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Full text of "Boundaries of the United States and of the several states and territories, with a historical sketch of the territorial changes"

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Book > Ol I S 



UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

J. W. POWELL DIRECTOR 



BOUNDARIES 






OF 



THE UNITED STATES 



AND OF THE 



SEVERAL STATES AND TERRITORIES 



WITH A 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE TERRITORIAL CHANGES 



HENRY GANNETT 

CHIEF GEOGRAPHER 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1885 



47420 






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAIi. 



Depaktment of the Interior, 
United States Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C, October 16, 1884. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith a sketch of the boundaries 
of the United States, the several States, and the Territories, as defined 
by treaty, charter, or statute. 

Besides giving the present status of these boundaries, I have en- 
deavored to present an outline of the history of all important changes 
of territory, with the laws appertaining thereto. 

This matter was in great part prepared under the direction of the 
Superintendent of the Census, and it is herewith presented for publica- 
tion with his full concurrence. 

I have been greatly assisted in this work by Mr. Franklin G. Butter- 
field, who was formerly connected with the Census Office, by whose 
labors most of the material relating to the boundaries of the States 
upon the Atlantic borders has been compiled. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

HENRY GANNETT, 

Chief Geographer. 
Hon. J. W. Powell, 

Director. 

(461) 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Letter of transmittal 5 

Chapter I. — Boundaries of the United States, and additions to its territory 9 

Boundaries of the United States 9 

Additions to the territory of the United States 19 

Louisiana purchase 19 

Florida 21 

Texas V '-^1 

First Mexican Cession r 22 

Gadsden Purchase li2 

Alaska 23 

Chapter II. — The Public Domain and an outline of (be bistory of the cbauges 

made therein • 24 

Cessions by the States 24 

Territory northwest of the River Ohio 27 

Territory south of the River Ohio 29 

Louisiana and the territory acquired from Mexico 30 

Chapter III. — Boundary lines of the States and Territories 32 

Maiue 32 

New Hampshire 40 

Vermont 45 

Massachusetts 47 

Rhode Island 65 

Counecticut 66 

New York 71 

New Jersey 76 

Pennsylvania 78 

Delaware 80 

Maryland • 82 

District of Columbia 85 

Virginia 88 

West Virginia 92 

North Carolina 92 

South Carolina 96 

Georgia 97 

Florida 101 

Alabama 102 

Mississippi 103 

Louisiana 104 

Texas 105 

Arkansas 106 

Tennessee 108 

Kentucky , 109 

(463) 



8 CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Chapter III. — Bouudaiy Hues of the States and Territories — Continued. 

Ohio 110 

Indiana Ill 

Illinois 113 

Michigan 113 

Wisconsin 114 

Missouri 116 

Iowa 117 

Minnesota 118 

Kansas 119 

Nebraska 120 

Dakota 121 

Montana 122 

Wyou)ing 123 

Colorado 123 

New Mexico 123 

Utah 124 

Arizona 125 

Nevada » 125 

Idaho 127 

Oregon 128 

Washington 128 

California ^ 129 

(464) 



CHAPTER I. 

BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES, AND ADDITIONS 
TO ITS TERRITORY. 

BOUNDAKIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The limits of the United States were first definitely laid down in the 
provisional treaty made with Great Britain in 1782. The second article/ 
of that treaty defines the bouudary between the United States on the! 
one hand and the British Possessions on the other, as follows : i 

From the uorthwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz, that angle which is formed hyaline 
drawn due north from the source of St. Croix river to the highlands ; along the High- 
lands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Law'rence, 
from those which foil into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Con- 
necticut River ; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree 
of north latitude ; from thence, by a line due west on said latitude until it strikes 
the river Iroquois or Cataraquy (St. Lawrence) ; thence along the middle of said 
river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of said lake until it strikes the commu- 
uication by water between that lake and Lake Erie ; thence along the middle of said 
communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the 
water communication between that lake and Lake Huron ; thence aloug the middle 
of said water communication into the Lake Huron ; thence through the middle of 
said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior ; thence 
through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Plielippeaux to the Long 
Lake ; thence through the middle of said Long Lake, and the water communication 
between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said Lake of the Woods ; thence through 
the said lake to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence on a due west 
course to the river Mississippi; thence by a Hue to be drawn along the middle of 
the saidriver Mississippi until it shall intersect the northernmost iiart of the thirty- first 
degree of north latitude. South by a line to be drawn due east from the determina- 
tion of the line last mentioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the 
Equator, to the middle of the river Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the 
middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence strait to the head of 
St. Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the At- 
lantic Ocean. East by a line to be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, 
from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north 
to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean 
from those which fall into the river St. Lawrence ; comprehending all islands within/ 
t wenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines \ i 
to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova j 
Scotia on the one part aud East Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay 1 
of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean ; excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore | 
have been within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia. 

9 
(465) 



10 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bulu13. 

The boundary between the United States and the Spanish Posses- 
sions, known as the Florid as, is reaffirmed in the treaty between the 
United States and Spain, made in 1795, in the following terms : 

The southern boundary of the United States, which divides their territory from the 
Spanish colonies of East and West Florida, shall be designated by a line beginning 
on the river Mississippi, at the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of latitude 
north of the equator, which from thence shall be drawn due east to the middle of the 
river Apalachicola or Catahouche, thence along the middle thereof to its junction with 
the Flint ; thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and thence down the 
middle thereof to the Atlantic Ocean. 

The definitive treaty of peace with Great Britain, concluded Septem- 
ber 3, 1783, defines the boundaries of the United States in terms similar 
to those of the provisional treaty. 

The northern boundary became at once a fruitful source of dissension 
between the two countries. From the time of the conclusion of peace 
almost up to the present day this line has been the subject of a series of 
treaties, commissions, and surveys for the purpose of interpreting its 
terms. 

The following is in outline a history of the settlement of this boundary: 

The fourth article of the treaty of London, signed November 19, 1794, 
provided that — 

Whereas it is uncertain whether the river Mississippi extends so far to the north- 
ward as to be intersected by a line to be drawn due west from the Lake of the Woods 
in the manner mentioned in the treaty of peace between His Majesty and the United 
States, etc., the two parties will proceed by amicable negotiation to regulate the 
boundary line in that quarter. 

This matter was not settled, however, until 1818. 
The fifth article of the same treaty makes provision for settling another 
doubtful point, as follows : 

Whereas doubts have arisen what river was truly intended under the name of the 
river St. Croix mentioned in the said treaty of peace, and forming a part of the 
boundary therein described, that question shall be referred to the final decision of 
commissions to be appointed in the following manner, viz. 

Here follow provisions that His Majesty and the President of the 
United States should each appoint a commissioner, and that these two 
commissioners should agree on a third, or, they failing to agree on the 
third, he was to chosen by lot in their presence. 

Which was the true St. Croix River had been a matter of controversy 
between the governments of Massachusetts and Nova Scotia since the 
year 1764. 

The commissioners appointed under the foregoing provisions decided, 
on the 25th October, 1798, the river called Schoodiac and the north- 
ern branch thereof (called Cheputnaticook) to be the true river St. 
Croix, and that its source was at the northernmost headspring of the 
northern branch aforesaid. A monument was erected at that spot under 
the direction of the commissioners. (See Memoirs of Ti^ortheastern 
Boundary, Gallatin, pages 7, 8.) 

(466) 



GANNETT] NORTHERN BOUNDARY. 11 

By the treaty of peace concluded at Ghent, December 24, 1814, it was 
agreed to provide for a final adjustment of the boundaries described in 
the treaty of 1783, which had not yet been ascertained and determined, 
embracing certain islands in the Bay of Fundy and the whole of the 
boundary line from the source of the river fSt Croix to the most north- 
western point of the Lake of the Woods. 

By article 4 provision was made for a board of commissioners to settle 
the title to several islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy, which is a part 
of the Bay of Fundy, and the island of Grand Menan iu the said Bay 
of Fundy. 

The fifth article made provision for a board of commissioners to settle 
the boundary from the source of the river St. Croix northward to the 
highland which divides those waters that empty themselves into the 
river St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, 
thence along said highlands to the northwesternmost head of Connecti- 
cut River, thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth 
degree of north latitude, thence due west on said latitude until it strikes 
the river Iroquois or Cataraquy (St. Lawrence). 

The sixth and seventh articles provided for commissioners to con- 
tinue the line to the northwestern j)oint of the Lake of the Woods. 

(For further details see treaty. Statutes at Large, vol. 8, pages 220-2.) 

It was provided by this treaty that in case any of the boards of com- 
missioners were unable to agree, they should make separately or jointly 
a report or reports to their respective. Governments stating the points 
on which they differed, the grounds on which they based their respective 
opinions, etc. 

These reports were to be referred to some friendly sovereign or state 
for arbitration. 

The first and third boards of commissioners above mentioned came to 
an agreement, and those portions of the boundary were thus finally set- 
tled ; but the commission appointed under the fifth article, after sitting 
nearly five years, could not agree on any of the matters referred to them, 
nor even on a general map of the country exhibiting the boundaries 
respectively claimed by each party. They accordingly made separate 
reports to their Governments, stating the points on which they differed 
and the grounds upon which their respective opinions had been formed. 

The first of these commissions awarded Moore, Dudley, and Freder- 
ick Islands to the United States, and all other islands in the Passama- 
quoddy Bay, and the island of Grand Menan, to Great Britain. 

The following is the text of the report of the third of these commis- 
sions which had under consideration that portion of the northern 
boundary between the point where the forty-fifth parallel of north lati- 
tude strikes the St. Lawrence and the point where the boundary reaches 
Lake Superior: 

(467) 



12 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Decisiou of the commissioners under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, done at 
Utica, in the State of New York, 18tli June, 1822. 

We do decide and declare that the following-described lino (which is more clearly in- 
dicated on a series of maps accompanying this report, exhibiting correct surveys and 
delineations of all the rivers, lakes, water communications, and islands embraced by 
the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, by a black line shaded on the British side 
with red and on the American side with blue ; and each sheet of which series of 
maps is identified by a certificate, subscribed by the commissioners, and by th^. two 
principal surveyors employed by them) is the true boundax'y intended by the two be- 
forementioned treaties, that is to say : 

Beginning at a stone monument, erected by Andrew Ellicot, esq., in the year 1817, 
on the south baijk or shore of the said river Iroquois, or Cataraqui (now called the 
St. Lawrence), which monument bears south 74° 45' west, and is 1,840 yards dis- 
tant from the stone church in the Indian village of St. Regis, and indicates the point 
at which the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude strikes the said river; thence run- 
ning north 35° 45' west into the river, on a line at right angles with the south- 
ern shore, to a point 100 yards south of the opposite island, called Cornwall Island ; 
thence turning westerly and passing around the southern and western sides of said 
island, keeping 100 yards distant therefrom, and following the curvatures of its 
shores, to a point opposite to the northwest corner or angle of said island ; thence 
to and along the middle of the main river until it approaches the eastern extremity 
of Barnhart's Island ; thence northerly along the channel which divides the last- 
mentioned island from the Canada shore, keeping 100 yards distant from the island, 
until it approaches Sheik's Island ; thence along the middle of the strait which divides 
Barnhart's and Sheik's Islands to the channel called the Long Sault, which separates 
the two last-mentioned islands from the lower Long Sault Island ; thence westerly 
(crossing the center of the last-mentioned channel) until it approaches within 100 
yards of the north shore of the Lower Sault Island ; thence up the north branch of the 
river, keeping to the north of and near the Lower Sault Island, and also north of 
and near the Upper Sault, sometimes called Baxter's Island, and south of the two 
small islands marked on the map A and B, to the western extremity of the Upper 
Sault or Baxter's Island ; thence, passing between the two islands called the Cats, 
to the middle of the river above ; thence along the middle of the river, keeping to 
the north of the small islands marked C and D, and north also of Chrystler's Island, 
and of the small island next above it, marked E, until it ap^Droaches the north- 
east angle of Goose Neck Island; thence along the passage which divides the last- 
mentioned island fro mthe Canada shore, keeping 100 yards from the island to the 
upper end of the same; thence south of and near the two small islands called the Nut 
Islands ; thence north of and near the island marked F, and also of the island called 
Dry or Smuggler's Island ; thence passing between the islands marked G and H to the 
north of the island called Isle an Rapid Piatt ; thence along the north side of the last- 
mentioned island, keeping 100 yards from the shore, to the upper end thereof; thence 
along the middle of the river, keeping to the south of and near the islands called 
Coussiu (or Tussin) and Presque Isle ; thence up the river, keeping north of and near 
the several Gallop Isles numbered on the map I, 2, ;{, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10, and also 
of Tick, Tibbits, and Chimney Islands, and south of and near the Gallop Isles num- 
bered 11, 12, and i:$, and also of Duck, Drummond, and Sheep Islands ; thence along 
the middle of the river, passing north of island No. 14, south of 15 and 16, north of 17, 
south of 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, and 28, and north of 2(5 and 27; thence along the 
middle of the river, north of Gull Island and of the islands Nos. 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, Bluft" 
Island, and Nos. 39, 44, and 45, and to the south of Nos. 30, 31, 36, Grenadier Island, 
and Nos. 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47, and 48, until it approaches the east end of Well's 
Island ; thence to the north of Well's Island, and along the strait which divides it 

(468) 



GANNETT.] NORTHERN BOUNDARY. 13 

from Rowe's Island, keeping to the north of the small islands Nos. 51. 52, 54, 58, 59, and 
61, and to the south of the small islands numbered and marked 49, 50, 53, 55, 57, 60, 
and H, until it approaches the northeast point of Grindstone Island ; thence to the 
north of Grindstone Island, and keeping to the north also of the small islands Nos. 
63, 65, 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, and 78, and to the south of Nos. 62, 64, 66, 69, and 71, 
until it approaches the southern ijoint of Hickory Island; thence passing to the south 
of Hickory Island and of the two small islands lying near its southern extremity, num- 
bered 79 and 80 ; thence to the south of Grand or Long Island, keeping near its southern 
shore, and passing to the north of Carlton Island, until it arrives opposite to the 
southwestern point of said Grand Island, in Lake Ontario; thence, passing to the 
north of Grenadier, Fox, Stony, and the Gallop Islands, in Lake Ontario, and to the 
south of and near the islands called the Ducks, to the middle of the said lake; thence 
westerly along the middle of said lake to a point opposite the mouth of the Niagara 
River; thence to and up the middle of the said river to the Great Falls ; thence up 
the Falls through the point of the Horse Shoe, keeping to the west of Iris or Goat 
Island, and of the group of small islands at its head, and following the bends of the 
river so as to enter the strait between Navy and Grand Islands ; thence along the 
middle of said strait to the head of Navy Island ; thence to the west and south of and 
near to Grand and Beaver Islands, and to the west of Strawberry, Squaw, and Bird 
Islands to Lake Erie; thence southerly and westerly along the middle of Lake Erie in 
a direction to enter the passage immediately south of Middle Island, being one of the 
easternmost of the group of islands lying in the western part of said lake ; thence 
along the said passage, proceeding to the north of Cunningham's Island, of the three 
Bass Islands, and of the Western Sister, and to the south of the islands called the 
Hen and Chickens, and of the Eastern and Middle Sisters; thence to the middle of 
the mouth of the Detroit River in a direction to enter the channel which divides 
Bois Blanc and Sugar Islands; thence up the said channel to the west of Bois Blanc 
Island, and to the east of Sugar, Fox, and Stony Islands, until it approaches Fighting 
or Great Turkey Island ; thence along the western side and near the shore of said 
last-mentioned island to the middle of the river above the same ; thence along the 
middle of said river, keeping to the southeast of and near Hog Island, and to the 
northwest of and near the island Isle h laPeche, to Lake Saint Clair; thence through 
the middle of said lake in a direction to enter that mouth or channel of the river St. 
Clair, which is usually denominated the Old Ship Channel ; thence along the middle 
of said channel, between Squirrel Island on the southeast and Herson's Island on the 
northwest, to the upper end of the last-mentioned island, which is nearly opposite 
to Point an Chenes, on the American shore; thence along the middle of the river 
Saint Clair, keeping to the west of and near the islands called Belle Rivifere Isle 
and the Isle aux Cerfs, to Lake Huron ; thence through the middle of Lake Huron in 
a direction to enter the strait or passage between Drummond's Island on the west 
and the Little Manitou Island on the east ; thence through the middle of the pas- 
sage which divides the two last-mentioned islands ; thence, turning northerly and 
westerly, around the eastern and northern shores of Drummond's Island, and proceed- 
ing in a direction to enter the passage between the island of Saint Joseph's and the 
American shore, passing to the north of the intermediate islands Nos. 61, 11, 10, 12, 
9, 6, 4, and 2, and to the south of those numbered 15, 13, 5, and 1 ; thence up the 
said last-mentioned passage, keeping near to the island Saint Joseph's, and passing 
to the north and east of Isle iila Crosse* and of the small islands numbered 16, 17, 18, 
19, and 20, and to the south and west of those numbered 21, 22, and 23, until it 
strikes a line (drawn on the m.a\} with black ink and shaded on one side of the point 
of intersection with blue and on the other with red) passing across the river at the 
head of Saint Joseph's Island and at the foot of the Neobish Rapids, which line 
denotes the termination of the boundary directed to be run by the sixth article of 
the treaty of Ghent. 

And the said commissioners do further decide and declare that all the islands lying 

(469) 



14 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

in the rivers, lakes, and water communications between the before-described bound- 
ary line and the adjacent shores of Upper Canada do, aud each of them does, belong 
to His Britannic Majesty, aud that all the islauds lying in the rivers, lakes, aud water 
communications between the said boundary line and the adjacent shores of the United 
States or their territories do, aud each of them does, belong to the United States of 
America, in conformity with the true intent of the second article of the said treaty of 
1783, and of the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent. 

By the second article of the convention with Great Britain — 1818 — 
the boundary line was extended westward along the forty-ninth par- 
allel of latitude to the "Stony" (Rocky) Mountains, while beyond these 
mountains the treaty provided that the country should remain open to 
both parties. The terms of the treaty are as follows : 

Article 'i. It is agreed that a line drawn from the most northwestern point of the 
Lake of the Woods along the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, or if the said 
point shall uot be in the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, then that a line drawn 
from the said point due north or south, as the case may be, uutil the said line shall 
intersect the said parallel of north latitudi?, aud from the i)oint of such intersection 
due west along and with the said parallel, shall be the line of demarkation between 
the territories of the United States and those of His Britannic Majesty, and that the 
said line shall form the northern boundary of the said territories of the United States 
and the southern boundary of the territories of His Britannic Majesty from the Lake 
of the Woods to the Stony Mountains. 

Article 3. It is agreed that any country that may be claimed by either party on 
the northwest coast of America, westward of the Stony Mountains, shall, together 
with its harbours, bays, and creeks, and the navigation of all rivers within the same, 
be free and open, for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the i)res- 
eut convention, to the vessels, citizens, and subjects of the two powers; it being well 
understood that this agreement is not to be construed to the prejudice of any claim 
which either of the two high contracting parties may have to any part of the said 
country, nor shall it be taken to affect the claims of any other power or state to any 
part of the said country ; the only object of the high coutractiug parties in that re- 
spect being to prevent disputes and differences amongst themselves. 

In 1824 negotiations were resumed between the two countries for the 
settlement, among other things, of the boundary west of the Eocky 
Mountains, but no conclusion was reached •, the claim of the English 
Government being that the boundary line should follow the forty-ninth 
parallel westward to the point where this parallel strikes the great 
northwestern branch of the Columbia River, thence down the middle of 
that river to the Pacific Ocean. 

In 1826 negotiations were resumed, and several compromises were 
proposed by both parties, but without satisfactory results. After this 
the whole matter remained in abeyance until the special mission of Lord 
Ashburton to this country in 1842. 

Meanwhile the unsettled questions regarding the northeastern bound- 
ary again came up. 

The case having reached that stage at which it became necessary to 
refer the points of difference to a friendly sovereign or state, the two 
powers found it expedient to regulate the proceedings and make pro- 
visions in relation to such reference, and on the 29th September, 1827, 
concluded a convention to that effect. 

(470) 



OANNETT.) NORTHERN BOUNDARY. 15 

The respective claims of the United States and Great Britain were as 
follows, viz : 

Boundary claimed hy United States. — From the source of the river St. 
Croix (apoiut of departure mutually acknowledged) the boundary should 
be a due north line for about 140 miles, crossing the river St. John at 
about 75 miles. At about 97 miles it reaches a ridge or highland which 
divides tributary streams of the river St. John, which falls into the Bay 
of Fundy, from the waters of the river Ristigouche, which falls through 
the Bay des Chaleurs into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In its further 
course the said due north line, after crossing several upper branches of 
the river Eistigouche, reaches, at about 140 miles, the highlands which 
divide the waters of the said river Ristigouche from the tributary 
streams of the riv^er Metis, which falls into the river St. Lawrence. 

Thence the line should run westerly and southwesterly along the high- 
lands which divide the sources of the several rivers (from the Metis to 
the St. Francis) that emjity themselves into rhe river St. Lawrence — from 
the sources of the tributaries of the rivers Ristigouche, St. John, Penob- 
scot, Kennebec, and Connecticut, all which either mediately or immedi- 
ately fall into the Atlantic Ocean. 

Boundary claimed hy Great Britain. — From the source of the river St. 
Croix the boundary should be a due north line about 40 miles to a point 
at or near Mars Hill ; thence it should run westerly about 115 miles along 
the highlands that divide the sources of the tributaries of the river St. 
John from the sources of the river Penobscot to a spot called Metjar- 
mette Portage, near the source of the river Chaudiere. 

From this point the line coincides with the line claimed by the United 
States until the northwesternmost head of the Connecticut River is 
reached. Great Britain claimed one of several small streams to be the 
northwesternmost tributary of the Connecticut River, and the United 
States another. 

The King of the Netherlands was selected in 1829 by the two Gov- 
ernments as the arbiter, and each laid before him, in conformity with 
the i)rovisions of the convention, all the evidence intended to be brought 
in support of its claim, and two separate statements of the respective 
cases. These four statements, which embrace the arguments at large 
of each party, respectively, have been printed, but not published 
(1840). 

The award of the King of the Netherlands, made in 1831, was as fol- 
lows, viz : 

**♦•»«#« 

We are of the opinion that it will be suitable {il convimdra) to adopt as the bound- 
ary of the two states a line drawn due north from the source of the river St. Croix 
to the point where it intersects the middle of the thalwej^ of the river St. John; 
thence the middle of the thalweg of that river, ascending it to the point where the 
the thalweg of the river Saint Francis, ascending it to the source of its southwest- 
river St. Francis empties itself into the river St. John; thence the middle of 

(471) 



16 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. (bull. 13. 

ernmost branch, which source we indicate on the Map A by the letter X, authenti- 
cated by the signature of our minister of foreign affairs ; thence in a line drawn due 
west to the point where it unites with the line claimed by the United States of 
America and delineated on the Map A; thence said line to the point at which, 
according to said map, it coincides with that claimed by Great Britain, and thence 
the line traced on the map by the two powers to the northwesternmost source of 
Connecticut River. 

» # #*•*■* 

We are of the opinion that the stream situated farthest to the northwest, among 
these which fall into the northernmost of the three lakes, the last of which bears 
the name of Connecticut Lake, must be considered as the northwesternmost head of 

Connecticut River. 

« # » # # # # 

We are of the opinion that it will be suitable (il conviendra) to proceed to fresh 
operations to measure the observed latitude in order to mark out the boundary from 
river Connecticut along the parallel of the forty-tifth degree of north latitude to the 
river Saint Lawrence, named in the treaties Iroquois or Cataraquy, in such a manner, 
however, that, in all cases, at the place called Rouse's Point the territory of the Uni- 
ted States of America shall extend to the fort erected at that place, and shall include 
said fort and its kilometrical radius {rayon hilomeirique). 

However disposed the Goveriimeut of the United States might have 
been to acquiesce iu the decision of the arbiter, it had not the power 
to change the boundaries of a State without the consent of the State. 
Against that alteration the State of Maine entered a solemn protest by 
the resolutions of 19th January, 1832. And the Senate of the United 
States did accordingly refuse to give its assent to the award. 

The arbitration of the King of the Netherlands having failed, fruit- 
less negotiations ensued for a period of eleven years. Unsuccessful at- 
tempts were made to conclude an agreement preparatory to another 
arbitration. The subject became a matter of great irritation, collisions 
occurred in the contested territory, and for a time it seemed certain 
that the controversy would result in war between the two powers. In 
1842, however, Great Britain gave unequivocal proof of her desire for 
the preservation of i)eace, and an amicable arrangement of the matter 
at issue, by the special mission of Lord Ashburton to the United 
States. The subject of this mission was the settlement, not only of the 
northeastern boundary, but the northern boundary west of the Rocky 
Mountains. Eegarding this object of his mission, Lord Ashburton's 
instructions gave as the ultimatum of the English Government the 
boundary as above sketched (p. 14), and, naturally, his mission had no 
result, as far as this portion of the boundary was concerned. 

An agreement was reached, however, in regard to the northeastern 
boundary, which, the consent of the State of Maine having been ob- 
tained, was embodied in the treaty concluded August 9, 1842. 

The following is the text of the portion of this treaty relating to the 
boundary : 

Article I. It is hereby agreed and declared that the line of boundary shall be as 
follows : Beginning at the monument at the source of the river St. Croix, as desig- 

(472) 



GAJTOKTT] NOETHEASTEEN BOUND AEY. 17 

uatecl and agreed to by the commissioners under the fifth articleof the treaty of 1794, 
between the Governments of tho United States and Great Britain; thence north, fol- 
lowing the exploring line run and marked by the surveyors of the two Governments 
ill the years 1317 and 1818, under tho fifth article of tho treaty of Ghent, to its inter- 
section with the river St. John, and to tho middle of the channel thereof; thence 
up the middle of the main channel of the said river St. John, to the mouth of the 
river Saint Francis; thence up the middle of the channel of the said river St. 
Francis, and of the lakes through which it flows, to the outlet of the Lake Pohenaga- 
niook ; thence southwesterly, in a straight line, to a point on tho northwest branch 
of the river St. John, which point shall be ten miles distant from the main branch 
of the St. John, in a straight line, and in the nearest direction, but if the said point 
shall bo found to be less than seven miles from the nearest point of the summit or 
crest of tho highlands that divide those rivers which empty themselves into the river 
St. Lawrence from those which fall into the river St. John, there the said point 
shall be made to recede down the said northwest branch of the river St. John, to a 
point seven miles in a straight line from the said summit or crest ; thence in a straight 
line, in a course about south, eight degrees west, to the point where the i^arallel of 
latitude 40° 25' north intersects the southwest branch of the St. John's; thence 
southerly, by the said branch, to the source thereof in the highlands at the Metjar- 
mt tte i)ortage ; thence down along the said highlands which divide the waters which 
empty themselves into the river Saint Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic 
Ocean, to the head of Hall's stream ; thence down the middle of said stream till the 
line thus run intersects the old line of boundary surveyed and marked by Valentine 
and Collins, previouslj' to the year 1774, as the 45th degree of north latitude, and 
which has been known and understood to be the line of actual division between the 
States of New York and Vermont on one side, and the British jirovince of Canada on 
the other ; and from said point of intersection, west, along the said dividing line, as 
heretofore known and understood, to the Iroquois or St. Lawrence Eiver, 

Article II. It is moreover agreed that, from the place where the joint commis- 
sioners terminated their labors under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent, to-wit, 
at a point in the Neebieh channel, near Muddy Lake, the line shall run into and along 
the ship channel, between St. Joseph and Saint Tammany islands, to the division 
of the channel at or near the head of St. Joseph's Island; thence turning eastwardly 
and northwardly around the lower end of St. George's or Sugar Island, and foUow- 
ng the middle of the channel which divides St. George's from St. Joseph's Island; 
thence up the east Neebish channel, nearest to St. George's Island, through the mid- 
dle of Lake George; thence west of Jonas' Island, into St. Mary's Eiver, to a point 
in the middle of that river, about one mile above St. George's or Sugar Island, so 
as to appropriate and assign the said island to the United States; thence, adopt- 
ing the line traced on the maps by the commissioners, through the river St. Mary and 
Lake Superior, to a point north of He Eoyale, in said lake, one hundred yards to the 
north and east of He Chapeau, which last mentioned island lies near the northeastern 
P9Jnt of He Eoyale, where the line marked by the commissioners terminates; and 
from the last-mentioned point, southwesterly, through the middle of the sound be- 
tween He Eoyale and the northwestern mainland, to the mouth of Pigeon Eiver, and 
up the said river, to and through the north and south Fowl Lakes, to the lakes of tho 
height of land between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods; thence along the- 
water communication to Lake Saisaginaga, and through that lake ; thence to and 
through Cypress Lake, Lac du Bois Blanc Lac la Croix, Little Vermillion Lake, and 
Lake Namecan, and through the several smaller lakes, straits, or streams, connecting 
the lakes here mentioned, to thatpoint inLacla Pluie,or Eainy Lake, at the Chaudiere 
Falls, from which the commissioners traced the line to the most northwestern point 
of the Lake of the Woods; thence, along the said line, to the said most northwestern 
point, being in latitude 49° 23' 55" north, and in longitude 95° 14'' 3b" west from the 
observatory at Greenwich; thence, according to existing treaties, due south to its in- 

(473) 
4596— Bull. 13 2 



18 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. (bull. 13. 

tcreection with the forty-uinth parallel of north latitude, and along that parallel to 
the Rocky Mountains. It being understood that all the water communications and all 
the usual portages along the line from Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods, and 
also Grand Portage, from \^c shore of Lake Superior to the Pigeon River, as now 
actually used, shall bo fice and open to the use of the citizens and subjects of both 
countries. 

AnxiCLK VII. It is further agreed that the channels in the river St. Lawrence, on 
both sides of the Long Sanl^islauds, and of Baruharfc Island ; the channels in the river 
Detroit, on both sidos of the island Bois Blanc, and b( tweeu that island and both the 
Auierican and Canadian shores, and all the several channels and passages between 
the various islands lying near the junction of the river St. Clair with the lake of that 
name, shall be equally free and open to the ships, vessels, and boats of both parties. 

Bet'iveen 1843 and 1840 there was considerable negotiation regard- 
ing tlie boundarj- west of the Eocky Mountains, resulting finally in the 
Webster-Ashbnrton treaty, which defined the boundary as far west as 
the straits of Juan de Fuca. The following is that portion of the ti^aty 
which defines the boundary. 

TREATY WITH GREAT BRITAIN, 1846. 

Article I. From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, where the 
boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States 
and Great Britain terminati«, the line of boundary between the territories of the 
United States and those of Her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along 
the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which 
sejiarates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the 
middle of the said channel, and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean : Provided, 
however, That the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits south of 
the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude remain free and open to both parties. 

Article II. From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude 
shall be found to intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the nav- 
igation of the said branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to 
all British subjects trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets 
the main stream of tho Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, 
with free access into and through the said river or rivers, it being understood tliut all 
the usual portages along the line thus described shall, in like manner, be free and 
open. In navigating the said river, or rivers, British subjects, with their goods and 
produce, shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States; it be- 
ing, however, always understood that nothing in this article shall be construed as' 
preventing, or intendiugto prevent, the Government of the United States from making 
any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers not inconsiste^tf; 
with the present treaty. 

The above treaty extended the line westward from the Rocky Mount- 
ains to the Pacific along the forty-ninth parallel of latitude. This set- 
tled the northern boundary with the exception of the islands and pas- 
sages in the straits of Georgia and of Juan deFuca, the English claim- 
ing that the boundary should properly run through the Rosario strait, 
the most eastern ])assage, whilf^the United States claimed that it should 
naturally follow the Canal de Haro. 

This matter was finally settled by a reference to the Emperor of Ger- 
many as an arbitrator, who decided it in favor of the United States on 

(474) 



GANNETT.] LOUISIANA PURCHASE. 19 

the 21st of October, 1872, thus finally disposing of our boundary mth 
Great Britain. 



ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE. 

The region subsequently known as the territory of Louisiana was ^ 
originally claimed by France, by virtue of discovery and occupation. 

In 1712 France made a grant to Antoine de Crozat, of the exclusive 
right to the trade of this region. As this grant makes the first, and 
indeed the only statement of the limits of this vast region, as they were 
understood by France, a portion of it is here introduced. 

We have by these presents sii^incrl witli our baud, authorized, and do authorize the 
said Sieur Crozat to carry ou exchisively the trade in all the territories by us pos- 
sessed, and bounded by New Mexico and by those of the English in Carolina, all the 
establishmoutR, ports, harbors, rivers, and especially the port and harbor of Dauphin 
Island, formerly called Massacre Island, the river St. Louis, formerly called the 
Mississippi, from the seashore to the Illinois, together with the river St. Philip, 
formerly called the Missouries River, and the St. Jerome, formerly called the Wabash 
(the Ohio), with all the countries, territories, lakes iu the land, and the rivers empty- 
ing directly or indirectly into that part of the river St. Louis. All the said terri- 
tories, countries, rivers, streams, and islands, we will to be and remain comprised 
under the name of the Government of Louisiana, which shall be dependent on the 
general Government of New France, and remain subordinate to it, and we will, more- 
over, that all the territories which we possess on this side of the Illinois, be united, 
as far as need be, to the general Government of New France, and form a part thereof; 
reserving to ourself, nevertheless, to increase, if we judge proper, the extent of the 
government of the said country of Louisiana. 

From this it appears that Louisiana was regarded by France as 
comprising the drainage basin of the Mississippi as far north as the 
moiTth of the Illinois, with those of all its branches which enter it be- 
low this point, including the Missouri, but excluding that portion in the 
southwest claimed by Spain. It is moreover certain that the area now' 
comprised iu Washington, Oregon, and Idaho was not included. i 

Crozat surrendered this grant in 1717. 
I On November 3, 1762, France ceded this region to Spain, defining it 
' only as the i^rovince of Louisiana. A few months later, ou February 10, 
1763, by the treaty of peace between Great Britain, France, and Spain, 
the western boundary of the former's possessions in the Kew World, was 
placed in the center of the Mississippi River, thus reducing the area \ 
of Xouisiana by the portion east of the Mississippi River. ! 

By the treaty of San Ildefonso, October 1, 1800, Spain transferred, 
back to France the balance of the province of Louisiana. 

Immediately after this transfer became known, which was on No- 
vember 30, 1803, measures were set on foot by President Jefferson for 

(475) 



20 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. fBtLL.13. 

secaring in some way free access to tbe sea by way of the Mississippi 
Eiver. Circnmstances favored this negotiatiou. Bonaparte was at 
that time in almost daily expectation of a declaration of war by Great 
Britain, in wliicli case the lirst act of the latter would be to seize the 
mouth of the Mississippi, and with it the province of Louisiana. Under 
these circumstances Bonaparte offered to sell the province to the United 
States, and the oiier was promptly accepted. The consideration was 
CO.(H)0,000 francs and the assumption by the United States of the 
** French spoliation claims," which were estimated to amount to 
83.750,000. 

The treaty of cession, which bears date April 30, 1803, describes the ter- 
ritory only as being the same as ceded by Spain to France by the treaty 
of San Ildefonso. 

From this it appears that the territory sold to the United States com- 
prised that part of the drainage basin of the Mississippi which lies west 
of the course of the river, with the exception of such parts as were then 
held by Spain. The want of precise definition of limits in the treaty 
was not objected to by the American commissioners, as they probably 
foresaw that this very indefiniteness might prove of service to the 
United States in future negotiations with other powers. In fact, the 
claiin of the United States to the area now comprised in Oregon, Wash- 
ington, and Idaho in the negotiations with Great Britain regarding the 
northwestern boundary, was ostensibly based, not only upon prior oc- 
cupation and upon purchase from Spain, but also upon the alleged fact 
that this area formed part of the Louisiana purchase. That this claim 
was baseless is shown not only by what has been already det:iiled re- 
garding the limits of the purchase, but also by the direct testimony of 
the French plenipotentiary, M. Barbe Marbois. Some twenty years after 
the purchase he published a work upon Louisiana, in which he detailed 
■ at some length the negotiations which preceded the i^urchase, and, re- 
ferring to this question said : '• The shores of the western ocean were 
certainly not comprised in the cession, but already the United States 
are established there." 

There is also contained in this work a map of the country between 
the Mississippi and the Pacific, on which the extent of Louisiana to the 
westward is indicated by a line drawn on the one handred and tenth 
meridian, which is not far from the western limit of the drainage basin 
of the Mississippi in Wyoming and Montana. That part of the country 
now comprised in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, which, it has been 
claimed, formed part of the purchase, bears the following legend: " Ter- 
ritories and countries occupied by the United States, following the treaty 
of cession of Louisiana." 

From this it appears that the limits of the Louisiana purchase can 
no longer be a matter of discussion : but although the United States 
certainly did not purchase Oregon, as a part of Louisiana, it is no less 

(476) 



GANNETT.] LOUISIANA PURCHASE— FLORIDA TEXAS. 21 

certain that that great area west of the Eocky Mountains fell into their 
hands as a direct consequence of such purchase. 

FLOEIDA. 

The second addition to the territory of the United States consisted of 
the Floridas, purchased from Spain on February 22, 1819. From the . 
date of the Louisiana purchase in 1803, the territory bounded by the 
Mississippi Eiver on the west, the Perdido on the east, the parallel ot 
31° on the north, and the Gulf ou the south had been in dispute between 
the two countries. Duriug this time it had been practically in the pos- ■ 
session of the United States. This purchase settled these conflicting ' 
claims. 

The following is the clause in the treaty with Spain ceding the Flor- 
idas which defines the cession: 

Art. 2. His Catholic Majesty cedes to tlie United States, in full property and sov- 
ereignty, all the territories which belong to him, situated to the eastward of the 
Mississippi, known by the name of East and West Florida, the adjacent islands de- 
pendent upon said province, etc. 

A further article in this treaty defines the boundary between the 
United States and the Spanish Possessions in the southwest, as follows: 

The boundary line between the two countries, west of the Mississippi, shall begin 
on the Gulph of Mexico, at the mouth of the river Sabine, in the sea, continuing 
north, along the western bank of that river, to the thirty-second degree of latitude; 
thence by a line due north to the degree of latitude where it strikes the Rio Roxo of 
Nachitoches, or Red River ; then following the course of the Rio Roxo to the degree 
of longitude 100 west from Loudon, or about 23'' west of Washington ; then crossing 
the said Rio Roxo and running thence, by a line due north, to the River Arkansas ; 
thence, following the course of the southern bank of the Arkansas, to its source in 
latitude 42 north ; and thence by that parallel of latitude to the South Sea, the 
whole being as laid down in Melish's map of the United States, published at Phila- 
delphia, improved to the Ist of January, 1818. But if the source of the Arkansas 
River shall bo found to fall north or south of latitude 42, then the line shall run from 
the said source due south or north, as the case may bo, till it meets the said parallel 
of latitude 42, and thence along the said parallel to the South Sea, all the islands in 
the Sabine and the said Red and Arkansas Rivers, throughout the course thus de- 
scribed, to belong to the United States ; but the use of the waters, and the naviga- 
tion of the Sabine to the sea, and of the said rivers Roxo and Arkansas throughout 
the extent of the said boundary on their respective banks shall be common to the 
respective inhabitants of both nations. 

TEXAS. 

The next acquisition of territory was that of the Eepublic of Texas, 
which was admitted as a State on December 29, 1845. The area which 
Texas brought into the Union was limited as follows : 

All the land lying east of the Rio Grande and embraced within the limits of the Rio 
Graude on the west and south and the boundary between the United States and 
Spain nuder the Florida treaty of 1819, on the east, viz, the Sabine River, thence 
north to the Red River, thence up the Red River to the one hundredth meridian west 
of Greenwich, thence due north to the Arkansas River, thence up the Arkansas River 
to its source and down the Rio Grande. 

(477) 



22 BOUNDAEIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

TEE FIRST MEXICAN CESSION. 

In 1848 a further addition was made to our territory by the treaty of 
Guadahipe-Hidalgo. This added to the country the area of California, 
Kevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico, while 
the Gadsden purchase, which was effected in 1853, added the remainder 
of Arizona and another part of New Mexico. 

The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was concluded February 2, 1848, 
and proclaimed July 4, 1848. The clauses in it defining our acquisition 
of territory are as follows : 

Article V. The boundary line between the two republics shall commence in the 
Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the mouth of the Rio Grande^ 
otherwise called the Eio Bravo del Norte, or opposite the mouth of its deepest branch, 
if it should have more than one branch emptying into the sea ; from thence up the 
middle of that river, following the deepest channel where it has more than one, to the 
point where it strikes the southern boundary of New Mexico; thence westwardly 
along the whole southern boundary of New Mexico (which runs north of the town 
called Paso) to its western termination ; thence northward along the western line of 
New Mexico until it intersects the first branch of the river Gila (or if it should not 
intersect any branch of that river, then to the point on the said line nearest to such 
branch, and thence in a direct line to the same) ; thence down the middle of the said 
branch and of the said river until it empties into the Rio Colorado ; thence across the 
Rio Colorado, following the division line between Upper and Lower California, to the 
Pacific Ocean. 

The southern and western limits of New Mexico, mentioned in this article, asp those 
laid down in the map entitled, "Map of the United Mexican States as organized and 
defined by various acts of the Congress of said Republic, and constructed according 
to the best authorities. Revised edition. Published at New York, in 1847, by J. Dis- 
turnell ; " of which map a copy is added to this treaty, bearing the signatures and 
seals of the undersigned plenipotentiaries. And. in order to preclude all difiiculty in 
tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California, it is 
agreed that the said limit shall consist of a straight line drawn from the middle of 
the Rio Gila, where it unites with the Colorado, to a point on the coast of the Pacific 
Ocean, distant one marine league due south of the southernmost point of the jjort of 
San Diego, according to the plan of said port made in the year 17S2, by Don Juan 
Pautoja, second sailing-master of the Spanish fleet, and published at Madrid in the 
year 1302, in the atlas to the voyage of the schooners Sutil and Mexicana ; of which 
plan a copy is hereunto added, signed and sealed by the respective i)lenipotentiarie8. 

GADSDEN PURCHASE. 

Subsequently, on December 30, 1853, a second purchase was made of 
Mexico, consisting of the strip of land lying south of the Gila Eiver, 
in New Mexico and Arizona. The boundaries as established bj' this, 
known as the Gadsden purchase, were as follows: 

Article I. The Mexican Republic agrees to designate the following as her true 
limits with the United States for the future: Retaining the same dividing line be- 
tween the two Califoruias as already defined and established, according to the fifth 
article of the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the limits between the two republics shall 
be aa follows : Beginning in the Gulf of Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite the 
mouth of the Rio Grande, as jjrovided in the fifth article of the treaty of Guadalupe- 
Hidalgo ; thence, as defined in the said article, up the middle of that river to the point 
where the parallel of 31° 47' north latitude crosses the same ; thence due west one 

(478) 



GAX.xErr.] GADSDEN PURCHASE— ALASKA. 23 

liuuclretl miles ; thence south to the parallal of 31'^ 20' north latitude ; thence along the 
said parallel of 319 20' to the one hundred and eleventh meridian of longitude west 
of Greenwich; thence in a straight line to a point on tho Colorado River twenty 
English miles below the junction of tho Gila and Colorado Rivers; thence up the 
middle of the said river Colorado until it intersects tho present line between the 
United States and Mexico. 

ALASKA. 

There remains but one acquisitiou of territory to the Uiiited States 
from foreign powers, viz, that of Alaska, purchased from Russia. The 
treaty of purchase was sigued on March 30, 18G7, and proclaimed June 
20, 1807. The boundaries of the territory are described in the accom- 
panying quotation from the treaty' : 

Commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, 
which point lies in the parallel of 54° 40" north latitude, and between the one hundred 
and thirty-first and one hundred and thirty-third degree of west longitude (meridian of 
Greenwich), the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland 
Channel as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the fifty-sisth degree of north 
latitude; from this last-mentioned i^oint, the line of demai'kation shall follow the sum- 
mit of the mountains situated i)ara]lel to the coast, as far as the point of intersection 
ef the ono hundred and forty-iirst degree of west longitude (of tlfo same meridian) ; and, 
finally, from the said point of intersi.ction, the said meridian lino of the«oue hundred 
and forty-first degree in its prolongation as far as the Frozen Oct^an. 

IV. With reference to tho line of douiarkation laid down in the preceding article, 
it is understood — 

1st. That the island called Prince of Wales Island shall belong wholly to Russia, 
(now, by this cession, to the United States). 

2d. That whenever the summit of the mountains which extend in a direction par- 
allel to the coast from the fifty-sixth degree of north latitude to the point of intersection 
of the oue hundred and forty-first degree of west longitude shall jirove to be at the 
distance of more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, tho limit between the Brit- 
ish possessions and the lino of coast w^hich is to belong to Russia, as above mentioned 
(that is to say, the limit to the possessions ceded by this convention), shall be formed 
by a line parallel to the winding of the coast, and which shall never exceed tho dis- 
tance of ton marine leagues therefrom. 

Tho western limit within which the territories and dominion convoyed are con- 
tained passes through a point in Behriug's Straits on the parallel of G5° 30' north lati- 
tude, at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway between the islands of 
Krusenstern or Ignalook, and tho island of Ratmanoff, or Noonerbook, and proceeds 
due north Avithout limitation into the same Frozen Ocean. 

The same western limit, beginning at the same initial point, proceeds thence in 
a course nearly southwest through Behriug's Straits and Behring's Sea, so as to pass 
midway between the northwest point of tho island of Saint Lawrence and tho south- 
cast point of Cape Choukotski to tho meridian of oue hundred and seventy-two west 
longitude, thence from the intersection of that meridian in a southwesterly direction, 
so as to pass midwaj' between the island of Attore and the Copper Island of the Kor- 
maudorski couplet or group, in the North Pacific Ocean, to the meridian of one hun- 
dred and ninety-three degrees west longitude, so as to include in tho territory con- 
veyed the whole of the Aleutian Islands west of that meridian. 

The consideration paid for the Territory of Ahiska was $7,200,000, in 
gold. 

(479) 



CHAPTER II. 

THE PUBLIC DOMAIN AXD AN OUTLINE OF THE HIS- 
TORY OF CHANGES MADE THEREIN. 

CESSIONS BY THE STATES. 

At tbe time the Constitution was adopted by the original thirteen 
States, many of them possessed unoccupied territory, in some cases en- 
tirely detached and lying west of the Appalachian Mountains. Thus, 
Georgia included the territory from its present eastern limits westward 
to tlie Mississippi River. Xorth Carolina possessed a narrow strip ex- 
tending irom latitude 35° to 36o 30', approximately, and running west- 
ward to the Mississippi, inckiding besides its own present area that of 
the present state of Tennessee. In lil^e manner, Virginia possessed what 
is now Kentucky, while a number of States, as Pennsylvania, New York, 
Massachusetts, and Connecticut, laid claim to areas in what was after- 
ward known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, a region which 
is now comjjrised mainly in the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, and Wisconsin. Tbese claims were to a greater or less extent con- 
flicting. In some cases several States claimed authority over the same 
area, while the boundary lines were in most cases very ill-defiued. 

Tlie ownership of these western lands by individual States was op- 
posed by those States which did not share in their possession, mainly 
on the ground that the resources of the General Government, to which 
all contributed, should not be taxed for the protection and development 
of this region, while its advantages would inure to the benefit of but a 
favored few. On this ground several of the States refused to ratify the 
Constitution until this matter had been settled by the cession of these 
tracts to the General Government. 

