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Full text of "Botany for ladies; or, A popular introduction to the natural system of plants, according to the classification of De Candolle"

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YizZ^\. -J^^J^^ 



Natural ^ps'ttm of ^Slantig, 





Author of " Instructions in Gardening for Ladies," " Year-Book of 
Natural History," &c. &c. 





When I was a child, I never could learn 
Botany. There was something in the Linnean 
system (the only one then taught) excessively 
repugnant to me ; I never could remember the 
different classes and orders, and after several 
attempts the study was given up as one too 
difficult for me to master. When I married, 
however, I soon found the necessity of knowing 
something of Botany, as well as of Gardening. 
I always acconipanied my husband in his visits 
to different gardens ; and when we saw beauti- 
ful flowers, I was continually asking the names, 
though alks ! these names, when I heard them, 
conveyed no ideas to my mind, and I was not' 
any wiser than before. Still the natural wish 
to know something of what we admire, impelled 
me to repeat my fruitless questions ; till at last, 
vexed at my ignorance, and ashamed of not 


being able to answer the appeals which gar- 
deners often made to me in doubtful cases, 
(supposing that Mr. Loudon's wife must know 
everything about plants,) I determined to learn 
Botany if possible ; and as my old repugnance 
remained to the Linnean system, I resolved to 
study the Natural one. Accordingly I began ; 
but when I heard that plants were divided into 
the two great classes, the Vasculares and the 
Cellulares, and again into the Dicotyledons or 
Exogens, the Monocotyledons or Endogens, 
and the Acotyledons or Acrogens, and that the 
Dicotyledons were redivided into the Dichla- 
mydese and Monochlamydese, and again into 
three sub-classes, Thalamiflorse, Calyciflorse, 
and Corolliflorae, I was in despair, for I thought 
it quite impossible that I ever could remember 
all the hard names that seemed to stand on the 
very threshold of the science, as if to forbid the 
entrance of any but the initiated. 

Some time afterwards, as I was walking 
through the gardens of the Horticultural So- 
ciety at Chiswick, my attention was attracted 
by a mass of the beautiful crimson flowers of 


Malope grandiflora. I had never seen the plant 
before, and I eagerly asked the name. "It is 
some Malvaceoiis plant," answered Mr. Loudon, 
carelessly ; and immediately afterwards he left 
me to look at some trees which he was about to 
have drawn for his Arboretum Britannicum. 
" Some Malvaceous plant," thought I, as I con- 
tinued looking at the splendid bed before me ; 
and then I remembered how much the form of 
these beautiful flowers resembled that of the 
flowers of the crimson Mallow, the botanical 
name of which I recollected wasMalva. " I wish 
I could find out some other Malvaceous plant,'' I 
thought to myself; and when we soon afterwards 
walked through the hothouses, I continued to 
ask if the Chinese Hibiscus, which I saw in 
flower there, did not belong to Malvaceae. 
I was answered in the affirmative ; and I was so 
pleased with my newly-acquired knowledge, 
that I was not satisfied till I had discovered 
every Malvaceous plant that was in flower in 
the garden. I next learned to know the Crucife- 
rous and Umbelliferous plants ; and thus I 
acquired a general knowledge of three extensive 


orders with very little trouble to myself. My 
attention was more fairly aroused, and by learn- 
ing one order after another, I soon attained a 
sufficient knowledge of Botany to answer all the 
purposes for which I wished to learn it, without 
recurring to the hard words w^hich had so much 
alarmed me at the outset. One great obstacle 
to my advancement was the difficulty I had in 
understanding botanical works. With the ex- 
ception of Dr. Lindley's Ladies' Botany, they 
were all sealed books to me ; and even that did 
not tell half I wanted to know, though it con- 
tained a great deal I could not understand. It 
is so difficult for men whose knowledge has 
grown with their growth, and strengthened with 
their strength, to imagine the state of profound 
ignorance in which a beginner is, that even 
their elementary books are like the old Eton 
Grammar when it was written in Latin — they 
require a master to explain them. It is the 
want that I have felt that has induced me to 
write the following pages; in which I have endea- 
voured to meet the wants of those wdiomaybenow 
in the same difficulties that I was in myself. 


The course I pursued is also tliat which 
I shall point out to my readers. I shall first 
endeavour to explain to them as clearly as I 
can the botanical characteristics of the orders 
which contain plants commonly grown in Bri- 
tish gardens ; and at the end of my work I shall 
lay before them a slight outline of all the orders 
scientifically arranged, which they may study or 
not as they like. Most ladies will, however, 
probably be satisfied with knowing the orders 
containing popular plants ; and these, I am con- 
fident, they will never repent having studied. 
Indeed, I do not think that I could form a 
kinder wish for them, than to hope that they 
may find as much pleasure in the pursuit as I 
have derived from it myself. Whenever I go 
into any country I have formerly visited, I feel 
as though I were endowed with a new sense. 
Even the very banks by the sides of the roads, 
which I before thought dull and uninteresting, 
now appear fraught with beauty. A new charm 
seems thrown over the face of nature, and a 
degree of interest is given to even the com- 
monest weeds. I have often heard that know- 


ledge is power, and I am quite sure that it 
contributes greatly to enjoyment. A man 
knowing nothing of natural history, and of 
course not caring for anything relating to it, 
may travel from one extremity of a country to 
the other, without finding anything to interest, 
or even amuse him ; but the man of science, 
and particularly the Botanist, cannot walk a 
dozen yards along a beaten turnpike-road with- 
out finding something to excite his attention. 
A wild plant in a hedge, a tuft of moss on a 
wall, and even the Lichens which discolour the 
stones, all present objects of interest, and of 
admiration for that Almighty Power whose 
care has provided the flower to shelter the 
infant germ, and has laid up a stock of nourish- 
ment in the seed to supply the first wants of the 
tender plant. It has been often said that the 
study of nature has a tendency to elevate and 
ameliorate the mind ; and there is perhaps no 
branch of Natural History which more fully 
illustrates the truth of this remark than Botany. 




Introduction ......... 1 

Miscellaneous Orders — Preliminary Observations . . . 3 


The Order Ranunculace^ : illustrated by the Garden Raiiunculus; 
the Butter-cup; the Peony ; the Anemone; the Hepatica ; the 
Clematis; the Christmas Rose ; the Winter Aconite; Monkshood; 
the Larkspur; and the Columbine . . . . . 

The Genus Rammculus, 10— The Genus Ficaria, 16— The Genus 
Pasonia, 18 — The Genus Anemone, 19 — The Genus Clematis, 23 
—The Genus Helleborus, &c. 25— The Genus Aconitum, 27— The 
Genus Delphinium, 29— The Genus Aquilegia, 31. 


The Order Leguminos.e : illustrated by the Sweet Pea ; the Red 
Clover ; Acacia armata; the Sensitive Plant; the Baibadoes 
Flower-fence; the Carob- tree ; the Tamarind ; the Senna; the 
Gleditschia ; the Logwood ; the Judas-tree ; and the Kentucky 
Coffee-tree ........ 35 

Tribe I. Papilionaceous Flowers, 36—11. Mimosa, 41— III. Csesal- 
pinese, 44. 


The Order Rosace^e : illustrated by different kinds of Roses; the 
Potentilla ; the Strawberry ; the Raspberry ; Spiraea ; Kerria or 
Corchorus japonica ; the Almoud ; the Peach and Nectarine ; 



the Apricot ; the Plum ; tlie Cherry ; the Apple ; the Pear ; 
The Mountain Ash ; the White Beam Tree ; the Quince ; Pyrus 
or Cydonia japonica ; the Hawthorn ; the Indian Hawthorn ; 
the Medlar ; Photinia ; Eriobotrva ; Cotoneaster; Amelanchier; 
Burnet ; and Alchemilla, or Ladies' Mantle . . .50 

Tribel.Roseas, 51— II. Potentilleae or Dryades, 54— III. Spirseeas, 
58— IV, Amygdaleas, 60— V. Pomeae, 65— VI. Sanguisorbeae, 73. 


The Order Onagraceje ; illustrated • by the different kinds of 
Fuchsia ; Oenothera, or the Evening Tree-Primrose ; Godetia ; 
Epilobium, or the French Willow-herb ; and Clarkia . . 75 

The Genus Fuchsia, 75— The Genus CEnothera, 79— The Genus 
Clarkia, 83. 


The Order Rubiace^ : illustrated by the Cinchona, or Peruvian 
Bark ; Luculia gratissima ; Cape Jasmine ; Rondeletia ; 
Coffee ; Ixora ; Ipecacuanha ; Madder ; Galium ; Woodruff ; 
and Crucinella stylosa . ...... 85 

The Genus Cinchona and its allies, 86— The Genus Gardenia and 
its allies, 89— The Genus Rondeletia and its allies, 90— The 
Genus Coffea and its allies, 91— The Genus Galium and its 
allies, 94. 


The Order Compositje : illustrated by the Succory ; the Sow- 
Thistle ; the Dandelion ; the Burdock ; the Daisy ; the Chry- 
santhemum ; Feverfew ; Pelhtory of Spain ; Wild Chamomile ; 
True Chamomile ; Yarrow; the Bur-Marigold; Groundsel; 
Ragwort ; Bird's Tongue ; Purple Jacobaea ; Cineraria ; Sun- 
flower ; Mutisia ; and Triptilion 98 

Tribe I. Cichoracese, 101—11. Cynarocephalae, 103— III. Corymbi- 
ferae, 104— IV. Labiataefiorae, 107. 


The Order Ericace^: : illustrated by the Common or Besom 
Heath ; the Moor Heath ; Cape Heaths ; Ling or Heather ; 
Androaieda ; Lyonia ; St. Dabseoc's Heath ; Arbutus ; the 


Bearberrv; Gaultliena; Clethra ; Rhododendron ; Indian or 
Chinese Azaleas; Yellow Azalea; American Azaleas ; Rho- 
dora ; Kalmia ; Menziesia : Loiseleuria ; Ledum ; Leiophyl- 
lura ; the Bilberry ; the AYhortleberry ; the Cranberry ; 
Pyrola ; and Mouotropa ...... 109 

Tribe I. Ericea?, 110— Sub-Tribe I. Ericeae Nonnales, 111—11. An- 
dromedese, 115— Tribe U. Rhodoreae, 120— III. Vaccinieas, 130 
—IV. Pyroleae, 132. 


The Order Oleace^, or Jasmineae : illustrated by the Common 
White Jasmine ; the Yellow Jasmine ; the Privet ; the Phil- 
lyrea ; the Olive; the Fringe-tree {Chionanthiis virginica)', 
the Lilac ; the Common Ash ; and the Manna or Flowering 
Ash 133 

Tribe I. Jasmineae, 134—11. Oleineae, 136. 


The Order SoLANACE^ : illustrated by the Bitter-Sweet ; Garden 
Nightshade ; Potato ; Egg-Plant ; Tomato ; Capsicum ; Win- 
ter Cherry ; Cape Gooseberry ; the Deadly Nightshade ; 
Lycium, or Duke of Argyle's Tea-tree ; Oestrum ; Yestia; 
Tobacco ; Petunia ; Nierembergia ; Salpiglossis ; Schizanthus ; 
Henbane ; Datura ; Brugmansia ; Solandi-a ; Yerbascum ; 
Celsia ; Nolana ; &c. 141 

Tribe I. Solanaceas, 142 — II. Nicotianeae, 147 ; HI- Verbascine , 
153— IV. Nolaneae. 155. 


The Order Urticace.e : illustrated by the Common Nettle ; the 
Hop ; the Hemp ; the Pellitory of the Wall ; the Bread-Fruit 
Tree ; the Jack-tree ; the Cow-tree, or Palo de Yacca ; the 
Upas or Poison-tree of Java ; the Mulberry ; the Paper Mul- 
berry ; the Osage Orange, or Madura ; the Common Fig ; 
Ficus Sycamorus ; the Banyan Tree ; the Indian-Rubber 
Tree; and Ficus religiosa . . . . . .157 

Tribe I. Urticaceae, 158—11. Artocarpae, 163. 


""""■" PAGE 

38. Hypericinese— the Hyperi- 

cum Tribe . . .312 

39. Guttifera; — the Mangos- 

teen Tribe . . 313 

40. Marcgraaviaees . . lb. 

41. Hippocratacese . . . ib. 

42. Erythroxylea? — the Red 

Wood Tribe . . .314 

43. 3Ialpigliiace8?— theBarba- 

does Cherry Tribe . . 314 

44. Acerineas the Maple 

Tribe . . . .315 

45. Hippocastanese, or ^scu- 

laceje— the Horse-chest- 
nut Tribe . . . 322 

46. Rhizoboleae — the Caryocar 

Tribe . . . .327 

47. Sapindacese — the Soap-tree 

Tribe . . . . ib. 

48. Meliacea?— the Bead-tree 

Tribe . . . ,328 

48*.Cedrelea;— the Mahogany 

Tribe , . . . 329 

49. Ampelideas the Vine 

Tribe . . . . ib. 

50. Geraniaceae — the Gera- 

nium Tribe . . . 332 

51. Tropaeolacese — the Nastur- 

tium Tribe . . .337 

51^. Limnautheas . . . ib. 

52. Balsamineae— the Balsam 

Tribe . . . .338 

53. Oxalideae — the Wood-sor- 

rel Tribe . . . 339 

54. Zygophylleaj — the Bean- 

caper Tribe . . . 340 

55. Rutaceae— the Rue Tribe . ib. 

56. Simarubaceffi . . . 342 

57. Ochnaceje . . . ib. 

58. Coriareas . . . . ib. 

§ II.— CALYcrFLOR.a;. 

59. Celastrinea; . . .343 

60. Rhamnaceae . . . 345 

61. Bruniaceffi . . . 346 

62. Samydese . . . . ib. 
()3. Homalineae . . . ib. 

64. ChailletiacesB . . . 347 

65. Aquilarineae . . . ib. 

66. Terebinthaceas — the Tur- 

pentine Tribe . . . ib. 

67. Leguminosae— (See Chap. 

n. in p. 35) . . . 349 


68. Rosaceae — (See Chap. iii. 

in p. 50) . . . . 

69. Calycanthaceae 

70. Granateae . . . . 

71. Memecylea? 

i 72. Combretacese . . . 

73. Vochysieae 

74. Rhizophoreae 

75. Lophireas 

76. Onagrarias — (See Chap. iv. 

in p. 75) . . . . 
77- Halorageae, or Cercodiaceae 

78. Ceratophylleas . 

79. Lythrarieae, or Salicarise . 

80. Tamariscineae — the Ta- 

marisk Tribe . 

81. Melastomaceae . 

82. jUangieae. . . . 

83. Philadelpheae— the Mock- 

oi-ange Tribe 

84. MyrtacesB — the Myrtle 

Tribe . . . . 

85. Cucurbitaceae— the Gourd 

Tribe . . . . 

86. Passifloreac — the Passion- 

iiower Tribe . . . 
86*. Malesherbiaces 
87- Loase^B . . . . 
83. Turneriaceae . 

89. Portulaceae — the Purslane 

Tribe . . . . 

90. Paronychiese . 

91. Crassulaeeae— the House- 

leek Tribe . . . 

92. Ficoideas — the Fig-mari- 

gold Tribe . 

93. Cactacese the Cactus 

Tribe . , . . 

94. Grossularieae — the Goose- 

berry Tribe . 

95. Esealloniaceae 

96. Saxifragacese . 

97. Cunoniaceae 

98. Umbelliferaj — Umbellife- 

rous Plants, or the 
Parsley Tribe 

99. Araliacea; . ... 
99*. Hamamelideae 

100. Caprifoliaceae, or the Ho- 

neysuckle Tribe . . 

101. Lorantheae 

102. ChlorantheK . . . 


















103. Rubiaceae (See Chap. v. 

125. Jasmineae (See Chap. viii. 

p. 85) .... 


p. 134) 


104. Opercularie« 


126. Strychnea? . . . . 


105. Valerianeaj— the Valerian 

127. Apocj-neae 


Trihe .... 


128. Asclepiadeas . . . 


106. Dipsacea?— the Teasel Tribe 389 

129. Gentianeae — the Gentian 

107. Calycereae 


Tribe . . . . 


108. Compositae (See Chap. vi. 

130. Bignoniaceas 


p. 98) . 


131. Cobaeaceae 


109. Lobeliacese 


jgg' 1 Pedalineas and Sesameae 

110. StylideiE . 



111. Goodenovise 


134. Polemoniaceas . 


112. Campanulacea?— the Cam- 

135. Hydroleaceas . 


panula Tribe . 


136. Convolvulaceas . 


113. Gesnerieaj 


137. Boragineae 


114. Vaccineas (See Chap. vii. 

138. CordiacesB . 


p. 130) . 


139. Hydrophylleae . 


115. Ericaceffi (See Chap. vii. 

140. Solanaces (See Chap. ix. 

p. 109) 


p. 141) . 


116. Peneaceae . 


141. Scrophularinae . 


142. Labiatse 



143. Verbenaceae— the Vervain 

117 Epaerideae 

. 396 

Tribe . 


118. Symplocineae 

. 397 

144. Myoporinas . 

. 415 

119. StjTacinese 

. 398 

145. Acanthaceae 


120. Myrsineae . 

. 399 

146. Orobancheae 

. 416 

121. Sapotes . 


147. Lentibulariae . 


122. Ebenaceaj . 

. 400 

148. Primulaceae — the Prim- 

123. Brexieas . 


rose Tribe 

. ib. 

124. Oleinae (See Chap. viii. p. 

149. Globularis 

. 418 


. 401 

150. Plumbagineae 

. ib. 

Phanerogamous Plants — Dicotyledone^ — II. Monochlamyde^ 419 

151. Plantaginea; . . .419 

166. Cytineae 


152. Nyctagineas . , . 420 

167. Euphorbiaceae . 


153. Amaranthaoea? . . ib. 

168. StackhouseJE 


154. Phytolacea^ . . , . 421 

169. Antidesmea? . 


155. Chenopodea? . . . ib. 

170. Urticeae (See Chap. x. p.l57) ib. 

156. Begoniaceffi. . . . 422 

171. Ulmaceae. 


157. Polygoneffi— the Buckwheat 

172. Piperaceae . 


Tribe . . . . 423 

173. Juglandaces (See Chap. 

158. Laurineae— the Sweet-bay 

XI. p. 176) . 


Tribe . . . .424 

174. Amentaceas (See Chap. xi. 

1.09. Myristicese . . . . 425 

p. 174) . 


160. Proteaceaj . , . ib. 

175. Hamamelidese . 


161. Thymelae^ . . . . 426 

176. Empetreas . 


162. Osyridea; . . . .427 

177. Conifers; (See Chap. xii. 

163. Santalaceae . . . . ib. 

p. 205) . 


164. Elaeagneae . . .428 

178. Cycadeas (See Chap. xii. 

165. Asarine^^,o^A^istolochieaE ib. 

p. 229) . 




Phanerogamous Plants — Monocotyledone^ 

§ I.— Petaloide.e 




Frog's-bit Tribe . 



Alimaceae— the Water- 

plantain Tribe 



Butomeae— the Flowering- 

rush Tribe . 



Juncagineas — the Arrow- 

grass Tribe 









Canneae . 



Musaces . 



Iridaceae . 









Amaryllidaccffi . 






Dioscoreas . 



Tamacese . 



Smilaceas . 





. 435 


196. Tulipaceffi . . . . 450 

197. ISIelanthacess . . . 451 

198. Bromeliaceae . . . ib. 

199. Pontederaceae . . . 452 

200. Commelinese . . . ib. 

201. Palmae— the Palm Tribe . ib. 

202. Pandaneas . . . . 453 

203. Tj'pliineae — the Bulrush 

Tribe . . . . ib. 

204. Aroideffi — the Arum Tribe 454 

205. Fluviales, or Naiades — the 

Pond-weed Tribe . . 455 

206. Junceae— the Rush Tribe . 456 
207- Gillesieae . . . ib. 

208. Restiaceae — the Pipewort 

Tribe . . . . ib. 

§ IL — GlumacEjE. 

209. Cyperaceae — — the Sedge 

- Tribe . . . .457 

210. Gramineae the Grass 

Tribe . . . . 458 

Cryptogamous Plants 



Sub-Class I— Foliaoe^. 

216. ilusci— the Moss Tribe . 466 

211. Filices— the Fern Tribe . 


217. Hepaticas . . .468 

212. Lycopodineffi — the Club- 

moss Tribe 


Sub-Class IL— Aphylle.e. 

213. Marsileaceas 


218. Lichenes . . . . ib. 

214. Equisetaceae — the Horse- 

219. Fungi . . . .470 

tail Tribe 


220. Alga; 471 

215. Characeaj 








5^ The following pages are intended to enable 

my readers to acquire a knowledge of Botany 

with as little trouble to themselves as possible. 

; As, however, Botany is a "wide word," I must 

\ here premise that I only propose to treat of that 

'•i part of the science which relates to the classifi- 

% cation of plants, according to the natural system 

^ of Jussieu, as improved by the late Professor 

*^, De Candolle ; and that the grand object I have 

^ in view is to enable my readers to find out the 

V4 name of a plant when they see it for the first 

\-i time ; or, if they hear or read the name of a 

N. plant, to make that name intelligible to them. 

^"^othing is more natural than to ask the name of 

•^ every pretty flower we see ; but unless the in- 

' " quirer knows something of botany, the name, if 

"^^ it be a scientific one, will seem only a collection 


r) : 

— i 

2 INTRODUCTION. [part r. 

of barbarous sounds, and will convey no ideas 
to the mind. Half the interest of new green- 
house plants is thus destroyed, as few of them 
have English names, and strangers will soon 
cease to make any inquiries respecting them 
w^hen they find they can obtain no answers that 
they can understand. Now, a very slight know- 
ledge of botany will take away this mortifying 
feeling ; and the name of a new plant, and the 
ascertaining the order to which it belongs, will 
recall a variety of recollections that will open up 
a new source of interest and enjoyment even in 
such interesting and enjoyable things as flowers 
— for we never can enjoy thoroughly anything 
that we do not understand. 

It now only remains for me to say why I have 
divided my work into two parts. My reason is 
my belief that a student will always remember 
more easily a few strongly marked divisions than 
a number of smaller ones, the differences between 
which are only faintly perceptible. In a more 
advanced state of knowledge, it is delightful to 
trace the minute shades of difference by which 
the numerous orders are united, so as to form 
one great whole ; but these gentle gradations 
confuse a beginner. On this account I have 
thought it best to devote the first part of my 
work to a few of the more important orders, 
which differ most widely from each other, and 


\\ hich I have described at a greater length than 
my space will allow me to bestow upon the whole; 
and in the second part of my work, I shall give a 
short account of the whole natural system, in- 
troducing the orders described in the first part, 
in their proper places, so that my readers may 
see how they are connected with the others. 



In this first part I shall endeavour to fami- 
liarise my readers with botanical details, as all 
the orders I shall describe contain a great num- 
ber of genera ; and to begin at the beginning, 
I must first tell them what is here meant by 
an order, and what by a genus of plants. A 
genus then may be compared to a family of 
children, all the plants in it being known by one 
common or generic name, in addition to their 
particular or specific one. Thus, if Rosa alba 
be spoken of, Rosa is the generic name which is 
common to all roses, but alba is the specific name 
which is only applied to the white rose. 

An order includes many genera, and bears 
the same afiinity to a nation as a genus does to 


a family. In many cases the resemblance which 
the plants in each order bear to each other is 
sufficiently strong to enable the student to re- 
cognise them^at first sight ; in the same manner 
as you may generally know a Frenchman or a 
German from an Englishman, even before you 
hear him speak. But unfortunately this general 
outward resemblance does not always exist, and 
it is necessary for the student to become ac- 
quainted with the general construction of flowers 
before the points of resemblance which have 
occasioned certain genera to be linked together 
to form orders, can be understood. 

It is thus evident that the first step towards 
a knowledge of systematic botany is to study 
flowers thoroughl}^ and few objects of study 
can be more interesting, whether we regard 
the elegance of their forms or the beauty and 
brilliancy of their colours. My readers may 
perhaps, however, be as much surprised as I was, 
to learn that the beautifully coloured parts of 
flowers are the least important; and that, as they 
only serve as a covering to the stamens and 
pistil, which are designed for the production of 
seedj they may be, and indeed actually are, 
wanting in a great many of what ^re considered 
perfect flowers. In examining a flower, there- 
fore, it must be remembered that the produc- 
tion of seed is the object, for which all the curi- 


0U3 contrivances we discover are designed. The 
germen or ovary {a in fig. 1) is protected by a 
thick fleshy substance (i), called the receptacle 
or disk, which serves as a bed or foundation on 
which the other parts of the flower rest, and 
which is thence frequently called a thalamus or 
torus, both words signifying a bed. The ovary 
itself is hollow, and it is sometimes 
divided into several cells, each in- 
closing a number of ovules, which 
are afterwards to become seeds ; but 
sometimes there is only one cell, and 
sometimes only one seed in each cell. 
The ovary is iuicy and succulent fig-i.-stament 

,,.,¥. n ^^^ Pistil. 

when young, and very dmerent from 
what it afterwards becomes when the seeds 
are ripe. Rising from the ovary in most flowers, 
is a long and slender stalk called the style 
(c), which supports a kind of head, called the 
stigma (d). The ovary, the style, and the 
stigma, constitute what is called the pistil ; but 
the style is not so essential as the other parts, 
and indeed it is wanting in many flowers. 
Sometimes there are many styles, each with 
a stigma at its summit, forming the pistil; 
and when this is the case, the ovary will have 
as many cells as there are stigmas, or each 
stigma will have a separate ovary to itself. 
There are generally several stamens in a flower. 


each perfect stamen consisting of three parts, — 
the Filament, the Anther, and the Pollen. 
The filament (e) is, however, often wanting, and 
it is only the anther {f), and the powder called 
the pollen which it contains, that are essential. 
The anther, when the flower first expands, ap- 
pears like a little oblong case with a deep groove 
down the centre, or rather like two oblong cases 
stuck together. When these cases become ripe, 
they burst and let out the pollen which was in- 
closed within them. The pollen is generally 
very abundant, and it is often seen in the form 
of yellow dust descending from the catkins of 
the cedar of Lebanon, or the Scotch fir, or of 
orange powder, as on the stamens of the orange 
lily, when it sticks to everything it touches. 
About the time of the bursting of the anthers, 
the stigma becomes covered with a glutinous 
moisture, which absorbs the pollen that falls 
upon it. The pollen, when absorbed by the 
stigma, is conveyed down the style to the ovary, 
where it falls upon and fertilises the ovules or 
incipient seeds. Nothing can be more beautiful 
or more ingenious than the mechanism by which 
this process is effected. It is necessary that the 
grains of pollen should be separated before they 
reach the ovary, and they are so in their pas- 
sage down the style in a manner more fine and 
delicate than could be done by any exertion of 



mere human skill. We know that we ourselves 
are " fearfully and wonderfully made," but how 
few of us are aware that every flower we crush 
beneath our feet, or gather only to destroy, 
displays as much of the Divine care and wisdom 
in its construction, as the frame of the mightiest 
giant ! 

I have already mentioned that the most con- 
spicuous part of the flower is merely a cover- 
ing to protect the seed-producing organs from 
injury. In most flowers there are two of these 
coverings, which form together what is called 
the perianth ; the inner one, when spoken of 
separately, being called the corolla, and the 
outer one the calyx. The corolla is generally 
of some brilliant colour, and in most cases it is 

Fig. 2. — Corolla of a 

Fig. 3.— Calyx of 

divided into several leaf -like parts called petals, 
(see ^ in figs. 2 and 3) ; and the calyx, which 
is commonly green, is divided into similar por- 
tions called sepals (see h). Sometimes there is 


only one of these coverings, and when this is the 
case it is called by modern botanists the calyx, 
though it may be coloured like a corolla; and 
sometimes the calyx and corolla are of the same 
colour, and so mixed as hardly to be distin- 
guished from each other, as in the crocus and 
the tuhp ; in which case the divisions are called 
the segments of the perianth. 



Such of my readers who may have formed their 
first ideas of the natural system from some order, 
the flowers of which bear a strong resemblance 
to each other, will be surprised at reading 
the names of the heterogeneous assemblage of 
plants at the head of this chapter ; for surely 
no flowers can bear less resemblance to each 
other than the buttercup and the peony do to 
the columbine and the larkspur. There are, 
however, striking points of resemblance which 
link these flowers together ; the principal of 
which are the number and disposition of the 
ovaries, or carpels as they are called in this case, 
which, though they grow close together, and 
sometimes even adhere to each other, are yet 
perfectly distinct ; in the number and position 
of the stamens, which grow out of the receptacle 
from beneath the carpels ; and in the leaves and 


young stems, when cut or pressed, yielding a thin 
yellowish juice, which is extremely acrid, and, 
in most cases, poisonous. The flowers of the 
plants belonging to Ranunculacese difffer widely 
in their shapes ; and all the incongruities that 
are only sparingly met with in other orders, are 
here gathered together. Some of the flowers 
have only a coloured calyx, as in the clematis ; 
in others the calyx and corolla are of the same 
colour, as in the globe-flower, or so intermingled 
as to seem all one, as in the columbine ; and in 
others the calyx forms the most ornamental 
part of the flower, as in monkshood and the 
larkspurs. In short, modern botanists seem to 
have placed this unfortunate order first, as 
though to terrify students on the very threshold 
of the science, and to prevent them from daring 
to advance any farther to penetrate into its 


The word Ranunculus will doubtless conjure 
up in the minds of my readers those very showy, 
double, brilliantly- coloured flowers, which flower 
in spring, and are generally grown in beds like 
tulips. These flowers form a species of the 
genus, under the name of Ranunculus asiaticus ; 
and having been introduced from Asia, they 
have retained their botanic name from not 


having any English one. The honour of giving 
a name to the genus does not, however, rest on 
them, but belongs to a common English weed. 

Every one who has travelled through England 
in the months of June and July, must have 
remarked the almost innumerable buttercups 
which glitter among the long grass of the mea- 
dows at that season ; and those who observe 
closely, will have noticed that these brilliant 
little flowers are never found in poor soil, or in 
hilly situations, but in rich valleys where the 
grass is rank and luxuriant from abundance of 
moisture. It is this circumstance that has ob- 
tained for the buttercup the botanical name of 
Ranunculus, the word being derived from Rana, 
a frog, a creature that delights in moist places. 

The buttercup being the type of the genus 
Ranunculus, and the order Ranunculacese, a 
close examination of its flowers will show the 
peculiarities which distinguish both the genus 
and the order. The characteristics of the order, 
as far as regards the number and position of the 
carpels and stamens, are shown in the section of 
the flower in the lower part o'ijic). 4 ; and those 
of the genus are, a gre^n calyx of five sepals, and 
a bright coloured corolla of five petals (see a in 
fig. 4) ; numerous stamens, the anthers of which 
are adnate, that is, with the filament growing 
up the back (see }>) ; and numerous carpels (<?) 



[part I. 

affixed to the upper part of the receptacle, which is 
drawn up in the shape of a cone to receive them. 
The flower shown inj%'.4,and the detached petal 
(e), given separately to show the little scale at 
itsbase,areof the 
natural size ; but 
the anther b is 
magnified to show 
the curious man- 
ner in which it is 
affixed, for its 
whole length, to 
the filament. The 
section of the 
flower is also 
magnified to show 
the elevated re- 
ceptacle, and the 
position of the carpels c and the stamens d with 
regard to each other. Theline^ shows the position 
of the corolla, and y that of the calyx, while the 
short line between the corolla and the stamens 
indicates the scale, which, from its being sup- 
posed to serve as a receptacle for honey, is 
sometimes called the nectary. The carpels, it 
will be observed, each consists of a broad part 
swollen in the centre, which is the ovary, with 
a curved part or beak at one end, terminating 
in a sharp point, which is the stigma. Each 

Fig. 4. — The flower of the common 

CHAP. I.] 



ovary contains only one ovule, and when the 
seed ripens, the carpel does not open to discharge 
it, but drops with the seed. When the flower 
is fully expanded, the green carpels may be seen 
in the centre, surrounded by the stamens, as 
shown at h mjig. 5 ; but after the petals drop, 

Fig. 5. — Flowkr and ripk carpels of the Buttercup. 

the stamens also disappear, and the carpels in- 
crease in size, till they assume the appearance 
shown at i^ which shows the kind of head formed 
by the carpels on the receptacle after the flower 
has faded. 

The plant from which my drawings were made 
was a common buttercup, Ranunculus acris, 
which my readers will easily recognise if they 
should meet with it, by its erect flower-stem, 
deeply cut leaves, and fibrous root. Another 
species {Ranunculus hulbosus) is, also, sometimes 
called the buttercup; but it is easily distin- 
guished by its bulbous root. Both these, and 
several other species, have deeply cut leaves, 


which somewhat resemble the feet of a bird, and 
hence the name of crowfoot is often apphed to 
them. Others, such as the ojreater spearwort 
(Ranunculus lingua)^ have long tongue-shaped 
leaves. In all, the footstalks of the leaves are 
somewhat folded round the stem at their base. 

Such of my readers as reside in the country 
will find it very amusing to gather all the kinds 
of crowfoot, buttercup, goldilocks, and spearwort, 
they can find in the fields and lanes ; and after 
having compared the flowers with the description 
I have given, to try to find out the specific 
names, by comparing the other particulars with 
the descriptions in Hooker's_ or Lindley's 
British Botany, or with the plates and descrip- 
tions in the new edition of Sowerby's English 
Botany. In a short time they will not want 
these aids, but will be able to name the plants 
at once, and to tell in what they differ from each 
other by memory. I shall never forget the 
pleasure I once had in finding out the name of 
a plant myself. I happened to be waiting for 
Mr. Loudon, (who had gone to examine some 
new pines and firs,) in the pleasure-grounds of 
a villa, just opposite a small pond, which was 
covered by some white flowers that I did not 
know. The flowers were small, but very beau- 
tiful, and as they shone with almost a metaUic 
lustre in the sun, they looked like a silvery 


mantle thrown over the water. I was curious 
to know what they were, and having got one 
with some difficulty, and by the help of my 
parasol, I began to examine it botanically. The 
leaves at first told me nothing as to the genus, 
for the upper ones were nearly round, and only 
slightly cut into three lobes, while the lower ones 
were almost as much divided as fennel ; but on 
examining them closely, I found their stalks 
sheathed the stem at the base. This gave me 
the first idea of the plant being a Ranunculus, 
for I remembered the leaves of that genus were 
stem-clasping. I then looked at the plant again, 
and wondered at my own stupidity in not having 
before observed its resemblance to the genus. 
There was the cup-shaped flower-of five petals, 
the green calyx of five sepals, the numerous 
stamens and carpels, the elevated receptacle, 
and even the fine texture and glossy surface of 
the petals. Nothing was different but the colour ; 
and yet it was the want of the bright golden 
yellow of the common buttercup, that prevented 
me from even thinking of that genus, when pon- 
dering on the name of my water-plant. I should 
add, that I would not ask any help from Mr. 
Loudon, but identified my plant myself on my 
return home ; when, by comparing it with the 
description in Hooker's British Flora, which 
happened to be the first botanical work I had 

16 THE GENUS FICARIA. [part i. 

at hand, I found it was Ranunculus aquatilis^ the 
water crowfoot. 

In a similar manner my readers may amuse 
themselves, by identifying the plants they meet 
with, and they will be surprised to find how 
easy the task will soon become. I must warn 
them, however, that they will not find double 
flowers quite so easy to recognise as single* ones. 
In double flowers the stamens and carpels are 
entirely or partially changed into petals; as 
may be seen in the florists' varieties of Ranun- 
culus, in the yellow bachelor's buttons, which 
is a variety of the common buttercup, and in 
the Fair Maid of France, which is a variety of 
Ranunculus platanifolius, a specfes found wild on 
the mountains of Germany. 


Pansies, lilies, kingcups, daisies, 
Let them live upon their praises ; 
Long as there's a sun that sets, 

Primroses will have their glory ; 
Long as there are violets, 

They will have a place in story. 
There's a flower that shall be mine, 
'Tis the little Celandine. 
Ill befall the yellow flowers, 
Children of the flaring hours, 
Buttercups that will be seen, 

Whether we will see or no ; 
Others, too, of lofty mien, 

They have done as worldlings do. 
Stolen praise that should be thine, 
Little humble Celandine. 


Is these verses, and several others in the same 
strain, Wordsworth sings the praises of the 
pretty little British plant called pilewort, or 
the lesser celandine. This plant botanists for- 
merly included in the genus Ranunculus, but 
De Candolle, finding that instead of having five 
sepals and five petals like all the kinds of 
Ranunculus, it has three sepals, and nine petals, 
which are narrow and pointed, instead of being 
broad and somewhat rounded, made it into a 
new genus under the name of Ficaria ranuncu- 
loides--— its old name having been Ranunculus 
Ficaria. Its flowers are of a bright yellow, 
like those of the buttercup, and of the same 
dehcate texture and glossy surface; but they 
are distinguished, not only as I have just ob- 
served, by having nine narrow pointed petals, 
and only three sepals, but by the leaves, which 
are roundish and shining, and not stem-clasping. 
These peculiarities are so striking, that I knew 
the Ficaria the first time I saw it in a growing 
state, merely from having read a description of 
it. Even when not in flower it may be known, 
by its roundish smooth leaves, and by the petioles 
or footstalks of its leaves being the same through- 
out ; whereas those of all the kinds of Ranun- 
culus are dilated at the base, to enable them to 
enfold the stem. 



[part I. 


The flowers of the Peony bear considerable 
resemblance to those of the buttercup, but every 
part is on an enlarged scale ; and there are some ^ 
important differences — one of which is, thatthe> 
Peony retains its calyx till the seeds are ripe, 
while in all the kinds of Ranunculus the calyx 

Fig. 6.— Flowbr OF the male Peony, with detached carpel 


drops with the corolla. The carpels of the 
Peony are also many-seeded, while those of the 
Ranunculus contain only one seed in each. In 
the male Peony (P. corallina) there are five 
petals and five sepals, (see a in Ji^. 6,) with nu- 
merous stamens, forming a ring round four 
large woolly carpels in the centre of the flower. 
The stamens (c) are adnate, like those of the 
Ranunculus ; and the carpels (b) are each ter- 
minated by a thick, fleshy, hooked stigma. These 


carpels open naturally on the side when ripe, to 
discharge their seeds. The herbaceous Peonies 
with double flowers, now so common in our 
gardens, have generally only two carpels, each 
containing about twenty seeds, arranged in two 
rows ; and the Chinese tree Peony (P. Moutan) 
has from five to ten carpels, with only a few 
seeds in each. This last species is distinguished 
by the receptacle being drawn out into a thin 
membrane-like substance, which rises between 
the carpels like the remains of withered leaves, 
and partially covers them. 


I HAVE already mentioned (p. 10) that some 
of the genera included in the order Ranuncu- 
laceee have only a coloured calyx and no corolla; 
and the Anemone is an example of this peculi- 
arity of construction. The pasque-flower 
(Anemone pulsatilla) is divided into six dark 
purple sepals, which are covered on the outside 
with long silky hairs. The leaves are so much 
cut as almost to resemble those of parsley ; and 
at a short distance below the flowers there are 
three small floral leaves, or bracts, which grow 
round the stem, and form what is called an in- 
volucre. The carpels are small, oblong bodies, 
pressed close together, and each is furnished 
with a long, feathery point, called an awn. The 

20 THE GENUS ANEMONE. [part i. 

carpels, though lying so close together, are 
perfectly distinct, and part readily at the 
slightest touch; and each contains only one seed. 
It will be seen from this hasty sketch, that 
the principal point of resemblance between the . 
genera Anemone and Ranunculus, in a botanical 1 
point of view, lies in the carpels, which are close 
together, and are yet so distinct as to part at 
the slightest touch. There is, however, a general 
resemblance in some of the flowers, from their 
five sepals, and numerous stamens, that renders 
it difficult for a beginner to distinguish an Ane- 
mone from a Ranunculus. In many of the British 
species, also, the carpels are not awned, but 
slightly curved, very like those of a buttercup. 
I remember being once very much puzzled with 
a beautiful little bright yellow flower, that I 
found in a wood. At first I thought it was a 
Ranunculus, but the petals were pointed and 
not roundish ; and it could not be a Ficaria, 
because it had only five petals. At last I looked 
to see what kind of calyx it had, and found 
none, that is, no green calyx ; and then, ob- 
serving the involucre of three leaves growing in 
a whorl round the stem, at some distance below 
the flower, I knew it was an Anemone ; and on 
comparing it with the ylates in Sowerby's 
English Botany, on my return home, I ascer- 
tained that it was Anemone ranunculoides. 


My readers will therefore observe that Ane- 
mones may be always known by their involucre, 
and by their having only one covering (a showy, 
coloured calyx) to the flower. The number of 
sepals in this calyx varies in the different species. 
The pasque-flower has six; the white wood 
Anemone generally five ; and the Blue Mountain 
Anemone from twelve to twenty. The in- 
volucre also sometimes grows a long way from 
the flower, as in this last-mentioned species ; 
and sometimes so close to it, as in the Garland, 
or Poppy Anemone (A. coronaria)^ as to look 
almost like a green calyx to the flower. The 
awns, or feathery tails, are also not found 
attached to the carpels of all the species ; and 
this distinction is considered so important, that 
some botanists make those plants which have 
awned carpels into a separate genus, which they 
call Pulsatilla, and of which the pasque-flower 
is considered the type. This genus, however, 
has not, I believe, been generally adopted. 

I have now only a few words to say on florists' 
Anemones, the tuberous roots of which most of 
my readers must have seen in the seed-shops. 
Most of these are varieties of the Garland 
Anemone, already mentioned as having its in- 
volucre close to the flower. The sepals of this 
species are roundish, six in number, and when 
the flower is in a single state, there are a great 

22 THE GENUS ANEMONE. [part i. 

number of stamens, bearing dark purple anthers 
in the centre of the flower. When the flower 
becomes double, the sepals, which retain their 
form and number, only becoming somewhat 
more spread out and flattened, are called by- 
florists the guard-leaves ; and the stamens in 
the centre are metamorphosed into petals, 
which generally retain their dark purple colour, 
or at any rate are much darker than the sepals. 
The other florists"* Anemones spring from A. 
stellata^ or hortensis^ and they are distinguished 
by having pointed sepals, and a white spot at 
the base of each, so as to form a white circle 
inside the cup of the flower. -The involucre is 
a long way from the calyx, and when the flowers 
become double, the sepals can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from the metamorphosed stamens. 

The hepatica or liverwort, the varieties of 
which look so pretty in our gardens in spring, 
was formerly considered to be a species of Ane- 
mone, and indeed the genus Hepatica appears 
to rest on very slight grounds. It has, however, 
been adopted by most modern botanists, and 
the Anemone Hepatica of Linnseus is now gene- 
rally called Hepatica triloba. The normal form 
of the species is the single blue ; and the double 
blue, the single and double pink, and the single 
and double white, are all only varieties of this. 
The hepatica agrees^ in all points with the 


Anemone, except in the involucre, which is so 
very like a green calyx, from the manner in 
which it enfolds the flower in the bud, as scarcely 
to be distinguished. I could not, indeed, be 
persuaded that this calyx-like covering was an 
involucre, till I turned back the apparent sepals, 
and found that their glossy surface was within : 
I also found that there was a very small portion 
of the stem between them and the flower, a 
circumstance which always distinguishes an in- 
volucre from a calyx, the latter forming part of 
the flower, and being always in some manner 
attached to the receptacle. 


This genus resembles the Anemone in having 
only one covering, an ornamental calyx, to its 
seed-producing organs. It has not, however, 
any distinct involucre ; though in one species, 
C. calycina^ there are two bracts, or floral leaves, 
which bear some resemblance to one. The 
flowers of the different species vary considerably 
in form, colour, and the number of the sepals ; 
C. calydna and C. viticella having four, C.fiorida 
six, C. vitalba five, &c. All the species agree, 
however, in the seeds, which are produced 
singly, each in a separate awned carpel, which 
does not open, but drops with the seed, and is 
sown with it. These carpels, which are common 



[part I. 

to the genera Ranunculus, Anemone, Adonis, 
and many other kinds of Ranunculacese, are 
called caryopsides, and seeds thus enclosed are 
always much longer in coming up than any 
others. In some species of Clematis the awns 
of the carpels are smooth ; but in others they 

Fig. 7. — Carpels of the Clematis Vitalba. 

are bearded or feathered, as in those of the 
traveller's joy (C vitalha)^ shown in Jir/. 7. The 
leaves of the Clematis vary considerably in form 
and arrangement ; but the stems of the climbing 
species are furnished with tendrils, or slender 
twining leafless stems, which some botanists sup- 
pose to be metamorphosed leaves. 

The plants composing the genus Atragene 
have been separated from Clematis ; because 
they are said to have petals, which the genus 
Clematis has not. It must not, however, be 
supposed that the petals of the Atragene bear 


any resemblance to what is generally understood 
by that word. On the contrary, the showy part 
of the Atragene is still only a coloured calyx ; 
while the petals are oblong, leaf-like bodies in 
the centre of the flower, which look like dilated 
stamens. In other respects the two genera are 
scarcely to be distinguished from each other. 


The Christmas rose (Helleborus niger) bears 
considerable resemblance in the construction of 
its flowers to the Atragene, for it has a showy 
calyx, and narrow oblong petals, encircling the 
stamens in the centre of the flower. The calyx 
of the Christmas rose is white, delicately tinged 
with pink, and the petals are green. The 
carpels are erect and long, swelling out at the 
base, and each ends in a curved style with a 
pointed stigma. The Christmas rose takes its 
specific name of niger (black) from the root, 
which is covered with a thick black skin. The 
common Hellebore takes its name of H. inridis, 
from its flowers, w^hich are green. The carpels 
of this plant frequently grow slightly together, 
and their styles curve inwardly. 

The British species of Hellebore have no in- 
volucre, and the Christmas rose has only two 
bracts or floral leaves, which form a calyx-like 
covering to the bud ; but the little yellow 


garden plant, called the Winter Aconite, which 
was included by Linnaeus in the genus Helle- 
borus, has a decided involucre, on which the 
little yellow, cup-shaped flower reposes, like a 
fairy bowl upon a leafy plate. The conspicuous 
part of this flower, like the others, is the calyx, 
which encloses a number of short tubular petals. 
This little plant is now separated from Helle- 
borus, and formed into a distinct genus, under 
the name of Eranthus hyemalis, from its carpels 
being each furnished with a very short foot- 
stalk, by which they are attached to the recep- 
tacle, instead of growing upon it as in the other 
genera. The root is tuberous, or rather it 
forms a kind of underground stem, sending up 
tufts of leaves and flowers from the different 
buds. Thus we often see several tufts of the 
Winter Aconite growing so far from each other as 
to appear distinct ; but which, in fact, all spring 
from the same root. The Globe-flower ( Trollius 
europaus)^ which has a golden yellow, globe- 
shaped calyx, enclosing a number of small oblong 
petals, is nearly allied to the Winter Aconite ; 
and the Fennel-flower, or Devil in a Bush (Nigella 
damascena), agrees with the common Hellebore 
in the adhesion of its carpels. 

CHAP. I.] 




We are so accustomed to see in our gardens 
the tall showy perennial called monkshood or 

Fig. 8. — Flower and seed-vessels of the Monkshood. 

wolfsbane {Aconitum Napellus), that few persons 
think of examining the flowers in detail. They 
well deserve, however, to be examined, as they 
are very curious in their construction. The 
showy part of the flower is an ornamental calyx 
of six sepals, but the upper two of these are 

28 THE GENUS ACONITUM. [part i. 

larger than the others, and adhere together so 
as to form a singular sort of covering, Hke a 
monk's cowl or hood. (See a mjig. 8.) The 
stamens are numerous, and they encircle three 
or five oval carpels, with thread-like styles, and 
pointed stigmas, as shown at h ; which when 
ripe burst open at the top (c) to discharge the 
seed, without separating. Carpels of this kind 
are called follicles. Under the hood, and en- 
tirely concealed by it, are the petals (seej^-. 9), 
which form what may certainly be 
considered the most remarkable 
part of the flower, as they are so 
curiously folded up that they look 
more like gigantic stamens than 
petals. The older botanists de- 
scribed these petals as nectaries. 
Fig. 9.— Petals of ^^yith crcstcd claws. The leavcs 
are divided into from three to five 
principal segments, which are again deeply cut 
into several others. The stem of the common 
Monkshood is thickened at the base, or collar, 
where it joins the root, so as to give it some- 
what the appearance of celery; and hence 
ignorant persons have been poisoned by eating 
it. This knotted appearance of the stem is not 
common to all the species, and it gives rise to 
the specific name of Napellus, which signifies a 
little turnip. 

CHAP. I.] 




The plants belonging to the genus Delphinium, 
that is to say, the Larkspurs, have their flowers 
constructed in nearly as curious a manner as 
those of the different kinds of Monkshood ; but 
they differ in the sepals and petals both forming 

Fig. 10.— Tub flowers of the Branching Larkspur. 

conspicuous parts of the flower, though they are 
generally quite distinct both in form and colour, 
and may be easily traced through all the dif- 
ferent forms they assume in the various species. 
They are, however, perhaps most easily distin- 



[part I. 

guished in the branching or autumnal Larkspur 
{Delphinium consolida). In the flower of this 
plant the spur [a in Jig. 10) is the upper sepal 
of the calyx, and it serves as a cover to part of 
the petals. There are four other portions of 
the calyx (Z>), which assume the appearance of 
ordinary sepals. The petals are four in number; 
and they are united at the 
lower part, and drawn out 
into a sort of tail, as shown 
at c ; while the upper part 
of two of them stands up 
like asses' ears {d) in the 
centre of the flower ; and the 
others are curiously folded, 
so as to form a hood over the 
stamens and carpels, as shown 
at e. The anthers of the sta- 
mens resemble those of the 
Ranunculus ; but the fila- 
ments are bent, as shown at 
f. The carpels {g) are up- 
right, hairy, and terminate 
in a blunt, fleshy stigma (A). 
When ripe, they open in the 
same manner as those of the 
Fig. 11.-TAP hoot of the Moukshood. The branching 

Branching Larkspur. Larkspur haS a fusiform Or 

tap root, as shown in Jig. H, in which a is the 


collar, or as the Italians call it la noda vitale; 
and h the fibrous roots, through the points of 
which the plant takes up its food. 

The flowers of the other kinds of Larkspur 
resemble this one in their general appearance, 
though they differ in the minor details. Those 
of the Rocket Larkspur (Z). Ajacis) lose their 
spurs when they become double ; and those of 
the Bee Larkspurs have their petals nearly black, 
and instead of standing up like ears, they are so 
curiously folded as to resemble a bee nestling in 
the centre of the flower. 


The common Columbine {Aquilegia vulgaris) 
differs from all the flowers I have yet described 
in having the sepals and petals not only of the 
same colour, but so intermingled as to be 
scarcely distinguishable from each other. The 
flower (given on a reduced scale at a 'v^fig- 12) 
is composed of five horn-shaped petals, which 
are curved at the upper end, and form a kind 
of coronet round the stem ; and five oval sepals, 
which are placed alternately with them; all, 
generally speaking, being of the same colour. 
The horn-shaped petal, or nectary as it was 
called by Linnseus, is attached to the receptacle 
at the thickened rim (Z>), while the sepal is 
attached at the point (c) ; d shows the dis- 




position of the stamens ; e a separate stamen, 
with its adnate anther ; f the inner row of 

Fig. 12. — Flo^ver and leaf of the Columbine. 

stamens, which are produced without anthers, 
and with their filaments growing together, so 
as to form a thin membranaceous case for the 
carpels, which are shown exposed at g. The 
carpels, when ripe, become follicles. The leaf 
of the Columbine is bi-ternate ; that is, it is cut 
into three large divisions, each of which is cut 
into three smaller ones ; so that it is twice- 
ternate. The petiole or foot-stalk of the leaf 
sheaths the stem, as shown at A, where the leaf 
is represented on a reduced scale to suit the 


I would advise such of my readers as are 
anxious to turn the preceding pages to account, 
to procure as many of the plants 1 have described 
as possible, and to compare them with each 
other, and with any other plants belonging to 
the order Ranunculacese that they can obtain. 
Those who have access to a botanic garden 
will have no difficulty in finding the names of 
the genera included in the order; and those 
who have not this advantage, must consult 
Don's edition of Sweet's Hortus Britannicus, or 
any other catalogue in which the plants are 
arranged according to the Natural System. 
When a number of specimens have been col- 
lected, the student will be surprised to see how 
many points of resemblance exist between them. 
The stems of all, when cut, will yield a watery 
juice ; which is always acrid, though some 
of the plants are more poisonous than others. 
The stamens will be found to be always nu- 
merous, and always attached to the receptacle 
below the carpels; and the anthers are generally 
adnate, that is attached to the filaments from one 
end to the other (see p. 12). The carpels are in 
most cases numerous, and either distinct, or 
adhering in such a manner as to show plainly 
the line of junction between them ; they are 
also always one-celled, whether one or many- 
seeded, and generally either caryopsides (see 


p. 24), or follicles (see p. 28). -The leaves are 
generally divided into three or five lobes, each 
of which is cut into several smaller divisions; 
and the petioles or leaf-stalks are very frequently 
dilated at the base, and sheathing the stem. 
In most cases, the flowers are of brilliant colours, 
several of them being cup-shaped, and many 
with the calyx more ornamental than the corolla. 
The seeds will generally keep good for several 
years ; and several of them, particularly those 
of the kind called caryopsides, when sown, are 
often a long time before they come up. 



This order is a very numerous one, contain- 
ing above three hundred genera, and including 
several highly important plants, both for food 
and commerce. As examples of the utility of 
the Leguminosse for food, I need only mention 
the pea and bean, and all their numerous allies ; 
and as examples of their importance in medicine 
and the arts, I may enumerate senna, liquorice, 
the tamarind, gum-arabic, and logwood. Among 
the ornamental plants belonging to this order 
are, the Laburnum, the Furze or Gorse, the 
Robinia or False Acacia, the true Acacias, the 
Sensitive Plant, and the Barbadoes Flower- 
fence. It will be seen by this enumeration, that 
the flowers of the Lecruminosse differ from each 
other nearly as much as those of Ranunculacese ; 
but when in seed, they are all easily recognised 
by their seed-vessels, which are always legumes, 
that is, bearing more or less resemblance to the 
pod of the common pea. To aid the memory 

D 2 



[part I. 

in retaining the great number of genera included 
in this order, various methods have been devised 
of re-dividing it ; and of these I shall adopt the 
newest, which is also the simplest, by which they 
are arranged in three tribes, according to their 

The flowers of this tribe are called Papilio- 
naceous ; because 
Papilio is the sci- 
entific name of a 
genus of butter- 
ilies, which they 
were supposed to 
resemble. The 
type of this tribe 
maybe considered 
the flower of the 
sweet-pea {La- 
thjrns odoratus)^ 
which has a small 
green calyx, cut 
into five deep 
notches, but not 
divided into regu- 
OF lar sepals. (See a 
and h in Jig. 13.) 
The corolla is in five petals, the largest of 

Fig. 13. — Flower, pod, and tendril 
the sweet-pea. 


wliicli (c) stands erect, and is called the vex- 
illum or standard; below this are. two smaller 
petals (d), which are called the algae or wings ; 
and below these are two petals, joined together 
so as to form a kind of boat (e), which are called 
the carina or keel, and which serve as a cradle 
for the stamens and pistil. There are ten 
stamens, nine of which have the lower half of 
their filaments growing together, so as to form 
a fleshy substance at the base, as shown in Ji.^. 
14 at/i and the other ((/) is free. 
The ovary is oblong, terminating 
in a filiform style, with a pointed 
stigma, as shown at q in Jlc/. 13 ; 
and it is one-celled and many- 
seeded ; the seeds being what we 
call the peas. When the petals p,^ u.-stamens 
fall, the pod still retains the calyx oftheSweet-pea. 
(b), and the style (g) ; and these remain on till 
the seeds are ripe, when the pod divides natu- 
rally into two parts, or valves as they are 
called, which curl back so as to discharge the 
seeds. If the pod be examined before it bursts, 
it will be found that the valves are composed 
of a fleshy substance, lined with a strong mem- 
brane or skin, and that they are united by two 
seams, called the dorsal and ventral sutures. 
Along the ^'^€t«-tFal -suture (A)l there runs a kind 
of nerve, called the placenta, to which the peas 


are attached, each pea being furnished with a 
little separate stalk, called a funicle. A cook 
would be surprised, even in these enlightened 
times, to be told to take a legume of Pisum 
sativum^ and after separating the two valves at 
the dorsal suture, to detach tlie funicles of the 
seeds from the placenta ; yet these scientific 
terms would merely describe the operation of 
shelling the peas. It will be seen by this de- 
scription that the pod of the pea differs very 
materially from the seed-vessels of all the other 
plants I have had 'occasion to describe; and 
that it thus forms a very distinctive character 
for the order. The other parts vary in the 
different genera : the calyx is sometimes tubular, 
and sometimes inflated ; sometimes it has only 
four notches, or teeth as they are called, instead 
of five, and sometimes it has five distinct sepals 
divided to the base. The parts of the corolla 
vary also in proportion to each other, the keel 
in some of the Australian plants is as long as 
the standard ; as, for example, in Kennedia 
MaryattcB ; and in others the wings arc so small 
as to be scarcely visible. The stamens of many 
of the species are also free, that is, divided to 
the base ; while in others they resemble those 
of the sweet-pea, in having nine joined together 
and one free ; and in others the wliole are 
joined together at the base. The pods also 


vary very iuuch in size and form ; being some- 
times nearly round, and only one or two-seeded; 
and in others long, and containing many seeds, 
as in the common bean or pea. The seeds 
themselves are so different that the tribe has 
been divided, on account of them, into two 
sections : the one consisting of those plants 
which, like the common bean, have the seed 
dividing into two fleshy seed-leaves or cotyledons, 
when it begins to germinate ; and the other, 
the seed-leaves of which are thin. The seeds of 
the papilionaceous plants which have thin coty- 
ledons are not eatable ; but those with fleshy 
cotyledons may be safely used as food. The 
fleshy cotyledons do not always rise above the 
ground ; but they do so decidedly in the bean 
and the lupine ; and if either of these seeds be 
laid in moist soil with the hilum or scar down- 
w^ards, the seed, as soon as it begins to ger- 
minate, will divide into two parts (that is, into 
two cotyledons), which wall rise above the 
ground, and become green like leaves ; though, 
from still retaining their roundish form, they 
are easily distinguished from the true leaves, 
which rise in the centre. Though my readers 
will have no difficulty in recognising most of the 
Leguminosse which have papilionaceous flowers, 
there are some genera, respecting which they 
may be interested to learn a few particulars. 


Thus, the Chorozema is one of the kinds with 
'thin cotyledons, and consequently its seeds are 
not eatable. The legumes of this genus are 
roundish, and swelled out, so as to bear but 
little outward resemblance to a pod. Sophora, 
Edwardsia, Virgilia, Podolobium, Callistachys, 
Brachysema, Burtonia, Dillwynia, Eutaxia, 
Pultensea, Daviesia, and Mirbelia, have all thin 
cotyledons, and their ten stamens all separate 
from each other ; but in Hovea, Platylobium, 
and Bossisea, though the cotyledons are thin, 
the stamens all grow together at the base. I 
mention these common greenhouse shrubs, that 
my readers may have an opportunity of ex- 
amining their botanical construction, and thus 
verifying their names. The common furze ( Ulex 
europceiis)^ the Spanish broom {Spartium jun- 
ceiim), the Petty whin {Genista Anglica)^ the 
Laburnum ( Cy^?sw5 Lahurnum)^ and the common 
broom, all belong to this division, and con- 
sequently their seeds are not eatable ; those 
of the Laburnum are indeed poisonous. The 
distinctions between Spaitium, Genista, and 
Cytisus, are very slight, lying chiefly in the 
calyx; and as a proof of this the common 
broom, which is now called Cytisus scoparius, 
was formerly supposed to be a Spartium, and 
afterwards a Genista. 

The common red clover {Trifolium pratense) 




has its flowers in such dense heads that it is 
difficult at first sight to discover that they are 
Papihonaceous. On examination, however, it 
will be found that each separate flower has its 
standard, wings, and keel, though the wings 
are so large as to hide the keel, and nearly to 
obscure the standard. The calyx is tubular at 
the base, but divided above into five long, awl- 
shaped teeth, that stand widely apart from each 
other. The legume has only one or tvro seeds, 
and it is so small as generally to be hidden by 
the calyx. 


The second division of Leguminosse com- 
prises those plants w^hich have heads of flowers 
either in spikes or 
balls, like those 
shown in Jig. 15. 
This figure repre- 
sents two heads of 
flowers oi Acacia ar- 
mata, a well-known 
greenhouse shrub, 
of their natural 
size ; and Jig. 16 
shows a head of 
similar flowers mag- fig. is.-flowers ast> sprig of 

• o 1 T J 1 ^ , Acacia armata . 

nined. In the lat- 


42 MIMOS.E. [part I. 

ter, a shows the calyx, which is five-toothed, 
and h the petals, which are five in number and 
%a\.. c quite regular in shape; c are the 
>l'^||l?fj^1|, stamens, which vary from ten to 
•■^ two hundred in each flower, and 
which are raised so high above the 
petals as to give a light and tuft- 
like appearance to the whole flower. 
iG. i6.-flo\ver Yi\Q leg^umes are very large in pro- 

OF Acacia iMAG- ^ ^ j <d \. 

xiFiKD. portion to the flower ; and conse- 
quently, by a wise provision of nature, only a 
very few of the flowers produce seed. The 
valves of the legumes are not fleshy like those of 
the pea, but dry and hard, and w4ien they open 
they do not curl back. 

The flowers in the diff'erent kinds of Acacia, 
differ in the corolla, which has sometimes 
only four petals, which are occasionally united 
at the base, and in the calyx, which is sometimes 
only four- cleft. The flowers also in many 
species are in spikes instead of balls. 

The rest of the plant of Acacia armata is 
very curious ; what appear to be the leaves (see 
d 'va.Jig. 1 5) are, in f^ict, only the petioles of the 
leaves dilated into what are called phyllodia ; 
the true leaves, which were of the kind called 
bi-pinnate, having fallen off, or never unfolded. 
The true leaves, however, often appear on 
seedling plants ; and thus, when seeds are sown 




of several kinds of Acacia, it is sometimes dif- 
ficult to recoornise them till they have attained 

Fig. 17- — The Bi-pixnate leaf of an Acacia. 

a considerable age. The stipules of the leaves, 
(which are to ordinar}' leaves what bracts are 
to flowers,) are in Acacia armdta converted into 
spines, as shown at e. In some kinds of Acacia 
the true leaves, with the petioles in their natural 
state, (see Jig. 17,) are retained in the adult 
plants, as in Acacia dealhata ; and in others, the 
bi-pinnate leaves are occasionally found attached 
to the phyllodia, as in A. melanoxylon. The 
bi-pinnate leaves are composed of from six to 
twenty pairs of pinnse, or compound leaflets (see 
fmfig. 17), each of which consists of from eight 
to forty pairs of small leaflets (cj). The Gum 
Arabic tree, Acacia vera^ has leaves with only 
two pairs of pinnae, but each has eight or ten 
pairs of small leaflets. The branches and spines 
are red, and the heads of flowers are yellow. 

44 C^SALPINE^. [part i. 

There are above three hundred known species 
of Acacia. 

The genus Mimosa differs from Acacia in the 
corolla being funnel-shaped, and four or five 
cleft. There are seldom above fifteen stamens, 
which are generally on longer filaments than 
those of the Acacia ; and the legume is com- 
pressed and jointed or articulated between the 
seeds, so that the part which contains one seed 
may be broken off, ^vithout tearing the rest. 
The Sensitive-plant {Mimosa pudica) is a famiHar 
example of this genus. 

The cotyledons of the plants belonging to this 
tribe are generally leafy ; and the seeds are not 
eatable. The plants themselves are easily re- 
cognised by their ball or tassel-shaped heads 
or spikes of flowers ; by the small cup-shape 
and inconspicuous corolla of each ; by the grea 
number and length of the stamens ; and by 
their bi-pinnate leaves, or phyllodia supplying 
the place of leaves — though the phyllodia are 
sometimes found in Australian plants with 
papilionaceous flowers, as, for example, mBossicca 


The flowers of the plants contained in this 
tribe have generally five regular, widely spread- 
ing petals, which are never joined together ; 




and stamens of unequal length, which with few 
exceptions are also perfectly free. The petals 
are generally of the same size and shape; though 
sometimes, as in the Barbadoes Flower-fence 
(Poiiiciana, or Ccesalpmia pidcherrima) , four are 
of the same shape, and one deformed (seey^r. 18). 

Fig. 18. — Flower of the Barbadoes Flower-fence. 

The filaments of some of the stamens are very 
long and curving over, but the others are much 
shorter and erect ; the style is long and slender, 
ending in a pointed stigma. The legume is 
flat, and it looks almost many-celled, from the 
seeds being divided from each other by a kind 
of spongy substance, frequently found in the pods 

46 C.-ESALPINE^. [pakt i. 

of plants belonging to this division. The leaves 
are bi-pinnate, and the stem is spiny. 

The Carob-tree, or St. John's bread {Ceratonia 
siliqua), agrees with the Barbadoes Flower-fence 
in the pulpy matter dividing the seeds, though 
it differs widely in its flowers, which are without 
petals, and do not possess any beauty. The 
pulp of the pods of the Carob tree is eatable ; 
but that of Poinciana is said to be injurious. 
The pod of the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) 
differs from the preceding species in having the 
pulpy matter of its pods contained between the 
outer and inner skin of each valve, like the 
fleshy substance in the pod of the pea, instead 
of serving as a bed for the seeds. The flowers 
of the tamarind have five equal petals of a 
brownish yellow, three of them being streaked 
with pink ; and the anthers are nearly rose- 
colour. The stamens and the style both curve 
upwards. It is the pods prepared with sugar 
that form what we call Tamarinds. In Cassia 
lanceolata^ the leaves of which furnish senna, the 
flowers have a bright yellow corolla of five con- 
cave petals, three of which are somewhat laro^er 
than the others. The stamens are also unequal 
in length ; and the style curves upwards. The 
legume is kidney-shaped, and the cells are 
divided from each other by thin membraneous 
partitions. The Gleditschia or Honey Locusts, 


now so frequently planted in our shrubberies on 
account of the lightness and elegance of their 
foliage, belong to this division, and some of 
them, particularly the Chinese Thorny Acacia 
(Gleditschia horrlda), are remarkable for their 
thorns proceeding from the trunk and large 
branches, as well as from the axils of the leaves. 
The Logwood {HcBmatoxylon Campechianuni) ^ 
has inconspicuous yellow flowers, the petals 
being very little longer than the calyx ; and the 
legume has seldom more than two seeds. Though 
it is considered a tree, the stem is seldom thicker 
than the arm of a man, and it is generally 
crooked ; chips of the wood are used for dyeing 
purple. The Judas-tree (Cercis siliquastriim) 
is another species belonging to this division, as, 
though the flowers appear of the papilionaceous 
kind, they are, in fact, composed of five petals, 
nearly equal in size, but having the wings the 
largest. There are ten stamens, free, and of 
unequal length. The legume is oblong and 
many- seeded ; and it opens only on the dorsal 
suture, the other side to which the seeds are 
attached being slightly winged. The flowers 
are each on a separate flower-stalk or pedicel, 
but they rise from the trunk and branches in 
tufts or fascicles. The leaves are simple and 
cordate ; and they do not appear till the flowers 
have faded. 



[part I. 

The Kentucky Coffee-tree {Gymnodadus cana- 
densis) is the last plant belonging to this division 
that I shall attempt to describe. This tree is 
called in Canada, Chicot, or the stump-tree, from 
its having no visible buds, and thus appearing 
like a dead stump in winter. The flowers of 
this plant are white, and they are produced in 
racemes, but they bear no resemblance to the 
pea flowers, having rather a star-like appear- 
ance, like those of the Jasmine (see Jig. 19). 

The calyx {a) is tubu- 
lar ; and the upper 
part or limb is divid- 
ed into five parts (Z>), 
which alternate with 
the petals of the 
corolla (c). There 
kkntl'cky are ten stamens, but 
they are completely 
enclosed in the tube of the calyx. The pod is 
very large, the valves becoming hard and bony 
when dry ; and the seeds are like large beans, 
the pod being deeply indented between the seeds. 
The leaves are bi-pinnate, with from four to 
seven pairs of pinnse ; the lower having only 
one small leaflet, but the rest bearing from six 
to eight pairs of leaflets each. This tree mu^t 
not be confounded with the true Coffee-tree, 
which belongs to Rubiaceae, and from which it is 

19.— Flowers of thi 


perfectly distinct in every respect ; and it only 
takes its American name from its beans having 
been used as a substitute for coffee. The outer 
bark of this tree, when it becomes old, splits off 
in narrow strips and rolls up ; and its timber, 
like that of the Robinia or False Acacia, having 
very little sap wood, is thus very strong in 
quite young trees, though it is of little value 
when the tree is full-grown. 

