OTHER INTERESTING INFORMATIOU.
BY BALDWIK AXD CRAUOCK , PATERNOSTER BOW
AND SOLD BT
KRAVOOD ,VNTDC?AND SIMPKIN ASD MARS H ALX, .
HIGHLY FINISHED REPRESENTATIONS
ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING PLANTS,
IN GREAT BRITAIN;
THEIR NAMES, CLASSES, ORDERS, HISTORY, QUALITIES, CULTURE,
AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS.
B. MAUND, F.L.S.
" Not a tree,
A plant, a leaf, a blossom, but contains
A folio volume. We may read and read,
And read again, and still find something 1 new,
Something- to please, and something- to instruct."
PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN AND CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER ROW.
Maund, Printer, Bromsgrove.
THE LOVERS OF BOTANY,
THE ADMIRERS OF A FLOWER GARDEN,
TO INCREASE THEIR GRATIFICATIONS,
MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED.
Man, by nature, inherits the love of flowers. The domains
of the noble, and the cottage of the humble, alike proclaim
to us the dominion of this passion.
If the busy scenes of life, in which many are obliged to
move, suppress for awhile this divine excitement, yet the chief
occupant of their thoughts is no sooner relinquished, than na-
tural inclinations immediately evince themselves. They sigh
for rural retirement, there to enjoy the uncontaminated atmos-
phere of nature, to cultivate its choicest gifts, and to linger
over its vegetable beauties.
The attraction of a flower garden, the health yielded by
its cultivation, and the ten thousand gratifications arising out
of it, are freely acknowledged by every one. Open as these
manifold pleasures are, to the least individual amongst us, the
author of the Botanic Garden was desirous of producing a
work, at such moderate price, as none may be excluded from
possessing. One that should disseminate information amongst
the lovers of flowers, encourage the taste for their cultivation,
and yield a stimulus to the exertions of those who duly appre-
ciate the enjoyments that invariably arise from so pure a
Whether he has effected the desired object is left to the
decision of his readers. The best exertions of his humble
ability have been employed; and the encouragement of the
public has laid him under obligations to continue those efforts
with redoubled zeal.
Much of a work like the present must necessarily be de-
pendant on the labours of preceding botanists; on men who have
toiled, and some who still toil, to raise to perfection a delightful
science, inexhaustible in extent and intricate in its ramifi-
cations. In this little work it is not the province of the
author to wade deep in the current of science and research.
He humbly collects from the sweets and the beauties that float
on the surface, and of these he has pleasure in composing a
nosegay, as a periodical present to the lovers of a flower
Many ideas, it is presumed, will be found in the following
sheets, which have arisen from the author's own experience.
Others may be met with, which for the hundredth time are
presented to the eye of the reader. But whether old or new,
original or selected, his endeavour will be to keep in view one
principal object the production of every useful and interesting
information connected with the subjects on which he treats.
Regarding the correctness of the plates he can speak
with confidence. Talented artists have lent their aid, and
every exertion has been made to render them as perfect por-
traits as the state of the arts, and pecuniary remuneration,
That he owes much gratitude to several individuals of
noble rank, for their condescension in forwarding his views,
he is deeply sensible. He would have pleasure in a more ex-
plicit acknowledgment of their favours; but that superior
minds feel no gratification in whatever may assume the form of
The reception of the Botanic Garden can but inspire the
author with additional zeal in his favourite pursuit, and stimu-
late his endeavours to secure a continuance of that patronage
which in the present excess of literary productions, may be
deemed no rifling distinction.
Achillea speciosa, - - -
Adonis vernalis, - - - -
Amaryllis lutea, -
Amsonia latifolia, - - -
Andromeda calyculata, -
Anthericum liliastrum, - -
Argemone Mexicana, -
Asclepias tuberosa, - -
Buddlea globosa, ...
Cacalia coccinea, - - -
Calceolaria corymbosa, -
Campanula pumila, - - -
Catananche caerulea, -
Centaurea suaveolens, -
Chelone barbata, -
Chelone obliqua, - - -
Cochlearia Groenlandica, -
Coreopsis tinctoria, - -
Cuscuta vermcosa, -
Cytisus capitatus, - - -
Daphne gnidium, -
Digitalis lutea, - -
Erica Australis, - - -
Erica herbacea, -
Erica mediterranea, - -
Erinus alpinus, -
Fragaria Indica, -
Fumaria nobilis, -
Gaultheria procumbens, -
Gaura biennis, - - - -
Genista sagittalis, -
Gentiana acaulis, - - -
Helleborus niger, -
Hesperis matronalis, alba, -
Hesperis matronalis, pur. -
Hibiscus Syriacus, - -
Spear-leaved Milfoil, . .
Spring Adonis, ....
- Yellow Amaryllis, . . .
Broad-leaved Amsonia, .
- Calycled Andromeda, . .
Savoy Spider-wort, .
Mexican Argemone, . .
- Tuberous Swallow-wort, .
Round-headed Buddlea, .
Scarlet-flowered Cacalia, .
- Chili Slipper-wort,
- Dwarf Bell-flower, . '.*;;
- Yellow Sultan, ....
Scarlet Chelone, . . ',->
Greenland Scurvy-grass, .
- Scarlet Bladder Senna, . .
Spear. leaved Coreopsis, .
Slender-leaved Coreopsis, .
- Arkansa Coreopsis, . . .
Wart-calyxed Dodder, . .
Headed Cytisus, . .
- Flax-leaved Daphne,
- - Small yellow Foxglove, . . 94
- American Cowslip, .... 25
- Showy Dragon's-Head, . . 57
Dodonius's Epilobium, . . 55
Spanish Heath, .... 54
- Early dwarf Heath, ... 22
- Mediterranean Heath, ... 74
- Alpine Erinus, .... 11
- Yellow-flowered Strawberry, 7
- Great-flowered Fumatory, . 69
Trailing Gaultheria, ... 17
Biennial Gaura, .... 75
Jointed Genista, . . . . 50
Common Globularia, ... 9
Sand Everlasting, ... 38
Christmas Rose, .... 8
Double White Rocket, ... 39
Double Purple Rocket, . . 70
Althea Frutex, .... 77
Iberis sempervirens, -
Iris Susiana, -
Iris versicolor, - - -
Jasiuinum revolutum -
Kalmia glauca, - - -
Kalmia latifolia, - - -
Lachenalia tricolor, - -
Ledum buxifolium, -
Leduin palustre, - - - -
Lilium bulbiferum, -
Liliuin tigrinum, - - -
Linaria purpurea, - - -
Liniiin alpinum, - - -
Lobelia siphilitica, -
Lonicera Tartarica, -
Lychnis Chalcedonies, -
M ira bills Jalapa, ...
CEnothera macrocarpa, -
(Enothera pumila, - -
Orobus vernus, - - -
Passiflora caerulea, - -
Pentstemon pubescens, -
Phlox ovata, ....
Phlox triflora, - - -
Polygala chamaebuxus, -
Primula acaulis, - - -
Primula farinosa, - -
Primula Sinensis, - -
Pyrus Japonica, ...
Senecio elegans, - - -
Sisyrinchium striatnm, -
Spig-elia Marilandica, -
Spiraea laevigata, - - -
Statice oleaefolia, - - -
Tagetes patula, - - -
Teucrium Pyrenaicum, -
Tigridia Pavonia, - - .
TriMium grandiflorum, -
Tussilago fragrans, - -
Valeriana montana, ...
Verbascum pheeniceum, -
Vesicaria utriculata, -
English Name. No.
- Narrow-leaved Candy-tuft, 82
- Chalcedonian Iris, . ... 30
- Changeable Iris, 3
- Curled-flowered Jasmine, . 12
- Glaucous Kalmia, 43
- Broad-leaved Kalmia, . . . 33
Three-col. Lachenalia, . . .21
- Box-leaved Ledum, .... 52
Marsh Ledum, 47
- Bulb bearing Lily, . . . 31
- Tiger-spotted Lily, ... 63
- Purple Flax-weed,. . . 34
- Alpine Flax, 14
- Fulgent Lobelia, 73
- Blue Lobelia 61
- Tartarian Honeysuckle, . . 23
- Double Scarlet Lychnis, . 87
- Globe (lowered Menziesia, . 89
- Common Marvel of Peru, . 16
- Large-fruited CEnotbera, . 41
- Dwarf (Enothera, . . . 35
- Purple-flowered CEnothera, 79
- Spring Bitter- Vetch, ... 23
- Common Passion flower, . 4
- Hairy Pentstemon, . . . . 42
- Oval-leaved Phlox, . . .59
- Fine-leaved Phlox, ... 68
- Three-flowered Phlox, . . 6
- Box-leaved Milkwort, . . 24
- Double Primrose, . . . . 60
- Bird's Eye Primrose, . . 96
- Chinese Primrose, .... 1
- Japan Apple Tree, ... 49
Borage-leaved Ramonda, . 83
- Hairy-leaved Rhododendron, 63
- Purp'le Groundsel, ... 40
. Streaked Sisyrinchium, . . 66
- Indian Pii>k, .... 93
- Smooth Spiraea, ... .32
- Olive-lcared Sea Lavender, 86
- Red -flowered Comfrey, . . 74
- French Marigold, .... 56
- Pyrenean Teucrium ... 80
- Tiger Flower, 5
- Large-flowered Trillium, . 26
Sweet-scented Coltsfoot, . 19
- Mountain Valerian, . . .36
- Purple-flowered Mullein, . 45
- Smooth Vesicaria, .... 84
Prrmiila Siui-usis .
Primula is derived from the Latin primus, first,
from its early flowering; hence its English name
also, prime-rose, now contracted to primrose. Si-
nensis, from Sinae, the name of an ancient people,
who are supposed to have inhabited that part of the
Chinese empire now called Cochin China.
This plant is the Primula praenitens of the Bo-
tanical Register ; but as the term Sinensis has not
been established for another species, upon autho-
rity worth naming, we give it the preference, from
its prior adoption.
The attention of the Horticultural Society was
first drawn to this beautiful plant in the year 1819,
when a drawing of it was received from John
Reeves, Esq., a corresponding member, residing
at Canton. A plant, and seeds also, were subse-
quently sent off by him to the society ; the former
perished during its passage, and the latter did not
vegetate. Since that period it has been introduced
by Capt. Rawes, and as it possesses beauties so
completely distinct from every other primula we
know, it is likely to become a distinguished favourite
in our gardens.
Its mode of inflorescence is particularly beau-
tiful ; for out of a simple umbel or head of flowers,
rises a distinct scape or stalk, supporting a second
umbel, and from this is produced a third, and some-
times a fourth ; by which peculiarity, and its free
increase of flowering side shoots, it remains in bloom
during the greater part of the year. Our drawing
was taken at an early stage of the blossom, and re-
presents the first umbel only.
Having been introduced so lately, its habits are
but imperfectly known ; it may, however, be con-
sidered hardy, as plants of it were exposed in the
open air during the winter of 1823, in different parts
of the kingdom, without sustaining injury.
It may be propagated very readily by offsets, and
flourishes exceedingly in a pot of compost, made
with equal parts of peat, rich loam, and sand ; or it
may be planted in a warm dry border, of light soil,
and have the protection of a hand glass during
Seeds are produced very freely by the Primula
Sinensis, and from them young plants may be pro-
pagated in abundance, and with little trouble. They
should be sown as early as March, in pots of light
rich earth, placed in a hotbed; and the young
plants, when large enough, should be potted singly,
and be gradually inured to the open air ; but they
will require occasional shade in the summer. The
protection of the cold frame is necessary for them
during the first winter of their growth, and in April,
part may be removed to dry parts of the borders,
for flowering ; and part may be retained in pots, as
portable summer or winter ornaments.
Lindley's Col. Bot.
Class. . Order.
Amaryllis, the name of a shepherdess in Theo-
critus and Virgil. Lutea, yellow, its colour. It is
sometimes called Autumnal Narcissus.
Known as this hardy, fast-increasing-, plant has
been for two or three hundred years, it is remark-
able that it should not be nearly as common as our
yellow crocus, to which, at first sight, it appears so
closely allied. But it is not the harbinger of spring :
it does not excite the delightful sensations which
every daisy, every buttercup of that joyous season,
is calculated to arouse.
" What lovely prospects wait each wakening- hour,
When each new day some novelty displays;
How sweet the sunheam melts the crocus flower,
Whose borrowed pride shines dizen'd in his rays."
It grows well in almost any soil or situation, ex-
cept under the dripping of trees ; for as its bulbs
are reproduced but slowly, during the severity of
winter, the leaves continue to increase till spring ;
at which time the bulbs will become fully matured,
and the leaves will die. Transplanting may then
be performed with propriety, till vegetation is re-
assumed in July.
Alton's Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. 2. p. 223.
This plant has received its name from the Latin
term iris, which signifies a rainbow ; and the colours
of some of the species render it very appropriate.
It has been termed the various-coloured, or parti-
coloured ; changeable- coloured appears a more cor-
rect translation, and is equally characteristic of the
flower, for it may be observed daily to assume a
An eastern, or even northern, border is suitable
to this plant. It flourishes in any light garden soil,
and the roots may be divided in autumn. It may
also be raised from seeds, which should be sown in
September, and the plants will come up in the fol-
lowing spring ; but if the seeds are sown in the
spring, they will lie a year in the ground before they
That correct observer of nature, Bradley, speak-
ing of one of the bulbous Irises, says, the finest va-
rieties that he ever saw, were raised from seed ; ' I
would,' he further observes, ' advise every one to
Orris root is the tuber of the Florentine Iris,
which will hereafter be noticed.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 116.
COMMON PASSION FLOWER.
Passiflora is derived from the Latin patior, to
suffer ; and flos, a flower ; from the fancied resem-
blance of the different parts of the flower and plant
to the instruments of Christ's suffering. The five
stamens were compared to his five wounds; the
three styles, more aptly, to the nails by which he
was fixed to the cross ; the column which elevates
the germen, to the cross itself; and the rays of the
nectary, to his crown of thorns ; the petals to the
ten apostles, Judas and Peter being rejected ; the
tendrils to a cord, the leaf to a hand, &c. &c. Cse-
rulea, from the Latin, blue.
Parkinson, in his Paradisus Terrestris, gives what
he calls * The lesuite's Figure of the Maracoc,'
which is a representation of the flower, composed of
the very instruments of torture themselves ; but in
noticing these fancies, he is very angry at the su-
perstition that suggested them ; observing that it is
* All as true as the sea burnes.'
It may be propagated from seeds, cuttings, or
* Sir J. E. Smith, in his excellent Introduction to Physio-
logical Botany, coincides with Schreber and Thunberg 1 , in
placing this genus in the class Pentandria.
layers. Cuttings may be taken early in the spring-,
of the preceding year's growth ; or in June of the
young shoots, and struck under a hand-glass. It
sometimes ripens its seed in the open air in England ;
and these may be sown in pots, placed in a hotbed,
in March ; and the plants gradually exposed to the
open air after Midsummer.
Miller says, * I have found the plants which have
been propagated two or three times, either by layers
or cuttings, seldom produce fruit ; which is common
to many other plants.' This observation of Miller's
should not be lost sight of. It may, in many in-
stances of fruit culture, prove very important, as
the mode of propagation has undoubted influence on
the habits of many vegetables.
Parkinson, in his notice of the maracoc, which
was a species of the passion flower, cultivated when
he wrote in 1629, says, that it showed a remarkable
particularity in rising from the ground a month
sooner, if a seedling plant, than if it grew from roots
brought from Virginia.
It appears highly desirable to propagate from
seeds, which has been done by several eminent bo-
tanists, and beautiful new varieties have been pro-
duced. Some of these are minutely described in the
Transactions of the Horticultural Society.
The Passiflora caerulea requires to be trained
against a wall, with a southern aspect ; and in winter
the roots should be covered with straw, as this will
protect them from injury, even if the head of the
plant be destroyed. In March the shoots may be
very much shortened, which will encourage a vigo-
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 154.
Fragaiia Indie a
Ferraria Pavonia, Linneus's name of the present
plant, was derived from John Baptista Ferrarius,
who first figured and described the Ferraria un-
dulata. Linneus made choice of his specific name,
Pavonia, in consequence of Mutis having sent him
a drawing of the flower under this appellation,
which he had given it from Pa von, the name of a
favourite pupil ; and not, as is generally supposed,
from the Latin pavo, a peacock, on account of the
beauty of its colours.
This species is now separated from Ferraria ;
and its present generic name, Tigridia, comes from
tigris, a tiger, by reason of its spots. Leopardia
would, perhaps, on such account, have been a more
The exquisite union of colours and conformation
of parts in this beautiful production, abash every
attempt of the pencil ; description or portraiture can
but do it discredit. We regret its visit being so
transient, opening in the morning and finally closing
in the afternoon ; and yet it is certain that much of
our pleasure depends on such circumstances. Sturm
justly observes, " If flowers retained their beauty
throughout the year, they would not impart to us
the delight they now do : their absence makes us
long for their return. The constant variation and
succession of all terrestrial objects, constitute one
of the chief sources of our happiness."
If the bulbs be planted in the borders, or on se-
parate beds, about the middle of April, the spring
frosts will have ceased before the leaves appear
through the soil, and no protection be required to
be given them. To produce earlier flowers they
may be put into pots in a common hotbed, in the
beginning of March, and watered sparingly till the
leaf appears. If a sufficiency of air be allowed
them, they will bear exposure early in May ; and
then should be turned into the borders for flower-
ing, taking care to retain the balls of earth quite
perfect about the roots, which will be much assisted
by a copious watering supplied a few hours before
their removal. They neither increase as fast, nor
flower quite as freely if left in the pots. The roots
should be taken up before frosts commence, and
those bulbs which are attached together should re-
main so ; then be gradually dried, and afterwards
secured in paper bags, and kept in a cool dry place
The Tigridia increases its bulbs rapidly, and also
produces seeds, from which it may be raised by
sowing them in pots, in a hotbed, in the spring.
The seedling bulbs will, of course, require taking
up as before directed ; and they will flower, some
in the second, and the remainder in the third year.
The root is an ovate bulb, which is eatable when
roasted, tasting like a chesnut.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 137.
Linneus did not, in this genus of plants, retain
the old name Lychnidea, in consequence of its near
approach to Lychnis, the name of another genus ;
but chose the present name Phlox, perhaps, only
by reason of its analogy to the former, both being
derived from Greek words signifying flame or light-
ning. Triflora, from the branches of the corymbus
being mostly three-flowered.
Every individual of this family inherits some de-
sirable quality; the greater part of them are ex-
tremely showy ; several grow higher than the present
plant; and a few clothe the border with a close
foliage during the whole year. England now pos-
sesses about thirty species of Phlox, brought prin-
cipally from North America, within the last eighty
or ninety years.
It will grow in any common soil, but best in a
mixture of peat and loam. It may be easily in-
creased by cuttings, taken early in the summer,
or by dividing the roots in autumn; but this latter
practice should not be resorted to oftener than
once in two or three years, or the roots will be
Sweet's Fl. Gar. p. 29.
Fragaria, so named from the fragrancy of its fruit.
Indica, from its native country.
The English name Strawberry is, without doubt,
derived from the practice of laying straw about
the roots of such plants, to preserve the fruit from
the soil. Straw, slates, &c. used in this way yield
two advantages ; at the same time as the fruit is
kept clean, the soil is preserved in a moist and
It is principally remarkable for its union of the
cinquefoil blossom with the fruit of the strawberry,
and certainly forms a pretty variety amongst the
closer sorts of rock plants.
The Fragaria Indica is frequently treated as a
greenhouse plant, but is now found to bear our win-
ters without injury. Its fruit is of no further value
than for its ornamental appearance, not possessing
the prominent characteristics of its tribe, fragrance
It propagates itself readily by its emission of roots
from the joints, as the common varieties usually do;
and flourishes in a sandy soil, where the situation is
warm and sheltered.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 273.