I\Ioved by these arguments, as well as by the consideration of the 
conflicting character of the claims, which must inevitably lead to trouble 
among the States, Congress passed, on October 30, 1779, the following 
act: 

Whereas tho appropriation of tbe vacaut lands by tho several States during the 
present war will, in the opinion of Congress, be attended v. ith groat miscbiefs : There- 
fore, 

Eeaolved, That it ho earnestly recommended to the State of Virginia to reconsider 
their late act of assembly for opening their land office; and that it be recommended 
to the' said State, and all other States similarly circumstanced, to forbear settling or 
issuing warrants for unappropriated lands, or granting the same during the contin 
uance of the present war. 
24 

(480) 



QANXETT.] CESSIONS BY STATES. 25 

This resolution was trausmitted to the different States. The first to 
respond to it by the transfer of her territory to the General Government 
was Xew York, whose example was followed by the other States. 

Tiiese cessions were made on the dates given below : 

Kew York, March 1, 1781. 

Virginia, March 1, 1784. 

Massachusetts, April 19, 1785 

Connecticut, September 13, 17SG. 

The Connecticut act of cession reserved an area in the northeastern 
l)art of Ohio, known as the Western Eeserve. On May 30, 1800, Con- 
necticut gave to the United States jurisdiction over this area, but with- 
out giving up its property rights in it. 
v^ South Carolina,' August 9, 1787. 

North Carolina, February 25, 1790. 
^ Georgia, April 24, 1802. 

The following paragraph from the deed of cession hy New York 
defines the limits of its cession to the General Government : 

Now, therefore, know ye, that we, the said James Duane, William Floid, and Alex- 
ander M'Dougall, by virtue of tlie power and authority, and in the execution of the 
trust reposed in us, as aforesaid, have judged it expedient to limit and restrict, and 
■we do, hy these presents, for and in behalf of the said State of New York, limit and 
restrict the boundaries of the said State iu the western parts thereof, with respect to 
the jurisdiction, as well as the right or pre-emption of soil, by the lines and in the 
foi'm following, that is to say: a line from the northeast corner of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, along the north bounds thereof to its northwest corner, continued due west 
until it shall he intersected by a meridian line to be drawn from the forty-fifth degree 
of north latitude, through the most westei-fy bent or inclination of Lake Ontario; 
thence by the said meridian line to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude ; and 
thence by the said forty-fifth degree of north latitude ; but if, on experiment, the 
above-described meridian line shall not comprehend twenty miles due west fr6m the 
most westerly bent or inclination of the river or strait of Niagara, then we do, by 
these presents, in the name of the jteople, and for and on behalf of the State of New- 
York, and by virtue of the authority aforesaid, limit and restrict the boundaries of 
the said State iu the western parts thereof, with respect to jurisdiction, as well as the 
right of pre-emption of soil, by the lines and in the manner following, that is to say : 
a line from the northeast corner of the State of Pennsylvania, along the north bounds 
thereof, to its northwest corner, continued duo west until it shall be intersected by a 
meridian line, to be drawn from the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, through a 
point twenty miles due west from fho most westerly bent or inclination of the river 
or strait Niagara ; thence by the said meridian line to the forty-fifth degree of north 
latitude, and thence by the said forty-fifth degree of north latitude. 

The deed of cession fey Virginia gives no limits, further than to specify 
that the lands transferred include only those lying northwest of the 
river Ohio. 

The following paragraph from the deed of cession by Massachusetts 
gives the limits of the area ceded : 

» # * \ye (Jo \yy these presents assign, transfer, quitclaim, cede, and convey to 
the United States of America, for their benefit, Massachusetts inclusive, all right, 
title, and estate of and ia, as well the soil as the jnristlictiou, which the said Com- 

(481) 



26 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. fBLLL. 13. 

mouwealtli Lath to the territory or tract of country within tlie limits of Slassachu- 
8etts charter situate aud lying west of the following line, that is to say, a raoridian 
line to be drawn from the fortj'-fifth degree of uorth latitude through the westerly 
bent or inclination of Lake Ontario, thence by the said meridian lino to the most 
southerly side line of the territory contained in the Massachusetts charter; but if 
ou experiment the above-described meridian line shall not comprehend twenty miles 
due west from the most westerly bent or inclination of the river or strait of Niagara, 
then v.-e do by these presents, by virtue of the power and authority iitore^aid, in the 
name and on behalf of the said Commonwealth of Massachusetts, transfer, quitclaim, 
c<ide, and convey to the United States of America, for their benefit, Massachusetts 
inclusive, all right, title, and estate of and in jis well the soil as the jurisdiction, 
which the s;iid Commonwealth hath to the territory or tract of country within the 
limits of the Massachusetts charter, situate and lying west of the following line, that 
is to say, a meridian line to be drawn from the forty-fifth degree of north latitude 
through a point twenty miles due west from the most westerly bent or inclination of 
the river or strait of Niagara ; thence by the said meridian line to the most southerly 
side line of the territory contained in the Massachusetts charter aforesaid. 

The following clause from the act of the legislature of Connecticut, 
authorizing the cession, defines its limits : 

^t' it enacted * * * That the delegates of this State, or any two of them, who 
shall be attending the Congress of the United States, be, and they are hereby, directed, 
authorized, and fully empowered, in the name and behalf of this State, to make, ex- 
ecute, and deliver, under their hands and seals, an ample deed of release and cession 
of all the right, title, interest, jurisdiction, and claim of the State of Connecticut to 
certain western lauds, beginning at the completion of tbe forty-first degree of north 
latitude, one hundred and twenty miles west of the western boundary line of tho 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as now claimed by said Commonwealth, and from 
thence by a line drawn north, parallel to and one hundred and twenty miles west of 
the said west line of Pennsylvania, and to continue north until it comes to forty-two 
degrees and two minutes north latitude. Whereby all the right, title, interest, juris- 
diction, and claim of tho State of Connecticut to tho lands lying west of said line to 
be drawn as aforementioned, one hundred and twenty miles west of tho western bound- 
ary line of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, as now claimed by said Common- 
wealth, shall be included, released, and ceded to tho United States in Congress as- 
sembled, for the common use and benefit of the said States, Connecticut inclusjive. 

The cession of South Carolina was described as follows : 

* * * All the territory or tract of country included within the river Mississippi 
and a line beginning at that part of the said river which is intersected by the southern 
boundary line of the State of North Cafolina, and continuing along the said boundary 
line until it intersects the ridge or chain of mountaius which divides the eastern from 
the western waters, then to be continued along the top of said ridge of mountains 
until it intersects a line to be drawn due west from the head of the southern branch 
of Tugaloo River to the said mountains ; from thence to run a due west course to the 
river Missis^ppi. 

The State of North Carolina ceded — 

The lands situated within the chartered limits of the State, west of a line beginning 
on the extreme height of Stone Mountain, at the place where the Virginia line inter- 
sects it ; running thence along the extreme lieight of the said mountain to the place 
where the Watauga River breaks through it ; thence a direct course to the top of t be Yel- 
low Mountain where Bright's road crosses the same ; thence along the ridge of the said 
mountain, between tho waters of Doe River and the waters of Rock Creek, to the place 
where the road crosses the Iron Mountain ; from thence along the extreme height of the 

(482) 



GANNETT.] NORTHWEST TERRITORY. 27 

said mountain to where Nolochncky River runs tlirougli the same ; thence to the top of 
the Bahl Mountain ; thence along the extreme height of the eaid monutain to the 
Painted Rock, on French Broad River ; thence along the highest ridge of the said 
mountain to the place where it is called the Great Iron or Smokj' Mountain ; thence 
along the extreme hoightof the said mountain to the j/lace where it is called the Unicoy 
or Unaka Mountain, between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota ; thence along 
the main ridge of the said ni'^imtainto the southern boundary of this State. 

It will be noted that the above description of the eastern boundary of 
her ceded possessions agrees in general terms with the description ot 
the western boundary of North Carolina, as given on page 96. 

The articles of cession by Georgia describe the area ceded as follows : 

The lands situated within the boundaries of the United States, south of the State of 
Tennessee and west of a line beginning on the west bank of the Chattahouchee River, 
where the same crosses the boundary line between the United States and Spain ; thence 
running up the said river Chattahouchee and along the western bank thereof to the 
great bend thereof, next above the place where a certain creek or river, called Uchee 
(being the first considerable stream on the western side, above the Cussetas and Coweta 
towns), empties into the said Chattahouchee River; thence in a direct lino to Nicka- 
jack, on the Tennessee River; thence crossing the last-mentioned river, and thence 
running up the said Tennessee River and along the v\^esteru bank thereof to the south- 
ern boundary line of the State of Tennessee. 

Of the area thus ceded to the General Government, the part lyius north 
of the Ohio was afterwards erected into the "Territory Northwest of the 
Eiver Ohio," and the balance, lying south of that river, was known as the 
"Territory South of the Eiver Ohio." 



THE TERRITORY NORTHWEST OF THE RIVER OHIO. 

This territory was bounded on the west by the Mississippi and the in- 
teruatioual boundary, on the north by the boundary line between the 
United States and the British Possessions, on the east hy the Pennsyl- 
vania and New York state lines, and on the south by the Ohio River. 
It comprised an area of, approximately, 206,000 square miles. It was 
made up of claims of different States as follows: 

1. Virginia uncontested claims, which consisted of all the territory 
w^est of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio to the forty-first parallel of 
north latitude, besides her claim, by capture, as far as the northern 
limits of the land under the crown which had been subject to the juris- 
diction of the provinces of Quebec and to Lakes Michigan and Huron. 

2. The claim of Connecticut, which extended from the forty-first par- 
allel northward to the parallel of 42° 2', and from the west line of Penn- 
eylvania to the Mississippi Eiver. 

3. The claim of Massachusetts, which extended from the north line 
of the Connecticut claim above noted to 43° 43' 12" north latitude, and 
from the eastern boundary of New York to the Mississippi. 

(483) 



28 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 18. 

4. The belt or zone lying north of the Massachusetts claim, extend- 
ing thence to the Canada line and west to the Mississippi Eiver, was 
claimed to have been obtained by the treaty of peace of Great Britain, 
September 3, 1783. 

5. At the cession by the state of Yirgiiwa, both Massachusetts and 
New York claimed the Erie purchase of about 31G square miles, which 
was subsequently bought by Pennsylvania and added to that State. 

From this territory were formed the following States : Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, that part of Minnesota east of the Missis- 
sippi Eiver, and the northwest corner of Pennsylvania. 

In 1787 a bill for its provisional division into not less than three nor 
more than five States was passed by Congress. In this bill the limits 
of the proposed States were defined, corresponding in their north and 
south lines to the boundaries of Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, as at pres- 
ent constituted. The following gives the text of the clause defining 
these boundaries : 

CONFEDERATE CONGRESS — AN ORDINANCE FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE TERRITORY 
OF THE UNITED STATES NORTHWEST OF THE RIVER OHIO. 



Article 5. There shall bo formed in the said territory not less thau three nor more 
than five States; and the boundaries of the States, as soon as Virginia shall alter her 
act of cession and consent to the same, shall become fixed and established as follows, 
to wit: The western State, in said territory, shall be bounded by the Mississippi, the 
Ohio, and the Wabash River ; a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincents, 
due north, to the territorial line between the United States and Canada ; 'ind by the 
said territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi. The middle State 
shall be bounded by the said direct line, the Wabash from Post Vincents to the Ohio, 
by the Ohio, by a direct line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami to 
the said territorial lino, aud by the said territorial line. The eastern State shall be 
bounded by the last-mentioned direct line, the Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the said ter- 
ritorial line: Provided, hoicevcr, And it is further understood and declared, that the 
boundaries of these three States shall be subject so far to be altered, that, if Congress 
shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two States 
in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east aud west line drawu' 
through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. 

Passed July 13, 1787. 

The provisions of this bdl seem, however, never to have been carried 
out. A provisional government was instituted in 1788. By act of 
May 7, 1800, Congress divided this territory into two territorial gov- 
ernments, the divisional line being a meridian passing through the 
mouth of the Kentucky Eiver and extending thence north wanl to the 
Canada border. The eastern portion became the." Territory Northwest 
of the Eiver Ohio," and the western portion, Indiana Territory. 

On jS!"ovember 29, 1802, the State of Ohio, comprising most of the 
former, was formed and admitted into the Union, while the remnant of 
it was added to Indiana Territory. 

In 1805, all that portion of Indiana Territory lying north of a parallel 

(484) 



GANNETT.] TERRITORY SOUTH OF RIVER OHIO. 29 

tbrougli the most southerly bend of Lake Michigan and east of a meridian 
drawn through the same point became the Territory of Michigan. The 
boundary between these territories was subsequently very much changed, 
as will appear in the sequel. 

By act of February 3, 1809, Indiana Territory was again divided, and 
the Territory of Illinois was created from the part lying west of the 
Wabash River and a meridian running through the city of Viucenues, 
extending thence to the Canada line. 

In 181G Indiana, and in 1818 Illinois, were admitted to the Union as 
States, each with its boundaries as constituted at present. By the same 
act theMississippiEiver was made the western boundary of the Territory 
of Michigan, thus making it include all the balance of the original ISTorth- 
west Territory after the formation of the three States of Ohio, Indiana, 
and Illinois. 

The act of 1834 added to Michigan Territory the land between the 
Missouri and White Earth Rivers on the west atid the Mississippi River 
on the east. 

Wisconsin Territory was formed in 1836 from the portion of Michigan 
Territory west of the present State of Michigan. On January 26, 1837, 
Michigan was admitted into the Union, with its present boundaries. 
In 1838 all that portion of Wisconsin Territory lying west of the Missis- 
si{)pi River and a line drawn due north from its source to the interna- 
tional boundary (that is, all that part which was originally comj^rised 
in the Louisiana purchase) was made the Territory of Iowa, and in 1848 
Wisconsin was admitted as a State, with its boundaries as at present 
constituted. 

This appears to leave the area which is now the northeastern part of 
Minnesota, lying east of the Mississippi River and a line drawn due 
north from its source, without any government until the formation of 
Minnesota Territory, in 1849. 



TERRITORY SOUTH OF IHE RIVER OHIO. 

The "Territory South of the River Ohio" was bounded on the north 
by the Ohio River, on the south- by the thirty-first i>arallel of latitude, 
on the east by the States of Virginia. North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia, and on the west by the Mississippi River. The different 
(jessions from the States which made up this region are as follows: 

1. The region ceded by Virginia, which lay between the Ohio River on 
the North and, nominally, the parallel of 30° 30' on the south, and be- 
tween the Mississippi River and her present western boundary on the 
east, being the region which is now the State of Kentucky. 

2. The area ceded by North Carolina, which extended from 36° 30' 
north latitude southward to 35°, and from the western boundary line of 

(485), 



V 



£0 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [nrLul3. 

the present State to the Mississippi Eivei'. This is now the State of 
Tennessee. 

3. Tlie area ceded by South Carolina, which formed a narrow belt, 12 or 
14: miles in width, lying south of the thirty-fifth parallel, and extending 
from her western boundary to the JMississippi Kiver. It is doubtful 
whether under the terms of the original charters South Carolina pos- 
sessed this strip, or whether it was not included in the possessions of 
Georgia. 

4. The area ceded by Georgia, which comprised most of the region of 
the i)reseut States of Alabama and Mississippi, north of the thirty-first 
parallel. 

Kentuclvy was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1792 ; Tennessee in 
1796. In 170S Congress organized the Territory of Mississippi, which 
was originally a small, rectangular area, bouiuled on the west by the 
Mississippi River, on the north by the parallel through the mouth of the 
Yazoo Iviver; the boundary on the east was the river Chattahoochee, 
and on the south the thirty-first parallel of north latitude. This area 
was subsequently enlarged so as to include the whole of what is now 
Mississippi and Alabama, with the exception of a strip along the Gulf 
coast, which was at that time claimed by Spain. In 1817 the territory 
was divided, and the eastern portion was made into Alabama Territory. 
Subsequently the two Territories were admitted as States. 



LOUISIANA AND THE TERRITORY ACQUIRED FROM MEXICO. 

The Louisiana purchase was eflected in 1803. In 1804 it was divided 
iuto_two parts, that portion which now comprises the State of Louis- 
iana, with the exception of a small piece in the southeastern part, being 
organized as Orleans Territory, while the balance remained as the Lou- 
isiana Territory. The State of Louisiana, comi)rising the Territory of 
Orleans, was admitted to the Union in 1812, and in the same year it 
was enlarged by theaddition of the portion l\ing between the Missis- 
sippi and Pearl Elvers, in the southeastern part. In the same year 
tHe name of Louisiana Territory was changed to ]\Iissouri Territory. In 
1819 Arliansaw Territory, having very' nearly the same limits as the 
present State of Arkansas, was created, and in 183G it was admitted 
as a State. 

In 182;> the State of Missouri was formed from another jiortion of 
Missouri Territory, and in 1830 the boundaries of this State were en- 
larged to their present limits. In 1834, as was stated above, that por- 
tion of this Territory lying north of the State of Missouri and east of 
the Missouri and White Earth Elvers was attached to the Territory of 
Michigan. In 1830 this portion was transferred from the Territory of 
Michigan to the Territory of Wisconsin. In 1838 it was transferred to 

(486) 



GA.N-XETT.] SUBDIVISION OF MEXICAN CESSIONS. 31 

tlie Territory of Iowa. In 1845 the State of Iowa was created, and in 
1846 its boundaries were enlarged. In 1849 the remainder of the Ter- 
ritory was transferred to Minnesota Territory. Minnesota was ad- 
mitted as a State on May 11, 1858, with its present boundaries. 

Meantime Texas had been admitted to the Union, and by the treaty 
of Guadalupe-Hidalgo and the Gadsden purchase, we had acquire<l 
from ]\Iexico all the area west of the northern i>art of Texas and south 
of the forty-second parallel. Furthermore, our northern boundary had 
been established on the forty-ninth parallel to the Pacific Ocean. 

Out of this great western region were carved the following Territories : 

Oregon Territory, which was formed in 1848, and which exten<led from 
the parallel of 49° north latitude southward to latitude 42^, and from 
the Pacific Ocean east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 

California, which was admitted as a State in 1849, with the same lim- 
its which it possesses at present. 

Utah Territory, which was formed in 1850, and which extended from 
the forty-second parallel southward to the thirty-seventh, and from the 
California Ijoundary line eastward to the Eocky Mountains. 

Kew Mexico, which comprised all the country lying south of Utah to 
the boundary line of Texas and Mexico, and from the California bound- 
ary eastward to the boundary of Texas. 

Xebraska Territory, which was formed from Missouri Territory in 
1854. It comprised the country from the forty-ninth parallel down to 
the fortieth and from the Missouri and White Earth Rivers west to the 
summit ol the Rocky Mountains. 

Kansas Territory, formed by the same act as the last, comprised the 
country lying west of Missouri to the boundary of xsew "Mexico and 
Utali, and from the south boundary of I^ebraska to the thirty-seventh 
parallel. 

Indian Territory then had its present limits. 

Washington Territory was formed in 1853 from a part of Oregon, its 
southern boundary- being the Columbia River and the parallel of 40'^ 
north latitude, and its east line being the summit of the Rocky Mount- 
ains. 

Oregon was admitted as a State in 1857, with its boundaries as at 
present established. The portion cut off from Oregon Territory was 
placed under the territorial government of Washington Territory. 

Dakota Territory was forujed in 1861. As originally formed it com- 
prised all that region between its present eastern and southern bound- 
aries, while its western boundary was the summit of the Rocky Mount- 
ains. 

The Territory of Nevada was organized from tlie western jjortion of 
the Territory of Utah in 1861. As originally constituted, its eastern 
line was the meritlian of thirty-nine degrees of longitude west from 
Washington, and its southern boundary was the parallel of thirty-seven 
degrees of latitude. It was admitted as a State in 1864, its eastern 

(487) 



32 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. ]bl-ll.13. 

boundary being made the thirtv-e-glith degree of longitude (approxi- 
mately the one hundred and fifteenth degree "west from Greenwich), 
while its southern boundary remained the same. In 1866, by act of 
Congress, the eastern boundary was moved one degree farther to the 
eastward, placing it upon the thirty-seventh degree of longitude west 
from Washington, and the triangular portion contained between the 
former southern boundary, the boundary of California, the Colorado 
Kiver and the meridian of thirty-seven degrees of longitude was added, 
thus giving the State its present area and limits. 

Colorado Territory was formed in 1861. with the limits of the present 
State. It was admitted as a State in 1876. 

The Territory of Arizona was formed from Xew Mexico in 1863, being 
that portion of ^ew Mexico lying west oi the thirty-second meridian 
west of Washington. 

In the same year Idaho was formed from parts of Dakota and Wash- 
ington Territories. As originally constituted it included all the terri- 
tory lying east of the present eastern limits of Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west of Wash- 
ington, the latter meridian being its eastern boundary. Its southern 
boundary was the northern boundary of Colorado and Utah — that is, 
the forty -first and forty-second parallels of latitude. 

From this Territory was detached, in 1864, the Territory of Montana, 
with its pre'seut limits, and in 1868 the Territory of Wyoming, these 
several changes reducing Idaho to its present dimensions. 



CHAPTEEIII. 

TIEE BOnSDAET LIXES OF THE STATES AXD TEEEI- 

TOKIES. 

MAINE. 

The first charter having any relation to the territory comprising the 
present State of Maine is that granted by Henry IT of France to Pierre 
du Gast, Sieur de Monts, in 160.3, known as the charter of Acadia, which 
embraced the whole of Xorth America between the fortieth and forty- 
sixth degrees of north latitude. Under this, several exioeditions were 
made, and m 1606 it was decided to make a permanent settlement at Port 
Eoyal, now Annapolis, Xova Scotia, and no further attempts were made 
under this charter to plant colonies within the limits of the present 
State of Maine. (Vide Charters and Constitutions, p. 771.) 

By the first charter of Virginia (vide Virginia, p. ), granted by 
James I, in 1606, the lands along the coast of i>'orth America between 



GAi;xETT.] MAINE 33 

the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth degrees of north latitude were given to 
two companies, to one of which, the Plymouth Company, was assigned 
that part of North America including the coast of New England. The 
first colony in Maine was planted on the peninsula of Sabine, at the 
mouth of the Kennebec River, now Hunnewell's Point, on August 19, 
1607, O. S., by George Popham. 

James I in 1620 gi .tited a charter to the Plymouth Company, in which 
may be found the following, viz : 

Wee, therefore * * * do <;rant oriluin and establish that all that Circuit, Conti- 
nent, Precincts and Limitts in America lying and being in Breadth from Fourty De- 
grees of Northerly Latitude from the Equnoctial Line, to Fourty eight Degrees of the 
said Northerly Latitude and in length by all the Breadth aforesaid throughout the 
Maine Laud from Sea to Sea — with all the Seas, Rivers, Islands, Creekes, Inletts, Ports 
and Havens within the Degrees, Precincts and Limitts of the said Latitude and Lon- 
gitude shall be the Limitts, and Bounds, and Precincts of the second collouy — and to 
the end that the said Territoryes may hereafter be more particularly and certainly 
known and distinguished, our Will and Pleasure is, that the same shall from hence- 
forth be nominated, termed and called by the name of Xesv England in America. 

Under this grant, given in 16i*l, the Earl of Stirling claimed that he 
was entitled to land on the coast of Maine which was afterwards granted 
to the Plj-mouth Company, and by direction of James I that company 
issued a patent to William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, 

For a tract of the main land of New England, beginning at Saint Croix and from 
thence extending along the sea-coast to Peraquid and the river Kennebeck. ( Fide 

Charters and Constitutions, p. 774. ) 

The heirs of the Earl of Stirling sold this tract to the Duke of York 
in 1663. ( Vide Zell's Encyclopaedia.) 

In 1622 Capt. John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges obtained from 
the council of Plymouth a grant of the lands lying between the Merri- 
mac and Kennebec Rivers, and extending back to the river and lakes of 
Canada. This tract was called Laconia, and it included New Hamp- 
shire and all the western part of Maine. ( Vide Whiton's Xew Hamp- 
shire.) 

Mason and Gorges, in 1629, by mutual consent divided their territory 
into two by the river Piscataqua. That part on the east of this river 
was relinquished to Gorges, who called it Maine. {Vide Whiton's Xew 
Hampshire.) 

The charter of the Plymouth Company was surrendered to the King 
in the year 1635. ( Vide Plymouth Colony Laws, p. 333 et supra.) 

King Charles I, in the year 1639, granted a charter to Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, which virtually confirmed the patent given to him by the Ply- 
mouth Company in 1622. 

The following extract from that charter defines the boundaries : 

All that Parte Pnrparte and Porcon of the Mayne Lande of New England aforesaid 
beginning att the entrance of Piscataway Harbor and soe to passe upp the same into the 
Itiver of Newichewanocke and through the same unto the furthest heade thereof and 
from thence Northwestwards till one hundred aud twenty miles bee finished and from 

(189) 
4596— Bull. 13 3 



34 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Piscataway Harbor mouth aforesaid Northeastwards along the Sea Coasts to Sagada- 
hocke and up the River thereof to Kyuybequy River and through the same into the 
heade' thereof and into the Lande Northwestwards untill one hundred and twenty 
myles bee ended being accompted from the mouth of Sagadahocke and from the 
period of one hundred and twenty myles aforesaid to crosse over Lande to the one 
hundred and twenty myles end formerly reckoned upp into the Lande from Piscata- 
way Harbor through Newichewanocke River and also the Northe halfe of the Isles of 
Shoales togeather with the Isles of Capawock and Nawtican neere Cape Cod as alsoe 
all the Islands and Iletts lyeiuge within five leagues of the Mayne all alonge the afore- 
6a.ide coasts betweene the aforesaid River of Pascataway and Sagadahocke with all the 
Creeks Havens and Harbors thereunto belouginge and the Revercon and Revercons 
Remaynder and Remaynders of all and singular the said Landos Rivers and Premisses. 
All which said Part Purpart or Porcon of the Mayne Lande and all and every the 
Premisses herein before named Wee Doe for us our heires and successors create and 
incorporate into Oue Province or Countie, and Wee Doe name ordeyne and appoynt 
that the porcon of the Mayne Lande and Premises aforesaid shall forever herefter bee 
called and named The Province or Countie of Mayne. 

lu 1664 Charles II granted to the Duke of York, who, the year before, 
had purchased the territory, which had been awarded to the Earl of 
Stirling in the division of the country to his heirs, a portion of the pres- 
ent State of Maine, and also certain islands on the coast, and a large 
territory west of the Connecticut Eiver. (For the boundaries vide New 
York, p. 71 et seq.) 

In 1674 Charles II made a new grant to the Duke of York, in sub- 
stantially the same terms as that of 1664, including as before a i^ortion 
of Maine. ( Vide New York, p. 72.) 

In the 3'ear 1677, Ferdinand© Gorges, a grandson of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges sold and gave a deed of the province of Maine to John Ushur, a 
merchant, of Boston, for £1,250. In the same year, Ushur gave a deed of 
the same territory to the governor and company of Massachusetts Bay, 
who had received a grant from the council of Plymouth in 1628, confirmed 
by the King in 1629. ( Vide C. & C, p. 774.) 

In 1686 Pemaquid and its dependencies, forming Cornwall County, 
under the jurisdiction of New York, were annexed to the JSTew England 
government by a royal order, dated September 19, 1686. {Vide Maine 
Historical Society Collection, vol. 5.) 

The charter of Massachusetts Bay of 1629 having been canceled in 
1684, in 1691 William and Mary granted a new one, incorporating the 
jjrovinces of Maine and Acadia, or Nova Scotia, with the colonies of 
Massachusetts Bay and of Plymouth, into one royal province by the 
name of the Eoyal Province of Massachusetts Bay. ( Vide Mass., p. 48.) 

The right of government thus acquired over the district of Maine 
was exercised by Massachusetts until 1819 when measures were taken 
to admit Maine as an independent State. 

By the treaty of Paris in 1763 the King of France relinquished all 
claim to that port'.on of North America which includes the present 
State of Maine. 

(490) 



GAKXKTT.l MAINE. 35 

The northern and eastern boundaries- were settled by the United 
States and Great Britain. (See p. 9, et seq). 

The western boundary was for a long time a source of contention be- 
tween Maine and New Hampshire. 

New Hampshire baviug been made a province in 1679, controversies 
arose concerning the divisional line. 

In 1731 commissioners from New Hampshire and from Massachusetts 
having been appointed, met, but were unable to agree. New Hampshire 
appealed to the King, and the King ordered that a settlement should be 
made by commissioners from the neighboring provinces. The board met 
at Hampton in 1737. The commissioners fixed on — substantially — the 
jiresent boundary, Avording their report as follows: 

Beginuing at the entrance of Pascataqua Harbor, and so to pass up the same to the 
Eiver Newhichawack, and thro' the same into the furthest head thereof, and thence 
run north 2 degrees west till 120 miles were finished, from the mouth of Pascataqua 
Harbor, or until it meet with His Majesty's other Governments. (See N. H. His- 
torical Coll., Vol. II.) 

This was confirmed by the King, August 5, 1740. 

In 1820 Maine was admitted, as an independent State. 

DifiQculties having arisen about the boundary between Maine and 
New Hampshire, commissioners were appointed in 1827 from each State 
to determine the same. 

In 1829 the commissioners' report was adopted by each State, and 
the line then settled upon is as follows, using the language of the com- 
missioners' report, viz : 

The report of the commissioners appointed by His Majesty's order in Council of 
February 22nd, 1735, and confirmed by his order of the 5th of August, 1740, having 
established — 

"That the dividing line shall pass up through the mouth of Piscataqua Harbor, 
and up th • middle of the river of Newichwaunock,part of which is now called the 
Salmons Falls, and through the middle of the same to the farthest head thereof, &,c.," 
and " that the dividing line shall part the Isle of Sholes, and run through the middle 
of the harbor, between the islands to the sea on the southerly side, «fec." We have 
not deemed i( necessary to commence our survey until we arrived north, at the head 
of Salmon Falls Eiver, which was determined by Bryant^at his survey in 1740, to be 
at the outlet of East pond, between the towns of Wakefield and Shapleigh. From that 
point we have surveyed and marked the line as follows, viz: 

We commenced at the Bryant Rock, known as such by tradition, which is a rock 
in the middle of Salmon Falls Eiver, at the outlet of East pond, about six feet in length, 
three feet in breadth, three feet in depth, and two feet under the surface of the water, 
as the dam was at the time of the survey, to wit, October 1, 1827 ; said stone bears 
soTith, seventy-one degrees west, three rods and eight links from a large rock on the 
eastern bank, marked " 1827," and bears also from a rock near the mill-dam (marked 
" H") north, nineteen degrees and thirty minutes west, and distant twelve rods and 
twenty-one links. At this point the variation of the needle was ascertained to be 
nine degrees west. 

From the above stone the line is north seven degrees and forty-one minutes east, 
one hundred and seventy-eight rods to East pond, and crossing the pond three hun- 
dred and eleven rods in width to a stone monument which we erected up on the bank, 
about three and an half feet high above the surface of the ground, marked N on the 

(491) 



36 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. is. 

west side and M on the east side, which description applies to all the stone i»;ouu- 
meuts hereinafter mentioned unless they are otherwise particularly described ; theilce 
the same course, two hundred and twenty-five rods, to Fox Ridge, and to a stone 
monument which is placed upon the north side of the road that leads from Wakefield 
to Shapleigh ; thence two hundred rods to JJalch's pond ; across the pond, one hun- 
dred and three and half rods ; across a peninsula, thirty-six rods ; across a cove, 
fifty-one rods and seventeen links; across a second peninsula, forty-eight rods; across 
a second cove, twenty-seven rods, ten links. 

Thence three huntb'ed and seventy rods, to the road leading from Newfield to Wake- 
field and a stone monument, erected on the north side of the same, near Camper- 
nell's house ; thence north six degrees and ten minutes east, five hundred and ninety 
rods, to the line of Parsonfield, to a stone monument with additional mark " 1828." 

At this point the variation of the needle was found to be nine degrees fifteen min- 
utes west. Thence same course five hundred and eleven rods, crossing the end of 
Province pond to a stone monument ou the Parsonfield road, near the house of James 
Andrews, also with additional mark "1828"; thence north eight degrees and thirty- 
eight minutes east, two hundred and eight rods, to the old coruer-stoue of Effingham, 
about two feet above the ground, and not marked; thence north eight degrees fifty- 
five minutes east, two hundred and seventy-seven rods, to a large round stone about 
three feet diameter and two feet high, marked N and M, by the road uponTowles hill ; 
thence north seven degrees fifty-five minutes east, six hundred and thirty-one rods to 
a stone monument, ou the road leading from Parsonfield to Effingham. At this point 
the variation of the needle was foundtobeQ degrees thirty minutes west. Thence 
north five degrees two minutes east, seven hundred thirty-four to a pine stump, 
upon a small island in Ossipee River at the foot of the falls; thence north ten de- 
grees east, thirty rods, to a stone monument, on the north side of the new road from 
Porter to Effingham ; thence the same course, five hundred fifty-eight rods, to the top 
of Bald Mountain; thence same course, three hundred sixteen rods, to the top of 
Bickford Mountain ; thence same course one hundred and ninety-three rods, to a stone 
monument, on the north side of the road, leading from Porter to Eaton. 

At this point the variation of the needle was found to be nine degrees forty-five 
minutes west ; thence north eight degrees five minutes east, seven hundred and forty- 
four rods, to Cragged Mountain ; thence same course, sixty-seven rods, to the corner 
of Eaton ; thence same course, seven hundred eighty-seven and an half rods, to the 
corner of Conway ; thence same course, six hundred ten and an half rods, to a stone 
monument, on the south side of the road, leading from Brownfield to Conway Center; 
thence north eight degrees east, eight hundred seventy-one rods, to a stone monument 
on the south side of the road leading from Fryeburg Village to Conway. At this 
point the variation of the needle was found to be ten degrees west ; thence same 
couise, four rods, to a stone' monument on the north side of the same road; thence north 
eight degrees fifteen minutes east, one hundred two rods, to Saco River; thence same 
course, eighteen rods, across said river ; theuce same course, six hundred forty-four 
rods, to a stone monument on the road leading to Fryeburg Village, on the north side 
of the rivei". 

This monument is marked as before described, and is about eight feet high above 
the ground ; thence same course, one hundred forty-two rods, to Ballard's Mill Pond; 
thence same course, sixty-one rods, six links, across said pond; theuce same course, 
three hundred forty- four rods, to a stone monumeut on the east side of Chatham road; 
thence same course, six hundred ninety rods, to Kimball's Pond ; thence same course, 
one hundred sixty-six rods, across said pond ; thence same course, sixty rods, to a stone 
monument ou the meadow.' Thence same course, nine hundred forty rods, to the cor- 
ner of Bradley and Eastman's grant ; thence same course, six hundred and ninety rods, 
to a stone monumeut on the east side of the Cold River road. This stone is marked as 

> From this point the line was resurveyed in 1858, vide p. 38. 
(492) 



GAXNPTT.: MAINE. 37 

before described, but is not more than two feet above the ground. Thence same course, 
one thousand five hundred forty rods, to the corner of Warner and Oilman's location, a 
pile of stones. At this point the variation of the needle was found to be ten degrees 
twenty-three minutes west ; thence same course, four hundred and fifty rods, to top 
of Mount Koyce ; thence same course, eight hundred ninety-eight rods, to Wild River ; 
theuce same course, eight rods, across said river; thence same course, seven hundred 
sixty-five rods, to a stone moniimeut on the north side of the road leading from Lan- 
caster to Bethel ; thence same course, one hundred rods, to Androscoggin River; 
thence same course, eighteen rods, across said river ; thence north eight degrees ten 
minutes east, four thousand one hundred sixty-two rod8,across ten streams, to Chick- 
walnopg River; thence same course, two fhousand five hundred rods, to a stone 
monument on the north side of the road leading from Errol to Andover. This stone 
is marked "N. H." and " M.," thence same course two hundred ten rods to Cambridge 
River, thence same course eight rods across said river, thence same course five hun- 
dred sixty-seven rods to Umbagog Lake, thence same course thirty-four rods across a 
cove of the same, thence same course ten rods across a peninsula of the same, thence 
same course two hundred twenty-five rods across a bay of said lake, thence same 
course two hundred six rods across a peninsula of the same, thence same course one 
thousand one hundi'ed sixty-five rods across the north baj' of said lake to a cedar post 
marked " N." " M.," thence north eicht degrees east seven hundred fourteen rods to Pond 
brook; thence same course two hundred twenty -five rods to a stone monument on the 
south side of the Margallaway River, thence same course ten rods across said river, 
thence same course one hundred sixty-two rods to a spruce, corner of the college 
grant, theuce same course two hundred sixty-four rods to Margallaway River a second 
lime. At this point the variation of the needle was found to be eleven degrees forty- 
five minutes west ; thence same course ten rods across said river, thence same course 
two liundred and ninety rods to same river a third time, thence same course ten rods 
across said river to a monument made with three stones on the north side of said 
river, about two feet high and not marked, thence same course four hundred forty- 
four rods to corner of to'wnship number five, in second range, in Maine, thence same 
course one thousand eight hundred six rods to the north corner of the same township, 
thence same course four hundred and sixty rods to a branch of Little Diamond River, 
thence same course three hundred fifty rods to another branch of the same, thence 
same course two thousand one hundred twenty rods to a branch of the Margallaway 
River, thence same course three hundred thirty-two rods to another branch of the 
same, thence same course four hundred rods to a steep mountain called Prospect 
Hill, thence same course nine hundred and twenty rods to Mount Carmel, sometimes 
called Sunday Mountain, thence same course four hundred rods to a perpendicular 
precipice, thence same course five hundred and forty rods to a branch of Margalloway 
River, thence same course two hundred and sixty rods to a branch of the same, thence 
same course three hundred forty-six rods to a second steep precipice, thence same 
course one hundred eighty-six rods to a branch of Margallaway River, thence same 
course two hundred forty-two rods to another branch of same river, thence same course 
seventy-eight rods to a beaver pond, thence same course one hundred twenty-six rods 
to a yellow birch tree on the highlands which divide the waters that run south from 
those that run into the St. Lawrence, being the northern extremity of the line and 
one hundred and twelve miles two hundred and thirty-three rods from the head of 
Salmon Falls River. 

Found said tree marked on the east side "M. E. 1789," and'on the west " N. H. N. 
E. ;" also "M. 54." To these marks we added " N. H.," "N. E.," and " M. E.," 
"1S28,""E. n.," "A. M. M.," "1828," and stones were piled round the same and 
marked. 

The whole course of the lina from the Androscoggin River was re-marked by spot- 
ting the old marked trees and crossing the spots and marking others in the course. 
And the line as above survey and described we agree to be the true boundary line of 

(493) 



38 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

said States. And tlie above-described marks and monuments we establish to desig- 
nate the same, and that the said line hereafter remain the boundary line between the 
States, unless the legislature of either State shall, at the first session after the execu- 
tion of this agreement, disapprove of the same. 

WILLIAM KING, 
RUFUS McINTIRE, 

Commissioners of Maine. 
ICHABOD BARTLETT, 
JOHN W. WEEKS, 
Commissioners of New Hampshire. 
November 13, 1828. 

The legislature of Maine approved of the commissioners' report Feb- 
ruary 28, 1829, and requested the governor to issue his proclamation 
accordingly. 

The same action was taken by the legislature of New Hampshire, July 
1, 1829. 

(For Report of Commissioners, see Laws of Maine, 1828-9, under 
head of Resolves of the Ninth Legislature of the State of Maine, images 
39-43.) 

Between 1828 and 1858, considerable portions of the amost unbroken 
forests through which the line of 1827-'28 was marked were cleared. 
Extensive forest fires often swept large tracts of this territory, and, as 
a consequence, the marks of the 1827-'28 survey for a distance of nearly 
eighty miles — which by that survey was mainly fixed by blazed trees, 
— only seven stone posts having been set in this distance — were obliter- 
ated, so that there remained scarcely a vestige of the original line. The 
lands having become valuable, and litigation in many cases being immi- 
nent, the legislatures of the two States in 1858 provided by enactment 
for another survey from Fryeburg to the Canada line — which was made 
the same year. The line as then surveyed is as follows, viz : 

Commencing at an iron post* sitnated on the line run in accordance with the 
"Treaty of Washington, of August 9, 1842," as the boundary between the United 
States and the province of Canada, at the corners of the States of Maine and New 
Hami)shire. On the south face of said post are the words "Albert Smith, U. S. 
Comssr. " ; on the north face, " Lt. Col. I. B. B. Eastcourt, H. B. M. Comssr." ; on the 
west face, " Bouudary, Aug. 9, 1842"; on the east face, " Treaty of Washington." To 
the marks are added on the southern half of the west face, " H. O. Kent." A large flat 
stone was placed on the southern face of the monument and marked " 185H — N. H., 
Me.," on either side of aline cut in said stone bearing the direction of the State's 
line, viz, south, 8 degrees west. 

From this i>oint the line is south 8 degrees west, 17 rods, 7 links to a large yellow 
birch stub, the northern terminus of the former survey ; thence 126 rods to a beaver 
pond ; thence 78 rods to the northwesterly branch of the Margallavvay, known as Kent 
River ; thence 242 rods'to another branch of the Margallaway ; thence 186 rods to a 
certain steep precipice perpendicular on its southern face ; thence 346 rods to a branch 
of the Margallaway River ; thence '^60 rods to another branch of the same ; thence 540 
rods to a precipice, the southern side of Mount Abbott ; thence 400 rods to the summit 

^The position of this post is given iu Flitchcock's Geological Survey of Now Hamp- 
shire, as follows, viz, latitude, 45^ 18' 23".33 ; longitude, 71^ .V 40". .5. 

(494) 



GANSRTT.] MAINE. 39 

of Mount Carmel ; ^.beuce 930 rods, and across four streams, to the summit of Prospect 
Hill. 

Ou this distance we marked a yellow birch tree " H. O. Kent, September 20, 1858," 
and the names of the remainder of the party ; thence 400 rods to another branch of 
the Marj^allaway ; thence 332 rods to the Little Mar<;allaway River ; thence 2, 120 rods 
across Bosebuck Mountain to a branch of said river. Ou this distance at the north- 
west corner of township No. 5, range 3, in Maine, we marked a white birch tree, "N. 
H. M.," and on ils north and south sides, " IV, III." Thirty rods from the summit of 
Bosebuck Mountain, and ou its northern slope, we erected a stone monument marked 
'• N. M."; thence 3,;,0 rods to the Little Diamoud River or Abbott Brook ; thence 460 
rods to the northwest corner of township No. .^, range 2, in Maine. Ou this distance 
we found an ancient yellow birch tree marked " 17^9-35, M." To these marks we 
a(l<lod " 1858"; thence 1,80G rods to the southwest corner of the same township. Ou 
this distance, at the northeast corner of Dartmouth College, secoud grant in N. H., 
we m:irkcd a large yellow birch tree "Me., J. M. W., 1858; N. H.,H. O.K."; thence, 
and across an open bog, 444 rods to the north bank of the Margallawny River, to a 
white maple tree marked "N. H. M."; thence 10 rods across said river to a largo 
pine tree niaiked " M." "N. H." ; thence and across a second open bog 290 rods to the 
s.aue river and to a large elm stub; thcucc 10 rods across said river; thence 264 rodsto 
a spruce post marked " M." "N. H.", " W. L.", " D. C", being the southeast corner of 
Dartmouth College, second grant ; thence 162 rods to the Margallaway River; thence 

10 rods across said rivei' to a stone monument ou its southerly side, standing about 3 
feet aliovc. the j; round and marked " M." "N. H."; thence to the original line tree 
nearest to the clearing of the home farm of Z. F. Durkec, esq. The course of ike line 
the cntiri'. dMaiue from the iron post at the national boundary to this point hears south 
eiijht (itgnes west ; thence across said clearing, the old line marks being gone, south 

1 1 degrees and oO minutes west, 168 rods, to the old crossed trees in the woods south 
of Pond Brook ; thence from Poud Brook south eight degrees west, 714 rods to the 
north bog of Unibagog Lake and to a cedar tree marked " M." "N." To this we 
added "18r;8." 

On this distance near the corner of Errol and Wentworth's location, which is a ce- 
dar post iu a pile of stones, we marked a maple tree "M. 1858," " N. H. 1858"; 
thence south ten degrees and thirty minutes west 1,165 rods, across the north bay of 
said lake to the old marked trees on the southern shore ; thence s^outh eight degrees 
west 206 rods across the peninsula to a cedar tree marked ''M." "N. H." A large 
stone, also, ou the lake shore was marked " M," "N. H."; thence same course 223 
rods, across a bay of said lake; thence same course 10 rods, across a peninsula; thenco 
same course 34 rods across a cove; theuce same course 567 rods to Cambridge River; 
thence same course 8 rods, across said river to a white maple stub ; thence same course 
210 rods to a stone monument on the north side of the road leading from Andover, 
Me., to Colebrook, N, H.; thence same course to the north edge of the burnt land 
iu Grafton and Success; thence south 11 degrees west across ten streams and the 
Chickwalmpy River, or Silver Stream, to the old line trees bearing the crosses, 
easterly of the south end of Success Pond ; thence on the same course south 10 
degrees west following the old mark to an ash tree bearing the original cross, 
standing a few rods north of the house of the late Daniel Ingalls, in Shelburne ; 
thence south 11 degrees west to a stone monument, by the road ou the north (<ide 
of the Androscoggin River, and to the north bank of said river, the whole distance 
from the stone monument near Umbagog Lake to the north bank of the Andro- 
scoggin River, being 6,662 rods; thence south 11 degrees west 18 rods across said 
river; thence same cour.se 100 rods, crossing the track of the Grand Trunk Railway 
to a stoue monument on the north side of the road leading from Lancaster, N. H., to 
Bethel, Me ; thence same course, 765 rods to a hemlock tree on the south bank of Wild 
River ; theuce south 66 degrees 30 minutes west 34 rods on au oifset of the old sur- 
vey along said south bank to the old line trees ; thence following the old line trees 

(405) 



40 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

south 11 degrees west, passing the southeast corner of Shelburne, 898 rods to the top 
of Mount Royce, the whole distance being 1^881 rods. One mile north of the summit 
of Mount Royce we marked a beech tree " N. H." " M.," 1858 ; thence to a large stone 
marked ''N. H.'' " Mi'."; thence south 10 degrees 15 minutes west to a stone monu- 
ment on the east side of the Cold River road. On this distance at the foot of the first 
precipice on the northern face of Mount Royce a white-birch tree was marked " 1858." 
Further on aud east of a bare ledge a white-birch tree was marked " 185S," and near 
it, on the line, a pile of stones was erected. At the first clearing, near the north end 
of a stone fence, a largo stone was marked " M." " N. H." ; thence along a stone fence 
and across a road through a jiiece of new growth and again crossing tbe road ; then 
following another stone fence on the east side of the road, passing through a field and 
by the end ol another stone fence ; then crossing a road near the west end of a bridge 
■over Cold River ; then following the valley of that stream and crossing it six times; 
then crossing another road, where we placed a stone monument ; then through afield, 
striking an old stump and pile of stones, shown as the old line and passing between 
a house and barn, and through the western edge of a grove of trees to the stone mon- 
Timent near the house of Mr. Eastman, the whole distance being 1,190 rods; thence 
1,630 rods to a stone monument standing in the meadow 60 rods north of the north 
shore of Kimball's pond, in Frycburg. 

But as the towns of Fryeburg and Stowe have erected no durable monument on the 
State's line at their respective corners, we deemed it advisable, under our instructions, 
to proceed so far south as at least to pass the said corner aud to complete the work at 
some well-defined monument of the old survey. 