The species contained in the first and second 
divisions of this order will be easily recognised 
by botanical students ; and though those of the 
third division are much more difficult to find out, 
still there is a kind of family likeness, particu- 
larly in the leaves, which will enable the eye, 
with a little practice, to recognise them. The 
student should visit the hothouses of botanic 
gardens and nurseries, and should there endea- 
vour to pick out plants belonging to this order. 

50 ROSACEA. [part i. 



All the numerous plants which compose this 
large order agree more or less with the rose in 
the construction of their flowers, though they 
differ widely in the appearance of their fruit. 
They all agree in having the receptacle dilated, 
so as toformaliningtothelower part of the calyx, 
and in the upper part of this lining the stamens 
and petals are inserted above the ovary ; and 
the anthers are innate, that is, the filament is 
inserted only in the lower part. The leaves also 
have generally large and conspicuous stipules ; 
and they are frequently compound, that is, 
composed of several pairs of leaflets, placed 
exactly opposite to each other ; though the leaves 
themselves are never opposite to each other, but 
are placed alternately on the main stem. These 

CHAP. III.] ROSE^. 51 

characters are common to the order; but the 
plants included in it differ from each other 
so much in other respects, that it has been 
found necessary to redivide Rosacese into tribes, 
of which the following six contain plants com- 
mon in British gardens. 


The flowers of the wild Rose have the lower 
part of the calyx tubular and fleshy (from being 
lined with the dilated receptacle) and the upper 
part divided into five leafy sepals, which enfold 

Fig, 20.— Rosa Fosteri. 

the bud, and remain on after the expansion of 
the corolla. In Rosa Fosteri^ (see Jig. 20,) and 

E 2 



[part I. 

its near ally the Dog rose(i?. canina), the sepals 
(a) do not extend far beyond the petals of the 
bud ; but in some species, as in Bosa cinnamonea 
and its allies, the sepals are so large and long, 
that they assume the character of little leaves, 
The corolla is cup-shaped, and it is composed of 
five equal petals, each of which is more or less 
indented in the margin, as shown at h. In 
the centre of the flower the receptacle forms a 
kind of disk which completely fills the opening or 
throat of the calyx ; in most species covering the 
carpels and their styles and onlyleaving the stigmas 
free, though in the Ayrshire rose {R. arvensis), 
and its allies, the styles are united, so as to 
form a column, which projects considerably above 
the disk (seejir/. 21). 
The pitcher - shaped 
part of the calyxwhen 
the corolla falls be- 
comes the hip (Ji[/. 
20 c), and serves as 
a covering or false 
pericarp to the nu- 
merous bony carpels 
or nuts which contain the seed. These nuts 
are each enveloped in a hairy cover (see Jlf/, 
20 d, and Ji^. 21 a,) and each contains only 
one seed which it does not open naturally to 
discharge : hence, the seeds of roses when sown 

Fig. 21.— Ovary of the Ayrshire 


CHAP. HI.] ROSE^. 53 

are a long time before they come up. Fig. 22 
is the ripe fruit of Rosa cumamonea, cut in two to 
show the nuts. The leaves are 
pinnate, consisting of two or 
more pairs of leaflets, and ending 
with an odd one. The leaves 
are furnished with very large 
stipules (see Jig. 20 e) ; and the 
stems have numerous prickles fjg. 22.— ripe fruit 
(/), which differ from thorns in and detached seed 
being articulated, that is, they 
may be taken off without tearing the bark of 
the stem on which they grow, only leaving the 
scar or mark, shown at g. The leaves of the 
sweet briar are full of small glands or cells 
filled with fragrant oil, w^hich may be distinctly 
seen in the shape of little white dots, when 
held up to the light ; and this is the reason of 
their delightful perfume. When the leaf is 
rubbed between the fingers, the thin skin that 
covers the cells is broken, and the oil being 
permitted to escape, the fragrance is increased. 
There are only two genera in this tribe, viz. 
Rosa and Loicca^ the latter containing only 
what was formerly called Rosa herherifolia^ and 
which has been thought worthy of being made 
into a separate genus principally on account of 
its having simple leaves without stipules, and 
branched prickles. 

54 POTENTILLE^, OR [part 


The plants belonging to this tribe agree more 
or less in the construction of their flowers with 
the well-known showy plants called Potentilla, 
but my readers will probably be surprised to 
hear that the raspberry and the strawberry are 
included among them. If, however, they com- 
pare the flower of the Potentilla with that of 
the strawberry, they will find them very much 
alike. In both there is a calyx of ten sepals, 
and a cup-shaped corolla of five petals ; and in 
both the stamens form a ring round an ele- 
vated receptacle, on which are placed numerous 
carpels. Here, however, the resemblance ceases, 
for as the seeds of Potentilla ripen, the recep- 
tacle withers up in proportion to the swelling of 
the carpels, till it becomes hidden by them; 
while in the strawberry the receptacle becomes 
gradually more and more dilated, swelling out 
and separating the bony carpels still farther and 
farther from each other, till at last it forms 
what we call the ripe fruit. I have already 
had several times occasion to mention the 
receptacle, which though seldom seen, or at 
least noticed, by persons who are not botanists, 
is a most important part of the flower, and one 
that assumes a greater variety of form than any 


other. Sometimes, as we have seen in several 
of the Ranunculaceae and Leguminosae, it is a 
mere disk or flat substance serving as a founda- 
tion to hold together the other parts of the 
flower ; and at other times we have found it 
drawn out into a thin membrane and divided 
into a kind of leaves, as it is among the carpels 
of the tree-peony; but in no plants that I 
have yet had occasion to describe does it 
assume such strange forms as in Rosacese. 

The flower of the strawberry {Fragaria vesca) 
has a green calyx of ten sepals ; five of which 
are much smaller than the others, and grow a 
little behind them, the large and small ones 
occurring alternately. The corolla is cup-shaped, 
and in five equal petals ; the stamens are 
numerous and arrano^ed in a crowded rino^ round 
the carpels, which are placed on a somewhat 
raised receptacle. The carpels or nuts resemble 
those of the rose, but they have no hairy 
covering, and indeed look hard and shining on 
the surface of the distended receptacle, or poly- 
phore as it is called in its metamorphosed state. 
The carpels when ripe do not open to discharge 
the seed, and consequently as they are sown with 
the seeds, the young plants are a long time 
before they appear. The strawberry has what 
is called ternate leaves, that is, leaves consisting 
of three leaflets ; with large membranous stipules. 



[part I. 

The calyx is persistent, that is, it remains on 
till the fruit is ripe. 

The Raspberry {Ruhns IdcBus) differs widely 
from the strawberry in many particulars, not- 
withstanding their being included not only in the 

same natural 
order, but in 
the same tribe. 
The ca-lyx has 
only five se- 
pals {a in fi- 
gure 23) ; and 
though the co- 
rolla has five 
petals (^), they 
do not form 
a cup-shaped 
flower. In the 
centre are the 
carpels, the 

Fig. 23.— Flowers and fruit op the Raspberry. fu„^y> ^f wliipli 

is shown of the natural size at c, and magnified 
at d^ the latter showing that each has a 
separate style and stigma. As the raspberry 
advances, the petals drop, and the receptacle 
becomes elevated into what is called a torus, 
as shown of the natural size at e ; bearing 
the carpels upon it, which gradually swell out 
and soften, till each becomes a little pulpy fruit, 


full of juice, and having the stone or seed in 
the centre. While this change is taking place, 
the stamens gradually wither and fall off, and 
the stigmas disappear, the style shrivelling up 
to the appearance of a hair ; the pulpy carpels 
have also become so pressed against each other, 
as to adhere together, and the whole, with the 
persistent calyx, now assumes the appearance 
shown at f. As soon as the carpels become 
ripe they cease to adhere to the torus, and 
they may be pulled off and eaten (the torus, or 
core as it is called, being thrown away) : each 
carpel will be found to inclose a very hard seed or 
stone, as shown at^. If the Raspberry, instead of 
being gathered, be suffered to remain on the stalk, 
the juicy carpels dry up, and fall with the seed 
inclosed. The stems of the Raspberry are bien- 
nial, that is, they do not bear till they are two 
years old, after which they die ; but the roots 
are perennial, and they are always sending up 
fresh suckers, so that the same plants will bear 
for many years in succession, though not on the 
same stems. The stems are generally erect, and 
prickly like the rose ; and the leaves on the bear- 
ing stems have three leaflets, while those on the 
barren stems have five ; and in both cases the 
leaflets are covered with white down on the 
under side. All the different kinds of Bramble, 
such as the Dewberry, Blackberry, &c., agree 

58 SPIRiEEjE. [part i. 

with the Raspberry in the construction of their 
fruit, though they differ in the number of their 
leaflets, the size and colour of their flowers, and 
other minor particulars. 

Several other genera belong to this tribe, 
among which may be mentioned Geum Aveiis^ or 
Herh Bennet^ the carpels of which have each a 
hooked style; Sieversia separated from Geum, 
because the carpels end in a straight feathery 
awn ; and Tormentilla^ the flowers of which bear 
a general resemblance to those of Potentilla, 
but which have an eight-parted calyx; a corolla 
of four petals; sixteen stamens, and dry wrinkled 
carpels on a depressed receptacle. All these 
genera my readers will find it interesting to 
procure flowers of, in order to compare them 
with each other. This and the preceding tribe 
are considered by some modern botanists to 
form the order Rosacese ; the other tribes being 
formed into separate orders. 


The only genera in this tribe which contain 
well-known plants are Spiraea and Kerria. 
In Spirsea the calyx is five-cleft (see a in Jig, 
24) and lined with the dilated receptacle, forming 
a shallow tube or rather cup for the reception 
of the carpels. There are five small roundish 



petals (b), and from twenty to fifty stamens (c), 
which project very far beyond them. In the 

Fig. 24. — Flower of the Spir.^a. 

centre are from two to five carpels (d), which 
are something like those of the raspberry when 
young, but afterw^ards become of the kind called 
follicles ; each carpel contains from two to six 
seeds affixed to its inner suture, and they are 
dehiscent — that is, they open naturally at the 
top to discharge the seed (see e). The flowers 
are set very close together, and from this circum- 
stance, combined with their small size and pro- 
jecting stamens, they look like fine filigree work; 
hence the popular English names given to S. 
salicifolia or Bride wort, Queen^s needle- work, 
&c. The flow^ers of this species are in spicate 
racemes, but others are in corymbs, as in S. bella ; 
or in panicles, as in S. armfolia. 

Kerria is a genus containing only one species, 

the plant which was formerly called Corchorus 

J-ponica; the calyx is united at the base, but 

divided in the upper part into five lobes ; three 

of them obtuse, and the other two tipped with 

60 AMYGDALE^. [part i. 

a little point called a mucro. There are about 
twenty stamens about the same length as the 
petals arising from the calyx, and five roundish 
carpels containing one seed each. The leaves 
are simple, and the stipules awl-shaped. Till 
lately only a double-flowered variety was known 
in Britain; but about 1832, the single-flowered 
plant was introduced from China. Corchorus, 
the genus in which this plant was originally 
placed, is nearly allied to the lime-tree. 


This tribe is distinguished by the fruit, which 
IS what botanists call a drupe, that is, a stone 
fruit. The principal genera included in this 
tribe are Amygdalus^ the Almond ; Persica, the 
Peach and Nectarine ; Anneniaca, the Apricot; 
Primus^ the Plum: and Cerasus, the Cherry. 
All these genera contain more or less of prussic 
acid, which is found to exist principally in the 
leaves and kernels ; and they all yield gum when 

The flowers of the common Almond {Amyg- 
dalus communis) appear, as is well known, before 
the leaves, bursting from large scaly buds, which 
when they open throw off the brown shining 
bracts in which they had been enwrapped. The 
calyx is somewhat campanulate, wdth the upper 


part cut into five teeth or lobes, and it is lined 
by the dilated disk. There are five petals, and 
about twenty stamens, both inserted in the 
lining of the calyx. The anthers are innate, 
and they differ from most of the other plants 
yet described in being only one-celled. The ovary 
is also only one- celled, and there are generally 
two ovules, though the plant rarely ripens more 
tlian one seed. The leaves are simple, and 
they have very small stipules. When the petals 
drop, the ovary appears covered with a thick 
tough downy pericarp, within which is the 
hard stone or nut, the kernel or almond of which 
is the seed. 

The Peach (Persica vidians) was formerly 
included in the same genus as the almond ; and 
in fact there is but little botanical difference. 
The flow^ers are the same both in construction 
and appearance ; and the leaves are simple like 
those of the almond, and, like them, they are 
conduplicate (that is, folded together at the mid- 
rib) when young. The only difference indeed is in 
the fruit ; for, as everybody knows, the stone 
of the peach has not a dry tough covering, like 
that of the almond, but a soft and melting one 
full of juice, and the stone itself is of a harder 
consistence, and deeply furrowed, instead of being 
only slightly pitted. The fruit of the peach has 
thus a fleshy pericarp, the pulp or sarcocarp of 

62 AMYGDALE^. [part i. 

which is eatable, and a furrowed nut or stone, 
inclosing the seed or kernel, which is '^Tapped up 
like that of the almond, in a thick loose skin. 

The Nectarine (P. Icevis) only differs from 
the peach in the epicarp, or outer covering of 
the pulpy part, being smooth instead of downy. 
Of both fruits there are two kinds, one called 
free-stone, from their parting freely with the 
stone ; and the other cling-stone, from the stone 
clinging to the fibres of the pulp. 

The Apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris) agrees with 
the preceding genus in its flowers ; but it 
differs in its fruit, its stone being sharp at one 
end and blunt at the other, with a furrow on 
each side, but the rest of the surface smooth. 
Thus my readers will perceive that the Peach 
and the Apricot, though so different from each 
other as to be recognised at a glance, are yet 
botanically so very closely allied, as to be dis- 
tinguished only by the stone. The leaves indeed 
differ in form, but in other respects they are 
exactly the same. 

The Sloe (Prunus spinosa) is supposed by 
some botanists to be the origin of our cultivated 
plum, though others make it a separate species 
under the name of Prunus domestica. The 
flowers in both are solitary (see Jig. 25), and 
consist of a five-toothed calyx (a) which is united 
at the base, and in the lining of which the 


stamens are inserted as shown at h. The 
ovary has a thick style and capitate stigma (c), 

Fig. 25. — Flowers and fruit of the Sloe. 

and the fruit is a drupe {d). In these particulars 
therefore the plum agrees with the preceding 
genera ; but it will be found to differ in the 
skin of the pericarp, which is quite smooth and 
covered with a fine bloom ; this, indeed, and its 
stone being pointed at both ends constitute the 
chief botanical distinctions between the fruit of 
the plum and that of the apricot, as in other 
respects they are alike. Both the plum and the 
apricot have footstalks, and in this differ from the 
peach and the nectarine, which are without. 
The leaves of the plum differ from those of the 
other genera in being convolute, that is, rolled 
up, in the bud. 



[part I. 

The Cherry {Cerasus vulgaris) differs from the 
plum in the skin of the pericarp being destitute 
of bloom, and in several flowers springing from 
each bud, in what botanists call a fascicled 
umbel (see a 
in fg._ 26). 
The pedicels (5) 
are also much 
longer; the pe- 
tals (c) are in- 
dented in the 
margin ; the 
style {d) is 
more slender ; 
and the stone 
(e) is smooth 
and much more 
globose. The 
number of the 
stamens, and 
the manner in 
which they are 

FxG. 26.- 

-Flowers ant) stone of the 

inserted in the 

lining of the 

calyx, is the same in both genera (seey)'; but 

the leaves are different, for those of the Cherry 

are folded down the middle, when young, like 

those of the peach and almond ; while those of 

the plum are rolled up. 

CHAP. III.] POME^. 65 

The genus Cerasus is divided into two sections, 
the first containing those species which have 
their flowers in bunches, and on long footstalks, 
as in the common Cherry ; and the second those 
which have their flowers in racemes on short 
footstalks, as in the Bird- cherry {Cerasus 
Padus) ; the Mahaleb, or Bois de Sainte Lucie 
{Cerasus Mahaleb) ; the common Laurel {Ce- 
rasus Lauro-Cerasus) ; and the Portugal Laurel 
{Cerasus lusitanicus) , These plants are so dif- 
ferent from the common Cherry both in flowers 
and fruit, as far as can be judged from their 
general appearance, as scarcely to be recog- 
nised ; but when closely examined their bo- 
tanical construction will be found the same. 
Formerly only two genera were included in this 
tribe — viz. Amygdalus, which comprised the 
Peach and Nectarine as well as the Almond ; 
and Prunus, w'hich included the Apricot and 
the Cherry. 


The common apple {Pyrus Malus) may be 
considered the type of this tribe, which com- 
prehends not only what we are accustomed to 
call kerneled fruit, but also the Hawthorn, 
Cotoneaster, and other ornamental shrubs and 
low trees. The flower of the apple bears con- 



[part I. 

siderable resemblance to the flowers of the 
genera already described, but the petals (see 
a mjig. 27) are oblong, rather than roundish. 

Fig. 27. — Fruit and part of the Flower of the Apple. 

The calyx {h) is tubular in the lower part, and the 
limb is divided into five lobes. The receptacle 
lines the lower part of the calyx, and forms a 
disk, filling its throat, in which the stamens and 
petals are inserted. There are five ovaries, the 
styles of which are for half their length united, 
leaving the upper part and the stigmas free ; 
and the ovaries themselves, now become cells, 
are enclosed in a cartilaginous endocarp, which 
forms what we call the core of the Apple, and 
which adheres firmly to the tubular part of the 
calyx. There are two ovules in each cell, placed 




side by side, but generally only one seed in each 
becomes perfectly ripe. As the seeds advance, 
the fleshy tube of the calyx swells out and be- 
comes what we call the apple ; while the leafy 
part or lobes of the limb remain on, and form 
the eye. Fruit of this kind are called pomes. 

The Pear (Pi/rus communis) differs from the 
apple in the shape of the fruit (see a in Jir/. 28), 

Fig. 28.— Fruit axd part of the Flower ov the Pear, 

which tapers towards the footstalk, instead of 
being umbilicate, that is, indented at the point 
of the insertion of the footstalk, as is the case 
with the Apple. The construction of the flowers 
in both species is the same, except that the 
styles are quite free for their whole length in 
the Pear, and not partially united into a column 

F 2 



[part I. 

as in the Apple. This distinction, and some others, 
have been thought, by some botanists, sufficient 
to constitute the Apple and its allied species into 
a separate genus under the name of Mains. 
The leaves of the Pear differ from those of the 
Apple in being the same colour on both surfaces, 
whereas those of the Apple are covered with 
a white down on the under side. 

Besides the Apple and the Pear, and their 
respective allies, which form two distinct 
sections of the genus Pyrus, that genus, 
being a very extensive one, is divided into 
several other sections, all the plants contained 
in which may be arranged under two heads : 
viz., those that formerly constituted the genus 
Sorbus ; and those that were once called Aronia. 
The Mountain Ash {Pyrus aucvparia) may 
be considered as a fair specimen of most of the 
trees belonging to the Sorbus division. By 
the details of the flowers of this species given 
in Jig. 29, it will be seen that the petals {a) 

Fig. 29. — Flower and fruit of the Mountain Ash. 

are very small and concave ; and the calyx (h) 

CHAP. III.] POME^. 69 

is tubular, and five-cleft. There are three 
styles, as shown at c ; and the stamens (cf), which 
project far beyond the petals, are inserted in 
the disk. The fruit (e) is a pome with three 
seeds (/) enclosed in a cartilaginous membrane, 
like the core of the apple or pear. The leaves 
of the Mountain Ash are impari-pinnate, that 
is, they consist of several pairs of leaflets, ter- 
minating in an odd one; and the flowers are 
produced in corymbs. The White Beam-tree 
{Pyrus Aria), the wild Service (P. torminalis), 
and several similar trees, belong to this division 
and have the same kind of fruit as the Moun- 
tain Ash. The true Service, however, differs in 
its fruit being generally shaped like a pear, 
though there is a variety with apple-shaped 
fruit. One species {P. pinnaiijidd) has the 
leaves lobed to the midrib, instead of being cut 
into leaflets ; and this gives the name to the 
species, leaves of this description being called 
pinnatifid. The leaves of the genus Pyrus 
often have their petioles dilated and somewhat 
stem-clasping at the base ; but they have gene- 
rally only small stipules. 

Among the other plants included in the genus 
Pyrus, may be mentioned the beautiful shrub 
now called Pyrus arhutifolia, which has been 
successively included in the genera Crataegus, 
Aronia, and Mespilus; and P. Chamcemespihis, 

70 POME^. [part I. 

which has been successively called Crataegus, 
Mespilus, and Sorbus. There are several beau- 
tiful low shrubs belonging to this division of the 
genus Pyrus. 

The genus Cydonia, the Quince, differs from 
Pyrus in having its seeds arranged in longi- 
tudinal rows, instead of being placed side by 
side. In the Chinese Quince there are thirty 
seeds in each row, arranged lengthways of the 
fruit. The ovary of this genus consists of five 
cells, each containing one row of seeds, the seeds 
being covered with a kind of mucilaginous pulp. 
The well-known plant, formerly called Pyrus 
japonica^ has been removed to the genus 
Cydonia on account of its ovary and the dis- 
position of its seeds, which are decidedly those 
of the Quince. It differs, however, from the 
common Quince in its seeds, which are arranged 
in two rows in each cell. 

The common Hawthorn (CratcBgus Oxyacantha) 
hasgenerally only two styles (see «, Jig. 80) , but the 

number of styles 
varies in the 
many different 
species included 
in the genus 
from one to five. 
The corolla, ca- 

FiG. 30.— Flower and fruit of the lyX, and stamcnS 

Hawthorn. , , 

are the same as 

CHAP, iii.l POME^. 71 

in the other genera inchided in this tribe, but 
the petals {b) are rounder and rather more in- 
dented. The seeds vary from one to five, each 
being enclosed in a bony covering, or stone, the 
whole being surrounded by the fleshy part of 
the calyx, which forms the eatable part of the 
Haw. In some of the species the haws are so 
large as to appear like little apples ; but they 
may be always easily distinguished by the ripe 
ovary, or case which incloses the seed, being 
bony ; whereas in all the varieties of Pyrus, 
the outer part of the ovary is cartilaginous, like 
the core of the apple. The seeds of the Hawthorn 
are a long time before they come up, from the 
hardness of this bony covering, which does not 
open naturally when ripe. The species com- 
posing the genus Raphiolepis, the Indian Haw- 
thorn, have been separated from Cratsegus ; 
chiefly on account of the covering which en- 
closes the seeds being of a paper -like texture, 
instead of bony, and each cell containing two 
seeds. The hmb of the calyx also falls off" before 
the fruit is ripe, instead of remaining on to form 
what is called an eye, as it does in the common 
Hawthorn. The leaves of the plants belonging 
to this genus vary in the different species ; but 
those of the common Hawthorn are wedge- 
shaped, and cut deeply into three or five lobes. 
The different species which compose the genus 

72 POME^. [part I. 

Cratsegus were formerly considered to belong 
to the genus Mespilus. This genus, which is 
now almost confined to the common Medlar 
{Mespilus germanica)^ agrees with Crataegus in 
having each seed enclosed in a bony covering, 
but it differs in the limb of the calyx being 
in large leafy segments ; and in the disk being 
very large and visible even^vhen the fruit is ripe, 
from the tubular part of the calyx not closing 
over it. 

Among the plants formerly included in the 
genus Mespilus, may be mentioned Photinia 
serrulafa, and Eriohotrya japonica, both natives 
of Japan. The first of these was once 
called Cratcegus glabra^ and it is remarkable for 
its beautiful glossy leaves, which are of a deep 
green when old, and beautifully tinged with red 
when young ; the flowers are white, and they 
are produced in what botanists call corymbose 
panicles. There are some other species of the 
genus Photinia, but only two or three are com- 
mon in British gardens. Eriohotrya japonica^ 
the Loquat-tree, was formerly called Mespilus 
japonica. It is remarkable for its large and 
handsome leaves, which are woolly on the under 
side. The flowers, which are small and white, 
are produced in large panicles, and they are 
followed by large pendulous bunches of the 
yellow pear-shaped fruit, which is covered with 


a woolly substance, and hence the botanic name 
Eriobotrya, which signifies woolly grapes. 
The tree will stand out in the open air in 
England, and it will flower freely in a green- 
house, but it requires a stove to ripen its fruit. 
Cotoneaster and Amelanchier were also for- 
merly included in Mespilus, and they are very 
closely allied to Photinia and Eriobotrya. The 
species belonging to Photinia, however, are 
easily known by their shining leaves, and the 
petals of their flowers being reflexed, that is, 
curved back ; and the species of Eriobotrya are 
distinguished by their woolliness, which spreads 
over even the flowers and fruit. The Coto- 
neasters are known by the small petals of their 
flowers, which curve inwards, and remain a long 
time without falling. The leaves are also thick, 
and w^oolly or clothed with rusty hair on the 
under side ; and the flowers, which are pro- 
duced in cymes or panicles, with woolly pedi- 
cels, are followed by bright red havrs, resem- 
bling those of the hawthorn. Lastly, the genus 
Amelanchier is known by its long narrow petals, 
and its ovary having five or ten cells, with five 
styles united at the base. 


The plants included in this tribe agree more 
or less with the common Burnet {Sanguisorba 

74 SANGUISORBE^. [part i. 

officinalis). This plant, which is found in great 
abundance in rich meadows on calcareous soils, 
has its flowers produced in a close terminal 
spike. The flowers have no petals, but the 
calyx, which is four-cleft, is pink, and there are 
four glossy brown bracts to each flower ; so that, 
on the whole, the flowers are rather ornamental, 
notwithstanding their want of petals. There are 
only four stamens, and two carpels with slender 
styles and pointed stigmas. The leaves are 
pinnate, consisting generally of nine leaflets, 
and each pair of leaflets is furnished with two 
stipules. The Alchemilla, or Ladies' Mantle, is 
nearly allied to the Burnet ; but the flowers are 
in small corymbs, instead of spikes. The 
flowers have no petals ; but the limb of the 
calyx is coloured, and divided into eight un- 
equal segments. There are generally four 
stamens and only one style, though sometimes 
there are two. The ovary contains one or two 
carpels, each containing a single seed, and these 
when ripe are enclosed in a capsule, formed by 
the tubular part of the calyx becoming hardened. 
The leaves are lobed, plaited, and serrated at 
the margin ; and those of the Alpine species 
{A. alpina), which is often found wild on the 
Scotch mountains, are covered with a beauti- 
ful silky substance of the most brilliant white- 




The type of this order is considered to be the 
common evening Tree-primrose {CEnothera bien- 
nis), and it takes its name from Onagra^ the 
name given by Tournefort to the genus. The 
Fuchsia seems so unlike the CEnothera, that it 
appears difficult to any but a botanist to trace 
the connexion between them ; but, botanically, 
they agree in the position of the ovary, which 
in both is so placed as to seem rather to belong 
to the flower-stalk than to the flower ; and this 
peculiarity is found in all the genera included in 
the order. The parts of the flowers are also 
always either two, four, eight, or twelve ; as, for 
example, there are four petals and eight stamens 
in both the Fuchsia and the CEnothera. 


Little more than fifty years ago, the first 
Fuchsia was introduced into England ; and we 
are told that small plants of it were sold at 

76 THE GENUS FUCHSIA. [parti. 

a guinea each. Now more than twenty species, 
and innumerable hybrids and varieties, are in 
common cultivation, and we find them not onl}^ 
in greenhouses and windows, but planted in the 
open air as common border shrubs. The first 
Fuchsia seen in England was F. coccinea^ intro- 
duced in 1788 ; and this species is still common 
in our gardens. It was followed about 1796 by 
F. lycoides ; and after that no other species was 
introduced till 1821, since when a full tide of 
Fuchsias has kept pouring in upon our gardens, 
from the different parts of Mexico, South 
America, and New Zealand, to the present time. 
All the Fuchsias were formerly divided into 
two sections ; the plants in one of which having 
the stamens and pistil concealed, and those in 
the other having the stamens and style exserted, 
that is, projecting beyond the other parts of the 
flower. The first division comprises all the 
small-flowered kinds ; such as F. microphylla^ 
thymifolia^ cylindracea, and hacillaris, all which 
have the lobes of the calyx short, and the petals 
partially concealed. F. parviflora belongs to 
this division, but it is distinguished by its glau- 
cous leaves with an entire margin; and F, lycoides 
is also included in it ; though this last seems to 
form the connecting link between the two 
sections, as both its petals and its style and sta- 
mens are partially exposed. The second division 




comprises all the kinds which have long project- 
ing stamens. 

As the general arrangement of the parts of 
the flower is nearly the same in both divisions, 
jig. 31, which represents the section of a flower 
of F. cylindracea, from the Botanical Register^ 
will give my readers a clear idea of the botanical 
construction of the Fuchsia. In this figure, a 
shows two cells of the ovary (which when entire 
is four-celled, opening 
when ripe into four 
valves), with the seeds 
attached to a central 
placenta. This ovary 
is surrounded and 
protected by the di- 
lated disk, which also 
serves as a lining to 
the tubular part of 
the calyx, h. The an- 
thers, in this division, 
have very short fila- 
ments, which are inserted in the hning of the 
calyx, as shown at c ; ^ is the style, which, in 
fact, consists of four styles united together, and 
which divides near the apex into four stigmas ; 
e e are two of the four lobes of the calyx ; and f 
is one of the four petals. 

In the second division, of which F. coccinea 

Fig. 31. — Section of the flowek op- 
Fuchsia CyiilNDRACEA. 



[part I. 

may be considered the type, the calyx and the 
corolla are of different colours. In Jig. 32, 
which shows a flower of F. discolor, the Port 
Famine Fuchsia, the calyx {a) is scarlet and 
the most ornamental part of the flower, while 
the petals (h) are purple, and wrapped over each 
other. The ovary (c) is green, 
and when the petals and calyx 
fall ofl", it swells into a berry, 
which becomes of a dark pur- 
ple when ripe. F. glohosa 
differs from F. coccinea in the 
flowers being shorter and 
more globose, while the limb 
of the calyx curves inward. 
In F. macrostemma^ a well- 
known Fuchsia, the lobes of 
the limb of the calyx are, on 
the contrary, recurved, that 
is, turned backwards. This 
formation is common, more or less, to several 
other species. In F. excorticata, the New Zealand 
Fuchsia, there is a large fleshy knot at the base 
of the calyx, and strong ribs running up the 
lobes ; the calyx is green when young, but it 
afterwards becomes crimson ; and the petals 
are very small. This species is so different from 
the others, that it was at first described as a 
new genus, under the name of Skinnera. The 

Fig. 32.— Fuchsia 


calyx is green at first, but it afterwards becomes 
crimson, jp. arhorea has pale-purplish flowers, 
and, like F. hjcoides^ forms a connecting link 
between the two sections, the stamens being 
only a little exserted, and the petals hidden. 

F. radicans, the only Fuchsia yet discovered 
with a creeping stem, which was introduced in 
.1841, belongs to this division. 

These sections include all the Fuchsias known 
in British gardens previously to 1835 ; but since 
that period, two kinds have been introduced, 
which belong to a third division. These are 
F.fulgens and F. corymhiflora. In these plants 
the tube of the calyx is about two inches long, 
and the lobes are very short. The petals are 
also short, and scarlet or deep-rose colour, though 
not exactly of the same hue as the calyx. The 
leaves are large, with the midribs ajid veins red ; 
and the branches and pedicels are also of a 
dark reddish purple. 


In the description of the botanical construction 
of the Fuchsia, my readers may have observed, 
that the ovary is placed below the calyx, and 
quite distinct from it. The same construction 
is still more visible in the CEnothera, as the tube 
of the calyx is very slender, and often more than 
two inches long, while the ovary is often vase- 



shaped, and of large size. The cal3'x of CEno- 
thera biennis^ the common Evening or Tree 
Primrose, consists of four sepalsgrowing together 
in the lower part, so as to form a long tube (a 
v^fy. So), and with tlie upper part or limb gene- 
rally in two segments (^), which are bent quite 

Fig. 33. — The Evexin'g Primrose (CEnoUicra biennis). 

back when the corolla expands, and which may 
be easily divided with a pin into four. There 
are four petals in the corolla (c), and they are 
placed so as to wrap over each other at the base. 
The calyx is lined with the dilated receptacle, 
and in this lining are inserted the filaments of 
the eight stamens (as shown at d) ; the stamens 


having versatile anthers, that is, anthers attached 
to the filament by the middle, so as to quiver 
at every breath. The pollen contained in the 
cells of these anthers feels clammy when touched; 
and its particles, when magnified, will be found 
to be triangular, and connected by small threads, 
a form of construction peculiar to this genus 
and its allies. The style is long, and the stigma 
is four- cleft. The ovary (e e) is situated at the 
base of the calyx, and when ripe, it becomes a 
four-celled dry capsule, which bursts into four 
valves, opening at top to discharge the seed. 
The seeds, when young, are attached to the 
central placenta, and they are quite free from 
hair or wool of any kind. 

The genus CEnothera being a very extensive 
one, it has been divided by M. Spach, a German 
botanist residing in Paris, into fourteen new 
genera ; but only one, or at most two, of these 
genera have been adopted by other botanists. 
One of these Godetia, which embraces all the 
purple-flowered kinds, has been divided from 
OEnothera, on account of a slight feathery ap- 
pearance on the seeds ; whereas the seeds of 
the true yellow-flowered GEnotheras are naked, 
that is, without the slightest appearance of any 
feathery substance or wing. The other genus, 
Boisduvalia Spach, includes only two species, 
both with pink flowers, which are very seldom 



[part I. 

seen in British gardens. The generic mark of 
distinction consists in four of the stamens in 
these species being shorter than the other four ; 
whereas in the true (Enotheras all the eight 
stamens are of equal length. As M. Spach's 
other genera have not been adopted by any 
British botanist, it is not worth while troubling 
my readers with the distinctions between them. 
The flowers of the yellow GEnotheras only open 
in the evening, or in cloudy weather ; but 
those of the purple kinds, or Godetias, remain 
open all day. The leaves in both kinds are 


This genus is 
plant often seen 
in shrubberies, 
called the French 
Willow - Herb — 
(Epilobium an- 
gustifolium) , and 
the English weed 
called Codlings- 
and - Cream {E. 
hirsiitum). In this 
genus, the tubular 
part of the calyx 
which incloses the 

well linown, by the showy 

Fig. 34.— Epilobivm roseum. 

ovary, is quadrangular, as 


shown at a in Jig. 34, which represents seed- 
vessels of Epilobium roseum^ a very common 
weed in the neighbourhood of London. The 
limb of the calyx is four-cleft, and the corolla 
has four petals ; and when these fall off, the 
ovary assumes the appearance shown 
at a. The quadrangular form is re- 
tained by the capsule, which, when 
it ripens, bursts open into the four 
valves (6), and discharges the seed op'^Epix^Bi^t^:^ 
which was attached to the central 
placenta (c) ; each seed being furnished with a 
little feathery tuft resembling pappus, as shown 
in^^. 35. The genus Epilobium is divided into 
two sections ; the plants in one of which have 
irregular petals, the stamens bent, and the 
stigma divided into four lobes, as in the French 
Willow- Herb, and the other showy species ; and 
the plants in the other section having small 
flowers with regular petals, erect stamens, and 
the stigma undivided. 


The calyx in this genus is tubular, with the 
limb in two or four lobes, as in OEnothera. The 
corolla is, however, very different, the four petals 
being unguiculate or clawed ; that is, so much 
narrower in the lower part as to stand widely 
apart from each other ; they are also three 

G 2 

84 THE GENUS CLARKIA. [part i. 

lobed. The stamens are very different, onl}^ 
four of them being perfect, and the anthers of 
the other four being wasted and destitute of 
pollen ; and the stigma is divided into four leaf- 
like lobes, ver}^ different from those of all the 
other genera included in the order. The cap- 
sule is cylindrical in shape, and furrowed on the 
outside ; it is four-celled, and when ripe, it bursts 
open by four valves. The seeds are quite naked. 
Among the other genera belonging to this 
order, I may mention the following : Gaura^ 
the petals of which are somewhat unguiculate, 
like those of Clarkia, but not three-lobed as in 
that genus ; the segments of the limb of the 
calyx often adhere two together, so as to appear 
three instead of four ; the ovary is one-celled, 
and the seeds naked : Lopezia^ which has ap- 
parently five irregular petals, though, on 
examination, one will be found to be a meta- 
morphosed stamen, a four- cleft calyx, two 
stamens, including the one converted into a 
petal, and a globular, four-celled capsule : and 
Circcea, or Enchanter's Nightshade, which has 
the limb of the calyx apparently in only two 
segments, and only two petals and two stamens ; 
the capsule is globular like that of Lopezia, but 
it is covered with very small hooked bristles, 
and it is divided into only two cells, each con- 
taining only one seed. 




This order contains more than two hundred 
genera ; but by far the greater part of these are 
composed of tropical plants, many of which are 
not yet introduced into Britain. Several of the 
genera, on the other hand, are British weeds ; 
and this difference in habit, with others in the 
qualities of the plants, &c., have occasioned 
some botanists to divide the order into two : one 
of the new orders being called Cinchonacese, and 
containing the plants most resembling Cinchona ; 
and the other Galiacese, containing the plants 
most nearly allied to Galium or Bedstraw. 

The characteristics of Rubiacese, in its most 
extended sense, are that the ovary is surrounded 
by the calyx, and placed below the rest of the 
flower ; and that the corolla has a long tube, lined 
with the dilated receptacle, in which the stamens 
are inserted. In most of the species, the fila- 
ments are very short, and the anthers nearly or 
entirely hidden in the corolla; and in many cases. 

86 THE GENUS CINCHONA. [part r. 

the segments of the calyx remain on the ripe 
fruit, as they do in the genus Pyrus in Rosacese, 
where they form what is called the eye in the 
apple and pear. 

Tlie qualities of the Cinchona division of the 
Rubiaceag are generally tonic ; but some of the 
plants, as for example the Ipecacuanha, are 
used as emetics, and one (Rcmdia dumetorum) is 
poisonous. The qualities of the Galium division 
are not so decidedly marked ; but the roots of 
some of the plants are used for dyeing. 


The well-known medicine called Peruvian 
bark is produced by three species of the genus 
Cinchona ; the pale bark, which is considered 
the best, being that of C. lanceolata. The flowers 
of this species are small, and of a very pale pink. 
The calyx (see a in fig. '^^) is bell-shaped, and 
five-toothed ; and the corolla (Z*) is tubular, with 
the limb divided into five lobes, and silky within, 
as shown in the magnified section at c. The 
stamens (d) have very short filaments, which 
are inserted in the throat of the corolla. The 
ovary (e), which is deeply furrowed when young, 
is inclosed in the calyx ; it is two-celled, with a 
single style, and a two-lobed stigma {f). The 
capsules retain the lobes of the calyx as a sort 
of crown (y) ; and they open naturally at the 


division between the two cells, as shown at A, 
beginning at the base. The cells (z) each con- 

FiG. 36.— CiNCHOVA, Peruvian Bark (Cinchona Lanceolata). 

tain several seeds. C, ohlonpfoUa, which yields 
the red bark of the shops, has cream-coloured 
flowers, as large as those of a Jasmine, which 
they resemble in shape ; and C. cordifolia^ which 
produces the yellow bark, has flowers like the 
first species, and heart-shaped leaves. The sin- 
gular plant called Hillia longiflora^ is nearly 
allied to Cinchona ; as is also the beautiful and 
delightfully fragrant Liiculia gratissima. In this 
last plant the tube of the calyx is very short, 
and pear-shaped, and the segments of the limb 
are short, and sharply pointed. The corolla is 
salver-shaped, with a long tube, and a spreading, 
five-parted limb. The anthers are nearly sessile, 
and the short filaments to which they are at- 


tached are inserted in the throat of the corolla, 
only the tips of the anthers being visible. The 
stigma is divided into two fleshy lobes, and the 
capsule splits, not like that of Cinchona, but 
from the apex to the base in the centre of each 
cell. The seeds are very small, and each has a 
toothed, membranous wing. The flowers of 
this beautiful plant are produced in a large head, 
and at first sight greatly resemble those of a 
Hydrangea ; but they are easily distinguished by 
their delightful fragrance. 

Manettia corcUfoIia, a very pretty stove-twiner 
often seen in collections, is very nearly allied to 
Luculia, differing principally in the shape of the 
flowers, which in Manettia have a long tube 
and a very small limb. Bouvardia triphylla and 
the other species of Bouvardia, and Pinckneya 
pubescens, belong to this division ; and such of 
my readers as have the living plants to refer to, 
will find it both interesting and instructive to 
dissect them and compare the parts of their 
flowers with the description I have given of 
Luculia and Cinchona, so as to discover the 
difference between the different genera ; after- 
wards reading the generic character of each 
given in botanical works, that they may see how 
far they w^ere right. 



The Cape Jasmine {Gardenia radicans) is a 
well-known greenhouse plant, remarkable for the 
heavy fragrance of its large white flowers, which 
(lie off a pale yellow, or buff. The calyx has 
a ribbed tube, and the limb is parted into 
long awl-shaped segments. The corolla is 
salver-shaped, that is, it has a long tube and a 
spreading limb, the limb being twisted in the 
bud. There are from five to nine anthers, 
having very short filaments which are inserted in 
the throat of the corolla. The stigma is divided 
into two erect fleshy lobes. The ovary is one- 
celled, but there are some traces of membranes, 
which would, if perfect, have divided it into from 
two to five cells. The seeds are numerous and 
very small. Gardenia radicans is a dwarf plant, 
which flowers freely when of very small size, 
and is easily propagated from the readiness with 
which its stem throws out roots ; but G.florida 
is a shrub five or six feet high, and much more 
difficult to cultivate. In both species the 
flowers are generally double, and the petals are 
of a fleshy substance, which gives the corolla a 
peculiarly wax-like appearance. 

There are many other species, but the two 
above-mentioned are the most common in 
British gardens. Burchellia capensis is gene- 



[part I. 

rally considered to belong to this division of 
Rubiacese, though its flowers bear more resem- 
blance to those of Cinchona ; and the singular 
plant called MusscBiida puhescens^ the flowers of 
which are small and yellow, but the bracts are 
so large and so brilliantly white as to look like 
flowers ; Posoqueria versicolor, an ornamental 
plant lately introduced, belong to this division. 


Rondeleiia odorata, sometimes called M. 
coccinea, and sometimes R. speciosa, is a very 
fragrant stove shrub, a native of Cuba. The 
flowers are produced in corymbs, and their 
botanical construction is 
shown in the magnified 
section Jig. 37. In this a 
is the ovary inclosed in a 
hairy calyx ; h shows the 
limb of the calyx cut into 
awl-shaped segments ; c 
shows the manner in which 
the very short filaments of 
the anthers are inserted in 
the throat of the corolla ; 
d shows the termination of 
the dilated receptacle which 

,, Fig. 37.— Sectiox of the 

lines the tube oi the corolla ; flower of KoNOiiLETiA. 
and e the segments of the 


limb. I have given the section of this flower, 
that my readers may compare it with the sec- 
tion of the flower of the Cinchona in fig. 36, 
in p. 87, and may see the general resemblance 
which connects the two plants in the same order, 
and the diff*erences which mark them to be of 
different genera. Fig. 38 
is a tuft of flowers of Hon- 
deletia odorata. Wendlandia 
is nearly allied to Ronde- 
letia ; as is the magnifi- 
cent Portlandia grandiflora^ 
which somewhat resembles 
Brugmansia lutea in shape 
though not in colour, as its fig. 38.— part of the hkad 


flowers are white. 


The Coff-ee-tree {Coffea arahicd) differs from 
the other Rubiacese in the tube of its calyx 
being very short and disappearing when the 
ovary begins to swell ; and in the filaments of 
the stamens being sufiiciently long to allow the 
anthers to be seen above the throat of the 
corolla (see a in Jig. 39). The limb of the 
corolla ifi) is five-cleft, and the style (c) bifid. 
Each ovary when its flower falls, becomes dis- 
tended into a berry {d) or rather drupe, con- 
taining the nut e, in which are two seeds, flat 



[part I. 

on one side, and convex on the other, which are 
placed with the flat sides together, as shown at 
f; each seed having a deep longitudinal groove, 
as shown at g. These seeds are our coffee. 

Fig. 39 — Coffee. (Cofea Arabica.) 

The flowers of Ixora coccinea have the same 
general construction as those of the other plants 
of the order. The calyx has an ovate tube, and 
a very small four-toothed limb ; and the corolla 
is salver-shaped, with a long and very slender 
tube, and a four-parted spreading limb. There 
are four anthers inserted in the throat of the 
tube of the corolla, and just appearing beyond 
it, and rising a little above them is the point of 
the style with its two-cleft stigma. The berry 


is two-celled, but it differs from that of the 
coffee in retaining the lobes of the calyx, which 
form a sort of crown. There are many kinds 
of Ixora, all stove shrubs, and all conspicuous 
for their large heads or rather corymbs of showy 
flowers. The genus Pavetta has been divided 
from Ixora, principally because the species com- 
posing it have the style projecting considerably 
beyond the corolla, instead of only just appear- 
ing above it. 

The drug called Ipecacuanha is the produce 
of two plants belonging to this order, Cephcelis 
Ipecacuanha and Rlchardsonia scabra ; though a 
spurious kind is made from the roots of three 
species of Viola, all natives of South America, 
and a still inferior one from the roots of a kind 
of Euphorbia, a native of Virginia and Carolina. 
It is important to know this, as the best kinds 
possess tonic properties as well as emetic ones, 
while the inferior kinds are only emetics, and 
they are very injurious if taken frequently. 
The best brown Ipecacuanha is the powdered 
root of CephcBlis Ipecacuanha ; a plant with small 
white flowers collected into a globose head, 
which is shrouded in an involucre closely re- 
sembling a common calyx. The true calyx to 
each separate flower is small and roundish, with 
a very short five-toothed limb. The corolla is 
funnel-shaped, with five small bluntish lobes. 

94 THE GENUS GALIUM. [part i. 

The <antliers are inclosed in the corolla, and 
the stigma, which is two-cleft, projects only a 
little beyond them. The berries are two-celled 
and two-seeded, and they retain the lobes of 
the calyx. The root is fleshy and creeping. 
Richardsonia scahra^ which produces the white 
Ipecacuanha, has its flowers also in heads, but 
the calyx is larger in proportion to the corolla, 
and the stamens and style are both visible. 
The capsule contains three or four one-seeded 
nuts, crowned by the calyx ; which, however, 
becomes loosened at the base, and falls off^, 
before the seeds are quite ripe. Cephalanthus, 
Spermacoce, and Crusea, are nearly allied to 

The above plants all agree, more or less, 
with Cinchona, in their qualities, and they 
are all included by Dr. Lindley in the order 


The common Bedstraw {Galium vernum) is 
a British weed, common in dry fields and on 
little knolls, which produces its cluster of bright 
yellow flowers in July and August. The flowers 
are so small that it is difficult to examine 
them in detail, but, by the aid of a microscope, 
the ovary will be found to be inclosed in the 
tube of the calyx as in the other Rubiacese, 

CHAP, v.] 



thoug-h the Ccalyx has hardly any limb. The 
corolla is what is called rotate or wheel-shaped, 
and its limb is divided into four segments. There 
are four short stamens, with their filaments 
inserted in the throat of the corolla, and two 
very short styles. The fruit is a dry capsule 
inclosinor two seeds. Thus far the construction 
of the plant agrees with the other Rubiacese, but 
the stem is square, and the leaves are different, 
for they are without footstalks, and are disposed 
in what is called a whorl (see Jig. 40). The 
whorl, however, according 
to Professor De Candolle, 
does not consist entirely 
of leaves; but of tw^o 
opposite leaves and two 
or more stipules, which 
are so like the leaves as 
scarcely to be distin- 
guished from thera,though 
upon close examination, 
it will be found that the leaves have buds 
in their axils (that is between them and the 
stem), which the stipules have not. This theory 
is not adopted by D\\ Lindley, who considers 
the whorl to consist entirely of leaves, and to 
be one of the distinctive marks of his order 

All the plants in this division of Rubiacese 

Fio. 40. — Whorl op leaves 
OF Bedstraw. [fial'mm vernum.) 

96 THE GENUS GALIUM. [part i. 

agree with the common Bedstraw {Galium ver- 
num) in the formation of their leaves and stem ; 
but the species of GaHum are distinguished by 
the margins of the leaves and the principal veins, 
in nearly all the species, being covered with 
prickles, which in some cases point forwards, 
and in others are bent back, so as to catch 
everything they touch. This is particularly the 
case with the leaves of the plant called Goose- 
grass, or Cleavers (^Galium aparine) ; and its 
fruit is covered with hooked bristles, which take 
so firm a hold as to make it difficult to separate 
them from anything they have caught hold of. 
The pretty little weed called Field Madder 
{Sherardia arvensis)^ the fragrant Woodruff, 
(Asperula odorata), and Rubia peregrina^ the only 
British species of Madder, all agree with Galium 
in its more important characters ; and as they 
are all common weeds, my readers will probably 
find it interesting to trace the differences 
between them. Galium and Rubia agree in 
having scarcely any limb to the calyx, and a 
rotate corolla; but the limb, which is only four- 
parted, or even three-parted, in Galium, has always 
five lobes in Rubia ; there are also five stamens 
in Rubia, and the fruit is a berry; whereas 
there are only four stamens in Galium, and the 
fruit is dry. Sherardia agrees with Asperula 
in having a funnel-shaped corolla with a four- 


cleft limb ; but in Sherardia the limb of the 
calyx remains on as a crown to the fruit, while 
in Asperula it drops off. In Sherardia there is 
only one style with a two-lobed stigma ; and in 
Asperula there are two styles united at the 

There is a very pretty plant called Crucinella 
sti/Iosa, which has lately been much cultivated in 
gardens, and which belongs to this order. This 
plant has large heads of pretty pink flowers, 
each of which has a funnel-shaped corolla, with 
a long tube concealing the anthers, but beyond 
w^iich the style projects so far as to give rise to 
the specific name of stylosa. The stigma in this 
plant is clavate, that is, club-shaped, and it is 
cleft in two, though the lobes are not spreading. 

98 COMPOSITE. [part I. 



The plants composing the order Compositse 
have all compound flowers, which differ from 
other flowers as much as a compound leaf does 
from a simple one. As the compound leaf is 
composed of a number of leaflets or pinna? united 
by a common petiole ; so a compound flower is 
composed of a number of florets, united by a 
common receptacle, which is surrounded by a 
calyx-like involucre, so as to give the whole 
mass the appearance of a simple flower. Each 
floret has a calyx, the tubular part of which is 
rarely sufficiently distinct to be perceptible, but 
the limb is generally cut into long feathery 
segments called pappus. The ovary of each 
floret contains only one seed ; and the fruit, 
which is called an achenium, retains the pappus 
when ripe, and falls without opening. There 
are five stamens, the filaments of which are dis- 
tinct, but the anthers grow together so as to 




form a kind of cylinder, through which passes 
the style, ending in a two-lobed stigma (see a 
in Jig. 41). Most of the corollas are of two 
kinds : viz. the ligulate, as exem- 
plified in the floret of the wild 
Lettuce {Lactuca virosd) shown in 
Jig. 41 ; and the tubular, as shown 
in a floret of the Cotton-thistle 
{Onojwrdium Acantliium) see Jig. 
Fig. 41.-LIGULATE 42. All the British species of 
FLORET OF WILD Compositse have their florets either 
Lettuce. entirely of one of these kinds, or 
of the two mixed together ; but some foreign 
genera have florets with two equal lips, cut 
into three or four lobes, as shown 
in a floret of Mutisia latifoUa, 
at e. Jig. 46, p. 108. These flo- 
rets are called bilabiate. It will 
be observed that in all these ex- 
amples, as indeed, in all the 
flowers belonging to the order, 
that the pappus {b, in Jgs. 41 and 
42), is always on the outside of 
the corolla, thus plainly indi- floret of the 
eating its connexion with the cotton-thistle. 

The order Compositse is a very large one, 
above seven thousand species having been 

H 2 

Fig. 42.— Tubular 

100 COMPOSITE, [part I. 

named and described ; and to assist the memory 
in retaining the names of this great number of 
plants, various means have been devised for 
dividing the order into sections and tribes. 
The principal botanists who have proposed 
means of arranging this order, are Cassini, 
Lessing, and lastly the late Professor De Can- 
doUe, in three voluines of his Prodromus pub- 
lished in 1840. But as the distinctions between 
the divisions proposed, lie in the difference 
found in the stigmas and pappus of the different 
genera, I have judged them too troublesome for 
my readers, as I am sure they are for myself, 
and I have preferred following the plan adopted 
by Dr. Lindley in his Elements of Botany^ pub- 
lished in 1841, and dividing the Compositse into 
four tribes ; viz., the three originally proposed 
by Jussieu, and a fourth added by Professor 
De CandoUe, containing the plants with bila- 
biate florets, which were either not known, or 
overlooked, by Jussieu. It may perhaps be 
necessary to add, that this arrangement forms 
the basis of the new one proposed by De Can- 
doUe, and that the principal difference consists 
in the subdivisions. 



Florets ligulate. Juice milky, narcotic. ' 

The plants contained in this tribe bear more 
or less resemblance to the common Succory 
{Cicliorium Intyhus). This beautiful plant, 
which is found in great abundance wild in many 
of the sandy and chalky districts of England, 
has large bright blue flowers, which when ex- 
amined will be found to consist of a number of 
florets, all of the kind called ligulate, that is 
somewhat like a cornet of paper ; the upper 
part being broad and flat, and serrated at the 
edge. The pappus in this genus is very short, 
and it is scaly rather than feathery. The leaves 
are bitter, and when broken give out a milky 
juice; and the fleshy roots when roasted are 
used to adulterate coffee. The Endive is a 
variety of this species, or another species of the 
same genus. The Sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) 
abounds in the same milky juice as the succory, 
and has the same kind of fleshy root. The 
flower is composed of a scaly involucre (shown 
at a in Jig. 43) and a number of ligulate florets 
(see Z>), which when they fall show the pappus 
(c), forming a feathery ball. The manner in 
which the pappus is attached to the seed-vessel is 
shown at d ; and the receptacle after the florets 
have been pulled out, but with the involucre still 



[part I. 

attached to it, at e. A detached floret is shown 
aty. The DandeUon {Leontodon Taraxacum) 

Fig. 43.— SottTHisTLE. (Sonckus oleraceus.) 

differs from the Sowthistle : in its florets, which 
are flatter and looser ; in its receptacle, which 
is globular ; and above all, in its pappus, which 
is what is called stipitate or stalked, that is, the 
tubular part of its calyx rises to a considerable 
height above the capsule, before it becomes 
divided into its feathery segments, as shown in 
fiq» 44. The leaves of this plant are „,,. , 
what is called runcinate, that is, the ^pw^. 
lobes into which they are cut point ^! 
downwards towards the root instead of 
upwards from it, and the root is also 
fleshy. The Lettuce, Salsafy or Goat's- 
beard. Ox- tongue. Hawk weed, CatV ^ 
ear. Nipplewort or Swine's Succory, and seedofthe 

1 n 1 1 11 Dandelion. 

many other well-known plants, belong 
to this tribe. 

CHAP. Vi.] 




Florets tubular. Juice watery, tonic. 

The plants in this division all bear more or 
less relation to the common Artichoke (Cynara 
Scoli/mus). The scales of the involucre are 
generally fleshy at the base, but terminate out- 
wardly in a sharp hard point. The florets are 
tubular, and intermixed with them in the recep- 
tacle are frequently found the hardened bracts, 
which in this state are called palese, and which 
appear to be of a chaffy substance, as exemplified 
in the choke of the Artichoke, the fleshy recep- 
tacle being in this plant what we call the Arti- 
choke bottom. This peculiar formation is 
shown more in detail in^^. 45, which represents 
part of the flower of the 
common Bur or Bur- 
dock {Arctium Lappa\ 
so annoying from the 
strong hold it takes of 
any part of the dress 
which it may chance to 
touch. In Jig. 45 a is 
the involucre, every scale 
in which is hooked and 
turned inwards, so as to hold firmly whatever it 
may catch ; ^ is a floret showing its tubular 
shape, and its style proceeding through the 

Fig. 45. — Part of the flower- 
head OF THE Burdock. 

104 CORYMBIFER^. [part i. 

united anthers ; c shows the hardened bracts 
or palese, the other florets having been removed; 
and d shows a fruit with a palea attached, mag- 
nified. All the different kinds of thistle belong 
to this division ; and though many of the kinds 
have not the hardened bracts, they have all a 
spiny involucre. The pappus of the thistle is 
generally attached to a kind of disk, from which 
it becomes loosened soon after the seed falls, 
and this thistle, down, as it is cjlUed, being ex- 
tremely light, is blown about by the winds. 
All the thistles have fleshy roots, and take firm 
hold of the soil. The Corn Blue-bottles {Cen- 
taur ea), the Wild Safli'on (Carthamus tinctorid)^ 
and many other well-known plants, belong to 
this division. 

Florets partly tubular and partly ligulate ; juice watery ; 
sometimes bitter and tonic, and sometimes acrid. The seeds 
of some of the species yield oil. 

The plants included in this tribe all bear 
more or less resemblance to the common Daisy. 
In this well-known flower, the white florets are 
all ligulate, and compose what is called the ray, 
and the yellow flowers, which are tubular, are 
called the disk. The involucre is simple and 
leafy, and the receptacle is conical. The seeds 
are without pappus. The Chrysanthemum is 


nearly allied to the Daisy, and its seeds also 
are destitute of pappus ; but it is easily distin- 
guished by its involucre, which is scaly, and by 
the flower forming a kind of depressed globe in 
the bud. The scales of the involucre are 
strongly marked, from being edged with a thin 
membrane, and the florets of the ray are much 
longer in proportion to those of the disk than 
in the Daisy. The great Ox-eye Daisy, which 
was formerly called Chrysanthemum leucanthemum^ 
is now placed in a new genus, and called Leu- 
canthemum vulgar c; and the Chinese Chrysan- 
themums have been removed to the genus Fyre- 
thrum. Both plants, however, will no doubt long 
continue to be called by their old names. The 
beautiful yellow-flowered plant often found grow- 
ing among corn {Chrysanthemum segetum), the 
three-coloured Chrysanthemum (C tricolor or 
carinatum)^ and the yellow annual Chrysanthe- 
mum (C coronarium), with some others, have 
been left by Professor De CandoUe in their old 
genus. In the Feverfew (Pyrethrum)^ the re- 
ceptacle is elevated, and the fruit is crowned 
with a narrow membrane. The Pellitory of 
Spain was formerly considered to belong to this 
genus, and afterwards to the Chamomile, but it 
is now called Anacyclus Pyrethrum. Matricaria 
Chamomilla^ the wild Chamomile, has also no 
pappus; and in this plant the receptacle is 

106 CORYMBIFER.^. [part i. 

almost cylindrical. The true Chamomile {A?i- 
themis nohilis) greatly resembles the Chrysanthe- 
mum in its flowers : but they are distinguished 
by haying a chafiy receptacle, and the fruit 
ha^dng a membranous margin. The smell of 
the Chamomile is aromatic, and its qualities 
highly tonic. The Yarrow {Achillea miUefolium) 
is another plant destitute of pappus, but with a 
chaffy receptacle : it is also remarkable for its 
leayes. which are doubly pinnatifid. 

It will be seen by the aboye enumeration, that 
in many plants belonging to this diyision, the 
pappus is entirely wanting, and in others it wXi. 
be fotmd to assume a different form to that 
which it bears in the other tribes. Thus, in the 
Bur-Marigold {Bidens), the pappus consists of 
from two to fiye erect awns, which are covered 
with yery small, bent bristles. The genus Sene- 
cio has soft, hairy pappus, as may be seen in 
the common Groundsel (S. vulgaris) ; the leaves 
of this weed are pinnatifid, and somewhat stem- 
clasping, and the flowers have no ray florets. In 
•other species of this division, however, the ray 
florets are very conspicuous : as, for example, in 
the common yellow Ragwort (5. Jacola^a)^ in 
the great fen Ragwort, or Bird's tongue (5. 
paludosa)^ and in the purple Jacobsea (S-elegajis), 
Nearly alhed to Senecio, is the genus Cineraria, 
so much, indeed, that Professor De Candolle, 

CHAP, vr.] LABIAT-^FLOR-E. 107 

in his late arrangement of the Compositce, has 
included the greater part of the species in Sene- 
cio. The green-house species, with purple 
flowers, are among those which have been 
changed ; but they will probably always retain 
the appellation of Cineraria, as an arbitrary 
English name. The Asters, or Michaelmas 
Daisies, Golden Rod, Elecampane, Leopard's 
Bane, the Cape Marigold, (now called Dimor- 
phortheca, instead of being included in the genus 
Calendula), Coltsfoot, "Wormwood, Southern- 
wood, Tansy, and many other well-known plants, 
belong to this dinsion. 

The Sun-flower {Helianthemum annuus) is an 
example of one of the plants belonging to this 
division which has seeds yielding oil. In this 
plant the pappus is awl-shaped, and deciduous ; 
and the receptacle, which is broad and some- 
what convex, is paleaceous. The seeds are large 
and oblong, and when pressed, yield a consider- 
able quantity of oil. The ^ladia is another oil 
plant ; and indeed the seeds of several in this 
division yield oil. 


Florets bilabiate. 

The plants belonging to this division are 
rarely seen in British gardens ; but when they 
do occur, they are well worth examimng, from 



[part I. 

the singularity of their formation. Mutisia latifolia 
(see fig. 46) has a large, woolly involucre, the 
|\ A ^ scales of which are 

{il ) i] I I /] A of two kinds, the 

VA .,\ t. /' //^' outer ones, (a), 

being pointed and 
leaf-like, and the 
inner ones, (^), 
having the ap- 
pearance of scaly 
bracts. The flo- 
rets of the ray, 
(c), are narrow, 
and spreading in 
the fully expand- 
ed flower ; and 
those of the disk, 
(f/), are shorter, 
erect, divided into 
two lips, which curl back, and the lower one 
of which is again divided into two segments 
(as shown at e in the detached floret). The 
leaves of this plant are very curious ; the mid- 
rib is lengthened and drawn out into a ten- 
dril, as shown atyj and the petiole {g) is decur- 
rent. There are several other genera belonging 
to this tribe, but none of them are particularly 
ornamental except Ti^iptilion spinosiim^ which 
has flowers of the most brilliant blue, that do 
not lose the intensity of their colour in drying. 

Fig. 46. — Flower and Leaf of 
Mutisia Latifoll*.. 




The name of Ericaceae, which most people 
are aware signifies the Heath family, conjures 
up immediately the image of a number of 
narrow-leaved plants, with globular, ventricose, 
or bell-shaped flowers ; and we are apt at first 
to think that the family is so natural a one, as 
to require very little explanation. Did the 
order include only the Heaths, this would be the 
case, for all the Heaths, different as they are in 
some particulars, may be recognised at a glance : 
but as the order includes the Rhododendrons, 
Azaleas, and Kalmias, besides several other 
plants which have not so strong a family like- 
ness to each other as the Heaths, it becomes 
necessary to say a few words on the botanical 
resemblances which connect them together. The 
first, and most striking, of these is the shape of 
the anthers, each of which appears like two 



[part I. 

anthers stuck together, and the manner of their 
opening, which is always by a pore or round 
hole, in the upper extremity of each cell. The 
filaments, also, in all the genera, except Vaccinum 
and Oxycoccus, grow from beneath the seed- 
vessel, being generally slightly attached to the 
base of the corolla. There is always a single 
style with an undivided stigma, though the cap- 
sule has generally four ceils, each containing 
several of the seeds, which are small and nume- 
rous. The calyx is four or five cleft, and the 
corolla is tubular, with a larger or smaller limb, 
which is also four or five cleft. The order has 
been divided into four tribes, which I shall 
describe in this chapter, though some of these 
are considered as separate orders by Dr. Lind- 
ley and other botanists. 


This tribe, which comprehends all the heath- 
like plants, has 
been re-divided 
into two sub - 
tribes, one con- 
taining the ge- 
nera most nearly 
allied to the 
heaths, and the 
other those be- 

F1G.47.— The Besom Heath (Erica Tdralix). 


longing to the Andromeda. In both there is 
a honey-bearing disk under the ovary, and the 
leaves are generally rolled in at the margin, as 
shown at a, in Jicj. 47. 


All the genera in this sub-tribe, twenty-two 
in number, were formerly included in the genus 
Erica ; and some botanists still consider all the 
species to belong to that genus, ^vith the ex- 
ception of those included in Calluna, while 
others adopt about half the new genera. In 
this uncertainty, I shall only describe two of 
the doubtful genera, partly because the dis- 
tinctions between them and the true heaths are 
strongly marked, and partly because the spe- 
cies they contain are frequently met with in 
British gardens^ and greenhouses, where they 
are sometimes labelled with their old names and 
sometimes with their new ones. 

In the genus Erica, one of the commonest 
species is the Besom Heath (Fj. tetralix)^ which 
is found in great abundance on moorish or boggy 
ground in every part of Britain. In this plant, 
the corollas of the flowers appear each to con- 
sist of a single petal, forming an egg-shaped 
tube (see h in Jig. 47), contracted at the mouth, 
but afterwards spreading into a four-cleft limb, 
through which is seen projecting the style, with 

112 ERICACE^. [part I. 

its flat stigma. The corolla is, however, really 
in four petals, which, though they adhere to- 
gether, may be easily separated with a pin. The 
stamens are concealed by the corolla, but the 
manner in which they grow is shown at c ; and 
cf is a single stamen, showing the spurs or awns 
at the base of the anther, the position of which 
is one of the characteristics of the genus Erica 
in its present restricted form ; e is a capsule 
with the style and stigma attached ; and a is a 
leaf showing its revolute or curled back margin. 
The leaves of this species are in whorls, four 
leaves in each whorl, and they are ciliated, that 
is, bordered with a fringe of fine hairs. 

All the true Heaths bear more or less resem- 
blance to this plant. In some, the corollas are 
bell-shaped, spreading out at the tip into five 
teeth, which inclose the stamens, as shown in 
Jig. 48 ; and in others they are nearly globose 
swelling out near the calyx, and tapering to a 
point, beyond which the 
stigma and anthers pro- 
ject ; as in the Cape Heath, 
called Erica hispidaf a 
flower of which is shown 
in ^(/, 49. The leaves also 
Fig. 48— differ exceedingly, in the 

Bell-shaped number Contained in each Fig.49.-Cape 

whorl : as in some species heath. 

. 11 (E. hispida.) 

there are only three m a wnorl, 


while in others they are five or six. The 
general features of all the Heaths are, 
however, the same — viz., there are eight sta- 
mens, which are generally inclosed in the 
corolla, though they sometimes project beyond 
it, as shown in jig, 49, and the anthers of 
which are two-cleft, and awned or crested 
at the base, while the filaments are hair-like ; 
one style, which always projects beyond the 
corolla, and has a flattened stigma; a four-parted 
calyx and corolla which is tubular, with a 
four-parted limb. There are nearly two hundred 
species of this genus, some of which are natives 
of Europe, and others of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The moor Heaths {Gypsocallis) were separated 
from the genus Erica, by Mr. Salisbury, princi- 
pally on account of the corolla being campanu- 
late, or shortly tubular, with a dilated mouth ; 
and the stamens projecting beyond the corolla. 
The filaments are also generally flat; the 
anthers are without awns, and distinctly in two 
parts ; and the stigma is simple, and scarcely 
to be distinguished from the style. The com- 
mon Cornish Heath {G. vagans), and the 
Mediterranean Heath (G. Mediterranea) ^ are 
examples of this genus, which appears strongly 
marked, though, as 1 before mentioned, some 
botanists do not adopt it. 

Callista is a genus established by the late 



[part I. 

Fig. 50.— Callista 

Professor Don, which appears very distinct, 
though it also has not been generally adopted. 
It includes all those beautiful Cape Heaths 
which have a shining, glutinous, ventricose, or 
cylindrical corolla with a _ 
spreading limb (see« in^^. 50), 
and a capitate stigma (b). C. 
bucciniflora and C. ventricosa, 
are examples of this genus. 

