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Full text of "Botanic contributions relating to the flora of western North America"

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PLANT/EL 
L 1NDHEIMER1M& 

Extracted from 

Jo(JK.3oST0N Soc. /V/iT./f'Sr. 
F*L. V, VI. 



210 Engelmann and Gray, 



ART. XV. — PLANTS LINDHEIMERIANTE ; AN ENUMERATION OP 
THE PLANTS COLLECTED IN TEXAS, AND DISTRIBUTED TO 
SUBSCRIBERS, BY F. LINDHEIMER, WITH REMARKS, AND DE- 
SCRIPTIONS OP NEW SPECIES, &c. By Geohce Engelmann and 
Asa Gray. 

Mr. Lindheimer's plan for exploring the botany of Texas, 
and preparing specimens of dried plants for distribution, was 
announced in Silliman's Journal for July, 1843. The collec- 
tion of that season, owing to various misfortunes, having been 
much smaller than was anticipated, it was thought best to 
defer its distribution until that for the year 1844 should 
come to hand. A part of the second collection was lost in 
the course of transmission to St. Louis ; those which were 
received in sufficient quantity for distribution extend the 
number to 318. Mr. Lindheimer is now entering upon an 
unexplored field west of the Colorado River, and we may 
confidently expect that a rich harvest of peculiar plants will 
reward his efforts during the present season. This collection 
will be assorted and distributed without delay, and our ac- 
count of them duly published in the pages of this journal. 

The collection of 1843 was made on Galveston Island, 
around Houston, on the Brazos, &c. The series commences 
with some species of Ranunculus^ allied to R. pim/Zws, 
which, having been long since distinguished by Dr. Engel- 
mann, and communicated to various botjmsts under the 
following names, the characters as assignedf.&y him are here 
given. ' j 

1. Ranunculus Texensis (Engel. MSS.) : caule erecto 
ramosissimo basi hispido; foliis petiolatis, inferioribus ovatis 
subcordatis denticulatis, superioribus lineari-lanceolatis, basi 
petiolorum membranaceo-dilatata bracteisque ciliatis ; petalis 5 
oblongis sepala ovata obtusa longe superantibus ; staminibus 
plurimis ; carpellis subglobosis acutis minutim tuberculosis in 
capitulum globosum congestis. — Margin of ponds, &c. near 



Plant a Lindheimeriance. 211 

Houston. April. A span to a foot high, with conspicuous 
bright yellow petals. 

2. R. trachyspermus (Engel. MSS.) : caule ramoso gla- 
bro ; foliis petiolatis, inferioribus plerumque orbiculato-ovatis 
obtusis subintegris, superioribus lanceolatis lineari-lanceola- 
tisve denticulatis, basi petiolorum membranaceo-dilatata brac- 
teisque subciliatis ; sepalis 3-4 ovatis reflexis petala 3-5 
minima lineari-spathulata superantibus ; staminibus 5-10 ; 
carpellis compressis obtusis undique tuberculosis in capitulum 
oblongum seu cylindricum congestis. — Margin of ponds near 
Houston, &c. April, May. 

3. R. TRACHYSPERMUS, /3 ANGUSTIFOLIUS (Engel. MSS.) '. 

foliis omnibus lanceolatis lineari-lanceolatisve ; — and y ? (an 
spec. ?) Lindheimeri (Engel. MSS.) : foliis inferioribus 
ovatis ; sepalis 3-5 ovatis obtusis patentibus petala 3 lineari- 
spathulata oequantibus ; carpellis compressis obtusiusculis tu- 
berculosis in capitulum globosum congestis. — Near Houston, 
&c. but not growing together with No. 2. 

4. Clematis cylindrica, Sims. A narrow-leaved variety ; 
the herbaceous stem beginning to flower in April, when only 
a foot or so in height. Houston. 

5. C. reticulata, Walt. Houston. June. 

6. Anemone Caroliniana, Walt. Prairies, Houston. Feb- 
ruary, March. 

7. Cocculus Carolinus, EtC. Houston. June. 

8. Streptanthus hyacinthoides, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 
3516. West of the Brazos. July. 

9. Cristatilla erosa, Nutt.; Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 123. 
Sandy prairies on the Brazos. August. 

10. Cleomella Mexicana, DC. High prairies west of 
the Houston. April, August. 

11. POLYGALA LEPTOCAULIS, Toi'T. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 130. 

West of the Brazos. August. — More or less branched. 
Capsules ovate, with glands along the dissepiment on the face 
of the valves. 

12. P. incarnata, Linn. Houston. April. 



212 Engelmann and Gray, 

13. Krameria lanceolata, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New 
York, II. p. 168. The root of Krameria lanceolata is ligne- 
ous, 2 to 3 lines thick, and very long, of a dark red color, 
and has the same chemical and medicinal properties as the 
South American Ratanha, (root of K. triandra, R. fy P.) 
As the plant appears to be common in some parts of Texas, 
it might become valuable for collection and export. 1 

14. Drosera brevifolia, Pursh. Galveston Island. April. 

15. Helianthemum capitatum, Nutt. (ex Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 
I. p. 151.) H. polifolium, Torr. fy Gr. I. c, which name is 
preoccupied in the genus. The clusters are seldom capitate. 
May. 

16. Lechea Drummondii, Torr. &/• Gr. Fl. I. p. 154. 
With the preceding. 

17. Hypericum gymnanthum (n. sp.) : annuum, caule sim- 
plici vel superne ramoso erecto quadrangulari ; foliis e basi 
cordata ovatis ovati-oblongisve amplexicaulibus 5-7-nerviis 
pellucido-punctatis ; cyma dichotoma pedunculata strictius- 
cula laxiflora aphylla, nempe foliis floralibus in bracteis parvis 
lanceolato-subulatis diminutis ; floribus pedicellatis ; sepalis 
lanceolatis acutis petala superantibus ; staminibus 10-12 ; 



1 Professor A. Braun, after examining the flowers of species of this genus, has 
suggested that the natural affinity of Krameria is with Leguminosce, rather than 
with Polygalacece. And, indeed, at least in this species, the two lateral glandu- 
lous petals cover in aestivation the stamens ; they cannot therefore belong to an 
interior circle, as Bentham supposes. The ovary is one-carpellary (against the 
type of Polygalacece) and irregularly one-sided, like the ovary of Leguminosce; 
it is imperfectly bilocular, hy the inflection of the placenta, as in some Leguminosce ; 
but in both cases are the cells always side by side ; on the contrary, in Polygalacece 
one is before the other. Krameria may, then, be considered a pentandrous Legu- 
minosa, where one or two stamina are abortive. In K. lanceolata, it is the lowest 
stamen, opposite the three connected petals, which is wanting; but, in some flowers, 
a sterile filament occupies this place; it corresponds with the free 10th stamen of 
most papilionaceous flowers, as the four others, which are united in K. lanceolata, 
are analogous to the tube of nine connected filaments. The lateral sessile petals 
correspond with the carina, and the three others, whose claws are connected, with 
the alaj and carina ; the five sepals alternate with them, as the stamens alternate 
with the petals. The fruit resembles somewhat the indehiscent spiny legume of an 
Onobrychis; and, in all the specimens we have examined, it is one-seeded when 
ripe. Engel. MSS. 



Plants Lindheimeriana. 213 

capsula ovato-conica calycem vix superante uniloculari; se- 
minibus flavis longitudinaliter costatis. — Clayey soil in pine 
woods near Houston. June. Also in Louisiana, Arkansas, 
&c. not uncommon. This is the plant mentioned in Torr. 
fy Gr. Fl. N. Amer. under H. mutilum. It appears so 
different from the ordinary form of that species, that we are 
obliged to separate it. It varies from 6 to 20 inches in 
height. 

18. Paronychia Drummondii, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 170. 
July. 

19. P. setacea, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. West of the Brazos, 
with the preceding, &,c. 

20. Silene Antirrhina, Linn. var. subglabra ; and 

21. var. l#:vigata; the leaves smooth, and with smooth 
margins. Galveston. 

22. Linum Berendieri, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3480. Sandy 
downs of Galveston Island. April, May. Perennial? No 
doubt distinct from L. rigidum. Styles connate above the 
middle. The name should, if we mistake not, be L. Ber- 
landieri. 

23. Xanthoxylum Carolinianum, Lam. "Pepper-tree, 
Toothache-lree." March. 

24. Sida Lindheimeri (w. sp.) : annua? puberula; caule 
erecto ramoso ; foliis linearibus vel oblongo-linearibus serratis 
basi subcordatis ; stipulis lanceolato-setaceis petiolum sub- 
eequantibus ; pedunculis folium demum sequantibus ; carpellis 
10-12 reticulato-rugosis, apice breviter birostratis extus pu- 
bescentibus et angulo interno in dentem subuncinatum brevem 
introrsum productis. — Prairies east of the Brazos. June to 
August. (Also collected in Louisiana by Dr. Carpenter.) 
About 2 feet high ; the leaves 1-2 inches long, and 2-4 lines 
wide. Peduncles articulated about three-fourths of an inch 
below the fruit. Flowers (the yellow corolla an inch or more 
in diameter) and fruit larger than in S. rhombifolia, from 
which the carpels of the present species differ by their shorter 
and blunter horns, reticulated sides, and by the tooth project- 



214 Engelmann and Gray, 

ing from the internal angle at the summit. S. Elliottii has 
narrower leaves, shorter peduncles, and about 9 orbicular car- 
pels, which are only slightly bimucronate. 

25. Malvaviscus Drummondii, Torr. &f Gr. Fl. I. p. 230. 
Wet places, Houston. August. Leaves 4 or 5 inches in 
breadth. This proves to be a very ornamental plant in culti- 
vation. 

26. Vitis bipinnata, Torr. &f Gr. Prairies, Houston. 
June. 

27. Vicia Ludoviciana, Nutt. Galveston and Houston. 
April. 

28. Vigna glabra. Savi ? Thickets, Houston, &c. 
June, July. — The plant is hirsute, but the leaves are almost 
glabrous when old ; the flowers hardly larger than those of 
the garden bean ; the vexillum pale yellow, the carina deep 
yellow. Legume compressed, somewhat torulose, black, 
hirsute with whitish hairs ; the seed black, with a white 
hilum. The leaflets are broadly oval ; but there is a variety 
P angustifolia, which has lanceolate or linear-lanceolate 
leaves. Near brackish water on the coast of Galveston Bay. 
July. 

29. Rhynchosia minima, DC; Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 687. 
Houston. September. 

30. R. menispermoidea, DC. With the preceding, in 
hard, clayey soil. 

31. Daubentonia longifolia, DC. Houston. August. 

32. Tephrosia onobrychoides, Nutt. A variety with 
silvery pubescence, and somewhat persistent stipules. Flow- 
ers white, soon turning to pale scarlet; the vexillum green 
in the middle. Prairies from Houston to the Brazos. April, 
August. 

33. T. Virginiana, Pers., and 

34. Indigofera leptosepala, Nutt. Houston and the 
Brazos. June, July. 

35. PSORALEA RHOMBIFOL1A, ToTT. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 303. 

Sandy places, Galveston Island, May. (Also collected by Dr. 



PlantcB Lindheimeriance. 215 

Wright.) Stems diffuse, decumbent, from a filiform, often 
tuberiferous root. Leaflets of the lower leaves orbicular, of 
the upper rhombic-ovate and mostly acute. Peduncles in our 
specimens commonly shorter than the leaves. Legume mem- 
branous, suborbicular, rostrate, transversely dehiscent ; the 
upper part strigose-pubescent, the lower glabrous and some- 
what rugose. Seeds orbicular, compressed. The singular 
transverse dehiscence of the pod appears to confirm the 
opinion that Psoralea belongs to the tribe Hedysareae. 

36. P. obtusiloba, Torr. 8f Gr. I. c. Dry prairies east of 
the Brazos, flowering early in the season. Legumes glandular. 
The allied, but distinct, P. floribunda is wrongly described as 
" canescent but not glandular," whereas the plant is gen- 
erally glandular, often very much so. 

37. Amorpha paniculata, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 306. 
Thickets, Galveston Bay, and west of the Brazos. June, July. 
A stately plant, 6 to 9 feet high, the long spikes clustered in 
ample panicles. 

38. A. glabra, Desf. ; DC.prodr. 2. p. 256. Wet prairies, 
Houston, &c. 

39. Dalea aurea, Nutt. West of the Brazos. June to 
August. 

40. Petalostemon obovatum, Torr. &f Gr. Fl. I. p. 310. 
Brazos. August. 

41. P. PHLEOIDES (9 MICROPHYLLUM, Tort. &f Gr. I. C. 

Sandy elevations in the prairies west of the Brazos. July. 

42. P. violaceum, Michx. : a pubescent variety. 

43. P. multiflorum, Nutt. On the Brazos. August. 

44. Trifolium reflexum, Linn. Galveston. May. 

45. Astragalus Nuttallianus § trichocarpus, Torr. &/• 
Gr. Fl. I. p. 334. Coast of Galveston Island, on soil com- 
posed of fragments of shells ; while A. Nuttallianus is found 
in prairies in the interior of the island. The present variety, 
if such it be, has rather shorter as well as hairy pods, with 
usually 7-8 seeds in each cell, while in the true A. Nuttalli- 
anus there are commonly 10-12. 



216 Engelmann and Gray, 

46. A. leptocarpus, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. April, with the 
preceding. 

47. Mimosa strigillosa, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 399. Tet- 
ramerous, octandrous. Hard clayey soil. April, June. — We 
have this plant in cultivation. The foliage is nearly as sensi- 
tive to the touch as M. pudica. 

48. Neptunia lutea, Benth. in Hook. Jour. Bot. IV. p. 
356. Acacia lutea, Leav. ; Torr. &/• Gr. I. c. Moist prairies, 
April — June. 

49. Acacia hirta, Nutt. in Torr. &/• Gr. 1. c. ; and 

50. § glabrior. Dry, open woods around Houston ; May, 
June, and frequently flowering again in September. 

51. Acacia Farnesiana, Willd. ; Benth. Nearly the only 
shrub on Galveston Island, where it attains the height of 6 or 
7 feet, and forms considerable thickets. Its odorous flowers 
are produced in April or May. Certainly indigenous to Texas, 
and probably also to Florida. 

52. Lythrum alatum, var. y, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 482. 
" L. foliosum, n. sp." Engel. 3ISS. (who has noticed two 
states, viz., 1. stamineum ; filaments as long as the darker 
colored petals, the style not exceeding the calyx, and the 
ovary frequently sterile ? 2. stylosum ; filaments as long as 
the calyx only, the style as long as the apparently smaller and 
paler petals, or longer.) But, if a distinct species, it will fall 
under L. lanceolatum, Ell. 

53. CEnothera Drummondii, Hook. Downs of Galveston. 
April, May ; also in the autumn. 

54. CE. linifoua, Nutt. Galveston Island. 

55. CE. speciosa, Nutt. Houston. April, May. 

56. CE. rhombipetala, Nutt. in Torr. &/■ Gr. Fl. I. p. 493. 
This handsome species, so remarkable for its acute or acumi- 
nate petals, has been cultivated in the botanic garden of Har- 
vard University from seeds received from Mr. Lindheimer. 
His specimens have broader leaves and petals than those from 
Arkansas ; the upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, closely sessile and 
somewhat cordate. The pods are cylindrical-prismatic, some- 



Plants Lindheimeriance. 217 

what hairy and often incurved, (ffi. bifrons, Don, has 
rounded petals.) Galveston to the Brazos. June, July. 

57. Ludwigia hirtella, Raf. ; Torr. &f Gr. I. c. Houston. 

58. L. linearis, var. puberula : caule ramosissimo angu- 
lato foliisque junioribus minutim puberulis ; lobis calycis tri- 
angulari-lanceolatis acuminatis tubum sequantibus capsula 
elongato-turbinata subpedicillata dimidio brevioribus ; petalis 
flavis conspicuis. — Prairies and road-sides, Houston. June, 
September. Also in Alabama, Louisiana, &c. ; these char- 
acters gradually shading away into the ordinary L. linearis, 
in its branching forms, so that we cannot consider it as a dis- 
tinct species. 

59. JuSSIiEA DECURRENS, DC. Houston, &C. 

60. Gaura sinuata, Nutt. Steep river-banks, &c, west 
of the Brazos. August. 

61. Gaura Lindheimeri (n. sp.) : perennis, erecta, vir- 
gato-ramosa, strigoso-pubescens vel hirsuta ; foliis infimis 
spathulatis lyrato-pinnatifidis sinuatisve, caulinis sessilibus lan- 
ceolatis acutis sinuato-dentatis vel undulatis, supremis plerum- 
que integris ; bracteis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis scariosis 
caducis ; calycis tubo ovarium sessile aequante segmentis (in 
alabastro hirsutis) multo breviore ; petalis 4 spathulato-rhom- 
boideis breviter unguiculatis subadscendentibus staminibus 8 
styloque deflexis paulo brevioribus ; nuce tetraquetra circum- 
scriptione ovali utrinque acuta, faciebus usque ad medium 
carinato-costatis fere laevigatis. — Prairies from Houston to the 
Brazos, flowering from April to May, and through the summer. 
In the botanic garden of Harvard University, where it is cul- 
tivated from seeds collected by Mr. Lindheimer, it also flowers 
through the whole summer, and proves to be a very showy 
and elegant species. It attains the height of from 3 to 6 feet, 
and its copious racemose branches produce a long succession 
of blossoms which are of a large size for this genus. The 
petals, which are often three-fourths of an inch long, are pure 
white changing to rose color ; the calyx is reddish. Flowers 
always tetramerous and octandrous. This is probably the 

vol. v. 15 



218 Engelmann and Gray, 

same as the Texan plant referred by Spach to G. tripetala, 
Cav. ; but it does not agree with the figure of Cavanilles, nor 
exhibit any trimerous flowers. 

62. Eryngium coronatum, Torr. $• Gr. Fl. I. p. 604. 
Bottom woodlands on the Brazos. August. 

63. Cynosciadium pinnatum, DC. p? pumilum. Differs 
from the larger and erect form (which is usually a foot or two 
in height.) in its low and diffuse stems, its umbellets with only 
four or five rays, and few or no involucral leaves. Prairies, 
Galveston. April, May. 

64. Leptocaulis echinatus, Nutt. Galveston Island. 

65. Discopleura capillacea, DC. Galveston. May. 

66. Spermacoce glabra, Michx. Near Houston. Sept. 

67. Mitreola petiolata, Torr. &f Gr. Swampy thickets 
west of Houston. 

68. PoLYPREMUM PROCUMBENS, Liilll. Houston. June. 

69. Hedyotis Bosch, DC. Houston. May and June. 

70. Vernonia angustifolia, var. y Torr. &f Gr. Wet 
prairies west of the Brazos. July. 

71. Liatris elegans, Willd. Houston to the Brazos. 

72. L. acidota. =. L. mucronata, Torr. &,- Gr. Fl. II. p. 
70, non DC. Houston to the Brazos, in wet praries. Au- 
gust, September. In the Flora of North America, this species, 
which is apparently common in Western Louisiana and Texas, 
was hesitatingly referred to L. mucronata, DC, from the 
character of which it differs in some respects, principally in 
the form of the involucral scales. But among Lindheimer's 
plants, some specimens of what is no doubt the true L. mu- 
cronata, DC. occur, (which have been distributed in some 
sets, probably mixed with L. acidota,) and which render it 
clear that the present is a different, although very nearly 
allied species. We have accordingly given a new name. 
The diagnosis may be expressed as follows ; the habit, foliage, 
&c. being nearly the same in both ; and the involucral scales 
more or less ciliate when young. 

L. mucronata : capitulis in spicam strictam arete digestis ; 



Plants Lindheimeriana. 219 

invol. squamis ovalibus obtusis abrupte mucronatis ; pappo 
plumoso achaenio pubescente vix longiore ; caudice globoso. 

Capitula (3-5 flora) et flores magnitudinis illorum L. tenui- 

fiorcE. Texas, Berlandier, Lindheimer ; near Houston, and 
near the mouth of the Brazos. 

L. acidota : capitulis in spicam strictiusculam saepius elon- 
gatam digestis ; invol. squamis oblongo-lanceolatis (extimis 
tantum ovatis) purpurascentibus, sensim acuminato-cuspidatis ; 
pappo plumoso achaenio puberulo subglabrove longiore ; cau- 
dice perpendiculari incrassato e cormo globoso. — Capitula 
(saepius 3-flora) squamae floresque iisdem L. mucronatce duplo 
majora. Western Louisiana, Hale. Texas, Drumrnond, 
Lindheimer. 

73. L. acidota, /3 vernalis : caulibus humilibus (spi- 
tham. — pedal.) multicipitibus ; spicis brevibus laxiusculis ; ca- 
pitulis saepius 4-5-floris. — Wet, sandy prairies, near Houston. 
April, May. 

74. L. pycnostachya, Michx. Houston to the Brazos. 
August. 

75. Eupatorium rotundifolium, Linn. Houston. Aug. 

76. E. incarnatum, Walt. Thickets near Houston. Sep- 
tember — October. (This delicate species, which is quite rare 
in herbaria, grows abundantly on the rocky banks of the 
French Broad River, North Carolina, about ten miles below 
Asheville.) 

77. Mikania scandens, Willd. Houston, &c. 

78. Aster phyllolepis, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. II. p. 113. 
Prairies, Houston. June — October. 

79. Erigeron scaposum, DC. Quicksands of the downs 
of Galveston Island. April, and continuing to flower until 
October. 

80. Gutierrezia Texana, Torr. . fy Gr. Fl. II. p. 194. 
Dry, barren soil, Houston. September — October. 

81. Solidago nitida, Torr. &f Gi'. I. c. Prairies on 
Chocolate Bayou, 50 miles south of Houston. September, 
October. 



220 Englemann and Gray, 

82. S. tenuifolia, Pursh. Wet prairies. October. 

83. S. leptocephala, Torr. &f Gr. I. c. Wet prairies, 
Houston. September. — We have two forms; one with 
broader leaves and larger heads, bearing about 5 disk and 11 
ray-flowers ; another, with narrower leaves and smaller heads, 
which have about 3 disk and 10 ray-flowers. 

84. S. Boottii, Hook. ; Torr. &/■ Gr. I. c. Houston. July 
— September. 

85. S. tortifolia, Ell. With the preceding. 

86. BlGELOVIA NUDATA, /3 V1RGATA, ToTT. fy Gr. I. C. 

Prairies on Chocolate Bayou. September. 

87. Bradburia hirtella, Tori', fy Gr. Fl. II. p. 250. 
Prairies, in hard, clayey soil, west of the Brazos. July, Au- 
gust. — The flowers of this very interesting and pretty plant 
are certainly yellow (a point which could not be positively 
determined from Drummond's specimens,) and the genus was 
therefore rightly placed in the homochromous series. 

88. Heterotheca scabra, DC. Houston, &c. July. 

89. Chrysopsis graminifolia, Nutt. ; and 

90. C. pilosa, Nutt. Houston, &c. 

91. Ambrosia coronopifolia, Torr. fy Gr. 1. c. Sub- 
saline prairies, Galveston Bay, &c. July. 

92. Berlandiera tomentosa, (3 dealbata, Torr. fy Gr. 
I. c. Sandy prairies west of the Brazos. June. 

93. Zinnia multiflora, Linn. With the preceding. 

94. Echinacea angustifolia, DC. Pine woods near 
Houston. April, May. The slender and original form of 
this species, which varies much as does E. purpurea. The 
peduncles are scarcely incrassated at the summit, the head 
hemispherical, with 8 to 13 narrow, rose-colored rays. The 
northern form, (E. sanguined, Nutt.) is a much stouter plant, 
the peduncle much thickened at the summit, the head twice 
the size, and at length conical, with 12 to 16 dark red rays. 
Both forms are quite variable. 

95. RUDBECKIA ALISMiEFOLIA, T07T. fy Gl\ I. C. Houston 

to the Brazos. 



Plantee Lindheimeriana;. 221 

96. Helianthus cucumerifolius, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. IT. p. 
319. Sandy soil, west of the Brazos. July, August. The 
mottled stems, with the leaves all cordate and coarsely toothed, 
and the narrow involucral scales quite reflexed and tapering 
gradually into long subulate points, are uniform in all the speci- 
mens. The foliage is deep green. 

97. H. PRiECOx (n. sp.) : annuus vel biennis ; caule his- 
pido ramoso ; foliis alternis longe petiolatis (subcinereis) leviter 
serratis deltoideo-ovatis in petiolum abrupte attenuatis, infimis 
tantum cordatis ; pedunculis elongatis monocephalis ; involucri 
foliolis lanceolatis, subulato-acuminatis discum vix superanti- 
bus ; corolla fl. disci atro-purpurea gracili ; achenio piloso ; 
paleis pappi lanceolatis puberulis. — In loose sandy soil im- 
pregnated with salt, Galveston Island. April and May ; in 
cultivation flowering from June to October. Plant lg-2§ feet 
high ; the heads about as large as in H. cucumerifolius, to 
which it is nearly allied ; but from which it is constantly dis- 
tinguished by its smaller size, the slightly toothed and seldom 
cordate leaves, the broader and more abruptly pointed in- 
volucral scales, the slender disk-corollas, the nearly flat (instead 
of hemispherical) disk in fruit, &c, &c. 

98. H. OCCIDENTALIS (] PLANTAGINEUS, ToTT. &f Gr. I. C. 

Bottom lands, south of Houston. August, September. 

99. H. rigidus, Desf. Fertile prairies. June — August. 

100. H. angustifolius, Ivi/m. Wet prairies. June — Aug. 

101. Coreopsis Drummondii, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. Sandy 
downs of Galveston Island. May — October. 

102. C. tinctoria, Nutt. Prairies on Galveston Island. 

103. Gaillardia pict a, Don. Galveston Island, on a soil 
formed of fragments of shells. May. 

104. G. amblyodon, Gay. In sandy or gravelly soil, west 
of the Brazos. May — July. This species is equally showy 
with the preceding in cultivation : the copious rays are deep 
reddish-flame-color, with brown-purple at the base, and under- 
neath. 

105. G. lanceolata, Michx. Galveston Island, &c. 



222 Engelmann and Gray, 

106. Palafoxia Texana, DC. Wet prairies, Houston. 
August. Annual, as is P. Hookeriana also. 

107. Hymenopappus artemisijefolius, DC. Open oak 
woods, &c. ; west of Houston, &c. ; flowering from March to 
September. Radical leaves very variable. 

108. Helenium tenuifolium, JSutt, Open woods. Sep- 
tember. 

109. Leptopoda brachypoda, /S (purpurea.) Torr. fy 
Gr. Fl. II. p. 388. May. 

110. Marshallia cjespitosa, Nutt. Dry prairies, Hous- 
ton, &c. The specific name is singularly inappropriate, at 
least as applied to the Texan plant ; for the stems are single, 
scattered, and not at all ccespitose. The lowest leaves are 
often lanceolate-oblong or spatulate. 

111. Egletes Arkansana, Nutt.; Torr. ^ Gr. Fl. II. p. 
411. (E. Texana, En gel. MSS., but agrees very well with 
the original Arkansan plant. A. Gr.) Downs of Galveston 
Island, April, May, and also in November, when it has very 
diffuse and decumbent stems, somewhat woody at the base ; 
but the plant is surely annual. After flowering, the tube of 
the corolla of the outer disk-flowers, as well as those of the 
ray, become enlarged and corky at the base ; and the inner 
part of the disk is sterile. It is quite a handsome plant in 
cultivation. The numerous rays are pure white above, and 
usually marked with pink underneath. 

112. Gnaphalium purpureusi, Eiixn. var. (G. spicatum, 
Lam. ?) April. 

113. Cirsium Virgini anum, Michx. Open woods. March 
to May. 

114. Centaurea Americana, Nutt. Moist fertile prairies, 
Houston. July. 

115. Pyrrhopappus Carolinianus, DC. Dry prairies. 
May, June. 

116. Lobelia glandulosa, Walt. Wet prairies and woods. 
September. A more or less scabrous form : bracts lanceolate 
from a broad base ; the sinuses of the calyx very slightly re- 



Plant ce Lindheimeriance. 223 

flexed. The specimens collected in shady places are less 
rough ; the tube of the calyx is either hispid or nearly glabrous. 

117. Vaccinium arboreum, Marsh. Woods. April. 

118. Asclepias paupercula, Michx. Swamps near the 
coast. Stem 4-6 feet high. Root tuberous. June. 

119. Seutera maritima, Reichenb., Decaisne. (Lyonia, 
Ell.) Wet, saline prairies, Galveston, &c. May. 

120. Sabbatia campestris, Nutt. Contrib. Fl. Arkans. 
&/-c. Flowers April to May, and again in August and Sep- 
tember ; in dry prairies. 

121. S. calycosa, Pursh : a variety with rather longer 
calyx lobes than usual. Shady margins of streams near Hous- 
ton. May, June. 

122. Gilia coronopifoli a, Pers. ; Benth.in DC. Prodr. 
VIII. p. 313. Dry prairies and open woods. June, July. 

123. Cuscuta neuropetala, Etigel. in Sill. Jour. XLV. 
p. 75. (3 minor. A smaller, earlier flowering form, growing 
in drier places, mostly on Petalostemon multiflorum, but also 
on Liatris, and even on Euphorbia corolla ta. It approaches 
C. hispidula so much that, not improbably, further investi- 
gation of living plants may prove both to be only varieties of 
a single species, for which the name of C. porphyro stigma 
would be most appropriate, as all the forms that would belong 
to it, are distinguished from every other known North Amer- 
ican species by the purplish-brown stigmas. Another remark- 
able variety is : 

124. C. neuropetala, Engel. y littoralis : cymis pani- 
culatis ; floribus majoribus pedunculatis ; tubo corollae late 
campanulato calycis segmenta late ovata acutiuscula subcari- 
nata et lacinias limbi enervias ovatas abrupte acuminatas 
crenulatas patentes subasquante ; squamis tubum suboequanti- 
bus. — Seashore of Galveston Island, on Lycium Carolinianum, 
Borrichia frutescens, Iva frutescens, &c. Flowers in May. Dif- 
ferent from the inland form by the much larger, more openly 
campanulate flowers, expanding in spring ; by the hardly cari- 
nate, broader, and not so acute sepals, and the broad lobes of the 



224 Engelmann and Gray, 

corolla, which are rarely somewhat nerved ; stigmata also pur- 
ple, and anthers purple or yellow. (En gel.} 

125. C. cuspidata (Engel. n. sp.) : caule filiformi ramosis- 
simo ; floribus pedunculitis in cymas laxas bracteosas disposi- 
tis 5-fidis ; tubo corolloe cylindrico sepala usque ad basin 
libera ovata concava (exteriora cuspidata) et lacinias limbi 
ovatas acutiusculas uninervias erectas s. patentes superante ; 
staminibus limbo brevioribus ; squamis ovatis firnbriatis tubum 
suboequantibus ; stylis filiformibus ovario (minuto) globoso 
pluries longioribus ; capsula globosa corolla marcescente ob- 
tecta. — Var. «. pratensis : floribus minoribus; calyce bracteis 
paucis involucrato ; tubo corollse subcylindrico calycis et co- 
rolla segmentibus paulo longiore ; staminibus limbi laciniis ova- 
tis acutiusculis duplo brevioribus ; stylis ovarium parvum duplo 
superantibus. — Dry prairies west of the Brazos, on Tephrosia, 
Bradburia, Ambrosia, &c. June. — Var. [3. humida : floribus 
majoribus ; calyce bracteis pluribus involucrato ; tubo corollee 
infundibuliformi calycis et corollas segmenta duplo superante ; 
staminibus laciniis limbi lanceolatis acutis paulo brevioribus ; 
stylis ovarium minutum quater superantibus. Bottom lands 
of the Colorado, on Iva ciliata, Ambrosia trifida, &c. August, 
1844, (No. 276, infra.) — A remarkable species. The stems 
are very much branched, filiform ; inflorescence loose panicu- 
late, pedicels with many cuspidate bracts, some of them sur- 
rounding the calyx like an involucrum, similar in shape but 
smaller than the sepals ; sepals somewhat lacerate or crenu- 
late, ovate, carinate, (the carina less distinct in the var. /3,) 
cuspidate, interior ones rather obtuse, all concave, loosely im- 
bricated. Lobes of corolla thin membranaceous, with a strong 
middle nerve, formed by large oblong or linear cells ; when 
dry, convolute ; the exterior ones generally somewhat cuspi- 
date, the interior ones obtuse ; at the base the lobes are dilated 
and cover one another, more than in any other North Ameri- 
can species. Styles remarkably slender and long, about the 
length of the stamens, but elongated after flowering, when the 
corolla assumes an urceolate shape, and finally covers like a 



Planta Lindheimeriance. 225 

hood the upper part of the globose capsule. — It appears to 
be an intermediate form between Cuscuta proper and Lepi- 
danche. The var. § has larger and thinner flowers, of paler 
color, and the lobes of the corolla lanceolate and acute. Engel. 

126. C. pentagona, § calycina, Engel. Wet prairies. 
June. 

127. C. verrucosa, Engel. I. c. Dry prairies. July. 1 



1 An undescribed North American species, collected in the A lleghanies of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina by Dr. Gray and Mr. Sullivant, in the autumn of 1843, is 
here appended. (This was named G. oxycarpa, n. sp. ; but, just as these sheets 
are going to press, Dr. Engelmann writes that Mr. Shuttleworth has distributed the 
same plant from Rugel's collection, with a printed label, under the name of C. ros- 
trata, which he therefore now substitutes for his own. A. Gr.) 

C. rostrata (Shuttlew . in coll. Rugel): caule ramoso ; floribus pedunculatis 
cymoso umbellatis 5-partitis; tubo corolla; globoso-campanulato calycis segmenta 
ovata obtusa leviter crenulata et lacinias limbi ovatas obtusas patentes (demum 
reflexas) duplo superante; staminibus limbum subsequantibus ; squamis fimbriatis 
(convergentibus?) basi inter se connatis ; stylis filiformibus ovarium stylopodio 
ejusdem longitudinis coronatum pyriforme sub;equantibus ; corolla marcescente ad 
basin capsula; (maxima?) acutatae persistente. — Alleghany Mountains from Vir- 
ginia to South Carolina, {Mr. Buckley! 1842.) Prof. Gray and Mr Sullivant! 
1843. — August to October. — Particular localities recorded by Messrs. Gray and 
Sullivant are : Grandfather and Negro Mountains, N. Carol. ; Tygart's Valley, Va. ; 
and " common in moist, shady ravines in western Virginia " The specimens which 
came under my observation grow on Urlica, Rubus, Aster, Solidago, Rudbeckia, and 
some other plants. 

After repeated and careful investigation, and with some hesitation, I have ad- 
mitted this mountain plant as a distinct species, different from C. vulgivaga. The 
large pointed capsule would seem to characterize it at once ; but C. vulgivaga 
offers so many different forms and sizes of the capsule, that other characters were 
necessary; and they are found in the tissue of the corolla, which is ever destitute 
of the large pellucid dots constantly observed in C. vulgivaga, but is composed, 
especially about the tube, of regular, somewhat elongated, hexangular cells, easily 
distinguishable in dried specimens with a common glass. In the common species, 
the cells are linear, mostly much elongated, interspersed with the large air-cells, 
which have been frequently mentioned. The flowers are mostly twice as large as 
in C. vulgivaga, but of the same shape and proportion, about 2, and sometimes 
(especially in Tygart's Valley specimens) 3 lines long; but the elongated ovary, 
whose stylopodium is nearly as long, though only half as thick, as the ovary proper, 
distinguishes it at once even from those forms of C . vulgivaga where the stylo- 
podium is unusually large. The filiform styles are at first about the length of the 
stamina, but soon after they are long exserted. The capsule is very large, fully 
3 lines long, globose, attenuated to a bifid point ; it is larger and more acute than in 
any other known American species. — During the same journey, the following 
species was abundantly collected : 

C. (Lepidanche) compacta (Choisy) : caule ramoso; floribus sessilibus glome- 
ratis 5-partitis ; sepalis sub-novem leviter crenulatis orbiculatis concavis adpressis, 



226 Engelmann and Gray, 

128. Ipojoea sagittata, Desf. ; Clioisy. June — Sept. 

129. Convolvulus aquaticus, Walt. Wet prairies west 
of the Brazos. Often 10 feet long. July. 

130. Nama Jamaicensis, Linn. ? Sandy prairies, &c. 
near the Brazos. June. Annual. 

131. Lithospermum tenellum, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) V. p. 88. On the Brazos, &c. April — 
August. 

132. Heliotropium curassavicum, Linn. Galveston, &c. 

133. H. inundatum, Swartz ; DC.prodr. 9, p. 539. Banks 
of the Brazos. June. 

134. Eutoca hirsuta = Phacelia hirsuta, Nutt. in Trans. 
Amer. Phil. Soc. 1. c. p. 191. Pine woods near Houston. 
March and April. Corolla with 5 very obscure pairs of 
squamellae at the base of the tube. Ovary 5-10-ovuled. 
(Vide No. 279, 280, infra.) Also Texas, Drummond's Coll. 
3, No. 299. 



interioribus minoribus; tubo cordis cylindrico calycem et laeinias limbi lineari- 
oblongas obtusas duplo superanle ; staminibus limbo brevioribus ; squamis pinnati- 
fido-laciniatis ; ovario cum stylopodio stylos subsquante; capsula globosa subacuta 
corolla marcescente obtecta 1-4-sperma. — North Carolina to Alabama, in the 
mountains, on shrubs, frequently on evergreens ; on Corylus rostrata, Buncombe 
Co., N. Carol. ; on the same, and on Andromeda axillaris or spinulosa, on the sides 
of Negro Mountain, N. Carol., Prof. A. Gray and Air. W. S. Sullivant; in Ala- 
bama, on Prinos glaber, Dr. Gates, (Herb. Gray.) 

This is clearly the Cuscuta compacta of Choisy's monograph, (and of DC. prodr. 
excl. syn.) described after specimens collected in Alabama and Georgia ; the notice 
in Silliman's Journal, Vol. XL1V. p. 195, must therefore be corrected. — It is very 
near Cuscuta (Lcpidanchc) adpressa, which thus far has only been found on the 
bottom lands of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. This is again a remarkable 
instance of two nearly allied species, one growing in the mountainous region of the 
Southern States, the other one in the western lowlands. Analogies offer in Baptisia 
alba and leucantha, P/iacelia fimbriala and Purshii, and others. The mountain 
species is distinguished from its western relative by the closer and compacter glome- 
vules, and much more slender and mostly smaller flowers. The tube of the corolla 
exceeds the compact scales of the calyx considerably, and is much narrower in pro- 
portion to its length ; it gives, therefore, to the capsule which it covers, a much 
more pointed appearance, though the capsule itself is nearly globose. This appear- 
ance of the vestiges of the corolla on the capsule distinguishes this species from 
C. adpressa just after flowering. The corolla appears to be more membranaceous 
than in the western species, and remains whitish when well preserved in the herba- 
rium ; the other usually turns reddish-brown. 



Plantce Lindheimeriancs. 227 

135. Solanum Texense (n. sj).) : perenne, inerme, to- 
mento stellato incanum ; caule (pedali) herbaceo erecto 
ramoso ; foliis (2-4-unc.) petiolatis lanceolatis undulatis sinu- 
ato-dentatis integerrimisve sparsis ; racemis terminalibus ; pe- 
dunculis flore longioribus fructiferis deflexis ; calyce 5-fido ; 
corolla violacea extus ad carinas stellato-pubescente ; stamini- 
bus aequalibus ; baccis flavis. — Road-sides, prairies, &c, 
Houston to the Brazos. June — September. (This is also 
No. 200 of Drummond's Third Texan Collection. We like- 
wise have specimens from Dr. Wright.) 

136. Physalis pubescexs ? (P. maritima, M. A. Curtis, 
MSS.) Coast of Galveston Island. April — November. 

137. Herpestis Monniera, Humb. fy Kunth. Wet places. 
June, July. 

138. Conobea multifida, Benth. in DC. prodr. fy Torr. 
fy Gr. Fl. ined. (Capraria, Michx.) Brazos. July. 

139. Buchnera elongata, Swart z, Benth. I. c. Gal- 
veston to the Brazos. April, May, and again in July. Flow- 
ers smaller than in B. Americana, the teeth of the calyx and 
bracts less acuminate. 

140. Herpestis nigrescens, Benth. Brazos, &c. August. 

141. Gerardia spiciflora, Engel. MSS. G. maritima 
I? grandiflora, Benth. in DC. prodr. ined. Margin of brack- 
ish ponds, Galveston Island. 

142. Pentstemon Cobjea, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. (n. ser.) V. p. 182. Ravines near Houston. May. 

143. Scutellaria Drummondii, Benth. Lab. p. 441. On 
soil composed of fragments of shells, on the coast of Galveston 
Island. May. Apparently annual : stems 10 to 29 inches high. 

144. S. cardiophylla (ii. sp.) i puberula ; caule erecto 
(1-2-pedali) ramoso ; foliis omnibus petiolatis cordato-trian- 
gularibus obtusiusculis caulinis, grosse crenatis, floralibus 
gradatim minoribus integrioribusque lato-cordatis vel deltoideis, 
summis bracteiformibus ; floribus axillaribus oppositis ; corol- 
lis pubescentibus calyce pedicello longiore plus triplo longiori- 
bus. — Var. f3. humilior, foliis omnibus parvulis. — Open woods, 



228 Engelmann and Gray, 

&c. near Houston. Flowering through the summer. Dr. 
Engelmann has likewise collected the smaller variety at the 
Hot Springs, in Arkansas. Fruiting specimens of this well- 
marked species also exist in Drummond's Texan Collection, 
(No. 209, Coll. 3,) but we find no allusion to it in Bentham's 
fine Monograph of the Labiatse. The smaller forms might be 
confounded with S. parvula, but even the floral leaves are 
distinctly petioliate, broadly triangular-ovate, or cordate, and 
more or less crenate-toothed ; all are shorter than the corolla, 
which is three-fourths of an inch long ; the uppermost scarcely 
exceeding the calyx. The cauline leaves are from one to 
nearly two inches in length, and considerably resembling those 
of S. saxatilis, Riddell : those of the elongated flower 
branches scarcely half an inch long. Achenia strongly tuber- 
culate. Root apparently annual. 

145. Salvia azure a, Lam. Houston. May to September. 

146. Hyptis radiata, Willd. Houston. September. 

147. Physostegia Virginiana, Benth., var. foliis ovalibus 
oblongisve subdenticulatis. (Dracocephalum variegatum, 
Vent., Ell.) Wet prairies west of the Brazos. July. 

148. P. Virginiana, var. foliis lanceolatis argute serratis. 
Dry, sandy soil. Houston. September. 

149. Trichostemma dichotomum, Linn. September. 

150. Teucrium Cubense, Linn., Benth. Lab. p. 668. 
Galveston Island. April, May. 

151. Monarda Lindheimeri, (n. sp.) : caule glabro super- 
ne piloso subsimplici ; foliis ovatis acuminatis subcordatis 
grosse serratis glabris glandulosis margine scabris, petiolis 
brevibus basi pilosis ; bracteis acuminatis integris capitulum 
laxum suboequantibus ; calycibus glandulosis, dentibus subu- 
latis diametrum tubi subaequantibus, fauce villosa ; corolla 
glandulosa et villosa. — Prairies and margin of woods, in 
clayey soil. April to June, and again in October. — According 
to Mr. Bentham's view, this would probably be deemed a 
variety of M. clinopodia. 

152. M. punctata, Linn. Houston. July. 



Plants LindheimerianfB. 229 

153. M. aristata, Nutt. in Benth. Lab. p. 318, in 
Mem. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) V. p. 186. Prairies east of 
the Brazos. June. 

154. Verbena strigosa, Hook. Compan. to Pot. Mag. 
I. p. 176. Roadsides, near Houston. April — July. Lower 
leaves obovate and tapering into a winged petiole, doubly 
incisely toothed ; the upper tri-multifid. The hispid pubes- 
cence of the stem is not appressed. The foliage, the more 
slender spikes, and the much shorter fruit distinguish the 
species readily from V. stricta. 

155. V. spuria, var. caulibus erectis ; bracteis brevioribus. 
Dry prairies, Galveston, to the Brazos. March to July. 

156. Zapania nodiflora, Lam. var. foliis lanceolato-cu- 
neiformibus. Downs of Galveston Island. April. 

157. Dipteracanthus (Panicularia, folia floralia in brac- 
teas parvas reducta, ideo cyma trichotoma terminalis) nudi- 
florus (n. sp.) : parce pilosus, demum glabratus ; caule 
erecto herbaceo ; foliis ovalibus ovato-oblongisve obtusis mar- 
gine obsolete repandis basi in petiolum attenuatis ; cymulis 
trifloris in cymam laxam glanduloso-puberulam congestis ; 
bracteis lineari-lanceolatis pedunculis multo brevioribus ; tubo 
corollas apicem versus sensim dilatato calycis lacinias atten- 
uato-subulatas duplo triplove longiore ; capsulis puberulis sub- 
clavato-cylindraceis vel oblongis utrinque acutis 8— 12-spermis 
calycem aequantibus. — Open woods at Sim's Bayou, near 
Houston. May to July. Also, in Drummond's Texan Col- 
lection, (Coll. 2, No. 221, and 3, No. 257.) Stems one to 
two feet high, simple or branched from the base, slender, 
pubescent when young, as well as the leaves and petioles, 
with scattered hairs. Corolla two inches long. Anthers some- 
what included ; the lobes slightly mucronate at the base. 
Stigma a simple lamella, with a mere rudiment of the second 
lobe. — This well marked species differs from the rest of the 
genus in its inconspicuous bracts, and naked, more explicate 
inflorescence, which entitle it to the rank of a distinct sec- 
tion. 



230 Engelmann and Gray, 

158. D. ciliosus, N. ab E. in Linn. XVI. p. 294. =i Ru- 
ellia ciliosa, Pursk. Open woods, Houston. June. 

159. Dianthera humilis. In clear water. June. 

160. Dicltptera brachiata, Spreng. Shady woods, 
Houston. June — September. Seeds hispid, with short, 
minutely glochidiate bristles. 1 

161. Utricularia subulata, Linn. Wet prairies of Gal- 
veston Island. April. 

162. Samolus ebracteatus, H. B. K. Sandy brackish 
soil, Galveston. April. It is singular that this should have 
been overlooked by Duby, in DC. Prodr., as a North Ameri- 
can plant. It was recorded as such by Torrey in the report 
on the plants collected in Major Long's Expedition, and is not 
uncommon along the coast from Florida to Texas. The 
leaves in the Texan plant, as generally in our specimens, are 
obovate or broadly spatulate, tapering into pretty long winged 
petioles, which are decurrent on the stem. 

163. Plantago gnaphaloides, Nutt. Galveston Island. 

164. P. aristata, Michx. Houston, &c. April. 

165. Iresine celosioides, Linn. Houston. September. 

166. Oplotheca Floridana, Nutt. Prairies and open 
woods in loose sandy soil, west of the Brazos. August. 

167. Eriogonum longifolium, JSutt., Benth. p planta- 
gineum : foliis brevioribus latioribusque. Dry prairies west of 
the Brazos. July, August. The same form occurs in Drum- 
mond's Third Texan Collection, No. 352. 

168. Polygonella ericoides. = Gonopyrum America- 
num, Fisch. &f Meyer, in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. (ser. 6.) 
IV. p. 144. Prairies, west of San Felipe, on the Brazos. 



1 Among Lindheimer's plants a few specimens were received of the Ruellia 
justiciaeflora, Hook. Comp. to Bot. Mag. I. p. 176, which has also been distributed 
by Dr. Riddell, under the name of Eberlea. We refer it to the genus Hygrophila, 
R. Br. To the character given by Hooker, for the most part excellent, we may add, 
that the stem and leaves are somewhat fleshy, and that the upper lip of the corolla 
is not entire, but 2-cleft. The anthers of the shorter pair of stamens are smaller 
than the others, but are polliniferous and 2-celled. The plant grows in wet 
swamps, and flowers in the autumn. 



Planta Lindheime7'iance. 231 

July. A low shrubby plant, 1-2 feet high, with the aspect of 
a heath. 1 



1 This plant also occurs in Drummond's Texan Collection (No. 19 & 348 of 3d 
Coll.) ; from which source douhtless Fischer and Meyer obtained the specimens, upon 
which ihey established the genus Gonopyrum. But their genus must be reduced to 
Polygonella, from which it differs only in the hermaphrodite, instead of dioico-poly- 
gamous flowers, a character which would be insufficient, even if constant, which it 
probably is not. The filaments of Polygonella polygama (which are more correctly 
described than figured by Ventenat) are not materially different from those of the 
new Texan species. The generic character, &c. should properly stand as follows : 

POLYGONELLA, Michx. (Tub. Rumicex, Meyer.) 
Polygonella and Gonopyrum, Meyer I. c. supr. 

Flores dioico-polygami vel hermaphroditi. Perigonium pentaphyllum, petaloide- 
um; phyllis seriei exterioris 2 immutatis fructif. reflexis, seriei interioris 3 erectis 
planis post anthesin ampliatis conniventibus fructum triquetrum includentibus. 
Stamina 8: filamenta dimorpha ; nempe, tria phyllis perigonii interioribus opposita 
inferne dilatata et saepe bidentata ; caetera subulato-setacea. Styli 3 : stigmata 
capitata. Embryo in axi albuminis rectiusculus. — Fruticuli ramosissimi glabri, in 
planitiebus aridissimis Amer. Bor.-Orient. ca'.idioribus vigentes ; ramis hornotinis 
herbaceis foliosis ochreatis (ochreis brevibus nudis unidentatis) ; foliis crassiusculis 
parvulis linearibus spathulatisve subsessilibus sparsis vel in axillis pi. m. fascicula- 
tis ; floribus (albis vel roseis) parvis spicato-racemosis ; rachi dense et appresse 
imbricatim ochreato-bracteati quasi articulati ; pedicillis solitariis articulatis, fructi- 
feris pendulis ; racemis sa?pius paniculatis. 

1. P. polygama: foliis cuneato-linearibus spathulatisve ; floribus dioico-polygamis ; 
sepalis ovalibus ad anthesin suba3qualibus ; filamentis tribus basi ovato-dilatatis vix 
aut ne vix dentatis ; stylis brevissimis. — Polygamum polygamum, Vent. Hort. 
Cels. t. 65; Ml. Sk. I. p. 458. Polygonella parvifolia, Michx. ! Fl. II. p. 240; 
Nutt. Gen. I. p. 256 (sub Polygono) ; Meisn. Gen. Vase. Comm. p. 228. Polygo- 
num (Polygonella) gracile, Nutt. Gen. 1. c.? — In arenosis (sandy pine-barrens,) 
Carolina; ! Georgia! Floridse (Bartram! Leavenworth.') et, fide Nutt., in Ar- 
kansas. 

2. P. ericoides: foliis linearibus vel anguste spathulato-linearibus fasciculatis ; 
floribus (an semper ?) hermaphroditis ; sepalis orbiculatis, interioribus subcordatis 
exteriora virido-carinata ad anthesin superantibus ; filamentis tribus basi valde 
bidentato-dilatalis quasi obcordatis ; stylis longiusculis. — Gonopyrum Americanum, 
Fisch. <Sf Meyer, in Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. I. c. supra. — In planitiebus aridis 
Texas, Drummond, ! Lindheimer ! Wright! Flores duplo majores quam in prace- 
dente, ramis crassioribus, etc. 

For the first species we have adopted the older specific name of Ventenat. in 
place of that of Michaux, chiefly because it is the largest-leaved species of the 
genus. 

Polygonum articulatum, Linn., which is joined, by Nuttall and Meisner, to Poly- 
gonella, with which, indeed, it nearly accords in habit (though an annual herb) and 
inflorescence, has all the sepals uniform and erect in fruit, the three inner not at all 
enlarged, and the embryo is lateral as in Polygonum. 



232 Engelmann and Gray, 

169. Stillingia sylvatica, Linn. Prairies. April — June. 

170. S. ligustrina, Michx. Thickets near water-courses, 
Houston. May. — The staminate flowers are rather conspicu- 
ously pedicillate, not brevissime pedicillatis, as described by 
Michaux. 

171. PlLINOPHYTUM LlNDHEIMERI (fl. Sp.) I anilUUS, Stel- 

lato-tomentosus ; caule (4-5-pedali) erecto ramoso ; foliis 
longe petiolatis e basi ovata subcordatave lanceolatis saspe 
acutato-mucronatis, inferioribus denticulatis ; floribus foemineis 
paucis ad basin spicae masculae ; staminibus sub- 12 ; stigmati- 
bus plerumque 12; seminibus vix compressis. — Dry prairies, 
Houston to the Brazos. Also, Texas, Drummond, and West- 
ern Louisiana, Leavenwo?'th. A taller, more upright plant 
than P. capitatum (Croton, Michx.,) with larger and less 
canescent leaves ; the lower 4—5 inches long, and gradually 
acuminate to an usually sharp point, on petioles 3 inches long. 
The spike in fruit is less capitate, and the seeds are smaller 
and less compressed. Something like intermediate specimens 
between this and the P. capitatum, which also grows in 

A remaining species, the Polygonum fimhriatum of Elliott, which has been deemed 
a near ally of Polygonum polygamum, may be taken as the type of a new genus, 
viz. : 

THYSANELLA, A. Gr. 

Flores dioico-polygami. Perigonium pentaphyllum petaloideum ; phyllis omnibus 
erectis margine scariosis et eroso-fimbriatis, duobus exterioribus cordato-sagittatis 
post anthesin auctis, interioribus minoribus ovato-lanceolatis pectinato -fimbriatis. 
Stamina 8 : filamenta llliformia perigonium adacquantia. Ovarium (infertile) trigo- 

num : styli 3, filiformes ; stigmatibus simplicibus. Fructus Semen 

— Herba ramosa, glabra, (bipedalis,) in arenosis Geor- 
gia vigens, caulibus virgatis strictis ; foliis angusto-linearibus elongatis acutatis 
striatulis sessilibus ; ochreis truncatis setis capillaribus longissime barbatis ; floribus 
(incarnatis) racemoso-spicatis ; spicis solitariis vel geminis, paniculatis, dense 
imbricatim ochreato-bracteatis ; ochreis oblique truncatis in acumen aristiforme 
productis ; pedicellis in medio articulatis. 

T. fimbriata. = Polygonum fimbriatum, Ell. Sk. I. p. 588. 

Elliott seems to have described from specimens with hermaphrodite flowers; but 
in mine (which were collected by Dr. Leavenworth either in Georgia or Florida) the 
ovaries are apparently all sterile. The fruit and seed is, therefore, unknown to me, 
and I am not certain that the outer sepals increase in size after flowering. 

A. Gb. 



Planta Lindheimeriana. 233 

Texas, render it doubtful, however, whether this plant is spe- 
cifically different. 

17-2. Geiseleria glandulosa, Klotzsch, in Erichs. Ar- 
chiv. I. (1841) p. 254. Dry woods, Houston. May, June. 
The calyx of the sterile flowers is 5-parted, and the stamens 
9 or 10. 

173. Croton argyranthemum, Michx. Margin of woods, 
Houston. April — June. The ovary is on an orbicular, not 
5-glandular disk. 

174. Euphorbia bicolor (n. sp.) : annua ; caule erecto 
foliis bracteisque undique villosis seu pilosis ; foliis subsessili- 
bus oblongo-lanceolatis vel lineari-oblongis cuspidatis basi ob- 
tusis ; bracteis lineari-ligulatis elongatis basi attenuatis margine 
membranaceis decolorato-albidis ; glandulis involucri villosi 
margine petaloideis suborbiculatis ; capsulis dense lanatis ; 
seminibus sparsim rugulosis. ft concolor : marginibus deco- 
loratis bractearum angustissimis aut subnullis ; foliis latioribus. 
Prairies near Houston. June — September. Also Texas, 
Drummond. Arkansas, Beyrich, &c. A handsome species, 
resembling E. marginata, but distinguished by the narrower 
hairy leaves, much narrower bracts, &c. 

175. Aphora mercurialina, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (N. Ser.) 5, p. 174. Serophyton pilosissimum, 
Benih. Bot. Voy. Sulphur, p. 53. In denudated soil, dry 
prairies, &c. Arkansas and Texas. May — July. Endlicher 
having entirely overlooked this genus of NuttalPs, Mr. Bentham 
has lately characterized it anew under the name of Serophyton. 
To his excellent character we have only to add, that the 
plants are sometimes dioecious, or subdioecious, as, indeed, is 
mentioned by Nuttall in the case of the original species. 
What Nuttall takes for sterile filaments in the fertile flowers, 
Bentham describes as petals, and so NuttalPs name becomes 
unmeaning, which, however, is no great objection. Mr. 
Bentham's Californian species must, therefore, bear the name 
of Aphora lanceolata. His remaining Texan species, the 
Aphora Drummondii, was also collected by Lindheimer, but 

vol. v. 16 



234 Engelmann and Gray, 

not in sufficient abundance for distribution. It is a less hairy 
plant. Under No. 306 we describe a fourth species, A. hu- 
milis, which we also find in Drummond's second collection, 
No. 230. The leaves in A. mercurialina, as in A. Drum- 
mondii, often turn purplish, in drying. In No. 322 of Drum- 
mond's third collection, the leaves are oblong-ovate, or ovate- 
lanceolate, and often acute or acuminate, as in Lindheimer's 
specimens. In No. 263 of the second collection they are 
mostly ovate-orbicular. 

176. Tkagia urticjefolia, Michx. Houston, &c. April. 
T. betonicaefolia, Nutt. 1 

177. Phyllanthus polygonoides, Nutt. (Maschalanthus, 
Nutt. — Phyllanthus proper, Linn., Juss., etc.) Grassy banks. 
July. 

178. Cnidoscolus stimulosus. = Jatropha stimulosa, 
Linn. Houston. July. 

179. Urtica purpurascens, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. (N. Set.) V. p. 169. Thickets, Galveston Island. 

180. Quercus virens, Ait. Moist woods along the 
coast. 

181. Taxodium distichum, Rich. Houston, &c. 

182. Sagittaria simplex, Pursh. ? Ponds in clayey soil, 
near Houston. June — September. Our plant has rather 
rigid linear-lanceolate leaves ; the calyx as well as the ovate 
acute bracts are a little pubescent ; the fertile flowers are on 
short, the sterile on rather long peduncles ; the stamens from 
20 to 30 ; and the carpels in fruit are compressed, rostrate, 
and falcate. Larger specimens, collected near the coast, 
with broader leaves, &c. bear larger flowers, with 40 to 50 
stamens. 

183. S. stolonifera (n. sp.) : stolonibus radicantibus ; 
foliis submersis lato-linearibus acutis, emersis lineari-lanceola- 
tis 3-5-nerviis ; scapo simplici ; bracteis ovatis acutis vel 
obtusiusculis brevibus ; pedunculis subternatis omnibus elon- 
gatis ; staminibus 12-16; carpellis compressis oblique subor- 
biculatis breviter mucronatis. — S. graminea, Nutt. in Trans. 



Plants Lindheimeriaiue. 235 

Amer. Phil. Soc. I. c. p. 159. Ponds near Houston. Sep- 
tember, &c. 

184. Commelyna angustifolia, Michx. Houston. May. 

185. Xyris Caroliniana, Walt.pl scabra : scapo apice 
magis ancipiti, aciebus subtilissime serrulato-scabris. X. sca- 
bra, Engel. MSS. Prairies, west of the Brazos. July. 

186. X. bulbosa, Kunth, enitm. IV. p. 11, (ex descr.) 
With the preceding. The North American species still need 
thorough revision. 

187. Hypoxis erecta, (3. jestivalis : scapo subunifloro 
folia suboequante ; capsulis subglobosis, (ut in «.) In prairies 
which have been burned over in spring. July. 

188. H. erecta, y. leptocarpa (H. leptocarpa, Engel. 
MSS.) : floribus minoribus ; capsulis prismatico-oblongis el- 
lipticisve ; seminibus in singulis loculis uniserialibus 4-6. 
Sandy soil, along rivulets, June — August. 

189. Eustylis purpurea. (Nemostylis ? purpurea, Herbert, 
in Bot. Mag. sub. t. 3779.) Open woods and prairies, from 
Houston to the Brazos. June, July. Also, Texas, Drum- 
mond, and Western Louisiana, Dr. Hale. The diagnostic 
characters of this genus and Nemostylis are subjoined. Alo- 
phia, Herb, differs, according to the character, 1 in having the 
inner divisions of the much more unequal perigonium navicu- 
late, and differently shaped from the outer, in the very short 
filaments, &c, and in being tuberiferous instead of bul- 
biferous. 

NEMOSTYLIS, Nutt. Perigonium hexaphyllo-partitum, 
conforme, patens, segmentis fere aequalibus, tubo nullo. Fila- 
menta dislincta, e basi lato subulata, antheris elongato-lineari- 
bus (connectivo angusto) post anthesin spiraliter convolutis 

1 The specimens of several of these Iridaceous plants, of very similar appearance 
in the dried state, appear to have been somewhat confused in the distribution of 
Drummond's Texan Collection. Under No. 414 of the Third Collection, we have, 
instead of Alophia, specimens of the Herbertia eaerulea. Under No. 415, we have 
Nemostylis acuta (geminijiora, Nutt. Ixia acuta, Barton,) as well as Gelasine 
Te.vana. In the latter the filaments are certainly monadelphous, and the style has 
two or three short and simple lobes. 



236 Engelmann and Gray, 

multo breviora. Stylus brevis (filamenta adaequans,) tenuis, 
apice trilobus ; lobis bipartitis, partitionibus in stigmata filifor- 
mia radiatim productis. 

EUSTYLIS. Perigonium hexaphyllo-partitum, confoime, 
patens ; tubo nullo ; segmentis obovatis planis, tribus intcrio- 
ribus modice minoribus. Filamenta distincta, e basi lato 
subulata, antheras subpanduriformes post anthesin immutatas 
sequantia : connectivum latum basi apicemque versus proeser- 
tim dilatatum, loculis marginalibus. Stylus elongatus (stamina 
adaequans,) ad apicem infundibuliformis, trifidus ; lobis bifidis, 
partitionibus in stigmata filiformia recurvia attenuatis. — Habi- 
tus, bulbus, capsula, etc., omnino Nemostylis. 

190. Gymnadenia nivea. (Orchis nivea, Nutt.) Moist 
prairies near Houston ; April to June. The ovary remains 
straight ; the labellum is therefore posterior. The outer lat- 
eral divisions of the perianth are also produced at the base on 
the upper side into a triangular blunt auricle, which is not 
noticed in Nuttall's description. The anther-cells are parallel 
and approximated. 

191. Spiranthes vernalis (n. sp.) : radice fasciculata ; 
caule foliato ; foliis linearibus, superioribus sensim minoribus 
vaginantibus lanceolato-subulatis ; sepalis petalisque basi co- 
hserentibus oblongo-linearibus, lateralibus angustioribus label- 
lum reflexum crenulatum apice non dilatatum aequantibus vel 
superantibus. — Moist prairies, Galveston and Houston ; April, 
May. — Stem 1 to 2 feet high, slender ; lower leaves often 5 to 
6 inches long, 2 lines wide ; bracts ovate, acuminate. Flowers 
much as in & cemua, from which it is distinguished by its 
short lip, &c. 

192. Thalia dealbata, Fraser. Swamps on the Brazos; 
September. — The seed appears to contain three embryos, of 
which only the central one is fully developed. 

193. Juncus heteranthos, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. 
Soc. (N. Ser.) V. p. 153. Galveston Island. May. 

194. PONTEDERIA LANCIFOLIA, Mulll. Jul)'. 

195. Smilax lanceolata, Linn. Rich shady soil near 



Plantce Lindheimeriancp. 237 

water- courses. July. — Climbing to a great height. The rhi- 
zoma bears tubers which are called " Indian bread " in Texas. 
Leaves varying from narrowly lanceolate to almost ovate. 
Stem prickly below. 

196. Cooperia Drtjmmondii, Herbert. Dry prairies from 
Galveston to the Brazos ; flowering from June to November, 
but mostly in July, and only after heavy rains. 

197. Aletris aurea, Walt. Houston. April. 

198. Scilla (Kamassa, sed perigonium regulare) angusta 
(n. sp.) : gracilis ; foliis linearibus apice longe attenuato-seta- 
ceis flaccidis scapo brevioribus ; bracteis e basi lanceolata 
membranacea subulatis pedicellos erecto-patentes subaaquanti- 
bus ; alabastris oblongo-linearibus ; foliolis perigonii linearibus 
obtusis stamina duplo superantibus. — Open woods and prai- 
ries, in south-western Missouri and Arkansas, as well as Texas : 
flowering from April to May in Texas, but from May to the 
middle of June in Missouri and Arkansas, when S. esculenta, 
growing in the same region, has matured its seeds. The 
present plant is more slender than S. esculenta, with narrower 
leaves, sepals, etc. ; but perhaps it is only a variety. — We are 
slow to believe that the Oregon species belongs to a different 
genus from the eastern. 

199. Allium mutabile, Michx. Dry open woods, Houston. 
April. The capsule, in all our specimens, is one-seeded ; the 
flowers usually rose-red, but sometimes white. 

200. Ruppia maritima, Linn. Salt water ponds, Galves- 
ton Island. 

201. Cyperus vegetus, Linn. Wet prairies. May. 

202. C. ovularis, Torr. In dry and wet places. April 
to June. 

203. C. tetragonus, Ell. Dry prairies near Houston. 
May and June. Style 3-cleft. 

204. Fuirena hispida, Ell. Springy places west of the 
Brazos. August. 

205. Eleocharis arenicola, (Torr. MSS.) : culmis sub- 
spithamreis compressis sulcatis e rhizomate repente praelongo ; 



238 Engelmann and Gray, 

spicis ovatis obtusis multifloris ; squamis rufescentibus mem- 
branaceis obtusis margine scariosis ; stylo trifido ; achenio 
obovato compresso triangulari opaco tuberculo distincto rostrato 
acuto multum majore setas 6 tenues subexcedente. — Galves- 
ton Island, May, creeping in the loose sand. (Also along the 
southern coast of the United States.) 

206. Scirpus lacustris, Linn. Galveston. May. 1 

207. Spartina junciformis (n. sp.) : humilis (1—2 peda" 
lis) ; foliis convolutis angustis, caulinis paucis brevibus, radi- 
calibus caespitosis culmum subcequantibus ; spicis 8—10 oblongis 
sessilibus ad rachin laeviusculam adpressis ; carina glumarum 
longitudine subaequalium palea3que inferioris ciliato-hispida. 
Saline prairies near the coast. May. — Plant with the foliage 
and much the aspect of S.juncea; but with the spikes and 
flowers different from that species, as well as from S. IcEvi- 
gata. A few specimens of a taller variety were collected in 
July. 

208. K(eleria trttncata, Torr. Woods, Houston. May. 

209. Uniola gracilis, Michx. Variety with broad and 
hairy leaves, the florets undeveloped. Houston. June. 

210. Panicum (Orthopogon) hirtellum. Michx. Hous- 
ton. June. 

211. Andropogon avenaceus, Michx. Houston. Sept. 

1 I wish to subjoin the character of a remarkable Scirpus, 'which has been discov- 
ered this season, near Providence, Rhode Island, by Mr. Olney (the author of a Cata- 
logue of Rhode Island Plants, 1S45,) whose name I ain desirous it should bear. 

Scirpus Olneyi (n. sp. A. Gr.) : culmis triquetro-alatis 2-7-pedalibus aphyllis 
basi vaginatis sub apice triangulari-subulato brevi capitulam sessilem, e spicis 6-12 
ovato-oblongis, gerentibus ; squamis orbiculatis mucronatis ; antheris apice barbula- 
tis ; stylo bifido ; setis 6 retrorsum hispidulis achenium obovatum plano-convexum 
gibbosum apiculatum vix asquantibus. — In a salt marsh on the Seekonk river, Rhode 
Island, Mr. S. T. Olney. This species is most allied to S. pungens, Vahl, (S. 
Americanus, Pers.) fr0m,which it is especially distinguished by its remarkably 3- 
winged stem. The reentering angles are so deep that the cross section presents the 
appearance of three rays, or plates with parallel sides, joined at a common centre. 
This species has just been detected on the coast of New Jersey by that very assidu- 
ous botanist, Dr. Knieskern, from whose specimens I have added the characters of 
the achenium; as the fruit has failed to ripen this year in the Rhode Island plant. 

A. Gr. 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 239 

212. Leptochloa mucronata, Kunth. August. 

213. Poa (Eragrostis) capitata, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (N. Ser.) V. p. 147 ; the submasculine plant ; and 

214. The subfeminine plant of the same species, which has 
the spikelets much less crowded. Sandy places in the Brazos 
bottom. July. 

COLLECTION SECOND, 1844. 

Mr. Lindheimer's Collection of 1844, was made between 
the Brazos near San Felipe, and the Colorado River, in the 
neighborhood of Cat Spring of Mill Creek, the settlement of 
Industry, and thence westward towards the Colorado, and 
along its bottom lands. The prairies are partly of a light and 
even sterile sandy soil, and partly of a stiff' clayey soil. The 
bottom lands consist of a stiff black soil. Near Industry, and 
on the Colorado, rocks of a secondary sandstone (probably a 
subcretaceous formation) appear, on which several species of 
Cactus are found. In the prairies ant-hills are not uncom- 
mon, and on old and deserted ones a rich harvest of peculiar 
plants may be made. The numbers run on consecutively 
from the end of the former year's collection. Additional 
specimens of the following plants of that collection, gathered 
again in 1844, are distributed to subscribers (without being 
reckoned) under their former numbers, namely: No. 7. 
Cocculus Carolinus, DC, in fruit. — 8. Strepianthus hya- 
cinthoides, Hook., with linear leaves ; the flowers nodding, 
the long siliques erect. — 18. Paronychia Drummondii ; hand- 
some specimens, gathered in May, just coming into flower. — 
24. Sida Lindheimeri, nob. ; specimens in finer state than 
before. — 29. Rhynchosia minima. — 39. Dalea aurea. — 40. 
Petalostemon obovatum. Root ligneous, perennial. The 
spikes, which are an inch in diameter, are at length prolonged 
to the length of six or eight inches. — 49. Acacia hirta, with 
ripe pods. — 51. Acacia Farnesiana ; on the Brazos, &c. 
Undoubtedly indigenous, flowering in March. — 55. (Enothera 



240 Engelmann and Gray, 

speciosa. — 60. Gaura sinuata. — 80. Gutierrezia Texana. — 
83. Solidago leptocephala. — 94. Echinacea angustifolia. — 
96. Helianthus cucumerifolius. — 104. Gaillardia amblyodon. 
— 107. Hymenopappus artemisiaefolius ; with the leaves, as 
usual, extremely variable ; some of them occasionally obovate- 
lanceolate, and perfectly entire. — 110. Marshallia csepitosa ; 
growing in scattered plants on the dry prairies near the Mill 
Creek. — 137. Herpestis cuneifolia, in fruit. — 138. Buchnera 
Americana /?. parviflora, in flower. — 145. Salvia azurea. — 
153. Monarda aristata, which in the inland parts of Texas 
appears to take the place of M. punctata near the coast. — 
161. Utricularia subulata. — 167. Eriogonum longifolium /3. 
plantagineum. — 169. Stillingia sylvatica, in fruit. — 174. 
Euphorbia bicolor. — 175. Aphora mercurialina, in flower. — 
184. Commelyna angustifolia. — 199. Allium mutabile. Shady 
moist places on Mill Creek. April, May. Larger specimens 
than those gathered in 1843, near Houston, 12 to 20 inches 
high, the umbel not bulbiferous. Ovary with a crown of 
three scales, which disappear as the capsule ripens, (in this 
respect unlike A. stellatum and A. reticulatum,) 6-ovuled ; 
the capsule 1-3-seeded. — 1S9. Eustylis purpurea: rather 
common between the Brazos and the Colorado. April — Au- 
gust. — 198. Scilla angusta, nob. ■ Dry prairies west of the 
Brazos. April. 

215. Brasenia peltata, Pursh. Specimens in fine fruit, 
gathered in July in clear rivulets between the Brazos and the 
Colorado. 

216. Draba cuneifolia, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. 108. 
Dry grassy places, March. — In some specimens the silicles 
are almost, if not quite, glabrous. D. micrantha, Nutt., which 
differs only in the like respect from D. Caroliniana, is probably 
therefore a mere variety of that species. 

217. Vesicaria auriculata (n. sp.) : annua, caulibus de- 
cumbentibus canescenti-hirsutis ; foliis sparsim pilosis, infimis 
lyrato-pinnatifidis sinuato-dentatisve basi attenuatis, caeteris 
ovato-lanceolatis basi cordato-auriculata sessilibus vel semi- 



Plantas Lindheimeriana. 241 

amplexicaulibus repando-dentatis subintegrisve ; petalis obova- 
to-spathulatis sepala pilosa colorata subduplo superantibus ; 
filamentis e basi inflata abrupte subulatis ; antheris linearibus ; 
ovarii loculis 3-4-ovulatis ; stylo cum stigmate globoso siliculis 
vix stipitatis globosis glabris breviore ; seminibus subsex mar- 
ginatis. — Dry prairies near San Felipe. Feb. — March. 

218. Nasturtium tanacetifolium, Hook, fy Am. Sandy 
bottoms. February and March. — Siliques sometimes spread- 
ing or even reflexed : in other cases considerably incurved and 
erect. 

219. Sisymbrium canescens, Nutt. A very canescent form. 
April — May. 

220. Polygala alba, Nutt. (P. Beyrichii, Torr. fy Gr.) 
Prairies. April — May. Lower leaves sometimes obovate- 
spatulate. 

221. Hypericum maculatum, Walt., Torr. fy Gr. Margin 
of woods from Galveston to the Colorado. May. 

222. Paronychia dichotoma, Nutt. Sandstone rocks near 
Industry. Sept. — Oct. 

223. Arenaria Pitcheri, Nutt. Prairies. March. Petals 
emarginate. 

224. Ptelea trifolata, (3. mollis, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 
680. Along water-courses. Houston to the Colorado. April. 

225. iEscuLus Pavia, (3. discolor, Torr. fy Gr. Thickets 
along the banks of Mill creek. March. 

226. Sapindus marginatus, Willd. Popularly called 
" Wild China-tree," forming trunks about a foot in diameter, 
in fertile woods. The specimens with ripe fruit were gath- 
ered in August. 

227. Rhamnus Carolinianus, Walt. Small trees forming 
thickets in wet places on the prairie west of San Felipe ; flow- 
ering in May. With it there is a small-leaved variety, with 
the flowers more crowded, &c. 

228. R. lanceolatus, Pursh. Thickets. March. 

229. Tephrosia onobrychoides, Nutt. ; with short and 
rusty pubescence, &c, differing somewhat from the variety 
distributed under No. 32. West of San Felipe. May. 



242 Engelmann and Gray, 

230. Astragalus caryocarpus, Ker. Prairies west of San 
Felipe. April. 

231. Lupinus subcarnosi's, Hook. Prairies. April. Plant 
5 to 15 inches high, branching from the base, with rather 
smaller and paler flowers and more silky or woolly inflo- 
rescence than the nearly related L. Texensis, — of which a 
few specimens were intermixed in the collection. 

232. Cassia Chamxcrista, var. cinerea, Torr. fy Gr. 
Sandy places in woods along the Colorado. August. The 
leaves bear setaceous glands between the 4 to 6 lower pairs 
of leaflets ; the gland below the lowest pair is stipitate ; and 
the 5 alternate anthers are shorter. 

233. Algarobia glandulosa, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. p. 399. 
" This shrub, or small tree, about 10 feet high, with a stem 
6—8 inches in diameter, either grows sparsely or forms thickets 
in the low prairies. It is called musket-tree by the Texans. 
It is first found as a low shrub on the San Bernardo prairie, 
west of San Felipe, but becomes larger and more frequent 
westwardly, giving a new character to the vegetation, as in the 
musket-thickets on the Colorado, along the borders of which 
several Cacti, hereafter enumerated, are abundantly met with. 
It ripens its pods at the end of August." Lindheimer. — The 
leaflets vary, often on the same specimen, from narrow linear 
to oblong, and even broadly elliptical. Lindheimer's speci- 
mens are some of them in fine fruit, showing that the species 
is totally distinct from A. dulcis, (of which Bentham con- 
jectured it might perhaps be a variety,) and also presenting 
some peculiarities that call for more particular remark. The 
mature legumes are from 5 to 7 inches long, raised on a stipe 
which is often an inch in length : they are narrowly linear, 
more or less curved or falcate, very slightly compressed, 
strongly torose, and from 9 to 20-seeded : the epicarp is char- 
taceo-membranaceous, and contains a considerable quantity of 
sweet farinaceous pulp which surrounds the seeds, or rather 
the coriaceous investment in Which the seeds are singly con- 
tained. For each seed is enclosed in a distinct and almost 



Plant ce Lindheimeriana. 243 

bony almond-shaped putamen, derived, we suppose, from the 
endocarp or lining of the carpel, though, for the want of young 
pods, we are unable to trace its formation. But in the ripe 
legume, these several husks, which are perfectly closed, are 
entirely unconnected with each other. They are placed 
obliquely in the pod, of which they occupy nearly the whole 
breadth. The flattened, oval seeds (about 3 lines long) do 
not fill the cavity. On examining an Algarobo pod from 
South America (the fruit, as we ptesume, of A. dulcis,) we 
find that the seeds are invested by a similar covering, only 
that it is much thinner and paper-like, and apparently does not 
separate spontaneously from the pulp. We have not seen the 
fruit of Prosopis spicigera ; but we hope that this character 
may help to sustain the genus Algarobia, which, after having 
been separated from Prosopis by Mr. Bentham, has since, by 
the same author, been again reduced to a section of that genus. 
Our own species, however, would still have to be distinguished 
subgenerically from the typical Algarobia thus. $ Pleopy- 
rena. Legumen lineare, subteres, torosum, polyspermum ; 
seminibus singulis in nucleo endocarpico coriaceo inter pulpam 
nidulante clausis. — In a species of Strombocarpa, collected 
by Capt. Fremont, (the curious fruit of which should separate 
it generically from Algarobia,) this papery lining is continuous, 
or merely collapsed where the seeds are deficient. 

234. SCHRANKIA ANGUSTATA, Toil'. &f Gl\ I. C. May 

August. 

235. Desmanthus brachylobus, Benth. (Darlingtonia, 
DC); the var. glandulosa, Torr. fy Gr. under Darlingtonia; 
— fruiting specimens, collected in July. 

236. Prunus glandulosa, Hook. ; Torr. fy Gr. I. c. 
" Low shrubs on sandy hills west of the Brazos, flowering in 
February. Fruit yellowish-red, as large as a middle-sized cher- 
ry." Lindheimer. It is probably a Prunus, therefore, but 
the half-grown fruit upon one of our specimens is juiceless, 
and still clothed with the tomentum of the ovary. 

237. P. gracilis (n. sp.) : ramis subinermibus ; foliis Ian- 



244 Engelmann and Gray, 

ceolato-oblongis vel ovato-lanceolatis utrinque acutis grosse 
serratis (serraturis plerumque patentibus mucronulatis eglan- 
dulosis) supra puberulis subtus cum petiolis brevibus eglandu- 
losis tomentoso-pubescenlibus ; stipulis setaceis glanduliferis 
petiolum a?quantibus ; umbellulis 2-3-floris; pedicellis calyci- 
busque (laciniis ovatis obtusiusculis) pubescentibus ; petalis 
orbicularis ; ovario glabro. — P. Chicasa &? normalis, Ton*, fy 
Gr. Fl. I. p. 467. Open post-oak woods west of the Brazos, 
where it is called Post- Oak Plum. A low shrub, with leaves 
only one to two inches long. Doubtless a distinct species, 
which should stand between P. Chicasa and P. glandulosa. 

238. OENOTHERA SERRULATA, 8. SPINULOSA, ToTT. fy" Gr. All 

unusually large-flowered form ; the petals an inch in length. 
Sandy, dry, or moist prairies. May — June. 

239. Gaura longifeora (Spach) : elata, pilis brevibus 
undique canescenti-puberula ; caule erecto paniculato-ramo- 
sissimo ; foliis lanceolatis lineari-lanceolatisve utrinque angusta- 
tis mucronato-acuminatis, sparsim repando-denticulatis, rameis 
multo minoribus linearibus integerrimis ; spicis ramosis laxi- 
floris ; bracteis linearibus deciduis ; calycis segmentis tubum 
plerumque superantibus ; petalis spathulatis longe unguiculatis 
calyce et staminibus brevioribus ; nuce sessili ovata canescente 
4-carinata nervis 4 intermediis leviter notata. — G. exaltata, 
Engel. MSS. G. biennis, ff. Pitcheri, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. I. 
p. 517. — Prairies at the margin of woods between the Brazos 
and the Colorado, &c, where it often exclusively covers large 
spaces of ground ; flowering in August and September. Plant 
taller and much more branching than G. biennis (6-9 feet 
high) with narrower leaves, smaller flowers (the petals turn- 
ing from white to reddish,) and much smaller and, when ripe, 
rounder fruit. The G. filipes, @. major, Torr. fy Gr. I. c, is 
confused with this species. Spach described from an imper- 
fect specimen collected in Louisiana, by Drummond. The 
specific name has no particular applicability. 

240. G. Drummondii, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. Dry banks and 
road sides. Canescently pubescent ; the leaves often sinuate- 



Plantee Lindheimeriana. 445 

toothed, calyx-segments longer than the tube. Petals deep 
red in the dried specimens. 

241. G. parviflora, Dougl. Sandy prairies, &c. July 
— August. Ovaries and fruit clothed with a close, soft 
pubescence. 

242. Stenosiphon virgatus, Spach. High prairies on the 
Colorado, and on rocky soil. 

243. JussiffiA occidentalis, Nutt. Along rivulets. July. 
Petals obcordate. 

244. Opuntia fragilis, Nutt., var. frutescens. (O. fru- 
tescens, En gel. MSS.) Near the Musket-thickets, (vide No. 
233,) on the Colorado ; often acquiring the height of four or 
five feet, with a branching ligneous stem, covered with light 
gray bark, and sometimes with lichens. It bears bunches of 
small capillary spines, with one larger one (4-5 lines long ;) 
these disappear from the older stems. The wood is hard and 
close-grained. The younger branches are green and terete, 
(or angular when withered,) and bear the ultimate articula- 
tions, which are about an inch long, and very easily break off. 
These bear when young, like other Opuntise, short terete 
subulate leaves, with a single spine in their axils, and above 
this a bunch of small ones. The specimens are not in flower, 
but are covered with the obovate umbilicate scarlet fruits, 
which are about eight lines long, fleshy, but not juicy, and 
contain^very few (2-5) white, compressed seeds. What is 
most remarkable, these fruits are often proliferous, and bear 
from one to four or five new branches from the upper 
bunches of spines. The fruit either, falls off with these 
branches, or else dries up, persists and finally forms part of 
the stem. 1 



1 Though unable to institute a proper comparison, I have little doubt that this is 
O. fragilis of Nuttall, attaining a fuller growth in that warm region than on the 
Missouri. The following species, collected in the same localities by Lindheimer, 
though not in sufficient quantity for distribution, have been studied in a living and 
(most of them) in a flowering state, by Dr. Engelmann, whose account of them is 
here appended. Unfortunately, neither Dr. Engelmann nor myself have access to 



246 Engelmann and Gray, 

245. Sedum sparsiflorum, Nutt. Naked places in the 
San Bernardo prairie, between the Brazos and the Colorado. 
April — May. 

any adequate or authentic collection of Cacti, so as to institute the proper com- 
parisons. A. Gb. 

