. 

556. The number of carpels of which a compound ovary con- 
sists is indicated by the number of true dissepiments when these 
exist (547) ; or by the number of placontee, when these are parie- 
tal (552) ; or by the number of styles or stigmas, when these are 
not wholly united into one body. Thus a simple pistil has a si 
cell, a single placenta, and a single style. A pistil of two c 
may be two-celled, with two placentse, two styles, &c. 

557. There arc, however, some exceptions which qualify these 
statements : — 1. Each placenta being a double organ (555), it oc- 
casionally happens that the two portions are separated more or 
less, as in Orobancbaceous plants, where a dicarpellary ovary ap- 
peal's on this account to have four parietal placentse ; either ap- 
proximate in pairs (as in our Cancer-root, Conopholis), or equidis- 
tant (as in Aphyllon). 3, Analogous to this is the case where 

FIG. 390. Pistil of Dro9era fillfennlbus, with three 2-parted styles ; thaorar; cul actosa, 

Ho.t.d, Google 


5tigma (tl 

Ihe two constituent elements of the 
of the style) separate into two half-sti 
is seen in Fig, 376, 377, and which ia carr d 
cies of Drosera {Fig. 390). The stigma, no I sa h 
belongs to the margins of the infolded leaf (541) \ 
being ovuUferous in the ovary and stigmatif 
Mr. Brown, the most profound botanist of 1 
clearly shown. These two constituent poit f 

stigma are usually combined ; but are not u f q 
either entirely or in part, as in Euphorbiaceo pi 
and especially in Drosera, where there are { 

many nearly distinct styles as there are pa 1 pi 
compound ovary. If the two component part f 1 
I m 

carpel we 



would eq I 

h pi 

K d h 

with the 1 



emta- is c fl 

h tsf 11 

the contig 

1 If pi 

f 1 

surely no 

1 f h 

as those of D 


g 390) f 

ia preciselj 

h k 

[I n 

where th 


which we 

b y 

the adopti 

f f 

1 pi (1 

of the stigm 

nd pi 

tK) b 

than the p 

tal pi 

in such c 

f h 

f 1 

Sometime h 


1 P 

into a fring 



the compo c 


D ffi 3 

of ovules 



of thecal! 11 


I h p 

h / If pi 

I I (555) 

r \v} It 

h p tal pi 

dly f k d 




are borne over the whole inteinal (ace of each caipel, and m the 
Water-Lilies over the whole surface (Fig. 268), except the inner 
angle of each cell, where alone they normally belong. Reduced 
to two in the allied Water-Shield (Brascnia, Fig. 515), ihe ovules 
grow from the dorsal suture, or the midrib of the carpellary leaf 
alone ! And in Cabomba itself we usually find its three ovulea, 
one in the dorsal and one on the ventral suture, and (he third on 


some variable part of the face of the cell in the vicinity of either 
sutui-e. In Obolaria, a compound unilocular ovary ia ovuliferou3 
over the whole wall of the cell.* 

558. When the styles are separate towards the somrait, but 
united below, they ave usually described as a single organ ; which 
is said to be parted, deft, lohed, &.C., according to the extent of 
cohesion. This language was adopted, as in the case of leaves 
(281) and floral envelopes (461), long before the real structure 
was understood : but, as it involves an erroneous idea, the expres- 
sions. Styles distinct ; united at the hase ; united to the middle, or 
SM m & h y b h uld be employed in preference. 

559 A f ! p ccur to the general rule that 

o\l dd hhpdd and matured within an ovary, 

na 1 i 1 1-11 1 f or set of combined carpellary 

le I 1 Bl C h 1 L ice <Caulophyllum) thalictroi- 

de h 1 h y oon after flowering, and the 

se d b Id 1 1 M gnonette they are imperfectly 

pr d y l* P ^^ summit from an early pe- 

riod 1 11 h se h the pistil is formed and the 

ov 1 f 1 d 1 '^ J vay. 

60 (y fe m f Gvn p rm Plants. A far more important 

and k H p p ted by two natural families, 

h liferffi (Pines, Firs, &c.. Fig. 

3J1 402), and the Cycadaces (Cy- 

Zamia, Fig. 403). Here the 

p 1 3 likewise the whole flower, 

IS d ced to the last degree of sim- 

pl each fertile flower consisting 

m lyf P fllrvlfn place of a pi&til, in the form 

by Mr Bioivn, m Planlts Jaeaniixe 
Bai ch appaienlly aie not sufflciencly 

stu — placentation la ^ery differandy ex- 

pl th ad Ih of Sthleiden and others. Accoiii- 

ing to this new view, as buds regularly anee from the axils of leaves nnd flora 
the extremity of the stem or axis, and only in some e-icepiional and abnormal 
cases from the margins or surface of leaves, so ovnles aie considered to arise 
flora the axils of the flower, like teiinmal huds, or fiom the axils of the car- 
pellary loaves, like axillary buds. Thus, placentte are supposed to belong to 

FIG. 391. A csrpellftry scale from Ihs Bmcm of a Larch, llie upper Elfle turned la the eje, 
showing the pair of ovules at Lia bare 393. Tha aaiiie in ftuil, reduced in alie; one of [he 
winged seeds Blill altnched ; the oilier, 393, sepsiBled. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

ouB riAKTS. 307 

sometimes of a difiercnt shape (Fig. 

407), which bears two or more ovules pon 

the axis, and not to the carpellarj leaves and a one elled o a j h one 
or more ovulea arising from Ihe base of the cell would nea Ij ep ■ese t the 
typical stale of the gynwcium. This theo y wh cl tlie ell tent s udent 
may easily apply in detail, offers the readiest e-iplanat on of f ee cent -al pla 
centBlion, especially in such cases as Pr mnla, &.e whe e not the si ghtest 
trace of dissepiments is ever diseorerahle. It must be adm tted that the mon 
Btrosiljes which occur in Primola, and some o her j lants i h f ee ce tral 
placentalloa, fevor this new view. It is also pefecfly appl alle to o d na7 
central placenlation ; where we hare only to suppose tl e co es on of the n 
flexed moi'gins of the carpellary leaves with a entral p -olonga o ot he hk b 
le which bears the placentte. But m case of pa etil pla entat on 

F[0. 3^ CurpollBCy scale of CupreesusaeitipBT wb be neCfpesa a Dm w hn 
ami showing the nuruerouB onhotrnpous ovulea that Bad on bae ^ Brai A ei 

CsnadBOBis (Setalock Spnice), with loseral siaminats B wera a d a fart s b 33S S fim 
Inate Rinent, uia^aiead. 39T. CHrpnllar; scale of a ieni]a anient, with lis bract. 393, Simi 
lar fertile scale, more magnified and seen from within: slinwingths Iwo ovules adherent lo In 
base : ons of them (the left) laid open, 399. The scale in front, neart; of the natural size, ti: 
Inner Eurtkce occapied by the two sseds. 400. Polycolyiedoniiiis emhrjos of Abies and Cypreea 
401, Vertical eectlrai of one. 402, StrabUe of Taiodium dlsilchum (Subordor CupreaiineiB), 


gill or uppei "Uifice The n>ule'-, tiierpfore, instead of bemg i 

cl(»ed ii 

'ary, and acted upon bj the pollen thiough the i 

the adTOCal^ ot this theoiy are ohligpcl to snjipose that the a'^is divides within 
the compoand cnaryinto twice as manj blanches as there are carpels ia its 
composition, nnd that these branches regularly adhete in pairs, one to each 
jnai^n of all the carpellary ieaves Its application ig attended with siill 
greater difficulties in the case of simple and uncombiacd pistils, wheie the 
OTules occapj the whole innei suture which are doabtless justly assumed as 
the regular and typical state of the gynieoium. hut to which the new hypoth 
esis can he adapted only by sapposing that an ofnhfeious hianeh of the axis 
enters each caipel and "separates into two parts one eoheimg with each mar- 
gin of the metamorphosed, leaf This Tiew howevei not only appears TCry 
improbable, but may be dispioved bydnect observation as it has been most 
completely bj those monstrosities in which an anther is changed into a pistil, 
□r even one part of the author it. thus transformed and beai s ovules, while the 
other, as well as the filament, remains unchanged , — a case where the forma- 

FIG. 4 

itegrlfclte (tha Cooniie of Florida). 4M. S 

vfld. 407, Apl!tillatBaower,coQ9iBtingofl 
lie carpallac; scale. 403. A dniFaceauaseiHl 

of the f 

,1, fron 



tervention of a stigma, are naked and exposed, — except as they 
are more or less covered in Pines, Firs, &,c., by Ihe imbrication of 
the carpellary scales into a sort of anient or cone {as in Pig. 176, 
&CC.), — and are fertilized by the direct application of the pollen. 
Their seeds, accordingly, are destitute of a pod, or any similar jn- 
closure. On this account they have received the name of GvM- 
NOsPERMous Plants (111) ; literally, plants with naked seeds. 

Sect. VIII. The Ovule. 

561. Ovules, the nidonents of fufuie seeds (430), at fiist appear 
like minute pulpy excrescences ot the placenta , but long befoie 
the flower expands thei have icqu red a legilar, and geneially 
roiind or oval form The'* aie attached to the pKcenta by one 
extremity, either directly , oi bj a slnrt stalk called tlie Funiculus, 
or Podosperm {Fig 4:13, 414) As to number, they vary from 
one in each ovary, oi m eioh cell of the compound ovarj , to 
several or many upon tach placenta tn the lorraer case, they 
are said to be solitary , m the latter, the^ are definite when their 
number is uniform and not remarkably great, and indefinite, when 
they are too numerous to be readily counted 

562. As to situation and dnecfion wnh respect to the ca\ itv that 
contains them, ovules are said to be eject when they ause from 
the very bottom of the osarv a8Lending,'^\\sa fixed to the pla- 
centa above the base and diiecled obliquely upwards , Itorizontal, 
when they project from the "^ide of the cell, without turning either 
upwards or downvvaida (Fig 263), penrfwfoaj, when then diiec- 
t" ' j n 1 d pend&d, when they anse fiom the sum- 

ti f h fl f m p ess of the axis is out of Hie quesUon This 

1 ypo b b ref 1 untenalle a a general tbtori and Hhether 

aif d rr pi ot any forai of central or basilai placentatioH 

m biff furtl b n to detarmine "We will only remaik that 

eieatbo appearance of ap! ce or o^iiliferons body in the appaient axil of 
a curpeUery leaf no more proves that the body in question belongs to the axis, 
than that the appendage before the petals of Pamasaia and the Americaa 
Linden, or the stamen of a Rharanus or Vitis, represents the axis of a branch 
instead of a leaf. As to tlie terminal naked ovule of the Yew, where the 
strncture, on any view, is reduced to the greatest possible simplicity, it is 
surely as probable that it answers to the earliest formed, or foliar, portion of 
the last phyton, here alone developed, as !o the cauiim part, which bo seldom 
ftiiiieai-s in tJie Sower. 



mit of the ovary and hang perpendicularly in the cavity (Fig. 316). 
In the Thrift (F'g- 840), and in the Sumach, the ovule is singular- 
ly pendent from an ascending funiculus. These terms are appli- 
cable to the seed as well as to the ovule. 

563. As to its structure and formation, the ovule appeare as a 
mere excrescence, or papilla, of soft and homogeneous parenchyma, 
which soon acquires a definite form. This Nucleus, as it is called, 
is the essential part of the 'organ ; in the Mistletoe it actually con- 
stitutes the whole, its ovule having no integuments of its own. A 
hollow place is formed in its interior about the time of flowering. 

in which the embryo at length appear 
e of their growth acquire an i 
lopes. Only one envelope is 

Most ovules, however, i 
>vule of the Wai- 

d h g 

men or inner coat. Mirbel 
named the exterior coat of the 
ovule the Peimine, and the in- 
erior the Secundine, names 
'htch are attended with the 
bjection that the secundine or 
second coat is actually older 
ban the priraine or first coat 
1 the order of position. Both 
umrait of the nucleus points 


THE 1 LE 311 

d eclly towards le iieru es The o fice o f -an c of t! g 
e\te o neifu ent s oil led he ExObTOME (o o tp outl ) thit 
of lie ne or li e Ehdostoh b (o cno ou 1 ) Tie c is of 
tl e ov k and he n cle s ire d s net ind i nco ected except at 
the bise o po t of attacl e it to the t n c lus w here ev a e 
all pe fee !j confluea tl 9 po nt of n on ece ves the a e of 
Ihe Ohalaza (Fg 411 d) 

564 Th o gl tl e fun c lua and cl alaza (he o ule der ves ts 
nour al meot f o i the phce ti th o gl tl e ope ng at tl e &um 
nt t! e nucleus rece es tl e nfl e ce of the pollen vl ch reh Is 
in the product on of the emb •\ o 

565 O deacr pt on a(.p! es to tie complete ovule n s sm 
plest fo vhe e no cl ange q tl e pos t on of parf tal es pi ce 
d g s gro th the chaliza reninng next tie placen a th 
^ 1 ch 1 e fun cuius d ec ly connec & t vh le the a) e\ e[ esent 
el bj le fo aie or or flee of the coats s at the oppos te ex 
t en -v (is 1 F g 410) &uch an ov le ot be g c rved or 
1 Ted fro ts iormal d ec oo s called otro^oMs (I lerally not 
t ned) or sually orthotr jo^(sragh) Tls pie orthotro 
po s form occ -s the C stus Fi ly (F g 550) and I e Poly 
go un l-ara ly (F g 986) and i a y the s 

56b. In the greater nurnbur of cases, however, a change ot rela- 
tive position laltes place during the developmeot of the ovule ; con- 
sisting either in ils complete inversion upon the funiculus that bears 
it, so that the orifice or apex is brought down by the side of the 
stalk and points towards the placenta, while the chalaza looks in the 
opposite direction (as in Fig. 413, 414, and also in Fig. 263, where 
such ovules are seen in their naturil position in the oviry) ; or 
else the ovule curves upo i self a 1 1 thus b ngs lo v he apex 
near the funiculus (as in F g 416) In tl e for er case the ovule 
is anatropous, ov inverted the lite t s ampylot o}ious,ot 

curved. Campylotropous o ules are fou d a the M g onetle, in 
all Cruciferous and Caryophyllaceo « plants a d man^ o hers ; 
but the aoatropous form is bj fai tl e no t com no of all 

567. In anatropotts ovi les tl e fun c lus col e es h n ly with 
that part of the surface which s appl ed to t and n the r pe seed 
breaks away at the point whe e t s free f oi le nte^u ent, to 
which the adherent portion ema s a acl e J Tl e la e eceives 
the name of Rhaphe ; and pj ei s n I e to of a r dge cord, or 
line, passing from the Hilub (as the «ca Ipf bv le Ir aking 



f 1 f 

1 d d) the chalaza, 



1 m 

b 1 of the ovule 



1 pi 

Tl 1 ph Ij f d n thG anatro- 




d u h 11 others the 

1 1 m 


p d th while in this 


py pp 

m f h d the chalaza. 

wl h 


lb b 

by 1 n n d at the ap- 



hi h m 

pyl p s found next 

h hi 

I pp 

I T 1 f mplo on the 



p 1 p d d by the mere 
I 111 h f side of what 


h f 1 



b ai 




re call d 

p! p h pons ovules, 

wh i 

ragh w h 

h h 1 n 1 h micropyle or 



h d h 

hi I If y b he two (as ia 

Fg 41 


f m h 

dl f h f 1 r a short db- 



f m 1 

ph f ly h If 1 1 g 1 of the ovule. 

A 1 


f 1 

h g n lly d g s at right an- 

gl f 

1 f I 

I h tB p p base and apex 

b m 


1 hea 1 

1 d. m vtneA peltate. 

569. Campylotropous ovules (Fig. 415) differ from the ortho- 
tropous in being curved duimg their development, so that the ori- 
fice or apex la brought into juttapoaition with the base ; which in 
this case is both hiluin and chaUza 

570. It is impoitant to notice the situation of the orifice, or fora- 
men, of thf ovule, as it indicates the future position of the radicle 
of the embryo (631), which is invariably directed towards the fo- 
ramen. Its situation with respect to the hilum varies in the differ- 
ent kinds of seeds : in those which arise from orthotropous ovules, 
it points in the direction esacdy opposite the hilum (Fig. 453) ; in 
the anatropoits form, it is brought close to the hilum, so that it is 
ordinarily said to point to it (Fig. 454-456) ; in campylotropous 
seeds, it is also brought round to the hilum ; while in the amphitro- 
pous, it points in a direction nearly at a right angle with the hilum. 

■* Thus, in moat CiataceiB, the ovules are orthoiropons, bill itt one Email genus 
(Fumana) the funiculus usually adheres to the aide of the ovule, and renders it 
anatropons. On the contrary, sometimes anatropons ovules become orthotro- 
pous ill the seed, by the sepai'ation of llie rliaplie from its face. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


d ly I 1 fi 

mb J 

573 Th d dj 

h wh h h pfl 

m re ly d fid 

d dd m 11 h 1 (b 1 

p h 1 b d 1 pi 

qlyh 1 p dlpl pd 

wh 1 h p 11 1 p 1 1 b a 1 m t 

pi h bl 1 d dj 

1 fl d f hi ylpUfm 

b 1 dhm Id fpU 

p Ily ce d d ce pi g ly d hi 

h f f 1 Th loo p p life, h p J g h f 

the stigma, and especially the viscous fluid which at this time al- 
ways moistens its surface, serve to retain the grains of pollen on 
the stigma when they have once reached it. The following brief 
statement comprises the essential substance of what is known re- 
specting the immediate 

573. Action of the Pollen. The grain of pollen becomes turgid 
as it absorbs by endosmosis (37) the viscous moisture of the stig- 
ma ; its inner membrane consequently extends, breaks through the 
scarcely extensible ouief coat at some one point (or occasionally 
at two Of three points, Fig. 419), and lengthens into a delicate 
tube, filled with the liquid and molecular matter (foviliffi, 535) that 
the grain contains. This tube (Fig. 416-419), remaining closed 
at the extremity, penetrates the loose tissue of the stigma, and is 
prolonged downwards into the style, ghding along the inter- 
spaces between the very loosely disposed cells of the now moist 
conducting tissue (541), which extends from the stigma to the 



cavity of the ovary, and at length reachiug the placenla or some 
other part of the interior of the ovary. 
This prolongation into a tube, often many 
hundred times the diameter of the pollen- 
grain, is a true growth, after the manner 
of elongating cells (35, 97), nourished 
by the organizable moisture of the style 
which it imbibes in its course. Now the 
orifice of the ovules, or a projection of 
the nucleus beyond the orifice, is at this 
time brought into contact with, or prox- 
imity to, that portion of the walls of the 
ovary from which the p II b n 
and a pollen-iube thus reaches the nucleus, in i 1 1 n 

embryo subsequently appears. In the Gy n p n pi a 
(Conifera) and Cycadacea;, 560), the pollen-tub g w ad 
mediately penetrate the nucleus of the ovule j a b y d he 
stigma in ordinary plants, 

574. The pollen-tubes may be readily insp ed d I e m 
croscope in many plants ; in none more readily h n n h A le 
pias, or Milkweed, one of the plants in whici 1 b wa o 

admirably investigated by Mr. Brown. In that family, the pollen- 
grains of each cell of the anther (Fig. 420) cohere in a mass; and 
these pollen-masses, dislodged from their cells (Fig. 421,422), usu- 
ally by the agency of insects, and brought into proximity with the 
base of the stigma, protrude their tubes in great abundance, and 
of a size which renders them visible with a very moderate magni- 
fying power. They may readily be seen to penetrate the base of 
the stigma, as in Fig. 423, and separate grains with their tubes 
may be detached from the mass (Fig. 425, 426) ; but to Irace iheir 
course down the style (as in Fig. 424), and to their final destina- 
tion, requires much tact in manipulation and the best means of re- 
search. The formation of the pollen-tube commences in some 
cases almost immediately upon the. application of the pollen to the 
stigma ; in many plants it is not perceptible until after the lapse of 
tea to twenty, or even thirty-six hours. The rate of the growth 

FIG. 418, A poUan-grain of Dalnra araraoaiuin, omlittog iis lulia. 4i7. PQllen.gniln of a 

419. A polleii-gra.ln of the Evening Friinrose, reeling on a portion of ths atlspja, into which 
IhEtLilje crniUed fiom one of the angles penetrates i the oppnaile an^ie aiao emitting a poilen- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


of the pollen tuhe down the st\ie is also In some 

or more elapses 
befoie they ha\e 
passed thiough a 
lines in length In 
others afewhouis 
safcco for thpir 
pisaige through 
eicn the longest 
sl\ les such as 
those of (joLhi 
cum and Cactus 

grandiflorus. After the pollen-tubes have penetrated the stigma, the 
latter dries up, and its tissue begins to wither or die away, as like- 
wise does the body of the pollen-grain, its contents being trans- 
ferred to the pollcn-tubo, the lower part of which is still in a grow- 

575. Fflrmation of the Embryo. Before the pollen-tube reaches 
the ovule, the nucleus of the latter exhibits a cavity in its interior, 
towards the apex. In the Mistletoe, this cavity is said to be a 
mere hollowing out, produced by absorption, and having no evident 
lining membrane. Usually, however, it results from the special 
growth of a particular cell, which expands into a bladder or closed 
sac of considerable size lining the cavity, sometimes remaining 
inclosed in the tissue of the nucleus towards its summit or ori- 
fice, sometimes displacing the upper part of the nucleus entirely, 
or even projecting through the micropyie. This la the sac of the 
amnios of Mr. Brown, the emhryo-sac {sac embryo naire) of the 
French botanists.* In this sac the embryo is formed. 

" The ovule is produced by the development of one cell of ihe placenta 
G, tin. A back view oraaumsnof the cammoa Milkweed (Ascleplas). Ihe appendage cut 
to s gland Tioin (be ijuinniii ortheslismaiic body, t» which a pollen-mass from an adja- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


576. From LiniiEeus downwards, until recently, it was univer- 
sally supposed that the embryo originated in the ovule, which was 
in some way or other fertilized by the pollen. Since the discovery 
of the pollen-tube in 1824 by AmicI, and its actual penetration to 
the nucleus of the ovule by Mr, Brown, however, the late Professor 
Horkel and his nephew, Schleiden, — who traced it quite to the 
embryo-sac, — have propounded i very different view. Schloiden 
and his followers strongly an n as he result of direct observa- 
tion, that the apex of the polle ube I ' becomes the embryo ; 
that on Teaching the embjosac dens the latter, pushing it 

forwards so as to reverse a po 1 on o self, in which cavity the 
apex'of the pollen-tube swells no o I or globular form, and its 
contents are transformed mto new cells, whicli, as ihey grow and 
multiply, shape themselves into the embryo. Or, according to other 
observations, it is maintained that the apex of the pollen-tube pierces 
the embryo-sac and developes into the embryo in its interior, in 
the manner laat stated. It is now unnecessary to adduce the de- 
tails of the researches, or the theoretical considerations, by which 
this hypothesis was supported. For, besides the researches of Mir- 
bel, in 1839, the investigations made, between the year 1846 and 
the present time, by Amici, Mohl, K. Muller, Unger (who had 
maintained the hypothesis in question), HoiTmeister, Henfrey, and 
Tulasne, have completely overthrown the foundations on which 
it rested ; by proving, — Ist. That 'the embryonal vesicle, from 
which the embryo d 1 p d mb yo-sac, in some 

cases at least, bef I p II b h h d the ovule ; so 

that it cannot owe h p II b d ly or indirect- 

ly, and still less c n b p I g f d That the end 

of the pollen-tube 3 ppl d t exterior of the 

embryo-sac at a p d g I bl d siderably, dis- 

tant from that where the embryo is developed within.* 

into a cellular body, which eseenUsllj consists of a tential row of cells, in- 
cloaed by a variable nomber of layers of cells. One of the cells of the central 
row enlai^es aod displaces a varying quantity of the rest of the tjssue of the 
ovula. Thifl is the embiyo-sae." Hoffmeister, as rendered by Henfrey, Bot. 
Gazette, I, p. 127. 

* The latest memoir on this subject, that of Tulasne (in Ann, Sci. Nal, for 
July and August, 1849}, is remarkable not only for its thoronghacKS and ils 
admirable illustrations, but because the author Iiere points out and corrects 
the ciTor into which ho had formerly fallen, which led him to conclude that 

Ho.t.d, Google 


577. The general result^ which all these recent investigations 
conspire to establish are these: — The poll en- tube, entering the 
orifice of the ovule, comes directly in contact with tho apex of the 
embryo-sac, penetrating the layer of cells, if there be any, which 
covers it. Sometimes its extremity slightly indents it ; often it 
glides downwards along the surface of the sac for a little distance ; 
in either case it barely adheres to the membrane makes no further 
growth, and after a time begins to h J b f h 

po!len-tube reaches the embryo-sa p f h y pi 

which the latter contains is attrac d pj. d h 

micropyle. In this protoplasm mi 1 pj- U m 

ber of three, but sometimes only o d d I p 

cells These are the gi-rminal les I I j I I 

of which gives rise to the embrjo Th f 1 d 1 p f 

the germmal \esicle begms shortly f hm gfhpl 
len tube with the embijo ■^ac Tl 1 IT f 1 f 

upon the germinal vesicle is supp d k pi 1 

Budation or endosmotic tcansferen f p f fl d 
through the membianes of each, d f h mbrj b 

them, into tho geiminil sesicle, ill 1 fid 1 
tally actue contents of two cells of d fT g h I 

mingled, as in the simpler proce f j hi 

Cryptogamous plants (102). Th d d h f ! 

embryonal vesicle, which now adh 1 p f h m ry 

sac, commences an active development ; it elongates downwards, 
or from its free extremity ; minute granular matter appears in 
the interior, which was before perfectly clear and transparent ; 
soon a few transverse partitions are seen, and it is thus converted 
into a chain of cells, each of which contains a distinct nucleus. 
This body, which may attain considerable elongation, by the con- 

tlie end of (tie pollen-tube actually penetrateB the embryo-sac, and i^wn use 
to the embryonal vesicle. — Hoffmeist«r asserts (as rendered bj Henlre\) 
that allhongh the pollen-tube generally rests upon the ontside ot the embrjo- 
Bfic, yet in a very few isolated cases it perforates it; bnt "eren nhen the 
pollen-tube thus penetrates Into the interior of the embrjo-sac, ilf end remains 
perfectly dosed, and the membrane of the geiminal vesicle quite uninjured ; in 
no case can a direct passage of the contents of one into the olher take place. 
The impregnation ia die result solely of an endosmotio exchange of tho fluid 
contents." Henfrey, Bo!. Gazette, I. c. 



tinuod elongating growth and division of the terminal cell (32- 34), 
becomes the Suiipensor The lowest of its cells enlarges, and, 
thioigh ctll formation bv d vision is converted into a cellular 
body th B s the niscent Eribryo (Fig. 4iS0). As it grows it soon 

begins to assume its proper form. In a Dicotyledonous plant, as is 
rudely shown in the accompanying figures, the end farthest from ihe 
suspensor begins to be two-lobed (Fig. 432) ; the lobes increase by 
ordinary cellular growth, and form the Cotyledons (Fig. 433, 434) ; 
the opposite extremity is of course the Radicle. The suspensor 
usually disappears before the embryo has attained its full develop- 
ment A monocotylcdonous embryo has this end undivided. In 
the polycotyledonous embryo of Pines, &,c., the budding apex di- 
vides successively as it grows into four, six, or more lobes, each of 
which becomes a cotyledon.* 

• The principal poin d 

necEed wiih tiie embry 
Orchis Mono as many a hre g n 

nuclei ; one {or sometimes more than one) of them enlargt 
IG. 437. Plan of a yen 

M 1 1 Ilenl ej S-c, in 
t ^ l^ n the apex of the 
Is formed f om so nany 
after the pol- 

<i the piatii of a Poljganum, Eind of ilia eraci on' 
irliliaation : Ihe graloa of pollen resting on tlie a 
.hs taawh of the ovule : and tbe naacenl embryo- 

!nt eoibtyo wi 

1 at the apex of the nucleus. 4S8. A pollan-erain delaKhod, with ila 

,Loal HBOlion of tha ovulo more magnified, and at a later period : tbe 

jeiiaot eeen in the ombrjo-aao. 430. The naeoenl embryo with its suapEnsor, i 

, 431-433. Views of tboflucMsaiiedejelopnienl of the embryo. 4M. The 



578. Through the fertilization of as many germinal vesicles, 
two or more embryos are frequently found in the same seed, in 
the Orange, the Onion, and many other cases. There arc gener- 
ally two embryos in the seed of the Mistletoe ; and there is con- 
stantly a plurality of embryos in Pines and other Gymnosper- 
mous plants (560), though all but one are more commonly abortive 
or rudimentary.* 

579. Contemporaneous with the production of the embryo, a 
eel I -formation takes place in the protopiasm contained in the em- 
bryo-sac, soon filling the space with an exceedingly soft and deli- 
cate parenchyma, proceeding from the wall of the sac inwards. 
Sometimes the enlarging embryo, as it grows, obliterates this deli- 
cate, half-fluid tissue, is nourished by its contents, and at maturity 

len-tube has reached the embryo-sac, and developes in the manner aboTe de- 
scribed. According to HoffmeisCer, also, in CEnothera two or three germinal appear a long time before fertjltearion, fram free cell-nuclei, forming bo 
many delicate, free cells, one of which being feniliied derelopes into the 
. embryo in the manner already described, while the others peiish. The results 
of the more recent researches of Tulasne (tipon the embrjogetiy of Scrophn- 
lariaceffi, Campannlaceie, and Crndferie) principally differ in this; — that he 
was unable to detect any embryonal vesicle before the poUen-tnbe had pene- 
trated to tfie embryo-sac ; and atlerwai'ds he finds only one, mostly of an elon- 
gated form, and always from the Srai attached by one end to the inside of the 
wall of the emBryo-sac, at a point Dear that Co which the poUen-tnbe is applied 
jxtemitlly. He is led to conclude Chat the embi^onal vesicle originates at 
f d6d bl m f th in mb fth ra 

f m 

h f 
f m 


b h 
1 U g I 
Igans f 
1 d b f 
1 h fV 
pi bly 
f h t 1" 


f 1 

h k 1 


by H ffra te n 
i h th mbry 

lid h 

ol mb y 
m ifests 

ted ad 1 

hardly b 

I C f s( leas 
mbyal I llgf hcayfh mbry 

the cellular tissue that foims the albumen of the seed , aod its 

other respccEs peculiar. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


fills the integunipnts of the seed completely In other cases, the 
growth of the eiiibijo in the seed is arrested before it tills the em- 
bryo =ia then thif. new tissue that s ii rounds it, solid Red by inter* 
nai deposition, or with its cells filled with starch, &«., becomes 
permanent, and forms the albumen of the seed (627); or some- 
limes this cfllulir giowth and deposit of njtritive matter take 
place in the persistent bod\ of the nu-'leus of the o* ule, external 
to the Pinbiyo sac, as m Nymph'sa 

580 \^ jth the development of the tmbi>o the ovule becomes 
th" scd Its futlhei historv sht ild follow that of the fruit. 



Sect. I. Its Strttctuke, Transformations, and Dehiscence. 

581. The fertilized ovary soon begins to increase in size, and 
commonly to undergo some change in texture ; either becoming 
dry and membranaceous, cmstaceous, or even woody, or else by 
an opposite change becoming fleshy, pulpy, or juicy : it is now 

582. The Pericarp, or Seed-vessel. The pericarp and the seeds it 
incloses together constitute the Feuit ; a term which has a more 
extensive signification in botanical than in ordinary language ; be- 
ing applied to all mature pistils, of whatever form, sine, or texture. 
The fruit likewise comprises whatever organs may be adnate to 
the pistils (465), Such incorporated parts, like the fleshy calyx of 
the Apple and Quince (Fig. 685, 688), sometimes make up the 
principal bulk of the fruit. 

583. It may be remarked that a similar accumulation of fleshy 
or pulpy matter may take place in adjacent organs wholly uncon- 
nected with the pistil ; as in the free calyx of the Strawberry Elite 
(Fig. 993, 995), which becomes greatly thickened, red, and juicy ; 
and in the Wintergreen (Fig. 795-797), where the calyx, at first 
small and membranaceous, and entirely free from the ovary, grad- 
ually enlarges after flowering, and is transformed into a red, pulpy 



berry, surrounding the true fruit, which is a small and diy pod. 
The pulp of tho strawberry, iDoreover, is no part of the proper 
fruit ; bul consists of the enlarged and juicy receptacle, or apex of 
the flower-stalk, bearing the numerous small and dry grains, or 
true fruits, upon its surface. The bread-fruit and the pine-apple 
are still more complex, being composed of a whole head or spdte 
of flowers, with their bracts and common receptacle all consolidat- 
ed into a single fleshy mass. The mulberry is a muhiple fruit of 
the same kind (Fig. 244), in which the component pails may 
readily be identified. The structure of the fig, which may be 
likened to a mulberry or a bread-fruit turned inside out, has already 
been explained (395, Fig. 241 - 243). 

584. Under the general name of fruit, therefore, even as the 
word is used by the botanists, things of very different stiuctme or 
of different degrees of complexity are confounded These ntcd to 
be properly distinguished For the piesent, we wdi consider the 
fruit in the stricter sense as consisting of the maluied pist 1 alone, 
whether simple or compound, either free or m combination with 
any floral organs, such espec ally as the tube of the cal\\, which, 
being adnate to the o\aij in the flower, is necessarily incorponted 
with the pericarp in fructification 

585. The pericarp, being meiely the matured pistil, should ac- 
cord in structure with the latter, and contain no orgin-, oi parts 
that do not exist in the fertilized ovary Some aheritions, how- 
ever, often take place during the growth of the fiut, in conse- 
quence of the abortion oi obliteration ot parts Thus, the ovarv of 
tho Oak (Fig. 1044) consiits of thiee cells, with a pan of ovules in 
each ; but the acorn, oi npened truit, presents a single cell, filled 
with a solitary seed In this case, onlj one ovule is mituied, and 
two cells and five ovules are suppiessed The ovaiy of the Horse- 
chestnut and Buckeye is similar m structure (Fig. 659-661), and 
seldom ripens more than one or two seeds : hut the abortive seeds 
and cells may be detected in the ripe fruit. The ovary of the 
Birch (Fig. 1053) is two-celled, with a single ovule in each cell; 
the fruit is one-celled, with a solitary seed ; one of the ovules or 
young seeds being uniformly abortive, while the other in enlarging 
pushes the dissepiment to one side, so as gradually to close the 
empty cell (as in Fig. 1036). The Elm presents a similar case 
(Fig. 1013, 1014) ; and such instances of suppression in the fruit 
of parts actually extant in the ovary are not uncommon. 



586. On the othef hand, the fruit sometimes exhihits more cells 
than the pistil ; as in the two-celled ovary of Datura Stramonium, 
which soon becomes spuriously four-celled by the projection of the 
placenlae on one side, so as to reach and cohere with a projection 
of the dorsal suture on each side. So, also, many legumes are 
divided transversely into several ceils, although the ovary was one- 
celled with a continuous cavity in the flower. 

587. lUpeniQg. The growing fruit attracts its food from sur- 
rounding parts ill the same manner as leaves. When the pericarp 
preserves its green color and leaf-like texture (as in the Pea, &c.), 
it is furnished with stomates, and acts upon the air like ordinary 
leaves. Those which become fleshy or juicy acquire that condi- 
tion by the accumulation of elaborated sap in their tissue ; where 
it undergoes various transformations, analogous to those which take 
place in other parts of the plant. 

588. Most pulpy fruits are tasteless or slightly bitter during their 
early growth ; at which period (heir structure and chemical com- 


ion are 

similar to that of leaves, i 

jonsistlng of c 


ar with some 


V tis-^u. 

-■ and th-irac 

[ion upi-n 

re is 

likewise the 


I 1 

d g 

f 1 


f d (353) 



g P 1 



d g M gl d 

f M J lly (83) 

Ipy f ts S ^ 



undergo dissimilar cliaiiges dui-ing fructification and ripening ; the 
inner portion hardening while the exterior becomes tleshy, or vice 
versa. When the walls of a pericarp are thus distinguished into 
two separable portions, the exterior receives tlie name of Epicarp, 
or ExocAHP, and the interior that of Endocakp. When the exte- 
rior part is fleshy or pulpy, as in the peach (Fig. 447) and plum, 
it is termed the Sahcocahp ; and the hard shell or endocarp which 
contains the seed is called the Putamen. 

590. Often the walls of the pericarp preserve a nearly uniform 
texture throughout,* becoming either entirely membranaceous, as in 
many capsules or pods ; or fleshy, as in the berry ; or indurated 
throughout, as in the acorn. 

591. A part, and in membranaceous or other dry fruits (he 
whole, of the nutritive matter collected in the pericarp is absorbed 
by the placenta (543) and conveyed to the seed ; where the por- 
tion which is not consumed in its growth is stored up, either in the 
embryo or around it, as a provision for its future development in 

592. Certain fruits remain closed and entire at maturity, as the 
acorn, apple, grape, &c. ; when they are said to be indehiscent. 
Others separate (wholly or partially) into several pieces, and dis- 
charge the seeds ; sometimes bursting irregularly, but commonly 
opening in a uniform and regular manner for each species ; these 
are said to be dehiscent. 

593. Dehiscence, when regular aud normal, takes place in a ver- 
tical direction, by the opening of one or both sutures (541), or by 
the disjunction of confluent parts (546). The pieces into which a 
dehiscent pericarp separates are called its valves. 

594. A simple carpel dehisces either^by the opening of the ven- 
tral suture, as in the Columbine, the Peony, &.c. ; or by the dorsal 
suture also, as in the Pea and Bean. 

595. The dehiscence of a pod which results from the union of 
two or more carpels may take place by the separation of the con- 
stituent carpels from each other, and by the opening of the ventral 
sutures, as in the Colchicum (Fig. 1115), Rhododendron (Fig. 793), 
and in the diagram (Fig. 435). In this case, the pericarp splits 
thi-ough the dissepiments ; whence the dehiscence is said to be sep- 
ticidal. Sometimes the carpels, although separating from each 
other in this manner, remain closed or indehiscent, as in the Mad- 
der (Fig. 478), the Vervain (FJg, 869), &c. ; the separable car- 


pels are often termed cocci ,■ and the fruit is said to he dicoccous, 
tricoccous, &c., according to their number. 

596. Otherwise, the dehiscence may take place by the dorsal 
suture of each component carpel opening directly into the hack of 
the cells, when the pericarp is more than one-celled ; whence this 
dehiscence v s'lid to be loeuhndal {as m Fig 621, 908, 919, ind 
the diagiam, Fig 436) In suuh cases the dissepiments remain 
attached to the middle of eich vilve In the Hehanthemum 
(Fig 549), and many other plants, we have in p\ample of locii 
licidal dehiscence m a one celled pencaip with parietal phcenlie, 
which m this cise aio borne directly on the middle of each valve 
On the othei hand, septicidal dehi'^cence in a similai pericarp is 
at once lecognizable by the placenta occupjmg the margins of 
the vaUc=! 

597 'Sometimes the placentEB, being firmly coherent with each 
other, bleak away from the dissepiments and lemain united m the 
axis, forming a column, or CLlumdJa, as in Kliododendion (Fig 
793), Polemonwm, and Collomia (Fig 908) &.c 

598 Oc^asionallj the d wepmienta lemam coherent with the 
axis, while the ^ahes separate fiom them, as in the Morning Glory 
(Fig 924), and m the diagram, Fig 437 This modification is 
termed septifiagal dehiscence In like manner, paiielal placentEB 
occasionally separate fiom the valves, iorming what has been 
termed a rtplum , as m Ciuciferous plants, and in the Poppy Fam- 
ily. The same jiame is applied to the persistent boidei of the 
simple pod of Mimosa (Fig 441) 

599 Instead ot splitting into separate pieces, tho sutures of the 
pericaip sometimes open foi a short distance at their apex onlj , as 
in some Chickweeds, and in Tobacco (Fig. 936), and the Pnmrose 
(Fig. 826) ; or by mere points or pores, as in the Poppy. 


600. In a few cases the opening lakes place by a transverse 
line passing round the pericarp across the sutures, so that the upper 
part falls off like a lid ; as in Anagallis (Fig. 830), the Plantain 
(Fig. 833), the Henbane (Fig. 941), and the Purslane (Fig. 568). 
In Jeffersooia, the opening extends only half round the pericarp, 
and tho lid remains attached by the other side, as by a hinge. 
This anomalous dehiscence is termed circmncissile or transverse. 

Sect. II. The Kinds of Fruit. 

601. The various kinds of fruits have been minutely clas 
and named ; but tho terms in ordinary use are not very n 
A rigorously exact and particular clai^ification, discnminating be- 
tween ihe fruits derived from simple and from compound pistils, 
or between those with and without an adnate calyx, becomes too 
recondite and technical for ordinary use in descriptive botany. 
Taking first the simple feuitb, namely, those that result from 
single and separate flowers, the principal sorts may be briefly indi- 
cated as follows. 

Giyi. A Folliele is a fruit formed of a single carpel, dehiscing by 
the ventral suture (541) ; as in the Larkspur and Columbine (Fig. 
483), and the Milkweed (Fig 460) 

603. A Legume, or Simple Poi s a f u t fo med of a g e car 

FIG, 433. OpsnlesumeofthePea o 39 Fm w h 

laid ape^, 440, Loin^nt o( Desmodiam. 441. Lament of Mhnaaa ; b, one of lls delilsceiit 
joinia which ho? fallen awBf from LtiQ persialiu^ border or frame (replum), ^ea m 442. 
443. The jointed Indsbisoenl legume of Sophora. 444, A leguine of Astragalus, cut across near 
the summit, to show hoiv it tiecomes partly or entirely twD'C«)led bj the tntroflexian of the 
dorsal SHture, 445. Similar view of a legume of Phaoa, where the venirai suture is somewhat 
imrofleaed. 146. A legume of MadicasolupiiiinEi, spirdly coiled inioa globular fljurs. 




pel, and dehiscent by both the ventral and dorsal sutures, so as to 
separate into two valves ; as in the Bean and Pea. The name is 
extended to the fmit of all Leguminous plants (T68), whatever be 
their form, and whether dehisceat or not. A legume, divided into 
two or more one-seeded joints, and falling to pieces at maturity, is 
called a Loment, or hmentaceous legume. Some of the various 
kinds of legume are shown in the foregoing figures. 

604. A Drupe, or Stone-Fruit, is a one-celled, one or two seeded 
simple fruit which is not dehiscent, with the inner part of the peri- 
carp {endocarp, or stone) hard or bony, while the outer {exocarp, or 
sarcocarp) is fleshy or pulpy. It s 1 e la er vhich in our fruits 
90 readily takes an increased development n c Itivation. The 
name is strictly applicable only to fr s of th s k nd produced by 

tl e r pen ng of a singlp car 
pel as the plum, apricot, 
peach (Fg 447), &,c , hut 
1= exletided in a general wiy 
to all one celled and one or 
two heeded fruits of simdar 
texture resulting from t com 
pound ovary, and e>en to 
"' '" those of sever'\l bony cells in 

closed in puip, as in the Dogwood (Fig 240, h) The lattei, bow- 
ever, are more strictly said to be drupareouf, oi drupt hKe fruits 

605. An Aeheiliuni is a small and dry mdehiscent one-seeded 
pericarp, formed of a single carpel , as in the Buttercup, and the 
allied genera Anemone and Clematis, wheie they aie often termi- 
nated by the peraistent and often plumose stjle, m the foim of a 
long tail. In the Rose {Fig. 684), the achenia aie boine on the 
hollow expansion of the receptacle which lines the fleshy tube of 
the calyx : in Calycanthus the achenia (Fig 693) are similaily 
inclosed in a sort of false pod {Fig 691, 695) of the same natuie 
as the rose-hip, while in the Strawbern (Fig 678, 679) thej are 
scattered on the surface of the enlaiged and pulpy receptacle , 
where, as in many other cases, they are commonly mistaken for 
seeds. But they are all furniahed with styles, which show their 
nature ; and on cutting them across, we observe the real seed loose 



in the cell. These seed-like fruits were incorrectly called naked 
seeds by tlie earlier botanists. The strawberry, raspberry, &c., 
therefore, taken as a whole, arc not simple, hut aggregate fruits. 
In the Raspberry and Blackberry (Fig. 680), the achenia are 

changed into littl d p (604) Th 

f acheaia is also 

applied to simil d d f 1 

g f m a one-celled 

ovary, even whe f d f m h 

p 1, and invested 

by the cah ■£ tub f h fl 

d 11 Composite or 

Syn^enesious pla h h 1 mb f th 

1 assuming a va- 

riety of unusual f d h P jip 

(Fg 776). 

606 A Cremofa p fc, f p f 

1 placed face to 

face, and invest d bj h ly h 1 

h hen ripe, sepa- 

rate from each h f m 1 d 

1 axis, called the 

Carpophore ,- as 11 I b 11 f [1 

(Fg 735-737), to 

which, indeed, th d E 

h pirate carpel, or 

half-fruit, is term d a Hem ab o Hek 

is and its inner face 

607. A Caryops S a h n and m mb an? 

pericarp, like an 

achenium, but adh h f f h 

d so as to bo in- 

separable from i p p g Tl 

f Wheat, Maize, 

and most Grasse pi (Fg 463 


608. A Utricle is a caryopsis which does not adhere to the seed ; 

or it is an achenium or other one-celled and 

one-seeded fruit, with 

a thin and membranous loose pericarp, as 

in Chenopodium and 

609. A Nat is a hard one-celled and one-seeded indehiscent fruit, 
like an achenium, but usually produced from an ovary of two or 
more cells with one or more ovules in each, all hut a single ovule 
and cell having disappeared during its growth (565) ; as in the 
Hazol, Beech, Oak (Fig. 1044), Chestnut, Cocoa-nut, &c. The 
nut is often inclosed or surrounded by a kind of involucre (393), 
termed a Cwpule ; as the cup at the base of the acorn, or the burr 
of the chestnut. 

610. A Samara is a name applied to a nut, or achenium, having a 
winged apex or margin; as in the Birch and Elm (Fig. 1014). 
The fruit of the Maple consists of two united samarse (Fig. 653). 

611. A Beiry is an indehiscent fruit which is fleshy or pulpy 
throughout; as the grape, gooseberry (Fig. 707), and persimmon 
(Fig. 818). The orange, sometimes termed a tlESPiiRiDiUH, is 
merely a berry with a leathery rind. 


fa 12 A Puillt such as the applp pear and ij^umce {Fig 685- 
688), IS 1 fiuit composed of two oi mme paperj, cartilaginous or 
bonv carpfls, usuallj more or less involved n i pulp^ expansion 
of the receptacle or d sc -ind ihe whole m\esied by the th kened 
and sucL dent tube of the calyx It m'jy be ifaddy undei'itood bj 
comparing a rose hip with a haw, a qu ncr oi an apple 

613 A Pepo IS an indehiacent fleshy or internallv pulpv fruit, 
composed usu'ilh of three carpels, mvestcd bj the calyx, and with 
a him iind as the cucumbei melon, and gouid Its pioper 
structure, which has bpen vaiiouslv misconce ved, may leadih be 
gatheied from a cio=s sect on of a very young melon or gourd 
(Fig 449) The three large plicentEe pnifct from the aisis to the 
paiietes of the cell, where then two constituent parts, moie or less 
sepaiated ani reouived, beii the 
oiules As the o^iryenhrges the 
enda of the f lacentse usually cohere 
With the contiguous walla, ind the 
thin d ssep ments aie at the ';ime 
time obhterated , so th'it the fiuit 
presents the deceptive appeirance 
of a thiee celled (or, by obliteiation 
of the axis, a one celled) pericarp, 
with abnormal parietal placentEe, 
Sometimes the placenfse are parte- 
'™ tol ; in that case they are revolute 

n cohering in the axis. 
1 geneial term for all dry and dehiscent pods 
npound ovary, whether opening by valves (593, 
r bursting irregularly, as in Lobelia, or shedding 
s through chinks or pores, as in the Poppy. 

615. A Siliqiie is a two-valved capsule, rendered two-celled by a 
false partition stretched between the parietal placentse (552), from 
which the valves separate ; as in ali Cruciferous plants (Fig. 527), 
to which family it is confined. A short and broad silique is called 
a SiLicLE ; as in the Shepherd's Purse or Capseila (Fig. 532). 