The Ling or Heather, which 
Linnaeus called Erica vulgaris^ 
is now generally placed by all 
botanists in a separate genus 
called Calluna, which was es- 
tablished by Mr. Salisbury. The calyx of this 
plant is membranous, and coloured so as to 
resemble a corolla, and it is furnished 
with four bracts at the base, which 
resemble a calyx. The true corolla 
is bell-shaped, and shorter than the 
calyx. The stamens are inclosed, 
and the anthers are of the very 
singular form shown in Jig. 51. 
The stigma is capitate, and the flowers are 
disposed in what is called a racemose spike. 
The leaves are trigonal ; they are very short, 
and they are laid over each other like scales 
in four rows. The Ling is the only species in the 

Fig. 51.— 

Stamen of the 




The plants in this sub-tribe differ decidedly 
from those of the preceding division, in having 
ten stamens, while all the genera of heaths 
have only eight. The calyx is also five-cleft 
instead of four; and the corolla, which falls 
before the seeds are ripe, has a five-lobed 
limb. The sub-tribe is divided into twenty 
genera, more than half of which are perfectly 

The genus Andromeda is distinguished by its 
globose corolla which has a five-lobed limb ; 
and its stamens which have their filaments 
bearded, and their anthers short and two- 
awned. Tig. 52 shows a stamen of 
the wild rosemary (Andromeda poll- * m' 
folia) with its bearded filament («), p « 

and its two-awned anther with its ^^^ ^^_ 
pore-like openings {h). The cells stamen of 
of the capsule open in the middle, ^^'''^o-^r^'^-^ 
down the back, to discharge the seeds. Professor 
Don has divided the genus Andromeda into six 
genera ; some of which contain only one or two 
species. Thus only Andromeda polifolia and A. 
rosmarinifolia are left in the genus Andromeda ; 
Cassandra contains only A. calyculata^ and A. 
angustifolia ; and Zenobia, only the beautiful 



[part I. 

Andromeda speciosa. In Cassandra the anthers 
are long and mutic (see a va.Jig. B^), 
and the leaves {b) are without veins, 
and white and full of dots on the 
underside, the edges being curled 
inwards ; and in Zenobia the corolla 

Fig. 53 -Leaf is bell-shaped, with the limb, which 

AND ANTHER jg jjj ^yg lobes, curliug back (see a 

'Jig. 54). The stamens have the 

filaments (h) curiously dilated at the base; 

Fig. 54.— Flowers, corolla, and stamen of Zenobia. 

and the point of each cell of the anther is cut 
into two erect awns (c). The manner in which 
the stamens are arranged inside the corolla is 

CHAP, vi..] ANDROMEDEiE. 117 

ehovm at (rZ). The cells of the capsule, when 
ripe, open down the centre, and the seeds 
which are angular, are attached to a five-lobed 

Lyonia is a genus established by the American 
botanist Nuttall, because the plants it contains 
have the margins of the valves of their capsules 
closed by five other narrow external valves. The 
plants are natives of North America, and their 
flowers are generally small. Lyonia Mariana may 
serve as an example of this genus, which is gene- 
rally adopted by botanists. 

It would be useless to enter into details of the 
other genera formed out of Andromeda, as they 
are not generally adopted ; but, perhaps, it may 
be worth mentioning, that the well-known Andro- 
meda floribunda is placed by Professor Don in a 
new genus which he calls Leucothoe. 

St. Dabeoc's Heath, or Irish Whorts, a little 
heath-Hke shrub, common in Ireland, is one 
of those plants which have puzzled botanists 
exceedingly. It has been called successively 
Erica, Andromeda, and Menziesia, Dabcecia ; then 
Erica Hibemica, next Menziesia polifolia, then 
Vaccinium Cantabrieum and lastly Daboecia ^yoU- 
folia. It is probable, however, that it may 
even yet be doomed to undergo other changes ; 
as, from the construction of its anthers, which 
are linear, and arrow-shaped at the base, and 




which open lengthways, instead of by pores, it 
does not appear even to belong to the Ericacese. 
The other genera in this sub -tribe are quite 
distinct from each other, and contain several 
well-known plants. The most popular of these 
genera are Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Gaultheria, 
and Clethra. 

The Strawberry tree (Arbutus Unedo) has 
little bell-shaped flowers, contracted at the 
mouth, and with a curling-back limb, which are 
easily recognised as belonging to the Ericacese. 
They have ten stamens, the filaments of which 
are hairy at the base (see a in Ji^. 55) and 

inserted in the 
disk; which in 
this genus is 
large, and rises 
up round the 
ovary (see I). 
The calyx is 
permanent, and 

Fio. 55.— Fruit &c. of Arbutus Unedo. fivC-clcft ; and 

the flowers are produced in panicles, and each is 
furnished with a bract. The fruit, which retains 
the calyx when ripe, is a granular berry, covered 
with tubercles on the outside ; and it has five 
cefls (c) containing the seeds. There are nu- 
merous varieties of this species common in 
British gardens, besides a very beautiful hybrid 


between it and A. Andrachne. The latter 
species is a native of Greece, and rather more 
tender than the common kind ; and it is very 
conspicuous in shrubberies from its red stems 
and loose bark. 

The Bearberry (Arctostaphylos Uva- Ursi) was 
formerly considered to belong to the genus 
Arbutus, but it differs in the filaments of the 
stamens being smooth and dilated at the base, 
and the awns affixed to the middle of the 
anthers. The berry is without tubercles, and 
the cells are often only one-seeded. 

There are two species of Gaultheria common 
in British gardens : viz. — G. procumhens and 
G. Shallon : both of which have flowers resem- 
bling those of the Arbutus and furnished with 
bracts ; but in the former species the flowers are 
solitary and produced from the axils of the 
leaves, and in the latter they are in racemes, of 
the kind called secund, that is with the flowers 
growing all on one side. The berries of both 
kinds are eatable, and those of G. procumhem 
are called Partridge berries in America, and 
the leaves Mountain tea. Both species have 
ten stamens, the anthers of which are two- 
cleft, each cell being furnished with two horns, 
as in Zenohia speciosa (see Jig. 54, in page 
116). The fruit is five-celled and the seeds are 



[part I. 

The genus Clethra differs considerably from 
the preceding genera, as the limb of the corolla 
is so large and so deeply cleft, as to make the 
flower appear to have five petals (see a in Jig, 
6Q). There are ten 
stamens, with broad 
arrow-shaped anthers 
(^), and a three-cleft 
stigma, (c). The cap- 
sule is dry, with three 
many-seeded cells. In 
C. alnifolia^ a native of 
North America, (of 
which^?^. 5 6 represents 
a magnified flower,) 
the flowers are erect, 
and produced in a 
spicate raceme ; but in C. arhorea^ a native of 
Madeira, the racemes are panicled, and the 
flowers drooping and somewhat bell- shaped. 
Both species are very ornamental. 

Fio. 56 Flower of Custhra 



The plants included in this tribe are all con- 
sidered to bear more or less resemblance to 
the Rhododendron, though in some of them 
the family likeness is not very strong ; and 
the genera I shall describe to illustrate it are 

CHiP. VII.] 



Rhododendron, Azalea, and Rhodora (the 
last two being by some botanists included 
in Rhododendron); Kalmia, Menziesia, and 

The species of the genus Rhododendron are 
easily distinguished by their flower buds, which 
are disposed in the form of a strobile, or pine- 
cone, each bud having its accompanying bract, 
which the flower retains after its expansion, as 
shown '\xijig. o7 at a, in a flower of R. maximum. 

Fig. 57.— Back view of a Flower of Rhododendron Maximum, 
AND Seed-pod. 

There are five or ten stamens of unequal length, 
the larger ones curling upwards (as shown at b 
in Jig, 58), as does the style (c), which has a 
simple stigma. The flowers have a very small 

122 RHODOREiE. [part i. 

calyx, {d in fig, 57,) and a carapanulate corolla 
which is deeply five-cleft, the upper segment 
{e in fig. 58) being somewhat larger than the 
rest, and spotted in the inside. The capsule is 
five-celled and five-valved, as shown in^^. 57/^ 

Fig. 58 — Flower of Rhododendron Ponticu.m. 

The leaves of nearly all the species are ever- 
green ; and the flowers are showy, and produced 
in terminal corymbs. The principal species may 
be thus distinguished from each other ; R, 
maximum has drooping leaves, covered with 
brown or white down on the under surface, and 
a dense corymb of flowers, the segments of the 
corollas of which are roundish, and the bracts 
leafy. In R. ponticum^ on the contrary, the 
corymbs of flowers are looser, the segments 


more pointed, and the bracts more scale-like ; 
and the leaves are smooth on both surfaces. 
The seed-pods also differ: inihose of H, maximum 
and the other American species, the valves are 
smooth as shown at/* in ^^. 57 ; and in those 
of R. ponticum, the valves are somewhat crin- 
kled as shown in Ji^. 59. This 
species, and all its hybrids and 
varieties, are more tender than R. 
maximum, R. cafawbiense, and all 
the other American kinds and their 
offspring. R. cataicbiense has the 
flower of a darker colour on the 
outside of the corolla than within, ^^«- ^^-s^^^ 
and the upper segment is very famtly rhododendron 
dotted. It hybridises freely with R, ponticum. 
arhoreumy which R. maximum does not, and the 
hybrids thus produced are hardier than those 
raised from R. ponticum, though the latter are 
by far the most numerous. 

Most of the species have purple or whitish 
flowers, but some, such as R. chrysanthemum, 
and R. anthopogon, have yellow flowers; R, 
ferrugineum and R. hirsutum, have bright pink 
or rose-coloured flowers ; and those of R. 
arhoreum the Nepaul tree Rhododendron, are of 
a rich scarlet. The commonest small kinds 
are R. ferrugineum and R. hirsutum, both dwarf 
shrubs and natives of the north of Europe, 

124 RHODORE^. [part i. 

with funnel-shaped corollasj and leaves dotted 
on the under surface. They are so much alike 
as scarcely to be distinguished at first sight, 
but on examination the leaves of It.ferrugineum 
will be found to have brown dots, and to be 
plain on the margin ; while those of R. hir- 
sutum have white dots and are fringed with fine 

Of all the species of the genus, those which 
differ most widely from the others are the 
Indian kinds. Of these R. arhoreum has a ten- 
celled capsule, and the segments of the corolla 
two-lobed with waved margins. The leaves are 
long and silvery beneath ; and the capsules, the 
peduncles, and the calyxes, are all woolly. In 
R. campanulatum^ a splendid species with very 
large flowers, the capsule is six-celled, the leaves 
are somewhat cordate at the base, and the 
bracts are fringed ; and in R. anthopogon the 
corolla has a cylindrical tube, woolly inside, and 
a small but spreading limb, cut into five lobes. 
There are eight stamens, and the capsule is five- 

R, Camtschaticum, R. Chamcecistus, and R. 
dauricum differ from the preceding species in 
having their corollas rotate, that is, wheel- 
shaped. The last of these kinds is a fa- 
vourite greenhouse shrub, from its flowering 
under shelter in winter. In the open ground 

CHAP. vii.J RHODOREjE. 125 

it flowers in March. The species has rose- 
coloured flowers which appear before the leaves; 
and leaves which turn red in autumn before they 
fall. The roots are knobbed and fibrous ; and 
the stems are twisted and knobbed in a wild 
state. There is a variety R. d. atrovirens 
which has purple flowers, and evergreen leaves, 
and which is hardier than the species. 

The genus Azalea may be divided into three 
kinds, viz., A. indica and its allied species ; A. 
pontica and its varieties and hybrids ; and the 
American Azaleas. These divisions are easily 
distinguished by their flowers. Those of the 
Indian or Chinese Azaleas have all large showy 
flowers, on short downy footstalks, and they 
are produced in small clusters of only two or 
three flowers each, at the extremity of the 
shoots. The corollas are bell-shaped and deeply 
cut, nearly to the base, into broad spreading 
segments. The stamens are ten in number, 
shorter than the corolla, and of unequal length. 
The leaves are evergreen, and they are numerous, 
thickly set and downy. These Azaleas are all 
very handsome, but the white Indian Azalea 
{A. indica alba^ or A, ledifolia) is particularly 
so, and very fragrant. The species belonging 
to this division are mostly natives of China, and 
require either a greenhouse or some slight pro- 
tection during winter in England. 

126 RHODOREiE. [part i. 

The yellow Azalea (A. pontica or Rhododen- 
dron Jlavum) differs from A. indica in being quite 
hardy ; in the flowers being produced in umbels 
of from eight to twelve, at the ends of the 
branches, before the leaves ; and in the corollas 
being funnel-shaped instead of campanulate. 
The tube of the funnel is, however, shorter than 
the limb, the segments of which are broad and 
spreading, the upper three being larger and of 
a darker yellow than the two below. There 
are usually five stamens, projecting alittle beyond 
the corolla, and curving upwards ; the style 
also curves upwards, and it is crowned by the 
stigma, which forms a round green head. 

The calyx is very small, and both it and the 
corolla feel clammy to the touch. The flowers 
are fragrant. The leaves are deciduous, and they 
are ovate, slightly hairy, and terminate in a 
mucro or stiff point. There are many varieties 
of this species, and many hybrids between it 
and the American kinds, all of which are quite 
hardy in British gardens. 

The principal American Azaleas are A. nudi- 
Jlora^ A viscosa, A. iiitida, and A. speciosa, all of 
which have the corollas of their flowers funnel- 
shaped. Of these A. nudiflora is easily known 
by its stamens, which project a long way beyond 
the corolla, and by the tube of the corolla being 
longer than the limb. The plant is deciduous ; and 


the flowers, which are produced in large terminal 
clusters, and which are not clammy, appear 
before the leaves. The common English name 
for this plant in some parts of the country is 
the American Honeysuckle, and the flowers are 
of various shades of red, pink, white, and purple. 
A. calendulacea, which some botanists make a 
variety of this species, has much larger flowers, 
and the leaves pubescent on both surfaces, 
whereas, in A, nudiflora the leaves are nearly 
smooth and green, with only a slight fringe of 
hairs round the margin. There are numerous 
varieties of A. calendulacea^ the flowers of which 
are always either yellow, red, orange, or copper- 
coloured, and it is supposed to be the parent 
of the beautiful Ghent Azaleas. A. viscosa has 
the tube of the corolla equal in length to the 
limb, and rather short stamens ; the flowers of 
this species are clammy. A. hispidum, which is 
generally considered a variety of A. viscosa, is 
still more clammy, and the tube of the corolla 
is wider and shorter ; other probable varieties 
are A. nitida, which has shining leaves, and A. 
glauca, which has glaucous ones, as in both kinds 
the flowers are very clammy. A. speciosa has 
large flowers and leaves tapering at both ends. 
All the species of Azalea have five stamens, but 
some of the varieties have ten. 

Rhodora canadensis is a little American shrub 

128 RHODORE^. [part i. 

with pink flowers, which appear before the leaves, 
and the corolla of which is bilabiate, the upper 
lip being the broadest, and cut into two or three 
teeth, and the lower only once cut. There are 
ten stamens, and the capsule is five-celled and 
five-valved. The leaves are deciduous, and slightly 
pubescent beneath ; and the flowers are pro- 
duced in small terminal clusters. This plant, 
as well as all the Azaleas above described, are 
now included by some botanists in the genus 

The genus Kalmia also belongs to this tribe. 
The flowers of this well known shrub are very 
curiously constructed. The corolla is salver- 
shaped, that is, nearly flat, and on the under side 
of the limb are ten protuberances, producing as 
many hollows on the upper side, in which lie 
half-buried the ten stamens. This singular 
construction gives the corolla that wrinkled 
appearance which has procured for the plant its 
American name of Calico flower ; while, from 
the shape of the leaves, it is also frequently called 
the Mountain laurel; it is also called Sheep 
laurel from its being considered poisonous to 
those animals when they feed on it. There 
are several species, which differ from each other 
principally in the shape of their leaves and the 
size of their flowers. 

Mcnziesia is a genus containing only three 




Species, of which M. pilosa (fig. 60) may be 
taken as an example. The flowers are small 
and bell-shaped, and the anthers {a) are without 
any awns or bristles ; there are eight stamens, 

FfG. 60.— Flowers, anthers, and pistil o? Menziesia. 

and the curious manner in which they are 
crowded round the style is shown at b. The 
capsule is four-celled. 

Loiseleuria, or Azalea procumhens^ is a small 
plant, having the appearance of thyme, which is 
the only species left in the genus Azalea by 
those botanists who include the true Azaleas in 
the genus Rhododendron. 

Ledum is the last genus belonging to this tribe 
that I shall attempt to describe. Ledum palustre, 
or wild Rosemary, the best-known species, has 
a corolla in five regular petals, and ten stamens 
which project beyond it ; but L. latifolium^ the 
Labrador Tea, has only five stamens, which are 



[part I. 

not longer than the petals. L. buxifolium, a little 
thyme-like shrub, is now called Leiophylhim 
thymifolium. All the species have white flowers. 


The plants comprised in this tribe, which is 
considered a separate order by many bota- 
nists, all agree with the genus Vaccinium in 
having the ovary entirely surrounded by the 
calyx, which forms a fleshy berry-like fruit 
when ripe, and in the seeds being scaly. Vac- 
cinium Myrtillus, the common Bilberry or Blae- 
berry, is a famihar example of the genus; and 
Jig. 61 shows the shape of the 
flowers at a, the manner in which 
the ovary is enveloped in the 
calyx at J, and the curious shape 
of the anthers in the magnified 
representation of them at c. 
The berry is five-celled and 
many-seeded ; and there are 
eight or ten stamens. Both the 
anthers and the flower vary in 
the different species, but the 
calyx and the manner in which it surrounds the 
ovary are nearly the same in all, as may be seen 
m Jig, 62, which represents a specimen of V, 
tenellum^ the Pennsylvanian Whortle-berry. In 

Fig. 61. — Common 

Bilberry ( Vaccinium 





this figure a is the flower, h the anther, and 
c the ovary surrounded by the calyx. 

Pig. 62. — Amebican Whortlk-berry {Vacciniiim pennsylvanicum'. 

There are many species, among which may be 
mentioned the American Bluets {V. angustifo- 
lium); Deerberries (F. stamineum); Bluetangles 
( V. frondosum) ; the Hungarian Whortle-berry 
( V. Arctostaphylos) ; and the Cow-berry, or com- 
mon British Whortle-berry {V. Vitis-IdcBo). 

The CvanheYry {Oxycoccus palustris) differs from 
the genus Vaccinium in the shape 
of its flowers (see^^. 68), and in 
its anthers being without spurs ; 
there are eight stamens, the 
filaments of which are connivent, 
that is, growing close together. 
The American Cranberry (0. 
macro carpus) differs from the 
European kind, principally in 
having larger fruit. 

K 2 

Fig. 63.— CflANBERRY. 

132 PYROLEjE. [part I. 


This tribe is also considered as a separate 
order by many botanists ; but the principal dis- 
tinction is the long arillus or skin which enfolds 
the seeds and gives them the appearance of being 
winged. The most remarkable genera are Pyrola^ 
the Winter Green, of which there are several 
species common in moist woods in the north of 
England and Scotland ; and Monotropa^ or 
Bird's-nest, parasitic plants which grow on 
the roots of pine and beech-trees, but are by 
no means common in England. The species of 
Pyrola are pretty little evergreen plants, with 
white flowers, the corollas consisting of five 
distinct petals, and w^hich have ten stamens, the 
anthers of which are two- celled, each opening 
by a pore ; the style is single, ending in a capitate 
stigma cut into five lobes ; and the capsule is 
five-celled. The yellow Bird's-nest, {Monotropa 
Hypopitys) has a coloured stem, with drooping 
flowers, and numerous scales instead of leaves, 
of which it is destitute. The flowers have a 
coloured calyx cut into four or five segments, 
and the corolla is in four or five petals. There 
is an American species with white flowers. 




{Chionanthus Virginica) ; the lilac ; the common ash ; 


This order was established by Jussieu, who 
dividedit intotwo tribes— Jasminese and Oleinese, 
which are now very generally considered as 
distinct orders. I have, however, thought it 
best to keep them together, as I wish to make 
as few divisions as possible, to avoid burthening 
the memory of my readers. All the genera in 
both tribes agree in their flowers having only 
two stamens, an ovary with two cells, and two 
seeds in each cell ; and anthers with two cells, 
which open with a long slit lengthways. 

The species of the Ash have no corolla ; but 
in all the genera where there is one, the fila- 
ments of the stamens, which are very short, 
are inserted in it ; and it is generally funnel- 
shaped — as, for example, the corolla of the 
Jasmine. Though the ovary is two-celled, and 
the cells two-seeded, each flower very often 
only produces one perfect seed. The leaves are 
generally pinnate. 



[part I. 


The genus Jasminum is the only one in this 
tribe which contains plants common in British 
gardens ; and of all the species contained in it, 
the common white Jasmine {J. officinale) is 
perhaps the best known. The flowers are pro- 
duced in terminal clusters of four or six. The 
calyx is tubular, with the limb cut into numerous 
narrow segments ; (see a in Jig. 64 ;) and the 

Fig. 64. — FtowsR and leaf op the Jasmine. 

corolla is funnel-shaped, with a spreading limb 
(h) divided into four or five pointed segments, 
which are folded over each other, and somewhat 
twisted in the bud. The two stamens and the 
style and stigma are enclosed in the corolla; 
and the fruit is a berry divided into two cells, 
with one seed in each. There is no albumen 


in the seeds. The leaves (c) are impari-pinnate, 
with the single terminating leaflet larger than 
the others; and the petioles are articulated. 
The common yellow Jasmine (J. fruticans) has 
flowers in terminal clusters of three each, and its 
leaves are either ternate, that is, with three 
leaflets, or simple. The branches are angular, 
and the leaves quite smooth. The Nepaul 
yellow Jasmine, {J. i^evolutum) has pinnate 
leaves of five or seven leaflets, which are smooth 
and shining. The flowers are large and pro- 
duced in compound corymbs. They are a bright 
yellow, and very fragrant. The segments of 
the corolla are obtuse, and the stigma club- 
shaped. There are above seventy species of 
Jasmine, more than twenty of which have been 
introduced into Britain ; but they may be all 
easily recognised by their flowers, which bear a 
strong family likeness to each other, and by 
the petioles of their leaves, which are always 
articulated or jointed, that is, they will break 
off the stem without tearing the bark. In 
other respects the leaves vary exceedingly in 
this genus, some being simple and others com- 
pound; and some being opposite, as in the 
common Jasmine, and others alternate, as in 
J. revolutum. 

136 OLEINEtE. [part I. 


This tribe contains numerous genera, among 
which the most common are the Privet {Ligus- 
trum)^ Phillyrea, the Olive (Oka), the Fringe- 
tree {Chionanthus), the Lilac {Syringa), the Ash 
(Fraximis), and the Flowering or Manna Ash 
{Ornus). All these genera agree in their general 
character with Jasminum, except as regards 
their seeds, which abound in albumen. 

In the common Privet {Ligustrum vulgare), 
the flowers, which are produced in terminal 
compound racemes, have a very short calyx 
(see a in Jig. 65), w^ith a funnel- 
shaped corolla, having a w^iJe tube 
in proportion to the limb (5), which 
is very short and divided into four 
segments. The anthers of the 
stamens and the stigma are seen in 
the throat of the corolla. The 
berry is drupe-like, and generally fig. 65.-flow] 
contains two one-seeded nuts. The of the privet. 
leaves are simple and opposite. There are many 
species of Privet, but the handsomest is L. 
lucidum, the leaves of which are broad and 
shining, and the panicles of flowers spreading. 
This tree yields a kind of waxy matter from its 
leaves and branches when boiled, which is said 
to be used by the Chinese for candles. 

CHAP, viii.] OLEINEiE. 137 

The Phillyrea is a handsome evergreen shrub, 
very useful in shrubberies, from its forming a 
close compact bush of a deep green, which makes 
a good background to Tree Roses," Almond-trees, 
Magnolia conspicua, or any other flowering plant 
that would appear naked if its flowers were not 
relieved by a back -ground of green. The flowers 
of the Phillyrea are small and of a greenish 
white. The fruit is a drupe, containing a two- 
celled stone or nut, but with seldom more than 
one perfect seed. 

The Olive {Oka satlva) has small white flowers, 
resembling those of the Privet, and a fleshy drupe 
like a Sloe, with a one or two celled stone or nut. 
The oil is contained in the fleshy part of the fruit, 
and the best oil is that which is obtained by 
crushing the pulp of the fruit without breaking 
the stone or nut. 

The Fringe-tree {Chionanthus virginica) differs 
from the preceding genera in the length of the 
segments of the limb of its corolla, which is cut 
into lono: slender shreds like frinoje. In all 
other respects except that the pulp of the fruit 
does not contain oil, this genus is closely allied 
to the Olive. 

The common Lilac (Syringa vulgaris) has its 
flowers disposed in a kind of panicled raceme 
called a thyrsus. The calyx is very small, and 
obscurely four-toothed (see a in Jig. QQ), and 

138 OLEINEiE. [part i. 

the corolla (b) is funnel-shaped, with a four- 
parted limb ; the stigma is two-cleft, and both 
the style and stamens are enclosed in the tube 

Flower and seed-pods of the Lilac. 

of the corolla. The fruit is a dry two-celled 
and two-seeded capsule, which opens with two 
valves, as shown at c, each valve having a 
narrow dissepiment down the middle : the shape 
of the seed is shown at d. The leaves are simple, 
opposite, and entire ; and the branches are 
filled with pith, which may easily* be taken out 
and the branch left hollow like a pipe ; and hence 
the generic name of Syringa, from Syrinx a pipe. 
The Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) differs so much from 
the other genera as to seem scarcely to belong 
to the same order. The flowers are without any 
petals, and frequently without any calyx ; and 
some of them, which are called the female 
flowers, have no stamens, while others, which 
are called the males, have no pistil. Some of 
them, however, have both stamens and pistil. 




The fruit is what is called a samara or key ; 
that is, it is furnished with a membrane-like 
wing so as to resemble a dry leaf. It is two- 
celled, but very frequently only one-seeded. 
The shape of the keys, and the manner in which 
they grow, is shown 
at a va. Jig. 67; and 
the leaves, at b. The 
leaves are opposite 
and generally pin- 
nate, with five or six 
pairs of leaflets ; but 
there is one species 
with simple leaves 
{ Fr. simplicifolia ) . 
The Weeping Ash 
is only an accidental variety of the common 
kind. The leaves of the Ash come out late 
and fall early ; but the tree may easily be 
recognised when quite bare by the greyness 
of its bark and its black buds. It will grow 
in any soil ; but it is injurious to arable land, 
from its roots spreading widely near the surface. 
The Manna, or flowering Ash, {Ornus euro- 
pcBus), differs widely from the common Ash in 
its flowers, which are white, with a corolla 
divided into four long narrow segments. The 
two stamens have long filaments, with a small 
pistil (c), the stigma of which is notched. The 

Fig. 67 — American Ash (Fraxinus 

140 OLEINEiE. [part i. 

flowers are produced in great profusion in loose 
panicles, and they are very ornamental, the 
samaras and leaves closely resembling those 
of the common ash. There are several speci es 
of this genus, which were all formerly included 
in the genus Fraxinus. The Manna is the 
sap of the tree, and it is procured by wounding 
the bark. 




This large Order is one of those which 
appear to have been most troublesome to bota- 
nists, as scarcely any two agree as to the plants 
to be comprised in it. I have, however, taken 
it in its most comprehensive sense, as far as 
popular plants are concerned ; on the same 
principles as those by which I have been 
guided throughout ; viz. that it is easier for 
a beginner to remember a few divisions than 
a great many ; and that when a student has 
once learnt what plants are nearly allied to 
each other, and the general features that con- 
nect them, it will be comparatively easy to learn 
the minor distinctions between them. 

Taking these principles as my guide, I have 
given the Order Solanaceas as it was formed by 
Jussieu, adding those plants to it which evidently 
belong to the several sections, but which have 

142 SOLANACEiE. [part i. 

been discovered since the time of that great 
naturalist ; and I have divided the Order into 
four tribes, viz. Solanacese, Nicotianese, Verbas- 
cinese, and Nolanese. All these plants agree in 
having the stamens, which are generally five, 
inserted in the corolla, the calyx and corolla 
inclosing the ovary, and the calyx remaining on 
the ripe fruit. 


The plants included in this tribe are easily 
recognised by their flowers, which bear a con- 
siderable resemblance to each other, and by 
their berry-like fruit, which has always a per- 
sistent calyx. The corolla is also always folded 
in the bud ; and the folds, like those of a country 
woman's clean apron, are often so deeply im- 
pressed as to be visible in the newly opened 
flowers. The genera included in this tribe 
differ widely in their qualities. 

The genus Solanum is easily recognised by a 
botanist through all its numerous species by its 
anthers, which open by two pores like those of the 
Ericaceae, and which differ in this respect, from 
the anthers of all the other plants contained in 
the Order, all of which open by a long slit down 
each cell. The flowers of all the species of Solanum 
are of the kind called rotate, or wheel-shaped ; 




Fig. 68. — BrrxER-swEET {Solarium 

but they are generally cut into five distinct 
segments: which are sometimes turned back, as 
in the flower of the Bitter-sweet (S. Dulcamara)^ 
as shown in^^. 68 a ; and sometimes nearly flat, 
as in the flower of 
the common garden 
Nightshade {S. ni- 
grum). The berries 
of the Bitter-sweet 
(h) are red, and they 
have a very pretty 
effect in hedges and 
wild coppices, where they are produced in great 
abundance during the latter part of summer 
and autumn ; and those of the Garden Night- 
shade are black. Both these plants are poisonous ; 
but this is by no means the case with all the 
species of the genus, as the tubers of the potato 
{S. tuberosum) are, as is well known, whole- 
some food, and the fruit or apple is not decidedly 
poisonous ; while the Aubergine, or Egg-plant 
(<S. Melongeiia)^ which is another species, has a 
fruit which is large, smooth and shining, and 
which when boiled or stewed is good to eat. 
The segments of the corolla of this species are 
often so deeply notched as to appear to be six 
or nine, instead of five. 

There are many ornamental species of Sola- 
num, many of whicli have woolly, and some 

144 SOLANACEiE. [part i. 

prickly leaves; but the flowers have all such 
a likeness to each other, as seldom to require to 
be botanically examined to be recognised. 

The Tomato or Love-apple, {Lycopersicum 
esculentiim^) has flowers which bear a great 
resemblance to those of some of the species of 
Solanum, but the anthers open longitudinally 
and are connected by a membrane into a kind 
of cylinder. The seeds also are hairy ; and 
the berry is wrinkled, and not of so firm a 
texture as in Solanum. The flowers of this 
plant are frequently united, so as to appear to 
have double or treble the usual number of 
stamens, and two or three styles ; and when 
this is the case, the fruit appears deformed from 
two or three of the ovaries having grown together. 
The fruit is very good to eat, and wholesome 
either boiled or stewed, or as sauce. There are 
several species, all of which were formerly in- 
cluded in the genus Solanum. 

The plants belonging to the genus Capsicum 
have flowers which are very much like those of 
the Tomato, and which have similar anthers ; 
but the fruit differs in being a dry, inflated, 
hollow berry, inclosing numerous seeds, and 
in both the seeds and their cover having a 
fiery biting heat to the taste. There are 
several species with fruit of greater or less 
size, and different colours ; generally red or 


yellow, but sometimes white or ^reen. The 
best Cayenne pepper is made from the pods of 
C.frutescens^ dried in an oven and then reduced 
to powder. The annual species (C. anniium) has 
many varieties; one of which produces the small 
pods called by the market-gardeners Chilies, 
and which are eaten fresh by dyspeptic patients, 
to assist digestion. 

The Winter Cherry {Physalis Alkekengi) has 
the same kind of flower as the other genera of 
this tribe. The corolla is rotate, and obscurely 
five-lobed; and the stamens, which are conni- 
vent, (that is, lying close together), have very 
large anthers. When the corolla falls, the calyx 
becomes inflated, and expands to a large size, 
completely enclosing the little berry-like fruit in 
the centre. A very beautiful preparation may be 
made by soaking this calyx in water till it becomes 
completely macerated ; that is, till all the pulp 
is decayed and only the fibrous part left. The in- 
flated calyx then appears like a beautiful network 
covering, with the bright red berry in the centre. 
To macerate the calyx properly, it should be 
left in the same water without changing, for 
about six weeks. The Cape Gooseberry (P. 
peruviana) is another species of the genus 
Physalis ; but instead of being a native of 
Europe, it is from Peru ; and its flowers, instead 
of being white, are yellow, with a dark red spot 



[part I. 

at the base of each lobe of the corolla: the 
berry also is yellow. This species is called 
Cape Gooseberry, because it is cultivated as a 
fruit at the Cape of Good Hope. 

The Deadly Nightshade {Atropa Belladonna) 
.^ differs widely from 

/ '^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ preceding 
genera in having 
a bell-shaped co- 
rolla, (see a in Jig, 
69,) and in the an- 
thers {h) not lying 
close together. It 
has, however, aper- 
manent calyx and 
a two-celled berry, 
like the rest. 

The Barbary 
Box-thorn, or Duke 
of Argyle's Tea- 
tree, {Lycium harhariim) has a somewhat rotate 
corolla, with a five-cleft limb, with the stamens 
inserted between the segments in the same man- 
ner as shown in the flower of the Atropa Bella- 
donna^ represented cut open at h vol fig. 69, The 
filaments are hairy at the base, and the anthers 
are near together, but do not form a cone as in 
Solanum. The berry is two-celled, and the 
calyx remains on when it is ripe, as in all the 

Fig. 69. — Deadly Nightshade 
(Atropa Belladonna). 


other genera of this order. There are several 
species of Lycium, which are all known by the 
English name of Box- thorn; but L. harharum is 
also called the Duke of Argyle's Tea-tree, from 
a story told of this plant being sent to a 
Duke of Argyle early in the last century, instead 
of the true Tea-tree. The story, however, 
is very doubtful ; and the more so, as in France, 
the dwarf Chinese Elm is called The de TAbbe 
Gallois, as it is said, from a similar cause. 

Cestrum Parqui is a very handsome half-hardy 
shrub, which may be placed in this division 
from its berry-like fruit. It has a funnel-shaped 
corolla, with a five-lobed limb, enclosing its five 
stamens. The flowers are disposed in an upright 
raceme ; they are yellow, and very fragrant. 
The berries are of a very dark blue, and almost 
black when ripe. Vestia is another genus very 
nearly allied to Cestrum, but the stamens project 
beyond the mouth of the corolla instead of 
being enclosed within it ; and the flowers, which 
are produced singly, have a very disagreeable 


The plants included in this tribe agree with 
those of the preceding division, in having the 
corolla generally folded in large plaits in the 

L 2 



[part I. 

bud ; but they are distinguished by having all 
capsular fruit : that is, in all the plants 
belonging to this tribe, the seed-vessel is dry 
and hard when ripe, and not soft and pulpy 
like a berry. The species have nearly all 
funnel-shaped flowers, with a long tube and a 
spreading limb ; the tube is generally very 
long in proportion to the limb, and it is often 
inflated, so as to appear much wider in the 
upper part than near the calyx. 

The Virginian Tobacco {Nicotiana tahacuni) is 
an example of an inflated tube to the corolla 
(seeji^. 70, «); the limb 
is small and divided 
into five pointed seg- 
ments; and the cap- 
sule (b). which opens 
at the point into four 
valves when ripe, con- 
tains numerous seeds. 
The whole plant is 
covered with a clammy 
down, particularly the 
leaves, which are large 
and flabby, and which have their footstalks 
dilated at the base, so as partly to enfold the 
stem. There are many species of Nicotiana, 
some of which are very ornamental. It is the 
dried leaves that are used as tobacco, or ground 
into snufi: 

Fig. 70. — Virginian Tobacco. 


The Petunias are so well known, that I need 
say very little of the general form of their 
flowers, except to point out the connexion be- 
tween them and the Tobacco. The corolla is 
salver-shaped, with a cylindrical tube, wider at 
the top than at the base, and a five-lobed limb. 
There are five stamens of unequal length, which 
are hidden in the tube of the corolla. The 
stigma has a broad head which is slightly two- 
lobed ; and the calyx remains on the ripe cap- 
sule, which is two-celled, and opens in the upper 
part with two valves. The seeds are numerous 
and very small, and the leaves are pubescent 
and slightly clammy. If my readers will take 
the trouble to compare the Petunia and the 
Tobacco, they will be surprised to find how much 
the flowers are botanically alike. The differences 
are, that the calyx is more leaf-like in the Petunia 
than in the Tobacco ; and the corolla of the 
Petunia is somewhat oblique, that is, two of the 
segments are smaller than the others ; the fila- 
ments, also, are thickened at the base. It will 
appear extraordinary to every one acquainted 
with the flowers of the purple and the white 
Petunias, to find that some botanists have placed 
them in different genera. Such, however, is the 
case. On cutting open the delicate little seed 
of the white Petunia (P. nyctaginiflora)^ which 
it must have been very difficult to do, and ex- 

]50 NICOTIANE^. [parti. 

amining it in a very powerful microscope, the 
embryo or germ of the future plant was found 
to be curved like that of most of the other 
Solanacese ; whereas when the seed of the 
purple Petunia (P. phcenicea or violaced) was ex- 
amined in the same manner, the embryo w^as 
discovered to be straight. This purple Petunia 
has consequently puzzled botanists as much as 
some of the other plants I have had occasion 
to mention ; and it has been called successively 
Petunia violacea, Salpiglossis integrifolia^ Nierem- 
hergia phcenicea, and Petunia phoenicea, 

Nieremhej^gia is a genus of ornamental green- 
house plants, easily distinguished from the 
Petunias by the great length of the tube of the 
corolla, and by the equal segments of the limb. 
The stamens also project beyond the flower, 
being inserted in the throat of the corolla, and 
the filaments grow together at the base ; the 
stigma, is, likewise, curiously dilated into a kind 
of crescent shape, and it is folded in a very sin- 
gular manner round the filaments, as if to sup- 
port the anthers. The most common species of 
this genus are N. Jilicaulis^ N. calycina^ and N. 

The genus Salpiglossis is now confined to one 
species, S. sinuata^ so called from its notched or 
scolloped leaves ; all the different kinds being 
now considered only varieties. The calyx in 

CHAP, ix.] NICOTIANE^. 151 

this species is five-angied and five-cleft, and the 
corolla is funnel-shaped, the tube being very- 
narrow near the base, and spreading out wider 
towards the mouth. The limb is five-cleft, and 
there are five stamens, one being much smaller 
than the others. The stigma is transverse, with 
a channel through the centre. 

Schizanthus is another genus nearly allied to 
the last, but it is more difficult to give a just idea 
of it than of any other that I have attempted 
to describe. All the parts of the flower are 
irregular. The segments of the calyx are un- 
even ; and the limb of the corolla is cut into a 
number of irregular lobes. There are only two 
perfect stamens, but there are two other small 
ones without any pollen in their anthers, and 
the rudiments of a fifth. The two perfect 
stamens are very elastic, springing upwards and 
discharging their pollen at the slightest touch. 
The capsule is two-celled, the valves opening at 
top ; and the leaves are bi-pinnatifid. 

The genera Salpiglossis and Schizanthus have 
been removed by Dr. Lindley from Solanacese, 
and placed by him in the allied order Scrophu- 
larinacese, or the Foxglove family. 

The Henbane {Hyoscyamus niger) has the 
calyx ventricose at the base, and the corolla 
campanulately funnel-shaped ; the limb is five- 
cleft, and one of the segments is larger than the 



[I'AKT I. 

rest ; but the most remarkable part of this plant 
is the capsule. When the corolla falls, the 
capsule shrouded in the calyx presents the ap- 
pearance shown at a in Ji'^. 71 ; and as the 
seeds ripen, the upper 

part (as shown at b) 

becomes detached, 

and opens like a little 

cap. The leaves are 

sinuated and semi- 

decurrent. There are 

several species of 

Henbane, one of 

which (H. aurea) has 

the limb of the corolla 

deeply cut on only fig. 71— henbank. 

one side. 

The genus Datura is nearly allied to Brug- 
mansia^ but it may be easily distinguished by 
its calyx, which divides when the ovary begins 
to swell, and the upper part drops off, leaving 
only the lower part to enfold the capsule. The 
corolla of all the species of Datura is funnel- 
shaped, and the limb, in the large-flowered kinds, 
often shows marks of the plaits in which it lay 
when it was folded in the bud. There are five 
distinct stamens, which are generally enclosed 
in the mouth of the corolla. The capsule is 
fleshy when young, and in most of the species it 


is covered with spines. This is the case with 
D. Stramonium (the common Thorn-apple), D. 
Tatula, and D. Metel, all of which have also 
their stamens enclosed ; but in D. ceratocaulon 
the capsule is smooth and the stamens exserted, 
that is, they project beyond the tube of the 

The genus Brugmansia is distinguished by its 
calyx being ventricose, and only two or three 
cleft ; it is also strongly ribbed. The corolla is 
funnel-shaped, the tube being strongly ribbed ; 
and the limb is five-lobed, the lobes being cus- 
pidate, that is, drawn out into abrupt points. 
The flowers are drooping, and in Brugmansia 
suaveolens, formerly Datura arborea, they are 
very fragrant. The anthers grow together. 
The capsule is two-celled, smooth, and of a 
golden yellow, and the seeds are each covered 
with a thick corky skin. In Solandra, a nearly 
allied genus, the calyx bursts on one side, and 
the lobes of the corolla are not cuspidate, but 
rounded and fringed. The stamens also project 
beyond the mouth of the corolla, and the cap- 
sule is four-celled. The species of Solandra are 
all stove-trees. 

The plants included in this division differ 
from those in the preceding ones, in not having 

154 VERBASCINEtE. [part i. 

the corolla plaited in the bud, and in having 
the anthers only one-celled ; distinctions which 
have been thought of sufficient importance to 
induce many botanists to make this tribe a 
separate order. 

The British plant sometimes called the Shep- 
herd's Club, and sometimes the common Mullein 
or Flannel flower (Verbascum Thapsus), is a 
familiar example of this genus. In this plant 
the flower is rotate, or wheel-shaped, and divided 
into five rather unequal lobes. The calyx is 
five-cleft; and it possesses such a power of 
collapsing over the ovary, that when the stem of 
the plant is struck sharply with a hard sub- 
stance, every open flower is forced off by the 
sudden closing of its calyx. There are five 
stamens, the filaments of which are bearded, 
and the anthers crescent-shaped; and a capsule, 
the two cells of which frequently run into one, 
and which opens by two valves at the apex. 
The flowers are crowded together in a thick 
spike-like raceme, which bears no small resem- 
blance to a club. This plant was formerly sup- 
posed to be efficacious in driving away evil 
spirits ; and hence it was called Hag's-taper, now 
corrupted to High-taper. The whole plant is 
mucilaginous, and a decoction of it is often given 
to cattle w^hen they are suffering under pulmo- 
nary complaints ; and hence is derived another 

CHAP. IX.] NOLANE^. 155 

of its names. Cow's Lungwort. The leaves are 
thick, and w^oolly on both sides ; and they are 
decurrent, that is, running down the stem, like 
little wings on each side. 

Celsia differs from Verbascum botanically in 
having only four perfect stamens, two of which 
are shorter than the others. The racemes are 
also much more loose, from the flowers being on 
rather long pedicels. Most of the species com- 
posing this genus were formerly included in 
Verbascum. Ramonda is another genus, which 
consists only of the Verbascum Myconi of 

This tribe, which is now made a distinct 
order by Dr. Lindley, is principally known by 
the genus Nolana ; the species of which are 
annual plants, natives of Chili and Peru, which 
have lately been much cultivated in British 
gardens. The flowers of Nolana afriplicifolia, 
one of the commonest kinds, very much resemble 
those of the common Convolvulus tricolor, and 
the leaves are large and juicy like those of 
spinach. On opening the corolla there will be 
found to be five stamens, surrounding four or 
five ovaries, which are crowded together on a 
fleshy ring-like disk. These ovaries, when ripe, 
become as many drupes, enclosing each a three 

156 NOLANEtE. [part I. 

or four celled nut or bony putamen, which is 
marked with three or more grooves on the out- 
side, and has three or more little holes beneath. 
All the species of Nolana have the same pecu- 
liarities in their seed-vessels, though they differ 
in many other respects. In the same tribe or 
order are included two other genera, one of 
which, called Grabowskia, contains only the 
singular shrub formerly called Lycium hoer- 
havicefoUum^ or Eliretia halimifolia^ the nuts of 
which resemble those of the Coffee. 

Besides the plants contained in these four 
tribes, there are several other genera which 
some botanists place in Solanaceae, and others 
in Scrophularinese ; and among these may be 
mentioned Franciscea, Browallia, and Antho- 
cercis. In the former of these genera the 
flowers are small, the corolla is salver-shaped, 
and the calyx, which is permanent, is inflated 
and smooth. In Browallia, the calyx is strongly 
ten-ribbed, and the corolla has an obhque limb ; 
and in both genera there are only four stamens, 
two of which are longer than the others. In 
Anthocercis there are four perfect stamens and 
the rudiments of a fifth. The corolla is not 
folded in the bud, but has a regular, star-like 




This very large order is divided into two dis- 
tinct tribes, which many botanists make separate 
orders ; the one embracing the herbaceous 
species with watery juice, and the other the 
hgneous species, all of which have their juice 
milky. The botanical construction of the 
flowers is, however, strikingly alike in all, from 
the nettle and the humble pellitory of the wall, 
to the fig and bread-fruit tree. In all the 
genera, the male and female flowers are distinct, 
that is to say, some of the flowers have only 
stamens, and the others only a pistil ; the latter, 
of course, being the only ones that produce 
seed. None of the flowers have any corolla ; 
and in all the male flowers, the stamens, which 
are erect at first, spring back with elasticity to 
discharge their pollen, and afterwards remain 
extended. The seeds of all are enclosed in nuts : 
though the eatable part varies, being in some 

158 URTICACE^. [part i. 

the dilated receptacle, as in the Bread-fruit and 
the Fig, and in others the metamorphosed 
calyx, as in the INIulberry. Many of the genera 
have one or two species which produce eatable 
fruit, though the fruit of the other species of 
the same genus is unwholesome ; an anomaly 
rarely to be met with in any other order except 
Solanacese ; and though the milky juice of most 
of the plants is poisonous, it affords in one spe- 
cies, the Cow-tree, wholesome food. 


All the plants contained in this tribe agree 
with the common Nettle in yielding a watery 
juice when broken ; in their flowers having no 
corolla ; in the male and female flowers being 
distinct ; in the stamens being first erect, but 
springing back when they discharge their pollen, 
and remaining extended ; and in their fruit 
being a nut. Most of them also agree in having 
rough leaves and angular stalks, the fibres of 
which are so tenacious as to be capable of being 

The common Nettle (Urtica dioica) is the 
type of this division; and we are so accustomed 
to consider it a noxious weed, that few persons 
are aware of the elegance of its flowers, which 
are disposed in drooping panicles. The male 

CHAP. X.] 



flowers have their calyx divided into four sepals ; 
and they have four stamens, the anthers of 
which open with elasticity, and when they 
spring back, the pollen, which is very abundant, 
is discharged with such force that it may be 
seen on a fine day in summer rising like a mist 
or light cloud over the plants. The stamens, 
after they have discharged their pollen, lie ex- 
tended and curved back over the segments of 
the calyx, as shown at a i^fig- 72. The female 
flowers have only two segments 
to the calyx. They have no 
style, and the stigma, when 
highly magnified, will be found 
divided into numerous segments, 
as shown at h ; the seed-vessel 
is a nut, which has a shell and 
kernel, the latter being the 
seed. The leaves are simple, 
cordate, opposite to each other, and furnished 
with stipules. They are rough on the surface, 
and covered with glandular hairs or stings. 
These hairs are hollow, with a cell at the base 
filled with a peculiarly acrid liquid, and taper- 
ing upwards so as to form a narrow tube, ending 
in a sharp point. When the point of the sting 
enters the skin, the pressure compresses the cell 
at its base, and the liquid it contains is forced 
up the tube and injected into the wound. The 

Fig. 72.— Nsttle 
(Urtica dioica). 



[part I. 

stem is quadrangular, and its fibres are so 
tough, that when separated from the pulp by 
maceration, they may be spun into yarn. The 
young shoots when boiled are very good to eat. 
The Roman Nettle (U. pilulifera) differs from 
the common kind in having the male flowers in 
loose panicles, and the female ones in compact 
pill-like heads, whence the specific name. The 
sting of this nettle is worse than that of the 
common kind. 

The Hop (Humulus Lupulus) is a very inter- 
esting plant to a botanist, from the peculiarity 
of its flowers. The male and female ones are 
distinct, and generally on different plants. The 

Fig. 73.— Hop {Humulus Lupulus). 

male flowers are produced in loose panicles ; 
the calyx {Jig. 73, a) consists of five sepals, in 


the centre of which are five stamens, standing 
at first erect, but springing back with elasticity, 
when they discharge their pollen, and remaining 
extended as shown at b. The anthers open by 
pores at the extremity of the cells, as in Eri- 
caceae. The female flowers are produced in 
close heads (c). They have neither calyx nor 
corolla, but the ovary of each is protected by a 
membranous scale. Each ovary has two styles, 
though it produces only a single seed. As the 
fruit ripens the styles disappear, and the scales 
enlarge, so as to give the head of female 
flowers the form of a strobile or cone (^), the 
ripe fruit or nut being placed at the base of 
each scale, as shown at e. The surface of the 
scales is studded over with roundish glands, 
which are filled with a substance resembling 
pollen, called lupuline, w^hich they give out on 
pressure, as shown at /; and this substance 
consists of a number of cells filled with volatile 
oil, which occasion the fragrance of the hop, and 
contain the bitter and astringent principles 
which make the hop so useful in compounding 
malt liquor. The lupuline is also somewhat 
narcotic; but though the fragrance of hops is 
said to produce sleep when inhaled in small 
quantities, an excess of it produces headache 
and vertigo, especially in nervous persons. The 
leaves are opposite, and three or five lobed ; 

J 62 


[part I. 

they are serrated on the edges, and rough on 
the surface. The stems are angular, covered 
with small prickles, and twining from left to 
right. The fibres of the stem when separated 
by soaking in water, are found to possess the 
same kind of tenacity as those of the Nettle and 
the Hemp, and may be made into cloth. The 
young shoots when boiled, are very good to eat 
as a substitute for asparagus. The leaves are 
furnished with stipules, and the flowers spring 
from the axils of the leaves. 

The Hemp (^Cannabis sativd)^ is an annual. 
The male and female flowers are on different 
plants as in the Hop and the Nettle. The male 
flowers are produced in panicles, and the female 
ones in heads separated by bracts, as shown in 
a magnified female flower at a in Jig. 74. The 
ripe fruit or nut is enveloped in 
a scale as shown at b ; and c is 
a highly magnified section of 
the nut. The male flower has 
five stamens, and a calyx of 
five sepals. The leaves are 
opposite or alternate, and digi- 
tate, that is cut into five long 
segments like fingers, though 
the upper leaves have only three 
segments. They are serrated on the margin, 
and rouffh on the surface. The fibres of the 

Fig, 74.— Hemp. 

(Cannabis sativa.) 

CHAP. X.] ARTOCARP-^. 163 

stem, when separated from the pulpy part by 
maceration, are manufactured into cordage ; 
and the seeds are mucilaginous, and are used 
for feeding birds. The smell of hemp ^Yhen 
growing, produces the same effects as that of 
hops in excess ; and in hot countries it is fol- 
lowed by a kind of stupor, like that which is 
the effect of opium. 

The Pellitory of the wall {Parietaria offici- 
nalis), has the male and female flowers on the 
same plant. The male flowers have four sta- 
mens, which spring back in the same manner as 
those of the nettle ; and the female flowers 
have the same kind of stigma. 

The plants included in this division differ so 
W'idely in their general appearance from those 
of the former tribe, that it is necessary to be a 
botanist to perceive the resemblance between 
them. When, however, they are botanically 
examined, they will be found to agree in aluiost 
every respect, except in their juice being milky 
and glutinous intead of watery. The tribe 
takes its narre from the Bread-fruit tree (Arto- 
carpus incisa). In this plant, the male flowers 
are densely crowded round a spongy receptacle,, 
so as to form a long, somewhat club-shaped cat 

M 2 

164 ARTOCARPiE. [part i. 

kin. Taken singly, each male flower consists of 
a calyx divided into two sepals, and containing 
a single stamen, with a two-celled anther, and 
a very broad filament. The female flowers are 
placed round a globular receptacle, also of a 
spongy consistency ; and each consists of an 
undivided calyx, hollow at the base to contain 
the seed, and terminating in two styles. The 
styles wither as the seeds gradually ripen, but 
the peaks of the female flowers remain, and 
render the surface of the fruit rough. The 
fruit itself is the spongy receptacle, which gra- 
dually dilates and becomes more pulpy, till it 
attains a very large size. The greater part of 
the ovules prove abortive, but those that ripen 
retain their calyx, though they remain embedded 
in the pulp. The proportion of ripe seeds is 
very small compared to the size of the eatable 
part of the bread-fruit ; frequently only four or 
six seeds are found in a globe eight inches in 
diameter ; and many fruits produce no seeds at 
all. One variety, in particular, is always with- 
out seeds. The fruit, when used, is generally 
put into an oven or before a fire, and when the 
rind turns black, it is scraped off*, and the pulp 
is found to resemble the crumb of new bread. 
The seedless fruits are considered the best to 
eat, and they are known by the smoothness of 
their outer surface. It adds to the interest ex- 


cited by this singular tree, to recollect that the 
Bounty, rendered so celebrated by the mutiny 
of Christian, was sent out, under Captain Bligh, 
to convey a number of plants of this tree from 
Otaheite to the British settlements in the West 
Indies ; and that there actually were seven 
hundred and seventy-four plants on board, at the 
very time the mutiny broke out. The leaves of 
the Bread-fruit tree are very large, being some- 
times two or even three feet long, and a foot 
and a half broad ; they are leathery, and are 
cut into from three to nine deep lobes. Their 
colour is a deep green, with yellowish veins. 
The petioles are short and thick, and there are 
large stipules which wither and fall off before 
the leaves. The whole plant abounds in milky 
juice, which flows abundantly when the leaves 
or branches are wounded or broken. 

The Jack tree {Artocarpus integrifolia) ^ bears 
fruit of an oblong form often seventy or eighty 
pounds in weight, the pulp of which is seldom 
eaten ; but the seeds, which are abundant, are 
considered very good, and are said when roasted 
to have the flavour of sweet chesnuts. The 
leaves are very thick and leathery, and much 
smaller than those of the Bread-fruit, being 
seldom more than six or eight inches long. 
They are also generally entire, but this is by no 
means a constant character, notwithstanding 

166 ARTOCARP^, [part i. 

the specific name, as those near the root are 
sometimes found nearly as deeply lobed as those 
of A. incisa. The Jack tree is a native of the 
East Indies, particularly of the Molucca Isles, 
Amboyna, and Ceylon, and it also seems natu- 
ralised in the Yf est Indies, particularly in the 
Island of SI. Vincent. The wood resembles 
that of mahogany. 

The Cow tree, or Palo de Vacca {Galacto- 
dendron idile), appears nearly allied to the 
Bread-fruit tree, though its flowers are un- 
known. The nut, however, which is covered 
with a husk apparently composed of the hard- 
ened calyx, resembles those of the other plants 
belonging to the Urticaceee, and the bark when 
wounded gives out abundance of milk, which is 
good to drink. -Humboldt in his Relation His- 
torique, describes this tree as "growing on the 
sides of the rocks, its thick roots scarcely pene- 
trating the stony soil, and unmoistened during 
many months of the year by a drop of rain or 
dew. But dry and dead as the branches ap- 
pear," Humboldt continues, " if you pierce the 
trunk, a sweet and nutritive milk flows forth, 
which is in the greatest profusion at day-break. 
At this time the blacks, and other natives of the 
neighbourhood, hasten from all quarters, fur- 
nished with large jugs to catch the milk, which 
thickens and turns yellow on the surface. Some 

CHAP. X.] 



drink it on the spot, others carry it home to 
their children ; and you might fancy you saw 
the family of a cowherd gathering around him, 
and receiving from him the produce of his kine." 
{Humholdt^ as quoted in the Botanical Magazine^ 
vol. QQ, t. 3724.) 

The Upas, or Poison tree of Java {Antiaris 
toxicaria)y about which so many fabulous stories 
have been told, belongs to this tribe. The male 
flowers are gathered together in small heads on 
a fleshy receptacle, (see ^y. 75 a;) and each 
consists of a calyx of four 
sepals (^), bending over four 
stamens, with long anthers 
and very short filaments. 
The female flowers have an 
undivided fleshy calyx with 
two styles, and this -fleshy 
covering forms the pericar- 
dium of the fruit, which is a 
drupe. When ripe, the fruit 
represents a moderately sized 
plum, inclosing the nut, or 
stone, which contains the kernel or seed, 
poison lies in the milky sap. 

The common black Mulberry {Morus nigra) 
has the general features of the order. The 
male flowers grow together in a dense spike, as 
shown in Jig. 76 at a, and each flower consists 

Fig. 75.— Upas tree. 




[part I. 

of a calyx of four sepals, and four stamens, 
which spring back and remain extended after 

Fig, 76.— Mulbkrry. 

they have discharged their pollen (h). The 
female flowers also grow closely together, in 
dense spikes, round a slender receptacle ; each 
having two elongated fringed stigmas (c), and a 
calyx of four sepals, and being inclosed in an 
involucre, as shown at d. As the seeds ripen, 
each female flower becomes a drupe, consisting 
of a fleshy and juicy pericardium formed from 
the calyx, and the nut ; and these drupes being 
pressed closely together by the position of the 
female flowers, the whole adhere together and 
form the fruit we call the mulberry. The invo- 
lucre withers when the calyx becomes juicy ; 
but the remains of it and of the style are often 
seen on the ripe fruit, as shown at e. The 
receptacle also remains as a sort of core, which 
is thrown away when the fruit is eaten, though 

cHAP.x.] ARTOCARP^. 169 

it does not part from it so freely as in the rasp- 
berry ; and the little nuts, or seeds as they are 
called, are found in the centre of each juicy 
globule. The leaves are simple, entire, and 
rough on the surface. 

The white Mulberry (Morus alba) differs from 
the common kind in the fruit not beino^ eatable ; 

CD ' 

as the calyxes of the female flowers never be- 
come juicy. The leaves are, however, much 
smoother and of finer texture than those of the 
black mulberry, and they are principally used 
for feeding silkworms, for which those of the 
black mulberry are not so good. 

The red Mulberry (M. rubra) is an American 
species, with leaves too rough to be good for 
silkworms, and very indifferent fruit. The Con- 
stantinople and Tartarian Mulberries are sup- 
posed to be only varieties of M. alba, though 
their fruit is good to eat, and the latter has 
lobed leaves. 

The Paper IMulberry {Broussonetia papyri- 
fera) has the male and female flowers on diffe- 
rent plants. The male flowers are produced in 
pendulous catkins, and the calyx has a short 
tube before it divides into four segments ; each 
flower is also furnished with a bract, but in 
other respects their construction is the same as 
that of the other flowers of the order. The 
female flowers have also a tubular calvx, and 

170 ARTOCARP^. [part i. 

they are disposed in globular heads on rather 
long peduncles ; but they differ from those of 
the other genera in having only a single stigma, 
and in the ovary being inclosed in an integument 
within the calyx, which becomes juicy as the 
seeds ripen, and not the calyx itself. The 
leaves are very irregularly lobed, and hairy ; 
and the liber or inner bark is used for making 
what is called Indian paper. 

The Osage Orange {Madura aurantiaca)^ has 
the male and female flowers on different plants, 
the male being borne in short close panicles of 
ten or twelve flowers each, and not differing in 
construction from those of the other genera. 
The female flowers are borne on a large globular 
receptacle, like that of the bread-fruit ; and 
they resemble those of that plant in construc- 
tion, except that they are pitcher-shaped instead 
of being angular, and that they have only one 
stigma instead of two. The receptacle also 
never becomes soft and pulpy like that of the 
bread-fruit, but remains hard and stringy and 
unfit to eat. The leaves are smooth and of 
delicate texture, and as they abound in gluti- 
nous milk, they have been found very suitable 
for silkworms. The wood is of a beautiful 
glossy texture, and very fine and close-grained. 
The tree is found wild in the country of the 
Osage Indians, near the Mississippi, and from 

CHAP. X.] ARTOCARP.^. ' 171 

the rough surface of its fruit, and its golden- 
yellow colour, it has received the name of the 
Osage Orange. 

The common Fig (Ficus Carica) has its male 
and female flowers on the same plant, and often 
within the same receptacle. The receptacle in 
this plant instead of being surrounded by the 
flowers, incloses them, and is, in fact, the fruit 
we call a fig. This receptable is sometimes 
roundish, but more generally pear-shaped ; and 
it is not quite closed, but has a little opening or 
eye at the upper end, which is fitted in with 
several very small scales. The stalk of the fig 
is articulated on the branch. The male flowers 
are generally in the upper part of the fig, and 
they consist of a half tubular calyx, with a limb 
divided into three segments, and three stamens. 
The female flowers have each a calyx of five sepals, 
and a single style with two stigmas ; and they 
are succeeded by the seeds, or nuts as they are 
called, as each contains a kernel which is the true 
seed. The leaves are very small when they first 
expand, but they gradually increase in size, till 
they become very large. They are generally lobed, 
and their petioles are articulated. The figs are 
produced in the axils of the leaves. It may be 
observed'here, that Du Hamel mentions that the 
receptacle is not closed in all the varieties of 
the fig, but that in some it opens naturally, when 

172 ARTOCARPjE. [parti. 

the seeds are ripe, dividing at the orifice into 
four equal parts, like the valves of a capsule ; 
and even when this is not the case, tlie figs, when 
the receptacle becomes pulpy and soft from 
ripeness, crack and burst at the sides, so as to 
allow of the escape of the seeds. 

As the fig is not fit to eat till the seeds are 
ripe, various expedients have been devised to 
transmit the pollen from the male flowers which 
lie near the opening or eye, to the female flowers 
which lie nearer the stalk. In Italy this is 
called caprification, and is done by insects ; but 
in the neighbourhood of Paris, a very small 
quantity of oil is dropped on the eye of the fruit 
as soon as it has nearly attained its full size. 

There are several species of Ficus, though 
none of them will bear the open air in England 
except the common kind ; and only two produce 
eatable frilit ; viz., F.Carica^ and F. Sycamorus^ 
— the Sycamore tree of Holy Writ, which pro- 
duces its small roundish fruit in clusters on 
the trunk and old branches, and not on the 
young wood, as is always the case witli the com- 
mon fig. 

The other most remarkable species are the 
Banyan tree {F. indica), the figs of which grow 
in pairs, and are about the size and colour of a 
cherry ; and the branches of which send down 
roots, which soon become equal in size to the 


parent trunk, so that one tree soon becomes like 
a small forest ; the Indian-rubber tree (F. 
elastica)^ the milky juice of which hardens into 
Caoutchouc, though this substance is also pro- 
duced by other trees, particularly by the Bra- 
zilian tree Siplionia elastica ; and the Pippul 
tree (F. religiosd). The leaves of this last tree 
are used in India for feeding silkworms, and it 
is said that this is one cause of the strong and 
wiry nature of the Indian silk ; and the insect 
{Coccus Jicus) feeds upon it and F. elastica^ 
which produces the substance called lac, of 
which seaHng-wax is made. This species takes 
its specific name of religiosa^ from the legend 
that the Hindoo god Vishnoo was born under 
its branches. 

174 JUGLANDACE^. [parti. 



AND Garry a elliptica. 

The plants contained in this chapter are 
placed by modern botanists in six or seven 
different orders ; but I have been induced to 
group them together, both because they follow 
each other in regular succession, and because 
there is a certain degree of general resemblance 
which connects them together, and renders it 
easier to retain their names when linked together 
by the association of ideas, than it would have 
been if they had been each described separately. 

The first order of catkin-bearing trees that I 
shall describe is called Juglandacese, and it con- 
tains three genera, only two of which, the 
Walnuts and the Hickories, are common in 
British gardens. The second order, Salicacese, 
contains also two genera, the Willows and the 
Poplars ; the third, Betuiacese, contains both 
the Alders and the Birch trees ; the fourth, 


Corylacece or Cupiillferse, contains the Oak, the 
Beech, the sweet Chestnut, the Hazel, and the 
Hornbeam ; the fifth, Platanacese, is generally 
considered to include two genera ; viz., Platanus 
and Liquidambar, though this last is, by some 
botanists, placed in a separate order called 
Balsamaceae ; and the sixth, Myricacese, or the 
sweet Gale family. All the genera included in 
these orders, with the exception of those belong- 
ing to Juglandaceae, were formerly comprised 
in one order, which was called Amentacese ; 
from the word Amentum, which signifies a catkin. 
The seventh and last order I have mentioned 
in this chapter is called Garryaceae, and consists 
of one single genus, Garrya, only lately known 
in Europe. Of all these orders the largest and 
most important is Cupuliferse, as it includes, 
among other valuable trees, the Oak and the 
Beech. All the plants mentioned in this chapter 
have their male and female flowers distinct, 
many of the genera having them on different 
plants ; and the male flowers are always in cat- 
kins, generally long and cyhndrical, but some- 
times round and ball-shaped. The female 
flowers are sometimes in catkins also, but some- 
times they are produced singly or in pairs. 
The flowers of both kinds are without petals, or 
with such as are inconspicuous ; and sometimes 
without even a calyx, but they are always fur- 

176 JUGLANDACE.^. [part i. 

nished with bracts, which grow so closely to 
the flower as almost to seem a part of it. The 
ovaries are generall}^ two-celled, but they rarely 
remain so, as they become one-celled before the 
seed is ripe. The style is, in most cases, very 
short, and the stigma generally two-lobed. The 
leaves are always alternate, and generally simple, 
except in the case of the Juglandacea?. They 
are all hardy trees and shrubs. 


The genera belonging to this order have com- 
pound leaves, and the male flowers in long 
cylindrical catkins ; the male and female flowers 
being on the same plant. 


This genus consists of only three species : the 
common Walnut (J. regia) ; the black Walnut 
(J. nigra) ; and the Butternut (/. cinerea or 
cathartica). The male and female flowers are 
distinct, but on the same plant : the male flowers 
being produced in long, solitary, cylindrical cat- 
kins, and the female ones in pairs, or in shorter 
catkins. The leaves are pinnate, with the leaflets 
not always opposite, which is very rarely the 
case in other plants. In Juglans regia (the 
common walnut), the male flowers are produced 
in a very thick catkin, each flower consisting of 


a calvx divided into five or six scale-like lobes, 

and generally from twelve to twenty stamens, 

with very long anthers and very short filaments; 

there is also averycm-ious bract to each, as shown 

in the magnified 

flower at a injir/. U% 

77; in which the 

anthers are seen (^ 

at b. The female 

flowers are in 

pairs, as shown at 

C; and they con- Fig. 17— ^yAL^vT (Juglans regia). 

sist of a calyx, d, enclosing the ovary, and toothed 
in the upper part, and four small petals encircling 
two large thick leafy-looking stigmas, e. 

The fruit is a fleshy husk in one piece, formed 
of the dilated calyx ; it generally retains the 
stigmas till it has nearly attained its full size, 
and when it becomes ripe it does not separate 
into valves, but bursts irregularly. The nut, 
on the contrary, is in two distinct valves, which 
may be easily separated from each other ; and 
it is imperfectly divided into cells by four half 
dissepiments. The germ of the future plant is 
what children call the heart, and it is in the 
upper part of the kernel, with the root end 
uppermost, so that when a walnut is sown the 
sharp end should be placed downwards. The 
kernel is four-lobed, and deeply wrinkled ; and 




when the young plant begins to grow, it divides 
into two cotyledons or seed-leaves, which drop 
off when the true leaves are fully developed. 
The kernel is covered with a thick skin, which 
is very astringent ; and the nut is covered with a 
membranaceous network of strong veins, which 
are generally found in a withered state on opening 
the ripe husk, having left their impression deeply 
imprinted on the outside of the shell of the 
walnut. The leaves are impari-pinnate, con- 
sisting of four pairs of leaflets and a terminal 
single one ; the lower pair of leaflets is much 
the smallest, and the other leaflets are fre- 
quently not opposite ; and they are sometimes 
unequal at the base.- The main petiole is 
dilated at the point where it joins the stem ; 
and the leaves are placed alternately. The tree 
is large and widely spreading; and the timber is 
of a close grain, and takes a fine polish. 

