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Full text of "The botanic garden ; consisting of highly finished representations of hardy ornamental flowering plants, cultivated in Great Britain ; with their names, classes, orders, history, qualities, culture, and physiological observations"

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OTHER INTERESTING INFORMATIOU. 



LONDON 
BY BALDWIK AXD CRAUOCK , PATERNOSTER BOW 

AND SOLD BT 

KRAVOOD ,VNTDC?AND SIMPKIN ASD MARS H ALX, . 




THE 



BOTANIC GARDEN; 



CONSISTING OF 



HIGHLY FINISHED REPRESENTATIONS 



OF HARDY 



ORNAMENTAL FLOWERING PLANTS, 

CULTIVATED 

IN GREAT BRITAIN; 



THEIR NAMES, CLASSES, ORDERS, HISTORY, QUALITIES, CULTURE, 
AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



B. MAUND, F.L.S. 



VOL. I. 

" Not a tree, 

A plant, a leaf, a blossom, but contains 
A folio volume. We may read and read, 
And read again, and still find something 1 new, 
Something- to please, and something- to instruct." 

HURDIS. 



Uribon: 

PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN AND CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

1825-6. 




Maund, Printer, Bromsgrove. 




750 



TO 



THE LOVERS OF BOTANY, 



IN PARTICULAR, 



AND 



THE ADMIRERS OF A FLOWER GARDEN, 



GENERALLY, 



THIS ATTEMPT 



TO INCREASE THEIR GRATIFICATIONS, 



MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED. 



PREFACE. 



Man, by nature, inherits the love of flowers. The domains 
of the noble, and the cottage of the humble, alike proclaim 
to us the dominion of this passion. 

If the busy scenes of life, in which many are obliged to 
move, suppress for awhile this divine excitement, yet the chief 
occupant of their thoughts is no sooner relinquished, than na- 
tural inclinations immediately evince themselves. They sigh 
for rural retirement, there to enjoy the uncontaminated atmos- 
phere of nature, to cultivate its choicest gifts, and to linger 
over its vegetable beauties. 

The attraction of a flower garden, the health yielded by 
its cultivation, and the ten thousand gratifications arising out 
of it, are freely acknowledged by every one. Open as these 
manifold pleasures are, to the least individual amongst us, the 
author of the Botanic Garden was desirous of producing a 
work, at such moderate price, as none may be excluded from 
possessing. One that should disseminate information amongst 
the lovers of flowers, encourage the taste for their cultivation, 
and yield a stimulus to the exertions of those who duly appre- 
ciate the enjoyments that invariably arise from so pure a 
source. 

Whether he has effected the desired object is left to the 
decision of his readers. The best exertions of his humble 
ability have been employed; and the encouragement of the 
public has laid him under obligations to continue those efforts 
with redoubled zeal. 



Much of a work like the present must necessarily be de- 
pendant on the labours of preceding botanists; on men who have 
toiled, and some who still toil, to raise to perfection a delightful 
science, inexhaustible in extent and intricate in its ramifi- 
cations. In this little work it is not the province of the 
author to wade deep in the current of science and research. 
He humbly collects from the sweets and the beauties that float 
on the surface, and of these he has pleasure in composing a 
nosegay, as a periodical present to the lovers of a flower 
garden. 

Many ideas, it is presumed, will be found in the following 
sheets, which have arisen from the author's own experience. 
Others may be met with, which for the hundredth time are 
presented to the eye of the reader. But whether old or new, 
original or selected, his endeavour will be to keep in view one 
principal object the production of every useful and interesting 
information connected with the subjects on which he treats. 

Regarding the correctness of the plates he can speak 
with confidence. Talented artists have lent their aid, and 
every exertion has been made to render them as perfect por- 
traits as the state of the arts, and pecuniary remuneration, 
will admit. 

That he owes much gratitude to several individuals of 
noble rank, for their condescension in forwarding his views, 
he is deeply sensible. He would have pleasure in a more ex- 
plicit acknowledgment of their favours; but that superior 
minds feel no gratification in whatever may assume the form of 
adulation. 

The reception of the Botanic Garden can but inspire the 
author with additional zeal in his favourite pursuit, and stimu- 
late his endeavours to secure a continuance of that patronage 
which in the present excess of literary productions, may be 
deemed no rifling distinction. 



INDEX. 



Systematic Name. 
Achillea speciosa, - - - 
Adonis vernalis, - - - - 
Amaryllis lutea, - 
Amsonia latifolia, - - - 
Andromeda calyculata, - 
Anthericum liliastrum, - - 
Argemone Mexicana, - 
Asclepias tuberosa, - - 
Buddlea globosa, ... 
Cacalia coccinea, - - - 
Calceolaria corymbosa, - 
Campanula pumila, - - - 
Catananche caerulea, - 
Centaurea suaveolens, - 
Chelone barbata, - 
Chelone obliqua, - - - 
Chrysanthemum tricolor, 
Cochlearia Groenlandica, - 
Colutea frutescens, 
Coreopsis lanceolata, 
Coreopsis tenuifolia, 
Coreopsis tinctoria, - - 
Cuscuta vermcosa, - 
Cytisus capitatus, - - - 
Daphne gnidium, - 
Delphinium grandiflorum, 
Dianthus Chinensis, 
Digitalis lutea, - - 
Dodecatheon Meadia, 
Dracoceplialum speciosum, 
Epilobium Dodonaei, 
Erica Australis, - - - 
Erica herbacea, - 
Erica mediterranea, - - 
Erinus alpinus, - 
Fragaria Indica, - 
Fumaria nobilis, - 
Gaultheria procumbens, - 
Gaura biennis, - - - - 
Genista sagittalis, - 
Gentiana acaulis, - - - 
Globularia vulgaris, 
Gnaphalium arenarium, 
Helleborus niger, - 
Hesperis matronalis, alba, - 
Hesperis matronalis, pur. - 
Hibiscus Syriacus, - - 



English Name. 
Spear-leaved Milfoil, . . 
Spring Adonis, .... 

- Yellow Amaryllis, . . . 
Broad-leaved Amsonia, . 

- Calycled Andromeda, . . 
Savoy Spider-wort, . 
Mexican Argemone, . . 

- Tuberous Swallow-wort, . 
Round-headed Buddlea, . 
Scarlet-flowered Cacalia, . 

- Chili Slipper-wort, 

- Dwarf Bell-flower, . '.*;; 
Blue-flowered Catananche, 

- Yellow Sultan, .... 
Scarlet Chelone, . . ',-> 
Red-flowered Chelone, 
Three-col. Chrysanthemum, 
Greenland Scurvy-grass, . 

- Scarlet Bladder Senna, . . 
Spear. leaved Coreopsis, . 
Slender-leaved Coreopsis, . 

- Arkansa Coreopsis, . . . 
Wart-calyxed Dodder, . . 
Headed Cytisus, . . 

- Flax-leaved Daphne, 



pni 

Lur 



- - Small yellow Foxglove, . . 94 

- American Cowslip, .... 25 

- Showy Dragon's-Head, . . 57 
Dodonius's Epilobium, . . 55 
Spanish Heath, .... 54 

- Early dwarf Heath, ... 22 

- Mediterranean Heath, ... 74 

- Alpine Erinus, .... 11 

- Yellow-flowered Strawberry, 7 

- Great-flowered Fumatory, . 69 
Trailing Gaultheria, ... 17 
Biennial Gaura, .... 75 
Jointed Genista, . . . . 50 

Gentianella, 51 

Common Globularia, ... 9 
Sand Everlasting, ... 38 
Christmas Rose, .... 8 
Double White Rocket, ... 39 
Double Purple Rocket, . . 70 
Althea Frutex, .... 77 



Systematic Name, 
Iberis sempervirens, - 
Iris Susiana, - 
Iris versicolor, - - - 
Jasiuinum revolutum - 
Kalmia glauca, - - - 
Kalmia latifolia, - - - 
Lachenalia tricolor, - - 
Ledum buxifolium, - 
Leduin palustre, - - - - 
Lilium bulbiferum, - 
Liliuin tigrinum, - - - 
Linaria purpurea, - - - 
Liniiin alpinum, - - - 
Lobelia fulgens, 
Lobelia siphilitica, - 
Lonicera Tartarica, - 
Lychnis Chalcedonies, - 
Menziesia globularis, 
M ira bills Jalapa, ... 
CEnothera macrocarpa, - 
(Enothera pumila, - - 
CEnothera purpurea, 
Orobus vernus, - - - 
Passiflora caerulea, - - 
Pentstemon pubescens, - 
Phlox ovata, .... 
Phlox cetacea, 
Phlox triflora, - - - 
Polygala chamaebuxus, - 
Primula acaulis, - - - 
Primula farinosa, - - 
Primula Sinensis, - - 
Pyrus Japonica, ... 
Ramonda Pyrenaica,- 
Rhododendron hirsutum, 
Senecio elegans, - - - 
Sisyrinchium striatnm, - 
Spig-elia Marilandica, - 
Spiraea laevigata, - - - 
Statice oleaefolia, - - - 
Symphytuin Bohemicum, 
Tagetes patula, - - - 
Teucrium Pyrenaicum, - 
Tigridia Pavonia, - - . 
TriMium grandiflorum, - 
Tussilago fragrans, - - 
Valeriana montana, ... 
Verbascum pheeniceum, - 
Vesicaria utriculata, - 



English Name. No. 

- Narrow-leaved Candy-tuft, 82 

- Chalcedonian Iris, . ... 30 

- Changeable Iris, 3 

- Curled-flowered Jasmine, . 12 

- Glaucous Kalmia, 43 

- Broad-leaved Kalmia, . . . 33 
Three-col. Lachenalia, . . .21 

- Box-leaved Ledum, .... 52 
Marsh Ledum, 47 

- Bulb bearing Lily, . . . 31 

- Tiger-spotted Lily, ... 63 

- Purple Flax-weed,. . . 34 

- Alpine Flax, 14 

- Fulgent Lobelia, 73 

- Blue Lobelia 61 

- Tartarian Honeysuckle, . . 23 

- Double Scarlet Lychnis, . 87 

- Globe (lowered Menziesia, . 89 

- Common Marvel of Peru, . 16 

- Large-fruited CEnotbera, . 41 

- Dwarf (Enothera, . . . 35 

- Purple-flowered CEnothera, 79 

- Spring Bitter- Vetch, ... 23 

- Common Passion flower, . 4 

- Hairy Pentstemon, . . . . 42 

- Oval-leaved Phlox, . . .59 

- Fine-leaved Phlox, ... 68 

- Three-flowered Phlox, . . 6 

- Box-leaved Milkwort, . . 24 

- Double Primrose, . . . . 60 

- Bird's Eye Primrose, . . 96 

- Chinese Primrose, .... 1 

- Japan Apple Tree, ... 49 
Borage-leaved Ramonda, . 83 

- Hairy-leaved Rhododendron, 63 

- Purp'le Groundsel, ... 40 
. Streaked Sisyrinchium, . . 66 

- Indian Pii>k, .... 93 

- Smooth Spiraea, ... .32 

- Olive-lcared Sea Lavender, 86 

- Red -flowered Comfrey, . . 74 

- French Marigold, .... 56 

- Pyrenean Teucrium ... 80 

- Tiger Flower, 5 

- Large-flowered Trillium, . 26 
Sweet-scented Coltsfoot, . 19 

- Mountain Valerian, . . .36 

- Purple-flowered Mullein, . 45 

- Smooth Vesicaria, .... 84 




Prrmiila Siui-usis . 




Aiuarvlii* 





Iris versicolor 



. 

I - 



PRI'MULA SINEN'SIS. 

CHINESE PRIMROSE. 
Class, Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PRIMULACEJE. 



Native of 
China. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
Mar. July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1822. 



No. 1. 

Primula is derived from the Latin primus, first, 
from its early flowering; hence its English name 
also, prime-rose, now contracted to primrose. Si- 
nensis, from Sinae, the name of an ancient people, 
who are supposed to have inhabited that part of the 
Chinese empire now called Cochin China. 

This plant is the Primula praenitens of the Bo- 
tanical Register ; but as the term Sinensis has not 
been established for another species, upon autho- 
rity worth naming, we give it the preference, from 
its prior adoption. 

The attention of the Horticultural Society was 
first drawn to this beautiful plant in the year 1819, 
when a drawing of it was received from John 
Reeves, Esq., a corresponding member, residing 
at Canton. A plant, and seeds also, were subse- 
quently sent off by him to the society ; the former 
perished during its passage, and the latter did not 
vegetate. Since that period it has been introduced 
by Capt. Rawes, and as it possesses beauties so 
completely distinct from every other primula we 
know, it is likely to become a distinguished favourite 
in our gardens. 



Its mode of inflorescence is particularly beau- 
tiful ; for out of a simple umbel or head of flowers, 
rises a distinct scape or stalk, supporting a second 
umbel, and from this is produced a third, and some- 
times a fourth ; by which peculiarity, and its free 
increase of flowering side shoots, it remains in bloom 
during the greater part of the year. Our drawing 
was taken at an early stage of the blossom, and re- 
presents the first umbel only. 

Having been introduced so lately, its habits are 
but imperfectly known ; it may, however, be con- 
sidered hardy, as plants of it were exposed in the 
open air during the winter of 1823, in different parts 
of the kingdom, without sustaining injury. 

It may be propagated very readily by offsets, and 
flourishes exceedingly in a pot of compost, made 
with equal parts of peat, rich loam, and sand ; or it 
may be planted in a warm dry border, of light soil, 
and have the protection of a hand glass during 
severe frost. 

Seeds are produced very freely by the Primula 
Sinensis, and from them young plants may be pro- 
pagated in abundance, and with little trouble. They 
should be sown as early as March, in pots of light 
rich earth, placed in a hotbed; and the young 
plants, when large enough, should be potted singly, 
and be gradually inured to the open air ; but they 
will require occasional shade in the summer. The 
protection of the cold frame is necessary for them 
during the first winter of their growth, and in April, 
part may be removed to dry parts of the borders, 
for flowering ; and part may be retained in pots, as 
portable summer or winter ornaments. 
Lindley's Col. Bot. 



AMARYL'LIS LU'TEA. 

YELLOW AMARYLLIS. 
Class. . Order. 

HEXANDRIA. MONOGVNIA. 

Natural Order. 

AMARYLLIDE*;. 



Native of 
Spain. 


Height. 
4 inches. 


Flowers in 
Sept. Oct. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



N 2 

Amaryllis, the name of a shepherdess in Theo- 
critus and Virgil. Lutea, yellow, its colour. It is 
sometimes called Autumnal Narcissus. 

Known as this hardy, fast-increasing-, plant has 
been for two or three hundred years, it is remark- 
able that it should not be nearly as common as our 
yellow crocus, to which, at first sight, it appears so 
closely allied. But it is not the harbinger of spring : 
it does not excite the delightful sensations which 
every daisy, every buttercup of that joyous season, 
is calculated to arouse. 

" What lovely prospects wait each wakening- hour, 
When each new day some novelty displays; 

How sweet the sunheam melts the crocus flower, 
Whose borrowed pride shines dizen'd in his rays." 

CLARE. 

It grows well in almost any soil or situation, ex- 
cept under the dripping of trees ; for as its bulbs 
are reproduced but slowly, during the severity of 
winter, the leaves continue to increase till spring ; 
at which time the bulbs will become fully matured, 
and the leaves will die. Transplanting may then 
be performed with propriety, till vegetation is re- 
assumed in July. 

Alton's Hort. Kew. ed. 2, vol. 2. p. 223. 



I'RIS VER'SICOLOR. 

CHANGEABLE IRIS. 

Class. Order. 

TRIANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

IRIDEjE. 



Native of 
N. America 


Height. 
15 inches. 


Flowers in 
June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1732. 



No. 3. 

This plant has received its name from the Latin 
term iris, which signifies a rainbow ; and the colours 
of some of the species render it very appropriate. 
It has been termed the various-coloured, or parti- 
coloured ; changeable- coloured appears a more cor- 
rect translation, and is equally characteristic of the 
flower, for it may be observed daily to assume a 
different hue. 

An eastern, or even northern, border is suitable 
to this plant. It flourishes in any light garden soil, 
and the roots may be divided in autumn. It may 
also be raised from seeds, which should be sown in 
September, and the plants will come up in the fol- 
lowing spring ; but if the seeds are sown in the 
spring, they will lie a year in the ground before they 
vegetate. 

That correct observer of nature, Bradley, speak- 
ing of one of the bulbous Irises, says, the finest va- 
rieties that he ever saw, were raised from seed ; ' I 
would,' he further observes, ' advise every one to 
raise seedlings.' 

Orris root is the tuber of the Florentine Iris, 
which will hereafter be noticed. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 116. 



PASSIFLO'RA CjERU'LEA. 

COMMON PASSION FLOWER. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA.* TRIGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PASSIFLOREjE. 



Native of 
Brazil. 


Height. 
30 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Oct. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1699. 



No. 4. 

Passiflora is derived from the Latin patior, to 
suffer ; and flos, a flower ; from the fancied resem- 
blance of the different parts of the flower and plant 
to the instruments of Christ's suffering. The five 
stamens were compared to his five wounds; the 
three styles, more aptly, to the nails by which he 
was fixed to the cross ; the column which elevates 
the germen, to the cross itself; and the rays of the 
nectary, to his crown of thorns ; the petals to the 
ten apostles, Judas and Peter being rejected ; the 
tendrils to a cord, the leaf to a hand, &c. &c. Cse- 
rulea, from the Latin, blue. 

Parkinson, in his Paradisus Terrestris, gives what 
he calls * The lesuite's Figure of the Maracoc,' 
which is a representation of the flower, composed of 
the very instruments of torture themselves ; but in 
noticing these fancies, he is very angry at the su- 
perstition that suggested them ; observing that it is 
* All as true as the sea burnes.' 

It may be propagated from seeds, cuttings, or 

* Sir J. E. Smith, in his excellent Introduction to Physio- 
logical Botany, coincides with Schreber and Thunberg 1 , in 
placing this genus in the class Pentandria. 



layers. Cuttings may be taken early in the spring-, 
of the preceding year's growth ; or in June of the 
young shoots, and struck under a hand-glass. It 
sometimes ripens its seed in the open air in England ; 
and these may be sown in pots, placed in a hotbed, 
in March ; and the plants gradually exposed to the 
open air after Midsummer. 

Miller says, * I have found the plants which have 
been propagated two or three times, either by layers 
or cuttings, seldom produce fruit ; which is common 
to many other plants.' This observation of Miller's 
should not be lost sight of. It may, in many in- 
stances of fruit culture, prove very important, as 
the mode of propagation has undoubted influence on 
the habits of many vegetables. 

Parkinson, in his notice of the maracoc, which 
was a species of the passion flower, cultivated when 
he wrote in 1629, says, that it showed a remarkable 
particularity in rising from the ground a month 
sooner, if a seedling plant, than if it grew from roots 
brought from Virginia. 

It appears highly desirable to propagate from 
seeds, which has been done by several eminent bo- 
tanists, and beautiful new varieties have been pro- 
duced. Some of these are minutely described in the 
Transactions of the Horticultural Society. 

The Passiflora caerulea requires to be trained 
against a wall, with a southern aspect ; and in winter 
the roots should be covered with straw, as this will 
protect them from injury, even if the head of the 
plant be destroyed. In March the shoots may be 
very much shortened, which will encourage a vigo- 
rous growth. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 154. 







Tigridia, Pavonia 




Phlox triflora 





* 




Helleborus nig'er 



Fragaiia Indie a 



i-JJ.bmith.. del. 



TIGRI'DIA PAVO'NIA. 

TIGER FLOWER. 
Class. Order. 

MONANDRIA. TRIANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

IR1DJUB. 



Native of 
Mexico. 


Height. 
Ifoot. 


Flowers in 
July, Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1796. 



No. 5. 

Ferraria Pavonia, Linneus's name of the present 
plant, was derived from John Baptista Ferrarius, 
who first figured and described the Ferraria un- 
dulata. Linneus made choice of his specific name, 
Pavonia, in consequence of Mutis having sent him 
a drawing of the flower under this appellation, 
which he had given it from Pa von, the name of a 
favourite pupil ; and not, as is generally supposed, 
from the Latin pavo, a peacock, on account of the 
beauty of its colours. 

This species is now separated from Ferraria ; 
and its present generic name, Tigridia, comes from 
tigris, a tiger, by reason of its spots. Leopardia 
would, perhaps, on such account, have been a more 
appropriate appellation. 

The exquisite union of colours and conformation 
of parts in this beautiful production, abash every 
attempt of the pencil ; description or portraiture can 
but do it discredit. We regret its visit being so 
transient, opening in the morning and finally closing 
in the afternoon ; and yet it is certain that much of 
our pleasure depends on such circumstances. Sturm 
justly observes, " If flowers retained their beauty 



throughout the year, they would not impart to us 
the delight they now do : their absence makes us 
long for their return. The constant variation and 
succession of all terrestrial objects, constitute one 
of the chief sources of our happiness." 

If the bulbs be planted in the borders, or on se- 
parate beds, about the middle of April, the spring 
frosts will have ceased before the leaves appear 
through the soil, and no protection be required to 
be given them. To produce earlier flowers they 
may be put into pots in a common hotbed, in the 
beginning of March, and watered sparingly till the 
leaf appears. If a sufficiency of air be allowed 
them, they will bear exposure early in May ; and 
then should be turned into the borders for flower- 
ing, taking care to retain the balls of earth quite 
perfect about the roots, which will be much assisted 
by a copious watering supplied a few hours before 
their removal. They neither increase as fast, nor 
flower quite as freely if left in the pots. The roots 
should be taken up before frosts commence, and 
those bulbs which are attached together should re- 
main so ; then be gradually dried, and afterwards 
secured in paper bags, and kept in a cool dry place 
till spring. 

The Tigridia increases its bulbs rapidly, and also 
produces seeds, from which it may be raised by 
sowing them in pots, in a hotbed, in the spring. 
The seedling bulbs will, of course, require taking 
up as before directed ; and they will flower, some 
in the second, and the remainder in the third year. 

The root is an ovate bulb, which is eatable when 
roasted, tasting like a chesnut. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 137. 



PHLOX TRIFLO'RA. 

THREE-FLOWERED PHLOX. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDBIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

POLEMONIACE*:. 



Native of 
N. America. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
August. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1815. 



No. 6. 

Linneus did not, in this genus of plants, retain 
the old name Lychnidea, in consequence of its near 
approach to Lychnis, the name of another genus ; 
but chose the present name Phlox, perhaps, only 
by reason of its analogy to the former, both being 
derived from Greek words signifying flame or light- 
ning. Triflora, from the branches of the corymbus 
being mostly three-flowered. 

Every individual of this family inherits some de- 
sirable quality; the greater part of them are ex- 
tremely showy ; several grow higher than the present 
plant; and a few clothe the border with a close 
foliage during the whole year. England now pos- 
sesses about thirty species of Phlox, brought prin- 
cipally from North America, within the last eighty 
or ninety years. 

It will grow in any common soil, but best in a 
mixture of peat and loam. It may be easily in- 
creased by cuttings, taken early in the summer, 
or by dividing the roots in autumn; but this latter 
practice should not be resorted to oftener than 
once in two or three years, or the roots will be 
much weakened. 

Sweet's Fl. Gar. p. 29. 



FRAGA'RIA IN'DICA. 

YELLOW-FLOWERED STRAWBERRY. 
Class. Order. 

ICOSANDRIA. POLYGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ROSACES. 



Native of 
E. Indies. 


Height. 
4 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1804. 



No. 7. 

Fragaria, so named from the fragrancy of its fruit. 
Indica, from its native country. 

The English name Strawberry is, without doubt, 
derived from the practice of laying straw about 
the roots of such plants, to preserve the fruit from 
the soil. Straw, slates, &c. used in this way yield 
two advantages ; at the same time as the fruit is 
kept clean, the soil is preserved in a moist and 
cool state. 

It is principally remarkable for its union of the 
cinquefoil blossom with the fruit of the strawberry, 
and certainly forms a pretty variety amongst the 
closer sorts of rock plants. 

The Fragaria Indica is frequently treated as a 
greenhouse plant, but is now found to bear our win- 
ters without injury. Its fruit is of no further value 
than for its ornamental appearance, not possessing 
the prominent characteristics of its tribe, fragrance 
and flavour. 