616. A Pyiidium, or Pyxis, is a capsule that opens transversely by 
a lid or cover, as already explained (600). 

617. AnthoearpoUS Fruits are those which, in addition to the peri- 

without meeting 

614 \ Capsule is 
resulting from a cc 
Fig, 631, &c.), < 



carp, have an accessory covering derived from some exterior or- 
gan, which, however, does not cohere with the ovary in the fruit ; 
as the nut-hko fruit of Mirahilis, the hstrd outer envelope of which 
1= the indurated and persistent base of the tube of the cafyx, which 
isjs perfectly free in the blossom. And the berry-like fruit of 
Shepherdia consists of a fleshy caiyx-tuhe, inclosing a free nuC-Uke 
pen pi f his kind are common among what are 


618 H [ll[l C II ! Traits ; or those which result from the 
^gg'' S ^ 1 fl s into one body or mass. They are, 

in fa d f ra f fl scence, with tlie fruits or floral enve- 
lope d 1 1 rent with each other ; as in the pine- 
appl 1 lb (F 4), &c. The grains of the latter are 
not h f gl flower, like those of the blackberry 
(Fig 6 0) b b I g many separate flowers ; and the pulp 
ofthese belongs to the floral envelopes instead of the pericarp (583). 
The fig results from a muhitude of flowers concealed in a hollow 
flower-staJk, if it may be ao called, which becomes pulpy and edi- 
ble (Fig. 241-243). Thus the fruit seems to grow directly from 
the branch without being preceded by a flower. In the Partridge- 
berry (Mitchella repens), and in several species of Loniceca (Fig. 
741), the ovaries of two flowers are uniformly united, so as to form 
a double berry ; just as twin apples or cherries are sometimes ac- 
cidentally produced, 

619. A Cone, or Stiobile, is a collective fruit of the Pine and Cy- 
cas Families (Fig. 395, 403); each scale representing an open 
carpel (375), bearing one or more naked seeds. 

620. The cone of a Magnolia (Fig. 489) is, however, entirely 
different, consisting of the numerous aggregated carpels of a single 
flower, crowded and persistent on an elongated receptacle. 



Sect. I. Its Steuctuhe and Parts. 

621. Till; Seed, like the ovule (561), of which it is the fertiHwd 
and matured state, consists of a Nucleus, usually inclosed within 
two Iktegumekts. 

622, Its Integamcnfs. The outer, or proper seed-coat, corre- 
sponding to the exterior coat (563) of the ovule, is variously termed 
the Episfekm, Speemoderm, or more commonly the Testa (Fig. 
45J, i). It varies greatly in texture, from membranaceous or 
papery to crustaceous or bony (as in the Papaw, Nutmeg, &c.), 
and also in form ; being sometimes closely applied (conformed) to 
the nucleus, and in other cases loose and cellular (as in Pyrola, 
Fig. 810, and Sullivantia, Fig. 725), or expanded iDto wings (as in 
the Calalpa and Bigtionia), which render the seeds buoyant, and 
facilitate their dispersion by the wind ; whence winged seeds are 
only met with in dehiscent fruits. For the same purpose, the 
testa is sometimes provided with a tuft of hairs at one end, termed 
a Coma; as in Epilohium, Asclepias, or Milkweed (Fig. 963), 
and Apocynum (Fig 954) In the Cotton-plant, the whole testa. 

dwil wl I h Id Ik sebe noticed, that the 
f m II d ( d Iso seed-like achenia) 

f h d I g f II h ontaining spiral threads 

( fmfwhlisp d Fg. 31), and usually ap- 

j ss d nd fid I f hj him of mucilage. When 

h d d h m I g f , and these hairs shoot 

fhm yd Thy f ruptured, and the ex- 

m Ij d 1 Idly aln uncoil, and are pro- 

d d h g b d y considerable length, 

Tl mm ml b r\ ious purpose in fixing 

h II d h 1 p hich they lodge, when 

dispersed by the wmd. Under the microscope, these threads may 
be observed on the seeds of most Polemoniaceous plants, and the 
achenia of Labiate and Composite plants, as, for example, in many 
species of Senecio, or Groundsel. 

62S, The inner integument of the seed, called the Tegmen or 


EndopiI'URi illhou^h frequeofly very obvious (as in Fig. 451), 
IS often in distinguish able from its being co- 
1 ^s; — beient with the tesla, or else altogether 

2|i| I 1 uitmg Nor when pi-esent does it always 

'-W- j_inate fiom the secundine or inner coat 

'^^ / f the ovule (563). In the Hypericum 

*" Fimily (Fig. 454), in the Pea Family, and 

probably in a greit manj othei cases, especially where it is tumid 
or deshy oi wheie it adheres fiimly to the albumen, it doubtless 
consists of the remains of the nucleus of the ovule, or of the em- 
bryo sac 

624 The staJk of the seed as in the ovule from which it origi- 
nated IS calle 1 the Funiltilws [Fig. 452). The scar left on the 
face of the seed by its sepaiition from the funiculus at maturity is 
termed the HiLf m The lelation of the hilum to the ckala^a, mi- 
cropyk (563), and othei pails of the seed, has been sufficiently 
indicated when considering the structure of the ovule. The cha- 
laza and rhaphe (567), when present, are commonly obvious in the 
mature seed, as well as in the ovule (Fig. 455, b). The terms 
orthotropous, anatropous, campyloiropous, &c., originally applied 
to the ovules, are extended to the seeds which result from them ; 
so that we may say. Seeds anatropous, as well as Ovules anatro- 
pous, &c. 

625. Aril (Arillus). Some seeds are furnished with a covering, 
usually incomplete and of a fleshy texture, wholly exterior to their 
proper integuments, arising from an expansion of the apex of the 
seed-stalk, or funiculus, or of the placenta itself when there 
is no manifest seed-stalk. This is called the Abil. It /jj 
forms the pulpy envelope of the seed of Podophyllum, Eu- J 1 
onymus, and Celastrus, or a mere lateral scale in Turnera, \s M 
or a tough, lacerated body, known by the name of mace, in ^MS 
the Nutmeg. In the White Water-Lily it is a thin, cellular ^@f 
bag, open at the end (Fig. 453). It does not appear in the '^ 
ovule, but is developed subsequent to fertilization, during the 
growth of the seed. Of tlie same nature is the Caroncle which 
grows from the hilum in Polygala, forming a loose lateral append- 

FIQ, 451. Vertical magniBed secllon of the (aD&icDpouB) seed of the American Linden : a, 
thebllum; i,lhe[e3[B; c, the legmen ; if, the albumen ; «, the embryo, 492, Vertical section 
of the (ortholropoosl aeedof Hellantheranm Oinadense: a, the finiiciilue, 

FIG, 453. Seed of Njinphsa (Wliiie Wulec-Lilj), 1h its memhranaceous sscliiie aril. 


age. Str ly p k g h <\ g 1 d f 1 tho- 

FHiOLE, l!i 1 b 11 i g h f 1 pyle; 

but the ttt Id d A I II 1 g owlh 

takes plac h h pi 1 Bl d f 1 P IP ppy, 

and of D f in p h 1 1 side 

of tbe seed 

636. The Nutleus, or kernel of the seed, consists of the Albumen, 
when this substance is present, and the Embeto. 

627. The Albumen {Fig. 451, d, 456,/) — also variously named 
J ^ J the Peki'perm or the ENDOSPtEW — 

which forms the floury part of the 
|l-s SLed m QUI \aiioug kinds of giiin, 
coniists of i\hRte\er portion of the tis- 
sue of the oiule persists, and becomes 
loaded with nutntive maitei accumu- 
lated m its ceils, — somelimes in the form of starch gnins piin- 
cipally, as in wheat and the othei cere-il grains, sometimes as a 
conlinuoQs, often dense, incrusling deposit, as m the cocoa nut, the 
date, the coiTee grain, &,c A\ hen it consists chiefly ot stirch- 
grains, and may readily be broken down into a powder, it is said 
to be farviaceoas, or mealy, as in the ceicil giiins geneially, in 
buckwheat, &c When a tixed oit is largely mixed with this, it 
becomes oily, as in the seed of the Poppy, &c , when moie com- 
pact, but stiU capable of being leadilj cut with a knife, it is fleshy, 
as m the Baiberry, &c , when it chiefl\ consists of mitcihge oi 
vegetable jellj , as in the Morning Glory and the Mallow, it is said 
to be mvczlaginous , when dense and tough, so as to offei consid- 
eiable resistance to the knife, as in the Coffee, the Blue Cohosh 
(Lcontice), &^ , it is cotneoKS, that is., of the tevture of horn 
Between these all gradations ocLur Commonly the albumen is 
a unifoim deposit But in the nutmeg, as also in the sei.ds of 
the Papaw (Fig 494) and of all plants of the Custard Apple 
Family, it piesents a v, rinklcd or vanegated appeaiance, owing to 
numerous transverse divisions, probably caused by inflections of 
the innermost integument of the seed : in these cases the albumen 
is said to be ruminated. 

FIG. 454. Venical aeclion of a 6B=d of Elodea Vlrglulea, ahovflng tha two tnleSHnienlB of 


629. As already intimated, the aJbumen may originate from 
new tissue formed either within the embryo-sac (579), which is 
probably the more common case ; or in the nucleus of the ovule 
exterior to the embryo-sac, which is certainly the case id the 
Water-Lily and its allies (the Water-shield, &c., Pig, 518), and in 
Saoriirus, for here the thickened embryo-sac persists within or at 
one extremity of the copious albumen; or both kinds may co- 
exist. In the first-named case, if any of the proper tissue of the 
nucleus' remains, it is condensed and forms the inner integument 
of the seed, or becomes confluent with it (623). 

629. The office to which the albumen in subservient is the nour- 
ishment of the embryo when it begins to develop into a plant. It 
is a store of nutritive matter, in a very compact or condensed 
form, accumulated around or next the embryo, which feeds upon it 
in germination, until it is so far developed that it can obtain and 
assimilate food for itself (118). The name, therefore, which was 
applied lo it by Geertner, from its analogy to the albumen or white 
of the egg of birds, is not inappropriate, although the comparison 
will not bear to be carried out in detail. As would be expected 
from its functions, the albumen is the more copious in the seed in 
proportion as the ombryo is smaller and feebler, or less developed. 
(Fig. 456, compared with Fig. 461, &c.) 

630. When the embryo, instead of being arrested in its growth 
in the seed while yet minute and rudimentary, developes so far as 
to exhibit its component organs, and form its cotyledons into evi- 
dent, but usually more or less thickened leaves {as in the Almond, 
Fig. 457, 458, the Bean, the Maple, Fig. 105, &.C.), it absorbs the 
nutritive matter of the nucleus immediately in the course of its 
growth ; either completely, as in the examples just adduced, or par- 
tially, so as to leave a thin albumen (as in Polygala, the Bladder- 
nut, &.C.). In such exalhuminous seeds (viz. those entirely desti- 
tute of albumen), the requisite store of nourishment, whether of 
farinaceous, mucilaginous, or oily matter, or frequently of all these 
kinds combined (as in flax-seed, the walnut, the almond, &c.), 
is lodged in the embryo, chiefly in the cotyledons, instead of being 
accumulated around it. Here the embryo occupies the whole cav- 
ity, or forms the whole kernel of the seed, and is directly invested 
by the integuments (Fig. 454, 1047) ; while in alhuminous seeds 
the albumen is interposed between them, at least on one side (Fig. 
463, 559), and more commonly on all sides (Fig, 451, 452), 



The Embr 

be ^ n 

1 plan le 

nev nd 



npo a pa 

f he ed 

and 8 p 



ppo all h 

oh pa 

of he f a 



1 tie one 

apla bj 

h Tie e de el 


fo e po ae s 

s n a d 

e ayo n 

s a e all 1 e es e 1 gans of eg a o el a oo em, 

and leaves, as has already been explained (113, US, Fig. 105- 
107}. In numerous cases, as in the Maple, the Linden (Fig. 626), 
and the Convolvulus (Fig. 927), &.c., these several parts are per- 
fectly distinguishable in the seed ; and the 
seed leaves are already foliaceous ; some- 
times they are large, but thickened by the 
nourishing matter they contain, as in the Al- 
mond (Fig. 457), and the Oak (Fig. 1047). 

Frequently, ho* 


b i 

)nly obsei-ve 
ly t lid 

h b d h h f 

h Al 

by p nd n 
ftl firs p fl 

d(rg 4 8 ) 
11 d 1 
■ise to the root. 


below, which gives 

633. In these illustrations, we have a 
pair of cotyledons to be the typical, i 
occurring a 

s named the Radicle. 

sumed the embryo with a 
s ihe most common form, 
n all the families of Exogenous pUms (186). 
Hence the latter are also called Dicotyledonous Plants (188). 

634. But in all Endogenous plants only one cotyledon appears, 
or at least only one on the primary node ; if two rudimentary 
leaves are present, one of them is alternate with the other, and be- 
longs to a second node. Hence Endogens are also termed Mono- 
coTYLBDONOus Plants. The monocotyledonous embryo does 
not usually present the same manifest disti[\ction into radicle, 
cotyledons, and plumule, as the dicotyledonous ; but ofien appears 
like a homogeneous and undivided cylindrical or club-shaped 
body, as in Triglochin (Fig. 460). In this, as in many other 

■nel) of 

le Almond. 

i. The an 

wilh Di 

of ihBCl 


oyledonous embrjos 1 oweve vert cat si or cl k s 
ed nea he id ula e\ em y th ough wh ch he plu ule 

n F 461 If a 

1 e o yleJo s fo d 


d he nc ( 


he h 


it, much as the bud and the younger parts 

of the stem are sheathed by the bases of the leaves In most mono- 
cotyledonous plants. The plumule is more manifest in Grasses, 
especially in the cereal grains, and moie complex, exhibiting the 
rudiments of several concentric lea\ ps or of i strong bud, previous 
to germination (Fig. 463-465). In many ca^os however, no dis- 
tinction of parts is apparent until j^eimination c 
the Onion, the Lily, &.c. 

635 The moie common of the evtremelj varied forms under 
which the embrvo occurs may leidilj be gathered from the nu- 
merous dlu'ili'itions scattered through tins volume ; which need not 
be specially enumerated. Its position aa respects the albumen, 
when that is piC'^ent, is also various. Although more commonly 
in the axi'! it is often excentric, or even external to the albumen, 
as in all Grisses (F)g 463-465), in Polygonum {Fig. 787), &.c. 
When e\teinal or nearly so, and curved circularly around the 

FIO, 159. Se&iofTriglocbiopalUBira; therliaphejIeadingtoliiaslrongchalBiaaUheaoin- 
mil, lurnodlowatdathsojo. 460. Thaembrjodelachcdfnim Ihe Bwd-coate, atoiving ihe lon- 
giiudinal chiQk ai ihe base of Ihe colfledon ; the sbort pan below Is Ihe radicie, 4SI. Same, 
with [h9 chink tui'ned laterally, and half the cotyledon cut away, bringing to visti the plumule 
concealeil wilhin. 463. A otoesseotion through the plmuule, more masoified. 

FIG. 463, Voitltal Bectkm of a gi^n of Indian Corn, passing thmugh the embryo : c, tha 
coljledooi p, theplamule; r, the radicle. <A highly magnified potlion of the albumen, which 
malieH up tlH principal bulk 

r, the ra 

f an Oal-sf 

iliiumcn i s, the cotyledon ; p. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


albumen, as m Fig. 559, 565, 995, and geaemlly in the families 
from which these illustrations are talcen, it is called peripheric. 
When the emhryo is bent so that the radicle is placed against (he 
edges of the cotyledons, the latter are said to be accurnbent (Fig. 
539) ; or when the radicle rests against the back of one of them 
(Fig. 538), they are called incumbent. 

636. The situation of the embryo with respect to the base and 
apex of the seed is so far uniform, that the radicle always points to 
the micropyle, as already mentioned. As the nature of the seed 
may usually, after some practice, be readily determined by exter- 
nal inspection, so the situation of the embryo within, consequently, 
may often be inferred without actual dissection. 

637. The direction of the embryo with respect to the pericarp is 
also particularly noticed by systematic writers ; who employ the 
terms ascending, or radicle superior, when the latter points to the 
apex of the fruit ; descending, or radicle inferior, when it points 
to its base ; centripetal, when the radicle is turned towards the 
axis of the fruit; centrifugal, when turned towards the sides; 
and vague, when it bears no evident or uniform relation of the 
kind to the pericarp. 

638. Sometimes the two cotyledons of a dicotyledonous embryo 
are consolidated or more or less coherent by their contiguous faces 
into one mass, when they are said to fae confer ) uminate, as in the 
Ilorsechestnut (Fig. 661). 

639. In the Cuscuta, or Dodder, which never pioduces foliage, 
the embryo also is entirely destitute of cotyledons (Fig. 122- 
124). Here these organs are suppressed in an embiyo of con- 
siderable size ; but in most such parasites, the embijo is very mi- 
nute, as well d d I g d e of simplicity, and 
seems to re til m n a dimentaiy slate. 

640. On h h I nd h by ss n s the highest com- 
plexity in P nd y 1 C f plants (400) ; where 
the cotyledo 1 y f is 1 lumber, from two to 
four, six, or q fif n by lla 1 1 is (455) ; here the 
embryo is p Ij I 

Sect. II. Germination. 

641. Our narrow limits prevent us from illustrating the various 
arrangements for the natural dissemination of seeds, which would 



form the subject of an interesting chapter ; and from considering 
the circumstances under which the embryo retains s al j 
many species ordinarily for a few months only, in some p 1 [. f 
many centuries.* We must very briefly notice tl d n 

under which this latent vitality is called into activity ni 1 
bryo is developed into a plant. 

642. The conditions requisite to germination are exp a 
moisture and to a certain amount of heat, varying from 50° to 80° 
(Fahrenheit) for the plants of temperate climates, to which must 
be added a free communication with the air. Direct light, so es- 
sentia! to aul^sequent vegetation, is unnecessary, if not unfavorable 
to germination. The degree of heat required to excite the latent 
vitality of the embryo is nearly uniform in the same species, but 
widely different in different plants; since the common Chickweed 
will germinate at a. temperature not far above the freezing-point of 
water, while the seeds of many tropical plants require a heat of 
90° to 110° (Fahienhe ) to call he nto act on a d are of e 
exposed to a cons derably h gher te feratu e Seel are the 
most favorable co d t n for ge m na n n spr g or s n ncr 
when loosely covered v th so 1 vh ch e\cl des the 1 gh h le t 
freely admits the a r mo s eoed by showers and wa n pd by the 
rays of the sun. The watei which is slowly absorbed softens all 
the parts of the seed ; the embryo swells, and bursts its envelopes ; 
the radicle is pi-otruded, and, taking a downward direction, fixes it- 
self in the soil ; while the other extremity elongates in the opposite 
direction, bringing the cotyledons (except when these remain un- 
der ground, as in the Pea, the Horse chestnut, Wheat, &c.) and 

* It is well known tliat seeds wliich have bean kept for sixty yesi's liave get- 
minated ; and it seems that grains of wiieat, taken fram ancient mummiGS nn- 
der eironm stances wliich leave little donbt of iJieir high antiquity, have been 
mads to germinate; but in tliese eases there are several sonrces of possible de- 
ception. Dr. Lindley records the remarkable ease of some Raspberries, " raised 
in the garden of the Horticultural Society from seeds taken from the stomach 
of a man, whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, 
at the bottom of a barrow which was opened near Dorchester. He had been 
buried with some coins of the Emperor Hadrian; and it is therefore probable that 
the seeds joere sixteen or seventeen hundred years old," Most seeds, when baried 
deep in the soil, where tbej ai'e subject to a uniform and moderate tfimpaia- 
ture, and romoyed from the influence of the air and light, are in a favovable 
state for tlie preservation of vitality, and will germinate when brought to the 
surface after a long interval. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

338 THE SEED. 

the plumule, or growing apex of the young stem, to the surface, 
when the primordial leaves expand in the air. As aoon as the 
root and leaves are developed, each in their appropriate medium, 
the process of germination is finished ; and the plant, deriving 
through them its nourishment, continues to grow in the manner 
already described {113). 

643. The nourishment which the embryo requires during germi- 
nation is furnished by the starch, &c, of the albumen (627), when 
this substance is present in the seed ; or by starchy or other matter 
accumulated in its own tissue (630). But as starch is insoluble in 
cold water, certain chemical changes are necessary to bring it into 
a fluid state, so that it may nourish the embryo. These changes 
are incited by the proteine compounds, or neutral azotized products 
(354), which are largely accumulated in the seed, whether in the 
albumen or in the embryo itself (356), and which here, as else- 
where, take the initiative in all the transformations of vegetable 
matter (27). Here, just as in gi-ovvth from a bulb or tuber, the 
changes essentially, consist in the transformation of the starch, 
first into dextrine, or gum, and thence into sugar (350), a part of 
which is destroyed by resolution, first into acetic acid, and finally 
into carbonic acid and water, with the abstraction of oxygen from 
the air, and the evolution of heat (372), while the remainder is 
Tendered directly subservient to the growth of the plantlet. The 
reason why light, so essential to subsequent growth, impedes or 
prevents incipient germination, becomes evident when we remem- 
ber that it incites the decomposition of carbonic acid, and the fixa- 
tion of carbon by the plant (344-350); while germination is 
irily attended by an opposite transforthation, namely, the 
destruction of a portion of organized matter, with the 
evolution of carbonic acid. 

644. In most Dicotyledonous plants, the cotyledons 
rise out of the ground, and perform more or less 
perfectly the office of leaves, until those of the plu- 
mule expand (Fig. 100-107) : but when the cotyle- 
dons are very thick and fleshy, as in the Horsechest- 
niit, the Pea, the Oak, fcc, they serve merely as 
reservoirs of nourishment, and remain under ground, 
that is, are kt/pogaous in germination, the first leaves 

e getnilnaliiif seed uf Scirpus, a MonocolylPclonoiiB plaiil; o, Ihe cotyleiion, 

Ho.t.d, Google 


which appear being those of the plumule. This is also the case in 
all Monocotyledoiious plants ; in which the cotyledon remains 
within the integuments of the seed, while the radicle and plumule 
together pass out at or near the micropyle, as shown in the ger- 
minating seed of Scirpns (Fig. 466). 

645. Seeds may casually germinate while attached to the parent 
plant, especially such as are surrounded with pulp, like those of 
the Cucumber and Melon. The process is liable to commence in 
wheat and other grain, when protracted warm and rainy weather 
occurs at the period of ripening ; and the albumen becomes gluti- 
nous and sweet, from the partial transformation of the starch into 
gum and sugar. In the Mangrove, which forms dense thickets 
along tropical coasts, germination commonly takes place in the 
pericarp while the fruit remains on the tree ; and the radicle, pier- 
cing the integuments which inclose it, elongates in the air; such a 
plant being, as it were, vioiparoiis. This very naturally takes 
place, also, in the seeds of Itypogaous fruits, namely, when the 
fruit is produced on radical branches, beneath thi> surface of the 
soil, as in the Peanut, in Amphicarpiea, Polj gala polygama, and 
many other plants. 



C46. The general morphology of these simpler forms of vege- 
tation has been very briefly adverted to (Chapter U.) in sketching 
the progressive development of plants, from those of a single cell 
or a simple congeries of cells up to those which exhibit the com- 
pleted type of vegetation. Taken collectively, we distinguish this 
lower series of the vegetable kingdom by negative characters only ; 
saying that they do not hear true Jtowers (consisting essentially of 
stamens and pistils), and accordingly do not produce seeds, or bod- 
ies consisting of a distinguishable embryo plantlet, developed in an 
ovule, through fertilization by means of pollen. Their spores (101), 
or the bodies produced in their fructification hy which they are 
propagated, and which therefore answer to seeds, are single cells, 



in most cases. These, as they germinate in the soil, or whatever 
rtjedium they grow in, undergo a development at the time of their 
germination which has heen compared whh that of the embryonal 
vesicle (577) during its development into the embryo in the ovule 
of a Phjenogamous plant. But the organs of fructification, and 
the modes in which the spores are produced, are so exceedingly 
diverse in the different families of Cryptogaraous plants, that bota- 
nists are as yet unable to reduce them to a common formula or type, 
as they have done in PhEcnogamous vegetation. Each great fam- 
ily of the Cryptogamia seems to be formed on a plan peculiar to 
itself; each presents a special morphology, and has to be inde- 
pendently treated, — with considerable fulness too, and much par- 
ticularity of illustration, if the subject is to be made intelligible to 
the unpractised student. Moreover, the functions of the different 
organs are in some cases as unsettled as their moj'phology. The 
leading characters of the several ordei's of Cryptogamic plants, 
and the principal terms applied to their different organs, will he 
succinctly illustrated in the systematic part of this work (927). 
Here we have only to notice, very briefly, what is known in re- 
spect to their fertilization ; concerning which some interesting dis- 
coveries have recently been made. 

646 Th h f 1 1 C J p m plants are 

^ ? d p d p 1 fl d d b For it is 

dm d h 1 I 1 d fCryptoga- 

mpl pddh Idfpd organs, 

wh h f 1 g dpi pectively, 

h h f 1 f h h ! eproduc- 

Tl f h g 1 1 p oc s of fer- 

db 1 pi dlydff fom those 

of Phsenoga no plans In he latter, one of the grains of pollen, 

which a e he esse al pa of the stamen, by a peculiar growth 

(573) c snopoxn h and fertilizes an embryonal vesi- 

cle (57 } con a ed a o le, which is the essential part of 
a pistil and he es 1 s 1 e formation of an emhrt/o, or plantlet 
ready o med he se \ In Cryptogamous plants the fertilizing 
cells, o e a fi a -n n do not resemble pollen in structure and 
appearance 1 e la ge cell hat contain them, being analogous to 
anthers func on me ely a e called Antheeidia, or anther-like 
bodies : the cells or organs upon which thoy act are analogous in 
function only either to pistils or ovules, and are therefore named 



PiSTiLLioiA, or pisttl-Uke bodies ■ and the resultinc Spores (109) 
are formed, usually four tog h f a I ^ P ecise- 

ly the same manner that p li f d 1 ither. 

The spore, moreover, does g pi 1 1 e the 

parent, noi" is one part of it p d d f f the 

plant and one another, as in h pi b b nina- 

tion it developes, in all the higher Cryptogamous plants, by a 
somewhat indefinite multiplication and extension of cells, into a cel- 
lular structure, or thallus, called by Hofraeister tho Pro-embkyq ; 
which is of various form in different orders of plants, but always 
unlike the pareut, and from certain cells of which buds or growing 
points originate and grow into adult plants. The whole process of 
fertilization and development presents remarkable differences in 
different orders of the Cryptogamia. 

646'. EepMduetion in Mosses. It is in Mosses that the antheridia 
and pistillidia were first recognized, and are the readiest observed. 
The antheridia occur either in the axils of the leaves, or collected 
into a head at the summit of the stem. They are found either in 
the same heads as the pistillidia, or in distinct heads on the same 
individuals (montecious), or on separate individuals (dicecioua). 
The ant he rid ium {Fig. 1162), is merely a cylindrical or club- 
shaped sac, composed of a single layer of ceils, united to form a 
delicate membrane ; within which are developed vast numbers of 
minute, very delicate cells, completely filling the sac. The sac 
bursting at its apex when mature, the delicate vesicles are dis- 
charged. These at their first formation contain only an amorphous 
substance, which turns yellow on the application of iodine : but 
when mature, a slender filament, thickened at one end and taper- 
ing off to a fine point at the other, may be seen through the trans- 
parent walls, spirally coiled up in the interior of each vesicle. 
When these vesicles are extruded in water under the rhicroscope, 
the contained filaments may be seen to execute lively movements, 
wheeling round and round, in the vesicle, or, whea disengaged 
from the latter, and assuming a corkscrew form, at the same time 
advancing forward, the thin end of the filament almost always pre- 
ceding. Minute observation, which is very difficult, both from the 
rapidity of the motion (which, however, is arrested by poisons), 
and from the great delicacy of the whole structure, shows that 
the movements arise from two long and extremely delicate cilia, 
attached to the tapering end of the filament. The filament itself 



exhibits no independent motion. The resemblance of these mov- 
ing filaments to the so-called spermatozoa in animals is manifest. 
The pistillidia of Mosses {Fig. 1161), which appear at the same 
time as the antheridia aod often mixpd with tlipm, are flask- 
shaped bodies (like onries m shape) with long nei-ks (resembling 
a style), composed of a single cellular menbiane The neck is 
perforated by an optii canal leaJ ng to the enlarged cavity be- 
low, at the base of wh ch a single cell pioject ng free into the 
open space, is the germ oi the (uluie capsiili- or spot ang turn (lOb), 
in which a great number of spores are formed. The antheridia are 
supposed to fertilize the pistillidia by means of the spiral fila- 
ments, which are assumed to penetrate the canal of the neck of the 
pistillidium, and lo reach the cell which is afterwards developed 
into the sporangium or fruit. No snch process of fertilization has 
actually been observed in Mosses : but it is well known that no 
fruit is produced by plants that bear antheridia alone, and none by 
.the plants that bear only pistillidia unless those with antheridia 
occur in the vicinity. The spores of Mosses are single cells, with 
a double coat, like a pollen-grain. In germination, the inner or 
proper membrane of the spore swells and protrudes, from any 
part of its surface favorably situated, a tubular process, which 
forms partitions as it elongates and branches, giving rise to a pro- 
embryo or rudimentary planllet, which resembles a branched Con- 
ferva. Certain cells of its various branches, taking a special devel- 
opment, produce buds, which are soon covered with a tuft of rudi- 
mentary leaves, and grow up into the leafy stems of the perfect- 
ed plant. Here a single spore, or rather the pro-embryo developed 
from it, gives rise at once to a number of individuals, 

646'. Reproduetion in HepatieEe appears to be affected in a man- 
ner physiologically similar to that of the Mosses, especially in those 
which resemble Mosses in their vegetation. Their antheridia are 
filled with vesicles containing the same active spiral filaments. 
In some of the frondose kinds the pistillidia are more like those of 
the Ferns ; but they do not exhibit the remarkable peculiarity of 
the latter family, which may now be described. 

646'. Beprortuetioil in Ferns. Iq Mosses, as in all Ph^nogamous 
plants, the organs of fructification occur as the last stage of the 
vegetable development, the perfecting of the seed even involving 
the death of the individual in numerous cases ; and the fertilizing 
and the fertilized organs arc produced at the same time, and the 



action of one upon the other is immediately succeeded by the 
full development of the fmit, with its seeds, or spores, as the case 
may be. But the Perns, according to recent and most unexpected 
discoveries, present a very different state of things. Their spo- 
rangia (Fig, 1149, 1153), which are not essentially unlike those of 
Mosses, are, as in the latter, produced and matured on the full- 
grown plant (usually on the leaves, however, instead of in their 
axils). But all search for antheridia, whether accompanying the 
sporangia or upon any other part of the Fern, has been in vain; 
and consequently the doctrine of sexuality of Cryptogamia, so 
well established in respect to Mosses, entirely failed in one of the 
highest Cryptogamic orders. The germination of the spores of 
Ferns had long since been observed. The process begins in the 
same manner as in Mosses : but the extremity of the tubular pro- 
longation of the spore, converted hy partitions into a row of cells, is 
developed into an expanded, leaf-like body {ihepro-entbryo, as it 
is now called), which on a small scale resembles a frondose Liver- 
wort. Upon this body, Nageli, in 1844, met with moving spiral 
filaments, like those of the antheridia of Chara, &c. " The an- 
nouncement of this discovery seemed," as Henfrey remarks, " to 
destroy all grounds for the assumption of distinct sexes, not only 
in the Ferns, but in the other Cryptogamia ; since it was argued 
that the existence of these cellular organs producing moving spiral 
filaments, the so-called spermatozoa, upon the germinating fronds, 
proved that they were not to be regarded as in any way connected 
with the reproductive processes, But an essay published by the 
Count Suminski in 1848 totally changed the face of the question." 
Oq the under side of the delicate, Marchaniia-like, germinating 
frond, Suminski found a number of cellular organs of two distinct 
kinds, namely, antheridia and what he calls " ovules," The for- 
mer, which are the more numerous, are pedicellated cells on the 
surface of the germinating frond, in the cavity of which is formed 
a second cell, filled with minute vesicles containing each a spiral 
filament coiled up in its interior. The organ bursts at its summit, 
and discharges the vesicles in a mucilaginous mass ; the spiral 
filaments moving within the vesicles at length make their way out 
of them and swim about in the water. They resemble those of 
Mosses, but are flat and rlbbon-lilte, as in Chara, and possess ac- 
coi'ding to Suminski about six, according to Thuret numerous 
cilia, by whose vibrations they are moved. The so-called " ovules " 


844 aEPRODOCTiON in 

are round cavities in the cellular tissue of the same body, opening 
on the undev side, in the bottom of which is a single globular cell 
called by Suminski the embcyo-sac. Count Suminski asserts that 
he has even witnessed the process of fertilization in a single in- 
ta b tl f f h ffi fil 

1 1 A 1 pti h S 1 1 i n doc h n 

fh byh annhah lldfp! 

ill p 1 11 h h p 1 mb J d 

b h b3pd Ififdndh 1 

hp bh m gpilfmdbylg hf 

p WI hfrtl pp ht]p byf 

a Fern is incapable of pioducing leaf-buda and perfecting the de- 
velopment of the plant, as does the Moss : with it, not only buds 
and the whole vegetation of the individual plant are formed and 
perfected, but even the fruit and the spores are matured, without 
further impregnation. While thus in the Ferns the spore forms only 
the pro-embryo without impregnation, in Mosses it goes on to form 
the whole leafy stem without impregnation ; this operation then 
taking place, at the same period as in PhEenogamous plants, causes 
the development of the spore-producing part of the plant only. 
These facts, which may be expressed in various theoretical forms, 
open some interesting questions and speculations in general physi- 

646^ Etproduelion ifl EqniselaeeEe is physiologically the same as ill 
Ferns ; the antheridia, first detected by Thuret, and so-called 
" ovules," being produced on an irregular, many-lobed pro- 
embryo, which results from the germination of the spore. 

* The English reader is referred to Henfrey's Translalion of Mohl's Anatomy 
and Plmsiohgy of the Fejetoife Ceil ; and Henfrey's litporl on the Reprodutiion 
and supposed Existence ofSexval Organs in iJie higher Cn/ptogamans Pkiiits, in the 
Eepor6 of the British Association for the Advancement of Scieaee, for 1851, 
reprinted in Silliman'a Journal, ToL U and 15 ; from which tJio above ac- 
count has hoen condensed. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


646'. Reproduction in Hydropterides and lycopodiaccai presents still 
other modifications, not readily explained without many details, 
and as yet incompletely .investigated. Most of these plants pro- 
duce two kinds of reproductive bodies ; namely, rather large spores, 
mostly definite in numher ; and minute, pollen-lite grains, in great 
abundance. The latter have also been taken for real spores : but 
it appears that in germination they produce minute vesicles or an- 
theridial cells containing spiral filaments. These doubtless fertil- 
ize the minute and transitory pro-embvyo formed by the germina- 
tion of the larger or true spores, on which one or more of the so- 
called "ovules," and later, " embryos " or growing points, have 
been detected ; the latter giving immediate origin to the leafy 
plant. The great difficulty which- remains is, that in true Lycopo- 
dium only these smaller, pollen-like bodies are produced. 

646'. RsprodncliOH of Cliai'aceie. The two kinds of reproductive 
organs in Chara have long been recognized, and their relative 
functions suspected ; the red or orange -colored globule, situated at 
the base of the conspicuous nitcule or sporocarp (Fig. 1186), hav- 
ing by the earlier botanists been taken for an anther. This is 
composed of eight shield-shaped valves, containing the coloring 
matter, and surrounding a cavity into which projects a flask-shaped 
cell ; and to the apex of this are attached a mass of fine confervoid 
filaments, divided into a close row of cells, in each of which a 
spiral filament is developed. These filaments move by means of two 
very long cilia, attached near one extremity r they escape from 
the cells after the valves of the globule open, execute very lively 
movements, and doubtless fertilize the spore-hearing organ, but in 
what particular manner is not yet well made out. The Charae are 
so simple in their organs of vegetation that they have been ranked 
with the Algte, and even referred to one of the lowest tribes of that 
family. But their organs of reproduction ally them rather with 
the higher Cryptogamia. The remaining, lower forms of Cryp- 
togamous plants have generally been supposed to be strictly ase.x 
ual, even by those who have maintained the sexuality of Mosses, 
&G. But very recent researches have now rendered it much more 
probable that 

646^ Reprodustion in Thallopliytes generally, both in Lichenes and 
in tlie higher grades, at least, of Algte and Fungi, is effected 
through the agency of fertilizing cells, or corpuscles of some form, 
upon the cells in which the spores are produced. The corpuscles 



of the antheridia do not, indeed, occur in tlie form of spiral fila- 
ments, but are oblong or globular : they are, moreover, motion- 
less, as far as has yel been ascertained, except in the Fiicacese or 
olive-colored series of AlgEe ; in which they execute free and lively 
movements; and even the cilia by which the motion is effected 
have been detected by Thuret. As similar, although motionless, 
corpuscles have been discovered io the FlorideEe or Rose-red 
AlgEB, in many Fungi, and in almost all the genera of Lichenes, 
occurring as a regular part ol tl e st ctu e, and at a certain 
epoch, there can be httle do bt that thej sul serve similar func- 
tions in all these cases ; and s n tl e 1 ^hest degree probable 
that these functions are analogo la to tl ose of the spiml filaments 
of Chai-a, the Mosses, and the other Cryptogamia of the higher 
grades. We can here barely refer to those recent memoirs in 
which these important discoveries are recorded or illustrated, 
viz.: — Nageli in Bot. Zdlung, 1849. Itsigsohn in Bot. 
ttmg, 1850. Thuret in Ann. Sci. Nat., 3d aer. 14 & 16, 
1850—1. Harvey, Nereis Bor.-Amer. in Smitlisonian Coniribu. 
tions, 1853. Berkeley and Broome in Report of British Associa- 
tion for 1851. Tulasne in Comptes Rendvs, 1851, and Ann. Sci. 
Nat. 17, 1852. 



647 The f ts b I view in the preceding chapter respect- 
n I p 1 by C yp gatnous plants of minute bodies tem- 

p ra I d d hi power of locomotion, leads to the con- 

d -a n f h vements which are executed by the 

d f bl s. Plants, like other living beings, 

m or changes in the position of their 

p 1 h 1 powers, which, though far less strik- 

g d 1 d h imals, and of a nature different from 

m 1 be overlooked. 

648 Til hp ai Duf tl n vhich the organs of the plant assume 
b J, h 1 f fpstations, although the movements are 
mostly much too slow to be directly observed. Among these the 



most universal are the invariable descent of the root in germina- 
tion, the ascent of the stem into the light and air, and the turning 
of branches and the upper surface of loaves towards the light 
(113, 139, 294). Although these movements are incited by com- 
mon phjs 1 iije s a I can ot bo the result of any thing like 
vol on ye all of he a e nexpl cable upon mechanical prin- 
c I les So ne of tl e it leist are spontaneous motions of the 
p!a too gan iself due o an herent power, which is merely 
pu 1 ac on b^ 1 gl t ittrac on or o her exteroai influences, 

649 The external age c es con er led in the descent of the root 
and the rise of the stem seem chiefly to be, — 1st, the attraction of 
the earth acting upon the root ; and 2d, the influence of light upon 
the stem. The influence of gravitation, or of a similar force, was 
proved by the celebrated experiment of Mr. Knight ; who caused 
the seeds of the Bean to germinate in a quantity of Moss fastened 
to the circumference of a wheel, which was made to revolve verti- 
cally at a rapid rate ; where the effect of gravity was replaced by 
that of centrifugal force. On examination, after some days, the 
young root and stem were found to have taken the direction of the 
axis of rotation ; the former being turned towards the circumfer- 
ence, and the latter totvards the centre of the wheel. The same 
result took place when the wheel was made to revolve horizontally 
witli considerable rapidity; but when the velocity was moderate, 
the roots were directed obliquely downwards and outwards, and 
the stems obljquely upwards and inwards, in obedience both to 
the centrifugal force and the power of gravitation, acting at right 
angles to each other. The different behavior of the root and stem 
is here supposed to depend upon (heir different mode of growth. 
The former growing at its extremity only, the soft substance of 
the growing point was supposed to obey the attraction of gi'avita- 
tion, and curve" down wards ; while the latter growing by the elon- 
gation of a series of internodes already formed, the solid tissues 
would be unaffected by gravity, which could affect only its nutri- 
tive juices, causing their accumulation on the lower side of a stem 
out of the perpendicular Ime wh ch side th s more actively nour- 
ished, would glow moie Mgoro sh thin tie upper, and so cause 
the stem to turn ujwardi Theie a e sevfial objections to this 
explanation among them is the fact that tl e root is capable of 
penetrating a fluid of greater density thin its own substance, such 
as mercury. That light ii the chief cause of the upward direction 



of the stem, while it is avoided by the roots, appears from experi- 
ments by Schultz and Mohl ; who reversed the natural condition, 
by causing seeds to germinate in Moss, so arranged that the only 
light they could receive was reflected from a mirror, which threw 
the solar rays upon them directly from below ; in which case it was 
found that their roots were sent upward into the Moss, contrary to 
the ordinary direction, and their stems downward towards the light, 

650. The Mistletoe obeys the attraction of the trunk or branch 
upon which it is parasitic (134), just as ordinary plants obey the 
attraction of tho earth ; its roots penetrating towards the centre, 
while the stems grow perpendicular to the surface of the branch, 
and are therefore placed in various positions as respects the earth. 
When the germinating seeds of the Mistletoe were fixed on the 
surface of a cannon-ball, all the radicles were found to be directed 
towards its centre. A well-devJsed experiment made by Dutrochet 
goes to show, that the pointing of the radicle to the adjacent body 
(and consequently of the germinating root generally towards the 
earth's centre) is not the result of the immediate attraction of the 
adjacent body, or of the earth, but is a spontaneous movement due 
to some internal, vital cause, put in action by the exterior influ- 
ence. He mounted the seed of a Mistletoe upon one extremity of 
a very delicately balanced needle, which would turn with the 
slightest force, and placed it at the distance of half a line from the 
surface of a large cannon-ball. In germination the radicle direct- 
ed its point to the ball, and soon came into contact with the sur- 
face ; but the end of the needle had not moved in the slightest 
degree towards the ball, as it would have done from a mere ex- 
terior attraction. By such experiments Dutrochet has proved that 
the curvature of the root to grow downward or from the light, and 
of the stem in the opposite direction, is independent of their 
growth ; and that the cause must be looked for in the cells of the or- 
gans themselves. He has attempted the explanation by the aid of 
endosmosis under different conditions of light, &c. ; but without 
full success, except in showing that curvature is not produced by a 
coptraction of the side which becomes concave, but by the enlarge- 
ment of that which becomes convex. 

651. When the stem has emerged from the earth, it lends to 
expose itself as much as possible to the light, the growing parts 
always turning towards the side most strongly illuminated ; as ig 
observed when a plant is placed in an apartment lighted from a 



single aperture. This is mechanically accounted for by De Can- 
dolle, on the supposition, that, as the side upon which iho light 
strikes will fix most carbon by the decomposition of carbonic acid, 
HO its tissue will become more solid than the shady side, and there- 
fore elongate less rapidly; and the stem or branch will conse- 
quently bend towards the light. But when the light is equally dif- 
fused around a plant, the decomposition of carbonic acid will take 
place uniformly on all sides, and the perpendicular direction natu- 
rally be maintained. The insufficiency of this esplanation is shown 
by the fact, that, when a stem so curved is split through, the con- 
cave side curves more than before, while tlie convex side springs 
hack into the upright position. Moreover, the decomposition of car- 
bonic acid is effected chiefly under the influence of the yellow rays, 
and the curvature of green stems by the blue (652'). The same 
relation of upward-growing organs to light regulates the disposi- 
tion of branches and branchlets, which are invariably so arranged 
as to have the greatest possible exposure to the light ; the upper- 
most branches of a tree growing nearly erect, those beneath ex- 
tending more horizontally until they reach beyond their shade, 
when they curve upwards (unless loo slender to support their own 
weight, as in the Weeping Willow), and the lower being still more 
divergent, or even turned downwards, when the foliage is dense. 
Certain drooping branches, however, are exceptions to this rule, 
such as those of the Weeping Ash, which have a constitutional 
tendency to turn downwards. And the widely different positions 
assumed by the branches of different species under the very same 
external influences, show that the directions are owing to differ- 
ences in their own specific organization. The direct action of 
light is confined to the green parts of plants. Where the surface 
1ms lost its green color, branches are no, longer affected by th6 
light; and those which creep under ground beyond its influence 
{ 173), and have the white color and much the external appearance 
of roots, show little upward tendency so long as they remain in this 
situation ; but whenever their extremities are exposed to the light, 
they first acquire a gi-een hue by the formation of chlorophyll, and 
then tend to assume a vertical direction. 

652. The principal exception to the rule thai green parts turn to 

the light is that of certain lenduls, such as those of the Vino and 

the Virginia Creeper, which avoid it, although of a giren color. 

This lias been said to be tlie caie in ipndiiN ^pneitillj ; but, ac- 




cording to Mohl, many turn towards the light, while others appeal- 
indifferent to its iiifiuenKe. 

652'. It has been shown both by Payer and Macaire, that curva- 
ture towards the light is produced in unequal degrees by the dif- 
ferent rays of the spectrum, and this independently of their iiluini- 
nating power ; the blue and violet rays being most efficient, the 
yellow producing little effect, and the red none at all. There 
is no real connection, therefore, between this phenomenon and the 
evolution of oxygen or fixation of carbon, which does not take 
pi d blue hght. 

653 I leaves it is the denser and deeper green upper surface 
(2b ) 1 s presented to the light, while the paler lower surface, 
f loo ssue, avoids it, like a rootlet. The recovery of the 

na al p tion when the leaf is artificially reversed, is the more 
p mp ly fleeted in proportion to the difference in structure and 
hu b n the two strata. This movement in leaves is so prompt, 

h h f many plants follow the daily course of the sun. The 
I af capable of executing such movements, on account of 

d d surface, and its pliancy, and also on account of its 
al a hment by an articulation. Herethe slender veiscular 
b ndle pfose little resistance to lateral motion, while the sof^ 
nd u lly cellular enlargement favors it. Indeed, the efficient 
a i movement appears to be exerted here, and to he con- 

nected jth the unequal tension or turgescence of the cells on the 
two aides. But how the light acts in producing the movement, we 
are wholly ignorant. One of the moat striking and general of 
these changes of position was termed by Linuteua 

654. The Sleep of Plauts, namely, the peculiar position which tiio 
leaves of many plants assume, either apparently drooping, or 
folding together their leaflets, as if in repose, when the stimulus 
of light is removed. This is well seen in the foliage of the 
Locust and of most Leguminous plants, and in tliose of Oxalis, or 
Wood-Sorrel. It is most striking in the leaflets of compound 
leaves. Their nocturnal position is various in different species, 
but uniform in the same species, showing that the phenomenon is 
not mechanical. Nor is it a passive slate, for, instead of drooping 
as if by their own weight, the leaflets are more commonly turned 
upwards or forwards, contrary to the position into which they 
would fall fram their own weight. De CandoUe found that most 
plants could be made to acknowledge an artificial day and night, 


h d J d by n I 
?h I lip 

b bl d f If 

1 b 

dd f h 1 1 M p d 

1 bl m 


d 1 

h i 

b p 


h fC 

d fm P 1 


1 1 

h Ik h Cot 

1 1 1 

bd b 
b 1 d b 


d g 1 11 
g P m SI 

gm 1 
fl ra & f Id 

P 1 
Lly (NymphEB 
1 1 
d b h 

) P 

d 1 
d h f 11 1 h 
f 1 f 
f f h 

Tl 1 W 
f d y b f ly 
d 1 lly h 
Tl M gC! 7 

p h d 
f 1 1 


L d 

Mrabl F 

C pl 
lip ly 

1 h 1 


d^ B h 1 


T ff h 

1 fl 

1 ly ! 

d fid 

se 1 1 



d Id 

655 Al h i 

1 h 

b h 

1 d bl m 

d b dly d p d 1 1 gh 1 d 

ly d b f 1 1 p f 1 m S PI 

f bjbf b Igfqly 

pdhd dN phi fill 

1 1 If b d lly 

for such movements, any. more than in the analogous cases of 

656. jllovcments from Irritation. The leaflets of numerous Le- 
guminous plants, 'especially of the Mimosa tribe, when roughly 
touched, assume their peculiar nocturnal position, or one like it, by 
a visible and sometimes a rapid movement. The Sensitive Plant 

• Tha odors of flowers, also, are somotiiiies given off continually, as in the 
Orange and the Violet, or else they nearly lose their fragrance during ihe heat 
of midday, ss in mo9t cases ; while others, such as Pelargonium triste, Hesperig 
tristis, and most dingy flowers, which are almost scentless during the day, ex- 
hale a powerful fragriince at night. The night-flowering Cerens grandiflorus 
emits its powerful fragrance at intervals ; sudden emanations of odor being 
given otr about every qnarter of an hour, during the brief period of the expan- 
sion of the flower. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


of the gardens (Mimosa pudica) is a familiar instance of the kind, 
auddealy depressing its leaflets upon the secondary petioles on being 
touched or jarred, and applying them one over the other upon the 
secondaiv petiole ; if more strongly irritated, the secondary petioles 
a\io bend forward and approach each other, and the general peti- 
ole itself smks by a bending at the articulation with the stem. 
Simdai but less vivid irritability is shown by the Mimosa strigillosa 
and the Schranlt f 1 e "^ 1 n b 1 11 Acts prompt- 

ly fold upwh h hdwhhhd Thn markable in- 

stance of ih k nd h p d bj a h native plant 

of the United S hDsenpl V's Fly-trap 

(Fig. 228) ; h h h h n f n 1 hling upon 

the upper bu fa f 1 p d I des to close 

sudden y b b f h ma g na f og ossing each 

o he ke h fa p and h u fa es pressing 

oehewhndbf a n, fnto destroy, 

he ud whose s ug^, es o y no ease the pressure which this 
an ma ed rap e e s Th s mos e\ raordinary plant abounds in 
be da p sandy ava a n e neighborhood of Cape Fear 
S e f om W m on o Faye e e, North Carolina, where it 
s es eed n^ v ab nda b n elsewhere found. 