Helleborus, from the Greek, expressive of its
poisonous qualities ; or, according to Bergeret, from
the river Eleborus. Niger, from the Latin, black,
the external colour of its root.
The flower, at its first opening, is white, after-
wards rather pink, and finally becomes green. The
tubular nectaries ranged round the germen, merit
the attention of the physiologist.
A tincture of the roots of black hellebore, is em-
ployed in medicine ; but as its effects are somewhat
uncertain and dangerous, we forbear giving its mode
of preparation. It may not be amiss, however, for
the information of those who use the roots, to ob-
serve that others, and sometimes still more danger-
ous ones, are substituted for them. The following
description of the genuine is from the Edinburgh
" The roots consist of a black furrowed roundish
head, about the size of a nutmeg, from which short
articulated branches arise, sending out numerous
corrugated fibres, about the thickness of a straw,
from a span to a foot in length, deep brown on the
outside, white or yellowish white within, and of an
acrid, nauseous, and bitterish taste, exciting a sense
of heat and numbness in the tongue, and of a nau-
seous acrid smell. These fibres only are used in
medicine, and the head and decayed parts are re-
jected. For the roots of the real black hellebore,
the roots of the Adonis vernalis, Trollius Europaeus,
Acteea spicata, Astrantia major, Helleborus viridis
fcetidus, Veratrum album, and Aconitum neomon-
tanum are often substituted. The last is a most
virulent poison, and may be distinguished by its
roots being fusiform, or nearly globular, sending out
numerous very brittle fibres, of a greyish black or
brown colour, as thick as a man's finger, and re-
If the virtues of this plant, like those of many
others, were formerly too much extolled, they are
probably now undeservedly neglected ; it is indeed
to be regretted that the study of medical botany has,
of late years, made so little progress ; or, it may
rather be said, that in the last age it should have so
far declined. Modern chemists are, however, show-
ing the potent effects of condensed vegetable pro-
perties, which promises fair to constitute a new era
in medical knowledge.
In a moist situation, where a little peat has been
mixed with the soil, this plant flowers abundantly ;
and the flower stems will grow higher, and the
blossoms be altogether improved by the assistance
of a hand glass, which may be placed over them on
four small pots, so as to admit a free current of air
underneath. It is readily increased by dividing
the roots, which is best effected in the early part of
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 360.
This plant was named by Tournefort, from the
flowers growing many together, in the form of a
little globe or ball. Parkinson says 'The Italians
call it Botanaria, because the heads are found like
The Globularia vulgaris, is a pretty close-grow-
ing plant, which was classed by several of our old
botanists with the garden daisy; and called Bellis
caerulea, or blue daisy. In some situations it sel-
dom blossoms so freely as may be wished ; but this
defect will generally be found to arise from its situ-
ation being too dry and warm: hence it is well
adapted to a northern border, or the cool side of arti-
ficial rock work.
It may be propagated from seeds, or by parting
the roots, which is best effected in September, when
the plants will have an opportunity of making new
roots before frosts commence. It flourishes in a
shady situation, in a light rich soil or in sandy peat ;
and to encourage a good bloom, should not be too
frequently transplanted. It will succeed very well
if kept in a pot, and placed during winter in a cold
frame, with the alpine plants.
3 Hort.Jtew. 2, v. 1,222.
Some authors have deduced the word Cuscuta,
from the modern Greek, others from a similar Asiatic
word. Verrucosa, from the Latin verruca, a wart.
The English appellation, Dodder, seems to have
been derived from the German word Dotter, or
Dutch Tauteren, signifying to shoot up.
This is a plant which twines round ivy or shrubs
of any description that it comes in contact with ;
and though raised from seeds in the soil, as are most
other vegetables, yet no sooner does it meet with
support from a neighbouring branch, than, like many
individuals of a superior order of creation, it quits
its original friend and supporter, and clings to a new
acquaintance. It twines in a direction contrary to
the apparent course of the sun, and throwing out
little vesicles which attach themselves to the plant
that supports it, thereby draws its necessary nutri-
ment, and dies off at the root, becoming completely
It flourishes most on soft succulent shrubs ; and
should severe frosts destroy it, young plants may be
raised from seed in the spring 1 ; and they will produce
their fragrant little flowers in autumn.
Sweet's Fl. Gar. 6.
The Greek term BRINGS, whence comes our
Erinus, was applied by the ancients to a vegetable,
very different from any contained in the present
genus ; it was the Wild Fig of the Greeks, and its
name was, probably, derived from a verb, implying
to exert or strive, because the Greek plant endea-
voured to erect itself by means of walls or stones.
Alpinus, from the Latin, belonging to the Alps.
This interesting little subject presents us with its
pretty flowers at that season, when all animated
nature seems most capable of such enjoyment.
*' Propitious spring 1 comes forth in bright array,
With Venus, goddess of the vernal day;
Her mild precursor, Zephyr, wafts the breeze,
With balmy wing's, o'er all the budding trees:
Maternal Flora, with benignant hand,
Her flowers profusely scatters o'er the land .
These deck the vallies with unnumber'd hues,
And far around their fragrant sweets diffuse."
The Erinus alpinus requires a dry shady situation.
It may be propagated by dividing its roots, and
should be planted in loam without manure.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 49.
Jasminum is derived from two Greek words, sig-
nifying a violet, and odor, on account of the fine
scent which its flowers possess. Revolution, in
allusion to the curling of its petals.
We are told by Capt. Hardwicke, in the Asiatic
Researches, that a species of yellow Jasmine, which
is supposed to be the present one, was observed by
him, on the frontiers of Hindostan, and which form-
ed a large a bush. We have never seen the Jasmi-
num revolutum treated as a standard shrub, though
it appears well calculated for that purpose, if suffi-
ciently hardy. Trained against a southern wall, it
puts forth vigorous shoots and produces abundance
of flowers of the richest fragrance, and most brilli-
ant golden hue.
It may be propagated readily by cuttings, taken
in the spring, and appears to grow very well in any
common soil. A little straw or matting should be
laid over the roots to protect them from frosts of long
continuance ; and in very inclement seasons, a slight
covering over the branches also will prove benefi-
cial, by preserving the young and succulent shoots
which the luxuriant habit of the plant will leave rather
too tender to withstand the severity of our winters,
though the older branches remain uninjured.
The flowers of this as well as the common Jas-
mine, are admirably adapted to the use of the toi-
lette ; and to some of our fair readers the following-
method of extracting perfumes may not be wholly
unacceptable. We copy it from the .Family Receipt
' Procure a quantity of the petals of any flowers
which have an agreeable fragrance ; card thin lay-
ers of cotton, which dip into the finest Florence or
Lucca Oil ; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on
the flowers, and lay them, a layer of cotton, and a
layer of flowers, until an earthen vessel or a wide-
mouthed glass bottle is full. Tie the top close with
a bladder, then lay the vessel in a south aspect to
the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, when unco-
vered, a fragrant oil may be squeezed away from
the whole mass, little inferior, if that flower is made
use of, to the dear and highly valued Otto or Odor
When the aroma or odor is united with a rectified
spirit, it is usually termed an essence ; and this may
readily be obtained by mixing a portion of the oil,
prepared as above directed, with an equal quantity
of alcohol ; shake them together in a phial, and the
spirit wiHJbecome impregnated with the perfume of
the oil. They may afterwards be poured from each
other, and the essence preserved for use.
From the Jasminum officinale the Italians obtain
an essential oil, by distillation, which is held in high
estimation amongst them as a remedy for rheumatic
pains, and for application to paralytic limbs.
Bot. Mag. 1731.
I . i limn 'i I j'l mini
K. D. Smith del f
:-.. ' e ! y-
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAM1A FRUSTRANEA.
Coreopsis, from two Greek words, signifying the
appearance of a bug or tick, in allusion to the fancied
resemblance of its seed to such insects. Tinctoria,
from the Latin tinctura, a colour or dye, expressive
of the colouring properties of its petals.
The appellation Arkansa, indicates the situation,
in North America, where it was discovered by
Professor Nuttall, during his travels through that
country. Nearly all the individuals belonging to
the genus Coreopsis, are interesting hardy subjects,
chiefly natives of the same inexhaustible, and com-
paratively unexplored, source of the wonders of
The Coreopsis tinctoria is a remarkably pretty
slender- growing annual, and having been lately in-
troduced amongst us, is by no means common. It
will flourish in any rich soil, and may be treated as
are the usual annuals of our gardens, by being
sown at the end of March. If early flowers are
desired, the seed may be sown a fortnight sooner,
in a hotbed, and the plants removed into the borders
in April. In dry situations autumn-sown plants
will frequently endure the winter.
4 Dot. Mag. t. 2512.
Linum comes from the Greek word LIN ON, sig-
nifying flax or cotton ; or cloth manufactured from
either of them. Alpinum, from the Latin alpinus,
belonging to the Alps. Our English word flax,
is of Saxon origin, from flex.
This little plant resembles the Linum usitatissi-
mum, or common flax, so well known ; but is shorter
in the stem, and the flowers are much larger.
It may be propagated by cuttings, which strike
readily under a hand-glass ; or the seeds may be
sown as soon as they are ripe. It is a pretty plant
for rock work or the fronts of borders, and prefers
a dry sandy soil.
Flax appears to have been cultivated by the
Egyptians, upwards of three thousand years ago,
for we read of it in the book of Exodus, chap. 9,
ver. 31 ; though it does not appear at what precise
period it first became employed for the purposes to
which we now convert it.
Notwithstanding the mention of linen is found in
the works of the most ancient historians, it is not
quite certain that it was, in their time, manufactured
either of flax or hemp.
The Greeks are said, at a very early period, to
have been supplied with their fine linen from Egypt ;
but their term LIN ON applies indiscriminately to
cloth of cotton or flax ; and it is probable, that the
former was used many ages before the latter.
Herodotus, the Greek historian, who lived about
two thousand years ago, and who travelled in Egypt,
frequently notices the use of linen, but we neither
find it determined by the historian himself, nor any
of his commentators, that flax was, at that period,
manufactured into cloth. It may have been culti-
vated for its seed only.
Linseed oil, which is expressed from the seed of
the common flax, is highly valuable to the arts, par-
ticularly as a component part of paint.
An infusion of flax seed has been found to be ex-
tremely useful as a pectoral drink, in coughs, colds,
and affections of the lungs. It is thus prepared :
Take an ounce of bruised flax seed, half an ounce of
sliced liquorice root, and pour upon them a quart of
boiling water ; let it macerate an hour near the fire,
and then strain it off for use. A teacup-full may be
taken five or six times in the course of twenty-four
hours; when a fresh supply should be made.
Equal parts of linseed oil and lime water, form a
liniment that no family should be without. It is sin-
gularly tfseful in the cure of burns and scalds ; and
if timely applied, prevents the inflammation attendant
on these cases.
The flax stem, when macerated in streams or
ponds, is said to communicate a poisonous quality to
the water ; and an act of Henry VIII. prohibited
the practice, under pain of twenty shillings.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 187.
CATANAN'CHE (LERU'LEA. t
SYNGEIfESIA. POLVGAMIA jEQUALlS.
Catananche is derived from two Greek words,
signifying compulsion ; from its supposed power of
causing 1 an irresistable impulse to love ; a quality
which, formerly, it was ridiculously imagined to
possess. Cserulea, from the Latin, blue.
The blue-flowered Catananche appears to have
been an old inhabitant of our gardens, and it is said
to be synonymous with the sesainoides parvum of
Gerarde ; if so, the figure given of it by that author,
is certainly inferior to most of those he has supplied
Miller observes that it may be propagated by
heads taken from the mother plant. This we have
never tried, finding it easily raised from seeds, and
we judge with much more success than by dividing.
Sow seeds of the Catananche cserulea in March
or April, in rich light soil, and when the young
plants come up, they should be thinned, if required,
and kept clear from weeds till autumn. The seed-
lings may then be planted out, one in a place, in dry
situations, where they are intended to remain, and
an abundance of flowers will be produced in the fol-
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 469.
COMMON MARVEL OF PERU.
This plant is said to have received its name, Mira-
bilis, from the 'wonderful diversity of colours in the
flowers.' We may venture an opinion that it arose
from the diverse combination of them ; for the colours
in a single flower are by no means numerous. One
plant will produce many flowers entirely red, some
of a clear yellow, and others variegated in different
degrees, with red, yellow, and occasionally with
cream colour. There is a purple and white variety
also, which possesses the same changeful propensity
in the disposition of its two colours, but we are not
aware of these colours ever being mingled with the
red and yellow ; and seedling plants most frequently
produce plain flowers only.
The specific name, Jalapa, was adopted on the
supposition that the officinal Jalap was produced by
the Mirabilis. This error has been corrected by
Dr. Houston, who discovered, in the Spanish West
Indies, that the plant from which the Jalap of the
shops is prepared, is a species of convolvulus, and
is now known as the Convolvulus Jalapa.
Bullock, when travelling in Mexico, in 1823,
observed that Jalap was chiefly produced in fhe
neighbourhood of Xalapa : hence its appellation ;
the J and the X, in the Spanish language, having
the same sound, and being interchangeable.
Our old herbalists, two centuries ago, were well
acquainted with this plant, and * dwell with great
marvel thereon.' Parkinson calls it the 'Meruaile
of the World,' and mentions, amongst others, one
that he possessed with blossoms of a pale purple or
It has obtained the appellation of the four-o'clock
plant, from the flowers usually opening about that
time in the afternoon. In cool or gloomy weather,
however, they continue expanded during the next
day ; otherwise the warmth of the sun, early in the
morning, closes them to open no more : when even-
ing again arrives, we find our plant with fresh em-
bellishments, as gay as before.
The Marvel of Peru is usually cultivated as a
half-hardy annual ; but it is far better to take up
the roots on the first approach of frost, and lay them
in dry sand, in a cellar, till the last week in March ;
when they may be replanted in the borders for flow-
ering. As the roots, when thus put out into the
borders, will sometimes remain in the ground a
considerable time before they vegetate, it is pre-
ferable to plant them in deep pots of soil, and place
them in a hotbed till they have grown an inch or
two : they may then be turned out, with the balls of
soil unbroken, into the situations in which they are
intended to flower. If seedlings are desired, raise
them in a holbed, as early as is convenient, that
they may blow before the sharp autumnal nights
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 382.
Gaultheria prornml* 1 us .
Aiiisonin latifnlia ,
i 1 a oo fragraiis
The present genus has been named after Dr.
Gaulthier, or Gautier, a physician and botanist of
Canada; whence the Gaultheria procumbens was
first introduced. Procumbens, from the Latin, im-
plying a bending downwards.
Our present is an interesting little subject, and is,
in appearance, somewhat like the vaccinium, or bil-
berry tribe. Its pendent crimson berries some-
times remain on the plant and accompany the flow-
ers of the following year. They form a pretty con-
trast to each other; and with its motley evergreen
foliage, constitute a small, though brilliant, orna-
ment in a shady part of the garden.
The inhabitants of some parts of North America
are said to use the leaves as we do that incompa-
rable produce of the * Celestial Empire' Tea.
An infusion of them certainly possesses consider-
able fragrance; and were we not prejudiced in fa-
vour of our accustomed beverage, might be thought
equally pleasant; and would, probably, be found
It should be planted in peat, in a cool situation ;
where it will slowly increase by its creeping roots.
5 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 56.
The appellation Amsonia appears to have been
first given to this plant by the author of the Flora
Virginica, Mr. Clayton, who discovered it in Vir-
ginia ; but we are not told in what its name origi-
nated ; a supposition may be ventured that he made
choice of it from the name of some person or place.
Latifolia, from the Latin latus, broad, and folium,
This plant has long been an inhabitant of the
English parterre, and is generally thought to have
been cultivated by Miller. This, however, is not
quite certain ; for, in his dictionary, he speaks of the
Tabernsemontana Amsonia, which is considered sy-
nonymous with the present Amsonia latifolia, as
having white flowers; ours it will be seen are light
It does not increase rapidly, though it may occa-
sionally be divided at the root. It succeeds best in
a warm situation where the soil is continually kept
in a moderate degree of moisture. It may be plant-
ed in a compost of peat and loam, with the addition
of a small quantity of sand, and should not be fre-
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 72.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.
The term Tussilago has been derived from the
Latin tussis, a cough ; and ago, to drive away ; on
account of the efficacy of one of its species in affec-
tions of the lungs. Fragrans, from the Latin, fra-
grant. The English name Coltsfoot has arisen from
the shape of its leaves.
The bloom is odoriferous in a high degree, very
similar to the Heliotropium Peruvianum; and if the
plant be made an inhabitant of the greenhouse, or
sitting room, when in flower, very few that we are
acquainted with, afford so rich a perfume ; though
the peculiar almond-like scent may not be equally
agreeable to all.
The foliage of our present subject, and its habits
also, bear a strong resemblance to the Tussilago
farfara, a native of our own fields ; and with which
many a worthy farmer regrets his too intimate ac-
quaintance. It is, indeed, a rank weed, betraying
a sterile soil.
Notwithstanding the Tussilago fragrans is highly
valued for the odour of its blossoms, produced at a
dreary period of the year; yet we warn the un-
wary florist against introducing it into his borders,
without first inclosing- its roots within the narrow
precincts of an earthen flower pot. If this be neg-
lected his fragrant friend may, probably, by its
creeping, or rather running, roots, make a rapid
tour over great part of his garden.
Having noticed the Tussilago farfara, or common
Coltsfoot, we may, perhaps, be allowed the present
opportunity of making further mention of it.
Curtis, in his Flora Londinensis mentions a prac-
tice prevalent amongst the Tartars of carrying burn-
ing touchwood, which was probably made of the
roots of Tussilago, the smoke being intended to pro-
tect them from the annoyance of gnats. Thus the
invention of a pipe may have arisen in the necessity
of sometimes employing the breath to quicken the
He further observes, 'The custom of smoking
this plant, which still prevails, is of ancient date.
Pliny directs the dried leaves and root of Coltsfoot
to be burnt, and the smoke drawn into the mouth
through a reed and swallowed, as a remedy for an
obstinate cough. 1
Coughs have frequently been much relieved by
persons smoking the dried leaves ; and they are
used as the principal ingredient in the manufacture
of British Herb Tobacco. An infusion of the dried
flowers, sweetened with honey, has been found par-
ticularly efficacious in complaints of this nature.
The downy substance which is found growing on
the under surface of the leaves of the common colts-
foot, when dipped in a strong solution of saltpetre,
and gradually dried, is said to form an admirable
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 35.
ANDROM'EDA CALYCULATA, latifoiia.
BROAD-LEAVED CALYCLED ANDROMEDA.
Andromeda, a celebrated classic beauty of anti-
quity, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope. She
was bound by the nymphs to a rock, to be devoured
by a sea monster, because her mother proudly pre-
ferred her beauty to theirs; but Perseus, rescued
and married her. Calyculata, double calyxed, from
the presence of two minute ovate leaflets, which
grow on the base of the calyx.
This pretty evergreen shrub, with some trifling-
variations in its growth, is found native nearly all
round the northern parts of the globe ; as in Sibe-
ria, Sweden, and North America. Being highly
astringent to the taste, its medicinal qualities are
probably of a tonic nature. The combined circum-
stances of situation and properties in the Androm-
eda calyculata are such as M. Pastie of the Royal
Academy of Sciences of Paris may advance in sup-
port of his new hypothesis. He thinks it of the
highest importance, in making ourselves acquainted
with the medicinal properties of plants, that we at-
tend to their native situations; and even conceives
this of greater consequence than knowing to what
genus they belong, or the chemical principles that
enter into their composition. He observes, that all
plants which grow on high cold grounds have a
tonic and stimulant power; whilst those are found of
contrary qualities which are natives of opposite
"Nor ev'ry plant on ev'ry soil will grow :
The sallow loves the wat'ry ground, and low ;
The marshes, alders j Nature seems t'ordain
The rocky cliff for the wild ash's reign :
The baleful yew to northern blasts assigns,
To shores the myrtles, and to mounts the vines."