This course bore from the monument to aud across an open bay south 12 degrees 
west ; thence on the old trees south 9 degrees west 100 rods ; thence on the old line 
south 10 degrees 30 minutes west to a stone monument erected by us near the house of 
Jonnet Claj% in Chatham, and on the north side of the road leading from Stowe to 
Chatham Corners; said monument is marked "M." "N. H." 1858; thence on the old 
line south 11 degrees west to the road leading from North Fryeburg to Chatham, at 
which poiut we placed a stone monument ; thence south 11 degrees west to the north- 
west corner of Fryeburg, being a stake in a pile of stones in a piece of low ground, 
southerly of the house of Captain Bryant, and to the old monument, 60 rods north of 
Kimball's pond. On the bank north of said corner, on the south side of the road, and 
near Captain Bryant's house, we placed a stone monument marked "M." "N. H. 
1858." 

The different courses laid down in the foregoing report are the bear- 
ings of the compass in 1858 when placed on the line established in 1828. 
(See Legislative Journal of New Hampshire, 1859, pages 704-767.) 

In 1874 the line between Maine and New Hampshire was resurveyed 
and marked. ( Vide Hitchcock's Geology of New Hampshire,. Vol. I, p. 
173.) 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

The first charter of Virginia, granted in 1606, included the territory of 
the present State of New Hampshire {vide p. 32), as did the charter of 
New England, granted in 1620 {vide p. 33), and the grant to Capt. John 
Mason and Sir Ferdinaudo Gorges of 1622 {vide p. 33). 

The president and council of New England made a grant to Capt. 
John Mason in 1629 as follows, viz: 

(496) 



CANJTETT.J NEW HAMPSHIRE. 41 

All that part of the maiu laud in Now England lying t pon the sea coast, beginning 
from the middle part of Merrimack River, and from thtnce to proceed northwards 
along the sea-coast to Piscataqua River, and so forwards up within the said river and 
to the furthest head thereof, and from thence northwest'w ards until three score miles 
be fmishod from the first entrance of Piscataqua River and also from Merrimack 
through the said river and to tbe furthest head thereof, and so forward up into the lands 
westward until three score miles be linished, and from thence to cross overland to the 
three score miles, and accompted to Piscataqua River, together with all islands and 
islets within 5 leagues distance of the premises and abutting upon the same, or any 
part or parcel thereof, &c., * * * which said portions of lands * * * thesaid 
Capt. John Mason, with the consent of the iiresident and council, intends to name 
yew Hampshire. * * * 

In 1635 the grant of 1629 was confirmed by a supplementary grant, 
of which the following is an extract, viz: 

All that part of the Mayn Laud of New England aforesaid, beginning from the 
middle part of Naumkcck River, and from thence to proceed eastwards along the Sea 
Coast to (Jape Anne, and round about the same to Pischataway Harbour, and soe for- 
wards up within the river Newge wauackc, and to the furthest head of the said River and 
from thence northwestwards till sixty miles bee tiuished, from the first entrance of 
Pischataway Harbor, aud alsoe from Naumkecke through the River thereof up into 
the laud west sixty miles, from which period to cross over land to the sixty miles end, 
accompted from Pischataway, through Newgewanacke River to the land northwest 
aforesaid ; and alsoe all that the South Halfe of the Ysles of Sholes, all which lam^s, 
with the Consent of the Couusell, shall from henceforth be called New-hampshyre. 
And alsoe ten thousand acres more of land on the southeast part of Sagadihoc at the 
mouth or entrance thereof — from henceforth to bee called by the name of Massonia, 
&c. * * * 

After the death of Capt. John Mason (in December, 1635), the affairs 
of the colony coming into bad condition, they sought the protection of 
Massachusetts in 1641 and enjoyed it till 1675, when Robert Mason, a 
grandson of John Mason, obtained a royal decree, under which, in 1680, 
a colonial government was established. But no charter was given to 
the colony, and its government was only continued during the pleasure 
of the.King. The following is an extract from the commission, or de- 
cree, issued by the King in 1680: 

Province of New Hampshire, lyiug and extending from three miles northward of 
Merrimack River or any part thereof into ye Province of Maine. 

In the year 1690 the province of New Hampshire was again taken 
under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts Bay, but was again separated 
in 1692. 

[For a history of the boundary between New Hampshire and Maine, 
vkle ]\raine, p. 35.] 

The controversy already referred to arising between the provinces of 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts Bay not only involved the settle- 
ment of the boundary between New Hampshire and Maine, but also that 
between New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and, as beforo stated {vide 
]Maine, p. 35), the commissioners appointed by the two provinces hav- 
ing been unable to agree, ]Sew Hampshire appealed to the King, who 

(497) 



42 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

ordered that the bouudaries should be settled by a board of commis- 
sioners appointed from the ueighboriug colonies. 

The board met at Hampton in 1737, and submitted a conditional de- 
cision to the King, who in 1740 declared in council as follows, viz: 

That the northern boundary of the province of Massachusetts be a similar curve 
line pursuing the course of the Merrimac River, at three luiles distance, on the north 
side thereof, beginning at the Atlantic Ocean and ending at a point due north of Pau- 
tucket Falls, and a straight line drawn from thence, due west, till it meets with Hi* 
Majesty's other Governments. ( Vide Vermont State Papers, Slade, p. 9.) 

New Hampshire claimed her southern boundary to be a line due west 
from a point on the sea three miles north of the mouth of Merrimac 
Eiver. Massachusetts claimed all the territory three miles north of any 
part of Merrimac Eiver. The King's decision gave to Kew Hampshire, 
a strip of territory more than fifty miles in length and of varying width, 
in excess of that which she claimed. This decree of the King was for- 
warded to Mr. Belcher, then governor of both the provinces of ]S"ew 
Hampshire and Massachusetts Bay, with instructions to apply to the 
respective assemblies to unite in making the necessar;^ provisions for 
running and marking the line conformable to the said decree, and if 
either assembly refused, the other was to proceed ex parte. Massacliu- 
setts Bay declined complying with this requisition. New Hampshire, 
therefore, proceeded alone to run and mark the line. 

George Mitchel and Eichard Hazen were appointed by Belcher to 
survey and mark the line. Pursuant to this authority, in the month of 
February, 1741, Mitchel ran and marked the line from the sea-coast about 
three miles north of the mouth of the Merrimac Eiver to a point about 
three miles north of Pawlucket Falls, aud Hazen, in the month of March 
following, ran and marked a line from the point, three miles north of 
Pawtucket Falls, across the Connecticut Eiver, to the supposed bound- 
ary line of New York, on what he then supposed to be a due west 
course from the place of beginning. He was instructed by Governor 
Belcher to allow for a westerly variation of the needle of ten degrees. 
( Vide New Hampshire Journal H. E., 1826.) 

The report of the surveyors has not been preserved, but the journal 
of Hazen has been found, and is published in the New England His- 
torical and General Eegister, July, 1879. 

Subsequent investigation has proved that this line was not run on a 
due west course, the allowance for the westerly variation of the needle 
being quite too large, throwing the line north of west. 

This mistake seems to have been known previous to the Eevolution» 
In 1774 calculations were made by George Sproule, founded upon actual 
surveys and accurate astronomical observations, from which he deter- 
mined that Uazen's line was so far north of west as to lose to the State 
of New Hampshire quite a large tract of land. ( Vide New Hampshire 
Journal H. E., 182G.) 

In 1825 commissioners were appointed by the States of New Hamp- 

(498) 



GANNBTT.] NEW HAMPSUIRE. 43' 

shire and Massachusetts to ascertain, run, and mark the line between 
the two States, under the proceedings of which New Hampshire as- 
serted her claim to a due west line, conformable to the decree of 1740, 
it being apparent by a survey made by the commissioners that the orig- 
inal line was north of west. This the Massachusetts commissioners re- 
fused to do, alleging that they werfe only empowered to ascertain and 
mark the original line. 

On March 10, 1827, the- legislature passed a resolution providing for 
the erection of durable monuments to preserve the boundary line be- 
tween the States of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, as the same 
had been run and ascertained by the commissioners ; and monuments 
were erected accordingly. {Vide Resolves of Massachusetts, 1827.) 

In 1830-'8 a trigonometrical survey of the State of Massachusetts was 
made under the direction of Simeon Borden. 

A table of the latitudes and longitudes of points on the north bound- 
ary of Massachusetts, taken from that survey, will be found under Mass- 
achusetts, p. 64, from which the true course of the Hazen line, as marked 
by the commissioners in 1827, may be readily discovered. 

Under the decree of the King of 1740 the province of New Hampshire 
claimed jurisdiction as far west as the territory of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut extended, thus including the present State of Yermont. 
New York claimed all the country west of the Connecticut, under the 
charters of 1GG4 and 1674 to the Duke of York. A bitter controversy 
ensued. The following papers serve to throw some light on the matter: 

Letter from the Governor of New Havipshire to the Governor of New York. 

Portsmouth, Novemder 17, 1749. 

* * • I think it my duty * * * to transmit to your excellency the descrip- 
tion of New Hampshire as the King has determined it in the words of my commission. 

* * * In consequence of His Majesty's determination of the boundaries between 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts, a surveyor and proper chainmen were appointed 
to run the western line from 3 miles north of Pautucket Falls, and the surveyor upon 
oath has declared that it strikes Hudson's River about 80 poles north of where Mo- 
hawk's River comes into Hudson's River. 

B. WENTWORTH. 

(See State Papers of Vermont, Slade 1, page 10.) 

The following is a descrij^tion of the bounds of New Hampshire given 
to Governor Benning Wentworth, of province of New Hampshire, by 
George II, July 3, 1741 : 

George the Second, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, 
Defender of the Faith, &c. 

To our trusfij and icell-heloved Benning Wentworth, Esqr., greeting : 

Know you that wo, reposing especial trust and confidence in the prudence, courage, 
and loyalty of you, the said Benning Wentworth, out of our especial grace, certaia- 

(499) 



44 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. Ki. 

knowledge, and meer motion, have thought fit to constitute and appoint, and by 
these presents do constitute and appoint you, the said Beuning Wentworth, to he our 
governor and commander-in-chief of our province of New Hampshire, within our do- 
minions of New England in America, hounded on the south side hy a similar curve 
line pursuing the course of Merrimac River at three miles distance, on the north side 
thereof, beginning at the Atlantick Ocean and ending at a point duo north of a place 
called Pautucket Falls, and by a straight line drawn from thence due west cross the 
said river 'till it meets with our other Governments. * * * 

Given at Whitehall July the 3rd, in the 15th year of His Majesty's reign. 

(See Documentary History of N. York, vol. 4, page 331.) 

The question of the right of territory was submitted to the King, who 
in 1764 made the following decree: 

ORDER IN COUXCIL FIXING THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN NEW YORK AND NEW HAMP- 
SHIRE. 

[l. s.] At the Court at St. James, 

The 20th day of July, 17G4. 

Present: The King's Most Excellent Majesty; Lord Steward, Earl of Sandwich, 
Earl of Halifax, Earl of Powis, Earl of Hilsborough, Mr. Vice Chamberlain Gilbert 
Eliot, Esqr., James Oswald, Esqr., Earl of Harcourt. 

Whereas there was this day read at the Board a report made by the right honora- 
ble the lords of the committee of council for plantation affairs, dated the 17th of this 
instant, upon considering a representation from the lords commissioners for trade and 
plantations, relative to the disputes that have some years subsisted between the prov- 
inces of New Hampshire and New York, concerning the boundary line between those 
provinces, His Majesty, taking the same into consideration, was pleased with the ad- 
vice of his Privy Council to approve of what is therein proposed, and doth accordingly 
hereby order and declare the western banks of the river Connecticut, from where it 
enters the province of the Massachusetts Bay, as far north as the forty-fifth degree of 
northern latitude, to be the boundary lire between the said two provinces of New 
Hampshire and New York. Whereof the respective governors and commanders in 
chief of His Majesty's said- provinces of New Hampshire and New York for the time 
being, and all others whom it may concern, are to take notice of His Majesty's pleasure 
hereby signified and govern themselves accordingly. 

WM. BLAIR. 

{Vide Documentary History of New York, vol. 4, p. 355.) 

Notwithstanding this decree of the King, controversy, attended with 
violence, was kept up for many years ; but the line was finally accepted 
and now forms the boundary line between the States of New Hampshire 
and Vermont. 

The northern boundary of New Hampshire was settled by the United 
States and Great Britain. {Vide y>. d et seq.) 

It is as follows, viz : 

Commencing at the " Crown Monument," so called, at the intersection of the State 
of New Hampshire, Maine, and the Province of Quebec, in latitude 45° 18' 23".33, 
longitude 71° 5' 40". 5, thence in an irregular line to Hall's Stream, thence down the 
same to the northeastern corner of Vermont, in latii ude 45° 0' 17".58, longitude 71° Sty 
34".5. {Fide Hitch. Geology of New Hampshire.) 

(500) 



GANITETT.] VERMONT. 45 



VERMONT. 

The grants from King Henry, of France, of 1603, and King James^ 
of England, of 1G06, both included that territory which forms the pres- 
ent State of Vermont. It was also include4 in the charter of New Eng- 
land of 1620. 

In the grants to the Duke of York, in 1664 and 1674, all the territory 
between the Connecticut and Delauare Eivers was included. New 
York, therefore, claimed jurisdiction of the territory now known as 
Vermont. Massachusetts, however, at an early period, having made 
claim to the tract west of the Connecticut Eiver, now a portion of that 
State, by the interpretation of her charter, claimed the greater part of 
the same territory. By the terms of the charter of Massachusetts Bay, 
of 1629, that colony was granted all the lands — 

Which lye ami be withiuthe space of Three English rnyles to the northward of the 
saide River called Monomack alias Merrymack, or to the norward of any and every 
Parte thereof. 

Under this clause Massachusetts Bay claimed that her jurisdiction 
extended 3 miles north of the farthest part of the Merrimac Eiver, 
which would embrace a large portion of New Hampshire and Vermont. 
New Hampshire contested this claim, and after several years' .contro- 
versy was more than sustained by a decision of the King in 1740. New 
Hampshire in her tnru claimed the territory of Vermont, on the ground 
that Massachusetts and Connecticut, having been allowed to extend 
their boundaries to within 20 miles of the Hudson Eiver, her western 
boundary should go equally as fyr, and contended that the King's de- 
cree of 1740 left that fairly to be inferred; also, that the old charters of 
1664 and 1674 were obsolete. 

By a decree of the King, however, the territory west of the Connec- 
ticut Eiver, from the 45th parallel of north latitude to the Massachu- 
setts line, was declared to belong to the province of New York. {Vide 
New Hampshire, p. 44.) 

As most of the settlers of Vermont were from New Hampshire, this 
decision of the King caused great dissatisfaction, and the Eevolution 
found Vermont the scene of conflicting claims, and the theatre of violent 
acts, culminating, in some instances, in actual bloodshed. 

On January 15, 1777, Vermont declared herself independent and laid 
claim to the territory west as far as the Hudson Eiver, and from its 
source north to the international boundary, including a tract along the 
west shore of Lake Champlain. A part of New Hampshire, also, at one 
time, sought a union with Vermont. 

In 1781 Massachusetts assented to her independence. She adjusted 
her differences with New Hampshire in 1782, but eight years more 
passed before New York consented to her admission into the Union. 

(501) 



4G BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13 

In 1791 Vermont was admitted as an independent State, but was re 
quired to restrict her boundaries to their present extent. 

The act of New York, of March 6, 1790, giving her consent to the ad- 
mission of Vermont, defines her boundaries. ( Fi(Ze Slade's Vermont, 
p. 507.) 

The northern boundary was settled by the United States and Great 
Britain by the treaty of Washington, in 1842. ( Vide p. 16.) 

The eastern boundary is low-water mark on the west bank of the 
Oounecticut Eiver. ( Vide i^ew Hampshire, p. 44.) 

The southern boundary was settled by the decree of 1740. {Vide 
New Hampshire, p. 42.) 

The line between Vermont and New York was surveyed and marked 
by commissioners from the two States in 1814, and is as follows, viz : 

Beginuing at a red or black oak tree, the northwest corner of Massachusetts, and 
running north 82° 20' west as the magnetic needle pointed in 1814, 50 chains, to a 
monument erected for the southwest corner of the State of Vermont, by Smith Thomp- 
son, Simon De Witt, and George Tibbitts, commissioners on the part of New York, and 
Joseph Beeman, jr., Henry Olin, and Joel Pratt second, commissioners on the part of 
the State of Vermont, which monument stands on the brow of a high hill, descending 
to the west, then northerly in a straight line to a point which is distant 10 chains, on a 
course, south 35 degrees west, from the most westerly corner of a lot of land distin- 
guished in the records of the town of Pownal, in the State of Vermont, as the fifth 
division of the right of Gamaliel Wallace, and which, in the year 1814, was owned 
and occupied by Abraham Vosburgh ; then north 35 degrees east to said corner and 
along the westerly bounds of said lot, 30 chains to a place on the westerly bank of 
Hasick River, where a hemlock tree heretofore stood, noticed in said records as the 
most northerly corner of said lot; then north 1 degree and 20 minutes west, 6 chains 
to a monument erected by the said commissioners, standing on the westerly side of 
Hasick River, on the north side of the highway leading out of Hasick into Pownal, 
and near the northwesterly corner of the bridge crossing said river; then north 27 
degrees and 20 minutes east, 30 chains, through the bed of the said river, to a large 
roundish rock on the northeasterly bank thereof; then north 25 degrees west, 
16 chains and 70 links; then north 9 degrees west, 18 chains and 60 links, to a white- 
oak tree, at the southwest corner of the land occupied in 1814 by Thomas Wilsey ; 
then north 11 degrees east, 77 chains to the north side of a highway, where it is met 
by a fence dividing the possession of said Thomas Wilsey, jr., and Emery Hunt; then 
north 46 degrees east, 6 chains ; then south 66 degrees east, 26 chains and 25 links ; 
then north 9 degrees east, 27 chains and 50 links to a blue-slate stone, anciently 8et 
up for the southwest corner of Bennington ; theu north 7 degrees and 30 minutes east, 
46 miles 43 chains and 50 links to a bunch of hornbeam saplings on the south bank of 
Poultney River, the northernmost of which was marked by said last-mentioned com- 
missioners, and from which a large butternut tree bears north 70 degrees west, 30 
links, a large hard maple tree, south 2 chains and 86 links, and a white ash tree on 
the north side of said river, north 77 degrees east. 

Which said several lines from the monument erected for the southwest corner of 
the State of Vermont were established by said last-mentioned commissioners, and 
•were run by them, as the magnetic needle pointed, in the year 1814, then down the 
said Poultney River, through the deepest channel thereof to East Bay; then through 
the middle of the deepest channel of East Bay and the waters thereof to where the 
same communicate with Lake Cliamplain ; theu through the deepest channel of Lake 
Champlaiu to the eastward of the islands called the Four Brothers, and the westward 
of the islands called the Grand Isle and Long Isle, or the Two Heroes, and to the west- 

(502) 



GANNETT. 1 MASSACIIU-^ETTS. 47 

ward of the Isle La Motte to the line iu the 45th degree of north latitude, established 
by treaty for the boundary line between the United States and the British Dominions. 
(See Revised Statutes of New York, Banks &. Brothers, sixth edition, Vol. I, pp. 
122-123.) 

This line was changed in 1876 by a cession of a small territory from 
Vermont to New York, described as follows, viz : 

All that portion of the town of Fairhaven, in the county of Rutland, and State of 
Vermont, lying westerly from the middle of the deepest channel of Poultney River 
as it now runs, and between the middle of the deepest channel of said river and the 
west line of the State of Vermont as at present established. (Ratified by Congress 
April?, 1880.) 



MASSACHUSETTS. 

The territory of Massachusetts was included in the first charter of 
Virginia, granted iu 1G06, {Vide Virginia p., 88) and in tlie charter of 
New England, granted in 1020, {Vide Maine p. 33.) 

In 1628 the council of Plymouth made a grant to the governor and 
company of Massachusetts Bay in New England, which was confirmed 
by the King, and a charter was granted in 1029, of which the following- 
are extracts : 

* * * Kowe Knowe Yee, that Wee » * * have given and granted * * * 
all that Parte of Newe England m Amirica which lyes and extends betweene a great 
River there commonlie called Monomack River, alias Merrimack River, and a certen 
other River there, called Charles River, beiug in the Bottome of a certen Bay there, 
comonlie called Massachusetts alias Mattachusetts, alias Massatusetts Bay, and also 
all and singuler those Landcs and Hereditament whatsoever, lying within the Space 
of Three EuglisheMyleson the South Parte of the said River called Cbai'les River, or 
of any or every Parte thereof. And also all and singuler the Landes and Heredita- 
ments whatsoever, lying and beiug with the space of Three Englishe Miles to the 
southward of the southermost Parte of the said Baye, called Massachusetts, alias Matta- 
cliusetts, alias Massatusetts Bay — and also all those Lauds and Hereditaments what- 
soever, which lye and be withiu the space of Three English Myles to the Northward 
of the saide River, called Monomack, alias Merrymack, or to the Norward of any and 
every Parte thereof aud all Landes and Hereditaments whatsoever, lyeing within the 
Lymitts aforesaide. North and South, in Latitude and Bredth, and in Length and 
Longitude, of and within all the Bredth aforesaide, throughout the Mayne Landes there 
from the Atlautick aud Westerne Sea and Ocean on the East Parte, to the South Sea 
on the West Parte. 

* * * Provided alwayes, That yf the said Landes * * * were at the tyme of 
the grauuting of the saide former Letters patents, dated the Third Day of November, 
in the Eighteenth yeare of our said deare Fathers Raigne aforesaide, actuallie possessed 
■or inhabited by any other Christian Prince of State, or were within the Boundes 
Lymitts or Territories of that Southern Colony, then before graunted by our saide 
late Father » * * That then this present Graunt shall not extend to any such 
partes or parcells thereof * * * but as to those partes or parcells * » * shal 
be vtterlie voyd, theis presents or any Thiuge therein conteyned to the contrarie not- 
wstanding » * * 

The charter of New England was surrendered to the King in 1635. 
( Vid& Plymouth Colony Laws, p. 333.) 

(503) 



48 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bul:.. l5. 

The charter of 1629 was canceled by a jiidginent of the high court 
of chancery of England, June 18, 1684. {Vide C. & C, p. 942.) 

In the year 1686, Pemaquid and its dependencies were annexed to the 
New England government. {Vide Maine, p. 34.) 

In 1691 a new charter was granted to Massachusetts Bay, which in- 
cluded Plj^mouth Colony and the Provinces of Maine and Nova Scotia. 
The following are extracts from this charter: 

* * * Wee * * * do will and ordeyne that the Territories and Collonyes 
Commonly called or Known by the names of the Collouy of the Massachusetts Bay 
and Collony of New Plymouth the Province of Main the Territorie called Accadiaor 
Nova Scotia and all that tract of Land lying hetweene the said Territories of Nova 
Scotia and the said Province of Main be erected Vnited and Incorporated » * » 
into one reall Province by the Name of Our Province of the Massachusetts Bay iu New 
England. * * * 

All that parte of New England iu America lying and extending from the greate 
Eiver comonly called Mouomack als Merrimack on the Northpart and from three Miles 
Northward of the said River to the Atlantick or Western Sea or Ocean on the South 
part And all the Lands and Hereditaments whatsoever lying within the limitts afore- 
said and extending as farr as the Outermost Points or Promontories of Land called 
Cape Cod and Cape Mallabar North and South and in Latitude Breadth and in 
Length and Longitude of and within all the Breadth and Compass aforesaid 
throughout the Main Land there from the said Atlantick or Western Sea and Ocean 
on the East jiarte towards the South Sea or Westward as far as Our Collonyes of 
Rhode Island Connecticutt and the Narragansett Countrey all alsoe all that part 
or porCon of Main Land beginnit g at the Entrance of Pescataway Harbour and soe 
to pass vpp the same into the River Newickewannock and through the same into 
the furthest head thereof and from thence Northwestward till One Hundred and 
Twenty miles be fwrnished and from Piscataway Harbour mouth aforesid North-East- 
ward along the Sea Coast to Sagadehock and from the Period of One Hundred and 
Twenty Miles aforesaid to crosse over Land to the One Hundrrdand Twenty Miles be- 
fore reckoned up into the Land from Piscataway Harbour through Newickawannock 
River and alsoe the North halfe of the Isles and Shoales togather with the Isles of Cap- 
pawock and Nantukett near Cape Cod aforesaid and alsoe [all] Lands and Heredita- 
ments lying and being in the Countrey and TeiTitory coiLonly called Accadia or Nova 
Scotia And all those Lands and Hereditaments lying and extending bet weene the said 
Countrey or Territory of Nova Scotia and the said River of Sagadahock or any part 
thereof And all Lands Grounds Places Soiles Woods and Wood grounds Havens Ports 
Rivers Waters and other Hereditaments and premisses whatsoever, lying within the 
said bounds and limitts aforesaid and every part and parcell thereof and alsoe all 
Islands and Isletts lying within tenn Leagues directly opposite to the Main Laud 
within the said bounds. » * » 

(For an account of the settlement of the boundary between the Dis- 
trict of Maine, formerly a part of Massachusetts, see Maine, p. 35.) 

The present northern boundary of Massachusetts was settled in 1741. 
(For history, see New Hampshire, p. 43.) 

The boundary line between Massachusetts and Khode Island was for 
more than two hundred years a question of dispute, and was, in some 
respects, the most remarkable boundary case with which this country 
has had to do. Twice the case went to the Supreme Court of the Unitied 
States, and in one of these suits Daniel Webster and Eufus Choate were 
employed as counsel for Massachusetts. 

(504) 



GANNETT.] MASSACHUSETTS. 49 

As early as 1642 the line between the two colonies was marked in 
part by Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Saflfrey, who set up on the 
plain of Wreutham a stake as the commencement of the line between 
Massachusetts Bay and Kbode Island. This stake was by them sup- 
posed to mark a point 3 miles feouth of the Charles River. 

The report of these commissioners has not been found, but frequent 
reference is made to their survey in the record of the subsequent con- 
troversies and litigations. 

In 1710-'ll commissioners appointed from Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island agreed upon the north line of Rhode Island. The action of the 
commissioners was approved by the legislatures of both colonies. 

The agreement was as follows, viz : 

That the stake set up by Nathaniel Woodward and Solomon Saffrey, skillful, ap- 
proved artists, iu the year of our Lord 1642, and since that often renewed in the lati- 
tude of 41° 55', being 3 English miles distant southward from the southernmost 
part of the river called Charles River, agreeable to the letters patent for the Massa- 
chusetts Province, be accounted and allowed on both sides the commencement of the 
line between the Massachusetts and the colony of Rhode Island, from which said stake 
the dividing line shall run, so as it may (at Connecticut River) be 2| miles to the 
southward of a due west line, allowing the variation of the compass to be 9"^ ; which 
said line shall forever, &c. {Vide Howard's Reports, S. C, Vol. 4, p. 631, et seq.) 

In 1719 this line was run by commissioners appointed for the purpose. 
Subsequent investigation has shown that this line was run in a very 
irregular manner. ( Vide R. I. Acts, May, 1867, page 6, et seq.) 

The line between Massachusetts and the eastern part of Rhode Island 
was fixed by commissioners in 1741, from the decision of whom the col- 
ony of Rhode Island appealed to theKing, who, in the year 1746, affirmed 
their decision by a royal decree. 

The following is a record of the proceedings in council, together with 
the royal decree. 

[Council Ofllce. Council Register. Geo. II, No. 8, p. 204.J 

At the Court at Kensington 

thetldth day of July 1742. 

Present. The Kings Most Excellent Majesty, Archbp<i of Canturbury, Earl of Pem- 
broke, Lord President Earl of Winchelsea, Lord Privy Seal Earl of Grantham, Duke 
of Bolton, Earl of Cholmondelly, Duke of Rutland, Earl of Wilmington, Marq" of 
Tweedale, Earl of Bath, Visco* Lonsdale, Mr. Chancellor of the Exche<='', Lord Dela- 
ware, Sr Charles Wager, Lord Bathurst, Sr. William Younge, Lord Monsore, Sr John 
Norris, Mr Speaker Thomas Winnington Esq., Mr. Vice Chamberlin, George Wade 
Esq. 

Upon reading this day at the board the humble Petetion a«d appeale of the Gov- 
ernor and company of the English of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 
New England in America from several particular parts of the determination of the 
commissioners appointed by his Majesty to settle the Boundary's of the said colony 
Eastwards with the Province of Massachusetts Bay, and humbly praying that a day 
may be appointed for hearing said appeal, and that the particular parts of the said 
commissioners determination appealed from may be reversed, and such other deter- 

(605) 
4596— Bull. 13 4 



50 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

niination made instead thereof as shall be agreeable to the true construction of the 
Boundarys contained in the Royal Charter under which the Petioners claim, It is 
ordered by his Majesty in Council that the said Petition and appeal (a copy whereof 
is hereunto annexed). Be and it is hereby referred to the Right Honorable the Lord 
of the committee of council for hearing appeals from the Plantations to hear the same, 
and report their opinion thereupon to his Majesty at the Board. 
A true copy. 

I. B. LENNARD. 

Collated with the original entry in the Council Register, 18 Jan'y, 1845. 

ROBT. LEMON. 

ICoancil Office. Council Kegister. Geo. n, No. 8 p. 235.] 

At the Court of Kensington, 

the I5th day of Sept. 1742. 

Present, The Kings most Excellent Majesty Archbp of Canturbury, Lord Delmar 
Lord Chancellor, Mr Vice Chamberlin, Duke of Richmond, Mr. Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, Duke of Newcastle, Harry Pelham Esq. Earl of Winchelsea, Thomas Wiu- 
nington Esq Earl of Wilmington George Wade Esq. Lord Cartaret. 

Upon reading this day at the Board the humble Petition and appeale of His Ma- 
jesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England from the determination 
of the commissioners appointed by His Majesty to settle the Boundary of the Colony 
of Rhode Island Eastwards, with the said province of Massachusetts Bay and hum- 
bly praying that a day may be ap^iointed for hearing the said appeale and that the 
determination of the said commissioners may be reversed, and such other determina- 
tion made instead thereof as shall be agreeable to the petioners claim exhibited 
before the said commissioners — It is ordered by his Majesty in council that the said 
petition and appeale (a copy whereof is hereunto annexed) Be and it is hereby referred 
to the Right Honorable the Lords of the committee in council for hearing appeals 
from the Plantations to hear the same and report their opinion thereupon to His Ma- 
jesty at the Board. 

A true copy. 

I. B. LENNARD. 

Collated with the original entry in the Council Registry, 18 of Jan'y, 1845. 

ROBT. LEMON. 

[Ordered in Council, dated 28tli May, 1746. Council office. Council Register. Geo. 11, No. 10, p. 493.] 

At the Couut of Kensington, 

the 28th day of May 1746, 

Present the Kings Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

Upon reading at the Board a Report from the Right Honourable the Lord of the 
committee of council for hearing appeals from the Plantations dated the 11th of De- 
cember 1744 in the words following vizt. 

Your Majesty having been pleased by Your Order in council of the 29th of July 1742 
to refer unto this committee the humble petition and appeale of the Governor and 
company of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in New 
England in America, from several particular parts of the determination of the com- 
missioners appointed by your Majesty to settle the Boundarys of said colony eastwards 
with the Province of Massachusetts Bay and humbly praying that the particular parts 
of the said commissioners determination appealed from may be reversed, and such 
other determinations made instead thereof, as shall be agreeable to the true construc- 
tion of the Boundarys continued in the Royal Charter under which the petitions 
claim — and your Majesty having been also pleased by another order in council of 
the 15th of September 1742, to refer unto this committee, the humble Petition and aj*- 
peal of your Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay in New England parte of 

(506) 



GANNETT] MASSACHUSETTS. 51 

the said determination of the said commissioners, and bimbly praying that the same 
may be reversed and set aside and that instead thereof Your Majesty will be gra- 
ciously pleased to give such judgement and determinations as shall be agreeable to 
the petitioners claim exhibited before the said commissioners. The Lords of the 
committee in obedience to your Majesty's said orders of Reference, have met several 
times, and taken both the said Petitions of Appealc into their consideration, and hav- 
ing examined into the Proceedings of the said commissioners, do find that they pro- 
nounced their judgements or determination on the 30th of June 1741 in the words fol- 
lowing : 

The court took into consideration, the charters. Deeds and other Evidences, Claims 
Pleas and allegations jiroduced and made by party referiug to the controversy before 
them and after mature advisement, came to the following Resolutions: That there 
is not any one Evidence proving that the Water between the Main Land on the East, 
and Rbode Island on the West, was ever at any time called Naragansett Rirer, 
that though there be evidence that the place where the Indian called King Philip 
lived near Bristol, was called Pawconoket, and that another place near Svvanzey 
was called Sowams or Sowamsett, yet no evidence has been produced of the extent of 
the Pawconoket country to Seaconk, or Pawtncket River, as it runs to the line of the 
late Colony of the Massachusetts Bay, for tho' there be some evidence that the In- 
dians at enmity with King PhiliiJ, or with other Indians in enmity with him, lived 
on the west side of the said River, and that the Indians subject to King Philip, or in 
amity with him, lived on the East side of the said River there is no Evidence that 
all the Indians subject to, or in amity with King Philip, lived in the Pawconoket 
Country. That the Province not having produced the Letters Patent, constituting the 
council of Plymouth, nor any copy thereof, the Recital of said Letters Patent in the 
deed from the council of Plymouth, to Bradford and his associates, i% not sufficient 
evidence against the Kings Charter. That the council of Plymouth being a Corpora- 
tion, could not create another corporation, and that no Jurisdiction within the Kings 
Dominions in America can be held by Prescription or on the Foot of Prescription. 
That the determination of the boundarys of the colony's of Rhode Island and New 
Plymouth by the Kings Commissioners in the year 1664 appear to have been only a tem- 
porary order for preserving the Peace on the Borders of both Colonys without deter- 
mining the Rights and Titles of either. Upon the whole nothing appears whereby the 
Colony of Rhode Island and Providence plantations can be barred or hindered from ex- 
tending their Jurisdiction Eastward towards the Province of the Massachusetts Bay 
according to the true intents and meaning of their charter. But some dispute having 
arisen between the Partys as to the true construction and meaning thereof, the court 
is of opinion. That the Narragansett Bay is and extendeth itself from Point Jndith in 
the west to Seaconet Point on the East and including the Islands therein, layeth and 
extendeth itself unto the mouth of the River which runnith towards the town of 
Providence and that as it so lies or extends, it has and may be considered as having 
one Eastern Side at the Eastern coast of^the said Bay runs up northerly from Seconets 
Point, — and one other North Eastern Side from near Mount Hope to Bullocks Neck, 
as the said Bay runs up North Westerly towards tho Town of Providence and that 
the land adjacent to the said North Eastern and Eastern Coasts and including within 
the following lines and the said Bay are within the Jurisdiction of the Colony of 
Rhode Island ; Vizt on the North East side of the said Bay — one line running from 
the south west corner of Bullocks Neck, Northeast three Miles. One other line run- 
ning from the Northeast extremity of the said line until it be terminated by a line 
three miles Northeast from the northeasterumost part of the Bay on the west side of 
Rumstick Neck, and one other line from the termination of the west line to the Bay 
at or near Towoset Neck, running so that it touch the North East extremity of a line 
running three miles North East from the North East corner of Bristol Harbour, and 
on the Eastern side of the said Bay ; One line from a certain point on the Eastern 
bide of the said Bay opposite to the southernmost part of the Shawmuts Neck, and 

(507) 



52 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

four hundred and forty Rods to the Southwards of the Mouth of Fall River running 
East three miles ; One other line running from the Easternmost extremity of the said 
line till it be terminated by the Easternmost end of a line three miles East from the East- 
ernmost part of a cove in the said Bay which is to the southward of Nawquaket and 
one other line from the termination of the last line to the sea, running on such course, 
as to be three miles East from the Easternmost part of the Bay adjoining to Scitchu- 
west on Rhode Island, and that the said Distances of three miles East and Northeast, 
are to be measured from high Water Mark, and this court doth hereby settle, adjust 
and determine, that the Eastern Boundary of the said Colony of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, towards the Massachusetts Bay, is, shall be and runs from 
a certain Pointe (where a Meridian line passing through Pawtuckets Falls, cuts 
the South Boundary of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay), south to Pawtuckets 
Falls, Then southerly along the eastward side of Seacouk River, and the River 
which runnith towards the Town of Providence, to the Southwest corner of Bullock's 
Neck, then Northeast three miles ; and then along the aforesaid lines running at three 
miles distance from the Easternmost parts of the said Bay to the said Bay, at or near 
Towoset Neck. Then as the said Bay runs to the southernmost point of Shawmuts 
Neck, and then in a straight line to the aforesaid point opposite to the said Neck. 
Then East three miles and then along the aforesaid lines, running at three miles dis- 
tance from the Easternmost parts of the said Bay, to the sea. All which Hues are to 
be run by making the projier allowance for the variation of the Magnetic Needle from 
the Meridian. And for the better understanding of the description of the lines before 
mentioned ; the Court hath caused the Boundary lines of the lands adjacent to the 
said most eastern and Northeastern points of the Said Bay, to be delineated on the 
Map or Plan of the said Bay and countries adjacent now in court, and the same are 
distinguished on the said Map or Plan, by A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. 

The Lord of the Committee having considered the whole matter and heard all 
partys concerned therein by their Council learned in the Law, Do agree humbly to 
report to your Majesty as their opinion. That the said Judgment or determination of 
the said Commissioners should be afiQrmed, and both the Petitions of Appeal there- 
from dismissed. 

His Majesty this day took the said Report into consideration and was pleased with 
the advice of the Privy Council to ajjprove thereof, and to order, that the said Judg- 
ment or Determination of the said Commmissiouers, Be, and it is hereby Affirmed And 
both the said Petitions of Appeal therefrom dismissed. 

Whereof the Governor or the Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay, The Governor and Company of the colony of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations for the time being, and all others whom it may concern, are 
to take notice and govern themselves accordingly. 

A true Copy. 

I B LENNARD. 

Colated with the Original entry in the Council Register, 18 January, 1745. 

ROBT LEMON. 

Under the foregoing decree the line was run by commissioners ap- 
pointed for the purpose, whose report was as follows, viz : 

We, the subscribers, appointed commissioners by the general assembly of the colony 
aforesaid, to mark out tho bounds of said colony eastward towards the province of 
Massachusetts Bay, agreeable to His Majesty's royal determination in council, the 
28th day of May, 1746, did in pursuance thereof, on the second day of December last 
past, meet at Pawtucket Falls, in expectation of meeting with commissioners that 
might be appointed by the province of the Massachusetts Bay, for the purpose afore- 
said ; and after having there tarried till the afterpart of said day, and no commis- 
sioners in behalf of the said province appearing, we proceeded to run a due north line 

(508) 



oak:,^tt.1 M/VSSACHUSETTS. 63 

from Pawtucket Falls to the south boundary of the aforesaid province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay, in manner following, viz : From a certain point on the southern side of 
Pawtucket Falls, where we erected a monument of stones, with a stake thereon, we run 
a meridian line which directly passed through said falls, to a walnut tree on the north- 
erly side of said falls ; then to a pitch pine tree ; then to a small white oak ; then to 
a grey oak ; then to a small bush ; then to another small bush with stones about it; 
then to a heap of stones with a stake thereon ; then to a black oak tree ; then to an- 
other black oak ; then to a small pitch pine ; then to a black oak ; then to a large 
white oak near the river, called Abbot's Run ; then to a poplar tree ; then to a heap 
of stones with a stake thereon ; then to a large rock with stones thereon ; then to a 
small black oak tree; then to a walnut tree ; then to a black oak ; then to divers 
other marked trees in the said course, to the extremity of said line; and when we 
came near the termination of the said line made a monument of stones, there being 
no noted south boundary of the said province near the said line, aud therefore, for the 
discovery of the south boundary of the said province, upon the best information we 
could obtain, proceeded to Wrentham Plain, at or near to a place where was formerly 
erected a stake, called Woodward's and Saifery's stake, as one remarkable south 
boundary of the said province, and from thence run a west line, makingau allowance 
of eight degrees and a half as the west variation of the magnetic needle from the true 
meridian, it being the course of the south line of the said province, according to their 
charter (as we apprehended), and thei Tve extended the said north line from the 
aforesaid monument till it intersected the said west line, and upon the point of ite 
intersection erected a monument of stones with a stake thereon, as the northeast 
boundary of that tract of laud commonly called the Gore. 

After which we proceeded to Bullock's Neck, and on the southeast corner thereof 
erected a red cedar post, marked with the letters J. H. C. K., with the iigure of an 
anchor thereon, aud from thence running aline northeast making the same allowance 
for the variation aforesaid, to a black oak tree marked with the letters G. C. C. R., 
then to a large white oak marked with the letters G. B. C. R., then to a white oak 
post, set in the ground with a heap of stones around it, marked with the letters G. W. 
C.R., with the tiguro of an anchor thereon, being three miles distant from Bullock's 
Neck aforesaid. 

After which wo proceeded to the northeasternmost part of the bay on the west side 
of Rumstick Neck, and from a point where a locust post was erected, run a line three 
miles northeast, with the same allowance for the variation and at the extremity of 
the said line erected a monument of stones, from which we run a line to the northeast 
extremity of that line drawn from the southwest corner of Bullock's Neck aforesaid, 
the course whereof being west thirty-eight degrees north, according to the magnetic 
needle, the distance of nine hundred and fifty-five rods, marking trees and making 
other boundaries in the course of said liue. After which we proceeded to the north- 
east corner of Bristol Harbour, and from high-water mark, which was some rods dis- 
tant northeast from the bridge loading to Swanzey Ferry, we ran a lino three miles 
northeast, still making the same allowance for the variation, and at the extremity 
of which line we erected a monument of stones; then we ran a line from the north- 
east extremity of the line drawn from Rumstick aforesaid, the course whereof being 
south twenty-five degrees east, till it met with the termination of the line drawn from 
Bristol Harbour aforesaid, the distance whereof being nine huudred and twenty-seven 
rods; and from thence to a straight lias to the bay at Towoset Neck, making proper 
boundaries in the course of said line. 

After which we proceeded to the eastern side of the Narragansett Bay, and on the 
easternmost part of a cove in the said bay, which is southward of Nanequachet, ran a 
lin'3 three miles east (still making the same allowance for variation), at the extremity 
w'lereof we marked a grey oak tree with the letters C. R., with the figure of an anchor 
V .ereon. 

After which we proceeded to the mouth of Fall River, and from thence measured 

(509) 



54 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

four buuclred and forty rods southerly ou the shore, as the said shore extendeth itself 
from the month of said Fall Eiver, and from the point where the said four hundred 
aud forty rods reached, being east thirty-five degrees south of the southernmost point 
of Sliawomet Neck, we ran a line three miles east, with the same allowance for the 
variation; in the course where f we marked divers trees, and came to a large pond, 
on the west of which was a small oak between two large rocks, and from thence 
measured over the said pond to a bunch of maples, two whereof we marked with the 
loiters I and F, standing on a place called Ralph's Neck, being the extremity of the 
said three miles ; from thence we ran a line south twenty degrees west, two thousand 
GUI' hundred and twenty-three rods (making proper boundaries in said line), till we 
met the termination of the three-mile line, ran from the cove southward of Nanequa- 
chet aforesaid. 

After which we proceeded to a place called Church's Cove, in said bay, and ran a 
line three miles east, making the same allowance for the variation aforesaid, and at 
the extremity whereof, and near the sea, we erected a monument of stones, and from 
thence ran a line north two degrees and a quarter east, one thousand and nine hun- 
dred and forty-one rods, till it also met the termination of the said line, drawn from 
the first mentioned cove as aforesaid, making proper boundaries in the course of said 
line. 

The aforegoing is a just account of our proceedings, and report the same accord- 
ingly. 

J. HONEYMAN, Jr. 

GEORGE WANTON. 

GIDEON CORNELL. 

GEORGE BROWN. 
And it is voted and resolved, That the said report be, and it is hereby, accepted by 
this assembly. 

In the year 1748 the legislature of Rhode Ishiud appoiuted commis- 
sioners to continue the line to the Connecticut River, recognizing the 
Woodward and Saffrey stake as the place of beginning. Massachusetts 
failed to appoint commissioners, whereupon the Rhode Island commis- 
sioners proceeded to complete the running of the line. In their report 
tliey say — 

That we not being able to find any stake or other monument which we could im- 
agine set up by Woodward and Saffrey, but considering that tlie place thereof waa 
described in the agreement mentioned in our commission, by certain invariable marks, 
we did proceed as foUoweth, namely : We found a place where Charles River formed 
a large current southerly, which place is known to many by the name of Pappatalish 
Pond, which we took to be the southernmost part of said river, from the southernmost 
part of which we measured three English miles south, which three English miles did 
terminate upon a plain in a township called Wrentham. (See Howard's Reports S. C, 
vol. 4, page Q'M). 

From this point they ran the line. From this time forward repeated 
steps were taken by Rhode Island by resolutions, and by appointment 
of commissioners at difterent times to ascertain and run the line, 
in connection with commissioners from Massachusetts; commissioners 
from both colonies met more than once, but they failed to agree ui)on a 
boundary in place of that established under the agreements of 1711-'18. 
Rhode Island alleged a mistake in her commissioners, in the place of 
beginning (that is, on Wrentham Plain), as the ground of these efibrts. 

This controversy, however, embraced the entire line from the State of 

(610) 



•j-iNNETT.) MASSACHUSETTS. 55 

Connecticut to the Atlantic Ocean. Massacliusetts asserted that an 
encroachment had been made on her territory from Burnt Swamp Corner 
to the ocean by Rhode Island, who, on her part, claimed that the juris- 
dictional line of Massachusetts from said corner to the Connecticut line 
was, in its whole extent, upon the territory of Rhode Island. The legis- 
latures of the respective States having failed, after repeated effort, to 
adjust the controversy, Rhode Island in 1832, by a bill in equity, brought 
the subject of the northern boundary, from Burnt Swamp Corner to the 
Connecticut line, before the Supreme Court of the United States, which 
in 1846 decided that the jurisdictional line claimed by Massachusetts 
was the legal boundary of the two States between these points. 

While this suit was pending an attempt was made to settle the long 
controversy by an amicable adjustment of the whole line from Connecti- 
cut to the ocean. Commissioners were appointed by both States in 1844 
to ascertain and mark the true boundary from Pawtucket Falls to Bul- 
lock's Keck. In 1845 the same commissioners were authorized to ascer- 
tain the line from Burnt Swamp Corner to the Atlantic Ocean. 

In 184G, the equity suit having been decided, they were authorized 
" to erect suitable monuments at the i)romiuent angles of the line, from 
the Atlantic Ocean to the northwest corner of Rhode Island, and at such 
other points on the line as may subserve the public convenience." A 
majority of said commissioners agreed upon a line and erected monu- 
ments in 1847. 

The report of the joint commission was dated Boston, January 13, 
1848. 

The line so agreed upon as a boundary between Burnt Swamp Corner 
and the northwest corner of Rhode Island was a straight line, varj'ing 
a little from the irregular jurisdictional line established by the decision 
of the Supreme Court, and is described in the joint report of the majority 
of the commissioners of January, 1848, as follows, viz : 

Begin at the northwest corner of Rhode Island, on Connecticut line, in latitude 42° 
00' 29" north, and longitude 71° 48' 18" west of Greenwich, thence easterly in a straight 
line 21.512 miles to Burnt Swamp Corner, in Wrenthani, being in latitude 42° 01' 08" 
and longitude 71° 23' 13". 