657. A fam ar, a t ou^h less sti king, instance of the same 
kind is seen in the stamens of the common Barberry, which are so 
excitable, that the filament approaches the pistil with a sudden 
jerk, when touched with a point, or brushed by an insect, near the 
base on the inner side. The object of this motion seems plainly 
to be the dislodgement of the pollen from the cells of the anther, 
and its projection upon the stigma. But in the Dionica it is diffi- 
cult to conceive what end is subserved by the capture of insects. 
In a species of Stylidium of New Holland, not uncommon in con- 
servatories, the column, consisting of jbe united stamens and styles, 
is bent over to one side of the corolla ; but if slightly irritated, it 
instantly springs over to the opposite side of the flower, 

657', Anatomical investigation brings to view no peculiar struc- 
ture of parts in these cases ; except that the abundant parenchyma 
at the articulation, where the movement is effected, is found to be 
in a state of unusual turgescence, and its cells are compressed in 
the direction of the longitudinal axis of the joint : a small piece cut 
out suddenly expands about one fifth in size, as if the vascular bun- 
dle were too short for the parenchyma. Consequently, if a portion 



of the parenchyma be cut away down to the vascular bundle on 
one side of the joiat, in the Sensitive Plant, the leaflet or stalk is 
immediately pushed to that side by the expaasion of the tissue of 
the opposite side, which has now lost its antagonist. The irrita- 
bility in the Sensitive Plant principally resides in the under side of 
the joints, which become concave in the motion ; but the irritation 
fhp 'p plypp ^ o the scat of motion. How 

h b g b I m nt is unknown. 

658 S m I ra m h h have been likened to these, 

ly m h 1 1 ure ; as that of Kalmia, or 

Sh p L I h h h are in the bud received into 

ra y [ h f 1 pi corolla, and, being retained 

by gl i d outwards and downwards 

wh h 11 p d I h ay the slender filaments are 

gy d k y P ''g^i uKlil the anthers open, 

and 1 p II b hi itter that confines them, when 

h y fly p d 1 Uj h g the pollen in the direction of 

h g ri 1 I f the Balsam, or Touch-me- 

not (Irapatiens), and the bursting of similar fruits, are also due to 
the great turgescence of the cells of the outer layer, and are 
therefore wholly mechanical. 

658'. The twining of stems round a support and the coiling of 
tendrils are attributed by Mohl to a dull irritability ; and this is the 
most plausible' explanation that has been offered. The inner side, 
which becomes concave and has smaller cells, is in this, as io 
other cases, the irritable portion. When a foreign body, such as 
a stem, is reached, a contraction of this side causes the tendril par- 
tially to embrace the support: this brings the portion just above 
into contact with it, which is in like manner stimulated to the curv- 
ing movement, and so the hold is secured ; or in a twining stem the 
growing oigaa continues to wmd around the support In tendrils 
this imtabiiity, propagated downward ilong the ccncave side, 
causes its contraction {or moip piobibly the increased turges- 
cence of the opposite sde), which throws the whole into a spiral 
coil and brings the gio«ing stem neaier to the suppoiting body, 

b59 AulomatlC IBoiemfnU A few pknts aie known which exe- 
cute bnsk ind lepeated movements inespect\e of e^tnneous 
e\citation and which, indeed, are anested b^ the touch An in- 
stance of s ich spontaneo is and continued motion, of the most re- 
mirk-ible k tid is f irmshed by thL tnfoliUe leaves of Desnicdi im 




g\ rans, an East InduQ Leauminous plant The lermmal leaflet 
does not move, except lo change fiom the dnrnal to the nocturnal 
position and iho contiary , but the lateral one'? aie cont n lally H'* 
ing and falling both day and night, bj a succession of little jerks, 
like the second band of d time keeper the one rising while the 
other falls Exposme to cold or cold water poured upon the 
plant stops the motion, which is immedidtely renewed by " 

The late Di Baldwin of Ge 
nessed the same thing in Desmodiun 
tropical Orchideou9 plants, and espet 
chnium, one of the petals 

I by Nuttall to ha^e wit 
cospidatum' In several 
ally in a species of Mega 
milar aid pnrfectlj spoo 
taneous automate mote 

660 Fee* MoHmciils of 
the Spoin of Algai Ihe 
1 pores of m iny of the 


known to exhibit a peculiar 
active stale at the time of 
tier discharge fiom the 
parent cell, when, for some 
moments, or us jally for 
seveial hours, they beh'ive 
like mtusory animals, es 
ecut ng fiee, and to all 
appearance flpontaneoug, 
the water, 
e abo it to 
'bis singular 
: first detect 

movements i 
unt 1 they i 
mosement wi 

*''" '" '^^ ^'^ ^ ed inanv years agj, in 

Vaucheria In Fig 71 (p 67} we see the mannei in whch the 
spore IS formed , and m Fig 12, the mode in which t is d stharged 
also, on a larger scale, in Fig. 467. It at once begins to move treely 
in the water, and continues to do so for some hours, when it fixes it- 

FIO. 4 

dog end of E. plan 

et Thure 

;copled ftom Thurol). When 



self and begins to grow (Fig. 469). lis movements, moreover, like 
those of the anlheridial filaments or corpiiscules (646'), may be 
enfeebled or arrested by the application of a weak solution of opi- 
um or of chloroform. Through these means it has been ascer- 
tained "that ihey are caused by the vibrations of minute cilia which 
cover the surface, which are rendered visible by thus enfeebling 
their movement, and which exhibit the closest resemblacce to the 
vibratile ciiia of animals, especially those of the polygaslric animal- 
cules ! In Conferva vesicata the vibratile cilia occupy one end of 
the spore (Fig. 475). la other species they are likewise restricted 
to some part of the surface, and arc only two or three in number. 

661, In Oscillaria (Fig. 66, p. 66) the fully developed plant 
exhibits occasional writhing movements, so well marked that the 
vegetable character of the genus was long questioned. The Cios- 
teria (Fig, 77) and other minute Desmidiaceous plants exhibit oc- 
casional well-marked spontaneous movements of translation : and 
the nearly allied DJatomacese — the lowest and most ambiguous of 
plants — were long referred to the animal kingdom, on account 
of the motions tbey exhibit. The lowest tribe of plants, in this 
as in other respects, makes the closest approach to the lowest 
tribes of animals. 

662. Not only, therefore, do many, if not all, plants manifest 
impressibility or sensitiveness to external agents, and more or less 
decided, though slow, movements ; but many species of the higher 

d h b d 1 p ta uto- 

m f hi 1 1 -est 

bf pi hydh d pies- 

tyfgza 1 llyhb plf heir 

1 1 d p h able 

dgh h fmh fh! ml (16) 

h h Ilk m d by 1 

663 Wh d h h y f plants 

mdisfhj fjphj p-tlo 

h hdypl (_si8 

1 D ffi h S PI & ) d nly, 

renewed aftei a p d f j , 

of repose ; that they evolve heat u 

-374) ; that, as if by a kind of int 

vegetable assume the positions or the directions most favorable lo 

the proper exercise of their functions and the supply of their wants, 

11 pi 


special cii 


nces (373 

t, the vario 

■us orga 

.ns of the 

Ho.t.d, Google 


to this end surmounting iatervening obstacles; — when we consid- 
er in this connection the still more striking cases of spontaneous 
motion that the lower Algfe exhibit ; and that all these motions are 
arrested by narcotics, or other poisons, — the narcotic and acrid 
poisons even producing effects upon vegetables respectively analo- 
gous to their different effects upon the animal economy ; — we can 
hardly avoid attributing to plants a sensibility and a power of 
" making movements tending to a determinate end," not different 
in nature, perhaps, from those of the lowest animals. Probably 
the vitality is essentially the same in the two kingdoms ; and to 
this, faculties are superadded in the lower animals, some of which 
are here and there not indistinctly foreshadowed in plants. 

664. Finally, if called upon to define a plant, or draw the line 
between the animal and the vegetable kingdoms, we can only say, 
— 1, That plants alone, under the solar influence, create organic 
matter from inorganic materials, and alone live, or are capable of 
living, by direct aggression upon the mineral world. Consequent- 
ly, they alone decompose carbonic acid, and render free oxygen 
gas to the atmosphere {Chap. VI.) : the action of animals upon the 
air is uniformly and continually the reverse. 2. In its structure, 
a plant may be reduced to a single simple vesicle of cellular tissue 
(94} 1 pi 11 q I B dip! 

m 1 f 1 1 fe d h m[l f 

I J f ' P Id 1 

I d d h b I lip lygas I 

d bly pi d 3 A h m 1 

mp h pitsh fhhb 

d I 7 P ' ( 7 3 ) 

Id 1 p ftspmfb 

T5 Iss h raydlypdf 1 

quaternarj produi,ts, consis-trng of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and 
nitrogen.* Although such distinctions as these are, in all probabil- 
ity, absolute, yet it is often difficult, and frequently, perhaps, im- 
possible, to apply them to the actual discrimination of the lower 
plants from the lower animals. 

* To Itiis, indeed, an exception has been announced, in the case of certain 
Mollusca, whose tissue is said to be identiual wiili cellulose ! 




665. ■We h 

n w 

a diiTeren p u 

f w 

ogy of pla ts 
whicli they p 
modes or f 


1 i 

worked o 


vegetation k 
mense nu h 

f dff 


1 h 

It is the obj 


these resemblances and 

which (he indiv 

idiial me 

other (5, 6). ] 

[n this vi 


o contemplate the relations 
mbers of the great whole sustain to each 
ew, the botanist classifies them, so as to 
exhibit their relationships, or points of resemblance, arranges them 
in ah orderly manner, designates them by proper names, and dis- 
tinguishes them by clear and precise descriptions ; so that the name 
and place in the system, the known properties, and the whole his- 
tory of any given plant, may he readily and surely obtained by the 



666. MiTlfluals, The vegetables with which the earth is adorned 
ire presented to our view as Individuals only, more or less 


resembling, or differing from, each other. Among these, some 
are so essentially alike, that we involuntarily apply to them the 
same name, A field of Wheat is filled with similar individuala, 
which we can separate b t d' t' tsJ O 1 h h t 

be possible to distinguisl ra ddlfm yp 1 y 

of size, &c., we still i biy h I g h 

more like each other tha Ik y \ f m — 1 1 

that we view the differe d 1 F 

thermore, the Wheat till \ b 1 f 1 g d 

and shoots forth a numb f Ik f h — Ik 

which are separable, orp p lyf hpmry 

one. So, also, the bran If II d ly 

as a part of an original (H8) b m b d 1 d d 

planted by themselves in b I d p d p f ly 1 

individuals (167, 229). P b bly II 1 p 11 

Lombardy Poplars, of ibis country have sprung in this way from a 
single shoot. Tbe grain of wheat, also, will reproduce similar 
individuals, and none other. Now, upon such universal and inev- 
itable conceptions as these rests the idea of 

667. Species. We mentally assemble, under this name, those 
individuals which we observe or judge to have arisen from one 
parent slock, or which, although met with widely dissociated, re- 
semble each other so closely that we infer them to have bad a 
common parentage. A Species we have already defined (14) to 
be, abstractly, the ti/pe or original of each sort of plant, or animal, 
(bus represented in time by a perennial succession of like individ- 
uals, or, concretely, the sum of such individuals. It embraces all 
those individuals which, slightly differing, perhaps, in size, color, or 
such unimportant respects, resemble each other more nearly than 
they resemble any other plants, so that we infer them to have 
sprung from a common original stock, and which preserve their 
characters unchanged when propagated by secd.^ All classifica- 
tion and system in natural history rests upon the fundamental idea 
of the original creation of certain forms, which have naturally been 
perpetuated unchanged, or with such changes only as we may 
conceive or prove to have arisen from varying physical influences, 
accidental circumstances, or from cultivation. Whether the origi- 
nal stock consisted of one individual or pair, or of numerous indi- 
viduals, is not material to tbe view. (On the latter supposition, 
however, we can readily perceive that certain varieties or races 
may have been aboriginal.) 



- Variefies. This fraternal r 



fl bl y 11 bj 

J dby 

f h 


h h 

tablished, i 
the individi 

1 domesticated plants, where the habit, once es- 
jutlasts the cause, and continues throughout the life of 
jal. The new buds and branches partake of the pecu- 
liarity, and the variety may consequently Be perpetuated by cut- 
tings, grafts, &c. ; as is the case with our Apples, Pears, &c. But 
this tendency does not inhere io the seed. 

670. B.aces. There is still another and more strongly marked 
kind of variety, — though unknown, perhaps, in a perfectly wild 
state, — in which the characteristics are transmissible by seed. 
Particular varieties of Peas, Radishes, Lettuce, &.C., are thus per- 
petuated in our gardens ; and in agriculture, various sorts of grain 
have thus been preserved from time immemorial. They have re- 
ceived the name of Races. It is not known how they originate. 
They start up, as it were, accidentally, from time to lime, in culti- 
vated plants. The cultivator selects the most promising sorts, or 
" sports," for preservation, leaving the others to theu' fate. By 
peculiar care he developea and strengthens the tendency to become 
hereditary, and renders it paramount (under the circumstances and 
conditions of cultivation) to that stronger natural tendency to re- 



version l.o the pTimitive type, and so secures hta particular end. 
The races of Corn, Wheat, &c., whicii now preserve their charac- 
ter unchanged, have become fixed by centuries of domestication. 
Even these, at times, manifest an unequivocal disposition to return 
to their aboriginal state. Were cuhivation to cease, they would all 
speedily disappear; the greater part, perhaps, would perish out- 
right ; the remainder would revert, In a few generations of sponta- 
neous growth, to the character of the primitive stock. 

671. Hybrids or CrOSS-Bceeds. Variations of a still ditTerent class 
are artificially, and sometimes spontaneously, produced, by fertiliz- 
ing the ovary of one plant with the pollen of a nearly allied spe- 
cies ; from which arise what are called Cross-hreeds, or Hyhrids. 
Crosses between different species, however, are almost always in- 
capable of producing fertile s d 1 1 f [ p 
ated in nature : those hetwee I m 

cies are usually fertile, and g f ( 1 

termed Races), in which the p 1 q 1 f h m 

parents are variously modified 1 d d b h 1 ly 
uation of the same influences 1 1 p 


672. Cennra.' If but a moden mb f j k 

no system of generalizing, or g g h m g p Id b 

necessary ioi. ordinary purpo h h d f h 

various degrees of resemblanc b d fl p Id 

fail to suggest some form of g 1 ,11 h ! 1 h 

great number of species early rendered necessary. The firat step 
in proper classification, the bringing together of species into kinds, 
according as thoy are seen to resemble each other, is almost as 
natural and inevitable an operation of the mind, as is the idea of 
species involuntarily deduced from the assemblage of like individ- 
uals. The generic association, however, implies only resemblance, 
or similarity of kind, not identify of origin. A Genus, therefore, 
is an assemblage of nearly related species, formed after the same 
pattern, and therefore agreeing with one another in general struc- 
ture and appearance. Thus, the wild Swamp Rose, the Sweet- 
brier, the Bog Kose, French Kosg, Cinnamon Rose, and others, 
constitute the universally recognized genus Rosa ; the various spe- 
cies of Raspberry and Blackberry compose the genus Rubus ; the 
Apple, Pear, &c. form the genus called by botanists Pyrus : so 
the different Oaks, Willows, Poplars, Birches, &c. form as many 



separate genera. The languages of the most barbarous people 
show that they have formed such associatioDS. Naturalists merely 
give to these generalizations a greater degree of precision, and 
endeavor to indicate what the points of common agreement are. 
A single species, also, may be deemed to constitute a genus, when 
its peculiarities are equivalent in degree to those which charac- 
terize other genera, — a case which often occurs. If only one 
species of Oak were known, the Oak genus would have been as 
explicitly recognized as it is now that the species amount to two 
hundred ; it would have been equally distinguished by its acorn 
and cup from the Chestnut, Beech, Hazel, &c. A genus, then, is 
a group of species which present the same particuiar plan, and 
whose vnutuai resemblance is greater than that of any one of them 
to any other plant. 

673. When two or more species of a genus resemble each other 
in particular points more nearly than they do the other species, 
intermediate sections are often recognized ; which, when marked 
by characters of considerable importance, receive the title of 


674. Orders Ol* Families If 1 g were few, there would he 
little 'necessity for higher g I t although one could not 
but remark that the Oaks Oh t t B ches, and Hazels have a 
strong common resembU t 1 1 keness ; and that they are 
more unlike Birches and Aid W 1 uts and Hickories ; that 
they are still more unlike Maples oi Ashes, and have yet fewer 
points in common with Pines and Firs But, since the 100,000 
species of known plants aie distubuled among nearly 8,000 gen- 
era, it is necessary to consider these family resemblances, for the 
purpose of grouping the geneia into still higher, and therefore few- 
er, groups ; just as genera are formed by the reunion of related 
species. The groups thus established are termed Families, or 
OftDEBS (names wbtch are for the most part used interchangeably 
in botany). Thus, the Rose, the Easpberry and Blackberry, with 
the Strawberry, the Apple, the Thorn, the Plum and Cherry, &c., 
all agreeing in iheir general plan of structure, are brought together 
into one order or family, and termed Rosacem; that is, Rosaceous 
or Rose-like plants. 

675. But, viewed subordinately, the Plum and Cheriy are evi- 
dently more nearly akin than the Cherry and Apple, &c. ; and so 
the Raspberry, Blackberry, and Strawberry on one hand, and the 




Apple and Thorn on the other, exhibit a closer relationship than 
that which connects them all in one common group. Hence they 
are respectively distinguished intg groups of a rank intermediate 
between genera and orders, which are variously termed Sub- 
OEDEEs, or Tbibes.* 

676. Glasses are groups of orders, associated in a similar manner 
from some higher point of view. Subclasses bear the same rela- 
tion to classes that suborders do to orders. 

677. By this regular subordination of groups, the various degrees 
of relationship among plants may be expressed ; and upon this Sys- 
tematic Botany essentially depends. Only four of these divisioDS 
are universally employed, namely. Classes, Orders, Geaera, and 
Species: these are common to all methods of classification, both 
in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and are always arranged 
in the same sequence. But a more elaborate analysis js often 
requisite on account of the large number of objects to be arranged, 
and the various degrees of affinity to be expressed ; when the ad- 
ditional members, and if need he several others, are introduced ; 
as in the following descending scries, beginning with the primary 
division of natural objects into kingdoms, and indicating by small 
capitals those of fundamental importance and universal use. 





Oebkks, or Families, 



678 GharadtCllS An enumeration of the distinguishing marks, 

• When the gronpa nh ch an ortler embraces ate d si ngn shed by oha'ac 
ters of nearly eijual value ■« th thote c n onlj en ployed for orders tl em 
selves they are termeJ & bokdicis Thus the Finn Cherry Apr cot 
Peacl &c form one suborder of K saeeie the Ea pberry Blackbe fj 
Strawberry C q efol wth the Rose a I oihe gene -a, (xin ttute anolJiei 
Eubo d r a d Che Apple the O nee Th m & a th d The nan t of 


groups: chahactees. 363 

or points of difference between one class or order, &c. and the 
others, is termed its character. The characters of the classes, and 
other primary divisions, embrace only those important points of 
slructtire upon which they are constituted : the ordinal character 
describes the general structure of the included plants, especially of 
their flowers and fruit ; the generic character points out the partio- 
1 od fica f h d I g g ^ 

h sp Ji I 11 p dfi ffffl 

1 fp i&hh dghkdd 

h d 1 d 

b f pi 

■i 1 t 

1 1 h 

m d 

p p d 1 

h ga 

f P 

1 p 11 


( 1 P 

ly d d f 1 

P ) b 

I 11 I 

& and wh i 1 

679 S 1 

y m St f 

rse b lb h 

g P f 1 

k b 

p d fpl 1 

Ij 1 d 

h 1 

yd r p d 

ra d h 

lb ta d f 

P I 1 

wl 1 m 

1 mbl 

Th d 

f fl 

11 d by h N 

IS ( h k I d y 

h 1 

1 fJ d 

m d by d ^ b 


lly d d) 

d 111 

f 1 d 


ly pbl ph 1 d f 

ra h d 

q g 

d bl m f b 1 

k 1 d 


1 1 p f pi 

1 pp d by 

b d 

d 1 

bl f h p p f 1 fi 

p Id 

t bl g j,mply d 

ply I y 1 

1 I 

y f d f Sy m 

B y b h 

h h 

ly b 1 d p pi 

ph I ba 

H 1 mm 

1 L fi d g mp 

bl h d J 


Ig p b 1 

d ! 

d p p d 

1 b b 1 


( E 


Ea he 




tauco. In a loose 

ana popular sense, the 

name of tribe is someiimcs used as if 

ayiioiiynious wilii that of Order or Familj 

Ho.t.d, Google 

364 CLA 

artificial scheme which bears his name. As this system is identi- 
fied with the history of the science, which in its time it so greatly 
promoted, and as most syslemalic works have until recently been 
arranged upon its plan, it is still necessary for the student to un- 
derstand it. Fortuoately, its principles are so simple ihat a brief 
space will amply suffice for its explanation. 



681. It m b I p J 1 fill d ot 
attempt to fulhl II 1 d f I h y I fi n. 
Ita principal b f 1 m d f g 1 ^ 
names of pla h I hpbglyf p ds 
the plan of tl 1 m d ts All h ns d of 
course sacrifi dflylhLa? h h s 
of a genus a lykpghwhl lyll- 
cord with th lis d d 1 h h y pi d Its 
lower division h f m ly I g dp he 
same as in a I y Big g d i- 
ficial classes d 1 d d gl h I h rac- 
ier, and have a y m 7 ^ 1 J ^' 
as words are Ipl h 11 r» g d d ry f h sake 
of conyenienc I h gh ! wh h I h h h e, 
it may be, no I m b d h I 

682. The c ss d d L re f d d ly p he 
number, situa d f h m d p 1 he 
office and imp f h h h 1 d 1 1 V 

683. The I f bwrefddpn 
mdfi fhm dh mf kd n 

p f h h n Th fi I p II p!a 9 

whpffi ddfi bfqld n- 

dla hy dghdljlb be of 

I dd db pddfCk' 

I d I 1 (f m «, ) 1 h d m a- 



Class 1. MoNANDRiA iDcludes all Huch plants with one sfamen to 
the flower; as in Hippuris (Fig. 703). 

2. DiANDKiA, fhoae with two stamens, as in the Lilac, 

3. Triandria, with three stamens, as in the Valerian, &c. 

(Fig. 764, 767). 

4. Tetrandria, with four stamens, as in the Plantain (Fig. 


5. Pentandkia, with five stamens, the most frequent case 

(Fig. 256, 335). 

6. Hekiandbia, with six stamens, as in the Lily Family (Fig. 

1108), &c. 

7. IIeptandria, whh seven stamens, as in the Horsechest- 

nut (Fig. 657). 

8. OcTANDRiA, with eight stamens, as in the Dirca (Fig.1009). 

9. Enneaniiria, with nine stamens, as in the Rhubarb. 

10. Decandbia, with ten stamens, as in Fig. 285, 288, 

11. DoDECANDRiA, with twelve atameos, as in Asarum (Fig. 

968) and the Mignonette ; extended also to include 
those with from thirteen to nineteen stamens. 
The two succeeding classes include plants with perfect flowers, 
having twenty or more unconnected stamens, which, in 

12. IcosABDEiA, are inserted on the calyx (porigynous, 466), 

as in the Eoso Family ; and in 

13. PoiYANDRiA,' on the receptacle (hypogynous), as in tlie 

Buttercup, Anemone (Fig. 325), &c. 
Their essential characters are not designated by their names ; 
the former merely denoting that the stamens are twenty in num- 
ber; the latter, that they are numerous. The two following de- 
pend upon the relative length of the stamens, namely, 

14. DiDYNAMiA, including those with two long and two short 

stamens (481, Fig. 855) ; and 

15. Tetradynamia, those with four long and two short sta- 

mens, as in Cruciferous flowers (Fig. 526). 
Their names are Greek derivatives, signifying in the former that 
two stamens, and in the latter that four stamens, are most power- 
ful. The four succeeding are founded on the connection of the 
stamens : — 

16. MoMADELPHiA (meaning a single fraternity), with the fil- 

aments united in a single set, tube, or column, as in 
Fig, 307, and in all the Mallow Family, Fig. 617. 



Class 17. DiADELPHiA (two fraternities), with the filaments united 
in two sets or parcels (Fig. 296, 308, 320). 

18. PoLYADELPHiA (many fraternities), with the filaments 

united in more than two sets or parcels (Fig. 300, 306). 

19. Syngbbesia (from Greek words signifying to grow to- 

gether), with the anthers united in a ring or tube 
(Fig. 309, 310), as in all Composite flowers. 
The next class, as its name denotes, is founded on the union of 
the stamens to the style : — 

20. Gynabbhia, with the stamens and styles consolidated, as 

in the Orchis Family (Fig. 1097). 
In the tliree following, the stamens and pistils are separated 
(306) : thus, 

21. MoNCECiA (one household) includes plants where the sta- 

mens and pistils are in separate flowers on the same 
individual ; as Jn the Oak (Fig. 1042), &c. 

22. Dkecia (two households), where they occupy separate 

flowers on ditTerent individuals ; as in the Willow (Fig. 
326 - 328), Prickly Ash (Fig. 639 - 644), &c. 

23. PoLYGAiniA, where the stamens and pistils are separate in 

some flowers and united in others, either on the same, 
or two or three different plants ; as in most Maples 
(Fig. 647-649). 
The remaining class, 

24. Cryptosamia, is said to have concealed stamens and pis- 

tils (as the name imports), and includes the Ferns, 
Mosses, Lichens, &c., which are now commonly 
termed Cryptogamous or Flowerless plants (459). 
The characters of the classes may be presented at a single 
view, as in the subjoined analysis ; — 





ill !! 11 
III II li 

Ho.t.d, Google 


684. The orders, in the first thirteen classes of the Linnfeaj] ar- 
tificial system, depend on the number of styles, or of the stigmas 
when the styles are wanting; and are named by Greek numerals 
prefixed to the word gynia, used metaphorically for pistil, as 
follows : — 

Order 1. Monogynia embraces all plants of any of the first thir- 
teen classes, with one style to each flower. 

2. DiGYNiA embraces those with two styles. 

3. Trigynia, those with three styles. 

4. Tethagynia, those with four styles. 

5. Pentagynia, those with five styles. 

6. Hesagykia, those with six styles. 

7. Heptasykia, those with seven styles, 

8. OcTOGYNiA, those with eight styles. 

9. Enkeagynia, those with nine styles. 

10. Decagywia, those with ten styles. 

11. DoDECABYNiA, those with eleven or twelve styles, 

12. Polysynia, those with more, than twelve styles. 
The orders of class 14, Didynamia, are only two ; namely, 

1, Gymnosperjiia, meaning seeds naked, tlie achenla-like 

fruits having been taken for naked seeds. 

2. Angiospermia, with the seeds evidently in a seed-vessel 

or pericarp. 
The 15th class, Tetradynamia, is also divided into two orders, 
which are distinguished by the mere form of the pod ; — 

1. Siliculosa; the fruit a sllicle (615), or short pod. 

2. SiLiQtrosA; fruit a silique (615), or more or less elon- 

gated pod. 
The orders of the 16th, 17lh, 18th, 20th, 21st, and 22d classes 
depend merely on the number of stamens ; that is, on the charac- 
ters of the first thirteen classes, whose names they likewise hear: 

Order 1. Monandbia; 2. Diandhia; and so on. 

The orders of the 19th class, Syngenesia, are six ; namely, 

1. PoLYGAMiA ^eiTALis, where the flowers are in heads 

(compound, 394), and all perfect. 

2. PoLYGAMiA suPERFLUA, the same as the last, except that 

the rays, or marginal flowers of the head, are pistillate 
o»l, (473). 

Ho.t.d, Google 


3. PoLYnAiTiA FRTrsTEiiNEA, those wilh the marginal flowers 

ntutral (473, nole), the others perfect. 

4. PoLYGAMiA NECEssAKiA, whflre tho marginal flowers are 

pistillate and fertile, and the ceBtral (those of the disc) 
staminate and sterile. 

5. PoLY&AMiA SEOREGATA, where each flower of the head has 

its own proper involucre. 

6. MoNOGAMiA, where solitary flowers (that is, not united into 

a head) have united anthers, as in Lobelia. This 
order was abolished by succeeding Linnsean botanists. 
The 23d class, Polygamia, has three orders, founded on the 
characters of the two preceding classes; namely, 

1. MoNCEciA, where both separated and perfect flowers are 

found it! the same individual. 

2. DifficiA, where they occupy different individuals. 

3. Teicecu, where one individual bears the perfect, another 

the staminate, and a third the pistillate flowers. 
The orders of the 34th class, Cryptogamia, are natural, and 
therefore indefinable by a single character. They arc, 

1. FiLiCEs, the Ferns. 

2. Mosci, the Mosses. 

3. Alg«, which, as left by Linnaus, comprised the Hepaticte, 

Lichens, &.c., as well as 

4. FuKGi, Mushrooms, &c. 



685 Th b p p d by ! N -ai Sy f E 

bggh gph pl whhmn 

se bl I 1 n a gl d j 1 p np 

(an fi I 1 fi ) b 11 se 1 p 

ad mblbd gp Ig 

bl g d 1 II m pi d 

h h 1 g bl 1 d mill 

m All 1 1 I 1 l' r 1 



points of agreement or difference, are employed in their classifica- 
tion; tliose which are common to the greatest number of planta 
being used for tlie primary grand divisions ; those less compre- 
hensive for subordinate groi p &, h h A acier (678), 
or description of each group 1 f 1! g Hy expresses 
all the known particulars in h h h pi braces agree 
among themselves, and diffe f n h g p f e same rank. 
This complete analysis being d h ^h h em, from the 
primary divisions down to th p d n hat the study 
f I ll f i lig f 
h hb d 1 Ipp fill 

686 ^ h 1 1 re k d 

d Ij b p 1 1 I hp 

fpltsfp bif fra d 

Ikl bdd dbl fil — 

1 B se 1 fti f I I g p lly 

md 111 mmbftrek dh hpg 

fd Idhgmd ry 

hdpm fkld dB Ibd f 

gp braly bd Iiy 

Ire lasfi b ddldpf 1 

g d 1 d re (1 k y f m ) 

h dfdtl b a. fdd b 

y ra 3d B pp 1 p b 

p ly ral d h ffi pi ly d rs d 

p bj ra h m gl h 

m h hhllbp dddfll dby 

11 1 ly f m y b b lly 

lib f th ly f 1 h p b 

bd d hll hhm dpd 

b k A d 1 W 11 bl d it fil 

h rs f h k f 1 ra f 

h d fE pi ts h Pljp I 

Mpl dApld fl Ihghdf 

f g fhsamd dfl pesfhm 

g y P ' yd 

687 I pi 1 g 1 p pi f 1 fi 

p ddfml ddl 11 h gl gp 

f k f m h J f^ 

m I IP h 1 lib p! 



ord g o 1 p e e ved n ode of cHss fica o t v 11 be more con- 
f?Q en to purs e tl e analyt cal co se and to si o v how ihe veg- 
chb k gdo tal en. as a wl ole s d v ded a id s bdivided, by 
rega d ng the po ts of i ffere ce 

668 The ge e il pla po vl h tl e vegptible creation is 
CO s ted 1 1 as been he object of the whole f rm r part of this 
treat 'e to Uustrate the f idamen al p c pies of at ral history 
class tica on 1 ave also been c raor ly e\po dcd n i preceding 
cl a| er I apply g 1 e o e to he o her we ha e o cjnsider, in 
le first pi ce lov the long seres e cl ng f om tie highest 
Flo e g p an s to tl e lo vest and nutest Fu g ind Algas, can 
1 e p ma ly d v ded As already n n ated tl e ost decided 
h cal tl e aer es occ ra bet ve 1 e flo ve bear ng a d the flow- 
erles plants tl e fi -st produc g proper floners ( v h stamens and 
I t h) and seeds c an gar ady for n~d e nbryo while in the 
se o d tl cse a e eplaced by a mo e o less analogous, but sim- 
pl r and nore recond te apparat s We need only fer to those 
parag apl s wh ch the d fte ence s b ough o v e v (109, &.c.). 
Tl e ege al le k ngdo n v e ved nder th b -upect s t! erefore pri- 
nar ly d v ded o t o ^e es ah ghe a d a lo ve the Flowek- 
iNQ and the Flowerless, or (under other and older names) the 
Ph^nogamods or (Phanerogamous) and the Cryptogamous plants. 
689. Let us next consider how the higher aeries, embracing far 
tile larger part as well as the most complex forms of the vegetable 
kingdom, may itself be divided, in view of ihe most general and 
important points of difierence which the plants it comprises exhibit. 
Whenever they rise to arborescent forms, a diftbrence in port and 
aspect at once arrests attention ; that which distinguishes our com- 
mon trees and ahrubs from Palms and the like {Fig. 220). On 
examination, this difference is found to be connected with an im- 
portant difference in the structure of the stem or wood, and in its 
mode of growth. The former present the exogenous, the latter the 
endogenous structure or growth (184-187} This diffe enoe is 
manifest, although not so striking m tl »■ ann lal oi herb iccous 
stems of these two sorts of' Phecnogamoua planf- A d ffe ence is 
also apparent in their foliage ; the former geneiatly have reticu 
lated, or netted-veined, the tatter pm ailed i emed leaves (276) 
The leaves of the former usoally fall off by an aii culation , those 
of the latier decay on the stem (309, 310). The Phseoogamous se- 
ries, therefore, divides into two great classes, namely, into Exoge- 



NOUS and Endogenous plants, more briefJy named Eiogens and 
Ekdogens. The difference between the two not only pervades 
iheir whole port and aspect, but is manifest from the earliest stage. 
The embryo of Exogens, as already shown, is provided with a 
pair of cotyledons, that of Endogens with only one ; whence the 
former are also termed Dicotyledonous, and the latter Mowo- 
coTrLBDONOTJs plaots : names introduced by Jussteu, the father of 
this branch of botany. We employ sometimes the one and some- 
times the other of the two sorts of names for these two great classes, 

690, In contemplating the Exogenous or Dicotyledonous class, 
we find that two sets of the plants it comprises are specially dis- 
tinguished by a great simplicity in their organs of fructification, 
approximating not indistinctly to that still greater simplicity which 
characterizes the highest Cryptogamous plants (108). These are 
the Coniferous trees, such as Pines, Firs, &c., and that small and 
singular tribe of Endogenous port but essentially E.xogenous struc- 
ture, which comprises the Cycas and Zamia (Fig. 403) r in these 
cases, not only are the sterile or ataminato flowers reduced to the 
last degree of simplicity, but the fertile consist of naked ovules 
merely, borne on the margins or surface of a sort of open leaf, in- 
stead of being inclosed in an ovary (560, 111). They are there- 
fore named Gtmnospermous (that is, naked-seeded ) plants; and 
form a subordinate group, or subclass, of Exogens, When it ia 
needful to contradistinguish the great mass of Exogens from which 
these are thus separated, we call them Angiospebmoits Exogenous 
plants ; a name denoting that their seeds are inclosed in a pericarp. 
No such reduction occurs in the Endogenous class, 

691. We mustnextconsider the systematic divison of the Flow- 
erless, or Cryptogamous series. This is most readily accomplished 
by conceiving thepi to present a series of reductions or degrada- 
tions of a higher type. In their general mode of growth, and in 
their anatomical structure, the higher Flowerless plants, such as 
Eqtiisetums, Club-Mosses, and Ferns, do not essentially differ from 
Flowering plants. All the various kinds of elementary tissue, 
proper woody fibre, vessels, &c., enter into their composition (108, 
109). If we had chosen to take anatomical structure as the basis 
of our primary division of the whole vegetable kingdom, we might 
have divided the whole into Vascular and Cellular plants ( 107), as 
was done by De Candolle ; the former comprising the whole series 
from Ferns upward, the latter embracing the Mosses and all below 


THE NjItural system. did 

Ihem. , Having effected the primary division, however, upon other 
grounds, we turn this difference to subordinate account; and 
therefore consider the higher Flowerless plants, which agree with 
the series above them in so many respects, and which in their 
composition have woody tissue and vessels, to constitute the dis- 
tinct class of Vascular Flowehless plants. For reasons already 
explained ( 108), fhey have also been termed Acrogens. All the 
kinds below these, being composed of cellular tissue exclusively, 
(though the cells are often drawn into filaments, which may even 
have a spiral fibre generated upon their walls,) are Cbllulae plants, 

692. But the higher Cellular plants, such as Mosses, still dis- 
play the proper type of vegetation ; they agree with those of high- 
er grades in having an opposite growth, forming a distinct axis or 
stem, which grows upward by buds and is for the most part sym- 
metrically clothed with distinct leaves (105) ; while the Lichens, 
Seaweeds, and Fungi, the most imperfect of vegetables, present 
no distinction into stem, root, and leaves, no polarity, or growth in 
two opposite directions, no buds, and no organs which are clearly 
analogous to flowers. Their homogeneous ss eofen ends to the 
formation of flat, more or less definite expa o s (the tkaUus), 
which is the nearest . approach to any th w 1 ke lea es m which 
their simple spores are imbedded. Hence they a e tprmed Thai- 
lophytes. If the line of primary division be dra vn v ew of these 
important distinctions, as proposed by linger and E dl cher, the 
vegetable kingdom would be separated into two great, but unequal 
series ; namely, 1st, the Cormophytes, or Stem-growing plants, — 
those with a distinct axis of growth, elongating downward into 
roots, and upward into stems, provided with leaves, and with flow- 
ers or their analogues ; and 2d, the ThallopJiytes, which are stem- 
less, rootless, leafless, and'io every sense flowerless (106). 

693. Following the plan we have adopted, however, we have 
only to distinguish this higher grade of Flowerless Cellular plants, 
exhibiting a distinct stem, &c., as a separate class, the Anophytes, 
represented by the Mosses, which although of the simplest ana- 
tomical structure, still emulate the higher or typical forms (105). 
The remainder (94-103), embracing the Lichens, Fungi, and 
ASgfe, form the last and lowest class, the Thallophytes. To con- 
sider their subordinate arrangement would quite surpass our limits. 

694. The general plan may be analytically expressed by the 
following schedule. 




^ S 

m a i 1 1 

6 i • 

Ho.t.d, Google 


695. These five classes ate very unequal, in respect to the 
number of plants Ihey embrace; the Exogenous class containing 
ranch the largest number of species as well as orders; the Endo- 
gens also comprising numerous types ; but the others very few in 
comparison. Convenience of analysis therefore requires that the 
larger classes should be broken up into divisions, alliances, co- 
horts, or by whatever name groups intermediate between the 
classes and orders may be termed : and the accomplishment of 
this object, so as to form natural groups, is at present the great de- 
sideratum in Systematic Botany. But until this be well done, wa 
are obliged to use artificial analyses of the classes, or to throw the 
orders into groups, which, in proportion as they are rendered nat- 
ural, it becomes impossible strictly to circumscribe. ]a this view, 
the great class of Exogenous plants is usually broken up into three 
very convenient, but nearly artificial portions, founded on the pres- 
ence, absence, or union of the petals ; namely : 

1, PoLYPETALiE, the polypetalous Exogeiis ; where the calyx 

and corolla are both present, ajid the latter composed of 
distinct petals, 

2, MonopetaljE or Gamopetals, the Monopetalous Exogens ; 

where the petals are united. 

3, Apetalk, the Apetalous Exogens ; where the petals are 

wanting, and the floral envelopes, if present at all, consist 
of the calyx alone. 

696. These divisions, as well as the other classes, are subdi- 
vided by difierent authors in various ways, which need not be 
specified ; since it is only the classes and the orders that are con- 
sidered to rest upon a stable basis. 

697. The orders, or families, are to be viewed rather as natura! 
groups of genera, than as subdivisions of the classes. The kind of 
characters employed in distinguishing them will best be learned 
from the succeeding illustrations. 

698. Mameadatlire. Their names, which are always plural, some- 
times express a characteristic feature of the group ; as, for in- 
stance, Leguminosx, or the Leguminous plants, such as the Pea, 
Bean, &c., whose fruit is a legume (603) ; UinbeUiferm, or Um- 
belliferous plants, so named from having the flowers in umbels ; 
Compositm, an order having what were termed compound flowers 
by the earlier botanists (394) ; Lahiatm, so called from the labiate 



or two-lipped corolla (511), which nearly all the species exhibit; 
Cruciferm, which have their four petals disposed somewhat in the 
form of a cross, &c. But more frequently, and indeed as a gen- 
eral rule, tlie name is formed from that of some leading or well- 
known genus, which is prolonged into the adjective termination 
acem. Thus, the plants of llie order which comprises the Mallow 
(Malva) are called Mahacete ; that is, Plantte Mahaceat, or, in 
English, Malvaceous plants: those of which the Rose [Rosa) ia 
the well-known representative are Rosacea, or Rosaceous plants, 
&c. This termination in aceis, being reserved for orders, should 
not be applied to suborders or tribes, which usually bear the name 
of their principal or best-known genus in an adjective form, with- 
out such prolongation. Thus the genus Rosa gives name to a par- 
ticular tribe, Roseis, of the order Rosacea ; the genus Malva to 
the tribe Mahem of tho order Malvacea, &c. 

699. The number of genera in an order is quile as indefinite as 
that of the orders in a class, or other great division. While some 
orders are constituted of a single genus, as Equisetacefe, Grossu- 
laceEB, &c. (just as many geneva contain but a single known spe- 
cies), others comprise a large number of genera; nearly nine 
hundred being embraced in the last general enumeration of the 

700. The names of genera are Latin substantives, in the singu- 
lar number, and mostly of Greek or Latin derivation. Those 
which were known to the ancients generally preserve their classi- 
cal appellations (Ex. Fagm, Prunus, Myrtm, Viola, &.c,) ; and 
even the barbarous or vulgar names of plants are often adopted, 
when susceptible of a Latin termination, and not too uncouth ; for 
example, Thma and Coffma, for the Tea and Coffee plants. Bam- 
husa for the Bamboo, Yucca, Negundo, &c. But, more common- 
ly, generic names are formed to express some botanical character, 
habit, or obvious peculiarity of the plants they designate ; such as 
Arenaria, for a plant which grows in sandy places ; Dentaria, for 
a plant with toothed roots ; Lunaria, for one with moon-shaped 
pods ; Sanguinaria, for the Bloodroot ; Crassula, for some plants 
with remarkably thick leaves. These are instances of Latin deriv- 
atives ; but recourse is more commonly had to the Greek language, 
especially for generic names composed of two words ; such as 
Menispemvum, or Moonseed ; Lithosperm'um, for a plant with stony 
seeds ; Melanthium, for a genus whose flowers turn of a black or 



duaky color ; Epidendrum, for Orehideous plants which grow upon 
trees ; Liriodeniron^ for a tree which bears lily-shaped flowers, 
&c. Genera are also dedicated to distinguished persons, a prac- 
tice commenced by the ancients ; as in the case of Pceonia, which 
beans the name of Pfeon, who is said to have employed the plant 
in medicine ; and Euphorbia, Artemisia, and Asclepias are also 
examples of the kind. Modern names of this kind are given in 
commemoratioa b ns who have contributed 

•elia, and Lonic 
ussisea, Groaov 


the Si 


Magnolia, Bignonia, Lo- 
Bignon, Lobel, and Lo- 
; Linneea, Tournefortia, 

of more celebrated beta- 
ry devotee or patron of 

701. The na eral rule, are adjectives, 

written after those of the genera, and established on similar princi- 
ples ; as, Magnolia grandifiora, the Large-flowered Magnolia ; 
M. macrophylla, the Large-leaved Magnolia ; Bignonia radicans, 
the Rooting Bignonia, &.c. The generic and specific names, taken 
together, constitute the proper scientific appellation of the plant. 
Specific names sometimes distinguish the coimtry which a plant 
inhabits (Ex. Viola Canadensis, the Canadian Violet) ; or the sta- 
tion where it naturally grows (as V. palustris, which grows in 
swamps, V. arvensis, in fields, &c.) ; or they express some obvious 
character of the species {as V. rostrata, where the corolla bears 
a remarkably long apuv ; V. tricolor, which has tricolored flow- 
ers ; V. ratundifolia, with rounded leaves ; V, lanceolata, with 
lanceolate leaves ; F. pedata, with pedately parted leaves ; V. pri- 
jmlafoUa, where the leaves are compared to 'those of the Prim- 
rose ; v. asarifoUa, where they are likened to those of Asarum ; 
F. puhescens, which is hairy throughout, &.C.), Frequently the 
species bears the name of its discoverer or describer, when it takes 
the genitive form, as Viola MvM,enbergii,T. Nuttallii,Si,c. When 
such commemorative names are merely given in compliment to a 
botanist unconnected with tho discovery or history of the plant, the 
adjective form is preferred ; as Carea: Torreyana, C. Hookeriana, 
&.C. : but this rule is not universally followed. Specific names are 
sometimes substantive ; as Ranuncultis Flammula, Hypericum Sa- 
roihra, lAnaria Cymhalaria, &c. ; when they do not necessarily 
accord with the genus in gender. These, as well as all specific 



names derived from those of persons or counlries, should always 
be written with a capital initial letter, 

702, In an exposition of llie natural system, some authors {such 
as Jussleu and Endlicher) commence with the lower extremity of 
the aeries, and end with the higher ; while others (as De CandoUe) 
pursue the opposite course, beginning with the most perfect Flow- 
ering plants, and concluding with the lowest grade of flowerless 
plants. The first mode possesses the advantage of ascending by 
successive steps from the simplest to the most complex structure ; 
the second, that of passing from the Most complete'and best under- 
stood to the most reduced and least known forms ; or, in other 
words, from the easiest to the most dilRcult; and is therefore the 
best plan for the student. 

703 Tl f D C d I! b " m ■ b 

f k J I d f h i 1 ss 

m d g h (1 I bj 

pi d 
h h J 

■ ly p J i { d 1 

h 1 g g f d p 

d Gloss y did 

* In a Flora, or other EjstematJc work based- on the natural sjatem, artifi- 
cial analyses, contrived in various ways, are necessary to the unpractised stu- 
dent, and afford him groat. assistance in disentangling the more or less compU- 
caled characters of the orders. Bat thoy are hardly necessary in our slietch, 
which io intended lo give a cursory general view of the principal natural or- 
ders, rather than a particular and systematic analysis. 

Ho.t.d, Google 




Series I. Flowering, or Ph^nogamous Plants. 

Plants furnished with flowers (essentially consisting of stamens 
and pistils), and producing proper seeds (110, 414). 

Class I. Exogenous or Dicotyledonous Plants. 
Stem conaiating of a dlstiuct bark and pith, which are separated 
by an interposed layer of woody fibre and vessels, forming wood 
in all perennial stems : increase in diameter efiected by the annua! 
deposition of new layers between the old wood and the bark, which 
are arranged in concentric zones (189-205), and traversed by 
medullary rays. Leaves commooly articulated with the stem 
(310), their veins branching and reticulated (276). Sepals and 
petals, when, present, more commonly in fives or fours, and very 
rarely in threes. Embryo with two or more cotyledons (633, 640). 

Subclass 1. Angiospehmous Exogenoits Plants. 
Ovules produced in a closed ovary, and fertilized by the action 
of pollen through the medium of a sligma. Embryo with a pair 
of opposite cotyledons (633). 

Division 1. Polypetalous Exogenous Plants. 
Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the petals 

Conspectus of the Orders. 

Group 1. Ovaries several or numerons (in a few cases solitary), distinct, when 
in several rows somotimea cohering in a mass, but not uniteiS into a com- 
ponnd pistil. Petals and stamens hypogjiious. Seeds albuminous. 
• Stamens or pistils ("one or both) numerous or indefinite. 