Santolius Victorinus, a French writer, seems to
have had the above lines of Virgil in mind when
he wrote the following; which occur in Evlyn's
translation of M. Quintinye's French Gardener, a
work showing much experience, combined with
considerable ingenuity and talent.
"All soils affect not every sort of stock,
The apple chooseth earth, the pear the rock ;
The peach flies marshes, some delight to share
The hottest sun, and choose an open air .
Some love the shade, here trees and shrubs will spread,
There flowers from seed adorn a noble bed."
The severest cold will not affect the Andromeda
calyculata, but it is desirable with this, as with
most other of the northern plants, that they be kept
somewhat shaded during the continuance of our hot
It should be planted in a mixture of peat and
fresh loam; and may be propagated by layers,
which will not be sufficiently rooted for separation
hi less time than two years.
Hort.Kew.2, v.3, 55.
S W sculp
The term Lachenalia was derived from the name
of Wernerius de la Chenal, an eminent botanist of
Switzerland. Tricolor, three-coloured, from the
presence of three colours on the flowers, but these
have very little permanency. They change consi-
derably as the flowering advances.
Many bulbous plants possess a singular mode of
reproduction, in the formation of little buds or bulbs
on their flowering stems, which admit of separation ;
and, being properly treated, grow to perfection.
The bulb-bearing lilly (lilium bulbiferum,) and
tiger lilly (lilium tigrinum) are familiar examples of
A still more singular occurrence is stated by Sir
J. E. Smith; who says that he has had scaly bulbs
form even on the flower stalk of the Lachenalia tri-
color, whilst lying for many weeks between papers
to dry, which on being put into the ground became
The production of a viviparous progeny, under
such circumstances, is well calculated to remind us
that no means are too difficult to be employed by
the Almighty for the preservation of an individual
even of the lowest order of creation. The farther
we explore the operations of nature, the more shall
we find to delight and surprise us.
Nothing can exceed the ingenuity of the various
contrivances, if we may be allowed these expres-
sions, that exists for the more certain propagation
of many of our commonest plants. Seeds appear
to be the legitimate source of reproduction in vege-
tables ; but nature admits no bounds to her efforts.
Where her usual purposes meet with opposition,
she employs other means for the accomplishment of
the same ends. Numerous plants produce seeds
very abundantly, and at the same time a vigorous
production takes place at the roots; whilst others
increase very slowly by the latter means. We may,
however, in general, observe that the vegetating
power of herbaceous plants, if not required for the
seasonable support of seeds, will be exerted in the
increase of their species, either by the multiplica-
tion of tubers or bulbs, beneath or above the soil ;
by suckers, by runners, oifsets, or by some other
mode, agreeably to the nature of the plant. These
observations cannot, of course, apply to exotics grow-
ing in a soil or climate uncongenial to their nature.
The Lachenalia tricolor will succeed in a warm
border, with the protection of a hand glass in severe
frosts. Or, which is frequently more convenient,
it may be planted in a pot of light soil, composed of
equal parts of fine sand, rotten leaves, and fresh
loam, and be afforded the protection of a cold frame,
or olher sheltered situation during frost; and such
treatment will insure success. It should be very
sparingly watered during winter.
Hort. Kew.2, v. 2, 288.
EARLY DWARF HEATH.
From the Greek EREICO, to break, from its sup-
posed quality of breaking-, or rather dissolving, the
stone in the bladder. Herbacea, from the Latin,
herbaceous. It is sometimes called Erica carnea.
Several other synonyms also have been applied to
this species, but they are not in use.
Perhaps no tribe of plants yields more ample evi-
dence of the rapid progress of floriculture in this
country than the present.
Miller, not sixty years ago, described but five
sorts of heath as known in England; but at the
present period there are upwards of three hundred
distinct species. Out of this number, according to
Dr. Withering' s arrangement, five only are indige-
nous to Great Britain ; and unfortunately very few
of the exotics will bear the severity of our climate,
having been chiefly introduced from the Cape of
This heath may be raised from cuttings, but as
its procumbent branches increase freely, in any light
soil, a convenient mode of propagation is offered by
layers, which will root sufficiently to admit of sepa-
ration in eighteen months.
Hort. Kew. 2, v.2, 366.
Adam Lonicer, in honour of whom this genus has
been named, was a physician and botanist of Frank-
fort, where he died in 1588. Tartarica, from Tar-
tary, whence seeds were sent to Petersburgh, and
thence to England.
This species of Lonicera constitutes a pretty va-
riety amongst low-growing shrubs. Its delicate
spring foliage contrasts admirably with the deep
green tints of Portugal laurel, lauristinus, and
others of our favourite evergreens.
In its native country it is said to be frequented by
the Lytta vesicatoria, or blistering fly. They are
gathered from it by shaking the branches over a
cloth, and after being killed by the fumes of vine-
gar, are dried in a stove, and preserved for use.
These are sometimes mixed with another insect, the
melolontha vitis, which does not stimulate the skin.
The latter is easily distinguished by its shape, which
is nearly square, and should be rejected as useless
for the purposes intended.
This Lonicera is of easy propagation either by
layers or cuttings, but does not generally succeed
in the smoke of towns.
Hort. Kew. 2, y. 1, 379.
This genus appears to have obtained its name
from the supposition that some of its species in-
crease the quantity of milk in cows that feed upon
it. It is a compound of two Greek words, POLU,
much, and GALA, milk. By some of our botanists
of the seventeenth century, the present subject was
called Chamaebuxus, from the Greek, signifying
low- growing box ; hence the term has been retained
as a trivial name.
This is a most desirable low evergreen shrubby
plant, producing a profusion of fragrant flowers du-
ring the months of April and May; and partially
through the summer.
Several varieties of the Poly gala chamaebuxus
are spoken of; some with red flowers others with
red and yellow ; but we believe they are not at pre-
sent known in England.
It grows extremely well if planted in peat, or
peat and loam, and increases freely by its creeping
roots. When a removal or division of the plant is
required, it may be safely effected in April, or the
beginning of September, care being taken to water
it if requisite.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 245.
Dodecatheon is formed of two Greek words, sig-
nifying twelve gods. Meadia was the only name
this plant first received, and it was given to it by
Catesby, in honour of Dr. Mead, an English phy-
sician of considerable eminence. It is not quite ob-
vious why Linneus rejected Meadia, and adopted
Dodecatheon, as a generic term ; a name applied by
Pliny, it is supposed, to our English cowslip. Mea-
dia, as it stood named by Catesby, must be consi-
dered as reasonable an appellation, since Dr. Mead
appears to have been a man fully worthy of the
honour at first done him.
Very few plants excite more general interest than
is produced by the Dodecatheon Meadia. It is one
of those attractive flowers that will bear the most
scrutinous examination, and still leave us the more
in admiration of its beauties.
The grains of the farina or dust of this flower,
when inspected with the assistance of a compound
microscope, will be found to be peculiarly beautiful.
They are distinctly organized minute pearls. So
minute, that one square inch will contain of them
upwards of three millions ; and as squares cannot
be covered by circles, more than one fifth of the
space will still be left unoccupied. Or, to be more
particular in numbers, presuming that a square inch
will contain three millions of circles, in direct rows
each way, the area of each of such circles will be
the 3,819,709th part of the area of an inch.
Mr. Phillips' s simile, in his amusing work, the
Flora Historica, is an apt one. He says the petals
are reflexed, or turn back over the calyx, giving the
appearance of an half-expanded parasol; a resem-
blance which is considerably heightened by the
long tapering shape of the parts of fructification,
and the golden colour of the anthers.
The flowers, during their expansion, assume an
elegantly pendent position, as best adapted to their
protection and fertilization ; but when the farina has
fallen and the flower fades, the peduncles, with the
seed vessels, become perfectly erect.
The chief care necessary in the cultivation of the
Dodecatheon, is the planting it in a shady situation.
It flourishes in any cool light soil, particularly in
peat; and may be safely removed in the autumn, or
early in the spring. It frequently ripens its seed,
and from these may be readily propagated. If they
are sown in pots in the autumn, they will vegetate in
the spring, when great care should be taken that the
young plants be not injured by the heat of the sun.
Keep them in a shady situation, moderately moist,
and clean from weeds. After their leaves are de-
cayed, they may be removed, but this should not
be deferred later than the middle of September;
when they may be put into the borders to remain
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 311.
1 Flowers in
Trillium, from the triple formation of the several
parts of the plant and flower. It is composed of
three leaves, three stigmas, three petals, three ca-
lyx-leaves, and the berry is three-celled. Grandi-
florum, from the Latin grandis, great; and flos, a
flower. This plant has also been called Trillium
All the Trilliums that we are at present acquaint-
ed with are natives of America ; growing there in
woods and shady places. They may be raised from
seeds, sown in September or October, which will
come up early in the following spring. The young
plants should be kept moist and cool during the
summer, and in September the roots may be trans-
planted into shady borders of light earth where they
are intended to remain. In England, these plants
increase very slowly at the root, and the original
ones are frequently lost, even under the care of the
most experienced cultivators ; and if the seeds are
sown in the spring they remain twelve months dor-
mant, which may lessen the chances of success.
These combined circumstances tend to limit the
whole of the Trilliums to the borders of the curious.
Par. Lond. t. 1.
Adonis, whom this flower has been named after,
was the favourite of Venus. Vernalis, from the
Latin, belonging to the spring.
Some of our fabulists have a pleasant conceit re-
specting these 'personages :' we relate it as being in
some degree explicable. They say that when Ve-
nus and Proserpina contended before Jupiter, which
should have Adonis, Jupiter referred them to Cal-
liope, whom he appointed to be judge of their quar-
rel. Calliope gave this sentence; that Adonis
should live with Venus six months, and the remain-
ing six he should reside with Proserpina. The fa-
ble is thus explained: Venus represents the earth,
and Adonis the sun. During half the year his re-
splendent beams reign over all our varied plains,
attired with beauteous flowers, and enriched with
fruit and corn ; the other half he seems to lose his
influence, and goes as it were to rule in the darker
regions with Proserpina.
To encourage a good blossom, the Adonis Verna-
lis should not be frequently removed. If it be per-
formed in the autumn, the flowering of the following
spring may, possibly, receive but little inj ury.
Hort, Kew. 2, v. 3, 350.
Orobus comes from the Greek ORO, to exite ;
and BO us, an ox; in allusion to the utility of some
of the plants belonging to this genus in fattening
cattle. Vernus, from the Latin ver, spring, its
time of flowering.
This is the Orobus venetus of Gerrarde and Par-
kinson, though the latter mentions it as double the
height of our plant. He says, * This pretty kinde
of pease blossome beareth diuers slender, but up-
right, greene branches, somewhat cornered, two
foote high, or thereabouts.'
It is, indeed, a very pretty kind of pease blos-
som, and so early a visitor cannot fail of being wel-
come in our borders. Its colour varies as the flow-
ering advances; till, on fading, it becomes a light
blue ; and the gay diversity thus afforded yields a
We never have seen it produce any seeds. It
may be divided for increase, in autumn, but its
deeply penetrating strong roots should not be too
frequently removed. A shady situation is usually
recommended for the Orobus vernus; we find it,
however, succeed in almost any soil or aspect.
Hort. Kew.2, v.4, 303.
E.I). Smith, del'
The appellation applied to this genus has proved
less mutable under the hand of science than many
others, though we are strongly inclined to believe
that it has usurped the name of another tribe. The
delphinium or Greek DELPHiNioNof Dioscorides,
received its name from the fancied resemblance of
its flower bud to a dolphin. Any one who will
compare the unopened flowers of the several species
of delphinium and aconitum, will readily observe,
that the latter bear a much stronger similitude than
the former, to that fish.
The beautiful double variety of Delphinium gran-
diflorum, so well known, and generally called the
Siberian Larkspur, is an offspring of the plant be-
fore us ; and is increased by division.
The present one may be increased by dividing
the roots in the usual season ; or by seeds, which
are freely produced. They may be sown either in
autumn or spring, but those sown at the former time
will produce the strongest plants. These should be
kept thin and free from weeds during the summer ;
and, not later than October, be transplanted for
8 Hort. Kew.2, v.3, 320.
Peculiar circumstances, or qualities, belonging to
plants, which sometimes give rise to their generic
names, will rarely be found equally applicable to all
the individuals which must necessarily be included
in the same genus. The Latin term iris, a rainbow,
applies admirably to many of the plants bearing
that name, but, certainly, not to the present one,
having no such variety of colour.
Wonderful as were the exertions and penetration
of the great Linneus, and eminently skilled as are
many of his successors, still the efforts of science
are inadequate when applied to the developement of
the laws of nature. Her laws are fixed, but so di-
versified, so complex, so utterly inexplicable to
human understanding, that man, the boasted lord of
the creation, must stand abashed by his ignorance,
and science herself confess her defects.
Naturalists have zealously and meritoriously ex-
plored her mysteries, and endeavoured to assign to
her specific laws, whereby to circumscribe her eco-
nomy ; but still before the code could ever be com-
pleted, her numerous exceptions to its general en-
actments, have baffled the efforts of her legislators.
Thus it is with the classification of the animal,
the vegetable, and the mineral, kingdoms. Inge-
nious distinctions have been laid down for the dis-
crimination of one family from another, but in spite
of our science in defining divisions, anomalous sub-
jects continually step in and show that our system
is unfounded in nature. Indeed, how can we hope
to class, with precision, the component parts of these
several kingdoms, when human science is inadequate
to point out a clear line of distinction between the
three kingdoms themselves.
Nevertheless, the present state of the science is
truly inestimable to us. Men the most learned and
industrious have contributed to its present perfec-
tion, and talents the most eminent have been devoted
to its extension. Much has been attained, and still
much we may hope to discover, notwithstanding
the whole depth of the subject is alone fathomable
by him who framed its laws.
This magnificent plant has frequently been im-
ported from Constantinople, and received its trivial
appellation, Susiana, from a western district of
Persia, which was known to the ancients by that
name. Susa, now called Caster, was the capital
of that district, and the term, in the language of
the country, signifies Lilies. Chalcedon a city of
Asia opposite Constantinople.
It requires to be planted in a warm, dry, loamy,
or gravelly soil, or it will rarely be found to blos-
som freely. To preserve the plant in health, it
seems desirable to transplant it once in four or five
years, as parts of the old roots undergo decay, and
injure the young ones.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 117.
LEI HI ON is the Greek name of the Lily; and
from it, through the Latin, our term Lilium has
Much has been said on the analogy between
bulbs and buds, and their affinity is more perfect
than many of our readers probably imagine.
This species of Lily presents a pretty example of
the bulb produced in the usual situation of the bud,
and the affinity thereby becomes more evident.
We shall treat this subject more at length in a
The culture of this plant is extremely easy.
The old roots increase very little, but the bulbs
taken from the stem, in August, and then deposited
in the soil, will produce one leaf in the following
spring: in the second year a small bulb-bearing
stem, about fifteen inches high ; but not usually a
flower: in the third year a stronger stem, bearing
bulbs, and terminated by one of its beautiful blos-
soms; and a handsome head of them may be ex-
pected in the following summer. Transplanting
should be effected in autumn; and shade or ex-
posure will be equally suitable.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 241.
The term Spiraea has been deduced from the
Greek SPEIRA, a rope; and is applied to this genus
in consequence of the flexibility of the branches in
some of its species. Laevigata from the Latin laevis,
There are several species of Spiraea well known
in our gardens, as the Spiraea salicifolia, usually
called the Spiraea frutex : and the Spiraea hype-
ricifolia, sometimes known by the name of Hype-
ricum frutex. Our present subject is not quite so
frequently met with as either of these, though not
less interesting, nor less entitled to a place in every
shrubbery. Its summer foliage is generally retained
in a dry state, during winter, and forms a nice
shelter to the young shoots, which are usually ra-
ther succulent, and, seem to need some such pro-
tection against the inclemencies of winter.
It may occasionally be propagated by suckers,
though not so freely as are some others of the same
family. Or it may readily be raised by layers,
which should be confined under the soil in autumn,
and they will be sufficiently rooted for separation in
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 254.
Kiiliuia l.i I it'ii 1 1,1
E.D. Smith del 1 :
Peter Kalm was an eminent botanist of Finland,
and professor of the science at Abo. He imbibed a
love of nature among the flowery rocks of Sweden;
the wilds also of North America, and icy forests of
Russia were alike explored by him. He published
his travels through North America in 1753, which
were translated into English by Mr. Forster in 1771 ;
and Linneus, it may be conceived, paid no more
than due respect to merit, in bestowing his name on
this splendid family of plants. Latifolia, from the
Latin latus, broad ; and folium, a leaf.
The first sentiment excited by the presence of
this beautiful North American shrub, is one of re-
gret, arising out of the difficulty of keeping it in
perfect health. The principal requisites towards
this appear to be purity of air, moisture and shade
during our summer months, and a proper imitation
of its native soil.
Abercombie says, 'most of the exotic shrubs
brought from America, were originally found grow-
ing on tracts of ground resembling our beds of peat,
and the luxuriance of these vegetables may partly
be ascribed to the excessive moisture which is
peculiar to some parts of America. One great obj ect
is to imitate the American peat. This is a compo-
sition of the branches, twigs, leaves, and the roots
of trees; with small plants, grass, and weeds; by
having lain immemorially in water, the whole is
formed into a soft mass ; and when the materials are
completely decayed and blended so as to be homo-
geneous in appearance, the compound is the finest
vegetable mould: where this description of peat
cannot be obtained, recourse must be had to the best
that can be procured from marshes, bogs, or heathy
commons, which must be well turned and sweetened,
and mixed with sand and rotten leaves.'
Of this soil distinct beds should be formed, about
three feet deep, for this class of American plants,
with a shade of shrubby or lofty trees on the south
side ; and if the beds could be so placed as to admit
an occasional flow of water being turned through
a stratum of pebbles, laid three or four feet beneath
the surface, little doubt would exist of success.
It is preferable to transplant in spring or autumn,
but it may be effected at almost any period, if the
earth be not too much disturbed from the fibrous
roots, which are so small and numerous as to retain
the soil in one compact mass. But little difficulty
would exist in the cultivation of the Kalmia, Rho-
dodendron, and other similar plants, if a sufficiency
of moisture could be conveniently afforded them du-
ring our summer months. In most situations they
require copious waterings in very warm weather.
Our drawing is from the pale-flowered Kalrnia
latifolia, and we intend resuming the subject, with
further directions, under another variety of it.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 47.
Natural Order .
The term Linaria appears to have had its origin
from Linum, flax; just as Flax-weed and Toad-flax
are deduced from the English word, on account of
the similarity of the plants.
This species is frequently known as the Antir-
rhinum purpureum, in which genus it was placed
by Linneus: modern botanists have, however, di-
vided the Antirrhinums into two genera, and this
plant now stands with the appellation by which it
was well known to Gerarde, Parkinson, Bauhin,
and others. Purpurea, from the Latin, purple.
Its erect and elegant growth renders it well suit-
ed to contrast with more diffuse subjects of its
own stature ; and the simplicity of its culture will
qualify its deficiency of that splendour which may
attach to some of its more fastidious neighbours.
It produces seed freely, and from these may be
readily propagated. If sown in the autumn upon a
tolerably dry soil, they will not fail to come up,
and produce much stronger plants than those sown
in spring ; and when once established it may be ex-
pected, by seed, to increase spontaneously, though
in very wet soils it will sometimes fail.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 12.
From two Greek words OINOS and THERA, the
first signifying wine, and the second a pursuit, in
consequence of the dried roots acquiring the flavour
of wine. Pumila, from the Latin, little.
(Enothera has, by different authors, been accent-
ed on the antepenultimate, and on the penultimate
syllable : the latter agrees best with the derivation.
Though this is the smallest (Enothera that we
are acquainted with, it forms a pretty ornament
amongst rock- work, and plants of like size; and we
find it possess this advantage, that whilst blossom-
ing through the hottest months, it rarely suffers by
It is easily increased by parting the roots in
spring or autumn; but it will produce much finer
plants, and flower better, when raised from seeds.