Upon this line were placed twenty-seven monuments, exclusive of that 
at Burnt Swamp Corner. 

The general assembly of Rhode Island, in May, 1847, ratified and 
established the line from the ocean to the Connecticut line, " to take 
effect and become binding whenever the said agreement and boundary 
line should be ratified by the State of Massachusetts." The legislature 
of Massachusetts did not ratify the said agreement and boundary line, 
but proposed another joint commission, which was agreed to. 

The attempt made by these commissioners to settle the line having 
failed, Massachusetts commenced a bill in equity before the Supreme 
Court of the United States for an adjudication of the boundary line from 
Burnt Swamp Corner to the Atlac*;ic Ocean. 

(511) 



66 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [buli.. 13 

In 1860 both States agreed upon a conventional line, and asked that 
a decree of the United States Supreme Court should confirm the same, 
which prayer was granted, and the line was thus fiinally established by 
a decree rendered in the December term, 1861, which is as follows, viz: 

Beginning at Burnt Swamp Corner (so called), in Wrentham, in latitude 42° 01 ' 08" 
north, longitude 71° 23' 13" west of Greenwich, being the northeasterly corner of 
Rhode Island. 

Thence in a straight line to the center of a stone monument in the division line, 
between Attleborough and Pawtucket, on the easterly bank of the Blackstone River, 
being in latitude 41° 53' 36" north, longitude 71° 23' 14" west. 

Thence easterly, by the northerly line of the town of Pawtncket, to a point where 
said line intersects the highest water mark on the easterly side of Farmer's or Seven 
Mile River, which point is shown on accompanying sheet marked "^," and designated 
as "Bound No. 1," being in latitude 41° 53' 54" north, longitude 71° 20' 40" west. 

From Bound No. 1 the line runs southerly, followiug the highest water mark on 
the easterly side of Farmei-'s or Seven Mile River, as designated in said sheet marked 
"A," to its junction with the highest water mark on the southerly and easterly side of 
Ten Mile River, at a point designated as " Bound No. 3." 

From Bound No. 3 the line runs southerly, following the highest water mark on the 
southerly and easterly side of said Ten Mile River, as shown on sheet marked "A," to - 
a point designated as "Bound No. 13," sai(i last point being at the most southerly 
bend of Ten Mile River in said line of highest water mark. 

The line of "highest water mark" as shown on sheet A is d<!fuied by oftsets at 
right angles to straight lines shown on said plan in blue ink, from Bound No. 1, and 
passing through points designated as bounds numbered 2 to 13, inclusive. 

From Bound No. 13 the line runs southeasterly, being a straight line to the center 
of a stone pier in the middle of Runnin's River, on the north side of the road leading 
by Luther's store. 

Thence through the center or middle of said Runnin's River as the same is at low 
water at a point when such line intersects the dividing line between Barrington and 
Seekonk, being in latitude 41° 46' 28", longitude 71° li»' 23". 

Thence northeasterly, following the dividing line between Barrington and See- 
konk, to a point at the northerly extremity of the dividing line between Barrington 
and Swanzey, in latitude 41° 36' 34", longitude 71° 19' 30". 

Thence in a straight line southeasterly to the center of a copper bolt in King's 
Rock, so called and well known, near an ancient monument on said King's Rock, be- 
ing on the west side of the road leading from Warren to Swanzey. This point is in 
latitude 41° 45' 22".98, longitude 71° 16' 35".75. 

From King's Rock the lino follows the dividing line between Warren and Swanzey 
to Mount Hope Bay, running in a straight line southeasterly to a point on the Birch 
Swamp Farm, in latitude 41° 45' 08", longitude 71° 15' 58".5. 

Thence in a straight line to Mount Hope Bay, passing through the center of a copper 
bolt in a bowlder, in line of extreme high water at Toweset, to low-water line of said 
bay. This bolt is in latitude 41° 42' 45".27, longitude 71° 13' 54".70. 

From Toweset the line runs southeasterly, crossing Mount Hope Bay, to the westerly 
end of line dividing Fall River and Tiverton, where the same intersects low-water 
line of said Mount Hope Bay. 

Thence easterly, following said dividing line between Fall River and Tiverton, pass- 
ing through the middle of a town way on the north side of fjirm belonging to .John 
Chase, and through the southerly end of Cool's Pond, in a line passing through the 
middle of a highway, eight rods wide. 

Thence running southerly through the center of said eight-rod highway to a point 
in line with the stone wall on northerly side of farm of Edmund Estes. This wall is 
easterlv of the Stafford road (so called.) 

(512) 



flANNBTT.] MASSACHUSETTS. 57 

Tlieiice running easterly iu line with said wall to a point in line of highest water 
mark on the westerly shore of South WatuppaPond, which point is shown ou accom- 
panying sheet marked "B,"and designated as "Bound A." 

From Bound A the line runs southerlj^, following the highest water mark on 
westerly side of South Watuppa Pond, and of Sawdy Pond, and of the streams con- 
necting said ponds, as shown on said sheet marked "B," to a point designated as 
"Bound F," said last point being at the most southerly end of Sawdy Pond in said line 
of highest water mark. 

The line of "highest water mark" as shown on sheet B is defined by offsets 
at right angles to straight lines from Bound A, and passing respectively through 
points designated "B"to " F," inclusive, and on the South Watuppa Pond is also 
the line that would be traced by a level thirteen inches above a bolt in stone work 
on westerly side of waterway in gate-house of reservoir dam of Watuppa Eeservoir 
Company, Quequechan River. On Sawdy Pond the highest water mark is the lino 
that would be traced by the level of an iron bolt driven in west side of flume to saw- 
mill at northerly end of said Sawdy Pond. 

From Bound F the line runs southeasterlj-, being a straight line to the monu- 
ment known as " Joe Sanford's bound," being the center of a copi^er bolt in stone on 
land of Joseph Tripp, and is in latitude 41° 35' 37" longitude 71° 08' 13". 

From Joe Sanford's bound the line runs southerly, following the westerly lino of tho 
town of Westport to the Atlantic Ocean, passing easterly of Quicksand Pond through 
the center of a bound known as Peaked Rock, situated in latitude 41° 29' 58", longi- 
tude 71° 07' 34". 

The first point in this line southerly of Sanford's bound is on the north side of mill- 
dam at Adamsville, 85.58 feet easterly of straight line from Sanford's to Peaked Rock. 

The second is 113.94 feet easterly of said straight line, and is on the easterly side of 
road leading from Adamsville to the ocean. 

The third is 234.48 feet east of said straight line, on the road leading to Little Comp- 
ton, by Philip Simmons' house. 

The whole of the lino thus described is shown on a plan herewith presented, which, 
witli Sketches A and B, is made a part of this report and attested. 

It will be observed that the above decree of the United States Su- 
preme Court makes no reference to the line from Burnt Swamp Corner 
to the Connecticut line. 

It will also be remembered {vide p. 55) that the "line of 1848," so 
called, was ratified by Rhode Island and rejected by Massachusetts. 
In 1865 the legislature of Massachusetts took action in regard to this 
portion of the line, as follows, viz : 

Resolved, That the boundary line between the State of Rhode Island and the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts, from the line of the State of Connecticut to Burnt 
Swamp Corner, begins at the northwest corner of the State of Rhode Island on the 
Connecticut line, in latitude 42^^ 00' 29" north, and longitude 74° 48' 18" west of Green - 
wich,3 and runs in a straight line 21 add ^^^^ miles to Burnt Swamp Corner, in 
Wrentham, being in latitude 42° 1' 8" and longitude 71^ 23' 13". 

This is the line agreed upon by the commissioners, called the " line 
of 1848," ratified at the time by Ehode Island, but rejected by Massa- 
chusetts. 

The tardy ratification of the line by Massachusetts was, in its turn, 

'This is a clerical error. "Longitude 74° 48' 18"" should read " longitude 71° 48 
18"." ( Vide Borden's Tables, p. 64). 

(513) 



58 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 18, 

rejected by Rhode Island, on the ground that the then recent settle- 
ment of the eastern boundary by the decree of the Supreme Court had 
so changed the aspect of the controversy that she could not consent to 
the adoption of the line of 1848 as her northern boundary. 

Thus the northern boundary of Rhode Island was left in abeyance, 
or rather left in the condition prescribed by the decision of 184G. 

In June, 1880, the legislature of Rhode Island passed a resolution to 
remove the monuments of the "line of 1848" and erect monuments on 
the jurisdictional line. 

In 1881 the legislature of Massachusetts took like action. 

This jurisdictional line has the same termini as the line of 1848, but 
is a very irregular line, sometimes running north of a direct line and 
sometimes falling south of it [the extreme variations being 529.3 feet 
north of the line of 1848, and 129 feet south of the same.] A full and de- 
tailed description may be found in Rhode Island acts. May, 1807, p. C 
et seq. 

Also, viae Senate Document No. 14, Massachusetts, 1848, for a full 
account of this controversy. 

In 1713, commissioners from the Province of Massachusetts Bay and 
Colony of Connecticut settled a line between Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut. 

By this line certsiin northern frontier towns were given to Massachu- 
setts, viz: Woodstock, Suffleld, Enfield, and Somers. In 1749 the leg- 
islature of Connecticut passed a resolution that, inasmuch as the line 
had not been approved by the King, and that the two colonies had no 
legal right to transfer territory without the confirmation of the Crown, 
the contract was void, and these towns were again taken under the 
jurisdiction of Connecticut. Massachusetts appealed to the King, and 
the claims of Connecticut were fally established. (See Hollister's His- 
tory of Connecticut, Vol. II.) 

In 1791 Massachusetts and Connecticut appointed commissioners to 
establish the boundary between them, but they were unable to agree. 

In 1803 commissioners were appointed to complete the line, a com- 
promise having been made concerning the line between the town of 
Southwick and the towns of Suffield and Granby (the cause of the dis- 
agreement of the former commissioners). 

The agreement made was as follows, viz : 

That the line should begin from a station 8 rods south of the southwest corner of 
West Springfield, and thence run west to the large ponds, and thence southerly by 
those ponds to the ancient south line of Westfield, and from thence on said south 
line to the ancient southwest corner of Wcstheld; and from thence northerly in the 
ancient west line of Westfield to the station iu said west lino made by commissionerg 
in the year 1714, and from thence to the southwest corner of Granville. (See Mass, 
Special Laws^ Vol. Ill, page 234.) 

In 1803 the commissioners surveyed and marked the boundary be- 
tween their respective States. 

(514) 



gaSnett] MASSACHUSETTS. 59 

Their report, which was adopted, is as follows, viz : 

Begiuning at the northeast corner of Suffield and the southeast corner of "West 
Springfield, on the west bank of Connecticut River, at a point 75 links northward of 
the center of a small valley running into said river, said point being between a small 
butternut tree, marked M. C, standing on the south, and a small crooked white oak, 
marked M., standing on the north, about two feet distant from each other, and then 
run north 82° 45' west 1 chain to a stone monument erected by us there ; in the same 
course 22 chains 25 links to a stone monument on the stage road from Springfield to 
Siiffleld, and said course continued would pass two feet north of Smith's house; 
thence north 82° west 82 chains 3 links to a stone monument on the middle road from 
Sullield to Springfield ; then in the same course 13 chains 30 links to a large black or 
red oak tree, marked on the east side C, and on the west side M., being an ancient 
bound ; thence north 77° 4' west 134 chains 42 links to a stone monument on the road 
from Feeding Hills meeting-house to Suffield ; thence in the same course 4 chains 21 
links to a pine stump — an old monument ; thence north 79° 48' west 102 chains 80 links 
to a stone monument on the road from Westfield to Suffield, called the back street ; 
thence north 81° 30' west 61 chains 20 links to a stone monument at an old stump and 
stones, the ancient southwest corner of West Springfield ; thence south 5° west 2 
chains to a stone monument in the line run by commissioners in 1714; thence north 
85° west 167 chains 33 links to a stone monument at the middle pond, 22 links east of 
low-water mark, being at the center of a little valley running into said poud ; thence 
on the eastern shore of said pond, as the same runs southerly, to a sluice way or outlet 
from said pond to the south pond ; thence southerly on the east shore of the south pond 
as the same runs to a stone monument at high-water mark on the south corner of said 
pond, being the south end of the most southerly bay thereof, from which the point of 
land beyond the bay on the east side of the pond bears north 29° east, and the high point 
beyond thebay on the west side of the pond is north 3° 30' east ; then south 10° 20' west 
24 chains 78 links to a stone monument at the southeast corner of Southwick, in the 
ancient south line of Westfield, from which the highest peak of Manatick Mountain 
bears south 42° 30' west; thence south 87° 30' west 33 chains 86 links to a heap of stones 
in a hedge, being an ancient monument in the south line of Westfield and the north- 
west corner of Suffield, adjoining Granby; thence in said ancient south line of West- 
field the same course to a stone monument at a white oak stump, an old monument, 
the southwest corner of Southwick, being 174 chains 36 links; thence north 10*^ 20' 
east 212 chains 84 links to a stone monument erected by us, at a place in the ancient 
west line of Westfield, where commissioners in 1714 established the monument called 
the Crank monument; thence north 82° 17' west 137 chains to a stone monument 
erected by us at the east road from Granby to Granville ; in this course, at the distance 
of 86 chains 20 links from the Crank monument, we passed between two pillars of 
stones 45 links south of one and 13 links north of the other, both said to be the south- 
east corner of Granville ; thence on the same course 61 chains 40 links to a stone mon- 
ument erected by us on the Granby turnpike road; thence in the same course 44 
chains to a white-oak'* tree, marked by commissioners in 1717, and which we marked 
M on the north side and C, 1803, on the south side; thence north 84° 24' west 5 chains 
13 links to a stone monument erected by us on the west road from Granby to Gran- 
ville; thence in the same course 200 chains 37 links to a white elm stump and stones 
on the west bank of Valley Brook, so-called, a monument, made by commissioners in 
1717 in this course three monuments are mentioned by said commissioners, which we 
do not find; thence north 85° 7' west 60 chains 15 links to a stone monument erected 
by us at a new road near the east bank of Hubbard River; thence the same course 2 
chains to dry hemlock tree with stones about it on the west side of said river near a 
small fall and a rock on the east side of said river stooping towards it more than 2 

■•Oak-tree boundary at Granville, marked in 1717. ^ 

(515) 



60 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13 

rods to a monument erected by said former commisBioners ; thence north 82° 52' west 
109 chains 35 links to a stone monument* erected by us on the road from Granville to 
Hartland ; thence the same course 275 chains 91 links to a large heap of stones on the 
west bank of Slocum Brook between two hemlock trees, having many ancient and 
modern marks thereon, being a monument made by said former commissioners; in this 
course, the commissioners of 1717 made mention of a large hemlock tree, and a very 
large white-ash tree which we do not find ; thence north 81° 50' west 93 chains 74 
links to a stone monument erected by us on the Beach-hill Road, so-called; thence 
in the same course 235 chains to a stone monument erected by us at a heap of 
stones about an elm tree standing on the west bank of Sandy Brook, a monument 
made by said former commissioners, who mentioned in their report a monument in this 
course, which we do not find ; thence north 82° 11' west 357 chains 30 links to a stone 
monument erected by us on the road from Marlborough to Norfolk ; thence same 
course 38 chains 20 links to a monument made by said former commissioners on the 
west bank of Wbitiug River, near falls, being a heap of flat stones on a large rock ; 
thence north 82° 9' west 219 chains to a stone monument at the end of Greenwood 
Turnpike road ; in this course said former commissioners marked two trees, which we 
do not find; thence in the same course 161 chains 75 links to a stone monument 
at the Burrell Road, so-called, leading from Canaan to Suffleld ; thence in the same 
course 49 chains to an elm tree, with stones near it, on the east bank of Housatonic 
River, about six rods west from a chestnut stump and stones, a monument made by 
said former commissioners, who also marked a white oak tree in this course which 
we not find ; thence north 82° 52' west 20 chains 50 links to a stone monument 
erected by us at the road leading from Salisbury to Sheffield, called Wetany Road; 
thence in the same course 119 chains 50 links to a stone monument erected by us at 
the road from Salisbury to Sheffield, near Ebenezer Fletcher's house ; thence on the 
same course 211 chains 35 links to a stone monument erected by us at the mountain 
road from Salisbury to Sheffield ; thence on the same course 28 chains 4 links to a 
monument established by said former commissioners at the foot of the mountain, 
being a heap of stones on a large rock, 20 links long on the northeasterly side, 5 feet 
high on the southerly side, and which we marked 1803 on the southerly side ; thence 
north 85° 30' west 147 chains 20 links to a stone monument erected by us on the road 
from Salisbury to Mount Washington ; thence on the same course 81 chains 80 links 
to a large heap of stones, the oblong corner bounds, so-called between the State of 
Connecticut and New York. 

The courses of said line as before given, and here by us are according to the present 
state of Magnetic needle, which we observed to vary 5° west of north. (See Private 
Laws of Conn., vol. 2, pages 1540 to 1544.) 

ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF COMMISSION OF 1803 ON BOUNDARY BETWEEN MASSACHU- 
SETTS AND CONNECTICUT WEST OP THE CONNECTICUT RIVER. 

Beginning at a point on the west bank of Connecticut River, in latitude 42° 01' 
52". 10, longitude 72° 37' 03".46, and running north 82° 45' west 22 chains 25 links; 
thence north 82° west 95 chains 33 links ; thence north 77° 4' west 138 chains 63 
links; thence north 79° 48' west 102 chains 80 links; thence north 81° 30' west 61 
cliains 20 links ; thence south 5° west 2 chains; thence north 85° west 167 chains 33 
links to a stone monument at the middle pond, 22 links east of low-water mark, lat- 
itude 42° 02' 11", longitude 72° 45' 45". 07; thence southerly along the east shore of 
said pond, and also south i)ond, to a stone monument at high-watermark, at the south 
corner of said south pond ; thence south 10° 20' west 24 chains 78 links to a stone 
monument at southeast corner of Southwick, which is in latitude 42° 00' 11". 98, lon- 



* Boundary stone in west front of Granville. 
(516) 



GANNBTT.l MASSACHUSETTS. 61 

gitude 72° 46' 24". 23 ; thence south 87° 30' west 208 chains 22 links to a stoue monu- 
ment at the southwest corner of Southwick, which is in latitude 41° 59' 51". 89, lon- 
gitude 72° 49' 25".47; thence north 10° 20' east 212 chains 84 links, to a stone monu- 
ment at the northwest corner of the Soutliwick Jog, which is in latitude 42° 02' 
12".39, longitude 72° 49' 13". 51 ; thence north 82° 17' west 242 chains 40 links to a 
white oak tree, marked by commissioners in 1717, which is in latitude 42° 02' 15". 84, 
longitude 72° 52' 47". 74 ; thence north 84° 24' Avest 205 chains 50 links; thence north 
85° 7' west (52 chains 15 links ; thence north 82° 52' west 109 chains 35 links to a 
stone monument in latitude 42° 02' 17".03, longitude 72° 58' 22". 52; thence north 82° 
52' west 275 chains 91 links; thence north 81° 45' west 70 chains; thence north 81° 
50' west 328 chains 74 links to a stone monument, which is in latitude 42° 02' 31". 11, 
longitude 73° 07' 35".94 ; thence north 82° 11' west 395 chains 50 links; thence north 
82° 9' west 430 chains ; thence north 82° 52' west 140 chains to a stone monument 
on the road from Salisbury to Sheffield, which is in latitude 42° 02' 58". 11, longitude 
73° 22' 55".27 ; then(?e north 82° 52' west 239 chains 39 links ; thence north 85° 30' 
west 239 chains to the northwest corner of Connecticut, which is in latitude 42° 02' 
58 '.54, longitude 73° 30' 06".66. 

According to the survey of the cession of Boston Corners, by Massa- 
chusetts to New York, in 1855, the south boundary of Massachusetts 
from the northwest corner of Connecticut to the southwest corner of 
Massachusetts is as follows, viz: 

A line running north 89° 08' 4" west, 40 chains, by the true meridian. 

The courses of the line of 1803 are magnetic, with the variation as at 
that date : i. e., 5° west. 

The latitudes and longitudes in the foregoing are taken from the 
Borden Trigonometrical Survey of Massachusetts of 1843. 

lu 182C, the line between Massachusetts and Connecticut east of the 
Connecticut River was run by commissioners appointed from each State. 
An abstract of the commissioners' report is here given : 

Abstract of report of commissioners o/1826. — The commissioners first 
made the following survey : Commencing at the northeast corner of 
Connecticut, at a large pile of stones erected by commissioners of 1734 ; 
thence running due west on the latitude of 42° 3' north to the west 
line of Woodstock, ] 5 miles 169 rods 15 links. (This is hereafter referred 
to as the " first line of latitude.") Thence north 3° west 54 rods 19 links 
to an old pine tree, the reputed northeast corner of Union ; thence due 
west 25 miles 168 rods to Connecticut River. (This line is hereinafter 
referred to as the " second line of latitude," and the second line of lati- 
tude is 54 rods north of the first.) These lines of latitude were compared 
with the ancient survey, monuments, evidence, etc., of the line run by 
the commissioners of 1713 ; the said lines of latitude were found to vary 
in sundry places therefrom. Therefore, in order to conform as near as 
possible to the line of 1713, the line was run as follows, viz : 

Beginning at the northeast corner of Connecticut and running w^est 
on "first line of latitude" 1,702 rods and 4 links to the road to the Merino 
road ; thence in a direct line 1,372 rods 20 links to the road leading from 
Muddy Brook, so called, by Pennel May's to Southbridge 5 this point is 
21 rods 10 links north of the "first line of latitude"; thence in a direct 

(517) 



62 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13 

line 360 rods 5 links to the Xorwich and Woodstock turnpike (tl is point is 
'20 rods and 5 links nortb of "first line of latitude") ; tbence in a direct 
line 954 rods IS links to the road leading from West Woodstock by Abel 
Mason's to Southbridge (this point is 10 rods and 22 links north of "first 
line of latitude"); tbence in a direct line 1,247 rods to the road lead- 
ing from Union by Asber Bodgen's to Holland (this point is 2 rods 14f 
links south of " second line of latitude") ; thence in a direct line 1,127 
rods to the turnpike from Hertford through Stafford and Holland to 
Worcester (this point is 6 rods 23J links south of the " second line of 
latitude"); tbence in a direct line 467 rods to an old white-oak tree, 
an ancient bound, on tbe road from Staffor<l by Eobert Andruss' to 
South Brimfield (this point is 1 rod 2 links south of "second line of lati- 
tude"'); thence in a direct line of 1,615 rods to the road leading from 
Stafford by Henry Cady's to Monson (this point is 16 rods 15 links 
south of "second line of latitude)"; tbence in a direct line 256 rods to 
tbe Tracy road (this point is 12 rods 12 links south of "second line of 
latitude)" ; thence in a direct line 620 rods to tbe road leading from Staf- 
ford by Seth Sheldon's to South V/ilbrabam (this i)oint is 14 rods 7 
links south of " second line of latitude"); tbence in a direct line 1,066 
rods to the road from Somer's by Walter Ainsworth's to Sijringtield 
(this point is 4 rods 1 link north of " second line of latitude"); tbence 
in a direct line 523 rods to the road from Somer's by Abel I*eas's to 
S]iringfield (this point is 6 rods 12 links south of tbe " second line of 
latitude"); ihence due west(i4:5 rods to the ancient line between Spring- 
field (now Long Meadow) and P^nfield ; thence south 80° 30' u-cst by the 
true meridian 645 rods to a monument at an old oak sturm>; thence 
south 51° 30' west by the true meridian 164 rods 18 links to a monument 
at an old i)ine stump ; thence iiue west 349 rods 15 links to a monument 
on tbe Oonnecticut Eiver 12 ro<ls from the shore; tbence due west 
to Connecticut Eiver. On tbe line are erected 49 monument stones, 
marked on tbe nortb side M and on the south side C, 

Tbe commissioners also surveyed and marked the line from the the 
corner of Connecticut to the corner of Ehode Island, reporting as fol- 
lows : 

Beginning at tbe nionunieut erected at the northeast corner of said State of Con- 
necticut iviid running in a direct line to the ancient heap of stones on the north side 
of the turnpike loading from Hertford to Boston through Thompson and Douglass, 
"where we erected a monument, .'ind thence running in a direct lino to the northwest 
corner of tlie State of Rhode Island. 

(For survey of 1826, see ]*rivate Laws of Conn., vol. 2, pages 1544 to 
1550.) 

Tbe boundary between Massachusetts and New^ York at an early 
period became a. subject of bitter disi)nte, New York cbiiming to tbe 
west bank of tbe Connecticut Eiver under the charters of 1664 and 1674 
to the D.uke of York, Massachusetts claiming under her old charters to 
tbe South Sea. After many fruitless attempts at a settlement, an ar- 

(518) 



GAKNEiT.] MASSACHUSETTS. 63 

raDgemeut was entered into in 1773 fixing the western boundary of 
Massachusetts where it meets New York territory. The Revolution fol- 
lowing soon after, the line was not run. In 1785 Congress appointed 
three commissioners to run the line, who performed that duty in 1787. 
The line was as follows, viz : 

Beginuiug at a monument erected in 1731 by commissioners from Connecticut and 
New York, distanr from the Hudson Eiver 20 miles, and running north 15° 12' 9", east 
50 miles 41 chains and 79 links, to a red or black oak tree marked by said commissioners, 
which said line was run as the magnetic needle pointed in 1787. ( Vide Revised Stat- 
utes of New York, 1875, p. 122.) 

The claims of Massachusetts to western lands were finally settled 
December 10, 1786, by a joint commission of the two States. By this 
agreement Massachusetts surrendered the sovereignty of the whole dis- 
puted territory to New York, and received in return the right of soil 
and pre-emption right of Indian purchase west of the meridian passing 
through the eighty-second mile-stone of the Pennsylvania line, except- 
ing certain reservations upon Niagara Eiver. The title to a tract known 
as " The Boston Ten Towns," lying east of this meridian, previously 
granted by Massachusetts, was also confirmed. ( Fttie Hough's N. Y. 
Gaz., 1872* pp. 25, 26.) 

April 19, 1785, Massachusetts executed a deed to the United States. 
It included all title of the State of Massachusetts to territory west of 
the present western boundary of New York. 

In 1820 Maine, hitherto a part of Massachusetts, was admitted into 
the Union as an independent State. 

In 1853 a small portion of territory in the southwestern corner of 
Massachusetts, known as Boston Corner, was ceded to New York, and 
the cession confirmed by Congress in 1855. 

The cession of Boston Corner to New York changes the boundary, so 
that it is now as follows, viz : 

Beginning at a monument erected in 1731 by commissioners from Con- 
necticut and New York (known as the Connecticut monument), stand- 
ing in the south boundary of Massachusetts, latitude 42° 02' 58".54, 
longitude 73° 30' 00".66, which is the northwest corner of the State of 
Connecticut; thence along the south boundary of Massachusetts, north 
89° 08' 41" west, 40 chains ; thence north 12° 57' 16" west 207.49^ 
chains to a marble post marked on the east side M. S., on the west side 
N. Y., and on the south side 1853, which is in the line run by United 
States commissioners in 1787 ; thence north 15° 12' 9" east on the line 
run by said United States commissioners (^47 miles 73.70^ chains) to 
a red or black oak tree marked by said United States commission- 
ers, in the south boundary of the State of Vermont, latitude 42° 44' 

^ This distance has been obtained by subtracting the length of the west line of Bos- 
ton Corner given in survey of 1853 from the entire length of west boundary of Massa^ 
chnsetts as given by the United States commissioners in 1787. 

(519) 



64 



BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 



IBULL.IS 



45".58, lougitude 73° 16' 17".68. [See Eevised Statutes of New York, 
1875, page 122 : also plat of survey of Boston Corner in 1853, a copy of 
which is on file in oftice of clerk of House of Eepresentatives at Wash- 
ington, D. 0. ; also, for latitudes and longitudes, see tables of Borden's 
Survey of Massachusetts, 1843.] 



Latitude and longitude of certain ijoints on the houndary line of Massachusetts, 
den^s Trigonometrical Survey, 1H43.) 



(From Bar- 



States. 


Stations. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Vfirmont £in<l ^!&rR83ci- 


Northwest corner , - -- 


o / // 

42 44 45. 58 
42 44 18. 48 


o / // 

73 16 17. 63 


chusetts. 


Eowe and Whitingham Station in Vermont line 


72 53 07. 95 




Leyden and Guilford Station in Vermont lino . . . 


42 43 55. 78 


72 38 46. 57 


New Hampshire and 


W;'irwick (N. H.) State line station 


42 43 22. 01 


72 19 35.32 


Massachusetts. 


Watitick State line station in Ashhumham 

(Mass.). 
Pepperell (N. H. ) State line station 


42 42 41. 56 


71 54 15.84 




42 42 13. 23 


71 35 32. 02 




Pino Tree boundary, StatelineatDiacut (Mass.). 


42 41 50. 78 


71 19 40. 59 




Poplar Hill State line boundary, New Hampshire 


42 44 12. 09 


71 15 38. 72 




line at Methuen. 








Ayres Hill State line boundary at Haverhill, 


42 48 23. 38 


71 04 11. 68 




Mass. 








Brandy Brow Hill, State line comers of Haver- 


42 50 00. 61 


71 03 34. 17 




hill and Amesbury, Mass. 








Salisbury Marsh Station 


42 52 19. 32 


70 49 32. 11 


Connecticut and Mas- 


'Southwest corner of Massachusetts 


42 02 59. 54 


73 31 42. 66 


sachusetts. 


Connecticut line bound at Mount Washington .. 


42 02 58. 54 


73 30 06. 66 




Boundary stone in Connecticut line on road from 


42 02 58. 11 


73 22 55. 27 




Sheffield to Salisbuiy. 








Boundary stone in Connecticut lineon road from 


42 02 31. 11 


73 07 35. 94 




Sandisfield to Colebrook. 








Boundary stone in Granville, in west part of 


42 02 17. 03 


72 58 22. 52 




town. 








Oak tree boundary in Connecticut State line at 


42 02 15.84 


72 52 47.44 




Granville, marked in 1717. 








Boundary stone at northwest corner of South- 


42 02 12. 39 


72 49 13. 51 




wick Jog. 








Boundary stone at southwest corner of South- 


41 59 51. 89 


72 49 25. 47 




wick Jog. 








Boundary stone at southeast corner of South- 


42 00 11. 98 


72 46 24. 23 




wick Jog. 








Boundary stone at northeast corner of South- 


42 02 11. 00 


72 45 45. 07 




wick Jog. 








Boundary stone in Connecticut line on west side 


42 01 52. 10 


72 37 03.46 




of Connecticut Elver. 








Boundary stone in Connecticut line on east side 


42 01 28. 74 


72 36 36. 31 




of Connecticut River. » 








KattlesnaUe Mountain in Connecticut line at 


42 01 59.66 


72 24 49. 86 




Wilbraham. 








High Kooky Ridge, Connecticut line, in Monson. 


42 01 56. 09 


72 21 07. 26 




Monson line station in Monson 


42 01 53. 92 


72 16 39. 28 




Northeast corner of Connecticut at Douglas . . . 


42 01 25. 21 


71 48 23. 66 


Khode Island and Mas- 


Northwest corner of Rhode Island at Douglas . . 


42 00 29. 48 


71 48 18. 07 


sachusetts. 


Burnt Swamp corner, northeast corner of Rhode 
Island. 


42 01 08. 60 


71 23 13. 26 




Munroe's Station, Rhode Island State lino at 


41 46 34. 54 


71 19 22. 92 




Seekonk. 








Kings Rock Station, Rhode Island State line at 


41 45 22. 98 


71 16 35. 75 




Warren. 








Toweset Neck Station, in Rhode Island, State 


41 42 45. 27 


71 13 54.70 




line at Swanzoy. 








Joe Sand ford's Station, Rhode Island Slate line 


41 35 37. 66 


71 08 13. 73 




at Tiverton. 








Quicksand Pond, State line boundary stone in 


41 29 58. 64 


71 07 34. 38 




Rhode Island line at Westport. 







These positions require a correction of from 15" to 20" in order to make them conform to modern 
determinations of position. 

' This corner was changed by the cession of Boston Corner by Massachusetts to New York in 185.5, 

(520) 



GANNETT.] RHODE ISLAND. 65 



RHODE ISLAND. 

The present State of Ehode Island was settled by Koger Williams 
and other immigrants, who left Massachusetts Bay and established 
themselves at Providence in 1636. 

In 1643 a patent was granted for the Providence Plantation, from 
which the following are extracts, viz : 

• **»#»• 

And wheras there is a tract of land in the continent of America aforesaid, called by 
the name of the Narraganset Bay, bordering northward and northeast on the patent of 
the Massachusetts, east and southeast on Plymouth patent, south on the ocean, and on 
the west and northwest by the Indians called Narigganneucks, alias Narragansets, the 
whole tract extending about 25 English miles unto the Pequot River and country; and 
wheras divers English inhabitants of the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and 
Newport, in the tract aforesaid, * * * have represented their desire, * * » -^q 
» * * do * * * give, grant, and confirm to the aforesaid inhabitants of the 
towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport a firm and absolute charter of incor- 
poration, to be known by the name of the incorporation of Providence Plantations, in 
the Narraganset Bay, in New England. » » * 

In 1663 Charles II granted a^ charter to Ehode Island and Providence 
Plantations, of which the following is an extract : 

* * * "All that parte of our domiuiones in New-England, in America, conteyneing 
the Nahantick and Narragansett Bay, and countryes and partes adjacent, bounded on 
the west, or westerly, to the middle or channel of a river there, commonly called and 
known by the name of Pawcatuck, alias Pawcawtuck river, and soe along the sayd 
river, as the greater or middle streame thereof reacheth or lyes upp into the north 
countrye, northward, unto the head thereof, and from thence, by a streight lyne 
drawn due north untill itt meets with the south lyne of the Massachusetts CoUony; 
and on the north, or northerly, by the aforesayd south or southerly lyne of the Massa- 
chusetts Collony or Plantation, and extending towards the east, or eastwardly, three 
English miles to the east and north-east of the most eastern and north-eastern parts 
of the aforesayd Narragansett Bay, as the sayd bay lyeth or extendeth itself from the 
ocean on the south, or southwardly, unto the mouth of the river which runneth to- 
wards the towne of Providence, and from thence along the eastwardly side or banke 
of the sayd river (higher called by the name of Seacunck river), up to the fFalls called 
Patuckett ffalls, being the most westwardly lyne of Plymouth Collony, and soe from 
the sayd flfalls, in a streight lyne, due north, untill itt meet with the aforesayd line 
of the Massachusetts Collony ; and bounded on the south by the ocean." And in par- 
ticular, the lands belonging to the townes of Providence, Pawtuxet, Worwicke, Nus- 
quammack, alias Pawcatuck, and the rest upon the main land in the tract aforesayd 
together with Rhode Island, Blocke Island, and all the rest of the islands and banks 
in the Narragansett Bay and bordering upon the coast of the tracts aforesaid (Ffish- 
ers Island only excepted). » * * 

(For history of the northern and eastern boundaries see Massa- 
chusetts, p. 48.) 

In 1703 substantially the present western boundary was settled by 
an agreement made between the commissioners from the two colonies 
of Ehode Island and Connecticut, viz: "A straight line from the mouth 

(521) 
4596— BuU. 13 5 



66 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

of Ashawoga River to the southwest corner of the Warwick purchase, 
and thence a straight north line to Massachusetts. 

The line of 1703 was actually run by Rhode Island, and is still known 
as the Dexter and Hopkins line. 

The two colonies disagreeing, Rhode Island appealed to the King, 
and the agreement of 1703 was finally established in 1726. 

In September, 1728, commissioners from the two colonies met and 
ran the line. 

(Ft)r agreement of 1703 and 1728, decisions of English council, etc., 
see R. I. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. III.) 

In 1839 commissioners were appointed by Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut to survey and ascertain the line and erect monuments. 

The following line was established, viz : 

Beginning at a rock near the moutli of AsTiawoga River, where it empties into 
Pawcatuck River, and from said rock a straight course northerly to an ancient stone 
heap at the southeast corner of the town of Voluntowu, and from said rock southerly 
in the same course with the aforesaid line, until it strikes Pawcatuck River. From 
the southeast corner of Voluntown a straight line to a stone heap at the southwest 
comer of West Greenwich ; from thence a straight line to the southwest corner of the 
ancient town of Warwick, and which is now a corner of the towns of Coventry and 
West Greenwich; from thence a straight line to the northwest corner of the town of 
Coventry ; thence a straight line to the northeast corner of Sterling ; thence a straight 
line to the southwest corner of Burrillville, and thence a straight lino to a stone heap 
upon a hill in the present jurisdictional line between the States of Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island, and at all of said corners, excepting said Warwick corner, we 
have erected monuments of stone, marked R. I. and C, and have also placed similar 
monuments on all the principal roads crossing the line, and at other suitable places. 

And we have caused the ancient monument which was erected at the Warwick cor- 
ner in November, 1742, to be reset and a large heap of stones to be made around it. 
Said monument is marked with the letter C. on one side, and on the other RHODE. 
ISLAND and the traces of other letters and figures. [Extract from Commission- 
er's Report. See R. I. Acts and Resolves, Jan. 1846, pages 12, 13, 14.] 

The above was ratified in 1846. 



CONNECTICUT. 

The title by which the people of Connecticut held the country was 
founded on the old patent granted by Robert, Earl of Warwick, in 
1631, to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brook, Sir Richard Saltonstall, and 
others, associated under the name of the Pl;^' mouth Company. 

In 1630 the Plymouth Council made a grant of Connecticut to the 
Earl of Warwick, their president. ' This was confirmed by King Charles 
in 1631, and on the 19th of March, in the same year, the Earl conveyed 
his title to the Plymouth Company, as before stated. (Dwight's Conn., 
p. 19, et seq.) 

(522) 



OANNBTT.] CONNECTICUT. 67 

A charter was granted by Charles II to Connecticut in 1662, of which 
the following is an extract, viz : 

We * * * do give, graut and confirm uutotlie said Goveruor and Company, and 
their successors, all that part of our Dominions in New England in America bounded 
on tue east by Narraganset Elver, commonly called Narragauset Bay, where the said 
river falleth into the sea, and on the north by the line of the Massachusetts planta- 
tion ; and on the south by the sea ; and longitude as the line of the Massachusetts* 
Colony, running from east to west, that is to say, from the said Narragausett Bay on 

the east, to the south sea ou the west part, with the islands thereunto adjoining. * * 

# * » * # * * 

[C. and C, p. 25(3-7.] 

Previous to this time the two colonies of Connecticut and New Haven 
had continued separate, but under this charter they were united and 
the charter was accepted April 20, 1665. (C. and C, p. 252.) 

The Duke of York having been granted a charter in 1664, by which 
the lauds west of the Counecticut Eiver were embraced in his jurisdic- 
tion, the question of boundary immediately arose. 

About this time Col. Eichard Nichols, George Cartwright, esq., Sir 
llobert Carr, aud Samuel Maverick, esq., had been appointed commis- 
sioners by the King, and clothed with extraordinary powers, to determine 
all controversies in the colonies. The matter was referred to them, who, 
after a full hearing, determined that the southern boundary of Connect- 
icut was the sea (Long Island Sound), and its western, Mamaroneck 
Eiver, and a line drawn north-northwest from the head of salt water in 
it to Massachusetts. The territory south and west of these lines was 
declared to belong to the Duke of York. {Vide Dwight's Connecticut, 
pp. 159 et'seq.) 

This decision, in effect, decided upon a line 20 miles east of the Hud- 
sou Eiver as the boundary, having for a starting point a place on Ma- 
maroneck Eiver. 

In 1674 the Duke of York received a new charter in substantially the 
same terms as that of 1664. New controversies concerning jurisdiction 
led to a new agreement, by which it was stipulated that a tract of land 
ou Long Island Sound, the bounds of which were described as con- 
taining 01,440 acres, should be permanently set off to Connecticut by 
New York on condition that the former, in exchange, should set off to 
New York a territory of like extent and of uniform width from the tract 
on the Sound to the south line of Massachusetts. This agreement was 
sanctioned by a royal ordinance of the King, and in 1684 the tract on 
the Sound was surveyed and set off to Connecticut. 

The western boundary of Connecticut was run in 1685 by Major 
Gould, Mr. Barr, and Mr. Selleck, and ratified by both parties. ( Vide 
Dwight's Counecticut, p. 199.) 

For various reasons the survey of the equivalent lands was not made 
at that time. 

In 1725 commissioners were appointed on both sides to fix the line, 

(523) 



68 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

this being the fifth set appointed for the same purpose, none of ^hich 
had been able to come to an agreement. 

The commii<siouers of 1725, however, entered into articles of agree- 
ment settling the manner of the survey. They, however, ran only the 
line bounding the tract on Long Island Sound. 

For some cause action was then suspended until 1731, when the com- 
missioners of 1725 surveyed and set off the oblong or equivalent terri- 
tory to Nevf York, defining and marking its boundary, which was to 
remain forever the dividing line between the respective States (then 
colonies). The line was substantially as at present, and is as follows, 
viz: 

Beginning at Lyon's Point, in tbe mouth of a brook or river called Byram's 
River, where it falls into Long Island Sound, and running thence up along said 
river to a rock at the ancient road or wading-place in said river, which rock bears 
north twelve degrees and forty-five minutes east, five hundred and fifty rods from 
said point; then north twenty-three degrees and forty-five minutes west, two thou- 
sand two hundred and ninety -two rods; then east-northeast, thirteen miles and sixty- 
four rods, which lines were established in the year one thousand seven hundred and 
twenty-five, by Francis Harrison, Cadwaller Golden, and Isaac Hicks, commissioners 
on the part of the then province of New York, and Jonathan Law, Samuel Eells, 
Roger Walcott, John Copp, and Edmund Lewis, commissioners on the part of the 
then colony of Connecticut, and were run as the magnetic needle then pointed; then, 
along an east-northeast continuation of the last-mentioned course, one mile, three- 
quarters of a mile, and twenty-one rods, to a monnment erected in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and thirty-one by Cadwaller Golden, Gilbert Willett, Vin- 
cent Matthews, and Jacobus Bruyn, jr., commissioners on the part of said province, 
and Samuel Eells, Roger Walcott, and Edmund Lewis, commissioners on the-part of 
said colony, which said monument is at the southeast corner of a tract known and 
distinguished as the oblong or equivalent lauds ; then north twenty-four degrees and 
thirty minutes west, until intersected by a line run by said last-mentioned commis- 
sioners, on a course south twelve degrees and thirty minutes west, from a monument 
erected by them in the south bounds of Massachusetts, which monument stands in a 
valley in theTaghkanick Mountains, one hundred and twenty-one rods eastward from 
a heap of stones in said bounds, on the top or ridge of the most westerly of said 
mountains ; then north twelve degrees and thirty minutes east from a monument 
erected by said last-mentioned commissioners at said place of intersection, and stand- 
ing on the north side of a hill, southeasterly from the easternmost end of the long 
pond, along the aforesaid line to the aforesaid monument erected in the south bounds 
of Massachusetts— being the northeast corner of the oblong. (See Revised Statutes 
of N. Y., 1881, Vol. I, pages 128-9.) 

For more than a century no controversy arose, but subsequent to 1850 
questions of jurisdiction were raised, and in 1855 Connecticut made a 
proposition for a new survey. Several sets of commissioners were 
appointed, but no agreement being reached, finally, in 18G0, pursuant 
to an act of the legislature of New York, the line was run by the New 
York commissioners, Connecticut not being represented. 

The first section of the act of the New York legislature is as follows, 
viz: 

1. The commissioners appointed by the governor to ascertain the boundary line be- 
tween the States of Now York and Connecticut are hereby empowered and directed 

(524) 



OANNBTT.J CONNECTICUT. 69 

to survey and mark, with suitable monuments, the saii line between the two States 
as fixed by the survey of 1731. , 

The following is au abstract of tbe engineer's report of the line run 
under direction of the commissioners from New York, the Connecticut 
commissioners declining to be i)rosent or assist, viz: 

Beginning at the northwe.^t corner of Connecticut, at the monument 
erected by the commissioners of New York and Connecticut in ] 731, lati- 
tude 42° 02' 58".54, longiiude 7oO 'MV 0(;",()(); thence south Ifo 20' west, 
404 chains, to the "47th niile nu nuinent; thence south 12° ,34' west, 239 
chains, 57 links, to the 44t]i mile monument point; thence south 11° 33' 
west,. 100 chains 99 links, to the 42d mile monument; thence south 13° 
10' west, 101 chains 24 links, to the 40th mile monument i)oint; thence 
south 12° 21' west, 398 chains 21 links, to the 35th mile monument; 
thence south 12° 32' west, 158 chains 90 links, to the 33d mile monu- 
ment; thence south 11° 44' west, 243 chains 37 links, to the 30th mile 
monument; thence south 12° 27' west, 101 chains 32 links, to the 28th 
mile monument ; thence south 10° 50' west, 100 chains, to the 2Gth mile 
monument point ; thence south 11° 39' west, 320 chains 11 links, to the 22d 
mile moiuiment; thence south 12° 18' west, 103 chains 17 links, to the 
20th mile monument ; thence south 11° 49' west, 159 chains 9 links, to 
the 18th mile monument; thence south 12° 19' west, 157 chains 15 links, 
to the ICth mile monument; thence south 10° 11' west, 101 chains 
7 links to the 14th mile monument ; thence south 10° 51' west, 313 chains 
41 links, to the 10th mile monument point; thence south 12° 24' west, 
155 chains 71 links, to the 8th mile monument ; thence south 10° 19' west, 
159 chains 28 links, to the 0th mile monument j)oiut ; thence south 12° 
10' west, 104 chains 42 links, to the 4th mile monument ; thence south 
11° 44' west, 158 chains 99 links, to the 2-mile monument; thence south 
14° 10' west, 109 chains 41 links, to the Eidgefield angle monument;^ 
thence south 25° 8' east, 213 chains 39 links, to the 4th mile monument 
on the east line of the oblong between the Wilton and Ridgefield angles; 
thence south 24° 48' east, 157 chains 03 links, to the 2-mile monument ; 
thence south 24° 14' east, 107 chains 28 links, to the Wilton angle mon- 
ument, or southeast corner of the oblong as set oft" by the commission- 
ers of 1731 ; thence south 07° 45' west, 138 chains 70 links, to the south- 
west corner of the oblong, and being where the survey of 1725 termi- 
nated ; thence south 05° 44' west, 90 chains 87 links, to a point consid- 
ered the original 12th mile monument point ; thence south 00° 50' west, 
241 chains 93 links, to a point called the 9th mile monument; thence 
south 00° 45' west, 319 chains 12 links, to the 5th mile monument point ; 
thence south 00° 25' west, 398 chains 40 links, to the angle at the Duke's 

*The mile monuments referred to are those, at that time remaining, which were 
established by the Connecticut and New York commissioners of 1731. 

9 The entire distance from the Massachusetts line to Ridgefield angle is 52 miles 35 
rods, a difference of only 5 rods from the survey of 1731. 