The Black Walnut {J. nigra) differs from the 
common kind, in the male 
flowers being on a smaller and 
more slender catkin, and fur- 
nished with a brown roundish 
bract at the back of the 
calyx. The female flowers are 
also in a sort of catkin, and 
four or five together. The 
fruit (see a in Jig. 78) is 
round, and the husk verv thick 

Fk-. 78.— Leaf AND fruit 

OF THE Black Walnut 

(Juglans nigra). 




at first, but it gradually wastes away, when 
the seed is ripe, instead of opening. The leaves 
have seven or more pairs of leaflets, which are 
generally nearly opposite, and sometimes they 
are without the terminal single leaflet, as shown 
at h. The shell of the nut is very hard, and 
the dissepiments, which are also very hard, are 
generally perfect, and divide the kernel into 
four parts. The nuts should be sown as soon 
as possible after they are ripe, as they will not 
keep good above six months. The tree grows 
above seventy feet high, and the wood is very 
hard and black. 

The Butter-nut {J. cathartica) resembles the 
Common Walnut in its male catkins, except 
that they are produced upon the old wood instead 
of being on the wood of the present year. The 
female flowers grow four or 
five together in a short catkin, 
and they are distinguished by 
their stigmas, which are rose- 
coloured. The fruit {a in Jig. 
79) is pear-shaped, endingin a 
rather long point; and the 
kernel of the nut {h) resembles 
that of the Common Walnut, 
exceptinbeingmoreoily. The 
leaves (c) are like those of the Black Walnut, 
except that the leaflets are rather downy, and 

N 2 

Fig. 79 — Butter-nut 
(Juglant cathartica). 




that there is a terminal one. The calyx of the 
female flower is also covered with a viscid down, 
which remains on the husk of the ripe fruit ; and 
the shell of the nut is very hard and very much 
furrowed. The tree is of much smaller size 
than that of the Black Walnut, and it may 
be easily distinguished by the greyness of the 
bark of its young shoots ; it also comes into 
leaf earlier, and the nuts are ripe about a fort- 
night sooner than the others. The wood is light, 
of a reddish colour, and rather a coarse grain. 


The genus Carya (the Hickory) consists of 
ten or twelve species, which greatly resemble 
the Walnuts in their 
general appearance, but 
are distinguished by the 
male catkins, instead of 
being solitary,being pro- 
duced in tufts or bunches, 
three or more on each 
peduncle. The stigma 
is also frequently fout*- 
lobed, and the husk, 
when ripe, divides into 
four equal valves, which in some of the species are 
very thick, as in the Thick-shell bark Hickory 
(see a in Jig, 80). The nut {b) is not valved, and it 

Fig. 80 — Thick-shell Bark 
Hickory {Carya lacinosa). >^ 


is either not furrowed, or very slightly so; but it 
has four angles which are more or less distinct 
in the different species : the shell and the dissepi- 
ments are both very hard, and the latter, as in 
the Mocker nut, are sometimes entire, so as to 
render it very difficult to extract the kernel. 
The leaves (c) resemble those of the walnut ; 
but they are generally of a thinner texture, 
and somewhat downy, the down being disposed 
in little tufts, as may be seen by a microscope. 
The trees vary much in size, but all of them 
have a reticulated bark. The wood is of a coarse 
grain, and will not polish ; but it is very strong, 
and so remarkably tough that it is hardly possible 
to break it. 

There is only one other genus in the order 
Juglandacese, and that consists of only a single 
species, Pterocarya caucasica. It has pinnate 
leaves of nineteen leaflets each, placed as closely 
as possible together; and the fruit, (that is, the 
husk,) is spread out on each side into a thin 
membrane or wing. This plant is sometimes 
called Juglans fraxinifolia. 


The plants contained in this order have 
simple leaves, and the male and female flowers 

182 SALICACE^. [part i. 

on different plants, both in upright cyHndrical 


The genus SaHx (the Willow) contains per- 
haps more species than any other, above two 
hundred and fifty having been named and de- 
scribed, besides innumerable varieties. The plants 
included in the genus may, however, be all 
divided into three kinds — viz. the true Willows, 
which have thin green leaves, and which include 
all the tree species, most of which have brittle 
branches ; the Osiers, the leaves of which re- 
semble those of the Willows, but which are low 
shrubs with very tough branches ; and the 
Sallows, the leaves of which are thick and woolly 
or shaggy. The Osiers and the true Willows 
are often confounded together; particularly when 
the former take, as they sometimes do, a tree- 
like character ; but the Sallows are always per- 
fectly distinct. The rods of the Osiers are used 
in basket-making. 

All the species of the genus have their male 
and female flowers on different plants, both 
kinds of flowers being placed on short catkins 
which are either erect or spreading sideways. 
The male flowers have each from one to five or 
more stamens, with no petals or calyx, but as a 
substitute a bract or scale, which is entire and 
hairy, and which has one or more glands at its 


base. The fenicale flower has a similar bract or 
scale, and it is also without either petals or calyx; 
there are two stigmas, each of which is some- 
times two-lobed. The capsule has only one 
cell, but many seeds which are covered with 
down or longish hairs, and which are very 
conspicuous from the capsule opening naturally 
into two valves when ripe. The leaves of the 
Osiers and Willows are generally lanceolate, 
and serrated at the margin, and they are 
always furnished with stipules ; but the leaves 
of the Sallows are generally much broader, and 
sometimes roundish ; and they are always of a 
tliick velvety texture. Though the number of 
the stamens varies in the different species, two 
are by far the most common. 

Fig. 81 shows the female flower of 
Salix fragilis at «, b is the honey gland, 
c the stigma, which is divided into four 
equal parts, and d the bract or scale 
with its hairy fringe ; e is the male 
flower with its two stamens, two glands, 
and hairy scale. This species is a tall, 
bushy-headed tree, with the branches 
crossing each other frequently, being 
set on obliquely ; and it is called ^ , ^ 

^ ^ Fig. 81.— The 

the Crack Willow, from the young willow 

branches separating from the trunk in 

spring with the slightest blow or jerk, their 

184 SALlCACEiE. [part i. 

bases being as brittle as glass. The leaves are 
of a deep green. The White Willow (Salix 
alba) differs from the preceding species in the 
branches being widely spreading and somewhat 
drooping, the old bark cracked into deep 
fissures, and the foliage of a silvery grey, owing 
to the silky hairs with which the leaves are more 
or less covered. The wood of the Tree Willows 
is soft and white, and very elastic ; it is there- 
fore used for cricket-bats, mallets, and other 
purposes where wood is wanted to resist a hard 
blow. S. vitellina, the Golden Osier, is so called 
from its golden-coloured bark ; and S. purpurea, 
the Purple AVillow, is so called from the colour 
of its branches. This last species has only one 
stamen ; but as the anther is four-celled, it is pro- 
bably two stamens grown together. All the 
species that have only one stamen have a four- 
celled anther, as for example the Rose Willow 
(S. Helix), which has the female catkins red. 
Salix caprea, the great round-leaved Sallow or 
Palm Willow, is perhaps the handsomestspecies, 
from the great abundance and golden hue of its 


The genus Populus (the Poplar) is distin- 
guished from Salix by the bracts of tlie flowers 
being deeply cut instead of being entire ; by 
both the male and female flowers having a calyx; 




and by the male flowers never having less than 
eight stamens. The leaf-buds are also covered 
with numerous scales. Fig. 82, a, shows the 

Fig. 82 — Trembling Poplar or Aspkn (Popuhts tremula). 

stamens of the Trembling Poplar or Aspen 
{Popidus tremula) shrouded in their cup-like 
calyx, and with their laciniated bract ; h shows 
the female flower with its four stigmas and 
deeply-cut bract ; and c, the pod with its valves 
curling back, so as to show the downy covering 
of the seeds. All these parts are magnified to 
show them distinctly, as they are nearly the 
same in all the species. The following are the 
distinctions between the principal species. In 
the White Poplar, or Abele-tree (P. alha)^ the 
leaves are lobed, and covered with a white down 
on the under side. In P. canescens^ the Grey 

186 SALICACEiE. [part i. 

Poplar, the leaves are also downy beneath ; but 
they are roundish, and the female flower has 
eight stigmas instead of four. The Aspen (P. 
tremula) has four stigmas, with two leafy appen- 
dages at the base, which look like two other 
stigmas ; and the petioles of the leaves, which 
are very long, are flattened, and so attached 
to the stem as to be twisted by the weight 
of the leaf when acted upon by the wind, 
which gives them their tremulous motion : these 
leaves are smooth on both sides. All these 
species have spreading roots, and send up a great 
many suckers; and their wood is used for 
butchers'* trays, pattens, bowls, milk-pails, and 
various other purposes. Populus nigra^ the Black 
English Poplar, on the contrary, does not send 
up suckers, and its wood is of very little use ; 
it is, however, very ornamental from the large 
size and great number of its male catkins, and 
the bracts of the flowers being of a brownish 
red, which gives them, when fallen, the appear- 
ance of the large brownish-red caterpillars of 
the Goat-moth. The Black Italian Poplar (P. 
monilifera) is remarkable for the quickness of 
its growth. The capsules of the female trees 
contain such a quantity of down attached to the 
seeds, as to render it quite unpleasant to walk 
under them when they are ripe. The Lombardy 
Poplar (P. fastigiata or dilatata) is remarkable 


for its upright and close habit of growth ; its 
leaves also are very peculiar in their shape, being 
broad at the base and then tapering suddenly 
to a point. The seeds resemble those of the 
Black Italian Poplar in the quantity of wool 
which they produce, but luckily the female plants 
are extremely rare. There are many other 
species, the most remarkable of which are the 
Carolina Poplar (P. angulata)^ known by its 
square stem and very large leaves ; the Balsam 
Poplar, or Tacamahac tree (P. halsamifera) , the 
buds of which are covered with a resinous 
fragrant substance, and the leaves are of a 
pale yellowish green, appearing very early in 
spring ; and the Ontario Poplar (P. candicans)^ 
which resembles the balsam Poplar, except in 
its leaves, which are very large and whitish on 
the under surface, and in the great rapidity of 
its growth, while that of the Balsam Poplar is 
rather slow. 


The plants included in this tribe have single 
leaves, which are generally what is called feather- 
nerved ; that is, the veins are marked strongly 
and deeply from the mid rib to the margin. 
The flowers are in cylindrical catkins, the male 
and female flowers being on the same plant. 



[piRT I, 


The common Birch (Betula alba) is an ex- 
ceedingly graceful tree. The male 
catkins are produced singly, or two 
or three together. They are long, 
slender, loose, and gracefully droop- 
ing ; {see Jig. 83 ;) and each consists 
_cat ^^ ^ great number of flowers, pressed 

Krxs OF THE close together, and growing round a 
rachis or stem, as shown in the 

catkin a in Ji^. 84, from which some of the 

flowers have been removed. The male flowers 

have each ten or 

twelve stamens 

enclosed in three 

or more scales or 

bracts, as shown 

in a reversed 

flower at b. The 

female flowers are 

produced in dense 

catkins, which 

are much shorter 

than the others, 

and always soli- 
tary; the flowers, 

which are arrang- 
ed round a very slender axis, are furnished with 

lobed scales, and c is a scale with three female 

Fm. 84.— The Birch {Betula). 

cI^^p. XI.] BETULACEiE. 189 

tiov\ers in its lobes, each having two long spread- 
ing stigmas (d). A ripe capsule is shown at e, 
with its membranaceous wings, and the cell j 
open to show the seed. Tlie ovary when young 
has two cells and two ovules (as shown at ^) ; 
but the division between the cells wastes away 
as the seeds ripen, and one of the ovules proves 
abortive. There are several species of Birch 
natives of America, some of which have upright 
oval female catkins like those of the Alder, but 
they are always distinguished by being solitary. 
The bark of the Birch is remarkable for its 
tenacity, and for the great length of time that it 
will resist decay. In America they make canoes 
of the bark of B. papT/racea ; and in Lapland 
huts are thatched with that of B. alba. The 
Birch is remarkably hardy; and it grows nearer 
the limits of perpetual snow both on mountains 
and near the pole than any other tree. 


The Common Alder (Abius glutinosa) , though 
so nearly allied to the Birch botanically, differs 
widely in its habits ; as it always grows in low 
marshy situations, or near water, while the 
Birch prefers the summits of the loftiest hills. 
In the Alder, the male catkins are long and 
drooping, like those of the Birch ; but they are 
generally produced in clusters of three or more 

190 CUPULIFER^. [part i. 

together. The male flowers are furnished with 
three lobed bracts or scales, each containing 
three flowers, each flower having a calyx of 
four scales united at the base, and bearing four 
stamens. The female flowers are in close ovate 
catkins, produced in clusters of four or five 
together, instead of being cylindrical and soli- 
tary, as in the Birch ; the scales of the catkins, 
though three-lobed, are only two-flowered, and 
the flowers have two long stigmas like those of 
the Birch. The ovary has two cells and two 
ovules, but it only produces one seed. The 
ripe fruit is a nut without wings, attached at 
the base to the scale of the cone-like catkin, 
the scales of the catkin becoming rigid, and 
opening, like those of the Scotch Pine, as the 
seed ripens. There are several species of Alder, 
some of which bear considerable resemblance 
to the American species of Birch; but they are 
easily distinguished by the female catkins of 
the Birch being always solitary, while those of 
the Alder are produced in clusters, and by the 
capsules of the Alder being without wings. 


This order includes six genera of very im- 
portant trees ; all of which have their ripe fruit 
shrouded in a cup-like involucre, which they 


retain till ripe. The male and female flowers 
are on the same plant. 


The fruit of all the species of Oak is an 
acorn, which is only partly covered by a scaly 
involucre called the cup. The shape of the 
acorn, and the height to which it is covered by 
the cup, differ in the different species ; but the 
general character of both is always the same. 

The male catkins of the common British 
Oak (Qiiercus Rohur jjeduncidatd) are long and 
very few flowered ; the flowers being small and 
very far apart. The flowers themselves have 
six or eight stamens and as many feathery 
bracts, which are united at the base. The 
female flowers {a v^fig- 85) 
are produced on a long 
stalk at a distance from 
each other, and each con- 
sists of an ovary closely \j 
covered with a toothed 
calyx, as shown in the 
highly-magnified flower at 
c, and an involucre of several 
bracts or scales, d; the fig. ss. 
style is short and thick, and the stigma {e) is 
three-lobed. As the fruit ripens, the style and 
stigma wither away, and the seed remains 



[part I. 

covered by the adnate calyx (h), which has 
become hard and shining. There is a circular 
mark or scar at the bottom of the 
acorn when taken out of its cup, 
which is called the hilum; and 
when the acorn is planted, this 
part should be kept upwards, as 
the foramen or part where the 
germ lies is at the other end. 
When the acorn begins to ger- 
minate, it opens at the foramen, 
cracking a little about half-way 
down, but not dividing entirely 
(seejlr/. 86). The root (a) then 
begins to protrude, and soon 
after the plumule, or young shoot 
(h), the leaves of which gradually 
unfold themselves. A curious 
experiment may be tried by sus- 
pending an acorn in a glass of 
water, or by placing it in one 
of those glasses with a wide 
mouth and a narrow neck, used 
for nosegays ; when, if kept in a 
Fig. 86.-GERMrNA- sitting - Toom, the acorn will 
coR.v. gj.g^([yg^iiy opcu, aud tlic root and 
leaves develop themselves; and thus may be 
watched the first beginning of the monarch of 
the forest, the progress of which is so strikingly 




depicted in the beautiful lines adapted by 
Cowper to the hollow trunk of a gigantic oak in 
Yardley Chase near Castle Ashby: — 

Thou wert a bauble once, a cup and ball 
Which babes might play with ; and the thievish jay, 
Seeking her food, with ease might have purloin'd 
The auburn nut that held thee, swallowing down 
Thy yet close folded latitude of boughs. 
And all thy embryo vastness, at a gulp. 
Time made thee what thou wert — King of the Woods ! 
And time hath made thee what thou art — a cave 
For owls to roost in ! Once thy spreading boughs 
O'erhung the champaign, and the numerous flock 
That grazed it, stood beneath that ample cope 
Uncrowded, yet safe shelter'd from the storm. 
Embowell'd now, and of thy ancient self 
Possessing nought but the scoop'd rind, that seems 
A huge throat calling to the clouds for drink, 
Which it would give in rivulets to thy roots ; 
Thou temptest none, but rather much forbidd'st 
The feller's toil, which thou wouldst ill requite. 
Yet is thy root sincere, sound as a rock : 
A quarry of stout spurs and knotted fangs, 
Which, crook'd into a thousand whimsies, clasp 
The stubborn soil, and hold thee still erect. 
Thine arms have left thee — winds have rent them off 
Long since ; and rovers of the forest wild 
With bow and shaft have burnt them. Some have left 
A splinter'd stump, bleach'd to a snowy white ; 
And some, memorial none where once they grew. 
Yet life still lingers in thee, and puts forth 
Proof not contemptible of what she can, 
Even when death predominates. The spring 

194 CUPULTFER^. [part i. 

Finds thee not less alive to her sweet form, 
Than yonder upstarts of the neighbouring wood, 
So much thy juniors, who their birth received 
Half a millennium since the date of thine. 

The leaves of the common Oak are deeply 
sinuated, and without footstalks, but those of 
Qiiercus Rohiir sessiliflora, another British Oak, 
are upon short footstalks, though the acorns 
are sessile. This last species predominated in 
the oak forest which formerly surrounded Lon- 
don ; and many examples are still to be found at 
Lord Mansfield's beautiful seat at Hampstead, 
the name of which. Ken wood, alludes to them, 
Ken being Saxon for an acorn. The wood of 
this tree was also used for the roof of West- 
minster Hall, and many other ancient buildings 
which till lately were supposed to be of Chestnut. 
Oak wood may always easily be tested by 
wetting a knife and then cutting it, when the 
astringent property in the Oak will turn the 
knife black, a result that will not take place 
with Chestnut. 

There are nearly fifty species of Oaks which 
may be obtained in the British nurseries ; the 
most remarkable of which are the Cork tree 
(Qiiercus Suber), the cork being. the bark; the 
Evergreen Oak (Q. Ilex); the American Oaks, 
particularly the scarlet Oaks (Q. coccinea and 
Q. rubra), the Live Oak (Q. virens), and the 
Willow Oak, with long narrow entire leaves 


(Q. PheJlos) ; and the Turkey, Fulham, and Lu- 
combe Oaks (Q. Cerris and its varieties). All Oak 
trees are very liable to be attacked by a species 
of gnat, and which produces excrescences on the 
branches. The oak apples of the British Oak, 
and the galls of Qiiercus infectoria. which are 
used in making ink, are of this nature. The 
Kermes, an excrescence found on Quercus cocci- 
fera^ is the work of a kind of Coccus, similar 
to that which produces the cochineal on the 

The timber of all the European Oaks is 
remarkably durable ; but that of nearly all the 
American Oaks, except Quercus virens^ is coarse 
grained, and so porous that it cannot be used 
for wine casks. The cork trees are generally 
grown in Spain ; and as the cork when taken 
off the tree, curves round, it is laid upon the 
ground and kept flat w'ith heavy stones ; while 
a fire is made upon it with the branches, so as 
to heat it through, after which it remains flat 
when the stones are removed. 


The Beech {Fagus sylvatica) bears very little 
resemblance to the Oak. The male flowers are 
in globular catkins (see a in Jig. 87), each 
flower consisting of a bell-shaped calyx (5), cleft 
into five or six teeth, and containing eight or 
o 2 



[part I. 

ten stamens, which project beyond it. The 
female flowers also grow in globular heads (c) 

0.^) ^^0 a 

FfG. 87. — The Beech {Fagus}. 

two or three together, surrounded by a great 
number of linear bracts, which gradually grow 
together, and form a four-lobed involucre shown 
open at d. In the centre of this involucre are 
two or more female flowers, each surrounded by 


a hairy calyx, cut into teeth at the tip (c). 
Each flower has three styles {/) ; and the 
ovary, which is sharply angular, has three cells, 
with two ovules in each. As the fruit swells, 
the linear bracts diminish, till at last they 
have only the appearance of small spines on the 
involucre {g), which opens when ripe into four 
valves (/i), and contains two or three angular 
nuts (0, which are called the mast. The leaves 
of the Beech are of thin and delicate texture, 
and they are strongly feather-nerved. The tree 
is large and very handsome, and it is easily 
known, even in winter, by the smooth shining 
white bark of the main trunk. There are only 
two species of Fagus common in British gardens, 
and these are the common Beech {Fagiis sylva- 
tica) which has numerous varieties, including one 
with dark reddish purple leaves, generally called 
the Purple Beech; and the American Beech 
(F. ferruginea), the leaves of which are copper- 

There are, however, two species from Terra 
del Fuego, which have been introduced, but 
they are at present rare. One of these {F, 
hetuloides) is called the Myrtle tree in Van 
Dieman''s Land, where it is also found wild, 
and it is remarkable for producing a fungus 
on its trunk, which, when cut in slices and 
€Ookedj is said to be very good to eat. 





This is a very small genus, only containing 
two or three species, of which only one, the 
Sweet Chestnut {Castanea vesca) is common in 
England. This plant was included by Linnseus 
in the genus Fagus, but it appears very distinct. 
The male flow^ers are produced round a central 
axis, but so far apart as hardly to be like a 
catkin (see am jig. 88). 
These flowers in the bud 
look like little knobs, 
but when they open the 
stamens burst out. as 
shown at h. Each 
flower has a large and a 
small bract, and from 
ten to fifteen stamens. 
The female flowers are 
disposed in a tuft as 
shown at c, surrounded 
by a number of bracts 
and scales, which afterwards grow together and 
form a spiny involucre (see^^. 89 a,) which forms 
the husk of the ripe nuts (J), and opens into 
four valves as shown at c. Each female flower 
has a closely-fitting calyx, toothed at the tip, 
which afterwards becomes the hard brown skin 
that envelops the kernel of the ripe nut ; and 

Fig. 80.— Chestnut (Castanea 

CHAP. j:i.] CUPULIFERiE. 199 

each flower is furnished with six styles, having 
as many cells with two ovules in each, though 

Fig. 89.— Fruit of the Swebt Chestnut. 

generally all the cells unite into one, and most 
of the ovules wither before the fruit ripens. 
There are three female flowers in each involucre, 
which lie nestling together like birds in a 
nest. AVhen ripe the involucre or husk opens 
naturally into four valves (as shown va. Jig. 89), 
and drops the one or two Chestnuts which it 
contains. Each nut, when ripe, is enveloped in 
a brittle shinino^ skin formed of the metamor- 
phosed calyx, and consists of only one cell, in 
which are one, two, or at most three kernels, 
which are the seeds. 



[part I. 


The Hazel Nut (Corylus Avellana) has the 
male and female flowers on the same tree ; the 
male being in long catkins and the female ones 
in little oval buds, something like those of the 
Oak, (see a mjig. 90.) which are so small that 
they would hardly be seen on the tree, if it 
were not for their bright red stigmas. The 

male flowers {fig. 
91) have each three 
bracts, one behind 
the two others, to 
the inner ones of 
which are attached 
eiarht stamens. As 
the buds containing 
the female flowers 
expand, two or three small leaves make their 
appearance between the scales {h mfig. 90), so 
that gradually the bud becomes a 
little branch, bearing the female 
flowers at its tip. Each flower has 
two long stigmas, and the ovary is 
enclosed in a closely-fitting calyx {c) 
toothed at the upper part, the whole 
being enveloped in a deeply cut in- 1^^« 
volucre (c?), which afterwards becomes 
the husk of the ripe nut. This in- 

FiG. 90.— The Hazel (Corylus 

91— Male 
flower of the 

OHAP. y.i.] 



volucre is not closed, as in Fagus and Castanea, 
but it is open at top ; the nut, as in all cupuli- 
ferse, adhering to it, when young, by the hiluni or 
scar visible at its base. There are about seven 
species of Corylus, of which the most remark- 
able is the Constantinople Nut {Corylus Colurna), 
The Filbert is only a variety of Corylus Avellana. 


Some botanists include this genus and that 
of Ostrya in the order Betulacese, instead of 
placing them in Cupuliferse, as the nut of the 
Hornbeam is not surrounded by a cup or husk, 
but by a leaf-like involucre as shown mfy. 92, 
at a, h being the nut. 
Both the male and the 
female flowers are pro- 
duced in long catkins, 
which have an exceed- 
ingly light and elegant 
appearance on the tree. 
The male flowers con- 
sist each of one bract, 
with twelve or more stamens attached to its 
base ; and the female flowers have each two 
very long stigmas, and a ribbed calyx, which 
adheres to the ripe nut and assumes the appear- 
ance of a hard brown skin. The leaves are 
feather-nerved and persistent, Hke those of the 

Fig. 92.— FRUtT of the Horn- 


202 CUPULIFERiE. [part i. 

Beech, frequently remaining on the tree, though 
in a withered state, till spring. 

The nut appears ribbed when ripe, from the 
remains of the metamorphosed calyx, and it 
contains only one seed ; though, as in the other 
alHed genera, the ovary had two cells, with an 
ovule in each. 


The Hop Hornbeam {Ostrya vulgaris) was 
included in the genus Carpinus by Linnaeus ; 
and indeed the general construction of the 
flowers is the same. The male catkins are, 
however, very much longer, and the female 
catkins much shorter, and closely resembling 
those of the Hop. 


This order formerly included the Plane trees 
and the Liquidambar ; but many botanists now 
put the latter tree in a separate order, which 
they call Balsamacea. 

the genus plat anus. 
In the Oriental Plane {Platanus orientalis) 
the male and female flowers are both in globular 
catkins. The male flowers are composed of very 
small, but rather fleshy bracts, which remain on 
after the stamens fall; and the female flowers 


are each furnished with bracts, and have two 
lonof stiofmas. Both kinds of flowers are so 
small as not to be seen without a microscope. 
The fruit is covered with fine hair. The 
globular catkins retain the bracts, and these 
remain on after the seed has fallen, giving the 
tree a very singular appearance even in winter. 
The Occidental Plane (P. occidentalis) differs 
principally from the preceding species in the 
leaves being more downy beneath ; the buds 
are also so downy that the tree in America is 
called the Cotton-tree. Both kinds are remark- 
able for the manner in which the bark becomes 
detached from the main trunk and peels off. 


The common Liquid ambar {L. styraciflua) is 
remarkable for the beautiful crimson which its 
maple-like leaves take in autumn. The male 
flowers are on an upright catkin, and the female 
ones in a globular one, like the Planes. When 
the fruit is ripe, the numerous capsules that 
surround the globular catkin burst, and the 
seeds, which are winged, are scattered by the 


The principal genera are Myrica, the Sweet 
Gale ; Comptonia, a curious shrub with fern- 

204 CUPULIFERiE. [part i. 

like leaves; and Casuarinese, a New Holland 
tree without leaves, but with jointed leaf-like 


The male flowers are produced in rather long 
erect catkins, each having only one scale, and 
four stamens. The female catkins are short, 
and each flower has three scales or bracts ; the 
ovary has two long stigmas, and the fruit is a 
drupe, the scales becoming fleshy when ripe. 
The bracts and leaves are covered with glands 
filled with aromatic oil ; and in M. cerifera, the 
fruit is covered with a waxy secretion, which is 
used as wax. 


This order consists of only one genus, Garrya. 


Garrya elUptica is an evergreen shrub re- 
markable for its long and graceful male catkins, 
the flowers of which consist of four stamens 
within a four-cleft calyx, enclosed within bracts 
united at the base. The female flowers are on 
a diff*erent plant, and the fruit is a berry not 
opening naturally. 

CHAP, xii.] ABIETINE/E. 205 



The greater part of the trees included in this 
chapter are comprised by Richard, De Candolle, 
and other foreign botanists, in the order Coni- 
ferse ; which they have divided into three 
sections : viz., the Abietinese, or Pine and Fir 
tribe ; the Cupressinese, or Cypress tribe ; and 
the Taxineae, or Yew tribe. The last tribe, 
however. Dr. Lindley has formed into a separate 
order, which will probably be adopted. Most 
of the genera have, what the Germans so graphi- 
cally call needle leaves ; that is, their leaves 
are long and narrow, and terminate in a sharp 
point. The flowers also are quite different from 
what is generally understood by that name ; 
being in fact nothing but scales : those of the 
male flowers containing the pollen in the body 
of the scale, and those of the female producing 
the ovules, or incipient seeds at the base. The 
fruit of the Abietine^ is a cone, the scales of 

206 ABIETINE^. - [part i. 

which open when the seeds are ripe. That of the 
Cupressinese is also called a cone by botanists, 
but it is rounder, and has not so many scales. 
The fruit of the Taxinese is an open succulent 
cup, bearing the seed or nut in its centre. 

Linnaeus placed nearly all the hardy Abietinese 
in the genus Pinus, and since his time botanists 
have disagreed exceedingly respecting the generic 
names of the different plants; no less than 
twelve different divisions of them having been 
published, by as many eminent botanists, since 
the commencement of the present century. 
The best, however, appears to be that of M. 
Richard, which was approved by De Candolle, 
and which has been adopted with a slight altera- 
tion in Mr. Loudon's Arboretum Britannicum. 
According to this arrangement, the hardy 
Abietinese are divided into five genera; viz., 
Pinus, the Pine, including all the resinous trees 
with long leaves, which grow two or more 
together in a sheath ; Abies, the Spruce Fir, 
the leaves of which do not grow in a sheath, 
but are scattered round the branches, the leaves 
themselves being short, flat, and the same on 
both sides ; Picea, the Silver Fir, the leaves of 
which resemble those of Abies, except that the 
edges curl in, and the under surface is quite dif- 
ferent from the upper one, being marked with 
two white lines, one on each side the midrib ; the 


leaves are also placed nearly in two rows, one on 
each side the branch ; Larix, the Larch, the 
leaves of which are very slender and produced in 
tufts, but which fall off every winter; andCedrus, 
the Cedar, the leaves of which resemble those 
of the Larch, but which do not fall off every 
winter. The distinctions between these genera 
in the leaves only are very clear, and easily re- 
membered ; and their cones differ as decidedly: 
those of the Pines are hard and thick at the 
tips of the scales, which remain on after the 
seed drops ; those of the Spruce Firs are thin 
at the tips of the scales, which also remain on 
the cones after they have lost their seeds, and 
the cones are drooping, and tapering at both 
ends ; those of the Silver Firs are erect, cylin- 
drical, and of nearly the same diameter through- 
out, and the scales fall with the seeds ; those of 
the Larch are erect, but small and conical, and 
the scales remain on after the seeds have fallen; 
and those of the Cedar are erect, oval, and with 
deciduous scales. To the hardy genera may 
now be added Araucaria, as one species of this 
genus (A. imbricata) has been found quite hardy 
in Britain. 

The Cupressinese are divided into four or five 
genera; viz., Thuja^ the Arbor Vitse, some of the 
species of which have been formed into a new 
genus under the name of Callitris ; Ciipressus, 

208 ABIETINE^E. [part i. 

the Cypress ; Taxodium^ or Schuhertia, the 
deciduous Cypress ; and Juniperus^ the Juniper. 
The only needle-leaved trees belonging to 
Taxinese belong to the genus Taxus, the Yew, 
unless we separate from it the new genus 

The plants included in this section, with the 
exception of the Larch, are evergreens. They 
are all lofty trees, with straight erect stems, 
and their branches growing in whorls or tiers, 
so as to produce a very peculiar and striking 
effect. The male and female catkins are on the 
same plant ; the female one containing two seeds 
at the base of each scale. The pollen of the 
male flowers is so abundant that any one pass- 
ing through a grove of these trees in May or 
June, might fancy it was raining brimstone. 
Most of the species are timber trees, producing 
the wood called deal ; that used for the flooring 
and other parts of houses, being principally the 
wood of the Scotch Pine, and the Norway 
Spruce. Most of the species produce turpen- 
tine, which is the thin part of the sap which 
flows from the tree when a notch is cut in the 
trunk ; the thick part of the sap when purified 
by boiling is the yellow resin. Tar is produced 
by cutting the roots and wood of pine and fir 




trees into pieces, and putting them into a sort 
of oven ; when the tar runs from the charred 
wood, and lamp-black is made from the soot 
which collects on the roof of the oven. Pitch 
is boiled tar. Pyroligneous acid is obtained by 
burning the wood into charcoal in an iron 
cylinder, and condensing the vapour that arises 
from it. 


This genus, according to Linnseus, was made 
to include all the Pines and Firs, the Cedar 
and the Larch ; and this arrangement has been 
followed by the late A. B. Lambert, Esq., in his 
magnificent work 
on this tribe. In 
its present re- 
stricted form, it 
contains only those 
plants that have 
longslender leaves, 
which are pro- 
duced in membra- 
naceous sheaths, 
(see a in jig. 93) 
two, three, or five 
together. The 

male flowers are 

produced in long r^*^- 93 — branch of thk scotch Pine. 

upright catkins, {m) growing two or three toge= 



[part I. 

ther, and they consist each of one scale, which is 
surmounted by a kind of crest, h. The pollen is 
contained in two cells formed in the body of each 
scale, which open lengthways, as shown in the 
scale of the Scotch Pine {Pinus sylvesiris)^ at^ in 
fig. 94. The female scales or carpels when ripe 

Fig. 94. — Coxe of the Scotch Pine {Pinus sylcestris). 

form a strobile or cone (rZ), and in the Scotch 
Pine they are thickened at the tip (e in^^. 93) ; 
but when young they appear as shown at f. 
Each scale is furnished with a thin membrane- 
like bract on the outside, which is conspicuous 
when young, but whicli is hidden by the scales 
in the ripe cone ; and each has two seeds inside, 
which are each furnished with a long thin trans- 
parent wing (c). When the seed is ripe, the 
cone opens as shown at c?, and the seeds falling 
out are carried away by the wind. When the 


seed is sown and begins to germinate, the 
young plant sends down a root, and pushes 
through the ground its upright shoot, which has 
six cotyledons, bearing the husk of the seed 
upon their tip. All the species of the genus 
Pinus agree with the Scotch Pine in the con- 
struction of their flowers, and they differ from 
each other principally in their cones, and in the 
number of leaves which they have in a sheath. 
By far the greater number have two leaves in a 
sheath, (see a in Jig. 93,) and among these are 
the Scotch Pine (P. sylvestris), which has small 
straight cones without prickles ; P. Banksiana, 
w^iich has crooked cones ; P. pungens and other 
American Pines, which have prickly cones, 
every scale being furnished with a sharp spine ; 
the Corsican Pine (P. Laricio)^ and several 
allied species, which have no spines on their 
cones, but every scale curving outwards ; 
the Pinaster (P. Pinaster) which has large 
cones, with very short broad spines, and the 
Stone Pine (P. Phiea), the cones of which are 
smooth and shining, and very large, and the 
seeds of which are eaten. The pines that have 
three leaves in a sheath, are chiefly natives of 
North America, and have prickly cones ; such 
as Pinus Tceda and its allies, P. ponderosa^ 
remarkable for its heavy wood which sinks 
in water, and its large spreading branches ; and 
p 2 




p. Sabni and P. macrocarpa, which have long, 


slender, drooping 
leaves, and very- 
large hooked cones. 
The pines which 
have five leaves in 
a sheath, include, 
among others, the 
Weymouth Pine 
(P. Strobus), the 
cones of which are 
long, narrow, and 
drooping (see j^(jf. 
95); P. Lamher- 
tiana^ which has 
cones above a foot long ; and P. Cemhra^ which 
has an oval cone, the scales of which are con- 
cave, and the seeds without wings. 

Fig. 95. — Weymouth Pine (P. strobus). 


This genus includes all the Spruce Firs, and 
they are readily distin- 
guished from the pines by 
their drooping cones (see 
a in Jig. 96), the scales of 
which are not thickened at 
the tip, but drawn out into 
a thin brittle membrane ; 
and their leaves, which do 
not grow erect in sheaths, 

Fig. 96.- 

Spruce Fir {Abies 




but in rows standing out from the branches (Z>), 

and which being the same on both sides, look 

as if two had grown together to make one. 

The difference between the Pines and the Firs 

will be seen clearly by comparing 

jig. 96, which represents a branch 

of the Spruce Fir, with fig. 97, 

which represents a branch of 

Pinus pumilio, a dwarf variety of 

the Scotch Pine. 

The common Spruce Fir (Abies 

excelsa) is a tree of stately growth, 

with an erect pyramidal form, 

and numerous tiers of drooping 

branches. It is the loftiest of European trees, 

having been found in Norway 180 feet high. 

The crest of the male flower is larger than in 

the genus Pinus, as show^n at d in Jig. 98, in a 

magnified side view 
of one of the cells 
of a male scale (a), 
from which the 
pollen has been dis- 
charged, the empty 
case being shown 
at c. The female 
scales {h) have each 

a small bract at the back, and two seeds inside, 

{e) the wings of which have each a little cavity 

Fig. 98.— The Spruce Fir {Abies excelsa). 

214 ABIETINE^. [part i. 

at the lower part in which the seed lies, so that 
it is naked on one side, and clothed by the 
wing on the other. The Spruce Fir bears 
cones when the trees are of a very small size ; 
and these cones are very ornamental when 
young, being of a rich purple, while the male 
catkins are yellow tinged with red at the base. 
The sap from the Spruce Fir does not flow 
freely when the bark is wounded, as it does from 
the Scotch Pine ; but oozes out gradually, and 
is what is called Burgundy pitch in the shops. 
Spruce-beer is made from the young shoots of 
the American Black Spruce. There are many 
species of Abies, but the most interesting are 
Abies Douglasii^ a very handsome tree only lately 
introduced, of very quick growth; and the 
Hemlock Spruce {Abies canadensis). This genus 
is called Pinus by the Linnean botanists, Picea 
by Professor Link and some German botanists ; 
and Dr. Lindley, who calls it Abies, includes in 
it the Silver Fir, the Larch, and the Cedar. 


This genus, which includes all the Silver Firs, 
is readily distinguished from Abies by its leaves, 
which grow in two rows, one on each side the 
branch ; thus the branch lies quite flat when 
placed on a table, or any other level surface. 
The leaves are also not the same on both sides 

CHAP, xii.] ABIETINE^. 215 

as in the Spruce Firs, but the under side is 
marked by two distinct lines of silvery white, 
one on each side the midrib. The cones stand 
erect, and the dorsal bract is frequently so large 
as to appear above the tips of the scales ; and 
the scales themselves are deciduous, falling off 
when the seeds are ripe, leaving the central 
rachis bare. This last peculiarity is very 
striking; as both the Pines and Spruce Firs retain 
the scales of their cones after the seeds have 
fallen. The seeds of the Silver Firs are much 
larger than those of the Spruces ; and they are 
not attached to the wing in the same manner. 
The Silver Fir is a noble tree, and takes its 
name from the epidermis of its bark ; which in 
young trees is of a whitish grey, and smooth, 
though when the tree is about fifty or sixty 
years old, it cracks and peels off, leaving the 
dark brown rough bark beneath- The cones 
are produced two or more together ; they are 
upright and cylindrical, being nearly as large at 
both ends as in the middle. The leaves all 
curve upwards at the point, thus showing con- 
spicuously the white lines on the under side. 
A remarkable circumstance connected with this 
tree is, that when it is cut down, the stump will 
remain alive for many years, and even increase 
considerably in size, witliout producing any 
leaves or branches. One in the forests of the 

216 ABIETINE^. [part i. 

Jura, which was ascertained to have lived ninety- 
two years after the tree had been cut down, 
had completely covered the section of the wood 
with bark. Strasburgh turpentine is produced 
from this tree. There are several species of 
this genus, some of which, as for example, Ficea 
Wehbiana, do not show the dorsal bract ; while 
others, as P. nohills^ and P. hracteata^ have it 
so large as to make the cone appear quite 
shaggy. All the species abound in resin, which 
frequently exudes from the cones. This genus 
is called Abies by Professor Link, and the 
German botanists. 


This genus consists of only three species, 
which are easily distinguished from the other 
Abietinese by their losing their leaves every 
winter. The common Larch {Larix europcea) 
is a very handsome tree, with drooping branches, 
and fohage of a yellowish green, which dies off 
of a red tinore in autumn. The leaves are 
linear, and they are produced in tufts in a sort 
of woody sheath, some of them appearing in the 
same sheath with the female catkins. The 
male catkins are smaller, but appear in the 
same manner. The cones are small, and show 
the dorsal bracts when young, but when ripe 
they are seldom visible. The seeds are winged, 

CHAP. 511.] ABIETINE^. 217 

and so very small, that it appears wonderful 
that a tree frequently above a hundred feet high 
can spring from them. The cones are of a 
bright red when young, but they become brown 
when ripe. The Larch grows very rapidly, and 
in situations where no other tree would thrive. 
Its wood is very valuable, and its bark is nearly 
as useful for tanning as that of the oak. The 
trees, however, in some situations are subject to 
a disease called pumping, by which the centre 
of the trunk becomes as hollow as though it 
were intended for a pump. The sap of the 
Larch produces the Venice turpentine ; and in 
some parts of France a kind of gum, called the 
Manne de Briar 9on, which is used medicinally, 
is collected from the leaves. 


There are only two species in this genus, the 
Cedar of Lebanon {Cedrus Libani), and the 
Deodar (C. Deodara). The male catkins of the 
Cedar of Lebanon are produced singly, and 
each scale has a large crest. The cones are 
ovate, and the scales, which are very short and 
broad, fall with the seeds, in the same manner 
as those of the Silver Fir. The leaves resemble 
those of the Larch, but they are not deciduous. 
The male and female catkins are very often on 
different plants ; and the trees attain a con- 

218 ABIETINEiE. [part i. 

siderable age before they produce perfect seeds. 
The Cedar is remarkable for the enormous size 
of its branches, and for the shelf-Hke character 
they assume. The tree in a living state lasts 
several centuries, but the wood is of a very 
coarse grain and not at all durable ; and though 
the resin appears so abundant in the cones as to 
ooze through the scales, there is so little in the 
trunk that it is never used for turpentine. 

The Deodar Cedar (C Deodara) closely re- 
sembles the common Cedar in its catkins and 
cones, but the foliage is of a beautiful glaucous 
green, and the leaves are so much longer as to 
give a peculiarly graceful character to the tree. 
The wood is remarkably durable, very fragrant, 
and of an extremely fine grain, taking so bright 
a pohsh, that a table which Mr. Lambert had 
of it in his drawing-room has been compared to 
a slab of brown agate. The trunk abounds in 
resin, and it produces in India a great quantity 
of fluid turpentine, which though it is of rather 
a coarse quality, is much used by the natives ; 
pitch and tar are also produced by charring 
the wood. The tree on the Himalayas grows 
above 150 feet high, with a trunk 30 feet or 
more in circumference, and it is said to live to 
a great age. It was only introduced into 
Britain in 1822, but there are numerous speci- 
mens of it in different parts of the kingdom, all 
of which appear quite hardy. 

CHAP, xii.] ABIETINE^. 219 


Araucaria imhricata^ the only hardy species, 
is a very singular tree. The trunk is quite 
straight, with a strong leading shoot, and whorls 
of branches of great length, and far apart from 
each other, covered closely with scale-like 
leaves. These large horizontal arms, clothed 
with closely imbricated leaves, resemble, in the 
young trees, snakes partly coiled round the 
trunk, and stretching out their long, slender, 
flexible bodies in quest of prey. The male 
and female flowers are on different trees. The 
male catkins are cone-shaped, the scales serving 
as filaments to the anthers produced at their 
base. The cone is round and very large, v.ith 
numerous wedge-shaped scales, and large eatable 
seeds or nuts, which have each a short, callous, 
marginal wing. The trunk is covered with a 
very thick corky bark ; the wood is white, finely 
grained, and durable. The trees when wounded 
yield a milky juice, which hardens into a fine 
yellow resin ; and the kernel of the nut, which 
is as large as an almond, is used by the Indians 
as an important article of food. The tree is a 
native of the Andes of Peru, and when first in- 
troduced it was called the Chilian Pine. It has 
now become quite common in this country, and 
the Earl of Harrington has planted an avenue 
with it at Elvaston Castle. 

220 CUPRESSINE^. [part i. 

There are several species, but the other kinds 
are too tender to bear British winters without 
protection. The Norfolk Island Pine (A. excelsa) 
is a splendid tree, with light feathery foliage ; 
as is the Moreton Bay Pine {A. Cunninghami). 


Most of the plants contained in this section 
are evergreen shrubs or low trees, but some of 
them attain a considerable size. Only one 
species, the deciduous Cypress, loses its leaves 
in winter. Many of the species are only half- 
hardy in Britain, and none of them are grown 
in this country for their timber. They all 
exude resin occasionally from their leaves and 
branches, but none of them produce turpentine. 
The catkins are but few flowered, and the cones 
are roundish. The leaves are frequently imbri- 
cated, at least when young ; though in many 
of tho species they vary considerably, even on 
the same tree. 


There are several species of this genus, but 
only two are common in British gardens. Of 
these the American Arbor Vitse ( Thuja occiden- 
talis) is the largest tree ; though it seldom 




grows above 80 feet high, and it is a great 
many years before it even attains that height. 

Fig. 99.— Youxg plant gf'the Arbor Vit.e. 

222 CUPRESSINE.^. [part i. 

The male flowers and the female flowers are dis- 
tinct, but on the same tree. The male catkins 
are small cones, with the pollen inclosed in four 
cases that are attached to the inside of the scale, 
near its base. The female catkins consist of 
six scales, with two ovules at the base of each ; 
and the ripe cone has a sharp point project- 
ing from each scale. The seeds have scarcely 
any wing ; and when they germinate, they have 
only two cotyledons. The young plants send 
down a very long tap root (see Jig. 99), and 
have some of their leaves imbricated and others 
loose. The Chinese Arbor Vitae ( T. orientalis) 
seldom reaches the height of 20 feet, but it may 
be also distinguished from the preceding species 
by its more dense habit of growth, by its 
branches being turned upwards instead of 
spreading horizontally, and by its leaves being 
smaller, closer together, and of a lighter green. 


Callitris is a genus separated from Thuja, 
of which only one species is as yet common in 
British shrubberies. This is the Gum Sanda- 
rach-tree, formerly called Thuja articulata^ but 
now named Callitris guadrivalvis. The branches 
of this tree are articulated, that is, they may 
be broken off at the joints without lacerating the 
bark. The leaves are very small, quite flat, 


and articulated like the branches. The male 
catkins form a cone, in which the scales are 
disposed in four rows, with three or four anthers 
at the base of each. The female catkins 
are solitary, and they divide, when ripe, into 
four woody valves or scales, only two of which 
bear seeds. The seeds are small, and have a 
wing on one side. The tree is a native of 
Morocco and Barbary, in which countries it 
produces the gum-sandarach, which exudes 
like tears from every part of the plant. The 
wood is fragrant, very finely grained, and ex- 
tremely durable, as is shown in the roof of the 
Cathedral of Cordova, built in the ninth cen- 
tury, which is of the wood of this tree. 


The evergreen cypress {Cupressus sempervirens) 
is a cone-like, tapering tree, with its branches 
growing close to its trunk, and rarely attaining 
the height of fifty feet even in its native country. 
The male catkins are longer than those of the 
arbor vitse, and the female ones contain more 
ovules. The cone is buckler-shaped, and it 
divides, when ripe, into eight or ten corky scales, 
each of which has four nuts attached ; the cone 
being partially divided into cells, which may 
be seen, when the scales have been removed 
to show the interior. The pollen of each male 

224 CUPRESSIXE.E. [part i. 

flower is contained in four cells, attached to the 
lower part of the inside of the scales. The 
wood is remarkably hard and fragrant, and it is 
of a fine close grain ; it is also very durable. 
It is supposed to have been the gopher-wood of 
Holy Writ, and the citron-wood of the ancient 
Roman.*, the beauty of which in tables was so 

The White Cedar (Cupressus thyoides) is a spe- 
cies of Cypress, having imbricated leaves, and 
the same kind of cone ; and the Cedar of Goa 
(C. lusitanica) is another species of Cupressus, 
which appears from the shape of its cones to be 
nearly allied to the Arbor vit». There are some 
other species, but they are not common in 
British gardens. 


The Deciduous Cypress {Taxodium distichum) 
has numerous leaves arranged in two even rows, 
one on each side the branch, which fall off in 
autumn, assuming a reddish tinge before they 
drop. This genus was separated from Cupressus, 
because the male catkins, instead of being pro- 
duced singly at the tips of the branches, are in 
clusters or panicles, and the anther-like scales, 
have the pollen in five cells. The cone, which 
is very small, has only two seeds to each scale, 
instead of four ; and the young plant has five 


or more cotyledons, while the Cypress has only 
two. The deciduous Cypress was placed in the 
genus Cupressus by Linnaeus, and afterwards it 
was called Schubertia disticha by Mirbel. The 
tree, which grows 120 feet high and upwards in 
America, with a trunk fortyfeet in circumference 
at the base, has generally, when of this size, the 
lower part of its trunk hollow, often to the 
height of five feet or six feet from the ground. 
The roots also send up conical protuberances 
two feet high, and four feet or five feet wide, 
which are always hollow. These curious knobs 
are called in America "cypress knees ;'^ and 
the negroes use them for bee-hives. The wood 
of the deciduous Cypress is used in building in 
Virginia. There is another species (T. semper- 
virens) which does not lose its leaves in v/inter, 
a native of California, but it has not yet been 


The species of this genus are extremely vari- 
able in their leaves, which differ exceedingly on 
the same plant, and in the size to which the 
plants attain ; as even the common Juniper, 
though generally a shrub not above three feet 
high, sometimes becomes a tree. In the com- 
mon Juniper {Juniperus communis) the leaves 
are narrow and pointed, and they are placed in 



[part I. 

whorls, three in each, round the branches. The 
male and female flowers are generally on different 
plants, but sometimes on the same. The male 
catkins are sometimes at the end of the shoots, 
but generally they spring from the axils of the 
leaves. The pollen cases vary from three to 
six, and they are attached to the back of each 
scale, which may be called the stamen (see a in 
Jig. 100). Tlie female catkin, when young, 

resembles a very 
small bud, and 
consists of three 
fleshy ovaries, 
almost hidden 
by the thick 
scales at their 
base. These 
ovaries grow 
together, and 
soon present 
the appearance 

Fig. 100.— JuNrpER (Juniperus communis). shown,but mag- 
nified, at c. As they ripen, they rise out of the 
scales and become the fleshy strobile, b; and 
finally the spongy berry shown of its natural size 
at d, containing three seeds or nuts, each of which 
is flat on one side, fl and angular on the other, e, 
with five glandular indentations at its base. 
The berries are first green, but they afterwards 


become of a dark purple, and are covered with 
a fine bloom. The Juniper berries are very- 
fragrant, and the glands in their stones contain 
a kind of oil. These berries when crushed are 
used in making gin and hollands. 

There are a great many species of Juniperus, 
but one of the most remarkable is the Red 
Cedar {J. virgiiiiana). This is a tree forty feet 
or forty-five feet high. The leaves, when young, 
are scale-like ; but when older they become loose 
and feathery, so that there are two kinds of leaves 
on the same tree. The male and female flowers 
are very small, and the berry is only two-seeded. 
The sap-wood of this tree is quite white, but 
the heart-wood is red, and it is used occasion- 
ally for making black-lead pencils, particularly 
those of the commoner kinds, though the Ber- 
muda Juniper is preferred for the superior ones. 
This last species {J. hermudiand) is rather 
tender in England, and it is seldom grown in 
this country. Its berries are of a dark red, and 
they are produced at the ends of the branches ; 
and the wood has so strong a fragrance that 
shavings of it are put in drawers to keep away 
moths. The Savin {J. SaMna), and several other 
species, have the old leaves scale-like, as well as 
those on the young wood. All the species have 
berry-like fruit, which is generally purple or dark 
red, and which varies principally in the number 

228 TAXIXE^. [part i. 

of stones or nuts that it contains. The fruit of 
all the Junipers is very slow in ripening, and in 
some of the species it remains two years on the 


The only needle-leaved tree in this section is the 
Yew, and this is the only one I shall describe ; 
as though the Salisburia and some of the New- 
Zealand resinous trees are included in it by 
modern botanists, the latter are at present very 
rare in this country; and the Salisburia, though it 
has been introduced more than a hundred years, 
and is frequently found in shrubberies, has not 
yet produced fruit in Britain. 


The common Yew {Taxus haccata) has the 

Fig- 101.— The Common Yew (Taxus haccata). 

male and female flowers on different plants. 


The catkins of the male flowers consist of a 
number of scales, out of which the anthers grow 
like a cluster of primroses, as shown, magnified, 
'va.fig. 101 at a. The female flowers somewhat 
resemble those of the Juniper ; the ovary being 
enveloped in scales (Z>), from which it gradually 
emerges as it swells (c), till at last, when ripe 
(c?), it opens at the top, and displays the ripe 
nut enveloped in a red juicy cup. The wood of 
the Yew is remarkably tough, and the growth 
of the plant is very slow. 

To these may be added the very singular 
plants comprised in the order Cycadacese, which 
are on the debatable ground between the exoge- 
nous and endogenous plants. They bear cones 
like the pines and firs, but in their leaves, and the 
manner in which they unroll them, they resemble 
the ferns, and in the outside of their stems the 
palms ; while from the wood being in concentric 
circles, they must be classed among the Exogens. 
It would be unsuitable to a work like this to enter 
into any of the discussions of botanists respecting 
these curious plants ; it may be sufficient here 
to say that they are considered to be trees, the 
central cylindrical part being called the trunk ; 
the soft pith in which, in some of the kinds of 
Cycas, is manufactured into a spurious sort of 
sago. The roughness on the stem arises from 
the remains of the footstalks of old leaves. The 

230 TAXINE^. [part i. 

leaves are pinnate, and unroll instead of unfold- 
ing. The flowers are male and female, both 
of which are produced in cones in Zamia ; and 
the male flowers in cones in Cycas, while the 
female ones appear on the margin, and in the 
notches of abortive leaves, which spring in a 
mass from the centre. 





All plants are b}^ this system first divided 
into the Vasculares and the Celkilares ; and to 
explain the difference between these two great 
divisions, it will be necessary to say a few 
words on the construction of plants, though 
this subject belongs properly to vegetable 
ph3'siology. All plants are composed of two 
kinds of matter: viz. Cellular Tissue, which 
may be compared to the flesh of animals ; and 
Vascular Tissue, which consists of spiral vessels 
and ducts, which may be compared to the 
nerves and veins. If any one will take the leaf 
of a hyacinth and break it by doubling it first 
on one side and then on the other, and will 
then draw the parts gently a little way asunder, 

232 INTRODUCTION. [part n. 

the spiral vessels will be seen distinctly with 
the naked eye ; as though very fine, they are 
sufficiently strong to sustain the weight of the 
lower part of the leaf for a short time. Now 
these vessels are much more conspicuous in 
some plants than in others ; and in some of the 
inferior plants, such as lichens and fungi, they 
are wanting altogether. Their presence or 
absence has therefore been chosen to mark the 
two great divisions of the Natural System ; 
the Vasculares being those plants which have 
both vascular and cellular tissue, and the Cellu- 
lares being those which have cellular tissue only. 
The Vasculares are much more numerous 
than the Cellulares ; and they are redivided into 
subclasses, which it also requires the aid of vege- 
table physiology to explain. All plants, when 
in a growing state, require the moisture taken 
up by their roots to be elaborated, and mixed 
with air in the leaves before it becomes sap ; 
that is, before it is fit to contribute to their 
nourishment. Now, when a seed begins to ger- 
minate, its root descends into the ground and 
its plumule, or ascending shoot, rises upwards ; 
but the leaves folded up in the latter are too 
weak and tender to elaborate the sap ; and 
besides, they cannot act till they are fully 
expanded, and they want nourishment to give 
them strength to unfold; the roots are also not 




sufficiently developed to absorb moisture. To 
supply the wants of the young plant while it 
remains in this feeble and imperfect state, a 
quantity of albumen is laid up in the seed; and it 
is evident that this substance must be extremely 
nourishing, as it forms, when ground, what we 
call flour. The young plant is thus provided 
with food, till its roots are sufficiently developed 
to obtain it from the soil ; and to enable it to 
elaborate this food and to turn it into sap, it is, 
in most cases furnished with one or more seed- 
leaves, or cotyledons, 
(see c in Jig. 102,) 
which drop off as soon 
as the true leaves are 
sufficiently advanced 
to be able to perform 
their proper functions. 
The cotyledons differ 
in number, form, and 
substance in the dif- 
ferent genera ; but in 
all plants, they are very 
different from the true 
leaves, being admirably contrived for answering 
the end for which they are designed ; and 
it having been found that the plants having 
two or more cotyledons differ widely in many 
other respects from those having only one coty- 


AND Wood of a Dicotyledonous 

234 INTRODUCTION. [part ii. 

ledon, the number of the cotyledons has been 
chosen as the distinguishing mark of the second 
great division of plants according to the Natural 

The Vascular plants are therefore again 
divided into the Dicotyledonous plants, which 
have two or more cotyledons ; and the Mono- 
cotyledonous plants, which have only one cotyle- 
don : and to these modern botanists add the 
Acotyledonous plants, which have no cotyledon, 
as some of them have spiral vessels, or at least 
ducts, though most of the Acotyledonous plants 
belong to the Cellulares. These divisions are not 
only marked by their cotyledons, but they are so 
distinct in other respects, that it is sufficient for 
a botanist to see a leaf, or even a bit of wood 
without leaves, of any plant, to know at first 
sight to which of these three divisions the plant 

If the leaf of a Dicotyledonous plant be 
examined, it will be found to have a strong 
vein up the centre, from which other veins 
proceed on each side (as shown at a 'mjig. 102); 
and if it be held up to the light, the rest of 
the leaf will be found to be intersected by 
numerous smaller veins, so as to appear like 
network, and hence these leaves are said to be 
reticulated. The trunk and branches of trees 
belonging to this division consist, when young, 


of pith, wood, and bark. At first the substance 
within the bark is Httle more than pith, but as 
the returning sap deposits every year a layer of 
wood just within the bark, which presses against 
the previous layers so as to contract them, they 
press in turn against the pith, which becomes 
smaller and smaller every year, till at last, in 
old trees, it is scarcely perceptible. The layers 
of wood are always perfectly distinct from each 
other, and they are called concentric rings (b) ; 
while faint lines, with which they are intersected, 
and which proceed like rays from the remains 
of the pith in the centre, are called medullary 
rays. A layer of wood being deposited every 
year, the age of the tree may be discovered by 
counting the concentric rings ; also if the tree 
has grown rapidly, the layers will be thicker 
than if it has grown slowly ; and if it has had 
one side more exposed to the sun than the other, 
the remains of the pith will be on one side 
instead of in the centre, and the layers will be 
thinner on that side than on the other. The new- 
est layer of wood, which is called the alburnum 
or sap-wood, is of a paler colour and more porous 
texture than the rest of the tree, and it is of less 
value as timber. It is from the manner in which 
the successive layers of wood are deposited that 
Dicotyledonous trees are called exogens, which 
signifies, to increase from the outside. 



[part ii. 

If the leaf of a ^lonocotyledonous plant be 
held up to the light, the principal veins will be 
found to form parallel lines of nearly equal 
thickness, the central one being very little, if any, 
larger than the others 
(see a in Jig. 108). 
The trees belonging to 
this division are all 
natives of the tropics, 
and their softest and 
newest wood is in the 
' centre, where fresh de- 
posits are made every 
year inside the old 
wood ; and hence, these 
trees are called endo- 
gens, which signifies, to 
increase from within. 
The wood of these trees 
has neither medullary rays nor concentric rings ; 
and a section of it appears pierced with nume- 
rous holes (Z>), as may be seen by cutting off a 
slice of bamboo. The germination of a Mono- 
cotyledonous plant, with the cotyledon remain- 
ing in the ground, is shown at c. 

The Dicotyledones and the Monocotyledones 
have all visible flowers, and are hence called 
Phanerogamse ; but the Acotyledones have no 
visible flow^ers, and they are hence called Cryp- 

FjG. 103. — MoXOCOTYLEDOXOtri 



toofarase, which signifies that their flowers are 
hidden. The most remarkable of the Crypto- 
gamous plants are the ferns, some of which 
become lofty trees ; the wood of which is in 
curious wavy lines, as it appears to be formed 
by the footstalks of the decayed leaves growing 
together and becoming woody. The veins in the 
leaves or fronds of the ferns are forked. 

Besides the great divisions already mentioned, 
the Dicotyledonous plants have been divided 
into the Dichlamydese, or those having both 
calyx and a corolla ; and the Monochlamydese, 
or those having only a calyx ; but there are so 
many exceptions, as to render this division of 
little value. The Monochlamydese are not sub- 
divided, but the Dichlamydese are again divided 
into the Thalamiflorse, in which the petals and 
the stamens grow separately out of the thalamus 
or flat part of the receptacle, and generally from 
below the pistil ; the Calyciflorse, in which the 
stamens and petals are either attached to the 
calyx, or to a lining of it formed by the dilated 
receptacle ; and the Corolliflorse, in which the 
petals grow together, so as to form a cup for the 
pistil, and which have the stamens attached to 
the corolla, but quite distinct from the calyx. 
The Monocotyledones have also been redivided 
into the Petaloid, or those with regular flowers, 

238 INTRODUCTION. [part ii. 

like the bulbous plants, and Orchidacese ; and 
the Glumaceous plants, or those with scales or 
glumes instead of petals, as in the sedges and the 
grasses. The Acotyledones are divided into those 
with leaves, as the ferns; and those without 
leaves, as the mosses, lichens, and fungi. 

I have only to add that each subclass is 
divided into numerous orders, which are dif- 
ferently arranged by different botanists; the 
object being to place those nearest together 
which are most alike. As no one of these 
arrangements appears to be decidedly better 
than the others, I have adopted that given in 
Mr. Loudon's Hortus Britannicus ; marking, 
where, they occur, the new orders which have 
been formed, and the alterations in the old 
ones that have been made since that work was 




Ix all the plants contained in this chapter 
the receptacle is a fleshy substance called the 
thalamus, or disk, which is surrounded by the 
calyx, and out of which the carpels or seed- 
vessels, the stamens, and the petals, all grow 
separately from each other. Sixty-five orders 
are included in this division, but I shall only 
describe those which contain plants which have 
been introduced into Britain, except where the 
orders chance to contain plants well known 
in commerce. 


The plants belonging to this order are known 
by their numerous stamens, the anthers of which 
burst outwardly; by their carpels growing close 
together without adhering, except in one or 
two instances; and by the stem-clasping petioles 
of their leaves, which are generally deeply cut. 
The flowers when regular have five petals and 
five sepals, but they differ widely in shape, and 
the calyx of several of them is coloured so 
as to resemble a corolla. The seeds are fre- 

240 RAXUNCULACE^. [part ii. 

quently cariopsides ; and the plants abound in 
a watery juice which is acrid, and in most cases 


This order resembles Ranunculacese in having 
five petals, five sepals, and numerous stamens ; 
but the anthers burst inwardly instead of out- 
wardly, and there are never more than five 
carpels, and seldom more than two, which often 
grow into a berry-like fruit, as in the genus 
Dillenia from which the order takes its name. 
One species of this genus is occasionally seen in 
English hothouses, Dillenia speciosa. It has 
yellow flowers with the five petals apart at the 
base, and the sepals edged with white. The 
fruit consists of five carpels growing together 
with a sort of crown formed by the spreading 
stigmas. Another genus, some of the species of 
which are found in British greenhouses, is 
Hihhertia. The species are generally climbing 
plants, with flowers like those of Dillenia, but 
smaller, though H. dentata has the petals close 
together. The difference between the genera 
consists principally in the carpels, which in 
Hibbertia are distinct with long fihform styles 
curving inwards. All the plants contained in 
this order are evergreen exotic shrubs and trees 
with simple alternate leaves, and, with only two 
or three exceptions, the flowers are yellow. 



This order was divided by De CandoUe into 
two tribes: viz. Jlliciece, the Aniseed tribe; 
and Magnolieoi, the Magnolia tribe. The first, 
which is now made a distinct order, under the 
name of Winteracese, contains three genera, 
only one of which, Illicium, is common in this 
country. The only hardy species of this genus, 
/. floridanum^ the Florida Aniseed tree, has 
very dark purple flowers, which appear to be 
double from the great number of the petals, 
which are from twenty to thirty. The carpels 
are also numerous, and arranged so as to form 
a star. All the plants in this tribe are highly 
aromatic, and one species, Drimys Winteri^ which 
has white fragrant flowers, produces an aromatic 
bark that is used in medicine. 

The tribe Magnolieae is distinguished by the 
fruit consisting of a number of carpels arranged 
so as to form a cone. There are six genera in 
this order, the most remarkable of which are 

Magnolia, Liriodendron, Talauma, and Michelia, 
the last genus consisting of stove trees, with 

very fragrant flowers, which are generally of a 

pale yellow, and only one species of which, M. 

Champaca^ has been introduced. 

Of these genera Magnolia is undoubtedly 

the best known ; as nearly all the species are 



[part II. 

common in British gardens. This genus is 
divided into two sections, one containing the Ame- 
rican Magnolias, and the other those from Asia, 
which are principally from China and Japan. 

The latter may be illustrated by Magnolia 
conspicua^ sometimes called M, Yidan, The 
flower-buds are inclosed in a brown hairy case 
formed of two short bracts which become loose at 
the base, and are pushed off by the expanding 
flower. The flower itself (see Jic/. 104) is cup- 



CHAP. I.] 

shaped, and it is divided into six white 
petals. The calyx consists of 
three sepals, which fall off soon 
after the petals expand. In the 
centre of the flower is the recep- 
tacle, drawn up into a fleshy cone, 
with a great number of carpels 
attached to it, each of which 
has one cell containing two ovules, 
and a curved stigma. Around 
this cone grow the stamens, 
with very long anthers standing 
up like palisades, and very 
short thick filaments. The fruit 
is oval, with the ovaries somewhat 
distant from each other. The 
flowers appear before the leaves. 
The other Asiatic species are 
M. gracilis or Kobus, M. discolor, 
ohovata^ or purpurea^ and M. 
fuscata ; the former two forming 
handsome shrubs in the open 
ground, and having cup-shaped 
flowers which are white within and 
purplish on the outside, and the 
latter being a greenhouse plant, 
wuth brown very fragrant flowers. 

The American species of Mag-FiG.ios.-THE ] 
noha differ in having their flower- ""^^^'J^ ™;^ 

R 2 






[part ii. 

together; and, when 

buds enveloped in one long spathe-like bract, 
as shown in Jig. 105. The ovaries grow close 
ripe, the carpels, which 
look like the scales of a 
fir-cone (see fig. 106), 
burst by a slit down the 
back; and the seeds, 
which are covered with a 
red juicy pulp, burst out, 
and hang down by a long 
white thread, which in 
the course of a few days 
withers away. The princi- 
pal species of American 
Magnolias are the ever- 
green Magnolia, or Big 
Laurel {M. grandifiora) ; 
the Umbrella Tree (M. 
tripetala)^ which grows 
like a shrub with several stems rising from the 
ground ; the Cucumber-tree (M. acuminata)^ the 
flowers of which are bluish and the leaves pointed ; 
Beaver wood (M. glauca), the flowers of which 
are small, and the leaves covered with a glaucous 
bloom ; M. auriculata, M. pyramidata and M. 
inacrophylla^ which are nearly allied to the Cu- 
cumber-tree ; and M. cordata, the flowers of which 
are yellowish. All these Magnohas produce their 
leaves before their flowers ; and in this also they 

Fig. 106. — Thk ripe fruit axd 

seeds of the evergreen 


CHAP. I.] ANONACE^. 245 

differ from M. conspiciia, the flowers of which 
appear before the leaves. 

The genus Liriodendron contains only two 
species differing slightly in the leaves. Both 
are lofty trees, with cup-shaped flowers of 
six petals curiously stained with red and yellow, 
and bent back at the tip. The calyx consists 
of three sepals, which remain on as long as the 
petals. The fruit is cone-shaped, but the 
carpels, which are each furnished with a kind of 
wing, instead of opening when ripe, fall with 
the seed enclosed. 

The genus Talauma differs from Magnolia 
principally in the carpels, which open irregularly 
by valves ; and in the number of petals, which 
vary from six to twelve. Only two species are 
common in British hothouses, T. Candolli, com- 
monly called Magnolia odoratissima ; and T, 
pumila^ sometimes called M. pumila and some- 
times Liriodendron lilifera : both are natives 
of Java, and both have cream-coloured, or 
yeUowish flowers, which are remarkably fragrant 
at night. 


