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Full text of "The botanist in Berwickshire : an annotated check-list of the flowering plants and ferns of Berwickshire and an annotated check-list of the bryophytes of Berwickshire with introductory sections giving an overview of the flora"

The Botanist 



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MICHAEL E. BRAITHWAITE 
. DAVID G. LONG 



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BRAITHWAITE, M.E. 
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THE BOTANIST 
IN BERWICKSHIRE 




The Berwickshire Naturalists Club 



FIS /Berwickshire 
BRAITHWAITE, Michael E. 
The botanist in 

Berwickshire 
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THE BOTANIST 
IN BERWICKSHIRE 



An annotated check-list of the flowering plants and 
ferns of Berwickshire 

by 

Michael E. Braithwaite 

BSBI Recorder for Berwickshire 
incorporating records compiled by Albert G. Long 



and 



An annotated check-list of the bryophytes of 
Berwickshire 

by 

David G. Long 

Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 



With introductory sections giving an 
overview of the flora. 



The Berwickshire Naturalists Club 
1990 



To Albert Long zohose project this was and in memory of 
Dr George Johnston 1797-1855 who led the way 



The authors wish to acknowledge the financial 

assistance of the Natural History Publications Fund of 

the Berwickshire Naturalists Club 



© The Berwickshire Naturalists Club 
ISBN 9516434 1 

Printed by Bucclcuch Printers, Hawick 



Contents 

Introduction 1 

Map of Berwickshire 6 

Flowering Plants and Ferns of Berwickshire VC81 

An Over-view of the Flowering plants and ferns 7 

Statistical Summary of Flowering plants and ferns 13 

Check-list of Flowering plants and ferns 1 5 

Bryophytes of Berwickshire VC81 

An Over-view of the Bryophytes 69 

Check-list of Bryophytes 77 

Bibiography 99 

Index of Genera - Flowering plants and ferns 101 

Index of Genera - Bryophytes 1 04 
Table of Families (English Names) - Flowering plants and ferns 1 06 

Gazetteer 107 







St. Abbs Head NNR 



INTRODUCTION 

M. E. Braithwaite 

Scope 

The Botanist in Berwickshire is a much abbreviated compilation of the 
work of several generations of botanists and presents as informed an 
opinion as is available of the current status in Berwickshire of each of 
the plant species within its scope. 

There is an inescapable fascination about the quest for a complete list 
of our flora that can become something of an end in itself but essentially 
this work is a by-product of botanising carried out for a variety of 
reasons: recreational, scientific, and increasingly in relation to conservation. 
It is presented, consciously incomplete and often out of date, above all 
to stimulate further work and perhaps also to instil a sense of wonder 
at the marvellous diversity of our flora. Nevertheless practical uses are 
intended and it is hoped that, in conjunction with the excellent modern 
identification floras on which it is based, it may be used by amateur and 
professional naturalists, farmers, foresters and conservationists and 
indeed anyone who from time to time may come to name a particular 
plant and wish then to understand something of how it fits into the 
scheme of things in a local context. 

For the commoner species litfle or no detailed information is offered 
as a standard flora will point the way, but for scarcer species there is 
more detailed information. This information is intended to be indicative 
rather than exhaustive. Nevertheless no information has been held back 
on grounds of confidentiality in the hope that those with an interest to 
follow up a particular record will not have gained the experience 
required to do so without at the same time learning a respect for the 
countryside, its wildlife and the people who live there. 

Our native flora which has been here for millenia co-exists with species 
that, having been introduced both accidentally and deliberately in the 
last few centuries, have naturalised to varying degrees; and it can be 
difficult to decide whether a particular species comes within the scope 
of a book on wild plants. In Berwickshire the number of such 
introductions is manageable, and it has been thought best to include 
almost all the species that have been met with well outside gardens so 
that a statement about their status can be made. 

Although this book is not intended as a guide to where to botanise in 
Berwickshire, many of the places of particular interest do receive 
mention and the list of such places is a long one. Nevertheless a true 
naturalist will find much of interest throughout the county and will come 
to know other places that arouse interest and give pleasure. 

1 



The area covered is that of the Watsonian Vice-County 8 1 - Berwick, 
which has the same boundary as the former County of Berwickshire 
except for a small area to the west of the Leader Water and a small area 
at Laughing Law on the Monynut Water. It does not include Berwick 
upon Tweed, which is in Vice-County 68 - Cheviotland. 

History of Botanical Recording 

The systematic smdy of Berwickshire's botany has spanned two 
centuries. Brief notes published by Dr Parsons were published in 
Lightfoot's "Flora Scotica" in 1777. Later, in 1807, John V. Thompson, 
surgeon, published "A Catalogue of Plants Growing in the Vicinity of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed"; this in turn provided the basis for Dr George 
Johnston to venture more widely and gather the material for his "Flora 
of Berwick-on-Tweed", published in two volumes in 1829 and 1831. 
The first volume covering the flowering plants and the second the 
bryophytes, fungi, lichens and algae. This is a work to the highest 
standards which has remained the reference flora to this day. 

With the completion of his flora in 1831, Dr Johnston sought to share 
his interest more widely and founded his hugely successful Berwickshire 
Naturalists Club which was a considerable novelty at the time. Much 
further work on the botany of the area followed under the club's auspices 
by Dr Johnston and his proteges, noteably Dr James Hardy, and the 
results were published in short reports in the club's "History", in Dr 
Johnston's later work, "A Natural History of the Eastern Borders" 1853, 
and in Dr Hardy's "Moss Flora of the Eastern Borders" published in 
the club's "History" in 1868. 

The western part of the county was little visited by the Berwickshire 
Naturalists and this part remains under-recorded to the present day 
although an early attempt was made to remedy matters with a list of 
plants by Andrew Kelly and William Shaw included in A. Thomson's 
"Lauder & Lauderdale" in 1902. Species lists from various localities 
have been published in other botanical journals but no further compilation 
work was carried out until J. B. Duncan, a bryologist of national repute, 
spent his years of retirement in Berwick and published a "List of the 
Bryophytes of Berwickshire" in the Transactions of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh in 1946. Soon afterwards in the 1950's Albert G. 
Long accepted the post of recorder for the Botanical Society of the 
British Isles. He both prepared a card index of the historical records and 
also, with his son David soon specialising in the bryophytes, carried out 
methodical field work much superior to the hasty survey which was 
achieved for the BSBI's "Atlas of the British Flora" 1962. Meanwhile 
the Nature Conservancy Council had arrived and, thanks especially to 
the efforts of Christopher O. Badenoch, the flora of what have become 



sites of special scientific interest had good preliminary surveys, with 
special attention to the coast and the oakwoods near Abbey St. Bathans. 
Nevertheless, the species lists for these SSSIs remain tentative despite 
a number of attempts to revise and annotate them such as the list of 
flowering plants of the St. Abbs Head National Nature Reserve 
prepared by Stephen R. Warman and the writer in 1 987 which remains 
unpublished. 

More recentiy the writer has continued to build on this extensive 
groundwork with a bias towards sites of interest to the Scottish Wildlife 
Trust for their conservation value, while David Long has been able to 
substantially extend the coverage of bryophytes. 

Over the years individual records of note have been contributed by 
many other local and visiting botanists and recently particular contributions 
have been made by the following specialists: Ferns, A. Willmot; 
Crowfoots, N. T. H. Holmes (with C. D. K. Cook); Brambles, 
G. H. Ballantyne (with E. S. Edees and A. Newton); Hawkweeds, 
D.J. McCosh (with P. D. Sell); Dandelions, A.J. Richards and 
C. C. Haworth; Pondweeds, N. T. H. Holmes (with J. E. Dandy). 

It must be emphasised that only a limited search of the literature has 
been made and that for the flowering plants no search has been made 
in the national herbaria. It is therefore inevitable that a considerable 
number of invaluable records have been omitted. 

Although many records have been gathered during outings organised 
by the Berwickshire Naturalists Club or other societies, many others 
have been made by individual botanists walking in the countryside. 
Except where their walks have led through policy woodland and the like, 
permission has seldom been obtained in advance though every opportunity 
has been taken to meet with and speak to owners and farmers in the 
course of these rambles to explain that botanical records were being 
made. The acceptance of this free and easy approach by owners and 
farmers must be acknowledged with deep gratitude and an understanding 
that this privilege can only be enjoyed so long as the number of visitors 
is modest and their behaviour impecccable. 

Conventions 

For flowering plants and ferns the order of the species and their scientific 
names follow Clapham, Tutin & Warburg. "Excursion Flora of the 
British Isles" 3rd Edition 1981. Bryophytes follow Corley & Hill 
"Distribution of Bryophytes in the British Isles" 1981. Only important 
synonyms have been given, and additional critical species are listed. The 
common names of the flowering plants and ferns follow Dony, Jury & 
Perring "English Names of Wild Flowers" 2nd Edition 1986 which 
imposes an artificial binomial system. These names are not standard to 



all modern floras. WitJi some exceptions no attempt has been made to 
add local names, as few are now in common use and amongst the 
remainder the same name is frequentiy applied to more than one species 
as with the weeds called runch. For bryophytes no common names are 
given as they are rarely used. 

For each species a statement is made of its considered status in the 
county except where the only records are those listed when it may be 
omitted. In the absence of systematic survey an exhaustive statement of 
the frequency and abundance of the commoner species is not attempted. 
Information on habitat is added only where the species is notably more 
restricted in its habitats in Berwickshire than nationally or where it is felt 
that the species has a special significance in relation to habitat that is of 
particular interest in interpreting the countryside. 

With species that are local rather than widespread typical localities are 
listed, often limited to three, whilst for very local species most if not all 
of the records are given, especially the most recent ones. 

The dates given are those of the only or latest record from a particular 
locality except that for introduced species the first record may also be 
given. Where localities are given without dates the species is considered 
to be still present there. 

* Asterisk indicates species which are not considered native in 
Berwickshire. Also used to indicate localities at which a species is not 
considered native. Bryophytes that have colonised recently are not 
indicated in this way as any part played by man has been accidental. 

( ) Single brackets indicate species not now considered present, except 
sometimes as a casual, but formerly present, together with species only 
rarely present as casuals. Also used for localities where a species is not 
now considered present. 

(( )) Double brackets indicate species for which there is no record but 
there might be expected to be one on the basis of its national distribution. 
Also used where there are only records that are considered erroneous 
and these demand assessment in view of their previous publication. 

Records 

The authors hold additional details of the records given and at their 
discretion will attempt to assist with specific enquiries. 
The new records that would be most welcomed by them, including 
confirmation of old records, are sufficientiy indicated by the layout of 
the species notes. If possible the following information should be given: 
Species name, grid reference, locality, habitat, date, recorder's name and 
any comments such as the size of the population. In case of doubt a small 
voucher specimen may be taken, unless the population is small, but a 
flower and some leaves will often do or, in the case of bryophytes, a 



portion of a tuft. Plants should not be uprooted without the consent of 
the owner. 

The present addresses of the authors are given below. In case of 
difficulty, suitable contacts can be made through the Berwickshire 
Naturalists Club, the Scottish Wildlife Trust, the Botanical Society of 
the British Isles, the British Bryological Society, the Royal Botanic 
Garden Edinburgh or the Nature Conservancy Council. 

M. E. Braitiiwaite, Clarilaw, HAWICK, Roxburghshire TD9 8PT. 
D. G. Long, Royal Botanic Garden, EDINBURGH EH3 SLR. 




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FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 
OF BERWICKSHIRE VC81 

M.E. Braithzvaite 

AN OVER- VIEW OF THE 
FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 

Berwickshire is an excellent place in which to obtain a grasp of the 
natural and human forces that determine Britain's botany. It is truly a 
border county in the sense that here one can study southern and 
northern plants intermingling at the limits of their respective ranges in 
an area where heath vegetation descended to low elevations. In a county 
affected by the remorseless advance of agriculture and forestry one can 
still enjoy the rugged coastline, the majestic Tweed and the grouse 
moors of the Lammermuirs. 

Geology 

The geology is varied. Calciferous sandstone and a trace of limestone 
underlie the agricultural land of the Merse from Coldstream to Duns 
and Berwick and outcrop on two stretches of the coast. To the west lie 
basaltic lavas, dramatic at Hume Casde, which soon give way to a wide 
band of Old Red Sandstone deposits in the Leader valley, the low 
moorlands near Greenlaw and the former post-glacial lakes in the 
Gordon area. To the northeast lie the Silurian rocks of the Lammermuirs 
extending right to the coast at Coldingham Moor. Volcanic intrusions 
add interest at St. Abb's Head, the Dirrington Laws, the craigs at 
Sweethope and Hareheugh and the Black Hill at Earlston. 

The Coast 

The coast with its cliffs and sea braes provides a largely unbroken strip 
of natural grassland and maritime heath where Primula vulgaris and 
Hyacinthoides are abundant for about 30 kilometres from Lamberton to 
Dunglass. Below Lamberton the grasslands are base-rich, with Koeleria 
and Carlina, while the wet flushes contain Equisetum telmateia, Lythrum 
salicaria, Eupatorium camiabinum and Carexpendula. The railway cutting 
behind has been colonised by Pastinaca, Valerianella locusta and Bromus 
erectus. The braes north of Burnmouth are the most colourful in 
Berwickshire with Vicia sylvatica and Geranium sanguineum together with 
Poterium sanguisorba and long-established Petroselinum crispum. 

At Eyemouth, the headland behind Gunsgreen has a fine spring flora 
with Primula veris. Orchis mascula and a late-flowering colony of Scilla 

7 



vema; it also retains a small colony of Schoenus nigricans. Below 
Coldingham, the Linkim Shore and Coldingham Bay provide a more 
varied habitat withAmmophila and Leymus together with Thalictnim minus, 
Cakile and Spergularia marina. Here attempts to fix the eroding sand 
dunes with mesh have provided a habitat for Montia perfoliata. 

At St. Abb's Head, the varied and magnificent topology provides both 
exposed sea cliffs with Sedum rosea and Ligusticum scoticum and also 
sunny inland cliffs with Minuartia vema, Trifolium striatum and Torilis 
nodosa. Astragalus danicus and Viola canina favour the edges of the 
knowes above, wiuie Artemisia maritima occurs on the stacks at Petticowick. 
The superb coastiine continues north to Fast Castie with its Asplenium 
marinum behind which lies the stark Dowlaw Dean with Sedum rosea, 
Thalictrum minus and Allium vineale; it is also one of the ancient stations 
for Chamerion angustifolium. 

Pease Bay has been largely surrendered to hohday makers but near 
Reed Point Glauciumflavum survives; there is also a tiny salt marsh with 
Parapholis incurva and Carex extensa. Long extinct from the Berwickshire 
coast are Smymium olusatrum and Mertensia maritima. 

Woodland 

Ancient woodland is scarce indeed. The ground flora of the valley elm 
woods with Allium ursinum and Mercurialis, Saxifraga granulata, 
Chrysosplenium altemifolium and Adoxa is quite widely preserved but the 
canopy is often much given over to Acer pseudoplatanus and softwoods. 
Pease Dean on the coast, the Eye Water below Ayton Castle, Clarabad 
on the Whiteadder, Nabdean at Paxton House and Gledswood near 
Leaderfoot are some of the best remaining examples of these elm woods. 
Of these, Pease Dean is notable for its ferns - Phyllitis scolopendrium, 
Polystichum aculeatum and P. setiferum. The elm woods intergrade with 
oak woods and in a few of the richer fragments Campanula latifolia is 
frequent with Lathraea, Neottia and Epipactis helleborine just surviving. 
Arum maculatum is locally plentiful but perhaps is always an introduction 
while Paris and Gagea, present in these habitats elsewhere in the Borders, 
are absent. 

Fine oak woods remained at Permianshiel until the first World War but 
now those survive principally along the Whiteadder at Abbey St. 
Bathans,where there is a series of fine woods with Hyacinthoides, Carex 
remota, Corydalis, Gymnocarpium dryopteris and Phegopteris connectilis, 
sometimes with fine juniper. Where these woods approach the river 
there is Prunus padus; and also a well developed alder wood found 
elsewhere only at Hoprigshiels. In a more open wood at Gateheugh on 
the Tweed, Sorbus rupicola and Melica nutans just survive. In upland 
situations the deans have much birch and rowan but good examples are 



rare and the best is at Langtonleescleuch where there is Rubus saxatilis; 
and where Crepis mollis may yet survive unlike in its former stations in 
the Leader valley where it is perhaps extinct. At Airhouse Wood, alone, 
a sizeable remnant birch wood hangs on along an open hillside with 
Geranium sylvaticum and Rosa pimpinellifolia. 

All these ancient woods are on steep banks and it is perhaps at the 
Hirsel that long-established secondary woodland gives the best idea of 
the woodland flora on a more varied terrain; for example at Birgham 
Wood, on former moorland, there is abundant Fragaria vesca and frequent 
Pyrola minor under oak and Cirsium helenoides under willow and birch. 
Native Scots pine woods were extinct in the Borders before 1 700 but 
pine has been extensively replanted especially at Mellerstain and here 
Corydalis has prospered. Some recolonisation by Goodyera and Linnaea 
formerly occurred, from which one colony of Linnaea yet survives. 

Riverside 

The Tweed as the principal river is bounded by dynamic communities 
where aliens such as Heracleum mantegazzianum, Impatiens glandulifera, 
Symphytum uplandicum and Allium paradoxum have prospered. Less 
aggressive introductions are Butomus umbellatus, Acorus calamus and 
Lysimachia vulgaris. Carex acuta and Glyceria maxima are present as 
natives. The aquatic flora remains varied with both Potamogeton lucens 
and P. perfoliatus plentiful in the lower Tweed. The steep banks support 
Dipsacus fullonum and at least two colonies of Lactuca virosa survive. 
Cerastium arvense and Galium boreale occur rarely, on rocks, with Ballota 
nigra on sandstone well above the river, and Parietaria on walls. 

The principal tributary is the Whiteadder whose lower regions lie in 
a deep, narrow valley where the river swings to and fro with wooded 
scaurs on one bank and open haughs on the other, backed by grassy 
braes with much scrub. By the river Scrophularia umbrosa is at its most 
frequent and there is Oenanthe crocata, Scirpus sylvaticus and Schoenoplectus 
lacustris with Tanacetum vulgare and Geranium pratense above. On the 
braes, Helianthemum and Ononis are plentiful and here are found Malva 
moschata, M. neglecta and Carduiis tenuiflorus. The scaurs are typified 
by Vicia sylvatica and Origanum vulgare but Echium vulgare and Lathyrus 
sylvestris are also present. Scabiosa columbaria is found in one side-dean. 
Allium scorodoprasum has one station on the English Border. The rich 
communities of the Whiteadder haughs between AUanton and Paxton, 
of which the best is Tibbie Fowler's Glen, have diminished, losing the 
Trifolium fragiferum and Blysmus compressus formerly present. 

The Blackadder is a tributary in turn and, although the upper reaches 
have an upland character, Benda erecta is plentiful and Blysmus compressus 
is present locally. The Leet Water which drains the Merse is a lazy 



lowland river with Carex riparia and C. acutiformis on its banks and in 
ox-bows. The Leader Water is a gravelly river tending to flood and 
Lepidium heterophylhim is a feature of its gravels. 

Grassland 

Away from the river grasslands, interest is concentrated on volcanic 
craigs. Hume has much Saxifraga granulata with Vicia lathyroides and 
Myosotis ramosissima with the two Cerastiums, C. diffusum and 
C. semidecandrum. Hareheugh Craigs support Viola lutea, Dianthus 
deltoides, Sderanthus annims and Carex miiricata. Away from the craigs, 
rich old grassland is rare in lowland Berwickshire; for example there are 
just a few colonies of Viola lutea, only one of which, near Corsbie, is 
associated with Botrychium lunaria. Coldingham Moor was formerly an 
area of a rich variety of grassland and heath but it is much reduced and, 
although Filago vulgaris and F. minima remain on dry knowes, species 
such as Gentianella campestris, Gymnadenia conopsea and Coeloglossum 
viride are lost or nearly so. 

The undulating ground of the Merse proper, between Coldstream and 
Chirnside, was also an interesting mixture of communities with a few 
northern plants mingling with a notable collection of southern ones. 
Galium boreale and Trollius europaeus grew with Silaum silaus, Cerastium 
arvense and Genista tinctoria. Filipendula vidgaris, Senecio erucifolius, 
Pulicaria dysenterica and Equisetum hyemale were also present. Apium 
nodiflorum and Berula erecta were found in the burns. Now, Galium boreale 
and Silaum silaus just survive, incongruous at the edge of wheat fields, 
with a little Berula erecta in the burns; but the other species are believed 
lost. By the Crook Burn alone, a representative northern hay meadow 
remains, with much Trollius and Cirsium helenoides. 

Wetland 

Coldingham Loch is the only natural water body of significance with 
Nuphar lutea and a variety of linear-leaved Potamogeton species, amongst 
which the current status of P. filiformis is in doubt. The Hen Poo at Duns 
Castle is a flooded mire with a rich flora including long-established 
introductions and is the principal locality for Ranunculus lingua. 

The range of mosses is much more restricted than in Roxburghshire 
and Selkirkshire. Long Moss on Coldingham Common has Vaccinium 
oxycoccos; Trientalis is also found nearby on Drone Moss. Former 
wetland habitats nearby on Coldingham and Lamberton moors, with 
their strikingly oceanic climates, were stations for Ostnunda, Trollius, 
Drosera anglica, Apium nodiflorum, Epipactis palustris and Schoenus 
nigricans, but these species are now lost or nearly so. 

Dogden Moss on Greenlaw Moor is a fine example of a raised bog 

10 



with typical species, while Gordon Moss has a fascinating history as a 
remnant of a much larger wetland. Carex paniculata and Dryopteris 
carthiisiana are still abundant in birch wood there while Platanthera bifolia, 
Corydalis and Catabrosa aquatica are still plentiful; however, there is a 
frightening list of extinctions and near-extinctions. Everett Moss has 
Cicuta while Longmuir Moss in the Lammermuirs is the only station for 
Carex diandra. Bemersyde Moss has Bidens cernua and Sanguisorba 
officinalis. Mire Loch at St. Abb's Head still has Benda erecta but Baldellia 
and Apium inundatum perished when the mire was flooded. Corallorhiza 
trifida is a feature of several of the Berwickshire mosses. The mires of 
the Merse are either completely lost or sadly degraded, though some 
interest remains at Lithtillum Loch. 

Moorland 

Much of the moorland of the Lammermuirs is almost pure Calluna with 
Erica cinerea locally dominant while, of the clubmosses formerly frequent, 
only a little Lycopodium clavatum now remains. Genista anglica is also 
localised, though still present on Dirrington Law where it was formerly 
accompanied by Arctostaphylos and Pyrola media in an interesting 
community probably more widespread before it was eliminated by 
grazing. Not far away Saxifraga hirculus and Leuchorchis albida have long 
been lost although Vicia orobus still flourishes up the Dye Water and 
Pamassia is still plentiful in base-rich flushes north of Greenlaw Kaims. 
A characteristic community of the Lammermuirs is a bryophyte-rich 
flush where Sedum villosum flourishes. Cryptogramma crispa is, 
surprisingly, extinct at several former localities but survives in screes on 
the Black Hill at Earlston. Gymnocarpion dryopteris has fared better in 
small screes up the Lammermuir burns in just a few of which juniper 
is still plentiful. Rather rarely up these burns base-rich flushes occur, 
characterised by Carex dioica and Eleocharis quinqueflora with Pamassia, 
Pinguicula and Selaginella. The Lammermuirs are not high enough for 
summit vegetation but, amongst the Empetnmi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea 
on Meikle Says Law, Rubus chamaemorus occurs, with Listera cordata in 
the Sphagnum. Not all the Lammermuirs are heather and locally there 
are banks of Helianthemum with Thymus and Festuca tenuifolia. 

Arable Land 

Many arable weeds have become rare or extinct. Scandix outlived 
Centaurea cyanus, while Chrysanthemum segetum survives near Eyemouth 
and north of Kelso. Fumaria micrantha, Stachys arvensis, and Lamium 
hybridum occur in a few sandy fields near the coast and by the lower 
Tweed. Anagallis arvensis is widespread but scarce and Mentha arvensis 
is now very rare. On the other hand Matricaria recutita may be increasing. 

11 



Lamium moluccellifolium is widely distributed but scarce while the 
colourful Galeopsis speciosa and Fumaria muralis are often plentiful, even 
in peaty upland soil. 

Ruderal Land 

With Berwick-upon-Tweed outwith the county the open habitats of 
industrial wasteland, rubbish tips, railways and major road verges are 
localised and although a number of species have become naturalised 
there they remain little in evidence. Nevertheless railway yards have 
Senecio squalidus on the ballast and Ceterach on the walls while the A68 
has patches of Hordeum jubatum on the verges and the swathes of 
Taraxacum along the Al conceal introduced microspecies. 

Roadsides remain largely natural with Ranunculus ficaria succeeded 
by Anthriscus sylvestris, Heracleum spondylium and Leontodon autumnalis 
but a number of the striking introductions of the riverside are found here 
also, but more sparsely, together with Pentaglottis sempervirens, Cicerbita 
macrophylla and, on mown verges, Veronica filiformis. A startling innovation 
of the 1980's are roadsides yellow with oil-seed rape, Brassica napus, 
where the tiny seeds are spilt at harvest. 



12 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF 
FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



Present (Formerly (Casual Total 







present) 


only) 




Native to Berwickshire 










Species 


619 


88 


- 


707 


Subspecies 


10 


3 


- 


13 


Microspecies 


93 


3 


- 


96 


Hybrids 


21 


4 


- 


25 




743 


98 


- 


841 


Introduced and naturalised 










Species 


103 


18 


- 


121 


Subspecies 


7 


- 


- 


7 


Microspecies 


7 


- 


- 


7 


Hybrids 


8 


- 


- 


8 




125 


18 


- 


143 



* Introduced but usually found 
planted or as garden escapes 
poorly naturalised 

Species 73 

Hybrids 5 



Introduced casual only 

Species 



Total 



78 


8 


- 


86 






81 


81 


946 


124 


81 


1,151 



Genera taken to have microspecies are Rubus, Alchemilla, Euphrasia, 
Hieracium and Taraxacum. 

Of the 707 full species thought to have been native, and to have 
survived to 1830, 88 are thought subsequendy to have become extinct. 
However 103 full species have been introduced intentionally or 
accidentally by man, some of these long before 1830, and have become 
naturalised. 722 full species are thus considered to be present in 
established wild populations in 1990. 



13 



The 88 native species thought to have been lost were last recorded and 
the 103 that have become naturalised were first recorded in the decades 
beginning as follows: 





Last 


First 




Last 


First 




record 


record 




record 


record 


to 1830 


8 


36 


1910 


16 


2 


1840 


2 


3 


1920 


1 





1850 


11 


2 


1930 


2 


3 


1860 


3 


1 


1940 


1 


4 


1870 


3 


2 


1950 


5 


10 


1880 


9 


2 


1960 


9 


13 


1890 


7 


3 


1970 


4 


1 


1900 


7 
50 


2 
51 


1980 


— 


19 




38 


52 



Despite the uneven history of botanical recording it is clear that there 
has been a rather steady rate of loss of native species between 1830 and 
1990. The dates of the introductions are more obviously biased by the 
dates of high recording effort but the underlying trend is perhaps of an 
increasing rate of introduction. 

The habitats from which the 88 native species are thought to have been 
lost and to which the 103 that have become naturalised have come are 



Losses 



Gains Comment 



The Coast 


7 


7 


Woodland 


4 


26 


Riverside 


2 


20 


Grassland 


21 


8 


Wetland 


28 


2 


Moorland 


6 


1 


Arable Land 


16 


3 


Ruderal Land 


4 


36 




88 


103 



litde change 
deliberate introduction 
dynamic communities 
loss of habitat 
degradation of habitat 
muirburn and drainage 
clean seed and sprays 
dynamic communities 



14 



CHECK-LIST OF FLOWERING 
PLANTS AND FERNS 

PTERIDOPHYTA 

(Ferns and Fern-Allies) 

LYCOPODIACEAE 

(Huperzia Selago FIR CLUBMOSS. Perhaps now only a rare casual. 

Earlston, ? Black Hill, 1960). 
Lycopodiumclavatum STAG'S-HORN CLUBMOSS. Now very scarce, 

mainly moorland. Duns Castle 1979. 
(Diphasiastrum alpinum ALPINE CLUBMOSS. Perhaps now only a 

rare casual. Soutra 1990, Black Hill 1977, Dye Cottage, 

Wrunklaw 1956). 

SELAGINELLACEAE 

Selaginella selaginoides LESSER CLUBMOSS. Small colonies, Greenlaw 
Moor, Clints Hill, Stot Cleugh, Watch Water, Dowlaw 
Dean. 

EQUISETACEAE 

(Equisetum hyemale DUTCH RUSH. Considered extinct. Burnmouth 

1886, Lamberton Moor to 1836) 
E. fluviatile WATER HORSETAIL. Widespread and locally abundant. 
E. palustre MARSH HORSETAIL. Common. 
E. sylvaticum WOOD HORSETAIL. Local and scarce. Woods and 

moorland. Abbey St. Bathans, Longformacus. 
E. arvense FIELD HORSETAIL. Common, but seldom abundant. 
E. arvense x fluviatile (= E. x litorale) Gordon Moss 1 988, St. Abbs Head 

1979. 
E. telmateia GREAT HORSETAIL. Wet places on the sea braes and in 

adjacent deans. 

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE 

Botrychium lunaria MOONWORT. Now rare. Corsbie 1987, Gordon 

Moss 1971. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum ADDERS-TONGUE. Rare, most observable 

in the first week of June. Millknowe Burn 1988, (Silverwells 

1956). 

OSMUNDACEAE 

(Osmunda regalis ROYAL FERN. Considered extinct. Flass Wood 1 885, 
Coldingham Moor 1871). 



15 



ADIANTACEAE 

Cryptogramma crispa PARSLEY FERN. Black Hill, on a wall at The 
Bield, (Chester Hill, Lauder 1902, Abbey St. Bathans 1853). 

HYPOLEPIDACEAE 

Pteridium aquilinum BRACKEN. Common and locally dominant. 
Broadly suggesting the sites of ancient oakwoods. 

THELYPTERIDACEAE 

Oreopteris limbosperma (= Thelypteris oreopteris) LEMON-SCENTED 
FERN. Widespread on moorland banks. 

Phegopteris connectilis (= Thelypteris phegopteris) BEECH 
FERN. Langtonlees Cleugh, Eller Burn, Cockburn Law. 

ASPLENIACEAE 

Asplenium adiantum-nigruxn BLACK SPLEENWORT. Scarce and 
mainly coastal on rocks. Widespread on walls. Such material 
as has been studied has been ssp. quadrivalens. 

A. marinum SEA SPLEENWORT. A number of small coastal colonies, 
(formerly on rocks by tlie Tweed 10 km from the sea. 
Ladykirk 1838). 

A. trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens MAIDENHAIR SPLEENWORT. 

Common, especially on walls. 

A. ruta-muraria WALL-RUE. Common, especially on walls. 

Ceterach ofiQcinarum RUSTYBACK. Several colonies on walls from 
1881. Ayton, Smiddyhill Bridge. 

PhyUitis scolopendrium HART'S-TONGUE. Lowland deans and policy 
stonework. 

ATHYRIACEAE 

Athyrium filix-femina LADY-FERN. Common. 

Cystopteris fragUis BRITTLE BLADDER-FERN. Occasional on rocks 
and walls. 

((C. dickieana DICKIE'S BLADDER-FERN. "C. fragilis" in cave at St. 
Abbs Head 1836, could possibly have been this)). 

ASPIDIACEAE 

Dryopteris filix-mas COMMON MALE-FERN. Common. 

D. affinis (= D. borreri) SCALY MALE-FERN. Common. 

((D. oreades (= D. abbreviata) MOUNTAIN MALE-FERN. No record. 
May occur on screes in the higher hills)). 

D. dilatata BROAD BUCKLER-FERN. Common. 

D. carthusiana NARROW BUCKLER-FERN. Gordon Moss, plentiful. 
In a few other mosses and moorland flushes. 

D. dilatata x carthusiana (= D. x deweveri). Gordon Moss, Duns Castle 
1979. 



16 



Polystichum setiferum SOFT SHIELD-FERN. Very local. Pease Dean, 
Tower Dean, Ale Mill, also introduced in policy woodland. 

P. aculeatum HARD SHIELD-FERN. Widespread. Deans, cleuchs and 
rocky riversides. An indicator of ancient woodland. 

Gymnocarpium dryopteris OAK FERN. Local and scarce. Scaurs and 
screes in moorland. Lumsdaine Dean. 

BLECHNACEAE 

Blechnum spicant HARD FERN. Locally common. 

POLYPODIACEAE 

Polypodium vulgare POLYPODY. Frequent. Recorded segregates are: 
P. vulgare COMMON POLYPODY. Frequent. 
P.interjectum WESTERN POLYPODY. Gateheugh, Pease Dean. 
P. vulgare x interjectum (= P. x mantoniae) . Howpark Burn 1 960. 

SPERMATOPHYTA 

GYMNOSPERMAE 

(Conifers) 
Only a selection of the planted introductions have been chosen. 

PINACEAE 

Abies grandis GRAND FIR. Planted only. Occasional. Seedlings occasional. 

A. procera NOBLE FIR. Planted only. Occasional. Seedlings occasional. 

Pseudotsuga menziesii DOUGLAS FIR. Planted only. Occasional. 

Picea abies NORWAY SPRUCE. Planted plentifully. Regeneration 
occasional. 

P. sitchensis SITKA SPRUCE. Planted abundantly. Regeneration 
occasional. 

Tsuga heterophylla WESTERN HEMLOCK. Planted only. Occasional. 