It propagates itself readily by its emission of roots 
from the joints, as the common varieties usually do; 
and flourishes in a sandy soil, where the situation is 
warm and sheltered. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 273. 



HELLEBO'RUS NI'GER. 

CHRISTMAS ROSE. 
Class. Order. 

POLYANDRIA. POLYGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RANUNCULACE^E. 



Native of 
Austria. 


Height. 
9 inches. 


Flowers in 
January. 


Duration. 
Perennial . 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 8. 

Helleborus, from the Greek, expressive of its 
poisonous qualities ; or, according to Bergeret, from 
the river Eleborus. Niger, from the Latin, black, 
the external colour of its root. 

The flower, at its first opening, is white, after- 
wards rather pink, and finally becomes green. The 
tubular nectaries ranged round the germen, merit 
the attention of the physiologist. 

A tincture of the roots of black hellebore, is em- 
ployed in medicine ; but as its effects are somewhat 
uncertain and dangerous, we forbear giving its mode 
of preparation. It may not be amiss, however, for 
the information of those who use the roots, to ob- 
serve that others, and sometimes still more danger- 
ous ones, are substituted for them. The following 
description of the genuine is from the Edinburgh 
Dispensatory. 

" The roots consist of a black furrowed roundish 
head, about the size of a nutmeg, from which short 
articulated branches arise, sending out numerous 
corrugated fibres, about the thickness of a straw, 
from a span to a foot in length, deep brown on the 
outside, white or yellowish white within, and of an 



acrid, nauseous, and bitterish taste, exciting a sense 
of heat and numbness in the tongue, and of a nau- 
seous acrid smell. These fibres only are used in 
medicine, and the head and decayed parts are re- 
jected. For the roots of the real black hellebore, 
the roots of the Adonis vernalis, Trollius Europaeus, 
Acteea spicata, Astrantia major, Helleborus viridis 
fcetidus, Veratrum album, and Aconitum neomon- 
tanum are often substituted. The last is a most 
virulent poison, and may be distinguished by its 
roots being fusiform, or nearly globular, sending out 
numerous very brittle fibres, of a greyish black or 
brown colour, as thick as a man's finger, and re- 
peatedly divided." 

If the virtues of this plant, like those of many 
others, were formerly too much extolled, they are 
probably now undeservedly neglected ; it is indeed 
to be regretted that the study of medical botany has, 
of late years, made so little progress ; or, it may 
rather be said, that in the last age it should have so 
far declined. Modern chemists are, however, show- 
ing the potent effects of condensed vegetable pro- 
perties, which promises fair to constitute a new era 
in medical knowledge. 

In a moist situation, where a little peat has been 
mixed with the soil, this plant flowers abundantly ; 
and the flower stems will grow higher, and the 
blossoms be altogether improved by the assistance 
of a hand glass, which may be placed over them on 
four small pots, so as to admit a free current of air 
underneath. It is readily increased by dividing 
the roots, which is best effected in the early part of 
autumn. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 360. 









Glotularia vulans 



Cusnu.i v-rrurosa. 





Ermus alpmus. 



Jasminiini 



Yx 






GLOBULA'RIA VULGA'RIS. 

COMMON GLOBULARIA. 
Class. Order. 

TETRANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

GLOBULARIA. 



Native of 
Europe. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1629. 



No. 9. 

This plant was named by Tournefort, from the 
flowers growing many together, in the form of a 
little globe or ball. Parkinson says 'The Italians 
call it Botanaria, because the heads are found like 
buttons.' 

The Globularia vulgaris, is a pretty close-grow- 
ing plant, which was classed by several of our old 
botanists with the garden daisy; and called Bellis 
caerulea, or blue daisy. In some situations it sel- 
dom blossoms so freely as may be wished ; but this 
defect will generally be found to arise from its situ- 
ation being too dry and warm: hence it is well 
adapted to a northern border, or the cool side of arti- 
ficial rock work. 

It may be propagated from seeds, or by parting 
the roots, which is best effected in September, when 
the plants will have an opportunity of making new 
roots before frosts commence. It flourishes in a 
shady situation, in a light rich soil or in sandy peat ; 
and to encourage a good bloom, should not be too 
frequently transplanted. It will succeed very well 
if kept in a pot, and placed during winter in a cold 
frame, with the alpine plants. 

3 Hort.Jtew. 2, v. 1,222. 



CUSCU'TA VERRUCO'SA. 

WART-CALYXED DODDER. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. DIGYNIA, 

Natural Order. 

CONVOLVULACE.fi. 



Native of 
Nepaul. 


Height. 
6 feet. 


Flowers in 
September. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1822. 



No. 10. 

Some authors have deduced the word Cuscuta, 
from the modern Greek, others from a similar Asiatic 
word. Verrucosa, from the Latin verruca, a wart. 
The English appellation, Dodder, seems to have 
been derived from the German word Dotter, or 
Dutch Tauteren, signifying to shoot up. 

This is a plant which twines round ivy or shrubs 
of any description that it comes in contact with ; 
and though raised from seeds in the soil, as are most 
other vegetables, yet no sooner does it meet with 
support from a neighbouring branch, than, like many 
individuals of a superior order of creation, it quits 
its original friend and supporter, and clings to a new 
acquaintance. It twines in a direction contrary to 
the apparent course of the sun, and throwing out 
little vesicles which attach themselves to the plant 
that supports it, thereby draws its necessary nutri- 
ment, and dies off at the root, becoming completely 
parasitical. 

It flourishes most on soft succulent shrubs ; and 
should severe frosts destroy it, young plants may be 
raised from seed in the spring 1 ; and they will produce 
their fragrant little flowers in autumn. 
Sweet's Fl. Gar. 6. 



ERI'NUS ALPI'NUS. 

ALPINE ERINUS. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. ANGIOSPEBMIA. 

Natural Order. 

SCROPHULARINEJE. 



Native of 
Pyrenees. 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1759. 



No. 11. 

The Greek term BRINGS, whence comes our 
Erinus, was applied by the ancients to a vegetable, 
very different from any contained in the present 
genus ; it was the Wild Fig of the Greeks, and its 
name was, probably, derived from a verb, implying 
to exert or strive, because the Greek plant endea- 
voured to erect itself by means of walls or stones. 
Alpinus, from the Latin, belonging to the Alps. 

This interesting little subject presents us with its 
pretty flowers at that season, when all animated 
nature seems most capable of such enjoyment. 

*' Propitious spring 1 comes forth in bright array, 
With Venus, goddess of the vernal day; 
Her mild precursor, Zephyr, wafts the breeze, 
With balmy wing's, o'er all the budding trees: 
Maternal Flora, with benignant hand, 
Her flowers profusely scatters o'er the land . 
These deck the vallies with unnumber'd hues, 
And far around their fragrant sweets diffuse." 

TIME'S TELESCOPE. 

The Erinus alpinus requires a dry shady situation. 
It may be propagated by dividing its roots, and 
should be planted in loam without manure. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 49. 



JASMI'NUM REVOLU'TUM. 

CURLED-FLOWER JASMINE. 
Class. Order. 

DIANDRIA. MONOOYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

JASMINE. 



Native of 
China. 


Height. 
16 feet. 


Flowers in 
May, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1812. 



No. 12. 

Jasminum is derived from two Greek words, sig- 
nifying a violet, and odor, on account of the fine 
scent which its flowers possess. Revolution, in 
allusion to the curling of its petals. 

We are told by Capt. Hardwicke, in the Asiatic 
Researches, that a species of yellow Jasmine, which 
is supposed to be the present one, was observed by 
him, on the frontiers of Hindostan, and which form- 
ed a large a bush. We have never seen the Jasmi- 
num revolutum treated as a standard shrub, though 
it appears well calculated for that purpose, if suffi- 
ciently hardy. Trained against a southern wall, it 
puts forth vigorous shoots and produces abundance 
of flowers of the richest fragrance, and most brilli- 
ant golden hue. 

It may be propagated readily by cuttings, taken 
in the spring, and appears to grow very well in any 
common soil. A little straw or matting should be 
laid over the roots to protect them from frosts of long 
continuance ; and in very inclement seasons, a slight 
covering over the branches also will prove benefi- 
cial, by preserving the young and succulent shoots 
which the luxuriant habit of the plant will leave rather 



too tender to withstand the severity of our winters, 
though the older branches remain uninjured. 

The flowers of this as well as the common Jas- 
mine, are admirably adapted to the use of the toi- 
lette ; and to some of our fair readers the following- 
method of extracting perfumes may not be wholly 
unacceptable. We copy it from the .Family Receipt 
Book. 

' Procure a quantity of the petals of any flowers 
which have an agreeable fragrance ; card thin lay- 
ers of cotton, which dip into the finest Florence or 
Lucca Oil ; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on 
the flowers, and lay them, a layer of cotton, and a 
layer of flowers, until an earthen vessel or a wide- 
mouthed glass bottle is full. Tie the top close with 
a bladder, then lay the vessel in a south aspect to 
the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, when unco- 
vered, a fragrant oil may be squeezed away from 
the whole mass, little inferior, if that flower is made 
use of, to the dear and highly valued Otto or Odor 
of Roses.* 

When the aroma or odor is united with a rectified 
spirit, it is usually termed an essence ; and this may 
readily be obtained by mixing a portion of the oil, 
prepared as above directed, with an equal quantity 
of alcohol ; shake them together in a phial, and the 
spirit wiHJbecome impregnated with the perfume of 
the oil. They may afterwards be poured from each 
other, and the essence preserved for use. 

From the Jasminum officinale the Italians obtain 
an essential oil, by distillation, which is held in high 
estimation amongst them as a remedy for rheumatic 
pains, and for application to paralytic limbs. 
Bot. Mag. 1731. 




Coreopsis trnctoria 




I . i limn 'i I j'l mini 





Catanaache Cfei-nlca 



Mirabi]is jalapa 



K. D. Smith del f 



:-.. ' e ! y- 



COREOPSIS TINCTO'RIA. 

ARKANSA COREOPSIS. 
Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAM1A FRUSTRANEA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFEREJE. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Oct. 


Duration. 
Annual. 


Introduced 
in 1823. 



No. 13. 

Coreopsis, from two Greek words, signifying the 
appearance of a bug or tick, in allusion to the fancied 
resemblance of its seed to such insects. Tinctoria, 
from the Latin tinctura, a colour or dye, expressive 
of the colouring properties of its petals. 

The appellation Arkansa, indicates the situation, 
in North America, where it was discovered by 
Professor Nuttall, during his travels through that 
country. Nearly all the individuals belonging to 
the genus Coreopsis, are interesting hardy subjects, 
chiefly natives of the same inexhaustible, and com- 
paratively unexplored, source of the wonders of 
nature. 

The Coreopsis tinctoria is a remarkably pretty 
slender- growing annual, and having been lately in- 
troduced amongst us, is by no means common. It 
will flourish in any rich soil, and may be treated as 
are the usual annuals of our gardens, by being 
sown at the end of March. If early flowers are 
desired, the seed may be sown a fortnight sooner, 
in a hotbed, and the plants removed into the borders 
in April. In dry situations autumn-sown plants 
will frequently endure the winter. 

4 Dot. Mag. t. 2512. 



LI'NUM ALPI'NUM. 

ALPINE FLAX. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. PENTAGVNIA. 

Natural Order. 

CARYOPHILLEJ2. 



Native of 
Austria. 


Height. 
8 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, Aug. 


Duration . 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1739. 



No. 14. 

Linum comes from the Greek word LIN ON, sig- 
nifying flax or cotton ; or cloth manufactured from 
either of them. Alpinum, from the Latin alpinus, 
belonging to the Alps. Our English word flax, 
is of Saxon origin, from flex. 

This little plant resembles the Linum usitatissi- 
mum, or common flax, so well known ; but is shorter 
in the stem, and the flowers are much larger. 

It may be propagated by cuttings, which strike 
readily under a hand-glass ; or the seeds may be 
sown as soon as they are ripe. It is a pretty plant 
for rock work or the fronts of borders, and prefers 
a dry sandy soil. 

Flax appears to have been cultivated by the 
Egyptians, upwards of three thousand years ago, 
for we read of it in the book of Exodus, chap. 9, 
ver. 31 ; though it does not appear at what precise 
period it first became employed for the purposes to 
which we now convert it. 

Notwithstanding the mention of linen is found in 
the works of the most ancient historians, it is not 
quite certain that it was, in their time, manufactured 
either of flax or hemp. 



The Greeks are said, at a very early period, to 
have been supplied with their fine linen from Egypt ; 
but their term LIN ON applies indiscriminately to 
cloth of cotton or flax ; and it is probable, that the 
former was used many ages before the latter. 

Herodotus, the Greek historian, who lived about 
two thousand years ago, and who travelled in Egypt, 
frequently notices the use of linen, but we neither 
find it determined by the historian himself, nor any 
of his commentators, that flax was, at that period, 
manufactured into cloth. It may have been culti- 
vated for its seed only. 

Linseed oil, which is expressed from the seed of 
the common flax, is highly valuable to the arts, par- 
ticularly as a component part of paint. 

An infusion of flax seed has been found to be ex- 
tremely useful as a pectoral drink, in coughs, colds, 
and affections of the lungs. It is thus prepared : 
Take an ounce of bruised flax seed, half an ounce of 
sliced liquorice root, and pour upon them a quart of 
boiling water ; let it macerate an hour near the fire, 
and then strain it off for use. A teacup-full may be 
taken five or six times in the course of twenty-four 
hours; when a fresh supply should be made. 

Equal parts of linseed oil and lime water, form a 
liniment that no family should be without. It is sin- 
gularly tfseful in the cure of burns and scalds ; and 
if timely applied, prevents the inflammation attendant 
on these cases. 

The flax stem, when macerated in streams or 
ponds, is said to communicate a poisonous quality to 
the water ; and an act of Henry VIII. prohibited 
the practice, under pain of twenty shillings. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 187. 



CATANAN'CHE (LERU'LEA. t 

BLUE-FLOWERED CATANANCHE. 

Clans. Order. 

SYNGEIfESIA. POLVGAMIA jEQUALlS. 

Natural Order. 

CICHORACEdi. 



Native of 
S. Europe. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 15. 

Catananche is derived from two Greek words, 
signifying compulsion ; from its supposed power of 
causing 1 an irresistable impulse to love ; a quality 
which, formerly, it was ridiculously imagined to 
possess. Cserulea, from the Latin, blue. 

The blue-flowered Catananche appears to have 
been an old inhabitant of our gardens, and it is said 
to be synonymous with the sesainoides parvum of 
Gerarde ; if so, the figure given of it by that author, 
is certainly inferior to most of those he has supplied 
us with. 

Miller observes that it may be propagated by 
heads taken from the mother plant. This we have 
never tried, finding it easily raised from seeds, and 
we judge with much more success than by dividing. 

Sow seeds of the Catananche cserulea in March 
or April, in rich light soil, and when the young 
plants come up, they should be thinned, if required, 
and kept clear from weeds till autumn. The seed- 
lings may then be planted out, one in a place, in dry 
situations, where they are intended to remain, and 
an abundance of flowers will be produced in the fol- 
lowing summer. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 469. 



MIRA'BILIS JALA'PA. 

COMMON MARVEL OF PERU. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

NYCTAGINEjE. 



Native of 
India. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
August. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 16. 

This plant is said to have received its name, Mira- 
bilis, from the 'wonderful diversity of colours in the 
flowers.' We may venture an opinion that it arose 
from the diverse combination of them ; for the colours 
in a single flower are by no means numerous. One 
plant will produce many flowers entirely red, some 
of a clear yellow, and others variegated in different 
degrees, with red, yellow, and occasionally with 
cream colour. There is a purple and white variety 
also, which possesses the same changeful propensity 
in the disposition of its two colours, but we are not 
aware of these colours ever being mingled with the 
red and yellow ; and seedling plants most frequently 
produce plain flowers only. 

The specific name, Jalapa, was adopted on the 
supposition that the officinal Jalap was produced by 
the Mirabilis. This error has been corrected by 
Dr. Houston, who discovered, in the Spanish West 
Indies, that the plant from which the Jalap of the 
shops is prepared, is a species of convolvulus, and 
is now known as the Convolvulus Jalapa. 

Bullock, when travelling in Mexico, in 1823, 
observed that Jalap was chiefly produced in fhe 



neighbourhood of Xalapa : hence its appellation ; 
the J and the X, in the Spanish language, having 
the same sound, and being interchangeable. 

Our old herbalists, two centuries ago, were well 
acquainted with this plant, and * dwell with great 
marvel thereon.' Parkinson calls it the 'Meruaile 
of the World,' and mentions, amongst others, one 
that he possessed with blossoms of a pale purple or 
peach colour. 

It has obtained the appellation of the four-o'clock 
plant, from the flowers usually opening about that 
time in the afternoon. In cool or gloomy weather, 
however, they continue expanded during the next 
day ; otherwise the warmth of the sun, early in the 
morning, closes them to open no more : when even- 
ing again arrives, we find our plant with fresh em- 
bellishments, as gay as before. 

The Marvel of Peru is usually cultivated as a 
half-hardy annual ; but it is far better to take up 
the roots on the first approach of frost, and lay them 
in dry sand, in a cellar, till the last week in March ; 
when they may be replanted in the borders for flow- 
ering. As the roots, when thus put out into the 
borders, will sometimes remain in the ground a 
considerable time before they vegetate, it is pre- 
ferable to plant them in deep pots of soil, and place 
them in a hotbed till they have grown an inch or 
two : they may then be turned out, with the balls of 
soil unbroken, into the situations in which they are 
intended to flower. If seedlings are desired, raise 
them in a holbed, as early as is convenient, that 
they may blow before the sharp autumnal nights 
prevent it. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 382. 




Gaultheria prornml* 1 us . 




Aiiisonin latifnlia , 




i 1 a oo fragraiis 




A;i<iroujf<!:i c.ih 






GAULTHE'RIA PROCUM'BENS. 

TRAILING GAULTHERIA. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ERICE^E. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
5 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1768. 



No. 17. 

The present genus has been named after Dr. 
Gaulthier, or Gautier, a physician and botanist of 
Canada; whence the Gaultheria procumbens was 
first introduced. Procumbens, from the Latin, im- 
plying a bending downwards. 

Our present is an interesting little subject, and is, 
in appearance, somewhat like the vaccinium, or bil- 
berry tribe. Its pendent crimson berries some- 
times remain on the plant and accompany the flow- 
ers of the following year. They form a pretty con- 
trast to each other; and with its motley evergreen 
foliage, constitute a small, though brilliant, orna- 
ment in a shady part of the garden. 

The inhabitants of some parts of North America 
are said to use the leaves as we do that incompa- 
rable produce of the * Celestial Empire' Tea. 

An infusion of them certainly possesses consider- 
able fragrance; and were we not prejudiced in fa- 
vour of our accustomed beverage, might be thought 
equally pleasant; and would, probably, be found 
equally wholesome. 

It should be planted in peat, in a cool situation ; 
where it will slowly increase by its creeping roots. 

5 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 56. 



- 



AMSO'NIA LATIFO'LIA. 

BROAD-LEAVED AMSONIA. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 
APOCYNE.S:. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
15 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1759. 



No. 18. 

The appellation Amsonia appears to have been 
first given to this plant by the author of the Flora 
Virginica, Mr. Clayton, who discovered it in Vir- 
ginia ; but we are not told in what its name origi- 
nated ; a supposition may be ventured that he made 
choice of it from the name of some person or place. 
Latifolia, from the Latin latus, broad, and folium, 
a leaf. 

This plant has long been an inhabitant of the 
English parterre, and is generally thought to have 
been cultivated by Miller. This, however, is not 
quite certain ; for, in his dictionary, he speaks of the 
Tabernsemontana Amsonia, which is considered sy- 
nonymous with the present Amsonia latifolia, as 
having white flowers; ours it will be seen are light 
blue. 

It does not increase rapidly, though it may occa- 
sionally be divided at the root. It succeeds best in 
a warm situation where the soil is continually kept 
in a moderate degree of moisture. It may be plant- 
ed in a compost of peat and loam, with the addition 
of a small quantity of sand, and should not be fre- 
quently removed. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 72. 



TUSSILA'GO FRA'GRANS. 

SWEET-SCENTED COLTSFOOT. 
Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFEREjE. 



Native of 
Italy. 


Height. 
8 inches. 


Flowers in 
January. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1806. 



No. 19. 

The term Tussilago has been derived from the 
Latin tussis, a cough ; and ago, to drive away ; on 
account of the efficacy of one of its species in affec- 
tions of the lungs. Fragrans, from the Latin, fra- 
grant. The English name Coltsfoot has arisen from 
the shape of its leaves. 

The bloom is odoriferous in a high degree, very 
similar to the Heliotropium Peruvianum; and if the 
plant be made an inhabitant of the greenhouse, or 
sitting room, when in flower, very few that we are 
acquainted with, afford so rich a perfume ; though 
the peculiar almond-like scent may not be equally 
agreeable to all. 

The foliage of our present subject, and its habits 
also, bear a strong resemblance to the Tussilago 
farfara, a native of our own fields ; and with which 
many a worthy farmer regrets his too intimate ac- 
quaintance. It is, indeed, a rank weed, betraying 
a sterile soil. 

Notwithstanding the Tussilago fragrans is highly 
valued for the odour of its blossoms, produced at a 
dreary period of the year; yet we warn the un- 
wary florist against introducing it into his borders, 



without first inclosing- its roots within the narrow 
precincts of an earthen flower pot. If this be neg- 
lected his fragrant friend may, probably, by its 
creeping, or rather running, roots, make a rapid 
tour over great part of his garden. 

Having noticed the Tussilago farfara, or common 
Coltsfoot, we may, perhaps, be allowed the present 
opportunity of making further mention of it. 

Curtis, in his Flora Londinensis mentions a prac- 
tice prevalent amongst the Tartars of carrying burn- 
ing touchwood, which was probably made of the 
roots of Tussilago, the smoke being intended to pro- 
tect them from the annoyance of gnats. Thus the 
invention of a pipe may have arisen in the necessity 
of sometimes employing the breath to quicken the 
fire. 

He further observes, 'The custom of smoking 
this plant, which still prevails, is of ancient date. 
Pliny directs the dried leaves and root of Coltsfoot 
to be burnt, and the smoke drawn into the mouth 
through a reed and swallowed, as a remedy for an 
obstinate cough. 1 

Coughs have frequently been much relieved by 
persons smoking the dried leaves ; and they are 
used as the principal ingredient in the manufacture 
of British Herb Tobacco. An infusion of the dried 
flowers, sweetened with honey, has been found par- 
ticularly efficacious in complaints of this nature. 

The downy substance which is found growing on 
the under surface of the leaves of the common colts- 
foot, when dipped in a strong solution of saltpetre, 
and gradually dried, is said to form an admirable 
tinder. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 35. 



ANDROM'EDA CALYCULATA, latifoiia. 

BROAD-LEAVED CALYCLED ANDROMEDA. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ERICEjE. 



Native of 
Newfoundl d 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
Mar. Apr. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1748. 



No. 20. 

Andromeda, a celebrated classic beauty of anti- 
quity, the daughter of Cepheus and Cassiope. She 
was bound by the nymphs to a rock, to be devoured 
by a sea monster, because her mother proudly pre- 
ferred her beauty to theirs; but Perseus, rescued 
and married her. Calyculata, double calyxed, from 
the presence of two minute ovate leaflets, which 
grow on the base of the calyx. 

This pretty evergreen shrub, with some trifling- 
variations in its growth, is found native nearly all 
round the northern parts of the globe ; as in Sibe- 
ria, Sweden, and North America. Being highly 
astringent to the taste, its medicinal qualities are 
probably of a tonic nature. The combined circum- 
stances of situation and properties in the Androm- 
eda calyculata are such as M. Pastie of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Paris may advance in sup- 
port of his new hypothesis. He thinks it of the 
highest importance, in making ourselves acquainted 
with the medicinal properties of plants, that we at- 
tend to their native situations; and even conceives 
this of greater consequence than knowing to what 
genus they belong, or the chemical principles that 



enter into their composition. He observes, that all 
plants which grow on high cold grounds have a 
tonic and stimulant power; whilst those are found of 
contrary qualities which are natives of opposite 
situations. 