" Mr. Lindheimer has sent seven other Cacti, mostly in living specimens, namely : 

1. Opdntia, sp. without fruit or flower, probably O. vulgaris. It attains the 
height of several feet, with large obovate joints, and a few spines. 

2. O. Missouriensis? Perhaps O. vulgaris, but very spiny. 

3. Mammilaria similis (n. sp.): ea;spitosa ; axillis tuberculorum juniorum 
paulo tomentosis demum glabris ; tuberculis ovatis supra leviter sulcatis (sulco 
basin versus subtomentoso) apice spiniferis ; spinis (circ. 12) aqualibus rectis 
radiantibus albidis, junioribus puberulis basique tomento circumdalis ; baccis 
sparsis globosis coccineis. — Sandstone rocks, near Industry. Evidently near M. 
simplex, at least to Nuttall's plant of that name, but cssspitose, forming tufts often a 
foot in diameter. Flowers not seen. Berries scarlet, of the size of a large pea. 
Seeds numerous, subglobose, scrobiculate, black, with an elongated white hilum. 
I have living plants, but they have not yet flowered. 

4. M. sulcata {n. sp.): caespitosa ; tuberculis ovato-oblongis sulco subinde 
apicem versus prolifero superne exaratis apice spiniferis ; spinis rectis radiantibus 
cinereis e tomento albido deciduo (in plantis adultis spina centralis subrecurva 
majore) ortis ; floribus centralibus fasciculatis e tomento ortis glaberrimis, tubo 
brevi ; sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis viridi-flavescentibus margine integerrimis ; 
petalis longioribus lanceolatis apicem versus ciliato erosis cuspidatis sordide flavis 
ad basin intus filamentisque brevibus rubicundis; stylo supra stamina exserto ; 
stigmatihus 7-10 flavis; baccis oblongis virescentibus. — With the preceding. 
Flowers opening for two or three days, in direct sunshine, two inches or more in 
diameter. On account of the central flowers, this should form, with M. vivipara, a 
distinct section. From that species it abundantly differs, not only in the color of the 
flower and the spines, but in the entire and smooth sepals, denticulate petals, &c. 
[This pretty species has also flowered in the Cambridge Botanic Garden.] 

5. Echinocactus setispinus (n. sp .) : subglobosus, apice retusus ; costis ple- 
rumque 13 acutis subobliquis; aeuleis 15-18 fasciculatis tenuibus flexuosis flavi- 
canti-fuscis, superioribus 3-5 elongatis, 1-3 centralibus longissimis erectis, cacteris 
radiantibus ; floribus minutis solitariis e macula subtomentosa supra fasciculos 
aculeorum ortis ; sepalis in tubum concretis, apicibus liberis late ovatis acuminatis 

scariosis margine fimbriatis ; fruetihus ; seminibus ovatis nigris 

opacis minutim tuberculatis. — Musket-thickets, on the Colorado River. Near 
E. tenuispinus, Link fy Olio, from Brazil. Our specimens are about two inches 
in diameter, and an inch and a half high, with pretty sharp ribs separated by 
deep grooves. The longest spines are fifteen lines long. Flowers about five 
lines long. 

6. E. Lindheimeri (n. sp.): hemispherico-depressus, vertice tomentoso ; costis 
21 verticalibus acutis subundulatis; spinis e cicatrice ovato-lanceolata tomentosa 
ortis fasciculatis compressis cinereo-rubellis transversim annulato-striatis, exteriori- 
bus 6-7 inacqualibus radiantibus subrectis centrali recurvata multo brevioribus ; 
floribus e vertice depresso tomentoso ex axillis fasciculorum spinarum hornotinorum 
provenientibus confertissimis ; sepalis (80-100) in tubum brevem infundibulifor- 
mem lanosum coalitis lanceolatis spinoso-aristatis, interioribus margine fimbriatis ; 



Planta Lindheimeriancs. 247 

346. Galium virgatum, Nutt. Prairies. April. 

247. Diodia tricocca, Torr. &r Gr. Fl. II. p. 30. Fertile 
places in the prairie, sixteen miles west of San Felipe. (Also 
collected by Dr. Wright.) June. Caespitose, depressed, and 
very much branched. All the specimens examined are tri- 
carpellary. 

248. Spigelia Texana, A. DC. Prodr.lX. p. 5. (Coelos- 
tylis, Torr. fy Gr.) Shady woods along the Mill-creek west 
of San Felipe. July. 

249. Aster Drummondii, Lindl. Shady, moist woods 
and thickets. September — October. This species exhibits 
many varieties, in respect to pubescence, and smoothness or 
roughness. Among them the A. urophyllus and A. hirtellus 
of Lindley, are probably to be identified. 

250. Ch-etopappa asteroides, DC. Dry prairies. April 
to July. 

petalis (40-50) lineari-oblongis margine fimbriato laceris apice bifidis aristatis ; 
staminibus numerosissimis aequalibus inclusis e toto tubo ortis stylo compresso 
brevioribus ; stigmate irregulariter 14-17-fido. — On deserted ant-hills, near the 
Colorado River. Often a foot in diameter: our specimens are eight or nine inches 
in diameter, and four or five inches high. Spines strongly annulate, stout, the 
larger ones often two inches long. Flowers about two inches in length, twelve or 
more aggregated in the woolly centre. The petals at the base are scarlet, verging 
to orange, from which a pale purple or violet midrib extends to the apex, and is pro- 
longed into a delicate bristle of the same color, while the upper part of the petal is 
pearly white, with feathery margins. The flowers remain for three days, expanding 
only in bright sunshine. 

7. Cereus c^espitosus (??. sp.) : ovato-globosus demum cylindricus, apice de- 
presso-umbilicatus ; costis sub-15 e tuberculis confluentibus ortis rectis ; aculeis 
numerosis ex areola oblonga albo-tomentosa demum glabrata radiatis nunc recurvis, 
lateralibus longionbus ; floribus exaxillis tuberculorum anni prioris lateralibus ; ova- 
rio oblongo tuberculis e lana villosa spinigeris stipato; sepalis 40-50 apice spinis 
setiformibus villoque coronatis virescentibus, intimis lanceolatis acuminato-aristatis 
glabris coloratis ; petalis 30-40 apicem versus cilialo-denticulalis, exteriorihus subito 
acuminatis, interioribus obtusis cuspidatis ; staminibus inclusis stylo brevioribus ; 
stigmate viridi infundibuliformi 13-partito. — Gravelly soil, near Cat-Spring, west 
of San Felipe. A singular reduced Cereus, quite caespitose, and even proliferous 
occasionally, in the manner of Opuntia, beginning to flower when only two inches 
high, and scarcely taller than broad, but attaining the height of at least six inches ; 
the ribs from twelve to seventeen. It is in flower for two days ; the flowers about 
two inches broad when fully expanded. Petals rose-purple. Filaments reddish at 
the base, yellow at the summit." Engel.' 



248 Engelmann and Gray, 

251. Bellis integrifolia, Michx. A form with smaller 
heads and fewer rays than usual. Prairies. April — May. 

252. Solidago angustifolia, Ell., Torr. &f Gr. I. c. Wet 
prairies (and even on dry soil) and banks of rivulets, very 
remote from salt water. June — August. 

253. Isopappus divaricatds, Torr. &f Gr. Fl. II. p. 239. 
Light sandy soil. August — September. 

254. I. Hookerianus, Torr. (^ Gr. I. c. Sandy prairies 
and on sandstone rocks on the Colorado. September. The 
specimens vary from six inches to two feet high ; some are 
simple, others much branched from the base. The rigid 
leaves are narrowly spatulate-lanceolate ; the heads pretty 
numerous, on short erect peduncles. 

255. Grindelia inuloides, Willd. Prairies west of San 
Felipe. July — August. Stem five to six feet high, branch- 
ing only above. 

256. Caly.mmandra Candida, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. Open 
woods west of the Brazos. April — May. 1 

257. Silphium scaberrimum, Ell. Woods near Industry. 
May — July. 

258. Halea Ludoviciana, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. II. p. 304. 
Sandy post-oak woods, west of the Brazos. May — August. 
— Lowest leaves rhombic-ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, acute or 
acuminate, abruptly contracted into winged petioles, nearly 
as long as the blades, which are somewhat connate at the 
base. Exterior involucre with four rather strongly marked 
salient angles at the junction of the scales, whitish-tomentose 
inside. 

259. Helianthus lenticularis, Dougl. Low woods and 
wet prairies. July — August. In rich bottom woods it often 
attains the height of ten or twelve feet, with the lower leaves 
six to eight inches broad. Flowers two and a half to three 
and a half inches in diameter ; achenia oval, thicker than is 
usual in the genus. 

1 Pterocaulon virgatum, DC. A few specimens of what appears to be this 
West Indian species, were gathered near Houston, in open pine woods. September. 



Plantce Lindheinieriance. 249 

260. H. Maximiliani, Schrad. Prairies, margin of woods 
and deserted fields ; common from Houston to the Colorado, 
flowering in October and November. Stems four to seven 
feet high, much branched. Well distinguished by the great 
and equable cinereous roughness of the stem, and of both 
surfaces of the lanceolate attenuate-acuminate leaves. It 
becomes, however, much less rough in cultivation. 

261. H. Maximiliani, (3 asperrimus. A variety of the 
last, as we take it to be, with a simple stem, two to three and 
and a half feet high, bearing solitary or few heads. Prairies 
between the Brazos and the Colorado, forming large patches. 
October. 

262. H. grosse-serratus, Martens : the same form, with 
the large leaves silvery-tomentose beneath, which was col- 
lected in Texas by Drummond, and which, as it best deserves 
the specific name, is assumed in Torr. &f Gr. Fl. I. c. as the 
type of this variable species. Banks of rivulets and margin of 
woods. August — October. 

263. H. grosse-serratus, (3 Toit. &f Gr. Fl. I. c. A 
less canescent variety, with the stem, although somewhat 
glaucous, slightly scabrous throughout. Prairies, &c, with 
H. Maximiliani. 

264. Cosmidium filifolium, Tor?', fy Gr. Fl. II. p. 350. 
Prairies west of the Brazos. May — June. This is really a 
perennial, and proves quite ornamental in cultivation. It 
extends as far north as the south-western borders of Missouri. 

265. Dysodia tagetoides, Torr. &/• Gr. Fl. II. p. 361. Wet 
prairies, and on sandstone hills of Mill-creek. August. This 
is also a perennial. The dots of the leaves are orange-yellow. 

266. Palafoxia Hookeriana, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. Sandy 
post-oak woods, near Industry. August. We have it in cul- 
tivation, from Lindheimer's seeds. The flowers are rose-color 
or deep flesh-color, and about two inches in diameter ; the 
rays large and conspicuous, but often irregular, and some of 
them palmate. 

267. Actinella linearifojlia, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. De- 
vol. v. 17 



250 Engelmann and Gray, 

clivity of sandstone hills near Industry. May — June. Rays 
yellow, turning white when fading. 

268 &. 269. Senecio ampullaceus, (Hook?) : annuus vel 
biennis ; caule erecto fistuloso striato superne ramoso ; foliis 
inferioribus obovato-spathulatis in petiolum decurrentibus, 
superioribus ovato-lanceolatis acutis basi subcordata semiam- 
plexicaulibus, omnibus subintegris vel denticulatis ; cyma co- 
rymbosa ; pedicellis apice demum incrassatis ; involucro squa- 
mis setaceis paucis calyculato ; radiis 7-9 ; acheniis strigoso- 
canescentibus. 

Var. a glaberrimus (No. 268) : caule foliisque angusti- 
oribus subintegerrimis glabris. Wet prairies. 

Var. (3 floccosus (No. 269) : caule foliisque junioribus 
latioribus cano-floccosis ; superioribus e basi latiore acumina- 
tis, nunc grosse repando-dentatis. — Sandy prairies in loose, 
dry soil. April. Both forms are certainly annual or biennial. 

270. Lygodesmia aphylla, (3 Texana, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 
II. p. 4S5. Prairies. June — July. Roots penetrating deep 
into the soil. Some of the radical leaves are runcinate-pinna- 
tifid, with subulate lobes. 

271. Pyrrhopappus grandiflorus, Nutt. Prairies, near 
San Felipe. April. Perennial ; the slender perpendicular 
root enlarging, at the depth of a few inches, into an oblong 
tuber, similar to the root of Cynthia Dandelion. Scapes 
several from one root, with or without a bract in the middle. 

272. Asclepias (Otaria) Lindheimeri (n. sp.) : caudice 
perpendiculari incrassata caulem herbaceum pubescentem 
singulum erectum (vel plures adscendentes) emittente ; foliis 
oppositis ovatis obtusis (aut rarius lanceolatis) basi nunc sub- 
cordatis breviter petiolatis utrinque puberulis ; pedunculis 
brevissimis lateralibus ; pedicellis gracilibus pubescentibus 
corollae laciniis acutiusculis subduplo longioribus ; cucullis ad 
apicem sensim dilatatis subtrilobatis ; processu bifurco, ramo 
altero brevi incluso recto, altero longiore incurvo exserto ; 
folliculis ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis puberulis carina exteriore 
setulis mollibus pi. m. conspersis. — Black, clayey soil, near 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 251 

Industry. June — August. Also, in Drummond's Texan 
Collection. Stems six to sixteen inches high, from a very 
thick perpendicular root. Leaves mostly broadly oval, and 
obtuse. Flowers large and greenish : calyx pubescent, one- 
third the length of the corolla. Follicles ovate-lanceolate, and 
with a long acumination, " 8-angled, the angles often some- 
what tuberculated ; the outer one furnished with soft spines, 
or a dentated crest." Undheimer. This species is nearly 
allied to A. longicornu, Benth., which we find has a similar 
gynostegium, only a little more decidedly 3-lobed at the apex, 
as well as a bifurcated horn, both lobes of which are shorter 
than in our species. There is also a bifurcated horn in 
A. obtusifolia. 

273. Gonolobus cynanchoides (n. sp.) : caulibus pluribus 
e radice subtuberoso debilibus basi ramosis adscendentibus 
pilosis ; ramis teretibus ; foliis inferioribus late ovatis, summis 
lanceolato-ovatis, omnibus basi cordatis breviter petiolatis sub- 
tus praesertim pubescentibus acutiusculis vel acutatis ; pedun- 
culis subnullis vel brevissimis bifioris ; pedicellis basi subulato- 
bracteolatis petiolo sublongioribus ; corollas rotati-campanulatoc 
lobis ovatis obtusis intus glaberrimis (extus parce pilosis) 
calycis segmenta ovato-oblonga acuta pilosa excedentibus ; 
corona staminea cyathiformi gynostegii basin cingente 5-loba, 
lobis rotundatis crassiusculis margine tenuiori cinctis, supra 
processu lineari scaphoideo arcuato instructis ; folliculis ovoi- 
deis utrinque attenuatis coriaceis muricatis pubescentibus ; 
seminibus (rufis) orbiculatis marginatis comosis. — Sandy soil, 
in open woods, near Industry. April — June. (Also, No. 190 
and 203 of Drummond's second, and 237 of the third Texan 
collection.) Stems 6 to 15 inches high, diffuse ; leaves 1-2 
inches long, cordate, with an open sinus, the uppermost some- 
times almost truncate at the base. Corolla greenish purple, 
about two lines in diameter. The fleshy lobes of the cup- 
shaped coronas are furnished in the middle with a small pro- 
cess, which is connected at the base with the mid-nerve of 
the anther, and is free and incurved at the obtuse point, the 



252 Engelmann and Gray, 

upper surface of which is excavated. The membranaceous 
cusps of the anther are triangular acute, and partly cover the 
very obtusely 5-angular and somewhat convex stigma. The 
small horizontal pollen-masses are oblong, slightly curved, and 
scarcely attenuated at the exterior (attached) end. — From 
the description, there can be little doubt that this plant is a 
congener of Chthamalia biflora, and C. pubiflora, Decaisne, 
in DC. jirodr., from which it differs in the glabrous corolla, 
etc. ; but surely it cannot be separated from Gonolobus, as that 
genus is left by Decaisne. The corona of Gonolobus, charac- 
terized as " annuliformis undulato-lobata, lobis integris prom- 
inentibus," exhibits great diversities in the admitted species, 
from the proper annular and 5-lobed crown of G. lsevis, to 
the campanulate one, with 10 long subulate and 5 short trian- 
gular teeth, of G. macrophyllus and G. hirsutus. 

274. Eustoma Russellianum, Don, Griseb. Clayey, wet 
prairies. July — August. 

275. Phlox Drummondii, Hook. Sandy soil, near water 
courses. 

276. Convolvulus (Stylisma) Pickeringii, Torr. Dry, 
sandy prairies. May — July. — Specifically distinct, we sus- 
pect, from the C. tenellus, Lam. to which Choisy joins it. 1 

277. Cuscuta cuspidata (3. Vide No. 125, supra. Bot- 
tom lands of the Colorado River. August. 

278. Lithospermum brevielorum (n. sp.) : caulibus soli- 
tariis, vel plurimis e radice nigro-purpurea fusiformi erectis 
apice ramosis, foliisque linearibus lineari-lanceolatisve margine 
revolutis utrinque strigoso-canescentibus ; floribus subpedicel- 
latis ; corolla calycis lacinias lineares strigosas vix sequante 
fauce exannulata, lobis erectis (an semper?) minutissime 
crenulatis ; nucibus albidis nitidis ovatis acutis, intus acute 



1 The collection also comprises a few specimens of Convolvulus hastatus, Nutt. 
in Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.), V. p. 174 : which name, being sevpral times pre- 
occupied, we propose for it the name of C. lobatus. Sandstone rocks, near Industry. 
May, June. Stems prostrate, 8-4 feet long. Flowers rather small, white. Dr. 
Wright has also sent it from the Colorado. 



PlantcB Lindheimeriana. 253 

carinatis et impresso-punctatis. — L. Mandanense, Torr. in 
Nicollet, Rep. p. 155, non Hook. — Clayey prairies, near In- 
dustry. April, May. A foot high. Leaves rather scabrous 
above, almost exactly like those of L. longiflorum (L. incisum, 
Lehm.) ; the radical somewhat oblanceolate. Lobes of the 
corolla hirsute on the outside. Except the flowers, the plant has 
wholly the aspect of L. longiflorum ; but the corolla is shorter 
than in L. Mandanense, and entirely destitute of the append- 
ages in the throat, unless their rudiments may be obscurely 
discerned in the sinuses, not opposite the lobes of the corolla. 

279. Eutoca strictiflora (n. sp.) : cinereo-hirsuta ; cau- 
libus plurimis simplicibus e radice annua adscendentibus ; fo- 
liis pinnatifidis lanceolato-oblongis (seu primordialibus integris 
obovatis), inferioribus in petiolum attenuatis lobis brevibus 
obtusis, superioribus sessilibus lobis lanceolatis acutiusculis ; 
racemis terminalibus multifloris elongatis arete secundis, fructi- 
feris strictis ; calycis laciniis spathulato-linearibus, fructiferis 
erectis auctis pedicello appresso parum longioribus ; corolla 
late campanulata calyce sesquilongioribus, tubo obscure 10- 
squamigero ; filamentis pilosiusculis inclusis ; ovario 14-20- 
ovulato ; capsula plerumque 12-sperma. — Sandy soil on the 
banks of the Brazos near San Felipe. March. A span high ; 
the whole plant almost hoary with a hirsute pubescence. 
Radical leaves with about 5, the upper cauline with 2 or 3 
pairs of lobes. The erect calyx-segments as well as the pedi- 
cels give the crowded racemes in fruit a very stiff and strict 
appearance. Corolla apparently blue, a little hairy externally ; 
the margin very obscurely erose-crenulate ; the tube furnished 
at the base with 5 pairs of linear and narrow appendages 
which are adherent by the whole margin, so as to form 5 rather 
inconspicuous grooves which alternate with the stamens. The 
corolla is almost an inch in diameter in Lindheimer's speci- 
mens. The same species occurs in Drummond's Collection 

* (3. No. 298) apparently with smaller flowers. 

280. E. patuliflora (n. sp.) : pubescens, subcinerea ; 
caulibus e radice annua diffusis ramosis ; foliis spathulato- 



254 Engelmann and Gray, 

oblongis obovatisvc membranaceis pinnatifido-dentatis vel in- 
cisis basi angustatis sessilibus vel infimis petiolatis, dentibus 
subovatis obtusis ; racemis terminalibus simplicibus secundis ; 
calycis laciniis oblongis, fructiferis subspathulatis patulis pedi- 
cello filiformi patente seu reflexo multum brevioribus ; corolla 
late campanulata calycem parum excedentibus, tubo obscure 
] O-squamigero ; filamentis pilosiusculis inclusis ; ovario 14— 16- 
ovulato ; capsula circiter 12-sperma. — Woods near San Fe- 
lipe. March — April. Stems 6 to 12 inches long, often de- 
cumbent. Whole plant with somewhat the habit of Eutoca 
viscida, but not glandular. Leaves 1 to 2 inches long. Ra- 
cemes lax ; the spreading pedicels an inch long in fruit. 
Corolla much smaller than in the foregoing species, deep blue, 
yellow at the base ; the margin of the lobes somewhat erose ; 
the 5 pairs of very small squamellae also as in E. strictifloi'a. 
— We can discern the obscure rudiments of the tubal ap- 
pendages in the corolla of Eutoca viscida. In E. hirsuta 
(Phacelia, Nutt.) No. 134 of this collection, they are very 
narrow but are distinctly visible under the microscope ; as 
also in the nearly allied E. parviflora. Hence we should 
have no hesitation in restoring the genus Cosmanthus of 
Nolte and Alph. DC. to Eutoca and Phacelia. 1 

281. Solanum mammosum, Linn. 1 ? Road-sides in prairies 
between the Brazos and the Colorado. June. A stout 
branching perennial, with broader, more canescent and lobed 
leaves than S. Carolinense. 

282. Pentstemon Murrayanum, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3472. 
Dry sandy soil in open woods west of the Brazos. May — 
June. The splendid flame-colored flowers, with a scarlet bor- 
der, form a pleasing contrast with the bluish glaucous leaves. 
Pedicels erect, the flowers horizontal. 

283. Gratiola sphjerocarpa, Ell. Along ponds and riv- 

i Eutoca glabra = Phacelia glabra, Nutt. I. c. Of this a very few specimens 
were collected by Lindheimer. Fine specimens in fruit exist in Drummond's Texan 
Coll. III. No. 302. The capsule is about 6-seeded. The calyx-segments in fruit 
become ovate-lanceolate or oblon?. 



Planta Lindheimeriana;. 255 

ulets, flowering from February to April, and also through the 
summer. 

284. Castilleja indivisa (Engel. MSS.) : " piloso-hispi- 
da ; foliis integris lineari-lanceolatis acutis basi pleraque rotun- 
datis, floralibus apice ovato- vel obovato-dilatatis coloratis ; 
spica demum elongata ; calycis lobis late obovatis apice colora- 
tis truncatis retusisve corolla paulo vel vix longioribus. — Valde 
affinis quoad flores C. coccinece, et quoad folia C. lithospermi- 
folicn, ab ilia imprimis foliis indivisis, ab hac statura saepius 

elatiore differt, foliis acutioribus et capsulis majoribus." 
Benth. in DC. prodr. ined. — Prairies from Houston to the 
Colorado : March to June. Also collected by Drummond and 
Berlandier. 

285. Hedeoma Drummondii, Benth. : but the verticillastri 
are only about 3-flovvered, and the corolla is long and much 
exserted. Yet it is certainly the same species as Nos. 276 
and 278 of Drummond's Third Texan Collection. — Sandstone 
rocks near Industry. July. The whole plant has the taste 
and odor of lemon-peel. 

The two following Labiate plants, upon which Dr. Engel- 
mann proposes to establish two new genera, viz., No. 286. 
Stachyastrum (so called from the resemblance of the plant to 
Stachys in habit) ; and 287. Brazoria (from the habitat on 
the river Brazos,) we think may, notwithstanding minor dif- 
ferences, be properly associated in a single genus, which will 
be well distinguished from Physostegia by the inflated bilabiate 
calyx which becomes closed in fruit by the inflexion of the 
lower lip. The genus should perhaps be referred to the tribe 
Scutellarinere rather than Stachydese. It may be thus charac- 
terized. 

BRAZORIA, Gen. nov. 

Calyx late campanulatus, bilabiatus (labio superiore breviter 
3-lobo, inferiore 2-lobo) per anthesin inflatus, post anthesin e 
surrectione labii inferioris clausus, indistincte nervosus, reticu- 
lato-venosus. Corolla tubo longe exserto, fauce inflata ; limbi 



256 Engelmann and Gray, 

bilabiati labio supcriore erecto subgaleato breviter bilobo vel 
integro, inferiore profunde trifido, lobis rotundatis patentibus 
seu recurvis. Stamina 4, sub labio superiore adscendentia : 
filamenta supra medium corollae adnata, ubi pilosa, inferioribus 
eminentibus : antherae approximata? ; loculis distinctis divari- 
cantibus ad rimam pi. m. ciliatis. Stylus glaber apice eequali- 
ter bifidus, lobis subulatis. Achenia sicca. — Herbse annua?, 
Texance, facie foliis et inflorescentia Physostegiae. Corolla 
incarnata, fauce luteola. 

<§> 1. Eubrazoria. Calycis lobi latissimi, truncati, subsequa- 
les, mucronato-denticulati : corolla majuscula tubo prope basin 
piloso-annulato ; fauce infra labium inferiorem intrusa quodam- 
modo palatum efficiente ; lobis omnibus eroso-crenulatis, iisdem 
labii inferioris sequalibus, apice bilobis : achenia triangulata, 
pubera. 

286. Brazoria truncata = Physostegia truncata, Benth. 
Lab. p. 505 ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3494. — Sandy soil on de- 
serted ant-hills, &c, in the prairies along the Brazos : May — 
June. It was first collected by Drummond (No. 274 of the 
Third Collection) ; and has since been gathered on the Colo- 
rado by Dr. Wright. Stem pubescent, scarcely a foot high. 
Spike dense. Calyx hairy at the base, especially after flower- 
ing. Flowers nearly as large as in Physostegia Virginiana : 
the tube of the corolla spotted with purple. The lobes of the 
lower lip of the calyx are usually merely mucronulate in the 
middle ; those of the upper are erose-denticulate with mucro- 
nulate teeth. In fruit the achenia are contained in a gibbous 
cavity belonging to the upper side of the calyx : this is closed 
by the inflexion of the lower lip, which is appressed to the 
face of the upper, or partly wrapped around it ; so that the 
fructiferous calyx is flat on the lower side, and very gibbous at 
the base of the upper side. 

§> 2. Stachyastrum. Calycis sub-7-nervis labium superius 
latum, lobis rotundatis ; inferius angustum, lobis triangu- 
lari-lanceolatis, omnibus cuspidato-mucronatis : corolla exan- 
nulata, parvula ; lobo medio labii inferioris ceeteris majore, 



PlantfE Lindheimeriana. 257 

retuso, marginibus in omnibus fere integerrimis : achenia sub- 
globosa, laevia. 

287. B. scutellarioides, n. sp. — In heavy black soil on 
the prairies near Cat Spring, west of the Brazos : April, May. 
The plant was also collected by Drummond, and specimens 
were distributed, under No. 274, of the Third Collection, 
mixed with B. truncata, which it greatly resembles in habit 
and foliage. The stem is glabrous, however, though the in- 
florescence, as well as the calyx, is minutely pubescent. The 
flowers are scarcely half the size of the preceding : the calyx 
is more deeply bilabiate, and the lobes, except the middle one 
of the upper lip, pointed with a rather conspicuous cusp : in 
fruit the upper lobes are somewhat curved backwards, while 
the narrow lower lip is incurved, so as nearly to close the ori- 
fice. Corolla flesh-color : anthers purplish. 

288. Physostegia intermedia = Dracocephalum interme- 
dium, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. I. c. Wet prairies 
west of San Felipe, growing in patches, — a smaller plant than 
P. Virginiana, with a much more slender spike. The cauline 
leaves, especially the upper ones, are broadest and cordate at 
the base, and serrate throughout. Our plant accords with 
No. 275 of Drummond's Third Texan Collection. No. 274 
is a form with acute and more entire leaves, more nearly that 
described by Nuttall. It is difficult to distinguish the species 
sufficiently from some forms of P. Virginiana. 

289. Verbena bipinnatifida = Glandularia bipinnatifida, 
Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. I. c. Rich prairies, &c. 
March, April. A plant with more prostrate and radicant 
sterile stems, more dissected leaves, denser spikes, smaller 
flowers, shorter calyx, and also more hirsute than V. Aubletia. 

290. Dipteracanthus (^ Meiophanes, corolla parva cadu- 
ca, limbo vix expansa) micranthus (n. sp.) : subglaber, caule 
crecto ramoso ; foliis lanceolato-oblongis subintegerrimis utrin- 
que acutis in petiolum brevem attenuatis, junioribus ciliatis ; 
cymulis paucifloris subsessilibus axillaribus bracteis ovalibus 
brevioribus ; calycis laciniis subulato-lanceolatis piloso-ciliatis 
corollam inconspicuam capsulamque 8-spermam scquantibus. 



258 Engelmann and Gray, 

— Low woods between the Brazos and the Colorado : June — 
Sept. Also collected by Drummond (Coll. II. No. 202.) 
(In similar situations, near St. Louis, Engelmann, and Ala- 
bama, Buckley.) — Plant 1 to 3 feet high, with much the 
aspect of D. strepens in fruit, except that the leaves are nar- 
rower (the lower cauline barely ovate-oblong,) or of D. hybri- 
dus (but nearly glabrous,) but remarkable for its quite 
inconspicuous flowers. Corolla only about four lines long, 
whitish, the limb perhaps very rarely expanding, 5-toothed. 
Filaments conspicuously connate by pairs at the base in a 
ligula : anthers muticous. Style somewhat hairy : one of the 
lobes of the stigma abortive, the remaining one subulate. 
Capsule and seeds as in D. strepens, &C. 1 

291. Dianthera Americana, Linn. Creeks of the Colo- 
rado ; July — Aug. — Seeds destitute of the mucilaginous 
coating, and appressed hairs of Dipteracanthus, &c. 



1 There are two other well-marked new species of Dipteracanthus (Ruellia) in 
Drummond's Texan Collection, viz. 

D. Dkummondii (Torr. <$• Gr. MSS.) : cinereo-pubescens et pilis mollibus hir- 
suta ; caulihus e basi ramosis adscendentibus ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusiusculis 
saepe repandis arete sessilibus ; floribus in axillis subsolitariis breviter pedunculatis 
vel subsessilibus ; bracteis lanceolatis ; calycis laciniis filiformibus hirtis tubo corol- 
las infundibuliformis multum brevioribus capsulam clavato-ovoideam 4-spermam ex- 
cedentibus. — Stems 6 to 20 inches high. Leaves li-2 inches long, somewhat erect, 
about the length of the internodes, or the upper more approximate usually very obtuse 
at the base. Corolla 2\ inches long, the slender tube finely infundibuliform at the 
summit. Anthers muticous. — Var. a. Tex. Drum. Coll. II. No. 220, and III. No. 
258. /?. Very hirsute and more branched. Coll. II. No. 219. 

D. (Calophanes) linearis {Torr. $• Gr. MSS.) : humilis, subpubescens ; cau- 
libus e basi lignosa ramosissiniis diffusis ; foliis lineari-oblanceolatis integriusculis 
obtusis basi attenuatis subsessilibus ; floribus solitariis geminisve in axillis subses- 
silibus ; bracteis foliis conformibus calycem subsequautibus ; calycis laciniis hirtis 
subulato-setaceis tubum corolla paulo exeedentibus capsulam oblongam tetragonam 
demum quadrivalvem 2-4-spermam superantibus. — Texas, Drummond's Coll. II. 
No. 178. Also near Columbus, Dr. Wright. Stems or branches a span long. 
Leaves an inch in length. Corolla about as large as in D. {Calophanes) bijlora or 
oblongifolia ; the tube short, and the limb somewhat bilabiate. The sepals, as in 
the above-mentioned species, united below into a short tube. Anthers subsagittate, 
the cells distinctly cuspidate at the base. Stigma single. Capsule somewhat fusi- 
form ; the valves each separating into two through the complete dissepiment. The 
hairs of the seed are very slender, and marked with extremely delicate rings. — We 
have not the fruit of the allied D. bijlora (Ruellia oblongifolia, Michx.) Perhaps 
the genus Calophanes might be kept apart from Dipteracanthus, if, indeed, either 
be sufficiently distinct from Ruellia proper. A. Gr. 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 259 

292. Utricularia personata, Le Conte, DC. Not suffi- 
ciently distinguishable from U. cornuta. — Wet soil. April. 

293. Oxybaphus pilosa ? == Alliona ovata, Pursh. Caly- 
menia pilosa, Nutt. — Both bad names, as the stem and 
leaves are sometimes nearly glabrous, and the leaves are mostly 
oblong-lanceolate. Prairies west of the Brazos. July, August. 
Leaves on very short petioles. Involucre 2-flowered. Stamens 
4-5, exserted. (Also collected in Texas, by Dr. Wright.) 

294. Boerhavia diffusa, Tlilld. Roadsides and prairies ; 
a common weed. September — October. 

295. Rivina portulaccoides, Nutt. in Trans, Amer. Phil. 
Soc. I. c. Woods and prairies, near Industry. June — Oc- 
tober. — A perennial herb, with a ligneous rhizoma. 

296. Polygonum cristatum (n. sp.) : caule herbaceo volu- 
bili angulato-striato ; foliis e basi subcordata vel truncata 
triangularibus acuminatis margine scabris ; floribus in axillis 
foliorum glomeratis seu in spicas foliaceas laxe dispositis ; 
floribus octandris ; stigmatibus 3 sessilibus ; laciniis perigonii 
fructiferis tria exterioribus cristato-alatis, alis crenato-incisis ; 
nucibus parvis trigonis nitidis. — Margin of woods, &c. near 
Industry. July. Near Polygonum scandens and P. dume- 
torum, from which it is distinguished by its less cordate and 
more triangular leaves, and the crenately incised wings of the 
three outer sepals, in fruit ; and also by the smaller nuts, 
which are just one line in length. In P. scandens the nuts 
are more than a line and a half, in P. dumetorum fully two 
lines long. In the latter the broad wings are undulate and 
entire. In P. scandens they are somewhat crenate, but often 
one or all three are wanting. In P. Convolvulus the wings 
are wanting, and the nuts are opaque. 

297. Erigonum multiflorum, Benth. Sandy prairies, near 
Industry. July — October. — The stamens in the fertile 
flowers are very woolly towards the base. 

298. Aristolochia longiflora (n. sp.~) : radice filiformi 
elongata ; caule humili adscendente ramoso ; foliis longe 
linearibus utrinque acutissimis subsessilibus glabris ; floribus 
axillaribus pedunculatis basi unibracteatis extus pubescentibus, 



260 Engelmann and Gray, 

limbo e basi-cordata valde producto lineari acuminato tubo 
angusto multo longiore. — Shady, grassy places near Mill 
creek. April — July. A remarkable species, with a very 
long and simple aromatic root, and several weak, decumbent 
stems branching from the base, about a span high. Leaves 
three to five inches long, and one to three lines wide ; the 
attenuated limb of the perigonium as long as the leaves. 
Capsule glabrous. 

299. A. reticulata, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
(N. Ser.) V. p. 162. Thickets west of the Brazos. May — 
June. — Root similar in sensible properties to that of A. ser- 
pentaria, but of coarser fibres ; and also used medicinally as a 
snake-root. 

300. Euphorbia herniarioides, Nutt. 1. c. p. 171. Clayey 
soil, near Industry. July — September. Also in Mississippi, 
Missouri, &c. The smallest of our procumbent Euphorbiae ; 
the leaves from a line and a half to two or three lines long, 
obliquely obtuse or subcordate at the base. Glands of the 
involucre narrowly petaloid-margined. Cocci smooth and 
somewhat carinate. Seeds grey marked with reddish, obo- 
vate-oblong, obtusely angled, smooth. 

301. E. arenaria (Nutt. 1. c.) : annua, erecto-patula, gla- 
bra ; foliis oppositis distantibus linearibus integerrimis obtusis 
mucronatis basi subobliqua acutis breviter petiolatis ; stipulis e 
basi lata subulatis distinctis subintegris ; pedicellis petiolos 
longe superantibus solitariis ; appendicibus involucri petaloi- 
deis plerumque 4-ovatis subacutis insequalibus ; seminibus 
obovato-subglobosis loevibus e rubello cinereis. — Sandy places, 
especially about fresh ant-hills, near Industry ; also on sand- 
stone rocks. June — August. Forming large bushy masses, 
often six feet in circumference, and two feet or more in height. 
Its slender habit, long and narrow leaves, and conspicuous white 
flowers, give it somewhat the appearance of a large Galium. 1 

1 A remaining species of the stipulate division of this genus is 
E. Geyeri, (Engcl. MSS.) : depressa, humilis ; foliis oblongis retusis integer- 
rimis glaberrimis ; stipulis setaceo-multifidis ; involucri appendicibus petaloideis; 
seminibus minoribus quam in E. polygonifolia cinereis. — Beardstown, Illinois, 
and Upper Missouri, Geyer. Near E. polygonifolia. 



Planta Lindheimeriance. 261 

302. E. Arkansana (n. sp.) : annua, gracilis, glaberrima ; 
caule erecto ramoso ; foliis sparsis spathulato-obovatis apicem 
versus serrulatis mucronato-acutis sessilibus, inferioribus in 
petiolum angustatis ; umbellis trichotomis bis dichotomis ; 
bracteis rotundatis subcordato-ovatis mucronatis serrulatis ; 
glandulis involucri (aurantiacis,) orbiculatis;capsulis verrucosis; 
seminibus (brunneis) reticulatis. — Prairies, from Houston to 
the Colorado. April — July. Also, Fort Gibson, Arkansas, 
Engelmann, and Western Louisiana, Dr. Hale. — Plant 8 
to 12 inches high, with much the appearance of E. peploides, 
Nutt. ; which abundantly differs in its entire and retuse 
leaves, entire and more cordate bracts, smooth capsules and 
smooth seeds. The seeds and serrulate leaves in our plant 
are more like E. Helioscopia on a small scale, but, besides that 
ours is much more slender and smaller in all its parts ; the 
broadly-ovate acute bracts are very different. 

303. E. marginata, /3 ULOLEUCA : bracteis oblongis ovali- 
lanceolatisve acutis, marginibus latissime albidis saepe pi. m. 
crispis ; ramulis villosis. — Bottom lands of the Colorado. 
August. — Seeds tuberculate-rugose, as in the ordinary forms 
of E. marginata. 

304. PlLINOPHYTUM CAPITATUM, KlotZSCh, (cf. No. 171.) 

Low prairies, on the Colorado. September, October. 

305. Hendecandra Texensis, Klotzsch in Erichs. Archiv, 
(1841) I. p. 252. Croton muricatum, Nutt. in Mem. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. 1. c. p. 173. Prairies on the Colorado, the sterile 
and fertile plants generally intermixed, and covering large 
patches of ground. An annual plant, about three feet high. 
Leaves often lanceolate-oblong, and half an inch wide ; those 
of the fertile plant greener above than in the sterile, as de- 
scribed by Nuttall, but often wider rather than narrower. 
Stigmas 20-24. The hypogynous disk orbicular. — Klotzsch 
wrongly describes the stem as suffruticose, and has not noticed 
the flocciferous soft tuberculi of the capsule, which are as evi- 
dent in our Drummondian specimens as in those of Lindhei- 
mer. The H. multiflora, Torr. in Fremont's Rejwrt, 1843, 
is the same species. 



262 Engelmann and Gray, 

306. Aphora (vide No. 175, supra) humilis (n. sp.) : 
strigoso-pilosa ; caulibus basi ramosissimis adscendentibus dif- 
fasis ; foliis oblongis ovato-lanceolatisve obtusis basi attenuatis 
brevissime petiolatis superne demum glabratis ; capitulis axil- 
laribus folio multum brevioribus paucifloris ; petalis in fl. masc. 
calycem paulo superantibus lanceolatis, in fl. foemineo subulatis 
glandulis disci brevioribus. — In hard clayey soil, west of the 
Brazos. March — August. (Also, Texas, Drummond, Col- 
lection Second, No. 230, and Dr. Wright.) Plant 6 to 8 
inches high ; the base of the stem ligneous. Leaves an inch 
or an inch and a half long. The clusters contain one fertile 
and about four staminate flowers. The fruit and seeds not 
half the size of those of the two other Texan species ; the 
latter globose and rugose, as in the other species, at first 
curiously striate-reticulated, but when old more even. 

307. Tragia brevispica (n. sp.) : multicaulis, ramosa, de- 
cumbens; ramis apice flexuosis vel subvolubilibus ; foliis e 
basi cordata truncatave triangulari-lanceolatis (superioribus 
fere linearibus) irregulariter acute dentatis parce pilosis petio- 
latis ; spicis folio oppositis multo brevioribus ; flore foemineo 
ad basin unico, masculis paucis ; capsulis hispidulis. — Black, 
clayey soil, in the prairies west of the Brazos. May — July. 
Differs from T. urticoefolia (perhaps not specifically) in the 
procumbent stems, which often form diffuse tufts two or three 
feet in diameter, and the smaller and narrower leaves, as well 
as the short spikes and smaller flowers and fruit ; the latter is 
less hispid. 

308. Forestiera acuminata, Poir. Banks of the Brazos, 
near San Felipe. March. It extends as far north as on the 
Wabash, in Illinois. 1 

309. Querctjs cinerea, Michx. Sandy, hilly soil ; form- 
ing groves in the prairies west of the Brazos, along with 



1 Ulmus crassifolia, Nult. was sparingly collected by Lindheimer ; the tree 
was in flower, for the second time, in September. The perigonium is divided to 
the base into eight linear segments; and the ovary and fruit are villous. 



Plantm Lindheimeriance. 263 

Q. obtusiloba ; flowering in February. A small tree, crooked, 
and much branched ; the earliest flowering species in Texas. 

310. PoTAMOGETON DIVERSIFOLIUS, /3. SPICATUS, Ellgel. in 

Sill. Jour. 46, p. 102. Clear rivulets, in prairies, west of 
San Felipe. April. Leaves 5-7-13-nerved. 

311. P. natans, Linn., Var. ? foliis infimis elongato-lan- 
ceolatis utrinque acutissimis pellucidis breviter petiolatis, se- 
quentibus longius petiolatis sensim magis oblongis et coriaceis, 
summis natantibus oblongis ellipticisve ; fructibus lenticulari- 
compressis margine acutiusculis. — In clear water and pools, 
west of the Brazos. June. Intermediate in its characters 
between P. natans and P. fluitans ; and in the absence of the 
upper leaves, very difficult to distinguish from P. lucens. 

312. Xyris torta, Smith, Kunth, Enum. 4, p. IV. (ex 
char.) Springy places. May. Also, in Drummond's Texan 
Collection. 

313. Sysirinchium minus (n. sp.) : pumilum ; caule an- 
cipiti ramoso folioso ; spatha paulo insequali flores sequante 
vel subexcedente ; perigonii segmentis (cceruleis) ovatis exte- 
rioribus setaceo-mucronatis ; capsulis obovati-ovalibus glabris. 
— Margin of pools, &c. in the prairie west of San Felipe. 
April. Distinguished from the other North American species, 
by the smaller size of the whole plant (3-6 inches high,) the 
much branched stem, the ovate, not obcordate or emarginate, 
lobes of the perigonium, and the form of the capsule. Spathe 
not mucronate, about 4-flowered. Seeds numerous and very 
small, impressed-dotted, black. 

314. Habranthus Texanus, Herb. Low prairies of the 
Colorado, in black, clayey soil ; flowering in September. Pe- 
rigonium reddish-orange outside, yellow within. 

315. Eleocharis acicularis, R. Br. var. Ponds and 
pools on Mill Creek. March. 

316. Tripsacum cylindricum, Michx. Prairies. Apri', 

May. 

317. Andropogon macrourus, Michx. September. 

318. Chara polypiiylla, Michx., A. Braun. On the 



264 Engelmann and Gray, Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

clayey bottom of clear rivulets, in the prairies between the 
Brazos and Colorado. July, and the whole year round. 1 

* m * No. 151. Monarda Lindheimeri of this enumeration 
must be the same as M. scabra, Beck, in Sill. Jour. X. p. 
260, which name should therefore be adopted. 

1 In addition to the enumeration of the North American Chara, published in 
Silliman's Journal, Vol. XLVI. p. 92, (January, 1844,) we record the following 
notices, communicated by Professor Braun : 

Mr. Lindheimer has sent from Texas specimens of Chara fiexilis, Linn. ? (incom- 
plete specimen,) and of Ch. lenuissima, Desv. This last, as well as the specimens 
from Massachusetts, may be distinguished as var. Americana ; the whorls are less 
densely glomerate, but more approximate than in the European form. 

Chara polyphylla, A. Br., is a very polymorphous plant, occurring in many differ- 
ent forms in America, Asia, and the Sandwich Islands. Professor Braun distin- 
guishes seven subspecies. 

a. Ch. polyphylla Michauxii (Ch. polyphylla, A. Br. in Regensb. Bot. Zeit. 
1835, p. 70; Ch. Michauxii, A. Br. in Sillim. Journ. 1. c. No. 11 ; Ch. capillata, 
Michaux in herb. Jussieu ; Ch. hailensis, Turpin, Diet. sc. nat. Atlas.) Ohio, 
(Michaux, Dr. Frank) ; Missouri, (Dr. Engelmann) ; Texas, (Mr. Lindheimer) ; 
Hayti, (Turpin, 1796.) This is the stoutest, and also the most northern of all 
species and subspecies of the remarkable group of Gymnopodce, A. Br. There are 
five species now known, belonging to this group; and of these Ch. polyphylla is the 
most polymorphous, and widest spread species. — The Gymnopodae are distin- 
guished by having the lowest (often very short) joint of the otherwise coated leaves 
(commonly called verticillated branchlets) naked, or destitute of the coating. 

b. Ch. polyphylla guadeloupcnsis, (Ch. indica, Bert.) Guadeloupe, Bertero. More 
slender, with smaller, more elongated seed vessels (sporangia) and still shorter bracts. 

c. Ch. polyphylla ceylanica, (Ch. zeylanica, Klein in Willd.) Ceylon, Pondi- 
cherry, Madras, etc. 

d. Ch. polyphylla javanica. 

e. Ch. polyphylla Muhlenbcrgii, (Ch. foliosa, Muhlenb. in Willd. ; Sillim. Journ. 
1. c, p. 93, No. 10.) Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg. Very near subspecies C. ceylan- 
ica, and distinguished from a. Michauxii, by the bracts being much longer than the 
sporangia, while they are shorter in Michauxii. 

f. Ch. polyphylla Humboldtiana, (Ch. compressa, H. B. K.) New Andalusia, 
Humboldt. A variety with some of the upper joints of the leaves destitute of the 
coating. 

g. Ch. polyphylla armata, (Ch. armata, Meyen, Rcisebesch.) Sandwich Islands 
Meyen. Distinguished by the stronger spines, and also mostly naked upper joints 
and smaller seed vessels. 

A second species, distinct from Ch. polyphylla, but also belonging to Gymnopodce, 
has been collected by Dr. Engelmann, in lakes in the bottom lands of the Missis- 
sippi, near Saint Louis ; it is called by Professor Braun 

Ch. sejuncta, a more slender and greener plant than the last, but principally dis- 
tinguished by the seed vessels (sporangia) and globules (often called anthers) being 
always found on different joints of the leaves (or branchlets,) never as in most other 
species, together on the same joint. — Martius has collected the same species in 
Brazil ; the North American form is larger, and more slender, aud has bracts shorter 
than the seeds; and may therefore be called var. brcvibradcata, and the Brazilian 
variety, longibractcala. 



B OS TON 

JOURNAL OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

VOLUME VI. — NO. II. 



Art. I. — Plants Lindheimeriante, Part IT. An Account 
of a Collection of Plants made by F. Lindheimer in the 
Western part of Texas, in the Years 1845 — 6, and 1847 — 8, 
with Critical Remarks, Descriptions of new Species, fyc. 
By Asa Gray, M. D. 

[The numbers follow on from the end of the former collection, as published in 
Vol. V. of this Journal, through the collection of 1S45-6, and thence to the later 
collection. Those inclosed in ( ) belong to the collection of 1S47 -8; for greater 
convenience in describing them, they are here intercalated. The few numbers in 
brackets below 319 belong to species which occurred in the former distribution. 
Those marked with a t in place of a number have not been distributed at all. The 
orders elaborated by Dr. Engelmann have his name affixed to that of the Order.] 

RANUNCULACEjE. 

319. Clematis Drummondii, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 9. 
Dry prairies, Comale Spring, &x. June. Cultivated in the 
Cambridge Botanic Garden, from Texan seeds, this plant 
climbs extensively, but does not show its blossoms until Octo- 
ber. The calyx is yellowish green, tinged with purple. 

320. Ranunculus repens, Linn. var. macranthus : pe- 
talis 7 — 16; caulibus petiolisque villosissimis. R. macran- 
thus, Scheele in Linncca, 21, p. 585. Sparsely on high, 
rocky plains, and in patches on damp Muskit (Algarobia) 
flats, New Braunfels. March. — Mr. Wright has specimens 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 19 JAN. 1850. 



142 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

of the same plant, with the leaves also densely silky-vil- 
lous, nearly as much so as in R. canus, Benth. PL Hartw. 
No. 1626, from California ; indeed, it would seem to belong 
to the same species ; but the carpels are, as in our R. repens, 
pointed with a pretty long, straight, or flexuous beak, slen- 
derly subulate from a broad base, and not " mucrone valde 
recurvo fere circinnato," as R. canus is characterized. My 
specimen of the latter exhibits no fruit. The petals are in 
some specimens nearly an inch in length ; in others no larger 
than in ordinary American forms of R. repens, into which it 
passes by every kind of gradation. 

f Delphinium virescens, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 14 ; Torr. fy 
Gr. Fl. 1. p. 32; floribus albis. Rocky prairies and hills, 
Comale Spring. April. The species is very likely to be 
considered as only a broader-leaved variety of D. azureum. 

321. D. virescens, Nutt., var. floribus subcasruleis. Dry 
and rocky prairies, and margins of thickets, New Braunfels. 
April. 

BERBERIDACEJE. 

322. Berberis (Trilicina, Gray,) trifoliolata, Mori- 
cand,Pl. Nouv. Amer. p. 113, t. 69. B. ilicifolia, Scheele in 
Linncea,2l, p. 591, non Forst. B. Roemeriana, Scheele, I. c. 
22, p. 352. High shore of Matagorda Bay. Also common 
in the interior of Texas, on Comale Creek, at New Braunfels, 
&.c. (575.) An evergreen shrub, with few branches, but 
with many stems from the same base, often forming large 
thickets. It flowers in February and March ; and the yellow 
blossoms exhale the odor of saffron. The globose berries, 
about the size of peas, ripen in May, are red, aromatic, and 
acid ; they are called " currants " by the inhabitants, and are 
used for tarts, &c. This interesting species, which is 
remarkable for its palmately trifoliolate leaves, is first men- 
tioned in the Appendix to the first volume of the Flora of 
N. America, as having been gathered by Drummond with- 
out flower or fruit. In 1841, it was named and characterized 



Planta Lindheimeriarue. 143 

by Moricand, from flowering specimens which occurred in 
Berlandier's Texan Collection. We have now fine specimens 
both in flower and fruit from Mr. Lindheimer's, Mr. Wright's, 
and from Dr. Gregg's collections ; the latter met with it as 
far south as Buena Vista. I have characterized it as a third 
section of Berberis, in the Genera Am. Bor.-Gr. lllustrata, 1. 
p. 80. 

CRTJCIFER/E. 

323. Streptanthus petiolaris, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 7. 
Muskit thickets and shady woods, New Braunfels and San 
Antonio. March. — All the lower leaves, as well as the base 
of the stem, are more hairy in my specimen than in those 
cultivated in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, from seeds 
taken from Mr. Wright's plant ; and the radical leaves are 
barely lyrate-pinnatifid, and rounded at the summit. From 
seeds sown in early spring, it flowers and fruits during the 
summer and autumn. 

f S. bracteatus (Gray, Gen. Am. Bor.-Or. 111. 1. p. 146, 
t. 60. fig. 1-3.): glaberrimus, subglaucus ; foliis caulinis 
auriculato-amplexicaulibus, inferioribus oblongis acutis ssepe 
repando-dentatis, superioribus cordatis sinu profundo clauso 
in bracteas cordatas (inferiores florem, summas pedicellum 
subaequantes) sensim decrescentibus ; petalis obovatis purpu- 
reis ; siliquis angustis praelongis (5^-6 unc.) patentibus sub- 
falcatis. — At New Braunfels. June. Also gathered by 
Mr. Wright on sand bars of the Colorado, near Austin, in 
flower only, in the month of April. The radical leaves are 
sometimes entire or barely repand-toothed, sometimes incised 
or even lyrately pinnatisect, with most of the lower segments 
minute. One of Mr. Wright's specimens is remarkable for 
having all the lower cauline leaves pinnately parted in this 
way, and petioled. The sepals are tinged with deep purple ; 
the petals are light purple, with the broad spreading lamina 
half an inch in length. No ripe pods were gathered. The 
largest seen are about six inches long, but less than a line 
wide ; the immature seeds are winged. I have no specimens 



144 PlantcE Lindheimeriance. 

of S. obtusifolius nor of S. maculatus, with which last espe- 
cially our plant should be critically compared. But Dr. Tor- 
rey informs me that these species want the bracts, so uncom- 
mon in CrucifercE, and which so conspicuously distinguish S. 
bracteatus. 

324. Erysimum Arkansanum, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. 
p. 94; Gray, Gen. 111. 1. t. 63. Wooded, rocky banks, &c, 
Comale Spring, and on the Guadaloupe. March, April. — A 
showy species, with large, deep, golden yellow, and faintly 
fragrant flowers. It was found on the Rio Grande by Mr. 
Wright. 

325. Vesicaria Engelmanii (Gray, Gen. Am. Bor.-Or. 111. 
1. p. 162, t. 70) : perennis, pube lepidoto-stellata argentata; 
caulibus e caudice sublignoso plurimis simplicibus erectis su- 
perne parce foliatis ; foliis inferioribus spathulatis seu oblance- 
olatis rariter repando vel sinuato-dentatis in petiolum attenu- 
atis, superioribus sublinearibus integerrimis ; racemo etiam 
fructifero brevi saspius corymbiformi ; silicula globosa glaber- 
rima breviter stipitata 5-12-sperma (loculis 8-ovulatis) 
stylo pergracili breviora ; seminibus submarginatis ; funiculis 
septo longe adnatis. — Pebbly shore of the Guadaloupe, New 
Braunfels. May. Chiefly with mature fruit. (The same 
species, apparently, with elliptical and entire radical leaves, 
was found on the Upper Canadian, by Mr. Gordon.) From 
Lindheimer's seeds, this handsome and very distinct perennial 
species is in cultivation in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. 
It makes a strong, deep root. The clustered, simple stems 
rise to the height of a span or a foot, are clothed, like the 
foliage, with a silvery pubescence composed of dense and 
closely appressed stellar tufts, and are terminated by a short 
and dense, usually umbelliform, raceme of golden yellow flow- 
ers, which are fully as large as those of V. grandiflora, the 
petals being half an inch long. Lower leaves two to three 
inches in length. The style is one third of an inch in length. 
I should have adopted Dr. Engelmann's or Lindheimer's 
name of V. umbellata, under which the specimens were sent, 



Planice Lindheimeriance. 145 

and which is not inappropriate to this form, where the pedicels 
are as long as the axis of the fruiting raceme, except that, in 
the cultivated and some wild specimens, the raceme elongates 
in fruit to the length of three or four inches, as in the sue 
ceeding. 

(576.) V. Engelmannii, var. p. elatior: racemo fructi 
fero extenso (3 - 4-pollicari). V. pulchella, Kunth &f 
Bouche, in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3-ieme Ser. 2, p. 229 (Apr. 1849,) 
ex char. 

326. V. angustifolia, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 101. 
Summit of hills, in large patches, on stony soil, New Braun- 
fels. March, in flower. Accords entirely with the original 
specimens. What Scheele has taken for this species is evi- 
dently V. recurvata, at least in part. 

327. V. Lindheimeri (sp. nov.) : radice crassa perenni ; 
caulibus decumbentibus foliosis cinereis ; foliis oblongis ar- 
gute sinuato- vel laciniato-dentatis imis lyrato-pinnatifidis pube 
implexa appressissima (e pagina superiore sero subdecidua) 
argenteo-incanis ; racemo fructifero elongato ; silicula ovoideo- 
globosa glaberrima stipite plus duplo stylo subduplo longiore ; 
seminibus immarginatis. — Black, stiff prairie soil on the lower 
Guadaloupe, east of Victoria. February, in flower and fruit. 
— This appears to be a truly perennial species, and is remark- 
able for its strongly toothed leaves, as well as for the matted, 
extremely fine and close-pressed, silvery pubescence which 
clothes them. The upper surface of the older leaves, how- 
ever, is merely cinereous with minute and rather sparse 
stellar down. Petals apparently light yellow, three or four 
lines long. 

328. V. bensiflora (sp. nov.) : annua v. biennis, pube 
stellata laxa cinerea ; caulibus adscendentibus usque ad flores 
foliosis ; foliis oblongo-spathulatis vel oblanceolatis basi atten- 
uatis saepius repando-denticulatis, radicalibus integris; race- 
mo etiam fructifero denso multifloro, pedicellis erectiusculis ; 
silicula estipitata subdepresso-globosa glaberrima stylo bre- 
viore 10-16-sperma (loculis 8-ovulatis) ; seminibus im- 



146 Planta Lindheimeriana. 

marginatis; funiculis septo longe adnatis. — Prairies near 
Victoria, on the lower Guaclaloupe ; February, in flower. 
Gravelly banks of streams, Fredericksburg; May, in fruit 
(577.) (Also, near Austin, Mr. Charles Wright.') — Stems 
numerous from the same root, rather stout, spreading or 
ascending, 5 to 10 inches long, leafy to the top. Leaves 
equally cinereous both sides, as well as the stem and pedicels, 
with a rather loose stellar pubescence ; the cauline an inch 
or less in length ; even the radical undivided and barely re- 
pand or repand-denticulate. Flowers bright yellow, smaller by 
about one third than those of V. grandiflora. The remark- 
ably dense raceme becomes in fruit from two to four inches 
long, often ripening as many as fifty silicles ; the lower pedi- 
cels usually subtended by leaves. Silicles two lines in diame- 
ter, slightly didymous as well as depressed, not strictly sessile 
on the receptacle as in V. grandiflora, but raised on a barely 
appreciable stipe. Style fully two lines long. Seeds small, 
not at all margined. — This well-marked species appears to 
be common in Texas, especially throughout the Western dis- 
tricts. But I do not find that it has yet been described. 

f V. grandiflora, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3464. var. p pinna- 
tifida: foliis radicalibus majoribus interrupte pinnatipartitis 
segmentis dentatis lobatisve, caulinis ssepe subpinnatifidis. — 
Prairies east of Victoria ; February, in flower. The same 
form was gathered by Mr. Wright. — V. grandiflora is well 
distinguished from all the other species (of which a goodly 
number are now known in North America) by the unusually 
short style, the narrowly winged seeds, and the large flowers 
and pods. 

329. V. argyrjea (sp. uov.) : perennis, pube lepidoto- 
stellata undique argentea ; caulibus diffusis v. procumbentibus 
foliosis ; foliis omnibus spathulatis integerrimis vel repando- 
dentatis ; racemo laxifloro, fructifero elongato ; pedicellis ssepi- 
us patentibus apice sursum curvatis ; silicula globosa estipitata 
glaberrima stylo aequilonga oligosperma (loculis 16-18-ovu- 
latis) ; seminibus immarginatis. — V. arctica var. ? Gray, PI. 



Planta Lindheimerianee. 147 

Fendl. p. 9. — Sandy banks of Green Lake, near Matagorda 
Bay, and prairies near Victoria ; February, in flower and half- 
grown fruit. Also gathered by Mr. Wright on the Rio 
Grande, Texas ; by Dr. Gregg at Buena Vista, and Dr. 
Edwards at Monterey, Northern Mexico ; and by Fendler at 
Santa Fe, in flower only. The species assumes a variety of 
forms, according as it flowers early near the root, or from long 
procumbent stems. In the first case the pedicels are more 
upright ; in the latter they are spreading and upwardly curved, 
as mentioned in the specific character. They are sometimes 
subtended by leaves ; and the racemes in Dr. Gregg's speci- 
mens are occasionally proliferous. The bright yellow flowers 
are about half an inch in diameter. The plant is silvery with 
crowded, but distinct, appressed, scurfy Stellas. 

330. V. recurvata (Engelm. ined.) : tenella, pube minuta 
lepidoto-stellata cinerascens ; caulibus e radice annua pluri- 
mis gracilibus diffusis vel procumbentibus ramosis; foliis 
spathulatis integerrimis aut radicalibus repandis lyratisve, su- 
premis sublineari-oblongis ; racemis elongatis sparsifloris ; pe- 
dicellis soepe secundis, fructiferis recurvis; silicula vix aut ne 
vix stipitata globosa glabra oligosperma parva stylo tenui bre- 
viore vel subaequali ; seminibus immarginatis. — V. angusti- 
folia, Scheele, in Linnaa, 21, p. 584, non Nutt. — Dry and 
stony or light soil, growing sparsely in the grass, San Antonio 
and New Braunfels. March, in flower; April and May, in 
fruit. Also around Austin, Mr. Charles Wright. — The most 
slender species ; with diffusely spreading stems, from four to 
eight inches long, and short, spathulate or oblong-spathulate 
leaves. The flowers are not larger than those of V. gracilis, 
which it most resembles, and from which it is at once distin- 
guished by its nearly or quite estipitate silicles, pendulous on 
the recurved pedicels. The pods are a line, or little more, 
in diameter. 

331. V. gracilis, Hook, Bot. Mag. t. 3533. Muskit 
Flats, in wet or low, grassy places, New Braunfels. April, 
May. — Stems upright or nearly so, slender, from 8 to 16 



148 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

inches long. The pods, in the stronger specimens, are twice 
as large as in Hooker's figure and description. 1 

(216.*) Draba PLATrcARPA, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 108. 
This is not the same as No. 216 (D. cuneifolia) of the former 

1 VESICARTyE Boreali-Americante Synoptice Dispositae. 

Sect. I. Vesicaeiana, DC. Silicula globosa, raro piriformis, valvis membranaceis 

inflatis. 

§ 1. Annum seu blennes. 

* Seminibus marginatis ; stylo silicula (cstipilata) dimidio vel xdlra breviore; 
foliis caulinis basi seepe auriculatis et subamplexicaulibus. 

1. V. grandiflora (Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3464) : caulibus pube brevi subeinereis ; 
foliis stepe sinuato-pinnatifidis dentatisve ; stylo silicula 2-3-plo breviore. V. brevi- 
styla, Torr. d> Gr. Fl. 1. p. 102 (vide Suppl. p. 668.) The septum is not veinless, 
as is said by Don, but has a midnerve stretching from the apex towards the base, 
as is usual in the genus. 

2. V. atjriculata (Engelm. <f- Gray, PI. Lindh. No. 217, p. 32): caulibus pe- 
dunculisque hirsutis ; floribus minoribus ; stylo silicula dimidio breviuribus. 

* * Seminibus immarginalis ; stylo silicula suboequalibus aut longioribus ; foliis 
omnibus basi angustatis. 

t Silicula vix aut ne rix stipitata, globosa. 

X Racemo etiam fructifero densifioro; pedicettis erectiusculis rcl subpatentibus. 

3. V. densiflora, (sp. nor.) Vide supra, No. 328. 

4. V. angustifolia, Nutt. in Torr. <$• Gr. Fl. 1. p. 101. Vide supra, No. 326. 

5. V. Shortii, Torr. tf« Gr. Fl. 1. p. 102. — The silicles, in the specimen of Herb. 
Torr., the only one I have ever seen, are nearly all sterile and imperfectly grown ; 
hence their small size in proportion to the length of the style. In one pod, however, 
although remarkably small for the genus, I found a single ripe (marginless) seed, 
nearly filling the cell ; in this case the style was no longer than the silicle. The 
species, although not suthciently well known, is unlike any other here enumerated. 

% X Racemo sparsijloro ; siliculis nutantibus. 

6. V. rectjrvata, Engelm. Vide supra, No. 330. 

tt Silicula breviter stipitata obovato-globosa seu pyriformi; foliis caulinis sub- 
repandis. 

7. V. Nuttallu (Torr. d> Gr. Fl. 1. p. 101): subcinereo-puberula ; filamentis 
basi ampliatis ; silicula pyriformi juxta basim constricta. 

8. V. eepanda (Nutt. in Torr. cf Gr. I. c.) : glabrata; floribus majoribus ; fila- 
mentis e basi dilatata sensim angustatis ; silicula immatura subglobosi-obovata. — 
There are no specimens with full-grown silicles, while those of V. Nuttallii are alto- 
gether fruitful, with no good flowers. There is much reason to suspect that the two 
belong to one species. V. Nuttallii usually has a shorter but distinct stipe to the 
pod ; but in one of the original specimens the stipe is fully as long as in V. gracilis. 

1 1 1 Silicula manifeste stipitata, exacte globosa. 
X Floribus saturate fcavis. 

9. V. gracilis (Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3533) : glabrata, erectiuscula ; foliis lanceola- 
tis subintegerrimis ; racemo laxifloro elongato ; pedicellis elongatis patentibus ; sili- 
cula glabra stipite duplo longiore stylo pi. m. breviore. — The silicles of Berlandier's 
and Drummond's specimens are, as described and figured by Hooker, "not larger 
than hemp seed." In those of Lindheimer, where the whole plant is stronger, and in 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 149 

distribution. Thickets, New Braunfels, &c. February. D. 
Roemeriana, Scheele iiiLinnaa, 21, p. 583, would seem to be 

cultivated specimens, the silicles are considerably larger. The stipe is sometimes 
almost as long as the pod; sometimes scarcely half that length. 

10. V. Goedoni (sp. nov.) : tomentuloso-canescens ; caulibus difl'usis ; foliis sub- 
iniegerrimis, infimis subspathulatis, superioribus lanceolatis vel linearibus ; racemo 
fn ctifero laxo; pedicellis brevibus patentibus ; silicula glabra breviter stipitata stylo 
subduplo longiore. — On the Canadian, in the Katon Mountains, Mr. Gordon, 
(communicated by Dr Engelmann.) April; in flower and fruit. — This is, perhaps, a 
perennial species, but the root appears more like that of a biennial. The plant is sil- 
very-hoary, with a stellate pubescence; except the pods, which are very smooth, and 
two lines in diameter. Flowers not larger than those of V. gracilis, more crowded. 
The unripe seeds are not at all margined. 

XX Floribus albidis ; siliculisnutantibus. 

11. V. pallida (Torr. d> Gr. Ft. 1. p 66S, Suppl.): pube minutalepidoto-stellatasub- 
cinerea ; caulibus adscendcntibus ramosis ; foliis oblongis plerisque laciniato-dentatis 
basi attenuatis, radicalibus sublyratis ; racemo laxifloro; pedicellis fructiferis recuivis ; 
silicula globosa glabra leviter stipitata stylo tertia parte longiore. — V. grandiflora 
ji. pallida, Torr. if- Gr. 1. c. p. 101. — The corolla is said, by Dr. Leavenworth (who 
alone has met with this plant) to be " white." 

§ 2. Perennes (Argenteas seu incanee.) 

* Seminibus levissime marginatis ; silicula subslipitata stylo breviore. 

12. V. Engelmannii, Gr. Gen. III. t. 70. Vide supra, No. 325. 

* * Seminibus immarginalis ; silicula stipitata stylo duplo longiore. 

13. V. Lindheimeei, sp . nov. Vide supra, No. 327. 

* * * Seminibus immarginalis ; silicula non aut vix stipitata. 
t Stylo silicula cequilongo v. longiore. 

% Caulibus elongatis decumbent ibus ; foliis spalhulalis ; silicula glabra. 

14. V. aegye^ea, sp. nov. Vide supra, No. 329. 

} X Caulibus abbrcviatis suffruticosis ; foliis angustis ; silicula glabra. 

15. V. Fendleei, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 9. 

16. V. stenophylla (sp. nov.) : humilis, cano-argentea, multiceps ; foliis anguste 
linearibus gracilibus confertis; racemo multifloro denso; silicula membranacea gla- 
berrima stylum sequante. — On the Rio Grande, Texas, Mr. Charles Wright. Mon- 
terey and Aguaneuva, Northern Mexico, Dr. Gregg, Dr. Edwards. — The specimen 
of Mr. Wright is the most characteristic one. From a thick, ligneous caudex it bears 
several, more or less woody branches, a span high, densely leafy, and terminated by a 
very compact raceme of golden yellow flowers, nearly as large as these of V.grandi- 
jiora. The plants of Gregg and Edwards are less condensed, and with smaller flow- 
ers. The leaves are an inch or more, the lower over two inches in length, entire, or 
the lower sparingly toothed ; and the pods, also, are twice the size of those of V. 
Fendleri. Specimens intermediate between the two may perhaps occur. 

XXX Caulibus herbaceis ercctis vel adscendentibus ; silicula globoso-obovata incana. 

17. V. Ludoviciana, DC. Syst. 2, p. 297; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Am. 1, p. 48. V. glo- 
bosa, Desv. Jour. Bot. 3, p. 171 & 184, ex char. 

1 1 Stylo silicula globosa glabra vel stellato-puberula, 2 - 3-plo longiore. 

18. V. aectica, Richards. Appx. Frankl. Journ. ; Book. I. c. 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 20 



150 Plantce LindheimeriancB. 

a form of the same species, or perhaps of D. cuneifolia. To 
the latter, as a slender form, or to D. micrantha, would seem 
to belong D. filicaulis, Scheele, I. c. 

CAFPARIDACE^E. 

332. Polanisia trachysperma, Torr. &f Gr. Fl. 1. p. 669 ; 
Gr. Gen. 111. 1. t. 79, fy PL Fendl. p. 10. Sandy soil, on 
the Colorado and Pierdenales. July, October. This differs 
from P. uniglandulosa, as I have formerly remarked, princi- 
pally in the smaller size of the flowers. It is likely to prove 
only a northern form of that species. 

POLYGALACE^E. 

333. Polygala Lindheimeri (sp. ?iov.) : pubescens ; cau- 
libus e radice incrassata lignea plurimis foliosis ; foliis alternis 
subsessilibus coriaceis utrinque reticularis nitidis cuspidato- 
mucronatis, imis obovatis, superioribus gradatim ovatis oblon- 
gis et lanceolatis ; racemis terminalibus demumque lateralibus 
laxifloris ; rachi geniculato-flexuosa bracteis parvis ad nodos 3 
persistentibus squamosa; pedicellis brevissimis ; sepalo supe- 
riore bracteiformi a flore subdistante alis spathulatis vix di- 
midio brevioribus ; carina imberbi crista calcariformi aucta ; 
capsula immatura pilosula. — Rocky declivities of the upper 
Guadaloupe and Pierdenales. June, August. Also met 
with by Mr. Wright, from the Colorado to the Rio Grande. — 
Root not unlike that of Krameria lanceolata, long, covered 
with a thick reddish bark. Stems a little woody at the base, 

Sect. II. Alyssoides, DC. Silicula ovata, valvis convexis rigidiusculis. 
19. V. alpina, Nutt. in Torr. <?• Gr. Fl. 1. p. 102; Gr. PI. Fendl. p. 9. 



V. lasiocarpa, Hook. ined. (Vide Bot. Mag. sub t. 3464) is unknown to me. I 
have seen no Texan species with other than glabrous fruit. 

V. argentea, Schauer in Linncea, 20, p. 720, when the mature fruit is known, may 
prove to be a species of Synthlipsis. 

V. didymocarpa, Hook., and V. Geyeri, Hook, constitute the genus Physaria. 



The Iberis, n. sp. ? Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 166, from Dr. James's 
Collection, is Ditliyraea Wislizeni, Engelm. in Wis. Rep. p. 96, which has recently 
been met with, in flower only, on the Upper Canadian, by Mr. Gordon. 



Plantcc Lindheimeriana. 151 

branching, a span to a foot high, clothed with a soft spread- 
ing pubescence. Leaves from 5 to 10 lines long, coriaceous, 
minutely pubescent but shining, with a prominent midrib, the 
veinlets conspicuously reticulated on both surfaces. Racemes 
gradually prolonged so as to bear from 10 to 20 flowers in the 
course of the season ; the joints of the remarkably zig-zag 
rachis from one to three lines long. Pedicels shorter than the 
calyx, 3-bracteate. Upper sepal a little remote from the 
flower, like a bractlet, ovate-oblong, concave, with the rudi- 
ment of a gland in its axil. Stamens 8, subdiadelphous. 
Thegalea of the carina is beardless, and bears a conspicuous, 
straight spur on the back in place of a crest. The ripe fruit 
is unknown. The large upper sepal is persistent at the base 
of the half-grown fruit, after the others have fallen. All the 
sepals are deciduous in what I take to be P. ovalifolia, DC, 
which was gathered on the Leona and Rio Grande by Mr. 
Wright, as well as by Dr. Edwards and Major Eaton at Mon- 
terey, &c. 

KRAMERIACE^E. 

(13.) Krameria lanceolata, Torr. in Ann. Lye. New 
York, 2. p. 168 ; Gr. Gen. 111. 2, t. 185, 186. New Braun- 
fels, among rocks. April, June. "Roots often mere than 
three feet long." 

violace^:. 

(578.) Ionidium lineare, To/t. in Ann. Lye. New York, 
2, p. 168 ; Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 145 ; Gr. Gen. 111. 1, t. 82. 
I. stipulaceum, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gr. I. c. Stems much 
branched from a ligneous perennial root, diffuse, or the 
branches often erect. Leaves opposite or occasionally alter- 
nate, entire or remotely serrulate ; the lower varying from 
lanceolate to oblong or obovate ; the upper linear, obtuse, 
usually three or four times the length of the stipules. Seeds 
turning black. — I possess no perfectly authenticated speci- 
mens of I. stipulaceum, Nutt. ; but I have good reason to 



152 Plantce Lindheimeriaruz. 

think that it is not specifically different from the plant which 
was earlier indicated (from a branch, bearing narrowly linear 
leaves alone) by Dr. Torrey, under the name of I. lineare ; 
which name I have therefore adopted. The stipules should 
not have been termed " minute " in I. lineare, since they are 
further said to be " one-third the length of the leaves." The 
upper ones are seldom so long as this, while the lower are 
frequently " half as long as the leaves," as they are said to be 
in I. stipulaccum. It is manifest that all our specimens belong 
to one and the same species. 

344. I. lineare, Torr., ramis floriferis erectis strictioribus. 
I. slipulaceum, Nutt. I. c. Damp Muskit flats, San Antonio. 
April. 

CARYOPHYLLACE^E. 

335. Paronychia Lindheimeri (Engelm. ined.) : annua, 
glabra, erecta ; caule ramosissimo difTuso in cymas apertas 
multoties dichotomas diviso ; foliis setaceis, superioribus brac- 
teisque consimilibus mucronatis internodio brevioribus ; calyce 
basi breviter pubescentibus, laciniis in aristulam iisdem duplo 
breviorem productis. — Naked, rocky places in high prairies. 
September. (Also gathered in Western Texas, by Mr. 
Wright. — Nearly allied to P. setacea, and very similar in 
aspect, foliage, flowers, &c, but the cymes are more open ; 
the calyx minutely pubescent, instead of strigose-hirsute, at 
the base ; and the awns much shorter than its segments, in- 
stead of being nearly of their length. The plant is smoother, 
often six inches high, and very much branched. 

(222.) P. dichotoma, Nutt. Gen. 1. p. 159; Torr. fy Gr. 

Fl. 1. p. 171. High, rocky places, north of New Braunfels. 

August, October. 

336. Stellaria prostrata, Baldw. in Ell. Sk. 1. p. 518. 

Pi,ocky and shaded margins of rivulets, about the Comale 

Springs, and at New Braunfels; flowering from March to 

October. (Also Trinity Bay, Mr. Wright.) 



Planta Lindheimeriance. 153 

PORTULACACE^E (by Dr. Engelmann). 

(579.) Talinum aurantiacum (n. sp.) : radice tuberosa ; 
caule adscendente herbaceo ramoso patulo piloso ; foliis 
lanceolatis s. lineari-lanceolatis subsessilibus carnosis ; flori- 
bus axillaribus singulis ; pedunculis supra basin articulatis 
bibracteolatis, fructiferis reflexis ; sepalis ovatis acuminatis 
tricarinatis, fructiferis subpersistentibus ; petalis ovatis mu- 
cronatis; staminibus sub-25 ; seminibus lineis gyratis carina- 
tis et striis tenuissimis transversis eleganter notatis. — On the 
Sabinas, and more abundantly on the Liano, rare about New 
Braunfels, on rocky soil or almost naked rocks ; in flower 
principally in July and August, but also at other seasons, 
always after heavy rains. — Root white, fleshy, tuberous, 
often bifurcated. Stems 8-16 inches long, ascending, much 
branched. Leaves l§-2oreven 3 inches long, 2-4 lines 
wide. Peduncle 4-5 lines long. Sepals of the same length j- 
petals 5 lines long and 3 wide, orange to red ; filaments 
red ; style and stigma orange. Seeds elegantly marked, 
black, larger than in any other North American species. — 
Distinct from all other species described by De Candolle, by 
the single flowers. 

(580.) Talinum sarmentosum (n. sp.) : radice crassa ; caule 
prostrato; ramis debilibus sarmentosis ascendentibus foliosis ; 
foliis carnosis late ovatis cuspidatis basi attenuatis subsessili- 
bus; cymis axillaribus bracteatis subtrifloris (rarius compositis) 
versus apicem laxe paniculatis ; floribus longe pedicellatis ; 
sepalis ovatis cuspidatis membranaceis deciduis ; staminibus 
sub-15; seminibus nigris nitentibus sub lente tenuiter tuber- 
culatis. — New Braunfels, among shrubs on the banks of the 
Guadaloupe. July, September. — Stems prostrate ; branches 
weak, ascending, supported by the shrubs under " which the 
plant grows, often 6-10 feet long ;" — the specimens before 
me are 2-4 feet long. Lower leaves 2| — 3| inches long, 
1 — 1| wide. Pedicels 6-12 and more lines long, thickened 
at the apex. Sepals about one line long ; flowers apparently 



154 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

4-5 lines in diameter, purple. Capsule about one line long, 
almost globose. Seeds smoother than in any other of our 

species. 1 

1 " Besides these two species, we have in the flora of the United States, three others 
very different from these, but nearly related to one another; namely, the well-known 
T. teretifolium, Pnrsh, T. calycinum, Engelm. in Wisliz. Rep.; and T. parvijlorum, 
Nutt. ; all three now in cultivation with me, and well distinguished from one another. 
T. cahjcinum is very ornamental ; the large flowers have sometimes six to ten petals. 

"Mr. Lindheimer has discovered two undescribed species of Portulaca in Western 
Texas. As these plants are so difficult to preserve and so unsightly when dried, he 
did not collect specimens for distribution ; but from his seeds both were raised by me 
last season and prove very remarkable plants, one from its near alliance with Portu- 
laca oleracea, the other from its great difference from that species. I arrange the 
species of our flora (all of them annuals) in the following manner. 

PORTULACA. 

* Spathulaice : glaberrimee ; eaule tereti ; foliis spathulatis obovatis ; sepalis alato- 
carinatis cum operculo capsulte rnaturce deciduis ; petalis flavis emarginatis s. bilobis; 
capsulse annulo circular! tumido. 

1. P. oleracea, L. : foliis obovatis spathulatis apice rotundatis ; alabastro com- 
presso ovato acuto; sepalis carinatis; staminibus 7 -9; stigmatibus 5 stylum bre- 
vem superantibus ; seminibus minoribus minute sub lente verruculosis nigris. — St. 
Louis, very common; flowers open in direct sunshine between 9 and 10 o'clock, 
A. M. August. 

2. P. retusa (n. sp.) : foliis cuneatisretusis, seuemarg-ma^'s; alabastro compresso 
orbiculato obtuso; sepalis late carinato-alatis; staminibus sub- 15 (17 - 19, Lindh., 
in plantis parvulis 7-10); stigmatibus 3-4 stylum aequantibus vel eo brevioribus; 
seminibus majoribus sub leute echinato-tuberculatis nigricantibus. — Granite region 
of the Liano in Western Texas. Flowers open in direct sunshine between 8i and 9b 
A. M. (in St. Louis, in August), always before the common species. — Distinguished 
from the nearly allied P. oleracea by the broader retuse leaves, and broader calyx ; 
by the larger, more distinctly tuberculated, somewhat paler seeds, much larger 
style, and shorter and fewer stigmata. Number of stamina variable. In large speci- 
mens (bushes several feet in diameter, stems at base 6-7 lines thick, prostrate or 
ascending) ; the number counted was 15. Stigmata almost invariably 4, rarely 3. 

* * Lanceolatm : glaberrimse ; caule angulato ; foliis superioribus lanceolatis ; sepa- 
lis vix carinatis post anthesin deciduis ; petalis plerumque versicoloribus acutiusculis ; 
capsulse ala circular! lata excalycis basi aucta. 

3. P. lanceolata (n. sp.): su6-erecta; foliis inferioribus spathulatis obtusis, superi- 
oribus lanceolatis acutis ; petalis obovatis s. oblanceolatis acutiusculis s. cuspidatis ; 
staminibus 7-27; stigmatibus 3-6; capsula turbinata versus apicem ala circulari 
lata cincta ; seminibus majoribus echinato-tuberculatis cinereis. 

a. versicolor; petalis majoribus obovatis rubris basi flavis; staminibus 12-24; 
stigmatibus 5-6 linearibus; capsulse ala orbiculari plana. 

/?. minor; petalis minoribus oblanceolatis ssepe totis flavidis rarius apice rubellis; 
staminibus 7-12; stigmatibus 3-4 ovato-oblongis ; capsulse ala subpentagona un- 
ci ulata. 

Granite region of the Liano, in Western Texas. — Stems in smaller plants a few 
inches high, erect, with erect branches ; in larger specimens a foot or more high, as- 



Planted Lindheimeriana. 155 



LINACE^E. 



f Linum Boottii, Plonchon in Lond. Jour. Bot. 7, p. 
475. Upper Pierdenales, sparsely in sandy prairies. — The 
specimen is entirely in fruit, and has lost nearly all its leaves. 
Some remarks on this species will be found under No. 581. 