Miller directs that they be sown in autumn, in pots,
placed under a hotbed frame until the spring, when
the plants will appear : when fit to remove, plant a
few in small pots, to be sheltered under a common
frame in winter; others may be set in a sheltered
border, and the following summer they will produce
flowers and seeds in plenty.
Hort.Kew.2, v.2, 343.
Of the origin of the term Valeriana we have
nothing certain on record. Some persons have
supposed it to have originated in the name of an
eminent physician, Valerius, who is said to have
first used one of the species of it in medicine;
whilst others think the term may have come from
the Latin valere, to be well. Montana, from the
Latin mons, a mount.
We are not aware that this species has been em-
ployed in medicine, but the Valeriana officinalis is
not only used against particular disorders; but,
according to Gerarde, was in his day employed as
a pot herb by the inhabitants of the north. He
quotes a lame couplet in its praise, and says, 'some
woman poet or other hath made these verses.*
Could this venerable herbalist be introduced to
some of our ' woman poetry* of the nineteenth cen-
tury, we think he would not, so unceremoniously,
cast a slur on the productions of the fair sex.
It flourishes in a light dry soil, and is readily
increased by a separation of its roots. Though
increase be not wanted, it will still be desirable to
divide and transplant it occasionally.
Hon. Kew. 2, v.l, 74.
.b. Smith, del'
SCARLET BLADDER SENNA.
The term Colutea has been introduced from the
Greek name of a plant in Theophrastus, bnt no fur-
ther knowledge appears to exist of its origin or ap-
plication. It probably comes from KOI LOS, a spa-
cious cavity, in allusion to its distended seed vessel.
Frutescens, from the Latin frutex, a shrub. The
common term Bladder Senna, has been given to it
from its bladder-like pods, and the general resem-
blance of its foliage to that of the officinal Senna.
It is also said to possess a portion of the cathartic
qualities of that plant.
Colutea is one of the unfortunate genera, among
many others, that has come, perfected as it were,
from the hand of the great father of our artificial
system, to suffer amputation and distribution in af-
ter ages. The Colutea frutescens is now found in
the modern catalogues as Sutherlandia frutescens,
in consequence of this name being adopted in the
Hortus Kewensis, after Mr. Robert Brown. To the
very eminent abilities of the author of the Prodromus
Novse Angliee every one must be ready to pay the
tribute of praise ; but, perhaps, that very acuteness
of observation and depth of botanical science for
which he is celebrated, may render him more nice
in his generic divisions than the plain botanist may
admit to be necessary, or, indeed, than is useful to
the practical man; for certain it is, that the ex-
tension of our botanic vocabulary, and perplexing
increase of synonyms, form a considerable draw-
back on any advantage that may accrue from nicer
distinctions. Both Sir J. E. Smith and Dr. Sims
are of opinion, that the genera Sutherlandia and
Swainsonia are too nearly allied to Colutea to admit
Its beautiful scarlet flowers, contrasted with its
silvery foliage, render this a peculiarly ornamental
little shrubby plant ; and after its brilliant blossoms
are faded, its large inflated pods still excite an
interest in its welfare. It is rather tender, and is
frequently kept in the greenhouse, where it never
blossoms so luxuriantly and fine as in the open air.
It should be planted against a wall in a warm
sheltered situation, in light dry soil, and in frosty
weather be protected by litter and matting; or if
kept in a pot, in the house, it should be placed near
to the window, and will always be benefited by being
fully exposed in mild weather.
Treated as a hardy plant, it does not continue
more than three or four years: this, however, is
not important, since it is easily raised from seeds,
which may be sown early in the spring, in pots,
placed in a cool cucumber frame, and the plants
should be hardened to the open air as early as pos-
sible. If thus forwarded, they will blossom in the
latter part of the summer ; or if not at that time,
early in the following season.
Hort.Kew.2, v.4, 327.
Class . Order.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.
The name comes from the Greek GNAPHALON,
signifying down or wool, such as is produced by
dressing or shearing cloth, in allusion to the wool-
liness of the foliage. Arenarium, from the Latin
arena, sand, indicative of the soil it usually prefers.
The presence of the flowers of this Gnaphalium,
in many parts of Europe, gives rise to feelings of
melancholy and sadness, which Englishmen have
never been taught to connect with them. The con-
trary is rather the case, for they are introduced
among us in bouquets for festivities, and embellish-
ments for head dresses. They are sometimes ar-
tificially tinged with a diversity of hues, and from
their continued beauty, in a dry state, they have
obtained the title Everlasting.
Some of our readers may not be informed of the
prevalent practice amongst the inhabitants of the
continent, in using these flowers to decorate the
monuments and graves of their departed relatives
and friends. The French are particularly partial to
these flowers, and designate them as we do, IM-
MORTELLE. It has been observed by Mr. Phil-
lips, that * since the hill of Pere la Chaise has been
converted into a cemetery for the city of Paris, the
demand for these flowers in the French capital has
been so considerable, as not only to employ many
hands in the cultivation of them, but numerous
families are regularly occupied, and entirely sup-
ported by forming these flowers into garlands and
crosses, which are offered for sale by the cottagers
near the entrance of this celebrated burial ground ;
and but few persons can visit the romantic and hal-
lowed spot without having some name called to their
remembrance which draws from them this slight
token of remembrance ; for here we find a mingled
mass of monuments, recalling to our recollection the
sweet lines of the poet, the ready wit of the critic,
the piety of the priest, the heroic deeds of the sol-
dier, the bravery of the sailor, the labours of the
naturalist, the beauties of the artist, and the loves of
Abelard and Heloise; here we meet fond parents
with wreaths of IMMORTELLES to drop on the sod
of their blighted hopes, and affectionate children
placing crosses of everlasting flowers on the head
of their parents* graves.'
The cultivation of this plant is particularly easy
where the soil is light and dry, but in damp si-
tuations it frequently dies under the influence of the
moisture of our climate during the three first months
of the year. It should be divided in spring or au-
tumn, and if the soil be stiff, mix with it an ample
portion of drift sand ; this will generally preserve it
in health ; but should it not do so, plant it on little
hillocs of light soil, which may be raised six or eight
inches high, as a further defence against damp ; and
half cover the soil with small pebbles.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 14.
HES'PERIS MATRON A'LIS. plena alba.
DOUBLE WHITE ROCKET.
Hesperis, from the Greek 'ESPEROS, evening; in
consequence of the fragrance of some of this tribe
at that time. We are told that the ladies of Ger-
many cultivate these flowers in pots, to secure the
evening perfume of them in their apartments, whence
they have been called dames' violets; and this al-
lusion has been Latinized into matronalis. The
name of Rocket seems to have come to us through
the Latin eruca, signifying canker-worm as well as
the name of this plant, and as it frequently dies
with the unskilful, without a perceptible cause, the
term may be as applicable as many others in our
Many and contradictory directions have been
given for the cultivation of this plant, evidently by
persons not at all practically acquainted with its
habits. The best information we have ever seen
printed is contained in Rees's Cyclopaedia. The
grand secret consists in cutting- down the flower
stems of a plant or two, before they are much ex-
hausted by the bloom, thus a good stock of offsets
will be produced. A cool and rather moist situation
for the rocket is always to be preferred.
Hon. Kew. 2, v. 4, 122.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPBRFLUA.
Senecio, from the Latin senex, an old man; a
name which has been given to it from the fancied
resemblance of its seed down to the grey or silvery
head of age. Elegans, elegant. The seed of this
plant is usually sold under the name of Jacobaea,
which term has been handed down from some old
botanists, who called it Flos Sancti Jacobi, or the
flower of Saint James.
The Senecio elegans may be raised from seeds,
sown with other hardy annuals in the spring, and
requires no peculiar care.
The double one, which is merely a variety of the
same, is an extremely beautiful plant ; and although
it does not come within our limits as a hardy one,
we may be pardoned the union of it with its syno-
nymous species. It is usually cultivated in pots, as
an ornament for the house, yet few plants are better
adapted for giving assistance to the brilliancy of the
flower border, where, during the summer months, it
will grow with greater luxuriance and beauty than
in any other situation.
It is a tender plant, and where there is not a
greenhouse protection, it may be kept during the
winter, in a dry airy room, protected from frost; and
should be very sparingly supplied with water, or its
succulent stems will be liable to decay. In the be-
ginning of March, propagation may be commenced
by cuttings, and if one plant only has been preserved
through the winter, an abundance of others may be
raised from it. Two joints are sufficient to consti-
tute a cutting, and it should be taken off close be-
neath the lower one. It is usual to slit it a quarter
of an inch upwards from the bottom, through the
joint, which certainly in some plants facilitates their
rooting, and can injure none. These should be
planted in pots of light rich earth, two or three in
each, then watered immediately ; and bell glasses,
or in the absence of these, tumblers or goblets, be
turned over them. If in this state it be convenient
to place the pots in a warm cucumber frame, the
cuttings will strike root more quickly, but if not
they may be placed before the window of a warm
room having a southern aspect, where they will
generally succeed very well. The glasses should,
occasionally, be taken from them for a few minutes,
and wiped, but not be altogether removed till the
cuttings have struck root. When they begin to
grow freely, they may be transplanted into separate
pots, be gradually hardened to the open air, and
kept in readiness to turn into the borders about the
middle of May, where they will prove a conspicuous
ornament all the summer. The white variety of the
double Groundsel is far less common than the pur-
ple ; and though not so gay an ornament, is a very
desirable one either for pot culture or to beautify
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 42.
LARGE-FRUITED EVENING PRIMROSE.
(Enothera, from the Greek, explained under
CEnothera pumila, No. 35. Macrocarpa is also of
Greek extraction, signifying large-fruited.
Nearly the whole of the genus (Enothera, or
Evening Primrose, a name by which some of the
species are so familiar to us, arc- extremely orna-
mental plants. They have obtained the latter
well-known appellation from the circumstance of
their flowers expanding in the evening; though
this peculiarity does not equally apply to all the
individuals of the genus.
The species Macrocarpa has been considered
synonymous with Missourensis.
It is easily propagated by cuttings, which may
be planted in pots, and placed in a hotbed, or un-
der a hand glass, till they have struck root; they
will there be convenient for removing into warm
parts of the flower border, or to place in a cold
frame for more effective winter protection.
It should be planted in a situation that is fa-
vourable to its trailing on the ground, unless con-
siderable attention can be paid to the support of
its succulent stems.
Bot. Mag. 1. 1592.
From two Greek words, signifying a fifth sta-
men, which name has been chosen to distinguish
this genus from others of the same class ; though
the additional stamen is always more or less im-
perfect. Pubescens, from the Latin, downy.
It is frequently known as the Chelone pentste-
mon ; and this, some of the best botanists still con-
sider its legitimate title ; but the use of the new
name amongst those who never even pretend to
judge of its propriety, has rendered its adoption
almost necessary, that the plant might be recog-
nized by those who know it by no other appella-
tion. It was first adopted merely on account of
a trifling variation in the rudiment of the addi-
tional filament already alluded to.
It is of easy cultivation, and may be propagated
either by seeds, cuttings, or separation at the root.
Seeds should be sown in the spring ; and the plants,
which require no other care than that of being kept
free from weeds, will blossom in the following sum-
mer. If cuttings are taken as early in the spring
as the plants will admit, they will flower in the
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 8.
Natural Order. m
Kalmia, after Peter Kalm, noticed at No. 33,
where a return to the same subject was antici-
pated under another variety of Kalrnia latifolia.
The Kalmia glauca is now given, there being but
little difference in the nature of the several species.
In America it is called the spoon tree, in conse-
quence of the natives making use of the wood^
which is close and hard, for the purpose of form-
ing various articles of household utility.
Miss Edgeworth, in her tale of " To-morrow,"
ingeniously alludes to the poisonous properties of
the leaves of this splendid plant. It forms one of
her auxiliaries in the delineation of the evils of
procrastination, which she has given with a force
and feeling not to be surpassed. The incident is
founded on the communication of Dr. Barton, in
the American Transactions ; who states that in
Philadelphia, in the winter of 1790, an official pro-
clamation was issued, warning all persons from
eating pheasants. This, the Doctor observes,
was done on a well grounded opinion, that several
persons had died from the use of some of these
birds which had fed on the leaves of the Kalmia.
Opposed to this opinion, is that of Mr. Wilson, the
ornithologist, who says that he has found the crops
of these birds distended almost entirely with the
buds of the Kalmia, but that he has eaten freely of
the flesh of such of them, without any ill conse-
quence having arisen.
Its noxious character has been strongly exhi-
bited on the rattlesnake. A few drops of a tiuctur'e
prepared from the leaves having been poured on
this reptile, it died shortly afterwards. And the
deleterious effects of the leaves on the human
system, are such as should excite a strict guard
against their being eaten by children.
Kalm, himself, states that both sheep and calves
had died from eating them, and that cows and
horses had suffered greatly from the same cause.
On the other hand, when the ground is covered
with snow, stags browse them as their common
food, without any ill effects having been known to
arise from the use of the venison.
In the cultivation of plants generally, but more
particularly those of difficult growth, attention
should always be given to the peculiar situation
of them in their native soil. Professor Kalm has
chiefly noticed the broad-leaved species, and found
it succeed best on the sides of hills, especially on
the north side; and says, on meeting with a steep
place near a brook, or on the side of a hill to-
wards a marsh, you are sure to find it. This alone
speaks pages to the attentive cultivator ; particu-
larly when he is told that vegetable earth or peat
constitutes its native soil, in a climate no milder
than our own.
Hort. Kcw. 2, v. 3, 47.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAM1A SUPERFLUA.
The name Achillea is deduced from Achilles,
the famous Grecian hero, whose strength and
prowess form so conspicuous a character in the
Iliad. Clad in armour, impenetrable and resplen-
dent, Homer compares him with the sun :
" Not brighter, Phoebus in th' ethereal way,
Flames from his chariot and restores the day '*
Speciosa, from the Latin, handsome. Many of
the plants now coming- under the denomination of
Milfoil, do not possess the character which this
name seems to have been first intended to indicate;
the Latin Millefolium, being compounded of Milb,
a thousand, and folium, a leaf; and used to cha-
racterize some of these plants, which have very
numerous pinnae or leaflets.
The flowers of this Achillea are, probably, not
so showy and attractive as the florist may be led
to expect from its appellation of Speciosa. The
plant, however, is of handsome upright growth,
and its serrated foliage particularly neat. In very
light soils it sometimes spreads too freely ; there-
fore is of easy culture, and admits a division of its
roots at the usual season.
.MillMlllll.-l I Ulllll.l .
Natural Or tier.
Verbascum seems to be of very uncertain deriva-
tion, and the term having been used by the oldest
writers, its origin is likely to remain in obscurity.
A supposition has been ventured that it is a corrup-
tion of barbascum, from barba, bearded, on account
of the woolliness of some of the species. Phoenice-
um, from the Latin, signifying purple-coloured.
Of the origin or application of our English term
Mullein, we find no traces, otherwise than as the
name of a plant. Some of these being soft and
woolly, as before observed, it probably has been ap-
plied from the Latin mollis, as indicative of that
With our drawing of this plant we have given a
representation of a section of its stem. On cutting
the stem through transversely, the arrangement of
its sap vessels are as perfectly exhibited as in vege-
tables of a more ligneous formation ; and it is pretty
certain that its functions of vegetable life are per-
formed by ascending and descending fluids upon
the selfsame principles.
On the circulation of vegetable fluids, various
theories have, at different periods, been promulgated
by ingenious physiologists. Their theoretical spe-
culations, however, have been pursued with much
abstruseness and uncertainty, and it was left for the
present age to exhibit, with somewhat like precision,
the laboratory of nature in the vegetable kingdom.
Mr. Knight, the president of the Horticultural So-
ciety, from thirty years' intense application to this
subject, has determined, by ingenious and satisfac-
tory experiments, many of the phenomena of vege-
tation, particularly such as are connected with the
circulation of the sap, the perspiration of plants, &c.
These subjects, perhaps, some of our readers may
not have had occasion to examine. As they cannot
fail to prove of peculiar interest to many enquiring
minds, we shall have pleasure, as opportunity offers,
in giving the opinions of eminent botanists, and the
result of various experiments connected with this
department of vegetable physiology.
This species of verbascum is particularly hand-
some, and we have observed that the flowers of a
plant which has remained in its present situation four
or five years, are now produced of a darker hue
than when it was first planted. This possibly may
have arisen from the presence of a portion of peat
soil, which, from an alkaline quality that exists in it,
is sometimes found to change pinks into purples;
perhaps from the neutralization of acids, which pro-
duce effects directly opposite.
It never has perfected seeds with us, nor does it
increase very much at the root, but it may be pro-
pagated by cuttings of the young flowering stems,
which strike root readily under bell glasses. It
does not require any peculiar soil or situation.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 385.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA 8UPERFLUA.
The plants of this genus are sometimes called
tick-seed sun flowers, in allusion to the shape of
their seed ; which circumstance is regarded in the
systematic appellation coreopsis, noticed under
No. 13. Lanceolata, from the form of the leaves,
which approaches that of a lance or spear.
There are very few plants which exhibit a more
rich profusion of golden flowers, and also produce
them as long in succession as the Coreopsis lance-
olata. From its medium height it is well suited
either to the borders allotted to the growth of herba-
ceous subjects, or for introduction into the mingled
plantation of low flowering shrubs, where it will
form a conspicuous ornament.
It may be increased by dividing the roots in
soring or autumn, but preference should be given
to the former season ; or cuttings may be taken at
any time during the summer months, provided it be
sufficiently early to admit of their making strong
root before the commencement of cold weather.
Not less than two months should be allowed for
this purpose, even with the assistance of bell or
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 135.
V> fWLVWffc r> />}
nuf ;^^i< rftitjkl >.
c ?u c ii*iuiKi irw
ifcwt io tKrti ^ Ktlimoi
1o Jfinii'^uat *ii u:iit w y|-i Mj-.
HI 8ftV,b'}i f-itl >i '.Wfif M/telM .-.
The name of this genus has been adopted from
LEDON, which the Greeks applied to a species of
cistus that produced their LED ON ON, our labdanum,
a resinous substance sometimes employed in plais-
ters, and also in fumigations for its perfume. The
term has been improperly referred to laedendo as its
original. Palustre, from the Latin, marshy, in allu-
sion to its native situation.
This plant, when bruised, has a rather pleasant
aromatic scent, similar to that of fresh gathered
hops ; and Linneus tells us that the inhabitants of
some parts of Sweden, make use of the leaves in
their beer, which produce an agreeable flavour,
but an intoxicating quality.
The Laplanders are said to strew the branches
amongst their grain to drive away mice.
A little variety occurs in the colour of its flowers.
Some are of a clear white ; whilst others are deli-
cately tinged with a pale pink.
The Ledums come under the denomination of
peat plants ; and grow best in that soil. This spe-
cies succeeds best in a shady situation, and in the
summer should be supplied with copious waterings.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 48.
Campanula, from the Latin; the diminutive of
campana, a bell ; a name appropriately bestowed on
this genus, from the shape of the flowers. Pumila,
also from the Latin, signifying little.
This very pretty campanula, has been noticed by
the greater part of our botanical writers as a variety
of Campanula rotundifolia. It is, however, very
different in several particulars, and may well claim
the distinction of a separate species.
There are two varieties, the blue and the white ; and
where the soil is rich and loose, it is difficult to keep
their thread-like roots within proper limits ; which
if not attended to may occasion inconvenience by
their mingling with other plants.
During a part of the summer, this plant affords a
very attractive border. Its little pendent blue, or
more exquisitely delicate white, blossoms, which are
yielded in "lovely profusion," form an unbroken
line of neatness and simplicity. This effect is best
obtained by enclosing the roots between two rows of
tiles or slates, placed in the ground edgeways, about
two inches apart, with their upper edges even with
the surface of the soil.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 345.
Gentian a acaulis.