Herbs without sdpules, RimrNciiLACE^, p. 384, 

* Some cases of polypetalous flowers also. occur in the orders Ericacese, 
At[uifoliaeeiB, and Plumbag inacese, which are placed in the Monopetalons part 
of the series; and soma genera of several orders placed here are apetalous, 

Ho.t.d, Google 


t * Stamens few or definite. Pistils few or solitary. 
Climbing plants. Mono-ditcdoua. MEBispEaM».cai, p, 387. 

Shmbs or herbs. Flowers perfect. Berberidace^, p. 388. 

Group 2. Ovaries several, either distinct, or perfectly united into a compound 
pistil of several colls. Stamens definite or indefinite, inserted on the re- 
CGpiacle or torus. Embryo inclosed in a sac at the end of the albamen, or 
in Nclambium without albnmen. Aquatic herbs. 
Carpels distinct and free. Stamens 6 - IS. Cabombace^, p. 389. 

Carpels distinct, immersed in a dilated torus. NEr,liMBlACE«, p. 890. 

Carpels united in a several- celled many-ovuled ovary. SriieB^i.oaJs, p. 391. 
Group 3. Ovary compound, 5-ce!led, with tlie placentEe in the axis. Sta- 
mens hypogynous, indefinite. Seeds numerons, anatropous. albuminous, 
with a small embryo. Marsh herbs, with pitcher-shaped or tubular 
leaves. Sabhacenjaoe.^, p. 391. 

(Jroup 4. Ovary compound, with parietal placentte. Calyx and corolla 2-4- 
merous, deciduous. Stamens hypogynous.- Plowof unsym metrical. Em- 
bryo small in copious albamen, or coiled when there is no albumen. 
Seeds albuminous : embryo small or minute. 
Polyandrous: flower regular, P bjs p. 391. 

Diadelphous or hflxandrons : Sower irreg la r mar ai p. 393. 

Seeds without albnmen : styles and stigma d 

Pod two-celled. Radicle folded on the c yl d C je p. 393. 

Pod one-celled. Enxbryo rolled up. C p, 394. 

Seeds without albumen. Stylos or stigma 1 E *: p. 395. 

Group 6. Ovary compound, with par al 1 FI 1 elopea 

mostly 5-meron3i the calyx persiste S m hypo y Seeds 

Anthers (5) adaate, inlrorae, connate, Co Ik „ 1 Vio a.qxm, p, 39B, 
Anibers extrorse, or innalo, distinct. Corolla regular. 

Vernation cercinate. Petals marceacent, DnosEHACJiJe, p, 396. . 

Vernation straight Petals nsually cadncons, Cistaczm, p, 397- 

Groap 6. Ovary compound with the placentte parietal, or a-5-oolled from 
their meeting in the axis. Stamens hypogynous. Seeds with a straight 
embryo and little or no albnmcn. 
Sterile filaments or a lobed appendage before ea<.h petal Pabnibsie,*; p, 397. 
Sterile filaments none : leaves opposite 
Stipules none; leaves dotted, btim unsymmetrica! Htpeeicacbj: p. 398. 
Stipules present: leaves dotless Stam symmetrical Elatii, vrE c p, 399, 
Group 7, Ovary compound, one celled with a fiee central j lacenta or 2- 
soveral-celled with Ihe placenta in the a\n Calix fiee oi neaily so. 
Stamens hypogynons or perigjnoas !Lml)i}0 penphenc, coiled more or 
less around the outside of meilj albumen 

Ho.t.d, Google 


)varj many-celled, Mesemiirtanthemaoeje, p. 402, 

Floral envelopes symmetrital. Stamens no more than 10. 

CAKrOFiivi.r,AeE.E, p. 399. 
Floral envelopes ansymmelrical, or poljaiidrous. Porte lac AC Bje, p. 401. 
Petals 3 -5 or 6, sometimes wanting. 

Group 8. Ovary compiiunil and aeveral-eelied, wilh ihe placentae in the axis ; 
or the numerous carpels more or less coherent with each other or with a 
centJul axis. Calyx free fiotn the ovary, with a, valvate iestiTation. Sta- 
mens mostly indefinite, monadelplions, or polyadelphous, inserted with the 
petals into the receptacle or base of the petals. 

Anthers I-celled. Stamens monadelphous. Maltaces, p. 403. 

Anthers S-celled. Fertile stam. few, monad elplious. Btttneriace^, p, 403. 

Anthers 2-eelled. Stamens polyandrons or S-a^elphous. TiliaCE*!, p. 403. 

Gi-onp 9. Ovary compound, with two or more cells, and the placcntce in the 
axis, free from the calyx, which is imbricated in estivation. Stamens in- 
definite, or twice as many as the petals, ustially nionadelphous, hypogy- 
noua. — Trees or shrubs. 
IiBftvea simple, not dotted. Stamens indefinite. TernsthikmiaoeA!, p. 405. 
Leaves pellucld-panctata, mostly compound. Aueantiace^, p. 405. 

I^caves compound, dotless. Stamens 10 or less, monadelphous. 

Seeds single in each cell, wingless. Mcr-iACE^, p. 405. 

Seeds several in each cell, winged. Cedkelacb.*;, p. 406, 

Grtnip 1 0. Ovary compound, or of several carpels adhering to a central axis, 
free from the calyx, which is mostly imbricated in Ecstivation. Stamens 
as many or twice as many as the petals, inserted on the receptacle, often 
nionadelphous at the base. Embryo large. Albumen littie or none. 
Flowers perfect. 

• Flower irregular and nn symmetrical. Albumen none. 

Stamens connate, Ovnles several in each cell. Balsahinaoe*!, p. 408. 

Stamens distinct. Ovules single in each cell. Teopjeolace^, p. 408. 

- I Flower regular and symmetrical throughout. 
Iicaves not glandular-dotted. 

Calyx valvate. Albumen none. LisiNAVTHACBa;, p. 409. 

Calyx imbricated in iestivation. 
Embryo conduplicate : cotyledons convolute. GEitANiACEa!, p, 407, 

Embryo straight or nearly so. 

Leaves entire. Fertile stamens 5. Linaceye, p. 406. 

Leaves compound. Stamens 10. 
Styles separate. Leaves alternate, Oxahdace^, p. 408. 

Styles united. Leaves opposite. Zvsof hyi.lacb.e, p. 408, 

Leaves glandular-dotted. BuTACEai, p, 409. 

Group 11. Ovary compound, with 2 -several cells ; or one-celled by suppres- 
sion; or carpels distinct apd barely connected by their styles. Calyx 
free, Fetiils as many as the sepals, or rarely wanting. Stamens once or 

Ho.t.d, Google 


twice aa many as the sepals, distinct, inserted info the receptacle or base 
of the calyx. — Einbrjo large : albumen little or none. Flowers mostly 
(li<Bcious or polygamous. 

Leaves dottfld. Ovaries or cells 2-ovuled. Zantboxtlaceje, p. 409. 

Leaves dotless. Ovule solitary. 
Ovaries 4 or 5, distinct in fruit. Ochnaoe^, p. 410. 

Ovary one: ovule on a long ascending' funiculus. Anacaediaceje, p. 411. 

Group \2. Ovary compound, a-3-Iobcd, 2-3-celled, free from the calyic, 
which is imbricated in estivation. Petals often irregular, or one fewer 
than the sepals, or sometimes wanting. Stamens definite, distinct, inserted 
on or aronnd a hypogynous disc. Ovules 1 or 2 in^ each cell. Embryo 
curved or coiled. Albumen none. — Flowers often polygamous. 

Leaves opposite. 

Entire. GynfBcinm trimerons. Mai^iohiace^, p. 412. 

Lobed, or conipoond. GynfBcium dimerona Acerace*, p. 412, 

Leaves chiefly alternate. Gyncecium trimeroua. Sapi»iiacb.e, p. 413, 

Group 13. Ovary compound, S-5-celled, Calyx free from, or adherent to 
^e base of, the ovary. Petals and stamens eqaal in number to llie lobes 
of the calyx, and inserted either into its base or throat, or upon the disc 
that covers it. Seeds solitary or few in each cell, albuminous. Embryo 
mostly large. — Shrubs or trees. Flowers regular, 
• Stamens alternate with the petals. 

Ovaries partly separated. Leaves compound. Staphyi.eacejk, p. 415, 

Ovaries wholly nnltetl. Seed arillate. Leaves simple. Celastkace^, p. 414. 
• • Stamens opposite the petals I 

Sepals valvate in ffistivation. Cells l-ovttled. KHAMHACEjii, p. 414. 

Petals valvate, caducous. Cells 2.ovialed. Vitacb«, p. 415. 

Group 14. Ovary com m 

very irregular, S 

one side, and more pc 

als : the anthers Ji S 

albuminous. Emb P m, 

lar, 01 

tinct, mostly perig S 

LB hypogynous. Stipules none. Iuiamekiacbb p 417 

Stamens mostly perigynouB. Fruit a legume. Lebumino m p 417 

Group 16. Ovaries one or several, simple and distinct, or con b ed nlo a 

compound ovary with two or more cells and the placentre n the ax s 

Petals and the distinct stamens perigynons. Seeds destitule of Ibun n 
I Calyx free, although often inclosing the ovaries in its tube, ex ept hen he 

latter are united, when it is adnate to the compound ovary and the st 

mens are iudeflnite. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Leaves alternate, stipulate. Cotjledons plane. Bobacejg, p. 419. 

Leaves opposite, exstipulate, not dotted. Caltcanthaoe^, p. 422. 

Leaves opposite, exstipiilale, pellucid-punctate. Mistace,e, p. 423. 

» • Calyx free from the comp. ovaiy, S tarn, definite. LyrBKACB^, p. 424. 

• » • Calyx-tabe adnata to the compound ovary. Stamens definite. 
Anthers opening by a pore at the apex. Melastouacb^, p. 424. 

Anthers opening longitudinally. 

Stipules intarpetiolar Leaves opposite. RiiizopsoKiCE^, p. 424. 

Stipules none Calj'\ viirats 
Cotyledons convolute Combretace/b, p. 424. 

Cotyledons plane Onaorace.e, p. 424. 

Group 17. Oiary componnd one-celled, with parietal placentie. Petals and 
(with one exception) stamens inserted oo the throat of the calyx. Flovr- 
ers perfect, except in Papa)ace(e. 

• Calyx adherent to the oi ary 
Albumen none or very little. Petals and slam ii iehnite Cwtvcee p 426. 
Albnmen very copious. Embryo minute. Stim 5 IjhO'si LAtE*; p 426. 
Albumenpresent: embryo rather large. Stam ii defin te LoabweB p 427. 

• • Calyx free from the ovary 
Flomers perfect. Stamens 5. 

Stamens distinct, perigynous. ToENEBACEa; p 427. 

Stamens monadelphous, adnate to the gynopho e Passifloracb c p 427. 
Flowers dicecions. Stamens 10, on the corolla. Papiiace*: p 428. 

Growp 18. Ovary componnd, 2-soreral-cellcd {or one-celled by obliteration) ; 
the placentce parietal, arising trom the axis, but carried outwards to the 
walls of the pericarp. Calyx adnate. Corolla frequently nionopetalous. 
Stamens united either by their filaments or anthers. Flowers ditecions or 
monroclous. Albumen none. Cuccebhace^, p. 428. 

GroMp 19. Ovaries two or moro, many-ovuled, distinct, or partly, sometimes 
completely, united, when the componnd ovary is one-celled with parietal 
placenta, or 2 - many-celled with the placontm in the axis. Calyx either 
free from the ovary or adherent. Petals and stamens inserted or. the ca- 
lyx ; the latler mostly definite. Seeds albumini 
Pistils as many as the sepals. 
Pistils fewer than the sepals, more or loss united. 
Gnnip 20. Ovary compound, 2- (rarely 3-5-) celled, with a single ovule sus- 
pended from the apex of each cell. Stamens usually as many as the pet- 
als, or the lobes of the adherent calyx. Embryo small, in hard albnmen. 
• Summit of the (often 2-lobcd) ovary free from the calyx; the petals and sta- 
mens inserted on the throat of the calyx. HAMAMELACEai, p. 431, 
» » Calyx-tube entirely adherent to the ovary. Stamens and petals epigy- 
nons. Flowers umbellate. 
Fruit separable into two dry carpels. Umbellifbk^;, p. 431. 
Fruit drupaceous, usually of more than two carpels. Ahaliacba:. p. 433. 
Flowers cymose or capitate. Dmpe 2-celled. Cobnace*;, p. 433. 



704. flrd. RanuilliUlaCfffi {the Crowfoot Family). Herbaceous, 
occasionally climbing plants, wilb aa acrid watery juice, and usu- 
ally palmately or ternately lobed or divided leaves, without stip- 
ules. Calyx of three to six, usually five, distinct sepals, decidu- 
ous, except in PEeonia and Helleborua. Petals five to fifteen, or 
sometimes none. Stamens indefinite, distinct. Ovaries numer- 
ous, rarely few or solitary, distinct. Embryo minute, at the base 
of firm albumen (Fig. 455, 456). — Ex. Eanunculus, the Butter- 
cup, which has regular flowers with petals. Clematis (Virgin's 
Bower), Anemone, and Hepatica (Liver-leaf), which have no pet- 
als, but the calyx is petaloid : the latter has an involucre entirely 
lesembling a calyx, and the leaves of the former are opposite. In 
all these examples the ovaries are one-seeded, and the flowei's reg- 
ular. In others, the ovaries contain several seeds, and the flowers 
are irregular, or with the petals ia the form of spurs or differently 
shaped bodes. Aclaia (Cohosh, Baneberry) and one Larkspur 
have a solitary ovary ; in the latter the petals are consolidated. 

Zanthorhiza (Yellow-root) has only five or 

FIG. 476. Fiower of s Ranunculus, 


delucliud pi 
leciiun of [ 
»ith lis BP 

E Ranunculus, 477. Verlical section through llie r 
Ihe slanions tsken auray. 4TG A pelsl, wllh the nsclatirerDus scale 
I through an ovary, showing Ihe BoLilaiy ovule alUich»l lo lbs base of 
idpart of alearofAqulleela Canadensis (IVild Ciluiiiliine). 431. A 
18 fite carpels nf ihe fruil. 4S3. A sepacite foLLIcle. 494. Verlical 
*ing l\K minulB eml.rjo. 435. Flower of Delplilniuin, or Jarkspur, 




juice of all Kanunculaceous plants is acrid, or even caustic : some 
are virulent narcotico -acrid poisons. 

705. Ord, Magnoliaceffi {the Magnolia Family). Trees or shrubs ; 
witb ample and coriaceous, alternate, entire or lobed leaves, usu- 
ally punctate v^ith minute transparent dots: stipules membrana- 
ceous, enveloping the' bud, falling ofT when the leaves' expand. 
Flowers solitary, large and showy, mostly odorous. Calyx of 
three to six deciduous sepals, colored like the petals; the latter 
three or several, often in several rov/s. Stamens numerous, mostly 
with short filaments, and adnate anthers. Carpels either several 
in a single row, or numerous and spicate on the prolonged recep- 
tacle ; in the latter case usually more or less cohering with each 
other, and forming a fruit like a cone or strobile. Seeds mostly 
one or two in each carpel, often with a pulpy exterior coat, and 
suspended, when the carpels open, by an extensile funiculus, com- 
posed of unrolled spiral vessels. Embryo minute, at the base of 
homogeneous fleshy albumen. There are three well-marked sub- 

706. Subord. Hagnolieic (the true Magnolia Family)^ characterized 

principally as above, especially by the stipules and the imbricated 



spiked carpels. — Ex. Magnolia, in which the hard or woody car- 
pels are persistent, and accordingly open by the dorsal suture ; 
Liriodendron (the White-wood or Tulip-tree), in which the winged 
carpels fall away from the receptacle, but are themselves inde- 
hiscent. Bitter, and somewhat acrid -aromatic. 

707. SubonJ. WintereiB {the Winter's-Bark Family) has no stip- 
ules, and the caipels occupy only a single verticil. These have 
pungent aromatic properties, as in Illicium, the Slar-Anise, the 
seeds and pods of which furnish the aromatic oil of this name. 

708. Snliord. Schizandrete is montecious or dicBcious, with the pis- 
tils spicate or capitate oq a prolonged receptacle ; the stamens 
often monadelphous. Leaves someiimes toothed, destitute of stip- 
ules. — Ea;. Schizandra. Mucilaginous, with little aroma. 

709. Ord. Inonaces [the Custard-Apple Family). Trees or 

shrubs, with alternate entire leaves, destitute of stipules. Flowers 



large, but dull-colored. Sepals 3, Petals 6, in two rows, with a 
vaivale ffi.stivation. Stamens numerous, in many rows, with ex- 
trorse anthers. Carpels few, or mostly numerous and closely 
packed together, sometimes cohering and forming a fleshy or pulpy 
mass in the mature fruit. Seeds one or more in each carpel, with 
a brittle testa : embryo minute, af the base of hard, ruminated al- 
bumen. Ex. The four species of Papaw (Asimiiia) are our only 
representatives of this chiefly tropical order, which furnishes the 
luscious Custard -apples of the East and West Indies, &c. Ar- 
omatic, and sometimes rather acrid, properties prevail in the 

710. Ocd. MenispermaceiB {the Moonseed Familij). Climbing or 
twining shrubby plants ; with alternate and simple palraately- veined 
leaves, destitute of stipules ; and small flowers in racemes or pani- 
cles, dicecious, moncecious, or polygamous. Calyx of three to 
twelve sepals, in one to three rows, deciduous. Petals as many as 
the sepals or fewer, small, or sometimes wanting in the pistillate 

' Ord. MYRISTICACB^, conBisting of a few tropical trees (which bear 
nutmegs), differs from AnonaMai in having moncccioua or dio^ous and apet- 
aloua flowers. The aril and tiio albnmen of tho seeds ate fine aromatics. 
The common natiaeg is the seed of Myrislica moschata (a native of the Molue- 
cas) dGprivcd of tlic testa: mace is the aril of the same species. The raminated 
albumen (627) is nearly peculiar to this family and tho Anonaceie. 


sjme t«eplMk, 

throdgh [he pulpy eiucarp only, 11 

le oihBt througi 

. 600. A drupe i 

lividod tBftioallj ftho embryo he« 


501. ThesMd,i 

ind W%, Ihe colle 

il embryo detached. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

; DicOTYLEDOBOns plants. 

flowers. Stamens as many as the petals, and opposite them, or two 
to four limes as many ; anthers often four-celled. Carpets usually 
several, but only one or two of them commonly fructify, at first 
straight, but during their growth often curved into a ring; in fruit 
becoming berries or drupes. Seeds solitary, filling the cavity of 
the bony etidocarp ; embryo large, inclosed in the thin, fleshy 
albumen. — Ex. Menispermum, or Moonseed (Fig. 495-502), 
Cocculus. The roots are bitter aud tonic (e. g. CoJoinhn Root 
of the materia niedica) ; but the fruit is often narcotic and acrid ; 
as, for instance, the Cocculvs ladicus of the shops, once used 
for rendering malt liquors more intoxicating, and for stupefying 

711. Ord. BerberMttcea! {ihc Barlerry Family). Herbs or shrubs, 

■with a watery juice; the leaves alternate, compound or divided, 

FIG. S03. A shoot of Bflrtioris yulgsris, the common Burberry. B04. A liowerins bratict 
from the aiil of one of its leaves or epines the ' ' ""' ' ' " " 

60e. A petal, neciBriferoua near the base. 507. 

he baae. 507, A siamen; the anther opening by uplin«d 

d enlargad, showing the large embryo wilh foliaceoiia co- 
ided by albumen. 511. The embryo aeparale. 



usually without stipules. Fbwers perfect. Calyx of three to 
nine sepals, imbricated in one to several rows, often colored. 
Petals as many as the sepals and in two sets, or twice as many, 
with a pore, spur, or glandular appendage at the base. Stamens 
equal in number to the petals and opposite them, or rarely more 
numerous; anthers extrorse, the cells commonly opening by an 
uplifted valve. Carpel solitary, often gibbous or oblique, forming 
a one-celled pod or beny in fruit. Seeds sometimes with an aril ; 
embryo (often minute) surrounded with fleshy or homy albumen. 
— Ex. The Barberry (Fig. 503-511), the sharp spines of which 
are transformed leaves (296); the Mahoniaa are Barberries with 
pinnated leaves Leontice (Laulophyllum) thahctroides, the Blue 
Luhosh, IS remirkable for its evanescent periciip (559) and the 
cmspquent nsiktd seeds, wlitch resemble drupes Podophvllum 
(the Mandiake) presents an exception to the oidinal character, 
hiving somewhat nurafrous stamens, with aotheis which do not 
rpen by Vdlves, but the litter anomaly is also found in Nandina 
The Older is lemaikable for thn lalvuHr dehi-^eence of the in 
thcrs and for the sitintion of both the stamens and petals opptsHe 
the sppih But this latter peculiarity is doubtless owing to the 
pioduction of two or three tth3rls both of the petals and the 
tamtns, which does awiy with the anomaly The ■pstiidtioti 
in Berb(,ris shows this to be the case The fiuil is inno 
cpnt jr eatable, the loots and also the herbage sometimeo poi 

712. Ord. Cabumbacete {thr.Water shield Family). Aquatic herbs, 
with the floating lea* es entire and centralh peltate, ms olute in ver- 
nation; the aubmetsed fohatje somptimea dissected Flowers sol- 
itary, rather smal! Calj v of thiee or four sepals, colored inside, 
[leraistent. Corolla of as many persistent petals Stamens six to 
ihirty-six, with slender filaments ind innate luthors Carpels two 
to eighteen, indeh&cent with two or few (malropous) o\ules in 
each, inserted on the dorsal sutuie ' Seeds pendulous, ■v.i'ih a mi- 
nute embi-yo inclosed m i membranous bag (the persistent em- 
bryo-sac, 575), which IS h ilf immersed in the albumen it the end 
next the hilum — Ei Brasenii, the Water shield (F g 512), 
»nd Cabomba, compose this very small order the apparently 
single species of the former grows both in the United btales and 
in New Holland. They are only reduced forms of Nymphie- 



713 Ord JielnmblBCeiB (the Nelumho FamtJy) Aquatic herbs, 
with veiy large leaves and flowers, on long stalks ari'.in^ fiom a 
prostrate tiunk or rhizoma, whioh has a somewhat milky juice : 
the leaves orbicular and centially peltate Cilvx of four or five 
sepals, deciluous Petals numerous, inserted in seveial rows into 
the base of a laigo and fleshy obconical torus, deciduous Sta- 
mens inserted into the tonis in several rows tlie filaments peta- 
loid ; the anthers adnate and introrse. Carpels several, separately 
immeraed in hollows of the enlarged flat-topped torus or recepta- 
cle {Fig- 351), eacb containing a single anutropous ovule ; io fruit 
forming hard, round nuts. Seed without albumen: embryo very 
large, with two fleshy cotyledons, and a highly developed plumule. 
— Ex. The order consists of the single genus Neiumbium, em- 
bracing two species ; one a native of Asia, the other of the United 


513. Brascn 




.Wei lengthB-iss, 

s carpel, in f 




Ihe midaie o 



agnifloii Slam 

n. 611 A m 

asnified carpo 

doraal sulure 

fiedMEcl, wilh 


which CQUlaiiia 

Ihe en,hrjo. 

; brining lo 

tB snihryo Id 


Ho.t.d, Google 


, They are chiefly remarkable for their very large and 
1 dfl Th Is b 

d Kj phiea ffi { A Tf LI F I ) Aci h b 
1 fl d H [11 gf 

k 1 m d d 1 Ik b h 

fl f C ly d 11 f ! 

d Sly 1 m S m m 

1 d 1 h 1 p 

Imyfhlm pldtld i 

F d p Ipy h 1 11 d w J 1 1 

d gm 1 p d h p oy d p 

m Ebmll d mb bglh 

d h I , d 1 If m d Ih Ij lb 

— Er, NymphKB, the White Water- Lily (Fig. 265-268) ; Nu- 
phar, the Yellow Pond-Lily, Here belongs the magnificent Vic- 
toria of tropical South America, the most gigantic and showy of 
aquatics, both as to ita flowers and its leaves. 

715. Ord. Sarracciliaeeai [tJie Water-Pitcher Family). Perennial 
herbs, growing in bogs ; the (purplish or yellowish-green) leaves aU 
radical and hollow, pitcher-shaped (Fig. 223, 224), or trumpet- 
shaped. Flower solitary on a long scape. Calyx of five persist- 
ent sepals, with three small bracts at its base. Corolla of five 
petals. Stamens numerous. Summit of the combined styles very 
large and petaioid, flve-aogled, covering the five-celled ovary, per- 
sistent. Fruit five-celled, five-valved with-a large placenta pro- 
jecting from the axis into the cells Seed nu er us, albuminous, 
with a small embryo, — E bar ace a f m 1 ch the above 
character is taken, was the onlv kaown genus of 1 e order, until 
the recent discovery of Hel <i npl o a o ti ana Tl e scape of the 
latter,bears several flowers v I ou pe la A^c A third genus, 
Darlingtonia, Torr., has rece ly bee d cove ed u California, 
with calyx and corolla not e y u 1 ke lose of Sarracenia, hut 
without the umbrella-like sjle Tic speces of Sarracenia are 
all North American, and, e cep g '^ purpu ea a e confiaed to 
the Southern States east of I e All gl an es 

716. Ord. Papavetacea! [the Poppy Fa ty) Herbs with a milky 
or colored juice, and alternate leaves without stipules. Calyx of 



two {rarely three) caducous sepals. Corolla of four to six regular 
petals. Stamens eight to twenty-four, or numerous. Fruit one- 
celled, either pod-shaped with two to five, or capsular with numer- 
0U9 parietal placentas, from which the valves often separate in de- 
hiscence. Seeds numerous, with a minute embryo, and copious 
fleshy and oily albumen. — Ex. The Poppy (Papavev), the leading 
representative of this small but important family, is remarkable for 
the extension of the placentte so as nearly to divide the cavity of 
the ovary into several cells, and for the dehiscence of the capsule 

by mere chinks or pores under the edge of the crown formed by 
the radiate stigmas. The Esehscholtzia, now common in gardens, 
is remarkable for the expanded apex of the peduncle, and for the 
union of the two sepals into a calyptra, like a candle-extinguisher, 
which, separating at the base, is thrown off by the expansion of 
the petals (Fig. 522, 523). The colored juice is narcotic and 

F19. 619, Saii^inarii Canadenala (tha Bloodroot). 69). Ths pod, divided transvorsslj-, 

wi.h its l»r 

e rhaphe, 



&iSi. FLowe. 

bud of E» 


£24 Pod of 


Ho.t.d, Google 


Stimulant. That of the Poppy yields opium. That of the Celan- 
dine, and of tlie Bloodroot (Sanguinaria, Fig. 519), is acrid. 

717. Ord. Pomariaceffi {the Fumitory Family). Smooth herbs, 
with brittle stems, and a watery juice, alternate dissected leaves, 
and no stipules. Flowers irregular. Calyx of two aepala. Co- 
rolla of four petals, in pairs ; ' the two outer, or one of them, spurred 
or sac-like at the base ; the two inner callous and cohering at 
the apex, including, the anthers and stigma. Stamens six, in two 
parcels opposite the outer petals ; the filaments of each set usu- 
ally more or less united ; the middle one bearing a two-celled 
anther; the lateral with one-celled anthers. Fruit a one-celled 
and two-valved pod, or round and indehiscent. Seeds with 
fleshy albumen and a small embryo. — Ex. Fumaria, Dicentra, 
Corydalis. A small and unimportant tribe of plants, chiefly re- 
markable for their singular irregular flowers ; by which alone they 
are distinguished, and that not very definitely, from the preceding 
family. Its floral structure has already been explained {455, Fig. 

718. Ord. Cmciftrffi {} M d F m y) H with a pun- 
gent or acrid watery d I 1 h ut stipules; 

b he pedicels, 

f ular petals, 

Stamens six, 
F p d (called a 

I 1 I hort, 615), 
h tes the two 

1 II fall away, 

yl d f Ided on the 
M d C bbage, &,c. 
f h Id, perfectly 

1 g with four 
p d T peculiarity 
y f h fl wer shown, 
r volatile acridity (and 
often an ethereal oil, which abounds in sulphur) dispersed through 
every part, from which they derive their peculiar odor and sharp 
taste, and their stimulant, rubefacient, and antiscorbutic properties. 
The roots of some perennial species, such aa the Horseradish, or 
the seeds of annual species, as the Mustard, are used as coiidi- 
menis. In some cultivated plants, the acrid principle is dispersed 

the flowers in racem 
Calyx of four sepals d 
with claws, their spi d 
two of them shorter ( 

ymb h 
d 11 
g 1 mb f j 
mom 519) 

silique when much lo 
which is two-ceiled by 
marginal placentfe, f 
Seeds with no album 
radicle. — £a^. The W 

! b d 
m b p 
1 h 1 
C R d h 

A very natural order f 
distinguished by havi 
petals-and four sepal 
of the stamens is expl 
on p. 250. These plan 

d yp 

db h p 1 

d, d h y 
ts have a peculia 

Ho.t.d, Google 


among abundance of saccharine and mucilaginous matter, afford- 
ing wholesome food ; as the root of the Turnip and Radish ; the 
leaves, &e. of the Cabbage and Cauliflower. None are really 
poisonous plants, although some are very acrid. Several species 
are in cultivation, for their beauty or fragrance | such as the Wall- 
flower, Stock, &c 

719. Ord. Cappatidaceffi (the Caper Familt/). Herbs, or in the 
tropics often shrubs or trees ; differing from CruciferEe in the one- 
celled pod (which is often stalked) being destitute of any false par- 
tition ; in the kidney-shaped seeds ; and in the stamens, which, 
when sis, are scarcely tetraiSynamous, and are often more numer- 
ous, — Ex. Cleorae, and Polanisla (Fig. 525-534) ; chiefly tropi- 

FIG. 6S6. A CriKifewms flowar. 6Se, The sams, with tin Mljx lod corolla rooMvoa, show- 
ing the tetrsd;naniouB slamens. SST. SiJtTueiof Arable Canadensis; oneof Iheni wllhoneof 
Ihe valiaif deiaclieil, shonln^ [he seeds lying on the false parliilon ; Ihe other raire also falling; 
nnaj. 623. A magnlfifd crosi-secllon of one of [he winged seeds, showing the enibrja willl 
ths radicle applieri tn ihe ed;e of the cotjledoos (colyledons acc<aab™i'>. 529. The embryo 
delachad, 830. The racems of Driba »eina, in frah. 631. A crosg-eeclion of one of [he siii- 
cks, ma^lfied, exhjbiLlng Ibe paHolal insenlon of th« seeds, and th4 faJse psr[ILion. G?2. A 
silicle of Shepherd's Prnae (CapMlla Bursa Pas[oria). 633. The same, wiih oiw of Ihs bnal- 
shaped TalTsa remo'ed, prasBntlng a laagi[udinal liewof Iha narron panltlon, Jo;. 5M. A 
howingihaembryo wllhlharacticlB 8ppliedlo'[li8 

I of the c 





cal or subtropical. Many have have the pungency of Crucifers, hut 
are more acrid. Capers are the pickled flower-buds of Capparis 
spinosa of the Levant, &c. The roots and herbage or bark are 
bitter, nauseous,' and sometimes poisonous. 

1/ 720. Ord, RcsedacefB (the Mignonette Family). Herbs, with a 
watery juice, and alternate leaves without stipules, except a pair of 
glands be so considered : the flowers in terminal racemes, small, 
and often fragrant. — Calyx persistent, of four to seven sepals, 
somewhat united at the base. Corolla of two lo seven usually un- 
equal and lacerated petals, with broad or thickened nectariferoua 
claws. A fleshy disc is commonly present, enlarged posteriorly 
between the petals and the stamens, and bearing the latter, which 
vary from three to forty i« number, and are not covered by the 
petals in the bud. Fruit a one-celled pod, with three to six parie- 
tal placentffi, three to six-lobed at the apex, where it opens along 
the inner sutures, usually loog before the seeds are ripe. Seeds 
several or many, curved or kidney- shaped, with no albumen ; the 
embrj-o Incurved. — Ex. The common representative of this order 
is the Mignonette {Reseda odorata), prized for its fragrant flowers. 
721. Ord, liolaceffi {tkeViolet Family). Herbs (in tropical coim- 
tries sometimes shrubby plants), with mostly alternate simple 
leaves, on petioles, furnished with stipules ; and irregular flowers. 

F10, Si.5. Fbner at Polanlsia graveolena, £36. Fnictiftel ovary aS Oui same, s ponioa cut 



Calyx of five persistent si 

Is, often auricled at the base. Corolla 

f (hem larger than the others and com- 

iy b g P ac at the base r {estivation imbricative. 

fi w 1 I d bro&d filaments, which are usually 

dby dl (d e introrse) anthers ; two of thera com- 

! d slender appendage which is concealed 

1 p f h 11 he anthers approaching each other, or 

d g b Style usually turned to one side ind 

k d F it a one-ceiled capsule opening by 

1 h he g a parietal placenta on its middle 

d ral anatropous, with a crustaceoui inleg 

E gl early, the length of the fleshy albu 

(Yiola) is the princLpal gpnus of this 

order ; some species, like the Pansy, are cultivated for the beauty 
of their flewera; others for their delicate fragrance. The roots of 
all are acrid. 

722. Old. DlOSeroeetB {the Sundew Family). Small herbs, grow- 
ing in swamps, usually covered with gland-bearing hairs ; with the 
leaves alternate, or clustered at the base of a scape, fapcring into a 
petiole, rolled up from the apex to the base in vernation (circin- 


Date) : stipules none, except a fringe of hairs or bristles at the base 
of the petioles. Calyx of five equal sepals, persistent. Corolla 
of five regular petals, withering and persistent, convolute in {estiva- 
tion. Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 
sometimes two or three times as many, distinct, withering ; anthers 
extrorse. Styles three to five, distinct or nearly so, and each two- 
parted (ao as to be taken for tea styles, Fig. 390), with the divis- 
ions sometimes two-lobed or many-cleft at the apex; sometimes 
all united into one. Fruit a one-celled capsule, opening ioculici* 
dally by three to five valves, with three to five parietal placentse ; 
in Dionjea membranaceous and bursting irregularly, with a thick 
placenta at the base. Seeds usually numerous. Embryo small, 
at the base of cartilaginous or fleshy albumen. — Ex, Drosera, the 
Sundew ; and Dionwa (Fig. 238), so remarkable for its sensitive 
leaves, which suddenly close when touched. 

723. Sllbordi Patnassieffi consists of the genua Parnassia (belong- 
ing to the northern temperate and frigid zones, and to the high 
mountains of tropical Asia) ; which differs from Droseracese in the 
want of glandular hairs, in the inlrorse anthers, exalbuminous 
seeds, imbricated estivation of the petals, and cui'ious appendages 
before each petal. These are explained, and the plan of the flower 
shown, on p. 253 (Fig. 304, 305). In the ovary, also, the four 
short stigmas are situated opposite the four parietal placentse. 
The genua has been placed, probably rightly, in SaxifragaceEB, on 
account of its slightly perigynous stamens, &c. 

724. Ord. CistaeeiB {tlie Rock-Rose Family). Low shrubby plants 
or herbs, with simple and entire leaves (at least the lower oppo- 
site). Calyx of five persistent sepals, the three inner with a con- 
volute iestivation ; the two outer small or sometimes wanting. Co- 
rolla of five, or rarely three, regular petals, convolute in testivation 
in the direction cent y t th t f th pi f pi d 

ally ephemeral, so w n g a a p he 

flowers. Stamens n m d w h in e 

anthers. Fruit a on dp whp p -b m 

perfectly tViree tofi dbd mri iihnd 

die of the valves (d h h ) d b 

the placentse at or n ha b d m 

tropous (with few ) w h m y Emb o 

curved, or variously db — E H thmn 

(Fig. 546); a small family; the flowers often showy. No im- 



portant properties. Several exude a balsamic resin, sucli as Lada- 
n from a Cistus of the Levant.* 

725. Ord. flyptricateSB {the St John^s-wort Family) Shrubs c 
herbs, with a resinous or limpid |uice, and opposite entire Icavei 
destitute of stipules, and punctate with pellucid or blackish dots 
Flowers regular. Calyx of four or five persistent sepals, the tw 
exterior often smaller. Petals four or five, twisted i: 
often with black dots. Stamens commonly p 
merous. Capsule with septicidal dehiscence, many-seeded. — 
Etc. Hypericum (St. John's-wort, Fig. 553) is the type of this 
small family. The plants yield a resinous acrid juice, and a bitter, 
balsamic extractive matter. t Embryo straight ; albumen little or 

* Ord. BISACE.^ consists of tropical trees or ahrnbs, ni 
of the otlier orders with parietal placentte, and is here mentioned because 
Bbta Orellana, of tropical America, jielcla the Amotlo of commerce ; which is 
the waxy, oraogo-red pulp that surrounds the seeds, and is separated from them 
by washing. It is chiefly used ibr staining cheese, and in the preparation of 

t Oed. GUTTIFER^, or CLUSIACEiE, consisting of tropica! trees, 
with a yellow, resinous juiee, large flowers, and thick and shining entire 
leaves, is nearly allied to HypericaoeK, and exhibits the acrid propertiea of the 
latter family in a much higher degree. — Gamboge is the hardened resinous 

FtG. B4S. Tha Koclr-Rose, Hdhnlhamum Canadense. 647. Flower from which the polala 

showlnj its li7pog?nou3 insenion. M9, CroaB-Bectioo of a oapaule, iocnlieidallj' dohiBtenl ; Ihe 
Bseda Ihcrefore tome ™ the middle Qf each valve. 550. An ovale. 551, Plao Df Ihe llowot. 



Done. The peculiarity of the 
of the flower of Elodea is given, 

726. QtA. Elatinactte {tJie Waterwort Family). Small annual 
weeds, with opposite leaves, membranaceous stipules, and minute 
axillary flowers. Sepals and petals three to five. Stamens as 
many or twice as many as the petals, distinct. Capsule 2-5- 
celled, septicidal or septifragal ; the numerous seeds attached to a 
persistent centra! axis.. Albumen none. — Ex. Elatine is the type 
of this order, containing a few insignificant weeds. 

727. Ord. CaryopfiyllaceEe {the Fink Family). Herbs, with oppo- 
site entire leaves ; the stems tumid at the nodes. Flowers regular. 
Calyx of four or five sepals. Corolla of four or five petals, or 

(iting. Stamens as many, or commonly twice as 

juico of the Hebradendron cambogioidoa of Ceylon ; but the tree is supposed 
1« haTO been imported from Siara by the Buildhista, to whom it is sacred, on 
acconnt of the yellow color it yields. The gamboge from Siam forms the 
best pigment. Clusia flava yields the Hog-gam of Jamaica. The hot aro- 
matic Cmtelh bark, or False TRnfer's-trart, is derived from the Canella alba 
of the West Indies. Notwithstanding ibe acrid properties of this order, Gar- 
cinia Mangostana of Malacca yields one of the most delicious of fruits, the 

Oed. TAMAEISCINEiE consists of Tamarix and one ,or two other gen- 
era of sea,-side plants, natives of Europe and Asia : t^ey are ornamental, 
shrubby plants, wilh small scale-like and somewhat fleshy leaves, and an as- 
triagenC barli. 

ma. 5 

Hyporicum psrforali 

D (St. Jolii 

664. lu u 

, 665. 



many, as the petals, sometimes reduced to two or three. Styles 
two to five, stigmatose down the inside. Ovary mostly one-celled, 
with a central or basilar placenta. Capsule two to five-valved, or 
opening only at the apex with twice as many valves as stigmas. 
Embryo peripheric, curved or coiled around the outside of mealy 
albumen. — There are five principal suborders, viz. : — 

728. Snliord. SileneEe {the proper Pink Family) ; in which the 
sepals are united into a tube, and the petals (mostly convolute in 
Eesfivation) and stamens are inserted on the stipe of the ovary, the 
former with long claws ; and there are no stipules. — Ex. Silene, 
Diantlius (the Pink, Carnation). 

729. Subord. ilsiliese (the Chichoeed Family) ; in which there are 
stipules, the ovary 

i sessile 

ind petals (ii 

1 brie at- 

nearly or quite dis- 
tinct; the petals des- 
titute of claws ; and 
the stamens are in- 
serted into the margin 
of asmallhypogynous 
disc, which, however, 
occasionally coheres 
with the base of the ca- 
lyx, and becomes peri- 
gynous. — Ex. Stel- 
la ri a. Arena ri a, &c. 
(Ohickweeds). Some 
are ornamental ; oth- 
ers, such as the common Chickweed, are insignificant weeds, 

730. Subord. Utebrete (the Enotwort Family) % differing from the 
last in having scarious stipules ; the sepals often united below ; the 
petals often wanting or rudimentary ; the stamens manifestly peri- 
gynous, and the fruit more commonly a one-seeded utricle. — Ex. 
Paronychia and Anychia. Spergula has conspicuous petals, and 
many-seeded capsules ; and so differs from Alsinete only 
stipules. Insignificant wi 

o economical account. 

). Magnifled 

Ho.t.d, Google 


731. Sfliord. ScIetanlheOl {the Knawel Family) is like the last, 
only there are no stipules, and the calyx-tube is urceolate in fruit, 
inclosing the utricle. — Ex. Scleranthus. 

733. Subonl. Mollngineffi {the Carpel-weed Family) is apetalous, 
exstipulate, and has the stamens alternate with the sepals when of 
the same number ; thus effecting a transition to the next order, — 
£r. Mollugo. 

733. Ord, Potllllaeaceai {the Purslane Family). Succulent or 
fleshy herbs, with alternate or opposite entire leaves, destitute of 
proper stipules, and usually ephemeral flowers. Calyx mostly of 
two or three sepals, cohering witb the base of the ovary. PeKils 
five, or rarely more numerous. Stamens variable in number, but 
when equal to the petals situated opposite them. Styles two to 
eight, united below. Capsule with few or numerous seeds, attached 
to a central basilar placenta, often by slender funiculi. Seed 
and embryo as in Caryophyllacese. — £x. Portulaca (Purslane), 

Claytonia {Fig. 561). Chiefly iia.lives of dry and arid places i 

FIG. BSl. aaTlonIa Virglnica (Spring Beauty). 563. Young frail and the pi 
iBBfodcBlyi. M3. Section of Iho dehiscing capauls. 684. A Med. 666. The as 
ditided, sas. The emta-jn, delachad. ^ 

FIB. 667. FJowar of the Puralane ; the calyx cut awaj at the point where it a 
our/, and laid open. 6^. A capsule (pjxia, 016) gf the aanis, itans^eraeiy ilehJB 




■ parts of the world; except Claytonia. Insipid or 
slightly bitter: several are used as pot-herbs, as the Purslane. 
Some are oTnamentiil The farinaceous root of Lewisia rediviva, 
a native of dry plain'? in the interior of Oregon, is an important 
article of food with the natives 

739 Oril IncmbrjanthemaceEe {the Fig-Marigold Family) con. 
s?sts of succulent phnts, with showy flowers opening only under 
bright sunshine containing an indefinite number of petals and sta- 
mens and a many celled and many seeded capsule ■ otherwise 
m b C pi 11 te — Th h k d 1 f 

ddiy 1 pd— £ I mbry 1 m (F g M Id I 
pi ) I p h fl f 1 p f 

C d H fl h h d 

7 d Mai «, {h M II F I ) H b h bs 
ra Ij LI m 

11 1 g rally 1 

1 f m d bl ly C ly 

d f 
f 1 

ly f fi 

Embrjo largp, with foliaceous cotyledons, variously incurved or 

FIG 11? The Marsh Mallow (A!lhaa officinaiia). 818. One of tha kmney^hfipcd onB- 
cellBdanihsH maiTiined 819 The pislils, magnififtl. 62Q, Capsule of HibJacusMoacheutos, 
wUhthepeHialeMoalyiBiidinioliU*!. 621. Thoeimc, loculioiilallj' ilebisceiil. 



folded —Ev Malva (Mallows) AllhEea (Hollyhock) Go<isypium 

(C ) & p 1 d mp f m ly M i 

p mybd 1 d 1yd f 

h ql Th pf fHb 1 

(I) d d pAllfeffiltb 

MhMlI fEpl m fhF hTh 

b k y p mpl y d f d 

C Ihy gth dfGjp hi 

d 1 1 b d II 11 p d h 

dp hldlb plfbgp 

C lyldfidll q jlhyb d 

f p N m 1 df m 

7 1 Ord Bjtt fE d g d m 1 f g by 

ly d fi d 1 1! d h ( h II 1 

11 1) h 1 p II Th p f d d d 

— AMljcl d H f d T Tl 

fid pi bp a 1 dfh 

dd ddfTlb C (Sh 

Am ) m d h 11 d 

gd dpd kl d mlaf 

1 d I d f ff 

7 Ord Til [h L I F I ) T h bby 

pitsll 1 fhdhdd p and 

11 fl ly d d PI Id 

(estivation. Disc glandular. Stamens indefinite, often ia three to 

* Ord. STEECULIACEjE, very closely allied to Malvaceie and Bjttnuria- 
cete, and consisting of iropitol trees, possesses the name mncilaginons pi'Oper- 
ties (as well as oily seeds), with which bitter and astringent qnaJities are often 
combined. The seeds of Bonibax, the Silk-cotion tree, are enveloped in a 
kind of cotton, which belongs to the endoearp and not io the seed ; and the 
hairs, being perfectly smooth and even, cannot be spun. Canoes are made 
from the tronk of Bombax, in the West Indies. To this order belongs the 
famous Baobab, or Monkey's- bread of Senegal (Adansonia digitala) ; some 
tmnkE of which are from sixty to eighty feet in circumference i The frnit re- 
sembles a gourd, and serves for vessels ; it contains a subacid and refrigerant, 
somewhat astringent pnlpi the mncilaginons young leaves are also used for 
food in lime ot scarcity ; the dried and powdered leaves {Lalo) are ordinarily 
mixed wiih food, and the bark furnishes a coarse thread, which is made into 
cordage or woven into cloth. Cheirostemon platanoides is the remarkable 
Hand-flower tree of Mexico. A plant of the family {Fremontia, Torr.) nearly 
allied to Cheiwstemon has recently been found in California, by Col, Fremont. 


d p 


F I 
\ L d 
h mi 


lewhat united, one of each parcel often 
I id s(^le ; anthers two-celled. Styles 

o to five-celled, or, by oblitc 

1 er respects nearly as 

£ T 1 1 L d Lime.Tree (Fig. 623), represents the or- 

d h m]. egions; the other genera are tropical. 

h a tough, fibrous inner bark. From this 

L den, the Russian mats, &jC. are made, 

B ood. Gunny-baga and fishing-nets are 

I b k of Corchorus capsularis ; the fibre of 

d spun and woven. The light wood of 

wainscoting and carving r its charcoal 

of gunpowder. It is said that a little 

y be b d f m the sap : and the honey made from 

f5 h bt to be the finest in the world. The 

f G pida are employed in the East in the 


* Obd. BEPTBRO carped, inlfirniediate in some respects between 
Tiliacete and Terastriemiaoete, consists of a few tropical Indian trees, with a 
resinous or balsamic Juice. Dryobalanops aromalica, a large tree of Sumatra 
and Borneo, jielda in great abundance bolti a camphor oil and solid camphor; 

FIG. 6 

Flowering branch of Tilia An 
collaring with Ihe DraM. 623. One o 
oc palsloid Bcale. 624- Tbe pistil. 69 
1 by the oblileretion of tlia patlitiana, 
lifled, to ahow the large embryo with i 

na, tlie c 

in Linden ; the flow 



743. Ord. TemstraiBiaeeje {the Tea Family). Trees or shrubs, 
with a watery juice, alternate simple leaves without stipules, and 
large and showy flowers. Calyx of three to seven coriaceous and 
concave imbricated sepals. Petals five or more, imbricated in 
ffistivation. Stamens hypogynous, indefinite, monadelphous or 
polyadelphous at the base. Capsule several -celled, usually with 
a central column. Seeds few in each cell, large, with or without 
albumen. — Ex. Gordonia (Loblolly Bay), Stuartia, Thea (Tea), 
Camellia. Ornamental plants, natives of tropical America, except 
two genera in the Southern United States, and of Eastern Asia. 
The leaves of Tea contain a peculiar extractive matter, atid a 
somewhat stimulant ethereal oil. 