337. L. Boottii, Y- rupestre ; caulibus gracilentis ; foliis 
lineari-subulatis ; sepalis paulo latioribus ; capsulis minoribus. 
— L. rupestre, Lindheimer in sched. New Braunfels, with 
Cereus ca;spitosus, growing sparsely on rocky soil or in crev- 
ices of naked rocks. May. — Stems several, from a firm, 
probably not really perennial root, very strict and slender, 
a foot or more high. Petals three or four times the length of 

thelanceolate-ovate, cuspidate, and glandular-ciliate sepals. 

338. L. multicaule, Hook, in Torr. &/• Gr. Fl. 1. p. 678 ; 
Planchon in Lond. Jour. Bot. 7, p. 185. Upper Pierden- 
ales ; socially in naked, clayey places in open oak woods. 
October; mostly in fruit. Flowers small, yellow. Styles 
united almost to the summit. Branches clothed with the 
minute lanceolate-subulate leaves quite up to the flower ; the 

cending, very much branched. Leaves £- 1 inch long, 1 -3 lines wide. Flowers 4-6 
lines in diameter, very pretty in the larger forms, open from 8-9 o'clock. A. M. (St. 
Louis, August) ; earlier than any other species. Capsule with the wing, which is 
formed by the enlarged base of the deciduous calyx, 2-2£ lines in diameter. — The 
seeds of both forms are absolutely identical, so that the difference in the number of 
stamina and stigmata, and in the size and color of the flower, cannot constitute them 
distinct species, as Mr. Lindheimer suggests. He adds that the leaves of a have an 
acidulous, and those of (9 an insipid, mucilaginous taste. 

* * * Teretifolicc : ad axillse pilosae ; caule tereli ; foliis plus minus teretibus, basi 
paulo productis ; sepalis membranaceis ecarinatis cum operculo capsulae malurae de- 
ciduis ; petalis violaceis; capsulae inargine circulari turnido. 

4. P. pilosa. L. : sepalis lineari-oblongis, petalis ovato-oblongis obtusis retusis s. 
emarginatis duplo brevioribus ; staminibus 15-25 stigmatibus 5-6 subfequantibus; 
seminibus minutis nigris opacis minute tuberculatis. Texas, New Mexico, Mexico, 
etc. — Flowers open from 9-11 or 12 o'clock in bright sunshine, 4-5 lines in di- 
ameter: stigmata glandular, hairy on the margins only, purple. 

5. P. Gilliesii, Hook.: sepalis orbiculato-ovatis petalis orbiculato-obcordatis 
ter quaterve brevioribus; staminibus numerosissimis (60) sligmatibus sub-5 exsertis 
longe brevioribus ; seminibus paulo majoribus tuberculatis cinereis nitentibus.— Com- 
mon in cultivation, and here and there almost naturalized ; originally from Chili. 
Flowers 20 - 24 lines in diameter, open from 8 or 9 to 2 or 3 P. M. in sunshine. Stig- 
mata glandular, hairy on the margins and upper surface, yellowish or greenish. 



156 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

margins of the latter aculeolate-ciliate, or in Lindheimer's 
specimens nearly smooth and naked. It is probably only an 
annual, as likewise the next. Mixed with this, in the distri- 
bution, and probably forming the whole in many sets, are 
fruiting specimens with the upper leaves sparser and the tips 
of the branches naked, like a short peduncle. These belong 
to the following species, if indeed it be different, and to the 
New Braunfels locality there cited. 

339. L. hudsonioides, Planchon I. c. p. 186. New 
Braunfels, growing in dense patches, on dry soil, with a rocky 
substratum, in naked places in the prairies ; May ; in fruit ; 
(distributed under No. 338). In clayey soil, Agua Dulce on 
the Matagorda Bay; February, in flower. — The leaves are 
less approximated and less squamous than in the preceding ; 
the uppermost sparse on the branches, so that the flower, and 
especially the fruit, is raised on a manifest peduncle, some- 
times of more than half an inch in length. The capsules and 
the flowers are larger ; the yellow petals nearly five lines in 
length. But it too closely resembles L. multicaule, of which 
it is perhaps only a variety. 

(581.) Linum Berlandieri (sphalm. Berendieri), Hook. 
Bot. Mag. t. 3480 ; Engelm. fy Gr. PI. Lindh. p. 5 ; Gr. 
PI. Fendl. p. 25, No. 84 (non. 85) ; Planchon in Lond. Jour. 
Bot. 7, p. 473 ; Scheele in Linncea, 21, p. 596. L. rigidum,jf?. 
Berendieri, Torr. &/• Gr. Fl. 1. p. 204. Stony, dry prairies, 
near New Braunfels. May. — Except in the larger size of 
the flowers, and the laxer leaves, this species is hard to dis- 
tinguish from L. rigidum. Both, I believe, are annuals ; but, 
as they flower through a great part of the year, the root hard- 
ens, and the base often shows the vestiges of earlier stems, 
which have perished ; thus giving it somewhat the appearance 
of a perennial. The styles are united either for two-thirds 
of their length, or almost to the apex. One of Lindheimer's 
specimens in my set (gathered in 1846) not indistinctly 
shows small stipular glands; while that of the Coll. 1847-8 
does not. These glands are equally visible in some of the 



Plant ce Lindheimeriana. 157 

specimens of No. 85, PL Fend I., which I should now refer to 
L. rigidum, Pursh. I believe that I have also noticed them 
in L. Virginianum ; but they do not appear in any of the 
specimens preserved in my herbarium. The localities from 
the eastern parts of the United States, cited from Torr. &f 
Gr. Fl. N. Amer. by Planchon under L. Berlandieri, belong 
to his L. Boottii, as I suppose does also the whole of what 
is called L. rigidum in New England, &c. At least this is 
the case with the plant gathered at New Haven by Oakes, 
and at Providence by Mr. Olney. The latter is exactly L. 
Boottii o. Planchon, I. c. As to his L. Bootlii B. from Texas, 
by Lindheimer, I fortunately possess a corresponding speci- 
men, supplied by Engelmann subsequently to the distribution 
of Lindheimer's former collections, and named "L. rigidum" 
on a ticket bearing the printed number 118, which number 
has been erased with the pen. This explains its occurrence 
in the same way in herb. Hooker. The root is annual. If it 
be a distinct species, as is most likely, still it appears, from 
what has already been stated, the stipular glands cannot be 
entirely relied upon for a character. Planchon has omitted 
to notice the more or less glanduliferous-ciliate margins of the 
sepals, which are conspicuous in most cases, and caused the 
plant to be referred in the Flora of North America, &c. to 
L. rigidum, to which it is very nearly related. 

GERANIACE^E. 

340. Erodium Texanum (Gr. Gen. Ill 2, p. 130, t. 150) : 
bienne v. annuum ; caulibus diffusis cinereo-puberulis ; foliis 
glabriusculis cordatis crenatis plerumque 3-lobatis, superiorum 
lobis lateralibus bifidis, terminali 3-5-fido; pedunculis 3-flo- 
ris ; floribus vernalibus petalis purpureis sepala scarioso-mar- 
ginata subulato-mucronata duplo superantibus, serotinis ape- 
talis ; pedicellis calycibusque pube appressa canescentibus 
eglandulosis ; carpellis hirsutis lineari-clavatis basi pungenti- 
bus. — Small thickets in prairies above Victoria; and in 
patches in rocky soil at New Braunfels ; March, April. Also 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 21 JAN. 1850. 



158 PlnntfB Lindheimeriance. 

the apetalous state (340, in Coll. 1847-8); the particular 
locality not given. Mr. Wright also gathered it in Texas, 
where it appears to abound. — From the Californium E. ma- 
crophyllum, Hook. ^ Am. (the leaves of which are often less 
than an inch in diameter,) which it most resembles, this spe- 
cies is distinguished by its smaller flowers, more deeply lobed 
leaves, more slender carpels, and the close cinereous pubes- 
cence of the pedicels and calyx, which are destitute of glan- 
dular hairs. 

OXALIDACE-E. 

341. Oxalis vespertilionis, Torr . fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 679. 
Prairies, Upper Pierdenales. October. Also gathered in 
Western Texas by Mr. Wright. 

ZYGOPHYLLACE.E. 

342. Kallstremia maxima, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 213; 
Gr. Gen. III. 2, t. 146. Prostrate in clayey soil, near San 
Antonio. September. 

(582.) Guaiacum angustifolium, Engelm. in Wisliz. Me- 
moir, Appx. p. 113; Gr. Gen. 111. 2, p. 123 (subgen. ? Guai- 
acidium), t. 149. Western Texas, in fruit ; the station not 
given* 

RUTACE^E. 

343. Rutosma Texana, Gr. Gen. III. 2, p. 143, t. 155. 
Stony prairies, with Cactaceae, Upper Guadaloupe. March. 
Also detected by Mr. Wright in Texas, and by Dr. Gregg at 
Monterey. — Remarkable as the sole representative of the 
proper Rutacese in America. 

ANACARDIACE^E. 

344. Rhus Copallina, Linn. var. leucantha, DC. : 
caule 10-pedali ; foliis lanceolatis ; floribus albis. R. leu- 
cantha, Jacq. Rocky precipices, New Braunfels. July. 

345. R. Copallina, Linn. var. lanceolata : foliis lanceo- 
latis subfalcatis saepe elongatis integerrimis vel subserratis; 



Plantcs Lindheimeriance. 159 

floribus flavis (pi. submasc. subfoem. fruct.) Rocky soil and 
high prairies, New Braunfels. July. Plant from two to 
five feet high. 

346. R. Toxicodendron, Linn. ; Torr. &f Gr. Fl. I. p. 218. 
Thickets and stony prairies, New Braunfels. May, in flower: 
September, in fruit. "Erect, not climbing." — This is the 
Rhus verrucosa, Scheelc in Linncea 21, p. 592, which is com- 
pared only with R. aromatica ! The " Verrucas magnse sub- 
rotundas atropurpurea) lucidce," of the lower surface of the 
leaves, which suggested the name, are merely exudations of 
resinous juice caused by the puncture of insects on some 
leaves only, as Dr. Engelmann has pointed out. 

f R. Toxicodendron, Linn. var. foliis ramulisque molliter 
pubentibus. Thickets, New Braunfels. 

347. R. (Lobadium) trilobata, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gray, 
Fl. 1, p. 219. Rocky soil, margin of high prairies, New 
Braunfels ; March (in flower) ; June (in fruit). A slender, 
much branched shrub, two to five feet high. 

348. R. virens (Lindhcimer, Mss.) : glabella ; foliis sem- 
pervirentibus 3-4-jugis cum impari, rachide nuda ; foliolis 
ovatis oblongisve obtusis v. obtusiuscule acuminatis margine 
subrevolutis integerrimis coriaceis supra nitidis subtus pallidis 
sub lente minutim tomentulosis ; floribus albidis thyrsoideo- 
paniculatis ; paniculis axillaribus folio brevioribus ; drupa 
rubra hirsuta, putamine lenticulari laevi. — Rocky soil, in open 
places, in Cedar woods, New Braunfels, &c. March ; in 
fruit, August. Mr. Wright sends the same species from 
Western Texas ; and Dr. Coulter collected it at Zimapan, 
Mexico. A well marked species, of the section Sumac. 
Leaflets an inch or rather more in length, smooth, except 
under a lens, soft to the touch, shining above, thick and 
rigidly coriaceous. 

MALVACEAE. 

f Calltrrhoe involucrata, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 14, & 
Gen. 111. 2, p. 53, t. 117. Malva involucrata, Torr. fy Gray, 
Fl. 1, p. 226. Oak openings, on the Pierdenales. June. 



160 Plants Lindheimeriance. 

(584.) C. digitata, JSutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 2, p. 
181 ; Gray, PL Fendl. I. c, fy Gen. 111. 21, p. 53. Nuttallia 
digitata, Bart. FL N. Amur. 2, t. 63, Hook. Exot. Fl. 3, t. 
171. Nuttallia cordata, Lindl. Bot. Beg. t. 1938. Prairies 
on the Pierdenales, at the margin of woods. May, June. 
Also gathered by Mr. Wright. ' ; Root edible, more pleasant 
than that of Psoralea esculenta," Lindh. — One of the most 
showy species of this handsome genus ; the petals, over an 
inch in length, are beautifully fringed at the summit. The 
radical leaves are very various. 

349. C. pedata, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 17, (excl. syn. Nut- 
tallia digitata, Bart.) Sr Gen. 111. 2, p. 53, t. 118. Nuttallia 
pedata, Nutt. in Hook. Exot. Fl. 3, t. 172. Dry prairies and 
margin of thickets, near Victoria, New Braunfels, and on the 
Cibolo, &c. Also abundantly gathered by Mr. Wright. 
February, April. — In cultivation, this handsome species pro- 
duces its deep cherry-red blossoms through the whole season, 
and when supported attains the height of five or six feet. 
Although it has been confused with the preceding, it is totally 
distinct from it. It has much smaller flowers, leafy stems, 
more incised foliage, and a slender, annual or biennial root. 

350. M. Wrightii, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 21, ^ Gen. 111. 2, 
p. 60, t. 122. Malva aurantiaca, Scheele, in Linncea, 21, p. 
469. Muskit flats, in black and heavy prairie soil. New 
Braunfels. July. — The stems are rigid, from a more or less 
ligneous base ; the rather large, golden yellow flowers open 
in the afternoon. The fructiferous calyx is somewhat en- 
larged, and expanded, and tinged with brownish-red ; the 
carpels in the living plant (raised in the Cambridge Botanic 
Garden,) are more deeply tinged of the same color. — The 
characters of a new species, allied to M. coccineum, are sub- 
joined. 1 

1 Malvastkum pedatifidum (sp. nov.) : cauJibus e radice perenni diflusis gracili- 
bus ramosis ; foliis tripartita profunde trifidisve pilis stellatis parce hirsutis, segmentis 
lateralibus bifidis, terminali subtrilobo, omnibus subpinnatifido-incisis, lobulis denti- 
busve patentibus ; stipulis subulatis ; floribus sparsis axillaribus et seeus ramulos laxe 
racemosis ; bracteolis 3 setaceis calyce subduplo brevioribus ; carpellis muticis, rostro 



Plantce Lindheimeriajice. 161 

351. Malvastrum carpinifolium, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 22. 
In sterile soil, New Braunfels, &c. August. — To the syno- 
nyms cited in the work above-cited, I have to add that of 
Malva Lindheimeriana, Scheele in Linnaa, 21, (1848,) p. 
470. The flowers open merely during a few hours of the 
brightest sunshine. 

352. Pavonia Wrightii, Gray, Gen. III. 2, p. 76, t. 130. 
P. lasiopetala, Scheele in Linnaa, 21, p. 470. Rocky soil in 
Cedar woods, New Braunfels. Also gathered in Western 
Texas, by Mr. Wright, and near Monterey, in Northern 
Mexico, by Dr. Edwards and Major Eaton. — A low, shrubby 
species, with handsome, rose-colored flowers, which are larger 
in the wild than in our cultivated plant, from which the figure 
in the Genera Illustrata was made. The seeds are glabrous, 
except a little pubescence at the chalaza ; and in some other 
respects, also, the species is not very well characterized by 
Scheele. His name, from its priority in publication, should 
probably be adopted, although so badly chosen ; for the petals, 
at most sparingly stellate-pubescent externally, are often 
nearly or quite glabrous. 

353. A. Texense (Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1, p. 231): tomento 
minuto molli undique velutino-canescens ; caule (2-4-pedali) 
paniculato; foliis cordatis acutis vel subacuminatis serratis 
supra viridulis, ramealibus gradatim minoribus ; pedunculis 
inferioribus petiolum subsequantibus, summis folio longiori- 
bus ; corolla lutea ; capsula ovoidea obtusa cinerea 8-loculari 
apice breviter 8-loba calyce 5-fido demum reflexo multum 
longiore ; carpellis erectis obtusiusculis muticis 3-spermis. 
— Prairies, &c. in hard and dry soil, New Braunfels. August, 
September. Apparently common throughout Texas, and to 
Monterey, in Northern Mexico, where it was gathered by Dr. 

brevi complanato membranaceo iuflexis. — On the Rio Grande, Texas, in dry soil. 
Cultivated in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, it flowers through the summer. Stems 
a foot or less in height, much more slender than in M. coccineum ; the flowers smaller 
and paler (between a buff and a brick-color.) The leaves are not canescent, but green 
and sparsely stellate-hirsute, and their segments incised or almost pinnatifid ; the lobes 
are tipped with a deciduous mucro or short seta. 



162 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

Gregg. The expanded corolla is two thirds of an inch in 
diameter. The larger cauline leaves are from three to four 
inches long, on petioles of half that length. They are de- 
scribed in the Flora of North America, from the branches 
only. I do not know the A. Nuttallii. 1 

354. Abutilon holosericeum, Scheele in Linncea, 21, p. 
471. A. velutinum, Gray, Gen. HI. 2, p. 67, t. 125. Rocky 
soil, along the margin* of thickets, New Braunfels, &c. 
August, September. Also gathered by Mr. Wright in West- 
ern and Southern Texas. — Stem three to six feet high ; the 
larger leaves nearly a foot in diameter, on petioles six to eight 
inches long, very seldom at all lobed. The deep orange- 
yellow corolla is over an inch in breadth. The details of the 
fruit, &c. are well delineated in the plate cited above. The 
anthers are reniform, in the ordinary manner, not three-lobed, 
as described by Scheele. The young leaves are quite white ; 
the older and larger ones greener. The root is said to be 
" ligneous and perennial? " in the wild plant. In cultivation 
it is an annual. 

f Sphjeralcea Lindheimeri (sp. nov.) : lanoso-tomen- 
tosa ; caulibus decumbentibus basi ut videtur suffruticosis ; 
ramis floridis assurgentibus ; foliis cordatis saepius rotundatis 
grosse crenatis indivisis ; pedunculis petiolo longioribus ; brac- 
teolis involucelli 3 setaceis calycis lobis ovato-lanceolatis acu- 
m'matis dimidio brevioribus ; corolla rosea. — Victoria, on 
the lower Guadaloupe ; margin of thickets on the prairie. 

1 Near the southwestern borders of Texas, Mr. Wright obtained specimens of the 
subjoined species, namely : — 

Abutilon Wrightii (sp. nov.): caulibus decumbentibus ramosis viscoso-pubes- 
centibus et pilis graeillimis patentibus villosis ; foliis ovato-cordatis obtusiusculis argute 
dentatis supra viridulis scabrido-velutinis subtus mollissime niveo-tomentosis ; stipulis 
subulatis caducis; pedunculis unidoris petiolum aequantibus vel superioribus folium 
superantibus ; calyce tomentoso 5-partito, laciniis sensira acuminalissimis corollam 
aureain subsequantibus ; capsula tomentulosa calyci sequilonga, e carpellis 7 apice 
subulato-rostratis 3-spermis. — On the Rio Grande and the Seco, Mr. Charles Wright. 
— Stems one or two feet in length ; the leaves from one third to an inch and a half 
long. Calyx nearly as long as the peduncle. The golden-yellow corolla is over an 
inch in diameter when fully expanded. Capsule half an inch long, not inflated, the 
subulate beaks little diverging. 



Plantcs Lindheimeriana. 163 

February; just beginning to blossom. Stems a foot' long. 
Leaves one or two inches broad ; the soft pubescence appear- 
ing as if deciduous with age. Calyx deeply 5-cleft ; the 
lobes half an inch long. The expanded corolla about two 
inches in diameter. Stamineal column stellate-hairy. Styles 
17- 18, clavate at the tip; the stigmas truncate rather than 
capitate. Ovules two or three in each cell. Fruit not seen. 

355. Sidafilicaulis, Torr. Hf Gray, FL 1, p. 232. S. fili- 
formis, Moricand, PL Nouv. Amer. p. 38, t. 25. High and 
dry prairies and sunny declivities, New Braunfels, &c. June, 
August. — Prostrate, in patches, producing very numerous 
slender and branching stems from a perennial and somewhat 
ligneous root. These, when young, are beset with long, 
spreading hairs, which are so slender that they often escape 
notice, and are also deciduous from the older stems. Hence 
our Texan plant is doubtless the S. filiformis of Moricand, 
gathered at Tampico by Berlandier. Moricand's name is a 
little the earlier published ; but it appears from Steudel that 
there is a prior S. filiformis of Jacquin, which has been over- 
looked. 1 

(583.) S. physocalyx (sp. nov.) : caulibus e radice car- 
nosa crassa plurimis decumbentibus ramosis strigosis ; foliis 
carnosulis ovato-oblongis crenato-dentatis basi 5-7-nerviis 

» Sida anomala ,*. Mexicana, Moricand, I. c. p. 36, t. 24, also from Tampico, is 
S. fasciculata, Torr. <$• Gray, Fl. I, p. 231, which has recently been gathered in 
Western Texas, by Mr. "Wright. The corolla, in dried specimens, is pink or rose- 
color, as is also said by Moricand, and the short, tufted stems spring from a stout pe- 
rennial root. Another species, indicated by Dr. Engelmann, I know only from a 
fragment, namely: — 

Sida heterocarpa, Engclm. Mss.: " stellato-pubescens ; caule erecto ramoso; 
foliis basi subcordatis obtusis crenato-dentalis, inferioribus lanceolatis, superioribus 
linearibus; tuberculo subbasi petioli subspinoso; petiolis brevibus slipulas setaceaset 
pedicellas solitarias s. fasciculatassuperantibus; carpellis 5nigris divaricato-birostratis 
apice pubescenlibus latere tenuiter rugulosis, dorso membrana tenui evanescente elau- 
sis.— Road-sides, waste places, Houston, Texas, with S. spinosa. Annual ? Flowers 
in August and September. Distinguished from S. spinosa by the narrower dentate- 
crenate (not jerraU) leaves, and smaller black (not light brown) carpels, rugulose 
(not lacunose-reticulated) on the sides, with a prominent point on the back, broader, 
shorter, more divaricate, not erect beaks. The seed escapes through the back, not 
through the regular opening at the top." 



164 Planta Lindheimeriana. 

subcordatis petiolo subduplo longioribus supra pilis simplicibus 
subtus pilis 3- 5-partitis appressis parce strigosis, infimis ro- 
tundatis, summis sublanceolatis acutis ; stipulis subulatis ; 
pedunculis axillaribus unifloris petiolo brevioribus fructiferis 
nutantibus ; calyce 5-partito membranaceo inflato 5-alato 
clauso pedunculum adaequantibus, segmentis late ovatis quasi 
cordatis ; corolla flavida vix exserta ; ovario carnoso arete 
depresso 10-lobo pruinoso demum in carpella 10 rotundata 
intus subrostrato-producta mutica semini conformia nitida 
minute reticulata calyce maximo vesicario inclusa secedenti" 
bus. — On the Liano. A well-marked species, apparently 
allied to S. physalodes, Presl ; the calyx strikingly inflated, 
like a Physalis ; the corolla inconspicuous and opening only 
for a short time in direct sunshine. It has been cultivated 
during the past summer in the Botanic Garden, and it forms 
a conical and fleshy perennial root. Specimens have been 
gathered by Mr. Wright, and others in Southern Texas, by 
Wislizenus, south of El Paso del Norte, and by Dr. Gregg in 
Northern Mexico. 1 



1 Three other undescribed Texan species have been detected by Mr. Wr.'ght 
namely: — 

Sida tragi^folia (sp. nov.) : humilis ; caulibus (e radice perenni ?) suberectis 
petiolisque pube stellata subglutinosa velutinis setisque patentibus gracillimis hispidis ; 
foliis ovato-oblongis angulato-cordatis grosse dentatis penninerviis basi 5-7-nervatis 
supra parce subtus molliter pubescentibus petiolo gracili (pollicari) vix duplo longio- 
ribus, superioribus acutis; stipulis setaceis ; pedunculis axillaribus unifloris petiolum 
subsequantibus ; corolla supra calycem villosulum paulo excedente; carpellis 10 
glabriusculis apice obtuso bipartibilibus summo dorso bicorniculatis. — Raised in the 
Botanic Garden, Cambridge, from seeds gathered in southern Texas by Mr. Charles 
Wright. The foliage is not unlike that of Tragia urticsefolia. Corolla fugacious, 
half an inch in diameter. Carpels short, beakless, bimucronate or bicorniculate on 
the back near the apex. 

S. filipes (sp. nov.) : furfuraceo-canescens ; caule erecto paniculato gracili : foliis 
brevissime petiolatis lanceolatis basi cordatis dentato-serratis oblusiusculis supra velu- 
tino-pubescentibus subtus ramulisquecano-tomentosis nunc fulvis vel ferrugineis ; stip- 
ulis setaceis petiolum excedentibus ; pedunculis unifloris capillaribus (2-3-pollicari- 
bus) foliis longioribus paulo sub flore pendulo articulatis ; corolla (purpurea ?) caly- 
cem subduplo superante ; carpellis 7 reticulato-rugosis muticis superne pubescen- 
tibus dorso canaliculars bivalvibus. — On hills above Austin, Texas, Mr. Charles 
Wright. Also near Monterey, Mexico, Dr. Edwards and Major Eaton (in Herb. 
Torrey). — Base of the slender stems wanting, but apparently it is entirely herba- 
ceous, of two or three feet in height. The leaves are from one and an half to two 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 165 

356. Melochia pyramidata, Linn.; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 
1. p. 683; Gray, Gen. 111. 2. t. 134. Upper Guadaloupe, on 
rocky soil. August. 

357. Hermannia Texana, Gray, Gen. 111. 2. p. 88. t. 135. 
Rocks, on the Upper Guadaloupe ; in flower ; and in high 
rocky prairies on the Salado River ; in fruit, October, (585.) 
— This interesting accession to our flora has also been found 
on the Rio Grande by Mr. Wright, and in Northern Mexico, 
by Dr. Gregg. Since the figure above cited was published, 
the plant has flowered in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. I 
must remark that the cinnabar-colored corolla is convolute 
and erect, not at all spreading at any period, as is represented 
in the figure, which was made from a dried specimen. The 
plant is suffruticose, with a thickened ligneous root. 

VITACE^E. 

358. V. rupestris, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 591. V. 
populifolia, Lindh. ined. Dry, rocky bed of the Cibolo, 
Upper Guadaloupe, and other streams ; also in rocky prairies 
on the Pierdenales ; flowering in May ; the fruit ripe in July, 
August, and September. — Like his other species, this is by 

inches long, half an inch or less in width, and much like those of Sphaeralcea angusti- 
folia. The peduncles are remarkably long and slender, and curved towards the apex, 
near the articulation, so that the flower and fruit are pendulous. The calyx is 5-cleft 
to the middle ; the lobes rather obtuse. The expanded corolla is only about four lines 
in diameter. It is said by Mr. Wright to be " blue ; " in the dried specimens it is 
dark purple. — The species is probably allied to S. venusta, Schlecht. 

S. cuneifolia (sp. nov.): cano-tomentosa, humilis; caulibus e basi fruticulosa 
assurgentibus ramosissimis ; foliis parvulis rotundato-cuneiformibus flabellato 3 - 5-ner- 
viis crenato-dentatis repandisve utrinque concoloribus ; stipulis linearibus petiolum 
subcequantibus; floribus (flavia) brevissime pedunculatis folio brevioribus ; carpellis 
5 pubescentibus membranaceis turgidis apice inter rostra brevia mollia demum bival- 
vibus ; semine globoso. — In subsaline soil, Texas, about thirty-five miles north-east 
of Eagle Pass, on the Rio Grande, September, Mr. Charles Wright. — A well-marked, 
low, procumbent species, in foliage and habit not unlike a Hermannia. The soft, 
downy leaves are only about half an inch in length and breadth, on petioles of three 
or four lines long ; the flowers are solitary, or often clustered in the axils, and some- 
times scarcely exceed the petioles. The yellow corolla is twice the length of the ca- 
lyx, and is half an inch in diameter when expanded. The ovate carpels are membra- 
naceous, slightly inflated ; the seed is proportionally large and spherical, as in Abuti- 
lon, with the micropyle somewhat rostellate. 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 22 JAN. 1SS0 



166 Planta LindheimeriancB, 

no means well characterized by Mr. Scheele. According to 
Lindheimer it is called Mountain Grape, and covers large 
tracts of rocky soil. It does not climb, but the stems are 
upright, and only two or three feet high. The branches are 
small, and the berries, of the size of peas only, are black, 
very sweet, and the most grateful as well as the earliest 
ripened grape of Texas. Dr. Engelmann informs me that he 
met with the same species in Western Arkansas, growing in 
similar situations. Also that a specimen exists in Michaux's 
Herbarium, on the same sheet with V. rip aria. The leaves 
are somewhat glaucous, and in appearance between those of 
V. riparia and V. vulpina, but much smaller than in either. 

359. V. .ESTivALis, Michx. Fl. 2. p. 230 : var. tomento 
albo, nee fulvo. Shady banks of streams, New Braunfels, 
&c. ; flowering in May ; the fruit ripe in August. " Climbing 
high trees. Berries of the size of peas, in large bunches, very 
black ; the taste vinous and pleasant. Flowers very odor- 
ous." Lindh. — Under the name of "V. candicans, (n. sp.,) 
Engelm. ined., I have from Lindheimer, as also from Mr. 
Wright, Texan specimens of what appears to be a variety of 
V. Californica, Benth., with the leaves somewhat less dentate 
and more densely tomentose underneath. 

f Vitis (Cissus) incisa, Nutt. in Torr. &r Gray, Fl. 1. 
p. 243. New Braunfels, climbing on Muskit trees. July- 
September. — Leaves thick and remarkably fleshy. 

f V. vulpina, Linn. ; Torr. &/• Gray, I. c. V. rotundi- 
folia, Michx. Fl. 2. p. 231. New Braunfels. April. 

ACERACEyE. 

360. Negundo aceroides, Mcench. ; foliis adultis molliter 
pubescentibus. New Braunfels ; and banks of the Comale. 
March, in flower. August, in fruit. 

MALPIGHIACKfE. 

361. Galphimia linifolia (Gray, Gen. 111. 2. p. 196. t. 
173) : humilis ; caulibus gracilibus e basi pubescente herba- 



Plantcc Lindheimeriance. 167 

ceis glabellis ; foliis glabris glaucescentibus lanceolatis vel 
linearibus subsessilibus (infimis ssepe oblongis vel ellipticis in 
petiolum angustatis) juxta basim utrinque uniglandnlosis re- 
pando-subdenticulatis vel integerrimis ; racemis laxis ; pedi- 
cellis basi articulatis ; petalis flavis cito rubris. — Rocky hills 
and prairies of the Upper Guadaloupe. July — September. 
Also found by Mr. Wright ; and in Northern Mexico by Dr. 
Edwards and Major Eaton. Stems from one to two feet in 
height. 1 

SAPINDACE^E. 

362. iEscuLUs Pavia, /3. discolor, Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. 
p. 252. Pavia discolor, Pursh. Banks of the Comale Creek, 
March. " Shrub 6-10 feet high : flowers red or yellow." 

363. Ungnadia speciosa, Endl. Ataikt. Bot. t. 36, fy Nov. 
Stirp. Dec. p. 86 ; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 684 ; Gray, Gen. 
111. 2. p. 21 1, t. 178, 179. U. heterophylla, Scheele in Linncea, 
21. p. 589; sphalm. pro U. heptaphylla, Scheele, I. c. 22. p. 
352. In bottom-woods, New Braunfels. March ; sometimes 
flowering again in August. " Shrub 3 to 20 feet high, with 
many long stems, 1 to 3 inches thick, branching only at the 
top. Fruit sweet and pleasant, but emetic." Lindh. Its pop- 
ular name is Spanish Buckeye. — " The fertile flowers and the 
fruit, although for several years known to us, have not until 
now been illustrated or described, except by Adolf Scheele, 
who has published a description, from Lindheirner' 's speci- 
mens, in the Linncea, during the past year. The flowers 

1 On the southwestern border of Texas, Mr. Wright has detected a Malpighiace- 
ous plant, which proves to be a third species of Aspicarpa, namely : — 

Aspicarpa hyssopifolia {sp. nov.) : caulibus e radice lignescente plurimis erectis 
(6-12-pollic.) ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis basi rolundatis subcordatisve sessilibus ; pedi- 
cellis axillaribus solitariis ; petalis rotundatis eximie crispato-fimbriatis. — On the Rio 
Grande and Rio Seco, Texas, Mr. Charles Wright. — Leaves scarcely an inch long, 
one to two lines wide; the midrib and margins hispid-ciliate. Flowers about one 
third the size of those of A. Hartwegiana ; the petaliferous ones scattered in the axils 
(not umbellate at the summit of the stem), and fructiferous, either two or three car- 
pels ripening. These are much as in A. Hartwegiana, but smaller, more upright and 
acute, deeply umbilicate at the insertion. Fruit from the abnormal, apetalous flowers 
not seen. 



168 Planta Lindheimeriance. 

which Endlicher happened to examine were pentapetalous, 
which is not the more usual case ; and he erroneously states 
the plant to form a large tree, whereas it is commonly a slen- 
der shrub, of five or ten feet in height, or at most a small 
tree. Misled by these discrepancies, and by the differences 
of the two kinds of flowers, and, it would seem from his 
description, happening to possess tetrasepalous as well as 
tetrapetalous flowers (although there are five sepals in all 
my Lindheimerian and other specimens,) Mr. Scheele has 
wrongly introduced a second species, under the name of U. 
heterophylla. The leaflets vary from five, or even three, on 
the earlier leaves, to seven." Gen. III. 1. c. — In seedling 
plants, raised in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, I have 
noticed a lusus of the earliest leaves, in which the leaflets 
are confluent. 

(586.) U. speciosa, Endl. Finer specimens of both sexes ; 
from New Braunfels. 

(587.) Sapindus marginatus, Willd. ; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 
1. p. 255 ; Gray, Gen. 111. 2. t. 180. New Braunfels. June, 
(in flower.) 

RHAMNACE^E. 

364. Zizyphus obtusifolia, Gray, Gen. 111. 2. p. 170. t. 
163. Rhamnus obtusifolius, Hook, in Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 1. 
p. 685. Paliurus Texanus, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 580. 
Bottom woods of Comale Creek, New Braunfels, &c. ; com- 
mon. A shrub or small tree, with slender shoots and green- 
ish-white bark ; several times flowering between March and 
September. No. (588) is the same plant in flower, and in 
ripe fruit, the fruit ripening the season after flowering. 1 

1 Another species, gathered by Dr. Gregg between Matamoros and Mapimi, may 
be thus characterized: — 

Zizyphus lycioides (sp.nov.): glabrata ; rami's valde spinosis; foliis oblongo- 
linearibus parvis integerrimis coriaceis; pedunculis brevissimis3-5-floris; drupa sub- 
globosa monosperma. — The sharp and straight thorns are from one to two inches in 
length : the specimen shows no stipular spines. Leaves halfan inch long, one or two 
lines wide, obtuse. Fruit, of the size of that of the Buckthorn, said by Dr. Gregg to 
be black and edible. 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 169 

365. Colubrina Texensis : caule ramosissimo, ramulis 
divaricatis cinereis ; foliis elliptico-cuneatis oblongisve glandu- 
loso-denticulatis breviter petiolatis alternis plerumque in nodos 
fasciculatis supra pubescentibus nunc glabratis subtus sericeo- 
villosis fulvis penniverviis basi trinervatis ; pedunculis fascicu- 
latis paucis petiolo longioribus calyceque (laciniis patentibus) 
villosis. — Rhamnus? Texensis, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. l.p. 263. 
— Prairies and borders of woods on the Guadaloupe and 
Comale. (Also communicated by Mr. Wright.) Flowers in 
May ; fruits in June. — Shrub 2 to 5 feet high, rigid. Leaves 
three fourths of an inch long. Pedicels two to four together 
from the centre of the cluster of leaves, two or three lines 
long in flower, in fruit becoming half an inch or more in 
length. Calyx-tube adherent to the ovary and filled with the 
broad annular disk ; the lobes widely spreading, broadly tri- 
angular-ovate, nearly herbaceous. Petals unguiculate, shorter 
than the subulate-filiform filaments, scarcely equalling the 
calyx. Styles three, sometimes four, united at the base, 
stigmatose on the inner face above. Ovary immersed in the 
adherent disk. Fruit dry and capsular at maturity, tricoc- 
cous, somewhat three-lobed, globular, girt at the base by the 
persistent and adherent base of the calyx, three-seeded. 
Seeds lenticular, plano-convex, shining. Cotyledons plane ; 
albumen very thin. This shrub, of which we at length are 
provided with complete specimens, has nearly the flowers of 
a Zizyphus, but the fruit of a Ceanothus. It appears to be a 
genuine Colubrina. 

366. Condalia obovata, Hook. Ic. PL t. 287 ; Torr. $■ 
Gray, Fl. 1. p. 685 ; Gray, Gen. 111. 2. t. 164. " On slopes, 
near watercourses ; common from Matagorda Bay to New 
Braunfels. — Shrub, or small tree, sometimes 20 to 30 feet 
high, with a trunk one foot in diameter. Flowers very 
sparse. August, September. The wood dyes blue. Called 
here Blue-wood or Logwood" No. (589) is the same plant, 
in flower and fruit. 



170 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

f Ceanothus ovalis, Bigel. Fl. Bost. ed. 2. p. 92. C. 
ovatus, Desf. Arb. 2. p. 381. Rocky heights, along the 
Pierdenales and Sabinas. June (in fruit.) 

LEGUMINOS^E. 

(590.) Vicia Leavenworthii, Torr. fy Gr. I. c. W. Texas. 

367. Phaseolus retusds, Benfh. PL Hartw. No. 59, p. 
11. P. maculatus, Scheele in Linnaa, 21. p. 465. On rocky 
or gravelly soil in the dry bed of the Cibolo River. June, 
September. " Prostrate ; the stems often running for twenty 
feet." In cultivation it is more or less voluble. The leaflets 
are thicker in texture and more reticulated than those of P. 
perennis, not acuminate, but obtuse or many of them retuse. 
They are more dilated at the base than in my specimen of 
Hartweg's plant, but otherwise, there is little perceptible dif- 
ference. Mr. Wright met with it all the way to the Rio 
Grande, and Dr. Wislizenus in Chihuahua. 

f P. diversifolius was found on the Liano ; and Apios 
tuberosa and Clitoria Mariana on the Pierdenales. 

368. Galactia Texana: procumbens, subvolubilis, cine- 
reo-tomentosa, trifoliolata ; foliolis ovalibus retusis setaceo- 
mucronatis supra cinereo-puberulis subtus sericeo-canescenti- 
bus ; racemis paucifloris folio brevioribus petiolum raro supe- 
rantibus ; legumine eximie falcato sericeo folia excedentibus. 
— Lablab Texanus, Scheele in Linnma, 21, p. 467. — New 
Braunfels. August. Root ligneous. Leaflets 1 to 1| inch 
long, in appearance intermediate between those of G. mollis 
and G. canescens, less whitened beneath than in the latter. 
Flowers little larger than those of G. mollis, with hirsute, more 
attenuated and longer calyx-lobes. Legumes 2g inches long, 
linear, strongly falcate, densely silky, 9-10-seeded. I do 
not observe the muricate-tuberculate sutures mentioned by 
Scheele. Seeds oval, chestnut-colored, with a brown hilum, 
not strophiolate. The species is nearest allied to what I take 
to be G. mollis, Michx. Mr. Scheele, with his usual wisdom, 
provisionally refers the plant (without fruit) to Lablab ! 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 171 

369. Rhynchosia Texana, Torr. fy Gr. FL 1. p. 687. 
New Braunfels ; prostrate, or climbing over bushes. August. 
It has the aspect of a Galactia. 

370. Galactia canescens, Benth. Comm. Legum. Gen. 
p. 62 ; Torr. &/• Gr. FL 1. p. 288, & p. 687. Heterocarpsea 
Texana, Scheele in Linncea, 21, p. 467. Rocky soil, New 
Braunfels. June, September. " Often flowering a second time 
after the rains in September, as is the case with many other 
plants." — Stems creeping ; many of the racemes becoming 
subterranean, and bearing globular, membranaceous legumes 
which are filled by a single large seed ; while the legumes 
which fructify above ground are linear-oblong, canescent, and 
4-5-seeded; as is mentioned in the FL N. Amer. p. 687. 
On this Mr. Scheele has founded his new genus Heterocar- 
pcea, which he thinks is very distinct from any other known ! 

(591.) G. heterophylla (sp. nov.) : cano-sericea ; cauli- 
bus gracilibus e basi suffruticosa decumbentibus ; foliolis 
oblongis subcuneatis obtusis retusisve mucronulatis, aut 3 late- 
ralibus a terminali paulo remotis brevissime petiolulatis, aut 
in plurimis 4-5, accessoriis cum lateralibus digitatim insertis ; 
racemis brevibus paucifloris ; calycis laciniis triangulari-oblon- 
gis sericeis corolla multo brevioribus, superiore bidentato ; 
legumine puberulo recto inferne angustato 3 -6-spermo. — On 
the Liano, October. — Remarkable for its prevailingly 4-5- 
foliolate leaves, although some in each specimen are only 
3-foliolate ; the additional leaflets are mostly rather smaller 
than the others, and inserted with the lateral pair. Stems 6 
to 20 inches long. Leaflets half an inch long, thickish, silky- 
canescent, especially underneath, with a closely appressed and 
silvery pubescence ; the veins rather prominent underneath. 
Stipules subulate : stipels deciduous. Peduncles 1 - 4-flow- 
ered. Corolla nearly half an inch long, fully twice the length 
of the calyx ; the vexillum appears to have been pale yellow ! 
the other petals rose-color. Legume \\ inches long. Seeds, 
style, &c. as in the genus to which I refer this in some 
respects anomalous species. 



172 Planta Lindheimeriana. 

371. Sesbania macrocarpa, Muhl. ; Torr. &/• Gr. Fl.l. 
p. 293. Banks of Comale Creek. August, September. 

(592.) Tephrosia Lindheimeri (sp. nov.) : caule pros- 
trate- nunc adscendente flexuoso ramoso pube brevi tomentu- 
loso; foliolis 7-13 late obovatis cuneatisve ssepe retusis mu- 
cronulatis subtus prsesertim incano-sericeis ; stipulis brevibus 
subulatis ; racemis laxe multifloris ; lobis calycis subulatis 
tubo sublongioribus ; legumine pube brevi densa velutino. — 
Muskit prairies, on the Liano. August. (Also gathered by 
Mr." Wright in Western Texas.) Stems rather stout, 3 or 4 
feet long, from a tuberous and ligneous root. Leaflets 8 to 12 
or sometimes 18 lines in length, roundish-obovate or broadly 
cuneiform ; the pairs rather distant on the rachis. Raceme 
7-9 inches long, exceeding the leaves, 20-30-flowered. 
Corolla nearly as large as that of T. onobrychoides, over half 
an inch broad, purple. 

372. Psoralea cuspidata, Pursh. Fl. 2, p. 741 ; Torr. fy 
Gr. Fl. 1, p. 688. P. cryptocarpa, Torr. fy Gr. 1. c. p. 301. 
P. Roemeriana, Scheele in Linnaa, 21, p. 463. * New Braun- 
fels ; sparsely on rocky prairies. May, June. " Flower 
entirely blue." — The caudex or root often bears a globular 
tuber, as in P. esculcnta, &c. The spikes become oblong or 
cylindrical, and looser in fruit ; the bracts are ovate-oblong or 
obovate, and abruptly cuspidate-acuminate ; the calyx is some- 
what gibbous, and its lower lobe soon elongated ; points in 
which the species is not quite correctly described in the Flora. 
The legume is utricular, membranaceous and fragile. 

(593.) Psoralea cyphocalyx (sp. nov.) : striguloso-sub- 
cinerea, caulibus e caudice lignescente tuberifero erectis sim- 
plicibus ; foliis digitatis 3-5-foliolatis ; foliolis linearibus 
(majoribus 3-pollicaribus) mucronulatis supra glabratis nigro- 
glandulosis ; stipulis subulatis ; spicis longiuscule pedunculatis 



1 The Indigofera Lindheimeriana, Scheele in Linnwa, I. c. is evidently I. Anil, L. 
,5. poh/phylla, DC, which I have from Texas by Mr. Wright (although neither Dr. 
Engelmann nor I have received it from Mr. Lindheimer,) and also from South Caro- 
lina, where, according to Mr. Ravenel it occurs not uncommonly in cultivated fields. 



PlantcB Lindheimeriana. 173 

interrupte multifloris fasciculis approximatis ; bracteis ovatis 
acuminatis ; calycis tubo valde obliquo postice saccato pedi- 
cillum bis terve excedente, lobis lanceolatis acuminatis mar- 
gine albo-villosis, superioribus ultra dimidium coalitis. — 
Rocky prairies on the Cibolo and Pierdenales, growing 
sparsely. May, June (in flower.) — Caudex perpendicular, 
dilated below the summit into a globular tuber, of nearly an 
inch in diameter. Stem 2 to 3 feet high, simple, or sparingly 
paniculate at the summit. Lower petioles nearly as long as 
the leaflets ; the latter 2 or 3 lines wide. Spikes dense, one or 
two inches long. Flowers apparently pale purple, fully half 
an inch in length ; the pedicels scarcely a line long. Calyx 
conspicuously glandular ; the tube remarkably one-sided, 
nearly straight on the lower side, but strongly gibbous-saccate 
or almost calcarate on the upper ! The free apices of the 
nine filaments are very short, all antheriferous ; five of them 
spatulate, the four intermediate triangular and shorter. 
Ovary glabrous. Fruit not seen. 

(594.) P. hypogjea, Nutt., var. scaposa : pedunculis petio- 
los v. folia aequantibus, 1|— 2§ unc. longis. — Stony soil, hills 
on the Pierdenales, near Fredericksburg. April. (Western 
Texas, Mr. Charles Wright.) — Tuber globular or pointed 
upwards, sending forth a slender caudex, beset with membra- 
nous scales. From the Canadian River we have specimens 
gathered by Mr. Gordon, which are intermediate, as to the 
length of the peduncle, between the Texan plant and that 
described by Nuttall. 

373. P. floribunda, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 
300. Prairies on Comale Creek. In black, clayey soil, 
New Braunfels, " growing in patches, many stems from the 
same base, forming a large and dense bush." June. — May 
not this rather than P. obtusiloba (of which Mr. Wright has 
sent characteristic specimens from Texas,) be the P. tenui- 
jlora of Pursh and Nuttall ? 

374. Eysenhardtia amorphoides, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. 
&/■ Sp. 6. p. 491, t. 592 ; Schauer in Linncea, 20, p. 747. E. 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 23 JAN. 1850. 



174 Plantcs Lindheimeriance. 

Drummondii, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 690, sine descr. E. 
Texana, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 462. — Rocky precipices, 
Upper Guadaloupe. August. Also gathered by Mr. Wright. 
" Shrub 4 to 7 feet high." Vexillum barely emarginate. 
Style little curved at the apex. Ovary with two collateral 
ovules. Legume linear and arcuate or sabre-shaped, com- 
pressed, 5 or 6 lines long, sessile, glandular, dotted, with a 
single oblong seed pendulous from near the apex, empty 
below, agreeing with those of E. amorphoides, as described 
by Schauer, and as observed in Mexican specimens of Coul- 
ter's Collection. The foliage is rather smoother, the vexillum 
less notched, and the style less hooked than in the Hartwe- 
gian specimens of E. amorphoides ; but those of Coulter and 
of Dr. Edwards are intermediate ; so that I have no reason to 
think that the Texan plant is a distinct species. The tenth 
stamen is scarcely free in either. All the specimens show an 
oval gland near the apex of the style. — A second species, 
however, with a 4-ovulate ovary, gathered by Dr. Wislizenus, 
has been characterized by Dr. Engelmann, as below. 1 

f Amorpha fruticosa, Linn. ; var. subglabra ; foliolis el- 
lipticis retusis supra nitidis. — On a creek near Fredericks- 
burg. June. — One of the forms of this polymorphous spe- 
cies, nearly the same as the A. nana, Bot. Mag. t. 2112. 

(595.) A. fruticosa, Linn.; var. subglabra; foliolis ob- 
longis seu lineari-oblongis. A. Lewisii, Lodd. ! Cat. — New 
Braunfels. Like the last, except that the leaflets are narrower 
and seldom retuse. I know of no constant characters for 
distinguishing A. glabra, Desf., A. Caroliniana, Croome, 

1 "E. spinosa (n. sp.): fruticosa; ramis squamosis rachidi spicarum persistente 
lienosa spinosis; foliis 6-8-jugis; foliolis minutis ovatis acutis adpresse pilosis ; spicis 
paucifloris; calycis obconico-campanulati dentibus triangularibus obtusis insequali- 
bus; vexillo profunde bilobo; staminibus subdiadelplu's; ovario A-oridalo et t.tylo 
apice uncinate pilosis. — On Lake Encinillas, north of Chihuahua, Dr. Wislizenus; 
in flower, August and September. — A rough looking, in many respects, remarkable 
shrub, 2-3 feet high, with black bark. Leaves 4 to 6 or 7 lines long : leaflets 1 - 1| 
lines long. Spikes an inch long, with a stout persistent rachis : flowers at first white, 
then rose-colored: uppermost (vexillary) filament shortest and almost free, adhering to 
the tube only at its base : style strongly hooked." — Engelm. Mss. 



Planted Lindheimeriatue. 175 

A. nana, Nutt., Bot. Mag., and A. laevigata, JSutt. from A. fru- 
ticosa. The A. Roemeriana, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 461, 
is doubtless a form of A. fruticosa or of A. panieulata. 

375. Dale a laxiflora, Pursh. Fl. 2. p. 741 ; Torr. &f 
Gray, FL 1. p. 307. D. penicillata, Moric. PI. Nouv. Amer. 
t. 45. Dry and rocky prairies, between the Rio Colorado 
and Guadaloupe. June, in flower. September, in fruit. 

f D. pogonathera, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 31. On the 
Liano. October. — Stems a span high, numerous, from 
a thickish, apparently perennial root. Vexillum violet-pur- 
ple. 

f D. aurea, Nutt. Gen. 2. p. 101. Dry prairies, Upper 
Guadaloupe. June. 

f D. nana, Torr. in Gray, PL Fendl. p. 31. Post-Oak- 
openings, on the Pierdenales. June. Also gathered by Mr. 
Wright on the Rio Grande, and by Mr. Gordon on the Ar- 
kansas. 

376. D. frutescens (sp. Tiov.) : glaberrima ; caulibus lig- 
nescentibus ramosis glandulis tuberculiformibus raris obsitis ; 
foliolis 6-8-jugis glauceseenti-asruginosis obovatis retusis 
obcordatisve manifeste petiolulatis subtus (rachique in foliis 
summis submarginata) grosse glandulosis ; spicis paniculatis 
brevibus paucifloris ; bracteis coriaceis ovatis muticis glandu- 
losis calycem vix eequantibus caducis ; tubo calycis sessili 
glabro glandulis magnis cerinis ornato, dentibus brevibus tri- 
angulato-subulatis margine villosis ; corolla violacea, carina 
maxima vexillo plus duplo longiore. — Rocky hills, and high 
plains, along the margin of thickets, on the Guadaloupe, 
Sabinas, and Pierdenales. July, August. (Western Texas, 
and on the Rio Grande, Mr. Charles Wright. Monterey, 
N. Mexico, Dr. Edwards in Herb. Torr.) This is a shrubby 
species, a foot or two in height, and totally distinct from D. 
citriodora, for which I at first mistook it. The flowers are 
more like those of D. nutans, but they are much fewer, 
sessile, the calyx remarkably glandular ; the leaflets are of 
a different form, not at all crenate ; and there is a gland, 



176 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

instead of a subulate stipel, on the rachis at the insertion of 
each leaflet. 1 

(596.) Astragalus caryocarpus, Ker, Rot. Reg. t. 176 ; 
Torr. &/• Gray, Fl. 1. p. 331. Clayey soil, near Victoria. 
February, in flower. Also (598) in Western Texas, in flower 
and fruit. 

(597.) A. Mexicanus, Alph. DC. PI. Rar. Hort. Genev. 
not. 5. p. 17. t. 3. A. trichocalyx, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gray, 
Fl. I. c. Prairies on the Lower Guadaloupe, west of Victoria. 
February, in flower. — This and the last species, although 
often confounded in herbaria, are manifestly distinct in the 
living state. A. caryocarpus has more strigose and somewhat 
canescent, oblong or linear-oblong leaflets, close and fine 
hairs on the calyx, sometimes blackish, a violet purple corolla, 
the flower about two thirds of an inch long, and ovate pointed 
legumes, which are seldom more than two thirds of an inch 
in diameter. A. Mexicanus is a larger plant in all its parts, 
with smoother and greener foliage ; the leaflets varying from 
roundish-obovate to oblong ; the flowers an inch long ; the 
calyx villous, (often very densely) with soft, white hairs ; the 
corolla barely tinged above with pale violet, or nearly white; 
and the very turgid globose-ovoid legumes are obtuse and 
over an inch in diameter. 2 

1 Petalostemon virgatum, Scheele in Linncea, 21, p. 461, is plainly the No. 42, PL 
Lindh. and No. 137, PL Fendl., viz. a pubescent variety of P. violaceum, perhaps 
connecting that species with P. decumbens. The leaves in some specimens are in- 
deed 7-foliolate, in others both 5-foliolate and 3-foliolate. — Trifolium Rcemerianum, 
Scheele, I. c. is manifestly the T. amphianthum, Torr. $' Gray, Fl. 1. p. 316. 

2 This Texan plant is clearly De Candolle's A. Mexicanus ; but Dr. Engelmann 
thinks it distinct from the A. trichocalyx, of Missouri ; on account of the still larger 
and pale purple flowers, and shorter calyx-teeth. The remarks above are chiefly 
founded on living plants of A. trichocalyx and A. caryocarpus, raised from seeds 
furnished by Dr. Engelmann from St. Louis. 

Mr. "Wright has communicated specimens of a new Texan species of Astragalus, 
and also seeds from which the plant has been raised, during the past summer in the 
Cambridge Botanic Garden. 

Astragalus Weightii (sp. nov.): annuus, pumilus, hirsuto-canescens ; caule 
subsimplici ; stipulis subulatis liberis ; foliolis 3-5-jugis oblongis acutiusculis; pedun- 
culis folio longioribus paucifloris ; floribus capitatis ; calyce hirsutissimo, lobis lineari- 
subulatis attenuatis corollam violaceam superantibus legumine oblongo hirsuto sub- 
tereti fere biloculari 6-4-spermo dimidio brevioribus. — Texas, near Austin, Mr. 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 177 

(599.) ZORNIA TETRAPHYLLA, Mkhx. Fl. 2. p. 76. Post- 

Oak openings west of the Pierdenales. June. 

(600.) Lupinus Texensis, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 3492. 
New Braunfels. Not distinct, I fear, from L. subcarnosus. 

377. Cercis occidentals (Torr. ined.) : frutex ; foliis 
subreniformibus obtusissimis ; leguminibus oblongis obtusissi- 
mis breviter apiculatis vix stipitatis. — C. Siliquastrum, var. 
Benth. PI. Hartw. No. 1706, p. 307. — Var. floribus etiam 
paulo minoribus, foliis supra nitidioribus. C. reniformis, En- 
gelm. Mss. Rocky plains of the Upper Guadaloupe. March, 
in flower ; June, with ripe fruit. A shrub, forming thickets, 
never becoming a tree. — This is entirely distinct from C. 
Canadensis ; but does not differ from the Californian plant of 
Fremont and of Hartweg, except that the flowers are a little 
smaller still, being no larger than those of C. Canadensis, 
and the full-grown leaves are rather thicker and more shining 
above. The Texan and the Californian plants agree in their 
short and scarcely stipitate pods (only 2 or 2| inches long, 
and two thirds of an inch broad,) which character, with the 
size of the flowers, would seem abundantly to distinguish it 
from C. Siliquastrum, the legumes of which, including the 
manifest stipe, are six, or at least five inches in length. (Dr. 

Charles Wright. — The plants from seeds sown in the spring blossom from midsum- 
mer to autumn. Stem a span high, seldom branched. Leaflets 4 lines long, the 
upper surface sparsely, the lower densely beset, like the stem, &c, with villous- 
hirsute loosely appressed hairs. Peduncles in fruit 2 or 3 inches long. Legumes 
half an inch long, densely hirsute, straight, rather acute, tipped with the short style, 
often carrying away the inconspicuous corolla upon its apex as it enlarges, nearly 
erect, only three or four produced in each capitulum, scarcely twice the length of the 
persistent subsessile calyx. Bracts subulate, the lower resembling the calyx-lobes. — 
Mr. Wright has also detected Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh, in "Western Texas ; and 
likewise a unifoliolate Desmodium, namely: — 

Desmodium Wrightii (sp.nov.): caulibus gracilibus ramosis puberulis; foliis 
unifoliolatis breviter petiolatis ; foliolo membranaceo oblongi-ovato obtuso basi subcor- 
dato fere glabro ; stipulis stipellisque subulatis minimis ; racemis laxis ; tomento 
3 - 4-articulato breviter stipitato, articulis insequilateris ovalibus. — Austin, Texas, 
Mr. Charles Wright. — Stems one or two feet high. Leaves veiny, paler and 
minutely pubescent underneath, mucronulate ; the lower two inches long, on petioles 
half an inch long ; the upper successively narrower and smaller, on shorter petioles. 
Legume less than an inch long ; the stipe as long as the stamineal tube. 



178 Plantce. Lindheimeriana. 

Gregg has gathered fruiting specimens of the same plant in 
the high lands near Saltillo, Mexico, in 1848.) — Dr. Engel- 
mann states that it is peculiar to the limestone districts of 
Middle Texas. 

378. Sophora (Styphnolobium) affinis, Torr. fy Gray, 
Fl. 1. p. 390. Margin of Cotton-wood groves along the Rio 
Colorado, above Bastrop : August (in fruit) ; also near New 
Braunfels and San Antonio, common; April, in flower. — 
" A small tree, 10 to 12 feet high, the trunk 4 to 8 inches in 
diameter, rarely a small shrub ; the annual shoots with green 
bark, fragile ; the wood very heavy." Leaflets less than an 
inch long, nearly of the same hue both sides, retuse or very 
obtuse. No. 601 is the same plant, from New Braunfels. 

379. Sophora (Dermatophyllum) speciosa, Benth. Mss. 
Dermatophyllum speciosum, Scheele in Linnaa, 21. p. 459. 
Sophora sempervirens, Engelm. Mss. " On the western part 
of Matagorda Bay, where it forms groves. Also sparsely on 
rocky hills, margins of Cedar woods along the Guadaloupe, 
near New Braunfels, &c. Flowers in February. A small 
tree, about 30 feet high ; the wood yellow, hard, and heavy, 
called lignum-vitce. Flowers, showy, blue, sweet-scented, ex- 
haling nearly the fragrance of violets. The tree forms small 
groves on the shores of Matagorda Bay, where it is the only 
fire-wood. The wood dyes yellow." Also gathered by Ber- 
landier, and by Mr. Wright. The large, woody pods, two 
to four inches long, are sometimes constricted between the 
seeds, sometimes barely torose. Mr. Bentham remarks, in 
Herb. Torr., that, " at present Dermatophyllum can only be 
admitted as a section to include *S*. speciosa, S. secundiflora, 
and an intermediate species collected by Dr. Gregg in North- 
ern Mexico, until the pods of all the genus are better known." 
— No. (602) is the same species from New Braunfels, flow- 
ering in March, either a shrub or a small tree. 

(603.) Hoffmanseggia Jamesii, Torr. &/• Gray, FL 1. p. 
393 ; Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 38. Stony soil on the Liano. 
October ; the second flowering, after the burning of the 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 179 

prairies. Shrubby, many stems form a large ligneous root, 
one or two feet high. Upper surface of the leaves smooth, 
and with the petals, destitute of the black glands. "Petals 
yellow; stamens red." 1 

380. Cassia (Cham^senna) Lindheimeriana (Scheele in 
Ldnncea, 21. p. 457) : perennis, undique tomento sericeo mol- 
lissimo albicans ; foliolis 6-S-jugis oblongis utrinque obtnsis 
basi inaequalibus aristato-mucronatis subtus argenteo-sericeis ; 
glandula cum stipite tomentoso setiformi inter omnia paria ; 
stipulis subulatis caducis; racemis folium aequantibus pluri- 
floris ; legumine lato-lineari complanato parce pilosulo. — 
Rocky plains and margin of woods, New Braunfels, &c. 
September. Also found by Mr. Wright from San Marcos to 
the Rio Grande. — Stems 4 or 5 feet high, from a thick, 
perennial root, clothed like the petioles, peduncles, stipules, 
&c. with a dense velvety tomentum. Leaflets from one to 
nearly two inches in length, silky above, silvery-sericeous 
beneath, tipped with a very conspicuous mucro. The seti- 
form gland, with its stipe, between each pair, is a line long. 
Petals golden yellow with dark veins, half an inch in length. 
Anthers 7, chocolate-colored ; the three upper stamens rudi- 
mentary. Legumes 2 inches long, over 2 lines wide. Seeds 
as in the section. — A species apparently allied to C. argentea 
and C. mollissima, H. B. K. 

1 The subjoined, very distinct species, comes from the southern borders of Texas. 

Hoffmanseggia CAUDATA (sp. nov.): frutescens ; ramis glaberrimis superne ra- 
chique foliorum glandulis minimis rariter conspersis ; foliis bipinnatis ; pinnis2-3- 
jugis abrupte 8- 10-foliolatis, cum impari elongata 24-30-juga; foliolis glaberrimis 
omnino glandulosis rotundatis oblique subcordatis venosis ; stipulis bracteisque cadu- 
cis ; racemo sparsifloro; legumine acinaciformi dilatato glanduloso. — Sandy soil, 
between the Nueces and the. Rio Grande, Texas, Mr. Charles Wright. August, 
September. — This species is remarkable for its smoothness (some small tack-shaped 
glands only occurring on the calyx, or a few still minuter ones scattered on the upper 
part of the branches and the petioles,) and for the elongation of the terminal pinna, 
which is two or three inches in length, and bears many pairs of leaflets; while the 
lateral ones are scarcely an inch long. The leaflets are about two lines in length, 
thickish, obscurely mucronulate, subsessile, oblique. Raceme sparsely 6-9-flowered. 
Legume nearly two inches long and two thirds of an inch wide, flat, reticulated, fur- 
furaceous-glandular, and roughened with subsessile blackish glands. There are no 
expanded flowers ; the raceme of one specimen bears unopened flower-buds. 



180 Planta Lindheimeriance. 

381. C. (Chablesenna) Rcemeriana, (Scheele,l. c.) : caule 
suffruticoso cinereo-pubescente ; foJiolis unijugis e basi inse- 
quilatera rotundata lanceolatis acutiusculis mucronatis supra 
puberulis subtus strigoso-pubescentibus ; glandula subulata in- 
terposita ; stipulis setaceis caducis ; racemis paucifloris folium 
superantibus ; legumine lineari-oblongo basi attenuato sub- 
falcato glabello. — Rocky plains of the Upper Guadaloupe. 
August. Also communicated by Mr. Wright. — Plant one 
or two feet high, much branched. Leaflets about two inches 
long, gradually tapering from the rounded inaequilateral base, 
sometimes a little falcate, beneath somewhat cinereous with 
fine strigose hairs. Petals yellow, with brownish veins, one 
third of an inch in length. Legumes an inch or little more 
long, with a prominent border, minutely and sparsely strigose. 1 

f C. pumilio (sp. nov.) : subcaulescens e caudice lignes- 
cente, strigulosa ; foliolis unijugis linearibus subtrinervatis ; 
glandula nulla ; petiolo in appendicem setaceam producto ; 
stipulis setaceo-subulatis petiolo basi adnatis rigidis persis- 
tentibus ; pedunculis unifloris folio longioribus infra apicem 
unibracteatis ; sepalis obtusissimis ; staminibus 3 superioribus 
difformibus castratis ; ovario glaberrimo ; fructu ignoto. — On 
the Liano and Pierdenales. "Only two small specimens 
were seen." Rio Grande, Texas, Mr. Charles Wright. The 
caudex of this singular dwarf species scarcely rises out of the 

1 From the Rio Grande, Texas, as well as from Northern Mexico, we have the sub- 
joined species, which is said by Mr. Bentham (in Herb. Torr.) to be " a very distinct, 
new species, apparently near C. bauhinisefolia." It belongs, however, to the section 
Chamaesenna. 

Cassia (Chamaesenna) batjhinioides (sp.nov.): humilis, suffraticosa, hirsuto- 
sericea ; foliolis unijugis rariusve bijugis oblongis vel subovatis utrinque rotundatis 
inaequilateris sericeo-canescentibus ; glandula interposita ; stipulis setaceis persisten- 
tibus ; pedunculis 2- 3-floris; legumine membranaceo turgido rectiusculo hirsuto. — 
On the Rio Grande, Texas, August (in fruit,) Mr. Charles Wright. Santa Rosa- 
lia, Northern Mexico, May (in flower only,) Dr. Gregg. Between El Paso and Chi- 
huahua, August, Dr. Wislizcnus. — The plant of Dr. Wislizenus is 10 inches high, 
larger in all its parts and less canescent than the other specimens, which are from 
three to six inches high. The peduncles in the latter are shorter than the leaves. 
The three upper stamens are rudimentary ; the linear-oblong anthers open only by a 
terminal pore. Legumes an inch long, slightly curved upwards, very obtuse, and 
with an incurved apiculate tip. 



Plania Lindheimeriana. 1S1 

ground. Leaves crowded. Leaflets an inch or less in 
length, one to two lines wide, rather rigid, as long as the 
petiole. Peduncle one or two inches long, slender. Corolla 
two thirds of an inch in diameter, pale yellow in the speci- 
mens. The seven perfect anthers open by a terminal pore ; 
the three upper stamens are abortive, as in the section Cha- 
maesenna, to which, so far as can be told in the absence of 
the fruit, this species would seem to belong. 

382. Algarobia glandulosa, Torr. 8f Gray, Fl. 1. p. 399. 
Common on the Guadaloupe, &.c. May, In flower ; August, 
with unripe fruit. — The Mus~kit "forms open woods in 
high, rocky plains, and wet, clayey bottoms. Trees from 30 
to 40 feet high, with kw and large, erect branches ; the 
trunk often from one to two and a half feet in diameter ; 
the heart-wood dark reddish brown ; but often occurring as a 
small tree or shrub. Important as furnishing the only fire- 
wood in Western Texas ; also for its edible fruit." Lind- 
heimer. — The foliage appears different from that of A. dulcis, 
Benth., in Hartweg's Mexican Collection. 

383. Mimosa Lindheimeri (sjp. nov.) : fruticosa, glabra, 
v. sub lente minutim puberula ; aculeis infrastipularibus vali- 
dis geminis (nunc solitariis ternisve) recurvis, petiolaribus 
minutis rarisv. nullis ; stipulis subulatis etiam spinescentibus ; 
pinnis 4-6-jugis ; foliolis 8-12-jugis oblongis ; pedunculis 
folium subcequantibus ; capitulis globosis ; bracteolis minutis; 
floribus 5-meris glaberrimis ; legumine glabro lineari-oblongo 
seu falcato margine aculeis validis sparsis subuncinatisarmato. 
— Rocky plateaus near New Braunfels, and on the Upper 
Guadaloupe, not seen on the Pierdenales. July, in flower, 
and with young fruit : August, with ripe fruit. — Shrub two or 
three feet high ; the branches armed with very stout, com- 
pressed, infrastipular aculei, which are sometimes solitary, 
germinate, often usually in threes. Occasionally there are one 
or two minute prickles on the rachis of the leaves. Calyx 
purple, very glabrous. This species is nearly allied to M. 
acanthocarpa, of Mexico, from which it differs in the want 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 24 JA.N. 1850. 



182 Plantcc Lindheimeriana. 

of pubescence, except a mere trace under the lens, and in 
the spinescent stipules. The valves of the pod somewhat 
incline tobreak transversely into pieces. 

(606.) M. fragrans (sp. nov.) : fruticosa, erecta, glaberri- 
ma ; aculeis infrastipularibus solitariis subrecurvis ; petiolis in- 
ermibus gracilibus ; pinnis 1 -3-jugis (in ramis floridis saepis- 
sime unijugis) ; foliolis 5 — 6-jugis lineari-oblongis ; pedunculis 
axillaribus soepius fasciculatis folio sequalibus capitulum glo- 
bosum gerentibus ; floribus 5-meris 10-andris glabris ; petalis 
liberis calyce parvo quadruplo longioribus ; legumine lineari 
falcato 6 - 8-articulato membranaceo glaberrimo inermi, rari- 
usve margine aculeis 1— 3 armato. — Rocky soil, on the 
Pierdenales. April, in flower (606) ; May, with immature 
fruit (607). (Also gathered near Austin by Mr. Wright). — 
" Shrub 3 or 4 feet high, covered at the season of blossoming 
with the heads of light purplish-red, fragrant flowers." 
Aculei short and stout. Leaflets rather thin, not crowded as 
in the preceding species, rather sparse on the sterile branches, 
where they are two lines long ; on the flowering branches 
smaller. Peduncles nearly an inch in length, larger than the 
head. The unripe pods are two inches long ; strongly fal- 
cate, the margins sinuate so that the joints are well defined, 
and the transverse lines at which the valves will separate are 
already evident. — This species is allied to M. borealis, Gray, 
PI. Fendl. (which much resembles M. depauperata, Benih.) 
of which I think I have a Texan specimen from Mr. Wright; 
but the pinnae are much longer, with more numerous and 
narrower leaflets, and the pods are different. It is perhaps 
the same as a North Mexican species of Dr. Gregg, indicated 
by Mr. Bentham (in Herb. Torr.) as " Mimosa, n. sp. near M. 
terniflora," a species which I do not find anywhere enume- 
rated. 1 

1 On the Rio Grande, Texas, Mr. Wright gathered specimens of the suhjoined 
species of the section Habbasia, § Rubicaulcs, Benth. 

Mimosa malacophylla (sp. nov-): sufFrutescens, puhe mollissima undique seri- 
ceo-tomentosa; caulibus procumbentibus angulatis petiolisque copiosissime aculea- 
tis, aculeis brevibus uncinato-retrorsis ; pinnis 4 - 7-jugis ; foliolis 5 - S-jugis ovatis 



PlantcB Lindheimeriance. 183 

384. Schrankia platycarpa (sp. nov.) : glabra, leviter 
aculeata ; pinnis 4-6-jugis ; foliolis oblongis ciliatis aveniis : 
leguminibus latiuscule linearibus compressis acuminatis acu- 
leis brevibus echinatis pedunculo subduplo longioribus, val- 
vulis planis margine persistente (replo) fere duplo latioribus. 
— Mimosa Roameriana, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 456? — 
Dry, stony, prairies, New Braunfels. April, in flower; Sep- 
tember, in fruit. — I have seen this species from other Texan 
correspondents. It is distinguished from S. angustata, in 
some degree by its rather broader and more ciliate leaflets, 
and obviously by its legumes, which are about three inches 
long, but a quarter of an inch in width, flat, and about twice 
the breadth of the persistent margin ; thus confirming Mr. 
Bentham's remark, that the genus is not sufficiently distinct 
from Mimosa. The valves are rather sparsely, the thickened 
margin densely, echinate with very short, somewhat uncinate 
prickles. From the locality this is most probably the Mimosa 
Roameriana of Scheele ; but that blundering and unscrupulous 
propounder of species had not seen the legumes, and his 
description applies nearlyas well to any other Schrankia. 
To the latter genus, so long as it is maintained, the present 
species must be referred, notwithstanding the flatness of 
the pod. 

385. Desmanthus velutinus (Scheele in Linncea, I. c.) : 
adscendens v. prostratus e basi suffrutescente ; caulibus petio- 
lisque pube mollissima cinereis; pinnis 3-6-jugis, glandula 
parva concava inter infimas ; foliolis 10-20-jugis lineari- 
oblongis aveniis margine praesertim pilosis ; floribus decan- 

■ 

ve] ovali-oblongis mucronalis; panicula racemosa laxa; floribus 5-meris 10-andris; 
legumine lato-lineari longiuscule stipitato membranaceo glabro nitido inermi 6-8- 
spermo. — On the Rio Grande, Texas, Mr. Charles Wright. August, September, 
in flower and fruit. Also gathered near Monterey, Northern Mexico, hy Dr. Gregg 
and Dr. Edwards, without fruit; and east of Rinconada by Dr. Gregg in 1848. — 
Plant with the habit of a Schrankia, canescent with a fine and very soft down ; the 
partial and general petioles as well as the stem beset with numerous short uncinate 
prickles. Leaflets 3 to 5 lines long. Flowers white, according to Mr. Wright, 
yellowish according to Dr. Gregg. Legume two inches or more in length, with a 
stipe half an inch long, very smooth. 



184 PlanUt Lindheimeriana. 

dris ; leguminibus linearibus elongatis rectis v. rectiusculis 
acuminatis lasvibus 10 -20-spermis ; seminibus rhombeo- 
orbiculatis. — Rocky soil, and on grassy slopes, near New 
Braunfels. August, chiefly in fruit. Also near Austin, 
Mr. Charles Wright. — A well marked species, which Scheele 
has described from some of the rather imperfect fruiting 
specimens gathered by Lindheimer in 1846, in which the 
legumes are sometimes only an inch and a half long, and a 
little falcate. But in better specimens, particularly in those 
of 1847, the pods are straight, from two to three inches long, 
often 20-seeded. The seeds are not obovate-elliptical, but 
roundish-obovate, or somewhat rhombic by mutual pressure. 
It is distinguished from all the species I am acquainted with 
by its downy stems and minute gland ; from D. depresses by 
its pointed pods. — D. depressus, Kunth, is common at Key 
West and Cape Florida, and occasionally comes from Texas. 
There, however, a more common species is the allied D. 
acuminatus, Benth. in Jour. Bot. 4, p. 357, which is readily 
known by its shorter, falcate, and pointed pods. In culti- 
vation it is prostrate. D. reticulatus, Bcnth., has also been 
received from Mr. Wright. 

3S6. D. brachylobus, Benth. Mimoscce, in Jour. Bot. 4. 
p. 358. D. falcatus, Scheele in Linnaa, 21, p. 455. Wet 
soil near Comale Creek, &c. May, in flower; August, in 
fruit. This does not grow in dry, rocky soil, nor the forego- 
ing in wet places, as is stated by Scheele, who has evidently 
transposed the tickets of these two plants. 

387. Acacia Rcemeriana, Scheele in Linntea, 21. p. 456. 
Rocky soil, near San Antonio, and from New Braunfels to 
the Guadaloupe. April, in flower ; June, in fruit (605). — 
This would appear to be the Acacia Roemeriana of Scheele, 
said to have been gathered near Austin by Mr. Romer, except 
that the flowers are " yellowish-white " (Lindh.) instead of 
rose-color, and the leaves usually bear three pairs of pinnae. 
The leaflets, 4 to 5 lines long, are membranaceous in the flow- 
ering specimens, but firmer in those in fruit. The species be- 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 185 

longs to Bentharn's section Vulgares, and subsection Pennatce. 
The legume is coriaceo-chartaceous, continuous within, flat, 
linear-oblong or oblong, somewhat falcate, 2| to 4 inches long, 
an inch or less in width, raised on a short stipe. Seeds oval, 
flat, brown. It is said to be a shrub, or small tree, with the 
stem one or two inches thick. There are specimens of it in 
Dr. Gregg's North Mexican collection. Another' Acacia of 
the latter collection, marked by Mr. Bentham A. (Ataxa- 
cctnthece) n. sp., not unlike the above in foliage and fruit, 
but with a different inflorescence, was found by Mr. Wright 
from San Antonio to the Rio Grande. 1 

(604.) Same as the foregoing, with larger leaflets ; in 
flower only. 

(605.) These are fine fruiting specimens, which I refer to 
A. Rcemeriana, and to them alone the remarks above, as 
respects the legumes, refer. 

ROSACEA. 

388. Prunus minutiflora (Engelm. ined.) : nana, intri- 
cato-ramosissima, glabra, ramulis novellis vix puberulis ; foliis 
parvis ovalibus obovatisve obtusissimis integerrimis aut obso- 
lete parceque denticulatis ; floribus solitariis subsessilibus 
minimis 10- 15-andris; calyce turbinato ; fructu immaturo 
subgloboso cano-tomentoso. — Hills and dry slopes between 
San Antonio and New Braunfels, in large clusters. Maich, 
in flower ; the unripe fruit (4 lines in diameter) gathered at 
the end of May. — Shrubs one or two feet high, forming 
dense masses. Leaves from 3 to 5 lines long, on short, gland- 
less petioles, fascicled, coriaceous, smooth, entire, sometimes 
tridenticulate or with one or two obscure lateral denticula- 
tions, which are at first somewhat glandular. Stipules very 
minute. Flowers solitary, a line and a half in length ; the 
peduncle shorter than the calyx. " Stamens 10 to 15, in two 

1 Among Dr. Gregg's plants I find well-marked specimens of A. amentacea, DC, 
a species uot identified by Mr. Bentham. It was gathered, in flower, near Rin- 
conada. 



186 Plantce Lindheimer ian<z. 

or three circles, the innermost partially abortive." Engelm. — 
Closely allied to the Amygdalus microphylla, H. B. K., and 
very likely to prove a variety of it, judging from the fragment 
of that plant which I possess from Schlechtendal. These, 
with P. glandulosa, belong to the subgenus Microcerasus, 
Webb, characterized by Spach in Ann. Sci. Nat. 2. Ser. 19. p. 
125; a group "intermediate between the true Cerasi and 
Prunus [but referred by these authors to the former] and also 
nearly allied to some Amygdali." It embraces Cerasus pros- 
tata, C. orientalis, and some other oriental species. 

389. P. rivularis, Scheele in Linncea 21. p. 594. P. 
Tawakonia, Lindheimer, Mss. (which name was doubtless 
appended to the specimen received by Scheele.) Banks of 
streams and margins of bottom-woods, forming thickets near 
the water, rarely on higher places, Upper Guadaloupe, and 
between Comale Creek and the Colorado. March, in flower; 
June, in fruit. " Shrub from two to six feet high. Fruit 
ripe in June, of the size of a cherry, or a little larger, acidu- 
lated, cherry-red. The Tawakony Indians boil them and eat 
them with honey. Called Tawakony Plum.'''' Lindheimer. — 
The same plant extends northward into Missouri, and passes, 
if I mistake not, into an evident form of Prunus Americana, 

or P. nigra, if the two species are to be distinguished. P. 

Texana, Scheele, I. c. gathered at New Braunfels, by Mr. R6- 

mer, is probably the same species. 

| Cerasus serotina, DC; Torr. 8f Gray, Fl. 1. p. 410. 

On the Pierdenales. April, in flower. A tree or a large shrub. 
(608.) Rosa foliolosa, Nutt. in Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 

460. Hills of the Sabinas and Three Creeks. May. — 

Stems less than a foot high, from a creeping rootstock. 

" Flower very fragrant." 

f Cratjegus coccinea var. ? mollis, Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 1. 

p. 465. C. mollis, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 569. Muskit 

flats near San Antonio. March, in flower. — If this be 

admitted to rank as a species, it must bear, I believe, the 

name of C. subvillosa, Schrad. 



Planta Lindheimeria?i<s. 187 



ELATINACE.E. 

390. Elatine (Merimea seu Bergia) Texana, Hook. 1c. 
PL t. 278; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 678. E. (Bergella) 
Texana, Gray, Gen. 111. 1. p. 218. t. 96. In slow flowing 
rivulets, New Braunfels. August. — This is a pentamerous 
and decandrous or sometimes pentandrous Elatine, with the 
aspect of Bergia, for which, in the work above cited, I have 
indicated a distinct section. 

LYTHRACELE 

f Lythrum alatum var. ovalifolium: humile ; foliis sub- 
orbiculatis et ovalibus, floralibus oblongis calyce brevioribus. 
L. ovalifolium, Englm. Mss. Springs of the Pierdenales, on 
rocks covered by water. October. — Stems a foot high, from 
long and creeping stolons. Leaves one third of an inch long. 
This evidently runs into the next. 

(609.) L. alatum, var. pumilum: foliis ellipticis oblongisve, 
caulibus spithamaeis. Rocks partly covered with water, in 
Sister Creek. April. — Mixed with this in the distribution 
are a few fruiting specimens of 

j- L. alatum, var. breviflorum : glabrum, ramosissi- 
mum ; ramulis angulatis ; foliis linearibus plerisque alternis, 
floralibus, flores approximates 6-petalos 6-andros subaequanti- 
bus ; calyce fructifero campanulato seu brevissime clavato 
subpedicellato ; stylo incluso vel breviter exserto. — Damp 
rocks on the Guadaloupe, near running water. The speci- 
men is the branching summit of an apparently rather tall 
stem, which has lost its lower leaves. The floral leaves are 
only from one to three lines long ; the flowers are so approxi- 
mated as at length to form a virgate spike. The calyx even 
in fruit is barely a line and a half in length. Petals purple, 
small, those of the later flowers minute or wanting. The 
style is shorter than the petals, often included, or barely equal- 
ling the stamens ; but the specimen, perhaps, belongs to a 
stamineal form. Vide PL Lindh. p. 8. No. 52. 



188 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

(610.) L. alatum, var. (lanceolatum), Torr. &/• Gray, Fl. 
1. p. 481. L. lanceolatum, Ell. Sk. 1. p. 544. Wet prai- 
ries, on the Pierdenales. May. — A form with dwarf stems, 
a foot or less in height, from long, and deeply subterranean 
root-stocks or stolons. 

f L. alatum, var. -(. Torr. fy Gr. 1. c. — On the Cibolo. — . 
Leaves mostly alternate. 

f L. alatum, var. linearifolium: caulibus ramosissimis ; 
foliis linearibus plerisque alternis, floralibus calyce subsequa- 
libus. — Rocks in the Cibolo River. This and the var. ovali- 
folium are two extreme forms, on either hand, of what I take 
to be one polymorphous species ; for which the name L. 
lanceolatum, Ell., would be much more appropriate than that 
of Pursh. They may embrace several of the tropical Ameri- 
can species in the books ; but they pass into one another 
in such a way that Dr. Engelmann and I can fix upon no 
reliable distinguishing characters. 

f Ammannia latifolia, Linn.; Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1. p. 480. 
(the A. stylosa, Fisch. ^ Meyer, Lid. Sera. Hort. Petrop. 7, 
p. 41) : var. octandra, staminibus exsertis, stylo brevi incluso ! 
A. Texana, Scheele in Linncea, 21, p. 588. Upper Guada- 
loupe. 

ONAGRACEvE. 