"Nor ev'ry plant on ev'ry soil will grow : 
The sallow loves the wat'ry ground, and low ; 
The marshes, alders j Nature seems t'ordain 
The rocky cliff for the wild ash's reign : 
The baleful yew to northern blasts assigns, 
To shores the myrtles, and to mounts the vines." 

DRYDEN'S VIRGIL. 

Santolius Victorinus, a French writer, seems to 
have had the above lines of Virgil in mind when 
he wrote the following; which occur in Evlyn's 
translation of M. Quintinye's French Gardener, a 
work showing much experience, combined with 
considerable ingenuity and talent. 

"All soils affect not every sort of stock, 

The apple chooseth earth, the pear the rock ; 

The peach flies marshes, some delight to share 

The hottest sun, and choose an open air . 

Some love the shade, here trees and shrubs will spread, 

There flowers from seed adorn a noble bed." 

The severest cold will not affect the Andromeda 
calyculata, but it is desirable with this, as with 
most other of the northern plants, that they be kept 
somewhat shaded during the continuance of our hot 
months. 

It should be planted in a mixture of peat and 
fresh loam; and may be propagated by layers, 
which will not be sufficiently rooted for separation 
hi less time than two years. 

Hort.Kew.2, v.3, 55. 




Lachenalia tricolor 




Erica herbacea 





Lonicera Tartarica 



Polygala Chamaebuxus 



S W sculp 



LACHENA'LIA TRI'COLOR. 

THREE-COLOURED LACHENALIA. 
Class. Order. 

HEXANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ASPHODELEJS. 



Native of 
C.G.Hope. 


Height. 
8 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial . 


Introduced 
in 1774. 



No. 21. 

The term Lachenalia was derived from the name 
of Wernerius de la Chenal, an eminent botanist of 
Switzerland. Tricolor, three-coloured, from the 
presence of three colours on the flowers, but these 
have very little permanency. They change consi- 
derably as the flowering advances. 

Many bulbous plants possess a singular mode of 
reproduction, in the formation of little buds or bulbs 
on their flowering stems, which admit of separation ; 
and, being properly treated, grow to perfection. 
The bulb-bearing lilly (lilium bulbiferum,) and 
tiger lilly (lilium tigrinum) are familiar examples of 
this peculiarity. 

A still more singular occurrence is stated by Sir 
J. E. Smith; who says that he has had scaly bulbs 
form even on the flower stalk of the Lachenalia tri- 
color, whilst lying for many weeks between papers 
to dry, which on being put into the ground became 
perfect plants. 

The production of a viviparous progeny, under 
such circumstances, is well calculated to remind us 
that no means are too difficult to be employed by 
the Almighty for the preservation of an individual 



even of the lowest order of creation. The farther 
we explore the operations of nature, the more shall 
we find to delight and surprise us. 

Nothing can exceed the ingenuity of the various 
contrivances, if we may be allowed these expres- 
sions, that exists for the more certain propagation 
of many of our commonest plants. Seeds appear 
to be the legitimate source of reproduction in vege- 
tables ; but nature admits no bounds to her efforts. 
Where her usual purposes meet with opposition, 
she employs other means for the accomplishment of 
the same ends. Numerous plants produce seeds 
very abundantly, and at the same time a vigorous 
production takes place at the roots; whilst others 
increase very slowly by the latter means. We may, 
however, in general, observe that the vegetating 
power of herbaceous plants, if not required for the 
seasonable support of seeds, will be exerted in the 
increase of their species, either by the multiplica- 
tion of tubers or bulbs, beneath or above the soil ; 
by suckers, by runners, oifsets, or by some other 
mode, agreeably to the nature of the plant. These 
observations cannot, of course, apply to exotics grow- 
ing in a soil or climate uncongenial to their nature. 

The Lachenalia tricolor will succeed in a warm 
border, with the protection of a hand glass in severe 
frosts. Or, which is frequently more convenient, 
it may be planted in a pot of light soil, composed of 
equal parts of fine sand, rotten leaves, and fresh 
loam, and be afforded the protection of a cold frame, 
or olher sheltered situation during frost; and such 
treatment will insure success. It should be very 
sparingly watered during winter. 

Hort. Kew.2, v. 2, 288. 



ERI'CA HERBA'CEA. 

EARLY DWARF HEATH. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDEIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ERICEjE. 



Native of 
Austria. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
Jan. Mar. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1763. 



No. 22. 

From the Greek EREICO, to break, from its sup- 
posed quality of breaking-, or rather dissolving, the 
stone in the bladder. Herbacea, from the Latin, 
herbaceous. It is sometimes called Erica carnea. 
Several other synonyms also have been applied to 
this species, but they are not in use. 

Perhaps no tribe of plants yields more ample evi- 
dence of the rapid progress of floriculture in this 
country than the present. 

Miller, not sixty years ago, described but five 
sorts of heath as known in England; but at the 
present period there are upwards of three hundred 
distinct species. Out of this number, according to 
Dr. Withering' s arrangement, five only are indige- 
nous to Great Britain ; and unfortunately very few 
of the exotics will bear the severity of our climate, 
having been chiefly introduced from the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

This heath may be raised from cuttings, but as 
its procumbent branches increase freely, in any light 
soil, a convenient mode of propagation is offered by 
layers, which will root sufficiently to admit of sepa- 
ration in eighteen months. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v.2, 366. 



LONICE'RA TARTA'RICA. 

TARTARIAN HONEYSUCKLE. 

Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

CAPRIFOLE^:. 



Native of 
Russia. 


Height. 
5 feet. 


Flowers in 
Apr. May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1752. 



No. 23. 

Adam Lonicer, in honour of whom this genus has 
been named, was a physician and botanist of Frank- 
fort, where he died in 1588. Tartarica, from Tar- 
tary, whence seeds were sent to Petersburgh, and 
thence to England. 

This species of Lonicera constitutes a pretty va- 
riety amongst low-growing shrubs. Its delicate 
spring foliage contrasts admirably with the deep 
green tints of Portugal laurel, lauristinus, and 
others of our favourite evergreens. 

In its native country it is said to be frequented by 
the Lytta vesicatoria, or blistering fly. They are 
gathered from it by shaking the branches over a 
cloth, and after being killed by the fumes of vine- 
gar, are dried in a stove, and preserved for use. 
These are sometimes mixed with another insect, the 
melolontha vitis, which does not stimulate the skin. 
The latter is easily distinguished by its shape, which 
is nearly square, and should be rejected as useless 
for the purposes intended. 

This Lonicera is of easy propagation either by 
layers or cuttings, but does not generally succeed 
in the smoke of towns. 

Hort. Kew. 2, y. 1, 379. 



POLY'GALA CHAJVLEBUX'US. 

BOX-LEAVED MILKWORT. 
Class. Order. 

D1ADELPHIA. OCTANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

PEDICULARKjE. 



Native of 
Austria. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1658. 



No 24. 

This genus appears to have obtained its name 
from the supposition that some of its species in- 
crease the quantity of milk in cows that feed upon 
it. It is a compound of two Greek words, POLU, 
much, and GALA, milk. By some of our botanists 
of the seventeenth century, the present subject was 
called Chamaebuxus, from the Greek, signifying 
low- growing box ; hence the term has been retained 
as a trivial name. 

This is a most desirable low evergreen shrubby 
plant, producing a profusion of fragrant flowers du- 
ring the months of April and May; and partially 
through the summer. 

Several varieties of the Poly gala chamaebuxus 
are spoken of; some with red flowers others with 
red and yellow ; but we believe they are not at pre- 
sent known in England. 

It grows extremely well if planted in peat, or 
peat and loam, and increases freely by its creeping 
roots. When a removal or division of the plant is 
required, it may be safely effected in April, or the 
beginning of September, care being taken to water 
it if requisite. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 245. 



DODECA'THEON MEAD'IA. 

AMERICAN COWSLIP. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PBIMULACEjE. 



Native of 
Virginia. 


Height. 
12 inches. 


Flowers in 
May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1744. 



No. 25. 

Dodecatheon is formed of two Greek words, sig- 
nifying twelve gods. Meadia was the only name 
this plant first received, and it was given to it by 
Catesby, in honour of Dr. Mead, an English phy- 
sician of considerable eminence. It is not quite ob- 
vious why Linneus rejected Meadia, and adopted 
Dodecatheon, as a generic term ; a name applied by 
Pliny, it is supposed, to our English cowslip. Mea- 
dia, as it stood named by Catesby, must be consi- 
dered as reasonable an appellation, since Dr. Mead 
appears to have been a man fully worthy of the 
honour at first done him. 

Very few plants excite more general interest than 
is produced by the Dodecatheon Meadia. It is one 
of those attractive flowers that will bear the most 
scrutinous examination, and still leave us the more 
in admiration of its beauties. 

The grains of the farina or dust of this flower, 
when inspected with the assistance of a compound 
microscope, will be found to be peculiarly beautiful. 
They are distinctly organized minute pearls. So 
minute, that one square inch will contain of them 
upwards of three millions ; and as squares cannot 

7 



be covered by circles, more than one fifth of the 
space will still be left unoccupied. Or, to be more 
particular in numbers, presuming that a square inch 
will contain three millions of circles, in direct rows 
each way, the area of each of such circles will be 
the 3,819,709th part of the area of an inch. 

Mr. Phillips' s simile, in his amusing work, the 
Flora Historica, is an apt one. He says the petals 
are reflexed, or turn back over the calyx, giving the 
appearance of an half-expanded parasol; a resem- 
blance which is considerably heightened by the 
long tapering shape of the parts of fructification, 
and the golden colour of the anthers. 

The flowers, during their expansion, assume an 
elegantly pendent position, as best adapted to their 
protection and fertilization ; but when the farina has 
fallen and the flower fades, the peduncles, with the 
seed vessels, become perfectly erect. 

The chief care necessary in the cultivation of the 
Dodecatheon, is the planting it in a shady situation. 
It flourishes in any cool light soil, particularly in 
peat; and may be safely removed in the autumn, or 
early in the spring. It frequently ripens its seed, 
and from these may be readily propagated. If they 
are sown in pots in the autumn, they will vegetate in 
the spring, when great care should be taken that the 
young plants be not injured by the heat of the sun. 
Keep them in a shady situation, moderately moist, 
and clean from weeds. After their leaves are de- 
cayed, they may be removed, but this should not 
be deferred later than the middle of September; 
when they may be put into the borders to remain 
for flowering. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 311. 



TRIL'LIUM GRANDIFLO'RUM. 

LARGE-FLOWERED TRILLIUM. 
Class. Order. 

HEXANDRIA. TRIGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 
MIItACU. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


1 Flowers in 
April. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1796. 



No. 26. 

Trillium, from the triple formation of the several 
parts of the plant and flower. It is composed of 
three leaves, three stigmas, three petals, three ca- 
lyx-leaves, and the berry is three-celled. Grandi- 
florum, from the Latin grandis, great; and flos, a 
flower. This plant has also been called Trillium 
erythrocarpum, red-fruited. 

All the Trilliums that we are at present acquaint- 
ed with are natives of America ; growing there in 
woods and shady places. They may be raised from 
seeds, sown in September or October, which will 
come up early in the following spring. The young 
plants should be kept moist and cool during the 
summer, and in September the roots may be trans- 
planted into shady borders of light earth where they 
are intended to remain. In England, these plants 
increase very slowly at the root, and the original 
ones are frequently lost, even under the care of the 
most experienced cultivators ; and if the seeds are 
sown in the spring they remain twelve months dor- 
mant, which may lessen the chances of success. 
These combined circumstances tend to limit the 
whole of the Trilliums to the borders of the curious. 
Par. Lond. t. 1. 



ADO'NIS VERNA'LIS. 

SPRING ADONIS. 
Class. Order. 

POLYANDRIA. POLYGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RANUNCULACE*:. 



Native of 
Europe. 


Height. 
12 inches. 


Flowers in 
Mar. April. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1731. 



No. 27. 

Adonis, whom this flower has been named after, 
was the favourite of Venus. Vernalis, from the 
Latin, belonging to the spring. 

Some of our fabulists have a pleasant conceit re- 
specting these 'personages :' we relate it as being in 
some degree explicable. They say that when Ve- 
nus and Proserpina contended before Jupiter, which 
should have Adonis, Jupiter referred them to Cal- 
liope, whom he appointed to be judge of their quar- 
rel. Calliope gave this sentence; that Adonis 
should live with Venus six months, and the remain- 
ing six he should reside with Proserpina. The fa- 
ble is thus explained: Venus represents the earth, 
and Adonis the sun. During half the year his re- 
splendent beams reign over all our varied plains, 
attired with beauteous flowers, and enriched with 
fruit and corn ; the other half he seems to lose his 
influence, and goes as it were to rule in the darker 
regions with Proserpina. 

To encourage a good blossom, the Adonis Verna- 
lis should not be frequently removed. If it be per- 
formed in the autumn, the flowering of the following 
spring may, possibly, receive but little inj ury. 
Hort, Kew. 2, v. 3, 350. 



O'ROBUS VER'NUS. 

SPRING BITTER-VETCH. 
Class. Order. 

DIADELPHIA. DECANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

LEGUMINOSEJE. 



Native of 
Europe. 


Height. 
12 inches. 


Flowers in 
April. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1629. 



No. 28. 

Orobus comes from the Greek ORO, to exite ; 
and BO us, an ox; in allusion to the utility of some 
of the plants belonging to this genus in fattening 
cattle. Vernus, from the Latin ver, spring, its 
time of flowering. 

This is the Orobus venetus of Gerrarde and Par- 
kinson, though the latter mentions it as double the 
height of our plant. He says, * This pretty kinde 
of pease blossome beareth diuers slender, but up- 
right, greene branches, somewhat cornered, two 
foote high, or thereabouts.' 

It is, indeed, a very pretty kind of pease blos- 
som, and so early a visitor cannot fail of being wel- 
come in our borders. Its colour varies as the flow- 
ering advances; till, on fading, it becomes a light 
blue ; and the gay diversity thus afforded yields a 
pleasing effect. 

We never have seen it produce any seeds. It 
may be divided for increase, in autumn, but its 
deeply penetrating strong roots should not be too 
frequently removed. A shady situation is usually 
recommended for the Orobus vernus; we find it, 
however, succeed in almost any soil or aspect. 
Hort. Kew.2, v.4, 303. 




Delphinium grandiflorum. 





LUiura bulbife 




Spiraea Inevijfata. 



E.I). Smith, del' 



DELPHI'NIUM GRANDIFLO'RUM. 

LARGE-FLOWERED LARKSPUR. 
Class. Order. 

POLYANDRIA. TRIGYNIA. 

Natural Order, 

RANUNCULACEJE. 



Native of 
Siberia. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1758. 



No. 29. 

The appellation applied to this genus has proved 
less mutable under the hand of science than many 
others, though we are strongly inclined to believe 
that it has usurped the name of another tribe. The 
delphinium or Greek DELPHiNioNof Dioscorides, 
received its name from the fancied resemblance of 
its flower bud to a dolphin. Any one who will 
compare the unopened flowers of the several species 
of delphinium and aconitum, will readily observe, 
that the latter bear a much stronger similitude than 
the former, to that fish. 

The beautiful double variety of Delphinium gran- 
diflorum, so well known, and generally called the 
Siberian Larkspur, is an offspring of the plant be- 
fore us ; and is increased by division. 

The present one may be increased by dividing 
the roots in the usual season ; or by seeds, which 
are freely produced. They may be sown either in 
autumn or spring, but those sown at the former time 
will produce the strongest plants. These should be 
kept thin and free from weeds during the summer ; 
and, not later than October, be transplanted for 
flowering. 

8 Hort. Kew.2, v.3, 320. 



I'RIS SUSIA'NA. 

CHALCEDONIAN IRIS. 
Class. Order. 

TRIANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 



Native of 
Levant. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 30. 

Peculiar circumstances, or qualities, belonging to 
plants, which sometimes give rise to their generic 
names, will rarely be found equally applicable to all 
the individuals which must necessarily be included 
in the same genus. The Latin term iris, a rainbow, 
applies admirably to many of the plants bearing 
that name, but, certainly, not to the present one, 
having no such variety of colour. 

Wonderful as were the exertions and penetration 
of the great Linneus, and eminently skilled as are 
many of his successors, still the efforts of science 
are inadequate when applied to the developement of 
the laws of nature. Her laws are fixed, but so di- 
versified, so complex, so utterly inexplicable to 
human understanding, that man, the boasted lord of 
the creation, must stand abashed by his ignorance, 
and science herself confess her defects. 

Naturalists have zealously and meritoriously ex- 
plored her mysteries, and endeavoured to assign to 
her specific laws, whereby to circumscribe her eco- 
nomy ; but still before the code could ever be com- 
pleted, her numerous exceptions to its general en- 
actments, have baffled the efforts of her legislators. 



Thus it is with the classification of the animal, 
the vegetable, and the mineral, kingdoms. Inge- 
nious distinctions have been laid down for the dis- 
crimination of one family from another, but in spite 
of our science in defining divisions, anomalous sub- 
jects continually step in and show that our system 
is unfounded in nature. Indeed, how can we hope 
to class, with precision, the component parts of these 
several kingdoms, when human science is inadequate 
to point out a clear line of distinction between the 
three kingdoms themselves. 

Nevertheless, the present state of the science is 
truly inestimable to us. Men the most learned and 
industrious have contributed to its present perfec- 
tion, and talents the most eminent have been devoted 
to its extension. Much has been attained, and still 
much we may hope to discover, notwithstanding 
the whole depth of the subject is alone fathomable 
by him who framed its laws. 

This magnificent plant has frequently been im- 
ported from Constantinople, and received its trivial 
appellation, Susiana, from a western district of 
Persia, which was known to the ancients by that 
name. Susa, now called Caster, was the capital 
of that district, and the term, in the language of 
the country, signifies Lilies. Chalcedon a city of 
Asia opposite Constantinople. 

It requires to be planted in a warm, dry, loamy, 
or gravelly soil, or it will rarely be found to blos- 
som freely. To preserve the plant in health, it 
seems desirable to transplant it once in four or five 
years, as parts of the old roots undergo decay, and 
injure the young ones. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 117. 



LI'LIUM BULBI'FERUM. 

BULB-BEARING LILY. 
Class. Order. 

HEXANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

LILIACE^E. 



Native of 
Italy. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596 



No. 31. 

LEI HI ON is the Greek name of the Lily; and 
from it, through the Latin, our term Lilium has 
been derived. 

Much has been said on the analogy between 
bulbs and buds, and their affinity is more perfect 
than many of our readers probably imagine. 

This species of Lily presents a pretty example of 
the bulb produced in the usual situation of the bud, 
and the affinity thereby becomes more evident. 
We shall treat this subject more at length in a 
future number. 

The culture of this plant is extremely easy. 
The old roots increase very little, but the bulbs 
taken from the stem, in August, and then deposited 
in the soil, will produce one leaf in the following 
spring: in the second year a small bulb-bearing 
stem, about fifteen inches high ; but not usually a 
flower: in the third year a stronger stem, bearing 
bulbs, and terminated by one of its beautiful blos- 
soms; and a handsome head of them may be ex- 
pected in the following summer. Transplanting 
should be effected in autumn; and shade or ex- 
posure will be equally suitable. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 241. 



SPIRJE'A IwEVIGATA. 

SMOOTH SPIRAEA. 
Class. Order. 

ICOSANDRIA. DI-PBjrTAGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ROSACES. 



Native of 
Siberia. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
Apr. June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1774. 



No. 32. 

The term Spiraea has been deduced from the 
Greek SPEIRA, a rope; and is applied to this genus 
in consequence of the flexibility of the branches in 
some of its species. Laevigata from the Latin laevis, 
smooth. 

There are several species of Spiraea well known 
in our gardens, as the Spiraea salicifolia, usually 
called the Spiraea frutex : and the Spiraea hype- 
ricifolia, sometimes known by the name of Hype- 
ricum frutex. Our present subject is not quite so 
frequently met with as either of these, though not 
less interesting, nor less entitled to a place in every 
shrubbery. Its summer foliage is generally retained 
in a dry state, during winter, and forms a nice 
shelter to the young shoots, which are usually ra- 
ther succulent, and, seem to need some such pro- 
tection against the inclemencies of winter. 

It may occasionally be propagated by suckers, 
though not so freely as are some others of the same 
family. Or it may readily be raised by layers, 
which should be confined under the soil in autumn, 
and they will be sufficiently rooted for separation in 
twelve months. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 254. 







Kiiliuia l.i I it'ii 1 1,1 




Linaria inirj>uica. 




(Euothera pumil 




E.D. Smith del 1 : 






KAL'MIA LATIFO'LIA. 

BROAD-LEAVED KALMIA. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RHODORACE2E. 



Native of 
N. America 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
May, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1734. 



No. 33. 

Peter Kalm was an eminent botanist of Finland, 
and professor of the science at Abo. He imbibed a 
love of nature among the flowery rocks of Sweden; 
the wilds also of North America, and icy forests of 
Russia were alike explored by him. He published 
his travels through North America in 1753, which 
were translated into English by Mr. Forster in 1771 ; 
and Linneus, it may be conceived, paid no more 
than due respect to merit, in bestowing his name on 
this splendid family of plants. Latifolia, from the 
Latin latus, broad ; and folium, a leaf. 

The first sentiment excited by the presence of 
this beautiful North American shrub, is one of re- 
gret, arising out of the difficulty of keeping it in 
perfect health. The principal requisites towards 
this appear to be purity of air, moisture and shade 
during our summer months, and a proper imitation 
of its native soil. 

Abercombie says, 'most of the exotic shrubs 
brought from America, were originally found grow- 
ing on tracts of ground resembling our beds of peat, 
and the luxuriance of these vegetables may partly 
be ascribed to the excessive moisture which is 

9 



peculiar to some parts of America. One great obj ect 
is to imitate the American peat. This is a compo- 
sition of the branches, twigs, leaves, and the roots 
of trees; with small plants, grass, and weeds; by 
having lain immemorially in water, the whole is 
formed into a soft mass ; and when the materials are 
completely decayed and blended so as to be homo- 
geneous in appearance, the compound is the finest 
vegetable mould: where this description of peat 
cannot be obtained, recourse must be had to the best 
that can be procured from marshes, bogs, or heathy 
commons, which must be well turned and sweetened, 
and mixed with sand and rotten leaves.' 

Of this soil distinct beds should be formed, about 
three feet deep, for this class of American plants, 
with a shade of shrubby or lofty trees on the south 
side ; and if the beds could be so placed as to admit 
an occasional flow of water being turned through 
a stratum of pebbles, laid three or four feet beneath 
the surface, little doubt would exist of success. 

It is preferable to transplant in spring or autumn, 
but it may be effected at almost any period, if the 
earth be not too much disturbed from the fibrous 
roots, which are so small and numerous as to retain 
the soil in one compact mass. But little difficulty 
would exist in the cultivation of the Kalmia, Rho- 
dodendron, and other similar plants, if a sufficiency 
of moisture could be conveniently afforded them du- 
ring our summer months. In most situations they 
require copious waterings in very warm weather. 

Our drawing is from the pale-flowered Kalrnia 
latifolia, and we intend resuming the subject, with 
further directions, under another variety of it. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 47. 



LINA'RIA PURPU'REA. 

PURPLE FLAX-WEED. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. ANCIOSPERMIA. 

Natural Order . 

SCROPHULARIN2E. 



Native of 
S. Europe. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, Sep. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1648. 



No. 34. 

The term Linaria appears to have had its origin 
from Linum, flax; just as Flax-weed and Toad-flax 
are deduced from the English word, on account of 
the similarity of the plants. 

This species is frequently known as the Antir- 
rhinum purpureum, in which genus it was placed 
by Linneus: modern botanists have, however, di- 
vided the Antirrhinums into two genera, and this 
plant now stands with the appellation by which it 
was well known to Gerarde, Parkinson, Bauhin, 
and others. Purpurea, from the Latin, purple. 

Its erect and elegant growth renders it well suit- 
ed to contrast with more diffuse subjects of its 
own stature ; and the simplicity of its culture will 
qualify its deficiency of that splendour which may 
attach to some of its more fastidious neighbours. 

It produces seed freely, and from these may be 
readily propagated. If sown in the autumn upon a 
tolerably dry soil, they will not fail to come up, 
and produce much stronger plants than those sown 
in spring ; and when once established it may be ex- 
pected, by seed, to increase spontaneously, though 
in very wet soils it will sometimes fail. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 12. 