Larix decidua EUROPEAN LARCH. Planted frequently. Regeneration 
frequent. 

L. kaempferi JAPANESE LARCH. Planted frequently. Regeneration status 
unknown. 

L. decidua X kaempferi (=L.xeurolepis) HYBRID LARCH. Planted only. 
Frequent. 

Pinus sylvestris SCOTS PINE. Extinct for several centuries as a native. 
Planted plentifully. Naturalised in several places on peat or 
light soils. Greenlaw Moor, Corsbie Bog. 

P. contorta LODGEPOLE PINE. Planted occasionally. Regeneration 
occasional. 



17 



CUPRESSACEAE 

* Thuja plicata WESTERN RED-CEDAR. Planted only. Occasional. 
Juniperus communis ssp. communis JUNIPER. Local and declining 

with only a few good colonies. Aikyside Wood, Blythe Water, 
Whalplaw Burn, Airhouse Wood, Gateheugh. 

TAXACEAE 

* Taxus baccata YEW. Planted in small quantity in policy woodlands. 

ANGIOSPERMAE 

(Flozvering Plants) 

DICOTYLEDONES 

RANUNCULACEAE 
Caltha palustris MARSH-MARIGOLD. Frequent, but rarely abundant. 
TroUius europaeus GLOBEFLOWER. Rare, formerly local. A fine colony 
at East Crook Burn, near Lauder Hill, Lumsdaine. 

* HeUeborus foetidus STINKING HELLEBORE. WeD established at 

Gateheugh. First recorded 1973. 

* H. viridis GREEN HELLEBORE. Planted rarely in policy woodland. 

* Eranthis hyemalis WINTER ACONITE. Very locally established in 

policy woodland. 

* Aconitum napellus MONK'S HOOD. Garden escape, becoming 

established in policy woodland. Other taxa may be involved. 

* (Actaeaerythrocarpa BANEBERRY GENUS. Casual. Gavinton 1965). 

* Anemone nemorosa WOOD ANEMONE. Locally abundant in woodland 

and on moorland. 

* (A. apennina BLUE ANEMONE. Casual. Lennel 1965). 

* Clematis vitalba TRAVELLER'S-JOY. Established in a few sites. Fleurs 

farm 1960, Old Linthill 1978. 

Ranunculus acris MEADOW BUTTERCUP. Very common. 

R. repens CREEPING BUTTERCUP. Very common. 

R. bulbosus BULBOUS BUTTERCUP. Now local. In old grassland on 
the better soils. 

(R. arvensis CORN BUTTERCUP. Once locally common, now extinct 
except as a rare casual. Whitchester 1966). 

(R. sardous HAIRY BUTTERCUP. Rare cornfield weed to 1874). 

R. auricomus GOLDILOCKS BUTTERCUP. Very locally frequent, 
usually in woods. Penmanshiel, Paxton, Abbey St. Bathans, 
Langton, Hareheugh Craigs, Airhouse Wood. 

R. lingua GREATER SPEARWORT. Bemersyde Moss 1978, Gordon 
Moss 1976, *Hen Poo. 

R. flammula ssp. flammula LESSER SPEARWORT. Common, 
especially upland. 

18 



R. sceleratus CELERY-LEAVED BUTTERCUP. Uncommon. Pickie 

Moss 1985, Bemersyde Moss 1978, Manderston 1967, 

Nenthorn 1964. 
R.hederaceus IVY-LEAVED CROWFOOT. Occasional, mainly upland. 
R. aquatilis WATER-CROWFOOT. The following segregates are 

recorded (See also Addendum page 68): 
R. fluitans RIVER WATER-CROWFOOT. Tweed, Whiteadder, 

Blackadder. The early records include R. pettcillatus. 
R.circinatus FAN-LEAVED WATER-CROWFOOT. Occasional 

in the upper Blackadder. 
R. circinatus x fluitans. Occasional in the upper Blackadder. 
R. trichophyllus THREAD-LEAVED WATER-CROWFOOT. 

Scattered. Dowlaw Pond, Greenlaw Dean, Cranshaws Pond, 

Kelmscott. 
R.aquatms COMMON WATER-CROWFOOT. Scattered. Ponds 

and ditches. Lurgie Loch 1965, Hule Moss 1959. R. peltatus 

was previously considered a variety and has not always been 

distinguished. 
R. peltatus POND WATER-CROWFOOT. Scattered. Ponds and 

ditches. Old Cambus 1981, Legerwood Pond 1961, 

Coldingham 1916. 

R. penicillatus (= R. pseudofluitans) STREAM WATER- 
CROWFOOT. Common in the Tweed, also Whiteadder, 
Blackadder. The variety present has recently been named 
var. pseudofluitans (= var. calcareus). 

R. ficaria LESSER CELANDINE. Two subspecies occur: 

R. ficaria ssp. ficaria. Common. 

R. ficaria ssp. bulbifer. Distribution unknown. 

* (Aquilegia vulgaris COLUMBINE. Occasional garden escape, casual). 
(Thalictrum flavum COMMON MEADOW-RUE. Considered extinct. 

Netherbyres to 1853. Dunglass Dean to 1886). 

T. minus ssp. minus (incl. ssp. arenarium) LESSER MEADOW-RUE. In 

a few places on the coast, junction of Eye and Ale Waters, 
Gateheugh. 

* (T. lucidum. Casual. Whiteadder at Edrington 1979). 

BERBERIDACEAE 

* Berberis vulgaris BARBERRY. Planted in hedges. 

* Mahonia aqurfolium OREGON-GRAPE. Occasional in policy woodlands. 

NYMPHAEACEAE 

* Nymphaea alba WHITE WATER-LILY. Manderston 1964. 
Nuphar lutea YELLOW WATER-LILY. Coldingham Loch, 

*Spottiswoode Loch 1987, *Hen Poo 1990. 



19 



CERATOPHYLLACEAE 

* CeratophyUum demersum RIGID HORNWORT. Hirsel Lake 1981, 

Newton Quarry. 

PAPAVERACEAE 

Papaver rhoeas COMMON POPPY. Occasional. 
P. dubium LONG-HEADED POPPY. Frequent. 

* P. lecoqii YELLOW-JUICED POPPY. Garden weed, Chirnside House 

1986. 

(P. argemone PRICKLY POPPY. Rare casual, formerly local. Gunsgreen 
1960). 

* P. somniferum OPIUM POPPY. Occasional garden escape. 

* Meconopsis cambrica WELSH POPPY. Occasionally established in 

woodland. 

Glaucixim flavum YELLOW HORNED-POPPY. Reed Point, Lumsdaine 
Shore, (Linkim Shore 1974 and formerly elsewhere on 
coast). Noted by William Crow in 1740. 

* (Chelidonium majus GREATER CELANDINE. Now a rare casual). 

FUMARIACEAE 

Corydalis claviculata CLIMBING CORYDALIS. Locally plentiful. 
Mellerstain, Gordon Moss, Edingtonhill, Penmanshiel, 
Shannabank. 

((Fumaria capreolata WHITE RAMPING-FUMITORY. The old 

records may all refer to F. muralis)). 

((F. purpurea PURPLE RAMPING-FUMITORY. No record. Possibly 
overlooked. Occurs in adjacent counties)). 

F. muralis ssp.boraei COMMON RAMPING-FUMITORY. Common. 

F. densiflora (= F. micrantha) DENSE-FLOWERED FUMITORY. Very 
local and scarce. Fishwick Mains 1987, Lamberton 1985, 
Hutton Castle 1983, Haigsfield 1979. 

F. oflQcinalis COMMON FUMITORY. Two subspecies occur: 

F. officinalis ssp. officinalis. Common. 

F. officinalis ssp. wirtgenii. Local. Light soils near base-rich rock 
outcrops. 

CRUCIFERAE 

* Brassica oleracea WILD CABBAGE. Colony established on cliff at 

Ramsheugh 1981. 

* B. napus RAPE. Oil-seed rape is now common along roads where crop is 

spilt, ssp. oleifera. Other ssp. are rare. 

* B.rapa WILD TURNIP. There are wild colonies on banks by the Tweed. 

Paxton 1984. 
(B. nigra BLACK MUSTARD. A former weed. Last record 1902). 
Sinapis arvensis CHARLOCK. Common. 

20 



S. alba WHITE MUSTARD. Rare as a weed, Northfield 1982, but now 
occasionally sown as pheasant cover, Lochton 1989. 

Raphanus raphanistrum WILD RADISH. Widespread. Usually yellow 
flowered. 

(Crambe maritima SEA-KALE. Considered extinct. Shore by Fast Castle 
to 1836). 

Cakile maritima SEA ROCKET. Occasional on the coast. Pease Bay. 
Coldingham Bay. 

(Lepidium campestre FIELD PEPPERWORT. A few records to 1 902) . 

L. heterophyUum SMITH'S PEPPERWORT. Plentiful on gravels of die 
Leader Water. 

(Coronopus squamatus SWINE-CRESS. Locally common to 1916). 

* (C. didymus LESSER SWINE-CRESS. Casual. Burnmouth 1936). 

* (Cardaria draba HOARY CRESS. Casual. Manderston 1892). 

* (Iberis amara WILD CANDYTUFT. Former introduction. Penmanshiel 

railway 1881. Tweedside near Coldstream 1834-1845). 

Thlaspi arvense FIELD PENNY-CRESS. Widespread and very 
occasionally plentiful. 

((Teesdalia nudicaulis SHEPHERD'S CRESS. No certain record. 
Considered absent)). 

Capsella bursa-pastoris SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Common. 

Cochlearia officinalis COMMON SCURVYGRASS. Common along 
the coast. 

C. danica DANISH SCURVYGRASS. Occasional on rocky shores. 
Lamberton. 

* Lunaria annua HONESTY. May become a weed in the garden but 

seldom escapes far. 

* Draba muralis WALL WHITLOWGRASS. Garden weed, Chapel-on- 

Leader 1963. 

Erophila vema COMMON WHITLOWGRASS. Common. 

* Armoracia rusticana HORSE-RADISH. A rare garden escape. Persists 

but does not spread. 

Cardamine pratensis CUCKOOFLOWER. Widespread and locally 
abundant. A useful indicator of unimproved grassland. A 
double flowered form may be induced by a gall. Fans 1987. 

C. amara LARGE BITTER-CRESS. Typical of alderwoods, in deans 
and by the Whiteadder. 

C. flexuosa WAVY BITTER-CRESS. Common. 

C. hirsuta HAIRY BITTER-CRESS. Common. Gardens and waste places. 

Barbarea vulgaris WINTER-CRESS. Widespread. Especially on river 
shingle. 

* B. intermedia MEDIUM FLOWERED WINTER-CRESS. Occasional. 

Similar places to the above. St. Thomas's Island 1987. 

* (B. vema AMERICAN WINTER-CRESS. Former rare casual. Last 

record 1922). 

21 



* Arabis caucasica GARDEN ARABIS. Garden escape on walls. 

A. hirsuta HAIRY ROCK-CRESS. Very local, base-rich rocks. Gateheugh. 

Nasturtium officinale (= Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum) WATER 
CRESS. Inadequately recorded, but apparently scarce 
though NTH Holmes recorded this as frequent, Whiteadder, 
Blackadder and Leet Water. 

N. microphyllum NARROW-FRUITED WATER-CRESS. Common. 

N. microphyllum x oflQcinale. A few records. 

Rorippa sylvestris CREEPING YELLOW-CRESS. Frequent by the 
Tweed and by ponds. 

R.palustris MARSH YELLOW-CRESS. Frequent by the Tweed and by 
ponds. 

((R. islandica. records refer to R. palustris)). 

* Hesperis matronalis DAME'S-VIOLET. Widespread, especially woods 

near rivers. First record 1831. 

* (Erysimum cheiranthoides TREACLE MUSTARD. A rare casual to 

1931). 

* Cheiranthus cheiri WALLFLOWER. Dryburgh 1987. (Formerly on 

walls at Edrington, Hume). 

AUiaria petiolata GARLIC MUSTARD. Common. 
Sisymbrium officinale HEDGE MUSTARD. Widespread. 

* (S. orientale EASTERN ROCKET. Rare Casual. Lighthouse garden St. 

Abbs Head 1981, two other records). 

Arabidopsis thaliana THALE CRESS. Gardens, waste places, rocky 
places. Gateheugh. 

* (Camelina saliva GOLD-OF-PLEASURE. A rare casual to 1931). 

(Descurainia sophia FLIXWEED. Rare casual. Cheeklaw House 1961, 
Duns 1953. Formerly occasional near the coast). 

RESEDACEAE 

Reseda luteola WELD. Very local. Whiteadder banks, Tweed banks, 
Eyemouth. 

* (R. lutea WILD MIGNONETTE. Rare casual. Chirnside 1962-68). 

VIOLACEAE 

* Viola odorata SWEET VIOLET. Policies and hedges. Long-established. 
V. hirta HAIRY VIOLET. Very local. Burnmouth, Lamberton, Ale 

Water, Gateheugh. 
V. riviniana COMMON DOG-VIOLET. Common. 
V. canina HEATH DOG-VIOLET. St. Abbs Head 1986. 
V. palustris MARSH VIOLET. Common in the hills. 
V. lutea MOUNTAIN PANSY. Very local, but some fine colonies. 

Lauder Common, Gordon, Hume Craigs, Greenlaw Kaims, 

Coldingham Loch. The purple-flowered form, frequent in 

Roxburghshire, is not recorded. 

22 



V. tricolor ssp. tricolor WILD PANSY. Scattered but uncommon. Birgham 

Wood 1985. 
V. arvensis FIELD PANSY. Common. 

POLYGALACEAE 

Polygala vulgaris COMMON MILKWORT. Local. Lumsdaine Shore, 

Burnmouth, West Foulden. 
P. serpyllifolia HEATH MILKWORT. Frequent in heathland. 

HYPERICACEAE 

Hypericum androsaemum TUTSAN. Woodland edges by the Tweed. 

Long-established . 
H. calycinum ROSE-OF-SHARON. Dunglass Dean 1878, 1956. Not 

well established. 
H. perforatum PERFORATE ST. JOHN'S-WORT. Frequent. 
H. maculatum ssp. obtusiusculum IMPERFORATE ST. JOHN'S-WORT. 

Earlston 1926, Newton Don 1938. Considered overlooked 

since. 
H. perforatum x maculatum (= H. x desetangsii) . Paxton 1984. 
H.tetrapterum SQUARE-STALKED ST. JOHN'S-WORT. Widespread. 
H. humifusum TRAILING ST. JOHN'S-WORT. Now rare, usually 

casual on tracks and uncultivated arable land. Six records 

1952-1989. 
H. pulchrum SLENDER ST. JOHN'S-WORT. Widespread, especially 

in the hills. 
H. hirsutum HAIRY ST. JOHN'S-WORT. On dry banks in and about 

lowland woods. An indicator of species-rich scrub. 

CISTACEAE 

Helianthemum nummularium (= H. chamaecistus) COMMON ROCK- 
ROSE. Widespread. Some fine colonies as Whalplaw 
Burn, Greenlaw Dean, St. Abbs Head and elsewhere on the 
coast. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE 

Silene dioica RED CAMPION. Common. Abundant in places on the 
coast and in woods facing south to the Tweed. 

S. alba WHITE CAMPION. Common. 

S. alba X dioica. Frequent. 

(S. noctiflora NIGHT-FLOWERING CATCHFLY. Considered extinct. 

Arable weed to 1971). 
S. vulgaris BLADDER CAMPION. Scattered in the lowlands. 
S. maritima SEA CAMPION. Frequent along the coast. St. Abbs Head, 

Linkim Shore. 
Lychnis flos-cuculi RAGGED-ROBIN. Widespread. Plentiful in the 

mosses. 

23 



(Agrostemma githago CORNCOCKLE. Considered extinct. "A showy 
but noxious weed" 1853. Last record 1902). 

Dianthus deltoides MAIDEN PEsTK. The few modest colonies together 
with those of Roxburghshire comprise about a sixth of the 
British population. Blinkbonny near Nenthorn, Hareheugh 
Craigs, Hume Mill, Stichill, Lumsdaine Shore. 

(Saponaria oflEicinalis SOAPWORT. Rare casual. Coldstream 1961). 

Cerastium arvense FIELD MOUSE-EAR. Limestone opposite Carham. 
Fishwick Mains. Formerly widespread. 

C. tomentosum SNOW-IN-SUMMER. Roadside walls near gardens. 
First record 1957. 

C. fontanum ssp. glabrescens (= C. holosteoides) COMMON MOUSE- 
EAR. Common. 

C. glomeratum STICKY MOUSE-EAR. Common. Tolerates reseeded 

grassland. 
C. difflisum (= C. tetrandrum) SEA MOUSE-EAR. Common along the 

coast, also on volcanic outcrops. Hume Craigs. 

C. semidecandrum LITTLE MOUSE-EAR. Rare by the coast and on 
volcanic outcrops. Near MUlars Moss, Hume Craigs. 

((Myosoton aquaticum WATER CHICKWEED. Three records all 
probable or certain errors)). 

SteUaria nemorum WOOD STITCHWORT. In woods by tiie waters 
edge, Tweed, Whiteadder. Typical of elm woods. 

S. media COMMON CHICKWEED. Common. 

S. paUida (= S. apetala) LESSER CHICKWEED. Greenheugh Point 

1979. 
((S. neglecta GREATER CHICKWEED. In wood by shore, Coldingham 

1956 correct?)). 

S.holostea GREATER STITCHWORT. Frequent. Typical of oak woods. 

S. palustris MARSH STITCHWORT. Approaching extinction. Gordon 
Moss, Lurgie Loch. 

S. graminea LESSER STITCHWORT. Common. 

S. alsine BOG STITCHWORT. Frequent. 

Sagina apetala ANNUAL PEARLWORT. Two subspecies occur: 

S. apetala ssp. apetala (= S. ciliata). St. Abbs Head 1987, Fancove 

Head 1960. 
S. apetala ssp. erecta (= S. apetala). Widespread but scarce. 
(S. maritima SEA PEARLWORT. No record since St. Abbs 1896. 

Perhaps overlooked). 
S. procumbens PROCUMBENT PEARLWORT. Common. 
(S. subulata HEATH PEARLWORT. Considered extinct. No record 

since roadside near Dowlaw 1893). 
S. nodosa KNOTTED PEARLWORT. Rare or overlooked. Greenlaw 

Moor 1962, Dye Water 1964. 



24 



Minuartiavema SPRING SANDWORT. St. Abbs Head, quite plentiful, 

on west-facing cliffs. 
Honkenya peploides SEA SANDWORT. Coastal, frequent. 
Moehringia trinervia THREE-NERVED SANDWORT. Scarce in old 

woodland. 
Arenaria serpyUifolia THYME-LEAVED SANDWORT. Widespread 

but scarce. 
(A. leptoclados SLENDER SANDWORT. No recent record but perhaps 

overlooked. Dryburgh 1910, Duns 1907). 

* A. balearica MOSSY SANDWORT. The Hirsel 1956, Cairnbank 1968. 
Spergula arvensis CORN SPURREY. Conimon. 

Spergularia rubra SAND SPURREY. Now very scarce. Bemersyde Hill 

1973. Old Cambus quarry 1963. 
S. media GREATER SEA-SPURREY. Coastal, rare. St. Abbs Head 

1977. 
S. marina LESSER SEA-SPURREY. Coastal, scarce. Reed Point 1984, 

Coldingham Bay 1981. 

Scleranthus annuus ANNUAL KNAWEL. On rocky outcrops, scarce. 
Hume Craigs, Hareheugh Craigs, Dowlaw Dean. 

PORTULACACEAE 

Montia fontana BLINKS. Three subspecies occur: 
M. fontana ssp. fontana. Common. 

M. fontana ssp. variabilis. Occasional, sandy tracks. Fans, 
Hallyburton. 

M. fontana ssp. chondrosperma. Hume Craigs. 

* M.perfoUata SPRING-BEAUTY. Coldingham Bay, Birgham. First record 

1937. 

* M.sibirica PINK PURSLANE. Frequent and locally abundant in woodland, 

accepting fairly dense conifers. First record 1936. 

CHENOPODIACEAE 

* Chenopodiumbonus-henricus GOOD-KING-HENRY. Well scattered. 

Long-established . 

* (C. polyspermum MANY-SEEDED GOOSEFOOT. Casual, Newton 

Don 1873). 

* (C. vulvaria STINKING GOOSEFOOT. Casual, Chirnside 1968-70). 
C. album FAT-HEN. Common. 

* (C. urbicum UPRIGHT GOOSEFOOT. Casual, The Hirsel 1831-33). 

* (C. rubrum RED GOOSEFOOT. Casual, Coldstream 1832). 

* (C. glaucum OAK-LEAVED GOOSEFOOT. Casual, Chirnside 1961, 

1968). 
((Atriplex littoralis GRASS-LEAVED ORACHE. No record, perhaps 

absent)). 
A. patula COMMON ORACHE. Common. 

25 



(A. prostrata (= A. hastata) SPEAR-LEAVED ORACHE. No recent 
records, but probably overlooked). 

A. glabriuscula BABINGTON'S ORACHE. Frequent along the coast. 

A. glabriuscula x longipes. Coldingham Bay 1977. 

A. laciniata FROSTED ORACHE. St. Abbs Head 1 977, Pease Bay 1 979. 

* (A. hortensis GARDEN ORACHE. Casual near Broomhouse 1967). 

(Salsola kali PRICKLY SALTWORT. Considered extinct. Lumsdaine 
and Coldingham Shores 1836). 

TILIACEAE 

* (TUia platyphyllos LARGE-LEAVED LIME. Planted only, rare). 

* (T. cordata SMALL-LEAVED LIME. Planted only, rare). 

* T. cordata X platyphyllos (=T.x vulgaris) LIME. Planted only, frequent. 

MALVACEAE 

Malva moschata MUSK MALLOW. Scattered, scarce. 

M. sylvestris COMMON MALLOW. Scattered, more frequent. 

M. neglecta DWARF MALLOW. Local and very scarce. Hume Castle 
1956. Pease Bay 1955, St. Abbs Head 1963. 

* (Lavatera arborea TREE-MALLOW. Casual, Coldingham Sands 1902). 

LINACEAE 

* (Linum usitatissimum FLAX. Former casual) . 

L. c^tharticum FAIRY FLAX. Widespread and locally plentiful. 
(Radiola linoides ALLSEED . Considered extinct. Birgham Moor, Dowlaw 
to 1916). 

GERANIACEAE 

Geranium pratense MEADOW CRANE'S-BILL. Frequent. A 
conspicuous species in old grassland near the rivers. A pale- 
flowered form is found by the Whiteadder. 

G. sylvaticum WOOD CRANE'S-BILL. Rather local in woodland edges 
in the hills. Langtonlees Cleugh, Longformacus, Abbey St. 
Bathans. 

* (G. versicolor PENCILLED CRANE'S-BILL. Rare casual, Duns 1931). 

* (G. phaeum DUSKY CRANE'S-BILL. Rare casual. Longformacus 1956, 

Duns 1953). 
G. sanguineum BLOODY CRANE'S-BILL. Burnmouth (Gateheugh 
1868). 

* G. pyrenaicum HEDGEROW CRANE'S-BILL. Scattered. Information 

inadequate. 
(G. columbinum LONG-STALKED CRANE'S-BILL. Considered 

extinct. Penmanshiel 1839). 
G. dissectum CUT-LEAVED CRANE'S-BILL. Widespread. 
G. moUe DOVE'S-FOOT CRANE'S-BILL. Common. 

26 



G. pusiUum SMALL-FLOWERED CRANE'S-BILL. Rare. Hume Castle 
1960, Ladykirk 1960. Mouth Bridge, Langton Burn 1949. 

G. lucidum SHINING CRANE'S-BILL. On rocks, Gateheugh, Stichill. 
On walls, Cockburnspath, Gordon, Greenlaw. 

G. robertianum HERB-ROBERT. Common. 

Erodiumcicutarium COMMON STORK' S-BILL. Widespread, mainly 
coastal. Pease Bay, mouth of Dunglass Burn. Occasional but 
perhaps casual inland, ssp dunense is recorded at Pease Bay. 

OXALIDACEAE 

Oxalis acetosella WOOD-SORREL. Common. A survivor, at home in 
plantations as well as ancient woodland. A fine pale pink 
form in Pease Dean. The emblem of the Berwickshire 
Naturalists Club. 

* O. corniculata PROCUMBENT YELLOW-SORREL. Longformacus, 

Duns, Swinton, Netherbyres but some of these records may 
relate to other yellow-sorrels. 

* O. exilis LEAST YELLOW-SORREL. Earlston 1987, Longformacus 

1989. 

BALSAMINACEAE 

* Impatiens glandulifera HIMALAYAN BALSAM. Locally plentiful. 

Whiteadder, Tweed, Redheugh Dean. First recorded 1936. 

ACERACEAE 

* Acer pseudoplatanus SYCAMORE. Common. Invades former elm 

woods as at Pease Dean. Long-established. 

* A. platanoides NORWAY MAPLE. Planted. Rarely naturalised in policy 

woodlands. 

* A. campestre FIELD MAPLE. Planted only. Occasional. 

HIPPOCASTANACEAE 

* Aesculus hippocastanum HORSE-CHESTNUT. Widely planted. 

AQUIFOLIACEAE 

Ilex aquifolium HOLLY. Widely planted. More local in deans as a native. 

CELASTRACEAE 

Euonymus europaeus SPINDLE. Rare. Gateheugh. Also planted in 
policy woodland. Manderston. (Formerly by the Whiteadder 
and Ale Waters, Lumsdaine Dean, Tower Dean, Pease 
Dean). 

BUXACEAE 

* Buxus sempervirens BOX. Planted in policy woodland. 



27 



RHAMNACEAE 

* (Rhamnus catharticus BUCKTHORN. Cockburnspath 1845). 

LEGUMINOSAE 

* (Lupinus arboreus TREE LUPIN. Casual. Coldingham 1957). 

* Laburnum anagyroides LABURNUM. Widely planted, sometimes 

naturalising. 
(Genista tinctoria DYER'S GREENWEED. Considered extinct. Birgham 

Wood to 1961). 
G. anglica PETTY WHIN. Very scarce. Lightfield, Gordon Common, 

Greenlaw Moor, Great Dirrington Law, Byrecleugh, Hogs 

Law. 
Ulex europaeus GORSE, WHIN. Common. Occasionally cut to a hedge. 
U. gaUii WESTERN GORSE. Rare. Not seen recently. Preston 1968, 

Soutra 1960, Hardens Hill 1959. ((Dunside Hill 1956)). 

Cytisus scoparius (= Sarothamnus scoparius) BROOM. Frequent. 
Ononis repens COMMON RESTHARROW. Local. Coldingham Bay, 

St. Abbs Head, Burnmouth, scaurs along the Whiteadder 

and Tweed. 

* (Medicago falcata ssp. sativa LUCERNE. Former casual to 1893). 
M. lupulina BLACK MEDICK. Widespread. 

* (M. minima SMALL MEDICK. Rare Wool-alien. Dryburgh 1946, 

Cumledge 1868). 

* (M. polymorpha TOOTHED MEDICK. Rare Wool-alien. Cumledge 

1956). 

* M. arabica SPOTTED MEDICK. Established in grassland near Birgham 

1983. (Cumledge 1956). 

* (Melilotus altissima TALL MELILOT. Rare casual to 1902, but some 

records may belong to M. officinalis). 

* (M. officinalis RIBBED MELILOT. Casual. Duns 1956, Cumledge 1962). 

* (M. alba WHITE MELILOT. Rare casual. Coldingham 1956). 

* (M. indica SMALL MELILOT. Rare, casual. Kelloe 1960). 
Trifolium dubium LESSER TREFOIL. Common. 

T. campestre HOP TREFOIL. Frequent. 

* T. hybridum ALSIKE CLOVER. Sometimes sown. Also occasional in 

waste places. 
T. repens WHITE CLOVER. Very common. 
(T. fragiferum STRAWBERRY CLOVER. Considered extinct. Edington 

Mill 1914, Gunsgreen 1893, near Pease Bay 1853). 
T. medium ZIGZAG CLOVER. Widespread but local in herb-rich 

grassland. 
T. arvense HARE'S-FOOT CLOVER. South of St. Abbs, plentiful. 

Lumsdaine Shore, Cockburn Ford, scarce. 



28 



(T. scabrum ROUGH CLOVER. Considered extinct. Harelaw Craigs 
casual 1960, Dunglass Dean 1916, Cockbumspath 1845). 

T. striatum KNOTTED CLOVER. Very scarce. St. Abbs Head, Hume 
Craigs, Hume Mill, Fishwick Mains. 

(T. incamatum CRIMSON CLOVER. Formerly occasionally grown as 

a crop, 1916). 
T. pratense RED CLOVER. Common, except in the hills. 

Anthyllis vulneraria KIDNEY VETCH . Locally frequent along the coast. 
Occasional on the banks of the Whiteadder. Rare elsewhere. 

Lotus corniculatus COMMON BIRD'S-FOOT-TREFOIL. Common. 

Typical of freely draining old grassland. 
(L. tenuis NARROW-LEAVED BIRD'S-FOOT-TREFOIL. Near 

Coldingham Loch 1836). 
L. uliginosus GREATER BIRD'S-FOOT-TREFOIL. Frequent. Typical 

of waterlogged old grassland. 

Astragalus danicus PURPLE MILK-VETCH. St. Abbs Head and other 
clifftop grassland. 

A. glycyphyUos WILD LIQUORICE. Very rare. Junction of Eye and Ale 
Waters 1978 (formerly on the coast and near Clarabad and 
Whitehall). 

(Omithopus perpusillus BIRD'S-FOOT. Casual, Foulden 1931). 

Vicia hirsuta HAIRY TARE. Widespread but not plentiful. 

V. tetrasperma SMOOTH TARE. Newton Quarry 1 98 1 . Arguably native. 

V. cracca TUFTED VETCH. Frequent. 

V. orobus WOOD BITTER- VETCH. Braes near Horseupcleuch (formerly 
in several other places. Dronshiel 1952, Grantshouse 1931, 
Byrecleugh 1929). 

V. sylvatica WOOD VETCH. Very locally plentiful. Burnmouth, Dowlaw 
Dean, braes by the Whiteadder in several places. 

V. sepium BUSH VETCH. Common. 

V. sativa COMMON VETCH. Three subspecies are now recognised: 

* V. sativa ssp. sativa. Inadequate information. (Former crop, 1 853). 

* Y. sativa ssp. segetalis (= V. angustifolia, in part). Inadequate 

information. Probable casual. 

V. sativa ssp. nigra (= V. angustifolia, in part) NARROW-LEAVED 
VETCH. Widespread but scarce, most frequent on the 
coast. Petticowick, Pease Bay. Coldingham Bay. 

V. lathyroides SPRING VETCH. Very local in rocky places. St. Abbs 
Head, Hume Craigs, Fishwick Mains, Pease Bay 1957. 

Lathyrus pratensis MEADOW VETCHLING. Frequent. 

L. sylvestris NARROW-LEAVED EVERLASTING-PEA. Cripple Nick 
near Hutton Castle Mill. First recorded 1833. Considered 
native. 

L. montanus BITTER VETCH. Widespread, moorland and acid 
woodland. Var. tenuifolius is occasionally found. 

29 



ROSACEAE 

Spiraea spp. BRIDEWORT. Planted in policies. The taxa involved have 
not been studied, but are unlikely to be 5. salicifolia, as 
recorded. 

(Filipendula vulgaris DROPWORT. Considered extinct. Belches Braes 
near Coldstream, Broomhouse Ford to 1893). 

F. ulmaria MEADOWSWEET. Common. 

Rubus chamaemorus CLOUDBERRY. Rare. In a few places at the head 
of the Dye Water, Rotten Cleugh. 

R. saxatilis STONE BRAMBLE. Very rare. Langtonlees Cleugh 1978. 
Possibly at Godscroft 1983 (formerly in a few other deans). 

R. idaeus RASPBERRY. Frequent. 

R. caesius DEWBERRY. Several scattered records. Probably correct in 
part but some confusion with microspecies of R. fniticostis is 
probable also. 

R. fruticosus BRAMBLE. Not very common except near the coast. 
Records for the following microspecies are accepted in 
Brambles of the British Isles, Edees and Newton 1988. 

R. fissus R. septentrionalis 

R. errabundus R. anisacanthos 

* R. laciniatus, 1st record 1973 R. drejeri 

R. leptothyrsos R. infestus 

R. amplificatus R. echinatoides 

R. lindebergii R. radula 

R. nemoralis R. dasyphyllus 

R. polyanthemus R. latifolius 

Potentilla palustris MARSH CINQUEFOIL. Widespread but local, e.g. 
Redpath Moss, Gordon Moss, Hen Poo. 

P. sterilis BARREN STRAWBERRY. Widespread. 

P. anserina SILVERWEED. Widespread. Roadsides, wet places. 

P. argentea HOARY CINQUEFOIL. Coldstream 1959. (Stichill Linn, 

now VC 80 only) . 
(P. recta SULPHUR CINQUEFOIL. Rare casual. Cleeckhimin, 

Carfraemill 1960). 
(P. tabernaemontani SPRING CINQUEFOIL. Considered extinct. 

Netherbyres Mill 1866). 

P. erecta TORMENTIL. Common. 

(P. anglica TRAILING TORMENTIL. Considered extinct. Swinton, 

Cockburnspath, Coldingham to 1916). 
P. reptans CREEPING CINQUEFOIL. Widespread but fairly scarce. 

Especially roadsides and railways. 
Fragaria vesca WILD STRAWBERRY. Widespread and occasionally 

abundant as at Birgham wood. 



30 



Geum urbanum WOOD AVENS. Widespread. 