391. (Enothera (Megapterium) Missouriensis, Sims, 
Bot. Mag. t. 1592; Torr. fy Gr. Fl. 1, p. 500: var. A. foliis 
anguste lanceolatis linearibusve. Megapterium Missouriense, 
Spach. Rocky plains and slopes, on the Piefdenales and 
Upper Guadaloupe, and in the dry bed of the Cibolo. April 
to July; in flower and fruit. Also gathered by Mr. Wright, 
who sends seeds from which the plant has been raised in the 
Cambridge Botanic Garden. "Capsule larger or smaller, 
orbicular, or elliptical-oblong ; corolla from two to five inches 
in diameter. This runs, by every gradation in the broadness 
of the leaves into the var. 8. latifolia foliis lato-lanceolatis 
vel ovato-lanceolatis, (CE. macrocarpa, Pursh. ; Sweet, Brit. 
Fl. Gard. t. 5. Megapt. Nuttallii, Spach.) Nor, with both 



Planted Lindheimeriancc. 189 

plants in cultivation, do I discern any distinction in the flow- 
ers or pods. On the Upper Platte and Canadian, Fremont 
and Mr. Gordon have gathered specimens in which even the 
full-grown leaves &c. are silvery-canescent ; namely, var. 
y. incana: foliis lanceolatis vel ovatis undique argenteo- 
incanis. 

392. CE. (Lavauxia) triloba, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. 
Philad. 2. p. 118 ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2566 ; Torr. fy Gray, 
I. c. CE. Roemeriana, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 154. Mus- 
kit flats, New Braunfels. March, April. In cultivation, and 
I think also in the wild state, this is a biennial. It forms a 
dense cone of pods at the crown, which rises to the height of 
two or three inches in the course of the season, and the root 
does not survive the winter. The flowers, which open about 
sunset, are cream-colored or nearly white. 

393. CE. (Meriolix) serrulata S. spinulosa, Torr. fy 
Gray, Fl. 1 . p. 502 ; subvar. floribus, ut in No. 238, maxi- 
mis, calycis fauce cum stigmate ssepius atropurpurea interdum 
fusca v. flava. — Rocky banks of the Cibolo River. April. 
In cultivation, as in the wild plant, the throat of the calyx 
and the disk-shaped stigma, one or both, are sometimes deep 
black-purple, sometimes brownish or yellow. The plant 
forms rather stout and decumbent woody stems, two or three 
feet long, producing a great number of branches, and flower- 
ing throughout the summer. 

394. CE. serrulata, e. pinifolia, Engelm. : foliis angus- 
tissimis fere filiformibus saepe fasciculatis marginibus revolutis 
integris ; floribus maximis (ut in praecedente). CE. capilli- 
folia, Scheele in Linncsa, 21. p. 577. Rocky prairies, New 
Braunfels. April. — This is just the CE. serrulata var. spinu- 
losa, except that the leaves are extremely narrow. It is vain 
to attempt to erect the varying forms of this and other poly- 
morphous CEnotherse into separate species. 

(55.) CE. speciosa, Nutt. New Braunfels, March. 

(53.) CE. Drummondii, Hook. Galveston. March to May. 

fCE. Jamesii (Torr. 8f Gray, Fl. 1. p. 693) : pube ap- 

JOURNAL b. s. n. H. 25 JAN. isso. 



190 Planta Lindheimeriana. 

pressa cinereo-canescens ; caule erecto elato (5- 10-pedali) 
lignescente ; foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis repando-den- 
ticulatis ; spica multiflora conferta ; tubo calycis praelongo 
(4 — 5-unciali) canescente crassiusculo apice ampliato seg- 
ments 2- 3-plo ovario multoties longioribus ; petalis flabelli- 
formibus maximis (2 - 3-pollicaribus) stylum vix sequantibus; 
stigmatibus praelongis ; capsula cylindracea subcinerea. — 
Banks of rivulets on the Upper Guadaloupe ; also on the San 
Fernando and the Liano. August. — Cultivated from Texan 
seeds, this most showy and almost gigantic species flowers in 
October, either as an annual or a biennial, bearing profusion 
of flowers, of which an unusual number are open at the same 
time. Although altogether like that of an ordinary annual or 
biennial, the tall stem becomes perfectly woody below, and 
often two inches in diameter at the base. The expanded 
corolla is four or five inches in diameter, as large as in (E. 
Missouriensis ; the anthers three fourths of an inch, and the 
stigmas half an inch, in length. 1 

395. Ludwigia natans, Ell. SJc. 1. p. 58 1 ; Torr. fy 
Gray, Fl. 1. p. 526. L. fluitans, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 
580. Comale Spring, in clear rivulets. May, in flower and 
fruit. — This is Elliott's plant in all respects. 

f L. palustris, Ell. 1. c. On the Liano. November. 

(240.) Gaura Drummondii, Torr. ^- Gray, Fl. 1. p. 517. 
New Braunfels, April. 

(241.) G. parviflora, Dougl. in Hoolc. Fl. Bor.-Am. San 
Antonio. 

(60.) G. sinuata, Nutt. ; Torr. fy Gray, I. c. New 
Bfaunfels. 

(611.) Gaura suffulta (Engelrn. Mss.) : annua; caule 
1-2-pedali pilis longis patentibus barbati-villoso ; ramulis 
floriferis cum floribus bracteisque glaberrimis ; foliis pilosius- 
culis glabratis lanceolatis utrinque attenuatis repando-sub- 

1 CE. uncinata, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 578. is not to be identified by the vague 
description. It was gathered on a prairie near Houston by Mr. Romer, and is not 
likely to be new. 



Plantce Lindhcimeriance. 191 

dentatis, inferioribus oblongo-lanceolatis petiolatis ; floribus 
4-meris 8-andris ; bracteis oblongis ovario longioribus e basi 
brevi persistente caducis ; rachi ideoque squarroso-dentata ; 
tubo calycis ovario longioribus segmentis brevioribus ; nuce 
sessili alato-tetraquetra ovato-pyramidata glabra, faciebus con- 
cavis unicostatis laevigatis aut basi parce subtuberculatis. — 
Cedar woods, in sandy and rocky soil, New Braunfels. May, 
June, in flower and fruit. — Plant, with much the aspect of 
G. Drummondii ; but the leaves smoother, less toothed, and 
" longer petioled than any other ; " the stem villous or hirsute 
below with long spreading hairs, while the rachis, calyx, 
bracts, &c. are perfectly glabrous. The petals appear to be 
paler than those of G. Drummondii, and the fruits are closely 
sessile, without any narrowed base or stipe. It is much 
more closely related to the Gaura tripetala, Cav. ; judging 
from Spach's description, and from Texan specimens with 
triquetrous fruit and trimerous flowers, gathered by Mr. 
Wright, which agree well with the character. 1 

f Myriophyllum heterophyllum, Michx. With the next. 

f Proserpinaca pectinacea, Lam. On the Pierdenales. 

LOASACE.E. 

396. Mentzelia oligosperma, Nutt. ; Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 
1. p. 533. Thickets, on high, rocky plains of the Upper 
Guadaloupe. August. 

f Mentzelia (Bartonia) ntjda, Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 1. p. 
535 ; Gray, PL Fendl. p. 47. Springs of the Cibolo, Gua- 
daloupe, and Pierdenales, in rocky soil. July, October. 
" Stems three to five feet high : petals expanded in the even- 
ing, not in the morning." 

f EUCNIDE BARTONIOIDES, ZuCC. PI. Hort. Bot. MoflOC. 

fasc. 5, in Abhandl. Baier. Akad. Wissensch. 4. t. 1. Mi- 

1 Gaura hirsuta, Scheele, in Linncea, 21. p. 580, described from specimens gathered 
by Romer between Bastrop and Austin, does not accord with the present species, 
but is likely to be either G. Lindheimeri or G. biennis. G. Rosmerianaof the same 
author, from New Braunfels, described without the fruit, may be safely referred to 
G. Drummondii. 



192 Planted L>indheimerian<z. 

crosperma bartonioides, Walp. Repert. 5. p. 776, ty- Ann. 
Bot. Syst. 1. p. 794; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4491. On per- 
pendicular rocks, near New Braunfels. April, in flower. 
(Also on rocky cliffs near Ojito, April, Dr. Gregg.) " Plant 
succulent, full of aqueous juice." — Hooker's prior name of 
Micro sperma must give way to Eucnide, Zucc, as there is a 
much older genus Microspermum of Lagasca, also Mexican. 
Eucnide lobata (Microsperma lobata, Hook. Ic. PL t. 234, 
probably also M. rudis, Schauer in Linnaa, 20. p. 721, as 
the stamens are not always as short as in Hooker's figure), 
was likewise gathered near Monterey, Saltillo, &c. by Dr. 
Gregg, and at Zimapan, by Coulter. 

PASSIFLORACE.E. 

Passiflora tenuiloba {Engelm. Mss.) : " petiolis brevi- 
bus eglandulosis ; foliis supra pilis brevibus subscabris subtus 
glabriusculis trinerviis reticulatis basi biglandulosis subcordatis 
trilobis, lobis lateralibus lanceolato-linearibus elongatis cuspi- 
datis horizontaliter divergentibus vel recurvatis, medio brevis- 
simo in fol. inferioribus integro in superioribusbreviter trilobo ; 
stipulis setaceis ; pedunculis binis petiolum bis superantibus ; 
cirrho elongato simplici ; floribus exinvolucratis apetalis ; calyce 
5-lobo virescente. — On the Liano ; coll. in October. — Ap- 
parently near P. normalis, L., of Jamaica, which is unknown 
to me. Herbaceous, sub-erect, slander. Petioles 2, the 
peduncles 3-3|, lines long. Leaves rather rigid, with revo- 
lute margins, 5 or 6 lines long, but from 3 to 5 inches in trans- 
verse diameter ; the lobes about 3 lines wide, the lateral ones 
sometimes bearing a posterior tooth or lobule. Flowers 8 or 
9 lines in diameter. Only a single specimen was gathered by 
Lindheimer." Engelm. in litt. — I have this plant from Mr. 
Wright, gathered two years since, between San Antonio and 
the Rio Grande. Fine fruiting specimens also have just 
reached me in the collection made by this enterprising botanist 
last summer between San Antonio and El Paso, New Mexico. 
The fruit is about the size of a musket ball. Seeds ovate, 
acute at both ends, tuberculate. 



Plantcs LindheimeriancB. 193 

397. Sicyos angulatus, Linn. Bottom woods of Comale 
Creek, climbing trees. May. 

398. Cyclanthera dissect a, Am. in Hook. Jour. Bot. 
3. p. 280. Discanthera dissecta, Torr. &/• Gray, Fl. 1. p. 
696. Echinocystis pedata, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 586. 
Margin of woods and hedges. June, in flower. — The genus 
Discanthera is correctly referred by Prof. Arnott to Cyclan- 
thera of Schrader. 

399. Cucurbita perennis : radice carnoso maxima ; foliis 
strigoso-canescentibus cordato-ovatis vel triangulatis sursum 
angustatis indivisis vel subsinuato-repandis margine denticu- 
latis ; calycis lobis subulatis tubo oequalibus ; fructu globoso. 
— Cucumis? perennis, James in Long's Exped. 2. p. 20; 
Torr. in Ann. Lye. New York, 2. p. 242 ; Torr. $- Gray, 
Fl. 1. p. 543. Plains and prairies, in dry, clayey or sandy 
soil, near San Antonio and New Braunfels. May. — " Trail- 
ing on the ground. Root from six inches to three feet thick, 
fusiform, yellow inside." Fruit yellow, globose, two or three 
inches in diameter." — This plant has been in cultivation in 
the Cambridge Botanic Garden for the last two or three years, 
from Texan seeds. It flowers freely, and has produced full- 
grown fruit, which, however, has not ripened. Our plants 
are dioecious, but it is monoecious, according to Dr. James. 
It may be the Cucurbita foetidissima, H. B. K., as Dr. Torrey 
long since suggested, but that plant is said to be an annual, 
like the rest of the genus ; besides, ours is not fetid. In its 
calyx, gamopetalous campanulate corolla, exappendiculate 
anthers, and even in the tumid margin of the seeds (although 
said by Dr. James to be acute) it accords with Cucurbita. 
Mr. Fendler met with the plant at Santa Fe ; Dr. Gregg, 
between Saltillo and Parras, and, according to Dr. Engel- 
mann, " Dr. Wislizenus found the same plant in the moun- 
tains of Chihuahua, with pyriform fruit." 

400. C. Texana: (an C. ovifera, var. ?) Tristemon 
Texanum, Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 586, & 22. p. 352. Mar- 
gin of thickets, in moist woods, on the banks of the Upper 



194 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

Guadaloupe, " apparently indigenous." September. This 
has also been cultivated in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. 
The column sometimes contains as many as four stamens. 
The pyriform fruit is just that of C. ovifera, of which our 
plant may possibly be only a naturalized variety. 

401. Lagenaria vulgaris, Seringe. Bottom woods, Co- 
male Creek. September. Probably early naturalized. The 
fruit is said to be globose. 

(612.) Sicydium (an Melothrise sect.?) Lindheimeri 
(sp. nov.) : radice crassa perenni ; foliis subreniformibus 
carnosis 3-5-lobatis partitisve et sinuato-dentatis tuberculis 
vel pustulis subtus prominulis scabratis ceterum cauleque 
glabris ; pedunculo in pi. mascula atque fceminea folio bre- 
viore, masculo 3-9-floro, foemineo unifloro; calyce fl. masc. 
infundibuliformi, foem. supra ovarium longe producto anguste 
tubuloso, lobis petalis oblongis duplo brevioribus ; bacca 
globosa rubra (diametro pollicari) ; seminibus abortu paucis 
turgidis rotundatis subcompressis submarginatis hilo biden- 
tatis. — Thickets, from New Braunfels to the Liano; pro- 
cumbent or climbing. June. (Also gathered in Texas, by 
Mr. Charles Wright.) — Root large and fleshy. Stems slen- 
der. Leaves succulent, from one to three inches in diameter, 
either moderately or deeply lobed. Flowers from one third 
to half an inch in length, greenish ; the calyx of the sterile 
tubular-funnel form. Stamens 3, subsessile in the throat of 
the calyx ; two of them bilocular, the theca: separated by a 
rather broad and slightly two-lobed connective ; the third of 
only one theca (or, as taken by some authors, 5 and triadel- 
phous) ; the loculi linear-oblong, straight. Fertile flowers 
with the calyx-tube constricted above the globular ovary and 
prolonged into a rather slender beak, then funnel-form like • 
the sterile, but bearing rather longer subulate calyx-lobes. 
Sterile filaments 3, short, one of them simple, the two others 
two-cleft, subulate. Petals, as in the sterile flower, entire, ob- 
scurely ciliate, oblong, a little narrowed below, unconnected, 
separately inserted into the throat of the calyx. Style a 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 195 

little longer than the calyx-tube, three-cleft at the apex ; 
stigmas fleshy, dilated, granulose-fimbriolate. Ovary three- 
celled, many ovuled. Berry, pulpy, " deep red when ripe, 
an inch or more in diameter," globose, ripening few seeds. 
Seeds 3 lines long, roundish-oval, turgidly lenticular. — Si- 
cydium was founded by Schlechtendal on a small-flowered 
Mexican dioecious plant, of which the sterile flowers alone are 
known. Until the fruit of that plant is identified it must 
remain doubtful whether ours belongs to the same genus. 
This has larger blossoms, and a more elongated calyx. But it 
accords with Schlechtendal's incomplete description in being 
dioecious, in the 5-petalous corolla, and in the three distinct 
stamens with straight anther-cells. The leaves vary in the 
depth and breadth of their lobes. From the Rio Grande, 
Mr. Wright has communicated fragmentary specimens of 
what is probably a variety of the same species, with the 
leaves dissected into linear or filiform lobes and segments. 



Cactace.£; by Dr. Engelmann. 

*** Mr. Lindhcimer has again sent many living specimens of Cactaceae from 
New Braunfels, San Antonio, the Pierdenales, and the Liano. Among them I not 
only recognized all the species described in Plant. Lindh. (Boston Journal, Vol. V.) 
but found also a number of new forms. From other sources I have obtained other 
species from the lower Rio Grande. All these will be enumerated here in order to 
complete, as far as possible, the catalogue of the Texan Cactaceae. A correspon- 
dence with Prince Salm Dyck, than whom none is better acquainted wilh these 
curious plants, and his examination of living specimens of most of the species ena- 
bles me to give this revision an authenticity not otherwise attainable. 

MAMMILLARIA. 

§ 1. Fructu viridi, ovali ; corolla persistente ; testa seminum 
pergamentacea fusca ; jloribus ex axillis tuberculorum 
hornotinorum. 

M. calcarata (M. sulcata, Engelm. PI. Lindh. I. c, non 
Pfeiffer). Near M. scolymoidcs, Schdw. but sufficiently dis- 
tinct, according to Prince Salm. — Rocky and hard, clayey 



196 Plantcs Lindheimeriance. 

soil, on the Upper Guadaloupe. My specimens from there are 
mostly densely caespitose ; tubercles in thirteen oblique rows ; 
proliferous groove producing the buds always near its upper 
end. Flowers 2 inches long and 2 to 2| inches in diameter: 
sepals (or rather outer firmer perigonial leaves) 20-35: 
petals (inner more delicate petaloid perigonial leaves) 30-35, 
yellow (dirty yellow only when fading), reddish at the base. 

M. compacta, Engelm. in Wisliz. Rep. not. 32, from the 
mountains of Chihuahua is mentioned here only in order to 
add to the description of the plant that of the flower which I 
have had occasion to examine in the living state. — Floribus 
in vertice dense lanato centralibus ; sepalis (17-19) lanceo- 
latis acutis integris (rufescentibus, interioribus margine fla- 
vis) ; petalis (28) oblongo-lanceolatis mucronatis versus 
apicem denticulatis (sulphureis) ; stigmatibus 7 - 8 cuspida- 
tis flavicantibus supra stamina (sulphurea) paulo exsertis. — 
Flowers at the end of June and beginning of July (in St. 
Louis). Flower-bud dark reddish brown: flower about 15 
lines long and of the same diameter. Petals 6 lines long and 
1? lines wide. Stigmata 2 lines long, cuspidate, as in M. 
vivipara, while all other species known to me have obtuse 
stigmata. 

Mammillaria radios a (sp. nov.) : simplex s. parce pro- 
lifera, ovata seu cylindrica ; tuberculis teretibus supra plus 
minus sulcatis apice ex tomento albo aculeatis ; aculeis rec- 
tis numerosis valde ineequalibus, plurimis (20-30) radian- 
tibus tenuioribus albidis, centralibus 4-5 robustioribus fuscis 
s. rarius flavis, 3-4 sursum directis, singulo deflexo; axillis 
nudis, sulco subtomentoso ; floribus (violaceis) ex axillis tuber- 
culorum hornotinorum ortis sparsis (nee centralibus) ; sepalis 
petalisque lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis aristatis; sepalis 
(40 - 50) arachnoideo-fimbriatis, exterioribus brevioribus ad- 
pressis, interioribus longioribus recurvatis ; petalis (30-40) 
integris s. basi subciliatis patentibus ; staminibus (violaceis) 
numerossimis sequalibus ; stylo longe exserto ; stigmatibus 
7-9 (violaceis) erectis obtusis ; bacca oblonga viridi floris 



Plantce LindheimeriancB. 197 

rudimento coronata ; seminibus fulvis ovatis scrobiculato- 
punctatis. — Sterile, sandy soil on the Pierdenales : flowers 
(in St. Louis) about the middle of June. The flowers open for 
three days, in direct sunshine only, and later than most other 
Cactacese, viz., from 12 or 1 till 3 or 4 o'clock. Stems 2-4 
inches high, about 2 inches in diameter, dark green ; tubercles 
in 13 oblique rows ; l radiant spines 3 — 4 ; central spines from 
4-6 lines long: flowers 1§— 2^ inches long, and about the 
same diameter when fully open, of a lighter violet color or 
of a splendid dark purple : stigmas deep velvety purple. — 
Very near M. vivipara, Haw., which has been found from the 
Upper Missouri to Santa Fe : this, however, is distinguished 
by its low, mostly ccespitose growth, by the smaller number of 
radiant spines (14- 18), the absence of the deflexed central 
spine, the smaller central flowers, the apiculate stigmata, 
and smaller seeds: it also flowers earlier (in St. Louis about 
the middle of May), but, like M. radiosa, opens the flowers 
only after 12 o'clock. In M. vivipara the youngest tubercles 
produce in their axils the flowers which appear central, and 
remain so till after fructification, whereupon new tubercles 
are developed in the centre, and the young fruit is pushed 
aside and becomes more and more lateral. In M. radiosa 
the flower buds are also formed in the axils of the first young 
tubercles of the season, but are immediately pushed aside by 
a continuous growth of more tubercules ; the buds as well as 
the flowers and fruits are therefore lateral. M. vivipara has 
not yet been found in Texas, though it may be expected in 
the mountainous regions bordering New Mexico. 

§ 2. Fructu coccineo ; corolla decidua. 

* Fructu clavato elongato ; seminum testa pergamentacea, 

1 It will hardly he necessary to mention that there are several different sets of 
rows of tubercles observable, but one set is usually more distinct than the others ; 
they depend on the size of the plant, and the number, size, and closeness of the 
tubercles. It is well known that in different specimens of the same species they 
turn to either side, right or left. 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 26 JAN. 1850. 



198 Planta Lindhcimeriana. 

fusca ; caule simplici,succo lacteo; jloribus ex axillis tuberculo- 
rum anni prions. 1 

Mammillaria applanata (n. sp.) : simplex, depressa ; tu- 
berculis elongato-pyramidatis subquadrangulatis apice ex 
tomento albo lanoso demum evanescente aculeiferis ; aculeis 
rectis 15-20 tenuioribus inequalibus radiantibus, singulo 
centrali robustiori erecto ; axillis nudis ; floribus sordide albi- 
dis s. rubellis ; ovario glabro, sepalis 8 - 13 lanceolatis ; petalis 
12-18 lanceolatis mucronatis, internis versus apicem fimbri- 
ato-denticulatis ; stigmatibus 5-8 stamina brevia pauca 
flavida longe excedentibus flavis ; baccis elongato-clavatis ; 
seminibus subgloboso-ovatis scrobiculatis rugulosis parvis. — 
Rocky plains on the Pierdenales : flowers (in St. Louis) in 
May. Flowers forming a circle or wreath, in the larger speci- 
mens, of 1 — 1| inches diameter around the growth of tuber- 
cles of the same year, while the scarlet fruit is frequently still 
persistent and forms an outer circle. Plant 2| to 4| inches 
in diameter, 1-2 inches high, with an almost level top and 
depressed vertex ; in larger specimens 34, in smaller ones 
13 or 21, spiral rows of tubercles are most conspicuous. 
Radiating spines 2|-6 lines long, whitish; the 3 or 4 outer 
or lower are stouter and very light brown ; the central spines 
erect, or rather somewhat inclined upwards and inwards, 
2-4 (mostly 3) lines long, light yellowish brown. The 
innermost tubercles of the preceding year appear to produce 
the inconspicuous flowers, which are from 9 to 12 lines long, 
urceolate when not fully expanded in bright sunshine. Berry 
8 to 15 lines long. 

Mammillaria hemispheric a (n. sp.) : simplex, hemispha?- 

i Tt has been stated over and over again, that all the Caclacecc paralleled (with 
cotyledons parallel to the more or less compressed sides of the seed,) see Wlsl. 
Rep. pp. 91 and 92) produce the flowers from the same year's growth, and the Cac- 
tacce co?itrarice (cotyledons contrary to the compressed sides of the seeds) from that 
of the last preceding or former years. In Wisl. Rep. 1. c. I have stated that some 
Mammillariee probably formed an exception to that rule. What was a supposition 
then 1 have since ascertained to be the fact. These few species, however, are the 
only ones in which I have as yet observed this exception. 



Planted Lindheimeriance. 199 

rica ; tuberculis elongato-pyramidatis subquadrangulatis apice 
ex tomento albo brevi mox evanido aculeiferis ; aculeis rectis, 
9—10 tenuioribus insequalibus radiantibus, singulo centrali 
robustiori porrecto ; axillis nudis ; floribus sordide albidis s. 
rubellis ; ovario glabro ; sepalis sub-13 lanceolatis acutis vel 
obtusiusculis ; petalis sub-13 oblongo-lanceolatis mucronatis 
integris s. versus apicem denticulatis ; stigmatibus 5-8 ex 
flavido rubellis supra stamina numerosa rubella exsertis ; bac- 
cis elongato-clavatis ; seminibus elongato-ovatis rugulosis mi- 
nutis. — Below Matamoras, on the Rio Grande ; brought home 
by the St. Louis Volunteers, in 1846 : flowers (in St. Louis) in 
May. Very similar to the last species, but well distinguished 
by the hemispherical shape, the much smaller number of shorter 
spines, the less woolly areolae, and the much smaller, less rough, 
and lighter-colored seed. I can see no essential difference 
in the flower. Body of the plant 3-4| inches in diameter, 
2-3 inches high : flowers 10- 15 lines long and about the 
same diameter when fully open in the forenoon sun, urceo- 
late in the afternoon. Radial spines 2, or 3-4 ; the central 
spine 2-3 lines long. 

Mammillaria gummifera, Englm. in Wish Rep. not. 33, 
has now flowered with me, and proved, as was expected, sim- 
ilar to the two foregoing species. I add here the description 
of the flower. — Floribus rubellis ; ovario glabro ; sepalis 
sub-13 oblongo-linearibus obtusiusculis fimbriatis ; petalis 16 
lanceolatis breviter acuminatis denticulato-erosis ; stigmatibus 
6 stamina brevia rubella longe excedentibus petala subaequan- 
tibus virescentibus. — Flower 15 lines long, 6-12 lines wide 
when fully open, brownish red outside ; the petals reddish 
white, with dark red in the middle. Flower larger than that 
of M. applanata, much darker and more elegantly colored ; 
style longer, etc. Fruit not seen. 

* * Fructu subgloboso ; seminum testa dura nigra ; caule 
prolifero (an semper ?) succo aqueo ; floribus ex axillis tuber- 
culorum hornotinorum. 

Mammillaria Nuttallii, Englm. in PI. Fendl., from the 



200 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

Upper Missouri ; the only specimen I possessed was unfortu- 
nately destroyed. — Mammillaria similis, Engelm. in Plant. 
Lindh. I. c, first discovered by Mr. Lindheimer near the Bra- 
zos, has since been found by him south of the Guadaloupe, 
about New Braunfels and on the Pierdenales in several forms. 
It has frequently flowered with me and annually produces 
abundant fruit. I substitute the following character and 
description. 

M. similis : subsimplex s. plerumque csespitosa ; tuberculis 
ovato-cylindraceis supra plus minus sulcatis (sulco in juniori- 
bus basin versus tomentoso saepe prolifero) axilla tomentosis ; 
areola albo-tomentosa demum nuda ; aculeis 10-12 rectis 
albidis, radiantibus tenuioribus sequalibus, centrali nullo s. 
singulo robustiori ; floribus ex axillis tuberculorum hornoti- 
norum subcentralibus s. demum lateralibus (flavis s. ex rubello 
flavicantibus) ; sepalis petalisque lineari-lanceolatis acuminato- 
aristatis ; sepalis 15-25 ciliato-fimbriatis ssepe plus minus 
recurvis ; petalis 20-30 integris s. basi subciliatis ; stigmati- 
bus 5-8 virescentibus supra stamina numerosissima exsertis ; 
bacca obovato-subglobosa coccinea ; seminibus nigris subglo- 
bosis scrobiculatis majoribus. 

a. cespitosa: gracilior ; aculeis radiantibus sub-12, centrali 
subnullo ; sepalis 15-20; stigmatibus sub-5. 

$. kobustior: subsimplex; aculeis radiantibus sub-10, cen- 
trali robustiori ; sepalis 20-25 ; petalis 25-30 ; stigmatibus 
7-8. Flowers (at St. Louis) in May. — Stems l\ - 2| inches 
high, obovate, of smaller diameter ; tubercles in a. 8, in i?- 
often in 13 rows; spines 3-4, in /S. 4-8 lines long; central 
spine, when present, 6 lines long. Grooves proliferous towards 
the upper or the lower end. Flowers l|-2 inches long, and 
of the same diameter when fully open, radiating like stars 
with their pale yellow, silky lustre, giving this species a most 
beautiful appearance when several open on the same morn- 
ing: petals 12- 15 lines long and 2 lines wide. Berries 3-5 
lines in diameter. 



Planta, Lindheimeriana. 201 



EC HINOC ACTUS. 



The specimens described in the account of Lindheimer's 
plants, under the name of E. setispinus were the most northern 
and rather diminutive forms of this beautiful species ; the 
flowers were incorrectly described from a withered bud ad- 
hering to one of the specimens. Numerous plants have since 
been sent by Lindheimer from San Antonio, and by the St. 
Louis Volunte rs from the lower Rio Grande. 

Echinocactus setispinus (Englm. 1. c.) : ovato-subglobo- 
sus s. oblongo-cylindraceus ; costis 13 acutis saepe undulatis 
s. subinterruptis plus minus obliquis ; areolis remotis, juniori- 
bus flavido- s. albido-tomentosis ; aculeis radiantibus setifor- 
mibus 10-16, summis longioribus imisque flavicanti-fuscis, 
lateralibus albidis, centrali subsingulo robustiori fusco flex- 
uoso s. apice uncinato ; floribus solitariis nudis infundibuli- 
formibus, tubo glaberrimo ; sepalis inferioribus brevioribus 
obtusis s. cuspidatis 25-40, superioribus elongatis lanceolatis 
15-25, omnibus margine membranaceis basi auriculato-cor- 
datis tenuiter ciliatis ; petalis 20-30 (cum basi miniata 
flavis) oblanceolatis acutis integris s. denticulatis ; stylo 
supra stamina rubella longe exserto ; stigmatibus 5-8 sulphu- 
reis recurvis s. erectis ; bacca pulposa globosa rubra rudi- 
mentis sepalorum infimorum membranaceis stipata. 

«. hamatus : major, subovatus ; aculeis radialibus 10-12, 
centrali robustiori hamato. E. hamatus, Muhlenpf. E. Muh- 
enplfordtis. Fen. 

p. setaceus : minor, subglobosus ; aculeis radialibus 14 - 16, 
centralibus 1—3 setiformibus flexuosis. E. setispinus, Engelm. 
1. c. — Texas, from the Colorado to the Rio Grande. Flow- 
ers from April or May to October, and therefore, on account 
of its beautiful flower, one of the most valuable species for 
cultivation. — Plant 2-4 inches in diameter, and l|-6 or 8 
inches high, flowering when quite small, simple or (in culti- 
vation at least) sometimes proliferous at base. Var. « is the 
larger southern form, with fewer, stouter, and longer spines 
(radial 6-16 lines, central 12- 16 lines long). Var. /3 is the 



202 Plantce Lindheimerian<e. 

smaller, more northern form, with more and thinner spines 
(radial 5-10, central 12-16 lines long). Flower from 
20 to 35 lines long, and 24-30 in diameter when fully open ; 
petals then often somewhat recurved : flowers open two days, 
only in bright forenoon sunshine. My specimens from the 
Rio Grande have 5 erect stigmata and a longer flower ; all 
the others have 6-8 spreading or even recurved stigmata 
and a shorter flower-tube. Berry about 4 lines in diameter. 
Withered flower finally deciduous. Fruit often bursting, when 
the filamentous red pulp and the black, thimble-shaped, verru- 
cose seeds are seen : this pulp is formed by the clavate, elon- 
gated, twisted funiculi, which most probably form the pulp of 
all the soft Cactus fruits, but they do not always remain as 
distinct as in this species. 

Echinocactus Texensis, Hcepf. (E. Lindheimeri, Engelm. 
I. c.) Mostly depressed, but sometimes globose. Common 
from the Colorado to the Rio Grande, and from thence to Sal- 
tillo (Dr. Gregg). Near New Braunfels it prefers the so- 
called Muskit-flats, or fertile level places with Muskit trees, 
overflowed in the rainy season. My specimens have several 
times fructified. Berry subglobose, pulpy, red, about S or 9 
lines in diameter, covered with spiny bristles and soft wool, 
crowned by the woolly remains of the flower: seeds reni- 
form, compressed, large, smooth and shining. Ribs in smaller 
specimens 13 - 14, in larger mostly 21, sometimes 24. Areolae 
about 6 lines long, and 12 lines apart: spines from 6- 10 
lines long in some, 15-25 lines in others; sometimes the cen- 
tral spine is 2 or 3 lines broad. Flowers all open within a few 
days, in May (in St. Louis) ; unlike the last mentioned species. 

CEREUS. 

402. Cereus cespitosus, Engelm. PL Lindh. 1. c. Com- 
mon about New Braunfels ; in flower in May. — This plant 
has been -cultivated in Europe, as Prince Salm informs me, 
under the name of Echinopsis Reichenbachiana, Hortul., and 
has been confounded with C. pectinatus : compare Wisliz. 



Plantcc Lindh eimeriance. 203 

Rep. Appendix, note 45. This species has also been sent 
from Saltillo by Dr. Gregg. Mr. Lindheimer has sent from 
the granitic region of the Liano a beautiful variety with chest- 
nut brown spines ; (?■ castaneus. — The characters given in PL 
Lindh. to this species have been corrected in Wisliz. Rep. I. c. 
I add here only that the fruit of this, as well as of all the other 
northern Cerei seen by me, ripens within a few weeks, con- 
trary to what is observed in our Mammillarise and Opuntias, 
and mostly bursts open longitudinally, when ripe. — I cannot 
omit an interesting morphological observation made on this 
species. The usual structure of the flower of all Cerei 
observed by me is the following. The ovary is covered with 
very short and (for the greater part) adnate sepals ; the adnate 
part forms a protuberance (tubercle) ; the free part is mostly 
very small, often only a minute deciduous scale. In the axil 
of the scale we find the areola, covered with a short tomen- 
tuma, long wool, and almost always with bristles or spines. All 
this together forms the pulvillus of authors. Next in order 
follow those sepals which form the tube of the flower. The 
lower of these are entirely similar to the sepals on the ovary. 
In the upper or interior sepals the tip, or free part, becomes 
larger and larger, more herbaceous, and finally more or less 
petaloid ; the wool and bristles become scarcer, but the latter 
longer, and are produced from an areola which is almost 
always situated in the axil of the sepal, where its free part 
separates from the common tube. Now in C. caspitosus, the 
free upper part of these sepals of the tube is more and more 
elongated, somewhat terete, not foliaceous, and bears the 
areola with its wool and bristles just below the subulate or (in 
the innermost sepals) somewhat foliaceous tip, reminding us 
almost of the tubercles of a Mammillaria. The descriptions 
given in PL Lindh. and in Wisliz. Rep. have to be corrected 
accordingly. 

Cereus procumbens (n. sp.) : humilis ; caule subtereti s. 
angulato articulato ramosissimo ; tuberculis aculeiferis dis- 
tinctis 4-5-fariis ; areolis parvis orbiculatis, junioribusbreviter 



204 PlantcB Lindheimeriance. 

albo-tomentosis ; aculeis brevibus tenuibus albidis apice fus- 
cis, 5-6 radiantibus, centrali singulo erecto paulo longiore ; 
floribus diurnis ; ovario tuboque brevi pulvillis sub-40 albido- 
villosis setas spinescentes breviores fuscas 6-9 gerentibus 
stipato ; sepalis interioribus sub-15 lineari-lanceolatis acumina- 
tis ; petalis 18-20 oblongo-linearibus acutis mucronatis sub- 
integris (violaceis) ; stigmate viridi infundibuliformi 10-par- 
tito stamina (pallide flavicantia) paulo superante. — On the 
lower Rio Grande, below Matamoras, collected by the St. Louis 
Volunteers, in 1846. — Plant spreading, 3-5 inches high: 
joints or branches l|-2 inches long, \ inch in diameter, much 
contracted at the base : tubercles 4 or 5 lines distant from one 
another, often in 4 rows, whence the plant derives a distinctly 
quadrangular appearance, or in 5, when it is more cylindrical. 
Radial spines 6, or mostly only 5, the uppermost being fre- 
quently abortive, 1 - 1| lines long; central spine l|-2 § lines 
as long, stouter, directed upwards. Flower 3 inches long, and 
as wide when fully expanded, of a delicate purple color : petals 
4 lines wide, often, in a bright noonday sunshine, recurved. 
Bristles on the tube about twice as long as the wool, below 
l§-2, above 2^-3, lines long. — We have in gardens in St. 
Louis a similar species in cultivation, under the name of C. 
Deppii; but, as Prince Salm informs me, widely different from 
the true C. Deppii. It is not known whence it was obtained. 
It is distinguished from C. procumbens by the larger, thicker, 
more cylindric limbs: tubercles elevated, very distinct, in 5 or 
6 rows ; spines weaker and longer; 6-8 radial spines 5-6 
lines long; ventral spine from 5 to 14 lines long: flower with 
a shorter tube, fewer pulvilli, with shorter wool, but longer 
and weaker bristles. 

Cereus Rcemeri (n. sp.) : ovatus, e basi ramosus ; costis 
sub-8 (7-9) tuberculatis interrupts; areolis orbiculatis, 
junioribus breviter tomentosis; aculeis albidis s. flavidulis 
demum cinereis teretibus, radialibus sub-8, centrali singulo 
robustiori porrecto ; floribus diu noctuque apertis infundi- 
buliformibus, limbo erectiusculo ; sepalis ovarii et tubi 17 



Plantce Lindheimcriance. 205 

squamosis in axillis ex tomento albo brevissimo setas spines- 
centes albidas 3 — 5 gerentibus ; sepalis interioribus 8 ovato- 
oblongis carinatis obtusis mucronatis ; petalis 10 obovato- 
spathulatis obtusis integris concavis chartaceis (coccineis) ; 
stylo longe supra stamina numerosissima exserto ; stigma- 
tibus 7 acutiusculis erecto-patulis viridibus. — Granitic re- 
gion about the Liano : flowers (in St. Louis) in May. — 
Named after my friend Dr. F. Roemer, of the University of 
Bonn, who was the first to explore the geology of Western 
Texas, and brought the first specimens of this species. Sent 
also in numerous specimens by Lindheimer. Heads 3—4 inches 
high, \\-2\ inches in diameter, single, or mostly 3-5 or even 
10 from the same base; ribs interrupted: areola? 4 — 8 lines 
distant from one another : radial spines 5-12 lines long; lateral 
spines longest: upper ones usually shortest ; central spine 10- 
15 lines long. Flower open by day and night, for 4 or 5, and 
in cool cloudy weather as much as 6 or 7 days, 2 inches long, 
and one wide : petals 8- 9 lines long, 5 lines wide, stiff: bris- 
tles on the tube 2-3 lines long. — The stiff and almost per- 
gamentaceous petals are uninfluenced by sunshine or darkness 
like those of most other Cactaceae. Several other northern 
species most probably agree in this particular, as especially 
C. coccincus and C. triglochidiaius of New Mexico ; while 
other nearly related species have certainly diurnal flowers. — 
C. coccineus differs by the more numerous ribs, more numer- 
ous spines, larger and more crowded areolae, etc. C. -poly acan- 
thus, Engelm. in Wisliz. Rep., has more numerous spines, 
and ten ribs, C. enneacanthus, Engelm. 1. c, is larger with the 
tubercles less distinct, ten ribs ; spines larger, angular. 

Cereus variabilis, Pfeiff., with its beautiful white noc- 
turnal flowers, delighted our volunteers in their camps on the 
lower Rio Grande. Young plants are procumbent, with 
terete or rather clavate branches: adult plants several (3- 
10) feet high, mostly triangular, with very long and stout, or 
sometimes quite short spines. Fruit large, luscious, with red 
pulp : seeds large, smooth, shining. 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 27 JA.N. 1850. 



206 Planta Lindhcimcriana. 

OPUNTIA. 
<§> 1. Applanatce. 

O. macrorhiza (n. sp.) : prostrata ; articulis obovato-or- 
biculatis planiusculis ; pulvillis setis fuscis et saepe aculeis 
singulis binisve instructis ; aculeis teretibus validis porrectis s. 
paulo deflexis basi apiceque fuscis ceterum albidis cum 
adventitio inferiore graciliore reflexo ssepe deficiente ; flori- 
bus sulphureis basi intus rubellis ; ovario sepalis subulatis 
deciduis 13 in axillis setulas fuscas brevissimas gerentibus 
stipato ; sepalis interioribus 15-18 subulatis et (internis) 
ovatis acuminato-cuspidatis ; petalis 8 sepala superantibus 
late obovato-spathulatis obtusis cuspidatis eroso-denticula- 
tis ; stigmatibus 5 obtusis, adpressis, stamina numerosa 
sequantibus ; bacca subpulposa clavata glabrata ; seminibus 
marginatis. — Naked, sterile, rocky places on the Upper 
Guadaloupe. Flowers (in St. Louis) in June. Root a large 
and fleshy tuber, sometimes 2 or 3 inches in diameter ; joints 
3-4 inches long, about 2§— 3| wide, hardly attenuate at the 
base. Leaves subulate, about 5 lines long. Areolae |-1 
inch distant, more crowded toward the base and on the 
edges: spines (often wanting) 1 inch long, the smaller 4-6 
lines long. Flower 3 inches in diameter: ovary 1* inch long: 
petals 1 inch wide, 1\ inch long, pale yellow, red at the base. 
Fruit \\ inches long; the strongly margined seeds compara- 
tively few, 2| lines in diameter. — I have found the same plant 
in similar situations in Western Arkansas ; and it is possible 
that it may be one of Nuttall's new species (O. mesacantha, 
0. caspitosa, or 0. humifusa) of which I cannot find a de- 
scription. — Nearly related to O. vulgaris. 

O. intermedia, Salm. The species mentioned in PL 
Lindh. 1. c. No. 1. has since produced abundant flowers and 
fruit, and proves to be the above plant. It is near O. vulga- 
ris, but more erect, or ascending ; the joints much larger ; 
flowers larger (4|-5 inches in diameter) ; ovary more slender, 
2 - 2| inches long, with 20 - 25 subulate sepals ; petals obcor- 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 207 

date; stigma 5-lobed, erect ; fruit 2| inches long, 6-8 lines 
wide at the top, deeply umbilicate. Lindheimer's specimens 
are from Industry, south of the Brazos. I believe I have 
seen the same species near Natchitoches on Red River. 

O. Lindheimeri (n. sjj.) : erecta, robusta ; caule lignoso ; 
articulis (magnis) ellipticis basi attenuatis planis ; pulvillis 
remotis ad margines confertioribus griseo-tomentosis, setis 
flavidis aculeisque paucis instructis 1-3 compressis validis 
deflexis varie divergentibus stramineis, nunc cum 1-2 aculeis 
adventitiis gracilioribus ; flore . . . bacca clavata elongata 
subpulposa glabrata ; seminibus late marginatis. — About New 
Braunfels. Plant erect, often 6-8 feet high: stems terete 
ligneous, sometimes 6 inches in diameter, with gray bark, and 
very light, spongy wood. Larger joints 9-12 inches long, 
5-7 broad. Areolae l|-2 inches distant on old joints; 
bristles on them 1-3 lines long. Spines all pale yellow, 
much compressed, indistinctly annulated, ^-1 inch long, 
various ; the 3 longer spines, or the one longer, with one or 
two shorter spines. The fruit, which Lindheimer has sent as 
belonging to this species, resembles very much that of O. vul- 
garis, 2-2| inches long, slender, with a deep umbilicus, very 
different from that of the following species. Seeds 2 - 2| lines 
in diameter, not numerous. Young plants grown from this 
seed have the same compressed spines, but are brown at the 
base ; the lower areolae produce no spines, but a quantity of 
long, coarse hair. — I add here the following species, though 
not properly belonging to the flora of Texas, because I suspect 
that it is also found at the mouth of the Rio Grande, within 
the limits of Texas. There, and especially on the barren sand 
islands at the Brazos, near Point Isabel, the St. Louis Volun- 
teers found large and impenetrable thickets formed by an 
Opuntia with large joints, covered with almost globose fruits, 
with innumerable small seeds, and a very luscious deep red 
pulp. The fruit and seed are before me, but unfortunately I 
did not obtain a living specimen. 

O. Engelmanni (Salm. Mss.) : erecta ; articulis orbiculato- 



208 PlantcB Lindheimeriarus. 

obovatis planiusculis ; pulvillis remotis ad margines conferti- 
oribus griseo-tomentosis setis flavidis aculeisque paucis com- 
pressis ancipitibus instructis, 1-4 validis saspe incequalibus 
plus minus deflexis varie divergentibus basi rufis, ceterum 
stramineis cum adventitio infimo graciliore albido ssepe defi- 
ciente ; fl. . . . bacca ovata subglobosa late umbilicata pulvil- 
lis pluribus tomentosis stipata ; seminibus minoribus anguste 
marginatis. — From El Paso to Chihuahua, indigenous and 
cultivated, Dr. Wislizenus. No doubt, also, on the Texan 
side of the Rio del Norte. — Erect, 5-6 feet high. Upper and 
larger older joints 12 inches long by 9 broad. Areolae 1| — 2 
inches distant: bristles 2-6 lines long: spines 1 - If inches 
long, very stout. Fruit 1|-1| inches long, about 1| in diam- 
eter; umbilicus large, (10-12 lines) flat; pulvilli on the fruit 
about 5 lines distant. Seeds very numerous, about half as 
large in O. vulgaris, U-l^ lines in diameter, of an irregular 
shape. — Near O. Dillenii and O. pohjantha, as Prince Salm 
informs me. 

<§> 2. Cylindricee. 

O. frutescens, Engehn. in PI. Lindh. I. c. under O. 
fragilis, from which it widely differs, stands near O. gracilis, 
Salm. (raised from Mexican seeds), but is sufficiently distinct. 
(Salm.) Fruit by the abortion of the seeds very often sterile. 
— I had occasion to observe this species in blossom, and add 
the description of the flowers : 

Floribus ex ramis anni prions provenientibus ; ovario clavato 
basi 5-gono sepalis subulatis sub-13 stipato ; sepalis interiori- 
bus 8 lanceolatis ex viridi sulphureis ; petalis 8 obovato-lan- 
ceolatis cuspidatis (sulphureis s. subvirescentibus) ; staminibus 
numerosis (40-50) inaequalibus (externis majoribus) ; stylo 
exserto ; stigmatibus 5 adpressis albidis. — The flower cannot 
be distinguished from that of the Opuntice applanata, but it is 
only 8-10 lines in diameter: ovary 9-12 lines long. 
Flowers (in St. Louis) July and August. 

O. arborescens, Engdm. in Wish Rep., is recognized by 
Prince Salm as identical with his O. siellata ; but as no de- 



Plants Lindkeimeriance. 209 

scription of his plant has ever been published, he adopts the 
above name. G. E. 

CRASSULACE.E. 

(245.) Sedum sparsiflorum, Nutt. Rocky soil, on the 
Upper Guadaloupe. May, June. 

UMBELLIFER^E. 

f Hydrocotyle interrupta, Muhl. ; Tort: &/• Gray, Fl. 
1 . p. 599. Swamps, along the Guadaloupe. July. 

f H. umbellata, Linn. ; Torr. § Gray, I. c. In pools 
and clear streamlets on the Liano. October. 

(613.) H. repanda, Pers. ; Torr. fy Gray, I. c. Near 
Fredericksburg, in moist places along creeks, creeping among 
high grass. September. 

(614.) Sanicula Canadensis, Linn.; Torr. Fl. New 
York, 1. p. 265. t. 32. 

403. Eryngium Leavenworthii, Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 1 . p. 
604. Margin of woods, on clayey prairies, Comale Creek 
and San Marco. August. — Plant annual, ornamental in 
cultivation, when the heads turn red or purple. 1 

1 Lamarck first properly distinguished from Eryngium aquaticum, Linn., the var. 
p., and characterized it as a distinct species, under the name of E. Virginianum. 
Later, Michaux, giving to the original E. aquaticum of Linnceus the name of E. 
yuccccfolium, descrihed under the name of E. aquaticum, a plant which appears to 
he, not the E. Virginianum of Lamarck (which is described as only a foot or so in 
height, with long and narrow, ensiform, radical leaves, finely striate and ciliate, 
with distant spinules, Lamarck moreover citing the figure of Pluk. Aim. t. 396), 
hut the much larger and broader-leaved plant which Elliott has well characterized 
under that name. Elliott's E. Plukenetii is truly E. Virginianum, Lam. I am 
indebted to H. W. Ravenel, Esq., of St. Johns, Berkley, S. Carolina, for full speci- 
mens and notes, accurately distinguishing these species, and another, which perhaps 
has also been confounded with E. Virginianum, hut which may properly bear the 
name of this acute and zealous botanist, who has directed my attention to its char- 
acters. The latter should stand next E. aquaticum, L. 

1. E. Ravenellii (sp.nov.): caule simplici ; foliis linearibus elongatis compli- 
cate) -equitantibus subteretis nervulosis obsolete denticulatis, involucralibus trifidis 
capitulo aequalibus ; paleis receptaculi uninervatis aequaliter 3-spinosis calycis lobos 
mucronato-acuminatos superantibus. — In flat and damp Pine land ; common at Black 

Oak, St. Johns, Berkley District, South Carolina. September, October. Stem 

from l£ - 3 feet high, slender. I possess no strictly radical leaves ; those from near 
the base of the stem are from 12-18 inches long, conduplicate in the dried plant, and 



210 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

(615.) Cicuta maculata, Linn. Banks of Comale Creek. 
July. Plant 4 to 7 feet high. 

404. DAUCOSMA, Engelm. fy Gray. 

Calycis dentes 5- subulati, persistentes. Petala obovata, 
emarginata, cum lacinula apice emarginato-biloba inflexa. Sty- 
lopodium conicum, persistens ; stylis elongatis reflexis. Fruc- 
tus ovoideus, ala angustissima crassa cinctus : mericarpia jugis 
5 crassis obtusis (in fruct. juniore subduplicibus aut dorso 
exaratis). Vallecula univittate : commissura plana bivittata ; 
vittis latis rectis. Semen semiteres. Carpophorum biparti- 
tum. — Herba annua, glabra, odore forte Dauci (unde 
nomen) ; caulibus 2-3-pedalibus ramosis striatis farctis ; 
foliis ternati-quinatisectis, segmentis tripartitis, lobis lacini- 
atis venosis lanceolatis, seu fol. supremorum lineari-setaceis ; 
involucri et involucelli phyllis plurimis 3 - 5-partitis setaceis 

3 or 4 lines wide at the base, thence tapering gradually to the apex. Ravenel de- 
scribes them from the living plant as "terete, solid, but soft and spongy, with a 
deep groove in the upper surface, and a few obsolete spinulose serratures." He 
remarks, that " the tube of the calyx is not entirely clothed with lanceolate vesi- 
cles " as in E. Virginianum, etc. ; but I find that this character is not uniform. 
The palese of the receptacle are larger ; their three spiny cusps stronger and of 
equal length, and the calyx-lobes much less pointed than in E. Virginianum, but 
more so than in E. aquaticum. 

2. E. Virginianum {Lam. Did 4. p. 759) : caule simplice vel apice cymoso ; 
foliis lineari-lanceolatis planis, inferioribus venulosis subspiuuloso-serratis dentibus 
uncinatis, radicalibusve fere integerrimis, superioribus spinulosis seu laciniatis, 
involucralibus trifidis vel 3-5-cuspidatis capitulo fructifero suhEequalihus ; paleis 
receptaculi trinervatis, tricuspidatis, cuspide medio longiore lobos calycis fructiferi 
acuminata aristatos subsequantibus. — E. lacustre Virginianum, &c, Pluk. Aim. t. 
396, f. 3. E. aquaticum p. Linn. E. Plukenetii, Ell. Sk. 1. p. 582. Wet places, 
margin of ponds and streams, New Jersey to Florida and Texas. Flowers in 
August and September in the Northern States; in July and June farther south. 
Plant one or two feet high. 

3. E. pRiEAi/ruM : caule 4- 6-pedali superne ramoso ; foliis lanceolatis planis 
venosis serratis utrinque attenuatis, radicalibus magnis longe petiolatiscosta valida, 
summis linearibus spinuloso-dentatis incisisve, involucralibus capitulo 2-3-plo lon- 
gioribus ; paleis receptaculi trinervatis breviter tricuspidatis lobos calycis fructiferi 
subulato-acuminatos vix aequantibus. — E. aquaticum, Michx. El. 1. p. 163, non 
Linn. E. Virginianum, Ell. Sk. 1. p. 343, non Lam. — In tide swamps, S. Carolina 
and Georgia; August. Michaux states he found it especially on Goose Creek, a 
tributary of Cooper River, in the tide swamps of which it was gathered by Mr. 
Ravenel. The lowest leaves are from one to two feet in length, and from 2h- 3 
inches in breadlh, not unlike those of a Rumex in appearance, on petioles a foot 
pr 18 inches in length. The paleae are nearly as in E. Virginianum. 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 211 

radios umbellse et umbellularum plurimos subaequantibus ; 
floribus albis. — Genus differt a proximo Cynosiadio petalis 
inflexis, ab iEthusa calyce 5-dentato, ab CEnanthi carpophoro 
distincto, etc. 

404. Daucosma laciniatum, Engelm. fy Gray. High val- 
leys near New Braunfels and on the Upper Guadaloupe, cov- 
ering large patches of moist prairie land, and along the 
margin of thickets. Flowering in July. — The specimens 
have only half grown fruit. The carpological characters of 
the genus are derived from fruiting specimens of Lind- 
heimer's collection in 1849, just received, and from others 
gathered by Mr. Wright the same year, on sand bars of the 
upper part of the Nueces. — The whole plant exhales a strong 
odor of Carrot. 

(616.) CHiEROPHYLLUM Teinturieri, Hoolc. fy Am. : 8. 
fructu pubescente, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 1. p. 638. Shady 
woods, New Braunfels. April, May. " Less rigid and erect 
than the form with glabrous fruit, from the same locality." l 

1 From Mr. Wright, gathered in Western Texas, we have specimens of an evi- 
dent congener of Tauschia nudicaulis, except that its fruit shows about 20 small 
vittE, instead of six rather large ones. In this and many other respects, it accords 
with Musenium, Nutt., of which I have no specimens (since No. 220 of Geyer's 
Oregon Collection does not agree with the generic character). 

Tauschia (Moseniopsis) Texana (sp.nov-): glaberrima ; foliis omnibus radi- 
calibus utrinque viridibus pinnato-decompositis, nempe pinnis 3-5 cum impari, 
inferioribus petiolulatis (petiolulis ac petiolo gracili apteris) piunato-3-5-partitis, 
segmentis cuneiformibus 3 - 5-fidis, lobis oblongis obtusissimis ; scapo simplicis- 
simo nudo ; involucro parvo 1 -2-phyllo aut nullo; involucello diinidiato e phyllo 
unico palmati 3-5-fido; radiis umbellulse fructu didymo brevioribus ; mericarpiis 
leevigatis 18-20-vittatis, jugis obsoletis. — Western Texas, near Austin? Mr. 
Charles Wright. — Root thick, perennial. Scape in fruit from 5 to S inches high, 
longer than the leaves. Umbel 5-7-rayed. Fruits a line and a half long, very 
smooth ; the filiform jugaj nearly obsolete at maturity. — No. 120 of Coulter's 
Mexican Collection is Tauschia nudicaulis, as appears from an original specimen 
from Schlechtendal, in flower only. No. 121 is apparently a disiinct species, viz. : 

Tauschia Coulteri (Gray fy Harv. iried.) : breviter caulescens ; foliis ternati- 
quinatisectis subtus glaucescentibus; segmentis ovalibus basi subcordatis cuneatisve 
saepius trilobatis duplicato-dentatis, dentibus mucronatis ; involucro et involucello e 
phyllo unico lineari integerrimo aut nullo ; radiis umbellulce fructu plus duplo lon- 
gioribus. — Scapes in flower and fruit from 5 to 12 inches long, soon exceeding the 
leaves. Petioles much dilated and sheathing at the base, as in T. nudicaulis. 
The larger leaflets an inch and a half long. Pedicels in fruit 4 or 5 lines in length. 
Fruit fully two lines long ; the jugae rather prominent ; vittae 6 in each mericarp, 
rather large. 



212 Planta. Lindheimeriaiue. 

405. Atrema Americana, DC. Prodr. 4. p. 250. Margin 
of woods, in rocky, dry prairies, New Braunfels. May. 

LORANTHAC^E. 

406. Phoradendron flavescens, Nutt. ; Engelm. in PL 
Fendl. p. 59, in not. : var. p. pubescens, Engelm. Mss. On 
Muskit trees, Upper Guadaloupe, Elms, &C. 1 

1 Dr. Engelmann communicates the subjoined revised character and remarks. 

"Phoradendron flavbscens (Nult.): ramis teretibus ; foliis oblanceolatis 
obovatis nunc orbiculatis obtusis in petiolum brevem attenuatis trinerviis ; spicis 
masculis subverticiilatis folium cequantibus, articulis 4-5, 15 -35-floris ; fcemineis 
suboppositis folio brevioribus, articulis 3-4 4- 10-floris ; floribus depresso-globosis 
annulato-carinatis ciliatis subtrifidis. — Var. a. glabriusculum : foliis oblan- 
ceolatis seu obovatis 3-nerviis in petiolum sensim attenuatis glabris ; ramis junio- 
ribus puberulis : — jS. pubescens : foliis ut in a, seel puberulis ; ramulis canescenti- 
b us: — y. orbiculatum (Ph. orbiculatum, Engelm. PL Fendl.): foliis obovato- 
orbiculatis in petiolum brevem abrupte contractis vix trinerviis subpubescentihus. — 
New Jersey to Southern Missouri and New Mexico, and south to Texas. Var. a. 
is the more northern form, mostly in low woods along water courses ; ft. in damp 
places on Ulmus, Algarobia, and also Quercus falcata, near New Braunfels, San 
Antonio, etc. y. in Texas and Arkansas on dry sterile land, on Quercus nigra and 
other Oaks. Flowers, December to March ; fruit ripens the following winter. 

"The nearly related Phoradendron tomentosum, from South of the Rio Grande, 
has smaller leaves, longer spikes, etc. Plwradendron villosum of Oregon has much 
smaller and spatulate tomentose leaves, etc. 

" I take this opportunity to make some corrections and additions to my paper on 
Viscum and the related genera, printed as a note in Plantce Fendlcriance, pp. 
58, 59. 

" I. VISCUM Bacca globosa, pulposa, semipellucida, monosperma, 

corolla persistente coronata. 

" II. PHORADENDRON, Nutt. Flores diceci, globosi. FL masc. Perian- 
thium 3-(raro 2- s. 4-) lobum : anthera loborum basi adnatre, transversse, biloculares, 
poris s. rimis verticalibus duabus dehiscentes. Fl.fasm. Perianthium 3- (rare 2-s. 
4-)- lobum: ovarium inferum, tubo adnatum, uniloculare ; ovulo uuico pendulo. 
Stigma sessile, plus minus bilobum. Bacca globosa, pulposa, semipellucida, mo- 
nosperma, perigonio persistente coronata. — Frutices Americani, etc. 

"* Foliosa; foliis lamina dilatata basi attenuatis; spicis faemineis plus minus 
elongatis ex articulis pluribus plurifloris constitutis. 

"1. Phoradendron flavescens, Pursh, sub Visco. Vide supra. 

"2. Ph. tomentosum, DC, sub Visco. 

"3. Ph. villosum, Nutt., sub Visco: tomentosum; ramis teretibus ; foliis ob- 
lanceolatis s. spathulatis obtusis in petiolum brevem attenuatis obscure trinerviis s. 
subenerviis ; spicis fcemineis oppositis s. verticillatis abbreviatis 2 - 3-articulatis ; 
bracteis truncatis ; articulis brevibus, inferiore 6-8-floro, superiore 2-floro ; floribus 
depresso-globosis annulato-carinatis puberulis 3-fidis. — Wahlamet Woods, Oregon, 
Nuttall. — Leaves 8-12 lines long, 3-4 lines wide. Spikes 3-4 lines long. 
Flowers 0.5-0.6 of a line in diameter, like those of the two foregoing species de- 



Planted Lindheimeriana. 213 



CAPRIFOLIACE^E. 

f Lonicera albiflora, Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 2. p. 6. 
Var. p. tubo corollae limbo paulo longiore aut sequali. L. 
anelica, Lindh. ined. — High rocky prairies between the 

pressed, with an almost annular, ciliate carina. Stigma conspicuously bifid. — 
The narrow, long, attenuate leaves and the short spikes distinguish it from Ph. 
tomentosum. 

"5. Ph. lanceolatum, Engeirn. in Plant. Fendl. 

" * * Squamosa; foliis in squamulas connatas pelviformes reductis ; spicis 
fcemineis ex articulis paucis 1-2 floris constitutis. 

"6. Ph. Califoknicum (Nutt.): glabrum ; ramis elongatis strictis gracilibus 
teretibus ; squamis ovato-lanceolatis patentibus basi connatis tenuiter ciliatis ; 
spicis fcemineis lateralibus opposilis 3-4-floris; floribus globosis trifidis glabris in 
quovis articulo singulis s. binis cupulse ciliatae immersis ; spicis fructiferis elonga- 
tis; baccis globosis.— Sierra Nevada of California, on some species of Strombocar- 
pus, Dr. Gambel. Intermediate and connecting the leafy and scaly species of this 
genus, though properly belonging to the latter. Scales longer than the diameter 
of the branch, patulous. Branches a foot or more long (Nuttall); ultimate joints 
7 -9 lines long; flowering spikes about 3 lines, and fruiting spikes 9 lines long. 
Fruit 3 lines in diameter. Flowering spikes with 2 lateral linear-lanceolate ciliate 
bracts at base, consisting of 3 joints, the lower being always sterile, the two upper 
ones producing each two or by abortion single flowers. In the fruit-bearing spike 
these joints are in such a manner elongated that the (typically axillary) fruit is car- 
ried up to the top of the joint, just below the next pair of leaves (or scales). Stigma 
globose, very slightly bilobed. 

"7. Phoradendron juniper inum, Enghn. in Plant. Fendl. 
"III. ARCEUTHOBIUM, M. Bieb. Flores diced, ovati, compressi. Fl. 
masc. Perianthium 3- (raro 4-) partitum. Anthers lobis mediis adnatse, unicellu- 
losse, rima transversa dehiscentes. Fl. Fcem. Perianthium breviter pedicellatum, 
2- (raro 3-) dentatum: ovarium inferum, tubo adnatum, uniculoculare ; ovulounico 
pendulo. Stigma sessile, conicum. Bacca carnosa, opaca, ovata, compressa, peri- 
gonio persistente coronata. — Frutices gerontogei et Americani glaberrimi, aphylli, 
articulati; foliis squamseformibus in vaginulas pelviformes s. cupuliformes conna- 
tis ; floribus axillaribus terminalibusque ssepe spicam simplicem s. compositam 
mentientibus ; fl. masculis 1 - 3 sessilibus, fcemineis plerumque singulis brevissime 
incluso-pedicellatis; baccis perigonio aucto plerumque discolore coronatis ssepius 
exserte pedicellatis extus carnosis intus viscidis. 

"1. A. Oxycedei (M. Bieb.) : caule ramisque oppositis s. dichotomis com- 
presso-teretibus gracilibus strictis; ramulis ultimis compresso-sub-quadrangulatis ; 
squamis triangularibus in vaginulas pelviformes connatis; floribus fcemineis in 
ultimis ramulorum articulis axillaribus terminalibusque in quavis axilla singulis s. 
binis; baccis exserto-pedicellatis, erectis. — Southern Europe, etc. The specimen 
before me is from Fiume. — Lowest joints of the ultimate branchlets sterile ; the 
next joint producing two leaf buds ; the 2 to 4 following joints bearing flowers, one 
of which is terminal. The usual state probably is, where only the two last joints 
bear flowers, the ultimate one a terminal, and the next below two lateral flowers ; 
that is the state described by Decandolle ; 'floribus fcemineis ad ramulorum apices 
tribus.' But in the specimen before me most branchlets bear from 5 to 9 flowers, 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 28 JAN. 1S50. 



214 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

Guadaloupe and Pierdenales. Comanche Spring. April. 
" A rough, unsightly shrub, from 4 to 6 feet high ; only the 
young shoots show any inclination to climb or twine. Flow- 
on the three or four last joints, one or two in each axilla. Flowers minute, 0.3 of a 
line wide and 0.4 long, on very short, enclosed pedicels, which apparently are elon- 
gated immediately after flowering. Pedicel of the young fruit (ripe fruits not seen) 
half the length of the fruit. 

"2. A. Americanum (Nutt.): caule ramisque fasciculatis teretibus gracilibus 
patulis ; squamis truncatis in vaginulas dilatalas cupuliformes connatis ; floribus 
masculis axillaribus terminalibusque nee spicatis. — Oregon, on Pinus, Nuttall. — 
Considerably resembling the slender forms of var. «. of the next species, but 
smaller, slenderer, and at once distinguished by the terete branches, the fasciculated 
branchlets, and much dilated vaginulse. Female plant and fruit unknown to me. 

" 3. A. campylopodum {n. sp.) : ramis oppositis seu dichotomis compresso- 
quadrangulatis ; squamis truncatis breviter cuspidatis in vaginulas subcylindricas 
cupuliformes connatis; floribus axillaribus terminalibusque plerumque in spicam 
simplicem s. compositam aggregatis, masculis singulis vel binis ternisve, fcemineis 
in quavis axilla singulis ; baccis exserto-pedicellatis patulis s. recurvis. — Var. a. 
macrarthron: caule compresso vix angulato ; ramis plerumque gracilioribus ; 
articulis plus minus elongatis ; floribus foemineis sparsis et in ramulis brevibus 
paucis seu in spicas simplices aggregatis. — /?. ? brachyarthron : caule tereti ro- 
busto ; ramis robustis articulis abbreviatis diametro vix longioribus ; floribus 
foemineis in spicas densas compositas aggregatis. — I have comprised under this 
name different forms, which, when better known, will probably have to be separated 
as distinct species. My specimens are so incomplete that I can not even satisfactorily 
determine whether the different forms which constitute the first of the two varie- 
ties will finally be retained under one species. — Var. «. has been found in Oregon 
(only on Pinus ponderosa), Geyer; in New Mexico (only on Pinus edulis,) Fendler, 
282; and in California, Doug-las. — The specimens from New Mexico (only male 
and female flowers seen) have short female spikes, bearing 2 to 5 flowers, or the 
flowers are scattered on the branchlets : the flowers are elliptical, 0.4 lines wide and 
0.5 long, almost sessile. Geyer's Oregon plant (I have seen only a fruiting speci- 
men) has more elongated many-flowered female spikes ; the flowers apparently 
ovate ; pedicel hardly one third the length of the (not quite ripe) fruit. The Gali- 
fornian plant (male and female flowers and fruit) is much stouter : male flowers 
twice as large as in the specimens from New Mexico, and not rarely 4-parted ; 
female flowers in more elongated spikes, elliptico orbicular, small, 0.4 to 0.5 line in 
diameter; the recurved pedicel more than half the length of the fruit, which is 2 
lines long and 1,3 wide. — Var.? /S. has been collected in Mexico by Coulter. 
I can hardly doubt it to be a distinct species ; but my means to distinguish it are at 
present too limited. The stout terete stem, the short joints which are hardly longer 
than wide, the crowded compound or panicled spikes which resemble those of the 
following species, and the larger ovate (not elliptical) flowers appear to indicate 
specific distinction. Fern, flowers 0.6 lines wide and 0.8 lines long : fruit 2 lines 
long and 1.2 lines in transverse diameter, the pedicel more than half as long as the 
fruit : male flowers not seen. 

"4. A. cryptopodum (n. sp.): caule ramisque acute quadrangulatis robustis 
articulis brevioribus ; squamis truncatis in vaginulas cupulatas connatis ; floribus in 
spicas densas compositas congestis, fcemineis ovatis in quavis axilla singulis ; 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 215 

ers dirty white." — Mr. Wright has sent the same plant from 
near Austin. The leaves on the flowering branches are from 
an inch to an inch and a half long ; those of young sterile 
shoots larger. Tube of the corolla 5 lines long. — I possess 
no specimen of the original L. albiflora ; from which this 
apparently differs only as the L. flava /?• Torr. fy Gray, I. c. 
differs from the type of that species. 1 

RUBIACE^E. 

(617.) Galium virgatum, Nutt. in Torr. &f Gr. Fl. 2. p. 
20: var. caulibus laxioribus. — New Braunfels ; "covering 
large patches of naked prairie, mixed with little grass. April. 
To this species plainly belongs the Galium Texanum, Scheele 
in Linncea, 21. p. 597, gathered by Roemer. 

(618.) G. triflorum, Michx. : forma pusilla, junior, foliis 
subspathulatis. New Braunfels. April. 

(619.) G. uncinulatum, DC. Prodr. 4. p. 600 ? G. Cali- 
fornicum y. Texanum, Torr. &/• Gray, FL 2. p. 20. New 
Braunfels. April. Allied to this is G. hypadenium, Schauer. 

(247.) Diodia tricocca, Torr. &/■ Gray, Fl. 2. p. 30. 
Sterile soil in high places, near New Braunfels. June. 

(620.) Hedyotis (Amphiotis) stenophylla, Torr. &f 

baccis brevissime incluso-pedicellatis erectis. — Santa Fe, only on Pinus brachyp- 
tera, A. F'endler, No. 283. — Hooker's A. Oxycedri from the Hudson Bay country 
appears to belong here : the figure shows at least subsessile, erect fruits ; but the 
segments of the male flowers are broadly oval, while those of the New Mexican 
plant are lanceolate." G. Engelmann. 

1 From the collection made by Lindheimer in 1849, Dr. Engelmann communicates 
the following : 

Symphoricarpus spicatus {Engelm. Mss.): foliis obovatis obtusis brevissime 
petiolatis supra demum glabratis subtus pubescentibus pallidis; floribus (15 - 30) 
in spicas axillares arcle glomeratas congestis ; corollis intus barbatis; baccis rubris. 
— Shady bottom woods, New Braunfels. A small shrub, 2 or 3 feet high, with 
numerous slender branches. Leaves about three fourths of an inch long, half an 
inch wide ; the lower leaves wider, almost orbicular. Spikes from 4 to 6, or in fruit 
8 or 10, lines long. Flowers a little smaller than in S 1 . glomeratus, to which our 
species bears a strong affinity. It is, however, distinguished by its smaller, obtuse 
leaves, the spiked flowers, the larger and apparently more juicy fruit, and the 
broader, more compressed seeds. Of the numerous flowers in each spike only a 
few mature fruit." Engelm. 



216 Plants Lindheimeriaruz. 

Gray, Fl. 2. p. 41. Var. coiollis minoribus. — Rocky soil 
on the plateau above New Braunfels. June. 

(621.) Hedyotis (Houstonia) humifusa (n. sp.) : annua, 
dichotome ramosissima, depressa, glutinoso-puberula ; foliis 
lineari-lanceolatis imis in petiolum attenuatis mucronatis 
crassiusculis ; stipulis dilatatis scariosis setaceo-dentatis ; flori- 
bus in dichotomiis solitariis binisve breviter pedunculatis ; 
tubo corollas infundibuliformis lobis oblongis supra puberulis 
sublongiore lacinias calycis 4-partiti subulato-setaceas paulo 
superantibus ; capsula pendula didyma puberula basi tantum 
calyci accreta ; seminibus in loculis paucis ovoideis. — Open 
gravelly banks of streamlets, near Fredericksburg. May. 
(Also in sandy prairies at Austin, Mr. Charles Wright.) — 
Stems 3 or 4 inches long, fastigiate, very leafy, in cultivation 
(in the Cambridge Botanic Garden) close pressed to the 
ground, and forming a dense patch, flowering through the 
summer. Lower leaves somewhat spatulate, an inch long ; 
the others linear and smaller. Corolla pale purple or nearly 
white, 3 lines long ; the lobes more or less downy inside. 
Stigma two-lobed. The flowers are dioecio-dimorphous, after 
the manner of the genus and its allies ; one plant having the 
linear anthers deeply included, and a long style with the 
stigma exserted ; the other with a short, included style, and 
with the stamens inserted in the throat of the corolla. Both 
forms are abundantly fertile. The seeds are not hollowed on 
the inner face. — This species is intermediate in characters 
between Houstonia, Amphiotis, and Ereicotis, and should 
perhaps stand in a separate section, along with H. rubra, 
although the latter is in some respects quite a different plant. 
I was mistaken in stating (in PL Fendl. p. 61), that H. rubra 
had been met with in Texas. No. 621 is the form with sub- 
exserted stamens, and short style. 

(622.) The same species with subexserted style and 
included stamens. Sandy prairies on the Pierdenales. May. 

407. Fedia (Valerianella) stenocarpa (Engelm. 
Mss.) : fructu glabro anguste oblongo, loculis sterilibus paral- 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 217 

lelis semine multo minoribus : cset. F. radiatse sed fructu mi- 
nore. — Thickets in light soil, near San Antonio, New 
Braunfels, &c. March. This, Dr. Engelmann, probably 
with good reason, considers as distinct from the F. radiata 
with glabrous fruit (the form that alone occurs around St. 
Louis.) " The fruit is not only much smaller and more slen- 
der than that of F. radiata, but the proportion of the empty 
cells is different ; these being much smaller than the seed ; 
while in the former they are about equal, and in F. carinata 
(which has a different habit) larger. Cauline leaves often 
deeply dentate at the base, or almost pinnatifid, but some- 
times entire." Engelm. 1 

COMPOSITE. 

408. Vernonia Lindheimeri : perennis, bipedalis ; foliis 
anguste linearibus confertis sessilibus uninerviis margine re- 
volutis supra glabris punctatis subtus cauleque simplici seri- 
ceo-tomentosis ; capitulis corymbosis breviter pedunculatis 
30-40-floris ; squamis involucri cano-tomentosi pappo rubi- 
ginoso brevioribus conformibus appressis oblongis xobtusis 
exappendiculatis ; acheniis glabris 10-costatis glandulosis ; 
pappo exteriori multisquamellato. Gray &r Engelm. in Pro- 
ceed. Amer. Acad. 1. p. 46. — Rocky hill sides, and high 
rocky plains, near New Braunfels, &c. July, August. Also 
near Seguin, &c. Mr. Wright. A very well-marked and hand- 
some species. In cultivation in the Cambridge Botanic Gar- 
den, it does not blossom until near the end of September. 

1 From the collection of 1S49, Dr. Engelmann has communicated the characters 
of another species, viz. 

Fedia amarella (Lindh. Mss.): " glaberrima, erecta, versus apicem dicho- 
tomo-cymosa; foliis inferioribus spathulatis basi longe attenuatis, superioribus ob- 
longo-linearibus sessilibus vel basi subcordatis, omnibus integris obtusis ; fructibus 
minimis subgloboso-ovatis obtuse auriculatis hispidis, loculis sterilibus fertili sub- 
globoso multo angustioribus brevioribusque pene obliteratis. — Comanche Spring ; 
flowering in May. — Plant 8 to 12 inches high, in habit similar to F. radiata and 
F. ste?wcarpa ; but the leaves are entire in all the specimens ; and the fresh herb has 
a bitter taste, which the other species have not. The fruit is much smaller than 
in any other species known to me ; the sterile cells many times smaller than the 
seed, their cavity almost obliterated." Engelm. 



218 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

The appropriate name of V. rosmarini folia, given to this 
species by Mr. Lindheimer, is preoccupied by Lessing. 

409. Clavigera Riddellii, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 77. 
Gravelly banks of the Upper Pierdenales, and of the Guada- 
loupe. September, October. — Plants 3 or 4 feet high, suf- 
fruticose. 

410. KUHNIA EUPATORIOIDES, Linn, ft. CORYMBULOSA : for- 

ma humilis. K. suaveolens, Presenilis. K. Maximiliani, Sin- 
ning in Neuwied, Trav. Dry, rocky prairies near New 
Braunfels. November. Also, Comanche Spring, "with 
beautiful red or yellow flowers." Lindh. 

411. K. edpatorioides, 8. gracillima : foliis angustis- 
sime linearibus marginibus revolutis seu filiformibus. Dry, 
gravelly bed of the Pierdenales and Cibolo Rivers. October. 

The same as No. 305 of PL Fendleriance (also found by 

Mr. Wright on the Rio Grande), but with still narrower 
leaves. It would seem to be distinct from K. eupatorioides 
y. Torr. fy Gray ; yet I find no characters besides the more 
attenuated leaves. I notice that it is the Kuhnia leptophylla, 
Scheele in Linnaa, 21. p. 598, described from Lindheimer's 
specimens. 

f Liatris punctata, Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 1. p. 206. t. 55. 
Torr. 8f Gray, Fl. 2. p. 69. Var. /?. Rocky prairies between 
the Rio Colorado and Guadaloupe. July. 

412. Brickellia (Bulbostylis) cylindracea: cinereo- 
pubescens et resinoso-atomifera, herbacea e radice lignea; 
foliis plerisque oppositis triplinerviis subtus reticulato-venosis 
oblongo-ovatis obtusiusculis grosse serratis brevissime petio- 
latis, ramealibus subsessilibus ; capitulis pedunculatis in pani- 
culam foliosam laxe corymbosam digestis ; involucri 10-flori 
cylindrici squamis 4-seriatim imbricatis arachnoideo-ciliatis 
striatis mucronato-acuminatis, intimis linearibus pappum bar- 
bellato-serrulatum requantibus, exterioribus multo brevioribus 
ovalibus appressis ; achsniis puberulis. Gray &r Englm. in 
Proceed. Amer. Acad. 1. c. — In stony thickets on the Upper 
Guadaloupe. September, October. Also near Fredericks- 



Plantce Lindheimeriance. 219 

burg; and in the same region, by Mr. Wright. — Stems 
numerous, from a woody perennial root, two to four feet 
high. Heads 7 lines long. — Differs from Clavigera only in 
the merely serrulate pappus. Can it be C. dentata, DC? 

413. EuPATORIUM AGERATIFOLIUM, DC, /?. TeXENSE. 

Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 90. — E. Lindheimerianum, Scheele, 
in Linn a a, 21. p. 599. Rocky, Cedar woods, New Braun- 
fels. October. Also gathered by Mr. Wright in Western 
Texas. — A shrubby plant, with slender branches, from four 
to ten feet high. In the cultivated plant the copious and 
showy blossoms are pure white. 

f E. serotinum, Michx. Margin of woods, New Braun- 
fels. August. 

f Aster sericeus, Vent. Hort. Cels. t. 33. Banks of the 
Upper Pierdenales. October. 

(249.) A. Drummondii, Lindl. ; DC Prodr. 5. p. 234; 
Torr. &r Gray, Fl. 2. p. 121. Thickets, on rocky banks of 
the Upper Pierdenales. October. 

f A. multiflorus, Ait. ; Torr. ty- Gray, Fl. 2. p. 124. 
Dry prairies of the Upper Guadaloupe and Pierdenales. Oc- 
tober. 

A. virgatus, Ell. Sk. 2. p. 253 ; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 
116. Thickets on the Cibolo River. October. 

f A. carneus, Nees. ; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 133. Up- 
per Pierdenales. October, 1845. 

f A. carneus. Nees. Var. foliis angustioribus linearibus. 
On the Pierdenales. 

(624.) A. carneus /?. subasper, Torr. fy Gray, I. c. 
Thickets and along streamlets, on the Pierdenales and Liano. 
October. 

t A. simplex, p. Torr. &f Gray, Fl. 2. p. 132. Rocky 
soil, margin of thickets. October. 

f A. divaricatus, Torr. &r Gray, Fl. 2. p. 163. On the 
Pierdenales and Liano; in moist, fertile soil. Stems 2-4 
feet high, sometimes leafless. Rays light blue. 

(623.) A. spinosus, Benth. PI. Hartw. p. 20; Torr. %> 



220 Planta Lindheimeriance. 

Gray, Fl. 2. p. 165. Banks of the Liano. October. Also 
on the Brazos. " Shrubby, 6 to 8 feet high ; the perennial 
stems half an inch thick, branching above [the branches her- 
baceous]. Leaves few and small, [scale-like or subulate], 
spinescent or soft, or none." Lindh. 

(626.) Erigeron Canadense /?. glabratum. E. strictum, 
DC! Prodr. 5. p. 289, sed panicula composita expansa. 
Prairies north of the Liano, among granite rocks. October. 
De Candolle's E. strictum is certainly not to be distin- 
guished as a species from E. Canadense. 

(627.) E. modestum, Gray, PL Fendl in Mem. Amer. 
Acad. n. ser. 4. p. 68. Distasis modesta, DC, Prodr. 5. p. 
279? Rocky soil, north of New Braunfels, and near the 
sources of the Pierdenales. June and October. — The 
squamellee and the fragile setae of the pappus are more numer- 
ous than in the character of Distasis modesta, DC Our 
plant is an undoubted Erigeron. Had it more numerous rays 
it would fall into the section Phalacroloma, before E. tenue. 
As it is, it belongs rather to Pseud erigeron. 

414. Egletes ramosissima, Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 71. 
Aphanostephus ramosissimus, DC Prodr. 5. p. 310. A. 
Riddellii, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 189. Dry, sandy, or 
stony prairies of the Guadaloupe and Pierdenales. April 
to August. — In cultivation this plant flowers abundantly 
through the whole summer, and is quite ornamental. The 
heads droop before anthesis ; and the white rays are usually 
tinged with pink or purple underneath. 

415. Keerlia bellidifolia (Gray fy Engelm. in Proceed. 
Amer. Acad. 1. p. 47) : annua, diffusa, hirsutulo-pubescens ; 
caulibus foliosis dichotomo-ramosis ; ramis ramulisque mono- 
cephalis ; foliis spathulatis obtusis mucronulatis integerrimis, 
summis sublinearibus, omnibus inferne attenuatis, radicalibus 
obovatis petiolatis ; involucri campanulati squamis biserialibus 
oblongis membranaceis nitidis mucronato-acuminatis margini- 
bus late scariosis ; ligulis (cyaneis) 9- 14 lineari-oblongis; 
fl. disci plusquam 20 plerisque fertilibus ; acheniis clavato- 



Plant a Lindheimeriance. 221 

fusiformibus vix compressis 7-9-nerviis hirtellis coronula 
integra soepius obsoleta superatis. — Margin of woods and 
thickets, in sterile soil, Comale Creek and near New Braun- 
fels (also 628.) April to June. A summer state, very much 
branched and with smaller capituli, was gathered in Western 
Texas by Mr. Wright. The plant has much the aspect of 
Bellis integrifolia, though the heads are rather smaller, and it 
branches diffusely in the same way, the branches terminated 
by single capituli. — The type of the genus Keerlia must be 
K. ramosa, DC, a Mexican plant collected by Keerl himself, 
and with which the present plant appears to be a true con- 
gener. K. linearifolia, DC is thought to have yellow rays, 
which leaves its position doubtful. K. skirrobasis, DC, and 
of Delessert's as well as of Hooker's figure, is doubtless Leu- 
copsidium Arkansanum, DC, the Egletes Arkansana, Nutt., 
as I have already remarked in Proceed. Amer. Acad. I. c, 
and in Plantce Fendleriance, p. 71. The genus, as it thus 
stands, takes the place in this country of Brachycome, from 
which, as well as from Bellis, it is well distinguished by its flat 
receptacle. Mr. Lindheimer's recent collection enables us to 
add another Texan species, of a peculiar aspect, and remark- 
able for its fewer-flowered heads, its flattened ray-achenia, 
and entirely sterile disk, 1 viz. 

1 An amended character of the genus is subjoined : — 

KEERLIA, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 309. excl. sp. 2. et forte 1. 