(ENOTHE'RA PU'MILA. 

DWARF (ENOTHERA. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ONAGRARI&. 



Native of 
N. America. 


Height. 
1 foot. 


Flowers in 
May, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1757. 



No. 35. 

From two Greek words OINOS and THERA, the 
first signifying wine, and the second a pursuit, in 
consequence of the dried roots acquiring the flavour 
of wine. Pumila, from the Latin, little. 

(Enothera has, by different authors, been accent- 
ed on the antepenultimate, and on the penultimate 
syllable : the latter agrees best with the derivation. 

Though this is the smallest (Enothera that we 
are acquainted with, it forms a pretty ornament 
amongst rock- work, and plants of like size; and we 
find it possess this advantage, that whilst blossom- 
ing through the hottest months, it rarely suffers by 
drought. 

It is easily increased by parting the roots in 
spring or autumn; but it will produce much finer 
plants, and flower better, when raised from seeds. 
Miller directs that they be sown in autumn, in pots, 
placed under a hotbed frame until the spring, when 
the plants will appear : when fit to remove, plant a 
few in small pots, to be sheltered under a common 
frame in winter; others may be set in a sheltered 
border, and the following summer they will produce 
flowers and seeds in plenty. 

Hort.Kew.2, v.2, 343. 



VALERIA'NA MONTA'NA. 

MOUNTAIN VALERIAN. 

Class. Order. 

TRIAICDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 
DIPSACE*:. 



Native of 
Switzerland 


Height. 
Ifoot. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1739. 



No. 36. 

Of the origin of the term Valeriana we have 
nothing certain on record. Some persons have 
supposed it to have originated in the name of an 
eminent physician, Valerius, who is said to have 
first used one of the species of it in medicine; 
whilst others think the term may have come from 
the Latin valere, to be well. Montana, from the 
Latin mons, a mount. 

We are not aware that this species has been em- 
ployed in medicine, but the Valeriana officinalis is 
not only used against particular disorders; but, 
according to Gerarde, was in his day employed as 
a pot herb by the inhabitants of the north. He 
quotes a lame couplet in its praise, and says, 'some 
woman poet or other hath made these verses.* 
Could this venerable herbalist be introduced to 
some of our ' woman poetry* of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, we think he would not, so unceremoniously, 
cast a slur on the productions of the fair sex. 

It flourishes in a light dry soil, and is readily 
increased by a separation of its roots. Though 
increase be not wanted, it will still be desirable to 
divide and transplant it occasionally. 
Hon. Kew. 2, v.l, 74. 





Colutea frutesoens 



Gnaphalium ainanum 








Senecio elegans. 



.b. Smith, del' 



COLUTE'A FRUTES'CENS. 

SCARLET BLADDER SENNA. 
Class. Order. 

DIADELPHIA. DBCANDBIA. 

Natural Order. 

LEGUKINOSEJE. 



Native of 
C.G.Hope. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1683. 



No. 37. 

The term Colutea has been introduced from the 
Greek name of a plant in Theophrastus, bnt no fur- 
ther knowledge appears to exist of its origin or ap- 
plication. It probably comes from KOI LOS, a spa- 
cious cavity, in allusion to its distended seed vessel. 
Frutescens, from the Latin frutex, a shrub. The 
common term Bladder Senna, has been given to it 
from its bladder-like pods, and the general resem- 
blance of its foliage to that of the officinal Senna. 
It is also said to possess a portion of the cathartic 
qualities of that plant. 

Colutea is one of the unfortunate genera, among 
many others, that has come, perfected as it were, 
from the hand of the great father of our artificial 
system, to suffer amputation and distribution in af- 
ter ages. The Colutea frutescens is now found in 
the modern catalogues as Sutherlandia frutescens, 
in consequence of this name being adopted in the 
Hortus Kewensis, after Mr. Robert Brown. To the 
very eminent abilities of the author of the Prodromus 
Novse Angliee every one must be ready to pay the 
tribute of praise ; but, perhaps, that very acuteness 
of observation and depth of botanical science for 

10 



which he is celebrated, may render him more nice 
in his generic divisions than the plain botanist may 
admit to be necessary, or, indeed, than is useful to 
the practical man; for certain it is, that the ex- 
tension of our botanic vocabulary, and perplexing 
increase of synonyms, form a considerable draw- 
back on any advantage that may accrue from nicer 
distinctions. Both Sir J. E. Smith and Dr. Sims 
are of opinion, that the genera Sutherlandia and 
Swainsonia are too nearly allied to Colutea to admit 
separation. 

Its beautiful scarlet flowers, contrasted with its 
silvery foliage, render this a peculiarly ornamental 
little shrubby plant ; and after its brilliant blossoms 
are faded, its large inflated pods still excite an 
interest in its welfare. It is rather tender, and is 
frequently kept in the greenhouse, where it never 
blossoms so luxuriantly and fine as in the open air. 

It should be planted against a wall in a warm 
sheltered situation, in light dry soil, and in frosty 
weather be protected by litter and matting; or if 
kept in a pot, in the house, it should be placed near 
to the window, and will always be benefited by being 
fully exposed in mild weather. 

Treated as a hardy plant, it does not continue 
more than three or four years: this, however, is 
not important, since it is easily raised from seeds, 
which may be sown early in the spring, in pots, 
placed in a cool cucumber frame, and the plants 
should be hardened to the open air as early as pos- 
sible. If thus forwarded, they will blossom in the 
latter part of the summer ; or if not at that time, 
early in the following season. 

Hort.Kew.2, v.4, 327. 



GNAPHA'LIUM ARENA'RIUM. 

SAND EVERLASTING. 

Class . Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFEREvE. 



Native of 
Europe. 


Height. 
9 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1739. 



No. 38. 

The name comes from the Greek GNAPHALON, 
signifying down or wool, such as is produced by 
dressing or shearing cloth, in allusion to the wool- 
liness of the foliage. Arenarium, from the Latin 
arena, sand, indicative of the soil it usually prefers. 

The presence of the flowers of this Gnaphalium, 
in many parts of Europe, gives rise to feelings of 
melancholy and sadness, which Englishmen have 
never been taught to connect with them. The con- 
trary is rather the case, for they are introduced 
among us in bouquets for festivities, and embellish- 
ments for head dresses. They are sometimes ar- 
tificially tinged with a diversity of hues, and from 
their continued beauty, in a dry state, they have 
obtained the title Everlasting. 

Some of our readers may not be informed of the 
prevalent practice amongst the inhabitants of the 
continent, in using these flowers to decorate the 
monuments and graves of their departed relatives 
and friends. The French are particularly partial to 
these flowers, and designate them as we do, IM- 
MORTELLE. It has been observed by Mr. Phil- 
lips, that * since the hill of Pere la Chaise has been 



converted into a cemetery for the city of Paris, the 
demand for these flowers in the French capital has 
been so considerable, as not only to employ many 
hands in the cultivation of them, but numerous 
families are regularly occupied, and entirely sup- 
ported by forming these flowers into garlands and 
crosses, which are offered for sale by the cottagers 
near the entrance of this celebrated burial ground ; 
and but few persons can visit the romantic and hal- 
lowed spot without having some name called to their 
remembrance which draws from them this slight 
token of remembrance ; for here we find a mingled 
mass of monuments, recalling to our recollection the 
sweet lines of the poet, the ready wit of the critic, 
the piety of the priest, the heroic deeds of the sol- 
dier, the bravery of the sailor, the labours of the 
naturalist, the beauties of the artist, and the loves of 
Abelard and Heloise; here we meet fond parents 
with wreaths of IMMORTELLES to drop on the sod 
of their blighted hopes, and affectionate children 
placing crosses of everlasting flowers on the head 
of their parents* graves.' 

The cultivation of this plant is particularly easy 
where the soil is light and dry, but in damp si- 
tuations it frequently dies under the influence of the 
moisture of our climate during the three first months 
of the year. It should be divided in spring or au- 
tumn, and if the soil be stiff, mix with it an ample 
portion of drift sand ; this will generally preserve it 
in health ; but should it not do so, plant it on little 
hillocs of light soil, which may be raised six or eight 
inches high, as a further defence against damp ; and 
half cover the soil with small pebbles. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 14. 



HES'PERIS MATRON A'LIS. plena alba. 

DOUBLE WHITE ROCKET. 
Class. Order. 

TBTRADYNAMIA. SILIQUOSA. 

Natural Order. 

CRUCIFERE^E. 



Native of 
Italy. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1597. 



No. 39. 

Hesperis, from the Greek 'ESPEROS, evening; in 
consequence of the fragrance of some of this tribe 
at that time. We are told that the ladies of Ger- 
many cultivate these flowers in pots, to secure the 
evening perfume of them in their apartments, whence 
they have been called dames' violets; and this al- 
lusion has been Latinized into matronalis. The 
name of Rocket seems to have come to us through 
the Latin eruca, signifying canker-worm as well as 
the name of this plant, and as it frequently dies 
with the unskilful, without a perceptible cause, the 
term may be as applicable as many others in our 
scientific nomenclature. 

Many and contradictory directions have been 
given for the cultivation of this plant, evidently by 
persons not at all practically acquainted with its 
habits. The best information we have ever seen 
printed is contained in Rees's Cyclopaedia. The 
grand secret consists in cutting- down the flower 
stems of a plant or two, before they are much ex- 
hausted by the bloom, thus a good stock of offsets 
will be produced. A cool and rather moist situation 
for the rocket is always to be preferred. 
Hon. Kew. 2, v. 4, 122. 



SENE'CIO EL'EGANS. 

PURPLE GROUNDSEL. 
Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SUPBRFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFEREjE. 



Native of 
C.G.Hope. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, Oct. 


Duration. 
Annual. 


Cultivated 
in 1700. 



No. 40. 

Senecio, from the Latin senex, an old man; a 
name which has been given to it from the fancied 
resemblance of its seed down to the grey or silvery 
head of age. Elegans, elegant. The seed of this 
plant is usually sold under the name of Jacobaea, 
which term has been handed down from some old 
botanists, who called it Flos Sancti Jacobi, or the 
flower of Saint James. 

The Senecio elegans may be raised from seeds, 
sown with other hardy annuals in the spring, and 
requires no peculiar care. 

The double one, which is merely a variety of the 
same, is an extremely beautiful plant ; and although 
it does not come within our limits as a hardy one, 
we may be pardoned the union of it with its syno- 
nymous species. It is usually cultivated in pots, as 
an ornament for the house, yet few plants are better 
adapted for giving assistance to the brilliancy of the 
flower border, where, during the summer months, it 
will grow with greater luxuriance and beauty than 
in any other situation. 

It is a tender plant, and where there is not a 
greenhouse protection, it may be kept during the 



winter, in a dry airy room, protected from frost; and 
should be very sparingly supplied with water, or its 
succulent stems will be liable to decay. In the be- 
ginning of March, propagation may be commenced 
by cuttings, and if one plant only has been preserved 
through the winter, an abundance of others may be 
raised from it. Two joints are sufficient to consti- 
tute a cutting, and it should be taken off close be- 
neath the lower one. It is usual to slit it a quarter 
of an inch upwards from the bottom, through the 
joint, which certainly in some plants facilitates their 
rooting, and can injure none. These should be 
planted in pots of light rich earth, two or three in 
each, then watered immediately ; and bell glasses, 
or in the absence of these, tumblers or goblets, be 
turned over them. If in this state it be convenient 
to place the pots in a warm cucumber frame, the 
cuttings will strike root more quickly, but if not 
they may be placed before the window of a warm 
room having a southern aspect, where they will 
generally succeed very well. The glasses should, 
occasionally, be taken from them for a few minutes, 
and wiped, but not be altogether removed till the 
cuttings have struck root. When they begin to 
grow freely, they may be transplanted into separate 
pots, be gradually hardened to the open air, and 
kept in readiness to turn into the borders about the 
middle of May, where they will prove a conspicuous 
ornament all the summer. The white variety of the 
double Groundsel is far less common than the pur- 
ple ; and though not so gay an ornament, is a very 
desirable one either for pot culture or to beautify 
the parterre. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 42. 





Pentst-mon pubencen.* 









(ENOTHE'RA MACROCAR'PA. 

LARGE-FRUITED EVENING PRIMROSE. 

Class. Order. 

OCTANDR1A. WOXOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ONAGRARIjE. 



Native of 
N. America. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1811. 



No. 41. 

(Enothera, from the Greek, explained under 
CEnothera pumila, No. 35. Macrocarpa is also of 
Greek extraction, signifying large-fruited. 

Nearly the whole of the genus (Enothera, or 
Evening Primrose, a name by which some of the 
species are so familiar to us, arc- extremely orna- 
mental plants. They have obtained the latter 
well-known appellation from the circumstance of 
their flowers expanding in the evening; though 
this peculiarity does not equally apply to all the 
individuals of the genus. 

The species Macrocarpa has been considered 
synonymous with Missourensis. 

It is easily propagated by cuttings, which may 
be planted in pots, and placed in a hotbed, or un- 
der a hand glass, till they have struck root; they 
will there be convenient for removing into warm 
parts of the flower border, or to place in a cold 
frame for more effective winter protection. 

It should be planted in a situation that is fa- 
vourable to its trailing on the ground, unless con- 
siderable attention can be paid to the support of 
its succulent stems. 

Bot. Mag. 1. 1592. 



PENTSTE'MON PUBES'CENS. 

HAIRY PENTSTEMON. 

Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. AITGIOSPERMIA. 

Natural Order. 

B1GNON1ACE.E. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1758. 



No. 42. 

From two Greek words, signifying a fifth sta- 
men, which name has been chosen to distinguish 
this genus from others of the same class ; though 
the additional stamen is always more or less im- 
perfect. Pubescens, from the Latin, downy. 

It is frequently known as the Chelone pentste- 
mon ; and this, some of the best botanists still con- 
sider its legitimate title ; but the use of the new 
name amongst those who never even pretend to 
judge of its propriety, has rendered its adoption 
almost necessary, that the plant might be recog- 
nized by those who know it by no other appella- 
tion. It was first adopted merely on account of 
a trifling variation in the rudiment of the addi- 
tional filament already alluded to. 

It is of easy cultivation, and may be propagated 
either by seeds, cuttings, or separation at the root. 
Seeds should be sown in the spring ; and the plants, 
which require no other care than that of being kept 
free from weeds, will blossom in the following sum- 
mer. If cuttings are taken as early in the spring 
as the plants will admit, they will flower in the 
following autumn. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 8. 



KAL'MfA GLAU'CA. 

GLAUCOUS KALMIA. 

Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA, 

Natural Order. m 

RHOUORACEyE. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1767. 



No. 43. 

Kalmia, after Peter Kalm, noticed at No. 33, 
where a return to the same subject was antici- 
pated under another variety of Kalrnia latifolia. 
The Kalmia glauca is now given, there being but 
little difference in the nature of the several species. 
In America it is called the spoon tree, in conse- 
quence of the natives making use of the wood^ 
which is close and hard, for the purpose of form- 
ing various articles of household utility. 

Miss Edgeworth, in her tale of " To-morrow," 
ingeniously alludes to the poisonous properties of 
the leaves of this splendid plant. It forms one of 
her auxiliaries in the delineation of the evils of 
procrastination, which she has given with a force 
and feeling not to be surpassed. The incident is 
founded on the communication of Dr. Barton, in 
the American Transactions ; who states that in 
Philadelphia, in the winter of 1790, an official pro- 
clamation was issued, warning all persons from 
eating pheasants. This, the Doctor observes, 
was done on a well grounded opinion, that several 
persons had died from the use of some of these 
birds which had fed on the leaves of the Kalmia. 



Opposed to this opinion, is that of Mr. Wilson, the 
ornithologist, who says that he has found the crops 
of these birds distended almost entirely with the 
buds of the Kalmia, but that he has eaten freely of 
the flesh of such of them, without any ill conse- 
quence having arisen. 

Its noxious character has been strongly exhi- 
bited on the rattlesnake. A few drops of a tiuctur'e 
prepared from the leaves having been poured on 
this reptile, it died shortly afterwards. And the 
deleterious effects of the leaves on the human 
system, are such as should excite a strict guard 
against their being eaten by children. 

Kalm, himself, states that both sheep and calves 
had died from eating them, and that cows and 
horses had suffered greatly from the same cause. 
On the other hand, when the ground is covered 
with snow, stags browse them as their common 
food, without any ill effects having been known to 
arise from the use of the venison. 

In the cultivation of plants generally, but more 
particularly those of difficult growth, attention 
should always be given to the peculiar situation 
of them in their native soil. Professor Kalm has 
chiefly noticed the broad-leaved species, and found 
it succeed best on the sides of hills, especially on 
the north side; and says, on meeting with a steep 
place near a brook, or on the side of a hill to- 
wards a marsh, you are sure to find it. This alone 
speaks pages to the attentive cultivator ; particu- 
larly when he is told that vegetable earth or peat 
constitutes its native soil, in a climate no milder 
than our own. 

Hort. Kcw. 2, v. 3, 47. 



ACHILLE'A SPECIO'SA. 

SPEAR-LEAVED MILFOIL. 

Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAM1A SUPERFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFERE.S. 



Native Co 
Unknown. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1804. 



No. 44. 

The name Achillea is deduced from Achilles, 
the famous Grecian hero, whose strength and 
prowess form so conspicuous a character in the 
Iliad. Clad in armour, impenetrable and resplen- 
dent, Homer compares him with the sun : 

" Not brighter, Phoebus in th' ethereal way, 
Flames from his chariot and restores the day '* 

Speciosa, from the Latin, handsome. Many of 
the plants now coming- under the denomination of 
Milfoil, do not possess the character which this 
name seems to have been first intended to indicate; 
the Latin Millefolium, being compounded of Milb, 
a thousand, and folium, a leaf; and used to cha- 
racterize some of these plants, which have very 
numerous pinnae or leaflets. 

The flowers of this Achillea are, probably, not 
so showy and attractive as the florist may be led 
to expect from its appellation of Speciosa. The 
plant, however, is of handsome upright growth, 
and its serrated foliage particularly neat. In very 
light soils it sometimes spreads too freely ; there- 
fore is of easy culture, and admits a division of its 
roots at the usual season. 










(.rilusll 



.MillMlllll.-l I Ulllll.l . 



VERBAS'CUM PHCENI'CEUM. 

PURPLE-FLOWERED MULLEIN. 
Class, Order. 

PENTANDEIA. MONOOYNIA. 

Natural Or tier. 

8OLANE*. 



Native of 
S.Europe. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
May, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 45. 

Verbascum seems to be of very uncertain deriva- 
tion, and the term having been used by the oldest 
writers, its origin is likely to remain in obscurity. 
A supposition has been ventured that it is a corrup- 
tion of barbascum, from barba, bearded, on account 
of the woolliness of some of the species. Phoenice- 
um, from the Latin, signifying purple-coloured. 

Of the origin or application of our English term 
Mullein, we find no traces, otherwise than as the 
name of a plant. Some of these being soft and 
woolly, as before observed, it probably has been ap- 
plied from the Latin mollis, as indicative of that 
quality. 

With our drawing of this plant we have given a 
representation of a section of its stem. On cutting 
the stem through transversely, the arrangement of 
its sap vessels are as perfectly exhibited as in vege- 
tables of a more ligneous formation ; and it is pretty 
certain that its functions of vegetable life are per- 
formed by ascending and descending fluids upon 
the selfsame principles. 

On the circulation of vegetable fluids, various 
theories have, at different periods, been promulgated 

12 



by ingenious physiologists. Their theoretical spe- 
culations, however, have been pursued with much 
abstruseness and uncertainty, and it was left for the 
present age to exhibit, with somewhat like precision, 
the laboratory of nature in the vegetable kingdom. 
Mr. Knight, the president of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, from thirty years' intense application to this 
subject, has determined, by ingenious and satisfac- 
tory experiments, many of the phenomena of vege- 
tation, particularly such as are connected with the 
circulation of the sap, the perspiration of plants, &c. 

These subjects, perhaps, some of our readers may 
not have had occasion to examine. As they cannot 
fail to prove of peculiar interest to many enquiring 
minds, we shall have pleasure, as opportunity offers, 
in giving the opinions of eminent botanists, and the 
result of various experiments connected with this 
department of vegetable physiology. 

This species of verbascum is particularly hand- 
some, and we have observed that the flowers of a 
plant which has remained in its present situation four 
or five years, are now produced of a darker hue 
than when it was first planted. This possibly may 
have arisen from the presence of a portion of peat 
soil, which, from an alkaline quality that exists in it, 
is sometimes found to change pinks into purples; 
perhaps from the neutralization of acids, which pro- 
duce effects directly opposite. 

It never has perfected seeds with us, nor does it 
increase very much at the root, but it may be pro- 
pagated by cuttings of the young flowering stems, 
which strike root readily under bell glasses. It 
does not require any peculiar soil or situation. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 385. 



COREOP'SIS LANCEOLATA. 

SPEAR-LEAVED COREOPSIS. 
Clans. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA 8UPERFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFEREjE. 



Native of 
Carolina. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Oct. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1724. 



No. 46. 

The plants of this genus are sometimes called 
tick-seed sun flowers, in allusion to the shape of 
their seed ; which circumstance is regarded in the 
systematic appellation coreopsis, noticed under 
No. 13. Lanceolata, from the form of the leaves, 
which approaches that of a lance or spear. 

There are very few plants which exhibit a more 
rich profusion of golden flowers, and also produce 
them as long in succession as the Coreopsis lance- 
olata. From its medium height it is well suited 
either to the borders allotted to the growth of herba- 
ceous subjects, or for introduction into the mingled 
plantation of low flowering shrubs, where it will 
form a conspicuous ornament. 

It may be increased by dividing the roots in 
soring or autumn, but preference should be given 
to the former season ; or cuttings may be taken at 
any time during the summer months, provided it be 
sufficiently early to admit of their making strong 
root before the commencement of cold weather. 
Not less than two months should be allowed for 
this purpose, even with the assistance of bell or 
hand glasses. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 135. 









V> fWLVWffc r> />} 
,nHffff 



ot biv 
nuf ;^^i< rftitjkl >. 



c ?u c ii*iuiKi irw 
ifcwt io tKrti ^ Ktlimoi 
1o Jfinii'^uat *ii u:iit w y|-i Mj-. 

HI 8ftV,b'}i f-itl >i '.Wfif M/telM .-. 









LE'DUM PALUSTRE. 

MARSH LEDUM. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 
RHODORACEA:. 



Native of 
Europe. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1762. 



No. 47. 

The name of this genus has been adopted from 
LEDON, which the Greeks applied to a species of 
cistus that produced their LED ON ON, our labdanum, 
a resinous substance sometimes employed in plais- 
ters, and also in fumigations for its perfume. The 
term has been improperly referred to laedendo as its 
original. Palustre, from the Latin, marshy, in allu- 
sion to its native situation. 

This plant, when bruised, has a rather pleasant 
aromatic scent, similar to that of fresh gathered 
hops ; and Linneus tells us that the inhabitants of 
some parts of Sweden, make use of the leaves in 
their beer, which produce an agreeable flavour, 
but an intoxicating quality. 

The Laplanders are said to strew the branches 
amongst their grain to drive away mice. 

A little variety occurs in the colour of its flowers. 
Some are of a clear white ; whilst others are deli- 
cately tinged with a pale pink. 

The Ledums come under the denomination of 
peat plants ; and grow best in that soil. This spe- 
cies succeeds best in a shady situation, and in the 
summer should be supplied with copious waterings. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 48. 



CAMPANULA PU'MILA. 

DWARF BELL-FLOWER. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYIUA. 

Natural Order. 

CAMPANULACBjE. 



Native of 
Switzerland 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Floweis in 
June, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduction 
not known. 



No. 48. 

Campanula, from the Latin; the diminutive of 
campana, a bell ; a name appropriately bestowed on 
this genus, from the shape of the flowers. Pumila, 
also from the Latin, signifying little. 

This very pretty campanula, has been noticed by 
the greater part of our botanical writers as a variety 
of Campanula rotundifolia. It is, however, very 
different in several particulars, and may well claim 
the distinction of a separate species. 

There are two varieties, the blue and the white ; and 
where the soil is rich and loose, it is difficult to keep 
their thread-like roots within proper limits ; which 
if not attended to may occasion inconvenience by 
their mingling with other plants. 