E.D. Smith (<<
S Wans sculp.
With the exposition and inferences of Linneus
before us respecting the word Pyrus, as given by
Sir J. E. Smith, we cannot submit to the deduction
of the term from the Greek PUR, fire, which is sta-
ted as given in consequence of the fruit drawing to
a point like a flame. De Theis says, from the Cel-
tic PEREN comes the Anglo-Saxon PERE, the En-
glish PEAR, and the French POIRE. Hence Py-
rus may easily be formed. According to the same
writer, API, the Celtic name of a fruit of the same
kind, is the origin of the Greek APIOS, the German
APFEL, and our APPLE. Some authors, who will
have Pyrus to be of Greek extraction, deduce it from
APIOS, with the addition of an R, &c.
That our readers may be prepared to meet new
names, they should be informed that Chaenomeles
Japonica, and also Malus Japonica, are amongst
those lately bestowed on this shrub.
The mere mention of Pyrus opens to our view
such a field of speculations as it were impossible to
pass without notice. We have the Pyrus malus,
under which name is arranged all the varieties of
that valuable fruit the Apple ; and Pyrus communis
botanically including the numberless sorts of pears,
so common amongst us.
We can but regret that many favourite old sorts of
these fruits are unavoidably falling to decay. Trees,
like animals, grow old and diseased ; and it is ob-
served, that every bud or graft of such old tree,
when attached to another stock, still inherits the
age of its original, and its consequent disease. The
invigoration yielded by its new alliance is only tem-
porary. Thus, concisely, we warn our readers from
vain attempts to propagate healthy trees from worn-
out varieties. Every man should propagate from
seeds, or graft from sorts that are known to have
been recently so raised; and fruitful plantations
would be the consequence.
The Pyrus Japonica is a great acquisition to our
gardens, from the beauty, and from the long succes-
sion of its flowers. Indeed it is far more easy to
name the season of its flowering, than to say when
none are produced. Its fruit, which never appears
to ripen here, is extremely stony and ungrateful;
nevertheless, after having been laid by for a time,
it emits a rich fruit-like odoriferous flavour.
It is well calculated for training against trellis
work or a wall, and also makes a pretty standard
shrub, when spreading from a single stem about two
feet in height. It requires no peculiar care, either
as regards soil or situation.
The best method of propagation is by layers,
which should be put down in the autumn, and they
will strike root freely in the following year. Cuttings
are sometimes taken. A part of them will grow,
but they produce weak plants.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 209.
It is pretty generally agreed that Genista has been
derived from the Latin genu, the knee ; but on what
account authors appear less unanimous. Some say
in allusion to the bending, or singular connexion of
one part of the stem to another ; whilst others con-
ceive that it arose from their similar flexibility ; or
its utility in relieving pain in that joint. Sagittalis,
also from the Latin, signifying, of an arrow, perhaps
from the leaf having the appearance of the feather-
ed end of an arrow.
The singular formation of this plant will always
claim for it a place in the garden of the curious.
The leaves are produced one from the end of ano-
ther; alternately from the upper and undersides,
connected by the midrib, which has a partial termi-
nation at the end of each.
It may be divided at the root, though a better
mode of propagation is from seeds. These should
be sown in the autumn, and the plants kept free of
weeds during the next summer. In September they
may be transplanted to the situation where they are
intended to remain. It succeeds in almost any soil
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 259.
This genus of plants has received its name in ho-
nor of Gentius, a king of Illyria, who is said to have
discovered one of the species of it. He is also sup-
posed to have experienced its virtues in his army,
as a cure for the plague. Acaulis, from the Greek,
signifying stemless, which it is in its native alpine
situations. Gentianella is formed as the diminutive
of Gentian, to characterize a small species.
It cannot but be sincerely regretted by the zea-
lous votaries of Flora, who happen to possess their
parterres of beauty within the influence of the smoke
of towns, that this interesting plant is so fastidious
as to refuse yielding its exquisitely brilliant blue
flowers amongst them; though in high situations
whether planted in strong or light soil, it generally
flowers in great splendour. Pure air has always been
deemed indispensible, yet peculiar management may
possibly surmount the difficulty; for in situations
where it never, or very rarely, produces flowers,
we have generally observed it appear healthy and
increase luxuriantly. This would suggest the pro-
priety of planting it in poor soil, for sometimes by
checking luxuriance we obtain, from some other
plants, both flowers and fruit. Upon this principle
it is that various arts are successfully practised on
fruit trees; such as curtailing their roots, cutting
notches in the larger limbs, and also that of ringing
them. The latter method may, with the greatest
confidence, be recommended for practice on young
free-growing apple or pear trees, which frequently
increase their wood too fast to admit of fruit being
produced. It may be useful to some of our readers,
and shall be briefly stated.
If blossoms have not been usually produced, ring-
ing should be performed after the fall of the leaf.
This is called procuration ringing. When trees
blossom, but fail to bear fruit, it may be done whilst
they are in flower . This is called maturation ring-
ing; and will induce the production of much finer
fruit than would ever be yielded without it. The
operation merely consists in taking a ring of the
bark entirely off the whole circumference of a
branch or limb of the tree. The breadth of the ring,
on a luxuriant apple or pear tree, may be a quarter
of an inch ; but on those of slow growth, it should be
This practice is not so strictly applicable to stone
fruits, from the propensity of the trees to gum and
canker about the wound. Yet we have successfully
practised it on these, taking care to ring such parts as
have free growth, making the ring but narrow, and
doing it at a period when the sap is most inactive.
Thus may fruit trees be rendered productive, and
flowering plants ornamental, where neither was the
case before art stepped in and forced the efforts of
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 212.
The derivation of the name of this genus, from
the Greek LEDON, has been noticed under No. 47.
Buxifolium, from buxus, box ; and folium, a leaf;
in consequence of the resemblance of the foliage of
this plant to that of the common box.
A retrospective glance would seem to indicate the
metamorphosis of our " Botanic Garden" into an or-
chard. We, however, never intend being fettered
by the limits of a particular subject. The whole
vegetable kingdom is before us, and to the extent of
our humble capacity we shall lay hold on any part
of it that may seem to develope a source of know-
ledge, either useful to the hands of the practical, or
gratifying to the minds of the speculative.
The Ledum buxifolium is a beautiful close-grow-
ing little evergreen shrub, rarely reaching the height
of twelve inches, which should be planted in sandy
peat, in a cool and rather shaded situation ; and, as
far as is possible, where it may have the advantage
of pure air. Its chief demand on our care arises in
the heat of summer, when it should be very fre-
quently watered, or it will be liable to be lost. It is
propagated slowly by layers.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 48.
i Flowers in
1 July, Aug.
Lily, from the Greek LEIRION. The derivation
and application of its trivial name are sufficiently
We know of very few plants that excited more
general interest than did the Tiger Lily on its
introduction to this country. Every one heard of,
admired, and resolved on possessing 1 , this Chi-
nese beauty ; and in a very short time, from its
facility of propagation, the cottager and nobleman
boasted alike of its splendour in their borders.
Happily, our nature will not admit the continued
exertion of these strong feelings of delight, which
are generated by novelty; or, we should be un-
ceasingly carried about by ecstacies, and temperate
reason could no where build her throne.
In a former number the resemblance of the bulb
and the bud was hinted at. Their utility, as re-
gards vegetation, is precisely the same ; for they
both constitute what Linneus calls the hybernacu-
lum, or the winter quarters, of the young plant.
Their principal difference exists in the situation
which they occupy ; and in the present, and a few
other plants, even this distinction is wanting.
'I consider (says T. A. Knight, Esq. in a letter
to the author,) a bulb to differ from an ordinary
bud, only in having a reservoir of a different form
attached to it. The bud of a tree, or of the tuber-
ous root of a potatoe, is attached to a mass of
alburnum and bark, from which, when it germi-
nates, it draws its requisite nutriment. A bulbous
root, such as the common onion, has numerous
thick and fleshy scales, which in their incipient
state, might have extended into leaves, but which,
instead of extending themselves, remain short and
are distended by becoming reservoirs of the true
sap of the plant, as the bark and alburnum were
in the cases before- mentioned.'
He observes, also> *Buds of every kind have
their attached reservoirs, without which they can-
not live and extend themselves. Some species of
trees and herbaceous plants possess a power which
others do not, of re- producing buds upon the surface
of their alburnum. It is, however, the unanimous
opinion of the continental naturalists, and of the
English and Scotch, with the exception of myself,
that all buds originate from the Medulla ; and it is
true, that in all cases> almost, a bud may be traced
to the Medulla ; but I have, in a great many in-
stances, occasioned buds to be generated upon the
smooth surface of the alburnum ; and I have often
seen them thus produced naturally.'
If the bulbs which are produced on the stems of
this magnificent Lily, be planted in the borders as
soon as they fall, or can be easily detached, they
will grow, and in most cases blossom at three years
old, but stronger in the fourth year.
Hort.Kew. 2, v. 2, 141.
Erica, from the Greek EREICO ; see No. 22,
Australia, from the Latin, southern ; a specific
name given in consequence of its having been in,
troduced from the southern part of Europe,
This plant will always prove a peculiarly in-
teresting appendage to the peat border, and should
never be dispensed with. The hardy heaths form
a little tribe of shrubs whose beauties we cannot
class with the splendour of the Kalmias, the Aza,
leas, and the Rhododendrons ; but they equally in,
terest us through a far different medium. They
introduce themselves to our feelings by their mo,
desty and humility ; and we readily adn.it the pro.
priety of Dr. Watts' s assertion
<: Humility's a plant of lovely growth."
Still the humble growth of some of the tender species
of Erica, whose flowers are occasionally very
specious, may further remind us of him who is
humble only to embellish his grandeur.
The Erica australis should be planted in sandy
peat ; or in a mixture of peat and fresh loam ; and
like most other of the hardy heaths, though they
make root but slowly, may be increased by layers,
Hort.Kew. 2, v. 2, 396.
! Flowers in
1 July, Aug.
Epilobium is compounded of three Greek words,
EPI LOBOU ION, a violet upon a pod ; or, more
literally, upon a pod - a violet : not that a violet
resembles the blossom, but is intended to indicate
a beautiful flower. Dodonaei from Dodonaeus, an
eminent physician and botanist of Friesland, who
lived in the sixteenth century, and published several
botanical works in German, illustrated by wood cuts,
similar to those of Gerarde and Parkinson.
This species has been noticed, by some writers,
as synonymous with Epilobium angustissimum.
Ours is a plant with procumbent stems, and other-
wise differing from angustissimum.
It is the prettiest plant that we know of the tribe,
and is never troublesome by spreading at the root,
which some of the Epilobiums are found to be.
After it has done blossoming, the whole of the
stems may be cut off, or they will continue to grow,
and thus, sometimes, lessen the vigour of the roots.
It is easily increased by separating the young
shoots in the spring, which will succeed, notwith-
standing they may be entirely devoid of any fibrous
SVNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SDPBRFLDA.
Apuleius, a celebrated platonic philosopher of
the second century, is said to have used this term ;
its derivation must therefore be doubtful. De Theis
has derived it from Tages, an Etruscan deity,
grandson of Jupiter and teacher of divination.
Patula, from the Latin> spreading.
Why this plant is called French Marygold is now
somewhat difficult to determine ; but it is more than
probable that it received this appellation in conse-
quence of its seed having been first imported to this
country from France*
Its cultivation is so generally known, that nothing
need be said respecting it ; except to warn our
readers against a formidable enemy to the young
plants. If they be much eaten, a single exami*
nation, late at night, with the assistance of a light,
will show the depredators to be young earwigs,
(Forficula auricularia) . Woollen cloth, loosely
folded ; hollow bean stalks ; or two small boards,
placed upon each other, with one edge of the upper
one raised sufficiently to admit their creeping be-
tween them, will form useful traps, and the insects
may be destroyed every morning.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, SB.
1>! .!<<)< , |,l l.llllll 1 -|'<- I > u III
SHOWY DRAGON'S HEAD.
Dracocephalum is a term compounded of two Greek
words, DRACON, a dragon; and CEPHALE, the
head, on account of the fancied resemblance of its
corolla to the head of that fabulous animal. Speci-
osctn, from the Latin, showy.
This is a handsome erect herbaceous plant, of
somewhat larger growth than the Dracocephalum
denticulatum, to which it bears considerable resem-
blance, but from its late introduction, is not so fre-
quently met with.
It will grow in any common garden soil, but pre-
fers a rich and rather light loam. It increases
freely at the root, and may be divided in spring, or
in the autumn.
We ought not, perhaps, to pass by the present
opportunity of making further mention of the ideal
animal whose name has assisted in distinguishing
this genus of plants. We say ideal, because much
that we have heard and read of dragons, during
childhood, must have been so. Such tales may serve
the purpose of the nurse, but are highly ridiculous,
and improper to be implanted in the youthful mind.
No opportunity should, therefore, be lost in unde-
Though the term Lychnidea has been expelled
from Botanical genera, it is sometimes, nevertheless,
used as an English name for this tribe of plants ;
see No. 6. Ovata, from the Latin, signifying egg-
shaped, or of an oval figure.
The Phlox ovata is a beautiful herbaceous plant,
and however often met with will always be welcome.
We believe there is not one individual in this tribe
but has powerful claims to the attention of every true
florist ; we may therefore presume that our readers
will have pleasure in being occasionally introduced
to others of the same family.
This little plant, though from North America, was
for many years, after its introduction, regarded as
a subject for the greenhouse, and indeed in moist
situations it will occasionally decay.
The greater part of the Phloxes delight in peat,
or a mixture of that soil with loam ; peat, however,
seems rather too retentive of moisture to suit the
Phlox ovata ; but if planted in sandy loam, in a warm
situation, the severest frosts will not be found to
injure it. It may be propagated by parting the
roots, or by cuttings.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 327.
Flore pleno rubra, et tiore pleno alba.
Double Crimson, and Double White.
This plant has received its name from the Latin
primus, first, on account of its early flowering;
though not quite correctly, for we have aconites,
snowdrops, and crocuses, before the delicate primrose
dares to unfold its beautiful petals. Acaulis, from
the Greek, stemless.
The beautiful varieties of primroses which inhabit
our gardens, whether crimson, lilac, or white, double
or single, are alike included under one species. In-
deed, much difficulty has arisen respecting the origin,
and consequently, the proper specific division, of
several of the primula tribe. Linneus considers the
primrose, the cowslip, and oxlip, originally but one
distinct species, and several reasons may be ad-
vanced in support of this theory ; yet still the par-
tially distinct characters of the primrose and cowslip
should incline us now to separate them, whatever
may have been their origin. We certainly have
seen flowers of the primrose supported on a scape or
stalk, and thus approach the oxlip ; whilst the cow-
slip, when brought into cultivation, will have its
flowers enlarged, and thus also incline towards the
oxlip. Hence a tendency is shown, in the two ex-
tremes of distinction, to verge towards each other;
indeed, a host of connecting links between these
plants will present themselves to the diligent and in-
Be the scientific difference or connection of these
British subjects whatever it may, it does not lessen
the value of our attractive 'and modest primrose,
that lives on banks and hides its beauties beneath
the brambles' shade,
" Lorn tenant of the peaceful glade,
Emblem of virtue in the shade,
Rearing thy head to hrave the storm
That would thy innocence deform.
Of all the flowers that greet the spring,
Of all the flowers the seasons bring j
To me while doom'd to linger here,
The lowly Primrose shall be dear." MAYITB.
The two peculiarly pleasing varieties of whith
we now present figures, are the most elegant little
subjects that we are acquainted with in the spe-
cies. They are usually planted in a loamy soil;
we, however, find a sandy peat, with a little loam,
more suitable to their growth. As the double white
does not freely produce offsets that can be conve-
niently slipped from the old plant, it will be found
an advantageous practice to slit the thick part of
the old root longitudinally with a knife, into as
many parts as the head will admit ; observing to
retain a portion of the fibrous roots to each division.
These being planted in pots or the borders, should
be regularly supplied with water till they have
taken root; but during the winter, if in pots, they
require little or no water.
Hort. Kew, 2, v. 1, 307.
<'.i .!> i t .-M UII'M li.i
h 1 <-.-> i i .-i C,
Natural Or tier.
Lobelia is a name instituted by Plumier, after
Matthias de Lobel, a Flemish botanist of the six-
teenth century; who, in youth, acquired an ardent
love of plants; and, through life, cultivated the sci-
ence of botany with considerable success. He was
appointed botanist to King James I., and died near
London, at the advanced age of seventy-eight.
Woodville observes that this plant derived its ap-
pellation, Siphilitica, from its efficacy in the cure of
siphilis, according to the experience of the North
American Indians. As its antisiphilitic powers have
not, however, been confirmed by European practice,
it may be needless to treat at all on its medical
Several plants of the Lobelia tribe possess very
active medicinal properties, particularly the Lobelia
Tupa, a native of Chili. This species is poisonous
in the extreme, and acts as an emetic, simply by
smelling the flowers.
Whether the Lobelia siphilitica be planted in the
open ground, or kept in a pot, the offsets, should be
be divided in the spring; and they will blossom
freely without further care.
16 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 359.
. SLENDER-LEAVED COREOPSIS.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA FRUSTBANBA.
Coreopsis, from the Greek CORIS, a bug; and
OPS is, appearance ; in allusion to the apparent
similarity of the seed and the insect. From this
circumstance it is, in part, that these plants are
sometimes called tick-seed sunflower. Tenuifolia,
from the Latin tenuis, slender ; and folium, a leaf.
There were formerly between thirty and forty
distinct species of Coreopsis described, and nearly
the whole of them, like tenuifolia, hardy and her-
baceous. The genus has, however, been somewhat
curtailed, from the generic characters of some of its
former species having been found such, as of neces-
sity, required their removal to other families. They
are generally showy plants ; and more perfect in-
stances of their attraction need not be given, than
in the two species already published in this work,
No. 13, and No. 46. The former of these, the
Coreopsis tinctoria, has spread over Great Britain
more rapidly than any plant we have ever known.
In the three years, since the period of its introduc-
tion, its beauty has secured it a passport to almost
every respectable garden in the kingdom ; where it
will continue to be cultivated as one of the most
desirable annuals that our transatlantic friends have
ever bestowed upon us.
The Coreopsis tenuifolia requires no peculiar care,
but may be planted in any common garden soil. Its
increase at the root will admit a division every other
year, or even more frequently.
It is a desirable plant, from the compactness of
its growth and neatness of its slender foliage. It
opens its brilliant flowers before the gay annuals of
the autumn are over prominent ; a season which is
usually burthened with these tints of gold. Nature,
indeed, seems prodigal of this rich dress. The
opening of spring exhibits her in the garden, attired
in aconites, crocuses, and the gay variety of narcis-
suses; whilst the meadows, in a blaze of butter-
cups and cowslips, remind us of the descent of Ju-
piter in a shower of gold.
The pleasures of hope are multiplied as we ap-
proach the object of anticipation ; and now, at the
vernal equinox, the very mention of spring is exhi-
larating in the extreme, when
11 All that is sweet to smell, all that can charm
( it(i ,- Or eye or ear, bursts forth on every side,
Arid crowds upon the senses.
" By nature's swift and secret working hand,
The garden glows, and fills the liberal air
With lavish fragrance : while the promised fruit
Within its crimson folds.
" Ye fostering breezes blow,
Ye softening dews, ye tender showers, descend !
And temper all, thou world reviving sun,
-In* * ne perfect year. 1 ' THOMSOJT.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 6, 133.
Rhododendron is deduced from two Greek words,
RODON, a rose, and DENDRON, a tree. The name
was first adopted by Dioscorides. Linneus's ap-
plication of it does not, however, appear to be con-
tinued to the same plants. Our Nerium is supposed
to have first borne the appellation. Hirsutum, from
the Latin, rough or hairy.
Our present subject bears a strong affinity to the
Rhododendron ferrugineum, excepting that the un-
der side of its leaves are less rusty, and they are also
fringed with rigid hairs, which are not found on the
leaves of the Rhododendron ferrugineum.