Capitulum muhiflorum radiatum ; ligulis 6-25 uniserialibus femineis; fl. disci 
hermaphroditis vel abortu masculis 5-dentatis. Involucrum campanulatum aut 
turbinatum, pauci-pluriseriale ; squamis oblongis mucronatis vel acuminatis mar- 
gine late scariosis. Receptaculum planum nudum. Achenia subteretia vel com- 
pressa, disci omnia aut centralia saepe inania. Pappus parvus coroniformis. 
— Herbae Mexicans et Texanae, humiles, rarnosse ; foliis alternis sessilibus inte- 
gris ; capitulis parvulis solitariis vel paniculatis; ligulis albis vel cseruleis. 

§ 1. Achenia subteretia, fusiformia vel obpyramidata, nervosa: styli fl. disci ap- 
pendice brevi obtusa superati. — Caules dichotome ramosi, ramis apice nudis mono- 
cepbalis, capitulis mullifloris. 

1. K. ramosa, DC. 2. K. bellidifolia, Gray $• Engelm. supra. ?K. 

LINEARIFOLIA, DC. 

§ 2. Achenia radii plano-compressa calloso-marginata, disci omnia inania gra- 
JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 29 JAN. 1850. 



222 Planted Lindheimeriana. 

(629.) K. effusa (sp. nov.) : perennis ? caule virgato ad 
apicem usque folioso hirsuto ; foliis utrinque hispidis oblongis 
obtusis integerrimis e basi lata arete sessilibus, infimis subspa- 
thulatis basi attenuatis, costa supra impressa subtus promi- 
nula ; panicula decomposita patentissima, ramulis peduncu- 
lisque filiformibus ; bracteis minimis subulatis ; involucri 
turbinati squamis gradatim imbricatis oblongis marginibus 
scariosis obtusissimis cuspidato-mucronatis ; ligulis albis 5 — 7 
oblongis; fl. disci 7-10 sterilibus ; acheniis radii plano- 
compressis ovalibus calloso-marginatis ad margines praesertim 
hirtellis faciebus fere enerviis apice acutatis pappo minimo 
setuloso-coroniformi superatis, disci omnibus abortivis gracili- 
bus, pappo ut in radio. — Shady declivities, on the banks of 
the Upper Guadaloupe, near Comanche Spring. August, 
September. Stem from 18 to 30 inches high, very leafy to 
the top ; the leaves about an inch long, not unlike those of 
Aster patens, but not clasping. Heads very numerous: invo- 
lucre scarcely more than two lines long. 

416. Gymnospermum corymbosum, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 312; 
Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 192. Rocky and naked limestone 
terraces between the headwaters of the San Antonio and 
Guadaloupe rivers. August - October. — The leaves are 
nearly lanceolate. 

(80.) Gutierrezia Texana, Torr. fy Gray, I. c. New 
Braunfels, in large masses on sterile soil. July, August. 

417. Solidago speciosa y. rigidiuscula, Torr. &f Gray : 
foliis angustioribus, capitulis majusculis. S. Lindheimeriana, 
Scheele in Linncea, 21. p. 599. On limestone gravel in the 
dry bed of the Cibolo, between New Braunfels and San An- 
tonio. October. 1 

cilia: styli fl. disci steril. appendice gracili lanceolata hispida superati. — Caulis 
strictus, panicula polycephala composita, pedunculis pedicellisque filiformibus pa- 
tentissimis, capitulis paucifloris. 

3. K. effusa : vide supra. — Like Brachycome, which it represents in America, 
Keerlia as thus constituted exhibits both terete and compressed achenia. 

1 Solidago cylindrica, Scheele in Linncea, I. c, from Virginia, appears to be S. 
gpeciosa /J. angustata, Torr. ^ Gray. 



Planta Lindheimeria7U£. 223 

f S. nemoralis, Alt. ; Torr. if Gray, FL 2. p. 220. 
Prairies, Upper Pierdenales. October. 

f S. inc ana j5? Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. p. 221. On declivi- 
ties, Upper Pierdenales. October. 

f S. decemflora, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 332. Prairies, Upper 
Pierdenales. October. — This, if rightly identified, must 
stand next to S. Radula, from which it differs in having con- 
siderably larger heads, narrower involucral scales, and cine- 
reous entire triplinerved leaves. — It has been abundantly 
collected at Comanche Spring, in October, 1849. 

(253.) Isopappus divaricatus, Torr. 8f Gray, FL 2. p. 
239: pedunculis brevioribus. On granite along the Liano. 
November. 

f Aplopappus spinulosus, DC; Torr. fy Gray, I. c. Var. 
segmentis foliorum rachique filiformi-setaceis. Sandy soil 
under Muskit bushes, on the Liano. 

(630.) Centauridium Drummondii, Torr. Sf Gray, FL 2. 
p. 246. Dry, rocky prairies on the Liano. November. — 
Raised from Texan seeds in the Cambridge Botanic Garden, 
this proves to be a very showy plant. Its numerous, golden 
yellow rays are fully an inch in length. The radical and 
lowest cauline leaves are strongly laciniate-pinnatifid or even 
bipinnatifid. 

418. Grindelia squarrosa, Dunal ; DC. Prodr. 5. p. 
314. G. Texana, Schecle, in Linnaa, 21. p. 60. Stony 
prairies, New Braunfels. August. Plant 2 to 4 feet high, 
branching above ; the heads nearly an inch in diameter, 
larger, indeed, than ordinary for G. squarrosa, to which, how- 
ever, it clearly belongs. 

(631.) Chryropsis hispida, Hook. FL Dor. -Am. 2. p. 22 ; 
Torr. 8f Gray, FL 2. p. 255. Var. stenophylla : foliis line- 
ari-spathulatis. On the Liano growing, from strong ligneous 
roots, in the crevices of smooth granite rocks. November. 

419. C. canescens, Torr. &/■ Gray, FL 2. p. 256. Rocky 
prairies, on the Comale and Upper Guadaloupe. June - 
August. 



224 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

(625.) Baccharis Texana, Gray, PL Fendl. p. r 5. Li- 
nosyris Texana, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 232. Dry, granitic 
p-airies, and on granite rocks on the Liano; often exclusively 
covering large patches. November. 

(634.) B. angustifolia, Michx. FL 2. p. 125 ; Torr. fy 
Gray, FL 2. p. 258. pi. masc. Banks of the Liano, in gran- 
itic gravel. October. — Shrub 6 to 10 feet high. The 
larger leaves are three inches long, two or three lines wide, 
and beset with a few salient teeth. Mr. Wright gathered the 
same plant on the Rio Grande, along with B. ccerulescens. 
It seems to be the B. angustifolia ; but it is remarkable that 
it should occur so far inland. 

(635.) B. angustifolia, Michx. : pi. foem. fructifera. 
With the preceding. 

(420.) Pluchea camphorata, DC; Torr. ^ Gray, FL 
2. p. 261. Var. involucris floribusque rubescentibus. Banks 
of Comale Creek, in clayey prairie soil. September. (Some 
few specimens of P. fcetida are distributed under this num- 
ber.) 

(421.) Filaginopsis multicaulis, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 
263. Dry prairies, New Braunfels, &c. April. 1 

(632.) A variety of the last, from the same region, more 
branched and depressed, the chaff all woolly. 

(633.) Diaperia prolifera, Nutt. ; Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. 
p. 264. Evax prolifera, Nutt. in *D C Prodr. 5. p. 459. 
Dry prairies, New Braunfels. April. 

(422.) Amphiachyris dracunculoides, DC Prodr. 5. p. 
313; Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. p. 192. Gutierrezia Lindheime- 
riana, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 351. Rocky prairies of the 

1 It is hard to say upon what plants (from a Texan collection, made by Rremer,) 
Mr. Scheele has founded two new species of Filago, viz. Filago repens, and P. 
Texana, Scheele in Linncea, 22, p. 164. If they are rightly described as having 
" Flosculi centrales tubulosi perfecti pappo capillari instructi," they are not our 
species of Filaginopsis, nor Diaperia. We know of no indigenous North American 
Filago this side of California, nor of any naturalized species except F. Gcrmanica. 
It may be seen, moreover, that no great reliance can be placed on this writer's 
determinations. 



Plantce LindheimeriancB. 225 

Guadaloupe, north of New Braunfels, in large patches. 
September. 

(636.) Melampodium cinereum, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 518; 
Gray, PL Fendl. p. 78. M. leucanthum, Torr. Sf Gray, Fl. 
2. p. 271. Roc y declivities, Upper Pierdenales. May — 
October. — The plant is ornamental in cultivation, and bears 
a profusion of blossoms through the whole season. 

(637.) Polymnia Uvedalia, Linn. ; Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. 
p. 273. Bottom woods of the Guadaloupe. September. 
" Rays short, rarely seen." But plants raised from the seeds 
in the Botanic Garden, develop rays of nearly the usual size 
for this species. 

423. Berlandiera Texana, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 517. Mar- 
gin of woods, in dry, stony soil, New Braunfels. May. 

424 (638). Lindheimera, Gray &f Engelm. 

Capitulum multiflorum, monoicum ; floribus radii 4-5 
ligulatis, foemineis, ad axillas squamarum involucri inte- 
riorum sitis ; fl. disci circiter 20, tubulosis, sterilibus. In- 
volucrum duplex; exterius e squamis 4-5 laxis linearibus 
foliaceis ; interius totidem membranaceo-foliaceis oblongis 
planis disco longioribus. Receptaculum planum, paleis char- 
taceis ovaria sterilia amplectentibus onustum, binis exterio- 
ribus basi cujusque squam. inter, invol. adnatis, persistentibus. 
Ligulae ovales, breviter tubulatse, involucrum vix superantes : 
corolla disci 4- 5-dentata. Styli fl. ster. filiformes, indivisi, 
hispidi. Achenia radii ovalia, obcompresso-plana, marginato- 
alata, intus subcarinata, carina apice in dentem parvum re- 
flexum producta, alis in pappum 2-dentatum extensis ; disci 
abortiva. — Herba monocarpica, erecta, scabro-hispida ; caule 
dichotomo; pedunculis subcymoso-paniculatis gracilibus mo- 
nocephalis ; capitulis nutantibus ; foliis imis alternis grosse 
dentatis, ceteris oppositis sessilibus oblongo-ovatis basi hinc 
inde dentatis, summis pedunculisque glandulis patelliformibus 



226 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

conspersis. Flores aurei. — Genus eximium, Berlandkrae et 
Enoelmanniee cognatum, diximus in honorem ejus acerrimi 
inventoris, qui floram Texanam largiter indagavit. 

424. L. Texana, Gray &f Engelm. in Proceed. Amer. 
Acad. 1. p. 47. In thickets and rocky Cedar woods, New 
Braunfels; also Comanche Spring, he. (633). Also gathered 
in Western Texas by Mr. Wright. This has been cultivated 
now for two seasons in the Cambridge Botanic Garden as 
an annual : it copiously produces its neat flowers through the 
summer, and until killed by autumnal frosts. 

f Silphium laciniatum, Linn. Prairies and open woods, 
New Braunfels. July. 

425. Engelmannia pinnatifida, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 
283. E. Texana, Scheele in Linnaa, 22. p. 155. Upper 
Guadaloupe, on rocky hillsides, and in dry and hard prairie 
soil. April. 

(639.) E. pinnatifida ; var. foliis majoribus submembran- 
aceis. Comanche Spring, and New Braunfels. 

426. Parthenium Hysterophorus, Linn. ; Torr. &f Gray, 
Fl. 2. p. 248. Muskit Flats, near San Antonio, and in the 
streets of that town. April to October. 

427. Iva axgustifolia, JSutt. in DC. Prodr. 5. p. 529; 
Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 279. Comanche Spring, &c, in 
rocky, moist soil, and in the dry bed of streams, in large 
masses. " Used in brewing beer, in place of hops." 

428. Ambrosia aptera, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 527. A. trifida 
/?. Texana, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 156. Low grounds, 
New Braunfels. August. Closely allied to A. trifida, 
but readily distinguished by the marginless petioles, terete 
stems, and the quite different fruit. The fruit is much 
smaller, generally 8-rrbbed, and merely 4 - 6-tuberculate. 

429. A. coronopifolia, Torr. &/■ Gray, Fl. 2. p. 291 ; 
var. asperula, capitulis minoribus, fructibus interdum 6-tu- 
berculatis. A. Lindheimeriana, Scheele in LinncEa, 22. p. 
156. Moist prairies, near New Braunfels. August. 



Planics Lindheimeriana. 227 

430. A. coronopifolia, var. gracilis, foliis minus divisis, 
capitulis minoribus. A. glandulosa, Scheele, l. c. p. 157. In 
the gravel of the dry bed of the Cibolo. September. 

(640.) Franseria tenuifolia, Gray $■ Harv. in PL 
Fendl. p. 80; var. tripinnatifida : segmentis foliorum cre- 
bris brevioribus. — Mountain prairies of the Liano, along the 
margin of thickets. November. — This pretty clearly belongs 
to the same species as the plant which Fendler collected at 
Santa Fe; but all the lower leaves are tripinnately parted, 
their segments shorter and broader ; and only the upper 
bipinnately parted leaves have the terminal lobes prolonged. 
The fertile involucre, in the specimens examined, is only one- 
celled and one-flowered ; and so it sometime* is in Fendler's 
specimen. It is, like that, minutely scabrous-pubescent, and 
the spines, which are more developed and more numerous 
than in Fendler's plant, but much shorter than in F. Hoolce- 
riana, all have uncinate points. 

431. Hale a Texana, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 83. Tetrago- 
notheca Texana, Gray dy Engehn. in Proceed. Amer. Acad. 
1. p. 48. Tetragonosperma lyratifolium, Scheele in Linncea, 
22. p. 167. Upper Guadaloupe and Cibolo Rivers, on rocky 
ridges. April. Also gathered by Mr. Wright. — In cultiva- 
tion here it blossoms through the summer. The minute 
pappus is apt to escape notice, except in the living plant. 

(94.) Echinacea angustifolia, DC. On the Pierdenales, 
Comanche Spring, dec. May. " Root very pungent. Flow- 
ers somewhat fragrant. 2 ' 

f Rudbeckia bicolor, Nutt. Pierdenales. June. In 
cultivation, the brown-purple color is commonly obsolete or 
wanting on the ligules of all the later heads. 

(641.) Dracopis amplexicaulis, Cass. ; DC. Prodr. 5. p. 
558 ; var. ligulis basi atropurpureis. On the Pierdenales. 
June. 

(642.) Lepachys columnaris /?. pulcherrima, Torr. &f 
Gray, Fl. 2. p. 315. Rich, clayey prairies, New Braunfels. 
June. 



228 Planta Lindheimeriana. 

432. Aldama uniserialis. Gymnopsis uniserialis, Hook. 
lc. PI. t. 145 ; Ton. &f Gray, Fl. 2. p. 317. Shady woods, 
On Comale Creek. June — August. In this and the allied 
species, united by De Candolle with Gymnolomia, H. B. K., 
under the common name of Gymnopsis, " the remarkable 
manner in which the fertile achenia of the disk are inclosed 
in the paleaB of the receptacle, like those of the ray-flowers in 
Melampodium, seems fully to warrant the retaining for them 
Llave and Lexarsa's generic name, Aldama." Benth. Voy. 
Sulph. p. 116. 

433. Simsia (Barrattia : achenia calva glabra) calva. 
Barrattia calva, Gray fy Engelm. in Proceed. Amer. Acad. 1. 
p. 40. Rocky hills and terraces, often under shrubby live oak, 
along the Guadaloupe and Pierdenales. July - C ctober. — 
Root fleshy, perennial. Size and number of the rays very 
variable. — The discovery of an allied species with a slightly 
biaristulate or bidentate pappus, as described in Planta, Fend- 
leriana, p. 85., invalidates the character of the genus Bar- 
rattia, which we had established on this plant. Although 
the want of a pappus would refer it to a different Candol- 
lean division of Helianthece, it cannot now be generically 
distinguished from the genus Simsia. 

■f Viguiera brevipes, DC. Prodr. 5. p. 578. Rocky hill 
tops, on the Upper Guadaloupe. October. — The same form 
was collected in Western Texas by Mr. Wright. It agrees 
with the character in the Prodromus. 

434. V. brevipes, /?. foliis plerisque rhomboideo-ovatis 
membranaceis. V. Texana, Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. p. 318. 
Helianthella latifolia, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 160. Mar- 
gin of woods and on bushy slopes, New Braunfels. July - 
October. 

(96.) Helianthus cucumerifolius, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. 
p. 320. New Braunfels. — This is probably H. Lindheimeri- 
anus, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 159. But it is not perennial. 

(259.) Helianthus lenticularis, Dough; Torr. &f 
Gray, Fl 2. p. 319. Prairies on the Guadaloupe. July. 



Planice Lindhcimeriance. 229 

(643.) Actinomeris (AcHiETA) Wrightii, Gray, PL 
Fcndl. p. 85. Upper Guadaloupe, at Pinta's Crossing, on 
rocky soil, in open woods. June. — Plant 1-3 feet high, 
with few branches and heads, rigid. 

f Coreopsis Drummondii, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 345. 
Bottom woods near Victoria. February. 

f C. tinctoria, Nutt. ; Torr. &f Gray, I. c. Margin of 
woods and praries, Comale Creek; common. July. — The 
plant, No. 441, noticed under 397, in PL Feudleriance as C. 
tinctoria, is not that species, but C. cardaminefolia, DC, 
which species we have also in cultivation, from Texas. 

435. Bidens chrysanthemoides, Michx. ; Torr. fy Gray, 
FL 2. p. 352. Banks of streams, New Braunfels. October. 

436. Lipochjeta Texana, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 357. 
Naked hills and margin of woods, New Braunfels and Upper 
Guadaloupe. June - September. — Ray-achenia three-angled, 
more or less three-winged ; the conspicuous wings of the 
lateral angles confluent at the summit; the ventral wing nar- 
row, dilated at the summit. Achenia of the disk narrowly 
two-winged at the apex. Awns fragile, thickened at the base 
and united with the confluent, firm, chaffy scales. 

(644.) Hymenatherum Wrightii, Gray, PL Fendl. p. 89. 
Sandy soil, in Post-Oak woods, on the Pierdenales. June. 

437. (646.) AGASSIZIA, Gray fy Engelm. 

Capitulum globosum, multiflorum, radiatum ; ligulis fcemi- 
niis nunc difformibus. Involucrum disco brevius, circa biseri- 
ale ; squamis exterioribus lineari-oblongis appendicula spathu- 
lata vel obtusa foliacea patente instructis, intimis lineari- 
acuminatis. Receptaculum globosum, alveolatum ; alveolis 
valde dentatis fimbrilliferis. Ligulse cuneatse, palmato-3-4- 
fidae, ssepe irregulares seu tubuloso-diflbrmes, vestigia stami- 
num gerentes. Corolla disci Gaillardiae, dentibus triangulari- 
lanceolatis. Styli rami ligularum lineares, subulato-apiculati ; 
fl. disci ad basin appendicis brevissimoe nudse clavato-obtusoe 
penicillati ! Achenia turbinata, sericeo-villosissima. Pappus 

journal e. s. n. h. 30 jan. isao. 



230 Planta LindheimerianfB. 

radii et disci conformis, e paleis 9 hyalinis ovatis uninerviis 
constans, nervo in aristam capillarem corollam adaequantem 
longe producto. — Herba biennis, acaulis; radice fusiformi ; 
foliis varie 1 -2-pinnatifidis, nunc sinuatis lyratisve ; scapo 
l_2-pedali, toto nudo, monocephalo. Capitulum Gaillardia?, 
speciosum. Flores suaveolentes, disci flavi et purpurei, radii 
rubescentes vel atrorubri. 

437. A. suavis, Gray §■ Engelm. in Proceed. Amer. Acad. 
1. p. 50. Gaillardia odorata, Lindh. hied. G. simplex, 
Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 160. Rocky prairies, near San 
Antonio and New Braunfels. April and May (646). — The 
genus is very near Gaillardia, from which it is distinguished 
by the fertile but usually deformed rays, the globose and 
alveolate receptacle, and by the style, the branches of which 
are tipped with a penicillate tuft, but not prolonged into a 
filiform hispid appendage ; and the habit is peculiar. The 
flowers are deliciously sweet-scented, the fragrance much 
like that of the Heliotrope ; the short rays are cherry-red or 
dark purple, and yellow only at the tip, as in several species 
of Gaillardia ; the earliest heads are rayless. The leaves 
vary from lyrate-pinnately parted, with linear segments, to 
obovate and barely-toothed or incised towards the base. — 
Agassizia, Chavannes, is Galvesia, Dombey. Agassizia, Spach, 
is Sphserostigma, Seringe, and Holostigma, Spach, by most 
authors received only as a subgenus of Oenothera. 

(103.) Gaillardia picta, Don. Near Victoria. More 
upright, and the deeply incised rays more cuneate than in 
the plant from Galveston. 1 

438. Hymenopappus corymbosus, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 
372. H. Engelmannianus, Kunth. in Ann. Sci. Nat. 3 Ser. 
11. p. 229. (April, 1849) ex char. Prairies and margin of 
woods, in fertile, rather heavy soil, New Braunfels, he. 
April, May. Biennial. 

1 I cannot make out what Gaillardia tuberculata, Scheele, I. c. p. 349, (described 
from Roemer's collection) can be; neither G. Kipmcriana, Scheele, I. c. p. 1G1, 
unless it be Aclinclla scaposa. 



Planted Lindheimerianes. 231 

(645.) Helenium autumnale, Linn. : var. foliis rigidis. 
Grassy banks of Streamlets, Fredericksburg. October. 

439. Actinella scaposa, Nutt. ; Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 
382. Gaillardia Roemeriana, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 161 ? 
Rocky prairies, Victoria and San Antonio. February - May. 

(648.) A. linearifolia, Torr. fy Gray, Fl. 2. p. 283. 
On sterile, rocky soil, New Braunfels. May. Prairies on the 
Pierdenales, in patches, on sandy soil. June. 

(647.) Marshallia c^spitosa, Nutt. in DC. Prodr. 5. p. 
680. (PI. Lindh. supra, No. 110.) Var. caule folioso ! 
Rocky soil on the Upper Guadaloupe. April. 

(649.) Achillea Millefolium, Linn. : var. floribus roseis. 
Post Oak openings, on the Pierdenales. June. 

440. Artemisia dracunculoides, Pursh. Fl. 2. p. 521 ; 
Torr. ^ Gray, Fl. 2. p. 416. In patches, near New Braun- 
fels. October. 

441. A dracunculoides, var. foliis infimis trifidis vel in- 
cisis. Dry prairies, Upper Guadaloupe. September. 

f A. caudata, Michx. Fl. 2. p. 129 ; Torr. fy Gray, FL 2. 
p. 417. Sandy prairies of the Upper Pierdenales. October. 

442. A. Ludoviciana, Nutt. Gen. 2. p. 143; Torr. &f Gray, 
Fl. 2. p. 420. A. cuneifolia, Scheele in Linncea, 22. p. 162. 
Dry and high prairies, especially on old ant hills. September. 

443. A. vulgaris 8. Mexicana, Torr. fy Gray, I. c. ; var. 
foliis superioribus integerrimis angusto-lanceolatis linearibus 
supra glabris. (A. Lindheimeriana, Scheele in Linncea, 22. 
p. 163.) In patches in dry praries near New Braunfels. 
September. — The specimens accord with Texan ones of 
Drummond, cited in the Flora of North America. It is one 
of the forms that connect A. Ludoviciana with A. Vulgaris. 

444. A. vulgaris 8. Mexicana, Torr. §• Gray, I. c. 
Nearly the same form as the last ; the lower leaves all fallen ; 
the upper entire. Dry bed of the Cibolo. September. 

f Gnaphalium pclycephalum, Michx. New Braunfels, &c. 

445. Senecio aureus ?. Balsamit;e, Torr. &/■ Gray, Fl. 
2. p. 442. High, rocky plains, Upper Guadaloupe. March, 



232 Plantce Lindheimeriana. 

f S. Riddellii, Torr. fy Gray. Fl. 2. p. 444. Rocky hill- 
tops, between the Upper Guadaloupe and the Pierdenales, 
and in open Post-Oak woods. October. 

446. Leria nutans, DC. Prodr. 7. p. 42. Cedar woods, 
in rocky soil, New Braunfels. March. 

447. Apogon gracilis, D C. ! Prodr. 7. p. 78. In patches, 
on high, rocky prairies, New Braunfels. April. — Larger in 
all its parts than the ordinary A. humilis, and perhaps to be 
distinguished from it. 

448 (& 650). Pinaropappus roseus, Less. Syn. p. 143 ; 
DC. Prodr. 5. p. 99. Troximon Roemerianum, Schetle in 
Linncea, 22. p. 165. High, rocky prairies, between Bexar 
and New Braunfels. April. Liguke white, a little reddish 
on the back. Roots penetrating very deeply. 

(651.) Lygodesmia aphylla /5. Texana, Torr. &f Gray, 
FL 2. p. 485. Calcareous soil, New Braunfels. May. — It 
often bears a tuber at the apex of the long root. The margi- 
nal achenia are more or less attenuated upwards, as is also 
the case in the Florida plant. 



%* No. 337, " Linum Boottii y. rupesire, p. 155, is cer- 
tainly a distinct species, as Dr. Engelmann had stated. It 
may be characterized as follows : — 

337. Linum rupestre (Engehn. ined.) : perenne, glaber- 
rimum ; caulibus e radice lignescente plurimis strictis gracili- 
bus (1-2-pedalibus) striato-angulatis superne corymboso- 
paniculatis ; foliis lineari-subulatis mucronulatis ; glandulis 
stipularibus conspicuis post lapsum foliorum persistentibus ; 
pedicellis calyce subbrevioribus ; sepalis ovatis cuspidato- 
acuminatis margine glanduloso-ciliatis petalis flavis multoties 
brevioribus; filamentis sterilibus dentibusque plane nullis ; 
stylis a basi discretis ; capsula ovato-globosa calycem sequanti- 
bus, loculis bilocellatis. — Growing from the crevices of naked 
rocks, New Braunfels, also gathered at Comanche Spring, 



Planta Lindheimeriance. 233 

July, 1849, in fruit. The leaves fall away early from the 
fructiferous plant, leaving the conspicuous stipular glands. 
Petals one third of an inch long. Capsule scarcely over a 
line in diameter. 

The collection of 1S49 furnishes an undescribed Passi- 
flora, viz. : — 

Passiflora affinis (Engelm. Mss.) : " herbacea, scandens, 
elata, glabra ; foliis trilobis subtus glaucis petiolisque eglandu- 
losis, inferioribus subcordatis, superioribus basi subacutis, lobis 
subaequalibus obovatis obtusis setaceo-mucronatis integris ; 
stipulis setaceis ; pedunculis binis petiolum sequantibus vel 
superantibus 3-bracteatis, cirrho intermedio elongato sim- 
plici ; petalis calycis lobis obtusis brevioribus et angustioribus 
(flavescentibus) ; baccis (cseruleo-atris) stipitem sequantibus. 
— Comanche Spring, climbing high over trees, in shady 
places. August- September. — Near P. lutea in aspect; 
from which it is distinguished by the bracteate peduncles, the 
deeply lobed leaves, the larger flowers, smaller seeds, &c. 
Lower leaves 3 inches long, and 4 wide, less deeply lobed than 
the upper, which are deeply divided. Petioles 4 -12 lines 
long. Peduncles 12-15 lines long. Bracts 3, rarely 2, 
subulate, oblanceolate, or obovate, mucronate, often distant. 
Flowers 16 lines in diameter; the fimbrillse as long as sepals. 
Stipe half an inch in length, longer in proportion than in any 
other of our species. Berry of the same diameter. Seeds 
ovate, mucronate, transversely rugose, smaller and more tur- 
gid than in P. lutea. — De Candolle's division of the genus, 
which would separate this species from P. lutea on account 
of the bracts, must be erroneous ; moreover, P. lutea has not 
" perigonium s. calycem 5-lobum, but 10-lobum,as well as our 
species." — Engelm. 

[To be continued.] 



234 Planta Lindheimeriana. 



The following brief account of the region in which the present collection of plants 
was made, drawn up by Dr. Engelmann as a preface to this article, having been 
received too late to take its proper place, is here subjoined. 

" In November, 1844, Mr. Lindheimer left the neighbor- 
hood of the Brazos River, where he had made his collections 
in 1843 and 1844, and reached in January, 1845, the shores 
of the Matagorda Bay. In this and the following month he 
collected on the lower Guadaloupe. From thence he went up 
this river about one hundred miles. Here, where the Comale 
Creek empties into the Guadaloupe, the Association of Ger- 
man emigrants, with whom he had for the present joined his 
fortunes, selected a place for settlement, and laid the founda- 
tion of New Braunfels, now a flourishing town, and the county 
seat of Comale county. 

"The year 1845 was spent in exploring the country and 
making excursions in the mountainous region to the west and 
northwest, at that time very insecure, being the haunts of 
wild Indian tribes. 

"In the following year, 1846, Mr. Lindheimer made large 
collections in the interesting country about New Braunfels, at 
the same time giving much of his time and attention to the 
affairs of the colony. 

"The explorations of the year 1847 were extended north- 
west to the country watered by the Pierdenales River, where 
another German settlement, Friedrichsburg (or Frederiks- 
burg), had been founded. Collections were made partly here 
and partly near New Braunfels. Late in the fall an excursion 
in a northern direction into the granitic region of the Liano 
river furnished some interesting plants not observed before. 

"The year 1848 was spent principally on the Liano, where 
several new German settlements had been formed. But the 
country appeared to be less rich in botanical treasures than 
had been expected ; the burning sun of the summer months 
had almost destroyed the vegetation on the granitic soil, not 
refreshed for months by any rains. The Comanches, Weckos, 



Planfce Lindlieimeriance. 235 

Tonkeways, and other Indian tribes of the west of Texas, 
became troublesome, and the frontier settlements had to be 
abandoned. 

"The spring of 1849 found Mr. Lindheimer farther south, 
at Comanche Spring, one of the headwaters of San Antonio 
River. He has now (in the spring of 1850) returned to New 
Braunfels, where he intends again to go over the as yet 
insufficiently explored country, the most diversified and 
richest in botanical treasures as yet seen by him in Texas. 

" The collections now distributed comprise those made 
in 1845 and 1846 (fascicle III) and 1847 and 1848 (fas- 
cicle IV). 

" I proceed now to give a short geographical and topo- 
graphical sketch of the country explored by Mr. Lindheimer. 

" Matagorda Bay, with its numerous branches, receives to 
the northeast the Colorado, one of the largest rivers of Texas. 
Southwest of the Colorado the smaller Guadaloupe River 
empties into the same bay after receiving not far from its 
mouth its southern branch, the San Antonio River. The 
headwaters of these rivers, together with the southern branches 
of the upper Colorado, drain the country investigated by Mr. 
Lindheimer since 1845. 

" The coast of the bay itself forms a level saline plain, 
sandy with comminuted shells. Cakile, (Enothera Drum- 
mondi, and Teucrium Cubense are characteristic plants: a 
little farther off are found Berberis trifoliolata, Acacia Farne- 
siana, a shrubby Erythrina, groves of Sophora speciosa, Con- 
dalia, some large Yuccas, and large Opuntias with humbler 
Cactacese beneath them. 

" Some miles higher up the rivers, on clayey soil, solitary 
Elms and Palm trees are seen ; the prairies have a stiff, black 
soil thickly matted with grass. The prevalent tree now be- 
comes the Live Oak along the rivers, as well as in small groves 
on the prairies : higher up on the rivers the Water Oak and 
the Spanish Oak (Q. falcata) are found mixed with the Live 



236 Planted LindheimeriaiKZ. 

Oak. Swampy places are often densely covered with Mar- 
silea macropoda, like fields of clover. 

" Ten to twenty miles from the coast the country rises into 
the "rolling prairies." Along the rivers Quercus macro- 
carpa, Taxodium distichum, and Carya oliva3formis constitute 
large forests of vigorous growth. The groves of the prairies 
are principally formed by Sophora speciosa, Condalia obovata, 
and Diospyros Texana. The prairies themselves are richly 
studded by flowers, among which the blue and fragrant Lu- 
pinus Texensis and different species of red and yellow Casti- 
lejas are most conspicuous. 

"About one hundred miles from the coast the country 
becomes hilly ; conglomerate rocks are frequently seen ; the 
streams are more rapid and clear and often expose horizontal 
strata of cretaceous rocks. Elm and Cypress are the principal 
trees along the rivers ; Sycamores, Linden, and Hackberry are 
sparsely mixed with them. Many curious shrubs, among them 
the Ungnadia, are found in these river-forests. Here, also, 
the Muskit trees (Algarobia) make their first appearance, 
indicating the region of the Arborescent Mimosese ; they form 
open woods, where the level ground, often overflowed in the 
rainy season, brings forth abundance of the thin and wiry but 
nutritious " Muskit grasses " (Aristida, Atheropogon, and 
others). Many other interesting plants are found in these 
" Muskit-flats." 

" In this region, and at the base of the first plateau, are 
located the towns of San Antonio, New Braunfels, and 
Austin, in a delightful climate, where snow or ice are rarely 
seen, and where the summer heat, tempered by the sea- 
breezes, never becomes uncomfortable. The spring, which 
at the coast sets in in January and early February, com- 
mences here a month or six weeks later. During the sum- 
mer the weather is usually dry, and the vegetation languishes, 
but the rains of the latter part of August and September soon 
cause the whole country again to be clothed in fresh verdure. 



PlantcB Lindheimeriancc. 237 

Many plants then bloom a second time ; some, indeed, in this 
fertile climate, bloom oftener than that, almost after every 
period of rains. 

" A short distance north of this region, steep and sterile 
declivities, covered by loose rocks, rise to the first plateau, 
just mentioned. The high plains which are now reached 
are mostly sterile and stony, and often large faces of naked 
rocks are exposed. Many interesting plants mentioned in this 
catalogue, are peculiar to these plains : the smaller Cactaceae, 
Echinocactus setispinus, Cereus caespitosus, several Mammil- 
lariae, and prostrate Opuntiae grow here ; different species of 
Yucca are common ; the curious and stately Dasylirion is 
here first met with. The trees of this region are Elms and 
Cedar among the rocks, and Cedar again, finely developed, 
along the banks of the streams, where Cercis occidentalis, the 
shrubby Red Bud, forms thickets. Juglans fruticosa and 
Morus parvifolia are here found ; the Live Oak dwindles 
down to a shrub ; and low bushes of Vitis rupestris, the 
mountain grape, cover large tracts of these plains. 

" Twenty to thirty miles farther northwest the country rises 
again and becomes more hilly, and regular conic or pyramidal 
elevations, often showing the horizontal strata of the cretace- 
ous limestone exposed in naked terraces, rise one behind the 
other, producing many peculiar plants. The valleys between 
them are often wide, with a thin soil, covered with grass and 
often with sparse Post Oaks ; or they are narrower, without 
any timber, but more fertile. The springs are here numerous 
and beautifully limpid, of a temperature of about 67 or 68 
degrees; the streams clear and rapid. The beds of the 
larger watercourses are often entirely dry in summer, leaving 
a wide, stony, or pebbly bed or naked rocks, abounding 
with interesting plants. The banks of the deeper streams are 
thickly covered with stately Cypress trees. 

" A few miles north of the Pierdenales the first outlier of 
the granitic formation is seen, which is found extensively 
developed on the Liano. The vegetation here begins to show 

JOURNAL B. S. N. H. 31 JA.N. 1850. 



238 Plantce Lindheimeriaruz. 

analogies to that of New Mexico. Here the winters are 
pretty cold, the springs late, the summers excessively hot, the 
soil generally thin, and therefore the prospects of the settlers 
unfavorable. 

" I add a few details of localities and distances, which may 
not be found on the common maps. 

" Green Lake and Caritas River are in the low lands near 
Matagorda Bay. Victoria is a town a little higher up on the 
lower Guadaloupe. New Braunfels on the Comale Creek 
and Guadaloupe River, is about one hundred miles to the 
northwest of the Bay, twenty-five miles northeast of San 
Antonio, and forty-five miles southwest of Austin, the present 
capital of Texas. The road from New Braunfels to San 
Antonio crosses the Cibolo, one of the confluents of San 
Antonio River, which runs in a wide and pebbly, and often 
dry bed. The Salado, one of the heads of which is the 
often-mentioned Comanche Spring, is another branch of San 
Antonio river, and such, farther south, are the Leona and the 

Medina. 

" In going west from New Braunfels we reach, fifty-five 
miles from that town, the upper waters of the Guadaloupe, 
the so-called Guadaloupe crossings on the Pinto-trail. Sev- 
eral small streams in this neighborhood, Spring Creek, Wasp 
Creek, Three Creeks, and Sabinas (or Cypress Creek) are 
often mentioned as localities of different plants. 

"North of this the road crosses several high ridges, 
(where, among other plants, Guajacum angustifolium, and in 
deep, clear ponds Chara translucens, were discovered,) and 
reaches, sixty miles from the Guadaloupe, the Pierdenales, one 
of the branches of Colorado River. The town of Friedrichs- 
burg is built near the Pierdenales in a rather barren, sandy 
region, thinly scattered with Post Oaks. 

" About thirty-five miles north of this the granitic region 
of the Llano or Liano is reached. The San Saba runs thirty 
miles farther north. 

" The Flora of the country east of the Brazos River bears 



240 Plantce Lindheimeriance. 

mention is several times made of " deserted ant-hills." Further 
investigation has shown that these hills are formed by loose 
earth brought by these ants out of their subterranean exca- 
vations. These consist of oblique tubes, some eight or nine 
inches wide, others only half an inch in diameter ; they 
sometimes reach a depth of thirty or forty feet. In the 
greatest depth are their granaries, containing often many 
bushels, and it is said, even wagon-loads, of corn and other 
grain. These ants are also common about New Braunfels, 
and this or another species has occasionally been found to 
be quite destructive to Mr. Lindheimer's collections." 

G. Engelmann. 



ERRATA. 

Page 14S, line 17 for " brevioribus " read breviore. 
" " line 18, for " subasqualibus aut longioribus " read subccquali aut longiore. 

" 1 53, line 3, for " piloso " read folioso. 
" " line 18, for " stigma " read stigmata. 

" 155, line 7 from bottom, for " glandular, hairy " read glandular-hairy. 
" " line 11 " " for " axillte " read axillas. 

" 153, line 10 " " for " Texana " read Texanum. 

" " lines 2 & 4 " for " foliis " read foliolis. 

t( 160, line 22, for " M. Weightii" read Malvastrum Wrightii. 

" 161, line 21, for " A. Texense " read Abutilon Texense. 

" 163, line 8 from bottom, for "pedicellas solitarias s. fasciculatas " read pe- 

dicellos solitarios s. fasciculatos. 

" 174, line 10 from bottom, for " squamosis " read squarrosis. 

" 177, line 6 " " for " tomento " read lomento. 

" 179, line 13 " " for " 24 - 30-juga " read 24 - 30-foliolata. 



Plantce Lindheimeriana. 239 

considerable resemblance to that of the southern United 
States. But south of the Brazos, and still more south of the 
Colorado, the character of the vegetation changes ; it assumes 
the peculiarity of the flora of the Rio Grande valley, which I 
have tried to characterize in Wislizenus's Report. The flora 
of the Rio Grande connects the North American with the 
Mexican f'ora, and has also many peculiar plants of its own, 
some of which have for the first time been distributed in Lind- 
heimer's collections : such are the interesting Rutosma, the 
only American Rutacea known ; Galphimia linifolia, the most 
northern Malpighiacea; several shrubby Mimosese ; an ever- 
green Rhus ; Sophora speciosa ; the Eysenhardtia ; a number 
of Nyctaginaceoe ; the Dasylirion, and many others enume- 
rated in this catalogue. The ligneous plants become shrubby 
and often thorny, and here the chaparals, so famous in north- 
ern Mexico, make their first appearance. 

" Towards the northwest the granitic soil produces a num- 
ber of plants, which indicate a connection with the flora of 
New Mexico, and again with that of our western plains. 



" In the neighborhood of New Braunfels the effects of 
cultivation on the distribution of plants are already apparent. 
Helianthus lenticularis, Verbesina Virginica, Croton ellipti- 
cum, Nycterium lobatum, different Cenopodiacece and Ama- 
ranthaceae are becoming very common in cultivated places ; 
but others, Digitaria sanguinalis, for example, so common in 
eastern Texas, have not yet made their appearance. In 
Cedar woods Leria nutans, in damp bottom woods Dicliptera 
brachiata, on dry prairies the small blue Evolvulus, are getting 
much more abundant ; while Pinaropappus roseus, Fedia 
stenocarpa and others are much rarer than they used to be in 
the first years of the settlement of the country. 

"In the catalogue of the collections of 1843 and 1844, 



(H*i) 



Botany 

TO 



-r " 



• • 



C ATALOGl'E OF PL A N T S 



:::::—" 



BY LIEUTENANT rRZMOHT 



EXPEDITION" TO THE BOCKY MOUNTAINS. 



BT JOHN TORREY. 



PREFACE. 



The collection of plants submitted to me for examination, though made under unfavorable 
circumstances, is a very interesting contribution to North American botany. From the mouth of 
the Kansas river to the "Red Buttes,'' on the North fork of the Platte, the transportation was 
effected in carts ; but from that place to and from the mountains, the explorations were made on 
horseback, and by such rapid movements, (which were necessary, in order to accomplish the objects 
of the expedition, ) that but little opportunity was afforded for collecting and drying botanical speci- 
mens. Besides, the party was in a savage and inhospitable country, sometimes annoyed by Indians, 
and frequently in great distress from want of provisions ; from which circumstances, -and the many 
pressing duties that constantly engaged the attention of the commander, he was not able to make so 
large a collection as he desired. To give some general idea of the country explored by Lieutenant 
Fremont, I recapitulate, from his repoit, a brief sketch of his route. The expedition left the mouth of 
the Kansas on the 10th of June, 1842^ and, proceeding up that river about one hundred miles, then 
continued its course generally along the "bottoms" of the Kansas tributaries, but sometimes passing 
over the upper prairies. The soil of the river bottoms is always rich, and generally well timbered ; 
though the whole region is what is called a prairie country. The upper prairies are an immense 
deposite of sand and gravel, covered with a good, and, very generally, a rich soil. Along the road, 
on reaching the little stream called Sandy creek, (a tributary of the Kansas,) the soil became more 
sandy. The rock formations of this region are limestone and sandstone. The amorpha canescens 
was the characteristic plant ; it being in many places as abundant as the grass. 

Crossing over from the waters of the Kansas, Lieutenant Fremont arrived at the Great Platte, 
two hundred and ten miles from its junction with the Missouri. The valley of this river, from its 
mouth to the great forks, is about four miles broad, and three hundred and fifteen miles long. It 
is rich, well timbered, and covered with luxuriant grasses. The purple liatris scariosa, and several 
asters, were here conspicuous features of the vegetation. I was pleased to recognise, among the 
specimens collected near the forks, the fine large-flowered asclepias, that I described many years 
ago in my account of James's Rocky Mountain Plants, under the name of A. speciosa, and which 
Mr. Geyer also found in Nicollet's expedition. It seems to be the plant subsequently described and 
figured by Sir W. Hooker, under the name of A. Douglasii. On the Lower Platte, and all the 
way to the Sweet Water, the showy cleome integrifolia occurred in abundance. From the Forks 
to Laramie river, a distance of about two hundred miles, the country may be called a sandy one. 
The valley of the North fork is without timber ; but the grasses are fine, and the herbaceous plant3 
abundant. On the return of the expedition in _ September, Lieutenant Fremont says the whole 
country resembled a vast garden ; but the prevailing plants were two or three species of kellanthus, 
(sunflower.) Between the main forks of the Platte, from the junction, as high up as Laramie's 
fork, the formation consisted of marl, a soft earthy limestone, and a granite sandstone. At the 
latter place, that singular leguminous plant, the kentrophyia montana of Nuttall was first seen, 
and then occurred at intervals to the Sweet Water river. Following up the North fork, Lieutenant 
Fremont arrived at the mouth of the Sweet Water river, one of the head waters of the Platte. 
Above Laramie's fork to this place, the soil is generally sandy. The rocks consist of limestone, 
with a variety of sandstones, (yellow, gray, and red argillaceous,) with compact gypsum or alabas- 
ter, and fine conglomerates. 



[ 174 ] 84 



The route along the North fork of the Platte afforded some of the best plants in the collection. 
The senecio rapi folia, Nutt., occurred in many places, quite to the Sweet Water ; lippia (zapania) 
cuneifolia (Torr. in James's plants, only known before from Dr. James's collection :) cercocarpus par- 
vifolius, Nutt. ; eriogonum parvifulium, and coespitosum, Nutt.; shepherdia argentea, Nutt., 
and geran turn Fremontii, a new species, (near the Red Buttes,) were found in this part of the 
journey. In saline soils, on the Upper Platte, near the mouth of the Sweet Water, were collected 
several interesting Cheuopodiaceje, one of which was first discovered by Dr. James, in Long's 
expedition ; and although it was considered as a new genus, I did not describe it, owing to the want 
of the ripe fruit. It is the plant doubtfully referred by Hooker, in his Flora Boreali Americana, 
to Batis. He had seen the male flowers only. As it is certainly a new genus, I have dedicated it 
to the excellent commander of the expedition, as a well-merited compliment for the services he has 
rendered North American botany. 

The Sweet Water valley is a sandy plain, about one hundred and twenty miles long, and gen- 
erally about five miles broad ; bounded by ranges of granitic mountains, between which the valley 
formation consists, near the Devil's gate, of a grayish micaceous sandstone, with marl and white 
clay. At the encampment of August 5th- 6th, there occurred a fine white argillaceous sandstone, 
a coarse sandstone or pudding-stone, and a white calcareous sandstone. A few miles to the west 
of that position, Lieutenant Fremont reached a point where the sandstone rested immediately upon 
the granite, which, thenceforward, along his line of roufp, alternated with a compact mica slate. 

Along the Sweet Water, many interesting plants were collected, as may be seen by an examina- 
tion of the catalogue ; I would, however, mention the curious Oenothera Nuttallii, Torr. and Gr. ; 
eurotia ianata, Mocq. ; (Diotis lanata, Pursh.,) which seems to be distinct from E. ceratoides ; 
thermopsis montanu, Nutt. ; gilia pulche/la, Dough ; senecio spartioides, Torr. and Gr. ; a new 
species, and four or five species of wild currants, (vibes irriguum, Dougb, &c. ) Near the mouth 
of the Sweet Water was found the plant ago eriophora, Torr., a species first described in my Dr. 
James's Rocky Mountain Plants. On the upper part, and near the dividing ridge, were collected 
several species of castilleja ,■ penlstemon micrantha, Nutt: several gentians ,■ the pretty little 
androsacc occidentals, Nutt. ; solidago incana, Torr. and Gr. ; and two species of eriogonum, 
one of wliich was new. 

On the 8th of August, the exploring party crossed the dividing ridge or pass, and found the soil 
of the plains at the foot of the mountains, on the western side, to be sandy. From Laramie's fork 
to this point, different species of artemisia were the prevailing and characteristic plants ; occupying 
the place of the grasses, and filling the air with the odor of camphor and turpentine. Along Little 
Sandy, a tributary of the Colorado of the West, were collected a new species of pkuca (P. digi- 
tata,) and parnassia jimlriata. 

On the morning of the 10th of August, they entered the defiles of the Wind river mountains, a 
spur of the Rocky mountains, or northern Andes, and among which they spent about eight days. 
On the borders of a lake, embosomed in one of the defiles, wire collected sedum rhodiola, DC., 
(which had been found before, south of Kotzebue's sound, only by Dr. James :) senecio hydrophi- 
lus, Nutt. ; Vaccinium uliginosum ; behtla glandulosa, and B. ucddentalis, Hook. ; eleagnus 
argentea, and shepherdia Canadensis. Spine of the higher peaks of the Wind river mountains 
rise one thousand feet above the limits of peiSktual snow. /{Lieutenant Fremont, attended by four 
of his men, ascended one of the loftiest peaks aBthe 15th of August- On this he found the snow 
line twelve thousand five hundred feet above the lerel of the stfa. The vegetation of the mountains 
is truly alpine, embracing a considerable number of species 'Jffommon to both hemispheres, as well 
as some that are peculiar to North America. Of the' formae Lieutenant Fremont collected pleura 
alpinum ; oxyriareniformis; Veronica alpina ,• several species of salix,- carex atrata ; C.panicea,- 
and, immediately below the line of perpetual congelation, silene acaulh, and polemonium cceruleum, 
/? Hook. Among the alpine plants peculiar to the western hemisphere, there were found oreophila 
rnyriij-Iia, Nutt. ; aquibgia coerulea, Torr. ; pedicularis sirrecla, .Jenth. ; pulmonaria ciliata t 
James; silene Drttr&tnondii, Hook. ; menzicsia empetriformis, poientilla gi acilis, Dougl. ; ser- 



85 [ 174 ] 

eral species ofpinus,- frasera speciosa, Hook. ; dodecatheon dcntatum, Hook. ; phlox muscoides, 
Nutt. ; senecio Fremonlii, n. sp., Torr. and Gr. ; four or five asters, and vaccinium myrtilloides, 
Mx. ; the last seven or eight very near the snow line. Lower down the mountain were found 
arnica angustifolia, Vahl. ; senecio triangularis, Hook. ; S. subnudus, DC. ; macrorhynchus 
troximoidcs, Torr. and Gr. ; helianthella unifiora, Torr. and Gr. ; and linosyris viscidijlora, 
Hook. 

The expedition left the Wind river mountains about the 18th of August, returning by the same 
route as that by which it ascended, except that it continued its course through the whole length of 
the Lower Platte, arriving at its junction with the Missouri on the 1st of October. 

As the plants of Lieutenant Fremont were under examination while the last part of the Flora of 
North America was in the press, nearly all the new matter relating to the Compositae was inserted 
in that work. Descriptions of a few of the new species were necessarily omitted, owing to the 
report of the expedition having been called for by Congress before I could finish the necessary analyses 
and comparisons. These, however, will be inserted in the successive numbers of the work to 
which I have just alluded. 

JOHN TORREY. 

New York, March, 1843. 



CATALOGUE OF PLANTS. 



Class I.— EXOGENOUS PLANTS. 

RANUNCULACEJE. 

Clematis Virginiana, (Linn. ) Valley of the Platte. June, July. 

Ranunculus scelcatus, (Linn.) Valley of the Sweet Water river. August 1 8- 20. 

R. cymbalaria, (Pursh.) Upper Platte. July 31, August. 

Aquilegia coerulea, (Torr. ) Wind river mountains. August 13-16. 

Aetata rubra, (Bigel.) Upper Platte. August 26-31. 

Thalictrum Cornuti, (Linn.) Platte. 

T. megacarpum, n. sp. Upper Platte. August 26-31. 

MENISPERMACE.E. 
Menispermum Canadense, (Linn. ) Leaves only. On the Platte. 

BERBERIDACEJE. 
Berberis aquifolium, (Torr. and Gr. ) Wind river mountains. August 13-16. 

PAPAVERACEJE. 

Argemone Mexicana /? albiflnra, (DC.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

CRUCIFERiE. 
Nasturtium palustre, (DC .) Black hills of the Platte. July 26, August. 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, (Linn.) Black hills. July 23. 
E. asperum, (Nutt.) South fork of the Platte. July 4. 
Pachypodium, (Thelypodium, Endl. Gen. p. 876,) integrifolium, (Nutt.) North fork of the 

Platte. September 4. Var. with longer pods. With the preceding. 
Vesicaria didymocarpa, (Hook.) Leaves only. North fork of the Platte, above the Red Butte3. 

July 30. 
Braya, n. sp. Wind river mountains, near the limits of perpetual snow. August 1 5. 
Lepidium ruderale, (Linn.) On the Platte. June 29. 

CAPPARIDACE^E. 

Cleome integrifolia, (Torr. and Gr. ) From the Lower Platte nearly to the mountains. June 29 t 

July 2, August 21. 
Polanisia trachysperma, (Torr. and Gr.) Black hills of the Platte. July 23. 

POLYGALACE^E. 

Polygala alba, (Nutt.) P. Beyrichii, (Torr- and Gr.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

DROSERACE.E. 
Parnassia fimbriata, (Banks. ) Little Sandy creek, defiles of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 8. 

CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 

Arenavia congesta, (Nutt.) Highest parts of the Wind river mountains. August 13-16. 

Silene Drummondii, (Hook.) With the preceding. 

S. acaulis, (Linn.) Wind river mountains, at the limits of perpetual snow. 



[ 174 ] 88 

PORTULACACE.«. 
laUnum parvifxrrum, (Nutt.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 26 

LINACEiE. 
Linum rigidum, (Pursh.) North fork of the Pl.itte. July 8. 
L. perenne, (Linn.) Black hills to the Sweet Water of the Platte. August 2-3L 

GERANIACE^E. 

Geranium Fremontii, n. sp. Black hills. August 26-3 1 . 

0XALIDACEJ2. 

Oxalis stricta, (Linn. ) On the Kansas. June. 

ANACARDIACEJ3. 

Rhus trihbata, (Nutt.) Red Buttes. July 29. 

MALVACEAE. 
Malva pedata, (Torr. and Gr.) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 21. 
M. involucrata, (Torr. and Gr ) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 23. 
Sida coccinea, (DC.) Little Blue river to the south fork of the Platte. June 22, July 4. 

VITACE.E. 
Titis riparia, (Michx.) Grand island of the Platte. September 19. 

ACERACE^E. 
Negundo aceroides, (Mcench.) On the lower part of the Platte. 

CELASTRACE.E. 

Oreophila myrtifolia, (Nutt.) Summit of the Wind river mountains. August 13-14, 

RHAMNACE^. 

Ceanothus velutinus, (Dougl. ) With the preceding. 

C Americanus, var. sanguineus. C. sanguineus, (Pursh.) On the Platte. 

C. mollissimus, n. sp. Near the Kansas river. June 19. 

LEGUMINOS.^. 

Lathyrus linearis, (Nutt. ) On the Platte, from its confluence with the Missouri to Fort Laramie; 

September 2-30. 
Amphicarpoea monoica, (Torr. and Gr.) North fork of the Platte. September 4. 
Apios tuberosa, (Mcench.) Forks of the Platte. September 13. 
Glycyrhiza lepidota, (Pursh.) From near the Kansas river to the Black hills of the Platte. June 

21, July 25. 
Psorulea Jloribunda, (Nutt.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

P. campestris, (Nutt. ?) and a more glabrous variety. With the preceding. July 2. 
P. lanceolata, (Pursh.) Black hills of the Platte. July 24. 
P. argophylla, (Pursh.) Little Blue river. June 23. 
P. tenuifiora, (Pursh.) (no flowers.) Forks of the Platte. September 12. 
Petalostemonviolaceum, (Michx.) Big Blue river of the Kansas, &c. June 21. 
P. candidum, (Michx.) Red Buttes. July 29. 

Amorpha fruticosa, (Linn.) From the Lower Platte to the mountains. August 8, September 19. 
A. canescens, (Nutt.) Kansas and Lower Platte rivers. June 19, September 20. 
Lespedeza capitata, (Michx. ) Mouth of the Platte. September 30. 
Desmodium acuminatum, (DC.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 22. 



89 C 174 ] 

Astragalus gracilis, (Nutt.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

A. mollssimus, (Torr.) Valley of the Platte. June 29. 

A. hypoglotlis, (Linn.) Sweet Water of the Platte. August 5. 

Oxytropis Lambertii, (Pursh.) Big Blue river of the Kansas to the forks of the Platte. June 

20, July 2. 
O. Plattensis, (Nutt. ?) (no flowers.) Goat island of the Upper Platte. July 31. 
Phaca astragalina, (DC.) Highest summits of the Wind river mountain. August 15. 
P. elegans, (Hook.) var.? Goat island of the Upper Platte. July 31. 
P. (Orophaca) digitata, n. sp. Little Sandy river. August 8. 
P. longifolia, (Nutt.) (leaves only.) Wind river mountains. August 12-17. 
Kentrophyta montana, (Nutt.) Laramie river to the Sweet Water. July 14, August 5. 
Luphius leucopbyllm, (Lindl.) Wind river mountains, and Sweet Water of the Platte. August 

4-21. 
L. ornatus, (Dougl.) L. leucopsis, (Agardh.) With the preceding. 
Baptisia leucantha, (Torr. andGr.) Kansas river. 
Thermopsis montana, (Nutt.) Sweet Water river. August 5. 
Cussiachamcecrista, (Linn.) Mouth of the Platte. September 30. 
Schrankia uncinata, (Willd.) Kansas and Platte rivers. June 19, September. 
Durlingtonia brachypoda, (DC.) On the Platte. September 17. 

ROSACEA. 
Cerasus Virghiiana, (Torr. and Gr.) Upper north fork of the Platte. July 30. 
Cercocarpus parvifolius, (Nutt.) Bitter creek, north fork of the Platte. July 22. 
Purshiatridentata, (DC.) Sweet Water river, &c. August 12, September. 
Geum Virginianum, (Linn.) Kansas river. June 20. 

Sibbaldia procumbens, (Linn.) Wind river mountains, near perpetual snow. August 13-14.. 
PotentiUa gracilis, (Dougl.) With the preceding. 

P. diversi folia, (Lehm.) Sweet Water of the Platte to the mountains. August 4-15. 
P. sericea, (i glabrata, (Lehm. ) With the preceding. 
P. fruticosa, (Linn. ) With the preceding. 
P. anserina, (Linn.) Black hills of the Platte. July 26-31. 
P. arguta, (Pursh.) Little Blue river of the Kansas, and Black hills of the Platte. June 23,. 

August 28. 
Rubus strigosus, (Michx.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. August 1.2-17. 
Amelanchier diversifolia, var. alnifolia, (Torr. and Gr. ) Sweet Water of th« Platte. August 5. 
Rosablanda, (Ait.) Lower Platte. 
R. foliolosa, (Nutt. ) var. leiocarpa. With the preceding. 

ONAGRACE^E. 

Epilobium coloratum, (Muhl.) Black hills of the Platte to the Sweet Water river. Aug. 4-3L 
E. spicatum, (Lam.) From the Red Buttes to the Wind river mountains. August 13-31. 
(Enothera albicaulis, (Nutt.) North fork of the Platte. July 14. 
(E. Missouriemis, (Sims.) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 19-20. 
(E. trichocalyx, (Nutt.) North fork of the Platte. July 30. 
<E. serrulata, (Nutt.) On the Kansas and Platte. June, July 14. 
€E. rhombibetala, (Nutt.) On the Platte. September 18-20. 
<E. biennis, (Linn.) Black hills to the Sweet Water river. July 23, August 4. 
(E. (Taraxia) Nuttallii, (Torr. and Gr.) Upper part of the Sweet Water. 
(E. speciosa, (Nutt ) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 19-20. 
(E. Drummondii, (Hook. 1) Black hills. July 26. 

Gaura coccinea, (Nutt.) Var. ? Little Blue river of the Kansas, and south fork of the Platte 
June 26, July 4. 



[ 174 ] 90 

LOASACE.E. 

Mentzelia nuda, (Torr. and Gr.) North fork of the Platte. July 14. 

GROSSULACEyE. 

Ribes cereum, (Lindl.) Sweet Water of the Platte. August 2-4. 

R. lacustre, (Poir.) With the preceding, fi leaves deeply lobed. R. echinatum, (Dougl.) Per- 
haps a distinct species. 
R. irriguum, (Dougl.) With the preceding. 

CACTACE.E. 

Opuntia Misso'jricnsls, (DC.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

CRASSULACEiE. 
Sedum rhodiola, (DC.) On a lake in Wind river mountains. August 12-17. 

UMBELLIFER^E. 

Heracleum lanatum, (Michx. ?) Leaves only. The leaves are more glabrous than in the ordinary 

form of the plant. Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. 
Folylacnia Nuttallii, (DC.) On the Kansas. June 20. 
Slum? incisum, n. sp. Stemsulcate; segments of the leaves distant, deeply incised or pinnatified; 

the lower teeth or divisions often elongated and linear. North fork of the Platte. July 12. 
Edosmia Gardineri, (Torr. andGr.) Without fruit. 
Cicuta maculata, (Linn.) Lower Platte. 
Musenium tenuifolium, (Nutt) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. 

CORNACEJ3. 

Cornus sfolonifera, (Michx.) On a lake in the "Wind river mountains. August 12-17. 
C. circinafa, (L'Her.) On the Platte. 

CAPRIFOLIACE.E. 
Symphori carpus occidentalis, (R. Brown.) North fork of the Platte. July 10, August 31. 
5. vulgaris, (Michx.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. August 13-14. 

RUBIACE^J. 
Galium boreale, (Linn.) Upper part of the North fork of the Platte. August 12-31. 

COMPOSITE. 

Vernoniafasciculata, (Michx.) On the Platte. 

Liatris scariosa, (Willd.) Lower part of the Platte. September 27. 

L. spicata, (Willd.) North fork of the Platte. September 4. 

L. squarrosa, va>\ intermedia, (DC.) A small form of the plant. On the Platte. 

L. punctata, (Hook.) Black hills of the Platte. August 29. 

Brickellia grandijiora, (Nutt.) North fork of the Platte. 

Aster integr if alius, (Nutt. ) Base of the Wind river mountains. 

A. adscendens, (Lindl.) Wind river mountains. Var. Fremontii, with the preceding. The 

highest summits to the limits of perpetual snow. August 16. 
A. loevis, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. 

A. Novi-Be/gii, (Linn.) Sweet Water of the Platte. August 22. . 

A. cordifolius, (Linn.) Lower Platte. 
A. multiflorus, (1 (Torr. and Gr.) Upper Platte, &c. 
A.falcatus, (Lindl.) Black hills to the Sweet Water. July 30, August. 
A. laxifolius, (Nees.) On the Platte, from its mouth to the forks. September 12-30. 



91 [ 174 ] 

A. oblongifolius, (Nutt.) Lower Platte, &c. 

A. Novse-Anglix, (Linn.) Lower Platte to the Wind river mountains. Aug. 18-Sept 24, 

A. andinus, (Nutt.) Near the snow line of the Wind river mountains, Aug. 16. 

A. glacialis, (Nutt. ) With the preceding. 

A. salsuginosus, (Richards.) With the preceding. 

A. elegans, (Torr. and Gr. ) Wind river mountains. 

A. glaucus, (Torr. and Gr.) With the preceding. 

Dieteria viscosa, (Nutt. ) On the Platte. 

D- coronopifolia, (Nutt. ) With the preceding. 

D. pulverulenta , (Nutt.) Near D. sessiliflora. With the preceding. 

Erigeron Canadense, (Linn.) On the Platte, from near its mouth to the Red Buttes. Latter 
part of September to July 30. 

E. bellidiastrum, (Nutt.) On the Platte. 

E. macranthum, (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

E. glabellum, (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

E. strigosum, (Muhl.) With the preceding. 

Gutierrezia euthamise, (Torr. and Gr. ) Laramie river, Upper North fork of the Platte. Sept 3„ 

Solidago rigida, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. 

S. Missouriensis, (Nutt. ) Fort Laramie, North fork of the Platte. July 22, to the mountains. 

■S. speciosa, (Nutt.) Upper Platte. 

5. virga-aurea, (Linn.) var. multiradiala, (Torr. and Gr.) Wind river mountain, from the 

height of 7,000 feet to perpetual snow. 
S. incana, (Torr. and Gr.) Sweet Water river. 
S. gigantea, (Linn.) var. /?. From the Platle to the mountains. 
Linosyris graveolens, (Torr. and Gr.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 20. 
L. viscidijlora, (Hook. ) Upper Platte. 

Aplopappus spinuhsus, (DC.) Fort Laramie, North fork of the Platte. Sept. 3. 
Grindetia squamosa, (Dunal.) Upper North fork of the Platte, and on the Sweet Water. July 

22- Aug. 21. 
Chrysopsis hispida, (Hook.) On the Platte. 

C. mollis, (Nutt. ) With the preceding. Too near C. folioso, (Nutt. ) 
Iva axillaris, (Pursh.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 3. 
Franseria discolor, (Nutt. ) Near the Wind river mountains. 
Lepachys columnaris, (Torr. and Gr.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 26. 
Bahamorrhiza sagittata, (Nutt.) Wind river mountains. 
Helianthus petiolaris, (Nutt.) Black hills of the Platte. July 26. 
H. Maximiliani, (Schrad.) With the preceding. 
Helianthtlla unijlora, (Torr. and Gr. ) Wind river mountains. 
Coreopsis tindoria, (Nutt.) On the Platte. 
Cosmidium gracile, (Torr. and Gr.) Upper Platte. 
Bidens connata, (Muhl.) With the preceding. 
Hymenopappus corimbosus, (Torr. and Gr.) With the preceding. 
Aclinella grandijhra, (Torr. and Gr.) n. sp. Wind river mountains. 
Achillea millefolium, (Linn.) A. lanosa, (Nutt.) Upper Platte to the mountains- 
Artemisia biennis, (Willd.) On the Platte. 
A. cana, (Pursh.) Without flowers. With the preceding. 
A.Hridentata, (Nutt.) On the Sweet Water, near the mountains. 

A. JiV folia, (Torr.) South fork of the Platte, and North fork, to Laramie river. July 4-Sept. 3„ 
A. Canadensis, (Michx.) With the preceding. 
A. Ludoviciana, (Nutt.) Black hills of the Platte. July 26. 
A.frigida, (Willd.) Black hills to the mountains. 



[ 174 ] 92 

A. Lewisii, (Torr. "and Gr. ? ) No Bowers. On the Platte. 

Sleplianomeria runcinata, (Nutt.) Upper Platte. 

Gnaphulium uliginosum,\{\Ami.) Var. foliis angustinribu*. Sweet Water river. 

G. palustre, (Nutt.) /?. (Torr. and Gr.) With the preceding. 

Arnica angusti folia, (Vahl.) A. fulgens, (Pursh.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains, from 

7,000 feet and upwards. August 13-14. 
Senecio triangularis, (Hook.) 0. (Torr. and Gr.) With the preceding. 
S. subnudus, (DC.) With the preceding. 
S. Fremoniii, (Torr. and Gr.) n. sp. Highest parts of the mountains, to the region of perpetual 

snow. Aug. 15. 
5. rapifolius, (Nutt.) North fork of the Platte and Sweet Water. 
S. lanceolalus, (Torr. and Gr. ) n. sp. With the preceding. 
S. hydrophilus, (Nutt.) On a lake in the Wind river mountains. Aug. 12-17. 
S. spartioides, (Torr. and Gr.) n. sp. Sweet Water river. Aug. 21. 
S. filifulius, (Nutt.) ft Fremontii, (Torr. and Gr.) Lower Platte. 
Cacalia tuberose, (Nutt. ) Upper Platte. 
Tetradymia inermis, (Nutt ) Sweet Water river, from its mouth to the highest parts of the Wind 

river mountains. 
Cirsium altissimum, (Spreng. ) Lower Platte. 
Crepis glauca, (Hook.) Upper Platte. 
Macrorhynchul (stylopappus) troximoides, (Torr. and Gr. ) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. 

Aug. 13-14. 
Mulgtdium pulchellum, (Torr. and Gr.) Black hills of the Platte. July 25 31. 
Lygodcsmia juncea, (Don.) Upper Platte. 
Troximon parvijhrum, (Nutt. ) Sweet Water river, near the mountains. 

LOBELIACEJ3. 
Lobelia spicata, (Lam.) On the Lower Platte. June 28. 
L. siphilitica, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. Sept. 4. 

CAMPANULACEJE. 

Campanula rotundi folia, (Linn.) Lower Platte. 

Specularia amplexicaulus, (DC.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. 

ERICACEAE. 

FhyUodoce empetriformis, (D. Don.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-16. 

Vaccinium myrtilloides, (Hook.) Wind river mountains, in the vicinity of perpetual snow.. 
Aug. 15. 

V. uUginosum, (Linn.) With the preceding. 

Artostaphylos uva-ursi, (Spreng.) On a lake in the mountains. Aug. 12-17. 

PRIMULACEiE. 
Dodeattheon dentatum, (Hook.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-16. 
Androsace occidentalis, (Nutt.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 5. 
Lysimachia ciliata, (Linn.) Forks of the Platte. July 2.. 
Glaux maritima, (Linn.) Upper Noith fork of the Pla|*& • July 31. 

SCROPHULARiACE^E. • 

Qrthocarpus luleus, (Nutt.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 5. 

Mimulus ulsinoides, (Benth.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-16. 

M. Lewisii, (Pursh.) With the preceding. 

Castilieju pallida, (Kunth.) Sweet Water riyer. Aug. 8. 



93 [ 174 ] 



<C.miniata, (Benth.) Wind river mountains. August 13-16. There are two or three other 

species of this genus in the collection, which I have not been able to determine. 
Veronica alpina p, (Hook. ) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. 
Pentstemon albidum, (Nutt.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 
P. coeruleum, (Nutt.) South fork of the Platte. July 4. 

P. micranthum, (Nutt) Sources of the Sweet Water, near the mountains. August 7 
Pedicularis surrecia, (Benth.) Defiles of the Wind river mountains. August 13—1 6 . 
Gerardia longifolia, (Nutt.) Lower Platte. July 22. 

OROBANCHACEjE. 

Orobanche fasciculate/, (Nutt.) South fork of the Platte. July 4. 

LABIATE. 

Monarda Jistulosa, (Linn.) On the Platte. 

Teucrium Canadtnse, (Linn.) With the preceding. 

Lycopus sinuatus, (Ell.) With the preceding. 

Stachys aspera, (Michx.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

Scutellaria galericulata, (Linn.) North of the Platte. July 10. 

Mentha Canadensis, (Linn.) With tho preceding. 

Salvia azurea, (Lam.) Kansas river and forks of the Platte. June 19-29, July 2, 

VERBENACE.E. 
Lippia cuneifulia, Zapania cuneifolia, (Torr., in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, ii, page 234.) 

North fork of the Platte. July 12. 
Verbena stricta, (Vent. ) With the preceding. 
V. hastata, (Linn.) With the preceding. 
V, bracteata, (Michx.) With the preceding. 

BORAGINACE.E. 

Pulmonaria ciliata, (James ; Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, page 224. ) Defiles in (the Wiad 

river mountains. August 13-15. 
Onosmodium molle, (Michx.) On the Platte. June 29. 
Batschia Gmelini, (Michx.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 22. 
Myosotis glomerala, (Nutt. ) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

HYDROPHYLLACE.E. 

Eutoca sericea, (Lehm. ) Wind river mountains. 

Phacelia leucophyllu, n. sp. Whole plant strigosely canescent; leaves elliptical, petiolate entire; 
racemes numerous, scorpioid, densely flowered. — Goat island, upper North fork of the Platte. 
July 30. Perennial — Stems branching from the base. Leaves about two inches long, and 6 to 
8 lines wide; radical and lower cauline ones on long petioles; the others nearly sessile. Spikes 
forming a terminal crowded sort of panicle. Flowers sessile, about 3 lines long. Sepals 
strongly hispid. Corolla one-third longer than the calyx; the lobes short and entire. Stamens 
much exserted; filaments glabrous. Style 2 parted to the middle, the lower part hairy. Ovary 
hispid, incompletely 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. Capsule, by abortion, one-seeded* 
seed oblong, strongly punctate. Nearly related to P. integrifolia, (Torr. ;) but differs in the 
leaves being perfectly entire, the more numerous spikes, one-seeded capsules, as well as in the 
whitish strigose pubescence of the whole plant. 

POLEMONIACE.E. 

Phlox muscoides, (Nutt.) Immediately below the region of perpetual snow, on the Wind river 

mountains. August 15. 
P. Hoodii, (Richards.) North fork of the Platte. July 8. 
P. pilosa, (Nutt.) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 20. 



[ 174 ] 94 



Polemonium cceruleum, (Linn., Hook.) Red Buttes on the Upper North fork of the Platte, hu- 
mile, (Hook.) Highest parts of the mountains, near perpetual snow. August 13-15. 

Gllia (Cantua) hngiflora, (Torr.) Sand hills of the Platte. September 16. 

G. pulchella, (Dougl.) Upper part of the Sweet Water, near the mountains. August 7-20. 

G. inconspicua, (Dougl. ?) Goat island, Upper North fork of the Platte. July 30. This differs 
from the Oregon plant in its fleshy, simply pinnatified leaves, with ovate, obtuse segments. 

CONVOLVULACE.E. 

Calystegia sepiurn, (R. Br) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 

Tpomcea leptophylla, n. sp. . Stems branching from the base, prostrate, glabrous, angular; leaves 
lanceolate-linear, very acute, entire, attenuate at the base into a petiole; peduncles 1 to 3-flow- 
ered; sepals roundish-ovate, obtuse with a minute mucro. — Forks of the Platte to Laramie 
river. July 4-September 3. Imperfect specimens of this plant were collected about the sources of 
the Canadian, by Dr. James, in Long's expedition; but they were not described in my account 
of his plants. The root, according to Dr. James, is annual, producing numerous thick pros- 
trate, but not twining stems, which are two feet or more in length. The leaves are from two 
to four inches long, acute at each end, strongly veined and somewhat coriaceous. Peduncles 
an inch or more in length; those towards the extremity of the branches only 1 flowered; the 
lower ones bearing 2, 3, and sometimes 4 flowers, which are nearly the size of those of calys- 
tegia sepiutn, and of a purplish color. Sepals appressed, about five lines long. Corolla cam- 
panulate — funnel form, the tube much longer t ; an the calyx. Stamens inserted near the base 
of the corolla; filaments villous at the base; anthers oblong linear, large. Style as long as the 
stamens; stigma 2-lobed; the lobes capitate. Ovary 2-celled, with two ovules in each cell. 

SOLANACE^E. 

Nycterium luteum, (Donncat.) South fork of ihe Platte. July 4. 
Physalis pubescent, (Willd.) Upper North fork of the Platte. July 23. 
P. pumila, (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

GENTIANACEJ3. 

Gentiana arctnphila fj dtnsijlora, (Griseb. ? in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. ii, page 61.) Sweet Water 
of the Platte. August 4. 

G. ajfinis, (Griseb. ) North fork of the Platte. Septembers. 

G. pneumonanthe, (Linn.) Laramie river to Little Sandy creek, in the mountains. July 12- 
August 8. 

G. Fremontii, n. sp. Stem branched at the base; branches 1-flovered; haves ovate, cuspidate, 
cartilaginous on the margin, erect; corolla funnel-form; piicas email, slight y 2-tocthcd; cap- 
sule ovate, at length entirely exserted on ita thkk stipe — vv ind river mountains — Ai nail. 
Branches several, 2 to 3 inches long, or nearly equal length. Leaves a'ooul tar j>e lines long, with 
a strong whitish cartilaginous border, shorter than the iiitemoacs. Flowers as large as thote 
of G. proJr'du, pe tamerous. Calyx two-thirds the Lngth of the coroila; the t^-eth about one- 
third the length of the tube. Plicae of the corolla scare, ly on^-ttiird as long as the lanceolate 
lobes. Stamens included; anthers oblong, somewhat cordate at tha base. Capsule in matu- 
rity, and after dehiscence, (in which state all our spe.imens were coileoei,) exserted quite be- 
yond the corolla, and, with its long stipe, resembling a style with a large bi.a.n.-lbte stigma. 

' None of the capsules contained any seels. This species is nearly related to G. prustru-u, 
(Haenk,) and G. humiLs, (Stev.,) but the former has spatulate oi.tuse recurved leaves, anJ the 
latter entire plica;, which are nearly the length of tie corolla. In G. hum lit, an.: in the allied 
G. squarrosa, (Ledeb.,) foe cap*ule is exserted after dischargi g the sejdk 

Sweriia perennis, obtus.i, (Hook.) From Laramie river to the Bi^ liutter. 
Frasera speciosa, (Hook.) Defiles of the Wind river mountai s. August I -Ik 

Lisianikus RitstseLanus, (Hook.) Lower Platte to the forks. July-oeptemlxr. 



95 [ 174 ] 

APOCYNACEJE. 

Apocynum cannabinum, (Linn.) On the Platte. 

ASCLEPIADACEJ3. 

Asclepias speciosa, (Torr, in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, p. 218.— A Douglasii, Hook. PI. Bor.Am* 
ii, p. 53, t. 142.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. Collected also by Mr Nicollet in his North- 
western expedition. Hooker's plant differs in no essential characters from my A. speciosa, col- 
lected by Dr. James in Long's first expedition. 

A vertici/lata, (Linn.) Small variety. With the preceding. 

A. tuberosa, (Linn.) Kansas river. June 19. 

Anantherix nitidis, (Nutt.) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 20. 

Acerates long! folia, (Ell. ) Polyotus longifolia. (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

A. angustifolius. Polyotus angustifolius. (Nutt ) With the preceding. 

OLEACE.E. 
Fraxinus platycarpa, (Michx. ) Leaves only. Lower Platte. 

PLANTAGINACEJE. 

Plantago eriopoda, (Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, ii, p. 237. ) Mouth of the Sweet Water. July 31, 
P. gnaphaloides, (Nutt.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 24. 

CHENOPODIACE-E. 

Chenopodium zosUri folium, (Hook,) Platte. > 

C. album, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. July 12. 

Ollonc canescens, (Mocq. Chenop., p. 74.) Atriplex canescens. (Nutt.) Upper North fork of 

the Platte. July 26. 
Cyclohma plalyphylla, (Mocq., I. c. p. 18) Kochia dentata, (Willd.) North fork of the 

Platte. September 4. 
Sueda marUima, (Mocq., 1. c. p. 127.) With the preceding. 
Eurotia lanata, (Mocq., 1. c. p. 81.) Diotis lanata, (Pursh.) Red Buttes to the mountains. 

August 18-25. 
Fremuniia, n. gen. Flowers diclinous, monoecious and ? dioicous, heteromorphous. Stam. FI. in 
terminal aments. Scales eccentrically peltate, on a short stipe, angular, somewhat cuspidate up- 
ward. Stamens 2, 3, and 4 under each scale, naked, sessile ; anthers oblong. Pist. Fl. solitary, 
axillary. Peri~onium closely adhering to the lower half of the ovary, the border entire, nearly 
obsolete, but in fruit enlarging into a broad horizontal angular and undulate wing. Ovary 
ovate ; styles thick, divaricate ; stigmas linear. Fruit a utricle, the lower two-thirds covered 
with the indurated calyx, compressed. Seed vertical ; integument double. Embryo fiat-spiral, 
(2 to 3 turns,) green: radicle inferior; albumen none. 
F. vemdculari*. (Batis? vermkularis, Hook.) Fl. Bor. Amer. ii, p. 128. Upper North fork of 
the Platte, near the mouth of the Sweet Water. July 30. A low glabrous, diffusely branched 
shrub, clothed with a whitish bark. Leaves alternate, linear, fleshy, and almost semiterete, 6 to 
1 2 lines long and 1 to 2 lines wide. Staminate aments about three-fourths of an inch long, cyl- 
indrical, at first dense, and composed of closely compacted angular scales, covering naked an- 
thers. Anthers very deciduous. Fertile flowers in the axils of the rameal leaves. Calyx 
closely adherent, and at first with only an obscure border or limb, but at length forming a wing 
3 to 4 lines in diameter, resembling that of Salsola. This remarkable plant, which I dedicate to 
Lieutenant Fremont, was first collected by Dr. James about the sources of the Canadian, (in 
Long's expedition,) but it was omitted in my account of his plants, published in the Annals of 
the Lyceum of Natural History. It is undoubtedly the batis> vermicularis of Hooker, (1. c.,) 
collected on the harren grounds of the Oregon river by the late Mr. Douglas, who found it with 
only the staminate flowers. We have it now from a third locality, so that the plant must b& 



[ 174 



96 



widely diffused in the barren regions towards the Rocky mountains. It belongs to the sub-order 
spirolobesc of Meyer and Mocquin, but can hardly be referred to either the tribe suxdince or to 
sulsolae, differing from both in its diclinous heteromorphous flowers, and also from the latter in its 
flat-spiral, not cochleate embryo. 

NYCTAGINACE^. 

Oxybaphus nyctagineu, (Torr. in James's Rocky Mountain Plants.) Calymenia nyctaginea, 
(Nutt.) Kansas river, June 20. 

Abronia mellifera, (Dougl ) North fork of the Platte, July 7-12. 

A. (tripteroealyx) micranthum, n. sp. Viscid and glandularly pubescent; leaves ovate, undulate, 
obtuse, acute at the base, petiolatc; perianth funnel form, 4-lobed at the summit, 3 to 4 androus; 
achenium broadly 3-winged. — Near the mouth of Sweet Water river. August 1. Annual. 
Stem diffusely branched from the base, beginning to flower when only an inch high; the branches 
of the mature plant above a foot long. Leaves 1 to U inch in length; petioles about as long 
as the lamina. Heads axillary. Involucre 5-leaved, 8 to 14 -flowered; leaflets ovate, acumi- 
nate. Perianth colored, (purplish,) 3 to 4 lines long; lobes semi-ovate, obtuse. Stamens inserted 
in the middle of the tube, unequal; anthers ovate, sagittate at the base. Ovary oblong, clothed 
with the 3-winged base of the calyx; style filiform; stigma filiform -clavate, incurved. Mature 
achenium about 7 lines long and 4 wide; the wings broad, nearly equal, membranaceous and 
strongly reticulated. Seed oblong. Embryo conduplicate, involving the deeply 2-parted mealy 
albumen; radicle linear-terete; inner cotyledon abortive! outer one oblong, foliaceous, concave, 
as long as the radicle. This interesiing plant differs from its congeners in its funnel-form pe- 
rianth, 3 to 4 androus flowers, and broadly 3-winged fruit, but I have not been able to compare 
it critically with other species of abronia. It may prove to be a distinct genus. 

POLYGONACE^E. 

Polygonum Persicaria, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. September 4. 

P. aviculare, (Linn.) With the preceding. 

P. amphibium, (Linn.) Sweet Water river. August 4. 

P. viviparum, (Linn.) Black hills. July 26. 

Rumex salicifulius, ( Weinn. ) With the preceding. 

Oxyria reniformis, (Hill.) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. August 13-16. 

Eriogonum ovalifolium, (Nutt.) Horse-shoe creek, Upper North fork of the Platte. July 22. 

E. ccespitosum, (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

E. umbellatum, (Torr., ) in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, ii,'p. 241. Sweet Water river, Aug. 7. 

E. Fremonlii, n. sp. With the preceding. 

E. annuum, (Nutt.) North fork of the Platte. September 4. 

ELEAGNACE.E. 
■Shepherdia urgentea, (Nutt.) " Grains de bceuf.'' Upper North fork of the Platte, from the 

Red Buttes to the mouth of the Sweet Water. August 2i-28. 
•S. Canadensis, (Nutt.) On a lake in the Wind river mountains. August 12-17. 
Eleagnus argenteus, (Pursh.) With the preceding. 

EUPHORBIACEJ3. 

Euphorbia marginata, (Pursh.) Forks of the Platte. September 11. 

E. polygonifolia, (Linn.) South fork of the Platte. July 4. 

E. corollata, (Linn.) On thei&ansas. 

E- obtu?a!a, (Pursh.) LitlTe Bluef rijEj- of the Kansas. July 23. 