During a part of the summer, this plant affords a 
very attractive border. Its little pendent blue, or 
more exquisitely delicate white, blossoms, which are 
yielded in "lovely profusion," form an unbroken 
line of neatness and simplicity. This effect is best 
obtained by enclosing the roots between two rows of 
tiles or slates, placed in the ground edgeways, about 
two inches apart, with their upper edges even with 
the surface of the soil. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 345. 





Pyrus Japonica. 




Gentian a acaulis. 




Ledum bunfolrum. 



E.D. Smith (<< 



S Wans sculp. 



PY'RUS JAPON'ICA. 

JAPAN APPLE-TREE. 

Class. Order. 

ICOSANDRIA. PBNTAGYIUA. 

Natural Order. 

ROSACES. 



Native of 
Japan. 


Height. 
6 feet. 


Flowers in 
Jan. June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1796. 



No. 49. 

With the exposition and inferences of Linneus 
before us respecting the word Pyrus, as given by 
Sir J. E. Smith, we cannot submit to the deduction 
of the term from the Greek PUR, fire, which is sta- 
ted as given in consequence of the fruit drawing to 
a point like a flame. De Theis says, from the Cel- 
tic PEREN comes the Anglo-Saxon PERE, the En- 
glish PEAR, and the French POIRE. Hence Py- 
rus may easily be formed. According to the same 
writer, API, the Celtic name of a fruit of the same 
kind, is the origin of the Greek APIOS, the German 
APFEL, and our APPLE. Some authors, who will 
have Pyrus to be of Greek extraction, deduce it from 
APIOS, with the addition of an R, &c. 

That our readers may be prepared to meet new 
names, they should be informed that Chaenomeles 
Japonica, and also Malus Japonica, are amongst 
those lately bestowed on this shrub. 

The mere mention of Pyrus opens to our view 
such a field of speculations as it were impossible to 
pass without notice. We have the Pyrus malus, 
under which name is arranged all the varieties of 
that valuable fruit the Apple ; and Pyrus communis 

13 



botanically including the numberless sorts of pears, 
so common amongst us. 

We can but regret that many favourite old sorts of 
these fruits are unavoidably falling to decay. Trees, 
like animals, grow old and diseased ; and it is ob- 
served, that every bud or graft of such old tree, 
when attached to another stock, still inherits the 
age of its original, and its consequent disease. The 
invigoration yielded by its new alliance is only tem- 
porary. Thus, concisely, we warn our readers from 
vain attempts to propagate healthy trees from worn- 
out varieties. Every man should propagate from 
seeds, or graft from sorts that are known to have 
been recently so raised; and fruitful plantations 
would be the consequence. 

The Pyrus Japonica is a great acquisition to our 
gardens, from the beauty, and from the long succes- 
sion of its flowers. Indeed it is far more easy to 
name the season of its flowering, than to say when 
none are produced. Its fruit, which never appears 
to ripen here, is extremely stony and ungrateful; 
nevertheless, after having been laid by for a time, 
it emits a rich fruit-like odoriferous flavour. 

It is well calculated for training against trellis 
work or a wall, and also makes a pretty standard 
shrub, when spreading from a single stem about two 
feet in height. It requires no peculiar care, either 
as regards soil or situation. 

The best method of propagation is by layers, 
which should be put down in the autumn, and they 
will strike root freely in the following year. Cuttings 
are sometimes taken. A part of them will grow, 
but they produce weak plants. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 209. 



GENIS'TA SAGITTA'LIS. 

JOINTED GENISTA. 
Class. Order. 

DIADELPHIA. DECANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

LEGUMINOSjE. 



Native of 
Germany. 


Height. 
1 foot. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1758. 



No. 50. 

It is pretty generally agreed that Genista has been 
derived from the Latin genu, the knee ; but on what 
account authors appear less unanimous. Some say 
in allusion to the bending, or singular connexion of 
one part of the stem to another ; whilst others con- 
ceive that it arose from their similar flexibility ; or 
its utility in relieving pain in that joint. Sagittalis, 
also from the Latin, signifying, of an arrow, perhaps 
from the leaf having the appearance of the feather- 
ed end of an arrow. 

The singular formation of this plant will always 
claim for it a place in the garden of the curious. 
The leaves are produced one from the end of ano- 
ther; alternately from the upper and undersides, 
connected by the midrib, which has a partial termi- 
nation at the end of each. 

It may be divided at the root, though a better 
mode of propagation is from seeds. These should 
be sown in the autumn, and the plants kept free of 
weeds during the next summer. In September they 
may be transplanted to the situation where they are 
intended to remain. It succeeds in almost any soil 
or aspect. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 259. 



GENTIA'NA ACAU'LIS. 

GENTIANELLA. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. DIGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

GENTIANEJJ. 



Native of 
AlpsofEur. 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1629. 



No. 51. 

This genus of plants has received its name in ho- 
nor of Gentius, a king of Illyria, who is said to have 
discovered one of the species of it. He is also sup- 
posed to have experienced its virtues in his army, 
as a cure for the plague. Acaulis, from the Greek, 
signifying stemless, which it is in its native alpine 
situations. Gentianella is formed as the diminutive 
of Gentian, to characterize a small species. 

It cannot but be sincerely regretted by the zea- 
lous votaries of Flora, who happen to possess their 
parterres of beauty within the influence of the smoke 
of towns, that this interesting plant is so fastidious 
as to refuse yielding its exquisitely brilliant blue 
flowers amongst them; though in high situations 
whether planted in strong or light soil, it generally 
flowers in great splendour. Pure air has always been 
deemed indispensible, yet peculiar management may 
possibly surmount the difficulty; for in situations 
where it never, or very rarely, produces flowers, 
we have generally observed it appear healthy and 
increase luxuriantly. This would suggest the pro- 
priety of planting it in poor soil, for sometimes by 
checking luxuriance we obtain, from some other 



plants, both flowers and fruit. Upon this principle 
it is that various arts are successfully practised on 
fruit trees; such as curtailing their roots, cutting 
notches in the larger limbs, and also that of ringing 
them. The latter method may, with the greatest 
confidence, be recommended for practice on young 
free-growing apple or pear trees, which frequently 
increase their wood too fast to admit of fruit being 
produced. It may be useful to some of our readers, 
and shall be briefly stated. 

If blossoms have not been usually produced, ring- 
ing should be performed after the fall of the leaf. 
This is called procuration ringing. When trees 
blossom, but fail to bear fruit, it may be done whilst 
they are in flower . This is called maturation ring- 
ing; and will induce the production of much finer 
fruit than would ever be yielded without it. The 
operation merely consists in taking a ring of the 
bark entirely off the whole circumference of a 
branch or limb of the tree. The breadth of the ring, 
on a luxuriant apple or pear tree, may be a quarter 
of an inch ; but on those of slow growth, it should be 
rather less. 

This practice is not so strictly applicable to stone 
fruits, from the propensity of the trees to gum and 
canker about the wound. Yet we have successfully 
practised it on these, taking care to ring such parts as 
have free growth, making the ring but narrow, and 
doing it at a period when the sap is most inactive. 
Thus may fruit trees be rendered productive, and 
flowering plants ornamental, where neither was the 
case before art stepped in and forced the efforts of 
nature. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 212. 



LE'DUM BUXIFO'LIUM. 

BOX-LEAVED LEDUM. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RHODORACEJE. 



Native of 
Carolina 


Height. 
1 foot. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1736. 



No. 52. 

The derivation of the name of this genus, from 
the Greek LEDON, has been noticed under No. 47. 
Buxifolium, from buxus, box ; and folium, a leaf; 
in consequence of the resemblance of the foliage of 
this plant to that of the common box. 

A retrospective glance would seem to indicate the 
metamorphosis of our " Botanic Garden" into an or- 
chard. We, however, never intend being fettered 
by the limits of a particular subject. The whole 
vegetable kingdom is before us, and to the extent of 
our humble capacity we shall lay hold on any part 
of it that may seem to develope a source of know- 
ledge, either useful to the hands of the practical, or 
gratifying to the minds of the speculative. 

The Ledum buxifolium is a beautiful close-grow- 
ing little evergreen shrub, rarely reaching the height 
of twelve inches, which should be planted in sandy 
peat, in a cool and rather shaded situation ; and, as 
far as is possible, where it may have the advantage 
of pure air. Its chief demand on our care arises in 
the heat of summer, when it should be very fre- 
quently watered, or it will be liable to be lost. It is 
propagated slowly by layers. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 48. 







Epilobiuru Dodorvaei. 



B.D.Smxth. del. 



LIL'IUM TIGRI'NUM. 

TIGER-SPOTTED LILY. 
Class. Order. 

HEXANDRIA. MONOGYNM. 

Natural Order. 
L1LIACU. 



Native of 
China. 


Heig-ht. 
4 feet. 


i Flowers in 
1 July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1804. 



No. 53. 

Lily, from the Greek LEIRION. The derivation 
and application of its trivial name are sufficiently 
evident. 

We know of very few plants that excited more 
general interest than did the Tiger Lily on its 
introduction to this country. Every one heard of, 
admired, and resolved on possessing 1 , this Chi- 
nese beauty ; and in a very short time, from its 
facility of propagation, the cottager and nobleman 
boasted alike of its splendour in their borders. 
Happily, our nature will not admit the continued 
exertion of these strong feelings of delight, which 
are generated by novelty; or, we should be un- 
ceasingly carried about by ecstacies, and temperate 
reason could no where build her throne. 

In a former number the resemblance of the bulb 
and the bud was hinted at. Their utility, as re- 
gards vegetation, is precisely the same ; for they 
both constitute what Linneus calls the hybernacu- 
lum, or the winter quarters, of the young plant. 
Their principal difference exists in the situation 
which they occupy ; and in the present, and a few 
other plants, even this distinction is wanting. 



'I consider (says T. A. Knight, Esq. in a letter 
to the author,) a bulb to differ from an ordinary 
bud, only in having a reservoir of a different form 
attached to it. The bud of a tree, or of the tuber- 
ous root of a potatoe, is attached to a mass of 
alburnum and bark, from which, when it germi- 
nates, it draws its requisite nutriment. A bulbous 
root, such as the common onion, has numerous 
thick and fleshy scales, which in their incipient 
state, might have extended into leaves, but which, 
instead of extending themselves, remain short and 
are distended by becoming reservoirs of the true 
sap of the plant, as the bark and alburnum were 
in the cases before- mentioned.' 

He observes, also> *Buds of every kind have 
their attached reservoirs, without which they can- 
not live and extend themselves. Some species of 
trees and herbaceous plants possess a power which 
others do not, of re- producing buds upon the surface 
of their alburnum. It is, however, the unanimous 
opinion of the continental naturalists, and of the 
English and Scotch, with the exception of myself, 
that all buds originate from the Medulla ; and it is 
true, that in all cases> almost, a bud may be traced 
to the Medulla ; but I have, in a great many in- 
stances, occasioned buds to be generated upon the 
smooth surface of the alburnum ; and I have often 
seen them thus produced naturally.' 

If the bulbs which are produced on the stems of 
this magnificent Lily, be planted in the borders as 
soon as they fall, or can be easily detached, they 
will grow, and in most cases blossom at three years 
old, but stronger in the fourth year. 
Hort.Kew. 2, v. 2, 141. 



ERI'CA AUSTRA'US, 

SPANISH HEATH, 
Ckus. Order. 

OCTANDBIA. HONOGYNIA, 

Natural Order, 
junemm. 



Native of 
Spain. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1769. 



No. 54. 

Erica, from the Greek EREICO ; see No. 22, 
Australia, from the Latin, southern ; a specific 
name given in consequence of its having been in, 
troduced from the southern part of Europe, 

This plant will always prove a peculiarly in- 
teresting appendage to the peat border, and should 
never be dispensed with. The hardy heaths form 
a little tribe of shrubs whose beauties we cannot 
class with the splendour of the Kalmias, the Aza, 
leas, and the Rhododendrons ; but they equally in, 
terest us through a far different medium. They 
introduce themselves to our feelings by their mo, 
desty and humility ; and we readily adn.it the pro. 
priety of Dr. Watts' s assertion 

<: Humility's a plant of lovely growth." 
Still the humble growth of some of the tender species 
of Erica, whose flowers are occasionally very 
specious, may further remind us of him who is 
humble only to embellish his grandeur. 

The Erica australis should be planted in sandy 

peat ; or in a mixture of peat and fresh loam ; and 

like most other of the hardy heaths, though they 

make root but slowly, may be increased by layers, 

Hort.Kew. 2, v. 2, 396. 



EPILO'BIUM DODONjE'I. 

DODON^EUS'S EPILOBIUM. 
doss. Order. 

OCTANDKIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ONAGRARIjE. 



Native of 
Switzerland 


Height. 
9 inches. 


! Flowers in 
1 July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1798. 



No. 55. 

Epilobium is compounded of three Greek words, 
EPI LOBOU ION, a violet upon a pod ; or, more 
literally, upon a pod - a violet : not that a violet 
resembles the blossom, but is intended to indicate 
a beautiful flower. Dodonaei from Dodonaeus, an 
eminent physician and botanist of Friesland, who 
lived in the sixteenth century, and published several 
botanical works in German, illustrated by wood cuts, 
similar to those of Gerarde and Parkinson. 

This species has been noticed, by some writers, 
as synonymous with Epilobium angustissimum. 
Ours is a plant with procumbent stems, and other- 
wise differing from angustissimum. 

It is the prettiest plant that we know of the tribe, 
and is never troublesome by spreading at the root, 
which some of the Epilobiums are found to be. 

After it has done blossoming, the whole of the 
stems may be cut off, or they will continue to grow, 
and thus, sometimes, lessen the vigour of the roots. 
It is easily increased by separating the young 
shoots in the spring, which will succeed, notwith- 
standing they may be entirely devoid of any fibrous 
appendage. 



. 



TAGE'TES PAT'ULA. 

FRENCH MARYOOLD. 
Class. Order. 

SVNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SDPBRFLDA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFER*. 



Native of 
Mexico. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Oct. 


Duration. 
Annual. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 56. 

Apuleius, a celebrated platonic philosopher of 
the second century, is said to have used this term ; 
its derivation must therefore be doubtful. De Theis 
has derived it from Tages, an Etruscan deity, 
grandson of Jupiter and teacher of divination. 
Patula, from the Latin> spreading. 

Why this plant is called French Marygold is now 
somewhat difficult to determine ; but it is more than 
probable that it received this appellation in conse- 
quence of its seed having been first imported to this 
country from France* 

Its cultivation is so generally known, that nothing 
need be said respecting it ; except to warn our 
readers against a formidable enemy to the young 
plants. If they be much eaten, a single exami* 
nation, late at night, with the assistance of a light, 
will show the depredators to be young earwigs, 
(Forficula auricularia) . Woollen cloth, loosely 
folded ; hollow bean stalks ; or two small boards, 
placed upon each other, with one edge of the upper 
one raised sufficiently to admit their creeping be- 
tween them, will form useful traps, and the insects 
may be destroyed every morning. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, SB. 





1>! .!<<)< , |,l l.llllll 1 -|'<- I > u III 





Phlox ovata. 



Primula. ;n-anJi.s 



S-imth del. 



-snnF 



DRACOCEPH'ALUM SPECIO'SUM. 

SHOWY DRAGON'S HEAD. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. OYMNOSPEBMIA. 

Natural Order. 

LABIATE. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
August. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1822. 



No. 57. 

Dracocephalum is a term compounded of two Greek 
words, DRACON, a dragon; and CEPHALE, the 
head, on account of the fancied resemblance of its 
corolla to the head of that fabulous animal. Speci- 
osctn, from the Latin, showy. 

This is a handsome erect herbaceous plant, of 
somewhat larger growth than the Dracocephalum 
denticulatum, to which it bears considerable resem- 
blance, but from its late introduction, is not so fre- 
quently met with. 

It will grow in any common garden soil, but pre- 
fers a rich and rather light loam. It increases 
freely at the root, and may be divided in spring, or 
in the autumn. 

We ought not, perhaps, to pass by the present 
opportunity of making further mention of the ideal 
animal whose name has assisted in distinguishing 
this genus of plants. We say ideal, because much 
that we have heard and read of dragons, during 
childhood, must have been so. Such tales may serve 
the purpose of the nurse, but are highly ridiculous, 
and improper to be implanted in the youthful mind. 
No opportunity should, therefore, be lost in unde- 

15 



PHLOX OVA'TA. 

OVAL-LEAVED PHLOX. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

POLEMONIACEjE. 



Native of 
N. America. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1790. 



No. 59. 

Though the term Lychnidea has been expelled 
from Botanical genera, it is sometimes, nevertheless, 
used as an English name for this tribe of plants ; 
see No. 6. Ovata, from the Latin, signifying egg- 
shaped, or of an oval figure. 

The Phlox ovata is a beautiful herbaceous plant, 
and however often met with will always be welcome. 
We believe there is not one individual in this tribe 
but has powerful claims to the attention of every true 
florist ; we may therefore presume that our readers 
will have pleasure in being occasionally introduced 
to others of the same family. 

This little plant, though from North America, was 
for many years, after its introduction, regarded as 
a subject for the greenhouse, and indeed in moist 
situations it will occasionally decay. 

The greater part of the Phloxes delight in peat, 
or a mixture of that soil with loam ; peat, however, 
seems rather too retentive of moisture to suit the 
Phlox ovata ; but if planted in sandy loam, in a warm 
situation, the severest frosts will not be found to 
injure it. It may be propagated by parting the 
roots, or by cuttings. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 327. 



PRIMULA ACAU'LIS; 

Flore pleno rubra, et tiore pleno alba. 

PRIMROSE; 

Double Crimson, and Double White. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDR1A. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PRIMULACEJE. 



Native of 
Britain. 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1640. 



No. 60. 

This plant has received its name from the Latin 
primus, first, on account of its early flowering; 
though not quite correctly, for we have aconites, 
snowdrops, and crocuses, before the delicate primrose 
dares to unfold its beautiful petals. Acaulis, from 
the Greek, stemless. 

The beautiful varieties of primroses which inhabit 
our gardens, whether crimson, lilac, or white, double 
or single, are alike included under one species. In- 
deed, much difficulty has arisen respecting the origin, 
and consequently, the proper specific division, of 
several of the primula tribe. Linneus considers the 
primrose, the cowslip, and oxlip, originally but one 
distinct species, and several reasons may be ad- 
vanced in support of this theory ; yet still the par- 
tially distinct characters of the primrose and cowslip 
should incline us now to separate them, whatever 
may have been their origin. We certainly have 
seen flowers of the primrose supported on a scape or 
stalk, and thus approach the oxlip ; whilst the cow- 
slip, when brought into cultivation, will have its 
flowers enlarged, and thus also incline towards the 
oxlip. Hence a tendency is shown, in the two ex- 



tremes of distinction, to verge towards each other; 
indeed, a host of connecting links between these 
plants will present themselves to the diligent and in- 
quiring botanist. 

Be the scientific difference or connection of these 
British subjects whatever it may, it does not lessen 
the value of our attractive 'and modest primrose, 
that lives on banks and hides its beauties beneath 
the brambles' shade, 

" Lorn tenant of the peaceful glade, 

Emblem of virtue in the shade, 

Rearing thy head to hrave the storm 

That would thy innocence deform. 

Of all the flowers that greet the spring, 

Of all the flowers the seasons bring j 

To me while doom'd to linger here, 

The lowly Primrose shall be dear." MAYITB. 

The two peculiarly pleasing varieties of whith 
we now present figures, are the most elegant little 
subjects that we are acquainted with in the spe- 
cies. They are usually planted in a loamy soil; 
we, however, find a sandy peat, with a little loam, 
more suitable to their growth. As the double white 
does not freely produce offsets that can be conve- 
niently slipped from the old plant, it will be found 
an advantageous practice to slit the thick part of 
the old root longitudinally with a knife, into as 
many parts as the head will admit ; observing to 
retain a portion of the fibrous roots to each division. 
These being planted in pots or the borders, should 
be regularly supplied with water till they have 
taken root; but during the winter, if in pots, they 
require little or no water. 

Hort. Kew, 2, v. 1, 307. 




syphilitic 4 





<'.i .!> i t .-M UII'M li.i 




h 1 <-.-> i i .-i C, 



LOBE'LIA SIPHILIT'ICA. 

BLUE LOBELIA. 
Class. Order. 

PBNTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Or tier. 

CAMPANULACEJE. 



Native of 
Virginia. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1665. 



No. 61. 

Lobelia is a name instituted by Plumier, after 
Matthias de Lobel, a Flemish botanist of the six- 
teenth century; who, in youth, acquired an ardent 
love of plants; and, through life, cultivated the sci- 
ence of botany with considerable success. He was 
appointed botanist to King James I., and died near 
London, at the advanced age of seventy-eight. 
Woodville observes that this plant derived its ap- 
pellation, Siphilitica, from its efficacy in the cure of 
siphilis, according to the experience of the North 
American Indians. As its antisiphilitic powers have 
not, however, been confirmed by European practice, 
it may be needless to treat at all on its medical 
qualities. 

Several plants of the Lobelia tribe possess very 
active medicinal properties, particularly the Lobelia 
Tupa, a native of Chili. This species is poisonous 
in the extreme, and acts as an emetic, simply by 
smelling the flowers. 

Whether the Lobelia siphilitica be planted in the 
open ground, or kept in a pot, the offsets, should be 
be divided in the spring; and they will blossom 
freely without further care. 
16 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 359. 



COREOPSIS TENUIFO'LIA. 

. SLENDER-LEAVED COREOPSIS. 
Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA FRUSTBANBA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFBRJE. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
15 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1784. 



No. 62. 

Coreopsis, from the Greek CORIS, a bug; and 
OPS is, appearance ; in allusion to the apparent 
similarity of the seed and the insect. From this 
circumstance it is, in part, that these plants are 
sometimes called tick-seed sunflower. Tenuifolia, 
from the Latin tenuis, slender ; and folium, a leaf. 

There were formerly between thirty and forty 
distinct species of Coreopsis described, and nearly 
the whole of them, like tenuifolia, hardy and her- 
baceous. The genus has, however, been somewhat 
curtailed, from the generic characters of some of its 
former species having been found such, as of neces- 
sity, required their removal to other families. They 
are generally showy plants ; and more perfect in- 
stances of their attraction need not be given, than 
in the two species already published in this work, 
No. 13, and No. 46. The former of these, the 
Coreopsis tinctoria, has spread over Great Britain 
more rapidly than any plant we have ever known. 
In the three years, since the period of its introduc- 
tion, its beauty has secured it a passport to almost 
every respectable garden in the kingdom ; where it 
will continue to be cultivated as one of the most 



desirable annuals that our transatlantic friends have 
ever bestowed upon us. 

The Coreopsis tenuifolia requires no peculiar care, 
but may be planted in any common garden soil. Its 
increase at the root will admit a division every other 
year, or even more frequently. 

It is a desirable plant, from the compactness of 
its growth and neatness of its slender foliage. It 
opens its brilliant flowers before the gay annuals of 
the autumn are over prominent ; a season which is 
usually burthened with these tints of gold. Nature, 
indeed, seems prodigal of this rich dress. The 
opening of spring exhibits her in the garden, attired 
in aconites, crocuses, and the gay variety of narcis- 
suses; whilst the meadows, in a blaze of butter- 
cups and cowslips, remind us of the descent of Ju- 
piter in a shower of gold. 

The pleasures of hope are multiplied as we ap- 
proach the object of anticipation ; and now, at the 
vernal equinox, the very mention of spring is exhi- 
larating in the extreme, when 

11 All that is sweet to smell, all that can charm 
( it(i ,- Or eye or ear, bursts forth on every side, 

Arid crowds upon the senses. 
IiJtftJJti 

" By nature's swift and secret working hand, 
The garden glows, and fills the liberal air 
With lavish fragrance : while the promised fruit 



unperceivcd, 

Within its crimson folds. 

. 

" Ye fostering breezes blow, 
Ye softening dews, ye tender showers, descend ! 
And temper all, thou world reviving sun, 
-In* * ne perfect year. 1 ' THOMSOJT. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 6, 133. 



RHODODENDRON HIRSU'TUM. 

HAIRY-LEAVED RHODODENDRON. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOCYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RHODORACEJK. 



Native of 
Switzerland. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


flowers in 
May, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1739. 



No. 63. 