744, Ord, AnratlliBMte {the Orange Family}. Trees or shrubs, 
with alternate leaves (compound, or with jointed petioles), destitute 
of stipules, dotted with pellucid glands full of volatile oil. Flowers 
fragrant. Calyx short, urceolate or campanulate. Petals three to 
five. Stamens inserted in a single row upon a hypogynous disc, 
often somewhat monadelphous or polyadelphous. Style cylindri- 
cal : stigma thickish. Fruit a many-celled berry, with a leathery 
rind, filled with pulp. Seeds without albumen. — Ex. Citrus, the 
Orange and Lemon, Nearly all natives of tropica! Asia ; now dis- 
persed throughout the warmer regions of the world, and cultivated 
for their beauty and fragrance, and for their grateful fruit. The 
acid of the Lemon, &g. is the citric and malic. The rind abounds 
in a lafl '1 ( h as th Oi/ ij/'Sergamot from the Lime), and 
an a o na b p n pie 

745 Ord Kel a F T es or shrubs, with aiteroate, usually 
comp d 1 d of stipules. Calyx of three to five se- 

pa P 1 h ft Stamens twice as many as the petals, 

mo ad Iph n d h the petals on the outside of a hypogy- 

nous disc ; the anthers included in the tube of filaments. Ovary 

boili are foand deposited in cavities of tlje trunk, the latter s< 
as long S8 a man's arm, weighing ten or twelve ponnds. It is more solid ttian 
common camphor, and is not volatile at ordinary temperatnrea. It bears a 
high" pripu, and is seldom found in Europe <fc this coontry, but is chietlj carried 
to China and Japan, A tiiin balsam, called ieood-oil in India, and used for 
piuuting ships and houses, is yielded by some species of Diplerocarpns and 
Shorea. Shorea robnsla yields the Dammer.pilnh. Vateria Indies exudes a 
kind of eopal, the Gum Ammi of commeire ; and a somewhat aromatic fatly 
matter, ealled Fine^ TuUoio, is derived from the seeds. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


several-cellGd, with one or two ovules in each eel!: styles and 
stigmas united into one. Fruit a drupe, berry, or capsule ; the 
cells one-seeded. Seeds without albumen, wingless. — Ex. Melia 
Azedarach (Pride of India), naturalized, as an ornamental tree, in 
the Southern States. An acrid and bitter principle pervades tills 
tropical order, 

746. Oi'fl, CedrelaceiB (the Mahogany Family). Trees (tropical 
or Australian), with hard and durable, usually fragrant and beauti- 
fully veined wood ; differing botanically from Meliaceffi chiefly by 
their capsular fruit, with several winged seeds in each cell.^ — Ex. 
The Malwgany (Swietenia Mahagoni) of tropical America, reach- 
ing to Southern Florida. The Red-wood of Coromandel is the 
timber of Soymida febrifuga ; the Satin-wood, of Chloroxylon 
Swietenia of India ; leiioiu-wood, of tho Australian Oxieya xan- 
thoxyla, &,c. All the species are bitter, astringent, tonic, often 
aromatic and febrifugal. 

747, Ord. Linaceffi {the Flax Family). Herbs, with entire and 
sessile leaves, either alternate, opposite, or verticillate, and no 
stipules, except minute glands occasionally. Flowers regular and 
symmetrical. Calyx of three or five persistent sepals, strongly 
imbricated. Petals as many as the sepals, convolute in ffistivatioo. 
Stamens as many as the petals, and usually with as many inter- 
mediate teeth representing an abortive series, all united at the 
base into a ring, hypogynoua. Ovary with as many styles and 
cells Eis there are sepals, each cell with two suspended ovules ; the 
cells in the capsule each more or less perfectly divided into two, 
by a false partition which grows from the back (dorsal suture ) ; 
the spurious cells one-seeded. Embryo straight ; cotyledons flat, 

y and oily, surrounded by a thia albumen. — Ex. Linum, the 

Flax (Fig, 628-631), is the puncipal representalu e of thi-i small 



family. The tough woody fibre of the bark (Jlax) is of the high- 
est importance : the seeiis yield a copious mucilage, and the fixed 
oil expressed from them is applied to various uses in the arts. The 
flowers are commonly handsome. The flowers of the succeeding 
families are formed on the same general plan. 

749. Ord. GeratliaceED {the CranesUll Fatnily). Herbs or shrub- 
by plants, commonly strong-scented ; with palmately veined and 
usually lobed leaves, mostly with stipules ; the lower opposite. 
Flowers regular, or somewhat irregular. — Calyx of five persistent 
sepals, imbricated in estivation. Petals five, with claws, mostly 

convolute in teativation Stamens 10, the five e-vtenor hypogy- 

nous, occasionally sterile , the filaments all bioad and united at 

the base Ovary of fi\e twoovuled carpels, 

attachtd to the base of an elongated t 

nohase) to which the styles cohere in fruit / 

the distinct one seeded carpels separate fioi 

the axis, by the twisting or curling back of the \ 

pers stent indurated 'stjirs fiom the has 

wards Seeds with no albumen cotyledons 

coniolute and plaited together, bent on the 

short radicle —Ev Geranium (Fig 632 -63f 

■ Cranesbill. 

FIQ. 832. Radical loaf of Geinnmni maculatum (Craneabill). 833. A flowotiTig bi 
63i, A flowet with [he calyx and cntoUa reniovod, Bhoming the alamens, &o. 635. Tht 
in fruit ; die indutatad styles acparatiog Mow from Iho pnilonged aiia, and ourring bact 
tically, sairyluj with tlieni the membranous carpsls. 63S, A loagiiiBed sead. 637. A 
Lvolule cotJledonB. 

. DiagnD 



408 ESOGENons or dicotyledonous plants. 

Our cultivated Geraniums, so called, from the Cape of Good Hope, 
are species of Pelargonium. The roots are simply and strongly 
astringent. The foliage abounds with aromatic resinous matter 
and an ethereal oil. — The proper symmetry of the flower is ex- 
plained on p. 267. 

749. Ocd. Oxalidacete {the Wood-Sorrel Family). Low herbs, 
with an acid juice, and alternate compound leaves ; the leaflets 
visually ohcordate. Flowers regular, of the same general structure 
as in the preceding family, except the gynsecium. Carpels five, 
united into a compound ovary, with the styles distinct ; in fruit 
forming a membranaceous five-lobed and five-celled capsule. 
Seeds with a fleshy outer coat, which bursts elastically when ripe, 
with a large and straight embryo in thin albumen. — Ex. O.^alis, 
the Wood-Sorrel. The herbage is sour, as the name denotes, and 
contains oxalic acid. The foliage is remarkably sensitive in some 
species. The tubers of some South American species (called 
Arracacha), filled with starch, have been substituted for potatoes, 

750. Ol'd. ZygophyllaeetB differs from the last in the opposite, 
mostly abruptly pinnate leaves, distinct stamens (the filaments com- 
monly furnished with an internal scale, Fig. 303), and the styles 
united into one. — Ex. Tribulus and Kallstrcemia (introduced into 
the Southern States) are exalbumiaous ; the latter is 10-coccous, 
just as Linum is, by a false partition. Guaiacum and Larrea, both 
in Texas, and the rest of the family, have a corneous albumen. 
The wood of Guaiacum {Lignum-vita) is extremely hard and 
heavy, and yields a gum-resinous, bitter, and acrid principle ( Gum 
Guaiacum), well known in medicine. 

751. Ord. BalsaminacetB (the Balsam Family). Annual herbs, 
with succulent stems filled with a watery juice. Leaves simple, 
without stipules. Flowers irregular, and one of the colored s 
spurred or saccate. Stamens five, cohering by an internal appen- 
dage. Compound ovary five-celled ; stigmas sessile, Capsule 
bursting elastically by five valves. Seeds several, without albu- 
men, and with a straight embryo. — Ex. Impatiens, the Balsam, 
or Touch-me-not. Remarkable for the elastic force with which 
the capsule hursts in pieces, and expels the seeds. Somewhat 
differently irregular blossoms are presented by the 

752. Ord. Tropffolacete (the Indian-Cress or Nasturtium Family). 
Straggling or twining herbs, with a pungent watery juice, and pel- 
tate or palmate leaves. Flowers irregular. Calyx of five colored. 



united sepals, the lower one spurred. Petals five; the two upper 
arising from the throat of the calyx, remote from the three lower, 
which are stalked. Sfamens, eight, unequal, distinct. Ovary three- 
lobed, composed of three united carpels ; which separate from the 
common axis when ripe, are indohisccnt, and one-seeded. Seed 
filling the cell, without albumen : cotyledons large, thick, and con- 
solidated. — Ex. TropESoIum, the Garden Nasturtium, from South 
America, where there are a few other species, one of which hears 
edible tCibers. They possess the same acrid principle and anti- 
scorbutic properties as the Cruciferse. The unripe fruit of Tropse- 
olum nna|us is pickled, and used as a substitute for capers 

753 Ord. Limnanthaeefe differs from the last only m Its regular 
and svtnmeliical blossorab, and the erect mstcad of suspended 
seedi, the caly"( vallate in jestivation — Ex Limnanthes of Cal- 
ifornia, and Flcerkei of the Northern United States 

754 Oni. RntBLttP (the Rue Family) Heibs, shiubs, or trees; 
the leases dotted and withuut stipules Floweis perfect Calyx 
of four or five sepals Petals four oi five Stamens as many or 
two or three times as manj as the petals, inserted on the outside of 
a hypogynous disc. Ovary three- to five-lobed, three- to five-celled, 
with the styles united, or distinct only at the base, during ripening 
usually separating into its component carpels, which are dehiscent 
by one or both sutures. Seeds few, mostly with albumen ; and a 
curved embryo. — Ex. Ruta (the fiue), Diclamnus (Fraxinella), 
of 'Europe, &e., and Eutosraa of Texas. Diosma and its allies, of 
the Cape of Good Hope, New Holland, &.c,, form a suborder. 
Remarkable for their strong and usually unpleasant odor, and their 
bitterness (as in the common Rue of the gardens), owing to a vola- 
tile oil and a resinous matter ; the former is so abundantly exhaled 
by the Fraxinella in a hot, dry day, that it is said the air which 
surrounds it may be set on fire. Many plants of the Diosma tribe, 
especially those of Equinoctial America, contain a bitter alkaloid 
principle, and possess valuable febrifugal properties. The most 
impoilant is the Galipea which furnishes the Angostura hark. 

755. Ord, ZaillhoxyiaceEB [the Prickly-Ask Famihj) ought proper- 
ly to be received only as a suborder of Rutacefe, difTering from 
the Diosmese merely in their more or less diclinous flowers. 
Trees or shrubs; the leaves without stipules, and punctate with 
pellucid dots. Flowers polygamous or dicecious. Calyx of three 
to nine sepals, Petals as many as the sepals, or wanting. Stamens 



as many or twice as many as the petals. Carpels two or more, 
borne on the convex or elevated receptacle, either united or sep- 
arate ; in the latter case the styles usually cohere when young, 
Seeds one or two in each cell or carpel, with a smooth and shining 
cnistaceous testa, albuminous, embryo rather large, straight. — 
Ex. Zanthoxylum (Prickly Ash) is the type of this order, of chiefly 

American a d nea ly all trop cal pla s They aie aromatic, 
pungen s n lant and b tter these properties chiefly resident in 
11 e bark 

756 Orfl OehnafflEe is a small group nearly allied to the last, 
but V h s mple do less leaves not aronatc and endowed with 
purely b t er q al es Some plants of the family have a scale on 
the inner side of each filament, as in Zj gophyllaceffi, and make a 
near approach to Simarubaceie * (to which Castcla has been jusfly 

' Oao. SIMARUBACE^, composed of a few tropical, and chiefly Ameri- 
cBi), troea and shrubs, is of some importajice in meiiicine. Ttie wood abounds 

Fia 639. a. flowering brancli of Zanthojijlum Americanum tthe Norlharn Prickly Ash). 
MO. A piece of a leaf, 10 ahow th^ pellucid dots. Ml. Slaminale flowat. 648. A pietlllale 
ilower,lheHepals spread open. M3. Two of ihe pialila ; one oflham divided ystticallj'loeliow 
Ibeovules. 644, A hianch tn ftlitl. 6M. Onsof thedehiscenl poda, and tho seed, M6. Ver- 
tical section of AH unripe pod and «ed; Ihe latler pendent Irom a descending funlculiiB, sbovf. 
Sn£ a slandsr eralxTO in cupioiu alliumen. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


757. flrd. Inatardiacea; [the Cashew Family). Trees or shrubs, 
with a resinous or milky, often acrid juice, which turos blackish 
in drying : the leaves alternate, without stipules, and not dotted. 
Flowers small, often polygamous or dicecious. Calyx of three to 
five sepals, uaited at the base. Petals, and usually the stamens, 
as many as the sepals, inserted into the base of the calyx or into a 
hypogynOLis disc. Ovary one-celled, but with three styles or stig- 
mas, and a single ovule. Fruit a berry or drupe. Seed without 
albumen. Embryo curved or bent. — Ek. Rhus, Anacardivim 
(the Cashew), Pistacia. Chiefly tropical ; but several species of 
Rhus are indigenous to the United States. The acrid resinous 
juice is used in varnishes ; but it often contains a caustic poison. 
Even the exhalations from Rhus Toxicodendron (Poison Oak, Poi- 
son Ivy), and R. lene ala (Po <!0 Sumach, Poison Elder), as is 
well known, severely affpcc many persons, producing erysipelatous 
swellings, &c. The r ju ce s a good indelible ink for marking 
linen. But the coi won Sumacl s (R. typhina and R gl bra) 
innocuous ; their astr gent bi k s used for tanning d h 
sour berries (which con a n b ala e of lime) for acidul f d d k 
The oily seeds of P stac a vera ( he Plstachio-nut) are ed bl The 
drupe of Mangifera Ind c-i (Mango) is one of the mobt g f I f 
tropica! fruits. The kernel of the Cashew-nut (Anac d m 
dentale) is eatable ; and so is the acid enlarged and fl 1 y p d 
cle on which the nut rests : but the coats of the latt fill d 

with a caustic oil, which blisters the skin ; while from th ba k f 
the free a bland gum exudes.* 

in an escessively bitter extracfirs principle, tailed Quassine, T t^ 
wood of the shops is derived from tliB Quassia amara of Surinam and Guiana, 
or more conimonlj, at least of late years, from I'ieriena exoelsa of Jamaica. 
It has been used as a substitute for bops ia the raanufaetnre of beer. 

• Okd BURSEEACE^, including a great part of what were formerly 
cal ed T binthai^ie, consists of tropical trees, witli a copious resinous juice, 
compound leaves usnally marked with pellucid dots, and small, commonly 
perf flowers ; with valvate petals, a two- to five-celled ovary, and drupa- 

ooB f H t Their balsamic juice, which flows copiously when the trunk is 
wounded nsnally hardens into a resin. The Olibaiium, naed as a fragrant in- 
cense h Balm of Gilead, or Baisam of Mecca, Myrrh, and the Bddiiiim, are 
denied trom Arabian spedos of the order; the East Indian Gum Eieiai, from 
Canarium commune ; Boham ofAcoaeM, and similar substances, from various 
American trees of this feraily. 

Ord. AMYBIDACRiE consists of a few West Indian plants, intermediate 
as it were between Burseraces and Legumlnos^ and distinguished from the 

Ho.t.d, Google 



758. Ord, Malpiglliaceie is a large tropical family (with one or two 
representatives in Te as) wl ' h d ffers from Aceraccte in its 
more symmetrical flowe s me o gynEPcium, solitary ovules, 
the want of a disc, and he e e leaves, &c. 

759. Ord, Aceraceie ( /e MapU Fa ily). Trees or shrubs, with 
opposite leaves and no s p les Flo vers small, polygamous, reg- 
ular, sometimes perfec n racene^ corymhs, or fascicles, often 
preceding the leaves C ly"£ os ly of five sepals, more or less 
united. Petals as manv as he ep 1 or none. Stamens three to 
twelve, seldom agree g umhe ith the sepals, inserted on or 
around a hypogynous disc. Ovary of two more or less united 
carpels ; eiich carpel forming a samara in fruit. Ovules two in 
each cell. Seeds solitary, destitute of albumen. Embryo coiled. 

— Ex. Acer, the Maple ; useful timber-trees of northern femper- 

foriner chiefly by their simple and solitary ovary. One species of Amyris 
grows in Florida. Their properties are the same as the preceding ; the trunks 
aboanding in a fragrant resinous juice. 

FIG. 647. A bra 

nchof A 

s, dMyfarpum (ths While Soft Mapla) with Blamln 

e flowera 

18. A aaparace, 

nla.«ed, = 

aminalB flowBt. 649. Branch with pialillale llovteM. & 

=0. Aeep 

653, Ad 

reduced i 

ze). 653. Kipa 


of Ihe BaiOMM cut open to show Ito seed, 654. A leaf. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

lEKS. 413 

ate regions. Sugar is yielded by the vernal sap of Acer saccha- 
rinum, and in less quantity by A, dasycarputn and other species. 

760. Urd. Sapindacea) {the Soapberry Family). Trees, shrubs, 
or climbers, with tendrils, rarely herbs (nearly all tropical and 
American) ; with alternate and mostly compound leaves. Flowers 
small, u asymmetrical, usually irregular and polygamous. Calyx 
of four or five sepals. Petals irregular and often one fewer than 
the sepals, sometimes wanting. Stamens eight to ten. Oyary two- 
or three-ceiled ; the styles or stigmas more or less united. Seeds 
usually with an aril, destitute of albumen. Embryo coiled ; the 
cotyledons usually thick and fleshy. — Ex. Sapindus (Soapberry, 
one species of which is indigenous to the aoiilhem borders of the 
United States) ; and Cardiospermum, which is a climbing herb, 
with a bladdery capsule, often met with in gardens. They are as- 
tringent and bitter. The fruit of Sapindus is used for soap. The 
leaves of true Sapindacete are alternate. Inseparably connected 
with this order is the 

761. SuTiord. Hlppocastanaceat-. Trees or shrubs; with opposite 

Eta SS5. Flowatiog bronch of ^5culus Favla, • Bpacios of Bucksje. 65G. A flower. 
667. Flowei wilh ths calyi and two of the peUls removed. 66S. A gragnd-pian of the flower, 
HhowInK that its parts are unsymniotrical, 659. T«tioal oection of an oearj, showing two of 
the celLa with a pair of otuIsb in each, one ascending, one descending. 6S0. Croas-soction of 
anovarr. M, Crossseciion of the Imtuature fruit ; onl; one farlUe seed; ths others aboiiive. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


digitate leaves, without stipules. Fruit roundish, coriaceous, de- 
hiscent, with one to three very large seeds, resembling chestnuts. 
Embryo very large and fleshy, showing a two-leaved plumule : 
the cotyledons united. — Ex. jEaculus, the Horsecheatnut, and 
Buckeye : fine ornamental trees. The large, starchy seeds are 
nutritious, but they contain a bitter principle which is more or less 
noxious. Those of jE. Pavia are used to stupefy fish. The root, 
according lo Elliott, is employed as a substitute for soap. 

763. fiti,\it\9S[i9.WtR {the ^indle-tree Family). Shrubs or 
with alternate or opposite simple leaves. Calyx of four or five 
sepals, imbricated in estivation. Petals as many as the sepah 
inserted under the fiat expanded disc which closely surrounds the 
ovary, imbricated in estivation. Stamens as many as the petals, 
and alternate with them, inserted on the margin or upper surface 
of the disc. Ovary free from the calyx. Fruit a capsule or berry, 
with one or few seeds in each cell. Seeds usually arilled, albu- 
minous, with a large and straight embryo. — Ex. Celastrus (False 
Bittersweet), Euonymus (Burning Bush, Spindle-tree) : they are 
all somewhat bitter and acrid ; but of little economical imports 
The crimson capsules and bright scarlet arils of Euonymus 
purpureus and E, Americanus (sometimes called Strawberry- 
tree), present a striking appearance when the fruit is ripe. 

763. Ord. Rllflinnactffi (the BucHkom Family). Shrubs or i 
often with spinose branches ; the leaves mostly alternate, simple. 
Flowers small. Calyx of four or five sepals, tinited at the base, 
valvate in estivation. Petals four or five, cucullate or convolute, 
inserted on the throat of the calyx, sometimes wanting. Stamens 
as many as the petals, inserted with and opptsite them ! Ovary 
sometimes coherent with the tube of the calyx, and more or less 
immersed in a fleshy disc, with a single erect ovule in each cell. 
Fruit a capsule, berry, or drupe. Seeds not arilled. Embryo 
straight, large, in sparing albumen. — Em. Khamnus (Buckthorn) 
is the type of the order. Ceanothus is peculiar to North America ; 
just as some genera are to the Cape, and others to New Holland, 
The berries of most species of Rhamnus are somewhat nauseous ; 
but those of Zizyphus are edible. The genuine Jujttlie paste is 
prepared from those of Z. Jujuba and Z. vulgaris of Asia, Syrup 
of Buckthorn and the pigment called Sap-gr,een are prepared from 
the fruit of fihamnus catharticus. The herbage and bark in this 
order are more or less astringent and bitter. An infusion of the 




leaves of Ceanothus Americanua (ibence called New Jersey Tea) 
has been used as a substitule for tea. 

"764. Ocd. Staphylca«ete {the Bladder-nut Fcmily), consisting 
chiefly of Staphylea, is intermediate between the order Sapin- 
daceffi, from which it differs in its more symmetrical flowers and 
straight embryo in fleshy albumen, and Ceiastraceai, from which 
the compound leaves, partly separate pistils, and bony seeds distin- 
guish il. 

765. Ord. ViiaceEC {the Vine Family). Shrubby plants climbing 
by tendrils, with simple or compound leaves, the upper alternate- 
Flowers small, often polygamous or dicecious. Calyx very small, 

r five-toothed, lined with a disc. Petals four or 

FIG. M3. JlbtsnthoriheGrapi 

!; showing the naimB of the iffldrils. BG4. Aflovfw; the 

A faUliig off together without eipanding, 665. A tavec 

torn which the poUto have faAlen 

66. VetlicaJ aecHm through Iha ov 

ary and the tase of tho flowar : a, calyx, the limb of which 

,» more ilmi*, petal ; having ths 

atamen, c, direcli; bsfore it ; anJ the \obea of the disc ara 

hown iwCivMn this and tha o.ary. 

fisr. AsBBd. 669. Section ofiheseedi showing the Ihicte 

riMlaceous Usls, and tha alhumen, 

at the iJBK of which la the minale eiubrjo. 669. A hotl- 





five, ioserted upon the outaide of the disc, valvate in estivation, 
sometimes cohering by their tips, and caducous. Stamens as 
many as the petals, and opposite them ! Ovary two-celled, with 
two erect ovules in each cell. Fruit a berry. Seeds with a bony 
testa, and a small embryo in hard albumen. — Eji. Vitis (the 
Vine), Ampelopsis (the Virginia Creeper). The fruit of the Vine 
is the only important product of the order. The acid of the grape, 
which also pervades the young shoots and leaves, is chieiiy the 
tartEiric. Grape-sugar is very distinct from cane-sugar, and the 
only kind that can long exist in connection with acids. — The sym- 
metry of the flower is explained on p. 269. 

766. Ord. PoIj^alaeeEB (Ihe Milheort Family). Herbs or shrubby 
plants, with simple entire leaves, destitute of stipules ; the roots 
sometimes with a milky juice. Pedicles with three bracts. Flow- 
ers perfect, unsymmetrical, and irregular, falsely papilionaceous. 
Calyx of five irregular sepals ; the odd one superior, the two inner 
(wings) larger, and usually petaloid. Petals usually three, inserted 

on the receptacle, more or less united ; the anterior (Lpel) larger 

FIG. 670. PolygalB pauoifolia. 671. A flower, enlatgad. 672, The caly* diaplayed, 673. The 
canlla and slamincal luhe laid open. E74. Tte plslil and the free ponioii of [he slaniens. 
675. Venicsl mctioji of Ihe oi-ary. 676. Vettioal seclioii ofiha seed, showing the largo embryo 



than the rest. Stamens six to eight, combined in a tube, which is 

split on the upper side, and united beiow with the claws of the 

petals : anthers innate, mostly one-celled, opening by a pore at the 

apex. Ovary compound, two-celled, with a single suspended 

I I II yl d d I d d p I fl 

d d lly h I E b y 1 1 g 

61yh lb — rPlyll pfl d 

d p rs d ly h gh h Id A b p pi 

prvdl d d yp Ijld d 

Tl P ly 1 S fe { k ) 

hm p dipl fh lOhp 

mpl J d d II B 1 P N p I & I 

Ik 1 y p d 1 lb m 


767 fld K m ffi( A RA yF I ) f h g 
K 1 I i I d ly b d 1 P ly 

1 b h hLm hghdd 

p I f mpl I I p I d 1 

d 1 f d h n f II Ij by h 

hyp gy d th f p I Tl 

d I d gib 

El d d 1 p d d 

Ipd &. \ \ i fK d fP 

Thf SIKI Ip hmpp 

768 iJ 1 uml {J P I r iy) H h h b 

hi d !!y ! d I f I d h 

pi Ij !y f fi p I I d h 

dd p 1 f (F 38- ) C II pi h p r 1 

g I m h y 

OryldplF Ig fm 

f h h h F g 438 446 S d d f lb 

m— Th flyddd 1 pplh 

d r! ~ 

76 M)rdPpIna8D{AP? PI F I ) hlh 

! p pi fl I dy II d (4 8 F 317 3 I) 

{ y f ) 1 1 d d pi (F 30 ) 

m d lih (Fg 307 3 4) ly (F g 

3^2) d b f ! ly E d I b 1 

Igjid L I pdhlfl 



{Es:., the Pea, Bean, Locust, Clover, &.c,) The vexillum is the 
largest petal, and external in Eestivation, in all true papilionaceous 
corollas, as in the diagram. Fig. 382. But in the 

770. Sllbord, CEesalpinece (to which Cassia, Cercis, and the Honey- 
Locust belong), the corolla gradually loses its papilio 

acter, and always has the 
the lateral ones in Eestivat 

vexillum, or superior petal, covered by 
ion • the stamens ire distinct, and the 

embryo straight. The lea 

771. Subonl. MimosEB (a 1 

Sensitive Plant belong) h 

f bp 
g g p h h 1 Acacia and the 
p f ly g 1 lyx and corolla, 

the latter mostly valvate i 
the stamens, which are so 

EB d hy[ gy ous, as well as 
m d fi b f n very numer- 

ous ; and the embryo is s 

h Tl 1 frequently tri- 


772. P p 1 cere 

r d ry p rt f he world, from 

the tropi h f d 

C Ip Ee d M -nosere are con- 

fined to 1 rop 1 d 
count of 1 f 1 pi 

m temp g . — A full ac- 
d p d f 1 ge order would 

require a p 1 m 

M y, such as Clover, Lucerne (Med- 

icago sat ) & ly cultivated for fodder ; Peas and 

Beans, f p I Th ts f he Licorice (Glycirrhiza glabra of 
Southern Europe) abound in a sweet mucilaginous juice, from 
which the pectoral extract of this name is prepared. The sweet 
pulp of the pods of Ceralonia Siliqua (Carob-tree of the South of 
Europe, &c.), of the Honey-Locust (Gleditschia), &Ai 's I'kew'se 
eaten. The laxative pulp of CatharWcarpus Fistula a d of the 
Tamarind, is well known ; the latter is acidulated w tl maL c and 
a little tartaric and citric acid. — A peculiar vola le j c pie 
(called Coumarin) gives its vanilla-like fragrance to the well 1 nowa 
Tonka-hean, and to the Melilotus, or Sweet Clover. Tl e fluwe s 
and seeds of the latter and of Trigonella cterulea give the peculiar 
odor to Seheipzeiger cheese. — Astringents and tonics arc also 
yielded by this order : such as the African Pterocarpus eriuaceus, 
the hardened red juice of which is Gum Kino / that of P. Draco, of 
Carthagena, fcc, is Dragon's Blood. The bark of most Acacias 
and Mimosas contains a very large quantity of tannin, and is like- 
ly to prove of great importance in tanning. The valuable astrin- 
gent called Catechu is obtained by boiling and evaporating the 
heart-wood of the Indian Acacia Catechu. — Leguminosse yield 
the most important coloring mutters ; such as the Briml-wood, the 



Logwood of Garapeachy (the peculiar coloring principle of which 
is called Hcematin), and the Red Sandal-wood of Ceylon. Most 
important of all is Indigo, which is prepared from the fermented 
juice of the Indigofera tinctoria (a native of India), and also from 
I. cEerulea, and other species of the genus. This substance ia 
highly azotized, and is a violent poison. — To the same order we 
are indehted for valuable resins and balsams ; such as the Me^iican 
Copal, Balsam, of Copaiva of the West Indies, Para, and Brazil, 
the bitter and fragrant Balsam of Peru, and the sweet, fragrant, 
and s ulan Balsam of Tolu. — It also furnishes the most useful 
gun s of wl ch we need only mention Gum Tragacanih, derived 
from As agalus ve us of Persia, &c. ; and Gum Arahic, the prod- 
uce of n me o s African species of Acacia. The best is said to 
be ob a ned f o Acacia vera, which extends from Senegal to 
Egyp wh le Gun Senegal ia yielded by A. Verek, and some other 
species of the River Gambia. The Senna of commerce consists of 
the leaves of several species of Cassia, of Egypt and Arabia. C. 
Marilandica of this country is a succedaneum for the officinal ar- 
ticle. — More acrid, ov even poisonous properties, are often met 
vfith in the order. The roots of Baptisia tinctoria (called Wild In- 
digo, because it is said to yield a little of that substance), of the 
Broom, and of the Dyers' Weed (G^enista tinctoria, used for dying 
yellow), possess such qualities ; while the seeds of Laburnum, &,c. 
are even narcotico -acrid poisons. The branches and leaves of 
Tephrosia, and the bark of the root of Piacidia Erythrina (Jamaica 
Dogwood, which is also found ia Southern Florida), are commonly 
used in the West Indies for stupefying fish. Cowitch ia the sting- 
ing hairs of the pods of Mucuna pruriens of the West, and M. pru- 
rita of the East, Indies. — Among the numerous valuable timber- 
trees, our own Locust {Robinia Pseudacacia) must be mentioned ; 
and also the Rosewood of commerce, the produce of a Brazilian, 
species of Mimosa. Few orders furnish so many plants cultivated 
for ornament. 

773. Otd. Rosaeefl! {the Rose Family). Trees, shrubs, or herbs, 
witli alternate leaves, usually furnished with stipules. Flowers 
regular. — Calyx of five (rarely three or four) more or less united 
sepals, and often svith as many bracts. Petals as many as the se- 
pals (rarely none), mostly imbricated in Eesiivation, inserted on the 
edge of a thin disc that lines the tube of the calyx. Stamens peri- 
gynous, indefinite, or sometimes few, distinct. Ovaries with soli- 



tary or few ovules: styles often lateral. Albumen none. Em- 
brjo sti light, with bioid and flat or plano-convex cotyledons (Fig. 
457) — Thib important order is divided into four suborders ; 

774 Snliord ClirjSobalaneBD {the Cocoa-plum Family). Ovary 
solitary, fiee from the calvx, or else cohering with it at the base 
on one side only, containing two erect ovules ; style arising from 
the apparent base. Fruit a drupe. Trees or shrubs. — Eic. Chry- 

775. SuboriJ, AmygdaleEE {the Almond or Plum Family). Ovary 
solitary, free from the deciduous calyx, with two suspended ovules, 
and a terminal style. Fruit a drupe (Fig. 447, 448). Trees or 
shrubs. — Ex. Amygdalus (the Almond, Peach, &,c.). Primus (the 
Plum), Cerasus (the Cherty), 

776. Subard. Kosawie proper. Ovaries several, i 

FIG. 677. Tbe Slrawljorrf (FtEssria). fiTS. Half ofa flower.dlvWed vetticallj.rron 
(ho pslalsare tamoved; ahowingtheperigjiiouB insenionol! [ho slamena, and Ihs «i]a 
ceptacle, which, incrassing in bIm, forma Ihe pulpy, edible fruit, ijearing iKe achenia, 
fruiu, on IW surface. 679. OneofthecarpelHinagniBed.Bhowing thelaleralstjle 681 
of the BiackberCf (Rnbue vIUdsus), nilh a longiludinal seciion : hsre the elnngaled rer 
does notenlargo, but (he ocaries become drupes. 631. Section of the eadocarp; thee: 
which is ilLed by the seed, and Ihal by the embryo, »llh ile largs cotyledons. 682. I 
of Sangulaorba Canadensis, enlarged. 683, Vetlical seciion oriha same in fruit; the. 

largo embryo fllling Iho achcnium. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

JERS. 421 

ly solitary, free from the calyx (which is often bracfeolate, as i 
double), but sometimes inclosed in its persistent tube, in fruit be- 
coming either follicles or achenia. Styles terminal or lateral- 
Herbs or shrubs. — The three tribes of this suborder are Tribe I. 
Spires, where the fruit is a follicle, Ea:. Spirrea and Gillenia. 
Tribe 2. Dryade^, where the fruits are achenia, or sometimes 
little drupes, and when numerous crowded on a conical or hem- 
ispherical torus. Ex. Dryas, Agrimoaia, Potentilla, Fragaria 
(Strawberry), Riibus (Raspberry aud Blackberry). Tribe 3, Ro- 
SEJi, where numerous achenia cover the hollow torus which lines 
the urn-shaped calyx-tube ; and the latter, being contracted at the 
mouth, and becoming fleshy or berry-like, forms a kind of false 
pericarp ; as in the Rose. 

777. Suhord. Pomeie {the Fear Family). Ovaries two to five, or 
rarely solitary, cohering with each other and with the thickened 
and fleshy or pulpy calyx-tube ; each with one or few ascending 
seeds. Trees or shrubs. — Ex. Cralsegus (the Thorn), Cydonia 
(the Quince), Pyrus (the Apple, Pear, &c.). 

778. This important order is difflised through almost every part 

of the world ; but chiefly abounds in temperate climates, where it 

FlO. 634. Vertical eecLlon or an uaeipsDdfd Rose, showlnglhealtachmentartlie carpels to 
the liajng cfthe calyx-tube, atid of the atamena and petals to traaummit or etlge. 6SS. Vertical 
gecllDn of the fruit of the Quince, axhtbitlng the carpala inieated hy the thickened calyx which 

ntftedseed; the rhapheand chalazaconepicuous. 687. The etnUryo, BBS. Crowseclioa of aa 



furnishes Ihe most important fruits. It is destitute of unwholesome 
qualities, with one or two exceptions ; viz. : — 1st. The bark, 
leaves, and kernel of AraygdaleiB contain prussic acid, as is indicat- 
ed by their peculiar odor, — a trace of which is perceived insome 
species of Spirfea, and in the Mountain Ash, &.c., among Pomete ; 
and 2d. The root of Gillenia (Bowman's Root, Indian Physic) is 
emetic in large doses, but in small doaes it acts as a tonic. The 
bark and root in all are astringent. The bark of Amygdaieaj also 
exudes gum. That of the Wild Black Cherry is febrifugal ; and the 
timber is useful in cabinet-work. The leaves of Cerasus Carolini- 
ana contain so much prussic acid as to destroy cattle that feed upon 
them. It takes the place in this country of the Cerasus Lauro-ce- 
rasus (Cherry-Laurel) of the Old World, from which the poisonous 
Laurel-water and the virulent Oil of Laurel are obtained. Sweet 
and bitter almonds are the seeds of varieties of Amygdalas com- 
munis (indigenous to the East), differing in the quantity of the 
prussic acid they contain : the oil of the former resembles olive-oil ; 
that of the latter is a deadly poison. Of tho Peach, Apricot, Nec- 
tarine, Plum, and Cherry, it is unnecessary to speak. The kernels, 
as well as the flowers, of the former, especially, abound in prussic 
acid. — The strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry are the princi- 
pal fruits of the proper Rosacete. The leaves of Rosa ceniifolia 
are more commonly distilled for Rose-water : and Attar of Roses 
is obtained from E. Damaacena, &c. — Pomaceous fruits, such as 
the apple, pear, quince, services, medlar, &.C., yield to none in im- 
portance : their acid is usually the malic. 

779. Ot(l, CalycanlliaiieEe. Shrubs, with quadrangular stems 
(which when old exhibit four -xxes of growth exterior to the old 
1 h pi d 1 ry 1 

dfl Clyf mhhl 

wood), oppo 

and terminal I 

ened colored 

all united bel 

metis upon it 

the inner sle 1 

1 O m ! h 

1 fi 1 d b m 1 d 

achenia inf rtdthh f fhd 

which lines 1 ly b 111 Id h 

Rose. Albumen none. Cotyledons convolute. — Consists of two 
genera ; namely, Calycanthus (Carolina Allspice, Sweet-scent- 
ed Shrub, &.C.), and Chimonanthua, of Japan. They are culti- 
vated for their fragrant flowers. The bark and foliage of Caly- 



canlhuB exhale a camphoric odor ; and the flowers a fragrance 
not unlike that of strawberries. 


780. Ord, MyrlacefB {Ihe Myrtle Family). Trees or shiubs, 
opposite and simple entire leaves, which are punctate with pellucid 

g parallel with and 

Calyx-tube adherent to the 

five-cleft, valvate in Eestnaliou 

wanting. Stamens indefinite, 

mall round (introrse) anthers 

destitute of albumen — 

ind usually furnished with a 
close to the margin ; without stipule 
compound ovary ; the limb four- o 
Petals four or five, 
usually with long filaments i 
Style one. Seeds usually i 
Ex. Myrtus, the Myrtle, is the most familiar representative of this 
beautiful tropical and subtropical order ; which is well distinguished 
from its allies by its opposite dotted leaves and aromatic proper- 
ties. The species abound in a pungent and aromatic volatile oil, 
and an astringent principle. Cloves are the dried flower buds of 
Caryophyllus aromaticus. Pimento (Allspice) is the dried fruit of 
Eugenia Pimenta. Cajeput oil, a powerful sudoriflc, is distilled 

a. 690, FlowBH ofCaiycantligs 
n receptacle, &c, ; [he Bocai ei 
A pistil. 694. Section of the oy 
'haped receptacle m fnilt. 696. . 

Ho.t.d, Google 


from the leaves and fruit of a Mclale f I M N 

meroua Australian species of Eucalyp h h p g 

part of the forests of that country, yield 1 g q y f 

The aromatic fruits of many species, fi t d 1 tra d 
lage, and acidulated with a free acid, a hly p 1 h f 

instance, as the Pomegranate, the Gua E AppI & 

781. Ord, MelastomacefE. Trees, shrub h b h p 
ribbed leaves, and showy flowers, with y m 
startiens as petals ; the anthers mostly pp d g d dp g by 
pores, inflexed in salivation : further d 1 d f ro ]V y se 
by the leaves not being dotted ; and from Ly h le by 1 d 
tion of the calyx-tube (at its nerves a I ) lb y — 
Ex. The, beautiful species of Ehexia p 1 k 1 
order in the United Slates : all the res rop 1 T b 

of Melastoma are eatable, and tinge tl 1 p bl k 1 k h 1 
berries ; whence the generic name. 

782. Ord. LylhraMEe {the Loosestrif F ly) d g h d 
among these perigynous orders, with b d b 
tubular calyx inclosing the 2 - 4-ce!led r) b If from 
it. The styles are perfectly united ii f h 
capsule. The stamens are inserted onh b fh yblw 
the petals. — £». Lythrura. Chiefly trop 1, fl q 

783. Ord. RhizophoraceiE {the Mangrove Family) consists of a few 
tropical trees (extending into Florida and Louisiana), growing in 
maritime swamps ; with the ovary often partly free from the ca- 
lyx, two-celled, with two pendulous ovules in each cell ; they are 
remarkable for their opposite leaves, with intcrpetiolar stipules, 
and for the germination of the embryo while within the pericarp 
(645). — £k. Rhizopbora, the Mangrove (Fig. 118). The astrin- 
gent bark has been used as a febrifuge, and for tanning. 

784. Ord. CombretaeeEE consists of tropical trees or shrubs (which 
have one or two representatives in Southern Florida), oi\en apeta- 
lous, but with slender colored stamens ; distinguishable from any 
of the preceding orders of this group by their one-celled ovary, 
with several suspended ovules, but only a solitary seed, and con- 
volute cotyledons. — Ex. Combretum. Some species cultivated 
for ornament ; some are used by tanners. The seeds of Termina- 
lia Catappa (which extends into Florida) are eateo like almonds. 

785. Ord. OnagraeetE {the Evening-Primrose Family). Herbs, or 
rarely shrubby plants, with alternate or opposite leaves, not dotted 



nor furnished frith stipules. Flowers usually showy, tetramerous. 
Calyx adherent to the ovary, and usually produced beyond it into 
a tube. Petals usually four (rarely three or six, occasionally ab- 
sent), and the stamens as many, or twice as many, inserted into 
the throat of the calyx. Ovary commonly four-celled r styles 
united ; the stigmas four, or united into one. Fruit mostly cap- 
sular. — Ex. Chiefly an American order; many are ornamental 
in cultivation. Fuchsia, remarkable for its colored calyx and ber- 
ried fruit ; (Enothera (Evening Primrose) ; Epilohium, where the 
seeds bear a coma ; Gaura, where the petals are often irregular ; 
Ludwigia, which is sometimes apetalous ; and CircEea, where the 
lobes of the calyx, petals, stamens, cells of the ovary, and the 
seeds, are reduced fo two ; showing a connection with the appended 

786. Subord. Halomgea;, which aro a sort of leduced aquatic 
OnagraceK, often apetalous : tlie solitary seeds furnished with a 
little albumen, as in Myriophyllum (Water Milfoil) and Hippuris 
(Horse-tail), where the limb of the calyx is almost wanting; the 
petals none ; the stamens reduced to a single one, and the ovary 
to a single cell, with a solitary seed. 



7S7, Ofd. CaclacefB {l^i^ Cactus Family). Succulent shrubby 
plants, peculiar in habit, with spinous buds, usually leafless ; the 
stems either subglobose and many-angled, columnar with several 
angles, or flattened and jointed. Flowers usually large and showy. 
Calyx of numerous sepals, imbricated, coherent with and crowning 
the one-celled ovary, or covering its whole surface ; the inner usu- 
ally confounded with the indefinite petals. Stamens indefinite, 
with long filaments, cohering with the base of the petals. Styles 
united : stigmas and parietal placentfe several. Fruit a berry. 
Seeds numerous, with little or no albumen. —All American, the 
greater part Mexican or on the borders of Mexico. The common 
Opuntia {Prickly Pear) extends north to New England. The mu- 
cilaginous fruit is eatable. 

788. Ord. Grossulacete {the. Gooseherry Family). Small shrubs, 
either spiny or prickly, or unarmed ; with ahernate, palmately- 
lobed and veined leaves, usually in fascicles, often sprinkled with 


s dots. 

Flowers in racemes o 

r small clusters. C 


FIG. 706. The Go 

osebcrrj! (Ribes TJvaorisps) i a 

ijianch >n 

flawer, 707. Bro 

inch In frull. 

JOa. Thei 

lEdyi, bsari 

,my from 

[hs summit of tbe 

and laid. 

ipen. 710, 

711. SecIJoiia ofths niiripo 

ftult. 718. 

Magnified eeed 1 


ame ftom the ripe fruit, where the rhaphs 




lion of Ihe 

same, showing thi 




adherent to the one-celled ovary, and more or less produced be- 
yond it, five-iobed, sometimes colored. Petals (amall) and stamens 
five, inserted on tlie calyx. Ovary with two parietal placealEe : 
styles more or less united. Fruit a many-seeded berry, crowned 
with the shrivelled remains of the flower. Embryo minute, in 
hard albumen. — Ex. Ribes (Gooseberry and Currant). Natives 
of temperate and colder regions, chiefly of the northern hemi- 
sphere. Never unwholesome : the fruit usually esculent, contain- 
ing mucilaginous and saccharine pulp, with more or less malic or 
citric acid*. Several Oregon and Californian species are showy in 

789. Ord. lOasaeeSB. Herbs usually clothed with rigid or sting- 
ing hairs ; the leaves opposite or alternate, without stipules ; the 
flowers showy. Calyx-tube adherent to the one-celled ovary ; the 
limb mostly five-parted. Petals as many, or twice as many, as the 
lobes of the calyx. Stamens perigynous, indefinite, and in several 
parcels, or sometimes definite. Style single. Ovary with three 
to five parietal placentK. Seeds few or numerous, albuminous. — 
Ex. Loasa, Mentzelia, Cevallia ; the latter with solitary seeds and 
no albumen. All American, and in the United States nearly con- 
fined to the regions beyond the Mississippi. The bristles of Loasa 
sting like nettles. 

790. Ord. TnrneraflCff. Herbs, with the habit of Cistus or Heli- 
anthcmum ; the alternate leaves without stipules. Flowers solita- 
ry, showy. Calyx five-lobed ; the five petals and five stamens in- 
serted on its throat. Ovary free from the calyx, one-ceiicd, with 
three parietal placenta). Styles distinct, commonly branched or 
many-cleft a( the summit. Fruit a three-valved capsule. Seeds 
numerous (anatvopous), with a crustaceous and reticulated testa, 
and a membranaceous aril on one side. Embryo in fleshy albu- 
men. — Ex. Turnera, of which there is one species in Georgia. 

791. Ord, PassLfloracea; (the Passion-jiower Family). Herbs, or 
somewhat shrubby plants, climbing by tendrils ; with alternate, en- 
tire, or palmately lobcd leaves, mostly furnished with stipules. 
Flowers often showy, somelimes involucrate. Calys mostly of 
five sepals, united below, free from the one-celled ovary ; the 
throat bearing five petals and a filamentous crown. Stamens as 
many as the sepals, monadelphous, and adliering to the stalk of 
the ovary, which has usually three club-shaped styles or stigmas, 
and as many parietal placentEe. Fruit mostly fleshy or berry-like. 


428 ESOGENOus oa 

Seeds numerous, with a brittle sculptured testa, inclosed in pulp. 
Embryo inclosed in thin, flesby albumen. — Ex. Passiflora (ibe 
Passion-flower, Granadilla) : nearly ail natives of tropical Amer- 
ica. Two species are found as far nortb as Virginia and Oliio. 
Many are cultivated for their singular and showy flowers. The 
acidulous refrigerant pulp of Passiflora quadrangularis (the Grana- 
dilla), P. edulis, and others, is eaten in the West Indies, &c. But 
the roots are emetic, narcotic, and poisonous. They contain a 
principle resembling morphine, which, in some species, extends 
even to the flowers and fruit. 

792. Ord. PapayaMED comprises merely a small genus of tropical 
dicecioua trees, of peculiar character : the principal one is the Pa- 
paw-tree (Carica Papaya) of tropical America, which has been 
introduced into East Florida. The fruit, when cooked, is eatable ; 
but the juice of the unripe fruit, as-well as of other parts of the 
plant, is a powerful vermifuge. The juice contains so much fibrine 
tbat it has an extraordinary resemblance to animal matter : meat 
washed in water impregnated with this juice is rendered tender ; 
even tjie exhalations from the tree produce the same effect upon 
meat suspended among the leaves. 

793. DM, (Jlieiirllitactte {the Gourd Familp). Juicy herbs, climb- 
ing by tendrils; with alternate, palmately veined or lobed, rough 

ir difficious flowers. Calyx of four or five 
, united into a tube, and in the fertile flowers 
Petals as ma y as the sepals co n nonty 
nto a o ojPtalou'i corolla whch coheres 
I ens five or three nse ted n o tl e base of 
e ther d stu ct o var u sly un ed bj tl e fila 
1 eo =1 a d lo g s nuo s or con or ed anthers Ovary two to five 
celled ( -a 1> one celled bv obi tera on and even one ov led) 
the tl ck and fleshy ph e a, often fill ng the cells or d ve g g 
befo or af er rea 1 g tl e ix s a d car ci back so as to reacl 
the w alls of tl p p r cirp somet mes man festly par etal 1 e dis 
sep e s ofte d sippear ng d r ng s ^ro th st g is th ck 
dl t dorfrnged trut {pepo 613) us ally fleshy v 1 i hard 
1 nd so net n es n embrano s Seeds n ostly flat w h no albu 
e E bryo stra ght Cotvledo s fol aceous — Ex The P mp 
kna d '^q ash (Oucurb a) Gourd Cucumbe and Melon When 
the dcrid prmt-iplc which prevdila throughcut the order is greatly 
diflused, the fruits are eatable and sometimes delicious : when con- 

(rarely six) s 

cpals, 1 


e t to i 

e ova 


e o less 

n ed 


I tie calj 

t S 


CO olla or 


Ho.t.d, Google 


centrafed, as in the Bottle Gourd, Bryony, &c., they are danger- 
ous or actively poiaooous. The oiBcinal Cnlocynth^ a resinoid, bit- 
ter extract from the pulp of Cucutnis Colocynthis (of the Levant, 
India, &c.), is very acrid and poisonous ; and Elaterium, obtained 
from the juice of the Squirting Cucumber (Momordica Elaterium 
of the South of Europe), is still more violeot in its effects. Mo- 
mordica Balsamina (the cultivated Balsam-Apple} contains the 
same principle in smaller quantity. The seeds of all are b 

794 m. (lassuIacLH! {the (hp F I 

) H 

b I gl ly 

shrubby plants, mostly fleahy 1 


1 1 

and floners usuallj m cym m 


} f 1 

twenty sepals, moie oi lesu u d lb 


f 1 

ries, persistent Petals a^ i h 

1 1 

ly b d 

into a monopetalous coiolla. & m 



as the sepals, inserted with h p 1 

h b 

f h ly 

Pistils aiwayi as many as the p 1 d 

1 { P h 

rum and Diamoipha) partly d 


g f 11 1 

fruit, several-seeded. Embry gh 


lb — £ 

Sedum (Stone-crop, Orpine, L f 


1 rap rv 

vum, or Houseleek, &g. Di h d b 


mpl ly y 

metrical flowers, on which a b y 1 


dj b 11 

trated (449, 450). They mo ly ro 

d pi 


nomical importance. 