The hardy plants belonging to this order, that 
are well known in Britain, were formerly in- 
cluded in the genus Anona ; but now the only 

240 MENISPERMACE^. [part ii. 

species retained in that genus are stove plants, 
natives of the West Indies, with yellowish 
brown or dark purple flowers, the calyx of 
which is in three sepals, and the corolla in three 
or six thick fleshy petals, and which have nume- 
rous stamens with large angular anthers, and 
very short filaments. The carpels are numerous, 
but they grow altogether into a fleshy eatable 
fruit, divided into many cells, each containing 
one seed. This fruit is called the custard apple 
or sour sop in the West Indies ; and it difffers 
in flavour in the different species, but the most 
delicious kind is produced by A. Cherimolia, a 
native of Peru. The hardy species included in 
Anona by Linnaeus have been separated from 
that genus, and formed into another under the 
name of Asimina^ the principal distinction be- 
tween them being in the fruit ; which in the 
genus Asimina consists of two or three berry-like 
carpels growing together, not eatable, and each 
containing many seeds. A. triloba^ the hardiest 
species, is a large shrub, with dark brownish purple 
flowers. The plants in this order are all aromatic. 


All the plants contained in this order are 
climbling exotic shrubs, generally with drooping 
racemes of small delicate flowers, the male and 


female flowers being on different plants. The 
number of sepals and petals varies in the dif- 
ferent genera, and sometimes the ' petals are 
wanting. The stamens frequently grow together 
into a central column ; and the fruit is a drupe 
or one-seeded berry, generally scarlet, but 
sometimes black. The principal plants in this 
order which are known in England, are, Mejii- 
spermum canadensis (the Canadian Moon Seed), 
a very ornamental hardy, climbing, shrub ; 
Cocculus pahnatus, the root of which is a tonic 
drug, called Columba root ; Anamirta Cocculus^ 
which produces the berries called Cocculus 
indicus in the shops, which are said to be used 
in porter to give it an intoxicating property ; 
Schizandra coccinea, a greenhouse climber with 
scarlet flowers ; and Kadsura japonica, a climb- 
ing shrub with white flowers and red berries, 
which proves quite hardy in the open air. Kad- 
sura, Schizandra, and three other genera, little 
known in this country, have been formed into 
a new order under the name of Schizandriacese. 
The qualities of all these plants are tonic. 


Each flower of the common 'Berherry (Berberis 

vulgaris) has on the outside three little bracteal 

scales, which are reddish on the back, and soon 

248 BERBERIDEjE. [part ii. 

fall off. The flower itself consists of a corolla 
of six petals, and a calyx of six sepals, though 
as these divisions are all of the same size and 
shape, and of the same colour and texture, it is 
not very easy to distinguish the calyx from the 
corolla. The petals will however be found on 

Fig. 107.— Details of the flower and fruit of the commoh 
Berberry, partly magnified. 

examination to have each two little glands at 
the base, as shown at a in Jig. 107, which the 
sepals are without. The sepals are placed ex- 
actly behind the petals, so that the one appears 
a lining of the other ; and, being concave, the 


petals serve as a kind of cradle to the stamens, 
as shown at b. There are six stamens, which 
have broad filaments ; and instead of anthers 
the filaments are widened at the tip, and each 
contains two cases for the pollen (c) ; these cases 
are each furnished with a valve-like lid (cZ), which 
opens and curls back when the pollen is ripe. 
The pistil (e) is pitcher-shaped, with a very 
thick style, and a flat stigma. It stands erect, 
while the stamens are spread out so as to be a 
long way from it, but they are so irritable that 
the shghtest touch makes them spring forward 
and discharge their pollen on the stigma, after- 
wards falling back into their former places. 
The flowers are yellow, and they are produced 
in long drooping racemes ; and they are suc- 
ceeded by red oblong berries (y), each of which 
contains two seeds (y). The receptacle, with 
the stamens growing out of it from beneath the 
pistil, is shown at i. The common Berberries 
are all deciduous shrubs, with simple leaves, 
which are produced in tufts, as shown in fig, 
108, each leaf being dehcately fringed with hair- 
like teeth. Each tuft of leaves has two or 
three sharply-pointed stipules, which are easily 
distinguished from the leaves, by their margins 
being without teeth ; and below these are three 
spines, which, when young, are soft and look 
like folded leaves, but which, when older, be- 



come hard, and sharply pointed. These spines 
are considered by some botanists to be abortive 
branches. There are many different kinds of 



Berberry, which differ principally in the size of 
the flowers and in the colour of the fruit ; but 
which also vary in the size and shape of the 
leaves, and in the manner in which they are 

The Ash-leaved Berberries were formed into 
a separate genus called Mahonia by Nuttall ; 
and this genus has been adopted by Professor 
de Candolle, and other botanists. Dr. Lindley, 
however, includes all the species in the genus 
Berberis, and he has been followed by Mr. 
George Don in his new edition of Sweet's 
Hortus Britannicus. Whether the genus Ma- 
honia be a good one or not, the plants com- 
posing it are very distinct from the true 
Berberries. The leaves of the Mahonias are 
evergreen, and pinnate ; and the leaflets instead 
of being fringed with fine hairs, are broadly 
serrated, the points being tipped by a sharp 
prickle or mucro (see a in Jig. 109) ; and the 
petiole is articulated, and somewhat stem- 
clasping at the base {h). The flowers are in 
erect racemes, and smaller than those of the 
Berberry ; they are also more globular, being 
less widely opened, and the petals are without 
any glands. The filaments of the stamens have 
two hair-like teeth just below the lobes of the 
anthers ; and the fruit has from three to nine 
seeds in each berry ; while the Berberries have 

252 BERBERlDEiE. [part ii. 

only one or two. There are many kinds of 
Magnolia, but the handsomest is M. Aquifolium^ 



a hardy shrub, with dark green shining leaves, 
like the holly. All the species both of Berberis 


and Mahonia have yellow flowers ; and the 
Mahonias all flower very abundantly, and very 
early in spring. 

The principal other plants belonging to this 
order are, Nandina domestica, a very pretty 
shrub with white flowers, from China, which 
requires a greenhouse in England ; several 
species of Epimedium, some of which are from 
Japan, with purple and white flowers ; a few 
species of Leontice, pretty plants with yellow 
flowers ; and a plant called Diphylleia cymosa^ 
with white flowers and blue berries, a native of 
North America. All these plants are easily re- 
cognised by their broad stamens, and the curl- 
ing back of the valves of their anthers. 


This order contains only two genera; viz., 
Podophyllum and Jeffersonia ; both of which have 
a calyx of three or four sepals, and a white corolla 
of from six to nine petals. Podophyllum has 
numerous stamens, and a fleshy berry with only 
one cell, which does not open when ripe ; and 
Jeffersonia has eight or nine stamens, and a 
capsule which opens all round the apex. Podo- 
phyllum peltatum is the May-apple, and its fruit 
is eatable when ripe, though very acid; the 

254 HYDROPELTIDEtE.— NYMPH^ACE^. [part h. 

leaves are very large, and peltate, that is, with 
the footstalk attached to the centre ; and 
Jeffersonia diphylla is a little plant, without any- 
stern but that which supports the flower. Both 
are natives of America, where they are found 
in moist shady places. 

This order, which many botanists combine 
w^ith the preceding one, also consists of only 
two genera ; viz., Cabomba and Hydropeltis ; 
and of these Cabomba aquatica is a stove aquatic, 
and Hydropeltis purpurea is a hardy water plant, 
with peltate leaves, and dull purple flowers. 


The principal genera in this order are 
Nymphaea, Euryale, Victoria, Nuphar, and 
Nelumbium. The flowers of the common White 
Water-lily {Nymphcea alba) consist of nume- 
rous sepals, petals, and stamens, all of which 
might be mistaken for petals, being principally 
distinguished by their colour. The sepals, (a 
Viijig. 110,) are green on the outside, but they 
are white within, and of the same fleshy sub- 
stance as the petals {h). The stamens (c) look 
like narrow yellow petals; they are pointed, 

CHAP. I.] 



and bear the pollen in two lobes near the point, 
which open longitudinally when ripe. The 
inner row of stamens are without anthers, and 
form a kind of vandyke edging to the pistil, as 
shown at e. The pistil consists generally of six- 
teen carpels, growing together into a vase-like, 
many-celled berry, as shown at d; the spread- 
ing stigmas, which have also grown together, 
lid. The carpels are com- 

forming a kind of 

Fig. 110. — Thk flower, leaf, and seed-vessel of the White 
Water-lily, greatly reduced in size. 

pletely enclosed by the receptacle which rises 
up round them, and forms a thick fleshy cover- 
ing, as shown at f. The seeds are numerous, 
and they are covered with a thick leathery 
skin. The embryo is small, and it is surrounded 
by a great mass of floury albumen. The 

256 NYMPH^ACEiE. [part ii. 

leaves {g) are large and nearly round ; and the 
main root, which is called a rhizoma, is thick 
and fleshy, and is, indeed, an under-ground 
stem. There are several kinds of Nymphsea, 
the most remarkable of which is the Egyptian 
Lotos {N. Lotos) ^ the flowers of which are white 
tinged with pink ; and both the roots and seeds 
of which are eaten. Euryale is a genus of 
South American Water-lilies, generally with 
small flowers, and large rough leaves ; and 
Victoria regina^ also a native of South America, 
is perhaps the most magnificent Water-lily in 
the world ; the leaf, which is peltate and turned 
up at the brim, being of a deep crimson on its 
lower surface, is upwards of six feet in diameter; 
and the flowers are more than a foot in dia- 
meter, with a corolla of more than a hundred 
large white petals tinged with pink. 

The genus Nuphar consists of only three or 
four species, the most common of which is N. 
lutea^ the common yellow Water-lily, a native of 
Britain. The flower has a cup-shaped calyx 
of five large yellow sepals, the tips of which 
curve inwards. The petals are small, truncate, 
and flat, with a small pore on the back of each ; 
and the stamens, which are very numerous, have 
broad petal-like filaments. They differ, how- 
ever, very much in appearance from those of 
the genus Nymphaea, and they are differently 


placed, springing from the base of the vase-like 
pistil, and not from the upper part. There are from 
sixteen to twenty carpels enclosed in the dilated 
receptacle, to which the stigmas form a ray- 
hke cover ; and each carpel contains several 
seeds. The leaves are somewhat cordate, and 
rise rather above the surface of the water, and 
the rhizoma, or root-stem, is very thick. The 
common yellow Water-lily, or Brandy-bottle, 
as it is sometimes called from the smell of its 
flowers, is common in every part of England, 
and it is generally found in small ponds or 
ditches. The other species are mostly natives 
of North America. 

The Indian Lotos (Nelumbium speciosum) 
differs so much from both the preceding genera, 
as to be considered by some botanists to form 
a different natural order. The sepals and petals 
are so intermingled in the flower as to be 
scarcely distinguishable ; but the filaments of 
the stamens are less broad and petal-like. The 
disk is still elevated, but it has lost the vase-like 
form, and it appears as though the top had been 
abruptly cut off ; while the carpels are no longer 
joined together, but are plunged each separately 
in the fleshy receptacle, or torus, with their 
stigmas quite distinct. As the carpels are only 
half immersed in the torus, and thus show their 
styles and stigmas, they have a very singular 

258 NYMPH^ACE^. [part ii. 

and bottle-like appearance ; and the torus, 
when they are taken out of it, looks like a 
piece of honey-comb. The rhizoma is white 
and fleshy. The stalks of the flowers and leaves 
rise considerably above the water; and thus 
the flowers have not the graceful appearance of 
those of the Nymphsea, which seem to repose 
on the surface. The leaf is very large, being 
sometimes one or two feet in diameter ; and it 
is always peltate, with the stalk exactly in 
the centre. There is only one seed in each 
carpel of the Nelumbium ; and this seed, which 
has no thick leathery skin, is of about the size 
and shape of an acorn. It is very good to eat, 
having a sweet milky flavour, and in botanical 
construction it resembles the common bean, 
having no albumen, but a very large embryo. 
This is probably the reason why it has been 
supposed to be the bean of Pythagoras, and why 
it is called the Sacred Bean of India. One of 
the Hindoo fables represents the god Bramah 
as first appearing in the form of a child, cradled 
on a Lotos leaf, and floating on the waste of 

There are several kinds of Nelumbium, one 
of which, a native of America, has double 
3^ellow flowers ; and they all require a stove in 



There is only one genus in this order, which 
can never be mistaken for any other, from the 
pitcher-shaped petioles of its leaves, and its sin- 
gular flowers. It is a native of Canada, but it 
rarely flowers without a stove in England. It 
is a dwarf plant, and it is thus easily distin- 
guished from the Chinese Pitcher plant, which 
grows eight or ten feet high, and which belongs 
to quite a different order. 


This tribe contains several genera, all of which 
have a thick glutinous juice when broken, 
which poisons by stupifying. The genera most 
common in British gardens are Papaver, 
the Poppy ; Argemone, the Prickly Poppy ; 
Meconopsis, the Welsh Poppy ; Sanguinaria, 
Blood-root; Eschscholtzia ; Hunnemania; Roe- 
meria; Glaucium, Horned Poppy; Chelidonium, 
Greater Celandine or Swallow- wort ; Hypecoum ; 
Platystemon, and Platystigma. Most of these 
plants are either annual, or last only two or 
three years, and they have all very handsome 
flowers, w^hich are generally large and of showy 



[part XI. 

The common Corn Poppy (Papaver Rhceas) 
has a showy flower, the corolla of which consists of 

four very large 

scarlet petals, 
the outer two 
much exceedino: 
the others in 
size (see a in^^. 
111). The ca- 
lyx is green, 
and it is divided 
into only two 
sepals, (see ^,) 
which ftill off 
soon after the 
expansion of the 
flower. The pe- 
tals are all curi- 
ously crumpled 
in the bud, and 
they present 
quite a wrin- 
kled appearance 

FiQ. Ill, — Flower, LEAF, AND SEED-VESSEL ov when the flowers 


are nrst opened. 
The stamens are very numerous, and the anthers, 
which are black, are of the kind called innate ; 
that is, the filament is only attached to them at 
the lower part (c). The seed-vessel of the Corn 


Poppy is, when ripe, a dry leathery capsule (d) 
with numerous angles, each angle indicating a 
carpel ; for tlie capsule of the Poppy, though 
one-celled when ripe, consists, in fact, of a 
number of carpels grown together. The re- 
mains of these imperfect carpels are perceptible 
in the little valves shown at f, which open at the 
top of each to discharge the seed when it is ripe; 
and in the slightly- peaked cover (e), which con- 
sists of as many stigmas grown together as there 
appear to have been carpels. When the capsule is 
cut open (as shown in the capsule at c/, from 
which the fourth part has been removed), re- 
mains of the carpels will be found in several pro- 
jections from the sides, which partially divide 
the inside of the capsule into several imperfect 
cells, in which the young seeds are formed ; 
though none of these portions reach the centre. 
The ovules, when first formed in the ovary, are 
attached to these projections, which are called 
parietal placentse ; but as the seeds ripen they 
become loose, and if a dry Poppy-head be 
shaken, they will be found to rattle. The leaves 
of the Corn Poppy are what is called pinnatifid, 
(see h in Ji(/. Ill,) that is, they are so deeply 
cut as to appear almost in separate leaflets ; 
and the whole plant (except the petals and the 
capsule) is covered with short bristly hairs (i), 
which stand out horizontally. 



[part ii. 

The Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum) 
differs from the Corn Poppy in several respects. 
First, the whole plant is glabrous, that is, devoid 
of either hairs or bristles ; the capsule also is 
much larger and more fleshy in an unripe state, 
and the crown-like lid is smoother, and curved 
over like a plume of feathers, (see a in Jir/, 112.) 

Fig. 112. — The flower, bud, lkaves, and capsulk of the Opium 
Poppy, much smaller than the natural size. 

The fleshiness of the unripe seed-vessel of the 
Poppy puzzled me extremely at first, as I knew 
that the ripe capsule of this Poppy is always 
dry and leathery ; but it was soon explained to 
me, that this fleshy substance is, in fact, an 
elongation of the receptacle or disk, which rises 
up round the carpels, and envelops them, in 
the same way as the disk of the Water-lily 
grows round the pistil and carpels of that plant, 


but which dries up as the fruit ripens. The 
leaves of the Opium Poppy {b) differ from those 
of the Corn Poppy, in being much broader, and 
only slightly cut or notched; they are also 
glaucous, that is, of a bluish or sea-green, and 
they are clasped round the stem at their base 
(as shown at c). All the Papaveracese abound 
in a thick glutinous juice, which in the Poppies 
has the colour and appearance of milk, and 
which possesses stupifying properties ; but in the 
Opium Poppy this juice is particularly abundant. 
Opium is, in fact, procured by wounding the 
fleshy capsule with a sharp knife, and suffering 
the milky juice which exudes to dry in the sun ; 
after which it is scraped off with a blunt instru- 
ment, and pressed into cakes for sale. The 
opium of commerce is produced in hot countries ; 
but even in England, any one who chooses may 
procure a small quantity of opium, by wounding 
the fleshy capsule of the common White Poppy 
when it is about half ripe. A milky juice will 
issue from the wound, which when dry becomes 
opium, and would be poisonous if taken in 
excess. The capsule of the White or Opium 
Poppy has, when ripe, a little window-like open- 
ing under each stigma for the discharge of 
the seeds, which contain abundance of oil, and 
may be safely eaten, though the rest of the 
plant is poisonous. 

264 PAPAVERACEiE. [part ii. 

There are many different kinds of Poppy ; but 
they all agree in the corolla of their flowers 
being in four petals, or in some number divisible 
by four; and in the calyx, which is generally in 
two sepals, dropping off as soon as the flowers 
expand. All the species abound in a milky 
juice, which poisons by stupifying ; and they all 
agree in the general construction of the capsule, 
with its fleshy envelop and its stigma-formed 
lid. The petals are always crumpled in the bud, 
and they fall very soon, so that the beauty of the 
flowers is very short-lived. The flower-buds 
droop ; but when the flowers expand, the stalk 
becomes erect, and remains so while the capsule 
containing the seeds is ripening ; a wise pro- 
vision, common to many plants, to prevent the 
seeds from failing too soon. The calyx of most 
of the Poppies is in only two sepals; but in the 
two showy perennial species, called P. orientale 
and P. hracteatum^ the calyx is in three sepals. 

Among the other plants belonging to the 
order Papaveracese, may be mentioned the 
Horned Poppy {Glaucium luieum), which, 
instead of an obovate capsule, has a long horn- 
like pod, divided into two cells, the valves 
opening from the top to the bottom. The 
whole plant is glaucous ; and the leaves, which 
are broad and notched, clasp the stem at their 
base, like those of the Opium Poppy. The 


Prickly Poppy (Argemone mexicana) has the 
whole pla,nt covered with strong prickles ; the 
leaves are wrinkled and curved up at the mar- 
gin; the calyx has three sepals; and the cap- 
sules are in four or five valves, the stigmas 
forming a kind of cross at the top. The stem 
and leaves when bruised give out a thick glu- 
tinous juice, which, instead of being white like 
that of the Poppy, is yellow. 

The Eschscholtzia is tlie last genus of the 
order Papaveraceae that I shall mention here, 
and it deserves a particular description, both 
from its popularity and the beauty of its 
flowers, and from the singularity of its botanical 
construction. The bud when it first appears is 
enfolded in a calyx, which is pointed at its 
upper extremity, and appears to have a kind of 
rim near its base. When the flower is ready to 
expand, the calyx detaches itself all round 
from the projecting rim, and rises gradually 
without opening, till the flower actually pushes 
it off". The detached calyx resembles an ex- 
tinguisher, and hence it is called calyptrate, 
which has that signification. The flower is 
cup-shaped ; there are four petals and four 
stigmas, two of which are much longer than the 
others. The capsules are elongated like those 
of the Horned Poppy, but they are distinguished 
by the projection of the flat fleshy disk at their 

266 FUMARIACEiE.—CRUCIFER^. [part ii. 

base ; they are two-valved and two-celled. 
The leaves are glaucous, and finely cut. There 
are three species, or perhaps varieties, which 
differ principally in the degree of enlargement 
of the receptacle or disk. They have all large 
fleshy roots, which bleed copiously if wounded, 
and for this reason the plants are difficult to 
remove unless when quite young. 

The flowers of plants of this order are so 
peculiar in their shape, as when once seen to be 
easily remembered. There are two small 
sepals, which soon fiill off*, and four petals of an 
irregular shape, two of them being drawn out 
into a kind of spur. There are six stamens, and 
the fruit is silique-formed. The plants have 
somewhat of a smoky smell, and when broken 
yield a watery juice. The principal genera are 
Fumaria, Corydalis, and Diclytra. 


The Cruciferous plants form so natural an 
order, that when one of them has been de- 
scribed the others may be easily recognised. 
They have all a separate calyx and corolla, each 



Fro. 113. — The flower and --"■ © 


in four divisions ; the four sepals being placed 
alternately with the four 
^1<C^ ^£XX yi^^) petals, the latter form- 
^il y^^ ^~^^''^f1r^ ing a cross (as shown at 
a in Ji^. 11 3) J whence 
the name of Cruciferous, 
which signifies cross- 
bearins:. Tfiere are six 
(Z>), two of 
ciFiiR-E. which are much shorter 

than the others ; and two carpels with one 
style, and a capitate or divided stigma. The 
seed-vessel is a kind of pod, either short and 
broad, hkethat of the Shepherd's Purse (/^.l 14), 
where it is called a sillicle ; or long and narrow, 
like that of the Cabbage, which is 
called a silique. The two valves of 
the silique open naturally when ripe, 
from the bottom curving upwards, 
(seeji^. 115,) and the seeds are de- 
posited on a thin membrane between 
the cells, which is tlie dissepiment. 
Cruciferse, from abounding in nitrogen, have an 
unpleasant smell when decaying, like putrid 
flesh ; and when cultivated, they even in a wild 
state require abundance of animal manure ; 
hence, they are generally found near human 
habitations, or where cattle are kept. When 
wild, they have generally acrid properties ; and 

Fia. 114.— A 

All the 

Fio. 115. 

268 CRUCIFER^. [part ii. 

though these are in most cases softened by 
cultivation, yet they are still perceptible in the 
roots of the Horse-Radish, and 
the common Radish, and in the 
leaves and seeds of Mustard, 
and the different kinds of Cress, 
&c. This acridity, however, is 
never so great as to be injurious ; 
and Cruciferous plants, par- 
ticularly if their texture be suc- 
culent and watery, may always 
^iLiQUE. ^^ eaten with perfect safety. 
Even those which, in a wild state, are 
tough and stringy, such as the wild Cabbage 
and the root of the wild Turnip, become excel- 
lent by cultivation ; and all Cruciferous plants 
are so extremely nourishing as to be considered 
next in this quality to animal food. 

Among the many garden flowers which 
belong to this order, few are more popular 
than the common Wallflower. (Cheiranthus 
Cheiri.) Its hardiness, and the facility with 
which it is raised and cultivated — the gaiety of 
its flowers, their profusion, and their delightful 
fragrance, combine to make it a general favourite; 
and I think I cannot take a flower to illustrate 
the order which is more generally known and 
liked. The flowers of the Waflflower (see 
Ji^. 116, a) consist of four petals, each of which 

CHAP. I.] 



is furnished with a long tapering point, called 
the claw (b), and a broad flat part called the 
limb (c). The claws of the petals are buried in 

Fig. 116. — Flowers of the Wallflower. 

a calyx of four sepals, placed alternately to the 
petals, and somewhat swelled out at the base, 
(see d). The stigma (e) is two-lobed, and forma 
a kind of notched head. There are six stamens, 
which appear at first to be all nearly of the same 
height, but on examination it will be found that 
two are somewhat shorter than the others. The 
seed-vessel is of course the lower part of the 
pistil; which, after the petals drop, becomes 



[part II. 

elongated into a somewhat cylindrical silique, 
which contains several flattish seeds. 

The Brompton Stock {Mathiola incana)^ and 
the Ten-week Stock {M. amma)^ differ from the 

Wallflower prin- 
cipally in the 
shape of the 
stigma (see Jig. 
117, a). The 
petals have also 
rather longer 
claws, and hang 

F,G. 1 17.-FLOWER OF THE BrOMPTON StOCK. J^^g^^^ ^g ^^^QW^^ 

at h. The Virginian Stock {Malcomia mari- 
tima) has a roundish silique, and only one 
stigma, which ends in a long tapering point. 
The Candytuft {Iberis umbellata) has a short 
pod or silHcle, which has the appearance of 
being cut off at the point, and which contains 
only one seed in each cell ; and the outer two 
petals of the flower are somewhat larger than 
the inner ones. Many other Cruciferous plants 
might be described, but I think my readers will 
have pleasure in seeking them out themselves, 
and examining them, to discover their points of 
agreement and of difference ; particularly as, 
though the order is such a very large one, the 
flowers of all the plants are so much alike, that 
no one can be in doubt respecting their alliance. 

cHiP. I.] RESEDACEiE. 271 


The common Mignonette {Reseda odorata) 
was once included in the order Capparidese ; 
but it is now made into a little order by itself, 
called Resedacese, The flower, as is well 
known, is by no means remarkable for its beauty, 
though it is for its fragrance ; but when exa- 
mined botanically, it will be found well deserv- 
ing of attention, from the singularity of its con- 
struction. It has a green calyx of six sepals, 
which are onty remarkable for being what bota- 
nists call linear ; that i^, long and narrow, and 
of equal width throughout — a very unusual form 
for sepals. Within the calyx are the petals, 
six fleshy, green, heart-shaped bodies ; with a 
hair-like fringe round the lower part, and with 
the upper part cut into a tuft of segments so 
different in colour and texture from the lower 
part, that it is scarcely possible to believe that 
they are one. This upper part of the petal is 
called the crest, and it is pure white ; the seg- 
ments into which it is divided appearing to be a 
great number of delicate little petals growing 
out of a fleshy heart-shaped disk. 

It is worth gathering a flower of Migno- 
nette, and taking off one of the petals to look 
at it in a microscope ; and one of moderate 

272 RESEDACE^. [part ii. 

size, which may be bought for 125. at the 
Bazaars, will be quite sufficient for the purpose. 
It will then be found that the fleshy part of the 
petal is as easily detached from the rest of the 
flower as petals usually are, but that it is so 
firmly fixed to the crest as to be inseparable 
without cutting. The disk is, however, dilated 
and curiously drawn out between the stamens 
which are inserted in its base, and the petals, 
as though to form a barrier between them. It 
will be quite visible when the petals are removed, 
as it is as firmly attached to the stalk of the 
flower as the petals are to their crests. Be- 
tween this elevated part of the disk and the 
calyx is a green substance which looks like a 
part of the stalk, but which belongs to the disk. 
There are twelve stamens, with large orange- 
coloured anthers, which are at first erect, but 
afterwards bend forward horizontally ; and in 
the middle of the stamens is the ovary, an 
oblong hollow cell, with a three-lobed stigma, 
forming three erect points. Inside the ovary 
from each stigma runs the kind of nerve called 
the placenta, and to each nerve are attached 
three row^s of seeds. The substance of the 
ovary is always soft and leaf-like, even when it 
becomes a ripe capsule ; and though it is greatly 
swelled out and bladdery, it retains the same 
leaf-like and somewhat wrinkled appearance to 


the AVhen the capsule is ripe, each of 
the pointed lobes, which formed its upper ex- 
tremity, opens down the middle, thus forming a 
curious three-cornered mouth for the discharge 
of the seed. The flowers form what is called an 
upright raceme, springing from a succulent 
main stem, which is, however, somewhat woody 
at the base. The plant indeed, though treated 
in England as an annual, is a shrub in the 
plains of Barbary, of wjiich it is a native ; and 
even in this country it may be made to assume 
the character of a small tree, by keeping it 
during winter in a hot-house or green-house. I 
was very much surprised to find that Migno- 
nette has been introduced barely a century ; 
and it seems difficult to imagine how those of 
our ancestors who were fond of flower-gar- 
dens contrived to do without it. I have only 
to add that there are several species of Reseda, 
one of which (R. luteola) is a British plant used 
in dyeing, and is called Dyer's Weed, or Weld. 


There is only one genus of tlu^ee species, 
which are coarse hardy perennials, having the 
appearance of hemp ; and only grown in Eng- 
land in botanic gardens. 

274 CAPPARIDE^. [part ii. 

This order is divided into two sections, viz., 
the true Capers, and the Cleomes ; both of 
which have very long and conspicuous stamens. 
The common Ca,i^er (Capparis spinosa) has a large 
and handsome flower, with a distinct calyx and 
corolla, both in four parts. The petals are 
white, and so delicate in their texture as to 
fade in a few hours if exposed to the sun ; and 
the stamens, which are very numerous, have 
rich purple filaments. In the centre is the 
pistil, with a very long stalk, and the ovary 
at the point, instead of at the base, with no 
style, and a very small stigma. In conse- 
quence of this curious construction, the seed- 
pod, which is fleshy, and hangs downwards, 
appears to be on a much longer stalk than the 
flower. The shrub is spiny, and in its natural 
habitat it grows among stones and rocks. It is 
the unopened flower-buds that are pickled. The 
genus Cleome consists principally of annuals, 
with very handsome flowers, which have very 
long stamens, and a pistil of the same construc- 
tion as in Capparis, but the fruit is a dry cap- 
sule. The anthers of the stamens are often 
enfolded in the flowers before they are fully 
expanded, so that the filaments appear bent, 
till at last they open fully and hang down. 


There are a few other genera in the order, but 
they are Httle known in England. 


The plants belonging to this order are mostly 
Indian plants, little known in Europe. 

Bixa Orellana is a shrub, a native of South 
America, which requires a bark stove in Eng- 
land. It has pink flowers with five petals, and 
a green calyx of as many sepals. The stamens 
are numerous; but they are on rather short 
filaments. The leaves are very large and heart- 
shaped. The fruit is a berry, and the pulp in 
which the seeds are immersed, when dry, is the 
Arnotta used in colouring cheese. 


There are only four genera in this order, viz., 
Cistus, Helianthemum, Hudsonia, and Lechea ; 
and though there are almost innumerable plants 
comprised in it, they nearly aU belong to the 
first two. 

All the plants belonging to the genera Cistus, 
the Rock-rose, and Helianthemum, the Sun-rose, 

T 2 

276 CISTINE^. [part n. 

have showy flowers, each having five petals, 
which are crumpled in the bud like those of the 
Poppy ; they also resemble the petals of the 
Poppy tribe in falling almost as soon as they 
have expanded, as every one must have observed 
who has noticed the flowers of a Gum-Cistus. 
The calyx in both Cistus and Helianthemum 
generally consists of five sepals, two of which 
are larger and of a paler green than the others, 
and grow a little below them ; and this calyx 
remains on after the petals have fallen, and, 
indeed, till the seed is ripe. In the Gum-Cistus, 
however, and some other species, the two outer 
sepals are wanting. There are a great many 
stamens, which are rather short, and form a 
tuft in the centre of the flower, surrounding the 
pistil, which has a round flat-headed stigma, a 
rather long style, and an ovary divided into 
five cells. The seeds are numerous, and each 
has a separate foot-stalk, by which it is attached 
to the placentas, which, in the Cistus tribe, are 
in the centre of the ovary, and not proceeding 
from its sides, as in the Mignonette. The 
capsule, which remains covered with the calyx 
till it is quite ripe, divides into five or ten con- 
cave valves, each having a placenta, to which 
the seeds w^ere attached, in its centre. The 
seed of any plant belonging to the order Cista- 
cese, is remarkable when cut open for the great 

CHAP, ..] ClSTINEiE. 277 

size of the embryo enclosed in it, and the 
curious manner in which it is curled up. The 
embryo is the germ of the future plant, and it 
is usually buried in a great mass of albumen, or 
floury matter intended for the nourishment of 
the young plant, till its roots are in a fit state 
to supply it with nourishment. In the seed of 
the Cistus, there is scarcely any albumen ; but 
in its stead a long narrow embryo, coiled up like 
a sleeping snake. 

The Gum-Cistus is generally called, in the 
nurseries, Cistus ladaniferus ; but it differs ma- 
terially from the plant so named by Linnaeus, 
as that has a ten-celled capsule, while the cap- 
sule of the common Gum-Cistus (which botanists 
call C. Cyperius) has only five cells. The leaves 
also diff'er, the under surface of those of the 
one kind being woolly, and of the other smooth; 
the one is also a native of Spain and Portugal, 
and the other, as the specific name imports, of 
Cyprus. Both species, and also C. Ledon^ 
exude from their stems and leaves, a kind of 
gum or resin called Ladanum or Labdanum, 
which is used in medicine. It is from this gum 
having been formerly always mixed with opium 
when that drug was dissolved in spirits of wine, 
that the name of laudanum is given to the tinc- 
ture of opium. 

The two genera, Cistus and Hehanthemum. 

278 CISTINEJE. [part ii. 

differ chiefly in the capsule, which in the latter 
genus is triangular and one-celled, opening into 
three valves, each of which has a narrow dissepi- 
ment down its centre. To prevent any con- 
fusion arising from the use of these terms, I may 
here observe that when a capsule is divided into 
several cells, having no communication with 
each other, the membranes that separate them 
are called dissepiments; while the nerve-like part 
of it to which the seeds are attached is named 
the placenta. Sometimes the placenta is 
merely a nerve running down the side of the 
capsule, when the capsule is one-celled, without 
any dissepiment or division ; and sometimes the 
dissepiment does not spread across the capsule 
so as to divide it into different cells, but only 
projects a little way from the side towards the 
centre, as in the one-celled capsule of the Poppy, 
(see p. 260,) and in that of the Helianthemum, 
when the seed-vessel opens naturally into differ- 
ent parts, as in the Gum Cistus, these parts 
are called valves, as are also the parts of pods, 
as sho^\Ti in the curied-up valves of the silique, 
Jig. 115, in p. 268. 

To return to the Helianthemum, the species 
of this genus are generally used for rockwork, 
as they are all dwarf plants, though many of 
the genus Cistus are large shrubs four or five 
feet high. The English name of the Helian- 


themum, Sun-rose, is very appropriate, as the 
flowers will only expand in sunshine, and will 
even decay in the bud without opening at all, 
when gloomy weather lasts for several days. 


The order Violaceae, though not a large one, 
contains several genera, but the most interesting 
is the genus Viola, which includes among many 
other species the Sweet Violet {Viola odorata), 
and the Heartsease (V. tricolor). The flowers 
of both species have many claims to admiration, 
but they do not add the charm of regularity in 
construction to their other attractions, as, in 
fact, few flowers are less symmetrical. The 
flowers of both are nearly alike in their details; 
but to avoid confusion, I will describe them 
separately. The calyx of the Heartsease con- 
sists of five pointed distinct sepals, two of them 
rather smaller than the others. These sepals 
are not attached, as in most other plants, at 
their base ; but so as to leave nearly a quarter 
of their length standing up, far beyond the 
place where they are fixed to the receptacle, 
so as to form a sort of border or cup round 
the stem, and between it and the flower. 
The sepals are green, but they are edged 
with a delicate whitish membrane at the mar- 
gin, scarcely to be seen without a microscope. 

280 VIOLACE^. [paut ii. 

There are five petals which are also irregular 
in their construction, two of them being much 
larger than the others, and generally of a dif- 
ferent colour ; and one even of the other three 
being quite different in form to its companions. 
The two large petals at the back of the flower, 
which in the common Heartsease are generally 
dark purple, are laid over each other, and be- 
hind the two below them. These two side- 
petals, which form the centre of the flower, are 
both furred at the base ; and the lower petal, 
which is placed between them, has its claw 
drawn out behind into a spur, which passes 
between two of the sepals; and which, when 
the flower is looked at from behind, appears to 
be part of the calyx. The furred part of the 
two side-petals forms a triangular, roof-like 
opening, peeping out of which, is seen a small 
pale-green ball-like substance, which a fanciful 
imagination might liken to a head looking 
through a dormer window ; and this is all that is 
to be seen in place of the usual apparatus of 
stamens and pistils. As all seed-producing 
flowers must have stamens and pistils, and as it is 
weU known that Heartseases and Violets do pro- 
duce seed in abundance, it is clear that these 
important organs are not wanting ; but where 
are they ? It is easy to guess, after being so 
far initiated in the mysteries of botany, that the 
little globular body is a part of the pistil ; but 

CHAP. 1.] VIOLACEiE. 281 

where are the stamens I It is necessary to pull 
the flower to pieces to discover them. Com- 
mencing this work of destruction, which I 
always feel remorse at perpetrating, for I love 
flowers too well not to feel pain at destroying 
them ; commencing this work, I repeat, the 
petals and the sepals must be carefully removed 
from the stem ; a task of some little difiiculty, 
as both sepals and petals are firmly attached to 
the receptacle, and the lower petal must have 
its spur opened with a pin to avoid hurting the 
dehcate organs it contains. When the outer 
coverings of calyx and corolla are thus both 
removed, the seed-producing organs will be dis- 
covered, and it will be found that they consist 
of five very curiously-formed stamens, with as 
singular a pistil, in their centre. The stamens 
have no apparent filaments, and the anthers, 
which seem to be inserted in the receptacle, 
look like seeds, each tipped with a bit of brown 
skin, and having what appears to be a white rib 
in front. This rib is the anther ; and the 
broader part is the dilated filament, which is 
drawn out beyond it, on both sides, and above, 
so as to form the brown tip above the anther 
already mentioned. Two of the anthers have 
each, in addition to these peculiarities, a long 
tail, which the spur of the lower petal concealed, 
when the flower was in a perfect state. The 

282 VIOLACE^. [part ii. 

pistil consists of a large ovary, full of ovules, 
with a narrow style, which is drawn out into 
the hollow globular termination which is seen 
through the triangular opening in the flower. 
The globe has an opening in front, under which 
is a kind of lip, which looks like a shutter let 
down to show the opening ; and though, from 
its thick fleshy nature, it looks like a stigma, it 
is only the outer covering of that organ, for the 
stigma lies within the opening. In this manner 
the stigma and anthers are completely concealed ; 
and thus it will be seen, that nothing can be 
more complex and intricate than the construc- 
tion of the flowers of the Heartsease. 

Who could suppose that all these elaborate 
details would be necessary to illustrate so sim- 
ple a flower as that of the Violet 1 And yet the 
construction of the flowers of the Violet and 
those of the Heartsease are essentially the same. 
The sepals of the Violet are extended at the 
base, like those of the Heartsease, and the 
corolla consists of the same number of petals, 
which are equally irregular in their form, 
though not in their colour ; the lower petal is 
drawn out, in the same manner, into a spur, 
which is much longer than that of the Hearts- 
ease, though the rest of the flower is smaller. 
The stamens are formed with the same regular 
irregularity, only the tails of the two irregular 

CHAP. I.] VIOLACE^, 283 

ones are larger and stronger, in the same pro- 
portion as the spur is larger which is intended 
to conceal them. The pistil is of the same 
shape, with, the same curiously constructed and 
perforated style, which is bent in its narrow 
part and swelled out into a hollow globe at the 
tip ; and in both species, the ovary is one-celled 
with three parietal placentas, that is, with three 
nerve-like projections from the sides of the 
capsule, having four rows of seeds attached to 
each. The capsule looks like a smooth shining 
berry, and it remains partially shrouded by the 
calyx, till the seeds are ripe ; when it bursts 
open with an elastic spring, and divides into 
three valves, each of which has the placenta 
bearing the seeds in its centre. 

In all these points the Heartsease and the 
Violet are alike ; but they differ materially in 
the leaves, which in the Violet are broad and 
heart-shaped, w^ithout stipules ; but in the 
Heartsease are small and ovate, with such very 
large and deeply-cut stipules, that they are by 
most persons mistaken for the leaves. I may 
here be asked what are stipules, and in what 
do they differ from leaves ? In answer to the 
first question, I can only inform my readers that 
stipules are generally little leaf-like bodies, 
which seem to act as attendants upon leaves, as 
bracts seem to wait upon flowers ; but in what 

284 DROSERACE^. [part ii. 

they differ from leaves, except in size and shape, 
I have not been able to learn. Even Dr. Lindley 
in the last edition of his Introduction to Botany, 
says, " What stipules really are is not well made 

The Heartsease and the Violet differ also in 
their habit of growth. The Violet is a creeping 
plant with no stalks but those supporting the 
flowers, while the Heartsease stands erect, with 
a thick square stem, so strong, that, notwith- 
standing its succulent nature, it be may trained 
like a little tree. 

There are three genera in this tribe that ^re 
well known: Z)?'6>5<?r«, the Sun-dew ; Dioncea mus- 
czpw/a, Venus's Fly-trap; and Par Jiassia pahistris, 
the Grass of Parnassus; all bog plants. The 
species of the genus Drosera are remarkable 
for the curious manner in which the leaves and 
peduncles are coiled up when they first appear, 
and in which they slowly unroll themselves as 
they grow. They are also beautifully edged 
with a sort of fringe of glandular red hairs, and 
a fluid exudes from these glands which makes 
them always appear as though covered with 
dew. The common Sun-dew (D. rotundifolia) 
is a British plant, with short roundish leaves ; 


but other species are natives of New Holland 
and North America ; and several of them have 
long slender leaves like threads. Venus's Fly- 
trap (Dioncea muscipula) is a native of Caro- 
lina, in North America ; the leaves are curiously 
formed of two lobes, which close and open as 
if hinged, and they are fmniished with glandular 
hairs, which are so extremely irritable as to 
make the leaves close at the slightest touch, and 
thus to imprison any unfortunate insect that 
may be within the lobes. The petiole is so 
much dilated as to look like a leaf, but the real 
leaf consists of only the two roundish lobes 
edged with teeth that form the Fly-trap. The 
flowers are white, and they are produced in 
corymbs. The corolla has five petals, wdiich do 
not fall off Avhen they wither, but roll up so as 
to look like the cocoon of an insect. 


The genus Polygala is well known from the 
very handsome greenhouse plants which it con- 
tains. The flowers at first sight appear to 
resemble those of the Sweet Pea, having two 
wings like a standard, and a sort of keel ; their 
construction is, however, very curious, and so 
complicated, as to be very difficult either to 

286 TREM ANDREW. [part ii. 

describe or to understand. The calyx is said 
by modern botanists to consist of five sepals, 
three of which are green and two lilac, these 
last being the part that resembles the standard 
of the Sweet Pea. The corolla is also said to 
consist of five petals, two of which stand erect, 
and the other three grow together to form the 
keel. The latter have their upper part cut into 
a kind of crest, like that of the Mignonette. 
Below the crest, the united petals form a kind 
of hood, under which are arranged the eight 
stamens, four on each side. The stamens 
themselves are as remarkable as the other parts 
of the flower ; the filaments grow together into 
a thin kind of leaf, and each anther has but one 
cell, and opens by a pore at the apex. The 
pistil is also very curiously formed, as the style 
and stigma have the appearance of a gaping 
monopetalous corolla. The fruit is a flat two- 
celled capsule, which, when ripe, opens by two 
lips, separating from each other, and showing a 
seed within each cell. Even the seeds are not 
like other seeds, for each has a large white pro- 
tuberance at one end, called a corancula. 


Slender New Holland shrubs, with the habit 
of Heaths, rarely met with in British gardens. 



The principal genera included in this order 
are Pittosporum, Billardiera and Sollya, all 
resinous shrubs, with alternate leaves without 
stipules, and the sepals and petals, each five in 
number, and laid over each other like scales in 
the bud. The seeds are numerous, and im- 
mersed in fibrous pulp. The commonest species 
of Pittosporum is P. Tohira^ a native of China, 
easily known by its thick leathery leaves, the 
mid-ribs of which are strongly marked, and 
whitish. The flowers are erect, and produced 
in cymes or heads ; and the petals are united 
into a tube with a spreading limb. The capsule 
is one- celled, and two or three valved, with an 
imperfect dissepiment in the centre of each 
valve ; and the seeds are numerous, and buried 
in a resinous fibrous pulp. The Billardieras are 
generally climbing shrubs, with pale greenish 
bell-shaped, and almost erect flowers, which are 
produced singly or in pairs, and which have the 
tips of their petals turned back. The fruit is 
a fleshy berry, with a shining skin of a deep 
blue, and it is called the Apple Berry in 
Australia, of which country the species are 
natives. This fruit is said to be eaten in 
Australia,, but it seems difficult to imasrine how 

288 FRANKENIACE^. [part n. 

this can be the case ; as though the outer part 
of the berry is of a soft spongy nature, it is dry 
and insipid ; and there is no internal pulp, for 
the seeds lie loose in the cells. In Sollya 
heterophylla the flowers are drooping, on long 
and very slender pedicels, and tliey are produced 
in cymes. The corolla is campanulate, with 
the tips of the petals not recurved, and the 
anthers are much shorter than in Billardiera. 
The fruit is a soft fleshy berry, divided into two 
cells, each containing two rows of seeds im- 
mersed in pulp, and when cut open, it smells 
strongly of turpentine. The plant generally 
called Sollya linearis has a dry and leathery 
pericardium ; and for this reason and on account 
of the spreading of its anthers, it was placed by 
Mr. Cunningham in a new genus, which he 
called Cheir anther a. 


The genus Frankenia consists principally of 
the British weeds called Sea Heath ; and the 
other genera included in the order are seldom 
seen in British gardens, from the seeds which 
have been imported seldom arriving in a state 
fit for vegetation. 




The plants belonging to this order have so 
strong a family likeness to each other as to be 
easily recognised ; and they are all distinguished 
botanically by the swollen joints of their stems, 
and their opposite undivided leaves, which are 
generally connate, that is united, and sheathing 
the stem. The order is divided into two sec- 
tions, viz. : Silenese, in which the sepals are 
united into a tube, and which section includes 
the genera Silene, Dianthus, Saponaria, 
Lychnis, and Agrostemma ; and Alsinese, in 
which the sepals are either quite distinct, or 
only slightly cohering at the base, and which 
includes Stellaria, Arenaria, Cerastium, Sper- 
gula, and several other British weeds. The 
Chickweed was called by Linnseus Alsine 
media, but the genus Alsine is now united to 

The Wild or Clove Carnation (Dianthus 
Caryophyllus), which may be considered the 
type of the order, has an erect stem, swollen at 
the joints, with connate leaves, (see a in Jig. 118). 
The flower, when single, consists of five petals, 
each with a very long narrow claw {h\ and a 
rather broad limb or blade (c) serrated at the 
edge. The calyx {f) is tubular, with five 




[part II. 

ndyked teeth, which are in fact the tips of 
jBve sepals, into which the tube of the calyx may 

Fig. 118.— The Carnation. 

be easily divided with a pin. The tubular form 


of the calyx is admirably contrived to support 
the long claws of the petals, and to keep them 
in their proper places ; particularly when the 
flowers are double, as the weight of the petals 
in that case frequently bursts the tube of the 
calyx. Every one fond of pinks and carnations 
must have observed the miserable appearance 
of the flower when thus deprived of its natural 
support ; and to prevent the premature destruc- 
tion of prize-flowers by this misfortune, pro- 
fessed florists sometimes slip a curiously-cut 
piece of card-board over the bud, which remains 
on after the expansion of the flower, and pre- 
vents the petals from falling out of place. Some 
florists tie the calyx round with thread, instead 
of using a pasteboard ring, which answers the 
same purpose. At the base of the calyx are 
two, four, or six leafy appendages (^), resem- 
bling bracts, which are called the calycine 
scales. These imbricated scales are, however, 
only found in the genus Dianthus. There are 
ten stamens (d) unequal in height, but none of 
them longer than the ovary round which they 
are placed. The ovary and the stamens are 
concealed in the cup of the flower, but the 
former is furnished with two styles, terminating 
in two long stigmas (e), which project beyond 
the flower, and which, when magnified, appear 
delicately fringed. 

u 2 

292 CARYOPHYLLACE^. [part ii. 

The genus Dianthus includes the Carnation, 
the Pink {Dianthus phimarius)^ the Chinese 
Pink (Z). sinensis)^ the Sweet WilHara (D. bar- 
hatus), and many ornamental flowers. Of these 
the Sweet AVilliam has the claws of its petals 
bearded ; the flowers are produced in bundles or 
fascicles ; and the calycine scales are so numer- 
ous and awl-shaped, that they give a bristly 
appearance to the flowers. The different species 
of Soap-wort (Saponaria) differ from Dianthus, 
in having no calycine scales ; and this is also 
the case with the berry-bearing Campion (Cu- 
culalus baccifer), the fruit of which is a fleshy 
capsule or berry, which finally becomes black, 
and has a singular appearance in the centre of 
the cup-like calyx, which remains on till the 
fruit is ripe. The flower of this plant is white, 
and the petals have a two-cleft limb. All the 
numerous species of Catchfly {Silene) are also 
without calycine scales, and the petals are gene- 
rally deeply tw^o-cleft ; but they are distin- 
guished by having a crown of petal-like scales in 
the throat of the corolla. There are also three 
styles instead of two ; and the capsules are 
three-celled at the base, ending in six teeth at 
the top. The species have frequently a gluti- 
nous frothy moisture on the stem, in which flies 
sometimes become entangled, and hence the 
English name of the genus. One species, the 

CHAP. I.] LINACE.E. 293 

Bladder Campion (S. hiflatd)^ has been used as 
food, and its young shoots, when boiled and 
sent to table like Asparagus, are said to have 
the flavour of green peas. The different species 
of Lychnis and Agrostemma resemble Silene 
closely in every respect, except in the styles, 
which are five, instead of three ; these two 
genera, Viscaria, and Githago, differ very 
slightly from each other ; and several of the 
species are known by different names : thus 
Ragged Robin {Lychnis jios cuculi) is made by 
some botanists an Agrostemma ; the Corn-cockle 
is sometimes called Giihago segetum^ and some- 
times Agrostemma Githago ; the common Rose 
Campion is called sometimes Lychnis, and 
sometimes Agrostemma; and the Rock Lychnis, 
or Red German Catchfly, sometimes Lychnis 
Viscaria^ and sometimes Viscaria vulgaris. 


The order Linacese is a very small one ; and, 
indeed, it consists principally of the genus 
Linum. The Flax was formerly included in the 
Caryophyllacese, which it resembles in having 
five petals, five sepals, and five stamens ; but it 
also resembles the Mallow in its capsules, and 
in its stamens growing together at the base ; 

294 LINAGE-^ • [part ii. 

and the Cistiis in its persistent calyx, and the 
disposition of its sepals. These links, which 
connect one order \Yith another, and make them 
appear alike but not the same, form, I think, 
one of the most interesting parts of the Natural 
System. We are led on from one gradation to 
another, by scarcely perceptible shades of dif- 
ference through the vegetable kingdom; and, 
indeed, through the whole system of creation: 
the beautiful harmony, and unity of design, 
visible throughout, bearing the strong impress 
of the Divinity whose power has made the 

The common Flax {Linum usitatisshmim), 
thougli in its appearance only an insignificant 
weed, is a plant of great benefit to man. The 
fibres of the stem are used to make linen, and 
the seeds (linseed) are crushed for oil. The 
flowers are blue, and have five regularly-shaped 
petals, which are twisted in the bud ; and a 
distinct calyx of five pointed sepals, two of which 
grow from a little below the others, as in- the 
Gum Cistus ; and, as in that plant, the calyx 
remains on till the seeds are ripe. There are 
five stamens, the filaments of which grow toge- 
ther slightly at the base, and there are five little 
points like filaments without anthers, rising 
between the stamens. The petals are connected 
with the ring formed by the united filaments, 

CHAP. 1.] LINACEiE. 295 

and sometimes the petals themselves grow 
slightly together at the base. The capsule 
consists of five two-celled carpels, grown toge- 
ther ; each cell containing one seed, and each 
carpel terminating in a rather slender style, 
tipped with a ball -like stigma. When ripe, the 
capsule opens naturally, by dividing into ten 
valves, to discharge the seeds ; which are flat 
and shining, with a large embryo. These seeds 
are called Linseed in the shops, from Linum, 
the botanical name of the plant; and, as is well 
known, they are not only used for various pur- 
poses, but oil is expressed from them. The 
stem of the common Flax, though it is only an 
annual, consists of woody fibre, like that of a 
tree in its young state ; and it is this fibrous 
part that makes the yarn for thread, after it 
has been separated from the fleshy part, by 
steeping the stems for a long time in water. 
The perennial Flax {Linum perenne), which, as 
its name imports, lasts several years, differs in 
little else from the common kind, except that 
its sepals are obtuse, and its leaves are much 
smaller and narrower. Both these are natives 
of Britain. There are many other species, 
some of which have yellow flowers. 



[part II. 


All the plants belonging to Malvaeese bear 
so much resemblance to each other, that this 
order may be considered a very natural one ; 
and it is one very remarkable for the botanical 
construction of its flowers. In some respects it 
resembles Linace^e. quite enough indeed to show 
clearly the chain by which they are so beauti- 
fully linked together ; but in others, it differs 
so decidedlv as to show how completely they 
are distinct. Fi^. 119, which represents the 

flower and seed-vessel 
of the Althsea frutex 
( Hib iscus syriaais) , 
will serve to show the 
chief peculiarities of 
this order. The calyx 
a consists of five sepals, 
below which is an in- 
volucrum of six or 
seven leaflets, which 
have the appearance 
of a second calyx. The corolla is cup-shaped, 
and consists of five petals, which are close toge- 
ther at the base, and this is peculiar to the 
genus Hibiscus. The capsule is round and 
somewhat convex, being nearly in the shape of 
what is called a batch- cake, as shown at c ; 

Fig. 119. — Tee flowkr, stamen?, 
axd pistils o? the alxh-sli. frctex- 


it consists of five carpels grown together, each 
containing many seeds : and when ripe, it bursts 
naturally into five valves, each of which has a 
dissepiment down the centre. The filaments 
grow together very curiously, inclosins: the 
styles, and forming a column in the centre of 
the flower, which is the distinguishing mark of 
the Malvaceae. Some of the stamens are shorter 
than others, and a5 part of each filament is de- 
tached, the anthers form the fringe-Uke border to 
the column, shown at d. The anthers are kid- 
ney-shaped and one-celled, and this is another 
of the characteristics of the order; but the 
styles are terminated by five ball-shaped stigmas, 
like those of the Linum. There are many 
kinds of Hibiscus ; but perhaps the best known 
are : H, rosa sinensis, the species which is so 
often represented in Chinese drawings, and the 
petals of which are so astringent, that they are 
said to be used in China by the men to black 
their shoes, and by the women to dye their 
hair ; and the Bladder Ketmia (H. Trionum), 
which takes its English name from its inflated 
capsule. All the plants belonging to the order 
Malvacese have a central column, round which 
are placed numerous carpels, which grow toge- 
ther and form a many-celled capsule ; and they 
all have kidney-shaped, one-celled anthers. 
They have also always an involucrum below the 

298 MALVACE^. [part ii. 

calyx, but this involucrum differs in the different 
genera. In the genus Malva, the involucrum 
consists of three leaflets, which in the common 
Mallow (Malva sylvestris) are oblong. The 
petals are wedge-shaped, and they are what 
botanists call auricled ; that is, they are set so 
far apart at the base that Hght can be seen 
through them. The stamens are all of nearly 
the same height, and they form a kind of bunch 
round the styles, which are pointed. The cap- 
sule consists of a circle of woolly-looking carpels 
growing close together, but so as to be easily 
detached with a pin, and each fitting into a 
little groove in the receptacle, in whijh they are 
placed. As the seeds ripen, the involucrum falls 
off, but the large loose-looking calyx remains 
on. There is only one seed in each carpel ; but 
as there are generally eleven carpels in each 
capsule, each seed-vessel contains this number 
of seeds. The leaves are lobed and toothed ; 
and the whole plant is covered with long hairs, 
which are disposed in little star-like tufts. 

The genus Malope closely resembles the Mal- 
low ; except that the petals are not wedge- 
shaped, and that it has a still larger calyx, the 
long sepals of which shroud the capsule as the 
involucre of the filbert does the nut. The invo- 
lucrum is composed of three broad, heart-shaped 
leaflets, which remain on till the seed is ripe. 


The petals are also not so even along the mar- 
gin ; and the carpels are so disposed as to form 
a cone-shaped capsule, instead of a flat one. 

The genus Lavatera has the leaflets of the 
involucre joined to the middle, so as to form a 
kind of three-cornered saucer below the capsule ; 
and the capsule itself is completely covered with 
a part of the receptacle, which is dilated, and 
curved down over it. Lastly, the genus Althaea, 
the Marsh ^Mallow, has the involucrum cleft into 
six or nine divisions, and the carpels united into 
a globular capsule. The Hollyhock (A. rosea) 
belongs to this genus. Many other genera 
might be mentioned, but these will suffice to 
give my readers a general idea of the order, 
and of the points of diff*erence which distinguish 
one genus from another. Among the exotic 
plants belonging to the order is the cotton tree 
{Gossypmm herhaccum), the cotton being the 
woolly matter which envelops the seeds in the 
capsule. All the Malvaceae abound in mucilage, 
and they all have woody fibre in their stems. 


This order is closely allied to Malvaceae, and 
it diff'ers principally in the tube formed by the 
stamens being divided into five bundles near the 
top. It includes the Baobab, or Monkey-bread 

300 BYTTNERIACE^. [part ii. 

(Adansonia digitata)^ said to be the largest tree 
in the world ; the Screw tree (Helic feres Isora), 
so named from its curiously-twisted fruit ; Caro- 
linia princeps ; the Silk Cotton tree {Bombax 
Ceiba); and the Hand-plant {Cheirostemon plata- 
noides)^ — this is the Hand-plant so named from 
the lobes of its leaves resembling fingers, — all 
stove plants in Britain. 


This order is divided into five sections, which 
some botanists make distinct orders. It is very 
nearly aihed to Malvaceae, but the anthers are 
two-celled. The principal genus in the first 
section {StercidiecE) is Sterculia, which has 
several carpels distinct and arranged like a star : 
the species are trees with large handsome leaves 
which are articulated at the base, and axillary 
panicles or racemes of flowers. The second section 
{ByttneriecB) contains among other plants Theo- 
broma Cacao, from the fruit and seeds of which 
Cocoa and Chocolate are prepared. The third 
section (LasiopetalecB) is well known in England, 
by the pretty Australian shrubs included in the 
genera Thomasia and Lasiopetalum, the leaves 
of which have their under surface downy, and 
generally brown. The fourth section {Herman- 
niece), and the sixth {Wallichiece), contain no 

CHAP. 1.] 



plant common in English gardens ; and the 
fifth {Domheyacece) is best known by Astrapcea 
Wallichii. The qualities of all the plants in this 
order are mucilaginous. 

The only genus belonging to the natural 
order Tiliacese which is easily to be procured 
in Britain is that of Tilia, the Lime trees. The 
common Lime (Tilia europcea) is generally a 
tall, well-formed tree, with rather broad leaves, 
which are heart-shaped at the base, tapering at 
the point, and serrated at the margin : they are 
also smooth on the outer surface, thin, and of a 
light and deficate texture ; below there is a 
little tuft of hair at the angle of the veins. The 
flowers are produced in cymes or compound 
umbels (see Jig. 
^ 20) ; and their 
main pedicel ap- 
pears to spring 
from one long en- 
tire bract {a). 
The calyx is in 
five sepals, and it 
falls off before the 
corolla, which is 

Fig. 12(1. — The floweks and sekd- 
COmpOSed of five vessel of the common Lime tkek. 

pale yellow petals, which are very sweet-scented. 

302 EL^OCARP^. [part ii. 

The stamens are numerous, and the filaments 
separate, bearing two-celled anthers, which burst 
by long slits. The ovary has only one style, the 
tip of which is cleft into five small stigmas ; and 
it is divided into five cells, each containing one 
or two ovules. The fruit or capsule (h) is round, 
and has a leathery skin, covered with a soft 
down ; and when ripe, the cells often become 
united so as to form one, with only one or two 
perfect seeds in the whole capsule, the other 
ovules proving abortive. The whole plant 
abounds in mucilage, and the sap when boiled 
affords sugar. The inner bark is so tough and 
fibrous, that it is used for making what are 
called bast mats : it being first rendered flexi- 
ble by steeping it for a long time in water. The 
wood is of very fine texture, but soft and wdiite, 
and it is thus admirably adapted for carving. 
The American Limes have a small scale at the 
base of each petal of the flower ; but the other 
differences between the species are very slight. 


East India shrubs and trees, little known in 
Britain. " The hard and wrinkled seeds of 
Elseocarpus are made into necklaces in the 
East Indies, and, set in gold, are sold in our 
shops."— (^^o/f.) 



There are two kinds of Camphor, one pro- 
duced by boiling the branches of a kind of laurel, 
and the other (the Camphor of Sumatra) is 
found in large pieces in the hollow parts of the 
branches of Dryohalanops Camphora, one of the 
species included in this order. None of these 
trees have been introduced into Britain. 

Small trees and shrubs, natives of the East 
Indies and Madagascar; only the genus Hugo- 
nia is known in Britain. 



The principal plants in this order common in 
England are Gordonia, Stuartia, and Malacho- 
dendron. Gordonia Lasianthus, the Loblolly 
Bay, is a small evergreen tree, with, white 
flowers, about the size of a rose. It is a native 
of America ; and Stuartia and Malachodendron 
are beautiful low trees or shrubs, with large 
w^hite flowers from the same country. The 
flowers have five large petals ; the stamens are 

304 CAMELLIACE^. [part ii. 

numerous, with the filaments growing together 
at the base, and attached to the petals ; and 
there are five carpels more or less connected. 
Gordonia has its five sepals leathery, and 
covered with a silky down ; its stamens almost 
in five distinct bundles, a five-celled capsule, 
and its seeds each furnished with a wing. 
Stuartia has a permanent calyx, five-cleft, but 
not parted into distinct sepals, with two bracts 
at the base, and a woody five-celled capsule, 
with seeds without wings ; and Malachodendron 
(which was formerly called Stuartia pentagynia) 
has a calyx similar to that of Stuartia, but the 
edges of the petals are curiously crenulated, and 
there are five distinct carpels, each containing 
only one seed. Some botanists include the 
Camellia and the Tea in the order Ternstrce- 


There are two genera in this order, the 
Camellia and the Tea. The flower-bud of the 
Camellia is inclosed in a calyx of five, seven, or 
nine concave sepals, on the outside of which are 
several bracts, which remain on till the flower 
has expanded, but which are distinguished from 
the sepals by their dark brown colour. The 
sepals and the bracts are laid over one another 


like scales, and thus the flower lies encased in 
a complete coat of mail. The single flower is 
cup-shaped, with five, seven, or nine petals, 
which are sometimes joined together at the 
base. The stamens have long slender filaments, 
which either grow together at the base, or are 
separated into several bundles. The anthers 
are elliptical and versatile ; that is, they are 
poised so lightly on the filament as to quiver 
with the slightest breeze. The ovary is of a 
conical shape, and it has three or five slender 
styles, ending in as many pointed stigmas, and 
growing together at the base. The capsule is 
three or five-celled ; and when ripe it bursts 
into three or five valves, in the middle of each 
of which is a dissepiment, which, before the 
capsule opened, was attached to an axis or 
column in the centre. The seeds are large 
and few, and they are fixed to the central 
placenta. There is no albumen, but the embryo 
has two large, thick, oily cotyledons, which look 
as if they were jointed at the base. The leaves 
are leathery, dark-green and shining, and they 
are ovate in form, ending in a long point, and 
sharply serrated. The flowers spring from the 
axils of the leaves, and grow close to the stem 
without any footstalk ; and the leaf-bud for 
the ensuing shoot grows beside the flower-bud. 
I have above described the Camellia japonica, 

306 CAMELLIACE^. [part n. 

from which nearly all the Camellias in British 
gardens have sprung ; but there are some other 
species. The finest of these is C. reticulata, 
which has very large, loose, widely-spreading 
flowers, of a remarkably rich crimson. The 
leaves are oblong, flat, and reticulately veined, 
being of a much finer texture than those 
of C japonica. The ovary is two or four- 
celled, and it is covered with fine silky hairs. 
C. maliflora is a very beautiful species with small 
semi-double flowers, coloured like an apple blos- 
som. This Camellia is by some botanists 
thought to be a variety of C. Sasanqua, an 
elegant species with white fragrant flowers ; 
but the ovary of the first is smooth, and that 
of the second covered with hairs, which most 
botanists consider a specific difference. 

The Tea tree (Thea viridis) is very nearly 
allied to the Camellia; but there are many points 
of difference. The flower of the Tea tree has a 
footstalk; the calyx has only five sepals; the fila- 
ments of the stamens do not grow together ; the 
capsules are three-seeded ; and the dissepiments 
are formed by the edges of the valves being bent 
inwards, instead of being attached to a central 
axis. The leaves are also much longer than 
they are broad, and they are of a thinner tex- 
ture and pale green ; and the outside of the 
capsule, which is furrowed in the Camellia, is 


quite smooth in the Tea tree. It is said that 
both the green and the black Tea are made 
from the leaves of Thea viridis ; but there 
is another species called Thea Bohea^ which has 
smaller leaves, and is a more tender, and less 
vigorous-growing plant. The young leaves of 
Camellia Sasaiiqua, and some of the other 
Camelhas, are also dried, and mixed with the 
tea. All these plants are natives of Japan and 
China, and require a slight protection in Eng- 
land during winter. 


Exotic trees from the East and West Indies, 
little known in Britain. Heistria coccinea^ a 
native of Martinique, is said to be the Partridge 
wood of the cabinet-makers. 



The natural order Aurantiacese contains four- 
teen genera ; but the only one I think my 
readers will feel an interest in is the genus 
Citrus. This genus comprises, among several 
other species, C. medica, the Citron ; C. Limetta, 
the sweet Lime ; C. Limonum, the Lemon ; 
C. Paradisic the Forbidden fruit ; C. decumana, 
the Shaddock ; C. Aurantium, the Sweet Orange ; 
X 2 



[part II. 

and C. vulgaris, the Bitter or Seville Orange, 
to these may be added C. nohilis the JMandarin 
Orange, the fruit of which is reddish, and which 
parts naturally from its rind, which is sweet, 
and may be eaten. All the species agree in 
having a tube-like calyx, scalloped into five 
short teeth, and a flower of generally five 
fleshy petals, (see a in Jig. 121), though the 

Fig. 121. — Flovn'er and seed of the Orangk. 

number occasionally varies from four to nine. 
These petals are elliptic in shape, concave, and 
always widely opened. In the centre of the 
flower are the stamens, varying from twenty 
(which is the ordinary number) to sixty ; the 
anthers are two-lobed, and oblong, and the 
filaments are somewhat thickened at the base, 
and united there into several small bundles (Z>), 
but free above. The pistil has a somewhat 
globular ovary, with a cylindrical style, termi- 


natiiig in a stiojma, which is slightly raised in 
the centre. The disk in which the stamens 
are inserted, forms a ring round the ovary. 
The fruit (^fig. 122), which is considered by 

310 AURANTIACE^. [part ii. 

botanists to be a kind of berry, is in fact a seed- 
vessel with numerous cells, divided by dissepi- 
ments and a central placenta {a) ; the cells being 
the quarters of the Orange, the dissepiments 
the divisions between them, and the placenta 
the central pith. When the flower first ex- 
pands, the ovary, if cut open and examined, 
will be found to be divided into several cells, 
each containing two rows of ovules. As in the 
preceding genera, however, many of these ovules 
become abortive ; and as the cells fill gradually 
with cellular pulp, the seeds become detached 
from the placenta, and buried in it. The seeds 
themselves are very interesting ; they are 
covered with a thick wrinkled skin, and they 
show distinctly the hilum (c in Jig. 121), the 
chalaza (d) and the raphe or connecting cord 
between them, parts which are seldom to be 
distinguished in seeds with the naked eye. 

The leaves, calyx, and petals of the Orange, 
if held up to the light, appear covered with 
little dots. These dots are cells, covered with a 
transpai'ent membrane, and filled with a kind 
of oil, which is exceedingly fragrant. The rind 
of the fruit is covered with similar cells, filled 
with a pungent oily liquid. The leaves are 
smooth and shining ; and they are articulated ; 
that is, they can be separated from the petiole 
or footstalk without lacerating them. In most 


of the species, the petioles are winged ; that is, 
they are dilated into little leaves on each side 
(see dm Jig. 122). The different species vary 
chiefly in the number of stamens, the thickness 
of the rind, the shape of the fruit, and in the 
wings of the petioles. In the Citron these wings 
are wanting entirely, and instead of them there 
are spines in the axils of the leaves ; there are 
generally forty stamens, and the rind of the fruit 
is very thick. In the sweet Lime, the petioles are 
are slightly winged, and there are about thirty 
stamens ; the fruit is small and round, with a 
slight protuberance at one end like that of the 
Lemon, and the pulp is sweet. In the Lemon 
the petioles are somewhat winged, the flowers 
have about thirty stamens ; the fruit is oblong, 
with an acid pulp, and a thin rind. The Sweet 
Orange has winged petioles, about twenty 
stamens, and a fruit with a thin rind and sweet 
pulp ; and the Seville Orange differs principally 
in having a thicker rind and bitter pulp. The 
China, St. Michael, and Malta Oranges, with 
many others, are all varieties of the Sweet 
Orange {Citrus Aurantiuni) ; and there are 
many other species, which I have not thought 
it necessary to describe. — All the species above- 
mentioned are natives of Asia, and most of them 
of China, but they have been so long cultivated 
in Europe and America, as to have become 
almost naturalised. 