G. rivale WATER AVENS. Widespread. 

G. rivale x urbanum (= G. x intermedium). Occasional. 

Agrimonia eupatoria AGRIMONY. Locally frequent. The Coast, banks 
by the Tweed and Whiteadder. 

((A. procera (= A. odorata) FRAGRANT AGRIMONY. No record. 
Probably overlooked)). 

* Aremonia agrimonoides BASTARD AGRIMONY. Duns 1916-1956, 

near White Hill Earlston 1969. 

Alchemilla vulgaris LADY'S-MANTLE. The following segregates are 
recorded: 

A. filicaulis ssp. vestita. In base-rich grassland, mainly upland. 

A. xanthochlora. Widespread in the lowlands. 

A. glabra. Widespread. 

* A. glaucescens. On ballast in disused railway cutting, Chirnside 
1982. 

Aphanes arvensis PARSLEY-PIERT. Two segregates occur: 

A. arvensis COMMON PARSLEY-PIERT. Widespread. 

A. microcarpa SLENDER PARSLEY-PIERT. Rocky or sandy 
places. 

Sanguisorba oflQcinalis GREAT BURNET. Bemersyde Moss (Lochton, 
Birgham, Ale Mill). 

S. minor ssp. minor (= Poterium sanguisorba) SALAD BURNET. 
Burnmouth (near Coldingham Bay 1973, near Coldingham 
Loch 1895, Ale Water 1868). 

* Acaena novae-zelandiae PIRRI-PIRRI-BUR. Gateheugh, The Hirsel, 

Paxton (Duns 1954). Other taxa may be included. First 
record 1911. 

* Rosa arvensis FIELD ROSE. Rare in hedges. Allanton, Leitholm, Eccles. 

R. pimpinellifolia BURNET ROSE. Very scarce. Burnmouth, 
Longformacus, Hareheugh Craigs, Airhouse Wood. 

* R. rugosa JAPANESE ROSE. Occasionally established on the coast. St. 

Abbs Head. First record 1969. 

R. canina (group) DOG ROSE. Newton Don, includes the following 
taxa: 

R. canina. Widespread. Segregates have not been studied. 

R. caesia. Recorded. Segregates have not been studied. 

R. tomentosa (group) DOWNY ROSE. Includes the following taxa: 

R. sherardii. Mainly towards the coast. 

R. mollis. Widespread. 

R. rubiginosa SWEET-BRIAR. Occasional, mainly towards the coast. 
Perhaps mainly as hybrids with R. tomentosa (group). 

((R. micrantha SMALL-FLOWERED SWEET-BRIAR. Skinlaws Toll 
between Greenknowe and Bassendean 1880. Correct?)). 

31 



Prunus spinosa BLACKTHORN, SLOE. Widespread. 

* P. domestica WILD PLUM. Planted occasionally in hedges. 

P. avium WILD CHERRY. Local in deans as a native. Planted more 
widely. 

* P. cerasus DWARF CHERRY. Planted. Rare. 

P. padus BIRD CHERRY. Local. Lumsdaine Dean, Grantshouse, Duns 
Castle, Longformacus, Langtonlees Cleugh, Leader Water. 

* P. laurocerasus CHERRY LAUREL. Planted. Rare. 

* P. lusitanica PORTUGAL LAUREL. Planted. Rare. 

* Cotoneaster simonsii HIMALAYAN COTONEASTER. Occasionally 

self-seeded. Gordon 1987. 

* C. horizontalis WALL COTONEASTER. Spottiswoode, 1987. 

* C.microphyUus SMALL-LEAVED COTONEASTER. Burnmouth, weU 

established. First record 1956. 

* Crataegus laevigata (= C. oxycanthoides) MIDLAND HAWTHORN. 

Planted. Rare. 

C. monogyna HAWTHORN. Common as a native and much planted. 

Sorbus aucuparia ROWAN. Widespread as a native by burns and much 
planted. 

* S. intermedia SWEDISH WHITEBEAM. Planted. St. Abbs Head. 

* S. aria COMMON WHITEBEAM. Planted. Occasional. 

S. rupicola ROCK WHITEBEAM. Gateheugh, first recorded 1874. 

* Malus sylvestris CRAB APPLE, SCROGS. Frequent in hedges. 

CRASSULACEAE 

Sedum rosea ROSEROOT. North-facing coastal rocks. St. Abbs Head, 
Westerside Dean, Dowlaw Dean. 

S.telephium ORPINE. Hirsel Law, Birgham Wood, probably 55p. le/ep/zmm. 
Gateheugh, ssp. fabaria. 

((S. anglicum ENGLISH STONECROP. No conclusive record. 
Cockburnspath Parish 1845)). 

* S. album WHITE STONECROP. Occasional. St. Abbs Head, Burnmouth, 

Coldingham, Gordon. First record 1902. 

S. acre BITING STONECROP. Especially rocky outcrops. Hume Craigs, 
St. Abbs Head, Dowlaw Dean. 

* (S. forsteranum ROCK STONECROP. Casual. Burnmouth 1897). 

* (S. reflexum REFLEXED STONECROP. Casual. Bassendean 1963). 

S. vUlosum HAIRY STONECROP. Very locally frequent in the hills. 
Soonhope Burn, Whalplaw Burn, Dye Water, Greenlaw 
Moor. 

* (Sempervivum tectorum HOUSE LEEK. Formerly on roofs in villages. 

Nisbet 1955). 



32 



SAXIFRAGACEAE 

(Saxifraga hirculus MARSH SAXIFRAGE. Extinct. First found in 
Scotland at Langtonlees Cleugh in 1832 by Rev. Thomas 
Brown. Destroyed by drainage soon after 1886). 

S. spathularis x umbrosa LONDON PRIDE. Occasionally naturalised 
in profusion. Longformacus. First record 1845. 

(S. cymbalaria CELANDINE SAXIFRAGE. Garden weed. Manderston 
1968). 

S. granulata MEADOW SAXIFRAGE. Widespread with some fine 
colonies. Rocky outcrops as Hume Craigs, St. Abbs Head. 
Sea braes as Lamberton. Woodland as Langton, Rathburne. 
A double-flowered form has been naturalised in woods at the 
Hirsel at least since 1909 and is now widespread there. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium OPPOSITE-LEAVED GOLDEN- 
SAXIFRAGE. Widespread, from sea braes to high 
moorland. 

C. alternifolium ALTERNATE-LEAVED GOLDEN-SAXIFRAGE. 

Frequent in deans and old woodland by rivers. Typical of elm 
woods. 

PARNASSIACEAE 

Pamassiapalustris GRASS-OF-PARNASSUS. Very local and decreasing. 
Plentiful north of Greenlaw Kaims. Small colonies Greenlaw 
Moor, Dye Water, Watch Water, Killmade Burn, Longmuir 
Moss, Coldingham Common. 

GROSSULARIACEAE 

Ribes rubrum (= R. sylvestre) RED CURRANT. Occasional in deans. 

R. nigrum BLACK CURRANT. Occasional in deans and mosses. Gordon 
Moss. 

R. sanguineum FLOWERING CURRANT. Occasionally naturalised. 
Langton woods 1963. 

R. alpinum MOUNTAIN CURRANT. OccasionaUy naturalised. Duns 
Castie woods. The Hirsel. 

R. uva-crispa GOOSEBERRY. Widespread in hedges and woodland. 

DROSERACEAE 

Drosera rotundifolia ROUND-LEAVED SUNDEW. Raised mosses and 
smaller areas of peat, Dogden Moss, Gordon Moss, Jordanlaw 
Moss, Long Moss. 

(D. anglica GREAT SUNDEW. Penmanshiel Moss on Coldingham Moor 
1828, never refound, habitat now destroyed). 

LYTHRACEAE 

LythrumsaUcaria PURPLE-LOOSESTRIFE. Coast south of Burnmouth 
1979. Gordon Moss (several CI 9 records). 



33 



L. portula (= Peplis portula) WATER-PURSLANE. Dowlaw Pond 1 960. 
Hen Poo 1958, HarelawCraigs 1955. (several C 19 records). 

THYMELAEACEAE 

* Daphne laureola SPURGE-LAUREL. Arguably native but long- 

established on woodland banks. Banks of Eye at junction 
with Ale Water, Edington Mill, Birgham, Norham Bridge, 
Gledswood. 

ELEAGNACEAE 

* Hippophae rhamnoides SEA-BUCKTHORN. Planted on the coast. 

Dunglass Burn, St. Abbs Head, Coldingham Bay, Pease Bay. 
First record 1839. 

ONAGRACEAE 

EpUobium hirsutum GREAT WILLOWHERB. Widespread. 

(E. hirsutum x parviflorum (= E. x intermedium). Dunglass Dean 1888). 

E. parviflorum HOARY WILLOWHERB. Occasional. 

E. montanum BROAD-LEAVED WILLOWHERB. Common. 

* E. ciliatum (= E. adenocaulon) AMERICAN WILLOWHERB. Few 

records but probably under-recorded. First record 1969. 

* (E. tetragonum SQUARE-STALBCED WILLOWHERB. Broomhouse 

1959. A few other records but the identity of at least some 
records are uncertain). 

E. obscurum SHORT-FRUITED WILLOWHERB. Frequent. 

E. palustre MARSH WILLOWHERB. Widespread. 

* E. brunnescens (= E. nerterioides) NEW ZEALAND WILLOWHERB. 

First found 1 958 by the Dye Water. Widespread by hill burns 
but perhaps now decreasing. 

Chamerion angustifolium (= Chamaenerion angustifolium) ROSEBAY 
WILLOWHERB. C19 very scarce. Dowlaw Dean, 
Redheugh, Clarabad, Birgham. Increased remarkably in the 
late 1920's, now common. 

* (Oenothera biennis COMMON EVENING-PRIMROSE. Planted Milne 

Graden 1831). 

* Fuchsia magellanica FUCHSIA. Several bushes in Dunglass Dean. 

Circaea lutetiana ENCHANTER'S-NIGHTSHADE. Frequent and 
locally dominant in woods and deans. 

C. alpina x lutetiana (= C. x intermedia) UPLAND ENCHANTER'S- 
NIGHSHADE. Possible records Godscroft 1983, 
Longformacus 1954. ((Dubious record The Hirsel 1985)). 

HALORAGACEAE 

MyriophyUumspicatiun SPIKED WATER-MILFOIL. LocaUy frequent, 
lowland. Tweed at Horndean and Carham, Whiteadder at 
Paxton, Manderston. 



34 



M. altemiflorum ALTERNATE WATER-MILFOIL. Locally frequent, 
mainly upland. Blackadder at Nisbet, Lurgie Loch 1965, 
Burn near Airhouse Quarry. 

HIPPURIDACEAE 
Hippuris vulgaris MARE'S-TAIL. Hirsel, Lithtillum Loch. 

CALLITRICHACEAE 

CaUitriche stagnalis COMMON WATER-STARWORT. Common. 

C.platycarpa VARIOUS-LEAVED WATER-STARWORT. HuleMoss 
1959, Spottiswoode Loch 1987, Middlethird Bog 1987. 

C. hamulata (= C. intermedia) INTERMEDIATE WATER- 
STARWORT. Eden Water 1987, Kelmscott 1987. 

C.hermaphroditica AUTUMNAL WATER-STARWORT. Rumbleton 
1987, St. Abbs Head 1985, Legerwood 1960, Sunwick 1965. 

CORNACEAE 

Cornus spp (= Thelycrania spp) DOGWOOD. Planted in policies. The 
taxa involved have not been studied, but it is likely that 
most records relate to C. sericea rather than C. sanguinea, as 
recorded. 

ARALIACEAE 

Hedera helix IVY. Widespread. 

H. hibernica cv. 'Hibernica' IRISH IVY. Frequent. Often carpeting the 
ground in policy woodland. Long-established. 

UMBELLIFERAE 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris MARSH PENNYWORT. Occasional. Gordon 
Moss, Coldingham Moor 1953. 

Sanicula europaea SANICLE. Widespread in deans and old woodland. 
In carr on Long Moss and Drone Moss. 

(Astrantia major ASTRANTIA. Casual. Longformacus 1961). 

Chaerophyllum temulentum ROUGH CHERVIL. Widespread. 

(Anthriscus caucalis BUR CHERVIL. Newton Don 1893. "Roadsides, 
common" 1853. Correct?) 

A. sylvestris COW PARSLEY. Common. 

(Scandix pecten- veneris SHEPHERD'S-NEEDLE. Once common, now 

very rare from dormant seed. Ross 1960, Swinton 1956, 

Foulden 1951). 

MjTrrhis odorata SWEET CICELY. Occasional. Mainly roadsides, less 
frequent by rivers than in Roxburghshire. Long-established. 

(Smyrnium olusatrum ALEXANDERS. Dunglass 1777, 1931). 

Conopodium majus PIGNUT. Widespread. Persists despite nitrogen 
fertiliser to indicate unploughed ancient hay meadows. 



35 



Pimpinella saxifraga BURNET-SAXIFRAGE. Widespread. Charac- 
teristic of species-rich grassy banks. 

* Aegopodiumpodagraria GROUND-ELDER. Common. Now integrated 

into the woodland flora. 

(Slum latifolium GREATER WATER-PARSNIP. Considered extinct. 
Lithtillum Loch 1950, Allanton 1893, St. Abbs Head 1829). 

Berula erecta LESSER WATER-PARSNIP. Plentiful in the upper 
Blackadder and tributory burns, rare elsewhere. St. Abbs 
Head, Lithtillum Burn, Horndean Burn. 

((Oenanthe lachenaUii PARSLEY WATER-DROPWORT. Dubious 
record 1893 near Manderston)). 

O. crocata HEMLOCK WATER-DROPWORT. Scarce. Small burns 
on the coast, Tweed, Whiteadder. 

(O. aquatica FINE-LEAVED WATER-DROPWORT. Considered 
extinct. Fernyrig Bog, Hirsel Lake, Lithtillum Loch to 1 845) . 

Aethusa cynapium FOOL'S PARSLEY. Occasional as a garden weed. 

Very occasionally plentiful in root fields. 
SUaum silaus PEPPER-SAXIFRAGE. Rare. Skaithmuir 1 982, Bemersyde 

Moss 1978, Nenthorn 1964, Haigsfield 1956. 
Ligusticum scoticum SCOTS LOVAGE. Scarce on the coast. St. Abbs 

Head, Eyemouth, Burnmouth. Noted by William Crow 

1740. 
Conium maculatum HEMLOCK. Frequent near the coast and near the 

Tweed. Occasional elsewhere. 
(Apium nodiflorum FOOL'S WATER-CRESS. "Ditches and rivulets, 

frequent" 1853. Five records in the 1960's are all believed 

errors for Berula erecta. Possibly survives somewhere). 

A. inundatum LESSER MARSHWORT. Very local and scarce. Lightfield 
1988. Legerwood 1960. Horndean 1960. Foul Burn Bridge 
1960. 

* Petroselinum crispum GARDEN PARSLEY. Burnmouth since 1897, 

Tweed bank opposite Wark 1 966. The namralised form does 

not have crisped leaves. 
(Sison amomum STONE PARSLEY. Considered extinct. Hirsel Lake 

1834 plentiful, casual Duns 1931). 
Cicuta virosa COWBANE. Everett Moss 1987, plentiful. 
Angelica sylvestris WILD ANGELICA. Widespread. 

* (Levisticum oflQcinale LOVAGE. Casual. Langton 1959). 

* (Peucedanum ostruthium MASTERWORT. Casual. Longformacus 

1957). 

* Pastinaca sativa WILD PARSNIP. Lamberton railway 1980. (Casual. 

Duns 1969). 
Heracleum sphondylium HOGWEED. Common. 

* H. mantegazzianum GIANT HOGWEED. Some massive colonies by 

the Tweed, extending through woodland. Also by the 
Whiteadder and near Coldingham. First record 1947. 

36 



* H. mantegazzianum x sphondylium. Paxton, Edington Mill 1982. 
Torilis japonica UPRIGHT HEDGE-PARSLEY. Widespread. 

* (T. arvenis SPREADING HEDGE-PARSLEY. Casual. Duns 1933). 
T. nodosa KNOTTED HEDGE-PARSLEY. St. Abbs Head. 
Daucus carota WILD CARROT. Now rare. Paradise 1961. Butterlaw 

and Edrom 1956. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE 

* (Asarumeuropaeum ASARABACCA. Casual. Leader at Cowdenknowes 

1916). 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Mercurialis perennis DOG'S MERCURY. Common in woods, usually 
indicating ancient woodland. 

* (Euphorbia lathyrus CAPER SPURGE. Casual. Swinton 1951). 
E. helioscopia SUN SPURGE. Frequent arable weed. 

E. peplus PETTY SPURGE. Frequent garden weed. 

(E. exigua DWARF SPURGE. Considered extinct. Occasional to 1900. 
Longformacus 1946-52, but apparently encouraged as a 
garden weed by a botanist, Miss Brown) . 

* (E. esula LEAFY SPURGE. Birgham Haugh 1831-1916, Reston 1836). 

* (E. cyparissias CYPRESS SPURGE. Broomhill 1956). 

POLYGONACEAE 

Polygonum aviculare KNOTGRASS. The following segregates occur: 
P. aviculare. Common. 
P. arenastrum. Frequent. Trodden places. 

* P. bistorta COMMON BISTORT. Scattered. Westruther churchyard, 

Wedderburn, Redpath Dean. First record 1853. 
P.amphibium AMPHIBIOUS BISTORT. Widespread both aquatic and 

terrestrial forms. 
P. persicaria REDSHANK. Common. 
(P. lapathifolium PALE PERSICARLA. No reliable recent records, perhaps 

overlooked, "not uncommon" 1853, sometimes confused 

with the white-flowered form of P. persicaria) . 
P. hydropiper WATER-PEPPER. Occasional. Tweed banks, Greenlaw 

Moor. 

* Reynoutria japonica (= Polygonum cuspidatum) JAPENESE 

KNOTWEED. Frequent. Policy woodland, banks of 
Tweed, Whiteadder, Eye. First record 1960. 

* R.sachalinensis(=P.sachalinense) GIANT KNOTWEED. Duns Castle, 

Newton Don. First record 1960. 
Fallopia convolvulus (= Polygonum convolvulus) BLACK- 
BINDWEED. Frequent. 



37 



* F. aubertii (= P. baldschuanicum) RUSSIAN-VINE. Burnmouth 1959. 

* Rheum x cultonim RHUBARB. Relic of cultivation. 

Rumex acetosella SHEEP'S SORREL. Common. The segregates have 
not been studied. 

R. acetosa COMMON SORREL. Common. 

R. hydrolapathum WATER DOCK. *Mellerstain Lake 1982, (Gordon 
Moss 1916, Lochton 1883). 

* (R. alpinus MONK'S RHUBARB. East Water, Lauderdale 1874). 

(R. longifolius NORTHERN DOCK. Kyles Hill 1970, Lithtillum Loch 
1955. Status uncertain, but perhaps overlooked). 

R. crispus CURLED DOCK. Common. 

R. obtusifolius BROAD-LEAVED DOCK. Common. 

R. sanguineus WOOD DOCK. Frequent, always var. viridis. 

R. conglomeratus CLUSTERED DOCK. Occasional. 

R. palustris MARSH DOCK. Legerwood Pond 1960. 

R. maritimus GOLDEN DOCK. Lithtillum Loch 1872-1952. 

URTICACEAE 

* Parietariajudaica PELLITORY-OF-THE-WALL. On old walls, mainly 

lower Tweed. Long-established. 

Urtica urens SMALL NETTLE. Rather local. 
U. dioica STINGING NETTLE. Common. 

CANNABACEAE 

* (Humulus lupulus HOP. Usually single plants. Dunglass 1985, Harrietfield 

1981). 

ULMACEAE 

Ulmus glabra WYCH ELM. Widespread, formerly dominant in deans 
but now decimated by Dutch elm disease and perhaps soon 
to be reduced to an undershrub. 

* U. procera ENGLISH ELM. Planted. Occasional, also decimated by 

Dutch elm disease. 

JUGLANDACEAE 

* Juglans regia WALNUT. Planted. Rare. 

MYRICACEAE 

* (Myrica gale BOG MYRTLE. Spottiswoode Loch 1953). 

BETULACEAE 

* Betula pendula SILVER BIRCH. Widespread. Doubtfully native in 

Berwickshire. 
B. pubescens DOWNY BIRCH. Widespread. Birchwoods are now rare. 
Gordon Moss, Airhouse Wood, fragments at Flass Wood, 
Longformacus. 

38 



Alnus glutinosa ALDER. Widespread. Alderwoods are now rare. Abbey 
St. Bathans, Hoprigshiels. 

CORYLACEAE 

* Carpinus betulus HORNBEAM. Planted. Occcasional. 

Corylus avellana HAZEL. Local in woods and deans. There are few 
sizeable stands. 

FAGACEAE 

* Fagus sylvatica BEECH. Widely planted. Regenerating frequently. 

* Castanea sativa SWEET CHESTNUT. Planted. Occasional. 

* Quercus cerris TURKEY OAK. Planted. Occasional. 

Q. robur PEDUNCULATE OAK. Widely planted. Status as a native 
uncertain. Regenerating rarely. 

Q. petraea SESSILE OAK. The native oakwoods appear to have been 
mainly of this species as at Abbey St. Bathans, Pease Dean, 
Grantshouse, Gateheugh. It is also planted. Now regenerating 
rarely for various reasons including a shortage of jays. 

SALICACEAE 

* Populus alba WHITE POPLAR. Planted but forming groves by suckers. 

Scarce. 

* P. alba X tremula (= P. x canescens) GREY POPLAR. Planted. Rare. 

P. tremula ASPEN. Very scarce, forming groves by suckers. Gordon 
Moss, Flass, Rathburne, Aikyside Wood, Lamberton Cliffs. 

* P. nigra BLACK POPLAR. Planted. Rare. Antons Hill, (New Horndean 

1987). 

* P. nigra cv. 'Italica' LOMBARDY POPLAR. Planted. Scarce. 

* P. deltoidea x nigra (= P. x canadensis) ITALIAN POPLAR. Planted. 

Scarce. 

* P. candicans (= P. x gileadensis) BALSAM POPLAR. Planted. Scarce. 

The treatment of Salix is simplified. Many of the specimens met with 
have been taken from cuttings and include introductions and varieties. 
There are also hybrids other than those listed. 

Salix pentandra BAY WILLOW. Scarce. Gordon Moss, Lurgie Loch, 
Longmuir Moss. 

S. alba WHITE WILLOW. Widespread. Mainly planted but probably 
formerly native in similar places. 

* S. babylonica WEEPING WILLOW. Planted occasionally in policies. 

Hen Poo. 

* S.fragUis CRACK WILLOW. Widespread. Mainly planted and including 

varieties. 

* S. triandra ALMOND WILLOW. Planted. Rare. 

S. purpurea PURPLE WILLOW. Frequent. Leaderfoot, Tweed, 
Whiteadder, Blackadder. Perhaps planted at Middlethird 
Bog. 

39 



* S. daphnoides VIOLET WILLOW. Planted. Rare. 

* S. viminalis OSIER. Scattered. Mainly planted. 

S . caprea ssp. caprea GOAT WILLOW. Widespread. Especially wooded 
deans. 

S. cinerea ssp. oleifolia (= S. atrocinerea) GREY WILLOW. Common. 
In deans, by burns and in mosses. There is some colour 
variation. 

S. aurita EARED WILLOW. Widespread. Mainly upland. 

S. aurita x cinerea (= S. x multinervis) . Gordon Moss, Watch Water. 

S. myrsinifolia (= S. nigricans) DARK-LEAVED WILLOW. Gordon 
Moss. The specimens seen recently key to 5. myrsinifolia x 
phylicifolia. 

S. phylicifolia TEA-LEAVED WILLOW. Longmuir Moss. Wrunklaw 
Burn, (Gordon Moss 1971 but see 5. myrsinifolia). 

S. repens ssp. repens CREEPING WILLOW. Very local. Gordon Moss, 
Polwarth Moss, Long Moss, Lurgie Loch, Everett Moss (var. 
fused) . 

ERICACEAE 

* Rhododendron ponticum RHODODENDRON. Widely planted and 

locally naturalised. 

(Arctostaphylos uva-ursi BEARBERRY. Considered extinct. Dirrington 
Great Law to 1858). 

Calluna vulgaris HEATHER. The best moors are up the Dye Water and 
at Greenlaw Moor. Much lowland moorland continues to be 
lost to agriculture and forestry. 

Erica tetralix CROSS-LEAVED HEATH. Frequent in the hills and 
locally plentiful on peat. 

E. cinerea BELL HEATHER. Locally dominant in the Lammermuirs, 
also on the sea braes. 

Vaccinivimvitis-idaea COWBERRY. Rather scarce in moorland especially 
on the highest ground. Gateheugh. 

V. myrtillus BLAEBERRY, BILBERRY. In the more acid woodland and 

on the hills, rarely abundant. 
V. oxycoccos CRANBERRY. Very local. Long Moss, plentiful, Dogden 

Moss, Drone Moss, Lurgie Loch, Corsbie Bog. 

PYROLACEAE 

Pyrola minor COMMON WINTERGREEN. Very local. Duns Castle, 

Birgham Wood, Retreat Wood, Silverwells, Gordon Moss, 

Long Moss. 
(P. media INTERMEDIATE WINTERGREEN. Considered extinct. 

Dirrington Great Law, Penmanshiel Wood, Abbey St. 

Bathans. Last record 1914). 



40 



(P. rotundifolia ROUND-LEAVED WINTERGREEN. Considered 
extinct but possibly recorded in error. Houndwood and 
Banks of the Ale 1836). 

EMPETRACEAE 

Empetrum nigrum ssp. nigrum CROWBERRY. Rather scarce on 
moorland, also on the sea braes. Dogden Moss, Lamberton. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE 

Armeria maritima THRIFT. Locally plentiful along the coast. St. Abbs 
Head. 

PRIMULACEAE 

Primula veris COWSLIP. Local along the coast, very scarce inland. St. 
Abbs Head, Burnmouth, The Hirsel, Magdalenehall. 

P. veris x vulgaris (= P. x tommasinni) FALSE OXLIP. Occasional. 

P. vulgaris PRIMROSE. Widespread with fine colonies on the coast, up 

the Whiteadder and in the hills. 
P. florindae CANDELABRA PRIMULA. Naturalised on tiie sea braes at 

Redheugh. First record 1981. 

Lysimachia nenmorum YELLOW PIMPERNEL. Frequent in woodland 
on more acid soils and by burns in the hills. 

L. nummularia CREEPING JENNY. Probably not native. Occasionally 
established by rivers and roadsides. First record 1834. 

L. vulgaris YELLOW LOOSESTRIFE. Former rare native (Swinton, 
Pease Dean). Now a scarce established introduction by the 
Tweed. Paxton, Fishwick Mains. 

Trientalis europaea CHICKWEED WINTERGREEN. Rare in mires 
and moorland. Long Moss, Drone Moss, Blackburnrig 
Wood, (Hartside 1902). 

(Anagallis tenella BOG PIMPERNEL. Considered extinct. Crawboat 
Loch, near Springhill, abundant, 1853). 

A. arvensis. Two subspecies are recorded: 

A. arvensis ssp. arvensis SCARLET PIMPERNEL. A scarce weed 

of light soils, also on coastal scree. St. Abbs Head, Dowlaw 

Dean. 
(A. arvensis ssp. foemina BLUE PIMPERNEL. Three C19 

records. Eyemouth, Duns, St. Abbs). 
(A. minima CHAFFWEED. Considered extinct. Birgham Moor to 1 845) . 
Glaux maritima SEA-MILKWORT. Local along the coast. Linkim Shore, 

Cove Harbour. 
(Samolus valerandi BROOKWEED. Considered extinct. Gunsgreen to 

1924, Fernyrig Bog to 1845). 

BUDDLEJACEAE 

Buddleja davidii BUTTERFLY-BUSH. Established about towns. 
Eyemouth. 

41 



OLEACEAE 

Fraxinus excelsior ASH. Probably rather local as a native. Pease Dean. 
Widely planted and regenerating. 

* Syringa vulgaris LILAC. Planted in policy woodland, perpetuated by 

suckers. 

* Ligustrum vulgare WILD PRIVET, widely planted and persisting, 

occasionally naturalised. 

* L. ovalifolium GARDEN PRIVET. Planted and persisting. Rare. 

APOCYNACEAE 

* Vinca minor LESSER PERPOC^INKLE. Well naturalised in woods and 

shady banks in a few places. 

* V. major GREATER PERIWINKLE. Occasionally established. 

Burnmouth, Ale Water. A fine colony is naturalised on rocks 
above the Tweed at Fishwick Mains. 

* V. herbacea. Established at Hutton Bridge from 1984. 

GENTIANACEAE 

Centaurium erythraea COMMON CENTAURY. Formerly quite 
widespread, now very scarce on the coast, and on banks by 
the Whiteadder. St. Abbs Head, Cove. (Paxton 1956). 

(Gentianella campestris FIELD GENTIAN. Almost or quite extinct. 

Horseupcleugh 1968, Godscroft 1953, formerly on the 

coast) . 
(G. amarella ssp. amarella AUTUMN GENTIAN. Almost or quite 

extinct. Dye Cottage 1956, Lamberton Shiels 1853). 

MENYANTHACEAE 

Menyanthes trifoliata BOGBEAN. Suitable habitat is scarce. Bemersyde 
Moss, Gordon Moss, Hen Poo, Lurgie Loch, Coldingham 
Loch. 

* (Nymphoides peltata FRINGED WATER-LILY. Former introduction. 

Hen Poo 1840-81, Foulden New Mains 1840). 

POLEMONIACEAE 

* (Polemoniumcaeruleum(agg.) JACOB'S-LADDER. Rare casual, garden 

escape). 

BORAGINACEAE 

(Cynoglossum officinale HOUND' S-TONGUE. Extinct or almost so, 
formerly scarce near the cost. Linkim Shore 1956). 

(Symphytum officinale COMMON COMFREY. Status uncertain. 
Several records 1831-1893 but a specimen 1853 Dunglass 
Dean is in fact 5. x iiplandiciim) . 

* S. asperum x officinale (= S. x uplandicum) RUSSIAN COMFREY. 

Frequent, roadsides and riversides. First record 1853. 

* S. orientale WHITE COMFREY. Birgham 1983. 
42 



S. tuberosum TUBEROUS COMFREY. Frequent by riversides, perhaps 
introduced elsewhere. 

(Borago oflBcinalis BORAGE. Considered extinct. Fields at Hallydown 
1829-36, Newton Don 1893). 

Trachystemon orientalis ABRAHAM-ISAAC-JACOB. Introduction. 
Milne Graden Burn 1965. 

Pentaglottis sempervirens GREEN ALKANET. Emanating from 
policies, but widely naturalised. 

Anchusa arvensis (=Lycopsis arvensis) BUGLOSS. Widespread, most 
common near the coast. 

(A. officinalis COMMON ALKANET. Rare casual, garden escape). 

(Nonnea puUa. Casual. Cheeklaw 1958). 

(Pulmonaria longifolia NARROW-LEAVED LUNGWORT. Pease Bay 
1886, status conjectural. Casual Berrywell 1946). 

P. officinalis LUNGWORT. Inadequate information. Pulmonaria spp. are 
well naturalised at Longformacus House. 

Amsinckia intermedia TARWEED. Occasional. A recent introduction 
mainly as an arable weed, also Tweed banks at Fishwick 
Mains, Municipal bed at Duns. First record 1983. 

Myosotis scorpiodes WATER FORGET-ME-NOT. Widespread. 

M. secunda CREEPING FORGET-ME-NOT. Occasional in the richer 
communities by hiU burns. Byrecleugh, Foul Burn, Whalplaw 
Burn. 

M. laxa (= M. caespitosa) TUFTED FORGET-ME-NOT. Common. 

M. sylvatica WOOD FORGET-ME-NOT. Mainly introduced. 
Widespread in policy woodland and somewhat more widely. 
Langton, Duns Castle, The Hirsel, Paxton. 

M. arvensis FIELD FORGET-ME-NOT. Generally common. Two 
subspecies occur: 

M. arvensis ssp. arvensis. Mainly on arable land. 

M. arvensis ssp. umbrata. The larger plant of woods and hedgebanks, 
frequently mistaken for M. sylvatica, a problem long recognised 
(G.Johnston 1853). 

M. discolor CHANGING FORGET-ME-NOT. Widespread, but only 

occasionally plentiful. 
M. ramosissima EARLY FORGET-ME-NOT. Very local and decreasing. 

Mainly coastal, inland on basalt. St. Abbs Head, Pease Bay, 

Hume Craigs. 
(Lithospermum officinale COMMON GROMWELL. Former casual. 

Dryburgh Abbey CI 9). 
(L. arvense FIELD GROMWELL. Considered extinct except as a rare 

casual, formerly common in cornfields. Near Union Bridge 

1956). 
(Mertensia maritima OYSTERPLANT. Considered extinct despite its 

reappearance on the East Lothian coast in 1989. Formerly 

scarce in several bays along the coast to 1914). 

43 



Echium vulgare VIPER'S-BUGLOSS. Local and scarce. Scaurs on banks 
of the Whiteadder, junction of Eye and Ale Waters, Birgham, 
Gateheugh. 

CONVOLVULACEAE 

Convolvulus arvensis FIELD BINDWEED. Scattered. Usually in isolated 
colonies but rather more widespread near the coast. 

Calystegia sepium. Three subspecies occur and are often treated as 
separate species: 

C. sepium ssp. sepium HEDGE BINDWEED. Widespread. 

* C. sepium ssp. pulchra HAIRY BINDWEED. Occasional. Reston 

1981, Lintlaw School 1982. 

* C. sepium ssp. sUvatica LARGE BINDWEED. Occasional. 

Lennel, Coldstream. First record 1957. 