FIG. 715. Stamlnale Bowst of the Qoiini; the calyx and ci 

™lla cut 

away. Jie. CroM-aec- 

Hon of ilie uniWd anlhoH. 718. SepatMe slanieri of Ihs Mol 

on, 7iy. 

Saciion of the ovary of 

He Gourd. TJO. Plaa ( 



795. M. SastfragBCCiB {the Saxifrage Family). Herbs or shrubs, 
witb alternate or opposite leaves. Calyx of four or five more or 
less united sepals, eitber free from or more or less adherent to the 
ovary, persistent. Petals as many as the sepats, rarely waodng. 
S an n a many, commonly twice as many, or rarely three or 
f m as many, as the sepals, perigynous. Ovaries mostly 

w { m 16'^ three or four), usually united below and distinct at 
h m Seeds numerous, with a straight embryo in fleshy 

bun There are three principal divisions, or subgrders ; 

796 Subncd SaiitragCte [the true Saiifiage Family). Herbs. 
Petals imbricate m aestivation Capsule {when the carpels are 
united) either two celled with the placenfe in the axis, or one- 
celled with pauelal placenta — £r Savifraga, Sullivantia (Fig. 
721), Heuchera Of little consequence, exoept as ornamental 
plants The roots are geneially astringent , powerfully so in 
Heuchera, sspecially m the common H Americana (so 
called Alum-root). 


Ilvanlls OKLonls. ' 7^. Flower wllh iKs cslyx kid o] 
Fruit aurrounded bj [he p9reis(«iit calyx and witbered petals, m 
iiwor part of the capsule, magnified ; ahowing the central placoii 
ng seeds. 725, A magnlSed Beed, with tta cellular, wtnglllte lea 

Ho.t.d, Google 


797. Sniiord. Hydrangea; {the Hydrangea Family). Shrubs; Pet- 
als valvate in Eestiyation. Capsule two- (rarely five- to ten-) celled : 
the styles or stigmas distinct or united. Stamens sometimes nu- 
merous. — Ex. Hydrangea, Decumaria. 

798. Sabord. Plliladelphes {the Mock Orange Family). Shrubs. 
Petals convolute in Ecstivation. Capsule three- or four-celled : 
styles more or less united. Stamens mostly numerous. — Ex. 
Philadelphus, the Mock Orange. 

799. Ord. HaniumelaceEe {the Witch-Hazel Family), Shrubs or 
small trees, with alternate simple leaves, without stipules. Flow- 
ers often polygamous. Petals valvals in sestivation. Stamens 
twice as many as the petals, half of them sterile; or numerous, 
and the petals none. Summit of the ovary free from the calyx, a 
single ovule suspended from the summit of each cell : styles two, 
distinct. Capsules cartilaginous or bony. Seeds bony, with a 
small embryo in hard albumen, — Ex. Hamamelis (Witch-Hazel), 
Fothergjlla. A small order, of little importance. Hamamelis is 
remarkable for flowering late in autumn, just as its leaves are 
falling, and perfecting its fruit the following spring. 

800. Ord. Mbelliferffi {the Parsley Family). Herbs, with hol- 
low stems, and allornate, dissected leaves, with the petioles sheath- 
ing or dilated at the base. Flowers in simple or mostly compound 
umbels, which are occasionally contracted into a kind of head. 
Calyx entirely coherent with the surface of the dicarpellary ovary ; 
its limb reduced to a mere border, or to five small teeth Petals 
five valvate m ■Bstivition, mseited, with the five stimens, on a d sc 
which crowns the oviry , then points mflexed Styles two, their 
bases often united and thickened, forming a <!tylopodium Fiuit 
dry, separating from each other, and often from a slender axis 
{earpopkoi e),mto two mdehiscent caipels (called mtrtcarps) the 
face by which these cohere recenes the technical name of com 
miKSute they are maiked with a defin te number of nhs {juga), 
which are sometimes produced mto wings the inteivening spaces 
{intends), is well as the commissure sometimes contain canals 
or reci'ptacles of volatile oil, called tittte these are the pnnc pal 
terms peculiarly employed in describing the phnts of this difficult 
fam ly Imbrjominute Albumen hatd oi corneous — Bx The 
Carrot, Parsnip, Celery, Caraway, Anise Coriandei, Poison Hem- 
lock ino are com non rep re ^>enta lives of this well known family 
Nearly all Umbelliferous plants are furnished with a volatile od or 



balsam, chiefly accumulated in the roots and in the reservoirs of 
the fruit, upon which their aromatic and carminative properties 
depend : sometiraea it is small in quantity, so as merely to flavor 
the saccharine roots which are u-^ed for food , as in the Carrot and 
Parsnip. But in many an allnloid prmople exists, pervading the 
fohage, stems, and roots, espei. illy the Kltei, which renders them 

acrid-narcutic poisons. And finailj', many species of warm re- 
gions yield odorous gum-resins (such as Galbanum, Assafretida, 
&c.), which have active stimulant properties. The stems of Cel- 
ery (Apium graveolens), which are acrid and poisonous when the 
plant grows wild in marshes, iSic, are rendered innocent by culti- 
vation in dry ground, and by blanching. Among the virulent 
acrid -narcotic species, the most famous are the Hemlock (Conium 
maculatum, naturalized in this country), and Cicuta maculata 
(Cowbane, Water- Hem lock) indigenous to this country, the root 
of which (like that of the C. virosa of Europe) is a deadly poi- 

HG. 727. Conium 1 

iiBcu latum (Poison Hen 

alock). a portion of the sgiMUd^ 

and an umbel «ith yoi 

nag fnilu 733. A flow 

erambellst. 729. A flower, en 

ftuLL 731. Crosa-seoli. 

onofthosame, aliowir 

ig Iho involule Iciclaapennmis 

Ho.t.d, Google 


son. A drachm of the fresh root his killi d a ho^ in If- s than 

801. Orrt, Araliaeea! {the Spikenard Family). A small family, 
scarcely differing from Umbelliferse in botanical character, except 
that the ovary is mostly compo'sed of n o e ban two a pel v! ch 
do not separate when ripe, but become drupes or ber es and 
Ihe albumen ia not hard like 1 om but o Iv fleshy — E Aralia 
(the Spikenard, the Wild Sareapar lla ind he A fueled ee), 
Panax (Ginseng), and Hedera (le Ivy) Tier jiope ties are 
aromatic, stimulant, somewhat ton c and al e -a ve 

802. Ord, CornaeetB {ttte Cornel Family). Chiefly trees or shrubs ; 
with the leaves almost always opposite, destitute of stipules. Flow- 
era in cymes, sometimes in heads surrounded by colored involu- 
cres. Calyx coherent with the two-celled ovary ; the very small 

FIQ, 733. Flowernf OamorrhiBjlongiatjlis. ;3i. ambel oftheaameln fruit: a, Ibe In'O- 
iucala. 73B. The tlpa meticarpa saparailng frani the axis ot carpopboro. 78S, Craas-eeaSoa 
of Ibe fruU of Angelica, whsre ttie lateral ribs are produced Into wings : [hs black dots reprs- 
BannJierittffl, aa they appear in a crosa-section. J3?. One of Ihe marioarpa of ths aanie, show- 
ing the inner (ace, ot cannnlraiiie, as well as [ha InuisTeree eectlon, viUi Iwo of [he viiue, a. 

FIG. 738, Flower of Aralia nudicaulls (Wild Satsaparilla) ; a VErlical setlioo, displaying 
iwo of ihe Mile nf Ihe over;. 739. Ctoaa-seciion of Ihe ovary. UU. Longiludinal KCUon of a. 



limb four-toothed. Petals four, valvate in Ecstivation. Stamens 
four, alternate with the petals. Styles united into one. Fruit a 
two-celled drupe, — Ex. Cornus, the Dogwood. Chiefly remark- 
able for their bitter and astringent bark, which in this country has 
been substituted for Cinchona. The peculiar principle fhey con- 
tain is named Comine. Cornua Canadensis (Fig. 240) is a low 
and herbaceous species. 

Division 11. — Monopetalous or Gamopetalous Exorenods 

Floral envelopes consisting of both calyx and corolla ; the petals 
more or less united {corolla gamopetalous). 


Gi'Ovp 1. Ovary coherent with tha caljx, two- to several-celled, with one or 
many ovules in each cell. Seeds albuminons, witJi a small embryo. Sta- 
mens inaerted on ihe corolla. Leaves opposite. 

Stipnles wanting. CArRiFOLiACE-E, p. 436. 

Stipules interpetiolar (or leaves whorled), Iti(eiACj;.E, p. 437. 

Groups, Ovarj coherent with the calyx, one-celled and one-ovu!ed; rarely 
three-ceUed with two of the cells emply. Seeds with little or no albumen. 
Stamens inserted on the corolla. Calyx a mere ring, crown, or pappus, 
or obsolete. Fruit like an achenium. 
Stamens distinct. Seeds suspended. 
Stamens 3 or fewer, Valertanace^, p. 439. 

Stamen»4. Heads involucrate. DiPSACEJi.p. 

Stamens sjngonesious. Seed erect. Composite, p. 

Group 3, Ovary coherent with the calyx, with two or more colls and nu 
ous ovules. Seeds albuminous. Saliiiena inserted with the corolla (epi- 
gynoTls) ; anthers not opening by pores. 
Corolla iri'egular. Stamens united in a tube, Lobet.iace.e, p, 443. 

Co[;ol!ii regular. Stamens distinct. CAMPASDLAOEii, p. 444. 

Group i. Ovaiy free from the calyx, or sometimes coherent with it, with two 
or more cells and numerous ovules. Seeds albuminous. Stamens inserl- 
ed with the corolla, or rarely coherent with its base, as many, or twice as 
many, as its lobes ; anthers mostly opening by pores or chinks. 

* Cucurbitacesj, placed in tlic I'olypetalous series, are commonly somewhat 
gamopetalous : so are some exotic Crassulace^, &c. 



Anthers two-celled. Ebicace.e, p. 444. 

Anthera one-oelled. Efacridace.b, p. 447. 

Gnap 5. Orary free, or rarely coherent with the calyx, seyeral-celled, with 
a single ovule (or at least a single seed) in each coll. Seeds mostly albu- 
minous. Stamens definite, as many as the lobes of Ihe (eomelimes almost 
polypetalous) corolla and alternate with thom, or two to fonc times as 
many; anthers not opening by pores. — Trees or shrubs. 

Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them, 

A-JEIFOLIACBJ;, p. 447- 

Stamens more numerons and all fertile. 

Flowers polj^anious ; calyxfree. Edbnacb.b, p. 447. 

Flowers perfect; «Uyx more or less adnate. Sttraoaob^, p. 448. 

Stamens as many fertile as there are lobes of the corolla and opposite them ; 

and with b sterile series alternate between them. Sapotace^, p. 448. 

Group G. Ovary free, or with the base merely coherent with the tube of the 
calyx, one-celled, with a free central placenta. Stamens inserted into the 
regular corolla opposite its lohos 1 which they equal in number. Seeds 

Shrubs or trees ; fi uit drttpaceous. Mtrstna(;e.e, p. 448. 

Herbs: fruit capsular. Primui.*oe^^, p. 448. 

Group T. Ovary free, one-celled, with a single ovule; or two-celliid with 
several ovules attached to a thick central placenta. Stamens as many as 
the lobes of the regular corolla or the nearly distinct petals. Seeds albu- 

Ovary two-celled : style single: stamens 4. Plantaginace^, p. 449. 

Ovary one'Celled : styles and stamens 5, Pi,uMBAGiNACEJi, p. 450. 

Group 8. Ovary free, one- or two- (or spuriously foar-) celled, with numerous 
ovules. Corolla bilabiate or irregular ; tlie stamens inserted upon its tube, 
and mostly fewer than its lobes. 

Ovary one-celled with a central placenM. Stam. 2. LENTiBnLACE.E, p. 451. 

Ovary one-celied with parietal placeni™, Oeobabohace^, p. 451. 

Ovary spuriously 4-5-colled: seeds exalbaminous. Subord. Seeameje, p. 452. 

Ovary two-celled; placentts in the axis. 
Seeds indeRnite, wiogcd : albumen none, Bignoniaccai, p, 452- 

Seeds, few, wingless ; albumen none. Corolla convolute in (estivation. 

AcANTSACEf, p. 452. 

Seeds mostly Indefinite ; albamen copious. Corolla imbricative in iestiva- 

lion. ScEOPHULABtACB,^, p. 453. 

Group 9, Ovary free, two- to four-Iobed, and separating or splitting into as 
many one-scedsd nuis or achenia, or drupaceous. Corolla regular or ir- 
regular^ the stamens inserted on its tube, equal in number or fewer tban 
its lobes. Albnmoa little or none. 

Stamens 4, didynamous, or 2. Corolla more or less irregnlar. 
Ovarj not 4-lobed. Vekdesace.e, p, 454, 


436 EXOGEMons ok dicotyledonous plants. 

Oyary 4-lobed, forming 4 achenia. Labiate, p. 455. 

Stamens 5. Flower regular. Leaves alternate. BoRAGiNACEai, p. 456. 

Group 10. Ovary free, compound, or the carpels two or more and disdnet : 
the ovules usually Beveral or numerous. Corolla regular; the stamens 
inserted upon its tube, as many as the lobes and alternate with them. 
Seeds albuminous. 

• Ovary compound (of two or more united carpels). 
Flacentie 2, parietal (sometimes expanded). Embryo minute. 

Corolla not valvate in wstivation. 
Leaves lobed, mostly alternate. Seeds few, Htdeophyllaoe^, p. 4!J7. 
Loaves entire, opposite. Seeds indefinite. QENTiANACEiE, p. 462. 

Corolla valvate-induplioale in sestivation. Subord. MBNiAUTHiDEat, p. 462. 
Plaeeniie in the axis : ovary 2 - 8-celled. 
Embryo large, bent or coiled, with little albumen. Seeds one or two in 
each cell. Conyoltdlace^, p, 459. 

Embryo straight or arcuals, in copious albumen. 

Styles 2, distinct. Seeds indefinite, Hydroi,eace^., p. 458. 

Styles united nearly or quite to the summit. 
Ovary 3-oelled. Cor. convolute in (estivation. P0LBMONiACE.a;, p. 458. 
Ovary 3-celled. Cor. imbricated in asstivation. Diapbmsiace.*;, p. 458. 
Ovary 2-eel!ed. Corolla plaited or valvate in Eestivation. 

SoUkNACBa!, p. 461. 

* ■ Ovaries mostly two snd distinct, at least in fruit. 

Anthers : pollen granular. Apoctnacej!, p, 463. 

Anthers extrorse ; pollen in waxy masses. Asclefiadaoe*;, p. 46.3. 

Group II. Ovary free, two-celled, few-ovuled ; the cells of the fruit one- 
seeded. Corolla regular (sometimes nearly polypetalous or wanting) ; the 
stamens (two) fewer than its lohes. — Shrubs or trees. 

Seeds erect. Cor. imbricated or contorted in sestivalion. Jasminace.e, p. 464. 
Corolla valvals in testivation. Oleacbj];, p. 465. 

803. Ord. CaprifoliaeeEB {the Honeysuckle Family). Mostly shrubs, 
often twiniDg, with opposite leaves, aud no stipules. Calyx-tube 
adnate lo the 2-5-celled OYBvy ; the Umb 4-5-cleft, Corolla 
regular or irregular. Stamens inserted on the corolla, as many as 
the petals of which it is composed, and alternate with them, or 
rarely one fewer. Fruit mostly a berry or drupe. Seeds pen- 
dulous, albuminous, — Ex. The Honeysuckles (Lonicera), which 
have usually a peculiar bilabiate corolla (470, Fig. 743), the 
Snowberry (Symphoricarpua), Diervilla, which has a capsular 
fruit, &c., compose the tribe Lonicerb^, characterized by their 
tubular flowers and filiform slyle : while the Elder (Sarahucus) 
and Viburnum, which have a rotate or uro-shaped corolla, form 
the tribe Sambdce^. These plants chiefly belong to temperate 



ions. Several are widely cultivated for ornament. They a 
leraHy bitter, and rather active or nauseous in their prope 
: but the fruit of some few is edible. 

804. Ord, RubiatCte (the Madder Family). Shrubs or trees, or 
often herbs, with the entire leaves either in whorh, or opposite 
and furnished with stipules. Calyx-tube completely, or rarely in- 
completely, ad nate to the 3-5-celled ovary; the limb four- or five- 
cleft or toothed, or occasionally obsolete. Stamens as many as 
the lobes of the regular corolla, and alternate with them, inserted 
on the tube. Fruit various. Seeds albuminous. — This extensive 
family divides into two suborders, to which a third may be ap- 
pended, which dilfcrs in the free ovary, and is by most botanists 
deemed a distinct ordci 

S05. Subord Stellatetf (the true Madder Family). Herbs, with 
the leaves in wboiH , but all except a single pair are generally 
supposed to take the place of stipules, — Ex. Galium, Eubia (the 
Madder), &c., nearly all belonging to the colder parts of the world, 

806. Subord GinijllOllW {the Peruvian-Bark Family). Shrubs, 
trees, or herbs ; the leaves opposite and furnished with stipules, 

(Xyloaleon) nblonsifoiiai the iwo ovaries milled I 742. Lo- 










Ho.t.d, Google 


which are very various in form and appearance. — Ex. Cephalan- 
thus (Button-bush), Heclyotia, and an immense number of tropical 
genera. Their stipules distinguish them from Caprifoliacere. 

807. Subord. LogailieiBi or SpigeliefE, have opposite stipulate leaves, 
and the ovary nearly or entirely free from the persistent calyx. — 
Ex. Mitreola, Spigelia (the Pink-root), and other genera interme- 
diate between Ruhiaceis and Apocynacese. 

808. Very active, and generally febrifugal properties prevail ia 
this large order. The roots of Madder yield a most important 
dye; and many Galiums have a similar red coloring matter. — 

The division Cinchonefe furnishes two of the most valuable known 
remedial agents, namely, Peruvian hark, or Cinc?tona, and Ipecac- 
itanha. The febrifugal properties of the former depend on the 
presence of two alkalis, Cinchonia and Quinia, both combined 
with Kinic add. The Quinquina barks, which are derived from 
some species of Exostemma and other West Indian, Mexican, and 
Brazilian genera, contain neither cinchonia nor quinia. The bark 
of Pinckneya pubens, of the Southern United States, has been sub- 
stituted for Cinchona. — The true Ipecacuanha is furnished by the 

tJBl, si 




ia tincli 


■te Midda 




. ThBfmli, 



fruit separal 

,1ns. 'IS- 

r/o. 760. 


on of a 








sh. 7Ga 


lower, take, 

Ho.t.d, Google 



roots of CepViaaslis Ipecacuanha of Brazil and tlie i 
New Granada, Its emetic principle (called Emetine) also exists 
in Psychotria emetica of New Granada, which furnishes the striat- 
ed, black, or Peruvian Ipecacuanha. Cqfee is the horny seed 
(albumen) of CoffEea Arabica. According to Blurae, the leaves 
of the Coffee-plant are used as a substitute for tea in Java. — The 
roofs and leaves of Spigelia Marilandica (Carolina Pink-root) form 
a well-known vermifuge. 

I. Ol'd. Valeiianaceffi {the Valerian Family). Herbs with op- 
leaves, and no stipules. Flowers often in cymes, panicles, 
ids. Limb f the adnate calyv two to four toolh d I I te 
e forming kdfppp CU bl Ifm 

s with p hb f filbdSm 

distinct, inserted h 11 lly f 1 lb 

Ovary one-ovuled ( p -f 11 d b 

Fruit a kind of a 1 mSdpdd lb E 

bryo straight. Rdl p — £Valani'VI 

Fedia, the Lam 1 h 1 d Th 

roots, &c. oftlp Ipes hi hvy Ip la 

Fia. rw. Hedyotls (HaUBlonla) csmlsa. 765, 756. Tbs Iwo mrls of flowers sliat dltferent 



odor, have a somewhat hitter, acrid taste, and are antispasmodic 
and vermifugal. The Valerian of the shops is chiefly derived 
from Valeriana officinalis of the South of Europe. It produces a 
peculiar intoxication in cats. The roots of V. edulia are used for 
food by the aborigines of Oregon. The Spikenard of the ancients, 
esteemed as a stimulant medicine as well as a perfume, is the root 
of Nardostachys Jatamansi of the mountains of the North of India. 

810. flrd. DipsaeCffi {the Teasel Family). Herbs, with opposite 
or whorled sessile leaves, destitute of stipules. Flowers in dense 
heads, which are surrounded by an involucre. Limb of the adnate 
calyx cup-shaped and entire or toothed, or forming a bristly or 
plumose pappus. Corolla tubular; the limb four- or five-lobed, 
somewhat irregular. Stamens four, distinct, or rarely united in 
pairs, often unequal, inserted on the coralla. Ovary one-celled, 
one-ovuled. Seed suspended, albuminous. — Ex. Dipsacus, the 
Teasel, and Scabiosa, or Scabious. All natives of the Old World. 
Some are cultivated for ornament. Teasels are the dried heads of 
Dipsacus Fullonum, covered with stiff and spiny bracts, with re- 
curved points. 



81J. Ord Pnmposiia (tJie Compn^tU or Sunftowei Family) Herbs 
or shrubb, with the fljivers in heads (compound flowei-s of the 
older botanists), ciowded on a receptacle, 
and surrounded by a set of bracts [scales) 
forming an involucre , the separate flowers 
often fum shed with bractlels (i.haf pale^). 
Limb of the ■tdnate calyx ob'iolpte, or a 
pappus (305) consisting of hairs, bristles, 
scales &c CorolK re^Iar or iriegujar. 
Stamens five as many as the lobes or teeth 
of the legular corolla, inserted on its tube : 
anthers united into a tube {sy«(jfiiPS!(!ts Fig 769) Style two- 
cleft. Fruit an achemum, with a single erect exalbunimous seed, 
either naked or crowned with a pappus. Embryo straight. — This 
vast but very natural family is divided into three sets or suborders ; 

812. Snliord. TuiuIiflOFiB. Corolla tubular and regularly four- or 
five-lobed, either in all the flowers (when the head is discoid), or in 
the central ones (those of the disc) only, the marginalor ray-jiovi- 
ers presenting a Ugulate or strap-shaped corolla. — Ex. Liatris, 
Eupatorium, &c. ; where the heads are komogamous, that is, the 
flowers all tubular, similar, and perfect; Helianthus (Sunflower), 
Heleniiim, Aster, &c. ; where the heads are heterogamous ; the 
disc Bowers being tubular and perfect, while those of the ray are 
Ugulate, and either pistillate only, or neutral (473, note), that is, 
destitute of both stamens and pistils. 

813. Suboi'd. LabialifloriE. Corolla of the disc-flowers bilabiate, 
— Ex. Chaptalia, of the United States, Mutisia, Chstanthera, &c., 
of South America. 

814. Snbord, L^ulifloriB. Corolla of all the flowers (both disc 
and ray) ligulate ; all perfect. — Ex. The Dandelion, Lettuce, 
Cichory, &c 

815. This vast family coiripnses about a tenth part of all Phse- 
nogamous plants A bitter and astringent principle pervades the 
whole order, which la some is tonic (aa m the Camomile, Anthe- 
mis nobilis, the Boneset, or Thoroughwort, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 
&.C.) ; in others, combined with mucilage, so that they are demul- 
cent as well as tonic (as m Elecampane and Coltsfoot) ; in ti 
aromatic and e^trpmely bittei {«uch as Wormwood and all the spe- 

FIG, 69 '-jngeneal us slau ti 3 of a Conpo=ls ^(l. The anlbora laid □pen. 


442 EroGEKOUs or dicotyledonous plants. 

cies of Artemisia) ; sometimes accompanied by acrid qualities, as 
in llie Tansy (Tauacetum ^ulgaie), and the Mayweed (Mariita 
Cotula), tlie bruised fresh herbage of which blisters the skm The 
species of Liatrii which abound in terebinthme juice, aie among 
tbe reputed remedies for the bites of serpents The mice of Sil 
phium and of son^e Suaflowers is resinous The leaves of Soli 
dago odora wViich owe their pleasant inisate fiaj,ranco to i pe 
culiar volatile oil, are mtused is i sulstitute for lea From the 
seeds of Sunflowei, and seieral other plants of the oider a blind 

oil is expres 


The tubers of Helianthus tuberosus are 


FI6. 771, Ho 


atrsaquar 'S.C 

th=fl wersallluli 


pef^ 1 

ra The 

d also all 

e flowers 


ked Hal re eplacl 

1. pi 


eapiUsry Jflppoa 


Head of Heleniu 



eioting merely o 

a ligulale comlla. 77 


from Ihe 

roundish taospia 

apt a single diac 





biting tba 

pMiillir renalion 

fimiHyr ramoL/ 


ins corresponding 


nuses, and 

sending a 


B of the lobea, 7 


noted; Ihe 


f Lbs cal;! ia the liirm 


of abou 

il>e 9cale 

emagmfled. TT' 

utailar. corolla of this fam 

y laid ope 


cleft etjis p^ 
elnnssud spike-l 



Ihers uniied in s 1 

be, Ih 


Ihe two. 


piaclo, 8«ept a 




one of Ihe 


era, magnified, p 




hafforpalea); the 



of Ihe iiiYolucre 



ke) recsplaols of 


Ho.t.d, Google 



e the 

under the name of Jerusalem artichokes. True artichokes a 
fleshy receptacle of Cynara Scolymus. The flowers of Carthamua 
tinctorius, often called Safl'ron, yield a yellow dye. — The Liguli- 
florffi, or Cichoracefe, all bave a milky juice, which is narcotic, aod 
has been employed as a substitute for opium. The bland young 
leaves of the Garden Lettuce are a common aalad. The roasted 
roots of the Wild Succory (Cichorium Intybus) are extensively 
used to adulterate coffee : and the roots of some species of Trago- 
pogon (Salsify, Oyster-plant) and Scorzonera are well-known es- 

816. Ord. lobcliaceffi (the Lobelia Family). Herbs or somewhat 
shrubby plants, often yielding a milky juice, with alternate leaves 
and usually showy flowers. Limb of the adnate calyx five-cleft. 
Corolla irregularly five-lobcd, usually appearing bilabiate, cleft oa 
one side nearly or quite to the base. Stamens 5, epigynous, co- 

herent into a tube. Stigma fringed. Fruit capsular, two- or ihree- 

FIG. 783. Campanula mtundifclifl, much teduted In alM, TM. Lobelia ioflata, t^uced tn 
sise. 785. A Bawei, enlargsd, 7S6. The uniUtd fllamsnts and anthera indo^ing the style : the 
corolla and limb of the calyx cm away. !S7. The siigma autrounded by a Miige. 788. Trana- 



(rarely one-) celled, many-seeded. Seeds albuminous, — Ex. Lo- 
belia. All narcotico- acrid poisons. The well-known Lobelia in- 
fiata (Indian Tobacco) is one of the most powerful articles of the 
materia medica, and tije most dangerous iij the hands of the reck- 
less quacks who use it. Less than a teaspoonful of the seeds or 
powdered leaves will destroy life in a few hours, 

817. fird. Gainpannlaceee (the Campanula Family). Herbs, with 
a milky (slightly acrid) juice, alternate leaves, and usually showy 
flowers. Tube of the calyx adnate, the limb commonly five-clefl, 
persistent. Corolla regular, campanulate, usually five-lobed, with- 
ering. Stamens five, distinct. Style furnished with collecting 
hairs. Capsule two- to several -celled, many-seeded. Seeds albu- 
minous. — Ex. Campanula (Bell-flower, Harebell), Of little im- 
portance, except for ornament. 

818. DM, Ericaceffi (the Heath Family). Shrubs or sometimes 
herbs. Flowers regular or nearly so, 4-5-merous, the petals 
sometimes distinct. Stamens mostly distinct, free from the co- 
rolla, as many or twice as many as its lobes, and inserted with it 
(either hypogynous or epigynous), anthers two-celled, often ap- 
pendaged, commonly opening by terminal pores. Styles and 
stigmas united into one. Ovary with two or more cells and usually 
numerous ovules, free, or in Vaccinese coherent with the calyx- 
tube. Seeds usually indefinite, albuminous. — Some botanists give 
the rank of orders to the following suborders. 

819. Sflhord. VacciniCEB {IheWhorthherry Family). Ovary adnate 

FIG. 790. Bmnoh of Rhododanaron Lapponioura, 791. Enlsrgod flower, with ila pefllcel 
and bracl9, 793. FJower with tlio corolla remoted, more onlargsd, 793, Capjule of R. nmjt- 
muin, opening by aepLicidd dehiacencs ; the valves bceakli^ avtay from the peCBialenl axis, or 

Ho.t.d, Google 


to the tube of the calyx, becoming a beny or a drupe-like fruit. 
Shrubs, with scattered leaves, often evergreen. — Ex. Vacciniuin 
(Whortleberry), Oxycoccus (the Cranberry). 

820, Subord. Briciueai {the proper Heath Family). Ovary free 
from the calyx. Fruit capsular, sometimes baccate or drupaceous. 
Testa conformed to the nucleus of the seed. Mostly shrubs. 
Leaves various, often evergreen. Petals rarely almost or entirely 
distinct. — Ex. Erica (Heath), Kalmia, EhododeDdron, Gaulthe- 
ria, Aiidro 

821. Snbord. Pyrolcte {the Pyrola Family). Ovai-y free from the 
calyx. Petals distinct or nearly so. Fruit a capsule. Seeds with 

FIG. roi, GiuUheriipraoumbeLisCWiQlatgrean.SiC). 795. Tho enlarging cal)'5: In Ihe lifl- 
malure fruit. 7%, Veoicol seciion of the pulpy oc tar/y-LIke calyx and Ihe included capFute 

Ing thg Ave-celkd cup^ule, with a ploceiila proceeding from the inner angle of each cell. 79S- 
SectienofiBeBd,nu3nltled. 799. Flower of a Vaccinium (WherUeberrj). 300. Vertical eec 
Uon of tbs orarr and adherenl caljx. 801, Anlher of Vaccinlum Vtlls-Hsa; oacfi cell pro- 
longed into a tubs, and opening by s lerminxl pare. SfQ. Anther of Tacclniuni MyniUue; the 
conneotlvara fumiahed with tvio appendagsa. 803. Stamen of an Andromeda (Caasiope), show- 
ing the appendagea of the tonnecUvum. 804. Stamen of Arctoslaphylos Uva.Urel, ahowing the 



a loose cellular testa, not conformed to the ntacleus. Mostly herbs. 
Leaves flat and broad. — Es;, Pyrola, Chimaphila. 

832, Sllbord. Monolropete {the Indian-Pipe Family). Ovary free 
from the calyx. Petals distinct or united. Aothera opening lon- 
gitudinally or by transverse chinks. Fruit a capsule. Seeds with 
a loose or winged testa. Parasitic herbs, destitute of green color, 
and with scales instead of leaves. — Ex. Monotropa, the Indian 
Pipe. — In this widely diffused order the bark and foliage are gen- 
erally astringent, often slimulivnt or aromatic from a volatile oil or 
a resinous matter, and not seldom narcotic. Thus, the leaves of 
Ehododendron, Kalmia, and all the related plants, are deleterious 
(being stimulant narcotics), or suspicious. The honey made from 
their flowers is sometimes poisonous. The Uva-Ursi and the Chi- 

maphila (Pipsissewa) are the chief m die iil [ lants ot the oider, 

FIG. 805. Pytola chlorantha, reducsd \a son. SOB EnlargM flower tit Magu fied Ma- 
men. 8(6. Flail. 8)9, Cross seclioo of Ihe capsule. SIO A h ghLj magn lisd seed 311 TUe 
nudoua removed from the loose cellular lesla, and Jiv led, s o u g e } ni nti s en lir 'o 

FIG, 812, Monotropa uiii flora. 813, A petal. 814, Capsule, with the eiaineiie. 81S. Trana- 



The berries are generally edible (Whortleberries, Wintergreen, 
&LC.). Many are very ornaraenial plants, 

823. Ord. EpacridaceSE, which takes the place of Heaths in Aus- 
tralia, essentially differs from them only in the one-celled anthers, 

824. Ord- AquifoliaceEB {tke Holly Family). Trees or shrubs, 
commonly with coriaceous leaves, and small axillary flowers. Ca- 
lyx of four to six sepals. Corolla four- to six-parted or cleft; the 
stamens as many as its segments and alternate with them, inserted 
oQ the base of the corolla. Anthers opening longitudinally. Ovary 
two- to six-celled ; the cells with a single suspended ovule. Fruit 
drupaceous, with two to six stones or nucules. Embryo minute, 
in hard albumen. — .E*, Ilex (the Holly) and Prinos. The bark 
and leaves contain a tonic, hitter, extractive matter. The leaves 
of a species of Ilex are used for tea in Paraguay : and the famous 
Mack drink of the Creek Indians is prepared from the leaves of 
Ilex vomitoria (Cassena) ; which are still used as a substitute for 
tea in some parts of the Southern States. 

825. Ord. Ebenaceffi (the Ebony Family). Trees or shrubs, des- 
titute of milky juice, with alternate, mostly entire leaves, and 
polygamous flowers. Calyx three- to six-cleft, free from the ova- 
ry. Corolla three- to six-cleft, often pubescent. Stamens twice 
to four times as many as the lobes of the corolla, inserted on 
them. Ovary three- to several -eel led ; the style with as many 
divisions. Fruit a kind of berry, with large and bony seeds. 

Embryo shorter than the hard albumen. — Ex. Diospyrc 

FIO. 816. Perfect flower of Diospytoa Vir| 
open, and stamens. 613. Tlie fruit. 819. Saoi 
l\!,a,\ sectlou of a seed. ^1. The detached enit 

7. The corolla, laid 



Peraimmon. The fruit, which is extremely austere and astrin- 
gent when green, is sweet and eatable when fully ripe. The bark 
is powerfully astringent. Ebony is the wood of D. Ebenus and 
other African and Asiatic species. 

826. Ord, Slyracaeeffi {the Storax Family). Shrubs or trees with 
perfect flowers. Calyx-tube coherent either with the base of the 
ovary, or with its whole surface. Styles and stigmas perfectly 
united into one. Stamens more or less united. Cells of the ovary 
opposite the calyx-lobes. Otherwise much as in the last family. — 
Ex. Styrax, Halesia, Symplocos. Some yield a fragrant, baU 
Bamic resinous substance ; such as Storax and Benzoin, containing 
Benzoic acid. The sweet leaves of our Symplocos tinctoria afford 
a yellow dye. 

837. Ord. Sapotaccie {the SapodUla Family). Trees or shrubs, 
usually with a milky juice ; the leaves alternate, entire, coriaceous, 
the upper surface commonly shining. Flowers perfect, regular, ax- 
illary, usually in clusters. Calyx four- to eight-parted. Corolla four- 
to eight- (or many-) cleft. Stamens distinct, inserted on the tube 
of the corolla, commonly twice as many as its lobes, half of them 
fertile and opposite the lobes, the others petaloid scales or filaments 
and alternate with them: anthers extrorse. Ovary 4- 12-celled, 
with a single ovule in each cell. Styles united into one. Fruit a 
berry. Seeds with a bony testa, with or without albumen. — Ex. 
Bumelia of the Southern United States. The fruit of many spe- 
cies is sweet and eatable ; such as the Sapodilla Plum, the Marma- 
lade, the Star-Apple, and other West Indian species. The large 
seeds, particularly of some kinds of Bassia, yield a bland fixed oil, 
which is sometimes thick and like butter, as in the Chee of India 
(B. butyracea), and the African Butter-tree, or Shea, described by 
Mungo Park. 

8S8. Ord. MyrsinaBBte. Trees or shrubs, mostly with alternate 
coriaceous leaves, which are often dotted with glands, and with all 
the characters of Primulacefe, except the drupaceous fruit and 
arborescent habit. — Nearly all tropical (Ardisia, Myrsine). 

829. Ord. PlimnlaceiB. Herbs, with opposite, whorled, or alter- 
nate leaves, often with naked scapes and the le^tves crowded at the 
base. Calyx four- or five-cleft or toothed, usually persistent 
Corolla rotate, hypocrateriform, or campanulate. Stamens insert, 
ed on the tube of the corolla, as many as its lobes and opposite 
them! Ovary free, one-celled with a free central pliicenta ! 




Ovules mostly indefinite and amphita-opous. Style and stigma sin- 
gle. Fruit capsular : the fleshy central placenta attached to the 
base of the coll. Seeds albuminous. Embryo transverse. — Ex. 
Primula (Primrose), Cyclamen, Anagallis, In Samolus, the ca- 
lyx coheres with the base of the ovary, and there is a row of sterile 
filaments occupying the normal position of the first set of stamens, 
namely, alternate with the lobes of the corolla. Of little conse- 
quence, except for their beauty. 

830. Ilrd. Plantaginacea! {the Plantain Family). Chiefly low 
herbs, with small spiked flowers on scapes, and ribbed radical 
leaves, — Calyx four-cleft, persistent. .Corolla tubular or urn- 
shaped, scarious and persistent ; the limb four-cleft. Stamens 
four, inserted on the tube of the corolla alternate with its seg- 

i\a, Gie), wilh Ihe lid fal 

be kid 

pen, 8M. The calyx 

of Primula vMlB, de- 
. SscUonorthoaame, 


owpjif the line or at- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


mpiits' the pTsisteat fihments long and flaccid. Ovary two- 
B 3K celled: style single. Capsule (pyxis) 

membranaceous, opening by circumscia- 
G le dehiscence ; the cells one- to sev- 
eral secdfd Embryo large, straight, 
in fieahj albumen. — Ex. Plantago, the 
Plantam, or Kibgrass, is the principal 
genus of the order. It is destitute of 
any important economical qualities. 

831 M.VlambS^mtm {the Leadwort 
FannJy) Perennial herbs, or somewhat 
shrubby plants ; with the flowers often 
on simple or branching scapes ; and the 
leaves crowded at the base, entire, 
mostly sheathing or clasping, — Calyx 
tubular, plaited, five-toothed, persisteat. 
Corolla hypocrateriform, with a five- 
^^ "3' parted limb, the five stamens inserted on 

the receptacle opposite its_ lobes (Plumbago) ; or else of five a 
distinct unguiculate (scarious or coria- 
ceous) petals, with the stamens inserted 
on their claws I (Statice, &c, ) In the for- 
mer case the five styles are united nearly 
to the top ; but in the latter they are sep- 
arate I Ovary one-celled, w th a s ngle 
ovule pendulous from a strap shaped f 
niculus which rises from the base of tl e 
cell. Fruit a utricle, or o[ e ng bj 
five valves. Embryo large, nil n alb 
men. — Ex. Statice (Marsh Rose arj 
Sea Lavender), and Armeria (Thrift); 
sea-side or saline plants. The Statices 
have astringent roots : none more so 
than those of our own Marsh Eosemary 
or Sea Lavender (S. Caroliniana), one 
of the best and most intense astringents of the materia 

FIG. 831. A flower enlargsd, 833. Pistil. 833. Capsule (pyirla, BIG) with Ihe m 



832. Otd. lentibnlaceie {tlie Bladderwort Familg). Herbs, grow- 
ing in water, or wet places, with the flowers on scapes ; the leaves 
either submersed and dissected into filiform segments resembling 
rootlets, and commonly furnished with air-bladders to render them 
buoyant ; or, when produced in the air, entire and somewhat 
fleshy, clustered at the base of the scape. Flowers showy, very 
irregular. Calyx of two sepals, or unequally five-parted. Corolla 
bilabiate, personate ; the very short tube spurred. Stamens two, 
inserted on the upper lip of the corolla : anthers one-celled. Ovary 
free, one -celled, with a free central placental bearing numerous 
ovules. Fruit a capsule. Seeds destitute of albumen. Embryo 
straight. — Ex. Utricularia (Bladderwort), Pinguicula. Unimpor- 
tant plants. 

833. Ord. Otobanfhaecs {tJie Broom-Rape Family). Herbs, des- 

titute of green foliage, and with scales in place of leaves, parasitic 

ina (BMch-dropa)i neatly of llie natural size: lbs 

FIG. S41. Branch of Eptphs 
bwBT flowera, with short inipi 
larged. 313, Langlluilli 

two parleUl placeme. 646, A highly niagnlli^dBeed. S47, 
le minute embryo next tbe blluni. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

rt d 


ipi ^ 

I 1 


1 b J 

d 1 






h 1 

t Epph 





oa the roots of other plants ■ the flowers solitary or spicate Calyx 

persistent, four- fi. hd Ih C wig 

persistent, with bib ! rreg 1 1 b fata 

mens four, didy 

celled, with two j 

divided CapSL 

numerous, mmi 

men. — Ex. Oi b 

gent, bitter, and 1 Th p 1 d f Ep 1 1 g 

(thence called Cancer-root) is applied to open Cancers.* 

834. Ord. BigllOlliaceie (the Bignonia Family). Mostly trees, or 
climbing or, twining shrubby plants, with large and showy flowers, 
and opposite, simple, or mostly pinnately-compound leaves. Ca- 
lyx five-parted, two-parted, or bilabiate, often spathaceous. Corol- 
la with aa ample throat, and a more or less irregular five-lobed or 
bilabiate limb. Stamens five, inserted on the corolla, of which 
one, and often three, are reduced to sterile filaments or rudiments : 
when four are fertile, they are didynamous, Ovary two-celled, 
with the placents in the axis ; the base surrounded by a fleshy 
ring or disc. Capsule woody or coriaceous, pod-shaped, two- 
valved, many-seeded. Seeds winged, destitute of albumen. Co- 
tyledons foliaceous, flat, heart-shaped, also notched at the apex. 
— Esi. Bignonia (Trumpet-Creeper), Catalpa, and other tropical 
genera. Of little importance, except as ornamental plants. 

835. Sllliord. SesameiB (the Sesamum Family) has few and wingless 
seeds ; the fruit indurated or dfupaceous, often two- to four-horned, 
sometimes perforated in the centre from the dissepiments not 
reaching the axis before they diverge and become place ntiferous, 
and spuriously four- to eight-celled by the various cohesion of 
parts of the placentte with the walls of the pericarp, — Ex. Sesa- 
mum, Martynia (Unicorn-plant), and some other tropical plants. 

836. Ord. Acanlliaceffi (the Acanthus Family). Herbs or shrubby 
plants, with bracteate, often showy flowers, and opposite, simple 
leaves, without stipules. Calyx of five sepals united at the base, 
or combined into a tube, persistent. Coralla bilabiate, or some- 

* One. GESNERIACBjE, consisting of tropical herbs, with green foliage 
and showy flowers, the calyx often partly adherent to the ovary, agrees with 
Oi-obanchace^ in tho parieial placentation, by which both are distinguished 
from all other orders of tliis group. 




times nearly equally five-lobed : festivafion convolute ! Stamens 
four Olid didynamous, or only two, the anterior pair being abortive 
or obsolete, inserted on the corolla. Ovary two-celled, with the 
placentse in the axis, often few-ovuled. Seeds (sometimes only 
one or two in each cell) usually supported by hooked processes of 
the placenta, destitute of albumen, — Ex. Acanthus, Dianthera. 
A large family in the tropics. Many are ornamental. 

837. Ord. ScrophnlapiaceiS {the Figwort Familn). Herbs, or 
sometimes shrubby plants ; with opposite, verticillate, or alternate 
leaves. Calyx of four or five more or less united sepals, persist- 
ent. Corolla bilabiate, personate, or more or less irregular ; the 
lobes imbricated in eestivation. Stamens four and didynamous, the 
fifth stamen sometiraes appearing in the form of a sterile filament, 

or very rarely antheriferous ; or often only two, one pair being 

Fie. 864. Branch of Gatardia purpurea, S55. Cnrolla, of the Mtiiral aize, ]M open, SSB. 
CBlyi and stjis aC lbs same. 857, Magnified Imiavatae aeolion a[ the capsule, wilh ona of the 
ralves remoYod. 85S. Magnified section of a seed, 

mens and two niiiinienLary filaments (4Sl) as well as llie pislil. SB9. The pirfect stamens and 
sterile filamenl of Chelona. S&i. Flower of a Linaria (Toartilai, oi Snapdrason), with a pet- 
aonste corolla (511). 



either suppressed or reduced to sterile filaments, inserted on the 
corolla. Ovary free, two-celled, with the placenlte united in the 
axis. Capsule two-valved. Seeds indefinite, albuminous. Em- 
bryo small, — Ex. Scrophularia, Verhascum (Mullein, which is 
remarkable for the nearly regular corolla, with five perfect sta- 
mens), Lioaria, Antirrhinum (Snapdragon), &c. — The plants 
of this lai^e and important order aro generally to bo suspected of 
deleterious (bitter, acrid, or drastic) properties. The most impor- 
tant medicinal plant is the Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), so re- 
markable for its power of lowering the pulse. Numerous species 
are cultivated for ornament. 

838. Ord. Verbcnaeeffi {the Vervain Family). Herbs, shrubs, or 
even trees in the tropics, mostly with opposite leaves. Calyx 
tubular, four- or five-tootlied, persistent. Corolla bilabiate, or the 
four- or five-lobed limb more or less irregular. Stamens mostly 
four and didynamous, occasionally only two, inserted on the co- 
rolla. Ovary free, entire, two- to four-celled. Fruit drupaceous, 
baccate, or dry, and splitting ioto two to four indehiscent one- 
seeded poit'o s '^eeds with little or no albumen. Embryo 
straigl nte or — Ex. Verbena (Vervain, Fig. 863-871) is the 

principal lepresentative m cooler regions. There are many others 

ig the surlkce of ihe cooialoed seed. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ill the tropics, mostly trees ; one of which is the gigantic Indian 
Teak (Tectona grandis), remarltable for ils very heavy and dura- 
ble wood, which abounds in silex. The leaves of the Aloysia 
citriodora of the gardens yield ac agreeable perfume. Olhers 
are bitter and aromatic. 

,839. Subord,! Phrymacete (Phryma) ia separated on account of 
ils simple piatil, uniovulate ovary, spirally convolute cotyledons, 
and superior radicle. 

840. Ord. Labiatte {the Labiate or Mint Family). Herbs, or 
somewhat shrubby plants, with quadrangular stems, and opposite 
or sometimes whorled leaves, replete with receptacles of volatile 
oil. Flowers in axillary or terminal cy mules (412), rarely 
solitary. Calyx tubular, persistent, five-toothed or cleft, or bi- 
labiate. Corolla bilabiate. Stamens inserted on the corolla, 
four, didynamous, or only two, one of the pairs being abortive 
or wanting. Ovary free, deeply four-lobed ; the central stylo 
proceeding from the base of the lobes. Fruit consisting of four 
(or fewer) little nuts or achenia, included in the persistent calyx. 
Seeds with little or no albumen. — Ex. The Sage, Rosemary, 

Fia 572. Flower of Gieohomahedenu 
pa t of alamens, magnified 8J4. Flowst 
NeUle) Lud open, ahovinjilhs didjiuiina 
galerloulsia (Skull-ap). . S77. Secilon of 
deeply fo t lobed ovary, raieed on a ehoti 

eolarged calyx of Uie . 

Cai ads i 

Si. Magnified anllwr of lb 
>. Ma^nlfled siilher of the 
mlale. 830. Magniiied av 
[a) ia pollinllerous, ttie oih' 

mie, bringing lo view 

i]. Flower of Teocri 

S, Flovier of a Salvia ; Ihe calyx as well 
) Aame, with widely aeparaled aather-ce 

Ho.t.d, Google 

456 EXOGENOUS oa dicotyledowous plants, 

universally recogoized order. Their well-known cordial, aro- 
matic, and stomachic qualities depend upon a volatile oil, con- 
tained in glandular receptacles which abound in the leaves and 
other herbaceous parts, with which a bitter principle is variously 
mixed. None are deleterious. 