(525) 



70 BOUNTDAEIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Trees ; thence south 23° 38' east, 172 chains 93 links, to a point which is 
west-southwest aud distant 32 rods from the chimney iu the okl Chipp 
house ; thence south 21° 21' east, 221 chains 78 links, to a point opposite 
the old William Anderson house ; thence south 24P 19' east, 173 chains 7 
links, to the great stone at the ancient wading place on Byrom Eiver; 
thence south 17° 45' west, 12 chains 60 links, to a rock iu the river which 
can be seen at low tide, in which there is a bolt ; thence south 27° west, 
55 chains 19 links ; thence south 7° 20' east, 13 chains 45 links ; thence 
south 12° 10' east, IG chains 13 links ; thence south 2° 40' east, 9 chains 
4 links ; thence south 28° 25' east, 9 chains 54 links; thence south 18° 40' 
east, 4 chains 77 links; thence south 11° 55' west, C chains 33 links ; thence 
south 58° 10' west, to where it falls into the sound. (See report of the 
commissioners to ascertain and settle the boundary line between the 
States of i!s^ew York aud Connecticut, February 8, 1861, iu which will 
also be found a complete account of this controversy.) 

The latitude and longitude of the northwest corner of Connecticut 
are taken from Borden's Trigonometrical Survey of IMassachusetts. 

In 1880 commissioners were appointed by Connecticut and New York. 
Their report was ratified in 1880. 

These commissioners reported as follows, viz : 

"We agree that the boundary on the laud constituting the western boundary of Con- 
necticut aud the eastern boundary of New York shall be aud is as the same was de- 
fined by monuments erected by commissioners appointed by the State of New York, 
and completed in the year 1S60, the said boundary line extending from Byram Point, 
f(trraerly called Lyon's Point, on the south, to the line of the State of Massachusetts 
on the north. 
And we further agree that the boundary on the sound shall be and is as follows: 
Beginning at a point in the center of the channel, about 600 feet south of the ex- 
treme rocks of Byram Point, marked No. 0, on appended United States Coast Survey 
chart ; thence running in a true southeast course 3^ statute miles ; thence iu a straight 
lino (the arc of a great circle) northeasterly to a point 4 statute miles due south of 
New London Light-House ; thence northeasterly to a point marked No. 1, on the annexed 
United States Coast Survey chart of Fisher's Island Sound, which point is on the 
longitude east three-quarters north, sailing course down ou said map, and is about 
1,000 feet northerly from the Hommock or North Dumpling Light-House ; thence fol- 
lowing said east three-fourths north sailing course as laid down on said map, easterly to 
a point marked No. 2 on said map ; thence southeasterly to a point marked No. 3 on 
said map ; so far as said States are coterminous. (See Revised Statutes of New York, 
1881, Vol., I, page 136.) 

Th'? above agreement concerning these boundaries between Connec- 
ticut and Xew York was confirmed by the Congress of the United States 
on February 26, 1881. (See Eevised Statutes of United States, 1881.) 

(For the history and present location of the eastern boundary of Con- 
necticut, ride Massachusetts, p. 55, aud IHiode Island, p. 65. For the 
northern boundary, vide Massachusetts, p. 58.) 

Under the charter of 1662 Connecticut claimed a large western ter- 
ritory. Subsequent to the Revolution, however, in 1786, 1792, 1795, and 
1800, she relinquished all title to any land west of her present boundary. 

(526) 



GANNETT.] ' NEW YOEK. 71 



NEW YORK. 

The territory included in the present State of New York was em- 
braced in the French and English grants of 1603 and 1606. The Dutch, 
however, in 1613 established trading posts on the Hudson River and 
claimed jurisdiction over the territory between the Connecticut and Del- 
aware Eivers, which they called New Netherlands. The government 
was vested in "The United New Netherland Company," chartered in 
1616, and then in " The Dutch West India Company," chartered in 1621. 

In 1664 King Charles II of England granted to his brother, the Duke 
of York, a large territory in America, which included, with other lands, 
all that tract lying between the west bank of the Connecticut River 
and the east bank of the Delaware. The Duke of York had previously 
purchased, in 1663, the grant of Long Island and other islands on the 
New England coast, made in 1635 to the Earl of Stirling, and in 1664, 
with an armed fleet, he took possession of New Amsterdam, which was 
thenceforth called New York. This conquest was confirmed by the 
treaty of Breda, in 1667. 

The following is an extract from the grant of 1664 to the Duke of 
York: 

All that parte of the maine land of New England beginning at a certaine place 
called or knowne by the name of St. Croix next adjoyniug to New Scotland in Amer- 
ica and from thence extending along the sea coast unto a certain i^lace called Petna- 
qnino or Pemaquid and so up the River thereof to the further head of ye same as it 
tendoth northwards and extending from thence to the River Kinebequi and so up- 
wards by the shortest course to the River Canada northward and also all that Island 
or Islands commonly called by the severall name or names of Matowacks or Long 
Island scituate lying and being towards the west of Cape Codd and ye narrow Hig- 
ansctts abutting upon the maine land between the two Rivers there called or knowne 
by the severall names of Conecticutt and Hudsons River togather also with the said 
river of Hudsons River and all the land from the west side of Conecticutt to ye east 
side of Delaware Bay and also all those severall Islands called, or knowne by the 
names of Martin's Vinyard and Nantukes otherwise Nantuckett togather with all ye 
lands islands soyles harbours mines minerals quarryes woods marshes waters lakes 
tfishings hawking hunting and ffowling and all other royalltyes proffitts commodi- 
tyes and hereditaments to the said sevcrale island lands and premisses belonging and 
appertaining with theire and every of theire appurtenances and all our estate right 
title interest benefitt adva,ntage claime and demand of in or to the said lands and 
premises or any part or parcell thereof and the revercon and revercons remainder and 
remainders togather with the yearly and other ye rents revenues and profQtts of all 
and singular the said premisses and of every part and parcell thereof to have and to 
hold all and singular the said lands islands hereditaments and premisses with their 
and every of their appurtenances. 

In July, 1673, the Dutch recaptured New York and held it until it 
was restored to the English by the treaty of Westminster, in February, 
1674. 

The Duke of York thereupon, to perfect his title, obtained a new 

(527) 



72 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

grant, in substantially the same terms as that of 1664 (0. and C, p. 
1328), of which the following is an extract, viz: 

# # • * *■ # # 

All that part of the main land of New England, beginning at a certain place 
called or known by the name of Saint Croix nexe adjoining to New Scotland in 
America, and from thence extending along the sea-coast into a certain place call«-d 
Petuaquim or Pemquid, and so up the river thereof to the furthest head of the same 
as it windeth northward and extending from the river of Kinebequ and so upwards 
by the shortest course to the river Canada northwards ; and all that island or isl- 
ands commonly called by the several name or names of Matowacks or Long Islands, 
situate and being toward the west of Cape Cod and the narrow Higansuts abutting 
upon the main land between the two rivers there called or known by the several 
names of Connecticut and Hudson Rivers, together also with the said river called 
Hudson's River, and all the lands from the west side of Connecticut River to the east 
side of Delaware Bay ; and also all those several islands called or known by the 
names of Martin Vinyard and Nantukes, otherwise Nantuckett. 

# • » ♦ # # # 

By these grants to the Duke of York and the conquest*of the Dutch 
possessions in America, it will be seen that New York origiDallj had a 
claim to a much larger territory than is now included in her limits. The 
successive changes in her extent may be sketched as follows, viz: 

In 1664 the Duke of York sold the present State of New Jersey to 
Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. 

In 1682 the Duke of York sold to William Penu his title to Delaware 
and the country on the west bank of the Delaware, which had been 
originally settled by the Swedes, then conquered by the Dutch, and 
which had by them been surrendered to the Duke of York. 

In 1686 Pemaquid and its dependencies were annexed to the New 
England government by a royal order, the Duke of York having ac- 
ceded to the throne of England. 

By the charter of 1691 to Massachusetts Bay, all claim to any part 
of Maine was extinguished, and the islands of Nantucket, Martha's 
Vineyard, and others adjacent (hitherto known as Duke's County, 
New York), were annexed to Massachusetts Bay. 

The territory west of the Connecticut River to within about 20 miles 
of the Hudson Eiver, now forming portion of Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, were, by agreements and concessions made at various periods, 
surrendered to those States respectively. 

In 1781 New York released to the General Government all the lands 
to which she had claim west of a meridian extending through the west 
extremity of Lake Ontario, and in 1790 she gave up all claim to the 
present State of Vermont and consented to her independence. 

By these successive reductions New York was left with substantially 
her present boundaries. 

(For the history and settlement of the eastern boundary of New York, 
vide Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, ante pp. 46, 62, and 67.) 

The northern boundary was settled by the treaty of peace in 1783 

(528) 



OANKKTT.] NEW YORK. 73 

and by the commission under the sixth article of the treaty of Ghent. 
(Firfepp. 10 and 12.) 

The boundary between New York and New Jersey was plainly stated 
in the grant by the Duke of York to Berkeley and Carteret. ( Vide New 
Jersey, p. 70.) 

In 1711) attempts were made to have the line run and marked, but 
nothing seems to have been done to settle the matter permanently till 
17G9, when commissioners were ;ii)pointed by the King, who fixed on 
substantially the present line. ( Vide II. S. N. J., 1S21, pp. 29-34.) 

In 1772 this line was contirined by the legislatures of both colonies, 
and commissioners were appointed to survey and mark the same. 

This line was as follows, viz : 

A direct and str.iight line from the fork or branch formed by the junction of the 
stream or watens called the Machackauiack with the river Delaware or Fishkill, in 
the latitnde of 41° 21' 37", to a rock ou the west side of the Hudson River, marked by 
the said surveyors in the latitude of 41° — said rock was ordered to be marked — with 
the following words and figures, viz: ''Latitude 41° north;" and on the south side 
thereof "New Jersey"; and on the north side thereof "New York"; also, to mark 
every tree that stood on the line with five notches and a blaze on the northwest and 
Boutheast sides thereof, and to put up stone monuments, at 1 mile distance from each 
other, along the said lino, and to number such mouunientd with the number of miles; 
the same shall be from the before-mentioned marked rock on the west side of Hudson's 
River, and mark the words "New Jersey" on the south side, aud the words "New 
York" on the north side, of every of the said monuments. (See R. S. of N.J. ,1821, 
pp. 29-34.) 

The above was confirmed by the king in council September 1, 1773. 

In the year 1833 commissioners were appointed by New York and 
New Jersey for the settlement of the territorial limits and jurisdiction 
of the two States. 

In the following year the commissioners made the following agree- 
ment, which was ratified by each State and confirmed by Congress, viz : 

UNITED STATES STATUTES AT LARGE. TWENTY-THIRD CONGRESS, SESSION I. 1834. 

AN ACT j;^viDf; the consent of Congress to an agreement or compact entered into between the State 
of New York and the State of New Jersey, respecting the territorial limita and jurisdiction of said 
States. 

Article first. The boundary line between the two States of New York and New 
Jersey, from a point in the middle of Hudson River, opposite the point on the west 
shore thereof, in the forty-first degree of north latitude, as heretofore ascertained, and 
marked, to the main sea, shall be the middle of the said river, of the bay of New 
York, of the waters between Staten Island and New Jersey aud of Raritan Bay, to the 
main sea ; except as hereinafter otherwise i)articularly mentioned. 

Article second. The State of New York shall retain its present jurisdiction of 
and over Bedloe's and Ellis's Islands, aud shall also retain exclusive jurisdiction of 
and over the other islands lying in the waters above mentioned and now under the 
jurisdiction of that State. 

Article third. The State of New York shall have and enjoy exclusive jurisdiction 
of and over all the waters of Hudson River lying west of Manhattan Island and to the 
south of the mouth of Spuy tenduy vel Creek ; and of aud over the lands covered by the 
said waters to the low- water mark on the westerly or New Jersey side thereof; sub- 

(529) 



74 BOUNDARIES OF THE tTNITED STATES. [bull. 18. 

ject to the following rights of property and of jurisdiction of the State of New Jer- 
sey, that is to saj- : 

1. The State of New Jersey shall have the exclusive right of property in and to the 
land under water lying west of the middle of the bar of New York, and west of the 
middle of that part of the Hudson River which lies between Manhattan Island and 
New Jersey. 

2. The State of New Jersey shall have the exclusive jurisdiction of and over the 
wharves, docks, and improvements made and to be made on the shore of the said 
State ; and of and over all vessels aground on said shore, or fastened to any such 
wharf or dock, except that the said vessels shall be subject to the quarantine or health 
laws, and laws in relation to passengers, of the State of New York, which now exist 
or which may hereafter be passed. 

3. The State of New Jersey shall have the exclusive right of regulating the fisheries 
on the westerly side of the middle of said waters: Provided, That the navigation be 
not obstructed or hindered. 

Article fourth. The State of New York shall have exclusive jurisdiction of and 
over the waters of the Kill Von Kull between Staten Island and New Jersey to the 
westernmost end off Shorter's Island in respect to such quarantine laws, and laws 
relating to passengers, as now exist or may hereafter be passed under the authority of 
that State, and for executing the same; and the said State shall also have exclusive 
jurisdiction, for the like purposes, of and over the waters of the sound from the west- 
ermost end of Shorter's Island to Woodbridge Creek, as to all vessels bound to. any 
port in the said State of New York. 

Article fifth. The State of New Jersey shall have and enjoy exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of and over all the waters of the sound between Staten Island and New Jersey 
lying south of Woodbridge Creek, and of and over all the waters of Raritan Bay lying 
westward of a line drawn from the light-house at Prince's Bay to the mouth of Mat- 
tavan Creek ; subject to the following rights of property and of jurisdiction of the 
State of New York, that is to say : 

1. The State of New York shall have the exclusive right of property in and to the 
land under water lying between the middle of the said waters and Staten Island. 

2. The State of New York shall have the exclusive jurisdiction of and over the 
wharves, docks, and improvements made and to be made on the shore of Staten Isl- 
and, and of and over all vessels aground on said shore, or fastened to any such wharf or 
dock ; except that the said vessels shall be subject to the quarantine of health laws, 
and laws in relation to passengers of the State of New Jersey which now exist or 
which may hereafter be passed. 

3. The State of New York shall have the exclusive right of regulating the fisheries 
between the shore of Staten Island and the middle of said waters : Provided, That 
the navigation of the said waters be not obstructed or hindered. 

# » ♦ * * * « 

In 1876 commissioners were appointed to re-locate tbc laud boundary 
between New York and New Jersey, and rei)lace monnnieuts that may 
have become dilapidated or removed, or to erect new ones, etc. ( Vide 
Eev. of N. J., 1877.) 

The above commissioners fouud in some cases a sli.clit discrepancy 
between the original marks and the verbal descriptiou thereof, and the 
legislatures of each State ordered that the original monuments should 
be considered the true boundary. {See acts of New York, 1880, and 
acts of New Jersey, 1881.) 

In the year 1774 commissioners were appointed by New York and 
Pennsylvania to fix the beginning of the 43d degree of north latitude 

(530) 



GANNETT.] NEW YORK. 75 

oil the Mohawk or western branch of Delaware Eiver, which is the 
northeast corner of Pennsylvania, and to proceed westward and fix the 
line between Pennsylvania and New York. 

These commissioners reported in December of the same year that 
they fixed the said northeast corner of Pennsylvania, and marked it as 
follows, viz : 

On a small island in the said river they planted a stone marked with the letters 
and figures, New York, 1774, cut on the north side thereof; and the letters and fig- 
ures, latitude 42° variation 4° 20', cut on the top thereof; and in a direction duo 
west from thence on the west side of the said branch of Delaware, collected and 
placed a heap of stones at the water mark ; and proceeding further west four perches, 
planted another stone in the said line marked with the letters and figures, Pennsyl- 
vania, 1774, cut on the south side thereof, and the letters and figures, latitude 42° 
variation 4° 20', cut on the top thereof, and at the distance of eighteen perches due 
west from the last-mentioned stone marked an ash tree. The rigor of the season pre- 
vented them running the line farther. 

Nothing further seems to htive been done until 1786-'7, when com- 
missioners were appointed to finish the work thus begun {see Gary & 
Biorden's Laws of Pennsylvania, Vol. Ill, page 392), and the lines were 
run and monuments erected. The line was ratified in 1789, and is as 
follows, viz : 

Beginning at a point in Lake Erie, where the bouudaxy line between the United States 
and Great Britain is intersected by a meridian line drawn through the most westerly 
ben*^^oriuclinatiou of Lake Ontario ; then south along said meridian line to a monument 
in the beginning of the forty-third degree of north latitude, erected in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, by Abraham Herdenbergh and William 
W. Morris, commissioners on the part of this State, and Andrew Ellicottand Andrew 
Porter, commissioners on the part of the State of Pennsylvania, forthe purpose of mark- 
ing the termination of the line of jurisdiction between this State and the said State 
of Pennsylvania ; then east along the line established aud marked by said last-men- 
tioned commissioners to the ninetieth mile-stone in the same parallel of latitude, 
erected in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, by James Cliuton 
aud Simeon DeWitt, commissioners on the part of this State, and Andrew Ellicott, 
commissioner on the part of Pennsylvania ; which said ninetieth mile-stone stands 
on the western side of tiie south branch of the Tioga River; then east along the 
line established and marked by said last-mentioned commissioners, to a stone erected 
in the year one thousand seven hundred aud seventy-four, on a small island in the 
Delaware River, by Samuel Holland and David Rittenhouse. commissioners «n the part 
of the colonies of Pennsylvania and New York, for the purpose of marking the begin- 
ning of the forty-third degree of north latitude ; then down along said Delaware River 
to a point opposite to the fork or branch formed by the junction of the stream called 
Mahackamack with the said Delaware River, in the latitude of forty-one degrees, 
twenty-one minutes and thirty-seven seconds north ; then in a straight line to the 
termination on the east bank of the Delaware River of a line run in the year one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-four, by William Wickham and Samuel Gale, 
commissioners ou the part of the then colony of New York, and John Stevens and 
Walter Rutherford, commissioners on the part of the then colony of New Jersey. 
{See Revised Statutes of New York, 1881.) 

The meridian line forming the western boundary of New York was 
surveyed and mapped in 1790 by Andrew Ellicott, as United States 
commissioner (Pa. Archives, Vol. XII — Map), and the latitude formerly 

(531) 



76 BOUNDAEIES OF" THE tJNITED STATES. rBtTtL.13. 

inscribed on the monument on Lake Erie, fixing the western boundary, 
was 420 16' 13//. The report of the commissioner has not been found. 

In 1865 Dr. Peters, director of Hamilton College Observatory, under 
the directions of the Kegents of the University of New York, determined 
the latitude and longitude of the boundary monument aforesaid, with 
the following result: Latitude, 42° 16'2".8; longitude, 79° 45' 54".4. 
( Vid£ Dr. Peters' Eeport, 1868.) 

In 1877 the parallel of the forty-second degree north latitude was 
ascertained at four points, by the New York and Pennsylvania Joint 
Boundary Commission, with the following result, viz : 

1. At Travis Station (Hale's Eddy), very near the east end of that 
part of the New York and Pennsylvania line supposed to be on the 
forty-second parallel, the old line was found to be 275 feet north of the 
parallel. 

2. At Finn's Station, about 20 miles from east end (Great Bend), the 
line is 350 feet south of the parallel. 

3. At Burt's Station, about 70 miles from east end (Wellsburg), the 
line is 760 feet north of the parallel. 

4. At Clark's Station, abo"t 253 miles from east end (Wattsburg), the 
line is 150 feet north of the parallel. 

(See pamphlet, Eeport of Penn. Board of the Penn. & N. Y. Joint 
Boundary Comm.) 



NEW JERSEY. 

Although the original grants from the French and English sov- 
ereigns of 1603 and 1606 covered the territory forming the present 
State of New Jersey, the grant which first directly relates to New Jer- 
sey is that given in 1064 by the Duke of York to Lord John Berkeley 
and Sir George Carteret, two months before the setting out of his ex- 
pedition to take possession of New York. 

The following extract from that grant defines the boundaries, viz : 

All that tract of land adjacent to New England, and lying and being to the west- 
ward of Long Island and Manhitas Island, and bounded on the east part by the 
main sea and part by Hudson's River, and hath ui)on the -west Delaware Bay or 
river, and extendoth southward to the main ocean as far as Cape May, at the mouth 
of Delaware Bay, and to the northward as far as the northernmost branch of the said 
bay or river of Delaware, which is forty-one degrees and forty minutes of latitude, 
and crosseth over thence in a strait line to Hudson's River in forty-one degrees of lati- 
itude; which said tract of land is hereafter to be called by the name or names of New 
Ceaserea or New Jersey. ( Vfde Grants, Concessions, etc., of New Jersey, Learning 
& Spicer, p. 8.) 

In March, 1673, Lord Berkeley sold his undivided moiety of New Jer- 
sey to John Fenwick, by whom, in the following year, it was again sold. 
July 1, 1676, was executed the famous " Quintipartite deed," by which 

(532) 



GANNETT.] NEW JERSEY. 77 

the eastern part was giveu to Sir George Carteret, to be called East New 
Jersey, and tlie westeru part to tbe other proprietors, to be called West 
New Jersey. Sir George Carteret, at his death in 1G78, left his land to 
be sold. It was sold in 1G82 to the twelve proprietors, who admitted 
other partners. 

Confirmation grants were made to the proprietors of both provinces 
by the Duke of York, and confirmed by the King, but between 1697 and 
1701 the i)roprietors repeatedly made petitions to be allowed to surren- 
der their right of government to the Crown. Accordingly, in 1702, the 
surrender was made and accepted by the Queen, and both parts united 
were made the province of New Jersey. ( Vide Leaming and Spicer's 
grants, etc.) 

(For the history of the northern and eastern boundary, vide New York, 
p. 73.) 

The grant from the Duke of York to Berkeley and Carteret defined 
the west boundary of New Jersey to be the Delaware River. ( Vide 
p. 7G.) 

The line between New Jersey and Delaware is thus described in the 
Revised Statutes of Delaware, p. 2, viz: 

Low-watLT mark on the eastern side of the river Delaware, within the twolve-mile 
circle fn>m New Castle and the middle of the bay, below said circle. 

In 187G the legislature of New Jersey authorized the governor to com- 
mence a suit in the Supreme Court of the United States to settle the 
boundary between New Jersey and Delaware. New Jersey claimed 
jurisdiction to the middle of the Delaware, so far as the river and bay 
is a boundary between the two States. ( Vide Revision of New Jersey, 
p. 1185.) 

In 1783 Commissioners were appointed by New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania to settle the jurisdiction of the river Delaware and the islands 
within the same. Their report was ratified, and is in substance as fol- 
lows : 

First. It is declared that the river Delaware from the station point 
or northwest corner of New Jersey, northerly to the place upon the said 
river where the circular boundary of the State of Delaware touches 
upon the same, iu the whole length and breadth thereof, is and shall 
continue to be and remain a common highway, equally free and open 
for the use, benefit, and advantage of the said contracting parties, etc. 

Second. That each State shall enjoj^ and exercise a concurrent juris- 
diction within and upon the water, and not upon the dry land between 
the shores of said river, etc. 

Third. That all islets, islands, and dry land within the bed and be- 
tween the shores of said river, and between said station point northerly 
and the falls of Trenton southerly, shall, as to jurisdiction, be hereafter 
deemed and considered as parts and parcels of the State to which such 
insulated dry land doth lie nearest at the time of making this agree- 

(533) 



78 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

luent, and that from said falls of Trenton to the State ol Dclavrare 
southerly, certain islands (in the agreement they are named B) be an- 
nexed to each State respectively. ( Vide Eevision of New Jersey, p. 
1181.) 

In 1786 commissioners were appointed by New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania for more accurately determining and describing the islands men- 
tioned in the foregoing agreement ; that is, those in the Delaware from 
the northwest corner of New Jersey down to the falls of Trenton, Their 
report was ratified, and a long list of islands, described by name in the 
act, were annexed to each State respectively. ( Vide Eevision of New 
Jersey, pp. 1182-'3.) 



PENNSYLVANIA. 

The Swedish West India Company, chartered by the King of Swe- 
den in 1625, established the first permanent settlement on the west bank 
of the Delaware, occupying a part of the territory now in Pennsylvania 
and Delaware, although the Dutch had previously established trading 
posts, which had been destroyed by the Indians. The Swedes acquired, 
by successive purchases from the Indian chiefs, all the land extending 
from Cape Henlopeu to the great falls of the Delaware, calling it New 
Sweden. ( Vide C. and C, p. 1509.) 

In 1655 this territory was surrendered to the Dutch. ( Vide Hazard's 
Annals of Pennsylvania, p. 185.) 

By the conquest of the New Netherlands, in 1664, the Duke of York 
seems to have successfully claimed the settlements on the west bank of 
the Delaware as a part of his dominions. 

In 1681 Charles II of England granted to William Penn the Province 
of Pennsylvania. The following extract from the charter defines the 
boundaries : 

* * " all that Tracte or Parte of Land in America, with all the Islands therein 
conteyned, as the same is bounded on the East by Delaware Eiver, from twelve miles 
distance Northwards of New Castle Towne unto the three and fortieth degree of North- 
erne Latitude, if the said River doeth extende so farre northwards; But if the said 
River shall not extend soe farre Northward, then by the said River soe farr as it doth 
extend ; and from the head of the said River the Eastern Bounds are to bee determined 
by a Meridian Line, to bee drawue from the head of the said River, unto the said three 
and fortieth degree. The said Lauds to extend westwards five degrees in longitude, to 
bee computed from the said Easterue Bounds; and the said Lands to bee bounded on 
the North by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of Northern Latitude, and 
on the South by a Circle drawue at twelve miles distance from New Castle Northward 
and Westward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of Northern Latitude, and 
thence by a streight Line Westward to the Limit of Longitude above mentioned. 

William Penn, in order to perfect his title, procured of the Duke of 
York a deed bearing date Augnsf21, 1682, by which the Duke of York 
conveyed to him all title and claim which he might have to the province 
of Pennsylvania. ( Vide Hazard's Annals of Pa., 586 ei seq.) 

(534) 



OANNETT.] PENNSYLVANIA. 79 

He also purchased of the Duke of York the territory now compris- 
iug the State of Delaware, which he held uutil 1701-'2, when he granted 
a charter which enabled them to set up a separate government, tiiough 
still under proprietory control. {Vide 0. and C, p. 270 et seq.) 

(For a history of the northern and eastern boundaries of Penusylv^a- 
nia, see New York and New Jersey, pp. 71 and 7G.] 

That part of the southern boundary of Pennsylvania between Penn- 
sylvania and Delaware is an arc of a circle, having for its center the 
steeple of the old court-house at New Castle, Del., and a radius of 12 
miles. This was surveyed and marked under a warrant from William 
Penn in 1701. {Vide Hazard's Annals of Pennsylvania.) 

This circular line, in connection with adjacent lines, was made the 
subject of controversy for many years. 

According to the original grants of Pennsylvania and Maryland the 
boundary between them was to be the fortieth degree of north latitude. 

This line being found to pass north of Philadelphia and to exclude 
Pennsylvania from Delaware Bay, negotiations ensued between the 
l)roprietors to rectify this geographical blunder, and for nearly a cen- 
tury the matter remained unsettled. 

In the year 1732 an agreement was made to fix the boundary. Com- 
missioners were appointed in that year, and subsequently in 1739, to ruu 
tbe line, but they failed to agree, and chancery suits were the result. 
Taking a decision of Lord Chancellor Hardwick in 1750 as a basis of 
final adjudication, an agreement was signed July 4, 1760. By this 
agreement the line between Pennsylvania and Delaware on the one 
part and Maryland on the other was determined as follows, viz : 

A due east and west line should be run across the peninsula from 
Cape Henlopen to the Chesapeake Bay. From the exact middle of 
this line should be drawn a line tangent to the western periphery of a 
circle, having a radius of 12 English statute miles, measured horizon- 
tally from the center of the town of New Castle. From the tangent 
point a line should be drawn due north until it cut a parallel of latitude 
15 miles due south of the most southern part of the city of Philadelphia, 
this point of intersection to be the northeast corner of Maryland ; thence 
the line should run due west on said parallel as far as it formed a boun- 
dary between the two governments. ( Vide Delaware, p. 81.) 

In 17C0 commissioners and surveyors were appointed, who spent three 
years in measuring the base line and the tangent line between Maryland, 
and Delaware. 

The proprietors then, wearied with the delay, sent over from England 
two famous mathematicians, Charles Dixon and Jeremiah Mason, who 
verified the work of their predecessors, and ran the line west between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, since known as " Mason and Dixon's line." 

Mason and Dixon fixed the latitude of this line at 39° 43' 18". A 
resurvey in 1850 by Colonel Graham determined it to be 39° 43' 26".3. 

(535) 



80 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Mason and Dixon begun their work in 1763, and were stopped by In- 
dians in 1767, having run the line about 244 miles west of the Delaware, 
not quite finishing their work. They put up mile stones all along said 
line, every fifth one being marked with the arms of the respective pro- 
prietors. 

In consequence of the accidental removal of the stone at the north- 
east corner of Maryland, commissioners were appointed in 1850 by Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, and Maryland to revise the former survey, which 
was done by Lieutenant-Colonel Graham, of the United States topo- 
graphical engineers. The result confirmed the work of Mason and 
Dixon, and Maryland gained by the resurvey a little less than two 
acres. 

(For a full report of the running of Mason and Dixon's line in 1763-'67, 
and the verification by Colonel Graham in 1850, see Seuate Journal of 
Delaware for 1851, pages 56-109.) 

In 1784 the report of the commissioners who had been appointed to fix 
the boundaries between Virginia and Pennsylvania (West Virginia then 
forming part of Virginia) was confirmed, and the lines so fixed are as 
follows, viz: 

The line commonly called Mason and Dixon's line to be extended due west five de- 
grees of longitude from the river Delaware, for the southern boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania, and a meridian drawn from the western extremity thereof to the northern 
limits of the said States, respectively, be the western boundary of Pennsylvania. 
( Vide C. and B. laws of Pennsylvania, Vol. II, p. 495, and Hening's Virginia, Vol. XI, 
p. 554.) 

By the cession of 1784, by Virginia to the United States — and that of 
1800, by Connecticut to the United States, and the formation of the 
State of West Virginia from a portion of Virginia in 1862 — the above- 
mentioned meridian line becomes the boundary between Pennsylvania 
on the east, and Ohio and West Virginia on the west. 

By an examination of the cession of 1781, by New York to the United 
States, it will be seen that a small triangular tract on Lake Erie was 
left in the hands of the General Government. This was sold to Penn- 
sylvania in 1792. 



DELAWARE. 

The State of Delaware was originally settled by the Swedes. ( Vide 
Pennsylvania, p. 78.) In 1635 it was surrendered to the Dutch, who, 
in 1664, in turn surrendered it to the English, and it was taken posses- 
sion of by the Duke of York. 

William Penn, having received in 1682 a grant of the province of 
Pennsylvania, bought of the Duke of York the territory comprising 
the present State of Delaware. It was conveyed to him by two deeds 

(536) 



GANNETT] DELAWAEE. 81 

of feoffment, dated August 24, 1682, one conveying the town of New 
Castle and a twelve mile circle around the same, and the other convey- 
ing all the lands south of said circle to Cape Henlopen. (See Hazard's 
Annals of Pennsylvania, p. 588, et seq.) 

Soon after the grant made by the royal charter aforesaid, an as- 
sembly of the province and three lower counties (then called the ter- 
ritories) was called by the proprietary and governor aforesaid, which 
met at Chester on the seventh day of December, 1G82, when the follow- 
ing laws, among others, were passed, to wit: 

* * * Siuce » * * it lias pleased King Cliarles the Second * * * togrant 

* * * William Peuu, esq., * * » ti^jg Province of Peunsylvauia * * * 
And * James Duke of York and Albany' * * * to release his right and claim 
* * * to the Province of Pennsylvania * » * and * » » to grant unto the 
said William Ponu * * * all that tract of land from twelve miles northward of New 
Castle, ou the river Delaware, down to the South Capo (commonly called Cape Hen- 
lopen, and by the Proprietary and Governor now called Cape Jomus) lying ou the 
■west side of the said river and hay, * * * lately cast into three counties, called 
New Castle, Jones, and Whorekills (alias New Dale. * * * Be it enacted * * 
that the counties of New Castle, Jones, and Whorekills alias New Dale * » * 
are annexed to the Province of Pennsylvania. » * * (Dallas' Laws of Pennsylva- 
nia, 1797, Vol. I, Appendix, p. 24, et seq). 

In 1701 William Penn granted a charter, under which the province 
of Pennsylvania and the territories (as Delaware was then called) were 
made separate governments, though both were still under the proprie- 
tary government of William Penn. (C. & C, p. 270.) 

By the Revolution the "territories" became the State of Delaware, 
with substantially her present boundaries. 

(For a history of the boundaries between Delaware and Pennsylvania, 
vide Pennsylvania, p. 79, and between Delaware and New Jersey, vide 
New Jersey, p. 77, et seq.) 

From 1732 to 1769 there was a controversy between the proprietors 
of Pennsylvania and Maryland in regard to boundaries {vide p. 79). 
The boundaries of Delaware on the north and west — Delaware then be- 
ing under the jurisdiction of Pennsylvania — were determined as follows, 
viz: 

Beginning at Cape Henlopen and running due west 34 miles ?09 
perches; tlience in a straight line 81 miles 78 chains and 30 links up 
the peninsula until it touches and makes a tangent to the western per- 
iphery of a circle, drawn at the horizontal distance of twelve English 
statute miles from the center of the town of New Castle. 

From this tangent point a line was run due north till it cut a parallel 
of latitude 15 miles due south of the most southern part of the city of 
Philadelphia. This point of intersection is the northeast corner of 
Maryland. The tangent line beariug a little west of north, the due 
north line from the tangent point cuts off' an arc of the 12-mile circle. 
The boundary line follows the arc of the circle from the tangent point 
around to the point where the due north line intersects the 12-mile 

(537) 
4596— BuU. 13 6 



82 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

circle, tlieu follows said due uortli line to said northeast corner of Mary- 
land. The length of said due north line is 5 miles 1 chain and 50 links, 
as given by Mason and Dixon. ( Vide Jour. Del. Sen., 1851, p. 56 et seq.) 

By the agreement of 1760, based on the decree of Chancellor Hard- 
wick, a due east and west line should be run across the peninsula from 
Cape Heulopen to Chesapeake Bay, etc. The decree of Lord Hardwick 
says, touching the position of Caj^e Heulopen, " that Cape Henlopen 
ought to be deemed and taken to be situated at the place where the same 
is laid down and described -in the map or plan annexed to the said arti- 
cles to be situated, and therefore his lordship doth further order and 
decree that the said articles be carried into execution accordingly," etc. 

In Hazard's Annals of Pennsylvania, p. 5, is found the following, viz: 
" The cape now called Henlopen was then called Cornells." 

William Penn directed that Cape Henlopen be called Cape James. 
( Vide Hazard's Peunusylvania, jj. 600 ; also vide Act of union of the 
territories to Pennsylvania.) 

The foregoing statements explain the seeming incongruity between 
the base line across the peninsula and the position of Cai)e Henlopen 
as laid down on all modern maps. 



MARYLAND. 

The territory comprising the present area of Maryland was included 
in the previous charters of Virginia, notwithstanding which, in the 
year 1632, Lord Baltimore received a royal grant of the province of 
Maryland, whose boundaries are defined in the following extract: 

All that part of tlio Pcuiiisula or Chersonese, lyiog in parts of America, between 
the ocean on the east and the Bay of Chesapeake on the west ; divided from the res- 
idue thereof by a right lino drawn from the promontory or headland called Watkins 
Point, situate upon the bay aforesaid, near the River Wighco on the west unto the 
main ocean on the oast, and between that boundary on the south unto that part of 
the Bay of Delaware on the north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of north 
latitude fi'om the equinoctial, whore New England is terminated; and all the tract 
of that land within the motes underwritten (that is to say), passing from the said 
bay, called Delaware Bay, in a riglit line, by the degree aforesaid, unto the true 
meridian of the first fountain of the River Pattowmack ; thence verging towards the 
south unto the farther bank of the said river, and following the sarao on the west 
and south unto a certain place called Cinquack, situate near the mouth of said river, 
where it disembogues into the aforesaid Bay of Chesapeake, and thence by the short- 
est line unto the aforesaid promontory or place called Watkins Point, so that the 
■ whole tract of land divided by the line aforesaid, between the main ocean and Wat- 
kins Point unto the promontory called Capo Charles, may entirely remain forever 
excepted to us ****** . 

By an examination of the limits laid down in this charter, and a com- 
parison with the several charters of Virginia and the charter and deeds 

(538) 



GANNETT.] MARYLAND. 83 

to William Peun, it will be seen that there was a conflict of boundaries 
on both sides of the Maryland grant. 

The history of the long controversy with Pennsylvania has already 
been given {vide Pennsylvania, p. 79, and Delaware, p. 80). Virginia on 
the south claimed the territory under her charters, and for a time seemed 
disposed to assert her claim, notwithstanding we find in 1G38 a procla- 
mation by the governor and council of Virginia recognizing the prov- 
ince of Maryland, and forbidding trade with the Indians within the lim- 
its of Maryland without the consent of Lord Baltimore previously ob- 
tained {ride Bozman's Maryland, vol. II, p. 586). Virginia's claim was 
finally given up by a treaty or agreement made in 1G58. (For a full 
account vide Bozman's Maryland, p. 444 et seq.) 

In 1()G3 the Virginia assembly ordered a survey of the line between 
Virginia and Maryland on the peninsula, and declared it to be as fol- 
lows, viz : 

From Watkius Poiut east across the peu insula. 

They define Watkins Point 

To be tlio north side of Wiconiicoe Eiver on the Eastern shore and. ueere unto and 
on th(^ sonth side of the streiyht lind)e oppopite to Patuxeut Kiver. 

{Vide JBening's Virginia, vol. II, p. 184.) 

In 1GG8 commissioners were appointed by Maryland and Virginia to 
fix the boundary across the peninsula. The commissioners were Philip 
Calvert, esq., chancellor of Maryland, and Col. Edmund Scarbrugh, his 
majesty's surveyor- general of Virginia. Their report is as follows, viz: 

* * * After a full and perfect view taken of the point of laud made by the north 
side of Poconioko Bay and south side of Annamessexs Bay have and do conclude the 
same to bo Watkins Poiut, from which said point so called, we have run an east line, 
agreeable with the extreamest part of the westermost angle of the said Watkins 
Poiut, OTcr Pocomoke River to the land near Robert Holston's, and there have marked 
certain trees which are so continued by an east line running over Swansecutes Creeke 
into the marsh of the seaside with apparent marks and boundaries * * » Signed 
June 25, 1868. (Vide Md. Hist. Soc. Coll. of State papers, volume marked 4 L. C. B., 
pp. 63-64.) 

Virginia, by the adoption of her constitution of 177G (see Article 21), 
relinquished all claim to territory covered by the charter of Maryland, 
thereby fixing Maryland's western boundary as follows : 

Commencing on a true meridian of the first fountain of the river Pattawmack, 
thence verging towards the south unto the further bank of the said river and follow- 
ing the same on the west and south unto a certain place called Cinquack, situate near 
the mouth of said river where it disembogues into the aforesaid bay of Chessopeake, 
and thence by the shortest line unto the aforesaid promontory or place called Watkius 
Point, thence a right line to the main ocean on the east. (See charter of Maryland.) 

The foregoing are substantially the present boundaries ; but from that 
time up to the present a controversy^ has been going on concerning them. 

In 1786 a compact was entered into between the States of Maryland 
and Virginia, but as this referred more particularly to the navigation 

(539) 



84 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull.IX 

and exercise of jurisdiction on the waters of Chesapeake Bay, the Po- 
tomac and Pocoinoke Eivers, they are not given here. ( Vide Hening's 
Va., Vol. XII, p. 50.) 

From 1821 to 1858 frequent legislation took place in regard to this 
boundary. 

In the last-named year commissioners were appointed by Maryland 
and Virginia, respectively, who, with the assistance of Lieut. N. Mich- 
ler, United States Engineers, surveyed the lines. 

In 1860 the governor of Virginia, under a resolution of the legisla- 
ture, appointed and sent an agent to England to collect records and 
documentary evidence bearing on this question. 

The rebellion ensuing, nothing further was done until 1867, when 
legislation again commenced. 

The question of this boundary was referred to arbitrators by an 
agreement made in 1874, each State binding itself to accept their award 
as final and conclusive. 

J. S. Black, of Pennsylvania ; William A. Graham, of North Caro- 
lina, and Charles A. Jenkins, of Georgia, were appointed arbitrators. 

William A. Graham having died, James B. Beck, of Kentucky, was 
appointed in his stead. 

The arbitrators made, in 1877, the following award, viz : 

Beginning at the point on the Potomac River where the line between Virginia and 
West Virginia strikes the said river at low-water mark, and thence following the 
meauderings of said river by the low-water mark to Smith's Point, at or near the 
mouth of the Potomac, in the latitude 37° 53' 8" and longitude 76° 13' 46"; thence 
crossing the waters of the Chesapeake Bay, by a line running north 65° 30' east, 
about nine and a half nautical miles to a point on the western shore of Smith's 
Island at the north end of Sassafras Hammock, in latitude 37° 57' 13", longi- 
tude 76° 2' 52" ; thence across Smith's Island south 88° 30' east five thousand six 
hundred and twenty yards to the center of Horse Hammock, on the eastern shore 
of Smith's Island, iu latitude 37° 57' 8", longitude 75° 59' 20"; thence south 79° 
30' east four thousand eight hundred and eighty yards to a point marked "A" 
on the accompanying map, in the middle of Tangier Sound, in latitude 37° 56' 
42", longitude 75° 56' 23'', said point bearing from James Island light south 54° 
west, and distant from that light three thousand five hundred and sixty yards ; 
thence south 10" 30' west four thousand seven hundred and forty yards by a lino di- 
viding the waters of Tangier Souud, to a point where it intersects the straight line 
from Smith's Point tp Watkins Point, said point of intersection being in latitude 37° 
54' 21", longitude 75° 56' 55", bearing from James Island light south 29° west and 
from Horse Hammock south 34° 30' east. This point of intersection is marked "»B" 
on the accompanying map. Thence north 85° 15' east six thousand seven hundred and 
twenty yards along the line above mentioned, which runs from Smith's Point to Wat- 
kins Point until it reaches the latter spot, namely Watkins Point, which is in lati- 
tude 37° 54' 38", longitude 75° 52' 44". From Watkins Point the boundary line runs 
due east seven thousand eight hundred and eighty yards to a point where it meets a 
line running through the middle of Poconioke Sound, which is marked "C" on the 
accompanying map, and is in latitude 37° 54' 38", longitude 75° 47' 50" ; thence by a 
line dividing the waters of Pocomoke Sound north 47° 30' east five thousand two 
hundred and twenty yards to a point in said sound marked "D" on the accompany- 
ing map, in latitude 37° 56' 25", longitude 75° 45' 26"; thence following the middle 

(540) 



GANNETT.] DISTEICT OF COLUMBIA. 85 

of Pocomoke River by a Hue of irregular curves, as laid down on the accompanying 
map, until it intersects the westward protraction of the boundary line marked by 
Scarborough and Calvert, May ^8, 1668, at a point in the middle of Pocomoke River, 
and in the latitude 37° 59' 37", longitude 75° 37' 4" ; thence by the Scarborough and 
Calvert line, which runs 5° 15' north of east, to the Atlantic Ocean. 

The latitudes, longitudes, courses, and distances here given have been measured upon 
the Coast Chart No. 33 of U. S. Coast Survey, sheet No. 3, Chesapeake Bay. » » » 
The middle thread of the Pocomoke River and the low-water mark on the Potomac 
River are to be measured from headland to headland, without considering or following 
arms, inlets, creeks, bays, or affluent rivers. » » » ( Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, 
Vol. XX, p. 481.) 

This award was ratified by the States of Maryland and Virginia, and 
confirmed by Congress in 1879. 

In 1879-80 acts were jiasscd by the legislatures of Maryland and 
Virginia to appoint commissioners and to request the General Govern- 
ment to designate one or more officers of the Engineer Corps, said 
commissioners and officers to survey and mark said line and erect monu- 
ments thereon. 

West Virginia having been formed from a part of Virginia and ad- 
mitted into the Union in 1862, the western boundary of Maryland now 
separates it from the State of West Virginia. 

The commissioners appointed in 1859 by Virginia and Maryland {vide 
p. 84) surveyed the western boundary from the "Fairfax Stone" (the 
first fountain of the Potomac) due north to the Pennsylvania line, and 
the legislature of Maryland in 1860 passed an act declaring that line to 
to be its western boundary. 
f'l From the " Fairfax Stone " the boundary between Maryland and West 
Virginia runs along the south bank of the Potomac River till it strikes 
jthe line between Virginia and West Virginia. 

(For a history of the placing of the Fairfax Stone, vide Virginia, p. 90.) 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 

On the 5th day of September, 1774, the Continental Congress met at 
Philadelphia. Two years later they adjourned to Baltimore. During 
the Revolution and subsequent to the treaty of peace they met in vari- 
ous places. After the close of the war much debate took place in re- 
gard to the location of a permanent seat of the Government of the 
United States. Several States made i)ropositions to Congress, offering 
to cede certain lands for the purpose, but no determination of the loca- 
tion was made by Congress until 1790. 

Act of cession from the State of Maryland, passed December 23, 1788. 

On the 23d of December, 1788, the State of Maryland passed the fol- 
lowing act, viz : 
Be it enacted hy the general assembly of Maryland, That the representatives of this 

(541) 



86 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

State in the House of Representatives of tlie Congress of the United States, appointed 
to assemble at New York, on the first Wednesday of March next, be and they are 
hereby authorized and required on the behalf of this State to cede to the Congress of 
the United States, any district in this State not exceeding ten miles square, which the 
Congress may fix upon and accept for the seaf of government of the United States. 

In the following year (December 3, 1789), the State of Virginia passed 
a similar act, of which the following is an extract : 

Be it therefore enacted h\j the general assembly, That a tract of country not exceeding 
ten miles square or any lesser quantity, to be located within the limits of the State, 
and in any part thereof as Congress may by law direct shall be, and the same is hereby, 
forever ceded and relinquished to the Congress and Government of the United States, 
in full and absolute right and exclusive iurisdiction, as well of said soil as of persons 
residing or to reside thereon, pursuant to the tenor and effect of the eighth section 
of the 1st article of the Constitution of the Government of the United States. 

After long discussion, Congress in 1790, in view of the foregoing ces- 
sions of Maryland and Virginia, i)assed the following act, viz : 

AN ACT for establishing the temporary and permanent seat of government of the United States. 

Approved July IC, 1790. 

Sect. 1. Beit enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled. That a district of territory, not exceeding ten miles 
square, to be located as hereafter directed on the river Potowmac, at some place be- 
tween the mouth of the Eastern Branch and Connoyocheque, be, and the same is 
hereby, accepted for the permanent seat of the government of the United States. 
Provided nevertheless. That the operation of the laws of the State within snch district 
shall not be affected by this acceptance until the time fixed for the removal of the gov- 
ernment thereto, and until Congress shall otherwise by law provide. 

Sect. 2. And heit further enacted, That the President of the United States be author- 
ized to appoint, and by supplying vacancies happening from refusals to act or other 
causes, to keep in appointment as long as may be necessary, three commissioners, 
who, or any two of whom, shall, under the direction of the President, survey, and by 
proper metes and bounds define and limit, a district of territory, under the limitations 
above mentioned ; and the district so defined, limited, and located shall be deemed 
the district accepted by this act for the permanent seat of the government of the 
United States. 