(Cuscuta campestris AN AMERICAN DODDER. Casual on leeks, 
Coldingham 1959). 

SOLANACEAE 

(Hyoscyamus niger HENBANE. Casual, formerly occasional, now rare. 
Cockburnspath 1956). 

Solaniun dulcamara BITTERSWEET. Very scarce. In deans and mosses 
also in ruderal habitats, Hirsel Lake, Duns. 

(S. nigrum BLACK NIGHTSHADE. Rare Casual. Chimside 1972, Nisbet 

1956). 
(S. tuberosum POTATO. Agricultural relic, not persisting for long). 

(Lycopersicon esculentum TOMATO. Casual, especially on shingle in 
the Tweed, not persisting). 

(Datura stramonium THORN-APPLE. Casual. Ayton 1959). 

SCROPHULARIACEAE 

Verbascum thapsus GREAT MULLEIN. Scattered but erratic. 
(V. nigrum DARK MULLEIN. Rare casual. Ellemford 1936). 
(V. blattaria MOTH MULLEIN. Rare casual. Elba 1952). 
(Antirrhinum majus SNAPDRAGON. Casual. One unlocalised record 
1960). 

Linaria purpurea PURPLE TOADFLAX. Very scarce on walls and 
wasteground. Gavinton 1960. Old railway near Airhouse 
Wood 1964 

(L. repens PALE TOADFLAX. Casual. One unlocalised record 1960). 

L. vulgaris COiVlMON TOADFLAX. Scattered. Spread in the C19 
along railways and survives in places where they passed. 

Chaenorhinum minus SMALL TOADFLAX. Virtually restricted to 
railway ballast. First record 1829, now decreasing with its 
habitat. 

Cymbalaria muralis IVY-LEAVED TOADFLAX. Widespread on 
mortared walls around buildings. First record 1853. 



44 



Scrophularia nodosa COMMON FIGWORT. Widespread. 

S. auriculata (= S. aquatica) WATER FIGWORT. Rare. Birgham 1960. 
(Formerly by the Whiteadder at Clarabad and Tibby Fowlers 
Glen, at Nenthorn and Newton Don. Possible records The 
Hirsel 1985, Longformacus 1957). 

S. umbrosa GREEN FIGWORT. Locally common. Known by the 
Whiteadder since 1850 but by the Tweed only since 1960. 
Bemersyde Moss, Bishops Bog. Berwickshire has perhaps 
the largest British population of this species. 

(S. vemalis YELLOW FIGWORT. Casual. Lauderdale 1902). 

Mimulus guttatus MONKEYFLO WER. Widespread in bums and ditches . 
Whalplaw Burn from 1844. 

M. guttatus X luteus. Widespread in burns and ditches. First record 1872 
by the Tweed. Most or all records of M. luteus refer to this 
hybrid. 

(M. luteus BLOOD-DROP-EMLETS. Status uncertain due to confusion 
with hybrids). 

M. cupreus x guttatus A COPPER-COLOURED MONKEYFLOWER. 

Kelphope Burn 1985, West Blanerne 1968, Cockburn Mill 
1956. 

(M. moschatus MUSK. Casual. Blanerne 1970). 

Erinus alpinus FAIRY FOXGLOVE. On mortared walls, rare. Gledswood 
1981, Manderston 1946. 

Digitalis purpurea FOXGLOVE. Common on banks and in woodland 
where the geology is Silurian or volcanic but rare over 
calciferous sandstone. White-flowered plants are rare in 
native populations but are sometimes plentiful where inter- 
breeding with garden populations can be inferred as at Duns 
Castle. 

Veronica beccabunga BROOKLIME. Widespread. 

V. anagallis-aquatica BLUE WATER-SPEEDWELL. Widespread. 

V. catenata PINK WATER-SPEEDWELL. Very local. The upper 
Blackadder Water and the Fangrist Burn, Eden Water near 
Macks Mill, Whiteadder. 

V. scutellata MARSH SPEEDWELL. Scattered, mainly upland. 

V. ofTicinalis HEATH SPEEDWELL. Widespread. 

V. montana WOOD SPEEDWELL. Local. Characteristic of ancient elm 
woods but colonising under ash and sycamore. Pease Dean, 
Langton Woods, Paradise. 

V. chamaedrys GERMANDER SPEEDWELL. Common. 

V. serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia THYME-LEAVED SPEEDWELL. 
Common. In grassland and as an arable weed. 

V. peregrina AMERICAN SPEEDWELL. Newton Don 1873, 1990. A 
weed of sheltered gardens. Perhaps elsewhere. 

V. arvensis WALL SPEEDWELL. Common. 



45 



V. hederifolia IVY-LEAVED SPEEDWELL. Frequent. Two subspecies 
are present but have been little studied: 

* V. hederifolia ssp. hederifolia. Usually on sandy arable land. Duns. 
Perhaps introduced. 

V. hederifolia ssp. lucorum. Usually in more shady places. Cockburn 

Mill. 

* V. persica COMMON FIELD-SPEEDWELL. Common. First recorded 

1829. 

V. polita GREY FIELD-SPEEDWELL. Very local. Recent records have 
been as a weed in gardens of old houses. Longformacus, 
Westruther, Newton Don. 

V. agrestis GREEN FIELD-SPEEDWELL. Local. Mainly as a weed in 
gardens of old houses, but also as an arable weed about old 
villages. 

* V. filiformis SLENDER SPEEDWELL. Widespread and locally abundant, 

in mown grass and by rivers. The C19 records were errors 
for V. persica, first record 1953. 

Pedicularis palustris MARSH LOUSEWORT. Scattered in mooriand. 

P. sylvatica LOUSEWORT. Scattered in moorland. Less frequent than P. 
palustns. 

Rhinanthus minor YELLOW RATTLE. Widespread, but declining severely 
and rarely now found in any quantity. The segregates have 
not been studied. 

Melampyrum pratense COMMON COW- WHEAT. Retreat Wood, Elba 
and Wild Wood, Abbey St. Bathans. Probably still elsewhere 
in ancient oak woods as at Grantshouse. 

((M. sylvaticum SMALL COW-WHEAT. Banks by Dye above 
Longformacus 1831 but by 1916 demonstrated to be an 
error for M. pratense)). 

Euphrasia oflBcinalis EYEBRIGHT. The following segregates are recorded. 
They are interfertile and may grade into one another. 

E. nemorosa. Frequent in hill grassland. 

E. arctica ssp. borealis (= E. brevipila). Frequent in hill grassland. 

E. confusa. Frequent in hill grassland. 

E. micrantha. Heather moorland. 

E. scottica. Byrecleuch 1960. 

Odontites verna RED BARTSIA. Widespread, but declining. 

OROBANCHACEAE 

Lathraea squamaria TOOTHWORT. Very local. Gledswood, opposite 
Carham, Lennel, Milne Graden, Paxton, Retreat. 

* L. clandestina PURPLE TOOTHWORT. Naturalised at Duns Castle 

since 1962. 



46 



LENTIBULARIACEAE 

Pinguicula vulgaris COMMON BUTTERWORT. Very local. In basic 
flushes in moorland and on the coast. Burnmouth 1979. 

(Utricularia vulgaris GREATER BLADDERWORT. Considered extinct. 
Below Allanton Bridge 1902, Fernyrig Bog 1845, Girtrig 
Pond near Langton 1831, Leitholm Loch). 

(U. intermedia INTERMEDIATE BLADDERWORT. Considered extinct. 
Penmanshiel Moss, Langstruther Bog, Lurgie Loch 1853). 

(U. minor LESSER BLADDERWORT. Considered extinct. Gordon Moss 
1974, Penmanshiel Moss 1886, Langstruther Bog 1839). 

VERBENACEAE 

* (Verbena ofBcinalis VERVAIN. Former casual. Near Norham 1878, 

Cockburnspath 1836). 

LABIATAE 

* (Mentha pulegium PENNYROYAL. Former casual. Near Auchencrow 

1853). 

M. arvensis CORN MINT. Allanton 1986. Formerly widespread and 
although now very scarce probably elsewhere. 

M. aquatica WATER MINT. Common. 

M. aquatica x arvensis (= M. x verticillata) WHORLED MINT. Occasional. 
Lennel 1968. 

* M. aquatica x spicata (= M. x piperita) PEPPERMINT. Occasional. 

* M. spicata SPEARMINT. Occasional. 

* M. spicata xsuaveolens(=M.xvillosa) LARGE APPLE-MINT. Plentiful 

by the Whiteadder downstream from Allanton and by the 
Blackadder below Blanerne from 1833, Pease Bay, 
Coldingham. 

((M. longifolia. Not a British plant; records refer to Al spicata x suaveolens)) . 

((Lycopus europaeus GIPSYWORT. No records. Considered absent)). 

Origanum vulgare MARJORAM. Local. Scaurs by the Whiteadder. Fishwick 
Mains, Hilton Bay, Gateheugh. 

* (Thymus pulegioides LARGE THYME. Casual. Duns 1906). 
Thymus praecox (= T. drucei) WILD THYME. Widespread. 
(Acinos arvensis BASIL THYME. Considered extinct. Oxendean 1874, 

Penmanshiel 1854, Ecclaw 1853). 
Clinopodium vulgare WILD BASIL. Tower Dean 1988, Cockburn Mill 

1973, opposite Norham 1963, Almaheart 1950, formerly 

local. 
Prunella vulgaris SELFHEAL. Common. 
Stachys arvensis FIELD WOUNDWORT. Dowlaw 1981, (Chirnside 

1936, formerly local). 
S. palustris MARSH WOUNDWORT. Scattered. 



47 



S. palustris x sylvatica (= S. x ambigua). Rare or overlooked. Langton Mill 
1931, Pease Dean 1853. 

S. sylvatica HEDGE WOUNDWORT. Common. 

S. officinalis (= Betonica officinalis) BETONY. Rare but unlikely to be 
extinct despite absence of recent records. Longformacus 
1950, Grantshouse 1936. 

Ballota nigra BLACK HORSEHOUND. Fishwick Mains 1987, Birgham 
1961, formerly widespread. 

Lamiastrum galeobdolon (= Galeobdolon luteum) YELLOW 
ARCHANGEL. Rare introduction, Cairnbank 1968, 
Dunglass 1894. 

Lamium amplexicaule HENBIT DEAD-NETTLE. Local, mainly near 
the coast. Arable and garden weed. 

L. molucceUifolium NORTHERN DEAD-NETTLE. Widespread but 
scarce as an arable weed. No garden record. 

L. hybridum CUT-LEAVED DEAD-NETTLE. Very local, mainly near 
the coast and in sunny fields near the Tweed. No garden 
record. 

L. purpureum RED DEAD-NETTLE. Common. 

L. album WHITE DEAD-NETTLE. Widespread. 

(L. maculatum SPOTTED DEAD-NETTLE. Casual. Duns 1931). 

(Galeopsis angustifolia RED HEMP-NETTLE. Considered extinct. 
Cockburn Mill 1866, St. Helens Church 1856) 

G. tetrahit COMMON HEMP-NETTLE. Common as an arable weed but 
also frequent in mosses. The two subspecies usually occur 
together: 

G. tetrahit ssp. tetrahit. Common. 
G. tetrahit ssp. bifida. Less plentiful. 
G. speciosa LARGE-FLOWERED HEMP-NETTLE. Locally common, 
especially on a peaty soil. 

(Nepeta cataria CATMESIT. Considered extinct, possibly formerly native. 
Broomhouse 1893, Gateheugh 1831). 

Glechoma hederacea GROUND-IVY. Widespread. 

(Marrubiumvulgare WHITE HOREHOUND. Casual. Pease Dean 1881). 

Scutellaria galericulata SKULLCAP. Has always been rare. Drakemire 
1982, Pease Dean 1956, Sisterpath 1956. 

Teucrium scorodonia WOOD SAGE. Widespread, often indicative of 

former oakwood. 
Ajuga reptans BUGLE. Widespread, extending up hill burns. 

PLANTAGINACEAE 

Plantago major GREATER PLANTAIN. Common. 
P. media HOARY PLANTAIN. Perhaps now confined to old lawns, 
formerly frequent. Duns Castle, Swinton House. 

P. lanceolata RIBWORT PLANTAIN. Common. 



48 



p. maritima SEA PLANTAIN. Frequent along the coast, formerly rare 

inland. 
P. coronopus BUCK'S-HORN PLANTAIN. Common along the coast. 

LittoreUa uniflora SHOREWEED. Coldingham Loch, Watch Water 
Reservoir, Edmonds Dean Dam, Millars Moss. 

CAMPANULACEAE 

Campanula latifolia GIANT BELLFLOWER. Local. An indicator of 
ancient woodland. Pease Dean, Langton, Paxton. 

C. rapunculoides CREEPING BELLFLOWER. Occasional, roadsides 
and riversides. Established from garden throwouts. First 
record 1893. 

(C. persicifolia PEACH-LEAVED BELLFLOWER. Lochton 1872). 

(C. glomerata CLUSTERED BELLFLOWER. Apparently introduced. 
Coldstream 1961). 

C. rotundifolia HAREBELL, BLUEBELL. Common. 

(C. patula SPREADING BELLFLOWER. Swinton 1956). 

RUBIACEAE 

Sherardia arvensis FIELD MADDER. Now local and scarce. St. Abbs 
Head, Pease Dean, Dowlaw, Old Cambus Quarry. 

(Phuopsis stylosa. Casual. Marden 1947). 

Galium odoratum WOODRUFF. Local. An indicator of ancient woodland. 
Pease Dean, Abbey St. Bathans, Langton. 

G. cruciata CROSSWORT. Widespread. 

G. boreale NORTHERN BEDSTRAW. Rare, formerly local. Grassland 

flushed by base-rich springs, also basic rocks and crags. 

Gateheugh, Birgham, Skaithmuir, Fireburn Mill, formerly 

elsewhere in the Merse. 
G. moUugo (agg.) HEDGE BEDSTRAW. Native in the Merse. Introduced 

elsewhere with grass seed and becoming estabhshed. 

Middlethird, Cockburnspath. 

G. verum LADY'S BEDSTRAW. Widespread. 

G. saxatile HEATH BEDSTRAW. Common, at least in the hills. 

G. palustre MARSH BEDSTRAW. Widespread. 

G. uliginosum FEN BEDSTRAW. Widespread but more local than 

G. palustre. 
G. aparine CLEAVERS, STICKY WILLIE. Common. 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE 

(Sambucus ebulus DWARF ELDER. Considered extinct. Longformacus 
Churchyard 1956, Langton 1953). 

S. nigra ELDER. Common. 

S. racemosa RED-BERRIED ELDER. Widespread. Sometimes abundant 
in pine plantations as at Skaithmuir. First record 1956. 

49 



* Viburnum lantana WAYFARING-TREE. Occasionally planted. 

V. opulus GUELDER-ROSE. Very local and scarce. Greenwood 1957, 
Peelrig 1946. 

* Symphoricarpos rivularis SNOWBERRY. Widely planted and becoming 

strongly established. Seedlings are rare but do occur as on old 
walls. First record 1946. 

Linnaea borealis TWINFLO WER. Perhaps an unintentional re-introduction 
re-established in pine plantations often on the site of former 
native pine woods. Mellerstain 1834-1990. Temporarily 
established at six other places 1880-1933. 

Lonicera periclymenum HONEYSUCKLE. Widespread, often indicating 
a link with ancient woodland. Also on sea braes. 

* (L. caprifolium PERFOLIATE HONEYSUCKLE. Coldstream 1834). 

ADOXACEAE 

Adoxa moschatellina MOSCHATEL. Local. An indicator of ancient elm 
woods, usually found near water. Pease Dean, Langton 
Woods, Clarabad Wood, Airhouse Wood. 

VALERIANACEAE 

Valerianellalocusta COMMON CORNSALAD. Perhaps extinct inland 
except as a rare casual but surviving on the coast. Linkim 
Shore 1981, Lamberton railway 1980. Ramsheugh Bay 
1966, Bummouth 1961. 

(V. dentata NARROW-FRUITED CORNSALAD. Considered extinct. 
Formerly an arable weed near the coast and up the Tweed 
to Loch ton. Last record 1916). 

Valeriana officinalis COMMON VALERIAN. Rather local but quite 
widespread except in the hills. 

* V. pyrenaica PYRENEAN VALERIAN. Much less widely naturalised 

than further inland in the Tweed basin. Gateheugh 1973, 
Bunkle 1963. First record Mertoun 1886. 

V.dioica MARSH VALERIAN. Quite widespread in slightly basic moorland 
flushes. 

* Centranthus ruber RED VALERIAN. There is a striking multi-coloured 

colony in Ramsheugh Bay, also at Burnmouth. First record 
1952. 

DIPSACACEAE 

* Dipsacus fullonum ssp. fuUonum TEASEL. Apparently introduced, now 

well established on sunny banks by the Lower Tweed, 
Coldstream, Fishwick Mains, but not recorded there until 
1893. 
Knautia arvensis FIELD SCABIOUS. Formerly widespread and plentiful 
but now reduced to small colonies by roadsides, by the 
Whiteadder and at Burnmouth. 



50 



Scabiosa columbaria SMALL SCABIOUS. Foulden Dean, (formerly 
Hareheugh Craigs to 1974, Nenthorn, Lochton and more 
widely) . 

Succisa pratensis DEVIL'S-BIT SCABIOUS. Widespread in the hills. 

COMPOSITAE 

Bidens cernua NODDING BUR-MARIGOLD . One colony, Bemersyde 
Moss. (Girtrig Pond 1853) 

* Galinsogaparviflora GALLANT SOLDIER. Gardenweed. Ayton 1960. 

* G. cUiata HAIRY GALLANT SOLDIER. Garden weed, Chirnside 1 986. 

Senecio jacobaea COMMON RAGWORT. Common. 

S. aquaticus MARSH RAGWORT. Very local. Never common but 
reduced by drainage. Fine at Longmuir Moss, Mordington 
Pond 1965, Langtonlees Cleugh 1964. 

S. erucifolius HOARY RAGWORT. Rare or possibly extinct. (Formerly 
"not uncommon in the district southwards from Mellerstain" 
1874. Swinton Mill 1969, Edrington Mill, Mellerstain and 
Clarabad 1914). 

* S. squalidus OXFORD RAGWORT. Greystonelees 1985, Lamberton 

railway 1980, Chirnside. First recorded 1962. 

S. sylvaticus HEATH GROUNDSEL. Widespread but local and rather 
scarce. 

S. viscosus STICKY GROUNDSEL. Frequent on sea braes also 
widespread and increasing on tips, parking areas etc. 

S. vulgaris GROUNDSEL. Common. The segregate: 

* S. vulgaris f. radiatus RAYED GROUNDSEL. Duns 1990. 
Probably frequent near the railway. 

* S. fluviatilis BROAD-LEAVED RAGWORT. Established introduction. 

Paxton House 1960. 

* Doronicvunpardalianches LEOPARD'S-BANE. Widespread. Sometimes 

replaces the varied ground flora of ancient elmwoods. First 
record Linthill 1868. 

* D. plantagineum PLANTAIN-LEAVED LEOPARD'S-BANE. Poorly 

established introduction. The Hirsel, Langton. First record 
Allanbank 1878. 
TussUago farfara COLT'S-FOOT. Common. 

Petasites hybridus BUTTERBUR. Widespread and locally common. 
((No record of the 'female' plant)). 

* P. albus WHITE BUTTERBUR. Several colonies. 

* P. fragrans WINTER HELIOTROPE. Several colonies. 

* (Inula helenium ELECAMPANE. Casual. Birgham 1985). 

(Pulicaria dysenterica COMMON FLEABANE. Considered extinct. 
Coldstream, Ladykirk, Lamberton, Tibby Fowlers Glen to 
1916). 



51 



FUago vulgaris (= F. germanica) COMMON CUDWEED. Very local, 
formerly widespread. Near Millars Moss, Old Cambus 
Quarry, Pease Dean, Airhouse Wood Quarry. 

Filago minima SMALL CUDWEED. Very local, formerly widespread. 
Near Millars Moss, Dowlaw Dean, Pease Dean, Old Cambus 
Quarry. 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum HEATH CUDWEED. Rare, formerly local. 
Penmanshiel Wood 1989, near Harelaw Craigs 1960, Kyles 
Hill 1959. 

G. uliginosum MARSH CUDWEED. Common. 

Antennaria dioica MOUNTAIN EVERLASTING. Rare, formerly 
widespread. Lumsdaine 1 988, Blythe Moors 1951, Quixwood 
Moor 1951, Longformacus 1947. 

Solidago virgaurea GOLDENROD. Scattered. On rocks and steep banks, 
not here on open moorland. 

Bellis perennis DAISY. Very common. 

Eupatorium cannabinum HEMP-AGRIMONY. Locally frequent in wet 
places on the sea braes, rare inland. St. Abbs Head, Dowlaw 
Dean, Burnmouth, Tweedside near Birgham. 

(Anthemis cotula STINKING CHAMOMILE. Casual. Swinton 1960). 

(A. arvensis CORN CHAMOMILE. Extinct except as a rare casual. 
Formerly cultivated for sheep but also as a weed of new 
grassland. Hirsel Law 1957). 

(ChamaemelumnobUe CHAMOMILE. Formerly temporarily naturalised 
near Chirnside before 1853). 

AchUlea millefolium YARROW. Common. 

(A. tomentosa. Casual. Broomhouse 1893). 

A. ptarmica SNEEZEWORT. Widespread. 

Tripleurospermum inodorum SCENTLESS MAYWEED. Common. 
Var. salinum is occasional on the coast. 

Matricaria recutita SCENTED MAYWEED. Scattered, apparently 
increasing. Redpath, Gordon, Haigsfield. First recorded 
1872 at Eden Hall and Lochton but not again until 1950. 

M. matricarioides PINE APPLE WEED. Very common. First record 1 952 
but throughout the county by 1956. 

Chrysanthemum segetum CORN MARIGOLD. Rare, formerly local. 
Abundantly near Coldingham 1980+, Newton Don 1981. 
Abundantly near Lamberton 1972. 

Leucanthemum vulgare (= Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) OXEYE 

DAISY. Widespread. 
Tanacetum parthenium (= Chrysanthemum parthenium) 

FEVERFEW. Widespread, mainly near habitation. 

T. vulgare (= C. vulgare) TANSY. Frequent on banks by the Whiteadder 
and Tweed. 

Cotula squalida. Lawn weed at Chapel-on-Leader 1962. 



52 



Artemisia vulgaris MUGWORT. Widespread, but more frequent near 

the coast. Not plentiful. 
(A. absinthium WORMWOOD. Perhaps extinct. Burnmouth to 1956, 

Dunglass Farm 1956). 
A. maritima SEA WORMWOOD. Rare on sea stacs, unsuitable for 

nesting seabirds, and shingle nearby. St. Abbs Head, St. 

Helens Church. 
Echinopsspp. GLOBE-THISTLE. Occasionally established from garden 

throwouts. The taxa involved have not been studied but are 

unlikely to be E. sphaerocephalus, as recorded. 

Carlina vulgaris CARLINE THISTLE. Scarce on sea braes over califerous 
sandstone from Lamberton to Burnmouth. (Formerly on the 
banks of the Ale and near Earnsheugh Camp). 

Arctium minus LESSER BURDOCK. Widespread, ssp. nemorosum is 
widespread. Evidence of other sspp is unsatisfactory. 

Carduus tenuiflorus SLENDER THISTLE. Frequent near the sea and 

by the lower Tweed and Whiteadder. St. Abbs Head, 

Fishwick Mains, Foulden. 
(C. nutans MUSK THISTLE. Extinct except as a scarce casual. Burnmouth 

1960). 
C. acanthoides WELTED THISTLE. Scattered. 
Cirsium vulgare SPEAR THISTLE. Common. 
C. palustre MARSH THISTLE. Common. 
C. arvense CREEPING THISTLE. Common. 
C. helenioides (= C. heterophyllum) MELANCHOLY THISTLE. Rare. 

Gordon Moss, Birgham Wood, East Crook Burn, Blacksmill 

Burn, Kettleshiel Burn. 
Silybum marianum MILK THISTLE. Established near habitation, more 

rarely than formerly. Coast south of St. Abbs 1977. 
(Onopordum acanthium COTTON THISTLE. Rare. Coldstream 1 957) . 
Centaurea scabiosa GREATER KNAPWEED . Whiteadder near Blaneme 

1962. 
(C. cyanus CORNFLOWER. Recent records have been garden escapes. 

Formerly widespread in cornfields but scarce by 1836, last 

records 1931). 
C. nigra COMMON KNAPWEED. Common. 
Cichorium intybus CHICORY. Occasional escape. Birgham 1962, near 

Linkim Shore 1951. 
Lapsana communis NIPPLEWORT. Common. Constant in ancient 

woodland as well as being plentiful as a ruderal and arable 

weed. 
Hypochaeris radicata CAT'S-EAR. Common. 
Leontodon autumnalis AUTUMN HAWKBIT. Common. Often forms 

a yellow border to roadsides in autumn as Taraxacum does 

in spring. 

53 



L. hispidus ROUGH HAWKBIT. Widespread. 

L. taraxacoides LESSER HAWKBIT. Burnmouth 1 970. Perhaps under- 
recorded. 

* (Picris echiodes BRISTLY OXTONGUE. Casual, a seed impurity. 

Gavinton 1983, Chirnside 1972). 

Tragopogonpratensis GOAT'S-BEARD. Two subspecies have occurred: 

(T. pratensis ssp. pratensis. Banks of Tweed and near Eccles 
1845). 

T. pratensis ssp. minor. Scattered, usually scarce. Rabbits consider 
it a delicacy. 

Lactuca virosa GREAT LETTUCE. Considered native. Coldstream, 

Blount Bank, New Ladykirk, formerly more frequent. 
Mycelis muralis WALL LETTUCE. Local. Mainly on old walls. 

Sonchusarvensis PERENNIAL SOW-THISTLE. Widespread, but scarce 
except near the coast. 

S. oleraceus SMOOTH SOW-THISTLE. Widespread. Scarce as an 
arable weed but more frequent in gardens and ruderal 
habitats. 

S. asper PRICKLY SOW-THISTLE. Common. Sea braes and banks 
near rivers as well as an arable weed. 

* Cicerbita macrophylla BLUE SOW-THISTLE. Scattered, increasing. 

First records 1960. 

Hieracium murorum HAWKWEED. The microspecies H. vulgatum is 

widespread. In addition records for the following microspecies 
are accepted by D. McCosh 1990 

H. ampliatum. Whalplaw Bum * H. grandidens. Newton Don 1970. 
H. argenteum. Hareheugh Craigs H. leyi. Hareheugh Craigs 

t H. auratiflorum. Burnmouth H. oistophyllum. Greenlaw Dean 

t H. britanniciforme. Burnmouth H. orimeles. Burnmouth 

H. caesiomorum. Burnmouth f H. riddelsdellii. Burnmouth 
H. caledonicum. Brotherstone H. rubiginosum. Allanton 

H. cravoniense. Longformacus H. schmidtii. Dowlaw Dean 

H. dasythrix. Burnmouth H. subcrocatum. Lumsdaine 

H. dicella. Burnmouth H. subrude. Lamberton 

(H. prenanthoides. Redpath Dean) (H. vagum. Coldstream) 

(H. umbellatum. Penmanshiel) 

t The populations referred to these taxa may relate to undescribed taxa 

H. pilosella (= Pilosella officinarum) MOUSE-EAR HAWKWEED. 
Common. 

* H. aurantiacum(agg.) FOX-AND-CUBS. Occasional. First record 1832. 

Crepis mollis NORTHERN HAWK'S-BEARD. No record since 1924 
but recent experience in Northumberland and Roxburghshire 
suggests that it will be re-found. (Formerly Langton Wood, 
Blackburnrig Dean, Edgarhope, Permianshiel Wood, above 
Longformacus, near Coldingham, Ale Water). 

C. capUlaris SMOOTH HAWK'S-BEARD. Widespread. 
54 



C. paludosa MARSH HAWK'S-BEARD. Widespread but rather local in 
base rich flushes. 

Taraxacum officinale DANDELION. Common. The following 
microspecies were recorded at meetings led by A. J. Richards 
in 1979 and by C. C. Haworth in 1986. Only a sample of 
habitats was visited. Nomenclamre follows a provisional list 
prepared and used by C. C. Haworth in 1986, annotated A. 
J. Richards 1990. 

section Ruderalia 
T. alatum 
T. ancistrolobum 
* T. angustisquameum Al,Reston 



section Erythrosperma dry banks 
T. brachyglossum Pease Bay 
T. fulviforme St. Abbs Head 
T. fiilvxim Bluestoneford 
T. lacistophyllum St. Abbs Head 
T. oxoniense St. Abbs Head 
T. rubicundum St. Abbs Head 
T. sublaetum Pease Bay 

section Spectabilia 

T. faeroense wet hill pasture 

section Naevosa 

T. euryphyllum frequent 
T. fulvicarpum 
T. maculosum frequent 
T. pseudolarssonii frequent 
T. subnaevosum 

section Celtica 
T. bracteatum 
T. gelertii 
T. inane 

T. nordstedii frequent 
T. duplidentifirons common 
T. subbracteatum 
T. unguilobum common 

section Hamata 

T. atactum frequent 

T. hamatiforme 

T. hamatum frequent 

T. hamiferum 

T. kernianum 

T. lamprophyllum 

T. pseudohamatuni common 

T. quadrans 

T. subhamatum frequent 



T. cordatum 

T. croceiflorum 

T. cyanolepis 

T. dahlstedtii frequent 

T. dUaceratum Al, Reston 

T. ekmanii 

T. expallidiforme frequent 

T. fasciatum 

T. hemicyclum 

T. huelphersianum 

T. insigne frequent 

T. interveniens 

T. laciniosifrons 

T. laeticolor 

T. laticordatum Al, Reston 

T. linguatum 

T. longisquameum 

T. obliquilobum 

T. oblongatum 

T. ochrochloruni 

T. pannucium 

T. piceatum 

T. polyodon common 

T. rhamphodes 

T. stereodes Al, Reston 

T. sublaeticolor 

T. undulatiflorum 

T. vastisectum Al, Reston 



MONOCOTYLEDONES 

ALISMATACEAE 

(Baldellia ranunculoides LESSER WATER-PLANTAIN. Considered 
extinct. Kirkbonny near Foulden 1915, Harkers Tile Works 
1902, St. Abbs Head 1896, Lintlaw 1853, Lithtillum Loch 
1853). 



55 



Alisma plantago-aquatica WATER-PLANTAIN. Scattered. 
(Sagittaria sagittifolia ARROW-HEAD. Considered extinct. St. Abbs 
Head 1 896, six years before the dam was built at Mire Loch) . 

BUTOMACEAE 

Butomus umbellatus FLOWERING-RUSH. Locally frequent along the 
Blackadder below Greenlaw and the lower Whiteadder, also 
along the Tweed below Lochton. First record 1958. 

HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Elodea canadensis CANADIAN WATERWEED. Widespread, but 
decreasing in abundance. Tweed, Whiteadder and Blackadder 
also various ponds. First record Hen Poo 1842, spreading 
rapidly to the Whiteadder. 

JUNCAGINACEAE 

Triglochin palustris MARSH ARROWGRASS. Widespread, mainly in 
the hills. 

T. maritima SEA ARROWGRASS. Locally on the coast, Coldingham Bay, 
Linkim Shore. 

POTAMOGETONACEAE 

Potamogeton natans BROAD-LEAVED PONDWEED. Scattered, 
mainly lowland. 

P. polygonifolius BOG PONDWEED. Occasional, more upland than 
P. natatjs. 

(P. coloratus FEN PONDWEED. Considered extinct. Gordon Moss 
1916, FernyrigBog 1853). 

P. lucens SHINING PONDWEED. Very locally plentiful. Tweed from 
Coldstream to Union Bridge. 

P. lucens X perfoliatus (= P. x salicifolius). In similar places to P. lucens. 
Tweed from Lochton to Union Bridge. 

(P. gramineus VARIOUS-LEAVED PONDWEED. Perhaps extinct. 
Coldingham Loch 1906, Fernyrig Bog 1829). 

(P. gramineus x perfoliatus (= P. x nitens) . Status uncertain. Coldingham 
Loch 1933) 

(P. alpinus RED PONDWEED. Considered extinct. Eden Water and 
adjacent ditches, Gordon Moss, near Hume Castle. Last 
record 1882). 

P. alpinus x crispus (= P. x olivaceus). Scarce. Tweed, lower Whiteadder, 
lower Blackadder, (Leet Water at Castlelaw 1831). 

(P. praelongus LONG-STALKED PONDWEED. Considered extinct. 
Eden Water at Gordon Moss 1 880, Tweed at Birgham and 
Union Bridge 1854). 

P. perfoliatus PERFOLIATE PONDWEED. Very locally plentiful. In 
similar places to P. lucens. Tweed from Coldstream to Union 
Bridge, lower Whiteadder, Eden Water, Coldingham Loch. 



56 



p. pusiUus LESSER PONDWEED. Scarce. Tweed from Lochton to 
Union Bridge, lower Whiteadder, lower Blackadder, 
Cammerlaws 1989, Millars Moss 1981, Mire Loch 1978. 
Earlier records may relate in part to P. berchtoldii. 

(P. obtusifolius BLUNT-LEAVED PONDWEED. Perhaps extinct. Pease 
Burn 1960, Gordon Moss 1916). 

P. berchtoldii SMALL PONDWEED. Quite widespread. Tweed, 
Whiteadder, Blackadder, Eye Water, Pease Burn. Not 
recognised as a species in CI 9. 

P. crispus CURLED PONDWEED. Quite widespread, penetrating into 

the hills. 
P. crispus X perfoliatus (= P. x cooperi). Very local. Whiteadder from 

Chirnside to Paxton, Lower Blackadder. 