841. Oltl, Bor^naccte {the Borage Family). Herbs, or some- 
times shrubby, plants ; with round stems, and alternate, rough 
leaves; the Sowers often in one-sided clustera (406), which are 
spiral before expansion. Calyx of five leafy and persistent sepals, 
more or less united at the base, regular. Corolla regular ; the 
limb five-lobed, often with a row of scales in the throat. Stamens 
inserted on the corolla, as many as its lobes and alternate with 
tliem. Ovary deeply four-lobed, the style proceeding from the 
base of the lobes, which in fruit become little nuts or hard achenia. 
Seeds witJ) little or no albumen. — Ex. Borago (Borage), Litho- 
spermum, Myosotis, Cynoglossum (Hound's- tongue), Heliotropium, 
&c. In Echium, the limb of the corolla is somewhat irregular, 
and the stamens unequal. Innocent mucilaginous plants, with a 

slight astringency : hence demulcent and pectoral ; as the roots of 

FIG. 887. MjoMtia, or FotKCt-me-not. 888, The rotate coroila laid opan, showing Lbs 
Boal63 of tlw throat, and the abort alamoQS. 889. The piatil, with its four-lobed otaty. 890; 
The calyi in fruit ; two of the little iratB having fallen away from the receptacle. 891. Saotloo 
of a nut, or rather achenium, showing the embrjo. 892. Racema of Sjmphytum offtclnala 
(Comfrey). 393. A ci>raLla. laid t^paa ; exhibiting the lanceolate and pointed scales of the threat, 

Ho.t.d, Google 


the Comfrey. The roots of Aochtisa tinctoria (Alkaoet) and Bat-, 
schia canescens (used by the aborigines under the name of Puc- 
coon) yield a red. dye. 

842. Otii. HydrophyllaceJB {the Water -leaf Family). Herbs, usu- 
ally with alternale and lobed or plnnatifid leaves ; the flowers 
mostly in cymose clusters or unilateral racemes. Calyx five-ciell, 
with the sinuses often appendaged, persistent. Corolla regular, 
imbricated or convolute in festivation, usually furnished with scales 
or honey-bearing grooves inside ; the five stamens inserted into its 
base, alternate with the lobes. Ovary free,vwith two parietal pla- 
centfe, which sometimes dilate in the cell and appear like a kind 
of inner pericarp in the capsular fruit. Styles partly united. 
Seeds few, erustaceous. Embryo small, in hard albumen. — Ex. 
HydrophyUum, Nemophila, and Phacelia ; nearly all North Amer- 
ican plants, some of them handsome in cultivation. 

rrO. SM. HjdtophjUuni Vir^inici 

sama, Ihfi cavily filled bj- Iwo wads. 
Highly inagniflea embryo. 

i A flower nearly of the naturJl size. 896. Co- 
Item cal>^ and fllvle ^93 Cross section of Ihe 
lagnllied aeed. 900. Ssctloa of the same. 901. 




843. Ord, KydroUaceiB differs (not sufficiently) from the last by 
the simple and entire leaves, the two-celled ovary, the two distinct 
styles, and the numerous seeds. — Sa. Hydrolea, Nama ; chiefly 
natives of warm regions. 

844. Ofd. PolemoniatCffi {the Pohmonium Family). Herbs, with 
alternate or opposite leaves, and panicled, corymbose, or clustered 
flowers. Calys fivo-cleft. Corolla regular, with a five-lobed limb, 
convolute in SEstivation. Stamens five, inserted on the corolla al- 
ternate with its lobes, often unequal. Ovary free, three-celled, with 
a thick axis, bearing feif or numerous ovules r styles united into one : 
stigmas three. Capsule three-valved, loculicidal ; the valves also 
usually breaking away from a thick central column which bears 
the seeds. Embryo straight, in fleshy or horny albumen. — Ex. 
Polemonium (Greek Valerian), Phlox, Gilia. Chiefly North Amer- 
ican ; many are very common ornamental plants in cultivation. 

845 Old DiapfllSiaceff Llw prostrate an! tufted suffritcosc 
plants with crowded and ev rgreen hcith hkp le'i>es, and solitary 
terminal flowers. Difleimg fiom the last family chiefly in the trans- 
versely two-valved anthers, and amphitropous seeds ; and doubt- 
less to be united to it. Consists of two plants only, viz. the Alpine 

3. FiadlorDiesame. 906. Crose- 
raniagnlfledMed. 911. Psrpen- 
:ra»-aeciion at Ihe dehisceni cap- 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Diapensia, and Pyxidanthera, of the Pine-barrens of New Jer- 
sey, &.C. 

846 Old CoMolTnlacciB {the Convolvulus Family). Twining or 
traihng hLibo or shrubs, often with milky juice ; tiie leaves alter- 
nate, and tho flowers. regiiHr C-iIys of five sepals, imbricated, or 
usually moie or less united, persistent. Corolla supervolute in 
Eestivatitn (Fig 363), the limb often entire. Stamens five, insert- 
ed on the tube of the corolla near the base. Ovary free, two- to 
four celled, with one or two erect ovules in each cell; styles 
united, or more or less distinct Capsule two- to four- (or by oblit- 
eration one ) c-Iled , the valves falling away from the persistent 
dissepiments (septlfragal). Seeds large, with a little mucilaginous 
albumen: embryo curved, and the foliaceons cotyledons usually 
crumpled. — Ex. Convolvulus (Morning-Glory, Bindweed). They 
all contain a peculiar strongly purgative resinous matter, which is 
chiefly found in the acrid, milky juice of their thickened or tuber- 
ous roots. Convolvulus Jalapa, and other Mexican species, fur- 
nish the Jalap of the shops. The more drastic Scammony is de- 
rived from the roots of C. Scammotiia of the Iievant. There is 
much less of this in those of Convolvulus panduratus (Mochameck, 
Man-of-the-Earth, Wild Potato-vine) : while those of C. macrorhi- 
zus of the Southern States, which sometimes weigh 40 or 50 pounds, 
are farinaceous, with so slight an admixture of the peculiar resin 

cspaule. 919. A seed. 



as to be quite inert ; as is also the case with the Babatas, or Sweet 
Potato, an imporbint article of food, — To this family are a 

847. Slllioril. Dichondreffi, Ovaries two to four, either entirely 
distinct or with their basilar styles united in pairs. Creeping 

pieca of Cqscula Gronoiii, Ihe common TodiJer of tha Noniiem Uollcd Slalea, 
ctlon of Uie capsule aori seeds, S33. The splial embr/o dslacheil, 331. Tbe 

Ho.t.d, Google 

^DERS. 461 

plants with axillary and «capp-like one-flowered peduncles. — Ex. 
Dichond a 

848 SuboM fUiiCUtmea: Ovary two-celled ; tiie capsule open- 
ing by circumsciss le dehiscence, or bursting irregularly. Embryo 
filiform and spirilly coded in fleshy albumen, destitute of cotyle- 
dons ! Paras tic leafless tw ning herbs, destitute of green color 
(135). Stamens usually furnished with fringed scales within. — 
Ex. Cuscuta (Dodder). 

849. OEd, Solanace* {the Nightshade Family) differs from Scroph- 
ulariaceBe chiefly in the regular (rarely somewhat irregular) flow- 
ers, with as many fertile stamens as there aie lobes to the co- 
rolla (four or five), and the plaited or ^alvate festivalioa of 
the corolla. Fruit either capsulai or baccate Embryo small, 
mostly curved, in fleshy albumen — Ev Solai um (Potato), Nico- 
tiana. The fruit of Datura la spuriously four celled — Stimu- 
lant narcotic properties pervade the ordei, the herbage and fruits 
of which are mostly deleterious, often violently poisonous, and 
furnishing some of the most artivc medicitiPS., such as the To- 
bacco, the Henbane (H_\oac\amus n gei), the Belhdonna (Atropa 

Belladonna), the Thorn-apple or Jamestown Weed (Datura Stra- 
mouium), and the Bittersweet (Solanum Dulcamara) ; the last 

FM. 935. Flowsr of Tobacco (Nico 

I. Frait|py:<is,616)oflh. 




only slightly narcotic let the berries of some &jlaniims are 
eatable when cooked (as Tomatoes the Eg^ Plant, &.c ) and 
the stirciiy t ibeis of the Potato lie a most important article of 
food But the fiuit and seeds of Capsicum (Cai/tnne peppti) are 
stimi lant 

850 Ord Cfnlmnarcai (the Gentian Family) Herb=, with a 
waterj juice, the leaies opposite and entire Flowers, legjlai, 
often "howy Caljx of us lally four or five persistent, more or 
less united sepals Corolla mostly convolute in -estivation the 
stamens inserted on its tube Ovary ooe celled with two parietal, 
but often introflexed, placentiP , stales united or none Capsule 
many seeded Seeds with flesh\ ilbumea and a minute embijo 
— El Genliana, Frasera (the Ameii:"in Columbo) A pure bit 
ter and tonic pnnciple (Gettlianine) pervades the whole order 
Gentiana lutea of Middle Europe furnishes the officinal Gentian, 
for which almost any of our species may be substituted 

851 Suboid McnyanthldeiP (the BucKhean Family) has alternate, 
sometimes tnfoholale oi toothed leaves, and a valvatc nduphcate 
ffist nation of the cor Ih — E-c Men^anthes Limnanthemiim (this 
bears the peduncles on the petiole, Fig. 949), 

852. Subocd. Obolarieic 

imbricative sestivation of the co- 

FIG. 948. Flower of GenllanaKogustifolia, M3. Cotolla, and 944, the caLyji, laid op 

946. ThB pistil. 946. CtoaB.aoe[ionoflhe piaUl,abqnrins the parielalallaoliiiiantofllioovul 

947, Ripe capsule of G. Saponaria,rBlsedonastyp8: the pstsisLeiit wilharing cololla, &c.ti 
away. 9@, A msgnifled Bead, wkh iie large sad loose IsBia. 94^ Leaf of LimriaaUiein 
(Vlllaiaia), bearing tbe Eovran on iis petiole. 

Ho.t.d, Google 



roUa, opposite leaves, and the whole internal surface of the ovary 
ovuliferous ! — Ex. Obolaria. 

853. Ord. Apoeynaceie {ihe Doghane Family). Trees, shrubs, or 
herbs, with milky juice, and opposite entire leaves, without stipules. 
Flowers regular. Calyx fi.\e-cleft, peraistent CorolK five lobed, 
twisted in aistivation. Filaments dMtmct , the anthers sometimes 
slightly connected: pollen granular Oviries two, distmct, oi 
rarely united, but their styles or stigmas combined into one m 
fruit usually forming two follicles Seeds oftrn with a coma 
Embryo large and straight, in sparing albumen — Ex Apoonum 
{DogVbane, Fig. 950), Vinca (Periwinkle); and a gi eat number 
of tropical shrubs and trees. In all, the juice is drastic or poison- 
ous, and often yields caoutchouc; which in Sumatia is obtained 
from Urceola elastica. The well-known Nux vomiia is the ^eed 
of Strychnos Nux-vomica of India. S. toxifera, yields the famous 
Woorari poison of Guiana. ' One kind of Upas is obtained from 
the bark of the root of S Tieute in Java. The poisonous princi- 
ple in these plants s an alkaloid, called Slryrkitia 

854. Ord. IsclepiadaeetB [the Mmweed Family). Herbs or shrubs, 
with milky juice, and opposite entire leaves ; mainly differing from 
the preceding order (as they do from all other Exogenous plants) 
by the peculiar connection of the stamens with the stigma, and the 
cohesion of the pollen into wax-like masses, which are attached in 



pairs to five glands of the stigma, and removed from the anther- 
cella usually by the agency of msects Fiuit consistmg of two 
follicles. Seedsusually with a silky coma — Ex Asclepias (Milk- 
weed, Wild Cotton). The jmce of A tuberosa (Pleurisy i-oot, 
Butterfly- weed) is not milky In all, it is bitter and acrid, and 
contains caoulchouc. 

855, Ord. JasminaMEE {the Jessamine Family) consists of a few 

FIO. 9Sa FlDiver bud of Ihe Common Brlitkweed (Ascleplaa Comntl). 956. EipBiided l^ower ; 

dJSea of the laieer remgved apj seen Hidowisa, wilh its iocIudBd pracras ot horn., 9S9, A renJ- 
calaecllon of a flower [ibe hooded appendages remored) through [he lube of atsjnene, the thicE 
atigma, ovaries, &c. 9S9. Flower with the cal)'i, and the fertilized enlargiag ovaries, crowned 
with the large atlgma common to the two, from the angles of ths peltate euiamlt of which ths 
pairs of pellen-maBBes, detached from the anther cella, hang hy their alslks or cauijicle from a 
gland. [See pa^e 316; Fig. 420. An anther, fiom which the hnodod appendage Is cutaway. 

already similarly attnched. 423. One of these pairs of pollen-masses separate. JSS. Pollen - 
maseea of Asciepisa iocnrnila, coonecled hy their emitted pollen-tuheg (much magnified) with 
tbe Etigmi. 424, Section through the sUgma and into one of ths styles, ahnwing the course of 
the pollen- tubes.] 960 Fruit (fdlicle) Df the Commoa Mllkweeil. 961. CrosS'section of the 
last, in an e»rly slate. 962, Dslsthed ptaconu tn Ihill, covered with eeedo. BSa Seed (cut 
across), with its coma. 964. Section of the seed, as it lies in 96:1, parallel with the cotyledons. 
96S. Verljcal sectJun of the seed perpendicular to the face of the cotyledons. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


chiefly Asiatic slirubs, with compound leaves and fragrant flowers ; 
differing from Oleacefe by the imbricaled or twisted sjstivation of 
the hypocrateriform corolla, erect seeds, &c. — Ex. Jasminum, 
the Jessamine. Cultivated for ornament, and for their very fra- 
grant blossoms. 

856, Sllbord. BolivarietB consists of a few American (three or four 
of them Texan) plants, and one from the Cape of Good Hope, some- 
times wi h pl 1 1 sii*^ scarcely differing from the true 
Jasminac te h gh m I of them have four ovules in each cell. 

857. d 01 a « { / Olive Family). Trees or shrubs, with 
opposite 1 1 mple or pinnate. Calyx persistent. Co- 
rolla foui If f f separate petals, vaivate in estivation, 
sometime a S is mostly two, adnate to the base of the 
corolla. Ovary free, two-celled, with two pendulous ovules in 
each cell. Fruit by suppression' usually one-celled and one- or 
two-seeded. Seed albuminous. Embryo straight. — Ex. Olea 
(the OUve), and Chionanthus (Fringe-tree), where the fruit is a 
drupe. Syringa, the Lilac, which has a capsular fruit, Fraxinus, 
the Ash ; where the fruit is a samara, the flowers are polygamous, 
and often destitute of petals Olme oil is expressed from the es- 
culent drupes of Olea Europsa The bark, like that of the Ash, 
is bitter, astringent, and febrifugal Manna etudes from the 
trunk of Fraxinus Ornus of Southern Euiope, &.c — Forcstiera, 
of doubtful affinity, is perhaps to follow this order, although en- 
tirely apetalous. 

Division III. — Apetalous Exogenous Plants.* 

Corolla none ; the floral envelopes consisting of a single series 
(calyx), or sometimes entirely wanting. 

Conspectus of the Orders. 

Group 1. Flowers perfect, wilh a conspicuous or colored mostly adnate calyx. 
Ovary several-celled and many-ovuled. Capsule or berry manj-seeded. — 
Herbs or climbing shrubs. ARisTOLOCHlACBiB, p. 46T. 

* Numerous plants of the Polypetalous orders are apotalous. sueli as Clem- 
atis, Anemone, and other Ranunculacero, some Ehamnacoie, Carjopbyllaceie, 
Onagraeeie, PorCuIaraceit, Crassulaeeie, Rosaefiie, Aceracese, &c. Also some 
Oleaceie and Piimnlflc''-ce nt liie 11 am ope talons series are apetHlous. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Group 2, Flowers perfect, or rarely polygamous, with a regular and often 
petaloid calyx. Ovary free. Ovules solitary in each orary or cell. Em- 
bryo curved or coiled arouud mealy albumen, rarely in the axis or exal- 
buminous. — Chiefly herbs. 
Ovary several-celled, consisiing of a whorl of several one-ovuled carpels. 

Phytolaocaoe*;, p. 468. 
Ovary one-celled, with a single ovule. 
SlJpulos none. Ovulo campjioiropous or amphitropoua. 

Calyx herbaceous. CHBNOPODiACEffi, p. 469. 

Calyx and bracts acarious. AHA.RANTAOE.ffi, p. 470. 

Calyx corolline, the persistent base indurated. Nvctaqinacb^, p. 470. 
Stipules shealhing (ochreie). Calyx coi-oliine. Ovule orthotropous. 

POLTGOHACE^, p. 470. 

Group 3. Flowers perfect, polygamous or dicccious, not disposed in aments, 
with a regular, and oflen petsioid calyx. Ovary one-celled, or rarely 
two-oelied, with one or few ovules in each cell: but tho frait one-celled 
and one-seeded. Embryo not coiled around albumen. — Trees or shrubs. 
« Style or stigma one. 
Calyx free from the ovary, and not enveloping the fruit. 
Flowers poiygamo-difCcionB. Anth. opening by valves. Ladeacb-e, p. 471. 
Flowers povfect. Anthers opening iongitudiiially. Thymelacej;, p. 473. 
Calyx free, htit baccate in fruit and inclosing the achenium., p. 472. 

Calyx adnate to the ovary. 

Ovules several, pendulous from a stipe-like placenta. Sabtalace*, p. 473. 

Ovule solitary, suspended. 

Parasitic shrubs. Ovule without integuments. LoaANTBACEj];, p. 474. 

Trees. Fruit a drupe. Ntssaoe*, p. 473. 

• • Styles or stigmas two, divergent UtMACea;, p. 474. 

Group 4. Eiowers perfect, entirely destitate of oalyK as well as corolla. Em- 
bryo minute, inclosed in the persistent embryo-sac at ihc apex of the albu- 
men, — Herbs or euifraleBcent plants. SiunnKACEiK, p. 475. 

Group 5. Flowers perfect or diclinous, frequently destitute of both calyx and 

corolla. — Submersed or floating aquatic herbs. 
Flowers raoncecious. Fruit one-celled and one-seeded. 

Ceratofhyllace*;, p. 476. 
Flowers mostly perfect Fruit four-celled and four-seeded. 

Ca LLI THIGH ACE ^, p. 476. 

Flowers mostly perfect. Capsule several-celled, several -seeded. 


Givup 6. Flowers monceeioua or dicciaons, not amentaceous. Fruit capsular 
or drupaceous, with two or more cells, and one (or rarely two) seeds in 
each. — Herbs, shrubs, or tj^es. 

Fruit mostly dry. Juice milky. Pollen simple, Euphohbiacbs, p. 477. 

Fruit drupaceous. I'oilen-graJns quaKmarj. EMFETKAca,^, p. 478. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ious ; the sterile, and frequently the 
■ spikes. Ovarj often Iwo- to aeyeral- 
led. — Trees, shrubs, or (only ic Urti- 

Croiip 7, Flowers r 

fertile also, in amenls, or in he 

celled, but the fmit always o 

caceie) herbs. 
* Pruit drupaceous. Calyx adherent. Juolandaoe^, p. 479. 

t * Pi'itit a nut, involacrate. Calyx adherent. CtlPULtFEE^, p. 479. 

' * t Fruit one-socdod, indchiscont. Terlile and stc(ile flowers both in 

amenls, and entirely destitute of calyx. 
Ovary one-celled; ovule solitary, erect. Myni 

p. 480. 


-celled, two-ovuled : ovule pendulous. BEruLAOE^, p, 

ruit dehiscent, many-seeded. Seeds with a coma. I'ertile and 
flowers both in aments, and destitute of calyx. SA!,rc*CE^, p. 481. 
•celled and few-seeded capsula. Fertile and 
ents or heads, and destitute of calyx. 

Balsam 1 FLIT Jl, p. 482. 

Nut clab-shapod, one-seeded, bristly-downy. pLAriNACE.s, p. 483- 

1 -*».., Fruit an aohenium, often inclosed in a baccate calyx. Flowers 

variously disposed, sometimes collected in fleshy heads. — Juice milky, 

when trees or shrubs. llBTiCAOEffl, p. 482. 

858. Ord. Aristolochiacea; {the Birikwort Family). Herbaceous 

Ovary t\ 

i « * • » Fruit a nut or i 

sterile flowers both 

CFipsulo two- beaked, many- 

FIO. 966. Asaiuoi Guiadense. 
enLarged. 870, VsrtHal Bection i 

JBJ. Calyx displayed, and a yenkal reclion through Ihs 
mof the amty ; the uppat ponion (from which the limb of 
Blarnena, the united aljLas, &c. 969. A Mparale slamen. 



or climbing shrubby plants, with alternate leaves. Flowers brown 
or greenish, usually solitary. Calyx-tube more or less united with 
the ovary ; the limb valvate. Stamens six to twelve, epigynous, 
or adherent to the base of the short and thick style ; anthers ad- 
nate, extrorse. Stigmas radiate. Ovary 3-6-celled. Capsule or 
berry three- to six-celled, many-seeded. Embryo minute, in 
fleshy albumen. — Ex. Asarum (Wild Ginger, Canada Snake- 
root), Aristolochia (Virginia Snake-root), Pungent, aromatic, or 
stimulant tonics ; generally termed Snake-roots, being reputed an- 
tidotes for tho bites of venomous snakes.* 

859. OM. PhyloIaCcaCCfe {the Foke-weed Family). Chiefly repre- 

by Iho common Poke (Phylolaeca decandra), which has a 

• The Oed. RAFFLESIACE^, and perhaps otlier RHIZANTHE^, 
consisting of most rema,rkab1o fungus-like parasitijs (136, and Fig. 125) are \o 
be placed somewhere in this vicinity. 

e.-Aag. 996, Msgniaed delached embr;a. 

I, showing the ambiyo c 

Ho.t.d, Google 


compound ovary of ten confluent (one-seeded) carpels, the short 
styles or stigmas distinct ; the fruit a flattened berry. The root is 
acrid and emetic ; yet the young shoots in the spring are used as 
a substitute for Asparagus. The berries yield a copious deep- 
crimson juice. Other genera connect the order with the next ; but 
are distinguished, when the stamens are of the same number as the 
sepals, by their position aUernate with them, as in PortulacaceeG. 

860. Ord. Clicnopodiaceje {the Goosefoot Family). Chiefly weedy 
herbs, with alternate and more or less succulent leaves, and small 
herbaceous flowers. Calyx sometimes tubulai" at the base, persist- 
ent ; the stamens as many as its lobes, or fewer, and inserted at 
with a single ovule arising 

their base. Ovary free, one- 

from its base. Fruit a utricle or ach 

coiled around the outside of mealy albi 

albumen (in Sa 
(the Beet), &.C. 
pot-herbs, such 
roots ; as the Be 

Salicornia (S( 

yields the Womi'Seed oil- 

n. Embryo curved or 
;, of spiral, whhout any 
lodium. Atrip lex, Beta 

ila, &c.). — £w. Cher 

Sea-side plants, or common weeds; some are 

Spinach : a few are cultivated for their esculent 

I which contains sugar. Soda is largely extract- 

pecies, especially from those of Salsola and 

iphire. Glass-wort). Chenopodium anthelminticum 

■I. Pan of the 3 





irbaces; the 




by a 



973. A flower of 

-ilh iw aeshy 08,1 


1. witluhe Ihick, 

t calrx (M5) rem 

a rip 

ivlded « 

irticall)', showing 

ya colled atouoil 



inhrgad. »30. Seclioi 


ulricle and eeed. 

.ha embryo. 931. 


I on 

all (SallKOTt), In fmit, 

wing-liits border. 

ion of the aame, 

bridging rt 


into view. 

^. Tha 


coiled embryo of 

Ho.t.d, Google 


861. Ord, Amaraniaceffl {the Amaranth Family). Herbs, with 
opposite or alternate leaves ; tlie flowers in heads, spikes, ov dense 
clusters, imbricated with dry and scarious bracts which are usually 
colored. Calyx of three to five sepals, which are dry and scari- 
ous, Uke the bracts. Stamens five or more, hypogj-nous, distinct 
or mooadelphous : anthers frequently one-celled. Embryo annu- 
lar, always vertical. Otherwise nearly as in ChenopodiaccEe, — 
Ex. Amarantus, Gomphrena, &c. Weeds. A few Amaranlhs 
are cultivated for their dry and enduring richly-colored flowers, 

862. Ord, Nyclagiuaceffi, Herbs or slirubs, whh opposite leaves ; 
distinguished by their tubular and infundibuliform calyx, Ihe upper 
part of which resembles a corolla, and at length separates from 
the base, which hardens and incloses the one-celle^ achenium-like 
fruit, appearing like a part of it. Stamens hypogynous, 1-20. 
Embryo coiled around the outside of mealy albumen. Flowers 
involucrate, often showy, Mirabiiis' (Four-o'clock) has a one- 
flowered involucre exactly like a calyx, while the latter resembles 
the corolla of a Morning- Glory. Plants of warm latitudes ; many 
on our Southwestern frontlere. 

863. Ord. PolygonaCEie (the Buckwheat Family). Herbs with al- 



ternate leaves ; remarkable for their stipules (ochreee, 304), which 
usually form sheaths around the stems above the leaves, and for 
their orthotropous ovules. Stamens definite, inserted on the peta- 
loid calyx. Fruit achcnium-like, compressed or triangular. Em- 
bryo curved, or nearly straight, applied to the outside (rarely in 
the centre) of starchy albumen. — Ex. Polygonum, Eumex (Dock, 
Sorrel), Rheum (Rhuharh). The stems and leaves of Rhubarb 
and Sorrel are pleasantly acid: while several Polygonums (Knot- 
weed, Smart-weed, Water Pepper, &c.) are acrid or rubefacient. 
The farinaceous seeds of P. Fagopyrum (the Buckwheat) are used 
for food. The roots of most species of Rhubarb are purgative: 
but it is not yet known what particular species of Tartary yields 
the genuine officinal article. The Ehiogone^ (of southern and 
western North America) form a tribe remarkable for their exstipu- 
late leaves and involucrate flowers. 

864. Ord. laaracea! (the Laurel Family). Trees or shrubs, with 
pellucid-punctate alternate leaves, their margins entire. Flowers 
sometimes polygamo-dicecious. Calyx of four to six somewhat 
united petaloiji sepals, which are imbricated in two series, free 
from the ovary. Stamens definite, but usually more numerous 
than the sepals, inserted on the base of the calyx : anthers two- lo 
four-celled, opening by recurved valves! Fruit a berry or drupe, 
the ptedicel often thickened. Seed with a large almond-like em- 

bryo, destitute of albumen. — Ej:. Laurus, Sassafras, Benzoin. 
All aromatic plants, almost every part abounding in warm and 



Stimulant volatile oil, to which the r q al es a e d e Camphor 
is obtained from Camphora ofEc arun of Japa China, &c. 
Cinnamon is the barlt of Cinnamomu n Zevlan c m Cassia hark, 
of Cintiarnomum aromaticum of Ch na Tl e aromit c bark aad 
wood and the very mucilaginous leaves of our own Sassafras are 
well known. Our Benzoin odoriferum is the Spice-wood, or Fever- 
bush. Launis nobilis is the true Laiirel, or Sweet Bay. Persea 
gratissima, of the West Indies, bears the edible Avocado pear. 

865. Ord. Thymelaceffi {the Mezereum Family). Shrubby plants, 
with perfect flowers, and a very tough bark ; the tube of the peta- 
lo d c lyx be nc f ee from the (one-ovuled) ovary ; its lobes im- 
b ca ed n a! a on ; the pendulous seed destitute of albumen. 
St. ens ot en w ce as many as the lobes of the calyx, inserted 
upon s be o h oat — Ex. Daphne, fcc, of Europe and Mid- 
dle As a a d D rca (Leal her- wood. Moose-wood, Wickopy), 
wh ch s the only North American genus. The tough bark is 
acrid, or even blistering, and is also usefuH for cordage. The 
reticulated fibres may be separated into a kind of lace in the La- 
getta or Lace-bark of Jamaica, The fruit of all the species is 

866. Ord. Eleagnaeea {the Oleaster Family) 
trees, with the flowers more commonly diceciou 
opposite or alternate ; readily distinguished fro n 




having the foliage and shoots covered with scurf, by the ascending 
albuminous seed, and the persistent tube of the calyx, which, al- 
though free from the ovary, becomes succulent, like a berry in 
fruit, and constricted at the throat, inclosing the crustaceous ache- 
niuni ! — Ex. Eleagnus, Shepherdia ; cultivated for their silvery 
foliage. The fruit is sometimes eaten. 

867. Ord. SanlalaceEB (the Sandal-ieood Family). Trees, shrubs, 
or sometimes herbs; with alternate entire leaves, and small (very 
rarely dlcecious) flowers. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary ; the 
limb four- or five-clcfl, valvate in estivation ; its base lined with a 
fleshy disc, the edge of which is often lobed. Stamens as many 
as the lobes of the calyx, and opposite them, inserted on the edge 
of the disc. Ovules several, destitute of proper integuments, pen- 
dulous from the apex of a stipe-iike basilar placenta. Style one. 
Fruit indehiseent, crowned with the limb of the calyx. Seed albu- 
minous. Embryo small. — Ex. Comandra, Pyrularia, &c. The 
fragrant Sandal-wood is obtained from several Indian and Polyne- 
sian species of Santalum. The large seeds of Pyrularia oleifera 
{Buffalo-tree, Oil-nut) would yield a copious fixed oil. 

868. Ord. MyssactSB {the T h Fa I ) Trees h d ce o 
polygamous flowers, differin f o 1 c las n he sol a -y ovule 
suspended from the summit of he ell a d f sh d w h egu 
meats in the ordinary manne S jle o e stij,m ose down one 



side. Drupe baccate. Embryo large, in sparing albumen. — Con- 
sists only of the genus Nyssa. The Black Gum-tree, &c. is re- 
markable for the toughness of the interlaced fibres, so that it is 
very diificult to split the timber. The acid berries give the came 
of Sour Gum to Nyssa capitata. 

869. Otd. Loranthaceie {the Mistletoe Family) consists of shrubby 
plants, with articulated branches, and opposite coriaceous and dull 
greenish entire leaves, parasitic on trees. The floral envelopes 
are various. In Mistletoe (which is ditecious) the anthers are ses- 
sile and adnate to the face of the sepals, one to each. The ovary 
is one -eel led, with a single suspended ovule, consisting of a nucleus 
without integument. Fruit a one-seeded berry. Embryo small, 
in fleshy albumen. — Ex:. Loranthus ; Viscum, the Mistletoe, from 
the glutinous berries of which hirdlime is made. The bark ia as- 

870. Ord. lllmacca! (the Elm Family). Trees or shrubs, with a 
watery juice, and alternate rough leaves, furnished with deciduous 

stipules Fl 

y clu ters or fasc cle rarelj solitary. 

FIO, 1013. FlowetoflheSlipperyElin. 1013, Cal 
cally. 1014 Frail, Iho cell laid opsn lo Bhowthe b! 
1016. Il3 SDibryo. 

FIO. lOir. Branch ofCBllisAmsricana, In fluwer. 1018, Enl 
ij. 1013. Drupe, llicliMh divided to show IhaBloiie. 1020. Th! 

id. 1015. The laltBt magHiaad. 


)ERS. 475 

perfect or polygamous. Calyx campaculate, four- or five-cleft, 
free from the ovary ; the lobes imbricated in Eeativation. Slamens 
inserted on the base of the calyx, as many as its lobes and oppo- 
site them, or more numerous. Ovary one- or two-ceiled, with a 
single suspended ovule in each ; styles or stigmas two. Fruit one- 
celled and one-seeded, either a samara with a straight embryo and 
no albumen, as in the Elm (Ulmus) ; or a drupe with a curved em- 
bryo and scanty albumen, as in Celtis {Hackberry), the type of [he 
suborder or tribe Celtide^e, Timber-trees, The inner bark of the 
Slippery Elm is charged with mucihge Hackberries are edible. 

871. Ord. Saurtiraceie (Mt Lt carl s tad Family) Herbs (grow- 
ng in swampy places), with the stems jomted at the nodes ; the 




leaves alternale, entire, wi h m ha 1 
flowers perfect, in racemes o p li d 
opes. Stamens definite. O ary n p c 
or less united, few-ovuled ca p 1 » I d 
Capaule or berry with usually a n 1 d 
heart-shaped, minute, inclos d n h p rs 

! g petioles ; the 

f all floral envel- 

f h to five, more 

J I or stigmas, 

a 1 11. Embryo 

1 b-yo-sac, at the 

(Lzad al). Slightly 
!y d n from the Pepper 

£ of the albumen ! — E 
pungent plants. They i 

872. Ord, Cetatophyllateie (the Horn-wort Family) consists of the 
single genus Ceratophyllum (growing in ponds and streams in 
many parts of the world) ; distinguished by the whorled and dis- 
sected Jeavea with filiform segments ; the flowers moncecious, and 
sessile in the axil of the leaves ; the stamens indefinite, with sessile 
anthers; and the simple one-celled ovary, which forms a beaked 
achenium in fruit, containing an orthotropous suspended seed, with 
four cotyledons ! and a manifest plumule, 

873, Oril. Cullitrichaceffi (the Water- Slaricorl. Family), formed of 

• Oed PIPERACE^ {fhe Pepper Famili/), a chiefly tropical order with 
ttie emhryo inclosed in the persistent ombrjo-aac, differing from Saururaceie 
principally in the one-cellci simple ovary, with a solitary ovule (fruit a berry), 
and the estrorae anthers ; the leaves often opposite or whorled ; the jointed 

Ho.t.d, Google 


the genus Calliirlcfie ; aquatic annuals, with opposite entire leaves ; 
the axillary flowers (either perfect or monceeioua) with a two- 
leaved involucre, but entirely destitute of calyx and corolla; sta- 
men one (or rarely two), hypogynous, with a slender filament, and 
a reniform one-celled anther; the ovary four-lobed, four-celled, 
indehiscent in fruit ; the seeds albuminous. 

874. Ord. PodostsmacefB (the River-weed Family) comprises a 
few (American and Asiatic) aquatics, with the aspect of Mosses or 
Hepatica) ; their small flowers arising from a kind of spathe ; the 
calyx often entirely wanting ; the stamens frequently reduced to 
one, or two and monadelphous ; the ovary two- or three-celled, 
with distinct styles ; in fruit forming a ribbed capsule, containing 
numerous exalbuminous seeds attached to a central column. — Ex. 

875 I) 1 E ph 1) 3}{J S} Fml) H b h b 

f h mlkyj h mp Im 

fly p 1 b 1 E p b {F g 34 3 9} 

h k bl f h fl 

ly b h 

} 1 ! I p 

Si h 1 g mb J 

~£ E ph h ( p ) C 
dd 1 I p d 

ry f 

Ip 1 


( n 


1 lly b 
fl hy lb 
B (h 

B > 

g J 

1 fly 


d g d 

{ ph M 

;3 woody, but Bcnrcely exhibiting annual layers. They all pos- 
sess stimnlant, aromatic, and pungent qnalities, the common Pepper (the dried 
bei-ries of the Indian Piper nigvcini) reptosenling the ordinary properties of tho 
order. The inloxioating Betel of the Malays consists of the leaves of Piper 
Betle. The Am of tlie Society and Sandwich Islands, from ivhieli an inebri- 
Hting driiik is made, is Piper mettiysticum. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

I wh I freii y p f 1 bl d B ( 

p dbypreobd fhm 

nfhddp m I pp 

Tl d f R m y H h C I nd 

thoe of Croton Tiglium, and some other Indian species, yield the 
violently drastic Croton oil or Oil of Tiglium. Some plants 
tbe lamdj are most virulent poisons ; as, for example, the Maiichi. 
neal tiee of the West Indies (Hippomane ManiceJla), which is said 
esen to destroy persons who sleep under its shade ; and a drop of 
the luice falling upon the hand produces an instantaneous blister. 
The hairs of some species (such as Jatropha stimuloaa) sting like 
Nettles The hard and close-grained wood of the box is i 
uable to the wood-engraver. The purple dye called Twrnsole 
IS derned from Crozophora tinctoria. Another most iraportani 
pioduct of this order is caoutchouc, which is yielded by various 
phnts of different families ; but the principal supply of the article 
(that of Para, Demarara, and Surinam) is furnished by the tree 
led Hevea Guianensis by Aublet, the Sipboiiia elastica of Per- 

876. Ord, EmpetraeetB {the Crowherry Family). Low, shrubby 

FIG. 1035. Branch of Ceiatiols 

flniver, with 

ilsbraols. 1037. The iwo aumana 

with an iniisr bracl or sepal. 1033. Magn 

fied piailLale 

039. The plelil separate ; one of [he cells 1 

1(1 open by a 

vertical sociion, showing the erect o 

ule. 1040. Drupe, with the peroiatei.t scale 

at the base. 

IMl. Tranaverse «clion of iis endt 

icaip, ortwDnui:ules, with the mcJe«id seed 

1012. VenlcalwcUonol'Lbeseed. 

Ho.t.d, Google 

evergreens, with the aspect of Heaths ; the leaves crowded and 
acerose with small (dicecious or polygamous) flowers produced in 
C y g f mb d 

d by 

1 b d d f 1 

H h 7 h 

877 W 1 nda ffi ( / 



fl ly 





P b y 


d f 

1 d 





1 f 





C ry (H 




) - 


f h 


N nh 





pecially that of Black Walnut, for its rich dark-brown color when 
polished ; that of Hickory, for its great elasticity and strength. 
The young fruit ia acrid : the often edible' seeds abound jn a dry- 
ing oil. 

878, Ord. Cupaliferffi (tke Oak Family). Trees or shrubs, with 
alternate and simple straight- veined leaves, and deciduous stipules. 
Flowers usually moncecious. Sterile flowers in aments, with a 
scale-like or regular calys, and the stamens one to three times the 
number of its lobes. Fertile flowers solitary, two to three togeth- 
er, or in clusters, furnished with an involucre which incloses the 
fruit or forms a cupule at its base. Ovary adnate to the calyx, and 
crowned by its minute or obsolete limb, two- to six-celled with one 
ortwo pendulous ovules in each cell : but the fruit is a one-celled 
and one-seeded nut (5S5). Seed without albumen. Embryo with 
thick and fleshy cotyledons, which are sometimes coalescent. — 
Ex. Quercus (the Oak), Fagus (the Beech), Corylus (the Hazel- 
nut), Castanea (the Chestnut), &c. Some of the principal forest- 
trees in Dorthern temperate regions. Their valuable timber and 



edible seeds are too well known to need enumeration. The as- 
tringent bark and leaves of the 0»k abound in tannin, gallic acid, 
and a bitter extractive called Quercine ; they are used in tanning 
and dyeing. Quercitron is obtained from the Quercus tinctoria. 
Galls are swellings on the leafstalks, &c., when wounded by cer- 
tain insects ; those of commerce are derived from Q. infectoria 
of Asia Minor. Cork is the exterior bark of the Spanish Quercus 
S liber. 

6"3 Did HfimaceiB {fhe Swed Gale Family) bbriibs «ith al- 
ter ate aid s nple aromatic leases dotted with resinous glands; 
mo wpc o s o d ceeious Differs from the next pnocipalty bj the 
one celled ova-y with a smgle erect orthotropous ovule, and a 
drupe-like nut, — Ex. IWynca, Comptoma, the Sweet Fern. The 
drupes of M. cerifera (our Candleberry) yield a natural wax. 

880. Ord, Betulacete {the Birch Family). Trees or shrubs, with 
alternate and simple straight- veined leaves, and deciduous stipules. 
FloweL-s moncecious ; those of both kinds in amenls and commonly 
achlamydeous, placed three together in the axil of each three-lobed 

:. QoereviB Chinquapin 1 
own. 1M4. Tiaiurersa 
ch. KM5, Th» imniBiare 


)EES 4S1 

bract. Stamens defiaite. Ovary two celled, each cell niih one 
suspended ovule: styles or stigmas distinct Fiuit memhnna- 
ceous or samara-like, one-celled and one seeded, forming w ilh the 
three-iobed bracts a kind of strobile. Albumen none. — .Er. Be- 
tu!a (the Bireh), AInus (Alder). The bark is aometimes astrin- 
gent, and that of the Birch is aromatic. The peculiar odor of 
Russia leather is said to be owing to a pyroljgneous oil obtained 
from Betuia alba. 

881. Ord. SaiieaceiB (the Wtllow Family). Trees or shrubs, with 
alternate simple leaves, furnished with stipules. Flowers dice- 
cious; both kinds m aments, and destitute of floral envelopes {ach- 
laraydeous), one under each bract. Stamens two to several, some- 
times monadelphoua. Ovary one-celled, many-oviiled ! Styles or 
stigmas two, often two-cleft. Fruit a kind of follicle opening by 
two valves. Seeds numerous, ascending, furnished wilb a silky 

iota AraentoraUunmateflowetaof Bstuliftutioosa) 1019. One of tha Ihtoc-lobed 

» flowers. 1061.°Braiieh in fruit, 1052. One of llio scalBS wilh ils Ihtes floweK (pis- 
en from wlibln. 1033. Magnified section of one of iho two-celled piaiils, diaptajing [lie 
aispended from Ihs summit of eacli cell. lOM. The pIsUls (wilh [lieit subtend! nshraci) 
oreadsancedilala. 1055. MugniSed crosB-secllon of one of the oyariM. .1066. Tllania. 
nit, wilhlhe cell divided verlicallj; the single shs] oociipyiiif Iha carity; suiemlrMe 
omefcelibeiiigvlsibla, 1067. The seed removed. 105S. Theemttjo. 



coma! Albumen none. — Ea:. Salix (Willow, already iilustrnted, 
473, Fig. 326-329), and Populua (the Poplar). Trees with light 
and soft wood : the slender flexihle shoots of several Willows are 
employed for wicker-work. The bark is bitter and tonic ; con- 
taining a peculiar substance (Salicine), which possesses febrifugal 
qualities. The buds of several Poplars exude a fragrant balsamic 

882. Ord. BalsamiHuiB {iJie Sweet-Gum Family) consists of a sin- 
gle genus of jhree or four species (natives of Eastern India, the 
Levant, and North America) ; which are trees, with alternate pal- 
mately-lobed leaves, and deciduous stipules ; the moncecious flow- 
ers in rounded aments or heads, destitute of floral envelopes ; the 
indurated capsules and scales forming a kind of strobile ; the for- 
mer two-celled, two-beaked, opening between the hcuks, several- 
seeded : the seeds with a little albumen. It has recently been 
referred to the order HamamelaceEe (799). — Ex. Liquidambar, 
or Sweet-Guffl ; so called from the fragrant balsam or Storan it 

883. Ofd. PlatanaeeiB {the Plane-tree Family) consists of the sin- 
gle genus Platanus (Plane-tree, Button-bail), with one Asiatic and 
one or more North American species : which are fine trees, with a 
watery juice, and alternate palmalely-lobed leaves, with sheathing 
stipules. Flowers in globose amentaceous heads ; both kinds des- 
titute of flora! envelopes. Fruit a one-seeded club-shaped little 
nut, the base furnished with bristly hairs. Seed albuminous. 

884.»0rd, llrticacem {tlie Nettle Family). Trees or shrubs with 
milky juice, or herbs with a watery juice. Leaves often stipulate. 
Flowers moncECious, dicecious, or polygamous, sometimes collect- 
ed in aments or fleshy heads, furnished willi a regular calyx. Sta- 
mens definite. Ovary free from the calyx, simple, with a solitary 
ovule. Fruit an achenium or utricle, often inclosed in a fleshy 
or baccate calyx. The order comprises the following principal 
divisions, viz. ; — 

885, Snbord. Attocai'pea: (tJie Bread-fmit Family) ; which are 
trees or shrubs with a milky or yellow juice ; the fiowere mostly 
aggregated into fleshy heads, and forming a compound baccate 
fruit, or else inclosed in a dry or succulent involucre. Albumen 
none. — Ex. Artocarpus (the Bread-fruit), Antiaris (Upas) : all 

886. Suboril. [Ilorea! {the Mulberry Family) ; which arc shrubs or 



trees, very rarely herbs, with a milky juice ; the staminate and 
pistillate flowers either io separate ametits or spikes, or often inter- 
mixed and included in the same hollow and closed fleshy recep- 
tacle (as in the Fig) : the calyx, &c. becomiog succulent, and 
forming a compound fruit. Seeds albuminous. — Ex. Moriia (the 
Mulberry, Fig. 244-346), Madura (the Osage Orange), Ficus 
(the Fig, Fig. 241-243) : nearly all tropical. 

687. Snbord, IrtlMai {the proper Nettle Family) ; which are 
herbs in colder countries, but often shrubs or trees in the tropics, 
with a watery juice, often with stinging hairs; the flowers mostly 
loose, spicate, or panicled ; the achenium usuaily surrounded by a 
dry and membranous calyx. Embryo straight, in fleshy albumen. 
— Ex. Urtica (the Nettle), Parietaria. 

888. SubOllI, CannabineiB {the Hemp Family) ; which are annual 
erect herbs, or perennial twining plants, with a watery juice ; the 
staminate flowers racemose or panicled ; the pistillate glomer- 
ate, or imbricated with bracts, and forming a kind of strobile-like 
ament. Embryo curved: albumen none. — Ex. Cannabis (the 
Hemp), Humulus (the Hop) ; natives of northern temperate re- 

889. The fruit in this large and polymorphous family is mostly 
innocent and edible, at feast whe cooked wl le the milky juice 
is more or leas acrid or deleter o s It al'io abounds in caout- 
chouc ; much of which' is obt-i ned from to le South American 
trees of tiiis order, and from Fes elast ci m Java. In one in- 
stance, however, the milky ju ce s perfectly nocent ; that of the 
famous Cow-tree of South Amei ca wh ch yields copiously a rich 
and wholesome milk. One of the most virulent of poisons, the 
Bohon Upas, is the concrete juice of Antiaris loxicaria of the Indian 
Archipelago, The Bread-fruit is the fleshy receptacle and multi- 
ple fruit of Artocarpus. Fustic is the wood of the South Ameri- 
can Morus tinctoria. The resin called Gum Lac exudes and forms 
small grains on the branches of the celebrated Banyan-tree (Ficus 
Indica, Fig. 119). Nettles are remarkable for their stinging ven- 
omous haira, and tough fibres of the bark, which, as in those of 
Hemp, are used for cordage. The leaves of the Hemp are stimu- 
lant and narcotic, and are used extensively in the East for intoxi- 
cation. Hops are the catkins of Humulus Lupulus ; the bitter and 
sedative principle chiefly resides in the yellow grains that cohere 
to the scales and cover the fruit. 



Subclass 2. Gymnospeemous Exogekoits Plants. 

890. Ovules, and consequently the =ee(ii, naked, that 1= not in- 
closed in an ovary (560) ; tiie carpel being itpiesented either by 
an open scale, as in Pines; or by a moie evident kaf, as in Cy 
cas; or else wanting altogether, as in the lew 

891. Ord. ConiferiB {the Pine Family) Trees or shrubs, with 
branching trunks, abounding in rea nous juice (the wood chiefly 
consisting of a tissue somewhat inteimediate betwe n trdinary 
woody fibre and vessels, which is maiked with cnculai discs) ; the 
leaves moslly evergreen, scattered or fascicle J, usually rigid and 
needle-shaped or linear, entire. Flowers moncecious or dicecious, 
commonly amentaceous. Stamlnate flowers consist ng of one or 
more (often monadelphous) stamens, destitute of calyi or caralla, 
arranged on a common rhachis so as to (orm a kind of loose ament. 
— The particular structure of the floweis and fruit vanes in the 
subordinate groups chiefly as follows — 

892. Snbord. AbietineiE {tlm Fir, 01 pi pei Pme Family) Fer- 
tile aments formed of imbricated scales, which are the flat and 
open carpels, and bear a pair of ovules adherent to their ba<ie, with 
the_ foramen turned downwards. Scales aubfeoded by bracts. 
Fruit a strobile or cone (619), Integument of the seed co! aceous 
or woody, more or less firmly adheient to the scale Einbiyo in 
the axis of fleshy albumen, with two to fifteen cotylt,doas (Illus- 
trated in Fig. 391-401, pp. 306, 307 ) 

893. Subord, Cupressincai {tke Cypress Family) Fertile aments 
of few scales crowded on a short axis, or more numerous and pel- 
tate (Fig. 402), not bracteate. Ovules one, two, or several, borne 
on the base of the scale, erect (the foramen looking towards its 
apex, Fig, 394). Fruit an indurated strobile, or fleshy and with 
the scales concreted, forming a kind of drupe. Integument of the 
seed membranous or bony. Cotyledons two or more. Anthers of 
several parallel cells, placed under a shield-like connectivura. — 
Ew. Cupressus (Cypress), Taxodium (American Cypress), Juni- 
perus (Juniper, Red Cedar). 