Pilinophytum capitatum, (Klotsch irt jFTegem. Arch., April, 1842.) Croton capitatum, (Michx.) 

Forks of the Platte. 
Hmdecandra? (Esch.,) multiflora> n. sp. ; annual canescent, with stellate pubescence, dioecious j 



97 [ 174 3 



stem somewhat diffusely and trichotomously branched; leaves ovate -oblong; petiolate obtuse, entire; 
staminate flowers on crowded axillary and terminal compound spikes. — Laramie river, North fork 
of the Platte. September 3 — 11. — About a foot high. Fructiferous plant unknown. With 
larger leaves. Forks of the Platte. July 2. This seems to be the same as the plant of Drum- 
mond's Texan Collection, III, No. 266. 

SALICIACE.E. 

Salix longifolia, (Willd.) On the Platte. 

<$. Muhlenbergii, (Willd.) With the preceding. Several other species exist in the collection — . 

some from the Platte, others from the mountains; but I have had no time to determine thera 

satisfactorily. 
Populns tremuloides, (Michx.) Lake in the Wind river mountains. 
P. angustifolia, (Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. Hist, of New York, ii, p. 249.) Sweet Water river. 

Aug. 21. 
P. monilifera, (Ait.) Lower Platte. 

ULMACE.E. 

Ulmus fulva, (Michx.) Lower Platte. 

Seltis crassi folia, (Nutt.) With the preceding. 

BETULACE^E. 

Betula glandulosa, (Michx.) On a lake in the Wind river mountains. Aug. 12-17. 
B. occidentalism (Hook.) With the preceding. 

CONIFER.E. 

Pinus rigida, (Linn.) Lower Platte. Without cones. Leaves in threes, about 3 inches long. 
jP. undetermined. Defiles of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-14. Between P. strobus and 

P. Lambertiana. Leaves in 5's, 1£ to 2 inches long, rigid. No cones. 
P. (Abies) alba, (Michx.) With the preceding. 
P. near balsamea. With the preceding. Leaves only. 
Juniperus Virginiana, (Linn.) Lower Platte. 



ENDOGENOUS PLANTS. 

ALISMACE.E. 

Sagittaria sagittifolia, (Linn.) On the Kansas. 

ORCHIDACE^E. 

Platanthera leucophaea, (Lindl.) Black hills. July 27. 

P. hyperborea, (R. Br.) Laramie river to the Red Buttes. Aug. 26-31. 

Spiranthes cernua, (Rich.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 6. 

Aplectrum hyemale, (Nutt.) On the Platte. June 29. 

IRIDACEiE. 

Sisyrinchium anceps, (Linn.) North fork of the Platte. July 12. 

Iris Missouriensis, (Nutt., in Jour. Acad. Phil, vii, p. 58.) In fruit. Sweet Water river. Aug. 3, 
Rhizoma very thick. Leaves narrow, rigid, as long as the scape. Scape nearly naked, 2- flow- 
ered, terete, 10 inches high. Capsules oblong, obtusely triangular. Flowers not seen. 

7 



[ 174 ] 98 

LILIACEJB. 

Yucca angustifolia, (Sims.) Laramie rivei. July 14. 

Allium reticulatum, (Fras.) Defiles in the Wind river mountains. Aug. 12-17. 

Smilacina stellata, (Desf.) From the Laramie river to the Red Buttes. Aug. 26-31 

MELANTHACE.E? 

Zigadenus glaucus, (Nutt.) Sweet Water river. Aug. 

JUNCACE.E. 

Juncus echinctus, (Muhl.) North fork of the Platte. Sept. 4. 

COMMELYNACEJE. 

Ti-adescantia Virginica, (Linn.,) and a narrow-leaved variety. Kansas and Platte. 

CYPERACE.E. 

Carex festucacea, (Schk.) On the Kansas. June. 

C. aurea, (Nutt.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 22. 

C. panicea, (Linn.) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains, near perpetual snow. Aug. 15. 

C. atrata, (Linn.) With the pieceding. 

GRAMINE-E. 

Xpartina cynosurvides, (Willd.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 22. 
Aristida pallens, (Pursh.) On the Platte. June 29. 
Agrostis Michauxiana, (Trin.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 23. 
Phleum alpinum, (Linn.) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-14. 
Bromus tiliatus, (Linn.) On the Platte. June-Aug. 

Pestuca ovina, (Linn.) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-l4. 
Pestuca nutans, (Willd.) On the Kansas. 
Poa laxa, (Hnenke.) With the preceding. 

r. crocata, (Michx.) With the preceding. Spikelets 2-flowered. 
P, nervata, (Willd.) On the Kansas. 
Knekria cristata, (Pers.) Big Blue river of the Kansas, and on the Platte as high as Laramie 

river. June 20 — July 22. 
Deschampsia ccespitosa, (Beauv.) Alpine region of the Wind river mountains. Aug. 13-14. 
Andropegon scoparius, (Michx.) Lower Platte. 

A. nutans, (Linn.) Laramie river, North fork of the Platte. Sept. 3-4. 
Hordeum jubatum, (Ait.) Forks of the Platte. July 2. 
Elymus Virginicus, (Linn.) Big Blue river of the Kansas. June 20. 
E. Canadensis, (Linn.) Little Blue river of the Kansas. June 22. 
Beckmannia cruciformis, ( Jacq. ) North fork of the Platte. July 22. 

EQUISETACE,E. 
Equisdum arvense, (Linn.) On a lake in the Wind river mountains. Aug. 12-17. 

FILICES. 

Jiypopeltis obtusa, (Torr. Compend. Bot. N. States, p. 380, 1826.) Aspidium obtusum, (Willd.) 
Woodsia Perriniana, (Hook, and Grev. Icon. Fil. I. t. 68.) Physematium (Kaulf.) obtusum f 
(Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. ii, p. 259.) On the Platte. 



311 [ 174 ] 






NOTE CONCERNING THE PLANTS COLLECTED IN THE SECOND EXPEDI- 
TION OF CAPTAIN FREMONT. 

When Captain Fremont set out on his second expedition, he was well provided with paper and 
other means for making extensive botanical collections; and it was understood that, on his return, 
we should, conjointly, prepare a full account of his plants, to be appended to his report. About 
1,400 species were collected, many of them in regions not Uffore explored by any botanist. In 
consequence, however, of the great length of the journey, and the numerous accidents to which 
the party were exposed, but especially owing to the dreadful flood of the Kansas, which deluged the 
borders of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, more than half of his specimens were ruined before 
he reached the borders of civilization. Even the portion saved was gTeatly damaged; so that, in 
many instances, it has been extremely difficult to determine the plants. As there was not suffi- 
cient time before the publication of Captain Fremont's report for the proper study of the remains of 
his collection, it has been deemed advisable to reserve the greater part of them to incorporate with 
the plants which we expect he will bring with him on returning from his third expedition, upon 
which he has just set out. 

The loss sustained by Captain Fremont, and, I may say, by the botanical world, will, we trust, 
be partly made up the present and next seasons, as much of the same country will be passed over 
again, and some new regions explored. Arrangements have also been made, by which the botanical 
collections will be preserved, at least from the destructive effects of water; and a person accompa- 
nies the expedition, who is to make drawings of all the most interesting plants. Particular atten- 
tion will be given to the forest trees and the vegetable productions that are useful in the arts, or that 
are employed for food or medicine. 

JOHN TORREY. 



Descriptions of some new genera and species of plants, collected in Cap- 
tain J. C. Fremont's exploring expedition to Oregon and North Call- 
.fornia, in the years lS43-'44: By John Torrey and J. C. Fremont. 

Cleomella (?) obtusifolia. Torr. and Frem. 

Branching from the base, and diffuse ; leaflets cuneate-obovate, obtuse 5 
style filiform. 

Annual, stem smooth, the branches spreading, about a span long, hairy 
in the axils. Leaves, or petioles, an inch or more in length ; the lamina of 
the leaflets 4 — 6 lines long, apiculate with a deciduous bristle, nearly smooth 
above, sparsely strigose underneath. Pedicels solitary and axillary, in the 
upper part of the branches, longer than the petioles. Calyx much shorter 
than the corolla ; the sepals lacerately 3 — 5-toothed. Petals yellow, oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse, about 3 lines in length. Stamens 6, unequal, a little 
exserted : anthers linear-oblong, recurved when old. Torus hemispherical. 
Ovary on a long slender stipe, obovate ; style longer than the ovary. 

On the American fork of the Sacramento river ; March. The specimens 
are not in fruit, so that we cannot be certain as to the genus ; but it seems 
to be a Cleomella. 



[ 174 ] 312 

Meconella Californica. Tor/', and Frhn. 

Leaves obovate-spatulate ; stamens 11 — 12. 

On the American fork of the Sacramento river. 

This species is intermediate between Meconella and Platystigma. It is 
a slender annual, 3 — 4 inches high, with the radical leaves in rosulate clus- 
ters, and more dilated at the extremity than in M. Oregana. The flowers 
also are much larger. The torus, which is like that of Eschschotzia, is very 
distinct. 

Arctomeo$)n. Torr. and Frtm. — n. gen. 

Calyx of 3 smooth imbricated caducous sepals. Petals 4, obovate, reg- 
ular. Stamens numerous ; anthers oblong-linear : the cells opening longi- 
tudinally. Ovary obovoid, composed of 6 carpels, with as many narrow 
intervalvular placentae : styles none : stigmas coalescing into a small hem- 
ispherical 6-angled sessile head, the angles of which are opposite the pla- 
centas, not forming a projecting disk. Capsule (immature) ovoid, the pla- 
centas almost filiform, opening at the summit by 6 valves, which separate 
from the persistent placentae. Seeds oblong, smooth, strophiolate. — A pe- 
rennial herb, with a thick woody root. Leaves numerous, mostly crowded 
about the root, flabelliform-cuneate, densely clothed with long gray up- 
wardly barbellate hairs, 3 — 5 lobed at the summit ; the lobes with 2 — 3 
teeth, which are tipped with a rigid pungent upwardly scabrous bristle. 
Stem scape-like, about a foot high, furnished about the middle with one or 
two small bract-like leaves, smooth above, rough towards the base. Flow- 
ers in a loose, somewhat umbellate, simple or somewhat compound panicle ; 
the peduncles elongated, erect. Petals about an inch long, yellow. 

Arctomecox Californicum. Torr. and Frhn. 

This remarkable plant was found in only a single station in the Califor- 
nian mountains, on the banks of a creek; flowering early in May. The 
soil was sterile and gravelly. Although very near Papaver, it differs so 
much in habit and in the strophiolate seeds, as well as in other characters^ 
that it must be a distinct genus. 

Krameria. 

A shrubby species of this genus was found on the Virgen river, in Califor- 
nia. It seems to be K. parvifolia of Bentham, described in the voyage of 
the Sulphur. His plant, however, was only in fruit, while our specimens 
are only in flower. Ours grows in thick bunches 1 — 2 feet high, of a gray 
aspect, with numerous very straggling and somewhat spinescent branches. 
Leaves scarcely one-third of an inch long, obovate-spatulate. The flowers 
are scarcely more than half as large as in K. lanceolata. Sepals 5, un- 
equal; claws of the 3 upper petals united into a column below; lamina 
more or less ovate ; the two lower petals short and truncate. Stamens 
shorter than the upper petals; the filaments united at the base with the 
column of the petals : anthers one-celled, with a membranaceous summit, 
the orifice of which is somewhat dilated, and finally lacerated. Ovary 
hairy and spinulose ; style rigid, declined. 

Oxystylis. Torr. and Frtm. — n. gen. 

Sepals linear ; petals ovate, somewhat uhguiculate ; ovary 2-celled ; the 
cells subglobose, each with two ovules : style pyramidal, much larger than 



BOZANY Plate I. 




/surj///.; ss/y /<7/s/ 



313 [ 174 ] 

the ovary. Silicle didymous : the carpels obovoid-globose, one-seeded, 
(or rarely two-seeded,) indehiscent, separating from the base of the persis- 
tent subulate spinescent style : pericarp crustaceo-coriaceous. Seed ovate, 
somewhat compressed ; testa membranaceous, the lining much thickened 
and fleshy. Cotyledons incumbent, linear-oblong ; radicle opposite the 
placentae. — A smooth annual herb. Leaves temately parted, on long 
petioles ; the leaflets ovate or oblong, entire petiolulate. Flowers in nu- 
merous axillary crowded short capitate racemes, small and yellow. 

Oxystylis lutea. Torr. and Frem. 

On the Margoza river, at the foot of a sandy hill ; only seen in one place, 
but abundant there. The specimens were collected on the 2Sth of April, 
and were in both flower and fruit. 

A rather stout plant ; the stem erect, a foot or 15 inches high, simple or 
a little branching below, leafy. Leaflets 1 — li inch long, obtuse. Heads 
of flowers about half an inch in diameter, not elongating in fruit. Calyx 
shorter than the corolla ; the sepals acute, yellowish, tipped with orange. 
Petals about two lines long. Fruit consisting of two roundish indehiscent 
carpels, which at maturity separate by a small base, leaving the indurated 
pointed style. The epicarp is thin, membranaceous,and slightly corrugated. 

This remarkable plant seems to connect Cruciferae with Capparidaeeae. 
The clusters of old flower stalks, with their numerous crowded spinescent 
styles, present a singular appearance. 

Thamnosma. Torr. and Frem. — n. gen. 

Flowers hermaphrodite, (or polygamous?) Calyx 4-cleft. Corolla 4- 
petalled, much longer than the calyx ; the aestivation valvate. Stamens S, 
in a double series, all fertile. Ovaries 2, sessile and connate at the summit 
of a stipe, each with 5 or 6 ovules in 2 series ; styles united into one ; 
stigma capitate. Capsules 2, sessile at the summit of the stipe, subglobose, 
united below, (one of them sometimes abortive,) coriaceous, 1 — 3-seeded. 
Seeds curved, with a short beak, black and minutely wrinkled ; the radicle 
inferior. Embryo curved ; cotyledons broadly linear, incumbent. 

Thamnosma Montana. Torr. and Frem. 

A shrub of the height of one or two feet, branching from the base, with 
simple, very small linear wedge-shaped leaves. The flowers are apparently 
dark purple, in loose terminal clusters. The whole plant has a strong aro- 
matic odor, and every part of it is covered with little glandular dots. Al- 
though nearly allied to Xanthoxylum, we regard it as a peculiar genus. It 
grows in the passes of the mountains, and on the Virgen river in Northern 
California. The greater part of it was already in fruit in the month of May. 

Prosopis odorata. Torr. and Frem. 

Branches and leaves smooth ; spines stout, mostly in pairs, straight ; pin- 
nae a single pair ; leaflets 6 — S pairs, oblong-linear, slightly falcate, some- 
what coriaceous, rather obtuse ; spikes elongated, on short peduncles ; co- 
rolla three times as long as the calyx ; stamens exserted ; legume spirally 
twisted into a compact cylinder. 

A tree about 20 feet high, with a very broad full head, and the lower 
branches declining to the ground ; the thorns sometimes more than an inch 



[ 174 ] 314 

long. Leaves smooth ; the common petiole 1 — 2 inches long, and terminated 
by a spinescent point ; leaflets from half an inch to an inch long, and 1 — 2 
lines broad, somewhat coriaceous, sparingly but prominently veined un- 
derneath. Spikes 2 — 4 inches long, and about one-third of an inch in di- 
ameter. Flowers yellow, very fragrant, nearly sessile on the rachis. Calyx 
campanulate, somewhat equally 5-toothed, smooth. Petals ovate-oblong, 
hairy inside. Stamens 10, one-third longer than the corolla. Anthers tipped 
"with a slightly stipitate gland. Ovary linear-oblong, villous ; style smooth ; 
stigma capitate, concave at the extremity. Legumes clustered, spirally 
twisted into a very close rigid cylinder, which is from an inch to an inch 
and a half long, and about two lines in diameter, forming from ten to thir- 
teen turns, many seeded. Sarcocarp pulpy ; the two opposite sides of the 
firm endocarp are compressed together between the seeds, forming a lon- 
gitudinal kind of septum, which divides the pulp into two parts. Seeds 
ovate, kidney-form, compressed, very smooth and hard. Embryo yellow- 
ish, surrounded with a thin albumen. 

A characteristic tree in the mountainous part of Northern California, 
particularly along the Mohahve and Virgen rivers, flowering the lauerpart 
of April. 

This species belongs to the section strombocarpa of Mr. Bentham,' 
which includes the Jtcacia strombulifera of Wildenow. In the structure 
of the pod it is so remarkable that we at one time regarded it as a distinct 
genus, to which we gave the name of Spirolobium. 

There are numerous other Legumiiiosse in the collection, including, as 
might be expected, many species of Lupinus, Astragalus, Oxytropis, and 
Phaca, some of which are new ; also, Thermopsis rhombifolia and mon- 
tana, and a beautiful shrubby Psoralea (or some allied genus) covered 
with bright violet flowers. 

COWANIA PLICATA. D. Don. (?) 

Specimens of this plant, without a ticket, were in the collection ; doubt- 
less obtained in California. It may prove to be a distinct species from the 
Mexican plant, for the leaves are more divided than they are described by 
Don, and the flowers are smaller. The genus Cowania is very nearly al- 
lied to Cercocarpus and Purshia, notwithstanding its numerous ovaries. 
The lobes of the calyx are imbricated, as in those genera, and not valvate, 
as in Eudryadese, to which section it is referred by Endlicher. 

Purshia tridenlata formed a conspicuous object in several parts of the 
route, not only east of the mountains, but in Oregon and California. It is 
covered with a profusion of yellow flowers, and is quite ornamental. Some- 
times it attains the height of twelve feet. 

Spirzea arisefolia, var. discolor, was found on the upper waters of the 
Platte, holding its characters so well that it should perhaps be regarded as 
a distinct species. 

QEnothera clavjeformis. Torr. and Frem. 
Leaves ovate or oblong, denticulate or toothed, pinnatified at the base, 
with a long naked petiole ■ scape with several small leaves, S— 12-flowered ; 
segments of the calyx longer than the tube ; capsules clavate-cylmdrical, 
nearly twice as long as the pedicel. Flowers about as large as in (E. pu- 
mi/a. Grows with the preceding. . 

* In Hooker's Journal of Botany, iv, p. 351. 



BOTANY Hate IT 




. 



v 



; m econ ' " ''/ f '"^ '" "' 



315 [ 174 ] 

This new species belongs to the section Chylismia of Nutt. ( Torr. and 
Gr. FL N. Jim. I, p. 506.) 

Oenothera deltoides. Torr. and Frem. 

Annual ; canescently strigose; stem low and stout; leaves rhombicovate. 
repandly denticulate, acute ; flowers (large) clustered at the summit of the 
short stem ; tube of the calyx nearly twice the length of the segments ; pe- 
tals entire, one-third longer than the slightly declined stamens; anthers very- 
long, fixed by the middle ; style exserted; capsules prismatic-cylindrical. 

Allied to (E. Jamesii, Torr. and Gr., and belongs, like that species, to 
the section Eugenothera and sub-section Onagra. 

(Enothera canescens. Torr. and Frem. 

Strigosely canescent ; leaves narrowly lanceolate, rather obtuse, remote- 
ly denticulate ; flowers in a leafy raceme ; tube of the calyx rather slen- 
der, three times as long as -the ovary, and one -third longer than the seg- 
ments ; petals broadly ovate, entire. 

This species was collected (we believe) on the upper waters of the Platte. 
It belongs to the section Eucenothera, and to a sub-section which may be 
called Gauropsis, and characterized as follows : Perennial diffuse herbs ; 
tube of the calyx linear ; capsule obovate, sessile, with 4-winged angles 
and no intermediate ribs, tardily opening ; seeds numerous, horizontal ; the 
testa membranaceous ; leaves opaque. 

Besides these new species, many other (Enothera were collected ; among 
which may be mentioned CE. albicaulis, alyssoides, montana, and Mis- 
souriensis. Also, Gay ophy turn diffusum, (from the Snake country, grow- 
ing about 2 feet high,) S'lenosiphon virgatum, and Gaura coccinea. 

Composite. 

The plants of this family were placed in the hands of Dr. Gray for ex- 
amination ; and he has described some of them (including four new gen- 
era) in the Boston Journal of Natural History for January, 1845. He has 
since ascertained another new genus among the specimens ; and we fully 
concur with him in the propriety of dedicating it to the late distinguished 
I. N. Nicollet, Esq., who spent several years in exploring the country wa- 
tered by the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, and who was employed by the 
United States Government in a survey of the region lying between the 
sources of those rivers. This gentleman exerted himself to make known 
the botany of the country which he explored, and brought home with him 
an interesting collection of plants, made under his direction, by Mr. Charles 
Geyer, of which an account is given in the report of Mr. N. The follow- 
ing is the description of this genus by Dr. Gray : 

Nicolletia. Gray. 

" Heads heterogamous, with few rays, many flowered. Involucre campan- 
ulate, consisting of about S oval membranaceous scales in a single series ; the 
base calyculate, with one or two smaller scales. Receptacle convex, alveo- 
late. Corolla of the disk flowers equally 5-toothed. Branches of the style 
terminated by a subulate hisped appendage. Achenia elongated, slender, 
canescently pubescent. Pappus double, scarcely shorter than the corolla ; 
the exterior of numerous scabrous, unequal bristles ; the inner of 5 linear- 



[ 174 ] 316 , 

lanceolate chaffy scales, which are entire, or 2-toothed at the summit, and 
furnished with a strong central nerve, which is produced into a short sca- 
brous awn. — A humble, branching (and apparently annual) herb. Leaves 
alternate, pinnatified, and somewhat fleshy, (destitute of glands ?) ; the lobes 
and rachis linear. Heads terminal, solitary, nearly sessile, large, (about an 
inch long,) with one or two involucrate leaves at the base. Corolla yellow." 

« Nicolletia occidentalis. Gray. 

On the banks of the Mohahve river, growing in naked sands ; flowering 
in April. The plant has a powerful and rather agreeable odor. This in- 
teresting genus (which is described from imperfect materials) belongs to 
the tribe Senecionide^, and the sub-tribe Tagitineje. It has the habit of 
Dissodia, and exhibits both the c*haffy pappus of the division Tagelese, and 
the pappus pilosus of Porophy Hum.*— Gray. 

Franseria dumosa. Gray. 

Shrubby, much branched ; leaves pinnatified, canescent on both sides, as 
are the branchlets ; the divisions 3 — 7, oval, entire, and somewhat lobed ; 
heads rather loosely spiked ; involucre of the sterile flowers 5 — 7 -cleft, 
sthgosely canescent ; of the fertile, ovoid, 2-celled, 2-flowered. 

A»shrub, 1 — 2 feet high, with divaricate rigid branches. Leaves scarce- 
ly an inch long. Fertile (immature) involucre clothed with straight soft 
lanceolate- subulate prickles, which are short and scale-like. 

On the sandy uplands of the Mohahve river, and very common in all 
that region of North California. Flowering in April. 

Amsonia tomentosa. Torr. and Frem. 

Suffrutescent ; clothed with a dense whitish pubescence ; leaves lanceolate 
and ovate -lanceolate, acute at each end ; segments of the calyx lanceolate- 
subulate ; corolla slightly hairy externally. i 

Stems numerous, erect, 12 to IS inches high, woody, below simple or 
branching. Leaves alternate ; the lowest small and spatulate, or reduced to 
scales ; the others about 2 inches long, and varying from 4 to 8 lines in 
breadth ; entire, acuminate at the base. Flowers in rather dense, some- 
what fastigiate terminal clusters, nearly three-fourths of an inch long. Ca- 
lyx about one-third the length of the corolla, 5-parted to the base ; the seg- 
ments narrow and hairy. Corolla with the tube ventricose above : the seg- 
ments ovate-oblong. Stamens included ; filaments short ; anthers ovate- 
sagittate. Ovaries oblong, united below, distinct above, smooth ; style 
slender ; stigma capitate, with a membranaceous collar at the base. 

The specimens of this plant were without tickets ; but they were prob- 
ably collected west of the Rocky mountains. They were without fruit. 

Asclepias speciosa. Torr. in Jinn. Lye. New York, \\,p. 218. 

This (as was stated in the first report) is Ji. Douglasii of Hooker, well 
figured in his Flora Boreali Americana, 2,t. 142. It has a wide range, be- 
ing found on both sides of the Rocky mountains, and from the sources of 
the St. Peter's to those of the Kansas and Canadian. The fruit was collected 
from specimens on the banks of the Snake river. It is almost exactly like 
that of A. Cornuti, being inflated, woolly, and covered with soft spines. 



* It should be stated here, that the notice of this genus by Dr. Gray was drawn up in Latin ; bu l 
we have given it in English, that it may be uniform with our own description. 



BOT.iXY Bate IK 




Xitli"bvL* Wf\„-, i Co Baton 



?/r///r///us / VtWUCtc/tl </J 



317 [ 174 ] 

Acerates latifolia. Torr. and Frem. 

Stem simple, erect, smooth ; leaves roundish-ovate, nearly sessile, obtuse, 
with a small mucro, smooth on both sides ; umbel solitary, on a terminal 
peduncle, few-flowered ; pedicels slender ; segments of the corolla ovate- 
lanceolate; lobes of the crown semilunar-ovate, as long as the column, 
rather obtuse, cucullate. 

On Green river, a tributary of the Colorado of the West ; June. About a 
span high. Leaves about an inch and a half long, and more than an inch 
wide. Flowers few, very large, apparently yellowish,. Fruit not seen. 

Eriogonum inflatum. Torr. and Frem. 

Smooth, bi-trichotomous ; the lower part, and sometimes the two primary 
divisions of the stem, much inflated and clavate ; peduncles divaricately 
branched, the ultimate divisions filiform and solitary ; involucre few-flow- 
ered, smooth; the teeth equal, erect. 

The specimens of this plant are imperfect, being destitute of leaves, 
which are probably wholly radical. It is a foot or more high. The first 
joint of the stem, or rather scape, is remarkably dilated and fistular up- 
ward. This divides into three or more branches, the two primary ones of 
which are sometimes inflated like the first ; the subdivisions are dichoto- 
mous, with a pedicellate involucre in each fork. The involucres are about 
a line in diameter, smooth, 5 — 6-flowered ; and, in all the specimens that I 
examined, only 5-toothed. The plant was found on barren hills in the 
lower part of North California. 

Eriogonum reniforme. Torr. and Frem. 

Annual ; leaves radical, on long petioles, reniform, clothed with a dense 
hoary tomentum ; stem scape-like, naked, 3-forked from the base, glaucous, 
and nearly smooth ; the divisions divaricately 2 — 3-forked ; involucres 2 — 4 
together, on slender peduncles, smooth, campanulate, 5-toothed, the teeth 
nearly equal, obtuse ; perigonium smooth. 

On the Sacramento river; March. Allied to E. vimineum of Bentham. 
A small species, with very minute flowers. 

Eriogonum cordalum. Torr. and Frem. 

Annual; leaves all radical, on long petioles, round^h-ovate, cordate, 
very obtuse, slightly pubescent above, hairy underneath ; scape naked, 
slender, smooth and glaneous, divaricately branched, the divisions slender; 
involucres solitary, on filiform peduncles, campanulate, smooth, 5-toothed, 
the teeth nearly equal, rather obtuse ; perigonium hairy. 

With the preceding, from which it is easily distinguished by the form of 
its leaves and color of the pubescence. 

Many other species of this genus were collected in California and the 
Snake country, some of which are probably new, and will be described in 
the next report. 

Fremontia vermicular is. Torr. in Fr6m. 1st report. 

This curious plant is always found in saline soils, or where the atmo- 
sphere is saline. Its greatest height is eight feet. It is a characteristic fea- 
ture of the vegetation throughout a great part of Oregon and North Cali- 
fornia. About Brown's Hole, on Green river, it occupies almost exclusively 
the bottoms of the neighboring streams. It is abundant also on the shores 



[ 174 ] 318 

of a salt lake in lat. 3S° and long. 113°; and constantly occurs in the desert 
region south of the Columbia, and between the Cascade range and the 
Rocky mountains, as far south as lat. 34°. The branches, when old, be- 
come spiny, as in many other plants of this family. 

Since the description of this genus was published in the first report, 
(March, 1S43,) Nees has given it the name of Sarcobatus ; and Dr. Seu- 
bert has published an account of it, with a figure, in the Botanische Zei- 
tung for 1S44. This we have not yet seen ; but, from the remarks of Dr. 
Lindley, who has given a note on the genus in Hooker's Journal of Botany 
for January, 1S45, it would seem that some doubt existed among European 
botanists as to its affinities, as they had not seen the ripe seeds. These we 
have long possessed, and unhesitatingly referred it to Chenopodiaciss. We 
regret that our sketches of the staminate flowers were mislaid when the 
artist was engraving the figure. 

Obione confertifolia. Torr. and Frem. 

Stem pubescent, much branched, erect ; leaves alternate, ovate, rather 
obtuse, petiolate, much crowded, entire, somewhat coriaceous, white with 
a mealy crust ; bracts broadly ovate, obtuse, entire, and the sides without 
appendages or tubercles. 

A small shrub, with rigid crooked and somewhat spinescent branches, 
and of a whitish aspect. Leaves varying from one-third to half an inch in 
length, abruptly narrowed at the base into a petiole, thickly clothed with a 
white mealy substance. 

Flowers apparently dioecious. Sterile not seen. Bracts of the fruit 3 — 4 
lines long, united about half way up, distinct above, indurated at the base. 
Styles distinct. Pericarp very thin. Seed roundish-ovate, rostellate up- 
ward ; the testa coriaceous. Embryo two-thirds of a circle. 

On the borders of the Great Salt lake. From the description of 0. cori- 
acea, Moq., our plant seems to be a near ally of that species. 

Pterochiton. Torr. and Frcm. — n. gen. 

Flowers dioecious. Staminate .... Pistillate. Perigonium 
ovoid-tubukar, 4-winged, 2-toothed at the summit. Ovary roundish ; style 
short; stigmas 2, linear. 'Ovule solitary, ascending from the base of the 
ovary, campulitropous. Fructiferous perianth indurated, broadly 4-winged, 
closed, minutely 2-toothed at the summit; the wings veined and irregularly 
toothed. Utricle very thin and membranaceous, free. Seed ovate, some- 
what compressed ; the podosperm lateral and very distinct, rostrate up- 
ward. Integument double, the exterior somewhat coriaceous, brownish, 
the inner one thin. Embryo nearly a circle, surrounding copious mealy 
albumen. 

Pterochiton occidentale. Torr. and Frtm. 

An unarmed shrub, 1 — 2 feet high, with numerous slender branches, 
which are clothed with a grayish nearly smooth bark. Leaves alternate 
or fasciculate, linear oblanceolate, narrowed at the base, flat, entire, covered 
with a whitish mealy crust, flowers somewhat racemose, on short pedi- 
cels. Fructiferous calyx, with the wings 2 — 3 lines wide, semi-orbicular, 
coriaceo-membranaceous, mealy like the leaves, strongly veined ; the mar- 
gin more or less toothed. Utricle free from the indurated cavity of the 
perianth, extremely thin and transparent. Seed conformed to the utricle, 



BOTAXY PhteH 




The Nut Pine' 



LdL 



iuh Tjv E Web e* fcCo Baton on- 



319 [ 174 ] 

the conspicuous podosperm passing along its side ; the beak pointing ob- 
liquely upward. 

This is one of the numerous shrubby plants of the Chenopodiaceous 
family., that constitute a large part of the vegetation in the saline soils of 
the west. The precise locality of this plant we cannot indicate, as the label 
was illegible ; but it was probably from the borders of the Great Salt lake. 
It is allied to Grayia of Hooker and Arnott, a shrub of the same family, 
which was found in several places on both sides of the Rocky mountains, 
often in great abundance. 

Pinus moxophtllus. Torr. and Frem. {The nut pine.) 

Leaves solitary, or very rarely in pairs, with scarcely any sheaths, stout 
and rigid, somewhat pungent ; cones ovoid, the scales with a thick obtusely 
pyramidal and protuberant summit, unarmed ; seeds large, without a wing. 

A tree with verticillate branches and cylindrical-clavate buds, which are 
about three-fourths of an inch in length. The leaves are from an inch to 
two and a half inches long : often more or less curved, scattered, very stout, 
terete, (except in the very rare case of their being in pairs, when they are 
semi-cylindrical.) ending in a spiny tip. Cones about 2h inches long, and 
11 inch broad in the widest part. The scales are of a light-brown color, 
thick ; the summit obtusely pyramidal and somewhat recurved, but with- 
out any point. The seeds are oblong, about half an inch long, without a 
wing ; or rather the wing is indissolubly adherent to the scale. Th<* ker- 
nel is of a very pleasant flavor, resembling that of Finns Pembra. 

This tree, which is remarkable among the true pines for its solitary 
leaves, is extensively diffused over the mountains of Northern California, 
from long. Ill to 120°, and through a considerable range of latitude. It 
is alluded to repeatedly, in the course of the narrative, as the nut pine. 

The Coniferse of the collection were numerous, and suffered less than 
most of the other plants. Some of them do not appear to have been hitherto 
described. There was also an Ephedra, which does not differ essentially 
from E. occidentals, found in great plenty on the sandy uplands of the 
Mohahve river. 

Description of the plates. 

Plate 1. Arctomecok Californicum. Fig. 1, a stamen, magnified; 
Jig. 2, an ovule, mag.; Jig. 3, capsule, nut. size; Jig. 3, (a,) stigma, mag.; 
Jig. 4, the same cut horizontally, showing the sutures; j?§\ 5, a seed, mag.; 
fig. 6, portion of a hair from the leaf, mag.; Jig. 7, bristle from the extrem- 
ity of a leaf lobe, mag.; figs. S and 9, leaves, nat. size. 

Piate 2. Prosopis odorata. Fig. 1, a flower, niag.; Jig. 2, pistil, 
mag.; Jig. 3, cluster of ripe legumes, nat. si:e. 

Piate 3. Fremontia vermicularis. Fig. 1, a very young fertile 
flower, mag.; Jig. 2, an ovule, mug.; fig. 3, a fertile llower more advanced, 
mqg.; Jig. 4, a fertile flower at maturity, showing the broad-winged border 
of the calyx, mag.; Jig. 5, the same cut vertically; fig. 6, the same cut 
horizontally j fig. 7. a seed, mug.: fig. s. embryo, mug. 

Plate 4. Pinus mokophyllus. Fig. 1. a bud, nat. size: Jigs. 2, 3, 4, 
and 5, leaves, nat. size; jig. 2, (a.) section of a single leaf; fig. 5, (a,) sec- 
tion ot a pair oi leaves -.Jig. 6, a cone, nat. size; fig. 7, a scale, as seen from 
the outside ; fig. S, inside view of the same. 



-4) 



Bd TATfy 
Emory's TS/Tilitary 

Jj ECO A/A/C/SSAMCE 
7V £14/ 7 \4~EX ICO . 



J~cnrt T'cnne.Y . 



135 [ 7 ] 



APPENDIX No. 2. 



College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

New York, February 10, 1848. 

My Dear Sir: I have examined the interesting collection of 
plants which you kindly placed at my disposal, and herewith send 
you a list of them, as complete as my numerous engagements per- 
mit me to make at present. The route which you passed over is 
exceedingly rich in botanical treasures, as is evident from the num- 
ber of new species and genera which you were enabled to make 
under great disadvantages, and in an expedition which was almost 
wholly military in its character. Most of the new plants which 
you found are only indicated, or, at most, very briefly described in 
the following list. A more full account of them will be given 
hereafter. 

I am, my dear sir, very respectfully, yours, 

JOHN TORREY. 

To Lieutenant Colonel W. H. Emory. 



July 22, 1847. 

My Dear Sir: I give you the following written sketch of the 
route, not being able, as you request, to get a trace made from my 
map. 

From the 27th June to July 11th, we were traversing the country 
between Fort Leavenworth and the bend of the Arkansas, a rich 
rolling prairie embraced between the 39th and 38th parallels of 
latitude, and the 94th and 98th meridians of longitude. 

From July 11th to July 13th, followed the Arkansas to Pawnee 
fork, in longitude about 99. At this point the fertile soil ceases, 
except on the immediate margin of the streams. 

From the 14th July to August 1st, we were in the valley of the 
Arkansas, occasionally crossing the spurs of low hills which inter- 
rupt the direct course of the Arkansas. This part lies in latitude 
38°, and between longitude 99° and 103° 1'. - 

From the 1st August to the 8th, crossing the plain in a southerly 
direction and mounting the Raton mountain, about 7,000 feet above 
the sea, between latitudes 38 and 36. 

From the 8th August to the 14th, in the valleys of the tributaries 
to the Canadian, and crossing the extensive plains between these 
valleys. 

From the 14th August to the 18th, ascending the great ridge be- 
tween the head of the Canadian and the waters of the Del Norte, 
halting at Santa Fe, in latitude 35° 41', on a tributary of the Del 
Noite, about 15 miles distant from the Del Norte, and about 1,500 
feet above that river and 6,850 above the sea. 



£ 7 ] 136 

From August 18th up to the 14th October, all the collections 
•were made in New Mexico, in the valley of the Del Norte, or on 
the table lands adjacent, and between Santa Fe and the 33d par- 
allel of latitude, (230 miles below Santa Fe.) 

From the 14th October to the 19th, we were crossing the great 
dividing ridge between the waters of the Del Norte and the waters 
of the Gila, nearly on the 33d parallel of north latitude, and be- 
tween the 107th and 109th meridians of longitude, measured from 
Greenwich. The greatest height of this dividing ridge along our 
trail w?s about 6,000 feet above the sea. 

From the 19th of October to the 22d November, we were follow- 
ing the course of the Gila river, occasionally forced into the moun- 
tains to avoid the canons. This route is never far from the 33d 
parallel of latitude, and is embraced between the 109° and 114° 30' 
meridians of longitude, falling, during that distance, very uniformly 
from about 5,000 feet to near the level of the sea. 

From the 22d November to the 24th, we were on the Colorado of 
the west, traversing a low sandy bottom. 

From the 24th November to the 28th, we were crossing the great 
desert of drifting sand, in a course little north of west. 

On the 28th November, we encamped at the Cariso (Reed) creek 
or spring, the waters of which, when first exposed, are warm, and 
emit the smell of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

From the 28th November, we commenced to ascend the Cordil- 
leras of California, (the continuation of which forms the peninsula 
of Lower California,) and reached the highest point of the route 
December 5th, 3,000 feet above the sea, and as many below the 
overhanging peaks. From that point we descended to San Diego, 
a seaport on the level of the sea, in latitude 32° 45' and longitude 
170 Q 11' west of Greenwich. This point we reached December 12. 

With great respect, very truly yours, 

5 W. H. EMORY. 

Professor Torrey, Princeton. 



137 I 7 ] 

- 

APPENDIX BY PROFESSOR TORREY. 



/ 



RANUNCULACE.E. 

Ranunculus aquatilis, Linn. Plains of the Arkansas. 

Clematis Virginiana, Linn. Raton mountain. An undeter- 
mined species of this genus was found in fruit, November 10th, on 
the Gila. The plumose tails of the carpels are nearly three inches 
long. 

BERBERIDACE^:. 

Berberis pinnata, Lagasca. Highlands bordering the Gila; this 
appears to be a common species in the southern part of Upper Cali- 
fornia, and in Northern Mexico. 

CRUCIFER^. 

Lepidium ruderale, Linn. Valley of the Arkansas. 
Erysimum Arkansanum, Nutt. Tributaries of the Canadian'. 

CAPPARIDACE^C. 

Polonisia graveolens, Raf. In flower and fruit, Sept. 26 — 
October 3, valley of the Del Norte. The plant is taller, and the 
flowers are considerably larger than in the form that is common in 
the northern United States. 

Cleome integrifolia, Nutt. This beautiful species is abundant 
on both sides of the mountains, from the plains of Oregon, and the 
upper waters of the Platte, to latitude 33° north. 

VIOLACE^E. 

Viola cucullata, Linn. Pawnee fork of the Arkansas. 

PORTULACACE^E. 

Portulaca oleracea, Linn. On the Arkansas. Perhaps intro- 
duced. 

Sesuvium portulacastrum, Linn. In flower and fruit, Nov. 
17. Saline soils along the Gila. Leaves spatulate. Flowers nearly 
sessile, stamens numerous. Styles 3. 

GERANIACEyE. 
Geranium Fremontii, Torr. in Frem. 2d Rep. On the Raton. 

ZYGOPHYLLACE.E. 

Kallstrcemia maxima, Torr. and Gr. Tribulus maximus, Linn. 
Tributaries of the Canadian. 



[7] 



138 



Larrea Mexicana, Moricand,pl. nov. t. 48 "Creosote plant.' Io- 
deodondo of the New Mexicans. Used externally for rheumatism. 
A shrub from three to six feet high. Abundant from the upper 
waters of the Arkansas and valley of the Del Norte, to the great 
sandy deserts of California. It likewise occurs in the northern 
parts of Mexico. The plant abounds in a strong smelling resinous 
matter. No animal seems to feed on it, and it is useless for fuel, 
as it can scarcely be made to burn. 

ANACARDIACE.E. 

Rhus glabra, Linn. From the upper part of the Arkansas to 
longitude 107°. 

R. laurina, Nutt. A large shrub. Mountains of California, 
towards the sea coast. 

R. trilobatAj JVutt. On the Gila. A shrub 18 inches high, found 
late in the autumn, with staminate aments nearly matured for the 
following spring. The whole plant is clothed with a dense velvety 
pubescence. It is, perhaps, a distinct species from R. trilobata. J 

MALVACEAE. 

Malva Munroana, Dougl. High sandy plains, and in the valley 
of the Gila. Flowers bright rose color. 

M. pedata, Torr. and Gr. Upper part of the Arkansas. 

Sphjeralcea stellata, Torr. and Gr. Near Santa F6, &c, High- 
lands between the Del Norte and the Gila. 

Sida coccinea, DC. On the Raton mountain. Several other un- 
determined Malvaceae occurs in the collection. 

SAPINDACEiE. 

Sapindus marginatus, Willd (soap berry.) Valley of the Gila. 

RHAMNACE.E. 

Ceanothus ovalis, Bigel., Torr. and Gr. On the Arkansas. A 
small scrubby species of this genus was found on the Cordilleras 
of California, towards San Diego. It has thorny branches, small 
ovate tioriaceous, smooth entire leaves, which are supported on 
short petioles. The branches are glabrous and glaucous. There 
were neither flowers nor fruit on the specimen. 

C. ovalis, var. intermidius, Torr. and Gr. On the Arkansas. 

LEGUMINOS^. 

Sesbaniamacrocarpa, Muhl. On the Gila. In fruit November 
20. 

Glycyrrhiza lepidota, JVutt. Near Santa Fe. Not found in 
flower. 

Psoralea esculenta, Pursh. (Pomme de Prairie.) On the Ar- 
kansas. § 

P. floribunda, JVutt. With the preceding. 

Amorpha fruticosa Linn. On the Gila. The specimens were 
without flower and fruit, and we therefore cannot be certain of the 
species. 



139 [ 7 ] 

Dalea Formosa, Torr . in Ann. lye. JY. York, 2. p. 178. This 
beautiful species was first detected by Dr. James, in Long's first 
expedition. It is a shrub about three feet high, with numerous 
crooked branches, and purplish flowers. Near Santa Fe, and val- 
ley of the Del Norte. 

D. alopecuroides, Willd. With the preceding. 

D. laxiflora, Pursh. Valley of the Arkansas. 

Besides these Daleae, there were two other species, both shrubby^ 
in the collection; but I have not ascertained whether they may not 
be already described. One of them is densely branched; the 
leaflets are in six to seven pairs, broadly obovate connate about 
3 lines long, glabrous above, very villous, and furnished with 
large dark colored glands toward the margin underneath; they are 
obscurely toothed. The flowers are in short dense spikes; calyx 
with plumose subulate-setaceous teeth, which are as long as the 
tube. This species was found on the Gila river. It is very near 
D. ramosissima, Benth. in Bot. Sulph., p. 11., t. 10. 

The other species is canescently tomentose,and diffusely branched. 
The leaflets are narrowly oblong, in three to four pairs, which are 
distant. On both sides they are sparingly furnished with small red 
glands, which are nearly concealed in the down. The flowers are 
in short loose spikes, small, purple. Calyx-teeth subulate, shorter 
than the tube, plumose. Found on the great desert west of the 
Colorado. 

Petalostemon grac.ile, S. oligophylum. Stem erect; leaflets 
in 2 — 3 linear, slightly dotted underneath; calyx glabrous, longer 
than the subulate bracts, the teeth very short, ovate; petals oblong. 
Valley of the Del Norte. 

Prosopis glandulosa, Torr. in Jinn, Lye. JY. York, 2. p. 192, t. 2. 
(mezquite.) Abundant in the valleys of all the rivers, from Santa 
Fe, west. The trunk of this tree is sometimes 14 inches in diam- 
eter. The pods are long, flat, and filled with a sweetish pulp. 
They are excellent food for horses and are sometimes used by men 
in times of scarcity. 

P. (Strombocarpa) Emoryi, n. sp. Branches glabrous; spines in 
pairs, slender, short, straight, pinnge a single pair; leaflets about 4 
pairs, oblong, somewhat corriaceous; the under surface and the 
petioles somewhat pubescent; legume spirally twisted into a com- 
pact cylinder. Found in fruit only; on the Gila river. This spe- 
cies is nearly allied to the P. odorata of Fremont's 2d report, but 
differs in its shorter, broader, and less numerous leaflets. 

Schrankiauncinata, Willd. On the Arkansas, where it is called 
sensitive vine. 

Darlikgtonia brachyloba, DC. With the preceeding. 

Several other Mimosese are in the collection, but the specimens 
are mostly without leaves and flowers, 

Cassia chamjecrista, Linn. On the Arkansas. 

ROSACEA. 

Cerasus ilicifolit*3, JYutt. Mountains of California. The kernel 
of the fruit has a strong flavor of bitter almonds. 



m 



140 



Geum Virginianum, Linn. On the Arkansas. 

Fallugia paradoxa, Endl. gen. 6385, Sieversia paradoxa, Don in 
Linn., trans. 14, p. 576, t. 22. A remarkable rosaceous shrub, with 
white flowers, and very long slender plumose tails to the carpels. 
It differs, in some respects, from Endlicher's character of the genus, 
but I have not had an opportunity of comparing it with Don's de- 
scription and figure. It was found in various parts of the valley 
of the Del Norte. Can it be Geum dryadoides, DC? 

Cercocarpus parvifolius, Nutt. ; Torr,and Gr ',fl.2,p. 427. A 
shrub about 12 feet high, with numerous straight branches spring- 
ing from near the ground. The carpels, with their long plumose 
spirally contorted awns, bore into the earth, after they have fallen. 
The action of the wind communicates to them a twisting motion, 
and retorce pubescence retains them in soil. 

Spiraea Californica, n. sp. Shrubby; leaves ovate, lanceolate, 
undivided nearly glabrous, gladularly serrate, conspicuously pe- 
tiolate; flowers in compound corymbs, perfect; calyx-segments 
broad, about as long as the tube; disk coherent with the tube of 
the calyx; stamens numerous; carpels 5, distinct, 2-valved; seeds 
2, ascending, the testa expanded at the superior extremity into a 
membranaceous wing. Grows on high mountains near the Gila. 
This species is remarkable for its ascending winged seeds, and co- 
riaceous leaves. It can scarcely be referred to any of the sections 
into which the genus Spiraea is at present divided. 

Andenostoma FAscicuLATa, Hook and Am. Abundant in the Cor- 
dilleras of California. A shrub about five feet high. 

A. sparsifolia, n. sp. Leaves scattered, linear-subulate, dotted 
with glands. Cordilleras of California. A tree 30 feet high with 
very numerous slender branches. Leaves nearly half an inch long, 
scarcely half a line wide, somewhat triangular, apparently ever- 
green. Flowers in small terminal paniculate spikes. Pedicels 
short, with numerous minute scarious bracts at the base. Calyx 
turbinate-campanulate, 10-striate, 5-toothed; the teeth ovate, ob- 
tuse, conspicuously imbricated. Stamens about 10; the filaments 
inserted into a crenulate glandular ring at the summit of the calyx- 
tube. Ovary obovate, compressed, with 2 collateral suspended 
ovules. Very different in appearance from A. fasciculata, and des- 
titute of the fleshy glands with which the throat of the calyx-tube 
is furnished in that species. 

Photinia ARBUTiFOLiA,Lii?m. Cordilleras of California. A shrub 
4 or 5 feet high. 

LYTHRACE^. 

Lythrum alatum, Pursh. On the Aikansas. , 

ONAGRACE.E. 

Zatjschneria Californica, Presl. Valley of the Gila. A shrub 
with bright crimson flowers, resembling those of a Fuchsia. 
CEnothera albicaulis, Nutt. Valley of yie Del Norte. 
(E. pinnatafida, Nutt. Tributaries of the Canadian river. 



141 [ 7 ] 

CE. biennis, Linn. Valley of the Del Norte. 
Several other undetermined species of (Enothera exist in the col- 
lection. 

Gaura coccinea, Nutt. Tributaries of the Canadian. 
G. parviflora, Dougl. Valley of the Del Norte. 

LOASACEiE. 

Mentzelia pumila, Nutt. Stem whitish, slender, branching, and 
a little roughened above, smoothish and somewhat shining belowj 
leaves pinnatifid, or sinuate-toothed; flowers (small) 2 3 together, 
pedicellate; petals 10, lanceolate; stamens very numerous; the 
outer filaments dilated; capsule turbinate-cylindrical; seeds nume- 
rous, winged. Valley of the Del Norte. Plant about a foot high. 
Flowers less than an inch in diameter. Capsule three-fourths of 
an inch long, 3-valved at the summit. 

Cevalia sinuata, Lagasca. This interesting plant, which has 
been admirably illustrated by Fenzl, occurs in many parts of the 
valley of the Del Norte, from Santa ¥6 to Saltillo. 

CUCURBITACEiE. 

Cucumis, perennis, James, Torr, and Gr. On the Gila river, 
abundant. We are yet uncertain of the genus of this plant, which 
seems to be common in various parts of Mexico, particularly in 
arid, sandy wastes. No specimens of the fruit have yet been sent 
to us. There are three other undetermined Cucurbitacese in the 
collection, distinct from any described in the Flora of North 
America. 

CACTACE^E. 

Several interesting plants of this family were noticed by Colonel 
Emory, but they cannot be satisfactorily described from dried 
specimens. They are probably included among the numerous new 
species of Mexican Cactacese soon to be described by Dr. Engle- 
mann. 

CORNACE^E. 

Cornus paniculata, Viler. On the Arkansas. 

CAPRIFOLIACEiE. 

SyMPHORicARPus racemosus, Linn. (Snow berry.) On the Ar- 
kansas. 

COMPOSITAE. 

Vernonia fasciculata, Michx. Bent's fort. 
Liatris punctata, Hook. Rayada creek. 

Corethrogyne tomentella, Torr . and Gr . Jl . N. Jim. 2, p. 99. 
Very abundant on the^Dordilleras of the Pacific, and called by the 



[7] 



142 



natives estajiat. It is a celebrated remedy for cholera, as noticed 
by Colonel Emory in his report. 

Dieteria incana, Torr. and Gr .1 Diplopappus incomes, Lindl.l 
On the Gila. Differs from Douglas's Californian plant in its slen- 
der stem, and nearly glabrous, spinulose dentate leaves. 

D. coronopifolia, Nutt. Valley of the Del Norte, and the head 
waters of the Canadian. 

D. asteroides, n. s p . Minutely scabrous, pubescent, stem pani- 
culately branched above; leaves oblong-cuneate, somewhat rigid, 
sharply and rather coarsely toothed, involucre hemispherical; 
scales linear, in several series, with rather short herbaceous squar- 
rose tips; rays 30 or more, violet; achenia sparingly pubescent. 
Pappus of the ray much shorter than that of the disk. Elevated 
land between the D-:l Norte and the waters of the Gila. A well 
marked species, with leaves broader than in any other plant of the 
genus. 

Aster hebecladus, DC. Valley of the Del Norte, and desert be- 
tween the Colorado and Cordilleras of California. 

A. (Tripolium.) A branching species, with the stems pubes- 
cent above, and middle sized flowers with purple rays. It seems 
to be undescribed. Valley of the Del Norte. 
Solidago elongata, Nutt. Valley of the Gila. 
Linosyris graveolens, Torr. and Gr. Chrysocoma dracunculoides, 
Pursh. A shrub about two feet high, and bright yellow heads of 
flowers. Abundant on the highlands between the Del Norte and 
the Gila. 

Aplopappus spinulosus, DC. On Ocate 1 creek, &c: called Pinette 
by the natives. 

A. Menziesii, Torr. and Gr. (3. dentatus: leaves coriaceous, 
strongly dentate or pinnatifid, toothed, glutinous. Abundant in 
the great desert between the Colorado and the Cordilleras of Cali- 
fornia. Another form of this species was found near St. Diego, 
with the stem and the leaves clothed with a copious loose pubes- 
cence, and the serratures of the leaves few and small. 

Grindelia. An apparently new species of this genus was found 
in ascending the Cordilleras of California, but the flowers had 
fallen from the heads, and our specimen is therefore scarcely suffi- 
cient for determination. The stem is very smooth and whitish; the 
leaves are oblong, clasping at the base, spinulose, serrate and glab- 
rous, and the scales of the involucre are very acute, but scarcely 
recurved. 

Chrysopsis canescens, Torr. and Gr. Near Ocate creek. 
C. echoides, Benth. in Bot. Sulph. p. 25. Valley of the Gila. 
Perityle, Benth. in Bot. Sulph. A new species of this genus 
(P. Emoryij nob.) was found in ascending the Cordilleras of Cali- 
fornia. It differs from P. Californica of Bentham in its smaller 
and much more deeply lobed leaves, narrower achenia, which are 
very hairy on the margins, and in other characters. 

Baccharis Douglasii, DC. Valley of the Gila. Besides this 
there are three other species of Baccharis in the collection, none 



143 [ 7 ] 

of which are described in the Flora of North America, but we can- 
not yet pronounce them new. 

Tessaria borealis, DC. An aromatic shrub about three feet high 
growing in all the deserted beds of the Gila, and in the valley of 
the Del Norte; usually with the Fremontia, both of which are 
abundant in those regions. 

Hymenoclea, Torr. and Gr. ined. This remarkable new genus is 
allied to Ambrosia and Xanthium. Another species of it (H. Sal- 
sola) was found in Fremont's second expedition, which, with the 
characters of the genus to which it belongs, will be published in 
another work. This species, from the scales of the involucre being 
in a single whorl, we propose to call H. monogyra, Torr. and Gr. 
It was found in various parts of the. valley of the Gila. 

Franseria Hookeriana, JYutt. (Yerba del Sapa.) 

Ambrosia acanthocarpa, Hooker. Very abundant from Santa 
Fe to the 33d parallel of latitude. 

Another species of this genus, and apparently an undescribed 
one, exists in the collection. It is suffrutescent, hoary, with the 
leaves bipinnatifidly divided into very small obtuse segments. The 
flowers are wanting. 

Ambrosia artemisijefolia, Linn. Bank of the Gila. 

Dicoris. Torr. and Gr. Another new genus allied to Iva of 
which a full description and figure will hereafter be given. It was 
found in the valley of the Gila, and in the desert of drifting sands 
west of the Colorado. (5 to 6 inches long, and 4 to 5 wide.) 

Wyethia ovata, n. sp., TorA and Grained. Stem very stout 
leaves orbicular, ovate, entire; somewhat coriaceous, pubescent' 
(as are also the petioles and branches;) scales of the involucre lan- 
ceolate; pappus. of 3 to 4 acute rigid teeth, one of which is longer 
than the others. Abundant on the western side of the Cordilleras 
of California. 

Silphium laciniatum, Linn. (Pilot weed.) On the Arkansas and 
its tributaries. 

Another Silphium, with large ovate undivided leaves, was found 
on Cariso creek. 

Engelmannia pinnatifida, Torr. and Gr.Jl. JY. Am. 2 p. 283. 
Tributaries of the Canadian. 

Lepachys columnaris, Torr. and Gr. Rudbeckia columnaris 
Pursh. The rays vary from being wholly yellow to entirely pur- 
plish brown. From the head waters of the Canadian to Santa Fe\ 

Encelia farinosa, Gray ined. An aromatic shrubby plant- exud- 
ing a yellowish resin from the branches. The leaves are 'ovate 
softly pubescent, and hoary on both sides, with 3 to 5 prominent 
reticulated nerves underneath. 

Helianthus petiolaris, JYutt. Upper part of the Arkansas and 
valley of the Del Norte. 

H. lenticularis, Dougl. With the preceding. 

Coreopsis palmata, JYutt. Turkey creek. 

Simsia. A rayless, and probably new species of this genus was 
found in the bed of the Agua Caliente, November 28th. It' is a 
branching shrub, and -the slender bark of the irregular twigs is cov- 



[ 7 ] 144 

ered with a whitish, very scabrous pubescence. The leaves are 
scarcely an inch long, ovate, entire, obtuse, with short petioles, 
and scabrous on both sides. Chaff of the receptacle embracing 
the obovate achenium, the margin of which is furnished with long 

silky hairs. 

Wulfia'? Specimens of a plant with the floral characters of this 
genus, but with different foliage, were found in abundance on the 
higher grounds bordering the valley of the Gila. It also resembles 
Leighia, but is destitute of a pappus. Some of the genera, to 
which the plant is allied, will need revision before its place can 
be satisfactorily determined. 

Ximenesia, n. sp.l Valley of the Del Norte, and along the Gila, 
September and October. This needs comparison with some of the 
Mexican species. It very nearly resembles X. encelioides, Cavan. 
RiddelliAjTAgetina, JVutt. Torr.and Gr.Jl.yJV. Amer. 2 p. 362. 
Valley of the Del Norte, about two hundred miles below Santa Fe. 
A beautiful plant with persistent flowers, first detected by Mr. Nutt- 
all towards the sources of the Platte. 

Baileya, n. gen. Harv. and Gr., ined. Two other species of 
this unpublished genus, dedicated to that profound observer of na- 
ture Professor Bailey, of West Point, exist among the California 
plants collected by Coulter, and will soon be described by Mr. 
Harvey and Dr. Gray. This is distinguished from the others by its 
numerous ray-flowers, «and is the B. multiradiata, Harv. and Gr. 
The whole plant is clothed with a woolly pubescence, and varies 
from a few inches to a foot or mfrre in height. The leaves are 
somjewhat pinnatately cut into several narrow segments. The heads 
are on long naked peduncles, and when the rays are fujly expanded 
are more than an inch and a. half in diameter. The rays are 40 or 
50 in number, in two or more series, obovate-cuneate, of a bright 
orange yellow, and 7-nerved corolla of the disk-flowers with five 
short segments which are glandulary pubescent, with intra-margi- 
nal nerves. Branches of the style short, somewhat dilated and 
truncate at the extremity. Very abundant along the Del Norte 
and in the dividing region between the waters of the Del Norte 
and those of the Gila. Flowers from October 4th to November. 

Zinnia grandiflora, Nult. in Amer. Phil, trans, (n. ser.) 7, p. 
348; Torr. and Gray ft. JV. Amer. 2. p. 298. Valley of the Del 
Norte. This plant, which was first detected by Dr. James in Long's 
first expedition, is certainly frutescent at the base; in which re- 
spect it resembles the nearly allied Z. linearis. Bent h. plant Hartw., 
No. 47. This is the most humble species of the genus; being not 
more thansix inches high. The stem is branching and rigid. The 
leaves are linear, sessile, and somewhat connate at the base, 
strongly 3 nerved, and glandularly punctate. Heads most solitary, 
at the summit of the branches, on short peduncles. Involucre 
ovoid-cylindrical; the scales about 8, closely imbricated; outer ones 
somewhat orbicular; the inner oblong, ciliate, and somewhat scari- 
ous on the margin. Ray flowers 3 5, coriaceous and persistent, 
roundish-ovate, emarginate, continuous with the summit of the 
achenium. Disk-flowers few. Lobes of the corolla villous. An- 



145 [ 7 ] 

thers yellow. Branches of the style tapering into a subulate-lan- 
ceolate point, hairy above the middle. Achenia obcompressed, 
scarcely winged, scabrous; the outer integument thin; those of 
the ray naked, of the disk with a single awn. 

Gaillardia amblyodon, Gay. On the upper part of the Arkansas. 
This species has been beautifully figured by Dr. Gray in Mem. 
Jlmer. acad. (n. ser.) t. 4. 

G. pulchella, Foug. Valley of the Del Norte. 

Palafoxia linearis, Lag. New Mexico. 

Hymenoxys ouorata, DC. Great desert west of the Colorado. 

Artemisia filifolia, Torr. in Ann. lye. N. York, 2 p. 211. Val- 
ley of the Del Norte, and along the Giia; abundant. 

A. dracunculoiJdes, Pursh. Table lands of the Del Norte and 
Gila. A very common species of underwood, often called sage by 
the hunters. 

A. cana, Pursh. On the Raton mountains. 

Senecio longilobus. Benth. in pi. Ilartweg. A bushy species 
about three feet high, growing abundantly in the region between 
the waters of the Del Norte and the Gila. 

Tetradymia, (sub-genus Polydymia.) Heads about 16-flowered; 
the flowers all tubular and perfect. Involucre of 15 to 16 oblong 
obtuse coriaceo-chartaceous scales which are slightly concave but 
not carinate. Receptacle naked. Corolla with rather slender tube; 
the lobes short, ovate, erect, furnished with long villous hairs ex- 
ternally. Anthers included. Branches of the style tipped with a 
very short obtuse pubescent cone. Achenia oblong-turbinate, vil- 
lous with short hairs. Pappus of numerous, somewhat rigid, den- 
ticulate bristles. A suffruttscent prostrate much branched plant, 
canescently and densely tomentose; the leaves broadly obovate, 
toothed, narrowed into a petiole. Heads on short peduncles, ter- 
minating the somewhat corymbose branches. 

T. (Polydvmia) ramosissima, 7i. sp. Hills bordering the Gila. 
Stem spreading, with very numerous matted branches. Leaves 
about three-fourths of an inch in length, the lamina broader than 
long, with 5 7 indistinct rounded teeth, abruptly narrowed into a 
longish petiole. Heads about one-third of an inch in diameter, 
ovate. Involucral scales in several series, the exterior ones 
shorter than the interior. Hairs of the achenium smooth, slightly 
bifid at the summit. Pappus longer than the achenium. This plant 
is clearly allied to Tetradymia, but diifers .in the many-flowered 
heads, numerous scales of the involucre, slightly cleft corolla- 
tube, and in several other characters; so that it should perhaps 
form the type of a distinct genus. 

Ciksum undulatum, Spreng. The locality of this plant is not 
recorded, but it was probably found on the upper part of the 
Arkansas. 

Stephanomeria paniculata, Nutt. Ascending the Cordilleras of 
California. 

Mulgedium pulchellum, Nutt. Pawnee Fork of the Arkansas. 

10 

T 



m 



146 

ERICACE^. 



Arctostaphylos pungens, Kunth.l Valley of the Gila and San 
Diego. Flowers in January. 

A. tomentosa, Dougl.l A shrub 4 to 5 feet high. Cordilleras 
of California. This may be a smooth variety of Douglas's plant. 
The leaves are orbicular-ovate, obtuse or truncate at the base, 
glabrous on both sides, with the petiole one-third the length of the 
lamina. It was not found in flower. 

PLANTAGINACEiE. 

Plantago, n. sp. ? Allied to P. gnaphaloides, Nutt. Great 
desert west of the Colorado, near the Cordilleras of California. 
The whole plant is clothed with a loose white tomentum, which is 
partly decidious with age. ( The leaves are linear-lanceolate, en- 
tire, and taper to a long narrow base. The peduncles are 5 to 6 
inches long, and bear a close cylindrical spike, which is less than 
an inch in length. Sepals ovate, membranaceous, marked with a 
strong mid-rib, which is villous externally. Segments of the co- 
rolla ovate. Capsule 2 seeded. 

PEDALIACEiE. 

Martynia proboscidea, Linn.? Abundant in the valley of the 
Del Norte. We have only the leaves, and a drawing of the fruit. 
It is possibly M. Mthcefolia, Benth. in hot. Sulph. 

SCROPHULARIACEjE. 

Maurandia antirrhina, Lindl. On the San Francisco, a tribu- 
tary of the Gila. A slender trailing plant, with beautiful purplish 
flowers. ! 

Castilleja linearifolia, Benth. Valley of the Gila, and the re- 
gion between that river and the waters of t.he Gila. 

Penstemon Torreyi, Benth. Region between the Del Norte~and 

the Gila. m .. 

Three or four other species of Penstemon exist in the collection, 
but the specimens are incomplete, and have not yet been studied. , 

VERBENACEiE. 

Verbena bipinnatifida, Nutt. Valley of the Del Norte. 

Lippia cuneifolia, Steud. Verbena cuneifolia, Torr. in Long's 
Rocky Mountain plants. Upper part of the Arkansas, and along 
the tributaries of the Canadian. 

LABIATE. 

Salvia carduacea, Benth. Western slope of the Cordilleras of 
California. 



147 [ 7 ] 

Another species of this genus was found with the preceding, but 
not in flower. It is entirely clothed with dense soft canescent pu- 
bescence. It is shrubby, with long stout branches springing from 
near the root. The leaves are oblong, coriaceous, entire, and two 
inches or more in length. 

Several other undetermined Labiatse were found in the valley of 
the Del Norte and on the Gila. 

BORAGINACEtE. 

Myosotis glomerata, JYutt. Tributaries of the Canadian. 

Euploca grandiflora, n. sp. Hirsute with rough oppressed hairs. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, on short petioles. Flowers in leafy clus- 
ters. Calyx five-parted to the base, with linear-lanceolate segments. 
Corolla white; (the expanded limb nearly three-fourths of an inch 
in diameter,) obscurely 5-lobed, plaited; tube slender, somewhat 
ventricose below the middle; the throat naked. Stamens inserted 
towards the base of the corolla-tube; the filaments short; anthers 
oblong-linear. Ovary 4-celled, style filiform, persistent, arising 
from the summit of the ovary; stigma capitate, with a tuft of stiff/ 
hairs at the extremity. Fruit 4-celled, 2-lobed, finally separating 
into indehiscent carpels; embryo curved, terete, surrounded with 
very thin albumen; radicle superior. On the Del Norte below 
Santa Fe\ This plant is clearly a congener of Euploca convolvulacea 
of Nuttall. It is nearly related to Tournefortia. 

HYDROLEACE^. 

Eriodictyon, Benth. in hot. Sulph., p. 35. Chois. in DC, prod. 
10, p. 183. A well characterized Californian genus, containing 
three described species, one of which, the Wigandia Californica^ 
Hook, and Am., was found in rocky places near the mouth of San 
Carlos, on the Gila, and on the Cordilleras of California. The 
leaves are coriaceous, varying in form from narrowly linear to lan- 
ceolate, and from being perfectly entire to strongly dentate. The 
upper surface (as well as the branches) is covered with a copious 
adhesive varnish, while the under-side is whitish tomentose, with 
strongly marked reticulated veins. 

POLEMONIACE^. 

Phlox, n. sp. This likewise occurs in Texas, and will be de- 
scribed by Dr. Gray. It was found in various places on the tribu- 
taries of the Canadian. 

Gilia pulchella, Dougl. Ocate creek, and other tributaries of 
the Canadian. 

G. longifolia, Benth. Ipomoea longifolia, Torr. in Long's Rocky 
mountain plants. Valley of the Del Norte. 

. Fouquiera spinosa. (Bronnia spinosa, Kunth. nov. gen. 6 p. 84, 
t. 528.) Benth. in Bot. Sulph. p. 16. Ascending the Cordilleras 
of California. A highly ornamental shrub, shooting up long 



[7] 



148 



smooth simple stems, to the height of from 12 to 25 feet, with a 
panicle of scarlet flowers near the summit. It differs slightly from 
the figure and description of Kunth, but seems to be the same plant. 
The leaves are obovate-oblong, glabrous and membranaceous, grow- 
ing in fascicles in the axils of the spines. The spines are from a 
half an inch to near an inch in length, slender, more or less spread- 
ing, or even somewhat recurved. At the base of each is a longitu- 
dinal protuberance which extends along the stem until it reaches 
the spine, which is on a line with it below. The panicle is usually 
contracted and elongated, but sometimes short, and almost corym- 
bose. The flowers are on short pedicles which are furnished with 
deciduous bracts. Sepals 5, nearly orbicular, concave, strongly 
imbricated, persistent, about one fourth the length of the corolla. 
Corrola about three-fourths of an inch long; the tube cylindrical, 
and often curved; limb 5-cleft, with ovate rather acute segments. 
Stamens 13 to 16 exserted, hypogynous; the filaments thickened 
and somewhat coherent at the base; anthers linear-oblong, mucro- 
nate. Ovary 3-celled, with about 6 ascending anatropous ovules 
in each cell; style 3-parted below the middle. Capsule oblong, 
acute, obtuse, triangular, coriaceous and glabrous, 3-valved, locu- 
licidal, straight, or little curved, 1-celled by the separation of the 
valves from ihe triangular axis. Seeds 3 to 6, white, ovate, pel- 
tate, much compressed, with a broad winged margin, which is an 
expansion of the testa, and which finally is resolved into numerous 
fine hairs. These are beautiful objects under the microscope. They 
are spiral vessels consisting of an extremely delicate sheath, con- 
taining the loosely coiled thread which frequently ramifies with 
anastomosing branches. The whole testa is formed of these sin- 
gular vessels. Embryo nearly as large as the seed; cotyledons fo- 
liaceous; radicle pointing downward. There can be little doubt of 
the propriety of uniting Bronnia and Fouquiera. Each genus was 
founded on a single species, and both plants seem to be very little 
known to European botanists. Of the former the flowers are im- 
perfectly described, and of the latter the fruit is unknown. Our 
plant partakes of the characters of both genera. In the ovary the 
placenta? meet in the axis, but only slightly cohere; finally they 
unite, but in fruit the valves of the capsule separate from the axis, 
to which the seeds remain attached. As to the affinities of Fou- 
quiera, I am inclined to adopt the opinion of Lindley, that it is 
very near Polemoniacese, and particularly to Cantua. It differs, 
however, in its distinct imbricated sepals, (which are exactly those 
of convolvulus,) more numerous and hypogynous stamens; and 
very sparing albumen, as well as in habit. It is certainly very un- 
like Frankeniaceffi, to which it is appended by Endlicher. Kunth 
placed it among genera allied to Portulacacea?. 

CONVOLVULACEiE. 

Ipomcea leptophylla, Torr. in Frem. 1st report, p. 94. Upper 
part of the Arkansas and head waters of the Canadian. The stems 
are often erect, about two feet high, and of a bushy appearance. 



149 [ t J 

From the appearance of the specimens, I should suppose the plant 
were a perennial, but according to Dr. James it is an annual. 

Convolvulus nuttallii. C. hastatus, Nutt. in trans. Jlmer. 
phil. soc. (n. ser.) 5 p. 194; not of Thunb. Valley of the Del 
Norte. 

One or two other Convolvulacese were in the collection, but I 
have not determined them to my satisfaction. 

SOLANACEtE. 

Nycterium lobatum. Between Fort Leavenworth and the head 
of the Arkansas. 

Datura Metel, Willdl Valley of the Gila. It grows from four 
to five feet high, with spreading branches. Perhaps introduced. 

Solanum triflorum, Nutt. Upper part of the Arkansas, and on 
the tributaries of the Arkansas. 

Another species of Solanum was found on the Del Norte below 
Santa Fe. The whole plant is clothed with a dense yellowish 
white pubescence. The stems are rough, with minute slender 
prickles. Leaves linear-oblong, entire, rather obtuse, prickly 
along the midrib. Flowers, two or three together at the summit 
of the branches, white 1 stamens 5; anthers equal. 

GENTIANACE^. 

Eustoma Russelianum, Don. Near the bank of the San Pedro. 
A showy plant. 

Erythrjea Beyrichii, Torr. and Gr. E. tricantha /3 Griseb. Val- 
ley of the Del Norte, and along the Gila. 

OLEACE.E. 

Fraxinus velutina, n. sp. Branches, petioles, and under surface 
of the leaves, clothed with a dense soft pubescence. Leaflets 3 to 
5, rhombic-ovate, cuneate at the base, coarsely serrate or toothed, 
sparingly pubescent above. Fruit narrowly oblanceolate, nearly 
entire at the apex, about three-fourths of an inch long. A small 
tree, usually from 15 to 20 feet high. Grows in the region between 
the waters of the Del Norte and the Gila; also on the Mimbres, a 
tributary of the latter river. 

NYCTAGINACE.E. 

Abronia mellifera, Hook. Valley of the Del Norte. 

A. (Tripterocalyx) micranthum, Torr. in Frem. 1st report, p. 96. 
Valley of the Del Norte. 

This differs in some respects from Fremont's plant. The pedun- 
cles are elongated, and the fruit is more than an inch long, with 
.very broad wings. The structure of the seed is precisely the same 



m 



i 



Ki 



as in that plant, the inner cotyledon of the conduplicate embryo 
being abortive. It is wanting also in A. mellifera. In several 
species of this genus, if not in all of them, the filaments adhere 
throughout nearly their whole length to the tube of the perianth. 
The lobes of the perianth are dilated, and deeply emarginate, but 
appear ovate in the bud, from the lobules being conduplicate. 

CHENOPQDIACE.£E. 

Sarcobatus vermiculatus. S. Maximilioni, Nees in Prince Max- 
im. Trav.) Engl, ed., p. 518. Fremontia vermicularis, Torr. in Frem. 
1st report, p. 96; and 2d report, p. 317. Batis vermicular is, Hook. 
■ fi. Bor. Am. 2, p. 188. Abundant on the Del Norte, and upper 
part of the valley of the Gila. 

This is the pulpy thorn of Lewis and Clark. It has a very ex- 
tensive range in the desert regions on both sides of the mountains. 
Since my notices of this plant were published in Fremont's reports, 
I have ascertained that Nees' description of his genus Sarcobatus 
dates a little anterior to mine, so that his name must be adopted. 

Obione argentea, Moq. Atriplex argentea, JYutt. Abundant in 
sandy saline places on the Del Norte. 

O. polycarpa, n. sp. Valley of the Gila. 

Eurotia lanata, Moq. Valley of the Del Norte. A shrubby Sa- 
licornia, an Atriplex, and a species of Sueda, were found in saline 
soils along the Gila. 

AMARANTIIACEiE. 

Amaranthus hybridus, Var.1 Glabrous; stem and leaves nearly 
smooth, flowers (purplish) crowded in a dense compound terminal 
spike; bracts somewhat awned, shorter than the flowers; utricle 
opening transversely. On the Del Norte, below Santa Fe\ 

Alternanthera'? (Endotheca) lanuginosa. — Achyranthes lan- 
uginosa, JYutt. in Am. Phil. Trans., (JV. Ser.,) 5, p. 166. Abundant 
on the sand hills above Socoro, along the Rio Del Norte. It spreads 
on the ground, forming patches, and rooting at the joints. The 
natives call it paga-paga. Nuttall referred this plant to Achy- 
ranthes, but it is clearly not of that genus. For the present, it is 
doubtfully placed in Alternanthera, but may hereafter be separated 
as a distinct genus. The flowers are in small axillary sessile clus- 
ters, and when the fruit is matured, they become imbedded in the 
branches by the growth of the surrounding parts, so as to be en- 
tirely concealed. The filaments are united into a cup at the base, 
and leave minute, entire, intermediate teeth. The anthers are two- 
celled before dehiscing, but afterwards one-celled, ovary, with a 
single ovule; style almost wanting; stigma globose. This plant 
was first discovered by Nuttall, on the north fork of the Canadian; 
Colonel Fremont collected it on the upper Arkansas in his last ex- 
pedition; it has also been found in Texas by Mr. Wright and by 
Fendler and Dr. Gregg in New Mexico. 



151 [7] 

POLYGONACEiE. 

Eriogonum trichopes, n. sp. Stem scape-like, verticillately and 
divaricately much branched, glabrous; peduncles capillary; invo- 
lucre minute, few-flowered, glabrous, 4-toothed; the teeth nearly 
equal, obtuse, erect; sepals ovate, acute, nearly equal, very hairy. 
Eastern slope of the Cordilleras of California. Our specimens of 
this remarkable species are imperfect, the leaves being wanting. 
They probably grow in a radical cluster. The flowering stems are 
a foot or more high, with the primary and secondary branches ver- 
ticillate; the branchlets are bi-trichotomous, and the ultimate divi- 
sions or peduncles somewhat secund. Involucre scarcely half a 
line in length, 5 — 6 flowered, and only 4-toothed. The flowers are 
nearly twice as large as the involucres, sepals, concave, erect — 
spreading. Stamens scarcely exserted. 

E. tomentosum, Michx. Abundant in the region between the val- 
ley of the Dei Norte and the waters of the Gila; the most western 
station hitherto found of this species, which is almost the only 
Eriogonum known east of the Mississippi. 

E. Abertianum, n. sp. Annual? Canescently tomentose; stem 
dichotomous above; leaves oblong-lanceolate, attenuated to a pe- 
tiole at the base; involucres sofitary, somewhat racemose on the 
branches, pedunculate, many flowered, campanulate, deeply 5 — 8- 
parted; exterior sepals nearly orbicular, deeply cordate at the base; 
inner sepals narrow, carinate below, contracted above, somewhat 
dilated and emarginate at the summit; stamens much shorter than 
the sepals.. Very common in the region between the Del Norte and 
the Gila. Also found by Lieut. Abert on the upper waters of the 
Arkansas. Just as I was sending these notes to the press, I re- 
ceived a visit from Mr. Nuttall, who informed me that a species 
allied to this was found by Mr. Gambel, in his late journey to Cal- 
ifornia. He thinks its characters differ so much from all the Eri- 
ogono hitherto described, that he has constituted of it a new genus 
under the name of Eucycla. A full account of Mr. Gambel's 
plants, by Mr. Nuttall, will soon be published in the journal of the 
academy of Philadelphia. Our plant is about a foot high, with 
loosely paniculate branches. The heads and flowers are nearly as 
large as those of E. tomentosum. The sepals are yellowish, tinged 
with rose, the three inner ones differ widely from the others; they 
are carinate and glandular on the back below the middle, and 
closely embrace the pistil, the angles of which correspond with the 
keels of the sepals. 

Imperfect specimens of several %other Eriogona occur in the col- 
lection. 

SAURURACE^. 

Anemopsis Californica, JYutt. Hook, in hot. Beechei/s Voy.,p. 
390, t. 92. Valley of the Gila. 



[7] 



152 

EUPHORBIACE.E. 



Eremocarpus setigerus, Benth. in Bot. of Sulpk., p. 53, t. 26. 
Plains of San Diego, California. 

Hendecandra Texensis, Klotzsch. H. multijlora, Torr. inFrem. 
1st report. Croton muricatum, Nutt. Valley of the Del Norte. 

Another species of this genus, allied to H. procumbens, was 
found on the Cordilleras of Mexico, but the materials are scarcely 
sufficient for determining it satisfactorily. 

Stillingia spinulosa, n. sp. SufTruticose? leaves rhombic-ovate, 
rigid, narrowed at the base, prominently 3-nerved, mucronately 
acuminate, dentate spinulose on the margin; spikes axillary and 
terminal; sterile flowers sessile; bracts acuminate, with a stipitate 
gland on each side at the base. Abundant in the desert west of 
the Colorado. Stem (apparently) about a span high, with spread- 
ing branches. Leaves an inch or more in length, sessile, neatly 
margined with spreading spinulous teeth, glabrous on both sides. 
Spikes numerous; with solitary fertile flowers at the base. Sterile 
flowers about as long as the scale. Perianth hemispherical, irreg- 
ularly lobed and undulated. Stamens 2. Fertile flowers imperfect 
in our specimens. Fruit glabrous > 

Euphorbia herniaroides, Nutt. Banks of the Gila. A pubes- 
cent variety of this species was found in the desert west of the 
Colorado. 

CUPULIFER^. 

Quercus Emoryi, n. sp. Leaves coriaceous, oblong, on very 
short petioles, remotely and repandly toothed, the serratures mu- 
cronate, smooth on both sides; fruit pedunculate, solitary and in 
pairs, gland ovoid-oblong, mucronate; cup hemispherical, the scales 
appressed. Common in the elevated country between the Del 
Norte and the Gila. This small-leaved oak resembles Q. agrifolia 
and Q. undulata, (Torr. in Ann. lye. N. York 2, p. 248, t. 4,) but 
is quite distinct from both. 

SALICACE^E. 

Salix. Several narrow-leaved willows were found along the 
Gila, and in the region west of the Colorado; but being without 
fructification they cannot be determined. One of them is used as 
food for cattle when there is no grass. 

PLATANACEiE. 

Platanus Mrxicanus, Moricandpl. nouv. ou rares d?Jlmer. t. 26. 
P. Calif ornicus,- Benth. bot. Sulph., p. 54. P. racemosus, Nutt.? 
Valley of the Gila. 

CONIFERS. 

Ephedra occidentalis, Willd.l From the region between the Del 
iNorte and the Gila, and the hills bordering the latter river to the 



153 [ 7 ] 

desert west of the Colorado. A shrub 3-4 feet high, with numer- 
ous slender branches; its appearance being that of Scotch broom, 
(Spartium scoparium.) The sheaths are very long, 3-parted, with 
subulate-acuminate segments. This can hardly be the E. America- 
na of Quito, which is described as having 2-pa*ted sheaths. The 
specimens are without either flowers or fruit. If the species should 
prove to be new, it may be called E. trifurcus. There seems to be 
still another species growing Qn the table lands of New Mexico, 
differing from the preceding in its very short sheaths. 

Juniperus. Two undetermined species w T ere found in crossing 
the country from the Del Norte to the Gila. Both of them have 
the general character of J. Virginiana. One is a large tree, with 
acerose leaves, and a bark like that of a Pinus; the other has short 
closely appressed leaves, and berries larger than a buck shot. 

AMARYLLIDACE.E. 

Agave Americana, Linn. Found in descending the western slope 
of the Cordilleras of California. This is the maguey of the Mexi- 
cans. It shoots up a flowering stalk 10 or 15 feet high. The juice 
of the plant affords an intoxicating drink called pulque. 

Another species of Agave, or.a very remarkable variety of the 
preceding was found in New Mexico, west of the Del Norte. It 
differs from A. Americana in its much shorter and broader leaves, 
which are furnished wi^h smaller marginal spines. 

LILIACEiE. 

Yucca. The leaves only, of what appear to be four species of 
this genus, occur in the collection, but we cannot identify them for 
want of the inflorescence. 

ORCHIDACE,E. 

Spiranthes cernua, Rich. Low grounds in the valley of the Del 
Norte. 

CYPERACEiE, 

Eleocharis quadrangulata, R. Brown. Valley of the Gila. 
Cyperus Michauxianus, Schultes. Valley of the Gila. 

GRAMINEiE. 