(P. filiformis SLENDER-LEAVED PONDWEED. Status uncertain. 
Coldingham Loch to 1933. Millars Moss 1960). 

P. filiformis x pectinatus (= P. x suecicus). Tweed from Tillmouth to 

Union Bridge. 
P. pectinatus FENNEL PONDWEED. Locally frequent. Tweed from 

Fireburn Mill to Union Bridge, Lumsdaine Pond, 

Cammerlaws. 

ZANNICHELLIACEAE 

ZannicheUia palustris HORNED PONDWEED. Scarce and erratic. 
Tweed, lower Whiteadder, lower Blackadder, Eden and Leet 
waters. Mire Loch 1977, mouth of Langton Burn 1960. 

LILIACEAE 

Narthecium ossifragum BOG ASPHODEL. Apparently restricted to 
raised bogs. Dogden Moss, Long Moss, Drone Moss, 
Gordon Moss, Lurgie Loch, Longmuir Moss. 

(Polygonatum odoratum ANGULAR SOLOMON'S-SEAL. Possibly 
formerly native in Craig's Walls Wood, Edrom to 1873). 

P. multiflorum x odoratum (= P. x hybridum). Garden escape, Eccles 

1988, West Blanerne 1984. 
Ruscus aculeatus BUTCHER'S-BROOM. Introduction in poHcy 

woodlands. Langton, The Hirsel. 
(Lilium martagon MARTAGON LILLY. Status uncertain. Formerly 

naturalised at Bemersyde 1873 and Thirlestane Castle 

1902). 
L. pyrenaicum PYRENEAN LILLY. Garden escape. Wood at Gavinton 

1965. 
_ Tulipa sylvestris WILD TULIP. Plentifully naturalised at Netherbyres 

by 1831 and Hassington by 1853. Less so in a few other 

policies. 
((Gagea lutea YELLOW STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM. No record. 

Considered absent)). 



57 



* Ornithogalum umbellatum STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM. Scattered 

escape. 

* (Ornithogalum nutans DROOPESIG STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM. Escape. 

Allanton 1886). 

Scilla vema SPRING SQUILL. A single colony at Gunsgreen, flowering 
in June. 

* S. liliohyacinthoides. Naturalised at Longformacus House and Dryburgh 

Abbey. 

Hyacinthoides non-scripa (= Endymion non-scriptus) BLUEBELL, WILD 
HYACINTH. Surprisingly local. Abundant at several places 
on the coast. Dowlaw Dean, Pease Dean, Old Cambus 
Quarry. Also at Gledswood, Duns Castle. Scarce in woods 
by Whiteadder. 

* H. hispanica (= E. hispanicus) SPANISH BLUEBELL. Naturalised in 

several places, some of the "Atlas" records for H. non-scripta 
probably belong here. The Hirsel. 

* H. hispanica x non-scripta. The Hirsel 1983, Old Churchyard 

Magdalenehall 1982. 

Allium scorodoprasum SAND LEEK. Rare. English Border, Paxton 
1984, Union Bridge 1950. 

A. vineale WILD ONION. Very local. Opposite Carham 1984 
(var. compactum) Dowlaw Dean 1963, near Burnmouth 
1960. 

(A. oleraceum FIELD GARLIC. Perhaps extinct. Lumsdaine Dean 1853, 
Netherbyres 1831). 

(A. schoenoprasum CHIVES. Considered extinct. "In a park on a mount 
near Fast Castle" 1 765, John Hope. By Fast Castle 1 777, Dr. 
Parsons). 

* A. paradoxum FEW-FLOWERED LEEK, PLASTIC GRASS. 

Widespread and increasing rapidly. Colonising woodland, 
roadsides and river banks. A pernicious garden weed. First 
record 1947. 

A. ursinum RAMSONS. Locally abundant in ancient elm woods. Pease 
Dean, Dunglass Dean, Clarabad Wood, Langton. 

TRILLIACEAE 

((Paris quadrifolia HERB-PARIS. No record. Considered absent)). 

JUNCACEAE 
Juncus squarrosus HEATH RUSH. Common on moorland. 

* ((J. tenuis SLENDER RUSH. No record. On distributional grounds the 

arrival of this species is overdue)). 

J. gerardii SALTMARSH RUSH. Linkim Shore, Reed Point. 
J. bufonius (agg.) TOAD RUSH. One segregate only is known: 

J. bufonius. Common. 
J. inflexus HARD RUSH. Widespread, mainly lowland. 

58 



J. effiisus SOFT RUSH. Common. 

J. conglomeratus COMPACT RUSH. Widespread, mainly upland. 

J. maritimus SEA RUSH. Salt marsh at Reed Point. 

J. acutiflorus SHARP-FLOWERED RUSH. Locally common. 

J. articulatus JOINTED RUSH. Common. 

J. bulbosus (incl. J. kochii) BULBOUS RUSH. Scarce. Such material as 
has been critically examined corresponds to J. kochii. 

Luzula pUosa HAIRY WOOD-RUSH. Widespread. Woods and grassy 
or moorland banks thought to have been formerly wooded. 

L. sylvatica GREAT WOOD-RUSH. Widespread. Often indicating at 
least former oak and birchwood but also on sea braes and 
moorland banks. 

* (L. nivea SNOW-WHITE WOOD-RUSH. Introduction. Three former 

localities, one near Duns, 1902). 

L. campestris FIELD WOOD-RUSH. Common. 

L. multiflora HEATH WOOD-RUSH. Widespread, mainly moorland. 

Two subspecies, multiflora and congesta, occur, but have not 

been distinguished. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 

* Galanthus nivalis SNOWDROP. Sometimes well naturalised. Cumledge. 

* Narcissus spp. DAFFODIL. Various species and varieties are planted 

widely, sometimes in the most incongruous places. Naturalised 
extensively in policies. Cast up on river banks. 

IRIDACEAE 
Iris pseudacorus YELLOW IRIS. Widespread, but becoming more local. 

DIOSCOREACEAE 

* (Tamus communis BLACK BRYONY. Casual. Kimmerghame and near 

Duns 1931). 

ORCHIDACEAE 

(Epipactis palustris MARSH HELLEBORINE. Considered extinct. 

Lamberton and Coldingham Moors to 1853. Old Lamberton 

Toll to 1829). 
E. helleborine BROAD-LEAVED HELLEBORINE. Very local and scarce. 

Thirlestane Castle 1980, Longformacus 1963, Danderhall 

1960, Hirsel Law and Skaithmuir 1957. Formerly more 

widespread. Perhaps overlooked since. 
Listera ovata COMMON TWAYBLADE. Scattered. Gordon Moss. 

Foulden Burn. 
L. cordata LESSER TWAYBLADE. Local and scarce but often overlooked. 

Crib Law, Dye Water Cleughs, Long Moss. 
Neottia nidus-avis BIRD'S-NEST ORCHID. Rare. Ale Water 1985, 

Gavinton 1961, Cuddy Wood 1953, Silverwells 1952. 

59 



Goodyera repens CREEPING LADY'S-TRESSES. Perhaps an 
unintentional re-introduction re-established in pine plantations 
often on the site of former native pine woods. No recent 
record but may re-occur as replanted pines mamre. Mellerstain 
1869-1 956, Hirsel Law 1956, Skaitiimuir 1956. (Temporarily 
established at six other places 1861-1891). 

CoraUorhiza trifida CORALROOT ORCHID. Very local and sporadic 
in abundance. Gordon Moss, Long Moss, Lurgie Loch, 
Silverwells, Redpath Moss. 

(Coeloglossum viride FROG ORCHID. Perhaps extinct. Longformacus 
1 947 (probably Crook Bum) . Formerly scattered. Coldingham 
Loch, Redheugh, Muircleugh) 

Gymnadenia conopsea FRAGRANT ORCHID. Very local and 
decreasing. Lumsdaine 1988, Edrington 1979 (St. Abbs 
Head 1977), Burnmoutii 1963, Fleurs Dean 1960, Dronshiel 
Moor 1956. 

(Pseudorchis albida (= Leucorchis albida) SMALL- WHITE ORCHID. 
Considered extinct. Langtonlees Cleugh 1867). 

(Platanthera chlorantha GREATER BUTTERFLY-ORCHID. 

Considered extinct. Coldingham Loch, Houndwood, 
Edingtonhill Moor, Langtonlees Cleugh to 1916). 

P. bifolia LESSER BUTTERFLY-ORCHID. Very local. Gordon Moss, 
plentiful, Long Moss. (Byrecleuch 1956). Formerly more 
widespread. 

Orchis mascula EARLY-PURPLE ORCHID. Locally plentiful on tiie 
sea braes. Very local and scarce inland. Gunsgreen, 
Burnmouth, St. Abbs Head, Pease Dean, Gavinton, Foulden, 
Clarabad. 

Dactylorhiza fuchsii COMMON SPOTTED-ORCHID. Widespread. 

D. flichsii X purpurella (= D. x venusta). Occasional. 

D. maculata ssp. ericetorum HEATH SPOTTED-ORCHID. 

Widespread in moorland. 

D. maculata x purpurella (= D. x formosa). Occasional. Gordon Moss. 

D. incarnata ssp. incarnata EARLY MARSH-ORCHID. Local and 
decreasing. The base rich flushes in which it occurs are easily 
destroyed by minor drainage work. Coldingham Moor, 
Lamberton Moor, Greenlaw Dean, Gordon Moss, Lurgie 
Loch. 
D.purpureUa NORTHERN MARSH-ORCHID. Widespread and locally 
plentiful. Constant in form in the west but variable in the east 
and sometimes close to D. praetermissa. 
The Dactylorhiza ssp. are present in great plenty and diversity at Gordon 
Moss where all our species of this genus are represented and hybrids are 
frequent due to the proximity of the species and the history of change 
and disturbance to the habitat. 
(Anacamptis pyramidalis PYRAMIDAL ORCHID. Considered extinct. 
Whitehall 1886). 



60 



ARACEAE 

* Acorus calamus SWEET-FLAG. Local but increasing by the Tweed and 

Whiteadder. Hen Poo. First record Foulden Pond 1874. 

* Arum maculatum LORDS-AND-LADIES. Scattered in woodland, 

increasing. Most of the populations appear to be centred on 
policy woodland where it was originally introduced. Blanerne, 
Duns, Longformacus. 

LEMNACEAE 

Lemna trisulca IVY-LEAVED DUCKWEED. Local. Gordon Moss, 
Hen Poo. 

L. minor COMMON DUCKWEED. Widespread. 

SPARGANIACEAE 

Sparganium erectum BRANCHED BUR-REED. Widespread. The 
subspecies have not been studied. 

S. emersum UNBRANCHED BUR-REED. Local and scarce. Eden 
water near Gordon, Upper Blackadder Water, Bemersyde 
Moss, Mordington Pond. 

(S. minimum LEAST BUR-REED. Perhaps now extinct. Gordon Moss 
1981, Northfield 1914, Coldingham Loch 1914). 

TYPHACEAE 

Typha latifolia BULRUSH. (Formerly locally abundant in mires as at 
Billie Mire). Still at Bemersyde Moss and Lithtillum Loch. 
Also as an introduction to ponds. St. Abbs Head, Hen Poo, 
Greenknowe. 

* T. angustifolia LESSER BULRUSH. Hen Poo. First record 1893. 

CYPERACEAE 

Eriophorumangustifolium COMMON COTTONGRASS. Widespread 
in moorland and mosses. 

E. latifolium BROAD-LEAVED COTTONGRASS. Lumsdaine 1988 
(Old Lamberton Toll and Lamberton Moor 1829). 

E. vaginatum HARE'S-TAIL COTTONGRASS. Locally dominant in 
moorland and mosses. Dogden Moss, Gordon Moss. 

Trichophorum cespitosum ssp germanicum (= Scirpus cespitosus) 
DEERGRASS. Frequent on peaty moorland. 

Eleocharis quinqueflora FEW-FLOWERED SPIKE-RUSH. Local and 
scarce in base rich flushes. Greenlaw Moor, Watch Water, 
Coldingham Moor, near Linkim Shore. 

(E. multicaulis MANY-STALKED SPIKE-RUSH. Considered extinct. 
One Berwickshire specimen, believed gathered in the parish 
of Bunkle 1853). 

E. palustris COMMON SPIKE-RUSH. Widespread. 

Scirpus sylvaticus WOOD CLUB-RUSH. Frequent by the Tweed, 
Whiteadder. Blackadder and Leet water. 

61 



Blysmus compressus FLAT-SEDGE. Greenlaw Moor in several places, 
(formerly in wet places on the Whiteadder haughs near 
Clarabad and at Thirlestane Castle) . 

B. rufiis SALTMARSH FLAT-SEDGE. Saltmarsh at Reed Point. 

Schoenoplectus lacustris (= Scirpus lacustris) COMMON CLUB- 
RUSH. Very local. Blackadder at Nisbet Bridge, Whiteadder 
at Clarabad and Hutton, Leet at Wylie Cleugh, Hen Poo. 

Isolepis setacea (= Scirpus setaceus) BRISTLE CLUB-RUSH. Rather 
local and scarce in moorland edges. Greenlaw Moor, 
Dronshiel, Whalplaw Burn, Lamberton Moor, Horndean 
Burn. 

(Eleogiton fluitans (= Scirpus fluitans) FLOATING CLUB- 
RUSH. Considered extinct. Dowlaw Moss 1854, 
Penmanshiel Moss 1853). 

Schoenus nigricans BLACK BOG-RUSH. Rare. Gunsgreen 1981, 
Lamberton Moor 1979, (formerly more frequent near the 
coast). 

(Cladium mariscus GREAT FEN-SEDGE. Considered extinct. Lithtillum 
Loch 1853). 

Carex laevigata SMOOTH-STALKED SEDGE. No recent record but 
probably overlooked in Penmanshiel and Hoprigshiel Wood. 
(Corsbie Bog 1892, Gordon Bogs 1869). 

C. distans DISTANT SEDGE. Local and scarce on the coast. Gunsgreen 

1981, St. Abbs Head 1969. 

C. hostiana TAWNY SEDGE. Local but quite widespread in basic 
flushes in moorland. 

C. binervis GREEN-RIBBED SEDGE. Widespread on moorland. 

C. lepidocarpa LONG-STALKED YELLOW-SEDGE. Local but quite 
widespread in basic flushes in moorland and on the coast. 

C. demissa COMMON YELLOW-SEDGE. Widespread but scarce on 
moorland. 

C. extensa LONG-BRACTED SEDGE. Saltmarsh at Reed Point and 
Linkim Shore. 

C. sylvatica WOOD-SEDGE. Widespread but local. Beside tracks in 
woodland. 

C. rostrata BOTTLESEDGE. Widespread. 

C. rostrata x vesicaria (= C. x involuta). Bemersyde Moss 1978. 

C. vesicaria BLADDER-SEDGE. Bemersyde Moss, Whitehall Pond, 

Eccles Pools. 
C. riparia GREATER POND-SEDGE. Local. Bishops Bog, Eccles Pools, 

Birgham Wood, Wylie Cleugh, The Hirsel. 

C. acutiformis LESSER POND-SEDGE. Very locally frequent. Banks 
below Allanton, Lithtillum Loch, Leet Water at The Hirsel. 

C. pendula PENDULOUS SEDGE. Dunglass Dean, coastal flushes near 
Lamberton. Introduced at Milne Graden. 



62 



(C. pallescens PALE SEDGE. Perhaps extinct, formerly rare. Gordon 
Moss 1880, Hoprigshiels and Blackburnrig Wood 1853). 

C. panicea CARNATION SEDGE. Conimon. 

C. limosa BOG-SEDGE. Brotherstone Hill 1989, (Lurgie Loch 1916). 

C. flacca GLAUCOUS SEDGE. Widespread. Especially frequent on the 
sea braes. 

C. hirta HAIRY SEDGE. Scattered, mainly lowland. 

C. lasiocarpa SLENDER SEDGE. Lurgie Loch 1980. 

C. pilulifera PILL SEDGE. Widespread, mainly upland. 

C. caryophyllea SPRING-SEDGE. Local but quite widespread on basic 
rock outcrops. 

C. acuta SLENDER TUFTED-SEDGE. Tweed at Paxton, Fishwick 
Mains and Dryburgh. 

(C. aquatilis WATER SEDGE. Considered extinct. Tweed near Norham 
1916, Gordon Moss 1915). 

C. nigra COMMON SEDGE. Common. 

C. paniculata GREATER TUSSOCK-SEDGE. Local. Gordon Moss 
plentiful. Longmuir Moss, Lurgie Loch. 

C. diandra LESSER TUSSOCK-SEDGE. Longmuir Moss, (Stuartslaw 
Pond 1893, Allanton Banks 1869, Broad Bog 1853). 

C. otrubae FALSE FOX-SEDGE. Scattered along the coast. Lithtillum 

Loch. 
C. disticha BROWN SEDGE. Widespread and locally plentiful. 
C. arenaria SAND SEDGE. Linkim Shore, Coldingham Bay, St. Abbs 

Head. 
C.divulsassp.leersii GREY SEDGE. Thirlestane Castle 1975 ("Gathered 

once when coming from Innerwick, by the side of the Water 

Eye" 1893). 
(C. spicata SPIKED SEDGE. Considered extinct. Blackburnrig 1916). 
C. muricata PRICKLY SEDGE. 

(C. muricata ssp. muricata. Considered extinct. Thirlestane Castle 

1878). 
C. muricata ssp. lamprocarpa. Hareheugh Craigs 1987, Pease 

Dean 1956, Allanton 1956. 
C. echinata STAR SEDGE. Widespread, mainly upland. 
C.remota REMOTE SEDGE. Very local. In ancient alder woods. Paxton, 

Langtonlees Cleugh, Retreat, Pease Dean. 

C. curta WHITE SEDGE. Raised mosses and smaller areas of peat. 

Dogden Moss, Jordanlaw Moss, Gordon Moss, Redpath 

Moss. 
C. ovalis OVAL SEDGE. Widespread in poor grassland, mainly upland. 
C. pulicaris FLEA SEDGE. Widespread in moorland in slighdy basic 

flushes. 



63 



C. dioica DIOECIOUS SEDGE. Very local and scarce in basic flushes in 

moorland. Greenlaw Moor 1987, Lamberton Moor 1979, 
Glints Hill 1985, Coldingham Moor 1981. 

GRAMINEAE 

Festuca pratensis MEADOW FESCUE. Widespread, but apparently 
becoming scarce. 

F. arundinacea TALL FESCUE. Widespread, but rather local. 

F. gigantea GIANT FESCUE. Very locally plentiful indicating a link with 
ancient woodland. 

F. heterophylla VARIOUS-LEAVED FESCUE. Mellerstain 1980. 

F. rubra RED FESCUE. Very common. A glaucous form is conspicuous 
in coastal grassland. The sub-species have not been studied. 

F. ovina SHEEP'S-FESCUE. Widespread. 

(F. vivipara VIVIPAROUS FESCUE. Considered extinct. Blackburn farm 
1839). 

F.tenuifoUa FINE-LEAVED SHEEP'S-FESCUE. Few records, but under- 
recorded; in more heathy places than F. ovina, though 
sometimes growing with it. Whalplaw Burn, Gordon Moss. 

(F. pratensis x Lolium perenne (= x Festulolium loliaceum.) Allanton 
1893, Cumledge Mill and Swinton 1892). 

Lolium perenne RYE-GRASS. Extensively sown. Two subspecies occur 
with varieties: 

L. perenne ssp. perenne PERENNIAL RYE-GRASS. Common. 
Native as well as introduced. 

* L. perenne ssp. multiflorum ITALIAN RYE-GRASS. Agricultural 
relic. 

Vulpia bromoides SQUIRRELTAIL FESCUE. Local, rocky outcrops 
and ruderal. St. Abbs Head, Dowlaw Dean. 

V. myuros RAT'S-TAIL FESCUE. Coldingham 1953. 

Desmazeria rigida (= Catapodium rigidum) FERN-GRASS. Scarce in 
grassland. St. Abbs Head, Burnmouth, Lamberton Cliffs. 

D. marina (= C. marinum) SEA FERN-GRASS. Scarce on coastal rocks. 

St. Abbs Head, Burnmouth, Eyemouth. 

Poa annua ANNUAL MEADOW-GRASS. Very common. 

P. nemoralis WOOD MEADOW-GRASS. Locally plentiful in woods 
and on walls, usually indicating a link with ancient woodland. 

((P. compressa FLATTENED MEADOW-GRASS. Possible record on 
garden wall at Swinton 1952, requires confirmation)). 

P. pratensis SMOOTH MEADOW-GRASS. Widespread, but much 
confused with P. subcaenilea. 

P. subcaerulea SPREADING MEADOW-GRASS. Widespread but 
somewhat under-recorded. 

P. trivialis ROUGH MEADOW-GRASS. Common. 



64 



* p. chaixii BROAD-LEAVED MEADOW-GRASS. Established in policy 

woodland. Chapel-on-Leader, Allanton Lodge. First record 
1902. 

Puccinellia maritima COMMON SALTMARSH-GRASS. Coastal, 
frequent. Linkim Shore, Eyemouth, Reed Point. 

P. distans (agg.) REFLEXED SALTMARSH-GRASS. Unknown 
frequency. St. Abbs Head. (Roads near Swinton 1951). 

Dactylis glomerata COCK'S-FOOT. Common, except in the hills. Native 

and sown. 
Cynosurus cristatus CRESTED DOG'S-TAIL. Common. Native but 

also much sown. 
Catabrosa aquatica WHORL-GRASS. Very local and sporadic. Gordon 

Moss, Greenknowe Tower, Everett Moss. 
Briza media QUAKING-GRASS. Widespread. 

* (B. maxima GREAT QUAKING-GRASS. Casual from cultivation. 

Earlston 1956). 

Melica uniflora WOOD MELICK. Very local, now scarce. Pease Dean, 

Langtonlees Cleugh, Gateheugh. 
M. nutans MOUNTAIN MELICK. Perhaps still at Gateheugh. 

(Blackburnrig, Dunglass Dean, Langton Glen to 1931). 
Glyceria fluitans FLOATING SWEET-GRASS. Widespread. 
(G. fluitans x plicata (= G. x pedicellata) . Unlocalised record 1850). 
G. plicata PLICATE SWEET-GRASS. Widespread. 
G. declinata SMALL SWEET-GRASS. Scattered, scarce. 
G. maxima REED SWEET-GRASS. Tweed at Fishwick Mains 1987, 

established (Lithtillum Loch and Newton Don 1 956, perhaps 

casual) . 
Bromus sterilis BARREN BROME. Widespread near the coast, but very 

scarce inland. 

* (B. diandrus GREAT BROME. Casual. Cumledge Mill 1892). 

* B. erectus UPRIGHT BROME. Established, Lamberton railway 1980, 

(Paxton 1951). 
B.ramosus HAIRY-BROME. Locally plentiful in woods indicating a link 

with ancient woodland. 
B. hordeaceus ssp. hordeaceus (= B. mollis) SOFT BROME. Widespread. 

* B. lepidus SLENDER SOFT-BROME. Dowlaw Dean 1963, Blanerne 

1962, Cheeklaw 1959. 
(B. racemosus SMOOTH BROME. Considered extinct. Six scattered 
records in arable fields to 1893). 

* (B. secalinus RYE BROME. Considered extinct. "Cornfields throughout 

Berwickshire" 1834). 
Brachypodium sylvaticum FALSE BROME. Locally plentiful. Ancient 
woodland and on banks in deans, formerly wooded. Sea 
braes. 



65 



Leymus arenarius (= Elymus arenarius) LYME-GRASS. Cove Harbour, 
Coldingham Bay. 

Elymus caninus (= Agropyron caninum) BEARDED COUCH. Local 
and scarce by rivers in woods. Mertoun Bridge 1967. 
Langton Mill 1956. 

E. repens (= A. repens) COMMON COUCH. Common. A bad weed of 
arable fields. 

E. farctus (= A. junceiforme) SAND COUCH. Pease Bay 1986, Linkim 
Shore 1981, (near Dunglass 1853). 

(Triticum aestivum WHEAT. Agricultural relic, not persisting for long) . 

Hordeum murinum WALL BARLEY. Locally plentiful about the coastal 
villages. 

H. jubatum FOXTAIL BARLEY. A68 near Soutra 1983. 

(H. vulgare BARLEY. Agricultural relic, not persisting for long). 

(Hordelymus europaeus WOOD BARLEY. Considered extinct. Pease 
Dean 1885). 

Avena fatua WILD OAT. Widespread but perhaps now scarce. 

(A. sativa OAT. Agricultural relic, not persisting for long). 

(A. strigosa BRISTLE OAT. Formerly a common impurity in upland 
cereals, to 1874). 

Avenula pratensis (= Helictotrichon pratense) MEADOW OAT- 
GRASS. Local. Rocky grassland on the coast, scarce 
inland. St. Abbs Head, Hareheugh Craigs, Greenlaw Dean. 

A. pubescens (= H. pubescens) DOWNY OAT-GRASS. Local. Damp 
grassland. Middlethird, Fangrist Burn. 

Arrhenatherum elatius FALSE OAT-GRASS. Common where grassland 
is not much grazed. 

Koeleria macrantha CRESTED HAIR-GRASS. Local. Frequent in the 
coastal grasslands as at St. Abbs Head. Scarce inland. Hume 
Craigs, Whalplaw Burn. 

Trisetum flavescens YELLOW OAT-GRASS. Widespread. 

Deschampsia cespitosa TUFTED HAIR-GRASS. Common. 

D.flexuosa WAVY HAIR-GRASS. Common. Dominant in dry places on 
moorland. 

Aira praecox EARLY HAIR-GRASS. Widespread. 
A. caryophyllea SILVER HAIR-GRASS. Two sub-species occur: 
A. caryophyllea ssp. caryophyUea. Scattered 
* A. caryophyllea ssp. multiculmis. Local, especially near the railway. 
First record 1979. 
Anthoxanthum odoratvim SWEET VERNAL-GRASS. Very common. 
Holcus lanatus YORKSHIRE-FOG. Common. 

H. moUis CREEPING SOFT-GRASS. Widespread. Often dominant on 
sites of ancient oakwoods. 



66 



Agrostis canina (agg.) Widespread but scarce on moorland. Two species 
are recognised but have not been separately recorded: 

((A. canina (= A. canina ssp. canina) VELVET BENT)). 

((A. vinealis (= A. canina ssp. montana) BROWN BENT)). 

A. capillaris (= A. tenuis) COMMON BENT. Very common. 

A. gigantea BLACK BENT. Duns Railway Station 1959. 

A. stolonifera CREEPING BENT. Common. 

Ammophila arenaria MARRAM. Pease Bay. Coldingham Bay where it 
has been increased by planting to stablilise sand. 

Phleum pratense CAT'S-TAIL. Two subspecies occur: 

P. pratense ssp. pratense TIMOTHY. Widespread. Native and 

sown. 
P. pratense ssp. bertolonii SMALLER CAT'S-TAIL. Widespread 
in dry grassland. 
((Alopecurus myosuroides BLACK-GRASS. Possible record Swinton 
1951, requires confirmation)). 

A. pratensis MEADOW FOXTAIL. Widespread. 

A. geniculatus MARSH FOXTAIL. Widespread. 

Parapholis strigosa HARD-GRASS. Saltmarsh at Reed Point. 

Phalaris arundinacea REED CANARY-GRASS. Widespread. 

(P. canadensis CANARY-GRASS. Casual, Reston 1953). 

Milium eflfiisum WOOD MILLET. Penmanshiel Wood 1 989, (Thirlestane 
Castle, Bemersyde). 

Phragmites australis (= P. communis) COMMON REED. A few large 
reed beds and some smaller colonies. Everett Moss, Bishops 
Bog, Lurgie Loch, Gordon Moss, Linkim Shore. 

Danthonia decumbens (= Sieglingia decumbens) HEATH- 
GRASS. Widespread but in modest quantity. 

Molinia caenilea PURPLE MOOR-GRASS. Widespread in the hills. 
Two subspecies occur: 

M. caerulea ssp. caerulea. Widespread. 

M. caerulea ssp. altissima. Gordon Moss. 

Nardus stricta MAT-GRASS. Locally dominant on moorland. 



67 



ADDENDUM 

While this check-list has been with the printers the richness of the aquatic 
flora of the River Tweed system has been further recognised by the naming 
of a hybrid water-crowfoot after the town of Kelso. This hybrid and another 
are now known to have occured in Berwickshire. Their present status in 
Berwickshire is unknown but experience elsewhere indicates that they can 
persist indefinitely by vegetative spread. 

(Ranculus fluitans x peltatus (= R. x kelchoensis). Whiteadder near 
Allanton 1841-86. The best herbarium specimens were 
collected by A. Brotherston in the Teviot near Kelso, 
Roxburghshire 1 878 and the Latin epithet is derived from 
the name Ordo Kelchoensis which was recorded in c. 1203 
for Kelso). 

(R. fluitans x trichophyllus or R. fluitans x aquatilis. (The two hybrids 
are considered morphologically indistinguishable) . Eye Water 
1900). 

Reference - Webster S. D. (1990) in Watsonia 18, 139-146. 



68 



BRYOPHYTES OF 
BERWICKSHIRE VC81 

D. G. Long 

AN OVER- VIEW OF THE 
BRYOPHYTES 

In comparison with many of the northern and western counties of 
Scotland, Berwickshire does not have a very rich bryoflora, mainly 
because of the low rainfall and absence of alpine habitats. Nevertheless, 
in its position as the most south-eastern county, it has several distinctive 
features of topography, geology and climate which combine to give its 
bryoflora a unique and interesting flavour. The mild, relatively dry 
climate, the presence of base-rich strata, and the striking topography of 
the coast are particularly important, but other features such as the relict 
mires, raised bogs and upland burns and ravines greatly supplement this 
diversity. 

Unlike the Flowering Plants and Ferns, the bryophytes are still poorly 
known. This results both from lack of bryologists and from the inherent 
nature of the plants: they are inconspicuous and often live in small 
micro-habitats and can easily be overlooked. New additions to the flora 
will therefore continue to be made with dihgent field-work. 

Even though many of the best bryological sites in Berwickshire have 
been destroyed or degraded by agricultural improvement and changes 
in forestry, pockets of richness have survived all over the county, usually 
on a small scale. The low levels of aerial pollution have been a bonus, 
and some species declining nationally are still widespread, e.g. Tortula 
papulosa on old roadside trees in the Merse. 

Only a few nationally rare species are recorded: Cephaloziella elachista, 
Buxbaumia aphylla, Cynodontium tenellum, Dicranum undulatum, Tortula 
princeps and Weissia tortilis are the best examples. Many nationally 
scarce species occur. In a purely Scottish context the picture is quite 
different: many species found in Berwickshire are very rare in Scotland, 
in particular the 'Mediterranean' mosses characteristic of our sunny 
calcareous sea banks: Desmatodon convolutus, Phascum curvicolle, 
P. cuspidatum var. piliferum, Pottia crinita, P. recta, Pterygoneuron ovatum, 
Rhynchostegium megapolitanum and Weissia tortilis. For the last this is the 
only locality in Scotland, the nearest sites being in Surrey and 
Gloucestershire. 

Away from the coast, another southern species, Scleropodium cespitans, 
is found all along the Tweed but has almost no other Scottish localities. 
Significant too is the occurrence in Pease Dean of several 'Atlantic' 

69 



species, virtually unknown elsewhere in the eastern half of Britain: 
Cololejeunea rosettiana, Lejeunea lamacerina and Lophocolea fragrans. 
Another oceanic but more northern plant recently discovered on the 
Berwickshire coast is Isothecium myosuroides var. brachythecioides. 

In contrast to the nearby Cheviot massif, Berwickshire has a poor 
mountain flora, with only a few alpine species such as Cynodontiumjenneri, 
Oligotrichum hercynicum and Polytrichum alpinum. From its glaciated 
topography and underlying basic strata, the Merse would in ancient 
times have contained numerous fens and mires. These habitats and their 
characteristic bryophytes are now virtually extinct, and the remaining 
relict fen and mire sites elsewhere (such as Longmuir Moss) are worthy 
of a secure future. The fen species Homalothecium nitens, until recently 
thought to be extinct in the county, has now been discovered in a new 
remote site in the Lammermuirs. 

Although luxuriance of bryophyte growth in Berwickshire is often low 
in comparison to that in western districts, (except in humid habitats such 
as Pease and Dunglass Deans), bryophytes are still of great ecological 
significance in the county. In some habitats, for example raised bogs, 
they constitute the dominant part of the vegetation. In others, such as 
grassland, they are major components. In woodlands they often form a 
ground layer covering soil, rocks, stumps, logs and tree trunks. In all 
their habitats they are important in absorbing and retaining water, to be 
shared with other plants and animals, and in their physical role as shelter 
for a myriad invertebrates which in turn provide food for other 
organisms. Even on arable land and waste ground, weedy species quickly 
come in and stabilise the substrate and form the first step in colonisation. 

Important Berwickshire bryophyte habitats 
Coastal Rocks and Banks 

The Berwickshire coast is one of the county's greatest natural assets and 
probably the least man-modified tract of land. Where the rocks are basic, 
the bryoflora is richest, particularly on sunny exposed banks as at 
Burnmouth, Siccar Point and Cove where rarities such as Pterygoneuron 
ovatum, Rhynchostegiiim megapolitanum and Phascum curvicolle are present. 
Where springs and flushes occur on the coast deposits of tufa are 
conspicuous, often with lush growth of Cratoneuron commiitatum and 
Gymnostomum recurvirostrwn as at Linkim shore. The cliffs tliemselves 
are less hospitable, except where dissected by shady gullies as at 
Earnsheugh and Heathery Carr where Bryum elegans and Tortella tortuosa 
have been found. At the mouth of Dowlaw Dean the cascade provides 
moisture for many damp rock species including Eurhynchiuni speciosum 
and Rhynchostegiella teesdalei. Drier cliffs above the Mire Loch at St 
Abbs Head support both Porella obtusata and Pterogonium gracile. 