It is rather more free in growth than the last-
mentioned species, and generally possesses an ad-
vantage over it, in the abundance of its beautiful
These plants are propagated, in Great Britain,
principally by layers ; as they rarely produce seeds
or suckers, except in their natural climate. The
usual time of laying them is the latter part of sum-
mer, and the heads only of the young shoots should
be left above the soil. Peat soil and a northerly
aspect will be found most suitable.
Hort. Kew. 2, v 3, 49.
From the Latin cochleare, a spoon ; a term ap-
plied to this family of plants from the formation of
their leaves being concave, and resembling an old
fashioned spoon. Groenlandica, from the country
where it has been found. It has, occasionally, been
met with also in the Orkneys, and on the mountains
This species is, by some authors, termed a starved
variety of the officinalis, an English species, pretty
well known in the north, and on the sea coast, a
plant which has obtained for the genus the title of
scurvy-grass. Its efficacy in scorbutic affections
appears to be established on the most respectable
authorities, and though various preparations of the
Cochlearia officinalis are prescribed, it is generally
acknowledged that the green plant taken as a salad,
is by far the most efficacious mode of employing it
as an antiscorbutic.
The best method of keeping the Greenland scur-
vy-grass, is in a small pot of light loam ; and like
most other alpine plants, it succeeds best in a high
and open situation, where it has the full advantage
of pure air.
Dianthii!* < 'hiii'-n -i -
Linneus, duly appreciating- the beauty and fra-
grance of this genus of plants, seems to have been
desirous of distinguishing it by a name, and called it
Jove's Flower; deriving Dianthus from the Greek
DIGS, of Jove, and ANTHOS, a flower. Chinensis
from its native country.
This plant is usually mentioned as biennial. We
have considered it perennial, from conviction that it
most probably is perfectly so in its native climate.
It may be cultivated with advantage as an annual,
as it perfects its seed in the first season of its
growth, but having found it continue three years in
a healthy state, it would be improper to term it an-
nual or biennial.
The numerous combinations of colour into which
this well-known little subject is prone to sport,
renders it truly interesting. Each succeeding
flower may be anticipated as more beautiful than
The China Pink, or Indian Pink, as it is sometimes
called, may be raised from seeds, which should be
sown on the borders, or a hot-bed, at the latter end
of March. A dry light soil is best suited to it.
17 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 80.
The word Sisyrinchium is deduced from the
Greek sus, a hog, and RYGCHOS, a snout. This
name has been handed down to us from classic au-
thors who lived before the birth of Christ ; but it
has not been precisely determined what plant then
bore the appellation. There is nothing in this genus
that entitles it to such a name ; nothing, at least,
that we can trace. Striatum, from the Latin, in
reference to its striated leaves and flowers.
In the late general catalogues, this plant is called
Marica striata, after Curtis ; but we follow the au-
thority of the most eminent modern authors and nur-
serymen, by retaining its previous appellation.
The Sisyrinchium striatum is well adapted for the
mingled flower border of herbaceous plants, as it
continues in bloom during the whole of June and
July, and exhibits a pretty variety of flowers in con-
nexion with its Iris-like foliage.
It is easily increased, by a division of its roots
in autumn or spring, and should he planted in a
strong loamy soil. As it is sometimes destroyed
by severe frosts, it will be advisable to protect a
plant in the cold frame.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 136.
The term Calceolaria has originated from the
Latin calceolus, a little shoe : and an inspection of
the figure of the plant will sufficiently show the
reason of its bearing the appellation. Corymbosa,
from its mode of inflorescence.
The shape of the corolla of Calceolaria is one of
those which, from its infrequency, attracts the notice
of the most careless observer. It cannot be said
to present any phenomenon that does not exist in
the simplest flower that we meet with. Its novelty
alone surprises. Were we accustomed to see none
but monopetalous flowers, similar to the present one,
how excessive would be our surprise and pleasure
on first beholding the brilliantly rayed daisy, with
its golden engine-turned centre ; which now is
pressed beneath our feet, and regarded, almost as
little by the botanist of sensibility, as by the rudest
hind that ever despoiled its beauties.
The cultivation of the Calceolaria Corymbosa is
by no means difficult. It may be planted in the
open borders, or kept in a pot of loam and peat, but
should have a little protection against the severe
frost of our winters.
Bot. Reg. 723.
The probable origin of the word Phlox has been
noticed under the sixth subject given in this work.
Setacea, from the Latin seta, a bristle, in allusion to
its bristle-like foliage.
The species of Phlox which we now present to
our readers, is completely dissimilar from either of
those already treated of, but is still a desirable one.
It is a partial trailer, and any effort to lead it upright
will rarely be found to improve its effect. Many
plants require our care to support them against the
assaults of rude winds and battering rains. Our
convenience also requires the cutting back, and the
confinement of plants in certain positions, otherwise
nature, left to herself, generally produces a freedom
of outline that must abash every advocate of antique
Italian clipping and carving.
We beg to warn those of our fair readers, who
happen not to examine the present plant botanically,
against confounding it with the Phlox subulata,
which is far more common through the midland
counties of England. The leaves of the Phlox se-
tacea are narrower than those of subulata, and its
flower also possesses greater delicacy of colouring,
not having so dark a centre as the similar species.
The Phlox setacea has, with us, withstood the se-
verity of the last winter in an exposed situation.
This circumstance may be adduced as evidence of
its hardy nature. It will, however, be occasionally
lost, which accounts for its not being more common.
A few cuttings, therefore, should be planted in a
pot in June, and covered over with a small bell
glass. These should be watered whenever the soil
becomes dry, and they will strike root without the
assistance of artificial heat. The glass should be
taken off for half an hour three or four times a week,
whilst in the shade, and may be entirely removed at
the end of six weeks. Plants propagated in this
way may, with convenience, be placed for protection
during the winter, within a cold frame. This in-
dulgence will, however, render them somewhat more
susceptible of cold than those which have weathered
the severity of the season ; and if they be turned
into the borders before flowering, the keen winds
which sometimes occur in March and April will
partially dry up the juices of the plant, and render
it brown and unsightly.
The slugs are determined enemies of this plant,
and great vigilance is necessary to protect it from
their depredations. They eat out the tender ends
of the shoots, and disappoint our hopes of a lux-
uriant blossom. Complete protection from these
invaders of our pleasures is sometimes rather diffi-
cult : if, however, vegetable refuse of almost any
description, under which they can easily retreat, be
laid near to their haunts, they may generally be
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 327.
Symp.hj'turu. B ob < 1 1 1 i .-i i v 1 1 1 1 i
S . \v 1 1 1
The term Fumaria is allowed to have had its origin
in the Latin fumus, smoke ; but on what account is
not so easy to determine. It has been said, from its
affecting the eyes like smoke. This, however, after
examining several species, we cannot corroborate.
Some of the old herbalists call it smoke of the
ground ; from which it may, possibly, be inferred,
that they named it from its glaucous, or smoke-like
appearance, when viewed in considerable quantity,
at a distance. Nobilis, from the Latin, noble or
This plant is desirable for its very hardy na-
ture, as well as its gaiety at that particular period
of spring, when a blank is wont to pervade our bor-
ders : when we have seen the crocuses, hepaticas,
scillas, and earlier beauties pass away, and but few
of their successors bold enough to venture forth.
It will flourish in any light garden soil, though
with but little increase. Its seeds are not frequently
perfected in England, therefore its propagation must
depend on offsets ; which may be separated at any
time after the decay of its leaves. Transplanting
weakens the roots.
18 Hort. KPW. 2, v. 4, 239.
HES'PERIS MATRON A'LIS. ptirpurea plena.
The name of this genus has been considered un-
der the white variety of the same species, No. 39.
We should not, indeed, have noticed the present
variety of the same flower, but on account of its
very distinct habits from the double white Rocket.
It grows much taller, branched, and its flowers are
not so closely clustered.
It is suitable for the front of the shrubbery bor-
der, and may be placed in those situations where it
will be succeeded by annuals of middle growth.
The double varieties of the Rocket, particularly
the white, require some attention, in order to the
attainment of strong and luxuriant blossoming plants :
for we have not only seen them continue to grow in
a weakly and unthriving state, but not unfrequently
The source of the best practical instructions on
this head has been previously noticed ; and the
greatest service we can render our readers will be
in transcribing it.
" In the root method of proceeding, with the inten-
tion of providing offsets more abundantly, some of
the best plants should be placed in an open bed or
border, and not suffered to run up fully to flower ;
but as soon as the flower stems have advanced eight
or ten inches in height, cut them down as close to
the ground as possible ; and as they shoot again to
have them also cut off; for by stopping their up-
right growth in this manner, the roots are induced
more readily to throw out young offsets from their
sides, which will be well formed by the beginning
of the autumn, when the whole root should be taken
up, and the offsets separated from it, and planted
out in a nursery bed at about six inches distance,
in order to continue until the beginning of autumn,
or the following spring ; at either of which timrs
they should be carefully removed, with good bulls
of earth about their roots, to the places where they
are to grow for flowering. This mode of treatment
will be found peculiarly advantageous.
Such of the flower stems as are thus cut down oc-
casionally, for the purpose of increasing the number
of offsets, may be formed into cuttings of proper
lengths, and planted out in a shady border, deposit-
ing them two parts within the ground, and about
three inches asunder, water being given at the time,
and repeated as there may be occasion.
In most cases, a number of the cuttings will have
stricken good root, and formed shoots at the tops in
the course of six or eight weeks. But in order to
promote their taking root, in a more effectual man-
ner, they ought to be covered closely with bell or
hand-glasses as soon as they are planted, raising
them occasionally as the plants begin to shoot at the
tops, in order to the admission of air, to the influence
of which they should be gradually hardened.
Hort Kew. 2, v. 4, 122.
Natural Or tier.
in 1801. ?
A Greek name corresponding with this was in
use amongst the ancients, and was, by Tonrnefort,
referred to this genus. Its signification was, to ce-
ment, or conglutinate, which was thought applicable
to these plants, either from their glutinous juices,
or from their healing qualities. Bohemicum, from
Bohemia, its native country.
This species may probably be considered a mere
variety of the Symphytum officinale. Such distinc-
tive characters as it possesses appear, however, to
The very powerful virtues of the Comfrey are
well recorded by Camerarius, who saith that, " The
rootes being outwardly applyed, helpeth fresh
wounds or cuts immediately ; being bruised and laid
thereto, by glueing together their lips, and is espe-
ciall good for ruptures and broken bones ; yea it is
said to be so powerfull to consolidate or knit toge-
ther, whatsoever needeth knitting, that if they be
boyled with dissevered peeces of flesh in a pot, it
will joyne them together againe."
It is easily propagated by dividing the roots, or by
seeds ; and will grow in any common garden soil.
Schmidt Bohem. n. 211.
As some of this genus bear a resemblance to the
laurel, Linneus distinguished it by the name Daphne,
in allusion to the fabled transformation of that nymph
into such shrub. This species of Daphne retains
the trivial name Gnidium, from the probability of its
being the true GN i D I o N of the Greeks ; who named
it after Gnidus, a promontory and town in Asia
Minor, where Venus had her temple.
Though the subjects of the genus Daphne are
principally natives of Europe, yet, from their gene-
ral habits, they class with that beautiful tribe, the
evergreen American plants. Many of the most
beautiful of these American shrubs are the under-
wood of those extensive woodlands possessed by that
quarter of our globe. In such situations, shaded in
the summer from the mid-day sun, and in the win-
ter, screened from cutting winds, and further pro-
tected and manured by the fallen leaves of the forest
trees, they grow with a luxuriance that we can
scarcely hope to witness in our gardens.
The Daphne Gnidium is chiefly propagated by
being grafted on the Daphne laureola, or Spurge
Laurel, and should be planted in sandy peat.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 410.
Natural Or tier.
This genus was named after Matthias de Lobel,
see No. 61. Fulgens, from the Latin, bright, very
It may be conceived that every individual who
feels an interest in the beauty of flowers, and in the
possession of plants, bearing evidence, by their lux-
uriance, of superior cultivation, will be highly gra-
tified in being informed how this magnificent herba-
ceous Lobelia may be produced in the highest pos-
sible perfection and splendour.
Mr. Sabine observes that 'it has lately been found
to bear the severity of our winter, by bekg immers-
ed in water, as an aquatic ; and with this treatment
has flowered well by the sides of ponds and in cis-
terns ; but it was reserved for the skill of Mr. W.
Hedges to discover a mode of culture under which
this beautiful exotic has assumed a character of mag-
nificence which will hereafter make it one of the
most conspicuous decorations of our flower gardens.'
Mr. Hedges, in a communication which is printed
in the second volume of the Horticultural Society's
Transactions, directs the offsets to be divided in Oc-
tober, put into small pots, protected by a cold frame
till the middle of January. To be then removed to
a hotbed or pine pit, and re-potted, at intervals, till
May ; then to be taken into a greenhouse till they
begin to flower.
We recommend the same principles, but vary the
application of them a little, that they may be more
generally useful. The offsets need not be divided
till the latter end of February ; and then they should
be planted singly in pots of rich soil, rendered very
light, by the addition of decayed leaves or other ve-
getable mould, with a good portion of sand, and be
kept in a moderate hotbed, where plenty of air can
be admitted during the day time. About the end
of March, remove the plants, with the roots and soil
complete, into pots a little larger than those first em-
ployed, filling up the space with the same compost
as before. After this the transplanting should be
repeated every six weeks, still using pots a little lar-
ger at each removal, till through a gradation of four
or five sizes, from small ones of four inches, you ar-
rive at those of not less than ten inches diameter.
Sink the plants nearly an inch in each fresh pot, and
observe to keep them from the commencement, in
pans, which should never be without water, as much
of the success depends on their continual moisture.
They may be taken out of the hotbed about the
end of May, or even earlier, provided a temporary
covering be afforded them at night.
When the plants have done flowering, cut off the
stems ; and during the severity of winter protect
the offsets in a cold frame or airy room, where they
may remain with moderate waterings till they are
required to be again divided.
Bot. Rep. 659.
The name of this beautiful genus has been noticed
under No. 22, as derived from the Greeks ; and it
is remarked by Dr. Sibthorp that a corruption of the
term EREICO is still used by them, and applied to
the several species of this genus. Mediterranea has,
probably, been chosen as indicative of the inland si-
tuations of which this species is native.
This, like most others of the beautiful tribe to
which it belongs, should be planted in sandy peat,
and may be increased either by cuttings or layers.
All the heaths should have occasional waterings in
the heat of summer, or they may fall into excessive
langour, as Stillingfleet observes of singing birds
after midsummer. This sultry season further re-
minds us of his observations on the same subject;
No longer stimulated by the enchantments of spring,
and the growing love of their mates, birds fall into
supinity and the indolence of age.
" The groves, the fields, the meadows, now no more
With melody resound. 'Tis silence all,
As if the lovely songsters, overwhelmed
By bounteous nature's plenty, lay entranced
In drowsy lethargy."
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 367.
The term Gaura has been deduced from the Greek
GAUROS, signifying pompous or stately. Biennis,
from its duration being of two years only.
This stately herbaceous plant has very properly
been name Gaura, from its free and lofty growth,
its luxuriant branches, and its display of showy
flowers in the evening. Though each corolla that
expands in the afternoon, closes on the following
morning, yet its gaity is maintained by the conti-
nued extension of its flowering stems, and the pro-
duction of numerous young branches, which also
yield their proportion of blossoms.
Seeds of the Gaura biennis may be sown in the
autumn as soon as ripe, or at the latter end of Feb^
ruary. The young plants should be kept thin and
free from weeds during the summer ; and in the au-
tumn be carefully transplanted where they are to
remain. In the following summer they will produce
their lofty flowering stems, which should be pro-
perly confined to strong upright supporters, in order
that they may be effectually protected against the
rude winds that frequently occur in September and
despoil their beauty.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 344.
SYNGENBSIA. POLYGAMIA /KQUALIS.
The generic name we have now to notice was in
use by Dioscorides, a celebrated Greek physician
and botanist, who lived soon after the Christian era.
It is compounded of the two Greek words CACON,
bad, and HAN, exceedingly; from the real or sup-
posed mischievous properties of the plant which
bore the name, to the soil on which it grew. Coc-
cinea from the Latin, scarlet or crimson-coloured.
According to Curtis, seeds of this plant were
brought to England from Paris in 1800 ; but to
what country it is indigenous we are not correctly
informed. It is a brilliant appendage to the par-
terre in September, and contrasts well with the pre-
vailing colours of that season.
This annual is of rather delicate habits, and the
seed should be sown on a hotbed, in the spring. Or
they may be sown in pots and put into a cucumber
bed, where the young plants should not be crowded,
but have as much air as can conveniently be al-
lowed them. They may be planted into the open
ground in the latter part of May, or at the beginning
of June ; and care should be taken that the roots be
disturbed as little as possible.
Bot. Mag. 564.
Teiicr iu in pyrenaicum.
A I. I H F. A FRUTEX.
Hibiscus is a name which has been handed down
to us from the old Greek writers, but from what root
the word originally sprung, is now unknown. As
it was supposed to have been formerly applied to
some of the mallow tribe, Linneus made choice of it
to distinguish a splendid genus of the malvaceous
order, of which our present specimen furnishes a
good example. Syriacus, from Syria, its native
Our drawing of this species was taken from a
beautiful variety, known by the appellation of the
Painted Lady. There are, however, others, as the
purple-flowered, stripe-flowered, white-flowered,
double-flowered, variegated-leaved, &c.
Though varieties of the Althaea frutex have been
cultivated in England during a space of 200 years,
still we find this species by no means common. We
have indeed been surprised to observe the scarcity
of this beautiful shrub in plantations of no ordinary
merit or extent; and we can attribute it only to
partial failures in cultivation.
It has been propagated from seeds, cuttings, and
layers ; but so superior have seedling plants always
proved, that we shall only endeavour to supply di-
rections for that mode of increase. Thus raised,
they assume a more healthy habit, grow larger, and
and yield a display of much finer flowers. As the
propagation of the Hibiscus Syriacus from seeds
has not come fully under our immediate observation,
we shall take the liberty of supplying the necessary
information from what may be considered a good
authority Miller's Dictionary.
The seeds should be sown in pots, filled with light
earth, about the end of March, and if they are placed
in a gentle hotbed, it will greatly forward the growth
of the young plants. When they are come up they
must be inured to the open air, and in May the pots
should be plunged into the ground, in a border ex-
posed to the east, where they may have the morning
sun. By thus plunging the pots, the soil in them
is prevented from drying so quickly as it would if
they were left on the surface, and less attention is
required in watering them during the summer. The
plants should be kept free from weeds and tolerably
moist ; and in autumn it will be proper to remove
the pots into a common frame, to screen them from
frost ; or into some other well-protected situation ;
for although these plants, when they have obtained
strength, will resist the cold of our winters, yet the
young plants, whose shoots are tender, are very often
injured by the early frosts of autumn.
In the following spring they should be planted
nine inches apart, in beds of light rich earth ; be
kept free from weeds ; and in the winter again pro-
tected. Here they may remain one or two years,
and should then be finally transplanted.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 226.
Some portion of the plants comprised in this ge-
nus, must, no doubt, have been well known to the
founder of our botanical system as possessing emi-
nent medical qualities, or he would not have dis-
tinguished it by a name derived immediately from
the god of medicine JEsculapius. Its trivial name,
tuberosa, may be applicable, in its more luxuriant
state in America, but with us its roots are more fusi-
form than tuberous.
Its flowers are both singular and interesting; and
where a suitable soil occurs for the growth of the
plant, it should form a portion of every collection.
In America they call it the butterfly- weed, or
pleurisy-root ; and its medicinal qualities are highly
appreciated. The root, when dry, is brittle and
easily reduced to powder ; and its taste is moder-
ately bitter, but not otherwise unpleasant.