312 HYPERICINEtE. [p^rt ii. 


The genus Hypericum, or St. John''s Wort, 
agrees with the orange in having its leaves full 
of transparent cells ; but these cells are filled 
with a yellow, resinous juice, resembling gam- 
boge in its medicinal properties, and having a 
very disagreeable smell. There are five petals 
in the corolla ; and the calyx consists of five 
sepals, which are unequal in size and shape, and 
joined together for only a short distance. Like 
the orange the filaments grow together at the 
base, in separate clusters or bundles ; but in the 
Hypericum these clusters are so perfectly dis- 
tinct, that the stamens may be readily separated 
into three or five bundles (according to the 
species), by slightly pulling them. The capsule 
is dry, and of a membrane-like texture, and it 
consists of three or five carpels, containing many 
seeds, and each having a separate style, and a 
pointed stigma. The flowers are very showy, 
from their large golden yellow petals and nume- 
rous stamens. The genus Androssemum, the 
Tutsan, or Park-leaves, has been separated from 
Hypericum on account of its fruit being one- 
celled and one-seeded, with a fleshy covering, 
which yields a red juice when pressed. H. 
calycinum^ with large yellow flowers and five 


tufts of stamens, is the handsomest species ; but 
H. perforatum is the true St. John's Wort, 
which the country people used formerly to 
gather on midsummer eve, as a preservative 
against witchcraft. 


The only genus in this order that contains 
plants interesting to the English reader is 
Garcinia ; and the most remarkable species are 
G. Mangostana, the Mangosteen, said to be the 
most delicious fruit in the world, and G. Cam- 
bogia^ the tree producing the gamboge, which 
is a kind of gum that oozes out from the stem. 
Both are natives of the East Indies. 


Exotic shrubs, mostly natives of the West 
Indies, with spiked, or umbellate flowers, and 
alternate leaves. Very seldom seen in Britain. 


Exotic arborescent, or climbing shrubs, gene- 
rally with inconspicuous flowers. Natives of 
the East and West Indies. 

314 MALPIGHIACE^. [part ii. 


Exotic shrubs, and low -trees, remarkable 
from the redness of their wood, but with small 
greenish flowers. The leaves of Erythroxylon 
Coca possess an intoxicating quality, and are 
chewed by the Peruvians, in the same manner 
as the Turks take opium. 



Several species of Malpighia, the Barbadoes 
Cherry, are found occasionally in our stoves. 
The corolla of these plants, when closed, bears 
considerable resemblance to that of a Kalmia ; 
but the flower when expanded is more like that 
of a Clarkia, from the long claws of the five 
petals, and tlie distance they are placed apart. 
Several of the species have their leaves and 
stems beset with stinging bristles, which adhere 
to the hands when touched. The fruit, which 
is eatable, but insipid, is a berry-like drupe, 
containing three one-seeded nuts. The species 
are natives of the West Indies, and they require 
a stove in England. The flowers are generally 
rose-coloured or purplish ; but they are some- 
times yellow. The common Barbadoes Cherry 


is called M. glabra, and its leaves are without 
stings. In Hiptage, another genus of this 
order, four of the petals of the flowers are 
white, and one yellow ; and in Banisteria, the 
species are generally climbing shrubs, always 
with yellow flowers. Some of the species of 
Banisteria are occasionally found in stoves in 
this country, where their beautiful feathery 
yellow flowers have very much the appearance 
of those of the Canary bird flower (Tropceolum 


The common Maple {Acer campestre) and 
the Sycamore {A. Pseudo-Platanus) are the 
only plants belonging to this order, that are 
natives of Britain ; though so many kinds of 
ornamental Acers are now found in our parks 
and pleasure-grounds. Few trees are indeed 
more deserving of culture than the American 
Maples, both for their beauty in early spring, 
and for the rich shades of yellow and brown 
which their leaves assume in autumn. The 
Maple tribe is a very small one ; it consists 
indeed of only the genera Acer and Negundo, 
and an obscure Nepal genus, of which there are 
no plants in Britain. Of all the Acers, one of 
the handsomest is the Sycamore tree {A. 



[part II. 

Pseudo-Flatanus) ; the flower of this species (see 
e mjig. 123) is of a yellowish green ; and as in 
early spring, when it appears, we are delighted 

123, — Flower and Samara of the Sycamore. (Acer Pseudo- 

at the sight of any thing in the way of flowers, 
it really looks very beautiful. Before I began 
to study botany, I had never noticed the blossoms 
of the forest trees, and when I was shown the 

CHAP, i.l ACERINEiE. 317 

light-feathery flowers of the Lime, and the 
gracefully-drooping ones of the Sycamore, I 
was quite astonished. The flowers of the Syca- 
more grow in a drooping raceme ; the calyx is 
divided into five parts, but as it is scarcely 
distinguishable from the petals, which are five 
in number, and placed alternately with the 
sepals, it appears to be in ten divisions (see a). 
These flowers are partly male and female (see 
b and c), and partly perfect. In the perfect 
flowers there are eight stamens, and two stig- 
mas ; and the ovary when ripe expands into a 
curiously winged pod, called a samara (c?), but 
differently shaped to the samara of the Ash, 
the thickened parts at the base of which contain 
the seeds. There is no albumen in the seed, 
which, when put into the ground, expands into 
two long thin cotyledons, {a in Jig. 124 ) which, 
if once pointed out, will always be known again 
instantly. If a ripe seed be opened when quite 
fresh, the cotyledons or seed leaves will be found 
within it, fresh, green, and succulent ; and these 
leaves (a in Jig. 124), which rise above the 
ground as soon as the seed begins to germinate, 
differ widely in shape from the true leaves (b) 
which are serrated, and of a much thicker 
texture. The bracts of the Sycamore (J in Jig. 
123) are thick and leathery, and of a rich dark 
brown. The leaves are serrated at the margin ; 

318 ACERINE^. [part ii. 

and the lower ones are cut into five lobes ; but 
those near the flowers have generally only three 

Fig. 124.— Youxg Syca.more. 

CHAP. I.] ACERINE^. 319 

lobes ((?), and in all the leaves, two of the lobes 
are not so deeply cut as the others. 

There are many species of Acer, most of 
which are tall trees ; and they are chiefly dis- 
tinguished from each other by the shape of the 
leaves and of the samaras, or keys, the wings of 
which, in some species, are near together, as 
shown at d in Jig. 123, and in others widely 
apart, as in the common hedge Maple {A. cam- 
pestris), and in the Norway Maples, as shown at 
a mjig. 125. This figure represents the flowers 
of the Norway Maple (Acer pIata?ioides), which 
are in what botanists call a corymb, and stand 
erect, instead of drooping like those of the 
sycamore. The leaves are deeply five-lobed, 
and the lobes are so coarsely toothed, that the 
teeth have almost the appearance of lobules. 
The buds of this plant in winter are large and 
red, and when they open in spring, the bracts 
{b) curl back over the scales (c). The leaves 
become of a clear yellowish red in autumn, and 
the whole plant is very ornamental. When a 
leaf of this tree is broken off*, a milky sap issues 
from the broken petiole or leaf-stalk, which is 
of an acrid nature ; differing in this respect, 
materially from the sap of the trunk, which is 
very sweet. Sugar indeed may be made from the 
sap of the trunk of almost all the Maples ; but 
particularly in America, from that of the Sugar 




Maple (Acer saccharinum) . The flowers of the 
red American Maple (Acer ruhrum) are red, and 
as from their colour, and their appearing a 
fortnight before the leaves, they are very con- 
spicuous, I have given a magnified representa- 
tion of them in Jig. 126, that my readers may 
have an opportunity of examining the male 

FxG. 125. — Flowers and Samara of the Noravay ]\Iaple. 

CHAP. I.] 



and female flowers from a living tree. l^Jig- 
126, a a are male flowers, having no stigmas ; 
and b b are female ones, having no stamens. 

Fig. 12G. — Flowers of the Red Maple [Acer ruhrum). 

The leaves of Acer ruhrum become red in 
autumn. The Tatarian Maple differs from the 
other species in having entire leaves, and the 
samaras are red when young ; but all the other 
kinds of Acer common in British gardens bear 
a strong family likeness to each other. The 
Ash-leaved Maple is now made into a separate 
genus, and is called Neg undo fraxinifolia. This 
tree is easily distinguished from the Maples by 
its compound leaves, which resemble those of 

322 HIPPOCASTANE^. [part ii. 

the Ash, and its long pea-green shoots, which 
have very few buds. The male and female 
flowers of the Negundo are on different trees, 
and they are so small as to be seldom seen, 
though the racemes of samaras or keys which 
succeed the flowers are very conspicuous. The 
Negundo is a native of America, and its leaves 
turn yellow in autumn. 


This order contains only two genera ; viz., 
iEsculus, the Horse-chestnut, and Pavia, the 
Buckeye; both of which are generally called 
Horse-chestnuts, though the genera are easily 
distinguished by their fruit, the husk of which 
is smooth in the Pavias, but rough in the true 
Horse-chestnuts. The buds of all the species of 
both genera are covered with bracted scales, 
most of which fall off* when the leaves and 
flowers expand; and those of the common Horse- 
chestnut (y^sculus Hippocastanum) are very large, 
and covered with a kind of gum. Four large 
compound leaves, each consisting of five or seven 
leaflets, and a raceme of sixty-eight flowers, have 
been unfolded on dissecting one of these buds, 
before the leaves unfold in spring. The flowers 
of this species are produced in large, upright 

CHAP. I.] 



panided racemes (see a in Jig. 127) ; and the 
leaves (b) are compound, consisting of five or 

Fig. 127.— Flowkrs ok the Horse-chestnut. 

Y 2 




seven leaflets, disposed in a palmate manner. 
Two of the inner bracts, which remain after the 
outer scales (which are very numerous) have 
fallen, are shown at c. I mention this parti- 
cularly, as these remaining bracts have very 
much the appearance of stipules, and it is one 
of the characters of the Horse-chestnuts that 
their leaves are without stipules. The flowers 
consist of five petals, two of which (d in Jig. 
128) are somewhat smaller than the others. 
Each petal consists of a broad blade or limb 

Fig. 128.— Horse-chestnut. 

(e), and a very narrow claw (/*). There are 
seven stamens, three of which (g) are shorter 
than the others. The filaments are inserted in 



the receptacle (h), and surround 
which is hairy, and has 
curved stigma (z). The 
ovary is two-celled, and 
each cell contains two 
ovules, but seldom more 
than one seed ripens. 
The nut (k) is large, and 
covered with a shining 
brown skin, which is 
strongly marked with the 
hilum. When put into 
the ground, the cotyle- 
dons do not appear in 
the shape of seed-leaves, 
but remain in the ground, 
and the plumule and 
radicle are protruded as 
shown in Jiff. 129. The 
Acorn germinates in a 
similar manner, as al- 
ready shown in Jiff. 86 
in p. 192. 

The flowers of the different species of ^scu- 
lus vary considerably ; as, for example, in the 
Scarlet Horse-chestnut (jE.rubicunda), the calyx 
is tubular (see a in Jiff. 130), and there are but 
four petals, the upper two of which (b) are nar- 
rower than the lower ones (c), and have bearded 

Fig. 129. — Yocng plant of 



[part II. 

claws. This species has sometimes eight sta- 
mens. In the Yellow Horse-chestnut, or yellow 

flowered Ameri- 
can Buckeye, 
the upper petals 
{a mjig. 131) 
are very much 
smaller than the 
lower ones (^), 
and both have 
very long claws. 
There are four 
petals, which 
conceal the sta- 
mens, of which 
there are fre- 
quently only six. 
The seed of Pa- 
via has only a 
small hilum, 
which resembles 
the pupil of an 
eye (see Jig, 
132); and hence 
the genus has re- 
ceived its Ame- 
rican name of 
Buckeye. In 
one species (P. 

Fig. 130. — Scarlet Horse-chestnut. 

Fio. 131. — Yellow Hors£-cu£stnut. 

CHAP. I.] 



macrostachya)^ the nut is eatable, and very 
much resembles that of a Sweet Chestnut when 
boiled in milk. The stamens 
in this species are much 
longer than the petals, and 
they give a peculiarly light 
and elegant appearance to 
the flowers ; which, unlike 
those of the other species, do 
not appear till the latter end 
of summer or autumn. 

Fig. 132 — Nut of the 




Trees of large size, natives of tropical Ame- 
rica. Caryocar nuciferum produces the Suwar- 
row, or Butter-nut of the fruiterers' shops. 


The only plant in this order which will grow 
in the open air in England is Kolreuteria pani- 
culata, a beautiful tree, with very elegant leaves, 
and panicles of yellow flowers, which are suc- 
ceeded by a bladdery capsule, which is divided 
into three cells in its lower part, though it is 
only one-celled above. The rind and pulp of 
the fruit of Sapindus Saponaria are used as 

328 MELIACE^. [part ii. 

soap in those countries of which it is a native. 
The nuts of this plant are round and hard, and 
of such a shining black that they are made 
into buttons and beads by the inhabitants of 
Spanish America. The whole plant, if thrown 
into ponds containing fish, will intoxicate, and 
sometimes kill them. Another interesting plant 
belono^ino^ to this order is the Chinese fruit 
called Litchi {Euphoria or Neplieliwn Litchi) ; 
which has its sweet eatable pulp enclosed in a 
kind of nut, much wrinkled on the outside ; so 
that the fruit lies within the stone, instead of 
being on the outside of it. These hard, stone- 
Hke berries grow in loose racemes. 


Melia Azederach^ the Pride of India, or Indian 
Lilac, or Bead-tree, for it is known by all these 
names, is a native of Syria, which has become 
almost naturalised in the South of Europe, 
particularly near the Mediterranean. The 
leaves are bi-pinnate, the flowers are violet- 
coloured, and the fruit, which resembles that of 
the cherry, is of a pale yellow when ripe. The 
pulp is poisonous, and the stones are used for 
making rosaries in the Roman Catholic countries. 

CHAP, r.] AMPELIDEiE. 329 


This order was at first united to Meliacese by 
De Candolle, but it has been separated on 
account of its winged seeds. It contains, among 
other genera, the Mahogany tree (Sivietenia 
Mahagom), and the West Indian Cedar (Ce- 
drela). The leaves of these trees are alternate 
and pinnate, with unequal-sided leaflets ; and 
the flowers are in large spreading panicles com- 
posed of numerous little cymes. The fruit is 
capsular, and the seeds are winged. The genera 
contained in this order, all require a stove in 
Great Britain. 


The natural order Ampelidese contains seve- 
ral genera, but of these only the Vine and the 
five-leaved Ivy are common in British gardens. 
It seems almost ridiculous to talk of the flowers 
of the Vine, as the bunches, even when they 
first appear, seem to consist of only very small 
grapes, which gradually become large ones. 
The flowers, however, though small and insigni- 
ficant, are perfect, and they havq each a distinct 
and regularly formed calyx and corolla. The 
calyx of the common Grape {Vitis viniferd) is 
very small, and remains on till the fruit is 



[part II. 

ripe ; there are five petals (a mjig. 133), which 
never expand, but remain fastened together at 
the tip, detaching themselves at the base, when 

it is necessary that 
they should give room 
to the ripening sta- 
mens (Z>). The petals, 
which form a kind of 
extinguisher, when 
they are raised by the 
five stamens, fall off 

Fig. 133.— Flowers of the Vine. (c). and OCCasioU the 

chaffy appearance observable in clusters of Vine- 
flowers. The ovary is, when young, in two 
cells, each containing two seeds ; and it is 
crowned with a nearly flat, round stigma, with- 
out any style. When the fruit begins to swell, 
the ovary becomes filled with a pulp, which is 
solid, and not contained in bags like that of the 
Orange ; and the dissepiment that divided the 
two cells gradually wastes away. Two, and 
sometimes three of the seeds also frequently 
disappear, so that four seeds are rarely found 
in the ripe grape. The seeds themselves are 
bony, and covered with a jelly-like matter ; and 
when they are cut open, they are found to 
consist of a large quantity of hard albumen, 
with a very small embryo at the tip. The Vine 
is a climbing shrub, with lobed leaves, which 


are frequently deeply cut ; the bunches in which 
the grapes are disposed are called branched or 
thyrsoid racemes (see 137), and the tendrils, 
by which the plant climbs, are supposed to be 
abortive peduncles, drawn out into these long, 
flexible, curling bodies, instead of producing 
bunches of grapes. The footstalks of the leaves 
are articulated, and will separate from the 
branch without tearing them. The different 
species of vines differ from each other chiefly 
in their leaves ; but in the American grapes 
the calyx is sometimes entire, and sometimes 
the stamens and pistils are in different flowers. 
The five-leaved Ivy, or Virginian Creeper 
(Ampelopsis /ie6?erace«), differs very little from the 
Vine in the botanical construction of its flowers. 
The calyx is, however, almost entire, and the 
five petals separate in the same way as those 
of other flowers; but in other respects they 
closely resemble those of the Vines. The berries 
are small, and not palatable, though they might 
be eaten with perfect safety. The leaves are 
palmate, and they are divided into three or five 
stalked leaflets. The stems are climbing and 
rooting ; and the leaves take a beautiful deep 
red in autumn. The genus Cissus also belongs 
to this order. 

332 GERANIACE^. [part ii. 


The order Geraniacese contains several ge- 
nera of well-known plants, the most popular of 
which are Pelargonium, Er odium, and Geranium^ 
signifying Stork's-bill, Heron's-bill, and Crane's- 
bill^ which differ very slightly from each other. 
The greenhouse Geraniums, which are all either 
natives of the Cape of Good Hope, or hybrids 
raised in Europe from the species originally 
imported, were, till lately, all included in the 
genus Pelargonium ; but what were sections of 
that genus have, by some botanists, been now 
made separate genera. As probably, however, 
this rage for giving new and different names to 
divisions and subdivisions will not be generally 
adopted, I will not trouble my readers with 
any other distinctions than those between the 
three leading genera ; and even these, I think 
they will allow, appear very trifling. The calyx 
of the Pelargonium is in five sepals, and two of 
them end in a kind of spur ; which is, however, 
not very perceptible, as it runs down the pedun- 
cle or footstalk of the flower, and grows to it, 
so as to seem only a part accidentally enlarged. 
The corolla is in five petals, the upper two of 
which are generally larger, and differently 
marked to the others. Sometimes there are 
only four, and sometimes there are six petals ; 


but these are exceptions to the general rule. 
The perfect stamens vary in number from four 
to seven ; but there are always ten filaments, 
which are dilated, and grow together at the 
base ; and I was quite delighted with the 
sparkling gem-like appearance of the mem- 
brane which they form when thus united, when 
I looked at it through my little microscope. 
In the plant now before me (a hybrid called the 
Duke of Sussex), the upper parts of some of the 
stamens have turned into little petals, retaining 
the white membrane-like part at the base, and 
thus curiously exemplifying the manner in which 
double flowers are formed, which is always by 
the metamorphosis of the stamens, or of the 
stamens and pistil, into petals. The pistil of 
the Pelargonium appears, when young, to con- 
sist of a five-celled ovary, with a long slender 
style, the tip of which is divided into five slender 
curved stigmas. The cells of the ovary are, 
however, five one-seeded carpels, each having a 
separate style ; and though both the carpels 
and styles appear firmly grown together when 
young, yet, in fact, they only adhere to an 
elongation of the receptacle (see a v^fig. 134), 
which is here called the central axis, and from 
which, when ripe, they part with elasticity, and 
curl up, as shown at h ; the styles, or awns, as 
they are sometimes called, being hairy inside. 




Fig. 134.. 

-Seed-vessel of a Pelargo- 

The shape of the unripe seed-vessel, with its 
persistent calyx, is shown at c, and a detached 

seed at ^. No plant 
hybridises more 
freely than the 
Pelargonium ; and 
thus, the number 
of new kinds raised 
every year defies 
all description, and 
they have been so 
mixed and inter- 
mixed with each 
other, that it is 
not easy to say to what species the most 
splendid hybrids are allied. A few species, 
however, remain nearly unchanged, and the 
best known of these are P. zonale, the Horse- 
shoe Geranium ; P. inquinans, the common 
scarlet, the juice of the leaves of which is said 
to stain the fingers brown ; P. graveolens^ and 
P. capitatum^ the rose-scented Geraniums, and 
P. tricolor. All the Pelargoniums have their 
flowers in heads or umbels ; and the calyx in 
all of them remains on till the seeds are ripe. 
The seed-vessel, or fruit, as it is called by bota- 
nists, is long and pointed, forming some resem- 
blance to the head of a stork; the ovary shrouded 
in the persistent calyx, representing the head 


of the bird, and the long styles the beak. The 
leaves vary in shape in the different kinds : 
sometimes they are roundish, as in the Horse- 
shoe Geranium, and marked with a dark band 
or zone, whence the specific name zonale ; and 
sometimes they are deeply cut, as in the rose- 
scented kinds : some are shrubby, and some 
herbaceous ; and the stems of some species are 
warted, and the roots of others tuberous. 

The genus Erodium consists principally of 
European plants, three of which are natives of 
England. The commonest of these {Erodium 
cicutarium) is called in many parts of England 
the AVild Geranium ; and nearly allied to it, 
but less common, is E. moschatum. The princi- 
pal points in which this genus differs from 
Pelargonium are, that the filaments of the sta- 
mens are very little united at the base ; that 
there are always five filaments which bear 
anthers, and five that are sterile, and that the 
latter have each a gland at the base. The calyx 
is also without the spur, and the seed-pod is 
thought to resemble a heron's head more than 
that of a stork. When it bursts, also, the 
styles, which are hairy inside like those of the 
Pelargonium, do not curl up in the same manner 
as in that genus, but spirally. 

The genus Geranium differs from Erodium 
principally in having the stamens all perfect ; 

336 GERANIACE^. [paktii. 

but the alternate ones are longer than the 
others, and have a gland at the base of each. 
The seed-pod is said to resemble the head of a 
crane, and when it bursts, the styles, which are 
smooth inside, curl up round and round like the 
coil of a rope. The seeds of many of the kinds 
are beautifully netted. Many of the species are 
British weeds, and among the commonest of 
these may be mentioned Herb Robert {Gera- 
nium Rohertianum)^ and the Meadow Crane's- 
bill (G. pratense). Dr. Lindley, in his Ladies' 
Botany, mentions a curious and beautiful expe- 
riment which may be performed by pressing the 
petals of a Geranium between two pieces of 
glass which have been previously wetted. He 
says, that by pressing the two glasses firmly 
together, all the air may be squeezed out of the 
petal, and it will become transparent. '* You 
may then," he adds, " with a pretty good mag- 
nifying power, observe all the air-vessels of the 
veins distinctly, looking like fine threads of 
silver-wire twisted up like a spiral spring. It 
is on account of this appearance that the air- 
vessels are called, technically, spiral vessels." 
The experiment appeared to me so easy, and 
at the same time so interesting, that I tried it, 
but unfortunately without success; probably 
owing to the want of power in my microscope. 



This little order contains only one plant, Lim- 
nanthes Douglassi, a pretty Californian annual, 
with yellow and white flowers. It resembles 
Geraniacese in its botanical construction, but it 
does not discharge its seeds with elasticity. 


The well-known flowers called Nasturtium, or 
Indian Cress, give their name to this order ; 
which, in fact, consists only of the genus Tro- 
pasolum, and an obscure genus not yet intro- 
duced. In the flowers of the Nasturtium, the 
calyx and corolla are of nearly the same colour, 
but they may be easily distinguished from each 
other. The calyx is drawn out into a spur 
behind, and the petals, which are unguiculate, or 
claw-shaped, are fringed at the base. The 
leaves and stem are succulent, and have the 
taste of cress, and hence the plant has received 
its popular name, — Nasturtium being the botanic 
name of the water-cress. The Tropseoluni has 
five petals, eight stamens, and three carpels, 
which are joined together into a trigonal fruit, 
each carpel containing one seed, which adheres 
to it. The embryo is large, and fills the w^hole 

338 BALSAMINE^. [part ii. 

seed, which is without albumen. The unripe 
carpels are sometimes pickled, and used as a 
substitute for capers. The whole plant has not 
only the taste, but the properties, of cruciferous 
plants ; and even the caterpillars of the cab- 
bage-butterflies feed upon it. 


Nearly allied to the Geraniums, and resem- 
bling them, in the opening of the seed-pods, are 
the beautiful plants contained in the order Bal- 
saminese. The two genera best known in Bri- 
tish gardens are Balsamina and Impatie'ns. 
The common Balsam {Balsamina hortensis)^ has 
a small green calyx of two sepals ; there are 
four petals, one of which is drawn out into a 
short spur at the base. There are five stamens, 
each bearing a two-celled anther. The ovary 
is one-celled, but it separates into five valves, 
when the seeds are ripe, bursting wdth elasti- 
city, and the valves curling inwardly from the 
apex to the base. There are five stigmas, quite 
distinct from each other, and appearing just 
above the ovary, without any style ; and the 
peduncles are simple and one-flowered. 

The genus Impatiens, which contains the 
common Noli-me-tangere, or Touch-me-Not, 
and other similar plants, though it agrees with 

CHAP. I.] OXALIDE^. 339 

Balsamina in having five anthers, has only three 
of them with two cells, the others having one 
cell each. The stigmas also are joined toge- 
ther at the base, and the capsule bursts at the 
slightest touch, the valves coiling up spirally 
from the base to the apex, and detaching them- 
selves from the plant at the same time that they 
expel the seeds. The peduncles grow from 
the axils of the leaves, and they are branched 
and many-flowered. A separate order, called 
Hydrocerese, has been made of one of the species 
of Impatiens (/. natans). It is an aquatic plant, 
a native of the East Indies. 


The flowers of all the species of Oxalis, the 
Wood- sorrel, are very pretty. The flowers 
Jiave five regular petals, each furnished with a 
claw ; and the petals are spirally twisted in the 
bud. There are ten stamens, and five styles. 
The capsule is five-celled, and five or ten valved, 
the valves opening lengthways. Most of the 
species are natives of South America, and 
greenhouse plants in England. 


340 RUTACEiE. [part ii. 


The flowers of the Bean-caper are usually 
yellow; and the five petals are long, narrow, 
and placed widely apart. The botanic name 
of Zygophyllum signifies " with the leaves in 
pairs," and this is the case to a remarkable 
degree. Fagonia cretica is a very pretty plant, 
with purple flowers very much like those of 
Clarkia ; and Guiacian^ the Lignum Vitse, is 
remarkable for the hardness of its wood and 
the gum it produces. Melianthus belongs to 
this order. 


This order has been divided into four sec- 
tions; three of which contain well-known plants, 
and have been divided into three orders by 
many botanists. The Rue (Ruta graveolens) is 
well known from its strong and disagreeable 
smell, which is produced by the oil secreted in 
transparent cells in the leaves, which have the 
appearance of dots, when the leaves are held up 
to the light. The leaves are of a bluish green, 
and the flowers of a greenish yellow ; the latter 
growing in cymes at the end of the branches. 
There are four sepals, four petals, snd eight sta- 
mens. There are four carpels, seated on an ele- 
vated receptacle, and each containing one cell, 

CHAP. I.] RUTACE^. 341 

whichgrow into a four-celled fruit. InFraxinella 
{Bictamnus) the petals are unequal ; there are 
ten stamens, one style, and the carpels are 
two-seeded. In Diosma there are only five 
stamens, the style is arched, and the capsule 
consists of five-horned cai'pels. In Corrsea the 
leaves are opposite ; there are eight stamens, 
and the four petals grow together into a tube 
at the base ; and in Crowea there are five 
sepals, five petals, and ten stamens ; the leaves 
are also alternate. The Diosmas have as strong 
a scent as the Rue, and a perfume is made from 
them called Bucku at the Cape of Good Hope, 
of which country they are natives. 

The section Zanthoxylese contains the Zan- 
thoxylum, also called the Toothache Tree, or 
Prickly Ash, a native of North America, the 
bark of which is very fragrant, and is said to be 
a cure for toothache and rheumatism ; Ptelea 
or Shrubby Trefoil ; and Ailantus glandulosa. 
Zanthoxylum fraxineum has very pretty pinnate 
leaves, and small purple flowers ; Ptelea trifo- 
liata has curiously winged fruit, which resemble 
those of the elm ; and the Ailantus has re- 
markably long compound leaves, one leaf having 
been known to have fourteen pairs of leaflets, 
and to be upwards of three feet long. The two 
following orders are included in Rutacese by 
some botanists. 

342 CALYCIFLOR^. [part ik 

Quassia amara, the bark of which is some- 
times used as a substitute for hops, is perhaps 
the best known plant belonging to this order. 
All the species are trees or shrubs, natives of 
tropical America, with bitter bark, milky juice, 
and pinnated leaves. 


Tropical shrubs with yellow flowers and 
shining leaves ; seldom seen in British hot- 


Only one species of this order is common in 
British gardens, viz. Coriaria myrtifolia; the 
leaves of which are astringent, and used in 
dyeing black, and the berries are poisonous. 

§ II. — Calyciflor^. 

The plants comprised in this division have 
their petals and stamens inserted in the calyx, 
or in a lining of it formed by the dilated recep- 



This order is divided into three sections, each 
containing well-known plants. The first of these 
takes its name from Staphylcea pinnata, the 
Bladder-nut. In the flowers of this plant the 
calyx is in five divisions, and white tinged with 
pink, so as to be scarcely distinguishable from 
the corolla. There are two or three carpels, 
which are surrounded by the receptacle, and 
the styles of which adhere shghtly together. 
The capsule is bladdery, and consists of two or 
three cells, each containing one smooth, brown- 
ish, bony seed, which looks as though one end 
had been cut off at the hilum. The leaves are 
compound, each having five leaflets. The second 
section contains, among other plants, the 
Spindle-tree {Euonyimcs eurojjcEUs)^ Cassine, 
and the Staff" tree {Celastrus scandens). The 
Euonymus has small whitish-green inconspi- 
cuous flowers ; but it is remarkable for the 
beauty of its capsules, which are fleshy, and of 
a bright rose-colour, while the seeds, which are 
of a bright orange, are enwrapped in a covering 
called an aril, by which they remain attached 
to the capsule after the valves have opened. 
Each capsule has five cells and five seeds, and 
each seed has a little white stalk attached to its 
aril, like the funicle of a pea. There are several 



[part II. 

species. The Celastrus is a climbing shrub, 
remarkable for its clusters of flowers, but which 
has nothing else to recommend it. The third 
section, Aquifoliacese, is made a separate order, 
under the name of Ilicinese, or Aquifoliacese, by 
many botanists ; some of whom place it in the 
sub-class Corollseflorse, because the petals are 
connected at the base. The most common plants 
that it contains are included in the genera Ilex 
and Prinos. In Ilex aquifoUurrii the Holly, the 
corolla {a in Jig. 135), is in four or five petals 

Fig. 135.— The Holly, 

connected at the base ; there are four stamens, 
the cells of the anthers of which adhere to the 
sides of the filament [h). The berry (c) is four- 


celled, each cell containing a one-seeded nut. 
The leaves (d) are simple, and smooth, shining 
and prickly at the edges, which are curved 
upwards. Prinos, the Winter-berry, is a little 
evergreen shrub, with red berries. 


The most interesting genera in this order are 
Paliurus, Zizyphus, Rhamnus, and Ceanothus. 
Christ's Thorn {Paliurus aculeatus) is easily 
known by its crooked prickly stem, and its sin- 
gular fruit, which, from its resembling a head 
with a broad flat hat on, the French call, 
Porte-chapeau. The flowers are yellow, but 
they are too small to be ornamental. Zizyphus 
Jujuha differs from Paliurus chiefly in its fruit, 
which resembles a small plum, and from the 
fruit of which the Jujube lozenges are made. 
There are numerous species of Rhamnus, some 
of which are trailing- shrubs, and others low 
trees. Some of the species, such as R. Alater- 
nus, are evergreen shrubs, very useful in town- 
gardens, as they are not injured by smoke ; 
others, such as the Purging Buckthorn (R. ca- 
tharticus)^ have deciduous, rough, feather-nerved 
leaves, and the branchlets terminating in a 
thorn. The berries of the plants in this division 
are sold for dyeing yellow, under the name of 

346 HOMALINEJS. [PAur ii. 

French or Avignon berries. Another division 
includes the species which are without thorns. 
Ail these plants have their male and female 
flowers distinct. The last division of Rhamnus 
has perfect flowers, and dark-purple berries, as 
for example, the Berry-bearing Alder {JR.fran- 
gula). The genus Ceanothus is well known 
from the beautiful C. azureus. The other species 
have generally the same kind of terminal, 
upright panicles of feathery flowers, but they 
are very inferior in beauty. C. americanus^ which 
has white flowers, is sometimes called American 
Red-root, or New Jersey Tea. 


Small heath-hke shrubs, natives of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

Tropical shrubs or trees with dotted leaves, 
and inconspicuous flowers. 


This order contains the handsome evergreen 
half-hardy shrub, Aristotelia Macqui ; the 
flowers are insignificant, but the berries are 


black, acid, and eatable, and the leaves are 
smooth, shinino^, and so abundant as to render 
the plant an excellent screen. 


African plants, with panicles of small white 
jQowers, and simple leaves. 


Trees, natives of Asia, little known in Eng- 



This order is divided by De Candolle into 
seven sections ; viz., 1 . Anacardiacese, includ- 
ing the Cashew-nut {Anacardiiim)^ the Mango 
(Manc/ifera), and the Turpentine trees {Pista- 
cia ) ; 2. Sumachineae, which contains Rhus, 
Schinus, and Bwcaua : 3, Spondiaceae, contain- 
ing the Hog-plum (Spondias) ; 4. Burseraceae, 
including the Jamaica Birch {Bursera), and 
the Balm of Gilead tree {Balsamodendron) ; 
5. Amyride£8, the West Indian Balsam tree 
(Jmi/ris); 6. Spatheliacece, the West Indian 
Sumach (Spathelia) ; and 7. Connaracese, 

348 TEREBINTH ACE^. [part n. 

containing Omphalobium, and other exotic ge- 
nera. Of these modern botanists make five dis- 
tinct orders, viz., Anacardiacese, including the 
first, second, and fifth sections ; Amyridese, 
Spondiacese, Bm-seracese, and Connaracese. 
Ptelea, which was originally included in this or- 
der, is now generally placed in Xanthoxylaceae. 
The plants contained in this order have in 
some cases perfect flowers, and in others, the 
male and female flowers on different plants. 
They all abound in a resinous gum ; that 
from the Mastic tree (Pisfacia Lentiscwji), and 
several of the species of Rhus, is used for 
making varnish; the gum of the Turpentine 
tree (P. Terehintlms) is the Cliian or Cyprus 
turpentine. The flowers are small, and generally 
produced in panicles, the petals are sometimes 
wanting. The leaves are alternate, without 
stipules, and often compound. The flowers 
have generally five petals, and five or ten sta- 
mens ; and the fruit is drupaceous, or capsular, 
varying in the different genera. In Anacar- 
dium, the peduncle which supports the Cashew- 
nut is fleshy and pear-shaped, so as to resemble 
a fruit more than the nut itself. The Mango 
has a fleshy drupe, with a woody, fibrous stone 
or nut. In Pistacia, the fruit is a dry drupe 
inclosing a nut, which is eatable in P. vera. 
Both the male and female flowers in this genus 


are liandsome, though without petals, from the 
anthers being yellow, and the stigmas crimson. 
The different species of Sumach, or Rhus, are all 
poisonous ; and the Venetian Sumach {Rhus 
cotinus) is remarkable from the appearance 
presented by its flower-stalks in autumn ; as all 
the flower-stalks which do not bear fruit dilate, 
after the flowers have dropped, and become 
covered with a great quantity of white cottony 
hair, which makes each panicle resemble a 
powdered wig ; and hence, the French call the 
tree Arbre a perruque. 

IN P. 35.) 

The plants belonging to this order have alter- 
nate leaves, which are generally compound, and 
frequently have the common petiole tumid ; 
the}^ have also two stipules at the base of the 
petiole, and frequently two others to each 
leaflet. The pedicels are usually articulated, 
and the flowers are furnished with small bracts. 
The flowers have a five-parted calyx, and a 
corolla, sometimes papilionaceous, and some- 
times spreading, which has never more than five 
petals, though it has frequently less. The fruit 
is a legume, though sometimes, when there is 
only one seed, it has the appearance of a drupe. 

350 ROSACEA. [part ii. 

There are eleven sections given in De Candolle's 
Prodromus, viz., 1. Sopliorece^ the Sophora tribe ; 
2. LotecB^ the Lotus tribe; 3. HedysarecB^ the 
Sainfoin tribe ; 4. Viciece^ the Vetch tribe, 
(including the Pea and Bean) ; 5. Phaseolece, 
the Kidney-bean tribe ; 6. Dalbergia^ the Gum- 
dragon tribe ; 7. Sioartzia ; 8, MimosecE, the 
Mimosa tribe ; 9. Geoff rea^ the Earth-nut tribe, 
(including the Earth-nut Arachis, and the Ton- 
quin Bean, Dipterix) ; 10. CassiecB, the Cassia 
tribe ; and 11. Detariecs. Some botanists in- 
clude Moringa, the Horse-radish tree, in Le- 
guminosse, but others make it a separate order 
under the name of Moringese. 

ORDER LXVIIL— ROSACE^.— (See Chap. III. in P. 50.) 

The flowers have five sepals, combined in 
their lower part into a tube, but divided above 
into five lobes ; and the corolla has generally 
five petals. There are numerous carpels, which 
are usually inclosed in the fleshy tube of the 
calyx. The ovary is one-celled, and there is 
seldom more than one seed, and scarcely ever 
more than two. The leaves are alternate, 
generally compound, and always furnished with 
stipules. De Candolle divides the order into 
eight tribes, viz., 1. ChrysobalanecB ; 2. Amygda- 


linecB ; 3. Spiracece ; 4. Neuradece ; 5. Dryadce^ 
or Potentillece ; 6. Sanguisorbece ; 7. Rosece ; and 
8. PomaceoB. Of these, the first, second, third, 
and eight, are made separate orders ; the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh are retained in Rosacese. 
Neuradese was first removed to Ficoideacese, 
and afterwards made a separate order ; and 
another order has been made, called Quillagese, 
including only the genera Kageneckia and 


There are only two genera in this order, 
both of which are remarkable for the fraofrance 
of their flowers. The American Allspice (Ca- 
lycanthus Jioridus) is a shrub, with very dark 
blackish purple flowers, which botanists consi- 
der to be all calyx, the plants in this order 
having no petals. The lobes of the calyx are 
somewhat leathery in texture, and lanceolate in 
form ; they are very numerous, and they are 
disposed in several rows, like scales. The sta- 
mens are numerous, but only the outer twelve 
are fertile, and they soon fall off: The peduncle 
is thickened below the flower ; and the recep- 
tacle is dilated, and drawn out over the carpels, 
which are arranged in it like those of the rose, 
which they closely resemble, but are much 

352 GRANATE^. [part ii. 

larger. The leaves are opposite and feather- 
nerved. Chimonantlius fragrans^ so well-known 
for its beautiful yellowish flowers, which are 
produced about Christmas, belongs to this 
order. In this plant the lobes of the calyx are 
oval, and not nearly so numerous as in Calycan- 
thus ; the outer lobes look like bracts. The 
stamens are less numerous, and not deciduous ; 
and only five are fertile, which are united at the 
base. This plant was formerly called Calycan- 
thus prcecox. 

This order has only one genus and two 
species. The Pomegranate {Pimica Granatum) 
has a tubular calyx, with a limb in five or 
seven divisions, and the same number of petals 
as there are segments to the calyx. The calyx 
and corolla are both of the same colour. When 
the petals fall, the tube of the calyx swells, and 
becomes a many-celled berry, the limb of the 
calyx remaining on, and forming a kind of 
crown to the fruit. The cells are divided into 
two parts, and they contain a great number of 
seeds which are plunged in a juicy pulp. The 
other species, P. nana^ only differs in being a 
dwarf plant, and in the leaves being narrower. 
The Pomegranate was formerly included in 


Tropical trees and shrubs, with white or 
purpHsh flowers, and eatable fruit. 


This order is well-known from the two beau- 
tiful climbing stove-plants, Comhretum purpu- 
reum^ and Quisqualis indica. The flowers of the 
former are disposed in racemes, which have a 
peculiarly light and graceful appearance, from 
the great length of their stamens ; and as 
they are of a brilliant scarlet, the name of Pur- 
pureum is very ill applied to the species. The 
flowers of Quisqualis indica have a very long 
slender tube to the calyx, and five velvet-like 
petals, which vary in colour from a yellowish 
white to red, changing in the course of one day. 

Brazilian trees and shrubs, with yellow 
flowers, and stipulate, feather-nerved leaves. 


The Mangroves (Rhizophora) are tropical 
trees, growing in the soft mud of rivers, particu- 

3.54 ONAGRART^. [part ii. 

larly in that of the Niger, so that, when the 
rivers are full, they appear to grow out of the 
water. The seeds have the singular property 
of germinating in the capsule, and sending down 
long roots while yet hanging on the tree, the 
branches of which thus appear, at a little dis- 
tance, as if covered with long white strings. 
All the genera belonging to this order require 
a stove in England. 


The only plant contained in this order is a 
beautiful shrub from Sierra Leone, with termi- 
nal corymbs of white flowers, and coriaceous 

IN P. 75.) 

The tube of the calyx generally adheres to 
the ovary, and its limb is usually two or four 
lobed, the lobes frequently adhering together. 
The petals are either four, or equal in number 
to the lobes of the calyx ; they are inserted 
in the mouth of the tube, and are twisted in the 
bud. The fruit is generally a capsule, or a 
berry, with two or four cells ; and there are 
numerous seeds. The leaves vary consider- 


ably, and are sometimes alternate, and some- 
times opposite, but never compound. De Can- 
doUe divides this order into six sections : viz. 
\. MontiniecB ; 2. FuchsiecB ; ^. OnagrecB, con- 
taining the Evening Primrose {(Enothei^a)^ and 
the French Willow Herb {Epilobium) ; 4. Jus- 
sieucB : 5. CirccBce, including the Enchanter's 
Nightshade (CirccBo), and Lopezia ; and 6. Hy- 
drocaryes^ containing the Water-caltrops ( Trapa 
natans). This last section is sometimes made a 
separate order. 


Most of the plants in this order are British 
weeds ; as for example, the Water Milfoil {My- 
riophyllum)^ Water Starwort {Callitriche)^ and 
Mare's-tail (Hippuris) ; but some are natives of 
North America, China, &c., and one genus has 
lately been discovered in Australia, which Dr. 
Lindley has named Loudonia aurea^ and which 
is a large shrub, with corymbs of golden yellow 


British weeds called Hornwort. 

A A 2 

356 TAMARISCINE^. [part ii. 


The principal plants in this order that are 
interesting to amateurs, are included in the 
genera Lythrum, Cuphea, Heimia, Lawsonia, 
and Lagerstroemia. The genus Lythrum con- 
tains all those showy British plants which are 
called the Willow Herbs. The flowers are 
purple, and the petals, which are four or six in 
number, are crumpled in the bud. The stamens 
are either the same number as the petals, or 
twice the number, and the capsule is two-celled. 
The calyx, as in all the plants included in this 
order, is tubular, with numerous lobes ; and the 
petals soon fall off. Cuphea is a genus princi- 
pally of annual plants, with six or seven dark 
purple petals, unequal in size, and curiously in- 
serted in the calyx. Heimia is a genus of South 
American shrubs, with yellow flowers. Law- 
sonia inermis produces the Henna, which the 
ladies of the East use to dye the palms of their 
hands pink ; and Lagerstroemia is a beautiful 
conservatory tree, with handsome flowers. This 
plant is sometimes called the pride of India. 


There are very few plants in this order, and 
the only ones common in British gardens are 

CH4P I.] ALANGIE^. 357 

the French Tamarisk (Tamarix Gallica)^ and 
the German Tamarisk ( Tamarix, or Myriacaria 
Germanica) ; both of which are easily recognized 
by their light airy branches, (which when young 
are covered with closely imbricated leaves, 
though the leaves drop off as the wood ripens,) 
and their terminal erect spikes of whitish or 
pink flowers. The seeds are large, and are 
each furnished with a tuft of hairs at the end of 
a kind of stalk. These plants are very suitable 
for planting near the sea, as they are uninjured 
by the sea-breeze. 


This order consists of showy exotic plants, 
most of which require a stove in Britain, and 
which are easily known by their leaves being 
marked with two or more deep lines running 
parallel to the midrib. They are all free-grow- 
ing plants, with very handsome flowers, which 
are generally purple or white. 


There are two genera, Alangium and Mar- 
lea, both handsome shrubs, natives of India. 

358 MYRTACEiE. [part ii. 


There are three genera in this order : viz., 
Philadelphus, the Mock Orange or Syringa ; 
Decumaria and Deutzia, all which have white 
flowers. There are many species of Philadel- 
phus, all of which are easily known by their 
large white flowers, and large coarse-looking 
leaves. The flowers of the common species 
{P. coronarius) smell like those of the Orange, 
and the leaves taste like cucumber. There is 
only one species of Decumaria (Z). barhara), 
which is a native of Virginia and Carolina, and 
is a climbing shrub, with terminal corymbs of 
white, sweet-scented flowers. Deutzia scahra^ 
though only introduced in 1833, is already 
common in gardens ; and it is a general fa- 
vourite from the great abundance of its flowers. 
Though it said to be not a true climber, its 
stems are too weak to stand without support. 
It is a native of Japan, and though generally 
kept in pots, it is supposed to be quite hardy. 


No plants are more easily recognized than 
those belonging to this tribe ; as they are easily 
distinguished by their entire leaves, which have 
no stipules, and which, when held up to the 


light, appear to be not only full of transparent 
dots, but to have a transparent line round the 
margin. The flowers have also abundance of 
stamens on long slender filaments which look 
like tufts of silk, and only four or five petals. 
The whole of the plants are fragrant, and every 
part of them seems full of an aromatic oil, which 
is particularly visible in the flower-buds of Caryo- 
jjhyllus aromaticus, which when dried form what 
are commonly called cloves ; and in the leaves 
of some of the kinds of Eucalyptus. The ge- 
nera may be divided into two sections, viz., 
those with a dry capsule for the fruit ; in which 
are included Melaleuca and its allied genera, 
Eucalyptus, CalUstemon, Metrosideros and Lepto- 
spermum ; and those with berry-like fruit, the 
most interesting of which are Psidiimi, the Gu- 
ava ; Myrfus, the Myrtle ; Caryophyllus, the 
Clove ; Eugenia or Myrtus pimenta^ Jamaica 
Allspice ; and Jambosa Vulgaris or Eugenia 
Jambosa, the Rose Apple. In some of the ge- 
nera, as for example in Eucalyptus, the sepals 
of the calyx become detached at the base, and 
being united above form a sort of cap or calyp- 
tra, which is pushed off by the stamens when 
the flower begins to expand. Besides the plants 
already enumerated, some botanists add another 
section to Myrtacese, which others consider a 
separate order, under the name of Lecythidecs. 

360 CUCURBIT ACE^. [part ii. 

This section contains three genera, the most 
remarkable plants in which are the Cannon 
Ball-tree {Lecytliis Ollaria), and the Brazil Nut 
{Bertholletia excelsa). The fruit of this last 
plant is fleshy, and as large as a child's head, 
opening with a lid, and containing sixteen or 
twenty triangular seeds, laid over each other in 
a regular manner, which are theBrazil-nuts sold 
in the shops. 


The plants included in this order have gene- 
rally the male and female flowers distinct. The 
calyx is tubular, and generally five-toothed; 
there are five petals usually connected at the 
base, and which have strongly marked reticu- 
lated veins. There are five stamens, four of 
which are united so as to form two pairs, with 
the fifth one free. The anthers are two-celled, 
and generally very long. There are three or 
five two-lobed stigmas, which are thick and 
velvety. The fruit is fleshy, with numerous flat 
seeds. The leaves are palmate, and very rough ; 
and the plants have succulent stems, and climb 
by means of their tendrils. The principal genera 
are, Cucumis, which includes the Melon (C 
melo)y the Cucumber (C sativus), the Mandrake 


(C Dudahii)^ the Water Melon (C. cifrullus), 
and the Colocynth (C colocynthis) ; Bryonia, 
best known by the ^Vhite Bryony {B. dioica) ; 
Momordica, including the Balsam Apple {M, 
balsamea), and the Squirting Cucumber (M. ela- 
terium) ; and Cucurbita, including all the kinds 
of Pumpkin (C.pepo). and Vegetable Marrow 
(C. ovifera). To these may be added Lagenaria, 
the Bottle Gourd ; and Trichosanthes, the Snake 
Gourd, plants far more curious than useful. 
Some botanists include the Papaw-tree (Carica 
Papaya) in Cucurbitacese, but others make it 
into a separate order under the name of Pa- 


The plants belonging to this order may be 
instantly recognized by the very singular ar- 
rangement of the pistil and stamens. The 
receptacle is raised in the centre of the flower 
so as to form a long cylindrical stipe, on which 
is placed the ovary, with its three styles, each 
ending in a fleshy stigma; a little lower are five 
stamens, with their filaments growing together 
round the stipe, and with large anthers which 
are attached by the back. At the base of the 
stipe are two or more rows of filaments without 

362 LOASE^. [part ii. 

anthers, which are called the rays. There are 
five petals and five sepals ; but some botanists 
consider the whole to be sepals, and that the 
petals are wanting. The fruit of some of the 
species is eatable. It is about the size of a 
large egg, and contains numerous seeds, which 
are enveloped in a kind of pulp. 


This order consists entirely of the plants be- 
longing to the genus Malesherbia ; which are 
mostly annuals, or biennials, with very showy 
blue or white flowers, introduced from Chili in 
1832. The genus was formerly included in 


All the species contained in this genus are 
natives of North America, and most of them 
are annuals, with very showy flowers. The 
genera Loasa and Caiophora are covered with 
glandular hairs or bristles, which sting much 
worse than those of the nettle. Bartonia aurea 
is one of the most splendid annuals in culti- 
vation, from its golden yellow flowers ; Blumen- 
hachia has the fruit roundish and spirally twisted, 
and Caiophora has the fruit horn-shaped, and 


twisted in a similar manner. This curious con- 
struction of the fruit may be seen in C. imnicea^ 
the well known showy climber, generally called 
Loasa aurantiaca^ or lateritia. The fruit of the 
true kinds of Loasa is plain and not twisted, as 
may be seen in L. nitida, L. Placet, and in short 
in all the other species of the genus. The 
flowers of most of the plants in this order are 
very curiously constructed, there being two sets 
of petals quite distinct in form and colour, and 
two sets of stamens. The five outer petals are 
large and hooded, and in each is cradled a 
bundle of four or more stamens. These petals 
and stamens are turned back ; but there is a 
second set of five petals which are generally 
blotched with red, which stand erect, and en- 
close a second set of stamens also erect, which 
surround the style. 


The only genus in British gardens is Turnera, 
and the species are hothouse and greenhouse 
herbaceous plants, with flowers very like those 
of the Bladder Ketmia. On examination, how- 
ever, it will be immediately seen that they do 
not belong to the IMallow tribe, as their stamens 
are distinct, whereas those of all the Malvaceae 
are united into a central column. 

364 PORTULACEiE. [part ii. 


The ornamental plants belonging to this 
order, are all included in the genera Calandri- 
nia, Portulaca, Talinum, and Claytonia ; and 
those belonging to the first two of these genera 
have very showy flowers. In all the species the 
flowers have a distinct calyx, generally of only 
two sepals, which remains on till the seeds are 
ripe ; and a corolla of five regular petals, which 
close in the absence of the sun. Each flower 
has numerous stamens, and a single style with a 
broad-lobed stigma which, is succeeded by a dry, 
one-celled capsule, with a central placenta, to 
which are attached numerous seeds. The cap- 
sule opens naturally when ripe by splitting into 
three or four valves. But the most distinctive 
mark by which plants belonging to this order 
can be distinguished from others with simi- 
larly shaped flowers, is their remarkably thick 
fleshy leaves, an example of which may be seen 
in the leaves of Calandrmia discolor ; and these 
succulent leaves render all the ornamental 
plants belonging to the order peculiarly liable to 
be destroyed by frost or damp. Some botanists 
make a second order out of the plants usually 
included in Portulaceae, to which they give the 
name of Fouquieracese. 



Weedy plants, containing among other ge- 
nera, Knot-grass {Illecebrum), and Strap wort 
{Corricjiola). The new order Scleranthacese 
has been separated from this ; and it takes its 
name from the British weed, Knawel (Scleran- 
thiis) . 


The common Houseleek (Sempervivum tecto- 
rum) grows, as is well kno\\Ti, on the tiles of 
houses, or on walls, where there does not appear 
a single particle of earth to nourish its roots. 
The leaves are, however, so contrived as to 
form a cluster of flat scaly circles, and thus to 
shade and keep moist the roots beneath them. 
The flowers, which are produced on a tall 
flower-steiii rising from the leaves, are pink, 
and usually consist of a green calyx, cut into 
twelve segments, and a corolla of twelve petals, 
with twelve stamens and twelve carpels, which 
spread out like a star in the middle of the 
flower. The number of petals, &c., is by no 
means constant, as it varies from six to twenty ; 
but the other parts of the flower vary in the 
same manner, and always agree with each other. 

366 CRASSULACE^. [part ii. 

except as regards the stamens, which are some- 
times twice the number of the petals, and 
arranged in two series, those in one series being 
abortive. At the base of each carpel is a kind 
of scale or gland, and this is the case with most 
of the genera included in the order. There are 
several species of Sempervivum, natives of the 
Canary Isles, w'hich are very ornamental, and 
which have yellow flowers ; but this genus, and 
that of Sedum, the Stone-crop, have been lately 
remodelled by JSIr. Philip Barker 'Webb, and 
some new genera formed out of them. The 
principal other genera in the order are Crassula 
and Kalosanthes ; the latter having been formed 
out of the former, and including those species 
of Crassula which have a tube-shaped corolla, 
with a spreading limb, divided into five seg- 
ments, while the flowers of those species which 
have been left in Crassula have five distinct 
petals. All the plants belonging to the order 
have succulent leaves ; and in all of them the 
number of the petals, sepals, and carpels, is the 
same, and of stamens either the same, or twice 
as many. In the common Houseleek, the 
anthers sometimes produce seeds instead of 

CHAP. I ] FICOlDEiE. 367 


The principal genus in this order is that of 
Mesembrvanthemum, the Fio^-mario^old. In the 
species of this genus, the leaves are always 
thick and fleshy, and sometimes in very sin- 
gular shapes ; and sometimes they are covered 
with a sort of blistery skin, which makes them 
look as though covered with ice, as in the Ice- 
plant (M. cri/stallinum). The leaves, when this 
is the case, are said to be papulose. Some of 
the species are annuals, others shrubby, and 
others perennials ; and they are all natives of 
the Cape of Good Hope. The flowers, which 
are generally showy, have a green, fleshy, tubu- 
lar calyx, w^ith a four or five cleft limb, the tubu- 
lar part of which encloses the ovary; and a co- 
rolla of numerous very narrow petals, which are 
arranged in two or more series. The stamens 
are very numerous ; and the capsule has four or 
more cells, each of which contains numerous 
seeds. The valves of the capsule open when 
the seeds are ripe, if the w^eather should be dry; 
but remain firmly closed, so long as the weather 
continues wet. 

The genera Reaumuria and Nitraria, which 
were formerly included in this order, have been 
removed from it, and made into separate orders, 

368 CACTACE^. [part ii. 

the latter of which is introduced here ;' and the 
genus Grielum, which was formerly included in 
Rosacese was first removed to Ficoidese, and 
afterwards made into a separate order, under 
the name of Neuradiacese, which precedes Ni- 


There is perhaps no order in the vegetable 
kingdom which embraces plants so singular in 
their forms as those comprehended in this 
tribe. All the genera, with the exception of 
Pereskia, are destitute of leaves, but they have 
all succulent stems which answer the purposes 
of leaves. The flowers of all the genera are 
extremely showy; the calyx and corolla are 
coloured alike, and confounded together ; the 
stamens are numerous, with versatile anthers 
and very long filaments ; the style is generally 
long and slender, and the stigmas are numerous, 
and either spreading or collected into a head. 
The ovary is in the tube of the calyx, and it 
becomes an eatable fruit, very similar to that of 
the gooseberry. The genera are all natives of 
tropical America. The principal kinds are the fol- 
lowing : viz. Mammillaria, the stems of which 
are subcylindrical, and covered wdth tubercles, 


which are disposed in a spiral manner; and 
each of which is crowned with a little tuft of 
radiating spines mixed with down. The flowers 
are w^ithout stalks, and they are disposed in a 
kind of zone round the plant. The Melon 
Thistle or Turk's- cap (Melocactus communis) 
has a globose stem with deep furrows, the pro- 
jecting ribs having tubercles bearing tufts of 
spines. The stem is crowned with a woolly 
head, from which the flowers are protruded, 
the flowers themselves resembling those of 
Mammillaria, but being larger. The Hedgehog 
Thistles {Echinocactus) have stems resembling 
those of the different species of Melocactus, 
but they have not the w^oolly head ; and the 
flowers rise from the fascicles or tufts of spines 
on the projecting ribs. The Torch-Thistle 
(Cereus) has generally an angular stem with 
a woody axis, and it has tufts of spines on the 
projecting angles. It has not a woolly head, 
and the flowers, which are very large and 
showy, either arise from the tufts of spines, or 
from indentations in the angles. The limits of 
this genus are very uncertain ; and several 
plants which are included in it by some botanists, 
are placed in other genera by others. The Old- 
man Cactus was once called Cereus senilis, but 
it is found to have a woolly head of great 
size, which has very much the appearance of 

370 CACTACE^. [part ii. 

a sable muff, and as, consequently, it cannot 
belong to that genus, it has been called Pilo- 
cereus. This plant is covered with long white 
hairs, and, when of small size, it looks very 
much like an old man's head. In its native 
country, however, it grows to a great height, 
and specimens have been imported fifteen feet 
long, and not more than a foot in circumference. 
The Peruvian Torch-Thistles (C. hexagonus and 
peruvianus), in their native country, are upwards 
of forty feet high, though not thicker than a 
man's arm. They grow close together without 
a single branch, and form a singular sort 
of prickly crest on the summit of some of the 
mountains in South America. The creeping 
Cereus [CJiagelliformis) has slender cylindrical 
trailing stems, which hang down on every side 
when the plant is grown in a pot. The flowers, 
which are very numerous, are pink. The night- 
flowering Cereus (C grandiflorus) only opens 
during the night, and fades before morning; 
the rays of the calyx are of a bright yellow when 
open, and the petals are snow-white. The stem 
is angular, branched, and climbing, throwing out 
roots at every joint. The common Torch-thistle 
(C speciosissimus) is an erect plant, with a 
three or four angled stem, and very large 
bright crimson flowers, which are purplish 
inside ; and C. speciosa, sometimes called Epi- 

CHAP, t.] CACTACEtE. 371 

j)hyllum phylantlioides^ has thin leaf-Hke stems 
with beautiful pale rose-coloured flowers. C. 
Jenkinsonii is a hybrid between the last two 
species. C. truncatus is another well-known 
species. Opuntia has stems consisting of round, 
flat, leaf-Uke bodies, united together by joints, 
and generally covered with tufts of spines. The 
most remarkable species are O. communis^ the 
Prickly Pear, grown to a great extent in the 
South of Europe, and also in Brazil, as hedges, 
the fruit of which is very good to eat ; O. Tuna^ 
the Indian Fig, common in South America, and 
much cultivated there, both as a hedge plant 
and for its fruit ; and O. cochinillifera^ the 
Nopal-tree, very much cultivated in Mexico 
and South America, for the cochineal insect, 
which feeds upon it. Rhipsalis has slender 
cylindrical jointed stems, which look like sam- 
phire. All these genera have only leaves when 
quite young, and as soon as the plants begin to 
grow, the leaves fall off. Pereskia, however, 
is a genus belonging to this order which has 
leaves like ordinary plants, which it retains 
during the whole period of its existence. The 
principal species are P. aculeata, the Barbadoes 
Gooseberry, and P. Bleo, which has beautiful 
rose-coloured flowers. 

B b2 



[part II. 


This order consists of only one genus (Ribes), 
which inckides all the Gooseberries and Cur- 
rants ; the two kinds forming two distinct sec- 
tions. The first section, which embraces all the 
Gooseberries, has prickly stems, and the flowers 
are produced singly, or in clusters of not more 
than two or three together. The flower of the 
common Gooseberry (Ribes Gjvssidaria) consists 
principally of the calyx (a mjig. 136), the five 
segments of the limb of which are turned back, 


Fig. 136.— The Gooseberry. (Ribes Groisularia). 

and coloured of a reddish-brown. The petals {b) 
are white and erect, and bearded at the throat ; 
but they are so small and inconspicuous, that 


few people would notice them if they were not 
pointed out. The stamens (c) are five in num- 
ber, and erect, and the anthers burst length- 
ways on the inside. The ovary (d) is below the 
cup of the calyx, and the style, which is cloven 
to the base (e), is always covered with hairs in 
the common Gooseberry {R. Grossularia), and is 
more or less hairy in the other species. There 
are two little bracteoles (f) on the pedicel ; and 
a large bract, deeply cut, at the point from which 
the pedicel springs (g). The leaves, which are 
omitted in the engraving, also grow from the 
same bud, and are three or five lobed, and 
hairy ; and there are three spines just below 
them. The fruit is a many-seeded berry, with 
the seeds immersed in pulp ; and on cutting 
open an unripe fruit, it will be found that the 
seeds are each inclosed in an aril, with a sepa- 
rate footstalk, by which they are attached to a 
membrane lining the sides of the berry, and 
which is called a parietal placenta. The seg- 
ments of the calyx remain on the ripe fruit. 
Several of the ornamental species of Ribes be- 
long to this division, as, for example, R. trifio- 
rum^ which has white flowers ; and R. speciosum, 
which has crimson flowers, with the segments of 
the calyx not reflexed, and long projecting 
stamens like those of the Fuchsia. The fruit 
and the whole of the stems and branches of this 

374 GROSSULARIE^. [part ii. 

species are covered with spines, and thus the 
plant is easily distinguished from the common 
gooseberry, the stem of which has no spines, 
except three just below each bud. 

The Currants are distinguished by the stems 
being entirely without spines, and the flowers 
being produced in racemes. The leaves are cor- 
date, and bluntly three or five lobed, a little 
downy beneath, but smooth above. The flowers 
of the Red Currant (Ribes rubrum) are numer- 
ous, and they are produced in drooping racemes, 
with a little bracteole at the base of each foot- 
stalk (see a in Jig- 137). The calyx is flattish, 
with the segments (^), which are of a pale 
greenish colour, spreading widely, and not re- 
curved. The anthers (c) are loosely attached 
to the filaments, and they burst sideways and 

Fig. 137 The Red Currant. 

across. The style {d) is short, and divided into 
two spreading stigmas at the apex. The fruit 
is smooth and transparent, with many seeds, 
and it retains the remains of the calyx {e) when 
ripe. The white, and the striped or flesh- 

CHAP. T.] 



coloured Currants, are varieties of R. ruhrum. 
The Black Currant {B. nigrum) has a more com- 
pact, and campanulate flower (see a in Jig. 138), 

Fig. 138.— The Black Currant. 

with the segments of the calyx reflexed ; the 
anthers (b) are more firmly attached to the 
filament; the style (c) is not cleft, and the 
stigma is two-lobed and capitate. The fruit (d) 
has a thick opaque skin, and the eye of the 
calyx is larger ; the leaves are also covered on 
the under surface with glands or cells, filled with 
a fragrant oil formed by the limb, as show^n at 
(e), which represents the appearance of the leaf 
when held up to the hght. There is often a soli- 
tary flower on a separate pedicel, at the foot of 
the raceme ; and there are frequently ten sta- 
mens instead of five, and no petals, the petals hav- 
ing been changed into stamens — a metamorphose 
the reverse of that which generally takes place. 
The most ornamental kinds of Currant are 
R. multiflorum, with very long drooping racemes 

376 ESCALLTONlACEiE. [part u. 

of greenish flowers ; JR. sanguineum^ the flowers 
of which are crimson, and somewhat tubular; 
R. aureum^ which has the flowers of a golden 
yellow, and quite tubular ; and H. cereum, which 
has roundish leaves covered with white waxy 
dots on their upper surface, and racemes with 
few flowers, which are rather large, and of a 
pure white. A few species, such as R. saxatile 
and R. Diacantha^ appear to be intermediate 
between the Currant and the Gooseberry, as 
they have the racemes of fruit common to the 
one, with the spines and habit of growth of the 
other. There is said to be another species 
nearly allied to R. mnguineum^ with dark-purple 
flowers, which has not yet been introduced. 


Of the genera included in this order (which 
were formerly included in Saxifragacese), Escal- 
lonia is the most important, as it contains seve- 
ral species of ornamental South American shrubs. 
The flowers of the different species vary consi- 
derably : in E. rubra^ they are produced singly, 
and the corolla, which is pink, is tubular, with 
a short, five-cleft limb ; but in E. montevidensis 
the flowers, which are white, are produced in 
panicles, and have spread petals. The flowers 


of both species have five stamens, and two car- 
pels, the styles of which are combined. The 
leaves are simple, alternate, and without sti- 
pules. Of the other plants contained in the 
order, I may mention that Itea virginica is a 
North American shrub, with white flowers; 
and Anopteris glandulosa^ which is also a shrub 
with white flowers, is a native of Van Diemen's 


The genus Saxifraga of Linnseus has been 
divided so as to form several genera ; but they 
do not appear to be generally adopted. The 
flowers of all the species are rather small, and 
they are generally racemose, or panicled ; and 
the corolla consists of five spreading petals with 
short claws, and there are twice that number of 
stamens. Among the most common species 
may be mentioned London Pride {Saxifraga or 
Robertsonia umbrosa), and the Meadow Saxifrage 
(Saxifraga or Leioggne graiiulaia), the flowers of 
the latter being large, and produced singly. 
In the genus Hydrangea the flowers are dis- 
posed in corymbs, and they have five petals, 
ten stamens, and from two to five styles ; but 
in the outer flowers of the corymb the stamens 
and pistil are often wanting. 

378 UMBELLIFERiE. [part ii. 

The genera Galax and Francoa, which were 
first included in Crassulacese, and afterwards in 
Saxifragacese, are now made into a new order 
called Galacinese, or Francoacese, which is in- 
troduced here. 


This order, which was separated from Saxi- 
fragacese by Dr. Brown, contains principally 
hothouse plants with erect spicate racemes or 
panicles of small flowers. Weinmannia, Bau- 
era, and Cunonia are the principal genera. 


This is a very large order, but it is so natural 
that no person who has seen Parsley in flower 
can ever be in any doubt as to an umbelliferous 
plant. Most of the species are either culinary, 
plants, such as the Parsnep and Carrot, Celery, 
Parsley, Fennel, &c., or poisonous weeds, such 
as Hemlock, and the Water Parsnep ; and there 
are very few ornamental plants included in the 
order : among these few may, however, be men- 
tioned Didiscus or Tracliymena ccerulea, Eryn- 
gium^ and Bupleurum or Tenoria fruticosum^ An- 
gelica^ and Heracleum. Some of the species of 
the latter, particularly the Gigantic Siberian 


Cow Parsnep {H. asperum)^ are perfectly mag- 
nificent objects. Notwithstanding the ease with 
which these plants may generally be recognised, 
as in some of the allied orders the flowers grow 
in umbels or cymes, it may be necessary to remark 
that Dr. Lindley defines umbelliferous plants 
to consist of those which have their '• flowers 
growing in umbels, with inferior fruit, which, 
when ripe, separates, or may be separated, into 
two grains."" Thus the common Dogwood is 
not an umbelliferous plant, though its flowers 
grow in umbels, because its fruit is a berry. 