Sect. 3. And be it enacted. That the said commissioners, or any two of them, shall 
have power to purchase or accept such quantity of land on the eastern side of the said 
river within the said district as the President shall deem proper for the use of the 
United States, and according to such plans as the President shall approve. The said 
commissioners, or any two of them, shall, prior to the first Monday in December in 
the year 1800, provide suitable buildings for the accommodation of Congress, and of 
the President, and for the public offices of the government of the United States. 

Sect. 4. And be it enacted. That for defraying the expenses of such purchases and 
buildings the President of the United States be authorized and requested to accept 
grants of money. 

Sect. 5. And be it enacted, That prior to thg first Monday in December next all ofiSces 
attached to the seat of government of the United States shall be removed to, and 
until the first Monday in December in the year 1800 shall remain at, the city of Phila- 
delphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, at which place the session of Congress next 
ensuing the present shall be held. 

Sect. 6. And be it enacted, That on the first Monday in December, in the year 1800, 
the seat of the government of the United States, shall, by virtue of this act, be trans- 
ferred to the district and place aforesaid. And all offices attached to the said seat of 
government shall accordingly be removed thereto by their respective holders, and 

(542) 



GANNETT.] DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 87 

shall, after the said day, ceaso to be exercised elsewhere, and that the necessary ex- 
pense of said removal, shall be defrayed out of the duties on imposts and tonnage, of 
which a sufficient sum is hereby appropriated. 

In the following year the foregoing act was amended, in order to in- 
clude a portion of the Eastern Branch, and the town of Alexandria 
within the limits of the district. 

The following is the act of amendment: 

AN ACT to amend "An act for establishing the temporary and permanent scat of government of the 
United States." Approved March 3, 1791. 

Be it enacted, tfc, That so much of the act entitled "An act for establishing the tem- 
porary and permanent seat of the government of the United States, as requires that 
the whole of the district of territory, not exceeding ten miles square, to be located on 
the river Potowmac, for the permanent seat of the government of the United States, 
shall be located above the mouth of the Eastern Branch, be and is hereby repealed, 
and that it shall be lawful, for the President to raakeany part of the territory below 
said limit and above the mouth of Hunting Creek, a part of the said district so as to 
include a convenient port of the Eastern Branch, and of the lands lying on the lower 
side thereof; and also the town of Alexandria, and the territory so to be included 
shall form a part of the district not exceeding ten miles square for the permanent 
seat of the government of the United States, in like manner, and to all intents and 
])urposes, as if the same had been within the the purview of the above recited act: 
Provided, That nothing herein contained, shall authorize the erection of the i>ublic 
buildings, otherwise than on ihe Maryland side of the river Potowmac, as required by 
the aforesaid act. 

In pursuance of the foregoing acts, three commissioners were ap- 
pointed, who made preliminary surveys of the territory, and on the 30th 
day of March, 1791, George Washington, President of the United States, 
issued a proclamation, in which the bounds of the said District were 
defined as follows, viz: 

Beginning at Jones' Point, being the upper cape of Hunting Creek, in Virginia, and 
at an angle in the outset of 45° west of the north, and running in a direct line ten 
miles for the first line ; then beginning again at the same Jones' Point and running 
another direct line at a right angle with the first, across the Potomac, ten miles for 
the second line; then, from the terminations of the said first and second lines, run- 
ning two other direct lines, of ten miles each, the one crossing the Potomac and the 
other the Eastern Branch aforesaid, and meeting each other in a point. 

In 1800 Congress removed to this District. In the following year 
the District was divided into two counties, as follows, viz: 

UNITED STATES STATUTES AT LARGE, SIXTH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION, 1801, 

(CHAPTER XV). 

AN ACT concerning the District of Columbia. 

The said District of Columbia shall be formed into two counties. One county shall 
contain all that part of said District which lies on the east side of the river Potomac, 
together with the islands therein, and shall be called the county of AVashington, the 
other county shall contain all that part of said District which lies on the west side of 
said river, and shall be called the county of Alexandria ; and the said river, in its 
whole course through said District, shall be taken and deemed to all intents and pur- 
poses to be within both of (taid counties. 

(543) 



88 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [buix. 13. 

Ill 1846 Congress passed an act retrocediug to the State of Virginia 
that part of the District of Columbia originally ceded to the United 
States by Virginia. The following is an extract from said act of retro- 
cession : 

That witli assent of tlie people of tbo county and town of Alexandria, to be ascer- 
tained as hereinafter prescribed, all of that portion of the District of Columbia ceded 
to the United States by the State of Virginia, and all the rights and jurisdiction 
therewith ceded over the same, be, and the same are, hereby ceded and forever re- 
linquished to the State of Virginia in full and absolute right and jurisdiction, as well 
of soil as of persons residing or to reside thereon. 



VIRGINIA. 

In the year IGOG King James I of England granted the '' First Char- 
ter of Virginia." The boundaries therein described are as follows, viz: 

* * * Situate, lying, or being all along the sea coasts, between four and thirty 
degrees of northerly latitude from the equinoctial line, and five and forty degrees of 
the same latitude, and in the main land between the same four and thirty and five 
and forty degrees and the islands thereunto adjacent, or within one hundred miles of 
the coast thereof. * * * 

Soon after, in 1009, a new charter was granted, called the " Second 
Charter of Virginia," which defines the boundaries in the following 
terms : 

* * * Situate, lying, and being in that part of America called Virginia^ from 
the point of land called Cape or Point Comfort, all along the sea coast to the north- 
ward two hundred miles, and from the said point of Cape Comfort all along the sea 
coast to the southward two hundred miles, and all that space and circuit of land 
lying from the sea coast of the precinct aforesaid up into the land, throughout from 
sea to sea, west and northwest, and also all the islands lying within one hundred 
miles along the coast of both seas of the precinct aforesaid. * * * 

In 1611-'12 the " Third Charter of Virginia " was granted, which was 
an enlargement of the second, of which the following is an extract : 

All and singular those islands whatsoever, situate and being in any part of the ocean 
seas bordering upon the coast of our said first colony in Virginia, and being within 
three hundred leagues of any of the portes heretofore granted to the said treasurer 
and company in our former letters-patents as aforesaid, and being within or between 
the one-and -fortieth and thirtieth degrees of northerly latitude. 

These boundaries, as will be seen, included territory composing wholly, 
or in part, the present States of Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
North and South Carolina, in addition to others forme'd since the Revo- 
lution. 

This large extent of territory was reduced in the first instance by the 
charter of Maryland in 1632, next by the charters of Carolina in 1663 
and 1665, then by the charter of Pennsylvania in 1681, and, again, sub- 
sequent to the Revolution, by the cession to the United States of the 
territory northwest of the Oh'o River in 1784 j by the admission of 

(544) 



BAKNEXT.] VIRGINIA. 89 

Kentucky as an independent State in 1792, and lastly by tlie division of 
the territory of Virginia in 1862, by which the new State of West Vir- 
ginia was created and admitted into the Union. 

By the constitution of 1776 Virginia formally gave up all claim to the 
territory now appertaining to the neighboring States of Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, North and Soutli Carolina. 

The following is an extract from the Virginia constitution of 1776 : 

The territories contained within the charters erecting the colonies of Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, North and South Carolina, are hereby ceded, released, and forever 
confirmed to the people of these colonies, respectively, with all the rights of prop- 
erty, jurisdiction, and government, and all the rights whatsoever, which might at 
any time heretofore have been claimed by Virginia, except the free navigation and 
use of the rivers Potomaque and Pokomoke, with the property of the Virginia shores 
and strands bordering on either of said rivers, and all improvements which have been 
or shall be made thereon. The western and northern extent of Virginia shall, in all 
other respects, stand as fixed by the charter of King James I, in the year one thou- 
sand six hundred and nine, and by the public treaty of peace between the courts of 
Britain and France in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty-three, unless 
by act of the legislature one or more governments be established westwards of the 
Alleghany Mountains. 

In the mean time a grant of territory had been made, within the pres- 
ent limits of Virginia and West Virginia, which caused great dissatis- 
faction to the people of the Virginia Colony, and which ultimately had 
an important bearing in settling the divisional line between Maryland 
and Virginia. 

In the 21st year of Charles II a grant was made to Lord Hapton and 
others of what is called the northern neck of Virginia, which was sold 
by the other i)atentees to Lord Culpeper and confirmed to him by letters- 
patent in the fourth year of James II. This grant carried with it noth- 
ing but the right of soil and incidents of ownership, it being expressly 
subjected to the jurisdiction of the government of Virginia. The tract 
of land thereby granted was " bounded by and within the heads of the 
rivers Tappahannock, alias Eappahannock, and Quiriough, alias Pato- 
mac, rivers." On the death of Lord Culpeper, this proprietary tract 
descended to Lord Fairfax, who had married Lord Culpeper's only 
daughter. 

As early as 1729 difficulties sprung uji, arising from conflicting grants 
from Lord Fairfax and the Crown. 

In 1730 Virginia petitioned the King, reciting that the head springs 
of the Eappahannock and Potomac Rivers were not known, and pray- 
ing that such measures might be taken that they might be ascertained 
to the satisfaction of all parties. 

In 1733 Lord Fairfax made a similar petition, asking that a commis- 
sion might issue for running out, marking, and ascertaining the true 
boundaries of his grant. 

An order, accordingly, was issued and three commissioners were ap- 
pointed on the part of the Crown and three on the part of Lord Fairfax. 

(545) 



90 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES :bull. 13. 

The duty wliicb devolved upon these commissioners was to ascertain 
by actual examination and survey the respective fountains of the Rap- 
pahannock and Potomac E-ivers. This survey was made in 1736. 

The report of the commissioners was referred to the council for plan- 
tation affairs in 1738, who reported their decision in 1745, as follows, 
viz: 

* # # rpi^g gj^i^l boundary ought to begin at tbe first spring of the south branch 
of the river Rappahauuock, and that the said boundary be from thence drawn in a 
straight line northwest to the place in the Alleghany Mountains where that part of 
the Potomac River, which is now called Cohongoroota, first rises. *■ * » 

This report was confirmed by the King-, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to run and mark the dividing line accordingly. 

The line was run in 1746. On the 17th day of October, 1746, they 
planted the Fairfax stone at the spot which had been described and 
marked by the preceding commissioners as the true head spring of the 
Potomac Kiver, and which, notwithstanding much controversy, has 
continued to be regarded, from that period to the present time, as the 
southern point of the western boundary between Virginia and Mary- 
land. ( Vide Faulkner's Eeport to Governor of Virginia, 1832. For full 
details, vide Byrd Papers, 1866, Vol. II, p. 83 et seq. Also Heniug's 
Va. Statutes.) 

This tract of country was held by Lord Fairfax and his descendants 
many years, but subsequent to the Revolution the quitrents, charges, 
etc., were abolished and it became in all respects subject to the juris- 
diction of Virginia. 

(For the history of the settlement of the boundary lines between Vir- 
ginia and Maryland, vide Maryland, p. 83.) 

(For a histor^^ of the boundary between Virginia and Penn8ylva,nia, 
vide Pennsylvania, p. 80.) 

Kentucky formed originally a part of the county of Fincastle, Vir- 
ginia. In the year 1776, this county was divided into three counties, 
the westernmost of which was called Kentucky County, and its eastern 
boundary was declared to be as follows, viz : 

A line beginning on the Ohio, at the mouth of Great Sandy Creek, and running 
up the same and the wain or northeasterly branch thereof to the Great Laurel Ridge 
or Cumberland Mountains ; thence southwesterly along the said mountain to the line 
of North Carolina. (See Heniug's Statutes, Virginia, Vol. 9, p. 257.) 

Kentucky having been admitted into the Union June 1, 1792, com- 
missioners were appointed in 1798 by Virginia and Kentucky to fix the 
boundary. In 1799-1800 the commissioners' report was made and rati- 
fied by the States. It was as follows, viz : 

To begin at the point where the Carolina, now Tennessee, line crosses the top of the 
Cumberland Mountains, near Cumberland Gap, thence northeastwardly along the top 
or highest part of the said Cumberland Mountain, keeping between the head waters 
of Cumberland and Kentucky Rivers, on the west side thereof, and the head waters 
of Powell's and Guest's Rivers, and the Pond Fork of Sandy, on the east side therof, 
continuing along the said top, or highest part of said mountain, crossing the road 

(046) 



GANNETT.] VIRGINIA. 91 

leading over the same at the Little Paint Gap, where by some it is called the Hollow 
Mountain and where it terminates at the West Fork of Sandy, commonly called Rus- 
sell's Fork, thence with a line to be run north 45° east till it intersects the other great 
principal branch of Sandy, commonly called the Northeastwardly branch, thence 
down the said Northeastwardly branch to its junction with the main west branch and 
down Main Sandy to its confluence with the Ohio. (See Shepard's Virginia, Vol. 2> 
p. 234.) 

It will be seen that the latter part of this line is the present line be- 
tween West Virginia and Kentucky. 

(For the history of the settlement of the boundaries between Virginia 
and North Carolina, vide North Carolina, vide p. 94.) 

In 1779 Virginia and North Carolina appointed commissioners to run 
the boundary line between the two States west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains, on the parallel of 36° 30'. The commissioners were unable to 
agree on the location of the parallel ; they therefore ran two parallel 
lines two miles apart, the northern known as Henderson's, and claimed 
by North Carolina, the southern known as V^alker's line, and claimed 
by Virginia. In the year 1789 North Carolina ceded to the United States 
all territory west of her present boundaries, and Tennessee being formed 
from said ceded territory, this question became one between Virginia and 
Tennessee. 

Commissioners having been appointed by Virginia and Tennessee to 
establish the boundary, their report was adopted in 1803, and was as fol- 
lows, viz : 

A duo west line equally distant from both Walker's and Henderson's, beginning ou 
the summit of the mountain generally known as White To]) Mountain, where the 
northeast corner of Tennessee terminates, to the top of the Cumberland Mountain, 
where the southwestern corner of Virginia terminates. 

In 1871 Virginia passed an act to appoint commissioners to adjust this 
line. 

Tennessee, the following year, in a very emphatic manner, passed a 
resolution refusing to reopen a question regarding a boundary which she 
considered " fixed and established beyond dispute forever." (See acts 
of Tennessee,- 1872.) 

Up to 1783 Virginia exercised jurisdiction over a large tract of coun- 
try northwest of the Ohio River. But by a deed executed March 1, 
1781, she ceded to the United States all territory lying northwest of the 
Ohio River, thus making her western boundary the west bank of the 
Ohio River. 

Ou the 31st of December, 18G2, the State of Virginia was divided, 
and 48 counties, composing the western j)art of the State, were made 
the new State of West Virginia. By an act of Congress in 18G6, con- 
sent was given to the transfer of two additional counties from Virginia 
to West Virginia. 

In 1873 and 1877 commissioners were appointed by each State to 
determine the true boundaries between the two States, and the General 

(547) 



92 BOUNDAEIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Government was asked to detail officers of engineers to act with said 
commissioners in surveying and fixing the line. 

Until their report is at hand, the boundary can only be found by fol- 
lowing the old county lines. In view of the expectation of such report 
at an early day, it has not been thought best to go into an examination 
of the old county lines. 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

N This State was set off from Virginia on December 31, 1862. It was 
originally formed of those counties of Virginia which had refused to 
join in the secession movement. It was admitted to the Union as a 
separate State, June 19, 1863. It originally contained the following 
counties: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Cabell, Calhoun, Clay, 
Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hancock, Hardy, 
Harrison, Jackson, Kanawha, Lewis, Logan, Marion, Marshall, Mason, 
McDowell, Mercer, Monongalia, Monroe, Morgan, Nicholas, Ohio, Pen- 
dleton, Pleasants, Pocahontas, Preston, Putnam, Ealeigh, Randolph, 
Eitchie, Roane, Taylor, Tucker, Tyler, Upshur, Wayne, Webster, 
Wetzel, Wirt, Wood, Wyoming. 

In 1866 it was enlarged by the two counties of Berkeley and Jefferson, 
transferred from Virginia. Its boundary with Virginia is made up of 
boundary lines of the border counties above enumerated ; and can be 
defined only by reference to the laws by which these counties were 
created. In the constitution of 1872, after a recapitulation of the coun- 
ties which were transferred from Virginia to West Virginia, is found 
the following clause defining the boundaries upon the south and west : 

The State of West Virginia includes the bed, bank, and shores of the Ohio River, 
and so much of the Big Sandy River as was formerly included in the Commonwealth 
of Virginia, and all territorial rights and property in and jurisdiction over the same 
heretofore reserved by and vested in the Commonwealth of Virginia, are vested in 
and shall hereafter be exercised by the State of West Virginia ; and such parts of the 
said beds, banks, and shores as lie opposite and adjoining the several counties of this 
State shall form parts of said several counties respectively. 

(For a history of the boundaries of West Yirgima,,. vide Pennsylvania, 
p. 79 ; Maryland, p. 83 ; Virginia, p. 88.) 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

In the year 1663 the '• first charter of Carolina" was granted, which, 
two years later, in 1665, was enlarged by the " second charter of Caro- 
lina." 

(548) 



GAMNETT.J WEST VIKGINIA — NORTH CAROLINA. 93 

The followiug extracts from these two charters define the boundaries : 

Charter of Carolina, 16G3. 

• * * All that territory or tract of ground, scituate, lying and being within our 
dominions of America, extending from the north end of the island called Lucke Island, 
which lieth in the Southern Virginia seas, and within six and thirty degrees of the 
northern latitude, and to the west as far as the south seas, and so southerly as far as 
the river Saint Matthias, which borderoth on the coast of Florida, and within one and 
thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a direct line as far as the south seas 
aforesaid. * » * 

Charter of Carolina, 1665. 

* * * All that province, territory, or tract of laud, scituate, lying or being in 
our dominions of America, aforesaid, extending north and eastward as far as the north 
end of Currituck River, or inlet, upon a strait westerly line to Wyonoke Creek, 
which lies within or about the degrees of thirty-six and thirty luiuutes, northern lat- 
itude, and so west in a direct lino as far as the south seas. * * » 

This is an extension of the charter of 1663, by which its northern 
boundary was removed from the approximate latitude of 36° to 36° 30', 
on which parallel it is now approximately established. Although the 
exact year in which the division of the province of Carolina into the 
two provinces of North and South Carolina appears somewhat uncer- 
tain, I find it generally put down as 1729. The division line between 
the two provinces, North and South Carolina, appears to have been 
established by mutual agreement. 

In the constitution of North Carolina of 177G this line is defined as 
shown in the subjoined extract: 

The property of the soil, in a free government, being one of the essential rights of 
the collective body of the people, it is necessary, in order to avoid future disputes, 
that the limits of the State should be ascertained with precisiou ; and as the former 
temporary line between North and South Carolina was confirmed and extended by 
commissioners appointed by the legislatures of the two States, agreeable to the order 
of the late King George II in council, that line, and that only, should be esteemed 
the southern boundary of this State ; that is to say, beginning on the sea side at a 
cedar stake, at or uear the mouth of Little River (being the southern extremity of 
Brunswic County), and running from thence a northwest course through the bound- 
ary house, which stands in thirty-three degrees fifty-six minutes, to thirty-five de- 
grees north latitude, and from thence a west course so far as is mentioned in the 
charter of King Charles II to the late proprietors of Carolina. Therefore, all the 
territory, seas, waters, and harbours, with their appurtenances, lying between the 
line above described, and the southern line of the State of Virginia, which begins 
on the sea shore, in thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, and from thence 
runs west, agreeable to the said charter of King Charles, are the right aud property 
of the people of the State, to be held by them in sovereignty, any partial line, with- 
out the consent of the legislature of this State, at any time thereafter directed or 
laid out in anywise notwithstanding. 

On December 2, 1789, the legislature passed an act ceding to the 
United States its western lands, now constituting the State of Tennes- 
see. On February 25, 1790, the deed was offered, and on April 2 of 
the same year it was accepted by the United States. 

(549) 



94 ' BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

In the Revised Statutes the north and south boundaries of tlie State 
are claimed to be as follows: The northern boundary, the parallel of 
36° 30'; the southern boundary, a line running northwest from Goat 
Island on the coast in latitude 33° 5G' to the parallel of 35°, and thence 
along that parallel to Teuuessee; while the western boundary is the 
Smoky Mountains. It is strange that the Revised Statutes should con- 
tain such a statement of the bouudary lines when it is thoroughly well 
known that it is incorrect, es])ecially as regards the southern boundary. 
In the case of the northern bouudary the intention has been from the 
earliest colonial times down to the present to establish a line upon the 
parallel of 30° 30'. This is found to be the wording of every legislative 
act relating to it, and the errors of this boundary are due simply to 
errors in surveying and location. The following brief and comprehen- 
sive sketch of the north and south boundary lines of this State, and of 
the various attempts made to locate them, is taken from Professor Kerr's 
"Geology of North Carolina," vol. 1, page 2: 

"The first aud only serious attempt to ascertain the uortberu bouuclary was that 
made iu 1728, by Col. Wm. Byrd, and others, commissioners on the part of the two 
colonies, acting under Royal authority. From the account given by Byrd of this 
undertaking, it appears that they started from a point on the coast whose position 
they determined by observation to be in 3()"-' 31', north latitude, and ran due west 
(correcting for the variation of the compass), to Nottoway River, where they made 
an offset of a half mile to the mouth of that stream, again running west. The line 
was run and marked 242 miles from the coast, to a point in Stokes County, on the up- 
per waters of the Dan River (on Peter's creek) the North Caroliua commissioners 
accompanying the party only about two-thirds of the distance. Beyond this point, 
the line was carried some 90 miles by another joint commission of the two colonies in 
1749 ; this survey, terminating at Steep Rock Creek, on the east of Stone Mountain, 
and near the i)re8ent northwest corner of the State, was estimated to be 329 nules from 
the coast. In 1779 the line was taken up again at a point on Steep Rock Creek, de- 
termined by observation to be on the jiarallel of 3Cfi 30' (the marks of the previous 
survey having disappeared entirely), and carried west to and beyond Bristol, Tenn- 
essee. This last is known as the Walker line, from one of the commissioners of Vir- 
ginia. 

These lines were run aud the latitude observations taken with very imperfect in- 
struments, and the variation of the compass was little understood, so that it was not 
possible to trace a parallel of latitude. The line, besides, was only marked on the 
trees and soou disappeared, and as the settlements were very scattered the loca- 
tion soon becauie a matter of vague tradition and presently of contention and litiga- 
tiou, so that in ISiiS, at the instance of Virginia, commissioners were appointed to re- 
locate the line from the end of the Byrd survey westward, but for some reason they 
did not act. In 1870 connuissiouers were again api)ointed by Virginia and similar 
action asked on the part of this State ; and the i)roposition was renewed in 1871, but 
iueftectually, as before. In all these numerous attempts to establish the line of divis- 
ion between the two colonies aud States, the iutenti.)n and the specific instructions 
have been to ascertain and nuirk, as the bouudary of the two States, the paralhl of 
36° 30'. Tile maps published towards the end of last century ))y Jellerson and others 
give that parjillel iis the line, and the bill of rights of North Caroliua claims that 
''all the territory lying b(^twocu the line above described (the line between North 
aud South Carolina) and the southern line of the State of Virginia, which begins on 
the sea shore iu 36° 30' north latitude, and from thence runs west, agreeably to the 

(550) 



GANNRTT.] NORTH CAROLINA. 95 

charter of Kiug Charles, are the right and property of this State." But it appears 
from the operations of the United States Coast Survey at both ends of the line that 
the point of beginning on Currituck Inlet, instead of being, as so constantly assumed, 
in latitude 36° 30', or as determined by the surveyors in 1728, 36° 31' is 36° 33' 15", 
and the western end (of "the Walker line," of 1779, at Bristol, Tenn.) 36° 34' 25.5". 
It is stated in Byrd's Journal that the variation of the compass was ascertained to be 
a little less than 3° W. [The magnetic chart of the United States Coast Survey 
would make it 3° E.] And no account is given of any subsequent correction, and if 
none was made at the end of the line surveyed by him the course would have been in 
error by nearly 3°, as the amount of variation in this State changes a little more than 
1° for every 100 miles of easting or westing. So that the northern boundary of the 
State as run is not only not the parallel of 36° 30', but is far from coincident with 
any parallel of latitude, and must be a succession of curves, with their concavities 
northward and connected at their ends by north and south offsets. 

The southern boundary between this State and South Carolina and Georgia was 
first established by a joint colonial commission in 1735 to 1746. The commissioners 
run a line from Goat Island on the Coast (in latitude 33° 56' as supposed) NW to the 
parallel of 35°, according to their observations, and then dne west to within a few 
miles of the Catawba River, and here, at the old Salisbury and Charleston road, turned 
north along that road to the southeast corner of the Catawba Indian Lands. This 
line, resurveyed in 1764, was afterwards (in 1772) continued along the eastern and 
northern boundaries of the Catawba lands to the point where the latter intersects the 
Catawba River ; thence along and up that river to the mouth of the South Fork of the 
Catawba, and thence due west, as supposed, to a point near the Blue Ridge. This 
part of the line was resurveyed and confirmed by commissioners under acts of as- 
sembly of 1803, 1804, 1806, 1813, 1814, and 1815, and continued west to and along the 
Saluda Mountains and the Blue Ridge to the intersection of the "Cherokee bound- 
ary " of 1797, and thence in a direct line to the Chatooga River at its intersection with 
the parallel of 35°. From this point the line was run west to the Tennessee line, be- 
tween this State and Georgia, in 1807, and confirmed and established by act of 1819. 

The boundary between this State and Tennessee was run, according to the course 
designated in the act of 1789, entitled "An act for the purpose of ceding to the United 
States certain western lands therein described" (the State of Tennessee) ; thatis, along 
the crest of the Smoky Mountains, from the Virginia line to the Cataluche River (in 
Haywood County), in 1799, under act of 1796. It was continued from this point to the 
Georgia line in 1821. The commissioners who completed this line, at the date last- 
mentioned, instead of following their instructions, diverged from the crest of the 
Smoky (Unaka) Mountains at the intersection of the Hiwassee turnpike, and run due 
south to the Georgia line, thereby losing for the State the valuable mining region 
since known as Ducktown. 

And as to the southern boundary, thepoint of beginning on Goat Island is in latitude 
33° 51' 37", as shown by the Coast Survey, and instead of running from Goat Island 
northwest to latitude of 3.5° and thence along that parallel, it appears, from the 
South Carolina Geographical State Survey of 1821-'25, that the course from the start-. 
ing point is N. 47° 30' W., and instead of pursuing the parallel of 35° it turns 
west about 10 miles south of that line, and then on approaching the Catawba River, 
turns northward pursuing a zigzag line to the forks of the Catawba River, which is 
about 12 miles north of that parallel ; and from this point to the mountains the 
boundary line (of 1772) runs, not west, but N. 88° W., bringing its western end about 
17 miles too far north, and reaching the (supposed) parallel of 35° at a distance of 
about 130 miles east of the Catawba River. The loss of territory resulting from these 
singular deviations is probably between 500 and 1,000 square miles. 

The following extract from the constitution of 1796, of Tennessee, 

(551) 



96 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 18. 

(lefiues the easteru boundary of that State, which is the western bound- 
ary of North Carolina, as it was intended to be run and marked : 

Begiuuiug ou tho extreme heiglit of the Stone Mountain at the place where the 
line of Virginia intersects it in latitude thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north ; 
running thence along the extreme height of the said mountain to the place where 
Watauga River breaks through it : thence a direct course to the toj) of the Yellow 
Mountain, where Bright's road crosses the same ; thence along the ridge of said 
mountain between the waters of Doe River and the waters of Rock Creek, to the 
place where tho road crosses the Iron Mountain ; from thence along the extreme 
height of said mountain to where Nolichucky River runs through tho same; thence to 
the top of tho Bald Mountain; thence along the extreme height of said mountain to 
the Painted Rock on French Broad River ; thence along the highest ridge of said 
nioimlaiu to the place where it is called the Groat Iron or Smoky Mountain ; thence 
along the extreme height of said mountain to the place where it is called Unicoi or 
Uuaka Mountain between the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota ; thence along 
the main ridge of the said mountain to the southern boundary of this State as de- 
scribed in the act of cession of North Carolina to the United States of America. 

In 1879 the legishitnre passed an act to appoint commissioners to 
make a survey from the northeast corner of Georgia westward. This 
point of ooir.iiienccmeut is common to North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia. 

In 1881 the legislature passed another act, providing for the appoint- 
ment of a commissioner, who should act with commissioners from Vir- 
ginia, South Carolina, Georgia, or Tennessee, to re-run and re-mark the 
boundaries between North Carolina and the other States. 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 

The territory included in the present State of South Carolina was 
included in the charter of Carolina, which also embraced what is now 
the State of Georgia. ( Vide North Carolina, p. 93.) 
f In 1729 the province of Carolina was divided, forming the two prov- 
inces of North Carolina and South Carolina. In 1732 the extent of 
South Carolina was reduced by the charter of Georgia. ( Vide Georgia, 
p. 97.) 

(For a history of the settlement of the boundary between North Car- 
•olina and South Carolina, vide North Carolina, p. 93.) 

By the charter of Georgia the line between South Carolina and Geor- 
gia was to be the Savannah Eiver, to the head thereof. In 1762 difficul- 
ties having arisen, concerning the interpretation of the charter, as re- 
garded the head of the Savannah, and also the title to the lands south 
of tlie Altauialia Eiver, Georgia made complaint to the King, who 
issued a proclamation in 1703 giving the lands between the Altamaha 
and Saint Mary's Kivers to Georgia. The question of the boundary on 
the Savannah, however, remained unsettled until 1787, when a conven- 

(552) 



(3AKiiBTi.j South Carolina — Georgia. ^7 

tion between tlie two States was held at Beaufort, S. C, to determine 
the same, and the line was fixed as at present. 

The following is an extract from the articles of agreement: 

The most northern branch or stream of the river Savannah from the sea or mouth 
of such stream to the fork or confluence of the rivers now called Tngaloo and Eeowa, 
and from thence the most northern branch or stream of the said river Tngaloo till it 
intersects the northern boundarj^ line of South Carolina, if the said branch or stream 
of Pugaloo extends so far north, reserving all the islands in the said rivers Savannah 
and Tngaloo to Georgia ; but if the head sirring or source of any branch or stream of 
the said river Tugaloo does not extend to the north boundary line of South Carolina, 
then a west line to the Mississippi, to be drawn from the head spring or source of the 
said branch or stream of Tugaloo River which extends to the highest northern latitude, 
shall forever hereafter form the separation, limit, and boundary between the States 
of South Carolina and Georgia. (Laws of the United States, Vol. I, p. 466.) 

In the same year South Carolina ceded to the United States a nar- 
row strip of territory south of the North Carolina line, which she claimed, 
about 12 or "14 miles wide, and extending to the Mississippi Elver ; this 
strip now forms the northern portion of Georgia, Alabama, and Missis- 
sippi. Georgia being thus increased in extent northwardly, the line 
between the two States is clearly expressed in the code of South Caro- 
lina, as follows, viz: 

The Savannah River, from its entrance into the ocean to the confluence of the Tug- 
aloo and Keowa Rivers ; thence by the Tugaloo River to the confluence of the Tugaloo 
and Chatooga Rivers; thence by the Chatooga River to the North Carolina line in 
the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, the line being low-water mark at the south- 
ern shore of the most northern stream of said rivers, where the middle of the rivers 
is broken by islands, and middle thread of the stream where the rivers flow in one 
stream or volume. 



GEORGIA. 

Georgia was included in the proprietary charter granted to the lords 
proprietors of Carolina in 1663 and 1665, for which a provincial charter 
was substituted in 1719. 

In 1732 the charter of Georgia as an independent colony was granted 
by King George II, of which the following is an extract: 

All those lands, countrys, and territories situate, lying and being in tbafc part of 
South Carolina, hi America, which lies from the most northern part of a stream or 
river there, commonly called the Savannah, all along the sea-coast to the southward, 
unto the most southern stream of a certain other great water or river called the Al- 
tamaha, and westerly from the heads of the said rivers, respectively, in direct lines 
to the south seas. 

This charter was surrendered in 1752 and a provincial government 
established. ((L & C, p. 369 et seq.) 

In 1763 tlie territory between the Altamaha and Saint Mary's Rivers 
was added to Georgia by royal proclamation. ( Yide South Carolina, 
|). 96.) 

(553) 
459G— Bull, i;; 7 



</ 



98 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

In the constitution adopted by Georgia iu 1798 the boundaries are 
declared. The following is an extract therefrom : 

The limits, boundaries, jurisdictions, and authority of the State of Georgia do, and 
did, and of right ought to extend from the sea or mouth of the river Savannah along 
the northern branch or stream thereof, to the fork or confluence of the rivers now 
called Tugalo and Keowee, and from thence along the most northern branch or stream 
of the said river Tugalo, till it intersect the northern boundary line of South Caro- 
lina, if the said branch or stream of Tngalo extends so far north, reserving all the 
islands in the said rivers Savannah and Tugalo to Georgia ; but if the head, spring, or 
source of any branch or stream of the said river Tugalo does not extend to the north 
boundary line of South Carolina, then a west line to the Mississippi, to be drawn 
from the head, spring, or source of the said branch or stream of Tugalo River, which 
extends to the highest northern latitm'e; thence down the middle of the said river 
Mississippi, until it shall intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of 
north latitude, south by a line drawn due east from the termination of the line last men- 
tioned, in the latitude of thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of 
the river Apalachicola or Chatahoochee ; thence along the middle thereof, to its junc- 
tion with Flint River ; thence straight to the head of Saint Mary's River, and thence, 
along the middle of Saint Mary's River, to the Atlantic Ocean, and from thence to 
the mouth or inlet of Savannah River, the place of beginning, including and com- 
prehending all the lands and waters within the said limits, boundaries, and jurisdic- 
tional rights; and also all the islands within twenty leagues of the sea-coast. 

In 1802 Georgia entered into articles of agreement and cession witli 
the United States, whereby Georgia ceded to the United States the 
lands west of her present boundaries, and the United States ceded to 
Georgia that part of the South Carolina cession of 1787 which lies east 
of the present western boundary of Georgia. The following extracts 
show the limits of the two cessions : 

The State of Georgia cedes to the United States all the right, title, and claim which 
the said State has to the jurisdiction and soil of the lands situated within the bound- 
aries of the United States, south of the State of Tennessee and west of a line begin- 
ning on the western bank of the Chatahouchee River where the same crosses the 
boundary line between the United States and Spain ; running thence up the said river 
Chatahouchee, and along the western bank thereof to the great bend thereof, next 
above the place where a certain creek or river, called " Uchee" (being the first con- 
siderable stream on the western side, above the Cussetas and Coweta towns), empties 
into the said Chatahouchee River; thence in a direct line to Nickajack, on the Ten- 
nessee River; thence crossing the said last-mentioned river, and thence running up 
the said Tennessee River and along the western bank thereof to the southern bound- 
ary line of the State of Tennessee. 

The United States » » * cede to the State of Georgia * • * the lands 
* * * situated south of the southern boundaries of the States of Tennessee, North 
Carolina, and South Carolina, and east of the boundary line herein above described 
as the eastern boundary of the territory ceded by Georgia to the United States. 

For a history of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina, 
vide South Carolina, p. 96. 

The history of the boundary between North Carolina and Georgia has 
already been given {vide North Carolina, ]). 95). It may be proper, how- 
ever, to add that this line (ihe thirty-fifth degree of north latitude) was 
fixed by the cession above detailed, from the XJnited States to Georgia 

(554) 



GANNKTT.J 



GEORGIA. 99 



of that part of the South Carolina cession east of the present western 
boundary of Georgia. 

A long controversy ensued between Georgia and North Carolina, with 
no results, however, until in 1810 Georgia empowered her governor to 
employ Mr. Andrew Ellicott to ascertain the true location of the thirty- 
fifth degree of latitude. Ellicott did so, and the point fixed by him 
was acquiesced in. ( Vide Cobb's Georgia Digest, p. 150.) 

The boundary between Georgia and Tennessee was established in 1818, 
and is as follows, viz: The thirty fifth parallel of north latitude, begin- 
ning and ending as follows: 

Begiuuing at .1 point in the true parallel of tbe thirty-fifth degree of north latitude, 
an found by James Conuack, mathematician on the part of the State of Georgia, and 
James S. Gaiues, niatheuiatician on the part of the State of Tcuuessee, on a rock ahout 
two feet high, four inches thick, and fifteen inches broad, engraved on the north side 
Ihus: "June 1st, 1818; var. 6f east," and on the south side thus: "Geo. 35 North ; J. 
Cormack," which rock stands one mile and twenty-eight poles from the south bank of 
the Tennessee River, due south from near the center of the old Indian town of Nicka- 
jack, and near the top of tln' Nickajack Mountain, at the supposed corner of the State 
of Georgia and Alabama; thence running due east, leaving old D. Ross two miles and 
eighteen yards in the State of Tennessee, and leaving the house of John Ross about 
two hundred yards in the State of Georgia, and the house of David McNair one mile 
and one-fourthof a mile in the State of Tennessee, with blazed and mile-marked trees, 
lessening the variation of the compass by degrees, closing it at the termination of tho 
line on the top of the Unicoi Mountain at five and one-half degrees. ( Fide C. Stat, of 
TeDn.,pp. 243-244.) 

The boundary between Georgia and Florida was fixed by the treaty 
of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, substantially as at 
present, viz: Commencing in the middle of the Apalachicola or Cata- 
houclie River, on the thirty-first degree of north latitude; thence along 
the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence straight 
to the head of Saint Mary's River, and thence down along the middle 
of Saitit Mary's River to the Atlantic ocean {vide Treaty of 1783). This 
boundary was affirmed by the treaty of 1795 between the United States 
and Spain, and coiiimissiouers were appointed to run the entire line 
between the United States and the Spanish territory. ( Vide Treaty of 
1795.) 

In 1819 Spain ceded the Floridas to the United States. In 1822 Flor- 
ida was made a Territory and in 1825 was admitted into the Union as 
an independent State. 

In 182G Congress took action as indicated below : 

UNITED STATES STATUTES AT LARGE, NINETEENTH CONGRESS, SESSION I, 1826. 

AN ACT to authorize the President of the United States to run and mark a line dividing the Territory 
of Florida from tho State of Georgia. 

The line shall be run straight from the junction of said rivers Chatahoochie and 
Flint, to the point designated as the head of Saint Mary's River. 

This bound ry ue wa long unsettled, a controversy arising concern- 
ing the true point to be considered to be the head of the Saint Mary's 

(555) 



100 BOUNDARIES OK THE UNITED STATES [bull. 13. 

Eiver, as Georgia contended that the point fixed upon by the Spanish 
and American commist>ioners under the trea»y of 1795 was incorrect. 

In 1859 commissioners were appointed by Georgia and Florida to rerun 
the line. Florida ratified their report in 1861, and Georgia in 1866. 

The detailed report of the commissioners is not at hand, but the line is 
declared in the statutes of Georgia as follows, viz: 

From a point on the western bank of the Chattahochee River in the Slat degree 
of north latitude; thence along the line or limit of high-water mark to its junction 
with the Flint River; thence along a certain line of survey made by Gustavus J. Orr, 
a surveyor on the part of Georgia, and W. Whitner, a surveyor on the part of Florida, 
beginning at a four-and-aft tree, about four chains below the present junction ; thence 
aloug this line east, to a point designated thirty-seven links north of ElUcott's 
Mound on the St. Mary's River; thence along the middle of said river to the Atlantic 
Ocean. ( Vide Code of Ga., 1873, p. 7.) 

This line is also given in the code of Florida, and differs in one re- 
spect, viz, from the thirty-first degree of north latitude down the middle 
of said river to its confluence with the Flint River, etc. ( Vide Code of 
Florida, 1872.) 

The line between Georgia and Alabama was fixei by the act of ces- 
sion of Georgia to the United States in 1802. 

In 1822-25, Georgia desiring to have the line run from the Chatta- 
hoochee to where it strikes the Tennessee line, appointed commissioners 
for that i)urpose, and requested the co-operation of Alabama and the 
United States, both, however, failing to take action. The Georgia com- 
missioners ran the line from Nickajack, on the Tennessee line, to Mil- 
ler's Bend, on the Chattahoochee. (For a history of the controversy con- 
cerning this line, vide laws of Georgia, 1822-'24-'25-'26. ) 

Alabama protested against the above line and made repeated efforts 
to reopen negotiations concerning it, to all which Georgia sturdily re- 
fused to accede, until finally, January 24, 1840, the legislature of Ala- 
bama passed the following joint resolution, viz: 

Resolved, That the State of Alabama will, and do, hereby accept, as the true dividing 
line between this State and that of Georgia, the line which was run and marked out 
by the commissioners of Georgia in 1826, beginning at what is called Miller's Bend, 
on the Chattahoochee River ; thence along said marked line to Nickajack. 

The line is given in the code of Alabama in the following words, Aiz : 

The boundary line between Alabama and Georgia commences on the west side of 
the Chattahoochee River at the point where it enters the State of Florida; from 
thence up the river, along the western bank thereof, to the point on Miller's Bend 
next above the place where the Uchee Creek empties into such river ; thence in a di- 
rect line to Nickajack. (See code of Alabama, 1876, p. 189.) 

In James's Hand-book of Georgia, 1876, p. 121, is the following de- 
scription of the western boundary of Georgia, viz : 

From Nickajack the line between Georgia and Alabama runs south 9° 30' east to 
Miller's Bend, on the Chattahoochee River, about 146 miles; thence down the western 
bank of the river at high-water mark to its junction with Flint River, at a point now 
four chains below the actual junction, latitude 30° 42' 42", longitude 80« 53' 15". 

(556) 



aANNBTT.I GEORGIA— FLOEIDA. 101 



FLORIDA. 

Florida was originally settled by the Spaniards, and was held as a 
Spanish province nearly two hundred years. In 1762 it was ceded by 
Spain to Great Britain, who divided it into the two provinces of East and 
West Florida, se[)arated by the Appalachicola River, with a northern 
boundary substantially as at present. [Vicle Fairbanks' History of 
Florida.) 

In 1783 Great Britain retroeeded Floiida to Spain, and the northern 

/ boundary was fixed by the treaty of peace between the United States 

I and Great Britain signed in the same year. Spain, however, claimed 

the territory as far north as the parallel of latitude of the mouth of the 

Yazoo Eiver. 

Previous to this, in 1763, France had ceded Louisiana to Spain, which 
Spain retroeeded to France in 18()tt, and in 1803 France ceded the same 
to the United States, who claimed that the eastern boundary of the 
said province of Louisiana, so often ceded, was the Perdido Kiver, while 
Spain claimed it to be the Iberville River and Lakes Maurepas and Pont- 
chartrain. The controversy arising from the difference of interpreta- 
tion of these various treaties and cessions was terminated by the treaty 
of Washington in 1819, whereby Spain ceded to the United States the 
provinces of East and West Florida. 

'Jn March 30, 1822, by an act of Congress, the territory ceded to the 
United States by Spain was made the " Territory of Florida," embrac- 
■ ing the same extent as does the present State. 

On March 3, 1845, Florida was admitted into the Union as an inde- 
pendent State. 

(For a history of the northern boundary of Florida vide Georgia, p. 99.) 

In 1831 Congress passed an act relating to the boundary between 
Florida and Alabama, of which the following is an extract: 

AN ACT to ascertain and mark the line between the State of Alabama and the Territory of Florida, 
and the northern boundary of the State of Illinois, and for other purposes. 

That the President of the United States he, and he is hereby, authorized to cause 
to be ruu and marked the boundary line between the State of Ahibania and the Ter- 
ritory of Florida, by Iho surveyors-general of Alabama and F.orida, on the thirty- 
first degree of north latitude. 

{Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. IV, p. 479.) 

In 1847 the agreement of commissioners previously appointed by Flor- 
ida and Alabama was ratified, and the line is described as follows, viz: 

Commencing on the Chattahoochee River near a place known as " Irwin's Mills" 
and running west to the Perdido, marked throughotit by blazes on the trees, and also 
by mounds of earth thrown up on the line at distances of one mile, more or less, from 
each other, and commonly known as "Elhcott's Line," or the "Mound Line." (Vide 
Florida Code, 1873, p. 100.) 

(557) 



102 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

The line between the two States is given in general terms in the 
Florida Code as follows, viz : 

Commencing at tlie month of the Perdido River, from thence np the middle of said 
river to where it intersects the south boundary line of the State of Alabama and the 
thirty-first degree of north latitude ; then due east to the Chattahoochee River. 



ALABAMA. 

In 1798 the United States formed the Territory of Mississippi, includ- 
ing— 

All that tract of country bounded on the west by the Mississippi, on the north by 
a line to be drawn due east from the mouth of the Yasous to the Chattahouchee River, 
on the east by the Chattahouchee River, and on the south by the thirty-first degree of 
north latitude. (Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. I, p. 549.) 

In this act was a clause reserving the right of Georgia and of indi- 
viduals to the jurisdiction of the soil thereof. 

South Carolina and Georgia having ceded to the United States their 
claim to territory west of their present limits, the General Government, 
in 1804, by an act of Congress, annexed the tract of country lying 
north of Mississippi Territory and south of the State of Tennessee, and 
bounded on the east by Georgia and west by Louisiana, to the Terri- 
tory of Mississippi. {Vide D. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. II, p. 305.) Also 
in 1812 the United States added to Mississippi Territory all the lands 
lying east of Pearl Eiver, west of the Perdido and south of the thirty- 
first degree of latitude. ( Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. II, p. 734.) 

By these additions the Territory of Mississippi was made to comprise 
what is now included in the two States of Alabama and Mississippi. 
On March 8, 1817, by an act of Congress the Territory of Alabama was 
formed from the eastern portion of the Territory of Mississippi, with 
the following boundaries, viz : 

Beginning at the point where the line of the thirty-first degree of north latitude 
intersects the Perdido River; thence east to the western boundary line of the State 
of Georgia; thence along said line to the southern boundary line of the State of Ten- 
nessee; thence west along said boundary line to the Tennessee River; thence up the 
same to the mouth of Bear Creek; thence by a direct line to the northwest corner of 
Washington County ; thence due south to the Gulf of Mexico ; thence, eastwardly, in- 
cluding all the islands within 6 leagues of the shore, to the Perdido River; and thence 
up the same to the beginning. (Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 371.) 

On December 14, 1819, Alabama was admitted as an independent 
State, with the above boundaries. It was, however, made the duty of 
the surveyor of the public lands south of Tennessee and the surveyor 
of lands in Alabama Territory to run and cut out the line of demarca- 
tion between the two States of Alabama and Mississippi, and if it 
should appear to said surveyors that so much of the line designated as 

(558) 



GANNETT.] ALABAMA Mr^SISSlPPI. 103 

lunDing due soutli from the northwest corner of Washington County to 
the Gulf of Mexico should encroach on the counties of Wayne, Greene, 
and Jackson, in the State of Mississippi, then the same should be al- 
tered so as to run in a direct line from the northwest corner of Wash- 
ington County to a point on the Gulf of Mexico 10 miles east of the 
mouth of the River Pascagoula. {Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. Ill, 
p. 490.) 

(For the history of the boundaries between Alabama and Georgia 
vide Georgia, p. 98. For the history of the boundaries between Ala- 
bama and Florida, vide Florida, p. ]01.) 

The boundary between Alabama and Tennessee is the thirty-fifth par- 
allel of north latitude {vide North Carolina, p. 94) ; from Nickajack 
{vide Georgia, p. 98) west across the Tennessee River, and on to the sec- 
ond intersection of said river by said parallel. ( Ff<7e Alabama Code, 
1876, p. 189.) 