Rhododendron is deduced from two Greek words, 
RODON, a rose, and DENDRON, a tree. The name 
was first adopted by Dioscorides. Linneus's ap- 
plication of it does not, however, appear to be con- 
tinued to the same plants. Our Nerium is supposed 
to have first borne the appellation. Hirsutum, from 
the Latin, rough or hairy. 

Our present subject bears a strong affinity to the 
Rhododendron ferrugineum, excepting that the un- 
der side of its leaves are less rusty, and they are also 
fringed with rigid hairs, which are not found on the 
leaves of the Rhododendron ferrugineum. 

It is rather more free in growth than the last- 
mentioned species, and generally possesses an ad- 
vantage over it, in the abundance of its beautiful 
blossoms. 

These plants are propagated, in Great Britain, 
principally by layers ; as they rarely produce seeds 
or suckers, except in their natural climate. The 
usual time of laying them is the latter part of sum- 
mer, and the heads only of the young shoots should 
be left above the soil. Peat soil and a northerly 
aspect will be found most suitable. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v 3, 49. 



COCHLEA'RIA GRCENLAN'DICA. 

GREENLAND SCURVY-GRASS. 
Class. Order. 

TETRADYNAMIA. SILICULOS.S. 

Natural Order. 

CRUCIFERjE. 



Native of 
Greenland. 


Height. 
2 inches. 


Flowers in 
June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 



No. 64. 

From the Latin cochleare, a spoon ; a term ap- 
plied to this family of plants from the formation of 
their leaves being concave, and resembling an old 
fashioned spoon. Groenlandica, from the country 
where it has been found. It has, occasionally, been 
met with also in the Orkneys, and on the mountains 
of Scotland. 

This species is, by some authors, termed a starved 
variety of the officinalis, an English species, pretty 
well known in the north, and on the sea coast, a 
plant which has obtained for the genus the title of 
scurvy-grass. Its efficacy in scorbutic affections 
appears to be established on the most respectable 
authorities, and though various preparations of the 
Cochlearia officinalis are prescribed, it is generally 
acknowledged that the green plant taken as a salad, 
is by far the most efficacious mode of employing it 
as an antiscorbutic. 

The best method of keeping the Greenland scur- 
vy-grass, is in a small pot of light loam ; and like 
most other alpine plants, it succeeds best in a high 
and open situation, where it has the full advantage 
of pure air. 

Withering, 678. 




Dianthii!* < 'hiii'-n -i - 





DIAN'THUS CHINEN'SIS. 

CHINA PINK. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. DIGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

CARYOPHYLLE.fi. 



Native of 
China. 


Height. 
9 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1713. 



No. 65. 

Linneus, duly appreciating- the beauty and fra- 
grance of this genus of plants, seems to have been 
desirous of distinguishing it by a name, and called it 
Jove's Flower; deriving Dianthus from the Greek 
DIGS, of Jove, and ANTHOS, a flower. Chinensis 
from its native country. 

This plant is usually mentioned as biennial. We 
have considered it perennial, from conviction that it 
most probably is perfectly so in its native climate. 
It may be cultivated with advantage as an annual, 
as it perfects its seed in the first season of its 
growth, but having found it continue three years in 
a healthy state, it would be improper to term it an- 
nual or biennial. 

The numerous combinations of colour into which 
this well-known little subject is prone to sport, 
renders it truly interesting. Each succeeding 
flower may be anticipated as more beautiful than 
its predecessor. 

The China Pink, or Indian Pink, as it is sometimes 
called, may be raised from seeds, which should be 
sown on the borders, or a hot-bed, at the latter end 
of March. A dry light soil is best suited to it. 

17 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 80. 



SISYRIN'CHIUM STRIA'TUM. 

STREAKED SISYRINCHIUM. 



Class. 

TBIANDRIA. 



Order. 

MONOGYNIA. 



Natural Order. 

IBIDEM. 



Native of 
Mexico. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1788. 



No. 66. 

The word Sisyrinchium is deduced from the 
Greek sus, a hog, and RYGCHOS, a snout. This 
name has been handed down to us from classic au- 
thors who lived before the birth of Christ ; but it 
has not been precisely determined what plant then 
bore the appellation. There is nothing in this genus 
that entitles it to such a name ; nothing, at least, 
that we can trace. Striatum, from the Latin, in 
reference to its striated leaves and flowers. 

In the late general catalogues, this plant is called 
Marica striata, after Curtis ; but we follow the au- 
thority of the most eminent modern authors and nur- 
serymen, by retaining its previous appellation. 

The Sisyrinchium striatum is well adapted for the 
mingled flower border of herbaceous plants, as it 
continues in bloom during the whole of June and 
July, and exhibits a pretty variety of flowers in con- 
nexion with its Iris-like foliage. 

It is easily increased, by a division of its roots 
in autumn or spring, and should he planted in a 
strong loamy soil. As it is sometimes destroyed 
by severe frosts, it will be advisable to protect a 
plant in the cold frame. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 136. 



CALCEOLARIA CORYMBO'SA. 

CHILI SLIPPER-WORT. 

Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. MONOGYMA. 

Natural Order. 

SCROPHULARINjE. 



Native of 
Chili. 


Height. 
12 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration . 
Annual. 


Introduced 
in 1823. 



No. 67. 

The term Calceolaria has originated from the 
Latin calceolus, a little shoe : and an inspection of 
the figure of the plant will sufficiently show the 
reason of its bearing the appellation. Corymbosa, 
from its mode of inflorescence. 

The shape of the corolla of Calceolaria is one of 
those which, from its infrequency, attracts the notice 
of the most careless observer. It cannot be said 
to present any phenomenon that does not exist in 
the simplest flower that we meet with. Its novelty 
alone surprises. Were we accustomed to see none 
but monopetalous flowers, similar to the present one, 
how excessive would be our surprise and pleasure 
on first beholding the brilliantly rayed daisy, with 
its golden engine-turned centre ; which now is 
pressed beneath our feet, and regarded, almost as 
little by the botanist of sensibility, as by the rudest 
hind that ever despoiled its beauties. 

The cultivation of the Calceolaria Corymbosa is 
by no means difficult. It may be planted in the 
open borders, or kept in a pot of loam and peat, but 
should have a little protection against the severe 
frost of our winters. 

Bot. Reg. 723. 



PHLOX SETA'CEA. 

FINE-LEAVED PHLOX. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

POLEMONIACEjE. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial . 


Introduced 
in 1786. 



No. 68. 

The probable origin of the word Phlox has been 
noticed under the sixth subject given in this work. 
Setacea, from the Latin seta, a bristle, in allusion to 
its bristle-like foliage. 

The species of Phlox which we now present to 
our readers, is completely dissimilar from either of 
those already treated of, but is still a desirable one. 
It is a partial trailer, and any effort to lead it upright 
will rarely be found to improve its effect. Many 
plants require our care to support them against the 
assaults of rude winds and battering rains. Our 
convenience also requires the cutting back, and the 
confinement of plants in certain positions, otherwise 
nature, left to herself, generally produces a freedom 
of outline that must abash every advocate of antique 
Italian clipping and carving. 

We beg to warn those of our fair readers, who 
happen not to examine the present plant botanically, 
against confounding it with the Phlox subulata, 
which is far more common through the midland 
counties of England. The leaves of the Phlox se- 
tacea are narrower than those of subulata, and its 
flower also possesses greater delicacy of colouring, 



not having so dark a centre as the similar species. 
The Phlox setacea has, with us, withstood the se- 
verity of the last winter in an exposed situation. 
This circumstance may be adduced as evidence of 
its hardy nature. It will, however, be occasionally 
lost, which accounts for its not being more common. 
A few cuttings, therefore, should be planted in a 
pot in June, and covered over with a small bell 
glass. These should be watered whenever the soil 
becomes dry, and they will strike root without the 
assistance of artificial heat. The glass should be 
taken off for half an hour three or four times a week, 
whilst in the shade, and may be entirely removed at 
the end of six weeks. Plants propagated in this 
way may, with convenience, be placed for protection 
during the winter, within a cold frame. This in- 
dulgence will, however, render them somewhat more 
susceptible of cold than those which have weathered 
the severity of the season ; and if they be turned 
into the borders before flowering, the keen winds 
which sometimes occur in March and April will 
partially dry up the juices of the plant, and render 
it brown and unsightly. 

The slugs are determined enemies of this plant, 
and great vigilance is necessary to protect it from 
their depredations. They eat out the tender ends 
of the shoots, and disappoint our hopes of a lux- 
uriant blossom. Complete protection from these 
invaders of our pleasures is sometimes rather diffi- 
cult : if, however, vegetable refuse of almost any 
description, under which they can easily retreat, be 
laid near to their haunts, they may generally be 
captured. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 327. 




liobilis . 




Symp.hj'turu. B ob < 1 1 1 i .-i i v 1 1 1 1 i 




Hevperi* jna.tron*Ii. 




Daphne gnidii 



S . \v 1 1 1 



FUMA'RIA NOB'ILIS. 

GREAT-FLOWERED FUMATORY. 
Class. Order. 

DIADELPHIA. HEXANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

PAPAVBRACBjE. 



Native of 
Siberia. 


Height. 
6 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1783. 



No. 69. 

The term Fumaria is allowed to have had its origin 
in the Latin fumus, smoke ; but on what account is 
not so easy to determine. It has been said, from its 
affecting the eyes like smoke. This, however, after 
examining several species, we cannot corroborate. 
Some of the old herbalists call it smoke of the 
ground ; from which it may, possibly, be inferred, 
that they named it from its glaucous, or smoke-like 
appearance, when viewed in considerable quantity, 
at a distance. Nobilis, from the Latin, noble or 
excellent. 

This plant is desirable for its very hardy na- 
ture, as well as its gaiety at that particular period 
of spring, when a blank is wont to pervade our bor- 
ders : when we have seen the crocuses, hepaticas, 
scillas, and earlier beauties pass away, and but few 
of their successors bold enough to venture forth. 

It will flourish in any light garden soil, though 
with but little increase. Its seeds are not frequently 
perfected in England, therefore its propagation must 
depend on offsets ; which may be separated at any 
time after the decay of its leaves. Transplanting 
weakens the roots. 

18 Hort. KPW. 2, v. 4, 239. 



HES'PERIS MATRON A'LIS. ptirpurea plena. 

DOUBLE-PURPLE ROCKET. 
Class. Order. 

TETRADYNAMIA. SILIQOOSA. 

Natural Order. 

CRUCIFERJE. 



Native of 
Italy. 


Height. 
30 inches. 


Flowers in 
June. Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1597. 



No. 70. 

The name of this genus has been considered un- 
der the white variety of the same species, No. 39. 
We should not, indeed, have noticed the present 
variety of the same flower, but on account of its 
very distinct habits from the double white Rocket. 
It grows much taller, branched, and its flowers are 
not so closely clustered. 

It is suitable for the front of the shrubbery bor- 
der, and may be placed in those situations where it 
will be succeeded by annuals of middle growth. 

The double varieties of the Rocket, particularly 
the white, require some attention, in order to the 
attainment of strong and luxuriant blossoming plants : 
for we have not only seen them continue to grow in 
a weakly and unthriving state, but not unfrequently 
die altogether. 

The source of the best practical instructions on 
this head has been previously noticed ; and the 
greatest service we can render our readers will be 
in transcribing it. 

" In the root method of proceeding, with the inten- 
tion of providing offsets more abundantly, some of 
the best plants should be placed in an open bed or 



border, and not suffered to run up fully to flower ; 
but as soon as the flower stems have advanced eight 
or ten inches in height, cut them down as close to 
the ground as possible ; and as they shoot again to 
have them also cut off; for by stopping their up- 
right growth in this manner, the roots are induced 
more readily to throw out young offsets from their 
sides, which will be well formed by the beginning 
of the autumn, when the whole root should be taken 
up, and the offsets separated from it, and planted 
out in a nursery bed at about six inches distance, 
in order to continue until the beginning of autumn, 
or the following spring ; at either of which timrs 
they should be carefully removed, with good bulls 
of earth about their roots, to the places where they 
are to grow for flowering. This mode of treatment 
will be found peculiarly advantageous. 

Such of the flower stems as are thus cut down oc- 
casionally, for the purpose of increasing the number 
of offsets, may be formed into cuttings of proper 
lengths, and planted out in a shady border, deposit- 
ing them two parts within the ground, and about 
three inches asunder, water being given at the time, 
and repeated as there may be occasion. 

In most cases, a number of the cuttings will have 
stricken good root, and formed shoots at the tops in 
the course of six or eight weeks. But in order to 
promote their taking root, in a more effectual man- 
ner, they ought to be covered closely with bell or 
hand-glasses as soon as they are planted, raising 
them occasionally as the plants begin to shoot at the 
tops, in order to the admission of air, to the influence 
of which they should be gradually hardened. 
Hort Kew. 2, v. 4, 122. 



SYM'PHYTUM BOHE'MICUM. 

RED-FLOWERED COMFREY. 

Class. Order. 

PENTANDRTA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Or tier. 

BORAGINE/E. 



Native of 
Bohemia. 


Height. 

8 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1801. ? 



No. 71. 

A Greek name corresponding with this was in 
use amongst the ancients, and was, by Tonrnefort, 
referred to this genus. Its signification was, to ce- 
ment, or conglutinate, which was thought applicable 
to these plants, either from their glutinous juices, 
or from their healing qualities. Bohemicum, from 
Bohemia, its native country. 

This species may probably be considered a mere 
variety of the Symphytum officinale. Such distinc- 
tive characters as it possesses appear, however, to 
be permanent. 

The very powerful virtues of the Comfrey are 
well recorded by Camerarius, who saith that, " The 
rootes being outwardly applyed, helpeth fresh 
wounds or cuts immediately ; being bruised and laid 
thereto, by glueing together their lips, and is espe- 
ciall good for ruptures and broken bones ; yea it is 
said to be so powerfull to consolidate or knit toge- 
ther, whatsoever needeth knitting, that if they be 
boyled with dissevered peeces of flesh in a pot, it 
will joyne them together againe." 

It is easily propagated by dividing the roots, or by 
seeds ; and will grow in any common garden soil. 

Schmidt Bohem. n. 211. 



DAPH'NE GNI'DIUM. 

FLAX-LJEAVED DAPHNE. 

Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. DIGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

THYMEL^^E. 



Native of 
Spain. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1597. 



No. 72. 

As some of this genus bear a resemblance to the 
laurel, Linneus distinguished it by the name Daphne, 
in allusion to the fabled transformation of that nymph 
into such shrub. This species of Daphne retains 
the trivial name Gnidium, from the probability of its 
being the true GN i D I o N of the Greeks ; who named 
it after Gnidus, a promontory and town in Asia 
Minor, where Venus had her temple. 

Though the subjects of the genus Daphne are 
principally natives of Europe, yet, from their gene- 
ral habits, they class with that beautiful tribe, the 
evergreen American plants. Many of the most 
beautiful of these American shrubs are the under- 
wood of those extensive woodlands possessed by that 
quarter of our globe. In such situations, shaded in 
the summer from the mid-day sun, and in the win- 
ter, screened from cutting winds, and further pro- 
tected and manured by the fallen leaves of the forest 
trees, they grow with a luxuriance that we can 
scarcely hope to witness in our gardens. 

The Daphne Gnidium is chiefly propagated by 
being grafted on the Daphne laureola, or Spurge 
Laurel, and should be planted in sandy peat. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 410. 









Gaum biennis. 




LOBE'LIA FUL'GENS. 

FULGENT LOBELIA. 

Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Or tier. 

CAMPANULACEjK. 



Native of 
Mexico. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, Sept. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1809. 



No. 73. 

This genus was named after Matthias de Lobel, 
see No. 61. Fulgens, from the Latin, bright, very 
conspicuous. 

It may be conceived that every individual who 
feels an interest in the beauty of flowers, and in the 
possession of plants, bearing evidence, by their lux- 
uriance, of superior cultivation, will be highly gra- 
tified in being informed how this magnificent herba- 
ceous Lobelia may be produced in the highest pos- 
sible perfection and splendour. 

Mr. Sabine observes that 'it has lately been found 
to bear the severity of our winter, by bekg immers- 
ed in water, as an aquatic ; and with this treatment 
has flowered well by the sides of ponds and in cis- 
terns ; but it was reserved for the skill of Mr. W. 
Hedges to discover a mode of culture under which 
this beautiful exotic has assumed a character of mag- 
nificence which will hereafter make it one of the 
most conspicuous decorations of our flower gardens.' 

Mr. Hedges, in a communication which is printed 
in the second volume of the Horticultural Society's 
Transactions, directs the offsets to be divided in Oc- 
tober, put into small pots, protected by a cold frame 

19 



till the middle of January. To be then removed to 
a hotbed or pine pit, and re-potted, at intervals, till 
May ; then to be taken into a greenhouse till they 
begin to flower. 

We recommend the same principles, but vary the 
application of them a little, that they may be more 
generally useful. The offsets need not be divided 
till the latter end of February ; and then they should 
be planted singly in pots of rich soil, rendered very 
light, by the addition of decayed leaves or other ve- 
getable mould, with a good portion of sand, and be 
kept in a moderate hotbed, where plenty of air can 
be admitted during the day time. About the end 
of March, remove the plants, with the roots and soil 
complete, into pots a little larger than those first em- 
ployed, filling up the space with the same compost 
as before. After this the transplanting should be 
repeated every six weeks, still using pots a little lar- 
ger at each removal, till through a gradation of four 
or five sizes, from small ones of four inches, you ar- 
rive at those of not less than ten inches diameter. 
Sink the plants nearly an inch in each fresh pot, and 
observe to keep them from the commencement, in 
pans, which should never be without water, as much 
of the success depends on their continual moisture. 

They may be taken out of the hotbed about the 
end of May, or even earlier, provided a temporary 
covering be afforded them at night. 

When the plants have done flowering, cut off the 
stems ; and during the severity of winter protect 
the offsets in a cold frame or airy room, where they 
may remain with moderate waterings till they are 
required to be again divided. 

Bot. Rep. 659. 



ERPCA MEDITERRA'NEA. 

MEDITERRANEAN HEATH. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ER1CEM. 



Native of 
Portugal. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1648. 



No. 74. 

The name of this beautiful genus has been noticed 
under No. 22, as derived from the Greeks ; and it 
is remarked by Dr. Sibthorp that a corruption of the 
term EREICO is still used by them, and applied to 
the several species of this genus. Mediterranea has, 
probably, been chosen as indicative of the inland si- 
tuations of which this species is native. 

This, like most others of the beautiful tribe to 
which it belongs, should be planted in sandy peat, 
and may be increased either by cuttings or layers. 
All the heaths should have occasional waterings in 
the heat of summer, or they may fall into excessive 
langour, as Stillingfleet observes of singing birds 
after midsummer. This sultry season further re- 
minds us of his observations on the same subject; 
No longer stimulated by the enchantments of spring, 
and the growing love of their mates, birds fall into 
supinity and the indolence of age. 

" The groves, the fields, the meadows, now no more 

With melody resound. 'Tis silence all, 

As if the lovely songsters, overwhelmed 

By bounteous nature's plenty, lay entranced 

In drowsy lethargy." 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 367. 



GAU'RA BIEN'NIS. 

BIENNIAL GAURA. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order, 

ONAGRARIJE. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
6 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Oct. 


Duration. 
Biennial. 


Introduced 
in 1762. 



No. 75. 

The term Gaura has been deduced from the Greek 
GAUROS, signifying pompous or stately. Biennis, 
from its duration being of two years only. 

This stately herbaceous plant has very properly 
been name Gaura, from its free and lofty growth, 
its luxuriant branches, and its display of showy 
flowers in the evening. Though each corolla that 
expands in the afternoon, closes on the following 
morning, yet its gaity is maintained by the conti- 
nued extension of its flowering stems, and the pro- 
duction of numerous young branches, which also 
yield their proportion of blossoms. 

Seeds of the Gaura biennis may be sown in the 
autumn as soon as ripe, or at the latter end of Feb^ 
ruary. The young plants should be kept thin and 
free from weeds during the summer ; and in the au- 
tumn be carefully transplanted where they are to 
remain. In the following summer they will produce 
their lofty flowering stems, which should be pro- 
perly confined to strong upright supporters, in order 
that they may be effectually protected against the 
rude winds that frequently occur in September and 
despoil their beauty. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 344. 



CACA'LIA COCCI'NEA. 

SCARLET-FLOWERED CACALIA. 
Class. Order. 

SYNGENBSIA. POLYGAMIA /KQUALIS. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFERjE. 



Native of 
Uncertain. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Sept. 


Duration. 
1 Annual. 


Introduced 
in 1800. 



No. 76. 

The generic name we have now to notice was in 
use by Dioscorides, a celebrated Greek physician 
and botanist, who lived soon after the Christian era. 
It is compounded of the two Greek words CACON, 
bad, and HAN, exceedingly; from the real or sup- 
posed mischievous properties of the plant which 
bore the name, to the soil on which it grew. Coc- 
cinea from the Latin, scarlet or crimson-coloured. 

According to Curtis, seeds of this plant were 
brought to England from Paris in 1800 ; but to 
what country it is indigenous we are not correctly 
informed. It is a brilliant appendage to the par- 
terre in September, and contrasts well with the pre- 
vailing colours of that season. 

This annual is of rather delicate habits, and the 
seed should be sown on a hotbed, in the spring. Or 
they may be sown in pots and put into a cucumber 
bed, where the young plants should not be crowded, 
but have as much air as can conveniently be al- 
lowed them. They may be planted into the open 
ground in the latter part of May, or at the beginning 
of June ; and care should be taken that the roots be 
disturbed as little as possible. 

Bot. Mag. 564. 







Hibiscus Syriacue. 





Asciepi.u tubcrosa. 




Teiicr iu in pyrenaicum. 



Sculp 



HIBIS'CUS SYRIA'CUS. 

A I. I H F. A FRUTEX. 
Ckui. Order. 

MO5ADBLPHIA. POLYA5DBIA. 

Natural Order. 

MALVACB*. 



Native of 

Syria. 


Height. 
6 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Sep. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 77. 

Hibiscus is a name which has been handed down 
to us from the old Greek writers, but from what root 
the word originally sprung, is now unknown. As 
it was supposed to have been formerly applied to 
some of the mallow tribe, Linneus made choice of it 
to distinguish a splendid genus of the malvaceous 
order, of which our present specimen furnishes a 
good example. Syriacus, from Syria, its native 
country. 

Our drawing of this species was taken from a 
beautiful variety, known by the appellation of the 
Painted Lady. There are, however, others, as the 
purple-flowered, stripe-flowered, white-flowered, 
double-flowered, variegated-leaved, &c. 

Though varieties of the Althaea frutex have been 
cultivated in England during a space of 200 years, 
still we find this species by no means common. We 
have indeed been surprised to observe the scarcity 
of this beautiful shrub in plantations of no ordinary 
merit or extent; and we can attribute it only to 
partial failures in cultivation. 

It has been propagated from seeds, cuttings, and 
layers ; but so superior have seedling plants always 



proved, that we shall only endeavour to supply di- 
rections for that mode of increase. Thus raised, 
they assume a more healthy habit, grow larger, and 
and yield a display of much finer flowers. As the 
propagation of the Hibiscus Syriacus from seeds 
has not come fully under our immediate observation, 
we shall take the liberty of supplying the necessary 
information from what may be considered a good 
authority Miller's Dictionary. 

The seeds should be sown in pots, filled with light 
earth, about the end of March, and if they are placed 
in a gentle hotbed, it will greatly forward the growth 
of the young plants. When they are come up they 
must be inured to the open air, and in May the pots 
should be plunged into the ground, in a border ex- 
posed to the east, where they may have the morning 
sun. By thus plunging the pots, the soil in them 
is prevented from drying so quickly as it would if 
they were left on the surface, and less attention is 
required in watering them during the summer. The 
plants should be kept free from weeds and tolerably 
moist ; and in autumn it will be proper to remove 
the pots into a common frame, to screen them from 
frost ; or into some other well-protected situation ; 
for although these plants, when they have obtained 
strength, will resist the cold of our winters, yet the 
young plants, whose shoots are tender, are very often 
injured by the early frosts of autumn. 

In the following spring they should be planted 
nine inches apart, in beds of light rich earth ; be 
kept free from weeds ; and in the winter again pro- 
tected. Here they may remain one or two years, 
and should then be finally transplanted. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 226. 