70 



Grassland 

In general grasslands are of low bryological diversity and interest, 
particularly in the acid uplands. Those on basic soils are richer, but local 
in an untouched state. Common, often conspicuous species such as 
Rhytidiadelphns squarrosus and R. triquetrus predominate, with occasional 
rarities such as Thuidiwnphilibertna.t Foulden Dean and by the Blackadder 
near Greenlaw. Coastal dune grasslands are almost absent, except at 
Pease Bay and Coldingham Sands where Tortula ruralis ssp. ruraliformis 
is almost the only characteristic dune species. 

Woodland 

Woodlands are a very important habitat for mosses and liverworts, 
especially broad-leaved woods where humidity is maintained but shade 
is provided in summer. Conifer plantations are almost barren, except for 
a few opportunists like Plagiotheciuni curvifolium and Orthodontium lineare. 
Lowland woods have occasional rarities on soil such as Fissidens exilis 
and Pohlia lutescens but the dense growth of higher plants swamps the 
bryophytes. Only on the steeper wooded banks of the rivers and deans 
do the bryophytes gain a good hold, especially on calcareous substrates. 
Lowland wooded river banks (as on the Tweed and Whiteadder near 
Paxton) support species such as Anomodon viticulosus, Cirriphyllum 
piliferum, Eurhynchium pumilum, Homalia trichomanoides, Pohlia carnea 
and Plagiochila asplenioides. Epiphytes such as Frullania dilatata, Radula 
complanata and Ulota bruchii are common, while on old elders 
Amblystegiuni serpens, Bryum flaccidum, Orthotrichum pulchellum and 
Metzgeria fruticulosa are frequent. Pylaisia polyantha is a local speciality 
on trees in damp woods, probably more frequent in the Tweed valley 
than any other part of Britain. 

The deeper deans such as Dunglass Dean, Tower Dean and Foulden 
Dean are even richer with their higher humidity. Pease Dean is the best 
with an outstanding bryoflora including Cololejeunea rosettiana, Lejeunea 
lamacerina, Lophocolea fragrans, Eurhynchium schleicheri, E. swartzii yar. 
rigidum and Heterocladium heteropterum. In the west of the county the 
Tweed and Leader have some fine wooded stretches; at Chapel-on- 
Leader the rare oceanic species Metzgeria temperata grows on birch. 

Ancient oak woods are not rich in species, but Leucobryum glaucum 
forms attractive hummocks in Aikyside Wood. Dicranum montanum and 
Plagiotheciuni latebricola formerly grew in woods now destroyed near 
Grantshouse. Like the oak woods, birch woods have greatiy declined 
due to grazing and consequent lack of regeneration (as at Airhouse 
Wood) or recent clearing for agriculture (as at Bunkle Wood) . In the 
latter wood Ptilium crista-castrensis, probably now extinct in Berwickshire, 
formerly grew. These few relict fragments are genetic islands of the 

71 



ancient Berwickshire forest and demand sympathetic management for 
their interest to continue. The upland ravine woodlands with birch, 
rowan and hazel are also threatened but have in general fared better; they 
are also richer in bryophytes. Langtonlees Cleugh is one of the best with 
Hookeria lucens, Hypnum mammillatum, Plagiothecium cavifolium, 
Taxiphyllum wissgrilln, and Ulota drummondii, although Bazzania trilobata 
is now extinct. In these upland woods rotten logs and stumps are an 
important substrate supporting Cephalozia lunulifolia, Lepidozia reptans, 
Nowellia curvifolia and Tetraphis pellucida. 

Old roadside trees are a striking but disappearing feature of the 
Berwickshire landscape. These trees have charcteristic epiphytes notably 
Tortula laevipila and T. papulosa, both common and more rarely 
Antitrichia curtipendula at Mellerstain, Tortula virescens at Hume and 
Leucodon sciuroides at Polwarth Church and Greenknowe Tower. 

Rivers 

The long open lowland stretches of the Tweed, Whiteadder and 
Blackadder are aggressively dominated by flowering plants. Bryophytes 
gain a good foothold only on rocky stretches and in shade of trees. The 
only truly aquatic species is Fontinalis antipyretica but Cindidotiis 
fontinaloides and Fissidens crassipes grow on rocks subject to regular 
submergence. Silty rocks and logs just above the water level are an 
important habitat WiXhAmblystegium riparium, Barbida nicholsonii, Leskea 
polycarpa, Orthotrichum cupulatum var. riparium, Oxystegus sinuosus, 
Scleropodium cespitans and Tortula latifoUa typical in many sites. 

The most interesting riverside moss is an enigmatic species recently 
identified by T.L. Blocked as Hennediella macrophylla R.Brown ter., a 
New Zealand moss known in Europe only from the Tweed and Thames 
basins. In Scotland it was first discovered near Innerleithen in 1978 and 
later described as Tortula brevis Whitehouse & Newton. It is now known 
in Berwickshire at Dryburgh, Birgham and Tweedhill and on the Eden 
Water. It grows on compacted soil particularly on fisherman's paths and 
is clearly a recent incomer. 

Towards the hills riverbanks are more rocky with several fine sites, 
notably on the Whiteadder near Elba and Hoardweel, where the 
marginal rocks have several rarities: Grimmia hartmanii, G. ovalis, 
G. retracta, Jungermannia paroica and Scapania subalpina. Nearby the 
aquatic species Hygrohypnum eugyrium is recorded in its only Berwickshire 
locality. Semi-aquatics are more numerous in the hills with several 
common species and a few rarities such as Jungermannia exsertifolia ssp. 
cordifolia on the Blythe Water and Grimmia hartmanii on the Dye at 
Longformacus. 



72 



Wetlands 

Open tracts of water have virtually no bryophytes and marginal species 
are few, usually swamped by higher plants. Reservoirs often have a 
fluctuating margin which permits seasonal colonisation; the Watch 
Water Reservoir in favourable seasons has produced Atrichum tenellum, 
Ephemerum serratum and Fossombronia wondraczekii. 

The mires ('mosses') of the Merse are largely drained but the few 
remaining are of great interest, particularly Pickie Moss which still has 
Calliergon giganteum and Rhizomnium pseudopunctatum. Weflands are 
better represented in the uplands, although away from the Lammermuirs 
most are degraded or destroyed. Longmuir Moss, former home of 
Homalothecium nitens still has the only colony of Pseudobryum cindidioides. 
Drakemire formerly had rich fen with several rarities now extinct. 
Lamberton Moor is approaching the same fate, as is Penmanshiel Moss 
where Homalothecium nitens, Splachnum ampullaceum and Trichocolea 
tomentella formerly grew. Coldingham Moor has surviving pockets of 
fen, with Leiocolea bantriensis, Philonotis calcarea, Rhizomnium 
pseudopunctatum and Scorpidium scorpioides. 

In the Lammermuirs wetlands are often more acidic. The finest raised 
bog is Dogden Moss, a site of major bryological importance, for its 
Sphagnum flora (including 5. imbricatum), its small liverworts Calypogeia 
sphagnicola, Cephalozia macrostachya, Cephaloziella elachista, C. subdentata, 
Kurzia pauciflora and Riccardia latifrons and for the nationally rare and 
threatened moss Dicranum undulatum. 

Springs and flushes are an important habitat in the Lammermuirs, 
especially where enriched with minerals. Good examples are found in 
the Fangrist Burn valley, with Calliergon giganteum. Campy Hum stellatum 
and Drepanocladus exannulatus var. rotae, and by the Wheel Burn with 
Homalothecium nitens, Plagiomnium ellipticum, Sphagnum teres and 
S. wamstorfii. 

Moorland 

Blanket peat and heather moorland cover much of the Lammermuirs. 
Because of extensive grazing and burning the flora is poor, except for 
some small patches such as one on Greenlaw Moor where Hypnum 
imponens has survived. One species apparenfly benefitting from burning 
is Leptodontium flexifolium, but many others such as Racomitrium 
lanuginosum cannot survive. 

Exposed Rocks 

Rocks are of bryological interest throughout Berwickshire. In the 
Lammermuirs exposed Silurian rocks are acid and often barren except 
in sheltered gullies and close to water. The Old Red Sandstone is softer 

73 



and base-rich and can support rich communities. At Langtonlees 
Cleugh the rocks have Apometzgeria pubescens, Mnium marginatum and 
M. stellare. Gateheugh has a list of rarities including Frullaniafragilifolia, 
Cynodontium bruntonii, Encalypta vulgaris, Pterogonium gracile and Tortula 
princeps. The volcanic craigs of the Merse are the habitat for several 
mosses of interest, notably Cynodontium bruntonii, Orthotrichum rupestre 
and Tortula princeps at Hume, and Cynodontium bruntonii and Sphenolobus 
minutus on the Black Hill. On the coast rocks are frequently barren but 
in nearby sheltered spots, such as Dowlaw Dean, the flora is richer with 
Apometzgeria pubescens, Neckera crispa and Reboulia hemisphaerica. 

Walls provide an important source of diversity in all habitats, for 
example many lowland walls have Bryum radiculosum and Gyroweisia 
tenuis, whilst in the uplands Andreaea rupestris is characteristic, and the 
rare Cynodontium jenneri and C. tenellum were found on walls. 

Arable and Ruderal Habitats 

These habitats are often less appealing than semi-namral areas but in 
recent years increased interest in them has revealed several specialities 
of note: Dicranella staphylina, tuber-bearing Bryum species such as 
B. rubens and B. microerythrocarpum and Ditrichum cylindricum are 
common. Old quarries, as at Airhouse Wood, can be of interest {Riccia 
sorocarpa) and many odd patches of disturbed ground, especially on 
basic soils, can yield casuals such as Barbula horns chuchiana. In the hills 
gravelly tracks may support Racomitrium ericoides, R. elongatum and 
Oligotrichum hercynicum, and building of forestry tracks in future may 
bring in new colonists, such as Diplophyllum obtusifolium, not yet recorded. 

Changes in the bryoflora 

Apart from additions to the flora discovered by more extensive fieldwork 
and with the advantage of taxonomic advances, genuine incomers are 
relatively few. Well-documented arrivals are Campylopus introflexus, 
Hennediella macrophylla and Orthodontium lineare, which have spread 
from overseas relatively recently. Others, such as Aulacomnium 
androgynum, Dicranodontium denudatum and Dicranum tauricum were 
not collected by Duncan or Hardy and have almost certainly spread into 
Berwickshire quite recently. 

The abundance of those bryophyte species requiring more specialised 
habitats has decreased greatly. In particular, species of mires and fens, 
and epiphytes of ancient woodlands such as Antitrichia curtipendula have 
gready declined. 

Probable extinctions number 17, the hornwort Phaeoceros laevis, the 
Liverworts Bazzania trilobata, Cephalozia leucantha, Riccardia incurvata 
and Trichocolea tomentella and the vaossts, Amblyodon dealbatus, Breutelia 

lA 



chrysocoma, Bryum alpinum, Buxbaumia aphylla, Cynodontium jenneri, 
Dicranum montanum, Fimaria obtusa, Isopterygium pulchellum, 
Plagiothecium latebricola, Pogonatum naniim, Ptilium crista-castrensis and 
Splachnum ampiillaceum. Some of these may yet be re-found in new 
stations. Most of these disappearances can be directly attributed to 
human activity, in drainage of wetlands, destruction of ancient woodland, 
grazing and burning of moorlands, enlargement of fields and pasture 
improvement, and planting of conifers. 

Active conservation of bryophytes is difficult, because of their small 
size and particular ecological requirements, but many occur in sites of 
high biodiversity worthy of conservation on other grounds. Fuller 
recognition is particularly sought of the value of the remaining wetland 
and ancient woodland fragments of the county. 

Statistical summary 

The table below gives a summary of the present totals of moss and 
liverwort species known from Berwickshire. Because early data are very 
inadequate, and few dates of first records were published by early 
workers, it is not possible to give an detailed summary of discoveries and 
losses. The totals recorded by Hardy and Duncan (corrected to follow 
modern taxonomy) do however give an indication of progress. 



Source 


Mosses 


Liverworts 


Total 


Hardy (1868) 


194 





194 


Duncan (1946) 


269 


76 


345 


Present (1990) 


326 


100 


426 



The steady increase is a reflection of progress in bryophyte recording, 
not in species actually gained which are probably rather few. Further 
field work might push this total up to 450 species or even higher. 



75 



CHECK-LIST OF BRYOPHYTES 

ANTHOCEROTAE 

(Homivorts) 

ANTHOCEROTACEAE 

((Anthoceros agrestis Identification doubtful. Gavinton 1831.)) 

(Phaeoceros laevis ssp. laevis Damp fields. Possibly extinct. Lintiaw 
Burn 1926.) 

HEPATICAE 

(Liverworts) 

AYTONIACEAE 

Reboulia hemisphaerica Dry basic rocks, local. Gateheugh, Elba, 
Earnsheugh 1924, Dowlaw Dean 1926. 

CONOCEPHALACEAE 

Conocephalum conicum Widespread; damp shady rocks by rivers and 
burns. 

LUNULARIACEAE 

Lunularia cruciata Widespread on damp shady walls and rocks by water. 
Not recorded last century and possibly an introduction. 

MARCHANTIACEAE 

Marchantia polymorpha Widespread both in man-made and natural 
habitats. 

M. alpestris Local in basic flushes in hills. Blythe Water, Glints Hill, 
Greenlaw Moor, Kippetiaw Burn. 

RICCIACEAE 

((Riccia glauca Identification doubtful. Gavinton 1831, Bunkle 1834.)) 

R. subbifurca Crozals {R. wamstorfii sensu Corley & Hill). On damp soil, 
very rare. Well Cleugh Burn. 

R. sorocarpa Bare soil, local, probably under-recorded. Lennel, Airhouse 
Quarry. 

METZGERIACEAE 

Metzgeria fi^ticulosa Widespread and often abundant on Sambucus in damp 
thickets. 

M. temperata On Betula trunk in damp woodland, very rare. Leader below 
Chapel on Leader. 

M. furcata Shady rocks and tree trunks, sometimes in mrf on sea banks. 
Common. 

M. conjugata Shady rocks, local. Drygrange, Edin's Hall, Westerside 
Dean. 

77 



Apometzgeria pubescens Rare; on dry basic rocks . Gateheugh, Langtonlees 
Cleugh, Dowlaw Dean 1924. 

ANEURACEAE 

Aneura pinguis Widespread on damp basic substrates, especially sea 
banks. 

Riccardia multifida Bogs, rare. Long Moss. 

R. chamedryfolia Widespread on moist basic soil. 

(R. incurvata Possibly extinct but easily overlooked. Pease Dean 1901.) 

R. latifrons Raised bogs, rare. Dogden Moss, Shiningpool Moss. 

PELLIACEAE 

Pellia epiphylla Damp woodlands and by water, widespread. 

P. neesiana Damp acid soil and peat, scattered localities. 

P. endiviifolia Damp basic rocks and soil, widespread, often abundant on 
coast. 

BLASIACEAE 

Blasia pusilla Gravelly tracks and burnsides mostly in the hills. Headshaw 
Burn, Whalplaw Burn, Longformacus 1927, Lamberton 
1928. 

CODONIACEAE 

Fossombronia pusilla var. pusilla Ephemeral, widespread in east of count>'. 

F. wondraczekii Bare soil and mud, rare. Watch Water Reservoir, Ale 
Water 1926. 

JUNGERMANNIACEAE 

Barbilophozia floerkii Acid rocks and screes, widespread in hills. 

B. attenuata Mossy logs and boulders in woodlands, local. Blythe Water, 
below Gledswood, Edin's Hall. 

B. hatcheri Dry rocks especially basalt, and rocky turfy slopes, scattered 
localities. 

B. barbata On screes and drystane dykes in uplands, rare. Longmuir Moss. 

Lophozia ventxicosa Common, two varieties occur: 

L. ventricosa var. ventricosa Peat>' ground, widespread. 

L. ventricosa var. silvicola Rarer than var. ventricosa but under- 
recorded. Blythe Water, Kyles Hill, Fast Castle, Dowlaw 
Moss. 

L. sudetica Rocks by hill streams, rare. Hartside, Clints Hill. 

L. excisa var. excisa Peaty soil, scattered localities. 

L. incisa Wet heaths, local. Well Cleugh Burn, Gordon Moss. 

L. bicrenata Peaty soil, local. Soutra, Black Hill, Greenlaw Moor, Hartside. 

Leiocolea turbinata Damp calcareous soil and rocks, often on tufa. Not 
rare on Carboniferous rocks, especially on coast. 



78 



L. badensis Similar habitats to preceding, but local. Cove, Langtonlees 
Cleugh. 

L. bantriensis Fens and mires, very rare. Upper Dowlaw Burn. 
Gymnocolea inflata var. inflata Damp peat. Widespread in hills and 

moorlands. 
Sphenolobus minutus Exposed rock ledges, rare. Black Hill. 

Tritomaria exsectiformis Shady sandstone rocks, rare. Lamberton 1931, 
Ecclaw Hill 1903. 

T. quinquedentata Mossy rocks, scattered but not common. Glints Hill, 
Elba, Cove, Dowlaw Dean. 

Mylia anomala Damp peat on raised bogs, local. Scenes Law 1903, Long 

Bog, Dogden Moss, Dowlaw Moss. 
Jungermannia atrovirens Shaded basic rocks, scattered localities. 

J. pumila Shaded basic rocks, very local. Paxton Dean 1925, Dunglass 
Dean 1903, Elba 1963. 

J. exsertifolia ssp. cordifolia Stones in hill burns, rare. Blythe Water. 
J. gracillima Damp sandy ground, tracks. Widespread on acid soils. 
J. paroica Rocks by burns and rivers, local. Headshaw Burn, Blythe Water, 

Elba. 
J. obovata Shady basic rocks in hills, rare. Gully on Glints Hill. 
Nardia scalaris Disturbed acid soil and peat. Common in hills. 

GYMNOMITRIACEAE 

Marsupella emarginata var. emarginata Acid rocks and soil, widespread. 

PLAGIOCHILACEAE 

Plagiochila porelloides Woodlands, rock outcrops, streamsides, sea banks, 

common. 
P. asplenioides Damp woods and deans, more local than P. porelloides and 

in more humid sites. 
P. britaimica Damp woodlands. A recently described species probably 

widespread in basic districts. Chapel on Leader, Duns 

Castle, Litde Dean pond, Blackadder near Allanton, Linkim 

Shore. 

GEOCALYCACEAE 

Lophocolea bidentata (including L. cuspidata) Widespread and common. 

Woodlands, heaths, sea banks. 
L. heterophylla On logs in damp woods, widespread and locally abundant. 

L. fragrans Shady rocks in ravines. Very rare. Pease Dean. The record from 

Elba is probably an error. 
Chiloscyphus polyanthos Rocks by burns, ditches, wet soil. Widespread. 

C. pallescens Marshes and fens, local. Pickie Moss, Longmuir Moss, 
Dowlaw Burn. 



79 



SCAPANIACEAE 

Diplophyllum albicans Neutral to acid rocks and soil, especially on shaded 

mossy banks. 
Scapania scandica Streamsides, rock outcrops, usually on acid substrates. 

Local, Earnsheugh, Kyles Hill, Airhouse Quarry, Aikyside 

Wood. 

((S. carta Not reliably recorded; records probably refer to 5. scandica.)) 
S. umbrosa Damp wooded valleys and heaths, often on rotting wood and 
sandstone rocks. Surprisingly rare. Langtonlees Cleugh, near 
Scenes Law 1903, Dunglass Dean c 1930. 

S. nemorosa Damp woods, local. Edin's Hall, Penmanshiel Moss c 1930, 
Longformacus c 1930, Drakemire c 1930. 

S. irrigua Damp dismrbed soil, widespread but not common. Shiel Burn, 
Longformacus, Bunkle Wood 1926. 

S. compacta Dry rock outcrops, locally common. 

S. subalpina Detritus by hill burns, rare. Longformacus 1927, Elba 1963. 

S. undulata Wet rocks by burns, stony flushes and ditches. Widespread, 

especially in hills. 
S. gracilis Shady acid rocks, rare. Pease Dean, Dowlaw Dean, Lamberton 

Beach. 

CEPHALOZIELLACEAE 

Cephaloziella elachista Peat in raised bogs, very rare. Dogden Moss. 
C. subdentata Peat in raised bogs, very rare. Dogden Moss. 
C. rubella Amongst Sphagnum. Elba area 1963. 
C. divaricata Peaty soil, widespread. 

CEPHALOZIACEAE 

Odontoschisma sphagni Amongst Sphagnum in bogs. Local. Dogden 
Moss, Drone Moss c 1930, near Scenes Law 1903. 

O. denudatum Damp peaty banks, rare. Killmade Burn, between Tollishill 
and Scenes Law 1903. 

Cephalozia bicuspidata (including ssp. bicuspidaia and ssp. 
lammersiana) Peaty ground, decaying wood. Widespread 
and common. 

C. connivens Damp peat on raised bogs, local. Below Twinlaw, Long Bog, 

Dogden Moss, Dowlaw Moss. 
C. lunulifolia Damp peat, rotting wood and shaded sandstone rocks. 

Widespread. 
C. macrostachya var. macrostachya Raised bogs, rare. Dogden Moss, 

near Press Casde 1928. 
(C. leucantha On log in damp woodland, very rare and not seen recendy. 

Brockholes Wood 1929.) 
Nowellia curvifolia On rotting wood in damp woods. Widespread. 



80 



LEPIDOZIACEAE 

Kurzia pauciflora Peat in raised bogs, rare. Dogden Moss, near Seenes 
Law 1903, Penmanshiel Moss c 1930. 

Lepidozia reptans Damp woodlands, widespread. 

(Bazzania trilobata Wooded ravines. Langtonlees Cleugh, pre-1853. 
Probably extinct.) 

CALYPOGEIACEAE 

Calypogeia neesiana Raised bogs, rare. Below Twinlaw, Long Bog. 

C. muellerana Shaded acid rocks, peat and soil, widespread. 

((C. trichomanis Old records refer to C muellerana, but could occur in 
Lammermuirs.)) 

C. fissa Similar habitats to C. muellerana, and equally common. 

C. sphagnicola Amongst Sphagnum in raised bogs, rare. Dogden Moss. 

C. arguta Shaded soil, rare. Dunglass Dean, near Press Castle 1928. 

PSEUDOLEPICOLEACEAE 

Blepharostoma trichophyllum Basic rocks, local. Press Castle 1930, 
Hoardweel 1931, Headshaw Burn. 

TRICHOCOLEACEAE 

(Trichocolea tomentella Basic flushes, probably extinct. Langtonlees 
Cleugh 1833, Penmanshiel Moor 1849.) 

PTILIDIACEAE 

Ptilidium ciliare Moors and rocky outcrops, widespread. 

P. pulcherrimum Rocks and trunks of Birch and Juniper, local. Bunkle 
Wood, Aikyside Wood, Green Wood 1926, Mordington 
1927. 

RADULACEAE 
Radula complanata Tree trunks and rocks, widespread. 

PORELLACEAE 

Porella obtusata Dry rock outcrops on coast, rare. Mire Loch, Heathery 
Carr 1926. 

P. platyphylla Wooded deans on basic rocks, widespread. 

P. cordaeana var. cordaeana Damp woods and deans, widespread and 
more frequent than P. platyphylla. 

((P. pinnata Published record refers to P. cordaeana.)) 

FRULLANLACEAE 

Frullania tamarisci Tree trunks and rocky slopes, widespread. 
F. fragilifolia Dry rocks, very local. Gateheugh, Elba 1926. 
F. dilatata Trunks of old trees, widespread. 



81 



LEJEUNEACEAE 

Lejeunea cavifolia Shady deans. Widespread, especially near coast. 

L. lamacerina Shady ravines, very local. Pease Dean, Dowlaw Dean, 
Penmanshiel. 

Cololejeunea rosettiana Very rare. Basic rocks in ravines. Pease Dean. 

MUSCI 

(Mosses) 

SPHAGNACEAE 

Sphagnum imbricatum ssp. austinii Raised bogs, very rare. Dogden 
Moss. 

S. papillosum Raised and blanket bogs, local. Long Bog, Dogden Moss, 
Shiningpool Moss, Coldingham Moor 1949. 

S. palustre Acid heaths and bogs, damp birch woods. Widespread. 
S. magellanicum Raised and blanket bogs, rare. Turf Law, Fallago Ridge 
Head, Dogden Moss. 

S. squarrosum Damp birch woods, especially those on mosses such as 
Long Moss, Redpath Moss and Gordon Moss. 

S. teres Basic flushes in hills, rare. Wheel bum. 

S. fimbriatum Similar habitats to 5. squarrosum, but less common. 

Penmanshiel Moss, Everett Moss, Gordon Moss, Redpath 

Moss. 

S. girgensohnii Bogs, local but probably under-recorded. Turf Law, 
Redpath Moss, Carfrae Common, Shiel Burn. 

S. russowii Damp streamsides, ditches and banks on bogs and moors, rare. 
Turf Law, Lauder Common, Pickie Moss. 

S. quinquefarium Sheltered gullies in hiUs, rare. Clints Hill. 

S. warnstorfii Fens and basic flushes, rare. Wheel Burn. 

S. capiUifoliumi Heaths, bogs, and damp peaty woodlands. Widespread. 

S. subnitens Mildly basic bogs and mires. Surprisingly local. Longmuir 

Moss, Coldingham Moor, Lauder Common, Fallago Ridge 

Head. 
S. compactum Exposed moors, on drier ground, often amongst heather 

and regenerating after burning. Widespread in Lammermuirs, 

Coldingham and Lamberton Moors. 

S. auriculatum var. auriculatum Flushes and on basic seepage in upland 
areas, local. Blythe Water, Coldingham Moor, Dirrington 
Great Law. 

((S. contortum Old record from Penmanshiel not confirmed.)) 

S. cuspidatum Pools and ditches on heaths and in bogs. Probably 
widespread. Long Bog, Coldingham Moor, Dogden Moss, 
Penmanshiel Moss. 

S. tenellum Damp moorlands, local but probably overlooked. Lauder 
Common, Twinlaw, Dogden Moss, Penmanshiel Moor 
1868. 

82 



S. recurvum var. mucronatum Bogs, heaths, damp birch woods, often 
in ditches. Widespread. 

ANDREAEACEAE 

Andreaea rupestris var. rupestris Dry rocks, screes and walls in uplands. 
Scattered localities. 

TETRAPHIDACEAE 

Tetraphis pellucida Peaty woods and wooded ravines, local. Gledswood, 
Kyles Hill, Langtonlees Cleugh, Aikyside Wood. 

POLYTRICHACEAE 

Polytrichum alpinum Well-drained moorland slopes, local. Hartside, 
Lauder Common, Dirrington Great Law. 

P. longisetum Woods and moors, especially on disturbed peat. Scattered 

localities. 
P. formosum Woods and moors, common. 
P. commune Waterlogged ground on moors, bogs and damp woods. 

Common 

P. piliferum Dry peaty banks, rock outcrops and wall tops. Frequent. 

P. juniperinum Similar habitats to preceding and equally common. 

P. strictum (P. alpestre) Bogs, local. Gordon Moss, Dogden Moss, 
Coldingham Moor. 

(Pogonatum nanxim Peaty woodlands and heaths, rare and not seen recently. 

Foulden Hag Wood 1925, Grantshouse c 1930, Bunkle 

Wood c 1930.) 
P. aloides Shady moorland banks, often on sides of ditches and burns. 

Widespread in uplands. 

P. umigerum Gravelly tracks, roadsides, shingle by burns, old quarries. 

Widespread. 
Oligotrichum hercynicum Stony ground in hOls, rare. Kyles HUl, Harelaw 

Hill 1927. 
Atrichum tenellum Rare. Mud by reservoir. Watch Water. 
A. undulatum (including var. minus) On soil in woods and deans. Frequent. 

BUXBAUMLACEAE 

(Buxbaumia aphylla Probably extinct. Soil-covered wall, Brockholes 
Plantations, pre-1868.) 

ARCHIDIACEAE 

Archidium alternifolium Waterlogged soil and mud, rare. Greenlaw 
Moor, Auchencrow 1927. 

SELIGERIACEAE 
Brachydontium trichodes Shaded sandstone, very rare. Lintlaw Burn 
and Billie Castle, pre-1868. 

83 



Seligeria recurvata Shady basic rock faces, rare. Fangrist Burn, Cockburn 
Mill 1878, Tibby Fowler's Glen 1953, Foulden 1924. 

Blindia acuta Stony flushes, rare. Dowlaw Burn 1927. 

DICRANACEAE 

Pleuridium acuminatum Damp soil, mainly upland. Scattered localities. 

P. subulatum Similar habitats to preceding, but more local. 

Pseudephemerum nitidum Damp soil, mostly in Lammermuirs. 
Occasional. Langtonlees Cleugh since 1833, Watch Water 
Reservoir, Soutra, near Coldingham Sands. 

Ditrichum cylindricum Disturbed soil and fallow fields, easily overlooked 
and probably not rare. Airhouse Wood, Langton, Watch 
Water Reservoir, Penmanshiel. 

D. flexicaule Calcareous turf and banks, especially on coast. Locally 
abundant. 

D. heteromallum Gravelly banks and disturbed soil, calcifuge. Mostly in 
uplands, occasional. 

Ceratodon purpureus var. purpureus Very common on disturbed soil, 
rocks and peat. Avoids basic substrates. 

(Cynodontium jenneri Rocks, walls and screes, rare and not seen this 
century. Bowshiel Dean 1 849, Brockholes pre- 1 868, Chester 
Hill near Lauder, pre- 1868.) 

C. tenellum Very rare. Roadside wall near Elba, 1963. 

C. bruntonii Dry basaltic outcrops, local. Gateheugh, Black Hill, Hume 

Craigs. 

Dichodontium pellucidum Silty boulders, rocks and gravel by burns and 
rivers throughout county. 

((D. flavescens Literature records unsubstantiated.)) 

Dicranella palustris Moorland flushes and burnsides . Decreasing, formerly 
widespread. 

D. schreberana Damp basic soil, widespread by burns in hills. 

D. crispa Damp sandy and gravelly ground, rare. Redpath Hill, Lamberton 

1926. 
D. subulata Damp rocky ground, rare. Lamberton 1924, Elba 1963. 

D. rufescens Soil banks of ditches and burns, scattered. Pickie Moss, Kyles 
Hill, Aikyside Wood. 

D. varia Flushes and seepage on calcareous rocks and soil. Widespread, 

often abundant on coast. 
D. staphylina Arable fields and disturbed soil. Widespread but overlooked. 

D. cerviculata Peat on raised bogs, local. Twinlaw, Dogden Moss, Greenlaw 

Moor, Penmanshiel Moss. 
D. heteromalla Rocks, soil and tree bases in woodland. Frequent. 
Dicranoweisia cirrata Trees, rocks and walls, common. 
Dicranum bonjeanii Moorland flushes and bogs, local and decreasing. 

Gordon Moss, Twinlaw, Dowlaw Burn, Lamberton Moor. 



84 



D. scoparium Woods and moors, common. 

D. majus Woods, cleughs and sea banks, widespread. 

D. undulatum Raised bogs, very rare and threatened. Dogden Moss. 

D. fuscescens var. fuscescens Rocks and tree trunks in upland woods and 
cleughs. Scattered localities. 

(D. montanum Tree trunks and stumps in woodland. Green Wood 1930. 
Extinct through felling of ancient oak woodland.) 

D. tauricum Trees and logs in damp woodland. Longmuir Moss, Duns 

Castle woods, Bunkle Wood, Penmanshiel Wood. 

Dicranodontium denudatum var. denudatum Rocks and logs in damp 
woods, rare. Pickie Moss. 

Campylopus fragilis Peaty and rocky banks. Frequent on coast, local 
elsewhere. 

C. pyriformis var. pyriformis Exposed peat on moors and bogs, widespread. 

C. flexuosus Damp peaty moors and raised bogs, occasionally on logs in 
cleughs. Widespread. 

C. introflexus Peaty woods, moors and raised bogs. First recorded 1969 
in Dye Valley, now widespread. Introduction from Southern 
Hemisphere. 

C. brevipilus Raised bogs, very rare. Coldingham Moor 1926. 

Leucobryum glaucum Damp upland woods and moors. Scattered localities. 

FISSIDENTACEAE 

Fissidens viridulus Soil in lowland woods and on sea banks. Probably 
widespread but easily overlooked. 

F. pusillus var. pusillus Shady basic rock faces in deans, rare. Dunglass 
Dean, Whiteadder near Paxton. 

F. incurvus Calcareous banks on coast, rare. Near Cove, Siccar Point, 
Burnmouth 1929. 

F. bryoides Woods and deans, on soil. Common. 

F. crassipes Intermittently submerged rocks in rivers, local. Tweed near 
Paxton House and Birgham, Whiteadder near Paxton, Elba 
1931. 

F. exilis Shady soil in woodland, rare. Mertoun Bridge, Mordington 1926, 
Green Wood 1926. 

F. osmundoides Basic moorland flushes, rare. Near Cross Law 1927. 

F. taxifolius ssp. taxifolius Woods, deans and sea banks, common. 

F. cristatus Calcareous rocks and soil. Scattered on coast, rare inland. 

F. adianthoides Damp basic rocks and flushes. Scattered localities. 

ENCALYPTACEAE 

Encalypta vulgaris Dry basic rock outcrops, rare and probably decreasing. 
Gateheugh, Hume, Fangrist Burn, Elba. 

E. streptocarpa Locally abundant on mortar of walls, local on natural basic 

outcrops as at Gateheugh and Langtonlees Cleugh. 