Dr. Bigelow says that it is eminently entitled to
the attention of physicians, as an expectorant and
diaphoretic. It produces effects of this kind with
great gentleness, and without the heating tendency
which accompanies many vegetable sudorifics. It
appears to be an expectorant peculiarly suited to the
advanced stages of pulmonary inflammation, after
depletion has been carried to the requisite extent.
Dr. Parker, of Virginia, having been in the habit
of employing this root for twenty-five years, con-
siders it as possessing a peculiar and almost specific
quality of acting upon the organs of respiration ;
promoting suppressed expectoration, and relieving
the breathing of pleuritic patients in the most ad-
vanced stages of the disease.
Like other vegetable bitters, if given in large
quantities, especially in infusion and decoction, it
operates on the alimentary canal, though its efficacy
in this respect is not sufficient to entitle it to rank
amongst active cathartics
The best mode of administering the Asclepias
root, is in decoction or substance. A teacup full of
the strong decoction, or from twenty to thirty grains
of the powder, may be given in pulmonary com-
plaints several times a day.
Success does not always attend the best efforts
to preserve this plant. This generally arises from
one of two causes ; that of removing old plants, or
depositing them in moist situations. In America it
is found in dry sandy soils, and pine woods; and
attempts to preserve it in wet or stiff earth will ge-
nerally prove abortive.
It should be raised from seeds, which, as they are
not frequently perfected in England, must be ob-
tained from America. These may be planted in
spring, on a bed of light sandy earth, and it will be
an advantage if they can be raised in the situations
in which they are to remain. If transplanting be re-
quired, perform it when the plants are one year old.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 82.
The derivation of the term CEnothera, from the
Greek, has been noticed under No. 35. Purpurea,
purple, indicative of the colour of the flower.
This herbaceous plant, forms a pretty contrast,
both in flower and foliage, to the usual variety of
annuals which furnish our borders and mounts at its
own period of flowering.
It is of moderate growth, never rising into ex-
treme luxuriance, to the destruction of other subjects
near to it, and generally supports itself without
The greater part of this genus expand their flow-
ers in the evening, and their beauty fades on being
exposed to the rays of the sun next morning. The
present species, however, possesses the advantage
of supporting its expanded flowers through the
whole of the day.
Though frequently considered as a tender annual,
the (Enothera purpurea usually succeeds best when
sown in light rich soil where it is to flower. Or it
may be sown on a seed bed in March or April, and
transplanted into the flowering compartment when
the plants are two or three inches high.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 344.
DIDYNAMIA. GYMNO8PERMIA .
It is supposed that the word Teucrium has arisen
out of the name of the Trojan Prince Teucer, the
father-in-law of Dardanus, king of Troy, but on
what account does not appear. As the country of
Troy is sometimes called Teucria the name may or-
iginally have been given to some plant indigenous
there. Pyrenaicum, from Pyrenees, where it is
found. The English appellation, Germander, is
rarely applied to any, excepting two or three British
species ; which have been, by some authors, regard-
ed as possessing medicinal virtues.
The common Germander, or Teucrium Chamae-
drys, has been esteemed as beneficial in gout and
rheumatism, and is one of the vegetables that con-
stitute the celebrated Portland gout powder.
The Teucrium pyrenaicum, from its humble
growth, is well suited to the fronts of borders, and
for decorating artificial rock-work, where it will be
found to grow in perfection.
It may be planted in any common garden soil,
and increased by a division of its roots in spring;
which time is preferable to autumn, as the plants
make good roots before winter.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 371.
V.- sir aria. utriculaUi
CHELO'NE BARB ATA.
The term Chelone is derived from a similar word
in the Greek language, signifying a tortoise. Bar-
This interesting herbaceous plant with its delicate
slender stems, supporting a multitude of beautiful
pendent scarlet flowers, is surpassed in elegance but
by few subjects of similar magnitude. It is never
intrusive by its foliage or stems, and simply requires
the support of a thin willow shoot, as a guard against
occasional winds. It is the Chelone Ruellioides of
Andrews' s Repository.
It should be planted in a dry warm situation and
southerly aspect; and in severe frosts should be
covered with a hand glass or coarse straw. It may
be propagated by occasional divisions of the root,
which is best effected late in the spring.
A certain method to prevent disappointment, is to
take cuttings of the young shoots as early as they
will admit of it. These may be planted under a
hand glass, and should be potted after they are well
rooted. When frosts set in, give them the protec-
tion of the cold frame, and in April they may be
turned into the borders.
21 Hoit. Kevv. 2, v. 4, 7.
The name of this genus is one retained from Di-
oscorides ; and was applied by him to some plant
resembling the present one. The term is supposed
to have been originally deduced from Iberia, a name
used by the Greeks for Spain ; where, possibly, the
Iberis of the Greeks may have been first noticed.
Sempervirens is an appellation compounded from the
Latin, signifying always green, in allusion to its
It is a most desirable little shrub ; for as well as
decorating the garden with its beautiful white tufts
of flowers, during two months of the spring, it exhi-
bits, by its delicate evergreen foliage, a lively little
remembrance of the verdure that is past, and also a
foretaste of that which we are happy to anticipate as
again to come. Though winter may occasionally
seem to conquer its tenacity for life ; yet, no sooner
does the severest frost relax its icy grasp, than the
Iberis sempervirens appears again in spring-like
freshness, to exult in its regained liberty.
It is very readily propagated, either by fastening
down its branches beneath the soil, or by cuttings
taken in the spring.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 83.
With the derivation of the present generic name
we are not acquainted. Pyrenaica, from Pyrenees,
where it is indigenous.
The present beautiful alpine plant is the Verbas-
cum myconi of Linneus, Curtis, and Aiton, and con-
sequently is now commonly known by that name.
Our aversion to unnecessary innovations on the esta-
blished arrangement and nomenclature of botanical
science has been fully expressed ; and it is only
from conviction in our own humble judgment, of the
necessity or expediency of alteration, that we ever
submit to changes. As it is, in all cases, necessary
on the one hand, to guard against the intrusion of
empirics ; so on the other, it is expedient that we
attach not ourselves, by undue prejudice, to any
system of things, merely on account of a long ac-
quaintance with it.
Brilliant genius sometimes steps forth and strikes
out a new and enlightened path for itself, but unfor-
tunately, a great portion of the innovators on all re-
ceived systems, are found to pursue a road, ulti-
mately deserted by all but themselves. An anony-
mous author observes, that a virtuous mind has
primarily a sense of justice, which teaches a regard
to the rights of others, among which rights are their
The Ramonda Pyrenaica is a desirable little plant
to cultivate, either in pots or in the borders ; and
should occupy a place amongst the various low close-
growing alpine subjects. It may be increased by
dividing the roots, or by seeds ; and succeeds best
in a cool situation.
It is also a suitable subject for pot culture, and
we cannot give our readers more judicious advice,
respecting its management, than is contained in the
remarks of a correspondent, who says, that the va-
rious trials that I have made with the Ramonda Py-
renaica, have satisfied me that bog-earth is better
adapted to its habits of growth than a more substan-
tial and retentive soil. Indeed, I have long made it
a rule to provide plants with food, rather with rrf-
rence to the fibres of their roots, than to their ap-
parent wants of strong or mild nourishment. All
plants which have wiry roots, I invariably find,
delight in a peat mould, with a good proportion of
the decayed roots of the peat, and a little white sand
mixed up with it ; and if planted in pots, well
drained, first with very small broken tiles, and next
with nothing but decayed roots of peat earth, they
invariably thrive. This plan enables the broken
tiles to answer their intended end much longer than
they could possibly do, were they placed immedi-
ately in contact with the finely sifted mould ; and
upon examining the roots of a plant so treated, you
will find the fibres spread over, and freely inter,
mixed with, the drainers.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 386.
Vesicaria, from the Latin vesica, a bladder, in
allusion to its bladder-like seed vessels. Utriculata
is also from the Latin, and has nearly the same sig-
This plant is the Alyssum utriculatum of Curtis
and others ; but from its appearance in the Hortus
Kewensis, under the genus Vesicaria, it has thence
been copied into the general catalogues, and is now
distinguished in most respectable nurseries, by the
name we have adopted.
It is an extremely gay and hardy herbaceous
plant, continuing in bloom a considerable time.
After its blossoms have faded, its spik? of inflated
silicles still form an object by no means uninterest-
ing, till the seeds are ripe in July. It will flower
in any common garden soil, and may be readily pro-
pagated either by seeds or from cuttings. Probably
the following method of increase may be pursued
with advantage. Fill up the interstices of the plant
in the summer with soil, so that the whole of the
branches may, in reality, be laid ; they will, it is
presumed, make strong plants for separation in the
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 97.
Authericum ULia staruto..
T5 . 5cui.th del 1
S. "Watts Sculp
The name of this genus, Argemone, has been
handed down to us from the ancient Greek botanists.
They adopted it after the term ARGEMA, a disease
of the eyes ; wherein white spots arise on the cor-
nea, which their argemone was said to be efficacious
Gerarde says, * The golden Thistle of Peru, call-
ed in the West Indies, Fique del Inferno, (Infernal
Fig,) a friend of mine brought it unto me from an
island there, called Saint John's Island, among
other seeds. What reason the inhabitants there
have to call it so, is unto me unknown, unless it be
because of his fruit, which doth much resemble a fig
in shape and bigness, but so full of sharp and veno-
mous prickles, that whosoever had one of them in his
throat, doubtless it would send him packing either
to heaven or hell.'
Those of our readers who happen to possess
Johnson's edition of Gerarde 's Herbal, should be
informed, that the principal description of the above
plant is contained in that work, at page 1155; but
the wood-cut figure of it is at page 371, and is mis-
It is said to be common in Mexico, and all the
islands of the West Indies, where it is a troublesome
weed in their cultivated lands, and has been found
in a wild state in some of the southern countries
The inspissated juice of the leaves and stems,
forms a pigment, in colour between sap green and
gamboge, but apparently not more valuable to the
artist than a mixture of those substances. It is es-
teemed very detersive, and is generally used in dis-
eases of the eyes ; but the infusion is looked upon
as a sudorific and resolutive, which may be used
with success on many occasions.
The seeds are said to be a much stronger narco-
tic than opium. They are thought to be an excel-
lent remedy, and are frequently administered by the
inhabitants, in the sugar colonies, in diarrhoeas and
bloody fluxes. They have a trifling degree of
pungency, but it does not manifest itself for some
time upon the palate.
The exterior covering of the seed assumes the ap-
pearance of delicate net-work, which becomes more
marked and prominent, as they ripen and dry ; and
the hilum, or eye, forms a fine seam on one side of
it, similar to an artificial enclosure.
There is no difficulty in cultivating the Argemone
Mexicana, as an annual ; excepting, that like many
others of the papaveraceous tribe, they are impa-
tient of removal. It is better to sow them in a light
soil, in the spring, where they are to remain ; and if
the seed, when ripe, be scattered from the plants,
they will generally vegetate in the spring without
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 290.
OLIVE-LEAVED SEA LAVENDER.
Much uncertainty exists respecting the original
signification of the generic term Statice. It is sup-
posed to have arisen out of the Greek STATIZO, to
stop or arrest, in allusion to its astringent quality.
Sir J. E. Smith observes, that what the ancient
plant may have been, can scarcely be guessed with
any probability. The modern application of the
name to our Thrift or Sea-Gilliflower, he observes,
seems to have originated with Dalechamp, whom
Tournefort followed. Hence it has become appro-
priated to a fine and extensive genus, whose wiry
and entangled stems, so well formed to impede the
progress of a foot passenger, may literally almost
justify its present use.
The present species is smaller than the greater
portion of them, but still is an interesting and per-
fectly hardy little plant. Our figure of a blossom-
branch is the full size, but the radical leaves are only
half the size of nature.
It flourishes in a light loam, and may be increas-
ed by a division of the roots. It does not increase
very fast; and will always flower stronger from
having remained two years without a removal.
Hort. Kew. 2, v.2, 181.
DOUBLE SCARLET LYCHNIS.
The origin of the name of this genus, like that of
our last, is wrapped in uncertainty.
The Greeks used a similar name, which word also
signifies a lamp. Hence conjectures arose, and
ingenuity has been exerted, to trace the connexion.
The term was formerly used for more plants than it
now is ; some of which may have admitted compa-
risons not applicable to the present Lychnis tribe.
It is said that the down of the plant may have been
used to make wicks ; or that the colour of the flower
was brilliant, as flame; also that the transparent
membranous calyx resembled a lamp or lantern.
Chalcedonica, from Chalcedon ; whence seeds have
This splendid herbaceous plant, single or double,
is highly ornamental, and should not be dispensed
with. Parkinson, 200 years ago, notes it as a glo-
rious flower, being then as rare as it is beautiful.
The single variety may be raised from seeds. The
double or single may be increased by dividing the
roots, or by cuttings of the stems taken in June.
It should be planted in a strong fresh loam, and
have pure air.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 132.
SAVOY SPIDERWORT; OR, ST. BRUNO'S LILY.
Anthericum is deduced from two Greek words ;
ANTHOS, a flower; and REKOS, a hedge.
Liliastrum may signify star lily. The term has
probably been transferred from some other plant to
the present species. It was found wild in Savoy,
and formerly called Phalangium, the name of a ve-
nomous species of spider, from its being considered
an antidote to the bite of that insect. Hence comes
our term Spiderwort. The French, we believe, in-
scribed it to St. Bruno, the celebrated founder of the
Linneus first considered it an Hemerocallis ; but
afterwards an Anthericum. Botanists are divided
in opinion on this subject, and some now term it
It increases but slowly, and if too often divided,
will either not flower at all, or produce a diminutive
show of blossoms. Autumn is the proper season
for removing it, and if planted in a rather shady
situation, though not immediately under the bran-
ches of shrubs or trees, it will succeed very well, and
the duration of its delicate flowers, will be length-
ened by shade from the direct rays of the sun.
Hort. Kew.2,v. 2, 269.
Jfenzie sia, globularis .
S. watte Sculp.
This genus was named by Sir J. E. Smith, in ho-
nour of his friend Archibald Menzies ; who made a
voyage round the world with Vancouver, and col-
lected many rare and unknown plants, particularly
cryptogamic subjects. Globularis from its globose
This deciduous little shrub cannot, for splendour,
be ranked with the specious and imposing specimens
of flowering subjects which generally constitute the
natural order Rhodoracese, many of which have
emanated from the same source as our present plant,
North America, that rich fountain of vegetable
beauty. It is a compact growing shrub, of rather
slow growth, and frequently not exceeding twelve
or eighteen inches in height. It should be planted
in the foreground of the shrubbery, or American
compartment, and its foliage forms a pleasing con-
trast with the deep glossy verdure of the Rhododen-
dron, and evergreens of taller growth, which com-
monly give depth of shadow to the boundaries of
It should be planted in a mixture of peat and
loam ; and may be propagated by layers.
23 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 360.
A term similar to our Cytisus was in use amongst
the ancient Greeks, whence ours has been derived.
The particular plant which then bore the appellation
was said, by Pliny, to have been found in the isle of
Cythnus, one of the Cyclades, from which circum-
stance the Greek name is supposed to have origina-
ted. Capitatus, from the Latin, growing with a
head ; in allusion to its terminal mode of inflores-
cence, shown by the annexed representation.
The Cytisus, of which about twenty shrubby spe-
cies are cultivated in England, is a general favou-
rite in the pleasure grounds. The Cytisus Labur-
num is universally known, and as generally admired ;
and our present subject, though far more humble,
is by no means wanting in attraction.
This species of Cytisus, like several others, ripens
its seed in our climate ; and young plants are more
conveniently raised from them than by any other
means. They should be sown in a light soil in
March, and in about two months the young plants
will appear. At one year old they should be trans-
planted to a nursery bed, and finally moved in the
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 320.
SVNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SDPERFLUA.
Chrysanthemum is derived from two Greek words,
CHRUSOS, gold, and ANTHOS, a flower; and the
brilliant golden hue of some species of Chrysanthe-
num fully justify the appellation.
In the variety of elegant annuals, which usually
adorn our gardens, the Chrysanthemum tricolor
should never be wanting. It flowers rather earlier
than the common annual chrysanthemum, and the
stems are not so branching nor obtrusive in their
Having, so long, been accustomed to meet this
plant under the appellation above given, we uncon-
sciously wrote tricolor in directing the engraver.
Chrysanthemum carinatum has of late been adopt-
ed; and it must be confessed there is a plausible
reason for the exchange of nomenclature, when we
are told that a variety of this species produces per-
fectly yellow flowers.
Seeds should be collected from such plants as
grow at some distance from the Chrysanthemum
coronarium, or common species ; as we find them
prone to mingle, to the injury of both. It may be
sown with the common annuals.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 95.
This genus was named by Tournefort after the
Greek CHELONE, a tortoise ; from a fancied resem-
blance of the flowers to that animal ; its corolla be-
ing convex above and flat beneath. Obliqua, from
the Latin, in allusion to the oblique position of its
This hardy herbaceous plant has long been a fa-
vourite amongst us, which may arise not alone from
its bold and handsome flowers, but from the little
care it requires at our hands. Planted in any com-
mon soil that is tolerably retentive and moist, it is
sure to succeed. We have occasionally seen it in a
very light and dry border increase but little, and by
its creeping roots change its situation, apparently in
quest of nutriment, not afforded in sufficient quantity
in its former residence. It has proceeded by its
creeping roots, or rather, it may be said, by its un-
derground stems, to a distance of eighteen inches ;
there having halted, as it were, to colonize, like a
parent directing his offspring, or a husbandman his
labourers, has sent out its numerous fibres, to collect
food from the surrounding soil. The fair author of
an interesting little work, " The Wonders of the
Vegetable Kingdom," has very aptly compared the
roots of a tree to the labouring classes of society. * So-
ciety at large,' she observes, 'may be compared to a
tree. The poor may be designated by the roots ; the
middle classes by the stem and branches ; the dignified
and noble, as well as those who adorn and improve
humanity, by the flowers, leaves, and fruit. The
stem is dependant on the root ; without the stem the
root would soon decay ; flowers, fruits, and leaves,
are equally ornamental and important to the parent
tree. One member of the vegetable body cannot
say unto another, I have no need of thee. To each
an allotted duty is assigned ; severed, they are of
little worth ; united, they form a beautiful and per-
The various modes of reproduction, and the ve-
getable economy, exhibited in the growth and the
adaption of the habits of roots, to the peculiar neces-
sities of the plant, are well worthy the attention of
every inquiring naturalist.
Some species of grass, which in moist situations
emit fibrous roots alone, will in more uncongenial
and dry ones form small bulbs, whereby a reservoir
of nutriment is secured against the occurrence of an
irregular supply of the fluids requisite for its suste-
nance. Thus is shown to us the care of the Almighty
over the smallest of his works.
The roots of large trees also, in unpropitious situ-
ations, have been observed to vary their natural
mode of growth, most materially, in conformity with
their need of nourishment. Some curious instances
of such circumstances we may hereafter have occa-
sion to notice.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 7.
Centaxirea. Suaveolens .
X). Smith, deiv
PERENNIAL WORM-GRASS, OR INDIAN PINK.
Natural Order .
This genus was distinguished by Linneus, in
commemoration of Adrian Spigelius, a botanist and
physician of considerable acquirements, who was
born at Brussels in 1578. His " Isagoge in Rem
Herbariam," published at Padua in 1606, is said to
contain much interesting matter respecting the vir-
tues of plants ; and it is somewhat curious, that Spi-
gelius collected a great portion of this knowledge
from the peasants of Italy, by making a tour amongst
them, in the character of a rustic. Marilandica,
from Maryland, one of the United States of America,
where this plant is indigenous.
This is a beautifully ornamental herbaceous sub-
ject, that withstands the cold of our winters toler-
ably well, but does not increase much, and is not
unfrequently lost. The dried stems and leaves are
known to almost every one, under the name of
Indian Pink, and universally used as a vermifuge
amongst children ; the living vegetable, however, is
rarely met with in our gardens.