ASCLE'PIAS TUBEROSA. 

TUBEROUS SWALLOW-WORT. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. DIGYMIA. 

Natural Order. 

ASCLEPIADE^E. 



Native of 
N. America 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1690. 



No. 78. 

Some portion of the plants comprised in this ge- 
nus, must, no doubt, have been well known to the 
founder of our botanical system as possessing emi- 
nent medical qualities, or he would not have dis- 
tinguished it by a name derived immediately from 
the god of medicine JEsculapius. Its trivial name, 
tuberosa, may be applicable, in its more luxuriant 
state in America, but with us its roots are more fusi- 
form than tuberous. 

Its flowers are both singular and interesting; and 
where a suitable soil occurs for the growth of the 
plant, it should form a portion of every collection. 

In America they call it the butterfly- weed, or 
pleurisy-root ; and its medicinal qualities are highly 
appreciated. The root, when dry, is brittle and 
easily reduced to powder ; and its taste is moder- 
ately bitter, but not otherwise unpleasant. 

Dr. Bigelow says that it is eminently entitled to 
the attention of physicians, as an expectorant and 
diaphoretic. It produces effects of this kind with 
great gentleness, and without the heating tendency 
which accompanies many vegetable sudorifics. It 
appears to be an expectorant peculiarly suited to the 



advanced stages of pulmonary inflammation, after 
depletion has been carried to the requisite extent. 

Dr. Parker, of Virginia, having been in the habit 
of employing this root for twenty-five years, con- 
siders it as possessing a peculiar and almost specific 
quality of acting upon the organs of respiration ; 
promoting suppressed expectoration, and relieving 
the breathing of pleuritic patients in the most ad- 
vanced stages of the disease. 

Like other vegetable bitters, if given in large 
quantities, especially in infusion and decoction, it 
operates on the alimentary canal, though its efficacy 
in this respect is not sufficient to entitle it to rank 
amongst active cathartics 

The best mode of administering the Asclepias 
root, is in decoction or substance. A teacup full of 
the strong decoction, or from twenty to thirty grains 
of the powder, may be given in pulmonary com- 
plaints several times a day. 

Success does not always attend the best efforts 
to preserve this plant. This generally arises from 
one of two causes ; that of removing old plants, or 
depositing them in moist situations. In America it 
is found in dry sandy soils, and pine woods; and 
attempts to preserve it in wet or stiff earth will ge- 
nerally prove abortive. 

It should be raised from seeds, which, as they are 
not frequently perfected in England, must be ob- 
tained from America. These may be planted in 
spring, on a bed of light sandy earth, and it will be 
an advantage if they can be raised in the situations 
in which they are to remain. If transplanting be re- 
quired, perform it when the plants are one year old. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 82. 



(ENOTHE'RA PURPU'REA. 

PURPLE-FLOWERED (ENOTHERA. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. MONOOYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

ONAGRARI*. 



Native of 
N.America. 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Annual. 


Introduced 
in 1791. 



No. 79. 

The derivation of the term CEnothera, from the 
Greek, has been noticed under No. 35. Purpurea, 
purple, indicative of the colour of the flower. 

This herbaceous plant, forms a pretty contrast, 
both in flower and foliage, to the usual variety of 
annuals which furnish our borders and mounts at its 
own period of flowering. 

It is of moderate growth, never rising into ex- 
treme luxuriance, to the destruction of other subjects 
near to it, and generally supports itself without 
assistance. 

The greater part of this genus expand their flow- 
ers in the evening, and their beauty fades on being 
exposed to the rays of the sun next morning. The 
present species, however, possesses the advantage 
of supporting its expanded flowers through the 
whole of the day. 

Though frequently considered as a tender annual, 
the (Enothera purpurea usually succeeds best when 
sown in light rich soil where it is to flower. Or it 
may be sown on a seed bed in March or April, and 
transplanted into the flowering compartment when 
the plants are two or three inches high. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 344. 



TEU'CRIUM PYRENA'ICUM. 

PYRENEAN TEUCRIUM. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. GYMNO8PERMIA . 

Natural Order. 

LABIATE*. 



Native of 
Pyrenees. 


Height. 
3 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1731. 



No. 80. 

It is supposed that the word Teucrium has arisen 
out of the name of the Trojan Prince Teucer, the 
father-in-law of Dardanus, king of Troy, but on 
what account does not appear. As the country of 
Troy is sometimes called Teucria the name may or- 
iginally have been given to some plant indigenous 
there. Pyrenaicum, from Pyrenees, where it is 
found. The English appellation, Germander, is 
rarely applied to any, excepting two or three British 
species ; which have been, by some authors, regard- 
ed as possessing medicinal virtues. 

The common Germander, or Teucrium Chamae- 
drys, has been esteemed as beneficial in gout and 
rheumatism, and is one of the vegetables that con- 
stitute the celebrated Portland gout powder. 

The Teucrium pyrenaicum, from its humble 
growth, is well suited to the fronts of borders, and 
for decorating artificial rock-work, where it will be 
found to grow in perfection. 

It may be planted in any common garden soil, 
and increased by a division of its roots in spring; 
which time is preferable to autumn, as the plants 
make good roots before winter. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 371. 





ll-.-i Ifl 





V.- sir aria. utriculaUi 



.NV.ltt- Sculp 



CHELO'NE BARB ATA. 

SCARLET CHELONE. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYHAMIA. ANGIOSPERMIA. 

Natural Order. 

BIGNONIACE^E. 



Native of 
Mexico. 


Height. 
4 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration . 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1794. 



No. 81. 

The term Chelone is derived from a similar word 
in the Greek language, signifying a tortoise. Bar- 
bata, bearded. 

This interesting herbaceous plant with its delicate 
slender stems, supporting a multitude of beautiful 
pendent scarlet flowers, is surpassed in elegance but 
by few subjects of similar magnitude. It is never 
intrusive by its foliage or stems, and simply requires 
the support of a thin willow shoot, as a guard against 
occasional winds. It is the Chelone Ruellioides of 
Andrews' s Repository. 

It should be planted in a dry warm situation and 
southerly aspect; and in severe frosts should be 
covered with a hand glass or coarse straw. It may 
be propagated by occasional divisions of the root, 
which is best effected late in the spring. 

A certain method to prevent disappointment, is to 
take cuttings of the young shoots as early as they 
will admit of it. These may be planted under a 
hand glass, and should be potted after they are well 
rooted. When frosts set in, give them the protec- 
tion of the cold frame, and in April they may be 
turned into the borders. 

21 Hoit. Kevv. 2, v. 4, 7. 



IBE'RIS SEMPERVI'RENS. 

NARROW-LEAVED CANDY-TUFT. 
Class. Order. 

TBTRADYNAMIA. SILICDLO8A. 

Natural Order. 

CRUCIFERJE. 



Native of 
Candia. 


Height. 
9 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, May. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1731. 



No. 82. 

The name of this genus is one retained from Di- 
oscorides ; and was applied by him to some plant 
resembling the present one. The term is supposed 
to have been originally deduced from Iberia, a name 
used by the Greeks for Spain ; where, possibly, the 
Iberis of the Greeks may have been first noticed. 
Sempervirens is an appellation compounded from the 
Latin, signifying always green, in allusion to its 
evergreen habits. 

It is a most desirable little shrub ; for as well as 
decorating the garden with its beautiful white tufts 
of flowers, during two months of the spring, it exhi- 
bits, by its delicate evergreen foliage, a lively little 
remembrance of the verdure that is past, and also a 
foretaste of that which we are happy to anticipate as 
again to come. Though winter may occasionally 
seem to conquer its tenacity for life ; yet, no sooner 
does the severest frost relax its icy grasp, than the 
Iberis sempervirens appears again in spring-like 
freshness, to exult in its regained liberty. 

It is very readily propagated, either by fastening 
down its branches beneath the soil, or by cuttings 
taken in the spring. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 83. 



RAMON'DA PYRENA'ICA. 

BORAGE-LEAVED RAMONDA. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

SOLANEJE. 



Native of 
Pyrenees. 


Height. 
5 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1731. 



No. 83. 

With the derivation of the present generic name 
we are not acquainted. Pyrenaica, from Pyrenees, 
where it is indigenous. 

The present beautiful alpine plant is the Verbas- 
cum myconi of Linneus, Curtis, and Aiton, and con- 
sequently is now commonly known by that name. 
Our aversion to unnecessary innovations on the esta- 
blished arrangement and nomenclature of botanical 
science has been fully expressed ; and it is only 
from conviction in our own humble judgment, of the 
necessity or expediency of alteration, that we ever 
submit to changes. As it is, in all cases, necessary 
on the one hand, to guard against the intrusion of 
empirics ; so on the other, it is expedient that we 
attach not ourselves, by undue prejudice, to any 
system of things, merely on account of a long ac- 
quaintance with it. 

Brilliant genius sometimes steps forth and strikes 
out a new and enlightened path for itself, but unfor- 
tunately, a great portion of the innovators on all re- 
ceived systems, are found to pursue a road, ulti- 
mately deserted by all but themselves. An anony- 
mous author observes, that a virtuous mind has 



primarily a sense of justice, which teaches a regard 
to the rights of others, among which rights are their 
opinions. 

The Ramonda Pyrenaica is a desirable little plant 
to cultivate, either in pots or in the borders ; and 
should occupy a place amongst the various low close- 
growing alpine subjects. It may be increased by 
dividing the roots, or by seeds ; and succeeds best 
in a cool situation. 

It is also a suitable subject for pot culture, and 
we cannot give our readers more judicious advice, 
respecting its management, than is contained in the 
remarks of a correspondent, who says, that the va- 
rious trials that I have made with the Ramonda Py- 
renaica, have satisfied me that bog-earth is better 
adapted to its habits of growth than a more substan- 
tial and retentive soil. Indeed, I have long made it 
a rule to provide plants with food, rather with rrf- 
rence to the fibres of their roots, than to their ap- 
parent wants of strong or mild nourishment. All 
plants which have wiry roots, I invariably find, 
delight in a peat mould, with a good proportion of 
the decayed roots of the peat, and a little white sand 
mixed up with it ; and if planted in pots, well 
drained, first with very small broken tiles, and next 
with nothing but decayed roots of peat earth, they 
invariably thrive. This plan enables the broken 
tiles to answer their intended end much longer than 
they could possibly do, were they placed immedi- 
ately in contact with the finely sifted mould ; and 
upon examining the roots of a plant so treated, you 
will find the fibres spread over, and freely inter, 
mixed with, the drainers. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 386. 



VESICA'RIA UTR1CULATA. 

SMOOTH VESICARIA. 
Class. Order. 

TETRADYNAMIA. 8IL1QUOSA. 

Natural Order. 

CRUCIFBRjE. 



Native of 
Levant. 


Height. 
13 inches. 


Flowers in 
April, June 


I Duration. 
1 Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1739. 



No. 84. 

Vesicaria, from the Latin vesica, a bladder, in 
allusion to its bladder-like seed vessels. Utriculata 
is also from the Latin, and has nearly the same sig- 
nification. 

This plant is the Alyssum utriculatum of Curtis 
and others ; but from its appearance in the Hortus 
Kewensis, under the genus Vesicaria, it has thence 
been copied into the general catalogues, and is now 
distinguished in most respectable nurseries, by the 
name we have adopted. 

It is an extremely gay and hardy herbaceous 
plant, continuing in bloom a considerable time. 
After its blossoms have faded, its spik? of inflated 
silicles still form an object by no means uninterest- 
ing, till the seeds are ripe in July. It will flower 
in any common garden soil, and may be readily pro- 
pagated either by seeds or from cuttings. Probably 
the following method of increase may be pursued 
with advantage. Fill up the interstices of the plant 
in the summer with soil, so that the whole of the 
branches may, in reality, be laid ; they will, it is 
presumed, make strong plants for separation in the 
following year. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 97. 






St/vUcc olejefolia. 




Lyciinis chalcedonica.. 



Authericum ULia staruto.. 



T5 . 5cui.th del 1 



S. "Watts Sculp 



ARGEM'ONE MEXICA'NA. 

MEXICAN ARGEMONE. 
Class. Order. 

POLYANDRIA. MONOGYIUA. 

Natural Order. 

PAPAVERACE^. 



Native of 
America. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1597. 



No. 85. 

The name of this genus, Argemone, has been 
handed down to us from the ancient Greek botanists. 
They adopted it after the term ARGEMA, a disease 
of the eyes ; wherein white spots arise on the cor- 
nea, which their argemone was said to be efficacious 
in removing. 

Gerarde says, * The golden Thistle of Peru, call- 
ed in the West Indies, Fique del Inferno, (Infernal 
Fig,) a friend of mine brought it unto me from an 
island there, called Saint John's Island, among 
other seeds. What reason the inhabitants there 
have to call it so, is unto me unknown, unless it be 
because of his fruit, which doth much resemble a fig 
in shape and bigness, but so full of sharp and veno- 
mous prickles, that whosoever had one of them in his 
throat, doubtless it would send him packing either 
to heaven or hell.' 

Those of our readers who happen to possess 
Johnson's edition of Gerarde 's Herbal, should be 
informed, that the principal description of the above 
plant is contained in that work, at page 1155; but 
the wood-cut figure of it is at page 371, and is mis- 
numbered 401. 

22 



It is said to be common in Mexico, and all the 
islands of the West Indies, where it is a troublesome 
weed in their cultivated lands, and has been found 
in a wild state in some of the southern countries 
of Europe. 

The inspissated juice of the leaves and stems, 
forms a pigment, in colour between sap green and 
gamboge, but apparently not more valuable to the 
artist than a mixture of those substances. It is es- 
teemed very detersive, and is generally used in dis- 
eases of the eyes ; but the infusion is looked upon 
as a sudorific and resolutive, which may be used 
with success on many occasions. 

The seeds are said to be a much stronger narco- 
tic than opium. They are thought to be an excel- 
lent remedy, and are frequently administered by the 
inhabitants, in the sugar colonies, in diarrhoeas and 
bloody fluxes. They have a trifling degree of 
pungency, but it does not manifest itself for some 
time upon the palate. 

The exterior covering of the seed assumes the ap- 
pearance of delicate net-work, which becomes more 
marked and prominent, as they ripen and dry ; and 
the hilum, or eye, forms a fine seam on one side of 
it, similar to an artificial enclosure. 

There is no difficulty in cultivating the Argemone 
Mexicana, as an annual ; excepting, that like many 
others of the papaveraceous tribe, they are impa- 
tient of removal. It is better to sow them in a light 
soil, in the spring, where they are to remain ; and if 
the seed, when ripe, be scattered from the plants, 
they will generally vegetate in the spring without 
further trouble. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 290. 



STA'TICE OLE1FO'LIA. 

OLIVE-LEAVED SEA LAVENDER. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. PENTAGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PLUMBAGINEiE. 



Native of 
Italy. 


Height. 
15 inches. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1683. 



No. 86. 

Much uncertainty exists respecting the original 
signification of the generic term Statice. It is sup- 
posed to have arisen out of the Greek STATIZO, to 
stop or arrest, in allusion to its astringent quality. 
Sir J. E. Smith observes, that what the ancient 
plant may have been, can scarcely be guessed with 
any probability. The modern application of the 
name to our Thrift or Sea-Gilliflower, he observes, 
seems to have originated with Dalechamp, whom 
Tournefort followed. Hence it has become appro- 
priated to a fine and extensive genus, whose wiry 
and entangled stems, so well formed to impede the 
progress of a foot passenger, may literally almost 
justify its present use. 

The present species is smaller than the greater 
portion of them, but still is an interesting and per- 
fectly hardy little plant. Our figure of a blossom- 
branch is the full size, but the radical leaves are only 
half the size of nature. 

It flourishes in a light loam, and may be increas- 
ed by a division of the roots. It does not increase 
very fast; and will always flower stronger from 
having remained two years without a removal. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v.2, 181. 



LYCH'NIS CHALCEDON'ICA. 

DOUBLE SCARLET LYCHNIS. 
Class. Order. 

DECANDRIA. PENTAGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

CARYOPHYLLE.E. 



Native of 
Russia. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1596. 



No. 87. 

The origin of the name of this genus, like that of 
our last, is wrapped in uncertainty. 

The Greeks used a similar name, which word also 
signifies a lamp. Hence conjectures arose, and 
ingenuity has been exerted, to trace the connexion. 
The term was formerly used for more plants than it 
now is ; some of which may have admitted compa- 
risons not applicable to the present Lychnis tribe. 
It is said that the down of the plant may have been 
used to make wicks ; or that the colour of the flower 
was brilliant, as flame; also that the transparent 
membranous calyx resembled a lamp or lantern. 
Chalcedonica, from Chalcedon ; whence seeds have 
been brought. 

This splendid herbaceous plant, single or double, 
is highly ornamental, and should not be dispensed 
with. Parkinson, 200 years ago, notes it as a glo- 
rious flower, being then as rare as it is beautiful. 

The single variety may be raised from seeds. The 
double or single may be increased by dividing the 
roots, or by cuttings of the stems taken in June. 
It should be planted in a strong fresh loam, and 

have pure air. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 3, 132. 



ANTHE'RICUM LILIASTRUM. 

SAVOY SPIDERWORT; OR, ST. BRUNO'S LILY. 
Class. Order. 

HEXANDRIA. MONOGYMA. 

Natural Order. 

ASPHODELEjE. 



Native of 
Switzerland 


Height. 
18 inches. 


Flowers in 
May, June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1629. 



No. 88. 

Anthericum is deduced from two Greek words ; 
ANTHOS, a flower; and REKOS, a hedge. 

Liliastrum may signify star lily. The term has 
probably been transferred from some other plant to 
the present species. It was found wild in Savoy, 
and formerly called Phalangium, the name of a ve- 
nomous species of spider, from its being considered 
an antidote to the bite of that insect. Hence comes 
our term Spiderwort. The French, we believe, in- 
scribed it to St. Bruno, the celebrated founder of the 
Carthusians. 

Linneus first considered it an Hemerocallis ; but 
afterwards an Anthericum. Botanists are divided 
in opinion on this subject, and some now term it 
Hemerocallis liliastrum. 

It increases but slowly, and if too often divided, 
will either not flower at all, or produce a diminutive 
show of blossoms. Autumn is the proper season 
for removing it, and if planted in a rather shady 
situation, though not immediately under the bran- 
ches of shrubs or trees, it will succeed very well, and 
the duration of its delicate flowers, will be length- 
ened by shade from the direct rays of the sun. 
Hort. Kew.2,v. 2, 269. 




Jfenzie sia, globularis . 





Cytisufl c&pitaJtufi 




Chrysajithemuin. tricolor 



S. watte Sculp. 



MENZIE'SIA GLOBULA'RIS. 

GLOBE-FLOWERED MENZIESIA. 
Class. Order. 

OCTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

RHODORACEJB. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
June. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1806. 



No. 89. 

This genus was named by Sir J. E. Smith, in ho- 
nour of his friend Archibald Menzies ; who made a 
voyage round the world with Vancouver, and col- 
lected many rare and unknown plants, particularly 
cryptogamic subjects. Globularis from its globose 
corolla. 

This deciduous little shrub cannot, for splendour, 
be ranked with the specious and imposing specimens 
of flowering subjects which generally constitute the 
natural order Rhodoracese, many of which have 
emanated from the same source as our present plant, 
North America, that rich fountain of vegetable 
beauty. It is a compact growing shrub, of rather 
slow growth, and frequently not exceeding twelve 
or eighteen inches in height. It should be planted 
in the foreground of the shrubbery, or American 
compartment, and its foliage forms a pleasing con- 
trast with the deep glossy verdure of the Rhododen- 
dron, and evergreens of taller growth, which com- 
monly give depth of shadow to the boundaries of 
cultivated grounds. 

It should be planted in a mixture of peat and 
loam ; and may be propagated by layers. 

23 Hort. Kew. 2, v. 2, 360. 



CYTISUS CAPITATUS. 

HEADED CYTISUS. 
Class. Order. 

DIADELPHIA. DECANDRIA. 

Natural Order. 

LEGUMIHOS^E. 



Native of 
Austria. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1774. 



No. 90. 

A term similar to our Cytisus was in use amongst 
the ancient Greeks, whence ours has been derived. 
The particular plant which then bore the appellation 
was said, by Pliny, to have been found in the isle of 
Cythnus, one of the Cyclades, from which circum- 
stance the Greek name is supposed to have origina- 
ted. Capitatus, from the Latin, growing with a 
head ; in allusion to its terminal mode of inflores- 
cence, shown by the annexed representation. 

The Cytisus, of which about twenty shrubby spe- 
cies are cultivated in England, is a general favou- 
rite in the pleasure grounds. The Cytisus Labur- 
num is universally known, and as generally admired ; 
and our present subject, though far more humble, 
is by no means wanting in attraction. 

This species of Cytisus, like several others, ripens 
its seed in our climate ; and young plants are more 
conveniently raised from them than by any other 
means. They should be sown in a light soil in 
March, and in about two months the young plants 
will appear. At one year old they should be trans- 
planted to a nursery bed, and finally moved in the 
following spring. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 320. 



CHRYSANTHEMUM TRICOLOR. 

THREE-COLOURED CHRYSANTHEMUM. 
Class. Order. 

SVNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA SDPERFLUA. 

Natural Order. 

CORYMBIFER^:. 



Native of 
Barbary. 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Sep. 


Duration. 
Annual . 


Introduced 
in 1796. 



No. 91. 

Chrysanthemum is derived from two Greek words, 
CHRUSOS, gold, and ANTHOS, a flower; and the 
brilliant golden hue of some species of Chrysanthe- 
num fully justify the appellation. 

In the variety of elegant annuals, which usually 
adorn our gardens, the Chrysanthemum tricolor 
should never be wanting. It flowers rather earlier 
than the common annual chrysanthemum, and the 
stems are not so branching nor obtrusive in their 
growth. 

Having, so long, been accustomed to meet this 
plant under the appellation above given, we uncon- 
sciously wrote tricolor in directing the engraver. 
Chrysanthemum carinatum has of late been adopt- 
ed; and it must be confessed there is a plausible 
reason for the exchange of nomenclature, when we 
are told that a variety of this species produces per- 
fectly yellow flowers. 

Seeds should be collected from such plants as 
grow at some distance from the Chrysanthemum 
coronarium, or common species ; as we find them 
prone to mingle, to the injury of both. It may be 
sown with the common annuals. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5, 95. 



CHELO'NE OBLI'QUA. 

RED-FLOWERED CHELONE. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. ANGIOSPERMIA. 

Natural Order. 

BIGNONIACEJE. 



Native of 
N.America 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
Aug. Sep. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1752. 



No. 92. 

This genus was named by Tournefort after the 
Greek CHELONE, a tortoise ; from a fancied resem- 
blance of the flowers to that animal ; its corolla be- 
ing convex above and flat beneath. Obliqua, from 
the Latin, in allusion to the oblique position of its 
foliage. 

This hardy herbaceous plant has long been a fa- 
vourite amongst us, which may arise not alone from 
its bold and handsome flowers, but from the little 
care it requires at our hands. Planted in any com- 
mon soil that is tolerably retentive and moist, it is 
sure to succeed. We have occasionally seen it in a 
very light and dry border increase but little, and by 
its creeping roots change its situation, apparently in 
quest of nutriment, not afforded in sufficient quantity 
in its former residence. It has proceeded by its 
creeping roots, or rather, it may be said, by its un- 
derground stems, to a distance of eighteen inches ; 
there having halted, as it were, to colonize, like a 
parent directing his offspring, or a husbandman his 
labourers, has sent out its numerous fibres, to collect 
food from the surrounding soil. The fair author of 
an interesting little work, " The Wonders of the 



Vegetable Kingdom," has very aptly compared the 
roots of a tree to the labouring classes of society. * So- 
ciety at large,' she observes, 'may be compared to a 
tree. The poor may be designated by the roots ; the 
middle classes by the stem and branches ; the dignified 
and noble, as well as those who adorn and improve 
humanity, by the flowers, leaves, and fruit. The 
stem is dependant on the root ; without the stem the 
root would soon decay ; flowers, fruits, and leaves, 
are equally ornamental and important to the parent 
tree. One member of the vegetable body cannot 
say unto another, I have no need of thee. To each 
an allotted duty is assigned ; severed, they are of 
little worth ; united, they form a beautiful and per- 
fect whole.' 