The most interesting plant in this order is 
Hedera Helix, the common Ivy ; a well-known 
climbing evergreen shrub, which throws out 
roots from its branches at intervals, which it 
strikes ■ into any substance to which it can ad- 
here. The flowers have all their parts in five 
or ten divisions ; even the lower leaves, which 
are smooth and leathery, are five-lobed. The 
leaves on the flowering branches, which are 
always in the upper part of the plant, are en- 
tire. The flowers are produced in umbels, and 
they are succeeded by berries, which, in corre- 
spondence with the parts of the flowers, are five 
or ten celled. The large-leaved variety, called 

380 HAMAMELIDEiE. [part ii. 

the Irish Ivy, is a native of the Canary Isles ; 
and the gold and silver leaved, and golden 
berried, are all varieties of the common kind. 
There are, however, many exotic species, most 
of which have not yet been introduced. The 
genus Aralia, known by its two garden species, 
A. spinosa and A. japonica^ belongs to this 
order. The first of these is called the Angelica 
Tree, and is an old inhabitant of our gardens ; 
but A.japonica is of quite recent introduction. 


The most interesting plants in this order are 
the Witch Hazel {Hamamelis virginica)^ and-Fo- 
thergilla ahiifolia. In the first of these plants, 
there are four long narrow petals, and the calyx 
is four-lobed ; and there are eight stamens, of 
which four are fertile, and four barren. There 
are two styles, and the capsules are leathery 
and two-celled, and two-valved, with one seed 
inclosed in an aril in each cell. The Witch 
Hazel has the peculiarity of coming into flower 
when it drops its leaves in autumn, remaining 
in flower all winter, and forming its fruit in 
spring, just as it is opening its new leaves. The 
flowers are yellow, and very pretty from their 
great abundance, and the light feathery effect 
produced by the great length and narrowness ' 


of the petals. The leaves are rough and feather- 
nerved, like those of the Hazel. Fothergilla is a 
pretty little shrub with terminal spikes of white 
flowers with yellow anthers, which are sweet- 
scented and appear before the leaves. 


This order, as originally constituted, may be 
divided into three tribes, viz., CornecB, containing 
Cornus^ Benthamia^ and, according to some, 
Aucuba ; Sambucece, containing Sambucus and 
Viburnum ; and Lonicerece^ containing Sympho- 
ria, Caprifolium, Lonicera^ Leycesteria, Linncea^ 
&c. Cornus, Benthamia, and some other genera, 
among which Dr. Lindley places Aucuba, are 
now formed into a separate order, under the name 
of CornacecB. The different species of Dogwood 
(Camus) are known by the smooth bark of their 
stems and branches, which is frequently red, or 
reddish brown ; by their white flowers, which 
are produced either in heads, or umbels, or in 
corymbose panicles ; by their red or blackish 
berries; and by their coarse feather-nerved 
leaves. The principal species of Cornus are 
the wild or female Cornel (C sanguined) ; the 
common Dogwood (C. alba) ; the male Cornel, 
or Cornelian Cherry (C mas) ; and American 

382 CAPRIFOLIACE^. [part ii. 

Dogwood {C.fiorida). All these plants have a 
very small four-toothed calyx, and a corolla of 
four petals. There are four stamens and one 
style. The fruit is a berry-like drupe. Some 
of the species, as for example C. jiorida^ have 
a large involucre of four leaves, having the ap- 
pearance of petals. Benthamia fragifera^ called 
by Dr. Wallich C. capitata^ has an involucre of 
four leaves of yellow, tinged with red, sur- 
rounding a head of small greenish inconspicuous 
flowers. The fruit consists of a number of 
drupes, grown together like a Mulberry, with 
six, eight, or more seeds, surrounded with a 
viscid pulp. The leaves are long and tapering, 
of a fine texture, and of a light green above, 
and silvery white below. 

The genus Sambucus, the Elder, is character- 
ised by its pinnate leaves and terminal cymes 
of flowers, which have a small five-lobed calyx, 
a rotate corolla also five-lobed, five stamens 
about the length of the corolla, no style, and 
three obtuse stigmas. The berries are globu- 
lar, pulpy, and one-celled ; each containing 
three or five seeds, which are convex on the 
outside, and angular within. The berries differ 
in colour in the different species, those of the 
common kind being a deep purplish black, and 
those of S. 7'acemosa being red. The stems and 
branches are of a soft wood, having a white 


spongy pith. The white-berried Elder is a va- 
riety of the common kind. 

The genus Viburnum contains several well- 
known plants, among which may be mentioned 
the Laurestinus {V. Tinus)^ the Guelder Rose 
{V. Opulus), and the Wayfaring Tree (V. Lan- 
tana). This genus is very nearly allied to Sam- 
bucus in the flowers, but it is easily distin- 
guished, on examination, by its leaves, which are 
not pinnate, and by its wood, which is hard and 
not spongy. The berries have also only one 
seed, and they are not eatable, — those of the 
Laurestinus are, indeed, injurious. The Lau- 
restinus and some other species are evergreen ; 
but by far the greater number of species are 

The genus Lonicera formerly included all the 
kinds of Honeysuckle ; but now only the upright 
species, or what are called the Fly Honey- 
suckles, are comprised in it, and the climbing 
kinds are called Caprifolium. One of the up- 
right kinds, most common in gardens, is the 
Tartarian Honeysuckle (L. tartarica)^ the 
flowers of which are in twins. The corolla is 
tubular and funnel-shaped, with a five-cleft 
limb. There are five stamens, a filiform style, 
and a capitate stigma. The berries are dis- 
tinct when young, but they afterwards grow 
together at the base. The leaves are always 

384 CAPRIFOLTACE^. [part ii. 

distinct. The genus Caprifolium embraces all 
the climbing species, the flowers of which are 
disposed in whorls, and the upper leaves are 
connate, that is, growing together at the base, 
so that two appear only one leaf, with the stem 
passing through it. A single leaf of this kind 
is called perfoliate. The flowers spring from 
the axils of the leaves, and are what are called 
ringent, that is, they are composed of five pe- 
tals, four of which grow together, almost to 
the tip, wMe the fifth is only attached to the 
others about half its length, and has the loose 
part hanging down. Flowers of this kind, 
with their lower part forming a tube, and their 
upper part widely open, are said to be gaping. 
In the Trumpet Honeysuckle (C. semper vir ens) 
the tube of the corolla is very long, and the 
lobes of the limb nearly equal ; and the flowers, 
instead of springing from the axils of the 
leaves, form terminal spikes, each consisting 
of three or more whorls of flowers. 

The Snowberry {Symphoria racemosa) bears 
considerable resemblance to the upright Honey- 
suckles. The flowers are funnel-shaped, and 
four or five lobed. The berry has four cells, 
but two of the cells are empty, and the others 
have only one seed in each. The leaves are 
oval, quite entire, and not connate. 

Leycesteria is a very handsome shrub, with 


white flowers, and very large and showy purple 
and reddish bracts. The berries are of a very 
dark purple, and they are nearly as large as a 
gooseberry. L. formosa is a native of Nepaul, 
but it appears tolerably hardy in British 
gardens, and it stands the sea-breeze without 

LinncEa horealis is a little innsigificant trailing 
plant, which is included in this order, and 
which is only worth mentioning on account of 
its being named in honour of Linnseus. It is a 
half-shrubby evergreen, with small bell-shaped 
flesh-coloured flowers, which are said to be 
fragrant at night. 


Four genera are included in this order, all 
remarkable in different ways. The first of 
these is the common Mistletoe {Viscum alburn)^ 
a most remarkable parasite, a native of Britain, 
and generally found on old apple-trees ; and the 
second is Loranthus europcBus, a native of Ger- 
manyj closely resembling the Mistletoe, but 
found generally on the oak, where the true 
Mistletoe rarely grows. This plant is said to 
have been introduced in 1824, but it is not now 
in the country. There are other species of the 
genera, one a native of New Holland. Nuytsia 
c c 

386 RUBIACE^. [part ii. 

Jioribunda^ also a native of New Holland, a 
very curious plant, is also included in this 
order. It is a shrub about three feet high, so 
covered with orange-coloured blossoms that the 
colonists call it the Fire-tree. When the seed 
of this plant germinates, it is said to have three 
cotyledons. The last plant generally included 
in this order is Aucuba japonica^ though it is 
probable this plant belongs to Cornacese. Of 
this species we have probably only a variety, 
from the variegation of the leaves ; and it has 
never produced seeds, as only the female plant 
has been introduced. 


Ixcoxspicuous plants with greenish flowers, 
which require a hothouse in Britain. 

ORDER cm.— RUBIACEiE. (See Chap. V. P. 85.) 

This order is divided into thirteen sections, 
most of which have been already described. In 
all the species the tube of the calyx adheres to 
the ovary, which is crowned with a fleshy 
cup, from which arises the single style ; and 
the petals are united at the base, and attached 
to the upper part of the tube of the calyx. 

CHAP. 1 ] VALERIANE,^. 387 

Exotic weeds, formerly included in Ru- 



No person can ever have been in the neigh- 
bourhood of Greenhithe, in Kent, without 
having observed the red Valerian, which grows 
in such abundance on the steep banks of the 
chalk-pits in that neighbourhood ; and pro- 
bably still more of my readers will be familiar 
with the common wild Valerian, or All-heal, 
which is found in m^oist places, generally among 
sedges, in every part of England. Another 
species of the same genus is common in Scot- 
land, so that the name of Valerian is familiar 
to all persons who know anything of British 
plants. Common as these plants are, however, 
probably most of my readers are unaware of 
the very curious construction of their flowers ; 
or of the very great variety exhibited by the 
different species. The genus Valeriana is, in- 
deed, one which presents a remarkable instance 
of variety of construction, united with a simi- 
larity of form which makes all the species 
recognisable at a single glance. In all the 
species, the corolla is funnel-shaped, with a 
c c 2 

388 VALERIANEiE. [part ir. 

long tube, and a five-lobed limb. In the red 
Valerian (V. rubra) ^ the lower part of the tube 
is drawn out into a spur ; and on this account 
the plant is sometimes called the spurred Va- 
lerian, and it has been placed by De CandoUe 
in a new genus, which he called Centranthus. 
The other species of Valerian have the tube of 
the llow^er gibbous, that is, much larger on one 
side than on the other. In ail the calyx is 
tubular, with the limb curiously rolled, so as to 
form a rim or crown to the fruit, like that on 
the heads of basket-women. When the flowers 
drop, the fruit, which is one-celled and one- 
seeded, and which adheres closely to the tube 
of the calyx, begins to swell, and as it does so 
the limb of the calyx gradually unrolls, till at 
last, when the fruit is ripe, it forms a sort of 
feathery tuft to w-aft it away. The leaves of 
plants of this genus vary exceedingly, even on 
the same plant ; but generally those of the red 
Valerian are lanceolate ; those of V. dioica are 
pinnatifid ; those of the wild Valerian ( V. offi- 
cinalis)^ pinnate ; and those of the garden Va- 
lerian, the kind found in Scotland, {V. pyre- 
naica,) are cordate. The flowers of F. dioica 
are male a-nd female, and are found on different 
plants. The principal other genera in this 
order are Valerianella, the Corn Salad or 
Lamb's Lettuce; and Fedia, the Horn of 

CHAP. I.] DIPSACE^. 389 


The principal genera belonging to this order 
are Dipsacus, the Teasel, and Scabiosa, the Sca- 
bious ; to which may be added a pretty little 
annual called Knautia. The plants belonging 
to this order bear considerable resemblance to 
those included in Compositse, as they consist of 
a head of florets seated on a common receptacle, 
which is chafFy, and surrounded by an involucre. 
The florets are also furnished with what may be 
called a double calyx, the limb of the inner 
part being cut into long teeth, and resembling 
the pappus of the Composit^e. In the genus 
Dipsacus, the most important plant is the Ful- 
ler's Teasel {Dipsacus fullonum)^ in which the 
receptacle is raised in the form of a cone, and 
the chafl'y scales are hooked, and so strong, 
that the flower-heads when dry are used for 
preparing broad-cloth. The leaves of this plant 
are opposite, and united at the base. The 
florets have a four-cleft corolla, and four dis- 
tinct stamens; differing in this respect de- 
cidedly from the Compositae, which have five 
stamens, the anthers of which are always united 
into a tube. Dipsacus sylvestris might be easily 
mistaken for a kind of Thistle ; but the differ- 
ence will be seen at once by examining the 
anthers of the florets. The DeviFs-bit Scabious, 

390 COMPOSITE. [part ii. 

which is so called from the root looking as though 
a part had been bitten off, has the same kind 
of flower-head as the Dipsacus, but the recep- 
tacle is flat, and the involucre much smaller. 
In some of the species of Scabious, the florets 
of the outer ring resemble those of the ray in 
flowers of the Compositse. The leaves of the 
genus Scabious are as variable as those of the 
genus Valeriana, scarcely two species being 


Obscure American plants, nearly allied to 

ORDER CVIIL— COMPOSIT.'E. (See Chap. VI. P. 98.) 

Plants with heads of florets on a common 
receptacle, surrounded by an involucre. The 
florets are of three kinds, viz., ligulate, tubular, 
and bilabiate ; the heads consisting sometimes 
entirely of florets of one kind, and sometimes 
with ligulate florets forming the outer ring, 
called the ray, and tubular flowers forming the 
centre, called the disk. The calyx continues on 
the ripe fruit, and its limb is frequently cut into 
a kind of fringe called the pappus. The fruit 
is of the kind called an achenium, that is, dry 
and bony, and continuing enveloped in the per- 
sistent calyx, but without adhering to it. 



The genus Lobelia is well known from the 
pretty little blue-and-white flowering plants 
that are so common in pots for windows and 
balconies, and that continue flowering so freely 
all the summer. There are two or three species 
which are grown for this purpose, viz. Lobelia 
Erinus^ L. hicolor^ and L. gracilis^ all annuals, 
which require to be raised on a hotbed by sow- 
ing in February, and which will then flower 
all the summer, with no other care than regular 
watering. All these flowers have the tube of 
the calyx united to the ovary, with a five-parted 
limb. The corolla is irregular and tubular, 
with the tube cleft on the upper side, and 
thickened at the base. The limb of the corolla 
is divided into two parts ; one of which, called 
the upper lip, is cut into two narrow sharp- 
pointed segments, which stand erect; while the 
lower lip, which is much the longer, and hangs 
down, is cut into three rounded segments. 
There are five stamens, the anthers of which 
grow together, and at least two of them are 
bearded. The capsule is oval, two-celled, two- 
valved, and many-seeded, opening naturally at 
the top when ripe. These general characters 
will be found in all the numerous species of 
Lobelia, as the genus at present stands, as they 

392 LOBELIACEiE. [part ii. 

all have the two hornlike segments of the upper 
lip, and the rounded lobes in the pendulous 
under lip ; and many of the plants formerly 
called Lobelia which differ in these particulars 
have been placed in other genera. Thus Tupa, 
which contains several of the large scarlet- 
flowered species, has the segments of the limb 
of the corolla united at the tip ; the filaments 
of the stamens cohering as well as the anthers, 
and the stigma protruding. Siphocampylos has 
the tube of the corolla ventricose in the middle, 
the segments of the upper lip long and curving 
over each other, and the lower lip very slightly 
lobed, with both the filaments and the anthers 
combined. In Dortmannia the filaments are 
free, and only the anthers combined; inPara- 
stronthus (L. unidentata)^ there is scarcely any 
tube to the corolla, and in Isotoma, the corolla 
is salver-shaped. The beautiful little Clintonia 
pulchella belongs to this order, and it differs 
from Lobelia in its corolla having scarcely any 
tube, and also, but more decidedly, in the very 
long tube of its calyx. This is so long and slen- 
der as to look like a part of the flower-stalk ; as 
does the capsule, which, when ripe, is triangular, 
and is as long as the silique of a cabbage or 
wall-flower, to which it bears considerable re- 
semblance. All the Lobeliacese have an acrid 
milky juice, which is poisonous. 



This order contains three genera of New 
Holland plants, only one of which has been 
introduced. The flowers are tubular, with a 
five-cleft limb, and they are covered with hairs, 
terminating in capitate glands ; the stamens 
are united into a column, which is bent towards 
the fifth or lower segment of the limb, which 
is much larger than the others. The united 
stamens are so irritable as to start forward 
when touched with a pin. 


All the plants in this order are natives of 
New Holland, and they bear considerable re- 
semblance to those included in Lobeliacese, but 
they have not a milky juice, and the stigma, 
which is very small, and without any style, is 
surrounded by a curious cup called an indusium, 
which is generally found full of pollen. This 
very remarkable organ is probably rendered 
necessary by the very small size of the stigma, 
which can only absorb the pollen very slowly. 
The most interesting genera contained in this 
order are Lechenaultia and Euthales. 

394 CAMPANULACEiE. [part h. 



The plants in this order have a bell-shaped 
regular corolla, consisting of five petals, usually 
grown together so as to form a monopetalous 
corolla with five lobes, each lobe having a con- 
spicuous central nerve or vein. There are five 
or more stamens, which are generally distinct, 
and which have broad bearded filaments bend- 
ing over the ovary. The style is at first short, 
but it gradually elongates itself, and both it and 
the stiofmas are furnished with tufts of stiff 
hairs, which, as the style pushes itself through 
the stamens, brush off the pollen, and retain it 
till the stigma is in a proper state to receive it. 
The anthers burst as soon as the corolla opens. 
The capsules have generally two, three, or five 
cells, and each cell contains many seeds. 

In the genus Campanula, the capsule opens 
by little valves, which look as though cut with 
scissors. The juice of the plants is milkv, but 
not poisonous. The principal genera are Cam- 
panula, Prismatocarpus (Yenus's Looking-glass), 
Roellia, Phyteuma (the petals of which are 
distinct), Trachelium, AVahlenbergia, and Ade- 
nophora. Lobeliacese and Goodenoviacese were 
formerly included in this order. 

cnvr. ..] ERICACEAE. 395 


The corolla is tubular and sub -bilabiate, with 
a five-cleft limb. There are four stamens, two 
longer than the others, with the rudiments of a 
fifth. The anthers generally adhere in pairs ; 
the fruit is one-celled and many-seeded ; the 
leaves are thick and covered with a soft down ; 
and the roots are frequently tuberous. The 
qualities are excellent. The species of the ge- 
nus Gesneria are usually hothouse plants, with 
bright scarlet flowers ; and those of Gloxinia 
have generally purple flowers ; and of Sinnin- 
gia the flowers are greenish. 

ORDER CXIV.— VACCINIE^. (See Chap. VII. P. 130.) 
This order includes the Whortle-berries, Bil- 
berries, and Cranberries, and it is very nearly 
allied to Ericaceae, from which it is distinguished 
by the disk, which lines the calyx, entirely sur- 
rounding the ovary, which is thus placed below 
the rest of the flower, and is called inferior. 
The fruit is a berry. 

ORDER ex v.— ERICACEAE. (See Chap. TIL P. 109.) 

All the Heath tribe, including the Arbutus, 
Rhododendron, Azaleas, &c., are distinguished 

396 EPACRIDE^. [part n. 

by their anthers, which have a little hole or 
pore at the apex of each cell ; each cell being 
also generally furnished with a kind of spur at 
its base. The stamens in all these genera grow 
from beneath the ovary, and the filaments are 
thick and fleshy. The fruit is a dry capsule, or 


Beautiful shrubs, natives of the Cape of 
Good Hope, with the habit of Pimelea, and 
corymbs of pale pink flowers. The calyx is in 
two sepals, the stigma four lobed, and the 
fruit four-valved, with two seeds in each cell. 


The plants comprised in this division are 
called monopetalous, as they have their petals 
joined together, so as to form a cup for the sta- 
mens and pistils quite distinct from the calyx ; 
and the stamens are attached to the corolla. 


This order stands on debateable ground, 
being by many botanists included in the last 
division ; but it seems properly placed in this, 


as the stamens are attached to the petals, 
which adhere together ; and if a flower of any 
species of Epacris be examined, it will be found 
that the corolla, with the stamens attached to 
the lining of the tube, parts readily from the 
calyx without losing its natural form. The 
flowers are tubular or campanulate, with a five- 
cleft limb, and will divide readily into five 
petals, each of which has the filament of a 
stamen attached to it, leaving only the anthers 
free. The anthers are one -celled and awnless, 
and this is the principal distinction between this 
order and Ericaceae. The calyx is five-cleft, 
coloured like the corolla; and there are five 
scale-like bracts below it, which look like a 
calyx. The capsule is dry, with the seeds at- 
tached to a central column. The leaves are dr}^, 
hard, and prickly. The species are natives of 
Australia, where they supply the place which 
the Heaths hold in Europe and Africa ; no 
Heath having been yet found in any part of 


This order contains one genus, Symplocos, of 
greenhouse and stove shrubs, from South Ame- 
rica, with small white flowers, and serrated 
leaves, which turn yellow in drying. 





The plants in this order best known in 
English gardens are Styrax ojfflcinale^ the Storax, 
and Halesia tetraptera^ the Snowdrop-tree. The 
flowers of both are white ; those of Storax are 
funnel-shaped, with a five-cleft limb ; there 
are ten stamens, growing together at the base, 
with short filaments, and very long anthers. 
The fruit is a drupe which is nearly dry, con- 
taining a one-celled nut, enclosing from one 
to three seeds. The seeds have two skins, the 
inner one like a cobweb, and the outer one 
spongy. The bark, when wounded, affords the 
gum called storax. Halesia has drooping bell- 
shaped white flowers, something like those of the 

Snowdrop, (see a in 
Jig. 189,) with four 
petals and twelve or 
sixteen stamens com- 
bined into a tube at 
the base. The fruit is 
a dry, winged drupe, 
which has four an- 
gles in H, tetrapfera 
(A), and two in H. 
diptera ; and which 
contains a stone or 

Fig. 139.— Ss owonop tree (Halesia i • i 

tetraptera). , putamcn (c), whicll 

CHAP. I.] SAPOTE^* 399 

has two or four cells, and as many seeds. Some 
botanists make Halesiacere a separate order. 


Showy shrubs, with evergreen leaves, and 
cymes of white or red flowers, which require a 
stove or greenhouse in England. The plants 
belonging to this order may be easily known on 
cutting open their flowers, as they are the only 
nionopetalous flowers among the stove plants 
that have the stamens opposite the lobes of the 
corolla ; the general position of the stamens 
being between the lobes. The principal genera 
in this order are Myrsine, the species of which 
are greenhouse shrubs ; and Ardisia, the latter 
being well-known stove shrubs, with white 
flowers and red berries. Theophrasta, Clavija, 
and Jacquinia, were included in this order; but 
they are now formed into a new one, under the 
name of Theophrasteae. 


This order is best known by the genera Arga- 
nia, SideroxT/lon, Chrysophyllum^ and Bumelia, 
all of which are stove or greenhouse plants. 
The seeds ofAchras Sapota contain abundance of 

400 BREXIE^. [part n. 

oil, which is so concrete as to have the appear- 
ance of butter ; and hence the tree is called the 
Butter-tree. Sideroxyloii has such hard wood 
as to be called the Iron-tree. The juice of all 
these plants is milky, and the milk is wholesome 
as food. 


The principal genus is Diospyros ; which con- 
tains the Ebony-tree (Z). Ebenum)^ the Date- 
plum or Lotus- tree (Z). Lotos), both natives of 
the East Indies ; and the Persimon (D. virgU 
niana), a native of North America. The species 
are trees with hard dark wood ; that of Ebony 
is quite black when old, and remarkably heavy. 
The flowers are white and inconspicuous, and the 
fruit, which is eatable, but insipid, is a berry, 
placed in the centre of the calyx, which spreads 
round it like a saucer. It is very harsh when 
first gathered, and must be kept till it is half 
decayed, like the Medlar, before it is eaten. 


Large stove trees, with axillary branches of 
white flowers. 


ORDER CXXIV.— OLEINiE.— (Skk Chap. A^II. P. 136.) 

This order comprises the common Ash, the 
Manna Ash, the OHve, the Privet, the Fringe- 
tree, the Phillyrea, and the Lilac. The flowers 
of all have only two stamens, and a roundish 
two-celled ovary, without any disk. The flowers 
of the Ash have no corolla, and the fruit is a 
samara. In the other genera, the flowers are 
more or less funnel-shaped, and the fruit is a 
capsule. The leaves are generally pinnate, and 
always opposite. The seeds have a dense 

ORDER CXXV.— JASMINE^.— (See Chap. VIIL, P.134.) 

This order has been separated from the last, 
chiefly on account of the seeds having no albu- 
men. The principal genus is the Jasmine, 
which has a funnel-shaped corolla, and pinnate 
leaves. Some botanists insert, between OleaceaB 
and Jasminese, the new order Columelliese, 
which contains only one plant, Bolivar ia trifida. 


Tropical trees. The principal genus Strychnos, 
the fruit of which is the well-known poisonous 
nut, Nux vomica. The genera Theophrasta and 

402 APOCYNE^. [part ii. 

Fagrfea were formerly included in this order ; 
but the first is now placed in the new order, 
Theophrastese (see p. 899) ; and the second is 
placed in another new order introduced here, 
and called Potaliacese. 

Vert showy plants from various parts of the 
world, some of which require a stove in Britain, 
while others are quite hardy. They also vary 
in some of them being trees, others erect shrubs 
or climbers, and others perennial ; but they 
are all easily recognised by the twisted direction 
of the segments of the corolla, which has been 
compared to the rays of St. Catharine's-wheel. 
The corolla is generally salver- shaped as in the 
periwinkle (^Vinca major), or funnel-shaped, as 
in Taherna montana, and Allamanda cathartica, 
or divided into equal segments as in Nerium 
Oleander. The flowers are often bearded in the 
throat, and furnished with hypogynous scales ; 
with the stamens inclosed in the flower, and the 
anthers lying close together. The seed is contain- 
ed in two ibllicles, which are slender, and have 
their seeds disposed in two rows. The species all 
abound in an injurious milky juice ; and two of 
the genera, Cerbera and Tanghina, are virulent 


These plants are very nearly allied to the 
last, and they differ chiefly in having the seg- 
ments of their corollas straight, in their stamens 
being united into a sort of crown, and in their 
pollen being found in masses of a waxy sub- 
stance. The seeds are also each furnished with 
a tuft of fine long silky hair. The principal 
plants are Periploca grceca^ a hardy, climbing, 
shrub, with rich, dark, velvet-looking flowers, 
which are said to be poisonous to flies, and Hoya 
carnosa, a stove or greenhouse climber, with 
waxen- looking, clustered, odoriferous flowers, 
distilling honey ; to these may be added Pergu- 
laria, a stove climber, remarkable for its fra- 
grance, Physianthus, Gonolobus, Ceropegia, and 
Asclepias, all singular-looking climbing plants ; 
and besides these, I may mention Stapelia, the 
species of which are dwarf plants, with their 
flowers hanging down below the pots in which 
they grow, and the odour of which is so like 
that of carrion, as to induce flesh-flies to lay 
their eggs upon them. 


The best known genera are Gentiana, (the 
Gentian), Lisianthus, and Menyanthes (the 

D D 2 

404 BIGNONIACEiE. [part ii. 

Buckbean). The flowers have a tubular calyx 
and corolla, the latter plaited in the tube, and 
with an equally-parted limb, which is generally 
five cleft ; and an equal number of stamens 
with broad filaments, and arrow-shaped anthers. 
The seeds are numerous, and are usually in two 

The orders Spigeliacese, Loganiacese, and 
Menyanthacese, have been separated from Gen- 
tianese, and are adopted by some botanists. 


The most interesting genera are — Bignonia ; 
from which Tecoma has been divided by some 
botanists, on account of a slight difference in 
the seed-pod ; Jacaranda, said to produce the 
rosewood of commerce ; Eccremoearpus, and 
Catalpa. All the plants included in this order 
have winged seeds, and generally very long 
horn-like seed-pods. The different species of 
Bignonia or Tecoma have trumpet-shaped flowers 
with a five-toothed calyx, and four stamens of 
unequal length, with the rudiments of a fifth. 
The capsule is very long and narrow, resembling 
a silique in shape, but broad on the outside, and 
the leaves are pinnate. Eccremoearpus^ or Calam- 
pelis scabra^ is a well-known climber, with orange- 
coloured, bag-like flowers, which are produced 
in secund racemes ; large, roundish warted 


fruit, with winored seeds; and piniicate leaves, 
with tendrils. In Catalpa the corolla has a 
very short tube, and an unequal, five-lobed limb. 
There are five stamens (only two of which are 
fertile) ; and an exceeding long, cylindrical, 
silique-shaped seed-pod, which is sometimes 
two feet or more in length. The leaves of the 
Catalpa are heart-shaped. In Jacaranda, the 
capsule is above two feet long, and quite flat. 
Crescentia cvjetey the calabash-tree, belongs to 
this order. 


This order is restricted to one genus Cobaea, 
of which one species (C. scandens) is common in 
British gardens. This plant is an annual climber, 
with showy bell-shaped flowers, which are first 
green, and afterwards become purple. This 
plant has remarkably long tendrils, which twist 
themselves round any thing that comes in their 


These orders are now united into one, under 
the name of Pedalinese ; and the most interest- 
ing genus is Martynia, consisting of half hardy 
annual plants with bell-shaped flowers, and very 
curious seed-pods. 

406 POLEMONIACEiE. [part n. 


This is a very interesting order to the lovers 
of ornamental flowers, from the beauty of those 
of some of the genera. The genus Polemonium, 
the Greek Valerian, has one species {P .coeruleum) 
which is found wild in many parts of England, 
and is known by the names of Charity and 
Jacob's Ladder. The corolla, which is of a 
deep blue, softening into white in the centre, 
is rotate, with the stamens, which are bearded 
at the base, inserted in the throat. The capsule 
is three-celled, and many-seeded, as is generally 
the case with plants in this order, and the leaves 
are pinnate. The Phloxes are well-known ; all 
the species are very handsome, but none are 
more so than the beautiful annual (P. Drum- 
mondi). The corolla of these plants is salver- 
shaped, with an elongated tube, the limb twisted 
in the bud, and wedge-shaped segments. The 
stamens are inserted above the middle of the 
tube, and the cells of the capsule are one- 
seeded. Leptosiphon has the corolla funnel- 
shaped, with a very long slender tube, and a 
campanulate limb with oval lobes ; the corolla 
is covered with a great number of fine glandular 
hairs, and the limb is twisted in the bud. The 
stamens, which have very short filaments, are 
inserted in the throat of the corolla. The calyx 


consists of five sharply-pointed hairy lobes, con- 
nected by a very fine membrane. The flowers 
are surrounded by a great number of sharply- 
pointed bracts. Similar bracts are very con- 
spicuous in the genus Collomia. Gilia and 
Ipomopsis, so well known for their splendid 
flowers, also belong to this order. 


Elegant little plants, distinguished from the 
preceding order by the flowers having two 
styles, and a two-valved capsule. E-etziaceae, 
an order containing only one Cape plant, is 
inserted here by some botanists, who have 
separated it from Convolvulacese. 


The principal genera are Convolvulus, Ipomo&a 
and their allies. The genus Convolvulus formerly 
included all the beautiful monopetalous flowers 
with a folded limb, which are so common in gar- 
dens, but it is now restricted to those which 
have a two-celled capsule, with the cells two- 
seeded ; the stamens are inclosed in the corolla, 
and the stigma is divided into two narrow 
thread-like lobes. Ipomoea only differs in lia,ving 
the lobes of the stigma capitate. In Quamoclit, 

408 CONVOLVULACE^. [part it. 

the little scarlet Ipomcea, the capsule is four- 
celled, and the cells one-seeded ; the corolla is 
tubular, and the stamens project beyond the 
throat. Batatas, the Sweet-potato, resembles 
Quamoclit, but the corolla is campanulate, and 
the stamens are inclosed. In Pharbitis (in 
which genus the common Convolvulus major, 
and the beautiful Ipomcea Learii, are both now 
included), the capsule is three-celled, and the 
cells are three-seeded; and in Calystigia, in 
which is now placed the common bindweed of 
the hedges, the capsule is one-celled and four- 
seeded ; and the flower, which in other respects 
agrees with that of the genus Convolvulus, has 
two bracts which serve as a sort of involucre. 
All these flowers have the lobes of the corolla 
marked with a decided fold or plait, and they 
are climbing plants, generally annuals. Cuscuta 
is a parasite belonging to Convolvulacese, which 
though it springs from the ground, withers 
just above the root as soon as it has twined 
itself round any plant within its reach ; dr^,w- 
ing its entire nourishment from the unfortu- 
nate plant it has attacked, and which it soon 
kills. The plants in this order produce an 
acrid milk ; and the roots of a kind of Con- 
volvulus yield the drug called Jalap, which 
takes that name from the Mexican city Xalapa, 
near which it is grown. 

cH.*p. I.] BORAGINE.E. 409 

The fruit of the plants included in this order 
consists of four distinct carpels, each containing 
a bony nut. These nuts frequently appear as 
though a hole had been bored in them at the 
base, and they are frequently striped or twisted. 
The flowers are generally secund, or rather 
they are produced in spikes which appear to 
have flowers only on one side, from the spikes 
being curiously rolled up before the flowers 
expand, and uncoiling gradually as they open. 
The corolla is generally salver or funnel shaped, 
with a five-lobed limb, and five little scales just 
within the throat, which appear to be placed 
there to close up the orifice. There are five 
anthers, which seem attached to the corolla, 
without any stamens, and a slender style termi- 
nating in a two-lobed stigma. The calyx is 
tubular, and remains on the fruit till ripe ; the 
teeth of the calyx contracting at the point, so 
as to cover the ripe carpels. The principal 
genera are Pulmonaria (Lungwort), Symphytum 
(Comfrey), Cerinthe (Honey wort), Litho^ 
spermum (Gromwell), Echium (Viper's Bugloss), 
Anchusa (Bugloss) ; Myosotis (Scorpion-grass 
or Mouse-ear), one species of which, M.pahistris, 
is the Forget-me-not ; Omphalodes (Venus' 
Navelwort), Cynoglossum (Hound's-tongue), 
and Heliotropium (the Heliotrope). 

410 SOLANACE-^. [part it. 

East Ixdia trees and shrubs of which Ehretia 
is, perhaps, the best known. Nearly allied to 


This order is interesting from its containing 
Phacelia, Eutoca, and Nemophila, all well 
known Californian annuals. 

ORDER CXL.— SOLANACE^ (see Chap. IX. P. 141). 

The genera Verbascum and Celsia have been 
removed from this order, and formed by some 
botanists into another called Verbascinse, though 
by Dr. Lindley they are included in Scrophula- 
rinae. The plants left in the order Solanacese 
have all a tubular calyx, which remains on the 
fruit till it is ripe ; and the fruit itself is gene- 
rally round and fleshy, with two or four cells 
and numerous seeds. In some of the genera, 
the permanent calyx looks like a capsule, but 
on opening it, the little berry-like fruit will be 
found inside. There are five stamens, the an- 
thers of which are two-celled like those of most 
other plants, and the filaments are inserted in 
the corolla, which is generally partly tubular 

CH\P. I.] 



with a spreading limb, the segments of which 
are plaited, that is, each bears the crease of a 
fold in the middle, as may be seen in the Petu- 
nia. In the order Verbascinse, the corolla is 
rotate, and the segments are not plaited ; the 
anthers also are only one-celled. Most of the 
plants belonging to Solanacese are poisonous in 
a raw state ; but they lose their deleterious 
qualities when cooked. 


The Foxglove is generally taken as the type 
of this order, and it has a tubular corolla (see a 
in fig. 140) with a short limb (c*), and a spread- 
ing calyx (c). There are four stamens of un- 
equal length inserted on the base of the corolla 
and hidden in its tube; and 
an oblong ovary (J), with 
a long style, and a two- 
lobed stigma {e). The 
fruit is a dry capsule with 
two cells, and numerous 
seeds, ^he flowers of the 
other genera are very irre- 
gular. In the Snapdra- 
gon, the corolla is what is 
called personate ; and in 
the Calceolaria the lower lip is curiously inflated. 

FxG. 140.— Foxglove 

412 LABIATjE. [part II. 

The stamens also differ. In most of the genera 
there are four, but in Pentstemon there is a 
fifth, long and slender, and hairy at the point, 
but without any anther ; and in Calceolaria and 
Veronica there are only two. Among the ge- 
nera included in this order may be mentioned 
Buddlea, the flowers of which grow in ball-like 
heads ; Paulownia, Maurandya, ^limulus, Alon- 
soa, and Collinsia. The Toadflax (Linaria), and 
several other British plants belong to it ; but the 
Yellow Rattle {Rhinanthus)^ and some other 
allied plants, have been formed into a new order 
called Rhinanthacese ; Chelone and Pentstemon 
have been formed into an order called Chelona- 
cese ; and Sibthorpia, Disandra, &c., into one 
called Sibthorpiacese. Trevirana or Achimenes, 
and Columnea, are removed to Gesneriacese. 

The new order Cyrtandracese, including Ms- 
chynanthus, Streptocarpus or Didymocarpus, 
Fieldia, and A mphicoma, is introduced here : 
the first and last of these genera are new, and 
the others were formerly included in Bigno- 
niacese. • 

The plants belonging to this order include 
Mint, Sage, Thyme, and other kitchen aromatic 
plants, and several well-known British weeds. 



They are all distinguished by a tubular, bila- 
biate corolla with a projecting under lip (see a 
in fig. 141). In some plants the corolla is rin- 
gent, as shown in fig. 142, taken from Dr. Lind- 
ley's Ladies Botany, in which a is the galea or 

Fig. 141— a Labiate 

Fig 142. — Black Horeholnd 
{Ballota nigra). 

helmet, and b the lower lip, w^iich is three- 
lobed. There are four stamens, two of which 
are longer than the others, and the cells of the 
anthers differ from those of most other plants 
in spreading widely apart from each other, each 
being joined to the filament only at the tip. 
The pistil consists of four distinct carpels (c), 
a very long style lobed at the tip, and furnished 
with a very small stigma at the tip of each lobe 
{d). The flowers of some of the plants belong- 
ing to this order are disposed in a whorl round 

414 VERBENACE^. [part ii. 

the stem; as, for example, those of the Dead 
Nettle {Lamiiim). Among the other plants 
belonging to the order may be mentioned the 
Bugle {Ajugd), and the Ground Ivy (Glechoma)^ 
both common but very pretty British weeds. 


The genus Verbena is well known, from the 
many beautiful species now common in every 
greenhouse. The fruit is two or four celled, 
and a drupe or a berry, and the calyx of the 
flowers is tubular, and persistent round it ; but 
the corolla is deciduous, and falls oflP long 
before the fruit is ripe. In the genus Verbena 
the calyx is tubular, with five distinct angles, 
ending in five teeth. The corolla has a cyHn- 
drical tube nearly double the length of the 
calyx, and a flat hmb divided into five unequal 
segments, which are wedge-shaped and notched, 
the central one of the lower three appearing to 
have been slightly pinched ; the throat of the 
corolla in hairy. There are four stamens, two 
longer than the others, the anthers having two 
widely-spreading lobes, as in the Labiatse. The 
style is slender below, and thickest in the 
upper part ; and the stigma is two-lobed. The 
leaves are opposite, and furnished with stipules 


The dowers form a corymb in the Scarlet Ver- 
bena, and a spike in some of the other kinds, 
which elongates gradually as the flowers ex- 
pand. The principal other genera are Clero- 
dendron, or Volkameria, Vitex (the Chaste- 
tree), Lantana, Aloysia (the Lemon-scented 
Verbena), and Tectona (the Teak) which is so 
much used in the East Indies for ship-building. 

Australian and Polynesian plants, nearly 
allied to Verbenacese. The principal genera 
are Myoporum and Avicennia, the White 
Mangrove of Brazil, 

These plants are known by the elastic open- 
ing of the capsules, which are two-celled, and 
the hooked points of the seeds by which they 
are attached to the placenta. The calyx re- 
mains on the ripe fruit, but in most of the 
plants it is so extremely small as to be incon- 
spicuous, and its place is supplied by three 
large leafy bracts. The corolla varies conside- 
rably, being sometimes two-lipped as in Justi- 
cia, sometimes funnel-shaped as in Ruellia, 

416 PRIMULACEiE. [part h. 

and sometimes campanulate, with a spreading 
five-cleft limb, as in Thmibergia. There are 
only two stamens in Justicia and some of the 
other genera, but in Thunbergia, Acanthus, 
and Ruellia, there are four of unequal length, 
inclosed wdthin the throat of the corolla. The 
ovary is imbedded in the disk, and it is two 
or many seeded ; the style is simple, and the 
stigma one or two lobed. 

Leafless parasites, with brown or colourless 
scaly stems and flowers. The genera are La- 
thrsea and Orobanche. 


Pretty little marsh plants, natives of Eu- 
rope and North America. Pinguicula has very 
much the appearance of a violet, and the Utri- 
cularias are floating plants. 


The plants belonging to this order are easily 
known by the stamens, or rather anthers, for 


they have scarcely any filaments, being affixed 
to the corolla in the centre of the lobes, instead 
of being alternate to them, and by the capsule, 
though five or ten ribbed, being only one-celled, 
with a central placenta, to which the seeds are 
attached. The calyx remains on the ripe fruit. 
In the genus Primula (the Primrose), the calyx 
is tubular, and strongly marked with five dis- 
tinct angles, which end in as many teeth ; and 
the corolla is salver-shaped, with a contraction 
in the tube, at the insertion of the stamens, 
the five segments of the limb being wedge- 
shaped and notched. The style is slender, and 
the stigma capitate. The capsule opens natu- 
rally by ten teeth, which curl back. The Cy- 
clamen, or Sow-bread, one of the genera be- 
longing to this order, has the lobes of the 
corolla bent back ; and when the flower falls, 
the peduncle coils up in a most curious manner, 
so as to bury the seed-vessel in the earth. 
These plants have tuberous roots, which are so 
acrid as only to be eaten by the wild-boars. 
The seed-vessel of the Pimpernel {Anagallis) 
resembles a round case with a lid, which may 
be taken off, when it displays a great number 
of seeds, so closely packed, that no room is 
lost. The principal other genera are the 

418 PLUMBAGINE^. [part n. 

American Cowslip (Dodecatheon), Bear's-ear 
Sanicle (Cortusa), Soldajiella, the Water Violet 
(Hootonia), and Loosestrife {Lysimachia). 


Pretty alpine plants, with blue flowers. 


This order probably belongs to Monochla- 
mydese. The principal genera are Sea Laven- 
der (Statice)^ remarkable for the coloured foot- 
stalks of the flowers ; Thrift {Armerid) ; and 
Leadwort {Flumhago). The corolla in these 
plants is either monopetalous, with the stamens 
free from the corolla and growing from beneath 
the pistil, or with five petals, to which the sta- 
mens are attached. There are five styles and 
five stigmas, but only a one-celled and one- 
seeded ovary. The fruit is thin and dry. The 
pedicels of all the species of the Sea Lavender, 
particularly of Sfatice arborea, are often mis- 
taken for the flowers. 





In all the plants contained in this division, 
the stamens and pistils have either no floral 
covering, or only one ; and as, when this is the 
case, the covering is called the calyx, the plants 
in this division are said to have no corolla. 
Some botanists think that the calyx and corolla 
have become intermixed, so as to form only one 
covering, v^^hich they call the perianth ; a word 
applied to the calyx and corolla together. 


The weed called Plantain, or Rib-grass, is 
well known to all persons who keep birds, as it 
is a food that cage-birds are very fond of. It 
is conspicuous by its strongly-ribbed leaves, 
which form a flat tuft on the ground, and by 
the large arrow-shaped anthers of its four sta- 
mens, which hang on very slender filaments. 
The flowers are arranged in dense spikes, 
and are green and inconspicuous. 

E E 2 

420 AMARANTHACE^. [part ii. 

The Marvel of Peru {Mirahilis Jalapa), and 
the other species of that genus, are the only 
ornamental plants belonging to this order. 
The flowers consist of a coloured calyx, sur- 
rounded by a five- toothed involucre, which 
greatly resembles a calyx. The true calyx is 
funnel-shaped, with a spreading limb, the lobes 
of which are plaited, and notched at the mar- 
gin ; and which, with the tubular part, form at 
the base a globular swelling, which incloses the 
ovary. The stamens grow from beneath the 
pistil, adhering together at the base, so as to 
form a kind of cup. The ovary contains only 
one seed ; and the style is long and slender, 
terminating in a capitate stigma, divided into a 
number of tubercles or warts. The lower part 
of the calyx remains on the ripe fruit, harden- 
ing into a kind of shell. 


The flowers of the plants belonging to this 
order are either in spikes, like Love-Hes-bleeding 
{Amarantus caudatus), in heads like the Globe 
Amaranth {Gomphrena glohosa)^ or in a singular 
crest -like shape, like the Cock's-comb {Celosia 
cristata). In all, the flowers have no corolla. 


and only a very thin and dry calyx, which is 
surrounded by hard, thin, dry bracts, of the 
same colour, each ending in a long point. 
There are generally five anthers, and two or 
three styles, with pointed stigmas ; but the 
capsule contains only one cell and one seed ; and 
when ripe, it divides horizontally in the middle, 
like the capsule of the Pimpernel. 


Herbaceous plants and shrubs, with racemes 
of red, white, or greenish flowers. Phytolacca 
is the principal genus ; and one species, the Vir- 
ginian Poke {Phytolacca decandrd) is remarkable 
for being found wild in climates so different as 
Spain and Portugal, the north of Africa, Ja- 
maica, and North America. The flowers are 
greenish, tinged with red, and they are fol- 
lowed by very dark purple berries, which are 
said to have been formerly used for colouring 
port wine, but the juice having medicinal qua- 
lities, their use in Portugal is now prohibited. 
Rivina belongs to this order. 


The plants belonging to this order bear con- 
siderable resemblance to those included in the 

422 BEGONIACEiE. [part ii. 

order Amaranthacese, but their flowers are dis- 
posed in loose clusters without bracts, and all 
their parts are fleshy ; while the flowers of the 
Amaranthacese are disposed in dense spikes 
with bracts, which, as well as the divisions of 
the flowers, are quite hard and dry. The sta- 
mens are five in number, and they are spread 
out like those of the Nettle tribe ; there are 
two styles with hairy stigmas, and the capsule 
resembles the Echinus, or Sea Urchin. The 
principal genera in this order are, — Spinach 
(Spinacea), Red and White Beet (Beta vul- 
garis)^ Mangold Wurtzel {B. altissima). Chard 
Beet {B. cicla), the Strawberry Blite (Blitum), 
Fat-hen or Goosefoot (Chenopodium) ; Glass- 
wort, the ashes of which are used in making 
glass (SaHcornia), Saltwort (Salsoh Kali, or 
Soda), from the ashes of which soda is prepared ; 
and the Garden Orache {Atriplex hortensis). 
The leaves of all the species are somewhat suc- 
culent and pulpy, and they are frequently 
stained with brilliant colours. 


The only genus in this tribe is Begonia, 
the plants belonging to which have pretty 
flowers, and strongly- veined leaves, which are 
crimson on the lower side, with one half smaller 


than the other, and each furnished with a 
pair of large stipules. The flowers are male 
and female ; the first consist of four sepals? 
two of which are much longer than the others, 
and a beard of anthers, with the filaments united 
into one common stalk, and each anther contain- 
ing two cells for pollen. The female flowers have 
five sepals ; the lower part is thick and fleshy, 
having three unequal wings. This part becomes 
the capsule, and it is furnished with three stig- 
mas, each of which has two curiously-twisted 
lobes. The capsule when ripe has three wings, 
one much longer than the others ; and it is in 
three cells, each containing a central placenta 
with a double row of seeds, which are covered 
with a beautifully reticulated skin. 

This order comprehends the Rhubarb {Rhe- 
um)^ the Dock (JRumex ohtusifolius) ^ Sorrel (JR. 
acetosa), the Buckwheat {Polygonum Fagopy- 
rum), Persicaria (P. orientale). Water-pepper 
(P. hydropiper), Siud Knot-grass (P. aviculare) . 
The leaves of these plants either sheath the 
stem with the base of their petioles, or are 
furnished with ochrese, that is, with stipules 
which are joined together so as to form a kind 
of purse or boot. The flowers are inconspicuous, 

424 LAURINEiE. [part ii. 

and the fruit is a triangular nut, retaining the 
calyx till it is ripe. The genera Eriogonum, 
Calligonum, and Koenigia, formerly included in 
this order, are now formed into another, called 


These plants are known by their anthers, 
which are two or four celled, with the valves 
curling upwards when ripe, like those of the 
Berberry, and the filaments are furnished near 
the base with two kidney-shaped glands. The 
male and female flowers are distinct ; the former 
have six, eight, or twelve stamens, and a calyx 
of four or six divisions united at the base. The 
female flowers have a one-celled and one-seeded 
ovary, with a simple style, and an obtuse- 
crested stigma ; and four or more abortive sta- 
mens, furnished with glands, but without an- 
thers. The most interesting plants contained in 
this order are, — the Sweet Bay (Laurus nohilis), 
the Sassafras-tree (L. Sassafras, or Sassafras 
officinale), the Cinnamon- tree (L. Cinnamomum^ 
or Cinnamomum verum, or zeylanicum); the 
Camphor -tree (Zy. campliora, or Camphora offi- 
cinarurti) ; and the Alligator Pear (L. Persea, 
or Per sea gratissima) . All the plants belonging 
to this order are aromatic, either in the leaves, 
bark, or fruit. 

CHAP, n.] PROTEACE^. 425 

Two small orders, Illigerese and Hemandia- 
cese, containing Indian plants rarely met with 
in England, are introduced here by some bo- 


The only interesting plant in this order is the 
Nutmeg (M. officinale, or moschafa). In this 
plant, the fruit is pear-shaped, and it consists of 
a half-fleshy pericardium enclosing a jet-black 
stone, encircled by a fleshy orange-red arillus, 
which is the mace. The nutmeg is the kernel 
of the stone, and it is not taken out for sale 
till it is sufiiciently ripe to rattle when shaken. 
The leaves are of a dark green above, and glau- 
cous beneath ; and the flowers are white, with 
the red pistil conspicuous in the centre. The 
tree is a native of Ceylon and the East Indian 
Islands, and it requires a stove in England . 


The principal genera are Protea, Banksia, 
Dryandra, and Grevillea, all very singular 
plants, the species of which, when one of each 
genus has been seen, are easily recognised. 
They are all natives of the Cape of Good Hope 
and New Holland. 

426 THYMELiEiE. [rAiii n. 


This order is well known from the Mezereon 

and the Spurge Laurel, both common garden 

shrubs belonging to the genus Daphne. The 

berries of both are poisonous, and the bark 

acrid. The flowers of the Mezereon (D. Meze- 

reum) have a coloured calyx, which is tubular, 

with a four-cleft limb (see Jig, 143), which is 

slightly hairy on the outer surface, and pitted 

on the inner one. It is said that 

this calyx will separate readily 

into two, the inner part peeling 

off like a lining : but I have 

never been able to effect this 

Fig. 143.-A flower without tearing the outer cover- 
OK MEZEREON. j^^^^ rpj^^^^ ^^^ ^j^j^^ authors, 

with scarcely any filaments, affixed in two rows 
to the throat of the corolla ; and an egg-shaped 
ovary, with a tufted stigma without any style. 
The fruit is a drupe, that is, formed like a 
plum, with a fleshy pericardium, enclosing a 
stone or nut, the kernel of which is the seed, 
and which sometimes appears to be partially 
enveloped in a sort of hairy bag, which is the 
lining of the ovary become loose. The flowers 
of the Mezereon grow round the stem, with a 
tuft of leaves at the top ; but those of the 
Spurge Laurel (D. Laureola) are in a cluster of 


short drooping racemes. The most remarkable 
species of the genus is, however, the Lace Bark- 
tree of Jamaica {D. Lagetto^ or Lagetta lintea- 
ria), the liber or inner bark of which has such 
tough fibres as to bear stretching out consider- 
ably without breaking ; and in this state it re- 
sembles lace so much, that a collar and rufiles 
were made of it and sent to Charles II. Gnidia, 
a greenhouse plant, has little scales in the mouth 
of the calyx ; and Pimelea has the flowers in 
heads, surrounded by a four-leaved involucre. 
The principal other genera are Lachnsea, a little 
Australian plant with woolly flowers, Passe- 
rina or Sparrow-wort, and Struthiola. The 
curious little tree called Leatherwood (Dirca 
palustris) also belongs to this order. 


Exotic trees with white or greenish flowers. 
The only genera are the Poet's Cassia (Osgris), 
and a genus of Australian plants called Exocar- 


The most interesting plant is the Sandal- wood 
tree (Santalum alburn)^ which requires a stove in 
England ; but the North American trees be- 
longing to the genus Nyssa, including the Tupelo- 

428 ASARINEiE. [pakt h. 

tree and the Ogechee Lime, are quite hardy. 
The flowers are sraall and insignificant ; and the 
fruit is a drupe. 


The three genera included in this order are 
the Sea Buckthorn {Hippophae), the Oleaster 
{Eloeagjius)^ and the Shepherdia; all so easily 
recognised by their silvery foliage, as to need no 
particular description. The flowers are small 
and inconspicuous. 


The genus Aristolochia, or Birthwort, is re- 
markable for the very singular shape of its 
flowers, which are as strange, and as much varied, 
as it is possible for the wildest imagination to 
conceive. The flowers are tubular, with one lip 
much longer than the other ; and the tube takes 
an abrupt bend near the middle. Here are six 
anthers, fixed very curiously on the outside of a 
club-shaped column, split into six lobes at the 
point. In the centre of this column is a style 
with a six-rayed stigma ; and the fruit is a large 
capsule with six cells, which opens by as many 
slits, and discharges the numerous thin, flat, 
dark brown seeds. 

Asarum canadense^ the Wild Ginger of North 


America, has kidney-shaped leaves, and dark 
purplish brown flowers, on very short footstalks, 
which resemble those of the genus Stapelia, both 
in appearance and smell. 


The most interesting plant in this order is 
Nepenthes distillatoria^ the Chinese Pitcher- 
plant, the leaves of which have a tendril at the 
point curiously dilated at the extremity, so as 
to form a cup-like appendage, which is generally 
full of water. The rim of the pitcher is beauti- 
fully ribbed, and it is furnished with a lid. The 
male and female flowers are on different plants, 
but neither of them possess much beauty. The 
remarkable Javanese fungus Rafflesia belongs 
to this order. 

A small order called Cephalotese, and con- 
taining only the genus Cephalotis, formerly in- 
cluded in Rosacese, is introduced here. 


The genus Euphorbia is well known by the 
British weed called Caper Spurge, and the showy 
stove plants which belong to it. The male and 
female flowers are distinct ; but both are inclosed 
in one cup-like involucre. In fig. 144, a is the 

430 EUPHORBIACE^. [part ii. 

involucre, b the female flower, and c the male 
ones. The fruit (Jig. 145) consists of three 

Fig. 144.— Elphorbia. Fig. 145.— Fruit of 


carpels, each containing a single seed, which 
divide with elasticity when the seeds are ripe. 
All the plants belonging to this order have a 
milky, glutinous juice when young, which in 
some genera becomes solid when exposed to 
the air. This is particularly the case with 
Siphonia Hevea, a Brazilian tree, the sap of 
which yields the Indian rubber used for Mac- 
intosh cloaks, &c.; it being more suitable for 
that purpose than the caoutchouc yielded by 
the Ficus elastica^ which is the true Indian Rub- 
ber. The principal other genera belonging to 
this order are the Box (Buxus), the tree kind 
of which yields the wood used for wood-engrav- 
ing, and the dwarf variety is employed as edging 
for gardens ; Croton, an annual species of which 
{Croton Tiglium) yields the celebrated Croton 
oil; the Cassava (Jatropha Manihot)^ which 
though poisonous in a raw state, becomes the 
wholesome food called tapioca, when properly 


prepared ; Palma Christi {Ricinus communis), 
from the seeds of which castor-oil is made ; and 
the Manchineel tree (Hippomayie), which is said 
to be so poisonous as to occasion the death of 
those who sleep beneath its shade. 


Small Australian shrubs with insignificant 

East-Indian trees with inconspicuous flowers. 

ORDER CLXX.— URTICE^.— (See Chap. X. P. 157.) 

The plants belonging to this order are 
divided into two sections, viz. those with tough 
fibres, as the Hemp, the Nettle, &c. ; and those 
with milky sap, such as the Fig, the Mulberry, 
the Bread-fruit, &c. All the genera have the 
male and female flowers separate. The male 
flowers have four stamens which spring back 
and discharge their pollen with elasticity, and 
the female flowery have a one-celled ovary with 
two long stigmas. 

432 JUGLANDACE^. [part ii. 


The principal genera are the Elm (Ulmus), 
the Nettle-tree (Celtis), and the Zelkoua-tree 
(^Planera). The flowers, though very small, are 
pretty, from their opening in clusters before the 
leaves ; and each has four stamens, with dark 
purple anthers, and is furnished with dark 
brown bracts. The fruit is a utricle, having a 
single seed, encircled by a broad thin trans- 
parent membrane. The leaves are rough, and 
their sides are unequal at the base. The bark 
of Elm trees is rough and deeply furrowed; 
and the roots spread, instead of penetrating 
deeply into the ground like those of the Oak. 


The species are generally climbing plants 
with perfect flowers, which are produced in 
spikes, and are succeeded by one-seeded berries. 
The genus Piper contains the common Pepper 
(P. nigrum)^ the Betel (P. Betel), and several 
other species. 

P. 176.) 

The male and female flowers are distinct, but 
on the same plant. The male flowers are pro- 

CHAP. II. 1 EMPETRE^. 433 

duced on long thick anthers, and each consists 
of a scale-Hke calyx enclosing numerous stamens ; 
the female flowers are two or more together, 
and each consists of a scale-like calyx, enclosing a 
one-celled ovary. The fruit is a drupe, that is, 
it consists of a fleshy husk enclosing a nut. 
The embryo fills the whole seed ; and the co- 
tyledons are fleshy, two-lobed, and wrinkled. 
There are only two genera, the Walnut {Ju- 
glans), the male catkins of which are produced 
singly, and the Hickory {Caryct)^ the male 
catkins of wdiich are in clusters. 

P. 174). 

The male flow^ers are in catkins, and the fruit 
of most of the genera is, when ripe, partially 
or wholly enclosed in a cup -like involucre, 
formed by the adhesion of the numerous bracts. 


This order has been already inserted, p. 880. 


Little heath-like plants, with small flowers 
and showy berries. The Crowberry, Empetrum 
nigrum^ is very common in Scotland on heaths. 

434 CYCADE.^. [part ii. 


The male and female flowers are both pro- 
duced in catkins, and both consist only of scales. 
The pollen of the male flowers is very abun- 
dant, and is discharged freely in fine weather. 
The female flowers form cones, consisting of 
numerous scales, at the base of each of which 
are two winged seeds. The timber abounds in 

ORDER CLXXVIir.— CYCADE.E. (See Chap. XII. P. 229.) 
These singular plants have thick timber-like 
trunks, yet they can hardly be called trees, as 
they increase in height by a single terminal 
bud. The leaves are pinnate, and they unroll, 
when they expand, like those of the ferns. 
The male flowers are in cones, and the female 
ones either in cones, or produced on the margin 
of contracted leaves. The principal genera are 
Zamia and Cycas, and one species of the latter 
yields a kind of sago ; the true kind being a 
product of a species of Palm. 




All the trees belonging to this division are 
natives of tropical countries ; and they, as well 
as all the herbaceous plants belonging to it, are 
distinguished by the veins of their leaves being 
never branched, but principally in parallel lines. 
These plants are re-divided into those with a 
perianth, which are called the Petaloidese, and 
in which are included the Orchidacese and the 
bulbous-rooted plants ; and those without a 
perianth, which are called Glumacea?, and in 
which are included the grasses, and sedges. 



Aquatic plants, two of which are of very 
curious construction. In Vallisneria, the male 
and female flowers are on different plants, and 
the buds of the female flowers rise on Ions: 
spiral stalks, which gradually uncoil, till the 
flower appears above the surface of the water, 

F F 2 

436 ALISMACE^. [part ii. 

where it expands. The male flowers are pro- 
duced on separate plants at the bottom, but, 
before they expand, they detach themselves 
from the soil, and rise up to the surface, where 
they float till the flowers have opened, and the 
pollen has fallen on the stigmas of the female 
flowers, after which the male flowers wither, 
and the female ones coil up their stalks again 
to ripen the seed-vessels at the bottom. This 
curious arrangement is necessary, because the 
pollen should be dry when it falls on the stig- 
mas ; and nearly a similar arrangement takes 
place with the Fresh- water Soldier (Stratiotes), 
The Frog's Bit {Hydrocharis morsiis ranee) is a 
floating plant, with pretty white flowers. Da- 
mosonium indicum is a very handsome water- 
plant, with white flowers and winged stems. 



The principal genera in this order are Alisma, 
Sagittaria, and Actinocarpus, all common 
British aquatic plants. The Water Plantain 
{Alisma plantago) has ribbed leaves, and a 
loose panicle of small pinkish flowers, which 
have a permanent calyx of three sepals, a corolla 
of three petals, six stamens, and numerous car- 
pels, which grow close together so as to form a 


head, as in the Ranunculus tribe. A, natans^ 
which is generally found on lakes in the moun- 
tainous districts of Wales and Cumberland, has 
rather large white flowers, with a yellow spot at 
the base of each petal. The flower-stalks rise 
high above the water, and the flowers expand 
in the months of July and August. The com- 
mon Arrowhead {Sagittaria sagittifolia) has 
curiously-shaped leaves, resembling the head of 
an arrow. The flowers are white, and resem- 
ble those of A. natans ; but they have a pink 
spot at the base, and there are numerous 
stamens. The flowers are in whorls, and those 
in the upper whorls are generally destitute of 
carpels. The common Star-fruit {Actinocarpus 
damsonium) has only six carpels, which are so 
arranged as to form a star-like fruit when ripe. 


The flowering Rush {Butomus umhellatus) is 
certainly the handsomest of the British aquatic 
plants. The flowers are rose-coloured, crimson, 
or white ; and they are produced in large erect 
umbels. The calyx and the corolla are gene- 
rally of the same colour, and in three divisions 
each ; there are nine stamens and six capsules, 
which are many-seeded. The leaves are trian- 

438 ORCHIDACEiE. [part ii. 

gular or flat. Limnocharis Plumieri is a very 
handsome Brazilian aquatic belonging to this 


Insignificant bog plants, with grassy leaves, 
and central spikes or racemes of greenish yellow 


The plants belonging to this order may be 
divided into two kinds, those that grow in the 
earth, and those which require to have their 
roots suspended in the air ; the latter being the 
beautiful tropical plants called Orchideous Epi- 
phytes. Most of the terrestrial Orchidacese are 
British plants belonging to several genera, the 
most curious of which are Orchis, Habenaria, 
Ophrys, Aceras, Noettia, Epipactis, and ^la- 
laxis. Nearly all the British Orchidacese have 
tuberous roots, which remain above ground, 
a new tuber being formed every year. The 
leaves are alternate, with an entire margin, 
without any footstalk, and sheathing the stem 
at the base. The flowers are produced in a 
spike, furnished wdth bracts, and though they 
are very irregular in their forms, there are cer- 



tain particulars in which they all agree. Though 
in reality sessile, they appear to have each a 
footstalk, but this footstalk is only the long 
twisted ovary (c in fig. 146), which is one- 
celled and many -seeded, 
and which serves to support 
the calyx and corolla of 
the flower, which are both 
above it. The calyx con- 
sists of three sepals, one of 
Fig. 146.-ORCHIS morio. wliich lias the appearance 
of a hood («), and the others {h h) look like 
wings. The petals are very disproportionate 
in their size; two are generally very small, 
and are only seen peeping beneath the hood of 
the calyx ; while the third (d)^ which is called 
the labellum, or lip, is very large, and hangs 
down. In the centre of the flower is a singu- 
lar mass, called the column, composed of the 
stamens and pistil, grown together (see a in Jig. 
147). In this column there is one perfect 
anther (^), and two im- 
perfect ones {cc). The 
perfect anther consists 
of a pouch or bag, w hich, 
when opened, displays 
two stalked masses of 

Fig. 147— Pollen Masses of the globular pollcU, OnO 

of which {d) is pulled 

440 ORCHID ACE^. [part ii. 

down to show its appearance, while the other 
remains in its case at (e). The stigma is a 
sort of cup half full of a glutinous fluid, but it 
appears . entirely shut out from the pollen, 
which is not only enclosed in its pouch or bag, 
but is of such a solid waxy nature as to prevent 
any possibility of its being carried by wind or 
insects to the stigma. Nature, however, has 
contrived a means of obviating the difficulty. 
At the foot of each stalk of the pollen masses, 
there is a little protuberance, covering a gland, 
through which the pollen descends to the stig- 
ma, and thence to the ovary or germen. 

The different genera are distinguished, partly 
by the manner in which the granules of the 
pollen adhere together, and partly by the shape 
of the flowers ; and their different species vary 
principally in the form of the labellum. In the 
genera Orchis and Habenaria, the labellum is 
drawn out behind into a kind of spur (see e in 
jig. 146) ; and in others it assumes strange 
shapes, as in the Man Orchis (Aceras anfhropo- 
phora)^ where the labellum looks like a little 
man ; and in the Lizard Orchis {A, or Orchis 
liircina) where the labellum is drawn out into a 
long tail, which looks like the tail and long 
body of the lizard, while the petals, which are 
long and narrow and bent back, look like the 
hind legs. In the genus Ophrys, the labellum 


also takes strange shapes, sometimes resembling 
a bee, at others a fly, and at others a spider. 
In the genus Cypripedium, the two side stamens 
bear anthers and pollen, and only the central 
one is imperfect. 

In the orchideous epiphytes the same general 
construction prevails, but the forms of the 
flowers are still more varied and fantastic. 
All of them have pseudo bulbs above ground, 
which serve as substitutes for the tubers of the 
terrestrial species. 


This order contains several plants, well known 
for their useful properties, as for example, the 
Ginger {Zingiber officinale)^ and the Turmeric 
{Curcuma Zerumbet). SoQie of the plants grow 
tall and reed-like, as for example in Hedychi- 
um. Most of the genera have a creeping under- 
ground stem, called a rhizoma, which is often 
jointed. The flowers are produced in spathe 
like bracts ; the calyx is tubular, and adheres 
to the ovary ; and the corolla, which is also tu- 
bular, has six segments arranged in two rows ; 
the inner row, which is supposed to consist of 
the dilated filaments of abortive stamens^ has 
one of the segments, called the labellum, larger 
than the rest. There are three stamens, two 

442 IMUSACEtE. [part ii. 

of which are abortive, as in the Orchidacese ; 
but the pollen does not cohere in masses, and it 
is not inclosed in a kind of pouch or bag. The 
ovary is three-celled (though the cells are some- 
times imperfect), and many-seeded ; the style 
is filiform, and the stigma is dilated and hollow. 
The fruit is generally a capsule ; but in some 
cases it is a berry. 


The most interesting genera are — Canna^ con- 
taining reed-like plants with brilliant flowers ; 
as, for example, C. indica^ the Indian Shot ; 
Thalia^ a curious aquatic ; and Maranta, the 
tubers of which furnish India Arrowroot. The 
flowers in their construction greatly resemble 
those of the preceding order ; but the fila- 
ments of the stamens are petal-like, and it is 
one of the side stamens that is perfect, the 
middle and the other side stamens being always 
abortive. The fruit is always capsular. 


The genus Musa is known by its fruit, which 
is eaten under the names of Plantain and Ba- 
nana. The flowers are produced in spikes, en- 
closed in spathe-like bracts, which are often 

CHAP, m.] IRIDACE^. 443 

richly coloured ; and they are succeeded by the 
fruit, which hang down in massive spikes of 
enormous weight. The leaves are very large 
and strong, and Indian muslin is manufactured 
from the fibres of one of the species. The prin- 
cipal other genera, Strelitzia and Heliconia, are 
both remarkable for the brilliant colours of 
their flowers. 


The principal genera belonging to this order 
are — Iris, Morsea, Marica, Vieusseuxia, Homeria, 
Sisyrinchium, Patersonia, Witsenia, Ferraria, 
Tigridia, Babiana, Watsonia, Gladiolus, Spa- 
raxis, Tritonia, Ixia, and Crocus; but almost 
every genus contained in the order has showy 
flowers, and is consequently well known in gar- 
dens. The leaves are generally thin, long, and 
flat, with the edge towards the stem, and the 
flowers are produced from spathes ; the perianth 
is also in six segments coloured alike, the calyx 
and corolla being in most cases confounded toge- 
ther. The genus Iris has generally tuberous or 
solid bulbous roots, of the kind called corms, and 
the perianth of the flower is divided into six 
segments, three of which are larger than the 
others ; these three larger segments, which form 



[part II. 

the calyx, (see a in Jig, 148) are reflexed, and 
a stamen springs 
from the base of 
each, which re- 
clines upon it, 
with its anther 
turned from the 
rest of the flower, 
the segment, in 
many species, 
having a kind of 
crest or beard 
near the base, as 
though it were in- ^^^- 148.— flower of the iris, 
tended to form a cushion for the stamen to 
repose on, while over each stamen is spread, as 
a kind of coverlid, a stigma (5) which is dilated 
so as to resemble a petal. The petals (c) often 
stand erect, and were called by Linnaeus the 
standards. The seed-vessel, which forms below 
the flower, is a three-celled capsule, opening, 
when ripe, by three valves, and containing 
numerous seeds. 