It seems to have been given up by the faculty
for more certain and active medicines. Small doses
of the recent plant arc said, <><rasi<>n:illy, to produce
giddiness, dimness of sight, and other alarming
symptoms, whilst larger doses never produce the
same effects, from its cathartic properties being
brought to act on the bowels.
Several eminent physicians of America, who first
introduced the Spigelia to notice, have done so un-
der the most favourable impressions of its anthel-
mintic virtues. One of them, Dr. Gardner, how-
ever, observes that he had given it in hundreds of
cases, but that he never found its virtues very deci-
ded, unless it proved aperient. Dr. Bigelow says
the root of this, as of all other perennial plants, is
the most active part; and that ten grains may be
given to a child four years old.
The small fibrous roots form but an inconsiderable
portion of the plant ; the entire of which is usually
employed in England; and that always in a dried
state. These circumstances preclude any narcotic
effects that may arise from the fresh gathered root.
The experience of many medical practitioners has
proved that the Spigelia is best administered in com-
bination with some more active cathartic medicine,
as two or three grains of calomel, or fifteen to twenty
grains of rhubarb, for an adult, and less in propor-
tion for children.
The best and most popular method of giving it is
in the form of infusion, and combined with senna.
Haifa dram of each, infused all night in half a tea.
cupful of water kept warm, may be given to a child
two or three years old.
It should be planted in a warm and rather moist
situation, with a portion of peat in the soil ; and may
occasionally be divided at the root.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 317.
SMALL YELLOW FOX-GLOVE.
Digitalis from digitale, the finger of a glove. The
name appears first to have been given by the Ger-
man writer Fuchs, or Fuchsius. Hence the plant
was called Digitalis Fuchsii. Sir J. E. Smith sug-
gests that our English appellation, Fox-glove, may
have risen from this circumstance.
Most of the species of Fox-glove are extremely
showy and attractive plants. The very beautiful
spikes of flowers, that are produced by the Digitalis
purpurea, or common Fox-glove, and which we so
frequently see as a beautiful ornament of waste and
high ground, cannot have escaped the notice of the
most apathetical observer.
Both the purple and white variety are now fre-
quently met with in gardens and shrubberies, and
but few plants exhibit more beauty and gaiety.
The digitalis we may notice as well for its delete-
rious and medical qualities as for its beauty. In the
hands of the unskilful it forms an extremely danger-
ous medicine ; whilst Dr. Withering and others have
shown, that when administered with skill and cau-
tion, it is, perhaps, one of the most valuable vege-
tables that we possess.
Digitalis is stated as possessing properties which
are combined in no other substance. It is a direct
sedative, diminishing, most powerfully, the actions
of the system, without occasioning previous excite-
ment. Administered with caution, a pulse of 70
beats or more in a minute, will frequently be redu-
ced to 40, or even less. But when thrown into the
constitution too suddenly, or if the quantity be too
great, it induces vertigo, sickness, convulsions,
coldness of the body, extreme debility, and death.
Another powerful quality of this plant, is that of
an active diuretic. But when employed as such,
great care is required, lest its sudden diminution of
the vascular action, should induce so great a degree
of debility as to prove fatal to patients of a weakly
or diseased constitution.
Notwithstanding the usual influence of this plant
on the human frame, still its powers are not certain ;
and constitutions have been met with whereon it had
no manner of effect, even in excessive doses. In a
few cases its effects have not been evinced till its use
has been continued for some time; when, at length,
its powers have burst forth with the greatest vehe-
mence, so as to endanger the lives of those to whom
it was administered.
We have been thus particular, in relating the
effects of this plant; and advise that it never be
administered but under the direction and super-
intendance of a medical man. That the unskilful
may be informed how small a portion of this delete-
rious plant is sufficient to act injuriously on the
system, we shall briefly state, that of the dried
leaves, one to three grains twice a day is a full dose.
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 29.
SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA.
Centaurea is derived from a Greek word of simi-
lar construction, signifying a centaur. This appel-
lation was given after Chiron the centaur, who
is said to have used a species of the Centaurea to
cure himself of a wound, occasioned by the falling of
one of the arrows of Hercules on his foot. Suaveo-
lens from the Latin suavis, sweet.
This most elegant and attractive flower may,
certainly, be ranked amongst the prettiest of Flora's
gifts, bestowed in the form of an annual. It occu-
pies but little room, therefore should be planted near
to the edge of the flower compartment. It is not so
hardy as many other annuals, but still requires no
great care, provided it be not sown too early in the
spring, nor planted in a cold moist situation.
It is sometimes raised on a hotbed, and trans-
planted, but when so propagated, it should have a
quantity of soil taken up with the roots, and be
carefully watered and shaded afterwards.
It does not freely produce seed, unless the head of
one flower be shaken over another, by which the
pollen is scattered, and the parts of fructification
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5. 144.
The derivation of Primula, from primus, first, has
been noticed under No. 1 and 60. Farinosa, from
the Latin farina, flour ; a beautifully white powder-
ing of which this primula bears on the scape or
flower stalk, and on the young leaves, unless it be
exposed to rains, and thereby deprived of this now
It is one amongst that beautiful tribe of alpine
plants with which every one is pleased, and which
every one may possess. It is found in the north of
England, in various other parts of Europe, and even
in Siberia. In autumn its leaves fade and the plant
is comprised in what may be termed a radical bud,
on the surface of the soil. Thus, inhabiting its win-
ter quarters, it remains in security, till the genial
warmth of spring expands its mealy foliage, and in
due time presents us with a lively specimen of beauty
The Primula farinosa we find succeed very well,
when planted in a small pot of light loam and peat.
Severe frosts do it no injury, but it should have a
temporary shelter against excessive moisture during
Hort. Kew. 2, Y. 1, 308.
INDEX TO VOL. I, II, III.
Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No.
Achillea clavennae, Silver-leaved Milfoil, . . . .2 . . 122
Achillea speciosa, Spear-leaved Milfoil, ....!.. 44
Aconitum napellus, Monk's Hood, 3.. 210
Adonis vernalis, Spring- Adonis, 1.. 27
Alyssum saxatile, Rock Madwort, 3 . . 254
Amaryllis lutea, Yellow Amaryllis, 1.. 2
Ammobium alatum, Wing'-stalked Ammobium, . . 3 . . 219
Amsonia latifolia, Broad-leaved Amsonia, ....!.. 18
Anchusa Italica, Italian Bug-los, 2.. 173
Andromeda calyculata, .... Calycled Andromeda, ....!.. 20
Andromeda coriacea, Leather-leaved Andromeda, 2 . . 1 71
Andromeda Mariana, Maryland Andromeda, . . . . 3 . . 240
Anemone coronaria, Poppy Anemone, %^t29JL
Anemone hortensis, Garden Anemone, 2 . . 191
Anemone palmata, Palmated Anemone, 2.. 145
Anemone pulsatilla, Pasque Flower, 3.. 198
Antennariadioica, Direcious Antennaria, ... .3. .247
Anthericum liliastrum, ... .Savoy Spider- wort, .1.. 88
Antirrhinum majus, Great Snap-Dragon, 3.. 279
Apocynum androsaemifolium, Tutsan-leaved Dog's-bane, 2.. 99
Argemone Mexicana, Mexican Argemone, 1 . . 85
Arnica montana, Mountain Arnica, 3. .239
Asclepias tuberosa, Tuberous Swallow-wort, . . 1 . . 78
Asphodelus luteus, Yellow King's spear, ....3.. 246
Asphodelus ramosus, Branched King's spear,.. . .3.. 251
Aster alpinus, Alpine Aster, 2 . . 124
Aster amell us, Italian Starwort, 2.. 188
Aster Novae- Angliae, ruber, Red New England Starwort, 3. .223
Aster tenellus, Slender Aster, 3.. 238
Astragalus alopecuroides, ..Fox-tail-like Milk Vetch, . .3. .265
Astrantia major, , Greater Black Masterwort, 3 . .212
Astrantia maxima, Three-leav. Bk. Masterwort,3. .213
Atropa belladonna, Deadly Nightshade, 2 . . 105
Aubrietia purpurea, Tufted Aubrietia, 3. .230
Azalea pontica, Yellow, or Ponlic Azalia, . . 3 . . 261
Bignonia radicans, Ash-leaved Trumpet-flower,2 . . 123
Biscutella hispida, Hispid Biscutella, 3 . . 206
Buddlea globosa, Round-headed Buddlea, . . 1 . . 58
Btipthalmum grandifloruin, . .Great- flowered Ox-eye, ..2.. 155
Cacalia coccinea, Scarlet-flowered Cacalia, . . 1 . . 76
Calceolaria corymbosa, .... Chili Slipperwort, 1 . . 67
Calceolaria pinnata, Wing-leaved Slipperwort, . .2. . 166
Calendula pluvialis, Small Cape Marygold, . . . . 3 . . 280
Calluna vulg-aris, flore pi eno. Double-flowered Ling, ....3. .266
Campanula Carpatica, .... Carpathian Bell-flower, . . 2 . . 130
Campanula glomerata, .... Clustered Bell-flower, . . . .2. . 144
Campanula lactiflora, Milk -coloured Bell-flower, 3 . .200
Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No.
Campanula nitida, ........ Smooth -leaved Bell-flower, 3. .224
Campanula persicifolia, .... Peach-leaved Bell- flower, 2 . . 164
Campanula puinila, ........ Dwarf Bell-flower, ...... I
Campanula speciosa, ...... Showy BnlJ -flower, ...... 3
Campanula speculum, ...... Venus's Looking-glass, . .2
t ham us tin
Cart ham us tinctorius, ...... Officinal Carthauius, ...... 2.
Catananche ccerulea, ...... Blue flowered Catanunche, I .
Centaurea suaveolens, ...... Yellow Sultan, .......... 1 .
Chelone barbata, .......... Scarlet Cheloue, ........ 1.
Chelone ohliqua, .......... Red-flowered Chelone, ....!.
Chrysanthemum coronarium, Garden Chrysanthemum, . .2.
Chrysanthemum Sinense.. . .Chinese Chrysanthemum,. .2. . 120
Chrysanthemum tricolor, . .Three-col. Chrysanthemum,! .. 91
Clarkia pulchella, ........ Fair-flowering Clarkia, ..3.. 199
Clay ton in Virginica, ...... Virginian Claytonia, ....2. .158
Clematis integrifolia, ...... Entire-leav.Virgin's-bower,2 . . 98
Cochlearia Groenlandica, . .Greenland Scurvy-grass, .. .. 64
Colutea frutescens, ........ Scarlet Bladder Senna, .. ..37
Commeiina tuberosa, ...... Tuberous-rout. Commelina,3. .257
Coreopsis lanceolata, ...... Spear-leaved Coreopsis, . . 1 . . 46
Coreopsis tenuifolia, ...... Slender-leaved Coreopsis, . . 62
Coreopsis tinctoria, ........ Arkausa Coreopsis, ........ 13
Cornus Canadensis, ........ Canadian Dogwood, ...... 2 . . 1 36
Coronilla varia, .......... Various-coloured Coronilla,3..226
Crocus Susianus, .......... Cloth of Gold Crocus, . ...2.. Ul
Crocus versicolor, ........ Party-coloured Crocus, .... 2 .. 151
Cuscula verrucosa, ........ Wart-calyxed Dodder, ....!.. 10
Cyclamen coum, .......... Round-leaved Cyclamen, ..3.. 229
Cynoglossum omphalodes, . . Comfrey-lvd.Hound's-tng. 3. .243
Cytisus capitatus, ........ Headed Cytisus, ........ 1..90
Cytisus nigricans, ........ Black-rooted Cytisus, ....2.. 149
Dahlia superflua, .......... Double Purple Dahlia, ... .2 .. 1 15
Daphne cneorum, ........ Trailing Daphne, ........ 3. .256
Daphne gnidium, ........ Flax-leaved Daphne, ....!.. 72
Daphne turton-raira, ...... Silvery-leaved Daphne, ..2. .110
Delphinium grandiflorum, . . Large-flowered Larkspur, . . 1 . . 29
Dianthus caryophyllus, ____ Yellow Picotee, ........ 2. .137
Dianthus caryophyllus, .... Prince of Orange Picotee, 3. .287
Diauthus Chineusis, ...... China Pink, ............ 1 . . 65
Dianthus deltoides, ........ Maiden Pink, .......... 2 . . 142
Dianthus Hispanicus, ...... Spanish Pink, .......... 2 . . 108
Dianthus Japonicus, ...... Japanese Pink, .......... 2 . . 168
Dianthus plumarius, ...... Feathered Pink, ........ 3.. 253
Digitalis lutea, .......... Small Yellow Foxglove, .. .. 94
Dodecatheon Meadia, ...... American Cowslip, ........ 25
Drabahirta, .............. Hairy Whitlow-grass, ...... 132
Dracocephalum speciosum,. .Showy Dragon's Head, .. ..57
Epilobium Dodonoei ........ Dodonaeus's Epilobium, . . . . 55
Erica australis, .......... Spanish Heath, ............ 54
Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No.
Erica herbacea, Early Dwarf Heath, 1 . . 22
Erica mediterranea, Mediterranean Heath, ....!.. 74
Erica stricta, . .Straight- branched Heath, . .3. .217
Erin us ulpimis, Alpine Erinus, 1.. 11
Erodium hymenodes, Ternate-leaved HeronVBill,3 . . 193
Erpthronium Ainericaaum, . . Yel-flow. Dog's-tooth Violet,2. . 178
Erythronium dens canis, . . . .Common Dog's-tooth Violet,2. . 181
Eupatorium maculatum, .... Spotted -stalked Eupatormm,2 . . 107
Fragaria Indica, Yel. -flowered Strawberry, 1 . . 7
Fritillaria meleagris, Chequered Fritilhma, . . . .2 . . 183
Fumaria Halleri, Haller's Fumatory, 3. .262
Fumaria lutea, Ye How -flowered Fumatory, 2. . Ill
Fumaria nobilis, Great-flowered Fumatory, . . 1 . . 69
Galardia bicolor, Two-coloured Galardia, . .2. . 100
Gaultheria procumbens, .... Trailing Gaultheria, 1 . . 17
Gaura biennis, Biennial Gaura, 1 . . 75
Genista sagittalis, '. Jointed Genista, 1 . . 50
Gentiana acaulis, GentianelJa, 1.. 51
Gentiana asclepiadea, Swallow-wort-leav. Gentian, 3 . .282
Gentiana Catesbaei, Catesby 's Gentian, 2. .113
Gentiana verna, Spring Gentian, 2. . 179
Geum Chiloense, Chile Geum, 3.. 273
Gilia capitata, Cluster-flowered Gilia, .... 3 . .202
Globularia vulgaris, Common Globularia, 1.. 9
Gnaphalium arenarium, .... Sand Everlasting, 1 . . 38
Gypsophila prostrata, Trailing Gypsophila, 2 . . 150
Helianthemum roseum, .... Rose-coloured Sun-Rose, . . 3 . . 267
Helleborus niger, Christmas Rose, 1 . . 8
Helonius bullata, Spear-leaved Helonius, . . . . 3 . . 235
Hesperis matronalis, alba, . . Double White Rocket, ....!.. 39
Hesperis matronalis, pur. . . Double Purple Rocket, ....!.. 70
Hibiscus Syriacus, Althaea Frutex, 1 . . 77
Hyoscyamus niger, Common Henbane, 2 . . 172
Hypericum Kalinianum, .. . . Kalmia-leav . St. John's-wt. 3.. 194
Iberis sempervirens, Narrow-leaved Candy-tuft, 1.. 82
Iris pumila, Dwarf Iris, 3. .263
Iris Sibirica, Siberian Iris, 3 . . 274
Iris Susiana, Chalcedonian Iris, 1 . . 30
Iris variegata, Variegated Iris, 3. .278
Iris versicolor, Changeable Iris, 1.. 3
Isotoma axillaris, Axillary- flowered Isotoma, 3.. 218
Jasini tiiiiii revolutum, Curled-flowered Jasmine, . . 1 . . 12
Kalmia glauca, Glaucous Kalmia, 1 . . 43
Kalmia latifolia, Broad-leaved Kalmia, ....!.. 33
Kaulfussia amelloides, Air ellus-like Kaulfussia, . .2 . . 169
Lachenalia tricolor, Three-coloured Lachenalia, 1 . . 21
Lathyrus tuberosus, Tuberous Lathyrus, 2. . 139
Ledum buxifolium, Box-leaved Ledum, 1 . . 52
Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No.
Scabiosa atropurpurea, ... .Sweet Scabious, ...2.. 119
Schizanthus porrigens, . . . .Spreading Schizanthus, . .2. .126
Scilla bifolia, Two-leaved Squill, 2.. 125
Scilla bifolia, alba, White two-leaved Squill, . .2 . . 176
Scilla Sibirica, Siberian Squill, 2 . .192
Scutellaria Columnar, Heart-leaved Scull-cap, ..2.. 141
Senecio elegans, Purple Groundsel, 1 . , 40
Sida malvaeflora, .Mallow-flowered Sida, ....3.. 237
Silene acaulis, Stemless Catchfly, 3 . . 232
Silene fimbriata, Fringe-flowered Catch-fly, 2 . . 128
Sisyrinchium striatum, ... .Streaked Siayrinchiuin, ..!.. 66
Solan uin dulcamara, Woody Nightshade, 2 . .109
Spigelia Marilandica, Indian Pink, 1.. 93
Spiraea lae vigata, Smooth Spiraea, 1 . . 32
Spiraea trifoliata, Three-leaved Spiraea, . . . .2. . 153
Statice oleaefoiia, Olive-leaved Sea Lavender,!.. 86
Stevia purpurea, Purple Stevia, 2.. 180
Symphoria, racemosa, Snowberry, 2. . 1 17
Symphytum Bohemicuin, .. Red -flowered Comfrey,.. . .1.. 71
Tagetes lucida, ,.. Lucid Tagetes, 3.. 215
Tagetes patula, French Marigold, 1.. 56
Teucrium Pyrenaicum, . . . . Pyrenean Teucrium, 1.. 80
Tiarella cordi folia, Heart-leaved Tiarella, . . . .3. .216
Tigridia Pavonia, Tiger Flower, 1 . . 5
Tliymus lanuginosus, Woolly Thyme, 2.. 184
Tolpis barbata, Yellow Hawkweed 3. .259
Trillium grandiflorum, ... .Large-flowered Trillium, . .1 .. 26
Tritoma media, Lesser Tritoma, 3.. 204
Trolling En ropaeus, European Globe-flower, ..3.. 209
Tuiipa Gesneriana, Common Tulip, 3.. 245
Tulipa suaveolens, Sweet-scented Tulip, ....2.. 175
Tussilago fragrans, Sweet-scented Coltsfoot, . . 1 . . 19
Uvularia grandiflora, Large-flowered Uvularia, ...2. . 187
Vaccinium amcenuin, Broad-leaved Wortleberry, 3.. 211
Valeriana montanu, Mountain Valerian, 1.. 36
Verbascum phoeniceum, .... Purple-flowered Mullein, . . 1 . . 36
Verbena Aubletia, Rose-flowered Vervain,. .. .3. .205
Verbena pulchella, Pretty Verbena, 3.. 277
Veronica urticaefolia, Nettle-leaved Speedwell, 2 . . 167
Vesicaria utriculata, Smooth Vesicaria, I . . 84
Vinca herbacea, Herbaceous Periwinkle, . .3. .233
Xeranthemum unnuum, .... Annual Xeranthemum, ... .2 .. 114
Xeranthemum lucidum, .. . .Shining Xeranthemum,. . . .2. . 135
Yucca gloriosa, Glorious Adam's needle, ..3.. 286
Zephyranthes Atamasco, . . Atamasco Lily, 3 . .285
Zinnia elegans, Purple-flowered Zinnia, . .2 . . 170
Zinnia mul tiflora, Red-flowered Zinnia, ....2.. 97
Zizyphus paliurus, Christ's Thorn, 2 . , 1 18
MAY 71967 I
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