The boundary between Alabama and Mississippi was to be run by 
surveyors, under the act of admission of Alabama. The report of said 
surveyors is not at hand, but the line as laid down in the Mississippi 
Code is as follows, viz : 

Begiuuing at a point ou the west bank of the Tennessee River, six four-pole chains 
eouth of, and above, the mouth of Yellow Creek; thence up the said river to the 
mouth of Bear Creek; thence by a direct line to what was formerly the northwest 
corner of Washington County, Alabama; thence in a direct Jine to a point ten miles 
east of the Pascagoula Eiver, on the Gulf of Mexico. ( FWe Mississippi Code, pp. 48, 49). 



MISSISSIPPI. 

(For the early history of the extent of Mississippi Territory vide Alar 
bama, p. 102.) 

On December 10, 1817, the western part of the Mississippi Territory 
was made a State and admitted into the Union, with the following 
boundaries, viz : 

Beginning on the river Mississippi at the point where the southern boundary of 
the State of Tennessee strikes the same; thence east along the said boundary line to 
the Tennessee Eiver; thence uj) the same to the mouth of Bear Creek; thence by a 
direct line to the northwest corner of the county of Washington ; thence due south 
to the Gulf of Mexico ; thence westwardiy , including all the islands within six leagues 
of the shore, to the most eastern junction of Pearl River with Lake Borgnej thence 
up said river to the thirty-tirst degree of north latitude; thence west along said de- 
gree of latitude to the Mississippi River ; thence up the same to the beginning. 
( Vide U. S. Stat, at Large, Vol. Ill, p. 348.) 

( For further information concerning eastern boundary, vide Alabama, 
p. 102.) 

In 1819 the line between Mississippi and Tennessee was run by com- 
missioners. Their report is not at hand. In 1833 the legislature of 

(559) 



104 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

Tenuessee passed an act establishing "Thoraiison's Hue." The details 
of "Thompson's line" have not been found. In 1837 the line was again 
run by commissioners from the two States, and ratified by the legis- 
latures. The commissioners' report was as follows, viz: 

Commenciug at a point ou tlae west bank of the Tenuessee Eiver six four-pole 
cbaius south, or above the mouth of Yellow Creek, and about three-quarters of a mile 
north of the line known as " Thompson's line," and twenty-six chains and ten links 
north of Thompson's line at the basis meridian of the Chickasaw surveys, and ter- 
minating at a point on the east bank of the Mississippi Kiver (opposite Cow Island) 
sixteen chains north of Thompson's line. (See Laws of Tennessee, 1&37, p. 27.) 

The boundaries were fixed by the act of Congress admitting the State 
of Mississippi, as follows, viz : 

Comnencing at the most eastern junction of Pearl River with Lake Borgue, thence 
up said Pearl River to the thirty-first degree of north latitude, thence west along 
said degree of latitude to the Mississippi River, thence up the same to the point where 
the southern boundary of Tennessee strikes the same. (See U. S. Laws, vol. 6, p. 
175.) 

Mississippi claims to the middle of the Mississippi Eiver, where the 
river forms her western boundary. (See Kev. Stat., 1857.) 



LOUISIANA. 

The original territory of Louisiana was acquired from France (see p. 
19). In 1804, a portion of this, comprising the area of the present 
State of Louisiana, with the exception of the southeastern portion im- 
mediately adjoining the present State of Florida, was organized into a 
territory under the name of Orleans, while the balance of the Louis- 
iana purchase retained the name of Louisiana Territory. On April 30, 
1812, the Territory of Orleans was admitted as a. State under the name 
of Louisiana, and at the same time the name of the Territory of Louis- 
iana was changed to Missouri Territory. In the same year the limits of 
the State were enlarged in the southeast to its present boundaries. 

The following act defines the Territory of Orleans : 

All that portion of country ceded by France to the United States, under the name 
of Louisiana, which lies south of the Mississippi territory, and of an east and west 
line to commence on the Mississippi River at the thirty-third degree of north latitude, 
and to extend west to the western boxiiidary of the said cession, shall constitute a 
Territory of the United States, under the name of the Territory of Orleans. (Eiglii !: 
Congress, first session.) 

The following clause from the act admitting Louisiana defines its 
original boundaries : 

Beginning at the mouth of the river Sabine, thence by a line to be drawn along 
the middle of said river, including all islands, to the thirty-second degree of latitude ; 
thence due north to the north* rnmost part of the thirty -third degree of north lati- 
tude ; thence along the said parallel of latitude to the river Mississippi ; thence down 

(500) 



GANNETT.] LOUISIANA TEXAS. 105 

the said river to the river Iberville ; and from thence along the middle of the said river 
and lakes Manrepas and Pontchartraiu to the Gulf of Mexico; thence, bounded by 
the said Gulf, to the place of beginning, including all islands within three leagues of 
the coast. (Twelfth Congress, first session.) 

The following is a description of the addition to the State of Louisi- 
ana, in terms of the act : 

Beginning at the junction of the Iberville with the river Mississippi, thence along 
the middle of the Iberville, the river Amite, and of the lakes Maurepas and Pontchar- 
traiu, to the eastern mouth of the Pearl Eiver ; thence up the eastern branch of Pearl 
River to the thirty-first degree of north latitude ; thence along the said degree of lat- 
itude to the river Mississippi ; thence down the said river to the place of beginning, 
shall become and form a part of the State of Louisiana. (Twelfth Congress, first 
session. ) 



TEXAS. 

Texas declared its independence of Mexico in 1835. On December 
29, 1845, it was admitted to the Union. As originally constituted, it 
embraced besides its present area the region east of the Rio Grande, 
now in New Mexico, extending north to the Arkansas River, its eastern 
limits coinciding with the western limit of the United States, as laid 
down in the treaty with Spain of 1819. 

In 1818, the eastern boundarj- of the State was extended slightly, as 
noted in the following act : 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America 
pi Congress assembled, That this Congress consents that the legislature of the State of 
Texas may extend her eastern boundary so as to include within her limits one-half of 
Sabine Pass, one-half of Sabine Lake, also one-half of Sabine River, from its mouth 
as far north as the thirty-second degree of north latitude. 

In 1850, the State sold to the General Government, for the sum of 
$10,000,000, that part lying north of the parallel of 36° 30', and that 
portion lying west of longitude 103°, as far south as the parallel of 32°, 
as set forth in the following clause from the act of Congress relating 
to this transfer : 

First. The State of Texas will agree that her boundary on the north shall commence 
at the point at which the meridian of one hundred degrees west from Greenwich is 
intersected by the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north latitude, and 
shall run from said point due west to the meridian of one hundred and three degrees 
west from Greenwich ; thence her boundary shall run due south to the thirty-second 
degree of north latitude ; thence on the said parallel of thirty-two degrees of north 
latitude to the Rio Bravo del Norte, and thence with the channel of said river to the 
Gulf of Mexico. (Thirtj^-first Congress, first session.) 

The following act defines the northern boundary of Texas : 

AN ACT to authorize the President of the United States, in conjunction with the State of Texas, to 
run and mark the boundary lines between the Territories of the United States and the State of 
Texas. 

Beginning at the point where the one hundredth degree of longitude west from 
Greenwich crosses Red River, and :unning thence north to the point where said one 

(561) 



106 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. Ibull.13. 

hundredth degree of longitude intersects the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty min- 
utes north latitude, and thence west witb the said parallel of thirty-six degrees and 
thir^^y minutes north latitude to the point where it intersects the one hundred and 
third degree of longitude west from Green wiph ; and thence south with the said one 
hundred and third degree of longitude to the thirty -second parallel of north latitude; 
and thence west with said thirty-second degree of north latitude to the Rio Grande. 
(Thirty-fifth Cong., first session.) 

The boundary line of Texas is as follows : 

Beginning in the Gulf of Mexico, at the outlet of Sabine Lake, the line passes 
northward through the middle of Sabine Lake and up the middle of Sabine River to 
the point where said river intersects the parallel of thirty-two degrees ; theuce north 
along the meridian of that point of intersection to the point where said meridian in- 
tersects Red River; theuce up Red River to the one hundredth meridian west of 
Greenwich ; thence north on said meridian to the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty 
minutes ; west on said parallel to the meridian of one hundred and three degrees west of 
Greenwich ; thence south on said meridian to the parallel of latitude of 32°; thence 
west on that parallel to its point of intersection with the Rio Grande; thence down 
the mid-channel of the Rio Grande to its mouth. 



ARKANSAS 

The Territory of Arkansas, or Arkansaw, as it was originally spelled, 
was formed on March 2, 1819, from a part of Missouri Territory. The 
following clause from the act establishing it defines its limits in part: 

All that part of the Territory of Missouri which lies south of a lino beginning on 
the Mississippi River at thirty-six degrees north latitude, running theuce west to the 
River St. Frangois, thence up the same to 3G° 30' north latitude, and theuce west to 
the western territorial boundary line, shall, for the purjioses of a Territorial govern- 
ment, constitute a separate Territory and be called the Arkansaw Territory. 

In 1824 an act was passed by Congress fixing the western boundary 
of the Territory. This was as follows : 

AN ACT to fix the western boundary line of the Territory of Arkansas, and for other purposes. 

The western boundary line of the Territory of Arkansas shall begin n t a point 
forty miles west of the southwest corner of the Stare of Missouri nud run south to 
the right bank of the Red River, and thence down the river and with the Mexican 
boundary to the line of the State of Louisiana. 

Four years later, in 1828, the following act was passed defining its 
southern boundary : 

AN ACT to authorize the President of the United States to run and mark a line dividing the Terri- 
tory of Arkansas from the State of Louisiana. 

Commencing on the right bank of the Mississippi River at latitude thirty-three 
degrees north and running due west on that parallel of latitude to where a line run- 
ning duo north from latitude thirty-two degrees north on tie Sabine River will inter- 
sept the saiDC. 

The same year the following treaty changed materially the western 
line of the Territory, i)lacing it in its present position. 

(502) 



OANNBTT.] AEKA^SAS. 107 

TREATY WITH THE CHEKOKEE INDIANS MAY 28, 1828. 

Article 1. — Tlie western boundary of Arkansas shall be, and the same is, hereby 
defined, viz : A line shall bo run, commencing on Red River at the point where the 
Eastern Choctaw line strikes said river, and run due north with said line to the River 
Arkansas ; thence in a line to the southwest corner of Missouri. 

The Eastern Choctaw line, referred to above, starts on the Arkansas 
River, "one hundred paces west of Fort Smith, and thence due south to 
the Red River." (Treaty with Choctaw Nation, January 20, 1825.) 

Arkansas was admitted as a State June 15, 1836. 

The following extracts from the enabling act, and from various con- 
stitutions, give statements of the boundaries, differing slightly from 
one another, but, for the most part, only in wording: 

CONSTITUTION OF ARKANSAS, 1836. 

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River on the parallel 
of 36 degrees north latitude ; running from thence west with the parallel of latitude 
to the Saint Francis River; thence up the middle of the main channel of said river to 
the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north ; from thence west to the 
southwest corner of the State of Missouri ; and from thence to be bounded on the west 
to the north bank of Red River, as by acts of Congress and treaties heretofore defining 
the western limits of the Territory of Arkansas, and to be bounded on the south side of 
Red River by the Mexican boundary line to the northwest corner of the State of 
Louisiana ; thence east by the Louisiana state line to the middle of the main channel 
of the Mississippi River ; thence up the middle of the main channel of said river to 
the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude, the point of beginning. 

Again, in the enabling act for Arkansas, 1836 (Twenty fourth Con- 
gress, first session), the boundaries are found to be defined as follows: 

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River, on the 
parallel of thirty-six degrees north latitude, running from thence west, with the said 
parallel of latitude, to the St. Francis River; thence up the middle of the main channel 
of said river to the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north ; from thence 
west to the southwest corner of the State of Missouri ; and from thence to be bounded 
on the west, to the north bank of Red River, by the line described in the first article 
of the treaty between the United States and the Cherokee Nation of Indians, west of 
the Mississippi, made and concluded at the city of Washington, on the twenty-sixth 
day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty -eight; 
and to be bounded on the south side of Rid River by the Mexican boundary line to 
the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana; thence east with the Louisiana state 
line to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River ; thence up the middle 
of the main channel of the said river to the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude, the 
point of beginning. 

In the constitution of 1864 the boundaries are defined as follows : 

Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi River, on the parallel of thirty-six de- 
grees north latitude, to the St. Francis River; thence up the middle of the main chan- 
nel of said river to the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty minutes north, thence 
west to the southwest corner of the State of Missouri ; and from thence to be bounded 
on the west to the north bank of Red River, as by acts of Congress of the United 
States, and the treaties heretofore defining the western limits of the Territory of AF' 
kansas ; and to be bounded on the south side of Red River by the boundary line of the 
State of Texas, to the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana ; thence east with 
the Louisiana state line to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; 

(563) 



108 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

thence up the middle of the main channel of said river to the thirty-sixth degree of 
north latitude, the point of beginning. 

The constitution of 1868 differs but slightly from the last. It is as 
follows : 

Beginning at the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River, on the par- 
allel of 3(5° north latitude, running from thence west, with the said parallel of lati- 
tude, to the Saint Francis River ; thence up the middle of the main channel of said 
river to the parallel of 36° 30' north ; from thence west with the boundary line of the 
State of Missouri to the southwest corner of that State; and thence to be bounded on 
the west to the north bank of Red River, as by acts of Congress and treaties hereto- 
fore defining the western limits of the Territory of Arkansas ; and to be bounded on 
the south side of Red River by the boundary line of the State of Texas to the north- 
west corner of the State of Louisiana ; thence east with the Louisiana State line to 
the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence up the middle of the 
main channel of said river, including an island in said river known as " Belle Point 
Island," to the 36° of north latitude, the place of beginning. 

Id the constitution of 1874 there are again slight differences, mainly 
in wording. 

Beginning at the middle of the main channel of tlie Mississippi River, on the par- 
allel of thirty-six degrees of north latitude; running thence west with said parallel 
of latitude to the middle of the main channel of the Saint Francis River; thence up 
the main channel of said last-named river to the parallel of thirty-six degrees thirty 
minutes of north latitude ; thence west with the southern boundary line of the State 
of Missouri to the southwest corner of said last-named State ; thence to be bounded 
on the west to the north bank of Red River, as by act of Congress and treaties exist- 
ing January 1, 1837, defining the western limits of the Territory of Arkansas and to 
be bounded across and south of Red River by the boundary line of the State of Texas 
as far as to the northwest corner of the State of Louisiana ; thence easterly with the 
northern boundary line of said last-named State, to the middle of the main channel of 
the Mississippi River; thence up the middle of the main channel of said last-named 
river, including an island in said river known as "Belle Point Island," and all other 
land originally surveyed and included as a part of the Territory or State of Arkansas 
to the thirty-sixth degree of north latitude, the place of beginning. 



TENNESSEE. 

Tennessee was originally a part of North Carolina. (For further in- 
formation vide North Carolina, p. 92.) 

In 1790 it was ceded to the United States. Its boundaries described 
in the act of cession are, substantially, those of the present day. 

On June 1, 1796, by an act of Congress it was admitted into the Union. 

The act of admission declares its boundaries, as "All the territory 
ceded by North Carolina." 

(For the history of the eastern boundary vide North Carolina, p. 94; 
for the southern boundary vide Georgia, p. 99, Alabama, p. 103, and Mis- 
sissippi, p. 103.) 

The Mississippi River forms its western boundary under the treaty of 
peace of 1783. 

(564) 



GANNETT. J TENNESSEE KENTUCKY. 109 

The line which divided Virginia and Korth Carolina was the south- 
ern boundary of Kentucky. Virginia and North Carolina, prior to the 
creation of the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, appointed commis- 
sioners, Messrs. Walker and Henderson, to run and mark the line on 
the parallel of latitude 36° 30'. From a point on the top of the Cum- 
berland Mountains, now the southeastern corner of Kentucky, Walker 
ran and marked the line to a point on the Tennessee Eiver. This line, 
called Walker's line, was regarded for many years as the dividing line 
between Kentucky and Tennessee. It was ascertained, however, that 
Walker's line was north of latitude 36° 30'. 

The Indian title to the land west of the Tennessee River being ex- 
tinguished by the treaty of 1819, the legislature appointed Eobert 
Alexander and Luke Munsell to ascertain the true point of latitude 36° 
30' on the Mississippi River, and to run and mark a line east on that 
parallel, which was done as far east as the Tennessee River. (For above, 
see Gen. Stat. Ky., 1873, p. 167.) 

In 1820 commissioners were appointed by Kentucky and Tennessee, 
respectively, to settle the boundary. Their report was ratified, and is as 
follows, viz : 

Art. I. The line of boundary and separation between the States of Kentucky and 
Tennessee shall be as follows, viz : 

The line run by the Virginia commissioners in the year 1779-'80, commonly called 
Walker's line, as the same is reputed, understood, and acted upon by the said States, 
their respective officers and citizens, from the southeastern corner of Kentucky 
to the Tennessee Kiver; thence with and up said river to the point where the line of 
Alexander and Munsell, run by them in the last year under the authority of an act 
of the legislature of Kentucky entitled " An act to run the boundary line between 
this State and the State of Tennessee, west of the Tennessee Eiver, approved Feb. 
8, 1819," would cross said river, and-thence with the said line of Alexander and Mun- 
sell, to the termination thereof on the Mississippi River below New Madrid. 

Then follow nine other articles. 

Article III provides for running and marking the line at any subse- 
quent time. (See General Stat. Kentucky, page 170.) 

In 1858-'o9 commissioners were appointed by Kentucky and Tennes- 
see torun this line. 

The detailed report can be found in Statutes of Tennessee, 1871, Vol. 
J, pages 223-243, giving courses, bearings, mile-stones erected, and a map 
of the boundary. 

(For a history of the boundary between Virginia and Tennessee, vide 
Virginia, p. 91.) 

KENTUCKY. 

Kentucky was included in the original limits of Virginia, and was a 
part of the county of Augusta. Augusta County was formed in 1738. 
In 1769 Botetourt County was created fioiii a portion of Augusta County ; 
in 1772, Fincastle from Botetourt; in 1776, Kentucky from Fiucastle. 

(565) " ■ 



110 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

The bouudaries of all these counties may be found in Heniug's Laws 
of Virginia, Vols. I to IX. 

In 1789 Virginia passed an act giving her consent that the county of 
Kentucky, within her jurisdiction, should be formed into a new State. 
Accordingly, June 1, 1792, Kentucky was admitted into the Union, 
with substantially her present boundaries. 

By the cession of 1784, by Virginia to the United States, of the terri- 
tory northwest of the Ohio River, this river became the northwest bound- 
ary of the State of Kentucky. 

The western boundary, the Mississippi, was fixed by the treaty of 
peace in 1783. 

(For a history of the boundary between Kentucky and Virginia and 
West Virginia, vide Virginia, p. 90, for the boundary between Kentucky 
and Tennessee, vide Tennessee, p. 109-) 



OHIO. 

Ohio was the first State formed from the original territory northwest 
of the river Ohio. It was admitted as a State on November 29, 1802, 
with limits given in the enabling act as follows : 

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to 
the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from 
the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line 
drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after inter- 
secting the due-north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall 
intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line ; and thence with the same through Lake 
Erie to the Pennsylvania line al'bresaid : Provided, That Congress shall be at liberty 
at any time hereafter either to attach all the territory lying east of the line to be 
drawn due north from the mouth of the Miami aforesaid to the territorial line, and 
north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, 
running east as aforesaid to Lake Erie, to the aforesaid State, or dispose of it other- 
wise, in conformity to the fifth article of compact between the original States and 
the people and States to be formed in the territory northwest of the river Ohio. 
(Seventh Congress, tirst session.) 

In the constitution of Ohio of 1802, Article VII, the boundaries are 
defined as follows: 

Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line; on the south by the Ohio River, to 
the niontli of the Great Miami River; on the west by the lino drawn due north from 
the mouth of the great Miami aforesaid ; and on the north by an east and west line 
drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after inter- 
secting the due north line aforesaid from the mouth of the Great Miami, until it shall 
intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line ; and thence with the same through Lake 
Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid ; provided always, and it is hereby fully un- 
derstood and declared by tliis convention, that if the southerly bend or extreme of 
Lake Michigan should extend so far south that a line drawn due east, from it should 

(566) 



GANNETT.] OHIO INDIANA. Ill 

not intersect Lake Erie, or if it should intersect the said Lake Erio east of the mouth 
of the Miami River of the Lake, then, and in that case, with the assent of the Con- 
gress of the United States, the northern boundary of this State shall be established 
by, and extending to, a direct line running from the southern extremity of Lake 
Micliigan to the most northerly cape of the Miami Bay, after intersecting the due- 
north line from the mouth of the Great Miami River as aforesaid; thence northeast to 
the territorial line, and by the said territorial line to the Pennsylvania line. 

In accordance with the provisions in the enabling act, and in the first 
constitution of the State, the northern boundary of the State was 
changed so that, instead of running- on a parallel drawn from the south- 
ern extremity of Lake Michigan, it followed the arc of a great circle 
drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most north- 
ern cape of Maumee ("Miami") Bay. 

Following are the text of the act providing for the examination of the 
northern boundary and that of the act making the change in the bound- 
dary. 

AN ACT to provide for the taking of certain observations preparatory to the adjustment of the north 
ern boundary line of the State of Ohio. 

That the President of the United States cause to be ascertained, by accurate obser- 
vation, the latitude and longitude of the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan; and 
that he cause to be ascertained, by like observation, the point on the Miami of the 
Lake which is due east therefrom, and also the latitude and longitude of the most 
northerly cape of the Miami Bay ; also, that he cause to be ascertained, with all prac- 
ticable accuracy, the latitude and longitude of the niost southerly point in the northern 
boundary line of the United States in Lake Erie, and also the points at which a direct 
lino drawn from the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan to the most southerly point 
in said northern bouudary line of the United States will intersect the Miami River 
and Bay ; and also that he cause to be ascertained, by like observation, the point in 
the Mississippi which is due west from the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan ; and 
that the said observations be made and the result thereof returned to the proper 
Department within the current year. (Twenty-second Congress, first session, 1832.) 

AN ACT to establish the northern boundary line of the State of Ohio, and to provide for the admis- 
sion of the state of Michigan into the Union. 

The northern boundary line of the State of Ohio shall be established at and shall 
bo a direct line drawn from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most 
northerly cape of the Maumee (Miami) Bay after that line, so drawn, shall intersect 
the eastern boundary line of the State of Indiana; and from the said north cape of 
the said bay northeast to the boundary line between the United States and the prov- 
ince of Upper Canada, in Lake Erie, and thence, with the said last-mentioned line, 
to its intersection with the western line of the State of Pennsylvania. (Twenty-fourth 
Congress, first session, 1836.) 



INDIANA. 

By the act passed in the year 1800, to take effect on and after the 4th 
day of July of that year, the Territory Northwest of the Elver Ohio was 
divided into two parts, the eastern part to retain the old name, the west- 
ern part to become tlie Territory of Indiana. 

(567) 



112 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNlfED STATES. 



[BULL. 13. 



Under this act the Territory of Indiana was organized. The descrip- 
tion of the boundary line between these two Territories is given in the 
following act establishing them : 

That from and after the foarth day of July next all that part of the territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward of a line 
beginning at the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of Kentucky River, and mnning thence 
to Fort Recovery, and thence north until it shall intersect the territorial line between 
the United States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, con- 
stitute a separate Territory, and be called Indiana Territory. 

Sec. 5. That whenever that part of the territory of the United States which lies to 
the eastward of a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, and running 
thence due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall 
be erected into an independent State, and admitted into the Union on an equal foot- 
ing with the original States, thenceforth said line shall become and remain perma- 
nently the boundary line between such State and the Indiana Territory, anything in 
this act contained to the contrary notwithstanding. (Sixth Congress, first session.) 

Ohio was admitted in 1802. Its western boundary, a meridian through 
the mouth of the Miami Eiver, left a narrow strip of country between 
Ohio and the Territory of Indiana, which was by a clause in the enabling 
act of Ohio added to Indiana Territory. The following is the clause in 
question : 

Sec. 3. All that part of the territory of the United States northwest of the river 
Ohio heretofore included in the eastern division of said Territory, and not included 
within the boundary herein prescribed for the said State, is hereby attached to and 
made a part of the Indiana Territory. 

On the 30th of June, 1805, the northern portion of Indiana Territory 
was cut off and organized as Michigan Territory. (For the divisional 
line between these, see Michigan, p. 113.) 

On March 1, 1809, Indiana Territory was divided, and the western por- 
tion of it organized as Illinois Territory. (For a description of the divis- 
ional line between these two Territories, see Illinois, p. 113.) On Decem- 
ber 11, 1816, Indiana was admitted as a State with the limits as given 
in the following extract from the enabling act, which have not since 
been changed : 

AN ACT to enable the people of the Indiana Territory to form a constitution and State government, 
and for the admiasion of such State into the Uuion on an equal footing with the original States. 

The said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following 
boundaries, to wit : Bounded on the east by the meridian line which forms the west- 
ern boundary of the State of Ohio ; on the south by the river Ohio from the mouth 
of the Great Miami River to the mouth of the river Wabash ; on the west by a line 
drawn along the middle of the Wabash from its mouth to a point where a due north 
line drawn from the town of Vincenues would last touch the northwestern shore of 
the said river; and from thence by a due north line, until the same shall intersect an 
east and west line drawn through a point 10 miles north of the southern extreme of 
Lake Michigan ; on the north by the said east and west line until the same shall in- 
tersect the first-mentioned meridian line which forms the western boundary of the 
State of Ohio. (Fourteenth Congress, first session.) 

(508) 



GANNETT.] ILLINOIS — MICHIGAN. 113 



ILLINOIS. 

Illinois Territory, originally part of the Northwest Territory, and sub- 
sequently a part of Indiana Territory, was organized on March 1, 1809. 
The following clause from the act separating it from Indiana Territory? 
defines its boundary : 

AN ACT for dividing the Indiana Territory into two separate governments. 

From and after the first day of March next, all that part of the Indiana Territory 
which lies west of the Wabash River and a direct line drawn from the said Wabash 
River and Post Vincenues due north to the territory line between the United States 
and Canada shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate 
Territory and be called Illinois. (Tenth Congress, second session.) 

On December 3, 181-8, it was admitted as a State, with its present 
boundaries. The enabling act defines these boundaries as follows : 

AN ACT to enable the people of the Illiuois Territory to form a constitution and State government, 
and for the admission of such State into the Union on an eqvial footing with the original States. 
The said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following 
boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Wabash River; thence tip the 
same and with the line of Indiana to the northwest corner of said State ; thence 
east with the line of the same State to the middle of Lake Michigan ; thence north 
along the middle of said lake to north latitude forty-two degrees thirty minutes; 
thence west to the middle of the Mississippi River ; and thence down along the 
middle of that river to its conflueuv/e with the Ohio River; and thence up the latter 
river along its northwestern shore to the beginning. (Fifteenth Congress, second 
session.) 



MICHIGAN. 

Michigan was organized as a Territory June 30, 1805, from the north- 
ern part of Indiana Territory. 

The following clause from the act dividing Indiana Territory defines 
its limits : 

From and after the thirtieth day of June next all that part of the Indiana Territory 
which lies north of a line drawn east from the southerly bend or extreme of Lake 
Michigan, until it shall intersect Lake Erie, and east of a line drawn from the said 
southerly bend through the middle of said lake to its northern extremity, and thence 
due norih to the northern boundary of the United States, shall, for the purpose of 
temporary government, constitute a separate Territory, and be called Michigan. 
(Eighth Congress, second session.) 

The enabling act for Illinois, passed in 1818, contained a provision trans- 
ferring to the Territory of Michigan the portion of the Territory of Illi- 
nois not included in the State of that name. The following is the text 
of the clause referred to : 

All that part of the territory of the United Slates lying north of the State of Indi- 
ana, and which was included in the former Indiana Territory, together with that part 
of the Illinois Territory which is situated north of and not included within the bound- 

(569) 

4596— Bull, 13 8 



114 BOUND AKIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

aries prescribed by this act, to tlio State thereby authorized to be formed, shall be, 
aud hereby is, attached to and made a part of the Michigan Territory, from and after 
the formation of the said State. 

In 1834 an act was passed extending the limits of the Territory of 
Michigan to the Missouri River. 
The cUiuse of this act relating to area is as follows: 

AX ACT to attach the territory of the United States west of the Mississippi Kiver and north of the 
State of Missouri to the Territory of Michigan. 

All that part of the territory of the United States bounded on the east by the Mis- 
sissippi River, on the south by the State of Missouri and a line drawn due west from 
the northwest corner of said State to the Missouri River ; on the southwest and west 
bj- the Missouri River and the White Earth River, falling into the same; and on the 
north by the northern boundary of the United States, shall be, and hereby is, for the 
purpose of temporary government, attached to and made a part of the Territory of 
Michigan. 

In 1836 Wisconsin Territory was formed from that part of Michigan 
Territory lying west of the present limits-of the State of that name. 
{Vide Wisconsin, p. 115.) 

Reduced toils present limits, as described in the following clause from 
its enabling act, Michigan was admitted to the Union January 26, 1837: 

AN ACT to provide for the admission of the State of Michigan into the Union. 

Beginning at the point where the above-described northern boundary of the State 
of Ohio iutersects the eastern boundary of the State of Indiana, and running thence 
with the said bounilarj' line of Ohio, as described in the first section of this act, until 
it intersects the boundaiy line between the United States and Canada in Lake Eric ; 
thence with the said boundary line between the United States and Canada through 
the Detroit River, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior, to a point where the said line last 
touches Lake Superior; thence in a direct line through Lake Superior to the mouth 
of the Montreal River; thence through the middle of the main channel of the said 
river Montreal to the middle of the Lake of the Desert ; thence in a direct lifle to the 
nearest headwater of the Menomouee River ; thence through the middle of that fork 
of the said river first to*Vichcd by the said line to the main channel of the said Me- 
nomouee River ; thence down the center of the main channel of the same to the center 
of the most usual ship channel of the Green Bay of Lake Michigan ; thence through 
the center of the most usuiil shi]i channel of the said bay to the middle of Lake Mich- 
igan; thence through the middle of Lake Michigan to the northern boundary of the 
State of Indiana, as that line was established by the act of Congress of the nineteenth 
of April, eighteen hundred and sixteen; thence due east with the north boundary 
line of the said State of Indiana to the northeast corner thereof; and thence south, 
with the east boundary line of Indiana, to the place of beginning. (Twenty-fourth 
Congress, first session.) 

The above boundaries remain unchanged. 



WISCONSIN. 

Wisconsin was orgniiized as a Territory Jnly 3, 1830. As originally 
constituted its ar(>a comprised all that part of the former Territory of 

(570) 



GANNBTT.) WISCONSIN; 115 

Michigan wiiicli lay outside of the present limits of the State of Michi- 
gan. The limits are dctiiicd in the act for its organization as fol- 
lows: 

Bounded on the cast by a line drawn from the northeast corner of the State ot" Illi- 
nois, through the middle of Lake Michigan, to a point in the middle of said lake and 
opposite the main channel of Green Bay, and throngh said channel and Green Bay to 
the month of the Mcnomonee ; thence through the middle of the main channel of said 
river to that head of said river nearest to the Lake of the Desert ; thence in a direct 
line to the middle of said lake; thence llirough the middle of the main channel of the 
Montreal Eivcr to its mouth'; thence with a direct line across Lake Superior to where 
the territorial line of the United States last touches said lake northwest; thence on 
the north with the said territorial line to the White Earth River, on the west by a lino 
from the said boundary line following down the middle of the main channel of White 
Earth River to the Missouri River, and down the middle of the main channel of the 
Missouri River to a point due w est from the northwest corner of the State of Missouri, 
and on the south, fi'om said point, due east to the northwest corner of the State of 
Missouri; and thence with the boundaries of the States of Missouri and Illinois, ;!s 
already fixed by acts of Congress. (Twenty-fourth Congress, first session.) 

In 1838 all that part of the territory lying west of the Mississippi and 
a line drawn due north from its source to the international boundary — 
that is, all that part which was originally comprised in the Louisiana 
purchase — was organized as the Territory of Iowa. (See Iowa, p 117.) 

Ou August 9, 1840, an enabling act for Wisconsin was passed giving 
the boundaries as follows : 

Beginning at the northeast corner of the State of Illinois, that is to say, at a ])oiut 
in the center of Lake Michigan where the line of forty-two degrees and thirty minutes 
of north latitude crosses the same ; thence running with the boundary line of the 
State of Michigan, through Lake Michigan, Green Bay, to the mouth of the Menomo- 
nee River; thence up the channel of said river to the Brule River; thence up said last- 
mentioned river to Lake Brulfe; thence along the southern shore of Lake Bruli^ in a 
direct Mne to the center of the channel between Middle and South Islands in the 
Lake of the Desert; thence in a direct line to the headwaters of Montreal River, as 
marked upon the survey made by Captain Cramm; thence down the main channel of 
the Montreal River to the iniddleof Lake Superior ; thence through the center of Lake 
Superior to the mouth of the Saint Louis River, thence up the main channel of said 
river to the first raidds in the same, above the Indian village, according to Nicollet's 
map; thence due south to the main branch of the river Saint Croix; thence down the 
middle of the main channel of said river to the Mississippi ; thence down the center of 
the main channel of that river to the northwest corner of the State of Illinois ; thence 
due east with the northern boundary of the State of Illinois to the place of beginning. 
(Twenty-ninth Congress, first session.) 

On March 3, 1847, a supplementary act for the admission of Wiscon- 
sin was passed by Congress, in which the western boundary of the pro- 
posed State was changed as follows: 

That the assent of Congress is hereby given to the change of boundary proposed in 
the first article of said constitirtiou, to wit: Leaving the boundary line prescribed in 
the act of Congress entitled "An act to enable the people of Wisconsin Territory to 
form a constitution and State government, and for the adnlission of such State into 
the Union," at the first rapids in the river St. Louis; thence in a direct line south- 
wardly to a point fifteen miles east of the most easterly point of Lake St. Croix ; 

(571) 



11(5 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

tbeuce due south to the main channel of the Mississippi River or Lake Pepin ; thence 
down the said main channel, as prescribed in said act. (Twenty-ninth Congress, see- 
oud session. ) 

On May 29, 1848, Wisconsin was admitted into the Union. 



MISSOURI. 

The name of the Territory of Louisiana was changed in 1812 to Mis- 
souri, by act of Congress. At that time the Territory comprised all of 
the original Louisiana purchase, excepting the State of Louisiana, which 
had been formed from it. The Territory of Arkansas, with limits very 
similar to those of the present State, was formed from it in 1819. On 
August 10, 1821, the State of Missouri was formed and admitted, with 
limits, excepting as to the northwest corner, the same as at present. 

Boundaries are defined as follows : 

Beginning in the middle of the Mississippi River, on the parallel of thirty-six de- 
grees of north latitude ; theuce west along that parallel of latitude to the Saint Fran- 
cois River; thence up, and following the course of that river, in the middle oftho 
main channel thereof, to the parallel of latitude of thirty-six degrees and thirty min- 
utes; thence west, along the same, to a point where the said parallel is intersected by 
a meridian-line passing through the middle of the mouth of the Kansas River, where 
the same empties into the? Missouri River ; theuce from the point aforesaid north, along 
the said meridian line to the intersection of the parallel of latitude which passes 
through the rapids of the river Des Moines, making the said line to correspond with 
the Indian boundary line; thence east from the point of intersection last aforesaid, 
a\)ng tlie said parallel of latitude, to the middle of the channel of the main fork of the 
said river Des Moines; thence down and along the middle of the main channel of the 
said River Des Moines to thi; mouth of the same where it empties into the Mi^is8ipi)i 
River; 1 hence due east to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River; 
thence down and following the course of the Mississippi River in the middle of the 
main channel thereof, to the place of beginning. (Sixteenth Congress, first session.) 

In 1836 the boundaries were extended on the northwest to the Mis- 
souri River, as described in the following act of the legislature amenda- 
tory to the constitution of 1820: 

That the boundary of the State be so altered and extended as to include all that 
tract o land lying on the north side of the Missouri River and west of the present 
boundary of this State, so that the same shall be bounded on the south by the middle 
of the main channel of the Missouri River, and on the north by the present northern 
boundary line of the State, as established by the constitution, when the same is con- 
tinued in a right line to the west, or to include so much of said tract of land as Con- 
gress may assent. 

This was ratified by Congress in the following act : 

AX ACT to extend the western boundary of tbe State of Missouri to the Missouri River. 

That when the Indian title to all the lauds lying between tbe State of Missouri and 
the Missouri River shall be extinguished, the jurisdiction over said lands shall be 
hereby ceded to the State of Missouri, and the western boundary of said State shall 
be then extended to the Missouri River. (T wen ty -four (h Congress, first session.) 

(572) 



ojlnnbtt.] illSSOUKi IOWA. 1 1 7 

The territory remaining after tbe formation of the State bore the name 
of Missouri for many years thereafier. Meanwhile, however, it was 
reduced by the formation of several Territories which were carved from 
its area. In 1834, the part north of the State of IMissouri and east of 
the Missouri and White Earth Rivers was annexed to the territory of 
IMichigau. (For further history of this portion, vide Michigan, p. 114; 
Iowa, below; Minnesota, p. 118; and Dakota, p. 121.) ^n 1854 Kansas 
and Nebraska Territories were formed, absorbing the remainder. ( Vide 
Kansas, p. 119, and Nebraska, p. 120.) 

The following are the boundaries of Missouri ns nti)rcsont established : 
The east boundary is the mid-channel of the Mississipin Kiver from the 
mouth 01 the Des Moines to its point of intersection with the thirty- 
sixth parallel of latitude ; the south boundary begins at the latter poini 
and runs west on the parallel of 3G degrees of latitude to the Saint 
Francis River, thence up the mid-channel of that river to the parallel 
of latitude 36o 30', thence west on that parallel to its intersection by a 
meridian passing through the middle of the mouth of the Kansas River; 
the west boundary is the last mentioned meridian as far noi.h as the 
mouth of the Kansas River, thence it follows northwestward the mid- 
channel of the Missouri River to the parallel of latitude 40° 30'; the 
north boundary is the last-mentioned parallel as far east as its point 
of intersection with the Des Moines River, whence it follows the mid- 
channel of the Des Moines River southward to its mouth. 



IOWA. 

Iowa was organized as a Territory on July 3, 1838, being formed from 
a portion of Wisconsin Territory. The limits were defined as follows 
in the act creating it: 

All that part of the present Territory of Wisconsin which lies west of t lie Mississipjii 
River and west of the line drawn due north from the headwaters or sources of the 
Mississippi to the Territoiial line. (Twenty-fifth Congress, second session. See Wis- 
consin, p. 115.) 

The following clause from an act passed in 1839 is supplementary to 
the above act : 

AN ACT to define and establish the e.istern bonndnry line of the Territory of Iowa. 

That the middle or centre of the main channel of the river Mississippi shall he 
deemed, and is herehy declared, to be the eastern boundary line of the Territory of 
Iowa, so far or to such extent as the said Territory is hounded eastwardly by or upim 
said river. (Twenty-tifth Congress, third session.) 

Iowa was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. As originally con 
stituted the limits of the State were quite dift'erent from those which it 
has at present. 

(573) 



118 BOUNDARIES OF THK UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

The following extract from the enabling act gives the original limits: 

That the following shall be the bouudaries of the said State of Iowa, to wit : Be- 
ginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River at the middle o( the Mississippi ; thence 
by the middle of the channel of that river to a. parallel of latitude passing through the 
mouth of the Mankato, or Blue Earth River; thence west along the said parallel of 
latitude to a point where it is intersected by a meridian line, seventeen degrees and 
thirty minutes west of the meridian of Washington City ; thence duo south to the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri ; thence eastwardly following thnt 
boundary to the point at which the same intersects the Des Moines River ; thence by 
the middle of the channel of that river to the place of beginning. (Twenty-eighth 
Congress, second session.) 

On December 28, 1846, an act was passed changing the boundaries 
of the State and giving it its present limits. 

The following extract from the act defines the bouudaries as at present 
constituted : 

Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River, at a point 
due east of the middle of the mouth of the main channel of the Des Moines River ; 
thence up the middle of the main channel of the said Des Moines River, to a point on 
said river where the northern boundary line of the State of Missoiui, as established by 
the censtitution of that State, adopted June twelfth, eighteen hundred and twenty, 
crosses the said middle of the main chauuel of the said Des Moines River ; thence 
westwardly along the said northern boundary line of the State of Missouii, as estab- 
lished at the time aforesaid, until an extension of saidliue intersect the middle of the 
main channel of the Missouri River, to a point opposite the middle of the main chan- 
nel of the Big Sioux River, according to Nicollet's map ; thence up the main channel 
of the said Big Sioux River, according to said map, until it is intersected by the par- 
allel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east along said 
parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until said i)arailel intersect the 
middle of the main channel of the Mississippi River ; thence down the middle of the 
main channel of said Mississippi River, to the place of beginning. 



MINNESOTA. 

The Territory of Minnesota was organized on March 3, 1849, and orig- 
inally comprised the portion of the former Territory of Iowa, outside of 
the limits of the present State of Iowa, extending east to the west 
boundary line of Wisconsin. The terms of the act creating this Terri- 
tory, so far as they relate to its boundary, are as follows : 

All thfJl part of the territory of the United States which lies within the following 
limits, to wit: Beginning in the Mississippi River, at the point where the line' of 
forty-three degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude crosses the same; thence 
running duo west on said lino, which is the northern boundary of the State of Iowa, 
to tlie northwest corner of the said State of Iowa; thence southerly, along the west- 
ern boundary of said State, to the point where said boundary strikes the Missouri 
River; thence up the middle of the inain channel of the Missouri River to the mouth 
of the White Ear*h River; thence up the middle of the main channel of the White 
Earth River to the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and 
Great Britain, to Lake Superior; tbenee along the western boundary line of said State 

(574) 



GANNETT.] MINNESOTA KANSAS. 119 

of Wiscoutin to the Mississippi River ; thence down the main channel of said river to 
the place of beginning." (Thirtieth Congress, second session.) 

Minnesota was ac^itted as a State on May IL, 1858, with the same 
boundaries which it has at present. These are given in the enabling 
act as follows : 

Beginning at the point in the center of the main channel of the Red River of the 
North where the boundary line between the United States and the British Possessions 
crosses the same; thence up the main channel of said river to that of the Bois des 
Sioux River; thence up the main channel of said river to Lake Traverse ; thence up 
the center of said lake to the southern extremity thereof; thence in a direct line to 
the head of Big Stone Lake ; thence through its center to its outlet ; thence by a due 
south line to the north line of the State of Iowa ; thenco east along the northern 
boundary of said State to the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence up the 
main channel of said river, and following the boundary line of the St^te of Wiscon- 
sin until the same intersects the Saint Louis River; thence down said river to and 
through Lake Superior, on the boundary line of Wisconsin and Michigan, until it 
intersects the dividing line between the United States and the British Possessions ; 
thence up Pigeon River, and following said dividing line, to the place of beginning. 



KANSAS. 

The Territory of Kansas was organized on May 30, 1854, from a part of 
Missouri Territory. The following clause from the act of organization 
defines its limits : 

Section 19. All that part of the territory of the United States included within the 
foUowiug limits, except such portions thereof as are hereinafter expressly exempted 
from the operations of this act, to wit : Beginning at a point on the western boundary 
of the State of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses 
the same ; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico ; thence 
north on said boundary to latitude thirty-eight; thence following said boundary 
westward to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky 
Mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth parallel of latitude; 
thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence 
south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning, be, and the 
same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of 
Kansas. 

A portion of this Territory was given up to Colorado at the time of its 
formation in 1861. {Vide Colorado, p. 123.) 

Kansas was admitted into the Union on January 29, 1861,*with its 
present boundaries, which are thus defined in the enabling act: 

The said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following 
boundaries, to wit : Beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of 
Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same ; thence 
■west on said parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from Washing- 
ton ; thence north on said meridian to the fortieth parallel of latitude ; thence east 
on said xjarallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri ; thence south with 
the western boundary o.f^aid State to the place of beginning, 

(576) 



120 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 



NEBRASKA. 

The Territory of Nebraska was formed ou May 30, 1854, from the 
northwestern part of Missouri Territory. Its limits, as originally con- 
stituted, are defined as follows in the act of organization : 

BegiDning at a point in the Missouri River where the fortieth parallel of north lati- 
tude crosses the same ; thence west ou said parallel to the east boundary of the Territory 
of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mouutaius | thence on said summit northward to 
the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude ; thence east ou said parallel to the western 
boundary of the Territory of Minnesota ; thence southward on said boundary to the 
Missouri River; thence down the main channel of said river to the place of begin- 
ning, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name 
of the Territory of Nebraska. (Thirty-third Congress, tii"st session.) 

This area was reduced in 1861 by the formation of the Territories of 
Colorado and Dakota. ( Vide Colorado, p. 123, and Dakota, p. 121.) 
The State of Nebraska was admitted on March 1, 1867. 
Its limits are defined as follows in the enabling act: 

That the said State of Nebraska shall consist of all the territory included within 
the following boundaries, to wit : Commencing at a point formed by the intersection 
of the western boundary of the State of Missouri with the fortieth degree of north lati- 
tude; extending thence duo west along said fortieth degree of north latitude to a point 
formed by its intersection with the twenty-fifth degree of longitude west from Wash- 
ington ; thence north along said twenty-fil'ih degree of longitude to a point formed by 
its intersection with the forty-first degree of north latitude; thence west along said 
forty-first degree of north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the twenty- 
seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence north along said twenty- 
seventh degree of west longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the forty- 
third degree of north latitude; thence east along said forty-third degree of north latitude 
to the Keyapaha River; thence down the middle of the channel of said river, with its 
meanderings, to its junction with the Niobrara River; thence down the middle of the 
channelof said Niobrara River, and following the meanderings thereof, to its junction 
with the Missouri River ; thence down the middle of the channel of said Missouri 
River, and following the meanderings thereof, to the place of beginning. (Thirty- 
eighth Congress, first session.) 

In 1870 an act was passed to redefine a portion of the boundary be- 
tween Nebraska and the Territory of Dakota, the pertinent portion of 
which is as follows : 

That so soon as the State of Nebraska, through her legislature, has given her con- 
sent thereto, the center of the main channel of the Missouri River shall be the bound- 
ary line between the State of Nebiaska and Tciritory of Dakota, between the follow- 
ing points, to wit: Commencing at a point in the center of said main channel, north 
of the west line of section twenty-four in township twenty-nine north, of rangeeight 
east of the sixth principnl meridian, and running along the same to a point west of 
the most northerly ])ortion of fractional .'ection seventeen, of township twenty -nine 
north, of range nine east of said luoridian, in tin' State of Nebraska, as meandered and 
shown by the plats and surveys of said sections (liginally made and now on file in 
the General Land Office. (Forty-first Congress, second session.) 

(576) 



GANNETT.] NEBRASKA — DAKOTA. 121 

In 1882 au act was passed transferring to this State from Dakota a 
small area, lyiug between the Keyapaha Eiver and the forty-third par- 
allel of latitude. The following is the act in question : 

Be it enacted, » * * That the northeru boundary of the State of Nebraska shall 
be, and hereby is, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, extended so as to 
include all that portion ol the Territory of Dakota lying south of the forty-third par- 
allel of north latitude and east of the Keyapaha River and west of the main channel 
of the Missouri River. (Forty-seventh Congress, first session.) 



DAKOTA. 