894. Sllbord. TaiineiB {the Yew Family). Fertile flowers solitary, 
terminal, consisting merely of an ovule, forming a drupaceous 
seed at maturity. There are, therefore, no strobiles and no car- 
pel I ary scales. Embryo with two Qotyledons. — Ex. Taxus (the 
Yew), Torreya. 



895. It is unnecessary (o specify llie important uses of this large 
and characteristic family, which comprises the most important tim- 
ber-trees of cold countries, and also furnishes resinous products of 
great importance, such as turpentine, resin, pitch, tar, Canada bal- 
sam (ohtained from the Balsam Fir), &c. The terebinthine Juni- 
per-berries ai-e the fruit of Juniperus communis. The Larch yields 

Venetian turpentine. The powerful and rubefacient Oil of Savin 
is derived from J. Sabina of Europe : for which our J. Virgini- 
ana (Red Cedar) may be substituted. The leaves of the Yew are 
narcotic and deleterious. The bark of Hemlock and Larch is used 
for tanning, 

896. Ord. Cyeadaceffi (the Cycas Family). Tropical plarkts, with 
an unbranched cylindrical trunk, increasing, Hke Palms, by a sin- 
gle terminal bud ; the leaves pinnate and their segments rolled up 
from the apex (circinate) in vernation, in the manner of true Ferns, 
Flowers di<Ecio«s ; the staminale in a strobile or cone ; tho pistil- 
late also in strobiles, or else (io Cycas) occupying conlracted and 
partly metamorphosed leaves ; the naked ovules borne on its mar- 
gins. — Ex. Cycas, Zamta, the dwarf Florida species of which is 
illustrated in Fig. 403-409, p. 308. — A kind of Arrowroot is 
obtained from these thickened stems ; and a sort of Sngo from the 
trunk of Cycas. 

Class II. Eniiogenous oe Monocotyledonous Plants. 

897. Stem not disiinguishable into bark, pith, and wood; but the 
latfer consisting of bundles of fibres and vessels irregularly imbed- 
ded in cellular tissue ; the rind firmly adherent ; no medullary 

ter effec d b h d p f fib 

b dl 

their coi [ y 1 

!P f 

Leaves seld f 11 g fF by 1 

mm 1 

at the ba. Uy 1 d 

h mpl 

veins {n J) Fl I I p 1 p 


the caly d 11 f q tly d i 


appeara Eh h 1 jl d 


Ho.t.d, Google 


Group 1. Flowers on s, spadix, furnished with a double perianth (caljx and 
corolla). Ovary one- to three-eelied, with a single ovule in each cell. 
Embryo in hard albnmen. — Trees with nnbrancbed columnar trunks. 

PiLJia;, p. 487. 

Group 2. Flowers on a spadix ; with the perianth simple, scalc-liko, or com- 
monly aliogetber wanting — Chiefly herbs. 

Terrestrial, mostlj with a spathe. Fruit baccate. Ae,i.oe^, p. 486. 

Terrestrial. Fruit nnt-like, one-seeded. TTrHACiijE, p. 489. 
Aquatic (floating or immersed). 

Flowers from the edge of the floating frond. Lbmnacba:, p. 489. 

Floivers ssiDary or on a spadix. Naiadacba^, p. 490. 

Group 3. Flowers not spadiceoua, furnished with a doable perianth (calyx 
and corolla). Ovaries several, distinct, or Bometimes united, free. — 
Aqnatic herbs. Ai.i9mace*i, p. 490. 

Group 4. Flowers with a simple or double permntli, adherent to the ovarj 

(ovary inferior), either completely or partially — Heihs 
• Perianth regular. Ovary one-celled, with parietal placentse, or rarely three- 

to six-celled, with iJie placentie in the axis. 

Dioieious or polygamous ; aquatic. HTDBOCHAniDACEa:, p. 491. 

ITIowers perfbci; terrestrial. BusHANNiACEa:, p. 491. 

« ' Perianth irregular. Ovary one-celled, with parietal placentse. Stamens 

one or two, adherent to the style (gynandrous), OaciiiiiACEi:, p. 491. 

« • » Perianth irregular. Ovary three-celled. Perfect stamens oanally one. 

Fertile stamen I, inferior. ZiKOiBEBiCBa;, p. 492. 

Fertile stamen 1, superior. Cahhacb^, p. 493. 

Fertile atamens mostly 5, the sixth abortive. MusacejE, p. 493, 

, , t t Perianth r^ular, or sometimes a little irregular. Ovary three-celled, 
many-ovuled {in Tillandsia free, in Lophiola nearly so). Stamens either 

Anthers intcorse. Stamen* mostly 6. 

Bulbous. Amahyllicaceie, p, 494. 

Hot bulbous: root fibrous: leaves indurated or scurfy. EKOWStiACBJii, p. 493, 

and HfEUOBOBiCE^, p. 493. 

Anthers extrorse. Stamens 3. Ibidace^, p. 494, 

r two ovules in 

DiOSCOEEACE*;, p 495. 

Group 5. Flowers with a regular perianth, which is more or less petaloid 
(the two series when present are similar), or rarely { " 
frani llie ovary. Embryo inclosed in albumen. 
Perianth not glumaccous. 
Anthers introrse. Styles or stigmas sepaiiile. 



Antliors intioiso. Styles united into one. 

Teri-estrial, not spathaceons. Flower regnlar. Lii,iACK.*i, p. 495. 

Aqnatie, Bpathaceona. Flower oflener irregular. Posted k hi ace j;, p. 496. 

Anthers extrovse (except Tofieldia). Mblanthace^, p, 496. 

Perianth glamaceons. JtJNOAOa*;, p. 497. 

Group 6. Flowers with a double or imbrieatefl perianth ; the exterior herha- 

ceons or glumaoeous ; the inner pelaloid, iree ft-om the one- to thveo-eelled 

orarf. Seeds orthotropoua j the einbrjo at the oxlromity of tlio albumea 

farthest from the hilum. 
Flowers perfect. Sepals herbaceous. CoMMBLTNACESi, p. 498. 

Flowers perfect, capitate. Sepals and bracts glumaceous. XimiiACEffi, p. 
Flowers monreciouE or dicecious, capifete. Ebiocadlonace^, p. 

Graup 7. Flowers imbricated with bracts (glumes) and disposed in spike 

ihc proper perianth none or rudimentary. Ovary one-celled, one-oruled. 

Embryo at the extremity of the albumen nest the hilum. 
Ebeaths dosed. Glume or bract single, Cypebaceje, p. 498. 

Sheaths open. Glumes in pairs. Geaminej!, p. 439. 

898. M. PalntiB (Palms). Chiefly trees, with unbraiiched cylin- 
drical trunks growing by a terminal bud. Leaves large, clustered, 
fao-shaped or pinnaled, plaited in vernation. Flowers small, per- 
fect or polygamous, mostly with a double (6-merous) perianth ; 
the stametis usually as many as the petals and sepals together. 
Ovary 1-3-celled, with a single ovule in each cell. Fruit a drupe 
or beny. Seeds with a cartilHgioous albumen, often .hollow ; the 
embryo placed in a small separate cavity. — £j:. Palnua, the most 
mije'ittc race of plants within the tropics, and of the highest value 
to manknid, are scarcely found beyond the limits of these favored 
regions The Date-tree (Phcenix dactylifera, the leaves of which 
are the Palm/, of Scripture), a native of Northern Africa, endures 
the clim ite of the opposite shores of the Mediterranean ; while in. 
the New World, Chamffirops Palmetto (Fig. 166), the only arbo- 
rescent species of the United States, and one or two low Palms with 
a creeping ciudex (Dwarf Palmettos), extend from Florida to 
North Carohoa. Palms afford food and raiment, wine, oil, wax, 
flour, sugar, salt, thread, weapons, utensils, and habitaotins. The 
Cocoa-nut (Cocos nucifera) is perhaps the most important, as well 
as the most widely diffused species. Besides its well-known fruit, 
and the beverage it contains, the hard trunks are employed in the 
construction of huts ; the terminal bud (as in our Palmetto and 
other Cabbage Palms) is a delicious article of food ; the leaves are 
used for thatching, for making hats, baskets, mats, fences, for 



torches, and for writing upon ; the stalk and midrib for oars ; their 
ashes yield abundance of Potash ; the juice of the flowers and 
sterna (replete with sugar, which is sometimes separated under the 
name of Jagery) is fermented into a kind of wine, or distilled into 
Arrack; from its spathes (as from some other Palms), when 
wounded, flows a grateful laxative beverage, known in Icdia by 
the name of Toddy ; the riad of the fruit is used for culinary ves- 
sels ; its tough, fibmus, outer portion is made into very strong cor- 
dage { Coir rope) ; and an excellent fixed oi! is' copiously expressed 
from the kernel. Sago is procured from the trunks of mttny 
Palms, but chiefly from species of Sagus of Eastern India. Canes 
and Rattans are the slender, often prostrate, stems of species of 
Calamus. The Phylelephas of South America yields the larger 
sort of nuts, the hard and while albumen of which is the vegetable 
ivory, now so largely used by the turner. 

899 Orf AraCfie {the Aium Family) Herbs, with a fleshy 
corm 01 ihizoma occasiomlly shrubby oi climbing flants m tlie 
tiupics, the leases sometimes compound or d vided iiequently 
with moie or les'i leliculated veins Flowers mrsih on i spadit 
(often naked at the extiemity) usuiJly surrounded bj a sp^the 
Floweis commonly moncecioua, and destitute of envelopes oi with 
a single peiianth O^aij one to several celled, wilh one or more 

FIG. 1 

the Inflo 

nee of Chains 

opa HjBlri 



Ih Ihe caljx a 





lalot^ly. 1064 


[lu small 

inbryo la B ss 


mUa tattij 


Ho.t.d, Google 


ovules. Fruit a berry. Seeds with or without albumen. — Ex. 
Amm, Calla, Symplocarpua (Skunk-Cabbage), Orootium, Acorus 
(Sweet Flag) : the three latter bear flowers furnished with a peri- 
anth. — All are endowed with an acrid volatile principle, which is 
merely pungent and aromatic in Sieeet Flag (Acorus Calamus). 

900. Ord. TypliacCfE (the Cat-tail Family) consists of two genera ; 
namely, Typha (the Cat-tail), and Sparganium (Burr-reed), of ho 
important use ; they are somewhat intermediate between. Aracese 
and Cyperaceee. 

901. Ord. LfiDlMCCa; (the Duck-weed Fami^j/), consisting chiefly 
of Lemna (Duckweed, or Water Flax-seed) ; floating plants, with 
their roots arising' from the bottom of a flat frond, and hanging 
loose in the water; their flowers produced from the margin of the 
frond, bursting through a membranous spathe ; the sterile, of one 



or two stamens; the fertile, of a one-celled ovary; in fruit ; 
utricle : they are a kind of minut« and greatly reduced Araccse. 

902. Qii Naiadaeea' {the Pond weed Family) Watei pWnla 
with cellular leaves and shp-ithmg stipules or bases the floweis 
inconspicuous soniPtimes peifect Perianth simple or ncne Sta 
mens definite Ovaries solitary ortnotofour and di tinct one 
seeded. Albumen none Embryo straight or cuned — hi Po 
tamogeton (Pond wecl) Najas Eiippm Ztster-i the two 1 iltei in 
salt or brackiah water. 

903. Ord. Allsmaeea: [the Water-Plantain Family). Marsh herbs, 
with the leaves and scapes usually arising from a creeping rhizo- 
ma ; the former either linear, or bearing a flat limb, which is ribbed 
or nerved, but the veialets commonly reticulated. Flowers regu- 
lar, perfect or polygamous, mostly in racemes or panicles, not on 
a spadix. Perianth double. Sepals three. Petals three. Seeds 
solitary in each carpel or cell, straight or curved, destitute of albu- 
men. — £». Alisma (Wafer-Plantain), Sagittaria (Arrowhead); 
belonging to the proper Alisma Family, which has the seed (and 
consequently the embryo) curved or doubled upon itself. Triglo- 
chin and Scheuchzeria chiefly constitute the auboi-der JtrKcaoiNEJE ; 

Med and large efntiryo. 

gtbba, miicli nuteniliH]. 
ned cvide ot Lerona rail 

!079. Vertical 

a. SecllQil througli Ihe h 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ivherp thp "ecd anii embryo are straight, and the petals (if present) 
greenish like the calyx. 

904 fltd njilrDfhanilaceiB {(he Frog's-hit Family) consists of a 
few aquatic herbs with d cec oiis or polygamous regular flowers on 
"jcape like peduncles Ircm a apathe, and simple or double floral 
envelopes which in the fert le flowers are united in a tube, and 
adnate to the 1 — 6 ceiled o\iry, more commonly one-cel!ed with 
three parietal pliceiil-e beeds numerous, without albumen. — Em. 
Li Tinob im Vi II siier a Udora.* 

905 Old Burraaninaiea' ccnsistsof small, mostly tropical, annual 
heibs difl 1 ng from Orohidaceffi by their regular and perfect flow- 
eis with th ee stini-ns — Ei Burmannia, Apteria, of the South- 
ein St^le^ 

906 Ord GuhiWiiS {the Orchis FamilT/), Herbs, of varied as- 
pect ■^nd form , distinguished from the other orders with an adnate 

* Oed BUfOMACE E consists of Bntomus, Hydroeleis, &o. : plants re- 
EPmbling the Aliinia tribe, but vith a milky juice, and the n 
altached to the whole inner Burfaee of the carpels ! 

FIG. insa. 

Eaceiw or spike of Triglot 

hin palusu 

B. lCe4. En 


ower. 1085. 

oae. "Hie [Mut)-3\iai)e 

ule. 1067 

A magnified 


hihiling the 


Oaa Embryo of the 



the radicu 

|6M, whore til 

a structure ie expla 


me patslng 

the sliE, bring! 

w, lOBO, Cross 

BBcilon (oiere 


ed), showing 

lyled™ wrappsd around tha pluniu 

FIG, 1091. 

Uaf, and 1092. flow 

«, of Alisma Planlago. 1093 


Jilarged flow 

Iho peUla rem 

OTsd. im. Carpel 

Ihs ovarj. 

divided, shoB- 

ng the doubla ovule. 

VorucH seclio 


mule; c, ibsp 

ralruding radicle. 



ovavy, and from all other plants, by their irregular flowers, with a 
perianth of six parts ; theif single fertile stamen (or in Cyprlpe- 
dium their two stamens) coherent with the style (composing the 
column) ; their pollen usually combined into two or more compact 
or regular masses {polUnia), or of the consistence and appearance 
of wax: the ovary one-celled, with three paiiefai placentse, cov- 
ered with numerous small seed^ — hx Orchis, Cypiipedium 
(Ladies'-Slipper), Arethusa, &c. In the tropics man) aie Epi- 
phytes (139, Fig. 130). Many are cultmted lor then beauty and 
singularity. The tuberiferoiis roots are often filled with a very 
dense mucilaginous or glutinous sub-itance (as those ot our Aplcc- 
trum, thence called Putty-root), Of this nature is the Ralep of 
commerce, the produce of some unascprlamed ipecies of IMiddle 
Asia. The fragrant Vanilla is the flcshv fruit of the W est Indian 
Vanilla claviculata. 

907 Old Zl 

tropical aiomai 

ngibeiaSfffi {ths Gmger Family) consists of some 
lie herbs, the nerves of then leaves diveiging from 



a midrib ; the adnate perianth irregular and triple (having a corolla 
of two series as well as a calyx) ; fertile stamen one, on the ante- 
rior side of the flower, free ; the fruit a three-celled capsule or 
berry ; the seeds several ; with the embryo in a little sac at one 
extremity of the farinaceous albumen. — There are, in fact, six 
stamens in the andrceciurn, the three exterior petaloid and forming 
the so-called Inner corolla, and two of the inner verticil are sterile. 
— Ex. Zingiber (Ginger), Amomum (Cardamon). Stimulant and 
aromatic. Some afford a coloring matter (Turmeric). They are 
all showy plants. 

908, Ord, CannacetC (the Arrowroot Family), which are equally 
tropical plants, differ from the preceding chiefly in the want of 
aroma, and in having the single fertile stamen posterior, with a 
one-celled anther. — En. Maranta arundinacea (the Arroviroof) 
of the West Indies ; the tubers of which are filled with pure starch. 

909. Ord. lasaceiB (the Banana Family). Tropical plants, of 
which the Banana and Plantain are the type ; distinguished by their 
simple perianth and five or six perfect stamens. The fruit is most 
important in the tropics ; the gigantic leaves are used in thatch- 
ing ; and the fibres of Musa textilis yield Manilla hemp, as well as 
a finer fibre from which a delicate linen is made. 

910 d B m I'a EB ( ft P' i I F 1 ) " ts f A 

9 d Httn SE ( B F m ) 

(R R ) 



912. Ord- AinarylliilaeefE {the AmarylU- Famil ) Bulbous plants 
(sometimes with fibrous roots), bear hi! ly n 
scapes. Perianth regular, or nearly h b dh h 
ovary, and often produced above it, p d S d 
tinct, with infrorse anthers. Stign d d d h 1 b d 
Fruit a three-celled capsule or berry. 
— Ex. Amaryllis, Narcissus, Crinum &^ 
ic, &c. : those of HEemaolhus (with 
poison their arrows) are extremely 
juice of Agave is the intoxicating Pulq 

913. Ocd, Iridaceffi {the Iris Fam ) 
flower-stems springing from bulbs, co 
fibrous roots, mostly with equitant I 
irregular, showy, often springing fr 
the tube adherent to the three-Celled 

d 1 fl by lb r 
Th b lb d 

above it; the limb six-parted, ii 

Stamens three, dis' 

FIG. noa. Iris cristata. 1103. The aummjt of the atjle, pctaloid Btigmaa, and Btomena. 

Bnlli. 1105. Crosa-BBoaoiioflhepuJ. 1107. Seed, 1106, Eul&rgsd scclion oJ the sauiB, show- 
ing ihe embryo, Ico. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


tinct or monadeiphous ; the anthers extrorse ! Sligmaa three, di- 
lated or petaloid ! Seeds with hard albumen. — Ea:. Ins, Crocus, 
The rootstoclcs, corms, &c. contain starch, with some volatile 
acrid matter Orris-root is the dried rhizoma of Iri^ florentina, of 
Southern Europe Sqffion is the dried orange stigmas of Crocus 

914 Ord DlOSforeaCfie (ihe Yam Family) consists of a few twin- 
ing plants with liige tuberous roots or knotted rootstocks; distin- 
guished by their iiblel and netted leined leaves with distinct peti- 
oles, and by their inconspicuous dicecLous flowers Peiianth in 
the pistillate flowers adherent to the ovary the limb siv cleft in 
two series Stamens six Ovary thiee celled, with onlj one or 
two ovules in each cell ; styles nearly distinct. Fruit often a three- 
winged capsule. Albumen cartilaginous. — Ex. Dioscorea, The 
tubers of one or more species, filled with starch and mucilage (but 
more or less acrid until cooked), are Yams, an important article of 
food in tropical coonfries. 

915. Ocd. Smilflcete {the Smilaai Family). Herbs or shrubby 
plants, often climbing, with the veins or vetnlets of the leaves 
reticulated. Flowers perfect or ditecious. Perianth sis-parted or 
double, the three sepals green, and the three petals colored. Sta- 
mens six : anthers introrae. Cells of the ovary and distinct styles 
or stigmas three. Berry few- or many-seeded. Albumen hard. 
— Ex. Smilas (Greenbrier, Catbrier, &c.). The Sarsaparilla 
of the shops consists of the roots of numerous species of Smilax, 
chiefly of tropical America. Trillium is the type of the suborder 

916. Ord, Mliacete {the Lily Family). Herbs, with the flower- 
stems springing from bulbs, tubers, or with fibrous or fascicled roots. 
Leaves simple, sheathing or clasping at the base. Flowers regu- 
lar, perfect. Perianth colored, mostly of six parts, or six-clefY. 
Stamens six : anthers introrae. Ovary free, three-celled ; the 
styles united : stigma often thrce-lobed. Fruit capsular or fleshy, 
with several or numerous seeds in each cell. Albumen fleshy. — 
Eli. This large and widely diffused order comprises a great varie- 
ty of forms : the Lily and Tulip represeat one division ; the Poli- 
antbes (Tuberose), a second ; the Aloe and Yucca, a third ; the 
Hyacinth, the Onion, &c. (Allium), the Asphodel, Asparagus, &c., 
a fourth. Acrid and often bitter principles prevail in the order, 
and are most concentrated in the bulbs, &;c., which abound in 



starchy or mucilaginous matter, and are often edible when cooked. 
Squills are the bulbs of Scilla maritima of the South of Europe. 
Aloes is yielded by the succulent leaves of species of Aloe. The 
original Dragon's-blood was derived from the juice of the famous 
Dragon-tree (DracEena Draco) of the East. 

917 Oril Ponttdenaceffi {the Picle} el-teeed Family) comprises a 
few aquatic planl'^, with the flowers, either solitary or spicate, aris- 
ing from a spathe or fiom g, fissure of the petiole ; the six-cleft 
perianth peiiistent and withering, often adherent to the base of the 
three celled ovary the stamen's three, and inserted on the throat 
of the perianth, or six, and unequal in situation. Ovules numer- 
ous , but the fruit often one celled and one-seeded. — Ex. Ponte- 
derii (P ckerel weed), Heteranthera, &c. 

918. OM. Melailtliacete {the Colchicum Family), Herbs, with 
bulbs, corms, or fasciculated roots. Perianth regular. In a double 
series ; the sepals and petals either distinct, or united below into a 
tube. Stamens six; the anthers estrorse (except in Tofieldia). 

FIG. nIB. Erythrocmn. A 




Ovary free, three-celled, several-seeded: styles distinct. Albu- 
men fleshy. The true MelanthaceEe, or 

919. Subord. IHelautMeffi have a mostly septicidal capsule and a 
marcescent or persistent perianth. — Ea:. Colchicum has a peri- 
a h w g g h vary ; it is also 

g d g ig spring. In 

m h p icombined ; as 

V m ( Vh H } H S. A rid and drastic 

p p , w n q es; chiefly due 

to a peculiar alkaloid principle, named Yeratria, which is largely 
extracted from the seeds of Sahadilla, or Cebadilla ; the produce 
of Schcenocaulon officinale, &c., of the Mexican Andes. 

920, Sttliord, UTidai'ieie {the Bellwort FantJii) has a few seeded 
loculicidal capsule or berry, more or less united styles and a de- 
ciduous perianth ; the stems from rootstocks — -Er U laria. 

921. Ord. Jnncaceffi {tke Rusk Famtltf] Herbaceo s mostly 
graas-like plants, often leadess : the small glumaceo s flowers in 

FIG, llia. Colchicum a.itumna1e; a flowering pan 3 Pc an adopn 1114. Pis- 

til, with the long dlBllnel styles. 1116. Leafy e m and f apsu e ope ne by epticidal 

B, Capsule divided ttansvergely. 1117, Sec on of a seed, and a sepaisU en> 

Ho.t.d, Google 


clusters, cymes, or heads. Perianth mostly dry, greenish or 
brownish, of six leaves (sepals and petals) in two series. Stamens 
sis, or three. Ovary free, three-celled, or one-celled from the 
placentffl not reaching the axis ; their styles united into one : stig- 
mas three. Capsule three-valved, few- or many-seeded. Albu- 
men fleshy. — Ex. Juncus (Kush). 

922, Ordi CommelynaMffi (the Spideneort Family), with usually 
sheathing leaves; distinguished from other En doge ns (except Alis- 
macesB and Trillium) by the manifest distinction between the calyx 
and corolla ; the former of three herbaceous sepals ; the latter of 
as many delicate colored petals. Stamens six, or fewer : anthers 
with two separated cells ; filaments often clothed with jointed 
hairs, hypogynous. Ovary two- or three-celled ; the styles united 
into one. Capsule few-seeded, loculicidal. Seeds orlhofropous. 
Embryo small, pu Hoy -shaped, partly sunk in the apex of the albu- 
men, — Ex. Commelyna, Tradescai (Sp d ) M lagi- 
nous plants. 

923, Ord. Xyridacea. Swampy, rusl 1 k pi h f rm, 
grassy or filiform radical leaves, she I h b f mple 
scape, which bears a head of flowers h p b d vith 
bracts. Calyx of three glumaceoi p 1 d P tals 
three, with claws, more or less unit d a P ' 'be. 
Stamens six, inserted on the corolla h f h m b ex- 
trorse anthers, the others mere sterile fll O y '1^*^) 
with three parietal placentse, or three-celled : styles partly united : 
stigmas lobcd. Capsule many-seeded. Seeds orthotropous, albu- 
minous, — Et:. Xyris (Yellow-eyed Grass). 

924, Ord. Erioeaulonacese (the Pipeiiort Family). Swampy or 
aquatic herbs, with much the aspect and structure of the preced- 
ing ; their leaves cellular or fleshy; their minute flowers (monce- 
cious or dicectous) crowded, along with scales or hairs, into a very 
compact head ; the corolla less petaioid than in XyridaccEe ; the 
six stamens often all perfect ; the ovules and seeds solitary in 
each cell. — Es:. Eriocaulon, 

925, Ocd. GyperaceiS {the Sedge Family). Stems (eulms) usually 
solid, csespitose. Sheaths of the leaves closed. Flowers one in 
the axil of each glumaceous bract. Perianth none, or of a few 
bristles. Stamens mostly three, hypogynous. Styles two or three, 
more or less united. Fruit an aobenium. Embryo small, at the 
extremity of the seed next the hilum. — Ex. Cyperus, Scirpus, 



Carex. Sedge-Grasaes. — The papyrus of the Egyptians ' 
made from the stems of Cyperus Papyrus. 

926. Ord. Grainineffi (ihe Grass Family). Stems (culms] cylindri- 
cal, mostly hollow, and closed at the nodes. Sheaths of the leaves 
split or open. Flowers in little spikelets, consisting of two-ranked 
imbricated bracts ; of which the exterior are called glumes, and 
the two that immediately inclose each flower, palem. Perianth 
none, or in the form of very small and membranous' hypogynous 
scales, from one to throe in number, distinct or united (termed 
squamulm, squamella, or lodiculie). Stamens commonly three : 
anthers versatile. Styles or stigmas two; the latter feathery. 

no. ma 




, with 

itt cluner 

aplkeleie. I 

19. A sep 

rate flower, en- 



te brie 

lies, lis Ihi^ 

pislil wilh a 






0, liao. Caret 

Careyaoa, re 

icious, the tw 



aent epiks 

), im. Stem, 

witb the sua 


and upper p 

apike, of the a 

UM. Am 

ale of the slam- 

inaie spike, wilh t 


lis asil. 

123. Magnified 

pe^llaW ao««, w 

lis scale 



kind of 53 



IIM. Cf^ta-se 




P, removed. 



Ileal aec 


he icLenlQiD, 




Ho.t.d, Google 


Fruit a.caryopsis (607). Embryo situated on the outside of the 
farinaceous albumen, next tbe bilum, — Ex. Agroslis, Phleum, 
Poa, Festuca, which are the principal meadow and pasture grasses : 
Oryza (Rice), Zea (Maize), Milium (Millet), Avena (the Oat), 
Triticum (Wheat), Secale (Rye), Hordcum (Barley), are the chief 
cereal plants, cultivated for their farinaceous seeds. This univer- 
sally diffused order, one of the largest of the vegetable kingdom, 
is doubtless the most important ; the floury albumen of the seeds, 
and the nutritious herbage, constituting the chief support of man 
and the herbivorous animala. No unwholesome properties are 
known in tbe family, except in the seeds of Loliura temulentum, 
which are deleterious. The Ergot, or Spurred Rye, forms no real 
exception to this rule, as Jt is caused by parasitic fungus. — The 

stems of gr 

asses frequently contain 

sugar in c 

onsidorable quantity ; 

FIG. 1128. One-flowersd Bpikslot or locusla i 

,f Alopocurus, 

with the glumes 


1127. Same, wii 

Ih tha glumoa remoted : an own i 



flowered Bplkele 

1 Oraas, shoni 

ing the two feather 

Y stigmas, 

■eriBulh). 1130, T, 



.vena; wilh tbe alumes spreading. 

. 1131. One e 

■f the floBera with 

llB pales; 


Hied, with two briaiies or cusps at 

the epel, and 

Ihe back. 

1132. Haoy flowered spitslel of Gljceria Buitani 

,. 1133. An enlarged aeparate flo 

»er of the 

n within, ehowing the Inner pa|i 

Ba, Ike. im. 

The fruit (caryop 

(is) of the 

Wheal, wkh an 

oblique Bectlon through the inte; 

. embtjo, which ia 

the albumen. . 

L13S, Detached megnified embr/o 

x a, Uis imperfect lower colyledc 

™; 6, the 

large cotyledon 

1136. The oa 

ryopaia of Hordeuii 

, (Barley). 

llSr. A cmas-ee 

stion. 1133. A yertical section, 

1139. Magnified 

detached embryo, with lis bra! 

id ctjledon 8 

ind the plumule. ll«P, More 

Ho.t.d, Google 


especially in the few instaoces where it is solid, as in the Maize, 
and more largely in the Sugar-Cane (Saccharum officinarum), 
which affords the principal suppJy of fhts article. 

Series II. Crtptogamous ok Flowerless Plants. 

Plants destitute of proper flowers (stamens and pistils), and 
propagated by spores instead of seeds (101, 109), 

Class III. AcROGENOus Plants. 

Vegetables with a distinct axis, growing from the apes; with no 
provision for suhsequent increase in diameter (containing woody 
and vascular tissue), and usually with distinct foliage (108). 

,927, Ord. EqnisetaceEB (the Horse-tail Family). Leafless plants; 
with striated, jointed, simple or ma uii 

branched stems (containing ducts 
and some spiral vessels), which 
are hollow and closed at the 
joints; each joint terminating in 
a toothed .sheath, which surrounds 
the base of the one above it. In- 
florescence consisting of peltate 
scales crowded in a terminal 
spike, or kmd of strobile each 
with several thecie attached to its 
lower surftcc, longitudinally dp 
h scent Spoies numerous, with 
four elastic club shaped bodies 
(of unlvnown use called elattn) 
wrapped around them — Ev 
Equi^etum The epidermis of 
Equisetum hyemale (Scouring 
Rush) contams =io much silex 
that It IB ised for polishing '"° "" 

928. Ord. Filices {Ferns). Leafy plantsj with the leaves (fronds) 

FIG. 1141. Summit of Ihe Hiem DfEqiiiaetnm ejl-'aticunj, 1142. Part of the axis of ths 



Spirally rolled up or circinate in vernation (except in one sub- 
order), usually rising from prostrate or subterranean roolstocka, 
sometimes from an erect arborescent trunk (Fig. 94), and bearing, 
on the veins of their lower surface, or along the margins, the sim- 
ple fructification, which consists of one-celled spore-cases {thecx 
or sporangia), opening in various ways, and discharging the nu- 
merous minute spores. The stalk or petiole of the frond is termed 
a stipe. — There are three principal suborders, viz. : — 

929. Snbord. PolypodineiB. Sporangia collected i 
variously shaped clustere {sori or fruit-dots) on the back or mar- 

«oii Ipion 

ium (CampIDSoroa) rhbuphyUum (Walking Fern) ; the fronds rooUng, aa 

1 fniad af Aspidium (Nephrodlum) Ooldianum ; the roundish sori atlnchsd 

, 1149, Magnified Bporangiuin of this ditiaton of Fetna, wlih fia BisAiL, 
and elastic ring panlj eurroundlng }t; which, tending lo etrughlen iteelf when irj, leurs 
cpan the aporaneium, shedding ihe mlduia spores (H50). 1151. SchiiiM puaiila of aboul the 
nalutal sise, with simpls and slender radical leaves; Ihe conuacled fertile frond pinnate. 

Ing iia lowsr Borfece. 11S3. One of the spomigia more magnified; they have no proper ring, 
and open by a kingltudJnal cleft. 1164. OpliiogloaBum vulgaium (Adder-t< 

enLarg^, aliDwing the c 

s eponngia, de 

rnied and co 

'acted fr< 
le of B ring, and openin 

I spike 


f 1 

f J 


k d 

11 1 







d h 

g b 1 b 


ly 1 

d h 
y g 

> p 

g f 

I Om 


r yt 




1 P gl 

S i 

d Oph 

I) pod 

1 I 

d p 


h pp 


ie ( 

Sp g 



Ik fl y 
h dl 

1, am 

mm b 

pk d 1 

g y 
1 d 


d d 

d 1 

d F 

F 1)) 




111 b 1 d Th 1 h 

I f 1 1 m m 11 II d m d 

I hh Igd btsd dd kdf 

il d, ly 1 11 1, d h , 

taining either minute grains, appeariag like fine powder, or a few 
rather large sporules ; both kinds often found in the same plant. 
^Ex. Lycopodium (Club-Moss, Ground Pine, Fig. 89-93), Psi- 
lotum. — Appended to this family, rather than to the next, is the 

933. Snliorii. Isoetincai (the QuUlwort Family), consi&tmg of a 
few acaulescent submersed aquatics, with sporangia m the axils 
and immersed in the inflated base of the grassy stalk-like leaves. 
— Ex. Isoetes. 

934. Ord, Hydropteridcs. Aquatic cryptogamous plants of dnerse 
habit, with the fructification borne at the bases of the leaves, or 
on submerged branches, consisting of two sorts of organs, con- 
tained in indehiscent or irregularly bursting involucres {sporo- 
carps) : — comprising the 

935. Subord. larsilefC {the Pepperwort Family) ; with creeping 
stems ; the leaves long-stalked, circinate in vernation ; — of four 
obcordate leaflets in Marsllea, or filiform and destitute of leaflets 
in Pilularia (the Pill wort), 

936. Subord. Sall'inies ; which are free floating plants, with al- 
ternate and sometimes imbricated sessile leaves ; the fructifica- 
tion borne on the stem or branches underneath. — Ex. Salvinla, 



Class IV. Amophytes. 

lomposed of parenchyma alone, with aerogenoiis 
growth, usually with distinct foliage, sometimes the stem and foli- 
age confluent into a frond ( 105, Fig 87, 88) 

937. Ordi Musei (Mosses). Low, tufted plant's, always with a 
stem and distinct (sessile) leases, piodocmg spoie-cases which 
mostly open by a terminal lid, and contain simple spores alone. 
Reproductive organs of two kiods — I The stenle flower, consist- 
ing of numerous (4—20) minute cylmdiical sacs {antheridta) 
which discharge from their apex a mucous fluid filled with oval 
particles, and then perish. 2. The fertile flower, composed of 
numerous (4-20) flask-like bodies (pistClUdia), each haviog a 
membranous covering (calyptra), terminated by a long cylindri- 

cal funnel mouthed tube {style) The npened pisUllidium ( 

FIG. 1155. 



nJHed thuca, f 


ean remaved, shoivin 

g Ihe peristome. 

US9. Apprti 

n of the 


magnifiad. 1160, A porl 

higUy magnified. 116 


Slate, consialing of 

he rouns tbeote 

S, and the 



th wms csUular jointed 

threads tnlerraixed 

Ihe inroluctal 

y. IIBS 

the antheridia more mag 

fiefl (with the accoi. 


threads), open 



and discharging the foi'ill 

. 1 163. Simple per 

stoma of Splach- 


h united 


of H;paum ; the ex 

erior spreading. 

Its calyptra, dslached from 1167, the 

Ho.t.d, Google 


1 j, d 1 1 
h 1 Id d 

mm 1 h 

ly h , 
f 1 

? f 
P 1 
Th 1 

) 1 1 

w 11 d 
11 ( 1)1 

Tl p d ry 
d 1 k Ik ( t 

lly p by I d { p 

be w h m f h p 

p 1 fill g h pi 

icel) supporting the capsule is inserted into the elongated torus 
{vaginula) of tbe flower. The pedicel continued through the cap- 
sule forms the columella : enlarged under the capsule it sometimes 
forms an apophysis. The calyptra separating early at its base is 
carried up on the apex of the capsule , if it splits on one side, it is 
hood-shaped or cuadUform, if not, it is mitre shaped oi mitriform. 
Intermixed with the reproductive organs are jointed filaments [par- 
aphyses). The leaves next the antheridia are called perigonial 
leaves, those around the pistillidia or pedicel the pm ickceHal leaves. 

938. Ord. Hepatic^ {Liverworts) Fiondo^e oi Moss like plants, 
of a loose cellular testure, usually procumbent and emitting root- 
lets from beneath ; the calyptra not separating from the base, but 
usually rupturing at the apex; the capsule not opcnmg by 
containing spores usually mixed with elaters {which aie 
thread-like cells, containing one or two spiral fibres, uncoiling elas- 
tically at maturity). Vegetation sometimes fiondose, 
stem and leaves confluent into an expanded leaf like mass , some- 
times foUaceous, when the leaves are distinct from the stem, 
true Mosses, entire or cleft, two-ranked, and often with an i 
feet or rudimentary row (amphigastrm) on the under side of the 
stem. Reproductive organs of two kinds, viz anthet jdia and 
pistillidia, much as in Mosses (937), variously situated The 
matured pistillidium forms the capsule, which is either sess le or 
borne on a long cellular pedicel, and dehiscent by irreguki open 
ings, by teeth at its apex, or lengthwise by two or four olves A 
eolwrnella is rarely present, The perianth is a t ihular otgan in 
closing the calyptra, which directly includes the pi«t Uidium Sui 
rounding the perianth are involucral leases of particular forms 
The antheridia in the foliaceous species are situated in the imIs of 
perigonial leaves. 

939. Subord. Rlcclaceie are chiefly floating plants, rooting from 



beneath, with the fructification immersed'ia the frond, the sporan- 
gium bursting irregularly. No involucre nor elaters. — Ex. Riccia. 

940. Subortl. Afllhoeei'OteiE. Terrestrial froadose annuals, with 
the fruit protruded from the upper surface of the frond. Perianth 
none. Capsule pod-like, one- to two-valved, with a free central 
columella. Elaters none or imperfect. 

941. Snliord. MarchanliaceEB {true Liverworts). Frondose and 
terrestrial perennials, growing in wet places, with the fertile recep- 
tacle raised on a peduncle, capitate or radiate, bearing pendent ca- 
lyptrate capsules from the under side, which open variously, not 
four-valved. Elaters with two spiral fibres, 

942. SubOHd. Inngemiaillliacete. Frondose or mostly foliaceous 
plants; with the sporangium ^ dehiscent into four valves, and the 
spores mixed with elaters {Fig. 84 - 86). 

Class V. Thallophytes. 

Vegetables composed of parenchyma alone, of congeries of cells, 
or even of separate cells, often vaguely combined in a ihallus, 
never exhibiting a marked distinction into root, stem, and foliage, 
or into axis and leaves (94 — 104, 106). Fructification of the 
most simple kinds. (Spores often termed sporules or sporidia.) 

943. Oltl. licleiieS (Lichens) form the highest grade of this lower 
series. They consist of flat expansions, which are rather crusta- 

FIG. 1169, 1170. Rjccla na.tBa9, sbont the oatural size. 1171. Magnified nction tbrongb 
tbe lliickneBS of ths frDiid, allowing the immersed spniangii ; one of whicli tins burs! thcougii 
and left an ei&te cavity, 1172. Magijlfleii veilical aec^on of one of Ihe aporangta, wilh tlie 
contained spnrea. 1173. Sporangium lorn aVTO]' (lom tbe base, and a qnalenw; group of 
spates, unked and saparaled. 

Ho.t.d, Google 


ceous than foUaceous. Their structure is, as it were, anticipated 
nR c above mentioaed (Fig. 1170). They are by no means 
aq a c however, but grow on the ground, on the bark of trees, or 
o e urface of exposed rocks, to which they cling by their lower 
su fa e often with the greatest tenacity, while by the upper they 
d w her nourishment directly from the air (Fig. 1174). The 
f uc fi a on is in cups, or shields (opotAecia, Fig. 1176), resting 
on he s face of tl th 11 1 immersed in its sub- 

sta ce (Fg. 1178), 1 np 1 It pols scattered over the 
su f ce A magnih d t tl gh pothecium (Fig. 1176) 

bn gatoviewastr t f 1 gat d {asci), with filaments 

intermixed, as seen detached and highly magnified at Fig. 1177. 

FIG. 1174. A slona upuii wliioh eevoral Lichens are growins, such as (passing from laft to 

HemblingthsoutLlne of Islands, &c. on maps), &c., &c. 1175. Piece of [lie thallus of Parme- 
t)a coDsperas, with a section through m apotbecium. Ii;6, S^tioa of a smaller apothccium, 
more maenifiad. 1177. Two aaci and their contained spores, with tha accompanying lilamenis, 
highly nugnlfted, 117a Sectirm of a piece of the Ihallue of S^cta miniala, shoning the im- 
nieraed apothecia. 1179, CLadonia coochisa, bearing Its fruotificalLon In tDandafl red masses 

Ho.t.d, Google 


Each asats, or sac, contains a few spores, which divide into two, 
but generally remain coherent. The vegetation of 8ome Lichena 
rises into a kind of axis, as in the Cladonia coccinea, which 
abounds on old logs (Fig. 1179) ; or in Cladonia rangiferina, the 
Eeindeer Moss ; also in Usnea, where it forms long, gray tufla, 
hanging from the boughs of old trees in our Northern forests. 

944. Ord, Fongi {Mushrooms, Moulds, ^c.) are parasitic (137) 
Flowerless plants, either in a strict sense, as living upon and draw- 
ing their nourishment from hving, though more commonly lan- 
guishing, plants and animals, or else as appropriating the organized 
matter of dead and decaying animal and vegetable bodies. Hence 
they fulfil an office in the economy of creation analogous to that 
of the iiifusory animalcules, Those Fungi which produce Rust, 
Smut, Mildew, &.c. are of the first kind ; those which produce 
Dry-rot, &c. hold a somewhat intermediate place ; and Mush- 
rooms, Puff'-balls, &c. are examples of the second. Fungi are 
consequently not only destitute of any thing like foliage, but also 
of the green matter, or chlorophyll, which appears to be essential 
to the formation of organic out of inorganic matter (87, 135, 344), 
A full account of the diversified modifications of structure 
Fungi display, and of the remarkable points in their economy, 
would require a volume We will notice three sorts only, which 
may represent the highest, and nearly the lowest, forms of this 
vast order or class of plants They -ill begin (in germinatLOii oi 
by offset*} with tho production of copiou'- lilamentous threads, oi 
g e loots of the fun; 

m (Fg 9 ) id to a certain ext 

p m ed the ntycehum, and 

g FT equent developments 

pro analogous to tubers, 

h & masses that arii 

fi large size, contain in 

m (Fg 80), inclosing simple or 

d b L T culent Morel has this 

k fi conspicuous Sphteria 

(Fg 9) 1 lower grade. The 

Agarics, like the Edible Mushroom (Fig. 1181), present a differ- 
ent type. Rounded tubercles appear on the mycelium ; some of 
these rapidly enlarge, burst an outer covering which is lef\ at the 
base (the volva, or wrapper), and protrude a thick stalk (stipes). 



bearing at its summit a rounded body that soon expands into tlie 
pileus, or cap. Tiie lamellm, or gills (hymeuium), that occupy its 

lower surface, consist of parallel plates (Fig. 1182), which bear 
naked sporules over their whole surface. A careful inspection 
with the microscope shows -thatl these sporules are grouped in 
fours ; and a view of a section of one of the gills shows their 
true origin (Fig. 1183). Certain of the cells (basidia), one of 
which is shown more magnified at Fig. 1184, produce four small 
cells at their free summit, apparently by gemmation and constric- 
tion ; these are the sporules. It is maintained that the larger in- 
termingled cells, (of which one is shown at Fig. 1183, a,) filled 
with an attenuated form of matter, are the analogues of sjainens. 
The lowest Fungi produce from their mycelium only simple or 
branching series of cells (Fig. 74 - 76). The mycelium itself 
either ramifies through decaying organized matter, as the Moulds, 

FIO. im, Sphterta (Qselta, 1180. Ami from luinlerior, i 
nifled. 11S1. Aearicus campestrls, the Edibie MuahroDm, In i 
Ibraugh the pLleos, lo dJapUy Ihs gUla 1133, A smaU place 

surfaces. 1184, One of Iha sporale-hMting cells, with soma an 

onLalalng sporules, highly ni 

Ho.t.d, Google 



&,c. ; or else, like the Blight and Rust in grain, and the Jl 
dine so destructive to silkworms, it attacks and spreads throughout 
living tissues, often producing great havoc before its fructification 
is revealed at the surface. Sometimes the 
last cells of the stalks swell into a vesicle, 
in which the minute sporuies are formed ; 
as in Fig. 74. Sometimes the branching 
stalks bear single sporuies, like a bunch of 
grapes (Fig. 76), or long series of cells, or 
sporuies, in rows, like the beads of a neck- 
lace (Fig. 75), which, falling in pieces, are 
the rudiments of new plants. 

945. Ord. Chantceffl. The Chara Faimly 
consists of a few aquatic plants, which haie 
all the simplicity of the lower Algee in then 
cellular structure, being composed of snn 
pie tubular cells placed end to end, and of 
ten with a set of smaller tubes applied to the 
surface of the main one (Fig, 1 186). Hence 
they have been placed among Algse. But 
their fructification is of a higher ordei It 
consists of two kinds of bodies (both shown 
in Fig. 1186), of which the smaller (and 
lower) is probably a ma^s of anthendia 

of curious structure, while the upper and larger ii a sporocarp, 
formed of a budding clustei of leavps v, rapped aiound a nucleus, 
which is a spore or sporangium The order should ha\e been in 
troduced between the Equisetacefe (to which the verticdlate bianch 
es show some analogy) and the Hydropleiides which ihej some 
what resemble in fructificatjon They are, of all plants those in 
which the rotary moiement of the contents ol the cells (36, which 
has been called Cyclosis) may be most readily observed. 

946. Ord. AlgiE {Seaweeds). This vast order, or rather class, 
consists of aquatic plants ; for the most part strictly so, but some 
grow in humid terrestrial, situations. The highest forms are the 
proper Seaweeds ( Wrack, Tang, Dulse, Tangle, &c. ) ; " some of 
which have stems exceeding in length (although not in diameter) 

FIG. 1185. Branch of Ihs cammon Chara, nearly the natural size, 1186. A portiDn magni- 



the trunks of the tallest forest-trees, while others have leaves 
(fronds) which rival in expansion those of the Palm." " Others 
again are so minute as to be wholly invisible, except in masses, to 
the naked eye, and require the highest powers of our microscopes 
to ascertain their form and structure." Some have the distinction 
of stems and fronds ; others show simple or branching solid stems 
only ; and others flat foliaceous expansions alone (Fig. 82), either 
green, olive, or rose-red in hue. From these we descend by suc- 
cessive gradations to simple or branching series of cells placed end , 
to end, such as the green Confervas of our pools, and many marine 
forms (Fig. 81) ; we meet with congeries of such ceils capable of 
spontaneous disarticulation, each joint of which becomes a new 
plant, so that the organs of vegetation and of fructification become 
at length perfectly identical, both reduced to mero cells ; and 
finally, as the last and low&st term of possible vegetation, we have 
the plant reduced to a single cell, giving rise to new ones in its 
interior, each of which becomes an independent plant (94-99). 

947. The fructification of Algs exhibits four principal varieties. 
In the great division of olive-brown or olive-green proper Sea- 
weeds, the MELAKOSPEHMEiE of Harvey, the fructification forms tu- 
bercles immersed in the tissue of the summit of the branches of 
the frond (Fig. 1188- 1191), which are filled with a mass of sim- 
ple spores with filaments intermixed (1191), invested by a proper 
membranous coat, and finally escaping from the frond by a minute 
orifice. The beautiful red-colored Seaweeds, or Ehodospeemeje, 
exhibit two kinds of spores ; one large, simple, superficial, and re- 
sembling those above described, except that they have no proper 
integument; the others, dispersed through the interior of the frond, 
are formed four together in a mother cell. The bright green se- 
ries, or CHLoaosPEHMEffi, have the whole green contents of certain 
cells, or of some part of the cell, (as in Vaucheria, Fig. 71, 73, 
467, and in Conferva vesicala, Fig. 474, &c.,) condensed into a 
spore, in some of the ways already described {95- 101), or else 
they result from the conjugation of two cells (103, Fig. 78 - 81). 
This conjugation occurs throughout in the 

946. Subord. DesmiiiietC, which are microscopic and infusory green 
AlgK of single cells (Fig. 77- 80) often of crystal-like forms, in- 
vested with mucus, and belonging to fresh water. They multiply 
largely by division, but propagate only by conjugation. Many of 
them have long been claimed for the animal kingdom, or esteemed 




of ambiguous nature, on account of the free movements they ex- 
hibit (661) ; but these are nearly as well marked in Oscillaria, &c. 
(Fig 66} Moie ambiguous stiU and on the ]owe>,t confines of 
the vegetable kingdom, are thoae minute vegetables, as t