Chloris alba, Presl. Spikes umbellate-fasciculate, numerous, 
(8 — 12,) the peduncle enclosed in a broad compressed sheath; 
spikelets 2-flowered; upper glume nearly as long as the flowers, 
2-toothed, with a short awn between the teeth; lower palea of the 
perfect flow r er obscurely 3-nerved, gibbous in the middle, the mar- 
gin ciliate with long hairs towards the summit; awn three times as 
long as the palea; neuter flower broad and truncate, inclosing a 
short aristiform rudiment; the awn twice as long as the palea. Bed 
of the Gila. Very near C. barbata, which differs in the entire 



[7] 



154 



glumes, entire mucronate, (not awned,) in the entire straight lower 
palea of the perfect flower, and in the third or aristiform flower 
being much exserted. 

Bouteloua racemosa, Lagasca.l Culm erect, simple; spikes nu- 
merous (20 — 40,), reflexed, 3 flowers; lower glume linear subulate; 
upper one linear-lanceolate, scabrous, entire, nearly as long as the 
spikelets; lower palea of the perfect flower unequally tricuspidate, 
pubescent; abortive flower reduced to a slender awn which is nearly 
as long as the perfect flower, furnished at the base with 2 short 
and inconspicuous bristles. Valley of the Gila, rare. This plant 
agress pretty well with Kunth's description of B. (Eutriana,) race- 
mosa, except in the pubescent lower palea, and the minute bristles 
at the base of the neuter flower. Whether it be the plant of La- 
gasca or not is very difficult to determine from his brief character. 
It certainly is very different from B. racemosa of the United States, 
which has a large 3-awned neuter flower, and if distinct from La- 
gasca's, must receive another name. That of B. curtipendula 
would be appropriate. 

Chondrosium eriopodum, n. sp. Culm simple, pubescent below; 
spikes 4 — 6, racemose, appressed, on short woolly peduncles; spike- 
lets 2-flowered; flowers distichous,; glumes very unequal, glabrous, 
linear-lanceolate, mucronate, entire; lower palea of the perfect 
flower glabrous, bifid at the apex, with a short bristle between the 
teeth; neuter flower pedicellate, with 3 slender awns. This is one 
of the species of "Grama" so useful as a fodder-grass in New 
Mexico. It is abundant along the Del Norte, and in the region be- 
tween that river and waters of the Gila. The culm is slender, 
a foot or more in height. Leaves are very narrow, 2 — 3 inches 
long, with glabrous sheaths; sheath almost wanting. Spikes about 
three-fourths of an inch long. 

Chondrosium fceneum, n. sp. Leaves glabrous; spikes 2 — 3, ob- 
long, falcate, spreading; rachis nearly half the length of the spikes; 
upper glume nearly as long at the perfect flower, with two rows of 
piliferous glands on the back; lower palea deeply 3-rleft, the seg- 
ments lanceolate and mucronate, hairy on the margin; neuter flower 
of two truncate emarginate valves, with a 2-valved rudiment of a 
third flower, and 3 short stout awns. Uplands bordering the valley 
of the Del Norte. This is another of the grasses called Grama in 
New Mexico, and is the best kind, being almost as good fodder as 
oats. It is nearly allied to Atheropogen [Chondrosium^) oligosta- 
chyum of Nuttall. 

Chondrosium polystachyum, Benth. hot. Sulph. p. 56. Uplands 
bordering the Gila. The smallest kind of "Grama" found on the 
journey. It is about 6 inches high, very slender. The spikes are 
narrowly linear, and almost half an inch long, erect, on short 
brownish peduncles. The other characters agree minutely with 
Mr. Bentham's admirable detailed description in the work quoted 
above. 

Leptochloa filiformis, Roem and Schults. Valley of the Gila. 
Scarcely distinct from L. mucronata of the United States. 

Sesleria? dactyloides, JVutt. Upper part of the Arkansas. This 



155 [ 7 J 

is the celebrated "Buffalo Grass," so called because it constitutes 
the chief fodder of the wild buffalo, during the season that 
it flourishes. I have retained this plant, for the present, where it 
was placed by Mr. Nuttall, who noticed its anomalous characters. 
It differs from Sesleria, and indeed from the Tribe Festucacece, in 
its habit, Which is that af Chondrosium. The stem throws off suck- 
ers which ro'ot at the joints, from whence leaves and culms of a few 
inches in height are thrown up. The spikes are two or three in 
number, on short spreading peduncles. They are oblong, about 
half an inch in length, and obtuse; bearing from 6 to 8 spikelets, 
which are unilateral, and form a double row on the rachis. The 
spikelets are usually 2 flowered, but I have occasionally found them 
with 3 flowers, and even the rudiment of a fourth. The glumes 
are very unequal oblong-ovate, coriaceo-membranaceous, carinate 
and one-nerved, the upper one slightly mucronate. Palea oblong- 
lanceolate and somewhat keeled, membranaceous, nearly equal, 
but longer than the glumes, entire, glabrous except on the keel; 
the lower 3 nerved, the upper bi- carinate. Anthers large, linear, 
fulvous. In all the specimens of this collection, as well as in those 
in my herbarium from numerous other localities, there are no fertile 
flowers, and only in few instances rudimentary styles, so that the 
plant seems to be dicecios po/ygamus by abortion. 

Arundo Phragmites, Linn. Valley of the Del Norte, and along 
the Gila. 

Andropogon argenteus, DC.) Kunth. enum. l,p. 500. Valley of 
the Gila. A handsome species, with the spikes in a terminal pani- 
cle which has a white appearance from the abundant silky hairs of 
the flowers. 

A. macrourus, Michx. With the preceeding. 

Besides these grasses, there were a few others, mostly collected 
in the valley of the Gila, but which I have not determined, as the 
specimens were not so complete as could be desired. Among them 
area Glyceria, two Jlgrostides, five species of Panicum, and a 
Poa (Eragrostis,)v?hh large elongated spikelets. In some parts of 
the valley of the Dei Norte, Sorghum vulgare is cultivated, and 
was found partly naturalized. 

EQUISETACE/E. 

Equisettjm hyemale, Linn. Lower part of the Colorado. 

FILICES. 

Adiantum tenerum, Sioartz. Valley of the Gila. This species 
is widely spread over the southern part of North America, and yet 
has not hitherto obtained a place in our^Flora. We have it from 
Alabama, Florida, Texas, and various parts of California. 

Lycopodium. A small species allied to L. rupes.tre, was found 
in descending the Gila. It differs in its incurved leaves which are 
mucronate, but without a bristle at the tip. No fructification ex- 
ists in the specimen. 



HI 



156 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



Plate 1 — Daleaformnsa — A branch of the natural size, with a separate flower magnified. 

Plate 2 — Fallugia paradoxa. — Natural size, with a separate carpel magnified. 

Plate 3 — Larrea Mexicana. — A branch of the natural size. Figure 1. Separate flower. 
Figure 2. External view of a stamen, with a scale at its base. Figure 3. The same, 
seen from the opposite side. Figure 4. Ovary and style. The -last three figures mag- 
nified. 

Plate 4 — Zinnia grandijlora. — The entire plant, except the root. Figure 1. A head of 
flowers. Figure 2. A ray flower, natural size. Figure 3. A disk flower. Figure 4. 
Stamen. Figure 5. Portion cf the style, with its branches. The last three figures more 
or less magnified. 

Plate 5 — Ridellia tagetina. — A branch of the natural size. Figure 1. Achenium and pap- 
pus of a ray flower magnified. Figure 2. A ray flower less magnified. Figure 3. A 
disk flower. Figure 4. Part of the style,- with its branches. The last two figures con- 
siderably magnified. 

Plate 6 — Baileya midtiradiata. — The whole plant, except the lower portion of the stem. 
Figure 1. A ray flower. Figure 2. A disk flower. Figure 3. Two of the stamens. 
Figure 4. Style and its branches. All magnified. 

Plate 7 — Arctostaphylos pungens. 

Plate 8 — Fouquiera spinosa. — Summit of the stem and panicle of flowers. Figure 1. A 
capsul", with the valves separated, showing the plaeentiferous axis. Figure 2. A seed. 
(Both of natural size.) Figure 3. Tranverse section of a. seed. Figure 4. Embryo. 
(The last two magnified.) Figures 5 and 6. Spiral vessels composing the testa of the 
seed, greatly magnified. 

Plate 9 — Quercus Emoryi. — Figures 1 and 2. Acorns of the same. All the figures of 
natural size. 

Plate 10 — Sesleria dactyloides. — The entire plant of the natural size. Figure 1. A spike- 
let. Figure 2. Glumes. Figure 3. Staminate flower. Figure 4. The same, with the 
paleae removed. All the figures magnified. 

Plate 11 — Ipomcea leptophylla. — A branch of the natural size. Figure 1. Pistil. Figure 
2. Capsule. Figure 3. Seed. All the figures of natural size. 

Plate 12 — Chondrosium ftzneum — Two plants of the natural size. Figure 1. A spikelet 
magnified. Figure 2. The same, with the glumes removed, somewhat more highly 
magnified. Figure 3. Upper palea of the perfect flower. 




DALE A PC RMC - '. 



;:; 




LAEREA MEXICANA. 



IV. 




ZINNIA GRANDIFL - 




7 



DELLIA T . 




BAILEYA MULTTRADIATA 



VII 




ARCTOSTAPHYLOS PUNGENl 




VIII. 



IX 




0UERCUS EM0RT1. 



X 




. ,t : 



SESLERIA DACTYLOIDES 



XII. 




157 [ 7 ] 



APPENDIX NO. 2.— (Continued.) 

St. Louis, February 13, 1848. 

My Dear Sir: Your letter, together with the package containing the drawings of a 
number of most, interesting cactaceae, arrived safely here about two weeks ago. 

On the occasion of my report on the botany of Dr. Wislizenus' voyage, I have made a 
careful investigation of the cactaceas, of which he brought home with him more than twenty 
species, and have been enabled to elucidate several points which had been unknown, or ob- 
scure before; no doubt because in the hot houses of European gardens these curious plants, 
though they thrive pretty well, rarely produce flowers and fruit; so that from 800 species of 
cactacese at present cultivated in Europe, perhaps not one-fourth is known as to its flower 
and a much smaller proportion in fruit. 

I have ventured to describe some of your species from the drawing; my description, how- 
ever, and the names given by me, must remain doubtful till we are able to obtain some more 
data to characterize the species. I have written it more Tor your information than for publi- 
cation, but if you choose to append it to your published report, I have no objection to it, but 
must request you to make such corrections or alterations as your notes or your recollection 
of the plants will enable you to do; for example, as to size, as in some of the drawings no 
size is mentioned,* in which case I have assumed them to represent the natural size. I have 
for convenience sake, numbered the different figures, and shall now proceed to copy for }-ou 
the descriptions and remarks following my numbers. 

1. Mammillaria. October 18, 1846; head waters of the Gila, 6,000 feet above the sea. 
Proliferous in the highest degree, forming hemispherical masses often of a diameter three 

and a-half feet; which are composed of 100 — 200 different heads or stems. Single heads 
conical, apparently about 4 or 5 inches high, and 2| — 3 inches in diameter; color, bluish 
green; spines white or reddish. 

This species appears to be allied to M- vivipara, but is distinguished by the conical heads, 
and the hemispherical tufts, while M. vivipara has hemispherical or even depressed heads, 
and forms flat and spreading masses. 

It may be an undescribed species, in which case the name of M. aggregata appears to be 
most appropriate. 

2. Mammillaria. October 26, 1846. Rare; on the Gila, 3 or 4,000 feet above the sea. 
Apparently a mammillaria, though the habit of the plant is more that of an Echinocereus, 

but all Echinoccrei have the bunches of spines disposed in verticle ridges, which is not the 
case in the figure in question. Stems irregularly cylindrical, with divers contractions and 
swelling, about 4 — 6 inches high, and 1} and 12 inches in diameter, many (in the figure 8,) 
from one base. 

The name of M- fasciculata would indicate the peculiarity of this species. 

3. Mammillaria. November 4, 1846; abundant. 

Several (fig. 3,) oval stems from one base, 14 — 2;' inches high, and 1{ inch in diameter; 
tubercles in about 13. rows; spines whitish, short; one small obovate red berry toward the 
apex not more than H line long. 

If the figure is correct, this species ought to be distinguished by the name of M. microcar- 
pa. as I know of no other Mammillaria with such a small fruit. 

4. Echinocactus Wislizeni. (Engelm. in Wislizenus' report.) October 26, 1846. 

In addition to the description in Dr. W.'s report, which I have drawn up from dried speci- 
mens. I observe in this figure that the species has 21 oblique ribs, is of an oval shape, and 
bluish green color; the ribs are acute, but not compressed, according to the representation of 
a section, and the groves corresponding. 

5. Echinocactus. October 25, 1846; 18 inches in diameter. 

Height equal to the diameter; shape ventricose, contracted towards the vertex, therefore 
somewhat urceolate; with 21 straight sharp ribs; spines apparently 8, straight, brown, color 
of plant bright green; vertex whitish, "(tomentose?) fr m t l or 1-i inches long, oval, yellowish 
or reddish. Seed obovate, obliquely truncated at base, full one line long, black, opaque, 
slightly roughened; embryo curved or hooked, cotyledons accumbent, partly buried in the 
large farinaceous albumen. 

This species is distinct from all other New Mexican species examined by me, and is most 
probably undescribed. I propose to name it after its zealous discoverer, who has, surmount- 
ing numberless difficulties, though occupied by severe and arduous duties, found leisure to do 
so much for the advancement of our knowledge of the wild countries traversed by him, 
Echinocactus Emoryi. 

C. Cereus. November 21, 1846; 3 feet high. 

There can be but little doubt but that we have here a species before us. which I have re- 

* Where the size is not mentioned, the original c'rawi'ngs are tl.e size of nature. W. H. E. 



[7 ] , 158 

ceived from Dr. Wislizenus and from Dr. Gregg, from the neighborhood of Chihuahua, and 
which I have described in Dr. W.'s report by the name of C. Greggii, erect, branching, with 
5 compressed ribs, dark green, with whitish areolae, and about 8 short dusky spines. 

The specimen figured here is very remarkable on account of the fruit, which was unknown 
to me. Provided The drawing is correct, we have here a smooth oval accuminate fruit, 
crowned with the remains of the corolla, and supported by a distinct stipe of a bright crim- 
son color. A stipe, as well as such an acumination, I have not seen in any other Iruit of a 
cactus. Fruit, with the long acumination, 2| inches long, | to 1 inch in diameter, stipe about 
— inch lone. 
* 7. Opuntia. Very abundant on the Del Norte and Gila. 

No date nor statement whether the figure represents the natural size or is smaller. The 
species belongs to the section elliptic^ of Salm; it is ascending, older stems prostrate, 
branches and = younger joints erect, 8—10 inches high; joints orbicular obovate, rounded, 
obtuse or sometimes acutish, of a bluish green color, H to 2\ inches long, and little less 
wide- spines short and whitish; berries obovate, scarlet, only about 3 or 4 lines long. It the 
figure represents the natural size, this species ought to bear the name 0. microcarpa. 
°8. Opuntia. October 28, 1816; common on the Gila. 

Much branched, sub-erect, joints obovate, often acutish, purplish, with two or three longer 
brown spines directed downwards; fruits obovate, red. In the figure, the joints are 1|— 2 
inches long, and 1— \\ wide; fruit about 3 lines long. . , , , 

The«-e are several opuntiae known with purple colored joints, but none in the least resemb- 
ling this, and I must consider it as a distinct species to which I would give the name of 0. 

YVol(lC(l(£ t 

9. Opuntia? October 22, 1846; abundant on the Del Norte and Gila. 

A remarkable plant, apparently more like a Mammillaria than like an Opuntia, The 
fruit is also represented without areolae or tubercles, exactly like the smooth fruit of a Mam- 
millaria; but this may be an oversight in the artist. The habit of the plant suggests the 
belief that it is an opuntia of the section cylindracea. 

Joints or branches ascending, cylindrical, tuberculated, 4—6 inches long; 1—1 J inches in 
diameter; tubercles very prominent, with about 8 long (1— H inches,) straight spines; fruit 
obovate, umbilicate, scarlet, towards the lop of the branches, about 9 lines long, and 6 in 

It is a distinct species, which I am gratified to dedicate to the skilful artist who has drawn 
all these figures, Mr. J. M. Stanly; I therefore propose for it the name Opuntia Stanlyi. 

10. Opuntia. November 3, 1816; 4 feet high. 

Stem erect with verticilate horizontal, or somewhat pendulous branches; branches cylin- 
drical strongly tuberculated, about 8 lines in diameter, with short spines on the tubercles; 
fruit pale yellow, clavate, tuberculate, umbilicate, 1 to 1{ inches long, 6— 8 lines in dia- 

This is probably the Opuntia arborescent, Engelm. in Wisliz's report, though the spines 
are represented as being shorter than in my specimens of 0. arborescent from New Mexico 
and Chihuahua. 

11. Opuntia. November 2, 1846. . 
Somewhat resembling the last, but forming " low, wide spreading bushes.-' Joints more 

slender, only about 4 or 5 lines in diameter, alternating (not opposite nor verticillate,) form- 
ing with the stem an acute angle, sub-erect, tubercles more prominent, areolae whitish at 
their lower edge, with 3 dusky defiexed spines; Iruit clavate, tuberculate, pale yellow, 1 inch 
long, 4 lines in diameter. 

I believe this to be an undescribed species, and would propose the name lor it ot U. Call- 

VZ^Opuntia. October 10, 1846; abundant. Three feet high, with spreading branches; 
the same in circumference. . . «, 

I can see no difference between this figure and a plant which I have received lrom Ji,l 
Passo, by Dr. Wislizenus. and which I have described in his report under the name of 0. 

vazinata. .',„,,.. ■ ■ , u 

Nos. 13—15 are no Cacti. In 13, I recognize the Raberhnia zuccarim, a shrub common 
in the chaparals of northern Mexico, which has been collected in flower about Parras and 
Saltillo by Drs. Wislizenus and Gresg. The fruit is unknown so far; the specimen figured 
is however, in fruit; the beny (?) is globose, f— 1 line in diameter, crowned with the rudi- 
ment of the style. It was collected October 23d, 1846, and is described as a shrub 3 feet 
hioh ; with low, spreading boughs. 

14. Collected November 15, 1846; 4 feet high, rare. 

Is perhaps, another species of the same genus, but the entire absence of flower or Iruit 
makes it impossible to decide. Branches similar, straight, leafless, ending m robust dark 
spines- but much elongated and sub-erect, not horizontal, as in No. 13. 

15. Is entirely unknown to me. Perhaps it is an amaryllidaceout plant; the fruit is said 
to be 5 inches long. 

A gigantic cactus was observed along the Gila river, about the middle part ol its course, 




-MEu 



.V" 1 



Halli 



^Js6s$ ' 




__ Croft section. 







159 [ 7 ] 



at an elevation of from 2 000 to 4,000 feet; it is frequently mentioned in the report from the 
1st to the 9th of November, and figured on several plates, (p. 72 to 79.) It most probably 
is a true Cereus. I judge so from the seed, which fortunately has been preserved. T. 
obovate. obliquely truncate at base, black, smooth, shining, small, (only about 0.7 lines long;) 
the embryo is hooked, the cotyledons foliaceous, incumbent; no albumen. If it is a constant 
fact, that the cotyledons of the seeds cf the genus Pilocereus are thick and globose and 
straight, the plant in question cannot belong to that genus, which comprises the most gigan- 
tic of the Cactus tribe. 

The large Cereus. C. Peruvianut, is vastly different from cur plant, which I would pro- 
pose to came Cereus Gigantcus. Unfortunately, I can say bat little about the character of 
this species. The stem is tall, 25 to 60 feet high, and 2 to 6 feet in circumferance, erect, 
simple, or with a few erect branches; ribs about 20, oblique or spiral, (?) no spines, (?) (Em- 
ory's notes; probably onlv below without spines.) fruit produced toward the top of the stem 
or branches. (None of the fruit was procured, being too late in the season; but the molasses 
expressed from it by tha Indians was procured in abundance at the Pimos village.) 

It is called Pitahaya by the Californians, but this appears to be a general name applied in 
Mexico and South America to all the large columnar Cacti which bear an edible fruit; 
especially to Cereus variabilis, which is common on the eastern coast, b^t is widely distinct 
from our California giant. 

Very trulv, yours. 

G ENGELMAXX. 



APPENDIX G. 



BOTANY. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANTS COLLECTED DURING THE EX- 
PEDITION : BY DR. JOHN TORREY. 



No. 96, St. Mark's Place, New York, 

August 10, 1853. 

Dear Sir : I have examined the collection of plants that 
you brought from the headwaters of the Red river, towards 
the Rocky mountains. The flora of this region greatly resem- 
bles that of the upper portion of the Canadian. It is remark- 
able that there occur among your plants several species that 
were first discovered by Dr. James, in Long's Expedition, 
and have not been found since until now. Your collection is 
an interesting addition to the geography of North American 
plants, and serves to mark more clearly the range of many 
western species. For particular remarks on the rarer plants, 
and descriptions of the new species, T refer you to the accom- 
panying list. 

At your request I have had some of the rarer plants drawn 
and engraved, to illustrate your report to Congress. 

I am, dear sir, 

Yours truly, 



JOHN TORREY. 



Captain R. B. Marcy. 



\rffoW--vwuii, 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 267 



RANUCULACEJE. 

Clematis Pitcheri, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 10. Witchita Mountains; fl. 
and fr. July 17. 

Anemone Caroliniana, Walt. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 12. Sources of the 
Trinity River ; May 3. 

Delphinium azureum, Michx. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 32. Main Fork of 
the Red River ; fl. May 8— June 16. 



PAPAVERACEiE. 

Argemone Mexicana, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 61. Common on the 
upper waters of the Red River ; May — June 16. 



CRUCIFERiE. 

Vesicaria angustifolia, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 101 ; Gray, PI. 
Lindh. 2, p. 145. Sources of the Trinity River ; fl. and fr. May 3. 

V. stenophylla, Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 149 ; and PI. Wright. 1, p. 10, and 
2, p. 13. North Fork of the Red River ; fr. June 14. 

Pithyr.ea Wislizeni, Engelm., in Wisliz. in Mex., p. 95; Gray, PI. Wright. 
1, p. 10, and 2, p. 14. Abundant on the headwaters of the Red River ; June 
23— July 14. 

The specimens of this plant collected by Captain Marcy vary considerably in 
the leaves, which are often nearly entire. The flowers also vary in size ; the 
petals being sometimes nearly one-third of an inch in length. The silicles are 
larger than in specimens collected in New Mexico by Mr. Wright and Dr. Ed- 
wards. They are by no means always deeply emarginate at the base, and some- 
times they are slightly notched at the summit. 

Streptanthus hyacinthoides, Hook., in Bot. Mag., t. 3516 ; Torr. and 
Gr., Fl. 1, p. 78 ; Gray, Gen. 111., t. 61. Witchita Mountains to the boun- 
dary of the Choctaw Nation ; fl. May 31 — June 4. 



CAPPARIDACEiE. 

Polanisia graveolens, Raf. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 123, and Suppl., p. 
669. Witchita Mountains ; fl. and fr. July 16. The pods are on a short stipe, 
and the seeds are more or less rough. 



268 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 



CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 

Silene Axtirrhina, Linn., Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 191. On the Main 
Fork of the Red River ; fl. May 8. 

Paronychia Jamesii, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 170 ; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 14. 
Middle Fork of Red River ; fl. May 22. 



PORTULACACE.E. 

Talinum teretifolium, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 365 ; Gray, Gen. 111., t. 98. Mid- 
dle Fork of Red River ; fl. May 22, fr. July 5. 



MALVACE^. 

Malvastrum coccineum, Gray, Gen. 111., t. 121 ; PI. Fendl., p. 24. Malva 
coccinea, Nutt. Sida coccinea, DC. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 235. North Fork 
of Red River, &c. 

Callirrhce involucrata, Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 15, and Gen. 111., t. 117. 
Malva involucrata, Torr. and Gr., Fl., p. 226. Middle Fork of Red River ; fl. 
May 22. 

C. digitata, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phil. 2, p. 181 ; Gray, 1, c. Fort Belk- 
nap. 

LINACE^. 

Linum Berlandieri, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3480 ; En^elm. in Gray, PI. 
Wright. 2, p. 25. Cache creek, and Cross-timbers of the Red River ; May. 

L. Boottii, Plauch., in Lond. Jour. Bot 7, p. 475 ; Engelm., 1. c. Witchita 
Mountains -, fl. and fr. July 17. 

OXALIDACEwE. 

Oxalis violacea, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 211. Headwaters of the 
Trinity River ; April 25. 

O. stricta, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1. c. With the preceding. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 269 



GERANIACEiE. 



Geranium Carolinianum, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., FI. 1, p. 207. Headwaters 
of the Trinity, and on Cache creek ; April — May. 



ZANTHOXYLACEjE. 

Ptelea trifoliata, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 215 ; $ mollis. Torr. 
and Gr., Fl. ], Suppl., p. 680. Common on the headwaters of the Red River; 
fr. June 16. 

ANACARDIACEiE. 

Rhus trilobata, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 218; Gray PI. Fend]., 
p. 28. On the Middle and North Forks of the Red river: in fruit June 1-16. 

R. Toxicodendron, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., 1. c. With the preceding in 
fruit only. 

VITACEiE. 

Vitis rupertris, Scheele, in Linnsea, 21, p. 591 ; Gray, PI. Lindh., 2, p. 
165. Witchita Mountains ; abundant. The fruit was immature, but had at- 
tained nearly its full size in the middle of July. They are said to be ripe in 
August, when they are about the size of large peas, of a deep purple color, and 
agreeable to the taste. This species much resembles the summer grape of the 
Atlantic States. 

SAPINDACEvE. 

Sapindus marginatus, Willd. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, 255 ; Gray, Gen. 
111., 2, t. 180. Main Fork of Red River. 

This is generally known in Texas and Arkansas by the name of Wild China. 
It is a tree, and attains the height of 20 feet, with a trunk 10 inches in dia- 
meter. The wood is of a yellow color. 

POLY GAL ACEiE. 

Polygala alba, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 87 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 38. P. Bey- 
richii, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 670. On Suydam Creek, North Fork of Rec. 
River ; fl. June 6. 



270 APPENDIX G- BOTANY. 

/ 
P. incarnata, Linn ; Torr. and Gr. 1, p. 129. Tributaries of the Washita 
River ; fl, and fr. July 23. This species has not hitherto been found so far 

west. 



KRAMERIACEjE, 

Krameria lakceolata, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2 p. 168 ; Gray, Gen. 
ill., 2, t. 185. Headwaters of the Trinity, and on the Middle Fork of the Red 
River ; fl. May 4-22. 



LEGUMINOSJE. 

Vicia micrantha, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 271. Cache Creek and 
Middle Fork of Red River : fl. and fr. May 16-22. 

Rhtnchosia TOMEVTosA,"var. volubilis, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 285. Tribu- 
taries of the Washita River ; fl. July 26. 

Tephrosia Virgimana, Pers. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 295. Witchita 
Mountains and upper waters of Red River ; fl. June 4, fr. July 23. 

Glycyrrhizalepidota, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 106 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 298. 
Main and North Forks of the Red River ; fl. June 6, fr. June 26. 

Indigofera leptosepala, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 298. With the 
preceding ; fl. May 26-June 6. 

Psoralea esculenta, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 475, t. 22. Mouth of Cache Creek and 
Witchita Mountains ; May. 

P. Argophtlla, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 475 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.— Am. 2, p. 136, t. 53. 

North and Middle Forks of Red River ; fl. May 26-31. 

P. floribunda, Nutt. , in Torr. and Gr., Fl 1, p. 300. Sources of the Red 
River ; fl. June 2-9. 

Petalostemon violacecm, Michx., Fl. 2, p. 50, t. 37, f. 2 ; Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 1, p. 310. With the preceding ; June 2-7. 

Petalostemon- gracile, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phil. 7, p. 92: Torr. and Gr.. 
Fl. 1, p. 309. Cache Creek ; May 18. 

P. multiflorum, Nutt., 1. c. : Torr. and Gr., 1. c. On the Witchita Mount- 
ains ; fl. and fr. July 15. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 271 

Petalostemon villosum, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 85 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 310. 
Cache creek ; June 14 ; flowers not yet expanded. 

Dalcba aurea, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 101 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 308 ; Gray, 
PI. Wright 2, p. 41 . Main Fork of Red River ; fl. July 5. 

D. lanata, Spreng. Syst. 3, p. 327. D. lanuginosa, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 1, p. 307. Big Witchita and on the Main Fork of the Red River ; fl. 
June 27. 

D. laxiflora, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 741 ; Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 101 ; Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 1, p. 307. D. pencillata, Moricand, PI. Nouv. Amer., t. 45. Common on 
all the upper waters of the Red River ; May-July. 

Amorpha canescens, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 92; Ton-, and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 306. 

Witchita Mountains ; fl. May 30. 

Astragalus Nuttallianus, DC. Prodr. 2, p. 289 ; Torr. and Gr. 2, p. 234, 
Upper waters of the Red River ; fl. and fr. May 5. The flowers are larger than 
usual in this species. 

A. caryocarpus, Ker. Bot. Reg., t. 176 ; Torr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 331. Head- 
waters of the Trinity. May 2 ; in flower only. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 740; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 339. 
With the preceding ; fl. in May. 

Desmodium sessilifolium, Torr. and Gr. 1, p. 363. Witchita Mountains. 
The specimens of this plant collected by Captain Marcy are in a state of remark- 
able fasciaiion. The branches of the panicle are coalesced (sometimes almost 
to the su#imit) into a broad flat mass, which is covered with sessile flowers and 
fruit. 

Clitoria Mariana, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 290 ; Torr., Fl, N. York r 
1, p. 163, t. 24. On the Washita ; fl. July 27. 

Baptisia australis, R. Br. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 385. Sources of the 
Red River ; fl. and fr. June 6-10. 

B. leucoph^a, Nutt., Gen. 1, p, 282 ; Torr. and Gr. 1. c. Common on the 
upper tributaries of the Red River ; fl. April, fr. May. 

Hoffmanseggia Jamesh, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 293 ; Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, 
p. 178. With the preceding ; fl. and fr. June 14-24. 



272 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 

Cassia Cham.ecrista, Linn. , Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 395. Tributaries of 
the Washita ; fl. July 22. 

Schrankia uncinata, Willd. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 400. Mouth of 
Medicine River, &c. : fl. April. 

Acacia lutea, Leavenw. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 403. On the Witchita 
Mountains ; fl. and fr. July 14. The leaves are remarkably sensitive. 



ROSACEiE. 

Sangdisorba annua, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 429. Poterium an- 
nuum, Hook. Fl. Bor. — Am. 1, p. 198. 

ONAGRACEiE. 

CEnothera rhombipetala, Nutt., in Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 493; Kunze, 
in Linnasa, 20, p. 55. Main Fork of Red River ; fl. June 24. 

CE. sinuata, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 294. Witchita Mountains and 
upper tributaries of Red River ; May-June. 

CE. speciosa, Nutt., in Jour. Acad. Phil. 2, p. 119 : Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1. c. 
Big Witchita ; fl. May 8. Middle Fork of the Red River ; fr. June 21. 

CE. lavanduljefolia, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 501 ; Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 
6, p. 223 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 72. Big Witchita and North Fork of Red 
River ; fl. May 8, fr. June 6. The leaves in all our specimens of this rare spe- 
cies are nearly glabrous, about one inch and a half long, and 2-3 Imes wide, 
with the apex rather acute. The fruit is well described by Hooker, (1. c.) 

CE. serulata, Nutt., Gen. 1, p. 246; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 501. Com- 
mon on the upper tributaries of the Red River ; May- June. 

Gadra coccinea, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 249 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 518. North 
Fork of Red River ; fl. June 6. 

G. villosa, Torr. Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 200; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 
518 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 73. Witchita Mountains ; fr. July 14. The 
ripe fruit is not always reflexed. It is (including the stripe) about 7 lines long, 
ovate, strongly tetraquetrous, abruptly contracted at the base, and 2-4-6eeded ; 
the seeds more or less imbricated. 



APPENDIX G. — BOTANY. 273 



LOASACEjE. 



Mentzelia otjda, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 535 ; Gray, PI. Fend]., p. 47, and 
PI. Wright. 1, p. 73 ; Bartonia nuda, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 297. Witchita Mount- 
ains ; fl. June 22. 



CUCURBITACEiE. 

Cccurbita perennis, Gray, PI. Lindh. 2, p. 193 ; and Wright. PI. 2, p. 60. 
Cfoetidissima, H. B. and Kunth? Cite umis perennis, James, in Long's Exped. 
2, p. 20 ; Torr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 543. North Fork of the Platte ; fl. June 6. 
Although the cultivated plant seems to be dioecious not unpleasant to the smell, 
Mr. Wright says, (vide Gray, 1. c.) that in a wild state it is " certainly monoe- 
cious, and exhales an unpleasant smell when bruised ;" so that it does not differ 
from the description of C.fatidissima, except that the latter is said by Kunth to 
be an annual, which may be a mistake. The flowers are as large as those of the 
common pumpkin. 

Sicydium, sp. nov? Fruit 1| inch in diameter, globose, sessile. Seeds | 
larger than in S. Lindheimeri, and more turgid. On the Main Fork of Red 
River; fr. July 11. 



GROSSULACE^. 

Ribes aureum, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 164 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 552. North 
Fork of Red River •, fr. June 4. 

UMBELLIFERJE. 

Eryngium diffusum, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 207 ; Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 1, p. 603. Witchita Mountains ; fl. June 14. This rare species has not 
been found before, since it was first discovered by Dr. James, more than thirty 
years ago. It is rather doubtful whether it is diffuse, except, perhaps, when it 
is old. The specimens of Captain Marcy are less branched than the original one 
from which the description in the Flora of North America was drawn. 

Leptocaulis echinatus, Nutt., in DC. Prodr. 4, p. 107 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 
1, p. 609. Headwaters of the Trinity ; April 2. 

Polyt^enia Nuttatlii, DC. Umb , p. 53, t. 13, and Prodr. 4, p. 196 ; Torr. 
and Gr., Fl. 1, p. 533. Middle Fork of Red River; fl. June 1. Witchita 
Mountains ; fr. July 16. 

18 



274 APPENDIX G. — BOTANY. 

Eurytjenia Texana, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 1. p. 633. Main Fork of Red 
River ; fr. June 11. This plant has hitherto been found only by the late Mr. 
Drummond, who discovered it in Texas more than twenty years ago. It is an 
annual, about two feet high ; the fine striae of the stern and branches are rough- 
ened upward, with minute points. The umbels are compound and spreading. 
Flowers minute. Petals white, broadly orbicular, waved on the margin, deeply 
emarginate, with an inflexed point. Fruit about one-third larger than in Drum- 
mond 's Texan specimen. 



RUBIACE^. 

Oldenlandia angustifolia, Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 68. Houstonia angus- 
tifolia, Mich. Fl. 1, p. 85 ; Hedyotis stenophylla, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 41. 
Tributaries of the Main Fork of Red River ; fl. May— June. 



VALERIANCEJE. 

Fedia radiata, 0. leiocarpa, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 52. Upper Red 
River. 



COMPOSITE. 

Liatris sqcarrosa, Willd. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 68 ; Sweet Fl. Gard., 
t. 44. Tributaries of the Washita River ; fl. July 22—24. 

L. acidota, Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh., p. 10 ; Gray PI. Wright. 1, p. 
83. L. mucronala, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 70 ; not of DC. On the Wa- 
shita ; July 27. 

Solidago ODORi, Nutt. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 219. Witchita Moun- 
tains ; July 16. 

S. Missouriensis, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 7, p. 32, and Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 327 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2) p. 222. With the prece- 
ding. 

Artemisa filifolia, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 211 ; Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 2, 417. Upper tributaries of the Red River ; May. An abundant shrub, 
of a grayish white aspect, with numerous branches, and crowded, slender 
leaves. This is one of the numerous species called sage by the hunters. It is 
found from the plains of the Upper Missouri to the Valley of the Rio Grande, 
and west to the Colorado. 



APPENDIX G. — BOTANY. 275 

Achillea millefolium, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 409. With the 
preceding. It is the woolly form that almost exclusively occurs west of the 
Mississippi. 

Zinnia grandiflora, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 348 ; 
Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 298 ; Torr. in Emory's Rep., t. 4, Gray, PI. Fendl., 
p. 81. Main Fork of Red River ; fl. July 2. 

Riddellia tagetina, Nutt. 1. c, p. 371 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 362; 
Torr. in Emory's Rep., t. 5 ; Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 93. Main Fork of Red 
River ; June 25 — July 8. The pappus is more hyaline and acute than in speci- 
mens from other localities in my herbarium. It is also slightly lacerate 
at the tip, showing something of a transition to R. arachnoidea. The leaves, 
too, are more woolly and broader than in the more common form of the 
plant. 

Rudbeckia hirta, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 307. Witchita 
Mountains ; fl. June 1. Is R. bicolor distinct from this species? Dr. Gray re- 
marks, (Plant. Lindh. 2. p. 227,) that in cultivation, the purple brown of the 
rays is commonly obsolete or wanting in all the later heads. 



Echinacea angustifolia, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 554 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 
306. Witchita Mountains ; June 1. 



Lepachys columnaris, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 315. Rudbeckia columnaris, 
Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 575. Common on all the tributaries of the Red River ; 
June. 

Helianthcs petiolaris, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad. 2, p. 115 ; Sweet 
Brit. Fl. Gard. (n. ser.) t. 75. With the preceding. 

Gaillardia pulchella, Foug. ; DC. Prodr. 5, p. 652 ; Torr. and Gr., 
Fl. 2, p. 366. Common on the upper tributaries of the Red River ; May — 
June. 

Palafoxia callosa, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 369. Stevia callosa, Nutt. in 
Jour. Acad. Philad. 2, p. 121 ; Bart. Fl. Amer. Sept., t. 46. /S/oUis latiortbus . 
Tributaries of the Washita ; June. 

Hymenopappus cortmbosus, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 372. H. Engdmanni- 
anus, Kunth. 



276 APPENDIX G. — BOTANY. 

Actinella linearifolia, Toit. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 383. Hymenoxys lineari- 
folia', Hook. Witchita mountains ; May 30. 

Marshallia caespitosa, Nutt. in DC. Prodr. 5, p. 680 ; Hook. Bot. Mag. 
t. 3704 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 391. Headwaters of the Trinity river ; 
May. 

Aphanostephus ramosissimus, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 310 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, 
p. 93. Ji. Riddellii, Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 189. Egletes ramosissima, Gray, 
PI. Fendl., p. 71. Little "Witchita and upper tributaries of Red River ; May — 
June. The tube of the disk flowers is indurated in all the specimens. 

Engelmannia pinnatifida, Torr. and Gr., in Nutt. Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 343 ; and Fl. 2, p. 283. Witchita Mountains ; May 30. 

Melampodium cinereum, DC. Prodr. 5, p. 518 ; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 78; 
M ramosissimum, DC. 1. c, Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 271. M. lencanthim, Torr. 
and Gr. 1. c. Cache Creek ; June 21. A variable species. 

Chrysopsis canescens, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 256 ; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 
77. Main Fork of Red River ; July 8. 

C. hispida, Hook. Fl. Bor.— Am. 2, p. 22, (under Diplopappus ;) DC. Prodr. 
7, p. 279 ; Torr. and Gr. 1. c. 

Centaurea Americana, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phil. 2, p. 117 ; Bart. Fl. 
Amer.— Sept., t. 50 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 453. Tributaries of the upper 
Red River ; June — July. 

Cirsium undulatum, Spreng. ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 456. With the pre- 
ceding. 

Ptrrhopappus Carolinianus, DC. Prodr. 7. p. 144 ; Nutt. in Trans. Amer. 
Phil Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 430. Headwaters of the Trinity and on Cache Creek ; 
May. 

Lygodesmia juncea, Don.; Hook. Fl. Bor. — Am. 2, p. 295, t. 103; Torr. 
and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 484. Upper tributaries of the Red River; June. The lower 
branches are covered at the base with tubers or galls, about the size of cherry- 
stones, produced by the stings of insects. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 277 

L. aphylla, DC. Prodr. 7, p. 198 ; Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 485. /S Texana, 
Torr. and Gr. 1. c. North Fork of Red River ; June 16. The numerous radi- 
cal leaves are 3-4 inches long, runcinately pinnatifid. Achenia angular, dis- 
tinctly tapering upward. 



ASCLEPIADACE^. 

Ascelpias tuberosa, Linn.; Michx Fl. 1, p. 117 ; Sweet. Brit. Fl. Gard., 
(ser. 2,) t, 24 ; Decaisne, in DC. Prodr. 8, p. 567. Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 
123. Upper tributaries of Red River ; May — June, The leaves vary from 
ovate and amplexicaul to narrowly linear. 

A. speciosa, Torr. in Ann. Lye. 2, p. 218, and in Fremont's First Rep., p. 
95. A. Douglasii, Hook. Fl. Bor.— Am. 2, p. 53, t. 142 ; Decaisne, 1. c. 
Witchita Mountains to the upper tributaries of the Red River ; fl. June — 
July ; flowers larger than in any other North American species of Asclepias. 

Acerates panictjlata, Decaisne, L c. p. 521 ; Asclepias viridis, Walt,, Fl. 
Carol, p. 107? Anantherix paniculatus, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
(n. ser.) 5, p. 202, Cache Creek and Middle Fork of Red River, fl. May 16, 
fr. June. 

A. decumbens, Decaisne, 1. c. JJnantherix decumbens, Nutt. 1. c. Cache 
Creek -, fl. May 17. The follicles oblong, not muricate. 

A. angustifolia, Decaisne, 1, c Polyotus angustifolius, Nutt, 1. c. Branch 
of Cache Creek ; fl. May 17, 

A. viridiflora, Ell. sk. 1, p. 317 ; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 124 ; Decaisne, 
1. c. Asclepias viridiflora, Pursh. Fl. 1, p. 181 ; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2, p. 53, t. 
143. North Fork of Red River ; fl. June 4. The specimens collected by Cap- 
tain Marcy belong to the broad-leaved forms of the plant. 

Enslenia albida-, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 164, and in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
(n. ser.) 5, p. 203 ; Decaisne, in DC, Prodr, 8, p, 518. Main Fork of Red 
River ; not in flower. 



APOCYNACEJE. 

Apoctvum cannabinum, Linn. ; Hook. Fl. Bor. — Amer. 2, p. 51, t. 139 ; 
Decaisne, in DC. Prodr. 8, p. 439 ; Torr. Fl. New York, 2, p.—. Common on, 
the upper tributaries of Red River ; May— June. 



278 APPENDIX G. — BOTANY. 

Amsonia salicifolia, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 184 ; Decaisne, in DC. Prodr. 8, p, 
385. Witchita Mountains ; fr. July 16. This is perhaps only a variety of A. 
angustifolia, Micks., and both may not be specifically distinct from A. tabernas- 
montana. 



GENTIANAGrE. 

Sabbatia campestris, Nutt, in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 167 ; 
Griseb., in DC. Prodr. 9, p. 50 ; Engelm. and Gr., PI. Lindh. 1, p. 15. On 
the Washita ; fl. and fr. July 27. 

Erythr^ea Beyrichii, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, ined. E. trichantha ft. angusti- 
folia, Griseb. 1. c. With the preceding ; fl. and fr. July 26. 

Eustoma Russelianum, Don. ; Griseb. in DC. Prodr. 8, p. 51. Lisianthus 
glaucifolius, Nutt. 1. c. L. Russelianus, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3626. Washita 
River to the upper tributaries of the Red River ; July. 



CONVOLVULACKE. 

Evolvulus pilosus, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 174, (as a synonym) ; Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 195. E. argenteus, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 187 ; Choisy, in 
DC. Prodr. 9, p. 443 ; not of R. Br. Middle Fork of Red River ; fl. May 22. 
Choisy doubtingly refers Brown's plant to E. hirsutus, Lam., and therefore has 
adopted Pursh 's name. 

Convolvulus lobatus, Engelm., and Gray, PI. Lindh. 1, p. 44 (in a note.) 
C. hastatus, Nutt.. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc (n. ser.) 5, p. 194 ; not of Thunb. 
C. Nuttallii, Torr. in Emory's Rep., p. 149. Middle Fork of Red River ; May 
22 — June 6. This species has much the appearance of C. althtzoides, Boss. 

C. (Ipomcea) leptophyllus, Torr., in Frem. First Report, p. 94, and in 
Emory's Report, p. 148, t. 11. With the preceding. 

C. (Ipomcea) shumardianus, (sp. nov. ;) caule gracili subpubescente ; foliis 
ovato-lanceolatis sursum angustatis basi acutis ; pedunculis petiolas longioribus 
sepalis ovatis obtusis. Witchita Mountains ; fl. July 17 ; flowers as large as in 
C. panduratus, which the plant much resembles, but differs in the form of the 
leaves, and in the broader and more obtuse sepals. Named in honor of Dr. G. 
C. Shumard, the botanical collector of the expedition. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 279 



SOLANACE^. 

Solanum flavidum, Torr. Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 227 ; Dunal in DC. 
Prodr. 13, p. 375. Cache Creek ; May. This species is not suffrutescent, as 
is stated in the original description, but probably annual. Mr. Wright found it 
on the Rio Grande. The prickles are sometimes almost wanting. 

S. Carolinense, Linn. ; Torr., Fl. N. York 2, p. 105; Dunal, 1. •., p. 305. 
Witchita Mountains and upper tributaries of the Red River ; May- June. 

Physalis pumila, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 193. "With 
the preceding ; May-June. This species has been overlooked by Dunal in 
DC. Prodr. 



SCROPHULARIACEiE. 

Castilleja purpurea, G. Don. ; Benth., in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 531. Euchro- 
ma purpurea, Nutt., 1. c, p. 180. Sources of the Trinity River ; May. 

Penstemon grandiflorus, Nutt., in Fras. Cat. 1813, and Gen. 2, p. 53 ; 
Benth., 1. c, p. 322. P. Bradburii, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 738. North Fork of Red 
River ; fl. June 3. The pedicels vary from three lines to nearly an inch in 
length. 

P. ambigcus, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 228 ; Benth., 1. c, p. 321. 
Witchita Mountains; June. This rare and well characterized species has lately 
been found by Mr. Wright on the upper Rio Grande. 

P. Cobjea, Nutt., 1. c. ; Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3465 ; Benth., 1. c , p. 326. 
Upper tributaries of the Red River ; May- June. 

P. pubescens, Soland. ; Torr., Fl. N. York, 2, p. 35 ; Benth., 1. c. Head- 
waters of the Trinity. Smoothish, with narrower and more entire leaves than 
usual. 

Gerardia grandiflora, Benth., Comp. Bot. Mag., 1, p. 206. Dasystomu 
Drummondi, Benth., in DC. Prodr. 10, p. 521. On the Washita ; fl. July 27. 



280 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 



LABIATE. 



Monarda aristata, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 186; 
Benth., in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 363. Main Fork of Red River ; May 24-25. Nut- 
tall says that this species is sometimes perennial ; but all our specimens seem to 
be annual. A variety was found on Cache Creek, in which the teeth of the 
calyx are aristate from a broad base, and strongly hispid-ciliate. The corolla is 
not spotted, as in the ordinary form. 

M. punctata, Linn. ; Benth., 1. c. ; Torr., Fl. N. York, 2, p. 59. M. lutea, 
Michx., Fl. 1, p. 16. North and Middle Forks of Red River ; May-June. A 
dwarfish and annual form, in which the corolla is scarcely spotted, was found in 
the same region. 

Teucrium Cubense, Linn.; Benth., in DC. Prodr. 12, p. 578. T.lacinia- 
tum, Torr., in Ann. Lye. New York, 2, p. 231. Cache creek and Middle Fork 
of Red River ; May. This species was incorrectly described by me as "fruiti- 
culose " in the work quoted. 

Scutellaria resinosa, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 232 ; Benth., in 
DC. Prodr. 12, p. 427. Cache Creek and Sweetwater Creek ; May 18-June 9. 

S. parvula, Michx., Fl. l,p. 12; Benth., 1. c: Torr., Fl.N. York,2,p.7L 
S. ambigua, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 37. 



VERBENACEJE. 

Lippia cuneifolia, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 234, (under Zapa- 
nia.) Witchita Mountains, and on the Washita ; June 1-27. Schauer has 
overlooked this species, in his revision of Verbenacece for DC. Prodr. 

Verbena bipivnatifida, Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 1, p. 49 ; Schauer? 
in DC. Prodr. 11, p. 553. Glandularia bipinnatifida, Nutt., in Jour. Acad. Phil. 
2, p. 123, and in Amer. Phil. Trans, (n. ser.) 5, p. 184. Sources of the Trinity 
and upper tributaries of Red River ; May-June. 



BORAGINACEiE. 

Euploca convolvulacea, Nutt., in Amer. Phil. Trans, (n. ser.) 5, p. 190 ; 
DC. Prodr. 9, p. 559. Middle Fork of Red River ; fl. June 23. I am now con- 
vinced that my E. grandiflora (Emory's Report, p. 147) is an unusually large- 
flowered state of the present species. The plant is abundant on the Upper Rio 
Grande. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 281 

Eritrichium Jamesh. Myosotis suffruticosa, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 
2, p. 225 ; DC. Prodr. 10, p. 114. North Fork of Red River ; fl. and fr. June 14. 
This plant had not been found, till Captain Marcy collected it, since it was dis- 
covered by Dr. James, in Long's Expedition. It is a genuine Eritrichium, but 
can hardly be referred to any one of De Candolle's sections of that genus. My 
description (1. c.) was drawn from old and imperfect specimens, the stems of 
which were indurated at the base so as to appear suffrutescent. As more com- 
plete specimens show the plant to be herbaceous, the former specific name is 
not appropriate. The allied Fendlerian species No. 636 (E. multicaule Torr. 
Mss.) is very hispid and canescent, with spreading hairs, and throws up several 
stems from a thick root or caudex. Leaves linea-spatulate and obtuse. Flow- 
ers on conspicuous pedicels. Fructiferous calyx broadly ovate, nearly erect ; 
the segments ovate-lanceolate and closed over the fruit. Nutlets truncate at 
the summit, very smooth and shining. 



POLEMONIACE.E. 

/ 

Phlox pilosa, Linn.; Benth, in DC. Prodr. 9, p. 305. Sources of the Trini- 
ty ; May. 



PRIMULACE^E. 

Dodecatheon Meadia, Linn. ; Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 136 ; DC. Prodr. 8, p. 56. 
Sources of the Trinity ; fl. May. 



SANTALAC&E. 

Comandra umbellata, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 157 ; Hook. Fl. Bor. — Am. 2, p. 
139, t. 79, f. A ; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 160. Thesium umbellatum, Linn. 
Tributaries of the Red River ; May. There are few plants that have a wider 
range in latitude and longitude than this. 



282 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 



EUPHORBIACEiE. 

Euphorbia corollata, Linn.; Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 607 ; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, 
p. 175, t. 99. On the Washita ; July. 

E. marginata, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 607 ; Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 224. 
Main Fork of Red River ; July 8. Upper part of the stem hairy. 

E. helioscopia, Linn.; Torr. Fl. N.York, 2, p. 174, (excl. syn. Pursh;) 
Gray, Bot. N. States, p. 405. Headwaters of the Trinity ; fl. May. 



Stillivgia lakceolata, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 176. 
S. sylvatica 0. salicifolia, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 245. Middle Fork 
of Red River ; fl. June 4. 



Hendecavdra Texensis, Klotsch in Erich. Arch. (1841) 1, p. 252; Engel. 
and Gray, PI. Lindh. l,p. 53. Croton muricatum, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil, 
soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 153. H. multiflora, Torr. in Frem. First Rep., p. 96. Mid- 
dle Fork of Red River ; fl. and fr. June 22. 



Gynamblosis monanthogyna. Engelmannia Nuttalliana, Klotsch, 1. c. 
Croton monanthogynum, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 215. C. ellipticum, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 
235, (excl. syn.;) Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 245. Main Fork of Red 
River ; June 24. The Engelmannia of Klotsch, which is based on Croton ellip- 
ticum of Nuttall, must give place to the earlier genus of the same name of Torr. 
and Gray. I propose for it a manuscript name given to the plant many years 
ago, when revising the Euphorbiacem of the United States. Klotsch is wrong 
in referring Croton monanthogynum to Hendecandra maritima. In the young 
specimens of Captain Marcy all the staminate flowers are 8-10 androus : and the 
later flowers are not unfrequently hexandrous. The petals and sepals vary from 
three to five. 



Tragia ramosa, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 245. T. angustifolia, 
Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 172. T. brevispica, Engel. and 
Gray, PI. Lindh. 1, p. 54. North Fork of the Red River ; June. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 283 

Cnidoscolus stimulosus, Engel. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 1, p. 26. Jatropha 
stimulosa, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 216 ; Ell. Sk. 2, p. 649. Cache Creek ; May 17. 



PLANTAGENACEiE. 

Plantago Virginica, Linn.: Torr. Fl. New York, 2, p. 16. Headwaters of 
the Trinity, fl. May. 

P. gnaphaloides, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 100 ; Hook. Fl. Bor.— Am. 2, p. 124 ; 
Decaisne in DC. Prodr. 13, (Sact. 1,) p. 713. Mouth of the Big Medicine 
River. 



POLYGONACEiE. 

Eriogonum longifolium, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 
164 ; Benth. Eriog. in Linn. Trans. 17, page 406. Witchita Mountains ; June. 



CHENOPODIACE^. 

Chenopodium subspicatum, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 199? Middle Fork of Red 
River. The specimens are without either flowers or fruit. Annual, diffuse, 
and much branched ; clothed with whitish furfuraceous scales. Leaves con- 
spicuously petiolate, broadly rhombic ovate, with one or two coarse teeth on 
each side. 

Obioke canescens, Moq. Chenop., p. 74; and DC. Prodr. 13, (pars 2, )'p. 
113 ; Torr., in Stansbury's Report, p. 395. 0. occidentalis, Moq. 1. c. Calli- 
gonium canescens, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 370. Jitriplex canescens, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 197. 
Common on the upper tributary of the Red River. 



NYCTAGINACEjE. 

Oxtbaphus akgustifolius, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 237 ; Choisy, 
in DC, Prodr. 13, (pars 2,) p. 433. Calymenia angustifolia, Nutt., in Fras. Cat. 
1813, and Gen. 1, p. 26. Upper tributaries of Red River ; June. 

O. nyctagtneus, Torr., 1. c. ; Choisy, 1. c. Mlionia nyctaginea, Michx., Fl. 
1, p. 100. Calymenia corymbosa, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, 
p. 178; not Mirabilis corymbosa, Cav., in which the involucrum is one-flowered. 
With the preceding ; May 28. 



284 APPENDIX a. EOT ANY. 

O. Hirsutus, Sweet ; Hook. Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2, p. 124 ; Choisy, 1. c. Mlio- 
nia hirsuta, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 728. With the preceding. V, Stem erect, 2-3 
feet high, sparingly branched ; viscously pubescent ; leaves 2-3 inches long, 
and 1-1 1 inch wide, on very short petioles, nearly entire. Flowers in a long, 
loose terminal and naked panicle ; involucre 3-flowered, rotate-companulate. 
Fruit fusiform, oblong, 5-angled. As in most of the NyctaginacecE, this plant 
abounds in cells filled with raphides. These are so abundant in the liber of the 
root, that they form a layer of a silvery white color. 

Abronia mellifera, Dough, in Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 2879 ; Choisy, 1. c. 
Cache Creek ; fl. and fr. May 18. The specimens in the collection agree exact- 
ly with Douglas's plant collected in California, and named by Sir William 
Hooker. 

CUPULIFERiE. 

Quercus tjndulata, Torr., in Ann. Lye, 2, p. 248, t. 4. Abundant on the 
upper tributaries of the Red River. Stems 1-2 feet long, from a thick woody 
base, sparingly branched above. Leaves oblong, two inches or more in length, 
undulate, and furnished with 1-3 rather obtuse and scarcely mucronate teeth 
on each side, densely and softly pubescent underneath, nearly smooth above, 
thick and somewhat coriaceous. 

CONIFERS. 

Juniperus Virginiana, Linn.; Michx. f. Sylv. 2, p. 353, t. 155 ; Torr., Fl. 
N. York, 2, p. 235. J. sabina, Hook., Fl. Bor.-Am. 2, p. 166. Middle Fork 
of Red River. 

HYPOXIDACE^. 

Htpoxis erecta, Linn.; Bart , Fl. N. Amer., 1, t. 35, f. 1; Torr., Fl. N. 
York, 2, p. 289. Headwaters of the Trinity River; May. 

COMMELYNACEiE. 

Commeltna angustifolia, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 53; Torr., Fl. N. 
York, 2, p. 332. North Fork of Red River ; May-June. 

Tradescantia virginica, Linn.; Bot. Mag., t. 105; Bart. 1. c, t. 41; 
Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 81 ; Torr., Fl N. York, 2, p. 333. Abundant on the up- 
per tributaries of Red River ; May- June ; extremely variable in pubescence, 
and in the breadth of the leaves. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 285 



IRIDACKE. 



Sisyrinchium Bermudiana, Linn.; Torr., Fl, N. York, 2, p. 290, Head- 
waters of the Trinity ; May. 

Nemastylis acuta •, with the preceding. 



LILIACEJE. 

Scilla esculenta, Ker. Bot. Mag., t. 1574. Phalangium esculentum, 
Nutt., in Fras. Cat. 1813, Gen. 1, p. 219. P. Quamash, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 226. 
Headwaters of the Trinity ; May. 

Allium Canadense, Kalm ; Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 223 ; Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 450 ; 
Torr., Fl. N. York, 2, p. 308. On Cache Creek ; fl. May 14. 

A. ochroleucum, Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p, 156; not of 
Waldst. and Kit. Headwaters of the Trinity ; May. 

A. reticulatum, Fras ? Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 435. Ji. angulosuin, /S. lenchor- 
hizum, Nutt. 1. c. ? Common on the tributaries of Red River. Bulb usually 
covered with dark reticulated coats, but sometimes naked. 



MELANTHACE^S. 

Amianthium Nuttalii, Gray, in Ann. Lye. N. York, 4, p. 123. Helonias 
angustifolia, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 154. .ftmiantan- 
thus, Kunth, Enum. 4, p. 181. Headwaters of the Trinity ; May. 

CYPERACEJE. 

Cyperus Schweinitzii, Torr. Cyp., p. 276; Fl. N. York, 2, p. 343. C. alter- 
niflorus, Schwein., in Long's 2d Exped , 2, p. 381 (not of R. Br.) Middle and 
North Forks of Red River ; May-June. 

C. Strigosus, Linn.; Torr., Cyp., p. 261; Fl. N. York, 2, p. 340, t. 136. 
Witchita Mountains ; July. 

Cyperus acuminatus, Torr. and Hook., in Torr. Cyp, Suppl. Witchita 
Mountains ; July 15. 



* 



286 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 

Fimbristtlis spadicea, Vahl, Enum, 2, p. 294 ; Torr. Cyp., p. 346 ; Kunth, 
Enum. 2, p. 237 ; Torr. Fl. N. York. 2, p. 360. Headwaters of the Trinity ; 

May. 

Carex Muhlenbergii, Schk. Car. 2, p. 12, f. 178 ; Schwein. and Torr. 
Car., p. 304 ; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 374. Headwaters of the Trinity, and on 
Cache Creek ; May- June. 

C. festucacea, Schk. Car. f. 173 ; Carey, in Gray's Bot. N. States, p. 545. 
C. stramima, vat. festucacea, Torr. 1. c. With the preceding. 



GRAMINE^. 

Phalaris angusta, Nces ; Trin. Ic. Gram. t. 78 ; Kunth, Gram. 2, p. 32. 
P. occidentalis, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 144. On 
Cache Creek ; May 16. This plant is certainly P. angusta of Trinius, of 
which I have specimens named by that distinguished botanist. It appears, 
however, scarcely to differ from P. microstaclya, DC. 

Paspalum ljeve, Michx. Fl. 1, p. 44 ; Trin. Panic. Gen., p. 160 ; Torr., Fl. 
N. York, 2, p. 421. Main Fork of Red River ; June. 

Panictjm pauciflorum, Ell. Sk. 1, p. 120 ; Gray, Bot. N. States, p. 613. 
Headwaters of the Trinity ; May. 

P. reticulatum, (n. sp.;) culmo geniculate erecto subsimplici ; foliis vagin- 
isque laxe pilosis : panicula oblonga contracta, ramulis racemosis paucifloris ; 
spiculis obovatis acutiusculis glabris breviter pedicellatis muticis ; glumis valde 
inEequalibus ; flore neutro bivalvi ; palea inferiore (ut in gluma superiora) 
7-costulata reticulata, flore hermaphrodito transverse ruguloso. On the Main 
Fork of Red River; July. Nos, 2090 and 2091, Wright's Coll. N. Mex. 
1851-52, are glabrous and more robust forms of this species. 

P. obtusum, (H. B. K. ?) spicis 5-7 racemosim dispositis erectis ; spiculis 
geminis subimbricatis unilateralibus muticis obovatis obtusis glabris ; glumis 
sequalibus multinervosis ; flore inferiore triandro bipaleaceo ; flore hermaphro- 
dito subtilissime longitudinaliter striate subnitido.— H. B. and Kunth, Nov. 
Gen. 1, p. 98? Tributaries of the Washita. Plant glabrous and glaucous, 
about 18 inches long. Rachis narrowly linear, very flexuous ; nerves of the 
glumes green. Near P. obtusum, H. B. K., but differs in the nearly equal 
glumes, &c. No. 2092 Wright's Coll. N. Mex. 1851-52, is exactly our 
plant. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 287 

Aristida fasciculata, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 154 ; Kuntli, 
Enum. 2, p. 196. A. purpurea, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, 
p. 145. Middle Fork of Red River ; May-June. 



Agrostis (Sporobolus) airoides, Torr, in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 151. 
With the preceding. The axils of the panicle are nearly glabrous in Captain 
Marcy's specimens. 

Calamagrostis gigantea, Nutt. 1. c, p. 143. Middle Fork of Red River ; 
June 23. 

Chloris verticillata, Nutt. 1. c. With the preceding ; June 25. An ele- 
gant grass, near C. alba, Presl. and Torr. in Emory's Rep. p. 153. 

Bouteloua racemosa, Lag. Var. Cienc. (1805) p. 141 ; Torr. in Emory's 
Rep., p. 154 ; not of Torr. Fl. N. York. Dinebra curtipendula, DC. ? Kunth, 
Syn. PI. Eq. 1, p. 281 ; excl. syn. Michx. Eutriana curtipendula, Trin. Fund. 
p. 161 (in part ;) Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 280, and Suppl. p. 233; excl. syn. Michx. 
and Willd. Main Fork of Red River ; July. The detailed description of this 
species by Kunth, 1. c., (drawn from a Mexican specimen collected by Hum- 
boldt) shows that the Chloris curtipendula of Michaux (Bouteloua curtipendula, 
Torr.) is a distinct species, as indicated in Emory's Report, 1. c. 

Chondrosium oligostachyum. Alheropogon oligostachyum, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 
78; Torr. in Sill. Jour. 4, p. 58. Eutriana? oligostachya, Kunth. Gram. 1, p. 
96, ex. Enum. 2, p. 282. Main Fork of Red River ; July 2. 

C. papillosum. Mheropogon papillosum, Engelm. in Sill. Jour. 46, p. 104. 
With the preceding, of which it is perhaps only a variety. The species of 
Chondrosium and Bouteloua are known by the name of Grama Grasses in New 
Mexico and Texas. 



Pleuraphis Jamesii, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 1, p. 148, t. 10 ; Kunth. 
Enum. 1, p. 285. Main Fork of Red River ; July. Kunth (1. c.) asks whether 
this is not Hymenotheceium quinquesetem of Lagasca ; but the brief description 
of that author (in Gen. et. Sp. PI. Nov. 1816) does not agree with our 
plant. 



288 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 

Sesleria dactyloides, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 65; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 323; Torr 
in Emory's Report, p. 323, t. 10. Upper tributaries of the Red river; July 
This is the well known Buffalo-grass of the western prairies. It is remarkable 
that neither the grain nor the fertile flowers of this grass are known. 

Poa (Eragrostis) oxylepis. P. interrupta, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
(n. ser.) 5, p. 146; not of Lam. Witchita mountains; July. A very neat grass. 
The specimens of Captain Marcy are only about 18 inches high. 

P. eragrostis. Linn.: Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 333; Torr. Fl. N. York, 2, p. 458. 
North Fork of Red river; July. 

P. arachnifera: panicula oblonga contracta, ramulis semiverticillatis; spicis 
subquinquefloris, lato-ovatis, floribus laxis basi et racheos longe lanoso-arach- 
noideis; glumis inequalibus anguste-lanceolatis, in carina scabris; palea inferiore 
lineari-lanceolata acutissima obscure 3-5-nervata, carina inferne ciliata. 

j8? spiculis 9-10 floris, rachi sparsa lanosa. Headwaters of the Trinity; May. 

Melica glabra, Michx. Fl. 1, p. 62. Witchita mountains; May 30. 

Koeleria cristata, Pers. Syn. 1, p. 97; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 381. K. nitida, 
Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 74. K. tuberosa, Nutt. in Amer. Phil. Trans, (n. ser.) 5, p. 
148. Headwaters of the Trinity. 

Festuca nutans, Willd., Enum. 1, p. 116; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 407; Torr. 
Fl. N. York, 2, p. 471, t. 158. Witchita mountains; June. 

F. tenella, Willd. 1. c; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 397; Torr., Fl. N. York, 2, p. 
470, t. 154. Headwaters of the Trinity; taller than the plant of the Atlantic 
States. 

Uniola latifoi.ia, Michx., Fl. 1, p. 71; Ell. Sk. 1, p. 167; Kunth, Enum. 
1, p. 425. Witchita mountains; July. A tall showy grass, with very large 
much compressed spikelets. 

U. stricta, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 1, p. 155. U. multiflora, Nutt., 
in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 148. Washita river to the upper trib- 
utaries of the Red river; June-July. No. 2033 Wright's Coll. N. Mex. 1851-52 
is the same. 

Triticcm repens, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 440; Torr., Fl. N. York; 2, p. 
474. Common on the tributaries of Red river; May-June. All the specimens 
are awnless. 

Elymus Canadensis, Linn.; Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 451; Torr., Fl. N. York, 2, 
p. 476. E. glaucifolius, Willd. Cache creek, &c; June. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 289 

Hordeuh Jubatum. Linn.; Torr., Fl. Mid. and N. States, 1, p. 158; Kunth, 
Snum. 1, p. 457. Tributaries of Red river. 

H. pusilldm, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 87, and Trans. Arner. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, 
p. 151: Kunth, Enum. 1, p. 457. 

Tripsacum dacttloides, Linn.; Michx. Fl. 1, p. 61; Nutt. 1. c; Kunth, 
Snum. 1, p. 469. North Fork of Red river; June. 

/ndropogon Jamesii. A. glaucum, Torr., in Ann. Lye. N. York, 1, p. 153; 
not of Muhl. With the preceding. 

EQUISETACEjE. 

Equisetum hyemale, Linn.; Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 652; Torr., Fl. New York, 2, 
p. 482. Main Fork of Red river. 

19 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 291 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate I. Anemone Caroliniana. 

Fig. 1, a stamen, magnified ; fig. 2, a head of pistils ; fig. 3, a head of ripe 
achenia, both magnified ; fig. 4, a single achenium, more enlarged. 

Plate II. Dythyr-ea Wislizeni. 

Fig. 1, a flower, magnified ; fig. 2, the pistil, more enlarged ; fig. 3, a ripe 
pod, with one cell opened, to show the seed — also magnified ; fig. 4, the 
embryo, more magnified. 

Plate III. Geranium Fremontii.* 

Plate IV. Hoffmanseggia Jamesii. 

Fig. 1, a flower ; fig. 2, a pod ; fig. 3, seed — all moderately magnified. 

Plate V. Sanguisorba annua. 

Fig. 1, a flower; fig. 2, the fruit — both magnified. 

Plate VI. Ertngium diffusum. 

Fig. 1, a separate leaf; fig. 2, a flower ; fig. 3, a petal ; fig. 4, the ovary, 
with the styles and three of the sepals ; fig. 5, front view of a stamen and 
sepal ; fig. 6, side view of the same — all but fig. 1 more or less magnified. 

Plate VII. EurytjEnia Texana. 

Fig. 1, a mericarp, magnified ; fig. 2, transverse section of the same, more 
magnified. 

Plate VIII. Liatris acidota. 

Fig. 1, head of flowers, moderately magnified ; fig. 2, a single flower, more 
enlarged ; fig. 3, a single bristle of the pappus, still more enlarged. 

Plate IX. Aphanostephus ramosissimus. 

Fig. 1, a ray-flower ; fig. 2, a disk-flower ; fig. 3, style of the same : fig. 4, 
achenium, with its coroniform pappus — all magnified. 



* This species was not found by Captain Marcy, but it grows in the region 
that he explored. The plate was prepared for another government report, 
which was never published. 



292 APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 

Plate X. Xanthisma Texana. 

Fig. 1-3, scales of the involucre ; fig. 4, a disk-flower ; fig. 5 ; achenium and 
pappus of the same ; fig. 6, ray-flower ; fig. 7, style of the disk-flower — 
all magnified. 

Plate XI. Entgelmannia finnatifida. 

Fig 1, a ray-flower, with an inner involucral scale; fig. 2, style of the 
same ; fig. 3, a disk-flower ; fig. 4, style of the same ; fig. 5, an achenium 

— all magnified. 

Plate XII. Artimesia filifolia. 

Fig. 1, portion of a flowering branch, moderately enlarged ; fig. 2, a single 
head, more magnified ; fig. 3, the same, longitudinally cut and equally 
magnified ; fig. 4, a disk-flower, and fig. 5, a ray-flower, both more mag- 
nified. 

Plate XIII. Ekythrjea Beyriciiii. 

Fig. 1, a flower, magnified ; fig. 2, a capsule. 

Plate XIV. HeLIOTROPITTM tenei.lum. 

Fig. 1, the calyx ; fig. 2, corollo, showing its eestivation ; fig. 3, the same, 
expanded ; fig. 4, the same, laid open •, fig. 5, fruit ; fig. 6 longitudinal 
lion of the seed— all magnified. 

Plate XV. Eupi.oca convoj.vulacea. 

Fig. 1, a flower, moderately magnified ; fig. 2, the same, laid open and 
equally magnified ; fig. 3, the stamens, more magnified ; fig. 4, a single 
stamen, still more magnified ; fig. 5, the pistil, equally magnified ; fig. 6- 
fruit, with the persistent style ; fig 7, transverse section of the same, 
equally enlarged ; fig. 8, longitudinal section of a seed, more magnified. 

Plate XVI. Penstemon ambiguhs. 

Fig. 1, a flower, moderately magnified ; fig. 2, the stamens and a portion of 
the corolla, more enlarged ; fig. 3, the pistil, equally magnified ; fig. 4, 
capsule twice the natural size, and dehiscent. 

Plato XVII. Ltppia cun'eifoi.ia. 

Fig. 1, a bract ; fig. 2, a flower; fig 3, the calyx ; fig. 4, the corolla, cut 
longitudinally, showing the stamens and pistil— ail moderately magni- 
fied ; fig. 5, the pistil, longitudinally cut, more enlarged. 



APPENDIX G. BOTANY. 



293 



Plate XVIII. Abronia cycloptera. 

Fig. ] , involucre, somewhat magnified-, fig. 2, fruit of the natural size ; fig. 
3, transverse section of the fruit, magnified ; fig. 4, an achenium, magni- 
fied ; fig. 5, transverse section of the same, also magnified ; fig. 6, the 
embryo. 

Plate XIX. POA 1NTERRUPTA. 

Fig. 1, a spikelet ; fig. 2, single flower; fig. 3, a caryopsis — all magnified. 

Plate XX. Uniola stricta. 

Fig. 1, a spikelet, magnified. 



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REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE ZUNl, ETC 155 



BOTANY. 

BY PROFESSOR JOHN TORREY. 

RANUNCULACE^. 

Clematis ligusticafolia, Nutt., inTorr. and Gray, Fl. l,p. 9; Gray PI. Fendl., 
p. 3. San Francisco mountain ; October. 

Delphinium azureum, Michx. ; Torr. and Gray, 1. c. Zuni mountain : August : 
and Laguna Encinatio ; October. 

Thalictrum Fendleri, Engelm., in PL Fendl., p. 5; Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 7. 
Rio Zuni; August, (fern, plant;) Bill Williams's river, October. A very dis- 
tinct species. 

BERBERIDACE.E. 

Berbcris pinnata, Lagasca, Eleuch., p. G ; Torr. in Emory's report, p. 136. 
B.fascicularis, D. C. Syst. 2, p. 19. 

Southern border of New Mexico ; in fruit, October. Our specimens have much 
smaller leaves than are represented in Delessert's figure, (Icon. 2, t. 3,) and the 
leaflets are not more than three pairs. The same plant was collected by Fre- 
mont in northern California, and by Emory on the highlands bordering the Gila. 

CRUCIFER/E. 

Tunitis patula, Graham ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 79 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 2, 
p. 10. San Francisco mountain ; October, (fruit.) Dr. Gray states (1. c.) that 
Streptanthus virgatus Nutt. is not distinct from this species. 

Vesicaria slenophylla, Gray, PI. Lindh., 2, p. 149, (adult.) Rio ZuSi ; Sep- 
tember. 

Streptanthus linearif alius, Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 7 ; PI. Wright. 1, p, 7 ; PI. 
Wright. 2, p. 10. Zuni mountain ; August. The root is perennial. The 
flowers are quite showy. 

Thelypodium Wrightii, Gray, PI. Wright. 1 , p. 7, and 2, p. 12. Acoma ; August. 

Dithyrea Wislizcni, Engelm., in Wislizen. Mem. N. Max., p. 96 : Gray, PI- 
Wright. 1, p. 10. Rio Zuni ; September. 



156 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

Slanhya integrifolia, James, in Long's first exped., 2, p. 17 ; Torr., in Am 
Lye, N. York, 2, p. 166; Torr. and Gray, Fl 1, p. 97. 

On the Zuiii and Little Colorado rivers ; September, October. It is possible 
that both this species and S. heterophylla, Linn., are only states of S. pinnatifida, 
Nutt. 

CAPPARIDACE.E. 

Cleome integrifolia, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 122; Gray, Gen. 111., t. 76. 
Inscription Rock, New Mexico ; August. 

PORTULACACEjE. 

Porluluca oleracea, Linn. ; Engelm., in Gray Plant. Lmdheim. 2, p. 154, (in 
adnot.) Rio Zuiii ; September. 

Talinum brevifolium, (n. sp.;) radice crasso ; caule erecto palulo folioso ; ib- 
liis augusto-spathulatis carnosis, obtusis ; floribus axillaribus terminalibusque 
solitariis ; pedunculis brevissimis ; sepalis ovatis obtusis ; petalis obovatis ; sta- 
minibus sub-20 ; seminibus leevibus. 

On the Little Colorado ; September. Root very thick, and somewhat branch- 
ing; stem 2-5 inches high, with numerous simple spreading branches ; leaves 
6-8 lines long,5i-2 lines' wide, crowded ; flowers, few toward the summit of the 
branches, about as large as in S. teretifolium ; the peduncles erect in fruit ; 
sepals broadly ovate, veined ; style about as long as the ovary, three-cleft at the 
summit ; seeds quite even, scarcely shining. 



MALVACEAE. 

Sidalcea malvccflora, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 16. S. Neo-Mexicana, Gray, PI. 
Fendl., p. 23. Sida malvaflora, Moc. and Sesse. Laguna Creek, to the western 
borders of New Mexico ; August, October. 

Sphceralcea inccina, var. bblongifolia, Gray, PL, Wright. 2. p. 21. Inscription 
Rock ; August. 

LINACE.E. 

Linum perenne, Linn.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 204. Zuni mountains ; 
August. 

GERANIACE.E. 

Geranium cespitosum, James, in Long's Exped. 2, p. 3 ; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 25. 
On the Zuni and San Francisco mountains, New Mexico ; August, October. 

This rare species first discovered about thirty years ago, by Dr. James, and 
was not found again for more than a quarter of a century, when Fendler col- 
lected it near Santa Fe. 



ZUNI AND COLORADO RIVERSl 157 



ZYGOPHYLLACEiE. 



Kallstrameria maxima, Torr. and Gray, FI. 1, p. 213. On the Zuni and Little 
Colorado rivers : September. 



VITACEiE. 

Fitis mstivalis, Michx. Fl., 2, p. 230 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 244. Yampai 
creek. 

Jmpclopsis quinquefolia, Michx. Fl. 1. c. ; Torr. and Gray, 1. c. With the 
preceding. This plant has not been found before so far west. 



RHAMNACEiE. 

Frangula Californica, Gray, Gen. 111., 2, p. 178. Rhamnus tomcntellus, Benth. 
R. oleifolius, Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1, p. 223. Yampai river. 

Ceanothus Fendleri, Gray, PI. Fend]., p. 29, San Francisco mountain. 

There are neither flowers nor fruit on our specimens. The leaves are larger 
than in Fendler's plant, some of them being more than an inch lono-. 



ANACARDIACE/E. 

Rhus trilobata, Nutt, in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 219, ; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 
28. Western limits of New Mexico. Leaves and young branches clothed with 
a dense velvety pubescence. 



LEGUMINOSjE. 

Vicia pidchella, H. B. K. ? Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 32. Laguna Enematio ; 
October. 

The specimens in this collection wholly agree with those numbered 943, PI. 
Wright II. 

Lathyrus polymorphic, Nutt.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1. p. 277; Gray, PI. 

Fendl., p. 30. Rio Zuiii ; September. 

L. linearis, Nutt., in Torr., and Gray, Fl. 1. c. ; Gray, PI. 2, p. 32. Zuiii 
mountain ; August. 

L. palustris, Linn.? var. foliia elongatis. Js.c , Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 32. 
Inscription Rock ; August. 

Our plant is exactly like Wright's 946, 1851. Some of the leaflets are nearly 
four inches long, and scarcely two lines wide. 



158 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

L. myrtifolivs , Muhl. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1. p. 275. Laguna Enematio ; 
October. 

Phaseolus leiospermus, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 280. Laguna Enematio. 

Psoralea floribvnda, Nutt., in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 300. Zuiii moun- 
tain ; August ; and Bill Williams's river ; October. 

Jlmorpha fruticosa, Linn ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p 305. Bill Williams's 
river ; not in flower. . 

Eysenhardtia amorphoides, H. B. K. ; Gray, PI. Lindh., 2, p. 173; and PI. 
Wright. 1, p. 45. Rio Zurii. 

Glycirrhiza lepidota, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 106 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 298. 
Rio Laguna ; August, (fruit.) 

Trifolium involucrutum, Willd. ; D. C. Prodr., 2, p 204 ; Gray, Plant. 
Fendl., p. 33. Laguna Enematio ; October. 

T. Indentation, Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1070. T. involucratum, Torr. and Gray, 
Fl. 1, p. 318, non. Willd. Ojo Pescado, on the Zuni ; August. 

Hosackia Wrightu, Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 43. Laguna Enematio and San 
Francisco mountains ; October. 

The peduncles of all the flowers in our specimens are extremely short. The 
stem is suftrutescent. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 339. San Francisco 
mountain ; October. 

Astragalus Fendleri, Gray, PI. Wright., 2, p. 45. Phaca Fendleri, Gray, PI. 
Fendl., p. 36. Western borders of New Mexico ; October, (in fruit.) 

A. Missouriensis, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 99; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 331. On 
the Rio Grande, below Dona Ana ; July. 

Lupinus Mexicanvs, Lagasca ; Gray, PI. Wright. 2. p. 49. San Francisco 
mountain ; October. 

Our specimens agree very well with Wright's 1020 of Coll., 1851. 

L. pusillus, Pursh ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 9, p. 374. Zuiii mountains ; August. 

Algarobiaglandv.losa, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 399 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 
60. On the Rio Colorado ; November. 

Acacia Greggii. Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 65. On Yampai creek. The speci- 
mens are without flowers or fruit. 

Strombocarpa odorata, Prosopis adorata, Torr., in Frem. 2d report, 1, p. 313, 
t. 1. On the Rio Colorado of the west. 

ROSACEA. 

Cercocarpus pavifolius, Nutt., in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 427. Bill Wil- 
liams's river ; October, (fruit.) 



ZUfil AND COLORADO RIVERS. 159 

Cowania Stansburyana, Torr., in Stansbury's report, t. 3, with the preceding ; 
October, (flower and fruit.) 

This species is readily distinguished from C. JMexicana, which it much resem- 
bles, by the pinnatified leaves. 

Fallugiajmradoxn, Torr., in Emory's report, p.—, t. 2, Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 41; 
PI. Wricht. 1, p. 68. On the Zuni and Yampai creek; November, (flowers and 
fruit.) 

Potentilia diffusa, Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 41. Zuni mountain ; August. 

liorkelia ? multifoliolata, sp. nov.; glabrescens; follis radicalibus 51-81 foliola- 
tis; foliolis lato-obovatis approximatis, apice 2-4-lobis, vcl subintegris ; petalis 
oblongo-cuneiformibus ; staminibus 20 ; carpellis paucis. Western borders of 
New Mexico ; October. 

A remarkable species, nearly allied to one collected in Northern California, by 
the botanist of Captain Wilke's exploring expedition. From Horkelia it differs 
in its numerous stamens and filiform filaments ; from Potentilia in its companulate 
calyx and narrow unguiculate petals ; from both in its few carpels, which seldom 
exceed six in number. 

Photinia arbutifoti.i, Lihdl. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1. p. 473. Western borders 
of New Mexico; October, (fruit.) 

The leaves, in our only specimen, are rather obtuse, and slightly serrate. The 
fruit contains but one perfect seed. 

Rosa blanda, Ait. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 459 ; var. ? Nearly glabrous ; 
leaflets mostly 9 ; prickles scattered, slender, slightly curved. Western borders 
of New Mexico. Our specimens are without flowers or fruit. 

ONAGRACEjE. 

Epilobium co'oraium, Muhl. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 489. Laguna creek 
and Zuni mountains : August ; in flower and fruit. 

OEnothera biennis, Linn. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1. p. 492 ; Yampai creek ; Octo- 
ber : in fruit. 

(E. coronopifolia, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 495; Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 43. 
Yampai creek ; October. 

(E. Harticegi, Benth. PI. Hartw., p. 1, var. foliis angusto linearibus. Little 
Colorado. September. 

Gaura coccinea, Nutt. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 518. Near the puebla of La- 
guna -. Ausjust ; in fruit. 

LOASACE.E. 

Mentzelia (Bartonia) mxdtiflora, Nutt. PI. Gamb., p. 180 ; Gray, PI. Fendl. 
p. 48, and PL Wright. 1, p. 74. Western part of New Mexico. The only 
specimen is in fruit ; which is urecolate turbinate. 



160 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

GROSSULACEjE. 

Ribes irriguum, Dougl, in Hort. Trans., 7, p> 516 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 
547. San Francisco mountain 

R. cercum, Doughl. 1. c. ; Torr. and Gray, 1. c. Zuni mountains; August: 
in flower and fruit. 

R. aureum, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 164; Torr. and Gray, I. c. On Yampai creek. 

SAXIFRAGACEtE. 