The other genera differ from the Iris in having 
the lower part of the segments of the perianth 
generally combined into a tube, with the ovary 
below, looking like a footstalk ; the limb being 
divided into six parts, all so much alike, both 
in form and position, as to render it difficult to 


distinguish the calyx from the corolla. There 
is only one style, with three stigmas, which are 
always more or less leafy, and the anthers (which 
are never more than three) are always turned 
away from the pistil. In Ferraria, the filaments 
of the stamens grow together, and form a hollow 
tube, as in the Passion-flower, surrounding the 
style and stigmas ; and in the Saffron Crocus 
(C.sativa), the stigmas (which, when dried, form 
the saffron) are so heavy, as to hang out on one 
side of the perianth from between the segments. 
Most of the genera have solid bulbs or corms at 
the base of their stems ; but some, such as 
Marica, Sisyrinchium, and Patersonia, have only 
fibrous roots. The genera Colchicum and Bul- 
bocodium very much resemble the Crocus in the 
appearance of their flowers ; but they are dis- 
tinguished by having three styles and a superior 
ovary, and they are included in the order Melan- 


The principal genera are Wachendorfia, 
Hsemadorum, and Anigozanthos, wdiich differ 
from the preceding genus principally in having 
six stamens, the anthers of which are turned 
towards the stigma. Most of the genera have 
only fibrous roots, but Wachendorfia has a 
rhizoma, producing buds in the scales. The 

446 AMARYLLIDACE^. [part ii. 

plants are natives of the Cape of Good Hope 
and New Holland, and the roots of some of the 
species yield a brilliant scarlet dye. 


BuLBous-RooTED plants, with lono^ narrow 
leaves covered with soft downy hairs, and 
rather small yellow flowers, which are frequently 


A LARGE order of genera, all of which have 
bulbous roots, and most of them splendid 
flowers. Some of the most interesting genera 
are — Amaryllis, Nerine (the Guernsey Lily), 
Brunsvigia, Haemanthus, Crinum, Pancra- 
tium, Narcissus, Galanthus (the Snowdrop), 
Leucojum, Alstrcemeria, and Doryanthes. The 
different kinds of Amaryllis have large lily-like 
flowers, divided into six equal segments, which 
are joined into a tube below, with six stamens, 
the anthers of which are turned towards the 
pistil, and a long style crowned with a simple 
stigma. The ovary is beneath the other parts 
of the flower, to which it serves as a recep- 
tacle ; and in most of the plants it looks like a 
small green calyx below the perianth. The 
leaves are very long, but they are rather thick 

CHAP, iii.l DIOSCORE^. 447 

and fleshy, and their edge is not turned towards 
the stem. In Narcissus, Pancratium, and some 
other genera, the flowers have a kind of cup 
within the perianth, formed of the filaments of 
abortive stamens grown together. In Pan- 
cratium, the filaments of the anther-bearing 
stamens grow into the others, so as to form a 
part of the cup, the anthers springing from the 
margin of it; but in Narcissus, the fertile 
stamens are distinct. In Galanthus, and its 
allied genera, the anthers open by pores, as in 
the Ericacese, and there is a kind of recep- 
tacle on the germen, in which the petals, and 
sepals, and the filaments of the stamens, are 


This order, which included the Day Lilies 
{H enter ocallis and Funkia), the African Lily 
(Agapanthus) ^ the Aloe (Aloe), the Tuberose 
{Polianthes), with several other genera which 
have their flowers in upright racemes or um- 
bels, is now generally considered to form a 
section of the order Liliacese. 


The Yam (Dloscorece), and the Elephant's- 
foot (Testudinaria), are the principal genera in 

448 SMILACE^. [part ii. 

this order ; and both have an enormously-large 
tuberous root which is eatable, and a very- 
slender climbing stem, with rather small leaves 
and inconspicuous flowers. The ovary is below 
the flower, and the fruit is capsular. 

This order consists only of the genus Tamus, 
the Black Bryony, which Dr. Lindley includes 
in Dioscoreae. It has, ^however, a berry-like 


This order includes Smilax, the root of a 
species of which affords the drug called Sarsa- 
parilla, the Lily of the Valley (Convallaria), 
and the Alexandrian Laurel, or Butcher's 
Broom (Ricscus). The male and female flowers 
in Smilax are on different plants ; and in Rus- 
cus the flowers spring from the middle of the 
leaves. The perianth is in six equal segments, 
and there are six stamens. The ovary is three- 
celled, with the cells one or many seeded, 
and the fruit is a globose berry. The seeds, 
when ripe, have a brown membranous skin. 
Dr. Lindley confines this tribe to Smilax, and 
Ripogonum ; and includes the other genera in 


This order includes the Hyacinth {Hyacin- 
thus), the squills (Scilla), the onions {Allium) ^ihe 
Grape Hyacinth (Muscari), the Star of Bethlehem 
(Omithoffalum), King's Spear (Asphodelus), An- 
thericum^ Albuca, Gayea, Thysanotus^ Asparagus^ 
the Dragon- wood (Draccena), and New Zealand 
flax {Pliormium) . Many of these plants have 
tunicated bulbs ; that is, bulbs which consist of 
several fleshy tunics or coats, which may easily 
be separated from each other, as may be seen 
in the hyacinth and the onion. The leaves 
are fleshy, and ligulate or strap-shaped ; and the 
stems are frequently hollow. The flowers are 
generally in upright racemes, or umbels ; they 
are regular, and sometimes bell-shaped ; the 
perianth is divided into six segments, which are 
sometimes partly united into a tube, and recurved 
at the tip. There are six stamens attached to 
the perianth, and the fruit is either a fleshy or 
dry three-celled capsule, generally with several 
seeds, and opening into three valves, when ripe. 
Dr. Lindley makes this a separate order in his 
Ladies' Botany^ but he combines it with Liliaceag 
in his Introduction to the Nat.Syst., and SirW. J. 
Hooker includes in it Yucca and Aloe, the first 
of which in the Hortus Britannicus is included in 
Tulipacese, and the latter in HemerocaUidese. 

450 TULIPACEiE. [part n. 


This order in the Hortus Britannicus com- 
prises the genera Yucca, Tulipa, Fritillaria, 
Cyclobothra, Calochortus, LiUum, Gloriosa, 
and Erythronium (the Dog Violet) ; but Sir 
W. J. Hooker omits Yucca, and adds Bland- 
fordia, Hemerocallis, and Polianthes ; while 
Dr. Lindley includes all these plants, together 
with those comprised in Asphodelese, in the order 
Liliacese. This last appears the most natural 
arrangement, as all these plants have a regular 
perianth of six segments, with six stamens, 
and a dry or fleshy capsule of three cells, open- 
ing by as many valves. Some of the genera 
have more seeds than others, and some of the 
seeds have a hard, dry, black skin, while others 
have the skin spongy and soft. Some of the 
genera have the flowers erect and single, as in 
the Tulip ; in others the flowers are erect, but 
in umbels, as in the Orange Lily ; and in 
others they are in racemes and drooping, as in 
the Yucca, or single and drooping, as in the 
Fritillaria, or with the segments curved back 
as in the Martagon Lily. 


The plants belonging to this order have ge- 
nerally inconspicuous flowers, except Colchicum 
and Bulbocodium, both of which have flowers 
like the Crocus. The bulbs of the Colchicum 
are used in medicine ; but they and the whole 
plant abound in an acrid juice, which is poi- 
sonous if taken in too large a dose. The root 
of Veratrum is also poisonous, and this plant 
is believed to be the Hellebore of the ancients. 
The Colchicum and the Bulbocodium are dis- 
tinguished from the Crocus genus, which they 
so strongly resemble in the appearance of their 
flowers, by the ovary being within the flower 
instead of below it, as is the case with all the 
Amaryllidacese, and by their having three dis- 
tinct styles, instead of one style and three 
stigmas. In all other respects they are the same. 


This order includes the Pine Apple (Bro- 
melia Ananas), the American Aloe {Agave ame- 
ricana), Billhergia, the magnificent plant Bo- 
napartea juncea, now called Lyttcea geminifiora, 
and the curious epiphyte Tillandsia. What we 
are accustomed to call the fruit of the Pine 

G G 2 

452 PALMiE. [part ii. 

Apple is, in fact, a fleshy receptacle, like that 
of the Strawberry, covered with scaly bracts, 
which are the remains of the fallen flowers. 
The flowers are blue, and one is produced in 
each bract ; when they fall, the bracts thicken 
and grow together, and cover the ovaries, 
which sink into the fleshy part of the receptacle. 


Elegant aquatic plants, with kidney-shaped 
leaves, and spikes or racemes of blue or white 
flowers. The principal genus is Pontederia. 


This order is principally known in Britain by 
the Spiderwort {Tradescantia) , and the beauti- 
ful Commeiina ccelestis. Both plants have the 
flowers springing from a tuft of leaves which 
sheath the stem. 


This order contains many lofty trees, which 
are, with one exception, without branches, 
and bear a tuft of large leaves, called fronds, 
at the summit. The flowers are small, with 
bracts, and they are enclosed in a spathe. 


which bursts on the under side. The mass of 
flowers is called a spadix ; and it is succeeded 
by the fruit, which, when ripe, is either a 
drupe or a berry. In the Cocoa-nut Palm 
(Cocos nucifera) the fruit is a drupe ; but the 
pericardium consists of hard, dry, fibrous mat- 
ter, which is uneatable, the only part fit for 
food beincr the albumen of the kernel. The 
Date Palm {Phoenix dactylifera), and the Sago 
Palm {Sagus Rumphii), are two interesting 
plants, from their products. 


The most interesting plant in this order is 
the Screw Pine {Pandanus), which has the 
habit of the Palms, but the flowers of the 
Arum tribe. 



The Bullrushes (Typha), also called Cat's-tail 
and Reed-mare, are tall rush-like plants, with a 
cylindrical mass of dark brown flowers round 
the stem, surmounted by a spike of yellow 
flowers. The lower dark-brown flowers are fe- 
male ones, and the yellow ones are the males ; 
the former consist only of an ovary on a long 
stalk, and a calyx cut into fine hairs so as to 
form a kind of pappus. The male flowers have a 

454 AROIDE^. [part ii. 

chafF-like calyx, enclosing the stamens, the fila- 
ments of which are united at the base, and the 
anthers are very long and of a bright yellow. 
The seed is a dry capsule, and the plant has a 
rhizoma or creeping stem under the water. 


These curious plants have their flow^ers in a 
spadix, enclosed in a spathe, the male and 
female flowers being separate, and the former 
above the latter, with some abortive ovaries 
again above them. The male flowers have 
only one stamen in each without any covering ; 
and the female flow^ers in Hke manner consist 
each of a single ovary, with a puckered-up hole 
in the upper part, which serves as the stigma. 
The fruit consists of a cluster of red berries, 
which form round the spadix. Many of these 
plants have a very unpleasant smell, and some 
of them have a tuberous root, which, when 
cooked, is eaten, though it is poisonous when 
raw. Arum or Caladium escuJentum is thus eaten 
as a common article of food in the East Indies ; 
but the Dumb Cane {A. or C. seguinum) has its 
English name from its juice being so poisonous 
as, if tasted, to cause the lips to swell so as to 
prevent the possibility of speaking. The beau- 
tiful marsh plant called Calla or Richardia ethio- 


pica^ or the White Arum, belongs to this order ; 
as does the fragrant rush, Acorus Calamus. The 
order Typhacese is included by many botanists 
in Aroidese ; and indeed, the difference between 
them consists principally in the Bullrushes 
having no spathe. 



Floating plants, of which Aponogeton dista- 
chyon is by far the most beautiful. This plant, 
which is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, 
has oblong, deeply-ribbed leaves on very long 
footstalks, and the flowers in two-cleft spikes, 
with snow-white bracts, which are very orna- 
mental and very fragrant ; each flower consists 
of from six to twelve stamens, and from two to 
five carpels. The root is tuberous, and eat- 
able when roasted. The Duckweed (Lemna), 
which is sometimes included in this order, ap- 
pears to consist entirely of a few leaves floating 
on the water, each of which sends down a root ; 
and many people believe that it never flowers. 
If, however, it be watched in the months of 
June and July, two yellow anthers will be seen 
peeping out of the side of each leaf ; and if the 
opening be enlarged, the flower will be found to 
consist of a kind of bag, open on one side, and 
containing two stamens, with an ovary furnished 

456 RESTIACEiE. [part ii. 

with a style and simple stigma. The fruit is a 
one-celled capsule, containing one or more seeds. 
Some botanists place this plant in a separate 
order, called Pistiacese, from another genus in- 
cluded in it. 


The most interesting genus is the Rush 
(Juncus). These plants, low as they rank in 
the vegetable world, have a regular perianth of 
six divisions with six stamens, and a three-celled 
capsule which opens by three valves. The 
perianth of the flowers is, however, so small as 
to be inconspicuous. Most of the species are 
weeds, which are considered to indicate cold, 
wet, and poor ground. 


A GRASS-LIKE plant, a native of Chili, with 
greenish flowers. 


Rigid, inelegant, and often leafless, plants, 
with the habit of rushes, natives of New Holland 
and the Cape of Good Hope. 

CHAP. Ill ] CYPERACEiE. 457 

§ II. — Glumacf^. 

These plants, instead of having a regular 
calyx and corolla, have nothing but green and 
brown scales, which are called glumes, to cover 
the stamens and pistil. There are only two 
orders belonging to this division in British 
fields and gardens. 

These plants have solid stems, and the leaves 
not only sheathe the stem, but grow together 
round it, so as to form a kind of tube. The 
flowers are arranged in heads, some of which 
contain only male flowers, each of which con- 
sists of a membranous scale and three stamens, 
and others contain only female flowers. In the 
genus Carex, the Sedge, these flowers are each 
enclosed in a kind of bottle formed by two 
scales growing together, and opening at the 
top into two parts so as to show three stigmas, 
which have only a single style. The fruit is 
a dry, hard, triangular capsule with only one 
seed. The most remarkable genera are Papyrus^ 
the plant anciently used for paper; Scirpus, 
the Club-rush, used for making the seats of 
chairs, mats, &c. ; Eriophorum, Cotton-grass ; 
and Cyperus. 

458 GRAMINE^. [part ii. 


This very important order includes not only 
the common Grasses, but the Bread Corns, or 
Cereal Grasses — Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye, and 
Maize; and the Sugar-cane and Rice. All these 
plants are botanically allied to the Sedges, but 
their stems are hollow, except at the joints, 
where they become solid ; and their leaves, 
though sheathing the stem, do not unite round 
it. The flowers are produced in spikes, which 
are what are called spikelets. The glume, or 
calyx as it was called by Linnseus, is generally 
two-valved ; and within it are two thinner 
smaller scales, or palese, which were called the 
corolla by Linnaeus. Besides these, there are 
frequently two still smaller scales within the 
palese. There are generally three or six sta- 
mens, the anthers of which are two-celled, and 
forked at the extremity. There are two styles, 
either quite distinct, or combined at the base, 
and the stigmas are feathery. The pericarp is 
membranaceous, and adheres to the seed, form- 
ing a kind of caryopsides. The seeds contain a 
great deal of albumen, which, when ground into 
flour, becomes nourishing food. The stems, or 
culms, are hollow and articulated; the leaves, 
which are alternate, springing from each joint. 
The most important genera are Wheat {Tri- 

CHAP, in.] GRAMINEiE. 459 

ticum). Barley (Hordei(m), Rye (Secale)^ Oats 
(Avena), Maize (Zea), the Sugar-cane (Saccha- 
rum), Rice {Oryza), and the Bamboo {Bamhusa). 
Oats are not produced in spikes, but in loose 
panicles ; and the male and female flowers of 
the Maize or Indian Corn are on different 




These plants are generally described as being 
without spiral vessels, and consisting only of 
cellular tissue ; but spiral vessels are known to 
exist in the Ferns, and are said to have been 
found in the Mosses. Whether this be the case 
or not, it is evident that the plants included in 
this division are very different from all that have 
preceded them, and occupy a lower grade in the 
scale of vegetable creation. They are divided 
into two sub-classes : viz. the FoUacece, or those 
with leaves, and the Aphi/IlcB, or those without 
leaves ; both of which are without visible flowers, 
though some have what are called anthers, and 
the Mosses have something resembling a style 
and stigma. They may also be said to have no 
seeds, for the spores, or sporules as they are 
called, are very different from the seeds of 
vascular plants, and they have neither coty- 
ledon nor embryo. 

cuAP. IV.] FILICES. 461 


Though some of the Ferns are so common 
that almost every one must have seen them, 
very few persons are aware how very curiously 
they are constructed. In the first place, they 
may be said to have neither stems nor leaves, 
and neither flowers nor seeds. The different 
parts of the plant spring from a rhizoma, and 
the leaves, which are called fronds, have their 
veins neither branched nor in parallel lines, but 
forked. On the back of the leaves are some 
curious brown spots of various shapes called 
sori ; and these, which generally form under the 
outer skin or cuticle of the leaf, and which 
always spring from one of the veins, contain a 
number of small grains, called the thecse, which 
are in reality cases containing the sporules or 
seeds. When the sorus forms under the cuticle 
of the leaf, the membranous part raised, which 
resembles a blister, is called the indusium ; but 
sometimes the sori are naked, that is, they are 
formed on the outside of the cuticle ; and some- 
times they are found on the margin of the leaf, 
which folds over them, and supplies the place of 
the indusium. The order is generally divided 
into two sections, called Polypodiacese and 
Osmund acese. The first contains those plants 

462 FILICES. [part ii. 

which unroll their leaves, when they rise from 

the stem, and which have their sori either on 
the back or on the margin of the frond. The 
thecse are on stalks, and they are furnished with 
a ribbed, elastic, articulated but incomplete ring, 
which seems to serve as a sort of hinge when 
they burst. This elastic ring is a continuation 
of the stalk of the theca, which always bursts on 
the opposite side. The following are the princi- 
pal genera in this division : Polypody {Polypo- 
dium)^ sori without any indusium ; Shield Fern 
(^Aspidium), Bladder Fern (Cistopteris) , and 
Spleenwort {Aspleniiun) ^ all of which have their 
fronds pinnate or pinnatifid ; Maiden Hair 
(Adiantum), Hart's-tongue (Scolopendrium), the 
frond of which is simple and shaped like a tongue, 
and the sori oblong ; and Brake (Pteris), the 
leaves of wdiich are pinnatifid, with the sori 
placed round the margin so as to form a con- 
tinuous line, and the edge of the leaf turned over 
them. The rhizoma of the Brake is eaten in 
many countries, and the fronds, when burnt, 
yield alkali, which is used in making both soap 
and glass. 

The second division Osmundacese comprises 
those Ferns which apparently have flowers ; the 
flowers, however, being merely sori, with the 
leaves on which they grew shrivelled up round 
them. The most remarltable of these is the 


flowering Fern {Osmunda regalis) ; but others 
are — the Grape Fern or Moonwort {Botrychium) ^ 
a species of which, a native of North America, is 
called there the Rattle-snake Fern ; and the 
Adder's Tongue (Opliiglossum) . The Tree Ferns 
of New Zealand are magnificent plants. The 
trunk or stipe rises to the height of forty or 
fifty feet without a branch, and then terminates 
in a head of noble fronds, which hang down on 
every side like a plume of feathers. The wood 
of these trees when cut across, instead of being 
in circles like the wood of Dicotyledonous trees, 
or full of pores like that of the Endogens, is 
marked with a number of zigzag lines, the traces 
of the stalks of old fronds which have grown 
together and formed the stipe. 



These plants appear to occupy the interme- 
diate space between the Ferns and the Mosses. 
They have creeping stems, and grow two or 
three feet high ; the erect stems being clothed 
with imbricated leaves, in the axils of which 
these are produced. Some of them open into 
three or four valves, and contain sporules ; 
while others are only two-valved, and contain a 
kind of powder, which some suppose to be 

464 EQUISETACE^. [part n. 

pollen, and others abortive sporules. In some 
of the species, the thecse are produced in 
bracteated spikes, which resemble the young 
strobiles on a Spruce Fir. The seeds of the 
common Club-moss {Lycopodium davatum) are 
used at the theatres to imitate lightning. 


These are aquatic herbs, the thecse or recep- 
tacles of which are always found in the axils of 
the leaves near the root. In the genus Isoetes 
(Quill wort) these are of two kinds, like those of 
the Club-mosses, the one containing powder, 
and the other granules ; but in Pepper-grass or 
Pill-wort (PiUularia), the receptacles are four- 
celled, and each cell contains both powder and 
granules. Marsilea, from which the order takes 
its name, is a native of Italy and other parts of 
the south of Europe, where it grows in the same 
manner as Duckweed does with us. 


The thecse of these well-known plants are 
contained in terminal cone-like spikes or cat- 
kins, from four to eight lying in each scale. 

CHAP, iv] CHARACE^. 465 

The stems are tubular, and articulated with 
whorls of membranaceous sheaths, and of 
slender branches, jointed, and sheathed like the 
stem at every joint. All the species of Equisetum 
abound in silicious matter, and particularly the 
Dutch Rush (£. fiyemale)^ which is used for 
polishing both wood and metal. The hand- 
somest species is E. sylvaticum. 


Aquatic herbs, contained in the genera 
Nitella and Chara, always growing under w^ater, 
with slender jointed stems, surrounded at the 
joints by whorls of tubular leaves or branches, 
which are either membranaceous and transpa- 
rent, as in Nitella ; or brittle, and more or less 
encrusted with carbonate of lime, as in Chara, 
Stonewort. The organs of reproduction are 
formed in the axils of the branches, and con- 
sist of transparent globules, and hard, spiral 
nuculas, which appear to be formed of twisted 
leaves, the points of which often form a kind 
of crest. Young plants are only produced 
by the nuculas. 



[part II. 


The Mosses have fibrous roots, and slender 
wiry stems, densely covered with leaves, which 
are very small, and laid over each other like 
scales (see a mjig. 149). The theca {g) is urn- 

FiG. 149. — C'ryptogamous Plants 

shaped, and it is produced singly ; in most cases, 
on a long, slender, wiry stem, called a seta, 
which signifies a bristle, but sometimes without 
any stalk. It always springs from a tuft of 
leaves, differing both in size and shape from 
ordinary leaves, which form what is sometimes 
called the perichsetium. Among these may 
occasionally be seen a few stalks, resembling the 
Lichen called Cup-moss, which terminates in a 
kind of cup, and thickened at the base. The 
cups and upper parts soon die away, and the 
thicker part left among the leaves swells, and 

CHAP. IV.] MUSCI. 467 

in time rises on a stalk of its own, carrying 
away one of the leaves with it on its head. 
This is the theca, and the leaf it carried away, 
and which resembles an extinguisher, is called 
the calyptra, and it remains on till the sporules 
are nearly ripe. When the calyptra falls, the 
theca is found to be covered with a little lid 
called the operculum ; which also falls off in 
time, and shows the mouth or stoma of the 
theca. This mouth is sometimes naked, and 
sometimes covered with a kind of film ; but 
generally it is surrounded by a row of long, 
slender, hair-like teeth called the peristome or 
fringe. When there are two rows of these hair- 
like teeth, the inner ones, which are finer than 
the others, are called the cilia ; and the number 
of both the cilia and the teeth is always some 
number that can be divided by four. In the 
cavity of the theca is a central axis called the 
columella, and around that are found the spo- 
rules, kept together by the lining of the theca, 
which forms a kind of open bag. This is the 
usual construction of all the numerous genera of 
mosses ; but in some kinds, as for example in 
the Hair-moss (Poli/trichium), in addition to 
the theca, a number of granules are found 
among the leaves, which are said to be capable 
of producing young plants. 

H H 2 

468 LICHENES. [part n. 


These plants greatly resemble Mosses in their 
appearance, but they differ in their construction. 
The theca has no lid, but bursts into valves ; 
and it generally contains not only sporules, but 
tubes formed of curiously twisted threads, called 
elaters. Jungermannia and Marchantia have a 
calyptra, which the other genera are without ; 
and in Jungermannia the theca has a sort of 
sheath, which is sometimes called the calyx. 
There are also stalked granules called anthers, 
and warts which form on the leaves, and break 
up into a kind of sporules. 


Though these plants are said to have no 
leaves, they consist almost entirely of a kind 
of leafy stem, called a frond or thallus, the 
branches of which are called podetia (see a in 
Jigs. 150, 151, and 152). The spores or sporules 
are produced in what are called shields {h in 
Jigs. 149, 150, and 151), which are generally 
embedded in the thallus, and which, when they 

CUAl". IV.] 



Fig. 150 — Usnka Florida. 
{Old Trees.) 

are cup-shaped (as in 
Ji(/. 150), are called 
scjpliae, and when flat 
(as inj^y. 151), apo- 
thecia. The sporules, 
which are very nu- 
merous, are inclosed in 
receptacles of various 
forms, which are em- 
bedded in the shields. 
Some of the commonest lichens are Usneajlorida 
{Jig. 150), and jR«- 
malina fastigiata 
{Jig. 151), both of 
which are found 
on old oaks, and 
are generally call- 
ed grey moss ; and 
Cornicularia hetero- 
malla {Jig. 152) is a brown mossy-looking lichen, 
often found on the bark. 
Other more interesting 
lichens are — the Iceland- 
moss {Cetraria islandica)^ 
the Reindeer-moss {Ceno- 
ingce, or Cladonia rangife- 
rma), the Cup-moss (Ceno- 
FiG. 152. myce j)yxidata)., and the 

Cornicularia hetero- ^-^ i -i / t~» 77 j» ^ • \ 

MALLA.-{ow Trees.) Orchil {liGcella tinctona). 

Fig. 151.— R.4MALINA fastigiata. 
(Rocks and Trees.) 

470 FUNGI. [part h. 


The Fungi are divided into several distinct 
sections ; the most important of which may be 
called the Mushroom tribe. The largest genus 
in this division is Agaricus, and the plants be- 
longing to it consist of a stipe, or stalk (c in 
jig. 149), surmounted by the pileus or cap (^). 
When the mushroom first appears, the stalk is 
covered by a thin membrane, called the veil (e), 
which unites the cap to the lower part ; but as 
the mushroom grows, this veil is rent asunder, 
and it either entirely disappears, or only a small 
part of it remains round the stalk, which is 
called the annulus or ring. Under the cap are 
the gills or lamellae, which are of a dark reddish 
brown ; and attached to these are the thecse, 
containing the sporules or seed. In the com- 
mon Mushroom (^^f^rzcws campestre)., and all the 
eatable kinds, the gills are pink w4ien the veil 
breaks, which it does very soon, and they be- 
come afterwards nearly black ; but in all the 
poisonous kinds, the veil is longer before it 
breaks, and when it does so, the gills are pale, 
and frequently nearly white, without becoming 
darker ; the smell is also quite different. The 
Mushroom tribe, which includes all the Fungi 
that carry their sporules in the part above 
the stem, is divided into two sections, viz., 

CHAP. IV.] ALG^. 471 

those with caps, like the IMushroora, and those 
which are slender and entire, but club-shaped 
in the upper part, like Clavaria helvola^ a fungus 
often found in meadows, which resembles the 
stamen of an orange-lily. 

The Morel tribe includes those Fungi which 
have their sporules in the stipe, and it is in 
two divisions ; the first of which includes those 
which, like the Morel (Morchella esculentd), have 
a pileus, or cap, like a mitre ; and the second, 
those which have the pileus curving upwards, 
like a cup, as in Peziza. A third tribe includes 
those which, like Tremella, are of a jelly-like 
substance ; and in a similar manner all the nu- 
merous genera are arranged. Among these the 
most remarkable are the Truffle ( Tuber cibarium\ 
which is found buried in the earth, and the cu- 
rious Fungi called Blight and Mildew, which 
belong to several different genera, and which 
appear on the leaves and fruit of other plants. 


The Sea-weeds are placed on the extreme 
verge of the vegetable kingdom ; and indeed 
some of them seem almost to partake of the 
nature of zoophytes. They can live only where 
there is abundance of moisture, and many of 

472 ALG^. [part II. 

them, such as the different kinds of Fucus, 
inhabit the sea ; by the waves of wliich they 
are torn up from their native beds, and washed 
on shore by the tides. Others are found in the 
form of Confervse, or green slime, on the sur- 
face of stagnant ponds, or on damp stone or 
gravel- walks ; and others appear to form one 
of the connecting links between vegetable and 
animal life, as the joints in which they are pro- 
duced possess the power of separating from 
each other, and in their divided state so closely 
resemble animals, as to puzzle naturalists to 
know where to place them. The Algse are 
divided by botanists into three classes ; viz., 
the jointless, the jointed, and the disjointed. 
The jointless Algae are by far the most numer- 
ous ; and they comprehend all those broad flat 
jelly-like substances which are called by the 
popular names of tangle and dulse on the 
coast, and which are frequently eaten. To this 
division belong the kinds of sea-weed that are 
used for making kelp ; those from which iodine 
is procured ; those forming the celebrated 
Chinese birds' nests ; those sold in the oil- 
shops under the name of laver ; and those used 
by farmers as manure. The jointed Algae are 
very inferior in the scale of creation to the first 
division ; but the Confervas (see/ in Jig. 149) 
are well known, from the rapidity with which 

CHAP. IV.] ALG^. 473 

they form a thick green slime, by adhering toge- 
ther on the surface of ditches and cisterns, and 
in short, wherever there is stagnant water ex- 
posed to the open air. The disjointed Algae 
are generally found among the Confervae ; but 
they are so small, and insignificant in appear- 
ance, as, in most cases, entirely to escape notice. 





Abele Tree 

. 185 

Algae (Sea-weed) . 


Abies . 

. . 212 

Alisma . 

. 436 


35, 41 

Allamanda . 

. 402 

Acanthaceae . 

. . 415 

Alligator Pear . 

. 424 


. 315 


. 449 

Achenium . 

. . 98 

Almond . 

. 60 


. 412 

Aloe . . . . 

. 447 

Achras Sapota 

. . 399 

Alonsoa . 

. 412 

Acorus Calamus 

. 455 


. 415 

Acotyledonous Plants 

234, 236, 


. 446 



. 299 


. . 437 

Althaea frutex . 

. 296 


. 300 

Amarantus . 

. 420 


. . 394 

Amaryllidacese . 

. 446 


. 462 

Amaryllis . 

. ib. 

Adnate anther {fig. 4) . 12 


. 73 


. 412 

American Allspice 

. 351 

Msc\x\vi%(figs. 127— 

132) 323 

American Cotton Tree 

, 203 

African Lily 

. 447 

American Cowslip 

. 417 

Agapantbus . 

. . ib. 

American Honeysuckle 

. 127 

Agaricus . 

. 470 

Ampelopsis . 

. 331 


. . 451 


. 412 


. 293 

Auacardium . 

. . 348 

Ailantus . 

. 341 


. 417 

Ajuga . 

. . 414 


. 409 


. 357 


. 115 


. . 345 


. . 312 

Albuca . 

. 449 

Anemone . 

. 19 


. , 233 


. . 445 


. 235 

Aniseed Tree . 

. 241 

Alchemilla . 

. . 74 


. . 245 


. 189 


. 6 

Alexandrian Laurel 

. . 448 

Anthocercis . 

. . 156 





Antiaris {fig. 75) 

. 167 


. 307 

A ntidesmeae . 

. 431 

Avena .... 

. 459 


. 402 


. 415 


. 455 

Ayrshire Rose 

. 52 


. 46.9 


. 125 

Apple (/^. 27) . 

. 65 

Apple Berry of Australia 

. 287 
. 62 
. 347 


Apricot • • • 

Babiana . 

. 443 


. 380 

Balm of Gilead . 

. 347 


. 219 

Balsam . 

. 338 

Arbor Vitse (fig. 99) 

. 220 

Balsam Apple 

. 861 

Arbre a perruques 

. 349 

Balsam Poplar . 

. 187 

Arbutus (fig. 55) 

. 118 


. 459 


. 399 

Bambusa . 

. ib. 

Argania . 

. ib. 


. 442 

Argemone . 

. . 265 


. 315 

Aristolochia . 

. 428 


. 425 

Aristotelia Macqui 

. 346 

Banyan Tree . 

. 173 


. . 418 


. 299 

Arnotta . 

. 275 

Barbadoes Cherry 

. 314 


. 68 

Barbadoes Flower Fence 


. 438 

(/^.18) . . . 


Arrowhead . 

. . 437 

Barbadoes Gooseberry 

. 371 


. 103 


. 458 

Articulated . 

44, 53 

Bartonia . 

. 362 


. 163 


. 408 

Arum Tribe 

. . 454 

Batchelor's Buttons . 

. 16 

Asarum . 

. 428 

Bead Tree . 

. 328 

Asclepiadea) . 

. 403 


. 39 

Asclepias . 

. ib. 

Bean Caper . 

. 340 

Ash . 

. 138 


. 119 

Ash-leaved Berberry . 

. 251 

Bear's-ear Sanicle . 

. 418 


. 246 

Bed straw . . 

. 94 


. 449 

Beech (fig. 87) • 

. 195 

Aspen . 

. . 186 

Bee Larkspur . 

. 31 


. 449 

Beet .... 

. 422 

Asphodelus . 

. . ib. 

Begonia . 

. ib. 


. 462 

Benthamia . 

. 382 

Asplenium . 

. ib. 


. 247 


. 107 

Berberry (/<75. 107 and 108) ib. 

Astrapsea Wallichii 

. . 301 

Berberry-leaved Rose . 

. 53 


. 24 

Berry-bearing Alder . 

. 346 

Atropa Belladonna (fig. 

69) 146 

Berry-bearing Campion . 

. 292 


. 143 

BerthoUetia (Brazil Nut) 

. 360 


381, 386 

Besom Heath (fig. 47) . 

. 110 





Betel . . . . 



. 40 

Bignonia . . . . 



. 169 

Bilabiate . . . . 



. 156 

Bilabiate florets . . 99 


Brugmansia . 

. 153 




. 346 

Bilberry {fig. 61) . . 


Brunsvigia . 

. 446 



Bryonia (White) 

. 361 

Bi.pinnate leaf (X^. 17) 


Buckbean . 

. 404 

Birch-tree {figs. 83 and 84) . 


Buckeye {fig. 132) . 

. 327 

Bird Cherry . 



. 341 




. 423 

Birthwort . 


Bugle . 

. 414 

Bi-ternate leaf . 


Bulbocodium . 

. 451 

Bitter-sweet {fig. 68) . . 


Bullrushes . 

. 453 

Bixa . . . . 


Bumelia . 

. 399 

Blackberry . 


Bur (fig. 45) 

. . 103 

Black Brj'ony . 



. 89 

Black Italian Poplar 


Burdock {fig. 45) . 

. . 103 

Black Walnut {fig. 78) 


Burgundy Pitch 

. 214 

Bladder Campion . 


Bur- marigold 

. . 106 

Bladder Ketmia 



. 73 

Blight .... 



. 40 

Blue Anemone . 


Butcher's Broom 

. 448 




. . 437 




. 11 

BombacejB . . . . 


Butter-nut . 

. 327 



Butter-nut Walnut {fig. 

79) 179 

Bonnet de pretre (Euony- 


. 400 




. . 430 



Byttneria . 

. 300 



Bottle Gourd . 


Bouvardia . . . . 



Box- thorn 


Cabomba . 

.' 254 

Box-tree . . . . 



. . 3fi8 



Caiophora . 

. 362 

Bracts . . 301 


Calabash Tree 

. 405 

Brake . . 



. 364 



Calceolaria . 

. 411 

Brandy Bottle . . . 



. 404 

Brazil Nut 


Calla ethiopica 

. 454 

Bread-fruit Tree . . . 


Callista . 

. 113 

Brexieae . 



. 40 

Bridewort . 



. 359 

Bromelia . 



. . 355 

Brompton Stock .. .. . 


Callitris . 

. 222 






. 114 

Cedar of Goa 

. . 224 


. 450 

Cedar of Lebanon 



. 351 


. . 329 

Calyceracese . 

. 390 


. 217 


. '237 

Celandine, Lesser . 

. . 16 

Calycine scales 

. 291 


. 343 

Calyptrate calyx 

. 265 

Cellulares . 

. . 231 


. 408 

Cellular Tissue 

. ib. 

Calyx {fig. 3) . . 

. 7 


. . 420 


. 304 

Celsia . 

155, 410 


. 394 

Celtis . 

. . 432 

Camphor of Sumatra 

. 303 

Cephalanthus . 

. 94 

Camphor Tree . 

. 424 


. . 355 

Candy Tuft . 

. 270 

Cerbera . 

. 402 


. 442 


. . 369 


. 162 

Cerinthe . 

. 409 

Cannon ball Tree 

. 360 

Ceropegia . 

. . 403 

Cape Gooseberry 

. 145 

Cestrum Parqui 

. 147 

Cape Heaths 

. 112 


. . 347 

Cape Jasmine . 

. 89 


. 106 

Cape Marigold 

. 107 


. . 465 

Caper Spurge . 

. 429 

Charity . 

. 406 

Caper Tribe 

. 274 

Chaste Tree 

. . 415 

Capparis . 

. ib. 


. 268 


. 383 


. . 421 


. 144 

Cherry {fig. 26) 

. 64 

Carex . 

. . 457 

Chestnut (/^s. 88 anc 

189) . 198 


. 361 

Chian Turpentine 

. 348 


. 37 

Chickweed . 

. . 289 

Carnation (/^. 118) 

. . 289 

Chicot . 

. 48 

Carob Tree 

. 46 

Chilian Pine 

. . 219 

• Carpels [fiys. 5 & 7) 

. 13, 24 

Chilies . 

. 145 


. 201 


. . 352 


. . 327 

China Pink 

. 292 


. 289 

Chionanthus virginica 

. •. 137 

Caryopsides . 

. . 33 


. 386 

Cashew Nut 

. 348 

Chocolate . 

. . 300 

Cassandra . 

. . 116 

Chorozema . • 

. .40 

Cassava . 

. 430 

Christmas Rose 

. . 25 


. . 343 

Christ's Thorn . 

. .345 

Castor Oil 

. 431 

Chrysanthemum . 

. . 104 


. . 204 

Cinchona {fig. 36) 

. 86 

Catalpa . 

. 405 


. . 107 

Catch fly 

. . 282 

Cinnamon Tree 

. 424 

Cat's Tail 

. 453 


. . 84 

Ceanothus . 

. . 346 


. 331 






. . 275 


. 443 


. ib. 

Corn Blue-bottle 

. 104 

Citron . 

. 307 

Corn Cockle . 

. 293 

Citron Wood 

. 224 

Corn Poppy {fig. Ill) 

. 260 


. . 83 

Corn Salad 

. 388 

Clawed petals . 

83, 289 

Cornelian Cherry 

. 381 


. . 364 


. 381 


. 96 


. 341 


. . 23 


. 342 

Cleome . 

. 274 


. 365 


. . 415 

Corolla {fig. 2) . 

. . 7 

Clethra (%. 56) 

. 120 


. 237 


. . 392 

Corymbs . 

. 69 

Cloves . 

. 359 


. . 266 

Club Moss . 

. . 463 

Cotton Grass 

. 457 

Club Rust 

. 457 

Cotton Thistle {fiy.i2] 

. 99 

Cobaea scandens . 

. . 405 

Cotton Tree 

. 299 


. 300 


. 73 

Cocoa Nut . 

. . 453 

Cotyledons {fig. 102) 

39, 233 

Codlings and Cream . 

. 82 

317, 325 


. . 247 

Cowper's Lines on the Oak 193 

Cochineal Insect 

. 371 

Cow Tree 

. 166 

Cockscomb . 

. . 420 

Crack AVillow 

. 183 

Coffee Tree (/(/. 39). 

. 91 

Cranberry {fig. 63) 

. . 131 

Colcbicum . 

. . 451 

Crassula . 

. 366 

Collar of a plant 

. 30 


. 70 


. . 412 

Creeping Cereus 

. 370 


. 407 


. 446 

Colocynth . 

. . 361 

Crocus . 

443, 451 


. 107 

Croton Oil . 

. 430 

Columbine (fig. 12) 

. . 31 

Crowea . 

. 341 


. 353 


. . 14 

Commelina caelestis 

. . 452 

Cruciferous Plants 

. 266 


98, 390 

Crucinella stylosa 

. 97 

Comptonia . 

. . 204 

Cryptogamic Plants . 

. 236 

Compound flowers 

. 98 

Cucubalus . 

. 292 

Compound leaf 

. . 252 


. 360 

Concentric rinars 

. 235 


. 378 

Cone of a Scotch Pine (^^.94) 210 

Cuphea . 

. 356 


. 472 

Cup Moss . 

. 469 

Constantinople Nut 

. . 201 

Cupressus . 

. 223 


. 448 


. 441 


. . 407 

Currants . 

. 374 

Corchorus japonica 

. 59 


. . 408 


. 410 

Custard Apple . 

. 245 

Cork Tree . 

. . 194 

Cycas . 

. 229 





. 417 



. 450 

Dog Rose . . 

Cydouia . 

. 70 

Dog Violet 

Cymes of fiowers 

. . 301 



. 409 

Dorsal Suture . 

Cyperacese . 

. . 457 


Cypress . 

. 223 


Cypress knees 

. 225 

Double Flowers . 

Cyprus Turpentine 

. 348 



. . 412 

Dragon Wood 
Drimys Winteri 





. 104 


Dandelion {fig. 44) 

. 102 

Duke of Argyle's Tea-tre 

Date Palm 

. 453 

Dumb Cane 

Date Plum 

. 400 

Dutch Rush 


. 273 



. 152 

Dyer's Weed 


. 40 

Day Lily 

. 447 

Deadly Nightshade 

. 146 


Dead Nettle 

. 414 



. . 208 


Deciduous Cypress 

. 224 



. 358 



. 217 



. 358 

Egg Plant . 


. 26 

Ehretia . 

Dewberry . 

. 57 



. 289 



. 237 

Elder .... 


. im 

Elephant's Foot 

Dicotyledonous Plants 

. 234 

Elm . 


. 341 



. 412 

Enchanter's Nightshade . 


. 411 

Endive . 

DiUenia . 

. 240 



. 40 


Dionaja muscipula 

. 284 



. 447 

Epilpbiura (fitjs. 34 & 35 


. 341 

Epimedium . 





. 389 


Dirca palustris 

. 427 

Eryobotrya . 


. 423 







. . 335 


. 380 

Erythronium . 

. 450 


. . 411 


. . 314 

Fragrant Rush . 

. 455 


. 376 

Franciscea . 

. . 156 


. . 265 

Francoa . 

. 377 


. 359 

Frankenia . 

. . 288 


. . ib. 


. 341 


. 343 

French Willow Herb 

. . 82 

Euphorbia . 

. . 429 

Fresh-water Soldier . 

. 436 

Euryale . 

. 256 

Fringe Tree . 

. . 137 


. . 40 


. 450 

Euthales ' . 

. 393 

Frog's Bit . 

. . 435 


. . 410 


. 461 

Evening Primrose {fig. 

33) 80 

Fuchsia {figs. 31 and [ 

^^) • 11 


. . 235 

Fumaria . 

. 266 

Fumitory . 

. . ib. 



. 470 


. 195 


. . 38 

Fair Maid of France 

. . 16 

Funkia . 

. 447 

Fat-hen . 

. 422 

Furze . 

. 35—40 

Fedia . 

. . 388 

Fusiform root . 

. 30 

Fennel Flower . 

. 26 

Ferns . 

. . 461 


Ferrari a . 

. 443 


. . 105 


. 449 


. 17 

Galanthus . 

. . 446 

Ficus Carica 

. . 171 


. 377 

Field Madder . 

. 96 

Galea . 

. . 413 

Fig . . . 

. . 171 


. 94 

Fig Marigold 

. 367 


. . 313 


. . 6 

Garcina . 

. ib. 

Filbert . 

. 201 

Garden Anemones 

. . 21 

Five-leaved Ivy . 

. . 331 

Garden Orache . 

. 422 

Flacourtianese . 

. 275 


. . 89 

Flannel Flower . 

. . 154 

Garrya elliptica 

. 204 


. 293 

Gaultheria . 

. . 119 

Flowering Ash 

. . 139 


. 84 

Flowering Fern 

. 463 


. . 403 

Flowering Rush . 

. . 437 


. 335 

Fluviales . 

. 455 


. . 5 

Fly Honeysuckles 

. . 383 

Gesneria . 

. 395 

Follicles . 

. 28 


. • 58 


. . 192 

Ghent Azaleas . 

. 127 

Forbidden Fruit 

. 307 

Gilia . 

. . 407^ 


. . 409 

Gillesiece . 

. 456 






. . 441 


Githago . 

. 293 


. . 443 


. 446 


. 422 


. . 445 


. . 264 

Hair Moss 

. 467 


. 46 


. 398 

Glechoma . 

. . 414 


. 380 

Globe Amaranth 

. 420 

Hand Plant . 

. 300 

Globe Flower 

. . 26 

Hart's Tongue . 

. 462 


. 418 

Hawthorn {fig. 30) 

. 71 


. . 450 

Hazel (^^5. 90 and 91) 

. 200 

Gloxinia . 

. 395 

Heartsease . 

. 279 


. . 457 

Heath Family . 

. 109 

Glumaceous Plants 

. 238 


. 114 


. . 427 

Hedera . 

. 379 

Godetia . 

. 81 

Hedgehog Thistles 

. .369 

Golden Rod . 

. . 107 


. 441 


. 14 


. 356 


. . 420 

Helianthemum . 

. 278 


. 403 


. 443 


. . 393 


. 409 


. 372 

Hellebore . 

. . 25 

Goosefoot . 

. . 422 

Hellebore of the Ancient 

8 . 451 


. 96 


. 447 

Gopher Wood 

. - 224 

Hemlock Spruce . 

. 214 

Gordonia . 

. 303 


. 162 

Gossypium . 

. . 299 

Henbane {fig. 71) 

. . 151 


. 360 

Hepatica . 

. 22 

Grabowskia . 

. . 156 


. 468 

Graminese . 

. 458 

Herb Bennet . 

. 58 

Grape . 

. . 329 

Herb Robert 

. 336 

Grape Hyacinth 

. 449 


. 240 

Grass Tribe . 

. . 458 


. . 297 

Greek Valerian . 

. 406 

Hickory {fig. 80) . 

. 180 

Grevillea . 

. . 425 

Hilum . 39, 192, 

324, 327 

Ground Ivy 

. 414 


. . 313 

Groundsel . 

. . 106 


. 431 


. 359 

Hippophae . 

. 428 

Guelder Rose 

. . 383 

Hippuris . 

. 355 

Guernsey Lily . 

. 446 

Hog Plum . 

. . 347 


. . 340 

Holly . . . 

. 344 

Gum Arabic . 


Hollyhock . 

. . 299 

Gum-Cistus . 

. . 277 


. 346 

Gum-Sandarach Tree 

. 222 


. 443 


. . 313 

Honey Locusts . 

. 46 




Hop ' . 

Hop Hornbeam 

Hordeum . 

Hornbeam {fig. 92) 

Hornwort . 

Horned Poppy 

Horn of Plenty 

Horse Chestnut 





Hoya carnosa 


Hugouia . 


Hyacinth . 



Hydropeltis , 






Iceland Moss 
Ice Plant 
Ilex aqui folium 
Ilex (Quercus 

Evergreen Oak) 

Impari-pinnate leaf . 
Indian Arrowroot 
Indian Com 
Indian Cress 
Indian Fig 
Indian Hawthorn 
Indian Lilac 
Indian Lotos 
Indian-rubber Tree 



. 381 
. 160 
. 202 
. 459 
. 201 
. 355 
. 264 
. 388 
. 322 
. 464 
. 409 
. 365 
. 40 
. 403 
. 275 
. 303 
. 160 
. 449 
. 377 
. 407 
. 254 
. 410 
. 151 
. 312 
. 446 

. 270 
. 469 
. 367 
. 344 
. 194 
. 365 
. 241 
. 69 
. 338 
. 442 
. 459 
. 337 
. 371 
. 71 
. 328 
. 257 
. 173 

Indian Shot 


Involucre {fig. 43) 




Iris (/^. 148) . 

Iron Tree 







Jack Tree . 


Jacob's Ladder 



Jamaica Allspice 


Jasmine {fiff. 64) 

Jatropha Manihot 



Judas Tree 

Jujube lozenges 



Juniper {fig. 100) 




Kentucky Coffee Tree 
Kernelled fruit 























. . 59 


. 310 

King's Spear 

. . 449 


. 389 


. . 365 


365, 423 

Kolreuteria . 

. . 327 


Labiate . 

. 412 

Labrador Tea 

. . 129 


35, 40 

Lace Bark Tree 

. . 427 


. ib. 


. . 277 

Ladies' Mantle 

. 74 


. . 361 


. 356 

Lamb's Lettuce 

. . 388 


. 470 


. . 414 


. 209 


. . 415 


207, 216 


. 216 

Larkspurs (/^. 10) 

. 29 


. . 300 


. 416 


. . 277 


. 65 


. . 383 


. 424 


. . 299 


. 356 

Lead wort 

. . 418 

Leatherwood . 

. 427 


. . 275 


. 393 


. . 360 


. 129 

Leguminous Plants 

. 35, 349 


. . 130 


. 455 


. . 307 

Lemon-scented Verbe 

aa . 415 




Lesser Celandine 

Lettuce {fig. 41) 





Lignum Vitae . 

Ligulate florets {fig. 


Lilac . 


Lily of the Valley 

Lime, Sweet 

Lime Tree . 




Linden tree 







Liiiodendron (Tulip 



Live Oak 






London Pride 





Loquat Tree 



Lotus Tree 

Loudonia aurea 
















. 136 

. 137 

. 450 

. 448 

. 307 

. 301 

. 337 

. 438 

. 412 

. 301 

. 385 

. 114 

. 293 

. 295 

. 203 

. 35 

. 245 

. 403 

. 328 

. 194 

. 362 

. 391 

. 303 


. 129 

. 377 

. 383 

. 418 

. 84 

. 354 

. 72 

. 385 

. 258 

. 400 

. 355 



Love Apple 


Luculia gratissima 










Manchineel Tree 



Magnolia {figs. 104 

Mahaleb . 

Mahogany . 

Mahonia . 

Maiden Hair 


Malachodendron . 

Malcomia . 

Malesherbia . 

Mallow . 






Manettia cordifolia 


Mangold Wurtzel . 



Mangrove of Brazil 

Manna Ash 

Manne de Briangon 



Marcgraaviaceae . 

Marchantia . 




. 144 
. 420 
. 87 
. 161 
. 293 
. 146 
. 463 
. 116 
. 418 
. 356 
. 451 

. 431 
. 170 
. 107 
to 106) 241 
. 66 
. 329 
. 251 
. 462 
. 458 
. 303 
. 270 
. 362 
. 298 
. ib. 
. 314 
. 298 
. 368 
. 360 
. 88 
. 348 
. 422 
. 313 
. 353 
. 415 
. 139 
. 217 
. 315 
. 442 
, 313 
. 468 
. 355 
. 443 

Marsh Mallow . 


Mastic Tree 

Martagon Lily 

Mathiola . 


Marvel of Peru 

Maurandya . 

May Apple 

Meadow Crane's-bill 

Medlar . 

Medullary rays 


Melastoma . 


Melianthus . 



Melon Thistle 

Memecylese . 



Menziesia {fig. 60) 

Mesembryanthem um 




Michaelmas Daisy 






Mimulus . 

Mint . 

Mirabilis Jalapa 


Mistletoe . 

Mock Orange 


Monkshood . 


MonocotyledonousPlants 234,236 

Moon Seed . 
Moor Heaths 






. . 443 


. 471 


. . ib. 

Moreton Bay Pine . 

. 220 


. . 466 

Mountain Ash {fia. 29) . 68 

Mulberry {fig. 76") 

. . 167 

Mullein . 

. 134 

Musa . 

. . 442 

Muscari . 

. 449 

Musci . 

. . 466 


. 470 

Mussaeuda . 

. . 90 

Mutisia latifolia 

. 108 


. . 204 

Myriophyllum . 

. 355 

Myristica (Nutmeg) 

. . 425 


. 415 


. . 399 

Myrtle . 

. 359 

Myrtle Tree of Van Diemen's 

Land . 

. . 197 

Myrtus . 

. 359 



. . 455 

Nandina . 

. 253 


. . 446 


. 337 


. . 62 

Nectary . 

. 12 


. . 321 


. 257 

Nemophila . 

. . 410 


. 429 


. . 446 

Nerium . 

. 402 


. . 158 

Nettle Tree 

. 432 

New Jersey Tea . 

. . 346 

New Zealand Flax . 

. 449 


. . 148 

Nierembergia . 

. 150 

Night-flowering Cereus 

. 370 


. 143 

Nitella . . . . 


Nitraria . . . . 


Nitrogen . . . ♦ 


Nolana . . . , 


Noli-me-tangere . . . 


Nopal tree 


Norfolk Island Pine . . 


Norway Maple . 


Nuphar . . , . 


Nutmeg . . . . 


Nux vomica . . , 


Nuytsia . . . . 


Nyctaginese . . . . 


Nymphaa (/^. 110) . 





Oak (figs. 85, 86) 


Oak Apples 


Oak "Wood, mode of testing 


Oats .... 




(Enothera {fig. 33) 

. 80 

Ogechee Lime . 


Olax Tribe . 


Old man 




Oleaster . 


Olive .... 



. 354 


. 449 


. 387 


. 263 

Opium Poppy (//7. 112) 

. 262 


. 371 

Orange {figs. 121 and 122^ 


Orange Lily 

. 450 

Orchidaceae . 

. 438 

Orchil . 

. 469 


. 439 

Ornithogalum . 

. 449 

Orobanche . 

. 416 

Oryza (Rice) . 

. 459 

Osage Orange 

. 170 


. 184 






Pereskia . 






Perianth . 



Periploca graeca 


. ib. 





Ox-eye Daisy 


Persimon . 



Personate corolla . 
Peruvian Bark . 



Palea(y?(7.45) . 


Petty Whin 

Paliurus . 

. 345 

Petunia . 

Palma Christi 



Palm Trees 



Palo de Vacca 


Phoenix dactylifera 



Phanerogamic Plants 

Pandamus . 



Papaw Tree 


Philadelphus . 

Paper Mulberry . 


Phillyrea . 

Papilionaceous Flowers ( fig 

Phlox . 

13) . . . 


Phormium . 




Papyrus . 


Phyllodia {fig. 15) . 




Parsley Tribe . 



Partridge Wood . 


Phyteuma . 

Passerina . . 

. 427 


Passion Flower 


Picea .... 

Pasque Flower . 


Pileus . 

Patersouia . 





Pill wort . 

Pavia .... 

. 326 





Pear {fig. 28) . 








Pine and Fir Tribe 

Pelargonium {fig. 134) 


Pine Apple 

Pellitory of Spain . 


Pinguicula . 

PelUtory of the wall . 



Pendacese . 

. 396 

Pinnae . . . . 

Pentstemon . 

. 412 

Pinnate leaf 

Peony {fig. 6) . 

. 18 

Pinnatifid leaf 





. 464 


Perennial Flax 

. 295 

Pistacia . 




Pistil (/^.l) 

. . 5 



. 209 

Psidium . 

Pitcher Plaut 

. . 429 



. 287 



. . 37 

Pulmonaria . 

Plane Tree 

. 202 

Pulten.Tea . 


. . 432 

Punica Granatum . 

Plantain . 

419, 442 

Purging Buckthorn . 

Platylobium . 

. . 40 



. 63 

Pyrola . 


. . 418 

Pyroligneous acid . 

Plumule . 

. 192 

Pyrus japonica . 


. . 468 


. 40 


. . 253 


Poet's Cassia 

. 427 



. . 406 



. 446 

Queen's Needlework . 


. . 6 


Polygala . 

. 285 

Quillaja . 

Polygonum . 

. . 423 



. 55 



. . 462 

Quisqualis indica . 

Polypody . 

. ib. 


. . 467 



. 352 

Pomes . 

. . 67 

Rafflesia . 


. 452 

Ragged Robin 

Pond Weed . 

. . 455 

Ranunculaceae . 

Poplar {fig. 82) . 

. 185 

Ranunculus . 

Poppy Tribe 

. . 259 


Porte-chapeau . 

. 345 

Raspberry {fig. 2^) 

Port Famine Fuchsia 

. . 78 


Portugal Laurel 

. 65 

Receptacle . 

Portulaca . 

. . 364 

Red Cedar 

Port wine 

. 421 

Red Clover . 

Potentilla . 

. . 54 

Red German Catchfly 

Prickles . 

. 53 

Red Root . 

Prickly Ash 

. . 341 

Red-wood Tree 

Prickly Pear . 

. 371 

Reed-mare . 

Prickly Poppy 

. . 265 

Reindeer Moss . 

Pride of India . 

. 328 



. . 417 

Restiaceae . 

Primula . 

. ib. 


Prinos . 

. . 345 

Rheum , 

Privet {fig. 65) 

. 136 

Richardia . 






. 412 

Salpiglossis . 

. 150 


. . 371 

Salsola Kali 

. 422 


. 327 


. 317 

Rhizophora . 

. . 353 


. 382 

Rhododendron (fias. 

57 and 


. 346 

58). . . 

. . 121 


. 427 

Rliodora canadensis 

. 127 

Sapindaceae . 

. . 327 


. . 423 


. 292 


. 345 


. 399 

Rhus . 

. . 349 


. 259 


. 372 

Sarsaparilla . 

. . 448 


. . 419 

Sassafras . 

. 424 


. 458 


. 227 


. . 431 

Saxifrage . 

. 377 

Ringent corolla 

. 413 


. . 389 


. . 421 

Scaly bracts 

. 108 

Robinia . 

. 35 


. 347 

Rock Rose . 

. . 275 


. 247 

Rock Lychnis 

. . 293 


. 151 

Rocket Larkspur 

. 31 


. 225 

Roman Nettle 

. . 160 

Scilla . 

. 449 

Rondeletia (Jigs. 37 and 38) 90 


. 457 


. . 350 

Scitamineae . 

. 441 

Rose {figs. 20—22) 

. 51 


. 365 

Rose Apple . 

. . 359 


. 462 

Rose Campion . 

. 293 

Scotch Pine {figs. 93 & 

94) 209 



Screw Pine 

. 453 


. 340 

Screw Tree . 

. 300 


. . 415 

Scrophularinse . 

. 411 

Rumex . 



. 469 


. . 448 

Sea Buckthorn . 

. 428 


. 456 

Sea Lavender 

. 418 

Ruta . 

. . 340 

Sea Weeds 

. 471 

Rye . 

. 458 


. 459 


. 457 

Seed-leaves . 

. 233 


Segments of the perianth 

. 8 


. 459 


. 365 

Sacred Bean of India 

. . 258 


35, 46 

Saffron . 

. 445 

Sensitive Plant . 3i 

), 40, 44 

Sage . 

. . 412 


. 7 

Sagittaria . 

. 437 

Seville Orange 

. 308 

Sago Palm . 

. . 453 


. 307 

Sagus Rumphii . 

. ib. 

Shepherd's Club . 

. 154 

Salicornia . 

. . 422 

Shield Fern 

. 462 

Sallow . 

. 184 

Shrubby Trefoil . 

. 341 





. 39d 

Spurge Laurel 

Side-saddle Plant . 

. . 259 

Squills . 

Sieversia . 

. 58 

Squirting Cucumber 

Silene . 

. . 292 


Silk Cotton Tree 

. 299 

Staff Tree 

Sillicle {fiq. 114) 

. . 267 

St. Dabeoc's Heath 

Sillique [fig. 115) 

. 267 

St. John's Bread . 

Silver Fir . 

206, 214 

St. John's Wort 


. 342 

Stamens {fig. 1) 

Sinningia . 

. . 395 


Siphocampylos . 

. 392 



. . 430 

Stapylsea . 


. 443 

Star 'of Bethlehem 

Sloe {fig. 25) 

. . 62 



. 448 


Snake Gourd 

. . 361 



. 411 

Sting of the Nettle 

Sno wherry . 

. . 384 



. 446 

Stipules {fig. 20) 

Snowdrop Tree 

. . 398 


Soap Tree 

. 327 

Stone Pine . 


. . 292 



. 422 


Solandra , . 

. . 153 

Stratiotes . 


. 142 

Strawberry . 

Soldanella . 

. . 418 

Strawberry Elite 

Sollya . 

. 288 

Strawberry Tree . 


. . 40 

Strelitzia . 


. 68 


Sorrel . 

. . 423 

Strobile . 


. 461 

Strychnos . 

Sour Sop 

. . 246 

Stuartia . 

Southernwood, or Old 

-man . 107 

Stump of the Silver F 


Sow-bread . 

. . 417 

Stump Tree 

Sow-thistle {fig. 43) 

. 101 

Style . 

Spanish Broom 

. . 40 

Stylide« . 


. . 443 



. 14 

Succory . 


. 452 

Sugar Cane . 


. . 462 

Sugar Maple 


. . 422 

Sundew Tribe 

Spindle Tree . 

. 343 

Sun Flower 

Spiraea (/^. 24) . 

. . 59 

Sun Rose 

Spiral vessels . 

232, 336 

Suwarrow Nut . 


. . 461 

Sweet Bay Tree . 

Spruce Fir 

206, 212 

Sweet Briar 



Sweet Gale . 


. 203 



. 495 

Sweet Pea (y?^. 13) . 

. 36 

Thrift . 

. 418 

Sweet William . 

. 292 


. 416 


. 329 

Thyme . 

. 412 

Sycamore {figs. 123 & 124) 315 

Thymelaeaj . 

. 426 

Sycamore Tree of Holy Writ 172 


. 449 

Symplocos . 

. 397 


. . 443 


. 384 

Tilia {fig. 120) 

. 301 


. 358 

Tillandria . 

. 451 

Toadflax . 

. 412 


Tobacco (%. 70) . 

. . 148 

Tomato . 

. 144 

Tacamahac Tree 

. 187 

Toothache Tree . 

. 341 


. 245 

Torch Thistle . 

. 369 

Talinum . 

. 364 

Tormentilla . 

. 58 


35, 46 


. 5 


. . 357 


. 338 

Tamus . 

. 448 


. 394 


. 402 


. 452 

Tapioca . 

. 431 


. 355 

Tap-root {fig. 11) 

. . 30 

Traveller's Joy 

. 24 

Tar . 

. 209 

Tree Ferns 


Taxodium . 

. 224 

Tree Peony 

. 19 


. 228 

Tree Primrose {fig. 33) 

75, 80 

Teak . 

. 415 


. 286 

Teasel . 

. 389 

Tremella . 

. 471 

Tea Tree . 

. 306 

Trevirana . 

. 412 

Tecoma . 

. 404 

Triptilion spinosum 

. . 108 


. 415 

Triticum . 

. 459 

Tendiils . 

. 24 

Tritonia . 

. 443 


. 347 


. 337 

Ternate leaves . 

. 55 

True Service 

. 69 

Ternstrcemiaceae . 

. 303 

Truffle . 

. 471 


. 447 

Trumpet Honeysuckle 

. 384 


. 442 

Tuber cibarium 

. 471 

Thallus . 

. 468 


. 447 


. 237 

Tubular florets {fig. 42) 

. 99 


. 5 

Tulipa. . . 

. . 456 

Theca . 

. . 461 


. 450 

Thea Bohea . 

. 307 

Tulip Tree (Liriodendro 

n) . 245 

Theobroma . 

. . 300 


. 392 


. 399 

Tupelo Tree 

. . 427 

Thistle Down 

. 104 

Turk's Cap 

. 369 


. 300 


. . 441 

Thorn Apple 

. 153 

Turnera . 

. 363 

Thorny Acacia . 

. 47 

Turpentine Trees . 

. 348 





Tutsan . 

. 312 


. 293 

Typha . . . 

. . 453 


. 385 


. 415 



. . 329 


. 353 


. 432 


. . 415 

Umbelliferous Plants 

. . 378 


. 67 


. . 83 


Upas Tree {fig. 75) . 

. 167 


. 445 

Upright (Fly) Honeysuckle 383 

Wallflower {fig. 116 

) . 268 


. . 158 

Walnut {fig. 11) 

. 176 


. 416 

Water Caltrops 

. . 355 

Water Crowfoot 

. 16 


Water Lily {fig. 110 

) . 254 

Water Melon 

, 361 


. . 130 

Water Milfoil 

. . 355 


. 387 

Water Pepper 

. 423 


. . 435 

Water Plantain 

. . 436 

Valves . 

. 37 

Water Starwort 

. 355 


. . 231 

Water Violet 

. . 418 

Vascular Tissue 

. ib. 


. 443 

Vegetable Marrow 

. . 361 

Wayfaring Tree . 

. . 383 

Venetian Sumach 

. 349 


. 273 

Venice Turpentine 

. . 217 

Weymouth Pine(^^ 

95) . 212 

Ventral suture 

. 37 


. 458 

Venus' Flytrap 

. . 284 

White Beam Tree 

. . 69 

Venus' Looking-glass 

. 394 

White Cedar 

. 224 

Venus Navel wort 

. . 409 

White Poppy 

. . 263 



Whorl of leaves 

. 95 


. 411 

Wild Chamomile 

. . 105 


. . 412 

Wild Ginger , 

. 428 


. 414 

Wild Service 

. . 69 


. . 147 

Wild Saffron 

. 104 


. 37 

Willow (/^. 81) 

. . 182 

Viburnum . 

. . 383 

Willow Herb 

. 356 

Victoria Regina 

. 256 


. . 37 


. . 443 

Winter Aconite 

. 26 


. 402 

Winter Bark 

. . 241 

Vine {fig. 133) . 

. . 329 

Winter Berry 

. 345 


. 279 

Winter Cherry . 

. . 145 


. . 40 

Winter Green 

. 132 

Virginian Creeper 

. 331 

Witch Hazel 

. . 380 

Virginian Poke 

. . 421 


. 443 

Virginian Stock 

. 270 


. . 27 

Virgin's Bower (Clema 

tis) . 24 


. . 96 








Yellow Azalea . 

. 126 

Wordsworth's lines 

on the 

Yellow Ragwort, or 

Benweed 106 

lesser Celandine 



Yellow Rattle 

. . 412 



Yucca . 

. 228 
. . 450 






Xygophyllum . 




. 230 

Xylosteum (Fly 



. . 341 

suckle) . 



Zelkoua Tree 

. 459 

. . 432 

. 116 



. . 441 

Yam . 




. 340 





. . 345 

Yellow Anemone . 

. . 


THE END. '^ 




With directions for every Montli in the Year. 
Second Edition, with Woodcuts. Fcap. 8vo, 6s. 


Digging.— Forking.— Hoeing, and Raking.— Manuring, and making Hotbeds.— 
Sowing Seeds, Planting Bulbs and Tubers, Transplanting and Watering, — Graft- 
ing, Budding, Inarching, Making Layers and Cuttings. — Training, Pruning, and 
destroying Insects. — Kitchen garden, and Culinary Vegetables. — Kitchen-garden, 
and Fruit-trees.— Flower-garden, and Flowers.— The Lawn, Shrubbery, and Plea- 
sure-ground. — Rock-work, Moss-houses, and Fountains. — Window Gardening, and 
Greenhouse Plants. — Calendar of operations for the Year. 



Snails and Slugs.— Moths and Butterflies.— Bees and Wasps.— British Singing 
Birds.— Luminous Insects.— M'ild Flowers and Clouds.— Water Beetles : Rose 
Chaffer, Cock Chaffer, Cock Roach, Dragon Fly, May Flies, and the Stickle Back. 
—The Limestone Caverns ; Fossil Remains ; Coal IMines ; Iron Furnaces ; Thunder 
Storm. — Moles, Mushrooms, TruflBes, and Morels, Shrews, IMice, Frogs, and 
Polecats.— River Crawfish ; and Flies.— Snipes and Woodcocks, Fieldfares and 
Thrushes; American Mocking Bird; Larks; Courses of the Wind.— Frost and 
Snow; The Holly; Mistletoe, and Robin Redbreast. 

With 45 Woodcuts. l6mo, 4s. 

New York Botanical Garden Library 

I QK94.L6 gen 

I Loudon, Jane (Webb)/Botany for ladies: o 

3 5185 00091 9538