The Territory of Dakota was organized on March 2, 1861, from parts 
of Minnesota and Nebraska Territories. The following from the act of 
organization defines its original limits : 

All that part of the territory of the United States included within the following 
limits, namely : Commencing at a point in the main channel of the Red River of the 
North, where the forty-ninth degree of north latitude crosses the same ; thence up the 
main chaunel of the same, and along the boundary of the State of Minnesota to Big 
Stone Lake ; thence along the boundary line of the said State of Minnesota to the 
Iowa line ; thence along the boundary line of the State of Iowa to the point of inter- 
section between the Big Sioux and Missouri Rivers ; thence up the Missouri River and 
along the boundary Hue of the Territory of Nebraska to the mouth of the Niobrara 
or Running Water River; thence following up the same, in the middle of the main 
chaunel thereof, to the mouth of the Kehapaha or Turtle Hill River: thence up said 
river to the forty- third parallel of north latitude; thence due west to the present 
boundary of the Territory of Washington ; thence along the boundary line of Wash- 
ington Territory to the forty-ninth degree of nortli latitude ; thence east along said, 
forty-ninth degree of north latitude to the place of beginning be, and the same is, 
hereby organized into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Dakota. 
(Thirty-sixth Congress, second session.) 

In 1863 the Territory of Idaho was formed, its area having been 
taken from Washington, Dakota, and Nebraska. ( Vide Idaho, p. 127.) 
In 1882 a small area was transferred to Nebraska. ( Vide Nebraska, 
above.) 

The following description, compiled from the act relating to Dakota 
and other Territories formed from its area, gives its present limits: 

The east boundary is the main channel of the Red River from the 
forty-ninth parallel southward to Big Stone Lake; from the center of 
that lake to its ontlet ; thence by a due south line to the parallel of lat- 
itude 43° 30' ; thence west on this parallel until it strikes the Big Sioux 
River; thence down the mid channel of the Big Sioux River to its 
mouth. The south boundary is the main channel of the Missouri River 
until it intersects the forty-third i)arallel of latitude ; thence it follows 
the forty third parallel of latitude westward to the twenty-seventh de- 
gree of longitude. The west boundary is the twenty-seventh degree of 
longitude, and the north boundary is the forty-ninth parallel of latitude. 

(577) 



122 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 



MONTANA. 

The Territory of Montana was organized May 26, 1864, from a portion 
of Idaho. Its limits, which have been changed but slightly, are given 
in the following extract from the organizing act: 

That all that part of the territory of the United States incliulctl within the limits 
to wit: Commencing at a point formed by the intersection of the twenty-seventh de- 
gree of longitude west from Washington with the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; 
thence due west on said forty-fifth degree of latitude to a point formed by its intersec- 
tion with the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence duo 
south along said thirty-fourth degree of longitude to its intersection with the forty- 
fourth degree and thirty minutes of north latitude ; thence due west along said forty- 
fourth degree and thirty minutes of north latitude to a point formed by its intersec- 
tion with the crest of the Rocky Mountains; thence following the crest of the Rocky 
Mountains northward till its intersection with the Bitter Root Mountains; thence 
northward along the crest of said Bitter Root Mountains to its intersection with the 
thirty -ninth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence along said thirty- 
ninth degree of longitude northward to the boundary line of the British possessions ; 
thence eastward along said boundary line to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude 
west from Washington ; thence southward along said twenty-seventh degree of lon- 
gitude to the place of beginning, he, and the same is hereby created into a temporary 
government by the name of the Territory of Montana. (Thirty-eighth Congress, first 
session.) 

In 1873, Congress, under the erroneous impression that a portion of 
Dakota remained west of Wyoming, and adjoining Montana, passed an 
act to attach it to Montana. As, however, no such detached area could 
by any ])ossibility have existed, the compilers of the Eevised Statutes 
sought to give the act effect by shifting a portion of the southern 
boundary of Montana from the parallel of 44o 30' to the continental 
watershed, thereby reducing Montana's area. The following is the act 
referred to: 

AN ACT to reailjiust the ■westeiu boundary of Dakota Territory. 
That all that portion of Dakota Territory lying we^t of the one hundred and 
eleventh meridian of longitude which, by an erroneous definition of the boundaries 
of said Territory by a former act of Congress, remains detached aLd distant from 
Dakota proper some two hundred miles, be and the same is hereby attached to the ad- 
joining territory of Montana. (Forty-second Congress, third session.) 

The boundaries of Montana are as follows : Beginning at the inter-" 
section of the twenty-seventh meridian of longitude with the boundary 
line between the United States and the British possessions, it follows 
said meridian south to the forty-fifth parallel of latitude, thence west 
on this ])arallel to the thirty-fourth meridian, south on the thirty-fourth 
meridian to the i)oint where that meridian intersects the continental 
w atershed, thence westward and northwestward i'ollowing the line of 
the continental watershed and the summit of the Bitter Boot range, 
to its intersection with the thirty-ninth iiioiidian, thence north on the 
Ihirtyninlh meridian to the boundai.\ line between the United States 
and British possessions and east on that boundary line to the point of 
beginning. 

(578) 



GANNBTT] MONTANA — WYOMING COLORADO — NEW MEXICO. 123 



WYOMING, 

Wyoming was organized as a Territory on July 25, 1868, from territory 
previously comprised in the Territory of Idaho. Its limits, which are 
the same as originally constituted, are defined in the following clause 
from the act creating the Territory : 

Tliat ;ill that part of the Uuiteil States described as follows: Commonciug at the 
intersection of the twenty-seventh meridian of longitude west from Washington 
with the forty-fifth degree of north latitude, and running thence west to the thirty- 
fourth meridian of west longitude, thence south to the forty-first degree of north 
latitude, thence east to the twenty-seventh meridian of west longitude, and thence 
north to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, organized into a tempo- 
rary government by the name of the Territory of Wyoming. (Fortieth Congress, 
second session. ) 



COLORADO. 

Colorndo was organized as a Territory on February 28, 1861, with the 
limits which it has at present, being made from portions of Utah, New 
Mexico, Kansas, and Nebraska. 

On August 1, 1876, it was admitted as a State. 

The following clause from the enabling act gives its limits: 

AN ACT to enable tlie people of Colorado to form a constitution and State government, and for the 
admission of such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States. 

Sec. 2. That the said State of Colorado shall consist of all the territory included 
within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at a point formed by the inter- 
section of the thirty-seventh degree of north latitude with the twenty-fifth degree of 
longitude west from Washington ; extending thence due west along said thirty-sev- 
enth degree of north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the thirty- 
eecond degree of longitude west from Washington ; thence due north along said 
thirty-second degree of west longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the 
forty-first degree of north latitude; thence due east along said forty-first degree of 
north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the twenty-fifth degree of 
longitude west from Washington ; thence due south along said twenty-fifth degree 
of west longitude. (Thirty-eighth Cofigress, first session.) 



NEW MEXICO. 

New Mexico was organized as a Territory on December 13, 1850. Its 
original area formed a part of the region transferred by Mexico to the 
United States by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and by Texas. It 
was subsequently enlarged by the Gadsden Purchase. {Vide pp. 21 
and 22.) The formation of Colorado Territory in 1861 and of Arizona 
in 1863 reduced its area to its present limits. [Vide Colorado, above, 
and Arizona, p. 125.) 

(579) 



124 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 

The following clause from the act creating the Territory gives its 
original limits: 

Section 2. And be it further enacted, That all that portion of the territory of the 
United States bounded as follows : Beginning at a point in the Colorado River, where 
the boundary line with the Republic of Mexico crosses the same ; thence eastwardly 
with the said boundary line to the Rio Graude ; thence following the main channel of 
said Twer to the parallel of the thirty-second degree of north latitude ; thence east 
with said degree to its intersection with the one hundred and third degree of longi- 
tude west of Greenwich ; thence north with said degree of longitude to the parallel 
of thirty-eighth degree of north latitude; thence west with said parallel to the sum- 
mit of the Sierra Madre ; thence south with the crest of said mountains to the thirty- 
seventh parallel of north latitude ; thence west -with said parallel to its intersection 
with the boundary line of the State of California; thence with said boundary line to 
the place of beginning — be, and the same is hereby, erected into a temporary govern- 
ment by the name of the Territory of New Mexico. (Thirty-first Congress, first ses- 
sion. ) 

The present boundaries of New Mexico are as follows : Beginning at 
the point of intersection of the one hundred and third meridian of longi- 
tude west of Greenwich with the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude, 
running thence south to its point of intersection with the thirty second 
parallel of latitude; thence west on this parallel to its intersection with 
the Rio Grande; thence southerly down the main channel of the Eio 
Grande to its point of intersection with the boundary line between the 
United States and Mexico ; thence with this boundary to its intersec- 
tion with the thirty-second meridian of longitude ; thence north along 
this meridian to the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude, and so along 
that parallel to the point of beginning. 



UTAH TERRITORY. 

Utah was organized on September 9, 1850, from territory acquired from 
Mexico by the treaty of Guadalupe- Bidalgo. Its limits originally ex- 
tended from the eastern boundary of California to the Rocky Mountains, 
and from the thirty-seventh to the forty-second parallel. This area was 
reduced by the formation, in 1861, of the Territories of Nevada {vide 
p. 125) and Colorado {see p. 123), and in 1804 and 1806 by the extension 
eastward of the limits of the State of Nevada {vide p. 126). 

The following is an extract from the act creating the Territory: 

All that part of the territory of tho United States included within the following 
Umits, to wit: Bounded on the west by tho State of California, on the north by the 
Territory of Oregon, and on the east by the snuiniit of the Rocky Mountains, and on 
the south by the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude, be, and the same is hereby, 
created into a temporary government, by the name of the Territory of Utah. 

The present boundaries of Utah are as follows : Commencing with the 
intersection of the forty second parallel of lat4tude with the thirty-fourth 

(680) 



QANNKTT.l UTAH ARIZONA — NEVADA. 1 25 

meridian of longitude, running thence south on this meridian to the 
forty-first parallel of latitude, thence east on this parallel to the thirty- 
second meridian of longitude, thence south on this meridian to its in- 
tersection with the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude, thence west upon 
this parallel of latitude to its intersection with the thirty-seventh merid- 
ian of longitude, thence north on this meridian to its intersection with 
the forty-seventh parallel of latitude, thence east on the forty-seventh 
parallel of latitude, to the point of beginning. 



ARIZONA. 

Arizona was organized as a Territory on February 24, 1863. Its area 
was formerly comprised in the Territory of New Mexico. In 1866 a por- 
tion of it was cut off and given to the State of Nevada. ( Vide Nevada, 
below.) The following clause from the act creating it gives its limits 
as originally constituted: 

That all that part of the present Territory of New Mexico situate -west of the line 
running due south from the point where the southwest corner of the Territory of Col- 
orado joins the northern boundary of the Territory of New Mexico -to the southern 
boundary line of said Territory of New Mexico, be, and the same is hereby, erected 
into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Arizona. (For limits of 
the piece cut olf and added to Nevada, see that State.) 

The present boundaries of Arizona are as follows : Beginning at the 
point of intersection of the thirty-seventh parallel of latitude with the 
thirty-second meridian of longitude ; thence south along this meridian to 
its intersection with the boundary line between the United States and 
Mexico; thence with this boundary to the Colorado Eiver; thence up the 
middle of the main channel of the Colorado River to its point of inter- 
section with the thirty -seventh meridian of longitude; north on this 
meridian to its intersection with the thirty -seventh parallel; and east- 
ward along the thirty-seventh parallel to the point of beginning. 



NEVADA. 

Nevada, as originally constituted on March 2, 1861, was formed from 
territory taken from Utah. Its western boundary was made to conform 
to the eastern boundary of California {vide California, p, 129) ; its north- 
ern boundary was, as now, the forty-second parallel ; the eastern was the 
meridian of 39°; and the southern the parallel of 37°. By the enabling 
act the eastern limit was extended to the thirty-eighth meridian. It 
was admit-ed as a State October 31, 1864, with above limits as modified 

(581) 



i26 BOUNDARIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bcll.i3. 

by the enabliug act, and in 1866 its eastern limits were still further ex- 
tended to longitude 37°, and its southern line established as at present, 
the latter addition having been made from Arizona. 

In the act organizing the Territory the boundaries are defined as fol- 
lows : 

Beginuiug at the point of intersection of the forty-second degree of north latitude 
with the thirty-ninth degree of longitude west from Washington ; thence running 
south on the line of said thirty-ninth degree of west longitude until it intersects the 
northern boundary line of the Territory of New Mexico ; thence due west to the di- 
viding ridge separating the waters of Carson Valley from those that flow into the 
Pacific ; thence on said dividing ridge northwardly to the forty-first degree of north 
latitude; thence due north to the southern boundary of the State of Oregon; thence 
due east to the place of beginning. (Thirty-sixth Congress, second session.) 

The following is the text of that portion of the enabling act relating 
to boundaries: 

Sec. 2. That the said State of Nevada shall consist of all the territory included 
within the following boundaries, to wit : Commencing at a point formed by the inter- 
section of the thirty-eighth degree of longitude west from Washington with the 
thirty-seventh degree of north latitude ; thence due west along said thirty-seventh 
degree of north latitude to the eastern boundary line of the State of California; 
thence in a northwesterly direction along the said eastern boundary line of the State 
of California to the forty-third degree of longitude west from Washington ; thence 
north along said forty-third degree of west longitude and said eastern boundary line 
of the State of California to the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence due 
east along the said forty-second degree of north latitude to a point formed by its in- 
tersection with the aforesaid thirty-eighth degree of longitude west from Washing- 
ton ; thence due south down said thirty-eighth degree of west longitude to the place 
of beginning. (Thirty-eighth Congress, first session.) 

The following act makes the addition to its area from Arizona referred 
to above : 

AN ACT concerning the boundaries of the State of Nevada. 

That, as provided for and consented to in the constitution of the State of Nevada, 
all that territory and tract of land adjoining the present eastern boundary of the State 
of Nevada, and lying between the thirty-seventh and the forty-second degrees of 
north latitude and west of the thirty-seventh degree of longitude west of Washington, 
is hereby added to and made a part of the State of Nevada. 

Sec. 2. That there is hereby added to and made a part of the State of Nevada all 
that extent of territory lying within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing 
on the th.rty-seVenth degree of north latitude at the thirty-seventh degree of longi- 
tude west from Washington, and running thence south on said degree of longitude to 
the middle of the river Colorado of the West ; thence down the middle of said river 
to the eastern boundary of the State of California; thence northwesterly along said 
boundary of California to the thirty-seventh degree of north latitude ; and thence 
east along said degree of latitude to the point of beginning. (Thirty-ninth Congress, 
first session.) 

The present limits of Nevada are as follows : 

The east boundary is the thirty-seventh meridian of longitude, ex- 
tending from the forty-second i)arallel of latitude southward to its inter- 
section with the middle of the Colorado liiver ; thence following the 
mid-channel of the Colorado River down to the point where it intersects 

(582) 



OAJmfiTT.] NEVADA — IDAHO. l27 

the tliirty-fiftb parallel of latitude; the southwest boundary is the arc 
of a great circle running frftn the last-mentioned point and the point of 
intersection of the one hundred and twentieth degree of longitude west 
of Greenwich with the thirty-ninth parallel of latitude ; the west bound- 
ary is the one hundred and twentieth degree of longitude west of 
Greenwich ; the north boundary is the forty-second parallel of latitude. 



IDAHO. 

The Territory of Idaho was formed March 3, 1863, from parts of Wash- 
ington, Dakota, and Nebraska. Its original limits, which included, be- 
sides the present territory, all of Montana and Wyoming, were given 
as follows in the act organizing the Territory : 

That all that part of the territory of the United States included within the follow- 
ing limits, to wit: Beginning at a point in the middle channel of the Snake River 
where the northern boundary of Oregon intersects the same ; then follow down said 
channel of Snake River to a point opposite the mouth of the Kooskooskia, or Clear- 
water River; thence due north to the forty-ninth parallel of latitude; thence east 
along said parallel to the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west of Washington ; 
thence south along said degree of longitude to the northern boundary of Colorado 
Territory ; thence west along said boundary to the thirty-third degree of longitude 
west of Washington ; thence north along said degree to the forty-second parallel of 
latitude ; thence west along said parallel to the eastern boundary of the State of Ore- 
gon ; thence north along said boundary to the place of beginning. (Thirty -seventh 
Congress, third session.) 

From this were formed Montana in 1864 {vide Montana, p. 122), and 
Wyoming {vide Wyoming, p. 123), in 1868, thereby reducing this terri- 
tory, with the small addition made in 1873 {vide Montana, p. 122), to 
its present limits. 

The present boundary line of Idaho is as follows : Beginning at the 
intersection of the thirty-ninth meridian with the boundary line between 
the United States and the British Possessions, it follows said meridian 
south until it reaches the summit of the Bitter Root Mountains ; thence 
southeastward along the crest of the Bitter Root range and the conti- 
nental divide until it intersects the meridian of thirty-four degrees of 
longitude; thence southward on this meridian to the forty-second parallel 
of latitude; thence west on this parallel of latitude to its intersection 
with a meridian drawn through the mouth of the Owyhee River; north 
on this meridian to the mouth of the Owyhee River; thence down the 
mid-channel of the tSnake River to the mouth of the Clearwater; and 
thence north on the meridian which passes through the mouth of the 
Clearwater to the boundary line between the United States and the 
British Possessions 3 and east on said boundary line to the place of be- 
ginning. 

(583) 



128 I30UNDAKIES OF THE UNITED STATES. [bull. 13. 



OREGON. 

Oregon Territory was organized August 14, 1848. The grounds of 
our title to its area are obscure. In treating with (jreat Britain for the 
establishment of our northern boundary west of the Rocky Mountains 
this region was claimed on three grounds — that of discovery and occu- 
pation, the Louisiana purchase, and cession from Spain. On which of 
these grounds we succeeded in having the boundary established on the 
forty-ninth parallel will never be ascertained, and is of little moment. 

The Territory as originally established extended from the forty -second 
to the forty-ninth parallel, and from the Pacific Ocean to the crest of 
the Rocky Mountains, with boundaries defined in the organizing act, 
as follows: 

All that part of tbo territory of the United States which lies west of the summit of 
the Rocky Mountains, north of the forty-second degree of north latitude, known as 
the Territory of Oregon, shall be organized into and constitute a temporary govern- 
ment by the name of the Territory of Oregon. (Thirtieth Congress, first session.) 

In 1853 the Territory was reduced by the formation of Washington 
Territory {vide Washington, below), and on February 14, 1859, it was ad- 
mitted as a State with its present boundaries. These are defined below 
in an extract from the State constitution : 

Beginning one marine league at sea due west from the point where the forty-second 
parallel of north latitude intersects the same; thence northerly, at the same distance 
from the line of the coast lying west and opposite the State, including all islands 
within the jurisdiction of the United States, to a poiut due west and opposite the mid- 
dle of the north ship channel of the Columbia River ; thence easterly to and up the 
middle channel of said river, and where it is divided by islands, up the middle of 
the widest channel thereof, and in like manner up the middle of the main channel 
of Snake River to the mouth of the Owyhee River; thence due south to the paral- 
lel of latitude forty-two degrees north ; thence west along said parallel to the place 
of beginning, including jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases upon the Columbia 
River and Snake River concurrently with States and Territories of which those rivers 
form a boundary in common with this State. But the Congress of the United States, 
in providing for the admission of this State into the Union, may make the said north- 
ern boundary conform to the act creating the Territory of Washington. 



WASHINGTON TERRITORY. 

This was organized March 2, 1853, from a part of Oregon Territory. 
Its limits, as originally constituted, were as given in the following clause 
from the act of Congress creating it: 

That from and after the passage of this act, all that portion of Oregon Territory 
lying and being south of the forty-ninth degree of north latitude, and north of the 
middle of the main channel of the Columbia River from its mouth to where the forty- 
sixth degree of north latitude crosses said river, near Fort Walla Walla, thence with 
Bald forty-sixth degree of latitude to the summit of the Rocky Mountains, be organ- 

(584) 



GANNETT.] OREGON WASHINGTON CALIFORNIA, ' »129 

ized into and constitute a temporary government by the name of the Territory of 
Washington. (Thirty-second Congi'ess, second session.) 

In 1859, on the formation of the State of Oregon, the residue of the 
Territory of Oregon, being the portion lying east of the present limits 
of the State, extending thence to the crest of the Rocky Mountains, 
was added to Washington. This area, with the part of Washington 
lying east of its present limits, was included in Idaho on the formation 
of that Territory in 1863. 

The present boundaries of Washington Territory are as follows : Be- 
ginning on the coast at the mouth of the Columbia Eiver ; following up 
the main channel of the Columbia River to its point of intersection with 
the forty-sixth parallel of latitude ; thence east on the forty-sixth paral- 
lel to the Snake River ; thence down the main channel of the Snake 
River to the mouth of the Clearwater 5 thence north on the meridian 
which passes through the mouth of the Clearwater to the boundary line 
between the United States and the British possessions ; thence west 
with that boundary line to the Pacific. 



CALIFORNIA. 

California was admitted to the Union on September 9, 1850. Its area 
was taken from territory acquired from Mexico by the treaty of Guade- 
lupe-Hidalgo. Its limits, as defined in the State constitution, are as 
follows : 

Commencing at the point of intersection of forty second degree of north latitude 
with the one hundred and twentieth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, and 
running south on the line of said one hundred and twentieth degree of west longi- 
tude until it intersects the thirty-ninth degree of north latitude ; thence running iu 
a straight line in a southeasterly direction to the river Colorado, at a point where it 
intersects the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude ; thence down the middle of the 
channel of said river to the boundary line between the United States and Mexico as 
established by the treaty of May 30, 1848 ; thence running west and along said bound- 
ary line to the Pacific Ocean, and extending therein three English miles ; thence run- 
ning in a northwesterly direction, and following the direction of the Pacific coast, to 
the forty-second degree of north latitude ; thence on the line of said forty-second de- 
gree of north latitude to the place of beginning. Also all the islands, harbors, and 
bays along and adjacent to the Pacific coast. 

(585) 
4596— Bull. 13 9 



INDEX. 



Acadia, Charter of 

Additions to the territory of the United 

States 

Alabama 

Admission of 

and Florida, Boundary between 

and Georgia, Boundary between 

and Mississippi, Boundary between.. 

and Tennessee, Boundary between... 

Formation of Territory of 

Limits of Territory of 

Alaska 

Cost of 

Limits of. 

Arizona Territory 

Formation of. 

Original limits of 

Present limits of 

Arkan.sas 

.■Admission of State of. 

Formation of Territory of. 

Limits of Territory of 

Statement of boundaries of 

Western boundary of Territory of..... 
Borden survey. Positions of points in 

boundaries of Massachusetts 

Boston Corner, Cession by Massachu- 
setts to New York of. 

Boundary lines of the States 

Butterfield, F. G 

California 

Admission of 

Limits of. 

Carolina, Division of Province of. 

First cliai-ter of. 

Second charter of 

Cession, Act of, by Connecticut 

Georgia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Deed of, by Massachusetts 

New York 

Virginia 

Cessions by States 

Deeds of 

Colorado 

Admission of. 

Formation of Territory of 

Limits of 

Commissioners under sixth art. Treaty 

of Ghent, Decision of 

Connecticut 

Act of cession by 

Boundary with Massachusetts 



Page. 
32 

19 

102 

102 

101 

lOO 

103 

103 

30, 102 

102 

23 

23 

23 

125 

32,125 

125 

125 

106 

30,107 

30 

106 

107 

106 

64 

63 
32 
5 

129 
31,129 

129 
96 
93 
93 
26 
27 
26 
26 
25 
25 
25 
24 
25 

123 
32,123 

123 

123 

12 
66 
26 
58 



Connecticut — Continued. 

Boundary with Khode Island 

Boundary with New York 

Charter of 

Grant of, by Plymouth Council 

Survey of boundary "with Massachu- 
setts, east of the Connecticut 

Kiver 

Survey of boundary with Massachu- 
setts, w^est of the Connecticut 

River 

Survey of boundary with Rhode Isl- 
and 

Survey of western boundary of 

Western boundary of 

Crozat, Grant by France to 

Dakota 

and Nebraska, Redefinition of part of 

boundary between 

Formation of Territory of 

Original limits of 

Present limits of 

Delaw^are 

and New Jersey, Boundary between, 
and Pennsylvania, Boundary be- 
tween 

Boundaries of, with Maryland 

Deed of, to William Penn 

Sale of, to William Penn 

Southern boundary of 

Western boundary of 

District of Columbia 

Act of cession from Maryland 

Act of cession from Virginia 

Act of Congress locating seat of Gov- 
ernment 

Act retroceding part of, to Virginia ... 

Division into two counties 

Proclamation of President defining 

limits of 

Supplementary act in regard to seat of 

Government 

Fairfax estate 

Fairfax stone 

Florida 

Admission of. 

and Alabama, boundary between 

and Georgia, boundary between 

and Georgia, report of commission- 
ers on boundary between 

Formation of Territory of 

Florida purchase 

Gadsden purchase 

Georgia. 



Page. 

65 

67 
67 
66 



66 
68 
67 
19 
121 

120 

31, 121 

121 

121 



81 
81 
72 
81 
81 
85 
85 
86 

8G 



87 

89 

85,90 

101 

101 

101 

99 

100 
101 
21 
22 
97 



(587) 



132 



Page. 
Georgia — Continued. 

Act of cession by 27 

and Alabama, boundary between 100 

and Florida, boundary between 99 

and Florida, report of commissioners 

on boundary between 100 

and North Carolina, boundary be- 
tween 95 

and South Carolina, agreement be- 
tween, regarding boundary 97 

and Tennessee, boundary between.... 99 

Boundaries of, as stated in constitu- 
tion 98 

Cession of land to, by the United 

States 98 

Cession of land to the United States.. 98 

Charter of. 

Germany, award of the Emperor of. 

Ghent, Treaty of 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, and Capt. John 

Mason, charter to 

Great Britain, Convention of 1818 with... 

Decree of King of, in relation to 
boundary between Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island 

Definitive treaty of peace of 1783 with 

Provisional treaty of peace of 1782 
with 

Treaty of 1842 with. 

"Webster-Ashburton treaty with 

Guadalupe Hidalgo, Treaty of 

Idaho Territory 

Formation of 

Original limits of 

Present limits of. 

Reduction of original territory of..... 
Illinois 

Admission of 

Formation of Territory of 

Limits of. 

Indiana 

Admission of 

Formation of Territory of 28, 

Limits of. 

Iowa 

Admission of 

Definition of eastern boundary of..... 

Formation of Territory of 

Original limits of State of. 

Present limits of State of. 

Kansas 

Admission of 

Formation of Territory of 

Limits of the Territory of 

Present limits of 

Kentucky 

Admission of 

and Virginia, boundary between 

Genesis of 

Northwestern boundary of 

Southern boundary of 

Western boundary of 

Laconia 

Letter of Transmittal 



49 
10 

9 

16 

18 

22 

31,127 

32, 127 

127 

127 

127 

113 

29, 113 

29, 113 

113 

111 

29,112 

31,112 

112 

117 

31, 117 

117 

29, 117 

118 

118 

. 119 

119 

31,119 

119 

119 

90 

30,110 

90 

109 

110 

91 

110 

33 

5 



London, Treaty of 

Louisiana 

Additions to State of 

Admission of State of 

Cost of 

Definition of, by M. Barbe Marbois.... 

Extent of 

Original boundaries of State of. 

Purchase 

Subdivision of 

Transfer from Spain to France of, in 
1800 

Treaty of cession of 

Maine 

Admission of 

Eastern boundary of 

Nortliern boundary of. 

Report of commissioners on western 
boundary of. 

Resurvey of western boundary of, in 
1858 

Resurvey of western boundary of, in 
1874 

Sale of province of 

Protest of, against award of King of 
the Netherlands 

Western boundary of 

Marbois, Definition of limits of Louisiana 

by 

Maryland 

Act of cession of part of District of Co- 
lumbia 

and Pennsylvania, Boundary be- 
tween 

and Virginia, Boundary between 

and Virginia, Report of arbitrators on 
boundary between, in 1877 

andVirginia, Report of commission of 
1668 to adjust boundary between.. 

Boundaries w^ith Delaware 

Grant of the Province of, to Lord Bal- 

tinaore 

Mason and Dixon's line 

Resurvey of, by Colonel Graham 

Mason, Capt. John, and Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges 

Grant to, in 1629 

Grant to, in 1635 

Robert, Royal decree to 

Massachusetts „ 

Boundary line with Connecticut 

Boundary line with Rhode Island 

Conventional line with Rhode Island.. 

Deed of cession by 

Northern boundary of. 

Survey of boundary of, with Con- 
necticut, east of the Connecticut 
River 

Survey of boundary line of, with Con- 
necticut, west of the Connecticut 
River 

Survey of boundary with Rhode 
Island, under decree of the king.. 

Western boundary of 



Page. 
10 
104 
105 
30 
20 
20 
19 
104 
19 
30 

19 
20 
32 
35 
9,35 
9,35 

35 



84 



81 



82 
79 



33 
40 
41 
41 
47 
58 
48 
56 
25 
43 



59 



52 
62 



(588) 



133 



Massachusetts Bay, Charter of, in 1691. 

Charter of province of. , 

Massachusetts boundaries, Latitude and 

longitude of points in 

Mexican cession by treaty of Guadalupe 

Hidalgo 

Michigan 

Admission of 

Divisions of Territory of. 

Extension of limits of. 

Formation of Territory of. 

Present limits of 

Minnesota 

Admission of 

Formation of Territory of 

Limits of Territory of 

Present limits of. 

Mississippi 

Admission of 

and Alabama, Boundary between 

and Tennessee, Boundary between. ... 

Boundaries of 

Enlargement of Territory of 

Formation of Territory of. 

Missouri 

Admission of 

Extension of boundary of. 

Formation of Territory of 

Original boundaries of 

Present limits of 

Montana Territory 

Change in limits of , 

formation of 

organization of 

original limits of 

present boundaries of 

Nebraska 

Addition to 

Admission of 

and Dakota, Redefinition of part of 
boundary between 

Formation of Territory of 

Original limits of State of 

Original limits of Territory of. 

Netherlands, Award of the King of 

Nevada 

Additions to its territory of 

Admission of. 

Formation of Territory of 

Original limits of Territory of. 

Present limits of 

New England, Charter of. 

New Hampshire 

Claims of, west of Connecticut River. 

Decree of the king regarding western 
boundary of. 

Eastern boundary of 

Northern boundary of. 

Resurvey of eastern boundary in 1858.. 

Resurvey of eastern boundary in 1874.. 

Southern boundary of. 

Southern boundary of, Decision by 
the king 

Survey of southern boundary of. 

Western boundary of. 



Page. 




Page. 


48 


New Jersey 


76 


34 


and Delaware, Boundary between 

and New York, Act of Congress set- 


76 


64 

• 


. tling territorial limits between.... 
and New York, Survey of boundary 


73 


22 


between 


73 


113 


Grant of Territory by Duke of York 




29,114 


to Lord John Berkeley and Sir 




30 


George Carteret 


76 


114 


Sale of, to Lord John Berkeley and 




113,28 


"Sir George Carteret 


72 


114 




77 


118 


New Mexico 


123 


31,119 


Formation of Territory of. 


31,123 


118,31 




124 


118 




124 


119 


New YorTc 


71 


103 


and Connecticut, Report of commis- 




103 


sioners on boundary between 


70 


103 


and New Jersey, Act of Congress set- 




103 


tling territorial limits between... 


73 


103 


and New Jersey, Boundary between 


73 


102 


and New Jersey, Survey of boundary 




30,102 


between 


73 


116 


and Pennsylvania, Boundary be- 




30,116 


tween 


74 


116 


and Pennsylvania, Determination of 




30 


errors in position of boundary 




116 


between 


76 


117 


and Pennsylvania,Reportof commis- 




122 


sioners on boundary between 


75 


122 




67 


32 


Boundary with Massachusetts 


62 


122 


Cession of territory to, by Vermont... 


47 


122 


Deed of cession to United States, 




122 


by 


25 


120 


Determination of longitude of west- 




121 




76 


120 




46 




Grant of, to Duke of York 


71,72 


120 


Northern boundary of , 


10,12 


31,120 




71 


120 


Survey of boundary of, with Connect- 




120 


icut 


68 


15 




75 


125 




92 


126 


Act of cession by.. 


26 


31.126 


and Georgia, Boundary between 


95 


31,125 


and South Carolina, Boundary be- 




125 


tween 


95 


126 


and Tennessee, Boundary between... 


95 


47 


and Virginia, Boundary between 


91,94 


40 


Definition of boundaries of, in consti- 




43 


tution of 1776 


93 




History of boundaries from Geologi- 




44 




91 


35 


Northern boundary of 


94 


9,35,44 


Statement of boundaries of, in Re- 




38 


vised Statutes 


94 


40 


Western boundary of, from constitu- 




41 




96 




Northeastern boundary of United States. 


10 


42 


Ohio 


110 


42 




110 


35 


Formation of State of 


28 



(589) 



134 



Ohio — Continued. 

Original limits of. 

Present boundaries of. 

Oregon 

Admission of. 

Formation of Territory of. 

Original limits of 

Present limits of. 

Reduction of Territory of 

Orleans Territory, Formation of 

Limits of. • 

Patent to Earl of Sterling 

Pemaquid, Annexation of, to New Eng- 
land Government 

Pennsylvania 

and Delaware, Boundary between... 

and Maryland, Boundary between 

and New York, Boundary between... 
and New York, Determination of er- 
rors in position of boundary be- 
tween 

and New York, Report of commis- 
sioners on boundary between 

and Virginia, Boundary between 

Grant to William Penn of the Prov- 
ince of 

Occupation of, by British West Indian 

Company 

Plymouth Company, Charter of 

Providence Plantation, Patent of 

Public domain 

Quintipartite deed 

Rhode Island 

Boundary line with Massachusetts.... 
Conventional line witli Massachu- 
setts 

Northern line of 

Survey of boundary of, with Mas- 
sachusetts under decree of the 

king 

Survey of northern boundary of. 

Survey of western boundary of. 

Western boundary 

and Providence Plantations, Char- 
ter of 

Bocky Mountains, Boundary west of 

Boundary west of, as claimed by 

Great Britain 

Boundary west of, as claimed by 

United States 

Russia, Treaty of 1867 with 

San Ildefonso, Treaty of. 

South Carolina 

and Georgia, Agreement between, re- 
garding Georgia boundary 

and Georgia, Boundary between 

and North Carolina, Boundary be- 
tween ..^ 

cession of Western lands by 

Spain, Treaty of 1795, with 

Treaty with, ceding the Floridas ...... 

defining Soutliwestern boundary. 

States, Cessions by 

Sterling, Patent to Earl of. 

Table of contents 



Page. 

110 

110 

128 

31,128 

31,128 

128 

128 

128 

30 

104 

33 

72,34 

78 
79 
79 
74 



52 

54 
66 
65 

65 
14 

15 

15 
23 
19 
96 

97 
94,96 

95 
26 
10 
21 
21 
24 
33 
7 



Page. 

Tennessee, Admission of. 30,108 

and Alabama, Boundary between 103 

and Georgia, Boundary between 99 

and Kentucky, Boundary between... 91 
and Mississippi, Boundary between.. 103 
and North Carolina, Boundary be- 
tween 95 

and Virginia, Boundary between 91 

East boundary of, from Constitution 

of 1796 96 

South boundary of 109 

West boundary of 108 

Territory northwest of the River Ohio, 

Area of 27 

Northwest of the River Ohio, Bill for 

its provisional division 28 

South of the River Ohio 27 

South of the River Ohio, Composition 

of 29 

Texas 105 

Admission of. 21 

Act of Congress defining northern 

boundary of 105 

Extension of eastern boundary of 105 

Original limits of 21,105 

Present boundaries of 106 

Sale of part of, to United States 105 

United States, additions to the territory 

ofthe 19 

Boundaries of the 9 

Boundary with Mexico, under the 

treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 22 

Utah Territdry 124 

Formation of 31,124 

Original limits of 124 

Present limits of 124 

Vermont 45 

Admission of 46 

Cession of territory to New York 47 

Claims of Massachusetts to territory 

of 45 

Claims of New York to territory of... 45 

Declaration of Independence of. 45 

Eastern boundary of 44,46 

Northern boundary of 16,46 

Southern boundary of , 43,46 

Western boundary of 46 

Virginia 88 

Act of cession of part of District of 

Columbia 86 

Act of Congress retroceding part of 

Disti'ict of Columbia to 88 

and Kentucky, Boundary between... 90 

and Maryland, Boundary between ... 83 
and Maryland, Report of arbitrators 

on boundary between, in 1877 84 

and Maryland, Report of commission- 
ers of 1668 to adjust boundary be- 
tween 83 

and North Carolina, Boundary be- 
tween 91,94 

and Pennsylvania, Boundary be- 
tween 80 

and Tennessee, Boundary between .. 91 

Cession of western lands by 25 



(590) 



135 



Virginia— Continued. 

Difficulties regarding Fairfax es- 
tate 

Division of, into Virginia and West 
Virginia 

Extract from constitution of 1776 

First charter of. 

Reduction of territory of, by charters 
of other colonies 

Second charter of 

Third charter of 

Walker line, between Virginia and 

North Carolina 

Washington Territory 

Additions to territory of 

Foitnation of. 

Original limits of 

Present boundaries of. 

Reduction of territory of. 

Watkins Point, definition of 



Page. 



91 



32,88 



94 
128 
129 
31,128 
128 
129 
129 

83 



Page. 

Western Reserve 25 

West Virginia 92 

Boundary with Kentucky 90 

Boundary with Maryland 83 

Boundary with Ohio 25 

Boundary with Pennsylvania 91 

Boundary with Virginia 92 

Counties comprised in 12 

Formation of. 91 

Wisconsin 114 

Admission of. 29,116 

Divisions of territory of. 30 

Formation of Territory of 29 

Limits of territory of. 115 

Org^anization of Territory of 114 

Present limits of. 115 

Wyoming Territory 123 

Formation of. 32,123 

Limits of territory of. 123 

York, Duke of. Grant to 34 



(591) 



[Balletm JTo. 14.1 



The publications of the ITiiited States Geological Sorvev are issued in accordance with the statute, 
approved March 3. 1S79, which declares that — 

"The publications of the Greological Survej shall consist of thesBBsriTepestof opezatioffis. geolo^cal 
and economic maps illustrating the resources and classidcaticai of the buds, sad repo rts upon general 
and economic geology and paleontology. The annual report of operations of the Geological Survey 
shall accompany the annual report of the Secretary of the Interior. All special memoirs and reports 
of said Survey shall be issued in uniform quarto series if deemed necessary by the Director, but other- 
wise in ordinary octavos. Three thousand copies of each shall be published for scientific exchanges 
and for sale at the price of publication : and all literary and cartographic materials received in exchange 
shall he the property of the United Stares and form a part of the library of the organization: And the 
money resulting from the sale of such publications shall be covered into the Treasury of the United 
States.'" 

On Jtdy 7, 1S82, the following joint resolirtion, referring to aQ Government publications, was xt^ssed 
by Congress : 

"That whenever any document or report shall be ordered printed by Congress, there shall be printed 
in addition to the ntimber in each case stated, the 'usual number' (1,900) of copies for binding and 
distribution among those entitled to receive them." 

Under these general laws it will be seen that none of the Stirvey ptiblications are famished to it for 
grattiitous distribution. The 3,000 copies of the Annual Report are distributed through, the docum<fnt 
rooms of Congress. The 1.900 copies of each of the publications are distributed to the officers of the 
legislative and executive departments and to stated dep«3sitories throughout the United States. 

Except, therefore, in those cases where an extra number of any publication is supplied to this office 
by special resolution of Congress, as has been done in the case of the Second. Third. Fourth, and Fifth 
Annual Reports, or where a number has been ordered for its use by the Secretary of the Interior, as in 
the case of Mineral Kesotirces and Dictionary of Altitudes, the Survey has no copies of any of its pub- 
lications for gratuitous distribution. 

AXXUAL REPORTS - 

Of the Annual Reports there have been already published: 

L First Annual Report to the Hon. Carl Schurz, by Clarence King. ISSO. S'^. 79 pp. 1 map. — A 
preUmtnary report describing pl:»n of organization and publications. 

II. Report of the Director of the Uiuted States Gieological Survey for ISSO-'Sl, by J. 'NV. PowelL 
ISSi 8°. Iv, 5frS pp. 61 pi. 1 map. 

m. Third Anntial Report of the United States Geological Sorvey, 1SS1-S2. by J. "W". Powell. 1SS3. 
8°, xviii 5&4 pp. 67 pi. and iuaps. 

IV. Fourth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey. 1SS2-S3, by J. "W, PoweU, 1SS4. 
8°. xii. 473 pp. So pL and maps. 

The Fitlh Anntial Report is in press. 

MONOGRAPHS. 

Of the Monographs, Xos. IL m. IT, V. VI. VH, .\nd VIII are now publishetL viz: 

II. Tertiary History of the Grand Canon District, with atlas, by Clarence E. Dutton, Capt.. U. S. A. 

1882. 4^. xiv. 264 pp. 42 pL and atlas of 24 sheets foMo. Price $10.12. 
m. Geology of the Comstock Lode and the Washoe District, with atlas, by George F. Becker. 

18S2. 4^. IV. 422 pp. 7 pi, and atlas of il sheets fbtio. Price $11. 

IV. Comstock Mjniug and Minors, by Eliot Lord. 1SS3. 4^. xiv, 451 pp. 3 pL Price $1.50. 

V. Copper-bearing Rocks of Lake Superior, by Jioland D. Irving. 1SS3. 4-. xvi 4<>4 pp. 1-^ L 
29 pi. Price $l.So. 

VI. Contributions to the Knowledge of the Older Mesozoie Flora of Virginia, by Wm. M. Fi^ntaino. 
1SS3. 4^. li, 144 pp. 54 I. :vt pi. Price $l.0o. 

VII. SUver-leatl Deposits of Eureka. Xevada, by Jo«epii S. Curtis. 1S*4. 4=, xiiL 200 pp. 1« pL 
Price $1.20. 

VIII. Paleontology of the Eareka District, by Charies D. Waleott. li!¥4. 4'^. xiii. 39ti fp- 'H L 
14 pi. Price $1.10. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The followins are in press, viz: 

IX. Brachiopoiia aDd Laraellibranchiata of the Earitan Clays and Gre^nsand Marls of Xew Jersey, 
by Eobert P. Whitfield. 1885. 4^. ix. 338 pp. 35 pi. 

X. Dinocerata. A Monograph of an Extinct Order of Gigantic Mammals, by Othniel Charles Marsh. 
1885. 4^. — . — pp. -56 pi. 

XL Geological History of Lake Lahontan, a Quaternary Lake of Northwestern Nevada, by Israel 
CookRufeseU. 1885. 4=. -—pp. 46 pL 
The following are in preparation, viz: 
I. The Precious Metal.n, by Clarence King. 

Geology and Mining Indnstrj' of Leadville, with atlas, by S. F. Emmons. 
Gwdogy of the Eureka Mining District, Nevada, with atlas, by Arnold Hague. 
Lake Bonneville, by G. K. Gilbert. 
Sanropoda. by Prof. O. C. Marsh. 
Stegosanria; by Prof. O. C. Marsh. 

BULLETINS. 

The Bulletins of the Survey will contain such papers relating to the general purpose of its work as 
do not properly come under the heads of Axslal Eepoets or Moxogbaphs. 

Each of these Bulletins will contain but one paper and will be complete in itself. They will, how- 
ever, be numbered in a continuous series, and wiU in time be tmited into volumes of convenient size. 
To facilitate this each Bulletin will have two paginations, one proper to itself and another which be- 
longs to it as part of the volume. 

Of this .series of Bulletins Nos. 1 to 14 are already published, viz : 

1. On Hyperstbene-Andesite and on Triclinic Pyroxene in Augitic Eocks, by Whitman Cross, with 
a Geological .Sketch of Buffalo Peaks, Colorado, by S. F. Emmons. 1883. 8 -. 42 pp. 2 pi . Price 10 cents. 

2. Gold and .Silver Conversion Tables, giving the coining value of Troy ounces of fine metal, etc., by 
Albert Williams, jr. 1883. 8°. ii, 8 pp. Price 5 cents. 

3. On the Fossil Faunas of the Upper Devonian, along the meridian of 76° 30*, from Tompkins Cotmty. 
New York, to Bradford County, Pennsylvania, by Henry S. Williams. 1884. 8=. 36 pp. Price 5 cents. 

4. On Mesozoic Fossils, by Charles A. White. 1884. 8^. 36 pp. 9 pi. Price 5 cents. 

5. A Dictionary of Altitudes in the United States, compiled by Henry Gannett. 1884. 8°. 325 pp. 
Price 20 cents. 

6. Elevations in the Dominion of Canada, by J. W. Spencer. 1884. 8°. 43 pp. Price 5 cents. 

7. Mapoteca Geologica Americana. A catalogue of geological maps of America (North and South). 
1752-1881, by Jules Marcou and John Belknap Marcon. 1684. 8°. 184 pp. Price 10 cents. 

8. On Secondary Enlargements of Mineral Fragments in Certain Eocks, by E. D. Irving and C. R. 
Vanhise. 1884. d'^. 56 pp. 6 pi. Price 10 cents. 

9. A Report of work done in the Washington Laboratory during the fiscal year 1883-'84. F. W. 
Clarke, chief chemisst ; T. M. Chatard, assistant. 1884. 8^. 40 pp. Price 5 cents. 

10. On the Cambrian Faunas of North America. Preliminary studies by Charles Doolittle "Walcott. 

1884. 8°. 74 pp. 10 pi. Price 5 cents. 

11. On the Quaternary and Recent MoUu.sca of the Great Basin ; with Descriptions of New Forms, by 
R. Ellsworth Call; introduced by a sketch of the Quaternarj- Lakes of the Great Basin, by G. K 
Gilbert. 1884. 8=. 66 pp. 6 pi. Price 5 cents. 

12. A Crystallographic Study of the Thinolite of Lake Lahontan, by Edward S. Dana. 1884. 8" 
34 pp. 3 pi. Price 5 cents. 

13. Boundaries of the United States and of the several States and Territories, by Henry Gannett. 

1885. 8^. 135 pp. Price 10 cents. 

14. The Electrical and Magnetic Properties of the Iron-Carburets, by Carl Barus and Vincent 
Strouhal. 1885. 8^. 238 pp. Price 15 cents. 

Numbers 1 to 6 of the Bolletiiuj form Volume I, and numbers 7 to 14 Volume II. Volume HI is not 
yet complete. 

The following are in press, viz: 

15. On the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Paleontology of California, by Dr. C. A. White. 1885. 8°. 33 pp. 
Price 5 cents. 

16. On the higher Devonian Faunas of Ontario Conntj-, New York, by J. M. Clarke. 1885. 8=. 

— pp. 3 pL Price — cents. 

17. On the Development of Crystallization, etc., by Arnold Hague and J. P. Iddings. 1885. 8°. 

— pp. Price — cents. • 

18. On Marine Eocene, Fresh-water Miocene, and other FobsU Mollusca of Western North America, 
by Dr. C. A. WTiite. 1885. S°. —pp. 3 pi. Price — cents. 

19. Notes on the Stratigraphy of California, by George F.Becker. 1885. 8°. —pp. Price — cents. 

20. Contributions to the Mineralogy of the Rocky Mountains, by Whitman Cross and W. F. HiUe- 
brand. 1885. 8^. — pp. 1 pi. Price — cents. 

21. The Lignites of the Great Sioux Preservation, by Bailey WUlis. 1885. 8°. — pp. 5 pi. Price 

— cents. 



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