85 



POTTIACEAE 

Tortula ruralis Two subspecies occur: 

T. ruralis ssp. ruralis Dry calcareous banks and rock outcrops. 
Rare except on coast. 

T. ruralis ssp. ruraliformis Sandy sea shores, local. Pease Bay, 
Coldingham Sands, Linkim Shore. 

T. intermedia Calcareous walls and rocks, rare. Near Oxton, St Abbs 

1924, Linkim Shore 1933. 
T. princeps Calcareous rock outcrops, very rare. Hume Castle, Gateheugh. 
T. virescens Old tree trunks, very rare. Hume Castle. 
T. laevipila var. laevipila Old ash and sycamore trees, widespread but 

decreasing through loss of trees. 

T. muralis Two varieties occur: 

T. muralis var. muralis Walls and calcareous rocks, very common. 

T. muralis var. aestiva Shady sandstone rock faces, rare. Paxton 
1924, Milne Graden 1924. 

T. subulata Three varieties occur: 

T. subulata var. subulata Calcareous rocks and banks, widespread. 

T. subulata var. angustata Similar habitats to var. subulata but much 
rarer. Clints HUl, Airhouse Quarry, Dowlaw Dean, Coldstream 
1929. 

T. subulata var. graeflEi Basic rock outcrops, very rare. Earnsheugh. 

T. papulosa Old tree trunks, especially ash, sycamore and elder, rarely on 
rock. Widespread. 

T. latifolia Silty rocks, tree roots and logs by rivers. Frequent along Tweed 
and lower reaches of Whiteadder and Blackadder. 

Hennediella macrophylla (R. Brown ter.) Par. (Tortula brevis Whitehouse 

& Newton, Hyophila stanfordensis sensu Corley & Hill in 

part) Footpaths and compacted soil on river banks. Tweed 

at Leaderfoot, Dryburgh, Birgham and Tweedhill, Eden 

Water at Stichill Bridge. 
Aloina aloides var. aloides Dry sunny calcareous banks on coast, local but 

scattered along coast from Cove to Lamberton. 
((A. aloides var. ambigua Records of this are based on misidentifications 

of var. aloides.)) 
Desmatodon convolutus Dry calcareous banks on coast. Locally common 

from Cove to Lamberton. 
Pterygoneuron ovatum Dry sunny calcareous soil on sea banks, rare. 

Siccar Point, Burnmouth. 
Pottia starkeana ssp. conica Calcareous soil on sea banks, rare. Siccar 

Point, Eyemouth 1949. 
P. crinita Calcareous soil on sea banks, rare. Fast Castle, St Abbs Head 

1928, Eyemouth 1949, Burnmouth 1924. 
P. lanceolata Calcareous soil on sea banks, scattered localities from Cove 

to Burnmouth. 



86 



p. intermedia Calcareous soil on sea banks, rare. Eyemouth 1 949 Lamberton 

1931. 
P. truncata Arable fields and disturbed bare soil, frequent. 
P. heimii Soil close to sea. Scattered localities from Cove to Lamberton. 
P. recta Calcareous soil on sea banks, very rare. Burnmouth 1924. 
Phascum cuspidatum Two varieties occur: 

P. cuspidatum var. cuspidatum Arable fields and disturbed soil 

on basic substrates, frequent. 
P. cuspidatumi var. piliferum Calcareous sea banks, rare. Siccar 

Point, Heathery Carr, St Abbs Head, Eyemouth 1927. 
P. curvicolle Calcareous soil on sea banks, very rare. Cove Harbour, Siccar 

Point. 
Acaulon muticum Soil on sea banks and wall tops, rare. Kelphope Glen 

1903, Old Cambus pre-1868, Eyemouth cl930. 

Barbula convoluta Two varieties occur: 

B. convoluta var. convoluta Disturbed basic soil, common. 
B. convoluta var. commutata As preceding but local. Mertoun 
Bridge, Burnmouth 1925. 
B. unguiculata Basic soil and rock outcrops, frequent. 
B. hornschuchiana Banks and stony ground on calcareous soil, scattered 
localities. Hume Craigs, Elba, Siccar Point, Lamberton. 

B. revoluta Limy walls, occasional. Dunglass, Pease Bay, Eyemouth 1924. 
B. fallax Basic stony and sandy ground, banks and rocks, widespread. 

B. spadicea On basic rocks and stones by burns and rivers, scattered 

localities. Langtonlees Cleugh, Whiteadder at Paxton, Tower 

Dean, Dowlaw Dean 1924. 
B. rigidula On walls and bridges, frequent. 
B. nicholsonii On silty basic rocks by rivers, local. Tweed at Birgham, 

Coldstream and Ladykirk, Whiteadder at Whitehall and 

Hutton. 
B. trifaria Damp rocks by rivers and on sea banks, widespread. 

B. tophacea Damp calcareous rock outcrops, especially tufa. Frequent, 

particularly on coast. 
B. vinealis Rocks and boulders by streams, local. Marden, Dowlaw Dean, 

Lamberton 1924. 
B. cylindrica Shady banks, damp walls and rocks by rivers and burns, 

common. 
B. recurvirostra Calcareous banks, rocks and walls, widespread. 
B. ferruginascens Damp basic montane rocks, very rare. Gully on Clints 

Hill. 
Gymnostomum aeruginosum Damp shady basic rock faces, rare. Dowlaw 

Dean, Heathery Carr. 
G. recurvirostrum Wet calcareous rock faces and tufa on coast. Locally 

abundant, Cove to Lamberton. 

87 



Gyroweisia tenuis Basic rock faces and shady limy walls. Locally common 
in calcareous districts. 

((Anoectangium aestivum Published record is erroneous.)) 

Eucladium verticillatum Damp calcareous rock faces, mostly by rivers 
and on coast. Frequent. 

Weissia controversa Three varieties occur: 

W. controversa var. controversa Dry banks on basic soil. 
Widespread. 

W. controversa var. crispata Dry banks by sea, rare. Burnmouth 
1931, Eyemouth 1949. 

W. controversa var. densifolia On rocks by river, very rare. Elba 
1931. 

W. tortilis Dry calcareous rocks and banks by sea, very rare. Burnmouth 

1925. 
W. microstoma var. microstoma Dry banks, widespread. 

Oxystegus sinuosus Silty rocks and boulders by water, rare. Whiteadder 
and Tweed near Paxton, Ale Water 1924. 

O. tenuirostris var. tenuirostris Damp rock face by hill burn, very rare. 
Whalplaw Burn. 

Trichostomum crispulum Basic rocks and soil, not rare on coast, inland 
at Gateheugh and Elba. 

T. brachydontium Basic rocks and soil, mostly on coast. Widespread. 

Tortella tortuosa Basic rocks, very rare. Heathery Carr 1924. 

T. flavovirens var. flavovirens Banks and rock crevices on coast, often 

quite close to sea. Cove to Lamberton, locally abundant. 
Leptodontium flexifolium Exposed peaty soil, especially after burning or 

dismrbance. Local, but more frequent in west. 

Cinclidotus fontinaloides Rocks and boulders in and by rivers and burns, 
frequent in lowlands. 

GRIMMIACEAE 

Schistidium maritimum Rocks close to sea. Locally frequent from Cove 
to Lamberton. 

S. alpicola Two varieties occur: 

S . alpicola var. alpicola Boulders in rivers, rare . Whiteadder, Retreat 

1953, Whiteadder near Foulden 1924, Blackadder near 

Greenlaw cl930. 
S. alpicola var. rivulare Boulders in rivers, frequent. 
S. apocarpum var. apocarpum Dry rocks and walls, common. 
((S. apocarpum var. confertum Not confirmed and probably based on 

misidentification.)) 
Grimmia donniana var. donniana Siliceous rocks, boulders and walls in 

uplands, local. Longmuir Moss, Kettleshiel cl930. 
G. ovalis Acid rocks, very rare. Whiteadder below Elba. 



G. pulvinata var. pulvinata Rocks and walls, very common. 

G. trichophylla Two varieties occur: 

G. trichophylla var. trichophylla Dry rocks and walls, widespread. 

G. trichophylla var. stirtonii Dry rock outcrops, rare. Hoardweel, 
Lumsdaine Dean, St Abbs Head. 

G. hartmanii Siliceous rocks by rivers, rare. Whiteadder below Elba, Dye 
Water near Longformacus 1927. 

G. retracta Siliceous rocks by rivers, very rare. Whiteadder near Hoardweel 
1963. 

Racomitrium aciculare Acid rocks and boulders, usually by burns. 
Scattered localities in uplands. 

R. fasciculare Dry rocks and walls especially in hills, frequent. 
R. heterostichum Rocks and walls, frequent. 

R. sudeticum (Funck) B. & S. Rock outcrops, very rare. Greenwood, 1949. 
R. lanuginosum Dry rocky banks, screes and walls, mostiy in hills. 
Frequent. 

R. ericoides (R. canescens var. ericoides sensu Corley & Hill in part) Sandy 
and gravelly ground in hills, under-recorded due to past 
confusion with next species. Soutra Hill, Airhouse Quarry, 
Longformacus 1927. 

R. elongatum Frisvoll Similar habitats to preceding. Recentiy added to 
British flora and distribution uncertain. Threeburnford, Dye 
Water above Trottingshaw. 

PTYCHOMITRIACEAE 

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Dry rocks, walls and screes in upland areas, 
widespread but possibly declining. 

FUNARIACEAE 

Funaria hygrometrica Waste ground, roadsides, bonfire sites, old quarries. 
Common. 

F. fascicularis Damp disturbed soil, rare. Lauder Burn, Langton Burn 
1953, near St Abbs Head 1924. 

(F. obtusa Damp soil by burns and in ditches, not seen this century. 
Langtonlees Cleugh 1833, Penmanshiel Moor 1854, near 
Ellemford pre- 1868). 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Mud in boggy fields and flushes, local. 
Greenknowe Tower, Fangrist Burn, Edrington cl930, 
Greenheugh Point 1849. 

EPHEMERACEAE 

Ephemerum serratum Damp bare mud and soil, rare. Two varieties 
occur: 
E. serratum var. serratum Watch Water Reservoir. 

E. serratum var. minutissimum Near Old Langtonlees, near 
Burnmouth 1924. 

89 



SPLACHNACEAE 

Tetraplodon mnioides On dung and animal remains in hills, rare. Shiel 
Burn, Penmanshiel Moor 1853, Drakemire pre- 1868. 

Splachnum sphaericum On dung on bogs and moorlands, local. Soutra, 
Dogden Moss, Greenlaw Moor, near Byrecleugh 1929. 

(S. ampuUaceum On dung in fens and mires, rare. Penmanshiel Moor 
1850, Coldingham Moor cl853.) 

BRYACEAE 

Orthodontium lineare Tree bases, logs and stumps in shady woods. An 
incomer from southern hemisphere, now widespread. First 
recorded Whitlaw 1965. 

Leptobryum pyriforme Damp peaty soil and acid rocks, rare. Fangrist 
Burn. Normally widespread in greenhouses, but not recorded 
from this habitat in Berwickshire yet. 

Pohlia cruda Clefts of rock faces, scattered localities. 
P. nutans Peaty soil in woods and on moors, frequent. 
P. drummondii Damp gravel by burns, rare. Dye Water at Longformacus 
1927. 

P. bulbifera Damp disturbed soil, rare. Soutra, Hule Moss 1928. 

P. annotina Damp dismrbed soil. Scattered localities in uplands. Two 

segregate species occur (sensu J. Shaw) but their distribution 

is poorly known: 
P. annotina s.str. Watch Water Reservoir, Well Cleugh Bum, 

Green Wood 1925. 

P. proligera Whiteadder at Elba. 

P. camptotrachela Damp soil by ditches and reservoirs, local. Longmuir 
Moss, Soutra, Watch Water Reservoir, near Foulden 1924. 

P. lutescens Shaded soil in woods, rare. Sturdon Burn near Chapel on 

Leader. 
P. carnea On damp clay banks in woods and by rivers and burns, 

widespread. 
P. wahlenbergii var. wahlenbergii Damp disturbed soU, springs, flushes 

and burnsides, frequent. 
Anomobryum filiforme var. filiforme Damp rocks and gravel by rivers, 

local. Blythe Water, Elba, Edin's Hall, Primrose Hill 1875. 

((Bryum marratii Record based on a misidentification.)) 

B. pallens var. pallens Damp gravelly burnsides, wet banks and flushes, 

widespread. 
B. inclinatum Damp rocks by streams, rare. Lumsdaine Dean. 
((B. intermedium Old records from Oldcambus, Ale Water and Billie Mill 

are doubtful and require confirmation.)) 
B. capillare var. capillare Rocks, walls and tree trunks, very common. 
B. elegans Exposed rocks, very rare Heathery Carr 1924. 



90 



B. flaccidum Rocks and tree trunks in woods and thickets, frequent. Often 
on Elders. 

B. pallescens Damp basic rocks, very rare. Near Coldingham Sands. 

B. pseudotriquetrum Marshy ground, flushes and bogs, frequent. Two 
varieties occur: 

B. pseudotriquetrum var. pseudotriquetrum Frequent. 

B. pseudotriquetrum var. bimum Rare; Lamberton Moor 1930. 

B. caespiticium var. caespiticium Rocks, walls and fallen trees, probably 
widespread but reliably recorded only from Threeburnford, 
Oxendean and Gavinton. 

(B. alpinum Damp gravelly moorland tracks, very rare. Penmanshiel Moor 
pre- 1868, Drakemire 1878.) 

B. bicolor Disturbed soil and waste ground, frequent. 

B. gemmiferum Damp mud, rare. River Tweed near Homebank. 

B. dunense Sea banks and cliff tops, rare. Fast Castle. 

B. argenteum Sunny banks, rock outcrops and wall tops. Two varieties 
occur: 

B. argenteum var. argenteumi Common. 

B. argenteum var. lanatum Local. Burnmouth, Elba 1963. 

B. radiculosum Mortar of walls, widespread; rare on basic rocks and soil. 

B. violaceum Arable fields, local but under-recorded. Edin's Hall, 
Penmanshiel, near Grizelrig. 

B. klinggraeffii Arable fields, rare but under-recorded. Near Grizelrig. 

B. sauteri Sandy soil, rare. Bowshiel Dean. 

B. microerythrocarpum Disturbed soil and arable fields, widespread. 

B. rubens As preceding but more frequent on basic soils. 

Rhodobryum roseum Woods and calcareous grassland, rare. Near 
Hoardweel 1956, Oldcambus 1868, Dunglass Dean 1853, 
Penmanshiel Wood 1849, Dowlaw Dean cl930. 

MNIACEAE 

Mnium homum On banks, rocks, logs and tree bases in woods, common. 

M. marginatum var. marginatum Shady rock faces, rare. Langtonlees 
Cleugh, Whiteadder at Ninewells 1938. 

M. stellare Rocky banks and walls in deans and by rivers, local. Clints Hill, 
Langtonlees Cleugh, Pease Dean, Dunglass Dean. 

Rhizomnium punctatum Shady rocks in woods, deans and on river 
banks, frequent. 

R. pseudopunctatum Basic flushes and mires, rare. Pickie Moss, Dowlaw 
Burn, Drakemire pre- 1868. 

Plagiomnium cuspidatum Old walls, rare. Penmanshiel Moor pre- 1868. 

P. aflOne Damp grassland and flushes, rare. Clints Hill, Bemersyde Moss 
1964. 



91 



p. elatum Basic flushes in upland areas, scattered localities. 

P. ellipticum Basic flushes and mires, rare. Glints Hill, Wheel Burn, 
Fangrist Burn, Kippetlaw Burn. 

P. undulatum On banks in woods and deans and on sea banks, frequent. 

P. rostratum Rocks and soil in woods, deans and on river banks. Frequent 
in lowlands. 

Pseudobryvim cinclidioides Mires, very rare . Locally abundant at Longmuir 
Moss. 

AULACOMNIACEAE 

Aulacomnium palustre var. palustre Bogs, mosses and damp peaty 
woods, frequent. 

A. androgynum Tree trunks and logs in damp woods, very rare. On 

willows, Longmuir Moss. 

MEESLACEAE 

(Amblyodon dealbatus Basic flushes, very rare. Gunsgreen pre- 1868, Ale 
Water pre-1868.) 

BARTRAML\CEAE 

Bartramia pomiformis Rocky banks in cleughs and crevices of rock 
outcrops. Widespread, mostly in upland areas. 

B. ithyphylla As preceding, but less common. 

Philonotis amellii Damp gravelly ground, rare. Drakemire 1 926, Foulden 

Hag Wood 1923. 
P. caespitosa Damp shaded rocks and soil, rare. Manderston, Lamberton 

1927. 

P. fontana Damp streamsides, flushes, ditches and bogs, mostly in hills. 
Frequent. 

P. calcarea Basic moorland flushes, rare. Wheel Burn, Greenlaw Moor, 
Dowlaw Burn, Lamberton Moor cl930. 

(Breutelia chrysocoma Damp moorlands, rare and not seen recently. 
Coldingham Moor 1 949, Drakemire 1927, Lamberton Moor 
pre-1868.) 

ORTHOTRICHACEAE 

Amphidium mougeotii On basic seepage on shady rock faces, local. 
Whalplaw Burn, Tweed below Gateheugh, Elba. 

Zygodon viridissimus Two varieties occur: 

Z. viridissimus var. viridissimus Trunks of old trees, occasionally 

on walls. Frequent. 
Z. viridissimus var. stirtonii Dry rock outcrops. Frequent on 
coast, local inland. 
Orthotrichum striatum On trees in damp woods, very rare. Gordon 
Moss, Longformacus 1927. 



92 



O. lyellii On old trees, especially Ash and Sycamore, widespread but 
declining. 

O. aflBne Tree trunks and occasionally rocks, common. 

O. rupestre On dry basic rock outcrops, local. Hume Craigs, Lumsdaine 
Dean, Dowlaw Dean. 

O. rivulare Silty rocks and logs in rivers. Scattered localities mostly on 
Tweed, Whiteadder and Eye. 

O. anomalum Rocks and walls, widespread. 

O. cupulatum Two varieties occur: 

O. cupulatum var. cupulatum On rocks, often close to water, 
widespread. 

O. cupulatum var. riparium Silty rocks by rivers, scattered localities. 
Blythe Water, Earnscleugh Water, Tweed at Birgham, 
Paxton and Ladykirk. 

O. stramineum On trees, widespread but usually in small quantity. 

O. teneUum On old trees, rare. Retreat 1 929, Mordington 1 926, Coldingham 
Loch cl930. 

O. diaphanum Rocks, walls and tree trunks, frequent. 

O. pulchellum On Elder and Willow in damp thickets, widespread. 

Ulota drummondii On trees (often Hazel) in ancient woodlands, local. 
Langtonlees Cleugh, Greenwood 1929, Dowlaw Dean 1924. 

U. bruchii (U. crispa var. norvegica) On trees, mostly in upland woods and 
cleughs, frequent. 

U. crispa As preceding, but less common and often confused in past with 
it. 

U. phyllantha Trees and rocks, scattered localities especially near coast. 

HEDWIGIACEAE 

Hedwigia ciliata Dry acid rock outcrops and dykes, mostly in uplands. 
Widespread. 

FONTINALACEAE 

Fontinalis antipyretica Floating in rivers, burns, ponds and reservoirs. 
Two varieties occur: 

F. antipyretica var. antipyretica Frequent. 

F. antipyretica var. gigantea Rare. Whiteadder below Cawderstanes, 
Lumsdaine Dean. 

CLIMACIACEAE 

Climacium dendroides Damp basic grasslands, marshes, bogs and 
streamsides. Frequent. 

LEUCODONTACEAE 

Cryphaea heteromalla On old Elders and Willows in damp thickets, very 
rare. Gordon Moss. 



93 



Leucodon sciuroides var. sciuroides On old Ash and Sycamore trees, 
rare and declining. Polwartii Church, Greenknowe Tower, 
Langton Burn 1953, Cumledge Bridge cl930. 

Antitrichia curtipendula On old trees and walls, very rare and declining. 
Mellerstain, Foulden Dean cl930, Ale Water pre- 1868, 
Penmanshiel 1849. 

Pterogonium gracile Dry basic rock outcrops, rare. Gateheugh, St Abbs 
Head, Oldcambus pre- 1868. 

NECKERACEAE 

Neckera crispa Dry basic rocks, rare. Earnsheugh, Cowdenknowes cl 930, 
Dowlaw Dean 1924. 

N. complanata Trees and rocks in woods and deans. Widespread. 

Homalia trichomanoides Rocks, tree bases and roots in woods and deans . 
Scattered localities. 

THAMNIACEAE 

Thamnobryum alopecurum Shady rock faces and walls by lowland burns 
and rivers, often by waterfalls. Frequent. 

HOOKERIACEAE 

Hookeria lucens Wet shady banks in deans, ravines and on sea banks, local. 
Langtonlees Cleugh, Edin's Hall, Dunglass Dean, Lamberton. 

LESKEACEAE 

Leskea polycarpa Silty rocks and logs by rivers, occasional. Tweed at 
Gledswood, Birgham and Lennel, Whiteadder above 
Cockburn Mill 1930, 

THUIDIACEAE 

Heterocladium heteropterum Two varieties occur: 

H. heteropterum var. heteropterum Shady rocks in woods, rare. 
Pease Dean, Brockholes Wood 1926, Duns Castle Woods 
C1930. 

H. heteropterum var. flaccidum More common than preceding. 

Cowdenknowes, Blythe Water, Godscroft, Dunglass Dean, 

Pease Dean. 
Anomodon viticulosus Calcareous rocks in deans and by rivers, scattered. 
Thuidium tamariscinum Damp woods, frequent. 
T. philibertii Calcareous grassland, rare. Greenlaw, Foulden Burn. 

AMBLYSTEGIACEAE 
Cratoneuron filicinum var. filicinum Damp basic rocks and soil, frequent. 
C. commutatum Two varieties occur: 

C. commutatum var. commutatum Base-rich flushes, springs, 
fens and tufa outcrops. Widespread; frequent on coast. 



94 



C. commutatum var. falcatum Fens and basic flushes, local. Turf 
Law, Dowlaw Burn and scattered on coast. 

Campylium stellatum Two varieties occur; 

C. stellatum var. stellatum Basic flushes and fens, local. Wheel 
Burn, Fangrist Burn, Dowlaw Moss, Lamberton Moor 
cl930. 

C. stellatum var. protensum Damp calcareous rocky and grassy 

banks. Scattered localities on coast, rare inland. 

C. chrysophyllum Sea banks, rare. Lamberton Beach 1925. 
C. polygamum Damp basic flushes, rare. Gunsgreen. 

C. elodes Rich fens, very rare. Lamberton Moor 1950, Penmanshiel Moss 

pre-1868. 

Amblystegium serpens var. serpens Shady rocks, banks, old walls and 
tree trunks (especially Elder), frequent in woods. Very 
common. 

A. fluviatile Rocks and boulders in and by burns and rivers, widespread. 

A. tenax As preceding but generally more common. 

A. varium Marshy and muddy ground, often by ponds. Mire Loch, 
Bemersyde Moss 1964. 

A. riparium Damp rocks, logs and mud by rivers and ponds, widespread. 

A. compactum Shady calcareous rock faces, often in deep clefts and caves, 
rare. Dunglass dean, Allanton 1926, Cawderstanes 1927, St 
Abbs Head 1932, Lamberton 1937. 

Drepanocladus aduncus Springs and marshes, rare. Coldingham Loch, 
Penmanshiel Moss cl930. 

D. fluitans var. falcatus Damp peaty hollows on blanket bogs. Scattered 

throughout Lammermuirs and on Coldingham Moor. 

D. exannulatus Two varieties occur: 

D. exannulatus var. exannulatus Basic flushes, mires, and mosses, 

local. Kippetlaw Burn, Shiel Burn, Penmanshiel Moss. 

D. exannulatus var. rotae Basic flushes and fens, rare. Fangrist 
Burn, Dowlaw Moss. 

D. revolvens Basic flushes and fens, local. Fangrist Burn, Greenlaw Moor, 
Dowlaw Moss, Lamberton Moor. 

D. uncinatus Damp heathy woods and rocky banks and amongst Willows 
in mosses, widespread. 

Hygrohypnum ochraceum Rocks in rivers and upland burns, local. 

Headshaw Burn, Shiel Burn, Edin's Hall, Longformacus 

1927. 
H. luridum var. luridum Rocks in rivers and burns. Scattered localities 
H. eugyrium Rocks in rivers, rare. Whiteadder near Edin's Hall, 1929. 
Scorpidium scorpioides Mires and fens, rare and declining. Dowlaw 

Burn, Dogden Moss cl930, Lamberton Moor 1950, 

Drakemire pre-1868. 



95 



Calliergon stramineum Bogs and mosses, scattered localities. Longmuir 
Moss, Blythe Water, Gordon Moss, Twinlaw. 

C. cordifolium Mires and mosses, widespread but not common. 

C. giganteum Fens and mires, scattered but declining. Pickie Moss, 
Fangrist Burn, Coldingham Moor, Lamberton Moor 1950. 

C. cuspidatum Damp grassy ground on sea banks, in woods and deans and 
throughout uplands. Common. 

BRACHYTHECIACEAE 

Isothecium myurum Rocks and trees in woods, deans, cleughs and by 
rivers and on sea banks. Frequent. 

I. myosuroides Two varieties occur: 

I. myosuroides var. myosuroides Rocks and trees, frequent. 

I. myosuroides var. brachythecioides Sheltered sea banks, very 
rare. Heathery Carr. 

Homalothecium sericeum Calcareous rocks and walls, and on old Ash 
and Sycamore trees, common. 

H. lutescens Dry calcareous grassland, not uncommon on coast, local 
inland. 

H. nitens Rich fens, approaching extinction through drainage. Wheel 
Burn, Longmuir Moss 1878, Fangrist Burn 1932, near 
Ellemford pre- 1868, Penmanshiel Moss 1849, Coldingham 
Moor pre- 1868. 

Brachythecium albicans Dry grassy ground; frequent on coast, local 
inland. 

B. glareosum Dry calcareous grassland and rocky slopes, local. Langtonlees 
Cleugh, Tweed near Paxton, Coldingham Bay, Lamberton. 

B. mildeanum Damp grassy ground, rare. Lumsdaine 1927, near St Abbs 
Head cl930. 

B. rutabulum Woods, hedgerows, river banks, deans and sea banks, very 
common. 

B. rivulare Damp woods, river banks, marshes, moorland burns and 
flushes, frequent. 

B. velutinum Trees and rocks in shady woods and deans. Scattered 
throughout county. 

B. populeum Trees and rocks in woods and deans, widespread. 

B. plumosum Rocks and boulders in rivers and burns, widespread. 

Pseudoscleropodium purum Woods, moors, grasslands and sea banks. 
Frequent. 

Scleropodium cespitans Silty rocks, logs and tree trunks by rivers. 
Frequent by Tweed from Leaderfoot to Paxton. 

Cirriphyllum piliferum Damp woods and deans. Frequent. 

C. crassinervium Shady rocks and tree trunks in calcareous districts. Not 

uncommon near coast. 



96 



Rhynchostegium riparioides Rocks and boulders in rivers and burns. 
Frequent especially in uplands. 

R. murale Shaded basic rocks and walls in calcareous districts, rare. 
Redpath Dean, Langton Burn cl930, Coldstream 1929, 
Paxton 1924. 

R. confertum Rocks and logs in shady woods and deans. Widespread in 

lowlands. 
R. megapolitanum Damp grassy sea banks, very rare. Burnmouth. 
Eurhynchium striatum Woods, deans and sea banks, common. 

E. pumilum Shady basic rock outcrops, especially in deans. Scattered in 
lowlands. 

E. praelongum Two varieties occur: 

E. praelongum var. praelongum Woods, hedgerows, deans, cleughs 
and sea banks. Very common. 

E. praelongum var. stokesii Damp woods, rare. Edin's Hall, AUanton 
1926, Longformacus cl930. 

E. swartzii Two varieties occur: 

E. swartzii var. swartzii Woods, fields, river banks and on coast. 
Frequent. 

E. swartzii var. rigidum Shady woods and deans on calcareous 
substrates, local. Pease Dean, Paxton, Milne Graden 1924, 
Allanton 1926. 

E. schleicheri Deans and river banks on calcareous substrates, rare. Pease 
Dean, Langton Burn, Ladykirk Bridge, Lennel cl930. Ale 
Water 1924. 

E. speciosum Damp shady rocks, very rare. Dowlaw Dean. 

Rhynchostegiella tenella var. tenella Shady basic rocks and walls in 
deans, local. Langtonlees Cleugh, Pease Dean, Dunglass 
Dean, Lennel. 

R. teesdalei Wet shaded basic rocks, local. Dowlaw Dean, St Abbs 1923, 
Foulden Dean 1923, River Eye 1955. 

PLAGIOTHECIACEAE 

(Plagiothecium latebricola On tree stumps, very rare and possibly extinct. 
Brockholes Wood 1926.) 

P. denticulatum var. denticulatum Shady rocks, waUs, banks, stumps 
and tree bases in woodland. Frequent. 

P. curvifolium Tree bases in shady woods, overlooked and possibly 
widespread. Langtonlees Cleugh, Bunkle Wood, Tower 
Dean, Paxton. 

P. laetum Tree bases and stumps in damp woods, rare. Pickie Moss. 

P. cavifolium Basic rocks in ravines, very rare. Langtonlees Cleugh. 

P. succulentum Rocks, banks and stumps in woods, frequent. 

((P. nemorale Not confirmed. Old records refer to preceding, but could 
occur on basic rocks.)) 

97 



p. undulamm Upland woods, heaths and sea banks, frequent. 

(Isopterygium pulchellum Rock ledges, rare. Buskin Burn 1868. Other 
old records require confirmation.) 

I. elegans On banks in shady woods, favouring acid soils, Frequent. 

Taxiphyllum wissgrillii Basic rocks and banks in deans . Scattered localities 
in eastern half of county. 

HYPNACEAE 

Pylaisia polyantha On elm, elder and willow in damp woods, local. Stichill 
Bridge, Lochton, Bluestoneford, Hutton Bridge. 

Hypnum cupressiforme Three varieties occur: 

H. cupressiforme var. cupressiforme Trees, rocks and walls. 
Common. 

H. cupressiforme var. resupinatum Dry rocks and tree trunks, 
common. 

H. cupressiforme var. lacunosum Sunny calcareous slopes, frequent 
on coast, local inland. 

H. miammillatum Trees in upland woods and cleughs, local. Langtonlees 
Cleugh, Pease Dean, Penmanshiel, 

H. jutlandicum Upland woods, moors, bogs and sea banks.Frequent. 

H. imponens Raised and blanket bogs, very rare. Greenlaw Moor, Dogden 
Moss 1932, Drakemire 1927. 

H. lindbergii Damp stony tracks, burnsides, old quarries, woods. Scattered 
localities. Blythe Water, Duns Castle 1927, Drakemire 1925. 

(Ptilium crista-castrensis Old pine plantations, not seen recently. Bunkle 
Wood 1926, Blackhouse Dean pre- 1868, Bunkle Edge pre- 
1868.) 

Ctenidium molluscum var. moUuscum Calcareous rocks and banks and 
in mires and fens. Widespread. 

((C. molluscum var. condensatum Record based on a misidentification 

of var. molluscum.)) 

Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus Woods and heaths, especially on basic soils. 
Frequent. 

R. squarrosus Roadsides, old pastures, heaths, woods and sea banks. Very 
common. 

R. loreus Upland woods and heaths, favouring acid soils. Frequent. 

Pleurozium schreberi Moors, upland woods and sea banks, common. 

Hylocomium splendens Heathy woods, moors and sea banks. Common. 



98 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Main sources used for records 

Authors, various. (1831-1987). In: History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' 

Club. For indices to botanical papers, see: 1831-1931, Centenary 

Vol., 90-95; 1932-1980, Sesquicentenary Vol., 121-129. The 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, Berwick upon Tweed. 

. Plant records. In: Watsonia. The Botanical Society of the British Isles. 

. New Vice-county Records. In: Transactions of the British Bryological 

Society, Journal of Bryology, Bulletin of the British Bryological 

Society. 

. Botanical papers. In: Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Corley, M. F. V. and Hill, M. O. (1981). Distribution of Bryophytes in the 

British Isles. British Bryological Society. 
Duncan, J. B. (1946). A list of the Bryophytes of Berwickshire. In: Transactions 

of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 
Hardy, J. (1868). Moss Flora of the Eastern Borders. In: History of the 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. 
Hayward, I. M. and Druce, G. C. (1919). The adventive Flora of Tweedside. 

T. Buncle, Arbroath. 
Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (1960-1989). Biological Records Centre, 

Monks Wood Experimental Station. Plant records. 

Jermy, A. C, Arnold, H. R., Farrell, L. and Perring, F. H. (1978). Atlas of ferns 

of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles and British 

Pteridological Society, London. 
Johnston, G. (1829-1831). A Flora of Berwick on Tweed. J. Carfrae and Son, 

Edinburgh, and Longman, London. 
(1853). The Natural History of the Eastern Borders. J. van Voorst, 

London. 
Kelly, A. and Shaw, W. (1902). In: Thomson, A. Lauder and Lauderdale. 

Galashiels. 
Long, A. G. and Braithwaite, M. E. Manuscript: A card index of the flora of 

Berwickshire. Held by M. E. B. 
Long, D. G. Manuscript: A card index of the bryophyte flora of Berwickshire. 

Held by D. G. L. 
Macvicar, S. M. (1910). The distribution of Hepaticae in Scotland. In: 

Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 
Nature Conservancy Council (1960-1989). Internal memoranda: lists of plant 

species and site reports. 
Perring, F. H. and Walters, S. M. (eds.) (1976). Atlas of the Flora of the British 

Isles, 2nd edition. BP Publishing for the Botanical Society of the British 

Isles, Wakefield. 
Scottish Wildlife Trust (1960-1989). Internal memoranda: lists of plant species 

and site reports. 