Heuchera rubesccns, Torr. in Stanbs. Rep. p. 388, t. 5 ; Gray, PI. Wright. 2,. 
p. 65. Western part of New Mexico ; October. The specimens belong to the 
large form collected by Mr. Wright and described by Dr. Gray, (1. c.) 

UMBELLIFER/E. 

Berula luigustifoliu, Koch, Fl. Germ, and Helv. 2, p. 317 ? Gray, PL Fendl 
p. 55, and PI. Wright. 2, p. 65. Slum pusillum, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 
1, p. 611. S. ? incisum, Torr. in Fremont's Rep., p. 90. Helosciadium? Cali- 
fomicum, Hook, and Am. Bot. Beech., p. 142? On the Laguna ; August. 

This plant is widely diffused through the United States. I have specimens 
from Michigan, collected by the late Dr. Wright; from East Florida, sent by Mr. 
Buckley ; from Col. Fremont, collected on the north fork of the Platte. Dr. 
Gray has also, in the works quoted above, enumerated several other stations for 
it. It was found by Dr. Pickering in Oregon, from whence also Mr. Nuttall ob- 
tained his Shim pusillum, which is pretty certainly our plant. If the plant of 
Beechey be the same, then it is also a native of California. 1 have carefully 
sought, as Dr. Gray has also done, for characters to distinguish it specifically 
from the European B. ungustifolia, but have not found them. The chief differ- 
ences are the narrower fruit, and the entire (not subincised) leaflets of the invo- 
lucre. 

Peucedanum tritematum, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 626. Seseli biterna- 
lum, Pursh, D. C. Prodr. 4, p. 196 ; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1, p. 204, t. 94. La- 
guna Enematio : October : in flower and fruit. 

LORANTHAOEE. 

Pfioradendronjlavescens, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad., (n. ser.) l,p. 185; En- 
gelm. in Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 59, and in Gray, PI. Lindli. 2, p. 213. Viscumfia- 
vescens, Pursh, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 1, p. 654. Western part of New Mexico ; 
November. 

P. juniperinum, Engelm. in Gray, PI. Fendl. 1. c. Parasitic on Juniperus. 
Little Colorado, and on the San'Francisco mountain. 

P. Calif or nicum, Nutt. 1. c. Engelm. in Gray, PL Lindh. 2, p. 213. Parasitic 
on Strombocarpus. Colorado of California ; November ; in fruit. 



ZUNl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 161 



COMPOSITE. 

Pedis angustifolia, Torr. in Am. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. York, 2, p. 62. Pecti- 
dopsis angustifolia, D. C. Prodr. 7, p. — . On the Rio Zuni and on a mountain 
between Acona and Laguna. August, September. 

Eupatorium ageratifolium, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 90. 0. herbaceum, Gray, 
PI. Wright. 2, p. 74. San Francisco mountain and Laguna Enematio, New 
Mexico; October. Heads mostly about 20-flo\vered. 

Machccrantliera canescens, var. latifolia, Gray. PI. Wright. 2, p. 75. Dietcria 
asteroides, Torr. in Emory's report. 

There are three forms of this species in the collection : 1, with several erect 
stems, a eaudex, which bears a dense tuft of leaves, with the scales of the invo- 
lucre slightly squarrose ; 2, with loose assurgent branches and strongly squarroso 
involucrnl scales ; 3, with small narrow, nearly entire leaves. The first occurs 
on San Francisco mountain ; the second on Yampai creek ; and the third along 
the Colorado. October, November. 

Aster pauciflorus, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 154. Torr. ;md Fl. 2, p. 164. Rio Lagu- 
na; August. This species certainly perennial. 

A. angustas, Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 162. Tripolium angustum, Lindh. Dif- 
fuse and branching from the root, which is annual' Rio Zuni, near thePuebla. 
September. 

A. multiflorus, var. commutatus. New Mexico; October. This is one of the 
smaller leaved forms. 

Erigeron macranthum, Nutt. in Trans. Arner. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 310; 
Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 173. Zuni mountain: August. 

E. delpliinifolium, Willd. Hort. Berol., t. 90; Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 77, with 
the preceding; Laguna Enematio, &c. September, October. 

E. divergens, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 175, Gray, PI. Wr. 1. p. 91. Laguna 
Enematio; October. 

Toicnsendia strigosa, Nutt. 1. c. Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 70, RioZutfi; September. 

Guttierezia Euthamia>, Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 193. ZuiTi mountain; August. 

G. microcepkala. Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 74. RioZufii. The heads were mostly 
two-flowered. 

Solidago mollis, Bartl. Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 79. S. intuitu, Torr. andGr., 
1. c. San Francisco mountain; October. 

Lynosiris pulchella, Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 96. Little Colorado; October. 

L. depressa, Nutt. PI. Gamb. p. 171, (under Chrysothamnus.) Mountains of 
New Mexico; September. 

The only specimen in the collection agrees exactly with the description of 
Nuttall in the work quoted. Mr. N. is still of opinion that his Genus Chryso- 
tkamnus ought to be retained. 
11 



162 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

L. graveoiens, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 234. Near Laguna; August. 

Jlplopappus spinulosus, D. O, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 240. Mountain ridge 
between Laguna and Acona. 

Jl. Nuttallii, Torr. and Gr. 1. c. Eriocarpwm grindeloides, Nutt. Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. 7, p. 321. On the Rio Zuni; September. 

This well-marked species has not hitherto been found since it was detected by 
Mr. Nuttall in Oregon 

.4. (Pyrrocoma) racemosa, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 244. Homopapjms race- 
mosus. Nutt. i. c. On the Laguna; October. 

A stout plant, with the heads more than an inch in diameter, the rays incon- 
spicuous, and the achenia glabrous. Hitherto this species has been found only 
on the plains of the Wahlamet, in Oregon. 

Chrysopsis villosa, Nutt. Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 255. San Francisco moun- 
tain, and on the Little Colorado; September. 

C. canescens, Torr. and Gr., 1. c. Rio Lagunn ; August. 

Baccharis brachyphylla, Gray, PL Wright. 2, p. 83, varr foliisminutis, obevato- 
spatulatis, vel cuneatis integerrimis vel raro apice utrinque unidentatis, involucre 
pleuriseriatis, squamis lanceolatis obtusiusculis glabris. Yampai creek; No- 
vember. 

Shrubby, with numerous eject branches, which are covered with a resinous 
aromatic varnish. Leaves mostly about one-third of an inch long, somewhat 
appressed, rigid, obtuse; sometimes rather acute, mostly entire. Heads 3-4 lines 
long, either solitary and terminating the several branches, or several together, 
and nearly sessile. Involucre hemispherical-turbinate, the scales closely ap- 
pressed, in four or five series. Achenia glabrous Pappus pale fulvous, about 
three times the length of the achenia. Accompanying the specimens, (which 
were female only,) and adhering to one of them was a linear-lanceolate glabrous 
ontire leaf, nearly three inches in length, which seems to have belonged to the 
lower part of the plant. A species of Baccharis nearly allied to this, but appa- 
rently distinct, was collected by Major Emory on the Gila, in 184C, and is one 
of those alluded to in the botanical appendix to his report. It differs from the 
plant here described, in its smaller and narrower leaves, larger heads, broader 
and more obtuse involucral scales, with longer and finer pappus. It is very 
abundant in the valley of the Gila, forming dense •' bunches." 

Tessaria bor calls, Torr. and Gray, in Emory's rep., p. 143, Gray; PI. Fendl., 
p. 75: PI. Wright. 1, p. 102. On the Colorado: abundant on the sand-banks. 
The long straight hranches are used for arrows by the Indians, whence it is 
railed " arrow-wood"' by travellers. November. 

msia psilctachya, D. C, Prodr. 5, p. 526; Gray, PI. Wright. 1,;). 104. 
(adult.) Bill Williams's river: October. 

Franseria Hookeriania, Nutt.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 294. Near the puebla 
of Zuni; September. The spines of the involucre are broadly lanceolate in 
many of the heac's. 



ZUNl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 163 

Zinnia grandiflora, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 348 ; Torr. 
and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 28 ; Torr. in Emory's rep., p. 144, t. 4. Rio Zuiii and on the 
Little Colorado; also on the Rio Laguna ; August, Octohor. 

Lepachys colwnnaris, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 315. On the Zuiii mountain ; 
August. 

Heliomcris mult [flora, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Philad, (n. ser.) 1, p. 171 ; Gray, PI. 
Fendl., p. 84. On Zuni and San Francisco mountain ; September, October. 

Helianthus lenticularis Dougl. in Bot. Reg. 1. 1265 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 
319. Little Colorado ; October. 

H. petiolaris, Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Phil. 2, p. 115 ; Torr. and Gr. 1. c. Rio 
Laguna August. Var. foliis lineari-lanceolatis. With the preceding ; Septem- 
ber 27. 

Helianthella unijlora, Torr. and Gr., Fl. 2, p. 334. Helianthus vnijlorus, Nutt. 
in Jour. Acad. Phil. 7, p. 37. Bill Williams's river ; October. 

Achenia obovate-cuneiform, blackish, about 5 lines long and 2 wide, distinctly 
winged, ciliate ; the intermediate squamellaj acute, lacerate, nearly half as long 
as the persistent slender awns. 

Coreojisis cardaminmfolia, Torr. and Gr. , Fl. 2. p. 34G ; Gray, PI. Wright. 1, p. 
108. Zuni, near the Pucbla ; September. 

Thelesperma gradle, Gray, in Kew Jour. Bot. 1, p. 352. Cosmidium gracile, 
Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 250. Rio Laguna. Achenia strongly verrucose on 
one side. 

Sanvitaiia MerH, Gray, PI. Fendl., p. 87, and PI. Wright. 1, p. 111. On the 
Colorado ; September. The achenia are wholly awnless in all the specimens of 
this collection. 

Ximenesia encelioides, Cavan. le. 2, p. GO ; Torr. and Gr. 2, p. 359 ; Gray, PL 
Fendl., p. 87. Little Colorado and head of the Rio Laguna ; September, October. 

llardia aristata, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 573 ; Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 3Gf>. On the 
Little Colorado and Zuni ; September. 

Hymenopappus jlavcscens, Gray, PI. Fendl., p, 97. On the Zuni; September. 

Bahia oppositifolia, D. C. Prodr. 5, p. 656 ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 37G ; Gray, 
PI. Fendl., p. 99. Trichophyllum oppositifolium, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 167. On the 
Zuni, near the Puebla ; September. A rare species, first detected by Mr. Nut- 
tall on the Upper Missouri, and not found afterwards for more than thirty years. 

Riddellia tagetina, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (». ser.) 7, p. 371 ; Torr. 
and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 362; Torr. in Emory's report, t. 5. On the Rio Laguna and 
P.io Zuni ; also along the Little Colorado ; August, October. 

.Ictindla Richardsonii, Nutt. 1. c. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 381 ; Gray, PI. 
Fendl., p. 101. San Francisco mountain; October. Rays 3-4 lobed. Pappus 
nerveless. 



164 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

.?. glabra, Nutt. I. c. Torr. and Gr. 1. c. Rio Zuni : September. 
Hymenothrix ? Wrightii, Gray, PI. Wright. 2, p. 97. New Mexico : October 21 
The particular station of this remarkable species is not recorded. The speci- 
mens are scarcely more than afoot high, and the root seems to be annual : in all 
other respects, except in the broader lobes of the leaves, the plant agrees with 
Dr. Gray's description (1. c.) The marginal flowers appear somewhat bilabiate, 
from the union (sometimes nearly to the summit) of the lobes of the corolla. 

Achillea millefolium, Linn. ; Torr. and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 409. Laguna, &c, October. 

.Irtemesia frigida, Willd. ; Torr. and Gr. FL 2, p. 424. On the ZuiTi moun- 
tain : August. 

.1 dracunculoides, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 521 : Torr. and Gr. 1. c. Tampai creek : 
November. 

J3. Canadensis, Miehx. Fl. 2. p. 129 : Torr. and Gr. 1. c. San Francisco 
mountain : October. 

Senecio Jilifolius, Nutt. in Trans. Amcr. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 7, p. 414 : Torr. 
and Gr. Fl. 2, p. 444. On the Rio Zuni : August, September. 

Cirsium undulatwm, Sprcng. ; Torr. and Gray, F1.2, p. 45(i. Zuni mountain 
and San Francisco mountain ; August, October. 

Stephanomeria runcinata, Nutt. 1. c. : Torr. and Gray. 1. c. New Mexico: 
October 24. 

ASCLEPIADACELE. 

Jlsclepias oerticillata ^ ! leptophyll'a : stem slender, with several lines of pubes- 
cence, otherwise glabrous, nearly simple; leaves verticillate in fours, narrowly 
linear, somewhat revolute on the margin, green on both sides : the midrib under- 
neath thick and prominent : peduncles pubescent, shorter than the leaves: um- 
bels few-flowered : lobes of the corolla ovate ; hoods ovate on the back, the 
horn sublate-falciform, exserted : gynostegium on a short stalk : follicles lance- 
olate, slender, glabrous. Rio Laguna : August. A common New Mexican 
plant, differing from A. verlicillata of the Atlantic States in its longer, broader, 
and far less crowded leaves, fewer-flowered umbels, longer horns, shorter stipe 
of the gynostegium, &c. 

.icerates deewtribens, De Caisne in D. C. Prodr. 8, p. 522, Torr. in Emory's 
report. *1nantherix decumbens, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 
202. On the Rio I.aguna : October : in fruit. 

(rENTIANACrlL. 

Geritiana Saponaria vnr. puberula, Torr. and Graj . in Gray, Bot. N. Si. 
puberula, Michx. San Francisco mountain ; October. 

Eustorna, Russeliuna, G. Don ; Griseb. in 1). C. Prodr. 9, p. 51. Lisianlkv* 
glaucifolius , Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. (n.ser.) 5. p. 197. Valley of the 
Rio Grande : Julv. 



ZUftl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 165 

polemoniacej:. 

Gilia pulchclla, Dougl.; Benth. in D. C. Prodr. 9, p. 313. On the San Fran- 
cisco and Zuni mountains, New Mexico ; August, October. 

G.glomer ul [flora, Juss. ? Benth. I.e.? On the Zuni river, and in other parts of 
New Mexico. Fl. and fruit, September, October. There are from 3 to 4 ovules 
in each cell of the ovary. 

G. longiflora, G. Don ; Bentli. 1. c. Cantua longijlora, Torr. in Amer. Lye. - , N. 
York, 2, p. 221. Ojo de Gallis, head of Rio Laguna ; August. 

Phlox nana, Nutt. Plant. Gainbel. p. 153. Laguna Enematio, and other parts 
of New Mexico ; September. A dwarf species, resembling P. sub u lata, but with 
larger and broader leaves. 

FOUQUIERACE/rl 

Fouquiera splendens, Engelm. in Wisliz. Exped., p. 93 ; Gray, PI. Wright, I., p. 
76, and II., p. 63. F. spinosa, Torr. in Emory's rep., p. 147, t. 8 ; cxcl. syn. On 
Carrissa creek, California ; December 10, in flower. 

A widely diffused species, being found from the San Pedro, in Western Texas, 
to near the Pacific ocean. Mr. Thurber, of the Mexican boundary survey, found 
F. spinosa, near Rayon, in Sonora, and I have what appears to be F.formosa col- 
lected by Mr. Rich, in Lower California. It strongly resembles F. splendens, 
except in the looser inflorescence, and the spines are an inch long ; while in 
Kunth's description of F.formosa they are said to be " brevissimis." In Phila- 
teria horrida, Liebm., however, (which is pretty certainly the same species,) the 
species are described as from half to two-thirds of an inch long. Liebmann, with- 
out being aware that his Philazteria was a Fouquiera, referred the plant to Pole- 
moniaceiK, and long before Willdeman considered F. spinosa as a species of Cantua; 
so that several botanists have noticed the resemblance of Fouquiera to Polemo- 
niacen. 

HYDROLEACE/E. 

Eriodictyon glutinosum, Benth. Bot. Sulph.,p. 35: Cliois. in D. C. Prodr. 10, 
p. 183. Wigandia? Caiifumica, Hook. Bot. Beech. Suppl. p. 364, t. 88. 

Brandies and leaves thickly covered with an aromatic varnish, which is very 
soluble in alcohol. Yampai creek. 

SOLANACEiE. 

Solamum Samesii, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 227 ; Dunal in 1). C. Prodr. 
13, pars 1, p. 40. Also. S.pinnaliscctum, Dunal, 1. c. ? Zuni mountain ; August. 
Not an uncommon species in New Mexico. 

Datura met el, Linn.; Dunal, 1. e. Common in New Mexico. Fl. and Fr. 
August, October. I), meieloidcs of Dunal seems to be scarcely distinct. The 
alternate teeth of the corolla are often indistinct. 



166 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 



SCROPHULARIACEjE. 

Castillcja pallida, Kth.; Benth. in D. C. Prodr. 10, p. 31. On the Zuni moun- 
tains ; August. 

Orthocarpus luteus, Nutt. Gen. 2, p. 57; Benth. 1. c, with the preceding: 
August. 

Cordylanthus ramosus, Nutt. Mss.; Benth. in D. C. Prodr. 10, p. 597. Laguna 
Enematio ; October. Plant about a span high. It is the same as 450 Wright, 
Coll. 2, 1849. 

Maurandia antirrhinijlora, Willd. : Benth. in D. C, Prodr. 10, p. 296. Acoma, 
August. 

Pentstemon Torreyi, Benth. 1. c. On the Zuili mountains ; August. A very 
showy species, with bright red flowers. Not uncommon in New Mexico. 

CONVOLVULACE.E. 

Quamoclit licdcrifolia, Chois. in D. C. Prodr. 9, p. 336? On the Rio Zuni : 
September. 

The peduncles arc only 2-3 flowered; sepals ovate; obtuse, with an abrupt 
stout awn about its own length. 

Convolvulus lobatus, Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh., 1, p. 44, (in adnot.) C. 
hastatus, Nutt., in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, (n. ser.,) 5, p. 114. C. NuUallii, 
Torr.,in Emory's report, ed. 1, p. 149. Puebla of Laguna; August. 

This species was omitted, by mistake, in the second edition of Emory's report. 

BORAGINACE.E. 

Lithospermum kirtum, Lehin.; D. C. Prodr. 10, p. 78. On San Francisco and 
Zuiii mountains ; August, October. 

Echinospermum patulum, Lchrn.; D. C. Prodr. 10. j). 137. On the Zuni river; 
August. 

LABIATE. 

Salvia lanccolata, Willd.; Benth., in D. C. Prodr. 12, p. 299. S. trichoste- 
moides, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 19 ; Torr., in Ann. Lye, N. York, 2, p. — . Rio Laguna, 
and river Zuni ; August. 

Monarda punctata, Linn.; Benth., in D. C. Prodr. 12, p. 3. (?) kumilis. 
Annual, low ; leaves oblong lanceolate ; narrowed at the base into a short petiole ; 
bracts oblong, colored, calyx nearly glabrous; the teeth triangular lanceolate, 
short ; corolla pubescent. On the Zuni ; September. Plant scarcely a span 
high. Perhaps a distinct species. 



ZTJftl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 167 

Mentha Canadensis, Linn. ; Benth. 1. c. P glabrata, Benth., 1. c. -\f. borealis, 
Michi. Fl. 2. p. 2. Rio Laguna ; August. 

Cedronella Jhzicana, Benth. Lab., p 502 ? Zuiii mountains ; August. 

VERBENACEJE. 

Verbena bracteosa, Michx. Fl. '2, p. 14 : Schaur. in D. C. Prodr. 11, p. .545. 
Rio Zuni : September. 

PLUMBAGIN'ACEJE. 

Statice Californica, Boiss, in D. C. Prodr. 12, p. 643. Zuiii mountains f Au- 
gust. Not sufficiently distinct, I fear, from S. Umonlum. 

POLYGON ACE.E. 

Polygonum aviculare, Linn.; Gray. Bot. N. States, p. 338. On the Zuni ; 
August. A large form, with greatly elongated assurgent branches, which are 
two feet or more in length. 

Eriogonum orlhocladon (Torr. mss., in D. C. Prodr. ined. :) perenne, albido- 
tomentosum ; foliis omnibus radicalibus ovato-oblongis longe petiolatis pedunculo 
(ve! caule) erecto scapiformi nudo stricto, supra medio 2 (rare 3) fido, ramis 
erectis indivisis vel rarissime bifidis : involucris campanulato-tubulosis solitariis 
sessilibus distantibus, apice 5-dentatis : perigoniis glabris, laciniis obovatis aequa- 
libus. On the Zuni and San Francisco mountains : August. October. Leaves all 
radical, springing from a short thick caudex, about two inches long, clothed (like 
the rest of the plant) with a white flocculent pubescence. Scape 2-3 feet high, 
terete, straight, divided above the middle into two, or rarely three, straight erect 
branches, both of which are sometimes again forked ; involucres somewhat uni- 
lateral along the upper part of the branches, many-flowered, somewhat trun- 
cate, but distinctly five-toothed at the summit : pedicels exserted, articulated 
close to the flower, glabrous ; bracts filiform, plumose, as long as the pedicels : 
filaments glabrous ; styles twice as long as the ovary, recurved. 

This, and the following new species, I communicated to Mr. Bentham, who, 
I believe, has described them in his monograph of ErioffoneEB, prepared for the 
forthcoming volume of De Candolle's Prodromus. 

E.phamaccoides, (Torr., 1. c. :) annuum, erectum, e basi ramosissimum : ramis 
pubescentibus filiformibus : foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis basi attenuatis subtus 
albo-tomentosis ; involucris terminalibus solitariis companulatislonge-peduncula- 
tis : 5-fidis, laciniis acutis : perigoniis glabris, laciniis exterioribus avatis obtu- 
sissimus basi utrinque subsaccatis. interioribus linearibus longioribus. Western 
part of New Mexico ; October. Also collected by Mr. Wright and Dr. Biirelow, 
on the Rio Grande Stem 8-15 inches high, divaricately branching from the base 
in a verticillate manner : the branches very slender ; leaves G-10 lines long, 3 to 



168 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

8 at each joint, verticillate, dull green and pubescent above, clothed with a white 
wool underneath ; involucres about two lines long, many-flowered, woolly, five- 
cleft below the middle ; the segments ovate lanceolate, and very acute ; pedicels 
exserted, jointed close to the flower, glabrous ; bracteoles filiform, plumose ; ex- 
terior segments of the brownish-red perigonium concave, erect, with a shallow 
saccate projection on each side of the base ; interior segments one-third as broad 
as the outer one, emarginate, ovary glabrous, acuminate, crowned with three very 
short styles ; filaments glabrous ; achenium triquetrous ; seed ovate, acuminate ; 
cotyledons flat ; radicle elongated, ascending. A very distinct species, but rela- 
ted to E. Abertiawum. 

E. alatum, (Torr., 1. <:•.;) perenne ; caule erccto subflexuoso folioso, ramis alter- 
nis erectispaniculatis : foliis spathulatis hirsutis ; pedunculistenninalibus ternis ; 
involucris solitariis campanulatis 5-fidis : perigoniis glabris, laciniis a;qualibus : 
acheniis trialatis. On the Zuni river ; September. Root stout and blackish, de- 
scending to a great depth ; stem 1-3 feet high, arising from a short thick caudex, 
which is clothed with the remains of leaves. Radical leaves 2-4 inches long, and 
3-5 lines wide, almost villous, with long hairs, mostly obtuse ; stem leaves 
much smaller, and gradually diminishing in size upward, all of them erect. 
Branches solitary and distant, subdivided in a trichotomous manner, each division 
hearing a single involucre, which is about 2| lines long, and pubescent. Pedicels 
glabrous, a little exserted, jointed close to the flower ; perigonium not enlarging 
after flowering ; the segments lanceolate ; filaments glabrous ; ovary oblong, 
triquetrous, longer than the styles ; achenium nearly four lines long, with three 
very conspicuous membranaceous wings ; seed ovate, triangular : embrio straight. 

This remarkable species was first detected by Colonel Fremont in upland 
prairies, at the sources of the Plata, in 1843, and again in 1845 in " Bahia Sa- 
lada," in the Rocky mountains. Lieutenant Abert found it on the Raton 
mountains in 184(3. 

E. Jamesii, Benth. in D. C. Prodr. 14, (ined.) E. sericcum, Torr. in Ann. Lye. 
N. York, 2, p. 241, excl, syn. Head of the Rio Laguna, and on the Zuni moun- 
tains ; August, September. This is a common species in New Mexico. No. 
617 Wright, col. 2, is the same. 

E. cermmm, Nutt. PI. Gambel., in Jour. Acad. Phil., (ser. 2,) 1, p. 162. On 
the Zuni river : September. A small annual species. Captain Stansbury found 

it on Green river, west of the Rocky mountains : Colonel in the South 

Park of the same mountains ; and Lieut. Simpson on the Sierra de Tenu-che. 

E. effusion, Nutt. 1. c: £ ? leptopliyllum, suftrutescens, multicaulis ; ramis 
erectis foliosis albotomentosis demum glabrescentibus ; foliis angusto-linearibus 
subglabris ; pedunculiscomposite-trichotomis ; involucris campanulato-tubulosis 
pauci-(sub 6)-floristruncatis obscure quinquedentatis : perigoniis glabris, laciniis 
obovatis rcqualibus. Rio Zuni : September. About ten inches high ; stems nu- 
merous from a ligneous base, slender, leafy to the peduncles ; leaves about an 
inch long, and scarcely a line wide ; in the dry state revolute on the margin, nearly 
glabrous. Peduncles many times trichotomous, forming a compound fastigiate 



ZUNI AND COLORADO RIVERS. 169 

cymo ; the bracts somewhat subulate. Involucre about two lines long, and less 
than a line in breadth. Flowers exserted, erect, larger than the involucre. 
Bractcoles filiform, glandularly pubescent. Filaments pubescent. Styles longer 
than the ovary. Achenium triquetrous. This plant differs from E. effusum in 
the leafy and more slender stems ; much narrower leaves, and nearly toothless 
involucres, as well as in some less important characters ; but it may be only a 
variety of that species. 



NYCTAGINACE.K. 

Abronia cycloptera, Gray, in Sill. Journ. (a. s-_-r. ) 15, p. — . A. (Tripterocalyx ) 
micrantha, Torr. in Frem. 1st rep., p. i)G, and in Emory's rep., p. 149 ; Choisy. 
in D. C. Piodr. 13, p. 436. Near the puebla of Zuni ; September. 

A. mellifera, Dougl. mss. in Hook. Hot. Mag. t. 287'J : Choisy, 1. c. Carissa 
creek, California ; December. 

Oxybaphus angustifolius, Sweet, Hort. Brit. p. 567 ; Choisy, in D. C. Prodr. 13, 
p. 433. Allionia linearis, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 728. On the Zuffi, and near the puebla 
ofLaguna; August, September. 

Quamoclidivn mulliflorum, Torr. ; Gray, 1. c. Oxybaphus multiflorus, Torr. in 
Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 237. Nyctagineu ? Torreyann, Choisy, L c. Rio La- 
guna ; August. 

SALOLACEiE. 

Cycloloma platyphyllum, Moq. Chenop., p. 18, and in D. G, Prodr. 13, (pars 
post.) p. 60. Salsola platyph.illa, Fl. 1, p. 174. Kochia dentata, Willd Enum. 1, 
p. 28, t. 28. Near the puebla of Zufii ; September. Much branched from the 
root, and widely spreading. 

Sarcobatus vcrmicularis, Torr. in Emory r s rep., p. 150. S. Maxijniliana, Nees. 
Fremontia vcrmicularis, Torr. in Fremont's 1st and 2d reports. Baits vcrmicula- 
ris, Hook. Ojo del Harra, on the Zuni ; August. 

Obione canescens, Moq. Chenop., p. 74 : and in D. C. Prodr. 13, (pars post.) p. 
112. Atriplex canescens, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 370. Plerochiton occidentale, Torr. and 
Frem. in Frem. 2d rep., p. 318. P. canescens, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phila. (n. ser.) 
1, p. 184. Obione occidentale, Moq. 1. c. On the Little Colorado of New Mexico, 
and on the Colorado of California ; October, November; in fruit. 

O. tenliformis : caule suffrueticoso ramosissimo inerino subtercti ; ramis pani- 
culatis ; foliis orbiculari-deltoideis, vcl subcordatis, sinuato-paucidentatis vel sub- 
integris, petiolatis, lepidoto-farinosis, cinereo-incanis ; fructibus sessilibus nume- 
rosissimus ad ramulos congestis ; bracteis orbicularis intcgris vel remote rcpando 
denticulatis basi coalitis ; disco nudo. On the Colorado of California ; November; 
in fruit; Also found by Major Emory on the Gila, near its mouth. 



170 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

This species is remarkable for its very abundant, small, lentiform, fruits (about 
two lines in diameter,) which completely cover the paniculate spreading branches. 
The leaves are from half an inch to nearly an inch long. 

Corispermurn liyssopifolium, Linn.; Pursh, El. 1, p. 8 ; Moq. in D. C. Prodr. 13, 
(pars post.) p. 140. C. liyssopifolium, 0. Americanum, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 4. On 
the Zuni ; September. 

t/lcanthochiton : gen. nov. Floresdioci, heteromorphi. Mas. Perigonium ebrac- 
teatum? Vel 1-2 bracteatum, 5-sepalum ; sepalis jequolibus erectis. Stamina 5 ; 
filamentafiliformia; antherae oblongaBbiloculares. Fern. Perigonium 1-2 phyllum 
vel nullum. Stamina 0. Ovarium ovatum compressiusculum ; styli 2-4, filformes 
intus stigmatosi. Utriculus ovato-ellipticus, membranaceus, subcompressus, 
apterus circumscisse dehiscens. Semen verticale, compressum ; albumen cen : 
trale, farinaceum. Embryo annularis ; radicula infera. Herba annua glabrius- 
cula. Folia lanceolate, integra. Flores axillares, sessiles ; masculi glomerati ; 
fccminei glomerato-spicati, foliorum bractealium cordato-falciformium spinescen- 
tium basi reconditi. 

Ji. Wrighlii. Near the puebla of Zuni, and on the Little Colorado ; September. 
Plant about a foot high ; the female much more branching than the male ; nearly 
glabrous. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, a little undulate, or sometimes crenulate, 
on the margin*: acute, and usually tipped with short mucro, tapering at the base 
into a petiole ; penninerved, the nerves prominent underneath. Staminate flowers 
in small roundish clusters in the axils of all the leaves, from the middle of the 
stem to the summit, giving the appearance of a leafy interrupted spike. Perianth 
sometimes apparently naked at the base, but often with one or two bractioles ; 
leaflets lanceolate, very acute. Stamens shorter than the perianth. Flowers in 
the pistillate plant also in numerous axillary clusters, or rather short spikes. 
Bracts broadly cordate-falcate, coriaceous, squarrose, recticulately veined, crenu- 
late on the margin, tipped with a sharp and somewhat rigid point, each enclosing 
and concealing a single flower. Perianth consisting of one or two lanceolate or 
spatulate scales — sometimes wanting. No traces of stamens. Ovary glabrous 
and even, with a single ovule ; styles usually three or four, seldom two. Utricle 
opening transversely a little above the middle. Seed dark brown. Embryo 
slender, forming a nearly complete circle. 

This plant was first detected in Western Texas, in 1849, by Mr. Wright ; it has 
much the habit of Jlgriophyllum, but differs in being dioecious, and in the even, 
circumscissile utricle. It is an anomalous Chenopodiacca, and might, perhaps, be 
referred to Amarunthacew. 

SAURURACEiE. 

Jlnemiopsis Californica, Nutt. in Ann. Nat. Hist., 1, p. 136 ; Hook, and Am. 
Bot. Beech., p. 390, t. 92. Valley of the Rio Grande, a few miles below Dofia 
Ana ; July. 



ZUNI AND COLORADO RIVERS. 171 



EUPHORBIACEiE. 

Hendecandra Texensis, Klotzch, in Erich. Arch. (1841) 1. p. 252. H. multi- 
flora, Torr. in Frem. 1st report. Croton muricatum, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. 
Phil. Soc. (n. ser.) 5, p. 173. Ojo Pescadi, head of the Rio Zuni; August. 

Euphorbia maculata, Linn.; Gray, Bot. N. St., p. 406. Rio Laguna; August. 

E. herniarioides, Nutt. 1. c: Engelm. and Gray, PI. Lindh. 1, p. 52. Little 
Colorado ; October. 



JUGLAND^.CEJE. 

Juglans rupestris, Engelm. (mss.): foliis numerosis, (17-23,) lanceolatis apice 
attenuatis, basi obliquis inequalibus subfalcatis margins integris vel remote den- 
ticulatis petiolisque minute pubescentibus ; fructibus globosis compressiusculis 
glanduloso-pubescentibus; nuce longitudinaliter sulcato; putamine creberrimo. 
New Mexico, in various places, commonly in stony places. Also found in 
western Texas. 

This species is usually a shrub 8-12 feet high, but, in favorable situations, 
sometimes rising to thirty feet. Leaves a foot or more long; leaflets 2-3 inches 
long, and 6 to 8 lines wide, often perfectly entire; fruit about the size of a mus- 
ket-ball, usually depressed, globose, the pulp thin; nut about 6 lines in diame- 
ter, rather deeply sulcate, the sulcas simple or forked; shell remarkably thick, 
so that the kernel is scarcely larger than a pea. 

I first received specimens of this plant from Dr. J. M. Bigelow, when he was 
attached, as botanist, to the Mexican Boundary Commission, in 1850. He 
thought it was probably a new species, and wished me, in case it should prove 
to be undescribed, to name it J. Whippleana , in compliment to Lieut. Whipple, 
who was also a member of the Boundary Commission. Accordingly I read an 
account of it, under this name, before the American Scientific Association, in 
August, 1851; but the description was not published. Afterwards I was informed 
that Dr. Engelmann had obtained the plant before me, and had already named 
it J. rupestris, which name is therefore adopted. Last year I received from Dr. 
Woodhouse, and also from Dr. Bigelow, specimens of what I at first took for a 
second new species of Juglans, very near J. rupestris, but with broader and more 
closely serrated leaflets, with fruit three times larger, as well as less strongly 
sulcate, and the shell is proportionably thinner. It was figured and engraved 
before I began to doubt whether it was a distinct species. For the present it 
may be noticed as a variety, thus: 

major; foliis oblong-lanceolatis; fructibus subovato-globosis apiculatis levi- 
ter sulcatis. 

Dr. Woodhouse found the plant in western New Mexico, and Dr. Bigelow 
collected it at the Copper Mines. 



172 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 



SALIC ACEiE. 

Salix longifolia, Muhl.; Carey in Gray r s Bot. N. St., p. 429. Yampai creek. 

Two other species of Salix, both apparently distinct from any in the Atlantic 
States, occur in the collection, but they cannot be certainly determined, for 
want of the flowers. 

Populus tremuloides, Michx. Fl. 2, p. 143; Michx. f. Sylv. 1, p. 125, t. 99, f. 
c. San Francisco mountain. 

P. moniiifera, Ait.; Michx. f. Sylv. ], p. 116, t. 96, f. 2. On the Yampai and 
Little Colorado. 

P. angmtifolia , James; Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 2, p. 249. On the Zuni. 
The leaves are broader than in the original specimens collected by Dr. James, 
in Long ? s Expedition, being rhombic ovate. 



PLATAN ACEiE. 

Platanus .Mexica7ius, Moric. PL Var. d'Amer., t. 26. P. Californicus, Benth . 
Bot. Sulph., p. 54. Santa Isabella, California; December; in fruit. The balls 
of fruit are nearly an inch in diameter, and there are six on one stalk, in a long 
raceme. 



CUPULIFERjE. 

Quercus Gambelii, Nutt. PI. Gamb. in Jour. Acad. Phil. (n. ser.) 1, p. 179. 
San Francisco mountain; with mature fruit. A variety with the lobes of the 
leaves more acute was collected on the Zuiii. Mr. Nuttall remarks that this 
species approaches Q. oblusiloha in the leaf, but I think it more resembles Q. 
alba. It is near Q. Douglasii, Hook, and Q. Hindsii, Benth. 

Q. oxyadenia: foliis ovatis subcordatis brevipetiolatis subcoriaceis, repando- 
dentatis, dentibus mucronatis supra-pallidas viridibus glabrescentibus subtus 
ferrugineo-pubescentibus cupula hemispherica, squamis arete appressis; glande 
oblongo conica eiongata acutissima cupulam 4-5-plo superante. Santo Isabelle, 
California. Leaves l|-2 inches long, probably evergreen, pale green and rather 
dull above, clothed with a ferrugineous pubescence underneath; the veins pale 
and very prominent. Scales of the cup ovate-lanceolate, rather obtuse, very 
closely appressed, glabrous, and of a chestnut color. Glands about an inch 
and a half long, tapering to a long sharp point. Allied to Q. agrifolia, but 
differing in the form of the acorns, as well as in the size and outline of the 
leaves. Nuttall, however, has represented his Q. agrifolia (in North Amer. 
Sylv., pi. 2) with long-pointed acorns. 



ZUNl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 173 

Q. agrifolia, Nees ; Hook. Icon. 3, t. 377 ; Hook, and Arn. Bot. Beech., p. 
391. ■ Yampai Creek ; October, (ripe fruit.) A dwarf, much branched species^ 
seldom attaining a greater height than eight feet. Our specimens agree exactly 
with the figure of Hooker, above quoted. 

Q. oblong-ifolia : foliis coriaceis (perennantibus) oblongis utrinque obtusis into- 
gcrrirnis glabris apice muticis ; fructibus sessilibus solitariis ; cupula hemisphe- 
rica turbinata, squamis ovatis convexis ; glandc ovata cupulam triplo superanto 
obtusa cum umbone parvo conico. 

Western New Mexico. This very neat species of live-oak I am obliged to 
describe as a new species, as I cannot find that it has been hitherto noticed. 



(•RTICACEiE. 

Hamulus Lupulus, Linn.; Gray, Bot. of N. St., p. 435. II. Jmcricanus, 
Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Phil. (n. ser.) 1, p. 181. On the Rio San Francisco of 
Western New Mexico. I cannot find sufficient characters for distinguishing the 
N. American from the European hop. 



CONIFERS. 

Pinus edulis, Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. N. Mex., p. 88. Head of the Rio La- 
guna, New Mexico, and Carissa creek, California ; September, December, (with 
mature cones.) The seeds of this species are edible, and much esteemed by the 
Indians. It is related to the singular P. monophylla, Torr., described in Fre- 
mont's 1st report. 

P. macrophylla, Engelm. I.e.? On the Zuiii mountains; August. Differs 
from the description of Dr. Engelmann in the leaves being constantly in threes, 
and shorter (about 7| inches long,) and in the smaller cones. 

Pinus (Mies) Douglassi, Sabine Mss. in Hook, Fl. Bor. Am., 2, p. 162, t. 183? 
San Francisco mountains, 7,000 feet above the sea. Our specimens are without 
fruit, and we therefore cannot be certain of the species, but the foliage agrees 
exactly with Douglas's plant. 

Juniper us. —Three species of this genus occurs in the collection 1. A large 
tree, with a trunk sometimes two feet in diameter, and bark more than four 
inches thick. The leaves of the ultimate branches arc very minute, rhombic 
ovate and acute, convex, closely imbricated , with a conspicuous resiniferous gland 
on the back. The fruit is spherical, as large as a rifle-l.n 11, covered witli a blue 
bloom, minutely and sparingly tubereulate, and usually contains three seeds. It 
grows in the western part of New Mexico. 2. A tree attaining the height of 
Thirty feet, with a smooth bark ; differing from the preceding in its stouter 
branchlets, broadly ovate, more obtuse, and much more convex leaves. The fruit 
(also covered with a bloom) is a little smaller, inclining to ovate, less tuberculous. 



174 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 

and contains but a single extremely thick-shelled seed. Is was found along the 
Yampia creek and on the Little Colorado. 3. A large shrub, with ovate rather 
acute obtusely carinate ; leaves. The berries are only a little larger than in J. 
Virghuana, the pulp is copious and sweetish, and the seed is usually solitary. 
It grows on theZuni river. The first species may be J. occidentaiis, Hook.; the 
second is, I suspect, J. tetragona, Schlecht.; and the third is probably new. 

Ephreda untisiphilitka, Berland.; Endl. Syn. Conif., p. 263. On the Zuni 
and Yampai rivers. The specimen of Berlandier was collected on the Rio 
Grande, near Laredo, from whence we also possess specimens that agree with 
the description of C. A. Meyer, (quoted by Endlicher, 1. c.) and are identical 
with Dr. Woodhouse's plant. It is a common species in New Mexico, and is 
everywhere used by the natives as a remedy for gonorrha?, a disease that is too 
common in New Mexico. 



ZUNl AND COLORADO RIVERS. 175 



NOTE. 

The botanical collections placed in my hands for examination by Dr. Wood- 
house, consisted of three portions. The first were made chiefly between the 
Neosho and Arkansas rivers, and on the North Fork of the Canadian. The flora 
of this region embraces a great many plants of the States east of the Mississippi, 
and although a full catalogue of the species was prepared, it was not considered 
as of sufficient value to publish it. Some of the more interesting plants found 
i*?tween the Neosho and the Arkansas are Hypericum Drummondi, Talinum 
aurantiacum, (Enothera rhomMpetala, Discopleura Nuttattii, Eryngium Leaven- 
worthii, Heliotrojnum, tenellum, Torr., (Lithospermum tenellwm, Nutt.) and Frctli- 
chia Floridana. 

Of those found on the North Fork of the Canadian, the following are the more 
important: Cleomella angustifolia, Dithyraa Wislizeni, Hosackia Purshiana, Rosa 
foliolosa, (Enothera Jamesii, Mentzelia omnia, Eryngium diffusam, Heterotheca 
scabra, Cosmidiwm JUifolium, Coreopsis aristosa, RudbecMa itlismafolia, SoMago 
Missourierisis and peliolaris, Jlmphiachyrsis dracunculoides, Vernonia Jirkansana, 
Echinacea angustifolia, Cenlaurea \3mericana, Lobelia Texensis, Giliu longifiora, 
Euploca convolvulacea, Sabbatea campestris, Ipomma IcptophyUa, Jlsclepias speciosa, 
Eustenia albida, Hendecandra Texensis, Euphorbia armaria, Eriogonium annuum 
and longifoliuin, and Yucca angustifolia. 

The Texan collection was much richer, and a catalogue of it was also prepared, 
but omitted at the suggestion of Dr. Woodhouse, as Mr. Wright, and the botanists 
of the Mexican Boundary Commission, had so recently explored the route passed 
over by Captain Sitgreaves. Most of the plants in this part of the collection 
were gathered between San Antonio and El Paso del Norte. There are very few 
of them that are not included in Dr. Gray's Plantse Wrightianse, as far as that 
work is published. Beyond Composite, the following are the principal : Specu- 
laria ovala, (Dysmicodon ovahm, Nutt.,) Camptjlocera leptocarpa, Nutt., Chilop- 
sk linearis, Stetlandrium barbatuin, Gray, Galophanes linearis, I.eucophyllum Tex- 
anum, Pentstemon dasyphyllum, Cobaea and Grahaini, Solawum Texanum, Ery- 
thrcsa Beyrichii, HeUotrophum inundatum, and Greggi, Torr. mss., Salvia 
enth., Jlsclepias longicorhis, Tetraclea Wrightii, Gray, Acleisanthes 
longiflora, Gray, Querats Emoryi, Juglans rupestris, /2 :' t}reenia m .Vrkansana; 
Nutt., Chcilanthcs gracilis, and Selaginella convoluta, Spring. 

The third collection was made between El Paso and California, in the latter 
part of the summer and autumn of 1851. Most of the plants were found on 
the route from Laguna to the Puebla of Zuiii, a tributary of the Colorado of the 
West. The Zuni mountains (Sierra de Zuiii) rise to the height of 7,545 feet. 
When the party reached California, it was so late in the season that very few 
plants were in a proper state for the herbarium, and the collection is accordingly 
meagre in specimens from the western extremity of the route. It is hoped that 
the list here given will at least contribute to our knowledge of the botanical 
geography of our far western territories. 

JOHN TORREY. 

Ni:w York, 1853. 



176 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 4 



Plate 1. Stanley.* iktec.rifoi.ia. 
Fig. 1, a flower magnified ; fig. 2, a silique, equally magnified. 

Plate 2. Vkrnonia Arkakkava. 

Fig. 1, a flower : fig. 2, the style ; tig. 3, an achenium. with its pappos — all 
magnified. 

Plate 3. BaHIA IKTECRIF OUA. 

Fig. 1, a ray -flower ; fig. 2, a disk-flower ; fig. 3, a style of the same : fig. 4. 
achenium — all magnified. 

Plate 4. Lin'osyris i'ilciiella. 
Fig. 1, a single flower, magnified ; fig. 2, the style, more magnified. 

Plate 5. Tessakia borkalis. 

Fig. 1, a female flower; fig. 2, a central hermaphrodite flower— both moder- 
ately magnified : fig. 3, pappus of the female flower, more magnified : fig. 4, 
.pnppus of the hermaphrodite, equally enlarged. 

Plate 6. Hymenothrjx Wrigiitii. 

Fig. 1, a marginal flower; fig. 2, a disk-flower; fig. 3, style of the latter; fig. 
4, pappus •. fig. 5, an achenium — all more or less magnified. 

Plate 7. Gjlia longiplora. 

Fig. 1, a flower laid open, but little magnified ; fig. 2, the calyx, more en- 
larged : fig. 3, a stamen ; fig. 4, part of the style and the stigma, with the lobes 
connivent ; fiff. 5, diverging lobes of the style after anthesis ; fig. G, a capsule : 
fin-. 7. transverse section of the same — all magnified. 



* Plates Nos, 1 and 12 represent two plants not contained in the New Mexican collection, bet 
they are natives of Texas. They were prepared for another government report, which was net 
published. 



ZUNI AND COLORADO RIVERS. 177 

Plate 8. Eriogonum alatum. • 

Fig. 1, involucre ; fig. 2, a single flower, with its bract ; fig. 3, the pistil ; fig. 
4, achenium ; fig. 5, transverse section of the same ; fig. 6, the seed ; fig. 7, the 
embryo — all magnified. 

Plate 9. Eriogonum orthocladon. 

Fig. 1, an involucre ; fig. 2, perigonium and bracteole ; fig. 3, achenium — 
all magnified. 

Plate 10. Eriogonum effusum/3? leptophyllum. 

Fig. 1, involucre and flowers ; fig. 2, a separate flower ; fig, 3, a stamen ; fig. 
4, the pistil — all magnified. 

Plate 11. Eriogonum pharnaceoides. 

Fig. 1, an involucre ; fig. 2, a flower, with its bracteole ; fig. 3, an exterior 
sepal ; fig. 4, an interior sepal ; fig. 5, an achenium ; fig. 6, the embryo — all 
magnified. 

Plate 12. Eriogonum umbellatum. 

Fig. 1, involucre and flowers, moderately enlarged ; fig. 2, a single flower, 
without its pedicel — more magnified ; fig. 3, an exterior sepal ; fig. 4, an interior 
sepal ; fig. 5, a stamen ; fig. 6, an achenium ; fig. 7, transverse section of the 
same ; fig. 8, the embryo — all magnified. 

Plate 13 Acanthochiton Wrightii. 

The principal figure on the right hand is the male plant, and that on the left 
the female. 

Fig. 1, a mature utricle, with its persistent styles ; fig. 2, the seed ; fig. 4, 
transverse section of the same ; fig. 3, the embryo ; fig. 5, a male flower ; fig. 
6, a sepal ; fig. 7, a stamen — all magnified. 

Plate 14. Obione lentiformis. 

Fig. 1, the fructiferous bracts, magnified ; fig. 2, the achenium, more magni- 
fied. 

Plate 15. Juglans rupestris. 

Fig. 1, the fruit ; fig. 2, a nut ; fig. 3, the same, cut transversely — all of the 
natural size. 

Plate 16. Juglans rupestris, 0? 

Fig. 1, the fruit ; fig. 2, a nut — both of the natural size. 

• 12 



178 REPORT OF AN EXPEDITION DOWN THE ZUNI, ETC. 
Plate 17. Quercus oxYADENiA 
A branch of the natural size. 

Plate 18. Quercus Gambelii. 
A branch of the natural size. 

Plate 19. Quercus oblongifolia. 
A branch of the natural size. 

Plate 20. Pixus edulis. 
Fig. 1, a pair of leaves ; fig. 2, a seed — both of the natural size. 







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APPENDIX D. 



BOTANY. 



BY JOHN TORREY. 



Clematis ligusticefolia, Nutt. — East base of the Black Hills. 
In fruit September 29th. Tails of the carpels more than an inch 
long, aud very slender. 

Anemone Pennsylvania, Linn. — Great Salt Lake Valley. 

Delphinium azureum, Michx. — With the preceding. Fl. May 
2d-19th. 

Berberis (Mahonia) Aquifolium, Pursh. — With the prece- 
ding; on the sides of the mountains. Fl. May 19th. 

Argemone hispid a, Gray, Plant. Fendl., No. 16. — With the 
preceding. Called the "Thistly plant" by the inhabitants. In 
fruit May 19th. 

Viola pedunculata, Torr. and Gray. — Borders of the Salt 
Lake. 

Corydalis aurea, Willd. — Stansbury's Island, Great Salt Lake. 
Fl. June 26 th. 

Erysimum asperum, D C. — Shore of the Salt Lake and along 
Weber's River. May-June. 

Streptanthus crassicaulis, Torr. (Sp. nov.): glaucus; caule 
glabro inflato fistuloso; foliis oblongis runcinato-pinnatifidis vel run- 
cinatis longe petiolatis; floribus erecto-patulis ; petalis (purpureas) 
linearibus obtusiusculis calyce villoso-lanato duplo longioribus. 

Mountain side, on the east shore of the Salt Lake. Fl. May 30. 
Found also on the tributaries of the Uintah River, Utah Territory, 
by Colonel Fre'mont. Annual. This species is easily distinguished 
by its inflated hollow stem and very woolly calyx. The leaves are 



384 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

mostly radical and deeply pinnatifid; the terminal lobe much 
larger than the others, and triangular or deltoid. The stem is 
simple, from one to two feet high, more or less inflated toward the 
base, and nearly naked above. The flowers are nearly sessile, in 
a long terminal raceme, erect when first expanded, but finally 
becoming patulous. Calyx about half an inch long, the sepals 
oblong-lanceolate and woolly externally. The petals are dark pur- 
ple, with a pale waved margin. Filaments all free. The siliaues 
are not known. 

Mate I. Stre])tanthus crassicaulis, of the natural size. Fig. 1, 
a sepal, showing the inner face and part of the hairiness on the 
back. Fig. 2, a petal. Fig. 3, the stamens and pistil. Fig. 4, a 
separate stamen. All magnified. 

S. sagittatus, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philad. VII, p. 12; 
not Hook, and Arn. — Shore of the Salt Lake, May 6. 

Sisymbrium caxescens, Nutt. — West shore of Salt Lake. 

Phtsaria didymocarpa, Gray, PI. Dlustr. I., p. 162, (in a 
note.) Vesicaria didymocarpa, Hook. — On Green River. In fruit 
September 12 th. 

Cleome lutea, Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. I., p. 70, t. 25. C. aurea, 
Nutt? — Carrington's Island, Salt Lake. Fl. June 18. 

Except in the greater length of the stipe and the large size of 
the plant, I see nothing to distinguish C. aurea of Nuttall from this 
species. 

Sidalcea malv^eflora, Gray, mss. S. Orega?ia, Gray, PI. 
Fendl., p. 20. Sida malvajlora, Lindl. S. Oregana, Nutt. — 
Antelope Island, Salt Lake. Fl. June 18-30. A white-flowered 
variety occurred in the same locality. 

Malva strum coccixeum, Gray, Gen. 111. t. 121, PI. Fendl. p. 
24. Cristaria coccinea, Pursh. Sida coccinea, D C, Torr. and 
Gr. Fl. 1. p. 682. 

Var. /3 grossularijjfolium. M. grossulariafolium, Gray, 1. c. 
Sida grossularicefolia, Hook, and Arn. — Islands and shore of the 
Salt Lake. May and June. 

The var. /3 does not differ from the ordinary form of M. 
coccineum, except in the larger size of the plant and in the less 
divided leaves. 

Callirrhoe involucrata, Gray, Gen. Ill 2, t. 117; PI. 




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APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 385 

Fendl. p. 16. Malva involucrata, Tprr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 226. 
Upper waters of the Platte. The large tapering root is said to be 
edible. 

Vicia Americana, Muhl. — Valley of Salt Lake, June 1. 

Cicer arietinum, Linn. — Sandy bottom land in the Valley 
of Salt Lake ; probably introduced. . This plant has also been 
found by Dr. Pickering on the banks of the Kooskooskee, or Clear 
Water, in Oregon ; and I have received it from Southern California, 
where it was doubtless taken by the Spaniards. It is a little 
remarkable that it should now be found apparently wild in the 
interior of Oregon and in the valleys of Utah. 

Phaca mollissima, Nutt. in Torr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 350. Astra- 
galus Purshii, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Eor. — Amer. 1, p. 152. 

Var. /3 Utai ensis ; foliolis. 6-8 — jugis, obovatis; pedunculis folio 
lono-ioribus. Shores and islands of the Salt Lake. This plant 
is abundant iu the Territory of Utah, and I have not received it 
from any other region. It differs from the ordinary form of P. 
mollissima: and if there were not what appear to be intermediate 
states of it, I should consider it a distinct species. It is less 
branched, and has more numerous leaflets than the var. /3. The 
flowers are violet, four to six in number, in a skqrt spiked raceme. 
The nearly mature legume is densely clothed with long woolly 
cream-coloured hairs, and very closely resembles that of P. mol- 
lissima. Our plant has much the appearance of Astragalus gla- 
reosus, Dougl. [A. argophyllus, Dougl.,) and which, I suspect, is 
a Phaca, but the leaves and fruit are different. 

Plate II. Phaca mollissima, var. Utahensis of the natural size. 
Fig. 1, a flower. Fig. 2, the wings and heel. Fig. 3, the 
stamens. Fig. 4, mature fruit of the var. cc. Fig. 5, cross 
section of the same. Fig. 6, immature fruit of var. Utahensis. 

Astragalus adsurgens, Pall. ? — West shore of the Salt Lake, 
in sandy soil. Flowers white, shaded with purple. This plant 
seems intermediate between A. adsurgens and A. striatus, Nutt. 
The legumes were not found. May 1. 

Oxytropis Lamberti, Pursh. — Upper waters of the Platte, <fcc. ; 
frequent. 

Hebysarum Mackenzii, Richards. App. Frankl. Journ. ed. 2, 
p. 28. — Promontory Range, Utah. Fl. May 1. 
25 



386 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

Lupincs aleicaulis, Dougl. ?— High grassy land, Antelope 
Island, Salt Lake. Fl. June 30. A suffrutescent species densely 
clothed with short appressed almost silvery hairs. The leaflets 
are mostly in sevens, oblanceolate and acute. The flowers are 
nearly as large as in L. perennis, in rather dense, somewhat ver- 
ticillate spikes ; and the upper lip of the calyx is strongly saccate 
or slightly spurred. 

Cowania Stansburiana, Torr. (Plate HI.) C. foliis pin- 
natifido — 5-7-lobatis, lobis oblongis; floribus flavis. C. plicata? 
Torr. in Fr6m. 2d Report, p. 314; not of Don. Stansbury's 
Island, Salt Lake. Colonel Fremont collected this plant in the 
mountains of California, along the Virgin River, a tributary of 
the Colorado. It is nearly related to C. Mexicana, Don, (in Linn. 
Trans. 14, p. 574, t. 22, f. 1,) which has also yellow flowers; but 
the leaves in that species are three — parted, with linear segments, 
and they have a long narrowly cuneate base. 

A third species of this genus, C. plkata, Don, was introduced 
into England from Mexico in 1835, and is figured in Sweet's British 
Flower Garden, (t, 400.) This is clearly the plant afterward 
described and beautifully figured by Zuccarini in his Plant. Nov. 
v. minus cognitse, under the name of Coivania purpurea. It is 
also Greggia rupestris of Engelmann, in Wislizenius's Jour. 

The C. Stansburiana is a shrub attaining the height of from 
six to twelve feet. It is much branched, and the young twigs are 
glandular. The leaves grow mostly from short spurs. They are 
ovate in outline, 4-6 lines long, deeply cut into five or seven 
lobes, and whitish tomentose underneath, except the strong green 
midrib, but green and somewhat glabrous above. They are revo- 
lute .on the margin, of a coriaceous texture, and sparingly dotted 
with conspicuous glands. The flowers are solitary, terminal, and 
on short peduncles. The calyx-tube is turbinate and glandular; 
the segments are broad and obtuse. Petals sulphur-yellow, broadly 
obovate, two or three times the length of the calyx-segments. 
Styles persistent, beautifully plumose, and in fruit an inch or more 
in length. Achenium linear-oblong, striate, and clothed with short 
appressed hairs. For further remarks on the genus Cowania, see 
Plantoe Fremontianae, in the Smithsonian Contributions, vol. 6. 

Plate III. Cowania Stansburiana ; a branch of the natural 
size. Fig. 1, a leaf of the natural size. Fig. 2, upper surface 
of a leaf magnified. Fig. 3, under surface of the same. Fig. 4, 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 



3S7 



a flower-bud. Fig. 5, a flower laid open. Fig. 6, a petal. Fig. 
7, plan of the flower. Fig. 8, a pistil. Fig. 9, front view of the 
style and stigma. Fig. 10, side view of the same. Fig. 11, a 
carpel of the natural size. Fig. 12, the same magnified. Fig. 13, 
a stamen seen in front. Fig. 14, the same seen from behind. 
Fig. 15, longitudinal section of a ripe carpel, showing the erect 
seed. Fig. 16, transverse section of the same. All the figures 
except No. 1 are more or less magnified. 

Spirea dumosa, Nutt. Mss.; Hook. Lond. Jour. Bot. 6, p. 217; 
Gray, PL Fendl. p. 40. S. discolor, Torr. in Ann. Lye. N. York, 
2, p. 195; not of Pursh.— Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fl. 
June 26. 

Plate IV. Spiraea dumosa; a branch of the natural size. Fig. 
1, the fructiferous calyx. Fig. 2, a carpel. Fig. 3, the same 
laid open. 

S. opulifolia, var. pauciflora, Torr. and* Gr. Fl. 1, p. 414. — 
Summit of a mountain on Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fl. June 
26. A tall, much branched shrub, with leaves scarcely more than 
half an inch in diameter. 

Oenothera cespitosa, Nutt. — Shore and islands of the Salt 
Lake. May and June. Usually acaulescent, but sometimes throw- 
ing up a branching stem about six inches high. The flower is 
from two to three inches in diameter, white and fragrant. CE. 
montana, of Nuttall, is hardly distinct from this species, and 
perhaps CE. marginata should be regarded as a variety of the 
same. 

CE. scapoidea, Nutt. in Torr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 506.— Western 
shore of the Salt Lake. Fl. and fr. May. 

CE. albicaulis, Nutt.; Torr. and Gr. Fl. p. 495.— Islands of 
the Salt Lake. Fl. June. Stem about a foot high; the flowers 
small, white, and inodorous. 

Gayophytum ramosissimum, Torr. and Gr. Fl. 1, p. 513. — 
Antelope Island, Salt Lake. Stem about eighteen inches high, 
with very slender branches, and flowers even smaller than in Mr. 
Nuttall's specimen of this plant. The pedicles are about twice as 
long as the ripe pod. 

Mentzelia ornata, Torr. and Gr., and Gray, PI. Fendl. p. 47. 
Bartonia ornata, Nutt.— Islands of the Salt Lake. In our speci- 



3S8 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 



mens there are only five petals; and the filaments of the five 
outermost stamens are only a little dilated, while the anthers are 
perfect: hut in other specimens, collected hy Colonel Freruont, 
there are ten petals, of which five inner ones are rather smaller 
than the others; and so they are described hy Mr. Nuttall. Sir 
William Hooker thinks that M. Imncaiilis is not distinct from 
this species; but Dr. Gray states (1. c.) that it differs in its yellow 
flowers, which open in the sunny hours, while in M. ornata they 
are white, and open toward sunset. 

M. albicaulis, Dough; Torr. and Gr. 1. c. — Valley of the 
Salt Lake. 

Erodium cicutarium, L'Herit. — Islands of the Salt Lake. 
Fl. June. This plant is widely spread over the western part of 
North America, from the Rocky mountains to the Pacific, and is 
doubtless indigenous. 

Heuchera rubescexs, Torr. (sp. nov. :) scapo nudo glabro vel 
scabriusculo ; foliis suborbicularibus breviter 5-'7-lobatis glabrius- 
culis, lobis crenato-dentatis, dentibus setoso-mucronatis, vel obturis ; 
panicula oblongo thyrsoiclea sublaxa; staminibus exsertis; petalis 
linearihus calyce. requali longiorihus. 

Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fl. June 26. Rhizoina thick 
and somewhat ligneous, clothed with brown vestiges of leaves. 
Leaves an inch or an inch and a-half in diameter, nearly orbicular, 
mostly cordate at the base, somewhat coriaceous, either wholly gla- 
brous or very sparingly strigose-pubescent, moderately 5-7-lobed, 
and the lobes crenate, or broadly toothed. The teeth usually 
mucronate and sometimes ciliolate. Petioles 2-4 inches long. 
Scapes varying from a span to fifteen inches high, entirely naked, 
except a few remote appressed scales. Panicle rather loose and 
few (15-20) flowered. Flowers about one-third larger than in 
H. Americana. Bracts lanceolate and often toothed. Calyx pur- 
plish-red, campanulate, pubescent ; the segments linear-oblong, 
obtuse, and nearly equal. Petals narrowly linear, persistent, about 
as long as the stamens. Styles much exserted. 

This species has the foliage of H. ixirvifolia, the inflorescence of 
H. hispida, and the calyx of II. Americana. 

Plate V. Heuchera rubescens, of the natural size. Fig. 1, a 
flower. Fig. 2, the same laid open. Fig. 3, transverse section 
of a capsule. Fig. 4, a seed. All the figures are magnified. 




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APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 3S9 

Pettcedantjm biterxatum, (var. ? platycarpum.) — Fructibus 
obovatis, alii membranaceis disci sesquilatioribus. — Witb the pre- 
ceding. Except in the broadly-winged fruit, this plant does not 
appear to differ essentially from P. biternatum, Nutt. 

Thaspium moxtaxum, Gray, Fl. Fendl. p. 57 1 On a mountain 
bordering the Salt Lake. Fl. May 25. One specimen has a per- 
ennial root, crowned with several spreading scapiform stems, which 
are (in the flowering state) from five to eight inches long. The 
whole plant is very glabrous and somewhat glaucous. The leaves 
are bi-tripinnatrfidly cut, with oblong, acute, entire, or incised 
lobes. The yellow flowers are in dense umbels, with numerous 
rays. There is no involucre, and the involucels consist of 7-9 
linear-lanceolate leaflets. The carpels of the young fruit are 
furnished with five broad, undulate wings. The vittai in the iu- 
t ervals seem to be solitary, or sometimes double. 

Aster obloxgifolius, Nutt. — Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake, 
June 26. 

Erigerox coxcixxum, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 174. — Valley 
of Salt Lake, May 30. 

Dieteria pulverulenta, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 
101.— Green River, Sept. 12. 

Solidago Missouriexsis, Nutt. — With the preceding. 

Lixosyris viscidiflora, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 234 — var. 
serrulata ; ramulis scabriusculis ; foliis anguste linearibus triner- 
vibus rigidiusculis acutis, margine serrulato-scabris ; capitulis fas- 
tigiato-corymbosis subquinquefloris ; squamis oblongo-lanceolatis 
glabris subquinquefariam imbricatis laxiusculis, exterioribus multo 
brevioribus. corollis glabris. — Valley of the Salt Lake. 

Grindelia squarrosa, Dunal. — Bear River, near the Hot and 
Cold Springs. Fl. May 10. 

Stexotus c^espitosus, Nutt. in Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 
238.— Valley of the Salt Lake. 

Ambrosia coronopifolia, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 291. — , 
Table land at the northern extremity of Salt Lake Valley, Sept. 19. 

Lapiiamia Staxsburii, Gray, Plant. "Wright, 1, p. 101 and 129. 
Monothrix Stansburiana, Torr. in Stansb. Rep. ed. 1, p. 390. — 



390 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

Crevices of limestone rocks on Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fl. 
June 20.* 

The lower part of the stem is thick and ligneous, but the branches 
are herbaceous. These are about a span high, and are minutely 
glandular-pubescent. The leaves are scarcely half an inch in dia- 
meter, broadly ovate, or almost orbicular in outline, often subcor- 
date at the base, with a few coarse, obtuse teeth, or almost lobed ; 
the lower ones mostly opposite, but the upper ones often alternate. 
Heads 6-8 lines in diameter. Scales of the involucre in two 
or three series lanceolate, acute, glandularly puberulous, some- 
what villous at the tip. Eays 6-10; the limb longer than the 
tube, and nearly twice as long as the involucral scales. Disk — 
flowers constantly 4-toothed in all my specimens. Achenium obo- 
vate-oblong, compressed, slightly hispid-ciliate on the margin, 
crowned with a single rigid, upwardly scabrous bristle. 

This genus is nearly related to Perityle of Bentham, (Bot. Sulph. 
p. 23,) but differs in the absence of squamellre on the achenium, 
and in other characters. 

Plate VI. Laphamia Stansburii, (Monothrix Stansburiana,) of 
the natural size. Fig. 1, a leaf. Fig. 2, a head of flowers. Fig. 
3, an involucrum laid open, the flowers removed to show the recep- 
tacle. Fig. 4, the same divided longitudinally. Fig. 5, an inner 
and an outer scale of the involucrum. Fig. 6, a ray flower. Fig. 
7, a disk flower. Fig. 8, corolla of the disk flower laid open. Fig. 
9, branches of the style and their appendages. 

Chenactis stevioides, Hook, and Am.; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 
2, p. 371. — Strong's Knob, Salt Lake, June 10. Several of the 
ray flowers have the corolla dilated, but the lobes still nearly 
equal, and, as is the pappus, considerably shorter than in the disk 
flowers. 

C. Tenuifolia of Nutt. is scarcely distinct from this species. 

C. achilleuEfolia, Hook, and Arn. ; Torr. and Gray, Fl. I.e. — 
Stansbury's Island, June 20. Stems about a span high, several 



* The Laphamia of Dr. Gray, although published subsequently to Monothrix, 
must take precedence of that genus, as it. now embraces one species with a 
pappus of many bristles, another with a bisetose pappus, and two other species 
that are quite destitute of a pappus ; so that the latter name is no longer ap- 
propriate. 




HEUCHERA RUBE'S CENS 



AciexaiJni.Lifc 379 Bto^iwavNY 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 391 

from one root. Leaves somewhat fleshy, densely clothed with a 
white tomentum ; the lobes very small, obtuse, and much crowded. 
Heads few (3-6) in a terminal corymb. Flowers of the ray and 
disk nearly alike, funnel-form. Pappus of about ten oblong, 
obtuse, denticulate scales; five of which, in the disk flowers, are 
nearly as long as the tube of the corolla, and the five other about 
half as long. Scales in the ray flowers much shorter than the 
corolla tube. 

Plate VII. Chenactis achilleccfolia, of the natural size. Fig. 1, 
a head of flowers. Fig. 2, an exterior scale of the involucrum. 
Fig. 3, an interior scale of the same. Fig. 4, a disk flower. 
Fig. 5, cross section of an achenium. Fig. 6, a ray flower. Fig. 
7, branches of the style and appendages.- Fig. 8 and 9, scales of 
the pappus from a disk flower. 

Layia Glandulosa, Hook, and Arm; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, 
p. 394. — Valley of the Salt Lake, east side. 

Achillea Millefolium, Linn. — Islands of the Salt Lake, June. 

Artemisia tridentata, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 

(n. ser.) 1, p. 398. — Green River, Sept. 12. Many of the larger 

species of the genus are called "Sage" by the hunters and emi- 
grants. 

A. frigida, Willd.; Torr. and Gray, FL 2, p. 424.— With the 
preceding. 

A. Ludoviciana, Nutt., Gen. 2, p. 143. — With the preceding. 

A. Canadensis, Mich., Fl. 2, p. 129. — With the preceding. 

Senecio filifolius, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Pbil. Soc. (n. ser.) 
V, p. 414. — Green River, September. 

S. hidrophilus, Nutt. 1. c. — Valley of the Salt Lake. 

S. Hookeri, Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 438.— Weber River, 
May 16. Scales of the involucre with black villous tips. 

Tetradymia Nuttallii, Torr. and Gray. T. sjnnosa, Nutt., 
1. c. — Shore of the Salt Lake, May 5. A tborny shrub, about 
four feet high. 

Cirsium undulatum, Spreng. — Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. 
Fl. June 24. 

SrEPHANOMERiA runcinata, Nutt. in Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 
7, p. 427. — Carrington's Island, Salt Lake. 



392 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

Lygodesmia juncea, Don; Hook, Fl. Bor. Araer. 1, p. 295. — 
Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake, June 23. The Leads in our speci- 
mens are quite as large as in L. grandiflora. Captain Stansbury 
states that the flowers are purple. 

Malacothris sonchoides, Ton*, and Gray, Fl. 2, p. 486. — Shore 
of the Salt Lake, and on Carrington's Island, May 30. The 
pappus is decidedly double in this species. The outer series con- 
sists of five slender, nearly glabrous, and somewhat persistent bristles; 
the inner of about fifteen scabrous capillary bristles, which are 
caducous, and separate in a ring. I have seen the same character 
in two or three other species. Dr. Gray, in his Plantce Fendleri- 
ance, (p. 113, No. 453,) says that he noticed in " M. sonchoides, 
M. Coulteri, and especially in M. Califorrtica, that two (opposite) 
bristles of the pappus are naked, instead of barbellate, and rather 
stronger and less desiduous than the others." In M. sonchoides 
I believe the outer series always consists of five bristles; but in 
some species they are variable in number, and in others are entirely 
wanting. 

Crepis acuminata, Nutt. 1. c; Torr. and Gray, Fl. 2, 489.— 
Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake, June 23. This is the tallest of our 
indigenous species of Crepis. Some of our specimens are about 
three feet high. The radical leaves (including the petioles) are 
more than a foot in length. 

Plate VIII. Crepis acuminata, of the natural size. Fig. 1, a 
separate flower magnified, as are the following. Fig. 2, an achenium 
with its pappus. Pig. 3, one cf the hairs of the pappus. 

Troximon cuspidatum, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 742.— Valley of the 
Salt Lake. 

Castilleja hispida, Benth. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2, p. 105. 
— Shore of the Salt Lake, May. 

C. miniata, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1. c— With the 
preceding. 

C. sessiliflora, Pursh, Fl. 2, p. 738. — Weber River. 

Pextstemon grandifloroi, Nutt. in Fras. Catal., 1813. — On 
the Arkansas Ptiver. 

. Eritrichium glomeratum, D C. Prodr. 10, p. 131. Mgosotis 
glomerata, Nutt.— Near Salt Lake City. Fl. April 29. 




- 







A Iceramu . ■ - ■ . ■ ■■ ' 



N . rOLlAHooUAm/3. 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 393 

Echixospermum floribundum, Lelim.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 
2 f p. S4. — Valley of the Malade, Sept. 25. Near E. dejlcxum. 

Amsinckia lycopsoides, Lelirn.; D C. Prodr. 10, p. 117. — 
Shore of the Salt Lake. Fl. May 5th. 

Mertensia Drummondii, G. Don; D C. Prodr. 10, p. 8G. — 
Salt Lake Valley. 

Lithospermum? ciRCUMscissuM, Hook, and Arn., Bot. Beech. 
Voy., suppl. p. 3*70. — On Green Eiver. In my account of the 
plants collected in California and Oregon by the United States 
Exploring Expedition, I have made this plant the type of a new 
genus, (Piptocabjx,) allied to Eritrichiurn, from which it differs in 
its naked corolla and deciduous calyx. 

Hydrophyllum capitatum, Dough; Benth. Trans. Lin. Soc. 
17, p. 273. — Ogden's Pass, May 15. 

Eutoca heterophylla, Torr. (n. sp.:) erecta scabro-pubescens ; 
foliis oblongo-linearibus subsessilibus integris vel ad basin utrinque 
unilobatis, lobis oblongis v. linearibus; floribus brevi-pedicellatis ; 
lobis calycinis spathulato-linearibus obtusiusculis ; corolla patenti- 
campanulata calyce sesquilongiore ; placentis multiovulatis. — Val- 
ley of the Salt Lake, on the eastern side. 

Annual; about a foot high. Radical leaves spatulate ; the cau- 
line ones broadly linear, 1-1 \ inch long ; either entire or furnished 
on each side at the base (sometimes only on one side)' with a 
spreading, narrow, acute lobe, so that the leaves appear somewhat 
halberd-form. Piacemes short, terminating the branches. L 
of the calyx' about three and a-half lines long, Corolla wk. ,| 
campanulate, almost rotate, about five lines long; the lobes six % 
and rounded. Appendages ten, narrow, connivant in pairs between 
the bases of the filaments. Stames nearly equal, a little shorter 
than the corolla. Style somewhat exserted ; 2-lobed at the 
summit. Ovary with 15-20 ovules attached to each placenta. 
This species resembles E. phacelioides, Benth., but differs in the 
nearly sessile narrower leaves; the larger and broadly campanulate 
corolla, many-ovuled placentae, &c. 

Gilia (Ipomopsis) pulchella, Dougl. in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 
2, p. 74. — Ogden Pass, May 15. 

Collomia linearis, Nutt. Gen. Amer. pi. 1, p. 126.— With the 
preceding. 



394 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

Phlox Hoodii, Richards, in Frankl. Jour. app. ed. 2, p. 6, t. 28. 
— Mountains near the Salt Lake, April and May. 

P. longifolia, Nutt. Jour. Acad. Philad. 1, p. 41. — North-west 
shore of the Salt Lake, and near the mouth of Bear River, May 10. 

Physalis lanceolata, Mich. — Salt Lake Valley, June. 

Gkntiana affinis, Griseb. Gent. p. 289. — Moist places, Aug. IS. 

Acerates decumbens, Decaisne in D C. Prod. 8, p. 522. 
Anantherix decumbens, Nutt. — Mountain on Stansbury's Island, 
Salt Lake, June 26. Stems often assurgent. Calyx and corolla 
green. Crown dark purple. 

Comandra umbellata, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 157; Hook. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. 2, p. 139 t. 179. — Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fr. 
June 20. 

Rumex venosus, Pursh, Fl. 2, p.? Green River. Fr. Septem- 
ber 12. 

Erigoncm umbellatum, Torr. in Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New 
York, 2, p. 241.— Valley of the Salt Lake. 

E. Fremoxtii, Torr. — With the preceding. 

Sarcobatus vermicularis, Toit. in Emory's Report, p. 149. 
S. MaximUiani, Nees. Frcmontia vermicularis, Torr. in Fremont's 
first and second Reports. "Pulpy Thorn" of Lewis and Clark's 
travels. — Strong's Knob, Salt Lake, Fl. June 10. 

Gratia polygonoides, Hook, and Arn. Bot. Beech. Voy. suppl. 
p. 338, Hook. Ic, 271. G. spinosa, Moq. in D C. Prodr. 11, p. 
1 10. — Carrington's Island, Salt Lake. 

Chenopodixa linearis, Moq. in D C. Prodr. 11, p. 164, excl. 
syn. Ell. and Michx. — Mountain on the west shore of the Salt 
Lake. Fl. May 30. This plant attains the height of about three 
feet. The lower part of the stem is stout and shrubby. It differs 
entirely from the C. maritima of the Atlantic States ; yet the 
authors who describe it as not shrubby are quoted by Moquin 
under C. linearis. 

Arthrocnemum fructicosum, Moq. Chenop. Enum. p. Ill, 
and in D C. Prodr. 11, p. 151?— North shore of the Salt Lake. A 
common plant in all the salines of New Mexico and California. 
It is a shrub about one foot high, and much branched. The joints 
ol the branches are more or less compressed, and emargiuately 




'-■ .' ' 



Adcexmai , 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 395 

bifid at the summit. The spikes are cylindrical and are not 
jointed; the flowers being alternate, and immersed in deep exca- 
vations of the rachis. The calyx is quadrangular, and consists 
of four cohering sepals, which are cucullate, spongy at the summit, 
and at length separate from each other. There is but a solitary 
stamen. The seed is loose in the utricle, oblong, and the embryo 
forms about half of an ellipse. 

Obione canescens, Moq. Chenop. p. 74, and 0. occidentalism 
Moq. in D C. Prodr. 11, p. 112. Pterochiton occidentale, Torr. and 
Frem., in Frem. second Rep. p. 318. Obione tetraptera, Benth. 
Bot. Voy. Sulph. p. 48.— On Green River. Fr. September 10. 
This is a variable species, especially in the characters of the 
mature fructiferous calyx. Sometimes it is furnished with short, 
irregular-toothed wings, and at other times the wings are very 
broad and nearly entire. 

0. confertiflora, Torr. and Frem. 1. c. — With the preceding. 

Abronia mellifera, Doug. Mss. Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. p. 2, 
125, Bot. Mag. 1. 2879.— Strong's Knob, Salt Lake. Fl. June 10. 
Easily distinguished from A. umbellata by its broad involucral 
leaves and green flowers. In Fremont's first Report, p. 96, and 
in Emory's Report, p. 149, I noticed a peculiarity of the embryo; 
the inner cotyledon being constantly abortive. The same charac- 
ter exists in all the species of this genus : but I have not observed 
it in any other nyctagineous plant. 

Shepherdia argentea, Nutt. Gen. Amer. PI. 2. — Black's 
Fork of the Green River. Fr. September 12. 

Ephedra Americana, Willd. Spec. PI. 4, p. 860 ? Endl. Synops. 
Conif. p. 254. — Shore of the Salt Lake. A leafless shrub with 
very numerous branches, growing about four feet high. It is very 
doubtful whether it be the same as Willdenow's plant, which is a 
native of Quito. Although it is not uncommon in the interior of 
California and in New Mexico, I have never received the female 
flower or the fruit. All my specimens are males. E. Americana 
is described as monoecious. The Ephedra noticed in Emory's 
Report under the name of E. occidentalism (a mistake for E. Ameri- 
cana,) differs from this species in its three-parted sheaths with long 
subulate points. 



396 APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 

Triglochin maritimum, Linn. — Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 257. — Stans- 
bury's Island, Salt Lake, June 24. 

Poltgoxatum cANALicuLATUM, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 235. — Valley 
of the Salt Lake? 

Amianthium Nuttallii, Gray, Melanfji. in Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. York, IV., p. 123. Hclonias angustifolia and H. 
paniculate, Nutt. — Valley of the Salt Lake. Fl. May 1. 

Amblirion, Rafin. in Journ. de Phys. 89, p. 102 ; Bernhardi, 
Bot. Zeit. 1835, p. 395? (ex Kth. Enum. 4, p. 255.) Lilium § 
Amblirion, Endl. gen. sub No. 1098. Fritillaria § Fucrinum, 
Nutt. • 

A. pudicum, vat. biflorum, Torr. Lilium pudicum, Pursh, 
Fl. 1, p. 228, f. 1.; Schult. Syst. V, p. 401. Fritillaria pudica, 
Spreng. Syst. 2, p. 64; Nutt. in Journ. Acad. Phil. 7, p. 54. 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2, p. 182; Kunth Enum. 1. c. — Promontory 
Range, Valley of Salt Lake. Fl. April 12. • 

'I'm- iare and interesting plant was long ago proposed as a 
distinct genus by the late Mr. Rafinesque. It is allied both to 
Fritillaria and to Lilium, It differs from both in the want of 
nectaries. Unfortunately the fruit is not known, so that it can- 
not be compared with those genera in an important character. 
Our specimens are all two-flowered. The root is flat, orbicular, 
and toothed round the border, with a cluster of little tubers on the 
upper side at the base of the stem. The leaves are linear, and 
from two to four inches long. The flowers are yellow, nodding, 
about an inch in length, somewhat obconical, or funnel-form, and 
entirely destitute of a nectariferous groove. The stigma is simple 
and undivided. 

According to Mr. Nuttall, Fritillaria iulipoefolia of Caucasus is 
another species of this genus. I have also specimens of what may 
prove to be a third species, collected by Colonel Fremont on the 
Feather River, California; for the style, though thickened at the 
summit, is undivided, and the nectary is wanting: but there are 
several flowers in a loose racemose panicle. 

Plate IX. Amblirion pudicum, of the natural size. Fig. 1, a 
sepal magnified, as are all the following. Fig. 2, a stamen show- 
ing the back of the anther. Fig. 3, a front view of the same. 
Fig. 4, the pistil. Fig. 5, a cross section of the ovary. 




..; '", N' PUDICIJ1 



. ;.. •V NT 



APPENDIX D. BOTANY. 397 

Allium stellatum, Fraser, Bot. Mag. t. 15*70. — Weber River, 
May 23. 

A. reticulatum, Fraser, Bot. Mag. t. 1840. — Wahsateh Mount- 
ains, June. 

Calochortus luteus, Nutt. in Jour. Acad. Tliil. 7, p. 53 ; 
probably not of Douglass. — Valley of Salt Lake. The root is called 
" sego" by the natives, and is much esteemed by them as food. 
It is bulbous, and varies in size from that of a pea to that of a 
filbert. Our plant agrees exactly with the description of Nuttall, 
who was probably mistaken as to the colour of the flower. The 
inner sepals seem to be white, except at the claw, which is yellow. 
I have not been able to institute a comparison between this plant 
and Douglass's C. luteus; but if ours proves to be distinct, it may 
be called C. Nuttallii. 

Erythronium grandiflorum, Pursh, Fl. 1, p. 231. Lindl. 
Bot. Reg. t. 1786.— With the preceding. 

Triteleia grandiflora, Lindl. Bot. Reg. fol. 1293. Hook. 
Fl. Bor. Am. -2, p. 186, t. 19S, B.— Valley of Salt Lake. Fl. 
May. 

Juncus Balticus, Willd.; Hook. Fl. Bor. — Amer. 2, p. 189. — 
Antelope Island, Salt Lake, June 1. 

Sisyrinchium Bermudiana, Linn. S. anceps, Cavan. — Walnut 
Creek. 

Hypoxis erecta, Linn. — Upper Arkansas. 
Scirpus Torreyi? Olney.— Gray, Bot. N. States, j). 526?— 
Stansbury's Island, Salt Lake. Fr. June 26. 

Differs from S. Torreyi in its longer and larger spikes, and in 
shorter point of the achenium ; but in other respects it agrees. 

Eriocoma cuspidata, Nutt. Gen. 1, p. 40. — Antelope Island, 
Salt Lake, June IS. A beautiful grass, which seems to be distinct 
from Stipa. 

Koeleria cristata, Pers. — Gray, Gram, and Cyp. 1, No. 45. — 
With the preceding. 

Horoeum jubatum, Linn. — Torr. Fl. 1, p. 15S. — Antelope 
Island, Salt Lake, June. 

Agropyrum repens, Gaert. — With the preceding. 
Elymus striatus, Willd. — With the preceding. 



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