The various modes of reproduction, and the ve- 
getable economy, exhibited in the growth and the 
adaption of the habits of roots, to the peculiar neces- 
sities of the plant, are well worthy the attention of 
every inquiring naturalist. 

Some species of grass, which in moist situations 
emit fibrous roots alone, will in more uncongenial 
and dry ones form small bulbs, whereby a reservoir 
of nutriment is secured against the occurrence of an 
irregular supply of the fluids requisite for its suste- 
nance. Thus is shown to us the care of the Almighty 
over the smallest of his works. 

The roots of large trees also, in unpropitious situ- 
ations, have been observed to vary their natural 
mode of growth, most materially, in conformity with 
their need of nourishment. Some curious instances 
of such circumstances we may hereafter have occa- 
sion to notice. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 7. 




S-pigelia. Majrilztndica.. 





Digitalis tute< 




Centaxirea. Suaveolens . 



Primula, .fetrinofa,. 



X). Smith, deiv 



SPIGE'LIA MARILAN'DICA. 

PERENNIAL WORM-GRASS, OR INDIAN PINK. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGY1UA. 

Natural Order . 

GBNTIANBJE. 



Native of 
N. America 


Height. 
2 feet. 


Flowers in 
June,Jnly. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Introduced 
in 1694. 



No. 93. 

This genus was distinguished by Linneus, in 
commemoration of Adrian Spigelius, a botanist and 
physician of considerable acquirements, who was 
born at Brussels in 1578. His " Isagoge in Rem 
Herbariam," published at Padua in 1606, is said to 
contain much interesting matter respecting the vir- 
tues of plants ; and it is somewhat curious, that Spi- 
gelius collected a great portion of this knowledge 
from the peasants of Italy, by making a tour amongst 
them, in the character of a rustic. Marilandica, 
from Maryland, one of the United States of America, 
where this plant is indigenous. 

This is a beautifully ornamental herbaceous sub- 
ject, that withstands the cold of our winters toler- 
ably well, but does not increase much, and is not 
unfrequently lost. The dried stems and leaves are 
known to almost every one, under the name of 
Indian Pink, and universally used as a vermifuge 
amongst children ; the living vegetable, however, is 
rarely met with in our gardens. 

It seems to have been given up by the faculty 
for more certain and active medicines. Small doses 
of the recent plant arc said, <><rasi<>n:illy, to produce 

24 



giddiness, dimness of sight, and other alarming 
symptoms, whilst larger doses never produce the 
same effects, from its cathartic properties being 
brought to act on the bowels. 

Several eminent physicians of America, who first 
introduced the Spigelia to notice, have done so un- 
der the most favourable impressions of its anthel- 
mintic virtues. One of them, Dr. Gardner, how- 
ever, observes that he had given it in hundreds of 
cases, but that he never found its virtues very deci- 
ded, unless it proved aperient. Dr. Bigelow says 
the root of this, as of all other perennial plants, is 
the most active part; and that ten grains may be 
given to a child four years old. 

The small fibrous roots form but an inconsiderable 
portion of the plant ; the entire of which is usually 
employed in England; and that always in a dried 
state. These circumstances preclude any narcotic 
effects that may arise from the fresh gathered root. 
The experience of many medical practitioners has 
proved that the Spigelia is best administered in com- 
bination with some more active cathartic medicine, 
as two or three grains of calomel, or fifteen to twenty 
grains of rhubarb, for an adult, and less in propor- 
tion for children. 

The best and most popular method of giving it is 
in the form of infusion, and combined with senna. 
Haifa dram of each, infused all night in half a tea. 
cupful of water kept warm, may be given to a child 
two or three years old. 

It should be planted in a warm and rather moist 
situation, with a portion of peat in the soil ; and may 
occasionally be divided at the root. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 1, 317. 



DIGITA'LIS LU'TEA. 

SMALL YELLOW FOX-GLOVE. 
Class. Order. 

DIDYNAMIA. ANGIOSPBRMIA. 

Natural Order. 

SCROPHULARIN^E. 



Native of 
S. Europe. 


Height. 
3 feet. 


Flowers in 
July, Aug. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Cultivated 
in 1629. 



No. 94. 

Digitalis from digitale, the finger of a glove. The 
name appears first to have been given by the Ger- 
man writer Fuchs, or Fuchsius. Hence the plant 
was called Digitalis Fuchsii. Sir J. E. Smith sug- 
gests that our English appellation, Fox-glove, may 
have risen from this circumstance. 

Most of the species of Fox-glove are extremely 
showy and attractive plants. The very beautiful 
spikes of flowers, that are produced by the Digitalis 
purpurea, or common Fox-glove, and which we so 
frequently see as a beautiful ornament of waste and 
high ground, cannot have escaped the notice of the 
most apathetical observer. 

Both the purple and white variety are now fre- 
quently met with in gardens and shrubberies, and 
but few plants exhibit more beauty and gaiety. 

The digitalis we may notice as well for its delete- 
rious and medical qualities as for its beauty. In the 
hands of the unskilful it forms an extremely danger- 
ous medicine ; whilst Dr. Withering and others have 
shown, that when administered with skill and cau- 
tion, it is, perhaps, one of the most valuable vege- 
tables that we possess. 



Digitalis is stated as possessing properties which 
are combined in no other substance. It is a direct 
sedative, diminishing, most powerfully, the actions 
of the system, without occasioning previous excite- 
ment. Administered with caution, a pulse of 70 
beats or more in a minute, will frequently be redu- 
ced to 40, or even less. But when thrown into the 
constitution too suddenly, or if the quantity be too 
great, it induces vertigo, sickness, convulsions, 
coldness of the body, extreme debility, and death. 

Another powerful quality of this plant, is that of 
an active diuretic. But when employed as such, 
great care is required, lest its sudden diminution of 
the vascular action, should induce so great a degree 
of debility as to prove fatal to patients of a weakly 
or diseased constitution. 

Notwithstanding the usual influence of this plant 
on the human frame, still its powers are not certain ; 
and constitutions have been met with whereon it had 
no manner of effect, even in excessive doses. In a 
few cases its effects have not been evinced till its use 
has been continued for some time; when, at length, 
its powers have burst forth with the greatest vehe- 
mence, so as to endanger the lives of those to whom 
it was administered. 

We have been thus particular, in relating the 
effects of this plant; and advise that it never be 
administered but under the direction and super- 
intendance of a medical man. That the unskilful 
may be informed how small a portion of this delete- 
rious plant is sufficient to act injuriously on the 
system, we shall briefly state, that of the dried 
leaves, one to three grains twice a day is a full dose. 
Hort. Kew. 2, v. 4, 29. 



CENTAURE'A SUAVE'OLENS. 

YELLOW SULTAN. 

Class. Order. 

SYNGENESIA. POLYGAMIA FRUSTRANEA. 

Natural Order. 

CYNAROCEPHALEjE. 



Native of 
Levant. 


Height. 
1 foot. 


Flowers in 
July, Sep. 


Duration. 
Annual. 


Cultivated 
in 1683. 



No. 95. 

Centaurea is derived from a Greek word of simi- 
lar construction, signifying a centaur. This appel- 
lation was given after Chiron the centaur, who 
is said to have used a species of the Centaurea to 
cure himself of a wound, occasioned by the falling of 
one of the arrows of Hercules on his foot. Suaveo- 
lens from the Latin suavis, sweet. 

This most elegant and attractive flower may, 
certainly, be ranked amongst the prettiest of Flora's 
gifts, bestowed in the form of an annual. It occu- 
pies but little room, therefore should be planted near 
to the edge of the flower compartment. It is not so 
hardy as many other annuals, but still requires no 
great care, provided it be not sown too early in the 
spring, nor planted in a cold moist situation. 

It is sometimes raised on a hotbed, and trans- 
planted, but when so propagated, it should have a 
quantity of soil taken up with the roots, and be 
carefully watered and shaded afterwards. 

It does not freely produce seed, unless the head of 
one flower be shaken over another, by which the 
pollen is scattered, and the parts of fructification 

fertilized. 

Hort. Kew. 2, v. 5. 144. 



PRIM'ULA FARINO'SA. 

BIRD'S-EYE PRIMROSE. 
Class. Order. 

PENTANDRIA. MONOGYNIA. 

Natural Order. 

PRIMULACEJE. 



Native of 
Britain. 


Height. 
4 inches. 


Flowers in 
June, July. 


Duration. 
Perennial. 


Inhabits 
Wet Mead. 



No. 96. 

The derivation of Primula, from primus, first, has 
been noticed under No. 1 and 60. Farinosa, from 
the Latin farina, flour ; a beautifully white powder- 
ing of which this primula bears on the scape or 
flower stalk, and on the young leaves, unless it be 
exposed to rains, and thereby deprived of this now 
unfashionable appendage. 

It is one amongst that beautiful tribe of alpine 
plants with which every one is pleased, and which 
every one may possess. It is found in the north of 
England, in various other parts of Europe, and even 
in Siberia. In autumn its leaves fade and the plant 
is comprised in what may be termed a radical bud, 
on the surface of the soil. Thus, inhabiting its win- 
ter quarters, it remains in security, till the genial 
warmth of spring expands its mealy foliage, and in 
due time presents us with a lively specimen of beauty 
in miniature. 

The Primula farinosa we find succeed very well, 
when planted in a small pot of light loam and peat. 
Severe frosts do it no injury, but it should have a 
temporary shelter against excessive moisture during 

the winter. 

Hort. Kew. 2, Y. 1, 308. 



INDEX TO VOL. I, II, III. 



Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No. 

Achillea clavennae, Silver-leaved Milfoil, . . . .2 . . 122 

Achillea speciosa, Spear-leaved Milfoil, ....!.. 44 

Aconitum napellus, Monk's Hood, 3.. 210 

Adonis vernalis, Spring- Adonis, 1.. 27 

Alyssum saxatile, Rock Madwort, 3 . . 254 

Amaryllis lutea, Yellow Amaryllis, 1.. 2 

Ammobium alatum, Wing'-stalked Ammobium, . . 3 . . 219 

Amsonia latifolia, Broad-leaved Amsonia, ....!.. 18 

Anchusa Italica, Italian Bug-los, 2.. 173 

Andromeda calyculata, .... Calycled Andromeda, ....!.. 20 

Andromeda coriacea, Leather-leaved Andromeda, 2 . . 1 71 

Andromeda Mariana, Maryland Andromeda, . . . . 3 . . 240 

Anemone coronaria, Poppy Anemone, %^t29JL 

Anemone hortensis, Garden Anemone, 2 . . 191 

Anemone palmata, Palmated Anemone, 2.. 145 

Anemone pulsatilla, Pasque Flower, 3.. 198 

Antennariadioica, Direcious Antennaria, ... .3. .247 

Anthericum liliastrum, ... .Savoy Spider- wort, .1.. 88 

Antirrhinum majus, Great Snap-Dragon, 3.. 279 

Apocynum androsaemifolium, Tutsan-leaved Dog's-bane, 2.. 99 

Argemone Mexicana, Mexican Argemone, 1 . . 85 

Arnica montana, Mountain Arnica, 3. .239 

Asclepias tuberosa, Tuberous Swallow-wort, . . 1 . . 78 

Asphodelus luteus, Yellow King's spear, ....3.. 246 

Asphodelus ramosus, Branched King's spear,.. . .3.. 251 

Aster alpinus, Alpine Aster, 2 . . 124 

Aster amell us, Italian Starwort, 2.. 188 

Aster Novae- Angliae, ruber, Red New England Starwort, 3. .223 

Aster tenellus, Slender Aster, 3.. 238 

Astragalus alopecuroides, ..Fox-tail-like Milk Vetch, . .3. .265 

Astrantia major, , Greater Black Masterwort, 3 . .212 

Astrantia maxima, Three-leav. Bk. Masterwort,3. .213 

Atropa belladonna, Deadly Nightshade, 2 . . 105 

Aubrietia purpurea, Tufted Aubrietia, 3. .230 

Azalea pontica, Yellow, or Ponlic Azalia, . . 3 . . 261 

Bignonia radicans, Ash-leaved Trumpet-flower,2 . . 123 

Biscutella hispida, Hispid Biscutella, 3 . . 206 

Buddlea globosa, Round-headed Buddlea, . . 1 . . 58 

Btipthalmum grandifloruin, . .Great- flowered Ox-eye, ..2.. 155 

Cacalia coccinea, Scarlet-flowered Cacalia, . . 1 . . 76 

Calceolaria corymbosa, .... Chili Slipperwort, 1 . . 67 

Calceolaria pinnata, Wing-leaved Slipperwort, . .2. . 166 

Calendula pluvialis, Small Cape Marygold, . . . . 3 . . 280 

Calluna vulg-aris, flore pi eno. Double-flowered Ling, ....3. .266 
Campanula Carpatica, .... Carpathian Bell-flower, . . 2 . . 130 
Campanula glomerata, .... Clustered Bell-flower, . . . .2. . 144 
Campanula lactiflora, Milk -coloured Bell-flower, 3 . .200 



Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No. 

Campanula nitida, ........ Smooth -leaved Bell-flower, 3. .224 

Campanula persicifolia, .... Peach-leaved Bell- flower, 2 . . 164 

Campanula puinila, ........ Dwarf Bell-flower, ...... I 

Campanula speciosa, ...... Showy BnlJ -flower, ...... 3 

Campanula speculum, ...... Venus's Looking-glass, . .2 

t ham us tin 



. 48 
.228 
. 147 
. 162 
. 15 
. 95 
. 81 
. 92 
. 143 



Cart ham us tinctorius, ...... Officinal Carthauius, ...... 2. 

Catananche ccerulea, ...... Blue flowered Catanunche, I . 

Centaurea suaveolens, ...... Yellow Sultan, .......... 1 . 

Chelone barbata, .......... Scarlet Cheloue, ........ 1. 

Chelone ohliqua, .......... Red-flowered Chelone, ....!. 

Chrysanthemum coronarium, Garden Chrysanthemum, . .2. 
Chrysanthemum Sinense.. . .Chinese Chrysanthemum,. .2. . 120 

Chrysanthemum tricolor, . .Three-col. Chrysanthemum,! .. 91 
Clarkia pulchella, ........ Fair-flowering Clarkia, ..3.. 199 

Clay ton in Virginica, ...... Virginian Claytonia, ....2. .158 

Clematis integrifolia, ...... Entire-leav.Virgin's-bower,2 . . 98 

Cochlearia Groenlandica, . .Greenland Scurvy-grass, .. .. 64 

Colutea frutescens, ........ Scarlet Bladder Senna, .. ..37 

Commeiina tuberosa, ...... Tuberous-rout. Commelina,3. .257 

Coreopsis lanceolata, ...... Spear-leaved Coreopsis, . . 1 . . 46 

Coreopsis tenuifolia, ...... Slender-leaved Coreopsis, . . 62 

Coreopsis tinctoria, ........ Arkausa Coreopsis, ........ 13 

Cornus Canadensis, ........ Canadian Dogwood, ...... 2 . . 1 36 

Coronilla varia, .......... Various-coloured Coronilla,3..226 

Crocus Susianus, .......... Cloth of Gold Crocus, . ...2.. Ul 

Crocus versicolor, ........ Party-coloured Crocus, .... 2 .. 151 

Cuscula verrucosa, ........ Wart-calyxed Dodder, ....!.. 10 

Cyclamen coum, .......... Round-leaved Cyclamen, ..3.. 229 

Cynoglossum omphalodes, . . Comfrey-lvd.Hound's-tng. 3. .243 
Cytisus capitatus, ........ Headed Cytisus, ........ 1..90 

Cytisus nigricans, ........ Black-rooted Cytisus, ....2.. 149 

Dahlia superflua, .......... Double Purple Dahlia, ... .2 .. 1 15 

Daphne cneorum, ........ Trailing Daphne, ........ 3. .256 

Daphne gnidium, ........ Flax-leaved Daphne, ....!.. 72 

Daphne turton-raira, ...... Silvery-leaved Daphne, ..2. .110 

Delphinium grandiflorum, . . Large-flowered Larkspur, . . 1 . . 29 
Dianthus caryophyllus, ____ Yellow Picotee, ........ 2. .137 

Dianthus caryophyllus, .... Prince of Orange Picotee, 3. .287 

Diauthus Chineusis, ...... China Pink, ............ 1 . . 65 

Dianthus deltoides, ........ Maiden Pink, .......... 2 . . 142 

Dianthus Hispanicus, ...... Spanish Pink, .......... 2 . . 108 

Dianthus Japonicus, ...... Japanese Pink, .......... 2 . . 168 

Dianthus plumarius, ...... Feathered Pink, ........ 3.. 253 

Digitalis lutea, .......... Small Yellow Foxglove, .. .. 94 

Dodecatheon Meadia, ...... American Cowslip, ........ 25 

Drabahirta, .............. Hairy Whitlow-grass, ...... 132 

Dracocephalum speciosum,. .Showy Dragon's Head, .. ..57 

Epilobium Dodonoei ........ Dodonaeus's Epilobium, . . . . 55 

Erica australis, .......... Spanish Heath, ............ 54 



Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No. 

Erica herbacea, Early Dwarf Heath, 1 . . 22 

Erica mediterranea, Mediterranean Heath, ....!.. 74 

Erica stricta, . .Straight- branched Heath, . .3. .217 

Erin us ulpimis, Alpine Erinus, 1.. 11 

Erodium hymenodes, Ternate-leaved HeronVBill,3 . . 193 

Erpthronium Ainericaaum, . . Yel-flow. Dog's-tooth Violet,2. . 178 
Erythronium dens canis, . . . .Common Dog's-tooth Violet,2. . 181 
Eupatorium maculatum, .... Spotted -stalked Eupatormm,2 . . 107 

Fragaria Indica, Yel. -flowered Strawberry, 1 . . 7 

Fritillaria meleagris, Chequered Fritilhma, . . . .2 . . 183 

Fumaria Halleri, Haller's Fumatory, 3. .262 

Fumaria lutea, Ye How -flowered Fumatory, 2. . Ill 

Fumaria nobilis, Great-flowered Fumatory, . . 1 . . 69 

Galardia bicolor, Two-coloured Galardia, . .2. . 100 

Gaultheria procumbens, .... Trailing Gaultheria, 1 . . 17 

Gaura biennis, Biennial Gaura, 1 . . 75 

Genista sagittalis, '. Jointed Genista, 1 . . 50 

Gentiana acaulis, GentianelJa, 1.. 51 

Gentiana asclepiadea, Swallow-wort-leav. Gentian, 3 . .282 

Gentiana Catesbaei, Catesby 's Gentian, 2. .113 

Gentiana verna, Spring Gentian, 2. . 179 

Geum Chiloense, Chile Geum, 3.. 273 

Gilia capitata, Cluster-flowered Gilia, .... 3 . .202 

Globularia vulgaris, Common Globularia, 1.. 9 

Gnaphalium arenarium, .... Sand Everlasting, 1 . . 38 

Gypsophila prostrata, Trailing Gypsophila, 2 . . 150 

Helianthemum roseum, .... Rose-coloured Sun-Rose, . . 3 . . 267 

Helleborus niger, Christmas Rose, 1 . . 8 

Helonius bullata, Spear-leaved Helonius, . . . . 3 . . 235 

Hesperis matronalis, alba, . . Double White Rocket, ....!.. 39 
Hesperis matronalis, pur. . . Double Purple Rocket, ....!.. 70 

Hibiscus Syriacus, Althaea Frutex, 1 . . 77 

Hyoscyamus niger, Common Henbane, 2 . . 172 

Hypericum Kalinianum, .. . . Kalmia-leav . St. John's-wt. 3.. 194 

Iberis sempervirens, Narrow-leaved Candy-tuft, 1.. 82 

Iris pumila, Dwarf Iris, 3. .263 

Iris Sibirica, Siberian Iris, 3 . . 274 

Iris Susiana, Chalcedonian Iris, 1 . . 30 

Iris variegata, Variegated Iris, 3. .278 

Iris versicolor, Changeable Iris, 1.. 3 

Isotoma axillaris, Axillary- flowered Isotoma, 3.. 218 

Jasini tiiiiii revolutum, Curled-flowered Jasmine, . . 1 . . 12 

Kalmia glauca, Glaucous Kalmia, 1 . . 43 

Kalmia latifolia, Broad-leaved Kalmia, ....!.. 33 

Kaulfussia amelloides, Air ellus-like Kaulfussia, . .2 . . 169 

Lachenalia tricolor, Three-coloured Lachenalia, 1 . . 21 

Lathyrus tuberosus, Tuberous Lathyrus, 2. . 139 

Ledum buxifolium, Box-leaved Ledum, 1 . . 52 

' 



Systematic Name. English Name. Vol. No. 

Scabiosa atropurpurea, ... .Sweet Scabious, ...2.. 119 

Schizanthus porrigens, . . . .Spreading Schizanthus, . .2. .126 

Scilla bifolia, Two-leaved Squill, 2.. 125 

Scilla bifolia, alba, White two-leaved Squill, . .2 . . 176 

Scilla Sibirica, Siberian Squill, 2 . .192 

Scutellaria Columnar, Heart-leaved Scull-cap, ..2.. 141 

Senecio elegans, Purple Groundsel, 1 . , 40 

Sida malvaeflora, .Mallow-flowered Sida, ....3.. 237 

Silene acaulis, Stemless Catchfly, 3 . . 232 

Silene fimbriata, Fringe-flowered Catch-fly, 2 . . 128 

Sisyrinchium striatum, ... .Streaked Siayrinchiuin, ..!.. 66 

Solan uin dulcamara, Woody Nightshade, 2 . .109 

Spigelia Marilandica, Indian Pink, 1.. 93 

Spiraea lae vigata, Smooth Spiraea, 1 . . 32 

Spiraea trifoliata, Three-leaved Spiraea, . . . .2. . 153 

Statice oleaefoiia, Olive-leaved Sea Lavender,!.. 86 

Stevia purpurea, Purple Stevia, 2.. 180 

Symphoria, racemosa, Snowberry, 2. . 1 17 

Symphytum Bohemicuin, .. Red -flowered Comfrey,.. . .1.. 71 

Tagetes lucida, ,.. Lucid Tagetes, 3.. 215 

Tagetes patula, French Marigold, 1.. 56 

Teucrium Pyrenaicum, . . . . Pyrenean Teucrium, 1.. 80 

Tiarella cordi folia, Heart-leaved Tiarella, . . . .3. .216 

Tigridia Pavonia, Tiger Flower, 1 . . 5 

Tliymus lanuginosus, Woolly Thyme, 2.. 184 

Tolpis barbata, Yellow Hawkweed 3. .259 

Trillium grandiflorum, ... .Large-flowered Trillium, . .1 .. 26 

Tritoma media, Lesser Tritoma, 3.. 204 

Trolling En ropaeus, European Globe-flower, ..3.. 209 

Tuiipa Gesneriana, Common Tulip, 3.. 245 

Tulipa suaveolens, Sweet-scented Tulip, ....2.. 175 

Tussilago fragrans, Sweet-scented Coltsfoot, . . 1 . . 19 

Uvularia grandiflora, Large-flowered Uvularia, ...2. . 187 

Vaccinium amcenuin, Broad-leaved Wortleberry, 3.. 211 

Valeriana montanu, Mountain Valerian, 1.. 36 

Verbascum phoeniceum, .... Purple-flowered Mullein, . . 1 . . 36 

Verbena Aubletia, Rose-flowered Vervain,. .. .3. .205 

Verbena pulchella, Pretty Verbena, 3.. 277 

Veronica urticaefolia, Nettle-leaved Speedwell, 2 . . 167 

Vesicaria utriculata, Smooth Vesicaria, I . . 84 

Vinca herbacea, Herbaceous Periwinkle, . .3. .233 

Xeranthemum unnuum, .... Annual Xeranthemum, ... .2 .. 114 
Xeranthemum lucidum, .. . .Shining Xeranthemum,. . . .2. . 135 

Yucca gloriosa, Glorious Adam's needle, ..3.. 286 

Zephyranthes Atamasco, . . Atamasco Lily, 3 . .285 

Zinnia elegans, Purple-flowered Zinnia, . .2 . . 170 

Zinnia mul tiflora, Red-flowered Zinnia, ....2.. 97 

Zizyphus paliurus, Christ's Thorn, 2 . , 1 18 



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