99 



Smith, A. J. E. (ed.) (1978). Provisional atlas of the Bryophytes of the British 
Isles. Biological Records Centre. 

Thompson, J. V. (1807). A Catalogue of Plants growing in the vicinity of 
Berwick on Tweed. J. White, London. 

Selected reference works. 

Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G. & Warburg, E.F. (1981). Excursion Flora of the 
British Isles. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press. 

Corner, R. W. M. (1985). Flowering plants and ferns of Selkirkshire and 
Roxburghshire. Botanical Society of the British Isles. 

Dandy, J. E. (1969). Watsonian vice-counties of Great Britain. The Ray 
Society, London. 

Macvicar, S. M. (1926, reprint 1971). The Student's Handbook of British 
Hepatics. 2nd ed. Wheldon & Wesley, Hitchin. 

Martin, W. K. (1982). A new concise British Flora. Ebury Press and Michael 
Joseph, London. 

Rose, F. (1981). The wild flower key. Warne, London. 

Silverside, A. S. & Jackson, E. H. (1988). A checklist of the Flowering Plants 
ands Ferns of East Lothian. Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Smith, A. J. E. (1978). The Moss Flora of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge 
University Press. 

Watson, E. V. (1968). British Mosses and Liverworts. 2nd ed. Cambridge 
University Press. 



100 



INDEX OF GENERA 
FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



Abies 

Acaena 

Acer 

Achillea 

Acinos 

Aconitum 

Acorus 

Actaea 

Adoxa 

Aegopodium 

Aesculus 

Aethusa 

Agrimonia 

Agropyron 

Agrostemma 

Agrostis 

Aira 

Ajuga 

Alchemilla 

Alisma 

Alliaria 

Allium 

Alnus 

Alopecurus 

Ammophila 

Amsinckia 

Anacamptis 

Anagallis 

Anchusa 

Anemone 

Angelica 

Antennaria 

Ant±iemis 

Anthoxanthum 

Anthriscus 

Anthyllis 

Antirrhinum 

Aphanes 

Apium 

Aquilegia 

Arabidopsis 

Arabis 

Arctium 

Arctostaphylos 

Aremonia 

Arenaria 



1 7 Armeria 

3 1 Armoracia 

27 Arrhenatherum 

52 Artemisia 

47 Arum 

1 8 Asarum 
61 Asplenium 
18 Astragalus 
50 Astrantia 
36 Athyrium 
27 Atriplex 
36 A vena 

3 1 Avenula 

66 BaldeUia 
24 Ballota 

67 Barbarea 

66 Bellis 

48 Berberis 
31 Berula 
56 Betonica 
22 Betula 
58 Bidens 

39 Blechnum 

67 Blysmus 
67 Borago 

43 Botrychium 

60 Brachypodium 

41 Brassica 

43 Briza 

1 8 Bromus 
36 Buddleja 
52 Butomus 

52 Buxus 
66 Cakile 

35 Callitriche 
29 Calluna 

44 Caltha 

3 1 Calystegia 

36 Camelina 

1 9 Campanula 
22 Capsella 
22 Cardamine 

53 Cardaria 

40 Carduus 
3 1 Carex 
25 Carlina 



41 Carpinus 39 

21 Castanea 39 

66 Catabrosa 65 

53 Catapodium 64 

61 Centaurea 53 

37 Centaurium 42 
16 Centranthus 50 
29 Cerastium 24 

35 Ceratophyllum 20 

16 Ceterach 16 
25 Chaenorhinum 44 
66 Chaerophyllum 35 
66 Chamaemelum 52 

55 Chamaenerion 34 
48 Chamerion 34 
21 Cheiranthus 22 

52 Chelidonium 20 

19 Chenopodium 25 

36 Chrysanthemum 52 

48 Chrysosplenium 33 

38 Cicerbita 54 
51 Cichorium 53 

17 Cicuta 36 

62 Circaea 34 

43 Cirsium 53 
15 Cladium 62 
65 Clematis 18 

20 Clinopodium 47 
65 Cochlearia 21 
65 Coeloglossum 60 
41 Conium 36 

56 Conopodium 35 
27 Convolvulus 44 

21 Corallorhiza 60 
35 Cornus 35 
40 Coronopus 21 

18 Corydalis 20 

44 Corylus 39 

22 Cotoneaster 32 

49 Cotula 52 
21 Crambe 21 
21 Crataegus 32 
21 Crepis 54 

53 Cryptogramma 16 
62 Cuscuta 44 
53 Cymbalaria 44 

101 



Flowering Plants and Fevns-Cont. 



Cynoglossum 


42 


Fraxinus 


42 


Juniperus 


18 


Cynosurus 


65 


Fuchsia 


34 


Knautia 


50 


Cystopteris 


16 


Fumaria 


20 


Koeleria 


66 


Cytisus 


28 


Gagea 


57 


Laburnum 


28 


Dactylis 


65 


Galanthus 


59 


Lactuca 


54 


Dactylorhiza 


60 


Galeobdolon 


48 


Lamiastrum 


48 


Danthonia 


67 


Galeopsis 


48 


Lamium 


48 


Daphne 


34 


Galinsoga 


51 


Laps ana 


53 


Datura 


44 


Galium 


49 


Larix 


17 


Daucus 


37 


Genista 


28 


Lathraea 


46 


Deschampsia 


66 


Gentianella 


42 


Lathyrus 


29 


Descurainia 


22 


Geranium 


26 


Lavatera 


26 


Desmazeria 


64 


Geum 


31 


Lemna 


61 


Dianthus 


24 


Glaucium 


20 


Leontodon 


53 


Digitalis 


45 


Glaux 


41 


Lepidium 


21 


Diphasiastrum 


15 


Glechoma 


48 


Leucanthemum 


52 


Dipsacus 


50 


Glyceria 


65 


Leucorchis 


60 


Doronicum 


51 


Gnaphalium 


52 


Levisticum 


36 


Draba 


21 


Goodyera 


60 


Leymus 


66 


Drosera 


33 


Gymnadenia 


60 


Ligusticum 


36 


Dryopteris 


16 


Gymnocarpium 


17 


Ligustrum 


42 


Echinops 


53 


Hedera 


35 


Lilium 


57 


Echium 


44 


Helianthemum 


23 


Linaria 


44 


Eleocharis 


61 


Helictotrichon 


66 


Linnaea 


50 


Eleogiton 


62 


Helleborus 


18 


Linum 


26 


Elodea 


56 


Heracleum 


36 


Listera 


59 


Elymus 


66 


Hesperis 


22 


Lithospermum 


43 


Empetrum 


41 


Hieracium 


54 


Littorella 


49 


Endymion 


58 


Hippophae 


34 


Lolium 


64 


Epilobium 


34 


Hippuris 


35 


Lonicera 


50 


Epipactis 


59 


Holcus 


66 


Lotus 


29 


Equisetum 


15 


Honkenya 


25 


Lunaria 


21 


Eranthis 


18 


Hordelymus 


66 


Lupinus 


28 


Erica 


40 


Hordeum 


66 


Luzula 


59 


Erinus 


45 


Humulus 


38 


Lychnis 


23 


Eriophorum 


61 


Huperzia 


15 


Lycopersicon 


44 


Erodium 


27 


Hyacinthoides 


58 


Lycopodium 


15 


Erophila 


21 


Hydrocotyle 


35 


Lycopsis 


43 


Erysimum 


22 


Hyoscyamus 


44 


Lycopus 


47 


Euonymus 


27 


Hypericum 


23 


Lysimachia 


41 


Eupatorium 


52 


Hypochaeris 


53 


Lythrum 


33 


Euphorbia 


37 


Iberis 


21 


Mahonia 


19 


Euphrasia 


46 


Ilex 


27 


Malus 


32 


Fagus 


39 


Impatiens 


27 


Malva 


26 


Fallopia 


37 


Inula 


51 


Marrubium 


48 


Festuca 


64 


Iris 


59 


Matricaria 


52 


Filago 


52 


Isolepis 


62 


Meconopsis 


20 


Filipendula 


30 


Juglans 


38 


Medicago 


28 


Fragaria 


30 


Juncus 


58 


Melampyrum 


46 



102 



Flowering Plants and Ferns-Cont. 



Melica 


65 


Peplis 


34 


Ribes 


33 


Melilotus 


28 


Petasites 


51 


Rorippa 


22 


Mentha 


47 


Petroselinum 


36 


Rosa 


31 


Menyanthes 


42 


Peucedanum 


36 


Rubus 


30 


Mercurialis 


37 


Phalaris 


67 


Rumex 


38 


Mertensia 


43 


Phegopteris 


16 


Ruscus 


57 


Milium 


67 


Phleum 


67 


Sagina 


24 


Mimulus 


45 


Phragmites 


67 


Sagittaria 


56 


Minuartia 


25 


Phuopsis 


49 


Salix 


39 


Moehringia 


25 


Phyllitis 


16 


Salsola 


26 


Molinia 


67 


Picea 


17 


Sambucus 


49 


Montia 


25 


Picris 


54 


Samolus 


41 


Mycelis 


54 


Pilosella 


54 


Sanguisorba 


31 


Myosotis 


43 


Pimpinella 


36 


Sanicula 


35 


Myosoton 


24 


Pinguicula 


47 


Saponaria 


24 


Myrica 


38 


Pinus 


17 


Sarothamnus 


28 


Myriophyllum 


34 


Plantago 


48 


Saxifraga 


33 


Myrrhis 


35 


Platanthera 


60 


Scabiosa 


51 


Narcissus 


59 


Poa 


64 


Scandix 


35 


Nardus 


67 


Polemonium 


42 


Schoenoplectus 


62 


Narthecium 


57 


Polygala 


23 


Schoenus 


62 


Nasmrtium 


22 


Polygonatum 


57 


Scilla 


58 


Neottia 


59 


Polygonum 


37 


Scirpus 


61 


Nepeta 


48 


Polypodium 


17 


Scleranthus 


25 


Nonnea 


43 


Polystichum 


17 


Scrophularia 


45 


Nuphar 


19 


Populus 


39 


Scutellaria 


48 


Nymphaea 


19 


Potamogeton 


56 


Sedum 


32 


Nymphoides 


42 


Potentilla 


30 


Selaginella 


15 


Odontites 


46 


Poterium 


31 


Sempervivum 


32 


Oenanthe 


36 


Primula 


41 


Senecio 


51 


Oenothera 


34 


Prunella 


47 


Sherardia 


49 


Ononis 


28 


Prunus 


32 


Sieglingia 


67 


Onopordum 


53 


Pseudorchis 


60 


Silaum 


36 


Ophioglossum 


15 


Pseudotsuga 


17 


Silene 


23 


Orchis 


60 


Pteridium 


16 


Silybum 


53 


Oreopteris 


16 


Puccinellia 


65 


Sinapis 


20 


Origanum 


47 


Pulicaria 


51 


Sison 


36 


Ornithogalum 


58 


Pulmonaria 


43 


Sisymbrium 


22 


Ornithopus 


29 


Pyrola 


40 


Slum 


36 


Osmunda 


15 


Quercus 


39 


Smyrnium 


35 


Oxalis 


27 


Radiola 


26 


Solanum 


44 


Papaver 


20 


Ranunculus 


18 


Solidago 


52 


Parapholis 


67 


Raphanus 


21 


Sonchus 


54 


Parietaria 


38 


Reseda 


22 


Sorbus 


32 


Paris 


58 


Reynoutria 


37 


Sparganium 


61 


Parnassia 


33 


Rhamnus 


28 


Spergula 


25 


Pastinaca 


36 


Rheum 


38 


Spergularia 


25 


Pedicularis 


46 


Rhinanthus 


46 


Spiraea 


30 


Pentaglottis 


43 


Rhododendron 


40 


Stachys 


47 



103 



Flowering Plants and Ferns-Conr. 



Stellaria 


24 


Tilia 


26 


Ulmus 


38 


Succisa 


51 


Torilis 


37 


Urtica 


38 


Symphoricarpos 


50 


Trachystemon 


43 


Utricularia 


47 


Symphytum 


42 


Tragopogon 


54 


Vaccinium 


40 


Syringa 


42 


Trichophorum 


61 


Valeriana 


50 


Tamus 


59 


Trientalis 


41 


Valerianella 


50 


Tanacetum 


52 


Trifolium 


28 


Verbascum 


44 


Taraxacum 


55 


Triglochin 


56 


Verbena 


47 


Taxus 


18 


Tripleurospermum 


52 


Veronica 


45 


Teesdalia 


21 


Trisetum 


66 


Viburnum 


50 


Teucrium 


48 


Triticum 


66 


Vicia 


29 


Thalictrum 


19 


Trollius 


18 


Vinca 


42 


Thelycrania 


35 


Tsuga 


17 


Viola 


22 


Thelypteris 


16 


Tulipa 


57 


Vulpia 


64 


Thlaspi 


21 


Tussilago 


51 


Zannichellia 


57 


Thuja 


18 


Typha 


61 






Thymus 


47 


Ulex 


28 







INDEX OF GENERA 
BRYOPHYTES 



Acaulon 

Aloina 

Amblyodon 

Amblystegium 

Amphidium 

Andreaea 

Aneura 

Anomobryum 

Anomodon 

Anthoceros 

Antinichia 

Apometzgeria 

Archidium 

Anichum 

Aulacomnium 

Barbilophozia 

Barbula 

Barttamia 

Bazzania 

Blasia 

Blepharostoma 

Blindia 

Brachydontium 

Brachythecium 



87 Breutelia 

86 Bryum 

92 Buxbaumia 

95 Calliergon 
92 Calypogeia 
83 Campylium 
78 Campylopus 
90 Cephalozia 
94 Cephaloziella 

77 Ceratodon 
94 Chiloscyphus 

78 Cinclidotus 
83 Cirriphyllum 

83 Climacium 
92 Cololejeunea 
78 Conocephalum 

87 Cratoneuron 
92 Cryphaea 

8 1 Ctenidium 

78 Cynodontium 

81 Desmatodon 

84 Dichodontium 
83 Dicranella 

96 Dicranodontium 



92 Dicranoweisia 84 
90 Dicranum 84 

83 Diplophyllum 80 
96 Dittichum 84 

81 Drepanocladus 95 

95 Encalypta 85 

85 Ephemerum 89 
80 Eucladium 88 
80 Eurhynchium 97 

84 Fissidens 85 
79 Fontinalis 93 
88 Fossombronia 78 

96 Frullania 81 

93 Funaria 89 

82 Grimmia 88 
77 Gymnocolea 79 

94 Gymnostomum 87 
93 Gyroweisia 88 
98 Hedwigia 93 
84 Hennediella 86 

86 Heterocladium 94 
84 Homalia 94 

84 Homalothecium 96 

85 Hookeria 94 



104 



Bryophytes-Conr. 



Hygrohypnum 


95 


Orthodontium 


90 


Reboulia 


77 


Hylocomium 


98 


Orthotxichum 


92 


Rhizomnium 


91 


Hyophila 


86 


Oxystegus 


88 


Rhodobryum 


91 


Hypnum 


98 


Pellia 


78 


Rhynchostegiella 


97 


Isopterygium 


98 


Phaeoceros 


77 


Rhynchostegium 


97 


Isothecium 


96 


Phascum 


87 


Rhytidiadelphus 


98 


Jungermannia 


79 


Philonotis 


92 


Riccardia 


78 


Kurzia 


81 


Physcomitrium 


89 


Riccia 


77 


Leiocolea 


78 


Plagiochila 


79 


Scapania 


80 


Lejeunea 


82 


Plagiomnium 


91 


Schistidium 


88 


Lepidozia 


81 


Plagiothecium 


97 


Scleropodium 


96 


Leptobryum 


90 


Pleuridium 


84 


Scorpidium 


95 


Leptodontium 


88 


Pleurozium 


98 


Seligeria 


84 


Leskea 


94 


Pogonatum 


83 


Sphagnum 


82 


Leucobryum 


85 


Pohlia 


90 


Sphenolobus 


79 


Leucodon 


94 


Polytrichum 


83 


Splachnum 


90 


Lophocolea 


79 


Porella 


81 


Taxiphyllum 


98 


Lophozia 


78 


Pottia 


86 


Tetraphis 


83 


Lunularia 


77 


Pseudephemerum 


84 


Tetraplodon 


90 


Marchantia 


77 


Pseudobryum 


92 


Thamnobryum 


94 


Marsupella 


79 


Pseudoscleropodium 96 


Thuidium 


94 


Metzgeria 


77 


Pterogonium 


94 


Tortella 


88 


Mnium 


91 


Pterygoneuron 


86 


Tortula 


86 


Mylia 


79 


Ptilidium 


81 


Trichocolea 


81 


Nardia 


79 


Ptilium 


98 


Trichostomum 


88 


Neckera 


94 


Ptychomitrium 


89 


Tritomaria 


79 


Nowellia 


80 


Pylaisia 


98 


Ulota 


93 


Odontoschisma 


80 


Racomitrium 


89 


Weissia 


88 


Oligotrichum 


83 


Radula 


81 


Zygodon 


92 



105 



TABLE OF FAMILIES 
FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



Clubmoss 


15 


Currant 


33 


Bindweed 


44 


Horsetail 


15 


Sundew 


33 


Nightshade 


44 


Fern 


15 


Purple-loosestrife 


33 


Figwort, 




Conifer 


17 


Daphne 


34 


Speedwell 


44 


Buttercup 


18 


Sea-buckthorn 


34 


Toothwort 


46 


Berberis 


19 


Willowherb 


34 


Butterwort 


47 


Water-lily 


19 


Water-milfoil 


34 


Verbena 


47 


Homwort 


20 


Mare's-tail 


35 


Mint 


47 


Poppy 


20 


Water-starwort 


35 


Plantain 


48 


Fumitory 


20 


Dogwood 


35 


Bellflower 


49 


Crucifer 


20 


Ivy 


35 


Bedstraw 


49 


Mignonette 


22 


Umbellifer 


35 


Honeysuckle 


49 


Violet 


22 


Asarabacca 


37 


Moschatel 


50 


Milkwort 


23 


Spurge 


37 


Valerian 


50 


St. John's Wort 


23 


Dock 


37 


Scabious 


50 


Rock-rose 


23 


Nettle 


38 


Daisy 


50 


Campion 


23 


Hop 


38 


Water-plantain 


55 


Montia 


25 


Elm 


38 


Flowering-rush 


56 


Goosefoot 


25 


Walnut 


38 


Canadian 




Lime 


26 


Bog-myrtle 


38 


Waterweed 


56 


Mallow 


26 


Birch 


38 


Arrowgrass 


56 


Rax . 


26 


Hazel 


39 


Pondweed 


56 


Geranium 


26 


Beech, Oak 


39 


Horned Pondweed 


57 


Wood-sorrel 


27 


Willow 


39 


LOy 


57 


Balsam 


27 


Heath 


40 


Herb-Paris 


58 


Maple 


27 


Wintergreen 


40 


Rush 


58 


Horse-chesmut 


27 


Crowberry 


41 


Daffodil 


59 


Holly 


27 


Thrift 


41 


Iris 


59 


Spindle 


27 


Primrose 


41 


Black Bryony 


59 


Box 


27 


Buddleja 


41 


Orchid 


59 


Buckthorn 


28 


Ash, Privet 


42 


Arum 


61 


Pea 


28 


Periwinkle 


42 


Duckweed 


61 


Rose 


30 


Gentian 


42 


Bur-reed 


61 


Stonecrop 


32 


Bogbean 


42 


Bulrush 


61 


Saxifrage 


33 


Jacob's Ladder 


42 


Sedge 


61 


Grass-of-Parnassus 


33 


Borage, Forget-me-noi 


t 42 


Grass 


64 



The families are printed above in systematic order using the English name of 
the family, the English name of typical genera, or the Latin family name where 
there is no convenient English name. It is hoped that readers more familiar with 
English names will in many instances be able to infer the family to which a 
chosen species relates and thus be able to turn to a likely page. 



106 



GAZETTEER 



Abbey St Bathans 


76 62 


Brotherstone 


61 35 


Aikyside Wood 


79 60 


Brotherstone Hill 


61 36 


Airhouse Quarry 


47 53 


Bunkle 


80 59 


Airhouse Wood 


47 53 


Bunkle Edge 


80 60 


AleMUl 


91 63 


Burnmouth 


95 61 


Ale Water 


map 


Buskin Burn 


89 66 


Allanbank 


85 54 


Butterlaw 


83 44 


Allanton 


86 54 


Byrecleugh 


62 58 


Allanton Lodge 


86 54 






Almaheart 


78 57 


Cairnbank 


79 53 


Antons Hill 


78 43 


Cammerlaws 


65 50 


Auchencrow 


85 60 


Carfrae Common 


48 58 


Ayton 


92 61 


Carfraemill 


50 53 






Carham 


79 38 


Bassendean 


62 45 


Casde Law 


81 41 


Bemersyde Hill 


59 34 


Cawderstanes 


94 53 


Bemersyde Moss 


61 33 


Chapel on Leader 


56 41 


Berrywell 


79 53 


Cheeklaw 


78 52 


The Bield 


69 42 


Cheeklaw House 


78 52 


Billie Castle 


85 59 


Chester Hill 


52 46 


Billie Mill 


85 56 


Chirnside 


86 56 


Billie Mire 


85 58 


Chirnside House 


88 56 


Birgham 


79 39 


Clarabad 


92 54 


Birgham Haugh 


79 38 


Clarabad Wood 


92 54 


Birgham Moor 


79 40 


Cleekhimin 


52 52 


Birgham Wood 


79 39 


Clints HiU 


44 54 


Bishops Bog 


78 40 


Cockburn Ford 


77 57 


Black Hill 


58 37 


Cockburn Law 


76 59 


Blackhouse Dean 


82 61 


Cockburn Mill 


77 58 


Blackadder Water 


map 


Cockburnspath 


77 71 


Blackburn Farm 


77 66 


Coldingham 


90 65 


Blackburnrig Dean 


79 65 


Coldingham Bay 


91 66 


Blackburnrig Wood 


79 65 


Coldingham Common 85 68 


Blacksmill Burn 


70 57 


Coldingham Loch 


89 68 


Blanerne 


83 56 


Coldingham Moor 


86 67 


Blinkbonny, Nenthorn 


67 38 


Coldingham Sands 


91 66 


Blinkbonny, Foulden 


93 56 


Coldingham Shore = 


^ St Abbs 


Bluestoneford 


87 55 


Coldstream 


84 39 


Blythe Moor 


57 55 


Corsbie 


60 44 


Blythe Water 


57 49 


Corsbie Bog 


60 43 


Bowshiel Dean 


78 67 


Cove 


78 71 


Broad Bog 


81 68 


Cove Harbour 


78 71 


Brockholes 


82 63 


Cowdenknowes 


57 37 


Brockholes Wood 


81 65 


Craigswalls Wood 


84 55 


Broomhill 


80 55 


Cranshaws Pond 


68 61 


Broomhouse 


80 56 


Crib Law 


52 59 



107 



Gazetteer-Cowr. 








Cross Law 


87 68 


Ellemford 


72 60 


Cuddy Wood 


74 52 


Eller Burn 


76 60 


Cumledge 


79 56 


Everett Moss 


60 43 


Cumledge Bridge 


78 56 


Eye Water 


map 


Cumledge Mill 


79 56 










Fallago Ridge Head 


57 61 


Danderhall 


62 32 


Fancove Head 


95 62 


Dirrington Great Law 


69 54 


Fangrist Burn 


69 48 


Dogden Moss 


68 49 


Fans 


61 41 


Dowlaw 


85 70 


Fast Castle 


86 70 


Dowlaw Burn 


85 69 


Fernyrig Bog = Bishops Bog 




Dowlaw Dean 


86 70 


Fireburn Mill 


82 39 


Dowlaw Moss 


84 69 


Fishwick Mains 


91 49 


Drakemire 


80 60 


Flass Wood 


62 51 


Drone Moss 


84 66 


Fleurs 


91 65 


Dronshiel 


70 55 


Foul Burn 


72 52 


Dryburgh 


59 31 


Foul Burn Bridge 


71 51 


Dryburgh Abbey 


59 31 


Foulden 


92 55 


Drygrange 


57 35 


Foulden Burn 


92 55 


Dunglass Burn 


76 71 


Foulden Dean 


92 55 


Dunglass Dean 


76 71 


Foulden Hag Wood 


91 57 


Duns 


78 53 


Foulden New Mains 


91 56 


Duns Casde 


77 54 


Foulden Pond 


91 56 


Dunside Hill 


63 56 






Dye Cottage 


64 58 


Gateheugh 


59 34 


Dye Water 


map 


Gavinton 


76 52 






Girtrig Pond 


77 50 


Earlston 


57 38 


Gledswood 


58 34 


Earnscleugh Water 


54 49 


Godscroft 


74 63 


Earnsheugh 


89 69 


Gordon 


64 43 


Earnsheugh Camp 


89 69 


Gordon Bogs 


63 41 


East Crook Burn 


69 59 


Gordon Common 


65 43 


East Water =?Easter Burn 




Gordon Moss 


63 42 


Easter Burn 


58 53 


Grantshouse 


80 65 


Ecclaw 


75 68 


Great Dirrington Law 


69 54 


Ecclaw Hill 


75 67 


Greenheugh Point 


79 70 


Eccles 


76 41 


Greenknowe 


64 44 


Eccles Pools 


77 41 


Greenknowe Tower 


63 42 


Eden Hall 


76 38 


Greenlaw 


71 46 


Eden Water 


map 


Greenlaw Dean 


69 47 


Edgarhope 


54 50 


Greenlaw Kaims 


69 50 


Edington Mill 


89 54 


Greenlaw Moor 


7 5 


Edingtonhill 


90 57 


Greenwood 


83 64 


Edin's Hall 


77 60 


Greystonelees 


95 60 


Edmonds Dean 


77 67 


Grizelrig 


78 42 


Edrington 


93 54 


Gunsgreen 


95 65 


Edrington Mill 


93 54 






Edrom 


82 55 


Haigsfield 


80 40 


Elba 


78 60 


Hallyburton 


67 48 



108 



Gazetteer-Cowr. 








Hallydown 


92 64 


Ladykirk Bridge = Norham 


Bridge 


Harcarse 


81 48 


Lamberton 


96 57 


Hardens Hill 


73 54 


Lamberton Beach 


97 58 


Hareheugh Craigs 


76 55 


Lamberton Cliffs 


97 58 


Harelawcraigs 


76 55 


Lamberton Moor 


95 58 


Harelaw Hill 


76 55 


Langstruther Bog 


81 67 


Harkers Tile Works = Harcarse 


Langton 


75 52 


Harrietfield 


70 36 


Langton Mill 


76 52 


Hartside 


44 54 


Langton Woods 


75 52 


Hassington 


73 41 


Langtonlees Cleugh 


73 52 


Headshaw Burn 


48 57 


Lauder 


52 47 


Heathery Carr 


89 69 


Lauder Burn 


52 46 


Hen Poo 


77 54 


Lauder Common 


50 46 


Hilton Bay 


96 59 


Lauder Hill 


51 47 


The Hirsel 


82 40 


Lauderdale 


5 4 


Hirsel Lake 


82 40 


Leader Water 


map 


Hirsel Law 


82 42 


Leaderfoot 


57 34 


Hogs Law 


55 55 


Leet Water 


map 


Homebank 


80 39 


Legerwood 


58 43 


Hoprigshiels 


74 68 


Legerwood Pond 


58 43 


Horndean 


89 49 


Leitholm 


78 44 


Horndean Burn 


90 49 


Leitholm Loch 


7 4 


Horseupcleugh 


66 58 


Lennel 


85 40 


Houndwood 


84 63 


Lightfield 


64 41 


Howpark Burn 


82 66 


Linkim Shore 


92 65 


Hule Moss 


71 49 


Linthill 


92 63 


Hume 


70 41 


Lintlaw 


82 58 


Hume Castle 


70 41 


Lintlaw Burn 


83 58 


Hume Craigs 


70 41 


Lintlaw School 


82 58 


Hume Mill 


70 40 


Lithtillum Loch 


80 40 


Hutton 


90 53 


Little Dean Pond 


91 62 


Hutton Bridge 


92 54 


Lochton 


77 38 


Hutton Castle 


88 54 


Long Bog 


55 53' 


Hutton Castle Mill 


90 54 


Long Moss 


85 68 






Longformacus 


69 57 


Jordonlaw Moss 


61 49 


Longformacus House 


69 57 






Longmuir Moss 


47 51 


Kelloe 


84 53 


Lumsdaine 


87 69 


Kelmscott 


63 49 


Lumsdaine Dean 


86 69 


Kelphope Burn 


51 58 


Lumsdaine Shore 


87 70 


Kettleshiel 


70 51 


Lurgie Loch 


67 39 


Kettleshiel Burn 


70 50 






Killmade Burn 


66 62 


Macks Mill 


66 44 


Kimmerghame 


81 51 


Magdalenehall 


62 32 


Kippetlaw Burn 


69 55 


Manderston 


81 54 


Kirkbonny ?= Blinkbonny, 


Foulden 


Marden 


80 56 


Kyles Hill 


72 50 


Meikle Says Law 


58 61 






Mellerstain 


64 39 


Ladykirk 


88 47 


The Merse 


7 4 



109 



Gazetteer-Conr. 








Mertoun 


61 31 


Preston 


79 57 


Mertoun Bridge 


61 32 


Primrose Hill 


78 57 


Middlethird 


68 43 






Middlet±iird Bog 


68 43 


Quixwood Moor 


77 64 


Millars Moss 


90 68 






Millknowe Burn 


68 50 


Ramsheugh 


77 72 


Milne Graden 


87 44 


Ramsheugh Bay 


77 72 


Milne Graden Burn 


87 44 


Rathburne 


68 57 


Mire Loch 


91 68 


Redheugh 


82 70 


Mordington 


95 56 


Redheugh Dean 


82 70 


Mordington Pond 


95 57 


Redpath Dean 


58 36 


Muircleugh 


50 45 


Redpath Hill 


59 36 






Redpath Moss 


59 36 


Nenthorn 


68 37 


Reed Point 


77 72 


Netherbyres 


94 63 


Reston 


88 62 


Netherbyres Mill 


93 63 


Retreat 


77 60 


New Horndean 


89 49 


Ross 


96 60 


New Ladykirk 


89 48 


Rotten Cleugh 


56 60 


Newton Don 


70 37 


Rumbleton 


68 45 


Newton Quarry 


85 48 






Ninewells 


86 55 


St Abbs 


91 67 


Nisbet 


79 51 


St Abbs Head 


91 69 


Nisbet Bridge 


79 51 


St Helens Church 


80 70 


Norham Bridge 


89 47 


St Thomas's Island 


92 49 


Northfield 


91 67 


Seenes Law 


55 59 






Shannabank 


75 62 


Old Cambus 


80 69 


Shiel Burn 


58 60 


Old Cambus Quarry 


80 70 


Shiningpool Moss 


70 52 


Old Lamberton Toll 


97 57 


Siccar Point 


81 70 


Old Langtonlees 


73 52 


Silverwells 


87 66 


Old Linthill 


93 62 


Sisterpath 


75 48 


Oxendean 


77 55 


Skaithmuir 


83 43 


Oxton 


49 53 


Smiddyhill Bridge 


69 61 






Soonhope Burn 


53 56 


Paradise 


79 56 


Soutra 


47 57 


Paxton 


93 53 


Spottiswoode 


60 49 


Paxton Dean 


93 52 


Spottiswoode Loch 


61 49 


Paxton House 


93 52 


Springhill 


78 38 


Pease Bay 


79 70 


Stichill Bridge 


69 36 


Pease Dean 


79 70 


Stuartslaw Pond 


85 55 


Peelrig 


79 52 


Sturdon Burn 


55 41 


Penmanshiel 


79 67 


Stichill 


71 38 


Penmanshiel Moss 


82 68 


Stichill Linn 


70 37 


Penmanshiel Wood 


79 68 


Stot Cleugh 


63 58 


Petticowick 


90 69 


Sunwick 


89 52 


Pickie Moss 


58 44 


Swinton 


83 47 


Polwarth Church 


74 49 


Swinton House 


81 47 


Polwarth Moss 


70 51 






Press Castle 


86 65 


Thirlestane Castle 


53 47 



110 



Gazetteer-Conr. 



Threeburnford 


46 52 


West Blanerne 


82 56 


Tibby Fowler's Glen 


94 54 


Westerside Dean 


88 69 


ToUishill 


51 58 


West Foulden 


91 54 


Tower Dean 


78 70 


Westruther 


63 50 


Trottingshaw 


64 58 


Whalplaw Burn 


55 55 


Turf Law 


47 56 


Wheel Burn 


56 51 


River Tweed 


map 


White Hill 


57 37 


Tweedhill 


93 51 


Whiteadder Water 


map 


Twinlaw 


62 54 


Whitchester 


71 58 






Whitehall 


87 55 


Union Bridge 


93 51 


Whitehall Pond 


87 55 






Whitlaw 


49 47 


Watch Water 


66 56 


Wild Wood 


77 60 


Watch Water Reservoir 


66 56 


Wrunklaw 


67 58 


Wedderburn 


80 52 


Wrunklaw Burn 


66 58 


Well Cleugh Burn 


73 52 


Wylie Cleugh 


80 43 



111 



2 'Dl^ 






Hiis is the most comp, 
catalogue to date oi' the ' 
plants, ferns and bryophytej. 
Berwickshire's countryside,' 
an informed opinion of the current 
status o^ each species together with: 
historical information, hitroduclory 
sections give a more general o\-er\'ic\v 
of the flora. 



Co\er illustrations - Bill "S'oung 

iToni cover - Common Rock-rose, Hclijitilicin 





■*::lS^^->f